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APRIL, 1846. JANUARY, 1846. 

Factum abiit^-monumenta manent. Ov. Fust. 




.83MYUJ 30 OUO 3HT 

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Notes on Types of Caulonia ; by S. Birch, Esq. . . 163 

An Attempt to explain some of the Monograms found 
upon the Greek Coins of Ariana and India ; by A. 
Cunningham, Esq. . . . . . .175 

On certain Greek and Roman Coins of Locri, Bruttii 
Tyra, Sarmatia Demetrius II., of Syria Arta- 
xerxes I., of Persia -Augustus, denarii Nero 
Uncertain by George Sparkes, Esq. . . . 118 

Inedited Greek coins: Viminacium, Mcesia (Gallus 
and Volusian) Apamea, Bithynise (M. Aurelius) 
Nicsea, Bithynia (Severus Alexander) Plarasa and 
Aphrodisias, Caria Stratonicsea, Caria (Caracalla 
and Geta) Tabse, Caria (Gallienus) Tarsus, Cilicia 
(M. Aurelius) Magydus, Pamphylia (Domitian) 
Tiberiopolis, Phrygia (Antoninus Pius); by S. Birch, 
Esq 39 

Unedited Autonomous and Imperial Greek Coins: Dali- 
sandus, Lycaonia Coracesium, Cilicia Mallus, 
Cilicia Olba, Cilicia Glides, Cyprus Hypaepa, 
Lydia Blaundus, Lydia Hyrcania, Lydia 
Maeonia, Lydia Philadelphia, Lydia Saetteni, 
Lydia Sardes, Lydia Silandus, Lydia Teme- 
nothyrae, Lydia Thyatira, Lydia Tralles, Lydia 
Accilaeum, Phrygia Alia, Phrygia Apamea, 
Phrygia Appia, Phrygia Attuda, Phrygia Beudos 
vetus, Phrygia Briana, Phrygia Bruzus, Phrygia 
Cadi, Phrygia Cadi and Aezani, Phrygia Chotis, 



Cibyrae rex Cidyessus, Phrygia Clannuda, Phry- 
gia Colossae, Phrygia Cotiaeum, Phrygia 
Diococlea, Phrygia Dionysopolis, Phrygia Doci- 
mseum, Phrygia Eumenia, Phrygia Gordium, 
Phrygia Hierapolis, Phrygia Hyrgalea, Phrygia 

Julia, Phrygia Laodicea, Phrygia Ococlea, 
Phrygia Otrus, Phrygia Philomelium, Phrygia 
Sebaste, Phrygia Sibidonda, Phrygia Siblia, 
Phrygia Stectorium, Phrygia Synaos, Phrygia 

Themisonium, Phrygia; by H. P. Borrell, Esq. . 2 
On two newly discovered Silver Tetradrachms of Amyntas, 

king of Galatia, with some remarks on the diminu- 
tion in weight of the Attic Drachma; by Thomas 
Burgon, Esq. &I-. >![j>i^ii"i ' : I .sir, oft \< %nt 69 

Numismatic Illustrations of the Narrative Portions of the 

New Testament ; by the Editor .:a*>- tfl. <t r mo H rt- 133 

Numismatic Scraps, Nos. I. and II. ; by the Rev. Henry 
Christmas. Consular Third Brass : Hirtius. 
Large Brass : Postumus Junior Small Brass : Te- 
tricus Senior ; Volusian ; Jovian . . .' . 36-7 

Numismatic Scraps, Nos. III. and IV. ; by the Rev. Henry 
Christmas. On Coins of Thurium ; of Alexandria 
Troas; of Otacilia Severa . . . T . ^ . 125-7 

On a Coin of Guy de Lusignan, king of Cyprus ; by J. 

E. Fitzgerald, Esq. . . . . . .197 

Numismatic Scraps, Nos. I. and III., by the Rev. Henry 

Christmas, Saxon and English Coins . . .37-125 
Numismatic Scraps, No. II., by the Rev. Henry Christmas, 

On a Penny of the Archbishop of Cologne . . 38 
On a curious foreign Sterling ; by Edward' Hoare, Esq. . 1 

On a Medal of Sir John Fortescue ; by B, N. . 50 



On Tokens issued by Wiltshire Tradesmen ; by the Editor 97 
On Leaden Tokens found in London ; by the Editor . 116 
On an unedited Coin of one of the early Kings of Abyssinia ; 

by D. Edward Riippell, Esq. . . . .121 

Varieties of the Irish Base Groats of Philip and Mary ; by 

Edward Hoare, Esq. (Miscellanea) . . .170 

On concurrent Medal Money and Jewel Currency ; by W. 

B. Dickinson, Esq 207 

Letter from Mr. Hoffman ...... 50 


Contents of Revue Numismatique, from January to Octo- 

ber, 18<4 (Miscellanea) 51-172 

Contents of Revue de la Numismatique Beige. Vol. I. 

(Miscellanea) ....... 59 

Extracts from the Bulletino dell' Instituto, from January 

to September, 1844 (Miscellanea) . . . .128 
A View of the Coinage of Scotland ; by John Lindsay 

(Miscellanea) . . . . . . .171 


English near Portaferry, County Down, p. 49 at York, 
p. 123 at Bermondsey, p. 170 in Gothland, 

Roman near Dijon, p. 49. 


P. 212, in note 6, line 4. erase the word " and " after " cloth." 

P. 216, note 11, line 6 from bottom, for " mobogs" read " moboys" 




DEAR SIR, I send you a drawing, and sealing-wax 
impression of a curious silver coin (weight, 22 grains), 
which, with a few others, some foreign sterlings, and some 
short-cross pennies of our disputed Henry, I purchased 
about four years since from a travelling country-pedlar, 
who obtained them either in this, or some of the adjoining 

It is, I think, evidently struck in imitation of the short- 
cross pennies of our disputed Henry. 

It bears, on the obverse, a very rude head and hand, 
with a key like a sceptre, and with the legend, " S^NdT 9 
P6TR* ;" and on the reverse, the double short-cross, and 
pellets, exactly similar to our Henry, with the legend 
around, " +QONRSDVS GP," meaning, I conclude, Con- 
radus Episcopus." 

If, therefore, some of your learned correspondents, or 
some of the members of the Numismatic Society (as refer- 
ences are not easily to be had here, with us, provincials), 
can point out where., and when, Conradus was bishop, this 
coin might, in some degree, assist towards the exact appro- 
priation of the short-cross pennies of our still more than 

VOL. vin. B 


ever disputed Henry, of which it appears certainly to be 
struck in imitation (as the Flemish sterlings were after- 
wards of the pennies of our Edwards), and most probably 
at a contemporary period. 1 Believe me, dear Sir, yours 
very faithfully, EDWARD Ho ARE. 

p.S. The drawing of the coin has been taken by Mr. 
Lindsay ; and I must also add, on comparison, with the 
most faithful accuracy. 

Cork, May 20, 1845. 
To the Editor of the Numismatic Chronicle. 



( Tenth Notice.) 

[Read before the Numismatic Society, April 24th, 1845.] 

AY. K.M. IOY. $IAIimOC CEB. Laureated head of 

Philip, senior, to the right. 

R. AAAICANAE11N KOINON AYKAO. Naked figure of 
Hercules standing, a club in his right hand. JE. 7. 

This is the only coin known of the town of Dalisandus. 
It is not only interesting as being unique, but equally so 
on account of the legend, which marks the position of the 
city to have been in the province of Lycaonia. AAAICAN- 
AG&N KOINON AYKAO, The community of the Dalisandians 
of Lycaonia. 

1 There was a Conrad, bishop of Metz, in the reign of our 
Henry the Third, by whom it may have been issued. We should 
have attributed it, however, to Conrad of Cologne, at about the 
same period, if it had borne the style of Archbishop. ED. NUM. 


Cellarius 1 describes Dalisandus as an ancient city of 
Cappadocia; the Synecdemus of Hierocles assigns it to 
Isauria; and Ptolemy 2 places it in Armenia, in the prae- 
fecture of Cataonia. Some authors have considered, that 
the Lalassis of Pliny, 3 and the Lalassandus of Stephanus, 
were the same as Dalisandus. This opinion may be true 
with regard to Lalassandus ; but the existence of Lalassis 
is testified by ancient coins which are well known. 

Those who place Dalisandus in Isauria, may not be 
incorrect, as Isauria itself, according to Strabo, 4 was 
included in Lycaonia. TT)? 8e Avicaovias earl KCLI 77 ^laav- 
pi/cr}. Lycaonice etiam est etiam Isaurica ad ipsum Tau- 
rum. In fact, the limits of these provinces, as well as 
most others of the Lesser Asia, are very ill defined. 

The present coin, which was struck under the emperor 
Philip the elder, bears on the reverse a naked figure of 
Hercules in a standing position, his club resting on the 
ground, in every way similar to the same god on the coin 
which I have given in these notices to the Lycian city 
Balbura. It was brought to me from Iconium, in Lycaonia, 
in 1828, and is now in the British Museum. 



Maxiraus to the right. 

R. KOPAKHCIOTON. Figure helmeted, standing ; a patera 
in the right hand, and the hasta in the left. ^E. 9|. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.} 

Coracesium being situated on the confines of Lycia, 
Cilicia, and Pamphylia, it is not extraordinary that geogra- 

1 Geogr. Ant. lib. iii. cap. 6. 

2 Lib. v. cap. 7., written Dacisandus in some texts of this 
author, but wrongly. See Wilberg's edition. Essendiae, 1844. 

3 Lib.v. cap. 10. 4 Lib. xii. p. 568. 


phers assign it sometimes to one or to the other of these 
provinces. Strabo 5 speaks of it as a fortress of considerable 
strength, upon a rugged mountain in Cilicia Trachea. It 
was used by Diodotus, surnamed Tryphon, as a depot for 
arms, when he revolted against Antiochus, king of Syria. 
Pliny 6 designates it as a city on the western frontier of 

The coins of Coracesium are rarely met with. The 
present of Maxim us, differs from the few already described. 


S. VALEN. OSTIL. MES. QUINTUM (very barbar- 
ous characters). Radiated head of Messius Quintus to 
the right. 

R. MALLO COLON The genius of the city seated on 

a rock, veiled ; at her feet, two river-gods ; on each 
side, a Roman standard ; on the one S, on the other C. 

Historians have neglected to inform us that Mallus ever 
received a Roman colony ; and this is the only coin which 
establishes the fact. Its authenticity is indubitable; but 
the fabric, and the legend on either side, are remarkably 
barbarous. In 1836, this curious coin passed from my 
cabinet into that of J. R. Steuart, Esq. 


No. 1. AYTO. KAI. AOY. AYPH. OYHPOC C6. Laureated 
head of Lucius Verus, to the right. 

R. ANT&NIAMIN OABGilN. The figures of Marcus 

Aurelius and Lucius Verus, both habited in the toga, 
standing, joining right hands ; one holds a scroll in his 
left hand ; in the field, OMONOIA ; on exergue, some 
indistinct letters. JE. 9. (Royal Collection at Paris, 
from my cabinet.) 

5 Lib.xiv. p. 668. 

6 Lib. v. cap. 26. See Forbiger, Handbuch der alten Geogra- 
phic, ii. p. 278, for farther notices of this place. 



head of Caracalla, to the right. 
R. AAP. ANT. OABGilN MH. KH. Jupiter sitting, to the 

left ; a globe in his extended right hand, surmounted 

by a figure of Victory crowning him with a wreath ; 

the long sceptre held perpendicularly in his left hand. 

&. 9. (British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

Excepting a unique colonial coin published by Sestini, 7 
the preceding are the only coins known of Olba. The first, 
struck under the emperor Lucius Verus, offers on the reverse 
the type of concord between that emperor and M. Aurelius. 

The more important of the two is that of Caracalla, on 
the reverse of which is the legend AAP. ANT. OAB6ON 
MH. KH., which proves this city to be the same as that 
called Olbus by Strabo, 8 and Olbasa by Ptolemy.9 The 
latter geographer informs us that it was the capital of 
Cetis, a small district of Cilicia; or Citis, according to 
Basil of Seleucia. 10 As there can be hardly a doubt that 
the letters MH. KH. are intended for Metropolis Cetidce, 
this coin has enabled us to determine the correct ortho- 
graphy of the name of the city, which has been transmitted 
to us in a corrupt manner, probably by the errors of copyists. 

At Olba was a celebrated temple of Jupiter, of remote 
antiquity, said to have been founded by Ajax, brother of 
Teucer, 11 and of which the princes of the Kennati were 
high priests. The type of the coin alludes to the worship 
of that deity. 

Olba was situated to the westward of that part of Cilicia, 
which, from the rugged nature of the country, was called 
Tracheotis, near the foot of the range of Taurus, on a 
branch of the Calycadnus. 

7 Descr. dell Med. Gr. del Mus. Hederv. torn. ii. p. 289, No. 1. 

8 Lib.xix. p. 672. 

9 Lib. v. cap. 8. See Forbiger, ii. p. 273. 

10 Life of Thecla. Strabo, loc. cit. 



The coin first published by Pellerin, 12 and subsequently 
by Mionnet, 13 which was presumed to belong to the small 
island of Glides, near Cyprus, must be transferred to Cher- 
sonesus, in the island of Crete. The object those authors 
supposed to be a key, is merely a monogram composed of 
the letters XEP. Similar coins are constantly found in 
Crete, with others well known of Chersonesus. Glides 
must consequently renounce her claim to numismatic 


NEPWN MESAAAINA. Heads of Nero and Statilia 
JVlessalina, face to face, that of Nero laureated. 

R. rAior HPicirmoc YILAIIIHNON. Juno Pronuba, 

standing front face. 14 JE>. 7. (My cabinet.) 

The coins of Statilia Messalina, third wife of Nero, are 
of extreme rarity. One published by Haym, 15 above one 
hundred and twenty years ago, struck at Ephesus, remains 
unique. A coin of Nero, however, lately published by 
Millingen, 16 and probably struck at Nicaea, in Bithynia, 
has Messalina. On the reverse she is represented in a 
sitting position. Millingen remarks, and I coincide with 
him in opinion, that the two coins assigned to this empress 
by Sestini, 1 ? struck at Ephesus and Thyatira, must be 
regarded with suspicion; that in particular of Thyatira, 
which reads STAT. MESSAAINA, is unusual, and conse- 
quently more than doubtful. 

12 Rec. torn. iii. p. 53. 13 Tom. iii. p. 617, No. 45. 

4 Mionnet, in his Suppt. vii. p. 5 11, No. 115, has published an 
imperfect coin, which he ascribes to Nero and Agrippina, under 
Apamea, in Phrygia. I have no doubt it is the same as mine. 

5 Tess. Brit. torn. ii. pi. iv. No. 9. 

5 Sylloge of Ancient Unedited Coins, p. 64. pi. iii. No. 38. 
7 Lett. Num. t. iv. p. 1 12, and p. 123. Mionnet. Suppt. t. vi. 
p.129, No. 341, and Suppt. vii. p. 446, No. 594. 


My coin, which is in fine preservation, offers a remark- 
able peculiarity in the orthography of the name of the 
empress, which reads Mesallina^ instead oiMessalina. The 
reverse presents a figure of Juno Pronaba, which is the 
prevailing type on the money of Hypaepa. 

I find Mionnet has described a coin of Nero of this city, 
which he reads FPIOY HPlEimiOC, 18 and another with 
IinEinnoE. 19 I am of opinion that they are both incor- 
rect, and should be read like mine, TAIOY HPICinnoC. 


OYGCflACIANOC KAICAP CGB. Laureated head of 

Vespasianus, to the right 

KAAYAIOC $OINI#. Apollo, in female attire, stand- 
ing ; a lyre resting on a column in his left hand ; the 
plectrum in his right. 2&. 6. (British Museum, from 
my cabinet.) 

A similar coin to this is published in Wiczay, 20 incor- 
rectly described as follows : 

reated, sm. 

$OIN1. I1PIM11A1OC (HPnex). Apollo Stolatus sm. 
standing, with a plectrum. S. lyram columnao impositam. 

Unable to explain the last two words on the reverse, 
$OINI HPIMliAIOC, Sestini 21 proposed reading KOINON 
I1PO. AYAIOC. My coin, which is in perfect preservation, 
serves to rectify both those errors. It is also worthy of 

18 Tom. iv. p. 52, No. 273. 

19 Suppt. tom.vii. p. 357, No. 180. 

20 Mus. Hederv. t. i. p. 241. 

21 Lett, e Diss. Num. t. vi. p. 78. tab. 2. fig. 4. Mionnet, 
Suppt. vii. p. 330, No. 74. 


remark, that the name of the city is written here BAAOYN- 
AGON, the only instance, I believe, yet observed on the 
numerous coins of this city. 


Naked head of Mercury, to the right ; the caduceus over 

his shoulder. 
R. YPKANftN. Serpent entwined round a staff. JE. 4. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

Hyrcania was probably the chief resort of the descendants 
of a colony of Hyrcanians, who were established in that 
part of Lydia by the Persians, which from them was called 
Hyrcanus-Campus. At a later date they were joined by 
some Macedonians, when, collectively, they took the name 
of " Hyrcani-Macedones"' 1 ' 2 ' But although the city of Hyr- 
cania is not mentioned by ancient geographers, we may 
presume, from a passage in Livy, 23 that it was not far 
distant from Thyatira ; and this opinion is strengthened by 
the resemblance of some of its coins to these, not only of 
Thyatira, but of the neighbouring towns of Acrasus and of 

The type on the reverse of my coin alludes to the 
worship of ^Esculapius, whose symbols prevail upon most 
of the few coins of this city which have reached us. 


