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Full text of "Numismata hellenica: a catalogue of Greek coins; with notes, a map, and index"

7-^7 




NUMISMATA HELLENIC! : 



CATALOGUE OF GREEK COINS. 



tystgwr 



NFMISMATA HELLENICA: 



CATALOGUE OF GREEK COINS, 



COLLECTED BY 

WILLIAM MARTIN LEAKE, F.R.S. 

OKE OF THE VICE-PBESIDENTS OF THE EOYAL SOCIETY OP LITEBATUEE ; 



NOTES, A MAP, AND INDEX. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1856, 



C3 
317 



LOKDOM : 

GILBKBT AND EIVINGTON, PRINTERS, 

ST. joun's SQOARE. 




TO MT WIFE, 
■* ELIZABETH WEAY nke WILKINS, 

TO WHOSE ZEAL AND PERSEVERANCE I AM MAINLY INDEBTED FOR 

THE COMPLETION OF THE PRESENT CATALOGUE, 

AND WHOSE SKILL 

IN THE MOST DELICATE PROCESSES OF ELECTROTYPE, 

HAS ENRICHED THE COLLECTION 

WITH BETWEEN FIVE AND SIX HUNDRED COPIES OF THE RAREST COINS, 

THIS WOEK 

IS JUSTLY, GRATEFULLY, AFFECTIONATELY, 

INSCEIBED. 



PREFACE. 



The geographical knowledge which, in late j'ears, has been acquired of the countries 
occupied by the civilized nations of antiquity, together with the monumental discoveries 
which have simultaneously been made in them, has opened to the present generation a 
view of ancient history, much more correct and comprehensive than the learned of the 
last century had the means of giving to the public ; these sources of historical truth are 
far from being exhausted. 



'o 



Of Egypt and Assyria we know scarcely any thing, but from their monuments. 
The kingdom of the Pharaohs was not open to the historical researches of the 
Greeks until after it had been subdued by the Babylonians and Persians ; in the 
time of the Ptolemies, nothing of its history was left but its monuments, and 
two or three conflicting catalogues of royal names, with a single date resting on 
a scientific basis. In Assyria, the Old Testament alone can be relied on for 
the interpretation of the monuments. Nor have geographical knowledge and monu- 
mental evidence been less useful in enlarging, correcting, and improving the history of 
Greece ; not so much in its annals, as in the far more important and instructive part of 
the history of a great nation ; its manners and institutions ; its proficiency in art and 
science ; and particularly in proving the vast extent of the influence of those qualities, 
which rendered the Greeks superior to every other ancient race. So great, however, 
has been the destruction of Greek hterature by triumphant barbarism, ignorance, and 
bigotry, that of the immense number of Greek writings, anciently collected in the libraries 
of Egypt, Greece, and Italy, those which have been saved of a date cotemporary, or 
nearly cotemporary with the events related, is extremely small ; the remainder requiring 
the severest criticism to separate the trustworthy parts from the fabulous or doubtful, 
and all, without exception, standing in need of the light afforded by geography and the 
monuments. It is by no means surprising, therefore, that when the hydrographicftl out- 
line of the ancient countries was very partially known ; when the interior was almost a 
blank in the map ; when scarcely any of the ancient sites of celebrated cities had been 
explored ; the most diligent study of the printed authorities, produced Uttle more than ^ 



VI PREFACE. 

history of Athens, with a common opinion, that the glory of Greece was of short 
duration. We may admit, perhaps, without any injustice to the Greeks, that, excepting 
the two Persian wars, there is little in their annals more edifjdng than in mediaeval, or 
modem history. But the real glory of Greece is to be measured by the extent and 
duration of its language. A collection of coins is alone sufficient to show, that the 
customs or institutions, which were at once the cause and consequence of Greek civi- 
lization, lasted for more than a thousand years, and extended from Spain to India ; 
proving, at the same time, that the Greeks never lost that innate habit of their race, 
which is the foundation of all national freedom ; namely, the system of separate commu- 
nities, each managing its own internal concerns, whether as an independent state, or as 
member of a federation under a dominant republic ; or as forming part of the dominions 
of a Macedonian king, or of a Roman emperor. Nor have the Greeks lost the benefit of 
this ancient system, even under the Turkish yoke. 

Had the erudite Germans, of the last century, possessed our present information on 
the geography and monuments of Greece, some of their most extravagant theories would 
probably never have been promulgated, or, at least, would never have been adopted (and 
in one instance exceeded) by the generally more rational learned of England. It seems 
hardly possible for any impartial reader of the Iliad, who is not seeking for arguments in 
favour of a preconceived theory ; who visits the scenes of the poem ; and who, when 
making himself acquainted with the Dramatis Personse in the second book, identifies the 
sites of their cities, and thus finds the accuracy of Homer confirmed by existing evidence, 
— to believe that no such city as Troy ever existed, and that the Trojan war is a mere 
poetic invention ; this, too, in defiance of the traditions of all antiquity, and the belief of 
intelligent historians, who lived more than two thousand years nearer the event than 
ourselves. The Iliad differs not from any other poetical history or historical romance, 
unless it be in the great length of time which appears to have elapsed between the events 
and the poem ; but which time was employed by an intelligent people in improving 
and perfecting their language and poetry, in committing by the latter past occurrences 
to memory, and the principal subjects of which, therefore, could not have been any other 
than religious and historical. 

As there exists hardly a Greek coin which does not bear the impress of the national 
genius, either in design or execution, and more frequently in both ; as duplicates, in the 
strict sense of the word, seldom occur ; and as ancient money still continues to be found 
abundantly in the countries which were occupied by the Greeks, there are no conceivable 
bounds to a collection of Hellenic coins. Mionnet, in his elaborate work, has described 
those of about 300 kings, and of more than 1000 Greek cities, of some of which 
there are hundreds of varieties. In forming the present very limited collection, the chief 



PREFACE. vn 

object has been to make these monuments of ancient Greece as conducive as possible to 
the illustration of its geography, art, mythology, and history. With this view, it 
embraces, as far as I have found practicable, the productions of all the countries over 
which the monetary art of Greece extended, and of every age, from the earliest extant 
specimens, to the reign of Gallienus, a space of 800 years. A design so extensive in its 
aim, could never have been attempted without the aid of Electrotype, which enables the 
collector, when aided by the liberality of the guardians of royal or national museums, or 
by the kindness of private individuals, to obtain perfect copies of the rarest specimens, 
and to render them as useful to art and literature as the originals themselves. 

In the course of this undertaking, I have constantly derived every possible assistance 
from Mr. Thomas Burgon, of the British Museum, whose unrivalled knowledge and 
experience in Greek Numismatics, will, it is hoped, be employed in reducing into 
order the treasures of our medal-room, for these can never be made adequately 
useful to art and literature without arrangement and a catalogue ; the latter being 
the more necessary, as coins are beyond all comparison the most numerous of Greek 
monuments. Augmented as our National Collection has been by the bequest of 
Mr. Payne Knight, by the purchase of the Burgon Collection, and by similar acquisitions 
on the dispersion of the Devonshire, Thomas, and Pembroke cabinets, it now rivals most 
of those on the Continent. With the addition of the Hunterian at Glasgow, which the 
Trustees of the British Museum have now, at the end of eighty or ninety years, once 
more the opportunity of acquiring, with the assistance of Government, it would be the 
richest in Europe. 

W. M. L. 






CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Kings and Dynasts • 1 — 67 

Asiatic Gheece 1 — 1^^ 

European Greece : 

Section 1 1—109 

Section II. (Italy) 109—165 

Insular Greece : 

Section I. (-^gsean Sea) 1—47 

Section II. (Sicily) 47—80 

African Greece . 1 — 3 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 

The Monograms of the Kings and Dynasts to follow that Division of the Work; those of Asiatic Greece 
to be at the End of that Division ; the Third Plate, which contains the Monograms of European and Insular 
Greece, to be before the Index ; the Map after the Index. 



KINGS AND DYNASTS OF EUROPE. 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



I Metal 



Size 



Weight 

in graius 

Troy. 



ALEXANDRUS I. 
Son of Amyntas /., hegan to reign about 500 b.c. 



SCALE OF SIZES. 



r 






6 
6 


192-8 
153-3 



who hegan to reign 413 b.c. 

Horseman to r. wearing chlamys and causia, in left hand two spears, horse walking ; 

all in linear circle. ^.. Fore-half of a goat couchant to r., head turned to I., in 

linear square. 
Another similar; within the square, APXE(A)AO. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — The half-goat with reverted head in the act of lying down, alludes to the mythus of 
Caranus, founder of tlie Macedonian kingdom, who, in conformity with an oracle, fixed his seat of 
government at Edessa upon being conducted to it by a flock of goats. We may suppose the leader 
of the flock to be lying down and looking back to the king, as a sign that he' was there to fix his 
abode. In honour of the goats, the name of Edessa was changed to iEgse, and here, doubtless, the 
money of all the earlier kings of Macedonia was struck, .^gse continued also to be the place of royal 
sepulture, even after the removal of the seat of government to Pella by Philip II. — Diodor. 18, et 
Excerpt. 267 ; Pausan. Attic. 6 ; Athen. 4, 41. 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 

The Monograms of the Kings and Dynasts to follow that Division of the Work; those of Asiatic Greece 
to be at the End of that Division ; the Third Plate, which contains the Monograms of European and Insular 
Greece, to be before the Index ; the Map after the Index. 



f 



KINGS AND DYNASTS OF EUROPE. 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal 



M 



Size 



¥ 



M 



M 



M 
M 

M 



3+ 



M 



M 



Weight 

in grains 

Troy. 

442 



448 



408 



62-4 
28-3 

15-9 



192-8 



153-3 



ALEXANDRUS I. 

Son of Amyntas I., began to reign about 500 b.c. 

A figure (Alexandras I. !) naked, with the exception of a short chlamys on his 
shoulders, and a hat or helmet bound with a diadem ; bearing two spears and 
standing to r., on the sinister side of a bridled horse which steps to r. ; all 
within a dotted circle. B. AAESANAPO on the slightly sunken border of a 
square, divided into four equal parts. — Electrotype from a coin in the British 
Museum. 

Note. — The Kavala liatrmarriipopot and the xXo/iAf were a part of the ordinary dress of Alexander 
the Great and his successors (Plutai'ch, Antun. 54. Athen. 12, 9). 

Another similar. — Electrotype from the Hunter Collection. 

Note. — A deep cut on the left side of this coin, extending from near the centre of the obverse to 
its edge, is probably a Persian countermark, made at the time of the invasion of Xerxes. The 
proofs of this conjecture will appear on coins of Cilicia, of Athens, the Bisaltoe, and others. 

Horseman to r., bearing two spears ; below the horse, a frog or toad. R. as before. 
— Electrotype from the Hunter Collection. 

Note. — This also has the Persian countermark, but along the margin ; in striking it, a piece 
has been broken off ; hence the lighter weight. These three coins serve to illustrate the statement 
of Herodotus (5, 17), who says that Alexander I. received from his mines a talent of si\ver per diem. 
Extensive vestiges of the working of these mines are still to be seen in the Chalcidic peninsula on 
the mountain of Nizvoro. — Vide Travels in N. Greece, iii. p. 164. 

Same types and legend as on M, 9. — Electrotype. 

Horse walking to r., in linear circle. R. Macedonian indented square as before. 

—Conf. Mionnet, Sup. iii. p. 177, No. 17. 
Another, but horse standing to r. in a dotted circle. 

Alexander I. was succeeded by his son Perdiccas II., whose reign 
began about 454 b.c. Be was succeeded by his son 

ARCHELAUS, 

who began to reign 413 b.c. 

Horseman to r. wearing chlamys and causia, in left hand two spears, horse walking ; 

all in linear circle. R. Fore-half of a goat couchaut to r., head turned to L, in 

linear square. 
Another similar; within the square, APXE(A)AO. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — The half-goat with reverted head in the act of lying down, alludes to the mythus of 
Caranus, founder of the Macedonian kingdom, who, in conformity with an oracle, fixed his seat of 
government at Edessa upon being conducted to it by a flock of goats. We may suppose the leader 
of the flock to be lying down and looking back to the king, as a sign that he' was there to fix his 
abode. In honour of the goats, the name of Edessa was changed to Mgua, and here, doubtless, the 
money of all the earlier kings of Macedonia was struck. .lEgae continued also to be the place of royal 
sepulture, even after the removal of the seat of government to Pella by Philip II. — Diodor. 18, et 
Excerpt. 267 ; Pausan. Attic. 6 ; Athen. 4, 41. 



+- 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA, 



Metal 
M 


Size 

3 


Weight 

32-3 


M 
M 


3 

2i 


34-1 
30-7 


M 
M 


2i 
3 


29-5 


M 


2 
2 




M 


4 


108-7 


M 


3-2 




M. 


5 


1601 


M 


H 


136-3 


M, 

M 
M 


4i 

2 

3 


146-3 


M 


3 




M 


4 




M 


4 





Same type, but circle dotted. R. Fore-part of a lion to /•., above it a caduceus, 
within a slightly-indented square, — Conf. Mionnet, i. p. 507, No. 13. 

Another similar. 

Horse, walking to r., within a circle. B. Crested helmet to r, with cheek pieces and 
open front, in linear square. — Conf. Mionnet, p, 507, No. 13. 

Four similar, average weight 28 grains. IJ 

Horse, of rude style, trotting on dotted line, in dotted circle. Helmet as before, 
but having a covering for the eyes and nose. ^ 

Orestes, son ©/"Aechelaus, legan to reign 399 b.c. with his guardian (uncle?) 

AEEOPUS II. 
Young head, covered with the causia. B. AEPono. Half lion to r. 
Same type; behind it, a globule. R. AEPoQ. Half lion gnawing a bone. — Elec- 
trotype from B. M. 

Note. — These coins show that there was a copper coinage in Macedonia about 400 b.c. It was a 
few years before that date, that an unsuccessful attempt was made to introduce it at Athens. 



PAUSANIAS, 

Son of Aeropus, reigned 394 b.c. 

Youthful head of Hercules to r., with short hair and narrow fillet. B. PAYS .... 

Horse, standing to r., within a linear square. 
Similar head to r. ft. PAYS. Fore-part of lion running to r. — Electrotype from 

B.M. 

AMYNTAS II. 
Fourth in descent from Alexandrus I. Began to reign 393 d.c. 

Horseman wearing causia, chlamys, and boots, galloping to r., with javelin in uplifted 
right hand, — in dotted circle. IJ. AMVNTA. Lion, standing to I.., in his jaws 
is a fragment of a javelin, the head of which sticks in his right fore-foot. — 
Electrotype from B, M. 

Head of Hercules to r., bearded and covered with the scalp of the Nemean lion, — in 
dotted circle. B. A/AVNTA. Horse, standing to n, in linear square. 

Another similar. 

Head of Pan with horns to r. B. AAVYNTA. Fore-part of a wolf gnawing a bone to r. 

Head of young Hercules to r., with lion's scalp, in dotted circle. B. AAWNTA. 
Eagle to r., devouring a serpent. 

Another 

Amyntas II. was followed hy three sons in succession. Alexander II., 
who reigned in the years 369, 368 b.c, and was succeeded hy 

PERDICCAS III., 

who began to reign 367 b.c. 

Head of young Hercules to r., with lion's scalp, in linear circle. 

Lion, walking to r., with spear in mouth. 
Another. 



B. HEPAIKKA. 



Note. — It seems unimportant to take any further notice of the linear or dotted circles which occur 
so frequently on Greek coins, except in particular cases. 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal Size Weight 



N 



N 
N 
N 
M 



M 
M 

M 

M 
M 

JR 

JR 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
Al 
M 
M 
M 
JE 



6i 



6 

6+ 



6+ 
6 

6 

4^ 



9-L 
3 

2+ 
91 

3 

^ 

3 
5 



132-8 



132-2 
1329 
132-3 
219-9 



217-2 
219-9 

222-8 

2200 
213-2 

222-2 

110-5 

42-3 

36-5 



40-9 
39-5 
34-7 

40-7 
38-7 



36-6 



PHILIPPUS II., 

Son of Amyntas II. began to reign 359 b.c. 

Youthful laureate head of Hercules to r. R. *lAinPOY in exergue. Biga to r., 
horses galloping, charioteer standing up and holding forward a long wand ; in 
the field to r., fuhnen. 

Note. — Eckhel describes the head on these coins as " caput Apollinis laureatum," but on this 
didrachmon and the next the features are evidently those of a young Hercules ; the two following 
bear more an appearance of Apollo than of Hercules, but they were, doubtless, all intended for the 
latter deity. The resemblance to Apollo may perhaps have had some relation to that identification 
of Hercules and the Sun which prevailed in Asia at a later time, and possibly as early as that of 
Philip IT. The biga refers to the victories of Philip at Olympia : ^iKiTTirog .... rdf iv ry 'OXv/iirif 
v'tKUQ apfidriov ^/^^aparrwv rotf vo^itTfiatrip. — Plutarch. Alexaud. 4. 

Another similar ; under the horses, !. 

Another ; under the horses, trident. 

Another ; in field above, ? 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. OIAinPOY. Horse, walking to r., mounted by a small 
human figure bearing a palm branch ? under the horse, fulmen placed horizon- 
tally ; between the fore legs, N. 

Another similar ; under the horse, fulmen placed vertically. 

Another ; the prow of a galley between the fore legs of the horse ; ends of a diadem 
floating behind head of rider. 

Another ; on the body of the horse an ill-defined countermark, and under it, human 
head. 

Another ; under the horse, cantharus or cup of Bacchus. 

Another ; on the body of the horse, countermark as before, and under it, bucra- 
nium. 

Another ; under the horse, A above a torch, and between the fore legs, the mono- 
gram 1. 

Youthful head of Hercules, in lion's scalp, to r. R. *rAinPOY. Diminutive 
horseman to r. ; horse standing ; under it, fulmen horizontally. 

Youthful head of Hercules to r., with narrow diadem and spike or thorn in front. 
B. *IAI[Pr]OY. Horse, galloping to r., with diminutive rider; under the 
horse, fulmen horizontally. 

Youthful head of Hercules to r., with narrow diadem. R. OlAIPPOY. Full-sized 
horseman with heliuet and beard, galloping to r. ; under the horse, club. 

Five similar ; average weight, 35 grains. 

Another, with ear of corn under the horse placed perpendicularly. 

Another ; under the horse. A, in a wreath. 

Another, with spike in front of the narrow diadem. Under the horse, A in a circle. 

Another similar. 

Another ; under the horse, mons. 2 (AP) and 3. 

Three others; under the horse, mon. 4 (PA) ; average weight, 38-1 grains. 

Two without spike, and under the horse, acrostolium ; medium weight, 34-5. 

Laureate head of Hercules to r. IJ. Same legend and type ; under the horse, tripod. 

Two others ; medium weight, 32-2. 

Youthful head of Hercules to r., with narrow fillet, and spike in front. R. *IAIP- 
POY. Diminutive horseman to r. 

Note — Some numismatists have confined the coins of Philip II. and Alexander III. to gold and 
silver, ascribing all those in copper, with legends of Philip and Alexander, to later kings of the same 
name. They seem, therefore, to have supposed that there was no Macedonian copper coinage during 
the thirty-five years of the reigns of Pliilip II. and Alexander the Great. But we have seen that 
there was already a copper coinage in the reigns of jEropus II. and his son Pausunias ; and had 
none existed, there would assuredly have been silver of lower weight than the half-drachma, as 
in all the cities of Greece, prior to the introduction of copper money. It must be confessed that. 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal 



M 


4- 


M 


4- 


M 


3 


M 


4 


M 


4 


M 


3| 


M 


4 


M 


4 


M 


4- 


JE 


4 


m 


4 


JE 


4- 


M 


H 


M 


4 


JE 


4 


JE 


H 


M 


4 


JE 


4 


M 


5 



N 



Size 



Weight 



264-6 



with regard to some of the coins, both in silver and copper, inscribed with the names of Philip or 
Alexander, there may be some doubt as to which of the kings of that name the coins belonged. But 
in general, by attending to the resemblance of types, symbols or monograms in the gold or silver and 
copper coins of the same reign, and to the custom, not unusual in all mints, of making some uniform 
alteration of type on the accession of a new sovereign, the attribution of the several coins may in 
general be made with at least a great degree of probability. 

Another similar ; under the horse, fulmen perpendicularly. 

Another ; under the horse, prow to r. 

Another ; under the horse, grapes. 

Another ; under the horse, club. 

Another; under horse, mon. 5 (AN). 

Another ; horseman to I. ; same mon. 

Another ; horseman to r. ; under the horse, A. 

Another ; under the horse, E. 

Another; under the horse, 3. 

Another; under the horse, •j. 

Another ; behind the head, A ; under the horse, r. 

Another ; horseman to l. ; under the horse, P. 

Another ; horseman to r., rider wearing causia ; below, K. 

Another; under horse, mon. 6 (Ac). 

Another similar, but head laureate and to l. ; under the horse, AY, and fore-half of 

lion to r. 
Another similar, but head with thorny diadem and horseman to I. ; under horse, 

cortina ? 
Another similar, with prow of galley under horse. 
Another similar, but horseman to r. ; under horse, fulmen. 
Another ; behind the head, A ; under the horse, E. 



ALEXANDRUS III. (Magnus.) 
Son of Philip II., began to reign b.c. 336. 

Note. — Abundant as the extant money in gold and silver is, which Philip II. coined from his mines 
in Macedonia and Thrace, that of Alexander III. is much more so. A large portion of these appear, 
from the letters or symbols on them, to have been struck in various cities of Asia, and many of them 
long after the death of Alexander. This may perhaps account for the great rarity of silver coins 
of the Asiatic cities, which flourished prior to the time of Alexander ; it is not unlikely that they may 
have been converted in great numbers into coins of Alexander, when these, like the Athenian tetra- 
drachma, became the most accredited media of commerce. It was customary to designate all the gold 
didrachma of Macedonia by the name of Philippeia, as appears from Horace (Ep. II. 1, v. 232) ; this 
accounts for the immense number of these coins (183, 256) which were brought in triumph to Rome 
by Titus Quinctius, Scipio Asiaticus, M. Fulvius, and Cn. Manlius, besides 20,000 made into a 
crown, which was presented to Rome by the legates of Pamphylia (Liv. 34, 52 ; 37, 59 ; 39, 5 ; 
39, 7 ; 44, 14). 

Head of Pallas to r. ; on the helmet a serpent. B. AAESANAPOY. Winged Vic- 
tory standing to I., a wreath in her extended right hand, and in her left a 
vexillum ; at her feet mon. 6 ; in field to I., fulmen. 

Note. — The introduction by Alexander of the head of Minerva as an obverse of the royal money of 
Macedonia, agrees with the removal of the Macedonian capital from Mgse to Pella by Philip II., 
who founded probably the temple of Minerva in the latter city ; this Minerva received the epithet 
Alcides, from having been the protectress and counsellor of Hercules, the reputed ancestor of the 
royal family. After the battle of the Granicus, Alexander sacrificed to Minerva at Ilium, and 
intended to build temples to her, both there and at Cyrrhus in Macedonia. Before the battle of 
Issus, he propitiated Jupiter, Pallas, and Victory. On the Orontes, where Antiocheia was afterwards 
built, he raised an altar to Jupiter Nicephorus or Bottiaeus, who had a temple in Pella. On other 
occasions we find him honouring Jupiter, Hercules, Minerva, and Victory, the same deities, in short, 
which appear on his coins either figured or alluded to by symbols. On the coins Jupiter is either 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal 

N 
N 

N 
N 

N 
N 
N 

N 

N 

N 
M 



M 
M 

M 

M 



M 



M 



Size Weight 

132-S 
131-6 



3f 

4 

44 
4 

2+ 



H 

H 
10- 



8 
7 

7 



132-5 
130-9 

132-7 
131-5 

54-6 

32-5 
32-8 

33-1 
637-2 



261-1 
263-3 

264-6 
266-4 



256-2 



254-7 



Nicephonis or Aetophorus, i. e. bearing in his hand either a small figure of Victory, or an eagle. In 
Macedonia he had the epithets also of Soter and Apobaterius. 

Same type. R. [AAE]fflANA[POY] BA^IAEfl?. Same type ; in field to ?., at the 
feet of Victory, H, and to r., the mon. 7 (MYP), in a wreath. 

Same type. R. AAESANAPOY [BA]?IAE[il€]. Same type; in field to I, at the 
feet of Victory, a globule and a human head ; to r., monogram as on the pre- 
ceding coin. 

Same type, but with M behind the head of Pallas. U. AAESfANAPOY BA^IAEilS. 
Same type ; at the foot of Victory on I., AY. 

Same type, without any letter behind the head. B. AAESANAP[OY] [5il]aAI5Aa. 
Same type ; in field I., a lighted torch in a saucer with a foot or handle (as on 
coins of Amphipolis), and in field r., mon. 8. 

Same type, but with griffon on helmet. R. AAESANAPO[Y]. Same type ; in field 
below to r., Ara(dus) 26, in Phoenician characters. 

Same type. Serpent on helmet. R. AAESANAPOY. To the left of Victory, rudder 
and mon. 9 (PE) ; to the right, mon. 10 (AHMHTP ....). 

Same type. Griffin on helmet. R. AAESANAPOY. Victory as before, but to r. ; 
in field to r., wheel and A. 

Same type, but with serpent on helmet. R. .pQy Fulmen, bow, and club. 

Same type. R. . :^?iY.T Diota, bow, and club. 

•'^ AAEsAN ' 

Same types and legend. — From the Pemlroke Collection (656). 

Head of young Hercules, covered with the scalp of the Nemean lion, to r, R. 
AAESaNAPOY. Jupiter seated to /. on a throne with a back, the lower part 
only of his body draped ; on his extended right hand, an eagle ; his left supported 
by a long sceptre ; under the throne, mon. 11 ; below which is M. — Electro- 
type from the B. M. 

Note. — This coin was procured by Major Rawlinson, at Hilla, on the site of Babylon, and was 
found, as he informs me, in the year 1849, together with many other decadrachraa of Alexander, in 
the ruins called the temple of Belus ; the greater part were melted at Bagdad ; a few were carried 
to India. There can be little doubt that they were struck at Babylon. 

Same type. R. aaeXANAPOY. Jupiter seated to I. on a throne without a back. 

In field l, the mon. 12 (YP). 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in the field I., a Macedonian helmet, 

with apex, crest, and cheek-pieces ; under the throne, mens. 13 and 14. (Struck 

in Macedonia?) 
Same type. R. Same legend and type; in the field I,, mon. 15 (AP). (In Greece 

Proper ?) 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field I,, a lighted torch, as before ; 

above it, A ; under the throne, diota. (At Amphipolis ?) 

Note, — Cousinery, who, from his long residence in Macedonia, was well qualtfied to judge, remarked 
that the thicker and smaller tetradrachma of Alexander III. were those most commonly found in 
Macedonia. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type, but the throne has a back and footstool. In 
the field ^., a naked male figure to r., with arms raised up so as nearly to hide 
the head ; under the throne, NO. (BA)?IAEii$ in the exergue. (At Sicyon ?) 

Same type. R. AAESANAPOY. Same type, but the throne without back or foot- 
stool. In field I., an amphora with pointed bottom. (At Chios or Myrina ?) 

Note. — The throne of Jupiter on the obverses of the coins of Alexander III. has sometimes a back, 
sometimes a footstool, and sometimes neither the one nor the other. It has not been thought neces- 
sary to notice any further these slight variations of type. 

C 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal 


Size 


M 


10 


M 


9 


M 


9- 


M 


9 


M 


9 


M 


8 


M 


7 


JR 


7+ 


M 


7 


M 


7k 


M 


7- 


M 


6+ 


M 




M 


7 


M 


7 


M 


6 


M 


7 


M 


6^ 


M 


6 


M 


6+ 


M 


n 


M 


H 


M 


6i 


JR 


6i 


M 


7 


M 


H 


M 


H 


M. 


H 


M 


6i 


M 


8 


M 


7i 


M 


8i 


M 


61 


M 


6i 


M 


7+ 


M 


7- 


M 


7 



Weight 
251-6 
255-4 
251-6 

260-0 

252-2 



264-1 
265-4 
263-9 

262-8 

262-6 
260-7 



257-5 
264-2 

262-7 
255-3 
259 

262 

263-5 

258-5 

263-7 

253-5 

264-2 
263-8 
261-5 
233-7 

265-4 
271-8 
255-7 
258-7 
260-1 
264-7 



259-6 
263 

266 
262-7 

265-8 

261-S 



Same type. R. 
Same type. B. 
Same type. IJ. 

Priene ?) 
Same type. B. 



Same legend and type; in field I., lA (year 1 1) or KA (21). 
Same legend and type ; in field L, mon. 16 (MI). (At Miletus ?) 
Same legend and type ; in field I., mon. 17, trident, and [n ?]PI. (At 



under throne, AA. 



Same legend and type ; legs of throne in the form of sphinxes ; 

in field L, mon. 18 ; under it, a sphinx to r. (At Chios ?) 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; throne supported by half-length figures of 

Victory presenting wreaths ; in field I., a winged horse to I. ; under the throne, 

E. (At Corinth?) 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field on L, mon. 19 (KA) ; under throne, *. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; under throne, mon. 20 ; under it, M. 
Same type. B. BASIAEa? AAESANAPOY. Same type ; in field L, a minute M ; 

under throne, mon. 11, as on the decadrachmon found at Babylon. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field L, mon. 21 (MYPT), in a wreath ; 

under throne, MI. 
Another similar. 
Same type. B- Same type. BA^IAEQS AAESANAPOY written continuously 

under and behind the Jupiter. In the field L, mon. 22 (BAN) ; under throne, 

mon. 23. 
Same type. B. [A]AESANAPOY. Same type ; under throne, mon. 24. 
Another ; in field I., mon. 25 ; under it an uncertain object ; and under throne, 

mon. 23. 
Another ; in field I., mon. 26 ; under throne, bipennis. (In Caria or Lydia?) 
Another ; in field L, five dots in a wreath ; under throne, mon. 27. 
Another ; in field I., female to I. with torch in each hand ; under throne, mon. 28 

(AIO). 
Another similar. 

Another; in field ?., a flower. (At Tarsus?) 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field I., X ; under it, 

(Struck in Cilicia, as well as many of those which follow ?) 
Another ; in field L, a cock. 

Another ; in field I., the fore half of a ram ; under throne. 

Another ; in the field L, a helmet. 

Another ; in the field I,, a Janiform head with polos. 

Another ; in field I., a bunch of grapes. 

Same type. B. AAE2:a[NAP0Y]. Same type ; in field on ?., a marine animal ; under 

throne, X. (In Phoenice?) 
Same type. B- BA^IAEa? AAESANAPOY. Same type ; in field I., Phrygian cap. 
Another; in the field L, mon. 29. 
Another ; in field I., a branch of bay; under throne, P. 
Another ; in field I., tripod. 
Another ; in field /., a plough. 
Same type. B. Same legend (faint) and type. 

to r., with a wreath in her extended hands ; 

F; below which is © 
Another similar ; under throne, mon. 30 (ANT). 
Same type. B. [AAESJANAPOY BA5lAEilS. 

standing to r. ; a fulmen in her right hand and her shield on her left arm. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field L, a cornucopiae. 
Same type. B. [BA?IAEa?] AAESANAP[OY]. Same type; in field ^., a caduceus ; 

under throne, A above '■I. (At Aradus?) 
Same type. B. BASIAEflS AAESANAPOY. Same type; in field on ?., a caducous ; 

under throne, A above P. (At Aradus.) 
Same type. B. AAESANAPOY. Same type ; in field I., At. 29, in Phoenician 

characters ; under the throne, Phoenician A. (At Aradus?) 



In field I., a small Victory flying 
below, a caduceus. Under throne. 



Same type ; in field I., Pallas 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 



M 
M 
M 



M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
JR 

M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 



Size 

7i 



8i 



9 
9- 

8i 



H 



3i 



3i 



4- 
4 

•11 
♦'2 

4 
4 
4- 



3i 
4 

4- 

4 

4 

3+ 

3+ 

4 



Weight 

259-2 

263-1 

261-3 

258 

240-6 

250-7 



235-6 

250-7 
252-9 



239 

129-1 

63-2 

64-4 

63-5 

63-3 

60-3 
67-5 

62-8 
63-5 

65-8 
67-3 
59-6 
64-8 

65 9 
64-8 

64-4 
64-5 
64-4 
64 

64-6 



Same type. R. BASlAEii€ AAESANAPOY. Same type; in field on I, mon. 21 
(MYPT), in a wreath of bay. (In Syria 2) 

Same type. U. [BASIAEQS ?] AAESANA[POY]. Same type ; in field I. rudder and 
i2 in A ; under throne mon. 31 (NIK). 

Same type. B. aaESANaPOY and Phoenician letters. Same type ; in field palm- 
tree ; under throne A. 

Same type. R. same legend and type ; in field on I. prow of galley ; under throne 
B. (Byzantium ?) 

Same type; the lion's hair expressed by dots. B. BA?IAEilS AAESANAPOY; in 
field I. helmet and AA ; under throne HPA. (In Thrace 1) 

Same type, but lion's scalp as usual, and countermarked with an anchor. R. AAEX- 

ANAPOY. Same type ; in field I. , i. e. struck at Ascalon in the year 24 

(B.C. 80). Under throne eagle to I. 
Another, but under AS is KP (23), and no countermark or eagle. 
Same types and legend, KH (28), but no AS. (At Ascalon ?) 
Head of Hercules I to r., nearly worn smooth. B. AI minni min behind a seated 

figure, intended for Jupiter Aetophorus; in field ?., mon. 32 ; under throne ^, 

and below Iinmi . . . 
Head of Hercules to r., as on coins of Alexander III. R. Seated figure to /. 

(Jupiter Aetophorus), and faint traces of a barbarous inscription. 

Note. — This and the preceding coin are barbarous imitations. 

Head of young Hercules with lion's scalp to r. B. AAE5;anap(OY). Jupiter 

Aetophorus seated l. ; in field to /. m ; under throne mon. 33 (*1A). 
Same type. B. [A]AESANAP[OY]. Same type ; in the field on I. a torch as before; 

under throne A. (Struck at AmphipoHs?) 
Same type. IJ. Same legend and type ; in field l. crescent, below it a lion's head to 

I. ; under throne P. 
Another ; in field I. lion's head to I., below it a crescent ; under throne a pentagon 

formed by five dots joined by four lines. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field /. fore half of lion to L, below it a 

crescent ; under throne pentagon as before. 
Another ; in field I., lion's head to L, below it * ; under throne uncertain object. 
Another; in field I. mon. 19 (KA) ; under throne, crescent. 
Another, broken. 

Another; in field I. mon. 19 ; under throne *. 
A nother similar. 

Another; in field I. * ; under throne n. 
Another similar. 

Another; in field I., Kl ; under throne mon. 34 (NO). 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field I. fore part of a hippocampus with 

curled wings ; under throne mon. 35. 
Another similar ; under throne doubtful. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field l. a lion standing to r. and looking 

back ; under throne ivy leaf. ^ 

Another; in field I. mon. 35 (MY) ; under throne I. 
Another ; in field I. mon. 36 ; under throne bipennis. 
Another similar. 

Another ; in field on I. mon. 37 (Xti) ; under throne EY. 
Another similar ; under throne KH. Broken. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field l. veiled female figure adverse. (At 

Perga, in Pamphylia ?) 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field I. mon. 38 (All). Worn. 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal 
M 
M 

M 

JR 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 



M 

M 
M 

M 

M 

JE 

M 

M 

JE 
M 

M 
M 
JE 

JE 
M 

M 
JE 



Size 

H 
H 

4 

H 

4 
4 

4- 
3 

4 
4 

H 

3+ 
3+ 
3+ 

H 

34 

4 

4- 



24 

24 
24 

4+ 



4+ 
4 

4 
4 
3 

4 

4 

4+ 

4 

4- 

4 

4 

4 
2 



Weight 

63-7 
63-9 

61-5 

65 

62-7 

61-6 

61-9 

62 

66-6 

66-] 

61-8 

66-3 

66-2 

61-8 

63-1 

63-8 

63-2 

65 

71 

65-3 

65 



312 

30-6 
301 



Another ; in field L shield ? 

Another ; in field L a figure, adv. with a long torch in each hand ; under throne 

men. 28. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type; between the throne and the sceptre a 

thyrsus placed perpendicularly. 
Another ; in field I. a star ; outside the legend a spear-head perpendicularly. 
Another ; not so well preserved. 

Another ; but outside the legend a club placed perpendicularly. 
Another ; in field I. fulmen ; under throne mon. 39. 
Another similar. 
Another similar. 

Another similar. From the Thomas collection (1133). 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field I. a yoke and an upright uncertain 

object ; under throne mon. 40 (ME). 
Another ; in field I. Hermes to I. ; under throne mon. 41. 
Another similar. 

Another, but in field I. mon. 42, and under throne a flower? 
Another similar. 

Another; in field I. trident, below DPI in. (Struck at Priene?) 
Another; in field I. mon. 43 (IIA). 

Same legend and types ; below throne torch in saucer as before. 
Same legend and types ; in field I. K. 
Another, in field 1. 1 
Another, in field I. crescent. 

Note. — The three preceding coins were found in an excavation made in the island of Khilidromia 
{Peparethns) by Capt. Brock, R.N., and have been blackened by fire, which seems also to have 
increased their weight. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field I. anchor and mon. 44 (Ell) ; under 

throne mon. 45. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; under throne mon. ! 
Same type. R. BA«IAEa? AAESANAPOY. Same type; in field I. M; under 

throne AY. 
Head of young Hercules to r. covered with the lion's scalp. B. [A]AEa;ANAP[OY] ; 

a bow in its case above the legend, and under it a club. 
Same type. R. AAESANAPOY. A club above the legend, and under it, a bow in 

its case. 
Another similar ; under bow-case dolphin. 
Same type. B. AAESANAPOY. A quiver lying upon a bow, above the legend, and 

below it club ; in field above the quiver, A ; below the club a tripod ? 
Same legend and types ; quiver ornamented ; below club $. 
Same legend and types ; quiver plain ; in field above, A ; below, a star. 
Same type. R. AAE;s?aNAPO[Y]. Club above the legend ; below it a bow with a 

bow-case upon it ; in field above, SA ; below, A. 
Same type. B. Legend and types as before ; quiver ornamented ; in field above, A. 
Same legend and types ; in field above, F. 

Same legend and types ; in field above, grain of barley ? in wreath. 
Same legend and types ; in field above, mon. 14. 
Another similar. 

Another ; in field above, fulmen. 
Same legend and types ; quiver ornamented and club with handle twisted ; in field 

above, fulmen ; below, A. 

Another ; the A not visible. 

AAES 
Same type. B. a m ApQy ^^^^ between the two lines of the legend, below it a 

quiver lying upon a bow. 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal 


Size 


^ 


4 


JE 


4 


M 


Si 


M 


4 


M 


4- 


JE 


4- 



N 



N 

N 

N 
N 
M 



JR. 
JR 
JR 
M 
JR 
JR 
JR 
JR 
JR 

M 

JE 

M 
JE 

M 



41 



3| 
If 
1| 

3 
4 

7 



4 

4- 

4- 



2 

2 



Weight 



132-6 



132-4 

32-8 

32-6 

16-5 

264-5 



264-3 

263-2 

264 

260-6 
65-2 
64-4 
64-5 
65-1 
64 



Same type. B:. B.A. between a quiver lying upon a bow and a club ; in field below, 

a wreath. 
Another ; in field below, trident to r. 
Another ; in field below, trident to I. 
Another ; in field below, mouse to r. 
Another similar. 
Another ; in field below, fulmen. 



PHILIPPUS III. (Aridceus), 

Son of Philippus II.., hegan to reign b.c. 323. 

Head of Pallas to r. with long hair and necklace, wearing a triple crested helmet, 
on which is a serpent. Bl. OIAirrOY BA?IAEii5. Victory standing to ^. ; in 
her extended right hand a wreath, in her left a vexillum. In field at her feet on 
I. AY, on r. M. 

Note.— It ha8 been argued that the coins inscribed BA2IAEQS ilAirPOT may be of Philip II., 
son of Amyntas, because Demosthenes, in the letters of Philip, which he cites in his oration on the 
Crown, proves that Philip then entitled himself BotriXfwc ; but there was a great difference between 
the assumption of this dignity in addressing a foreign power, and the act of inscribing it on the 
Macedonian money, which might not have been agreeable to his own nobles or people. All the coins 
therefore inscribed BASIAEQS *IAIPror are of the third, fourth, or fifth Philip. It does not 
follow, however, that all those without the title of king are of Philip son of Amyntas. 

Same type. R. *IAIPnOY. Same type ; under wreath mon. 46 ; in field I. below, 

a torch in saucer as before. (Struck at Amphipolis ?) 
Head of young Hercules to r. covered with lion's scalp. B. *IAIPPOY. Bow and 

club above the legend ; in field below it trident. 
Same type. B;. <I>IAirnOY. Club and bow below the legend, in field above, fulmen. 

Same type. R- *t ath Trident between the lines of the legend. 

Same type. B- BA?IAEil? *IAIPPOY. Jupiter seated to I. ; an eagle in his extended 
right hand, and a long sceptre in his left ; the throne with back and footstool ; 
in field on I. a radiated bust adv. ; under throne KY. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field I. M ; under throne B. 

Another. 

Another, but under throne AY in place of B. 

Same types and legend, but BA?IAEaS is off the coin ; in field to I. acrostolium ? 

Same type. R. *IAIPPOY. Same type; in field ^. mon. 42 ; in exergue a hook ! 

Another ; under throne raon. 47. 

Another ; in field I. mon. 48. 

Another ; in field I. lyre of elongated form ; beyond the legend a club, or thyrsus ? 

Same legend and types ; in field I. torch in saucer ; under throne uncertain mo- 
nogram. 

Head of young Hercules with diadem to ?•. R. BASIAEilS *IAIPPOY. Horseman 
galloping to r. ; in field above, bipennis, below, mon. 49. 

Head of young Hercules to r. covered with lion's scalp. B. pQ^ Club between 

the lines of the legend ; in field above, grapes ; below, A. 
Another ; but the field above is off the coin. 
Another; but club to r. ; in field below, mon. 50 (HP). 

Same type, but head of Hercules to I. R. jf^^^ I^"'™^^ between the lines of 

legend. 



10 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal 



Size 



Weight 



M 



JE 
JE 
JE 



JE. 
M 

JE 

JE 
JE 

JE 
M 

JE 
M 
M 
JE 
JE 
M 
M 
M 



M 



Sh 



3h 

4 

4 



4+ 
5- 

4+ 

H 

4i 

H 

4 
-1.1 



4 

4 

4+ 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 



CASSANDRUS, 

Son of Anfipatrus, began to reign b.c. 315. 

^ote. — No coins of Cassander are extant of any other metal than copper. The immense quantity 
of gold and silver which had been extracted from the mines of Macedonia and Thrace in the reigns 
of Philip II. and Alexander III., may have caused a suspension of the working of them. 



Head of young Hercules to r. covered with the lion's scalp. 
Lion couchant to r. ; before it mon. 50. 



B. (K)AS^ANAPoy. 



NoU. — This coin and the two following were struck between the accession of Cassander and the 
year b.c. 306, the date of the naval battle of Cyprus, after which Cassander imitated Antigonus and 
his son Demetrius, in assuming the title of BaaiXivg. 

Same legend and types ; in front of lion <I>. 

Same legend and types ; in front traces of another coin. 

Same type. B;. [BA^IAEoS] KAS^ANAPoY. Diminutive horseman to r. ; his 

right hand extended as if crowning the horse which is walking ; below it 4>, in 

front a star, behind the horseman T. 
Same legend and types : under horse mon. 3.3 ; in front a star, behind horseman T. 
Another 
Another 
Another 
Another 
Another 
Another 
Another 
Another 
Another 
Another 



without the T. 

but having T between the forelegs of the horse. 

under horse mon. 19, in front AI. 

under horse mon. 51, in front mon. 52 (AN). 

under horse fulmen, in front A. 

under horse fulmen, in front uncertain object ; no A visible. 

behind horseman T, below horse AI, before it star. 

under horse crescent, in front grapes. 

under horse A, between the forelegs of horse an uncertain object 

under horse mon. 5] . 
Head of Apollo to r., laureate and with short hair 

Tripod ; in field on left mon. 1 9. 
Another ; in field r. mon. 53. 
Another ; in field I. mon. 54. 
Another ; in field I. mon. 55 (AE), on r. mon. 56. 
Another ; in field I. mon. ? on r. star. 
Another ; in field l. ? on r. lighted torch in saucer. 
Another ; in field I. ? on r. Caduceus. 
Another ; in field r. A, on I. A. 

Head of young Hercules to r. covered with the lion's scalp 
walking to I., in his mouth ? 



B. [BAS]IAEQ? [K]A?€ANAPOY. 



B. Same legend ; lion 



PHILIPPUS IV., 

Son of Cassandrus, reigned b.c. 296. 

Head of young Hercules to ?. covered with lion's scalp. B- *IAIPPoY. 
in field to I. bow case. 



Tripod ; 



Note. — The only reason for attributing this coin to Philip IV. is that its types are not found united 
either on the coins of Philip II. or of Philip III. That the coins of Philip IV. should be rare is not 
surprising, as he reigned no longer than a few months. 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



11 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 
M 

JE 
JE 



N 



M 



M 
M 

JR 



N 



t>2 

3 



2 
7i 



41 

*2 



132-8 



260-3 



30-8 
256-6 

262-2 



127-2 



ALEXANDEUS IV., 

Son of Cassandrus, began to reign b.c. 296. 

Head of young Hercules to r. with narrow fillet. R. AAEgANAPoy. Horse to 

r. galloping ; below it a fulmen. 
Another ; under horse Boeotian buckler. 
Another ; under horse grapes. 
Another ; under horse torch in saucer. 
Another ; under horse A. 

DEMETRIUS I. (PoUorcetes), 
Son of Antigonus (king of Asia), began to reign b.c. 294. 
Diademate head of Demetrius to r. with a horn in front. B. BA€IAEQ? AHMHTPIoY. 
Horseman galloping to r. ; on his head the causia ; in his right hand a long 
spear; in field l. mon. 57; below horse mon. 58. Electrotype from the Bih- 
lioth^que Nationale, Paris. 
Prow of galley to I., on which a draped and winged figure is standing to I. blowing a 
trumpet ; in her left hand a vexillum ? B. [BA]SIAEQ[?] AHMHTPIOY. Nep- 
tune naked, standing to I. about to hurl his trident ; his pallium wound round 
his extended left arm ; the forked ends pendent ; in field I. mon. 59, on r. a 
star. 

iVote.— Eckhel (ii. p. 119) says "sinistra scipionem," but it is more probably a banner (vexillum) : 
he shows very clearly that the figure is Fame (*^/ji)). All the types of this coin, as well as the 
Neptune on those of Antigonus and of other coins of Demetrius, have reference to the naval victory 
which they gained over Ptolemseus Soter at Cyprus in the year B.C. 306 ; after which Antigonus and 
Demetrius, as well as Ptolemy and Lysimachus, assumed the regal title. The symbols and mono- 
grams on the coins of Demetrius being found on those of some of the preceding kings of Macedonia, 
seem to show that they were struck in that country. 

Same type, but the Fame is without vexillum. IJ. Same legend and type ; in 

field on I. A, on r. mon. 5 in a circle. 
Head of Demetrius to r. with diadem and horn in front. R. BASIAEQS [A]HMH- 

TPIOY. Neptune naked, standing to I. his right foot on a rock, a trident in his 

left hand ; in field on I. mon. 14. 
Same type. R. AHMHTPIoY BASIAEQS. Neptune seated on a rock to I., the 

lower part of his body draped, in his extended right hand an acrostoliuni, in 

his left a trident ; in field on left mon. 60, below it X ; on r. mon. 61 (EY). 

PYRRHUS, 

Son of^acides, reigned seven months in Macedonia b.c. 287. 
(See Kings of Epirus.) 

LYSIMACHUS, 

Son of Agathocles, of Crannon in Thessaly, and one of the Sopv^opoi of Alexander 

the Great, assumed the title of BatTiAtuc in 306 b.c, and began 

to reign in Macedonia b.c. 286. 

Rude portrait of Alexander the Great to r., with diadem and ram's horn. H. BASI- 
AEQS AYSIMAXoY. Pallas Nicephorus seated to I., her spear by her side in a 
diagonal position ; her shield, on which is a star, is behind the throne, and 
supports her left arm ; under her right arm 0EO ; on the throne TO, below it 
a trident horizontally to I. 



12 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


N 


H 




N 


H 


129-6 


M 


7 


256-2 


M 


4 


65 


M 


9- 


260 


M 


7 


261 


JR 


7i 


256-2 


M 


H 


254-4 


M 


8 


261-4 


M 


9 


250-3 


M 


8 


259-8 


JR 


H 


241-5 


JR 


Hi 


258-2 


JR 


8 


262-2 


M 


4 




JE 


H 




M 


4 




JE 


H 




JE 


4 




M 


5 




JE 


4 




M 


H 




M 


H 





Another ; but behind the head a globule, and on R. ©EM below the right arm, and a 

dolphin on either side of the trident. ElectroUjpe. 
Another similar to the last, but below the right arm of Pallas NI. 
Head of young Hercules to r. covered with the lion's scalp. R. BA^IAEOS AYSI- 

MAXOY. Jupiter Aetophorus seated to I. ; in field on I. the fore half of a lion 

to ?., under which mon. 7 ; under throne mon. 62 ; the word AY^IMAXoY is 

reversed, and placed under the throne. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type, but AY^IMAXoy is behind the throne, and 

written as usual; in field on I. a seated grifibn to I. with fore paw uplifted, 

under which is an ill-defined monogram. 
Portrait of Alexander the Great, with diadem and ram's horn to r. R. BA^IAEi^S 

AY^IMAXoY. Pallas Nicephorus seated to I. ; attributes as before, but on the 

shield a lion's head; the Victory crowns the name of Lysimachus; in field 

below the Victory, mon. 63, in exergue crescent. 
Another similar ; under the Victory mon. 50. 
Another without the crescent. 

Another ; under the Victory mon. 64 ; in field on r. mon. 65. 
Another with the same types, legend, and monograms. 
Another ; under the Victory mens. 40 and 66 ; in field on I. mon. 33, in exergue 

a club. 
Another; under the Victory mon. 67; in exergue mon. 68. 
Same type, rude work. B. Same legend and type, except that on the shield of 

Pallas is a lion's head surrounded with rays ; under the Victory mon. 69 ; on 

the throne BY (Byzantium ?) ; in exergue a trident to ^., with a dolphin on each 

side of it. 
Another ; under the Victory mon. 70. 
Same legend and types ; under the Victory mon. 71 ; in the exergue an ear of corn 

to I. and KAA (Callatia). 

Nate. — An ear of com similarly disposed occurs on the coins of Callatia. 

Same legend and types; under the Victory the barb of an arrow placed perpen- 
dicularly ; on the throne A ; no spear by the side of Pallas. Broken coin. 

Helmeted male head to r. (Alexander the Great ?) B. BA^IAEQ? [A]YSIMAXo[Y]. 
Lion running to /*., under it M, below which is O, and spear head placed horizon- 
tally. 

Another similar. 

Another ; but above the lion AT, and below it mon. 40. 

Another similar. 

Young male head to r. wearing a helmet with a pointed top, like a Phrygian cap. 
B. AY^IMAXOY BASIAEQ?. Trophy formed of helmet, spear, and shield, and 
below, of greaves? 

Another similar. 

Another, with the addition of a sword to the trophy ; in field r. K. 

Head of young Hercules covered with the lion's scalp to r. B- BASIAEQ2 AY21- 
MAXoY. Winged female figure adv. ; in field on I. mon. 51 and ? 

i^o(e. — Lysimachus, having been beaten and slain at Corns in Phrygia in the year B.c. 281, 
Seleucus I., the victor, proceeded to take possession of Macedonia, but near Lysimachia was assas- 
sinated by his comrade in the victory, Ptolemseus, sumamed Ceraunus (son of Ptolemy the First), 
who was himself in the same year (280 B.C.) beaten and slain by the Gauls on the northern fron- 
tier of Macedonia. Meleager for two months, Antipater for something less, and Sosthenes for two 
years, then governed Macedonia, but without having assumed the title of king. 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



13 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 4 



m 



JE 
JE 
M 
JE 
M 
/E 

JE 

JE 



JE 
JE 
JE 
JE 



JE 

JE 

JE 
JE 
JE 



H 



4* 



4i 

*2 



41 
4i 

*2 

4i 

*2 

4 



4 
4 

4+ 



3 

3+ 



41 

*2 



21 

■^2 



259-7 



57-3 



ANTIGONUS I. (Gonafas), 
Son of Demetrius I., began to reign b.c. 277. 

The entire field of the obverse represents a round Macedonian shield, on which seven 
crescents, each containing a star, surround a head of Pan to I. ; two short 
horns in front of the head, and a pedum, or shepherd's club, behind. R. BA- 
SIAEQ2 ANTiroNOY. Pallas in long drapery and armed, hurls a fulmen with 
her right hand ; on her shield appears the Gorgo or head of Medusa and the 
segis ; from her arms hang pendent the forked ends of the pallium ; in field on 
I. a pointed helmet with cheek-pieces and double crest ; on r. mon. 72. 

Note. — To Pan was attributed the terror so fatal to the Gauls at Delphi in 279 B.C., and which was 
followed by their retreat from Greece and the recovery of the kingdom by Antigonus. It is with an 
allusion to the same events that Pan is represented in the act of erecting a trophy on many of the 
coins of Antigonus. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. Same legend and type as the preceding coin ; in field on 

I. helmet with apex and a double crest ; on r. TI. 
Head of Pallas to r. R. BA (BainXiut) ; Pan naked, with short tail and two horns, 

to r., erecting a trophy ; between his feet mon. 30 'ANT(iy6>'oii) ; in field on I. 

a pointed helmet as before. 
Another ; in addition, pedum in field on r. at the foot of trophy. 
Another ; instead of crest to helmet are two branches of laurel ; pedum not visible. 
Same type ; same type and letters, but in field on I. mon. 73. 
Another similar. 
Another ; but in field on L *. 
Same type ; serpent on helmet of Pallas. B. Same letters and type ; but in field 

on I. K. 
Another. 

Same type. Same legend and type, but in field I. helmet with branches of laurel. 
Same type. A male head as a countermark on the cheek of Pallas. R. Same type, 

but behind Pan BA, a pointed Macedonian helmet, and KA ; trophy surmounted 

by a pointed helmet with two horns ; a large shield is seen in profile to r. of 

trophy ; the usual monogram 30 not visible. 
Same type not countermarked. R. Same type, but BA not visible ; between the feet 

of Pan mon. 30 ; in field on I. mon. 74 (AP). 
Same type. R. BA. Same type, but the shield placed diagonally across the trophy ; 

in field on r. T. 
Same type. B. Same type, but mon. SO behind Pan. A in field on r. ; a wreath in 

the left hand of Pan. 
Same type ; a trident as countermark at the back of the head of Pallas. B. Same 

type ; trident between the feet of Pan. 

Note. — This coin, with many others of Antigonus in copper, was foimd in an excavation at Khilo- 
dri5mia, by Capt. Brock, R.N. 

Same type. B. BA. Same group of Pan and the trophy, but Pan is crowning the 

trophy with a wreath. At foot of trophy on I. a syrinx. 
Same type. B. B. A. ; fore part of galley to r. ; below it mon. 15 ; in field on r. 

bipennis. 
Another. 
Another. 
Head of young Hercules to r. covered with lion's scalp. B. BASIAEQS ANTI- 

roNOY. Horseman to r. ; horse walking ; below it a pointed helmet without 

crest or cheek-pieces. 



14 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal 


Size 


JE 


3+ 


M 


4 


JE 


H 


JE 


H 


JE 


H 


JE 


4 


JE 


3+ 


^ 


4- 


JE 


H+ 



JE 



M 



JE 



JE 



3i 
3i 

3 
3 



3+ 

3+ 

4+ 



Weight 



Same type. R. BA. Same type ; under the horse mon. 30 ; between fore legs of 

horse mon, 56. 
Another ; an uncertain object in front of horse. 
Another ; with star in front of horse. 
Another ; with mon. 24 in front of horse. 
Another ; O between fore legs of horse. 
Bound Macedonian shield, on which six crescents surround the monogram 30 ('Avn- 

yoyov). li. BASI ; a poinded helmet, with double crest and cheek-pieces ; in 

field on I. mon. 31 ; on r. mon. 75. 
Another; in field on I. Caduceus; on r. mon. 31. 

Same type. R. iSAa. Same type ; in field on I. mon. 76 ; on r. mon. 77 or 75. 
Macedonian shield covering the obverse ; in centre bipennis. R. B. A. ; pointed 

helmet as before ; in field to r. K. 



DEMETRIUS II., 

Son of Antigonm Gonatas, began to reign b.c. 239. 

Macedonian shield, on which six crescents surround the mon. 78 (AHMHTPioY). 

R. BASI ; a pointed helmet, with double crest and cheek-pieces. 
Another similar. 

Another ; a torch in saucer, between the crest and helmet, on I. 
Another ; a globule between the crest and helmet, on I. 
Another ; a bipennis between the crest and helmet on I. 

Note. — The resemblance of these coins to those of Antigonus Gonatas, with the difference of tlie 
monogram of Demetrius in the centre of the shield, leave no doubt of their belonging to the son and 
successor of Antigonus. 

ANTIGONUS II. {Doson), 
Son of Antigonus Gonatas, began to reign b.c. 229. 

Macedonian shield, on which five crescents surround a male head (Pan i) to r. 

R. [B. a.], pointed helmet with crest and cheek-pieces ; in field on I. mon. 79 ; 

on r. Caduceus. 
Same type of shield, but, in centre, head of Medusa adv. R. Same letters and 

type ; in field on I. Caduceus ; on r. mon. 31 . 
Same type. R. Same letters and type ; in field on I. Caduceus ; on r. mon. 14. 
Same type of shield, but in centre fulmen. R. Same letters and type, but the 

helmet without cheek-pieces, and ornamented with a wreath ; in field below, 

fulmen. 
Another similar. 

Note. — The reason for attributing these five coins to Antigonus II. in preference to Antigonus I., 
is but slight. It is simply because they have not the monogram of Antigonus, but other symbols in 
the centre of the shield. That those with ANT in monogram belong to Antigonus I., may be pre- 
sumed from their being much more common than those with other symbols ; and they accord with 
the much greater length of the reign of Gonatas than that of Doson. 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



IS 



Metal Size Weight 



M 

M 
M 

M 



JE 



H 



5+ 
9 



M 


H 


M 


5- 


M 


+ 


M 


.3 


M 


4i 


M 


5 


M 


5 



6+ 



JE 


6 


M 


7-5 


M 


H 


M 


5 


JE 


5 


JE 


5 


M 


3+ 



243-6 

1231 
265-1 



PHILIPPUS v., 

Son of Demetrius II., began to reign b.c. 220. 

Diademate bearded head of Philip V. to r. R. BASIAEiiS (i>IAiniTOY. Minerva 
Promachus, as on the tetradrachmon of Antigonus Gonatas, hurls a fulmen to I. ; 
in field on r. mon. 80. Broken, and a portion wanting. Electrotype from 
General Fooo's Collection. 

Same type. ft. BASIAEtiS *IAinnOY. Knotted club, mons. 81, 82, 83 ; all in a 
wreath of oak. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Macedonian shield ; upon which seven crescents inclosing stars surround the portrait 
of Philip to I. as the hero Perseus, i. e. with a helmet terminating above in the 
head of an eagle, two of its claws in front, and a wing over the ear. Behind the 
neck appears the Aarjoe. IJ. BASIAEQS •WAIFFOY. A club, thick and knotty, 
between the words of the legend ; all within a wreath of oak. 

Another, with the same types and legend ; the portrait of Philip is better shown, 
but the eagle's claws are not apparent in front of the helmet. R. Above 
BASIAEflS the mon. 81 ; below, *IAinnoY, mons, 82, 83. Electrotype from 
the B. M. 

iVote.— Philip v., unable to prove hia descent from the royal family of Macedonia, which was extin- 
guished by Cassander, assumed a descent from the hero Perseus, on no other ground than that his 
ancestor Antigonus, king of Asia, was descended from one of the old families of Argos, who colonized 
Macedonia in the days of Caranus. When Philip was at Argos, the people gave him the manage- 
ment of the Herfean and Nemean games, quia Macedonum reges ex ea civitate oiiundos referunt 
(Liv. 27, 20). This was sufficient encouragement to Philip to place the head of Perseus on his coins, 
and even to identify himself in a certain degree with that ancient hero, whose attributes are thus 
described by Nonnus (Dionys. 25, v. 55) : — 

Kai Kvviijv 'AtSao <pip(i>v Kai IlaXXa'^oe apTrrjv 
Kal trrtp'ov 'Ep/idiavoc ex"^" *"' Zrjva roKrja. 

In the British Museum are drachmte and hemidrachma of Philip V. with his portrait ; the heaviest 
of the former weigh 61 '3 of the latter 292 grains Troy. 

Bearded head of Hercules to r. covered with the lion's scalp. IJ. BASIAEfiS 

*IAinnOY. Harpe placed horizontally within a wreath of oak. In field above 

mon. 82. 
Another similar. 

Another ; harpe broader, and in addition below mon. 84. 
Head of Perseus to r. R. BA. *. and harpe within a wreath of oak. 
Head of Perseus to r. T^. BA. <I>I. Eagle standing on a plough to I., wings open, 

and looking back ; in field below mon. 82. 
Another similar, but plough not apparent, nor monogram. 
Head of Diana to r. ; behind bow and quiver. R. BA. *I. Eagle as before ; in 

in field I. mon. 82. The whole within a wreath of oak. 
Radiated head of Apollo to r. E. BASIAEQS *IAIFnoY. Winged fulmen placed 

horizontally ; in field above mon. 82, below mons. 85, 86 ; all within a wreath 

of oak. 
Another, but the monograms below are 87, and another uncertain. 
Another, but above the fulmen lA, and below no monogram. 
Head of young Hercules to r. covered with lion's scalp. R. BA. *. Two goats side 

by side to r. couchant. In field at bottom on r. an ear of wheat. 
Another. 

Another ; in addition to the ear of wheat a fulmen. 
Another ; below to the left of * is mon. 81, to the right a trident. 
Macedonian shield covering obverse. In centre, head of Perseus to r. R. BA2IAE22 

*IAinnoY. Pointed helmet with cheek-pieces, and surmounted with a star. 



16 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



Metal 

M 
M 



JE 



M 



M 

M 
M 

M 



M 

M 

M 
M 
iE 

M 
JE 



2 
5- 



JE 


4 


JE 


4- 


JE 


3 


JE 


2+ 


JE 


6 


JE 


3 


JE 


3+ 



4 
5- 

4i 

4 

4.1 

5+ 

4+ 



4i 



Weight 



233-4 



215-8 

156-6 
259-6 



Another, but star on helmet not visible. 

Macedonian shield with the umbo in the centre. R. B. A. 4>. disposed around a 

Corinthian helmet to r. with crest and cheek-pieces. 
Head of Jupiter to r. R. BA. (i>. Pallas fulminating to I. ; her extended left arm 

supporting a shield, and the forked ends of drapery pendent from each arm. 

In field r. below mon. 88 (HT). 
Same type. R. [BA]SIAEQ2 ^lAIirpoY. Naked figure walking to I., in either hand ? 

Note. — Mionnet describes (i. p. 585) a silver coin of Philip, with his portrait, and on the reverse 
Hercules naked, having in his right hand a comucopice, in his left the club and lion's skin. 

Head of Jupiter r. R. BA. *. Pallas habited as before hurling a spear to r. 

Another ; in field r. below mon. 1 4 ? 

Head of Neptune to r. R. BA. *. The two former letters above, the last below 

the prow of a galley to r. 
Two others, with appearances of a monogram near the *. 
Head of bearded Hercules with lion's scalp. R. BASIAEQS ^lAinnoY. A sword 

between the two words ; all in wreath of oak. 
Head of the hero Perseus to r. R. BA. *. Harpe ; all in a wreath of oak. 
Same type. R. BASIAEOS *IAIProY. Free horse at full speed to r. 



PERSEUS, 

Son of Philip V., began to reign n.c. 178. 

Portrait of Perseus to r. with diadem and cropped beard. R. BASIAEqS IlEPSEQS. 

Eagle with legs and wings extended standing on a fulmen to r. ; above the 

eagle's head mon. 89 ; in field on r. mon. 90 ; between eagle's legs SI in A ; 

the whole within a wreath of oak; below the wreath a plough. From the 

Thomas Collection (1268). 
Another, but above the eagle mon. 91, between its legs mon. 5; in field to r. 

mon. 90. 
Fragment of another, but above the eagle mon. 92. 
Another similar, but with a more perfect portrait, and the name of the artist Zoilus 

below the neck. R. to r. of eagle mons. 93, 94. Electrotype from the B. M. 
Head of the hero Perseus to r. ; in front of the head the harpe. R. BA. mon. 80 

(HE. P.). (BofftXtwc IlfpCTewc.) An eagle standing to I. on fulmen, with wings 

and legs extended, and looking back ; in exergue 2H. 
Another ; in exergue mon. 5 and ? ; in field to I. mon. 80. 
Another similar. 
Another ; in exergue A H. 
Another ; in exergue T H. 
Another ; mon. 80. 
Another ; in field on r. mon. 95. 
Same type, but the harpe is behind the head. R. Same letters and type ; in field on 

r. mon. 95. 
Same types, but on the R. the four letters B A n E are separately on the field ; in 

exergue ? 
Another similar. 
Head of Hercules to r. covered with the lion's scalp. R. BA. mon. 80. Horseman 

to r. ; horse walking ; under horse mons. 81, 82. 



KINGS OF EPIRUS. 



17 



Metal Size I Weight 



N 



M 



4-3 



N 



M 



M 



M 



8* 



JE 

M 
M 

JE 



4-3 
7-6 

6 

6 

6-5 
6-4^ 
4-3 



65-7 



258-2 



86-3 



130-2 



KINGS OF EPIRUS. 

ALEXANDRUS I., 

So7i of Neopiolemus, succeeded his uncle Arymias u.c. 342 ; went to Tarentum about 
B.C. 335 ; was killed at Pandosia b.c, 325. 

Head of Jupiter Dodonseus, with diadem of oak leaves to r. R. AAESTANAPOY TOY 
NEOPTOAEMO in two lines; between them a fulmen, above which is a spear- 
head. Struck at Tarentum. Electrotype from the Hunter Collection. 

Between the lines, 



Eagle standing to r. ; in field on I. tripod, on r. ? 
fulmen ; all within a wreath of bay. 



J, AAESA 
aw XOL 



PYRRHUS, 

Son of uEacides, succeeded his uncle Alcetas b.c. 312 ; went into Italy b.c. 280 ; 

arrived in Sicily b.c. 278 ; returned to Greece b.c. 274 ; 

was killed at Argos e.g. 272. 

Head of Artemis (Diana) to r. with ear-ring and necklace; quiver behind neck. 
B. BASIAEQ? TYPPOY. Victory, with extended wings, going to I. ; wreath in 
extended right hand ; left bearing trophy ; in field on I. a crescent above, 
and a fulmen below ; on r. under the wing n. Struck at Syracuse. Electrotype 
from the B. M. 

Head of Jupiter Dodonseus crowned with oak to I. ; under the neck and mon. 96. 
B. BA^IAEQS PYPPOY. Juno seated on throne to ?. ; sceptre in right hand; 
left hand raising her veil; in exergue A. Struck at Syracuse. Electrotype 
from the B. M. 

Head of Cora (Proserpina) to r. wearing a wreath of corn, and with long hair 
covering the back of the neck; ear-rings and necklace; behind the head, 
grapes. R. BASIAEQS PYPPOY. Pallas Promachus, clothed and armed as 
on M 8^ of Antigonus I., hurling a spear to I. ; in field I. fulmen, below which A ; 
in field r. cornucopise. Struck at Syracuse. From the Thomas Collection (1377). 

Young male helmeted head to I. ; on helmet, griffin ; in field below ii. R. BASIAEQS 
PYPPOY. Veiled female in long drapery seated to I. on a sea-horse moving to 
r. ; in female's right hand a shield with the head of Gorgo in the centre. 
Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — The resemblance of this coin in its types and style to a coin of the Bruttii concurs with the 
history of Pyrrhus in leading to the belief that it was strucic at Consentia, now Cosenza, the capital 
of the Bruttii (Strabo, p. 256). 

Laureate head of Jupiter to r. R. BA^IAEQS PYPPOY. Fulmen. 

Head of Jupiter Dodonseus to n R. BASIAEQS [P]YPP[oY]. Fulmen; the whole 

within a wreath of oak leaves and acorns. Struck in Epirus. 
*0IAS. Veiled head of Phthia, mother of Pyrrhus, to I. R. BASIAEQS PYPPoY. 

Winged fulmen. Struck at Syracuse. From the Pembroke Collection (626). 
Head of Proserpina as before to r. ; behind it a diota. R. BASIAEQS PYPPqY. 

Ceres seated on a throne to I. ; an ear of corn in right hand, sceptre in left ; 

under throne I. Struck at Syracuse. »_ ' 

Same types, legend, and symbol, but Ceres seated to ^, and above the throne A. 

Struck at Syracuse. 
Another similar, but with an uncertain symbol behind the head, and under the 

throne Z. Struck at Syracuse. 
Head of Pallas to I. R. BA5IAEQS PYPPOY. Ear of corn ; the whole within a 

wreath of oak. 



18 

Metal 1 Size Weight 



JR 



M 
M 
M 

M 
M 



l2 



■'4 



213-4 



225-1 
218-6 
241-1 

.52-0 
21-2 



KINGS OF EPIRUS. 



ALEXANDRUS II. (o/Epirus), 
Succeeded his father Pyrrhus b.c. 272. 



I 



M 

M 
M 



:U 
3+ 
4- 

1 + 



Youthful head to r, covered with the skin of an elephant's head ; a horn and a 
diadem are visible in front of the forehead. R. AAESANAPo[Y]. Pallas 
draped and armed as usual, stepping to r. and hurling a spear ; in front is an eagle 
to r. standing on a fulnien ; in field /. men. 97 ; in field r. mon. 98. 

Note. — The letters of the legend are dotted at the extremities, as on many of the coins of the 
Seleucidie of the same age. 

Same type. R. Same legend, type, and monograms. 

Another, ill preserved. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type, but in field r. mons. 99, 100. Electrotype 

from the B. M. 
Same types and legend ; but in field to the r. of Pallas, mon. 32. 
Same type. B. Same legend, type, and monogram. 

Note. — The attribution of these coins to Alexander II., of Epirus, is founded upon the reverse, the 
type of which, being similar to that of a great majority of the coins of the Thessalian community, seems 
evidently intended for a figure of Minerva Itonia, the principal deity of Thessaly, whose temple stood 
on the road from Larissa to Pherse. The same reverse is found on some of the coins of Pyrrhus, father 
of Alexander II., who appears to have adopted it after the victory which he gained in b.c. 274 over 
Antigonus Gonatas at a pass in Upper Macedonia (Plutarch, Pyrr. 20), and which gave him posses- 
sion "f Macedonia and all Thessaly. In the temple of Minerva Itonia Pyrrhus dedicated the shields 
of the Gallic mercenaries of Antigonus, who were slain or taken on that occasion, and at Dodona those 
of the Macedonians. Plutarch has preserved one, and Pausanias (Attic, c. 13) both of the epigrams 
which were attached to these dedications. It was natural that Alexander II. should cherish the me- 
mory of this event, especially as to the same auspicious protection of Pallas Itonia he ascribed probably 
his own victory over Antigonus at Derdia in Elimeia (Euseb.i. p. 340, Armen.), by which he also became 
for a short time master of Thessaly and Macedonia. We may say that the occurrence of this type on 
the reverses of the coins of Demetrius I. (Eckhel ii. p. 119) and Pyrrhus, as well as on those of Antigonus 
and Alexander II., agrees perfectly with the alternate possession of Thessaly by these kings of Mace- 
donia and Epirus. The obverse of these tetradrachma is evidently an imitation of that common type 
of the successors of Alexander the Great, his head in the chiiracter of Hercules ; it may have been 
recommended to Alexander II. of Epirus, merely because he bore the same name as his great jirede- 
decessor of Macedonia, and possibly because, of all the successors of Alexander, Pyrrhus was acknow- 
ledged to bear the greatest resemblance to him (o^iv ^ovto Kal ra-^OQ loiKtvai Kai Kivrjfia ro7f 
' AXt^dvdpov Kai Ttjg ^opag iKiii'ov Kai jStaf napd. Toiig dywvag Iv Tovrtp OKiaQ TivaQ oudaOai Kai 
miiilliaTa. Plutarch, Pyrr. c. 8). The substitution of the elephant's scalp for that of the Nemean 
lion was well suited to Alexander the Great, as conqueror of India, but there seems little reason for 
its being adopted by a king of Epirus, unless perhaps with some allusion to the numerous elephants 
captured by Pyrrhus in his victory over Antigonus Gonatas. In like manner, although it is not ne- 
cessary to consider the eagle on the reverse in any other light than as a symbol of Jupiter, who was 
generally a avvvabg OtoQ in temples of Minerva, it is not impossible that this symbol may also have a 
reference to Pyrrhus, whom Plutarch tells us that the Epirotes saluted with the title of Eagle, when 
he returned home after his victory over Pantauchus, the general of Demetrius ; and when he replied 
to the Epirotes, " If I am an eagle, you are my wings." ... 'Aerof vvb tUv 'HTriipuirwv irpoaayopivo- 
fifvoc- Ai vfide IXtyiv dtrof lifiC iriuQ ydp ov/ieXXoj roif i/ierspotf 'oitXoiQ, liainp iiKuvripoiQ, lirai- 
pd/icvof ; (c. 10.) 

flead of young Hercules, covered with the lion's scalp, to r. R. AAESANAPOY. 

Eagle standing on a fulmen to r., looking to I. ; in field above, crescent. 
Same types and legend, but above the eagle an ivy-leaf. 
Another. 
Head of Alexander the Great to r., with long hair, diadem, and cornu Ammonia. 

R ANA . . Eagle with open wings on fulmen to L ; in field ? 

Same types ; but in place of the name, mon. 101 (aaE). 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 



19 



Metal Size Weight 



.-R 


n 


M 


9+ 


M 


61 


M 


51 


M 


H 



GETAS, 

King of the Edoni, reigned about 520, b.c. 

Note. — The name Edonis was sometimes given to the whole country, extending from Mygdonia 
westward to the Hebrus eastward ; but the kingdom of the Edoni to which these coins belonged, 
occupied Mount Pangseum and the adjacent valley of the Strymon, to the left bank of which it was 
confined by some of the early kings of Macedonia. Adjoining to Edonis, on the Macedonian side of the 
Strymon, was Bisaltia (see Travels in N. Greece, pp. 171, 228), the coins of which resemble those of 
Edonis, except that in place of the horse, as on the coins of Archelaus, there is a pair of oxen — a 
type which occurs also on the coins of the Oreseii. Sucli is the similarity in the money of the Bisalti, 
Edoni, and Oreseii in magnitude, style, metal, and types, that we cannot but conclude that prior to the 
time of Philip II. they shared between them the whole argentiferous region, from lake Bolbe and the 
western extremity of Bisaltia, to that part of the maritime ridges eastward which belonged to the 
Thasii. From the mythus of Lycurgus, son of Dryas, alluded to by Homer (II. {, 130), it would 
seem that the kingdom of Edonis was at least as ancient as that of Macedonia. From Thucydides 
(4, 107) we learn that as late as the Peloponnesian war it was still a kingdom ; but, with the excep- 
tion of Pittacus, who was then reigning, we meet with the name of no other king of the Edoni in his- 
tory than that which these coins have preserved. Getas is a proper name, which seems to have been 
adopted, for some unknown reason, from the TETAI, a people of Thrace, but who dwelt in a very 
distant part of this country. The Edoni were not among the tribes mentioned by Herodotus as 
having been subdued by Megabazus, the general of Dareius, son of Hystaspes ; though the influence 
of Dareius in Edonis is sufficiently shown by his having given Myrciims, an Edonian city, to 
Histioeus of Miletus, whose object was to found a colony and city at the position near Myrcinus, 
where Amphipolis afterwards stood. At the time of the expedition of Xerxes, all this pai-t of Edonis, 
as well as Macedonia, was occupied by the Persians ; and to this people we may ascribe the deep 
incision which has been made in the larger of the two subjoined coins of the Edoni, and which 
resembles that occurring on the octodrachmon of Alexander I., and on other Greek coins, belonging to 
places where the Persians bore sway ; it is, in short, a Persian countermark. From the use of Q and a 
later form of N on the second coin, it would seem to be the less ancient of the two; but neither on this 
ground, nor any other, would it be easy, in our present ignorance of the history of the Edoni, to ac- 
count for the difference of dialect shown by the terminations HAONEON and HAQNAN. The letters 
of the first coin, compared with those of Alexander I., indicate a higher antiquity than his reign, 
especially in the forms of the A and N, but the difference of time is probably not very great. 

417'6 Two oxen stepping to r. Beyond them a naked conductor with the causia on 
his head ; the whole in a dotted circle. R. TEXAS HAOr^EOt' BASIAEYS on the 
four sides of a quadi'atum incusum surrounding a quadripartite square. 

427"6 Same type. B. TETA BASIAEil? HAiiNAN, similarly disposed. Electrotypes from 
the B. M. 



190-7 

193-4 
190-4 



to r., spearmg a 
coin is struck on an 



DYNASTS OF P^ONIA AND UPPER MACEDONIA. 

y ATHAVS (of Pmonia), 
Contemporary of Amyntas II. 

Laureate head of Apollo to r, B. Armed helmeted horseman 

fallen enemy, who holds up a Macedonian shield. This 

older type, but which is not distinguishable. 
Same type. R. PATPAo[Y]. Same type; in field I. mon. 75. From the Thomas 

Collection (882). 
Same type. R. [PjATPAoY. Same type ; in field I. uncertain monogram. 

Note. — The Macedonian shield of the fallen warrior on these coins, indicating an advantage in w.ar 
gained by Patraus over the Macedonians, shows Patraus to have been contemporary with, or earlier 
than, Philip II. ; for Philip was victorious over the Pseonians on two occasions, and his son Alex- 
ander reduced them to submission in the year B.c. 335. 



20 

Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 

M 



2i 



195-2 



45-0 



JE 



M 



H 



M 



H 



M 



U 



KINGS OF THE ODRYS^. 



AUDOLEON. 

Note. — Audoleon, son of Patraus, succeeded Agis (liis elder brother, or uncle) B.C. 359, and was 
still reigning in b.c. 310, when Cassander assisted him in removing the Autariatse to Mount Orhelus. 
About 286 B.C. Lysimachus escorted Ariston, son of Audoleon (who had served under Alexander in 
Asia) into Pteonia, to assume the vacant throne, but betrayed him, and seized his kingdom. 

Female head, .seen in front, with triple crested helmet, ear-rings, necklace, and long 
hair. Pallas? R. AYAQAE»NT.2. Free horse trotting to r. ; below it, 
mon. 102. From the Thomas Collection (879). 

Same type. B- Same legend and type ; without monogram. 

Same type. ft. Same legend and type ; but a halter hanging from mouth of horse, 
and mon. 102 under it. Cast from silver ? 

EUPOLEMUS. 

Note. — Eupolemus was probably a dynast of a part of Upper Macedonia, about the time of Patraus 
and Audoleon. A general of Cassander was named Eupolemus, but this person was of later date 
than the former, perhaps a grandson, as it was not uncommon among the Greeks to repeat the name 
in the second generation. 

Three Macedonian shields, thrown together and seen in perspective ; the episemon 
on each being a spear head. B. EYPOAEMoY. Sword and belt ; in field I., 
bipennis. From the Devonshire Collection, 

Note. — The bipennis alluded to the common origin of some of the Macedonian tribes, and those of 
Asia ; it may here refer to the Brygse (Bpuyoi), the Macedonian form of the word itpiyic. 

ADJEVS. 

Note. — This person seems to have been another of the dynasts of Upper Macedonia. Three times 
the name occurs in history as that of a Macedonian (Polyb. 15, 27 — 28, 8. Arrian, Exp. Alex. 1, 22), 
nor can there be a doubt from the tenor of his epigrams that the poet Adseus was also a Macedonian. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. aaAIoy. Tripod ; in field to I. mon. 50 and S. 

Note. — Mionnet describes two other coins of Adeeus, with the head of Hercules on the obverse 
and his club on the reverse, common Macedonian types. 

CAVARUS. 

Note. — Cavarus was the last king of the Gauls, who, after the defeat of Brennns at Delphi, in B.C. 
279, overran Thrace and settled in the country to the northward of Byzantium, from which city, during 
many years, they exacted a tribute. By the mediation of Cavarus peace was made in the year 219 B.C., 
between the Byzantines and the Rhodii, who were in alliance with Prusias I., king of Bithynia. 



Head of Apollo to r. R. BA2IAEQS [K]AYAPoY. 
name of the king ; in field, mon. 1 03. 



Victory to I., crowning the 



KINGS OF THE ODRYS^ 
SEUTHES. 

Note. — This Seuthes was the fourth king of that name mentioned in history : he led the Odrysae 
against Cavarus, who fell in the action, after which the Gauls who survived retired entirely out of 
Thrace. 



Head of Jupiter to r., bearded and laureate, 
galloping. 



B. SEY0OY. Horseman to r. ; horse 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



21 



Metal 



Size 



Weiglit 



M 



JE 
M 



H 



6- 
4 



M 



261 



N 



131-7 



RHCEMETALCES I. 

Note. — Rhceraetalces, about the year 1 1 B.C., was restored to his kingdom by order of Augustus, 
and his territories were so much enlarged that Tacitus (2, C4) describes him as king of all Thrace. 

BA2IAEQS PoIMHTAAKoY. Diademate head of Rhcemetalces with that of his 
Queen to r. R. KAI2AP02 2EBAST0Y. Head of Augustus to r. From the 
Thomas Collection (848). 

Another. From the Pembroke Collection (626). 

BASIAEQ2 POIMHTAAKOY. Diademate head of Rhcemetalces to r. IJ. KAISAPoS 
SEBASToY. Head of Augustus to r. From the Pembroke Collection (626). 

Two others similar. 



ASIATIC KINGS AND DYNASTS 

KING OF ASIA. 

ANTIGONUS, 

Son of Philippus o/Flimeia, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, 

Note. — Antigonus was acknowledged king of Asia at the treaty of peace which he made with 
Seleucus I., Ptolemseus I., Cassandrus, and Lysimachus, in the year b.c. 311. In 306 B.C. he as- 
sumed the title of BaaiKfie. 

Head of Neptune to r., bearded and crowned with a wreath formed of the water- 
lily. B;. BASIAEQS ANTiroNoY inscribed on the prow of a galley turned to I., 
and on which Apollo is seated to I., naked, with long hair, and holding a bow in 
his extended right hand ; below, mon. 104. From the Thomas Collection (1142). 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



SELEUCUS I. {Nicator), 
Son of Antiochm and Laodice, — an officer of the eraipot of Alexander the Great. 

Note. — The commencement of the reign of Seleucus I., and of the sera of the Seleucidae, was in the 
autumn of 312 B.C., being the year of the victory of Ptolemaeus I. and Seleucus over Demetrius 
Poliorcetes, son of Antigonus, at Gaza ; Seleucus then proceeded to retake possession of Baby- 
lonia, from which, as Satrap, he had been expelled by Antigonus in 316 B.C. In 306 B.c. he assumed 
the title of BaaiKtvi. 

Head of Seleucus I. in an advanced age, wearing a diadem with the horn of a bull 
over the ear {Tavpoicepwt). R. BASIAEQ? SEAEYKOY. Head and neck of a 
bridled horse with the horns of a bull in the place of ears. Between the horns, 
fire ; in field on r. mon. 105 ; in exergue mon. 106, in a circle. Electrotype from 
the Devonshire Collection (588), now in the B. M. 

iVote.— The title of king on this coin shows it to have been struck after the year 306 b.c Appian 
accounts for the horns which artists added to the portrait of Seleucus by his extraordinary 
strength of body, which gave him the power of arresting a bull, an explanation well suited to the 
Greeks, by whom this faculty was often attributed to their ancient heroes, as may be observed on 
Thessalian and other coins. In truth, however, the homs on the heads of Seleucus seem to have been 
nothing more than an imitation of the ram's horns of Alexander, Seleucus having adopted for this 

G 



22 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



Metal 


Size 


M 


7 


M 


1 


M 


7 


M 


6+ 


M 

M 


7 
5 




5- 
5- 


JE 

M 


4i 


M 
.E 


4 
4 


M 





JE 


4 

• ) 


M 


6 



260-2 



10 
264-6 

253-6 



252-4 



purpose the horns of the bull of Assyria, as having become the master of all that country. The bull 
was a symbol of the sun, and Seleucus thus identified himself with divinity, not less than Alexander 
in styling himself the Son of Ammon. The horse's head with bull's horns is a mixed Greek and 
Assyrian type, the horse in Greece having been sacrificed to the sun and its figure employed as a 
symbol of the sun. This, and most of the other coins of Seleucus I., were probably struck in his new 
city of Seleuceia, on the Tigris. 

Head of Seleucus I.I covered with a close helmet, having cheek-pieces, the whole 
formed of the hairy skin of a bulFs head, with its ears and horns, and having 
apparently a metallic front. Bound the neck is a lion's skin, tied by the paws. 
B. BA^IAEiiS ?EAEYKoY. Victory crowning a trophy, consisting of a helmet, 
cuirass, and shield, suspended on the trunk of a tree, of which two little branches, 
with their leaves, remain. In field below on/'., E ; on^., AI. Electrotype from 
theB.M. / ^ 

Same types, but without legend, and in place of the letters of the preceding coin are ' 
r and mon. 107. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Head of young Hercules to r. covered with the lion's scalp, Bi. BA€IAEQ[€] [S]EAEY- 
KoY. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I. ; in field *. mon. 108 (2YPA) ; under 
throne KP. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. [B]A€LAEQ? [?EAEY]KOY. Pallas standing in a quad- 
riga of elephants to r. hurls a short javelin with the right hand ; her shield on 
left arm ; in field above, anchor. 

Note. — An anchor was the signet of Seleucus I., as we learn from Appian. de Rebus Syriae. 56. 

The same legend and types, but of semi- barbarous fabric. 

Laureate head of Apollo to r. R. BASIAE[QS] 2EAEYK[0Y]. Pallas standing] 

to r. ; short javelin in right hand ; shield on left arm ; in field before her, 

anchor. 
Same type and legend, without the anchor. 
Laureate head of Apollo to r. ; the hair disposed in front like that of a female. 

B. BASIAEQ[2] [S]EAEYKo[Y]. Bull with a hump on the shoulder, and one j 

knee on the ground to l. ; in field to I. mon. 109. In exergue EY. 

Note. — The Indian bull is another of the types which belong to Seleucus I., and to his coins in i 
preference generally to those of any of his successors of the same name. 

Another similar. 

Head of Pallas to r. B. [B]a:3IAEQ[2] SEAEYKo[Y]. Victory to I. crowning the 

name of Seleucus with a wreath ; in her left hand, a palm branch ; in field before 

her, an anchor. 
Two others similar. 
Bust of Pallas to r. B. [BASIAEqS] SEAEYKoY. Figure standing to I. ; left 

hand resting on a round shield on which is an anchor ; in field to I. mon. 119. 
Head of Perseus to r. B. BA2IAEQS 2EAEYKoY. Bull with hump, one knee on the 

ground to r. ; in exergue S. 
Three others. 
Another smaller. 
Head of Hercules with lion's scalp to r. B- No legend ; prow of galley to I.;' 

above, anchor. 

Note. — The galley refers, perhaps, to the success of Seleucus when commanding the fleet of j 
Ptolemseua I. on the coasts of Syria, Cyprus, and the JEgtean ; for that was the only occasion on 
which he distinguished himself at sea. 

Busts of the Dioscuri to I. ; their caps laureate ; one head seen in profile ; the other j 
two-thirds adverse ; the points of their spears are seen above their caps, on each 
side of which is a star in the field. B. [BA]2IAE[aS] SEAEYKoY. Victory 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



23 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



JR 



M 



M 



M 


n 


.E 


5 


M 


^ 


JE 


H 


M 


3 


-E 


3 



265-2 



260-3 



2500 



standing to I. crowning a trophy ; in left hand palm branch ; in field, head of 
a bull or horned horse to r. ; in field to I. mon. 21. 

Note.~The reverse of this coin resembles so exactly the first ^ 7 of the preceding page, that 
there can be little doubt of its being a coin of Nicator, and not of any other Seleucus. To Nicator 
also the bull's or horse's head more particularly belongs. 

Diademate youthful male bust, adv. a little to left ; the horn of an ox above each 
ear. R. [B]ASIAEo[2] SEAEyKo[Y]. Horseman to r. spearing a prostrate 
enemy, whose shield lies beside him ; in the field two doubtful monograms. 
From the PembroJce Collection (1160). 

Similar bust, but the horns not visible. R. BA2IAEQ2 SEAEYKoY. Apollo stand- 
ing to I. ; in his right hand an arrow. 

ANTIOGHUS I. {Soter), 
Son of Seleucus I., began to reign b.c. 280. 

Note. — He was surnamed Soter from his victories over the Gauls who had invaded Asia Minor, 
but he fell in an action with them after a reign of eighteen years. 

Diademate head of Antiochus I. to r., of an advanced age, but beardless, like the 
Seleucidse in general. IJ. BASIAEQ^ ANTloXoY. Apollo seated to I. on the 
cortina ; his right hand holds an arrow, his left hand leans on a bow ; in field I. 
AP in mon. ; in field r. mon. 1 10. From the Thomas Collection (2433). 

Note. — After Seleucus I. all the coins of the Seleucidse have dots at the extremities of the letters. 

Same legend and types ; but Apollo holds three arrows, and at his feet is seen the 

fore part of a horse as if drinking; in field above the horse, mon. Ill ; and 

above the arrows, mon. 112. From the Revil Collection, sold at Paris in 1845. 

(368.) 
Macedonian shield bordered by six crescents surrounding an anchor. R. BA2IAES1S 

ANTIOXOY. Elephant walking to r. ; under it O or ; in exergue mon. 27. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; above BASIAESIS club ; above the elephant 

an anchor as a countermark. 
Head of Pallas to r. R. [BASIAEQ2] ANTloXOY. Trophy ; in field r. mon. 5 (AN) 

within a circle. 
Head of Hercules to r. covered with the lion's scalp. R. BASIAEQS ANTloxoY. 

Galley to r. 
Diademate portrait of Antiochus I. to r. R. BaSIAEQ[S] ANTIoXOY. Apollo 

seated on the cortina to I. ; arrow in right hand ; left leaning on bow ; in field 

r. and I. uncertain monograms. 
Three others similar. 

ANTIOCHUS II. {Theos), 
Son of Antiochus I., began to reign b.c. 261. 

iVo««.— Antiochus II. received his divine appellation from the people of Miletus, for having relieved 
them of their tyrant Timarchus. He engaged in war with Ptolem^us Philadelphus, during which 
Bactria and Parthia revolted. He was poisoned by Laodice, whom he had divorced to marry Bere- 
nice, daughter of Ptolemy, but whom he had recalled after the death of Ptolemy. 

Diademate portrait of Antiochus II. to r. ; a wing on the diadem. R. BASIAEUJ? 
[ANTIOXoY]. Apollo, as on ^ 8 of Antiochus I. ; in field I. mon. 113, and 
under it K ; in exergue, horse drinking to I. 

Note. — A very early example of this form of the omega. 



24 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



Metal 

M 

M 

M 



M 



M 



M 
JE 

M 

JE 

M 

M 
M 



Size 

3+ 

3+ 
3 



Weight 



263-1 



4J- 



3 
3 
3 



262-3 



Laureate head of Apollo to r. with long hair. R. [B]aSIAEq[S] ANTIoXo[Y]. 

Tripod ; below it an anchor ; in field r. and I. uncertain monograms. 
Another similar. 
Another ; in field I. mon. 39 ; in field r. mon. 114 ; anchor under tripod, not visible. 



SELEUCUS II. iCaUinicus), 

Son of Antiochus II. and Laodice., began to reign b.c. 246. 

Note. — Like many of the epithets or surnames of the Egyptian and Syrian monarchs, that of Calli- 
nicuB was the reverse of that which Seleucus II. deserved. He lost all Syria to Ptolemseus Euer- 
getes; was unable to expel his brother Antiochus Hierax from the western parts of Asia Minor ; 
was defeated by him in union with Mithridates of Pontus and the Gauls at Ancyra ; and again by 
Arsaces, who detained him as a prisoner nine years in Parthia. It was in the reign of Callinicus also 
that Attalus obtained possession, at the expense of the Seleucidse, of some of the central parts of Asia 
Minor, which thenceforth became a portion of the Pergamenian kingdom. 

Diademate portrait of Seleucus II. to r., beardless, but with a whisker. R. BA2I- 
AEQS 2EAEYK0Y. Apollo standing to I., with an arrow in his right hand, and 



leaning on a tripod; in field I. mon. 99 ; in field r. 



o- 



Note. — I O may be read HO, and these letters may indicate either the 77th or 78th year of the sera 
of the Seleucidae, corresponding to the second or third year of the reign of Seleucus II. 

Same portrait. B. Same legend and type ; in field I. mon. 115. 

Laureate head of Apollo to r., with long platted hair on the neck ; behind, an uncer- 
tain monogram. B. BASIAEQ2; 2EAEYK0Y. Apollo standing to I., lean- 
ing on tripod; in right hand arrow; in field l. mons. 116 and 117. — Serrated 
com. 

Another ; with mon. behind the head. R. In field I. a mon. — Serrated coin. 

Another similar. — Serrated coin. 

Another. B. In field I. mon. 1 1 8. — Serrated coin. 

Bust of Diana. R. BASIAEQS 2EAEYK0Y. Prow of galley to I. ; above, AN. — 
Serrated coin. 

Another similar. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. BA2IAEQS SEAEYKoY. Apollo to I., leaning on bow ; 
in right hand, an arrow. 

Diademate portrait of Seleucus II. to r., as on M 8. R. [BASIAEqS] [SE]AEYKoY. 
Horse walking to I. ; under it a round shield, on which is an anchor. 

Diademate bearded head of Seleucus II. to r. R. BaSIAEqs SEAEYKoY. Pegasus 
at full speed to I. 

Another. From the Pembroke Collection (1161). 

Note. — The long beard on these portraits are accounted for by Polybius (2, 71)j from whom we 
learn that Seleucus II. was surnamed Pogon, evidently from his custom of wearing a beard. Seleu- 
cus II. and Demetrius II. are alone among the Seleucidce represented with long beards, and doubt- 
less for the same reason ; namely, that they had acquired the custom during the large portion of 
their nominal reigns, which they had been constrained to pass in Parthia. 

SELEUCUS III. {Soter, Ceramus), 
Son of Seleucus II., began to reign b.c. 226. 

Note. — The original name of Seleucus III. was Alexandras, but he preferred the former, and added 
to it the title of Soter, as appears from an inscription copied by Pococke, at Seleuceia, on the Orontes. 
On crossing the Taurus against Attalus, he was complimented by his army with the surname 
Ceraunus, but he met with little success, and was assassinated by conspirators in the third year of 
his reign. 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



25 



Metal 
M 



Size Weight 

8 262-0 



JR o^ 



M 
JE 



N 

M 
M 

M 
M 



M 

M 



3 
3 



8-7 
8 



7i 



57-4 



525 

255-0 
262-7 

243-6 
263-6 



63-8 



Diademate portrait of Seleucus III. to r., beardless, but with a whisker. R. BASI- 
AEQ2 2EAEYK0Y. Apollo seated on the cortina to I., arrow in right hand, left 

resting on bow ; in field I. mon. 120 ; in field, r. p. From the Revil Col- 
lection (375). 

Same portrait to r. R. Same legend and type, but Apollo is seated on a stool, 
which covers the apex of the cortina ; in field two monograms. 

Bust of Diana to r. R. Same legend and same type of Apollo seated ; in field to I. 
€ ; in exergue 0E. 

Three others similar. 

ANTIOOHUS III. (^Magnus), 
Son of Seleucus II. and Laodice, began to reign b.c. 223. 

Note. — It serves to illustrate the portraits on the following coins of Antiochus III., to observe that 
he succeeded his father in the fifteenth year of hia age, and reigned thirty-six years. The epithet 
Msyat; was derived from his endeavour to recover the eastern provinces of the empire of Alexander, 
which had been lost under his father Callinicus. Upon this expedition, he was absent seven years ; lie 
was said to have penetrated into India, and he brought back with him a great number of elephants, 
which he employed with great advantage in his wars of Asia Minor and Greece, but the only other 
result seems to have been his acknowledgment of the independence of Bactria and Parthia. His 
unjust and ambitious attempt to convert the infancy of Ptolemseus Epiphanes to his own benefit, led 
to his wars with the Romans, which were terminated by his defeat at Thermopyloe, and again at 
Magnesia ad Sipylum, and, finally, by a ruinous treaty of peace. In consequence of these disasters 
Armenia renounced his authority. He lost his life in an insurrection in Elymais in the fifty-second 
year of his age. There are three copper coins of Antiochus III., bearing on the obverse his portrait 
and on the reverse a ship (showing they were struck in one of the maritime cities of Syria), with the 
dates 112, 115, 117, or B.C. 200, 197, 195- These are the earliest coins of the Seleucidse bearing a 
date, except that which I have noticed on the first coin of Seleucus II. 

Diademate head of Antiochus III. to r. R. BASIAEQ[S] ANTIoXOY. Apollo seated 
on cortina to I., in extended right hand arrow, left hand resting on bow ; in 
field I. mon. 121. Electrotype from the Pembroke Collection (1143). 
Very youthful diademate head of Antiochus III. to r. IjL. Legend and type as 

before; in field I. mon. 122. From the Thomas Collection (2535). 
Same portrait to r., rather older and with whisker. IJ. Same legend and type ; in 
field I. mon. 123 (Tyrus) on the smaller end of a club ; in field r. AP ; in ex- 
ergue, A. From the Bevil Collection (377). 
Same portrait still older to r. R. Same legend and type; in field I. mon. 124 ; in 
exergue, N ; a covering with three legs or pendents on the apex of the cortina. 
Same poi-trait in advanced age to r. U. Same legend and type ; in field, in front of 
head of Apollo, mon. 125 ; behind head, mon. 126 ; a cushion on the apex of the 
cortina. 

^ote. — The portrait on some coins in the British Museum and other collections resembling this coin 
and the one preceding, has been supposed to represent Antiochus Hierax, the brother of Callinicus, 
but it is probably nothing more than one among a great variety of portraits of Antiochus III., at 
different ages and by artists of various degrees of merit. The same nose and general profile are 
evident in all. I doubt whether any coins of Antiochus Hierax are extant. He assumed, indeed, the 
title of king, while master of the western part of Asia Minor, as we learn from a Carian inscription 
published by CliishuU (Antiq. Asiat.), but in which the title is given to him in conjunction with 
his brother Callinicus ; and it seems more likely tliat Smyrna, Ephesus, and other great cities under 
his authority supplied him With tetradrachma of Alexander the Great, the coinage of which con- 
tinued extensively in Asia long after the death of Alexander. 

Same portrait to r. R. BAStAEQS ANTIoXoy. Elephant walking to r. ; in field r. 

mon. 23. From the Pembroke Collection (1144). 
Diademate portrait of Antiochus III. to r. R. BA[2I]AEQS [A]NTloX[oY]. Seated 

Apollo, as usual, to I. 

H 



26 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



Metal 


Size 


JE 


7-6 


M 


4 


^ 


2 


M 


51 



M 



M 



JE 



JE 
M 



M 



M 



M 



Weight 



4+ 
5 



8| 



10-9 



263-8 



259-3 



255-2 



Same legend and types, but the head laureate ; and on reverse in field to I., mon. 
120, and below it i. 

Same portrait to r. R. Same legend ; Apollo ? standing to I. ; his right foot placed 
on the Cortina ; an arrow in his extended right hand ; in field on I. un- 
certain monogram. 

Same portrait to r. B. Same legend ; Apollo standing to I. ; arrow in right hand, 
his left hand leaning on bow. 

The Dioscuri to r., on horses galloping ; spears held perpendicularly, ft. Same 
legend ; Pallas armed, standing to r. ; short javelin in raised right hand ; 
shield on extended left arm. 

ACHiEUS, 

Brother of Laodice, who was mother of Antiochus III. 

Note. — Achseus was at first in alliance with his nephew, but afterwards asserted his independence, 
and, after a two years' siege in Sardeis, was taken and put to death by Antiochus, b.c. 214. 

Diademate portrait of Achseus to r. ft. BASIAEQS AXAIOY. Apollo naked, 
standing to I., holding up an arrow I in his right hand. From the Pembroke 
Collection (1160). 

SELEUCUS IV. {Philopator), 

Son of Antiochus III., began to reign b.c. 187. 

Note. — Seleucus IV. was actively employed during his father's reign as his lieutenant in Asia 
Minor, where he was chiefly engaged against the Pergamenians, and in Thrace, where he improved 
the capital Ly&iraachia. His own reign of twelve years was tranquilly passed in avoiding the enmity 
of the Romans, in which he succeeded notwithstanding his alliance with Perseus. He sent his son 
Demetrius to Rome as a hostage in exchange for Antiochus, his own brother, who succeeded him on 
the Syrian throne. 

Diademate portrait of Seleucus IV. to r. ft. BASIAEQS SEAEYKoY. Apollo 
naked, seated to I., with arrow and bow as usual ; in field l. wreath and palm 
branch ; in exergue, mon. 73. From the Thomas Collection (2535). 

Diademate portrait of Seleucus IV. to r. ft. BasIAEqH SEAEYKoY <l>IAOnAToPoS 
Lyre; in field I. 'SAV (year 136, b.c. 176). From the Pembroke Collection 
(1160). 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. BASIAEQ2 SEAEYKoY. Tripod, mon. 1 1 9. 

Another ; but with EY in place of mon. 

ANTIOCHUS IV. {Epiphanes), 

Son of Antiochus III., began to reign b.c 175. 

Note. — The reign of Antiochus Epiphanes was chiefly employed in a successful war with Egypt, to 
which the young Ptolemteus VI. (Philometor) had been excited by his guardians. Epiphanes occu- 
pied Memphis, and was about to besiege Alexandria when the Romans interfered. He is chiefly 
known in history as connected with that of the Jews. Twice he took and cruelly treated Jeru- 
salem, but at length, while absent in the East, his forces, under Lycias, were defeated by Judas 
Maccabieus. 

Diademate portrait of Antiochus IV. to r. ft. BA2IAEQS ANTIoXoY GEoY EIII- 
*ANoYS. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I. ; the Victory presents her wreath to 
Jupiter ; in exergue mon. 73. From tJie Thomas Collection (2540). 

Same portrait, ft. BASIAEQS ANTIOXOY GEOY Eni*ANoYS NIKIW>0P0Y. Jupiter 
seated as before, but the Victory crowns the word Liri^avovg. A letter or mon. 
partly off the coin. 

Laureate head to r., with beard thick and pointed, ft. Same legend. Jupiter 
Nicephorus seated to I., Victory offering him her crown. Electrotype. 



I 



J 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



27 



Metal 


Size 


■JE 


10 


M 


6 


M 
M 
M 
JE 


7 
7 
5 


M 


3i 


M 
M 


4 

H 

3 


M 


6 


M 


5 


M 


2i 


M 


8+ 


M 


8+ 


M 


8 



Weight 



Head of Jupiter to r., with a narrow wreath, ending in a spike, as on heads of 
Jupiter Ammon. R. BA2IAEQ2 ANTIoXoY GEOY Eni*AN0Y2. Eagle to r., 
standing on a fulmen. 

Diademate female head to r., with hair hanging in tresses, as on coins of the Ptole- 
mies; in front of the diadem a disc between horns (Isis). R. The same as on 
the preceding coin. 

Another similar. 

Another ; but with wreath of corn in place of diadem. 

Head of Antiochus IV. to r., with diadem and rays. R. as before. 

jSame type. ^. BA2IAEQS ANTIOXOY EHI^ANOYS. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to 

! I.; in exergue, mon. 54. 

Same type. R. BASIAEiiS ANTIoXoY GEoY Eni*ANoYS. Jupiter, half-draped, 
standing to I. ; fulmen in right hand, long sceptre in left ; at his feet, in front, 
an eagle to I. looking to r. 

Another, with X in field in front. 

Another ; but with the fulmen held perpendicularly, and the word GEOY below it. 

Same head. R. Same legend. Jupiter naked standing to r., right hand hurling 
fulmen, left arm extended. 

Same head ; behind it 



X' 



R. BASIAEQ2 [ANTIoXoY]. Turreted female figure 

hand ; bird (stork !) at her 



239-6 



232-3 



256-1 



seated to I., holding a Victory in her extended r 
feet in front. 

Same head; behind it ^. R. Same as the last. 

A D 

Note. — The -. on the former of these coins indicates probably that its value is four chalci, the „ 
on the latter that its value is two chalci. 

Head of Diana to r. R. BASIAEQ2 ANTIoXoY Eni*ANoYS. Apollo naked stand- 
ing to L ; arrow in extended right hand, left resting on bow ; in field I. IE. 

iVote.— It has been supposed that the letters IE, which are found also on coins of Alexander Balas 
and of Antiochus VIII., are indications of value ; but this cannot be, as there is a great difference of 
magnitude in some of these coins. They are rather the initial letters of some name of which the 
element is Upos. 

ANTIOCHUS V. {Eupator), 
Son of Antiochus IV., hegan to reign b.c. 164. 

Nate. — He succeeded his father in the fourteenth year of his age, and had not reigned two 
years when he was put to death, together with Lysias his minister, by the party who declared in 
favour of his cousin Demetrius I. 

Diademate portrait of Antiochus V. to r. R. BASIAEqS ANTIoXoY EYnAToPoS. 

Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I. ; in field to I. E. Victory crowns the name of 

Antiochus. 
Another; but in field to ^. m. 

DEMETRIUS I. (.Soter), 
Son of Seleucus IV., hegan to reign 162 b.c. 

Note. — Demetrius derived his title of Soter from the Babylonians, whose tyrannical satrap Hera- 
cleides he expelled. By his hostiUties with Cappadocia and with the Jews, he provoked the enmity 
of the Romans, who supported Alexander Balas against him, and caused Balas to receive also the 
assistance of Attains of Pergamus and of Philometor of Egypt. In a battle with these allies Deme- 
trius was defeated and slain B.C. 150. 

Diademate portrait of Demetrius I. to r. within a wreath. R. BA2IAEQS AHMH- 
TPloY. Female seated to I., a short wand in her extended right hand, a cornu- 
copise in her left ; the throne is supported by a winged figure ; in field on /. E. 



28 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



Metal 
M 



M 



M 



M 


7 


M 


H 


M 


5 


JE 


5 


JE 


3 


^ 


3 


JE 


6i 



JE 



JR 



JR 



JR 



JR 



JR 
JR 
JR 
JR 

M 
M 



M 
M 

JE 



M 



Size 

8-7 



H 



6i 



3i 
3+ 
3+ 
2 

4* 



4i 

4+ 



4i 

4+ 
3 



Weight 

257-2 



43-1 



259 



253 



210-2 



63-5 



58-4 
63-2 
61-4 

27-8 



Portrait of the same king in a more advanced age to r. R. BA2IAEQ2 AHMHTPIoY 

SiiTIIPoS. Same type, more perfectly defined; in exergue, date ASP (16J, 

B.C. 151). From the Thomas Collection (2553). 
Same portrait to r. R. Same legend. Apollo naked, with the exception of chlamys 

twisted round the right thigh, seated I. on the cortina ; in right hand an arrow ; 

his left hand resting on a bow. 
Laureate head of Apollo to r., bow and quiver behind. R. BASIAEQS AIIMHTPIoY. 

Tripod ; in field on I. E, as on JR 8. — Serrated coin. 
Another ; but without E, the tripod slightly varied in form. — Serrated coin. 
Another ; serrated coin. 
Bust of Diana to r. R. BASIAEQS AHMHTPIoY. Bow and quiver. — Serrated 

coin. 
Two others. 
Horse's head to ?., with bridle. R. BASIAE[QS] [A]HMHT[PIOY]. Elephant's head 

to r. — Serrated coin. 
Another. 
Lion's head to I. R. BA2IAEQ[S] [A]HMHTPIOY [2;q]TH[P05]. Boar's head to r. ; 

in field I. mon. 126. 
Another. 

ALEXANDER L {Balas), 
Natural son of Antiochus /F., began to reign b.c. 150. 

Diademate portrait of Alexander L to r. R. BA2IAEQS AAESTaNAPoY eEoOA- 

ToPOS EYEPPETOY. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I., the Victory presenting 

to him a wreath ; in exergue mon, 127. 
The same portrait to r. R. Same legend and type; in exergue, date TSV (year 

163, B.C. 149), and mon. 128; in field to /., cornucopise. From the Thomas 

Collection (2564). 
Diademate bust of Alexander L to /•., with chlamys over the neck. R. BA2IAEQ2 

AAESANAPOY. Eagle standing to I. on the prow of a galley ; under its right 

wing a palm branch ; in field I. symbol and monogram of Tyrus, as before ; in 

field r., date iSP (year 167, b.c. 145), and mon. 129. Struck at Tyre. 
Diademate head of Alexander L to r. R. BA2IAEQ2 AAESANAPOY ©EOnATopos 

EYEPPEToY. Apollo seated to I. on the cortina; in right hand, arrow, left 

hand leaning on bow ; in field I. mon. 130. 
The same head. R. Same legend and type ; in exergue mon. 1 28. 
Another. 

Another, but in exergue of R. A. 
Same head, with rays. R. BA2IAEQS AAESANAPoY. Apollo, naked, standing to 

I. ; in right hand, arrow ; left hand leaning on bow ; in exergue ? 
Head of Alexander Balas to r. covered with the lion's scalp. R. Legend and type as 

the last ; in field I. palm branch ; in field r. IE. 
Another, but IE not visible. 

Another, with trident in field I., and mon. 117 (HA) in exergue. 
Helmeted head of Alexander Balas to r. R. BASIAEQ2 AAESANAPOY, Victory 

standing to I. ; her extended right hand crowning the name with a wreath ; 

in left hand palm branch ; in field I. ear of wheat, and mon. 90 (AY). 
Two others. 

Another, with B in field I., and N in exergue. 
Head of Bacchus to r. of feminine character, crowned with ivy leaves and berries. 

R. BASIAEQS AAESANAPOY. Elephant walking to I. ; in field r. mon. 2 in 

exergue A or A. 
Another ; in field I. mon. 90, below it B. 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



29 



Metnl Size Weight 



M 



M 



M 
M 
M 



M 

M 



M 






M 



M 



M 
JE 

M 
M 
M 



H 



4- 

4i-3i 

31 



3 

5 

4i 
4 



254-7 



59-5 



63-2 
58-9 
60-8 



80-9 



257 



ANTIOCHUS VI. (Dionysus), 

Son of Alexander Balas, and Ckopaira, daughter of PtoUmceus Philometor, 

began to reign b.c. J 45. 

Head of Antiochus VI. to r., with a diadem and rays. B- BA2IAEQ2 ANTIOXOY 

EniOANoYi; AIONYHOY. The Dioscuri galloping to I., armed with spears, and 

having stars over their helmets ; in field r. TPY (Tpw^wj-) ; below which the 

mon. 119; and lower, STA ; under the horses, date OP (year 170, b.c. 162); 

the whole within a wreath formed of olive I roses, and corn. From the Thomas 

Collection (2655). 
Same head. R. Same legend ; Apollo naked, seated to I. on the cortina ; in his 

right hand an arrow, his left leaning on bow ; in field between his feet same 

mon. ; in exergue uncertain letters. 
Another, but the mon. 1.30 (APX or XAP) ; in exergue OS STA. 
Another, with the same mon. ; in exergue OP (year 170) and STA. 
Same head. B. Same legend ; pointed Macedonian helmet to r. with cheek-pieces, 

and large horn of the Syrian ibex in front ; in field above, TPY (Tryphon) ; 

below, mon. 130. 

Same head. B. Same legend; panther going to I. ; in exergue mon. 131. 
Same head. R. Same legend ; tall diota, of the form usually consecrated to 

Bacchus ; in field I. below mon. 5 ; to r. palm branch ; all within a wreath. 
Another. 

Another ; the vase ornamented. 
Head of Bacchus to r. with long hair, and crowned with ivy. B;. BASIAEQS 

ANTIOXOY. Thyrsus, with fillets ; in field r. BSP (year 162, b.c. 150) ; above 

it mon. ? the whole within a wreath of ivy. From the PemhroJce Collection 

(1160). 
Radiate head of Antiochus VI. to r. bound with ivy and berries, ft. BA21IAEQ2 

ANTIOXOY EUI^ANOYS AlONYSOY. Elephant walking to I. holding up with 

his trunk a wreath, on which is a torch ; in field to r. STA, and cornucopige ? — 

Serrated coin. 
Another. From the Pembroke Collection (1160). 
Another ; in field to r. STA and below it, star. 
Head of Antiochus VI. as before to r. R. Same legend; Apollo standing to I. 

leaning on tripod ; an arrow in extended right hand ; in field to I. a mon. 

DIODOTUS OF APAMEIA (Tryphon), 
Began to reign 142 b.c. 

Diademate portrait of Tryphon to r. B. BASIAEQS TPY«DQNOS AYTOKPATOPOS. 
Macedonian helmet to I. ; an ibex horn projects in front ; behind hang the ends 
of a fillet ; on the body of the helmet are seen an eagle and a winged lion, each 
within a small circular compartment ; the apex of the helmet terminates in a 
spike shaped like a fulmen ; on the rim of the helmet are sprigs of bay in front 
and of ivy behind ; on each cheek-piece is a fulmen ; in field to I. mon. 5 (AN) 
within a circle ; the whole within a wreath of oak. Electrotype from the 
Pembroke Collection (1149). 

The same portrait to r. R. Same legend and same helmet, but without the orna- 
ments on the rim ; in field to I. mon. 130. Electrotype from the Hunter 
Collection. 

Same head. R. Same legend and same helmet ; in field to I. ASK. 

Three others similar. 

Another ; the fulmen visible on cheek-piece of helmet. 

Another ; in field to I. caps of the Dioscuri. 

Three others similar. 



30 

Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



M 

M 

M 
JE 

JE 
JE 

JE 
M 



7J- 

' 2 



6i 



7 
3+ 



*2 



^2 



256-8 



246 



209-4 



211-2 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



DEMETRIUS II. (Mcator), 
Son o/ Demetrius /., be^an to reign b.c. 146. 

Note. — Tills commencement of the reign of Demetrius Nicator is taken from the date of his victory 
over Antiochus VI., son of Alexander Balas, near Antioch. In the year 141 B.C. lie marched into 
Parthia, where he was defeated, and remained more than nine years a captive. In the meantime 
Antiochus VI., the infant son of Balas, had been set up by Diodotus of Apameia, sumamed Tryphon. 
and had been murdered by the same after a reign of three or four years, and Antiochus Sidetes, 
brother of Demetrius II., had entered Syria to claim the throne. In b.c. 138, Tryphon was defeated 
by Sidetes and slain. 

Diademate portrait of Demetrius II. in early youth to r. R. BASIAEQS AIIMH- 
TPIOY 0EOY 4>IAAAEA*0Y NIKAToPOS. Apollo seated to I. on the cortina, 
the apex of which has a covering with three pendent extremities ; in his right 
hand an arrow, his left leaning on bow ; in field I. a palm branch, and mon. 
117; in exergue la? (year 167, b.c. 145), and mon. 59. From the Bollin 
Collection. 

The same head to r. ; behind it M. R. BASIAEQ2 AHMHTPIoY *IAAAEA*oY 
NIKATOPOS. Female figure in long drapery adv. ; on her head three ele- 
vations (perhaps a mural crown) ; on either side of the head a globule ; on 
either side of the neck a star ; in right hand thyrsus, in left hand I ; from 
the waist downwards on either side a support resembling those of Juno Samia 
and Diana Ephesia. Electrotype. 

Note.— In Duane, plate xiv., the obverse of a similar coin has MAA in place of M, shewing that 
these coins were struck at Mallus, and that the reverse represents probably a statue of Astarte, in 
that city. 

Diademate bust of Demetrius II. to r., a chlamys covering the shoulders. R. 

BA2IAEQS AHMHTPIOY. Eagle with palm branch under right wing standing 

to I. ; all below off the coin ; in field r. SIAU and acrostolium, in field I. 

HSP (year 168, b.c. 144) and mon. 132. Struck at Sidon. 
The same bust. R. Same legend and type; in field r. ©SP (year 169, b.c. 

143), and mon. 133 ; in field I. symbol of Tyrus. Struck at Tyre. 
Diademate portrait of Demetrius II. to r. R. baSIAEQS AHMHTPIoy ©Eoy *IAA- 

AEA*OY NIKAToPOS. Anchor. 
Laureate head of Apollo to r., with long hair in plaits. R. Same legend. Tripod 

with pendent fillets, and tassels at the ends. 
Another. 

Same types and legend ; in exergue of R. m and mon. ? 

Same type. R- Same legend and type; in exergue crSP (year 166, b.c. 146). 
Another ; but with a different form of tripod ; in field I. mon. ? ; in exergue uncer- 
tain date. 
Head of Apollo to r., with narrow diadem. R. BASIAEQS AHMHTPloY 0EoY 

*IAAAEA*oY [NIKATOPOS]. Figure standing to I. holding long torch or 

thyrsus in right hand ; in exergue uncertain date. 
Head of Jupiter to r. R. Same legend. Pallas Nicephorus standing to I., the 

Victory crowning her; in field I. mon. 134. (Aradus ?) 

Note.—ti. similar coin in Haym (i. p. 08) has the date 168. 



5i 



Another; with mon. 51 (flY). 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



31 



Hetal Size Weight 



M 

M 
M 
M 



JR 
M 

JE 

M 



M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 

M 



8-7 
7 



71 

' 2 

4 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 

3+ 



255 

244 

•249-2 

218-5 



216-7 
62-2 



ANTIOCHUS VII. (Emrgetes, Sideies), 
Son of Demetrius /., began to reign b.c. 138. 

Note. — Antiochus VII., sumamed on his coins Euergetes, was vulgarly called Sidetes, as having 
been educated at Side. At the beginning of his reign he was about tweuty-six years of age. He was 
chiefly known in history by his war with the Jews, and his siege of Jerusalem, which lasted ten or 
eleven months, and was followed by a treaty of peace in b.c. 133. In the year B.C. 129 he made war 
on Parthia, and was at first successful, having occupied the Babylonia, which induced Phrahates the 
king to release Demetrius, who, as the elder brother of Sidetes, would be likely to effect a diversion in 
Syria favourable to Phrahates. In the winter of 129—128, Sidetes was defeated and killed in one of 
the passes leading into Parthia. 

Diademate portrait of Antiochus VII. to r. R. BA2IAEQS ANTloxoY EYEPrETOY. 
Pallas Nicephorus standing to I. ; her left hand holds a spear, and rests on a 
shield, standing at her feet ; Victory holds out her wreath to the left ; in field 
to I. below the Victory mon. 73, and under it A ; the whole within a wreath 
of bay. From the Thomas Collection (2659). 

Another similar; but on the reverse, below the Victory, AE, under which is mon. 
135. In exergue 0OP (year 179, b.c. 133). 

Another ; but on the reverse, below the Victory, the mon. 136, and under it A. In 
exergue mP (year 183, b.c. 129). 

Same portrait to r. R. BASIAEQ2 ANTIoXoY. Eagle standing to I. on the prow 

A 
of a galley ; under the eagle's right wing a palm branch ; in field I. pg ('«?«'), 

and the symbol of Tyrus; in field r. A and mon. 137 (aeruXoc) ; below it, lOP 

(year 177, b.c. 135). Between the eagle's legs mon. 138; the whole in a 

wreath of bay. Struck at Tyre. From the Rollin Collection. 
Another ; with the date BllP (year 182, b.c. 130). 
Same portrait. IjL. BASIAEQS ANTIOXOY EYEPrEToY. Victory to I. ; wreath in 

extended right hand ; in field I. mon. 73 ; in field r. n. 
Ornamented prow of galley to r. ; above which are the caps of the Dioscuri, each 

surmounted with a star. R. Same legend ; trident between two of the lines ; 

in field ?. M or s ; below, EOP (year 175, b.c. 137). 
Winged bust of Eros? to r. R. Same legend; .^Egyptian symbol, i. e. the solar 

disc between two horns, and surmounted by two feathers ; the whole placed on 

two ears of corn, below which is a crescent, and under it a palm branch ; 

below, EOP (year 175). 
Another ; same date, without palm branch ; in field I. mon. 73. 
Another ; date s-OP (year 176), with palm branch. 
Another ; date lOP (year 177). 
Another. 

Another; date HOP (year 178), with palm branch. 
Another; date ...OP (year 17 ...). 
Another ; date HP (year 180), without palm branch. 
Another; date AIIP (year 181), with mon. 139. 
Another; date B UP (year 182, b.c. 130); in field to I. mon. 73; below it palm 

branch. 
Radiate head of Antiochus VII. to r. R. Same legend, but the third line effiiced 

by a double striking. Apollo drawing an arrow from his quiver with right hand ; 

in left hand, bow ; date s-OP (year 176). 



32 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 
M 



M 
M 
JE 

M 

JE 
JE 



M 



M 



M 


4 


JE 


4 


yE 


4 


^. 


4 


JE 


4 


JE 


5 


JE 


5 


M 


5 



M 



2i 



34 



210-7 



216-5 
254-4 



243-9 
60 



256-4 



DEMETRIUS II. (Mcator), 

Returned from captivity b.c. 129. 

Diademate bust of Demetrius II. to /•., with chlamys, and without beard. 



ft. 



BASIAEQS AHMIITPJoY. Eagle standing to ^.on prow of galley ; under the eagle's 
right wing a palm branch ; in field to I. symbol of Tyrus; above it pj, (I'tpd) ; 

in field to r. A and mon. 137 (fiuuXoc) ; below, date mP (year 183, b.c. 129) ; 

between legs of eagle, mon. 133. Struck at Tyre. 
Another ; date AIIP (year 184). 
Diademate portrait of Demetrius II. to r., with a long beard. B. BASIAEQ2 

AHMHTPIOY GEOY NIKAToPOS. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I. ; under 

throne N, below which is A ; in exergue, AtlP (year 184). From the Thomag 

Collection (2571). 
Another ; but under throne, A above n ; in field to I. mon. 39 ; and in exergue, 

date iriP (year 187, b.c. 125), the last of his reign. 
Same bearded portrait to r. R. Same type and date, but without monogram or 

letter. 
Diademate portrait of Demetrius II. to r., with long beard as before. R. Same 

legend ; Apollo naked, standing to I., in right hand arrow, left leaning on bow ; 

in exergue, AIIP (year 184). 
Eagle to l, with one wing spread open; above it? Bi. BASIAEQS AHMHTPIOY 

GEOY [NIKATOPOS]. Fulmen. 
Head of Jupiter to r. ft. Same legend. Victory standing to I. ; in right hand 

wreath, in left hand palm branch ; in field I. S. 
Two others similar. 

ALEXANDRUS II. 

{Za^ivoLQ or Zebina), son of Protarchm. 

Note. — He was set up by Ptolemy Physcon in B.c. 128. In b.c. 125 he defeated Demetrius II., 
who fled to Tyre and was there killed ; but soon afterwards Physcon, reversing his policy, favoured 
the cause of Antiochus, the young son of Demetrius. Antiochus defeated Zebina, who fled, was taken 
and was put to death in B.C. 122. 

Diademate portrait of Alexandras II. to r. ft:. BASIAEQS AAESaNAPOY. Jupiter 
Nicephorus seated to I., the Victory holding out her chaplet to I. ; below the 
throne a star, under which A ; in field on I. 121. From the Thomas Collection 
(2665). 

The same portrait to r. R. BA2IAEQS AAESANAPOY. Bacchus clothed and 
standing to I. ; in extended right hand a vase, held as if pouring out ; in left 
hand Thyrsus ; in field ADP (year 184, b.c. 128), and an uncertain mo- 
nogram. 

Another ; same date ; in field I. ISI, below which is a wine jar. 

Another ; same date ; in field 1. 1 

Another; date E[nP] (year 185) ; field I. off the coin. 

Another ; same date ; in field I. ! 

Another; date IHP (year 187) ; in field lA 

Portrait of Alexander II. to r., diademate and radiate. 
APOY. Pallas Nicephoras standing to I. ; in field I. 
star. 

Another ; under the monogram an ear of com ! 

Same head to r. R. Same legend. Double comucopise, with a pendent fillet ; in 
field I., A, below which is an ear of corn ; in field r., n. 

Another ; same letters in field ; below the A, an uncertain symbol. 



R. BASIAEQS AAESAN- 
mon. 61, under which a 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



Metal 

M 
M 



M 



Size 

4 



Weight 



M 



257-5 



Same head to r. R. BASIAEQS AAESANAPoy. Two cornuacopiae crossed, each 
with a pendent fillet ; in field to /. S ; to r. A. 

Portrait of Alexander II. to r., covered with the lion's scalp, as Hercules, or Alex- 
ander the Great. R. BA2IAEQS AAESANAPoY. Victory standing to I. ; in 
right hand wreath ; in left hand palm branch ; in field I. men. 10 ; below 
which is an acrostolium. 

Head of Bacchus to L, bound with ivy, and with berries in front. R. BASIAEQS 
AAESANAPoY. Winged female standing to I., in her right hand a rudder, 
her left resting on a twisted column, and holding a cornucopiaj, from which 
springs a tree ; in field I. mon. 73. — (Serrated coin). 

CLEOPATRA. 

Daughter of Ptolemy VI. (Philometor) ; wife of Alexander Balas, of Demetrius II., 
and of Antiochus VII. ; reigned alone in the year b.c. 125. 

Portrait of Cleopatra to r., the hair hanging in formal ringlets before, and formed into 
a knot behind, which is covered by the veil. Between the forehead and the veil a 
diadem, sphendone, and ear of corn. R. BASIAISSHS KAEonATPAS GEAS 
EYETHPIA2. Double cornucopise full of fruits, and with pendent fillets ; below, 
in? (year 187). {Electrotype frmn Lord NorthmcFs Collection.) 

Note. — The head-dress of Cleopatra combines the royal symbols with those of Isis or the 
Egyptian Demeter, to which character the epithet ivcTtipia and the cornucopiee (the usual type 
of the Egyptian queens) also refer. Cleopatra was given in marriage by her father Ptolemceus 
VI. (Philometor) to Alexander Balas, when Philometor supported the cause of that usurper. 
After the attempt made by Balas to assassinate Philometor at Acca, she was transferred as a 
wife to his rival Demetrius II. Philometor then marched through Syria, toolc Antioch, and 
defeated Balas on the borders of Syria and Cilicia — an event which put an end to the reign 
of Balas, and caused his death, but was fatal also to Ptolemy, who died in consequence of a 
fall from his horse in the battle. Cleopatra remained the wife of Demetrius Nicator until, 
dm-ing his captivity in Parthia, he married Rhodogune, the king's daughter. She then 
espoused Antiochus VII., Sidetes, the brother of Demetrius. After the death of Sidetes 
in Parthia, Demetrius retained possession of the kingdom of Syria for about three years, when 
he was defeated by Alexander Zabinas, the usurper whom Ptolema;us VII. (Euergetes or 
Physcon) had set up on the death of Sidetes : Cleopatra refused to admit the fugitive Demetrius into 
Acca, and thus at least (if not more directly as Appian and Livy assert) was the cause of his being 
put to death immediately afterwards at Tyre. From this year, 125 B.C., commenced the renewed 
autonomy of Tyre, and an sera, the years of which are numbered on the coins of that city. The next 
exploit of Cleopatra was to murder Seleucus, the elder of her two sons by Demetrius, by shooting 
him with an arrow, because he pretended to govern alone. She then assumed the sole authority, as 
we learn from the present coin, but it lasted only for a few months, as appears by the date 187, 
found as well upon this coin as upon another which presents the united portraits of Cleopatra and 
Antiochus VIII. (Grypus), her younger son by Demetrius Nicator, who was then about eighteen years 
of age. The same date 187 occurs upon coins of Demetrius and of Alexander Zabinas. Pto- 
lemy VII. (Euergetes or Physcon) found himself under the necessity of acting the same part towards 
Antiochus VIII., as his predecessor Philometor had done towards Demetrius II. Physcon had set 
up Zabinas against Demetrius, because the latter had taken the part of Cleopatra, sister of Physcon, 
against him ; but afterwards becoming disgusted with Zabinas, he changed his policy, supported 
Grypus, and gave him his daughter Tryphsena in marriage. By the aid of this alliance Grypus 
recovered all Syria from Zabinas, and gained a victory over him near Antioch, in the year b.c. 122, 
which led to his capture and execution. Coins are extant with the united heads of Cleopatra and 
Grypus of the years 188, 189, 190, and 191. The year 190 or that of his victory over Zabinas, was 
the first in which Grypus struck coins in his own name singly, and it seems to have been in the follow- 
ing year that Cleopatra became so jealous of his authority, that she determined to murder him. But 
Grypus had some intimation of her intention, and, when she presented him with a poisoned cup on 
his return from exercise, forced her to drink it herself. Such was the end of this wife of three 
kings and mother of four — this goddess of beneficence and abundance, as she is entitled on the reverse 
of her medal. 



84 






Metal 


Size 


Weight 


M 


8 


•255-5 


/E 


5 




JE 
JE 


H 

4 




JE 
M 
M 
M 


4 

4 
4 

4 




M 


8i 


252-8 


M 


n 


253-0 


M 


' n 


252-2 


M 


8+ 


250-6 


M 


8i 





KINGS OF SYRIA. 

CLEOPATRA AND ANTIOCHUS VIII. 
Her younger son hy Demetrius II. 

Portraits of Cleopatra and Antiochus VIII. to r., the former as before, the latter 
diademate. R. BASIAISSHS KAEonATPAS GEAS KAI BASIAEQS ANTIo- 
XoY. Jupiter Nioephorus seated to I. ; in field to I. mon. 138 (2Y) ; in exergue, 
date 0nP (year 189, or b.c. 123). From the Pembroke Collection (1 153). 

Same portraits to r. R. Same legend ; Victory moving to /., with wreath in ex- 
tended right hand ; to r. of Victory H ; to ^. mon. 50 (UP) ; in field beyond 
the legend? From the Pembroke Collection (1161). 

Another ; not so well preserved. 

Portrait of Antiochus VIII. to r., diademate and radiate. B. Same legend; owl 
on amphora to r\ in field to r., mon. 141 below, date qp (year 190, b.c. 
122), and an ear of corn. 

Another ; below, same date, with caps of the Dioscuri. 

Another ; in field to r., IE ? below, same date, with an acrostolium. 

Two others, with same date, and indistinct symbols. 

Same portrait to r. R. Same legend ; Egyptian symbol, consisting of the solar 
disc between ram's horns, surmounted by two feathers ; the whole placed on a 
crescent, having an ear of corn on each side of it ; in field to r. S. 



ANTIOCHUS VIII. {Epiphanes, Grypus), 

Son o/ Demetrius II. and Cleopatra, began to reign alone, b.c. 121. 

Diademate portrait of Antiochus VIII. to r. R. BASIAEqS ANTloxoY Eni*A- 
NoY2. Figure resembling Jupit«r standing to I. half draped ; above his head a 
crescent ; in his extended right hand a star ; in his left a long sceptre ; in field 
I. IE, below which is A; under the feet of Jupiter, AI ; the whole within a 
wreath of bay. 

Note. — On the subject of this type, see Eckhel, Doct. num. vet. iii. p. 240 ; Visconti Icono- 
graphie Grecque, ii. p. 480. By Visconti the figure was supposed to be intended for Dius, the first 
month of tlie Macedonian year. But we find that the reverses of the coins of the Seleucidae bear 
almost invariably figures of the great gods, Apollo, Minerva, and Jupiter, or his emblem the eagle. 
More probably, therefore, the figure on the coins of Grypus represents Jupiter in his capacity of 
lord of the seasons, and as regulating the movements of the heavenly bodies. The star in his hand 
we may suppose to be the sun. 

Another; in field I. mon. 142, and below it mon. 10 ; in exergue . qP (year 19.). 
From the Thomas Collection (2674). 

Another, but Jupiter naked ; in field to I. SI lEP (Si'^wvoc hpai), below which is 
A, and mon. 138 (airuXou), and lower, mon. 143; in exergue, Pq p or Eq p 
(year 193, or 196). Struck at Sidon. 

Same portrait to r. ft. BA2IAEQ2 ANTIOXOY Eni*ANOYS. Edifice supposed to 
represent the tomb of Sardanapalus, at Tarsus ; on a high base ornamented 
with three festoons, is raised a pyramid, surmounted by an eagle with extended 
wings, standing on a cylindrical base ; on the triangular face of the pyramid are 
represented a figure standing to r. on a quadruped with horns ; in the angles 
of the triangle are three globules ; in field to I. mon. 121 (*YA) ; below which 
is mon. 60 (APT). Struck at Tarsus. 

Same head to r. R. Same legend ; Pallas Nicephorus standing to I. ; in field I. 
A®, below which is mon. 144 ; the whole within a wreath of bay. Electrotype. 

Note. — This and the two preceding coins formed part of a hoard found at Tarsus in 1849. 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



Metal Size 



JE 



4 



2i 



3- 
3 



Weight 

101-7 



245-0 



-58-9 



Diademate bust of Antiochus VIII. to r. with chlamys on the shoulder, ft. 

BASIAEQS [ANTIOXOY]. Eagle, with palm branch under the right wing, 

standing to I. on the prow of a galley ; in field I. the monogram of Tyrus 

A 
on the smaller end of a club ; above it, „„ (Ifpd) ; in field to r., A and mon. 

141 (aavXos) : below which is the date IIIP (year 187) ; between eagle's legs, 
mon. 134. Struck at Tyre. 

Note. — Hence it appears that in the same year in which Cleopatra claimed the sole, or at least the 
superior sovereignty, the Tynans acknowledged the son only. 

Portrait of Antiochus VIII. to r., diademate and radiate. R. BA2IAEQS AN- 
TIOXOY Eni^ANOYS. Eagle standing to /. with a sceptre under his right 
wing ; in field to l. IE ; below the eagle, date B1 P (year 192), and an uncer- 
tain symbol. 

Another, with the date rqp or E"TP (year 193 or 195), and an uncertain symbol. 

Three others similar. 

Bust of Artemis to r., quiver and bow behind the shoulder. R. BASFAEQS AN- 
TIoXOY Eni*ANoY2. Apollo standing to I. ; arrow in right hand; left leaning 
on bow ; in exergue date BSP (year 192); and an uncertain symbol. 

Veiled female head to r. (Cleopatra?), ft. BASIAEUS ANTIoXoY, Elephant's head 
to I. ; in field to r. tripod. Serrated coin. From the Pembroke Collection (11 61). 

Another similar. 

ANTIOCHUS IX. (Fhilopaior, Cyzicenus), 
Son of Antiochus VII. and Cleopatra, began to reign b.c. 1 13 ; alone b.c. 96. 

Note. — Antiochus IX. was surnamed Cyzicenus, as having been educated at Cyzicus, in the same 
manner as his father Antiochus VII. was named Sidetes from Side. He appeared in Syria as a rival 
to his half-brother Grypus in the year b.c. 113. The earliest date on his coins is of that year, 199 
of the Seleucidie. Cyzicenus was at first very successful over Grypus; but in consequence of a 
cliange of fortune an agreement between them ensued, by which Cyzicenus had Coele-Syria and 
Phoenicia, and Grypus tlie remainder. In B.c. 96, Grypus was assassinated, and in the next year 
Cyzicenus was slain in battle with Seleucus, the eldest son of Grypus, who succeeded to the throne as 
Seleucus VI. 

Diademate and slightly bearded portrait of Antiochus IX. to r. ft. BASIAEQS 
ANTIOXOY *IAonATOPOS. Pallas Nicephorus standing to I. ; the Victory 
bending forwards to I. ; in field I. mon. 1 45 ; under which, A ; in field r. close 
to the legend, A ; the whole within a wreath of bay. 

Same portrait to r. ft. Same legend ; male figure to r. standing on a horse with 
horns, and extending his arms ; in his left hand a bow, on the left shoulder a 
quiver ; in field to I. mon. 146 ; and below it mon. 40 (ME). 

Note. — This figure, the same as that on the tetradrachmon JR. 8+ of Antiochus VIII., occurs fre- 
quently on the money of Tarsus, and appears to represent some noted statue of Apollo at Tarsus. 
The homed horse we have already seen on a coin of Seleucus Nicator. 



ft. 



m 



BA2IAEQS ANTIOXOY *IAonAToP02. 
field I. mon. 73 ; and below, palm 



Bearded laureate head of Hercules to r. 

Pallas Nicephorus standing to I. 

branch. 

Another ; palm branch off" the coin. 
Diademate portrait of Antiochus IX. to r. without beard, ft. Same legend ; Jupiter 

Nicephorus seated to I. Victory presents her wreath to him. 
Another similar. 
Same portrait, with short beard, ft. Same legend ; winged fulnien ; between which 

and legend, date 0q p (year 199) ; in field to I., a mon. 



36 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



Metal 
M 

M 
M 



JE 

JE 
M 
M 



M 



M 



M 

M 
M 



M 



Size 

4 
4 

4 
4 
5i 



Weight 



4i 



238-5 



230-9 



246-6 



Another ; date S (year 200) ; in field I. mon. 147, under which an ear of com. 

Another ; same mon., but date and symbol off the coin. 

Another ; date S (year 200), mon., and symbol off the coin. 

Another ; same date and mon., under which acrostolium ? 

Diademate portrait of Antiochus IX. to r., with short beard ; on the diadem a palm 

branch as countermark. B;. BASIARQS ANTIoXOY OIAonAToPoS. Bacchus 

standing to I., in his extended right hand a cup, in his left hand, thyrsus ; in field 

to I. above the cup I ; below it, 2 (year 207 1). 
Winged bust of Eros? to r. B. Same legend ; Victory to I. presenting wreath ; in 

field to I. two monograms. 
Another ; with date 2 (year 200) at the feet of Victory, and mon. 73 in field to I. 
Another ; date and mon. indistinct. 
Helmeted head to r. B. BA2IAE[qS] ANTIoXoY [<I>IA]onAToP[oS]. Prow to r. 



SELEUCUS VI. (Epiphanes, Nicator), 
Eldest son of Antiochus VIII., reigned b.c. 95. 

Note. — It was not long before Seleucus VI. was opposed by Antiochus, son of Antiochus IX. 
Cyzicenus, and in less than a year his reign was terminated by his defeat in a general action with 
Antiochus, followed by the occupation of Antioch by the latter. Seleucus retreated to Mopsuestia in 
Cilicia, where he perished soon afterwards in a sedition caused by his own exactions. 

Diademate portrait of Seleucus VI. to r. B. BASIAEUS SEAEYKOY Eni*ANoY2 
NIKAT0P02. Pallas Nicephorus standing to I. ; the Victory to r. presenting 
her with a wreath ; in front of Pallas AAEAI* ; in field I. a sprig or branch ; 
the letters ill-formed, and resembling those upon the Parthian coins. 



ANTIOCHUS X. (Eusebes, PMlopator), 
Son of Antiochus IX., began to reign n.c. 95. 

Diademate youthful portrait of Antiochus X. to r. B. BA2IAEQ[2] ANTloXoY 
EY2EBo[Y2] [*IA]onA[ToPo2]. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I., the Victory 
to r., and presenting her chaplet to him ; the whole within a wreath, partially 
visible. From the Rollin Collection. 

Same diademate portrait to >*., with slight beard. B- Same legend ; caps of the 
Dioscuri, with stars above and pendent fillets ; in field I., a mon. 

Another. From the Pembroke Collection (1161). 

Another ; not so well preserved. 



ANTIOCHUS XI. {Epiphanes, Philadelphus), 

Second son of Antiochus VIII., reigned b.o. 95. 

Note. — He was defeated by Antiochus X., and drowned in the Orontes in the year of his 
accession. 

Diademate portrait of Antiochus XI. to r. B. BA2IAEQ2 ANTIOXOY Eni*AN0Y2. 
Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I., Victory to r. presenting to him her wreath ; 
in field I. the letters p, E, A placed vertically. The whole within a wreath of 
bay. From the Thomas Collection (2684). 



|Metal 
M 

' iE 

JE 
iE 

JE 



Size 
4- 



4 

4 
5-4 



M i 7+ 



M 
M 
M 
M 

JE 



M 



M 



7+ 



^ 



6i 



Weight 
59 



KINGS OF SYRIA. 



37 



244-6 



243-2 
218-3 
219-3 
221-7 
213-4 



231-9 



Same head to r. R. Same legend. Tripod ; in field to I. PEA as before. 

Electrotype from the B. M. 
Same portrait to r. R. Same legend. Double cornucopise, filled with fruits, and 

having a pendent fillet ; in field to I. star. 
Another similar. 

Another similar ; in field to I. a monogram. 
Diademate portrait of Antiochus XI. to r., with slight beard. ^.. BA2IAEas 

ANTIOXOY Eni*ANoYS *IAAAEA*oY. Pallas Nicephorus standing to I.; 

Victory stretching out her chaplet to I. ; in field to I, mon. 1 48, below which 

grapes. From the PemhroJce Collection (1161). 



PHILIPPUS {Epiphanes, Philadelphus), 

Son of Antiochus VIII. and Cleopatra, and ticin brother of Antiochus XL, legan to 

reign 95 or 94 b.c. 

Diademate portrait of Philippus to r. R. BASIAEQS *IAinnoY Eni*ANoYS 
*IAAAEA*oY. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I., the Victory to r. crowning 
him ; the whole within a wreath of bay. 

Another ; exergue and monogram off" the coin. 

Another, in exergue AN ; in field to I. mons. 149 and 150 (AN®). 

Another, in exergue 01 (year 19) ; and in field to I. mon. 151. 

Another, in exergue KA (year 24). 

Another, in exergue ©K (year 29). 

Note. — These numbers are apparently years of the Seleucid sera, omitting the initial S or 200 ; 
the year 229 or 83 b.c. was that in which Philip's reign was terminated by the accession of Tigranes, 
who, encouraged by the dissensions among the successors of Grypus, and by a party favourable 
to him in Syria, easily conquered the whole country as well as Cilicia. 

. DEMETEIUS III. {Euccerus, Philopator, Soter), 
Fourth son of Antiochus VIII., began to reign b.c. 95 or 94. 

Note. Demetrius III. reigned in conjunction with his brother Philip, until, a war occurring 

between them, Demetrius was taken, in the year 88 or 87 B.C., in his camp, near Berrhoea, by the 
Parthians, who were in alliance with Philip, and was carried prisoner into Parthia, where he died. 

Portrait of Demetrius to r. ; diademate and bearded. R. BASIAEQS AHMHTPIOY 
©EOY *IAonATOPOS SilTHPOS. Figure like Diana Ephesia adv., with veil to 
the ground ; on either side of the head 2 ; in left hand three ears of corn 2 in 
field I. N, below which is mon. 152; in exergue, EK€ (225), and mon. 39. 
Electrotype from the Pembroke Collection (1158). 

Same portrait to r. R. Same legend. Naked male figure standing to I. ; in his 
extended right hand a palm branch, in his left a caduceus ; in exergue, XIE 
(year 217) ; in field to I. mon. 153 ; and above it another, ill defined. 

ANTIOCHUS XII. {Dionysus, Epiphanes, Philopator, Callinicus), 
Youngest son of Antiochus VIII., reigned b.c. 86. 

NoU.—Re seized upon Coele-Syria, and assumed the title of king after having defeated and cap- 
tured his brother Demetrius III., but was himself soon afterwards killed by the Arabs, on the 
boi'ders of Coele-Syria. 



38 



KINGS OF COMMAGENE. 



Metal 



Size 
5 



Weight 



JR 



246-1 



JE 



JE 



M 



M 



Diademate bust of Antiochus XII. to r. with short beard and chlamys. R, 
BA2IAEQS ANTIOXOY AIONYSOY Eni*ANOYS *IA0nAT0P0S KAAAINIKOY. 
Jupiter Nicephorus standing to l. ; Victory to r. crowning him with a garland. 
From the Pembroke Collection (1161). 

TIGRANES (King of Armenia), 
Began to reign in Syria b.c. 88. 

Note. — Tigranes was deprived of his Syrian domlniong by LucuUus in b.c. (!9. 

Bust of Tigranes to r. wearing the Armenian tiara, on which is a star between two eagles, 
looking towards the star ; a Greek diadem encircles the forehead and the tiara, 
with fillets pendent behind the latter; a chlamys covers the shoulders. B. BA- 
2IAEas TirPANOY. A female figure (Antiocheia), turreted, and in ample dra- 
pery, seated on a rock to /•., holds a palm branch ; her right foot is on the 
shoulder of the upper half of a naked male figure, with arms extended (river 
Orontes in a swimming attitude) ; in field to I. mon. 86 ; the whole within a 
wreath of bay. From the Thomas Collection (2689). 

Same bust and portrait to r. R. BASIAEQS TirPANOY. Turreted female figure 
seated to I. on a rock ; right arm extended ; in left hand a cornucopise ; at 
her feet the emblem of a river as before ; in field to I. IE, and below it OY. 

Another similar. 

Same bust to r. R. Same legend ; Victory to I. presenting a wreath ; in field 
to I. A, below which is M. 



ANTIOCHUS XIII. (Asiaticus), 

Reigned from 69 to 65 b.c, and assumed the same titular names as Antiochus XII., 

except that of Dionysus. 

Note. — Antiochus XIII. was sent to govern Syria by Lucullus, when he defeated Tigranes 
in Armenia, in B.C. 69. In 65 B c. Pompeius deposed Antiochus, and reduced Syria to a Roman 
province. 

Diademate portrait of Antiochus XIII. to r. B. BASIAEQS ANTIoXoY Eni- 
*ANOYS *IAonAToPos KAAAINIKOY. Apollo standing to I. ; in his right 
hand an arrow ; his left leaning on a tall tripod. 



KINGS OF COMMAGENE. 
ANTIOCHUS I. 

Note. — In 64 B.C. Antiochus made peace with Pompeius, who added a part of Mesopotamia, including 
Seleuceia, on the Tigris, to his dominions. He died about B.c. 32. Of his successors, Mithridates I., 
Antiochus II., Mithridates II., and Antiochus III., no coins are known. 

Head of Antiochus I. to r. with Armenian tiara, as on the coins of Tigranes. 
B. BA2IAEQS ANTIOXOY. Lion standing to r. 

I^ote. — The fabric, as well as the type, shew this coin to have been struck in Samosata, the capital 
of Commagene, of which city the coins are common. 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



JE 


8 


M 


5 


M 


H 


M 


H 



M 



JE 



M 



M 



U 



KINGS OF EDESSA. 



ANTIOCHUS IV. (Magnus.) 

Note. — In the year a.d. 38, Antiochus IV. was placed in his paternal dominions by Caligula, and 
reigned thirty-four years, when he was obliged by Vespasian to resign and return to Rome with his 
two sons. A son of the elder of these was the Philopappus whose monument is still extant at 
Athens. Vide Topography of Athens, 2nd edit. pp. 166. 494. 

BASIAEY2 ME(7ac) ANTloXoS Eni(0av»)c). Diademate bust of Antiochus IV., 

with chlamys on the shoulders to r. R. KOMMAPHNiiN. Scorpion within a 

Hnear circle, outside of which is a garland of bay ; in front a jewel. 
BASIAEYS MEr. ANTIOXOS Eni*A. Same portrait to r. R. KOMMArHNON. 

Same type. 
BASI. MEr, ANTloXoS EHI. Same bust to r. R. Same legend. Capricornus to 

r. ; above it star, below it anchor ; all within a circle and wreath as before. 

From the Pembroke Collection (1164). 
BASI. ANT10X02. Same bust to r. R. KOMMArHNQN, in four lines. Two cor- 

nuacopiae crossed within a dotted circle. From the Pembroke Collection (1164). 
Two horsemen moving to /. ; in exergue BA2IAE0S Ylol. R. KOMMArHNON. 

Capricornus, with star, anchor, circle, and wreath as before. From the Pembroke 

Collection (1164). 

Note. — The two horsemen are Epiphanes and Callinicus, the sons of Antiochus IV. 
Another similar. 

KIKG OF A TERRITOEY BORDEEING ON COMMAGKNE. 

Crab within a dotted circle. R. B. aMEMTdY, in two lines; below the second 
line M. 

Note. — The first letter of this legend is singularly formed ; but a specimen in the British Museum 
shows it to be a B for SaatXcing. In ascribing the coin to the king of a petty state unknown to history 
between the Euphrates and Cilicia, I am guided merely by a resemblance of style in the crab com- 
pared with the scorpion of Commagene, and by the consideration that both of them, as well as the 
Capricorn on some of the coins of Commagene, are zodiacal signs, and indicate a similarity of reli- 
gious worship. Sestini, who ascribed the coin to an imaginary Amyntas, King of Cibyra, read the 
name AMEINTOT, but the present specimen, confirmed by one in the British Museum, leaves no 
doubt that the name was Amemtus, a word totally different in etymology from Amyntas, the one 
meaning " unblamed," the other " defender." 



KINGS OF EDESSA (now Orfa). 

ABGARUS, 

Contemporary of 31. Aurelius. 

ABrAPOC BAOIAeAG. Bust of Abgarus tor. bearded and draped ; head covered 
with a radiated mitre bound with a diadem ; sceptre in front of bust. 

R. CYTO AYq 06 B. Head of M. Aurelius to r., bearded and 

laureate, 

ABGARUS, 

Contemporary of Septimius Severus. 

ABFAPOC BACIAS Similar type. R C60YHP . . . Head of 

Sept. Severus to r. 



40 



KINGS OF EDESSA. 



Metal 

M 
JE 

M 






M 



^ 



JE 



JE 



Size 

5+ 
4 



Weight 



4i 



2i 



2i 

■^2 



M 4 



ABFAPOC BAOIAeo. Similar type. B. AYTOK. ceoAHqo. Similar head of Severus. 
BAG n. ABrAPoC. Same type, but no sceptre in front of bust. B. . . . 

.... ce oYHP .... Same head of Severus as before. 
O.cen.ABPAPo.BA. Same type. ft. oejl VEPoC. Similar head of 

Severus. 



ABGARUS, 
Contemporary of Caracalla. 
Bust of Abgarus to r. R. ANTIUNY. 



Laureate head of Cara- 
B 



CeoY, [ABrA]P0C. 

calla to r. 
[C]eoYH ABPAPo .... (retrograde). Youthful bust of Abgarus to r 

NTITN .... (retrograde). Laureate head of Caracalla to r. 

ABGARUS, 

Contemporary of Gordianus Pius. 

ABrAPoC BACIAGYC. Bust of Abgarus to r., with mitre, beard, and drapery as 
before ; a diadem round the mitre, pearls round the upper margin of the dress, 
and down the front. B. AYToK.KAI.ANT.roPAlANOO CGB. Naked bust of 
Gordianus Pius to r., head laureate ; star and end of sceptre in front. 

Similar type and legend. B. . . OK. K. M. ANT. roPAIAN .... Same type. 



PRINCES OF JUD^A. 



JONATHAN MACCABEUS. 

Note. — Jonathan was in alliance with Alexander Balas, and there are coins bearing the legend 
BASlAEnS AAEEANAPOT on one side, and " King Jonathan," in Samaritan, on the other: the 
following coin was probably struck after the death of Balas, when Jonathan espoused the cause first 
of Demetrius Nicator, and afterwards of Antiochus Dionysus. Jonathan was put to death by Try- 
phon in B.C. 143. 

Poppy-head between two cornuacopise, placed crosswise, but united into one at the 
lower end, B. " Jonathan high priest" in Samaritan characters, in five lines 
within a wreath. 

HERODES [Antipas), 

Became Tetrarch of Galilwa and Peraia on the death of his father Herodes (the Great) 

in A.D, 1. 

HPQAoY TETPAPXOY. Palm branch placed perpendicularly ; in field, the date 
L. AZ (year 37). TIBEPIAE in two lines, within a wreath of bay. The date is 
probably that of his reign, and the same therefore as that of the Christian sera. 

HERODES AGRIPPA U., 
Son of Agrippa /., began to reign a.d. 62. 

BACIAeil)[0 ArPinriA], an uncertain object, usually called '•'■ TalerrMCulum^ 
B. Three ears of wheat proceeding from one calix ; in the field, the date L. z. 
(year 6). 



Metal Size 



Weight 



M 



JE 



M 
JE 



10 



250-6 



4 
4- 



ASIATIC KINGS AND DYNASTS. 41 



KINGS OF BITHYNIA. 

Note. — The Bithynian dynasty is remarkable for its continuance in direct succession from father to 
sou fo»about 360 years, during which there were no more than ten sovereigns. Little more is known 
of their history, and that little is not much to the glory of any but Zipcetes, and his son the first 
Nicomedes. The arts, however, seem to have flourished under their rule not less than under the 
other Asiatic kings of the same ages, if we may judge by their coins, and by a fact mentioned by 
Pliny (7, 39, and 36, 4, § 2), that one of the kings named Nicomedes offered to pay off all the public 
debt of the people of Cnidus, in exchange for their celebrated statue of Venus — an offer which the 
Cnidii refused. 

NICOMEDES I., 
Son of Zipcetes, reigned from about b.c. 278 to 250. 

Note. — Eckhel (ii. p. 439) has described a tetradrachmon of this king in the Imperial collection of 
Vienna as follows: — "Caput diadematum imberbe. ^,. BADIAEnS NIKoMHAoY. Diana alte 
succincta trunco insidens, dextr& duas hastas, sinistra quid parazonio simile, pro pedibus scutum 
perelegans ; retrd arbor decisis ramis, in are4 Victoriola et monogramma." 

PRUSIAS I., 

Son of Zeilas, reigned from about 229 to about 181 b.c. 

Note. — As the reverses of the tetradrachma of the first and second Prusias relate constantly to the 
worship of Jupiter, and the legend upon them all being simply BASIAEjjS IIPoYXIoY, the portraits 
upon the obverses furnish the only means of distinguishing the coins of one sovereign from those of the 
other. But the extreme rarity of the silver of Prusias I. makes the comparison very difficult : the short 
beard furnishes no distinction ; it seems to have been a royal fashion of those times, as we find it on the 
coins of their contemporaries, Philip V. and Perseus. The wing attached to the diadem over the ear of 
Prusias 1 1, is therefore the best criterion ; this wing having reference probably to the hero Perseus, from 
whom Prusias II. might claim a descent through his mother Apameia, daughter of Antigonus Gonatas 
and sister of Philip V., who manifested his claim to a descent from the Argive hero in the same 
manner. The rarity of the coins of Prusias II., the still greater rarity of those of Prusias I., and the 
total absence of those of Zeilas, though all these kings enjoyed long reigns, may be accounted for by 
the great quantity of regal Macedonian silver then in circulation, particularly the silver of Alexander 
the Great, and which continued to be struck in his name long after his death in many of the cities of 
Europe and Asia, and probably in those of Bithynia among others. Of the copper coins with the 
legend BASIAEaS IIFoYSIoY, those alone which have a portrait with a wing over the ear as on the 
tetradrachma of Prusias II. can be distinguished as coins of that sovereign. As to all the others in 
copper there must remain, without some new discovery, a doubt whether they belong to the first or 
second Prusias. Under Nicomedes II. and III., the copper money of Bithynia seems to have been 
entirely supplied by the cities of their dominions, Prusa, Prusias ad mare, Prusias ad Hypium, and 
particularly by Nicomedia and Niciea. 



PRUSIAS II., 
Son of Prusias /., began to reign about 181 B.c. 

Diademate portrait of Prusias IL to r., with a short beard and a wing on the diadem. 
R. BASIAEQ2 rtPoYSIoY. Jupiter, half draped, standing to I., crowning the 
name of Prusias with a wreath ; in left hand a sceptre ; before him a small 
eagle to I. standing on fulmen, and below it mon. 154. From tlie Rollin Col- 
lection. 

Diademate portrait of Prusias II. to r. ; a wing on the diadem. R. BASIAEQS 
nPoYSIoY. Hercules naked, standing to I., his right hand leaning on the club, 
his left holding the lion's skin ; in field r. mon. 75. 

Another, with mon. 51. 

Two others, without any monogram. 

H 



42 



KINGS OF BITHYNIA. 



Metal 
M 



JE 
JE 
M 



M 


> 2 


M 


7 


JE 


4 


JE 


4 


JE 


5 


JE 


4 


M 


H 



M 



JR 



M 



JR 
JR 



Size Weight 

9- 
5 



5 

5 + 

7^ 



n 



H 



9i 
9-8 



258-1 



260-5 



259-3 
249-6 



UNCERTAIN PRUSIAS. 

Head of Pallas to I. B. BA2IAEQ2 npoYSIoY. Victory moving to r., and carry- 
ing a trophy on the left shoulder ; in field r. mon. 77. 

Head of youthful Bacchus to r. ; head bound with ivy- leaves having berries in front ; 
hair long, with tresses behind. U. BASIAEQS ITPoYSIoY. Centaur to r. ; in 
hand lyre ; chlamys floating behind ; in field r., same mon. 

Another, with mon. 155. 

Another, without monogram. 

Head of Apollo to I., with long hair ; countermarked with a tripod on the 
head and a lyre behind the head. R. BA2IAEQS nPoY21oY, in two lines : 
between them Victory, draped, winged, and helmeted (Ni'ki/ 'ASz/m), standing 
to I. crowning the name of Prusias with a wreath, her left hand supported by a 
shield which stands at her feet ; in field to I. a mon. 

Another, countermarked with lyre only. B. Same legend and type ; in field to I. 
a mon. and A. 

Another, without countermark or monogram. 

Head of Diana? to r. R. BASIAEQS nPOYSloY. Bow, and quiver with belt. 

Another similar. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. BASIAEqS nPoYSloY. Winged fulmen ; all within a 
wreath of oak. 

Head of Apollo to r. B. Same legend ; lyre. 

Eagle with expanded wings standing to r. B. Same legend ; fulmen ; all within a 
wreath. 

Bearded head of Hercules to r. B. Same legend ; figure of Pallas on a base adv., 
in her right hand a spear. 

NICOMEDES II. (Epiphanes), 
Son of Prusias II., began to reign b.c. 149. 

Diademate portrait of Nicomedes II. to r. B. BASIAEQ2 EIII*ANoYS NIKoMHAoY. 
Jupiter half-draped standing to L, holding a wreath of bay over the name of 
Nicomedes ; in left hand a long sceptre ; in field before him, eagle to I. standing 
on a fulmen, below which is the mon. 156, and still lower the date B? P, year 
192 (B.C.). From the Revil Collection (357). 

Same diademate portrait to r. B. Same legend and type; but with mon. 157, and 
date ES (year 205). From the Devonshire Collection (569). 

NICOMEDES III. {Epiphanes, Fhilopator), 
Son of Nicomedes II., began to reign 91 b.c. 

Diademate portrait of Nicomedes III. to r. B. Same legend and type ; but with 
mon. 158, and date ZS (year 207). From, the Thomas Collection (1865). 

Same diademate portrait to r. B. Same legend and type; but with mon. 159, and 
date BIS (year 212). 

Note. — On comparing the date b.c. of the accession of Nicomedes III. with the year 205 on the 
last coin of Nicomedes II. and the 207 on the first coin of Nicomedes III., it seems evident that the 
Bithynian sera was the same as that of Pontus, which is found on coins of Mithridates the Great 
of Pontus, and his son Pharnaccs, and on those of the kings of Bosporus as late as the time of 
Constantine the Great. It commenced 297 B.C., but from what event in the history of Pontus there 
would he difficulty in deciding. In Bithynia its introduction seems to have been the act of Nico- 
medes II., and connected probably with his ambitious designs upon Pontus; for 150, the earliest 
date found on the Bithynian coins, corresponds to the second year of his reign. 



KINGS OF PERGAMUS. 



43 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



M 



5+ 



M 



8i 



74 



71 



263-J3 



263-6 



KING OF PAPHLAGONIA. 

PYL^MENES. 

Head of Hercules to r., with crisped hair ; end of club projecting behind neck. 
B. BA2IAEQS IlYAAIMENoY EYEPrEToY. Victory to I., crowning the king's 
name with a wreath in her extended right hand ; in left hand, a palm branch. 

Note. — Nicomedes II. of Bithynia placed one of his sons on the throne of Paphlagonia, and in place 
of his real name gave him the Homeric appellation Pylsemenes. This person was so soon ejected by 
Mitliridates the Great, that the present coin is rather to be attributed to one of his sons, who was 
restored to his father's kingdom by Pompeius after the fall of Mithridates. The reverse resembles 
that of the coins of Nicomedes, as well in the attitude and act of the Victory crowning the name, as 
in the disposition and style of the legend. 



KINGS OF PERGAMUS. 



Note. — Tlie eunuch Philetserus of Tium (Ti'etov, Strabo, p. 542) was keeper of the treasure of Lysi- 
machus in the citadel of Pergamus ; on the death of Lysimachus in B.C. 281, and of Seleucus Ni- 
eator in the following year, he became by means of this possession the independent sovereign of Per- 
gamus and its territory, which he held to his death in 203 B.C., and left to his nephew Eumenes, thus 
founding a dynasty which continued under five successors for 150 years, to the death in 131 B.C. of 
Attains III., who bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans. 

ATTALUS I., 

Son of Attains (the third and youngest hrother of Pkiletwrm), succeeded Evmenes /., 
son of Eumenes, second hrother of Philetcerus, in b.c. 241. 

Head of Philetserus to r., wearing a narrow diadem resembling a cord. R. *IAE- 
TAIPOY. Pallas seated to I. on a throne on which A is inscribed ; her extended 
right hand on a shield standing on its end before her ; in left hand, a spear in a 
sloping position, point downwards ; in field, under the right arm, an ivy leaf ; 
behind the legend, a bow. — From the Thomas Collection (2001). 

Same portrait to /■., crowned with a wreath of bay, round which the diadem is 
entwined, li. Same legend, letter, type, and symbols. — From the Thomas Col- 
lection (2006). 

EUMENES II., 

Eldest son of Attalus I., succeeded his father in b.c. 197. 

Same portrait as before to /•., crowned with a wreath of bay. BL. *IAETAIPoY. 
Pallas seated to I. ; her extended right hand crowns the name, her left elbow 
rests on a shield, which stands on its end behind the throne ; in field to r., bow ; 
below the arm, mon. ] 60 (EYMENoYS) ; to left of name, a palm branch. — Elec- 
trotype. 

Note. — This coin is attributed to a Eumenes upon the ground of the monogram ; and it is given to 
the second Eumenes in preference to the first, on account of the much longer duration of his reign, 
and the great similarity of style observable in this coin and those of Attalus I., the father and prede- 
cessor of Eumenes II. The sUght variation of type, moreover, is precisely such as an immediate 
successor would be likely to make. 



M 2 



44 



KING OF GALATIA. 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



M 
JE 



N 

M 
M 



3i 

2+ 

3 

2 



li 



262-4 



22 

245-2 
245-3 



UNCERTAIN KINGS OF PERGAMUS. 

Beardless male head of an advanced age to r., with a cord-like diadem. R. Legend, 
type, and symbols, as on coins of Attains I., but without the A on the throne. 
— Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — This is the only tetradrachraon inscribed *IAETAIPoY, which has a portrait differing 
essentially from that of Philetcerus ; one of the dynasty seems therefore, contrary to the others, to 
have substituted his own portrait for that of his avuncular ancestor. The coin, however, is very rare 
compared witli those bearing the portrait of Phileteerus. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. *lAETAIPoY. Male figure (Asclepius ?), draped only in the 
lower part of his body, and seated on a throne, like that of Pallas on the tetra- 
drachma, holds out a patera in his right hand, from which a serpent rising from 
the ground is feeding ; in field above it, a branch ! 

Head of Pallas to r. B. „,.,'„ ^ Bow between the two lines; in field on r., a 

bee. 
Head of Pallas to r. ; on her helmet, a gryphon. B. *IAETAIPoY. Serpent erect, 

looking to r. ; in field ^., a mon. 
Three others of smaller size. 



KING OF GALATIA. 

AMYNTAS, 

King of Galatia, Lycaonia, and Pamphylia. 

Note. — There seems no reason to doubt that the King Amyntas of the following coins is the same 
contemporary of Strabo (p. 569), who possessed Lycaonia, and who, together with Deiotarus II. (son 
and successor of the friend of Cicero), deserted from Antonius to Octavius during the battle of 
Actium. By Roman favour, Amyntas succeeded to the kingdom of Galatia on the death of 
Deiotarus II. (Dion. Cass. 49, 32 ; Plutarch, Anton. 63) ; and we learn from Strabo that he possessed 
parts of Pisidia and Mount Taurus. These coins, however, shew that which we do not find in history, 
namely, that Amyntas was at one time so completely master of Pamphylia, tliat he coined money of 
gold and silver in Side, as seems evident from the exact similarity of the present coins with the 
autonomous tetradrachma of Side in every thing but the legend. A hoard of coins of Amyntas was 
found not many years ago, before which time none but copper coins of Amyntas were known, and 
those very different in type. 

Head of Pallas to r. ft. BA2IAE[Qi;] [AJMYNToY. Victory moving to L, her head 
covered with the skin of an elephant's head, the proboscis projecting from 
above ; in her extended right hand, a spiral sceptre, liaving a taenia or ribbon 
tied upon it in a bow. 

Same type ; mon. 162 behind the head. H. Same legend and type, but without 
the elephant's scalp ; in field before the Victory, date IB (year 12). 

Same type, without monogram, ft. Same legend and type, but Victory has a 
quiver in her hand in place of a sceptre. 



KINGS OF CAPPADOCIA. 



45 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 

M 
M 
M 



M 

M 
M 



4i 

*2 



4+ 

4 

4 



62-9 



63-3 

62-0 
63-6 
64-1 



M 



55-8 

62-9 
62-8 



60-2 



KINGS OF CAPPADOCIA. 

Note. — The kingdom of Cappadocia, like that of Pergamus, may date its beginning from the death 
of Lysimachus in 281 B.C., and of Seleucus in 280. Before that time the rulers of Cappadocia 
were at most satraps. As they derived their descent, like those of Pontus, from one of the seven 
Persians who slew the Magi (b.c. 521), their names are of Persian origin, though in a Greek form. 
The first king, Ariaranes II., was succeeded by his son Ariarathes III., and he by his son Ariarathes 
IV., who was a child at the time of his accession. 



ARIAEATHES IV. (Eusehes), 

Began to reign b.c. 220. 

Diademate portrait of Ariarathes IV. to r. U. BASIAEQS APIAPAeoY EYSEB'YS. 
Pallas Nicephorus, standing to I., a spear in the left hand, which rests on a 
shield standing on its end at her feet ; Victory crowns the name of Ariarathes ; 
under the Victory, mon. 1 63 ; in field, on either side, another mon. ; in exergue, 
AA (year 31). 

Note. — The numbers on the coins of the Cappadocian kings relate apparently to the years of 
their reigns. 

Same portrait to r. R. Same legend, type, and monogram ; in field, on either side, 

another mon. ; in exergue, ~W (year 33). 
Another similar, but in exergue, TA (same year). 
Another similar. 
Another similar, — the date off the coin. 



ARIARATHES V. (Eusehes, Philopator), 
Son of Ariarathes IV., hegan to reign b.c. 162, 

Note. — Although the three coins which follow have portraits bearing little resemblance to one 
another, their similarity of style, and their inferiority in this respect to the five preceding coins 
of Ariarathes IV., on all which the portrait is well defined, sufficiently prove them to belong to a 
different sovereign. In all the coins of Ariarathes V. cited by Mionnet, who calls him Ariarathes VI., 
we find, as in these three, a date in low numbers, the highest being 12, whereas on most of the 
extant coins of Ariarathes IV. the numbers are much higher. A rare tetradrachmon of Ariarathes 
V. (VI.) is inscribed BASIAEaS APIAPAeoY EYSEBoYS *IAonAToPoS, shewing that this prince 
styled himself both Philopator and Eusebes, though he seems most commonly to have employed the 
latter epithet alone. 

Diademate portrait of Ariarathes V. to r. B. BASIAEQS APIAPAeoY EYSEBoY. 
Pallas Nicephorus, standing to I., with attributes as before, but Victory extend- 
ing the wreath towards the goddess ; in field under Victory, T ; in exergue, B 
(year 2). 

Same type. R. BA2IAEQS APIAPAGoY EYSEBoYS. Same type; in field, same 
letter; in exergue, C (year 6). 

Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field under Victory, a mon. ; in exergue, 
A (year 4). 

ARIARATHES VI. (Epiphanes), 
Son of Ariarathes V., began to reign b.c. 130. 

Diademate portrait of Ariarathes VI. to r. ft. BA2IAEi22 APIAPAGOY Eni*AN«Y2. 
Pallas, standing to L, crowning the name of Ariarathes ; her left hand holds 

N 



46 



KINGS OF CAPPADOCIA. 



Metal 



M 



M 



Size 



M 



M 



M 

M 

M 
M 
M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



Weight 



63-2 



62-0 



4 

4 

4-3 

4 

3 



61 -1 



61-5 



62 

70 

58-7 
66-3 
53-2 



57-7 



62-4 



H 



59-9 
62-5 



a long palm branch, and rests upon a shield standing at her feet ; in field, two 

monograms ; in exergue, B (year 2). 
Same type, but as a portrait, differing from the preceding. B. Pallas Nicephorus, 

standing to I, Victory, crowning the name of the king ; same legend and 

type ; in middle field, a mon. ; in field to r., A ; in exergue, A I 
Same portrait to r. B. Same legend and type ; in field, two monograms ; in 

exergue, n (year 13). 



AEIAEATHES VII. (PMlometor), 
Son of Ariarathes VT., reigned about b.o. 105. 

Diademate portrait of Ariarathes VII. to r. R. BASIAEQS APIAPABoY *IAoMH- 
T»P»S. Pallas Nicephorus, standing to L, Victory presenting the crown to 
her; under Victory, a mon. ; in exergue, A (year 4), 

Another ; in field to l. of Pallas, O ; under which, MY in mon. ; behind Pallas, A, 
date in exergue, 6 (year 9). 



ARIOBAEZANES I. {Philoromwus), 
Began to reign about b.c. 93. 

Diademate portrait of Ariobarzanes I. to r. R. BASIAEns API.BAPZAN.Y 
*IA«PiiMAI»Y. Pallas Nicephorus, standing to I.; Victory, presenting the 
crown to her ; in field, to I., ; above, M ; to n, E ; in exergue, B (year 2). 

Same type. R. BASIAEQ2 APIoBAPZANoY *IAoPiiMAIoY. Same type, but Vic- 
tory crowning the king's name; in field to ^., AP united; in exergue, ir 
(year 13). 

Same type. R. Same legend and type, but Victory presents the crown to Pallas ; 
in field, two mons. ; in exergue, lA (year 14). 

Same type. R. BASIAEtiS API»BAPZAN»Y *IA»PQMAI»Y; in field to I., mon. 
170; in exergue, KB (22). 

Another similar, — letters ill-defined. 



ARIOBARZANES II. {Philopator), 
Son of Ariobarzanes /., began to reign b.c. 63. 

Diademate portrait of Ariobarzanes II. to r. R. BASIAEas APIOBAPZAN'Y 
*IA0nAT»P»2. Pallas Nicephorus, standing to r. ; Victory presenting crown 
to her ; in exergue, H (year 8). 

Another similar, but letters ill-formed ; in exergue, same date. 



ARIARATHES VIII. {Eusebes, Philadelphus), 
Began to reign about b.c. 42. 

Diademate portrait of Ariarathes VIII. to r. with a short beard. R. BASIAESJS 

APIAPAGoY EY2EBoY2 <I>IAAA Same type as the preceding; in field 

below the Victory, a trophy ; behind Pallas, mon. 171 ; below which, e. 

Same portrait, with short beard, to r. R. Same as the last, but <t>lAAAEYA* . . 



KINGS OF PONTUS AND BOSPORUS. 



*r 



Metal 



M 



Size 



Weight 



59-5 



JR 



260-4 



N 

M 

M 
M 



10-9 



10 



130-5 

259-3 

258-9 
255-6 



N 



41 



123-5 



ARCHELAUS, 

Grandson of the Mithradates Eupator, of Pontus, hegan to reign 86 b.c, and reigned 

50 years. 

Diademate portrait of Archelaus to r. B, BASIAEQS APXEAAoY *IAonATPIAoS 
T»Y KTIST«Y, in a circle round a club ; to the r. of which, K (year 20). 



KINGS OF PONTUS AND BOSPORUS. 

Note. — Like the kings of Cappadocia those of Fontus were descended from one of the seven Per- 
sians who slew the Magi, in B.C. 521. Hence the greater part of them had Persian names with a 
Greek termination. Coins are extant of Parsesades, Leucon, Spartacus, Mithradates III., of Mithra- 
dates Eupator (called the Great), of Pharnaces II., Asandrus, Polemon I., who was contemporary 
of Augustus, of Pythodoris, the wife of Polemon, and of Polemon II. Almost all the coins of this 
series are of rare occurrence. Some of those of Parsesades, Mithradates Eupator, and Pharnaces 
II. are of gold. 

MITHRADATES III., 

Son of Mithradates II., hegan to reign b.c. 302. 

Diademateportraitof Mithradates III. to r. R. BASIAEQS MiePAAAToY. Jupiter 
Aetophorus, seated to I. ; below the eagle, a star above a crescent ; under them, 
mon. 172. — Electrotype from the Bihliotheque Rationale. 

Note. — Visconti has given sufficient reasons for attributing this coin to Mithradates III. (Icon. 
Greeque, II. p. I7I.) To some event in his reign is to be ascribed the beginning of the Pontic sera, 
in B.C. 297. 

MITHRADATES VI. {Eupator.) 

Diademate portrait of Mithradates VI. to r. B. BA«IaEQS MIOPAAAToY EYQA- 

ToPoS, in three lines ; stag, feeding to I. ; in field to Z., star above crescent ; 

to n, A; below which, mon. 173; in exergue, mon. 174; all within a wreath 

formed of ivy leaves and berries alternately. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type; in field to ?., star above crescent; below 

which, mon. 175; to r., BK5 (year 222, b.c. 75); below which, mon. 176; in 

exergue, ; all in wreath as before. — This and the preceding are Electrotypes 

from the B. M. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field to r., HIS (year 218, b.c. 71) ; below 

which, mon. 177; all in wreath as before. — Electrotype. 
Same type. B. Same legend ; Pegasus to I., drinking ; in field to I., star above 

crescent ; to r., mon. 178 ; all in wreath as before. 



ASANDRUS, 

Brother-in-law of Pharnaces II., and successor to him in the kingdom. 
Diademate head of Asandrus to r. B. BASIAEaS ASANAPoY. Victory on prow 
to I. ; in uplifted right hand, crown ; below which, OK (29) ; in left hand, palm 
branch. — Electrotype from the B.M. 

Note. — This is the latest date found on coins of Asandrus, who died in B.C. 14 (Dio. 54, 24). He 
was king, therefore, as early as B.C. 43. While regent, during the absence of Pharnaces in Asia 
Minor, he styled himself Archon, and gold coins resembling the preceding are extant, with the legend 
APXoNToS ASANAPoY BoSIIoPoY. 



*8 

Metal Size Weight 



M 



56-1 



JE 



n 



JE 
M 



M 



M 



5i 



KINGS OF BOSPORUS. 



POLEMON II., 

Son ofPolemon I, and Pythodoris, was founder of Polemonium on the coast of the 

Euxine. About the year 62 he abdicated the throne, and Pontus 

was reduced to a Roman province. 



BACIAeiDO nOAGMlDNOC. Laureate portrait of Polemon II. to r. 
HI (year 18). Laureate head of Nero to r. 



ft. exovc 



SAUROMATES, 

A contemporary of Augustus and Tiberius, in honour of the latter of wJtom he assumed 

tJie name of Tiberius Julius. 

TIBEPIo[E loYAIoE BAEIAEjYE EAYPoMATHi:. Sauroniates, with long hair 
and beard, togate and seated to r. on curule chair ; in left hand, long sceptre, 
terminating above in a small head of the Roman emperor in profile to r. 
ft. TEIMAI. BAEIAEUJE. EAYPoMAToY. In the centre, round shield ; behind 
which, lance ; above shield, helmeted head and horse^s head ; to I. of shield, 
a sword and belt ; to r. an axe ; below, MH (48). 

Note. — The numerals are indicative of the value of the coin, as appears ivxa other specimens, in 
which are IB (12) and KA (24). 

T. loYAIoY BA[CIAeir]C CAYPoMAToY. Curule chair; upon which, wreath or 

crown ; to I. round shield, and behind it spear ; to r., sceptre, ft. MH (48) 

within a wreath. 
lUC OAYPOM ... T ... . Same types, ft. Victory, stepping to I. ; in 

extended right hand, crown ; in left, palm branch ; in field, MH (48). 
OY BACIAetUC CAYPoMA Diademate bust of Sauromates to /•., with 

long hair, and chlamys on the shoulder, ft. MH (48). 



RHESOUPORIS, 

Contemporary of Caligula. 

Diademate portrait of Rhescuporis to r. ; behind, mon. 179 (BaaiXt'wc '?r)aKovir6piloi) ; 
in front, IB (12) worn off. ft. PAIOY KAICAPOC rePMANI[KOY]. Head of 
Caligula to r, ; behind, a mon. 



KINGS OF BOSPORUS. 

GEP^PYRIS, 

Widow of the Mithradates, whom the Emperor Claudius made king of Bosporus, when 
he separated that province from Pontus, and gave Polemon II. in lieu of it apart 
of Cilicia. About a.d. 45, Claudius opposed Mithradates; the following coin was 
'probably struck after that event. 

[BAOIAICC]HC rHHAinYPeQC. Her diademate bust to r. ft. Veiled bust of 
Astarte to r., with modius on the head ; behind, IB (12). 
Hc rnn Same type. ft. Same type and date. 



KINGS OF BOSPORUS. 



Metftl Size Weiglit 



JE 



M 



M 

M 
M 



M 



M 

M 
M 



8-6i 

7 

6 

7 



6i 



H 



COTYS, 

Contemporary of Claudius and Agrippina. 

KAIEAPOE. Head of Claudius to r. laureate. R. lOYAIAN ArPinni 

Head of Agrippina to I. ; in front men. 180 (BaaiUmQ 

Kfirvoc). 

iVo<e.— Gold coins of this king, with the heads of Claudius and Nero, and the same monogram, are 
not uncommon. 



SAUROMATES, 

Contemporary of Domitian. 



lAeUJC. OAYP Diademate bust of Sauromates to r. with 

long hair and chlamys. R. Laureate head of Domitianus to r. ; under neck, 

on the shoulders, MH (48). 
BACIA61UC. GAYPOMATOY. Diademate bust of Sauromates to r. as before. 

B. MH (48) within a wreath of oak, with a jewel above, and ties below. 
Another. 
Same legend and portrait. R. Female figure stepping to I. ; in extended right hand, 

wreath; in left, palm branch; in field, MH (48). 



COTYS, 

Contemporary of Hadrian. 

Note. — Vide Mionnet for several coins of this prince, in gold, with the head of Hadrian on the 
reverse, and the date in years of the Pontic sera. 

BACIAeUJC KOTYoc. Diademate bust of Cotys to r., with long hair, and chlamys ; 
behind the head, a club. R. MH (48) within a wreath of oak, with jewel above 
and ties below. 



RHCEMETALCES. 

Note. — The only king of Bosporus of this name was a contemporary of Hadrian and Antoninus 
Pius. His money in gold is not rare ; it bears on the obverse the head of Rhoemetalces, and- on 
the reverse that of the reigning emperor with the year of the Pontic cera. 

BACIAeiDC POIMHTAAKOY. Curule chair, on which is a half wreath as before; 
in field on I. a round shield, with a spear behind it ; on r. sceptre, surmounted 
by a small bust. R. In the centre a round shield, with a spear behind it ; on I., 
a horse's head 2 and an axe ; below each an uncertain symbol ; on r. helmet and 
sword in scabbard, with belt ; below all MH (48). 

Same legend and type. B. MH (48) within a wreath of oak, with a large round jewel 
above, and ties below. 

Same legend. Diademate bust of RhcEmetalces to r., with beard, long hair, and 
chlamys ; in field to r., trident. R. Same as before. 



50 

Metal Size 



M 



JE 



iE 



Elec- 
tnim 



Potin 



M 



M 



6i 



7+ 



4^ 



4+ 



4i 



Weight 



1]8-1 



109-6 



36-6 

92-6 



KINGS OF BOSPORUS. 



EUPATOR. 



Note. — The coins of Eupator are common in gold. On the reverse they present the head of Anto- 
ninus Pius or those of M. Aurelius and L. Verus opposed, with the date of the Pontic cera. 

[BACIAeU}]C evnAToPOC. Diademate bust of Eupator to r., bearded, with long 
hair and chlamys. R. MH (48) within a wreath as before. 



SAUEOMATES. 

Contemporary of M. Aurelius, Commodus, and Septimivs Severus. 

BACIAemc CAYPOMATOY. Diademate portrait of Sauromates to r., with beard, 
long hair, and chlamys. R. Figure seated to I. In extended right hand a 
small head of Severus ; in field to r. a star ; behind the throne, B, in an oval 
countermark. 

Note. — Confer Mionnet, Supp. vol. iv. p. 523, No. 211. 

Same legend (letters indistinct) and same head. R. Eagle, with open wings 
standing to I., looking to r. ; in its beak a wreath ; in field to r. the letters 
PMA. 

Note. — On a similar coin described by Mionnet, Sup. iv. p. 525. No. 221, the P is separated from 
the MA. A date seems intended, but of what a;ra is uncertain. 



RHESCUPORIS. 

Contemporary of Caracalla. 

BACIAeirc PHCKOYnoPIAoc. Bust of Rhescuporis to r., diademate and radiate, 
with long hair and chlamys. R. Laureate head of Caracalla to r. ; in field 
on r. a star ; under the head, AI* (year 511, a.d. 214). 



RHESCUPORIS. 

Contemporary of Trajanus Decius. 

BACIAGIUC PHCKonoPA. Rust of Rhescuporis to r., diademate and radiate, with 
long hair, and clothed about the chest. R. Rude bust of Trajanus Decius to 
r. ; in field on r. a star; under the head, tM* (year 546, a.d. 249). 



RHESCUPORIS. 

Contemporary of GaUienus. 

BACIAemc PHCKoYEIoPI. Barbarous draped bust to r., with long hair; in field 
to r., trident. R. Rude draped and radiate busts of GalHenus and Odenatus 
opposed ; between them a globule ; below S* (year 560, a.d. 263). 

Same legend, types, and date. 

Note.— This coin is an ancient falsification, being of copper thickly plated with silver, which has 
become much oxidized. 



KLNGS OF BOSPORUS. 



51 



Metal 



JE 



M 



/E 



M 



M 



Size 



4+ 



4+ 



M 


4+ 


M 


H 


JE 


4 


M 


4+ 


M 


4 


M 


H 



H 



Weight 



THOTHORSES. 

Contemporary of Diocletian. 

eoeOPCOY . . . Draped bust of Thothorses to r. R. Rude radiate bust 

to r. of Diocletian ; in front a monogram ; below r<l* (year 5.93). 

BACIAeuJC eoeOPCOY. Diademate and radiate bust of Thothorses tor. B. Rude 
laureate bust of Diocletian to r. ; in front same raon.; under the bust, S'cjct) 
(year 596, a.d. 299). 

EHADAMSADES. 

Contemporary of Constantine the Great. 

BACIA6UJC PAAAMSA. Bust of Rhadamsades to r. R. Rude bust of Constan- 
tine the (rreat to r. ; below AIX (year 611, a.d. 314). 



RHESCUPORIS. 
Contemporary of Constantine tJie Great. 

. . . lAGlDC PHCKOY . . . Bust of Rliescuporis with long hair to r. ; in field to 
r., trident. B. Bust of Constantine the Great to r., laureate and radiate; in 
field to r., caducous ; below ^IX (year 616, a. p. 319). 

B eirc PHCKOVnOP. Bust of Rliescuporis to r. ; in field r„ trident. B. 

Bust of Constantine to r,, opposed to a large eagle, with a wreath in its beak ; 
under the bust, 0IX (year 619, a.d. 322). 

A€OC PICKOY. Bust of Rhescuporis to r. ; in field to r. wreath. B. Ra- 
diate bust of Constantine to r. ; date KX across the field (year 620, a.d. 32i3). 

BACIAGYC PICKOY. Same type. B. Same type; in field on I. AK, on r. X (year 
621, A.D. 324). 

PICK .... Same type. B. Bust of Constantine to r. opposed to a Vic- 
tory without wings, with a crown in each hand, with that in the left hand she 
crowns the bust ; below TKX (year 628, a.d. 326). 

CYC PICKOY .... Same type. B. Bust of Constantine to r. ; in field r. 

a large star, below ^KX ? (year 626, a.d. 329). 

RHESCUPORIS 

of uncertain date. 

BAEIAeUE PHtKOYnOPTAOC. Bust of the king to r., facing a turreted bust to I. 
B. Female seated to I. on a throne, the back of which terminates above in a 
small bust ; behind the throne a large star. 



KING OF COLCHIS. 
ARISTARCHUS. 



^ote. — Aristarclius was made king of Colchis by Pompeius at the close of the Mithridatic war 
Appian de beUo Mithr. 114. Eutrop. C, 14. 

Radiate portrait of Aristarchus to r. B. (AP)I2TAPX0Y (B)ASIEnS KOAXA()2 
(sic). In ex. BI (12). Female in full drapery seated to r. Electrotype. 



52 

Metal Size 



A' 



M 

M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 

M 



3-2 



3 

3- 

4-2^ 

3-2 
3-2 

4-2| 

4-3 



Weight 



128-1 



83-3 

83-7 
82-7 
83-2 

82-8 

84-6 



84-3 
235-7 



KINGS OF PERSIA. 



KINGS OF PERSIA, 

DAREIUS, 

Son of Ilysiaspes, and his successors. 

Note. — Tlie Aapeiicof arariip, so called from Dareius, son of Hystaspes, by whom it was first 
struck, was an imitation of the gold stater of Lydia, known commonly to the Greeks as the stater of 
Crcosus (KpoiiTfioc aTarijp). The Lydians, according to Herodotus, were the inventors of the 
monetary art ; though, like many other great discoveries when society is prepared for them, it may 
have occurred almost simultaneously in jEgina, where the silver mines of that island and of Attica 
furnished the material not less conveniently than did the superficial gold of Asia Minor, and particu- 
larly the native gold or electrum of the Pactolus. The abundance of gold in the countries conquered 
and governed by Dareius and his successors, enabled them to issue a coinage of such vast extent, 
that, recommended as the Darics were by their accuracy of weight and purity of metal, they ob- 
tained a greater circulation in Greece than the money in gold of any Greek city. But, plentiful as 
they must anciently have been, they are now rare, which may in great measure, perhaps, be attri- 
buted to their having been converted, after the Macedonian conquest, into staters and double staters 
of Alexander the Great. 



Daric. 

A man in long drapery, with long beard and bushy hair, crowned with an upright 
cap, surmounted by four points. He kneels on his right knee ; his right hand 
holds obliquely a short spear, having a ball above and a broad spear-head below ; 
in left hand a bow. H. an oblong-square indented with a shapeless impression. 



Aryandics. 

Note. — This silver imitation of the Daric was first struck, according to Herodotus (4, 16C), by Ary- 
andes, whom Cambyses, on his departure from Egypt, had left there as governor. It rivalled its 
golden prototype in metallic purity, so that Aryandic silver was still renowned in the time of Hero- 
dotus, a century after its issue. But the measure was fatal to Aryandes himself, who was supposed 
by Dareius to wish to rival him in one of the chief glories of his reign. On some pretext, therefore, 
he ordered Aryandes to be put to death. This silver coinage was, nevertheless, adopted in Persia, 
and had an extensive circulation among the Greeks. Even now Aryandics are not uncommonly met 
with in Greece and Asia Minor, particularly in the latter country, where their countermarks prove 
their ancient currency. 

Same types. 

Another similar. 

\ nother. 

A figure of the same description kneeling and drawing his bow ; attached to his back 

appears a quiver. R. quad, incus, as before. 
A similar figure standing upright ; in right hand arrow ; in left hand bow. li. quad. 

incus, as before. 
A similar figure standing upright ; in right hand spear ; in left hand bow held up. 

Three countermarks, one of which is the calfs head, as on coins of Cyzicus, 

R. quad, incus, with two countermarks. 
A similar figure kneeling to r., with three countermarks on the obverse, one of which is 

the same quadruped seen as a countermark on some coins of Pamphylia. R. quad. 

incus, with two countermarks, one a quadrifid leaf, the other symbol or mon. 181. 
Figure as on the Daric. R. Same shapeless quad, incus. Electrotype from the B. M. 



KINGS OF PARTHIA. 



S3 



Metal Size 



M 



Weight 



236-2 



M 



JE 



M 



JR 4 



5-4 



63-4 



55-5 



52 



ARTAXERXES I,! 

Aged head to r. densely bearded, and covered with a cap, full at the top, but closer 
below, where it is divided into two flaps, one covering the neck behind, 
the other extending under the beard. The hair is seen in front, above 

A 
which a diadem encircles the cap. R. B € surrounding a lyre of seven strings. 

Struck at Colophon ? Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — In some observations on the great bilinguar monument of Xanthus {Trans, of B. S. of Lite- 
rature, Second Series, p. 258), I gave the following reasons for attributing this coin to Artaxerxes I. 
The head-dress is of tlie same kind as that of Dareius in the Mosaic of Pompeii. The lyre was 
peculiarly the symbol of Coloplion, with reference to the worship of the Clarian Apollo, and is found 
on all its earlier coins. KoXo^uv fulv yap ix^i rrjv \ipav is an observation of the sophist Hime- 
rius (Orai. 21, 8). In the Peloponnesian war, or precisely the time to which the style of this beau- 
tiful medal points. Colophon was in possession of the Persians (Thucyd. 3, 34) : the prince reigning 
at that time was Artaxerxes the First. It is evident from the Greek historians, that ' the king,' or 
' the great king,' was the ordinary appellation given to the Persian monarchs by the Greeks during 
the ages when the former were masters of Asia Minor. BASIA., therefore, is for "BaaCKiiag. 



KINGS OF PARTHIA. 



ARSACES II., or TIRIDATES, 

Younger brother of Arsaces I., founder of the Parthian dynasty, legan to reign about 
B.C. 248. By him Seleucus Callinicus was defeated and made prisoner. 

Head of Tiridates to I. in a close cap with a pointed top, covering the back of the 
neck and a part of the face, and tied under the chin. R. BASIAEQ2 MErAAoY 
APSAKoY. The king on a conical seat to r. with the same head-dress, and a 
short cloak (candys) hanging from his shoulders. Electrotype. 

Nate. — This head-dress resembles that of the king of Persia in the great Mosaic of Pompeii, 
as well as on the tetradrachmon in the British Museum inscribed BASIA. ; which I suppose to have 
been struck at Colophon. 



ARSACES v., or PHRAHATES I. {of Visconti and Mimmet), 

Contemporary of Antiochus IV., Epiphanes. 

Clothed bust of the king to I. ; the head bearded, and covered with a low diademate 
tiara. R. BA2IAEQ2 MErAAoV (AP2)aK0Y Eni4>ANoY. Bow in its case; 
behind it ? 

ARSACES XV., or PHRAHATES IV. {of Visconti and Mionnet), 
Contemporary of M. Antonius, whom he defeated. 

Bearded head and naked neck of the king to I., with tiara and diadem, the ends of 
which hang behind the head ; in field to r. crescent and star, to I. star. R. BA- 
EIAEQS BAEIAEQN APEAKOY EYEPrEToY AIKAOY . . . I*AN»L *AEAAHN. 
The king seated to r. on a high-backed chair, holding a bow in his r. hand over 
an altar. Behind the chair a symbol. 

Same type. B. Same type and same legend more correctly spelled. 



54 



KINGS OF BACTRIA, &;c. 



Metal 

M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



Size 

8-7 



5-4^ 



5-4 



Weight 

219 



60-8 



57-6 



56-4 



66 



Bust of the same king to I., with broad diadem and low tiara ; hair in four formal 
horizontal tiers, and beard pointed ; vest buttoned close to the throat, and 
candys over the shoulders ; a wart over the left eye. . . riAE . . . AEIAEUJN 

APLAKOY EVEPrETY AIKAlo The king seated on a throne to 

r. ; a long-robed female standing before him bears a palm-branch in her left 
hand, and stretches forward her right, holding a wreath with long ribbons. 



ONONES (ARSACES XVIII. of Visconii and Mionnet), 

Contemporary of Tiberius. 

DACIAEYC ONLUNHC. Head and neck of Onones to I. wearing a tiara bound with 
a broad diadem, terminating behind in a round tie and long ends. These, as well 
as the beard and hair, are expressed by parallel lines. R. DACIAEYC ONIUNHC 
NCIKIICAC APTABANoN. Victory holding a palm-branch in right hand and 
wreath in left hand over an altar. Electrotype. 

Note. — The Victory here recorded was speedily reversed, Artabaiius was the conqueror, and Onones 
lost his crown. 

ARIANES {the same apparently as the Gotarzes or Arsaces XXI. of Visconii and 
Mionnet), contemporary of Claudius. 

Bust of Arianes to I., with tiara, diadem, and bushy hair, with tie and long ends 
behind; all of the same hard style as the preceding. B;. DAEIAEqE DA- 
SIAEQN APIANn> EYEPrETQt* iilXAlDY Eni*ANDYE OlAEAAH . n . 
The king seated to r. as before, holding a bow in his right hand over an altar. 

Another similar. 

SAPOR OR SHAHPUR I., 

Son of Ardeshir or Artaxerxes, founder of the Sassanian dynasty, — reipned from 

A.D. 240 to A.D. 271. 

Note. — Sapor I. conquered Armenia and Syria, and made the Roman Emperor Valerian his prisoner. 

Adorer of Ormuzd, the Excellent ShahpUr, King of Kings of Iraan, Celestial Offspring 
of the Gods -{in Arianian or Persic letters). Bust of Sapor I. to r. clothed up 
to the neck, wearing a short beard, and a wide turret-shaped tiara, surmounted 
by a globe. B;. The divine Shahpur. A high altar with fire on it. On either 
side, a Persian of the same height as the altar, and dressed like the king, but 
without the globe. One has a spear in his right hand, and looks to I., the 
other has spear in left hand, and looks to r. 



GREEK KINGS OF BACTRIA, PAROPAMISUS, ARIANA, AND 

INDIA. 

Note. — Alexander the Great, on his departure, in the year B.C. 327, from Biictra (Balkh) for tlie 
Indus, left Artabazus, a Persian, as governor of Bactria, who was succeeded by a Greek, Amyntas, 
son of Nicolaus. During the ten years of contention among the successors of Alexander, the rulers 
of Bactria were scarcely under Macedonian control, and this was probably one of the leadhig causes 
of the eastern expedition of Seleucus I., soon after the re-establishment of his authority in Babylon 
in the year 312 B.C. He then marched as far as the Ganges, and made an alliance with Sandi'a- 
cottus (Chandra-gupta, or moon-protected). It wa-s after his return from the upper Satrapies that 
he assumed the title of BaaCKtvQ in 306 B.C. The supremacy of the Seleucidse over Bactria lasted 
until the reign of Antiochus II., the invasion of whose dominions by Ptolemoeus II. was the 
signal and beginning of the revolt and permanent independence both of Parthia and of Bactria. 
About B.C. 255, Diodotus assumed the title of king of Bactria. His successor, Diodotus II., was 
succeeded or expelled by Euthydemus. This prince was defeated in an action with Antiochus III., 



KINGS OF BACTRIA, &c. 



55 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



M H 



JE 



JR 



8i 



M 



H 



but was left in a state of independence on the return of Antiochus to Mesopotamia. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Demetrius, who appears to have been supplanted in Bactria and afterwards in 
Ariana by Eucratides. Coins of all these princes are extant in gold, silver, or copper, unless perhaps 
one of the Diodoti may be excepted. 

EUTHYDEMUS of Magnesia, 

Conte'mporary of Antiochm III. 

248-9 Diademate head of Euthydemus to r. with bare neck. R. BASIAEqS EV0YAH- 
MoY. Naked Hercules to I. on a seat covered with the Uon's skin ; in right 
hand club, which rests on his right thigh ; in field within the legend K. Elec- 
trotype from the B. M. 

DEMETRIUS, 

Son of Euthydemus. 

235 4 Diademate head of Demetrius to r. covered with the elephant's scalp ; a chlamys 
clothing the shoulder and part of the neck. R. BA21AEQS AHMHTPloY. 
Naked Hercules standing adv. crowning himself with his right hand ; in left 
hand club and lion's skin; in field to r. mon. 182, to I. mon. 183. Electrotype 
from the B. M. 

EUCRATIDES, 

1 A contemporary of Mithradates, the sixth of the Arsacidce, who reigned about 150 b.c. 

258"1 j Diademate portrait of Eucratides to r., with chlamys and low crested helmet, on the 
upper part of which is represented a bull's horn and ear. IJi. BASEAEQ2 ME- 
TAAoy EYKPATIAOY. The Dioscuri on horseback to r., each clothed with 
chlamys, wearing a cap surmounted by a star, carrying horizontally a long spear, 
and a branch of palm across the shoulder ; horses galloping ; under the horses' 
feet, in front, mon. 184. Electrotype from the B. M. 

BASIAEQS MEFAAOY EYKPATIAO. Same type as on the preceding coin. R. Maha- 
rajasa Eucratidasa in Arianian letters. {Wilson's Ariana, p. 249.) Same type 
as on the preceding; in field to I. mon. 166. (A square coin.) Electrotype from 
the B. M. 

BASIAEYS MEFAS EYKPATIAIIS. Head of Eucratides as before to r. R. HAlo- 
KAEoYS KAI AAOAIKHS. Heads of Heliocles and Laodice to r. ; in field to I. 
mon. 39. Electrotype from the Museum of the India House. 

MENANDRUS. 

Note. — From the coins of this prince, the places where they were found, and the Arianian characters 
of the reverses, it appears that he reigned over tlie Paropamisus and an extensive country to the 
south-eastward of the Indian Caucasus. Menander is mentioned by Strabo, Arrian, Plutarch, and 
Trogus Pompeius, all of whom describe him as a king of Bactria. His coins, however, differ from 
those of the kings of Bactria Proper, in having Arianian characters on the reverses. Strabo attri- 
butes to Demetrius, son of Euthydemus, a part of the glory of having conquered the countries 
which were subject to Menander. Comparing this circumstance with the coins of Menander and 
Demetrius, it would seem that the latter made his conquests in Ariana or India, in the time of his 
father, after whose death he remained king of Bactria, while Menander consolidated the conquests 
of Demetrius and himself, and reigned separately over Ariana and a part of India. 

38-1 BASIAEQS SQTHPOS MENANAPOY. Diademate bust of Menander seen from 
behind ; head turned to I. ; left shoulder covered with armour or decorated 
chlamys ; in right hand a spear held horizontally. R. Maharajasa Tada- 
rasa Minandasa in Arianian letters. Pallas seen from behind, stepping 
towards the I., and hurling a fulmen with right hand; the left arm covered with 
a shield, on which is the head of Medusa seen in profile ; in field behind 
mon. 185. From the Bevil Collection (4J9). 



56 



KINGS OF BACTRIA, &c. 



Metal 

M 



Size 
2i 



Weight 



^ 



M 



M 



4- 



M 



M 



JE 



BA2IAEQ2 [S]QTH[Pos] [MENA]NAP[oY]. Head of an elephant to r. with a bell 
pendent from the neck. R. The same Arianian inscription ; club ; above it 
nion. 186. (Square coin.) From the Mevil Collection (448). 

APOLLODOTUS, 

A son of Menandrus ? 

BASIAEQS AIIOAAOAOTOY 2QTI1P0S. Apollo naked standing to I. ; the head in- 
clined to I. ; in right hand an arrow ; the left hand leaning on a bow, which 
touches the ground, fi. Maharajasa Tadarasa Apaladatasa in Arianian letters ; 
tripod ; in field to I. uncertain object. (Square coin.) From the Revil Collec- 
tion (449). 

HERM^US. 

BASIAEQS SQTHPns EPMAIOY. Diademate bust of Hermseus to r. with chlamys 
covering the neck and breast ; behind the head ? B. Maharajasa Tadarasa 
Ermayasa in Arianian characters ; Jupiter Aetophorus to I. on a throne with 
high back ; under his right arm a monogram and two uncertain objects ; behind 
the throne an Arianian letter ? From the Bevil Collection (450). 

LYSIAS. 

BASIAEOS ANIKHTOY AYSIOY. Head of Lysias to r. covered with the elephant's 
scalp. IJ. Maharajasa Apitahalasa Lisiasa in Arianian letters ; Hercules adv. 
towards I. crowning himself with his right hand ; in left hand, club, palm 
branch, and lion's skin ; in field to r. S ; to I. men. 187. Electrotype from 
the Museum of the India House. 

PHILOXENUS. 

BASIAEQS ANIKHTOY *IAOgENOY. Head of Philoxenus to r. with diadem and 
chlamys. B. Maharajasa Apatiiatasa Pelashinasa in Arianian letters ; hel- 
meted horseman to r. galloping ; below, s and a mon. (Square coin.) Electro- 
type from the Museum of the India House. 

AEOHEBTUS. 

BASIAEQS AIKAIOY NIKH*opoY APXEBIOY. Bust of Archebius seen from behind, 
the head turned to I. ; armour or decorated chlamys on the left shoulder ; the 
right hand holding a spear horizontally. B. Maharajasa Dhamfkasa Jayadharasa 
Akhalfyasa ; in field to I. KP in monogram ; to r. a mon. Electrotype from the 
Museum of the India House. 

Note. — It is impossible to assign dates to any of the latter princes ; but the resemblance of their 
coins to those of Menauder leaves Uttle doubt of their having been his successors ; none of them pro- 
bably were later than 100 B.c. We may hope that monumental discoveries, combined with the study 
of the Arianian language, will give further insight into the history of the countries where that lan- 
guage was cultivated. 

NAMELESS KING (of uncertain date), 

Styling himself King of Kings and Great Saviour. 

Diademate and radiate bust of the king to r. ; on the breast a cuirass ; in the ear a 
round ear-ring (indicating an Indian origin) ; in right hand a short sceptre, or 



KINGS OF BACTRIA, &c. 



67 



I Metal 
M 

M 



Size 



O 
2i 



Weight 



s 



244 



M 



H 



end of lance, from which hangs a ribbon ; in field to ?., mon. or symbol 188. 

JR. BAEIAEVr BAr lAEVUJN EUJTHP MEFAr. The king on horseback to r. ; 

the ends of his diadem floating behind his head ; on his extended right hand, ? ; 

in front of horse same symbol as on obverse. 
Same type, without any pendent to the sceptre or lance ; same symbol. R. Same 

legend, type, and symbol. 
Another similar. 

Note. — The coins of this prince have been found in great numbers in the topes of Kaabul, as well as 
in the Punjaab, and as far east as Benares. The centre of dominion was probably in the Punjaab, 
perhaps at Maniky^la. The types, although Greek in their general style, and thus in agreement with 
the legends, which are almost exclusively Greek, indicate that the Soter Megas was not of very late 
date ; for the use of the Greek language in the Bactro-Ariano-lndian series diminishes by a regular 
gradation from its sole use under the Greeks of Bactria, to the total extinction of its characters, about 
the fourth century of the Christian sera. On the other hand, a comparison of style in the coins of 
Soter Megas, and those of Menander and his successors, shows him to have been considerably poste- 
rior to the latter dynasty, and not less the forms of the Greek letters, 6, C, and UJj which resemble 
those of the Asiatic Greeks and Arsacidae in the first and second centuries of the Christian rera. 
Professor Wilson gives reason for supposing that the predecessor of the Soter Megas was Azes, who, 
like the Soter, styles himself King of Kings, and whose coins bear a symbol resembling that on 
the coins of the Soter. It seems probable that during the century which preceded, and that which 
followed the Christian sera, the following kings reigned in the countries to the south of the Indian 
Caucasus, namely. Manes, Palisirus, Spalyrius, Azilises, and Azes, of all whom coins are extant. It 
is evident they were all of barbarous origin, though they imitated their Greek predecessors in the 
forms of their names, as well as in the Greek types and Greco- Arianian legends on their coins. 



KADPHISES. 

BAOIAEYC OOHMO KAA*ICHC. The king, seated adv., with head turned to I., on 
a low bench with a footstool, dressed in a Tartar cap with diadem, and in a 
long Tartar coat and boots ; in his right hand, a branch ; in field to I., a club ; 
to r., mon. or symbol 189. H. The titles and name of Kadphises in Arianian 
characters. Figure, standing adv. before an Indian bull, holding in his right 
hand a trident, his left resting on the bull's shoulder ; in field to I., symbol or 
mon. 190. — Electrotype from the Museum of the India House. 

BACIAE\C BACIAeiDN (CU3THP MeFAC OOH)MO KAA*ICHC (the letters be- 
tween brackets are obliterated by nine Arianian letters, belonging to the reverse 
of a similar coin). The king standing adv., but turned to I., dressed as before ; 
his right hand held, with fingers downwards, over an altar ; his left hand resting 
on his hip ; in field to I., trident (and below it the tail of a bull, belonging to 
the reverse of another coin) ; in field to r., symbol 189 ; below it, ?. 
R. Arianian inscription as before, beyond which appear the Greek letters 
AGYC BACIAeiD .... belonging to an obverse. Androgynous figure in trans- 
parent drapery, holding, as before, a trident in right hand, and leaning with his 
left on the hump of the Indian bull ; in field to I., symbol J 90. 

Note. — The dress of this sovereign is a clear proof of his having been a Tartar or Scythian. While 
the Greek letters on liis coins tend to demonstrate that a previous conquest of Bactria had been made 
by the Scythians, the Arianian characters of the reverse equally prove that the Scythians had after- 
wards established their authority over the countries to the southward of the Indian Caucasus. The 
altar on the obverse, and the figures of Siva and the Indian bull on the reverse, lead to the belief 
that Kadphises encouraged the religion both of Persia and India, and that he succeeded to the 
possession of the same countries which had been governed by the Soter Megas. 



58 



KINGS OF EGYFr. 



Metal Size Weight 



JE 



N 



N 

N 
M 
M 



M 
Al 

M 

M 

M 

M 






H 



H 



1 + 



H 

7 
9 



7+ 



6i 



41 

*2 



s+ 

3 
3 



275-7 



27-4 

24-8 
212-6 



219-7 
219-2 

219 

214-8 
103-7 



KANERKI, or KANERKU, 

Reigned not long after Kadfhises. 

BACIAevc BACIAeiDN KANHPKoY. The king dressed as Kadphises, and standing 
adv., but turned towards the l, with his right hand over an altar ; in left hand 
a long sceptre, a bow hanging behind his back. B. HAIoC. A draped figure 
standing to I., the head encircled by a nimbus, the ends of a diadem floating 
behind ; in the raised right hand, ? ; the left resting on the hip ; in field to /., 
the symbol 189. 

Note. — The name"HXioc and the altar show that these Scythian kings had adopted the Persian 
worship of the sun and fire. 



KINGS OF EGYPT. 



PTOLEM^US I. (Soter), 

Son of Lagus {or of Philip II.) hy Arsinoe — Somatophylax of Alexander the Great — 
satrap of Egypt b.c. 323 — Bao-tXtuc 306. — In 304 received the title of Zionipfrom 
the Bhodians for having saved them from Demetrius Poliorcetes — in 295 took 
Salamis, and thus added all Cyprus to his kingdom — in 285 resigned his authority 
to his son — died in 283. 

Diademate portrait of Ptolemseus I. to r., with an segis or decorated chlamys round 

the shoulders tied by serpents before and behind. U. IlToAEMAIoY BaSIAEQS. 

Eagle, standing on fulmen, to I. ; in field to I., oval shield ; above it, mon. 191. 
Same type. R. IIToAEMAIoY (BA?IAEQ?). Eagle, with open wings, standing on 

fulmen, to I. ; in field to I., A. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field to L, mon. 192. 
Same type. ft. Eagle, standing on fulmen, to I. ; in field to I., P ; below which, X. 
Same type. B. IIToAEMAIoY SiiTHPoS. Same type ; in field to I., m, within 

a circle ; to r., mon. 89. — Partially oxydized and imperfect, but preserving a 

fine portrait of Soter. 
Same type. IJ. nXoAEMAIoY SQTHPoS ; in field to I., DPI retrograde (IIP in 

mon.) ; below which, FA, in mon. ; in field to r., A ; under it, 6. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field to I., club, surmounted with the 

monogram of Tyrus ; in field to r., , . — Struck at Tyre. 

Same type. B- IIToAEMAIoY BA2IAEQ? ; same type ; in field to I.., L.KH (year 
28) ; to r., €A. — Struck at Salamis, in Cyprus. 

Note. — The year 28 corresponds to B.C. 295, the year in which Salamis was taken by Soter. 

Same type. B. Same legend and type, but under the eagle's left wing a sceptre ; in 
field to ?., L.AC (year 36) ; to r., ^A. — Struck at Salamis. 

Same type. B. Same legend ; eagle to /. ; no monogram or letter. 

Head of Ptolemseus I. to r. B- BA?IAEQS IIToAEMAIoY. Diademate female head 
to »•., with narrow diadem, and hair in curls over the temples and neck (Bere- 
nice) ; in field before the neck, small cornucopise. 

Same types and legend, but reverse defective to r. 

Same type. B- Same legend and type; behind the head, cornucopise. 

Head of Ptolemseus I. to r. B. DToAEMAIoY (BA€IAEQ€). Anterior part of a 
winged sea-horse to I. ; below it, mon. 193 (MAPac). — Struck at Cyrene, of 
which Magas was dynast. 



KINGS OF EGYPT. 



59 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



M 



M 

M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
N 



4+ 



O2 
O2 

6 
6-b 

7- 



105 



213 



217 



155 



21M 

203-6 

205-8 

209-4 

187 

196 

209 

427-8 



Note. — The difficulty in arranging the coins of the Ptolemaic dynasty, arising from the generally 
unvarying legend, is increased as to the first and second of the race by the resemblance of their 
features, by the son having reigned two years before the father's death, and by his having dated his 
money by the years of his father's reign, and placed upon it his father's deified head, not only in those 
two years, but long afterwards, as we perceive from the numbers 49 and 54 on coins of Philadelphus, 
these numbers indicating the ninth and fourteenth years of his own reign, reckoning from his father's 
death. An examination of a great number of Ptolemies in the British Museum, leads to the belief, 
that the coins of Soter were for the most part struck in Phcenicia, and those of Philadelphus in 
Cyprus. It was only in the latter part of the reign of Soter, after the capture of Salamis, that some 
of his money appears to have been coined m that city. 



BERENICE, 

Daughter o/Lagus, hy Antigone, thus half-sister as well as wife of Ptolemmm I. 

Diademate head of Berenice to r. ; the hair in tresses over the forehead, and tied in 
a knot behind. B. BEPENIKH2 BA2IA12SHS in two lines, between which a 
knotted club ; below it, M and AF united (Magas) ; in field to r., trident ; to I., 
a letter or monogram ; all in wreath of ivy. — Struck in Cyrene, of which Magas, 
son of Berenice by a former marriage, was king. 



PTOLEM^US II. {Philadelphus), 

Son of Ptolemceus I. and Berenice, hegan to reign, with his father, b.c. 285 ; 

alone, b.c. 283. 

Head of Ptolemseus I. ? to r. bound with a narrow strophium, like a double cord. 

B. nXoAEMAIoY BASIAEqS. Eagle, standing on fulmen, to I. ; in field to I., 

L.(AuKa/3avroc) B. (year 2 of the king's reign) ; to r., TLA. — Struck at Paphus, in 

Cyprus. 
Same head, with strophium of a single cord ending in a spike over the forehead. 

R. Same legend and type ; in field to I., L. A. (year 4) ; to r., IIA. 

Note. — This kind of diadem is peculiar to heads of Jupiter Ammon, but occurs also on heads of 
Hercules in the Macedonian series. It seems intended to represent some thorny shrub. On coins 
of Philadelphus, it indicates probably that the obverse is the deified headof So ter. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type ; under the eagle's right wing, palm branch 

in field to I., L.e. (year 9) ; to r., HA. 
Same type. R. Same legend ; in field to I., L.IA (year 11) ; below which, H 

to r., IIA. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; under the eagle's right wing, palm branch 

in field to I., L.IE (year 15) ; below which, Egyptian symbol; to r., IIA. 
Same type. R. Same legend ; in field to I., L.IX (year 17) ; to r., HA. 
Another similar. 

Same type. R. Same legend ; in field to I., L.IH (year 18) ; to r., DA. 
Same type. R. Same legend ; in field to I., L.ie (year 19) ; to r., IIA. 
Same type. R. Same legend ; in field to I., L.KB (year 22) ; to r., IIA. 
eEQN. Diademate heads of Ptolemseus I. with chlamys, and of Berenice with veil, 

to r. R. AAEA*iiN. Diademate heads to r. of Ptolemseus II. with chlamys, 

and of Arsinoe with veil ; behind the head of the former, an oval shield. — 

Electrotype from the B. M, 

Note. — Soter and Berenice, after their deaths, were deified and entitled Gtoi Xwr^pfc, as appears 
from the inscription of Adulis (Chishull, Antiq. Asiatic, p. 76), in which Ptolemseus III. is described 
as vihq ^aaCKiiDQ IlToXt/iaiov icai jSaffiXiffffj/g 'Apffivoijc 8((iv adtX^wv, tuiv ^offiXIwv XlroXe/iaiov 
Kai /SoffiXi'ffcrijg BepfviKtis Biuv auTtipiav ajroyofoe. 



60 



KINGS OF EGYPT. 



Metal 

M 


Size 
7 


Weight 


JE 
JE 


7 
3 




N 


7 


428-.5 


M 


10 


538 


N 


■6h 


428o 


JE 


4.; 


y 


N 


7-6 


428 


N 


2+ 


32-8 



Female head to r., with diadem of corn leaves, and an ear of com in front ; hair in 
long tresses over the temples and neck (Isis or Arsinoe in the character of Isis, 
the Egyptian Ceres). R. nxoAEMAIoY BASIAEQ^. Eagle, with open wings, 
on fulmen to I, ; in field to L, IIA in mon. 

Same types and legend, without the monogram. 

Head of Arsinoe, with sphendone and veil, to r. 
Eagle, with open wings, to I, ; between its legs, 



Bt. nToAEMAIoY BASfAEQ?. 
; in exergue, A (year 30 ?). 



ARSINOE, 
Sister and wife o/PtolemcBus II. 

Head of Arsinoe to r., wearing the diadem, sphendone, and veil ; at the top of the 
head, a small flower ; behind the head, e. ft. APSINoH? *IAAAEA*oY. Two 
cornuacopiffi, each having a pendent fillet, and containing grapes, a pomegranate, 
and an ear of corn, their lower extremities in a single receptacle. 

Same type ; behind the neck, EE. B. Same legend and type. — This and the 
preceding are Electrotypes frcm the B. M, 



one 



PTOLEM^US III. {Euergetes), 
Son of Ptolemceus II. and his sister Arsinoe, began to reign b.c. 247. 

Bust of Ptolemseus III. to r., with radiated diadem ; an aegis, or jewelled chlamys, 
covers the chest and back of the neck, and is fastened on the shoulder and 
in front with serpents ; a trident above the left shoulder. B. nXOAEMAIoY 
BASIAEQ5. Cornucopise, with pendent fillets and a semicircle of rays at the 
top; in field below, AI. — Electrotype from the B.M. 

Note. — The trident, which has a lotus flower on the middle prong, may be supposed to allude to 
the success of this king's fleet in reducing many of the maritime cities of Asia Minor and Thrace, or 
to his victory oyer Antigonus Gonatas at Andrus (Trog. Pomp. Prol. 27). 



Same bust, diademate, but not radiate, to r. 
I. ; in field to r., cornucopise. 



B. Same legend ; eagle on fulmen to 



BERENICE II., 

Wife of PtolemoBUS III., and daughter of Magas, King of Cyrene, who was half-hrother 

of Ptolemceus II. 

Diademate head of Berenice to r. ; hair in a knot behind, upon which hangs the 
veil. B. BEPENIKH? BA?IAI?SH?. Cornucopise with fruit above, grapes 
hanging out on either side, and with pendent fillets ; in field to I., a bee. — Elec- 
trotype from the B. M. 

V^eiled bust of Berenice to r. B- Same legend and type ; in field on either side 
of it, a star. 

Note. — Eckhel ascribes the foi-mer of these coins to Berenice, wife of Soter ; the latter to 
Berenice, daughter of Ptolemseus VIII., who reigned in her own right for about six months. The 
coins of the wife of Soter present, however, a very different and much more aged countenance than 
cither of these, and tlie two stars on the latter coin accord well with the two bonnets of the Dioscuri 
on some of the coins of Ptolemseus III. They may both therefore be ascribed to the Berenice of the 
latter king. 



KINGS OF EGYPT. 



61 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



N 



N 



N 



M 



M 



M 



8-7 

7+ 



220-2 



428-7 

428 
205-8 



5+ 



PTOLEM^US IV. (Philopator.) 

Diademate youthful head of Ptolemseus IV. to r., with plain chlamys. IJ. IIToAE- 
MAIoY OlAoIIAToPoS. Eagle, standing on fuhnen, to I.; in field to r., S, and 
immediately above it, £L ; to I., the symbol and monogram of Tyrus ; between 
the eagle's legs, mon. 194. — Struck at Tyre. — Electrotype from the B.M. 

ARSINOE {Philopator), 
Sister and wife of Ptolemwus IV. 

Head of Arsinoe to r., with sphendone, flower on the top of the head, and hair rolled 
up behind, ft. APSINoH^ *IAonAToPo€. Cornucopise, with double fillet; 
above it, star. — Electrotype. 

PTOLEMiEUS V. (Epiphanes), 
Son of Ptolemwus IV. and his sister Arsinoe, began to reign b.c. 205. 

Youthful bust of Ptolemseus V. to r., with radiate diadem, and wearing a plain 
chlamys ; the head of a spear appears over the left shoulder. R. IIToAEMAIoY 
BASIAEQS. Cornucopise, with a semicircle of rays above it, and on each side 
a pendent fillet and a star ; in field below, mon. 195. 

Similar bust of Ptolemseus V. to r., but without the rays, and without the spear head, 
ft. Same legend. Eagle, standing on fulmen, to I. ; in field to L, 9 ; between 
the eagle's legs, NI. — This and the one preceding are Electrotypes from the B.M. 

Same type. ft. Same legend and type ; in field to I., A ; between the eagle's legs, 
NI. — From, the Pemhrole Collection (1287). 



PTOLEMWUS VI. {Philometor), 
Son ofPtolemoBus V. and Cleopatra, daughter of Antiochus III, began to reign 181 b.c. 

Diademate head of Ptolemseus VI. to r. R. GEoY nToAEMAloY ^lAoMHToPoS. 
Eagle, on fulmen, to I. ; a palm branch under its right wing ; in field to r. of 
eagle, mon, 181 ; between its legs, lA. — Electrotype. 

PTOLEMWUS VII. {Physcon), 
Brother of Ptolemwus VI., began to reign b.c. 146. 

PTOLEM.^US VIII. {Lathyrus), 

Son of Ptolemwus VII. and Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemwus VI., began to reign, 

jointly with Ms mother, b.c. 117. 

PTOLEMWUS IX. (Alemndrus), 
Brother ofPtolemeeus VIII., began to reign jointly with his mother Cleopatra b.c. 107. 

Youthful head covered with the elephant's scalp, terminating round the neck in an 
ornamented chlamys like those of Soter and Euergetes. ^. UToAEMAIoY BA- 
2IAEUS. Eagle, on fulmen with open wings, standing to I. ; between the 
legs, e. 



62 



KINGS OF EGYPT. 



Nfetiil 

M 
M 



Size 

5 
5 



Weight 



M 



4+ 



101-5 



M 



M 



235-7 



M 



61 



Another similar ; but in field to I., TY in men. 
Another similar ; in field to I., AX in mon. 

Note. — The only reason for placing these coins to Ptolemy Alexander is, that in general the Mace- 
donian kings of that name delighted in assimilating themselves to Alexander the Great by an obverse 
like that of his coins, or by an elephant's scalp, appropriate to Alexander as conqueror of India. 



PTOLEM^US X., 

Son of Pfolemwus IX. 

Note. — He was sent from Rome by Sylla, in b.c. 80, to marry Berenice, daughter of Ptolemeeus 
VIII., whom the Alexandrians had declared queen on the death of Ptolemy Alexander. Nineteen 
days after the marriage he murdered her, for which the Alexandrians forthwith put him to death. 
In these cousins the legitimate Ptolemaean family was extinct. 



PTOLEMiEUS XI. (Auletes), 
Illegitimate son of Ptolem<ims VIII,, began to reign b.c. 80. 



PTOLEM^US XII. {Dionysus), 
Son of Ptolemeeus XI., began to reign with his sister Cleopatra b.c. 51. 

Head of Ptolemseus XII. to r., crowned with ivy ; a plain chlamys on the shoulders, 
and behind the head, thyrsus. B. IlToAEMAIoY BASIAEQS. Eagle, with 
open wings, on fulmen to I. ; in field to I., thyrsus. — From the Pembroke 
Collection (1289). 

PTOLEM^US XIII., 
Younger brpther of Ptolemwus XII, began to reign with his sister Cleopatra b.c. 47. 

CLEOPATRA, 
Daughter of Ptolemwus XL, began to reign b.c. 51. 

Head of Cleopatra to n, with broad diadem, and the hair behind in a knot. 
B. KAEoHATPAS BASIAISSHS. Eagle, on fulmen, to I.; in field to r., n ; to I., 
cornucopiae. 

BACIAICCA KAeonATPA GEA NGiiTePA. Bust of Cleopatra to r., her hair, 
divided into formal tresses, ends in a knot behind the head, and is bound with 
a broad diadem ; two globules (pearls ?) on the forehead ; in the ear a drop- 
earring ; a string of jewels unites the upper angles of the dress at the neck, 
and a double row of jewels falls from the same point down the bosom. 
B. ANTUJNIoC A[YToKPATlIl]P TPIToN TPIIUN ANAPaiN. Bare head and 
neck of Antonius to r. 

Note. — The assimilation of the Egyptian queens to Isis or the moon, was a custom prevalent long 
before the time of Cleopatra, as shown by some of the preceding coins. Dio relates (50, 5) that 
Cleopatra declared herself to be Luna and Isis ; and Plutarch (Anton. 54) that she appeared in public 
in the character of the new Isis. This explains the Qia viwripa on the obverse. The legend on the 
reverse is a translation of Antonius Imperator III., Triumvir. Hence it appears that the coin was 
struck in the year 35 B.c., when Cleopatra was in her thirty-fourth year, and Antonius about fifty- 
three years of age. 

REGINAE REGVM FILIORVM REGVM CLEOPATRAB. Diademate bust of Cleo- 



KINGS OF EGYPT. 



63 



Metal 



Size Weight 



M 



M 
M 

JE 

JE 

M 
JE 
JE 
JE 

M 
JE 

JE 



JE 
JE 



121 



12 
11 

9 

7 



i- 

5 

H 

4 

2 
8h 



4 
2i 



1072 



1006 

708 

469 



patra to r. ; below which, prow. R. ANTONI . ARMENIA DEVICTA. Head of 
Antonius as before to r. ; behind the head, an Armenian tiara. — Electrotype. 

Note. — These legends prove that the coin was struck after the return of Antonius from Armenia, 
in 34 B.C., when he and Cleopatra publicly invested one of their sons with the attributes of 
king of Armenia and Media, and the other with those of king of Phoenicia, Syria, and Cilicia (Plu- 
tarch, 1. c). The prow seems to allude to the 200 Egyptian ships furnished by Cleopatra to the 
fleet of Antonius, which was assembled at Ephesus in 33 B.C. 



UNCERTAIN PTOLEM^I. 

Note. — When it is considei-ed that the two first Ptolemies reigned seventy-six years, and that these 
were the most prosperous reigns of the dynasty, it becomes likely that the greater part of the uncer- 
tain Ptolemcei were of the one or other of those two princes. 

Head of Jupiter Ammon to r., bound with a narrow strophium, terminating to r. 

in a spike ; a ram's horn over the ear. B. nXoAEMAloY BA^IAEQS. 

Eagle standing on fulmen to I. ; in field to I., cornucopise, with pendent fillet 

ending in three balls ; between the eagle's legs, mon. or letters. 
Another similar. 
Same types, legend, and symbol ; but eagle's head turned to r., and cornucopia close 

to its beak. 
Same type. B- Same legend. Eagle to I. ; between its legs, two letters ; in field 

to I., cornucopise. 
Laureate head of Jupiter to r. U. Same legend, type, and symbol ; between eagle's 

legs, A. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field to I. an oval shield. 
Another similar; over the oval shield, S. 

Same types and legend ; in field to I. of eagle, flower; between its legs, BIA. 
Bearded head of Hercules in lion's scalp to r. R. Same legend. Eagle on fulmen 

to I. ; head turned to r. ; under its right wing, obliquely, caducous. 
Head of Jupiter Ammon to r. R. Same legend. Eagle on fulmen to I. ; in field 

to /., flower. 
Same types and legend, without the flower. 
Head of Jupiter Ammon to r., with narrow strophium, and spike in front. Same 

legend, ij. Two eagles on fulmen standing to I. ; in field to I., acrostolium ? 
Another similar. 

Note. — The eagle of Jupiter on the Ptolemaic coins may be considered symbolical of the regal 
power, as the cornucopise is of its accompanying abundance and prosperity. The double eagle and 
the double comucopiee alludes to the dSeX^drijc of the king and queen, and may equally apply to 
Ptolemseus I. and his half sister Berenice, or to Ptolemseus II. and his sister Arsinoe. There are 
coins of Cleopatra and her husband Ptolemseus VII. with two eagles (Mionnet, vi. p. 26), and of 
Cleopatra the Great with two cornuaccpise, where the second alludes to M. Antonius, as appears 
from a Cupid on the obverse (Mionnet, vi. p. 33). 

Head of Apollo to r. R. nToAEMAIoY [BASIAEflS]. Eagle with open wings 

standing to I. ; in field before it, ?. 
Head of Jupiter Ammon to /". R. nT»AEMAI«Y. Globe between horns surmounted 

by two feathers ; below, on each side, an ear of corn. 



ADDENDA. 



KINGS AND DYNASTS. 



Metal 



M 



Size 



N 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



N 



M 



7i 



7+ 



Weight 

in grains 

Troy. 

230-3 



10-5 



263-6 
249-2 



264-4 



264-6 



262-7 



131-1 



61-4 



ARTAXERXES I. of Persia? 

Head of Persian king to r., covered with diademate Phrygian cap, having the anterior 
flaps tied under the chin. R. BA€IAEil?. Persian archer to r., right knee 
bent ; in right hand, javeHn with ball at upper end ; in left, bow ; in field to L, 
galley to I., with rowers. — Electrotype from the Collection of General Fox. 

Note. — The galley is commonly found on coins of maritime cities of Cilicia when tmder the 
power of Persia. 

ALEXANDRUS I. Epiri. 
Radiate head of Apollo, adv. R. AAEX. Fulmen. — Electrotype. 

ALEXANDRUS III. Macedonia. 

Head of young Hercules in lion's scalp to r. R. AAESaNAPoY. Jupiter Aoto- 
phorus seated to I. ; in field to I.., club and bow in case ; below which, mon. 197. 

Same type. R. BA2IAEi2S . AESANAP . ., in two lines ; between, same type ; 
in field to I., helmet ; below, AA ; under the throne, A. 

Same type. R. Same type ; in field to r., AAE5?ANAP0Y; to I., mon. 198 ; below, 
BASlAEaS. 

Same type ; on each summit of the back of the throne of Jupiter, a small Victory, 
holding out crown to I. R. AAESANAPOY. Same type ; in field to I.., Pallas, 
standing to I., with spear and shield ; under the throne, eE. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field to I., naked figure, holding above his 
head a long chain or fillet, which hangs behind his back, as on an obverse of 
Sicyon (European Greece, p. 97, coin 9, M 2^). — Struck at Sicyon. — Electro- 
type from the B. M. 

LYSIMACHUS Thracise. 

Head of Alexander III. with cornu Ammonis round the ear, to r. R. BASIAEiiS 
AYSIMAXoY, in two lines ; between, Pallas Nicephorus seated to I. ; Victory 
to I., crowning the king's name; in field to I., mon. 117 in circle; to r., torch, 
with cup and handle. 

Head of young Hercules, in lion's scalp, to r. R. Jupiter Aetophorus seated to /. ; 
in field to r., AYSIMAXOY ; to I., half lion to I., and crescent ; under the 
throne, s^ ; below, BASIAEftS. 



KINGS AND DYNASTS. 



65 



Metal Size Weight 



N 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



57 



104 



260-1 



31 



P^RISADES Bospori. 

Diademate head of the king to r. B. BASIAE[a2] nAIPISAA[oY], in two lines ; be- 
tween, Pallas Nicephorus seated to I. ; Victory, presenting crown to her ; spear 
resting obliquely on the right side of Pallas ; her left elbow on shield standing 
on its edge behind the throne ; on the side of the throne, a mon. ; below, 
trident, with dolphin on each side. — Electrotype from the Hunter Collection. 

Note. — The exact resemblance between this coin and those of Lysiniaehus of inferior style, 
leaves no doubt that it is a money of the Poerisades, who was a cotemporary of Lysimachus. — 
Vide Visconti Iconographie Grecque, II. p. 163. 



SELEUCUS I. Nicator. 

Head of Jupiter to /■. B- Pallas, in quadriga of elephants, launching javelin to r. 
above, BA2[IAEilSj ; below, SEAEYKoY. 



SELEUCUS II. Callinicus. 

Diademate head of Seleucus II. to r. R. BASIAEiiS SEAEYKoY, in two lines; 
between, Apollo, naked, standing to I. ; in right hand, arrow ; left leaning on 
bow ; in field to I., IIAP in mon. — Electrotype. 

MOLON Media. 

Note. — The history of Molon is given by Polybius, 5, 40, et seq. Antioehus III., soon after 
his accession in B.c. 223, appointed Molon to be satrap of Media, and hia brother Alexander to be 
satrap of Persis. Taking advantage of the king's youth, they joined in a revolt. Molon was so 
successful over the generals of Antioehus as to make himself master of Babylon, Seleuceia, and a 
great part of Mesopotamia. But in 220 Antioehus, who had wintered at Antiocheia Mygdonise 
(Nesibi), crossed the Tigris (apparently about Mosul), and advanced to Apollonia, to the southward 
of which city he was met by Molon moving from Babylonia, and completely defeated him. 
Molon and all his family destroyed themselves. With the assistance of this narrative of Polybius, 
the position of Apollonia, which was the capital of an extensive district to the east of the Tigris, 
may hereafter be determined. From these coins alone we learn that Molon assumed the title of 
king. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. BASIAEiiS MOAiiNOS, in two lines; between, Apollo 
Citharoedus to r. ; in exergue, . . P . 

Note. — These three letters must have been the Seleucid date, 189, 190, 191, or 192 (B.C. 223, &c.), 
these being the only years Molon could have been BaaiXevg. 

Female head to /•. ; hair in bunch behind, and falling on the neck (Diana?). 
B. BA2IAEil2 MoAiiNoS, in two lines; between. Victory to I.; right hand 
extended, crowning name ; in I., palm-branch ; in field to /., M. — These two coins 
are Electrotypes from the B. M. 



PHILIPPUS V. Macedonise. 

Head of the hero Perseus to I., in middle of Macedonian shield. R, BASIAEiiS 
*IAinnoY in two lines; between, club; all in wreath of oak. 

Diademate portrait of Philip V. to r. ^.. Same legend and type ; above, AP, in 
mon. ; below, no, Sil in mon. ; all in wreath of oak. 

s 



66 

Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



M 



1 + 



M 



257-7 



9-9 



262-4 



263-5 



JE 



230-5 



ADDENDA. 



EUCRATIDES Bactrim. 

Helmeted portrait of Eucratides to r. ; on side of helmet, bull's horn, as on coins 
of Seleucus I. R. Dioscuri to r. on prancing horses, and bearing spears and 
palm-branches ; above, in curved line, BASIAEQS MErAAoY ; below, EYKPA- 
TIAoY ; under one of the horses, mon. 199. 

Same type. li. BASIAEQS EYKPATlAoY in two lines ; between, bonnets of 
Dioscuri, with stars and two palm branches ; below, AM or MA in mon. 



EUMENES II. Pergami. 



Laureate head of Philetserus to r. R. Pallas, seated to I., crowning the name 
*IAETAlPoY; under her arm, mon. 160 (EYMENoY2) ; in field to r., bow; 



to L, cornucopise. 



AEISTONICUS Pergami. 



M 



7i 



229-3 



M 



241-7 



Same type. R. Same legend and type ; under the arm of Pallas, mon, 200 (apI- 
2ToNIKoY) ; in field to r., bow. — This and the one preceding are Electrotypes from 
the B. M. 

Note. — The monogram on this coin being in the same position as that on the similar coin of 
Eumenes, is evidently the name of the reigning prince ; and although not so clearly soluble as the 
monogram of Eumenes, is sufficiently so to leave little doubt that it is the monogram of Aristonicus. 
This prince was a natural son of Eumenes II., and reigned between two and three years after the 
death of the successor of Eumenes, Attains III., who dying in 133 B.C. had bequeathed his kingdom 
to the Romans. In 131, Aristonicus defeated and made prisoner the Roman consul, Crassus Mucia- 
nus, but was himself defeated and taken in the following year by Perpenna, the successor of 
Crassus in the consulate, and was put to death at Rome, after having adorned the triumph of 
M. Aquilius, who in 1 20 had completed the conquest of the Pergamenian kingdom, 

CAPNASCIRES Bactrim. 
Capnascires and Anzaze. 

Heads of the king and queen to ?., that of the king covered with a diademate turban ; 
beard long and pointed, — decorated garment close to the chin ; in field to r., 

mon. 201 ; below which, Jjl R. Jupiter Nicephorus, seated to L, Victory 

presenting to him the crown ; his left hand resting on hasta ; around, in four 
lines, BACIAEilC KAnNACKIPO[Y] KAI BACIAICCHC ANZAZHC. 
Another similar, but the third side of the legend illegible, and the fourth obli- 
terated. — These two coins are Electrotypes from the B. M. 

Note. — The resemblance of these coins to those of the Greek dynasty of Bactria, which ended with 
Heliocles about 127 b.c. (Wilson's Ariania, p. 266), leads to the belief that Capnascires was a Scythian 
prince, who became possessed about that time of the western part of Bactria, and who shaped his 
barbarous name to a Greek form. Lucian, in the Macrobii (16), mentions a Mnascires, king of the 
Parthians, who lived to the age of ninety-six. It seems not unlikely that his words icai Mvaffjci'iOiJC 
may be a textual error for KoTrraffictpj/g, the Koi moreover having there some appearance of being an 
intrusive word. The coins, however, bear little or no resemblance to those of the Arsacidae. The 
turban of Capnascires is very unlike the Parthian tiara. The Arsacidte are generally represented 
sitting on a throne with a bow in their hands, and they almost invariably styled themselves " Great 
King" or " King of Kings." 

APODACUS Characenes. 

Diademate head of King Apodacus to r. R. BASIAEilS AIIOAAKOY, in two lines ; 
between which, Hercules, naked, seated to I. on rock ; in extended right hand, 



KINGS AND DYNASTS. 



67 



Metal Size 



M 



JE 



JE 



Weight 



club ; left resting on rock ; in field to I., AI united ; below, rs (203 of the 
Seleucidae, b.c. 109, which makes Apodacus a coteraporary of Antiochus IX. 
(Philopator). — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — Charax was founded by Alexander the Great on an artificial height, very near the head 
of the Persian gulf, where the Eulseua, now called Karun, approached within a distance of three 
miles of the Tigris, which then entered the sea separately from the Euphrates. Charax, having 
received great damage from the two rivers, between which it was built, was restored about 120 years 
after its foundation by Antiochus III., and a third time by a neighbouring Arabian, Spasines, or 
Hyspasines, son of Sogdonacus, the termination of which latter name leads to the conjecture that 
Apodacus may have been one of the successors of Spasines, of whom, according to Lucian (Macrobii, 
16), there were, at least, ten. It is very difficult to form any opinion as to the position of Charax, 
situated as it was in the midst of the alluvion of great rivers, continually changing their courses, 
and accumulating fresh land towards the sea. According to the learned king of Mauritania, Juba 
the Second, Charax, in his time, or about 350 years from its foundation, was fifty miles distant from 
the sea (Plin. H. N. 6, 27). 



HERMiEUS Bactriae, sive Arianiae. 
Hermwus and Calliope. 

BASIAEilS SiiTHPOS EPMAIOY KAI KAAAIonHS. Diademate heads of the king 
and queen to r. B^. Horseman (king?) galloping to I. ; below, a mon. ; around, 
legend in Arianian letters. — Vide Wilson's Ariania, p. 293. — Electrotype from 
the India House. 

AMYNTAS Galatiffi. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. [B]ASIAEiiS [A]MYNTOY, in two lines, above and below; 
between them, lion to r. 



BITOVIUS Galati^. 

Head of the king ? to r. ; on the left shoulder, club ? 
it, in two lines, BITOYIOG BACIAGYC. 



R. Lion running to /•. ; under 



CORRIGENDA TO KINGS AND DYNASTS. 



'age 


Coin 


7 


14 


7 


24 


15 


11 


18 


5 


18 


6 


24 


4 


25 


9 


26 


8 


30 


3 


31 


4 


34 


1 


35 


1 


35 


1 


41 


2 


52 


1 


65 





Fur " four lines" read "five lines ;" the figure is this ■ 

For " mon. 35" read " mon. 34." 

For " eagle as before " read " eagle on fulmen." 

For " mon. 32" read " AI." 

For " monogram " read " letters." 

For "mon. 99" read "mon. 109." 

i'V"mon. 126" read. "mon. 16." 

For " mon. 119" read " mon. 120." 

For " mon. 132" read " mon. 125." 

For "mon. 138" read "mon. 133." 

For "mon. 138" r€<jrf " mon. 137." 

For "year 187" read " year 137." 

For " mon. 134" read " mon. 133." 

For " mon. 75" read " mon. 77." 

v4/i«r "spear-head below" add "in left hand, bow." 

Note to Eucratides,/»r " 160 B.C." read " 170 B.C." 



KINGS AND DYNASTS 



M" 


AF 


X 


P] 


s 

A/ 


A 


IVP 


A 


9 

rE 


10 


w 


12 


1 2S 




if 

A 


A 


0\ 


1^ 


19 

K 


2<' 


21 
PfP 


22 

BAI 


4^ 




if 


27 


2g 


llj 


AI 




S2 


33 


3* 


M 


@ 


37 


J* 


.?i> 
W 


40 


41 


4J 


4?. 


44 


E 


4fi 


47 

A 




49 
Iff 


HP 


rf/ 
m 


N 


El 




is 


^E 


rf7 


is 


J9 


A 


1^ 






fi4 






(^'7 
ift 


ck 


«» 

^ 


7<!' 

1^ 


77 


7^ 

N 


\ 


7/- 

A 


7rf^ 


7<f 


77 

N 


7<i' 

1^ 


73 


80 

EP 


SI 




E 




Hi 


S6 


S7 

1 




as 


A 


91 




93 


S4- 

F*1 


H 


^ 
z 


S7 






100 


101 

A/k. 


102 


1^ 


lot 


lOS 


IOC 

® 


/<'7 

rr 


106> 


lot 


Jiff 


Ml 


112 


la 




lis 

NE 


lis 


la 


lU 




720 


! 


J22 

M 


123 

t 


124 

4" 


12S 


126 


127 


I2S 


129 


no 


73i 

Ifl 


133 




J3S 


I3f 


i37 


139 


7#2 


X 


U4r 




146 

A 


147 

izr 


14fi 

$ 


14S 




ISl 


/■aZ 

A 


ISJ 

J: 




len 








/^j^ 

^ 








no 


371 

4 


V72 
1^ 


/7,J 

(ft 




17S 

% 


17ff 


777 

A 


17<f 


179 






162 


1S3 

Is 




ISS 


ige 


iS7 




199 
?5 


ISO 


192 


W2 




134- 

± 


lae 


187 


1»9 


199 
1^ 


2O0 


1: 









JJietfiereUftLiih: ^^Marhnj^ l<uu 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



I Metal 

M 

M 
M 



M 
M 

M 



M 



Size 

4+ 

4 
U 



3-2 



91 

■^2 



9+ 

4 

2 

2- 
4+ 



Weight 

in grains 

Troy. 



48-1 
49-9 

49-2 



252-4 



ABBAIT^ Mysi^. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. MYSaN ABBAITflN in two lines; between, fulinen; 

below, men. 1 ; all in wreath of oak. 
Another similar. 
Head of Apollo to r. B- MY(2ilN) ABBA in two lines ; between, bipennis; below, 

same mon. ; all in wreath of oak. 

Note. — A comparison of Strabo in pp. 667 and 576 leads to the belief that not far from the Aba- 
sitis, as he calls the country of the Abbaitte, there was a common frontier of Lydia, Phrygia, and 
Mysia. The same geographer informs us, that Ancyra, usually called Ancyra Phrygice, to distinguish 
it from Ancyra Galatiae, was in Abasitis, and near the sources of the Macestus. As the money of the 
AbbaitiE shows that they considered themselves Mysians, it would seem that a part of Abasitis was 
in Phrygia and a part in Mysia ; and that, as Ancyra was at the sources of the Macestus, the city of 
the Abbaitce was in a situation lower down that river. On the country adjacent to the upper course 
of the Macestus, see Researches in Asia Minor, by W. J. Hamilton, ii. p. 124, et seq. 



■ ABYDUS Troadis. 

Head of Gorgo, adv. B. Quad, incus., with irregular divisions. 

Head of Gorgo, with serpents around it, adv. B. Anchor ; in field to I., cray-fish ; 

to r., A. 
Another similar. 

iVoJc— There can be little doubt that the hideous face with a protruded tongue, which has often 
been described by numismatists as a masque, was always intended for the Gorgo or head of Medusa. 
The serpents are here represented as on the ./Egis of Minerva, but on many coins they were omitted. 
The hanging out of the tongue, which added so much to the horrid appearance of the Gorgo, and its 
fabled effects, was the natural consequence of decapitation. 

Bust of Diana to r., with quiver on her shoulder, within a dotted circle. 

B. ABYAHNSiN I4IAA0Y in two lines ; between, eagle, standing with expanded 

wings to r. ; in field to r., star and radiated head of Apollo ; the , whole in 

wreath. 
Apollo, seated to I.; in right hand, arrow; in left hand, bow. B. (e)YKYAHS. 

Anchor ; in field to ?., A ; to r., cray-fish. 
Male head to r. ; in field to I., A ; to r., star. B- AB. Eagle, on fulmen, to I., 

looking to r. ; in field to r., ?. 
Head of Diana to r. B. ABY. Eagle, standing to r. ; in field to r., ?. 
Head of Apollo to r. R. ABY. Eagle, standing to r. ; in field to r., head of Juno ? 

to r. 



2 

Metal 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Size 



2i 



Weight 



M 



M 



5 + 



M 
M 

M 

JE 
M 



4+ 

5 
9 



Augustus. 



BAG 



A[Y] 



Head of Augustus to r. B. tJt/Ji- Lyre 



ACALISSUS Lyciffi. 

Note. — The situation of Acalissus was ascertained by the late Mr. Daniell and Capt. Spratt, R.N. 
by means of an inscription containing the name of the place. Acalissus stood on a height rising from 
the right bank, and about fifteen miles from the mouth of a large river in the south-eastern part of 
Lycia, which is now called Allighyr, but of which the ancient name is uncertain. Though now a 
mere ruin, Acalissus was still a bishoprick in the ninth century. 



AY. 



K. MAP. ANT 

paludate. R. AKAAICCeUJN 



Gordtanus Senior. 
rOPAIANOC ceBA. Bust of Gordianus to r., laureate and 



Armed horseman, galloping to r. — Electrotype. 



3+ 



4+ 



Note. — The imperial coins of the Asiatic cities so commonly represent the emperors as laureate 
and clothed with the paludamentum, that it will not generally be necessary to notice these distinc- 
tions. 

ACCILLEIUM Ioni«. 

Note. — There can be little doubt that this is the same place as the 'AxiXXiTov mentioned on two 
occasions by Xenophon (Hellen. 3, 2 — 4, 8). It appears clearly to have been situated in or near 
the valley of the Maeander, not far from Magnesia and Priene. 

Gordianus Junior. 

AYT. K. MAP. ANTO. rOPAIANOC, Bust of Gordianus to r. R. AKKIAAEON. 
Victory, stepping to I. ; in right hand, garland ; in left, palm branch. 

ACMONIA PhrygijB. 

Note. — Acmonia, according to the Tabular Itinerary, was thirty-live miles from Cotyaeium on the 
road to Philadelpheia. Its exact position therefore might probably be determined by following the 
modem route from Kut^ya to AUhsheh^r. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. [AjKMONEliN 0EOAOTO[2] IEPONY[MOY] in three lines ; 
between the two former, Asclepius, adv. 

AHMOC. Male bust to r. (People of Acmonia.) R. AKMONGflN. Eagle, stand- 
ing with open wings, to r. 

lePOC AHMOC. Youthful diademate head to r. (Populus Romanus.) IJ. Same 
legend. Jupiter, standing adv. ; in right hand, patera ; in left, sceptre. 

Agrippina Junior. 
[ArPinniNHN] rGBAr[THN]. Head of Agrippina to r. ; before the neck, ?. 

B. (eni)repoYHNioY KAnixaNor cgoyhpae kai ioyaiac akmoncon. 

Diana to r. ; right hand to quiver ; in left hand, bow ; in field to I., mon. 2. 
(EFIl) ; in field to r., XA in mon., P, and under them, lyre. 
Another ; the obverse double-struck, and the legend partly covered with UOIIIIAIA 
CEB. 

Marcus Aurelius. 

AY. KAI. ANTilNGINOC 06. Head of Marcus Aurelius to /•. fi. GH. TYNAANIOY 
AKMONGilN. Asclepius to r. 

Gordianus Junior, 

AYT. K. M. AN. rOPAIANOC. Radiate bust of Gordianus to r. R. AKM0N6QN. 
Jupiter, seated to I. ; in right hand, patera ; left resting on hasta. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal Size Weight 



M 


H 


JE 


n 


M 


2+ 


M 


6 



M 



M 



M 

JE 
M 

M 



M 
M 



2+ 



H 



6i 



21 



ACRASUS Lydiae. 

Note. — Acrasus, the coins of which show it to have flourished from the time of its autonomy to that 
of Gordian, continued to be one of the cities of Lydia in the seventh century, and was still a bishoprick 
in the ninth. Its name occurs in Hierocles between those of Hermocapelia and Apollonos Hieron. 
From one of its coins in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Mionnet, Sup. VII. p. 312) it appears to have 
been situated on a river named Lycus, which was probably a tributary of the Caicus. 

Head of Bacchus to r. B. Victory, stepping to r. ; in right hand, crown ; in left, 
palm branch ; around, AKPACiaTQN. ' 

Bust of Pallas to r. B. Same legend. Telesphorus, adv. 

Bearded head of Hercules to r. B. Same legend and type. 

(leP)A BOYAH. Veiled female head to r. B- Female, crowned with modius, 
standing adv., looking to I.; in right hand, rudder; in left, cornucopise (For- 
tune) ; around, AKPACIiiTQN. 



AY. KA. A. C. C60YHP0C. 
around, AKPACISiTaN. 



Septimiws Severus. 
Head of Sept. Severus to r. 



B- Asclepius, adv. 



AYT. KAI. ANT. TOPAIANOO. 
in double line around, 6111. 



Gordianus Senior. 

Bust of Gordianus to r. B. Hercules naked, adv. ; 
CeP. AYP. ANGNKAHTOY SIKIMOY AKPACIOTaN. 



40-5 



ADRAMYTTIUM Mysi«. 

li'ote. — Aristotle (ap. Stephan. in ' ASpafivrrtov) derives the name of this city from Adramyttus, 
son of Halyattes I., brother of Croesus. The place still preserves its ancient name. 

Head of Pallas to r. B. (AAPAMY)THNSiN. Owl, with extended wings, on fulmen ; 
in field to r., mon. 3. 

Note.— These types recall to mind that Adramyttium was a colony of Athens (Strabo, p. 606). 

Diademate head of Adramytus, with beard and long hair, to ^. B- Same legend ; 

horseman to r. ; above, star. 
AAPAMYTHNflN. Bust of Pallas to /. B. eni CTPA . . AOYKIOY BAAPAN. 

Pallas, standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ; left hand on shield. — From the 

Pembroke Collection (867). 

Severus Alexandrus. 
AYT. KP. CGB. AAGSANAPOC. Head of Severus Alexandrus to r. B. eHBH 
AAPAMYTHN12N. Turreted female head to r. 

JVo«e.— This reverse personifies the Thebe Hypoplacia of Homer, which was destroyed by Achilles. 
In the time of this coin Thebe was a deserted site in the Adramyttene territory, as well as Chrysa 
the port of Thebe. They occupied the plain at the foot of the peak of Ida to the south, at a distance 
of eight or nine miles from Adramyttium. 

MQM .^olidis. 

NoU.—ln our copies of Xenophon and Strabo, the name of this city is kiyai : m those of He- 
rodotus, Aiyaiai. The coins vary the form of the gentile ; from the most ancient we may infer 
that it was then Atyicic, at a later date it was Atyatlf. I am not aware that the position of the city 
has been ascertained. From Strabo it would appear to have been situated between Temnus and 
Cyme, perhaps at the modem Ghiuzdlhissir, which is exactly in that line. 

Aid. Half-goat, couchant to r. B ON. Head of bearded Bacchus, crowned 

with ivy, to r. 
Head of Apollo to r. B. AITAE. Head and neck of goat to r. 
Same type. B- No legend ; same type. 



ASIATIC GREECE, 



Metal 

M 



JE 



JE 



M 



JE 



M 



JE 



JE 

JE 

JE 

JE 
M 

M 



Size 

Si 



M 


5 


/E 


4 


JE 


4X 


M 


2i 



Weight 



4+ 



3 
3 

7 

7 
8 

4-3 



Helmeted male head to r. B. AIFAEON. Naked figure, with radiated head 
(Jupiter ?) towards r. ; in extended right hand, eagle ? ; left resting on hasta ; 
in field to L, mons. 4, 5, 6. 

Bearded head to /•. IJ. AIFAE. Head of goat to r. 

JEGEM Cilicise. 
Note. — In the autonomous times of this city, the name of its people was written AtytaToi. Under 
the Roman empire we find three different forms in use, and at length the name of the city was 
shortened to Atyai, as appears by the present Aifis, i. e. Atyai in the usual Romaic form of the third 
case. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. AU'EAISiN. Pallas Nicephorus, standing toL; infield 

to I., EP. 
Head of Pallas to r. B. AIFEAION TH2 lEPAS KAI AYTONOMOY in four lines ; 

goat, lying to I. ; in field, mon. 7. 
Turreted female head to r. ^. AIFEAIiiN. Head and neck of horse to I.; in 

field to I., mon. 8. 
Bearded head of Hercules to r. R. AIM . . . AIFEAiaN. Bow in case, club. 



Caracalla. 
Bust of Caracalla 



to r. R. Air For- 



M 



AY. 



AYT. K. M. AYP. ANTiJNEINOC. 
tune to I. 

Diadumenianm. 

on. ANTiiNINOC KAI. Ce. Bust of Diadumenianus to r. R 

MAKPINOY n. AirEilN Head of Hercules, in lion's scalp, to r. 

Severm Alexandras. 

. AAeaTANAPOC K. 06. Bust of Severus Alexander to r. B. AIFAION. 
Victory, stepping to I. ; in right hand, crown ; in left, palm branch. 

Valerianus. 

KAI. nOY. AIK. OYAAePIANOC. Radiate head of Valerianus to r. R. AireAIlDN 
NeiDKO. NAY. ex. T. (300.) Eagle, with open wings, adv., looking to l, 
standing on arrow ; in beak, a garland. 

Note. — The sera of iEgece commenced in the year b.c. 47, when Julius Caesar, marching from 
Egypt through Syria against Phamaces, settled the afi°airs of the Cilician and other cities in this part 
of Asia. The year 300 therefore was a.d. 253, the first year of Valerian. 

GalUenus. 

.... AIK. rAAAIHNOC CGB. Radiate head of Gallienus to r. B. AIPAION 
NeiiK. NAYAP(xiSoc). Two men naked, each with club in one hand ; the other 
arms entwined. 

^ZANIA Phrygise. 

Note. — The coins of jEzania, in their copiousness, style, and date, accord with the extensive ruins 
of this city as described by Major Keppel (Earl of Albemarle), ii. p. 204, et seq. 

Head of Serapis to r, B. AIZANGITiiN. Eagle, adv., with wings expanded, look- 
ing to r. 

Bearded head of Hercules to I. B. EZEANITiiN. Hermes, naked to I. ; in right 
hand, patera ; in left, caduceus. 

IGPA CYNKAHTOS. Young diademate head to r. (Senatus Romanus.) B. AIZA- 
NGITiJN. Female, adv., right hand extended ; left hand holding up dress. 

Same legend and type. B. Same legend. Fortune, standing to I. 

lePOC AHMOC. Youthful laureate head to r. (Populus Romanus.) B. AIZA- 
NGITiiN. Eagle, with wings expanded, adv., looking to I. 

eeON. C . . . AHTON. Youthful male head to r. (Senatum Romanum honorant 
^zanitse.) B. AIZANITaN. Head of Diana to r. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 




Size 



Si 

4i 



Weight 



M 



M 



M 
JE 

M 



M 



9 + 



254-3 



Aupmtus. 

SEBASTOS. Head of Augustus tor. R. EH AIZANEITiiN. Jupiter 

Aetophorus half-draped, standing adv. towards the I. ; in left hand, hasta. 
Germanicus and Agrippina Senior. 
. . . . rEPMANIKOG. Head of Germanicus to r. R. ArPinniNA AIZANITIDN 
Em MHAHOY. Head of Agrippina senior to r. 

Claudius. 
AIZANITAI KAAYATON KAICAPA. Head of Claudius to r. R. EHI KAAYAIOY 

IEPAK02. Jupiter Aetophorus as before. 
Another similar. 
Legend effaced. Head of Claudius to r. R. EDI KAAYAIOY Same 

Domttianus. 
AOMITIANOC KAIOAP ceBAO. Head of Domitian to r. R. AIZANEITON. 
Pallas Nicephorus to I. 

AGRIPPIAS Palestinse. 
Veiled female head, with apex, to r. R. ArPinnEiiN L. IH (year 18). Prow to I. 

Note. — Anthedon, on the coast of Palestine, having been ruined by tlie wars, and re-established by 
Herodes I., receiyed from him the name Agrippias, in honour of the minister of Augustus. The 
year is probably dated from this event. Mionnet describes a coin of Caracalla with the legend 
AN9HA0NIQN, and a date between 130 and 140. There seems, therefore, to have been a restora- 
tion of the old name of the city, and a new lera of date, not many years after the conquest of Judsea 
by Titus. 

ALABANDA Carise. 

Note. — Apollonius compared Alabanda to a pack-saddle laden with scorpions (ap. Strabon. 
p. 660). The pack-saddle was formed by two heights and an interjacent ridge. Mylasa and 
Alabanda were noted for abounding in scorpions. In my geographical remarks on Asia Minor 
(Journal, &c., p. 233), I have shown reasons for believing Alabanda to have been situated at Arab- 
hissar, and not at Karpusli, as Pocoeke and Chandler had supposed. Alabandus, son of Car, was 
said to have been the founder of this city, and in the time of Cicero was worshipped there among the 
great deities. Cicer. de Nat. Deorum, 15 and 19. 

Tree or branch ; below it, fruit. R. AAABANAEiiN. Eagle, with wings expanded, 
standing to *•. and looking to I. 

Septimius Severus. 
AY. K. A. C. CEYHPOC. Bust of Sep. Severus to r. R. AAABANAGilN. Pallas 
adv. turning to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, hasta ; at her feet, 
shield. 

Caracalla. 

AY. K. M ANTONEINO. Bust of Caracalla to r. R. AAABANAGiiN. Lyre 

with five strings. 

ALEXANDREIA Troadis. 

Ifote. — Alexandreia, situated on the coast of Troas, to the southward of Sigeium, was founded by 
Antigonus, King of Asia, and from him, called Antigoneia, which name was changed by Lysimachus 
into Alexandreia, in honour of Alexander the Great. It was colonized in the time of Augustus by 
the Romans, whose hero jEneias reigned in this pai't of the Troas. 

Head of Apollo to I. R. AHOAAiiNOS iMIQEflS AAESAN. PMA. (year 141.) 
Apollo Smintheus to r. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, bow and arrow ; 
behind the shoulder, quiver; in field ?., mons. 9, 10. 

h 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 
M 



Size 

9 



M 



M 

JE 

M 



iE 






M 



2i 



4 

5 
5 
3i 



5i 



5i 



JE 2 



M 



Weight 

265-8 



M 


6 


JE 


H 


JE 


6 


M 


6 


M 


H 



Same type. B. AnOAAQNOS IMIQEiiS AAESANAPEiiN flEISISTPATOY SA. 
(year 230.) Same type; in field I., mon. 11. Electrotype from the Pemlroke 
Collection (892). 

Note. — A rat or mouse, in the dialect of jEolis and Troas, was S/iivSof. Apollo was said to have 
slain the rats or mice with his arrows, because they destroyed the fruits of the earth. There are 
other explanations of the type, but this agrees best with the coins. The termination of the word 
IMI9EQ2 accords with the Homeric S/iivQtO from S/jivOeif, and shews ^iiivdwi to be incor- 
rect. X for S is like XMYPNA for S/ivpi/a, and the omission of N is immaterial as to sound. 
The style of the former of these two tetradrachma accords perfectly with the supposition, that the 
sera commenced in the year B.C. 300, or that following the fall of Antigonus ; and that its date, there- 
fore, is 159 B.C. The inferiority of style in the latter coin accords perfectly with the great difference 
of date between them. The Sminthium, or temple of ApoUo, was situated in the territory of 
Alexandria, at a place named Chrysa, on a rocky height rising from the sea-shore to the southward 
of the city. But this was not the Homeric Chrysa, which was near Adramyttium and Antandrus. 
Strabo, p. 613. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. AAESA. Apollo Smintheus, as before, to r. ; at his 
feet, to r., a rat. 

Note. — Strabo, describing the statue of Apollo at Chrysa, says, o /»5j tiiroccirai rif iroU tov 
io&vov. 

Head of Apollo, adv. B. aaEWAN. A lyre of six strings; PU (year 180, b.c. 120); 

all in a wreath. 
Another similar ; but no date apparent. 
Another, but the letters differently disposed. 
Head of Apollo to r. B. AAESAN. Horse feeding to I. ; below, a monogram ; 

in exergue, fulmen. 

Note. — The horse was sometimes sacrificed as a victim to the sun (Paioan. Lacon. 20). 

Alexandria Colonia. 
AAEX. TRO. Turreted female bust to r. ; behind, vexillum. ft. COL. AAEX. 

AVG. Apollo Smintheus to r. ; holding in the right hand a patera over a tripod 

with fire. 
CO. ALEX. TRO. Same type. B. COL. AVG. TROA. Horse feeding to r. 
AL. CO. TRO. Same type. B. COL. AVG. TROADE. Apollo Smintheus to r., as 

before, but no tripod. 

Marcus Aurelius. 
Legend efiaced. Head of Marcus Aurelius to r. B. COL. AVG. TROA. Statue 

of Apollo Smintheus on a column, or high basis, to r. 

Commodus. 
... or. Head of Commodus to r. B. COL. AV. TRO. Tripod. From the 

PemhroJce Collection (1005). 

Caracalla. 
ANTONINVS PIVS AVG. Bust of Caracalla to r. B. CO. ALEXAN. AVG. Statue 

of Apollo Smintheus, on a base, to r. ; before it, a tripod with fire. 
ANTONINVS PIVS A. Same type. B. COL. ALEXA. AVG. Same type. 
M. AVREL. ANTONINVS PI. Head of Caracalla to r. B. COL. AVG. TROAD. 

Same type without the tripod. 
ANTONINVS PIVS AVG. Bust of Caracalla to r. B. Same legend. Hercules 

strangling Antseus, adv. 
M. AVREL. ANTONINVS. Same type. B- COL. ALEXA. AVG. Hermes ( I ) 

to I., right foot on pedestal ; in right hand, caduceus ( ? ) ; left hand on hip. 
M. AVR. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG. Same type. B. Same legend. Caracalla 

galloping to I., with right hand held up ; statue of Apollo Smintheus on basis 

to r. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 
M 
JE 
M 
JE 

JE 

M 



£ 



JE 

M 
JE 

JE 

JE 

JE 

M 



iE 



JE 



Size 

6 

O2 

6 
6 

H 

6 

6 



5i 



Weight 



41 






6i 



4i 
4i 

5 



H 



Legend effaced. Bust of Caracalla, with shield, to I. ft. COL. AVG. TROA. 

Horse to r. ; behind it, a tree. 
AV. M. AV. ANTONIN. Bust of Caracalla to r. ft. COL. ALEX. AVG. Wolf to I., 

looking to r., suckling the twins. 
M. AVR. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG. Head of Caracalla to r. ft. COL. AVG. TROAD. 

Horse feeding to r. 
M. AVREL. ANTONINVS. Same type, ft, COL. AVG. TROA. Same type. 

Severus Alexandrus. 
M. AV. S. ALEXANDRV. Bust of Severus Alexander to r. ft. COL. ALEX. TRO. 

Wolf standing to r., looking to I., and suckling the twins. 
IM. S. ALEXANDRVS. Same type. ft. COL. ALE. AV. TRO. Apollo Smintheus to 

r. ; before him, tripod with fire. 
IMP. M. AV. S. ALEXANDRVS. Same type. ft. COL. ALE. TRO. Statue of Apollo 

Smintheus to r., in a temple seen in perspective ; in field to r., crescent. 
ALEXANDRVS. Same type. ft. COL. AL. AVG. TROAS. Horse feeding to r. 

Maximinus. 
IMP. MAXIMINVS PIVS AV. Head of Maximinus to r. ft. COL. AVG. TRO. 

Eagle flying to r. ; in its claws, an ox's head. 

I^ote. — This type refers to the tradition, that when the founder, undetermined as to the site of his 
intended city, was sacrificing to some deity, an eagle carried away the head of the victim, and depo- 
sited it on the future site. A similar story is told of the foundation of the Syrian Antioch by Seleu- 
cus I., and of Nicomedia by Nicomedes I. Hence the type of an eagle with a serpent in his talons on 
coins of the latter city, and that of an eagle with the leg of a quadruped on some coins of Antioch. 

Maximus. 
C. IVL. VE. MAXIMVS. CAE. Bust of Maximus to r. ft. Same legend. Horse 
feeding to r. 



Valerianm Senior. 
Bust of Valerian to r. ft. Same legend. 



Apollo Smintheus 



(M. D. Lie 

to r. 
IMP. Lie. VALERIANVS A. Same type. ft. Same legend. Horse feeding to r. 
Another similar. 

Gallienus. 
[MP. C. Lie. GAL. . . . Bust of Gallienus to r. ft. TROAS. Turreted female head 

to r. (Alexandria) ; behind, vexillum, on which AV. . . 
IMP. LICI. GALLIENVS. A. Same type. ft. COL. AVG. TRO. Horse feeding to r. 
GALLIENVS. Same type. ft. COL. AVG. ALE. TROAD. Wolf standing 

to r., looking to l„ and suckling the twins. 
IMP. LICI. GA Same type. ft. COL. AVG. TROA. Silenus standing to 

r. ; on his shoulder, a wine bag. 

Salonina. 
AVR. CORN. SALONINA. Head of Salonina to r. ft. COL. TRO. Horse under 

a tree, feeding, to r. 



ALIA Phrygian. 

Note.— The city AAIOI follows Acmonia in the enumeration by Hierocles of the cities of Phrygia 
Facatiana. Gains, bishop vSXtui 'Wiaviov, subscribed to the Council of Chalcedon, a.d. 451, and 
the place was still a bishopric in the ninth century. 

Gordianus Junior. , 

AYT. K. M. ANT. rOPAIANOC. Bust of Gordian to r. ft. AAlHNiiN. Half-draped 
Bacchus standing to I. ; in right hand, cantharum ; in left hand, hasta ; at his 
feet, panther. 



ASIATIC GREECE, 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



JE 



M 
M 

M 

JE 
JE 
JE 

JE 



H. 



8 

8 



81 



84 



10 



ALINDA CarijE. 

Beardless head of Hercules, covered with a lion's scalp, to r. 
indistinct.) Thyrsus and club. 



B Ar IN.— (letters 



AMASIA Ponti. 

i\rc-te.— Amasia, a strong position in the valley of the Iris, preserves its ancient Atnaeonian name, 
and a few remains of walls and subterraneous works, sufficient to prove its ancient importance. 
It was the native place of Strabo, who has left us a description of it. For its present state, see 
Hamilton's Asia Minor, i. p. 366. 

Domitiamis. 

AYT. AOMITIANO. KAICAP. CC Head of Domitian to r. R. AMACCeiA. 

exOYC. eg. (year 95, a.d. 88, seventh year of Domitian). Turreted female 
bust to I. 

Note. — The Amasian sera commenced in the year 7 B.C., when Augustus reduced Bithynia, Paphla- 
gonia, and a pai-t of Pontus into a single province. (Eckhel, ii. p. 346.) 

Antoninus Pirn. 

AN'mNINOC. Head of Antoninus to r. B. AMACIAC THC MHTPOnO- 

AeiiC e. PNe (year 155, a.d. 148). A funeral pile. 

Sept. Severus. 

cen. ceOYHPOC. Bust of Sept. Severus to r. B. AAP. 06. ANT. 

(AMACIAC ) CT. CH. (year 208, a.d. 201). Funeral pile of two tiers 

burning ; to ^. a tree. 

A. cen. ceOYPOC neP . . . Bust of Sept. Severus to r. B. AAP. CCY. 

ANT. AMACI. MH. NE. HP. CT. CH. ['A^a'^^C Sfu'/pVC 'Ai^ro>'£(V>,c 'A/uairiat 
Mj/rpoTToXtwc Ntw/fopou Ilpwrjjc. "Eroc CH (year 208)]. Fortune, with modius, 
standing to I. ; in right hand, rudder ; in left hand, cornucopise. 

Caracalla. 

AY. ANTaNINOC Bust of Caracalla to r. B. (AAP. CCY). ANT. 

AMACIAC .... CT. CH. (year 208). Fortune, as before, to I. 

AYP Same type. B. AAP. CCY. . . . AMACIAC MH. NC. CT. 

C©. (year 209). Same type. 

KAI. M. AY. AN(TONINOC). Same type. B. AAP. CCY MH. NC. 

DP. n. CT. 00. (year 209). A star. Same type. 

Geta. 
n.CenTI. TCTAC KCCA . . Bust of Geta to r. B. AAP. CCOY. AN. AMACIAC 

MH Funeral pile, on which is a spread eagle, and above it the quadriga 

of the sun, adv. ; close to the left side of the pile, a tree. 

no. CCHTIMI. r Same type. B. AAP. CCYI. ANT CT. 

CH. (year 208). Victory to I. ; in right hand, crown ; in left hand, palm- 
branch. 

Severus Alexandrus. 
. K. M. AYP. ceOYHPOC AACIANAPOC. Head of Severus Alexander to r. 
B. AAP. CCY. AA. S- (AMACIAC) MH. NC. HP. HO. CT. CKH. (year 228, first 
year of the reign of Severus). Funeral pile, with the eagle, quadriga of the sun, 
adv., and tree as before. 

iVbfe.— The abbreviations MH, HE, IIP, in the above legends are siglas ; that is to say, the two 
letters are united as a monogram. This form became common about the time of the striking of these 
coins, and will seldom require to be noticed. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



I Metal 



M 

JE 
M 



M 



Size Weight 



M 



M 
M 



M 
M 

M 

M 



4i 



3i 



M 4 



8 






4i 
4 



H 



AMASTRIS Paphlagoniffi, 

Ifote. — Amastris, now AmSsera, was said to have derived its name from a daughter of Oxyathres, 
brother of Darius Codomannus. It stood on the site of the Homeric Sesamum (II. /3. 853) ; and on 
its renewal by the Persians was enlarged by the population of the equally ancient, but then ruinous 
cities, Cytorum and Cromna, 

Youthful head to r. wearing a Phrygian bonnet, a wreath of laurel, and a star. 

B. AMASTPIEiiN. Amastris seated to I. ; in right hand, Victory ; in left 

hand, sceptre ; before her, Rhodian flower, 
^gis of Minerva, adv. ft. AMASTPEilS. Victory, bearing palm, stepping to r. ; 

in field, AK. 
Same type. B;. Same legend and type ; but in field, A A united. 

Note.—Tbe types of these two coins, both of the obverse and of the reverse, are found on coins of 
Amisus, Chabacta, Cabeira, Comana, Laodiceia Ponti, and Sinope. 

Marcus Aurelius. 

M. AYPHAIOC OC. KAICAP. Head of Marcus Aurelius to r. ft. AMAC- 

TPIANfiN. Harpocrates, adv. ; right hand to lips ; on left arm, conucopise. 



AMISUS (or Samisus) Ponti. 

Note. — Amisus, now Samslin, was one of the Milesian colonies on this coast. Some Athenian settlers 
afterwards gave it the name of Peirseus or Peira, hence the owl and the legend IIEIPAIQN. On 
the second coin we find the same type, with A for Amisus. Eckhel describes a coin bearing the same 
types on both sides, with AMISOY at full length. 

82"2 Head of Juno to I. ft. riEIPAlilN. Owl, with expanded wings, adv.., standing on 

I a rounded base ; in field I. <bl. ; in field r. a grain of barley and a stele. 
25'3 Head of Juno to r. ft. A. Owl, with wings expanded, adv. 

Head of Pallas to r. ft. AMISOY. Perseus, adv.., looking to I. ; in right hand, 
harpa ; in left Rand, head of Medusa ; at his feet, her body ; in field I.., mon. 
12 ; in field r., S. 

Note. — These types, both on obverse and on reverse, are found also on coins of Amastris, Cabeira, 
Chabacta, Comana, and Sinope. The frequent allusions to the hero Perseus on the coins of Pontus and 
of Paphlagonia is the more remarkable, as no part of the adventures of that Argive hero are placed 
by tradition in these countries, nor are any of the coins which record his worship of a very early date. 
Probably, therefore, the worship was introduced by the kings of Pontus, who were of Persian name 
and extraction, and favoured the notion which, however absurd, is supported by Herodotus (7, 50), 
and Plato (in Alcibiad. i. 120), that the Persians derived their name from the hero. 

Head of Perseus to r. ft. AMI20Y. Winged horse, feeding, to I. ; below, mons. 

13, 14. 
Juvenile helmeted head to r. ft. AMISOY. Quiver, with thong. 

J^ote. — These types on both sides are to be seen on coins of Amasia, Chabacta, Gaziura, Laodiceia 
Ponti, Pimolisa, and Sinope. The juvenile helmeted head on the obverse has been generally taken 
for that of Pallas, but on a coin of Pimolisa, published by Pellerin, it is bearded. It is meant pro- 
bably for some hero peculiar to Pontus. 

Another similar. 

Same type. ft. Same legend and type, but in field I.., mon. 15 ; in field r., 

mon. 16. 
Head of Bacchus to r, ft. Same legend. A Thyrsus, bound with ribands, behind 

a mystic cista ; in field I., mon. 17 ; in field r., a monogram. 
Another similar, without any monogram. 

e 



10 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 



M 
^ 






JE 
JR 



M 
M 



^ 



Size 



4i 






Weight 



H 



^ 



4 
4 



9i 



/E 64 



44-7 



Head of Jupiter to r. B. Same legend. Eagle, with expanded wings, standing on 
fulmen to I., looking to r. ; in field L, mon. 17. 

Note. — These types on both sides are found on coins of Amasia; Amastris, Gaziura, and Sinope. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type, but in field I., mon. 18. 

^gis, with the head of Medusa in the centre, adv. R. Same legend. Victory 

stepping to r., holding palm over her shoulder with both hands ; in field L, 

mon. 5 ; in field r., mon. 12. 
Two others similar. 
Same type. R. 2AMI20Y. Same type. 

Note. — The initial aspirate was easily convertible into £, as in the instances of Axus and Saxus, 
of Egesta and Segesta. The form Saraisus seems to have prevailed in later times, if we may 
judge from the modem name Samsun, whence we might suppose also that 2AMIZ0YS 2AMIS0YN- 
TOS had been the ancient form, but the coins do not confirm it. 



Youthful head, with wing (Perseus) to r 
bonnets of the Dioscuri. 



R. AMI20Y. Comucopise between the 

Note, — These types on both sides are seen also on coins of Amasia and Sinope. 

Tripod. 

. Female, holding 



38-8 
41-9 



Laureate female head, or Apollo, to r. R. AMISOY. 

Augustus. 

©E. KAICAP ce TOS. Head of Augustus to r. R. AMI 

her veil in both hands, seated on a bull running to r. 

Hadrianus. 
AYT. KAI. TPA. AAPIANOC CGB. nn. YH. T. Head of Hadrian to r. R. AMICOY 
EAEY0EPAC ETOYO PXr (year 163). Pallas Nicephorus, adv., looking to I. 

Note. — 'EKivBipat alludes to the liberation of Amisus from the tyranny of Straton, two years 
before the Battle of Actium, or B.C. 33 (Strabo, p. 547). This com, therefore, is of the year 

A.D. 130. 

Another similar. 

Same legend and type. R. AMICOV EAEV0EPAC ETOVC PIA (year 164). Capri- 

cornus to r, ; between his feet, a globule ; above, a cornucopiae. 

Caracalla. 
AY. KAI. M. AYP. ANTONINOC. Head of Caracalla to r. R. AMICOY eA6Y©ePAG. 

The emperor on horseback galloping to r., in raised right hand, a spear ; below, 

a Hon (?). 

AMORIUM Phrygiffi. 

Note. — In my Asia Minor (p. 86), I remarked that Amorium " chiefly flourished under the Byzan- 
tine empire, that it was the metropolitan see of the Second Galatia, and was taken and plundered by 
the caleph Motasem in the year 837- Under the Saracens it rose to be the chief town of the sur- 
rounding part of Asia Minor, and continued to be so in the eleventh century, when Idrisi wrote his 
geographical work." According to Strabo, Amorium was in Phrygia, and to the southward of Pes- 
sinus, the ruins of which are at Bala-hissSr (Bala, corruption of Palsea and Hissar, castle). Ac- 
cording to the Tabular Itinerary, there was a distance of forty-seven Roman miles between Pessinus 
and Amorium by Abrostola, but the same authority gives reason to believe that Abrostola was not in 
the direct road, but to the eastward of it. At Hergan Kaleh, twenty-three geographical miles from 
Bala-hiss^r to the S.S.W., Mr. W. J. Hamilton found ruins, which being chiefly of Byzantine 
times, are thus in agreement with what might be expected of the remains of Amorium (Asia 
Minor, i. p. 449). 

AMOPIANQN. Beardless head to r., with hair in knots behind and above (Apollo !) ; 
before it, a lyre. R. eni CGPTOPOC ANTQNIOY. Diana Ephesia, adv. 
From the Pembroke Collection (1246). 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



11 



Metal 

M 



Size 

4i 



Weight 



JE 



M 



JE 



JE 



JE 
M 
M 

JE 
M 



7h 



n 



I 2 



4i 



41 

*2 



7 



Head of Hercules I to r. R. . MOPI .... Eagle to r. ; behind it a caduceus. 

Garacalla. 
ANTilNEINOC AYro. Head of Garacalla to r. R. AMOPIANilN. The Eoman 
aquila between two other military standards. 

ANAZARBUS Ciliciffi. 

Note. — The position of Anazarbus on the river Pyramus, about thirty miles abore Missis, the 
ancient Mopsuestia, is known by the modem name Ain Zarba, or the Springs of Zarba. It is not 
unlikely that this form of name is older than the Greek, and that here, as in many other instances in 
Syria and Asia Minor, the local name has been adopted by the Greeks, and fashioned to their lan- 
guage. Ressena (Ras el Ain), in Mesopotamia, is an example closely resembling it, Anazarbus, on 
recovering favour from Augustus, took the name of Csesareia ad Anazarbum, and coins are found as 
well with the legend ' kva^apfikuv, as with that of Kaiaapiiav twv 7rpi>g T<p 'AvaZdpPiji. 

Severm Aleooandrus. 
AYT. K. M. A. C. AAESANAPOC. Bust of Severus Alexander to r. R. ANAZ. 
MHTPO. Victory in a biga to r. ; in field, r. 

Gordianus Junior. 
AYT. K. M. AN. rOPMANOG 06 B. Head of Gordianus to r. B;. ANAZAPBOV 
MHTP0n0AEfi2. Apollo, adv., looking to I., the legs crossed, holding a branch 
in the right hand ; left arm leaning on a lyre which stands on a cippus ; in 
field, GNZ (year 257, a.d. 238). 

Note. — The sera commenced the year after the residence of Augustus in CiUcia, B.C. 19. This 
coin, therefore, was struck in a.d. 228, the first year of Gordianus Junior. 

Etruscilla. 

ePGNNIA M. (Messia?) eTPOYCKIAAA ce. Head of Etruscilla on a crescent to 
r. ; on her head, apex. R. ANAZAPBOY MHTPOn. eT. IBPOY OAYMH. @SC 
(year 269, a.d. 250). Bacchus lying to I., on a recumbent panther to r., 
looking to I. 

Valerianus Senior. 

AYT. K. n. AIK. OYAAGP € . . Head of Valerian to r., with apex. 

R. ANAZAPBOY ENAOS A. M. K. FT. GT. BOG. (year 272, the first 

year of Valerianus). Six vases arranged in two rows ; in the centre vase of the 
upper row, a palm branch. From the Pembroke Collection (1255). 



ANCYRA Phrygi*. 

Note. — This city was on the extreme frontier of Phrygia, towards Mysia, as seems evident from 
Strabo, who places it in Abasitis, of which district one portion at least of the people designated them- 
selves on their corns as Mysians (v. Abbaitse). Ancyra was a bishoprick in the nmth century, as 
well as its neighbour Synaus, now Simaul. 

Sabina. 
©GA PiiMH. Female head, with modius, to r. R. ANKYPANiiN. 

standing to I. ; in right hand, monota, in left hand, hasta. 
CABGINA GGBACTH. Bust of Sabina to r. R. ANKYPANQN. 

adv. ; at her feet, on each side, a stag. 
Another similar. 

Plotina. 
GGBACTH nAOYTGINA. Bust of Plotina to r. R. Same legend and type. 



Draped Bacchus 
Diana Ephesia, 



Lucius Verm. 
AYT, A. AYPH. OYHPOC CGB. Bust of Lucius 
ANKYPA. Asclepius, adv., looking to I. 



Verus to r. R. MHTPOn, 



12 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



M 



M 



M 



JE 



M 






Size 



1 



5 

2i 



Weight 



Otacilia. 

QTA. CGBHPA. Head of Otacilia to r. R. 611 ANKYPANflN. 

Cybele seated to I. 

Valerian. 
. . . K. n. AIK. OYAAePIANOC CGB. Head of Valerian to r. R. MHTPO- 
no . . . . B. N. ANKYPAC Asclepius, adv. From the Pembroke Collection (1255). 
. . . AIK. OYAAGPIANOC C6B. Sametype. B. MHTPOnOAe. B. N. ANKYPAC. 
Hermes to I. ; in right hand, purse ; on left arm, caduceus and chlamys. 