No. 1. AHMOC MAIO. Juvenile male head. 

R. eni 16. ZHN&NOC LTY. Jupiter JEtophorus stand- 
ing, in the field ; Tii in monogram, and the letter A. 
& 5. (My cabinet.) 

On this unpublished coin of Maeonia, we find the letters 

22 Strabo, lib. xiii. p. 629. Pliny, lib. v. cap. 29. Tacitus 
Annal. lib. iii. cap. 47. 23 Lib> xxxv ii. cap 33. 


ie, abbreviation for 'lepevs, priest, which precedes the name 
of Zenon. This is a further proof that the priesthood were 
eligible to municipal offices, or to the magistracy. 

No. 2. MAIONON. Naked bearded head of Hercules, to the 

R. em AHMHTPIOY. Omphale standing, with the attri- 
butes of Hercules. JE. 4. (My cabinet.} 

Similar devices of Hercules and Omphale occur on a 
coin of this city in Christopher Ramus, 24 but accompanied 
with a different magistrate's name. 

No. 3. A. K. AYP. BHPOC. Naked head of Verus to the right. 
R. Gill KYINTOY AP. AYP. MAIOM1N. Pallas Nice- 
phorus, standing. JE. 8. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

4. AY. KAI. A. Cen. C6YHPOC nGPTtN. Laureated 
head of Sept. Severus, to the right. 

K. Gill IOYAIA OYA MAIONilN. Bacchus, 

crowned with ivy, clad in a loose tunic, holding the 
thyrsus ; he is seated on a highly ornamented car drawn 
by two centaurs, one holding a club in each hand, the 
other a long torch. M. 10. 

(Bank of England, from my cabinet.) 

This last has almost the dimensions of a medallion, and is 
of elegant fabric. The subject refers to the worship of 
Bacchus, and probably commemorates some procession 
connected with his mysteries. The Lydians, as well as the 
Carians and Phrygians, were devotedly attached to this 


TAIOS KAISAP. Naked head of Caligula, to the right ; 
behind, a star. 

side by side, of Julia and Agrippina. A palm branch 
behind. JE> 4. (British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

Another, like the above, but without the magistrate's 
24 Cat. Mus. Vet. Reg. Daniae, t. i. p. 277, No. 1. 



name, is published by Mionnet; 25 the star behind the head 
of the emperor is also seen upon his Roman silver coinage. 
The palm branch which accompanies the sisters, Julia and 
Agrippina, probably alludes to public games which had 
been celebrated at the expense of the Philadelphians, in 
honour of the imperial family, during the magistracy of 


No. 1 . C AITTAI. Turreted female head to the right. 

R. CAITTHNilN. Hercules naked ; club across his shoul- 
der, dragging after him the dog Cerberus. IE. 4. 

(My cabinet.) 

The twelfth and last of the labours of Hercules is seldom 
represented on ancient coins, and is new on those of 
Saetteni. Caves existed in Asia, as well as at Taenarus, 
from whence, it is said, Hercules brought away Cerberus. 
One is mentioned near Heraclea, in Pontus, at a place 
called Acherusius. 26 

2. I6PA CYNKAHTOC. Juvenile female head, 
TO. B. CAITTHNftN. Cybele seated; in her ex- 
tended right hand, a patera ; a lion at her feet. JE. 12. 
(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

All the autonomous coins that have reached us of this 
city are small. The most interesting feature of the present 
is its size. It was, however, no doubt struck during the 
Roman domination, probably in the reign of Gordian, as 
the same archon's name is repeated on a medallion of that 
emperor, cited by Vaillant. 

3. Beardless and naked head of Hercules, his club over his 

R. CAITTHNIiN. Isis standing ; the sistrum in her right 

hand, and the calathus in her left. JE. 4. 

(My cabinet, and British Museum.) 

25 Tom. iv. p. 101, No. 554. 2 * Xenoph. Anab. lib. vi. 


It would appear that in Asia, as well as in Italy, there 
was a period when the worship of the Egyptian deities, Isis 
and Serapis, enjoyed great favour. In Asia, particularly, 
it seems to have been simultaneously and widely adopted; 
for we find constant allusion to it upon numerous coins of 
a large number of cities in the provinces of Caria, Lydia, 
and Phrygia, all apparently issued at about the same period 
of time. 

No. 4. $AYCTGINA CGBAC. Head of the younger Faustina, 

to the right. 

R. em TITIANOY CAITTHNON. Naked figure of Apollo 
leaning against a column, a laurel branch in his right 
hand. JEi. 4. (My cabinet.) 

Faustina, the younger, now appears on the coins of 
Saetteni for the first time. On the reverse is Apollo 
Daphnephorus, which occurs again on a coin of Crispina, 
published by Haym, and as they are both exactly alike, it 
is probable they represent some celebrated statue which 
ornamented the city. 


The small silver coin assigned to this city by Mionnet 
(Suppt. vii. p. 411, No. 421), belongs to Maronea, in Thrace. 
We are consequently still without silver money of Sardes, 
excepting the Cistophori. 


No. 1. AOMITIANOC KAICAP. Laureated head of Domi- 
tianus, to the right. 

R. EHI AHMO$IAOY CIAANA Pallas standing ; a 

patera in her right hand, a long spear in her left; 
behind her, a shield. JE. 5. 

(Bank of England, from my cabinet.) 

2 AYT. K. M. AYR. ANTONGINOC. Laureated bust of 
Caracalla, to the right. 


R. Gill OT AHOAAilN A?. A. TO. B. CIAAN- 

AEON. Pallas and Fortune standing opposite to each 
other. IE. 12. (Bank of England, from my cabinet.) 

These coins of Silandus are remarkable : that of Domi- 
tianus on account of its being earlier than any imperial coin 
of this city yet known ; that of Caracalla for its magnitude. 
From the legend on this last, we learn that it was struck 
under Apollonius, whilst vested with the functions of senior 
archon of the Silandians for the second time. 


No. 1. -AHMOC fcAABIOnOAGrmN. Juvenile male head, 
to the right. 

R. MAPKOC APX. A. THMeNO0YP6YCI. Pallas seated ; 
a Victory in her right hand, a lance in her left ; lean- 
ing on a shield. JE. 9. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

2. iePA CYNKAHTOC. Juvenile female head, to the 

standing ; a globe in one hand, the hasta in the other. 
^E.6. (Same cabinet, from same.) 

3. THMeNOC OIKICTHC. Naked profile of Temenus, to 
the right. 

R. MAPKOC APX. A. THM6N00YPYCI. Lunus, as 
last. M.7. (My cabinet.) 

A coin of the same size, and type on the obverse as 
No. 1., is published by Mionnet, from the Rev. Mr. Arun- 
dell's collection. They were both brought to Smyrna 
from a place called Oushak, near to which most of the 
coins of Temenothyrae that have come under my notice 
have been found. This may lead us to conclude, that the 
city must have been situated somewhere in that neighbour- 
hood. It is not in my power to determine what is intended 
by the legend AHMOC fcAABIOnOAeiTON. Does it de- 
note an alliance between a city, Flaviopolis and Temeno- 
thyrae ? I rather imagine, that at some particular period 


the people of this city may have adopted the name, or 
rather surname of Flaviopolitans, in honour of the family 
of Vespasian; another example of which we have with 
Cretia, or Gratia, in Bithynia. 

On the obverse side of No. 3, we find the profile of 
Temenus, the founder of the city, with the legend THMENOC 
OIKICTHC, instead of KTICTHC, as on others published by 
Mionnet and Eckhel. 


Cista, or mystic chest of Bacchus, out of which protrudes 

a serpent, the whole encircled by a wreath of ivy. 
1\. Two serpents entwined ; between them a bow and quiver, 
in the field ; to the left, TA ; above, a thunderbolt ; 
on the right, a small female head ; in the field are 
detached letters, B. A. B., and EY. AR. 8. 

(Royal collection at Paris, from my cabinet.) 

Here we have another city to add to the list of those 
which struck these mysterious coins, known by the name 
of cistopliori. Like that struck at Smyrna, which I have 
described in a former notice, it is unique. This of Thyatira 
is the more remarkable, as there exists no other silver 
money of this city. 


No. 1 Lion's skin on a club ; within a wreath of oak leaves. 
R. TPAA. HPYT. Bunch of grapes and vine leaves ; in 
the field, a cornucopia. AR. 5. 91^ grs. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 
2. Another ; in the field, on reverse, a small female figure. 

AR. 5. 90 grs. (My cabinet.) 

3. Lion's skin on a club ; within a wreath of oak leaves. 
R. TPAA. Bunch of grapes. AR. 3. 45 grs. (My cab.) 

Sestirii 27 publishes a coin a little different from No. 3. 

27 Descriz. dell Med. Gr. del Mus. Hederv. torn. ii. p. 327, 
No. 24. tab. xxv. fig. 6. Mionnet, Suppt. vii. p. 461, No. 658. 


Those under Nos. 1 and 2 are quite new. They must be 
ranged with the same class of coins as that I have given to 
Ephesus in a preceding notice, that is, a subdivision of the 
cistophorus. The weight, 90 to 9 I grs., corresponds to the 
half, as does No. 3, of 45 grains, to the quarter of that coin. 
It is only of late years that numismatists have been aware 
of the existence of these subdivisions of the cistophorus. 
As upon the larger coin, so there appears to have been a 
peculiar type adopted for the subdivisions, by the unani- 
mous consent of all the cities which struck this species of 


No. l.AYT. K. M. ANTO. TOPAIANOC. Laureated head of 
Gordianus Pius, to the right. 

R. AKKIAA6HN. Victory on a globe ; a laurel crown in 
her right hand, a palm branch in her left. JE. 7. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

2. Legend, and head like the preceding. 

R. AKKIAAG&N. Lunus, or Mensis, standing; his left 
foot placed on the prow of a galley ; a conical-shaped 
stone, or pine-apple, in one hand, and the hasta in the 
other. IE. 7. (Same cabinet, from same.) 

When I first noted these coins in the year 1831, before 
they passed into the collection of the British Museum, 
Mionnet 28 had not then published the coin which nearly 
resembles my No. 2. I find I have copied the legend on 
both ; AKKIAAG&N, Accilaeum ; whilst Mionnet reads on 
that he cites, AKKIAAGON, or Accillea. As I retained no 
impressions of these coins, I am unable to say, at this 
distant period, whether my version be the correct one. 
This I remember, that they were both in the finest state of 

28 Suppt. tom.vii. p.481, Nos. 1 and 2. 


preservation, and therefore I can hardly believe myself 
mistaken. 29 

Accilaeum (as I shall still call it), is probably the same 
as the Arcelium of the itinerary of Antoninus, placed by 
that authority between Dorylaeum and Germa, in Phrygia 
Salutaris. This position is well implied by the fabric of 
the coins. I have in my possession a coin of Acmonia, 
and another of Bruzus, struck under the same emperor, 
on both of which the head of the emperor appears to have 
been engraved by the same artist, or even struck from the 
same dye as those of Accilaeum. In every instance, the 
letter c, terminating the name TOPAIANOC, is carried out 
in the field, for the want of room to complete the legend. 


No. 1. AHMOC. Juvenile male head, to the left. 

R. AAlHNilN. Apollo, standing; quiver over his shoulder, 

bending a bow. IE. 6. (My cabinet.) 
2. ATT. K. M. ANT. TOPAIANOC. Laureated head of 

Gordianus Pius, to the right. 
R. AAlHNftN. Tetrastyle temple. JE. 6. (My cabinet.) 

Both autonomous and imperial coins of Alia are scarce. 
The two preceding offer nothing remarkable, excepting 
their being unedited. 


Mionnet (in his Suppt. vii. p. 511, No. 155), has erro- 
neously ascribed to Apamea, a coin bearing the heads, as 
he presumes, of Nero and Agrippina. I have not the least 
doubt it is the same as that of Nero and Statilia Messa- 
lina, which I have classed to Hypaepa, in Lydia, in these 

29 On referring to the coins themselves in the British Museum, 
we find Mr. Borrell's reading to be correct. ED. 



No. 1 . Helraeted bust of Pallas, to the right. 

ft. AliniAN&N. Inscribed in three lines, occupying the 
whole of the field, within a wreath of laurel. JE. 4. 

(My cabinet.) 

2. BOYAH. Veiled female head, to the right. 
ft. EH. AN... I. APX. AIH1IAN&N. Naked figure of 
Bacchus, standing ; cantharus in right hand, and 
thyrsus in left. 31 JE. 4. 

(Cabinet of M. Fontana, at Trieste.) 

The Appiani are mentioned by Pliny, 32 as well as the 
city of Appia, which was situated in Phrygia Pacatiana, 
and belonged to the conventus, of which Synnada was the 
chief city. It was a bishopric in the seventh century, as 
we find the name of Peter, bishop of Appia, who assisted 
at the sixth general council held at Constantinople in the 
year 680-81. 

No coins of Appia are mentioned by any numismatic 
writer. The two present offer nothing remarkable. The 
style of their execution, and their types, assimilate them to 

30 The position of this city was discovered in December 1843, 
by M. Philip le Bas, member of the French Institute, employed 
on a scientific mission by his government. This gentleman kindly 
communicated to me the following note: "Appia s'appelle 
aujourd'hui Abia. C'est un village a dix milles a TO. N. O. de 
Gaedjelar, village a environ 10 heures a TO. de Kutaya dans la 
vallee d'Altentasch." M. le Bas found at Gaedjelar a mile-stone, 
on which he read, AIIO. AIII1IAC 


It is remarkable that this rare coin has never been published, 
as twelve years have now elapsed since I took an impression from 
it at Trieste. 32 L^ iv. cap. xxix. 


the money of other cities in the same province. The 
archon's name on No. 2 is unfortunately illegible. 


No. 1. Turreted female head to the right. 

\ t Naked figure of Apollo, standing, leaning on a 
\ column, holding out an arrow in his right hand. 
.*; AR.4. 53 T V 

2. AHMOC ATTOYAGON. Bearded head, to the right. 
R. AO. . ..T AM. .. .Apollo standing, front face; a bow in 
one hand, and a laurel branch in the other. JE. 4. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

3. AY. KAI. AOY. CGI1. CGYHPOC lie?. Laureated head 
of Sept. Severus, to the right. 

R. AYTOK. KAI. A ATTOYAGftN. The emperor on 

horseback, at full speed, hurling a javelin ; below, two 

captives. M. 11. (Bank of England, from my cabinet.} 

4. AY. K. TAAAIHNOC. Radiated head of Gallieuus, to 

the right. 

R. AITrOYAGON (sic.) Cybele, standing, front face, be- 
tween two lions. JEt. 9. (Same cabinet, from same.) 

The Ecclesiastical Notices alone mention Attuda as a 
city of Phrygia, but its site is unknown. The coins, both 
autonomous and imperial, are numerous, and many of their 
types, on those cited by Haym, Vaillant, Pellerin, and 
Sestini, are highly interesting. 

Hitherto, however, we were without any coins of Attuda 
in silver. In fact, with the exception of a very few cities of 
Lesser Asia, but more particularly those of the provinces 
of Caria, Lydia, and Phrygia, silver coins are scarcely ever 
found. No. 1, which is of that metal, consequently merits 
attention. There is nothing particular, however, in the 
types. The obverse presents us with a head of Cybele, or 
perhaps the genius of the city ; and on the reverse is 
Apollo, leaning on a column. Both these representations 
are of frequent occurrence on the coins of this country. 
The variations in the orthography adopted in writing the 



name of this town on these coins is singular. We have 
latter forms appear to be the exceptions, the first reading 
being the only one observed upon all the coins hitherto 


.... AAPIANOC. Laureated head of Hadrian, to the 

R. BGYAHNON A A Apollo standing, naked ; a lyre in 

his left hand, a laurel branch in his right. IE. 5. 

Ptolemy places Beudos in Pamphylia ; but from Livy 33 
it would appear to have been situated in Phrygia. In 
describing the march of the Consul Manlius against the 
Gallo-Grecians, the historian says, that, after entering the 
plain of Metropolis from Aporis, he marched to Synnada, 
and then to Beudos-vetus, from which it was distant but 
five miles. The following day he went to Anabura, the 
next to the sources of the Alandrus, and the next to 
Abassus, which brought him to the frontiers of the Tolis- 
toboii. This is positive evidence of the position of Beudos 
being in Phrygia. 

The coin described above is unique. Its preservation 
is indifferent, but there remains sufficient of the legend, 
fortunately, to read the name of the city on the one side, 
and that of the emperor under whom it was struck on the 
other. The type is the often repeated subject of Apollo 
Daphnephorus, to whose worship in Phrygia we have had 
frequent occasion to refer in these notices. From my 
collection, this rare coin passed in 1831 into that of the 
British Museum. 

Head of Serapis. 