ANTANDRUS Mysise. 

Note. — Antandrus, situated near the northern shore of the gulf of Adramyttium, at the foot of Mount 
Ida, preserves some remains of antiquity above the modem Faplisli. 

Veiled female head to r., in dotted circle. IJ. ANTANAPIilN. Stag to r. 
Female head to /•., hair in reticulum. R. ANTAN. Head of a lion to r. 



ANTIOCHEIA Syrise. 

Note. — It is scarcely possible that so fine a position as that of Antioch should not have been occu- 
pied before the time of the Macedonian conquest, though its name is unknown. In 307 b.c., Antigonus, 
king of Asia, founded a city near the lake to the eastward of Antioch (Strabo,p. 750 ; Johau. Malal. 
Antiochensis Chronogr. p. 86), and gave it the name of Antigoneia. Seleucus, when he had established 
his authority in the east, having chosen a difierent position, removed thither the inhabitants of Anti- 
goneia, and called the new town Antiocheia, in honour of his father Antiochus. To Seleucus is to be 
attributed the commencement of the magnificent walls, the ruins of which still encircle the site, and 
which were enlarged by Seleucus Callinicus and Antiochus Epiphanes. Antioch is supposed by nu- 
mismatists to have had four seras : — 1. That of the Seleucidee, 312 b.c. 2. That of its autonomy, 64 
B.C. Eckhel (iii. p. 268) cites Porphyrins as proving this sera by his statement that Pompeius, having 
conquered Tigranes, Xapiiv irap' ' AvTio\itov xpwara, avTovo/iov Tii)V ttoXiv tlaai. 3. That of the 
victory gained by Julius Ceesar over Pompeius at Pharsalus, which sei-a began at Antioch (as Eckhel 
and others have shown) not in 48 B.C., the real date of the battle, but in the preceding year 49. 
4. The eera Actiaca, or year of the battle of Actium, 31 ac. But there is no evidence of the first of 
these eeras having ever served as a date upon the coins of Antioch. In fact, the autonomy of An- 
tioch liad commenced and had been recorded on its coins before the visit of Pompeius to Antioch, as 
appears from a coin with the legend 'Avrioxswv j«ijrpoiroXeM£ avTovo/iov, and the date '='AS (236) 
of the Seleucid eera, or B.C. 76, which was twelve years before the visit of Pompeius. Evidently, there- 
fore, all that he did for the people of Antioch, was to take their property and leave them (elaue) their 
autonomy, which probably they had assumed as soon as the Seleucid kings had been too weak to pre- 
vent them. The Seleucid sera is found on the same class of coins as that to which I have just re- 
feri'ed — those, namely, inscribed with some or all the titles, MijrpoiroXie, Upd, dffwXof , avTovofioi — as 
late as the year 272, or B.C. 40. As this was just eight years after the battle of Pharsalia, and as we find 
upon the same class of coins, not less numerous than those with the Seleucid seras, a succession of 
dates from 3 to 89 (Mionnet, v. p. 152, seq.), there can be little doubt that about this time the Seleucid 
Eera ceased to be employed on the money of Antioch, and that the Caesarian came into use ; for, with 
the exception of thirty or forty years in the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, when, in deference to 
Augustus, the Actiac £era was substituted for or united with the Caesarian, the latter was the only 
sera employed at Antioch in Roman times. 

Antiochus IV. 

Radiated head of Antiochus IV. to r. B. ANTIOXEiiN TaN nPOS AA*NHt. 

Half-draped figure, adv., looking to I., his right hand holding a garland with 

pendent ribands ; in field I., mon. 24 ; in field r., A*. 
Another similar. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field I., a tripod. 

iVbte.— Daphne is described by Strabo (p. 750) as situated at a distance of forty stades from 
Antioch, and as consisting of a thickly planted grove, eighty stades in circumference, in the midst of 
which was the aavkov ri/ievoQ, containing the temple of Apollo and Diana, Daphne was held in such 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



13 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



JE 



M 



JE 



65-54 



JE 


4J 
4i 


JE 


5i 


M 


H 


JE 


7 


JE 


4 


JE 


5J-4J 



JE 



34 



•H 



high estimation, that the people of Antioch were described as 'Avrioxiii irpbs Aaijivtiv, or ini Adijivy, 
as a distinction from those of other existing cities of the same name. They pretended that the 
conversion of Daphne into a bay-tree, lield by the Greeks in general to have occurred on the banks 
of the Arcadian Ladon, really took place at Daphne. Hence the head of Apollo, the lyre, the 
branch of bay, tlie tripod, so frequent on coins of Antioch. The position of Daphne is recognized 
at a distance of five miles to the south-west of Antioch, in a place abounding with fountains, bay- 
trees, and cypresses. When Daphne ceased to be a place of Pagan worship, the emperor Theodosius 
converted the old buildings into a palace (Itin. Hierasol. Wessel. p. 581. Liban. Orat. 13, p. 418), 
from which is derived probably the present name of the place, Beit el Ma (house of waters). 

Alexander Balas. 

Head of Alexander Balas to r. R. ANTIOXEQN 2. rXP (year 163, b.c. 149). 
Half-draped figure to r., looking to I., and extending right arm to I., with gar- 
land and ribands. 

Autonomous without dates. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. ANTIOXEQN THS MHTPOnOAEiiS. Jupiter Nicephorus, 
seated to I. ; below, fulmen ; before him, a cornucopise ; the whole in a wreath. 

Note. — According to Libanius (in Antioch. vol. ii. p. 241), the worship of Jupiter was first esta- 
blished, and his temple built on the site of Antioch by the Argives when in search of lo. Here 
Alexander erected an altar m honour of Jupiter Bottiseus, the chief deity of his own native city Pella. 
A comparison, however, of the coins of Alexander with those of Antioch and the Seleucidce, leave 
little doubt that the statues of the two temples differed ; that of the Pellsean temple having been an 
Aetophorus, that of Antioch a Nicephorus. And this is confirmed as to the latter by Justin (39, 2), 
who relates, that when Alexander Zebina was straitened for money to pay his troops, he attempted 
to rob the statue of Jupiter of its golden Victory. 

Same type. R. Same legend. Jupiter Nicephorus, seated to ^., between the bonnets 
of the Dioscuri. 

Same type. R. Same legend and types ; but before the Jupiter a trident. 

Same type. R. ANTIOXEiiN MHTPOnOAEQS AYTONOMOY. Same type ; in ex- 
ergue, fulmen. 

Same type, but behind, fulmen. R. ANTIOXEON THS MHTPOnOAEaS AYTONO- 
MOY. Same type. 

Head of Jupiter to r. ; head to 
AEiiS lEPAS KAI A2YA0Y 

Same type, same countermark, 
double struck. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. ANTIOXEON 
in field, caduceus ? 

Same type as the last. R. ANTIOXEON MHTPOnOAEOS 
ing to I. at star; in field, mon. 19. 

Autonomous with dates. 

[ANTIO]XEilN THC MHT. Veiled and turreted female head (Antiocheia) to r. 
R. Ram, running to r., looking to I. at star and crescent ; in field, H, and 
below, eT. ASP (year 194, 118 b.c). 

Note. — The ram belongs to the oriental worship of the sun, moon, and of some of the stars, among 
which were the signs of the zodiac ; this worship was adopted by the Macedonian Greeks in Egypt 
and Asia. On gems and coins the ram is generally represented, as in the present instance, looking 
back at a star or crescent. The same type occurs on coins of Cyrrhus ; and it is with the same allu- 
sion we find Cancer on the coins of king Amemtus ; Leo looking back at a star on the coins of Miletus ; 
Libra on those of Palmyra, and of Pythodoris, queen of Pontus ; Scorpio on those of Commagene ; 
Sagittarius on those of Rhesaena and Singara ; Capricornus on some of the coins of Augustus, chiefly 
on those struck in the east, and the same sign upon the coins of Zeugma and Commagene. 

MHTPO. ANTIOX. Same type. R. GTO. ZC. (year 207, or 105 b.c). Eagle on an 

altar, with open wings, adv., looking to I. 
Head of Jupiter to r. R. ANTIOX EilN THS MHTP0n0AE£i2. Jupiter Nicephorus 

seated to I. ; in field, mon. 20 ; in exergue, TKE (year 223, or 89 b.c). 



r. as countermark. R. ANTIOXEON MHTPOno- 
KAI AYTONOMOY. Same type ; in exergue, ? 
R. Same legend and type ; above, fulmen ( ? ) ; 

MHTPOnOAEiiS AYTONOMOY. Tripod; 

Bam running to r., look- 



14 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


M 


H 


M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


4 


M 


4 


JE 


2 


JE 


3i 



M 
JE 

M 



M 
M 

JE 



JE 


4 


^ 


4 


M 


3 


M 


4 



JE 
JE 



4i 



^ 



H 



3 
3 

H 



4J- 



Weight 



Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in exergue, EKE (year 225, or 87 b.c). 

Head of Antiocheia to r. ft. ANTIOXEHN THS MHTPOnOAESlS. Tripod. EK2 
(year 225, or 87 b.c.) ; in field. A, and below it, M. 

Same type. ft. Same legend and type, but in field, Z, below which H, and in ex- 
ergue ZKS (year 227, or 85 b.c). 

Head of Jupiter to r. ft. Same legend. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I.; in 
exergue, ^AS (year 236, or 77 b.c). 

Two others, with the same legend, types, and date. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. 2NA (year 254, or 58 b.c). Lyre, over which A. 

Head of Antiocheia to r. ft. ANTIOXEON MHTPOHOAEiiS AYTONOMOY. Tripod ; 
EK (year 25). 

Note. — Agreeably to the observations in the first note, it is imcertun whether this date is of the 
Csesarian or of the Actiac eera. 

Head of Jupiter to r. ft. ANTIOXEON MHTPOnOAEns BM (year 42). Ram run- 
ning to r,, looking to l. at star. 

Another similar. 

Note.— The style and types of these two coins of the year 42 exactly resemble others under the 
government of Silanus in the reign of Tiberius of the years 43 and 44 of the Actiac sera. There can 
be no doubt, therefore, that these coins are of the same eera. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. ANTIOXEON AP. (year 104 of the Gsesarian sera, a.d. 56). 
A branch of bay. 

Note. — The proof of this date being of the Csesarian sera, is found in a comparison of the coins of 
Tiberius and Nero hereafter described. 

Another similar. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. aNTIOXE . . . . ET. HP. (year 108, or a.d. 59). Lyre, 

made of the cranium of an ox. 
Another similar. 
ANTIOXEON. Head of Antiocheia to r. ft. ET. HP. (year 108, or a.d. 59). 

A decorated altar. 

Note. — This altar records apparently the dedication of the altar of Jupiter Bottieeus by Alexander 
the Great. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. ANTIOXE. . ET. AIP. (year 114, or a.d. 65). Lyre as be- 
fore. 

ANTIOXEQN. Turreted female head to r. ft. ET. AIP. (year 114, or a.d. 66). 
A decorated altar as before. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. ANTIOX. GT. eiP. (year 115, or a.d. 66). A branch of 
bay. 

ANTIOXEON. Head of Jupiter to r. ft. eTO. GIP. (year 115, or a.d. 66). Fe- 
male, seated to I., dropping a ball into a vase. 

Note. — This is the earliest date at which we find the cui-ved C and £ on coins of Antioch. This 
cursive form of the two Greek letters, although occurring in Egypt in lapidary inscriptions of Ptole- 
maic times, was not common in Asia until the latter part of the first century of the Christian sera ; 
hence we might infer without any other proof that the sera of the coins on which they are found is 
Caesarian. We find the same transition from the square to the curved form of the two letters in 
coins of Antioch under Nero ; and it is remarkable, that the coin on which the first example of the 
curved letters occurs is of the same year, 1 15 of the Csesarian sera. Of the type, which represents a 
female dropping a ball into an urn, Eckhel (iii. p. 284) remarks, " Similem typum habemus in 
nummis Anazarbi et Tarsi Ciliciae, urbium quem explicat addita horum nonnullis vox KOINOBOY- 
AION, commune consilium." The female therefore is the BOYAH personified. 



Two others similar. 

ANTIOXEON. Head of Antiocheia to r. 
A decorated altar. 



ft. ST. ?KP. (year 126, or a.d. 77). 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



15 



Metal 

M 



M 



JE 



M 
JE 



Size 

2i 



Weight 



M 



M 



^ 






8J-6i 



214-4 



M 



M 

M 
M 

M 



7i 
7* 
4 






JE 



4i 



Same legend. Head of Apollo to I. R. eTOYC. OP. (year 170, or a.d. 121). 

B. Seven-stringed lyre, made of tortoise. 
ANTIOXEilN THC MHTPOHOA Head of Antiocheia to r. R. GT. ZOP. 

(year 177, a.d. 128). A decorated altar. 

Marcus Antonius. 

Head of M. Antonius to r. R. ANTIOXEON MHTPOnoAEQS. Head of Antiocheia 
to r. Electrotype. 

Augustus. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. ANTIOXEilN EDI OAPOY tcK (year 26). Veiled and 
turreted female (Antiocheia), seated on rock, to r. ; in right hand, palm-branch ; 
below, river-god (Orontes) swimming to r. 
Another similar. 

Another similar, but EHI OYAPOY, and date ZK (year 27). 
Another similar. 

Note. — P. Quinctilius Varus is best known by his command of the German legions, ending in his 
defeat by Arminius, and death in a.d. 10. As legate In Syria, he had succeeded Satuminus, whose 
name also is found on coins of Antioch. Velleius says of Varus, " ingenio mitis, moribus quietus, 
pecunise vero quam non contemptor, Syria cui prsefuerat deelaravit, quam pauper divitem ingressus, 
dives pauperem reliquit" (ii. ll?)- The dates are of the Actiac eera, and correspond to a.d. 5 and 6. 

APXIEPEI KAISAPI SEBASTil. Head of Augustus to r. R. APXIEPATIKON 
ANTIOXEIS ZK. (year 27, of the Actiac sera, b.c. 4). The whole in four 
lines within a crown (ffrt'^ai'oc), i. e. the Antiochenses dedicate an archieratic 
crown to Caesar Augustus as high-priest. 

Two others similar. 

Another similar, but date HK (year 28, b.c. 3). 

KAISAPOS SEBASTOY. Head of Augustus to r. R. ANTIOXEilN MHTP 

Antiocheia, seated on a rock, to r. ; in right hand, palm-branch ; at her feet, 
Orontes swimming to r. ; in field, KA (year 36) ; AN (year 54) ; mon. 19. 

Note. — Here it is evident, from the interval of eighteen years, that the former «ra is that of Actium, 
the latter of Pharsalia, and that the date of the coin is the year 5 of the Christian sei-a. Before the 
death of Tiberius, the Csesarian sera had again become the only one employed on the money of An- 
tioch, as appears from a coin of Tiberius struck at Antioch under Flaccus (EIII *AAKKOy) in the 
year 82 (Eckhel iii. p. 279), which could not have been of the Actiac sera, as Flaccus died governor 
of Syria in a.d. 33 (Tacit. Ann. vi. 27), corresponding to 51 of the Actiac sera. 

IMP» AVGVST. TR. POT* Same type. R. S.C. in a wreath. 

Another similar. 

Legend effaced. Same type. R. Same letters and type. 

Tiberius. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. ANTIOXEiiN EHI SIAANOY PM. (year 43). Ram 

running to r,, and looking to I. at star. 
Another similar. 

Same type. R. ANTIOXEiiN EHI 2IAAN0Y AM. (year 44). Same type. 
Another similar. 
[SE]BASTOS SEBAS[TOY]. Head of Tiberius to r. R. A. EHI SIAANOY AN- 

TIOXEiiN eM. (year 45), in six lines, within a wreath. 

Nate. — Csecilius Metellus Creticus Silanus was consul in a.d. 7, and four years afterwards was sent 
by Augustus to govern Syria. In the year 17 he was removed by Tiberius. The three dates are of 
the Actiac sera, and correspond to a.d. 12, 13, and 14. 

Claudius. 

Legend effaced. Head of Claudius to I. R. TI. KAAYAIOY K nniNEI (re- 
trograde). Head of Agrippina to r. 



16 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

M 


Size 


Weight 


M 


4 




^ 
/E 


4 
4 




M 


6 


220-3 


M 

M 


7 
8i 


225-3 


M 


6 


174-3 


M 


6 




^ 


8-7 




M 


H 




M 


7-6 


221-5 


M 


7 


228-1 


M 


4i 


108-2 



AV. GER. Head of Claudius to r. B. S.C. in wreath of bay. 

Note. — An eagle in silver impressed on the obverse as a countermark, is modern, and implies that 
this coin belonged to the Modena Collection. 

Nero. 

ANTIOXEQN. Turreted female head (Antiocheia) to r. R. EHI KOYAAPATOY ET 

AP. (year 104). Ram running to r., and looking to I. at crescent and star. 
Another similar. 
Same legend and type. ft. Same legend and type, but below, ET. EP. (year 105.) 

Note. — C. Ummidius Durmius Quadratus was sent into Syria as prsefect by Claudius, and, dying in 
A.D. 60, was succeeded by Corbulo (Tacit. Annal. 12, 45, and 54, 14, 26). The years are of the 
Csesarian sera, and correspond to a.d. 56 and 56, the second and third years of Nero. 

NEPiiN KAISAP SEBASTOS. Head of Nero to r. R. ET0Y2 AlP (year 111). 
Eagle, with open wings, on fulmen, adv., looking to r. ; in field to r., globule 
and palm branch. 
Same legend and type. B. ETOYS BIP (year 112). Same type and symbols. 
IM. NER. CLAV. CAESAR. Same type; before it, lituus. B. eni. TAIOC KGC- 
TIOY ANTIOXe. eTO. EIP (year 115) in five lines in a wreath, within a dotted 
circle. From the Pembroke Collection (1256). 

Note. — The years on these coins are of the Caesarian cera, and correspond to a.d. 62, 63, and 66, the 
eighth, ninth, and twelfth years of Nero. We learn from Tacitus (Ann. 15, 25 ; confer Joseph, de 
B. Jud. 2, 14), that Nero took away the prefecture of Syria from Corbulo, and gave it to Caius Cestius 
Gallus, who had been consul in the reign of Tiberius, a.d. 35. 

Vespasianus. 
AYTOKPATilP OYecnAOIANOG KAI. Head of Vespasian to I. B. GTOYC N€OY 
le POY 0. Draped Jupiter standing adv. towards I. ; in extended right hand, a 
patera ; in left hand, a hasta, surmounted by an eagle with expanded wings, to I. 

Note. — The Annus novus sacer was nothing more than the year of accession of the reigning em- 
peror. See Eckhel, iv. p. 413. This coin, therefore, was struck in the ninth year of Vespasian, 
A.D. 78. 

IMP CAESAR VESP. AVG. Head of Vespasian to I. B. S.C. in a wreath. 

Titus. 

. . R. IMP. PON Head of Titus to r. B. EHI TPAIANOY ANTIOXEQN 

ET. EKP (year 1 25) in five lines, in a wreath. From the Pembroke Collection 
(1256). 

Note. — M. Ulpius Trajanus, father of the Emperor Trajan, was propraetor of Syria, and afterwards 
proconsul of Asia. See Eckhel, vi. p. 434, where he cites the evidence of this identical coin in the 
Pembroke Collection. 

CAES. IMP. TR. POT. Same type. B. ANTIOCHIA. Turreted female head 
to r. 

Domitianus. 

KAICAP ceB Head of Domitian to r. B. GTOYC NGOY ICPOY. 

A (year 1, a.d. 81). Eagle, with open wings, standing to l, on club ; in beak, 

a crown. 
AYTO. KAISAP AOMITIANOS 2EB. TEPM. Head of Domitian to r., wearing the 

segis, as appears by the head of Gorgo in front ; on the edge of the obverse 

to ^., a club. B. ENAEKATOY ETOYS NEOY lEPOY. Year 11, a.d. 92. Eagle, 

with open wings, on fulmen to I., looking to r., and holding in his beak a crown ; 

in its right claw, a palm branch. 
AYT. KAI. AOMITIANOC CeBACTOC TEPM. Head of Domitian to r. B. Pail^ 

standing to r. ; in right hand, helmet; in left hand, hasta; in field, eTO. 11'. 

(year 13, a.d. 94). 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



J7 



M 



^ 



M 



M 



M 

JE 
M 



M 



M 



Metal 


Size 


M 


7 


M 


5 


M 


H 


M 


6i 



Weight 



6i 



H 



7-6 



7J-6J 

4-3 

3i 



219-4 



228-3 
217-8 



204-3 



Trajanus. 
AYTOKP. KAIC. NGP. TPAIAN Head of Trajan to r. R. AHMAPX. es. 

YIIAT. B. (Tribunitia potestate Cos. II., a.d. 98) in two lines in a wreath. 
AYTOKP. KAIO. NGP. TPAIANOC C6B. TEPM. Same type. ft. Same legend and 

type. 
Same legend and type. R. Same legend. Winged Caduceus. 
AYTOKP. KAIC. NEP. TPAIANOC CCB. TEPM. Head of Trajan to r. ; on left 

shoulder, palm branch ; below, eagle ; in field to r., club. R. AHMAPX. 

es. YIIAT. B. (a.d. 98.) Laureate head of Hercules to r., with lion's skin 

about the neck. 

Note. — The club, symbolical of the worship of Hercules at Antioch, occurs on several of the 
preceding coins of this city. But under Trajan his worship becomes more conspicuous, and the head 
resembles so much that of the Greco-Phoenician Hercules on the coins of Tyre, that one cannot but 
suspect some new honours to have been given to the demi-god at Antioch in this reign. His more 
ancient worship is evinced by the tradition that he had planted the groves of Daphne, and that the 
place was originally named Heracleia or Heraclis (Malal. Chronog. p. 86). 

Same legend and type. R. AHMAPX. GS. YIIAT. r. (a.d. 100.) Same type. 
AYTOKP. KAIC. NEP. TPAIANOC C6B. I'CPM. AAK. Head of Trajan to r. ; 

below it, an eagle and club. R. AHMAPX. GS. 16. YHAT. e. (a.d. 103.) 

Antiocheia seated on a rock to r. ; in her right hand, palm branch ; at her feet, 

Orontes swimming to r. 
AYTOKP. KAIC.NCP. TPAIANOC APICT. CGB. TEPM Head of Trajan, 

with radiated diadem, to r. R. S.C. in large letters, below which, A; the 

whole in wreath. 

ffadrianns. 
ATT. KAI. 0G. TPA. HAP. YI. ©6. N(eP. YI. TPAI. AA)PIANOC CGB. (AiroipaVup 

Kaiaap, @cov Tpdintov UapOiKov vlijt, ®iov N«p/3o viuiyoc, Tpaiaroe 'A^piavog ^tpaaroe.) 

Bust of Hadrian to r., slightly bearded. R. AHMAPX. CS. YHAT. B. (a.d. 
118.) Eagle, with open wings, adv., looking to I. ; in its talons, the leg of 
a quadruped. 

Note. — This type alludes apparently to the omen which determined Seleucus to found the new- 
city, which he named A ntiocheia, at the place where Alexander had erected an altar to Jupiter 
Bottiffius. According to Libanius (in Orat. Antioch. I. p. 299, Reiske), when Seleucus was sacrificing 
a bull at Antigoneia, forty stades from Antioch, an eagle snatched a leg of the victim from amidst the 
burning coals, and the son of Seleucus, having followed the bird on horseback, found its prey de- 
posited on the altar of Jupiter Bottiaeus. 

Same legend and type. R. S.C. in large letters, below which, is TA. ; the whole in 
a wreath. 

Antoninus Pius. 

AYTO. KAI. TI. AIA. AAP. ANTUJNCINOC CCB. CYCCB. Bearded head of Anto- 
ninus Pius to r. R. S.C. ; below, B ; the whole in a wreath. 

. . . . AAP. A . . . NEINOC. Same type. R. S.C. ; above, H ; all in a wreath. 

NEINOC. Same type. R. S.C. ; above. A; below, eagle with 

open wings ; the whole in wreath. 

Sept. Severus. 
AYT. KAI. ceOYHPOC CC. Bearded head of Sept. Severus to r. 
es. YHATOC TO. r. Eagle, with open wings, adv., looking to I. 
garland ; between the legs, a star. 



R. AHMAPX. 
in its beak, a 



Caracalla. 
AYT. KAI. M. AYP. ANTilNINOC C. Youthful head of Caracalla to r. R. S.C. 
above, A6 ; below, eagle, with open wings ; all within a wreath. 

Jff'ote. — The meaning of the letters Ae cannot be readily explained. On one of the preceding coins 
we have seen r.A. in conjunction with S.C. ; on others, the single letters, A, B, A, H. 



18 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 
M 



Potin 



Potin 

JE 



M 
JE 
JE 

M 
M 



Potin 



Size 



6i 



Potin 

JE 
M 

JE 



81 



6h 



7 
8 



7i 



■ 2 

6+ 



Weiglit 

210-7 



Geia. 
AYT. KAI. reXAC. Slightly bearded head of Geta to r. R. AHMAPX. es. YHATO. 
B. Eagle with open wings, adv., looking to r. ; in its beak, a crown ; in its 
talons, the leg of a quadniped. 

Note. — The second consulship of Geta was in a.d. 208. 

Macrinm. 
[AYT. K. M.] on. ce, MAKPINOC C6B. Bearded bust of Macrinus to n, 

R. AIIMAPX. ex. YHATOC n. n. Eagle, with open wings, adv., looking to 

l. ; in beak, a crown ; between the legs, the beetle and globe of Egypt ? in 

field r., a palm branch. 

Diadtimenianus. 
KAI, O. AIA. ANTiiNINOO. Bust of Diadumenianus to r. ft. S.C. ; above it, in 

smaller characters, AG ; below, eagle with open wings looking to I. ; the whole 

within a wreath. 
KAI. M. O. A. AN[TiiNINOC]. Same type to /",, but in field, S.C. B. S.C. ; 

above, A ; below, e ; the whole in a wreath. 
KAI. M. O. AI. ANTaNINOC. Same type to r. ft. Same letters and type. 



Magaialus. 

IMP. C. M. AV. K. ANTONINVS AVG. Head of Elag^balus to r. 
large characters ; below which, a star ; the whole within a wreath. 



ft. AG, in 



Severus Alexandrus. 

AYT. KAI. MAP. AYP. CG. AAESANA[POC. C6B]. Bust of Severus Alexandrus to r. 
ft. ANTlOXeiiN MHTPO. KO. S.H.O. Antiocheia seated to r. on a rock, be- 
tween Fortune and a military figure, which crowns her ; at her feet, Orontes 
swimming. 

Note. — Antioch became a Roman colony in the reign of Caracalla. MHTPO. KO., therefore, is 
for MijrpoffoXirwv KoXwvwv. S. H.C. is perhaps S. N. C, Senatus Nobilissimi Consulto. 

PMlippus Senior. 

AYTOK. K. M. lOYAI. *lAinnOC CGB. Bust of Philippus senior to I. 
ft. AHMAPX. eSOYOIACYnATO. A. In smaller letters, ANTIOXIA, S. C. Eagle 
with open wings, to I. ; in beak, a crown. 

Note. — The first consulship of Philippus was in a.d. 245. 

Same legend ; same type, but to r. ft. Same legends and type. 

Same legend and types, but eagle to r. 

Same legend and type. ft. ANTIOXEQN MHTPO. KOAON. In field, A. e. S. C. 

Veiled and turreted female head to r. (Antiocheia); above the turret, a ram 

running to r., looking to I. From the Thomas Collection (2519). 
Another. 

Another similar, but with radiated diadem, ft. Same legends and types. 
Same legend. Busts of the Philippi senior and junior, opposed, ft. Same legends 

and types. 
Another. 
Same legend. Bust of Philippus senior to r., with radiated diadem, ft. ANTIOXEQN 

MHTPO. KOAil. Fortune to I. ; modius on head ; in right hand, rudder ; in 

left, cornucopise ; in field, A. 6. S. C. 



Otacilia, 

MAP. OTAK.IA. ceOYHPAN CGB. Bust of Otacilia to r. ; 
above the shoulders appear the horns of a crescent, ft. 



on head, apex ; 
AHMAPX. eSOY- 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



19 



Metal 



iE 



M 



M 



M 
M 

M 



M 
M 

M 



Size 



4i 



Weight 



8 



5 
3i 



3i 



4i 
4i 

2 

4 

5 



CIAC YUATO. r. Eagle with open wings to r. ; in its beak, a crown ; below, 
ANTIOXIA S. C. 

PMlippus Junior. 

AYTOK. K. M. lOYAI. *IAinn0C CGB. Radiate head of Philippus Junior to r. 
li. S. C. ; above which, AG ; below, an eagle, with open wings, looking to r. ; 
all in a wreath. 

Trajanus Decim. 

\YT, K, r. Me. KY. TPAIANOC At KIOC C6B. Head of Trajanus Decius to r. 
B. ANTIOXeaN MHTPO. KOAii. Antiocheia, with river-god at her feet, 
seated in a tetrastyle temple ; above the summit of the temple, ram running 
to r., looking to I. ; in field above, Ae ; below, S. C. 

Note.—K. r. Me. KY. stand for KAICAP TAIOC MGCCIOC KYINTOC. 

Trebonianus Gallus. 

AYTOK, M. r. OYIB(.oc) TPeB. TAAAOC 063. Bust of Trebonianus Gallus to r. 

JJ. Same legend, type, and letters. From the Pembroke Collection (1255). 
Another similar. 



Antiocheia Syriae, 
in conjunction with Seleuceia, Laodiceia, and Apameia. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B- AAEAiQN AHMiiN A5;P (year 164). Fulmen ; in field 

to I., mon. 21 ; below, mon. 22, and another illegible. 
Head of Diana to r. ; behind, quiver ; all in dotted circle. R. AAEA*QN AHMON 

ASP (year 164). Tripod ; in field to I. mon. 22 ; in field to r., mens. 23, 5 ; 

all in a wreath. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; but date, ESP (year 165), and in field to 

r., mon. 23. 

Note. — Strabo has left us a lucid explanation of these coins. Speaking of Syria, which he divides 
into five portions, namely, Commagene, Seleucis, Coele-Syria, Phoenice, Judtea, he adds, 'H ii SeXttiKi'f 
dpiarii n'lv s<rri rdv Xtx^"""" l^ipiSifV, KaXtlrai Si Tei-poTroXij, Kai iari, narA. Tdf i^ix°^''"Q '" 
avTy iroXiiQ, ivii irXilovQ yi uai ; /ulywrai Si TtTTaptQ, 'Avrtoxn" V '"■' Adipvy, Kai ScXiViceia r/ Iv 
llupif Kai 'Airdiiiia Kai KaoSiKtia, u'linf Kai IXiyovTO aXXi/Xiov dSi\<poi Sid Trjv oftovoiav, St- 
\ivKov row Niicaropoc Kriafxara. 'H fiiv ovv lifyiaTtj, tov warpbe avTOV ofioivvfiog' j) S' ipvjxvo- 
Tdrrt avrov- a\ Si aXXai, >/ fiiv 'A-rrdntia Trig yvvaiKog airou 'ATrdfiac, r) Si AaoSiKCia rjjf /iriTpoc 
(p. 749). The dates on these coins are of the Seleucid rcra, and shew that they were struck in the 
reign of Demetrius II. 



ANTIOCHEIA Carise. 

Note. — The remains of this city are found just above the junction of the Mosynus, which flows 
from Aphrodisias, with the Mseander, in the middle region of the great Mseandrian valley ; it was 
noted for its fertile soil, and a fig called iVx"£ Tpt(jivX\oc (Strabo, p. 630). 

Head of Apollo to r. ; below, E. R. Head of ram to *•. 

Head of Apollo to r. ; countermark, owl, adv. R. ANTIOXESiN. Head of ram 

to r. 
Diademate youthful head (one of the Seleucidse ?) to /-. R. ANTIOXE. Two owls 

with one head, adv. ; in exergue, ear of com. 
Head of Pallas to r. B. ANTIOXESiN. Eagle with open wings, on fulmen, adv., 

looking to r., and having a crown in its beak. 
lePA BOYAH. Female head to r. R. Same legend. Pallas, adv., towards I., in 

a tetrastyle temple. 



20 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



MeUI 

M 
M 

M 

JE 

JE 
M 

JE 
JE 



^ 



^ 



JE 



JE 



Size 

5 

5i 



4^ 



H 



^ 

6 
5 

-9+ 



Weight 



9 + 



9i 



^2 



Another similar. 

lePA rePOYCIA. Youthful laureate bust to r. R. Same legend. Pallas to I., her 
right arm resting on spear ; in left hand, shield. 

Same legend and type. R. Same legend. Statue in tetrastyle temple ; above the 
head, ! 

IGPA CYNKAHTOC Male laureate bust to r. R. Same legend and type. Female 
figure, with modius on the head, holding in right hand a patera ; in left hand, 
a cornucopiae ; at her feet, ! 

Same legend and type. B. Same legend. Diana Ephesia, adv. ; at her feet, on 
each side, a stag. 

Same legend and type. R. [ANTIJOXEON [MAIA]NAP00. River-god reclining to ^. 

AHMOG. Young male bust to r. R. ANTIOXEON. MAIANAPOG. River-god re- 
clining to I, 

Same legend. Laureate youthful bust to r, R. Same legends and type. 

Gallienus. 

AY. K. no. rAAAIHNOC. Armed bust of Gallienus to I. B. EH. APX. A(I>PO- 
AICIOY ANTIOXEiiN. Upon a bridge of six arches the personified Mseander 
is recumbent to I. On the bridge, to the left of this figure, are arches with a 
square superstructure ; to the r., a man walking to l. with a staff in his right 
hand. The river flows rapidly towards the left through the arches of the 
bridge ; below are fishes. 

Another similar, but the legend on R. is EH. APX. A*. [ANTI]OXEiiN, and the 
river flows to the r. 

Note.— The bridge of the Mreander at Antioeheia is mentioned by Strabo, p. 630. " At this bridge 
the great eastern road from Ephesus to Maaaca, which passed through Magnesia, Tralles, and Nysa, 
crossed the river, leading afterwards from Antioclieia along the left bank to Carura, and to Laodicea 
ad Lycum" (Leake's Asia Minor, p. 249). From thence it led to Apameia Cibotus, ApoUonia, 
Antioeheia Pisidiae, and to Philomelium, now Ak-sheh^r, on the great road from Constantinople and 
Brusa to Iconium. 

ANTIOCHEIA Pisidi^ (Colonia). 

Note. — Antioeheia of Pisidia was founded by a colony from Magnesia on the Mceander, under the 
auspices of Antiochus III., from whom its name was derived. At the peace of B.C. 188, between 
Antiochus and the Romans, when the latter enlarged the territories of Eumenes, Antioeheia became 
autonomous, but was afterwards brought under the power of Amyntas, king of Lycaonia and Galatia, 
and on his death reverted to the Romans, who sent thither a colony (Strabo, p. 377). None but its 
colonial coins are extant ; the earliest are of Tiberius. In the reign of Claudius it was visited by 
St. Paul. Considerable remains of Antioeheia are still extant near Yalobatsh (Arundel's Asia 
Minor, i. p. 269 ; Hamilton's Asia Minor, i. p. 472). 

Sept. Severus. 
IMP. CAES. L. SEVERVS. PER. AVG. Bearded head of Sept. Severus to r. 
R. COL. CAES. ANTIOCH. Lunus, or Men Arci^us adv., looking to r. ; his 
left arm leaning on a column ; his right on hasta ; in left hand. Victory on a 
globe ; his left foot on prow ; near his right foot, a cock ; in field, S.R. 

Note. — Strabo mentions the worship of Men Arcseus, the power of its priesthood, the great estates 
and numerous servants attached to the temple, all which were abolished at the time of the Roman 
colony. The worship of Lunus or Men, however, was continued, as appears from the coins. 

IMP. CAES. L. SEP. SEV. PER, Bearded Bust of Sept. Severus to I. R 

ANTIOCHIA. Female, adv., looking to I., in right hand, branch; in left hand, 

cornucopise. 

Caracalla. 
IMP. (CAES. M. AVR) ANTONINVS. Bust of Caracalla to r. R. GENIVS. COL. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



2] 



Metal 


Size 


M 


H 


M 


5 


JE 


5 


JE 


H 


M 


9i 



iE 



M 



.E 

JE 
M 



JE 

JE 

JE 



.E 



jE 



n 



9 



Weight 



ANTIOCH. Female crowned with modius, adv., in right hand, branch ; in left 

hand, eornucopise ; in field, S. R. 
IMP. C. M. AVR. ANTONINV. Head of Caracalla to r. B. GEN. COL. C. ANTIOCH. 

Female figure as before. 
IMP. C. M. AVR. ANT. Bust of Caracalla to r. B. FOPTVNA. COL. ANTIOCH. 

Same type. 
IMP. CAES. M. AVR. ANTONINVS AVG. Head of Caracalla to r. B. GENI. 

COL. CAS. ANTIOCH. Same type. 

Geta. 

SEP. GE . . . . CAES. Bust of Geta to r. R. ANTIOCH. COLO. Eagle with 
open wings, adv., looking to l. 

IMP, CAES. P. SEP. GETA Same type. B. COL. CAES. (ANTIOCHIA.) 

Lunus, adv., looking to I. ; crescent behind his shoulders ; right hand resting 
on hasta ; in extended left, ? at his feet, a cock ; in field to I., S. 

Elagahalus. 
IMP. C. M. ANTONI . . . Bust of Elagabalus to r. B. COL. CAES. ANTIOCHENS . 

Same type. (In some coins described by Mionnet, the object in the 

left hand of Lunus is a Victory standing on a globe). 

Gordianus Junior. 
IMP. CAES. M. ANT. GORDIANVS AVG. Bust of Gordian to r. B. CAES. 

ANTIOCH. COL. Two Victories opposed, fixing a shield on a palm tree ; at 

the foot of which are two slaves ; on shield, S. R. ; in exergue, S. R. 
IMP. CAES. M. ANT. GORDIANOVS AVG. Same type. B- Same legend. Wolf 

standing to r., looking to I., suckling the twins under a tree ; in exergue, S. R. 
Another similar. 
IMP. CAES. M. ANT. GORDIANVS AVG. Same type. B- ANTIOCHIA. Emperor 

crowned by Victory, in quadriga to I. ; in his right hand, branch ; in left 

hand, flag ; before him, a military figure to r., presenting crown (2) ; in 

exergue, S. R. 
Same legend and type. B- FORTVNA COL. CAES. ANTIOCHE. Female figure to 

I. ; in right hand, military standard ; in left hand, cornucopia3 ; in field, R. S. 

retrograde. 

Philippus Senior. 
IMP. M. IVL. PHILIPPVS Radiate bust of Philippus senior to r. 

B. CAES. ANTIOCH. COL. Roman aquila between two other standards; in 

field between them, S. R. 
IMP. M. IVL. PHILIPPVS AV. Same type. B. CAESAR. ANTI. COLON. Same 

type ; in field, as before, S. R. 
Same legend and type. B. CAES. ANTIOCH; in exergue, I. COL., rntrngnr l p . 

Same type ; S. R. 
IMP. M. IVL. PHILIPPVS P. F. AVG. P. M. Same type. B- Same legends. Fe- 
male, adv., looking to I. ; in right hand, staff, resting on globe ; in left hand, 

hasta. 
IMP. M. IVL. FILIPPVS P. FEL. A. Radiate bust of Philip to r. B. ANTHOS ; in 

exergue, ANTIOCHI. COL. River-god recumbent to I. ; in right hand, reed ; 

in left hand, which rests on an overturned urn, a eornucopise. From the Fem- 

hroke Collection (1133). 

Note. — Hence it appears that there was a river at Antioch of Pisidia named Anthos. 

IMP. M. IVL. PHILIPPVS P. F. AVG. P. M. Same type. B. CAES. ANTIOCH. 
COL. Emperor in a quadriga, to r. ; in exergue, S. R. 

Trajanm Decius. 
IMP. CAES. G. MESS. Q. DECIO. TRAI. Radiate bust of Trajanus Decius to r. 

f 



22 

Metal 
JE 

JE 
/E 



Size 

5 
5 

7i 



Weight 



JE 
M 

M 



5 
5 

6-5 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



R. ANTIOCHI. COL. A. Three standards; on the middle one, S. R. ; in ex- 
ergue, S. R. 

Volmianus. 

IMP, CAERAS. LLOVNAIIIIIB. Radiate bust of Volusianus to r. R. ANTIOCHIO. 

C. Same type; in exergue, S. R. From the Pembroke Collection (1133). 
Another similar. 

Gallienus. 

IMP Radiate bust of Gallienus to r. B. ANTIOCH. COLONIA. Wolf 

to r., looking to I., suckling the twins under a tree ; in exergue, S. R. 



ANTIOCHEIA Decapoleos or Ad Hippum. 



M 



180-4 



AYT. NGP. TPAI. 

npos inn. 
Another similar. 



Trajan. 

KAI. Ce. rep. AAK. Head of Trajan to r. 
Roma Nicephora seated on armour to I. 

Commodus. 



B. ANTIOXeON 

countermark, tree ? 



AY. AN Head of Commodus to r. R. ANTIOX. HP. [in. leP.] ACYA. 

In exergue, HMO. (year 24.5.) Turreted female, adv., standing before a horse ; 
in left hand, cornucopise, the right hand holding the horse by a bridle. 

Note. — Tlie benefits conferred upon Syria by Pompeius, after his victory over Tigranes, in b.c. 
C4, caused several of the Syrian cities, particularly in the Decapolis, to assume that year as the 
commencement of an sera ; 248 therefore corresponds to a.d. 184, the fifth year of the reign of Com- 
modus, 

APAMEIA (Cibotus) Phrygise. 

Note. — Celsense was the ancient capital of monarchical Phrygia (ai KcXatvai, jrarpif, ap\a\a 
iroKtg, Midov yipovToc, Sosib. ap. Sell. Theocr. Id. 10, v. 41), and it was the residence of the Satraps 
of Phrygia under the Persians. When Antiochus restored, or repaired, and repeopled this place, 
to which, in honour of his mother Apama, the Persian wife of Seleucus I., he gave the name of 
Apameia, he made, in conformity with religious prejudice, some slight change in the position of the 
town. Anciently, the sources of the Marsyas were in the agora of Celtenee. Apameia stood im- 
mediately below the ancient site. For the topography, ancient and modem, of Apameia Cibotus, 
see my Asia Minor, p. 158 ; Arundel, i. p. 183 ; Hamilton, i. p. 498. 

Serpent escaping from cistus, half open to I. ; the whole within a wreath formed of 
leaves and berries of ivy, R. AHA, MANTI, AlOAO. Two serpents, one on 
either side of a decorated quiver, their heads raised and opposed, their other 
extremities coiled together below the quiver. 

Note. — This is one of the class of coins called Cistophori, from the figure of a cylindrical box or 
basket impressed upon them. Though not very common now, they were so numerous in the second 
century before the Christian sera, that more than 939 thousands of them were exhibited at Rome, in 
the course of three years, in the triumphs of four of the Roman generals employed against Antiochus 
III. They were struck in at least seven cities of the Pergamenian kingdom — Apameia, Atama, 
Ephesus, Pergamus, Sardes, Tralles, and Laodiceia. After Asia had become a Roman province, 
they continued to be inscribed with mixed Greek and Roman legends, as late as the time of 
Augustus. The Cistophori originated in a worship of Bacchus, which was common to the cities in 
which they were struck ; all their types relate to this worship, its ceremonies, or mysteries. The 
symbols and legends refer to the city in which the particular Cistophorus was struck ; those of a 
later period were mixed with Roman types. Like the tetradrachma of Athens and Alexander the 
Great, the didrachma of Corinth, and other ancient monies extant in great numbers, the Cistophori 
owed their multiplication to their purity of silver, uniformity of weight, and the great credit attached 
to them in the commerce of Asia Minor and of Greece in general. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



23 



Metal 

M 



Br. 



M 

M 



jE 



Size 
*2 



JE 


5 


M 


6-4i 


JE 


4-3i 


JE 


3i 


JE 


3 


JE 


4-3 


JE 


3 



6i-5 



5 
4 
6-6 

5+ 



JE 3 



JE 



jE 

JE 

JE 



10 



Weight 



Head of Jupiter to r. R. AnAM(Ei2N) HPAKAE . . . Juno Pronuba, or in the 
character of a bride, adv. ; her veil, reaching from head to foot, is thrown 
back, and discovers a female in ample long drapery, with modius on the head, 
and the two extended hands resting on supports like the figures of Diana 
Ephesia. 

Note. — The statue of Juno in her temple at Samua, which was her reputed place of birth and 
marriage, was in this form. An imitation of it in bronze, nine inches high, was found on the site 
of the temple by the Dilettanti mission of 1812. It resembled the figures on these coins, but without 
the supports. 

Same type. R. AHAME. MANTI. AIOAO. Same type. 

Same type. R. AHAMEON ANAPON[IKOY] AAKI[OY]. Same type. 

Turreted female head to r. (Apameia.) B. AIIAME. AETA. Marsyas on the 

symbol of the Mseander, stepping to r., and playing on the double flute. 
Same type. R. AIIAM . . . IIAN . . . ZH. Same type. 
Same type. E. AHA. . . . TIMO. . , . 20Ail. Same type. 
Same type. B. aha. . . . ANTP. Same type. 
AIXAMGIA. Same type. B. AIIAMeiiN. Female figure, adv., raising the ends of 

her veil with both hands. 
Head of Pallas to r. BL. AHAMEiiN ANAPONIKOY AARIOY. Eagle with expanded 

wings to r. ; below it, the symbol of the Meeander, on either side of which 

is one of the bonnets of the Dioscuri, surmounted by a star ; above the eagle, 

another star. Brass. 
Same type. R. AHAMEiiN ATTAAOY (BIANOPOS.) Same types. 
Another. 

Same type. R. (An)AMEilN *AINinnOY APAKONTOS. Same types. 
Same type. B ANTI*il Same types. 

Augustus. 
SEBASTOS. Head of Augustus to r. ; before it, lituus. ^. MEAITQN AHAMEiiN. 
Diana Lucifera to r., between two cippi. 

Sept. Severus. 
n. AYT. K. A. cenx. C€0YHP0G neP. Bust of Sept. Severus to r. B:. eni 
ArSiNOeexOY APTGM . . AHAMGiiN. Pallas, seated to I. on a rock, against 
which rests her shield, is looking to r., and playing on the double flute over 
water, in which her face is reflected ; above, to I., is seen Marsyas, adv., behmd 
a rock with arms extended. Electrotype from the British Museum. 



APAMEIA Syria;. 
A^ote.— This city, one of the fratres popuU, founded by Seleueus I., occupied a position in the midst 
of the extensive valley now called El Ghab, on the extremity of a mountain, distant four or five miles 
from the right bank of the Orontes (Macedonice Axius). A fortress of the middle ages stands on the 
site called Kalaat el Medyk. (Burckhardt's Syria, p. 138.) 

Alexander Balas. 
Head of Alexander Balas to r. B. AHAMEilN. Jupiter standing to I. ; in right 
hand, helmet, in left hand, hasta ; in field, mon. 25, ESP (year 163, b.c. 149). 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. AOAMEilN THS IEPA2 KAI ASYAOY. Elephant step- 
ping to r. ; in exergue, MA (year 41 ) ? ; in field to r., H (year 8) ? 
Two others similar ; but in exergue, MH (year 28) ? 
Head of Pallas to r. B- Same legend. Victory stepping to I. ; in right hand, gar- 



24 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


JE 


4i 




JE 


5 




M 


H 




JE 


^ 




JE 


4 




JE 


H 




JE 


4 




M 


9-7 




M 


6 




jE 


6 




M 


6 




JE 


4i 




JE 


6 




J& 


2i 





land, with ribbons pendent ; in left hand, palm-branch ; in field, ns (year 293 

of the Seleucidse, b.c. 19) ; in exergue, AI . . . 
Another, but with the date nearly defaced, and the exergue off the coin. 
Bust of Bacchus to r. ; in field r., thyrsus, ft. AIlAMeflN. Fortune standing 

to^. ^ 

Turreted female head to r. (Apameia). R. AITAMEUN TH2 lEPAS KAl AYTO- 

NOMOY. Victory stepping to I. ; in field to I., . 02 (year 17.) ; below, AI . . . 



APHRODISIAS Cariffi. 

Note. — For a description of Aphrodisias, its historj', and of the extant antiquities, see the chapter 
on Aphrodisias by W. M. L., in the Ionian Antiquities by the Society of Dilettanti, vol. iii. p. 45. 
I take this opportunity to correct what now appears to me an error in p. 55 of that volume, where I 
supposed the Aphrodisienses to have had a governing body called a uwvjcXijroc. This word seems to 
have been reserved by the Asiatic Greeks of Roman times for the senate of Rome. The government 
of Aphrodisias consisted of a /3ovXi}, ytpovaia, and dtjfios. 

lePA BOYAH, Veiled female bust to »•. R. A^POAeiGieON. Young male winged 
figure, with apex on the head adv. towards r., holding a torch with both hands 
to r. (Cupid or Hymen). 

Note. — The PovXi^ of Aphrodisias is styled Upd and iepoirari} in the inscriptions of this place. 

Another similar ; but Hymen to I. 

Same legend and type. R. Same legend. Half-draped figure of Jupiter standing to 

I. ; in right hand, ? ; in left hand, hasta. 
Same legend and type. R. Same legend. Hermes, naked, standing towards r. ; in 

right hand, chlamys and caducous ; in left hand, purse. 
lePA CYNKAHTOC. Laureate and beardless bust to r. (Senatus Romanus). 

R. APXeAAON A*POAeiCieslN. Horseman galloping to r., with a spear in 

his raised right hand. 
lEPA SYNKAHTOS. Diademate beardless head to r. (Senatus Romanus.) R. A<I>PO- 

AGICIGilN. Three branches of coral (?) on a square base. 
Another ; but on the obverse, countermark B. 
Another with same countermark, but the branches of coral I are on a base with 

raised sides. 
AHMOC. Laureate head with long hair to r. R. Same legend. Female, riding 

on ram, to r. ; ram looking I. ; her right hand holds her veil ; her left, ears of 

com. 
AHMOC. Laureate head to r. R. A*POAeiCieaN ZHNfl . . . River-god, re- 
cumbent, to I, ; in right hand, reed ; in left hand, cornucopise ; in exergue, 

TIM(eAHC). 

Note. — The Timeles flowed through Aphrodisias, and was a tributary of the Mosynus, which joined 
the Mieander at Antiocheia. 



A*Pii . . . 
to r. 



Bipennis, with ribbons tied upon it. R. Bull, with a hump, standing 



Note. — The bipennis is a type of Jupiter of Labranda. The taurus gibbosus is described by 
Aristotle as if it were pecuUar to Syria (sv ry 'Svpif ot /Jotj Hairip oi xaftiiXot KojUTrdf Ixovtri iiri 
tS)V dxpioiiiiov, Hist. Anim. 8, 33) ; but, according to Pliny, they were also natives of Caria ; and we 
find this type on the coins of two other Carian cities, Antiocheia and Tralles. They were introduced 
into Syria perhaps by the Seleucidse, and from thence may have spread into Asia Minor. The 
type is found also on coins of Ionia and Lydia, particularly the two Magnesise. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



25 



Metal 
JE 

JE 
M 

JE 
M 



M 
M 

JE 



JE 



Size 



4 



Weight 



M 


8 


JE 


6 


M 


6 


JE 


6 


JE 


H 


JE 
JE 


6 

5i 



Augustus. 
ceBACTOC. Head of Augustus to r. R. A*POAeiCieQN. Bipennis, with 

pendent ribbons. 
Same legend and type. R. A^POAeiCieON CiiSON. Same type. 
Same legend and type. R. AnOAAlTNIOC YIOC A*P0MCI6iiN. Veiled female 

statue, adv., on a basis, with modius on head, and arms extended (Venus) ; near 

her head on one side, star ; on the other, crescent. 
CEBAETOI Heads of Augustus and Livia to r. R. Same legend and 

type. _ 
Another similar. 

JVote. — This Apollonius was probably the same as the author of the Kapiicdi, in not less than 
eighteen books, and other works. V. Antig. of Ionia, Part 3, p. 52. 

Caius, son of Agrippa and Julia. 

AIO . KAI . . . Head of Caius to r. B. A*POAI Head of Venus 

to r. 

Faustina Senior. 

*AYCTINA CeBACTH. Head of Faustina senior to r. B. T. K. ZH 

ANE0HKE . . A*POAlCieiiN. Draped female to I.; in right hand, (?); in 
left hand, hasta. 

Crispina, daughter of Bruttius Prwsens, wife of Commodus. 
KPIcneiNA AYPOYCTA. Head of Crispina to r. B. A*POAeiCienN. The 
Graces, standing on a decorated basis ; the two outer adv., the middle rev., their 
arms entwined, and the two outer holding each a branch in one hand. 

Julia Domna. 

lOYAIA AOMNA APOYCTA. Head of Julia Domna to r. R. EHI. APX TIE. 

MENEC0E. AICOBOYNON A*POAICICilN. Same type, but without the basis. 

Gallienus. 
. . . . rAAAIHNOC. Radiate bust of Gallienus to ^. R. A*POAICieiiN. Statue 
resembling that of Diana Ephesia, crowned with ? standing to r. in a tetrastyle 
temple, 

Nate. — From this coin and another of Augustus, we may infer that the worship of Venus at Lclego- 
polis or Ninoe, afterwards Aphrodisias, was very ancient ; and probably, like that of Diana at Ephesus 
and of Juuo at Samus, of Phoenician origin. There is a great resemblance between the three 
statues. 

KAI. no. rAAAIHNOC. Same type. R. Same legend. The emperor in a 
quadriga to I. 

AY. KA. no. AI. rAAAIHNOC. Same type. R. Same legend, but differently dis- 
posed. A table, on which are two piMze-vases, with legends defaced ; in each a 
palm-branch. 

Same legend and type. R. A*POAICieaN. Same type, but without the palms; 
legends on the vases defaced; but on the edge of the table, 0IK0YM6NIK02. 

Same legend and type. R. A*POAICIAIilN. Same type. 

Sahnina. 
no. AI. KOP. CAAWNINA. Bust of Salonina on a crescent to r. R. A*POAICieaN. 

Statue resembling the Diana Ephesia, as before, to r. ; to r. of head, crescent ; 

to I., star ; at her feet, to I., Cupid seated ; to r., a vase of flowers. 
KOPN. CAAiJNINA. Same type. B- Same legend and type. 
lOY. KOPN. CAAiiNINA. Same type. B. AiPOACICICiiN. Same type, 
no. AI. KOP. CAAiiNINA C. Same type. B- AiPOAICICiiN. Fortune, with 

modius on head, to I. ; in right hand, rudder ; in left hand, cornucopise. 
lOY. KOPN. CAAaNINA. Same type. B. AiPOAClCIcaN. Same type. 

9 



AY, 



26 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 



M 



Size 

5i 



Weight I 



4-3 



JE 



M 
M 



n 



2i 



2i 



lOY. KOPN Head of Salonina to r. BL. A^POMCIGilN. Hermes naked, 

but with chlamys on his shoulders ; in left hand, caduceus, with right hand 
dragging a ram by the horns to r. 



M 8i 228-8 



APOLLONIA Ioni«. 

16 PA CYNKAHTOC. Beardless laureate male bust to r. 
R. AnOAAnNIAC. Female bust to r. (Apollonia). 



(Senatus Romanus). 



Note. — The cities of this name were so numerous, that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish their 
coins. Eclihel (ii. p. 509) has described, on the authority of Vaillant, a coin of Severus Alexander 
with the legend AIIOAAQNIEQN EN IQNIA; and another, on the authority of Arigoni, with 
AnOAAQNIEQN without the EN IQNIA, but which, the form of the gentile being the same, is 
probably of the same Apollonia. That coin differs only from the present in having AIIOAAQNIEQN 
in the place of AUOAAQNIAC, the types being the same. The only author who mentions an Apol- 
lonia of Ionia is Stephanus, who describes it as Kara Ovdrttpa Koi 'Eiptaov, places which are about 
100 miles asunder, so that little can be known of its exact position. 



APOLLONIA Mysije, or Ad Rhyndacura. 

Note. — This Apollonia preserves its ancient name, its Greek bishoprick, and a few remains of anti- 
quity on the northern side of a lake through which the Rhyndacus flows in its way to the Propontis, 
distant about twenty miles from Apollonia. 



AYT. AOMITIANOG. 



Domitian. 
Head of Domitian to r. R. AIIOAAilNI. PYN. Lyre. 



APOLLONIS Lydiffi. 

Bearded head of Hercules to r. B. AIIOA. . NIAGSi. 

the Pembroke Collection (1119). 
Head of Diana to r. ; behind, quiver. B. AnOAONIAeaN 



Lion stepping to r. From 
Stag standing to r. 



APOLLONOS HIERON Lydis. 

16 PA CYNKAHTOC. Beardless male bust to r. (Senatus Romanus). B. AnOA- 
AiiNOIGPEITiiN. Draped male figure to I. looking back ; modius on the 
head ; right hand extended ; in left hand, long sceptre and drapery ? ; at feet, 
to I., I From the Pembroke Collection (1119). 

Nero. 
NEPSIN KAILAP EEBAETOr. Head of Nero to r. B- AnOAAnNIEPEITQN. 

Apollo, in female dress, adv. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, lyre. 
Another similar. 

ARADUS Phcenicise. 

Note. — This city occupied the island now called Ruad, situated at little more than a mile from the 
nearest point of the mainland. Strabo says twenty stades, but this, to be correct, must be measured to 
Tartfis, which place I take to be, not Orthosia, as commonly supposed, but Carnus or Antaradus, the 
inivtiov of Aradus. This city seems to have avoided by submission the fate of Tyre, and thus to have 
preserved its autonomy after the Macedonian conquest. This was probably acknowledged by treaty in 
the reigns of Ptolemaeus II. and Antiochus II., as in those reigns commenced an sera, the years of 
which are found on the coins of Aradus to a late period of the Roman empire. It began B.C. 259. 

Veiled and turreted female bust to r., in dotted circle. B. APAAIflN. Victory, 
standing to I. ; in right hand, acrostolium ; in left hand, palm branch ; in field. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



27 



Metal 


Size 


M 


4 


M 


2 + 


M 


2^ 


M 


3i-3 


M 


H 


M 


H 


JE 


4i 


M 


5+ 


JE 


5 


M 


6 


M 


5| 


M 


H 



Weight 



58-3 



36-6 



TKP (year 123) ; below which a Phoenician letter, and still lower, AC ; the 
whole in a wreath of bay. From the Thomas Collection (2816). 
Bee; in field to I., mon. 26; in field to r., mon. 27; the whole in dotted circle. 
R. Same legend. Stag standing to r. ; behind it, a palm tree. 

Note. — This coin, which indicates some alliance between Ephesus and Aradus, has every appear- 
ance of having been struck at Ephesus ; the style, types, weight, and size so exactly resembling the 
most numerous denomination of the Ephesian silver. It is not unlikely that Ephesus was among the 
early settlements of the Phoenicians on the coast of Greece long anterior to the Athenian colony. 
This would account for the palm-tree on the Ephesian money, for which Eckhel confesses that he 
could not find a reason. 



B. Phoenician inscription ; prow to I. ; above, MC ; in ex- 

in mon. between two 



Head of Jupiter to r. 

ergue, A. 
Turreted female head to r. R. Prow to I. ; above it, AP 

Phoenician letters ; below, a Phoenician inscription. 
Same type. BL. Same type, above which bonnets of Dioscuri ; in field to r. L.K 

(year 20) ; to I., A. 
Veiled female head with sphendone in front to r. IJ. Gibbous bull running to I. ; 

in field, mons. 28, 29, POA (year 171, b.c. 88), M, and a Phoenician letter. 
Same type. B. Same type ; in field, KN. IIC. POG (year 1 75), M, and the same 

Phoenician letter. 
Head of Hercules to r., bearded and laureate. B. EOT (year 375), and one Phoe- 
nician letter (Aleph?)- Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons, with a 

bunch of grapes hanging from either side. 

Note. — This date shews that the coin was struck in a.d. 116, the year before the death of Trajan, 
who was then in Syria. 

Caligula. 

Head of Agrippina senior, as Ceres, to r. ; before it, a small head of her son Cali- 
gula to r. ; above which, another small head as countermark. B. APAAIiiN ; 
?qZ (year 297, a.d. 38). Gibbous bull running to I. 

Note. — This date is five years later than the death of Agrippina ; but coins of Caligula are extant 
which bear the emperor's head on one side, and that of his deceased mother on the i-everse. 

Trajan. 
Female head with long hair to r. ; before it, a small head of Trajan to r. B. APA- 

AIU3N. EOT (year 375). Same type. 
Head of Trajan to r., inscription defaced. B- Same legend and date. Female, 
seated on rudder, to I. ; right hand on rudder ; in left hand, cornucopiae ; in 
field to n, ? 

M. Aurelius and L. Verm. 

.... aNINOC Heads of Marcus Aurehus and Lucius Verus opposed. 

B. Same legend. AKY (year 421, a.d. 162). Gibbous bull running to I. 

ARYCANDA Lyci^. 

Note. — The ruins of Aryeanda are, according to Capt. Spratt (i. p. 155), at Arouf, towards the 
sources of the Arycandus, which enters the sea at Finika. 

AY(kiuv). Head of Ceres? to r. B- kVivKavUiov). Female head to r. with narrow 
diadem, and hair hanging over the neck in formal tresses. 



28 

Metal Size Weight 



M 

M 
M 



IE 



M 



3 

3 



M 



M 



M 
M 

M 



^ 



6 
6-5 



H 



167 

169-5 

168-1 
163-5 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



ASCALON Phoenicia. 



Female bust, with apex, to r. B. AS. 
Veiled and turreted female head to r 

iol. 
Same type. R- AS. nP (year 180, a.d. 70). 



Dove standing to r. 
B. AL. TOP (year 176, a.d. 72). Galley 



Same type. 



Augmtm. 

SE. Head of Augustus to I. ; before the neck, ? R. AS. Roman soldier, adv. ; 
in raised right hand, sword ; in left hand, shield and palm branch. 

Domitianm. 

C6BA. Head of Domitian to r. R. AC. HSP (year 198). Same type. 

Note. — This date proves that Eusebius (in Chron.) is correct in placing the year 380 of the ffira of 
Ascalon in the first year of the 264th Olympiad, or second year of the emperor Probus. Hence it 
appears that in the year B.C. 104, in the reign of Antiochus VIII., the Ascalonitte asserted their 
autonomy and their independence of both Syria and Egypt. 



ASPENDUS Pamphyliaj. 

Note. — Aspendus was situated on the Eurymedon, at six or eight miles from its mouth (see my 
Asia Minor, p. 194). The Argive colony, which settled here, gave to the local name the Greek 
form ASnENAOS. The preservation of the Pamphylian form on the Aspendlan coins shew* 
that the Pamphylians, like the Lycians and Phrygians, had a language of their own, to which they 
applied the Greek alphabet, though probably not so extensively as the Lycians, no inscribed monuments 
having been found in Pamphylia similar to those of Lycia. As none of the non-Hellenic characters, 
representing Lycian sounds, so numerous in that language, occur in the Pamphylian name of As- 
pendus, in which all the letters are Greek of the sixth century B.C., there is a presumption that the 
Pamphylian tongue was different from the Lycian. According to Strabo (p. 631), the Lycian, 
Pisidlan, and Lydian languages were all spoken in his time. The Pamphylian was probably the 
same as the Pisidian, and the Lydian the same as the Phrygian. Of the latter there are some well- 
preserved specimens still extant on monuments of the Gordian dynasty in the centre of Phrygia, not 
far from Nacoleia (Asia Minor, p. 21). From these specimens it seems evident that the Greek 
letters were applied to the Phi-ygian language at a much earlier time than to the Lycian and Pam- 
phylian — a natural consequence of the easier communication of Lydia and Phrygia with the western 
coast, where the Phoenician letters were first introduced, and where they were naturahzed and 
applied to their own language by the earliest Greek or Pelasgic colonies. 

Warrior, with sword and shield, to r. ; between his legs, a globule. R. EST. 
Triquetra, or figure formed of three human legs, joined at the thighs in a trian- 
gular form ; behind the lower part of the triquetra, a Hon to I. ; all in quadrate 
incuso. 

Another, but no globule, and lion to r. Electrotype. 

Two wrestlers engaged. R. . STFEaIIVS. Slinger to r., clothed in a shirt without 
sleeves, and adjusting his sling ; in field to r., triquetra ; all in dotted square, 
within a quad. inc. 

Same type; in field, no ; all in a finely dotted circle, upon which, as a small 
countermark, is an owl standing to r. R. Similar, but countermark indistinct. 

Same type. R. Same legend, type, and symbol, but with four countermarks: 
1, helmeted head ; 2, 2 ; 3, head of Hercules ; 4, quadruped lying down, and 
looking back ; all in dotted square, within quad. inc. 

Same type. R. ESTFEAIIVS. Same type and same symbol; in field to /-., four 
countermarks: 1, uncertain; 2, ox standing tor. ; 3, quadruped to r., 
looking back ; 4, quadruped running to r., over it a crescent. Electrotype. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



29 



Metal 
M 



M 



M 



M 



JE 



M 



JE 



M 


2i 


M 


1^ 


JE 


1 


JE 


1- 


JE 


H 


M 


H 


M 


5 



Size I Weight 

148-6 



3| 

3 

3h 



4i 



3+ 
3 

H 



42 



187-] 



Two wrestlers engaged ; between them, E ; all within a dotted circle double struck. 
R. . CTFEAII . . Same type, but behind, in field to r., below the triquetra, a 
club, and between the slinger's legs, O. From the Duke of Devonshire's Collec- 
tion (754). 

Horse running to r. ; above it, III. R. AS. Slinger adjusting his sling to r. 

Half-horse, bridled, to r. B.. AGnENAIliN. Uncertain object. Electrotype from 
the B. M. 

Similar type, but counter marked. R. AM. (AS ?) Same type. 

Augustus. 

Head of Augustus to r. R. AS. Two statues resembling the Diana of Perga, 
adv., on a square base. 

ASSUS Mysiaj. 

Note. — At Assus, now Kam&res, on the coast opposite to Methymna in Lesbus, are considerable 
ruins of walls and temples, with inscriptions and rilievi on granite. In the time of Strabo, Assus 
and Adramytium were the two chief towns in the maritime country, which lies on the southern side 
of Mount Ida. 

Head of Pallas to I. R. ASSIGN. Head of an ox, adv. 

Head of Pallas to r. li. ASSI. Same type ; above it, diota (Hunter, T. 7, f. 21). 

Another similar, but without diota. 

Another. 

Similar type. ^.. ASSI. Gryffon couchant to I. 

Similar type. H. Same legend and type, but below, a bunch of grapes. 

Head of Pallas, adv. ; countermark, I ^.. (ASSI.) Gryffon stepping to I. ; below, 

helmet ? 
Head of Pallas, with wreath on the helmet, to r. R. ASSI. Gryffon couchant to 

I., with right foot raised. 

Note. — The ox's head on these coins alludes to agriculture. The wheat of Assus was renowned ; 
the kings of Persia sent for it to make their bread (Strabo, p. 735)- The diota on the second, and 
the bunch of grapes on the fifth coin, are symbols of Bacchus, and uidicate also that wine was pro- 
duced on the Assian territory. The gryffon was a type of Apollo; Assus was also called Apol- 
lonia (Pliu. H. N. 5, 32). 

Plotina, wife of Trajanits. 
CeSAC. nAOXeiN. Bust of Plotina to r. R. ACCIilN. Veiled female figure, adv. 



ATARNA Mysiaj. 

Note. — Atarna, or Atameus, stood on the ^oUc coast, opposite to Mytilene, which city, having pos- 
session of a great pax-t of the same coast, caused the Atarnenses to make alliance with Chius, the rival 
of Mytilene, and even to become subject to that island. The position of Atarna is now occupied by 
Dikeli. 

Serpent escaping to I. from half-opened cista ; the whole in a wreath of ivy. 
ft. Two serpents twisted round a quiver ; above, mon. Si (ATAP) ; in field to 
r., a torch. 

Note. — Eckhel was ignorant of the existence of this Cistophorus, and has consequently named no 
more than six cities as striking cistopliorous coins. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. ATAP. Half horse to r. ; behind, serpent ; before, XH. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field to r., AB in mon. 
Two with same legend and type, but without serpent. 



30 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal Size Weight 



M 
^ 



M 

JE 
M 



M 



M 



M 



4 



3i 



4i 



ATTALEIA Lydia. 

Note. — Attaleia, being placed by Hierocles in the province of Lydia, together with Thyateira, 
Sardes, Philadelphia, Mseonia, and Tripolis, all positions known with certainty, it becomes pro- 
bable that Attaleia was situated at or near the modem Adala, though no ancient remains have yet 
been observed there. 

Bearded head of Hercules, with lion's skin about his neck, to r. Bi. ATTAAGATflN. 

Telesphorus, adv. From the Pembroke Collection (1119). 
Bust of Pallas to r. ; on her breast, the aegis, from which proceed serpents. 

R. Same legend. Fortune, crowned with modius, standing to I. From the 

Pembroke Collection (1119). 
Another similar, broken. 
Bust of Pallas to r. ; on breast, segis, with serpents as before ; on left shoulder, 

spear, ft. Same legend and type. 
Head of Pallas to r. B. ATTAAGA . . . Victory stepping to I. ; in field to I., A. 
Head of Pallas to r., double struck. B. AITA. Same type. 



ATTALEIA PamphyliEe, 

Note. — 'ATToKtia, which preserves its ancient name unchanged either in sound or writing, was 
founded by Attalus II. Philadelphus, at a harbour near a cape and small town named Corycus. 
The correctness of his judgment in selecting this position is proved by the fact, that Attilia is now 
the only considerable town on the southern shore of Asia Minor. The identity of site has indeed 
been disputed (see my Asia Minor, p. 19), but since the discovery by Captain Spratt of the ruins of 
Olbia (Travels in Lycia, &c., i. p. 216), there seems no longer any room for doubting that Attaleia 
occupies precisely the site of Corycus. 

Bust of Neptune to r. ; before it, dolphin twisted round trident. B. ATTAAGilN. 
Mercury seated on a rock to I. ; in his extended right hand, a purse ? in left 
hand, a caduceus; his elbow resting on a column. Con/. Mionnet, sup. vii. 
p. 31, No. 26. 

ATT^A Phrygiffi. 

I6PA CYNKAHTOC. Youthful male bust (Senate of Rome) to r. B. ATTAITQN. 
Naked female figure standing to r., left foot on rock, her hands crossed upon 
the left knee. From the Pembroke Collection (1246). 

Note. — Attsea is very distinctly shewn by Strabo to have been upon the coast, opposite to Lesbos, 
to the northward of Atama, and between that city and the 'Aicri) MtruXijvaiwv, in which were Cory- 
phantis and Heracleia. Hence it seems not unlikely that the Attalia, which the Tabular Itinerary 
places on the road from Elsea to Adramyttium, is an error for Attsea. 



ATTUDA Phrj'giiB. 

Note. — From Hierocles and the Notitise, we learn that Attuda was a town and bishopriek in the 
ninth century. If the Aludda of the Table is an error, as I believe, for Attuda, this city stood on 
the left bank of the Hermus, on the road from Philadelphia (A114hshehdr) to Cotyaeium (Kutiia). 
See my remarks in Keppel's Travels, ii. p. 371. 

lePA BOYAII. Veiled female head to r. B- ATTOYACaN. Tree; at its foot,? 
From the Pembroke Collection (1246). 

I6PA CYNKAHTOC. Diademate head representing the Roman Senate to r. ; coun- 
termark, small head, to r. B. Same legend. Jupiter Aetophorus, fulminating, 
to r. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



31 



Metal 



M 



JE 



M 



JE 



JE 



JE 



JE 



Size 



7i 



Weight 



54-6 



ATTOYAA. Turreted female head (Attuda) to I R. AIA KAAYAIANOY. Draped 
female figure, adv. ; right hand raised ; in left hand, ?. 

Galltenus. 

AY. K. TIE. AI. rAAAIHNOC. Radiate bust of Gallienus to r. R. ATTOYAGiiN. 
Female figure adv., with modius on head, standing between two lions, her hands 
hanging over their heads. 



AUGUSTA Cilicise. 

Note. — Angusta would seem from Pliny (5, 27), and from Ptolemy (5, 8), to have stood in the in- 
land part of Cilicia, behind Tarsus and Anazarbus, perhaps at the modern Sis. 

Female head to r., in dotted circle. R. AYrOYETANQN ETOY . . . Bust of Pallas 
to r., with aegis, from which serpents are rising. 



BAG^. Lydiffi. 

Note. — Bags! was situated on the right bank of the Hermus, opposite to the modern Sirghie. For 
the determination of tliis and some other ancient positions in the valley of the Hermus, we are in- 
debted to the Earl of Albemarle (Keppel's Travels, ii. p. 367). Some of the coins of Bagse bear on 
the reverse a river-god, with the legend ePMOC. 

BArHNQN. Bearded head of Hercules to r. R. f. ni. AriOAAOAUJPOY. CT. Pallas 
seated to !. ; in right hand, patera ; left hand resting on a shield behind the 
seat. From the Pembroke Collection (1120). 

Crispina. 

KFICneiNA OeBACTH. Bust of Crispina to r. R. eni. AHOAAOAii. CTG* 
(ai'ij^opow) BArHNilN. Bacchus standing to I. ; in right hand, cup ; in left 
hand, thyrsus ; drapery hanging from left arm. 

Julia Domna. 

lOY. AOMNA CeBA. Bust of Julia Domna to r. R. eni ACKAHniAAOY 
AFX. B. BArHNilN. Asclepius, with his attributes, adv., looking to >;. at a 
female figure (Hygieia). I. 

BARGASA Carife. 

Plautilla. 

*0Y ASIA HAAYTI AAA CGBACTH. Bust of Plautilla to r. R. en. CTPA(r»;yoii) 
0YAA6PIAN0Y BAPrACHNilN. Asclepius and Hygieia, with their attributes, 
adv., looking towards each other. 

I^ote. — Capt. Graves, R.N., has determined the position of Ceramus still preserving its ancient 
name, as well as that of Bargasa, which stood at the extremity of the Ceramic Gulf. Vide Admi- 
ralty Survey, PI. 1604. 

Salonina. 
no. AI. CAAaNINA. Bust of Salonina to r. R. BAPrACHNaN, Asclepius adv., 
with his attributes. 



32 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal Size Weight 






M. 



JE 



M 
M 

M 



6i 

5J-4J 

5 



2+ 



5-4 

5-4 
4 



H 



65-64 



5i 



BERRHCEA Syriaj. 

Note. — Haleb (Italic^ Aleppo) is one of the ancient sites of Asia to which a Macedonian name 
was attached at, or soon after, the time of Alexander ; though, even prior to that period, Haleb had 
become sufficiently Greek to be known by the name of Chalybon. 

Trajanus. 

AYTOK. [KAIC NGP. TPA1]AN0C APICT. 063. rePM. [AAK. DAP©.] Head of 
Trajan to r. R. BEPOIAIIDN A. in three lines, within a wreath. 

Another similar. 

Legend effaced. Same type. R. BePOIAIlUN. r. in three lines, within a wreath. 

AYTOKP. KAI. NGP. TPAIANOC APICT. CGB. PePM. AAK. HAP©. Head of Trajan 
to r. R. Same legend and type. 



AYTOK. TPA, 
bay. 



Hadrianus. 
AAPIANOC. Head of Hadrian to r. 

BERYTUS PhoeniciiB. 



R. B6P0IAIII1N. Branch of 



Diademate head of Neptune to r.; behind the neck, trident. R. BHPYT(IU]N). L,r(N) 
(year 53). Neptune to ^., seated in a car drawn by four hippocampi. 

Note. — The sera of this date is uncertain, no date being found on any of the imperial coins of 
Berytua. This city was sacred to Neptune and the Cabiri. {^Sanchoniatho ap. £useb. in Praeji. 
Enangd. i. p. 38. Paris.) 

Turreted female head to r. R. BHP. AA*. Neptune to I., standing in a car drawn 
by four hippocampi ; in extended right hand, I ; at his feet, a small figure seated 
on one of the horses. 

Veiled and turreted female head to r. R. BHPYTION. Dolphin twisted round tri- 
dent, between the bonnets of the Dioscuri. 

Same type, R. Same legend, differently placed and in smaller letters. Victory, 
standing on a prow, to r. ; in right hand, garland; in left hand, palm- 
branch, 

COL. Silenus to ?., with a wine-skin on his shoulder. R. BE, Prow to r. 

31. Aurelius. 

ANTO Head of M. Aurelius to r. R. COL. BER. Neptune, 

standing to I., with his right foot on a rock ; in right hand, dolphin ; in left 
hand, trident. 

Commodus. 

IMP. COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG. Head of Commodus to r. R. COL. BER. 
between two legionary aquilse, in a wreath, on the outside of which, SEC. SAEC. 
(securitas Sseculi). 

Julia Dotrma. 

IVLI. AVG. PIA. FELIC. Head of Julia Domna to r. R. COL. IVL. AVG. PEL, 
BER. A tetrastyle temple, approached by steps, in which stands Astarte adv. ; 
in right hand, hasta ; her left hand raising her drapery ; crowned by Victory 
standing to I. on a column. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



S3 



iMetal 

JE 



M 

JE 

M 



M 

M 
JE 

JE 
M 



JE 
JE 



Size 

6 



Weight 



8i 



7i 

8 
7i 



H 



Sept. Severus and Caracalla. 

IMPP. CAESS. SEVER, ANT. AVGG. Busts of Sept. Severus and of Caracalla op- 
posed. R. DECENNALES ANTONINI. COS. III. COL. BER. Same type. 

JVbte. — The third consulship of Caracalla, and the tenth year from that in which he was declared 
Imperator by his father Severus, was a.d. 208, the year of the departure of Severus for Britain, 
where he died in a.d. 211, 

Caracalla. 

CAES. M. AYR, ANTONINVS AVG. Bust of Caracalla to r. B. COL. IVL. 

AVG. FEL. BER. Neptune, standing to I., in a tetrastyle temple, approached by 

steps ; in his right hand, a dolphin ; in left hand, trident ; his right foot on 

rock. 
IMP, M, AVR. SEV. ANTONINVS. Same type, R, Same legend. Astarte in her 

temple, as before. 
IMP. M. AVR. ANTONINVS. Same type. R. COL. BER. between two aquilte, 

within a wreath. 



IMP. 



IMP, CAES, MAORI [NVS AVG.] Bust of Macrinus to r. R. COL. IVL. AVG. 
FEL. BER. Tetrastyle temple, approached by steps ; upon its acroteria are 
statues ; within, Astarte is crowned by Victory, as before ; besides which, on 
either side, is a winged Genius on a cippus ; below the temple, two Cupids on 
dolphins, armed with tridents, and two vases. 

Note. — For a description of this coin in a better state of preservation, see Mionnet, Sup. viii. 
p. 247. 

Diadiimenianm. 

M. OP. DIADVMENIANVS [CAES.] Bust of Diadumenianus to r. R. Same legend 
and same types. 

Elagabalm. 

[IMP.] CAES, M, AVR, ANTONINVS AVG. Bust of Elagabalus to r. R. Same 

legend and types. 
Same legend and type. B. COL. IVL, AVG. FEL. BER. Silenus, standing on a 

base to r., and bearing a wine-skin on his shoulder, in a tetrastyle temple, 

above which is a figure riding on a lion or panther. From the Pembroke 

Collection (1255). 
IMP, CAES. M, AVfl. ANTONINVS [AVG.] Same type. R. COL. IVL 

EL, BER. Astarte in a tetrastyle temple, as before, but the modius on her 

head is better seen than on the preceding coins, and there are no types above 

or below the temple. 

Gordianus Junior. 

IMP. GORDIANVS AVG, . , . Eadiate bust of Gordian to r. B, COL, IVL. AVG. 
FEL, BER, Bacchus, naked, standing between two vines, right hand on his 
head, left arm embracing a young fawn ; at his feet, a panther. 
Same type, legend defaced, R, COL. BER. between two aquilse, 
IMP. CAES, M. ANT, GORDIANVS. Same type, R, COL. IVL, AVG, FEL, BER. 
Bust of Astarte, adv., between two aquilse and two cornuacopise, in a tetrastyle 
temple approached by steps ; below which, a Hon to r. On the apex of the 
pediment, Neptune seizing the nymph Beroe with right hand ; in left hand, 
trident. From the Pembroke Collection (1255). 



BIRYTUS Troadis. 

iy^ote.—Stephanus names a BEPYTIS and a BHPI0PO2 both in the Troas. They were probably 
one and the same. From the coins, it appears that the real name was Birytus, or possibly Birytis, 
or Birythrus. Nothing is known of its situation ; from Stephanus alone we learn that it was in the 
Troas, but this is coniirmed by the coins having generally been found in that part of Asia Minor. 

i 



34 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


M 


4 


JE 


4 


JE 


H 


JE 


9 


M 


9h 


JE 


9i 


JE 


9i 


JE 


5 


JE 


6 


JE 


4 


JE 


3i 


JE 


7- 


M 


4 


JE 


4 



Weight 



Male head,*with bushy hair behind, and covered with a conical cap, between two 
stars (Vulcan or Ulysses). R. BIPY. in two lines ; club placed perpendicularly 
between the letters ; all within a wreath. 

Another similar. 

Same types and legend. 

BITHYNI^ Commune. 

Hadrianus. 

AYT. KAIC. TPAI. AAPIANOC CGB. Laureate head of Hadrian to r. R. KOINON 

B6I0YN1AC. Octostyle temple, adv. 
Same legend and type. R. Same legend. A distyle temple, adv., in which stands 

the emperor draped, with hasta in right hand ; crowned to his r. by a male 

figure with similar attributes, to his I. by a helmeted female with cornucopiae in 

left hand. — This and the preceding coin are of brass. 
Same legend and type. R- Same legend. Octostyle temple, adv., in the pediment 

of which is a figure to I., sacrificing at an altar ; in left hand, hasta. 
Another similar, but in the pediment a crown between two ? 
Same legends and types. 

BLAUNDUS Lydiffi. 

Note. — The copper coins of Blaundus found by Mr. W. J. Hamilton at GobA, leave little doubt 
that the ruins at the neighbouring Sulimanli are those of Blaundus. The city stood on one of the 
tributaries of the Upper Maeander, which from one of the following coins appears to have been named 
Hippurius. The legend, BAATNAEQN MAKCAONQN, on another coin, renders it probable that a 
colony from Macedonia settled here in the time of the successors of Alexander. The extant remains 
are of a style which accords with this supposition. Blaundus was about midway between Philadel. 
pheia and Eumeneia, both towns of Phrygia Pacatiana, in .the enumeration of Hierocles. Hence it is 
likely that AOTCNAA in that document is an error for Blaundus or Mlaundus. 

AHMOC. BAAYNAGfiN. Laureate youthful head to r. B. CTPAT(>jyoi;) KA. 

MIAHTOY. River-god recumbent to I. ; in right hand, reed ; in left hand, 

cornucopise, below which is an urn with water flowing from it ; in exergue, 

innOYPIOC. From the Pembroke Collection (1120). 
Head of Jupiter to r. B. MAAYNAGON. Hermes standing to I.; in right hand, 

patera ; in left hand, caduceus ; the whole within a wreath of bay. Con/. 

Mionnet, iv. p. 20, No. 98. 
Head of Bacchus to r. B. BAAYNAEiiN, in three lines, in a wreath. 
tePA CYNKAIITOC. Head of Roman senate to r. B- BAAYNAGQN MAKeAONaN. 



Naked Jupiter to I. 
from the B. M. 



in right hand, patera ; in left hand, fulmen. Electrotype 



Nero. 



NEPflSN KAISAP. Youthful bust of Nero to r. 

BAAYNAG aN. Apollo Musagetes to r. 
Two others similar. 



B. TI. *AAY. KAAAireNHC 



BRIANA Pbrygise. 

Note. — Briana was another town of Phrygia Pacatiana. No more than two of its coins are known ; 
the other is of Julia Domna, tjri o-rporijyoS ' A jroXXw vioti. But it was a place of some fame, if the 
emendation of Briane'i'us for Tyaneius in Ovid's description of the metamorphosis of Philemon and 
Baucis into an oak and a lime-tree (Metam. 8, v. 719), is to be accepted ; for the scene is laid by 
the poet " collibus in Phrygiis," which is inapplicable to Tyana. According to this story, there was 
a lake near Briana, which might assist in determining the site. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



S5 



I Metal 
M 



Size 

4 



Weight 






6 
6i 



Head of Sarapis to r. R. BPIANilN. Isis standing ; in right hand, sistrum ; in 
left hand, vase. From the Pembroke Collection (1246). 



BRUZUS Phrygise. 

Note. — Bruzus is another Phrygian city, of which nothing is known but from its coins ; these show 
that it flourished from the time of the Antonines to that of the Gordiana. Hierocles associates it 
with the known positions of Doryleeum, Synnada, Polybotus, and Nacoleia, whence it appears to have 
stood in the eastern part of Phrygia, between the Sangarius and the sources of the Mseander. 

Gordianus Junior. 

AYT, K. M. AN. rOPAlANOC. Head of Gordian to r. R. BPOYZHNQN. Diana 

Lucifera, adv., holding in each hand a torch. 
AYT. K. M. ANT. roPAlANOC. Same type, U. Same legend. Jupiter seated to 

I. in a tetrastyle temple ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, hasta. 



BOSTRA Arabia. 

Note. — Bostra preserves its ancient name, with many inscriptions and remains of ancient 
buildings. — V. Burekhardt's Travels in Syria, p. 226. 



JE 



m 



M 



M 



R. COLONIA. BOSTRA. 



Faustina Junior. 

ANNIA FAVSTINA AVG. Head of Faustina junior to r. 
Head of Sarapis to r. 

Severus Alexandrus. 

IMP. CAES. M. AVB. SEV. ALEXANDER AVG. Head of Severus Alexandrus to r. 
R. N(ova3). TR(aianfe). ALEXANDRIANAE COL. BOSTR . . Two gibbous oxen 
to r., followed by a draped figure holding up his right hand ; above, a building ; 
its upper story, on which are three vases, is approached by a ladder. Conf. 
Mionnet, v. p. 583, No. 26. 

2V"o«e. — It appears from these and other coins, that Bostra, styled vii Tpatav)) Bo'trrpa under 
Antoninus Pius, was a Roman colony under M. Aurelius, and received a new colony under Se- 
verus Alexander. 

Philippus Junior. 

MARC. IVL. PHILIPPOS CESAR. Radiate head of Philip junior to r. R. ACTIA 

AOYCAPIA. in a wreath of laurel; round it, COL. METROPOLIS BOSTRA. 

^c^^. The Dusaria were games in honour of Dusares, which was the name of Bacchus among 

the Arabians adjacent to Syria (Tertullian Apolog. c. 24 ; Stephan. et Hesych. in Aovaapii). 



BYBLUS Phoenicise. 

jygte. Byblus occupied the site of the modem Ghebail, about one-third of the distance from 

Tripoli to Beyrut 

CaracaUa. 
AY. K. M. AYP. CGYH. ANTiiNINOC. Bust of Caracalla to r. R. lEPAC BYBAOY. 
In an arched tetrastyle temple is Astarte, or the Assyrian Venus, to r., crowned 
by Victory to I., standing on a column ; in right hand of Astarte a long 
staff ; her left hand raising her drapery ; her left foot upon a prow. 



36 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



JE 
yE 



M 



JE 



JE 



^ 



Size 
8 



Weight 



7-6 



6i 



H 



5i 



Si 



Macrinus. 
AYT. KAIC. MAKPENOC C6B. Bearded bust of Macrinus to r. R. igpac 
BYBAOY. Octastyle temple, surmounted by an acute pyramid, behind which is 
a quadrangular inclosure or portico (Temple of Venus and Mausoleum of 
Adonis) ; to the left of these, a distyle temple, in which is an altar with offerinira 
on a tripod (Temple of Isis). Both temples are entered by steps. From tL 
Thomas Collection (2519). 

Note. — For the worship of the Assyrian Venus and the names here assigned to the buildings see 
Lucian, de Syri4 ded ; Plutarch, de Is. et Osir., and Nonnns, Dionys. 3, v. 109. 



Diadumenianm. 



M 



B. Same legend. 



AY. 



AY. 



on. AIAAOYMe[NI]ANOC KAI. Bust of Diadumenianus to r. 

Astarte as before, but in an arched distyle temple. 
Another similar. 

Elagahalm. 

K. M. AYP. ANTIU Bust of Elagabalus to r. R. Same legend. 

Astarte as before, but without the Victory, and the tetrastyle temple has a 

superstructure over the columns on either side of the arch. 

KAI. M. AY. ANTUJNINOC. Radiate bust of Elagabalus to r. R. Same legend. 

Astarte standing to I. in a tetrastyle temple, arched, and with a pediment 

above the arch ; her right foot on a prow ; in her raised right hand, a flower ! 

in left hand, rudder. 
Two others similar. 

CABEIRA, or CABERA, Ponti. 

Note. — Strabo, whose authority on this part of Asia Minor is the best of any, describes Cabeira as 
situated 150 stades to the southward of the junction of the rivers Iris and Lycus, a part of the 
country which is still a blank on our maps. 

^gis, adv., with the head of Medusa in the centre. B- KAEHPIiN. Victory 
stepping to r. ; right hand extended, in left hand, palm. From the Pembroke 
Collection (862). 

Another similar. 

Head of Pallas to r. B. Same legend. Perseus to I. ; in right hand, harpa ; in 
left hand, head of Medusa, whose body is at his feet. 

CADI Phrygiae. 

Note. — In proof of the identity of Cadi and the modem Ghiediz, see Keppel's Travels, ii. p. 244. 
It has been argued against that opinion that the Hermus is figured on some of the coins of Cadi, and 
that the river of Ghiediz is the smaller branch of the Hermus. It was sufficient, however, that the 
larger branch flowed through the Cadoene territory. The occun'ence of an inscription at Ghiediz, in 
which " the Mysi Abbaitse honour their ancestor Chromius," seems to offer a stronger objection to 
Ghiediz as the site of Cadi, but if the people who struck these coins dwelt on the river Macestus 
(vide under Mysi Abbaitse), we may infer from the inscription, not that Ghiediz stands on the site 
of the city of the Abbaitse, but that Chromius, to whom they erected a statue at Cadi, was a native 
of this place ; also that the Abbasitis of Strabo extended so far eastward as to include the Cadoene. 

lePOC AHMOC. Head of Roman people to r. B. eni ANTinATPOY. River-god 
recumbent to I. ; below, ePMOC KAAOHNQN. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Claudius. 

KAAYAIOC KAICAP. Head of Claudius to r. B. Eni MEAlTilN0[2 A2KA]HniA. 
KAAOHNiiN. Jupiter Aetophorus to I. 

Note. — V. Mionnet, Sup. vii. p. 526 for other coins of Claudius with the name Asclepiades. The 
same name was foimd by Major Keppel in an inscription at Ghiediz. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



37 



Metal 

M 



M 



Size 
4 



Weight 



M 



M 



J& 



M 



M 



M 



M. 



M 



4i 



3i 



4-3 



4i 



5-4 



4i 



Same legend and type, R. em. AHMHTPIOY APITEM 
piter Aetophorus to I. ; in field to I. mon. 32. 



. KAA0HNU3N. Ju- 



Domitianus. 

A0MITIAN02 KAI2AP SE Head of Domitian to r. ft. AHMOC KAAOHNflN 

AHMOG AIZANeiTi2N. The Demi of the Cadoeni and ^zanitse standing 
opposed, and joining hands. 

Note. — The two people were separated by the ridges of Mount Dindymene {tide the description 
of the Roman road from ^zaui to Cadi, in Keppel, il. p. 238), 



R. KAAOHNiiN eni 



53-3 



11 0-3 



100-3 



86-7 



83-3 



Hadrianus. 

. . TPAI. AAPI Head of Hadrian to r. 

AIO[KA]HOY APX(ovroc). Jupiter Aetophorus to I. 

Note. — We find the same name AIOKAHOTC in an inscription copied by Major Keppel between 
Mz&m and Cadi. 

Sabina. 

CABeiNA CeBACTH. Head of Sabina to r. R. KAAOHNiiN. Statue, adv., re- 
sembling the Diana of Ephesus, but behind the head a lunar crescent, above 
which an ox's head (Dindymene ?) 



C^SAREIA Cappadocise. 

Note. — The indigenous name of the modem Kesari'a was Mazaca, which was changed to Eusebeia 
by Ariarathes Eusebes. Under this name, many coins of it are extant. That of Coesareia came into 
use in the time of Tiberius (Eutrop. ap. Suid. in Ti/3£pioc). 

Turreted female head to r. R. EYSEBEIAS. Cornueopise with pendent fillet. 

Tiberius. 

. . OS KAI2AP 2EBAST. . Head of Tiberius to r. R. ©EOY SEBASTOY YIOS. 
Mount Argseus, with a statue on the summit, holding in right hand Victory on 
a globe ; in left hand, hasta. In the middle of the mountain appears a great 
cavern, below which is a round object, which on well-preserved specimens is 
covered with globules. 

Claudius and Nero. 

. CLAVD. VGVST. GERMAN Head of Claudius to r. R. NERO CLAVD. 

DIVI. CLAVD Head of Nero to r. 

Vespasianus. 

AYTOKPA. KAICAP OYeC[nACIANOC CeB]ACTOC. Head of Vespasian to r. 
R. NIKH oeBACTH. Victory, stepping to r.; in right hand, wreath; in left 
hand, palm-branch. 

Titus. 

AYTOKPATQP TITOC KAICAP. Head of Titus to I. R. 6T0YC NeOY. I€ POY. ® 
(9). Jupiter standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, hasta. 

Note. — This is the ninth year of Vespasian, a.d. 78. Titus became Imperator in a.d. 71- 



Domiiianus. 
AYT. KAI. AOMITIANOG CeBACTOG TEPM. Head of Domitian to r. 
ir (year 13, a.d. 91). Statue upon Mount Argseus, as before. 



R. exo. 



38 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 
M 

M 

JR 



M 



Size 
5 



4i 

*2 



7-6 



M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

M 



5 
7i 



Weight 

99-3 

95-1 
107-5 



162-3 



84-2 



39-3 



I^erva. 

AYTOKPA. NCPOYAC KAICAP ceBACTOC. YD Head of Nerva to r. 

B. nPON(OIA). CTPAT(IAS). Two right hands joined ; behind them, a legionary 
eagle fixed upon a prow. 

Trajanus. 

AYTOKP. KAIC. N6P. TPAIANOC ceB. rePM. Head of Trajan to r. R. AHMAPX. 
es?. YDAT, B. Draped bust, including the arms, of a beardless turbaned figure 
to L 

Note. — The second consulship of Trajan was a.d. 98, the first year of his reign. 

AYT. KAI. NGPOYAC TPAIANOC CGBAC. TCPM. Same type. B. YHAT. ACYT. 
Statue on Mount Argseus, as before. 

Note. — The rays on the head of the statue, better seen on some other specimens, shew that it wu 
an Apollo. This is confirmed by the star, or by the Egyptian symbol of the globe and serpents, 
which are sometimes substituted for the statue on the summit of the mountain. 

AYTOKP. KAIC. N€ P. TPAIANOC CGB. TCPM. AAK. Same type. R. AHMAPX. 
es. YnATO. <^. Three military ensigns. 

Note. — The sixth consulship of Trajan was in a.d. 112. 

Antoninus Pius. 

ANTilNCINOC CCBACTOC. Head of Antoninus Pius to r. R DAT. 

IIATP. Statue on Mount Argseus. 

Note. — On this, and some of the coins which follow, the round dotted object before mentioned 
occupies the place of the cavern. 



104-8 

102-8 

66-7 
67-5 



38-3 



AYTOKP. ANTUJNeiNOC CCBACTOC. Same type. R. YOATOC B 
Note. — The second consulship of Antoninus Pius was in a.d. 139. 



Same type. 
R. KAICAPCITN T(wv) n(po£) APrAI(j») Same 



Same legend and type, 
type. 

Marcus Aurelius. 

.... AN NO. Bust of Marcus Aurelius to r. R. MHTPOnOA. KAI- 

CAPCIAC. Mount Argseus on a square altar, on the face of which is 
CT. n (year 13). 

Verus. 

AYTOKP. OYHPOC CCBACTOC. Bust of Lucius Verus to r. R. YHATOC B, 
(a. d. 161.) Statue on Mount Argseus; on the sides of which there is an 
appearance of trees. 

Another similar. 

Commodus. 

AYTO. M. AYP. KOMOAOC AN(7wvJi'oe C6(/3a<rroc). Head of Commodus to r. 

R. vriATOC r. (a.d. 181) HAT. IIA. Same type; in exergue, a star. 
AYT. M. AYP. KOMO. ANTtUNINOC. Same type. R. YQATOC A. HAT. HATPI. 

Victory, standing on a globe, to r. 
. . . . KOMO. ANTaNINO. . Bust of Commodus to r. R. . . TPOnO. KAICAPCIAC. 

Mount Argseus upon a square altar, on the front of which is £T. lA (year 11, 

A.D. 191). 

Sepiimius Severus. 

AY. A. cen. ceOYIIPOC. Head of Sept. Severus to r. R. MHTPO. KAICAPI. 
Mount Argseus ; on its summit, a star ; in exergue, CT. B (year 2, a.d. 194). 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



39 



Metal 


Size 


M 


3i 


M 


3i 


M 


4 


M 


3i 


JE 


7 


JE 


6i 


JE 


7-6 


M 


6 


JE 


7 


JE 


H 


M 


7 


JE 


7 


^ 


5 


JE 


61 


/E 


H 



Weight 

29-4 



30-5 
35-6 



29-1 



94-1 



AY. 



AY 



AY 



AY 



AY. K. A. cen. ceOYHPOC. Same type. B. MHTP. KAIC. Same type ; in exergue, 
ex. lA (year 14, a.d. 207). 

Julia Domna. 

lOYAIA AOMNA A. Bust of Julia Domna to r. B. MHTPO. KAICA. Mount 
Argseus, with star on the summit ; in exergue, GT. ir (year 13). 

lOYAIA AOiMNA AYF. Same type. R. MHTP. KAIC. N60(Kopoi>). Same type ; 
in exergue, ex. 1<^ (year 16). 

Caracalla. 

AY. KAI. M. AYP. ANTilN .... Head of Caracalla to r. R. . HTPO. KAICAPI. 

Mount ArgjBus, having a star on its summit. 
Legend effaced. Bust of Caracalla to r. ; countermark, radiate head to r. B 

. . KAIC N&iiK. Mount Argseus upon an altar ; on the front of which 

is ex. B (year 2, a.d. 212). 

K. M. AYPHAI. ANTiiNtNOC. Same type. R Ono. KAICAPI. Same 

type, but with 6T. r (year 3) in front of altar. 

K. M. AYPH . . ANXlLNeiN . . Same type. R. MHXPOn. KAICAPI. Mount 

Argaeus upon an altar ; on the front of which is 6X. e (year 5). 

KAI. M. AYPHAI. ANXilNINO . . Same type. R. MHXO. KAICAPI. NCIiK. 

Mount Argseus, with a statue on the summit, as before ; in exergue, CT. IZ 

(year 17, a.d. 217). 

Note. — Vide Eckhel iii. p. 189, for the reason why these numbers appear sometimes to exceed the 
length of the reigns. 

Severus Alexandras. 

K. M. AYPH. CeOY. AA6ZANAP0C. Bust of Severus Alexandrus to r. 

^.. MHXPOnO. KAIC APIA. Mount Argseus upon a square altar; on the front 

of which is ex. A (year 1, a.d. 222). 
AY. K. CeOYH. AAeiAN. Head of Severus Alexandrus to r. R. MHTPO. KAICA. 

ex. A (year 4). Three ears of corn tied together. 
CeOYHP. AACSA . . . Bust of Severus Alexandrus to r. B. MHTPO. 

KAICAPI. Eagle, with open wings, upon Mount Argseus, between two military 

standards ; in exergue, CT'^ (year 6). 
eOYH. AAeSAN .... Same type. B KAIC ... A crown on the 

summit of Mount Argseus; in exergue, ex. Z (year 7, a.d. 229). 
AY. C60YH. AAGSANAP. Same type. B. MHXPOnOAeiiC KAICAPIAC eX 

in five lines. 

CiESAREIA Paneias. 

iVote.— This city was founded by the tetrarch PhUippus, son of Herod the Great, and was named 
Caesareia in honour of Tiberius. The epithet Paneias was derived from Mount Paneium, at the foot 
of which Ca;sareia stood ; here was a grotto sacred to Pan, concerning which, and the remains of 
antiquity there, see Burclihaxdt's Syria, p. 38. 

M. Aurelius. 

M. AYP ANX. Head of M. Aurelius to r. B. KAIC. C6B. 16 P. 

KAI ACY. YH. nANeiH). Figure, adv., with crossed legs, leaning against a 
rock ; in extended right hand, patera ; in left hand, chlamys and ? ; in field, 
FOB (year 172). 

K. AY. . . ANXUJ Same type. B- KAICA HAN. ACY. YQ 

" ' Pan, adv., with crossed legs ; his head turned to I., and playing on the 

flute ; behind him, a column, and on it a tripod I P<IA (year 191). 

Jfote. This date will not agree with Eclihel's supposition that the eera commenced B.C. 3. As 

M. Aurelius reigned nineteen years, and nineteen is the interval of years between the dates of these 
two coins, it would seem that the 172nd year of the tera was the first year of the reign of M. Aure- 
lius, and this having begun in a.d. 162, that the lera commenced about 10 B.C. 



40 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



Size 



Weight 



JE 



M 

M 
M 

M 
M 

M 
JE 
M 



JE 
JE 



JE 



JE 



1\ 

4i 



3 
3 



4i 



3i 



81-6 

34-2 
30-9 

7-7 
10-7 



C^SAREIA GERMANIC EI A Commagenes. 

iVbte.— From Constantine Porphyrogennetus (de Vita Basil.) and Stephanus (in voce) we leam 
that Germanicia stood near a rocky pass in Mount Araanus, on the borders of the valley of the 
Euphrates. This agrees very well with the modem Kermania or Marash. 



Bust of Marcus Aurelius to r. 
in a wreath of bay. 



M.. Aurelius. 

B. KAiCAPe. rePMANiKe. 



KOM. A. in four lines 



CALCHEDON Bithyni^. 

N<M. — Calchedon was a colony of Megara ; in both cities the temple of Apollo was the principal 
sacred building. Lucian (Pseudomant. 10) speaks of that of Calchedon as remarkable for its anti- 
quity ; it was founded probably at the time of the colonization. The most numerous class of coins 
in the two cities bear a great resemblance to each other, as well in style as in types, which are the 
head of Apollo or his symbols the tripod and lyre. The similarity of the bull above the ear of 
com on the coins of Calchedon, and of the bull above the tunny on those of Byzantium, is not less 
remarkable, and is accounted for by the tradition that Byzas, who gave name to tlie latter city, 
conducted thither a colony from Megara not long after the foundation of Calchedon. Herodot. 
4, 144. 

KAAX. Bull standing to I. ; below, ear of com. B. Four triangular incuses, 

slightly dotted, and united in a centre. 
Same legend and type. B. Similar type. 
Beardless male head to r. Bi. KAA. and a leaf of ivy between four spokes of a 

wheel. 
Wheel with twelve spokes and a globe in the centre. B. Four triangular incuses. 
Beardless head to r. ; hair bound with a string of beads, and full behind. B. Wheel 

with four spokes. 
Head of Apollo to r. B. KAAXAAONIftN in two lines; between them a tripod. 
Heads of Apollo and Diana to I. R. Same legend with lyre ; in field to r., mon. 33. 
Head of Apollo to I. B. Same legend with tripod. 



CARRHuE Mesopotamiae. 

Note. — Carrhse, now Haran, was situated twenty-five miles to the E.S.E. of Edessa (Orfa), towards 
the sources of a tributary of the Euphrates, now called Beylik, and which corresponds to the Basileius 
of Strabo. Haran was an Arabic principality as late as the twelfth century, and the extant ruins are 
chiefly of that time. 

Augustus. 

KAI. Head of Augustus to r. ft. 2EBA2T0S. Star and crescent. 
Another. 

Septimius Severus. 

CenTIMIOO ceOYHPOC. Head of Sept. Severus to r. R. KOA. AYPHAIA KA. 
Three statues in a tetrastyle temple. 

Septimius Severus and Caracalla. 
Busts of Sept. Severus and Caracalla opposed. R 



QNINOC C 

KAPP Star and crescent. 

Caracalla. 

. ANTONIN Head of Caracalla to r. 

NINIANA. Veiled and turreted female head to r. 



R. COL. MET. ANTO- 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



4] 



Metal 



M 



JE 



Size 



Weight 



M 



JE 



M 



m 



JE 



M 

JE 



8-9 



5i 



41 



H 



H 



137-2 



52 



Gordianm Junior. 

AYTOK. K. M. ANT. TOPAIANOC CGB. Radiate head of Gordian to r. B- MHTP. 

KOA. KAPPHNiiN. Veiled and turreted female head to I. ; above the turret, a 

crescent ; to I., a column, on which is a small statue holding in right hand 

a hammer 2 (Cabirus.) 
AYTOK. K. M. ANT. TOP Laureate head of Gordian to r. JJ. Same 

legend and types. 

CELENDERIS Cilicia. 

Note. — Celenderis and the neighbouring Nagidus were colonies of Samus, and among the earliest 
Greek settlements on the coast of Cilicia. Some of the coins of both places are of the fifth or sixth 
centuries B.C. For the present state of Celenderis, which preserves its ancient name, see my Asia 
Minor, p. 1 IS. 



Horseman to r. sitting sideways ; in right hand, whip, 
to r., with the left fore knee on the ground. 



R. KE. Goat to I., looking 



CHABACTA Ponti. 

iEgis, with head of Medusa, in the centre. R. [X]ABAKTA. Victory stepping 
to r., holding a palm branch in both hands ; in field to r., a mon. 

Youthful helmeted head to r. R. XABAKT. Quiver, crescent, and star ; in field, 
mon. 34. 

JYote. — According to Strabo, the only author who mentions Chabacta, it was a maritime city in the 
district of Side, or Polemonium (see Kings and Dynasts, p. 48). The river Sidenus is known by its 
still bearing the name Puleman-tehai. 

CHALCIS Syrise. 

j\r(,j<,._Chalcis, according to the Antonine Itinerary, was on the road from Bercea (Aleppo) to 
Epiphaneia (Hama), at eighteen Roman miles from the former. The distance and direction com- 
bine to place Chalcis near the lake in which the Kdik, or river of Aleppo, terminates, but its exact 
position has not been ascertained. 

Bearded male head to r. R. XAAKTAEflN. Pyramidal symbol of Astarte in a 
shrine. 

Trajan. 

. . . TPAIANOC APICT. CGB. rePM. AAK. HAP©. Head of Trajan to r. R. *A. 

XAAKIAGON. A. in three Hnes within a wreath. 
Another. 

CIBYRA Phrygiffi. 

Note.— The Cibyratis bordered immediately on the northern extremity of Lycia, three cities of 
which province, CEnoanda, Balbura, and Bubon, were united with Cibyra, and formed a tetrapolis, of 
which Cibyra was the head. Its population had been augmented also from Lydia and Pisidia, and 
hence, in the time of Strabo, the languages of Lycia, Lydia, and Pisidia were all spoken at Cibyra, 
as well as Hellenic. The ruins of the city in this its most flourishing period are described by Captain 
Spratt, R.N., vol. i. p. 256. 

Youthful helmeted head to r. in dotted circle. R. KIBYPATiiN. Warrior galloping 

to r., spear held horizontally. 
Head of Pallas to r. R. KIBYPAT[iiN]. Gibbous bull kneeling on one knee to r. ; 

all in quad, incus. 



42 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 
M 
M 



M 



M 



M 



M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

JE 



Size 
31 



&i 



O2 



Z + 



2+ 

2 
2 
3 



3+ 



Weight 



38-8 



88-8 
34-5 
37-7 



Lunus sacrificing at an altar to 
in right hand, 



Bearded head of Hercules to r. R. Same legend. 
I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, hasta. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. KIBYPATiiN. Hermes standing to l. 
caducous ; in left hand, chlamys ; in field to L, AK. (year 24.) 

Heads of the Dioscuri to r. B. Same legend. Victory erecting a trophy to I. -, 
in field, EK. (year 25) ; countermark, head, to r. From the Pembroke Col- 
lection (1246). 

Note. — The sera of Cibyra commenced in a.d. 23, wlien three years' tribute was remitted by Tibe- 
rias in consequence of the damage whicli Cibyra had suffered from an earthquake. 



M. on. ANXaNINOC . . 
tune standing to I. 



Diadumenianus. 
Bust of Diadumenianus to r. 

CIDRAMUS CariiS. 



B. Same legend. For- 



Note. — Cidramus has been supposed to be the same place as the KvBpapa of Herodotus (7, 30), 
on the confines of Lydia and Phrygia, but Cidramus or Cidrama was probably a different place, and 
one unnoticed in ancient history. It was a bishopric in the ninth century, and in the Notitite the 
bishop is styled o Kivlpdnuiv. In that document the name occurs together with those of Ceramus, 
Cnidus, and Halicarnassus. Probably, therefore, its situation was not far from the Gulf of Cos. 

AYPHAIOC BHPOC KAI. Head of Marcus Aurelius to r. 8.. AI(a) C6AeYK0(«) 
nOAeMSXi'oe) KIAPAMHNaN. Diana Ephesia, adv. 

Note. — Aia, witli the name of the magistrate, is found also on coins of Attuda and of Laodiceia of 
Phrygia. 



NeiKACON KIABI. Fortune 



CILBIANI Lydiffi. 

Get a. 

A. ce. l^GTAC KAI. Bust of Geta to r. B. 
standing to I. 

Note. — The Cilbiani occupied the plains and valleys of the upper Caystrus, and had two cities, 
rdv dvu) and j-wk Karui KiXfitaviSv. The present specimen indicates an alliance with the people of 
Niceea ; others prove a similar alliance with Pergamus, 

CIUS BithyniiE. 

Note. — Cius was a colony of Miletus (Plin. H. N. 5, 40), but boasted of having had Hercules for 
its founder (criorijc). Having been taken by PhiUp, son of Demetrius, it was given bv him to 
Prusias I., by whom it was called Prusa on the Sea to distinguish it from Prusa on Olympus and Prusa 
on the Hypius, both which were places founded or restored by him. There are coins of Cius, both au- 
tonomous and imperial, inscribed nPOYCIEQN TQN IIPOC BAAACCH, but in the reign of Domi- 
tian the old name reappears on the money of Cius, and is found as late as Salonina. 



KI. 



Head of Apollo to r. 

I. ; on prow, star. 
Two others lighter. 
Same legend and type. 
Same legend and type. 
Same legend and type. 



B. nP0SEN02 in two lines ; between them, prow to 



B. MTAHTOS. Same type. 
B. [EYMJENHS. Same type. 
. . B. A®HNOAiiPOS. Same type. 
Beardless head (Apollo ?) to r. B. KI. Diota, from which hang two bunches of 

grapes ; all in a wreath formed of two ears of corn. 
Beardless head to r., with long hair and a Phrygian cap. B. KIAN[nN]. Club; 
in field, two monograms. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



43 



Metal 


Size 


M 


2 


% 




M 


6+ 


M 


1 


M 


2-1 


JR 


2+ 


M 


3-2 


M 


3-2 


N 


3 


/R 


H 


M 


7 


M 


4 


M 


2 


M 


4+ 


JE 


H 


M 


4- 


M 


2 


M 


H 


M 


4 


M 


3 


M 


2- 


JE 


2- 


M 


4 


JE 


4 



Weight 



14-7 



49-5 

58-7 
87-8 

262-5 
263-3 
28-7 



Similar type, but the Phrygian cap more clearly expressed. R. KIA. Diota, from 
which hang two bunches of grapes ; all in a wreath formed of two ears of corn. 

Note. — Tlie person in the Phrygian cap is perhaps Hylas, who, having been sent to fetch water 
for Hercules, when he was here on his way to Colchis, was carried off by the nymphs. Hence the 
Prusienses celebrated a festival, in which they pretended to seek for Hylas, and called out his name. 
Or possibly the type may have been intended for Cius, another companion of Hercules, who is said to 
have remained here on his return from Colchis, and to have given name to the city (Slrabo, p. 564). 

Macrinus. 

AYT. M. OnEA. CeOYH. MAKPINOC AYF. . Bust of Macrinus to r. R. KIANaN. 
Hercules strangling the lion ? Con/. Mionnet ii. p. 495, No. 459. 

CLAZOMEN^ Ioni£E. 

Winged boar or sow to r. R. A square formed of four triangular indentations ; 
in one of them, K. 

Note. — .^lian (Hist. Anim. 12, 38) relates avv yfviaOai irrtivov, i/fftp uvv iXvuaivtro ti)v x^pn" 
Tois KXa^o^if vioif. He adds, on the authority of Artemon, that this tie irTepwrrjg was celebrated in 
song, and gave name to a place in the Clazomenian territory, which the monster was said to have in- 
fested. It would seem that to a mischievous wild sow of uncommon swiftness of foot, poetry had 
added wings; possibly the oracle was consulted, and declared the sow to be an emissary of Apollo or 
some other deity, who was to be appeased by sacrifices. To adopt the monster as a monetary type 
was a natural consequence. 

Same type. R. Lion's scalp, adv., in square within quad. inc. 
Two similar, of lighter weight. 
Same types, but the winged boar to I. 
Another, but lighter. . 

Head of Apollo, adv., towards r. R. KAAIO. AQHNArOPAS. Swan with raised 
wings to r. ; behind it, flying boar to r. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — Swans were the ministers of Apollo (Socrates ap. Plat, in Phajd. ; Lucian in Elect.), and 
the god himself was said to have assumed that form (Nonn. Dionys. 2, v. 218). 

Head of Apollo, adv., towards I. ; in field, eEOAOXos EnoEi. R nY0EO2 

Swan standing to I,, with raised wings. Electrotype from the Col- 
lection of General Fox. 

Same type ; in field, . eoaotos ehoei. R. [KA]AI0. MANAPflNAS. Electrotype 
from the Collection of the Due ds Luynes. 

Same type. R. . . Ax. HAPMIS. Swan with raised wings, standing to I. Electrotype. 

Same type. R. KAEAPISTOS KAA. Same type. 

Head of Pallas, adv., towards r. R. [KA]AIOMENIiiN innOKAOS. Fore-part of 
ram running to r. ; before it, a branch. 

Same type. R. KAAlOMENIiiN. Ram stepping to r. ; before it, fulmen. 

Same type. R. Same legend, same type ; before the ram, grapes. 

Same type. R MENIflN. Same type ; before the ram, ? 

Bust of Pallas to r. R. KAAlOMENIilN. Ram couchant to r., looking adv. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. Same legend. Ram couchant to r. ; before it, diota. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type ; before the ram, garland. 

Same type. R. HPAKiiN. Head of ram to r. 

Head of Pallas to /. R N. Ram on one knee to I. 

KAAIOMENH. Turreted female bust to r. (Clazomene.) R. KAAIOMGNmN. 
Half-draped figure to r. (Anaxagoras 2) ; in right hand, rod ; in extended left 
hand, a globe. 

Another. 

NoU.—On some other coins the turreted female heads are accompanied by the legend GEA 
KAAZOMENH. Probably, therefore, Clazomene was one of the Amazons, and the reputed founder 
of the city, like Myrrhina, Smyrna, Cyme, Temnus. 



u 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



M 



M 

M 

JE 



Size 



M 
M 
M 


2+ 
2- 
6 


52-6 

27-3 

220-8 


M 
M 
M 


3^ 
3i 
3 


47 
62-4 


M 

M 
M 

JE 


3 

2- 
2- 

7+ 


24-2 
16-7 


M 


4> 




JE 

M 


4i 
6 




JE 


3 





3 

5 



Weight 



85-2 
52-7 



Sahina. 

C6BACTH CABGINA. Head of Sabina to r. R. KAA. en. CTP. KA. ©GMIC- 
TOK(Xtouc). Asclepius, adv., towards /. 



CNIDUS Carise. 

Note. — The worship of Venus at Ciiidua and the convenience of its harbours in one of the most im- 
portant maritime positions of Greece, are strong presumptions in favour of the supposition that it 
was originally a Phoenician settlement, though Homer makes no allusion to the place, and the Doric 
colonization from Europe is the first event connected with it which history has authentically noticed. 
The ruins of Cnidus are so extensive as to give a better idea of a Greek city than any others in exist- 
ence. They are described in the first chapter of the Third Part of the Antiquities of Ionia, by the 
Society of Dilettanti. A remark which I there made as to the commerce of Cnidus and the celebrity 
of its wine, has been curiously illustrated by the discovery at Alexandria and Athens of a great 
number of inscribed maniibria of Cnidian vases, shewing the extent of the export commerce of 
Cnidus. — See Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, 8vo., III. and IV. 

Head of Venus to r. in quad, incus. R. Head and fore-leg of lion to r. 

[K]N. Same type. B. Same type to I. 

Same type. R. Same type to r. From the Collection of the DuJce of Devoiuhire 
(748). 

Same type ; behind the neck, dove. R. KNI. ©EYMEAiiN. Same type. 

Another lighter. 

Head of Venus to r., her hair behind forming a knot ; behind the neck, men. 35. 
R. KNI. TEAEAS. Same type. 

Two others lighter. 

Same type. R. Legend oif the coin. Same type. 

Same type. R. (KNI). ANTinATPOS. Head of ox, adv., towards r. 

Head of Bacchus to I. R. EKATAIOS KNIAIflN in four lines. Two bunches of 
grapes hanging from stem. 

Bearded head to r. R. KNIAIQN APISTOnOAIS in three Hues. A bunch of 
grapes and stem. 

Helmeted head to r. R. KNIAiaN EYBOYAOS. Victory stepping to I. 

Head of Diana? to r. ; behind, bow? R. KNIAIilN nANTA[\£ou] in two lines; be- 
tween them, a tripod ; all in a circle of large dots. 

Turreted female head to I. R. KNIAIiiN. Head and fore-leg of lion to I. 



COLOPHON Ionise. 

Note. — The position of Colophon, its port Notium, and its temple of Apollo at Clarus, have not yet 
been satisfactorily identified. It seems to be on the authority of Chandler alone that the ruins on the 
sea-coast at Zila have been called those of Clarus ; but, as they consist of remains of a theatre and 
other public buildings, they are rather the ruins of Colophon after the time of Lysimachus, who de- 
stroyed the city, and removed many of the people to Ephesus. It seems clear from the account 
given by Livy (37, 26) of the siege of Notium by Antiochus III., that the Colophonii then occupied 
the Kdrw TroXtc of Thucydidea (3, 34). Probably, therefore, they had then abandoned the avu iro'Xit 
which more anciently had been united to Notium by long walls two miles in length, that they never 
reoccupied the upper site, and that the extant ruins at Zila are of the later Colophon, as well as all 
the copper money and the less ancient silver. The exact site of Upper Colophon and of CUirus are 
yet to be described. 

Beardless laureate head (Apollo Clarius) to r. R. . OAO* . . IQN. Lyre ; all in quad. 

incus. 
Head of Apollo to I. R. KOAO*n. APISTEIAH?. Lyre. 
Same type to r. R. KOA. Same type. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



45 



Metal 



JE. 
M 



M 



JE 



M 



M 



M 



M 



Size 
4 



4 
3i 



Weight 



H 






IIYQEOS. Homer seated to I ; right hand to his chin ; in left hand, volume. 
R. KOAO*ilNI[tiN]. Apollo, in long drapery, to r. ; in right hand, plectrum ; 
in left hand, lyre (Musagetes). 

Note. — Colophon was one of the places that claimed the honour of having given birth to Homer, 

Another similar. 

AnOAAAS. Same type. R. Same legend and type. 
Head of Apollo, adv. R. ipesios KOAO*ilNI . . . Tripod. 
Head of Apollo to r. B. KOA. EIIirONO . . Half-horse running to r. 
Same type. ft. KOA. HPHSIANAS. Helmeted horseman, armed with a spear, 
galloping to r. ; behind him, lyre. 

3Iaximus. 

Head of Maximus to r. R. KOAOiiiNISiN. Apollo, 
in right hand, plectrum ? in left hand, lyre. 

COLOSSI Phrygiffi, 

iVbfe.— Colossse was in a flourishing state in the time of Xerxes. It continued to coin money 
under the Roman empire. The latest coinage is of Gordian. After this time a new city, Chonae, 
which still preserves its name, was built at a short distance from the site of Colossee to the south. 

Commodus. 

KAICAP M. AYPHA AOC. Head of Commodus to r. B. Cii .... AFX, 

KOAOCCHNQN. Diana stepping to r. ; right hand to quiver ; in left hand, 



I. OYH. MAXIMOG KAIC. 
half-draped, seated to r. 



bow. 



COMANA Ponti. 



Note. Comana, now Gumen^k, is not far from Tokfit, towards the sources of the river Iris. It 

was noted for the worship of Ma, the Latin Bellona, whose high priest was invested with great 
privileges. The goddess is represented on a coin of Septimius Severus with her right hand resting 
on a shield, which stands on the ground, and holding a club in her left. 

^gis, with Medusa's head in the centre, adv. R. . . MANii . . Victory stepping 
to r. ; in right hand, palm branch ; in extended left hand, garland ; in field 
to I., a mon. ; in field to r., mon. 12. 

Same type. R. KOMANilN. Same type and monograms. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. KOMANQN. Perseus, adv. ; in right hand, harpa ; in 
left hand, head of Medusa ; at his feet, her body ; in field, mon. 36. 

COMMAGENE. 
Capricorn to r.; above, star. ft. KOMMArHNiiN, Armenian tiara? 

CONANE Pisidise. 

iVo*«.— Conane being named by Ptolemy (5, 5) together with Lysinoe and Cormasa, seems to have 
stood in the country about Isbarta and Burdur, probably to the south-eastward of those modem 
towns as we find the same three ancient names above-mentioned among those of the Pamphylian 
province in the ninth century (Hierocl. p. 680). 

Plautilla. 
*OYA. UAAYTIAA. Bust of Plautilla to r. R. KONANEilN. Fortune standing 
to I. 



46 

Metal 



Size 



Weight 



M 



9+ 



M 



M 



5-4 



JE 



M 



7 

6- 

4- 



5-4 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



COEACESIUM Cilicise. 

iVbfe.— Coracesium, a peninsular promontory at the eastern entrance of the Attaleian Gulf, is now 
occupied by the fortress and town of Alaia. 

Salonina. 

KOPNHAIA C INA CCB, Bust of Salonina to r. ; in field, lA. (year 12.) 

B. KOPAKHCIiiN. Jupiter, adv. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, hasta. 

Note. — Gallienus and Salonina were August! from a.d. 253 to a.d. 268. Tlicir twelfth year, there- 
fore, was A.D. 265. 



CORYCUS Cilicije. 

Note. — Corycus was one of the most flourishing of the maritime towns of Cilicia Tracheia, and 
probably not less ancient than Nagidus, Celenderis, or Holmi, as we find the fables of Typhos and his 
abode the Corycian cavern celebrated by Pindar and jEschylus. Corycus appears from its coins to 
have been favoured by the Roman emperors, and to have preserved its titles of aiirovofiOQ and 
vavapxis to the time of Valerian. 

Turreted female head to r. ; behind, AT. (year 304 ?) R. KilPYKIiiTflN. Hermes 
standing to l. ; on head, petasus ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, ca- 
duceus. 

Note. — 'Epnij KiupvKiMv vaioiv jroXiv, w dva, ^(aipoie 

'£p/iq, Kal \try TrpoayiXdaatt My. — Archioe Ep. Brandt, ii. p. 97. 

K\v9i fiiv, '£p/itia, Albs iiyytXi, Maiddos vU, 



KbipuKiura. — Orph. Hymn. 27. 

Similar head to r. R. Female seated on prow to l. ; in right hand, acrostolium ! 
in left hand, hasta ? 

Note. — Confer Mionnet iii. p. 574, No. 185. The figure is probably Corycus personified. On other 
coins she has the head of a cow, is standing, holds the same attributes in her hands, and has at her 
feet a prow. 



COTIAEIUM Phrj'giiE. 

Note. — Kona'eiov preserves its ancient name. Its Turkish substitute, Kutaya, is the modem ca- 
pital of Phrygia. On the advantageous situation of this place, which has preserved its ancient im- 
portance, see my Asia Minor, p. 140. 

AHMOC KOTIAEflN. Diademate male head to r. R. Eni n. AlA. AH[MHT]PIANOY 
inni. APX. Radiate Apollo in a quadriga, adv. ; in exergue, KOTlAEiiN, 

[AHMOG] KOTIAEilN. Same type. B. EHI AIOPENOVG AI0NV2I0V APX. Ju- 
piter Aetophorus seated to l. 

KOTIAEIS 2YNRAHTON. Beardless laureate head (Roman Senate) to r. R. [EIII 
K]AnYAOY. Cybele seated to l; on head, modius ; in right hand, patera; 
left hand on tympanum ; at her feet, on either side, a lion. 

Claudius. 

KOTIAEIS. Head of Claudius to r. R. EHI OYAPOY Y[IOY no- 

AEiiS]. Jupiter ? standing to I. ; in right hand raised, ? in left hand pendent, ? 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



47 



I Metal 



M 



Size 



Weight 



M 



JE 
M 



M 

M 
M 

M 



7-6 



6 
6 



Eni Ti. 

in right 



3 
3 

3-2 
2 



26-9 



25-2 



Vespasianus. 
OYESIIASIANON KAI2APA [KOTlA]EIS. Head of Vespasian to r. R 

KAAYAIOY reKOYNAOY. Half-draped Bacchus standing to I. ; m ngnt 
hand, diota; in left hand, which rests on a twisted or vine-covered stele a 
sceptre ; at his feet, panther to I. 

Severus Alexandras. 

[M. AYP. CGYH] AAEXANAPOC AYF. Bust of Severus Alexander to I.; right 
hand raised ; in left hand, hasta. B:. Eni. M. AYP. KO[INTOY K]YINTIAN0Y 
APX. KOTIAEil . . Asclepius with his usual attributes, and Hygieia feeding 
the serpent, opposed ; between them, Telesphorus. 

Maximus. 
r. lOY. OYH. MAffllMOC K(a4Vap). Bust of Maximus to r. R. Eni IT. AI. EP- 
MA*IAOY. A. APX. B. KOTIAEiiN. lladiate naked figure (Apollo), adv., 
looking to I. ; in raised right hand, torch I in left hand, globe. 

PMlippus Senior. 
M. lOYAIOC *IAinnOC AVr. Radiate bust of Philip senior to r. R. Eni lOY. 
nONTIKOY APXIEPEQC. Asclepius and Hygieia opposed ; between them, 
Telesphorus ; in exergue, KOTIAEQN. 
M. lOYAI. $IAinriOC AV. Bust of Philip senior to r. R. KOTIAEQN. Two 
right hands joined. 

Valerianus. 

AYT. K. n. AIK. OYAAGPIANON. Radiate bust of Valerian to r. R. EHI n. AI. 

AHMHTPIANOY 10. APX. Cybele to I. in a biga drawn by lions ; in exergue, 

KOTIAEiiN. 
Another similar. 

CRAGUS Lycise. 

Note. — Cragus is better known as a great mountain of Lycia than as a Lycian city. This province 
has been diligently explored of late, and many of its cities have been identified. But not Cragus, 
though its coins prove it to have been a place of some importance. In the 12th volume of the 
Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, I have given some reasons for believing that Cragus was 
the same place as Sidyma, which name is not found on coins, but is known from inscriptions in the 
ruins of a city on one of the summits of Mount Cragus. The latter name seems to have been in use 
up to the first century of our sera, Sidyma at a later date. 

Head of Apollo to r. R. KP. Lyre; in field to I., eagle standing on a helmet; 

all in quad, incus. 
Same type. R. KP. Lyre ; in quad, incus. Electrotype. 
Similar type. R. AYKIiiN KPA, Lyre ; all in quad, incus. 
Head of Diana to r. R. AY. KP. Quiver ; all in quad, incus. 
Female head to r. ; with apex above the forehead. R. K with PA in mon. Quiver. 

CROMNA Paphlagonise. 

Note. — Cromna was a maritime city of Paphlagonia, situated 120 stades to the eastward of 
Amastris, and 90 west from Cytorus (Arriau. Perip. Eux. 14). Amastris and Cytorus preserve 
their ancient names. The female head on the coins of Cromna resembles that on the coins of 
Aroisus, which 1 have described as a head of Juno, because it bears the kind of crown which com- 
monly distinguishes that goddess. More probably, however, the female heads on the coins both of 
Cromna and of Amisus are intended for the Amazon KTiarai, from whom the places were sup- 
posed to have derived their names ; and that the coins which bear them are more ancient than the 
introduction of the worship of Perseus by the kings of Pontus. Vide Amisus. 



48 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 
M 



M 



JE 



JR 



JE 



JE 



Size 
4 



2i 



4i 
44 



JE 


2i 


M 


n 


M 


3+ 


JE 


2^ 


JE 


3+ 


M 


3+ 


JE 


4-3 


M 


2 


JE 


1 


JE 


2 


JE 


2 


JE 


3 


JE 


4 



Weight 
54-() 



52-8 



258-4 



Laureate head, with beard, and long hair behind (Jupiter ?), to I. U. KPflMNA. 
Female head to I. crowned like Juno (Cromna 2) ; above, raon. 37 ; below, an- 
other monogram ; behind the head, K. 

Similar head ; but behind, 0. fi. Same legend and type, but behind the neck, A, 
and before it, N. 



CYBISTRA Cappadociffi. 

iV^o<«.— Cybistra was the head quarters of Cicero when protecting Cilicia against the Parthians and 
Armenians. It is placed by the Tabular Itinerary at sixty-four miles from Tyana (Kiz-hissdr), to- 
wards Kesaria, but it was situated probably to the eastward of that line, travellers having recognised 
Nora nearly where the route in the Itinerary, if it were direct, would place Cybistra. 



Female head to r. B. K. 
p. 437, No. 216. 



Harpa, in a wreath of olive. Conf. Mionnet, iv. 



CYME ^olidis. 

Note. — There is no part of the coast of Asia Minor, and few portions of the interior, which have 
been less successfully explored for the purpose of determining the ancient sites, than the maritime 
country of jEolis, between the Gulf of Smyrna and the Strait of Mytilene. The position of Phoe«» 
alone is known. Neither of Temnus, or JEgae, or Larissa, or Cyme, or Myrina, or Grynium, or 
Gambrium, have the sites been explored, though of all these, except Grynium, coins are extant ; and 
Strabo has left us valuable data to assist in determining their positions. Eckhel remarks (ii. p. 492) 
that the constant types of the money of Cyme are— a horse, a monota, or single-handled cup, of a 
form not seen on any other coins, and, more rarely, an eagle ; but that he could find no reason for 
any of them. They are probably types respectively of Apollo, Bacchus, and Jupiter. 

Female head, with narrow diadem (Diana?) to r. fi. KYMAIiiN. Horse with 
bridle to r. ; its left fore foot raised, under which is a small monota ; below, 
KAAAIAS ; all in a wreath of bay. 

SimDar head to r. Yjc. KY . Bridled horse to /•., with left fore foot raised. 

Same type. R. KYMAIiiN. Horse to r., as before ; under the left fore foot, mo- 
nota; in exergue, IIYQAS. 

Same type, with a bow behind the shoulder. B. KY 
between two branches. 

Same type, without the bow. B. KY AEIAHS. 

fore feet raised ; behind, monota. 

Same type. ft. KY. APISTOMAXOS. Same types. 

Another. 

Monota. ft. KY. ANAPOTEAHS Half-horse to r. 

Monota ; in field to I., a monogram. B. KY. EYBIOS. 

KY. Monota. B. AY2ANIA2. Eagle, with closed wings, standing to r, 

Same letters and type. B- nOAYENii[N]. Same type. 

Same letters and type. B- IKEPT . . . Same type. 

Same letters and type. B- Name illegible. Same type. 

Same letters and type. B- Same type. 

KY. Fore-part of bridled horse, with both feet raised, to r, 

Another. 

Head of Jupiter Sarapis to r. B- KYMAiaN. Eagle to r. 

KYMH. Turreted female bust (the Amazon Cyme) to r. B. KYMAIi2N. 
draped male figure, adv. ; in right hand, globe ; in left hand, trident. 

Same legend. Same type. B- Same legend. Fortune standing to l. 



A[nA]T0YPl[02]. Monota 
Half-horse to r., with both 



Same type. 



B. Xi2lA02. Quiver. 



Turreted 



M 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



49 



Metal 
M 

M 



M 
M 



M 

M 

m 



Size 

Si 



H 



6+ 



Weight 



H 



4i 
6i 



6-5 

H 

8 



Warrior and charioteer in quadriga to r. ^.. KY. Diana and a military figure 

joining right hands ; in her left hand, a torch ; in his, hasta. 
Another similar. 
lePA CYNKAHTOC. Laureate beardless bust (Senate of Eome) to r. R. 6. AY. 

GAIIIA KYMAIQN. Turreted male figure in a short tunic, adv., looking 

to I. ; in right hand, globe ; in left hand, trident. 
Same legend and type. B. en. eAniAH*OPOY KYMAI[ii]N. Female on galley 

to r. holding its sail. 
Same legend and type. ft. KYMAIQN. Eiver-god recumbent to l. ; below, 

ePMOC. Electrotype from the B. M. 
Same legend and type. R. . . AIA. e? . . . HCI . . KYMAI. Eiver-god recumbent 

to I. ; in exergue, IAN0O2. 

Note. — From this and the preceding coin, we may infer that the river Xanthus was at or very 
pear Cyme, and that the Hermus flowed through a part of its territory. 

Same legend and type. R. en. CT. *A. MHNO(*ANT)OY KYMAISiN. Fortune 
standing to I. 

Gallienus. 

A. K. no. AIK. rAAAIHNOC. Bust of Grallienus to r. R. KYMAIiiN. Naked 

figure, adv., holding a horse to r., of which the fore-part only is seen. 
Another similar. 

CYEEHUS Synas. 

Note. — The Kvf>p(iTTiKJj, or district of Cyrrhus, lay between Commagene and the Antiochia (Strabo, 
p. 751). Remains of the town of Cyrrhua have been recognized at Coros, situated in the country 
to the westward of Aintab. Aintab itself, with its remarkable rock, serving as a citadel, seems 
equally to correspond with Gindarus, which Strabo describes as the acropolis of the Cyrrhestice. 

Alexander Balas. 

Diademate head of Alexander Balas to r. B. KYPPHSTiiN. Jupiter, adv., looking 
to I. ; right hand extended; in field, A3P (year 164) and mon. 39 ; below, an 
owl. 

Another. 

Trajan. 

AYTO. KAIC. NGP. TPAIANOC APICT. 06 B, TEPM. AAK. Head of Trajan to r. 
B. AIOC KATAIBATOY KYPPHETIUN. Jupiter Catsebates seated on a rock 
to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, hasta ; in exergue, B. 

Antoninus Pius. 
. KAICAP TIT. A Head of Antoninus Pius to r. R. AIOC KATAI- 
BATOY KYPPHCTLUN B. Same type, but at the feet of Jupiter an eagle look- 
ing up to him, and in his right hand, fulmen. 
Another similar. 

Lucius Verus. 

AYT. K. A. AYP Head of Lucius Verus to r. B- [AIOC KATJCBATOY 

KYPPHSTilN. Same type. 

Philippus Senior. 

AYTOK. K. M. lOYAI. *IAinn0C CCB. Head of Philip to r. R. AIOC KATCBA- 
TOY KYPPHCTQN. Jupiter Catsebates seated to I. in a hexastyle temple; 
above the pediment, a ram running to I. 

Same legend and types, but the ram running to r. 



50 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



Elec- 
trum 



El. 
El. 



El. 
El. 

El. 

M 



JE 



Size 



4i-3 



JE 






M 



U 



2 

H 
H 



JE 


4- 


JE 


7i 


M 


6 


JE 


6 


JE 


2 


^ 


4- 



9+ 



6+ 
8 



Weight 
245-5 



40-6 
72-8 



73 

39-9 

39-9 

223-6 



Quad, incus. Electrotype from the B. M. 
Two countermarks on the ohv. and six on the 



CYZICUS Mysiffi. 

Bull stepping to r, ; below it, a tunny- fish. R- Quad, incus, divided into four parts 
of unequal depth. Electrotype from tlie British Museum, 

Note. — Cyzicene staters, bearing the figure of a bull, though now of rare occurrence, which may 
partly be attributed to their antiquity being greater than that of Cyzicene staters with other types, 
appear to have given rise to the proverbial saying of the Athenians on purchased silence, jSoSf iirl 
yXiiaay pi^riKiv, and which must have been ancient when it was introduced by ^schylus into his 
Agamemnon (v. 36). Athens had no gold coinage until a comparatively late period ; nor was this ever 
very abundant, as appears by the present rarity of Athenian gold. The Macedonian gold of Philip and 
his successors, and Asiatic gold at an earlier time, were the substitutes ; and, of the latter, none ww 
so much employed as the Cyzicene stater. Demosthenes, speaking of this money, informs us that its 
current value was twenty-eight Attic drachmee. The weight of the Cyzicene stater is uniformly about 
248 grains. As the Attic and Macedonian stater, which weighed 133 grains, were equivalent to 
twenty Attic drachmoe, while the Cyzicene, weighing 248 grains, passed for no more than twenty- 
eight, it is evident that the silver alloy of the electrum of which these pieces are made was deducted, 
and considered of no value, not being in fact worth the cost of extraction. Mr. Burgon estimates the 
alloy of ancient electimm at about a fourth part. Then as 133 is to 20, so is f of 248, or 186 : 28, 
exactly the equivalent in drachmae of the Cyzicene stater as given by Demosthenes. The present 
specimen is below the average of eight in the Thomas Collection ; the majority weigh 248 grains, 
minus three or four tenths of a grain ; 248 therefore may be taken as the ancient standard. 

Sow to I. ; below it, tunny-fish, R. 
Lion's head, with open mouth, to r. 
edge. B. Oblong quad, incus. 
Note. — On a similar coin (Mionnet, ii. p. 528, No. 84) is the legend KIZYKE in very ancient letters. 

Another, with one countermark on the edge. 

Similar type. B. Head of a calf, incuse, to I. ; behind it, a small quad, incus. 

Another, but without the small quad, incus. 

Note. — On a similar com (Mionnet, sup. v. p. 305, No. 130) are the letters KYZ. 

SiiTE(I)PA. Head of Proserpina to I. crowned with ears of corn ; the hair in a reti- 
culum. IJ. KYiI. Lion's head, with open mouth and protruded tongue, to I. ; 
behind, a vase with one handle ; below, a tunny-fish. 

Note. — Cyzicus was said to have been given by Jupiter to Proserpine as her dowry. 

Similar head to r. B. Same legend. Tripod, below which a tunny-fish ; in field 

to I., bunch of grapes ; in field to r., mon. 40. 
Similar head to r. %. Same legend and type, but in field to I. mon. 41. 
Similar head to r. R. KYIIKHNiiN. Same type; in field to ^., a mon. 
Youthful laureate head to r. within a wreath. B. KYII. A torch. 
Gibbous bull to r., one knee on the ground. R. KYlIKHNiiN. Same type. 
Head and shoulders of ox to r. B. KYXL, mon. 42 ; all in a wreath of oak. 
Diademate female head, with necklace, to r. KYIIKHNON NEiiKOPaN. Dolphin, 

its tail twisted round a trident. 
KYIIKOC. Diademate youthful head (Cyzicus) to r. R. KYIIKHXaN NGOKO- 

PSiN. Two serpents twined round torches ; between them an altar, on which 

is fire. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — The bull, the torch, and the serpents, were all symbolical of Proserpine, who was the same 
as Hecate. 

Same legend and type. R. KYXIKHNiiN NeOKOP. Same type. 
Same legend and type. R. KYIIKHNiiN NEOKOPiiN in five lines within a wreath 
of oak. 

N(Ae. — Cyzicus was the reputed icn'oTijc of this city : he was said to have been slain by Jason or 
by Hercules, when the Argonautte touched here on their way to Colchis. 



AY. KAI. A. AYPH 



Commodtts. 
Bust of Gommodus to r. 



R. KYXIKHNQN NGO- 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



SI 



Metal Size Weight 



M 






M 



M 



M 



N 
JE 

M 



H 



£>2 



m 5i 



2i 



8+ 



KOPiiN. Altar surmounted by three statues ; on either side of it, a serpent 
entwined round a torch ; in the altar, the appearance of a door. 

Septimius Severm. 

C60YHP0C nePT . . . Bust of Sept. Severus to r. R. KYlIKHNilN 

N60K0P. Gralley with rowers and oars to r. 

Maximinus. 

AY. K. r. lOY. OYHPOC MASIMINOC. Head of Maximinus to r. R. KYIIKHNiiN 
NeOKOPiiN. Pallas Nicephorus to r. ; in right hand, spear ; at her feet, 
shield. 

AYT. K. r. lOY. OYH(poe) MAKIMINOC. Bust of Maximinus to 
NQN NeOKOPQN. Octostyle temple. 



40-4 



E. KYIIKH- 



Gordianus Senior. 

K. M. AN. rOPAIANOC. Head of Gordian to r. B. KYIIKHNiiN NeiiKOPilN. 
R. Torch standing on a base, with a serpent twined round it. 

DALDIS Lydi*. 

Note. — Thia city is not named in history except by Ptolemy and in the Notitise Episcopatuum ; 
nor can its situation ever be known but by the discovery of inscriptions ; but this may be hoped for, 
as other coins of Daldis are extant, as well autonomous, as imperial from Augustus to Gallienus. 
Artemidorus of Ephesus, whose work upon dreams (styled 'OvtipOKpiTixa) is extant, was called the 
Daldian, either as a native of this city, or as born of a Daldian mother. He informs us that Apollo 
Mystes was venerated at Daldis. An autonomous coin, described by Mionnet, represents the Roman 
people on one side, and Apollo, seated on a rock, on the other. 



AHMOC. Beardless male head to r. 
Pembroke Collection (1120). 



B. AAAAIANON. Fortune to I. From the 



DAMASCUS CcEle-Syrise. 

Helmeted female head to r., with wing at shoulder (N(V»/ 'AQrtva). B. AAMASKH- 
NSiN. Hermes, with talaria on his feet, standing to I. ; in his extended right 
hand, ? ; in left hand, caduceus and drapery ; in field to I., L. ns (year 280 of 
the Seleucidse, b.c. 32) ; and below, palm branch or acrostolium ( ? ) ; all within 
a wreath. From the Pembroke Collection (1252), cited by Mionnet, Sup. viii. p. 194. 

Caracalla. 
AYT. KAI. ANTilNGINOC. Bust of Caracalla to r. R. AAMACKOY MHTPOnO- 
Aeac. Turreted female bust to ^. ; behind, cornucopias. 

Trebonianus Gallus. 
IMP. C. VIB. TREB. GALLO. AVG. Head of Trebonianus Gallus to r. R. COL. 
AAMAS. METRO. . Prize vase, on which are the words OAYMIIIA CeBACMIA ; 
below, ram's head to r. 

Note.—lhe earliest colonial coins of Damascus are of Philippus Senior. 

DARDANUS Troadis. 

Two cocks opposed. R. Quad, incus, in four parts. Electrotype from the B. M. 
Horseman bearing a lance, and moving to r. R. AAPAA. Cock in a pugnacious 

attitude, standing on an ear of corn to r. 
Horseman to n, with right hand held up. R. AAPAA. Cock standing to /•. ; 

before it, a small figure of Pallas throwing a javelin. 



S2 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 
M 



Size 

3i 



Weight 



M 



4i 



JE 
M 

M 



4i 



10-9 



JE 



M 



Another similar. 

Note. — It would seem from the Onomasticon of Julius Pollux (9, § 84), that the Dardanii were 
noted for their fighting cocks in the same manner as the Aspendii for their wrestlers, and that hence 
the representations on the coins of the two people. 

DIA Bithynise. 

Note. — This town stood on the coast of Bithynia, sixty stades to the eastward of the mouth of the 
Hypius (Anon. Perip. § 5). The types of the present specimen are analogous to the name ; but 
other coins of Dia bear types of Bacchus. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. AlAS. Eagle on fulmen, with open wings to I., looking 
to r. ; in field to I., a monogram. 

DIOSHIERON Ionia. 

Note. — Stephanus places Dioshieron between Lebedus and Colophon, which agrees with Tliucy- 
dides 8, 19. The occurrence on one of its coins of Caystrus as a river-god, suggests the probability 
that a part of its territory extended to that river, although on the sea-shore Colophon lay between it 
and the mouth of the Caystrus. 

eni CEPY6INI0Y. Head of Jupiter to r. ; countermark, Capricorn. B. AlOCie- 

PeiTilN. Eagle on fulmen, with open wings, adv., and looking upwards. 

From the Pembroke Collection (1121),- cited by Mionnet, iv. p. So. 
em AlXOAAflNI. AIOCiePIXaN. Youthful head to r. ; same countermark. 

B:. KAYGTPOC. River-god (Caystrus) recumbent to I. From the Pembroke 

Collection (1121) ; cited by Mionnet, ibid. 

M. Aurelius. 

AY. KAI. M. AY. ANT .... OC. Head of M. Aurelius to r, 
Jupiter (?) in a tetrastyle temple. 



R. AiociepeiTON, 



Star 



DIOSCURIAS Colchidis. 

Note. — Dioscurias, a colony of Miletus, was afterwards named Sebastopolis, but like many other 
places which had new appellations under the Macedonians or Romans, still preserves its more 
ancient name in the form of Iskuria. 

between bonnets of the Dioscuri (?). B. AIOSKOYPIAAOS. Thyrsus or 
Pharos ? Con/. Mionnet, ii. p. 334, sup. iv. p. 418. 



DIONYSOPOLIS Phrygiae. 

ZEYC nOTHOC AIONYCOnOAeiTiiN. Head of Jupiter to r. B. CTPATHrOYNTOC 
[CQ]CTPATOY B. MEANAPOC. River-god (Maeandrus) reclining to I. Electro- 
type from the B. M. 

Note. From this coin it appears that Dionysopolis stood in the valley of the Mseander. It was 

founded by one of the Pergamenian kings (Steph. in v.), was still a place of importance in the time 
of Cicero, and in the following century was a member of the Apamene Conventus (Plin. H. N. 5, 29) ; 
from all which it appears to have occupied a position near the upper Mseander, to the westward of 
Apameia (now Dinaire), probably in or near the Bakl&n Ovasi. 

DOCIMIUM Phrygise. 

Note. — Docimium derived its name from Docimus, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, who 
subsequently attached himself to the party of Antigonus, under whom he governed Synnada. From 
the coins of Docimium, it seems evident that Docimus established a Macedonian colony in the 
Synnadio district, at a place which became famous under the Roman empire for a kind of marble 
much esteemed at Rome, and there called Synnadic marble, though the quarries were at Docimium. 
(Strabo, p. 577.) They have been recognized by travellers at a distance of ten geographical miles 
to the north-eastward of Afiom Kara-biss&r, 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



53 



Metal 
M 



Size 

7 



M 



Weight 



M 


4 


M 


6i 


M 


8 


M 


6i 


JE 


6 


M 


6 


M 


6- 


M 


8-7 



Faustina. 

CeBACTH *AYCTINA. Head of Faustina to r. B. MAKGAONQN AOKIMGiiN. 
Hexastyle temple. 

Note. — Tliis coin is an evidence of the Macedonian colony. On others the obverse is a heroic 
head, with the legend AOKIMOC ; showing that Docimus was honoured as the founder of 
Docimium. 

DOLICHE Commagenes. 

Note. — Doliche stood on the road from Germanicia (Marash) to Zeugma (Rum-kaleh), about six- 
teen miles westward of the right bank of the Euphrates (Anton. Itin. p. 184, seq.). 



M. Aurelius and Lucius Verus. 

Legend effaced. Heads of M. Aurelius and of L. Verus opposed, 
in two lines ; below, A ; all in wreath. 

Gommodus. 

KOMMOAOC K. TEPMAN. CAPMA. Head of Commodus to r. 
and type. 



B. AOAIXAIIUN 



B:. Same legend 



EDESSA Mesopotamise. 

Nate. — This city furnishes on^|mong numerous instances of a preservation of the indigenous 
appellation through all the ages of Greek and Roman domination. To the Ur of the Sacred 
Writings, now Urfa or Orfa, the Macedonians attached the name of their own ancient capital 
Edessa. In the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, it was called Antiocheia ad Callirhoen, as appears 
from the following coin compared with Pliny, who describes the city as " Edessam, quse quondam 
Antiochia dicebatur, Callirhoen a fonte nominatam." In the enumeration of the several Antiocheise 
by .Stephanus, the eighth is r; kiri r^c KaXXipcijjc Xi^vrig. Possibly the source formed a small lake, 
which was one of the sources of the river Scyrtus. 

Antiochus IV. 



Radiate head of Antiochus IV. to r. 
Jupiter Aetophorus, standing to I. ; 



B. ANTIOXESiN TON EHI KAAAIPOHI. 
in field to I., a monogram. 



Severus Alexandrus. 

[AYT. K.] M. A. C6Y. AAe^TANAPOC [CGB.] Bust of Severus Alexander to r. 
B. MHT. KOA. GAeCCHNiiN. Veiled and turreted female, seated on rock 
to I., between two stars ; in right hand, ears of corn ; before her, altar ; below, 
river-god, swimming to r. 

AYT. KAI. M. AY. €6. AAeSANAP[OC CGB.] Same type. B- MH. KO. GAGC- 
CHNIUN. Same types. 

Legend the same or nearly. Same type. B. MHT. KOA, e[A6CC]HNlDN. Same 
types. 

AY. K. M. A. C. AAE5?ANAP0C. C. Bust of Severus Alexander to I., a shield 
covering his left shoulder. B- MHT. KO. GAGCCHNIUN. Same types. 

Legend the same or nearly. Same type. B- MHT. KOA. eA6CCHNON. Same 
types, and in field, two stars. 

Another similar, but head of emperor radiate; reverse without stars, and river- 
god not apparent. 

Severus Alexandrus and Mamoea, 

AAGiBANAPOC C6B. lOYAIA MAM6A C. AY. Busts of Severus Alex- 
ander and Julia Mamsea opposed. B. Same legend and types, but in field four 
stars. 





54 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 
M 

M 

M 



M 

M 

JE 
M 

a: 

JE 
M 



JE 



M 



M 



JE 



Size 

6-5 

4- 
4 



Weight 



2* 
4i 



4i 

2+ 



3^ 



Si 
4+ 
6+ 



4+ 



JE U 



91 

^2 



3- 



8- 



Philippus Senior, 

AYTOKP, M. lOYAI. *IAinnOC CGB. Bust of Philippus to r. B. . 
GAeCCHNiiN. Syrian goddess seated, adv., in a tetrastyle temple. 



KOA. 



JE 



Trajanus Decius. 

AYT. AGKIC CeB. Radiate bust of Trajanus Decius to r. R. KOA. GAeCCA. 

Veiled and turreted female head to I. (Edessa.) 
Same legend. Laureate head of Trajan Decius to r. B. Same legend and type ; 

before the head, a small altar. 

ELiEA ^olidis. 

Note. — Elsea, the port of Pergamum, having been distant from that city 120 stades, and twelve 
Btades to the left of the river Caicus (Strabo, p. 615), is thus placed in the bay, which is midway 
between S.indarlik (J'Uane) and Gliymni (probably Myrina). — Vide Admiralty Survey, No. 1665. 

38'3 Head of Ceres to I. B. EAAl. in wreath of olive. 

Similar head to r. ; behind it, star. Ji. Poppy ; across the field, in two lines, 

EAAITQN ; all within wreath of corn. 
Another similar, countermarked on ohv. with a head of Pallas to r. 
Similar head to r. B. Torch, with cup and handle ; across the field, EAAITiiN ; all 

within wreath of corn. 
Prow to r. B. EAAI. in wreath of olive. 
Bearded head of Hercules to r. 4J. GAAITiiN. Vase, in which are three poppies 

and two ears of corn. 
Same type. B. GAAITilN. Telesphorus to I. 

Head of Pallas to I. B- EA. Grain of barley ; all in wreath of olive. 
Another similar. 
GEA PilMH. Helmeted bust of Rome to r. R. em CTPA. AYP. AOPYAAOY 

6AAIT. Ceres towards I. ; in right hand, torch ; in left hand, ear of corn and 

poppy ; at her feet, vase with fruit. 
Bust of Ceres to r. B. EAAITiiN KAIIITQNOS. Pallas, standing to r. ; in right 

hand, owl ; in left hand, hasta. 
IGPA CYNKAHTOC. Laureate beardless bust to r, (Senate of Rome.) B. GAAEI- 

TiiN. Asclepius, adv., looking to I. ; in right hand, staff, with serpent. 

Lucius CcBsar. 

AOYKIOC KAICAP. Head of Lucius Csesar tor. B- EAAITiiN. Vase, in which 
head of poppy ; on either side, two ears of corn. 

Hadrianus. 

AAPIANOC. Head of Hadrian to r. B. Same legend. Vase, in which 

four ears of corn and two poppies. 

TraitquilUna. 

*0YPIA GAB. TPANKYAAINA CG. Bust of Tranquillina to r, B 6AA[IT]iiN. 
Fortune, standing to I. 

EMISA Syrise. 

Note. — Emisa (rd "Ejiiaa, or the city t&v 'EjiiartvUv) is the modem Hems or Homs, which is 
probably the original name. 

Julia Domna. 
lOYAIA AOMNA CEB. Bust of Julia Domna to r. B. GMICiiN KOAiiNI. Ba- 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



55 



Metal Size Wvight 



M 

JR 
JR 

M 

M 
M 



M 
M 

M 



M 
M 

JE 
JE 
JE 
JE 
JE 
JE 



JR 



3-2 

3-2 
6 



H 



4i 



8-7 



3i 



3- 

2+ 

H 

4 

Si 
3 
3 



50-5 

232-7 

57-6 

64-4 
172-7 



lOM 
195-3 

192-5 



178-0 



silica ornamented with columns and six arches in two stories, having in each of 
them a statue ; in exergue, ZK* (year 527 of the Seleucidse, the fifth year of 
Caracalla). 

Note. — Julia Domna was a daughter of Bassianus, priest of the Sun at Emisa. Her sister Mtesa 
was mother of Sosemias, who was the mother of Elagabalus ; Mamoea the sister of Socemias, was 
mother of Severus Alexander. Of all these peraons effigies occur on coins, and most of them were, 
including Julia Domna herself, natives of Emisa. 

EPHESUS loniffi. 

Note. — Ephesus was a colony of Athens (Plato in Ion. sub fin. ; Strabo, p. 632), which the Muses, 
in the guise of bees, were said to have led to the Ephesian shore (Philostrat. Imag. 2, 8). Ac- 
cording to Pausanias (Achaic. 2), Ephesus was the son of Caystrus ; in confirmation of which an 
Ephesian coin of Antoninus represents two bearded heroes joining hands, with the legends KY- 
ZIKOC E4>E205!, but, at a later time the local tradition seems to have made Ephesus one of the 
Amazons ; for on coins of Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, two Amazons eire joining hands, 
with the legend E*E. SMTP. 

E*[E]$ION. Bee. R. Quad, incus, divided into four squares. 

Another similar, but lighter, and with legend less distinct. 

E*. Bee in dotted circle. Be. APISTOAOXOS. Foi'e-part of a stag couchant to r., 

and looking back ; behind it, a palm tree. 
Same letters and type. B. NIKOAOXOS. Stag standing to r. ; behind it, a palm 

tree. 

Same letters and type. B. MHTPOAfiPOS. Same type. 
E*. TIE. Bee: all in dotted circle. B. ?YN. Infant Hercules kneeHng to r., and 

strangling the serpents. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — The same reverse is found on a similar coin of Samus, with the same letters gTN, which 
may stand for avvpuvia or avv/jiaxta, and indicate an alliance between the cities. The same re- 
verse occurs on a similar coin of Rhodus, but without the STN : nevertheless Rhodus was probably 
included in the alliance. The coins are little, if at all, later than the year 400 B.C. 

Head of Diana to r. ; behind, quiver. B- E*. nY0ArOPA[S]. Fore-part of a stag 
couchant to r. and looking to I. ; in field to r., bee. 

Serpent escaping from a cistus open to I. ; all in a wreath of ivy. B. E-|-E. NT 
(53). Two serpents twisted around a quiver ; between the heads of the ser- 
pents, a small quiver ; in field to r., torch, having a cup and handle. 

Same type. B. E*E. B. Same type, with torch as before, but between the ser- 
pents' heads, a bee. 

E*. Diana stepping to r., her right hand taking an arrow from quiver ; in left 
hand, bow ; at her feet, dog. B. lASiiN. Cock to r. ; under its left wing, 
a palm branch, from which hangs a crown ; all within a wreath. 

Head of Diana to r. B- Bee. 

Same type. B. AHMHTPIO. KiXKOS SiinATPOS. Two stags opposed ; between 
them, a torch ; between their legs, E*. 

E*. and bee in a wreath. B. EYnOAOS. Stag feeding to r. ; above, quiver. 

Bee. B. Stag couchant to I., and looking back ; in field to r., 2 

Similar types, but with half stag only. 

. *. and bee in a wreath, B- Stag standing to r. ; behind it, a palm tree. 

E*. and bee in wreath. B- [A]IIMHTPIO. . Same types, but in field to r., mon. 5. 

Veiled female head to r. B. Stag couchant to L, and looking back. 

Heads of the Triumviri (Lepidus, M. Antonius, and Octavianus) to r. B. E<t>E. 
Diana Ephesia, adv. From the Pemhroke Collection (J 127). 



M. Antonius. 

M. ANTONIVS IMP. COS. DESIG. ITER. ET TERT. 
mounted by a star, to r. ; all in a wreath of ivy. 



Head of M. Antonius, sur- 
B. III. VIR. R. P. C. Cistus ; 



56 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


M 


7 


M 


6i 


M 


41 


JE 


4 


M 


3i 


M 


7 


Pot. 


4 


JE 


7 


M 


9-8 


M 


10 


M 


6-4 


M 


10 


M 


3i 


JE 


3 


M 


8 



Weight 

185-6 
185-9 



163-2 



108-3 



153-5 



above which, head of Octavia to r. ; on either side, a serpent, their tails 
entwined. 
Another similar. 

M. Antonius and Octavia. 

M. ANTONIVS IMP. COS. DESIG. ITER. ET TERT. Heads of M. Antonius and 
Octavia to r. R. Ill, VIR. R. P. C. Draped Bacchus ; in right hand, can- 
tharum ; in left hand, hasta, standing to I. on cista between serpents. 

Augustus and Livia. 

Heads of Augustus and of Livia to r. R. APXIEP. AS. E*E. HAPAAG. Stag 
standing to r. 

Drusus and Antonia. 

Heads of Drusus and Antonia to r. R. KOYSINIOS E*E. . Stag standing to r. ; in 
field to I., mon. 45 ; to r., another mon. 

Another similar. 

Claudius, 

TI. CLAVD. CAES. AVG. Head of Claudius to I. R. DIAN. EPHE. . Diana Ephesia, 
adv., in a tetrastyle Ionic temple ; in the pediment, two female figures, each 
holding up a torch. 

Nero. 

N6PUJN0C KAICAPOC rePMANIKOY. Bust of Nero to r. R. AIAPAXMON, 
Simpulum and lituus. 

Domitianus. 

AOMITIANOC KAICAP CeBACTOC TEPMANIK . . . Head of Domitian to n 
R. eni AN0Y. KAIC6N. DAITOY OMONOIA e<I)e. ZMYP. Diana Ephesia, adv. 

U'ote. — Struck on the occasion of an alliance of Ephesus and Smyrna, under the Proconsul Ceesennius Pfetus. 

Hadrianus. 

HADRIANVS AVG. COS. III. P. P. Head of Hadrian to r. fi. DIANA EPHESIA. 

Diana Ephesia, adv., in tetrastyle temple. 
KAICAP OAYMniOC AAPIANOC. Same type. R. e*eciiiN. Diana Ephesia, 

adv., in octostyle temple ; in the pediment, two male figures, adv., each raising 

an arm. From the PemhroJce Collection (1128). 

Note. — The reverse of this coin has a coating of silver. 

AY. KAI. TPA Head of Hadrian to r. R. e*eciilN. Stag standing to I. 

Antoninus Pius. 
.... KAICAP ANTflNe INOC. Head of Antoninus Pius to r., double-struck. 
R. e*eCIilN AIC NeOKOPiiN. Diana Ephesia, adv., in octostyle temple. 
From the Pembroke Collection (1128). 

Lucius Verus. 

OYHPOC KAI. Head of Lucius Verus to r. R. e*eciSlN B. NeOKOP. Stag 
standing to r, 

Septimius Severus. 

. K. A. 06. ceOYHPOC. Head of Sept. Severus to r. R. e^eciON. Boar, 
pierced with arrow, running Xa r. 

Julia Domna. 
lOYAIA [AOMNA CfeBAC]TH. Bust of Julia Domna to r. R. € *ecmN 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



57 



Metal 

M 
M 

M 

JE 

M 
M 

M 



Size 



Weight 



8 + 



8- 



8 



H 



JE 


5- 


M 


7 


JE 


7 


M 


4 


M 


7 


M 


7 


^ 


7 



OKOPSiN. Carpentum, or arched chariot, of the empress, drawn by two horses, 
to r. 

Caracalla. 

AYT. K. M. AYP. ANTilNeiNOC. Bust of Caracalla to r. R. 6*6CmN A. NGiiKO- 
PiiN, under a table, on which are two prize-vases, each containing a palm- 
branch, 

Geta. 

cenxi. reXAC AYT. Bust of Geta to r. Bi. e*ecmN AIC. N€OKOPQN. Diana, 
adv., holding in either hand a burning torch. 

Julia Socemias. 
lOYAIA CYAIMIA. CeBAC. Head of Julia Soiemias to r. B. e*eCinN A. NGfl- 
KOPilN. Diana Venatrix stepping to r. ; right hand to quiver ; in left hand, 
bow ; at her feet, dog starting forward to r. 

Aquilia Semra, 
ceYHPA C6BACTH. Bust of Aquilia Severa to r. B- e*6GIiiN. Bee. 

Severus Alexandrus. 

. . AYP. CGB. AA Bust of Severus Alexandrus to r. B. e*eciON 

TiiN nPilTSiN ACIAG. Diana Ephesia, adv., in a tetrastyle temple. 

Gordianus Junior. 

AYT. K. M. ANT. TOPATAN . . Bust of Gordianus Pius to r. B. E*ECIQN TYXH 
AAESANAPEiiN. Fortune recumbent to I. 

Same legend and type ; but countermarked A. B. E*ECIiiN IIPaTQN AEIAC. Em- 
peror on horseback, hunting boar, to r. 

Philip Junior. 

M, lOY. *IAinnOC KAICAP. Bust of Philip Junior to r. B. e*eCIiiN TYXH. 
Fortune, adv., holding in right hand patera over altar. 

Trajanus Decius. 

AYT. K. TPAIANOC AeKIOC. Head of Trajanus Decius to r. B. KAYCTPOC 
[e*]eCiaN. River-god recumbent to I. 

Valerianus. 

AYT. K. no. AIK. OYAAePIANOC. Bust of Valerian to r. B. E*EEIQN r. NEii- 

KOPilN. Diana Venatrix as before. 
Same legend. Same bust to r. B- E*ECI12N. A. (irpwrwv) AEIAE. Diana towards 

/•., holding a great torch with both hands in a transverse direction ; behind her 

shoulders, crescent. 
OYAAEPIANO . Same type. B- 6*eGiaN KAYCTPOC. River-god (Cay- 

strus) reclining to I. 
AYT. K. no. AIKIN. BAAEPIANOE. Same type. B. e*eCION A. ACIAC. Diana, 

adv., looking to r. ; her right hand above her head ; in left hand, bow ; at her 

feet, dog to I., looking up ; behind her, trees. 
Same legend and type. B. E*EEIQN NEUKOPiiN. Diana striding to r. ; her right 

hand taking an arrow from quiver ; in left hand, bow ; at her feet, dog starting 

forward to r. 

Gallienus. 

AYT rAAAIHNOC. Bust of Gallienus, armed with shield, to I. B. E<I>E. 

P 



58 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

M 

M 
M 

M 
M 

M 

M 

\ 

M 



M 



M 



M 



Size 

4+ 

7 
7- 

8- 
6 

7 
7 



Weight 



7+ 



Bust of Gallienus to r. B- E*E£IiiN NEOKO- 



riQN A. NGilKOPilN. Diana and her dog, as in the preceding, but with 

both hands to her bow. 
AYT. K. n. AIK. rAAAIHNOC. Head of Gallienus to r. R. e*eCinN (NeQKO> 

PliN. Diana to r., with her left knee on the hinder part of a stag, and holding 

its horns with both hands. 
AYT. K. no. AIKIN. rAAAIHNOC. 

Pi2N. Diana Venatrix to r. 
AYT. no. AIK. rAAAIHNOC. B. e*eomN r. NeOKO . . . Figure (Diana ?) step- 
ping to r. ; on left shoulder, javelin, on which hangs the skin of a boar ; in 

right hand, bow ; behind, a tree. 
AYT. K. n. AIK. rAAAIHNOC. Same type. R. 60. C. CeiAIANOY e^eCION 

nePrAMHNaN OMONOIA. Diana Ephesia and Asclepius, adv. 
AYT. K. no. AIKIN. rAAAIHNOC. Head of Gallienus to r. R. e*ecmN A. NeO- 

KOPON. Female figure, adv., looking to I.; on head, modius; in right hand, 

statue of Diana Ephesia ; in left hand, cornucopisB. 
Another similar. 

Salonina. 

CAAQN. XPYCOrONH ceBA. Head of Salonina to r. ; behind shoulders, crescent. 

R. APTEMIE E<I>EEIA. Diana, adv., looking to r. ; in either hand, a burning 

torch ; at her feet, dog looking up. 
Same legend and type. R. E*EEIilN T. NEOKOPilN. Diana seated to I. on a 

rock; in right hand, garland ; in left hand, bow; in exergue, star between two 

dots. 
Another. 

EPICTETUS Phrygise. 

Note. — Phrygia Epictetus is described by Strabo (p. 57fi) as containing the cities Azani, Nacoleia, 
Cotiaeium, Midaeium, Dorylseum, and Cadi. As he applies to the country the term j; 'Eiri'icri/rof 
(♦(jwyia soil.), and to the people that of oi 'EniKTriToi {^pvytg sell.) [pp. 563, 575], it seems evident 
that the 'Ejriicrijreic (the legend on some of the coins is EIIIKTHTEQN, Mionnet, sup. vii. p. 559) 
were the people of a city Epictetus, situated in the country bordering upon the Bithynian Olympus 
to the south. By means of coins or inscriptions the exact position of it may some day be ascer- 
tained. 



70-5 



Horse moving to r. ; behind 



Head of Pallas to r. ; behind, H ? R. EHIKTH. 
it, a palm-branch ; in field, mons. 46, 47. 

EPIPHANEIA SyrijE. 

Note. — Antiochus Epiphanes gave the new name Epiphaneia to two cities in opposite directions 
from his capital Antioch ; one at Kama, on the Upper Orontes, which still preserves its more ancient 
name ; the other, ffiniandus, was on the road from Anazarba to the passes of Issus, but nearer 
to the latter (Itin. Tab. ; Cicero, Ep. 16, 4) ; its exact site has not been ascertained. 



Veiled and turreted female head to r. 
two bunches of fruit. 



R. EH. IEPA2 in two lines ; palm-tree, with 



ERYTHRiE Ionise. 

Note. — Erythrffi was noted for its ancient temple of Hercules, with a statue in the Egyptian style, 
which had been brought from Tyre (Pausan. Achaic. 5). 

Naked male figure holding in a horse to /. on an ornamented base. R. [EP]V0. 
Full-blown flower, adv., in the center of a quad, incus. ; in the angles are the 
four letters of the legend. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


M 


3 


72-7 


M 


3-2 


70-6 


M 


3 


69-4 


M 


1 + 


15-9 


M 


3 


56-3 


M 


3 


55-9 


M 


3 


55-7 


M 


n 




M 


^ 


54-6 


M 


3 


56-1 


M 


n 


51 


M 


Si 


62-1 


M 


3 


49-2 


M 


2 


26-2 


JE 


5 




iE 


61 




M 


H 




JE 


2 




M 


4 




JE 


3i 




JE 


i 




JE 


4 




M 


4 




JE 


H 




JE 


4i 




JE 


H 




JE 


4 




JE 


4 




JE 


H 




JE 


3 




M 


H 




JE 


3 




JE 


H 




JE 


3 




JE 


3 




JE 


3 




M 


3 




JE 


3 




JE 


3 




JE 


3 




M 


2i 




JE 


3 





Similar type without base. R- [E]PV0. Same type. 

Similar type; behind, an ant. R. EPY©. Same type, with fewer petals. 

Similar type ; behind, an ear of corn. R. Same legend and type, with no more than 

eight petals. 
Similar type. R. Same types, without letters. 
Beardless head of Hercules, covered with lion's scalp, to r. R. EPY. AI0nEI©H2. 

Club, bow in bow-case, and small owl. 
Same type. li. ASKAIiniAAHS AHMAA. EPY., the last inverted. Same types. 
Same type. R. EPY. AI0NYS102. Same types, with a small diota. 

Note. — The owl is in honour of Minerva, who is generally represented either in persou or by this 
symbol as present at the labours of Hercules. The temple of Athene Polias at Erythree is noticed 
by Pausanias. The statue was of wood, colossal, and had a distaff in each hand, and the ttoXoq on 
the head. It was the work of Endsens. The diota is in honour of Bacchus, whose head is on some 
of the coins of Erythrse, but no temple of this deity is mentioned by Pausanias. 

Three others similar and lighter. 

Same type. R. EPY. *ANNO0EMI2. Club, bow in its case, and owl. 

Same type. R. EPY. XAPMHS. Same types. 

Same type. B. EPY. nEAOQIAHS. Same types. 

Same type. H. EPY. ABPiiN. Bow in its case ; club. 

Same type. B. EPY. MOAIiiN. Bow in its case ; club; owl; in field, mon. 48. 

Same type to I, R. EPY. Bow in its case ; club. 

Same type to r. R. MHTPOAilPOS EPY. Bow in its case ; club ; in field, mon. 49. 

Same type with two countermarks ; i. e. head of Pallas to r., partly covered by a 

radiated head of Apollo, adv. E. AF . . . . AHMHTPI , . EPY. Same types. 
Same type. B. AiriAAEYS. Club; bow in case; quiver. 
Same type. R. EPY. EY0EPMOS. Club ; bow in case. 
Same type. R. SIMOS nPiiTOrENOY[S] EPY. Bow in case, club, ear of corn, 

and small head of Hercules, adv. 
Same type. R. apatos EYDOAIAOS EPY. Same types, without ear of corn. 
HPO0EMI2 HPAKAEITOY EPY. . Same types. 
A2TYN0YS EY0YNOY EPY. . Same types, with a pileus. 



R. 
R. 



Same type. 

Same type. 

Another. 

Same type. R. 

Same type. R. 

Same type. R. 

Same type. R. 

Another similar. 

Same type. R. 

Same type. R. 

Bearded head of Hercules, with lion's "scalp, to r. R. HPAKAEoi: EniKOYPOY 

EPY. , Same types. 
Two others similar. 
Beardless head of Hercules, with lion's scalp, to r. 

riATPOY in four hues. 
Same type. R. BATAKos HAPAMONOY EPY. in four hues. 

R. EPY. AnoAAilNIos AHOAAOAOTOY in five Hnes. 
R. EPY. rNiiTOS EKATSINYMOY in four Hnes. 



EYPOAIS 0EPSinPOY EPY. Same types, without pileus. 
MYSXHS Y^IKAEIOYS EPY. Same types. 
*IA0KPATH[2] EYPOAIAOS EPY. Same types. 
PPAginnos ENYOY EPY. . Same types. 

KAAATilN EPY. *YAAPXOY. Same types. 

EniKOYPos 0EPSIQNO[S] EPY. Bow in case, club, bee. 



R. EPY. ArA2IKAH2 ANTI- 



Same type. 
Same type. 
Another. 
Same type. 
Same type. 
Same type. 
Same type. 
Same type. 



R. EPY. AAMAAHS APXEANAKT02 in four lines. 
R. EPY. AIONYSIOS HATPOKAEOYS in four lines. 
R. EPY. AYTONOMOS AYTONOMOY in five lines. 
R. MHTPAS AAMAAOY EPY. in three lines. 
R. nOAYKPITOS noAYKPITOY EPY. in five lines. 



60 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


M 


3 


JE 


3- 


M 


3- 


M 


3 


JE 


3 


JE 


H 


JE 


3 


M 


4 


JE 


3-2 


JE 


3 


M 


3 


JE 


3 


M 


3 


JE 


3 


JE 


3 


JE 


2- 


JE 


2- 


JE 


2- 


M 


3 


JE 


2 


JE 


2i 


M 


H 


JE 


H 


JE 


4 



M 



M 



JE 



H 



Weight 



Another, 
Same type. 
Another. 
Same type. 
.Same type. 



R. EPY. EPMiiN AIOOANTOY in four Hnes. 
R. AnoAAQNOAOTOS HPAKAEITOY EPY. in five lines. 
Radiate head of Apollo, adv. R. BATAKos EPY. in three lines. 
Beardless head of Bacchus to r., crowned with ivy, and with ringlets hanging over 

the neck. R. EPY. ArA2IKAH[2] ANTinATpoY in four Hnes. Grapes. 
Same type. R. EPY, ayTonomos AYTonomoy in five lines. Same type. 
BATAK02 nAPANOMOY EPY. in four lines. Same type. 
MHTPA2 AAMAAOY EPY. in three lines. Same type. 
noAYKPITos noAYKPITOY EPY. in five lines. Same type. 
EPY. rNmos EKATONYMOY in four lines. Same type, 
EPY, AAMAAHS APXEANAKTOS in four lines. Same type, 
AloNYSIos nATPOKAHoYS in four lines. Same type. 
EPMi2N AI0*ANT0Y in four hnes. Same type. 
R. EPY. AYTONOMOS AYTONoMoY in five lines. 
AnoAASiNIoS AnoAAOAOToY in five lines. 
R. EPY, AI0NYSI[02] riATP0K[AH0Y2] in four hnes, 
R. EPY. *IAiiN HPoSiiNTOS in four Hnes. 



Same type. 

Same type. 

Same type. 

Same type. 

Same type. 

Same type. 

Same type. 

Head of Pallas to r, 

Same type, R. EPY 

Same type. 

Same type. 



R. EPY. *IAaN HPOSaNTos in four lines. 



R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R 



EPY. 
EPY. 



R, EPY0PAIQN, Beacon fire. 



Same type. R. EPY. NIKIA2 NIKaIoy in four Hnes. 

Club. R. EPY. 

EPY0PAI. Turreted female bust to r 

Another similar. 

Obverse defaced. R, EPY0PAiaN. Closed cistus, round which a serpent is coiled. 

Note. — According to Eckhel, ii. p. 523, the name on the obverse of these coins is sometimes 
EPYePA, which seems to shew that the head is intended for an Amazon founder of the city. 

Augustus. 

EPY. Head of Augustus to r. ; before it, Htuus ; behind, EPY. R, MHTPaNAS 
ZanYPOY in four lines. 

Otacilia Severa. 

M. SITAKIA. oeOYHPA. Head of Otacilia Severa to r. R. ePYQPAIQN. For- 
tune standing to I. 



ETENNA Pamphylise. 

Note. — Etenna, according to Polybius (6, 73), stood in the mountainous part of Pisidia, abore 
Side. 

Elagalalm, 

AYP. ANTQNEINOC Bust of Elagabalus to r. ; behind, cornucopise. R. eiGN- 
NenN. Fortune standing to I, 



EUCARPIA Phrygise. 

Nate.— The position of Eucarpia has not yet been determined, but the data are such that an ex- 
ploring traveller could hardly fail to discover it on considering that it was on the road from Naco- 
leia, which Mr. J. R. Stewart determined by inscriptions to have stood at Sidi Ghazi, and Eumeneia, 
which is fixed by similar evidence at Ishekli. The interval between them is 75 geographical miles 
direct, which distance is thus divided in the Tabular Itinerary. From Nacoleia to Conni, 40 M.P. ; 
to Eucarpia, 32 m.p. ; to Eumeneia, 30 M.p. ; total, 102 m.p. of road distance. As the totals are not 
out of proportion to each other, the details seem worthy of a degree of confidence such as cannot 
generally be given to thb ancient document. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



61 



Metal 



M 



Size 



M 2 



M 



M 

M 
M 



M 



Weight 



6-5 
4 

3 

3 



JE 


H 


JE 


o 


M 


^ 


JE 


3 


M 


Si 


M 


1 + 


m 




M 




M 




M ■ 





Augustus. 

[2]EBA2:[T02]. Head of Augustus to r. ; before, lituus. 
AYKIAA2. Nemesis, adv. 



ft. EYKAPn. TI. KO. 



Antinous. 

GYKAPnEiiN. Youthful male head to r. ; behind, caduceus. ft. eni r. KA. 

*AAKKOY. Crescent inclosing a star ; above, another star ; below, ox's 

head, adv. 
Another similar. 

Note. — Eckhel conjectures that the head with the type of Hermes on these coins is intended for 
some Ctesar or for Antinous, and remarks that a similar head with the same type of Hermes is found 
on a coin of the neighbouring Docimium. 



EUMENEIA Phrygiffi. 

Note. — Attains II. gave a proof of the propriety of his epithet Philadelphus, by this name Eume- 
neia, which he gave to the place in honour of his brother and predecessor, Eumenes II. Eumeneia was 
determined, by means of an inscription, to have stood at Ishekli more than a century ago by Pococke. 

Head of Bacchus to r. ft. EYME .... MENERP ASK .... Tripod; in 

field, three stars, a palm branch with knotted pendents, and an uncertain object. 

Head of Pallas to r. ft. EYMENEilN. Victory stepping to I. ; in right hand, 
garland ; in left hand, palm branch. 

Head of Jupiter to r. ft. EYMENEiiN in two lines in wreath of oak. 

Another similar. 



G ABA LA Syri^. 

Note. — Gabala stood between Laodiceia of Syria, now Latakia, and; Antaradus, now Tartus, and, ac- 
cording to the Antonine Itinerary, at about one-fourth of the distance from the former to the latter. 



AY. K. M. AYP. ANT 
tune seated to I. 



Caracalla. 
Head of Caracalla to r. 



ft. rABAAGQN. For- 



GAMBRIUM lonife. 

Note. — The name of Gambrium occurs only in the Hellenics of Xenophon (3, 1, § 4) and in 
Stephanus From the historian, Gambrium appears to have been at no great distance from Mjrhina, 
in the lower valley or plain of the Caicus. When this region has been better explored, and the sites 
of some of its chief cities have been determined, the abundance of the copper coins of Gambrium 
may lead to a knowledge of its position, as Greek copper coins, unlike those of silver, are seldom found 
at any great distance from the place where they were struck. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. Star of twelve points, between the rays TAM. 

Two others. 

Three, with same legend and types. 

Head of Apollo to I. ft. Gibbous bull butting to I. ; above, star ; below, TAM. 

Another. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. Same type. 

Head of Apollo to I. ft. Fore-part of gibbous bull butting to r. 

Another. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. TAM. Tripod. 

Two others similar. 



62 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal Size 



JE 












M 

M 

M 



7i 



Weight 



H 

H 



3+ 
3 



GAZA Palestine. 

Septimius Severus. 

CCYH CEB. Head of Septimius Severus to r. ft. TAZA. 

Female standing to I. ; in right hand, hasta ; in left hand, cornucopiaj ; at her 
feet, heifer to I. ; in field, llic (year 268). 

Note.— The epoch of Gaza commenced B.c. 61 {tide Eckhel iii. p. 452). The year 208, therefore 
corresponds to a.d. 207, the thirteenth year of the reign of Severus. 



GAZIURA Ponti. 

Note. — Strabo, a native of the neighbouring Amasia, describes Gaziura as situated where the Iria, 
after a western course, turns to the north. This agrees with the remarkable position of Turkhal of 
which Mr. W. J. Hamilton has given a lithograph in his Asia Minor, i. p. 358. The observation of 
Strabo that Gaziura was in his time a ruin, tends to the belief not only that all the extant coins of 
this place are prior to the Roman empire, but that all those of the Pontic cities, of similar style aud 
of Persic types, are of a similar degree of aDti(iuity. 



Youthful helmeted head to r. 
Another. 



B. TAZIOYPaN. Quiver. 



GEEGITHA Mysi«. 



Note. — The ancient Gergitha mentioned by Herodotus was at or near the head of the valley of the 
Rhodius, which joins the Hellespont at the upper Oistle of the Dardanelles, but these coins are pro- 
bably of New Gergitha, founded by Attalus near the sources of the Caicus (Strabo, p. 616). 

Head of Apollo, adv. R. TEP. Sphinx, with curled wings, seated to r. 
Similar legend and type. R. Similar legend and type, but wings not curled. 



GERME Mysiaj. 

TVXH n0A6OC. Turreted female head to r. R. rePMHNON. Pallas standing to 

I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, spear and shield. 
lePA rePMH. Similar type. R. Same legend and type. 

Note. — There were no less than three cities of the name of Germe in Asia Minor, but the legend 
of the present coin shews that it belongs to the Hiera Germe of Ptolemy (5, 2), who concurs with 
Stephanus in placing this city not far from Cyzicus and the Troas. D'Anville was probably right in 
fixing its position at Ghemiasli, a town on the Rhyndacus, about ten miles above the discharge of that 
river into the Lake of ApoUonia, as well as in supposing the modex-n name to be a cox-ruption of the 
ancient. 

Trajanus. 

AYTOK. TPAIAN. Head of Trajan to r. R. rCPMHNiiN. Head of Apollo to 

r. ; before it, branch of bay. 
Another. 

Julia Domna. 

lOYAIA oeBACTH. Head of Julia Domna to r. R. eni KAniTiiNOC reP- 
MHNQN. Jupiter seated to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, hasta. 



AYT. K. M. AY. AN. TOPAIANOC 
tune standing to /. 



Gordianus Senior. 
Bust of Gordianus to r. 



R. rEPMHNiiN. For- 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



63 



Metal 



Size 

6 



Weight 



M 
M 



M 



M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 

M 



2i 
3 



1 + 

1 

4 

3+ 

4-3 

3 

3i 

3 

2 



]3'8 



AYT. K. M. AN. TOPAIANOC. Radiate bust of Gordianus iol.; A in countermark. 
R. rePMHNON. Jupiter Aetophorus seated to ^. 



GORDUS Lydise (Julio-Gordus). 

Note. — The site of Julio Gordus has not yet been ascertained ; the presumption in favour of tlie 
modern Ghiurdiz has been stated in Keppel's Narrative, &c., ii. p. 273. 

Head of bearded Hercules to r., with lion's skin about his neck. li. IOYAie(w>') 

rOPAHNiiN. Telesphorus, adv. 
lOYAiroPAOC. Turreted female head (Julio-Gordus) to r. B. lOYAH'OPAHNaN. 

Diana Ephesia, adv. 

Sahina. 

GABeiNA CeBACTH. Head of Sabina to r. R. Same legend and type, but at the 
base of the statue, on either side, a stag. 



HADRIANI Bithyni^e. 

Note. — Hadriani preserves its ancient name in the usual Romaic form of the third case, 'A^pia- 
vovi, or vulgarly Edrenus. It was situated on the left bank of the Rhyndacus, about twenty-five miles 
direct above Germe. On some of its coins the town has the epithet wpoe 'OXvixirov, or Trpof 
'0Xi''/i7r((J> or iv 'OXiinrif. As it was on the opposite side of the river to Mount Olympus, the 
'OXu/iTTijj'f) must have extended beyond the Rhyndacus. 

IGPOC AHMOC. Laureate youthful head to r. ft. (A)APIANEiiN. Draped figure 
(Diana Lucifera ?) stepping to r., looking to I., with a torch in either hand ? 

Note. — Thus it appears that the people named themselves 'A JpiaveTe. 



HALICARNASSUS Caria;. 

Note. — Halicarnassus was a colony of Troezen, hence the emblems of Pallas and Neptune 
are common to both cities. 

Head of the Gorgo, adv. ft. Head of Pallas to r. ; behind, spear-head and ?. 

Another lighter. 

Head of Neptune to r. ft. AAIK. AAM. Trident, between the forks of which are 

two dolphins. 
Same type. ft. AAIK. XAPMY. Same type. 
Another similar. 

Same type. ft. AAIKA. 6CTI. Same type. 
Another similar. 

Same type. ft. AAIK. lACUJN. Same type. 
Male head to r. ft. AA. Bow. 

Satraps of Halicarnassus and Caria. 

Note. Hecatomnos, tyrant of Halicarniissus, who was satrap of Caria under the Persian monarch, 

had three sons, Maussollus, or Mausolus, Idrieus, and Pixodarus, and two daughters, Artemisia, 
married to Mausolus, and Ada, married to Idrieus. Mausolus succeeded his father in 377 u.c.,and, 
dying in 353, was succeeded by Artemisia, who died in 351, and was succeeded by Idrieus. To 
Idrieus, at his death in B.C. 344, succeeded Ada, who at the end of three years was expelled by 
Pixodarus. This satrap of Caria died in 335 D.C., and was succeeded by Othontopates, who had 
married his daughter. It was from this Persian that Alexander took Halicarnassus, and then 



64 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal Size Weight 



M 6-5 
M 

M 



M 
M 



M 



4+ 
5- 



230-7 
55-5 

232-4 
107-C 



M 



^ 



2i 



restored the sovereignty to Ada. A tetradrachmon of Othontopates is extant, bearing the usual 
types and the legend OGONTOIIATO, which serves to correct the name Orontobates in our copies of 
Arrian. That " Satrap" is the proper title of these princes is shown by inscriptions of the time of 
Mausolus {Vide Boeckh. C. Ins. Gr. No. 2691). 

Mausolus. 

Head of Apollo, <tdv. R. MAYSSaAAO. Jupiter Labrandeus to r. ; in his right 

hand, the xdftpvg, or bipennis, or double axe ; in left hand, sceptre. 
Same types and legend. 

Idrieus. 
Same type. R. lAPIGiiS. Same type. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Pixodarus. 
Same type. B. PISilAAPO. Same type. 
Same type. R. nSilAAPOY. Same type. Electrotype. 

Note. — This coin shows the exact time when, at Halicamassus, OT superseded O in the second 
case of nouns in 02, the legend on the coins of Mausolus being without the final Y. 

Hadrianvs. 

ANOG KAICAP. Head of Hadrian to r. R. AAIKAPNACCeON TEA- 

MICGYC. Draped male figure, adv., looking to I. ; in right hand, branch ; right 
shoulder bare ; left hand within the drapery. 

Note. — Telmissus was one of the six towns placed under the jurisdiction of Halicamassus by 
Alexander the Great (Plin. H. N. 5, 29). This was the Telmissus, and not that of Lycia, which was 
noted for its priests of Apollo, unrivalled in the interpretation of omens and dreams. The most fa- 
mous of these prophets was 'ApiVravJpoc o TA^iireiij, whose sepulchral monument was an altar in 
the temple of Apollo at Telmissus. For this person I take the priestly figure on this coin with the 
branch (of bay) in his hand, and the legend XeAMICerC to be intended. Herodot. 1, 78 ; Cicero de 
Divin. 1, 40 ; Clem. Alexand. i. pp. 40, 361, 400, Potter. 



AY. K BHPON. 

Asclepius, adv. 



Sept 
Head of Sept 



Severus to r. R. (AAIKAP)NAC(:eON. 



Commodus. 

AYT. KAIC KOM Head of Commodus to r. R. AAIKAP- 

NACCeiiN. Radiate and draped figure, adv ; in its hands, ? ; standing between 
two trees, on each of which is a bird. 



HARPASA Carise. 

Note. — This place, situated about three miles from the junction of the river Ilarpasus with tba 
Mseander, still preserves its ancient name. 

Bust of Pallas to r. R. APIlASHNiiN. Diana Ephesia, adv. 



HELIOPOLTS Ccele-SyriiE. 

Note. — Although no autonomous coins of this city are known, the antiquity of the name which it 
still bears, and of which Heliopolis is the Greek interpretation, concur with some parts of the great 
ruins at Baalbek in attesting the importance of the city prior to the Roman colony. The legend, 
COL. IVL. AVG., found on some of its coins, show that the colonization dates as far back as 
Augustus, but Nerva is the earliest emperor of whom coins are extant. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



65 



Metal 

M 
M 



Size 



Weight 



M 



M 



IE 
IE 



M 



JE 



M 



H 



4i 

*2 



5+ 



4A 



Caracalla. 

ANTONI Head of Caracalla to r. R. COL. HEL. Veiled and turreted 

female head to I. ; on shoulder, palm branch and cornucopise. 
AN Bust of Caracalla to r. B. COL. HEL. between two legionary 



eagles in a wreath. 



Geta. 



GETA CAESAR. Bust of Geta to r. R. COL. HEL. Veiled and turreted female 

head to I. ; behind, palm branch and cornucopise. 
S. GETA . Head of Geta to r. ft. COL. HEL. between two legionary 

eagles in a wreath. 

HERACLEIA Bithynia. 

Note. — This city preserves its ancient name and more than its ancient importance relatively to the 
other principal sites on the southern shore of the Euxine. It was a colony of Megara and Tanagra, 
whence the Doric HPAKAEQTAN on some of the coins, and HPAKAHAC for HPAKAEIA2 as late 
as Geta. The tyrants of Heracleia were, 1, Clearchus, who began to reign B.C. 364 ; 2, Satyrus ; 
3, the brothers Tiraotheus and Dionysius, sons of Clearchus, jointly ; 4, Dionysius alone ; 5, his 
widow, Amastria, niece of Darius Codomannus. Of the three last dynasts coins are extant. 

Head of Bacchus to I. ; behind it, thyrsus, ft. TIMO0EOY AI0NY2I0Y, Hercules 
to I., raising trophy. Electrotype. 

Geta. 

Cen. rCTAC K. Head of Geta to r. R. HPAKAHAC eN HONTO. Naked 
male figure, adv. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, ears of corn. 



AHMOO. Beardless head to r, 

cumbent to I. 
Another. 



HERACLEIA Carije. 

ft. HPAKAeaxaN TIM6AHC. 



Eiver-god re- 



Note. — The Timeles proves these coins to have been of the Carian Heracleia, the same river 
having flowed through Aphrodisias (Ionian Antiquities, iii. c. 2). The coins may lead perhaps to a 
knowledge of the exact site of this Heracleia. 

HERACLEIA lonife. 

Note, — Huins of this city, more anciently called Latmus, still exist at the foot of the mountain of 
that name, and on the eastern side of the lake which was formerly the Adrfiiicog KoXttoc, but has 
been separated from the sea by the new land formed by the alluvion of the Mseander. Chandler has 
described these ruins, which he mistook for those of Myus. Vide also Ionian Antiquities, i. pi. 33. 
The tetradrachmon of this city, coeval with similar coins of Smyrna, Cyme, Myrina, is alone sufficient 
to prove its importance about the fourth century b.c. See the engraving, Mionnet, sup. vi. 
p. 224. 

Head of Pallas to r, ft. HPAKAEflTflN. Bow in its case ; club ; all in wreath of 
olive. 

Augustus. 

CeBACTOC. Head of Augustus to r. ft. HPAKAEilTliN. Hercules naked, 
standing to I. ; right hand extended ; in left hand, club. 



HERMOCAPELIA Lydite. 



0€ON CYNKAHTON, Youthful head (Senate of Rome) to r. 
TilN. Female head with modius to r. : in field to r., mon. 



ft. 

50. 



ePMOKAHHAI- 



66 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 
M 



JE 
JE 



JE 



M 



JE 



Size 

3 



2| 

3 

2i 



Weight 



JE 


5 
4 


M 


7 


JE 


6 


JE 


4 


JE 


6 


JE 


6 



H 



41 

*2 



lePA CYNKAHTOC. Similar type. R. ePMOKAnHAITON. Similar type and 

same mon. 
Same legend and type. R. ©SA Pft. € PMOKAnHAITiiN, Same type. 

Note.— Some position on the river Hermus favourable to commerce seems to have grown from a 
place of low traffic into a city, which we learn from its coins and its bishopric to have existed during 
many centuries, though its exact situation is not yet known. 

HIEROC^SAREIA Lydia. 

nePCIKH. Head of Diana to r., on the shoulder, quiver. R. tePOKAICAPGON. 

Gibbous bull standing to r. 
Same legend and type. R. lePOKAICAPeiiN. Altar with fire. 
Head of Diana to r. ; no quiver. R. Same legend and type. 
lePOKAlCAP. Naked figure, bearded, at?©., with arms extended. R. nPOnOAIC. 

Diana stepping to r., drawing arrow from quiver ; at her feet, dog. 

iVirfc— Diana Persice was particularly worshipped in the cities of Hierocsesareia and Hypapa, and 
derived that epithet from the Persici, a sub-division of the Lydians, who occupied the southern 
side of Mount Tmolus. Compare Strabo, p. 027 ; Pausan. 5, 27 ; Ovid. Metam. xi. v. 150. npoToXic 
is an epithet analogous to the vpo/iaxoe, ttoXioCxoc, &c., of Minerva. 



HIERAPOLIS Phrygise. 

Note. — The ruins and natural peculiarities of Hierapolis at Pambuk kale have been described by 
many travellers, the earliest of whom were Smith and Pococke. Although sometimes distinguished 
from other cities of the same name by the epithet vpoQ MaiavSpov, it stood at scarcely less than 
eight miles from that river, and nearer to the right bank of the tributary Lycus. The numerous 
temples for which it was noted are in conformity with its coins, on which we find heads of Jupiter, 
Sarapis, Apollo, Bacchus, Hercules, and ^sculapius, with types or symbols allusive of other 
divinities. 

Head of Sarapis to /•. R. iePAno[Ae]ITaN. Draped figure (Jupiter!) standing 

to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, sceptre. 
Female head to r. R. Same legend and type. 
Head of Sarapis tor. R. IGPAnOAeiTiiN. Isis standing to I.; on head, lotus; 

in right hand, sistrum ; in left hand, vase ; all in a dotted circle. 
lePAHOAG ITiiN. Head of Bacchus to r, R. evnoCIA. Fortune standing to /. 

Electrotype from the B. M. 
Head of Hercules to r. ; behind, club. B. lePAnOAGITilN. Asclepius and 

Hygieia opposed. 
Youthful radiate head to r. in dotted circle. ^.. Same legend. Winged female 

standing to I. 
AAIPBHNOC. Radiate youthful bust with long hair (Apollo) to r. R. lePAIIO- 

AeiTQN KAI. e4>ecmN NeSiKOPQN OMONOIA. Two hands joined. 
Same legend and type. R. lePAnOAGITiiN K. CMYPNAIiiN N6iiK0PaN OMONOIA. 

Same type. 

Note. — Aaip/3i)vAe is probably an epithet of Apollo in the Phrygian language. 

rePOYCIA. Female bust to r., laureate and veiled. R. I€ PADOAGITilN. 
Amazon on horseback moving to r. ; in right hand, bipennis. 



Faustina. 

*AYCTINA CGBACTH. Head of Faustina to r. 
Aetophorus standing to I. 



B. IGPAnOAGITiiN. Jupiter 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



67 



Metal 



M 



m 

& 



Size 



M 



M 



M 



Weight 



5-4 



M 7-6 



M 


6-5 


M 


5i 


M 


5-4 


M 


6 



Elagabaliis. 

AYT. K. M. AYP. ANXaNEINOC. Bust of Elagabalus to r. B. lePAnOAGITON 
Ne iiKOPilN. Lunus standing to I. ; in right hand, ? ; in left hand, hasta ; 
right foot on head of an ox. 

OtaciUa. 

M. ilT. CEYHPA. Bust of OtaciHa Severa to r. Br. lePAIIOAeiTaN, surrounding 
a wreath, within which is IIYOIA in two Hnes. 

MAPK. iiTAK .... CGBHPA CGB. Head of Otacilia to r., countermarked with a 
draped figure to r. having a modius on the head. R. IGPAIIOAeiTilN. Prize- 
vase, containing two palm-branches, standing on a table. 



HIEROPOLIS Cilici^. 

Note. — Eckhel supposes Hieropolis of Cilicia to have been the same place as Megarsa ; some of 
their coins having the same types, and differing only in the legend, which in both instances has the 
epithet twv irpoc rif nvpaimi. Megarsa was noted for the worship of Minerva, who was called ij 
9ia Maydpns. Some remains are still extant of Megarsa or Magarsa, near the old mouth of the 
Pyramus, which river now joins the sea twenty miles to the north-eastward of the site of Magarsa. 

Veiled and turreted female head to r. B. lePOnOAITilN TON nPOC TO HYPAMSi. 
River-god swimming to r. ; in field to I., a bird. 

Aniiochus IV. 
Radiate head of Antiochus IV. to r. R. lEPOnOAITiiN. Draped male figure, 
adv., looking to I. ; in his extended right hand, garland ; below, altar ; in field, 
mons. 51, 52. 

Augustus. 

SEBAST02. Head of Augustus to r. R. AH AOEAAIA lEPO- 

nOAElTilN. Tripod, in which is a branch with fruit. 



HIEROPOLIS CyrrhesticEe. 

Note. — Hieropolis of Cyrrhestica preserves its more ancient name Bambyce in the corrupted form 
of Membidj, and is still a considerable place, situated about fifty miles north-eastward of Aleppo, 
and about twenty from the right bank of the Euphrates. 

Trajanus. 

AYTOKP. KAIC. NGP. TPAIANOC APIC. ce[B. PePM.] AAK. HAP®. Head of Trajan 
tor. R. 06AG CYPIAC IGPOnOAG. in two lines, below which a letter or 
monogram ; all inclosed in a wreath. 

Antoninus Pius. 
. . . KAI. TI. ATA. aAPI. ANTIjUNGINOC CGB. Head of Antoninus to r. B. ©GAG 

GYPIAC lePOnO. B. in three lines, within a wreath. 
AYT. KAI. TIT. AIA. AAPI. ANTUJ[NeiNOC GGB.] Same type. R. 06AG CYPIAC 

IGPOn. r. in three lines, in a wreath. 
Similar legend and type. R. 06 AC GYPIAC IGPOno. Z. in three lines, in a 

wreath. 
Another similar. 



68 

Metal 

IE 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 



Size 
6-5 



Weight 



7 

7 
] + 



M 



M 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Marcus Aurelius. 

AYT. KAI Radiate head of M. Aurelius to r. ; below, branch. 

B. ©GAC CYPIAC lePOno. in two lines; above, star; all in a wreath. 

Lucius Verus. 



OYIIPOG . Radiate head of L. Verus to I. R. ©eAG CYPIAC 

lePOno. in two lines; below, r. ; above, dot; all in a wreath. 

Caracalla. 

AYTO ANTONeiNOC. Bust of Caracalla to I. R. 0e[AC CYPIAC ICPOno]- 

AITiiN. . . Female (Otd Sup/a) adv., seated on a lion stepping to r. : in her right 
hand, sceptre. 

Philippus. 

AYTOK. K. M. lOYAI. *IAinn00 C€B. Head of Philip to r. R. Same legend and 

type. 
Another. 

HOLMI Ciliciffi. 
Head of Pallas to r. in dotted circle. R. 0AM. Female head to r. 

Note. — From this coin we may infer that Holmi was one of the chief Greek settlements on the 
coast of Cilicia Tracheia at an early age. We have similar evidence as to Nagidus and Celenderis. 
In my Asia Minor, p. 204, I have given reasons for placing Holmi in the bay on the western side of 
Cape Sarpedonia, now called Aghalim^n, — a position which explains the transference of its inhabit- 
ants to Selcuceia when that city was founded by Seleucus I. on the banks of the Calycadnus ; the 
distance from the head of that bay to the reach of the river, where stood Seleuceia, which still pre- 
serves its ancient name, being not more than six miles. 



HYDRELA Carise. 

Note. — Hydrela, according to Strabo, received its name from Hydrelus, a Lacedaemonian, who, 
with his brothers Athymbrus and Athymbradus, founded cities in the valley of the Mceander. 
Nysa stood on the site of the city of Athymbrus, and in process of time absorbed the inhabitants of 
the city of Athymbradus, but Hydrela was still a place of importance in Roman times, and a bishop- 
rick of the Byzantine empire (Liv. 37, 56. Not. Episcopatuum). Its exact position, however, has 
not been determined. 

Hadrianus. 

AYTO AAPIANOC. Head of Hadrian to r. R. (YA)PHAei(TQN). 

Laureate head of the Indian Bacchus, with beard and long hair, to r. 



HYP^PA LydifB. 

Note. — This city stood on the southern side of the Tmolus, probably near the river Caystras. 
Vide Hieroccesareia. 

Nero. 
NEPilN KAICAP. Head of Nero to r. R. YOA. lOY. HrHtin. PP. ('Yiratirj/cu.', 
'lovXiov 'HyrialinTov ypafifiaTevovToe.) Naked figure Standing to I. ; in right hand, 
bipennis. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



69 



Metal I Size 



M 



M 






M 



iE 



8-6 



Weight 



Julia Domna. 
lOYAIA ceBACTH. Head of Julia Domna to r. B. eni. CTP. CAPAmiUNOO 
YIIAiriHNaN. Statue of Juno Pronuba, adv., in a tetrastyle temple. 

Caracalla. 
AYT. KAI. ANTiifNeiNOC]. Bust of Caracalla to r., countermarked with A. 
E. YnAinHNi2N. Emperor sacrificing at an altar to I., and crowned by a 
Victory, standing behind him. 



HYRCANIA Lydiaj. 

iVo<«.— The Hyrcanian plain was near the river Hyllus or north-eastern branch of the Herraus, and 
was so named from a Persian colony (Strabo, p. 629). The city Hyrcania, in which the following 
coins were stnick, appears from the legend MAKGAONQN on one of them, to have been a Mace- 
donian colony, which agrees with Tacitus (Ann. 2, 47) and with Pliny (H. N. 5, 29). 



YPKANIC. Turreted female bust to r. ft 

From the Pembroke Collection (1123). 
YPKANilN, Same type. R. MAKEAONiiN. Same type. 
Bearded head of Hercules to r., with lion's skin about the neck. 

Telesphorus, adv. 



YPKANiiN. Fortune standing to I. 



B. YPKANSiN. 



HYRGALIA PhrygijE. 

[ePA BOYAH. Veiled female bust to r. R. YPrAAGQN. River-god recumbent 
to I. ; in field to I., star ; in exergue, TSE (year 365). From the Pembroke 
Collection (1247), cited by Eckhel, iii. p. 158. 

Note. — Nothing is known of this city, nor upon what river it was situated, the name of the river 
not occurring on its coins,nor the name of the place in any ancient authority. From their style it may 
be presumed that they are of Phrygia. Imperial coins of Hyrgalia are extant, of Julia Domna, 
Caracalla, and Severus Alexandrus. 



ICONIUM Lycaoniffi. 

Nero. 

[NGPQN K]AICAP CGBACTOC. Head of Nero to r. R. nonnAIA CEBACTH 
KAAYAeiKONlGQN. Poppsea seated to I. ; in right hand, a flower ; in left 
hand, hasta. 

JTote. — The Iconienses regarded Perseus as their founder ; his symbols are frequent on their 
coins, and the name of the place was said to have been derived from his cikwv, or portrait statue, 
which was the Palladium of Iconium. It was conveyed by Constantino to his new capital, and set 
up in his baths (Anon, de Antiq. Constantinop. ap. Banduri). The superiority of Iconium over the 
other Lycaonian cities, which made it the capital of the Seljukian Turks, appears from the present 
coin to have existed as early as the reign of Claudius, for though there is no evidence in the Acts 
of the Apostles that Derbe or Lystra were then in a declining state, the absence of all coins of those 
Lycaonian cities, and the numismatic poverty of Lycaonia in general, in which province Coropissus 
and Savatra are the only places besides Iconium of which coins are extant, are a sufficient confir- 
mation of the superiority of Iconium. Claudius showed favour at the same time to Seleuceia in the 
neighbouring part of Cilicia Tracheia, and established his colony of Claudiopplis between that place 
and Iconium. 



70 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



M 



M 

M 

M 

M 



3-2 



5+ 

5-4 

8 



57-9 



256 



Head of Apollo, adv. 
Collection (2281), 



IDYMA CarisB. 
B. (I)AYMION. Fig-leaf in quad, incus. 



From the Thomax 



Note. — Tliis city appears from Ptolemy and Stephauus to have been written 6 'I Ju/iof, or i; 'iSiun 
or rd 'llviia, and this is all we learn from history concerning it, unless it be that, according to 
Stephanus, there was a river Idymus. The Rhodian style of this coin, however, its peculiar head of 
Apollo, and the fig-leaf of the reverse, resembling that of Cameirus, leave little doubt that Idyma was 
one of the early colonies of the Rhodii, on the opposite shore of Caria. 



ILIUM Troadis. 

Note. — After the fall of Troy, Sigeium became the chief town of the Trojan district ; but the 
temple of Minerva llias, whose worship survived Troy, was at new Ilium. After the visit of 
Alexander to this place, in his way into Asia, and particularly after his victory at the Granicus in 
which he acknowledged the aid of the goddess, and thenceforth caused her armour to be carried 
before him in his battles. Ilium became the capital of this angle of Asia Minor, until it had a rival in 
Alexandreia Troas, founded by Antigonus. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. A0UNAS lAIAAOS MENE*PONOS TOY MENE*P0N02. 
Pallas llias to r. ; in right hand, distaff; on left shoulder, spear; in field to I., 
mon. 53 ; in field to r., Pegasus to L, drinking. Electrotype from the Pembroke 
Collection (893). 

Same type. B. lAI. Pallas llias crowned with ? to ^. ; on right shoulder, spear. 

Another similar, but in field to I., monogram and altar 2 

Vespasianm. 

AYT. K. CeBACTOC [OYGCnACIANOC]. Head of Vespasian to r. ft. [tITOC] 
KAICAP [A0]M1TIAN. [KAICAP]. Pallas llias, adv., standing on a base 
between the heads of Titus and of Domitian, opposed ; in her right hand, 
spear ; her left hand resting on upright shield ; below, lAI. Conf. Mioniiet, 
ii. p. 661, No. 212. 

Another similar. 

Caracalla. 

AY. KAI. M. AYP. ANTaNGINO. Bust of Caracalla to r. B. eKTQP lAieON. 
Hector combating to r, ; in field, two galleys. From the Pembroke Collection 
(1009). 

Geta. 

n. cen. AAP. reXAC KA. Head of Geta to r. B. CKAMANAPO. River-god 
(Scamander) recumbent to I. ; in exergue, IAI6iiN. From the Pembroke 
Collection (1009). 

Valerianus. 



Bust of Valerian to r. B- EKTiiP lAlEiiN. Hector, adv., 

naked, with Phrygian cap or helmet ; in right hand, torch ; in left hand, ? 



ISINDA Pamphylijfi. 

Nott. — Isinda was a city of Pamphylia near the Pisidian frontier, as appears from its having been 
engaged in war with the Termessii, who had taken the town and were besieging the Acropolis, when 
the consul Manlius came to the assistance of Isinda, and raised the siege. Vide my Asia Minor, 
p. 152. Now that the positions of some of the principal ancient places in this quarter of Asia 
Minor, such as Termessus, Selge, Sagalassus, and Cremna, have been fixed, and their sites visited, it 
will be more easy to ascertain that of Isinda, of which the existence was prolonged to a late period 
of the Byzantine empire, as appears from the catalogue of Pamphylian bishoprics. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



71 



Metal 



M 



M 



Size 
4 



Weight 



6-5 



M 
M 

M 
M 

M 

M 



3 
3 

3 

3i 

3 
3 



M 



Si 



Head of Jupiter to r. R. ICIN. Armed horseman galloping to r. ; in raised right 
hand, javelin ; below the horse, a serpent ; to right, tree ; in field to I., I. 

Antoninus JPius. 

AYT. KAI ANTi2NeiN0C. Head of Antoninus to r. R. ICINAeU]N. For- 
tune standing towards I. ; in field to I., B. 

Volusianus. 

AY. K. r. OY OYOAOYCIANOC. Head of Volusianus to r. R. ICINA . . N. 

Fortune, adv. 

JUD^A. 

Note. — The following coins have been attributed by nnmismatists to Judcea from their similarity to 
other coins of that country in fabric, in style, in the employment of a date, and in the absence (in 
conformity with Jewish customs) of any kind of animal representation. They are extant only from 
Augustus to Nero. , 

Augustus. 

KAICAPOC. An ear of corn. R. Palm tree with two fruits depending ; in field, 

L. A© (year 39). 
Another similar. 

Tiberius. 

KAICAPOC. Acrostolium. R. L. IZ (year 17) in a wreath. 



Claudius. 

KAAYAIOC KAICA. rePM. L. lA (year 14), Two palm branches crossed. 
B. lOYAIA ArPinniNA in a wreath. 

Nero. 

NePUJN in two lines in a wreath. IJ. KAICAPOC. L.e. retrograde (year o) ; palm 

branch. 
Another. 

Note. — The years are those of the reigning emperor. 

JULIOPOLIS Bithyniffi. 

Note. — Juliopolis, so named by the freebooter Cleon in honour of J. Coesar, was the same place as 
the Phrygian Gordium renowned in the history of Alexander. The latter name shows that the 
Phrygian kingdom comprehended a great part of the course of the Sangarius, while the distance of 
about 200 miles between Gcirdium and Celsense (Apameia Cibotus), which was the capital of Midas, 
proves the great extent of the dominions of the Gordian dynasty. 

Antoninus Pius. 
ANTON. KAICAP CGB. Head of Antoninus to r. R. lOYAIOIIO .... River-god 
reclining to I. In exergue, CArA(pic). Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — On a coin of Juliopolis of Sept. Severus, described by Eckhel (ii. p. 422), there are two 
river-gods on the reverse, with the legend GANTAPIOC CKOIIAC, Sangarius with an oar, and 
Scopas with a reed in his hand, showing that the former alone is navigable. Hence we may infer 
that Juliopolis stood not far from the junction of the Sangarius and Scopas. From the Antonine and 
Tabular Itineraries we learn also that it was on the Roman road from Nicsea to Ancyra, at three-fifths 
of the distance from the former. With such data, it is wonderful that the site of Juliopolis has not 
yet been determined, especially as Pessinus, which occupied the country immediately to the south of 
Juliopolis, has been identified. But the course of the Sagaris, or Sangarius, one of the chief rivers of 
Asia Minor, is still unexplored, or at least all those four-fifths of it which lie below the Pessinuntine 
district, so that nothing better can be offered for the purpose of assisting in this inquiry than the 



72 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal Size , Weight 



M 



M 



N 



N 
M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 



61 



3i 



3 

7i 



3 
2 

2 
2 

H 

5- 
5-4 

2 
2i 



128-9 



129-8 
253-2 

38-7 

36 
18-6 

20-4 
23 



reraarlvs in my Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor, with the accompanying Essay of a Map. We can- 
not have a stronger proof how much is still wanting to the geography of Asia Minor, both ancient 
and modern, than the large blank spaces on the map of the latest and one of the largest contributors 
to its geography, Mr. W. J. Hamilton, nor can any thing better demonstrate the slow progress of 
this branch of science in the present Gothic age, than that I should be under the necessity at the 
end of thirty years of referring to my own first approximation towards the construction of a map of 
the Peninsula. 

Commodus. 

[A,] KA. A. AY. KO. HPAKIil[N]. Head of Commodus to r. B. lOYAIonOAIC. 
Veiled female head (Juliopoli.s) to r. 

Note. — The legend is Atrojcpwrwp Ka/trap AovKiog Avpi/Xtog KofifioSo^. 'Hpajciojv is the name of 
a magistrate. 

LACANATiE Commagenes. 

JVote. — Lacanatis was a mountainous district on the north-eastern side of Cilicia Campestris 
between Conimagene Proper and Cappadocia. It has been too little explored by travellers to admit 
of any conjecture as to the position of the city where the coins inscribed AaKavaruv were struck. 



Antiochus IV. 

[BA2IA2EYS MEr]AS ANTIOXOS. Diademate 
magene, to r. R. AAKANATiiN. Scorpion 
Another. 



head of Antiochus IV. of Com- 
; all within a wreath. 



LAMPSACUS MysifE. 

Note. — Lampsacus, which preserves its ancient name, near the north-eastern entrance of the Hel- 
lespont, was colonized from Phocsea ; like several other maritime cities of Asia, it was said to have 
derived its name from a heroine, Lampsace, to whom sacrifices were offered in the time of Plutarch 
(de virt. mulierum). The coins of Lampsacus show that the principal deities here worshipped were 
Neptune, Bacchus, and Priapus. The last of these was such a favourite in this quarter that he gave 
name to a maritime city, some remains of which are extant at Karabda, about twenty-five miles east- 
ward of Lampsacus. 

Bearded head of Neptune to I., with flowing hair, and a pointed cap girt with a 
wreath of bay. B. Anterior part of horse to r., with curled wings, and ending 
behind in an appearance of wing or fin. Electrotype from the B. M. 



Note. — The winged half-horse is a symbol of Neptune. 
iiroirrkpiov tTTTrwv r'lvioxov. 



Plato (in Critia) describes Neptune as ?£ 



Head of Bacchus, with ear-rings, to I. B- Sea-horse as before, in quad, incus. 

Electrotype from the Pembroke Collection (880). 
Head of Bacchus, bearded and crowned with ivy, to r. B. AAM^AKHNilN. 

Apollo, in long drapery, standing to r. ; in right hand, plectrum ; in left hand, 

lyre of four chords ; below, CIDKPATOY TOY SeNO*ANOY. Electrotype from 

the B. M. 
Head of Pallas to r. ; above it, AA, and between the two letters, a star. B. Jani- 

form female heads (Hecate? the third head being understood). 
Head of Pallas to r. B. AAM. Sea-horse to r. ; below, ear of corn. 
AAM*. Head of Pallas to r. B. Janiform female heads ; under the necks, a 

dolphin to r. 
Another, with dolphin to I. 
Another, without the dolphin. 
Helmet ; below it, AAM. B. Sea-horse to r. 
Bearded head of Bacchus to r. B. AAM^AKHNQN. Same type. 
Another similar. 

Head of Neptune ? to r. B. Legend defaced. Same type. 
Same type. B. AAM*A. Sea-horse to r. ; below it, a dolphin. 
Same type. B. AAM. Same types. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



73 



Metal 

M 

M 

M 



size 
2- 



Weight 



3i 



M 



M 
M 

M 
M 



M 



6i 



4i 
3 

H 

Si 
3 



M 

M 

M 
M 



^ 



4- 



1897 



Same type. B. AAM^AKH in a wreath. 
Same type. flL. AAM'I'A in a wreath. 

Augustus. 

ceBACTOC. Head of Augustus to r. R. AAM*AK. Priapus standing to I. ; 
right hand raised. 

Julia Domna. 

lOY. AOMNA. C6BACTH. Head of Julia Domna to r. R. . . . ^AKHNQN. Sea- 
horse to r. 

LAODIOEIA Phrygise, sive ad Lyeum. 

Note — According to Stephanas, Laodiceia ad Lycum was not one of the cities founded or restored 
by Seleucus I., and named in honour of liis mother Laodiee, but by Antiochus II. in honour of his 
sister and wife, and that he was moved to favour the city by Jupiter Laodicenus, whose figure is re- 
presented on its coins. From a coin of Caracalla, on the reverse of which Laodiceia, represented as 
a turreted female, is seated between two standing females, inscribed *PYriA, KAPIA, it would 
appear that the boundary line of Caria and Phrygia passed through the city. Its extensive ruins 
have been described by Cliandler, and in the Ionian Anticjuities of the Society of Dilettanti. 

Serpent escaping from half-opened cista to I. ; all in a wreath of ivy. B. AAO. 

AIOAflPOY B. Two serpents on either side of a decorated bow-case ; their tails 

entwined ; in field to r., caduceus. 
Head of Jupiter Sarapis to /". R. AAOAIKGilN. Cornueopise. 
Same type. R. Same legend. Eagle, with open wings, adv., looking to r. 
AAOAIKHA. Turreted female head to r. R. lOYAIA ZHNiiNIS. Female in long 

drapery standing to r. ; in right hand, hasta ; in left hand, apple. 
[K]AA[YAIA ZHNii]NIS. Bust of Pallas to r. B. AAOAIKGiiN. Cornueopise. 
AAOAIKGilN. Head of Lunus to r., with Phrygian cap. B. KPOAINH A2I. 

Eagle on fulmen, with open wings, adv., looking to I. — Conf. Mionnet, Sup. vii. 

p. 580, No. 421. 
AAOAIKGllN. Wolf standing to r. B. GTK. in mon. (year 325 ?) Boar standing 

to I. 

Note. — The two beasts on this coin allude to' the rivers Avkoj (Wolf) and Kda-pof (Boar), which 

united their waters near Laodiceia. 



SEBA2[T0S]. Head of Augustus tor.; behind it, a countermark. B. nY®H2 HYGOY 
AAOAIKEtiN. Jupiter Laodicenus standing to /. ; in extended right hand, 
eagle ; in left hand, hasta ; all between the two bonnets of the Dioscuri. 

Same legend and type. B. nY©H2 nYQOY TO AEYTEP[ON] AAOAIKEiiN. Same 
types, but in field to I. the bonnets of the Dioscuri. 

Same legend and type. B- ZEYSIS AAOAIKEiiN. Jupiter Laodicenus to l; m 
field to ?., mon. 55. 

Caius CcBsar. 

TAIOS KAI2AP. Head of Caius Caesar to r. B. AAOAIKEiiN. Small eagle, adv.. 



looking up, between mon. 56 (noMju^v) and mon. 57 (AHO 



.). 



Claudius. 
KAAY[AIOS] KAISAP. Head of Claudius to r. B. nOAEMQNOG YIOY ZHNiiNOC 
AAOAIKEiiN. Jupiter Laodicenus, as before ; in field to r., mon. 58. 

Note. ^Zeno of Laodiceia was a celebrated rhetorician in the time of the Triumviri. His son 

Polemo was the same person whom M. Antonius made king of Cilicia, and afterwards of Pontus. 



74 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


^ 


4 




M 


7 


168-5 


JE 


8- 




M 


8+ 




M 


7- 




JE 


5+ 




^ 


6 




^ 


3i 




JE 


4+ 




M 


5 




JE 


5- 





NEPftN KAI2AP. Head of Nero to r. li. FAIOY noSTOMOY AaOAIREON. Same 
type ; in field to I., B in a garland. 



P. P. 



HadrianuB. 
Head of Hadrian 



to r. R. COS 



HADRIANVS A[VGVST]VS 
Same type. 

Julia Domna. 

lOYAIA AOMNA. Bust of Julia Domna to r. ; countermark, an emperor's head, 
with C. B. AAOAlKGilN NGiiKOPiiN. Female with modius on head, in long 
drapery, adv., towards I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, Jupiter Laodice- 
nus ; at her feet, to I., wolf; to r., boar. Electrotype from tlie B. M. 
Note. — A personification of Laodiceia between the rivers Lyons and Caprus. 



Caracalla. 

AYT. K. M. AYP. ANT[aNeiNOC]. Bust of Caracalla to r. 

KOPaN AOPMATI CYNKAHTOY. Two hands joined. 
AY. K. M. AY. AN'mNeiNOC. Radiate bust of Caracalla to r. 

NeaKOPaN THH (year 388 ?). Fortune standing to I. 



B. AAOAIKeON NGQ- 



R. AAOAIKeaN 



Otacilia Severa. 

OTA. CGYHPA C€. Bust of Otacilia Severa to r. R. AAOATKeiiN NeUKOP. 

Winged female figure to I. ; in right hand, scales ; in left hand, bow ( ? ) ; at 

her feet, quadruped. 
CITA. CGYHPA 06. Same type. R. AAOAIKeON NeaK. Bearded half-draped 

figure, adv., looking to I. ; right hand on the head of a stag, which looks up to 

him ; on left arm, a child. 

LAODICEIA Syriae, sive ad Mare. 

Note. — Laodiceia of Syria still retains the name which it received from Seleucus I. in honour of 
his mother, and some share at least of its ancient importance. It was distinguished by the epithet 
jrpAf Qa\d(r(Ty from another Syrian Laodiceia jrpof At^dvif or iv rtf Ai/3aV^), of which none but 
imperial coins are extant, nor any prior to Antoninus Pius. Julius Caesar, when in Syria in the year 
after the battle of Pharsalia, conferred favours upon Laodiceia, which induced the people to style 
themselves 'louXieif, and to institute an sera which commenced in the autumn of the Pharsalian year 
(48 B.C.). Eusebius informs us that the second year of the emperor Probus was the 324th year of 
Laodiceia. 

Antiochus IV. 

BA. Diademate head of Antiochus IV. to r. R. AAOAIKEaN TaN [nP]OS 
0AAAS[2H]. Half-draped figure (Neptune !) standing to I. ; right hand ex- 
tended ; in left hand, ? 

Alexander Balas. 

Diademate head of Alexander Balas to r. ; countermark, a star. R. [A]AOAIKEflN 
TaN [nPO]S ©AAAS2H. Neptune seated to I. ; in right hand, dolphin ; in left 
hand, hasta ; in field, IS. 

Antiochus VI. 
Radiate head of Antiochus VI. to r. R. BASIAEas ANTIOXOY, and a Phoenician 
legend. Neptune standing, adv. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, trident ; 
in field to L, AA ; in field to r., *0 in mon. 

Note. — From this coin we may infer that before the Macedonian conquest Laodiceia was one of the 
Phoenician cities. 

Antiochus VIII. 

Radiate beardless head of Antiochus VIII. to r. R. AAOAIKEaN THS lEPAS 
KAI AYTONOMOY. Diana standing, adv., towards I. ; in right hand, hasta ; 
in left hand, I ; in exergue, KA or KA (year 21 or 24 ?). 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



75 



Metal 


Size 


JE 


3- 


M 


H 


M 


5 


M 


3 



JE 
/E 

M 

M 



M 



JE 



6i 

7 
7 

7 
6 
6 



Weight 



Head of Jupiter to r. R. 



Autonomous. 
AIEii . TiiN KAI 



KIl ? ; in exergue, AM[S] (year 241 or 244). 



AA0AIKES2 . Tripod ; in field, 



For- 



Veiled and turreted female head to r. 1^. lOYAIEil . TiiN KAI AAOAIKEil , 
tune standing to I. ; in field, . O. ; in exergue, ZMS (year 247, a.d. 199). 

Same type. B. . OYAIEil . TilN KAI . AOAIKE . . Fortune with her attributes 
standing to L ; in field, TO. ; in exergue, SMs (year 246, or a.d. 198). 

Same type. R. AAOAIKE . . TilN nPOS ©AAASS . Victory stepping to I. ; in 
raised right hand, garland ; in left hand, palm-branch. 

Domitianus. 

KAICAPI CEBACTil TEPMANIKQ AOMETIANii. Head of Domitian to I. R. lOY- 
AIEilN TON KAI AAOAIKEflN. Veiled and turreted female head to r. ; in 
field, XAG. and HA in monogram. 



Head of Trajan to r. 



Trajanm. 

AYTOKP. [NGP. TPJAIANOC APICT. KAICCAP. re P. AAK. 

R. Same legend and type ; no mon. 
Another. 

Antoninus Pius. 

AYTO. KAI. TI. AIA. AAPI. ANTlTNeiNOC CG. 6YB. Head of Antoninus to r. 

R. Same legend. Turreted female head to r. ; in field to L, SUP (year 187 of 

the Pharsalian sera, or second year of Antoninus) ; in field to r., ©e. 
AYTO. KAI. TI. AIA. AAPI. ANTlTNeiNOC. Head of Antoninus to I. R. Same 

legend and similar type, but with a gate in front of the towers ; in field to I., 

*0 ; in field r., SnP (year 187). 
AYTO. KAI, TI. AIAI. AAPI. ANTilNG Head of Antoninus to r. 

R. Same legend and type ; in field to I., YOA (year 471) ; in field to r., rp. 
Note. — This date is of the Seleucidse, and corresponds to the twenty-first yeai- of Antoninus. 

Marcus Aurelius. 

AYTOKPATilP KATCAP [ANTjiiNeiNOG. Head of M. Aurelius to r. ; before, ICY. 
R. AYTOKPATiiP KAICAP OYHPOC AA. Head of Lucius Verus to r. 

LARISSA iEoIidis. 

Note. — On comparing Xenophon (Hellen. 3, 15. Cyrop. 7, 21) with Strabo, pp. 621, 622, it seems 
probable that tliis Larissa, surnamed Phriconis, occupied the harbour now called Foki^s or New 
Phocsea ; but until some of the other more important places in this vicinity are determined, it is 
impossible to arrive at any certainty on this question. Larissa was the chief town of the Pelasgi, who 
aided Priam in the Trojan war. It was a ruin in the time of Strabo ; none but autonomous coins, 
therefore, are to be expected of Larissa, and two varieties only are known in addition to the present 
specimen (Mionnet, iii. p. 21). The other two bear types of Diana and Apollo, with the legend A A 
or AAPISAON, and all of them having been procured at Smyrna, or in its vicinity, there can be 
little doubt that the attribution of them to this Larissa is correct. 

Laureate head of Apollo to r. R. AA. Horseman galloping to r. ; in right hand, 
spear ; above, monogram. 

LARISSA Syriffi. 

iVote.— Larissa of Syria was so named by the Macedonians ; it stood midway between two other 
Macedonian cities, Aparaeia and Epiphaneia. Its position at the modern Kalat Seidjar has been 
described by Burkhardt (Travels in Syria, p. 144). 

Head of Jupiter to r. R, AAPISAmN THS lEPAS. Throne, under which a mon., 
and below it, M ; in exergue, SK. (year between 220 and 230). From the 
Pembroi:e Collection (12.52). 

Note. — On a coin of this place with other types, described by Mionnet, is the date XKS (year 227 
of the Seleucidse). The date of the present coin is between B.c. 92 and 82. 



76 

Metal 



Size 



Weight 



M 

M 

M 



8 
3 



251 



245 



M 



M 



H 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



LEBEDUS Ionise. 

Note. — Lebedus, although already in the time of Horace " Gabiis desertior atque Fidenis vicus," 
still retains vestiges sufficient to identify it at Xingi, about midway between Teos and Colophon. See 
Admiralty Chart, No. 1893. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. AEBEAIiiN A0HNAIOS. Owl standing, adv., on a club, 
between two cornucopise ; all in a wreath of olive. Electrotype from the Bihliothlque 
Nationale, Paris. 

Same type. R. AEDEAIflN XHNiiN. Same types. From the Pembroke Collection 
(909). 

Head of Pallas, adv. R. AE . . . . A0HNAIO. Owl standing to r. and looking adv. 

LEUCAS Syria. 

Note. — Pliny alone has made mention of the Leucadii of Syria, but too negligently to afford any 
certainty as to their position. There is good reason, however, for believing that this Leucas was the 
same place as the Abila which occupied a valley in the Antilibanus, on the road from Baalbek (He- 
liopolis) to Damascus (Anton. It. pp. 198, 199). The present autonomous coin furnishes argument 
for this conclusion. 1. The river which flows through that valley descends to Damascus, and the 
name of Chrysorrhoas occurs as that of a river on coins of Damascus, as well as on this of Leucas. 
2. Abila was the chief town of the Abilene tetrarchy under Lysanias, who was put to death by 
M. Antonius, to gratify Cleopatra, in the year B.C. 36 (Dion 49, 32. Joseph. Ant. Jud. 15, 4), and one 
of his descendants held the same principality about fifty years afterwards (S. Luc. 3, 1). At his 
death the tetrarchy was given by the emperor Claudius to Herodes Agrippa II. to be a part of his 
kingdom. Joseph, ibid. 19, 5—20, 7- Hence the AEYKAAI2N KAAYAIAIQN, which resembles 
the AAOAIK.EQN lOyAIEON of Laodiceia Syriae. Vide supra. 

AEYKAAIUJN. Victory standing to I. R. KAAY[AIAia^N XPYCOPO]AC. Head 
and upper part of the body of a river-god, with extended arms, adv. Conf. 
Eckhel, iii. p. 337. Mionnet, v. p. 308, No. 151. 

Gordianus Junior. 

AYTOK, K. M. ANT. rOPMANOC CGB. Head of Gordianus to r. %. AGYKAAiaiN. 
Apollo in a quadriga, adv., his arms extended; in right hand, ? ; in left hand, 
globe, on which is a Victory crowning him I ; in exergue, date defaced. 

LYCIA in genere. 

Note. — Coins of the province of Lycia are extant of the emperors Augustus, Domitian, and Nerva, 
having on the obverse the letters AY, which, as well as the lyre, are common on coins of .the Lycian 
cities. There can be no doubt, therefore, as to the attribution of the two following. They were 
struck probably at Patara, the ruins of which show that it flourished in that age. Antiq. of 
Ionia, iii. c. 3. 

It was about the time of Augustus that the Lycian language ceased to be employed in writing. 
Some monumental inscriptions of an earlier date being bilinguar, tend to show that the language was 
already not generally spoken or understood. On the later coins of all the Lycian cities, the pre- 
dominant type is the lyre, in honour of the Apollo of Patara, which city from the time of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus became the leading one in Lycia, though Xanthus was still the greatest in the time 
of Strabo (p. 666). In an earlier age, many of the cities of Lycia impressed their coins with 
local types and Lycian legends; and until, by the discovery of bilinguar inscriptions, a further 
insight into the language is obtained, some of those coins will remain of uncertain attribution, the 
Lycian names differing sometimes considerably from the corresponding Greek. The most complete 
collection of this class of coins is in the Lycia of Sir Charles Fellows. 






4 

4 



50 



Trajanus. 

AYT. KAIC. NeP. TPAIANOC C6B. TCPM. Head of Trajan to r. R. 

YIIAT. B. Two tetrachordal lyres made of a cranium ; above, owl. 
Another similar, but lighter. 



AHM. ea. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



77 



MeUl Size Weight 



JE 



M 

JE 
M 

M 



H 



M 

M 
M 

M 



AYT. K. M. ANT. TOPA 
standing to I, 



LYSIAS Phrygiffi. 

Note. — Lysias continued to exist to a late time, and was one of the towns of Phrygia Salutaria 
under the lower empire. Strabo associates it with Peltee, Tabee, and Eucarpia ; and we learn from a 
coin of Apollonia Pisidise (Oloburlu) that it was in alliance with that city (Eclchel, ii. p. 578). Eu- 
carpia having been about 30 m.p. to the n.n.e. of Eumeneia (Ishekli), we have thus an approximation 
to the site of Lysias. 



Gordianus Senior. 
Head of Gordian to r, 

M^ONIA Lydiffi. 



R. AYCIAA6i2N. Fortune 



254-1 



25-8 



10-5 



Note. — Mseonia preserves its ancient name at a distance of about fifteen miles to the north of Phi- 
ladelpheia (AUh-shehdr). Keppel, ii. p. 354. Hamilton, ii. p. 140. 

zevc OAYMIIIOC. Head of Jupiter to r. R. eni AI. ANePaNOC MAIONiiN. 

Roma, seated on armour, to I. ; in her right hand, is a Victory presenting to her 

a crown ; her left holds the parazonium, and leans on the shield. 
Same type to I. Same legend. R. CT(parr)yovyroc) nOTAMIANOY [MAIONaN]. 

Cybele seated to I. ; in right hand, patera ; left resting on tympanum. 
MAIONiiN. Bust of Pallas to r. R. eni AHMHTPIOY. Ceres in long drapery 

standing to I. ; in right hand, poppy ; in left hand, hasta. 

Etrmcilla. 
ePGN. CTFOYGKIAAA CGB. Bust of Etruscilla to ?". R. en. AYP. An*IANOY TOY 
K. A0HNAIOY AP. A. MAIONiiN. Jupiter standing to I. ; in right hand, eagle ; 
in left "hand, hasta. 

MAGNESIA Ionise sive ad Mseandrum. 

Note. — The reasons for placing Magnesia ad Meeandrum at Inekbazar, are stated at length in my 
Asia Minor, p. 242. They were founded on the discovery by Mr. W. R. Hamilton of the ruins of 
the temple of Diana Leucoplirys at the above-mentioned place, the situation of which is found to 
agree with the evidence of Strabo, who informs us (p. 647), that Magnesia stood on a branch of the 
Majander named Lethseus, and intimates that it was not very near the Maeander. For the position 
of, and remains at, Inekbazar, see A. M. p. 244. 

Head of Diana to r. ; behind her shoulder, bow and quiver. R. MATNIiTiiN 
IIAYSANIAS nAY2ANlOY. Diademate naked figure of Apollo to I. standing on 
the symbol of the Majander ; in right hand, garland with knotted pendents ; 
left elbow resting on tripod, upon which stands a cista. Electrotype. 

Another similar, but the magistrate's name is EY*HMOS nAYSANIOY. Electrotype 
from the B. M. 

Horseman to r. bearing a spear horizontally in his right hand. R. MAFN. [A]nOA- 
AOA . . . Gibbous bull, butting, to I. ; behind, ear of corn. 

Note.—T^e horseman is a type of Thessalia, from whence came the colonists of Magnesia. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. MA. Trident ; the whole in a circle formed of the symbol 

Horseman to r., bearing a spear as before. R. MAPN. KYAPOKAHS. Gibbous 
bull, butting, to I., in a circle formed of the symbol of the Mseander. 

Note.— The gibbous bull has here the same reference to a river as the ordinary bull on coins of 
Italy, Sicily, and other parts of Europe. 



78 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 
JE 

iE 
JE 
JE 
M 


Size 

4 

3- 

^ 


Weight 


JE 

JE 


4 
4 
6 




JE 


3 




JE 


8 




JE 


4+ 




JE 


3i 




JE 


4 




JE 


4 




JE 


7 




JE 
JE 


4 
5 




M 


10 




JE 


8 





Another similar. 

Same type. R. MAFN. MOSXIliN. Same types. 

Same type. B. MAFN Gibbous bull to I. 

Same type to I. B. Same type to r. ; above, ? ; in exergue, ... DA ... . 

Head of Pallas to r. B. MAP EYKAH[S] KPAT1N[0Y]. Helmeted horse- 
man bearing spear, and galloping to r. 

Head of Diana to r. B. MA. Stag standing to r. 

Another. 

Head of Diana to r. B. MArNHTilN HAYSANIAS [M]HTPOAnp[OY], Stag 
feeding to r., and standing on the symbol of the Mseander. 

MAFNH . . . Radiate head of Diana to r. B. EYKAHS [Sii]*PONOS. Statue of 
Diana Leucophryne, adv. 

Head of Diana to I. B- MArNHTliN. Neptune standing to L; in right hand, 
dolphin ; in left hand, trident. 

Male laureate head to I. B. MAP. KYAII. Fore part of a bull, terminating behind 
in lines forming a labyrinth (the whole a symbol of the Mseander). 

Augustus. 
Head of Augustus to r., crowned by Victory to I. B. [M]ArNHTQ[N] EY^HMOS. 
Diana to r. in a short garment, from the lower part of which proceed serpents ; 
her right hand to quiver ; in left hand, bow. 

Tiberius. 

TIBEPIOC KAICAP. Head of Tiberius to r. B- MArNHTaN. Victory standing 
on a globe to I. ; in right hand, garland ; in left hand, palm branch ; in field, 
XP in mon. 

Same legend and type. B- Same legend ; figure in long drapery, seated to r. ; 
in right hand, hasta ; in left hand, branch. 

Hadrianus. 

AY. KAI. TPAI. AAPIAN .... Head of Hadrian to r. B. AGYKOtPYC MArNH- 
TiiN. Diana Leucophryne standing adv. ; on either side of her head, a 
Victory crowning her ; on either side of her feet, a bird. 

Note. — This and a preceding coin prove that the original Diana Leueophrys resembled the Diana 
Ephesia, nor does either of them differ much from the Samian Juno. The same general resemblance 
is observable in a statue at Mallus, represented on a coin of Demetrius II. of Syria (tide Kings, 
p. 30). The probability is, that they were all originally figures of the Syrian goddess, whose worship 
was introduced into Samus and Ephesus by the Phoenicians. The identity of Juno and Diana is 
proved by that of their names in the Latin and in the ^olic Greek of Dodona, where the Ionic 
or Hellenic HPH was called AIQNH (Strabo, p. 329). 

Caracalla. 
AYT. ANTQNEINOC. Bust of Caracalla to r. B. MArNHTilN. Same types. 
Same legend and type. B. Same legend, with stars between the letters, in a circle 
round a crescent, inclosing a star. 

Gordianus Junior. 

AYT. K. M. ANT. rOPAIANOC. Bust of Gordian to r. B- 6111 rP(a^/iar£'wc) AYP. 

*IAOKPATOYC B. MAl'NITiiN. Diana Leucophrys, adv. ; Fortune standing 

to I., towards the statue. 
Same legend and type. B- [EHI PP.] nAMMCNOYC MArNHTflN. Female standing 

to I. ; her right hand pendent over the head of a lion, to /. ; her left hand 

raised ; a small female figure to r., holding up a crown. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



79 



Metal 



M 



Size 



Weight 



M 



M 
M 
M 

M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



4+ 



2i 



4i 



10 



Otacilia Semra. 
M. QTAKI. EEYHPA. EE. Bust of Otacilia to r. R. EHI. rP. nEPirENOYE 
MArNHTilN. Man, in short tunic, stepping to I., and bearing a tree on his 
shoulder. 

MAGNESIA Lydise sive ad Sipylum. 

Note. — The Lydian Magnesia is situated at the northern foot of Mount Sipylus, at the distance of a 
few miles from the left bank of the Hermus, and preserves its ancient name. 

CinYAOC. Bearded head to r. (Sipylus). ft. MArNHT[iiN]. Fortune standing 
to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, cornucopise. 

Note. — The legend, the flowing hair, and the large lock in front of this obveree, such as is com- 
monly observable on heads of Neptune, favour the opinion, when connected with one of the following 
reverses, which represents a river-god, with the legend CIIIYAOY, that the small tributary of the 
Mseander which flows by Magnesia, bore the same name as the mountam, and that the river, rather 
than the mountain, is alluded to on these coins. 



R. Same legend. 
R. Same legend, 
female bust to r. 



Same legend and type. 
Same legend and type. 
MArNHCIA, Turreted 

recumbent to I. 
rePA CYNKAHTOC. Youthful male bust to r. R. En. CT. AY. 0EOAOTOY MAF- 

NHTilN CinY. Fortune to I. in a tetrastyle temple. 



Asclepius, adv., looking to I. 

Tripod. 

(Magnesia.) R. CinYAOY. 



River-god 



Marcus Aurelius. 

VYPHAIOC KAI[CAP]. Head of M. Aurelius to r. 
Hercules ? standing to I. 



R. MArNHTiiN CinYAOY. 



Septimius Severus. 

ce. CGYHPOC n. Head of Sept. Severus to r. R. MArNHTQN. 
youthful figure to I. ; in right hand, ? ; left arm leaning on a column. 



Naked 



Julia Mamwa. 
lOYAIA MAMAIA CGB. Bust of Julia Mamsea to r. R. MArNHTiiN €ni 
CT{paTriyov) ANASAFOPA. Jupiter Sarapis seated to L, holding his right hand 
over an animal at his feet ; in left hand, hasta. 

PMlippus l^enior. 

AYT. K. M. lOYA. *IAinnOE. Bust of Philip senior to r. R. MArNHTON 
KOAHOI. Four nymphs, representing four valleys of Sipylus; two of them 
have urns, from which water flows. 

Otacilia Semra. 

M. OTA. CCYHPA C. Bust of Otacilia Severa to r. R. en. AINIOY MAFN. 
CinYAO. Cybele seated to I. ; in right hand, patera ; at her feet, lion to 



I. ; below left arm, tympanum ; in field to r., ?. 



MAGYDUS Pamphylia;. 

Note. Magydus was a maritime city of Pamphylia, situated a few miles to the eastward of Atta- 

leia {vide my Asia Minor, p. 193, and the accompanying Map). Sir F. Beaufort, in the course of 



80 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



Size Weight 



M 



M 



P2 



M 



M 



H 



JE 



160-3 



his survey of the southern coast of Asia Minor, observed here the remains of an artificial port, and 
of some aqueducts. The latter, being works of Roman times, accord with the coins of Magydus, 
which are chiefly imperial, and range from Augustus to Commodus. 



AYT. KAICAP A. CeOYHPOC. 
River-god recumbent to I. 



Septimius Sevens. 
Head of Sept. Severus 



to r. B. MArVAEiiN. 



161 



1531 



Note. — This river can be no other than the Catarrhactes, so called because its discharge into the 
sea is by falling over the cliffs in numerous places between the site of Magydus (now Laara) and ^ 
Attaleia. 



MALLUS Cilicise. 

Note. — The exact position of Mallus has not been ascertained by any remains of antiquity ; but I 
have shown in my Asia Minor, p. 216, that it stood on a height on the eastern or left bank of the Pyra- 
mus. In ascending that river no such height occurs (as appears from Plate 1 of Colonel Chesney's 
Maps) until we arrive at Jeb-Mensis, which hill is eighteen geographical miles from the site of Me- 
garsus at Karadash, twelve geographical miles westward of JEgm at Ay4s, and ten geographical miles 
south-westward of Mopsuestia at Mensis. Probably this is the position of Mallus. 

Bearded Persian, with a crown on his head, striding to r. ; in right hand spear with 
a knob at the upper end, as on the Darics ; in left hand, bow ; behind, grain of 
barley ; in field, on either side, countermarks ; to I., eagle and trident ; to /•., 
ox. ft. MAA. Hercules naked, adv., turning to r. and strangling a lion ; in 
field to I. club. From the Pembroke Collection (1015), cited ly Eckhel, iii. p. 59, 
and Mionnet, iii. p. 591. 

Same Persian type as before, countermarked below with an ox. ft. Persian figure, 
as on obverse, but instead of spear, his right hand to quiver ; countermarked 
below with a quadruped. From the Pembroke Collection (10 J 6). 

MAAA. Male head to r. covered with a cap embracing the chin, covering the neck, 
and bound with a narrow diadem, ft. Female head to r., with ear-rings and 
necklace ; the hair bound with a sphendone in front, and a broader receptacle 
behind. 

N(Ae These coins of Mallus are strong indications that it was the principal sea-port of the Per- 
sian government in Cilicia prior to the time of Alexander. The male head covered with a Persian 
or Phrygian bonnet (for they seem to have been nearly the same) represents probably the Persian 
prince who governed CiUcia at that time, one of the numerous brothers or sons perhaps of the reign- 
ing sovereign. 



MARATHUS Phoenicise. 

Note. — Strabo (p. 753) describes Marathus as an ancient city of the Phoenicians, which agrees with 
the legends of its coins ; and as he adds that it was ruined in his time, and its territory occupied by 
the Aradii, the coins with Phoenician legends must be of earlier date. The coast of Syria not having 
been surveyed by the British Admiralty, the exact situation of the places between Seleuceia and 
Laodiceia, and between Laodiceia and Tripolis, cannot yet be determined, with the exception of 
Tortfis, which answers sufficiently to the Antaradus of Strabo. Orthosia, according to his data, 
must be sought for on the banks of the Eleutherus, now the Nahr-el-Berd, and Marathus was pro- 
bably near the Nahr-el-Kebir, which flows about midway between the Berd and Tortus. Its name 
Strabo has not given. Vide Burckhardt's Syria, p. 161. 

Veiled female head to r. in dotted circle, ft. A name in Phoenician characters 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



81 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


JE 


5 




M 


5 




M 


4 




M 


3 




M 


3- 


28 


M 


3-2 


26-3 


M 


3-2 


30-3 


M 


2 + 


28 


M 


3-2 


26-2 


M 


H 




M 


4 




M 


8i 





(Mara). Togated figure, with right shoulder bare, standing to I ; in right 

hand, acrostolium ; left elbow on column ; in field to I., a Phcenician legend ; 

all in dotted circle. 
Same type. R. Mara in Phoenician characters. Same type ; in field to I, Phcenician 

legend. 
Another similar. 
MA. Turreted female head to r. in dotted circle. H. Phoenician legend in four 

lines. Rudder. 
Same type ; behind it, palm-branch. R. Mara in Phcenician characters. Togated 

figure standing to L ; in right hand, acrostolium ; left arm leaning on column ; 

in field to L, a Phoenician legend. 

MASSICYTUS Lyci«. 

Note. — Massieytus, like Cragus, is better known as a mountain than as a city, but the coins show that 
there were cities as well as mountains of those names. There can be no doubt that Mount Massieytus 
was some part of that great mass of summits which rises from the valley of the Xanthus, on the eastern 
side, and occupies all the centre of Lycia ; but in what part of these heights the city stood, can only 
be ascertained by that best evidence which has determined the sites of so many towns in this and 
the adjoining provinces of Asia Minor, the discovery of inscriptions or coins. 

Laureate head of Apollo to r., hair hanging in formal ringlets. R. . . . MA. Lyre 

of four strings ; in field to r,, branch ; all in quad, incus. 
AY. Same type. R. MA. Same type ; in field to L, branch ; all in quad, incus. 
AY. Same type, but with hair not in ringlets. R. MA. Same type ; above it, 

star ; in quad, incus. 
[A]Y. Same type. R. MA. Same type; in field to ^., owl ; in quad, incus. 
Similar head to /•., but with cord-like fillet in place of bay-wreath ; behind the neck, 

bow or quiver ? (Diana I) 

Augustus. 

AY. Head of Augustus to r. R. MA. Two lyres of three strings ; in field to I., 
acrostolium. 

MASTAURA Lydiaj. 

Note. — Mastaura still preserves its name, and some ruins a few miles to the northward of Nasli, in 
a valley of Mount Messogis, which is watered by a small tributary of the Maeander, anciently called 
Chryson-hoas (Stephan. in Maaravpa). The ruins are described as of Roman times, which accords 
with the coins of Mastaura, extending from the reign of Tiberius to that of Valerian. Mastaura 
derived its name from Ma, the same goddess called Rhea, or Cybele, by the Greeks. 

MAGTAYPA. Female bust (Mastaura) to r. R. MACTAYPEITiiN. Cypress-tree. 
Altar with fire. From the Pemhrolce Collection (1123), cited hy Eckhel, iii. 
p. 108, and Mionnet, iv. p. 83. 

Gordianws. 

AYT. K. M. ANT. rOPAIANOC. Head of Gordian to »". R. GDI n. KA 

lANOY [MA]CTAYPeiTaN. Pallas standing to l.\ in right hand, patera; in 
left hand, hasta ; behind her shoulders, bow. 



METROPOLIS loniffi. 

Note. — Metropolis, according to Strabo, stood on the road from Ephesus to Smyrna, at two-fifths 
of the distance from the former, which answers nearly to the position of some Hellenic remains on a 
height in the plain of Turbali, that name, moreover, being a Turkish corruption of Mijrpon-oXic. 

as 



82 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

M 
M 



Size 
10 



Weight 



JE 



JE 



8i 



JE 



^ 



Septimius Severus. 

AY. K. A. cen. ceOY Head of Septimius Severus to r. B. MHTPO- 

nOAeiTON TiiN eN IDNIA. Three military figures, each with a hasta. 

AY. K. A. ce. oeOYHPOC n. Same type. B. Same legend. Mars, adv., looking 
to r., in a tetrastyle temple ; in right hand, spear ; left hand on shield, which 
rests on the ground. 

METROPOLIS Phrygiae. 

Note. — A good approximation to tlie position of Metropolis of Phrygia has been given by Strabo 
(p. 6fi3), from whom it appears to have stood on tlie great road from Ephesus to Mazaca, between 
Apameia (Dinaire) and Philomelium (Als-sheh^r). As this road did not pass through Apollonia 
(Oloburlu) and Antiocheia of Pisidia (Yalobatch), which is the more direct line, it seems evidently to 
have diverged from that line to the north, for the sake of turning the northern end of the great 
ridge of Phrygia Paroreius (Sultan-dagh), where stood Holmi. The Metropolitanus campus, there- 
fore, which Manlius crossed in his way from the fountains of the Obrimas, eastward of Apameia 
to Synnada {vide my Asia Minor, p. 152), appears to have been somewhere between Sandukli and 
Yalobatch, where in Mr. Hamilton's Map occurs a blank space still greatly in want of exploration. 

Gordianus Junior, 

AYT. K. M. ANT. rOPAIANOC. Head of Gordian to r. B. eni CTP. AYP. AIO- 
reN0Y2 MHTPOnOAeiTaN. Cybele seated to I. ; in right hand, patera ; left 
arm on tympanum ; at her feet, lion. 

Otacilia Severa. 

ceYHPA. Head of Otacilia Severa to r. B. en CTP. A 

(MHTPOnO)AeiTQN. Similar type. 

MIDAEIUM Phrygia. 

Note. — Midaium (MiSditov) derived its name from one of the ancient kings of the Gordian dynasty, 
and, as appears from its coins (Mionnet, iv. p. 342 ; Sup. vii. p. 600), honoured him as its icn'irnjf. 
It stood on the road from Dorylseum to Pessinus, at about a third of the distance from the former, 
and near tlie junction of the Thymbres and Sangarius, as two of the following coins prove. 



LEBAETOr. 



Augustus. 
Head of Augustus to r. B. MIAACaN. 



Youthful head to r. 



I 



Trajanus. 

AY. NEP. TPAIANOC KAI. Ce. TG. AA. Head of Trajan to r. B. MIAAGiiN TE. 
BPIC. River-god recumbent to I. ; in right hand, reed. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — The lower parts of the letters alone are seen on this specimen ; but Mr. W. H . Waddington 
possesses a coin of Midaium on which TEMBPIC is perfectly legible. It is the local form of Thym- 
bres, or Thymbrius, or Tiberis, a Pelasgic word, which migrated into Italy. 

Severus Alexandrus. 
M. AYP. EEY. AAE«ANAPOE AY. Bust of Severus Alexander to r. B. MIAAeON 
EArAPIE . River-god to I., with a shrub in his right hand, sitting more upright 
than usual, and looking to r. 

Note. — Hence we perceive that the local form of Sangarius was Sagaris. The reverted head 
alludes probably to the windings of the Sangarius, which are remarkable ; it resembles a similar 
action in the bulls, which are symbols of rivers on many of the coins of Magna Grsecia. 




ASIATIC GREECE. 



88 



Metal 



Size 



Weight 



JE 4 



M 



El. 

M 

JR 
M 
M 
M 

JE 

M 
M 

M 



M 



M 



2-ik 



2i 






72-8 

163-5 

96-9 
79-3 
54-4 
23-5 



MILETOPOLIS Mysise. 

Note. — Tlie exact situation of Miletopolis has not been ascertained, but it stood, undoubtedly, not 
far from the lalce of Maniyas ; for this is evidently the MiXijroTroXirif Xi/ivij mentioned by Strabo, 
p. 575, and which is situated at about the distance (20 m.p.) from ApoUonia ad Rhyndacum, at which 
the Tabular Itinerary places Miletopolis from that city. Vide supra, m Apollonia. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. MIAHTOnOAlTQN. Two owls opposed. 

Note. — These Athenian types may be accounted for by Miletopolis having been a colony of Cyzious, 
which was a colony of Athens. The Miletopolitse may have only been the more inclined to assume 
these types of their ultimate origin from the absence of them on the coins both of Cyzicus and 
Miletus. 

Gordianus Junior. 

AYT. K. M. ANT. TOPAIANOC. Bust of Gordian to r. R. 6ni CTP. AYP. ePMOY 
MeiAHTOnOAGITiiN. Diana Venatrix, habited as usual, stepping to r. ; right 
hand to quiver ; in left hand, bow ; at her feet, dog starting forward to r. 

MILETUS loniEe, 

Note. — The types and symbols of Apollo on the coins of Miletus are accounted for by the celebrity 
of the temple of Apollo Didymeus at Didyma or Branchidfe in its territory, and which almost rivalled 
that of Diana at Ephesus. Didyma was said to have derived its name from the temple having been 
sacred to Jupiter as well as to Apollo (Callim. Fragm. 36. Stephan. in AiSvfia), but may also have 
had an allusion to the twins Apollo and Diana. The ruins of Didyma have been described in the 
Ionian Antiquities of the Society of Dilettanti. 

Head of a lion with open mouth to r. ; above a star. R. Oblong shapeless quad. 

incus. 
Laureate head of Apollo to I. R. Lion standing to I., and looking to r. at star ; in 

exergue, 2 AM 10 S. 
Same type. R. MI. in mon (M/Xi/roc) ; in exergue, EPriNOS. Same type. 
Same type. R. MI. in mon. KTH21AS. Same type. 
Same type. R. MI. in mon. MNHSIOE02. Same type. 
Same type. R. MI. in mon. . NriANA. Same type. 
Apollo, naked, standing to r. ; in right hand, bow ; in left hand, small stag. R. MI- 

AHCIUJN. Lion couchant to r., looking to I. at star. 
Another similar. 
Lion stepping to I. and looking back at star. R. MEASiN, the letters between the 

rays of a star of eight points. 
Laureate head of Apollo to r. R. Lion stepping to r. and looking to I. at star. 
Another ; below the lion, EniM . . . 



CeSACTOC. Head of Nero to r. 
female attire (Musagetes) to r. ; 
his feet, stag to r., looking up. 



Nero. 

R. MIAHCIiiN Eni TI. AAMA. Apollo in 
in right hand, patera ; in left hand, bow ; at 



AY. 



Septimius Severus and Caracalla. 
K. A. cen. oeOYHPOC KAI. ay. M. ANXilNeiNOC. Heads of Severus and 

Caracalla opposed. R MIAHCIiiN. Apollo naked, and Diana 

in a long garment and Phrygian bonnet ; both adv. 

JYote. According to Clemens of Alexandria, the Milesii on some sacred occasions sang as follows, 

MiXTTtrc li nalSis "Eicdtpyov Kai'Eicaepyov, which agrees with the union of the two deities on this coin. 



84 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



M 



Size 



Weight 






6-5 



M 



MI NO A (urbs ignota). 

Julia 3f(esa. 

[OYAIA MAICA CtBA. Head of Julia Msesa to r. R. GIII. APX. T. *A. CPriNOY 
MINOHTiiN. Draped male figure standing to r. ; in right hand, ? in left hand, 
lyre. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — The fabric, style, and legends of this coin leave no doubt of its being Asiatic, though no 
mention of the name occurs in ancient history. 



MOPSIUM sive MOPSUESTIA Ciliciffi. 

A^ote.— The name Mopsnestia was corrupted into Mampsista or Mansista, at an early time of the 
Byzantine empire, as appears from the Jerusalem Itinerary, which places Mansista at 18 m.p. to the 
eastward of Adana. By the Turks it has been further changed to Mensi's, which is nearly at that 
distance from the modern Adana, and on the Pyramus, as Mopsium is described to have been. 

Veiled and turreted female head to r. R. MO*EATON THS lEPAS [K]AI AYTO- 
N[OMOY]. Half draped figure of Apollo standing to I. ; in right hand, branch ; 
left arm resting on a tripod. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. Same legend. Altar, with fire ; below, two monograms. 

Nate. — This altar is probably the Moi/iou iaria, or altar of Mopsus, son of Teiresias, whose prin- 
cipal oracle, however, in the time of Strabo, was at Mallus, of which city he was the reputed founder, 
in conjunction with Amphilochus, 



MOSTENE Lydije. 

Note. — The situation of Mostene, though not its exact site, is known from its having been in the 
district called Hyrcania. Like the city of that name, it had received a colony of Macedonians (Tacit. 
Annal. 2, 47 ; Plin. H. N. 5, 29). 

Commodus. 

AYT. K. M. AYP. KOMMOAOG. Head of Commodus to r. ; countermarked with a 
head to r. B. M0CTHN12N AYAilN. Amazon ou horseback, to r. ; on left 
shoulder, bipennis ; before the horse, a cypress-tree. 



MYLASA Cariffi. 

Note. — Mylasa, which preserves its ancient name, has been described by Pococke and Chandler. 
It was the chief city of Caria, and the residence of its dynasts until they acquired the Doric Halicar- 
nassus, a much more advantageous situation. Near Mylasa was the hieron of the Carian Jupiter, 
sumamed Labrandeus {AdjipavvSoc on a marble found near Mylasa), from Xa/3piic, a double-headed 
axe, in the Carian language. This bipennis, according to Plutarch, had belonged to the Amazon 
Hippolyta, was presented by Hercules to Omphale, queen of Lydia, and taken from the Lydians by 
the Carians, who presented it to their Jupiter, and placed it in his hand (Qusest. Grsec. 45). 



M 
M 



M 



3i 
2+ 



166-7 



Horse trotting to r. R. Bipennis ending in trident ; in field, four dolphins. 
Eagle, with expanded wings, standing to r. B. MYAA2EON. Crab, from 
rises a trident. 



which 



ITadriamts. 
. . . AVGVSTVS P. P. Head of Hadrian to r. B- COS. III. Statue of 
Jupiter Labrandeus, adv., with supports, and holding in right hand the bi- 
pennis; in left hand, spear. (Struck upon a former coin, of which portions 
on both sides are visible.) 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



85 



Metalj Size 



IE 



M 



Weight 



M 



M 



M 



M 



51-] 



251-7 



JR. 
M 



10-9 



2i 



3 

1 + 



236-3 



29 



14-1 



AYTOKPATOPA AAPIANON. Head of Hadrian to r. R. MYAA[CeiiN]. Bust of 
Jupiter to r. 

Septimkes Severus. 

AY. K. A. C. CeOYHROC. Bust of Septimius Severus to r. ^. MYAACeSlN 
in three lines. Bipennis rising from a crab ; all within a wreath. 

Head of Sept. Severus to r. R. MYAAC[ei2N]. Head of Bacchus to r. ; beard in 
ringlets ; thyrsus behind the neck. From the Pembroke Collection (1133), cited^ 
hut very imperfectly described^ by Mionnet, Sup. vi. p. 509. 

MYNDUS Cariae. 

Note. — The walls, theatre, and other remains of Myndus, are found at a liarbour on the western 
coast of Caria, between the gulfs of Cos and lasus, ten geographical miles north-westward of Hali- 
camassus. By the Turks the harbour is called Gumishlu. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. MYNAIiiN. Globe between horns, surmounted by two 
feathers ; below, two ears of corn ; still lower, to ?., helmet ? 

Note. — The principal type is Egyptian, and is found, together with the head of Isis, on coins of 
the neighbouring lasus. 

Bearded head to r. R. MYNAISiN MHNOAOTOC. Winged fulmen. 

MYEA LycijB. 

Note. — Myra, which retains its ancient name, was one of the six chief towns of Lycia, as enu- 
merated by Artemidorus (ap. Strabon. p. C65) ; under the Byzantine empire it became the metro- 
pohs of that province. On its situation, and the great remains of antiquity still extant at Myra, vide 
my Asia Minor, p. 183. 

Gordianus. 

AYT. KAI. M. ANT. rOPAIANOC CGB. Bust of Gordian to r. R. MYPeQN. 
Two men armed with bipennes, on either side of a tree, appear prepared to cut 
it down, when each of them is opposed by a serpent ; in the middle of the tree 
stands a figure of Juno Pronuba. 

Note. — Juno Pronuba, as represented on coins of Samus, Apameia, Hypsepa, Mseonia, is a common 
type also on the coins of Myra. 

MYRHINA ^olidis. 

Note. — Myrhina, according to Strabo, was one of the cities of this coast named from the Amazones ; 
the others were Cyme, Smyrna, and Ephesus. The position of Myrhina has not been exactly ascer- 
tained, though it has been clearly described by Strabo. 

Head of Apollo to r. R. MYPINAIflN. Apollo, half-draped, stepping to r. ; in 
right hand, patera ; in left hand, branch, with pendent vittse ; below, diota and 
cortina ; in field to ?., mon. 59 ; all within a wreath of bay. From the Col- 
lection of the Duke of Devonshire. 

Note.—TYiR types of this coin relate undoubtedly to the Apollo of Grynium, which was a hierum 
and small town in the territory of Myrhina, forty stades distant from it (Strabo, p. 622). 

Same type. R. Same legend, type, and symbols ; but in field to I., mons. 60, 61, 

62 ; all within a wreath as before. 
Head of Pallas to r. R. MY. Female head with necklace (Myrhina ?), adv. ; in 

field to r., spear-head ; to I., quiver. 
Same type. R. Head of Apollo I adv. 
Same type. R. MYPI. Diota. 
|Same type to I. R. MY. Diota. 

9 



86 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 
M 
M 



Size 

4 

3i 
4 



Weight 



M 



M 



M 



Headof Apollo tor. R. MYPI. Dicta, lyre. 
Another similar. 

MYPeiNA. Turreted female bust (Myrhina) to I. R. MYPeiNAinN. Fortune 
standing to l. 

MYRLEIA BithynijE. 

Note. — Myrleia was said to have been a colony of Colophon, named from its leader Myrlua. 
Having been talcen by Philip, son of Demetrius, of Macedonia, it was given by him to Prusias, King 
of Bithynia, who changed the name to Apameia, in honour of his wife, who was nearly related to 
Pliilip (Strabo, p. SCI ; Stephan. in v.). Eckhel describes coins of this town with the head of Apollo 
on the obverse ; reverse, lyre, with the legend AIIAMEQN MYPAEANQN, and the dates 235, 237 
of the Pontic rera. The coin with the former date has EOI TAIOY OYIBIOY IIANSA. This is 
twenty-three years later than the latest date on the coins of Nicomedes III. 

Veiled female head to r. R. MYPAEA. Tetrachord lyre ; below, a monogram. 

Note. — The lyre is the commonest type also on coins of Colophon. 



NACOLEIA Phrygiffi. 

Traj'anus. 

AYT. NEP. TPAIANOC KAICAP CE. TEP. AAKI. Head of Trajan to r. R. NA- 
KOAeQN eni AKYAAIOY HPOKAOY. Female figure, representing the city? 
seated to I. ; on head, modius or tutulus ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, 
hasta. 

Caracalla. 

AYT. K. M. AYPHAI. ANTiiNGINOC. Head of Caracalla to r. R. NAKOAGflN. The 
emperor on a horse, without movement, to l. ; his right hand extended (as 
pacificator). 

Note — At Seid-cl-Ghazi, the late Mr. J. R. Steuart saw more than one ancient marble inscribed 
with the name of the people of Nacoleia, as he informed me at Naples, and has confirmed in his 
" Ancient Monuments of Lydia and Phrygia," page 14, though the inscriptions have never been pub- 
lished. This position of Nacoleia is important, as it verifies that of Eski-Sheh^r as Doryleeum, while 
it corrects the line from Doryleeum to Apameia, and the direction of the line from Nacoleia to Eu- 
meneia (Ishekli). At about twelve miles, therefore, to the south-south-west of Nacoleia, and 
twenty-five to the south-east of Cotyaeum, was situated that remarkable valley concealed in the midst 
of a forest of pines, and rugged with high protruding rocks, which one or more of the Phrygian 
kings chose for their place of sepulture, as we learn from inscriptions on a perpendicular escarpment 
of one of the rocks, which I there copied and afterwards published (ride Asia Minor, plate facing 
p. 21). The valley of Doganlu, as it is now called, is not more remarkable for its natural peculiari- 
ties and its ancient monuments, than for its position very nearly in the centre of the Gordian king- 
dom, about midway between the northern capital Gordium and the southern Ce\cense, as well as 
between the eastern and western limits of Phrygia. To the Phrygian epigraphs which I copied, 
Mr. Steuart added those on another monumental rock, apparently royal, and observed some other 
monuments of minor note, one of which was purely Greek. Although the Phrygian inscriptions of 
Doganlu are the only known documents in that language, they are sufficient to show that, about the 
eighth century B.C., it had some Greek forms and even words, and that it was written in characters 
borrowed from the Greeks of the western coast, where those letters had been introduced long before 
by the Phoenicians. The forms of the Phrygian letters not only prove this historical fact, but, com- 
pared with the Lycian, they show that the Greek alphabet was applied to the Lycian at a much later 
time. Mr. Mure, in adverting to these Phrygian inscriptions in his work on " the Language and 
Literature of Greece" (p. 63), speaks of them as " first observed by Leake, and recently transcribed 
and published by Steuart," as if Steuart alone had copied any of them — an unfair representation of 
the fact, but which would not have been worth noticing, had it not appeared in a work which is 
secure of a lasting reputation, and which opportunely overthrows one of the most offensive of those 
Gei-man theories which, however armed with erudition, tend to obstruct the course of historical truth 
and rational inquiry. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



87 



Metal Size Weight 



M 
JE 

M 
JE 



M 



M 



JE 



JE 



JE 



8 

5 

5 + 
3 



4i 



8-7 



4+ 



5i 



NACRASA Lydise. 

Note. — The position of Nacrasa, at Baki'r, at about one-fourth of the distance between Thyateira 
and Pergamum, was determined by ChishuU (Antiq. Asiat. p. 146), who there found an inscription 
beginning H MAKEAONQN NAKPA2EITQN BOTAH. Hence it appears also that Nacrasa was 
one of the Macedonian colonies, like Blaundus, Docimium, Hyrcania, Mostene, and Peltse. 

eni. CTPA. MAP. lOYNIANOY. Bearded head of Hercules to r. R. NAKPA- 

&6ITaN. Serpent coiled round cortina, with head erect. 
eni APTEMIAQPOY. Same type. flL. NAKP[ACe]ITilN. Same type. 
©eON CYNKAHTON. Beardless male head to r. (Senate of Rome). R. NAKPA- 

CITiiN. Diana Ephesia, adv. ; at her feet, on each side, a stag. 
Another similar. 
Same legend and similar type. B:. NAKPA Turreted female head to r. ; in 

field, a mon. 

ffadrianus. 



AYT. KAICAP. TPAIA. AAPIANOC. 
Diana Venatrix, with dog, to r. 



Head of Hadrian to r. E. NAKPACITiiN. 



NEANDRIA Troadis. 

Note. — In Asia Minor, p. 274, 1 have given reasons for believing that Neandria stood at or near 
the modem Ene or Enede, on the upper Mendere, the ancient Simoeis. 



Head of Apollo to r. B- NEAN. Horse feeding to r. ; in exergue, grain of barley. 

Note. — The feeding horse is a common type on the coins of the neighbouring Alexandreia ; it 
was a symbol of Apollo. 

Same type. R. NEAN. in two lines ; between which, a grain of barley. 



NEAPOLIS Palestinse sive Samarise. 

Note. — Sichem at Mount Garizim, the chief town of Samaria, was restored by the favour of Titus 
after the fall of Jerusalem, and assumed the Greek name Neapolis, which it still retains. 

Faustina Junior. 

*AYCTeiNA CGB. 6YCe. CGBA. ©(wyarijp). Head of Faustina to r. B. *A(aov(ac) 

NeACn[OAeiiC CY]P1AC nA[AeCTI.] ex. HH. (year 88). Astarte, adv.; in 

right hand, ? Con/. Mionnet, Sup. viii., p. 348, No. 66. 
*AYCT€TNAN C€BACTHN. Same type. Diana Ephesia, adv.; at her feet, on 

each side, a stag. B. 4A. NGACnOAe. CYPIAC HAAeCTI. ex. n© 

(year 89). 

Note. — The sera of these coins commenced a.d. 72, the third year of Vespasian, and their dates 
correspond to a.d. 160, the last year of Antoninus Pius, and 161, the first year of M. Aurelius. 

Caracalla. 

AYT. K. M. AYP. ANX Head of Caracalla to r. B- *A. NGACII . . . CVP. 

IIAA. Mount Garizim, on the summit of which is a temple ; on its sides, 
woods ; at its foot, a portico ; a flight of steps up the mountain. 



88 

Metal 

M 



Size 



Weight 



M 



8-7 

7 



M 

JE 
M 
M 



7- 

7 
6 
7-6 



M 



H 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Volusianus. 



AYT. KAIC. r. OYI. TPGB. OYOA ....... Head of Volusian to r. R, *a. 

NeACn Mount Garizim, with temple and portico nearly as before; 

below, an eagle, adv., with expanded wings. 



NESIBI Mesopotamise. 

Note. — The north-western part of Mesopotamia received from its Greek conquerors the Mace- 
donian name Mygdonia. Here, near the sources of one of the branches of the Khabflr, Greece 
Chaboras, stands Nesibi, about fifty geographical miles to the n.w. of Mosul, on the road from thence 
to Mardin and Diarb^kr. Nesibi was colonized by one of the Seleucidae, who gave it the name of 
Antiocheia of Mygdonia. A coin of Seleucus IV. is extant, bearing on one side his portrait ; on 
the other Victory, with the date 130, and the legend ANTIOXEQN TQN Tl{pbe) MTrAGNIAI. 
The ancient name Nesibi, however, was never obsolete, as we find no other on the coins of the co- 
lony estabUshed here by Septimius Severus. This colony seems from the legends of the coins to have 
been chiefly, if not entirely, Greek. 

Severus Alexandnis. 

AY. KAI. MAP. A. C6. AAeXANAPOC. Eadiate head of Severus Alexander to r. 

R. cen. KOA. NeCIBI. MHT. Veiled and turreted female head to r. ; above 

it, ram running to r. ; before it, star. 
Similar legend and similar type, but without rays. B. Same legend. Veiled and 

turreted female head to r. ; above, ram running to r. and looking I. at star ; 

before, another star and an ear of corn. 

Gordianus, Tranquillina. ^^^^V 

AYTOK. K. M. AN. TOFAIANON CAB. TPAN . . . Busts of Gordian and Tran- 
quillina opposed. B. . . . KOAO. NGCIBI. MHTPO. Veiled and turreted 
female seated to I. ; in right hand, ears of corn ; on her head, ram running to 
I. ; at her feet, river-god (Mygdonius) swimming to r. 

Philippus Senior. 

AYTOK. K. M. lOYAI. *IAinn0C CGB. Radiate bust of Philip Senior to I. ; the 
point of a spear appearing before the neck. B. lOY, cen. KOAii. NeC-IBI 
MHT. Veiled female figure seated, adv., in a tetrastyle temple ; on her head, 
ram running to r. and looking to I. ; at her feet, river-god swimming to r. 

Another similar. 

Otacilia Severa. 

MAP. aTAKIA. ceOYHPAN CGB. Bust of Otacilia Severa to r. ; behind the 

shoulders, a crescent. R. Same legend and type as on the coins of Philip. 
Another similar. 

NIC^A Bithyniffi. 

NoU. — According to Stephanus, Nicsea, before the Macedonian conquest, was called 'Ayicupij, 
another form, perhaps, of Ancyra, which name, being found both in Phrygia and Galatia, is pro- 
bably of indigenous, and not of Greek, origin. 

In the time of Antigonus, king of Asia, Nicaea received a colony from Bottiseis, and the name 
Antigoneia, which lasted, however, not longer than the Antigoneia of Troas, having been replaced by 
that of Niccea, who was daughter of Antipatrus and wife of Lysimachus. Strabo, p. 5C5. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. NIK Hygieia feeding serpent to I. ; in field to I., 

NIKAI[EON]. Head of Bacchus to r. ; before, HA in mon. R. EDI TAIOY 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



89 



Metal 

M 

iE 
M 
M 

M 
/E 
JE 



M 

M 

M 



Size 

5 

7 



Weight 



H 



0- 

4+ 



H 



nAniPlOY KAPBiiNOS. Roma Nicephorus seated on armour to I. ; below, 
PiiMH. 
Another similar. 

Germanicus. 

[rEPMAjNIKOS KAISAP SEBA2[T0S]. Head of Germanicus to I. R. r. KAAIOS 
POY*OS AN® Building of two stories, each of six columns, and stand- 
ing upon a basis, in which is an arched entrance ; in exergue, N 

Trajanus. 

AYT. NEP. TPAIANOS KAISAP SE. TE. Head of Trajan to r. B. AIOC. Altar of 
Jupiter. Con/. Eckhel, ii. p. 424. 

Antoninus Pirn. 

KAIGAP ANTflNGINOC. Head of Antoninus Pius to r. a. NIKAIEIE TON 
CilTIPA. Asclepius, adv., looking to I. 

Lucius Verus. 

AYT. KAI. A. AYP. OYHPOC CGBA. Bust of Lucius Verus to r. B. ©GA AH- 
MHTHP NIKAIGiiN. Ceres holding a torch with both hands, and standing in 
a chariot to r. drawn by two winged serpents. 

Septimius Sevenis. 

AYT. K. A. cenT. C6YHP0C H. . Head of Sept, Severus to r. B. NIKAieslN. 
Hexastyle temple. 

Geia. 

n. GenTI. reTAC KAI. Head of Geta to »•. R. NIKAIGQN. Serpent rising from 
a cista open to L 

Macrinus, 

AYT. K. M. onEA. G60YHP. MAKP6IN0C AYT. Bust of Macrinus to r. B. NI- 
KAIEiiN. Half-draped Bacchus, adv., looking to I. ; in right hand, cup ; in left 
hand, thyrsus ; at his feet, panther. 

Note. — The cup, as usual in figures of Bacchus, is held horizontally, or rather turned downwards, 
as if to express emptiness, 

Severus Alexandrus^ 

M. AYP. EEYH. AAESANAPOE AYF. Bust of Severus Alexander to r. B. Nl- 
KAIEilN. Female with modius, adv., looking to I. ; in right hand, patera; in 
left hand, hasta. 

Same legend. Bust of Severus Alexandras to r. B. Same legend, the letters sepa- 
rated by three military standards. 
Another similar. 

Julia Mamcea. 
[QYAIA MAMAIA AYr. Bust of Julia Mamsea to /•. B. N1KA[EQN. Three mili- 
tary standards. 

Etruscilla. 
EPEN. ETPOYEKIAAA CGB. Bust of Etruscilla to r, B. NIKAIEQN, Bacchus, 
adv., looking to I. ; with attributes as before. 



90 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 1 


M 


7 


JE 


6 


JE 


6 


JE 


6i 


M 


61 


M 


H 


^ 


6-5 


M 


7+ 


JE 


5 


JE 


6 



Weight 



Valerianus and Gallienm. 

AEPIANOr rAAAIHNOE EEB. Busts of Valerianus and of Gal- 

lienus opposed. B. OMHPOE NIKAIEQN. Homer seated to I. ; right hand 
raised. 

Valerianus, Gallienus, and Valerianus Junior, 

AYT. OYAAAEPIANOE TAAAIKNOE OYAAEPIANOE KAI. EEBB. Radiate heads 
of Valerianus and of Gallienus opposed ; between them, head of Valerianus 
Junior to r. R. MEFIETflN [APlETilN] NIKAIEaN. Three prize-vases with 
two palm-branches in each. 

Another similar. 

Gallienus. I 

nOYB. AIK. erNA. TAAAIKNOC AYr. Radiate head of Gallienus to r. R. Nl- 
KAIEilN. Fortune, adv., looking to I. 

-f 
Salonina. 

KOPN. CAAaNGINA CGB. Head of Salonina to r. R. Same legend. Two radiate 
military figures, each with a hasta in his left hand, joining their right hands; 
to the r., a female figure extending her right hand and holding up her long 
drapery with the left. 

Macrianus. 

AYT. *OYA. lOY. MAKPIANOC CGB. Radiate head of Macrianus to r. R. NI 
KAIE[ilN]. Walls of the city, showing two opposite gates and eight towers. 



I 
I 

J 



TI. *OYAI. KYHTOE EEB. Radiate head of Quietus to r. R. Same legend and 
type. 



NICOMEDEIA Bithynife. 

Note. — Astaeus, at the head of the Astaeene Gulf, received the name of Nicomedeia from Nico- 
medes I., and under that dynasty became one of the greatest cities of Asia Minor. Relatively it still 
enjoys the same distinction, but retains very few vestiges of ancient works. 



Claudius. 

2EBAST0S TEP Head of Claudius to I. R. 

ON no. nASIAlHNOS ANSYHATOS; below, mon. 63 (NIKAIE). 



Antinous. 
H[PiiC] ANTINOOC. Head of Antinous to r. R. [MHTPOjnOAIC NIKOMHAGIA. 
Youthful naked figure to I. ; right hand raised to the face ; in left hand, 
chlamys. 

Note. — Antinous was a native of Bithynium, afterwards Claudiopolis, situated not far from Nico- 
media, to the eastward. 

M. Aurelius and L. Verus. 

AYT. KAI. M. AYP. ANTONINOC Head of M. Aurelius to r. R. AYT. KAI. 

A. AYP. OYHPOC NIKOM. Head of L. Verus to r. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



91 



Size 

9 



Metal 

M 
M 



M 6 



Weight 



.E 



•'2 



M 



M 



4+ 



Commodm. 
AYT. K. M. AYP. KOMMOAOC ANTaNINOC. Bust of Commodus to r, R. NIKO- 

MH Female, with modius on head, seated to I., with an 

octastyle temple in each hand. 
A. AYPHAIOC KOMOAOC K. Bust of Comraodus to n R 

NeilKOP. NeiKOMH. Ceres standing to r. in a tetrastyle temple; in right 

hand, hasta ; in left hand, ears of corn, 

Julia Domna. 

[OYAIA CGBACTH. Head of Julia Domna to r. R. NIKOMHAeiiN AlC Nesi- 
KOPaN. Pallas, adv., looking to I. ; in left hand, spear and shield ; in right 
hand, patera, over an altar with fire. 

NICOPOLIS Judsese sive Palajstinffi. 

Note. — Emmaus, which was situated on the road from Yaffa to Jerusalem, at the ascent of the 
mountains, where some remains of antiquity are still to be seen, received the name of Nicopolis from 
Vespasian, after the capture of Jerusalem. It was not the same place as the Ammaus which, by the 
same emperor's command, was occupied by 800 Roman Emeriti. This place was no more than sixty 
stades from Jerusalem (Joseph, de B. Jud. 7, 27). Emmaus, or Nicopolis, was distant from thence, 
according to the Jerusalem Itinerary, twenty-two M. p. Eckhel, who supposed the two places to have 
been one and the same, is at a loss to account for the coins of Nicopolis having no appearance of 
being colonial. There is no reason to believe that Emmaus ever was a Roman colony. 

Trajanus. 

AYT. K. (NeP. TPA)IANOC CCB. TCPM. A(AK). Head of Trajan to r.; coun- 
termark, LXV. B. NeiKOnOA(eUJC eTO)YC MB (year 42). Victory step- 
ping to r. with palm-branch and wreath. From the Pembroke Collection (1256), 
cited hy Eckhel, iii. p. 474, and Mionnet, v. p. 550, No. 185, but who mistakes 
in describing it as of size 9. 

Note. — The commencement of the sera of this Nicopolis being a.d. 71, this com was struck in a.d. 
113, the fifteenth year of Trajan. 

NICOPOLIS Seleucidis Syrise. 

Note. — According to Stephanus and Eustathius (in Dionys. Perieg.), there was a Nicopolis on or 
near the site of Issus, and so named from the victory of Alexander over Darius. But Strabo dis- 
tinguishes Nicopolis from Issus, though he names the former among the cities of the Issic Gulf 
(p. 076). There may be, perhaps, some textual fault, as the geographer seems to include among the 
same names that of Mopsuestia, which stood on the river Pyramus, fifteen or twenty miles from the 
shore of the Issic Gulf. There is little prospect, therefore, of determining the position of Nicopolis 
of Seleucis until it is known where its coins are generally found. 

Commodus. 
. . . MAP. AYPH. KOMOAOC AN. Head of Commodus to r. ft. CCAeYKIAOC 
THC lePAC surrounding a wreath, within which is NGIKOnOAITaN in four 
lines. 

NYSA Cariifi. 

Nate.— The remains of Nysa, as they existed more than eighty years since, are described by 
Chandler (Asia Minor, c. 63). 

Augustus. 
Head of Augustus to r. B. NYSAEiiN. Tripod, within a wreath. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



Size 
3+ 



8h 



Weight 



JE 



M 






2 



M 



Nero. 