R. B PI ANON. Isis standing; the Sistrum in one hand, and 
a small vase in the other. JE. 4. (My cabinet.) 

33 Lib. xxxviii. cap. 15. 


A coin in every respect the same as the present is 
published by Sestini. 34 I have introduced it anew, on 
account of Mionnet 35 having accompanied his description 
of it with a sign of doubt, expressing an opinion that the 
legend might have been imperfect, and that BPIANtoN was 
merely the termination of a longer name. My coin being 
genuine, and in perfect condition, the legend being circu- 
lar, and occupying the whole of the circumference of the 
coin, proves Sestini's classification to be correct. 


Head of a Bacchante, crowned with ivy, to the right. 
R. BPOYSHNilN. Mercury, standing ; a purse in his right 
hand, and the caduceus in his left ; a small animal at 
his feet. JE.4%. (My cabinet.) 

The present coin is the only autonomous one yet assigned 
to Bruzus. Among the imperial coins hitherto published, 
none occur anterior to the reign of the emperor Antoninus 
Pius. The types on either side offer nothing remarkable. 
They are often repeated on the money of this province. 


No. 1. Helmeted head of Pallas, to the right. 

R. KAAOHNIiN. Bacchus standing ; the cantharum in one 

hand, and the thyrsus in the other. IE. 4. (My cabinet.) 

2. AYT. K. OTI. TAAAOC CGB. Laureated head of 

Gallus, to the right. 

The Ephesian Diana in a temple. JE. 11. 

(British Museum) from my cabinet.) 

We are informed by ancient authors, that the Cado- 
enians, who were partly of Macedonian origin, possessed a 
large tract of country, that extended over more than one 

34 Lett, tom.ix. p. 59, ^ Tom. iv. p. 244, No. 300. 


division of Phrygia. Their principal city, Cadi, is men- 
tioned by Hierocles, and the Ecclesiastical Notices. The 
coins of Cadi are numerous. The two described above 
offer new types. 



Domitianus to the right. 

Cadoenians and the Aezani represented by two females 
standing, wearing turreted crowns, and joining hands. 
JE. 8. (My cabinet.) 

This coin of Domitianus, as we learn from the legend on 
the reverse, was struck to commemorate an alliance between 
the people of Cadi and the Aezani. An instance of an 
alliance between the former city and Gordus Julia, is 
noticed by Sestini 36 on a coin of Caracalla. 


Naked head of Hercules to the right, a club across his 

R. B. XOT. Lion walking. IE. 4. (My cabinet.) 

Sestini, in his Classes Generales, cites a coin of this prince, 
but without either a description of the type, or any men- 
tion in what cabinet it is to be found. A fine specimen of 
this rare coin, which I have lately met with, enables me to 
rectify Sestini's omission. 


No. 1. IOYAIA C6BACTH. Head of Julia Domna to the 

R. KIAYHCCeilN. Pallas standing; a shield resting on 
the ground in her right hand, and the hasta in her left. 
^E. 6. (My cabinet.) 

36 Descr. Num. Vet. t.i. p. 458, and Lett Num. Cont. t. ix. 
p.54, No. 31. Mionnet, t. iv. p.252, No. 341, and Suppt. t. vii. 
p. 528, No. 226. 


2. MA. &TA. CGOYH Head of Otacilia Severa to the 


sitting. JE. 7. (Same cabinet.) 

No coins of either Julia Domna or Otacilia Severa are 
published of Cidyessus. The magistrate, Marcus, appears 
on a coin of the two Philips in Mionnet. 37 He is there 
designated as " archon." 


No. 1. Juvenile male head, wearing a helmet of a peculiar form. 

R. KAANNOYAEON. A bull butting. M.4. 

2. Laureated head of Apollo to the right. 

R. KAANNOYAEliN. Female standing, front face, wearing 
the modius ; a veil, suspended from behind, descends 
to her feet ; the whole within a wreath of oak leaves. 

The only mention of Clannuda is in the Peutinger 
Table, where it is written " Clanuda" and placed on the 
route from Dorylaeum to Philadelphia. On the obverse 
of No. 1, the type is rather disfigured, by being what is 
technically termed double- struck, which renders it difficult 
to explain the nature of the profile head which is there 
represented. The reverse is perfectly preserved, and the 
legend, being distinct, leaves no doubt as to the orthography 
of the name of the city as given above. The type presents 
that species of bull with a large hump on the shoulder, so 
often met with on coins of this part of Asia. This animal 
appears to have been an inhabitant of the plains, as it is 
seen on the coins of Magnesia in Ionia, Taba in Caria, 
and Cibyra in Phrygia, all cities situated in spots of 
extensive and well-watered level country. 

37 Suppt. vii. p. 539, No. 261. 


Quite dissimilar is No. 2, which, judging from its fabric, 
seems to be the more ancient ; but I am at a loss to 
denominate the female deity on the reverse. It appears 
to resemble, by the costume, the Juno Pronuba, as on 
some coins of Hypaepa, but it is equally possible it may 
have been intended for Cybele. Both these coins are 
unique, and Clannuda is a new city in numismatic geo- 
graphy. Both were originally in my possession. No. 1 
passed into the British Museum in 1831, and No. 2 went 
to Paris a short time ago. 

P. S. Since writing the above, I have seen the Revue 
Numismatique of Paris for July August 1843, where I 
find that M. Longperier has published the coin No. 2 ; by 
which I presume it has found its way into the national 
collection in the Royal Library. I find that Mr. L. reads 
the legend KAANGYAAEHN, or Clanudda, exactly as it is 
written in the Peutinger Table. As I have only a descrip- 
tion of the coin, the plaster cast being too indistinct, I 
cannot decide whether my version be correct. I should 
rather think it so, as there can be no doubt that the read- 
ing of No. 1 is as I have transcribed it above. 38 


No. 1. Radiated juvenile head to the right. 

ft. KOAOCCHNON. ^Esculapius and Hygiea standing, with 

their respective attributes. M. 6. (My cabinet.) 
2. M. AYPHAIOC BHPOC KAICAP. Young head of 

Marcus Aurelius to the right. 

38 On these questions of doubtful readings, we feel it desirable 
to refer to the coin, and perceive very clearly KAANNOYAEftN 
on it. But as the coin is double struck, and the Y is somewhat 
faint, and almost on the edge of the coin, this specimen does not 
prove that a A might not have followed the Y, and consequently 
that the reading may have been KAANNOYAAEftN. ED. 


R. GAKGmN APXON KOAOCCHNON. Diana, huntress, 
drawing an arrow from a quiver, suspended from her 
shoulder, with her right hand, and holding a bow in 
her left. JE.7. (British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

According to Pliny and Xenophon, Colossae held emi- 
nent rank among the cities of Phrygia. Its inhabitants 
were also some of the first to embrace Christianity ; and 
they enjoyed the high favour of having an epistle of the 
Apostle Paul addressed to them. 

The coins of Colossse are much scarcer than might be 
expected from its importance. Cities of much less note 
offer a more extensive series. The types of the two pre- 
ceding are new, but they require no explanation. 



of Vespasian. 

R. EIII TI. KAAYAIOY SEKOYNAOY. Bacchus standing, 
the cantharus in his right hand, and the thyrsus in his 
left. M. 8. (My cabinet.) 

A smaller coin of this emperor is published by Mionnet, 
struck at Cotiaeum, with the same magistrate's name, " Clau- 
dius Secundus," but with a figure of Jupiter on the reverse. 


I consider it proved beyond doubt, that Diococlea had 
no existence in ancient geography, except in the imagina- 
tion of Sestini. The coin attributed to it by him belongs 
to Ococlea. (See my article in the Numismatic Chronicle, 
Vol. III. p. 35.) 


No. 1. Head of a Bacchante, crowned with ivy; behind, thyrsus. 
R. AIONY2O. . MENEKH . . BIANO. . . .Bacchus in female 
attire ; a bunch of grapes in his right hand, and the 
thyrsus in his left ; at his feet, a leopard. JE. 4. 

(My cabinet.) 


Neumann 39 first published a similar coin to this, and 
attributed it, as I have done, to Dionysopolis, the legend 
being less complete than mine, the first line showing only 
AIONYS. Sestini 40 proposed to read AIONYSIOY, and to 
class it to Eumenia. I have before me two fine specimens 
of this coin, and can assure the reader that there is no 
foundation for Sestini's hypothesis ; and that my version of 
the legend, as given above, may be depended upon. In 
fact, on one of them a fragment of another letter is visible, 
and I can almost vouch for reading AIONYSOII. 

No. 2. Head of Serapis to the right. 

R. AIONYCOnOASITON. Mercury standing ; a purse in 
his right hand, and caduceus in his left. JE. 4. 

(My cabinet.) 

3. 2EBASTOS. Naked head of Augustus. 
in female attire; something indistinct in his right hand, 
and the thyrsus in his left. JE. 4. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 
4. SEBASTO2. Same head. 

as last. IE. 4. (My cabinet.) 

5. IOYAIA AOMNA CGBACT. Head of Julia Domna. 

ed figure of Ceres or Hecate standing front face ; a 
torch in each hand ; at her feet, a small human figure. 
JE. 8. (My cabinet.) 

6. AYT. KAI. M. AY. ANTONGINOC. Laureated head 
of Caracalla. 

AeiTON ANGeHKGN. Jupiter JZtophorus standing. 
M. 10. (Bank of England, from my cabinet.) 

39 Pop. ii.65. tab.ii. fig. 12. Mionnet, Suppt. t. vii. p.552, 
No. 308. 

40 Descriz. dell Med. Ant. del Mus. Hederv. torn. ii. p. 345, 
No. 2; and Cat. Mus. Hederv. No. 5464. tab. xxv. fig. 539. 
Mionnet, Suppt. vii. p. 563, No. 349. 


The magistrate's name, XAPI7ENOorc, No. 3, is probably 
the same as one in Sestini, 41 which he erroneously reads 

On the reverses of Nos. 5 and 6, of Julia Domna, and 
her son Caracalla, we are informed that the sub-priest of 
Bacchus, Chares, had dedicated a statue of Hecate, and 
another of Jupiter, of which the figures on the respective 
coins are probably copies. Dedications of this kind are 
not unfrequent on ancient coins; but these are the first 
which have been ascribed to Dionysopolis. They are ably 
explained by the learned Eckhel, 42 in his Treatise de 
Numis Inscriptis ANEOHKE. 



Naked head of Diadumenian. 

R. AOKIMEftN MAK6AON&N. Hope standing. M.7. 

(My cabinet,.) 

2. EAB. TPANKYAAEINA C. Head of Sabina Tranquil- 
lina to the right. 

R AOKIMEON MAKEAON&N. Female seated on a rock ; 
heads of barley in her hand ; a small figure of a river 
god at her feet. M. 7. (My cabinet.'). 

Neither Diadumenian or Tranquillina are frequently 
met with on imperial Greek coins. They are new of 


No. 1. Female head to the left. 

R. MAN...IIIPOC. erMGNGaN, in fine lines, within a 
wreath of laurel. JE. 4. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

41 Descr. dell Med. Ant. Gr. del Mus. Hederv. t. ii. p. 343, 
No. 1. Mionnet, torn. vii. p. 553, No. 311. 

42 Doct. Num. Vet, torn. iv. p. 368. 



2. SEBAST. Naked head of Augustus. 
R. EYMENE&N EIII rONOS... A OIJAE... Tripod. JE. 4. 
(British Museum, from my cabinet.} 
3.KAISAP. Same head. 

ft. ...AAEPIOS ZMEPTOP1S EYMENE&N. Bull butting. 

/E. 4. (My cabinet.) 

4. AY. AOMITIANOC KAI. TEPMAN1 ..Laureated head 
of Domitian to the right. 


GYMGNGON. Amazon on horseback. JE. 5. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 
5. AOMITIA SEBASTH. Head of Domitia. 

ft. BASS EYMENE&N. Female seated, holding a 

patera. M. 4. (Same cabinet, from same.} 

of Hadrian to the right, 
ft. GYMGNGHN AXAIQN. Fortune standing. IE. 8. 

(My cabinet.} 

f 7. AYTO. KAI. ANTONEINOC. Laureated head of Anto- 
ninus Pius. 

R. EYMENE&N AX AKIN. Bacchus in a car, drawn by 
two panthers ; on one of the panthers is a small figure 
of Cupid ; near the car, a figure playing on the lyre. 
M. 7. (My cabinet.) 

In this series, No. 4 is remarkable on account of the 
extraordinary pretensions of the magistrate, " Marcus 
Claudius Valerianus," who assumes the title of " Pontifex 
Asia" It occurs on another coin of the emperor Nero, 
published by Haym. 43 No. 7, on account of its beautiful 
fabric and graceful design, is also entitled to notice. 

Hadrian is honored with the title of Olympius on No. 6, 
which he received from the Greeks for having completed 
the temple of Jupiter Olympus at Athens. The same 
epithet is repeated upon coins struck in his honor by 
several other Asiatic cities. 

43 Thes. Brit. torn. ii. p. 186. tab.iii. fig. 11. Eckhel, Doct. 
Num. Vet. torn. iii. p. 153. 



Heads, side by side, of Apollo and Diana, both laureated ; 

the latter with a quiver over her shoulder. 
R. FOPAIAM1N. Bow and quiver. AR. 1 . Weight, 8-^ 
grs. (My cabinet.) 

Gordium must not be confounded with Gordus, or 
Gordus-Julia. On the numerous series of coins which 
have descended to us of this latter city, we invariably read 
FOPAHNON. It was also situated in Lydia, near Mount 
Sipylus, whereas Gordium was in the Hellespontine or 
Lesser Phrygia. Alexander, during his wars with Darius, 
entered Gordium from Celaense, afterwards Apamea, and 
proceeded eastward to Ancyra. During his stay at Gor- 
dium, Alexander visited the celebrated temple which con- 
tained the renowned Gordian knot, the history of which, 
and the manner in which it was treated by the Macedonian 
hero, is too well known to require repeating. 

The present coin may be presumed to be unique, none 
of Gordium having been published by numismatic authors. 
It is the more remarkable on account of its being in silver. 
In this metal, as has been frequently remarked, Phrygian 
coins are of excessive rarity. The type on both sides of 
this elegant little coin refers to the worship of Apollo and 
Diana. The twin-god and goddess are represented as 
usual, their heads, side by side, in profile. Both wear the 
laurel crown ; and Diana, the uppermost, or more pro- 
minent figure, is recognised by the quiver over her shoulder. 



No. 1. fcABIOS MA#IMOS. Naked head of Augustus to the 


Bipennis. JE. 4. 

Seguin 44 has published a coin, with the same head and 
iegend on the obverse as the above, but with a different 
reverse. Its singularity induced Eckhel 45 to doubt its 
authenticity. He says, " Singularis numulus apud Segui- 
num; fcABIOS O MA#IMOS. Caput August! nudum. 
R. lEPAQOAEITflN TP. <M1N, sine typo. Lectio anticcs 
mihi oppido suspecto, idque eo magis, quod aliud non habemus 
in moneta Hierapolitarum exemplum inscripti in utraque super- 
fide magistrates" My coin, which is of indubitable anti- 
quity, and the legend perfectly genuine, will serve to 
dissipate all suspicion concerning that cited by Seguin. 
It remains to be seen whether the portrait be really that 
of Augustus. Perhaps it would be difficult to imagine, at 
that peculiar epoch, a Roman subject, be his rank ever sa 
elevated, who would have dared to exhibit his portrait on 
any coin struck within the Roman dominions. There is, I 
believe, no second example of the kind. Neither have we 
any example (as Eckhel justly remarks) of a magistrate's 
name accompanying the portrait of the emperor. The 
coin, at all events, appears to have been struck during the 
reign of Augustus ; for we find upon a coin of this emperor 
the same magistrate, Philopatris^ in Sestini. 46 

If we suppose that, instead of a portrait of Augustus, it 
should have been intended for that of some distinguished 
Roman ; and admitting the magistrate, Philopatris, to be 

44 Select. Num. p. 99. D oct Num. Vet. torn. iii. p. 156. 
1(5 Descr.p.466, No. 10. Mionnet, Suppt.t.vii. p. 570, No. 384. 


the same person mentioned on Sestini's coin of Augustus; 
it is evident that it is during this reign the individual must 
be sought for. History notices three persons of eminence 
named Fabius Maximus, who flourished within this specific 
period. The first, Paulus Fabius Maximus, of the family 
of Paulus A. Emilius, created consul in the year of Rome, 
743 ; the second, Quintus Fabius Maximus, consul in the 
following year ; and, lastly, Fabius Maximus, a favourite 
of Augustus, who was disgraced by that emperor for having 
divulged a secret, on account of which he committed sui- 
cide. How far either of these personages may have been 
in any manner connected with the town of Hierapolis, I 
am unable at present to determine ; but having shown that 
the coin is genuine, I establish some foundation for future 
research, and leave the full explanation of this curious 
type to others. 


AYT. K. M. ATP. AAG&ANAPOC. Laureated head of 

Alexander Severus to the right. 

R. YPrAAGiiN. Apollo and Diana standing; below TI. 
JE. 7. (My cabinet.) 

Coins of Hyrgalea are scarce. There are none of 
Alexander Severus in Mionnet's work. 


ATT. K. M. AIM. AIMIAIANON. Radiated head of 

^Emilianus to the right. 
R. APX. TO. B. fclAOTGIMO IGYAIGiiN. The god 

Lunus standing in a temple. JE. 8. 

( British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

Julia, we are informed by Pliny, belonged to the con- 
ventus of Cibyra. The effigy of JEmilianus is very 
uncommon on Greek coins. The present differs from 


another of the same emperor in Mionnet. This coin is 
important, inasmuch as it proves that Cornelia Supera was 
the wife of JEmilianus, 47 and not of Trebonianus Gallus, 
or of Valerianus junior, as supposed by the older numis- 
matists ; for a coin struck in honor of this empress at Julia, 
is accompanied with precisely the same legend as on my 
coin, during the second magistrature of the archon Philo- 


No. 1. Bearded head of Jupiter. 

R AAOAIKEON. Lotus flower. M. 2. (My cabinet.} 
2. AAOAIKEHN KAI. ZMYPNAK1N. Two juvenile heads 

laureated, face to face. 
R. em AN IOY. ZHNilNOS. Jupiter Laodicaeus 

standing; in the field, a monogram. JE. 7. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 
3 NEPON KAISAP, Young head of Nero. 

M.4. (My cabinet.) 

of Domitianus, to the right. 

R. AAOAIKEON. Mars in a temple. IE. 7. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 
5. AOMITIANOS KAI2AP. Head as last. 

within a wreath of oak leaves. IE. 6. 

(Same cabinet, from same.) 
6. M. AYPHAIOC BHPOC KAICAP. Naked head of 

M. Aurelius to the right. 

Anadyomene standing, arranging her tresses with both 

hands ; in front, a dolphin ; behind, a small figure of 

Cupid. JE. 10. (Bank of England, from my cabinet.) 

47 Although Cornelia Supera is only known to us by means of 
coins, Eckhel had already admirably proved her to have been the 
wife of JSmilian, from numismatic evidence alone. See Doct. 
Num. Vet vol. vii. p. 375. Mr. Borrell's coin is, however, of 
importance, as tending to render Eckhel's proof even more com- 
plete. ED. 


7. ANNIA fcAYCTGlNA AYI\ CGB. (sic.) Head of 
Annia Faustina, third wife of Elagabalus, to the right. 

MATI. Rome seated, leaning on a shield ; a Victory 
in her right hand. JE. 7|. 

(Bank of England, from my cabinet.) 

Laodicea was noted for its opulence : nevertheless we 
possess no coins in the precious metals, excepting a few 
silver cistophori. Of coppsr, both autonomous and impe- 
rial are abundant. The seven coins described above are 
unedited, and some of them are not devoid of interest. 
No, 2 records an alliance between Laodicea and Smyrna, 
which is new. Nos. 4 and 5 are of Domitian. The former 
represents the rather unusual type of Mars in a temple; 
and the legend on the reverse of the latter is a repetition 
of another on a coin of his brother and predecessor Titus, 
already edited by Sestini. Vaillant has published a coin 
like No. 6 of M. Aurelius, but a degree smaller; and it is 
without the small figure of Cupid, which accompanies the 
goddess in mine. This coin is executed in a superior and 
masterly style, and is probably a copy from a picture or 
statue of Venus, the work of an artist of the first merit. 
Annia Faustina, whose effigy is represented on No. 7, is 
one of the rarest in the whole series of Roman empresses, 
and is new on the coins of Laodicea. She was the third 
wife of the emperor Elagabalus. The same type and 
legend occur again on a coin of this city, struck in honor 
of Julia Mcesa, grandmother of the emperor Elagabalus ; 
and the same legend, with other types, is found on coins of 
Elagabalus and Caracalla, which are fully explained by 
Eckhel and others. 


See my notice on some coins of this city, in the Numis- 
matic Chronicle, Vol. III. p. 35. 



IOYAIA AOMNA CGBAC. Laureated head of Julia 

R. Gill. NIFPSNOY OTPOHN&N APX. Jupiter standing ; 

a laurel crown in one hand, and a long sceptre in the 
other ; an eagle at his feet. J. 6. (My cabinet.} 

Excepting a single autonomous coin, we have no others 
of Otrus but those struck for the family of Sept. Severus. 
The present differs from any before edited by the title of 
" Archon," given to Nigrenus. 


Cista, or mystic chest of Bacchus, out of which protrudes 

a serpent, the whole within a wreath of ivy. 
R. Two serpents interlaced ; between them a bow and quiver ; 
in the field, $1. #Z, and a torch ; above are two cornu- 
copiae, with a branch between them. AR. 7. 

(My cabinet.) 

I feel convinced of the accuracy of my appropriation of 
this coin to Philomelium, in preference to Philadelphia, 
which, having the same initials, might dispute the claim. 
My reason for this preference is, the presence of the double 
cornucopia as an adjunct, the same representation being 
the most usual principal type of the autonomous copper 
coins of Philomelium. 


No. 1. I6PA CYNKAHTOC. Juvenile head. 

R. CGBACTHNftN. Jupiter sitting ; a patera in his right 
hand, and a long sceptre in his left. JE. 6. 

(My cabinet.) 

48 I have to offer my sincere thanks to M. Ph. Le Bas, member 
of the French Institute, for the information as to the position of 
Sebaste with which he has favoured me, and the importance of 
which will be acknowledged by geographers. He says it occu- 
pied the site of the village of Sevasle, one day (six hours) 
W.S.W. of Ushak, or Oushak, near Seldjicklar, where M. Le 
Bas found an inscription, commencing H BOY AH KAl O AHMOS 
O SEBAST..1N, etc. 


2. IOYAIA AOMNA C6BACT. Head of Julia Domna. 


seated. ^E. 9. (My cabinet.) 

I perfectly concur in opinion with Sestini, that many of 
the coins ascribed by numismatic writers to Sebaste of 
Galatia, belong to the Phrygian city of the same name. 
By attending to the localities whence coins are gene- 
rally brought to me, experience has taught me to distin- 
guish those belonging respectively to different cities of the 
same name. The two which precede are decidedly of 
Phrygian origin, and are both unedited. 


No. 1. Legend obliterated; head of Julia Domna. 

R. -CIBIAOYNAG&N. Naked figure of Bacchus standing, 
with cantharus and thyrsus ; a panther at his feet. 
JE. 6. (My cabinet.) 

There is no mention of this city in ancient geographers. 
Sestini, 49 who has published the only two coins that have 
descended to us, presumes Sibidonda may be the same as 
the Siblida of the Ecclesiastical Notices, which is there 
placed in Phrygia Salutaris. 

Sestini's coins are of M. Aurelius and of Caracalla. 
Both are smaller than the above of Julia Domna. The 
style of work, the type, and the place of its discovery, are 
all proofs of the Phrygian origin of this coin. 


HO. Cen. reTAC K. Naked head of Geta. 
R. CGIBAIANilN. Jupiter JEtophorus standing. JE.7. 

(British Museum, from my cabinet.) 

A single autonomous coin is all that we possess of this 

4!) Lett. Num. Cont. t.viii. p. 102. 



city. It is mentioned by Sestini, 50 who informs us that it 
was purchased for the Imperial Museum at Vienna. It 
has been my good fortune to obtain this coin of Geta; but 
its extreme rarity and novelty constitute its chief merit, the 
type offering nothing remarkable. 

It is a singular circumstance, that the more ancient 
geographers should give us a corrupt, and the more modern, 
a correct orthography, in writing the name of this city. 
Ptolemy writes S<A/3ioj/, and Pliny Silbiani ; whilst in 
Hierocles and the Notices we have the true reading. 
Pliny 51 informs us, that the Silbiani were of the conven- 
tus of Apamea, in speaking of which he says, " Ex hoc 
conventu deceat nominare Metropolitas, Dionysopolitas, 
Euphorbenos, ^Emonenses, Peltenos, Silbianos," 


AHMOC CTeKTOPHNftN. Old diademed head. 
R.AITH. $A. CHCTYAIANOY. Bacchus standing, with 
cantharus and thyrsus. M.\. (My cabinet.) 

Sestini, 52 followed by Mionnet, 53 describes a coin of 
Stectorium with a different reverse, but with a corrupt 
reading. I have no doubt, were that coin well preserved, 
it would be found to read exactly the same as the present. 


No. l.IGPA CYNKAHTOC. Juvenile head. 

R. em AIorGNO CYNAeiTON. Bacchus standing, with 
cantharus and thyrsus. JE. 5. 

{Bank of England, from my cabinet.) 
2. OAYCTINA CGBACTH. Head of Faustina, junior. 
R. CYNAGmiN. Jupiter Laodicenus, standing. JE. 4. 

(Same cabinet.) 

50 Lett. Num. Cont. t. iii. p. 1 18. 51 Hist. Nat. lib. v. cap.29. 
2 Lett. Num. torn. v. p.29. Tom. iv. p.361, No. 946. 


These coins are merely varieties, compared with those 
before edited. 


No. 1. Head of Serapis. 

R. O6MIClNeHN. Isis, standing, with her attributes. 

IE. 4. (My cabinet.) 
2. Same head. 

ft. OGMICllNeON. Bacchus standing, with cantharus 
and thyrsus. JE. 4. 

(Bank of England, from my cabinet.) 

3. OZftN. Radiated head of Apollo. 

R.~ eeJVlIC&NeON AZANIIC. A river god, recumbent. 
JE. 6. (Same cabinet.) 

Pausanias 54 says, that Hercules, Mercury, and Apollo 
were honored with the special veneration of the Themi- 
sonians, and that the statues of these gods were set up in a 
cavern near the city, on account of some imaginary protec- 
tion manifested towards the inhabitants when the country 
was invaded by the Gauls. Upon the present coins we 
have two of those deities, Mercury and Apollo. Around 
the head of Apollo, on the obverse side of No. 3, is the 
fragment of a legend, which is unusual on the coins that 
are known; but it is unfortunately too imperfect to allow of 
explanation. On the reverse of the same coin is a river 
god, referring probably to a river near the city, the name 
of which, according to the legend, was " Azanes" which is 
no where mentioned in ancient geographers. The Azanes 
may have received its name from the Azanes, a tribe of 
Arcadians, so called from Azan, their chief, the son of 
Areas, who migrated to Asia, in Phrygia. 55 

H. P. BoitRELL. 

Smyrna, October 1, 1843. 
ToE. HAWKINS, ESQ. /.London. 

54 Lib. x. cap. 32. 55 Pausanias, loc, cit., and lib. viii. cap. 4. 



Sion College, May 13, 1845. 

MY DEAR SIR, I purpose to take notes, of all the coins 
which fall into my hands, which I do not find described in 
any work to which I have access ; and should they be 
thought worthy of being laid before the Society, to submit 
them for that purpose. The present paper will contain 
descriptions of three which I think are unpublished. They 
are all Roman brass. . 

1. A consular, or rather family coin. 3rd brass. 
Obv. Pontifical Instruments. 

R. An elephant. HIRTIVS. 

This coin is of coarse, if not barbarous, workmanship, but 
in good preservation. The only coin hitherto known of the 
Hirtia family is in gold. 

2. A large brass coin of the younger Postumus. 

A young beardless head. 

R. Legend illegible ; the usual type of victory, but of ex- 
tremely barbarous workmanship. 

3. A small brass coin of Tetricus senior. 
Obv. The head of the emperor laureated. 

R. The emperor standing, holding a globe, and the hasta 

P.M. TR. P. II. COS. P.P. 

This is the only instance I have ever seen or read of, in 
which Tetricus appears laureated on his brass coins. 

In addition to these Roman coins, I have observed one or 
two mint-marks on English coins, not noticed by Mr. 

1. A Groat of Henry VII. ; the crown, with two plain arches ; 
mint-mark after POSVI ; a boar's head. 


2. A Half-Groat of Henry VII.; the crown, with two orna- 

mented arches ; mint-mark escallop. CIV1TAS LON- 

3. A Half-Groat of Henry VII. ; crown as last ; mint-mark, 

lis and ft. CIV1TAS CANTOR. 

4. A Half-Groat of Edward IV. London. 

Obv. Mint-mark, cross fitchee ; on each side of neck a trefoil. 
R. Mint-mark, rose, or sun. 

The first of these coins affords a mint-mark found, 
though rarely, on the coins of Edward IV., on those of 
Richard III. and Henry VIII., on whose Irish sixpences 
it is a very common mint-mark. I remain, my dear Sir, 
Yours very faithfully, 


F.S.A., &c. &c. 


Sion College, May 17, 1845. 

MY DEAR SIR, I add a few more notes to the 
Numismatic paper I sent you, and think myself extremely 
fortunate in finding coins which have escaped the notice of 
my betters ; viz. Banduri, Mionnet, and yourself. 

1. A small brass coin of Volusian. 

reated head of Volusian in the paludamentum. 
R.-JOVI PROPVGNATORI. Jupiter standing, holding 
in his hand a globe. 

The size of this coin is between the denarius and quiri- 
arius. It is in very good condition, and in every respect 
remarkable. Banduri says, speaking of Volusian, " Numrni 
liujus Augusti, tertii moduli, ex aere puro, rarissimi sunt;" 
and he then proceeds to give two types, the usual ones of 


PAX AVGG. and CONCORDIA AVGG. Now as these 
types occur in silver, it seems that both Mionnet and your- 
self have considered them as false denarii, of which the 
plating had worn off; and the third brass of Volusian is 
omitted as a thing not existing. 

It is to be remarked also, that the two coins mentioned 
by Banduri have the head radiated, while this which I 
describe is laureated. It presents a perfectly new type, 
not before noticed in any metal of this prince. 

2. A small brass coin of Jovian. 

Obv. DN. IOVIANVS P.P. AVG. Bust of Jovian. 
R.RESTITVTOR REIP. In the exergue, ANT. 
Rome Nicephora. 

Hitherto no coins in small brass have been published of 
Jovian, save those struck with the Pagan reverses of Julian, 
and those with VOX. V. MVLT. X., in a garland. They 
are all rare, and were mostly the work not only of Pagan 
artists, but, save the head, executed for a Pagan prince. 
It is interesting to find a coin, in small brass, of this 
Christian sovereign free from Pagan symbols. 

3. A penny of an archbishop of Cologne. 

Obv. ARCHIEPS. COL. The head of the archbishop 

full faced, and mitred ; in a triangle, like the Irish 
coins of John, Henry III., and Edward I., II., and III. 
R. MONETA BVNENSIS 1 . A cross like the coins of 
Edward I., but in each of the quarters a mullet of 
five points pierced. 

That the minor princes on the Continent copied the 
English types, is ascertained by the fact, that such imitated 
coins, commonly called "counterfeit sterlings," are very 
common. In the instance before us, we have an Irish 
type faithfully copied on the obverse, and a Scotch type as 

Money of Bonn. 


faithfully followed on the reverse. On a hasty glance, the 
obverse would be taken for that of a Dublin or Waterford 
penny of Edward I. ; and the reverse differs only in legend 
from that of the penny of Alexander the Third's last coin- 
age. M. Lelewell, in his " Numismatique du Moyeri Age," 
speaks of a coin struck by an archbishop of Cologne, and 
having a reverse similar to that now described, save that 
the mullets occupied only two quarters, while the remain- 
ing two were occupied by single pellets. 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Yours very faithfully, 


F S.A., &c. &c. c. 



( Gallus and Volusian.) 

VOLVSIAN; heads of these two emperors laureated, 

R. p M S CO VIM. The two emperors draped in the 
paludamentum, facing, each holding a victoriola arid 
spear. Exergue, AN. XIII., between a lion and bull. 
^E. 9. {British Museum.} 

This coin was probably issued on the occasion of the 
peace made with the Goths, resembling, in its type, the 
Roman medallion, where the two emperors are each in a 
car, and crowned by Victories, triumphing in Rome. It 
dates A.v.c.1005, A.D.252. 


The bull and lion allude to the Magna Mater, or Cybele, 
who is represented on the other coins of this town, standing 
between these animals. 1 


(JM. Aurelius?) 

emperor, bearded and laureated, to the right. 

R. COL 1VL CONC AVG APAM. Diana in a chariot, 
drawn by two stags ; on her head a crescent ; in each 
hand a torch ; above and beneath DD. 2E. 7. 250.5 grs. 
(British Museum.) 

This state, originally founded by a colony from Colophon, 
and then called Myrlcea, 2 restored by Philip Aridseus, and 
subsequently rebuilt by Prusias, and named Apamea, 3 in 
honor of his wife Apame, probably received a Roman 
colony during the reign of Augustus, 4 when it seems to 
have been called Colonia Julia, Concordia Augusta. The 
reverse presents the Diana Luna, or Artemis Selene. On 
the Phigaleian frieze Artemis is represented in her chariot 
drawn by stags, hastening with her brother Apollo to assist 
the Lapithae ; and on a coin of Gordianus Pius, struck at 
Aureliopolis ; of Severus Alexander, struck at Acrasus ; 
and of Macrinus, struck at Ephesus, the Ephesian Diana 
is represented in a chariot drawn by stags ; the Diana 
Lucifera replaces the Ephesian Diana on the coins of 
Ephesus, and is also on those of Magnesia and Mseandrum. 

1 Cf. Eckhel, Doct. Num. Vet. ii. 8 ; vii. 356 ; more probable 
than that the bull was the symbol of the seventh, and the lion of 
the fourth legion. For the worship of Cybele at this city, com- 
pare coins throughout, and Mionnet, Supp. ii. 42 ; i. 32. The 
legions probably derived their emblems from the town. 