NePON KAICAP. Head of Nero to r. Ti. NYCAGQN. Bust of the god Lunua 
to r. 

Antoninus Pius. 

AYT. KAICAP AAPIAN. ANTaNCINOC Head of Antoninus Pius tor, R. KAMA- 
PtlTHG NYCAeiiN. The god Ul)y, or Lunus, with Phrygian bonnet, crescent 
behind the shoulders, in full tunic, and with arms and legs draped, towards I, • 
in right hand, patera ; in left hand, hasta. 

Note. — KafiapiiTtit is evidently derived from Kam^r, ' moon,' in Phoenician, as well as in modem 
Arabic. 

Julia Domna. 

lOYAlA CGBACTH. Bust of Julia Domna to r. B;. NYCAGilN, Bacchus seated 
to I, on the top of a cornucopise, from which depend fruits ; in his extended 
right hand, grapes. 



OPHRYNIUM Troadis. 



4 



Note. — Ophrynium stood on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont, between Dardanus and 
Rhceteium, 

Helmeted bearded head, adv., towards r., with the ears of an ox, and wings 
above them. R. 0<I>PY, Naked figure kneeling to /•., and holding a bunch of 
grapes. 



ORTHOSIA Carise. ^ 

Note. — The situation of Orthosia is yet to be determined. In examining the question as to that A 
the neighbouring Alabanda (Asia Minor, p. 231), I suggested the probability that Orthosia was at 
the modem Karpusli. 

Bust of Diana to r. ; behind the neck, bow and quiver. B. OPOiiSlEilN. Jupiter 

Nicephorus seated to I. ; in field to I., lA and ? 
Victory stepping to I. ; in right hand, crown ; in left hand, trophy. B. Decorated 

thyrsus ; HP in mon. ; all in wreath of ivy. Conf. Mionnet, iii. p. 373, Sup. vi. 

p. 529. 



ORTHOSIA Phoeniciffi. 

Note. — The situation of this Orthosia is known from Strabo, p. 753, to have been on or near the river 
Eleutherus, now the Nahr-el-Berd ; but for its precise position, as well as for that of all the other places 
mentioned by the geographer between Seleuceia and Tripolis, with the exception of Laodiceia and 
Antaradus, we must wait probably until our Admiralty Surveys are extended to the coast of Syria. 

Caracalla. 

.... ANXaNI. . . . Head of Caracalla to r. B. OP0a Astarte, 

adv. (crowned by Victory on a column), in a tetrastyle temple, with steps, an 
arch in the centre, and a pediment covering the whole. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



93 



Metal Size 



M 


2+ 


37-4 


M 


2+ 


36-6 


JR 


3-2 




M 


3- 


36-8 


M 


2 


37-2 


M 


2+ 


35-7 


M 


2 


36-2 



M 



M 



JE 



M 



M 



M 



8-7 



M 


2 


JE 


H 


JE 


3 


JE 


2- 


M 


1 


JE 


5 



3+ 



7i 



Weight 



196-2 



PARIUM Mysiffi. 

Note. — Pariam, according to Pausanias (Boeot. 27), was a colony of Erythrse ; according to Strabo 
(p. 487), a colony of Miletus and Parus, to which names, Eustathius (in Dionys. Pereg. v. 517) 
adds that of Thasus, which was itself a colony of Parus. The gentile of the island was Udpioc, that 
of Parium was Jlapiavog, but as the legend on the coins of both places is generally IIA, or nAPI^ 
there is some difficulty in distinguishing them. All those here described are similar to a great 
number shown by Sestini to have been found in his time at KamSreSj the site of Parium, and which 
were placed in the collection of Sir Robert Ainslie. 

Head of Gorgo, adv. B. PAPI. Cow standing to I., looking to r. 

Another similar. 

Another lighter. 

Head of Gorgo, adv. B- Same legend and type ; immediately below the feet of the 

cow, an ear of com. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type, but below the cow an ivy leaf. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type, but below the cow a branch. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type, but below the cow a scallop-shell and an ear 

of corn. 
Serpent escaping from cista, open to I. ; within a wreath of ivy. B- Two serpents 

twined round a decorated bow-case, and raising their heads above it ; in field 

to I., DA in mon. ; in field to r., ?. 

Note. — Numismatists have generally described the object between the serpents on the Cistophori 
as a pharetra or quiver ; on the present coin there can be no doubt that a bow-case was intended, 
the end of a bow, though very small in proportion to the case, being visible to the left. On 
many of the Cistophori, the object between the serpents is very indistinct, but it was probably 
always intended for a bow-case. 

Head of Apollo to r. B. IIAPI. Altar with fire. 

Similar type. B. Same legend and similar type. 

Head of Pallas to r. B- IIAPI. Cow to r. 

Head of Pallas, adv. B- IIAPI. Bunch of grapes. 

Cow to r. B. IIAPI. Altar with fire. 

Head of Jupiter to r, B. Eagle on fulmen, standing to r., and looking to I. ; in 

field to I., AV in mon. ; in field to r., FIAP in mon. 
Same type. B. Eagle on fulmen standing to r., in field to I., ;- in field to r., IIAP 

in mon. 
Same type. B. Same type ; in field to L, a mon. ; in field to r., IIAP in mon. 

Hadrianus. 

ADRIANVS . . Head of Hadrian to I. B. C. G. I. H. P. (Colonia Gemella 

Julia Hadriana Parium.) Male figure standing to r., driving two oxen. 

Note. — Prior to Hadrian the letters are C. G. I. P. 

Valerianus. 

IMP. VALERIANVS PI. AVG. Radiate head of Valerian to r. B. C. G. IVL. H. 
PAR. Hercules naked, standing to r., and leaning on his club. 

Gallienus. 

IMP. LICINV. GALIENVS. Bust of Gallienus to r. B. C. G. I. H. PARI. PI. 
Hercules naked, adv., leaning to r. on his club. i 

'2a 



94 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 



Size 

8-7 



Weight 



IMP P. LICIN . . . Same type. ft. C. 

to r., and spearing a boar issuing from reeds. 



G. I. H. [P.] Meleager stepping 



M 



PARLAIS Lycaonise (Colonia). 

J^ote. From Ptolemy, the only author who names Parlais, we may infer that it stood not very far 

from Iconium, to the east or south-east, its name occurring in his catalogue next to that of Iconium, 
and between it and Barathra, now KarabunSr ; and as we also learn from him that Parlais was not 
in the district called in his time Antiochiana, which contained Derbe, Laranda, and Olbasa, that is to 
say, the region adjacent to, and comprehending part of, the Taurus, at the farther extremity of the 
plains of Konieh. According to the extant coins of Parlais, this Roman colony flourished in the two 
first centuries of the empire, after which time we find, from the same numismatic evidence, a 
Roman colony established in the Greek city of Iconium, possibly in consequence of the decline of 
that of Parlais. 

Annia Faustina. 



ANNIA FAVSTINA AVG. Head of Annia Faustina 
PARLAIS. Draped female figure, adv., towards I. 
resting on the ground ; in left hand, cornucopise. 



to r. R. IVL. AVG. COL. 
; in right hand, palm branch. 



M 



4 
5 + 



PERGA Pamphylise. 



M 



M 

JE 



2+ 

3 

3 



257-6 



28-7 



1 



PELT^ Phrygise. 

Note. — ^Peltte (if we may thus correct the Pella of the Tabular Itinerary) lay to the southward of 
Eumeneia, now Ishekli, and, according to Xenophon, was at the distance of a day's march from 
Celtenee (afterwards Apameia, now Dinaire). This day's march could not have been in the direction 
of Eumeneia, as it would place Peltso too near to that city. Probably, therefore, Peltse lay west of 
Apameia, which would agree with the Table, inasmuch as this Itinerary represents Pella as having 
been on or near the road from Tralles to Apameia. But to settle this question will require monu- 
mental proofs. 

Head of Pallas to r. ft. nEATHNQN. Lion seated to I. ; in field to /•., star ; in 
exergue, ANTIO . . . 

Another less perfect. 

BOYAH neATHNSiN. Veiled female head to r. B. nEATHNQN MAKeAONON. 
Winged female (Nemesis) standing to I. ; her right hand holding her tunic at 
the shoulder ; in left hand, whip ? ; at her feet, a wheel. From the Pembroke 
Collection (1248) cited ly Eckhel, iii. p. 169, and Mionnet, iv. p. 349. 



I 



iVo«e.— Perga was situated at Mortana, near the right bank of the river Cestrus, ten or twelve 
miles above its discharge into the Pamphylian Gulf. Considerable remains of ancient buildings still 
exist here, among which Sir C. Fellows mentions a theatre and a stadium. 

Head of Diana to r. ; behind the shoulder, a quiver. R. APTEMIAOS nEPPAIAS. 
Diana, in a short vest, standing to I. ; in right hand, garland ; in left hand, 
hasta, represented by a succession of dots ; at her feet, stag standing to I. and 
looking up ; above it, sphinx seated to r. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Same types and legend. 

Same type. R. Same legend and similar type, but without the sphinx. 

Another similar. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



95 



Metal 



M 



Size 



Weight 



4-3 

4 



M ' 2^ 



jR e- 



M 
M 

M 






2- 
2+ 



6 



14I)-6 



Veiled statue ? with modius on head (Diana Pergsea), seated, adv., in a shrine, or on 
a throne, in a distyle Ionic temple, with fluted columns ; in the pediment, an 
eagle, adv., with wings expanded, looking to r. R. APTEMIAOS DEPrAlAS in 
two lines ; between which, quiver and bow, en sautoir. 

Another similar, but bow alongside of quiver. 

Same type ; on the base of the shrine or throne are three small figures to I., in relief. 
R.. APTEMIAOS nEPFAIAS. Diana, in long drapery, stepping to r. ; in right 
hand, torch ; in left, bow. 

Note. — Here the goddess is represented in her two different characters on the same coin. The 
Diana of Perga seems to have differed little from that of Ephesus and Magnesia, or from the 
Samian Juno, except in being seated. They were all derived, probably, from the same Phoenician 
original. 

Head of Diana to r. R. APTEM. nEPPA. in two lines ; between which, sphinx, 
with curled wings, seated to r. 

Trajanus. 

AYTOKP. KAIC. NGP. TPAIANOC CGB. rCPMANI. Head of Trajan to r. R. All- 
MAPX, ES. YIIATOC. Bust of Diana of Perga, adv., in a distyle temple; 
below, ?. 

Hadrianus. 

KAIC. AAPIA. Head of Hadrian to r. R. nePPA. Stag, standing to I.; above, 

crescent. 
Same legend and type. R. [AP]TGMIAOC nePPAIAC. Diana, in long drapery, 

standing to r. ; right hand resting on hasta ; in left hand, bow. 

M. Aurelius. 

AYT. KAI. AYP. ANTflNINOC. Bust of M. Aurelius to r. R. nePPAIilN. Diana, 
in long drapery, adv. ; in right hand, bow ; in left, arrow. 



, . ANTflNeiNOC. 
injj to l. 



Caracalla. 
Bust of Caracalla to r. 



R. nePPAiaN. Fortune, stand- 



Julia Paula. 
lOY. [KO]P. nAY[AA Ces.] Bust of Julia Paula to r. R. nePPAIiiN. Statue or 
symbol of Diana of Perga, in distyle temple ; on either side of symbol a cippus ; 
above the cippi, on one side, a crescent ; on the other, a star. 

Tranquillina. 
CABGI. TPA[NKYAA]GIN[AN CCB]. Bust of Tranquillina to r. ; behind her 
shoulders, the two horns of a crescent. R. nCPPAinN CIAHTilN OMONOIA. 
Military figure, and female in long drapery, joining hands ; in her right hand, 
bow ? ; in his left hand, hasta. (AUiance of Perga and Side.) 

Philippus Senior. 
AY. K. M. lOYA. *IAinnOC GY. CGB. Bust of Philip to r. R. nePPAIiiN. Female, 

in long drapery, standing to I. ; in right hand, crown ; left hand holding 

drapery. 
Same legend and type. R. nCPFAIAC APTGMIAOC ACYAOY. Symbol of Diana 

of Perga in Ionic distyle temple ; to the I. of symbol, star ; to the r., crescent. 



2'i!2 



96 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal Size 



M 



M 

M 
M 



M 
M 

M 



H 



1 + 

7 



7 
7 
6 
7-fi 



Weight 



M 


1 


M 


I 


M 


5 


JE 


4 


JE 


3+ 


JE 


3 


M 


3- 


M 


3 


JE 


4^ 


JE 


2i 


JE 


4 


JE 


5-4 


JE 


H 


M 


4 


JE 


4 


JE 


H 


M 


3+ 



19 

15-4 
195 



194-2 



194-1 



193-6 



AYT. K. A. AOM. AYPHAIANOC. 
KOPiin. Similar type. 



Aurelianus. 

Bust of Aurelian to r. 



B. nePFAinN neo- 



PERGAMUM Mysiffi. . 

Note. — Pergamum continued to enjoy under the Romans that superiority over the cities of the 
interior of Asia Minor wliich it had acquired under tlie successors of Philetterus. It retains its 
ancient name in the plural form, ri Hipyafia, and preserves many remains of its former mag- 
nificence. Choiseul Gouffier (Voyage Pittoresque de la Grece, ii. c. 13) has described ruins of the 
theatre, stadium, amphitheatre, and of a large temple, which he supposed to be the Asclepieiom. 

Beardless head of Hercules, in lion's scalp, to r, B. nEPFAM. Pallas, adv., 
with modius on head ; in right hand, spear ; in left, shield. 

Another similar. 

Serpent, issuing from cista, open to I., within a wreath of ivy. R. Two serpents 
entwined round a bow-case, and raising their heads above it ; end of bow ap- 
pearing at the left-hand corner of the case ; between their heads, EY, and below 
it mon. 64 ; in field to /., mon. 65 (IIEPr.) ; in field to r., serpent twined round 
thyrsus. 

Same type, B. Same type; between serpents' heads, same mon.; above it, KT; 
in field to I., same mon. as on the preceding ; to r., same symbol. 

Same type. B. Same type ; but above the mon. 64, AI ; in field to I., same mon. 
as before ; to r., same symbol. 

Same type. B. Same type ; but above the mon. 64, BA ; in field to I., same mon. 
as before ; to r., same symbol. 

IiePrAMOG KTICTHC. Laureate bearded head to r. R. eni C[TPATHrOY] 
CiiKPATOYC . Pallas, standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ; left resting on 
shield at her feet ; behind shield, spear. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — This coin shows that at Pergamum, as in many other places in latter times, an heroic origin 
was given to the name of the place. L 

Head of Apollo to r. B. [njEPPA. Two heads of ox opposed ; between them, A. 

Same type. B. Same legend and type ; above, torch, with cup and handle. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. [ASK]AHniOY [2ii]THP02 in two lines ; between them, 

serpent coiled round the cortina, and raising its head to r. 
Another, countermarked on ohv., with head to r. 
Same type. B. ASKAHni[OY] SiiTHPOS. Serpent coiled round staff (the usual 

emblem in the right hand of Asclepius). 
Two others similar. 

Same type ; under it, AIOAilPOY. B. Same legend and type. 
Same type ; under it, EHI nEPrA[MOY]. B. Same legend and type. 
Same type and legend. B. IIEPrAMHNiiN in three lines. Eagle, with open wings, 

standing on fulmen, adv., looking to r. 
Bearded head of Hercules to r. B. nEPrAMHNaN. Serpent coiled round branch. 
Head of Pallas to r. ; on her helmet, star; below, Eni nEPFAMOY. B. Victory, 

stepping to r., and crowning the word nEPrAMHNllN. 
Another similar. 
Head of Pallas to r. ^B. AGHNAS NIKH*OPOY in two lines ; between, trophy ; in 

field, mon. 68. 
Another similar. 
Same type. B. AGHNAS NIKH+»P«Y. OmX, adv., mih spread wings, standing 

on a palm branch ; in field to I., S EP ; in field to r., AP. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type, but in field to I., A ; to r, AP. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type, but in field to I., K ; to n, S. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



97 



Metal 

M 
JE 


Size 

H 

3 


JE 


Sh 


JE 
JE 

JE 


s 

1 

3 

4 
3 


M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


Si 


JR 


^ 


M 

M 
M 


2i 


M 


^ 


M 


4 


JE 


3 


JE 


5-4 


JE 


4 


JE 


4 



Weight 



26-1 



Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field to I., mon. 67 ; to r., mon. 68. 

Head of Pallas, with plain helmet, to r. R. A0HNAS NIKH*OPOY. Owl, adv. ; 
below, mon. 65 (IIEPr) ; all in a wreath. 

Head of Pallas to I. ; her helmet surrounded with a wreath. R, IIEPrA. Two 
ox-heads opposed ; below them, fulmen. 

Head of Pallas to I. R. Same legend and type, but the fulmen above. 

Same type. B. IIEPr. Same type, without fulmen. 

Same type. B. nEPFA. Head of an ox to I. ; behind it, owl to I. 

Same type. IJ. Same legend ; same type to r. ; behind it, A. 

nEPFAMH. Head of Pallas to r. R. nEPrAMHNCSN. Naked figure, adv., arms 
extended. 

eeON CYNKAHTON. Young male head to r. R. oeAN PQMHN. Turreted fe- 
male head to r. 



Note. — Deum Senatum Romffi, Deam Romam honorant Pergameni. 

B. Same legend. Eadiate female head to r. 



in 



field. 



B. ASIA RECEPTA. Victory 



Same legend and type. 

a mon. 
Another similar. 

Augustus. 

CAESAR IMP. VII. Head of Augustus to r. 
rising from the cista, between two serpents. 

Another similar, but lighter. 

AYTOKPA .... Head of Augustus to r. ft. 06 AN PilMHN. Female bust to r. 

SEBA2T0N AHMOiilN. Augustus in military habit, adv., in a tetrastyle temple ; 
in right hand, hasta. R. 2IABAN0N nEPrAMH[NOI]. A togated figure, 
with patera in right hand (Silvanus), crowned by a military figure. 

Note. — This may be M. A. Plautius Silvanus, who was Consul B.C. 2, and Proconsul in Greece, 
as appears from a Latin coin of Augustus, struck in Cyprus. — Vide Eokhel, iii. p. 84. 

Augustus and Livia. 

CeBACTOI eni nETP(aNIOY). Bust of Augustus and of Livia opposed. R. ®eON 
CGBACTON IIEPrAMHNOI. Emperor in a military dress, standing adv., in a 
tetrastyle temple ; in right hand, hasta. 

Julia and Livia. 

lOYAIAN A*POAITHN. Head of Julia to r. R. (AIBI)AN HPAN XAPINOC. 
Head of Livia to r. 

Caius and Lucius Ccesares. 

TAION KE*AAmN. Head of Caius Caesar to r. R. AEYKION. Head of Lucius 
Caesar tor. From the Pembroke Collection (1007). 

Trajanus. 

AY. KA. NeP. TPAIANOC TCP. Head of Trajan to r. R. GIT. AN. AY. KOYA- 
APATOY. River-god reclining to I. ; in right hand, reed and cornucopise ; left 
hand supporting his head ; below, KAIKOC. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. C. Antius Aulus Julius Quadratus was consul in a.d. 1 05, the seventh year of the reign of 

Trajan. From this coin we may infer, therefore, that in the same reign he was proconsul of Asia, 
and, from the mention of the Caicus, that Pergaraum was his seat of government. 

Sabina. 

CABGINA CeBACTH. Bust of Sabina to r. R. em CTP. nOAAIilNOC KOPiiNIC 

IIEPrA. Veiled female in long drapery, adv. ; right hand to left shoulder. 



Another. 



2 J 



98 
Metal 

M 



JE 



JE 



M 



Size 

7 
3i 



Weight 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Antoninus Pius. 

ANTQ[NeiNOC]. Head of Antoninus to r. B. Gni CTP. KOYAPTOY 

[nEP]rAMH[NnN]. Hercules recumbent to L; right hand resting on club; 
in left hand, cup (?). 



Faustina Junior. 

NBA *AYCTeiNA. Head of Faustina Junior to r. B. IiePrAMUNiiN. 
in long drapery, adv. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, cista. 



Female 



M 



5 + 



JE 



4+ 



M 



Commodus. 

AYTOK. A. AY. KOMOAOC. Bust of Commodus to r. B. eni CTP. AIOAnPOY 
nePrAMHNilN. Asclepius seated to l.\ in right hand, patera; in left hand, 
hasta, with serpent entwined. 

Garacalla. 

AYT. K. M. AYP. ANTQN6IN0C. Head of Caracalla to r. ; two countermarks, 
(]) H ; (2) a head to r., before which, ce. B- AAOAIKeaN nePrAMIINQN 
OMONOIA TO in mon. IIH. Jupiter Laodicenus to r. ; Asclepius, adv., 
looking to I. 

PERPERENE Mysi». 

Note. — The position of Perperene is marked approximately in my map of Asia Minor. It is placed 
by Strabo (p. 607) inland from Cisthene, a city (ruined in his time) with a harbour, a little on the 
outside of Cape Pyrrha, which with Gargara, a town situated on an opposite promontory, 120 stades 
distant, formed the entrance of the bay of Adramyttium. There were copper mines near Perperene. 
With these several data, and the assistance of Perperenian coins, which are both autonomous and 
imperial, and extend from Nero to Gordian, the exploring traveller could hardly fail to discover the 
exact site of the city. 

©EA PilMH. Helmeted female head to r., with hasta on the left shoulder. 
B. IIEPnEPHNIiiN. Female in long drapery, with modius on the head, 
standing to I. ; right hand holding a patera over an altar with fire ; in left 
hand, torch \ 



PESSINUS Galatiffi. 

Note. — The remains of this city, so important a point for the progress of geography in Asia Minor, 
have at length been visited by M. Texier and Mr. Hamilton. They are called Balahissir, and are 
situated about ten miles to the southward of Sevrihissir. — Vide Hamilton, i. p. 438. 

Antoninus Pius. 

AY. K. A. AAPI. ANTU]. GY. CG. Head of Antoninus Pius to r. B. TAA. TO. 

neCCIN. (raXarwv ToXiarofiioyiiav TltaaLVovvriiay). River-god reCUmbent to I. 

Note — This river may be a tributary of the Sangarius, near the sources of which Pessinus stood, 
or it may be the Sangarius itself, which flows at a distance of ten or twelve miles to the south of 
Pessinus, and probably within the Pessinuntine territory. 



Another. 



Lucius Verus. 



A. K. A. OY. CGBACTOC. Head of Lucius Verus to I. B. necciNOYNTiaN. 
Female towards I., with modius on head ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, 
cornucopise. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



99 



Melal Size Weight 



M 
JE 
JE 



M 



M 



M 

M 

JE 
M 



2 
2 



+ 



4+ 
3+ 
7 



39-6 



PHANAGORIA Bospori. 



iV^ote.— The chief city on the Asiatic side of the Cimmerian Strait. Its remains at Taman have 
been described by Clarke (Travels in Russia, &c.). 

Head of Diana to r. ; behind, bow and quiver. R. 4ANAr. Stag lying to I. 
Head of Pan to r. R. *A. Bow and arrow. 
Another similar. 

PHASELIS Lycijje. 

iV^o(e.— The remains of Phaselis at Tekrova, on the eastern coast of Lycia, have been described by 
Beaufort (Karamania, p. 59). 

Head of Apollo to r. ; two long ringlets hanging over the neck ; behind which 
are the ends of a bow and quiver. R. *ASHAI. Lyre between a fulmen and a 
torch with cup and handle ; all in quad, incus. From the Pembroke Collection 
(919), cited hy Eckhel, iii. p. 6. 



PHILADELPHEIA Lydise. 

iVbJe.— Philadelpheia (by the Turks called Allah Sheh^r) preserves among the Greeks its earlier, 
though, probably, not its most ancient, appellation. The present name it received from Attains II., 
who was surnamed Philadelphus from his constant affection towards his brother and predecessor 
Eumenes. Eumeneia, as we have already seen, furnishes another example of that characteristic of 
Attalus II., which is indicated by his surname. 

AHM[OS]. Diademate beardless head to r., in dotted circle. B. *IAAA6A<I>ei2N. 
Half-draped figure recumbent to I. ; right hand resting on right knee ; left 
hand pouring water from a vase ; below, IIHrH. From the Pembroke Collection 
(1128), cited by Eckhel, iii. p. Ill, and Mionnet, iv. p. 100. 

Note. — Although this coin is somewhat worn, a comparison of the head and neck of the recumbent 
figure, with the bearded and masculine types of rivers in general, leaves little doubt that it was in- 
tended for the nymph who presided over a certain liriyri, or spring of water, held in peculiar honour 
by the people of Philadelpheia, perhaps for some wonderful virtues which were attributed to it. 
The figure differs, moreover, from the usual types of rivers, in having no symbol in the right hand. 
This fountain could not have been one of the sources of the river Cogamus, which are in a distant 
part of Mount Tmolus. May it not then have been the source which Chandler describes in the 
following words, " Going a little up the Cogamus, between the mountains, in the bank on the right 
hand is a spring of a purgative quality, much esteemed and resorted to in the hot months. It 
tasted like ink, is clear, and tinges the earth with the colour of ochi-e" (Travels in Asia Minor, 
8vo, p. 249). 

WAAAGA^GflN. Head of Diana to r. ; behind, quiver. B;. *IAAAeA*eflN. 

Radiate figure of Apollo naked, standing to r., in the act of discharging an 

arrow. Electrotype from the B. M. 
Same type ; below it, a sprig of ivy. B. *IAAAEA*EiiN EPMinnos APXIEPEYS. 

Apollo in long drapery; in right hand, plectrum; in left, lyre (Musagetes). 

Electrotype from the B. M. 
Z6YC KOPY*A[IOC]. Head of Jupiter to r. B. (GDI A. nOAAIA)NOY *IAA- 

AGAiGQN. Fortune standing to I. Conf. Mionnet, Sup. vii. p. 398. 
Head of Jupiter to r. B. *IAAAEA*EII1N. Lyre with three strings ; above, 

IIA in mon. ; below, bipennis ; all in a wreath of bay. 
AHMOC *IAAA6A*eaN Nei2K. Diademate beardless head to r. B. K(ai) CMYP- 

NAIiiN r. NGSiKOPiiN OMONOIA, Cybele seated to I. ; in right hand, 

patera ; in left hand, cornucopise ; left arm on tympanum ; at her feet, lion. 



100 
Metal 

JE 



M 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



M 



iE 



M 



Size 
5 



El. 


H 


EI. 


1 


M 


4 


JE 


4 


JE 


3- 


JE 


H 



Weight 



39-8 



Domiiia. 

AOMITIA [AYrOYCTA]. Bust of Domitia to r. ft. *IAAA6A*eiiN in three lines 
within a wreath. 

Vespasiamts. 

OYEEnAEIANOr KVICAP. Head of Vespasianus to r. ft. EHI . . . nOHA. EPMIOY 
KAI HPilAOY *AABI(OY) ««IAAAE(\9£wi'). Jupiter Aetophorus standing to 
I. i before him, altar with fire. 

Ploiina. 

IIAiiXeiNA ceSACTH. Radiate head of Plotina to r. ft. *IAAAeA*eaN A. 
in four lines, in a wreath. 

Gordianus Senior, 

AYT. K. M. ANT. roPAIANOC. Bust of Gordian to r. ft. *A. *IA. NeOK. 
KAI (in mon.) CMYP. r. NeaK. OMO. eni MAPK. AP. A. TO (in mon.) B. 
(^Xaov'ioiv ^tXa^e\<l>iiDy Ntwuxipwv Kai Ijfivpyai(i)v rpiQ HebiKopuiv ofiuyoia' ivi Mapmv 
fijuj^ovroc npitTov to Bivrepov. Fortune standing to I. 



PHILIPPOPOLIS ArabijE. 

Note. — PhilippopoIiB was founded by the emperor from whom its name was derired, and who was 
a native of the neighbouring Bostra, the chief town of the Hauran or Auranitis. The site of Philip- 
popolis is fixed at German, about twelve miles east of Bostra, by means of inscriptions copied there 
by Burckhardt. Vide my Preface to Barckhardt's Syria, p. xii., and the Journal, p. 98. 



I 



PMlippm Senior. 
AYTOK. K. M. lOYAI. *IAinn0C CCB. Head of Philip Senior to r. ft. *IA1 
nonOA[ITaN] KOAiiNlAC. Rome seated on armour to I. ; on right hand, 
eagle, on which are two small figures ; in left hand, hasta ; in field, S. C. 



PHILOMELIUM Phrygise. 

Note. — The indubitable evidence given by Arundel (i. pp. 236, 268) as to the position of Apollonia 
of Pisidia at Oloburlu, and of Antiocheia of Pisidia at Yalobatch, combined with the remark of 
Strabo, that Philomelium stood on the northern side of the same mountains on the southern side of 
which was Antiocheia, leaves little or no question as to Philomelium, which seems clearly to have 
occupied not the site of Ilglin, as from the imperfect information accessible in 1822 I had supposed, 
but that of Ak-Shehtfr. 

Severus Alexandrm. 



i 



Ce-Y. AAeiANAPOG. Head of Severus Alexander to r. ft. *IAOMH- 

AGQN eni HAYAOY AAPIA[NOY]. Horseman riding to r. ; in right hand, 
spear. Conf. Mionnet, iv. p. 350, 



PHOO^A Ioni». 

Ram's head to I. ; below, seal (phoca). ft. Irregular quad, incus. 

Lion's head to ^. ; above, phoca. ft. Same type. Electrotype from the B.M. 

*iiKeA. Turreted female bust to r. ft. *iiKAieilN. Wolf or dog to r., seizing 

a dolphin. 
Two others similar. 

Same legend and type. ft. Gryffon (ypuv^) standing to I., the right fore paw raised. 
Head of Mercury to I. ft. BOIOTIOS. Gryffon running to I. 



\ 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



101 



Metal 

JE 

M 
M 



Size 

4 

I 
6i 



Weight 



JE 

M 
JE 



H 



H 



JR 

JE 
M 
JE 
M 



2 

4i 
4 

u 



53-4 



Same type. R. Half gryffon to I. ; legend defaced. 

Bearded head to r. B. Fore-part of gryffon to r. ; before it, trident. 

lePA CYNKAHTOC. Diademate beardless bust to r. B. eil. G(rparj)yov) M. AYP. 

©eOAOCIANOY *aK. Pallas standing to I.; in right hand, patera; in left 

hand, spear and shield. 

Note. — The temple of Minerva at Phocfea was among the most ancient in Greece (Pausan. 
Corinth. 31). In the sixth century B.C. it was burnt by Harpagus the Mede. M. Aur. Theodosianus 
was Prsetor of Phoc^a in the reign of Severus Alexander (see the coins in Mionnet iii. p. 183, Sup. vi. 
p. 293). 

PITANE Mysiffi. 

Note. — Pitane is described by Strabo (p. C14) as a town with a double harbour, as watered by a 
river named Evenus, and as situated at a distance of thirty stades from the right bank of the Caicus. 
In all these particulars it agrees with Sandarlik, which now gives name to the gulf formerly named 
the Elseatic. Vide Admiralty Chart, No. 1665. 

Head of Jupiter Ammon to r. R. Pentagon, or figure of five points, joined by six 
lines ; between the angles, the letters niTAN. 

Another similar, but without letters. 

Head of Jupiter Ammon, adv. R. niTANAmN. Serpent twined round cortina, 
and raising its head to r. ; in field, pentagon. 

Note. — The head of Jupiter Ammon on the coins of Pitane leads to the suspicion that it may have 
been one of the cities on the .lEolic coast called Egyptian, though Xenophon has named only 
Cyllene and Larissa. We have seen that on the coast of Caria there were two cities, Myndus 
and lasus, which had Egyptian types {vide supra under Larissa and Myndus). The pentagon was a 
symbol of the worship of ^Esculapius. Lucian (de lapsu inter salutem) calls the pentagon a 
■KiVTaypaftfiov, describes it as a TpnrXovv Tpiywvov, and adds that among the Pythagoreans it was 
named 'Yyt'eia. It is probably with reference to Pythagorean doctrines that it is found on coins of 
Nola and Nuceria. In later times it became an amulet of the Gnostics. 

PLAEASA Cariaj. 

Note. — Plarasa, by its plural termination in ea, like Mylasa, Bargasa, and other places in the 
south-western quarter of Asia Minor, is thus associated with the ancient cities of Caria, and was pro- 
bably for ages an independent state, though it has not left us any coins when in that condition. In 
the second century prior to the Christian sera, Plarasa had declined so much, as well as its neighbour 
Aphrodisias, that they agreed to form one community under the name of that of the nXapaaeie 
and 'A^po^ifftttf, of which joint community many coins are now extant. Probably the site of Plarasa 
was then abandoned, for it is evident that the joint people dwelt at Aphrodisias. Ruins of the temple 
of Venus, which in an edict of M. Antonius, of the year 34 n.c, confirmed by a decree of the Senate 
three years afterwards (ap. Chishull, Antiq. Asiat. p. 152), is styled "the temple of Venus in the 
city of the Plaraseis and Aphrodisieis," are still in existence, and have been described in the Ionian 
Antiquities of the Society of Dilettanti, ii. c. 2, together with many other proofs, fully confirmed by 
the coins of Aphrodisias, of the great importance of this city during the whole course of the Roman 
empire. About the reign of Augustus, the name of Plarasa became obsolete, and is never found 
on coins or insariptions after his time. 

Veiled female head to r. ft. HPAIOS HPAIOY [nAAPASE]iiN KAI A*P[OAI- 

SIEiiN]. Eagle on fulmen to I. 
A cuirass, within a linear circle. B. IIAAPA. A*PO. Bipennis. 
Head of Venus? to r. B. HAAP. A*POAI. Eagle on fulmen to r. 
Same type countermarked with a bunch of grapes. B. Same legend and type. 
riAA. Bipennis. [A*PO]. B- Cuirass in quad, incus. 

PBENASSUS Cariffi. 

Note. — This name, written Prinassus in a fragment of the sixteenth book of Polybius (c. 11), 
appears to have stood on the coast of Caria, between Miletus and lassus. 

2 c 



102 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 



Size 

2 



Weight 



JE 
M 



5 
4 



M 



JE 
JE 
JE 

M 



3 

2^ 

2 

5 



M 



JE 



Sphinx, with curled wings, and crowned with modius, seated to r. R. ANAPON 
nPEN. Warrior, in a short tunic, standing to I. ; right hand extended ; in left 
hand, hasta. 

Another similar. 

Note.— In bearing an Egyptian type, the coins of Prenassns resemble those of the neighbouring 
cities Mjudus and lasus. 

PRIAPUS Mysi^. 

Note. — The advantageous position of this place on a harbour of the Mysian coast, at about a third 
of the distance from Parium to Cyzicus, accounts for its having flourished, according to the evidence 
of its coins, both autonomous and imperial, during a long course of years. The deities worshipped 
here, were Ceres, Apollo, Diana, and Bacchus. 

Veiled head of Ceres to r., in wreath of corn. Tjc. nPIAnHNSiN. Stag standing 

to r. ; in field to r., cista enveloped by a serpent. Electrotype from the B. M. 
Head of Apollo to r. R. Same legend. Lobster or shrimp to r. ; below, ? Electro- 



type from the B. M. 



PRIENE loniffi. 



Note. — The ruins of Priene at Samsun-Kfilesi have been visited by two missions of the Society of 
Dilettanti, and described in their works. Vide Chandler, Travels in Asia Minor, c. 48, and the 
Ionian Antiquities. The principal building was the temple of Mmerva Polias, burnt by Xerxes and 
restored by Alexander the Great, whose inscription recording the fact is still in existence among the 
ruins. The Ephesians, we know, refused him this honour. Pausanias mentions the statue of 
Minerva in her temple at Priene as among the most remarkable objects in Ionia. The pre-eminence 
given to this goddess, as well in the buildings as on the coins of Priene, was due to its having 
been a colony from Athens under a son of one of its kings, and, as at Athens, Neptune there re- 
ceived honours second only to those of Pallas. Subsequently Priene was colonized from Thebes, and 
hence coins are extant with the name Cadme, but still with Athenian types. 

Head of Pallas to r. E. IIPIH. AIONY. in a wreath symbolical of the windings 

of the Maeander. Frmn the Pembroke Collection (994) cited by Eckhel, ii. 

p. 536. 

Same type. R. nPI. AMYN. in similar wreath. 
Same type. B. IIPIH. Ayi;Aro(pac) in similar wreath. 

Owl standing to ^. R EIIAI . Trident in similar wreath. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. IIPIH. AXIAAEIAHS in three lines ; owl, adv., standing on 

a diota lying on its side ; above, in field to 1.., star ; to r., ? ; all in a wreath of 

olive. 

PRUSA Bithyni^. 

Note. — Prusa irpoj 'OXiixicif or diro 'OXi/nrot; still preserves its ancient name, which is probably 
indigenous or earlier than the advent of the Greelis into this country. The name of Pruaiaa I. was 
derived from it. The same king of Bithynia, on receiving Cius, an ancient settlement of the Mile- 
sians on the neighbouring coast, from Philip, son of Demetrius, who had besieged and taken it, 
changed its name to Prusias; and he, or his son Prusias II., named a second Prusias on the river 
Hypius. The people of the three cities were distinguished as IIP0YSAEI2: nP0Y2IEI2 irpoc 
QoKdaay, or aVo BaXdaatis, and IIPOYSIEIS Trpig "Tjriy, or otto 'Xiriov. 



Commodus. 
Head of Commodus to r. 



R. nPOYEAEQN. Hexa- 



AYT. AYPHAI. KOMMOAOC 

style temple, adv. 

Julia Domna. 
lOYAIA AOMNA CGB. Head of Julia Domna to r. R, nPOYEAEiiN. Neptune 

standing to r. ; left foot on rock ; in right hand, trident ; in left hand, dolphin. 



* 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



103 



Metal 



Size 

6 
6 



Weight 



M 



6 



M 



M 



4+ 



M 



M 



Caracalla. 
AY, K. M. AYP. ANTiiNINOC CGB. Head of Caracalla to r. R. nPOYEAeSiN. Ajax 
kneeling on right knee to l, and piercing himself with his sword ; below, shield. 
Same legend and type. R. Same legend, but the final N in exergue. Same type. 

PRYMNESSUS Phrygia. 

NoU.—The site of Prymnessua has not been determined; but, as the Prymnessii appear from 
the following coins to have honoured Midas as their founder, there is a presumption that Prym- 
nessus stood in or near that central part of Phrygia which was watered by the Thymbres, and 
that the river alluded to on one of these coins is the Thymbres. We have, indeed, in the Corpus 
Inscriptionum of Boeckh, Nb. 3818, a marble, copied by a Russian traveller at Seid-el-Ghazi, on 
which the name of the IIpu/ivijffiTttf occurs; but as the evidence of Steuart is supported by the 
Tabulai- Itinerary, in showing Seid-el-Gliazi to have been the site of Nacoleia, we can only regard 
the Prymnesaian marble as having been brought thither with other building materials, from the 
site of Prymnessua, which stood probably in that part of the valley of the Pursek (Thymbres) which 
is nearest to Seid-el-Ghazi. 

-MIAAC. Head of Midas in Phrygian bonnet, to r. ft. IIPYMNHCCGnN. River- 
god reclining to I. Electrotype from the B. M, 

MIAAO BACIAeYC. Same type. ft. nPYMNHOCIG. Female with modius on 
head, in long drapery, towards I. ; in right hand, scales ; in left hand, a poppy- 
head and ears of corn. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — Thia Prymnessian goddess seems analogous to the Nemesis of some other cities, her attri- 
butes inculcating that justice and prosperity are allied. 

Augustus. 

SEBA2T0S. Head of Augustus to r. ft. KAIKIAIOS nAOKAMOS. Male figure 
to r. ; in right hand, scales ; in left, two ears of corn ; below, in two lines, 
nPYMNHSSEiiN. 

Nero. 

nPYMNHSSEIS [NEPilNA KAI2APA]. Head of Nero to r. ft. EHI KAAYAIOY 
MI0PIAATOY. Beardless figure in long drapery, wearing a round helmet or 
cap ; in right hand, balance ; in left liand, two ears of corn. 

PTOLEMAIS Phceniciffi, 
Antiochus VIII. and his mother Cleopatra. 

Heads of Antiochus and Cleopatra to r. ft. ANTIOXEilN TON EN nTOAEM[AIAI]. 
Cornucopise. 

Note. — Alcka is one among many places in Egypt and Syria which have preserved their indi- 
genous names from the earliest ages to the present time, although during centuries better known 
by their Greek names. Akka, the moat influential point on the Syrian coast, has always been an 
object of ambition to the government of Egypt. Ptolemy Philadelphus, when in possession of it, gave 
it the name Ptolemais. After it had been recovered by the Seleucidse, Antiochus IV. planted a colony 
in it, >vhom he called 'Avrioxf^Q iv ry IlroXf/iaiJi. Coins of this people with the head of An- 
tiochus IV. are extant, as well as with those of Antiochua VIII. and Cleopatra; one of the latter 
has the date 189 (of the Seleucidse), which was two years after she had shut the gates of Ptolemais 
against her husband Demetrius II., and thus caxised his death at Tyre. 



PYRNUS sive GYRNUS Caris. 

Radiate head of Apollo, adv. ft. rYPNHilN. Bivalve shell, similar to that of the 
Italian Cum£e. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note.— The radiate adverse head of Apollo agrees with the testunony of Pliny and Stephanus, 
from whom we learn that Pyraus was in the Rhodian Pereea. 



104 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


JE 


6h 




JE 


6i 




M 


6i 




M 


6i 




M 


7 




M 


6| 




M 


2 


31 


M 


4i 




iE 


3 




JE 


3-2 





EHESAINA Mesopotamia. 

Note,— It is not known at what time this town, which, like Nesibi, is situated at one of the sources 
of the Chaboras, now Khabur, became Greek, and hellenized the Arabic name which it still bears, 
Ras-Ain, the fountain-head, into PHSAINA. The earliest coins extant are of Caracalla; his suc- 
cessor, Severus Alexander, added to its population a Roman colony of the third legion. 

Severus AUxandnis. 

cer OG ce B. Head of Severus Alexander to r. 

R. cen. KOA. PHCAINHCIUJN L.ni.P. (LegioTertiaParthica). Draped figure 
driving two oxen to r. ; above, eagle with spread wings ; below, river-god 
swimming to r, 

Trajanui Decius. 

AYT. K. r. MG. KY. AGKIOC TPAlANOC ceB. Radiate head of Trajanus Decius to 
r. R. cen. KOA. PHCAINHCIIUN L. III. P. Draped figure to r., in left 
hand, hasta, driving two oxen to r. ; above, eagle, with open wings, adv. ; in 
beak, garland ; in exergue, river-god swimming to r. 

Arr. KAI. TAI. MeC. KY. TPA. AGKIOC CCB. Same type. R. cen. PHGAINH- 
CIHN L. III. P. Distyle temple with five columns in the flank ; in the portico, 
an owl ; below, river-god swimming to r., with a branch in each hand. 

AYT, K. r. MG. KY. AGKIOG TPA Same type. B. CGn. KOA. PHCAINII- 

CIHN L. 'II. P. Female, with modius, standing to I. ; in left hand, cornu- 
copise ; in right hand, patera, held over an altar with fire ; above, eagle, stand- 
ing to r. with open wings ; in field, palm-branch. 

AYT. KAI. TAI. MGC. KY. TPA. AGKIOG C6B. Radiate head of Trajanus Decius 
to I. R. Same legend. Two females, veiled and turreted, opposed, and joining 
right hands over an altar with fire ; between them, above, eagle on fulmen, with 
open wings, looking to I. ; in field to I., small statue on column ; in field to r., 
Sagittarius ; in exergue, river-god swimming to r. 

Etruicilla. 

GPGNNIA GTPOYCKIAAA CGB. Diademate bust of Etruscilla to r. ; behind the 
shoulders, crescent. B. CGH. KOA. PHCAINHCIIUN L. III. P. Same types as 
the last. 

RHODIA sive RHODIAPOLIS Lycise. 

Head of Apollo to r. B. AYKIilN PC. Lyre ; all in quad, incus. Electrotype 
from the B. M. 

Note. — This silver coin resembles those of Araxa, Cragus, Massicytus, Myra, Patara, Podalia, 
Tlos, Xanthus, Trabala, Limyra, in weight, fabric, and legend ; they are illustrative of the Lycian 
confederacy, as described by Strabo. The remains of Rhodiapolis are described by Spratt, i. p. 182 ; 
ii. p. 278. 

SAGALASSUS Pisidia. 

Note. — The great ruins of Sagalassus, near the sources of the Cestrus, have been described by 
Arundell, ii. p. 33, and by Hamilton, i. p. 487. Imperial coins of Sagalassus are extant, on one of 
which a river-god is represented, with the name K6CTP0G ; on another, a hero is seizing the horns 
of a bull, between the legs of which is KeCTPOC. 

Head of Jupiter to r. ; behind, I B. 2A. Victory to r. ; in right hand, wreath ; in 

left hand, palm-branch. 
Head of Pallas to r. B. SAFAAASSE. Similar type. 

Hadrianus. 
KAIC. AAPI. Head of Hadrian to r. R. GAFAA. Beardless head in Phrygian 
cap to r.; behind the shoulders, crescent (Lunus). 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



105 



IMetal 

I JE 



Size 

7i 



Weight 



M 



M 



M 



M 



Diadumenianus. 
KAI. M. onCA. ANTflNINOC AIAAOYMeNIANOC. Bust of Diadumenianus to r. 
B^. AAKGAAIMiiN. CArAAAACCeilN. Emperor, in military dress, standing to 
I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, hasta ; crowned by a female, having 
in left hand cornucopise and palm-branch. From the Pembroke Collectimi 
(1133). 

iVo«e.— The connexion between Sparta and Sagalassus, indicated by this coin, warrants the conjec- 
ture that Isbarta, a Turkish town a few miles to the northward of the ruins of Sagalassus, derived 
its name from the Lacuniau capital. 



AY. K 



Claudius Gothicus. 
C. M. AY. KAAYAION. Bust of Claudius Gothicus to r. ; countermark, eagle 
R. CArAAACCetUN. Apollo seated to l.; left hand resting on lyre, whicli 
stands upon a cippus. 



JE 



M 



M 



4+ 



10- 



M 



4-3 

4.1 



SAITTiE Lydiffi. 

i\ro««.— Saittte may be said to preserve its ancient name, the Turkish SidSs (Kilesi), being nothing 
else than Saittoe in the usual Romaic form of the third case (Hamilton, Asia Minor, ii. p. 143). It 
was situated between the Hermus and the Hyllus, and its territory extended probably to both those 
rivers, as both their names occur on the coins of Saittte. 

lePA CYN]KAHTOC. Beardless male head to r. B. CAlTTHNaN. Draped figure 
standing to I. ; in right hand, branch ; in left hand, ? 

Otacilia, 

SiTAK. C6BHPA. €6. Bust of Otacilia to r. R. CAITTHNQN YAAOC. River- 
god (Hyllus) seated on the ground to I. ; in right hand, reed ; in left hand, 
cornucopise, resting on a vase from which water flows. 

PMlippus Junior. 

lOYAI. *IAinn0C K. Bust of Philip Junior to r. R. CAITTHNON. Pallas 
standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ; the left hand resting on shield, near 
which is a spear. 



M 



M, 



SALA PhrygijE. 

Note. — Sala is named only by Ptolemy, from whom it would appear to have stood in the country 
(almost blank in our maps) which lies to the eastward of the Cibyratis, and not far from Themi- 
Bonium, anotlier town of which imperial coins are extant, and of which we learn from the Tabular 
Itinerary that it stood in the road from Perga to Laodiceia ad Lycum. 

CAAHNilN. Bust of Pallas tor. R. eni r. 0[YAA. ANA]PONeiKOY. Cybele seated 
to I. ; in right hand, globe ; left arm resting on tympanum. 

Note. — C. Valerius Androneicus was governor of Sala in the reign of Hadrian. Vide Mionnet, 
Sup. vii. p. 613. 

Laureate beardless head to r. R. em AIO*ANTOY AP- 
Paludate figure on horseback moving to r. 

Antinous, 

Head of Antinous to r. R. CAAHNflN [em AA]MA. APX, 
Bacchus half-draped, with his legs crossed, leaning on a column, to r. ; in right 
hand, bunch of grapes ; in left hand, diota. 



CAAHNiiN AHMOC. 
XONTOC TO r 



HPiiC ANTINOOC. 



S AMOS ATA Oommagenes, 
Note. — Samosata, the capital of Commagene, situated on the Euphrates, twenty geographical miles 
north of Orfa (Edessa), preserves its ancient name, and comparatively its ancient importance. 

Bearded head to r. R. EAMOEATID . . Lion stepping to r. 
Similar type. R. EAMOEATUJN. Same type. 

2 d 



106 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



JE 
M 

M 






M 

JE 



M 



Size 
4- 



4 

4 

5i 



Weight 



6+ 

6 
6 



8i 
7h 



7i 



M 



Lion stepping to r. B. . . KOEv . OVEOE. Turreted female, seated on a rock, 
to r. ; in right hand, branch. 

Hadrianm. 

AAPIANOC CeBACTOG, Head of Hadrian to r. R. <I>AA. CAMO, MHTPO. KOM. 

in four hnes, in a wreath of oak. 
Another similar. 

Antoninus Pius. 

AYTO. KAI. TI. AIA. AAPI. ANXaNeiNOC CGB. CYCe. Head of Antoninus Pius to 
r. R. *. CAMOC. leP. ACY. AYTONO. MHTP. KOM. (*\aovioc Sa^oirareW 
Jtpdc iiavKov avTovofiov ^r/TpoiruXewQ Ko^/uayr/vi/c). Turreted female, Seated on 
rock, to I. ; in right hand, ears of corn ; in left hand, palm-branch ; below, 
river-god swimming to r. (Euphrates.) 

Lucius Venis. 

A. K. A. AYP. OYHPOC CGB. Head of Lucius Verus to I. R. *, CAM. ICP. ACY. 
AY. MHTP. KOM. Similar type. 

Septimius Severus, 

cen. ceOYH Head of Septimius Severus to ?. R 

eUJN THC MH Two veiled and turreted female busts opposed. 

Legend effaced. Same type. R OUO. *AA, CAMO. Same type. 

Philippus Senior , 

AYTOK. K. M. lOYAI. *IAinnOC CCB. Laureate bust of Philip to r. R. *a. 
CAMOCATeUJN MHTPO. KOM. Veiled and turreted female seated to I, on 
rocks ; on right hand, eagle with open wings ; below, Pegasus running to I. 

Same legend and type. R. 4>A. CAMOCATCIUN MHTPOH, KOM. Same type. 

AYTOK. K. M. lOYAI. *IAin. CGB. Radiate bust of Philip to r. R. *A. CAMO- 
CATetUN MHTP. KOM. Veiled and turreted female seated on rocks to I.; on 
her right hand, in which are ears of corn, stands an eagle with open wings, 
adv., looking to r. ; below, river-god swimming to r. 

AYTOK. K. M. lOYAI. *IAinn0C CGB. Laureate bust of Philip to r. R. CA- 



MOC ATCilN. Similar 
Pegasus running to I. 



type, but without the eagle, and instead of river, 



SANDALIUM Pisidise. 

Note. — Sandalium having been described by Strabo as a fortified place situated between Cremna 
and Sagalassus, both ascertained points, will probably be recognised hereafter by its remains. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. SAMAAAl. Three crescents, in which and in the intervals 
between them are six of these letters ; the A added in the margin. Electrotype 
from the B. M. 

Note. — The only coin of Sandaliam known to Mionnet (iii. p. 517) differs only from this in being 
of the fourth size, and in having four crescents instead of three — with the letters £AMAAAI. 

SARDES Lydise. 

Note. — Sardes preserves its ancient name, and has been described by a succession of travellers, 
from whom may be gathered the degree of destruction which the monuments of a civilized age 
Buffer from barbarians in the course of a century, though Sardes, being surrounded by a most depopu- 
lated country, may be said to be favourably situated in this respect. The temple oiKv^ij^r), on account 
of the value of its materials, has chiefly suffered. Six columns and a part of the cella were standing 
in 1750, now only two columns, but happily no considerable excavations have yet been made by the 
masons, such as have carried away even the foundations of the temple of Jupiter at Olympia ; and the 
temple of Sardes, having been erected in a low situation, where the alluvium has accumulated to 
near half the height of the columns, we may still hope to discover many interesting particulars of 
this unique specimen of the Ionic architecture of the sixth or seventh century B.C. For a description 
of the ruin, by Mr. Cockerel!, see my Asia Minor, p. 342. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



107 



Metal 

El. 


Size 


Weight 

39-8 


EI. 


n 


39-7 


M 


7 


192-8 


M 


5 




JE 


6-5 




JE 
JE 


5 
3 




M 
JE 


3 
3 
3 

4- 




JE 
JE 
JE 
JE 


2^ 
3 

4 




JE 


4 




M 


4 




£ 


3 




JE 


H 




JE 


7 




M 


6 




M 


6 





B. Ir- 



li. CAPAIANiiN. 
Electrotype from 



B. 

left 



SAPAIANttN 
hand, shield 



Fore-part of lion lying to r. 
mon. 55 ; within a wreath. 



behind, 



Head of Omphale covered with the lion's scalp ; behind the shoulder, club. 

regular quad, incus. 
Another similar, 

iVo(«.— Ompliale was said to have been daughter of the Heracleid king of Lydia, Jardaniis, whose 
capital was Sardes. Omphale, by the influence of Eros, wore the club and lion's skin of Hercules 
while he handled the distaff. Eckhel thus describes a coin of the Vienna Cabinet ; iE 3 ; Caput 
Herculis nudum. Rev. CAPAIANQN. Omphale gradiens cum Herculis omni cultu. 

Serpent emerging from a cista half open to ?., within a wreath of ivy leaves and 
berries. B. SAP. Two serpents with tails entwined round a decorated bow- 
case, and rising on each side of it ; in field to r., statue of Jupiter on a base ; 
in his right hand, branch ; between the serpents' heads, mon. 70. 

rMilAOC. Head of Tmolus crowned with vine leaves to r. 
Bacchus seated to I. ; in right hand, vase ; left hand to head, 
the Pembroke Collection (1124). 

Head of Diana to r. ; behind the neck, bow and quiver. 

APO AIOM, Pallas Nicephorus standing to I. ; in 

and spear. 

Same type. B. SAPAIANflN fiTENO Same type. 

Head of Hercules, with lion''s skin about the neck, to r. B- SAPAIANflN. Apollo 
naked, standing to I. ; in right hand, eagle ; in left hand, branch ; all within a 
wreath. 

Same type. B- Same legend and type, but in field to I., mon. 71. 

Another, but in field to I., mon, 72. 

Another, but in field to ^., AY . . . MH. 

Female head to r. B. SAPAIANiiN 
mon. 73. 

Similar type. B- SAPAlANiiN. Club: 

Another similar, monogram indistinct. 

Another similar. 

CAPAIC. Veiled and turreted female 
Seated statue, in long drapery, adv. 

06 A PiiMH. Helmeted bust of Rome, with right breast bare, to r. B. CAP- 
AIANiiN B. NeiiKOPilN. Naked bearded figure seated on rock to I., with 
drapery across his lap ; right hand on vine ; left arm resting on knotted 
curved club. 

Augustus, 
EBA2. . . Head of Augustus to r. B. AIOAilPOS EPMO*IAO. SAPAIANQN. 
Laureate bearded figure in long drapery to I. ; in right hand, ?. 

Claudius. 
KAIGAP ce. KAAYAIOS. Head of Claudius to I. B- CAPAIANQN. Bearded 
head of Hercules to I. 

Marcus Aurelius. 

M. AYPHAIOC KAICAP . . . Beardless head of Marcus Aurelius, with paluda- 
mentum, to r. B. eni NGIKOMAXOY GAPAIANON. Caduceus with small 
wings. 

Caracalla. 

AYT. KAI. M. AYP ANTiiNeiNOO. Head of Caracalla to r. B. CAPAIANiiN 
B. Ne iiKOPiiN. Fortune standing adv., towards I. 

Gordianus Junior. 

AYT. K. M. ANT. TOPAIANOC. Bust of Gordian to r. B. Same legend. Draped 

figure of Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I. 
Same legend and type. B. Same legend. Pallas Nicephorus standing to r. ; at 

feet, shield. 



head to r. B. CAPAIANiiN NCiiKOPii . . 
; in field to r., ear of corn ; to left, poppy. 



108 

Metal 

JE 
JE 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Size 

7 

7 



Weight 



M 

JE 



4 
4-3 

9i 



58-5 



58-7 



i 



Salonina. 

CAAQN. XPYCOrONH C. Bust of Salonina to r. ft. en. POY<I>OY ACIAP(xov) 

CAPMANQN r. NeSiKOPiiN. Symbol of Proserpine on a table. 
Another similar. 



SCEPSIS Troadis. 



i 






5-4 

4 

7-6 



Note. — The site of Scepsis has not been determined, although it is the most interesting point in 
the Troas, as having been the capital of a Dardanian kingdom during several of the centuries inter- 
vening between tlie destruction of Troy and the time of Alexander, and not less interesting from its 
connexion with a part of the literary history of Greece as related by Strabo (p. 608). According to the 
geographer, Palcescepsis stood in the upper region of Ida, below Polichna and above Cebren, at a 
distance of thirty stades from the iEsepus, consequently on the eastern side of Ida. The Scepsis of 
his time was sixty stades below the ancient position. 

SKIM'ION. Seahorse to r., as on coins of Larapsacus. B. Palm tree ; below it, 
on either side, a stem with grapes ; all within a linear and a dotted square, and 
in quad, incus. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Same legend and type. B. Same type, but in field to I., N, and no vines. Electro- 
type from the B. M. 

Same type to I. IJi. The letters SK below the branches of a tree in a rectangle ; 
in field to ^., thyrsus with ribbons ; in field to r., H, in line with SK. 

Caracalla. 

. . . KAI. M. AYPHA. ANTQNINOC. Bust of Caracalla to r. Juno half draped, 
with sceptre in right hand ; Venus naked, with legs crossed ; Pallas helmeted 
and in long drapery ; all to r., opposed to Cupid standing on a rock, and holding 
torch ? in right hand ; above him, Paris on the top of a tree ; above, 
^A?{iaviu)v). In exergue, SKH^iaN Electrotype. 

Note. — This coin, which shows that the Scepsians placed the scene of the judgment of Paris in 
their territory, accords with the position of Scepsis towards the sources of the ^sepus, as indicated 
by Strabo, for that river originates on the eastern side of the same summit of Ida from which the 
Mendere, or ancient Simoeis, flows in a north-westerly direction. This highest point of Ida rises, as 
the geographer remarks, immediately above the site of Antandrus ; and he adds, that it was called 
Alexandria, because it was said to have been the scene of the judgment of Paris (p. 60C). On the 
reverse of an Imperial coin (Mionnet, Sup. v. p. 580) is the word lAH ; the reverse of another in the 
B. M. represents Jupiter Aetophorus, with the legend ZGTC lAAIOC ; all tending to show that 
Scepsis was near the summit of Ida. 

SEBASTE Phrygi*. 

Note. — The position of this Sebaste, known only as a town of the Phrygia Pacatiana of the 
lower empire, has been fixed at Sidjekler, fifteen geographical miles to the northward of Eumeneia 
(Ish^kli), by Mr. W. I. Hamilton (Asia Minor, i. p. 121). 

Head of Bacchus to r., crowned with ivy, and with chlamys round the neck. R. [ce]- 

BACTHNilN. Veiled female in long drapery (Ceres?) standing to I. ; in right 

hand, three ears of corn or poppies? ; in left hand, hasta. 
Head of Lunus to r., with Phrygian bonnet, and crescent behind the shoulders. 

B. CeBACTHNilN. Helmeted female in long drapery, adv., looking to I. ; 

in left hand, patera, containing two globules ; in right hand, serpent, feeding 

from the patera (Nemesis? vide Eckhel ii. p. 55.3). Electrotype from the B. M. 
lePA CYNKAHTOC. Diademate beardless head to r. (Roman Senate.) ft. CG- 

BacTHNSIN. Jupiter seated to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, 

sceptre. 

Note. — These coins are here attributed to Sebaste of Phrygia, as well from their style, as because they 
have not, like the coins of Sebaste of Galatia, and of Sebaste of Paphlagonia, any legend distinctive of 
those provinces. Conf. Mionnet, iv. p. 397, Sup. iv. p. 570, where, as well as in Sup. vii. pp. 294, C49, 
all the coins with the simple legend CeBACTHNQN belong, probably, to Sebaste of Phrygia. 



i 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



109 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



M 



M 
M 

M 

M 



M 
M 
M 



n 



8 
6-5 



H 



216-3 



227-4 
25-2 



SEBASTE Cilicise. 

Note. — The remains of Sebaste of Ciliciaat Ayash have been described bySir F.Beanfort(Karamania, 
p. 249). This city was founded or augmented by Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, when in possession 
of the opposite island Elteusa (Strabo, p. 671), which is now a promontory. Hence Archelaus styles 
himself on his coins, *IA0nATPI2 KTI2TH2 (tide Kings and Dynasts, p. 47). The name Sebaste 
was in honour of Augustus, who had added all Cilicia Tracheia, except Seleuceia, to the kingdom of 
Archelaus. 

Diadumenianus. 

, . . . M. on, ANTO. AIAAOY Head of Diadumenianus to r. 

B. CeBAC. (AYTON.) NAYAPX. 6AeY0. Victory stepping to I. 

SEBASTOPOLIS Ponti. 

Note. — Until Paphlagonia, Galatia, and Pontug are more thoroughly known, there will be great 
difficulty in fixing the site of Sebastopolis. It seems not to have been known to Strabo, though it 
appears, from a route in the Antonine Itinerary, to have stood at a distance of not more than fifty 
miles from his native city Amasia, on the road from Tavium (Boghaz Kini) to Sebastia (Sivas), nearer 
to the latter. Sebastopolis, therefore, if it existed in the time of Strabo, had then some other name. 

Head of Bacchus to r. IJ. ceBAGTOnOAeiTiiN. Serpent issuing from cista to r. 

SELEUCEIA Syria sive in Pieria, 

Nate. — According to Appian (Syr. 57) there were nine Seleucise. The names of most, if not all of 
them, may be collected from history or coins. They were, 1, ad Orontem ; 2, ad Pyramum ; 3, ad 
Calycadnum ; 4, ad Euphratem ; 5, ad Tigrira ; 6, ad Hedyphontem ; 7, ad Belum ; 8, Seleuceia of 
Pisidia, which was colonized by Claudius, and thenceforth called TUXavSioaiKivKfia (Strabo, p. 744, 
749 ; Plin. H. N. 6, 27 ; Stephan. in SeXeu«ia ; Ptolem. 5, 6 ; Hierocl. p. G73). Pliny (5, 4) 
names also a Seleuceia in Galatia. 

Seleuceia ad Orontem, the port of Antioch, now Moghiir, near Suedieh, retains many vestiges of 
its ancient impoi'tance. In particular, the harbour itself, although now separated from the sea by 
the effects of alluvion and maritime currents, preserves its ancient works, connected with which is a 
channel cut through the rocks, apparently for the purpose of diverting from the ancient town and 
port those torrents from Mount Casius, which, left to nature, have had the effect of converting the 
harbour into a marsh. 

Veiled and turreted female head to r. R. SEAEYKEiiN THS IEPA2 KAI AYTO- 
NOMOY in four lines. Fulmen placed horizontally on an ornamented table ; 
below which, BI (year 12) ; the whole in a wreath. 

Note. — The date relates probably to the autonomy of Seleuceia. The fulmen was worshipped as 
having guided Seleucus to the site when he founded the city. <baal Si avri^ rag ^iKtvKiiaQ oiki^ovti, 
Tijv jiiv iiri Ty QaKaaay Swa-qfiiav fiytjaaaOai Kepavvov' Kai Jid tovto 9ebv airoTf Kcpavviv lOtro' 
Kal dprjOKiiovai Kai vfivovai Kai vvv Ktpavvov (Appian. Syr. 58). 

Another similar. 

Same type. B. 2EAEYKEiiN THS AYTONOMOY in three lines. Victory stepping 

to I. ; all within a wreath. 
Head of Jupiter to r. B. 2EAEYKEi2N. Winged fulmen ; in field to I., mon. 74 

in a circle. 

Same type. R. SEAEYKEilN TON EM UIEPIAI in three lines. Winged fulmen ; 

in field above, mon. 75 and bonnets of the Dioscuri ; in field below, B. and 

mon. 76 ; all within a wreath. 
Another similar. 
Another similar. 
Another similar, but in field below, mon. 21 and ^SP (year 166). 

iVote. — The year 1C6 of the Seleucidaj, is B.C. 146, or that in which Alexander Balas was defeated 
by Demetrius II. 

2 e 



110 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

M 
JE 
M 



JE 
M 






M 



M 



JE 



Size 

3 



Weight 



6h 



6-5 



4- 



8-7 



Alexander Balas. 

Radiate head of Alexander Balas to r. R. 2EAEYKEUN TSiN EM niEPIAI 
Half-draped figure, adv., looking to I. ; right arm extended ; in field to ^., a 
mon. and I. ; to r., II. 

Tiberius. 

. . . 2EBA2T0Y. Head of Tiberius to r. E. . . EDI SIAANOY SEAEYKEiiN 
in five lines in a wreath. 

Trajanm, 

NGP. TPAIANOC APIOT. CGB. rSPM. [AAKj. Head of Trajan to r. 

R. CeAGYKGUJN IIiePIAC. A mountain, with a cavern near the summit 
(symbol of Jupiter Casius), in a tetrastyle temple, on the apex of which stands 
an eagle with open wings ; below, SGYC KACIOC. 

Another similar. 

Another similar; in field to r., (year 9 of the year of Trajan?). 

Septimius Severus. 

AY. K. OenxiM. ceOYH. nePT. Head of Septimius Severus to r. B. Fulraen 
upon a table; above, SGYC KePAYNIOG ; below, CeA6YK6iiN niePIAC. 

Similar legend and type. R. SeYC ceAGYKeiiN niePlAC. Winged fulmen on 
table. 



SELEUCEIA ad Pyramum. 

Diademate head of one of the Seleucidse to r. ; behind it, ? R. SEAEYKEiiN TON 
nPOS Tiil nYPAMSlI. Diana Venatrix, adv., towards I. ; in field to L, ANY in 
mon. ; in field to r., AP in mon. 

Note. — From this coin alone, as far as I have been able to discover, is the existence of a Seleuceia 
on the Pyramus known. Its position, by means of its coins, may hereafter, perhaps, be ascertained. 



SELEUCEIA Mesopotamiae sive ad Tigrim. 

Youthful head, with hair in ringlets over the neck, to r. ; behind, a monogram. 
R. [EEAE]VKEIAr THE nPpE TI[rPEl]. Female seated on rocks to r. ; 
in right hand, palm branch; below, river-god swimming to r. ; in field, DE. 
(year 270.) 

Caracalla. 
AYT. K. M. AYP. ANTiiNeiNOC. Radiate bust of Caracalla to r. R. cen. 
ceOYH. ceAP.YKe . . Roma Nicephorus seated on armour to I. ; in left 
hand, hasta ; in exergue, three letters. 

Note. — Among the thirteen cities of the east to which the name of Septimius Severus is known to have 
been attached (mde Eokhel, iv. p. 329), there is no Seleuceia. This coin, therefore, adds one more to the 
thirteen. But to which of the nine Seleuceiae is it to be attributed ? It could not have belonged to any of 
those of which coins are extant, except Seleuceia ad Pyramum or Seleuceia ad Tigrim, because we have 
coins of the others later than Septimius Severus, without the addition of his name. It could not weU 
have been a coin of Seleuceia on the Euphrates, that city having stood nearly opposite to Zeugma, of 
which place coins are numerous, nor Seleuceia on the Belus, the gentile of that city having been Sij- 
XtuKo/SijXiTijc (Stephan. in v.). We may strongly doubt whether Seleucus ever penetrated so far to the 
eastward as Seleuceia on the Hedyphon, which was in Elymais, beyond the Tigris. To the name of 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Ill 



I Metal Size Weight 



AS. 

M 



4+ 



M 



M 



M 



9+ 



10 



9i 



Seleuceia on the Tigi-is, on the other hand, there was great propriety in prefixing that of Severus, as 
he took Ctesiphon from the Partliians, a natural consequence of which would be the restoration of 
Seleuceia, which stood on the opposite bank of the Tigris. The date is probably of the Seleucida; ; 
the right-hand letter has some appearance of a *, which, on that supposition, it would be. 



SELEUCEIA Cilicise sive ad Calycadnum. 

iVote.— Seleuceia, on the Calycadnus, sumamed also Tracheia, as having been the chief town of tliat 
division of Cilicia, preserves its ancient name and considerable remains of its ancient buildings on the 
left bank of the river, at a distance of ten miles from its mouth (Beaufort's Karamania, p. 223). 



Head of Diana to r. 
Half-horse to r. 



behind, monogram. B. 2EAEYK KAAYKAAN. 



Gordianm Junior. 

CeBAC. Bust of Gordian to r. ; countermark, A ; 
N Ta nPOC la KaAY. Legend irregular. Two 



ANXaNIOC rOPAIANOC 

within it, O. R. CeAGYK 

winged female figures opposed, holding over a tripod a wreath, within which 

is written eAGYQePAG. Conf. Mionnet, iii. p. 604, No. 312. 

MAP. ANTilNIOC TOPAIANOC CGB. Bust of Gordian to r. ; countermarks, K. 
and A. inclosing O. B. CGAGYKGilN 6AGY®ePAC KAAY. Mercury ad- 
vancing to r., and extending his right hand towards Diana, who is retiring ; 
below her, turreted female in long drapery, recumbent to I. 

Philippus Senior, 

AY. K. M. lOYAIOC "DIAinnOC CGB. Radiate bust of Philip Senior to r. 
ft. CGAGYKGiiN TiiN HPOC TO KAAYKAANii GAGYQGP. . . Two busts 
opposed ; that looking to r. is radiate, has a raodius on the head, and cor- 
nucopise behind the shoulder ; the other is laureate, and has a palm branch in 
front. 

Gallienus. 

. . . . no. AIKIN. TAAAI .... Radiate bust of Gallienus to r. R. CGA 
. . KGiiN TilN nPOC KAAYKAANii. Victory standing to I., with her foot 
on a globe. 



SELEUCEIA Pisidiffi sive CLAUDIOSELEUCEIA. 

Note, — This city was one of three so much favoured by tlie emperor Claudius as to have adopted 
his name. Tlie other two were Iconium and ClaudiopoUs. In the fifth century, the epithet of this 
Seleuceia was Trpoe rif Tavp<i> (Theodoret. H. E. 6, 27) ; at a later time it was called t/ ailtipa 
(Hieracl. p. 673). From Ptolemy we may infer that it was not far from Antiocheia of Pisidia and 
from the frontiers of Phrygia ; probably somewhere near a line drawn from Iconium to Antiocheia, 
both known positions. 

KAAYAI0GGA6YK[GIA]. Turreted female bust to r. R. Ram standing to r., 
looking back (sign Aries 2). Electrotype from the B. M. 



SELGE Pisidise. 

Nc^e. — Selge, a colony of Lacedsemon (Polyb. v. 72 ; Strabo, p. 570), or of Amyclso, according to 
Dionysius Perlegetes (v. 860), preserves its ancient name. It is fully described by Strabo, and a de- 
scription of its present ruins, by the Rev. E. T. Daniell, is found in Spratt's Lycia, ii. p. 24. The 
position of the city resembled that of Sagalassus, the former standing among the mountains near the 
sources of the Eurymedon, the latter near those of the adjacent Cestrus. Sagalassus, as we learn from 



112 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



M 


H 


M 


2 


M 


2 


JE 


2 


M 


H 


M 


4 



M 



JE 
JE 



JE 



JE 



JE 



M 



2h 



9J- 

■^2 



n 



6-5 



194-4 



111-9 



Strabo, was also called Selgessus. Considering, therefore, the vicinity and similarity of situation of 
these two cities, the connexion between Lacedsemon and Sagalassus, shown by one of its coins, as 
already remarked, and the name of Sparta (Turcice Isbarta) found in a town near the ruins of Saga- 
lassus, it seems highly probable that the latter was a colony of Selge, and that its original appellation 
was Selge, with the addition of AS202 or HSS02, a Pelasgic word found in many parts of European 
and Asiatic Greece, either simply or in composition, and having probably the meaning of town or 
fortress. 

Two wrestlers engaged; between them, K. ; all in dotted circle. R. 2EArEQN. 

Slinger standing to r., adjusting his sling ; in field, triquetra, cornucopiae, and 

club; all in a dotted circle. Electrotype from the B. M . 
Same type and letter. R. Legend effaced. Same type and symbols ; in field 

to I, B. 

Radiate head, adv. R. SEA. Fore-part of stag lying to r., looking to I. 
Head of Hercules to r. ; behind it, club. R. 2E. Fulmen ; bow. 
Another. 

Same type. R. EE. Fulmen ; quiver ; bow. 
Same type; in field to a, C. R. CGArciiN. Fulmen. 
[IGPA CYNK]AHTOC. Beardless male head to r. (Roman Senate.) R. CGAreON. 

Fulmen and bow. 



KAICAP AAPIANOC. 
ribbons. 



Hadrianus. 
Bust of Hadrian to r. 



R. CGAreSlN. Club tied with 



Antoninus Pius. 

KAICAP ANTiiN. . . . Head of Antoninus to r. R. CG. Club ; triquetra. 

AYTO. KAI2AP ANTilNGINOS. Head of Antoninus Pius to n R. CGAPGaN. Two 
objects, resembling fir-trees with their branches lopped, standing upon bases of 
unequal height, which have a common base ; on either side, a smaller object of 
the same kind. 

Julia Domna. 

lOYAIA [AoM]NA CG. Imperial female head to r. R. CGA • Draped figure, 

adv.., looking to I.., dropping a ball with right hand into a vase ; in left hand, 
hasta ; below, shield. 

Elagahalus. 

ANTSIN. Head of Elagahalus to r. R. CGAFGON. Symbol of 

Diana of Perga between a star and a crescent, in a distyle temple. 

Severus Alexandrus. 

AYT. K. M. AYP. AAES^ANAPOC. Head of Severus Alexander to r. R. CGAPGHN 
between bow and club. 



SEPPHORIS GalilejE. 

Note. — Once the chief town of Galilee, and afterwards known by the name of Diocsesarea ; it still 
exists under the name of Sefun'eh, and is situated to the west of Tiberias, and not far to the north of 
Nazareth. 

£(ovX(oe) AYTOKPATilP EAQKEN. Head of Julius Caesar to r. R. SEn^aPHNON 
in two fines under a palm- tree with fruit. Electrotype from the B. M. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



113 



Metal Size Weight 



JE 



M 



M 



M 



M 

M 
M 

M 



8+ 

7 
4 

H 



SIBIDONDA Phrygise. 

JVo'e.—It is only upon the presumption that this is the same place as the 2ii//3ei/5oc of the Notitlse 
Episcopatuum that I suppose it to have been in Phrygia, that place having been a bishopric under 
the metropolitan of Synnada, 

lOYAIA AOMNA ce. Head of Julia Domna to /•. R. CIBIAOYNAGSIN. Bacchus 
standing to l, naked, except the legs ; in right hand, empty cup, below which, 
panther ; in left hand, thyrsus. Ukctroiifpe/rom the B. M. 



SIBLIUM Phrygise. 

iVo«e.— Siblium was situated near the sources of the Meeander (Cinnam. p. 174). It was fortified 
by Manuel Comnenus, but afterwards dismantled (Nicet. Ann. pp. 115, 124), and it was a bishopric 
under the metropolitan of Laodiceia. Having flourished at so late a time, some remains of it pro- 
bably still exist. 



164-7 



164 



260-2 

243-5 

59-7 



no, Cen. TCTAC KAI. Bust of Septimius Geta to r. 
figure, adv., towards r. ; in right hand, hasta ; in 
from the B. M. 



B. CGIBAIANON. Naked 
left hand, ? Electrotype 



SIDE Pamphylige. 

Note. — Arrian relates (i. 27) that at the time of the march of Alexander through Asia Minor, 
" the Sidetse, who were a colony from Cyme in ^olis, had forgot their mother tongue, and spoke a 
barbarous language, which differed even from that of the neighbouring barbarians." The beautiful 
silver coins of Side, as well as those of its nearest neighbour, Aspendus, prove that the word /3dp- 
|3apof could only be applicable to either people as speaking a non-Hellenic language. That in this 
sense they were barbarians may indeed be inferred from the legends of their coins. But it is very 
remarkable, with regard to the difference in the Sidetan and Pamphylian tongues, alluded to 
by Arrian, that the legends on the coins of Aspendus and Side differ in their alphabet. On the 
former, the Pamphylian name is represented in Hellenic letters ; on coins of the latter city, the 
legends are in letters, some of which appear to be Phoenician and others Greek. The Duke de 
Luynes supposes them to be Palmyrenian (Numism. des Satrapies, p. 23). 

The extensive remains of Side, on a desert promontory, thirty-five miles east of Attaleia, and 
known to the Turks by the name of Esky-Adilia (Old Attaleia), have been described by Sir Francis 
Beaufort in his Karamania, p. 1 47. 

Pallas Nicephorus standing to I. ; in field to I., pomegranate {allr^ ; in field to r., 
three PhcBnician letters ; all within a circle. B. Nine Sidetan letters. Vide 
Mionnet, pi. xxii. Male figure naked, with the exception of a pallium over his 
shoulders, standing to I., with a patera in right hand over an altar ; in left hand, 
a long staff with leaves sprouting from it. Electrotype. 
Same type and symbol, without letters. R. Same legend. Same type, but behind 
the left leg of figure, eagle, and between his hand and the altar, two letters. 
Electrotype. 
Head of Pallas to r. B, Victory stepping to I. ; in right hand, garland ; left hand 

holding up drapery ; in field to I., pomegranate ; below which, AI. 
Same type. R. KAEYX. Similar type and same symbol. 
B. Same legend, type, and symbol. 
Head of Pallas (of Side) to r., with a countermark on it. B. SIAH- 

Victory to r., with pomegranate in field to I. as before, 
with countermark, but without legend. B- Same type and symbol ; 



Same type. 
SIAHT(7)c). 
TQ[N] 
Same type 



same legend, but parallel to the figure. 



2/ 



114 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

M 
M 


Size 

3 
3 


Weight 


M 


8 




M 


7 


2114 


M 


6 




M 


3 




M 


^ 






2+ 
3+ 




M 


S 




JE 


5 




M 


6 




JE 


4i 




M 


3 




/E 
yE 


4 

5- 




JE 


^ 





Another similar, without countermark. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. Legend almost effaced. 



Gallienws. 
ce B. Head 



Pomegranate. 



AYT. KM. no. AT. rAAAIHNO CG B. Head of Gallienus to r. ; in field r., 
countermark ; below, eagle with open wings. B. CIAHTilN NGilKOPSlN. 
Vulcan, with conical cap, seated to r. on rock ; in right hand, hammer ; in 
left hand, shield resting on his knee, having on it the face of Gorgo. 



SIDON Phcenicise. 

Note. — Sidon in the most ancient times had so much the pre-eminence over the other Phoenician 
cities, that Homer mentions no other. Tyre colonized Libya and Iberia (Strabo, p. 756), but from 
Sidon went forth the earlier Phoenicians, who carried letters to the coasts of Greece, and the worsliip 
of that eEA 2YPIA, which became the Venus of Cythera, the Juno of Samos, and the Diana of 
Ephesus. In the time of Strabo both Sidon and Tyre flourished, and the geographer speaks with 
commendation of the harbour of the former city. In every respect the modem towns present a 
contrast to their ancient condition. 

Turreted and veiled female head to r. R. SIAQNinN THS lEPAS KAI A2YA0Y. 
Eagle on a rudder to ?., with palm branch under right wing ; in field, L.AII 
(year 81) ; below which, n above A. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Similar head to r. ; in field r., a star. R. SIAflNOH 0EA2. Symbol of Astarte in 
a covered chariot. 

Same type ; behind it, AP in mon. B-. 2:iAnNKlN. Europa seated on a bull galloping 
to I., and holding one of its horns with her right hand ; her left holds up her 
veil, which is filled by the wind ; in field, L.N. (year 20) ; below, Phoenician 
letters. 

Ncte, — Lucian (de dea Syrifi) thus alludes to this coin of Sidon, to voiua/ia rtfi St^tivioi xp«<""'<" 
T^v Eupwxijv i^tl^ofiivrjv ?%" ^V ''awp^j ri(j Aii. 

Same head to r., with profile of a bearded head beyond it ; in field I., mon. 77. 

B. SIAaNOS ©EAS. Galley to I. ; above, L. Eg (year 65). 
Same head to r. B- Same legend ; same type to r. ; below, six Phoenician letters. 
Same type ; in field to n. A, below which, T. R. Same legend ; same type to I., with 

boar's head on prow ; above, ENP (year 155) ; below, four Phoenician letters. 
Same type. B- Same legend and type ; above, HUP (year 188) ; below, two 

Phoenician letters. 
Head of Jupiter to r. B. SIAtiNISlN. Europa on bull, as before ; below the legend, 

Phoenician letters ? 
Head of Bacchus to r., with beard in ringlets. B. SIAilNIQN MHTP. IGPAC KAI 

AYTONOMOY. Turreted female head to r. ; in field I., TA (year 38) ; in field 

r., three Phoenician letters. 
Beardless head of Bacchus crowned with ivy, to r. B TH2 IEP[AS] 

KAI ASYA[OY]. Thyrsus tied with ribbons ; in field, AT (year 304). 

Note. — From the pure form and execution of the letters, this date appears to be of the Seleucidae, 
i. e. 8 B.C. 

Same type. B- 2IAiiN02 0EAS. Cista ; above which, three letters (date) ; all in 

wreath of ivy. 
Same head to I. B. Same legend and type ; above, ESP (year 1 65). 
Tetrastyle temple, upon a base with steps in the middle ; on either side of the temple, 

a column. B. SIAQNIiiN. Europa on the bull, as before ; below, date uncertain. 
Another, 



Metal 

M 

JE 

M 

M 

JE 



JE 

M 
M 

JE 



M 

M 
M 



Size 

4- 



Weight 



61 



5i 



7+ 

6 
6 

8 



4 

2- 
2- 
2 



ASIATIC GREECE. 

Antiochus IV.? 

• OXON Radiate head of Antiochus IV. ? to r. 

Phoenician letters. Europa on bull, as before. 



115 



B. SIAliNI 



Augustus. 

Head of Augustus to I., in a wreath. R. siAiiNOS lEPAS. Same type ; in field 
to r., a mon. 

Trajanus. 
AYTO. NGP. TPAIA . . . Head of Trajan to r. B. SIAONOS NAYAPXIAOS. 
Half-draped figure, on the prow of a galley, stepping to L, and extendinff right 
hand ; in field to I., ZKS (year 227). ^ ^ 

Another similar. 

ffadrianus. 

AYTO. TPAIAN Head of Hadrian to r. B. SIAQNOS eEAS Same 

type ; in field to I. L. SKS (year 227). 

iVote.— The year of this coin being the same as that of the two preceding, shows that they were all 
struck in the year of the death of Trajan, a.d. 117 ; the commencement of the rera, therefore, was 
B.C. no, at which time Antiochus VIII. and Antiochus IX., after a long contest, divided Syria 
between them, and gave the Sidonians a good opportunity to assert their autonomy. 

Magahalus. 
IM. C. M. AV. ANTONIN. . . . Bust of Elagabalus to r. B. [COL. A]VR. PIA 
METR. SID. Symbol of Astarte, with a small figure on either side, in a 
covered chariot. 
IM. C. M. A. ANTONINVS AVG. Bust of Elagabalus to r. B. A. P. SID. CO. METR. 

Europa on bull, as before, to r. ; in field, A. P. 
Another. 

Julia Paula. 

IVLIA PAVLA AVG. Bust of Julia Paula to r. B. COL. AVR. PIA. METRO. SID. 

Symbol of Astarte in a covered chariot. 

SIGEIUM Troadis. 

Note. — That the coins of Sigeium should have Athenian types, is in agreement with the fact, that 
Sigeium was, for a great length of time, a dependency of Athens. In the time of Strabo it was 
in ruins, having been destroyed by the Ilienses, whose autonomous tetradrachma, resembling 
those of Alexandreia Troas, show that these two cities divided the supremacy of the Troas be- 
tween them in the third century B.C. ; for to this time by their style they appear to belong. From 
one of the inscriptions of Sigeium, we learn that it possessed a temple of Minerva, as ancient 
probably as that at Ilium. Chishull, Antiq. Asiat., p. 49; Strabo, p. 595. 

Head of Pallas, a«?»., towards n B. SIPE. Owl standing to n, looking a«???. ; be- 
hind, crescent. 
Another. 

Same type. B- Same legend, type, and symbol. 
Another ; the crescent not visible. 
Head of Jupiter to r. B. Same legend and type. 

SILANDUS Lydise. 

Note. — This city is known only from its coins, which are both autonomous and imperial, and from 
its having been a Greek bishoprick under the metropolitan of Sardes. At Selenti, a village situated 
on a tributary of the Hermus, in the eastern part of Lydia, Mr. W. J. Hamilton found no remains of 
antiquity. Silandus, nevertheless, may be in that vicinity, the name perhaps having moved with the 
people, — a process of which there are many examples in Greece. 



116 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 



M 



IE 



M 



M 

M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 
M 

M 
M 



Size Weight 

4 



4+ 

4 

2+ 

H 

4i 

5-4 

4 



41 



92-4 

90-3 
741 

26-2 

22-7 



®eAN PiiMHN. Female head crowned with modius to r. B. CIAANAeaN. Naked 
figure to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, branch. Electrotype from the 
B.M. 

SILLYUM Pamphyliffi. 

Note. — The Rev. E. T. Daniell has left us (ap. Spratt, ii. p. 18) an account of the ruins of a well 
fortified ancient city on the heights which overlook the left bank of the Cestrus, and in sight from the 
ruins of Perga at Mortana, from whence they are six geographical miles distant. This place he sup- 
posed to be Sillyum ; but this cannot be considered certain until some of the other ancient sites in 
the unexplored country between the rivers Calycadnus and Cestrus are fixed. 

Bearded helmeted head to r. R. CIAA(v£w>'). Male figure, in short tunic, to I. ; 
right hand extended ; in left hand, ?. 

SINGAEA Mesopotamise. 

Note. — The three cities of Upper Mesopotamia, Rhesaina, Nesibi, and Singara (now Sinjar) re- 
sembled each other: 1. In having been Greek colonies, established by Roman emperors. 2. In 
having had names differing only by their Greek terminations from the indigenous names which are 
still in use. 3. In having been situated near the sources of rivers flowing from the two former 
places into the Euphrates, from Singara into the Tigris. 

Gordianm Junior and Tranquillina. 

AYTOK.K. M. ANT. rOPAIANON CAB(iva)TPANKYAAINA CeB. Heads of Gordianus 
and Tranquillina opposed. R. AYP. cen. KOA. CINFAPA. Veiled and tur- 
reted female figure seated to I. ; on head, Sagittarius, shooting to I. ; in her 
right hand, ears of corn ; in left hand, ? ; at her feet, river-god swimming to r. 

Another similar. 

Note. — From these coins, it appears that Singara was colonized by M. Aurelius or L. Verus, and 
that it was among the numerous cities of the East grateful for the favours of Septimius Severus. 



SINOPE Paphlagonise, sive Ponti. 

Note. — Sinope, a name still known to the Greeks, and slightly corrupted by the Turks, was said to 
have been founded by the Argonautse, and named from Sinope, daughter of the Boeotian river 
Asopus. It was afterwards occupied and colonized by the Milesii, and finally received a Roman 
colony (Strabo, p. 546. Apollon. 2, v. 948. VaL Flac. 5, v. 110). This occurred, as appears by the 
coins of Sinope, in the time of Julius Csesar. 

Head of the nymph Sinope to I., with ear-rings and necklace ; in field to ?., acrosto- 
lium. B. SINil. 0EOT. Eagle, with open wings, standing on tunny-fish to I, 

Head of Sinope to I. H. 2IN . . AIO. . Same type. 

Head of Sinope to ?., with ear-rings, ft. SINil. KAP. . Same type. 

Turreted female head to I. ft. siNii. Eagle with expanded wings, adv., looking to I. ; 
in field to I., grapes ; to r., a mon. 

Head of Sinope, adv., with ear-rings and necklace, ft. Same legend and type, with- 
out symbol or mon. 

Head of Gorgo, adv., in centre of JEgis. ft. . INiillHS, Victory standing to r. ; 
on left shoulder, paJm-branch held by both hands. 

Another similar. 

Head of Jupiter to r. ft. Same legend. Eagle, with wings expanded, standing on 
fulmen, adv., looking to r. ; in field to I., mon. 78. 

Another ; monogram indistinct. 

Head of Pallas to r. ft. . . NiMHS. Quiver. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



117 



Metal 

El. 



N 



Al 

JE 



M 



M 



/E 

JE 
M 



M 



^ 

M 



Size 

H 



4+ 



9i 
9 



Sh 



«>2 



3 

4 



4 
4 



Weight 

39-3 



130-8 



259-3 
253-6 



SMYRNA loniffi. 

Turreted female head to r. (Cybele.) B. Head of Hermes to r., in linear square, 
within quad, incus. 

Note.— A. similar hecta {vide Mionnet, iii. p. 189) has in place of the head of Cybele her symbol 
the lion. 

Same type. li. [IM]YPNAI[iiN] nPYTANEIS(dy£9i;Kav) in two Hues; between 
them, female, in long drapery, adv. ; on her head, modius and veil ; her left breast 
bare; right hand hid in her drapery; left elbow resting on column, the hand 
holding a Victory, which presents a crown to her (a statue of Nemesis, dedi- 
cated by the Prytanes). — Electrotype from the Bihl. Nat., Paris. 

Note. — The most ancient worship in Asia Minor was that of the Father (BABA, or BA, or HA, 
the Jupiter Papias of later times), and of MA, or the Mother, who was the same as the Rhea of 
Crete, and in Asia Minor had various names, — Agdistis, Cybele ; and some which were epithets de- 
rived from mountains, as Dindymene, Idsea, and Sipylene (Strabo, p. 409). At Smj-ma she was 
entitled >/ frirtip Otwv ShtuXiji'ij, and was the chief female deity of that city. There can be little 
doubt, therefore, that the obverse of this and the following coins is intended for Cybele, and not, as 
some numismatists have supposed, for the Amazon Smyrna, identified with the city — a type which is 
common on coins of Smyrna of a later date, but always accompanied by the legend CMYPNA, or by 
some characteristic of the Amazon. 

Same type. B. Lion to r., left fore-leg raised; above, ZMYPNAIUN; below, 

Mo2Xo2! ; all in wreath of oak. 
Same type. B. IMYPNAIiiN in two lines ; below which, mon. 79 (AYTOBOYAOS) ; 

all within wreath. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — The lion, or some other great feline, was not uncommon on the mountains sacred to Cybele, 

and is still a native of the Taurus, 

CinYAHNII. Same type. B. Nemesis or Fortune, with polos or modius on her 
head, standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left, cornucopise ; around 
iMYPNAlilN. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — A marble in Gruter (i. p. 80) is inscribed, " Dese Nemesei, sive Fortunse." Bupalus (says 
Pausanias) was the first who, in a statue of Fortune for the Smyrnoei, represented her with the 
TToXof, and placed in one of her hands the horn of Amaltheia (Messen. 30), 

Same type. R, . MYPNAiaN MHTPOAfiPOS in two lines ; between, Nemesis, stand- 
ing to r. ; her left foot on base of a stele, or short column ; in her left hand, 
Victory, holding up a crown towards her ; to her I., hasta ; in field, A. 

Same type. B. MOSXOS iMYPNAlilN. Same type, without hasta. 

Same type, in wreath of oak. B. . MYPNAIiiN [EIjKAAIOS. Same figure, adv. ; 
in right hand, hasta ; left elbow resting on stele ; in left hand. Victory ; in field, 
bird to I. 

Same type. R. . MYPNAIiQN KYNAAAAS *ANHS in three lines. Same type and 
symbol. 

Same type. R. [ZMYP]NAI[iiN] [A]nATOYPIOS, Same type and symbol. 

GMYPNA. Turreted female bust, to I. ; on right shoulder, bipennis (Amazon Smyrna) 
R. GMYPNAIQN. Prow to r. 

Note. — The prow, a common type and symbol on the coins of Smyrna, alluded to a naval victory 
of the people of Smyrna over those of Chins, as a memorial of which a trireme was paraded through 
the Agora at the vernal Dionysiac festival, in imitation perhaps of the procession of the peplus at 
Athens, from whence the earliest colony of Smyrna is said to have come. — Aristid, Oral, 15 et 22, 
Philostrat. in Polemon. 

Same legend and type. R. Same legend. Gryphon, standing to r. ; left fore-paw 
on wheel. 

;Note. — In the description of Nemesis by Nonnus (Dionys. 48, v. 375), her winged messenger the 
gryphon (yptnf' Trrfpojtc), the wheel (rpoxof), and the bridle (xoKivbi;), are all mentioned as her 
accessories. 

Same legend ; same type to r. ; behind the neck, bipennis. R. Same legend and type. 
Same legend ; same type to I. R. Same legend. Lion to r, 

^9 



118 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 
JE 
M 



JE 



M 

JE 
JE 



M 



^ 



Size 

i 

4 

3^ 



4+ 

4 
3 

3- 
6 



5-4 



^ 


41 


JE 


4^ 


M 


6 


JE 


4^ 


M 


5 


JE 


4^ 


JE 


5 


M 





JE 


5- 



JE 


H 


^ 


3 


M 


2 


JE 


H 


M 


2 


JE 


2* 


Ji 


2^ 


JE 


3 


M 


2 



Weight 



ZGYC AKPAIOC. Head of Jupiter to r. B. Same legend and type. 

Same legend and type. B. Same legend. Gryphon and wheel as before. 

Same legend and type. B. [ZM]YPNAIiiN TYXH. Fortune, standing to I. ; in right 

hand, patera ; in left hand, cornucopise. 
Same legend and type. B. CMYPNAIiiN. Turreted female figure (Amazon Smyrna), 

in short tunic, standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, bipennis, 

and pelta or crescent-shaped shield, and chlamys ; at her feet, prow to I, 
Same legend and type. B. ZMYP. IIANIilNIOC. Nemesis, standing adv., towards 

I. ; in right hand, ? ; in left hand, bridle ; at her feet, prow to /. 

Note. — Pausanias, in his description of the statue of Nemesis at Khamnus (.4ttie. c. 33), describes 
it as having a branch of ash (/JijXtaf ) in the left hand, and a vase (0iaXi}) in the right. Eclihel has 
shown (ii. p. 550), that the object in the left hand of Nemesis, which has sometimes been taken 
for a aistrum, and the figure, consequently, for an Isis, is a bridle (xoXivoj). 

Same legend and type. B- CMYPNAiaN. Eagle, on fulmen, with open wings, 

standing adv., looking to r. ; in beak, garland. 
Same legend and type. B. Same legend. Prow to r. 
C TPA. Bearded head, crowned with polos, to r. (Jupiter Stratius ?) B. Same 

legend and type ; below, dolphin to I. 
CMYPNAIiiN. Same type. B. CMYPNAIQN. Prow to r. 
Head of Apollo to r. B. IMYPNAiaN AHATOYPIOS in two lines ; between. Homer, 
seated to I. ; right hand raised to neck ; in left hand, volume ; before him in 
field, star of eignt points. 
Same type. B. . MYPNAia . APTEMIAQPOS AHMHTPIOY in three lines. Same 

type, without the star ; in field to I., a mon. 
Same type. B. IMYPNAI . . APXIAS. Same type ; in field to L, mon. 80. 
B. IMYPNAiaN AHMHTPIOS. Same type. 
B. IMYPNAIiiN AIorENHS AEToY. Same type; below, to r., a mon. 

B. IMYPNAION eAPSYNSlN Same type. 

B. . MYPNAiaN [K]AAAISTPATOS. Same type. 
B. IMYPNAI . . nA2IKPAT[H2;]. Same type ; in field to L, mons. 



Same type. 
Same type. 
Same type. 
Same type. 
Same type. 
81, 82. 
Same type. 
Same type. 
Same type. 



B. IMYPNAISiN MHTPOAiiPOS DASIKPATOY. 

B. IMYPNAiaN nOAAIS Same type. 

B. . MYPNAIQN GEOTIMOS. Same type. 



Same type. 



Note. — These are the coins which the Smjmaei called 'Ofijjpua : 'Eari Si cat /3i/3X(odqci} cat to 

'Oitripfiov, arod riTpayuvoc, ix"^"" veuv 'Oiiripov Kal ioavov cat £1} cai vo/ttff/td rt xoXcoifv 

Trap' aiiToli 'O/iripiiov Xiytrai. — Strabo, p. 646. 



Homer? seated to I., and holding a 

YP . AIQ . [KOYA]PTOS in two lines ; between, 

. Same type. 

Lyre, formed of the cranium of an ox. 
Hand, armed with the cestus ; to r., a 



Same type, in wreath. B. . . YPNAIQN. 

hasta obliquely. 
Same type, not in wreath, B. 

tripod. 
Same type. B. . . . PNAI . . HYGOAaP 
Same type. B. XMYP. MHTPO. AHOA. 
Same type. B. . MYPNAI . . DAPAMO 

palm branch. 

Nate — The union of the cestus and the palm branch may be intended to commemorate some 
victory in boxing, or may be a symbol of Hercules, as presiding over gymnastic exercises. 

Same type. B. . MYP . MENEK(pdr»)c). Same type. 

Same type. B. . MYPNAIii . . . OAAQN[IOS]. Same type. 

Same type. B- XMYPNAIiiN AeHNAFOPAS. Same type. 

XMYP. Head of Bacchus to r. B. eni BIQNOC. Poppy-head, between two ears 

of corn. 
CMYPNAIiiN. Victory, stepping to r. B. MGAHC. Eiver-god, seated on ground, 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



119 



Metol Size Weight 



M 
M 
M 



M 

JE 



M 



JE 


6 


JE 


H 


JE 


7 


JE 


7+ 


JE 


6 


JE 


6 


JE 


6 


JE 


7 


M 


3i 


JE 


3^ 


JE 


41 



H 



4-3 



6i 



4* 



to ?. ; in right hand, reed ; left elbow resting on inverted vase, from which water 

flows. Electrotype from the B. M. 
AN0Y(ffi7-ow) *PONTeiNOY. Bearded head of Hercules to r. R. eni MYPTOY 

PHreiNOC ZMYP. River-god, with the same attributes, recumbent to I. 
Another similar. 

nPO*YAAfir. Same type. R. [GMYPN ....]. Same type. 
0nA0*YAA». Same type, with lion's skin about the neck. R. Same legend and 

type. 

Note.—'OvXo^vKal, as an epithet of Hercules, is found on the Oxford Marhle, No. 20, which ig a 
dedication of Geasius Flaccus, orparijyoj liti tSiv ottXuv, 'HpaxXtt on-Xo^uXa/ct (Chandler, Mann. 
Oxon. p. 13). 

Same legend and type. R. CMYP. Victory standing to I. 

IGPA CYNKAHTOC. Youthful male head to r. (Roman Senate.) R. CMYP- 
NAIilN r. NGiiKOPiiN. The two Nemeses opposed; the former with a bridle 
in her left hand ; the latter with a cornucopiae in left hand, and wheel at her 
feet ; both raising right hands to face. 

Note. — In the time of Pausanias, the double capacity of Nemesis, as both giving good fortune, and 
curbing human pride and imprudence, was represented by two statues ; her temple was called, rb 
'itpbv Tuiv T^eitiaiiav. In an inscription of imperial times, a priestess Trjg fiijTpbi BiSiv SiTruXiJvijc 
raises a statue to her husband's father, who was ffrparijyoe liri riSv ottKiov, and veuKopof t<ov 
liiydXiav diiSv He/itaiiov (Oxford Marble, 38 ; Chandler, Marm. Oxon. p. 73). 



R. CMYP. r. NG. en. nilAAIANOY. Same type. 
R. [CMYP.] TA. KA. BlilNOC TAMIOY. Same type. 
R. CMYPNAIQN r. NCilKOPiiN. Fortune standing to I. 



Another similar. 
Another similar. 
Same legend and type. 
Same legend and type. 
Same legend and type. 

in a tetrastyle temple. 
Another similar. 

Same legend and type. R. CMYP. r. NCft. BU. C. *IAHTOY. Fortune to I. 
Same legend and type. R. CTP(aT.jyoi;i'roc) HPAKACIAOY CMYPNAIQN. Pallas 

standing to I, ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, spear ; at her feet, shield. 
OeON CYNKAHTON. Same type. R. ©CAN PflMHN. Turreted female head 

to r. 
Another similar, 
eni TI. KAAYAIOY ICPaNYMOY. Nemesis standing to r., with curled wings ; 

right hand to mouth ; in left hand, bridle. R. CTPA. TI. KAA. [CiiCA]NAPOY 

ZMYP. River-god recumbent to I. 

Nate. — Pausanias states that the most holy wooden statues of Nemesis at Smyrna had wings, and 
adds, Nf/iiffti irnpd oiffirep 'Epurt woiovat (Attic. 33). 

em TI. KAAYAIOY lePa(NYMOY). Nemesis standing to r., with drooping wings ; 

right hand to mouth ; in left hand, bridle. R. Same legend and type. 
em AHMOCTPATOY. Nemesis standing tor.; right hand to mouth. R. IMYP. 

CTPA. CHIOC. Victory stepping to r., carrying a trophy on her left shoulder, 

and holding it also with right hand, 
[em] MYPTOY. Gibbous bull standing to r. R. CMYP. PHreiNOC. Same 

type. 
CTPA. TI. KAAYAIOY CQCANAPOY lMYPN[AmN]. Bearded and draped figure 

(Homer?) seated to I.; in right hand, hasta, held obliquely. R. Bill TI. 

KAAYAIOY IGPiiNYMOY in five lines in a wreath of oak. 
OMHPOC. Homer seated to r. ; in left hand, ? . R. CMYPNAiaN in three lines in 

a wreath of oak. 



120 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 

M 

M 
M 

JE 



Size 



Weight 



M 



JE 



M 



M 



M 



JE 



4i 



4i 

*2 



Si 



3i 



H 



7-6 



4i 



Augustus. 

[SEBAST]OS ZMY[PNAmN]. Head of Augustus to r. B. AI0NY2[I0]S KOa- 
AYBA[S]. Victory stepping to l. ; in right hand, crown ; in left hand, palm- 
branch. 

Augustus and Livia. ^ „ 

SEBASXai ZMYPNAIOI. Heads of Augustus and, Livia to r. R. AE0NTi;^K0X 
innOMEAONTOE. Nemesis, with polos on her head, standing adv.; in right 
hand, sceptre : in left hand, Victory crowning her ; below which, a stele ; and 
in field, a bird to I. 

Another similar. 

Tiberius. 

TIBEP[IOC C]eBACTOC. Head of Tiberius to r. R. ZMYPNAIU3N lePUJNYMOC. 
Altar with fire. 

Caligula, Germanicus, and Agrippina. 

PAION KAICAPA FEPMANIKON eni AOYIOAA. Head of Caligula to r. R. [re P- 
MANIKON ArPl]nneiNAN SMYPNAIilN (M)HNO*ANHC. Heads of Ger- 
manicus and Agrippina (the deceased parents of Caligula) opposed. 

Another similar. 

Claudius and Agrippina Junior. 

[TI] KAAYAION [SEBASTON] ArPin[niNAN SEBASTHN]. Heads of Claudius and 
Agrippina opposed. R. . TESSIOS 4>IA0nATPIS [ZMYP]. Nemesis, with droop- 
ing wings, standing to r. ; right hand raised to mouth ; in left hand, bridle ; 
at her feet, serpent. 

Nero. 

[NePQNA CeBACTON]. Youthful head of Nero to r. R. Eni *IAIET0Y eiKA- 
AlOS. Victory stepping to r. 

Vespasianus Junior. 

OYeCIIACIANOC NeQTGPOC. Youthful head of Vespasian to r. R. . MYPNAIiiN. 
Victory stepping to *•. 

Julia Titi. 

lOYAIA eeBACTH. Head of Julia Titi to r. R. eni *AnP[OY] [ZMYPNA]- 

Ii2N. Cybele seated to I. ; in right hand, patera ; left arm on tympanum ; at 
her feet, lion or leopard to I. 

Domitianus and Domitia. 

AOMITIANOC KAI. CG. TePMANIKOG AOMITIA Heads of Domitian 

and Domitia opposed. R. eni AHMOCTPATOY CTPATHrOC CHIQC ZMYP. 
Hercules naked, standing to I. ; in right hand, cup ; in left hand, club and 
chlamys. 

Domitia. 

[AOMITIA Ce]BAG[TH]. Head of Domitia to r. R. [AN0Y. KAIceN(Wo«).] HAITOY 
OMONOIA 646. XMYP. Two Nemeses standing opposite. 

Sabina. 

CABeiNA CGBACTH. Head of Sabina to r. R. River-god, seated on the ground, 
to I. ; below, 6PM0C. 

iVbJe.— Some part of the lower course of the Hermus was probably within the Smymsean terri- 
tory. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



121 



Metal 



M 



Size 
4 



Weight 



M 

M 
JE 

M 



^ 



M 



JE 



M 



5 
11 



4i 



JO 



10 



10 



Same legend and type. R. KAAGiiN. Eiver-god as before ; in exergue, IMYP. 

Note. — The Caleon was probably one of the smaller streams near Smyrna ; the name of which 
occurs, I believe, no where but on this coin. 

Same legend and type. B. nOAeM[iiN ANe©HKe] CMYP. Prow to r. 

Note. — The Zenons and Polemons of Laodiceia on the Lycua were celebrated as sophists during 
several generations. One of the latter name was made king of Pontua by M. Antonius and founded 
Polemonium. 

The Polemon of this coin seems to have become a resident of Smyrna, and in the reign of Hadrian 
dedicated this money to the people of Smyrna ; that is to say, he coined it at his own expense, and 
presented it to the people. 

Another. 

Animous. 

ANTINOOC HPilC. Head of Antinous to I. R, nOAGMiiN ANeQHKG GMYP- 
NAIOIC . Ox to r. 

Faustina Senior. 

*AYCT6INA [C6BACTH]. Head of Faustina to r. R. [GMYPNAl]iiN. Tur- 
reted female (Smyrna) seated to I. ; in right hand, patera ; under left arm, 



Amazonian shield. 



Marcus Aurelius. 



AYPHAIOO KAICAP. Head of M. Aurelius Caesar to I. R. ©GYAANIOC CTPATH. 
ANGQHKG ZMYPNAIOIC. Male figure lying under a tree ; two females with 
hands held up (Nemeses) standing beside him. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — Pausanias (Achaic. 5) explains this scene : Alexander the Great, he says, was founder 
of the present Smyrna. When hunting on Mount Pagus, Alexander came to a plane-tree and 
fountain near a temple of the Nemeses, and fell asleep under the tree, when the two Nemeses ap- 
peared to him, and desired him to remove the Smymeei, from the place which they then occupied, to 
Mount Pagus. 

AY. K. M. AYP. ANTQNINOC. Head of M. Aurelius to r. IJ. ATTAAOC CO*IG- 
TH2 {hviBriKi) TAIC nATPICI CMYP. AAO. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I. ; 
before him, Jupiter Laodicenus standing to r. ; in right hand, eagle ; in left 
hand, hasta, held obliquely. 

Note. — Attains was son of the Polemon aforesaid, and grandfather of the sophist Hermocrates 
(Philostrat. Vit. Sophist. 2, 25). His two warpiSiQ may have been Laodiceia through his father, and 
Smyrna by birth, or he may have been a Laodiceian by birth and a Smymeean by adoption. 

Crispina. 

G6BACTH KPICniNA. Head of Crispina to r. R. CTPA. M. G6AAI0Y OMO. 
CMYP. NGIKOM. Srparr/youvroe MapKov SeXXt'ov, bfiovma ^jxvpvalbiv, ^etKOfxriSiiiiv. 
Nemesis standing to r. and feeding the serpent. Vide Eckhel, ii. p. 553. 

Septimius Severus. 

AY. K. A. CCn. ceOYHPOC n. Head of Septimius Severus to r. Ijt. em CTPA. 

K.A. POY*INOY GO<t>I(o-row) GMYPNAISiN. Cybele, turreted, seated to I. on 

throne with back ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, sceptre ; at feet, lion 

to^. 
Another. Electrotype from the B.M. 
AYT. K. A. CGnT. C60YHP0C HGP. Same type. B. GH. CTP. KA. APIGTG^A- 

NOYC CMYPNAIQN. Amazon Smyrna, turreted, seated on a pedestal to I. ; in 

2 h 



122 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



Size Weight 



JE 



JE 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 
M 






H 



5 + 
8 



8 
6 

9i 



5+ 
5 



R. en. CT. K. POY*INOY CMYP- 
in right hand, cup ; in left hand, 



Julia Domna 

CeBACTH lOYAIA. Head of Julia Domna to r. 

NAIiiN. Hercules, naked, standing to I. ; 

club and lion's skin. 
Another similar. 
G6BACTH lOY. AOMNA. Same type. T^. HPO. ACIAC r. NEilKOPilN CMYP, 

Rome, seated on armour, to I. ; in right hand, temple ; in left hand, hasta. 



AY. K. M, AYP. C60Y 

NAIiiN r. NeOKOPQN 



right hand, patera ; left elbow resting on pelta or Amazonian shield. 
type from the B. M. 



Ehctro- 



2^ote. With the exception of the preceding coin of Faustina Senior, this is the earliest on which we 

find such honours conferred upon the Amazon Smyrna. All the prior imperial reverses relate to the wor- 
ship of Cybele, Nemesis, Jupiter, Hercules, Homer, and all the autonomous coins bearing the head of the 
Amazon identified with the city, are of later date. There can be no doubt, therefore, that the tur- 
reted female head on the earlier coins of Smyrna is intended for that of Cybele, or Sipylene as she 
was commonly called at Smyrna and Magnesia. 



Severm Alexandrus. 

AAeSANAPOC. Head of Severus Alexander to r. R. CMYP- 
The two Nemeses opposed. 



Julia Mamcea. 

lOYAIA M . . 6A ceSACTH. Head of Julia Mamsea to r. R. CMYPNAIiiN r. 
NeiiKOPilN en. CTP. ANTIOXOY, Turreted female figure, in short tunic, 
standing to I. ; in right hand, tetrastyle temple ; in left hand, bipennis, pelta, 
and chlamys ; at feet, prow to I. (Amazon Smyrna). 

lOY. MAMGA CGBACTH. Same type. li. CMYPNAiaN T. NGiiKOPflN. Her- 
cules standing to I., as before. 



A. K. MAKIMeiNOC K. 
Maximus opposed. R 



Maximinm and Maximus. 

MASIMOC KAI(<Tapeg). Head 
CMYPNAiaN r. NGilKOPilN. 



of Maximinus and 
Same type. 



of 



Gordianm Junior. 



AY. KAI. M. ANT. rOPAIANOC. Head of Gordian Junior to r. R. CMYPNAI. 

OMONOIA ne-PINQI. en. MeNCKAeOYC. Amazon Smyrna standing to r. ; 

at her feet, prow ; on left shoulder, bipennis ; joining right hand with a draped 

and turreted female figure (Perinthus) standing to I. ; in left hand, rudder ; at 

her feet, prow ; in field to r., H. 
Another, without the H. 
A. KA. M. ANT. TOP . . . NOC Same type. R. CMYPNAIQN KOPQN. 

Fortune standing to I. in tetrastyle temple. 
AY. KAI. M. ANT, rOPAIANOC. Head of Gordian Junior to r. R. CMYPNAIQN 

en. T6PTIOY ACIAPXOY. Alexander the Great sleeping under a tree; the 

two Nemeses standing beside him. Electrotype from the B. M. 

Tranquillina. 

*OYPI. TPANKYAAeiNA C. Head of Tranquillina to r. R. CMYPNAIiiN r. 

NesiKOPiiN. Hercules to I. as before. 
*OYP. TPANKYAA6INA C. Same type. R. Similar legend and type, but in left 

hand, lion's skin instead of chlamys. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



123 



Metal 



M 



M 



Size 



Weight 



M 

M 
M 

M 

M 

M 
M 



5 

4 
4 

4 
4 
5 



153-2 

155-2 
141-6 



M 



Gallienm. 
AYT. K. n. AIK. rAAAIHNOC. Head of Gallienus to r. R. CMYPNAIiiN r. 

NGSiK. en. C. CeSCTOY. Cybele seated to I. as before. 
AYT. K. no. AIKIN. rAAAIHNOC. Same type. R. CMYPNAlSiN T. N6QK. GH. 

OH. CeaCTOY. Same type. 

SOLI Ciliciffi. 

Note. — Soli was one of the early Greek settlements on the Pamphilo-Cilician coast, the flourishing 
state of which in times prior to the Macedonian conquest is proved from its coins. The other cities, 
of which similar evidence is extant, are Side, Holmi, Nagidus, and Celenderis. The founders of 
Soli were Achseans and Rhodians of Lindus (Strabo, p. 671) ; this is confirmed by a coin inscribed 
20AEQN, bearing as types a radiate head of Apollo and the Rhodian flower (Mionnet, iii. p. 612). 
Soli was restored by Pompeiug after his conquest of the pirates, and then assumed the name, first of 
Solopolis, and then of Pompeiopohs, under which latter there is a long series of imperial coins. The 
ruins of this city, which have been described by Sir F. Beaufort (Karamania, c. 12), are interesting 
as well for their extent as from the certainty of their date. 

Head of Pallas to r., with gryphon to r. on helmet. R. SOAIOr^. Vine-branch 

with grapes between two leaves ; in field to r., a crescent. Electrotype from 

the Pembroke Collection (1018). 
Same type. R. SOAIKON surrounding a quad, incus., in which is a bunch of grapes 

and TIM. 
Same type. R. SOAIK. Bunch of grapes between vine-leaf and tendril. Plated 

coin. 
Head of Pallas to r. R. 20AEliN. Bacchus, adv., in pointed cap and long 

drapery ; in right hand, cantharus, below which, M6 in mon. ; in left hand, 

hasta ; in field to ?., mon. 83. 
Female head, with sphendone, to r, R. 20Ae£tN. Cornucopise containing fruits ; 

in field to I., 0. 
Veiled and turreted female head to r. R. 20AGiiN. Bonnets of the Dioscuri; 

below, AI. 
Head of Cn. Pompeius to r. ; behind it, NY. R. [n0Mn]HI0n0AITi2N. Victory 

stepping to r. ; in field, a mon. and in. 

STECTORIUM Phrygife. 

Nate. — Stectorium, of which there are autonomous coins, as well as imperial as late as the Philips, 
was noted for a monument of Coroebus, son of Mygdon (Pausan. Phocic, 27). In Ptolemy the name 
occurs between those of Blaundus and Philomelium, Silbium alone intervening. From this location, 
compared with Hierocles, wlio places this city in Phrygia Salutaris, and the cotemporary episcopal 
catalogue, in which Stectorium occurs as a bishopric under the metropolitan of Synnada, we may 
deduce that it stood in that insufficiently explored country which lies to the west and south-west of 
the Sultan dagh, 

AHMOC CTCKTOPHNQN. Laureate youthful male head to r. R. AIT. *A. 
CHCTIAAIANOY. Fortune standing to I. From the Pembroke Collection 
(1248). 

STRATONICEIA Carije. 

Note. — Stratoniceia was founded by Antiochus I., and named in honour of his wife Stratonice. 
One of its earlier names was Chrysaoris, from Chrysaor, who, together with Pegasus, was said to have 
arisen from the blood of Medusa when beheaded by Perseus. Hence the Pegasus on the coins of 
Stratoniceia. From Chrysaor the Jupiter of Stratoniceia was surnamed Chrysaoreus. Idrias 
appears to have been the appellation of the city until the time of Antiochus, and Idreus, son of 
Mausolus, to have derived his name from it, having perhaps been bom here. 



124 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 
M 



M 
JE 

JE 
M 



Size 

3- 



n 



M 



M 



11 



JE 



3+ 



Weight 

21-8 



21-3 



CKA . . AIOC. CIDCANAPOY. Head of Diana to r., surmounted by a crescent. 

R. CTPATONIKGiiN. Victory to r. ; in her uplifted right hand, crown ; in 

left hand, on shoulder, palm-branch. Electrotype from the B.M. 
Head of Jupiter to r. R. AIOrNHTOS. Eagle on fulmen to r. ; before it, cor- 

nucopise ; in field, on either side of eagle, 2T. Electrotype from the B. M. 
CTPATONeiKGilN. Altar with fire, between two lighted torches. R. Pegasus 

with curled wings, running to I. ; below, BGA in large letters. 
Head of Diana to r., with crescent as before. R. STPATONIKEQN. Pegasus 

with upright wings, running to I. 
Same type to r. in dotted circle. R. Same legend in two lines, between which, 

torch with cup and handle ; all in quad, incus. 

Note. — The altar with fire on one, and the torches on two of these coins, refer to the worship of He- 
cate, who had a celebrated temple at Lagena, in the district of Stratoniceia, where games were celebrated 
called the Hecatesia. On the other coins, the Diva Triformis appears in the character of Diana, 
identified with the moon. 

Trajanus. 

AY. NePBAN TPAIANON CG. Head of Trajan to r. R. INAei(«v) CTPA- 
TONGI(k£*)>'). Victory stepping to I. Electrotype from the B.M. 

Note. — The epithet here attached to Stratoniceia, is evidently for the purpose of distinguishing it 
from Stratoniceia Trpif Tif Tavpifi KaXov/ilvi) (Strabo, p. 660), but the origin of the epithet I have 
not been able to discover. Neither the sources nor any part of the course of the river Indus (now 
called Dolomon) was near Stratoniceia. 

Septimius Severm and Julia Domna. 

AY. K. Cen. CGYHPOC lOY .. A .... A. Heads of Septimius Severus and Julia 
Domna opposed ; countermark, female bust to r, R. eni nPY(rai'6'a)c) AEON- 
TOG OY CTPATONIKG. Hecate in long drapery, adv. ; in right hand, 

patera over altar ; in left hand, torch. 



SYNAUS Phrygiffi. 

Note. — From an inscription (No. 330) copied by Mr. W. J. Hamilton at Simafil, recording that the 
monument was erected by Stephanus, bishop of Synaus, there can be little doubt that Simaril, which 
stands on the highlands separating the sources of the Macestus from those of the Hermus, is on or 
near the site of Synaus. 

[Pa]MH. Turreted female head to r. R. CYNAGITiiN. Asclepius standing, adv. ; 
right hand in drapery ; left hand resting on staff" with serpent. 



SYNNADA Phrygise. 

I^ate. — I have before adverted to the importance of Synnada with reference to the geography of 
the surrounding country (Asia Miaor, pp. 54, 164), and remarked that the quarries which I ob- 
served on the road from Kosru Khan to Bulwudun were probably those of the Docimite marble, which, 
having also been called Synnadic from the chief city of the district in which Docimium stood, was a 
proof that Synnada could not have been very far distant from those quarries. From Strabo (p. 577) it 
would appear that the distance was not much greater than sixty stades. It is now ascertained that 
some of the quarries are about ten geographical miles in direct distance from Afiom Kara-hiss4r, to 
the northward. With this modern town, therefore, I am now disposed to identify Synnada. The 
natural advantages of the situation, the fact of Synnada having been the chief place of a conventus 
juridicus under the Roman emperors, and a metropolitan bishoprick under the Byzantine, favour the 
belief that its comparative superiority over the other places in this part of Asia Minor may have 
continued from those times to the present. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



125 



1 Metal 



Size 

4i 



Weight 



JE 
M 
M 



6+ 
6- 



Turreted female head to r. B- 2YNNAA. MAIANAP. 
right hand, fuhnen ; in left hand, hasta. 



Jupiter standing to I. ; in 



M 



6+ 



M 



JE 



iV^ofe.— Although the sources of a branch of the Mseander were very near to Synnada, there can be 
no doubt that the name Mteaudrus or Majandrius is here that of a magistrate. Vide Eclihel iii 
p. 173. 

Turreted female head to r. ; in field to r., small naked figure to I. R. CYNNA- 

A6iiN. Pallas standing to I. ; in right hand, ( ? ) ; in left hand, hasta ; at her 

feet, shield. 
BOYAH. Veiled and laureate female head to r. R. CYNNAAGilN. Draped female 

figure standing to I ; on head, modius ; in right hand, scales ; in left hand, cor- 

nucopise and drapery (Nemesis). 
CYNNAAeiiN. Bearded head of Hercules to r. R. AliPIGiiN liiNiiN. Symbol 

of Deity (Cybele ?) in a distyle temple ; having a circular pediment, in which is 

a star. 

Note. — From this coin we learn that a portion of the people of Synnada were of Doric the re- 
mainder of Ionic descent. From a coin of Macrinus, it appears that the deity held in peculiar 
honour by the former was Mars, bearing Minerva in his hand ; and by the Ionic portion, Nemesis or 
Fortune bearing Sarapis and having a prow at her feet. The deities common to both portions were 
Jupiter Pandemus, Cybele, Pallas, Nemesis, Lunus, Asclepius. Vide Mionnet, iv. p. 364 ; Sup. vii. 
p. 620. 

BOYAH. Veiled and laureate female head to r. R. CYNNAAGiiN AiiPieiiN. Hel- 
meted figure, in short tunic, to I. ; in extended right hand, palladium ; in left 
hand, hasta. 

Note. — This coin confirms the interpretation just given of the two figures with the legends re- 
spectively attached to them on the coin of Maci'inus. 



®EA PiiMH. Helmeted female head to r. 
Electrotype from the B. M. 



B. CYNNAAeaN. Two hands joined. 



Note. — This reverse has reference not to the double origin of the people, but to their alliance with 
the Romans. There are similar records of a avufiaxia between the two people on coins of Saga- 
lassus of a still later date than the present coin of Synnada. Mionnet, iii. p. 616. Sup. vii. p. 729. 



SYRIA in genere. 

Trajanus. 

Head of Trajan to r. 



AYTOKP. KAIC. N6P. TPAIANOC CGB. rePM. 

CYPIAC. Veiled and turreted female head to r. 



R. KOINON 



Note. — The style of this coin, and the similarity of the reverse to the heads of Antiocheia on the 
coins of that city about the time of Trajan, leave little doubt that it was struck at Antioeh, which 
was the residence of the Roman prefect of Syria. 

TAB^ Carise sive Phrygise. 

Note. — In Asia Minor (p. 173) I suggested that Dombai Ovasi, a valley to the north-eastward of 
Apameia Cibotus, was the Tabenus Campus of Strabo. The similarity of the ancient and modern 
names favoured this opinion, as well as that on two occasions Strabo mentions Tabse in conjunction 
with Peltse, which was not far from Apameia to the northward. There is reason to believe, however, 
that Dombai is not a Greek corruption, but a word of Turcoman origin (Hamilton's Asia Minor, 
p. 142). After all, therefore, D'Anville was probably right in placing Tabse at Davas, which name, 
in fact, is nothing else than Tabce in the usual Romaic form of the third case, with the modern pro- 
nunciation of B and of the initial T. Tabae appears, from the vague or incidental mention of it in 
Strabo and other writers, to have been not far from the frontiers of Caria, of Phrygia, and of Pisidia, 
and to have been beyond Aphrodisias with reference to Laodiceia ; in the Tabular Itinerary we may 

2i 



126 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


M 


4* 


41-3 


M 


Si 




M 

M 
M 


3i 
3i 
3 




M 


5i 




M 


5\ 




J& 


81 




M 


8 




M 
M 


5i 
5i 




M 


5i 




M 


4 





infer that it was not on the road from Perga to Laodiceia. Davas is described by Corancez (p. 432) 
as a large town commanding a view of an extensive plain, the Tajitivbv vidiov. The silver coins 
of TabsB are evidences of its comparative importance, and these, with its extensive plain, are in 
agreement with the large contribution in money and grain which the consul Manlius exacted from 
it. Livy, however, who relates these events, must have incorrectly interpreted his Greek authori- 
ties, when he described Tabse as situated " in finibus Pisidarum in ea parte quS vergit in Pamphy- 
Hum mare." Neither Dombai nor Davas are less than 100 miles distant from the nearest point of 
the Pamphylian sea. 

Bearded head of Hercules to r. in dotted circle. B. APTEMiiN IIAniOY APfj^ui/) 
TABHNiiN. Diana Ephesia, adv. ; in field to L, star; in field to r., crescent. 

Head of bearded Bacchus, with hair in ringlets and crown of ivy, to r. R. TABH- 
NilN. Bonnets of the Dioscuri surmounted by stars ; in field, KO. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field, MI, 

Head of Pallas to r. R. TABHNaN. Same type. 

TABHNON. Female bust, with modius on head, to r. B;. AIA OP. IG. (OP0PIOY 
lePSlNOC). Bonnets of the Dioscuri, surmounted by stars, on an altar. 

Note. — The name of Orthrius Hieron is found at length on coins of Tabae of the reigns of Domi- 
tianus and Domitia. Mionnet, Sup. vi. p. 547. 



lePOC AHMOC. Beardless male head to r.: 
NiiN. Fortune standing to I. 



in field to r., mon. 84. R. TABH- 



Septimius Severus. 

A. cen. CG Head of Sept. Severus to r. R, TAEHNQN. Ascle- 

plus, adv., looking to r., half-draped ; right hand resting on hip ; left arm sup- 
ported by staff with serpent ; in field to I., garland. 

Gefa. 

AYTO. no. cenx. rGXAC. Head of Geta to r. R. APX. CT. AnOAAQNIOY 
TABHNQN. Fortune standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left hand, cor- 
nucopias. 

Gallienus. 

AY. KAI. no. AIK. rAAAIHNOC. Head of Gallienus to r. R. ent APX. lATPO- 
KAGOYC XABHNSiN. Half-draped Bacchus to I. ; in right hand, grapes ; in 
left hand, thyrsus ; at his feet, panther looking up ; in field, CT. 

Salonina. 

lOYA. KOPN. CAAaNINA. Head of Salonina to r. R. TABHNQN, Fortune to I. 
lOYAI. KOP. CAAiiNINA. Bust of Salonina, on either side of which appears the 

horn of a crescent ; behind the neck, mon. 84. R. Same legend and type. 
Another. 

TABALA Lydiae. 

Note. — Nothing is known of this city but from its coins. From some of these, which represent 
a river-god with the legend 6PM0C, we learn that Tabala was situated in the great valley of the 
Hermus, where the sites of several other cities which coined money require to be ascertained, as 
well as that of Tabala. 

LYNKAHTOC. Youthful head to r. (Senate of Tabala.) R. TABAAGfllN. River- 
god, seated on the ground, to I. ; in right hand, reed ; in left hand, cornuco- 
pise and vase ; below, 6PM00. Electrotype from the B. M. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



J 27 



Metal 



Size 



Weight 



M 



168-3 



M 



M 



M 
M 

M 



166-2 



5i 



157-9 



5 
5i 



156-3 
260-9 

162-4 



M 



M 



263-2 



H 



TARSUS Ciliciffi. 

Note. — Tarsus preserves its original name, and is still the largest town in Cilicia, though deprived 
of its ancient harbour by the alluvion of the Cydnus, which had already in the time of Strabo eon- 
verted it into a lagoon, and has now placed the town at twice its former distance from the sea. 
Tarsus was a Phoenician city of remote antiquity. After the conquest of Cilicia and Syria by the 
Assyrians, in the eighth century before Christ, it became the capital of a dependent principality of 
the Assyrian monarchs until the overthrow of that empire, when its allegiance was transferred to 
Persia, and so continued imtil the Macedonian conquest. At the time of the expedition of Xeno- 
phon and the Ten Thousand, Tarsus was the residence of a prince of Cilicia, whom the Greeks called 
Syennesis. It was one of the few Phoenician cities which preserved the use of the Phoenician lan- 
guage on its coins as late as the Seleucid dynasty, though the Greek colony which it received from 
Argos long before the Assyrian conquest was never extinct, nor the usual memorials of their descent 
obsolete. The Tarsian coins of Roman times present frequent allusions to the Argive lieroes Her- 
cules and Perseus. 

Six PhcEnician letters (Baal-Tars). Half-draped and bearded male figure (Jupiter 
Tarsius) seated to I. on a throne with a back ending in bird's head ; in right 
hand, hasta, on summit of which, eagle with spread wings ; in field to I., ear of 
corn and vine with grapes ; below throne, a Phoenician M. B. Nineteen Phoe- 
nician letters. Lion to I., seizing with fore-paws by the back of the neck a 
bull kneeling to r. ; below these a line of walls with four towers, and under it 
another similar line. From the Pembroke Collection (1201). 

Note. — These nineteen Phoenician letters compose, according to the Duke de Luynes (Satrapies et 
Phoenicie, p. 30), six words, expressing that " this leonine money was struck by Absohar, prince of 
Cihcia Campestris." The present specimen is proved to have had currency under the Persian go- 
yemment by an incision through it extending to the centre, such as is found in many instances 
on the Greek money of places where the Persians governed. A similar incision or impression is 
often found on old Mahometan Persian money, and is still known in the East as the Shroff's mark. 
As might be expected, it is common on Cilioian silver of Persian times. In the plates of those 
coins, in the above-named work of the Duke de Luynes, there are no less than fifteen with this 
barbarous Persian countermark. 

Similar type, but throne without back, and in the right hand of Jupiter, ear of 
corn, and grapes, upon which stands eagle to r. ; in field below, <T ; under 
throne, Phoenician M as before. R. Phoenician legend almost defaced. Lion 
seizing bull as before, but bull prostrate, and lion as well as bull to I. 

Head of Pallas, adv., towards I. R. Jupiter Tarsius seated to I. ; in right hand, 
sceptre ; before him, grapes and ear of corn ; in field to r., B ; below throne, 
Greek M. 

Another similar. 

Jupiter Tarsius, seated on throne without back to I., nothing in field. R. Lion 
stepping to I. ; above, mon. 85. 

TEPSIKON. Female head to ?., with decorated crown, ear-rings, and necklace. 
B. Hercules, one knee on the ground, strangling the lion. Electrotype from 
the Bibliothlque Nationale. 

Note. — TipaiKov (soil, vo/wriia). This form is instanced also in the neighbouring cities of Soli and 
Nagidus, and seems to be an imitation of the 'ApKaSiKov of the Peloponnesus, from whence came the 
colonies. The female head, intended probably for Juno of Argos, resembles exactly in style that of 
Venus as represented on coins of Paphus (tid^ Borrell, Mgdailles des Rois de Cypre ; Mionnet, Sup. 
vii. PI. p. 310), the date of one of which is known by the name of Nicocles, who governed Paphus 
soon after the time of Alexander. Thence we may infer that the coin inscribed Ttpaiicov was struck 
not long after Persian domination had ceased at Tarsus. 

Turreted female head to r. B. TAPSEii[N]. Letters indistinct. Apollo, seated 
on covered cortina, to r. ; in left hand, lyre ; in right hand, plectrum ; in field 
to r., A. M. and AP (in mon.), one above the other. Electrotype from the same 
Collection. 

Turreted female head to r. ; at the back of it, countermark. R. TAPSEiiN. Jupiter 
Tarsius seated to I. ; behind, letters effaced. 



128 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 

M 



M 



Size 

4 



Weight 



M 



M 



M 
M 

M 



M 

M 

M 



H 



^ 



4.1 



3i 



Veiled and turreted female head to r. B. TAP2EilN. Naked human figure standing 
to r. on the back of a horned horse ; right hand held up ; in left hand, ? ; in 
field to I., AO, (in mon.) M. 

Similar type. B. Similar figure bearded, with modius on the head, standing on the 
back of a monster, having the head of a lion with horns, the wings of a bird, the 
body and tail of a lion ; right hand of the human figure held up ; in left hand, 
bipennis; in field to I., E, below which, AH (in mon.). 

Note. — From Hunter, Mionnet, and specimens in the B. M., it appears, that a crown often accom- 
panies the bipennis in the left hand of this figure. 

Veiled and turreted female head to r. R. TAPSEON. A figure standing to r. on a 
horned horse within a triangle on a lofty basis adorned with festoons ; in each 
of the lower angles of the triangle, an altar ; in field to I., AP. AP. AI. 0. On 
the apex of the triangle an eagle with expanded wings on a basis. 

Note. — This appears to be nothing more than the type of the preceding Reverse in a shrine 
or small pyramidal temple. It has generally been supposed to represent the monument of Sarda- 
napalus, upon which stood the statue of a man' snapping his fingers, with a well-known inscription 
in Assyrian (cuneiform) letters, which boasted that Tarsus as well as Anchiale had been built in one 
day by Sardanapalus. The story, however, rests solely on the authority of Aristobulus of Cassandria, 
who wrote his history in extreme old age, and whose only claim to confidence rests on his having 
been son of an Aristobulus who accompanied Alexander. Strabo takes care to state that he only 
repeats Aristobulus, and introduces his mention of the inscription with an ivwi ipaai; nor does 
Arrian treat the building of Anchiale by Sardanapalus as any thing more than a Xoyog. From 
Amyntas, cited by Athenoeus, it seems probable that, if ever there was such a monument, it was 
not at Anchiale, but at Nineveh. No one states it to have been at Tarsus, and even had the people 
of that city claimed Sardanapalus for their KriarriQ, as the monument is said to have boasted, 
they would hardly have placed his sepulchral monument on their money as a memorial of the 
fact, which, at most, was a restoration or revival. Tarsus having been a Phoenician city long before 
the time of Sardanapalus, and which, after the fall of the Assyrian empire, cannot have had any 
motive for preserving the memory of its subjection to that empire. Even of the long domination 
of the Persians in Asia Minor, there remain few memorials on its money, and not a single legend in 
the Assyrian character, which was then in use in Persia. 

Another similar, but on the summit of pyramid, eagle with open wings to r. ; in 
field to I., letters not quite the same, but disposed the one above the other as 
before. 

Another similar, but monograms defaced. 

Veiled and turreted female head to r. R. Same legend and similar type, but in field 
to I., KA (in mon.), HP (in mon.). 

Same legend and similar types ; but the pyramid has a higher basis, on which there 
is a representation of four nymphs joining hands and dancing ; in field to I., AP 
in mon., ANK in mon., and mon. 86, one above the other. Electrotype from the 
Pemhroke Collection (1003). 

Note. — The beast in this and the preceding specimen has more the appearance of a lion than a 
horse, which agrees with Hunter, Tab. 56, figures 20, 21, 22, in all which the animal appears to be a 
lion with the horns of a goat. In every example, the right hand of the human figure is held up, and 
has nothing in it, the attitude being the same as that of the deified emperors in their so-called 
character of pacificators ; in the left hand, the objects vary, a patera, a bipennis, javelins, or a crown. 
Vide Mionnet, iii. p. 621. I have already remarked (under Seleucus I.) that the horse with the 
horns of a bull was a mixed Greek and Assyrian symbol of solar worship. The lion and the gryphon 
were equally types of the sun. The figure standing on the back of the horned quadruped therefore 
may be considered as Mithras, of whose worship there are other proofs on Tarsian coins of a late 
date, or it may be called an Apollo Tarsius ; that is to say, Baal Tars in a different capacity from 
that in which he appears on the silver coins of Tarsus, where the figure of Jupiter is accompanied 
by symbols of Bacchus and Ceres. 

TAPSEQN. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I. R. Club bound with ribbons in a 

wreath of oak ; in field on either side, monograms. 
Same type. R. Same type. In field to L, H above M ; to r., TP, (in mon.) O. 
AAPIANiiN TAPCeilN. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I. ; Victory presenting to 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



129 



Metal 



JE 



Size 



Weight 



JE 



JR 



H 



^ 



M 10- 



JE 



JE 



M 



M 



9+ 



101 



10 



10 



him a crown. R. MUTPonOAeiiC in two lines. Veiled and turreted female 
(Tarsus) seated to r. ; in right hand, ears of corn ; at feet, river-god (Cydnus) 
swimming to r. ; the whole in a wreath. 
A API AN HC TAPCOY. Bearded and laureate head of Hercules to r. ; on left 
shoulder, club. B. MHTPOnOAeiii:. Perseus standing to I; in extended 
right hand, a small statue on a globe or base ; in left hand, harpa ; round neck, 
chiamys. 

Commodus and Antoninus, 
Twin sons of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior, 

[KOPOI] CGBACTOY. Puerile busts of Commodus and Antoninus Geminus 
opposed ; between them, a star ; below which, caduceus and club crossed. 
R. TAPCOY MHTPOnOAeSiC. Decastyle temple, adv. ; on the frize, ROINON 
KIAI. 

Hadrianus. 

AYT. KAI. ©E. TPA. DAP. YI. 0E. NEP. YI. TPAI. AAPIANOC EE. (Avroicparopoc 
KaiVc/pog ®iov TpaVai'oS WapdiKov vtog, @eov Nt'p/Sa v'iwvoq, Tpaiavoj 'ASpiavog StjSaoroc.) 
Head of Hadrian to r. R. TAPEEilN MHTPOnOAEilE. Male figure to r., 
crowned with tiara and in Persian dress, with quiver and sword behind his left 
shoulder, extending his right hand, holding a bipennis and crown in his left, and 
standing upon the back of a horned lion. Electrotype. 

Note. — This reverse proves the Oriental origin of the Tarsian deity represented on so many of its 
coins, and may justify us in identifying it with Mithras, who is represented in the same attitude on 
some of the Assyx-ian or Babylonian cylinders. 

Caracalla. 

AYT. KAI. M. AYP. CCYOHPOG ANTilNeiNOG CGB. n. n. Head of Caracalla to I. 
R. [ANTQJNINIANHC CGYH. AAP. MHTP. TAPGOY. Hercules raising Antseus 
from the earth, holding him by the middle, and by the same action confining 
his hands ; both figures to I. ; behind Hercules, club ; in field, 9. A., and 
below, 51. 

Macrinus. 

[AYT. KAI.] M. one. GGY. MAKPGINOC. Bust of Macrinus to r. R. [CGYH.] 

MAKP6INIANHC MH Apollo standing to I. ; in right hand, branch (?) ; 

on left arm, chiamys ; on left shoulder, quiver ; in field to I., A. M. K. {'Aplffrric 
Mcylar-qg KiXidag) ; in field tO /"., T. B. (rpa/jyuan BouXqc-) 

Julia Mamwa. 

lOY. MAME. EGBA. Head of Julia Mamaa to r. R EEY. 

METPO. . . M. TAPEEaN. Pallas seated to I., and with right hand dropping 
a ballot into a vase ; in left hand, cornucopiae ; in field to I., [KOINOBOuXiov] 
6AGY0GPON ; in field to r., V. B, 

Maximinus. 
[AYT. K. r. lOY.] OYH. MAffiIM[6IN0C GGB. H. H.] Head of Maximinus to r. 

R. TAPCO MH Hercules naked, adv., looking to r. ; left 

arm on club ; in field to I., A. M. K. ; in field to r., r. [B.] 

Gordianus Junior. 

AYT. K. M. ANTaNIOG EOPAIANOC C6B. H. n. Radiate bust of Gordian 
to r. R. TAPGOY MHTPonOAenG. Mithras to r., head radiate, wearing 
a cuirass ; chiamys flying behind him ; kneeling with left knee on the back of a 
bull prostrate to r. ; with left hand holds the bull's muzzle ; and in extended 
right hand, a knife ; in field to I., A. M. K. ; to r., r. B. 

AYT. K. M. ANT. EOPAIANOC C€B. 11. H. Radiate head of Gordian to r. 
R. TAPCOY MHTPOnOAGiiC. Lion seizing prostrate bull by back of neck; 
both to r.; in field, A. M. K. 

2k 



130 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metol 

M 






M 



/E 



M 



JE 



M 






Size 

9i 



10 

10+ 
10 



Weight 



H 



7i 



10 



AYT. K. ANT. TOPAIANOC EI. 11. Same type. B. Same legend. Perseu8 standing 
to r., in loose drapery, and with wings to his feet ; in right hand, harpa ; in 
raised left hand, small figure ; opposed to him stands a male figure in short 
tunic, holding by both hands, obliquely, a rod ; at the upper end of which hangs 
a basket, at the lower, two fishes ; between the two figures, r. B. 