2 Tayl. p. 35. Strab. ed. Cor. p.563. a Strab. 1. c. xii. 561. 
4 Grotefend in Pauly's Real. Ency. ch.i. sect. 590. 


The replacement of the Ephesian type of Diana by the 
Greek type is not uncommon, and occurs on many of the 
consular denarii of the Aelia and Axsia families, from 
which the type was probably copied. 5 She is thus 
<f)c0<7<f)6pos, or aekaa<j>bpos. 


(Severus Alexander.) 

M AYP CGYH AAEZANAPOC AYI\ Bust of emperor, in 

pal udamen turn, laureated, to the right. 
R. Laurel wreath, in which 





ON. &. 7. (British Museum.) 

This city, originally founded by Antigonus under the 
name of Antigonia, a north-east angle of the sea of As- 
cania, was afterwards named Nicaea, by Lysimachus, in 
honor of his wife Nice, the daughter of Antipater. 6 A sub- 
sequent legend referred its origin to the nymph Nicsea, 7 to 
Hercules, 8 and to Bacchus. 9 Several coins were issued 
from its mint ; and the town seems to have enjoyed under 
the Romans that metropolitan pre-eminence which it had 
under its native monarchs. It is distinguished for the 
epithets it assumed, or was allowed to style itself, and is 
called irpcorot, T??? eVap^e/a?, on a coin published by 
Mr. Akerman; 10 while under Valerian and Gallienus, n 
it styles itself on its currency jjie<yi(7Tun> apio-row, greatest 
and best, resembling " the pious and noble" on the pre- 

5 Cf. Claud. Cons. Stilich, iii. 286. 

6 Forbiger. Hand, d Alt. Geog. 8vo. Leips. 1844. 
~ Nonn. lib. xv., xvi. 

8 Cf. coins cited by Eckhel, Doct. Num. Vet. ii. 425. 

9 Ibid. 424. 10 Numis. Journal. 
11 Mion. ii. 449, et seq. Supp. v. 78, et seq. 



sent specimen. Similar titles, as 

aplarTfj, K.T.A., are found on inscriptions at Eski-Hissar, 

its present 12 site. 


Bust of Eros to the right. 

R. I1AA A$P. A rose. M. 1. (British Museum.) 

This small bronze coin, communicated to me by Mr. 
Rhode Hawkins, was obtained by him at Aphrodisias, in 
Caria. Its type is identical with the one of that city 
already published from the cabinet of the Museum, 13 and 
it was probably struck, as all the others of Plarasa, at 
Aphrodisias. Few coins of this town are known, 14 and 
Mr. Rhode Hawkins conjectures that he has discovered 
its site at Markouf, twelve miles north-east of Aphro- 
disias, near Mount Cadmus. The legend of some autono- 
mous coins is II\apdcrea)v KOI \4</>/jooWte&>v, 15 confirming the 
reading of the above inscription; and these pieces, with 
the name of the two towns, were probably issued during 
the civil war, when the privileges of the common temple of 
Aphrodite, belonging to the two cities, II\apdore<0v KOI 
' A(f>po$i,a-t'e(i)i>, were confirmed by a decree of the senate. 16 
The coins have occasionally the names of triumvirate, 17 
of local magistrates, and not one from each town, as 
conjectured by Eckhel. It is to the worship of Aphrodite, 
who is found on coins of Aphrodisias, with Eros, Pothos, 
and Hymenaios, 18 that the type refers; and the rose was 
sacred to Aphrodite and Eros, 19 as well as an emblem of 

12 Boeckh, Corp. Insc. Graec. No. 374-8, et seq. 

13 Num. Chron. iv. 144. " Mion. iii. 121. 

15 Mion. 1. c. No. 101. 16 Eckhel, D. N. V. viii. 590. 

7 Mion. 1. c. ] 8 Mion. 1. c. ; Num. Chron. u. 144. 

ly Pseud. An. Od. v. 1. i. Od. liii. Himerius Polemo, &c. 



(Caracalla and Geta.) 

AY KAI MAP AYP ANTON... K AI. ... Bust of Caracalla 
laureated, to the right ; that of Geta, to the left, erased, 
but traceable, counter-marked with the word GEOY, 
" of the god." 


NIKGIiN. Hecate draped in a talaric tunic and peplos, 
holding in her right hand a torch ; in her left a patera 
over a lighted altar. JE. 10. (British Museum.) 

This coin, obtained by Mr. Rhode Hawkins at Strato- 
nicsea, is of the class of several of this city already edited by 
me, with the head of Geta erased. 20 The inscription is 
unfortunately not very legible on either side. From the 
reverse, it seems that the magistrate was a Trpvravevs. 
The name seems to be 'Iov\idvov Aopvov . . 'Iepo/c\eov, one 
probably assumed in honor of the empress Domna. The 
figure on the reverse I conceive to be Hecate, who had a 
temple in the small town of Lagina, 21 which was dependent 
on Stratonicsea, and who was often represented holding a 
single torch, as on the bas relief from Crannon, in Thessaly, 
and on the coin of Phera?. 22 She was intimately connected 
with Selene, 23 whose amour with Endymion was placed 
at Mount Latmus. 24 The local history of this town is 
too well known to require notice here. 


( Gallienus.) 
AYT KAI HO A TAAAIHNOC. Bust laureated, in paluda- 

mentum, to the right ; before head, B. 

ing to the left. ^E. 9. British Museum. 

20 Num. Chron. i. .94, et seq. 21 Strab. xiv. 660. 

2 Mill. Anc. Un. Mon. pi. xvi. No. 1 ; Mionnet ii. 23 n. 165 ; 
Supp. iii. 305. n. 252. 

23 Porphyr. in Euseb. P. E. 3. 

24 Cf. Boeckh. Corp. In. Pars xiii. sect. 2. 481. 


This is evidently the same coin as that already edited 
by Mionnet, 25 who must, however, have made his descrip- 
tion from a very ill preserved piece, as he read APX. 
OICONOC, fc.r.X., which is not Greek. The types of Tabae 
are so numerous, as to defy being connected with the local 


(M. Aurelius.) 

AYT KAI M AYP ANT& CG. Bust of emperor, laureated. 

tomb of Sardanapalus, pyramidal, surmounted by an 
eagle ; before, a small bearded figure, quiver at the left 
side, standing on a horned griffin to the right ; the tomb 
stands on a rectangular base, with doors or pillars, and 
over it is an arched embattled wall; at each side, a 
figure on a cidaris, standing, facing inwards, holding in 
one hand a lance, perhaps winged. JE. MM. British 

Mionnet 26 has probably intended to describe a similar 
coin, but the specimen he describes from was too much 
injured, to allow him to know what he actually saw. The 
monument found on the autonomous and imperial coins of 
this town is sometimes represented in its detail, while at 
others the figure of the Assyrian god, or hero, is given ; a 
valuable proof, if such were wanting, that the representa- 
tions of coins were taken from actual existing monuments. 
The present coin is, however, the fullest representation of 
it, and it appears to have consisted of a pyramidal %wyLta, 
or elevation, much resembling that of Tantalus at Sipylus 
(Texier, As. Min. pi. 130), on which was placed an eagle ; 
under this was a substructure, with doors leading to the 
hypoggeum. In front was the statue, seen for the first 
time on the drachma of Demetrius Nicator (Haym, Tes. 

25 Suppl. vi. 550. n. 545. 26 Tom. iii. p. 626. 


Brit. i. p. 81, No. 75) ; and so often on the Tarsus coins, 
probably, in reality, full face, and at the sides the in- 
ferior personages, facing inwards. The circular portion 
over the pyramid represents a semicircular wall, which 
must have inclosed an area behind the monument. The 
vague modern accounts of Tarsus do not admit of at 
present identifying the tomb of Sardanapalus. 

According to the account of the companions of Alex- 
ander, Aristobulus of Cassandreia, Clitarchus, and Callis- 
thenes, 27 the tomb of Sardanapalus was near Tarsus, arid the 
monarch was represented in the act of clapping his hands, 
with an accompanying epigrammatic inscription in Assy- 
rian, i. e. cuneiform characters. 28 This, as given by Aris- 
tobulus, 29 was 2ap&avd7ra\\os 'AvafcvvSapdj;ov TTCU? ' 
\i]V Kal Tdpaov eSei/^ev r){J.epr) fiir) eaOte irive iral^e 
TOVTOV OVK a^ia rov aKpor^fjiaro^ eoi/ce \eyeiv. It is neces- 
sary to examine critically this passage as it stands. The 
name 2ap$ava7ra\os contests the reading with %apavd- 
7raXXo9, 30 and supposing the whole to be Assyrian, the 
analogous name Nairo^acr-aap is found. But the read- 
ing with a single X suggests, that the term avraXo?, 
molliS) effeminate, has by some chance become attached to 
the word %dp$av, for there is an analogy between this 
so called effeminate monarch, the Assyrian Hercules, 
Sandon, and the tale of Hercules and Omphale. 31 The 
name of Sarak is also found replacing that of Sarda- 
napalus. 32 The name of the father of the monarch 

27 Hist. Alex. Supp. a Geier, Svo. 1844. p. 34. 

28 Athen. xiii. p. 530. Strab. 1. xiv. t. 5. p.69J . Arrian, Exp. 
Alex. ii. 5. 2. 29 Athen. xii. 530. 

30 Strab. xiv. 5. p. 691. Arrian, 1. c. 

31 Muller in Rhein. Mus. B. iii. sc. 22. 

32 Euscb. Chron. ; Cramer Anecd. i. 8, 39; ii. 156. Syncell, 


is written 'AvatcvvSapdgov, 33 'AvaicvvSapdgea), 3 * or 'Ava~ 
KvvSapdj; ecu?. 35 But the first portion, ava, is some 
interpolation of a scribe, for it should be restored, as 
Stephanus Byzantinus gives it, ^ap^avdira\o^ o Kvvba- 
pdf;ov 3Q ?rat9 : thus e/eSe^erat Se ^AdTvdyrjs 6 Kva^dpeco 
(Herod, i. 107). Perhaps the verb eZ/u lies hid in the 
which is plainly inadmissible. The inscription on the 
sepulchre of Semiramis, 37 that on the stele of Sesostris, 38 
on the pyramid of Asychis, 39 and on the statue of Isis, 40 
were all translated by the Greeks in the first person. This 
involves the obvious correction, eSei/jia ev rj/Aepy fiify which 
is partly sanctioned by one reading, ev rjftepa pla e'Se/yu,aro. 41 
With respect to the epitaph, it must have ceased at mue, 
the account of the clapping of hands being a delusion of the 
spectators, who seeing a figure in an attitude which some- 
what resembled this, interpreted it as a part of the epitaph. 
It must be carried on, &>? raX\a rovrov ov/c afya rov drcpo- 
T^<xro9 eoiice \eyeW) the w? being in relation with the 
eoi/ce \eyew. 

At an early period, the Assyrians had penetrated beyond 
the Taurus, and the town of Ninoe, 42 in Caria, referred its 
origin to Ninus, another monarch of that empire. Under 
the eighteenth dynasty, the Egyptians reckoned among 
their conquests the Tuarsha 43 of the Sea, or Cilician 
Tarshish. The true tomb of its founder must have been 
at Nineveh, but the city might have erected a cenotaph in 
honor of its founder. 

A similar figure occurs on the bas reliefs of Pterium 

33 Athen. Arrian, loc. cit. 34 Strab. 1. c. 
35 Suidas. 36 Voce 'AyxmXjj. 37 Her. i. 187. 

38 Her. ii. 106. Ibid. ii. 136. 

Diod.i.i>7. 41 Arrian, loc. cit. 

42 Steph. Byz. voce. ^ Champ. Mon. pi. cciii. No. 2. 


(Texier, Asie Mineure, pi. 78), which seems to record a 
treaty between two of the old Asiatic people ; and on many 
of the Babylonian cylinders (Cf. Cullimore, Ancient Orien- 
tal Cylinders, pi. iv. 19, 20; pi. xxx. 127); in all instances 
unaccompanied by inscriptions, and generally connected with 
the sun, moon, and bear, or Pleiades. It much resembles 
a god, or deified person. 



AOMITIANOC KAICAP. Bust of emperor to the right. 
R. MArYAGWN. Pallas Nicephorus standing to the left ; a 
spear in her left hand ; before her, at her feet, an argo- 
lic buckler. JE. 4. (British Museum.) 

The coins of Magydus are valuable to numismatic 
geography, in assisting to determine the true name of 
this town. Scylax 44 reads Mao-TycJoe ; the different manu- 
scripts and editions of Ptolemy, 45 Magydis, Magidos, 
Matylos, MATYAOS, and MayvSoc, which last reading is 
the true one, the T and A being ill read, or an obvious 
error for r and A in the pre-cited MS. Hierocles reads 
Matylus. The first imperial coin of this state is under 
Augustus. The type of Pallas is common, and is found 
on a coin of Nero, 46 and on a reverse of Hadrian, 47 with 
IA, or the eleventh year of municipal or regal date, for a K 
occurs before the same type on a reverse of Verus. 48 

44 p. 39. 

45 Cf. Ptolera. a Wilberg, & Grashof, 4to. Essend. 1844, p. 331. 

46 Mionnet, iii.457. 

47 Sestini, Lett. Num. Cont. t. viii. 71. Descr. del Mus. Hed. ii. 
256, tab. xxiii. 502. 48 Ibid. t. viii. Mionnet, Supp. viii. 42, 43. 



(Antoninus Pius.) 

AYT KAI AAP ANTONGINOC. Head of Antoninus Pius, 
to the right. 

R. TIBePIOIIOAITHNilN. Mensis standing, to the right ; 
moon at his back ; a globe in his left hand ; in his 
right, a sceptre ; foot on head of bull. JE. 4. 

(British Museum.) 

This town, which had but a short existence, is supposed 
to have existed previous to the Romans, and to have been 
re-named in honor of the Emperor Tiberius. 49 Its impe- 
rial currency commences with Trajan, and ends with Cara- 
calla. 50 The type is common; and on the bas relief at 
Clamydda (Texier, As. Min. pi. 52) the moon places his 
foot on the head of a prostrate bull. His worship was 
there allied with that of Jupiter. 

49 Ptolem. v. Hierocl. xxii. Phrygiae. Notit. Episc. 
60 Eckhel, Doct. Num. Vet. vii. p, 175. Dumersan, Ilec. dcs 
Medailles Auton. p. 102, 



My dear Sir. A few days ago, some labourers, who were 
sodding potatoes in the reclaimed fish-pond of the abbey of ARD 
QUIN, in the Groat Ards, near Portaferry, county Down, dis- 
covered a small box, which contained near five hundred silver 
coins, consisting of the following : 

About two hundred pennies of EDWARD I , all of common 
English mints. 

A few common groats, and half-groats of EDWARD III. ; forty 
groats, half-groats, and pennies of DAVID II. and ROBERT II. 
of Scotland, none of which were rare; one heavy groat of 
EDWARD IV., weighing 72 grains, in good preservation. 


A very fine groat of RICHARD II. 

Twenty pennies of the same king, many of which are unpub- 

One AQT groat of EDWARD III. 

A few EDWARD III. pennies, of the Durham mint, some of 
which are curious. 

One groat of EDWARD III., which reads, -J-eDW7UlDD G 
RGXS:NGL Z FRANC D HY; an annulet outside the tressure 
under the neck. 

Rev. Legend as usual, with an annulet at the termination of eafih 
word. Three pellets in each of three of the quarters ; and three 
pellets and an annulet in the fourth. 

Twelve English halfpence of EDWARD III. 

One EDWARD I. Dublin halfpenny, and 

A Cork penny of EDWARD J. 


To C. R. SMITH, Esq. 

(iLKN( K!.i:.U:il, NK.VH \\Y.\.\ \M, 

April!, 1845. 

Coins, and other Antiquities, recently discovered on the site of the 
Temple of the Goddess Sequana, near Dijon. 

The Revue de la Nvmismatique Bchje 1 contains an interesting 
account of excavations recently made on the site of an ancient 

1 Tome ii. 1843, 1844, 1845, No. 2. 



temple, which, from an inscription upon a votive vase, appears to 
have been dedicated to a local divinity, the tutelary goddess of the 
river Seine. 

A provincial society of archaeologists, animated by that earnest 
and sincere devotion to antiquarian science which so pre-eminently 
distinguishes the French antiquary, has long supplied money for 
carrying on researches in the department of Cote d'Or, near Dijon. 
The excavations have disclosed the foundations of a temple, frag- 
ments of architecture, capitals of columns, marbles, tessellated 
pavements, altars, statues, has reliefs, inscriptions, and jewellery, 
as well as a series of coins of almost all the emperors of the Gallo- 
Roman period. 

In one of the little chapels, or rooms surrounding the temple, a 
vase was discovered, inscribed on its neck, DE^E SEQVANA 
(sic) RVFVS DONAVIT. It was closed by a piece of lead, 
and contained about one hundred and twenty ex votas, formed of 
thin leaf copper, stamped and clipped with scissors, representing 
eyes, breasts, the organs of generation, as well as the entire human 
body, both male and female. In the midst of these offerings was 
an earthen vase, containing about eight hundred coins in first, 
second, and third brass, and in billon, commencing from Augustus 
down to Magnus Maximus inclusive. There is only one specimen 
of each of these two emperors; and from one to five of the emperors 
and empresses prior to Gallienus. Of Postumus, there are one 
hundred and thirty-seven ; of Victorinus ninety-eight ; of the 
Tetrici two hundred and twenty-eight ; of the subsequent emperors 
and usurpers, from one to three. 

To the Editor of the Numismatic Chronicle. 

No. 10, Rue des Pctits August'ins, Paris. 

SIR You published in a late number of the Numismatic 
Chronicle an article concerning "a forger of ancient coins," and 
you stated that his name was Hoffman, or Noffman. Now, Sir, as 
I bear the name of Hoffman, and am a dealer in coins and medals 
at Paris, and occasionally visit London, that article is calculated 
to do me a deal of harm, as collectors, dealers, &c., may confound 
me with the individual alluded to. I am, Sir, your obedient 
humble servant, JOHN HENRY HOFFMAN. 

[We are sorry for the identity of names ; and it is but an act of 
justice to state, that the writer of the above is not the person to 
whom allusion has been made. EDITOR.] 

History of England," (Plate xi, No. 2,) is engraved a very 
interesting and well-executed Jetton, which Pinkerton thus 


"A Jetton. Arms; ' Nobilitas sola et imica virtus.' Rev. 
the Crest ; * Magnanimis ingenita pietas.' " 

This extremely meagre and unsatisfactory description has been 
suffered to remain on record without any attempt to explain the 
import or give the true appropriation of this little medallic 
curiosity. From the character of the workmanship, it evidently 
belongs to the same period as the Jettons of Sackville, Lord 
Buckhurst, Coke, Hele, Cecil, and Burleigh, which were all 
struck in or about the year 1602 ; to which period, therefore, 
we could have no difficulty in assigning it. The arms, too, are 
remarkable, consisting of six different quarterings. Prepared 
with these data, we proceeded to the College of Arms, and are 
indebted to the ready courtesy and intelligence of our good friend 
T. W. King, Esq., Rouge Dragon, for the following particulars. 

The arms on the Jetton in question, are those of Sir John 
Fortescue, Knt., as they appear annexed to his funeral certificate 
in the Herald's College. He was one of the Privy Council to 
Queen Elizabeth, and also to King James I., and was Chancellor 
of the Duchy of Lancaster. His first wife was Cecily, daughter 
and co-heir of Sir Edmund Ashfield, of Tetenho, Knt., by whom 
he had Sir Francis Fortescue, Knight of the hath, and Sir 
William Fortescue. His second wife was Alice, daughter of 
Christopher Smith, of Annabelle, by whom he had a daughter 
Margery, who married Sir John Poulteney, of Misterton, Knt. 

Sir John Fortescue, the subject of these remarks, died 23rd 
December, 1607. He was the son of Sir Adrian Fcrtescue, who 
was beheaded in 1539, and was lineally descended from Sir John 
Fortescue, who was captain of Meaux, and governor of Brie, in 
France, under King Henry V. ; whose son Henry was sometime 
chief justice in Ireland. The present Earl Fortescue also 
descends from this Henry. 

The arms in Pinkerton's engraving are slightly incorrect. 

It is worthy of remark, that an example is here offered of the 
usefulness of the study of heraldry, in elucidating a numismatic 
difficulty. B. N. 


REVUE NUMISMATIQUE. Bulletin Bibliographique. 


M. Ch. Lenormanti Memoire sur le Classement des Medailles 
qui peuvent appartenir aux treize premiers Arsacides. Didot, 
1841, 4to. Pp. 6475. 

This is an able review of a short work by Lenormant, in which 


he endeavours, by means of dates and character of workmanship^ 
to form some classification of the coins of the Parthian princes. 
He arranges them into two principal classes: 1st. The Tetra- 
drachms, struck by Greek towns on the borders of the Euphrates, 
and subject to the Arsacidse such as Seleucia and Ctesiphon, of 
which we have no uninterrupted series till Orodes, the fourteenth 
prince. 2nd. Drachmas, which were fabricated in the heart of 
the Empire,, and the date of which, though difficult to determine, 
was probably not the same as that which produced the tetra- 
drachms. These questions are fully examined in the Review. 

II. E. Cartier. "Jules Rousset, Memoir e sur les Monnaies dK 
Valentinois. Valence, L. Borel, 1843, 8vo." Pp. 7578. 

M. Cartier, in a short review of this work, praises the general 
character of it, but thinks that the author has made a mistake 
in arranging the coins of Valence, under the three heads of 
Episcopal, Baronial, and Municipal; and has thus made a too 
hasty generalisation. The work is rendered less valuable by the 
badness of its plates. 

HI. F. Duhamel. Quelques Observations sur les Triens de 
Quentovic. Pp. 3740. 

M, Duhamel considers that the mint at Quentovic must have 
been one of the earliest established in France ; as appears both 
from the importance of the place itself and from the great number 
of coins continually discovered there ; yet, among the numerous 
towns whose names occur on the money of the Merovingian 
Dynasties, none have been found with the name Quentovicus ; 
several have, however, occurred with the shorter legend vicvs FIT, 
and M. Duhamel shows, we think successfully, by extracts from 
old writers and charters, that this was a common name for 

IV. A. du Chalais. Observations sur quelques monnaies frappees 
a Orange pendant le Moy en-age. Pp. 41 63. 

This is a long historical paper on the coins of the house of 
Baux, suggested in some measure by a previous paper of M. 
Cartier (in the Revue, 1839) on the money of Venaissin and the 
principality of Orange ; in which he points out and corrects 
several mistakes into which M. Cartier had fallen. He begins 
with Bertrand I. in 1173, and continues the series to Raimond IV. 
and Catherine de Courthezen. The paper is completed in the 
next No. of the Review. 



II. A. de Chalais. Observations sur quelques monnaies frappees 
a Orange pendant le Moyen-age (suite et Jin). Pp. 97 113. 

This is a continuation of the former paper on the same subject 
in the last number of the Review. In this, M. de Chalais 
concludes his account of this class of coins, commencing with the 
house of Chalon. He finishes his essay with a very interesting 
account of the moneyers connected with the house of Orange, 
and of the system of mintage which prevailed during the middle 
ages in this part of Europe. It appears that the moneyers in 
the fourteenth century banded together, and took the title of 
Monnoyers du serment de I' Empire ; that they held an assembly 
from time to time in different cities, with the name of Sablement 
general constitue, and that to it deputies were sent from the 
principal minting towns. 

III. A. de Longperier. Observations sur le type de quelques 

deniers de Pepin. Pp. 93 96. 

M. de Longperier begins by some just remarks on the in- 
accuracy of the engravings of coins during the last century, and 
shows how necessary it is to have the actual coin in sight, and 
the many errors that have arisen from trusting only to the 
drawings or descriptions which earlier numismatists have given. 
He illustrates this position by various interpretations which have 
been proposed for some of the deniers of Pepin, and concludes 
by offering a new and very intelligible reading for one of them. 

IV. M. Octave Gauban. Monnaies d' Aquitaine et de Gascoigne. 

Pp. 114119. 

M. Gauban, in this paper, criticises a notice on some coins of 
these duchies, published by M. le Comte de Gourgue in the last 
number of the Revue. M. Gourgue had endeavoured to prove 
1st. that there were separate mints for each duchy ; 2nd. to 
restore to the dukes of Gascony some deniers which had been 
attributed to the dukes of Aquitaine ; 3rd. to show that he had 
made a mistake in assigning to William V. a denier struck at 
Bourdeaux. M. Gauban, on the other hand, considers that he 
has shown 1st. that the dukes of Aquitaine did exercise a 
sovereign power over the part of Gascony which comprehended 
the Bordelais ; 2nd. that we do not really know any thing of 
any deniers issued by the dukes of Gascony ; and, 3rd. that the 
pieces given by M. Gourgue to these dukes do really belong to 
William V. of Aquitaine. 


V. M. Requien. Notice sur quelques monnaies du Musee Calvet 

a Avignon. Pp. 120127. 

This paper is simply a catalogue of a few mediaeval coins, pre- 
served in the Musee Calvet at Avignon, of Dauphine, Vienne, 
Gap, Valence, Die, and St. Paul-trois-chateaux ; and twenty- 
seven coins of Thoulouse, Valence and Provence, discovered three 
years ago at Rochegude, in the department de la Drome, also 
preserved in the Museum. 

VI. Jules Rouger. Dissertation sur la Monnaie communale de 

St. Omer. Pp. 128139. 

This is a very interesting historical paper on the date of money 
of St. Omer M. Duhamel had already (see Rev. Num. 1843, p. 
439) considered that the mint of St. Omer was the most ancient 
of those used by the counts of Flanders; M. Hermand (Hist. 
Monet, de la Prov. D'Artois, p. 98) has urged the establishment 
of mints at Lille and Bruges, towards the end of the eleventh 
century; and it is probable that Arras, Gand, and Ypres, too, may 
claim almost as early a date : M. Rouger thinks that the same 
may be said of St. Omer, but he cannot produce any direct his- 
torical testimony to the existence of a mint there earlier than 
A.D. 1127. The passage, however, which he quotes as proving 
the existence of a mint at that time, really implies that there was 
one at a period considerably earlier. The whole question is one 
of great importance to students of this portion of mediaeval 

VII. M. Soleirol. De la refonte des monnaies de cuivre. Pp. 


This paper is chiefly interesting in the country in which it was 
proposed to make the changes ; but there are some observations 
which are universally applicable. M. Soleirol argues, 1st, that 
it is unwise to strike pieces of less value than five cent., because 
they will be chiefly in the hands of the lower orders, who 
are likely to lose pieces so small ; 2nd, that the circulation of the 
existing money will be retarded in other states ; 3rd, that it 
will tend to increase the price of merchandise. Again, of the 
change of material, he argues ; 1st, that, though the bronze is 
the hardest and most durable, it will not be the best for the 
classes who will chiefly use them ; 2nd, that the existing pure 
copper is the best, because it retains its colour longer than either 
bell- metal or bronze, and is consequently less exposed to the 
craft of the forgers. 



I. Adrian de Longperier. Attribution d'une Medaille Gauloise a 

Agendicum Senonum. Pp. 165 169. 

M. de Longperier thinks it probable that coins of Amphipolis 
and Thessalonica may have found their way to this part of Gaul, 
just as the gold Philippi are admitted to have come to other parts. 
The only difficulty is as to the exact position of Agendicum. We 
think that M. de Longperier successfully vindicates for the town 
of Sens, this ancient name. 

II. M. Lenormant. Recherches sur les epoques et sur les causes 

d'emission de VCES grave en Italic. Pp. 170 195. 

M. Lenormant, in a paper of great ability and interest, con- 
siders very fully the real history of the Roman As: He dis- 
cusses, I. their antiquity, and argues that it has been much 
overrated by those who have not sufficiently considered, 1st, that 
their style of work is not archaic; 2nd, that they show con- 
siderable freedom of hand and knowledge of modelling ; 3rd, 
that they are the result of Greek talent ; 4th, that they may not 
improbably be copies of an earlier coinage ; and from these and 
similar arguments concludes that they are not older than B.C. 
385. II. He divides them into five classes: 1, Roman; 2, Latian; 
3, Etruscan ; 4, Umbrian ; 5, of towns in the Apennine range ; 
and considers that Rome was the originator of them all, and 
imposed them on each state, as the result of her conquest. He 
points out, that there were probably two classes of artists: 1st, 
those who servilely copied the Roman original ; and 2nd, those 
who added some mark or symbol peculiar to their own town ; and 
that to these two sources are due the varieties we find of type. He 
then gives, at considerable length, the separate history of each 
state, and shews that his previous remarks are fully borne out 
by a large induction of particular instances. 

III. B. Fillon. Tiers de sol d'or inedit de Sigebert premier roi 

d'Austrasie. Pp. 196200. 

M. Fillon considers this coin to have been struck at the same 
period as a coin of the same class from Treves, which is one of 
the earliest monuments of the Merovingian dynasty and copied 
from the Byzantine gold series. The earliest coin of this class 
to which a date can be assigned is one of Theodebert I. in A.D. 
547 ; and this is obviously copied from the type of Justinian. 
M. Fillon further believes that an autonomous coinage of the towns 
preceded the regal series, and that the names of moneyers were 
not affixed earlier than A.D. 550. 


IV. A. de Chasteigner. Catalogue d'une decouverte de Monnaies 
du Moy en-age faite dans la crypte de St. Eutrope de Saintes, 
le 19 Mai, 1843. Pp. 201221. 

This curious discovery of mediaeval coins was owing to some 
repairs which were made by M. 1'abbe Lacurie in the church of 
St. Eutrope. They were found, for the most part, under the 
spot, on which, previous to the revolution, the high altar had 
stood, together with what was probably the remains of the tomb 
of the patron saint of the city, St. Eutropius. The whole number 
found amount to two-hundred and sixty-seven, of which the 
regal series comprehends ninety-two ; the baronial, one-hundred 
and fifty-four ; and the foreign, twenty-one. They form a 
nearly continuous series from the end of the eleventh century, to 
Francis I., comprehending specimens of the coinage of Angu- 
mois, Anjou, Aquitaine, Berri, Burgundy, Brittany, Champagne, 
Chartres, Dauphine, Franche-Comte, Languedoc, Limousin, 
Lyonnais, Maine, Poitou, Provence ; Princes of Orange ; Archbp. 
d' Aries ; Bishops of Maguelone, Querci, Touraine ; of Kings, 
Louts VII., Philippe Auguste, Louis VIII., Louis IX., Philippe 
le Hardi, Philippe le Bel, Philippe le Long, Charles le Bel, 
Philippe de Valois, Jean, Charles VI. VII. VIII. Louis XII. 
Francois I., and of Alphonse d'Arragon ; Flandre, republic of 
Genoa, Bishop of Liege, Amadeus of Savoy, Louis of Savoy, and 
Pope Nicholas V. At the end of his dissertation, M. de 
Chasteigner gives an interesting account of the early history and 
subsequent fate of the church itself. 


I. M. Lenormant. Recherches sur les epoques et sur les causes 
d'emission de Vces grave en Italie (deuxieme article}. Pp. 245 

M. Lenormant, in this number, concludes his very able paper 
on the <ES grave, with some general remarks. He believes that 
there can be no question but the whole mintage of Campania 
was arranged according to the Hellenic system. That in all cases 
the Greek are the oldest, the Oscan next, and those with Latin 
legends, the latest. That those coins of Cales, Ascania, Suessa, 
etc. which bear Latin inscriptions belong to the period immediately 
following the Roman conquest. That many of the more rudely 
executed of the Italian asses hold in the ancient coinage nearly 
the same position which the siege pieces do in modern times ; and 
lastly, that the use of the ccs grave, as it probably arose from 
the great scarcity of the precious metals, so too, on their becom- 
ing more abundant after the taking of Tarentum, it went out of 


II. B. Fillon, Monnaies incdites de Saint Martin de Tours. 

Pp. 271277. 

M. Fillon states that it is his intention to follow in the track 
of M. Carder who first pointed out (Rev. Num. 1838, p. 257) 
the antiquity of the mintage of St. Martin de Tours ; and that 
with this object in view, he proposes to give an account of three 
remarkable coins, which have issued from that Mint. The first, 
probably marks a period of transition from the second to the 
third race of the Merovingians ; earlier therefore than the time 
of Charlemagne, to whose era some would attribute it. The 
second is one of Pepin, upon which, however (though M. Fillon 
thinks without reason), some doubt has been cast. The third is 
a denier of Charles le Chauve, on which the head of the saint 
or king is a peculiarity which has been found on only one other 
coin of the second race. It appears that the private right of the 
mint of St. Martin lasted from the latter part of the sixth century 
till the time of Philip Augustus, who established it as a royal 

III. Adrien de Longperier. Monnaies frappees pour les Comtes 

de Roussillon par les JKois d' Aragon. Pp. 278 294. 

M. de Longperier alludes, in the first place, to an Imperial 
Greek coin of Ruscino, and mentions an attribution of a similar 
one to Berytus in Phoenicia by M. de Ranch. He then gives a 
sketch of the history of the counts of Roussillon from the year 
A.D. 1130, and of the kings of Aragon whose money (with the 
titles of Counts of Barcelona and Aragon) appears to have been 
in circulation there, quoting a passage from Bosch. Titols de 
Honor, p. 490 ; from which he infers that the croat or gros 
d' argent was the prototype of the English groat. He then 
notices the adoption in the north of Spain of the Arabic dirhens 
as the type of the Spanish marabotins, and refers to a paper by 
him in the Numismatic Chronicle (1842, No. xviii. p. 122), in 
which he shows a similar adoption of the Arabic type by Offa, 
and proves the derivation of the word mancus from the Arabic 
mancousch. A similar practice he shows was also in vogue in the 
Narbonnaise in 798, the bishop of Orleans having complained that 
they attempted to corrupt him with money, " quos aratum sermo 
sive character arat." 

IV. Jules Rouger. Lettre a M. A. Hermand, sur quatre man' 
naies ou plombs des fetes folles de Terouane et d'Aire-sur-lys. 
Pp. 295-304. 