Same legend and type. B. Same legend. The Emperor togated and Tranquillina 
joining right hands ; the former to r. ' 

Another similar. 

Same legend and type. B. Same legend, 
standing to I. ; in field to I., A. M. K. 



between them, A. M. K. r. B. 



Hercules standing to r., strangling lion 
in field to r., r. B. ; in exergue, club. 



Tranquillina. 

[GABeilNAN TPANKYAAei[NAN C6B.] Head of Tranquillina to r. B. Same 
legend. An acute triangular shrine upon two steps, contains a human figure 
standing on a quadruped to L, and is covered by a semicircular roof or arch sup- 
ported at either side by a column, or a human figure; on apex of triangle, 
eagle with open wings ; in field within the arch, to ^., A. M. K. ; to r., r. B. 

Oiacilia. 

[ilTAKIA.] CGYHPAN 6YT. GYC. CGB. Bust of Otacilia to r. B. Same legend. 
Pallas to I. ; in right hand, hasta ; left hand on shield ; in field on either side, 
the same five letters. 

Trajanus Decius. 

AY. KAI. r. MGC. KYIN. AGKIOC TPAIANOC n. n. Bust of Trajan Decius to r. 
B- Same legend. The three Graces, with arms entwined ; in the right hand of 
the first, flower; in left hand of the third, grapes; above the figures, r. B; 
in exergue, A. M. K. 

Herennius Etruscus. 

AYT. K. KYIN. GPGNNIO . GTPOYC. AGKION CG. Bust of Herennius Etruscus to r. 
B. TAPCOY MHTPOnOAe. A triangular shrine on a basis, contains a figure 
standing on a quadruped to I. ; on either side of the shrine, a human figure, 
adv. ; these stand upon the ends of a lower basis, and look towards each 
other, and each with one hand holds up the end of a garland, which forms an 
arch over the shrine ; in field to I., within the arch, A, M. K. ; to r., T. B. 

Note. — On a similar coin of M. Aurelius in the B. M., the two human figures have wings, and 
support, lilie columns, the ends of an arch of masoniy. 

Trehonianm G alius. 

BQNIA n. n. Radiate bust of Trebonianus Gallus to r. 

B. TAPCOY MHTPOnOACac. Diana standing to r. ; right hand to quiver 
on shoulder ; in left hand, bow ; in field, the same five letters disposed as before. 

Cornelia Supera. 

KOPNHAIAN C Bust of Cornelia Supera to r. ; behind the neck, a 

crescent. B. Same legend ; female figure in long drapery, stepping to r. ; 
right hand extended ; in field, . M. K. r. . 



9i 



Valerianm. 

AY. KAI. n. QYAAGPIANON eY(r'vx»)i') GYCGC/Jijc) n 

rian to r. B. Same legend. Fortune to I. ; 

disposed as before. 
Same legend and type. B. TAPCOY MHTPOnOA. A. M. K. In field, r. B, 

Diana standing to r. ; right hand to quiver on shoulder ; in left hand, bow. 



n. Radiate bust of Vale- 
in field, the same five letters 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



131 



Metal Size Weight 



JE 



JE 

M 
M 



JE 
JE 



JE 
JE 



JR 



2- 

3i 



4-1 
4- 



H 



183-1 



TEMENOTHYR^ Lydiie. 

Njte.—Vfe lenrn from Pausaniaa (Attic. 35) that Temenothyree was a small city of Upper Lydia 
(dvoi Avdiag), by which we may suppose him to have meant, especially as he was himself a resident 
of Magnesia ad Sipylum, the country watered by the tributaries of the Hermus beyond Sardes. All 
else we know of Temenothyree is that the people claimed a Temenus for their founder (Mionnet, iv. 
p. 147), that it was a bishopric as early as the Council of Chalcedon in the fifth century, but that its 
name is not found in the catalogue of the bishoprics between the times of Leo Sapiens and Andro- 
nicus Palseologus. The discovery at Temenothyree, mentioned by Pausanias, of gigantic fossil bones, 
mistaken for human, may possibly interest geologists to assist in fixing the site. 

Valerianus. 

nOY. 0YAA6PIAN0C (double struck). Bust of Valerian to r. R. KAGO- 
BOYAOC (dv£0i)t.f) THMeNO0YPeYCIN. Naked Hercules standing, adv., looking 
to I. ; in right hand, club resting on the ground ; on left arm, lion's skin. 



TEMNUS sive TAMNE ^olidis. 

Note. — It appears from the Tabular Itinerary that Temnus was on the road from Smyrna to Cyme, 
and from Pausanias (Eliae. pr. c. 13), the best authority for this part of Asia Minor, that it was to 
the right of the Hermus, but its exact situation, like that of most of the cities of .(Eolis, has not yet 
been determined. 

Head of Apollo to r. R. TA[M]NAIfiN. Draped figure, with modius on head, 
standing to r. ; in extended left hand, quadruped to r. ; in field to r., 1 1. 

Head of Bacchus to r. R. TA. Grapes, with stem and tendril. 

ArNOG ACINIOC TAAAOO. Head of Augustus to r. R. AnOAAAC *AINIOY 
TAMNITAN. Head of Bacchus to r. 

Note. — Caius Asinius Gallus was Consul in the year 8 B.C., and afterwards Proconsul in Asia, as 
appears from this and other coins of Temnus of the reign of Augustus (Mionnet, iii. p. 28 ; Sup. vi. 
p. 41). On the present specimen the Temnitte seem to have substituted the complimentary epithet 
ATNOC for the praenomen TAIOC. 

lePA CYNKAHTOC. Youthful male head (Roman Senate) to r. R. en. 

CT(t)aTt)yuv) T. ANTilNGINOY THMNGIT. Two Nemeses opposed. 
I6FA BOYAH. Laureate female head to r. (Sacred Council of Temnus.) 

R. THMNGITiiN. Cybele seated to I.; in right hand, patera; left elbow on 

tympanum ; at feet, lion to I. 
THMNOC. Turreted female bust to r. R. THMNEITiiN. Fortune standing to I. 
Two others similar. 



TEOS Ionia. 

Note. — Teos, or Tens (T^oj, lonice Tlwc), was among the places visited by the first mission of the 
Society of Dilettanti in 1 764 ; its remains, as existing at that time, have been described by Chandler 
(c.27), and in the first volume of the Ionian Antiquities published by the Society ; the principal building 
was the hexastyle temple of Bacchus, one of the most renowned specimens of the Ionic order, built by 
Hermogenes of Alabanda, who wrote a treatise upon it, mentioned by Vitruvius (3, 2, Prsef. i. 7). 

Gryphon with curled wings, open mouth, and tongue protruded, seated to r. ; left 
fore paw raised; in field to r., grapes upon a vine-branch. R. Quad, incus, 
divided by cross bars into four squares. 

Note. — The gryphon was a type of the Sun or Apollo, but as Apollo was sometimes identified with 
Bacchus, and in Asia Minor has generally the same feminine countenance, with long hair in ringlets. 



132 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



M 



M 
M 
M 

M 
JE 
JE 
M 
M 



M 



JE 



JE 
JE 

JE 



Size Weight 



56-2 



2 

H 

1 

1 

2 

3i 



21 

■^2 



m 



7- 



54-9 
21-5 
17-5 



and distinguished only by the garland of ivy instead of bay, it is not surprising to find the gryphon on 
the coins of a city where Bacchus was held in the highest honour. The Indian, or bearded Bacchus, 
is of a different character, and is not found on the coins of Teos. 

Gryphon with common wings, seated to r. as before, but mouth not so widely 
opened, nor is tongue protruded. R. Quad, incus, divided as before, the four 
compartments granulated ; on one of the bars of separation, AFNiiN ; on the 
other, THiaN. 

Same type. R. THI. APISTiiN. Diota. 

Same type. B. THI. AHMO. Diota. 

Same type. B, THI. AQHNAroPHS. Lyre of one chord. 

Beardless male head (Bacchus ?) to r. B. TE. Lyre. 

Gryphon seated to r. B. THISl . . Diota. 

Same type. B. UYeOAOTOS THt . . Lyre of three chords. 

Gryphon walking to r, B. THIQN in two lines in a wreath of ivy. 

Gryphon running to r. B. THiaN[0]NHSIMOS. Lyre of three chords, each side 
terminating in the head of a swan. 

Octavia. 

OKTABIA. Head of Octavia to r. B. THIilN. Half-draped Bacchus standing 
to /. ; in right hand, cup ; in left hand, thyrsus. 

Sept. Severus. 

AYT. KAI. 06. CeOYHPOC HG?. Bustof Sept. Severusto r. B- 601. CT. TI. KA. 
ueiCiiNeiKOY THIiiN. Half-draped Bacchus standing to I.; in right hand, 
cantharum, held as usual as if to express a pouring out of wine or oblation ; 
in left hand, hasta ; at his feet, gryphon to /. looking up and with fore 
paw raised. 

Note. — Here we find the gryphon an attendant of Bacchus. 

Julia Domna. 

lOYAIA AOMNA C€ B. Head of Julia Domna to r. ; in front of the neck, a counter- 
mark. B. 6 ni CTPA. r. MH . . . . OY THIflN. Fortune standing to I. 

Head of Julia Domna to r. ; countermark in same place. 

B Cybele (?) seated on throne to I. ; in exergue, THIQN. 

Gallienus, 

AYT. K. no. AIKI. rAAAIHNOC. Head of Gallienus to r. B- CT. ce«. AOYKIOY 
THIQN. Fortune standing to I. 

Salonina. 
KOPNH. GAAONeiNA. Head of Salonina to r. B. Same legend and type. 



TERMESSUS Pisidia. 

Note. — Termessus means a city or fortress at a boundary or in a pass. There were two towns of this 
name in Pisidia, and the positions of both are ascertained by their ruins. One was situated on a summit 
of Mount Solyraa, 4000 feet above the sea ; its people styled themselves the greater Termessians, and 
apparently not without reason, for its ruins are some of the most remarkable in Asia Minor. The other 
Termessus stood at the entrance of the pass which leads from the Pamphylian plains into Pisidia. As this 
was exactly in the direction of Alexander's route into Phrygia, it was evidently by the pass of the lesser 
Termessus that Alexander forced his way into that province, and the place from whence he marched to 
Sagalassus (Arrian, i. 27). The pass of the greater Termessus, if pass it can be called, led only into 
some of the elevated valleys on the northern side of Lycia, and it is even questionable whether the 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



133 



Metal Size 



M 





3i 

4 
4 
2i 


m 


7+ 


M 


4 


M 


n 


M 


10 



M 



M 



M 



3+ 



5i 



4i 



Weight 



town existed in the time of Alexander, for all the ruins, coins, and inscriptions of Termessus are of 
Roman date. From Strabo (pp. G30, (531) and from the extant ruins of Termessus and Cibyra, we 
may mfer that in his time those two states were in the height of their prosperity, and that the terri- 
tory of Termessus bordered upon that of Cibyra, though the two cities were fifty miles apart. Strabo 
describes Termessus very correctly as situated on the heights of Mount Solymus, immediately below 
the summit. He adds that the people were called Solymi ; accordingly we find ZeYC COATMeYC 
noticed on the coins and in the inscriptions of Termessus, and the hero COAYMOC represented on 
some of its coins (Mionnet, Sup. vii. pp. 138, 139). The only easy mode of accounting for the exist, 
ence of two Greek towns of the same name within twenty geographical miles of each other, is to sup- 
pose that the greater was a colony of the less, which in dangerous times retired from an exposed to a 
more secure situation, and by means of that security arrived at a much greater splendour and mag- 
nitude than the mother city. If any coins of Termessus of an early style of art should occur, they 
ought probably to be attributed to Termessus Minor. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. TEP. Fore-part of bridled horse galloping to I ; behind, 

winged fulmen ; in field, KO (29). 
Same type. R. TEP. Free horse galloping to I ; in field, A. 
Another similar, but in field, 0. 

Head of Jupiter to I. in dotted circle. R. TePMHCCeiiN. Free horse galloping to r. 
Head of Hercules to r. ; on shoulder, club ; in dotted circle. R. TEPMHCEilN. 

Asclepius adv., looking to I. 
TGPMHCCeuN. Head of Jupiter to r. ; below, ©. R. AYTONOMiiN. Fortune 

standing to I. ; in field to I., O. 
TePMHCenN. Radiate head of Apollo to r. R. AYTONOMiiN. Half-draped 

figure of Bacchus standing to I. ; in right hand, cup ; in left hand, hasta. 
TePMHCCGiiN. Head of Jupiter to n ; below, e. R. TiiN MGlZONiiN. Fortune 

standing to I. ; in field, to r., 9. 
Same legend and type. R. TiiN MeiZONQN. Asclepius as usual, and Hygeia 

feeding serpent, looking towards each other ; between them, Telesphorus ; 

in exergue, ?. 
TePMHCCeilN. Bust of Hermes to I; behind the neck, caduceus. R. TQN 

MeiZONaN. R. Nemesis, adv., looking to I. ; right hand raised to her neck ; 

in left hand, bridle. 

Claudius. 
TIBEPIOS KAAYAI02 KAI2AP SEBASTOS. Head of Claudius to I R. AYTO- 

KPATOP nATHP DATPIAOS TEPMH Female figure, in long drapery, 

adv., towards r. ; both arms extended ; in the hands, ? 



Note.- 



THEBE Mysise. 

-Thebe (the Homeric 6^/3)) 'TvoirXaKia) stood about midway between Adramyttium and 



Antandrus, not far from the sea-shore at Chrysa, famous for its temple of Apollo Smintheus, and 
for having given birth to Chryseis. In the time of Strabo, Thebe was deserted, and Chrysa, with 
its temple of Apollo, was transferi-ed to the western coast of the Troas, not far to the southward of 
Alexandreia. The present coin of Thebe, therefore, is of earlier date than the geographer ; hence also 
on the coins of Adramyttium we find no honour given to Apollo Smintheus, the types recording 
chiefly its colonization from Athens. But the Adramytteni seem to have been proud of possessing 
the site of Thebe, and personified her on their coins. Vide Adramyttium. 

OHBAIilN. Turreted female head to r. ; on the neck, mon. in quad, incus, as coun- 
termark. R. em CT(par?)7oi;) lAOY. Apollo Smintheus or Cillseus 

standing to r. 

THEMISONIUM Phrygiee. 

Note. — Themisonium appears from the Tabular Itinerary to have been in the road from Laodiceia 
ad Lycum to Perga, which sufficiently agrees with Strabo (p. 577), from whom we may infer that it 
lay to the southward or eastward of Laodiceia, as well as with Pausanias (Phocic. c. 32), who de- 
scribes it as virlp AaodiKiiae, and both of whom ascribe it to Phrygia. The number of M. P. 
between Laodiceia and Themisonium is omitted in the Table ; but the latter must have stood near 
the confines of Pisidia, as we find it in the ninth century among the cities of that province, and a 
bishoprick under the metropolian of Antiocheia. 

21 



134 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



iMetal 



JE 
M 

M 

M 

JE 

M 

M 
M 



Size 



JE 


3 


JE 


3 


JE 


4 


JE 


4i 


JE 


H 


JE 


n 


JE 


4i 



^ 



H 
H 

3 

3 
3 



Weight 



6+ 

7 



Head of Sarapis to r. R. ©CMIcnNeflN. Isis, adv., looking to I.; behind her 
shoulders, crescent ; in raised right hand, sistrum ; in pendent left hand, vase. 

THYATEIRA Lydise. 

Note. — Thyateira, situated on the ancient road from PergamuB to Laodiceia, and on the modem 
route from Smyrna to Constantinople, has been visited and described, and its inscriptions copied by a 
long succession of travellers, beginning with Smith, in 1671. 

Head of Diana to r. R. ©YATEIPHNilN. Bipennis. 

Same type ; behind the neck, bow. R. Same legend and type. 

Bust of Pallas to r. ; on breast, aegis with serpents ; behind her neck, obliquely, 

spear. R. Same legend. Pallas Nicephorus standing to I. 
Same type. R. Same legend. Fortune standing to I. 
Bearded head of Hercules to r, R. Same legend in two lines. Bipennis. 
Another. 
BOPeiTUNH. Bust of Diana to I.; on one side of her neck, bow; on the other, 

quiver. R. Same legend, encircling an eagle with open wings, standing adv., 

looking to I. 

Note. — Boreitene is a local epithet of Diana, derived perhaps from a mountain. 

Same legend and type. R. GYAT. K. CMYP. OMONOIA. (alliance of Smyrna and 
Thyateira.) Neptune naked, standing to r, ; right foot on prow ; in right 
hand, dolphin ; in left hand, trident ; all in dotted circle. 

©YAXeiPA. Turreted female head to r. R. OYATGlPlINaN. Eagle, with open 
wings, standing adv., looking to L 

Nero. 

NePflN KAAYA. KAICAP TCP. Head of Nero to r. R. Same legend in two lines. 

Bipennis. 
Another similar. 

Domitia. 

AOMITIA ceBACTU. Head of Domitia to n R. Same legend. Tripod. 
Another similar. 

Trajanus. 

. KAIC . NeP Head of Trajan to r. R. Same legend. Pallas 

standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ? ; in left hand, spear and shield. 



Caracalla. 

AYT. K. M. ANTaNCINOC. Bust of Caracalla 

(or Roma) Nicephorus seated to I. 
Another similar. 



to r. R. Same legend. Pallas 



TIBERIOPOLIS Phrygise. 

Note. — Sebaste, Tiberiopolis, and Trajanopolis, were three cities of the central part of Pbrygia, 
built in the time of the Roman empire, probably on three more ancient sites, the names of which 
it would be difficult to discover. The positions of Trajanopolis and Sebaste have been ascertained by 
Mr. W. J. Hamilton (i. pp. 116. 121). The name Tiberiopolis occurs in Ptolemy between those of 
Eumeneia and Blaundus ; and the site might be sought for within the triangle included by Ishekli 
(Eumeneia), Sulimanli (near Blaundus), and Sidjekldr (Sebaste), with the greater prospect of success, 
as Tiberiopolis appears from its coins to have flourished as late as Caracalla, is mentioned by Socrates 
in the Ecclesiastical History (1. 7, c. 46), and was a town and bishoprick of Pbrygia Pacatiana as 
late a^ the thirteenth century. 



lePA CYNKAHTOC. Youthful male head to r. 
adv. ; below, two stags. 



R. (TI)BePIOno(AITiiN). Hecate 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



135 



Metal 



JE 



Size 



4i 
*2 



Weight 



.E 



M 



M 



M 
M 
JE 

M 

M 



JE 
M 



6i 



2 

2* 
2+ 
3 

4-L 
*2 



H 



Si 
6 



Sabina. 

GCBAC. GABeiNA. Head of Sabina to n B. TIBePIOnOAITilN. Diana, in short 
tunic, standing to »• ; in left hand, bow ; right hand to quiver ; at feet, stag to r. 

TIUM Bithyniffi. 

Note.—Tmm was one of the numerous colonies of Miletus on the southern shore of the Euxine ; it 
stood on the river Billceus, on the confines of Paphlagonia, and near another river, Sardo, as appears 
from coins cited by Eckhel, ii. p. 439. The name of the town was said to have been derived from 
Teius, a priest of Miletus, who led the colony (Stephan. in v.). On some of the imperial coins of 
Tium, however, is the legend AIONTSOS KTI2TH2. 

TGIOC. Diademate youthful head of Tius to r. B. TIANQN. Caduceus between 

two cornuacopise. 

Hostilianus. 
r. OY. or. MEE. KYINTOE (Caius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus). Bust of 

Hostilianus to r. ; countermark, A. B. TIANnN. Nemesis standing to I. ; 

right hand raised ; in left hand, bridle ? ; at her feet, wheel. 

TRALLES Lydiffi. 

Note. — Tralles (al TpaXXecc) was colonized from Argos ; its original name is not certain. This 
colony having been joined by some of the Treres, a Thracian people, who, fieri rd TpiDiicd, invaded 
Asia Minor, forced the Dardanian princes to retire into the recesses of Ida, and having founded Tra- 
rium, near Perperene ; and another Trarium, also called Trallium, in the Gulf of Astacus, penetrated 
at length to the Meeander and occupied a part of that fertile valley. Here, according to Strabo, they 
prospered for a long time. They drove out the Magnetos, who were restored by the Milesii, but ap- 
pear to have effected an amicable union with the Argive colony of Tralles (Strabo, pp. 573. 607. 647. 
Ptolem. 5. 1. Stephan. in TpaXXiov). The worship of the Argive Jupiter Larissseus, or Aapdaiog ac- 
cording to the Trallian form, continued to prevail ; but the power of the Thracians was recorded in 
the name of the city, which is evidently derived from TpijpEf or Tpapcf by the easy and natural 
conversion of P into AA. The place was in the height of its later prosperity in the time of Strabo, 
when the Tralliani added to their name that of fCAISAPEIS, in consequence, probably, of assistance 
given to them by Augustus after one of the earthquakes to which the valley of the Maeander was 
pai-ticularly subject. 

Half-opened cistus, from which a serpent escapes, to I. ; all in a wreath of ivy. 

B- TPAA. Two serpents twined round a quiver, above which, rise their heads 

opposed ; between these, AION. ; in field to r., lyre. 
Head of Jupiter to r. B. TPAAAIANaN. Eagle, with open wings, standing to r. 

on fulmen ; in field to r., star ; countermark, head of an ox, adv. 
Same type. B- TPAA . . . NilN. Gibbous bull walking to I. ; before it, star. 
Another similar. 

Same type. B- TPA Tripod ; within a wreath. 

Bearded head of Hercules to r. B. TPAAAIANON. Telesphorus with horns, adv. 
Head of Apollo to r, B- . PAAAIA . . . Tripod ; in field, mon. ; all in wreath. 
Z6YC AAPACIOC. Bust of Jupiter to ?. B- TRAAAIANilN. Bacchus naked, «</■!;., 

looking to I. ; in right hand, raised to face, grapes ; in left hand, cantharum. 
TPAAAIANilN. Eagle on yoke of plough. B. KAICAPCilN. Victory to I. ; in 

extended right hand, crown. 
Same types, but on ohv. KAICAPeON ; on B. TPAAAIAN12N. 
TPAAAIANaN AIIMOG. Laureate male head to r. B. ZCYC 

PeiiN. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I. — This and the 

Electrotypes from the B.M. 
ICPOG AHMOC. Youthful male head (Roman People) to r. 

Lion standing to I. ; in its right fore-paw, prey. 
Same legend and type. B- TYXH TPAAAEiiN. Fortune standing to I. 



AAPACIOC KAICA- 
three preceding are 

B. TPAAAIANON. 



1S6 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 



JE 



Size 
10 



II 



Weight 



M 



M 



M 



JE 



M 



JE 



8-7 



lePA CYNKAHTOC. Veiled female head to r. (Roman Senate.) B. TPAAAIANON 
nPilTilN EAAAAOC. Table, on which are, to r., a decorated barrel-shaped 
vase inscribed DYQIA, to I., OAYMIIIA in a garland ; below the table, a vase. 
Elecirot^/pe. 

Same legend and type. B. TPAAAIANflN. Radiate half-draped figure in a quad- 
riga, right hand held out ; in left hand, ? ; below the horses, EIII (the ni in 
mon.), rP in mon. (ypa/x/ja7toc) M, AYP. EYNOOY. 

Note. — The extended right hand in this figure of Apollo or the Sun, in his quadriga, is the same 
as that of Mithras on the coins of Tarsus. 

Bomitia. 

AOMITIA CCBACTH. Head of Domitia to r. B- TPAAAIANiiN. Female figure, 
in long drapery, adv., with extended arms, and something in each hand. 

Antoninus Pius. 

riTOC AIAIOC KAIG. ANTiiNGINOC. Head of Antoninus Pius to r. B. eni 
nOIlAlOY rPA{fifjiaTioc) TPAAAIANiiN. Two females in long drapery opposed; 
between them, altar with fire, on which the right-hand figure pours a hbation ; 
in left hand of each, a sceptre. 

Julia Domna. 

lOY. AOMNA ce. Bust of Julia Domna to r. B. TPAAAIANQN. Victory step- 
ping to I. 

Geta. 

. . . rcTAC . . . Bust of Geta to r. B. Same legend. Vase containing four ears 
of com, and in the middle a poppy-head. 



TRAPEZOPOLIS Carije. 

Note. — By Pliny and Ptolemy, Trapezopolis is assigned to Caria, and by the latter is associated 
with Antiocheia Carise. The Byzantine authorities (Socrates, 7, 36 ; Hierocles, p. 6fi5) place it in 
Phrygia Pacatiana, which included Laodiceia and Hierapolis among its most south-westerly cities. 
Probably therefore Trapezopolis occupied gome position in the adjacent part of Caria, between Lao- 
diceia and Antiocheia Carice. 



TPAnEZOnOAITiiN. Head of Pallas to r. 
Gibbous bull butting, to r. 



B. AIA nOAl(apxov 1) AAPACTOY. 



TRAPEZUS Ponti. 

Note. — Ti-apezus was a colony of Sinope, which was afterwards joined by all the remaining inha- 
bitants of Trapezus in Arcadia. Although a flourishing city when it was visited by Xenophon and 
the Ten Thousand, and again under the Byzantine empire, it seems to have declined, if we may judge 
numismatically, in some of the intervening ages, as no coins of Trapezus are extant earlier than those 
of Trajan. Its ancient name is preserved in the usual Romaic form TpaweJoDvra. 

PMlippus Junior. 

lOY. *IAinnOC Bust of PhiHp to r. B. TPAn6Z0YNT(mN). 

Nemesis, in long drapery, stepping to I. ; right hand raised to face ; in left hand, 
bridle ; in field, CT. . . (date defaced). 

TRIPOLIS Carise. 

Note. — Tripolis, according to the Antonine and Tabular Itineraries, stood on the road firom Hiera- 
polis to Philadelphia, at 12 m.p. from the former, and 33 or 34 m.p. from the latter,— data which are 
found to be unusually accurate for these authorities when applied to ruins of a considerable city still 
extant near Koah-Yenidjd, about four miles distant from the right bank of the Mteander. They 
were visited by Smith in 1671, and again by Mr. W. J. Hamilton in 1836 j both of whom mention a 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



137 



Metal 1 Size 



M 

JE 



JE 
JE 



M 



7-6 



JE 

JE 



Weight I 



192-4 



7-5 



JE 21 



large theatre which was seen at a distance by Chandler in 1765, as the principal object of interest. 
Tripolis answers so exactly in situation to tlie Callatebus of Herodotus (7, 31), that they are probably 
one and the same place ; a colonization from three neighbouring towns having perhaps restored Cal- 
latebus under a new name when it had fallen into decrepitude. 

Bust of Pallas to r. B. TPinOA6ITiiN. Fortune standing to I. 

Trajanus, 
TPinOA. Bust of Pallas to r., the segis and its serpents appearing in front. U. AY. 

KAI. TPAIANOO. Trajan, in military habit, crowning a trophy ; in left hand, 

hasta. 
AHMOC TPinOAeiTON. Youthful male head to r. B. AYTO. KAICAP TPAIANOO. 

Trajan, in military habit, standing to I. ; in right hand, small figure of Victory 

to I. ; in left hand, hasta. 

Faustina. 
<l>AYSTeiNA CeBACTH. Head of Faustina to r. B. TPinOAeiTSiN. River-god, 

with usual attributes, seated on the ground to I. ; below, MAIANAPOC. 
Another similar. 



TRIPOLIS Phcenicije. 

Note. — Tripolis derived its name from having received a colony from each of the three Phoenician 
cities, Aradus, Sidon, and Tyre, at a time comparatively late, and when the population of these cities 
had become in great part Greek. None of the coins of Tripolis have Phoenician legends, nor 
are there any earlier than the time of the Seleucidae. But the triple colony must have been 
founded before the time of Alexander, being mentioned by Scylax, who asserts that each of the three 
populations had a separate wall (Perip. p. 41). In the time of Strabo, this strong distinction of 
origin had probably fallen into neglect, as he remarks only that Tripolis had been founded by the 
three Phoenician cities (p. 754). 

M. Antoniits and Cleopatra. 

Male and female laureate heads to r. ; above each, a star (M. Antonius and Cleo- 
patra in the character of the Dioscuri). R. TPIHOAITiiN THS lEPAS KAI 
AYTONOMOY in three lines. Turreted female, in long drapery, standing to I. ; 
in right hand, staff" with crook ; in left hand, cornucopise ; in field to I., 
©EO ; at her feet, NI ; below, A A (year 81) ; all within a wreath of olive. 

A^ote.— The Tripolitans dated their autonomy from the victory of Pompey over Tigranes, B.C. C4, 
followed by the liberation of all Syria. They were in particular indebted to the conqueror for having 
relieved them from their tyrant Dionysius, whom he beheaded. Under Augustus they resumed the 
Seleueid sera. The date of this coin, being of the Pompeian sera, is B.C. 33, two years before the 
battle of Actium, just about the time when Antony and Cleopatra were exhibiting themselves to the 
people of Alexandria in the characters of Osiris and Isis. The Tripolitans, in assimilating them to 
their favourite deities the Dioscuri, were under the necessity of softening the strong features of 
Antony, but the intention of the obverse cannot be doubtful, 

Turreted female head to r. ft. TPinOAOITaN. Diana Venatrix to r. 
Heads of the Dioscuri to r. Ri. TPinOAlTilN L. TKG (year 325). Victory, stand- 
ing on prow, to r. ; above prow, MA (year 44). 

A^or«.— The former date is of the Seleueid sera, beginning 312 B.C., the latter that of the battle of 
Actium (alluded to by the Victory on the prow), 31 B.C. ; both giving a.d. 13, or the year before the 
death of Augustus, for the date of the coin. 

Busts of Dioscuri, surmounted by stars, to r. R. . PinOA. Female, in long drapery, 
standing to I. ; in right hand, ? ; in left hand, cornucopise ; in field to I., ASS 
(year 261) ; in field to r,, two letters. 

2 m 



138 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal Size Weight 



M 






M 
JE. 

M 
M 



M 






M 



M 



6 

7-6 



7-6 



6 



to 



AYT. KAI. TI. AIA Head of Antoninus 

Heads of the Dioscuri, surmounted by stars, to r 
459 Sel., or a.d. 147, the ninth year of Antoninus). 
Same type. H. TPino Same type ; date off the coin 



Hadrianm. 

AYTOKP. KAICAP TPAIANOC AAPIANOG. Head of Hadrian to r. R. TPino- 
AGITiiN. Heads of the Dioscuri, surmounted by stars, to r. HKY (year 428 
of the Seleucidse, or a.d. 116-117, the year of the death of Trajan). 

Another. 

Same legend and type. R. Same legend and date. Astarte, in long drapery and 
mural crown, standing to r. ; in right hand, staff, surmounted with cross ; left 
hand raising drapery from left leg ; left foot on prow, to r. 

Another. 

Antoninus Pius. 



r. E AeiTUJ . . 

behind them, ©NY (year 



Septimius Severus. 

AY. KAI. A. Ce. CeOYHPOC neP. CGBA. Bust of Septimius Severus to r. 
R. Astarte ; in right hand, hasta ; left hand raising drapery ; left foot on prow, 
— standing to r. between the Dioscuri, surmounted by stars, and standing op- 
posed ; each holding a hasta in one hand and grapes in the other ; in exergue, 
TPinOA. 

Caracalla. 

AY. K. M. AY. ANTUJNINON CGBA. Bust of Caracalla to r. R. Same type ; in exergue, 
TPinO; in field to r., V. K. *. one above the other (year 523 Sel., a.d. 211, 
first year of Caracalla). 

ANTlUNINON CCBA. Same type. R. The Dioscuri opposed ; each 

holding a horse by the bridle ; in their other hands, hastse ; above them, bust of 
Astarte, in a small distyle temple ; below the horse's feet, TK* (same date). 

Two others similar. 

AY. K. M. AY. ANTUUNINON CGBA. Same type. R. AIOC AFIOY [TPinOAITQN.] 
Two tetrastyle temples ; that to the I., which has steps in the middle and a bat- 
tlemented roof, contains an altar between two figures to I. holding up their right 
hands ; the one radiate, the other crowned with crescent (statues of Sun and 
Moon) ; in pediment, a bust of Astarte. The temple to the r. has three doors, 
and in pediment two Victories holding a wreath ; below, r (or ^) K* (year 523 
or 526). 

Note. — The legend on this coin is imperfect, but is confirmed by two specimens in the B. M. 

Julia Domna. 

lOYAIA AOMNA. Head of Julia Domna to r. in dotted circle. R. TPmOAITQN. 
Tetrastyle temple, having steps to it in the middle, and containing a symbol of 
Astarte between statues as before of Sun and Moon ; below, ZK* (year 527 
Sel., A.D. 215, the fifth year of the reign of Caracalla). 

Note. — From this coin it is evident that the temple to the left on the preceding coin is that of 
Astarte ; and from the legend on that coin, that the temple to the right is that of Jupiter Agius. 

Diadumenianus Caesar. 

M. on. AlAAOYMENIANOC KAI. Bare head of Diadumenianus to r. R. TPinOAI. 
NAYAPX(tJoc). Ship sailing to I. ; above, bonnets of the Dioscuri surmounted by 
stars ; below, 0K$ (year 529 Sel., a.d. 217, year of the death of Caracalla, and 
of the accession of Macrinus, father of Diadumenianus). 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



139 



I Metal 



M 

IE 
JE 
M 



Size 

6 



Weight 




5 

8-7 
6-; 



M 



M 



Same legend and type. B. TPinOAITlAlN. The Dioscuri, naked, standing op- 
posed, surmounted by stars ; each holding an inverted spear in one hand, and 
grapes in the other; in exergue, 0K* (same date). 

Elaffalalus. 

AYT.] K. MAP. ANTU:[NINOC]. Bust of Elagabalus to r. ft. Same legend 
and type; below, AA* (year 531 Sel., a.u. 219, second year of Elagabalus). 

AY. K. M. AY. ANTITNINOC. Same type. ft. Same legend and type. Date, . A* 
(53, between a.d. 218 and 222, the year of the death of Elagabalus). 

Same legend and type. _ft. TPinOAI. NAYAPXI. Ship sailing to I. ; above, 
bonnets of the Dioscuri, with stars ; below, AA$ (year 531). 

AYT. K. M. AYP. ANTUJNINOC. Same type. ft. [TPino]AITU)N. Tetrastyle temple 
approached in the middle by steps ; in it, a lighted altar between statues of Sun 
and Moon, or Apollo radiate and Diana crescented, both to I,, with right hands 
raised, Diana in left hand holding long torch ; in pediment, a radiate bust ; in 
exergue, . . * (date). 

AY. KA[, M. AY. [ANTIDNINOC]. Same type; countermark on the neck. ft. TPI- 
nOAITiiN. Astarte standing in a shrine or distyle temple, on either side of which 
is a tetrastyle portico, all under a common pediment and walls. 



TYANA Cappadocise. 

Note. — Tyana (rd Tvava) commanded the entrance of the principal pass which leads from Cappa- 
docia to Tarsus and the Cilician coast. Next to Mazaca it was the chief city in Cappadocia, and 
received from one of the kings the name Eusebeia Trpof rijj Taupij), Mazaca at the same time having 
been called Eusebeia Trpog rijJ 'Apyai((> (Strabo, p. 537). But in neither instance was the name very 
lasting. Under the Roman empire, Mazaca became Csesareia, and at Tyana the old name prevailed, 
nor ai-e any of its coins extant under that of Eusebeia, as occurs in the instance of Mazaca. In Asia 
Minor (p. 61) I have given reasons for placing Tyana at Kills Hissar, near Bor. This has been 
fully confirmed by Mr. W. J. Hamilton (ii. p. 300), especially by his discovery of the lake Asma- 
bajus, exactly corresponding to the ancient accounts of it by Ammianus (23, 6) and by Philostratus 
in his life of ApoUonius of Tyana (1, 6). 

Caracalla. 
M. AYP. ANTflNINOC. Head of Caracalla to r. ft. ANT. KOAilNI. TYANiiN 

('AvTuivii'iavrjt KoXwviac Tvaraiv). Victory stepping to r. ; in right hand raised, 

crown ; in left hand, palm-branch, on shoulder; below, eT. IT (year 16 of the 

titular imperial dignity of Caracalla, or a.d. 214.) 
AYT. M. AYP. ANTUJNINOC. Same type. ft. Same legend. 

reted female head to r. 



Veiled and tur- 



TYRUS Phoenicise. 

J^ote. — Prior to the Macedonian conquest, Cilicia, as well as the greater part of Northern Syria, 
including the Phoenician cities, was divided into principalities, subject to the court of Pereepolis ; 
these coined money with Phoenician legends and with Phoenician, and sometimes Persian, types, but in 
the execution of which Greek art was generally employed. Among them were coins of the princes 
of Tyre (Due de Luynes, Satrapies et la Ph&icie, p. 67). Under the Seleucidfe, Tyre struck money 
with the king's head on the obverse, but there are no earlier examples extant than of the reign of 
Antiochus IV. From the year 126 B.C., when Demetrius II., beaten by Alexander Zebina, and shut 
out of Acca by his wife Cleopatra, fled to Tyre and was there put to death, the Tyrians dated their 
autonomy, which seems thenceforth to have been interfered with neither by the Seleucidse nor the 
Romans, until Septimius Severus established a Roman colony in Tyre, which coined money as late as 
the reign of Gallienus. The latest date on the autonomous Greek coins of Tyre is 324 (Mionnet, Sup. 
viii. p. 303), or a.d. 198, when Severus was already in the East. Phoenician legends are found on the 
coins of Tyre, together with Greek, almost as late as that time. 



140 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


M 


7+ 


M 


8-7 


M 


H 


M 


4+ 


M 


H 


M 


4 


JE 


5- 


JE 


4 


M 


4 


M 


6 


M 


6 


M 


H 


JE 


2i 


JE 


3 


JE 


7-6 


JE 


7 



Weight 

213-8 



214-2 



Beardless laureate head of Hercules to r. R. TYPOY lEPAS [KM] ASYAOY. 
Eagle standing to I. ; under the right wing, a palm-branch ; in field to I., L.Z 
(year 7 of the autonomy of Tyre, b.c. 119), below which, club; in field to r., 
MY in mon. ; between eagle's legs, Phoenician aleph ; below which, ?. 

Same type. R. TYPOY IEPA2 KAI ASYAOY. Same type. In field to I, TS 
(year 63, b.c. 63) and club ; in field to r., HP in mon. ; between eagle's legs, 
aleph ; below which, prow. 

Antiochus IV, 

Radiate head of Antiochus IV. to r. H. BASIAEflS ANTIOXOY TYPIilN in three 
lines. Galley to r. ; below, nine Phoenician letters. 

Demetrius I. 
Diademate head of Demetrius I. to r. B. BASIAEiS AHMHTPLY L. ANP in 

three lines, above the fore-part of a galley, to r. , below, TYPI.:N and four 

Phoenician letters. 
Another, but with date HNP, and the Phcenician letters off the coin. 

Note. — ANP (year 154) and HNP (year 158) of the Seleucidse correspond to b.c. 158 and 154. 

Demetrius II. 

Diademate head of Demetrius II. to r. R. BASlAEas AHMHTPIOY. L.H5?P (year 
168, B.C. 144) in three lines above the fore-part of a galley to r. ; below, 
TYPISiN. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type, but date L.0 . . (. . 9). 

Same type. R. BASIAEilS AHMHTPIOY TYPOY (in mon.) lEP. A with 2Y(in mon.) 
i^upoLQ aavXov) in three lines within a semicircle of dots ; in angle to r., palm- 
tree ? . 

Autonomous. 

Veiled and turreted female head to r. ; behind it, SIA. R. Astarte standing 

on a galley to I. ; in right hand, staff surmounted with crook ; in left hand, 

hasta surmounted with cross ; in field I., ZK (year 27 of the Tyrian autonomy, 

B.C. 99). 
Beardless head of Hercules to r. R. MHTPOnOAEUJS. Club, terminating above 

in monogram of Tyre ; in field to I., KS (year 220 of the Seleucidse, b.c. 92) ; 

in field to r., two Phoenician letters ; all in a wreath of oak enclosed in dotted 

circle. 
Another similar, but on the neck of obverse the purpura, or porphyretic murex, as 

countermark. 
Veiled and turreted female head to r. ; behind, palm-branch. R. TYPOY (in mon.), 

lEPAS MHTPOnOAElUS in three lines, above which, in a fourth, . MS (year 

between 240 and 250 of the Seleucidse). 
Same type. R. ZMC (year 247, b.c. 65) U{r,Tpon6\io>Q) TYPOY (in mon). Astarte 

standing to I. on a galley ; in right hand, crown ; in left hand, sceptre ; below, 

Phoenician characters. 
Same type. R. . . MHTPOnOAG Palm-tree with fruit ; in field, ^NS (year 

256, B.C. 56). 

Caracalla. 
IMP. M. AVP. ANTONINVS. Head of Caracalla to r. R. SEP. TVRVS METRO. 
COLONI. ACTIA ERACLIA. Two vases on a square table ; on either side of 



table, palm-branch ; below it, murex. 

Elagahalus, 
M. AV. ANTONINVS AVG. Bust of Elagahalus to r. 



R. TVRIORVM. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



141 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



JE 



JE 



5i 



' 2 



Tree between two rounded conical objects ; on that to ?., AMBROCie in two 
lines; on that to r., XieXPe in two lines ; below, wolf (?) and murex (?). Con/. 
Eckhel, iii. p. S89 ; Mionnet, v. p. 436, No. 667. 

N'ote. — This reverse represents an olive-tree between two rocks, and is explained by the following 
lines of Nonnus (Dionys. 40, p. 472), where Hercules is supposed to be directing the founders of 
Tyre to the situation of the future city : — 

EiVciice j^uipov 'tKotaOi iteftopiisvov, ow69t twaai 

'AaTa9sf( TrXwovaiv a\r]novfs liv oKi Ilirpai, 

"Aj ipvaiQ 'A/ifSpocriag iin<prifti(rev, ale tvi 9a.\\et 

"HXkoc airofiptjov o^ojwyov Ipvoi; 'EXoiijc. 
The false spelling on the coin of a/tPpotjie nsTpt for aji^poaiai virpai shows that iu the beginning of 
the third century there was already no distinction of sound between ai and t. 



ZEUGMA Commagenes. 

Note. — Zeugma, which had derived its name from being situated at a bridge of the Euphrates, 
became in the time of the Roman empire the most frequented passage of that river from the north- 
westward into Mesopotamia. The city founded by Seleucus I. on the opposite side of the river, and 
which seems to have been called sometimes Apameia, and at others Seleuceia, declined probably as 
Zeugma rose into importance. No coins of it are known ; those of Zeugma, on the contrary, from the 
time of Hadrian downward, are abundant. 

There can be little doubt that Zeugma is now represented by Rum-kaleh (Castle of Rome), the 
name alone leading to the belief that Zeugma, the Roman town, stood on this bank of the Euphrates, 
and the Seleucid city on the opposite side, a question which history has not left ua any other means of 
determining. Although the distances in the Antonine Itinerary relating to Zeugma are below the 
truth, that document suffices to show that Zeugma stood midway on the road from Germanicia, now 
Marash, to Edessa, now Urfa, which exactly agrees with the position of Rum-kaleh. In the trans- 
verse direction also, namely, from Samosata, by Zeugma, to Hierapolis, now Membidj, we find that 
the 72 M.p. of Pliny (5, 24) and the 64 m.p. of the Tabular Itinerary are not far removed from 
the truth, when compared with the real distances from Samosata to Rum-kaleh, and from Rum- 
kaleh to Membidj, allowance being made for the circuitous nature of the roads, the former as par- 
taking in some measure of the windings of the Euphrates, the latter as having made a circuit by 
Ceciliaoa. 

Antoninus Pius. 

ANTQNeiNOC CGB. GYC. Head of Antoninus Pius to I. R. SGYF- 

MATEUJN. Tetrastyle temple on the summit of a mountain, which stands on a 



basis, and has on either side steps to the summit ; below the basis, n ; all in a 
wreath of oak. 

Marcus Aurelius. 
AYTO. KAIC. M. . . ANTIUNGINOC .... Head of M. Aurelius to r. E. Same 
legend and type? below the basis, ?. 

Philippus Senior. 

AYTOK. K. M. lOYAI. *IAinn0C CGB, Head of Philip Senior to r. B. SGYF- 
MAXeaN. Tetrastyle temple on the summit of a mountain, standing on an 
artificial basis, and ascended on either side by steps ; under an arch in the 
temple, a seated divinity; in right hand,?; in left hand, sceptre; below the 
basis, Capricomus to I. 

Two others similar, but Capricomus to r. 



2n 



ADDENDA. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


M 


3 


M 


2 


/E 


1 


M 


4 


M 


4 


M 


9i 



Weight 

in grains 

Troy. 



92-4 



9-5 



247 



ABYDUS Troadis. 

Note. — The variety of the coins of Abydus, and their dates extending over seven centuries, are 
proofs of the importance of this city, due to its situation on that promontory of the Hellespont now 
called N^gara, which forms, with a point of the opposite shore near Sestus, the narrowest part of the 
Hellespont. At Abydus accordingly Xerxes commenced his bridge. 

Head of eagle to I, ; below, dolphin. ^.. Three-fourths of a quadripartite incuse 
square ; in two adjacent angles, globules ; under one of them, A. 

Note. — This reverse resembles those of the coins of Cherronesus, the chief city of the Thracian 
Chersonese, and perhaps the only one which struck money at the early time of this coin. 



Eagle standing to I. ; in field to r., cantharus ; to L, ABY. 
rounded with serpents, in quad, incus. 



B- Head of Gorgo, sur- 



ACH/EIUM Troadis. 

Note. — Achseium {'Axnitor) in the time of Strabo (pp. 596, 604) was the chief town of the Persea, 
or continental territory, of Tenedus. It stood on the coast between Sigeium and Alexandreia, and 
possessed probably the plain which lies immediately opposite to Tenedus, bordering on the bay, 
which in the Admiralty chart is named Youkyeri. On one of the heights bordering this plain remains 
of Achseium will probably be discovered. The present specimen was found in the Troad. 



Helmet to?. R. AC (AX). 



ACMONIA Phrygije. 

Nero. 
AYToKPATiiP NEPilN KAAYAIoS KAI2AP SEBASToS TEPMANIKoS. Head of 
Nero to r. R. EDI AEYK[IoY SEPo]YHNloY KAHlTaNoS AKMoNEON. 
Jupiter seated to I. ; in right hand, patera ; left resting on hasta ; in field to I., 
above, wreath ; below, owl. 



ACRASUS Lydiffi. 

Germanicus. 

TEPMAN .... Head of Germanicus to r. 

I. ; in right hand, crown ; in left, palm-branch. 



R. AKPACeiTON. Fortune to 



.^G^ ^olidis. 

Head of Apollo to r. ; behind the neck, bow and quiver. R. AIFAlEflN. Jupiter 
Aetophorus, naked to I. ; left hand resting on hasta ; in field to I., mon. 8 ; all in 
wreath of oak. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



143 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


JR 


10-9 


253-4 


M 


lOi 


240 


M 


5- 




& 


3 




R. 


2+ 


39-9 


E. 


4 




JR. 


8 
4-3 


255-7 
61-8 


& 


3+ 




M 


9 




m 


10 





ALABANDA Carise. 

Head of Apollo to I. B. Pegasus to r. ; under the horse, lyre ; above, AAABAN- 

AEi2N ; below, MHNoAoToS. 
Same type. B. Same type ; under the horse, fulmen ; above, same legend ; below, 

AlorENHS. — This and the two preceding are Electroti/pes from the Bihliothhque 

Nationale. 

ALEXANDEEIA Troadis. 
Head of Apollo to r. R. AAESANAPEilN in two lines ; between, horse feeding to r. 

ALINDA Cariffi. 

Note. — The remains of Alinda are found on the eastern side of Mount Latmus, at a distance of six 
miles to the s.w. of Alabanda, now Arab-hiss4r. The entire circuit of tlie walls are traced, together 
with a theatre, stadium, and many other buildings. 

Head of Hercules, in lion's scalp, to r. B. AAINAEQN *IAoAAMoS in two lines ; 
between, club, — all in wreath of oak. 

ANTANDRUS Mysise. 

Female head to r. ; hair in bunch behind, and tied round twice with cord 
(Diana). B. ANT Goat to r. ; left fore foot raised against tree, — all in 
A 
N 
quad, incus. — Electrotype from the Pembroke Collection (879). 

ANTIOCHEIA Syrite. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. ANTIoXEilN Em oYAPoY. Female, with mural crown 
(Antioch), seated on rock to r. ; in right hand, palm-branch ; right foot on 
shoulder of river god (Orontes), swimming to r. ; in field to r., EK (year 25 of 
the Actiac sera, B.C. 6). 

ANTIOCHEIA Carije. 

Head of Apollo to I. B. Pegasus to r. ; above, ANTIoXEiiN ; below, TIMoKAHS. 
Same type to r. B. Gibbous ox, couchant to /., on symbol of river Mseandrus ; 

above, ANTIoXEiiN ; below, MENE*PilN ; in field to I., cornucopise ; all in wreath. 

— This and the one preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 
Bust of Pallas to r. B. Owl to r. ; around, ANTIOXEiiN. 

ANTIOCHEIA Pisidise, Colonia. 
Severus Alexandras. 
IMP. CAES, SEVER. ALEXANDR. Head of Severus Alexander to r. B. COL. 
CAES. ANTIOCH. She wolf to r. ; under it, the twins ; to I., tree bending to 
r. ; in exergue, S. R. 

Gordianus Junior. 

IMP. CAES. M. ANT. GORDIANOVS. . Radiate head of Gordian to r. B- CAE. 
ANTIOCH. Two oxen to r., followed by draped male figure; above, two 
military standards ; in exergue, S. R. 



144 

Metal Size Weight 

M 



M 



M 



JE 



M 



M 



M 



JE 



M 



6| 



4+ 



5+ 



M ^ 



168 3 
167-5 
166 



ADDENDA. 



APAMEIA Phrygiffi. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. AnAMEilN ; on either side of legend, a bonnet and star 
of Dioscuri, — all in wreath of bay or olive. 

APHRODISIAS Cariffi. 

Julia Domna. 
rOYAIA AOMNA C[eB]ACTH. Head of Julia Domna to r. R. TGI. K. IHNON 
APXI. APXINC. ANeeHK6 A*POAeiCienN. Fortune to I., crowned with 
modius ; in right hand, rudder ; in left, comucopise. 

Note. — Zenon was an illustrious name at Aphrodisias, as may be seen by the inscriptions of that 
city in Boeckh's C. Ins. Gr., and in the Transactions of the R. S. of Literature, 8vo. vol. i. It appears 
from this coin that Tiberius Claudius Zenon held the offices of apxiepeif and apxiviuvoioQ of the 
temple of Venus {tide the Dilettanti Antiquities of Ionia, III.), and that he issued this money at hia 
own expense, of which custom we find examples in the coins of Smyrna and some other places.— 
Vide p. 121. 



AY. KA. no. AT. rAAAlHNOC. Bust of GalHenus to ^. B. Two vases on a table ; 
in each a palm-branch ; on that to the left, ATTAAA6 ; on that to the right, 
nreiA ; on the edge of the table, OIKoYMEN . . ; under it, in three lines, 
A*POAIC l{iu)v). 

APOLLONIA Lycise. 
Female head (Diana ?) to r. ft. AYKIQN AH. Bow and quiver crossed, 

ASPENDUS Pamphyliffi. 

Warrior stepping to r. ; in right hand, short sword ; in left, shield, in the hollow 
of which four Pamphylian letters. R. ES. Eagle flying to r., covered by 
triscelium, — all in quad, incus. — Electrotype from the Hunter Collection. 

Two wrestlers opposed. B. E$TFEAIIY[?]. Slinger, in short chlamys, discharging 
sling to r. ; in field to r., triscelium ; below which, *, and in countermark, 
wild goat, like the Cretan, to I., all in dotted square. 

Same type ; between the wrestlers, FA. B. Same legend, type, and symbol. 

ATTALEIA Pamphyliae. 

Two helmeted heads to r. (Dioscuri.) B. ATTAAEfliN. Victory to I. ; in right 
hand, crown with pendent ribbon ; in left, palm-branch. 

BAG^ Lydiae. 

Caracalla. 

AY. K. M. ANTilNeiN. Bust of Caracalla to r. B. KAICAPeON BAPHNflN. 
Bacchus naked to I. ; in right hand, cantharus ; in left, thyrsus ; at his feet, 
panther ! 

BLAUNDUS Lydise. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. Eagle with open wings to I. ; to r., palm-branch ; to ?., 
caducous ; above, [BAA]YNAE[QN] ; below, in two lines, AHoAAflNI . GEoPEN. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



145 



Metal I Size 



M 



M 



Weight 



11 






M 



M 



4-3 



10 



M 



JR 

M 
M 



3-2i 



2 
2 
4+ 



159-6 



63-2 



23-6 

23-4 
23 



BCEONUS Lydise. 

Female head to r., with hair in bunch behind (Diana). R. BOIilNIQN, in two 
lines, above and below ; between, ox standing to r. 

Note. — From the place where this coin was found, as well as from its resemblance to those of the 
^olic Larissa, it is probable that Boeonus stood in or near the lower valley of the Hermus. 

C^SAREIA Cappadoci«. 

Macrinus and Diadumeniamts, 

AY. K. M. O. CeOY. MAKP6IN AIAAOY Heads of Macrinus and 

young Diadumenianus opposed. R. MHTPOno .... KAICAPIAC NeiiKOPoY 
6T. B. (a.d. 218.) Pentastyle temple, between two prize vases; above them, 
Mount Argseus. 

CALCHEDON Bithyni». 

Helmeted male head to I. B. Lyre ; in field to ?., KAA. 
Same type. B. Same type ; below, KAAX. 



CELENDERIS Cilicia Tracheise. 

Female seated adv. on horse galloping to I. ; in her left hand, ? ; under the horse, 
A. B. KEAEN. Goat couchant to I., with head turned to r. ; in its mouth?, 
in field to r., sprig of ivy. 

CIBYRA Phrygi*. 

Gordianm Junior. 

AY. KAI. M. AN. rOPAIANOC. Bust of Gordian to r. B. KIBYPATilN. Hercules 
naked to r. ; under left arm, lion's skin and club ; above, in field to I., ZIO (217, 
Tacit. Ann. 4, 13), a.d. 240, third year of the reign of Gordianus Junior. 



CLAZOMEN^ Ionise. 

Head of Apollo, adv., towards I. B. Swan to I., with head to r. Above, AEo- 
KAI[oS] ; below, KAA. 

CNIDUS Cariffi. 

Laureate head, with hair hanging in formal curls, to r. (Apollo.) Neck of ox to I., 
head, adv. ; around, nANTAA(£ov) RNIAIQN. 



COLOPHON Ionise. 



B. 



Laureate female head to I. ; hair in bunch behind ; neck bare (Diana). 

[K]ONNmN [K]OAO*a. in two lines ; between, tripod. 
Another similar. 

Same type. B. KOAO*Il. [AE]iiAAMAS, intwolines; between, same type. 
Horseman, with spear in right hand, galloping to r.; below, a quadruped, 

running to r. B. KOAO'tiiNIiiN. Apollo, in long drapery, to r. ; in right 

hand, patera over tripod ; in left, lyre. 

2 



146 

Metal Size Weight 

M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 

M 
M 

M 



H 



2i 



9i 



2i 



3 



ADDENDA. 



Philippus Junior. 



M. lOY. *IAinnOC KAl. Bust of Philippus to r. R. KOAO^QNIQN. Female 
figure, crowned with modius, seated to I. ; in right hand, patera ; left resting 
on hasta ; at her feet, lion, with open mouth, to I. 



COTIAEIUM Phrygiffi. 

Valerianus. 

AYT. K. n. AlK. OVAAePIANON. Radiate head of Valerian to r. B. eni n. AIA. 
AHMHTPIANOY inOAPX. KOTIAGON. Cybele, astride on lion, to r. 



OREMNA Pisidiae, Oolonia. 

Septimius Severm. 

IMP SEVER. . PER Bust of Sep. Severus to r. ^.. 

POLLO. COL. CREM. Jupiter Nicephorus seated to I. 



CYME ^olidis. 
Head of Sarapis to r. B. KYMAIQN. Prow to r. 

CYZICUS Mysiffi. 

Septimius Severus. 

AYT. KAI. A. CEnxi. CEOYHPOC .^ust of Sep. Severus to r. R. CTP(a- 

rijyoS^roc) AAA*. MoAe[CT]OY KYXIK. ; in exergue, AlCHnoC. River god, 
iEsepus, reclining to r. ; beyond, trophy, which the emperor, stepping to I., 
crowns with his right hand ; in his left, sword or wand and chlamys. — Electro- 
type from the B. M. 

Nate. — This coin seems to refer to a victory of the emperor on the banks of the ./EBepus, which 
occurred perhaps previously to his capture of Byzantium in a.d. 196. 

Severus Alexandrus. 

M. AVR. CEV. AAE«ANA . . . Head of Sev. Alexander to r. R. KYIIKHNQN 
NEQKOPilN. Altar, with fire, between two long torches entwined with serpents. 

DARDANUS Troadis. 
Horseman to r. B. AAP. Cock to r, ; in field to I., ? . 

DOCIMIUM Phrygise. 

AOKIMOS. Laureate male head to r. B- AOKIMGSIN. Asclepius, adv., looking 

to ;. 
Head of Hermes to n ; in field to r., caduceus. B- River god, reclining to I.; 

around, AOKIMeaN. 

EL^A ^olidis. 
Prow to r. B EAA, in wreath of olive. 



Metali Size i Weight 



.E 
M 
M 



iE 



M 



M 



iE 



M 

M 

M 
M 
M 



JE 



M 

M 
M 



3 
1 
4-3 



9+ 



10- 



3 

2 

2 

H 
1- 



3+ 



50-2 



21 



66-3 



2 

4+ 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



EPHESUS Ionise. 



U7 



E*. Bee. B. XAPMINOS. Stag standing to r. ; in field above, quiver. 

E[*]. Bee. B. Stag on one knee to I., looking back ; in field to r., astragalus ? 

Heads of the Triumviri (Lepidus, Octavius, and Antonius) to r. R. Statue of 

Diana Ephesia, adv. ; [AP]XIE[PEY2 r]PA[M. r]AAYKaN E*E. [EY]eYKP(a- 

rijc) in five lines, across the field. 



Domitianus. 

AoMITIANOC KAICAP CGBACTOC rePMANIKOC. Head of Domitian to r. 

River god (Marnas) reclining to I. 

Antoninus Pius. 



R. E*6CIiiN MAPNAC. 



T. AIAIOC KAICAP ANTQNeiNOC. Head of Antoninus to r. ft. Statue of Diana 
Ephesia on basis, adv. ; to its right, bearded river god, seated to r. on ground ; 
above it, KAYCTPoC ; to its left, similar figure, without beard ; above, 
[KENXP6Io]C ; in exergue, in two lines, e*ecmN AIC N6QKoPii[N]. — This 
and the one preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 

Septimius Severus. 

AY. K. A. cen. CeOYPOC n. Bust of Sept. Severus to r. B. NEaKOPliN 
fcOecIiiN. Statue of Diana Ephesia, adv., with an altar on each side ; to its r. 
Emperor in long drapery ; in left hand, wand; to its I., Caracalla; in right hand, 
patera over altar ; in left, hasta. 

Severus AUxandrm. 

AYT. K. M. AYP. CGB. AAeSANAPOC. But of Severus Alexander to r. ft. 
E*ecmN KGNXPeiOC. River god seated on ground to I. — Electrotype from 
the B. M. 

ERYTHE^ loniffi. 

Head of youthful Hercules, in lion's scalp, to r. B. EPY. AUEAAAS. Small owl, 

club, bow in case. 
Same type to L ij. EPY. AAnPEIlHS. Same types, but owl not visible. HAY 

in mon. 

Bow in case. B. Club; above, EPY; below, in two lines, HPAKAEaXHS. 
Radiate head of Apollo, adv. B. EPY. HPAKAE[I]OS r. in three lines. 
Club, in dotted circle. B- EPY. AEINOFENH. in three lines. 

GERME Mysise. 

IGPA CYNKAHTOC. Young diademate male head to r. (Senate of Rome.) B. 
rePMHNilN. Figure in long drapery, adv.; in right hand, patera; in left, 
lyre (Apollo Citharoedus). 



HALIOARNASSUS Cariae. 
B. Bust of Pallas to r. ; in field to ?., AAIKAPNAC. ; to r., 



Head of Medusa, adv. 

MOSXOS. — Electrotype from the B. M. 
Bust of Pallas to r. B- AAI. ANAP. Owl, adv. 
Youthful head of Hercules, in lion's scalp, to r. 

wreath of oak ? 



B. AAI. Thyrsus, club, — all in 



148 



ADDENDA. 



Metal 



M 



M 



Size 



44 



9- 



Weight 

103-3 

249-8 



JE 3- 



iE 



M 



4i 



N 



130-2 



M 



3+ 



Idrieus. 
Head of Apollo, adv. ft. lAPIEQS. Jupiter Labrandeus to r. 

HERACLEIA Ionise. 

Head of Pallas to r. ; on the decorated helmet, Pegasus to r., and over the forehead 
the fore parts of five horses. IJ. Club ; above, HPAKAEaXiiN ; below, small 
Victory to L, holding up crown, between mons. 87, 88, — all in wreath of oak. — 
Electrotype from the B. M. 



HIERAPOLIS Phrygiffi. 

Bust of Pallas to r. B. lePAnOAfelTON. Female, in long drapery, to I.; right 
hand held up towards face ; in left, bridle (Nemesis). 



HIEROPOLIS Cyrrhesticje. 

[AYTOKP]ATaP K[A1CAP] ANTONI[N0C], from r. to I. Head of Caracalla 
R. eeAC CYPIAC IGPOnOAITQN, in three lines, in wreath. 



to I. 



M 



HYP^PA Lydiffi. 

I€PA CYNKAHTOC. Young male head to r. B. River god, seated on ground, to ^. 
above, YnAinHNQN ; below, Y^KtCJVOC— Electrotype from the B. M. 



LAMPSACUS Troadis. 

Bearded head, in Phrygian cap, bound with diadem, to I. (Persian king or 
satrap ?) R. Anterior half of winged sea-horse to r. — Electrotype from the 
HvMter Collection. 

LAODICEIA PhrygiEe. 

AAOAIKEQN. Young male head to r., in Phrygian cap, bound with diadem of bay 
— crescent at the shoulders (Lunus). R. Eagle, with open wings, to r. ; head 
turned to I. ; in field to I., a raon. ; below, AI02K0YPIAH2. 

N(A£. — The Phrygian cap with pendant flaps, as here represented on a head of the god Lnnns, is 
precisely of the same kind as on the preceding coin of Lampsacus. It is the same cap which we 
find, but with the anterior flaps tied together under the chm, on the coins inscribed BA2IA or 
BA2IAEQ2, and which represent Persian kings when they were masters of Asia Minor. It is the 
same also as that worn by the Persian monarch in the great mosaic of Pompeii. But it is totally 
difi-erent from the Persian tiara. It would seem, therefore, to have been assumed by the kings of 
Persia, as being a sacred Greek head-dress, which thus placed them in the rank of Greek deities. 

AYT. KAIC. AAPIANoS. Bust of Hadrian to /•. R. AAOAIKEON. Jupiter, covered 
entirely with long drapery (Laodicenus), standing to I. ; in right hand, female 
figure to r., having cornucopiaj in right hand, and crown in left, which she pre- 
sents to Jupiter ; left arm of Jupiter resting on sceptre ; at his feet, eagle, with 
open wings, to I, 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



149 



;Metal 



^M 



M 



Size 



10 



Weight 



5-4 



5-4 



20-6 



Laodiceia Phrygiae, and Tripolis Carise. 

Philippus Senior. 

AYT. K. M. lOYA, *IAinnOC. AYF. Bust of Philip to r. R. TPinOAGI, K. AAOAIK. 
NGiiK. OMONOIA. Latona to I., bearing an infant on each arm (Apollo and 
Diana), turns her head towards Jupiter Laodicenus, having eagle in right 
hand, and hasta in left. 

Nate. — Probably Latona and her children were the chief objects of worship at Tripolis. 

LARISSA ^olidis. 

Male head, with short beard, to r. IJ. AAFI^AI. Diota, grain of barley. — Elec- 
trotype. 

M^ONIA Lydise. 

Bearded head of Hercules to I. R. MAIONflN, in two lines; between, Omphale 
to r, ; in her right hand, ? ; on left shoulder, club of Hercules. 

MAGNESIA loniffi. 

Armed horseman, with spear held horizontally, galloping to r. H. MAFN. Gibbous 

bull, butting to I., on symbol of river Mseandrus ; in exergue . . KY. 
Head of Jupiter to r. B. Same type ; above, MAFNU. ; below IIYPP. 

MAGYDUS Pamphylise. 

Nero. 



6+ 



2+ 



NePlUN 

standing to I. 



. Head of Nero to r. ft. MAFYAeiUN. Pallas Nicephorus 

MASTAURA Lydia. 

Otacilia Severa. 

OTA. teBHPA CEBA. Head of Otacilia to /•., with crescent at the shoulders. R. 
MACTAYPEITiiN. Venus to I. ; in right hand small globe, under which Cupid 
to r., looking up ; behind Venus, dolphin. 

MILETUS Ionise. 

Naked statue to r. ; hair hanging on the neck in plaits ; in right hand, anterior part 
of stag, with head reverted ; in left, bow (Apollo Didymeus) ; in field 
below, MI in mon. B. Lion couchant to /•., with head turned to I. towards 
star ; below, AISXYAIS. 

MYLASA Cari». 
Horse stepping to r. B. M[Y]. Head of trident. 



MYREINA iEoHdis. 
Female head to r. ; in field to r., branch. R. MYPeiNAIQN. 



Lyre. 



NAGIDUS Cilicise. 

Note. — Nagidus, a colony of the Samii, and one of the earliest Greek settlements on the Cilician 
coast, is described by Strabo as the first city occurring eastward of Anemuriura ; of which place the 
name and ruins still subsist ; some other remains, therefore, which occupy a height, rising from the 
left bank of the Arymagdus at its mouth, indicate probably the site of Nagidus. — Vide Beaufort's 
Caramania, p. 198, and his Survey, Chart IV. 

2 p 



150 



ADDENDA. 



Metal 

M 



JR 



M 



Size 

6 



4.+ 



9 + 



Weight 

160-3 



145-5 



M 



7-6 



210 



M 



3+ 



43-3 



Head of Apollo to r. 
from the B.M. 



M 



10 



M 



M 



NAriAIKoN (vofiiafia). Bearded Bacchus, in long drapery, to I. ; in right hand, 
grapes with leaf and tendril ; left resting on hasta ; above, lii in mon. ; 
below, noAY. TJ. Venus, crowned like Juno, seated to I. ; in field to I., 
winged figure to r., crowning Venus; below, branch with flower, and two 
buds ; under the throne, bivalve shell. 

Head of bearded Bacchus? to r., on margin to I., the Persian countermark. 
B. NAriAEii[N]. Head of Venus to r. — These two coins are Electrotypes 
from the B.M. 

NIO^A Bithyniffi. 

[TIBE]PIOS KAAYAIOS KAI2AP SEBAST02. Head of Claudius to ^. ; P in counter- 
mark. R. TEPMANIKOS AYTOKPATilP HATHP DATPIAOS. Diana, adv., 
looking to r., with torch in each hand ; at her feet, stag looking up. 



PARIUiM Mysise. 

Head of Gorgo, adv. R. UAPIANilN. Victory to I. ; in right hand, crown ; in 
left, palm-branch ; in field to I., cornucopise and mon. 89 ; to r., ear of corn. — 
Electrotype from the Hunter Collection. 



PATARA Lycise 
B. AYKIQN ; nA ; lyre ; all 

PERGA Pamphyliae. 

Gallienus. 



in quad, incus. — Electrotype 



M 



41 



AYT. K. Al. no. rAAAIHNOC. Radiate bust of Gallienus to r.; in field to /•., 
small column. R. APTEMIAOS nePFAIAC ACYAOY. Bell-shaped symbol of 
Diana Pergsea, between star and crescent, in distyle temple ; on the pediment, A. 

Busts of Gallienus and Salonina opposed, — the former radiate; between them, 
small column; around, AY. K. nO. Al. rAAAIHNOC; below, in three lines, 
KOPNHAIA CAAQNINA ce. B. IieprAIiiN. Prize vase on table; on the 
vase, nYOIA; on edge of table, ACYAIA; under it, 16 PA. 

PERGAMUM. 

Augustus. 

[2EBAST]QI KAISAPI BO[YAAini]. Head of Augustus to r. B- Large cup upon 
a high stem; around, A. *OYPIOS [FYMNASIjAPXiiN ; in two Unes across the 
field, nEPrAMHNiiN. 

Lima, Julia. 

AIBIAN HPAN XAPINOS. Head of Livia to r. R. lOYAIAN [A]<I>PoAI[THN]. 
Head of Julia to r. 

Note.— On a coin of Augustus the name Charintis occurs as that of the scribe (ypa/i/winiftU') 
of Pergamum. 

Trajanus. 
AY. NEP. TPAIANON KAISAPA TeP. AAK. Head of Trajan to r. R. eEOC 
CEBACTOC nePFA. Augustus, in military dress, in tetrastyle temple to I.; in 
right hand, hasta ; in field to I., staff entwined with serpent ; below, a mon. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



151 



Metal 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



Size 



Hi 



Weight 



02 

4i 



5-3 



H 



4 , 



L. Verus. 

AY. KAI. A. AYPHAIOC OYHPOC. Bust of Verus to r. R. Eni CTPA. A. TYA. 
KPATinnOY nEPrAMHNQN AIC NeOKOP. Asclepius and Hygieia stand- 
ing opposite. — Electrotype. 



PHARNACIA Ponti. 

Note. — Phamaces II. changed the name of this maritime city from Cerasusto Pharnacia. The more 
ancient name, however, as in many similar instances, still subsists. There was another Cerasus on 
the same coast to the eastward, to which Xenophon marched in three days from Trapezus ( Anab. 5, 3) ; 
and here also the ancient name is preserved in that of a river. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. <I>APNAKEiiN, in two lines; between, gibbous bull to r. 
Same type. B. Eagle on fulraen to I. ; below, OAPNAKE . . ; in field to I., a mon. — 
These two coins are Electrotypes from the B. M. 

PHASE LIS Lyciffi. 

Boar's head and leg ? crowned with three globules. B. *AS. Prow to r. — Electro- 
type from the Hunter Collection. 

PHILADELPHEIA Coelosyri*. 

AYT. KAIC. M. AYP. ANTIDNINOC. Head of M. Aurelius to r. R. iblA{ixli.\^iuv) 
KO(iX>jc) SYP(tac) HPAKAeiON APMA. Tetrastyle temple with dome, on a 
car, drawn by four horses to r. 

PHYGELA Ioni«. 

Female head, with crown, adv. (Juno.) B. Bull butting to I. ; in field to I., palm- 
tree ; above, 4>Yr. ; below, 2iiKPATHS. 



PIMOLISA Ponti. 

Helmeted male head to r. B. Quiver; across the field, [n]IMiiAI 
two preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 



. — This and the 



PCEMANENI Mysise. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. nOIMANHNQN in two lines ; between, fulmen ; below, 
BI. 

Note. — Mr. W. J. Hamilton places Poemaneni at Manifis, about ten miles south of the lake of 
Miletopolis. He there copied an inscription (No. 320) naming the deified Tiberius. Coins of 
Poemaneni are extant of the reign of Trajan. 



PRIAPUS Mysife. 

Note. — Considerable remains of Priapus are found at Karaboa, at the entrance of the Propontis, ten 
miles east of Kamares, the ancient Parium. 

Head of Apollo to r. B. FPIAPHN[nN]. Lobster, or prawn, to r. ; below, garland. 
Head of Apollo, a«?«>. B. PPI. Same type. 



162 



ADDENDA. 



MetAl 

M 

M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



iE 



M 



M 



Size 



2i 



Weight 



67-8 



^ 



9+ 



4i 



3i 



PRIENE Ionise. 

Head of Pallas, with decorated helmet, to I. B. Head of trident to r. ; above, FPIH. ; 

below, Si2Sir . . ., — all within circular symbol of the river Maeandrus. 
Head of Pallas to r. ^.. nPIH. ANAXIAA., in two lines, in similar circle. 



PROSTANNA Pisidis. 

Note. — Prostama (lege Prosianna) is a name found only in Ptolemy, according to whom it was a 
Pisidian city. Its site may hereafter perhaps be determined by the finding of its coins. 

nOAIC. Turreted female bust to r. B. nP0CT[AN]N6QN. Draped figure 
to l. ; in right hand, small globe ; left resting on hasta. 

PRUSA ad Hypium. 

M. AYPHAIOC ANTaNINOC. Bust of Caracalla to r. B- nPOYCieftN OPOC 
rniii. Hygieia to I., feeding serpent. — This and the one preceding are Electro- 
types from the B. M. 

PRYMNESSUS Phrygia. 

Sal(mina. 

KOP. CAAQNINA CG. Bust of Salonina to r. B. nPYMNHCCeON. Female 
seated to I. ; in right hand, scales ; in raised left hand, poppy-head and two ears 
of corn. 

SAGALASSUS Pisidise. 

Claudius Gothicus. 

AY. K. M. AYP. KAAYAION. Bust of Claudius Gothicus to r. ; below, countermark, 
B. Two hands joined ; above, PilMAIiiN ; below, in curved Hne, C ArAAACCGQN ; 
in field above, prow ; to r., I. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

SAITT^ Lydiae. 

lePA CYNKAHTOC. Young male head to r. B. CAITTHNON. Bacchus naked 
to ?. ; in right hand, cantharus ; left resting on thyrsus. 

Septimius Severus. 
. . . ceYHPOC. Head of Sep. Severus to r. B. Same legend; Hercules, ach, 
towards r., leaning with right hand on club ; in left, lion's skin. 



SARDES Lydiae. 
Drusus Junior and Germanicm. 

[APoYSOS] KAI TEPMANIKOS KAISAPES NEOI eEOI *[IAAAEA*01]. DrusuS 
and Germanicus seated to I. B. [PAIO] ASINIO [nOAAIONI] ANeYOATQ. 
Wreath of oak, in which K[OINOY] A[2IA2]. 

Note. — On some similar coins, instead of the first legend, there occurs on the reverse EIII AAES- 
ANAPoY SAPAIAKQN. Caius Asiiiius PoUio was grandson of the celebrated orator and historian 
of the same name, and was consul in a. d. 23. The date of the present coin is probably a. d. 18, when 
Germanicus was in Asia, on his way into Syria. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



153 



Metal Size Weight 



M 
M 
M 



M 
M 
M 
M 

M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 
M 



n 

2 
2 

2 



4i 
6-4 
4-3 
4-3 



9+ 



!] 



3 

6+ 



172-2 
168 5 
169-2 

168-7 

246-7 



S7-5 



SELGE Pisidise. 

Head of bearded Hercules to r. R. 06. Fulmen; star. 
Same type, a<i?». B. CEA. Anterior part of couehant stag, looking back. 
Same type. IJ. SEA. Couehant stag, looking back. 

Same type. B. SEA. Anterior part of stag, with large horns, looking back ; in 
field to /•., torch. 



SIDE Pamphylije. 

Archaic female head to r., with large ear and eye, crowned with wreath (Pallas), in 

quad, incus. B. Pomegranate, crossed with branch. 
Archaic helmeted head of Pallas to r., in quad, incus. R. Pomegranate ; below, 

dolphin. 
Pomegranate, surrounded by wreath partly covering it. ft. Dolphin ; below, eye, — 

in quad, incus. 
Pomegranate, surrounded by wreath. B. Two dolphins, in opposite directions ; 

below, pomegranate bud, — in quad, incus. — This and the three preceding are 

Electrotypes from the Hunter Collection. 
Head of Pallas to r. B- Victory to I, ; in extended right hand, crown ; in field 

to I., pomegranate; below, KAEYX. 



Gordianus Junior. 

AYT. KAI. M. ANT. rOPAIA[NOC], the three last letters obliterated by counter- 
mark. Head of Gordian to r., a spike on the top. B- CIAHTiiN. Military 
figure (the emperor) to I. ; in right hand, patera ; left resting on hasta. 



SIGEIUM Troadis. 
Head of Pallas to r. B- SirE. Owl, adv., towards r. 



SINOPE. 

Female head with mural crown to I. R. SINii. 
and ~E. 



Prow to I. ; in field to /., branch. 



STRATONIOEIA Caris. 

Septimius Severm. 

AY. KA cen. CEYHPOC TOY A. Busts of Septimius Severus and 

Julia Donina opposed; below, male bust to r. in countermark. B. €!![ 

IIPY(ravov) AGONTOC OY CTPATONIKEaN. Female in long drapery, 

adv. ; in right hand, patera, held over altar ; in left, torch. 



TAB^ Cariffi. 

TABHNiiN. Head of Bacchus to r. B- . . . Altar; above which, bonnets 

of Dioscuri. 
lePOC AHMOC. Laureate young male bust to r. (Populus Romanus) ; in field to 

n, B. B. TABHNQN. Pan stepping to I., right hand held up ; in left, pedum. 

2? 



154 



ADDENDA. 



Metal 



.'E 



Size 



Weight 



M 



M 



JE 
M 



M 
M 



M 

JE 



3 

6- 



23-7 



21 

■^2 



8-7 



4+ 



TEMNUS ^olidis. 

lePA CYNKAHTOG. Young male head with horns? and pallium to r. (Senatus 
Romanus.) R. THMNEITSiN. The two Nemeseis opposed. 



TEOS loniffi. 

Gryphon, flying to r. B. Cantharus ; above, THI ; below, HPOAOTOS. 
Gryphon, seated to r. ; left foot raised, fi. THIflN, above which, wreath of ivy 
containing mon. 90, and below it, torch. 



TEEEIA Troadis. 

Note. — This city appears from Strabo (p. 665) to have stood at the north-eastern extremity of the 
Idcean heights, near the left bank of the ^sepus. 



Head of Apollo to I. ^.. Sprig of olive in linear square, in the angles of which 



PI 
TH" 



TERMESSUS Pisidia. 

Head of Apollo to r. B. TEPMHSSEilN in two lines ; between, lyre. 
TePMHCOeSiN. Laureate male head to r. ; behind the neck, caduceus. R. TON 

MGISONiiN. Helmeted draped female figure to I. ; in right hand, patera; left 

resting on hasta. 

TEUTHRANIA Mysiffi. 

Note. — Teuthrania occupied a part of the valley of the Lower Caicus ; its position is described with 
great precision by Strabo, as having been about 70 stades distant from each of the four cities, 
Pergamum, Elaea, Pitane, and Atarneus ; this accords with the distance of Pergamum from the sea- 
coast, where the three other cities stood, namely, about 15 o. a. The two following coins were found 
in that part of the country. 

3"7 Radiate head, with hair hanging on the shoulders, adv. B. "E, in quad, incus. 
4'6 Head of Bacchus crowned with ivy ? to r. R. "E ; to I., two globules. 



THYATEIRA Lydise. 

Salonina. 
KOP. CAAiiNINA CGB. Head of Salonina to r-. R. GDI C. CRT. APXeMIAOPOV 

GVATGIPHNQN. Ceres, standing, adv., veiled, and in long drapery; in right 

hand, long torch ; in left, two poppies. 
Head of bearded Hercules to r. R. GYATGIPHNQ. in two lines, between. Lion 

to r. 



187 



TRALLES. 

Serpent issuing from open cista to L, in wreath of ivy. B. Quiver, round which 
are entwined two serpents ; between their opposed heads, fulmen ; in field to I., 
TPAA ; to r., eagle to r. ; on the lower part of the quiver, mon. 86. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. TPAAAIANQN. Eagle on fulmen! with open wings to r.; 
in field to r., star. 



ASIATIC GREECE. 



155 



Metal Size Weight 



iE 



M, 



4+ 



H 



TRIPOLIS Cariffi. 

Bust of Pallas to I. ft. TPinOAGITaN. Jupiter in long drapery (Laodicenus) 
to I. ; in right hand, eagle ? in left, hasta. 



TYRUS Phoenicia. 

Turreted [female head to r. ; behind, branch. R. lEPAS MHTPOnOAEins, in 
three lines ; below, galley to I, ; lower, the name Tyre in three Phcenician 
letters, 



CORRIGENDA TO ASIATIC GREECE. 



Page 


Coil 


le 


5 


16 


6 


24 


1 


25 


9 


6!) 


7 


72 


5 


74 


10 


81 





82 


7 


84 


1 


90 


R 


101 


4 


103 


5 



After the date AIP (year 11 1 of the Csesarian sera) add (year 9 of the reign of Nero). 

After BIP (year 112 of the Cresarian jera) add I (year 10 of Nero). 

The legend is AYTONOMOY, not ASYAOr. 

Add " ^. Fortune to I." 

It was not Seleueeia of Tracheia that Claudius favoured, but Seleuceia j; liiStipd of Pisidia. 

Add at the end " in field to r., palm branch ; to I., mon. 84." 

A A, 4>0 on this coin are explained by Appian, who describes this Laodiceia as tv ry ^oiviKy 

(Syr. 57). 
Add " ]^. Same type ; above, AYKIQK in two lines ; across the field, MASI." 
For MIAAEQN read NIKAIEQN, showing this to be a coin of Nicsea, not of Midaeium. 
This " Minoa (urbs ignota)" is probably the MINYA of Stephanus, which he describes as rijc 

*pt/yi'ae iv TOij opioif AvStag. 
This coin has been given by numismatists to Nicomedia, from its resemblance to others of that 

city, but the monogram proves that it ought to be placed to Nicsea. 
For " SIX lines" read " five lines ;" in the note /or " salutem " read " salutandum." 
For " male figure" read " female figure." 



ASIATIC GREECE 





m 




J 

* 


k 


■s 


6 


v^ 




^ 
E^ 




Jl 

R 


t2 

ATE 






IS 




1? 


i 






21 




H 


2» 


2J 


2e 

H 


^ 


IS 


2S 




J2 


jj 

m 




jw 
T 




i7 






4<? 

1^ 


tl 

A 


42 




«■ 
R 


*7 




« 

M' 


Sn 






S3 


j^* 

M 


ss 

A 


Sf 


J7 






<>;. 

^ 


A 






(tr 




f7 


ta 


7t 


m. 


w 




@ 


7J- 




/V 


7f 




id 

M 


m 


S2 




dV 

E. 


Ai 


4^ 


fT 




khP 


»0 












































J.KtA 


ixiifIM./Xj' 


XartU'Lta.. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



SECTION I. 



Metal 



Size Weight 



M 
M 

M 
JR 
M 
M 
M 

JE 



H 



n 



3 
3 
3 
3 

4-3 

H 



231 



230-8 



155-6 

38-9 

40 

38-5 

36-6 



ABDERA Thraciffi. 

Note.— Abdera, (in Greek, rd'A/3^(jpa) was an indigenous Thracian name. The first Greek colony 
was settled here in the middle of the seventh century, B. c, and consisted of Clazomenii under Time- 
sius. These having been expelled by the Thracians, the place was again occupied, in B. c. 544, by the 
entire people of Teos, led by Anacreon (Strabo, p. 644), when they fled from Harpagus and the Per- 
sians (Herodot. i. 1G8). A portion of these afterwards returned home ; the remainder rose to great 
power and opulence at Abdera. Hence the Ionic dialect, and the gryphon on the coins of this city, 
the constant occurrence of which type on the coins, both of Teos and of Abdera, makes it sometimes 
difficult to distinguish them, when there is no legend. Those most archaic in style belong generally 
to Teos. No remains, indicative of the exact situation of Abdera, have yet been discovered ; but on 
comparing Herodotus (vii. 109), Scylax (p. 26), and jElian (H. Anim., 15, 25), with the Admiralty 
Survey, No. 1653, there appears the greatest probability that some vestiges of Abdera would be 
found on the maritime height, situated about midway between lake Bistonis and the Nestus, to the 
right of the river anciently called Cossluetus or Cusatus. 

KAAAIAAMAS. Gryphon seated to I. ; right foot raised. R. ABAHPITEQN, 
inscribed between the four sides of a quad, incus., and a small square divided 
into four. 

Same type, and below the right foot, a diota. No legend. R. EFI SMOPAOTOP- 
MO KAA. — inscribed as in the preceding. 



Note. — The diota is a Teian symbol, and connects the gryphon with Bacchus. 
Thracian name, but KAA implies a Greek father, perhaps Callidamas. 



Smordotormus is a 



B. ABAHPITEQN. Gryphon 
head of Apollo 
B. 



Gry- 



EPI AHMHTPIOY. Laureate head of Apollo to r. 

couchant to r. ; left foot raised. 
[EIII] .... *ANTOY, surrounding a linear square, within which, 

to r. B. ABA . . ITEiiN. Same type, but to I. 
[ABAHPIT]EaN, within which, head of Apollo in linear square as before 

phon couchant to I. ; above it EIII ; below, legend off the coin. 
[EPI IjnniiNAKTOS, within which, similar square and same type. ft. ABAH. 

Same type. 
ETI AIONYSAAOS, within which, similar square, and same type. B.. ABAH[PI] 

TEiiN. Same type. 
ABAHPITEiiN, surrounding head of Apollo to r., in linear square. B. EIII EPMii. 

Gryphon couchant to /■., on a club ; above, star ; in field to r. *. 
Head of Apollo ? to r. B. ABAHPITiiN. Gryphon couchant to L 
Gryphon seated to I., with right foot raised. B. Eni EPMiiNAKTOS in quad, incus. 

surrounding a square divided into four parts, in each of which a dot. 

ACANTHUS Macedoniae. 

Note. — Two of the most ancient Greek settlements in the Great Western Chersonese of Thrace 
were Stageiraand Acanthus, both colonized from Andrus. The advantageous situation of Acanthus, 
on the isthmus of the peninsula of Athos, having a territory on the Singitic, as well as on the Strymonic 

[B] 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



>Ietal 



Size 



M 

M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 



M 



M 

JE 
M 
M 

/E 
M 
M 



N 



M 



M 
M 
JR 



M 



Weight 



40-3 

36 

33-3 

63-5 

9-8 

10 2 
7'.5 



244-7 



217-1 



3i 
3 
3 
3 

2 



65-6 



153-6 



6 
4 
5-4 



153-3 

78 
67 



42-9 



gulf, assured to it an importance which is sufficiently apparent in history, but the abundance of 
its silver money was, in great measure, the consequence of its vicinity to the argentiferous district of 
Chalcidice. Some remains of Acanthus are still to be seen on the shore of the Strymonic Gulf ; for 
a description of which, ride Travels in Northern Greece, ii. p. 147. 

Half ox, kneeling to L, looking to r. ; in field to r. bucranium ! R. Macedonian 

quad, incus. 

Same type, above it, branch of bay. R. Same type. 
Same types, but above the ox, A. 
Ox kneeling to I., looking to r. ; above, dolphin. B. Wheel with four spokes, in 

quad, incus. 
Wheel with four spokes, each spoke having two supports. B. Wheel, in quad. 

incus. 
Same type. B. Irregular incuse. 
Same type. B. Three triangular indentations. 
Another less perfect. 

Note. — Some of these coins without legends were procured by me on the site of Acanthus. 

Lion to r., mounted on an ox, which kneels on one knee to I., and seizing it by the 
rump ; in exergue, tunny fish to I. B. AKAN0ION, in quad, incus., surrounding 
a square, divided into four parts. 

Same type, in exergue, AAEfils. B- Same legend, similarly placed, but the four 
divisions of the interior square are in relief. 

Head of Pallas to r, B- AKAN, within the four spokes of a wheel. 

Another similar. 

Head of Pallas to I. B. Same legend and type. 

Another. 

Head of Pallas to I. B. AKAN, in the divisions of a square divided into four. 

Another similar. 

Same type to r. B. AKAN, within the four spokes of a wheel. 

ACARNANIA. 

Beardless human head to r., with neck, ear, and horns of a bull (Achelous) ; behind, 
AP (in mon.). B. AKAPNANilN. Apollo (of Actium) seated to l. on a throne 
without a back ; in jight hand bow ; below, plough ? — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Same type; behind, AYKOYPros. B. Same legend and type, in field to I. AP 
(in mon.). 

Note. — It is remarkable that on the coins of ^niadse, which is situated on the bank of the Ache- 
lous, the human head has, together with the neck, ears, and horns of a bull, a long beard ; thuB 
according with the description of Achelous by Dejauira in the Trachinise, v. 9, seq. Nevertheless, there 
can be no doubt that the head on the present coin was intended for the deified Achelous ; and it is 
observable, that on the coins of some of the Sicilian cities the rivers are personified as young men. 
The name Lycurgus must be that of a magistrate ; as, on other silver coins of the Acamanians, we 
find different names, similarly placed. 

Another. 

Another similar 

Another, but on side of throne, HAP (in mon.). 



ACHAIAN League. 

Head of Jupiter Homagyrius to r. B- Large monogram 
wreath of bay (vide Plate of Monograms, No. 1). 



of Achaia (AX) in a 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


JR 


3 


JR 


3 


JE 


H 


M 


H 


M 


H 


M 


H 


M 


n 


M 


^ 


M 


3 


M 


n 


M 


3 


JE 


4 


M 


3 


M 


3+ 


M 


8 


M 


3 


M 


3- 


M 


H 


M 


3 


M 


•-> 
o 


M 


3- 


M 


3- 



Weight 

34-2 



37-3 



38 



38-6 



39-2 



36 



36 



AineON. Head of Jupiter tor. ft. Same monogram; in field in three lines, 

APICTOAAMOC, all within a wreath of bay. 
Another similar. 

Note. — The weight of the heaviest silver coin only of each city is here noted. 

[AP]Xin[n02.] Jupiter Nicephorus naked, standing to I. R. Airi&iiN AXAIiiN. 
Juno seated to I. ; in right hand, crown ; in left hand, sceptre. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. Monogram of Achaia ; above it, half goat to r. ; in 

field, in two lines, TAAY, all in wreath of bay. 
Same type. fi. Same monogram ; above it, half goat to r. ; in field, AAKI, in two 

lines ; all in wreath of bay. 
Another similar, but AAKI in one line. 

Antigoneia (Mantineia). 

Note. — Mantineia for a short time bore the name of Antigoneia, in honour of Antigonus II. (Doson) 
king of Macedonia (Pausan. Arcad. 8). 

Head of Jupiter to r. Bt. Monogram of Achaia ; in field, to r, of it, A, to ^. N ; 

below, a mon., all in wreath of bay. 
Another similar ; but below, CCl. 
Same type. B. Same monogram ; in field to r. of it, E, to I., Y, below, AN ; all in 

wreath of bay. 

Argos. 

Head of Jupiter to r. fi. Monogram of Achaia ; in field above it, mon. 2 ; below, 

wolfs head to r., all in wreath of bay. 
Another similar, but head of Jupiter to I. 
Jupiter Nicephorus as before to I. B. AXAIQN APreiiiN, Juno seated 

to I. ; in right hand, crown ; in left hand, sceptre. 

Dyme. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. Monogram of Achaia ; above, AY ; below, round-bodied 

fish ; to r. AA, to I. EY (in mon.), all in wreath of bay. 
Same type. R. Same monogram ; above it, AY (in mon.) ; below, fish ; to r. *, 

to I. mon. 3 ; all in wreath of bay. 
Another. 
Another similar, but to r. of monogram of Achaia, AP (in mon.) ; to I. T. 

Elis. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. Monogram of Achaia ; in field to I. A, to r. Y ; below, 

FA, all in wreath of bay. 
Same type. R. Same monogram ; above it, * ; below, fulmen ; to I. F, to r. A. 
Same type. R. Same monogram; above it, 212 (in mon.) ; to I. F, to r. A ; below, 

A and fulmen. 
Same type. R. Same monogram ; above it, KOP (in mon.) ; below, fulmen ; to r. 

XE (in mon.), to I. FA. 
Same type. R Above, 0E (in mon.) ; to r. H, to I. FA, In all the wreath of bay. 

Lacedcemon. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. Monogram of Achaia ; above it, mon. 4 ; below, EY ; to" 
r. and L, bonnets of the Dioscuri, all in wreath of bay. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

M 

M 
M 
M 



M 



M 

M 
M 

M 
M 

M 

M 

M 



M 



Size 



H 



M 


S 


M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


O 


M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


2i 


JE 


^ 


JE 


H 



3 
3 

H 

3 

3 
3 



Weight 

38-6 



38 



Megalopolis. 
Head of Jupiter to r. R. Monogram of Achaia ; to I. of it, n ; to >•., A ; below, M ; 

all in wreath of bay. 
Same type. R. Same monogram ; above it XP (in mon.) ; below, M. 
Same type. B. Same monogram ; above it, S ; to I. K, to r. I ; below, syrinx. 
Same type. R. Same monogram ; above it, M ; to I. E, to r. A ; below, syrinx. 

In all the wreath of bay. 
Jupiter Nicephorus naked, standing to I. E. AXAIQN MErAAOnOAlTQN. Juno 

seated to I., in extended right hand, crown. 

Megara. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. Monogram of Achaia ; to I. of it, *I ; to r. AO ; above, 

lyre ; below, B ; all in wreath of bay. 
Another. 

Another similar, but to I. of monogram of Achaia, H ; to r. P, below, A. 
Another similar ; to I. of mon. of Achaia, H ; to r. PO ; below, no letter. 
Another similar ; to I. of mon. of Achaia, AQ, to r. Po. In all the lyre. 



384 Head of Jupiter to r. R. Monogram of Achaia ; to I. of it, K ; to r., A ; above, 

B ; below, M, under which a fulmen ; all in wreath of bay. 

Another similar, but to I. KA (in mon.) ; to n, A ; below, ME (in mon.), under 

which, fulmen. 
Another similar, but above, to I. and to r., characters indistinct ; below, ME (in 

mon.) ; no fulmen. 
AESIA2. Jupiter Nicephorus naked, standing to I. B. AXAIiiN MEEEANION. 
Juno seated to I. 

Pagc^. 

XAPMIAAS. Same type. R. AXAION nAFAlON. Same type. 

Pallantium. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. Monogram of Achaia, To I. of it, n ; above, A ; 
to /•. A ; below, trident and AN (in mon.) ; all in wreath of bay. 
35'2 Another similar, but below, EY (in mon.) with trident. 
Two others similar. 

Patrce. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. Monogram of Achaia ; above it, EY, to I. A, to r. HA ; 

below, dolphin. 
Two others similar ; but above, AP (in mon.), to I. *BE (in men.), to r. IIA, as 

before. 
37-2 [Another similar ; above, AX; to?. A; to r. IIA. 

Another similar ; above, SQ, to I. SE (in mon.), to r. IIA. In all, the dolphin. 

Pelkne, 
AQANinnos. Jupiter Nicephorus, naked, standing to L B. [AXAiaN nEAA]- 
ANEilN. Juno seated to l, in extended right hand (crown), in left hand sceptre. 

Phigaleia. 

.... AEOA .... Same type ; in field to I. a mon. B. AXAION ^ir 

Same type. 

Phlius. 
llASflN. Same type. R. AXAIQN ^AEIASIQN. Same type. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

M 

M 

JR 
M 

M 
M 
M 



JE 



M 



M 



M 
M 

M 



Size 

3+ 

2i 



91 
•^2 



4-S 



2i 



Weight 



6+ 



H 



3 



35-7 



37-8 



Sicyon. 

Head of Jupiter to r. U. Monogram of Achaia ; to I. of it, E, to r. Y, below, SI , 

all in wreath of bay. 
Another similar, ft. Above, ME (in mon.) ; to ^. of it N., to »■. I ; below, dove.flying 

to r, 

Tegea. 

Head of Jupiter to r. IJi. Monogram of Achaia ; to I. of it, T, to r. E ; all in 

wreath of bay. 
Another. 

Trmzen. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. Monogram of Achaia ; to I. of it, mon. 5 (KA©) ; to r. 

of it, mon. 6 (EAN), below, trident ; all in wreath of bay. 
Another similar. IJ. Above, mon. 7 (MA) ; to 1. A, to r. I ; below, trident as 

before. 
Another, but nothing above the monogram of Achaia. 



^GIUM Achaiffi. 

Note. — Now Vostitza ; tide Tr. in the Morea, iii. p. 185. 

Septimius Severus. 

[A. cenT.] ce. nePXI. Head of Septimius Severus to r. R. Airie . . Jupiter 
naked, fulminating to r. 

^GEIRA Achaiije. 

yote. — For the position and remains of jEgeira, Dide Tr. in tlie Morea, iii. p. 387. 

AiriPATAN. Half goat to r. B. KAE in wreath of olive. 

.^EGOSPOTAMI Thracise. 
Female head to ?., with low crown or cap, decorated and wreathed (Juno ?). 
B. Airosno. Goat standing to I 

Note. — The goat alludes to the ancient name of a river, which joins the northern shore of the 
Hellespont, opposite to Lamps4ki (Lampsacus). I searched unsuccessfully on its banks for any remains 
of the city, ^gospotami, which these coins prove to have existed. According to the Ethnic given by 
Stephanus, the legend is an abridgment of Ai'yoffTroTafii'rwv. It is scarcely necessary to observe 
that the place was celebrated for the victory obtained by Lysander over the Athenians (b. c. 405), 
the closing event of the Peloponnesian war. 



Another. 



^NEIA Macedonise. 



39 



84-8 



Helmeted head with hair in ringlets and pointed beard in Eginetan style to r. (^neias.) 

B. Quadripartite square with four partial indentations.— Ekctrotype from the 

B.M. 
Helmeted head with short beard to I. (iEneias.) B. AINEAS withm quad, mcus., 

and surrounding a quadripartite Macedonian square. — Electrotype from the 

B.M. 

iVbfe.— Cape ^neium, called by the Turks Kar4bumu, upon or very near to which Mne\a. stood, 
is at a distance of 10 geographical miles from Tliessalonica, and opposite to the mouth of the Axius. 
No vestiges of ^Euela have yet been observed. On the proofs of its situation, xside Tr. in N. Greece, 
iii. p. 451. 

[c] 



F:UR0PEAN GREECE. 



Metal 



M 
M 



M 






N 



Size 



4-3 
3 

5 



Weight 



42 



112 



H 

6 



6-5 
3+ 



M 


H 


M 


6- 


M 


6 


M 


4+ 



2i 



32-5 
232-1 



60-1 



66 



^NIANES Thessaliae. 

Note. — Plutarch (Qu. Grsec. 13 and 26) speaks of the jEnianes as a people who had often changed 
their abode. At the time of these coins they occupied the country bordering on the Malienses, 
westward, and their capital was Hypata, now Nedpatra. — Vide Tr. in N. Greece, ii. p. 18. 

Head of Jupiter to I. R. AINIANilN. Naked warrior stepping to L, in left hand 
shield and chlarays ; right hand launching a javelin to right. 

Another similar. 

Head of Pallas with decorated helmet to r. flL. [AIlNIANilN NIK0KPATH[2]. 
Slinger, adv., stepping to I., looking to r. and adjusting his sling ; behind him, 
two javelins. 

Note.— 'Both the warriors on these coins appear to be fighting in retreat. 

M^VS ThracJEe. 

Note. — jEnus retains its ancient name, and, comparatively, its ancient importance, the conse- 
quence of its advantageous position at the mouth of the Hebrus, where it commands a navigable 
communication with the great Thracian plains, watered by that river. In the article AIN02 in 
Stephanus, the remark occurs, that the Hebrus had a double discharge into the sea. JEnus stood on 
a rocky height to the left of the eastern branch. Changes have taken place at the mouth of this 
river, such as are observable in all the great rivers of Greece. Here the new alluvium has almost 
abolished the eastern branch, and there is now a large lagoon between the two. 

Head of Hermes in a close cap to I. R. AINION. Hermaic statue standing on 
a throne ; in field to I., caduceus. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Head of Hermes, as before, adv. R. AINION. Goat standing to r.\ in field to 
r., wine-jar ; below the goat, astragalus ? 

Nate. — The goat was sacred to Hermes as the god of shepherds, and guardian of flocks and herds 
(Pausan. Corinth. 3). 

Head of Hermes, as before, to r. R. AIN. Goat standing to r. ; in field to n, 
hermaic statue on a throne ; all in quad, incus. — Electrotype. 

Head of Hermes in a hat adv. towards r. R. AINION. Hermaic statue standing 
on a throne ; in field to I., diota. — EUctrotype from the Pemlroke Collection (502). 

Nate. — The statue and throne on this and the two preceding coins has been taken for a wine-press. 
Eckhel describes it as ' sedile ut videtur ;' and so far he is right. In fact, it represents a throne, 
upon which stands one of those statues called Hermaic, which were columnar in the lower part. 
The whole type exactly resembles the description which Pausanias has given of the statues of 
Apollo standing on thrones, at Amyclffi and Thomax in Laconia (Pausan. Lacon. 10, 12). There 
was probably a similar statue at jEuus. 

Head of Hermes to I. R. AINION. Jupiter seated to I., in right hand, ? in 

left, hasta. 
Head of Jupiter to r. R. AINIi2N. Hermes naked, standing to I. ; in right hand, 

purse ; in left hand, caduceus and chlamys ; below, altar with fire. 
Another similar. 

Trajan. 
NEPBA TPA Head of Trajan to r. R. AINI.N. Male head to r. 



MTOIAA. 

Bearded laureate head of Hercules to r., with lion's skin and paws round the 
throat. R. AITilAiiN. Androgynous figure, wearing a hat and half-boots, 
seated to r. on a pile of shields ; a short sword, with knob at the end, at his 
left side, right hand resting on hasta, in extended left hand, a Victory, turned 
to r., and holding out a crown. In field to r. AE (in mon.), below which a 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

M 



M 



M 



Size 



M 



M 



M 

M 
JE 
M 

M 

M 



H 



Weight 

259-4 



lo8-2 



82-8 



3- 



S4-3 



3- 
4- 



38 2 



5-4 
2* 
3- 
51 



Beardless head of Hercules, with lion's scalp to r. ; behind the neck, A. B. Same 
legend and similar type, but the staff knotted ; the right shoulder bare ; the 
sword tied with ribbons, and held in left hand, which rests on knee ; drapery 
twisted round the arm. In field to r. AYT (in mon), below which, 2E ; in field 
to I., A. 

Beardless laureate head to r. (Apollo ?) ; below, *I. R. AITQAiiN. Naked figure 
to I., right foot raised on rock ; left hand and chlamys on right knee ; in right 
hand, staff; on left side, sword, as before ; hat suspended behind the shoulders. 

Head of Diana to r., bow and quiver appearing behind the neck ; below, *!. Same 
androgynous figure seated upon shields to r. looking adv. ; right hand resting on 
knotted staff; twisted drapery round the left arm ; the left hand resting on 
the sword. In field to r., a trophy ; above it, A. — TMs and the two preceding are 
Electrotypes from the B. M. 

Note. — Millingen (R^oueil de M^dailles Grecques, p. 40) supposes the seated figure on these 
reverses to have been a female, and to have represented the statue of jEtolia, which was dedicated at 
Delphi after the expulsion of the Gauls from Greece, in B. c. 278, when the jEtoIians twice defeated the 
Gauls near Thermopylee in their advance towards Delphi, and in their retreat destroyed great num- 
bers of them. The figure, however, is not female, but of that androgynous character often given to 
Apollo, to Bacchus, and to juvenile heroes. The hat and boots connect it with the Calydouian hunt, 
so constantly alluded to in the types of ^tolian coins. As Meleager was, next to Hercules, the 
leader in this exploit, for him probably the figure was intended, and he may have afi"orded some 
fabulous aid to the ^tolians in the battle, which the figure of Victory, the trophy, and the armour, 
upon which the hero is seated, are evidently intended to commemorate. Had they referred to the 
Gallic invasion, some Gallic symbol would probably have been seen. The shields, on the contrary, 
on which the figure is seated, are not Gallic, which were quadrangular gerrce, but Greek, and 
one of those on the tetradrachmon is conspicuously shown to be Macedonian. The only great 
advantage gained in the field by the ^tolians over the Macedonians was at Cynoscephalee in b. c. 197) 
when they were in alliance with the Romans, and when the ^tolian cavalry contributed greatly to 
the success of Flamininus. It is remarkable, that the short sword, decorated with ribbons, in the 
hand of the seated figure, resembles the Roman parazonium. 



Youthful head, covered with hat to r. IjL. AITiiAiiN. 
it, *. In exergue, A, and spear-head to r. 



Boar running to r., below 



Note. — Perhaps the head on the obverse is that of Atalante, the boar referring evidently to the 
Calydonian chase. The spear-head, as well as, on other coins, the jaw-bone, have a similar allusion. 



Another similar, but below the boar, K. 
Similar head with ear-ring to r. R. AITii 



Boar to r. ; above, spear-head to r. 



Note. — The ear-ring on the obverse of this coin tends to confirm the supposition of the head being 
that of Atalante. 

Head of Apollo to r. R. AIxaASlN. Spear-head and jaw-bone of boar ; between 

them, KA ; in field to I., grapes. 
Another similar, but in field, between spear-head and jaw-bone, mon. 8. 
Same type. B. AIxaAilN. Trophy. 
Same type. I. H. AITii . . . Tripod ; in field to I. ? 
Head of Jupiter to r. B. Spear-head and jaw-bone of boar to r. 
Head of Pallas to r. B. AITii. Hercules standing adv. looking r., right hand 

resting on club ; over left arm, lion's skin. 
Same type. B. AITiiAiiN. Same type ; under his right ann, N, below which, I. 

A^oie.— Hercules having partaken in the chase of the Calydonian boar, and having married Dejanira, 
daughter of .lEneus, king of Calydon, his head or figure became naturally a type on the coins of 
jEtolia. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal Size Weiglit 



M 
JE 
M 



4 

2 
2+ 



M 
M 

M 



130-2 
130-6 
130-9 



ALOPECONNESUS Thracia. 

Note. — Alopeconnesus stood on the northern shore of the Thracian Chersonese, between the 
Isthmus of Cardia and Araplus (Scylax, p. 28). Next to Araplus, southward, stood Elceus, situated 
at the southern extremity of the Chersonese. The two latter names so closely resemble the modem 
Aropos and Helles of the Admiralty Survey, that we can hardly doubt of the identity of the places, 
Alopeconnesus, having been one of the chief towns of the Chersonese (Demosth. deCor. p. 250, et adv. 
Aristocr. ; Liv. 31, 16), has probably left some vestiges of its position, although none seem to have 
been observed by the officers of the Survey. 

Head of Bacchus to r. B. AAQ. Cantharus, or cup of Bacchus. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. AAiiDEKON. Fox to r. ; in field r., ear of com. 

Cantharus between two stars. R. AAiill. Cantharus. 



ALYZIA Acarnaniae. 

'Note. — Alyzia was one of the Acarnanian colonies of Corinth ; the others in that province were 
Leucas, Anactorium, Thyrrheium, and Metropolis : in the Ambracic gulf were Ambracia and 
Argos of Amphilochia. All these, as well as the great Corinthian colonies, Corcyra, Dyr- 
rhachium, Leontium, and Syracuse, were in the habit of striking didrachma in imitation of 
those of Corinth. From the most ancient of these coins we may infer, that the custom began 
about B.C. 440, when Corinth, dreading the naval power of Athens, formed a stricter alliance 
with her colonies of the West, who, on their part, were alive to the commercial advantages 
of issuing money, which enjoyed abroad the high credit of the ttiJXoj, or puUus (the little horse), as the 
Cormthian didrachmon was familiarly called (J. Poll. 9, 76), a credit derived from its pure silver and 
accurate weight, and which caused it to rival, as a favourite medium of commerce, even the silver 
money of Athens, or that of Philip and Alexander, or the Asiatic cistophori. Such being the causes 
which multiplied the colonial didrachma, these coins naturally became still more numerous after the 
time of Alexander, when the Macedonian conquest of Asia and Egypt had greatly enlarged the 
bounds of Grecian trade. To this time, in fact, the greater part of the colonial didrachma evidently 
belong. We find also that the same considerations, which led the Athenians never but once to make 
any variation in the types and outward appearance of their silver money, induced the Corinthian 
colonies to adhere closely to Corinthian forms, seldom inscribing their names at length, and substi- 
tuting only for the Corinthian koph under the Pegasus, a single letter or small monogram. In some 
cases the koph was retained, and the monogram or initials of the city were pUced in a different 
situation. The colonial coinage of Ambracia, Amphilochia, and Acamania, ceased probably 
after the capture and plunder of Ambracia, by the Consul Fulvius, in the year B.C. 189, or 
no more than forty-three years before the destruction of Corinth itself by Mummius. When 
Augustus founded Nicopolis, soon after the battle of Actium, all the once flourishing cities near 
the Ambracic gulf had fallen into decay, as appears from an epigram of the cotemporary poet 
Antipatrus, who names Leucas, Ambracia, Thyrrheium, Anactorium, and Argos of Amphilochia, as 
having contributed their inhabitants, or a large portion, at least, of their diminished numbers, to 
people Nicopolis. For the situation of Alyzia, vide Tr. in N. Greece, iv. p. 14, and the Map. 

(A)AYIAIflN. Head of Palla.s to r. ; in field behind it, quiver? ft. Pegasus flying 

to r. 
Head of Pallas to I., below it, AA ; behind the head, Boeotian shield ? fi. Pegasus 

flying to I. 
AAYIAIiiN. Same Corinthian types ; but behind the head, bow. — Electrotype from 

the B. M. 
Head of Pallas to r. R. AAY. Head of Hercules, with lion's scalp, to r. ; behind, 

club. 

AMANTIA Epiri. 

A^o**.— Amantia was situated on the Polyanthes, a branch of the Aous, 30 geographical miles from 
ApoUonia (30 M. p. in the Tabular Itinerary). The site is now occupied by Ni'vitza {tide Tr. in N. 
Greece, i. p. 375, and the Map). 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

M 



Size 
*2 



Weight 



M 

M 
M 
JR 



M 

M 
M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

iE 

M 

JE 
M 

JE 
M 

M 



5- 

5-4 

5 



5 

6-5 

5 + 

3 

4 
4 
2 

4+ 
4+ 
4 
5- 

4 
4i 
4i 
4 



127-7 
127-5 
128 



129 

131-2 
118-5 

130-5 

121-9 

50-3 



Head of Jupiter to r. ; in field to L, ©01, to r. AT. B. AMANTiiN in two lines ; 
between them, fulmen ; below, SE ; all within a garland of oak. 



AMBRACIA Epiri. 

Note.— Amhr&cia (now Arta), the greatest of the Corinthian colonies established near the 
Ambracian Gulf, stood on the left bank of the river Araehthus, nine geographical miles above 
its discharge into the gulf, in the midst of an extensive and fertile, but now marshy plain. For a 
description of the extant remains of Ambracia, vide Tr. in N. Greece, I. p. 204, seq. 



r., mon. 14 (AN). B. Pegasus flying 



AMnPAKI. Head of Pallas to I. ; in field 
to L — Electrotype. 

[AMP]PAKmTA[N]. Same Corinthian type. B- Same Corinthian type ; below it, A. 

A. Jlead of Pallas to r. ; before it, obelisk. R. Pegasus to r. ; below it, A. 

Head of Pallas to I. ; on the top of the helmet, bull to I. ; in field to I., A. R. Pega- 
sus with curled wing flying to I. ; below it, tortoise on serpent ; near the horse's 
neck, A. 

Note. — The bull is typical probably of the river Araehthus. 

Same type, with crest of hair to the helmet. B. Same type, with strait wing ; below, 

A. 

Same type, without crest ; behind it, shield, ft. Same type ; below, A. 
Same type to r. ; before it a slender quadruped running to I. ; behind, A ; all in quad. 

incus. B. Pegasus flying to r. 
Head of Pallas to r. ; before it, a bee ; on the helmet, A. B. Pegasus flying 

to I. 
Same type ; before it, naked figure raising right foot on rock, left elbow on left knee ; 

behind, the head of Pallas, A. B. Same type. 
Female head, laureate and veiled to I. B- AM. Obelisk, with fillets hanging from 

the top ; all in a wreath. 
Similar head to r. B- AMBP, and obelisk, in a wreath. 
Another. 

Head of Pallas to r. B. Same legend and type. 

Head of Pallas to l. B. AM. Jupiter (Aetophorus ?) naked, and fulminating to r. 
Head of Apollo to I. B. AMBP, and obelisk, in a wreath. 
Another. 
Radiate head of Apollo to r. B. AMBP. Apollo naked, stepping to r., bow in his 

extended left hand, his right hand drawing an arrow from quiver. 
Another similar. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. AMBP. A5?IOX02!. Gi-yphon walking to r. 
Same type. B. Same type. AMBP. AAMIOS. 
Bearded head of andromorphous bull (Araehthus) to r. B- AMBPA. Crab; above, 

mon. 9. 
Head of Hercules in lion's scalp to r. H. AMBP. Apollo seated on throne without 

back to I. ; in right hand, bow. 

AMPHAXII Macedonise. 

Note.— From a comparison of Polybius, Strabo, and Ptolemy, it appears that Amphaxitis compre- 
hended all that portion of the great plain at the head of the Thermaic Gulf, which lies to the left 
of the Axius, together with a portion of the country eastward of Thessalonica, as far as the Strymonic 
Gulf. The towns ascribed to Amphaxitis by Ptolemy are Thessalonica, Stageira, and Arethusa. A 
tetradrachmon, inscribed MAKEAONQN AM*ASIQN, published by Millingen, closely resembles 
in size, weight, and style, those inscribed MAKKAONQN nPQTHS and MAKEAONQN AEYTEPA2, 
which were certainly coined, the former at AmphipoUs, the latter at Thessalonica. The obverses 



10 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



M 
M 



M 



M 



M 



JE 


3 


M 


H 


M 


n 


M 


] 


JE 


H 


M 


5i 



02 

5 

5 

5 
5 



217-4 



25-4 
6-9 



6-9 



differ only in that the Amphaxian haa a simple Macedonian shield, with an ornament in the centre ; 
whereas, on those of the first and second Macedonia, there is a head of Diana in the centre of the 
shield iu place of the ornament. Whether the coins of the Amphaxii were struck at Thessalonica, 
or whether there was a city Amphaxus, is doubtful — Vide Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 451 ; Millingen, 
Sylloge of Ancient Coins, p. 50. 

Head of youthful Hercules, with lion's scalp to r. B. AM*A3raN, in two lines ; 
between them, club ; above, EH (in mon), all in a wreath of oak. — Electrotype 
from the B. M. 

AMPHIPOLIS Thracise sive Macedonia. 

Note. — Concerning the topography, remarkable position, and extant remains of Amphipolis, rjrfe 
Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 181, seq. 

Head of Apollo, adv. B. AM*inOAITEtlN ; written on the sloping side of a square 
frame, within which is a flaming torch inclosed in a cylinder of wire, and standing 
in a cup, having a vertical handle ; in field to I. a bee ; the whole in quad, 
incus. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — Amphipolis, having been colonized from Athens, adopted the old Attic or Ionic dialect ; 
hence the form AM*inOAITEQN, The same is found, together with other forms of the old dialect, 
in an inscription of the time of Demosthenes which I copied at Amphipolis (Tr. in N. Greece, 111. 
PI. xxvi.. No. 125), affording an example, among many others, of the preservation of ancient forms 
in colonies, after they had fallen into disuse in the metropolis. 

Same type. B. Same legend and type, but no bee. 
Head of Apollo to r. R. AM ; fish to r. 

Note. — The fish alludes, probably, to the abundant fisheries of the Strymon, and of its lake near 
Amphipolis. — Vide Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 184. 



AM 
I * 



the same kind of fish placed diagonally in a square, fonned by a 



B. 



AM 
* I 



torch as before, in a linear square. 



I 



Same type. B- 

fine line. 

Head of Apollo to r. 

Another. 

Same types, but legend as on the last silver coin. 
Two others similar. 
Same legend and same types. 
Same types and legend, but head of Apollo to I. 

Head of Medusa, adv., with a small wing above the temple. B- AM*inOAEITnN 
in two lines ; between them, Pallas Nicephorus standing to I. 

Note. — The head of Medusa is a Macedonian symbol derived from Argos. Eckhel (ii. p. 66) 
describes a coin of Amphipolis, the obverse of which is a winged head of Perseus, another common 
Macedonian type of the same origin. Mention of the temple of Minerva, in Amphipolis, occurs 
in the description by Thucydides (5, 6, seq.) of the transactions, in which he was himself engaged, 
in the tenth year of the Peloponnesian war. Brasidas being in possession of the city, the 
historian relates that Cleon, from his position on Mount Cerdylium, saw Brasidas sacrificing at the 
temple of Minerva. — Tr. iu N. Greece, III. p. 192. 

Another. 

Same types, but the legend AM*IITOAITilN. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B- AM*ino . . TiiN, in two lines; between them, prow to 

r,, in field to r., AOY (in mon.) ; below which, MYE (in mon.). 
Same types and legend ; to I. of prow, AOY (in mon.), 110 (in mon.). 
Head of Jupiter to r, B. AM*inOAITi2N in two lines, between which, club 

above, mon. 10, and mon, 11 (nPSi) ; below, mon. 12, all in wreath of oak. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



11 



Metal i Size 

JE 

M 
JE 
M 

M 
M 



M 

M 
M 
M 



M 



4 
3i 
4 
6-5 

5-4 
5 



JE 


4+ 


JE 


4 


JE 


4 


JE 


4 


JE 


3 


JE 


4 


M 


4 


JE 


4- 


JE 


4 



Weight 



Another similar, but below the legend, mon. 13 and another mon. 

Another similar, but in field above the legend, mon. 12 and i, and below, ANT 

(in mon.). 
(AM*inO)AEITaN. Head of Diana to r. R. Horse or ox feeding to r. 
Head of Ceres? tor. R. AM<I>inOAITiiN, in two lines ; between which, ear of corn. 
Another similar ; in field above and below, monograms. 
Head of Diana to r., bow and quiver behind the neck. R. AM*inOAITilN. Two 

goats on their hind-legs opposed, and fighting. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field to I., EII (in mon.). 
Head of Diana to r., bow and quiver behind the neck. R. AM*inO. Diana adv. 

seated on a bull, galloping to r., and holding her veil with both hands. 

Note. — The female on the bull is Diana Tauropolus, or Taurica, or Brauronia, whose worship was 
imported into Amphipolis by the Athenian colony. There was a statue of Diana Brauronia in the 
Acropolis of Athens ; but the original figure, said to have been brought from Tauroscythia, by Iphi- 
geneia, was at Haloe Araphenides, in the district of Brauron, whence the epithet Brauronia. No 
part of the Athenian mythus, however, accounts for the bull, which seems to be nothing more than 
an allusion to the epithet Taurica, and to have originated in Roman times, and was an imitation 
perhaps of the Sidonian or Cretan mythus of Europa ; for the type on the coins of Amphipolis 
differs in nothing from that on the coins of Sidon, except that on the latter the female employs one 
hand in holding one of the bull's horns. A temple of Diana Tauropolus, at Amphipolis, was 
one of six in Greece and Macedonia, which Alexander the Great ordered to be built, at an expense 
of 1500 talents for each ; but his death put an end to the execution of this and his other great 
designs (Diodor. 1 8, 4). From the following Epigram of Antipatrus of Thessalonica, it appears, that 
in the time of Augustus, the temple of Diana, as well as the rest of Amphipolis, was in a, ruinous 
state. Nevertheless, the city continued to coin money two centuries later : — 

^Tpviiovi Kai iiiyd\(i> ■TrtiroXtaiiivti ' EWtiairSmpt 

'Hpioj' 'H^utrtJQ 4>yXXi^of, *A/i^i7roXi, 
AoiTra (Atwra) rot At0oTrir)g BpavpuiviSos (xvia i/ijoS 

Miiivti, (cat noTa/iov r d)i'^i\iax>\TOV iiJwp" 
T))i' ?)i VOT AiyiiSaie fieydXriv cpiv, wf a\iav6is 

TpDxoc, st' dfiipoTipaiQ dtpKOitiB' qi'oVi. 

For ^vWiSos (mde Herodot. 7, 114), for Ai0o7ri)/c (Sappho, Epigr. 1). 

Same type. R. AM*inoiAT. (sic.) Diana on bull galloping to L 

Same type. R. AM*I . . AITii. Bull bounding to r. 

Another similar. 

Same type. R. AM<I>inOAITiiN. Goat standing to r. 

Same type. R. Same legend ; goat galloping to I. 

Head of Jupiter to r. ; behind, sceptre. R. AM*inOAEITON. Eagle on fulmen to 

r. looking to I. 
Another. 

Head of Jupiter to ?. R. Same legend and type. 
Head of Pallas (or Rome) to r. R. AM*inoAITQN. Same type, but eagle to I. 

looking to r. 
Head of Jupiter (or Neptune) to r. R. Same legend ; free horse trottmg to r. ; in 

field above, AP (in mon.) ; to r., ANT (in mon.). 
Another similar. , . n , 

Similar head to r. R. AM*IP. Horse stepping to r., below, 0, or shield? 
Another similar ; in field to r., S. 
AM*IPOAEIT . . . Bearded head of Hercules in lions scalp to r. R. Pallas 

Nicephorus to /. 
Another similar. 

Augustus. 
KAISAP SEBA2T0S. Augustus armed, standing to I. ; in right hand, hasta ; in left, 
parazonium. R. AM*IPO . . . ON. Diana Tauropolus adv., seated on bull 
galloping to r., holding up her veil with both hands. 



12 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

M 


Size 
5- 


JE 


5 


JE 


6 


M 


6 


JE 


6 


JE 


6 


JE 


5 


JE 


5 


M 


5 


JE 


5 


JE 


5 


JE 


6+ 


M 


7-5 


m 


H 


JE 


4-3 


JE 


4+ 


' M 


4 



Weight 



AYTOKPA Augustus togated and bare-headed to I. standing on a basis, 

holding up right hand ; in left hand, staff surmounted with eagle. B. AM<l>l[IO- 

AITQN. Diana on the bull to r. as before. 
SEBASTOS Augustus with legs crossed, right hand extended, in left, 

chlamys and staff. R. AM*ino. Same type, but bull to I. 
AM*1P0 Bust of Diana to r. B. KAISAP SEBASTOS. Augustus as 

before, but with left hand on parazonium, and crowned by a togated figure 

standing behind him. 
Another. 
KAISAPOS SEBASTOY. Head of Augustus to r. ft. AM*inOAlTilN. Diana 

Tauropolus on bull to r. 
CEBACTOC KAICAP. Augustus armed, stepping to l. ; in right hand, hasta, in 

left, parazonium. B. AM*inOAeiT£lN. Female seated to I. ; in right hand, 

patera ; in left, cornucopiae. 
Another. 

Julia. 

lOYAIA 2EBA2TH. Head of Julia, veiled, to r. R. AM*inOAITON. Diana Tau- 
ropolus adv., on bull galloping to r. 

Tiberius. 
TI. KAISAP 2EBAST0S. Head of Tiberius to r. R. Same legend ; same type to I. 

Claudius. 

T. KAAYAIO ......... Claudius, paludate, standing to I. ; right arm extended, 

in left hand, ! R. Same legend ; same type to r. 

Domitianus. 

AYT. KAICAP AOMITIANOC. Head of Domitian to r. B. AM*inOAITnN. Tur- 
reted female standing to I. ; in right hand, sceptre, with triple head ; in left, 
bridle (Nemesis). 

Another. 

Domitia. 

. . . ITIA Bust of Domitia, to r. R. AM<I>inOAEITaN. Turreted 

female seated to I. ; in right hand, patera, in left, ? 

Vespasianus. 

. . ecIIACIANOC Vespasian, with right foot on step ; in right hand, hasta ; in 

left, parazonium. R. AM*inOAIC. Young female seated to r. ; in right 
hand, patera ? 

Trajanus. 

TPAIANOO. Trajan, paludate, standing on a basis to I. ; right hand 

raised ; in left, staff surmounted by eagle. B N. Diana Tauro- 
polus to r. 

Hadrianus. 

AAPIANOC . . Head of Hadrian to >•. B OAGITilN. Female in 

long drapery, standing to I. ; in right hand, ? ; left hand resting on shield. 

M. Aurelius Cmsar. 

PAOIAx ..... HqYA. Head of M. AureHus Caesar to I. B- AMiinOAGITUJN. 
Nemesis standing to I. ; in right hand, hasta with triple head; in left, bridle. 

Faustina Junior. 
*AYCTGINA GCBACTH. Head of Faustina to r. B. AM^inOAITON. Diana on 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



13 



Metal 



IE 
M 



Size 



M 


4 


JE 


6 


M 


6 


m. 


6+ 


M 


6 


M 


5 



M 

M 
M 

M 

JR. 



Weight 



5+ 
5 

4-3 



5-4 

^ 

5 + 
5 

4+ 
3 



the bull, galloping to r. ; in her left hand, bow ; right hand drawing an arrow 
from quiver. 
Another. 

Lucius Verus. 

AYT. KAI. A. AYPH. OYHP. Head of L. Verus to r. li. AM*inOA6ITON. 

Turreted female seated to I. ; in right hand, patera, in left, ? 
A.nother. 

Commodm. 

AYTOR. A. AYP. KOMMAOC. (sic) ANTflN. Head of Commodus to r. R. AM*I- 
nOAeiTUJN. Female with apex on the head, seated to I. on throne with high 
back ; in right hand, patera ; in left, ? 

Another. 

Septimius Severus. 
CGYIPOC. Head of S. Severus to r. ^. AM*inO .... Same type. 



Macrinus. 

AY. M. OP . . . . MAKPINOC. Bust of Macrinus to r. B. AM*inOAeiTnN. Same 
type. 

Elagalalus. 

AY. K. M. AYP. ANTONINOC BY. Head of Elagabalus to r. B. Same legend and 
type ; below the throne, fish. 



12o-4 

129 
131 

130-8 

121-3 

131 -4 



lOY 



MAIGA. AY 



Julia Mcesa. 
Head of J. Msesa to r, ft. Same legend and types. 



Severus Alexandrus. 

AY. K. AYP. CeY. AA Head of Sev. Alexander to r. ft. Same legend 

and types. 
Another. 

AMPHISSA Phocidis. 

Note. — On the remains of Amphissa at the modem S^lona, mide Tr. in N. Greece, II. p. 588. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. AM41S2EilN. Spear-head and jaw-bone of boar to r.; 
between them, star and AP ; in field to ?., grapes. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — The obverse, as well as the iEtolian types on the reverse of this coin, are explained by the 
mythus of Amphissus, the reputed son of Apollo, and of Dryope, who was descended from Oxylus and 
Calydon. 

ANACTOEIUM Acarnania. 

Note.—Tov a description of the position and remains of Anactorium, mde Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 493. 

Head of Pallas to r. ; in field L, owl. ft. Pegasus flying to r. ; under it, mon. 14 
(AN). 

Same type ; in field to I., same mon., and a leaf. ft. Same type and mon. 

Same type ; in field to L, tripod, in a wreath, and standing on a basis, on which are 
the letters, ANA. ft. Same type and mon. 

Same type; in field to l, mon. 14, and tripod without wreath or basis, ft. Same 
type and mon. 

Same type; in field to I., shrimp? ft. Same type; below it, mon. 15 (AN retro- 
grade). 

Same type i. infield to n, mon. 14, and cortina? ft. Same type to I.; below it, 

mon. 14. 

[E] 



u 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

M 

M 

M 
M 

M 
M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

M 
M 

M 



JE 



M 



JE 



Size 
5 

*2 

5 

5 


5 



5 

6-5 

5 
5 + 

3 

2- 

5 
5 
5 

4+ 



Weight 
132-8 
124-3 

128 
129-7 

125 
180 

132-1 

123-6 
131-5 

125-8 

126-8 



129-6 
128-5 



M I 5 



Another similar. 

Same type ; in field to r., same mon. and i, in a wreath. R. Same type ; below it, 

mon. 15. 
Same type ; in field to r., A£l, and torch ? H. Same type and mon. 
Same type ; in field to I., API ; to r., Aii, and altar with fire. H. Same type and 

mon. 
Same type ; in field to r,, mon. 14, and tripod. R. Same type ; below it, AN. 
Same type; in field to I., NAY; to r., mon. 14, and candelabrum. R. Same type, 

below it mon. 14, 
Same type ; in field above, AYSI ; to r., mon. 14, and same symbol. R. Same type 

and mon. 
Another similar. 
Same type ; in field to I., KAE ; to r., same men., and cranium of ox, with pendent 

fillets. R. Same type and mon. 
Same type, with a wreath round the upper part of the helmet ; in field to r., bivalve 

shell. R. Same type and mon. 
Same type, similarly bound with wreath ; in field to r., lyre. R. Same type ; 

below it, mon. 16 (ANA). 
Head of Apollo, adv. R. Same type ; below it, mon. 14. — Electrotype. 
Head of Apollo to I. R. Half Pegasus, with curled wing, to /. ; below it, mon. 15. 

— Electrotype. 
ANAKTOPIEiiN. Head of Pallas to r. ; in field to I., leaf. R. Pegasus flying to r. ; 

below it, mon. 14. — Electrotype from the B. M. 
ANAKTOPlilN. Same type to I., with crest of hair to helmet, and behind it, tripod. 

R. Same type ; below it, indistinct mon. — Electrotype from the B. M, 
AKTIO. Same type ; in field to r., lyre. R. Same type to I. ; below it, ANA. — 

Electrotype. 
Head of Apollo to I. ; in field to I., AYSI. R. ANAKTOPI . . . liy re. —Electrotype 
from the B. M. 

Note. — The promontory Actium, upon which stood a celebrated temple of Apollo, was in the terri- 
tory of Anactorium. 

ANCHIALUS Thraciffl. 

Nate. — Anehialus, which preserves its ancient name in the Turkish form of Ankhioldju, was 
situated on a promontory of the Gulf of Burgas (nupyof), so called from a Turkish town in the centre 
of the gulf. Anehialus stood on the northern side of the bay, ten miles to the south-west of Mesem- 
bria, at the foot of the range of Heemus, where it terminates in the Euxine Sea. 

ANXIAAOC. Young male head to r. R. Asclepius standing adv., ANXIAAEilN. 
— Electrotype from the B. M. 

Sahina. 

CABeiNA AYP. (in mon.) Head of Sabina to r. R. ArxiAAEQN. Female 

standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left, cornucopiae. 

Gordianus Pius and Tranquillina. 

AYT. K. M, ANT. rOPAIANOL AVP. CGB. TPANKYAAEINA. Heads of Gordianus 
and Tranquillina opposed. R. OYAIIIANSiN AFXIAAEilN. Sarapis standing 
adv., right hand extended, hasta in left. 



APHYTiE Macedonia. 

Note. — Aphytse, now 'Atliyto, stood on the eastern shore of the peninsula of Pallene, about tea 
miles south-east of the Isthmus of Potidica. 

Head of Jupiter Ammon to r. R. A*YTAI. Eagle standing to r. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



15 



Metal Size 



M 



M 
M 
M 
JR 
M 
M 
M 



JR 



M 
M 
M 
JR 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 



6- 



3 

4 

4+ 
4 
4 
4 



H 



4 
5 
5 

4+ 

4+ 

4 

5 

5 

5 

41 



Weight 



162-5 



29-3 

50-7 

50-1 

46-5 

48 

40 

50-4 



61 



52-5 
59-3 
59 3 
59-1 

59 

50-5 

58-1 

61-2 

62-2 

62-1 



Note.— EcUhel (II. p. 68) cites this coin of the Pembroke collection (620). Jupiter Ammon was 
honoured by the Aphyteei, because he was said to have persuaded Lysander to raise the siege of 
Aphytce (Pausan. Lacon., 18 ; Plutarch, Lysand., 20). 



APOLLONIA Illyrici. 

NoU. — For the situation and remains of this celebrated city, see Tr. in N. Greece, I. p. 368. Its 
most flourishing time was in the century before the Christian aera, when some of the most illustrious 
of the Roman youth went thither for education, and among them Octavianus, afterwards Augustus. 
The greater part of the extant silver coins of ApoUouia are of that and the following century. On 
most of them two magistrates are named ; one name being in the nominative, the other in the genitive 
case, where EIII is to be understood. This was probably the Archon Eponymus. 

Cow standing to r. ; her head turned to l. to a calf, which she is suckling ; in field 
above, A. R. A linear circle containing a square, divided vertically into two 
equal parts ; in the middle of each, three dots, with rays proceeding from them 
above and below (gardens of Alcinous ?). In field, between square and circle, 

n°A. 

A 
Note. — These types are the same as on the early coins of Corcyra, of which ApoUonia was a colony. 

ANAPilNOS. Head of Pallas to I. R. AnOAAiiNIATAN, in two lines ; between 

them, obelisk. In field, above and below, TIMHN. 
NIKiiN. Cow and calf as before, but cow to I.; below, caducous? IJ. AIIOA. 

APISTinnOY. Square as before, but with sides curved inwards. 
APISTHN. Same type; in field to L, a torch; below, a wreath. B. AIIOA. 

■*YAAOY. Same type. 
vPISTflN. Same type ; below, ? R. AnOA. *IAOAAMOY. Same type, but sides 

of square not curved. 
SflTEAHS. Same type. R. AnOA. SENOOANTOY. Same type, with curved 

sides. 
KAAAISTPATOS. Same type ; below, a grain of barley. R. AIIOA. NIKIA. Same 

type. — Gilded coin. 
AIBATIOS. Same type ; below, car of corn. R. AIIOA. XAIPHNOS. Fire issuing 

from the earth ; below it, pedum. — Electrotype. 

Note. — The fire represented on this reverse is that of the Nymphjeum, near ApoUonia, described 
by Strabo (p. 316), Plutarch (in Sylla, 27), and Dion Casslus (41, 195) ; the place was sacred to Pan 
and the Nymphs, whence the pedum on the coins. For a modern description of it, see Dr. Holland's 
Travels, 4to. p. 518. 

<t>IA0AAM02. Head of Apollo to I. R. AIIOA. *IAOKAHS. Three nymphs 
dancing, between the two to the r., a hillock, from which fire issues ; the two 
outer nymphs hold a torch in one hand, and a hand of the middle nymph by the 
other. 

AEINOKPATEOS. Same type. R. AOOA. API2TAPX0S AIHO . . . Same type. 

AYSilN. Same type. R. ADOA. AIONYSOAiiPOS. Same type. 

APXHN. Same type. R. AHOA. 0EO$ . . . Same type. 

AiiPISiNOS. Same type. R. AHOA. AEINON. Same type, but the burning hil- 
lock is between the two nymphs to the left. 

Another. 

AINOKPATEOS. Same type. R. AHOA. *IAOKA(HS) TE. Same type, 

AtiPIIlNOS. Same type. R. AnOA. ANAPOMAX02. Same type. 

ANAPiiNOS. Same tvpe. R. AIJOA. TIMHN ANAPO. Same type. 

AFiiNinnOY. Same type- R. AHOA. AINOKPATHS EPIMNASTOY, Same type. 

Another similar. 



16 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

JE 

M 

M 
JE 
M 

M 
M 

M 



M 



M 



Size 



4+ 
4+ 
4i 
4i 
5 

41 
5 

3 

3i 
3i 
H 



H 



M 



4-S 



Weight 

56-3 

59 

61-8 



41-7 



AM*IAS snnOAIO. Same type to r. B. AHOA. ZflllYPOS AINaN02. Same 

type, but nymphs without torches. 
*1AQN ZiiUYPOY. Same type. R. ADOA. *ONAANIOS. Same type. 
*IAiiN, mon. 17 (ZiiHYPOY). Same type. B. Same legend and type. — Electrotype. 
*IAilN ZiiHYPOY. Same type. R. AOOA. BlilN. Same type. 
•tlAilN, mon. 17 (zanYPOY). Same type. R. Same legend and type. — Electrotype. 
Head of Diana to I. ; behind the neck, a mon. R. AnOAAONIATAN, in two lines; 

between them, tripod ; all within wreath of bay. 
Another similar. 
AYSiiN. Head of Apollo to I. ; before the neck, ! R. Same legend in two lines ; 

between them, obelisk ; all within wreath. 
Head of Bacchus to ^. R. Same type, but legend at right angles to obelisk, and at 

its base, 06 ; all within wreath. 
Young male head to r. R. Same legend, obelisk, and wreath. 
Head of Pallas to r. R. AH, and obelisk within a wreath. 
Head of Bacchus to I. ; in field to r., ;SE, and a mon. R. AIIOAAQNIATAN, in two 

lines, between which, cornucopise. 
Another. 

. . . *0 Head of Apollo to I. R. Same legend in two lines, between 

which, lyre. 

. . YONA Same type. R. Same legend and type. 

. . . ONOS . . . Same type. R. Same legend and type. 
Head of Pallas to r. R. . nOAAii . lATAN in two lines ; between which, fulmen. 



AYP. ANTlUNeiN 



Caracalla. 
Head of Caracalla to r. 



R. AnOAAlU Tripod. 



APOLLONIA Mygdonise. 

Lion's head adv. R- Y 2 (AIIOA), in the four squares of a Macedonian quadra- 

tum incusum. 

Note. — The Macedonian square on the reverse of this coin, and the resemblance of its legend 
to that of the coins of Acanthus, leave no room for hesitation in ascribing it to one of the two cities 
named ApoUonia, which stood in the Thraco-Macedonian Chersonese. I attribute it to the Apollonia 
of M^gdonia rather than to that of Chalcidice ; because at the latter I believe the beautiful 
coins with the legend, XAAKI4EQN, to have been struck ; tide Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 457- 
Apollonia of Mjgdonia stood about midway between Thessalonica and Amphipolis, between the 
Lake Bolbe and the northern extremity of the great argentiferous mountain of Nfzvoro, which 
accounts for its having a silver coinage. Apollonia still preserves its name, and some vestiges of its 
monuments. A deep indentation on a part of the obverse of the present specimen may be a 
Persian countermark, similar to those on the coins of Alexander I., and of Getas, king of the Edoni 
{vide Kings and Dynasts, pp. 1, 19). Apollonia lay exactly in the .line of march of the Persians. 



ARCADIA. 

Note. — The female head on the coins of Arcadia is probably that of Despoena, whose sanctuary, near 
Lycosura, is described at length by Pausanias (Arcad. 37), and who agrees with the coins in showing 
that Pan and Jupiter were the two other chief deities of the Arcadians. He tells us, that as Perse- 
phone, daughter of Jupiter and Ceres, was named Cora (the maid), in like manner, the daughter of 
Neptune and Ceres was named Despoena (the mistress), but that her real name he dared not reveal 
to the uninitiated. 

ARK . . . ? ON, in archaic letters {vide Plate), surrounding a female head, with hair 
in a bunch behind ; earring round, necklace a plain ring, all in quad, incus. 



I 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



17 



Metal 


Size 


M 


24 


M 


3 


M 


3-2 


M 


3 


JR 


3 


M 


3 


JR 


3+ 


M 


3- 


M 


3 


M 


H 


M 


1 + 


JR 


6 


JR 


4 


JR 
JR 


3i 
3 


JR 


3 


M 
JR 


2* 
3 


JR 


2- 


JR 


2 


JR 


2- 


JR 


2- 


JR 


H 


JR 


H 



44-6 

45-C 

43-5 

42-6 

42-6 

34-4 

34-4 
31-5 

34-8 

21-3 
13-3 

183-7 



42-4 



42 

41-3 

37-7 



33-2 

13-6 

12-4 
13-7 
12-3 
13-6 
11-1 



B;. Jupiter Aetophorus seated on a throne with back ending in swan's head ; 
the eagle flying to I. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note.— T!h.m coin is remarkable for its legend, which contains both the K and the Koph ( ? , the 
Latin Q). In Greece this letter is found only preceding an O, as in the names of Corinth, of Coresia, 
and of Coroneia, but in Italy it occurs before I'O on coins of Croton. 

ARKADI. in archaic letters, in boustrophedon beginning from the left {vide Plate, 

legend 2), surrounding a female head to r.; hair hanging over the shoulders, 

and tied in a knot at the end ; necklace of beads, but no earrings ; all in 

quad, incus. B. Same type. 
ARKA . IKO . . in similar letters, surrounding the same type, in boustrophedon 

beginning from right (vide Plate, legend 3). B. Same type. 
Same type. Same legend from left to right. R. Same type, but the eagle with 

open wings, resting on the arm of Jupiter. 
No legend. Same type, but hair turned up behind ; in field to n, spear-head ? 