M. Rouger commences by pointing out a mistake into which M. 
Hermand had at first fallen, but subsequently admitted, owing to 



the pieces not having been sufficiently cleaned. He then con- 
siders the question, whether they are to be considered as mereaux 
of the commune or chapter of Aire. Now it appears from an 
account of the festival of St. Eloy to have been the custom on the 
Sunday before the saint's day to distribute as many mereaux as 
there were persons present (see R. P. Antoine Deslions, Hist, de 
1'Institut. de St. Eloy, Douay, 1709, p. 10), To this class of 
jetons M. Rouger attributes this piece, and not to mereaux of 
\\iefetes des Innocents et des Fous (see M. Leber, sur ces monnaies. 
Paris, 1837). Similar to these are the well-known coins of the 
Innocents d* Amiens. They may have been distributed to certain 
foundations by the bishop, whose name they bear ; but this M. 
Rouger doubts. He then mentions the fetes folles d'Aire and 
the fetes de Liesse ; the first, a clerical, and the second, a lay 
celebration. To this second class, the leaden pieces in question 
probably belong. 


II. J. de Witte. Medailles inedites de Postume. Pp. 330369. 

M. de Witte, in a very long paper, gives an interesting account 
of a set of the coins of Postumus, the reverses of which form a 
complete series of the labours of Hercules. He observes, that 
it is not easy to determine why Postumus should have appro- 
priated to himself this type of Hercules ; but, he may have done 
so, because his own countenance bore a strong resemblance to the 
Greek ideal head of Hercules, or, in imitation of the types on the 
coins of Commodus, or perhaps in allusion to the success of his 
victories. He considers, that those coins which represent the 
labours or attributes of Hercules may be divided into three 
classes: 1st, those with surnames derived from the places in 
which his exploits were performed ; 2nd, those which allude to 
the religion of the countries conquered by i'ostumus, with local 
epithets ; 3rd, those on which the attributes of Hercules appear, 
as emblems of the imperial power. M. de Witte adds, that 
Commodus was the first who ventured to adopt the character of 
Hercules upon his money: subsequently the practice became 
very common, and continued till Christianity became firmly 

III. Dr. Rigollot. Tiers de Gros frappe par Charles VII., en 

qualite de Due de Touraine. Pp. 370373. 

This is a short essay upon a curious piece, which has already 
been published in the plates to LeUancs Traile Historique, 
though he has not described it in his text. He considers that it 
was struck by Charles VII. as Due de Touraine, and that it was 


reserved by Leblanc for a work on the monnaies des barons 
which has never been published. Dr. Rigollot determines its 
date to have been between October 29th, 1422, and April 19th, 

IV. F. Poey d'Avant. Notice sur une Decouverte des Monnaies 
du Moyen-dije a Mareuil (Vendee). Pp. 374385. 

These coins were found to the number of 15,442, in the course 
of some excavations made at the ancient castle of Mareuil. In 
proportion to their great number, their interest is comparatively 
small; but there are some among them of great value. Among 
the unedited coins are specimens from the mints of William I. 
of Chateauroux, Stephen I. of Penthievre ; Alain, Count of Pen- 
thievre, and Guincamp. Four of them he considers to be very 
valuable, as they clear up a portion of the history of the thirteenth 
century which has hitherto been obscure. 

It seems not improbable, that this treasure may have belonged 
to some lords of the army of Louis IX. All the coins of this 
monarch which have been found, are in excellent preservation ; 
and the battle of Taillebourg was in 1242. Another suggestion, 
that of M. Fillon, is, that the treasure was buried at the time of 
the defeat of the English in Poitou, in 1224, by Louis VIII. 


I. Catalogue des Monnaies des Comtes de Hainault. Pp. I 25. 

This is the first part of a complete catalogue of all the Belgian 
money which the directors of the review, propose to publish 
in order. It commences with those on which the name of the 
count who struck them does not appear. It then comprehends 
specimens of the coinage from Margaret of Constantinople, in A.D. 
1245, to Philip the Good, in A.D. 1467. The size and weight of 
the coins is given in almost every case. 

II. C. Piot. Ancienne Administration Monetaire de la Belgique. 

Pp. 2676. 

M. Piot in a very learned and comprehensive paper gives the 
history of the early coinage of the provinces now (more or less) 
comprehended under the title of " La Belgique" He shows 
that the system is constructed upon that of the Frank dynasties, 
and that it prevailed even to a late period. Even in the ordinary 
management of the workmen of the mint, the French rules were 
adopted ; and any privileges obtained by those of the former, 
were granted to those also of the latter. M. Piot quotes from 


many authorities, who prove that the moneyers were held in the 
highest respect, that they were under the prince himself, that 
they formed a confederation, connected together by many curious 
rights'and laws, and that this administration continued till the year 
A.D. 1749. As a royal prerogative, the right of coining could 
not be legally exercised, except in virtue of a direct permission ; 
thus the abbey of Pruim obtained this privilege for the Low 
Countries, in A.D. 861; the bishop of Utrecht, in A.D. 937; 
and the towns of Over-yssel, Deventer, etc. in A. D. 1046 ; 
while from A.D. 1314, it was confined by an express charter to 
the free cities. The right at first was limited to silver ; but in 
the fourteenth century, gold also was permitted. 

His paper is finished by extracts from twenty -four different 
charters, etc.; in Norman French, Dutch, and Latin, which he 
calls pieces justificatives. 

III. De C Notice sur une Trouvaille de Monnaies faite a 

Marchiennes-au Pont en J841. Pp. 77 81. 
This discovery of about 700 pieces was in digging up some 
ground near Charleroy. It consists of coins of the marquesses 
of Namur, counts of Hainault, dukes of Brabant, count of Loos. 
It seems probable that these coins were lost, or buried, before the 
esterlings of Valenciennes came into circulation certainly before 
A.D. 1296, and probably before A.D. 1294. 

IV. G. Groddons. Lettre a MM. les redacteurs de la Revue de 

la Numismatique Beige. Pp. 81, 82. 

This letter contains a short account of the discovery, by a girl 
while harvesting, of a small box (on which were the arms of 
Charles V.), containing ten pieces of gold. They range from 
William VI., count of Holland, A.D. 14041417, to Francis I. 
of France. 

V. C. Piot. Documents pour servir a VHistoire Monetaire des 
Pays-Bas; par Fr. Verachter. De Bracy, 1841. 8vo. 
Pp. 8392. 

M. Piot gives a concise review of this valuable work, which 
contains the /Supplement aux Monnaies de Cuure t and an article 
on the coins of Maximilian and Philip, struck at Malines (Mech- 
lin) in 1485 1489. On the first portion of M. Verachter's 
work, M. Piot expresses a just regret that he has not given any 
list of the counts of Coure (or Cuure). On the second, he speaks 
in terms of praise of the care which M.Verachter has taken to 
obtain solid foundation for what he urges. M. Piot concludes by 
giving a list of the accounts of the moneyers of Malines, from 
1382 to 1392; with five pieces justificatives on this subject, 
drawn from the archives of the kingdom. 


VI. C. Plot. Les Monnaies et les Medailles des Premiers Siecles 
du Christianisme, Lettre adressee au Cure Stiels, etc. 1841. 
p. 9294. 

This is a brief reply to a writer who seems to have known but 
little about numismatics. M. Piot shows that the medal with the 
head of our Saviour and a Hebrew inscription is false ; and that 
Christianity had no effect on the money of the empire till the 
time of Constantine, who put on his coins the Christian mono- 

VII. J. Lelewel. Anciennes Plaques Decoratoires, Sepulchrales, 

etc. P. 94 119. 

This is a very interesting account of certain plates of gold, 
winch have been frequently found in Scandinavia, and recently at 
Thuilly, near Ossogne. They resemble the bracteates, and were 
formerly considered to be money ; but they have no system of 
weight, while, at the same time, they generally have a ring 
attached to them, which shows they have been worn. Generally, 
too, they have no inscription, and appear to be strictly indigenous ; 
others have some characters, and are obvious copies of Byzantine 
types. In like manner, the Runic alphabet has a clear analogy 
with the Latin ; but there are many new forms introduced. 
M. Lelewel states that gold is not found in Scandinavia, but con- 
siders that it was obtained from the Romans : 1. when the 
northern barbarians began to press upon the empire ; 2. when the 
barbarians had so far succeeded, that their descendants occupied 
the curule chair at Rome. He further thinks, that the plates 
found at Ossogne, and the Scandinavian relics, date about A.D. 
330, as they have busts on them of Constantine and Constans. 
There is a difference between them, however; for the Romans 
have no decorations but of a civil or political character, while the 
Scandinavian are covered with religious emblems, etc. M. Lelewel 
then gives a more minute account of a plate of gold found at 
Thuilly, to the reading on which he gives a clever approximation, 
and mentions another, discovered near Tongres, of which he 
offers a conjectural, but not probable, explanation. He mentions 
also one in bronze, with the name of Egbert, and the title of 
Augustus ; and gives a curious account of the assumption of the 
Roman imperial titles about the time of Charlemagne. He con- 
cludes by a notice of the use of rings by the Scandinavians, etc. 

VIII. Meynaerts. Huit Demi-sous et Trots Tiers de Sou inedits. 

Pp. 119 122. 

This is a short account of eight coins of late Roman emperors, 
from Honorius to Mauricius. M. Meynaerts makes some useful 
remarks on the change of weight during the third century. 


IX. C. Piot. - Monnaies battues a Fauquemont par Philip le 

Hardi, Comte de Flandres. Pp.122 132. 
It had been long a question to which Fauquemont these coins 
ought to be given, as there are two places with the name ; the 
first in the northern part of the ancient duchy of Limbourg, the 
second in Artois. M. Piot, having examined the orders given to 
the moneyers by Philip, decides in favour of the first. He sub- 
joins several pieces justificatives from which he has formed this 

X. C. Piot. Documents pour servir a I'Histoire Monetaire des 

Pays-Bas; publics par Fr. Verachter. Pp. 133146. 
M. Piot has already noticed the previous publications of M. 
Verachter. His present work contains two articles ; the first, on 
the oboles of Count Gerolphe ; the second, on the money of Philip 
de St. Paul, struck at Louvain, A.D. 1429, 1430. On the first, M. 
Piot considers, that M. Verachter has failed to produce historical 
testimony, and that the coins he attributes to the ninth really belong 
to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries ; first, because the Carlo- 
vingian race alone struck money at that early period ; and, 
secondly, from a comparison with those of Philip d 'Alsace. In 
the second, M. Piot considers him to have been more successful, 
in bringing together a considerable mass of interesting historical 
documents. M. Piot concludes by adding a large collection of 
pieces justificatives. 

XI. C. Piot. Antiquites de Pologne, Lithuanie, et Slavonic; par 

J. Lelewel. No. 2. Pp. 146, 147. 

This is a short notice, by M. Piot, of an interesting work by 
M. Lelewel, on the coins of Poland. M. Lelewel has divided 
his history into three portions: 1, the sera of deniers, from 
A.D. 1000 to 1333; 2, that of the gros, from 1333 to 1620; 3, 
that of the florin, from 1620 to 1795. It is remarkable that 
hardly any religious emblems are found on the Polish money. 

XII. R. Chalon. Monnaies de I'Abbesse de Nivelles. 

Pp. 161163. 

M. Chalon shews that the abbey of Nivelles struck coins by a 
diploma from the Emperor Henry III. as early as the year 1040, 
and that it retained this power until 1209. M. Chalon thinks it 
probable that the right was withdrawn in A.D. 1225, as no coins 
have been found of a later period. 

XIII. G. Groddons. Notice sur une trouvaille de Monnaies faite 
a Bekkevoort, pres de Diest en 1842. Pp. 164 172. 

This is a catalogue of a collection of coins, found in an earthen- 


ware cruise, in an old building belonging to the cure de Bekke- 
voort. It consists of pieces struck between A.D. 1261 and 1392, 
chiefly of princes in the neighbourhood; but there is also one of 
Alexander of Holland and one of Robert Bruce, together with 
several of Edward III. 

XIV. C. Plot. Discussions entre le Due de Wenceslas et les 
Etats de Brabant au sujet de ses monnaies. Pp. 173 200. 

This is an account of the disputes between the Duke de Wen- 
ceslas and the people of Brabant, relative to the right of striking 
money, in the year 1.381. Wenceslas had made an agreement 
with the people that his coin should be according to a certain 
standard, but that if the money of England, France, or of the 
count of Flanders, became adulterated, Wenceslas was to have 
the power of giving his money a proportionate alloy, otherwise he 
would have been a great loser in the exchange. When, however, 
the foreign coin was so alloyed, the people protested against 
Wenceslas for diminishing the value of his currency. M. Plot 
gives the charge, and his reply to it, and subjoins several pieces 

XV. Meynaerts. Quatre Pieces d'Or inedites de mon cabinet. 

Pp. 201203. 

This is a short notice on four gold coins which M. Meynaerts 
attributes to the ancient Lydians, and considers to be unedited. 

XVI. Guioth. Trouvailles Numismatiques et Archeoloaiques , 

faites a Arlon. Pp. 204213. 

Two discoveries have been made at Arlon ; 1, in the land of 
M. de Saulcy, consisting of Roman cinerary vases and two coins ; 
2, in the ancient convent of Carmelites, at Arlon, among the 
bones in the burying ground. They consist of coins of Lorraine, 
France, Luxembourg; of these, some of those of Lorraine are 
very curious Among the foundations was also found a fragment 
of a female figure, probably of Roman workmanship. M. Guioth 
adds two pieces justificatives. 

XVII. J. Lelewel. Numismatique de la Gaule Narbonnaise ; 

par M. de la Saussaye. Pp. 213218. 

This is a short review of M. de la Saussaye's valuable work on 
the monetary system of Narbonnaise. M. Lelewel speaks through- 
out in terms of the highest praise, and acquiesces in almost all of 
M. de la Saussaye's attributions. 

XVIII. Leodinus. Quelques Mots sur le Perron de Liege. 
Pp.219 236. 

This is a very valuable historical essay upon the symbol 



(technically called perron) which occurs universally on the coins 
and other monuments of the town of Liege. The author con- 
siders two questions: 1. What is the perron? 2. At what 
epoch was it adopted as the special badge of the Liegois ? On 
the first, he determines, beyond all doubt, that it is a religious 
emblem, bearing a great resemblance to the cross on the coins of 
Theodosius II. and Valentinianus III., and probably adopted by 
the early Franks and Merovingians from those sources. The 
second is not so easy to determine. Yet it appears to have been 
set up in the court of the cloisters of St. Lambert as early as the 
middle of the twelfth century, perhaps earlier, and to have 
been adopted as the symbol of the liberties of the town in 1303, 
under Thibaut de Bar. 

XIX. C.Medaille inedite du Eegne de Napoleon. P. 244. 

This medal, which commemorates the existence of an ephemeral 
society of Masons at La Haye, is one of only five specimens which 
were then struck. From its extreme rarity, it has never been 
noticed by any of those who have written on the medals of the 
Napoleon series. 

XX. C. Plot. Documents sur quelques Monnaies f rappees par 

Antoine, due de Brabant. Pp. 247260. 

This paper contains a short account of some money struck by 
Anthony, duke of Brabant, by an order of 10th July, 1405, and 
the statistics of the weights of the coins then in circulation ; with 
two pieces justificatives, from which this statement has been 
drawn up. 

XXI. C. Piot. Classification de quelques Monnaies Visigothes. 

Pp. 261279. 

M. Piot, in a paper characterised by his usual learning and 
ability, enters at great length into the numismatic history of the 
Visigoths. He shows that they, in almost all cases, adopted the 
types of Roman emperors of their day, adding to these many 
other things which are peculiar to the northern nations. Thus, 
the titles and inscriptions are Roman, the long hair on the heads 
of the figures barbarian, and characteristic of the free people of 
the north. M. Piot then takes a survey of the coins themselves, 
and gives a description of a considerable number, beginning with 
those whose legends present merely a confused collection of letters, 
and proceeding regularly, from Leuvigilde, in A.D. 568 586, to 
Roderick, in 71 1 714. M. Piot adds, that this series of the 
Visigoth kings belongs to the magnificent collection of M. Mey- 
nae'rts, at Louvain. 


XXII. Meynaerts. Des monnaies chez les Egyptiens. 
Pp. 280282. 

A short paper by M. Meynaerts, who supposes that the 
Scarabcei may have been used by the ancient Egyptians for 

XXIII. A. Perreau. Recherches sur les seigneurs de Herstal, et 

sur leur monnaies. Pp. 283 289. 

M. Perreau gives an historical account of the house of Herstal ; 
and then describes nine coins which alone survive of the monetary 
issue of this family. They comprehend the period between A.D. 
1253 and A.D. 1354. In an appendix, he has added a description 
of one more coin, from the cabinet of M. Serrure, which has great 
historical interest, in that it was struck by John III. as duke of 
Brabant, subsequent to the death of Beatrix, in 1339, when the 
house of Herstal ceased to be a distinct family. 

XXIV. De C. ..... Quelques mots sur les publications faites a 

^occasion de la trouvaille de Louvain. Pp. 290 296. 

This is a paper containing critical and historical remarks on 
two essays which have been published on the discovery of some 
ancient coins at Louvain : one by M. Meynaerts, of Louvain, in 
the Revue Numismatique de Blois, pp. 377 381 ; the second, 
with fuller details, by M. Piot, in the Messager des Sciences 
Historiques. The author of this paper states, that both these 
essays are inaccurate ; and then gives a brief account of some 
pieces from the same hoard which have come into his hands. 