B;. Same type I 
Oh. Same type, but hair in bunch behind, and confined by numerous 

bands. R. Same type. 
ARKAQIK, in boustrophedon beginning from the right. Similar head and head- 
dress, but face to r., half adv. B. Same type to r. 
ARK . . . KON from left to right. Same type. ft. Same type. 

. . DIKON. Similar head to I., but hair hanging straight, and tied in knot. 

B. Same type to I. 
Similar head to I. ; hair in a roll round the head. In the two upper corners of the 

quad, incus., AR ; in the two lower, AK. B- Same type, the eagle flying. 
Similar head to I., but hair in a net. R. Same type. — Fragment. 
AR retrograde in the upper angles of quad, incus. Similar head, but hair hanging 

down and tied. ft. Same type. 
Head of Jupiter to I. B. Pan seated on the Arcadian Olympus to I. ; in right 

hand, pedum ; in field to I., mon. 18 (APK) ; in small letters on the rock, GAYM. 

— Electrotype from the Pembroke Collection (754). 

Note. — Pausanias (Arcad. c. 38) informs us, that Mount Lycseum, on which were temples of 
Jupiter Lycseus and Pan, was also named by the Arcadians, " Olympus, and the sacred summit" 
{Kokovai li aiiTo Kai 'OXvuirov Kai Upav yt e'npoi Tuiv 'ApKaSwv Kopvfijv). The temple of Pan 
was near the Hippodrome and Stadium, of which some vestiges are still extant. This fine coin was 
struck, probably, at Megalopolis, soon after the foundation of that city. All the later coinage of 
Arcadia, both of silver and copper, we may presume to have proceeded from the same mint. That 
of the earlier silver may have been at Lycosura. 

Same type. B- Pan, horned and radiate, seated to I. on a rock ; right hand raised ; 

in left pedum; at the foot of rock, his syrinx. In field to I., mon. 18; 

to /■., I. 
Another similar. 

Same types and mon., but M in the place of I. _ 

Same type. B. Same type ; in field to I., eagle flying to ^., and below it, A ; 

to r., A. 

Two others similar, average weight 36'6. 
Same type. R. Same types. In field below to I., mon. 18; to /•., A, and under 

it, A. 
Head of Pan to I. B. Mon. 18 (APK), covering the field ; below, syrinx ; in 

field to ?., M. 
Same type. B. Same monogram and type ; in field to ?., "? . 
Same type. R. Same monogram and type ; in field to I., I. 
Another. 

Same type. B. Same monogram and type ; below. All. 
Same type. R. Same monogram and type ; in field to I., mon. 19. 

[r] 



18 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 
JE 

JE 

JE 

JE. 



JR 



Al 



JR 
JR 



Size 

4 + 



H 



Weight 



JR 


5 


130'8 


JR 


5-4 


131-9 


JR 


5 


J 08-8 


JR 


5 


118-8 


JR 


5+ 


124-4 


JR 


5 




JR 


4i 


126-6 


JR 


5 


129-8 


JR 


5 


124-7 


JR 


li 


12-9 


M 


2- 


14-8 


JE 


3 




JE 


4-3 




M 


3- 





7-6 



J 30-8 



188-4 



165-6 
82-6 



Head of Jupiter to I. B. Men. 18 (APK) ; below it, syrinx ; all in wreath of oak. 
Same type. R. Same monogram, covering the field ; within it, syrinx ; below 

which, fulmen. 
Same type. B. Same monogram and symbols. 
Another similar. 

Head of Pan to r. B. Same monogram ; below which, syrinx. 
Another. 

ARGOS Amphilochise. 

APrEI. Head of Pallas to I. ; in field to r., helmet. B. Pegasus, flying to I. ; 

below, A. 
Another. 
Another similar. 
Another similar. — Plated f 
Same type, without legend ; in field to r., AI, and oval shield. B. Same type ; below 

it, AP. 

AP. Same type and symbol. B- Same type ; below it, A. 

Same type and symbol ; between them, AP. B- Same type and letter. — Broken coin. 
AM*. Same type ; behind it, ABP. B. Same type and letter. 
AM*I. Same type ; behind it, ABP, and spear. B. Same type and letter. 
Another similar. 
Pegasus, with curled wing, stepping to r. ; below, AP. B. Pegasus flying to I. ; 

below, ? 
AP. Female head to I. ; her hair in a bunch behind. B- Half Pegasus, with curled 

wing, flying to I. 
Beardless head to r. ; behind it, hat. B- Dog or wolf, couchant to r., looking to 

I. ; below, AM*I ? 
Similar type, without the hat. B- APrEIQN. Wolf or dog at bay to r. ; below, E. 
Same type. B. APFEIilN I Dog or wolf, couchant to r., looking to I. 

Note. — These three copper coins were procured by me from the peasants who cultivated the fields of 
Vlikha and Neokhori, two small villages at the eastern extremity of the Gulf of Arta, where remains 
of the walls of Argos are still extant, at the distance of about a mile from the head of a small bay, 
called that of Armyrd.— Fide Tr. in N. Greece, IV. p. 242. 



ARGOS Argolidis. 

Head of Juno to »•., having a low crown, encircled with an Ionic ornament, and 
surmounted by five points ; hair hanging over the neck ; necklace of large 
beads. B- APFEIilN. Two dolphins; one turned to r., the other to /. ; 
between them, a wolfs head to I. — From the Thomas Collection (1620). 

Note. — The florid ornament here represented on the crown of Juno seems to show that the head 
was intended for Juno Antheia, whose temple was in the city Argos, and not for the Juno of the 
Herseum, at the foot of Mount Euboea ; the crown of the latter being described by Patisanias 
(Corinth. 17), as adorned with figures of the Hours and Graces. 

The wolf is the symbol of Apollo Lycius, whose temple was the most conspicuous in Argos. The 
epithet was derived from the contest between Danaus and Gelanor for the sovereignty, in tlie midst of 
which a wolf, fighting with a bull, obtained the superiority, and was construed by the Argives to decide 
the contest in favour of Danaus. 

Same type. B. APr . . . N, retrograde ; between the dolphins, a lyre. — Plated coin. 

Same type ; ornament of the crown somewhat different ; behind the head, S. B- AP- 
rEIUN. Naked figure of Diomedes, stepping stealthily along to r. ; in right 
hand, sword ; in left, palladium ; chlamys flying behind him. — Electrotype from 
the Thomas Collection (16J8), 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



19 



Metal Size 



Weight 



M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 

M 



JR 

M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

M 

JR 

M 
M 

M 
JE 

M 
M 
M 
M 

JE 

JE 



2+ 
2+ 

3-2 
3- 
3- 
3 



JE 
JE 
JE 



3 

3 

3- 
3 

3 

2^ 

2i 
] + 
1 + 

1 + 
4-3 

H 

2 

n 

3 

3 
3 



2i 

2 
2 

H 



23-2 
43-5 

40-4 
44-8 
43-3 
40-5 

29-9 



29-8 

33-6 

32-4 

33-4 
38-5 

37-5 

40 

40 

12-7 

12-7 

13-7 



Kote. — This exploit of Diomedes, one of the leaders of the Arglves to Troy, was the subject of 
a painting in the Propylaea at Athens, the subject of which is described by Pausanias (Attic, c. 22) 
as AwfiiiStfs Trjv 'Adqvav d^atpov/icvoi i$ 'IXiov. 

Same type. R. API. Pallas combating to r. 

Half wolf to ^. R. Large A of this form ; above which, two oblong deep indentations ; 

all in quad, incus. 
Another, but the A thus. 

Another, with dot below an A of ordinary form. 
Another, but A thus, and two dots within it. 
Half wolf to r. ; above it, ? R. Ordinary A, with the oblong indentations, as before, 

but no quad, incus. ; in field, ?. 
Same type. R. Large A, within which, harpa; in field, ATAQOKAEOS, all in quad. 

incus. 

Note. — The harpa refers to the native hero, Perseus, in honour of whom there were many 
monuments in Argos, as may be seen in Pausanias. It is almost needless to add, that the club and 
crescent are symbols of the worship of Hercules and Diana, who had also temples in Argos. 

Wolf's head to r. R. Large A, within which, trident; in field, AAMAP; all in 

quad, incus. 
Half wolf to r. R. Large A; in field above. TPYHIC ; below, bonnets of the Dios- 
curi surmounted by stars ; all in quad, incus. 
Same type to I. R. Large A ; in field, lEPaiNOS. Eagle on fulmen ; all in quad. 

incus. 
Another similar. 
Same type ; above it, 0. R. Large A ; in field above, IIY ; below, eagle on harpa 

to r. ; all in quad, incus. 
Same type and letter. R. Same letter and symbols; but in field to r. IIYP (in 

men.). 
Same type. R. Large A ; below which, crescent ; in field above, AP ; all in quad. 

incus. 

Same type. R. Same letter and symbol ; in field above, NI. 

Wolfs head to r. ; above, il. R. Large A ; in field above, NI ; all in quad, incus. 
Same type to I. ; above, 5. R. Same letter ; in field above, IIP ; below, club ; all in 

quad, incus. 
Another similar. 

Head of Apollo to r., with low crown ; on which, APr. R. Pallas combating to l. 
Another similar. 

Head of Apollo ? to l. R. Large A ; below it, club. 
Another similar. 
Head of Apollo, without crown, to r. R. Wolf at bay to r. ; in field above, A ; 

below, IIA. 
Same type. R. Same type ; above it, mon. 20 (XAP). 
Another. 

Note. — Millingen in his M^dailles Grecques Inedites, p. 53, has attributed these two coins to 
Charisiso of Arcadia. But Charisise was never any thing more than one of the numerous small fortified 
places of that country, none of which ever struck money. On the foundation of Megalopolis, the 
remaining inhabitants of most of them retired within the walls of that city. Charisiee stood at a 
distance of not more than three miles from Megalopolis ; and Pausanias (Arcad. 36) says of it, 
XapwiiDV viroixvr](iaTd iariv oil iroWd. 

Wolfs head to I. R. A ; below, fulmen. 

Same type. R. Large A ; below, quadrangular theta. 
jSame type. R. A ; below, female head, Isis ! adv. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. APr. Female in long drapery to I. ; in right hand, 
I patera ; in left hand, cornucopise. 



20 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



I Metal 



M 



Size Weight 



5- 



M 



JE 



M 



iE 



4i 



M 



4.1 

*2 



M 



4i 



iE 



3i 



ffadrianus. 

AYT. AAPIA[NOC. K]TIC T[HC]. Head of Hadrian to r. B. APreilUN. Naked 
warrior to I., armed with helmet ; in right hand, spear ; on left arm, shield. 

Note. — Among the benefits conferred by Hadrian on the cities of Peloponnesus, Pausanias mentions 
that of having authorized the Argives, who presided over the Nemean games, to restore the diaulus 
as the length of the horse course. For this they honoured the emperor with the title of icriVrijc. 

On the reverse of a coin of Hadrian with this epithet, is the legend NGMGIA Mionnet, Sup. IV. 

p. 241. 



lANOC KTICTHC. Bust of Hadrian to r. R. APr.IUJN. Hecate 

Triformis, adv., with extended arms. 

Note. — There was a temple of Hecate iu the Agora of Argos, which contained a statue of the god- 
dess in marble, by Scopas, and two others in bronze, by Polycleitus and Naucydes. — Pausan. Corinth, 
c. 22. Tr. in the Morda, II. p. 407. 

Antoninus Pius. 

ANTtUNINOC eVCeBHC. Head of Antoninus to r. R. APreilDN. Isis! adv., 
looking to L, on head, crescent ; in right hand, sistrum ; in left, garland ? 

Septimius Severus. 
[A. KAI. ce]m CGBHPOG. Head of Sept. Severus to r. R. APPEIIUN. Per- 
seus naked, adv., looking to I. ; in right hand, head of Medusa ; in left, harpa 
and chlamys. 

Julia Domna. 

[OYAIA AVr. AOMNA. Bust of Julia Domna to r. R. APrEILUN. Hercules 
naked, standing to r., and strangling the Nemean lion. 



R. AG IN A law. Asclepius 



ASINE Messenise. 

JuUa Domna. 

[OYA. AOM Head of Julia Domna to r. 

standing to r. 

Note. — This coin must be placed to Asine of Messenia ; because, in the time of Pausanias, Asme 
of Argolis was a ruin, and there was no third Asine, as Eckhel supposed (II. p. 284). The site of 
the Messenian Asine is now occupied by the fortress and town of Kordni, — Vide Pelopounesiaca, 
p. 195. 

ASOPUS Laconic. 

Note. — For the position and remains of Asopus, vide Tr. in the Mor&, I. p. 226, seq. 

Caracalla. 

. M. AYPH. ANTU3N Bust of Caracalla to r. R. ACUJneiTUJN. Tur- 

reted and draped female standing adv., looking to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in 
left, cornucopise. 

ATHAMANES. 

Note. — The country of the Athamanes extended from the Ambraciotis in a north-easterly direction, 
almost as far as the Thessalian plains of Gomphi and .lEginium. The central part of it was the valley 
of the Upper Achelous. Here, probably, was Argithea, the Athamanian capital, and the mint at 
which the coins of the Athamanes were struck. — Vide Tr. in N. Greece, IV. p. 212. 



Veiled female head to r. 
owl ; in left, hasta. 



R. A0AMANON. Pallas standing to I. ; in right hand, 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



21 



Metal Size Weight 



ATHENE AtticjE. 

Note. — The silver money of Athens is an imperishable monument of the civilization of Greece, 
and one of the most perfect, by the completeness of its monetary scale, the accuracy of its weights, 
and the great variety of them still extant ; and hence this series is more useful than any other now 
remaining, for purposes of comparison and for the general illustration of Greek numismatics. 

If we could trust to the testimony of Plutarch, the Athenians coined money earlier than any 
people in Greece. He relates, that Theseus caused pieces to be struck which were impressed with 
the figure of an ox, and weighed two drachmse, which at that time was the price of an ox. A similar 
assertion is made by Julius Pollux (9, 60), and by a scholiast of Aristophanes (Av. 1105). Plutarch 
even imagined the words £Kor6/j/3oiov, Sixd^oiov to refer not to the animals, but to the coins. It 
seems clear, however, that all these writers were misled by Philochorus, a celebrated Athenian anti- 
quary of the third century B.C., and that the proverb /3oCf tjri yXiiaay ^ifit]Ktv, applicable to 
a bribed orator, from which the mistake seems to have arisen, and the antiquity of which is proved 
by its having been introduced by .iEschylus into the Agamemnon (v. 36), may be sufficiently explained 
by the fact, that the Athenians had no gold coinage of their own, and that the Cyzicene stater, which 
bore the type of an ox, served, like Byzants and Florins in England in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, as the gold coin most commonly employed by them {vide Asiatic Greece, Cyzicus). It is 
sufficiently clear from the poems of Homer that no coined money existed in his time ; nor can there 
be any difficulty in subscribing to the opinions of the best authorities of antiquity, who believed that 
the ^ginetans were the first coiners of money in Greece, probably about the year 740 B.C. (Clinton, 
Fast. Hellen. iii. p. 247.) The Athenians, having such ample materials in Mount Laurium, were 
undoubtedly not long behind the people of jEgina in adopting their invention. The resemblance in 
the two coinages is very remarkable ; and probably the weight of the several denominations was the 
same until the time of Solon, as the proportion in which he is said to have reduced the drachma 
accords with the difference now observable in the Athenian and jEginetan coins of the same denomi- 
nation. The Solonian drachma, which continued to be the standard, nominally at least, as long as 
the Athenians coined silver, weighed, on a comparison of all accessible evidence, monumental or his- 
torical, about sixty-seven and a half grains troy. The proofs of this conclusion are stated in my 
work on Athens and the Demi (i. p. 472), where, however, an error occurs, into which I was led by 
Brondstedt, who, in his " Voyages dans la Grece," published as an octodrachmon a coin of the 
Thomas Collection, which at the sale was found to weigh 664 grains, and was therefore a deca- 
drachmon. It is doubtful whether any pieces of money of eight drachmae were ever struck by the 
Athenians ; probably not, as we have now the certainty that the Athenians, like the Syracusans, and 
apparently at an earlier time than that people, coined pieces of ten Attic drachmae. These, however, 
are extremely rare, and no more than three specimens are known to me. 

The monetary scale of Athenian silver consisted of multiples of the drachma, and of multiples and 
fractions of the obolus, which was the sixth part of the drachma. The following are the several 
denommations, with their weights, as they issued from the mint, supposing the weight of the drachma 
to have been as above stated : — 

1. Apaxfii) 67'5 grains troy, drachma. 

2. Aidpaxfiov 

3. TtrpdSpaxiiov . . 

4. AiKaSpaxiiov ... 

5. '0/3oXdc 

6. Tpii)|«0|8o\iov . . . 

7. AiuifioXov 

8. Tpiw/SoXov 

9. T£rpal/3oXov .... 

10. nej'T(i/3o\ov .... 

The fractions of the obolus in silver were,- 

11. Tpiraprij^opiov or 
TptTij/jopiov . . . • 

12. ■H/iio/36Xiov 

13. TtTapTtjiiopiov or 

TaoTTiuopiov . . 2'8 one fourth of the obolus. 

The latter was also called Mxa\Kov, eight xa^Koi or coppers having been equal to an obolus. The 
xaXicowc was divided into seven Xcirrd. 

Of all these denominations, the only one which had an extensive circulation abroad was the teti-a- 
drachmon, and for this purpose immense numbers of them were struck. To this circumstance we 



135-0 2 drachmse. 

270 4 drachmse. 

675'0 10 drachmse. 

1 1'25 obolus, or one sixth of the drachma. 

1 6'87 1 and a half obolus. 

22-5 2 oboli. 

3375 3 oboli. 

45-0 4 oboli. 

56-25 5 oboli. 



8'45 three fourths of the obolus. 

562 one half of the obolus. 



22 

Metal Size Weight 



N 



M 



3+ 



132-7 



272-7 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



may attribute the inelegance of design and the coarseness of execution of the Athenian tetra- 
drachmon, compared with many other Greek coins of similar value, as any alteration in its appearance 
might have damaged its credit. One very remarkable change, however, did take place, when the 
thick tetradrachmon, in which there had been no difference of form or type since the time of Solon, 
and the simplicity of which had perhaps rendered it liable to forgery, was spread into a much wider 
surface, for the sake apparently of giving room for the names, or for initial portions of the names, of 
two, or more commonly, three magistrates, together with one or more symbols. The drachma and 
half drachma underwent a similar change, but these pieces are now extremely rare, compared with 
those of the old mode. This reform in the Athenian coinage took place probably about the same 
time that a similar change occurred in the Macedonian mint. The great success of Philip, in 
working the Thracian mines of gold and silver, having made the Macedonian silver money a rival to 
that of Athens in the commercial world, it became necessary to the Athenians to imitate Alexander 
the Great in improving the appearance and enlarging the sui-face of the tetradrachmon. It is 
observable, that none of the broad Athenian pieces of that denomination have any appearance in 
their style or letters of an age older than that of Alexander, except in the legend AeE, where the 
Epsilon was preserved until the time of the Roman empire. In enlarging the tetradrachmon, 
however, the Athenians degraded the Solonian standard of the drachma, although it had been 
confirmed at the time of the reforms which accompanied or followed the Archonship of Eucleides, 
B. c. 403. On examining the table of weights in the Hunter Collection, in which there are more 
than 100 tetradrachma, we may observe, that all the old tetradrachma weigh more than 260 grains 
or more than C5 grains to the drachma on an average, and that all the broad or later tetradrachma 
are below 260. From Strabo we leam that the Attic mines had failed in his time, but that there 
were still workers who extracted some silver from the old imperfectly smelted scoriie. We may 
infer, therefore, that the silver coinage of Athens, uiJess for domestic use, and in small quantities, 
had ceased before the time of Augustus, having lasted more than seven centuries, and six from the 
time of Solon. No Athenian coins have yet been published of a date earlier than that of Solon, 
before whose time, the drachma was nearly, if not exactly, of the same weight as the vaxtla IpajQiii, 
or Eginetan drachma, bearing to the Attic the proportion of about ten to seven. 

The Athenian gold coinage was very limited, and only one denomination is known — the didrachmon 
or stater. The striking of this money, if we may judge by its weight, style, and name, commenced 
likewise in the reign of Alexander. Pericles, in his address to the Athenians, speaks only of gold in 
bullion, and of that which formed part of the statue by Phidias in the Parthenon ; from several 
passages in Lysias and Demosthenes it is evident that in their time Darics and Cyzicenes were 
common as the circulating medium in gold, and they make no allusion to any Athenian coin of the 
same kind. 

The time of the introduction of copper money is more uncertain. The first attempt to introduce 
it was unsuccessful (conf. Aristoph. Ran. v. 737- Eccles. v. 810), which is not surprising, the 
Athenian copper coins having been, unlike those of Syracuse, mere tokens, worth only a small 
portion of their nominal value, while the minutest subdivision of the obolus in silver maintained 
its just weight. But probably the introduction of copper into Athenian circulation occurred not 
long after the first attempt. It is natui-al to believe, that after the introduction of a copper coinage, 
the subdivisions of the obolus, which were inconveniently small, would cease to be struck ; and 
accordingly we may remark, that all the extant examples of those subdivisions are of an archaic 
character. From some fragments of the comic poet Philemon, who lived about 300 B.C., it is 
evident that in his time the xaXicois of eight to the obolus was in common circulation. 

In regard to pieces so small and so nearly of the same weight as were some of the subdivisions of 
the drachma and obolus, it was evidently convenient to afford the means of distinguishing them from 
one another by their types as well as their weight; and, accordingly, it is found that while the ordi- 
nary types of the old tetradrachmon, didrachmon, and drachma, — namely, the head of Pallas and the 
owl, both turned to the right, — are preserved on the obolus and half-obolus, the other denomina- 
tions, namely, the pentobolon, the tetrobolon, the triobolon, the diobolon, the obolus and a half, the 
three fourths of the obolus, and the one fourth of the obolus, had each its peculiar type, which was 
almost invariable. Examples occur of a variation of type in the drachma, half-drachma, and 
quarter-drachma, but they are extremely rare. 

Head of Pallas to r. ft. Owl to r. looking adv. behind, crescent and two leaves of 

olive on a stem ; in field to r., A0E and cista mystica. — Electrotype from 

the B. M. 
Head of Pallas to r. with a large round earring. Helmet fitting close, and without 

ornament, but with decorated crest and covering the neck ; eye large and round ; 

hair in formal ringlets round the forehead ; nose and chin pointed, ft. AOE- 




EUROPEAN GREECE. 



23 



Metal 



Size 



Weight 



M 
M 



M 



o 
6+ 

.8-6 



M 7-6 



M 10 



M 

JR. 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 



M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 



264.-3 
264-6 

261-5 
266-9 



666 



659-1 



6 
6- 

5+ 
6-5 
5-4 
8i 



7i 

' 2 



265-7 

264-3 
264-5 
260-4 

257-8 
262-8 
2557 



254-4 
251-7 
255 

260-5 

253 

259-2 

250-4 



Owl to r, ; behind, sprig of olive with two leaves and a berry ; all in quad, 
incus. (TErpa^paxfov). — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — This coin has a notch on the obverse, not so deep or long, but obviously of the same kind, 
as the Persian countermark seen on coins of Alexander I. of Macedonia, and of Getas king of the 
Edoni, on one of the decadrachma which follow, and on many coins of Cilicia. 

Another similar, without the Persian countermark. 

Another similar ; the hair on the forehead of Pallas forming a single wavy band. 
R. The owl larger. 

Same type ; hair in club, appearing below the helmet. R. 3® A. Owl to /. 

Same type ; screw-shaped curls round the forehead. U. AOE. Owl to r. ; behind, 
in the angle, sprig of olive, with four leaves and three berries. — This and the 
two preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 

Head of Pallas to r. Helmet of the same form, with crest in imitation of hair, 
the cap adorned with a florid ornament on the side, and with three olive-leaves 
in front ; earring formed of two pearls and a crescent-shaped drop; necklace of 
pearls or beads ; the hair on the forehead in a wavy band ; on the neck in tresses, 
rolled up behind, and appearing below the helmet ; the nose and chin pointed ; the 
eye long and narrow, as in Egyptian statues. R. Owl adv., with wings open and 
drooping ; in angle to I., a sprig of olive with two leaves and a berry ; in 
field to r., A ; between the wings and legs of the owl, 3 © ; all in quad, incus. 
(A£/ca?pax/uo>'.) — Electrotype from a sulphur cast sent to me from Athens. 

Same type, but the earring, below the two pearls, has an oval drop. R. Same type, 
symbol, and legend. — Electrotype from tJie B. M. 

Note. — A broad incision (the Persian countermark) extends from the edge of this coin to the centre 
of the obverse, just above the eye, and is so deep as to have cut through a part of the reverse not- 
withstauding the great thickness of the coin. The features of the Pallas are softer, the work in 
general better, and the coin apparently of later dale than any of the preceding. The Persian coun- 
termark gives a minimum date, but they are all probably much older than the Persian invasion ; 
hence, alsoj it seems evident that the Athenians struck decadrachma earlier than the Syracusans, 
whose Damaretia were coined in the year 479 B.C. — Vide Notes on Syracuse, in the Transactions 
of the Royal Society of Literature, 8vo. vol. iii. p. 355. 

Same type. B. A0E- Owl to r., looking, as usual, adv. ; behind, small crescent and 

a sprig of olive, having two leaves and a berry. 
Another similar. 
Another similar. 
Another, without berry. 
Another similar. 
Another similar. 
Head of Pallas, with double crested helmet, to r. ; hair not in formal tresses ; the 

whole in beaded circle. B. Owl adv., turned a little towards r., standing on a 

diota, which lies on its side. Above, A®E ; in field to I., KTHSI ; below which, 

EY. In field to r., EYMA ; below which. Victory to r. ; all in wreath of olive. 
Same type. B. Same type, legends, and Victory ; below the vase, MENE. 
Another similar, but in field to I. above the vase, ME. 
Another. B. A©E. nOAYXAP. NIKO. nPOTIM. In field to I., winged caducous; 

on diota, A ; below it, ME. 
Another. B. AOE. AIOPE. nOSEI. AIO. On diota, V ; below it, ME. In field 

to /., military figure, adv. ; in left hand, thyrsus I 
Another. B. A0E. NIKI. 0EO*PA. In field to r., quadriga driven by Victory; 

below diota, ME. 
Another. B. A0E. AIONYS. AIONYSI. ANTI*A ; in field to r., sun, in quadriga, 

adv. ; below diota, ME. 
Another. B. A©E. KAPAIX. EPrOKAE. AIOME. In field to r., prow to r. ; below 

diota, ME. 



u 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
JR 
M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 



M 

M 

M 
M 

M 
M 

M 



Size 
8 

8 

7i 

7 

8 



9-8 



9-8 
11 

7J- 

9+ 
8 



4+ 

3 

3- 
4 

4 
3 



Weight 
257-5 

255-5 

257-4 

253-7 

258-5 

248 

244 

246 

244-5 

261 

260 
258-5 

252-3 

252-8 
258 

262-7 

264-5 
248-3 
251 
193 



129-5 
66-4 

62 

61-5 
62-7 

50-3 



In field to I., eagle on fulraen 
In field to I., eagle as before ; 
In field to L, eagle as before ; 
In field to r., two youths 



Another. B. A©E. EYPYKAEI. APIAPA. HPAKAEI. In field to r., three Horse ; 

the one to I., holding out a fruit ; on diota, ; below it, ME. 
Another. R. A©E. MENEA. EniPENO. EDiro. In field to l, Asclepius to I, ; on 

diota, X ; below it, HP. 
Another. B. A0E. EYMHA02 ©EOPENIAHS. In field to r., naked male figure, 

leaning on staff", to l. ; below diota, AT I 
Another, ft. A0E. EYMH. EniEENH. SSiSANAPOS. 

to r. ; below diota, S*. 
Another. B. A0E. MOSXI. EniPENH. SaSANAPOS. 

on diota, B ; below it, 2*. 
Another. B. A0E. ANTirONO, EniPEN, SSiSAPX. 

below diota, ? 
Another. A0E. MIKIftN. EYPYKAE. SilKPATS {sic). 

standing to l.\ the one to I., holding out patera; the other, leaning on staff; 

on diota, E ; below it, S*. 
Another. R. A0E. SENOKAHS APM02JEN0S. In field to /•., serpent coiled, and 

raising its head to r. ; on diota, A ; below it, AH. 
Same types and legends, but in field to r. of owl, male figure, seated to r. ; right hand 

resting on spear ; in left, sword ; on diota, A ; below it. Alio. 
Same type. H. Same types. A0E. AYSAN. TAAYKOS AAMON. In field to I., bee ; 

on diota, H ; below it, SSi. 
Another. R. A0E. AYSAN. TAAYKOS lEPfl. In field to I., bee ; on diota, A. 
Another. R. A©E. AiiPO0E. AHMIOYA, AIO*. In field to n, head, neck, and 

fore-paws of lion, couchant ; below diota, 2*. 
Another. R. A0E. AHMHTPI02 ArA©inn02 AO. In field to r., bonnets and 

stars of the Dioscuri ; on diota, Z ; below it, MH. 
Another. R. A0E. AMMSl. AIO. EYP. In field to r., cornucopise. 
Another. R. A0E, HA. (in mon.) AY2IA. Aa, AN. In field to 

legend, effaced. 
Another. R. A©E. NE2TiiP MNA2EAS. In field to r., stag to I. 

below it, AM. 
Another. R. Same types. A0E. EH. (in mon.), ANT (in mon.). 
Same type. R. Same types. In field to I., mon. 21 ; to r., mon. 22. 
Another similar. 
Same type. R. Same types. A©E. MHTPOAllPo2 ANTI + ANH2 MIATIAAH2 ; 

in field to r., grapes ; on diota, A ; below it, AF. 

Note. — If this be a true coin, it is an example of the rpiSpaxiiov ; if a copy, it may be admitted in 
deference to the name MUtiades, not fomid on any Athenian coin yet published. 

Head of Pallas, old style, to r. R. A©E. Owl to r. ; behind, an olive leaf and 

berry ; all in quad, incus. (A/^paxfiov.) 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field to I., sprig of olive with two leaves 

and a berry ; all in quad, incus. (Apaxju?;.) 
Seven others ; the four most perfect of which give an average of 65 grains. 
Head of Pallas, of later style, with double-crested helmet to r., within beaded circle. 

R. A0E. Owl on diota adv., towards r. ; in field to r,, double ear of corn ; 

below diota, MH ; all in a wreath of olive (Apaxfi^)- 
Same type. R. Same type. A0E. HPA. API2T0. EXH. ; in field to l, club, 

covering a bow in its case (Apaxfiv). 
Janiform male and female head. R. Owl adv., under a half wreath of olive ; no 

legend (Apaxy^jj). 

A 



,, symbol or 
on diota, E ; 



Head of Pallas, of later style, to r. R. 



Owl adv. towards r., right wing open. 



left concealed; in field to r., diota upright, and small crescent (UevTwfioXov). — 
This and the three preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 




EUROPEAN GREECE. 



25 



Metal 

JR 
JR 



M 

M 
M 
M 



M 

M 
M 

JR 

M 
M 



Size I Weight 



2 + 

2 + 



H 



1 + 

1 

1 + 
1 





M 




M 




M 




M 


1 


M 


1 

1 


M 




M 



1- 

1- 
1- 

1- 
1- 



40-3 
40-2 



33 



32-i 
31 



21-2 

16-7 
16-2 

13-8 



]1 

7-6 
8 



5-4 



Head of Pallas, of later style, to r. ^.. 
Another similar. 



E' 



Two owls opposed (TtTpi>fio\oy). 



Note. — Although the tetrobolon must anciently have been very common, having been the ordinary 
pay of an Athenian foot-soldier (whence the verb rtTpw/SoXiJJfiv), it is now among the rarest of 
the fractions of the obolus ; if we may judge by these two specimens which are deficient of their 
proper weight by a ninth, they are among the most worn of the Athenian series ; which agrees with 
the words of Julius Pollux, t4 fiiv TiTpwfJoXov xai rpiw/SoXov iv ry XP^''*' ThpiTrTat (9, 63). 
These two subdivisions of the drachma, particularly the former, had probably a greater circulation 
beyond the bounds of Attica, than any of the others which resemble the copper money of other 
Greek cities, In being generally found in the place where they were coined, or in its immediate 
vicinity. 



Head of Pallas, of old style, to r. IJ. 



A 
a© 



Owl adv., no wings apparent ; stand- 



ing under an arch formed by two sprigs of olive {Tpii)fioXov, or 'Hyu/Jpajyioy). 
Six others, of which the average weight is 32'3. 

Head of Pallas to r. B;. Head of Pallas to r., in quad, incus. (TpiwfioXov). 
Same type, of later style. R. ABE. HPA. APISTO, nOA. Owl standing on club; 

in field to L, club covering quiver, all in wreath of corn (later Tpiw/JoXov). 

— This and the preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 

Same type. R. J^ . Two owls, with one head, adv. ; in corner of quad, incus. 

to I., two leaves and a berry of olive (Aiw/3oXov). 
Three others, the average weight of which is 19'5 grains. 
AQE. Head of Pallas to r.,'m quad, incus. R. Janiform female heads, hair in 

ringlets on the forehead (early TpirmwjioXiov). — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Same type. R. ^ . Owl, with open wings adv. ; above its head, two leaves of 

olive {Tpir]fiiofl6\iftv of later time). 
Two others, averaging 13'7 grains. 
Head of Pallas to r., of the very early style, with large round eye. R. A6E. Owl 

to r. In field to I., sprig or leaf; all in deep quad, incus. 

Note. — In the style of the head, the form of the owl, and the depth of the square, this little coin 
exactly resembles the earliest of the tetradrachma ; but it could not have been an obolus of tlie 
Solonian scale ; possibly, therefore, it was an obolus of the Athenian currency, just before the time 
of Solon, of which the legitimate weight would have been about 15i grains. 

Head of Pallas, old style, to r. R. Owl to r., looking adv. ; in field to r., . e . ; to 

I., olive leaf and berry; all in quad, incus. ('0/3oXde). 
Fourteen others ; average, 10' 5 grains. 
Same type. R. Four crescents, the concave .side outwards. In field to r., A ; in 

the centre of the crescents, ; in field to I., E. 
Same type. R. Three crescents disposed in a circular form ; within which, 

„ _ (Tpiraprjj/iidpio*' or Tptr»)|udpiov). 

Six others ; average weight, 7*3 grains. 

Note.— As three crescents were the type of the piece of three-fourths of an obolus, and one 
crescent that of the quarter obolus, we can hardly doubt that four crescents marked the obolus, the 
ordinary types of which are the same as those of the drachma and tetradrachmon. On this supposi- 
tion, the preceding specimen with four crescents has lost near a third of its weight. In the Hunter 
collection, and that of the British Museum, there are oboli with four crescents, weighing 9-5 grains. 

Same type. Owl to r. In field to r., A0E ; to I., leaf and berry ; all in quad. 

incus. ('H/i(o/3d\iov). 
Fourteen others ; average, 4"9 grains. 

[«1 



26 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 
M 


Size 


Weight 

2-3 


M 


I 


4 


M 


5 




JE 

JE 


5 
3 




JE 


4 




M 
JE 
JE 

M 
JE 


2i 
2 
3 
3- 

2+ 




JE 
JE 


2 




JE 


2 




JE 


2+ 




M 


2 




M 


4 




M 


1 




M 


i 




JE 


2 




M 


4 




JE 


4 




JE 


3i 




JE 


31 




JE 


H 

4+ 




M 

JE 


4+ 
4 




M 
JE 


4 
5 




JE 


4 





2-3 Same type. B. Crescent; in field to r., AGE; all in quad, incus. (Ttraprrmoptov, or 
Taprri^opiov, or Ai'xaXicoi'). 
Same type to l. B. ABE. Cista mystica, as in the field of the Athenian stater of 
gold. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — This kind of quarter obolus is the older of the two. In the B. M., all those with the same 
type are heavier than those witli the crescent ; the present specimen is above weight. 



^- e^E- 



Owl to r., right wing raised, left concealed ; in field 



Head of Pallas to r, 

to r., diota. 
Same type. R. AGE. Owl standing on diota to r. ; all in wreath of olive. 
A smaller, slightly diifering. 

Two similar ; but J^^ in field to I. of owl. 
G E 

Head of Pallas to r. R. Two owls opposed ; below, AGE ; all in wreath of olive. 

Two others similar. 

Same types ; but AG between the owls. 

Another similar ; but below AG, a broad diota or lamp. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. Two owls with one head ; above them, two olive leaves and 



63 



below, cista. 



Another ; but without any object below the double owl. 

H ed of Pallas to r. R. Owl adv. ; in field to I., A. G. E., vertically. 

Same type. R. Owl to r., very thick and short, . 

Same type, in dotted circle. R. Owl adv., in wreath of olive. 

Same type. R. Owl to r., ; in field to r., sprig of olive. 

Head of Diana to r. ; below, TPIA. R. AG. Owl on diota. 

R. Same type ; in field to I., A ; to r., „. 

G 



Same type. 

Same type. R. Lyre ; in field to r., ^. 

Veiled female head (Ceres) to r. R. Poppy-head, between two ears of corn ; in 



field to ?., A ; to r.. 



G 



Head of Pallas to r. R. Jupiter naked, fulminating to r. In field to I., A ; below 
it, diota ; in field to r., E ; below it, eagle. 

Same type. R. Same type ; in field to ?, „ ; to r., E ; below which, a star between 

two crescents. 
Same type. R. Same type ; in field to I. A, and diota upon trunk of tree ; in field 

tor.,|. 

Same type. R. Same type. 

Dioscuri. 
Another, 
Head of Pallas to r. R. Tripod. 

to r., fulmen. 
Another. 
Head of Pallas to r. R. AGE. Winged sphinx, with polos on the head, seated to 

r. ; all in a wreath of olive. 
Another. 
Head of Gorgo adv. R. Pallas in long drapery adv. ; in right hand, spear held 

obliquely ; in left hand, ? ; below, across the field, AGE. 
Head of Jupiter to r. R. Pallas, in long drapery, fulminating to r. In field to I. 

A, G, and helmet vertically; to r., Ej below which, ?. 



AGE across the field ; below the legend, bonnets of the 
AGE across the field ; below to I., poppy-head ; 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



27 



Metal 

M 
M 
M 

JE 



M 
JE 
JE 



JE 
JE 
M 
JE 

JE 

M 
JE 

M 

JE 
M 
M 
M 

JE 

M 

JE 
M 

M 
M 
M 

M 
JE 
JE 

M 
M 



Size 

3 

5-4 



H 



Weight 



3- 
2 

H 

2- 

2 

i 
2 



1 
2 

3 
3 
3 






O2 



Another nearly similar ; but in place of the uncertain symbol, serpent. 

Head of Ceres to r. li. AGE. Hog very short and thick, with long, up-turned 

snout. 
Another similar. 
Another similar. 
Another similar ; but with legend, AQH. 

Dolphin ; behind which, trident. B- ^ g, and brazen lamp, or diota, in a wreath of 

corn. 
Two others similar. 

Head of Diana to r. R. [A]e, and similar vase, in wreath, 
Triptolemus in his car, drawn by two serpents ; in his extended right hand, ears 

of corn. B. Ear of corn, crossed by Eleusinian torch ; in field, . GE ; all in 

wreath of olive. 
Another similar. 

Head of Pallas to I. R. AG. Prow to I. 
Another similar. 
Head of Apollo to r. R. AGE, and two ears of corn, in a wreath. 



Female head to r. BL. Bee, 

Another. 

Bee. B. Diota, A ®. 



G E* 



Another similar, but legend thus, „ „. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. AG. Vase, covering a tripod. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. HGA. Owl to I., in wreath of olive. 
Another similar. 

Head of Pallas to r. R, 

Bust of Pallas to r. R. 



AGH. Owl to r. ; in field to I., two leaves and berry of olive. 
Owl to L, A 



G 



grapes. 



Another, but the position of the letters different. 

A G 
Head of Theseus to r. ; behind, club. R. „ , 

Same type. R. „ „, bucranium. 

Head of Pallas to r. ; a long tress hanging over the back of the neck. 
R. AGHNAIiiN. Pallas stepping r., looking and extending her right hand to 
I. ; in left hand, spear and shield. 

Same type. R. AGHNAIilN. Bucranium with pendent fillets, adv. 

Another similar. 

Same type. R. AGHNAIiiN. 
(planting the olive). 

Same type. R. AGHNAIiiN. 

Another. 

Same type. R. AGHNAIilN. 
pent. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. AGHNAIUN. Victory stepping to r. ; in right hand, 
crown ; on left shoulder, palm-branch. 

Bust of Pallas to r. R. AGH. Naked figure to r. ; in uplifted right hand, ? ; left 
arm stretched out towards bull walking to r. (Theseus and the bull of Mara- 
thon.) 

Same type in wreath of olive. R. Theseus and the Minotaur. To the I., Theseus, 
naked, seizes by the horn the taurocephalous human figure, and raises his right 
to strike him with a sword ; the Minotaur armed with a club in his left hand ; 

in field to I., „ ; to n, H. 



Pallas to I., extending her right hand to a tree 

Pallas, armed, standing adv., looking to I. 

Pallas Nicephorus standing to I. ; at her feet, ser- 



28 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 



Size 

6 



JE 
M 
M 

M 
Lead 



M 

JE 

a: 



JR 
JR 
JR. 

JR 



JR 



5 
2 



H 



H 



Weight 



40-4 



14-2 
188-1 
182-7 
188 
181-4 



186-7 



Same type. B AKIN. The contest of Neptune and Minerva. To the I., 

Neptune, naked, holds up his right arm ; to the r,, Pallas, draped and armed 
as usual, extends her right hand to the olive-tree between them ; a serpent 
coiled round the lower part of the stem ; on the upper branches, an owl. 

Bust of Pallas to r. li. AGH. Warrior standing on a nine-oared galley to r. ; in 
right hand, crown ; on left shoulder, trophy ; owl on prow before him. — Electro- 
type from the B. M. 

Same type in wreath. B. AGHNAIiiN. Trapeza, upon which is a bust of Pallas 
between a crown to I., and an owl to r. Below the table, diota ; in field to /•., 
palm branch. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. AeHNAiaN. Dionysiac theatre, with one diazoma, adv. ; 
above it, caverns in the rock ; higher up, wall of Acropolis ; above which, 
Parthenon ; and to the I., Propylsea (UafBtvUv inrtpKtifteiot r^ Gtarpy, vide 
Topography of Athens, Second edition, pp. 170, 187). — Electrotype from the 
B.M. 

Same type. B. ABHN. Grotto of Pan in the rock of the Acropolis ; above which, 
the wall ; and upon it, the colossal statue of Minerva Proraachus, to the left of 
which, Parthenon ; to the n, Propylsea, with the steps leading up to it {vide 
Topography of Athens, Second edition, p. 350). — Electrotype from the Biblio- 
thique Nationale. 

Bust of Pallas to I. ; part of the shield seen on the left shoulder. B. AeHNAIQN, 
Apollo naked to r. ; in left hand, bow ; in right hand, arrows. 

Helmet with crest and cheek-pieces, adv. B. No type or letter apparent. (Found 
at Athens.) 

ATRAX Thessalise. 

Note. — Some vestiges of Atrax are found on the left bank of tlie Peueius, ten or twelve miles from 
Larissa, to the west. Vide Travels in Northern Greece, III. p. 368. 

Female head to I. B. ATPAnON. Free horse to r. — Electrotype from the Pern- 

broke Collection. 
EYBATA. Male beardless head, with short hair, to r. B. ATPAno. Horse to r. 
Similar head to r. B. ATPAFiaN. Horseman to r., holding up his right hand. — 

Electrotype from the B, M. 



BCEOTIA. 



I 



Note. — Some of the following coins have been ascribed to Thebes, and not without apparent reason, 
from their great resemblance to those of Thebes. Indeed, it is more than probable that the greater 
part of them, if not all, were struck in that city ; and that the magistrate whose name forms the only 
legend of many of the coins, was the Archon Eponymus of the Boeotarchs of the several cities consti- 
tuting the Boeotian league, and who was most commonly a Theban. But these coins are distinguish- 
able from those of Thebes by the legend BOIQTQN, or by the name, or generally the initial portion 
of the name, of the Archon Eponymus. The name on the earlier of these coins is in the Bceotic dia- 
lect, our knowledge of which is derived from numerous Boeotian inscriptions still extant. — Vidt 
Travels in Northern Greece, vol. ii., and Boeckh, Corpus Ins. Gr., I. pars 5. 

Boeotian shield. B- B in quadrate incuso. 
Same type. B. ARKA. Decorated diota. 
Same type. B- KAAI. Same type. 
Same type. B. KAAAI. Same type. 
Same type. B. KAia. Same type. 

Note, — On a similar coin in Mionnet, II. p. 102, the legend is KAIQN, the Boaotic form of 
KAEQN. 

Same type. B. FA?T. Same type, and above it a grain of barley. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



29 



Metal 


Size 


M 


5- 


M 


7- 


M 


4 


M 


4+ 


M 


n 


M 


3 


M 


3 


JR 


3 


M 


2i 


M 


2i 


JE 


3-2 


M 


3- 


JE 


3 


M 


4 


M 


3- 


M 


2 


JE 


2 


JE 


2 


M 


2 


JE 


4 


JE 


3i 


JE 


5- 


JE 


H 


\JE 


H 


! JE 


3 


M 


2 



188-2 



263-2 



75-7 

69-7 
60-5 
42-3 

40-2 



Weight 

Note. — The name on this coin was probably some compoand of dirrv, as ' Airrivoitog or ' Aarufiiiluv, 
both of which were Iteotian names. The grain of barley was a type of Orchomenus, and the Archon 
Eponymus may have been of that city. 

Same type. R. EYFAPA in two lines ; above the diota, club and grapes. 

Note. — This name in Hellenic was probably Eudpijs or Eia'parof. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. BOIiiTiiN. Neptune seated to I. on throne without back, 
on the side of which a Boeotian shield ; in his right hand, dolphin ; in left, 
trident held obliquely. — Electrotype from the BibliotJi&qm Rationale. 

Same type. R. Same legend. Victory standing to I. ; in right hand, crown ; iu 
left, trident ; in field to I., nion. 23. 

Another similar. R. In field to I., mon. 24 ; below which, I. 

Another similar ; but the legend in field to I. 

Boeotian shield. R. BOI. Diota; above which, club; in field t.i r., crescent. 

Five others, the average weight of which is 3S-4 grains. 

Another similar ; but BOIQ, and no crescent. 

Boeotian shield. R. BOiaTiiN. Trident ; in field to r., dolphin. 

Three others. 

Same type. R. Same legend ; in field to /•., star. 

Boeotian shield. R. BOIiiTilN. Victory standing to I. ; in right hand, crown ; in 
left hand, trident. 

Another similar. 

Head of young Hercules covered with lion's scalp, to r. R. BOlilTiiN. Winged 
female in long drapery to r. ; in right hand, fulmen; in left hand, fegis ('A9>/i'd 
NiKij) ; in field to r., II, in wreath ; and below it, round shield. 

Same type to I. R. Bow, club, arrow ; above, API2. ; below, *EIa6. 

Same type. R. 4EIA0 ; club and caducous. 

A Y K 

Same type. R. m n ' '"^ *'^^'^ lines ; between them, club. 

Same type to r. R. 0EOTI. in two lines ; between them, club. 

Same type to r. R. OAYM. Club, caduceus. 

Head of Ceres, adv. R. BOIiiTiiN. Neptune to I. ; right foot raised upon a rock ; 

right hand resting upon the knee ; left hand upon trident. 
Two others similar. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. BOIiiTiiN. Trophy. 
Another similar. 

BOTTI^I, Chalcidices Thracije. 

Nate. — The Bottieei occupied origuially the coast of the Thermaic Gulf, between the mouths of the 
Haliacmon and Axius, with a great part of the inland country as far as Pella ; but in the sixth or 
seventh century B.C. they retired before the increasing power of the Macedones into Chalcidice of 
Thrace (Thucyd. 2, 99). The city which they built or enlarged in that peninsula, and where their 
coins were struck, stood at no great distance to the northward of Olynthus and Potid.ca ; for we find 
the Bottijci in possession of Olynthus, when Artabazus, in n.c. 479, returning from the Hellespont, 
whither he had escorted Xerxes, besieged Olynthus, took it, massacred the Bottiiean garrison, and 
delivered up the city to the Chalcidenses (Herodot. 8, 127). The proximity of the Bottisei to the 
Chalcidenses as well as to Olynthus and Potidsea, is still more clearly shown by Thueydides (1, 57 ; 
2, 59. 99), from whose account of the military proceedings of the Athenians, in that country, in the 
third year of the Peloponnesian war, it seems likely that the Uottisei, like their neighbours, the 
Chalcidenses, whose chief town was Apollonia, had no capital of the same name as the people, but 
that Spartolus was their city. — Vide Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 456. 

BOTTIAIiiN. Head of Apollo to r. R. Lyre, similar to that on coins of Chalcis. 
Another similar. 

BOTTEAT^ Macedonia. 
25-4 Macedonian shield. R. Anterior portion of a galley ; on the side of which [BOT]- 
TEATiiN. 



50 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 
M 



Size 
2i 



Weight 



JE 



.E 



M 



M 



M 
M 

M 



M 

JE 
M 



4+ 



2+ 



H 

8-7 



2+ 

4 
5- 



80-6 



38-6 
17-1 
215 



Two others, serving to complete the legend. Average weight, 248. 

Note. — The ornament in the centre of the Macedonian shield, on the obverse of these coins, and 
which consists of six crescents in the form of a star, resembles that in the centre of the obverse of 
the coins of the Araphaxii, who were situated probably not far from Bottiaeis, to the northward. In 
similar obverses of the first and second Macedonia, of Ampliipolis, and of some of the Macedonian 
kings, the heads of Diana or Perseus usually occupy the place of that ornament. The termination 
of the gentile, Borrtarai, seems to have been assumed by this people on settling in the Chalcidic 
peninsula, in imitation of those of Potidiea, who were called noTtSmarai (Herodot. 8, 120 ; Thucyd., 
ubi supra). 

Head of Pan to r. ; small horn in front ; panther's skin round the neck ; behind the 
head, pedum. B. Two goats couchant to r. ; in field above, mon. 25 (BOT) ; 
all in a wreath of corn. 

Another similar. 

Note. — Pan and the couchant goats are types found also on the coins of Pella (Mionnet, Sup. III., 
p. 90). 

BYLLIS Epiri sive Illyrici. 

Note. — Byllis, or BuUis, stood on the right bank of the Aous, near where it enters the plain of 
ApoUonia. Its position is now occupied by Gr^dista; at this place Dr. Holland, in 1813, copied a 
Latin inscription, from which it appeared that M. Valerius Maximus had made a road from the 
Roman colony of BuUis to some other place, and through certain passes in the mountains. The 
Byllidensis Colonia is mentioned by Pliny (4, 10). There is reason to believe, that both Byllis and 
Amantia had maritime dependencies on the Eastern shore of the gulf of Aulon, which has caused 
them to be mistaken, by some authors, for maritime cities (ride Tr. in N. Greece, I. p. 35). 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. BYAAIONiiN. Cornucopise, round which is coiled a 
serpent. — From the Pembroke Collection (624), cited by Eckhel, II. p. 1.5.5, and 
Mionnet, II. p. 36. 



BYZANTIUM Thracise. 

YPY; the two first letters combined (mon. 26). Ox stepping to I.; under its feet, 
a fish (tunny) ; all in quad, incus. R. Quadripartite incuse, like the vanes of a 
mill. 

Same legend and type. 8. Similar type. 

IIY. Same type, in dotted circle. Ht. Similar type. 

Veiled head of Ceres to r. R. YEIY (Yn in mon., as before). R. Neptune seated 
on a rock to r. ; in right hand, aplustre ; on left shoulder, trident. Below, EDI 
MENI2:(K0Y). — Electrotype from the Pembroke Collection (506). 

Ox standing to r., above it, ? R. Grapes with tendril ; in field to r., two fishes ? 

Head of Neptune! to I. R. YPY (YP, in mon., as before). Fore part of galley to I. 

Similar head to r. R. BYIANTIiiN. Dolphin covering trident. 

Similar head to r. R. HY combined (mon. 27). Eni [A]IOSKOY[P] (Aiowoup/aoi/), 
in two lines ; between them, trident ; on either side of which, a dolphin. 

Note. — From the preceding coins, and the monogram (26), which is a combination of the letters YH, 
we may be justified in inferring that B had not exactly the same modification of sound at Byzantium 
as generally in other parts of Greece; it would also appear from two of the coins, that this initial 
consonant was so nearly represented by IT, that the latter was often used in writing instead of the 
monogram. It is not unlikely that B, and the initial 11, had the same force in those distant ages, as 
they have among the modern Greeks ; that is to say, that B was sounded like our V, and the initial 
11 as our B. We may easily conceive, that during the lower empire the example of the capital may 
have been followed by the Greeks in general, and that hence an ancient peculiarity of Byzantine 
pronunciation may have been continued to the present time. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



SI 



Metal 

M 
/E 

M 

/E 
M 



M 
M 



M 



JE 



M 



Size 



5- 

5 
5 
5 
4- 



Weight 



5* 



5i 



Head of bearded Bacchus to r. B. BYTAN. Eni A2iiniO[Y] in three lines ; Nep- 
tune naked to I. ; in right hand, Victory 2 ; in left, trident. 

Bust of youthful Bacchus to r., thyrsus behind the shoulder. R. BYZANTiaN. 
Grapes. 

Similar head to r. Tfc. Same legend and type. 

Another similar. 

Feminine head of Bacchus to r. B. Same legend and type. 

Head of Diana to r. ; bow and quiver appearing behind the neck. R. BYZANTiaN. 
Star and crescent. 

BYZAI. Bearded helmeted head to r. (Byzas.) R. Fore-part of galley to I. ; 
above it, Eni MAPKOY TO B. ; below, BYZANTIilN. 



Note. — Byzas was the reputed founder of Byzantium, and leader of the colony from Megara. 
some of the coins he is represented with a diadem, as a king. 



On 



Same legend and type. R. Same type ; around it, eni AI. nONTIKOY HP., these 

two letters united. 
Same legend and type. R. Same legend and type ; but upon the galley stands a 

warrior (Byzas?) with right hand extended ; in left hand, hasta. 
Galley, with eight oars, sailing to I. ; above, G. 0. 4>AY {lirl BiSlq ^avarhrit) ; below, 

BYZANTIiiN. 

N'ote. — The date of the four preceding coins is proved by the legends of the reverses. The name 
of Marcus occurs, as that of a chief magistrate of Byzantium, on coins of Antoninus Pius and Marcus 
Aurelius, and tTri MdpKov ro 6, on one of Faustina Junior. The names of Trajan and Caracalla 
occur lilvewise as chief magistrates of Byzantium ; but this, doubtless, was merely a nominal magistracy, 
and allowed as a favour to the Byzantines. EIII eEAC *AYCTeiNHC is found on the reverses of 
M. Aurelius, Lucius Verus, Lucilla, and Comraodus. ^lius Pontjcus was a chief magistrate of 
Byzantium, under Commodus (Mionnet, Sup. II. p. 248, seq.). 

Gallienus. 

no. AI. Er. I'AAAIHNOC ce[B]. Head of Gallienus to r. R. Instrument in the 
form of two acute cones, joined by their bases ; at the upper end, a hook ; in 
the middle, two handles. 

J^ote, — The Er. in the name of Gallienus, is on some coins of Nicsea, EFN ; whence it would 
seem that the complete name of that emperor was Publios Licinius Egnatius Gallienus. 

Same legend. R. NIKAIEflN BYZANTIiiN OMONOIA. Two instruments, of the 
same form, apparently baskets of wicker or iron. 

Note. — These instruments served probably in the fisheries, for which Byzantium was renowned. 



CALLATIS Moesise Inferioris. 

Note. — Callatis stood on the western shore of the Euxine Sea, to the southward of Tomi. The 
anonymous Periplus of the Euxine gives the distances of all the places between Odessus, now 
Varna, and the sacred or southernmost mouth of the Danube ; but as the physical change, incidental to 
all deltas in the course of ages, renders it impossible to determine exactly the ancient situation of 
the sacred mouth, it is equally so to fix the positions of Istrus, Tomi, or Callatis, of all which 
cities coins are extant, until one of those sites, at least, is with certainty identified. Callatis 
was founded by the Heracleotce of Pontus, but claimed Hercules himself for its founder, as appears 
from a coin bearing his head and the legend KTICTHC (Mionnet, I. p. 354). 



Beardless head of Hercules, in lion's scalp, to r. B. KAAAATIA(i'<Sj'). 

legend, ear of corn and club ; below it, bow in its case. 
[Another similar ; above the ear of corn, mon. 28. 



Above the 



32 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal Size 



M 



JE 



M 



Weight 



^ 



4i 



CAPHY^ Arcadia. 

Note. — Caplijee was one of the cities of Arcadia which survived the foundation of Megalopolis, and 
still existed in the time of Pausanias. Its name is chiefly known by the victory gained there 
by the jEtolians over the Achaians, under Aratus, in the year B. c. 220, which has been described by 
Polybius (4, 6).— Vide Tr. in the Morfe, III. p. 122. 



Geta, 

ETA Head of Geta to r. 

in right hand, rudder ; in left, cornucopise. 



R. KA<l>YATIMN. Fortune to I.; 



CARDIA Thraciffi. 

Nfite. — According to Herodotus (7, 58), the route of the army of Xerxes, from Sestus to the head 
of the gulf of Melas, was through the town of Agora, leaving Cardiato the left. It is evident, therefore, 
that Cardia was not on the narrowest isthmus of the Chersonese, but on the shore of the gulf of 
Melas, probably at Xerds, which, with an island opposite to it, also called Xerds, now gives name to 
that gulf. We find a confirmation of this position of Cardia, in the breadth of the isthmus between 
that town and Pactye on the Hellespont, across which Miltiades, when called in to the assistance of 
the Thracians of the Chersonese, built a wall against the Apsynthii. This breadth, according to 
Herodotus (6, 36), was thirty-six stades ; according to Scylax (p. 28), forty, or more than double that of 
the true isthmus of the peninsula, where its Umit was marked by an altar of Jupiter, thus leaving the 
territory of Cardia on the outside of the proper Chersonesus (Demosth. de Halon., p. 8C, Keiske). 
The Thracian Chersonese is so much connected with Athenian history, that it well deserves the 
attention of the exploring traveller, whose task would now be assisted by the Admiralty Survey^ 
No. 1654, and who would, probably, be successful in finding vestiges of most of the Chersonesaii 
towns. Besides those within the peninsula may be mentioned Pteleum, and Leuce Acte, on the 
narrow isthmus ; and eastward of it, Lysimachia, Cardia, Cobrys, Agora, and Pactye. 



Head of Ceres to I. 
grain of barley. 
Two others. 



B. KAPAIA(i'u»v). Lion walking to ^. ; in its mouth?; below, 



CASSANDREIA Macedonia;. 



Note. — Cassandreia wa» founded on the isthmus of Pallene, on or very near the site of Potidsea. 
Its advantageous position attracted the notice of Augustus, as appears from the coins of the Roman 
colony, styled Julia Augusta Caasandrca, which extend from his reign to that of Philip. No coins of 
the Greek Cassandreia are known. 

Geta. 

SER. GETAS CAE. Bust of Geta to r. B. COL. IVLI. AVG. CASS. Head of 
Jupiter Ammon to r. 

Note. — The head of Ammon occurs also on coins of the neighbouring town of Aphytse. 



CASSOPE Epiri. 

Note. — Eckhel (II. p. 1 63) supposed the ancient geographers to have indicated the existence of two 
towns of this name in Epirus, besides the Cassope or Cassiope of Corcyra, noted for its temple of Jupiter 
Casius ; in truth, however, there was but one Cassope, that of which I have described the extensive 
ruins at Kamarina, a lofty inland position, ten geographical miles to the north of Nicopolis. — Vide Tr. 
in N. Greece, I. p. 244. The mistake seems to have arisen from Ptolemy (3, 14), who places a port 
Cassiope on the shore of Epirus, between Onchesmus and Cape Posidium, or nearly opposite to the 
Cassiope of Corcyra. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



S3 



Metal 
M 


Size 

4 


JE 


4 


JE 
JE 
JE 

M 


4+ 
4 
4 
6 


M 
M 


6 
6 


M 


6 


M 
M 
M 
JR 


2i 
2i 
2i 


M 

M 
JE 


1 

3 

.3 
3 


1 JR 


4 


JR 


2 


JR 


2 



Weight 



221 

216-6 

220-5 

36-5 



181-8 



38-] 



Diademate bearded head to r. ; below, men. 14. B. KA^^flllAlllN, in two lines ; 

between them, dicta ; all in wreath of oak. 
Head of Juno, with her usual crown, to r. ; above it, KASSiillAIiiN. R, Dove 

flying to I., in wreath. 
Another similar . 

Same type ; same legend in field to r. R- Dove flying to r., in wreath. 
Another. 
KASSiiHAIiiN, in wreath. B. MOAO^iiN, in wreath. 

Note. — The Molossi bordered eastward upon the Cassopsei, whose territory separates Molossis from 
the sea. 

CHALCIS Macedonia. 

Hote. — On the Chalcidenses of Thracian Macedonia, tide Tr. in N. Greece, p. 454. I have there 
offered reasons for beliering, that there was no city Chalcis ; their chief town, in the earliest times, 
having been Torone, and afterwards Apollonia, situated near the centre of the great peninsula, which 
lies northward of the Toronaic and Singitic gulfs. Still later, Olynthus, for which they were indebted 
to the Persians, became their most important city ; but Apollonia was most probably the place where 
their beautiful money, with the head of Apollo, was struck. The abundance of their silver money is to 
be ascribed to the mines which bordered Chalcidice, on the north-eastern side ; and tlie rude coun- 
termark on one of the following coins, if it be Persian, to the district having been in the line of march 
of the Persians into Greece. 

Head of Apollo to I. R. XAAKIAEilN. Lyre with seven strings. 

Same type to r. R. Same legend and same type ; below which, in small letters, 

Eni APISTiiNOS. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; across the upper part of the lyre, in small 

letters, Eni nOAYSEN . . — Electrotype from the B. M. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type, in an imperfect quad, incus. 
Another similar ; behind the head of Apollo, 0. 

Another, in bad condition ; a Persian countermark ? across the obverse. 
Head of Apollo to I. ii. ^iiHAI .... Lyre of more simple form, and with eight 

strings ; all in a shallow quad, incus. 
Same type. R. XAAKI. Tripod. 
Head of Apollo to r. R. XAA. Lyre. 
Same type. R. . . AKIA .... Same type. 
Two others. 

CHERRONESUS Thraciae. 

Note. — From the great antiquity of some of the coins of Cherronesus, and the abundance of those 
of later date, we may infer, that they were all struck at some city, which from early times had been 
the capital of the Thracian Chersonese. They are generally found in that Peninsula or its vicinity. 
From Hecatseus, as cited by Stephanus, we learn, that there was a city Cherronesus in his time. 
In later ages, when several other towns of the peninsula had risen to importance, Cherronesus may 
have had an individual appellation. This I believe to have been Callipolis, a name first occurring in 
history, as that of a city of the Chersonese, which was taken by Philip, son of Demetrius, in the year 
B. c. 200 (Liv. 31, 16). Callipolis still retains its name, and justifies its claim to have been the 
ancient capital of the peninsula by its superior natural advantages, as well as by its actual importance, 
compared with any of the places on the European coast between the entrance of the Dardanelles and 
Rddosto. 

Head and neck of lion, of rude style ; the head bent downwards. R. Quadratum 
incusum, in the style of Thrace and Macedonia, irregularly indented. 

.... 0/V • • • ON. Anterior part of lion, of archaic style, to r., with head reverted 
and jaws extended. R. Thraco-Macedonian quad, incus. 

Half lion, of the best times, to r., with head turned io I. R. Circle divided into 
quadrants, of which two of the opposite are on a lower level than the two others. 

[k] 



34 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


M 


2 




M 


2 




M 


2 




M 


2 




M 


2 




M 


2 




M 


2 




M 


2 




M 


2 




M 


2 




M 


2 




M 


2 




JE 


2 




M 


2i 




JE 


4 




M 


5i 




M 


6i 




JE 


6| 





On one of the lower quadi-ants, a globule and mon. 29 (AF) ; on the other, 
pentagon formed by three lines, joining five points. 
Two others. 

R. Globule and mon. 29 ; on the opposite quadrant, diota. 



Bt. Globule and mon. SO (YE) ; on the opposite quadrant, lizard. 

B. Globule and mon. 30 ; on the opposite quadrant, pentagon and 



Same type. 
Another. 
Same type. 
Another. 
Same type. 

globule, 
Another. 
Same type. H. Globule and mon. 29 ; on the opposite quadrant, torch in cup with 

vertical handle. 
Same type. B. Globule and mon. 29 ; on the opposite quadrant, helmet to I. ? 
Same type. B. Globule and A or A ; on the opposite quadrant, bivalve shell. 
Same type. R. Globule and E ; on the opposite quadrant, dolphin and globule. 
Same type. Be. Globule and A ; on the opposite quadrant, grapes with tendril. 

Note. — The average weight of the preceding thirteen coins is 36'3 grains. 

Head of lion to I. ; mouth open and tongue protruded. B. XEPPO. in two lines ; 
between them, grain of barley ; in field to r., globule. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — The lion and the grain of barley are types also on coins of Cardia and Crithote. These 
three cities were all within a radius of eight miles. 



CHERRONESUS in Tauris. 

Note. — The Tauric Cherronesus was a colony of the Heracleotse of Bithynia, and stood at the 
southern extremity of the Crimea, on a promontory of the gulf in which stands the modern Seva- 
stopol. It was the scene of the Iphigeneia iv Tavpoig of Euripides, and the place from whence 
she was said, by the aid of Pylades and her brother Orestes, to have carried away the statue of 
Diana to Brauron in Attica. In the time of Strabo, old Cherronesus was in ruins ; but a temple, 
named Parthenium, still existed on a cape not far from it (p. 308). For a description of the remains 
of Cherronesus, as they existed in the year 1800, see Clarke's Travels in Russia, &c., II. p. 211. 
The position of the harbour of Sevastopol, near the centre of the Euxine, which has made it the chief 
naval station of the Russians in that sea, gave Chersonesus a similar importance in ancient times. 
Pliny (4, 26) describes it as " Heraclea Cherronesus, libertate a Romanis donata, urbs praecipui 
nitoris in toto eo tractu, custoditis Grsecis moribus, quinque millia passuum ambiente muro." ' 

Helmeted head to r, R. XEP. Prow to r. 

Diana venatrix to I., her right knee on the back of a prostrate stag, and piercing it 

with a lance ; in her left hand, a bow ; below, XEP. R. Stag standing 

to I (Con/. Mionnet, Sup. II. p. 3, No. 15.) 
EAEYGEPAC. Female bust to r. (horn on the forehead?) R. XEPPONHttOY. 

Diana stepping to r., drawing arrow from quiver ; in her left hand, bow. 

Note. — The epithet i\iv9epas shows that the female bust represents the city, and is explained by 
Pliny in the passage above cited. 

Uncertain City of C/iersonesm Taurica — Theodosia? 

Head of Bacchus to r. R. Quiver ; behind which, large bow-case in form of lyre ; 

behind which, bow ; in field to I., mon. 31. 
Another, with same types ; in field to I., mon. 32. 



CIERIUM (prills Ame) Thessalise. 



Nate. — Ame was a word of Pelasgic origin ; together with many others it was carried by the 
Pelasgi into Italy, where it gave name to a city on the banks of the river now called Amo. The 



4 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



55 



! 1 



Metol 


Size 


M 


2 


JR 


2 


M 


1 


JE 


3 


M 


3 


M 


H 


JE 


4 


JE 


4 


JR 


2i 


JR 


4 


JE 


2 


M 

i 
1- 


3 



Weight 



18-8 



21 

6-1 



45 1 



39 



employment of the ^olic dialect by the Thessalians and Boeotians, of which proofs are still extant 
in both countries, indicates a community of origin. In both tliere was a city Arne, and as Thessaly 
was the principal seat of the Pelasgi before their migration, the Arne of Thessaly was probably the 
more ancient of the two. The Bceotiau Arne changed its name to Chseroneia ; that of Thessaly 
became Cierium or Pierium, which stood on a height in the midst of the great plain of Thessa- 
liotis ; a part of its site is now occupied by the village of Matarauga. — Vide Transactions of tlie 
Royal Society of Literature, I. p. 161. — Tr. in N. Greece, IV. p. 497. 

Head of Jupiter to r. Bt. KIEPIEIQN. Nymph Arne to r., looking I. ; kneeling on 
right knee, and stretching out her right arm towards the ground ; her left hand 
resting on the left knee ; in field to L, *. 

iVofo.— Arne is said by Diodorus (4, 67) to have been daughter of ^olus the Second, descendant 
of i^olus, son of Hellen, from whom the name of jEolia was given to the country, which, after the 
Trojan war, assumed the name of Thessaly. Arne, according to the same authority, was mother of 
Boeotus, by Neptune. The kneeling nymph may have been imitated from a statue of Arne at Cierium, 
which represented her as a young girl playing with astragali or other toys ; of these there is an 
appearance on some of the coins. 

Another similar, but the * in field to r. 

Laureate head of Neptune to I. ; behind, trident. H. KI. Head of Arne to r. 

Diademate bearded head to I. R. Nymph Arne kneeling to r., and stretching out 

her right arm as before. 
Another similar. 
Head of Apollo to r. B. [KI]EPlEIi2N. Jupiter Aetophorus, naked, fulminating 

to r. ; at his feet to r., small figure of Arne, kneeling to r. as before. 
Another similar. 
Head of Neptune ? to r. flr. KIEPI. Horse running to r. ; under it, a small figure 

of Arne, as before. 

Note. — All these coins of Cierium were collected by me at Mataranga, and in the adjacent parts of 
Thessaly or Epirus. 

CLEITOR Arcadije. 

Note. — KXtirwp was one of the chief cities of Arcadia. According to the mythological history 
which Pausanias favoured, its name was derived from an ancient king of Arcadia, but more probably 
the etymon was that very obvious one, icXei'u, claudo. The river Cleitor retains its ancient name, 
and the city some remains of its walls, theatre, and temples {Vide Tr. in the Mor^a, II. p. 258). 
One of these latter was dedicated to ^sculapius ; and accordingly we find this deity represented on a 
copper coin of JuUa Domna, bearing the legend KA£ITOPIUN. 

KAE[I]TO. Youthful horseman galloping to I., with tight rein and body thrown back. 
R. Circle divided into sextants, of which three alternate are on a lower level 
than the others. 

CLEON^ Argolidis. 

Head of Apollo adv., surrounded with rays. R- Bull butting to r. ; in field to /•., 

small centaur ; above, KAH ; below, . NAIil. 
Same type. R. Mon. 33 (KAH). 

Head of Hercules, with lion's scalp, to r. B. ^ ry, in a wreath. 

Note. — Cleonce retains its ancient name slightly changed, and in the usual modern f(irm of the 
third case. It stood at a direct distance of eight geographical miles from Corinth to the southward. 
— Vide Tr. in the Mor^a, III. p. 325. The form KAHQNAI seems to indicate, that here also the 
etymon of the name was kKiiio, Dor. kXijoi, originating in the position of the place, near the 
pass of Tretus, midway between Corinth and Argos. In a later age, the name was derived from 
Cleoiie, a reputed daughter of Pelops, or of the neighbouring river Asopus (Pausan. 2, 15). 



36 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


M 


6 




JE 


6 




M 


H 


11 


M 


6-5 


117 


M 
M 


6-5 

5 + 


126 
130-5 


M 


4 


130-4 


M 
M 
M 
M 


4 
4 
4 
3J 


132-8 
127-4 
130-4 
130-9 


M 


6 


123-8 


M 


5-4 


131 


M 


6-5 


126-8 



CCELA Thraciffi. 

Note. — Ccela was a Roman municipium, established by Hadrian in the bay of Madytus, now 
Maito, on the European side of the strait of Abydus. This important position caused it to flourish 
during ten or twelve centuries, while the ancient cities of the Chersonese and opposite coast 
fell to ruin. Its coins are extant from Hadrian to Gallienus, after which time it was a Byzan- 
tine bishoprick, and it is mentioned by Anna Comnena in the twelfth century ( Vide Hierocles, p. 634, 
and the note of Wesseling). 

Philippus Senior, 

IMP. M. IVL. PHILIPPVS. Bust of Philip to r. B. AEL. MVNICP. COIL. Silenus 
naked to r., carrying a skin of wine on his left shoulder ; his right hand raised. 

Gallienus. 

IMP. GALLIEN . . Head of Galhenus to r. IJ. AIL. MVNI. COIL. AN. Male 
figure to r., clothed only round the waist ; in right hand, statue ; in left, cornu- 
copise. — This and tfie preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 

Note. — On coins of Trebonianus Gallus and Valerian the same figure occurs as a statue in a tetra- 
style temple. AN. or ANT., for Antoninianum, was added to the name in the reign of Caracalla. 
The other types or coins of Coela are a prow, a comucopise, a dolphin, Diana Lucifera, Diana 
Venatrix, ^neas carrying Anchises and leading lulus. 

COP^ Boeotiffi. 

Note. — Copse, now Top<Slia, stood on a promontory on the northern side of the lake Cepljissis, or 
Copais, and still preserves some remains of antiquity. 

Boeotian shield. B. KOIIAiaN. Half bull kneeling to r. — Electrotype from the 
B.M. 

CORINTHUS. 

Bridled Pegasus, with curled wings, to I. ; below, 9 . ft. Quad, incus, of peculiar 

form {vide Plate, fig. 1). 
Another similar. 
Pegasus, as before, but unbridled, ft. Quad, incus, divided into four squares, 

in each of which, an oval globule {vide Plate, fig. 2). 
Head of Pallas to r. ; helmet raised above the forehead ; hair in a club behind ; all 

in quad, incus, ft. Pegasus with curled wing, and bridled, flying to r. ; 

below, Os. 
Another similar ; but Pegasus to I. 

Same type ; behind the head, a crescent, and 9. ft. Same type to r. ; below, o-. 
Same head to I., in quad, incus, ft. Same type to r. ; below, o.. 
Head of Pallas to r., in a linear square, within a quad, incus, ft. Same type ; below 

which, <j> . 
Same type, in a hollowed circle ; helmet low on forehead, with a flap covering the 

neck, and turned up at the end ; below which, the hair appears in curls ; in 

field to I., naked figure stepping to I., drawing a bow. ft. Pegasus, with curled 

wings, walking to I. 
Same type to I. ; in field to l, branch ; to n, a tall naked figure, standing to r. ; 

in left hand, hasta ; in right, ?. ft. Same type ; below, 9 . 
Same type to r. ; in field to I., two owls, opposed and adjacent, ft. Pegasus, with 

pointed wings, flying to I. ; below, 9 . 

Note. — All the didrachma which follow have a similar reverse, that is to say, a Pegasus with 
pointed wings to left, and below it the letter 9 j except in the seven instances specified below, in which 
the Pegasus is turned to the right. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



37 



Metal 
M 
M 
JR 

M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
JR 
M 
M 
M 



Size 

6 

6-6 
4i 
5+ 
5 

5 
5 
4 
4i 



o 

6-5 

5 

4+ 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
o 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



Weight 

126-2 

133 

131-2 

131-3 

130-2 

130-4 
130-9 
131-4 
130-4 

130-3 

129-6 
132-6 

128-6 

129-7 
129-4 
132-5 

130-4 

132-5 

132 

131-9 

131 

131-3 

132 

116-8 

132 

132-1 

131-3 

130-7 

129 

131-8 

129 

129-7 

132 7 

132-4 

131-4 

130-8 

132-6 

131-7 

126-4 

132-3 

131 

132-8 

127-5 

132-1 



Another similar. 

Same type ; in field to I., N, and term on basis. 

Same type ; in field to I., N, and head and neck of a cock to r. 

Same type ; in field to r., dolphin ; to L, Ionic ornament. 

Same type ; in field to I., forepart of an arm holding a torch to I. ; in field to r., 

bucranium. 

Same type ; in field to I., N, and bucranium. 

Same type ; in field to L, Chimsera to r. B. Pegasus to r. ; below, <f . 
Same type ; in field to I., :h, and trident. R. Same type to r., same letter. 
Same type ; in front of visor, EP. ; in field to L, winged female figure to r., holding 

candelabrum ? B . Same type to r., letter not apparent. 
Same type ; in field to I., naked figure standing to I. ; in right hand, long staff with 

hook ; in left, short staff with pendent fillet. B. Same type to r., same letter. 
Same type ; in field to I., augural staff" ?. IJ. Same type to >-., same letter. 
Same type ; in field to I., NI, and a helmet hanging from a hook. R. Same type to 

»-., same letter. 
Same type ; in field to I., club, and A ; to r., dolphin. R. Same type to r., letter 

not apparent. 
Same type ; in field to I., fulmen. 
Head of Pallas to I., in quad, incus. 
Same type, in hollowed circle ; in field to I., A ; to r., I, with Pallas standing to I. ; 

eagle flying from her right hand ; spear in I. 
Same type ; in field to r., A, with a draped bearded figure standing to r., having some- 
thing in each hand. 
Same type ; in field to r., I ; with draped figure stepping to I., having a long torch 

held horizontally with both hands. 
Same type ; in field to r., A ; to r., I, with a draped figure bearing a long hasta 

obliquely. 
Same type ; in field to r., I, with Jupiter seated on throne, launching fulmen with 

right hand ; upon his left hand, eagle. 
Same type ; in field to r., N, with naked warrior armed with helmet, spear, and shield, 

and with right foot raised upon a rock. 
Same type ; in field to L, A ; in field to r., naked figure stepping to r., with right 

arm raised, and holding torch 1 ; left arm extended. 
Same type ; in field to ?., A ; in field to r.. A, and trophy. 
Same type ; in field to l, B ; in field to r., mon. 33, and term on basis. 
Same type ; below the head, AA ; in field to r., bearded head, or scenic mask, adv. 
Same type ; below, A ; in field to r., radiate head of the sun, adv. 
Same type ; in field to L, K ; to r., helmet, adv. 
Same type ; in field to l, A ; to r., helmet of different form. 
Same type ; below, AA ; in field to r., cuirass. 
Same type ; in field to r., harpa, and A. 
Same type ; below, A ; in field to r., round shield. 
Same type ; in field to r., quiver covering bow. 

Same type ; in field to r., thyrsus, with pendent ribbands tied round it in a bow. 
Same type ; in field to I., T ; to r., dove flying to I., in a wreath. 
Same type ; in field to r., N, in a wreath of corn. 
Same type ; in field to r., A, in a wreath. 

Same type ; below, A ; in field to r., a wreath, with leaves and fruits. 
Same type ; in field to r., A, and a wreath of ivy. 
Same type ; below, AI ; in field to r., pine cone. 
Same type ; in field to r., E, and Rhodian flower. 
Same type ; in field to r., E, and pomegranate. 
Same type ; in field to r., head of gryphon to r. 
Same type ; in field to L, I ; to r., cock, standing to l„ on club. 
Another similar ; the cock larger. 



38 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 

M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 



M 

M 
M 



JR 

M 
M 



Size 
5 
5 

5- 

5-4 

6-5 

4J- 

*2 

5- 

5 

5 

5- 



5 
5 

6-5 



5 
5 
5 

5- 

5 + 



4-3 
3 



Weight 

130 

1331 

124-8 

132-4 

132-7 

132-3 

135-3 

132 

132-2 

131-5 

132-3 

131-3 

131-6 
1327 

131 
133-1 

131-3 

133-4 
131-2 
131-5 
121-8 

131-4 



76-6 

59-6 
33-2 



41-8 

38 
43-4 



Same type ; in field to l, 1 ; to r., owl to n, looking adv. 

Same type ; in field to I., A ; to r., astragalus. 

Same type ; below, two letters indistinct ; in field to r,, wheel, seen in perspective. 

Same type ; in field to I., torch. 

Same type ; in field to r., Phrygian cap (?). 

Same type ; in field to I., dolphin ; to r., Ionic ornament. 

Another ; in field to r., AA, and three crescents disposed as triquetra. 

Same type ; in field to L, I ; to r., star, with eight points. 

Another similar. 

Same type ; in field to L, A ; to r., uncertain symbol. 

Same type ; in field to I., A ; to r., I, and figure running to /-., with lighted torch 

on his shoulder (a runner in the lampadephoria ?). 
Same type ; in field to L, A ; to /-., I, with military figure to l. ; in whose right hand, 

torch ; in left, two spears. 
Same type ; in field to I., I ; to r., Victory, holding up a taenia with both hands. 
Head of Pallas to I., with wreath round the upper part of the helmet ; below, AP ; 

in field to r., eagle to I., looking back. 
Same type ; below, AP ; in field to r., Chimaera, to I. 
Same type ; wreath of larger leaves round the helmet ; below, A ; in field to r., wild 

boar to I. 
Same type ; wreath round helmet with a branch ; below, AP ; in field to r., ivy- 
leaf. 
Same type, with similar wreath ; below, AP ; in field to r., plough. 
Same type, without branch to wreath ; below, AP ; in field to r., segis, adv. 
Same type ; below, AP ; in field to r., statue of Minerva Promachus to r. 
Same type ; in field to r., *, with a draped figure to L, holding out with both hands 

a long irregular staff. 
Same type, with plain helmet, and without letter or symbol. R. Pegasus, with right 

forefoot raised, and head down, as if drinking ; his bridle trailing on the ground ; 

below, 9 . 

Note. — The great number of Corinthian didrachma, which exceed 130 grains in weight, leave little 
doubt that the standard was nearly the same as that of Athens, or about 67'5 grains to the drachma. 

Same type to r., of archaic style, with hair in club. R. Pegasus bridled, with curled 

wing, to r. ; below o. 
Bellerophon on Pegasus, moving to r. R. Chimsera to r. 
Pegasus flying to I. ; below, 9 . R. Pegasus to I. ; below, 9 ; the whole incuse. 

Note. — The obverae and reverse of this coin seem to have been formed by one die, unlike some 
of the similar Italian Greek coins, which have had a different die for each side. 

Pegasus to I. ; below, 9 ■ R- Quad, incus, inclosing figure, for which vide Plate, 

%!-. ... 
Another similar ; but figure in quad, incus, like the vanes of a mill. 

Diademate female head, with hair turned up behind (Venus?), in quad, incus. 

R. Pegasus bridled, and with curled wing, to r. ; below, 0-. 

Note. — The same superiority of weight in the archaic coins over those of later times is observable 
in the Corinthian series as in the Athenian. The three preceding specimens are pieces of two thii-ds 
of a drachma, and those which follow represent the same denomination, but of a standard somewhat 
degraded. There can be little doubt that the female head, on the third of the three preceding archaic 
coins, although very different from the elegant profiles on the later specimens, is equally intended for 
Venus, and as it exactly resembles the head on the nearly coeval coins of Arcadia, we may infer that 
the Despoena of Arcadia, daughter of Neptune and Ceres, whose real name Pausanias was afraid of 
mentioning, was no other than Aphrodite. Venus had a celebrated temple on the summit of the 
Acrocorinthus, which mountain was said to have been presented to her by the Sun (Pausan. Corinth. 
4). Hence Euripides terms Corinth IloXtc 'A^poJirac (Bellerophon, v. 3). 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



S9 



Metal 
M 



M 



M 



M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


2i 


M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


3- 


M 


3- 


M 


3 


M 


3+ 



M 
M 
M 



Size 



21- 



M 


3 


M 


^ 


M 


2 


M 


2 


M 


2 


M 


2 



Weight 



il 



19-9 



18-4 



19-6 



207 



6-3 

5-7 



Female head to I. ; round the middle of the hair a broad band ; — earring, and neck- 
lace ; in field to I., a letter ; to r., mon, 34. 
Same type ; wearing a cap, close, except at the top, ornamented round the forehead, 

and encircled with cords ; behind the head, star. R. Pegasus, with ordinary 

wing, to I. ; below, 9 . 
Same type ; hair tied round with two cords crossing, and at the top tied into a tuft ; 

in field to r., A. R. Same type and letter. 
A nother. — Electrotype. 
Same type ; hair rolled up behind, and there tied ; in field to r., A, in a wreath. 

R. Same type and letter. 
Same type ; hair formed into a roll round the head, but leaving tresses hanging over 

the neck ; in field to r., palm branch, R. Same type and letter. 
Another. 
Same type ; hair concealed in a bag ending in a point, from which hangs a tassel ; 

in field to I., IIA in mon. R. Same type and letter. 
Same type ; hair in bag of the same kind, but more hair apparent on the forehead ; 

in field to r., same mon. R. Same type and letter. 
Same type, with similar head-dress, to r. ; in field to I., mon. 35. R. Same type 

and letter. 
Same type, with same head-dress to r. ; earring and necklace as usual ; in field to I., 

mon. 36 ; to n, star. 
Same type to I. ; hair in bag, but without pointed end ; tassel pendent from the 

middle of the bag, and ending in three beads ; tresses hanging over the neck ; in 

field to I., A ; to r. , I. R. Same type and letter. — Electrotype. 
Same type ; hair closely confined in bag, except in the middle behind, where the 

hair appears; in field to I., mon. 37; to r., branch, or flower. R. Same type 

and letter. 
Same type to r. ; hair in a bag, studded with beads, having a tassel in the middle, 

and tied with cord over the ear ; in field to ^., A. R. Same type and letter. 

Note. — This coin is the heaviest of all the Corinthian pieces of two thirds of a drachma of the later 
style in the present collection, and is still two grains and a half below one of the ancient coins of the 
same denomination. The average of twenty others of the later series is no more than 36'6. They are 
in general more worn than the didrachma, but even with this allowance they appear to be lighter in 
proportion than the didrachma. None of either denomination can be later than 146 B. c, the date of 
the destruction of Corinth by Mummius. 

Same type ; hair rolled up, and tied in a tuft behind ; in field to I., o-, and mon, 

37. R. Same type and letter. 
Similar head, with wreath of corn round the hair, which, behind, is supported by a 

narrow bag, as on coins of Syracuse (Cora ?). R. Same type and letter. 
Same type, with wreath of corn only (Cora ?) ; in field to I., I. R. Half Pegasus to 

I. ; below, 9 . 
Similar head ; the hair bound round the middle with cord ; tress hanging behind. 

R. Half Pegasus, with curled wing, to ^. 
Same type ; hair similarly bound ; but at the back, in a net with wide meshes, as on 

coins of Syracuse. R. Same type and letter. 
Same type ; hair rolled up, and tied in a tuft at the top ; in field to r., letters 

indistinct. R. Same type and letter. 

Note. — The various head-dresses of Venus on the foregoing pieces, of one third, and of two thirds of 
a drachma, may be considered as representing the most approved decorations of the female head at 
Corinth, about the time of Lais. 

Pegasus to I. ; below, 9 . R. Mon., or symbol 38, in circular incuse. 

Pegasus, with curled wing, to I. ; below, 9 . R. Quad, incus., with six divisions. 

Another. 



40 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


JR 


2- 


M 


H 


M 


H 


JR 


1 + 


JR 


1 


JE 


4 


M 


2^ 


M 


2 


M 


2 


M 


2 


M 


2 


M 


2i 


M 


3 


JE. 


3 


M 


3 


M 


2 


M 


2- 


M 


6 


M 


5 


J& 


5i 


M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


H 


M 


5 


M 


5 


M 


5 


JE 


5 


M 


4^ 


& 


4i 


M 


H 



JE 
JE 

JE 



H 



4i 



Weight 

13-2 



14 

18-6 

6-5 



Pegasus, with curled wing, stepping to I. ; below, AP. B. Pegasus, with ordinarj- 

wing, flying to I. ; below, f . 
Two others similar. 

Pegasus, with curled wing, to I. ; in field, lASl. B. Pegasus, with curled wing, to I. 
Radiate head of Apollo to I. li. Half Pegasus to I. ; below, ?. 
Pegasus to I. R. Trident. 
Head of Pallas to I. R. KOPINGISiN, in two lines ; between them, trident ; in 

field to I., ui. 
Pegasus to I. ; below, f} . B. Trident ; in field to I., wreath formed of two ears of 

corn ; to r., N. 

Same type and letter. U. Same type ; in field to r., torch. 
Same type and letter. R. Same type ; in field to r., wreath of corn ; to ?., H. 
Same type and letter. R. Same type ; in field to r., prow. 
Same type. B. Same type; in field to L, ivy-leaf; below, A. 

Corinthus Colonia, 

Wreath. R. CORIN. Dolphin to r. 

Pegasus to r. JJ. Melicertes, alias Palaemon, on the dolphin to r. ; below, COR. 

Same type. R. Dolphin to r. ; above, SE ; below, COR. 

Another. 

Trident. R. Rudder ; below, COR. 

CR . . . Diota. R. CORIN., in two lines, in a wreath. 

Female head (Venus ?) to r. R. COL. L. IVL. COR. (Colonia Laus Julia Corinthus.) 

Bellerophon on Pegasus to r., spearing the Chimsera to I, 
Another similar. 

Same type. R. Q. CAECIL. [NIGR.] C. HEIO. P. M. IIV. Pegasus to r. 
CORIN. Head of Jupiter to r. R. C. SERVILIO C. F. PRIMO M. ANTONIO HIP- 

PARCHO, in a wreath. 
CORIN. Head of Neptune to r. R. L. AEBVTIO C. PINNIO IIVIR., in a wreath. 
P. S. F. ITER. COR. Pegasus to r. R. P. AEBVTIO S. P. F. C. HEIO PAMPHILO, 

in a wreath. 
Two others similar. 
[S.] P. Q. R. Veiled head to r. (Agrippa.) R. L. CAN. AGRIPPAE IIVIR. COR, 

Tetrastyle temple, with steps in front ; eight columns on the side. 



L. 



Augustus. 

Radiate head of Augustus to I. 
Hexastyle temple, adv. 



R. L. ARRIO 



I 



FVRIO. LABEONE. IIVIR. 

PEREGRINO IIVIR. COR. 
Another. 
GRIN . . Head of Augustus to I. R. [L. FVRIO] LABEONE. IIVIR. COR. 

Hexastyle temple. On the architrave, GEN. IVL. 
CAESAR AVGV Head of Augustus to I. R. M. BELLIO PROCVLO IIVIR. 

COR. Pegasus to I. 
Same legends and types ; but head of Augustus to r. 
. . CAES . . . Head of Augustus to r. R. VIPSANIO AGRIPPA IIVIR. COR. 

Same type. 
Another similar. 

Livia. 

Veiled head of Livia to r. R. COR. Hexastyle temple adv. 



CAE, 



Cuius and Lucius. 
Heads of Caius and Lucius opposed. R. 



COR. Pegasus to I. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



41 



Metal 


Size 


M 


4 


M 


5 


JE 


5- 


JE 


4i 


JE 


5 


JE 


5 


JE 


^ 


M 


4i 


£ 


H 


JE 


4 


AL 


5 


.¥. 


6+ 


M 


7 


JE 


61 


JE 


7 


JE 

/E 


3k 
4 


JE 


7 



Claudius. 

. . CAES Head of Claudius to r. R. OCTAVIO LVSCINO ITER COR, 

Pegasus to r. on the summit of a mountain. 

Agrippina. 
AGRIPPINA AVG. CAESARIS . . . Head of Agrippina to I. B. L. PACONIO 
FLAM. CN. PVLICIO REGVLO IIVIR. NERO BRIT. COR. Nero and Britan- 
nicus standing opposed, each with patera in right hand. 

Nero. 

NERO CLA. . CAESAR. Head of Nero to r. R. M. AC. CAmDIDO IIVIR. COR. 

Venus in a car, drawn by two sea-horses to I. 
NERO CLAVD. CAES. AVG. Head of Nero to r. R. IVLIO POLYAENO IIVIR. 

COR. Bellerophon holding Pegasus, to I. 
NERO Head of Nero to I. B. T. VEN. FRONTONE IIVIR COR. Nero 

seated to I., and crowned by Fortune, standing behind him. 

Octavia Neronis. 

[OCTAVI]AE NERONIS AVG. Head of Octavia to r. ^. GEN. 

COL. COR. Fortune to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left, cornucopise. 
Same legend and type. B. M. A. G. CANDIDO [IIVIR. COR.]. Neptune in car, 

drawn by two hippocampi, to I, 

Galha. 

SVL. GALEAE. CAE. AVG. IMP. Head of Galba to r. R. L. CAN. AGRIPPAE 
IIVI. COR. Victory stepping to I. ; in right hand, garland ; in left, palm branch. 

Same legend and type. R. Same legend. Tetrastyle temple, with seven columns 
on the side, and steps in front. 

Same legend and type. R. Same legend. Two hands joined, holding two ears of 
corn and a poppy. 

Antoninm Pius. 

ANTONIN Head of Antoninus to r. R. C. L. I. COR. Venus to l, 

holding before her a mirror, in a tetrastyle temple, on the summit of a rock 
(Temple of Venus on Aero Corinthus). 

Head of Antoninus to r. R. ISTHMIA, in a wreath of wild 

parsley. 

M. Aurelius. 

IM. AVR. ANTONINVS AVG. Head of M. Aurelius to r. R. C. L. I. COR. Nep- 
tune seated to I., bust unclothed ; in right hand, dolphin ; his left resting on 
trident ; at his feet an altar. 

IMP. . . . ANTONINVS AVG. Head of Marcus Aurelius to r. R. C. L. I. COR. 
Obelisk surmounted by a statue, and standing in the middle of a circular plat- 
form ; in field, two horsemen galloping in opposite directions. 

Same legend and type. R. C. L. I. COR. Melicertes to r., lying on a dolphin at the 
foot of a tree. 

IMP. M. AVR NINVS AVG. Same type. R. . . . COR. Same type. 

M. AVR Same head to r. R. . . L. IVL. AVG. (COR.) Neptune naked, 

standing to r. ; in right hand, trident ; on left, dolphin. 



IMP. L. AVR. VERVS AVG. 



Lucius Verus. 
Bust of Lucius Verus to r. 



R. C. L. 



I. COR. 

[M] 



Venus 



42 

Metal 



JE 



JE 



JE 


H 


M 


6 


M 


6 


M 


5 



JE 



M 
JB. 
JR 



N 



Size Weight 



3i 



H 



6 



4+ 



13-8 
14-1 

44-7 



130-9 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 

standing to I., holding a mirror before her with both hands ; below, Cupid facing 
her, and stretching out one of his hands ; at his feet, an arrow. 

Pertinax. 
P. HELV. PERTIN. Head of Pertinax to r. R. CORIN. Pegasus to r. 

Julia Domna. 

Bust of Julia Domna to r. B. C. L. I. COR. Naked figure to I., seated on rock ; 
right hand on head ; left, leaning on club. 

Caracalla. 

[IMP. CAES.] AVREL. ANTONINVS. Bust of Caracalla to I. B. C. L. I. COR. 
Melicertes to r., lying on a dolphin at the foot of a tree. 

M. AYR ANTONINUS. Bust of Caracalla to r. R. C. L. I. COR. Naked 

male figure, adv. ; his right hand holding a branch over an altar ; in his left hand, 
rudder ; to the left of the altar, a tree. 

ANTON Same type. B. C. L. I. COR. Pegasus bridled, stepping 

to r. 

Same type ; behind it, a head, as countermark. B. C. L. I. 

COR. Chimsera standing over a dead body on the abacus of a fluted column. 

Plautilla, 

PLAVTILLAE AVGV. Head of Plautilla to r. ; in field to r., head, as countermark. 
R. C. L. I. COR. Female figure, in long drapery, adv., looking to r. ; right 
hand raised ; serpent coiled round left arm ; at her feet, altar. 

PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE. Same type. R. C. L. I. COR. Fortune to I. ; in right 
hand, patera over altar ; in left hand, cornucopiae. 

CORONEIA Boeotise. 

Note. — Vestiges of Coroneia, one of the chief cities of Boeotia, and the name of which often occurs 
in the military history of Greece, are found at the distance of a few miles to the south of Livadhia. — 
Vide Tr. in N. Greece, II. p. 134. 

Boeotian shield. R. f in quad, incus. 

Same type. R. ? in quad, incus., with dot in centre of circular part. 
Boeotian shield. R. Head of Gorge adv. in quad, incus. KORO in the four angles. 
— These three coins are Electrotypes from the B. M. 

COSA Thracise. 

KOSiiN. Brutus togated to ?., between two lictors. R. An eagle to ?., holding up 
in its right claw a garland ; its left standing on a sceptre. 

Note. — This specimen was purchased by me in Macedonia, where these gold coins are not 
uncommon ; a proof that they belong to a Thracian Cosa, the same place as the Vioaa'ta, which 
Stephanus describes as Gp^rijc iroXixviov. They were coined probably by order of Marcus Junius 
Brutus, when he commanded the Roman army in that country, previously to the battle of Philippi. 
The letters of the word TLoaCav, with the small O and Q, resemble those of the best times ; while the 
style of the figures indicates negligence, and an inferior artist as the engraver. We may conclude, 
that the gold was that of the mines of Mount Pangaeum, and that the money was struck in haste for 
the use of the army. 



I 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



43 



Metal Size Weight 



JE 



JE 
M 
M 






JE 



.E 



H 



CRANNON Thessaliee. 

Note. — For a description of the site of Crannon, which, although now called old Larissa, is situated 
ten geographical miles to the south of that city, tide Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 363. The most 
interesting of the remains of Crannon are its inscriptions in the Thessalic dialect. 

Bust of a young man, wearing a hat and a cloak without sleeves. R. KPANNiiNIii[N]. 
Horseman wearing a hat and galloping to r. ; below the horse, a mon. 

Nate. — This coin, from the Pembroke collection (622), is cited by Eckhel, II. p. 135, who remarks, 
" utriusque faciei typus in Thessaliam et pastoritiam et equestrem invitat." But more probably the 
head was intended for Hermes. I found on the site of Crannon a monument dedicated to Hermes 
Chthonius. Vide Tr. in N. Greece, III. Ins. No. ISO. 

Head of Jupiter or Neptune to r. R. KP. Same type ; below, trident. 
Same type. R. KPA. Same type. 

Same type. B. KPANNOY. E*YP. A vase on a small car ; on each of its wheels a 
bird. 

Note. — This reverse is explained by Antigonua Carystius (Hist. Mirab. 15) who says that the 
wapdatiitov, or device of this city, was two crows seated on a chariot ; that more than two were never 
seen at Crannon, and that, when there occurred a great drought, it was customary aeietv, to agitate 
or drive about the chariot in petitioning Jupiter for rain. KPANNOT for KPANNQ is accord- 
ing to the Thessalian dialect ; in an inscription which I copied at Crannon, TOYN TArOYN rNOY- 
MA2 occurs for TQN TAFON TNQMAS. E*YP. is explained by Strabo (p. 442), who, in reference 
to the Iliad N, t. 301, identifies the tic epjicijc 'E<pvpov( there named with the Crannonii. This opinion 
is more likely to have been right than that of Pausanias (Boeot. c. 36), who supposes the Ephyrsei 
intended by the poet to have been those of Ephyra, otherwise Cichyrus, in Thesprotia. It is difficult 
to conceive that this country could ever have been called Thrace. 

Horseman to r. H. KFAA/AfO. Same type, without the birds. 

Two others. 

Another, with K behind the horseman. 



CRITHOTE Thraciee. 

Note. — Crithote, one of the cities of the Thracian Chersonese, was situated in that part of the penin- 
sula which lies to the northwai-d of the Strait of Abydus (Scylax, p. 28), at a distance of eighty stades 
from Cardia (Stephan. in Kpi9(uV))). If Cardia be placed at Xerds, Crithote must have been not far 
from Cherronesus, supposing that city to have occupied the site of Gallfpoli ; and accordingly we 
find a great resemblance between the coins of Cherronesus and Crithote, 

Head of Pallas to I. R. KPI. Grain of barley. 

Note. — This coin differs only from a coin of Cherronesus in the substitution of XEP for KPI on the 
reverse of the latter. From another coin in the B. M., it appears that the gentile of Crithote was 
KPieOT£I02, not KpidoHnof, as Stephanus asserts. 



CYPARISSIA Messeniffi. 

Note. — Id Travels in the Mor^a, I. p. 225, and in Peloponnesiaca, p. 169, I have shown that 
Cyparissia and Asopus were contiguous to each other. Nevertheless, both places struck money, and 
at the same time, as appears on comparing the following coin of Plautilla with that of Asopus, under 
Caracalla. — Vide sup. p. 29. 

[Pn]MA. Head of Rome to r. B. Diana standing adv., looking to /. ; in right 
hand, bow ; in left, arrow. In field to I., K . . AAKETI. ; to r., KYnAPICCIA 
and KA in mon. ; all in a wreath with berries. 



Metal Size 



Weight 



^ 



iE 



7^ 



M 



7-6 



202-8 



M 
M 
M 



3i 



''a 



80-8 
39-3 
43-1 



M 
M 
M 
M 



2 

2 

2-1 
U 



16-8 
21-2 
17-7 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Note. — This may possibly be a coin of Asopus ; as Diana Venatrix occurs on coins of that to\ra 
(Mionnet, Sup. IV. p. 228), and Kujrapiffffio may have been her epithet, as it was of a Minerva in the 
Aci-opolis of Asopus (Pausan. Lacon. 22). 



li. KYnAPICCieUJN, Pallas 



Plautilla. 

lOYA. IIAAYTIAA . CEB. Head of Plautilla to r. 
to l. ; in right hand, patera ; in left, hasta. 

DACIA. 

. Philippus Senior. 

IMP. M. IVL. PHILIPPVS AVG. Bust of Philip senior to r. B. PROVINCIA 
DACIA. Female, with Phrygian bonnet, standing to I. ; in right hand, sword ; 
in left, standard ; in field to f., eagle ; to r., lion ; in exergue, AN. I. 



Head of Apollo to r. 



DAMASTIUM Illyrici. 
R STINHN. Tripod. 



Note. — The resemblance of the types of Damastium to those of Zacynthus, renders it probable that 
the former was a colony of the latter, and the more so, as the examples of ApoUonia and Dyrrhachium 
show that there was a considerable colonization from the western islands of Greece to Illyria. The 
site of Damastium has not yet been identified, although it is hardly possible that some traces of the 
silver mines from which its coins proceeded should not still be extant. Damastium was not in the 
maritime plains between Dyrrhachium and ApoUonia, as we may infer from the movements of 
Csesar and Pompeius, in the year B. c. 49^-48. Nor was it in the Egnatian way, in which the road 
from Dyrrhachium joined that from ApoUonia at Scampce, now Elbassan, situated on the river 
Skumbi, an evident corruption of Scampae. I am disposed to believe, therefore, that Damastium is 
now represented by Kroya. The situation of this place at about twenty geographical mUes to the 
northeastward of Durazzo, places it out of the line of the Egnatian way ; the strength and singularity 
of its position, as described by Mr. Lear (p. 1 1 1 ), were likely to recommend it for a colonial settlement, 
and the adjacent mountains may have contained the dgyvftia rd iv Aaftaariifi, mentioned by 
Strabo (p. 326). 



BcEotian shield. 
Another similar. 
Another similar. 



DELIUM Bceotiffi. 
^. AI. Diota in quad, incus. 



i 



Note. — These coins seem to indicate that Delium was in earlier times more important than when it 
was described by Livy (38, fil) as a Templum ApoUinis, and by Strabo (p. 403), as rmv Tavayfialuv 
iroXc'xj/iov. AI is the Boeotic form of AE, and consequently of AH, the conversion of E into I having 
been common in that dialect, as we learn from extant inscriptions (ride Tr. in N. Greece, II. p. 630), 
where, among other examples, are BIOS for fiioc, IQSAS for iovatfi, IIOAIOS for TToXcuf. On one 
of the coins of Boeotia (v. s., p. 28) is found KAIQ[N] for KAEQN. 



DELPHI Phocidis. 

Head of ram to I. B. D. Bearded head of goat adv. between two dolphins,— in 

quad, incus. — Electrotype. 
Same type ; below it, dolphin to I. R. AEA. Similar head of goat ; on either side 

of it, an ivy-leaf and a dolphin. 
Head of ram to r. ; below, it, dolphin to r. R. Same type, without the legend or 

ivy leaves, — in quad, incus. 
Another similar. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



45 



Metal 

M 
M 
M 



Size 
2 

1 + 

1- 



M^eight 

19-2 
22-8 
10-1 



M 

M 

JE 



4+ 



6 

4i 



M 3 



36-7 



M 



Same types to I R. AAA. Goafs head adv. between two dolphins, in quad. 

incus. 
Same types to r. R.. Two goats' heads opposed and touching ; above, dolphin to r., 

all in quad, incus. 
Head of a negro to r. R. Aa- Goafs head adv., in quad, incus. — This and the 

two preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 

Note. — The ram's head was a type of the sun. The wild goat is supposed, by Eckhel (II. p. 194), 
to be a Cretan type, brought from thence by the colony of Castaliua ; the dolphin therefore may be 
attributed to the fable of Apollo having conducted Castalius to Delphi under the form of a dolphin. 
The negro is perhaps jEsop, who was a liberated slave, and, according to one tradition, a black. In 
fact, AiiTWjrof and AiBioip are words of the same import. He was sent to Delphi by Croesus, where 
he gave such offence, that the people threw him over one of their bicipital rocks. For this they were 
visited with calamities, and appeased the gods by making compensation to his late master, ladmon 
of Samos. To have placed the head of ^sop on their money is quite in consistency with this story. 



ffadrianns. 
Laureate bust of Hadrian to r. 



basis. 



R. AeA*nN. Tripod on 



Faustina Senior. 

eeA *AYCTeiNA. Head of Faustina to r. R. nveiA. A large table, upon 
which, from left to right, are a wreath, a vase, a pile of spherical objects, and a 
crow to I. 

Same legend and type. R. AGAOSiN. Tetrastyle temple with six columns on the 
side ; in its pronaus, a colossal statue to I. 

Same legend and type. R. AGA^SiN. Head of Apollo ? tor. 



DEMETRIAS Thessali^. 

Note. — Thia city was founded by Demetrius Poliorcetes about 290 b. c. It was one of the three 
cities which Philip, son of Antigonus, called the fetters of Greece (jri^ai 'EXXijvicat, Polyb. 17, 11 ) ; 
the two others being Chalcis and Corinth. Its remains exist near Volo, on the eastern side of the bay 
of PagasEe, which city stood on the opposite side of the same bay. Vide Tr. in N. Greece, IV. p. 375. 

Head of Diana to r. R. AHMHTFIEflN in two lines ; between them, anterior part 
of galley to r. ; in field to I., mon. 7. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

DEULTUM Thraciaj. 

iVofe.— Develton, or Deultum, was a colony of veterans, established by Vespasian, whence the FL 
(Flavia), and PAC (Pacensis or Pacifera) ; the magnificent temple of Peace, built by the same 
emperor at Rome, is well known. Deultum stood near a lake, at the distance of 24 si. p. from Anchialus, 
on the road to Constantinople (Antonin. Itin., p. 229 ; Plin. H. N. 4, 11 ; Ptolem. 3, 13). 

Maximus, 

C. IVL. VER. MAXIMVS CAES. Bust of Maximus to r. R. COL. FL. PAC. DEVLT. 
Draped figure, crowned with modius, to I. ; in right hand, patera over altar ; 
in left, cornucopise. 



DIONYSOPOLIS Moesise Inferioris. 

iVo««.— The original name of Dionysopolis, according to the anonymous periplus of the Euxine, 
was Cruni, afterwards Matiopolis, and finally, from a statue of Bacchus, said to have been thrown 
ashore there by the sea, Dionysopolis. According to the same authority, it was 200 stades to the 
north-eastward of Odessus, now Varna, a position corresponding to the modern Kavarna. 

[n] 



46 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

M 


Size 
6 


Weight 


M 


6 




M 


5 




M 


4 




M 


6-5 


170-6 


M 
M 
M 
M 

M 


^ 
5- 

H 


162-8 

166 

172 
52-4 
48-1 


M 
M 


4-S 

4- 


S8-2 

47-7 


M 
M 
M 
M 
M 


4- 

4+ 

4 

4 

4 


49-2 
44-1 
53-2 
51-S 
51-3 


M 


4 


49-7 


M 


^ 


47-5 



Veiled female head (Ceres ?) to r. ; in field to r., a torch, and as countermark, a 
hammer! R. AlONYCOnOAITUJN in four lines, in a wreath formed of ears of 
corn. — From the Pembroke Collection {617} ; cited by Eckhel, II. p. 14; Mionnet, 
I. p. 355. 

DIUM MacedonisB (Colonia). 

Note. — Dium was colonized by Julius Csesar and Augustus ; hence on some coins it is styled 
Colonia Julia Augusta Dienais. Considerable remains of Dium still exist at Malathria in the plain 
between the foot of Olympus and the shore of the Thermaio Gulf. — Vide Tr. in Northern Greece, III. 
p. 409. 

Philippus Senior. 

IMP. CAIS. M. IVLI. PHILIPPVS AVG. Radiate head of Philippus senior to r. 
B. COL. IVL. DIEN 8 1 2 . D. D. Jupiter, half draped, to ;. ; in right hand, patera ; 
in left, hasta ; at his feet to I., a serpent. 

Gallienus. 

IMP. GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate head of Gallienus to r. R. COL. IVL. DIENSIS. 
D. D. Pallas seated to I. ; in left hand, spear ; in right, patera ; serpent as 
before. 

DYME Achaiffi. 

Note. — Some remains of Dyme are still apparent six miles south-eastward of Araxus, the north- 
western promontory of the Peloponnesus {tide Tr. in the Morda, II. p. 1 60). 

Veiled female head to r. R. AY, and uncertain object within wreath of olive. 



DYRRHACHIUM Illyria. 

Note, — Dyrrhachium and ApoUonia, having been sister colonies of Corcyra, have a great simi- 
larity in their coinage. For the present state and appearance of Dyrrhachium, now Duras, in Italian 
Durazzo, vide Lear, Journals, &c., p. 165. 

Cow to r., with head to I., touching the calf which she is suckling. R. A, Y, P, and 

a club in the four segments of a circle, which incloses a square containing the 

gardens of Alcinous ? 
Another similar. 

Another, with ME above the cow. 
Another, but cow to l, with head to r. towards the calf 
AY. Same type ; cow to r. R. AYP. {iirl) AEINOKAEOS. Same type. 
EYKTHMilN. Same type; in " " ' 

AAMHNOS. Same type. 
SIAANOS. Same type ; in exergue, fulmen. 
KTHTOS. Same type ; above, female head to r. 

NI2K0Y. Same type. 
KAEQN. Same type ; above, star. R. AYP. *AAAKPlilNOS. 
Another similar. 

SENSiN. Same type ; in field to r. ? 
AAKQN. Same type ; above, tripod. 
AAKilN. Same type ; in exergue, 

type. 
MENISKOS. Same type; above, eagle flying to r. 

type. 
APXIMHAHS. Same type. R, AYP Same tvpe, 



field to r., cypress? in exergue, grapes. R. AYP. 

R. [AYP.] APISTHNOS. Same type. 
in field to r. ? R. [AYP. ME] 

Same type. 

R. [AYP. X]APOniNO[Y.l Same type. 
R. AYP. MGNeKPATEOS. Same type, 
cornucopiffi. R. AYP. rOPrin[nOY]. Same 

R. AYP. AIO Same 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



47 



Metal 
M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 

M 



M 

M 
M 
M 
JR 



Size 



4 
4 



2i 



2i 
3- 

2i 



3 

3- 

5 



5+ 

5 
5 
5 

3+ 

3i 



7-6 

1 
2 

2 
2 



B. AYP. KAAAH- 



Same 



The obverse incuse. 

r. tJYA. Pegasus flying to 



Weight 

49-4 0NIK02. Same type ; in exergue, ear of com and ? 

N02. Same type. 
52-7 HPOAOTOS. Same type ; in exergue, ear of corn. H. AYP. *IA[IS]TOY. 

type, the sides of the square curved inwards. 
508 KEPAaN. Same type ; in field to I., palm branch. B. AYP. API2THN0S. Same 

type. 
486 <MAHMiiN. Same type ; above, radiate head to r. ; in field to r., cypress ? in 

exergue, quadruped running to r. Be. AYP. BEOrENEOS. Same type. 
42'5 EXE*PiiN. Same type ; above, radiate head to r. ; in field to r., owl. R. AYP. 

zanYPOY. Same type. 
49"2 AaKAIOS. Same type ; in exergue, plough. R. 
41'2 Beardless head of Hercules, with lion's scalp to 

below the horse, mon. 39 (AE or EA). 
40*4 Another similar ; below the horse, TA. 
29'2 Another similar, without mon. or letters below. 
40'3 Same type to I. B. Same legend and type. 
41 Same type. B. Same legend ; same type to I. 
3 6" 6 Same type. B. Same legend ; same type to r. 
128-7 AYPPAXINQN. Head of Pallas to I. ; in field to n, club, partly covered by gryphon's 
head in countermark. B. Pegasus to r. (Corinthian types.) — Electrotype from 
the B. M. 
131-8 AYP. Same type to r. ; in field to l, club ; to r., dolphin. B. Same type ; 

below, A. 
131-8 Another similar. 
133 Another, without legend. 
131-2 Another ; behind the head, E. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. *IAQTA in two lines, between which, tripod ; all in 

wreath. 
Same type. B- AYP. AFAeOKAEOS. Same type. 



EDESSA, sive MGJE. Macedonise. 

Note. — Mgfe, or Edessa, the Tivoli of Macedonia, and greatly surpassing the Italian town in 
grandeur and beauty, must, from its commanding position and other advantages, have been an 
inhabited place from the earliest antiquity. If the name .lEgse, therefore, was derived from the 
mythus of the goat, which conducted Caranus, the founder of the Macedonian dynasty to this spot, 
Edessa is the older name of the two, and this seems to be confirmed by its Pelasgic termination. 
Although the goat is a common type on the Macedonian coins, the name Mgm never occurs ; while 
that of Edessa is found to a late period of the Roman Empire. The cascades of Edessa are alluded 
to by Stephanus of Byzantium in the following words relating to Edessa of Mesopotamia (Orfa) : 
*E5e(T(Ta TTo'Xtf Yvp'iaq Sid Tr/v Ttjitv vdartov pvfirjv oiirw KXijOtiaa' dirb Tijc Iv Maw^ovt^. From this 
remark it would seem that Ed, the foundation of the name, meant ' water' in the Macedonian language, 
and that Edessa had the same meaning of 'city of waters,' as its modem representative Vodhena, from 
the Slavonic Voda. 

146-1 Goat looking back, in the act of lying down ; in field above, mon. 40 (AE or EA.). 

B. Macedonian quad, incus, of the most regular form. — Ekctroti/pe. 
16-1 Same type. B. Irregular quad, incus. 

16-6 Same type ; in field on either side, a globule. B- Regular Macedonian quad, incus. 
1 6-3 Another similar. 
32-2 Goat in the same attitude to I., and not looking back, — in quad, incus. B. Bridled 

half horse galloping to r. 

Note. — All these coins, except the first, were procured by me in Macedonia. They may undoubtedly 
be designated as of the earlier kings of that country ; but as they were all struck at Edessa, and the 
names of the several kings tmder whom they were coined cannot be ascertained, they may, pro- 



48 

Metal Size Weight 



M 



JE 
/E 

/E 
M 
M 
JE 



JE 

JE 
M 



JR 


1 


15-9 


JR 


1 


16-2 


JR 


2 


15 


JR 


H 


15-8 


JR 


1 


13-8 


JR 


1 + 


16-2 


JR 


1 


J5 


JR 


2 


15-5 


JR 


2- 





4+ 
4+ 
4 

4 
4 
4 
4-3 



2i 



2i 
3- 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



visionally nt least, be placed to Edessa. The monogram on the first of them may be the two first 

letters of Edessa, read from right to left. 

Diadumenianm. 

AY. M. OnEA. ANTONeiNOC AIAAOYMeNIANOC. Bust of Diadumenianus to r. 
R. GA€CCeilN. Roma Nicephorus seated to I., crowned by Fortune, standing 
behind her ; at the feet of Roma, a goat to I. 

Note. — The coins of this city may be distinguished from those of the Mesopotamian Edessa by the 
gentile. That of the former was 'EtiaaiXe or 'ZieaaaXot ; of the latter, 'Eha<nivol. 



EION Macedonise, sive Thracise. 

Note. — The position of Eion, on the eastern side of the mouth of the Strymon, is now occupied by 
the ruins of a castle of Byzantine times, among which I observed some remains of Hellenic antiquity, 
— Vide Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 173. 

Aquatic bird standing to r., with head reverted. R. Irregular quad, incus. 

Same type ; in field to I., two dots. R. Similar type. 

Goose to r., with head reverted ; in field above, lizard descending ; all in dotted 

circle. R. Square, partially incuse. 
Same types ; goose holding up the left leg. R. Quad, incus., like vanes of a mill. 
Another similar. 

Same types. R. Quad, incus, of more regular Macedonian form. 
Another similar. 
Same types ; below the bird, H. 
Five others, with same types and letter ; average weight, 1 3*7 grains. 



ELEA Thesprotiae. 

Head of Ceres adv. R. Cerberus to I, 

Another. 

Same head more towards I, ; in field to I., A. R. EAEAI. Same type.^ — Electrotype 

from the B. M. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type ; below the Cerberus, A. 
Another. 

Same type. R. No legend apparent. Same type ; below it, GE. (Gtirirpwrwy.) 
Another, in better condition. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — There cannot be any doubt that the preceding coins belong to the Thesprotian Elea,of which 
the gentile appears to have been 'EXeaiot. The types, relating to the fable of the infernal regions, 
identify the district with that Eleatis which is shown by Thucydides (1, 46) to have comprehended 
the discharge of the Acherusian lake, and of the rivers Acheron, and Cocytus into the bay named Elea 
by Scylax (p. 11 ), at a later time the Glycys Limen, and which is now called Porto Fan4ri. We may 
further infer from Thucydides, that Ephyre, afterwards named Cichyrus (Strabo, p. 324), was the 
chief town of the Eleatis, and the place where the present coins were struck. They are generally 
found in the maritime part of Epirus, on the geography of which tide Tr. in N. Greece, 111. p. 6, 
seq, 

ELEUSIS Atticse. 

Triptolemus to I. in a winged car drawn by two serpents ; in his extended right hand, 
ears of corn. R. EAEY, below which, pig standing to r, — all in wreath of corn. 
Another. 

Same type. R, Pig standing on torch ; below, EAEY2I ; all in wreath of corn. 
Same type, but right hand not extended. R. Same legend, types, and wreath. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



49 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


M 


3 




JE 


4 




iR 


6-4 


184-3 


M 


6 


171-3 


M 


7-5 


183-3 


M 


7-6 


193 


M 


5 


181-4 


M 


6 


191-1 


M 


7-6 


190-2 


M 


5 


185-4 


M 


3+ 


42-7 


1 M 


4-3 


38 


M 


6 


184-4 


M 


6 


187-7 


M 


6 


184-9 


JR 


7-6 


189-7 


M 


7-6 


184-5 


JR 


5+ 


186-1 


JR 


3 


391 


\m 


3 


42 


M 


3 


42 


M 


3 





Same type. B. EAEYSI; below which, pig to r., standing on torch; in exergue, 

bucranium. 
Three others similar. 

Note. — Few of the coins of Eleusis are in sufficient preservation to allow of any certainty as to all- 
the details ; but, from a comparison of a great number, it would appear that Triptolemus bears always 
in his right hand ears of corn. The pig is short and thick, and has the appearance of a young fatted 
animal prepared for sacrifice. The object upon which it stands is a torch, made of the rough branch 
of a pine-tree. On an Athenian copper coin, described in page 27, the obverse of which represents, 
like those of Eleusis, Triptolemus in his car, the same kind of torch is observable, en sautoir with 
an ear of corn. 

ELIS. 

Note. — The situation and vestiges of Elis are described in Tr. in the Mor^a, I. p. 4. The legends 
FA, FAAEIQN, led Eckhel and Mionnet to attribute all these coins to Faleria in Etruria, although 
they bear no resemblance in style to any of the coins of middle Italy. It is impossible to be long in 
the Peloponnesus without being convinced of their true origin ; the most interesting confirmation 
of which was the brazen tablet now in the British Museum, which was found by Sir William Gell 
near the site of Olympia ; it records a treaty of peace between the FAAEIOI and EPFAOIOI 
(Herceenses), and was suspended in the temple of Jupiter at Olympia. 

Head of Juno to r., with narrow crown or broad diadem adorned with flowers in the 

Ionic style, ft. AT. Fulmen within a wreath of curled leaves. 
Same type. R. FA. Same type. 

Same type ; above the crown, HPA. B. Same legend and type. 
Another similar ; but HPA on the crown, between the intervals of the Ionic 

ornament. 
Another similar. 
Same type with earring ; in field to L, F ; to r., A. B. Eagle to r., looking to I., 

and standing on the knot of a wreath of curled leaves. — Electrotype from the 

B. M. 
FA. Female head to r., with earrings and broad fillet on forehead, spreading into a 

bag behind. B, Similar type ; but eagle to I. looking r. 
Female head to r., with earrings, and hair rolled up from the forehead and neck ; 

above which, a diadem inscribed FAAEIilN. ft. F. Eagle with raised wings, 

standing on a lamb ? — in wreath of curled leaves. 
Similar head to r., without diadem. B. FA. Eagle, with raised wings, to I., 

looking r. 
Another similar. 
Head of Jupiter to r. B. FA. Eagle standing to r., opposed to a serpent erect ; 

in field to I., fulmen ; in field to r., H. 
Same type. B. FA. Eagle standing to r. on the capital of an Ionic column ; in 

field to r., fulmen. 
Same type. B. FA. Eagle standing to r. ; in field to r., wreath ; within, which, ! 

in field to L, fulmen and globule ; below, API. 
FAAEION. Similar type to I. B. Eagle standing to r. on capital of Ionic column. 
Female, with expanded wings, running to I. ; in right hand, crown ; in left, ? ; in 

field to I. above, A ; below, 1. B. Eagle flying to r., with serpent in its beak. 

— This and the preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 
Eagle standing on lamb, and tearing its throat, the whole filling up the orb of a 

round shield. B. Winged fulmen ; in field to I., F; to r., A; both letters 

incuse. 
Head of Jupiter to r. B. FA. Eagle, standing to r., on capital of Ionic column; 

in field to r., serpent. 
Another similar, without serpent. 
Another. 
Four others, average weight forty-one grains. 

[o] 



50 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 
M 

M 


Size 

3-2 
3+ 


Weight 

34 
40-2 


M 
M 


3 
3 


41-6 


JR 
M 

M 
M 
M 


3 
3 
3 

3 
3+ 


42-3 
41-4 
41-1 

53-7 


M 
M 
Al 
M 
M 


3 
2 

n 
n 


407 

15-9 

13 

14-4 

45-5 


M 


*h 




M 

M 
M 
JE 


4 
3 
4 
4 

4i 
4^ 




M 


4 


73-8 


M 


4 

7+ 


72 


M 


4+ 


f)4-7 


M 


3 




JE 


3 





Head of Jupiter to r. B. FA, and fulmen, within a wreath. 

Same types and legend ; below the wreath, API. 

Two others similar ; medium weight, 39'3. 

Similar ; but API within the wreath. 

Two others similar; medium weight, 40- 7. 

Similar ; the leaves of wreath curled. 

Another similar. 

Similar, with berries between leaves of wreath. 

Bearded head with conical cap to r. (Vulcan 2) R. [F]A and fulmen ; in wreath of 

(corn ?) 
Eagle's head to I, ; below, leaf of (plane ?) FA ; winged fulmen in similar wreath. 
Same type, without leaf. ft. FA ; fulmen, no wreath. 
Same type to r. R. Same legend and type. 

Eagle flying to /., with serpent in beak. ^.. Same legend and type. 
Winged female figure, with arms extended, striding to r. R. FAAEI. Eagle flying 

adv. — Electrotype from the B. M. 
Head of Apollo to r. ft. FA. Jupiter Aetophorus naked, fulminating to r. ; in 

field to I., H ; to r., rp in mon. and wreath. 
Same type. ft. Same legend and type ; in field to I., HP united ; in field to /•., M. 
Another similar, ft. In field to r., 2. 

Head of Jupiter to r. ft. FA. Free horse trotting to r. ; below it, IIAO. 
Same type. ft. Horse galloping to r. ; above it, FA ; below it, A and fulmen. 
Same type in dotted circle, ft. FAAEISIN in three lines in wreath. 
Two others similar. 

EMPOREIUM Hispanise. 

Note. — Emporeium, uow Ampurias, in the bay of Rosas, at the north-eastern extremity of Spain, 
was a colony of the Massaliotse, and hence sometimes called a colony of Phocsea, which was the 
metropolis of Massalia. In the time of Livy (34, 9), and Strabo (p. 1 60), the Emporitse were au united 
population of Greeks, Spaniards, and Romans. The copper coin, described below, bears marks of 
them all. Those in silver are entirely Greek, and are remarkable for the dissimilarity of their types 
to those of Massalia and Phocsea, instead of which the types are Corinthian or Sicilian. This leads 
to the belief that, in the ages between the Phoccean and Roman colonies, the commerce of Corinth or 
of Sicily had produced a preponderating influence at Emporeium, accompanied perhaps by a colony 
from one or other of those places, which has not obtained notice in history. 

Head of Proserpine to r. ; in field, three dolphins, ft. EMIIOPITiiN. Pegasus 

flying to r. 
Another similar. 
Head of Pallas to r. ft. EMIIOP. Pegasus to r. ; the forelegs raised ; 

in field to I., star or garland ? 

EPIDAURUS Argolidis. 

Note. — Concerning the situation of Epidaurus and the Epidaurian 'Upov, vide Tr. in the Mor^a, II. 
p. 420., seq. 

Head of Apollo to r. ft. Asclepius seated to I. ; his right hand on the head of a 
serpent rising from the ground ; his left on hasta ; on the side of throne, GE ; 
under it a dog couchant to r., looking adv. ; in field to r., E. — Electrotype. 

Note. — This reverse represents the statue of Asclepius in his temple at the Hierum, thus described 
by Pausanias, Kddijrai ii ivi ©po'vou paKTtjpiav Kparuiv, Ttjv Si iripav twv ^cpuf virip KKfiaXfii 
tX» Tov SpctKovToc, Kai ol Kal kvuv wapaKaraKiiinvos wtiroitirai. Corinth. 27. 

Head of Jupiter or of Asclepius to r. ft. Dog couchant to r. ; in field above, mon. 

41 (EU) ; below, mon. 42 (AH or HA). 
Another. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



51 



:Metal 



Size 

*2 

3 



Weight 



154-5 



8-6 


156-1 


3 


42-4 


3+ 


49-1 


4 


601 


5+ 


78-2 


5- 


75-7 


5 


74-6 


H 


78-0 


5 


65-5 


5 


75-9 


4 


77-4 



Same type. R. E in wreath. 

Same type. B. lEPAS in two lines, in a wreath. 

Same type. B. Mon. 41 (En), Hygieia standing to I. ; in left hand, patera ; above 

which is seen the head of the serpent ; in field to r., pomegranate ? 
Another. 

Antoninus Pius. 

ANTilNGINOG AVr. Bust of Antoninus to r. B. eniAAYPOY lePAG. Asclepius 
on a high-backed throne to I. ; left hand resting on sceptre ; right hand 
stretched towards a serpent rising before him with head turned to I. 

EPIRUS. 

Note. — The far greater part of the coins of Epirua and the Epirotie cities in this collection were 
procured by me in that country j and many of them from those who had found them on the ancient 
sites. The coins of Epirus in genere I conceive to have been struck at Dodona, the chief city ; on 
the situation of which, near loannina, see Travels in N. Greece, IV. p. 169, seq. All the principal 
types of these coins, and most of the symbols, relate to Jupiter Dodonseus, though there are also some 
having reference to Neptune, Diana, Hercules, and the Dioscuri. Another reason for believing these 
coins of the Epirotse to have been struck at Dodona is that there are none of that city known ; nor of 
any other in the interior of Epirus, of which country the district of loannina is the central and most 
important part. All the Epirotie cities of which coins are extant are near the coast ; namely, Oricus, 
Phoanice, Buthrotmn, Eleea, Cassope, Nicopolis, and Ambracia. 

Heads of Jupiter Dodonaeus and Dione to r. ; Jupiter crowned with oak ; Dione 
wearing a veil, and a wreath of bay surmounted by a decorated and turreted 
crown ; in field to I., ME united; all within a dotted circle. B. AHEIPilTAN 
in two lines ; between which, bull butting to r. ; all within a garland of oak- 
leaves and acorns. 

Note. — Eckhel says of this bull, ' Typua in averse alludit ad taurum, Jovis victimam, sive ad bourn 
in Epiro excellentiam.' The latter indeed was almost proverbial, and there is a fragment of Hesiod, 
which alludes to the multitudes of sheep and oxen in the pastm-es of Dodona. Nevertheless, I do not 
believe the bull on these coins to have had any such allusion. It would not have been in that case a 
taurus cornupeta, which from numerous e.\amples in Asia and Italy is generally the symbol of a river. 
The river here intended is probably the Arachthus, which rises in the mountains above Dodona, 
passes through the Dodoncean territory, and well merits by its impetuosity the symbol of the furious 
bull. The same type occurs on the coins of Ambracia, which city was half encircled by the Arach- 
thus. Ambracia has also on some of its coins the usual type of the Achelous, as commonly represented 
on the coins of Acarnania, namely, the head of an andromorphous bull ; this, in Uke manner, is 
accounted for by the Achelous having passed through a part of the Ambracian territory. One coin 
of Ambracia has the type of Achelous on one side, and that of Arachthus on the reverse (Mionnet, 
Sup. III. p. 366, No. 61). 

Same types ; in field to I., mon. 43. B. Same legend, type, and wreath ; in exergue, 

trident. 
Same types and mon. B. ADElPaXAN in two lines ; between them, fulmen ; all in 

wreath of oak. 
Another. 

Same types ; below, three monograms. B- Same legend and types. 
Head of Jupiter Dodonseus to r. ; below, BO ; behind, AN in mon. B- Same 

legend in two lines, between which, eagle standing to r. on fulmen ; all in a 

wreath of oak leaves and acorns. 
Another similar ; behind the head, mon. 43. 
Another similar. 
Another similar. 

Another similar ; behind the head, SI. 
Another similar ; behind the head, 2ii in mon. 
Another similar ; behind the head, mon. 44. 



52 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal I Size 

M I 4 + 



M 
M 

M 



M 



4+ 



M 


6 


M 


H 


JE 


4 


JE 


5 


M 


5- 


M 


5- 


M 


5 


M 


4 


JE 


5-4 


JE 


3 


JE 


4 


.E 


4 


JE 


3 


JE 


2i 



H 



Weight 

75-6 



JR 


6i-4 


183-2 


JR 


5 


187-5 


JR. 


2 


39-6 


JR 


2 


39-] 


JR 


3 


40-3 


JR 


3 


35-6 


JR 


2 


10-9 


JR 


1- 


18-1 


JR 


1- 




JR 


1 


14-9 


M 


1 


14-7 


JR 




4-8 


JE 


2 




JE 


2 




JE 


2 




JE 


2 





Another similar. 

Another (broken). 

. EiiN. Head of Jupiter Dodonseus to r. ; below, a mon. B. Same legend and 

types {imperfect). 
Head of Jupiter ? to r. crowned with bay, and having long wavy tresses of hair and 

bushy beard. B. Fulmen ; above which, mon. 42 (AH) ; all in wreath of oak- 
leaves and large acorns. 
Two others. 

Similar head to I B;. Fulmen ; above it, A ; below, n ; all in wreath of oak. 
Another. 
Same type. IJ. AllEIPilTAN in two lines; between which, fulmen ; all in wreath 

of oak. 
Two others similar. 
Same type to r. R. Eagle on fulmen to r., looking to I. ; in field to I., mon. 45 ; to r., 

mon. 46. 
Another similar, but mon. to I. different. 
Same type. B. AlTElPilTAN. Same type. 
Bust of Diana to r.; in field to I., mon. 47; to r., another mon. B. AriEIPflTAN 

in two lines ; between them, head of spear ; all in wreath. 
Two others ; no monogram apparent. 
Veiled female head to r. B. AnEIPflTAN in two lines; between which, tripod; all 

in wreath of bay. 
Another. 

Bull butting to r. ; below, AtlEIPOTAN. B- Fulmen in wreath. 
Bonnets of Dioscuri ; below, mon. 43. B. AIIEIPiiTAN ; the letters in nine intervals 

between the rays of a star. 
Large A. B. Club in a wreath. 

Note. — This is placed to Epirus only as having been found in that country. 

ERCHOMENUS Bceotiis. 

Note. — Orchomenus, in the Boaotian dialect Erchomenus, held, during a portion of the ages prior 
to the Trojan war, the same rank in western Boeotia as Thebes in the eastern. Its sovereigns, the 
Minyse, were celebrated for their wealth ; and the remains of a Pelasgic treasury, resembling those 
of the Atrcidse in Argolis and Laconia, are still extant to confirm the traditions of history. For a 
description of Orchomenus, ride Tr. in N. Greece, II. p. 144. 

BcEotian shield. B. EPX. Horse galloping to r., bridle trailing ; in field above, 

ear of corn, below which, AOPO. 
Boeotian shield ; on one end of it, ear of corn. B. EPXO. Decorated diota ; above 

it, EY. — This and the preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 
Boeotian shield. B. EPX, in wreath of corn. 
Another similar. 

Head of Ceres to I. B. Mon. 48 (EP), in wreath of com. 
Another similar. 

Same type. B. EP and torch, in wreath of corn. 
Grain of wheat. B. Quad, incus, irregularly subdivided. 
Four others similar ; average weight, 15. 
3R ; between them, grain of wheat. B- Quinquifid quad, incus, like that of 

.Ai^gina. 
Another similar. 

Half-grain of wheat. B. TO. Ear of com. 

Head of Ceres to I. B. EP. ; between the letters, torch ; — in wreath of com. 
Another. 

Same type to r. B. Same legend and type. 
Laureate bearded head to r. B. 3 in wreath. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



53 



Metal Size 



/E 



JE 



M 



sE 

JE 
JE 
JE 



M 



JE 



JE 



3-2 



H 



Weight 



4i 
*2 



EURYDICEIA Macedonia. 
Veiled female head to r. (Eurydice ?) R. EYPYAIKEON. Tripod. 

Note. — This coin of th« Pembroke collection (621) is cited by Eckhel (II. p. 269), who was 
unable to determine its origin. It seems clear, however, from Polysenus (6, 7), though the text in 
that place is defective, that the name Cassandreia was changed into Eurydiceia, because the city had 
been enfranchised by a queen Eurydice. This queen was probably the sister of Cassander, wife of 
Ptolemy Soter, and mother of the Ptolemy sumamed Ceraunus, who reigned for a short time in 
Macedonia. The change from Cassandreia to Eurydiceia is the more likely to have occurred not long 
after the foundation of this city, as no coins of Cassandreia with that name are known, except those 
of the Roman colony. Vide supra, p. 32. 



GOMPHI Thessalia;. 

Note. — Some vestiges of Gomphi are found at a direct distance of seven geographical miles to the 
S. by W. of Tricca, the modem Trikkala. Vide Tr. in N. Greece, IV. p. 520. Its present name, 
Episkopi, is a memorial of Gomphi having been a bishoprick, but of which there are no traces in 
history later than the sixth century. 

Head of Apollo adv. B. rOM*lTOYN in two lines ; between them, Jupiter seated 
to I. ; in right hand, fulmen ; in left, sceptre. 

Note.—TOmi>nor'S is, according to the Thessalic dialect, like KPANNOYNIOTN for Kpav- 
v(oviit}V. 



Another. 



GYRTON Thessali*. 



Note. — The site of Gyrton is recognized near the modem village of Tat4ri, at a distance of about 
five miles to the north of Larissa, in the midst of the Pelasgic plain.— Fide Tr. in N. Greece, III. 
p. 383. 

Head of Jupiter to I. B. rvPTaNliiN. Horse stepping to r. ; under the horse, 

AH, and grapes. 
Another similar. 

Same type. ft. TYPT. Horse stepping to I. ; below, a mon. 
Another similar. 

HADEIANOPOLIS Thracise. 

Note. This city retains its ancient name, and, under the Turkish Sultans, has risen to much 

greater importance than it ever attained under the Romans. 

Bare head of bearded Hercules to r. R. AAPIANOnOAIxaN. Club ; quiver with 
arrows, and bow. 

iVo«e.— Autonomous coins of Hadrianopolis are very rare. The present specimen is from the 
Pembroke collection (618), and is cited by Eckhel, II. p. 33. 

Faustina Junior. 

*AY[CT]EINA CEBACTH. Head of Faustina to r. R. AAPIANOnOAEITON. 
Veiled and draped female to I. ; in right hand, patera, held over altar with fire ; 
in left hand, hasta. 

Lucius Verus. 

OYHPOC KAICAP. Head of Verus to r. R. AAPIANOnOAlTON. Diana naked 
to r. ; with right hand drawing arrow from quiver ; in left hand, bow. 

[r] 



54 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 



M 



M 



M 



Size 



Weight 



M 

M 
M 
M 






4 
4 

■^2 



78-0 

79 
77 
21-7 



3^ 



M 



45-7 



Caracalla. 

AYT. M. AYP. ANXaNEINO . Bust of Caracalla to r. R. AAPIANOnOAITlUN. 
Emperor galloping and launching javelin to r. 

Diadumenianus. 

. . . onEA . . AIAA Head of Diadumenianus to /•, R ANO- 

nOAEITSiN. Serpent rising from cista, opening to r. 

Gordianus Junior. 

AYT. K. M. ANT. TOPAIANOC AYF. Head of Gordianus to r. R. AAPIANOnOAI- 
TON. Gates of the city. 



HERACLEIA Acamanise. 

Feminine head of Bacchus crowned with ivy to r. ; behind, mon. 39. R. Pegasus 

flying to r. ; below, mon. 49. (HPA.) 
Same type ; behind, mon. 50. R. Same type and monogram. 
Same type ; behind, mon. 51. R. Same type and monogram. 
Female head to r. ; hair bound with narrow decorated crown ; behind, sceptre and 

mon. 51. R. Same type and monogram. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — A coin in Hunter, Tab. 29, 8, shows that this head is a personification of the city. 

Beardless head of Hercules with lion's scalp to r. R. HPAKAEQTAN. Lion spring- 
ing to r. ; above it, mon. 52 ; in exergue, club. 
Bearded head of Hercules to r. R. Same legend ; club and arrow. 

Note. — In Tr. in Greece, IV. p. 23, I was uncertain whetlier Echinus stood at Vonitza, on the 
shore of the Ambracic Gulf, and the Acarnaniau Heracleia at Aio Vasfli, five geographical miles 
south-eastward of Vduitza in the interior, — or the reverse ; but an examination of the preceding coins, 
which were found in that part of Greece, compared with others of the Hunter collection, leads me to 
conclude that Heracleia was the city which stood at Aio Vasfli. These coins accord with the importance 
of Heracleia, indicated by the extensive walls, of which the foundations are still extant at Aio Vasfli ; 
moreover, the worship of Bacchus, which the coins attest, is confirmed by an inscription which I there 
copied (No. 164), recording the names of the magistrates of the city, together with those of the officers 
of an oracular temple, among whom was the MArEIPOS, or cook, and the APXOINOXOYS, or 
chief wine-pourer ; the latter an office peculiarly suitable to a temple of Bacchus. In the Hunter 
Collection, Tab. 29, 6, a silver coin of this city (weight 148'2) represents the head of Hercules on one 
side and Bacchus seated on the other. The Pegasus implies a Corinthian colony, but which did 
not, like so many others in its vicinity, strike didrachma exactly resembUng the Corinthian. 



HER^A Arcadise. 

Note. — Hersea stood on a height above the right bank of the Alpheius, in the lower valley of that 
river, near the frontier of Elia. Some vestiges of it are still observable, chiefly of Roman times ; 
its imperial coins ai"e extant from Antoninus Pius to Caracalla. — Vide Tr. in the More'a, II. p. 91. 



Veiled and diademate female head to I. R. 
row of dots separated by a zigzag line.- 



A^3 ; above and below which, a double 
-Electrotype from the B. M. 



Note. — In the Eleian tablet, which is more ancient than this coin, the name of the people of Hersea 
is written EPFAOIOI ; the digamma therefore which is found in that document, both before and 
after P, had been dropt between the date of the tablet and that of the coin. In the name of the 
Eleians (TON F AAEIQN), on the contrary, the digamma occurs on the tablet as well as on the coins 
to a late period of Eleian autonomy. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



55 



Metal 

M 


Size 


Weight 

131 


M 


1- 


6-2 


M 


4 




M 

1 
1 


5 




M 


4+ 


107-8 


M. 


3+ 


80-3 


M 


4-3 


87-7 


M 


8 


205-5 


M 


7 


253-4 


' M 


6 





Head of Diana to /. ; in field to I., bow. ft. Large E ; in field to I., ivy leaf and H ; 

to r., AH. — Electrotype from the B. M. 
Acorn. ^.. Large m; below which, in very small letters, AqH. 

JVote. — The large E is the earlier initial of Hertea. The Arcadians appear not to have prefixed 
either aspirate or digamma to the name of Juno, though it was always aspirated in Hellenic. 

HOMOLIUM Thessaliffi. 

iVo«e. — Homole, or Homoliura, stood on the northern side of Mount Ossa, between its summit and 
the mouth of the Peneius. Homole having been a name sometimes employed as a synonym of Ossa, 
the city stood probably in a lofty situation, such as the modern Karitza, but the exact site has not 
yet been determined. Vide Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 402. 

Bearded head to I., with conical helmet and long hair. R. 0M0AIEi2[N]. Serpent 

coiled, its head to r. ; in field, 9, and bunch of grapes. 
Same type to r. ft. Same legend ; serpent with double coil, and head to r. ; in field, 

a monogram. 

ISTRUS Moesia: Inferioris. 

Note. — Istrus, or Istropolis, was a colony of Miletus, which Strabo (p. 319), and the anonymous 
Periplus of the Euxine (p. 12), agree in placing at a distance of 500 stades to the southward of the 
sacred or southernmost mouth of the Danube, as this mouth could not have been very far from the 
maritime hills which border the southern extremity of the Danubian delta. Istrus seems to have 
stood in some part of the Gulf of Sitgiel ; but, until some monumental evidence is found, its exact 
site cannot be determined, nor that of Tomi, or of the other cities on the Thracian coast to the 
southward, the distances of which are given by the authorities above mentioned. 

Two young male heads adv., united, and placed in contrary directions, ft. I2TPIH. 

Eagle on fish to I. ; below, P. — Electrotype from the Pembroke Collection (502). 
Same type. ft. Same legend and type ; in field below, XP in mon. and A. 

Note. — These heads were intended probably for the Dioscuri, who were worshipped in many cities 
of the Euxine, particularly in the neighbouring Tomi. The position of the heads may refer to the 
mythus, according to which they dwelt alternately in heaven and in the infernal regions. 

Female head, with earrings, to I. ft. [I2TPI]HNii[N]. Same type. 

LACED^MON. 

Head of Pallas to r. ft. AA. Bearded Hercules naked, seated on rock to I. ; 
right hand resting on club ; left hand, on rock. 

Note. — In the description of Sparta, by Pausanias, will be found ample notice of the several deities 
which are more particularly honoured on the Lacedaemonian coins ; namely, Minerva, Hercules, the 
Dioscuri, Apollo, and Diana. The most venerated, and one of the most ancient buildings in Sparta, 
was the temple of Minerva Poliuchus or Chalcicecus, in the Acropolis (Pausan. Lacon. 17). 

Diademate beardless portrait to I. ft. AA. Helmeted statue to r., clothed from 
shoulders to base with one uniform covering, without any plait or appear- 
ance of drapery ; in right hand, javelin held horizontally over the head ; in left 
hand, bow ; in front of the lower part of the statue appears an aplustre or 
acroterium, surmounted by a bird, and from behind the statue to r., the anterior 
part of a goat ; in field to I., wreath. — Electrotype from the Bibliothique 
Nationale, Paris. 

Another similar. — Electrotype. 

Note. — The only king who could have placed his porti'ait, in imitation of the Seleucidce, on the 
money of Sparta, was Cleomenes III., after having converted the old system of government into a 
tyranny. The wreath on the reverse leads to the belief that these coins were struck at the time of 
the success of Cleomenes over the Acheeans in B. c. 225, which obliged the latter to call in the assist- 



56 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal Size Weiglit 



M 



M 
M 
M 

M 

JE 

M 
M 
M 

M 

M 



M 
JE 

M 
M 



M 



3 
3 
6 

5 

5 
5 
6 
5 



5 
7 

7- 
8 



7i 

eh 



32-9 



S3-5 
34-6 
35-3 



ance of Antigonus and the Macedonians. The figure on the reverse is supposed by Visconti (Icon. 
Gr. II. p. 125) to be Minerva ; in which case it must have represented the statue of Minerva Poliu- 
chus in the Acropolis of Sparta ; but this statue was made by Gitiadas, who lived about 500 b.c. • 
whereas the figure on the coin indicates, by its columnar form, a much earlier time. More probably 
it was the statue <5f Apollo Amycloeus, which Pausanias describes as having been about forty-five feet 
high, and much more ancient than Bathycles, who made the works on the basis and throne, and who 
lived in the sixth century B.C. This statue was of a rude archaic style (dpxaioi/ icai ov aiv rt^vo 
■jrciroitiixivov), and resembled a brazen pillar, with the exception of the face, hands, and extremities 
of the feet ; the head was covered with a helmet (cpdvoe), and in the hands were a spear (Xo'yxi) 
and a bow (Lacon. 19). The acroterium and goat may refer, as Visconti ingeniously conjectures, to 
the victory of the Lacedcemonians over the Athenians at jEgospotami ; but, as Pausanias makes no 
mention of these adjuncts of the statue, it would seem that they had been added to it after that great 
naval victory, that they had so remained until the time of Cleomenes, 180 years afterwards, but that 
they had been removed when Pausanias visited Greece in the second century of the Christian lera. 

Bearded diademate head of Hercules to r. ^. AA. Diota, with serpent twisted 
round it, between the caps of the Dioscuri surmounted by stars ; in field below 
to L, mon. 53 ; to r., KH ; all in wreath. 

Note. — In this, and all the coins which follow, the Alpha is made of this form, A. 

Same type. B. AA. Same types ; below to L, KI ; to r., n. 

Another, nearly similar. B. . A. Same types; below, a mon. and A. 

Bearded head of Hercules, crowned with ivy, to r. R. Same types ; below the caps, 

AA ; and lower, same mon. and A ; outside of beaded circle, MASANI220Y. 
AYKOYPrOC. Bearded head to r. ; hair behind, in two formal curls. B. A A. 

Club, ending above in a Caduceus ; in field to L, *I ; to /•., A ; all in wreath. 
Same legend and type. B. AA. Same type; in field to I., AI; to r., O, and KAH 

in mon. ; all in wreath. 
Another similar. B- In field to I., T ; to r., I. 
Another similar. B. In field to /., AP in mon. I ; to r., EY in mon. 
Another similar. B. In field to I., A ; to r., H. 
Similar type ; no legend. B. AA. Club ; in field, on either side, Eni EYPYKAE02 

in three lines (the letters AE united). 
Two others. 

Ifote. — Eurycles was governor of Laconia under Augustus, and erected a gymnasium in the dromus 
of Sparta. He was succeeded by his son C. J. Lacon, who is stated by Strabo not to have been so 
much favoured by the Roman emperor as his father, though we find from one of the following coins 
that he was still governor under Claudius (Strabo, p. 366 ; Pausan. Lacon., c. 14. — Tr. in the Mor^a, 
Lp. 223, 291 ; IIL p. 239). 

Bearded head of Hercules, with lion's scalp, to r. B. AAKEAAIMONIiiN. Two 

diotas, entwined by serpents. 
Head of Apollo to r. B . AA. Diana venatrix, stepping to r. ; her dog springing 

forward to r. ; in field to L, bonnets of the Dioscuri ; to r., TIMAPICTOC. 
Same type. B- AA. Diana standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left, hasta ; 

at her feet to I., dog looking up. 
KPONIiiN. Same type. B. A A. Same type ; in field to l, *E in mon. 

Note. — The temple of Apollo, at Amyclse, three miles from Sparta, was one of the most celebrated 
in Greece ; hence the frequent occurrence of the head of Apollo on the Lacedcemonian coins. If 
Kpoviuiv be an epithet of Apollo as seems likely, we may infer, that in the Spartan mythology Apollo 
was the son of Cronus ; in other words, that Time was father of the Sun. 

[C]nAPTH. Head of Sparta to I. B. Dioscuri galloping to r. Below, AA. [eni] 

eYPYKA[eOC]. 
Another similar. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



57 



Metal 


Size 


JE 


7 


M 


7 


M 


4 


M 


4 


M 


4 



Weight 



IE 


5 


M 


41 


M 


4 


M 


4 


M 


6 


M 


5i 


JE, 


3 


M 


3 


M 


2i 


M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


3 


M 


4 


M. 


4- 


M 


n 


m 


7 


M 


6 


M 


5 


M 


4 


M 


4 


M 


4 


J& 


5 



Heads of Dioscuri to r. B. aa. APICTOKPATHC, in three lines ; below which, 

mon. 54. 
Same type. B, AA ; below, two monograms. 

Same type. B. AA. Two diotas, each entwined with a serpent ; below, 21. 
Same type. B. AA. Same type ; below, A*I. 
Same type. B. AA. Same type ; below, A. 

Note. — The reverses of this and all the preceding coins of copper, are surrounded with a garland 
of bay. 

Beardless bust to r. B. AA. Eagle standing to r. ; below, NI ; both sides 

in dotted circle. 
Same type. B. A A. Same type ; below, in field to L, * ; to r., I. 
Another similar ; in field to L, A; to r., *!. 
Same type. B. A A. Same type; below mons. 55 and 56. 
Eagle on fulmen to I. B. AA. Winged fulmen. 
Another similar. 

Bearded head to r. B. AA. Club; below, NI ; all in wreath. 
Same type. B. AA. Same type; below, in field to t., 21 ; all in wreath. 
Laureate head to r. B. AA. Tripod ; in field to I., K and club ; to r., B; below 

which, PA. 
Another similar. 
Same type. B. Same type ; in field to I., A, B, and A, vertically ; to r., club 

with TH, star, and N, vertically. 
Same type to I. B. Same type ; in field to I., club ; to r., fl. 



KAI . . . 
Another. 



Head of Augustus to r. B. AA. Eni EYPYKAE. Eagle to r. 

Claudius. 



TI. KAAYAIOC KAICAP AYTO. Head of Claudius to r. B- AA. Enr AAKiiN02. 

Bonnets of Dioscuri, with stars above them. 
Another similar. 

Note. — This Lacon was undoubtedly Caius Julius Lacon, who succeeded his father Eurycles in the 
government of Laconia. 

Hadrianua. 

Legend effaced. Bust of Hadrian to r. B. AAKEAAI[MONIll)N]. Dioscuri 
armed with spears, galloping to r. 
. TPAIA. AAPIANOC CGB. Bust of Hadrian to r. B. Club. AAKGAAIMO- 
NliiN, in three lines, across the field. 

Antoninus Pius. 

Legend effaced ; head of Antoninus to r. B- AAKeAAIMONIilN, in four lines, 
across the field, on either side of a club, terminated by winged caduceus. 

M. Aurelius. 

. . . AYPH. ANTQ. AYF, Bust of M. Aurelius to r. B- AAKEAAIMONIuiN, in 
three lines on either side of club. 
Two others. 

Geta. 

.... AYPOY. Bust of Geta to r. B. AAKGAAIMONmN round the bonnets of 
the Dioscuri ; below, mon. 29 (AP.). 



58 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metol Size 1 Weight 



Al 
M 

JR 

M 
M 



M 
M 
Al 
M 
M 
Ai 
M 
M 
AR. 
Ai 
M 
M 
M 

M 



M 
M 
M 



3 

U 

u 



-i 

4-3 

4 

4-3 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4+ 

3 

H 

4 
2 



38-8 
421 

14-2 



LAMIA. 

Note. — Lamia was the chief town of the Mi/Xtdc, or MaXielj. An/jtelj and MaXitif are the same 
word ; the metathesis liaving apparently been employed for the purpose of dlstinguisliing the people 
of the town from those of the country. Some of the silver coins of the two people differ only by the 
legend; iu one AAMIEQN, in the other MAAIEQN : they were both probably, as well as the copper 
coins of the Malienses, struck at Lamia, now Zituni. 



AAMIEilN, Diota ; in field to r., small nionota ; 
Same typo; above the diota, an ivy-leaf; monota 



90-2 
93-7 
85-9 
88-3 
93-8 

87-5 

94 

82 -6 

32-8 

13-2 

89-6 

16-3 

16-8 



90-8 
96-6 
95-7 



Head of Bacchus to r. ^. 

between them, caduceus. 
Same type to I. R. AAMIEiiN 

as before, but no caduceus. 
Four others similar ; average weight, 40*6 grains. 
Same type. R. Same legend, type, and symbols. 
Two others ; medium weight, 12' 7 grains. 



LARISA, sive LARISSA Thessalise. 

Note. — Many of the following coins relate to the celebrity of Thessaly for its horses, and for the 
sliill of the Thessalians in taming the horse. The fable of the Centaurs was supposed to have arisen 
from the Tliessalian youths having reduced the raging bulls which ravaged the country in the time 
of Ixiun (on roif raiipovs KaTiKfvToiv, Palsephatus de Incred. 1). From Euripides we learn, 
that they were renowned not only for catching the bulls, but as butchers in cutting them up for 
sacrifice : 

'Ek roil' KaXutv Ko^irovtji roiai GtrraXoic 
EZvai ro3', oariQ rav^ov dpTOfttX (caXwf 
"liTTtovs T hx\LaX,n. — Elect, v. 815. 

Diademate head of Apollo adv.., turned a little to r. B. AAPI. Horse feeding to r. 

Another similar. 

Same type. B. AAPIS. Same type. 

Same type. R. AAPI. Same type ; below, . AlflN 

Same type, turned towards I. R. AlilN. Horse feeding to I. ; below, AAP . . 

Same type. R. AAPI. Hor.se feeding to I. — Plated coin. 

Horse feeding to r. ; below, AAPI. 

AAPI. Same type. — From the Pembroke Collection (633). 

Same type ; below, AlilN. 

AAPI. Same type ; left forefoot raised ; below, . AiaN. 

AAPIS. Horse feeding to r. ; below, AliiN. 

AliiN. Mare, with lier foal, standing to r. ; below, legend effaced. 

AAPUAIilN,. Horseman to r., wearing hat, his chlamys flying 



Same type 
Same type. 
Same type. 
Same type. 
Same type. 
Same type. 
Same type 

behind him 
Another similar, 



R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
B. 
R. 
R. 



Note. — This hat, the Kavaia of Macedonia, and which is observable also on some of the horsemen 
on the frieze of the Parthenon, is described by Sophocles as the sun-excluding hat of Thessaly 
(>/Xio(Trepi)f Kuvq QiaaaX'iQ, CEdip. Col. V. 318). 

Female head, in beaded circle, to I. R. AAPI^AIA ; the two last letters from right 

to left ; horse with halter hanging down, leaping to r. 
Similar head, with earring, and hair behind in a bag. R. Same legend ; same type 

to I. 
Similar head to r., without earring. B. A[API]€AIA. Horse to r. ; on its left 

side, a man on foot, wearing a hat and a shirt without sleeves, and holding in 

the horse with the halter ; all in quad, incus. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



69 



Mrtal 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



JR 
M 



JP. 



M 



M 
M 



M 



M 



size 
5-4 



4 
4 
4 + 



02 



H 



U 



1^ 



H 



5 

.5-4 



Weight 

93-4 



93-4 
90 8 
88-4 
92-5 



29-3 



86-8 



21-6 



23-3 
12 5 



14-5 



14 
13 



14 
136 



]4-3 



AAPI^AIA. Horse, with a halter knotted at the end of its mane, leaping to r.,— in 
quad, incus. R. Bull leaping to L, seized by the horns, on its left side, ty a 
man on foot, with chlamys and hat flying behind him ; all in dotted circle. 

AAPISA; the four last letters from right to left. Same type. ft. Same type ; be- 
fore and under the bull, plants ; Ijelow, TO. 

AAPI? ; the three last letters from right to left ; same type in quad, incus. R. Same 
type to r. ; man on right side of bull. 

AAPI?AIA. Same type, halter trailing on the ground, — in quad, incus. R. Same 
type. 

AAEY. Head of Aleuas adv. towards I., wearing a decorated conical helmet with 
cheek-pieces; in field to r,, bipennis. R. AAPI^AIA EAAA. Eagle on fulmen 
to L, looking to r. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — Aleuas was ancestor of the Aleuadse of Larissa as well as of the Scopadre of Crannon, who 
became the two most powerful families of Thessaly. 

Beardless head to I., covered with hat, in dotted circle. R. LAR[I]^AION, beginning 
from below and continued above a sandal with its ligatures ; all wiihin shallow 
quad, incus. 

Note.— The sandal may be allusive to the mythus of Jason, the loss of whose sandal, in crossing 
the river Anaurus, led to the Argonautic expedition. 

Horse to I., with head touching right leg ; above, tettix. R. AA . . ^AEON. Same 
type. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — The diphthong AE is the MoVic form, which became constant in Latin, but in Greek was 
changed to AI. Other examples are found in Bceotia {Vide Tr. in N. Greece, II. plate lo). 

Horseman with spear to /•., his hat hanging behind him. R. AARI. Bearded 

figure, seated to r. on chair, having a back terminating in swan's head ; in right 

hand, patera? ; loft hand held up ; all in shallow quad, incus. 
Another similar. — Electrotype from the B. M. 
Horse leaping to I. R. . . RUaO. R. Female, in long transparent shirt to r., 

filling vase at fountain flowing from lion's mouth, — in quad, incus. (Andromache 

at the fountain Messeis? II. Z. v. 456.) 
Horse walking to r. ; above, lion's head with open jaws. R. [Aa]RI. Female 

habited as before, lifting full vase of water towards her head ; behind her, 

fountain flowing from lion's mouth. 
Another similar. 
^O. Same type. R. AA . I^A, from right to left ; half draped female, seated on 

vase with large orifice, as on coins of Terina, and tlirowing up a ball (Nymph 

of the fountain Messeis). — Electrotype from the B. M. 
Another similar. 
Same type ; above the horse, O. R. A . RI€. Female, habited as before, lifting up 

her veil ; before her, large monota. 

Note. — On tliis and the two preceding, the legend begins on the reverse and ends on the obverse, 
and appears to be Aapiaalos, sc. dpyvpog or vovft/ioQ. 

Same type, R. Female, in long transparent drapery, holding up left leg, with both 
arms stretched forward, as if about to adjust her sandal ; before her, large 

monota ; in the four angles of quad, incus., ^ q • — ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ preceding are 

Electrotypes from the B. M. 
Head of Apollo adv., towards I. R. AAPISAISIN ; the last four letters retrograde. 

Horse trotting to r., head bridled up ; below, ear of corn. 
Another similar. 
Same type. R. AA . . . AlilN. Horseman to r. ; in right hand, long spear. 



60 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


M 


4 


JE 


5-4 


M 


3 


M 


3i 


M 


3i 


/E 


H 


JE 


H 


JE 


3 


M 


2 


JE 


2 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



Weight 



156-8 



147-7 



143 



Another similar ; under the horse, a monogram. 

Same type. R AIQN. Horseman galloping to r. ; right arm lifted above 

his head. 
Female head to r. ; behind, a mon. B. AAPISAIQN in two lines ; between them, 

horseman galloping to r ; in right hand, long spear. 

Same type, with hair rolled up. li. AAPI Horse feeding to r. 

Same type. R. AlilN above horse ; its left forefoot raised ; letters in exergue 

defaced. 

Similar head to I. R. Same type to I. ; below, AAPI. 
Same type to r. B. Same type ; above, AliiN. 
Same type. R. AAPISAIQN. Same type. 
Another similar. 
Female head to I. ; hair drawn back and fastened in a knot behind (Diana ?). 

B. Same legend ; same type to r. 
Female head to I. B. AAPI; above which, harpa to r. ; all in wreath. 

Note. — The liarpa refers to the Argive hero Perseus, and to the connexion between Larissa and 
Argos. 

LAS Laconicae. 

Note. — Las was one of the most ancient cities of Laconia ; the Dioscuri were named the Lapersae, 
as having besieged and talcen Las (Sophocl. ap. Strab., p. 364). It was still inhabited in the time of 
Pausanias. The position is now occupied by a fortress named Passava, which preserves among its 
ruins some of the Hellenic walls of Las. — Vide Tr. m the Mor<Sa, I. p. 220. 

Sept. Severus. 
AOY. cen. CeOYHPOC. Head of Severus to r. B. AAILN. Diana standing to r., 
drawing an arrow from her quiver with right hand ; in left hand, bow ; at her 
feet, dog and hare springing forward in opposite directions. 

Note. — On the sea side, near Las, stood a temple of Diana Dictynna. — Pausan. Lacon. 24. 



LETE Macedonia;. 

Note. — There is no reason to question the correctness of the reading LETAION on some spe- 
cimens described by Mionnet (Sup. III. p. 81) of the first of the coins which follow, the archaic lettei-s 
agreeing with the style of the work. The doubts of numismatists have arisen chiefly from the 
improbability of a town so obscure in history having issued so rich a coinage in silver. But Lete, 
as I have shown in Travels in Northern Greece (iii. p. 461), was situated among the ai'gentiferoua 
mountains of Macedonian Thrace, and possessed probably a portion of them. I was misinformed 
(Tr. in N. Greece, III. note, p. 213) in supposing the first letter of the legend of these coins to have 
been a gamma ; there was no such people as the Gettei. 

Bearded and long-haired Satyr, seizing with his right hand the right hand of a female 
turned to right, but looking towards him, and clothed in a jacket (of leather ?) 
without sleeves ; below which, a full light drapery reaches to her feet ; the Satyr's 
left hand under her chin. In field to r., to L, and above, three globules. 
B. Macedonian quadratum incusum containing four squares. 

Satyr, as before, kneeling on his right knee, and bearing a woman in his arms ; her 
' right hand held up ; her left hanging down. B. Quad, incus, as before, but 
the inclosed squares only partially indented. 

Another similar. 

Note. — The same type is found on corns of Thasus of nearly the same size, some of which are 
inscribed GA or 9 ; and hence all the coins bearing this type have been taken for Thasian, but, 
I believe, erroneously. Thasas was civilized from Phoenicia, and adopted from them the worship of 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



61 



Metal 



Size 



Weight 



JR 

M 
M 

Al 

JR 



M 



JR 

JR 

JR 

JR 

JR 
JR 
JR 
JR 
JR 
Al 
JR 
JR 

M 
JR 
JR 

JR 
JR 



4 



15-8 

181 
17-5 



5+ 

6 

5-4 



6-5 
6-0 
6-5 

4 

H 
6-5 

5+ 



6-5 

5 

5 



O2 



11 7-3 



110-1 

119 

120-4 

127-2 

111-5 
124-8 
128-6 
128-8 
1261 
126-6 
1329 
121-5 

130-4 
131-4 
130 

133-7 
130-9 



Hercules and the bearded Bacchus. It was not until their own rich mines began to be exhausted, 
that the Thasii acquired othei's on the opposite coast ; and it was then probably that they adopted 
the symbols and customs of the Thraeian Bacchus, and added them to their own worship, which 
came from Asia ; this is confirmed by the much later style of art, and by the lighter weight of the 
Thasian coins, compared with those of Lete, with the same types. The Thasian are no more than 
didrachma. 

Faun, with beard, long plaited hair, and long tail, seated on his heels to r. ; in 

right hand, rhyton or horn-shaped vase; in field, on either side, a globule. 

ft. Quad, incus, divided into four, diagonally. 
Two others ; medium weight, 14-7 grains. 
Same type ; in field to I., two globules ; to r., one globule, ft. Quad, incus, deeper 

and irregular. 
Faun, as before, kneeling on right knee, to r. ; right hand resting on the ground. 

ft. Quad, incus, divided into four, partially incuse. 
Six others ; average weight, 14-8 grains. 

Note. — Of none of these coins, except the first, is the attribution supported by a legend (Mionnet, 
Sup. HI. p. 81) ; nevertheless the subject, the manners, indicated by them, the forms of the figures, 
the style of art, and the globules, all point to their having been productions of the same mint. 
They all refer to the worship of Bacchus, which originated in the country of the Satrte or Satyrs, 
inhabiting the Pangaean range of which the Letsei occupied a part, and from whence that worship 
spread over European Greece. In these coins the distinction is very marked between the Satyrs 
and Fauns, the latter alone Iiaving tails. 

LEUCAS Acarnanise. 

Note. — Extensive remains of the walls of Leucas are found on the eastern side of Amaxikhi, the 
modem capital of the island of Lefk4dha. Vide Tr. in N. Greece, iii. p. II. 

Statue of Diana, in long drapery, on a pedestal to r. ; in her right hand, aplustre ; 

at her feet, stag to r. ; behind her, sceptre, to the I. of which eagle ; all within 

a wreath, ft. AEYKAAKiN AEiiN. Anterior part of galley to r. ; in field above 

prow, mon. 57 ; to r., mon. 58. 
Diana and stag as before ; behind her, bird on the top of a sceptre ; in field 

r. and L, monograms indistinct, ft. AEYKAAISiN BAeYOS. Same type ; in 

field to n, mon. 58. 
Same types, but with an owl on the arm of Diana, and on her head a crescent. 

ft. AEYKAATON AAMYA02. Same type ; below, AP in mon. 
Same types without the owl. ft. AEYKAAIiiN *IAANAP02. Same type, with 

grapes hanging from the prow ; in field above, mon. 58. 
AEYKAAIiiN. Head of Pallas to I. ft. Pegasus flying to I. 

types). — Electrotype from the B. M. 
Another similar. 
AEY. Same type ; behind, ivy-leaf, ft. Same type. 

AEY. Same type ; behind, Sepia \ ft. Same type ; below, A ; in field to r., E. 
AE. Same type ; behind, cantharus. ft. Same type ; below, A. 
Same type ; beliind, grapes, ft. Same type and letter. 

Same type ; behind, bow. ft. Pegasus, with curled wing, to I. ; below it, AEY. 
Same type; behind, dolphin, ft. Same type; below, A. 
AEY. Same type ; behind, Ionic ornament, ft. Pegasus, with ordinary wing, to I. ; 

below, A. 
AE. Same type ; behind, grain of barley, ft. Same type and letter. 
Same type ; behind, A and antenna ? ft. Same type and letter. 
Same type ; behind, T and helmet with crest above and ligaments below, ft. Same 

type and letter. 
. EY. Same type; behind, univalve shell (murex). ft. Same type and letter. 
Same type ; behind, API. and anchor, ft. Same type and letter. 



below, A (Corinthian 



62 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



I Metal 
M 
Al 
M 
M 

M 

Al 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 

Al 

AX 

M 
M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 
JE 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 
M 
JE 
/E 
M 
JE 
M 
JE 
JE 
M 
JE 

JE 
JE 

M 
M 



Size 

5 

5- 
5 
5- 



5-i 

5 

5+ 



^ 



2i 

H 

2- 
2- 



H 



3 

4 
31 



3| 
Si 
3i 
H 

3h 
4 
2 
3 
3 

4-3 
3 

U 
4 

4 
4 

4 
4 



Weight 

126-7 
127-4 
131-4 
129-9 

128-7 

12.V6 
129-9 
1 32-S 
132-8 
131-5 

129-4 
128-2 

24-3 

10 6 

11-9 
17-2 

13-0 



Same type ; behind, A and caduceus. B^. Same type and letter. 

Same type ; behind, crescent, ft. Same type and letter. 

Same type ; behind, A and head of gryphon to r. ft. Same type and letter. 

Same type ; behind, A and tall dicta, to r. of which vine with grapes, ft. Same 

type to /"., same letter. 
Same type to r.; behind, Hermes, with hat and caduceus, adjusting his sandal. 

ft. Same type to I., same letter. 
Same type ; behind, pentagon, ft. Same type to r. Same letter. 
Same type ; behind, priapic term. ft. Same type and letter. 
Same type ; behind, lion's head with open mouth to r. ft. Same type and letter. 
Same type ; behind, A and anterior part of lion to r. ft. Same type and letter. 
Same type ; behind, A, diota, and vme-branch with grapes, ft. Same type; below 

it, AEY in small characters. 
Same type ; behind, A and ram's head to r. ft. Same type ; below, A. 
Same type, with a garland round the upper part of the helmet ; behind, caduceus. 

ft. Same type and letter. 
Female head to r. without cap ; hair hanging on the neck. ft. Pegasus to r. ; 

under it, letter and something indistinct. (Found at Leucas.) 
Pegasus, with curled wing, walking to I. ft. Pegasus, with ordinary wing, flying to 

I. ; under it, A. 
Same type flying to I. ft. Same type ; under it, A. 
Female head to l. ; hair concealed in cap, except over the forehead ; below, A A 2 

ft. Half Pegasus flying to I. ; under it, A. 
Alii. Pegasus, with curled wings, rearing, adv. ft. Pegasus, with curled wing, 

flying to r. ; under it, A. 
Head of Apollo? adv., with diadem, necklace, and radiating hair. ft. Pegasus 

to r.; below it, A. (Found at Leucas.) — Electrotype. 
Head of Gorgo, adv. ft. Pegasus, with curled wing, to I.; below it, A. (Found 

at Leucas.) — Electrotype. 
Statue of Diana, in long drapery, on a pedestal to r. ; in right hand, aplustre ; behind, 

bird on column, ft. AEYKAAIiiN AAM0KPATH2. Anterior part of galley to r. 
Another similar. 

Same type. ft. . YKAAI . . . lAKPIT. Same type. 
Head of Apollo to I. ; behind, S. ft. Prow to I. ; above, AEY ; below, S. 
Two others. 
Bellerophon on Pegasus combating to r. ft. Chimiera to r. ; in field to r., AT in 

mon. ; in exergue, AEY. 



Same type. 

Another. 

Same type. 

Same type ; 

Same type. 

Same type to I. ; 

Same type to r. 

Head of Apollo ? 

Another. 

Altar with fire. 

Another similar. 

Same type. ft. . . . akPATHS AEYKAAIQN. Same type. 

Beardless head of Hercules to r., the lion's paws round his neck. 

it, AEYKAAIiiN ; below, mon. and AlflN ; all within a wreath. 
Another. 
Head of young Hercules, with lion's scalp, to r. ft. Club ; above it, AEYKAAIiiN ; 

below, SilKPATHS ; ail within a wreath. 
Same type and legend ; below the club, 2YMMAX0S. 
Another. 



ft. Same type ; no monogi-am ; m exergue, AEYKA. 

ft. Same type; in exergue, .... AAE. 

below the horse, round shield, ft. Same type ; below, E. 

ft. Same type; above the chimsera, diota; in exergue, AEYKA. 

under the horse, . EY. ft. Same type ; in exergue, AEY. 

ft. AEYKAAION. Trident. 

to r. ft. AEYKAAIiiN SilTIilN. Lyre. 

ft. AEYKAAIiiN AAKPATH2. Dove; all within a wreath. 



ft. Club; above 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



63 



M 


Size 

4 


M 


4 


M 


4+ 


/E 


4 


iE 


4 


JE 


H 


M 


4 


JE 


4 


JE 


3i 


M 


4 


JE 


4 


JE 


3i 


JE 


4 


JE 


U 



Weiglit 



JR 
JR 
JR 
JR 

JR 
JR 



5 

5 

4i 

,5 

3- 

3 
3 



132-6 
133-2 
132-3 
129-9 
40-5 



38-4 



Same types and legend; below the club, MENANAPOS. 

Same types and legend; below the club, MAPAIOS. 

Same types and legend ; below the club, *IAHMiiN ; and lower, mon. 69. 

Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field above, ear of corn ; below the club, 
AHMAPET02. 

Another. 

Same type. K. Same legend and type ; in field above, Egyptian symbol of the sun ; 
below the club, TIMOeEOS. 

Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field above, three ears of corn ; below 
the club, AAMOKPATHS. 

Same types and legend ; below the club, AAMYAOS within a wreath, like the pre- 
ceding, but the wreath is of oak leaves. 

Same types and legend ; below the club, STPATilN — in wreath of oak. 

Another. 

Same type. U. AEYKAAIiiN AHMAPETOS round a lyre ; in field to r., mon. 60. 

Another similar. 

Head of Pallas to r. R. Prow to r. ; above it, AEY; below, [AjeilNAPOPAS; all 
within a wreath. 

Stag standing to r. ft. AEYKAAIiiN. Crescent and star. 



LOCRIS. 

Note. — The coins with Corinthian types inscribed AOKPQN have generally been given to the 
Italian Locris, but without any apparent reason. These Locri were not a colony of Corinth, but of 
the Locri of Opus and Mount Cnemis, who were not of Corinthian origin ; nor have the undoubted 
coins of the Italian Locri any resemblance to those of Corinth either in type or fabric. I am in- 
clined to believe, therefore, that the didrachma of the Locri with Corinthian types were struck at 
Naupactus, the most important position in the country of the Locri Hesperii, or Ozolte. Though 
history has not left us any information as to the origin of the Naupactii, nothing is more likely than 
that among the positions colonized by Corinth on the sea-coast, then inhabited by barbarous tribes, 
which extends from Epirus to Phocis, Naupactus, the most important of all, should have been one. 
There is a slight confirmation of this conjecture in the existence of a temple of Jupiter of Nemeia, 
not far to the eastward of Naupactus (Tliucyd. 3, 94). It is also remarkable, with a view to this 
question, that no silver coin which can with certainty be attributed to Naupactus has yet been pub- 
lished. A Corintho-colonial didrachmon, bearing NAY on the obverse, has indeed been given to 
Naupactus (Mionnet, iii. p. 483), those three letters occurring in the same position, — namely, in 
front of the head of Pallas, where we find the names of the places or their abbreviations on the 
colonial coins of Argos of Amphilochia, Ambracia, Alyzia, Anactorium, and Leucas. In all these 
cases, however, a confirmation of the attribution is found in a letter or monogram on the reverse in 
the place occupied by the Kof on didrachma of Corinth bearing the same types. On didrachma 
of Anactorium so confirmed, we find not only NAY, but AYSI, KAE, and API. AY2I, indeed, 
may stand for Lysimaehia priiis Hyrie, an important city of jEtolia; but neither KAE nor 
API can be adapted to any known place. Until, therefore, some further discoveries are made in the 
Corintho-colonial series, I am not disposed to disturb the arrangement in page 14, which gives the 
didrachmon inscribed NAY to Anactorium. 

AOKPilN. Head of Pallas to r. Dt. Pegasus to I. (Corinthian types.) 

Same type without legend. R. Same type ; under the horse, AO. 

Another similar. 

AOKPiiN. Same type to I. R. Same type ; under the horse, fulmen. 

Head of Ceres, to r. R. AOKPfiN. Naked warrior (Patroclus?) with helmet, shield, 

and sword, combating to r. ; below, mon. 61 (onOY). 
Two others similar. Medium weight, 36-2 grains. 
Another ; in front of warrior, trophy. 

Note. — The monogram on these coins, being the same in all, seems to show that they were 
struck at Opus. In fact, with the exception of the legend AOKPQN m place of OIIOYNTIQN, they 
resemble precisely those of Opus in types, size, and weight. 



64 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


M 


4 


37-5 


M 


3 


39-7 


M 


14 


9-7 


M 


li 




JE 


6 




M 


3 




M 


2 




M 


2 




M 


3 




M 


3 




M 


3- 




M 


3- 




A'. 


2 




M 


2 





IE 

M 

M 
JE 



N 



2-L 
2-!- 



101 



330-6 



Head of Pallas to r. R. AOKPiiN. Warrior stepping to r. as before ; device within 

his shield, Neptune drawn by hippocampi ; in field to r., trident. 
Another similar ; device within the shield, bird. 
AOKP. Vase, from the mouth of which hangs on either side an ivy-leaf. R. Star 

with sixteen rays. 
Two others similar ; medium weight, 9"2 grains. 
Head of Pallas to I. B. Pegasus to I.; under it, A? in mon., and lower, 

AOKP[aN]. 
Same type. B. Vine and tendril, from which hang grapes ; in field to I., O ; to 

r., A. 

Same type. B. AO. Same type. 
Another. 

Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field to r., ivy-leaf. 
Another. 

Same type. B. AOKPilN. Same type. 
Three others. 

Locri Epicnemidii. 

Same type. B- AOKP. EniKNA. Same type. 
Two others. 

LYSIMACHIA Thraciee. 

liTote. — Lysimachia was founded by Lysimachus king of Thrace on the isthmus of the Thracian 
Chersonese, near the site of Cardia, or not improbably on a part of that site itself. (Avirc/idxcta q 
TcpoTipov KapSia, Stephan. in voce.) On the position of Cardia vide supra, p. 32. 

Veiled head of Ceres to r. B. AYSlMAXEIiN ; below which, grain of barley ; all in 

wreath of corn. 
Another. 

Lion's head to r. B. AYSI. Ear of com. 
Another. 

Note. — The lion's head and grain of barley are types common to Lysimachia, Cardia, Critbote, and 
Cherronesus, all neighbouring cities. 

MACEDONIA. 

Head of Pallas to I.; on the helmet, a serpent. B. AAeSANAPOC. Alexander 
galloping to r., with spear held vertically, a lion proceeding at the same pace and 
looking up. 

Note. — This remarkable medallion was purchased by me at Serres, the ancient Sirrha>, now the 
chief city of the interior of Thracian Macedonia. The legend AA6SANAP0C shows that the re- 
verse represents Alexander on horseback, about to spear a lion. This reputed exploit of Alexander, as 
well as other heroic actions of his, such as spearing a serpent and taming Bucephalus, form types on the 
reverses of Macedonian copper coins with the legend Koivor Maalovuv, both the autonomous with the 
head of Alexander, and the imperial with the head of the reigning emperor. On the arch of Constantino 
at Rome, there is an equestrian figure of Trajan hunting the bear, where the bear is exactly in the 
same attitude as the lion on this medallion. Its style and the form of its letters indicate a date not 
earlier than a.d. 200. In defect of better evidence, therefore, I am disposed to believe it to have 
been struck in Macedonia to gratify Caracalla, whose insane veneration of Alexander, and ridiculous 
imitation of him, is attested by Dion, Herodian, Spartian, and Aurelius Victor. It was in the height 
of this humour, that Caracalla, in the year 214, passed, in his way from the Danube into Asia, 
through the part of Thracian Macedonia in which Sirrhse is situated, as appears from the following 
words of Herodian (4, 8) : Imi Sk to. Trapd Tif "larpif arpaToirtSa liificnai, KaTrfKQi ti uq Qpiftriv 
TAaKtboai yuTVimaaV (v9i{ 'AXi^avSpoe ^v. (Conf. Aur. Victor, p. 378.) According to another 
authority he then assumed the name of Alexander, IvuSrI Si tat if r^v iiaKiSoviav a^ueiTo, 'A\i?- 
avSpov tavTov ifv6fia<riv. Suidas in ' AvTiavivos. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



65 



Metal 
M 



M 



Size 

9 



JR 



M 
M 



M 
M 

JR 

M 
M 
JR 
M 
M 
M 



JE 

M 
M 
JE 

M 

JE 



9-7 



2i 

■^2 



2i 



2 
2 

2+ 
2 

2+ 

4+ 



Weight 

•264-2 



257-7 



6 
5 
5 

2+ 



258-5 



255-5 
39-9 



33-8 

32-5 

35-2 

30-8 
33-2 

33-7 
31-6 



Head of Diana to r., occupying the centre of a Macedonian shield which covers the 
whole obverse. U. MAKEAONiiN HPilTHS. Club ; in field above, mon. 62 
(Siin), all in wreath of oak ; below the knot of wreath, fulmen. 

Same type. R. MAKEAONaN AEYTEPAS. Same types ; in field above, mon. 63 ; 
below, mon. 64. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Note. — Lucius ^milius PauUus, after having conquered Macedonia, divided it into four regions : 
the chief town of the first was Amphipolis ; of the second, Thessalonica ; of the third, Pella ; of the 
fourth, Pelagonia. The former therefore of the two preceding tetradrachma was struck at Amphi- 
polis ; the latter at Thessalonica. No other coins, distinguished by the number of the region, have 
yet been published, except one in copper of the fourth. It cannot be expected that they 
should be very common, as the Macedonian cities continued to strike money in their own names, and 
as the division of Macedonia into four regions lasted scarcely twenty years. It then became a Roman 
province, of which time are the bilinguar tetradrachma, having MAKEAONQN on one side, and 
AESILLAS Q,(UyESTOR) on the other ; and those also on which the Quaestor is still a Roman, though 
his name and office are written in Greek. Of these Tafiiai, were Caius Publilius and Lucius Fulcinius. 
The cista, on the coins of JSsillas, relates to the worship of Bacchus ; the club to that of Hercules ; 
the table to the office of Quaestor. The coins, both silver and copper, with the legend MAKE, or 
MAKEAONQN, belong to the time intervening between the cessation of the four provinces and the 
reign of Claudius, whose name is the earliest occurring on the imperial coins of Macedonia. The 
legend is generally MAKEAONQN, or KOINON MAKEAONQN, until the time of Caracalla, when 
begin those with MAKeAONQN NeQKOPQN. 

Youthful male head with flowing hair to r. (Alexander?) ; below the neck, MAKE- 
AONQN ; behind the head, 6. B. AESILLAS ci.(Q). Cista, club, and square 
table — all within a wreath, formed of leaves in triplets, with berries between each 
triplet. 

Another similar. 

MAKE in two lines, between which, club ; all in centre of Macedonian shield. 
B. Conical helmet with cheek pieces in profile ; on either side a mon. ; in field 
below, Xtl in mon. and star. 

Macedonian shield ; in the centre, four crescents forming a star. B. MAKEAONiiN 
in two lines ; between them, anterior part of galley to r. ; in field above, star. 

Same type, with six crescents in the centre. B. Same legend and type ; in field to 
r., a mon. 

Female head to r., with necklace and earring, crowned with ivy ; below, the hair 
rolled up ; above, standing upright. B. Same legend and type. 

Another similar. 

Another similar ; B. under the prow, P. 

Another similar. B. A star in field above. — Broken. 

Same type. B. Same legend and type ; legend in two lines above the prow. 

Another similar. 

Head of Pallas to r. B. Dioscuri, armed with spears, galloping to r. ; below, 
m{aKil6r<^v) [T]ETAPTHS. 

Ifote. From the Roman edict establishing the four divisions of Macedonia {<cide Tr. in N. Greece, 

III. p. 480), we may infer that this coin was struck at Pelagonia, now Bitdlia. 

Youthful head covered with a helmet having a wing at the side, and an eagle's head 

above (Perseus). B- MAKEAONiiN TAMIOY TAIOY nOHAIAlOY in three 

Hnes, within a wreath of oak. 
Another. 

Same type. B. TAIOY TAMIOY nOHAIAIOY m two hnes, m wreath of oak. 
Same type. B. MAKEAONiiN TAMIOY AEYKIOY *OAKINIOY in four Hnes, in 

wreath of oak. 
Star in centre of Macedonian shield. B. MAKEAONQN in two lines, between 

which, mon. 65, and mon. 66 ; all in wreath. 
Similar type. B. MAKEAONiiN in two lines ; between them, conical helmet with 

cheek piece ; below, mon. 25 (BOT). 



66 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 


Size 

3 


Weight 


M 


H 




M 
M 


6 
5 




JE 


4 
4 




JE 


4 




JE 


6 




JE 


5i 
5+ 




JE 


6-5 




jE 
M 
JE 


6-5 

4+ 

5-1 

6^ 




JE 


6i 




M 


7 




JE 
JE 


8-7 

7 




M 


6i 




JE 


7 




M 


6i 




JE 


7 




M 


6 




M 


7 




JE 


8 




JE 


6i 





R, Conical helmet as before 



between them, lyre ; in field 



Mon. 67 (MAKE), in centre of Macedonian shield. 

in field, four monograms. 
Head of Apollo to r. R. MAKEAONiiN in two lines 

to /., bow ; to r., a mon. 
Another similar. 
Same type. B. MAKEAONiiN in two lines ; between them, tripod ; in field to r. 

and I., four monograms. 
Two others similar. 
Head of young Hercules, with lion's scalp, to r. B. MAKE. Horseman to r. ; 

below, mon. 25. 
Head of Bacchus to r. ft. MAK[E]AONSi. in two lines ; between them, goat 

standing to r. 
Bearded head of Silenus crowned with ivy, adv. B. MAKEAONiiN in two lines; 

above, D ; all in a wreath of ivy. 
Another similar. 
Female head, crowned with com leaves (Ceres ?), to r. B. MAKEAONSiN in two 

lines ; between them, trident ; in field to L, two mons. (IlPii, Sii.) 
Head of Jupiter or Neptune to r. R. MAKEAONiiN in two lines ; between them, 

club ; below, a mon. ; all in wreath of oak. 
Another. 

Similar head to r. B. MAKEAONiiN in two lines ; between them, winged fulmen. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; mons. above and below. 
AAESANAPOY. Head of Alexander to r. ft. ROINON MAKeAONON NE. . Pallas 

seated to /. ; in right hand, Victory ?. 
Same legend and type. R. KOINON MAKEAONiiN B . 

right hand, patera ; behind the throne, shield. 
Sam6 legend and type. B ON MAKGAONON . . . 

half open to r. 
AAGSJANAPb. Same type. B. KOINON MAKEAONiiN 
AAGSANAPOY. Head of Alexander covered with the 

MAKGAONilN NGilKOP. Horseman galloping to r. ; in right hand, spear held 

obliquely ; in left hand, palm branch ? 
Same legend and type. B. KOINON MAKEAONiiN .... Same type ; but spear 

held perpendicularly, chlamys flying behind, and under the horse, a star. 
Same legend and type. B. KOINON MAKGAONilN B. NGil. Same type, but 

horseman directing his spear against a serpent below the horse. 
AAG3ANAP0Y. Helmeted head of Alexander to r. B- KOINON MAKGAONQN B. 

NGilKO. Horseman galloping, and launching spear to r. ; in field, below the 

horse, GOC (275). 

Note. — This date, reckoned from the battle of Actium, was A. D. 244 — 5, the year of the accession 
of Philip senior, when his son-in-law, Severianus, was made governor of Macedonia and Moesia. 
The same reverse and date occurs on a coin of Philip (Mionnet, sup. III. p. 14). The earliest 
imperial coin of the Macedonian community with the head of Alexander is of Marcus Aurelius. 

Same legend and type. B. KOINON MAKGAONilN B. NGil. Horseman as before, 
but spear held more horizontally. 

Head of Alexander with flowing hair to r AONilN. 

Horseman as before to r., spearing a lion which looks up to I. — Broken. 

AAESANAPO. Same type, with diadem. B. KOINON MAK6 Alex- 
ander taming Bucephalus. Alexander naked, with flying chlamys, to r. holds 
the two forelegs of the horse, which stands upright on its hind legs to l. 

AABSANAPOG. Head of Alexander to r., hair less disturbed, and diadem more 
apparent. B. KOINON MAKGAONilN AIC NEilKOPilN. Horseman galloping 
and launching spear to r. 

AAeSANAPOC. Same type. B. KOINON MAKGAONflN B. N. Horseman walking 
to r., and holding up his right hand. 



. . Pallas seated to I. ; in 

Serpent issuing from cista, 

NEQ. Same type. 

lion's scalp. B- KOINON 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



67 



Metal I Size 

JE 7 



M 


51 


M 


6 


M 


6 


JE 


6-5 



JE 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 



M 






H 



6- 
6 

6i 



4i 

^2 



Weight 



63-8 



AACSANAPOY. Head of Alexander, in decorated helmet, to r. R. KOINON 
MAK6A0NiiN B. NeWKOPiiN. Same type. 

Claudius. 

KAAYAIOS KAISAP. Head of Claudius to I. SEBA2[T0S] MAKEAONON, sur- 
rounding a Macedonian shield. 
Another similar. 

ViieUius. 

[AYTOKPATii]P KAISAP OYI Head of Vitellius to l. R. SEBASTOS 

MAKEAONilN, surrounding a Macedonian shield. 
0Y1TEAAI02 [FEPMANIKOS] Head of ViteUius to I. R. Same legend and 

type. 

Domiiianus. 

AOMITIANO. Head of Domitian to r. R. KOINON [MAKEA0N]ON, 

surrounding the same type. 

ffadrianus. 

KAISAP AAPIANOS. Head of Hadrian, with short beard, to r. R. Same legend 
and type. 

Note. — This coin exemplifies the words of Dion Cassius (68, 15), 'A^ptavJf ydp Trpwros ykvaav 
Karilii^e. The heads of Trajan, and generally of his predecessors, are beardless. 

Another similar. 

Antoninus Pius. 

KAICAP ANTUJNINOC. Head of Antoninus to r. R. KOINON MAKGAONUJN, 

surrounding a winged fulmen. 
Another, with smaller fulmen. 

Septimius Severus. 

AY. K. A. con. ceYHPOC nE; the two last letters united (Pertinax). Bust of S. 
Severus to r. R. KOINON MAKGAONUJN. Jupiter naked to r. ; in right 
hand, fulmen ; in left, hasta ; on his left arm, chlamys ; at his feet, eagle. 

MAGNESIA ThessalisE. 

Note. — Eckhel and Mionnet were more than doubtful as to the attribution of any of the following 
coins to Magnesia of Thessaly. But there can be no question that it is a proper attribution. — 1. One 
of the following, in silver, and most of those in copper, were found by me in that country. 2. There 
is a remarkable similarity between the coin of Demetrias (tide supra, p. 45) and that which follows, 
representing Diana seated on the anterior part of a ship. This ship is the Argo, to which Ovid 
gives the epithet Magnetis. 3. The Jupiter of the silver coin bears the greatest resemblance in 
style to the Jupiter on the earliest and best specimens of the Thessalian Koivov, which date from 
the battle of Cynoscephalee, fought about 100 years after the foundation of Demetrias. From all 
which we may infer, that the people of Demetrias, after the liberation of Thessaly, preferred their 
ancient name of Magnetes to that which reminded them of their subjection to Macedonia ; and 
hence the great scarcity of coins tSv Aij/Mjrpifwv, compared with those twv Mayvrirtov. It is to 
be observed, with reference to this question, that there never was any city Magnesia, and that 
Demetrias was peopled from the small or declining towns of the Magnesian peninsula, in the same 
manner as many other new cities were created by the successors of Alexander. 

Head of Jupiter, crowned with diadem of oak leaves, to r. ; behind, a mon. 

R. MAFNH . . . Female, in long drapery, to l, seated to I. on anterior part of 

galley ; in right hand, bow ; in field to n, E ; and below it, mon. 68 (EYT or 

TEY). 
Fragment of another. 
Head of Jupiter to r. R. MArNHTilN in two Unes ; between them, anterior part 

of galley to r. 



68 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 
JE 

JE 
M 


Size 

4 
5- 


M 
M 


5- 


JE 


H 


JE 


5 + 


M 


4 


M 


S 


JE 


8 


JE 


2 


JR 


2 



Weight 



40 



37-6 



Another, 

Another similar ; but head of Jupiter to I. ; and on the prow, a pahn branch. 

Head of Jupiter to r, R. MArNHTSi. Bearded centaur to r. ; right arm extended ; 

on left shoulder, a tree or large branch ; under the horse, ?. 
Another similar, but head of Jupiter to I. 
Same type. B. Same type ; under the horse, diota. 
Another. 

Note. — In these coins, the tree alludes to the ahode of the centaurs in Mount Pelion ; the vase, 
to their connexion with the worship of Bacchus. 

Veiled female head to I. fit. MAFNU. Warrior stepping to r. ; in right hand, 
sword ; in left, large shield ; behind him, prow of galley (Jason landing from 
the ship Argo ?) ; in field to r., a mon. 

Hadrianus. 
.... ANO. Head of Hadrian ? to r. B. MArNHXaN. Galley with rowers to r. 



Gordianus Junior. 

M. ANT. rOPAIANOC. Bust of Gordian to r. ^.. APFfl MA[rNH]TilN. Galley 
with rowers to r. 

MALIENSES Thessalije. 

Nole. — The MaXitlj occupied the country surrounding the head of the gulf called from them the 
Maliac. According to Thucydides (3, 92), they consisted of three tribes, the Tpaxi'vioi whose capital 
was Heracleia ; the 'Ifptlf, so called from their sacred town to which the Hyperborean offerings 
were brought from Delphi in their way to Delus ; and the Paralii, who occupied Lamia, Anticyra, 
Phalara, and Echinus. Lamia, from its superior advantages of site, must always have been the chief 
city of the Maliac district ; and hence the Aa/ticTc employed a metathesis, of a kind common in the 
Greek language, to distinguish themselves from the MaXttTc in genere. 

Head of Bacchus, crowned with ivy, to I. R. MAAIEiiN. Diota ; above which, 
ivy leaf; in field to r., monota. 

Note. — This coin resembles those of the Lamieis in size, weight, types, symbols, and legend. 

Head of Pallas to r. B. MAAIEiiN. Hercules, naked, to r. drawing a bow, a bird 

falling ; at his feet, club (Hercules shooting the Stymphalian birds). 
Two others similar. 

MANTINEIA Arcadise. 

Note. — For a description of the Mantinice, and the remains of Mantineia, ride Tr. in the Mor&, I. 
p. 103 ; III. p. 45. — It is difficult to account for the numismatic poverty of the two great towns of 
the central plain, Tegea and Mantineia, compared with the other chief ancient cities of the Pelopon- 
nesus ; namely, Argos, Sparta, and Elis. In regard to Mantineia, it may be partly a con- 
sequence of the capture of the city by the Achseans and Macedonians under Aratus and 
Antigonus Doson, in the year B.C. 222, when the inhabitants were removed or sold for slaves, a new 
population was introduced, and the name of the place was changed to Antigoneia, under which 
name no coins of this city are known, except those of the Achaean league {vide supra, p. 3). In 
the reign of Hadrian the old name was restored (Pausan. Arcad. 8), but the imperial coins of 
Mantineia are almost entirely confined, like those of the other Arcadian cities, to the reigns of 
Septimius Sevems and his successors of the same family. 

Bear walking to ?. B;. Three acorns arranged in a triangular form ; in the three 
intervals, M, A, and a branch of fir ? ; all in a triangular incuse. 



I 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



€9 



Metal Size 



2i 



2+ 



2+ 



4 
4 

^2 



6i 



Weight 



42 



Note. — The bear represents Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, changed into a bear by the jealous Juno, 
and by her instigation slain by the arrows of Artemis (i. e. Callisto died in bringing forth Areas). 
Jupiter sent Mercury to save his son's life, and transferred Callisto to the skies, where she became 
the Ursa Major. The tomb of Callisto was in the road from Megalopolis to Methydrium, but she 
was particularly honoured at Mantineia, because the bones of Areas had been transferred thither 
from Maenalus, by command of the Delphic oracle, and placed in the temple of Juno (Pausan. Arcad, 
3, 9, 35. 36), 

-This and the former are Electrotypes 



J6 
12-2 



Another similar ; but the bear walking to r.- 

from the B. M. 
Bear to I, R. Trident, between two small square indentations, resembling those on 

the coins of Argos, all in quad, xacw's,.-- Electrotype. 
12*9 Head of bear to I. ^. Ma. Acorn. — Electrotype from the B. M. 
Head of Pallas to r. R. M, in dotted circle. — Electrotype, 
Acorn, globule. R. M. 

Acorn, li. ^. — This and the preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 
Figure, with bushy hair, wearing a conical cap, clothed in cuirass or short jacket ; 

in right hand, \ ; in left, hasta. R. MAN. Altar. 
Same type ; but with two javelins in right hand, and a spear held obliquely in the 

left. R. M[A]N. Altar; above which, helmet ? — Electrotype from the B, M. 

Note, — In the agora of Mantineia stood the Heroum of Podares, who distinguished himself at the 
battle of Mantineia beyond all other combatants, except Gryllus, son of Xenophon, and Cephisodorus, 
commander of the Athenian cavalry. The armour, however, of the hero on this coin does not accord 
with the time of Epaminondas, and the figure is meant, perhaps, for some local hero of an earlier 
age, or possibly for Areas himself. 

Head of Pallas to r. fi. MAN. Neptune, hurling trident to I. 

Another, 

Same type. B. MAN. Trident. 

Note. — One of the most sacred buildings at Mantineia was that of Neptune, situated about half a 
mile from one of the southern gates of the city. 

MARCIANOPOLIS Mcesiae Inferioris. 

Not^. — Marcianopolis derived its name from a sister of Trajan. From a comparison of the 
Antonine and Tabular itineraries, it appears to have been situated 18 Roman miles to the west of 
Odessus, now Varna, on the road which led in a direction nearly due north from Anchialus, in the 
bay of Mesarabria, to Durostorus on the Danube, both known positions. The intersection of these 
lines gives its exact situation. Marcianopolis is described by Zosimus as the greatest city in Thrace, 
a province which in his time comprehended Moesia ; and, as it coined money as late as the time of 
Philip, some vestiges of the city probably still remain. 

Caracalla, 
AYT. K. M. AYPHAl. ANTiiNINOC. Head of Caracalla to a R. YH. ISA. ANT. 

CeA6YK» MAPKIANOnOAITSlN. Winged female fig. to I.; in right hand, 

garland ; in left, palm-branch. 
AYT. K. M. AYPH ANTiiNINOG. Same type. B. YH. lOYA. ANT. CCAGY- 

KOY MAPKIANOnOAElTQN. Female fig. to I. ; in right hand, patera ; 

below which, altar ; in left hand, cornucopise. 
Another similar, but without the altar. 

Severus Alexandrus. 

AYT. K. M. AYP. CGYH. AAEZANAPOC IOY[AIA MAICA AYF.]. Heads of Severus 
Alexander and of Msesa opposed. R. Yn. TI. lOYA. *HCTOY MAPKIA- 
NOnOAITON. Female fig. to I.; in right hand, scales; in left, cornucopia^; 

in field to »•., E. 

[t] 



70 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 
M 



S!ze 

6+ 



Weight 



M 



M 

M 

M 
M 

M 



M 

M 
M 
M 

M 



M 

M 

/E 

jE 
/E 

JE 



4+ 

3 
3 
3+ 



8 
3 
3 
6 



9 

4 

4+ 
7-6 



H 



180-9 

91-9 
49-6 
47-4 

215 



119-3 

42-2 

37-5 
229-8 

242-2 

257-5 



AYT. K. M. AYF. CGY. AAGZANAPOC. Head of Severus Alexander to r. R. [YII]- 
*IP. *IAOnAnnOY. MAPKIANOnOAITii[N]. Female fig. to I. ; in rigiit hand, 
patera ; in left, hasta. 

Gordianus Junior. 

AYT. K. M. ANT. TOPAIANOt AYF. Ce., round the busts of Gordianus and of 
Tranquillina opposed ; below, TRANKYAAGINA in two lines. li. Yn. TEPTYA- 
AlANOY MAPKIANOnOAITilN. Sarapis seated to I.; in extended right hand, 
patera ? ; left, resting on hasta ; at his feet, a bird, with three heads of other 
animals ; to I., in field, E. 

Note.— The figure at the feet of Sarapis is probably a sjmbol of one of the Egyptian triads. 



MARONEIA Thraciae. 

Note. — Maroneia was situated on the northern shore of the JEgx&n, about midway between the 
rivers Hebrus and Nestus. The name Ismarus was common to the city and the mountain, at the 
foot of which it stood, until the former received that of Maroneia from Maron, son of Evantheus. 
In the Odyssey, where Ulysses relates how he intoxicated Polyphemus, he says : 

alyiov aaKov Ixov liiXavoio'ivoio, 
'H^eoc, ov fioi f^wKE 'MdpiMtv, EifdvGtOQ vtoQ, 
'Ipiii 'AttoWidvos, oe'lafiapov u/i0i^(/3qMj. — (IX. 197.) 

These lines are alone sufficient to explain the types and symbols of Bacchus on the coins of Maroneia 
as well as the head of Apollo on some of them. The name and some remains of Maroneia are still 
extant at the western end of Mount Ismarus. 

Head, neck, and forelegs of a horse to r., as if leaping. R. Flower or star of six- 
teen points, in quad, incus., and on one side of it, similar smaller quad, incus. 
Same type.^. U. Same type, singly. 
MAPil. Same type. R. Same type. 
MAP. Half horse, of later style, in the same attitude, to l. ; in field above the 

horse, a globule ; below, another. R. Head of ram to L, in dotted square. 
MAPfiN. Horse galloping to I. ; above, cantharus. R. AEONYS on the three sides 

of a linear square ; within which, vine, with five bunches of grapes. — T/iis and 

the two preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 
Head, neck, and foreleg of horse, with three flowers within a linear circle. R. Star 

of sixteen rays as before. — Electrotype from the Bill. Nationale, Paris. 
Half horse to I. R. Vine branch with grapes, in dotted square, within quad, incus. 
EYn. Same type. R. MA. Same type. — {Broken coin.) 
MHT. Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field to r., ivy-leaf. 
Head of Bacchus to I. R. MAPilNITflN En[I ... A ... Y] surrounding a linear 

square, which contains a vine, with four bunches of grapes. The whole in quad. 

incus. ; between the final Y and initial M of the legend, a tortoise. 
Head of Bacchus, crowned with ivy, to r. R. AI0NY20Y SQTHPOS MAPiiNI- 

TQN. Bacchus naked to /. ; in right hand, grapes ; in left hand, two javelins ; 

chlamys round left arm ; in field to I., mon. 69 ; in field to r., mon. 70. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type ; in field to I., mon. 71 ; in field to r., 

mon. 72. 
Head of Bacchus to r. R. MAPaNITiiN. Bacchus, naked, to I. ; in right hand, 

grapes ; in left hand, two javelins ; chlamys round left arm. 
Same type. R. Same legend and type, but in field to I., mon. 73. 
Same type. R. AI0NY20Y SWTHPOS MAPflNITaN. Same type ; in field to l, 

mon. 74, 
Same type. R. Same legend and type, but in field to l, mon. 75. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



71 



Metal 
M 



JE 

M 

JE 



M 



M. 



Size 

6 
3- 



■'a 
2 

4 



Sh 



3+ 



Weight 



M 
M 


3 
3- 


M 


3 


M 

M 
M 
M 
M 


2 

J' 

1 

1 


JE 


6 


JE 
JE 


6 
3 


JE 


H 



39 



33-5 



39-3 



41-3 

39-6 

11-6 

9-7 

10-5 



Another similar. 

Horse galloping to r. ; below% men. 76. R. MAPQNITiiN surrounding three sides 

of a square, which contains a vine with four bunches of grapes ; on the fourth 

side, EY in mon. 
Another similar. 
Another similar. 

NEPn(N) KAICAP. Eadiate head of Nero to I. R. [MAPtt]NeiTUN. Bust of 
Bacchus to r. 

MASSALIA Galliffi. 

jVote.— The principal types of the following coins are explained by Strabo, who relates (p. 179) that 
the worship of Diana Ephesia was brought to Massalia by the Phocsean founders, and that the 
chief sacred buildings in the Acropolis of Massalia were the Ephesium and temple of Apollo 
Delphinius. 

Head of Diana to r. ; bow and quiver appearing behind the neck ; necklace and 

earrings ; hair rolled up behind, and across the head ; in field to »•., TK (in 

mon.). B:. MASSA. Lion walking to r. ; in field to r., A ; in exergue, XHH 

(1200?). 
Same type ; hair in knot behind, with a single twisted tress hanging down the neck ; 

in front, sphendone ; in field to r., a mon. R. Same legend and type ; in 

field to >'., K ; in exergue, EAK. 
Same type ; hair between sphendone and ear in large curls, with single pendent tress ; 

chlamys without sleeves ; in field to r,, mon. 77. B. Same legend ; lion standing 

to r. ; in field to r. A; in exergue, KIT. 
Same type ; hair rolled up and covered above with sprigs of bay ?. R. Same legend 

and type ; below, AA. 
Same type ; hair in knot above and behind. R. MASi:A[A]IHTiiN in two lines ; 

between which, lion walking to r. ; under it, O 0. 
Head of Pallas to r. ; behind, B. R. MASSA. Eagle, with open wings, standing to r. 

Head of Apollo to ?. B TilN. Bull standing to I. — (Broken.) 

Same type. B. Circle divided into quadrants, in two of which, MA. 
jTwo others similar; medium weight, 8*3 grains. 
14*5 jSame type to r. R. Same type and legend. 

Note. — These coins were often given to other Greek cities having names beginning with MA, until 
they were finally determined to belong to Massalia, by the discovery of an entry in the archives of 
Provence, which recorded the finding of an immense number of these coins in the year 1366 (Eckhel, 
I. p. 68). 

Head of Apollo to I ; behind, diota. R. Bull, butting to r. ; above, diota ; below, 

[M]ASSAAIHT[iiN]. 
Another. 
Same type ; behind, nA, in mon. R. MASSAAIHTflN in two lines ; between them, 

bull butting to r. 

iVo<«.— This taunts cornupeta has been supposed to allude to Tauroeis, now Tarente, a harbour 
and maritime town situated about twenty miles to the eastward of Marseilles ; but Tauroeis was 
not a colony of Massalia ; it was a cotemporary Phocsean colony, and received its name from the 
ensign of a ship (ri liriariiiov rijc viws), which, having been separated fi-om tlie others in the voyage 
from Phocaja, found refuge in Tarente (Stephan. in Tawpdiif). This ensign happened to be a bull. 
The taurus cornupeta, on the three preceding coins, is more probably a type of the river Rhone. The 
taurus stans on another may be a symbol of agriculture, or of the deity to whom the bull was 
sacrificed. 



MM. Male head to /■. 
I large round shield. 



R. Figure standing to I. ; in right hand, spear ? ; in left, 



72 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal Size 



M 



M 
M 



M 



M 



^ 



Weight 



3 
4-3 

M ! 3+ 
M 5 



JE 5-4 



M 


4+ 


JE 


H 


JE 


3+ 


JE 


3+ 


JE 


3 


JE 


3+ 


JE 


3 


^ 


3- 


JE 


3 


M 


2i 


JE 


3 


JE 


2 


JE 


3 


JE 


2 



36-2 



35-4 
37-7 
35-9 



119-6 



MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia;. 

JYote. — It is not surprising that the numismatic scries of Megalopolis is of no great extent. 
Founded as late as the year 370 B. c, it was already in a declining state about 180, as its native 
citizen Polybius testifies (9, 21). Before the time of Strabo, the "great city" had become a great 
desert (Ipij/iio /ityaXvi). Its theatre, described by Pausanias as the greatest in Greece, still exists 
in the form of an almost shapeless mound (Tr. in the Morda, II. p. 22). Its silver coins resemble, 
in style, type, and weight, the later Arcadian, which were struck at Megalopolis. During the 
Achffian league, it was one of the cities which contributed to the coinage of the league. Its imperial 
coins, like those of most of the cities of Peloponnesus, are confined to Septimius Scverus and his 
family. 

Head of Jupiter to I. R. MEF. Pan, seatad on a rock, to I. ; right arm extended ; 

in left hand, pedum ; in field to I., an eagle with open wings ; in field 

below, A. 
Another similar. 

Same type. ^.. Same legend and type ; in field to I., n. 
Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field to L, a mon. 
Similar type. R. Pan, seated on rock, to I. ; in right hand, pedum resting on the 

ground ; in field to I., ME united ; below which, AE and a mon. ; in field to r,, 



r, ; below which, % ; the whole in a wreath. 



Another. 



Head of Apollo to I 
chords. 



B. 



MEGARA. 
MErAPE , in two lines ; between which, lyre with seven 



I 



i\rot«.— According to the Megarean mythus, Apollo assisted Alcathous in raising tlie walls of 
Megara ; in proof of which, says Pausanias (Attic. 42), a rock, upon which Apollo laid his lyre 
(KtOdpa), gave out a musical sound, upon being struck. It resembled the sound, he adds, which he 
heard at Egyptian Thebes, proceeding from the statue of Memnon Phamenoph, with the difference, 
that the latter sound resembled that of a broken chord. 



Same type to r. R. METAPEON in two lines; between them, lyre. 

Another similar. 

MErAPEQN. Head of Apollo to r. R. Lyre with six chords. 

Head of Apollo to r. R. M ErAPEON in two lines ; between them, tripod. 

Two others. 

Same type to /. R. ME. Tripod ; in field to r., K. 

Same type to r. R. ME. Tripod, with pendent fillets, tenninating in three balls. 

Same type. R. MEF, in wreath. 

Two others similar 

Anterior part of galley to I. ; above it, trident and tripod. R. MEl'., between two 

dolphins, in dotted circle. 
Two others similar. 
MEPA. Anterior part of galley to I. R. Tripod, between two dolphins, in dotted 

circle. 
Another similar. 

Same legend and type. R. ObeUsk, between two dolphins, in dotted circle. 
Another similar. 

Antoninus Pius. 



I 



AYTO. KAICAP ANTilNINOC. Head of Antoninus Pius to r. 
Diana stepping to r., with a torch in each hand. 



R. MEPAPEflN. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



73 



Metal Size 



JR 



M 

JE 

JE 

M 



^ 



M 
JE 

M 



Weight 



7- 
7 

6i 



M 



5i 



188 



MENDE PaUenes, 



Note. — On the Bituation of Mende, vide Tr. in Northern Greece, III. p, 
its wine is attested by the poets cited by Athenaeus (1, 19, and 23—8, 17). 

described by Alciphron (3, Ep. 2), comprised ardiivia roO MevSriaiov, viKrapos iiirot rij av, wsTrXij 
pia/iiva. Mi £iia riv Wevdatov, meaning Bacchus, was a drinker's oath. 



156. The celebrity of 
An Athenian supper, 



Silenus reclining to ?., on the back of an ass standing to r. ; in right hand, cup ; left 
resting on shoulder of ass ; in field to r., crow, amidst branches. R . MEN- 
AAION, surrounding a linear square, in which is a vine with four bunches of 
grapes, all in shallow quad, incus. — Electrotype. 



MESAMBRIA ThraciEe. 

Note. — There were two cities of this name in Thrace ; one on the northern coast of the JEgse&n, 
eastward of Maroneia, towards the Hebrus ; the other, on the shore of the Euxine, in the gulf now 
called that of Burgas ; the latter was a colony of Megara and Calehedon. Originally, according to 
Strabo, it was called Menebria, from the name of its founder Mena, ' bria' being the Thracian word 
for city. The following coins may all be attributed to the Euxine Mesambria ; for Herodotus, 
although he qualifies the western Mesambria as a ttoXic, also describes it as one of the Da^odpijtma 
Ttixea (7, 108), or continental fortresses, dependent upon Samothrace, whence it would seem not to 
have been of much importance. Nor is it noticed by any other author. Mesambria on the Euxine, 
on the contrary, mentioned by authors of different ages, appears from its coins to have flourished 
as late as Philip, and is still a town, preserving its ancient name. 

Helmet, adv. B- Circle divided into quadrants, in which are the four letters META. 
Diademate female head tor. ft. METAMBPIANiiN in two lines; between them, 

Pallas to I. ; in right hand, shield ; with left hand launching javelin to I. 
Another. 
Same type. B. MESAMBPIANQN. Same type ; in field to I., helmet. 

Gordianus Junior and Tranquillina. 

AYT. K. M. ANT. TOPAIANOC AYF. (united) CEB. TPANKYAAIN. Heads of Gor- 
dian and Tranquillina opposed. B. MECAMBPIANiiN. Two male figures adv., 
draped and booted ; in their right hands, short swords ; their left holding shields 
over their heads (Cory ban tes). 



Philippus Junior. 

(K)AICA(P). Heads of Philip Junior and Serapis, 
Female to I. ; in right hand, patera 



in 



MAP. io(YA)ioc *iAinnoc 

opposed. B. MEEAMBPIANiiN 

left, staff ; at feet, wheel. 
AYT. M. lOYA. *IAmnOC AYP. (united) M. KTAKIA. CGBHPA CGB. Heads of 

Philip Junior and Otacilia opposed. U.. MGEAMBPIANQN. Female seated to 

I. ; in right hand, patera ; below it, altar ; on the side of the chair, a quadruped, 

looking up. 
AYT. M. lOYA. *IAinnOC M. MT. CeBHPA CGB. Heads of Philip Junior and 

Otacilia opposed. IJ. MECAMBPIANiiN. Hygieia, standing to I. ; serpent 

coiled round right arm, and feeding out of patera in left. 



MESSENE Peloponnesi. 
Note. — The ruins of Messene are described in Tr. in N. Greece, I. p. 367. 

Head of Ceres to I. R. MESSANin(N). Jupiter Aetophorus, naked, fulminating 
to r. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

[u] 



74 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 
M 



Size 

6^ 



Weight 

239-8 



M 

JE 

M 
JE 

M 

JE 
JE 

JE 
JE 

JE 
JE 



JE 

JE 
JE 
JE 



3 

^ 

4+ 

6-4 

5- 
5- 

5 
5- 



3 

4 



2i 
2 



JE 

JE 



2 



37-9 



Similar type to r. B. IGCtM. MESSANIQN. Same type ; in field to r., tripod ; below 
which, * ; in field, on either side of the figure, AION. ; below, A. — ElectMype 
from the Collection of W. E, Hamilton, Esq. 

Note. — The temple of Ceres, in Messene, is described by Pausanias (Messen. 31 ) as an Upiv ayiov, 
or temple of peculiar sanctity, for whicli reason probably the statues of the Dioscuri were placed in 
it, whom the Messenians, in opposition to the Lacediemonians, claimed as native heroes. The Jupiter 
of these coins we may suppose to have been copied from the statue of Jupiter Ithomates, made by 
Ageladas for the Messenii of Naupactus ; from whence it appears to have been brought at the time of 
the foundation of Messene, but never to have been conveyed to the summit of Mount Ithome, where 
the temple stood, for Pausanias relates (Messen. 33), that it was kept in the priests' house in the 
lower city. In style, size, and weight, the former of these two coins bears a remarkable similarity to 
that of the Arcadians (v. supra, p. \^), which was coined undoubtedly at Megalopolis. They were 
both struck probably not many years after the foundation of the two cities. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. ME united, S. Tripod ; on both sides of which, in three 

lines, AnOAAiiNIAAS. — Electrotype from the B. M. 
Head of Ceres to I. B. Jupiter Aetophorus, fulminating to r. \ in field to I., ME 

united; below which, tripod ; to r., garland and AIi2N. 
Another. 
Same type to r. R. Same type ; in field to I., ATQN ; below which, ME united, in 

wreath ; in field to r., tripod. 
Same type. B. Same type ; in field to ?., ME united ; below which, AI in wreath ; 

in field to r., tripod. 
Another similar. 
Same type. B. Same type ; in field to ?., ME united ; below which, AEXIAS ; in 

field to r., tripod. 
Another similar. 
Same type. B. Same type ; but in field to I., ME united ; below which, AA ; in field 

to r., wreath ; below which, tripod. 
Same type. B- Same type ; in field to I., 9 ; below which, star ; in field to n, ME 

united ; below which, tripod. 
Another. 
MECCHNIilN. Veiled female head to r., wearing decorated crown, on the top of 

which are three spikes. B. .5i]sculapius adv. ; legend effaced. 

Note. — This obverse may represent Messene, daughter of Triopas, and wife of Polycaon, who 
received the highest heroic honours from the Messenii, and had a temple in Messene. — Pausan. 
Messen. 1, 3, 27, 31. The temple of Asclepius, at Messene, contained a remarkable collection of 
statues by the native artist Damophon. The Messenians having continued to preserve the use of the 
Doric dialect as late as the time of Pausanias, the present coin was of later date. 

Same legend and type. B. Jupiter Aetophorus, naked, adv. ; in right hand, hasta ; 

in field to /•., garland. 
Head of Ceres to I. B- ME. Tripod ; in field to r., ?. 
Head of Jupiter to r. B- ME, and tripod, within a wreath. 
Two others. 

METHANA Argolidis. 

iVbJc.— Methana, written ij Mtewvij by Thucydides, and tHiBava by Strabo, preserves remains of 
its ancient capital, besides other Hellenic vestiges in various parts of the peninsula. The head of 
Vulcan is explained by the hot baths mentioned by Strabo and Pausanias, as well as by other volcaoio 
appearances, still observable in the peninsula. {Vide Peloponnesiaca, p. 278.) 



Head of Vulcan to r. 
Another similar. 



B. ME united ; below which, 9— in wreath of corn. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



75 



Metal 
M 



Size 

5-4 
5 



Weight 

127-4 
129-4 



M 



2 
4i 



18-5 



JE 



M 
JE 
JE 

JE 



METROPOLIS Acarnanise. 

Head of Pallas to r., old style ; behind, sprig of ivy. R. M. Pegasus with curled 

wings, flying to r. 
Head of Pallas to ^. ; behind, MA in mon., and shield. R. Pegasus flying to I. ; 

under it, MA, in mon. 

Note.— The Corinthian types and the weights show that these are didrachroa of one of the Corinthian 
colonies of Acamania ; the MA in monogram fixes thera to Metropolis, written MATPOnOAIS 
on an inscription which I copied at Actium. — Vide Tr. in N. Greece, IV. Ins., No. IfiS. 



METROPOLIS ThessaHotidis. 

Note. — There were two cities named Metropolis in Thessaly ; one in Thessaliotis, mentioned by 
Csesar in his march from Gomphi to Pharsalus, the other (now Tumavo) in Pelasgiotis, noticed by 
Livy, in describing the incursion of Antiochus into Thessaly in the year 191 b. c. — Vide Tr. in N. 
Greece, III. p. 371. 

Some interesting remains of the former are found on the southern border of the great plain of 
Thessaliotis, below the Agrafiote village Blazdhu. — Vide Tr. in N. Greece, IV. p. 506. I found on 
this site a basso relievo, illustrative of the worship of Venus Castnietis at Metropolis, as noticed by 
Callimachus and Strabo (p. 437). One of the following coins relates to the same worship. 

Female head, adv., towards I. R. MHTPOUOAITiiN. Apollo, in long drapery, 
to r., playing on the lyre and singing. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Head of Apollo to r. ^.. [MHTP]onOAITSiN. Fore part of an ox to I., looking 
to r. ; below, Ifl, in mon. 

Note. — Mionnet, Sup. III. p. 297, has described this coin from a specimen, which was apparently 
in better condition than the present. The type of the reverse refers to the river, which flowed 
through the city, or possibly to the Peneius ; for, as the territory of Metropolis comprehended Ithome 
(Strabo, ibid.), it may have extended a few miles farther, in the same direction, as far as the right 
bank of the Peneius. The bos respicieni is found on many of the Greek coins of Italy aa the type 
of a river. 

Same type. B. MHTPOnOAIT[aN]. Venus, half draped, standing to I ; on her 
right hand, a bird ; her left, holding up her drapery : before her, a winged Cupid 
to i., holding up both hands towards the bird ; in field above, Til, in mon. — 
Electrotype from the B. M. 



4 

4 



Fulmen on shield ; around it, MOAOSSiiN. 
Another similar. 

Head of Pallas, with griffin on helmet, to r. B 
I., on a fulmen ; in field to I., n, in wreath. 
Two others. 



MOLOSSIS Epiri. 

R. Fulmen, in a wreath. 

MOAOSSiiN. Eagle, standing to 



Note. — There is suificient proof that the division of Epirus, inhabited by the Molossi, lay to the 
eastward of Thesprotia, and extended from the Dodonrea southward to the district of Cassope (mde 
supra, p. .S2, and Tr. in N. Greece, IV. p. 178). In this country several ancient sites are recognized, 
and the ruins of small fortified towns, but none that bears any character of having been the capital 
of Molossis. Possibly the ruined walls at Dhramisius, which protected a temple, and the great 
theatre of the Molossi, may have contained also the Molossic mint. 



MYCALESSUS Bceotite. 

Note. — The Pelasgic termination • assns,' or * essus,' is generally found attached to cities on strong 
heights, and such is the character of Mycalessus, of which the walls are still extant or traceable on 
an eminence of the Boeotian coast, nearly opposite to Chalcis of Eubcca. 



76 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

M 



Size 
1 



M 

M 
M 
M 



M 
JE 

M 



Weight 

12-7 



M 


4+ 


146-2 


M 


4+ 


1311 


M 


4- 


129-9 


M 


5 


262-6 


M 


4- 


131-6 


M 


3 


57-9 


M 


^ 


9-9 



2i 

•^2 



3- 
3- 



26 

28-3 
30-2 



23-9 



Boeotian shield. R. MY. Fulmen. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

NEOPOLIS Macedonise, prius DATUS Thracise. 

Head of Gorgo, adv. B. Four indentations, in a square form. 

Another similar. 

Head of Gorgo, adv. R. Four indentations in quad, incus., divided diagonally. 

Same type. B- Head and paws of panther, adv., in quad, incus. 

Same type. B. Quad, incus., divided into four diagonally ; in three of them, 

indentations ; in the fourth, panther's head, adv. — This and the preceding are 

£jlectroti/pes from the B. M. 
Same type. B. Four indentations in a square form. 
Same type. B. Four indentations in quad, incus., divided diagonally. 

Note. — In Travels in N. Greece, III. pp. 180, 223, 1 have given reasons for believing, that Neopolis 
occupied the site of the more ancient Datus, and that they are both now represented by 
Kav&la. On this supposition, the following coins are all easily explained, the more ancient, and 
which are without legend, being of Datus, and the inscribed and later alone being of Neopolis. 
Datus was noted for its harbour and fertile territory, which extended over a part of the plain of 
Philippi, as well as for its mines (Strabo, p. 331). Situated, as it was, in the midst of the argenti- 
ferous region, from which the Orescii, Edoni, and Bisaltee derived their silver currency, it is impos- 
sible to conceive that Datus was not similarly provided. The head of Medusa had reference to the 
Macedonian worship of the hero Perseus ; the panther to that of Bacchus, the seat of which was in 
the neighbouring mountains. Neopolis was said to have been a colony of Athens (Scylax, p. 27); but, 
to judge by the head on the reverse of its coins, which exactly resembles the Venus on those of 
Corinth, the colony would rather appear to have been from the latter city. When this colony was 
established, Datus had probably declined, partly perhaps in consequence of the prosperity of Amphi- 
polis, but owing chiefly to the increasing Influence of Macedonia in Thrace by land, and of the 
decreasing naval power of the southern states of Greece. The diminished size of the coins of 
Neopolis, compared with those of Datus, shew that in the time of the colony, Philip, or his suc- 
cessors, were in possession of the best mines, so that the proverb Aaro; dyaduiv, was no longer 
applicable in every, or perhaps, in any respect. 



Same type. B. 



Diademate female head, with hair rolled up and confined by 



N E 

P O 
cords (Venus ?). — {Gilt.) 
Another similar. 

Two others similar ; medium weight, 26-3. 
Same type. B. NEOn. Similar type. 

NICOPOLIS Epiri. 

Note. — Nicopolis was founded by Augustus after his victory over Antonius and Cleopatra at the 
neighbouring Actium. It was peopled at first from five surrounding cities, then in a declining state, 
namely, Leucas, Ambracia, Tyrrheium, Anactorium, and Argos Amphilochicum (Antipatrus ap. 
Analect. II. p. 117). For a description of Nicopolis, -cide Tr. in N. Greece, I. p. 185, 

furreted female head to r., a wing appearing at the shoulder (Nicopolis). B- Female, 
seated on high backed throne, to I. ; m right hand, a vase, containing flowers ? ; 
left resting on sprouting hasta ; legend on both sides broken off. 

NIKOnOA. Winged female bust to r. (Victory). B. KT Augustus, seated 

to /. ; receiving, in his right hand, a crown from a small Victory, standing on a 
base before him. — From the Pembroke Collection (625), cited hy Mionnet, Sup. 
III. p. 371. 

Augustus. 

, nOAI. Head of Augustus to r. B- Victory, standing on prow, to I. (Found 
at Nicopolis.) 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



77 



Metal 


Size 

5 


M 
JE 


5 
6 


M 


3^ 


JE 


H 


M 
M 
JE 


5 

3i 
H 


JE 
JE 


6-5 
6 


JR 


3- 


JR. 


^ 


JE 


11 


JE 


3 


JE 


3 


JE 


H 


JE 


5 


JE 


5 


JE 


5 



Weight 



22-8 



20-1 



SEBASTOS KTI2TH2. Head of Augustus to r. R. NIKOnOAITON. Victory 

standing to I. ; in extended right hand, garland. 
Another. 
CGBACTOY KTICMA. Same type. B^. NIKOnOAIC IGPA. Winged and turreted 

female bust to r. 
CGBACTOY K Same legend, ft. NeiKOno .... Dolphin twisted round 

trident. 

Trajanus. 

AYTO. TP[AIANOC CIUT]HP nOAeiTC. Head of Trajan to r. B. A ("A<r<a), in a 
wreath. 

Note. — The date of this coin is probably a.d. 106, when Trajan may have attended the Actian 
games in his way to Athens, and from thence into the East. 

Hadrianus. 

AYT. AAPIANOC Head of Hadrian to r. R. A, in a wreath. 

. . . lAXOC Same type. R. A, in a wreath. 

AAPIANOC KAICAP. Bust of Hadrian to r. B- NeiKOnOAeiUC. Head of a 

boar to r. 
KAICAP AAPIANOC. Same type. B. NeiKOnOAGITlDN. Asclepius ««?». 
Same type. B. [IE]PAC NIKOnO[AGiiC]. Victory, stepping to 

r. ; in right hand, garland ; in left hand, palm-branch. 

Antoninus Pius. 
AYT. ANTUJNINOC CGB. CYC. YP. V. Head of Antoninus Pius to r. B. AKTIA, 
in a wreath. 

Note. — The third Consulship of Trajan was a.d. 100. 

Faustina Senior. 
eeA iAYCTGINA. Head of Faustina Senior to r. B- AKTIA, in a wreath. 

]^. Aurelius. 

. . AlCAP MAP. AY ANTIUNINOC. Similar type. B. NIKO . 

Female seated to I. ; in extended right hand, patera ; left hand resting on 
hasta. — {Broken.) 

KAICAP AYPHAIOC. Head of Marcus Aurelius to r. B. NIKOnOAGlUC. Galley 
with rowers, to I. 

Faustina Junior. 

CGBACTH *AYCTINA. Head of Faustina Junior to r. B. AKTIA, in a wreath. 

Commodm. 

Head of Commodus to I. B. NIKOno. lEPA. Dolphin, twisted 

round a trident. 

Septimim Severus. 
A. EGn. TEBHP. Bust of Sept. Severus to r. B- NGIKOnOAGUUO. Emperor, on 
horseback, riding to r. ; right hand held up. 

Caracalla. 

A. K. M. AY. ANTITNGINOC. Bust of Caracalla to r. B. N6IKOnOA€U3G. Em- 
peror, on horseback, to r. ; right hand held up. 
Another. ,,^. , , , ^ i 

Same legend and type. R. IGPA NIKOnO(AIC). Wmged and turreted female 

bust to r. ^ , 



78 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 


Size 

6 


JE 


6 


M 


9 


JE 


6 


JE 


5 


M 


5 


JE 


5 


JE 


5 


JE 


5 


JE 


4 


JE 


3 


JE 


7 


M 


7 



Weight 



A. K. M. A. ANTONGINOE B. Head of Caracalla to r. B. lEPAC NEIKOnOAEftC. 

Turreted female, standing to r. ; right hand extended, and resting on long staff, 

ending below in a ball ; in left, cornucopia?. 
Same legend and type. B. Same legend ; Victory stepping to r. ; in right hand, 

garland ; in left, palm-branch. 

Plautilla. 

riAAYTIAAA ceBACTH. Bust of Plautilla to r. R. Same legend ; turreted female, 

seated to l. ; in right hand, patera ; in left, cornucopise. 
Same legend and type. B. Same legend ; tripod, with serpent twined round it. 

Gordianus Junior. 

AY. K. MA. AN. TOPAIANOC CGB. Bust of Gordian to r. ft. NGIKOn 

Victory to I. ; in right hand, wreath ; in left hand, palm-branch. 

Same type. B. lePAC. NeiKOnOAeac. Tripod, with serpent 

round it. 

Philippus Senior. 

AYT. M. lOY. *IAinn0C. Head of Philip to r. B. IGPAC. NGI Victory, 

as before, stepping to I. 

Otacilia. 

(MAP)T. OTAK. CeBHPA C(eB). Head of Otacilia to r. B- IGPA ono- 

AeUUG. Victory, stepping to r. 

Gallienus. 

AIK. TAAAIH Head of Gallienus to r. B. IGPAC NeiKOnOA 

Victory, standing on prow, to r. 



NICOPOLIS ad Istrum. 

Note. — Nicopolis, situated at the confluence of the Tatms and Istms, or Danube, was founded by 
Trajan, and named in memory of bis Dacian conquest. It retains its Greek name. 

Septimius Severus. 

AY. Ce. CeBH Head of Septimius Severus to r. B- NIKOnOAI. nPOC. IC. 

Draped fig. to I. ; in lowered right hand, bridle ? ; in left hand, knotted staff, 
terminating above in head of ! 

Caracalla. 

AY. K. M. AYP. [ANTO]NINOC. Beardless head of Caracalla to r. B. NIKOnOAI- 
TilN nPOC [IC]. Eagle on fulmen, with open wings, adv., looking r,, and 
holding in its beak a wreath. 

Geta. 

AYT. K. n. CCn. reXAC ay. Bust of Geta to r, B Y. *A. OYAniAN. {vvo 
^Xaoviov OvXwiai'ov) NIKOnOAI(rw>') HPOC I{aTpov). Winged female figure to I. ; 
in right hand, bridle ; in left, hasta ; arm resting on column. 

3Iacrinus. 
AYT. K. M. oneAA. CGY. MAKPINOC. Bust of Macrinus, in armour, to r. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



79 



Metal 



Size 



Weight 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 
M 



M 



M 



m 



4i 
3i 



6i 



254 



H. vn QN nPOC ICTPON. Ceres, standing to L ; in 

right hand, three ears of corn ; in left hand, hasta. 

Diadummianus. 

K. M. onneA. ANXiiNINOC. Head of Diadumenianus to r. B. NIKOnOAITQN. 

Staff of Asclepius, with serpent twined round it. 
K. M. oneA. AlAAOYMENIANOC. Same type. B. NIKOnOAITQN HPOE ir. 

Same type. 

Gordianus Junior. 

AYT. K. M. ANXn. TOPAIANOC AYF. (in mon.) Bust of Gordian to r. B. YO. 
CAB. MOACCTOV NIKOPOAIXaN HPOC ICXPON. Asclepius, adv. 



ODESSUS Thraciffl. 

Note. — Odessus is shewn by the geographical evidence of Strabo, Scylax, and the anonymous 
Periplus, to have stood at the modern Varna. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. GEOY MEFAAOY KYP2A OAHSIXiiN. Figure, in long 
drapery, with right shoulder bare, standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in 
left hand, cornucopise (Sarapis?). — Electrotype from the Bill. Nationale. 

iVbte.— Harduin resolves KTPSA into KrP(IOY) SA(PAniAOS), a conjecture supported by the 
head of Sarapis on the coin of Gordian which follows. 

Similar type to r. B. Horseman to r. ; below, OAHSIX. 

Female diademate head to r. B. Eiver god, recumbent to Z., on a narrow basis, on 
which is inscribed, OAHSIxaN ; in left hand, cornucopise ; vase reversed, pour- 
ing on his right hand ; below, a mon. 

Nate. — This probably was a type of the river Panysus, now the Kamtjik, which joins the sea 
between Odessus and Mesambria. 

Caracalla, 

AYX. K. M. AYP. ANXSiNEINOC. Head of Caracalla to r. B. OAHCrEIXflN. 
Figure, in long drapery, crowned with modius adv., looking to I. ; in right hand, 
patera; in left hand, cornucopiae (Sarapis ?). 

Gordianus. 
AYX. K. M. ANX. rOPAIANOG AYF. (in mon.) Busts of Gordian and Sarapis 
opposed. B. OAHCCEIXiiN. Hygieia, standing to r., and feeding serpent 
from patera in left hand ; in field to I., E. 



OENIAD/E Acarnanise. 

I^ote. — Remains of (Eniadee, comprehending the entire circuit of its walls, now called Trikardhtf- 
kastro, are situated between the lake anciently named Melite, and the right bank of the Achelous, 
ten or twelve miles above the mouth of that river. — Vide Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 556. The 
following specimens contain all the varieties 1 could discover among about 800, which were found at 
Trikardhd. 



Head of Jupiter to r. ; below, AP, in mon. B. [OI]NIAAAN. 
head, with neck, ear, and horns of a bull (Achelous). 



Bearded human 



iVofc— This type represents the head of one of the forms under which Achelous appeared to 
Dejanira (Sophoc. Trachin., v. 9) : — 

[x 2] 



so 

Metal 



JE 



JE 


•H 


M 


H 


m 


H 


M 


5 


M 


5 


JE 


51 


JE 


5 


M 


H 


JE 


4 


JE 


■H 



JR 



JR 
JR 

JE 



M 



Size 



3+ 



3 

2- 

31 



O2 



Weight 



42-8 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Of n' iv Tpia'iv /iopfalaiv i^Jrd varpbc, 
^oiruiv IvapyijQ ravpoQ' oKXot' aioXoQ 
ApctKttiv tXiKTOC' aXXoT dvdptitfi rvirtp 
BovicpavoQ' f.K Si danKiov yevuaSog 
Kpovcoi SiippaivovTO Kprivaiov iroTOV. 

Same type ; behind, fulmen ; below, UPI. R. Same legend and type ; in field to I., 

(APK) in mon. 
Another. 
Same type, legend, and symbol. R. Same type and monogram, but in place of 

legend, trident. 
Same type ; below the head, API ; behind it, eagle. R. Same type ; above it, 

trident ; behind, APK in mon. 
Another similar. 
Same type ; behind it, eagle ; below, A. R. Same type ; behind the head, 

OINIAAAN. 
Beardless helmeted head to I. R. Head of Achelous to I. ; above, trident — in 

linear circle. 
Another similar. 
Chimaera, standing to I., in dotted circle. R. Head of Achelous to r. ; behind, APK 

in mon. 

Same type. R. Same type to I. 
Head of young Hercules, in lion's scalp, to r. R. Head of Achelous to r. ; behind, 

APK in mon. ; above, trident. 



CET^I. 

Note. — Herodotus and Thucydides distinguish the CEtsei from the Trachinii ; the latter were a 
portion of the Malienses, and their new city Heraeleia, founded by the Lacedsemonians in the year 
426 B.C., stood in a part of the Maliac plain, at the foot of the rocky site of the ancient Tracbis, 
which became their citadel. The city ffita, where the coins of the CEtsei were struck, was said to have 
been founded by Amphissus, who nominally derived his descent from Calydon, and his father 
^tolus, but was the reputed son of Apollo, by Dryope. Hence the head of Apollo, as well as the 
symbols in reference to the Calydoiiiau boar, which are common to the coins of ^tolia, of Amphissa, 
and of CEta. The exact site of the city CEta has not yet been determined. On this question, vide 
Tr. in N. Greece, II. p. 19. 



Naked Hercules, 



Lion's head to I., with spear-head in the mouth. R. nQATIO. 
adv., with radiated head, and club held horizontally. 

Note. — This type seems to have reference to the death and deification of Hercules on Monnt 
CEta. 

Same type. R. 0ITAI12N in two lines ; between, Hercules as before. — Electrotype. 
Same type. R. OITA. Bow and quiver. — Electrotype. 

Head of Apollo to r. R. OITAIiiN in two lines ; between them, spear-head, jaw- 
bone, bunch of grapes, and a mon. 
Another. 

OLBIA, sive OLBIOPOLIS Sarmatise. 

Note. — Strabo (p. 306) describes Olbia as a great empoiium, and as having been founded by the 
Milesii. Remains of it are found at the junction of the Bog and Dnieper (Boristhenes and Hypanis), 
twelve miles below Nikola. Cf. Clarke's Tr. in Russia, &c., II. p. 352. 

Head of Pan to ?. R. OABIO. Hatchet; bow in bow-case, and upon it, quiver; 
in field above, lii, in mon. 



I 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



81 



Metal 

M 
JE 
M 

JE 



M 



M 

M 
M 
M 
M 

M 

JR 
M 

M 
JE 

JE 



Size 
5+ 
5 
4 



Weight 



5* 



3 
3 
3- 
3 



H 



n 



n 

3 
3 



187-8 



192 

41-8 
41-2 
43 -6 
35-6 

11-6 



Same type. B. Same legend and types ; in field, al. 

Another similar. 

Head of Jupiter to r. B. OABIonOAEITflN in two lines ; between which, 

with open wings, standing to I. ; before it, Z ; below which, nA, in mon. 
Head of Pan to I. B. OABIO. Archer to I., kneeling on right knee, and 

charging an arrow ; in field to I, AP in mon. 



eagle, 
dis- 



OPUS Locridis. 

Note.— Some remains of Opus are found at tlie distance of four miles to the south-eastward of 
Talauda, and at less than half that distonce from the shore of a capacious bay in the Locrian shore, 
which was anciently called the Sums Opuntius.— Fi(i« Tr. in N. Greece, II. p. 174. 

Head of Ceres to I. B. onONTIilN. Naked armed warrior (Patroclus ?) stepping 
to r. ; on left arm, shield, in the interior of which is a lion springing to r., and 
an Ionic ornament ; in the hero's right hand, short sword ; at his feet, a javelin 
and a helmet. — From the Duke of Devonshire'' s Collection, No. 215. 

Same type to r. B. Same legend and type ; in the shield, gryphon to r. ; at the 
hero's feet, a javelin. — Electrotype from tJie B. M. 

Another similar ; in the shield, a lion to r. 

in the shield, serpent ; between the feet, helmet. 



B. Same legend and type ; in the shield, a lion ; at the feet, 

B- onON. Diota, 



Another similar 
Another similar. 
Same type to I. 

javelin. 
Circle containing globule, from which emanate sixteen rays, 

with an ivy-leaf, hanging from the mouth on either side. 
Two others. 
Seven dots, in circular form, from which emanate sixteen rays. B. Same legend 

and type. 
Another similar ; average weight of these four coins 9"7 grains. 
Female head to r. B. OIIOYNTIilN. Warrior, stepping to r., as before. 
Head of Pallas to r. B. onOYNTIiiN in two lines ; between which, grapes, with 

stem and tendril. 



ORE SCI I ThraciEe. 

Note. — No notice of this people is to be found, I believe, in history. The termination of the name is 
Thracian, as exemplified in Doriacus, Drabescus, Bromiscus, Bertiscus ; and Milliugen justly observes, 
that Oreseii has the same meaning (that of " mountaineers") as Orestse, of which name the termination 
is Macedonian, as Stephanos remarks (in Aiov), and as we find instanced in Lyncestse, Tauristee, Diastse. 
With these premises it is surprising, that Millingen should have supposed the Orestfe and Oreseii to 
have been the same people. The Orestie were situated at the western extremity of Macedonia, not less 
than 1 00 miles from the nearest part of Thrace, and were originally an Epirote people, a MoKoaaiKov 
iQvoQ, according to Hecateeus (ap. Stephan. in Opsffrai). In Travels in N. Greece (III. p. 213), I have 
endeavoured to shew that the Oreseii were the same people as the Satrse or Satyrs, who inhabited 
the mountains to the northward and eastward of the Edoni. In the time of Herodotus they had never 
been subdued, and were the principal workers of the silver mines of the Pangaean range of moun- 
tains (Herod. 7, 110, and seq.). Connected with them were the Bessi, who extended eastward to 
the Nestus (Plin. H. N. 4, 11). In the midst of tliese mountains stood the oracular temple of 
Bacchus, the priests of which were Bessi. Here probably the coins of the Oreseii were struck, and 
from hence emanated that worship of the mountain Bacchus, which spread over Greece, and the 
symbols of which are represented on the second of the following specimens, as well as on the coins of 
Lete and Thasus. The vicinity of the Edoni and Oreseii is strongly marked by the resemblance of 
their coins {conf. Kings, p. 19) ; the same resemblance is found on those of the Bisaltie, who bor- 
dered westward on the Edoni, in the same argentiferous range of mountains. This similarity is not 
only observable in style, type, and antiquity of letters, but likewise in weight and magnitude, in which 



82 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



81 



4+ 



M 



M 



JR 
M 



6- 



n 



2i 



434-1 



157-7 



154-4 



54-9 
48-5 



they exceed all the silver coins of Greece, except the deeadrachma of Athens. In Macedonia they 
were equalled only by a coin of Alexander I. (tide Kings, p. 1), which is exactly of the same style, 
and was struck undoubtedly soon after Alexander had obtained possession of a portion of the mines, 
from which proceeded the money of the Orescii, Edoni, Bisaltse, and Letsei. Among the numerous 
epithets of Bacchus in the Hymn (ap. Anthol. II. p. 517), there are three which seem to point par- 
ticularly to the Bacchus of the Satrse, Orescii, and Bessi — namely, QgrjUa, 'Opifficiov, Xdrvgov, 

0PPH5NI0H. Bearded figure to r., naked, but wearing hat, on the further side of 
two oxen to r. ; in his right hand, two spears, ft. Shallow quad, incus., divided 
into four squares. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

ilPH (> KliiN, written from right to left ; bearded centaur to r., kneeling on his right 
fore-leg and bearing a woman in his arms, who holds up her right hand ; both 
figures with long plaited hair. li. Same type. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

J^ote. — This latter coin resembles one of Lete, described by Mionnet (Sup. III. p. 81), but on the 
reverse of which is a helmet ; on that coin the legend Airmov occurs on both sides, and on both is 
written from right to left, 



OETHAGOREIA Macedonia. 

Note. — Eckhel cites the following fragment from the fourth volume of the Geographi Gneci 
Minores, in proof of the identity of Orthagoreia and Stageirus : 'OpBayopia Kai Xrdyetpa ij vvv 
Ma'/cpij. This proof would have been more clear had the i; immediately followed the 'Op9ayopia ; but 
that the author's meaning was that inferred by Eckhel, is confirmed by two other authorities, one 
anonymous, published at the end of Codinus (p. 209, ap. Hist. Byz. xxi.) ; the other, a remark of 
Nicetas (Annal. p. 289, Paris). The former says 'OpOayopia ij vvv Mo'rpi) ; the latter, Xrayitpa, ij 
Ma'icprj Xsytrai vvv. But after all this amounts only to an opinion of the learned of the twelfth or 
fifteenth century, that Orthagoreia and Stageirus were the same place, and the numerous errors in 
ancient geography, committed by the Greeks of those days, renders such an opinion of little value. 
On the other hand, the modern name SroDpof, an easy corruption of Sra'ytipof, accords with ancient 
evidence in proving the position of Stageirus (ride Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 167) ; while the name 
Makri, if it ever existed, is no longer found in that part of the country. It must be confessed difficult 
to account for the non-existence of coins of Stageirus, standing as it did near the silver mines ; but 
we know that it declined at an early period, and its revival in the time of Aristotle may not have been 
permanent. I am strongly inclined to place Orthagoreia at the modem Nizvoro ; the position of 
this place, backed by its mountain, and defended on either side by ravines, together with its remains 
of Hellenic walls, prove it to be an ancient site. Its lofty, central and commanding situation accords 
not less with the name Orthagoreia (high market), than the silver coinage of this city with the mines 
of Nizvoro. 

Head of Diana to r. R. OPGArOPEiiN. Pointed Macedonian helmet, adv., with 
pendent cheek pieces, and two uprights, supporting a star on the top of the 
helmet. 

Head of Apollo to r., in dotted circle. B. Similar legend and type. — From the 
Pembroke Collection (621). 

Note. — The great resemblance of this Apollo to that of the Chalcidenses, is a strong presumption 
that Orthagoreia was in the Chalcidic peninsula, and probably not very far from its capital Apol- 
lonia. This will sufficiently apply to Nizvoro. 



OSSA Macedoniae. 

Note. — In Travels in N. Greece, III. p. 230, I have oflfered some reasons for believing that Ossa 
stood at Sokh(5, a central and elevated position on the ridge which extends westward from the pass of 
Amphipolis towards the Axius, and was anciently occupied by the Bisaltse. 

A horse stepping to r. ; behind it, a man, having on his head the causia, and holding 

two spears, ft. OSSEilM, surrounding quadripartite square, — in quad, incus. 
Same type ; in field to I., helmet, ft. Same legend and type. 



EUROPEAN GREECE, 



83 



Metal 


Size 


N 


4 


M 


n 


JE 
JE 

JE 


6 
4 
4 


JE 
M 
M 


4i 


JE 


4 


M 


4 


JE 


41 


JR 


3 


JE 


5 


JE 
JE 

JE 


5 

41 

5 


JE 


5 


JE 
JE 

JE 


5 
5 
4 



Weight 



140-7 

40-2 



33-6 



Note. — These coins differ only from those of Alexander I. in the magnitude and legend, the types 
on both sides, as well as the position of the legend, being the same. They differ only from those of 
the Bisaltse, inscribed Bi(raXTiic(5i', in magnitude and in position of the legend, which is on the obverse 
of the latter, and they have the appearance of a later date. The final M instead of N occurs on 
coins of Tylissus in Crete, and on those of several Italo-Greek people or cities. 



PANTIOAP^UM Tauricffi. 

Note. — Panticapseum was one of the numerous colonies which Miletus founded in and near the 
Euxine. It stood at Kertshi, on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus, or strait communi- 
cating from the Palus Meeotis into the Euxine. The site and remains of FanticapEeum have been 
described by Dr. Clarke, Travels in Eussia, &c., II. p. 109. 

Head of Pan, bearded and crowned with ivy, to I. R. PAN. Homed gryphon, 

stepping to L, on ear of corn ; in mouth, a spear. 
Head of Pan, adv. R. Lion to L, with spear in mouth ; right fore-paw on spear ; 

in exergue, PANTI. — This and the preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 
Head of Pan to I. B. Bow and arrow ; below, PANTI. 
Same type. B. PAN. Head of Hon to I.; below, fish to I. 
Head of Pan to I., half covered by a star of twelve rays, as countermark. R. Same 

legend and same type, half covered by bow case and ? ; below, fish to I. 
Head of Pan to r. R. PAN. Forepart of gryphon to I. ; below, fish to I. 
Beardless head, crowned with ivy, to I. R. Bow and arrow ; below, FAN. 
Head of Pan to I. R. ITANTI. Cornucopise, between the bonnets and stars of the 



Dioscuri. 
Another. 
Same type. R. HAN. 

ear of corn. 
Head of Apollo to r. 

to I. 
Same type. R. Tripod 



Horned gryphon stepping to I, ; in mouth, a javelin ; below, 
R. [nANTIKA]nAITSlN in two lines; between them, prow 
[nA]NTIK[An]AITii., in two lines, across the field. 

PATR^ Achaiffi. 

Note. — The position of Patrso has preserved the town in a state of comparative importance through 
all the revolutions of Greece, but the continued succession of new buildings, which are a consequence 
of such a state, is not favorable to the preservation of ancient remains. The vestiges of the ancient 
city are described in Tr. in the Mor^a, II. p. 131. 

Female head (Venus ?) to r. R. AAMACIAC in two lines ; below which, mon. 77 

(IIATP.) ; all in a wreath. 
Diademate bearded head of Hercules to r. R. MHTPOAltPOC MGNeKAGOC 

IIATPeUJN. Pallas, with spear-head held horizontally, stepping to r. ; in field 

to L, mon. 77 (nATP.) ; in field to r., owl. 
Another. 
Another similar. 
Same type. R. APXIKPATHC AIKAIAPXOY UATPetUN. Pallas stepping to r. ; 

in field to r., mon. 78 (nATPE.) 
Same type. R. NIKOCTPATOC KAAAICTPATOY nATPGlUN. Same type ; in 

field to L, branch 2 to r., mon. 77. 
Two others. 

Same type. R. . . . AliiN AYSIA IIATPEIUN. Same type ; in field tp r., mon. 77. 
flATPeiUN ; above which, a rough object of conical form, standing on a basis 

having two round projections ; all in wreath of ivy. R. APIGTAPXOC 

AAMIUNOC. Bacchus, in short tunic, Standing adv. ; in extended right hand, ? ; 

in left hand, thyrsus ; in field to L, mon. 77 ; to r., caduceus. 



84 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 



M 



Sizs 



Weight 



M 



8-6 



M 



M 



M 



M 



5- 



4+ 



JE 



8i 



Note. — The object on this obverse bears exactly the form of a sepulchral monament of early times ; 
and may have been intended for the tomb of Patreus, which stood in the Agora of Patrce (Pausan. 
Achaic. 20). 

Owl, adv. B. Trident, and HA ; in wreath. 

Patrse Colonia. 

Augustus. 

DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER. Radiate head of Augustus to I. R. COL. A. A. 
PATRENS. (Colonia Augusta Aroe Patrensis.) Priest, standing to /. ; in left 
hand, a standard; with right hand holding a plough, drawn by two oxen, 
to;. 

Note. — Aroe was an ancient Achaian town, which occupied probably the site of the Acropolis of 
Fatree, and having been enlarged by Patreus, was thenceforth known by the latter name. 

Claudius. 

TI. CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG. GERM. Head of Claudius to I. R. COL. A. A. 
PATRE. Eagle, with raised wings, to r., on the top of a standard, between two 
standards complete ; below, XXIL 

Note, — The veterans of the twenty-second legion were settled in Patra by Augustus. 

Domitianus. 

IMP. CAES. DOM. AVG. GERM. P. M. TR. P. V. C. P.— (Imperator Caesar Domi- 
tianus Germanicus, Pontifex Maximus, Tribunitia Potestate V., Censor Per- 
petuus). Head of Domitian to r. R. COL. A. A. PATRENS. Priest, with 
standard, two oxen and plough, as before. 

Another. 

ffadrianus. 

HADRIANI Head of Hadrian to r. R. COL. A. A. PATRENS. 

Pallas, standing to r. ; in right hand, spear raised obliquely ; in left hand, 
shield. 

Commodus 

IMP. COAAHODO. ANTO. AV. GE. Head of Commodus to r. R. COL. A. A. 
PATR. Female to I. ; right hand holding patera over altar ; in left hand, cor- 
nucopise. 

PAUTALIA Paeoniae sive Thraciae. 

Notf. — Eckhel describes an autonomous coin of this town, according to which the name was 
Pantalia ; but on the imperial it is constantly IIAYTAAIA, or the city tuv TlavTaXiuTuv, 
and after the reign of Antoninus Pius generally Ulpia Pautalia. On the specimen described by 
Eckhel, the legend is IIANTAAEQ. EN IIAIQ., i. e. in Pseonia ; the reverse of a Pautalia of the 
reign of Caracalla, represents a river god, with the legend CTPYMQN. Taking these evidences as 
to the situation of Pautalia, together with that of the Tabular Itinerary, which places it on the road 
from Philippopolis to Stobi, by Astibon, now Istib, it becomes highly probable that Pautalia is now 
represented by Ghiustendil, which occupies a plain near the sources of the Stryraon. On the 
geography and positions of Paeonia, and the adjacent part of Thrace, vide Tr. in N. Greece, III. 
p. 468, and seq. 

Marcus Aurelius. ^ 

AYT. KAl. M. AYP. ANTON Head of Marcus Aurelius to r. R. HPE 

{liovtvovToo) M. TOYAAIOY MAIIMOY nAYTAAIiiTQN. Tetrastyle temple; 
within which Asclepius, standing to r., and a worshipper to I. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



85 



Metal Size Weight 



M 



M 



JE 



M 



JE 

M 



M 



41 



4i 



M 


4+ 


M 


4 


JE 


H 


.E 


4 


M 


5- 


JE 


4 


M 


5-4 



Septimius Severus. 

AYT. A. cenri. ceYHPOC neP. Head of Sept. Severus to r. B. OYAniAC 
IIAYTAAIAC . Jupiter Nicephorus, seated to I. ; in left hand, hasta. 

Julia Domna. 

lOYAIA AOMNA CGB. Bust of Julia Domna to r. B- nAYTAAIQTnN. For- 
tune to I. ; on her head, modius ; in right hand, rudder ; in left, cornucopise. 

rOYAIA AOMNA CGB. Same type. B. nAYTAAIiiXilN. Female figure to i ; in 
right hand, pair of scales ; at her feet, wheel ; in left hand, sceptre. 

Caracalla. 

AY. . KAI (in mon.) C. ANTiiNINOC. Bust of Caracalla to r. B- OYAHIAC 
IIAYTAAIAC. Serpent, with head to I., coiled round cista, upon an altar. 



PELINN^UM Thessalise. 

Note. — The entire circuit of the walls of Pelinnceum are still extant in ruins at Gardhiki, a few 
miles eastward of Trikkala. — Vide Tr. in N. Greece, IV. p. 288. 

Horseman, moving to I. B. FlEAINNAIEiiN in two lines ; between them, draped 
female, standing to r., holding up in both hands, ?. 

Head of Pallas to r. B- Same legend in two lines ; between them. Victory, step- 
ping to I, ; in field to I., A. 

Another similar, but no A. 

PELLA Macedonise. 

Note. — The site and extant vestiges of Pella are described in Tr. in N. Greece, III. p. 261. 
Little more seems to have been left of the city in the second century of our sera, than there 
is at present. Diou Chrysostom says (Orat. 33, p. 402, Morell), vuv u rif Supxoiro IleWai', 
ovli ariiuXov o^irai jroXewf ovSiv, lix" '■O" itoXvv Kipaftov tlvat awTtTpififisvov Iv rif rojry, 
and this accords with numismatic evidence, a coin of Livia being the only imperial of Pella 
extant, until the time of Trajan, whose coins, and those of the succeeding emperors, are all colonial. 
The colony having been entitled Julia Augusta, would seem to have been designated by Augustus, 
though not effectually established at Pella until the reign of Trajan. 



B. IIEAAHS in two lines, above and below ; between them, 
under it, AI, united ; in field to r., AP united, and a star. 



Head of Jupiter to r. 
ox, standing to r. 

^ote. — The ox, on the coins of Pella, is explained by Stephanus (in v.), who says that Pella was 
more anciently named Bunomus, that is to say, adapted to the pasture of oxen. In fact, the pasture- 
land around the lake of Pella, is of great extent, and may have been formerly much greater, when 
the marshes perhaps were drained into the lake. 

Same type. B. Same legend, type, and monograms, without star ; above, a mon. 

Same type. B. Same legend and type ; under the ox, niiP, or nPii, in mon. 

Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field, Zii, 2fl, both in mon. 

Same type. B. Same legend, type, and mons. ; above, a mon. 

Head of Pallas to r. B. Same legend ; ox, grazing to r ; under it, NK united ; 

in field to r., a mon. ; all in a wreath. 
Same type. B- Same legend and type ; under the ox, a mon. 
Bust of Pan to r. ; behind, pedum. B. Same legend ; Pallas, in helmet and aegis, 

striding to r., and launching javehn ; in field to I., ANK 2 (in mon.) ; to r., AN, 

in mon. 

[2] 



86 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal Size 



m 

M 
/E 

M 
M 



M 
iE 



M 



JE 



M 



M 



4+ 

3+ 
4+ 
3+ 

4+ 
4 



7-6 



6i 



5i 



6i 



Weight 



Note. — On the regal coins of Macedonia, the head of Pan first occurs on those of Antigonns 
Gonatas, who honoured Pan for the terror which caused the Gauls to flee from Delphi. The same 
type is ohservable on the coins of the Syrian Pella. 

Same type. B;. Same legend and type ; in field to r., mon. 79. 

Same type. B. Same legend and type ; in field to I., a mon. ; in field to r., mon. 80. 

Head of Apollo to r. R. Same legend ; tripod. 



Another similar. 
Veiled female head, adv. 
Head of Apollo to n B. 

and 83. 
Head of Apollo to r. R. 
Head of Perseus to r. 

wreath of oak. 
Head of Pallas to r. 



B. Same legend ; 
IIEAAHS in one 



ox, feeding to r. ; under it, mon. 81 . 
line ; tripod ; in field to I., mons. 82 



IIEAAHS. Lyre ; in field to r., mon. 83, and *. 

B. Same legend ; above and below, monograms ; all 



m 



B. Ox, feeding to r. ; above it, TAIOY ; in exergue, TAMIOY ; 
under the ox, mon. 25 (BOT). 

Maximinus. 

IMP. C. C. IVL. VER. MAXIMINVS. Head of Maximinus to r. B. COL. IVL. 

AVG. PELLA. Female, crowned with modius, seated on throne with high back ; 

right hand raised to mouth ; left hand resting on hip. 
Another. 

Maximus. 

IVL. VERVS MA[XIMVS] CAES. Bust of Maximus to r. B. Same legend and 
type. 

Note. — This figure, although resembling, in the position of the right hand, the Nemesis of many 
Asiatic coins, may represent perhaps a statue which personified the colonial Pella. An autonomous 
coin of Pella, described by Eckhel (II. p. Ji) from Pellerin, bearing on one side a female head, 
with the legend ITEAAA, and on the other, IIEAAHS in a wreath, shews that Pella was sometimes 
personified on its coins. 

Gordianus. 
IMP. C. M. ANT. GORDIANVS. Head of Gordian to r. B. Same legend and type. 

Philippus Senior. 

IMP. C. M. IVL. PHILIPPVS. Head of Philip to r. B. Same legend ; Pan, seated 
to I. on rock ; right hand raised above his head (attitude of repose) ; in left 
hand, pedum ; in field to I., syrinx. 



PELLENE Achaise. 

Nate. — The site and remains of Pellene are described in Travels in the Mor^a, III. p. 214. 

42.8 Laureate head of Apollo to r. B. PEA., in wreath of bay. 

Note. — At Pellene was a temple of Apollo Theoxenius, in whose honour were celebrated the games 
named Theoxenia (Pausan. Achaic. 27). 



41-6 



Another similar. 



PERINTHUS Thracije. 



Note. — Perinthus, situated on the northern shore of the Propontis, between Rh«destus and Selym- 
bria, both of which preserve their ancient names, was a colony of Samus, said to have been founded 
by Hercules, who gave to it the name of one of his companions ; it was called also from its founder, 
'BpaxKua Iv Qp<fKy ; all this tradition is illustrated by a copper coin of Perinthus, described by 
Eckhel (II. p. 39) as follows : " TON KTICTHN IQNQN. Caput Herculis. 8,. nCPINeiQN AIC 
NeQKOPQN. Clava." The coins of Perinthus shew its importance under the empire. About the 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



87 



Metal 


Size 


Weight 


M 


4i 




1 


3i 




M 


H 




M 


8- 




JE 


6 




M 


10 




JE 


]2+ 




M 


12- 




M 


3i 




M 


2 


13-4 



fourth century, this name fell into disuse, and gave place to that of Heracleia, which is still attached 
to the Tarco-Greek town. It still preserves some remains of antiquity, but which are chiefly eccle- 
siastical, Heracleia having always held an episcopal rank in Thrace, second only to Constantinople. 

Heads of Sarapis and Isis, each crowned with the lotus ; the former wearing a 
diadem of bay; the latter of ears of corn. B. HEPINGIiiN. Goat, standing 
to I. ; under it, ?; in field to I., a mon. 

Note.— 'the Egyptian deities. Apis and Harpocrates, occur on coins of Perinthus (vid-e Hunter, Tab. 
42), as well as Sarapis and Isis. The present specimen from the Pembroke collection (618), is cited 
by Eckhel, and by Mionnet, Sup. II. p. 397. 

nEPINGIilN in two lines; below, arch or gate; to I. of which, ?. U. Figure 
standing to r., stretching both hands towards a large round object at his or her 
feet ; behind the figure, legend defaced. 

Domitianus. 

AYTOK. KAISAP A0MITIAN02 2EB. [PEP]. Head of Domitian to n B. nEPIN- 
GlilN. Fortune, standing to L ; in right hand, patera ; below which, altar ; 
in left hand, cornucopioe. 



B. nEPINeiON. 



Septimius Severus. 

AY. K. A. CE. CEYHPOO neP. Head of Sept. Severus to r. 
NEiiKOPiiN. Octastyle temple, adv. 

Caracalla. 

AY. K. M. AYP. ANTONGINOC. Head of Caracalla to r. B. nePINGTilN. NGfl- 
KOPiiN. Jupiter, seated to I. ; in right hand, patera ; left hand resting on 
hasta. 

AYT. K. M. AY P. CeOYHP. ANTaNINOC AYF. Radiate head of Caracalla to r. 
B. nePlNeiilN NGilKOPON AKTIA HYGIA. Two prize vases on a square 
table, each containing a palm-branch ; below, diota, and five balls. 

Same legend ; armed bust of Caracalla to r. B- nePINGiaN NGliKOPaN. Her- 
cules naked (chlamys on his arm), to I., looking r. ; right hand drawing arrow 
from quiver ; in left hand, bow ; three birds falling to the ground (the 
Stymphalides). 

Same legend and type. B. Same legend ; female, with modius on her head, to I. ; 
in each hand, a temple ; at her feet, an altar. 



Geta. 

A. cenTI. PETAC KAICAP. Bust of Geta to r. 
vase, containing a palm-branch. 



B. nepiNGiaN. NeaKOPiiN. A 



PERRHiEBIA Thessalise. 

Note. — Perrhsebia comprehended the western slopes of Mount Olympus, with the valleys watered 
by the Titaresiue, and its branches, which border upon Pelasgiotis of Thessaly, and northward upon 
Elimeia of Macedonia. In Travels in N. Greece (IV. p. 311), I have offered reasons for believing 
that the city of the Perrhsebi, mentioned by Livy (42, 53), and at which, we may suppose these coins 
to have been struck, was the same place as the Homeric Oloosson, which still preserves its ancient 
name. 

Free horse, running to r. ; in dotted circle. B. IIEPA. Pallas to r., kneeling on 
right knee ; in left hand, spear held horizontally ; in right hand, aegis ; the 
whole in quad, incus. 



I 



88 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

m 



M 
M 



M 



M 

M 

M 

M 
M 



M 



M. 






M 



Size 

4 + 



5+ 
4i 



Weight 



4.1 

2i 



u 



3- 
2 



84-8 



13-2 



43-8 



39-8 
12-9 



11 



Veiled female head, adv. IjL. IIEPPAIBilN in two lines ; between them, Jupiter, 
naked, to I. ; in right hand, fulmen ; left resting on hasta. 

Ttiis may perhaps be the Jupiter of the Ferrhsebian Dodona. 



Note.- 

Another similar. 

Head of Jupiter to r. R. IIEPPAIBQN, in two lines ; between them, figure, seated 
to r. ; right hand held up ; in left hand, ?. 

PHALANNA Thessalife. 

Note. — The ruined walls of Phalanna form a conspicuous object on the northern side of the great 
Pelasgic or Larisssean plain, where they occupy an extremity of Mount Titarus. — Vide Tr. in N. 
Greece, IV. p. 298. 

Young male head to r. B. *AAANNAI(Ea)N. Horse, trotting to r. ; tail thrown 
up ; head stall and bridle ; the latter tied in knot behind the neck. 

. . . OPIS. Head of Jupiter to r. R. *AAANNA. Female, seated to r. ; left 
hand extended towards a stork, standing before her to I. 

Young male head as on silver, to r. ft. *AAANNAIi2N. Female head to »•., hair 
in reticulum. 

Another. 

Two others similar. 

Another similar. 

Another similar. 

PHAE^ Bceotise. 

Note, — In the time of Strabo, Pharse was one of four subordinate rw/iai of the district of 
Tanagra. But this silver coin, and the ancient walls still extant at Andritza (;Me Tr. in N. Greece, 
II. p. 468), attest that Pharse was once a Boeotian town of greater importance, and render not 
unlikely the supposition mentioned by Strabo (p. 405), that instead of NliroV re ?a9fi/v in the Cata- 
logue, we ought to read *apas re taOia^. There is a similar coin of Mycalessus, another of the 
comse of the Tanagrice, of which walls are still extant. 

Boeotian shield. R. *A, Diota. 



PHARCADON Thessalise. 

Note. — Some remains of Pharcadon are found near Gritziano, a few miles from the left bank of 
the Peneius, between Pelinnseum and Atrax {Vide Tr. in N. Greece, IV. p. 317). 

Naked figure, his chlamys flying behind him, running to r., and holding the fore-half 

* A 
of a bull by the horns ; all in dotted circle, ft. O ^. Fore-half of a horse 

A A M 

to r. ; — in quad, incus. 

Another similar. 

Horse stepping to r., in dotted circle, ft. *APKAAO in two lines ; between them, 
Pallas, standing to r., her segis and its serpents projecting in front ; right hand 
resting on hip ; in left hand, spear held obliquely ; shield resting against knee. 

Another. 

Note. — This remarkable figure represents probably a statue of Minerva in her temple at Phar- 
cadon. 

PHARSALUS Thessalise. 

Note. — For a description of Pharsalus and its remains, tide Tr. in N. Greece, I. p. 448 ; IV. 
p. 475, seq. 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



89 



Metal 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 

M 

M 

M 
M 
M 



M 
JR. 
M 



M 

M 
M 
M 



M 



Size 

5- 

3-2 

3-2 
3-2 
3- 

5 + 
4i 



2i 
3+ 
2 



3- 
3- 

5-4 



2- 

2 
2 
3 
3+ 



2i 

^2 



Weight 

88-8 
52-5 

49-8 

43 



41-8 
32'4 
81-7 



12-7 



87-1 



45-8 



Youthful helmeted head to r. (Pallas ?) R. q A*. Horseman, galloping to r. 



B. ® AR. Head and neck of horse, to r. 



Head of Pallas, of archaic style, to r 

in quad, incus. 
Same type. R. *aR. Same type. 
Three others ; average weight, 45*5. 
Same type, of later date. H. *APS. Same type. 

Helmeted head, adv., towards I. (Pallas?) B. *AP€. Horseman, galloping to r. 
Same type. R. Horseman to r. ; right hand lifted up to strike a man on foot, in a 

defensive attitude, before him ; behind, another figure (female ?). 
Diademate and bearded head to r. (Jupiter, or Neptune ?) ft. *APSAAIiiN (much 

defaced) ; female, naked, with flying chlamys, on a ram, running to r. (Helle ?) 
Another similar. 

Head of Pallas to r. B. * Horseman to r. ; right arm raised. 

Another similar. 

PHENEUS Arcadise. 

Note. — Pheneus occupied one of those Arcadian valleys, which are so surrounded by mountains, 
that there is no issue for the watera, but through subterraneous channels. By the obstruction of 
that which carried off the river Olbius, the plain has more than once been inundated, and the Phe- 
neatre, during many years, have been deprived of several square miles of cultivated land. For the 
prior, as well as the present condition of the plain, vide Tr. in the Mor^a, III. p. 151. Pelopon- 
nesiaca, p. 385, and Map. Some vestiges of Pheneus are found in the northern part of the valley 
near the modern Foni4. 

Head of Ceres to I. U. *EN1K0N. Ox, standing to r. 

Another. 

Head of Ceres to l. B. 3n3*. Hermes, seated to I., amidst rocks ; right hand 

resting on caduceus ; left on rock ; naked, except chlamys on shoulders — hat 

hanging behind the neck. — Electroiype from the B. M. 

Note. — Pausanias informs us, that there was a temple of Ceres Eleusinia at Pheneus, where cere- 
monies were performed, similar to those of Eleusis ; also that there was another temple of Ceres not 
far from the city, at the foot of Mount Cyllene. Mercury was another deity held in peculiar venera- 
tion by the Pheneatee, as we learn from Cicero (Nat. Deor. 3. 22), and from Pausanias (Arcad. 14). 
The latter says, QiS>v Si rtfiSiaiv 'Epiirjv ^evtarai ixdXiara Kai aydva dyovaiv "Ep/iata. The ram 
relates to the same deity, iirt 'Ep/iijc fnaXiara SoKtl Btiov i(popav xai av^iiv noinvaq (Pausan. 
Corinth. 3). Hermes was often represented bearing a ram, or with a ram standing beside him. 

Head of Hermes to r. ; his hat hanging behind the neck R. Eam, standing to r. ; 

above it, *E ; below, AP. 
Same type. R. *E. Ram to r. 
Another. 

Same type. R. SIMOS. Ram to r. 
Head of Ceres to r. R. *E, in large letters ; between them, caduceus. 



PHER^ ThessalisE. 

Note. — Pherse, which possessed the south-eastern portion of Pelasgiotis, was, next to Larissa, the 
greatest city in Thessaly. At the modem Velestino, portions of its ancient walls are still extant, and 
remains of antiquity are often brought to light. But the most interesting feature of Phene is the 
beautiful fountain Hypereia, mentioned by Homer, and many later writers. — Vide Tr. in N. Greece, 
IV. p. 439. 

Fore-half of horse to I. R. Bud, or calyx, or pericarpium of some plant, opening to 
I. ; above it, in angle of quad, incus., ; below, E. — Electrotype from the B. M. 

Head, neck, and leg of horse, to r. R. Similar object, opening to r, ; above, 0E ; 
below, AT ; in quad, incus. 

[A a] 



90 



EUROPEAN GREECE, 



Metal 


Size 


M 


4+ 


M 


3i 


M 


4| 


M 


3 



Weight 

85-1 



JR. 



M 



M. 



37-5 



J 83-2 

92-7 
85-4 



4i 



Naked figure to r. ; hat hanging behind his head ; seizing a bull by both horns. 

B. *ERI. Horse, running to I., with bridle trailing on the ground, in quad. 

incus. ; in the upper angle of which to r., lion's head, with long stream of water 

flowing from it (Hypereia). — Electrotype from the B. M, 
Head of Diana to r. ; in field to r., bow. R. *EPAION. Lion's head to r. ; 

water, flowing from the mouth. 
Head of Ceres ? adv., towards I. ; in field to I., fish ?. fi. *EPAIil[N]. Female, 

adv., holding a torch horizontally with both hands, and seated on horse, running 

to r. 
Head of Apollo to ^ ; in field to r., symbol, resembling a whip or torch. 



in right 



or 
hand. 



m 



B- *EPAIOYN. Female figure, in long drapery, to I. 
field below, ASTO, in two lines, within a wreath. 

Note. — ^cpaiovv, Tbessalic^ for iffaiuv. — Vide supra, in Crannon, Gomphi. 

Alexandrus 

{Whose tyranny at Pherm commenced b. c. 369). 

Head of Apollo, adv., towards right ; in field to I., same symbol. R. AAESAN- 

[A]POY. Horseman, armed with helmet and cuirass, to r. ; in right hand, spear ; 

under the horse, bipennis. 

Head of Apollo to r. ; in field to r., same symbol, ft. AAEs:a[NAPOY]. Head 

of lion ton ^^^ 

Another similar. — This and tlie two preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 

Nate. — The symbol accompanying the head of Apollo on the coins of Phene, is probably an emblem 
of Victory ; and intended to represent a palm branch mounted on a handle. It resembles that which 
the horseman or genius bears on some of the coins of Philip II., where it alluded to his victory at 
Olympia. Alexander of Pheree may have attributed his success to the aid of Apollo. 



PHIALIA Arcadise. 

Note. — That Phigaleia, the greatest of the ancient cities of Arcadia, the walls of which, and its 
temple at Bassoe, are among the most interesting remains in Greece, should not have left any 
autonomous money, may perhaps be accounted for by the abundance of the Arcadian series, which 
was struck probably at the neighbouring Lycosura. With the exception of a coin of the Achaean 
league, inscribed <I>irAAEQN AXAIQN, the only coins of Phigaleia extant are imperial of Septimius 
Severus and his family, at which time the name had become *IAAIA, in consequence of the con- 
version of r into its modem aspirate sound, its subsequent elision in writing, and the iotacism of £1. 



Julia Domna. 

lOY. AOMNAN C6B. Bust of Julia Domna to r. B. 
in right hand, patera ; in left hand, cornucopise. 

Geta. 

Legend defaced ; bust of Geta to r. B. *IAAEaN. 
adv. ; in right hand, caduceus ; in left hand, ?, 

PHILIPPI Macedonife. 



*IAA6I/MN. Fortune to l.\ 



Draped and bearded figure, 



Note. — Soon after Philip, son of Amyntas, had recovered possession of Amphipolis, the key of the 
great Strymonian plains, which extend about sixty miles from Meleniko south-eastward as far as the 
sources of the Angitas, he discovered or obtained near Crenides, so named from its position at one of 
those sources, a rich gold mine, in a part of the same range of mountains, which, during the two pre- 
ceding centuries, had supplied the cities, and kings of Thrace and Macedonia, with the material of 
their currency in silver. The Thasii had derived gold also from the same mountains at Scapte Hyle, 
as appears from Herodotus (6, 46), confirmed by a Thasian gold coin, inscribed eASION HIIEIPO. 




EUROPEAN GREECE. 



91 



Metal 



N 

M 

M 

M 
M 
/E 

JE 

M 



M 



M 



Siie 



4 

3 

2 



Weight 



133 

47-6 
26-1 



3 
3 
3 

4-3 
3 



8-7 



(Mionnet, I. p. 433.) Philip enlarged Crenides, which was a small town in the district of Datus, 
and gave it the name of Philippi, The same mine, which produced the " regale nuniisma" in such 
numbers, gave Philippi the distinction of being almost the only city in European Greece, which struck 
money in gold. 

Youthful head of Hercules, covered with lion's scalp, to r. R. 4IAinnaN. Tripod ; 

above it, branch ; in field to r., Phrygian cap. 
Same type. R. Same legend ; same type, without branch ; in field to r,, bow. 

-TMs and the preceding are Electrotypes from the B. M. 
Same type. R. *IAinn[ilN]. Tripod; a fillet pendant from the crater, on each 

side ; in field to r., ?. 
Same type. R. <I>[AinniiN. Tripod. 

Br. Same legend and type ; in field to ?., club. 

R. Same legend and type ; in field to ^., ear of corn, and a letter or 



Same type. 
Same type. 

mon. 
Same type. 



M. 



891 



m 



4+ 



B. Same legend and type ; in field to r., ?. 
Same type to I. R. Same legend and type ; in field to ?., bow and quiver. 

Colonia Philippi. 

Claudius. 

[TI.] CLAVDIVS CAES Head of Claudius to I. R. COL. AVG. 

IVL. PHILIP. The emperor to ^., extending his right hand, and crowned by a 
figure behind him, both standing on one base ; on either side of which, an altar. 

Domitianus. 

IMP. CAES. DOMIT. [AVG.] GERM. COS. XVII. P. P. Head of Domitian to I. 
R. COL. AVG. IVL. PHILIP. Similar type. 

NoU. — The seventeenth and last consulship of Domitian was in a. d. 95. 



PHILIPPOPOLIS Thessali^. 

Note. — There were two cities in Thessaly to which Philip, son of Demetrius, gave the name 
Philippi or Philippopolis ; one of these was Thebte of Phthia (Polyb. 5, 100 ; Diodor. 26, 7), the 
other was Gromphi (Stephan. in 4>IAiniI0I). The testimony of Stephanus is indeed but slender, as he 
places Gomphi in Thesprotia ; but Gomphi was not less important to Philip as commanding the 
passes, leading through Athamania to Ambracia (Liv. 32, 14 ; 38, 2), than Thebte Phthioticse by its 
securing, together with Demetrias, the entrance into Thessaly by the Pagasetic Gulf. The question 
is decided in favour of Gomphi by the types of the following coin, which are the same on both sides 
as those of Gomphi. — Vvie supra, p. 53. 

Head of Apollo, adv. towards r. B. *IAinnonOAITi2N. Jupiter, seated on rock, 
to I. ; in right hand, hasta ; left resting on rock ; in field to I., fulmen. — Elec- 
trotype from the B. M, 



PHILIPPOPOLIS Thracise. 

U'ote. — The only autonomous coin of this city, known to Eckhel, had on one side the head of 
Bacchus, on the other *IAinnonOAI, and a tripod. Bacchus was held in especial veneration in 
Thrace. Besides his oracular temple, in the country of the Bessi and Orescii (vide sup. p. 81), there 
appears to have been another in Mount Hsemus, not far probably from PhilippopoUs (Schol. in 
Eurip. Hec, v. 1267). 

Antoninus Pius. 

AYT. AI. AAPI. ANTSINEIN . . Head of Antoninus Pius to r. B. *IAinnono- 
AElTiiN. Fortune to I. ; in right hand, patera; in left, comucopiae. 



92 



EUROPEAN GREECE. 



Metal 

JE 



M 



Size 
8 



10 



Weight 



JE 

JE 



4 



M 



10 



M 



5-4 



JR 



39-7 



AAPIA . . . ANTON Same type. Ti. *IAinnonOAEITnN. The 

river Hebrus, crowned with modius, seated on the ground to r. ; right elbow on 
rock, from which water flows ; left hand on left knee ; before him, a turreted 
female, standing to I. ; in right hand, patera ; in left, hasta. 

AYT. AiA. AAP, ANTflNpiNoe. Same type. R. 4iAinnonoAeiTaN em M. 

nON. CABeiNOY. Two river gods, recumbent and opposed ; above them, three 
mountains ; on that to I., a temple ; in that in the centre, an arch. 

N'ote. — The two rivers are those now called Pasha-tehai and Karldra, which unite at Filippdpoli, and 
form the Hebrus, now called Maritza. The three mountains are, 1. to the left, Rhodope, with a temple 
on its summit ; 2. the middle height, containing the Porta Trajana, on the road to Serdica ; 3. to the 
right, Mount Heemus. Philippopolis derived its name from Philip, son of Amyntas, who added the 
upper valley of the Hebrus to the iiingdom of Macedonia. Tlie Roman name Trimontium, which 
Philippopolis bore in the time of Pliny (4, 1 1 ), was not derived from the three mountains represented 
on the coin, but from three peaks of Sienite, which rise out of the plain, one in the modern town, 
the others near it to the west. 

Marcus Aurelius Cwsar. 

M. AYPHAIOC OYHPOC KAICAP. Head of Marcus Aurelius to r. R. *lAinnO- 
nOAGITiiN. Ceres, standing to I. ; in right hand, ears of com ; in left hand. 



long torch. 



CommoduB. 
Head of Commodus to r. 



B. Same legend ; lion. 



KOMOAOC. 

walking to r. 

AYT. K. M. AYP. [KOMOAOC] Bust of Commodus to r. B. *IAinnonOAEITON 
NEilKOPiiN. Hermes, naked, to I. ; in right hand, purse ; in left, caduceus, 
with chlamys round the arm. 

Caracalla. 

AYT. K. M. CEYH. ANTONEINOC. Radiate bust of Caracalla to r. R. AAE2?- 
ANAPEIA *I. KOINON OPAKilN. Prize vase, containing two palm branches, 
on a square table ; below which, a small vase and globules. — Electrotype. 

Note. — The games Alexandreia, to which the legend and types of the reverse of this coin refer, were 
doubtless instituted by Caracalla in his passage through Thrace in a.d. 214, when he assumed 
the character and name of Alexander the Great. — Vide supra, p. 64. 

Elagalalus. 

AYT. K. M. AYP. ANTil Bust of Elagabalus to r. R. *IAinnonOA6ITIlN 

NGiiPOPilN. Serpent, twined round the middle of a tripod. 



PHLIUS Achaise. 

Note. — Some remains of Phlius are found at Polyfengo, thirteen geographical miles direct to the 
south-westward of Corinth.— Fufo Tr. in the Mor&, III. p. 340. 

Bull, hutting to I. R. Great * ; in a wreath of ivy. 

Note. — The bull on this coin is a symbol of the river Asopus, which was held in particular 
honour by the Phliasii, and was said to have received its name from Asopus, who was son of 
Neptune, and father of Corcyra, Thebe, and iEgina. The fountain Peirene of the Aero Corinthus 
was fabled to have been the gift of Asopus, and the river itself to have been derived from the 
Mseander by a subterraneous course, like the Arethusa of Syracuse from the Alpheius (Pausan. 
C