XXV. C Catalogue des monnaies du comle de Namur. 

Pp. 297310. 

This is a continuation of the catalogue of Belgian money pro- 
posed in the first number of the Revue, and actually begun by a 
description of the coins of Hainault. This portion comprehends 
those of Namur, from Albert III., A.D. 1037, to Philip-le-Bel, 
A.D. 1506. 

XXVI. P. 0. Van der Chijs. Quelques mots sur T. E. Mionnet, 
a M. le Redact eur du Messager des Sciences et des Lettres. 
Pp. 311 321. 

This is an interesting sketch of the life of this indefatigable 
numismatist, with a full and minute account of his labours for the 
advancement cf the study of coins, and a particular description of 
the works which he has published. M. Van der Chijs mentions 
one fact, which is, perhaps, not generally known, that M. Mionnet, 
but five days before his death, put the finishing hand to a work 



he was about to publish, called Complement, ou Volumes addition- 
nels a la Description des Medailles antiques. 

XXVII. Dr. Rigollot. Gros Tournois de Jean, roi de Boheme, 

comte de Luxembourg. P. 329. 

A short account of a gros Tournois of John, king of Bohemia, 
struck, as it appears, in imitation of the gros of Philippe de 

XXVIII Medaille de Ste. Jeanne de Valois, frappee 

auxfrais de M. Pierquin de Gembloux. Pp. 330332. 
The chief interest of this modern medal is, that the portrait on 
it has been copied from a cast taken from the face of St. Jeanne 
de Valois shortly after death, and lately discovered by M. Pier- 
quin de Gembloux. Hitherto no portrait of her whatever has 
had the least claim to authenticity. It is singularly unfortunate, 
that, so late as 1842, a huge statue to her memory should have 
been placed in one of the niches of the Madeleine, with the in- 
scription " Bourges, 1500," a date which does not agree with 
that of her birth, death, or canonization. 

XXIX. Meynaerts. Quatre pieces en or, qui ont echappe a 

Mionnet. Pp. 333334. 

This is a description of four gold coins: 1. Vararanes II., 
Vararanes III., and Narses. 2. An uncertain Sassanian king. 
3. Constantine the Great. 4. Constantirie XL 

XXX Quel sens doit-on attacker au mot MONETA, 

dont se sert Louis IV., dans un diplome par lequel il ratifie les 
droits dEtienne, eveque de Liege, sur la mile de Maestricht. 
Pp. 349354. 

Two opinions have been held on the meaning of this word in 
the old charters : 1 , that it implies the right of striking money ; 
^2, that it is a simple feudal service. The object of the present 
paper is to prove the first of these positions, in opposition to 
M. Villenfagne, in his Recherches sur Vhistoire de la ci-devant 
principaute de Liege. The author of it shows, from numerous 
examples, that even very small towns had this right, and is sup- 
ported in his view by De Renesse, Heylen, and Lelewel ; and then 
quotes several diplomas, in which the word moneta is used in this 
sense, and in no other. Of these, the charter to the abbey of 
Pruim (Hautheim, Hist. Dipl. Trevirensis, torn. i. p. 198) is as 
satisfactory as possible. 

XXXI. Meynaerts. Sept demi-sous en or, inedits. Pp. 355, 356. 
This is a catalogue of seven semises of the Byzantine series, 
comprehending the period from A.D. 308 to A.D. 565. 


XXXII. De la Fontaine. Pp. 357362. 

This is a short account of four curious gold coins, which appear 
to have been issued agreeably to a treaty between Bohemond de 
Sarrebrucken, bishop of Treves, and Wenceslaus, duke of Luxem- 
bourg. M. de la Fontaine considers that they belong to the 
series which he calls monnaies sociales. He adds a piece justifi- 
cative from Hautheim, Hist. Trevirensis, torn. ii. p. 235. M. de 
Fontaine concludes by mentioning that De Saulcy (in the Revue 
de Blois, 1836,) had drawn attention to some pieces struck by 
John of Bohemia, and Henry IV., count of Bar, stating, at the 
same time, that the former chose for his places of mintage, 
Luxembourg and Danvilliers, while the latter chose St. Michel 
and Stenay for a similar purpose. As late as the year 1842, 
some coins were discovered at Freudenberg, one of which had 
issued from the mint of St. Michel. 

XXXIII. Meynaerts. Monnaies Visigothes. P. 363. 

An account of three coins of Athanagildas, Linoa, and Chin- 


XXXIV. Meynaerts. Piece d'or trouvee dans un tombeau a 

Athenes. P. 364. 

This gold coin is said to have been found in the mouth of a 
skeleton, at Athens. M. Meynaerts supposes that it was intended 
as a tribute to Charon, and imagines that it is of the highest 
antiquity and belonged to the series commonly called Bracteates. 
If the plate be correct, we think there is no ground for either of 
the last suppositions. 

XXXV. A. Perreau. Recherches sur les seigneurs de Born, et 

sur leurs monnaies. Pp. 365 368. 

M. Perreau gives a concise history of the family of Born, from 
A.D. 1150 to A.D. 1400, and states that, hitherto, the few known 
pieces struck by these counts have been comprehended under 
those of the dukes of Gueldres. He then describes two coins 
from his own cabinet, and one which he had just received from 
M. Lelewel. 

XXXVI. Meynaerts. Poids de la mile de Lampsacus. 

Pp. 369 371. 

M. Meynaerts shows that, in very early times, weight was used 
instead of coined money to designate value, and that afterwards 
the Greek drachma served as a unit for both. He then shows 
that the drachma had a different weight in Athens, Egina, Egypt, 
and Rhodes ; and infers, from the weight of the specimen in ihis 
possession (66 drs. 4064-), that it must have been a mina of some 


town in which the Rhodian standard was in vogue. Lastly, from 
the type, he concludes that this town was Lampsacus in Mysia. 

XXXVII. C. Piot. Profits du monnayage donnes a ferme. 
Pp. 372 378. 

A short historical paper to prove that it was the custom of the 
princes who, in the middle ages, ruled in Belgium, to farm the 
profits arising from the striking of their coins. M. Piot suggests, 
that some words, otherwise unaccountable, which occur on the 
early coins of Brabant, may be the names of these moneyers. 
He adds two pieces justificative*. 

XXXVIII. J. Lelewel. Monographic numismatique Berri- 
clionne de M. Pierquin de Gembloux. Pp. 379 387. 

This is a review of a work by M. Pierquin de Gembloux, 
which, if the reviewer is to be trusted, is full of the most extra- 
ordinary notions of philology, applied to the illustration of coins. 
M. Gembloux sets at nought all that his predecessors in these 
studies have accomplished, and proposes the most extravagant 
interpretations for coins of places where their legislation, manners, 
customs, and dialects, are all equally unknown to us. He seems 
to have but one idea before him, that of attributing to Berri 
every possible and impossible coin. The portion of his work 
which really deserves the most praise is his essay on the mereaux 
and jetons : he distinguishes rightly between the gectoris and 
the jetons ; but M. Lelewel suggests, that a still better classifi- 
cation would be that of jetons de compte (calculi, rechen-pfennig\ 
and jetons historiques. 

XXXIX. C. Piot. Classification de quelques Monnaies Liegoises 

inedites. Pp. 388392. 

This is an account of some coins discovered at Maestricht, and 
which fill up a considerable hiatus in the able work on the numis- 
matics of the bishopric of Liege, by the Comte de Renesse-Breid- 
bach. M. Piot's essay comprehends specimens of the period 
between A.D. 1091 and A.D. 1164. 

XL. Annonce d'un ouvrage sur les Medailles de I'ancienne Afrique, 
par MM. Falbe et Lindberg ; avec un apergu des decouvertes 
de M. Lindberg dans la Numismatique de Carthage, de la Nu- 
midie,etdelaMauritanie. Kopenhague. J.C. Scharling. 1843. 



[WE have much pleasure in laying before our readers, a wood- 
engraving of a new and most interesting coin of Amyntas, king 
of Galatia, being one of two 1 lately received from our esteemed 
correspondent, H. P. Borrell, Esq. of Smyrna. We are in- 
debted to Mr. Burgon for the following remarks upon them. 



IN a letter just received from Smyrna, accompanying the 
two coins to which it relates, my friend Mr. Borrell 
informs me, that he had lately met with "two silver tetra- 
drachms of Amyntas, king of Galatia, in the finest state of 
preservation, one bearing a date, IB (year 12), and the 
other without." He adds, " You will be struck with the 
resemblance of these coins to the common tetradrachms of 
Side, in Pamphylia, and they were most probably struck in 
that city. Dion Cassius says, that M. Antony gave the 
kingdom of Galatia to Amyntas for his services, and added 
thereto Pisidia, and part of Pamphylia." 

1 We have been informed that three coins, of similar size and 
type, have been received at Paris, from the Levant. 



The passage in Dio, to which Mr. Borrell alludes, 2 seems 
very satisfactorily to account for the peculiar circumstance, 
that Arnyntas should have struck this money in the chief 
city of the last-named province. Indeed, the coins resemble 
the latest tetradrachms of Side so entirely, 1st, in type; 
2dly, in style of workmanship, as well as style of fabric ; 
and, 3dly, in weight, 3 as to leave no reasonable doubt of 
their being referable to the mint of the celebrated city, 4 
whose Minerva 5 and Victory are impressed upon them. 

The two coins being of the same type, it will suffice to 
describe the specimen which has been engraved. (See 
the vignette.) Both coins are as they came from the die. 

1. Obv. Helmeted head of Minerva to the right, and a monogram 

behind. 6 

Rev. BASIAEQS AMYNTOY. A winged Victory, in rapid 
motion, to the left, with a sceptre and diadem 7 in her 
extended right hand, and her left supporting her 

2 Lib. xlix. c. 32. 

3 We shall recur to the weight of these coins before closing 
these remarks. 

4 Under the dominion of Amyntas, Side must still have ranked 
as the chief city, not only of Pamphylia, bat of all the south coast 
of Asia. We learri from its coins, that, as late as the reign of 
Gallienus, its importance gave rise to its assumption of tbe proud 
(Vaillant, Numismata Grceca. Mionnet, Supp. vol.vii. p. 79). 
The ancient splendour of Side is even now attested by its ruins. 
The capacious harbours of the city, as well as its walls, towers, 
gates, temples, agora, theatre, etc. etc., still remain. See Beau- 
fort's Karamania, pp.146 162. 

5 Strabo (lib. xiv. p. 667), mentions the temple of Minerva at 

6 The monogram is singular, and apparently simple; but it will 
admit of too many combinations to permit a probable conjecture, 
except that it contains the name of the chief moneyer, or mone- 
tarius of Amyntas, at Side. 

7 These objects, originally indicative of divinity, are probably 
to be regarded, in the time of Amyntas, as merely symbolical of 
his regal power. 


drapery. In the field, to the left, the letters IB 
(year 12). Size, 8 (of Mionnet). Weight, 246-^ 
Troy grains. 

2 Another specimen, but without monogram or date, and 
in the same perfect state of preservation. Size, 8. 
Weight, 244 T % Troy grains. 

It would be superfluous to remind the numismatic reader, 
that, with the exception of an unique coin, to which we will 
presently advert, 8 no silver coins of the kings of Galatia 
have been hitherto discovered. Recurring to the passage 
in Dio, just cited, it appears that Amyntas received from 
Antony the sovereignty of Galatia, including part of Lyca- 
onia and Pamphylia, in the consulship of Gellius and 
Nerva, u.c. 718=B.c. '36. 9 It is not difficult to discover, 
on referring to an accurate map, 10 that the motive of 
Antony, in annexing part of Lycaonia and Pamphylia to 
the kingdom of Galatia, was to connect the dominions of 
his ally, Amyntas, with the sea; and by thus giving him 
the authority over such an important maritime city as 
Side, to secure to himself, both by sea and by land, all the 
assistance which Amyntas could render in the great struggle 
for empire then going on. 11 

Of the history of Amyntas but little is known. Previous 
to his elevation to the sovereignty of Galatia, he had been 
secretary (Tpa^jjiareu^) to King Deiotarus. 12 Subsequently, 

8 See note 22 . p. 74. 

9 Clinton, Fasti Hellenici, vol. iii. p. 222, B.C. 36, and p.437, 
note f ; Dio, xlix. 32. 

10 See the map to Colonel Leake's Journal of a Tour in Asia 
Minor, etc., 8vo. 1824. 

11 It was precisely in the same year (B.C. 36) that Antony, 
with the same view of securing to himself the friendship and 
alliance of the adjoining kingdom of Cappadocia, deposed and 
put to death Ariarathes VII., the reigning king, and set up 
Archelaus in his stead (Dio, xlix. 32; Clinton, vol. iii. p.437). 

12 Dio, xlix. 32, This must be Deiotarus I., who was extremely 


we hear of him as commander in chief (arpar^yoe) of the 
Galatian troops, sent by Deiotarus as auxiliaries to Brutus, 
whose cause, however, Amyntas abandoned just before the 
battle of Philippi, A.V.C. 7 1 2= B.C. 42, 13 and went over to 
Antony and Octavianus, with others, Romans as well as 
auxiliaries; 14 thereby contributing, in no small degree, to 
the success of the Triumvirs against Brutus and Cassius 
on that memorable occasion. This event probably led to 
his attainment afterwards (B.C. 36), of th3 regal dignity 
from Antony, already spoken of. 

During the feuds which arose between Antony and Octa- 
vianus in the year B.C. 32, and which led to the preparations 
for war between the now hostile Triumvirs, we find Amyntas 
aiding Antony, by furnishing troops, but not leading them 
in person. 15 In the following year, however, Amyntas had 
joined Antony's army; for we learn from Plutarch 16 that 
several persons of distinction, while encamped at Actium, 
amongst whom were the kings Amyntas and Deiotarus, 17 
went over from Antony to Octavianus, B.C. 31, just previous 
to the celebrated naval battle which was to decide the fate 

aged (iirepyrjpug) in A. v. c. 712= B. c. 42 (Dio, xlvii. 24), and 
who had been rallied by Crassus twelve years before (B.C. 54), 
on his beginning 1 to build a city in his old age. Cf. Plutarch, in 
Crasso, c. 17 ; Clinton, Fast. Hellen. vol. iii. p. 190. It appears 
that he died in the year B.C. 40. Cf. Dio, xlviii. 33. A. v. c. 714; 
Clinton, vol. iii. p. 216. 

13 Dio, xlvii. c.48 ; Clinton, Fasti Hellen. vol. iii. p.214. 

14 Plutarch, in Bruto, c. xlix. ; Dio, lib. xlvii. c.48. 

15 Plutarch, in Anton, c.61. 

1(5 Plutarch, in Anton, c.63 ; Veil. Patercul. lib. ii. c.84 ; Dio, 
lib.l c.l 3. 

17 At this period (B.C. 31), Deiotarus I. had been dead nine 
years. This is therefore Deiotarus II. (the son of the old king 
Deiotarus), who was reigning, jointly with his father, previous to 
B. c. 45. Cf. Cicero, Phil. xi. 12, 13. " Regem Deiotarum patrem, 
et recjem Deiotarum filium ;" and Clinton, Fast. Hell. vol. iii. p. 207. 


of the civilised world. On this occasion, as at the battle of 
Philippi, it seems that the defection of the seceders turned 
the fortune of the day. 

In partial extenuation of this treacherous and ungrateful 
conduct on the part of Amyntas, who owed his kingdom to 
Antony, it may be urged, that the unbounded and unto- 
ward influence of Cleopatra over that great commander, 
not only tended, in the minds of many of his adherents, to 
disqualify him for the government of the Roman people, 
but had disgusted several of his most faithful personal 
friends. At the same time, his ill success in the skirmishes 
which were daily taking place between the rival forces 
before Actium, as well by land as by sea, dispirited and 
intimidated his allies, and weakened their confidence in the 
issue of the approaching important struggle. Thus it was 
that, at last, fidelity to Antony appeared to them a vain and 
dangerous endeavour to support a hopeless cause. 

The result of the battle justified the foresight of Amyn- 
tas ; and the death of Antony in the following year (B. c. 30), 
left Octavianus sole master of the Roman empire. 

As it is chiefly in connexion with the civil dissensions of 
Rome that mention is made of Amyntas, we find no more 
said of him during the comparative calm which followed 
Antony's death,' till B.C. 25, 18 in which year he lost his life. 
It is to Strabo that we are indebted for the most detailed 
account of this event. 19 It appears, that, wishing to punish 
and repress the lawless incursions of the brigand Pisidians 
and Cilicians, who inhabited some of the most elevated and 

18 Dio, liii 26, A. v.c. 729=zB.c. 25; Clinton, Fast. Hell vol. iii. 
p. 553, note q 

9 Lib. xii. cap. 5, 4,5. p.569. Strabo was himself about 
this time in Egypt, and about thirty years old (Clinton, Fast, 
llp.ll. vol. iii. p. 237). 


inaccessible parts of the mountain chain of Taurus, from 
whence they were in the habit of descending and ravaging 
the plain country, Amyntas headed an expedition against 
them in person with considerable success. Having taken 
Cremna, in Pisidia, and entered the territory of the Homo- 
nadenses, 20 the greater part of whose fortresses he had 
taken, and whose leader (rvpavvo?) he had conquered arid 
put to death, he fell into an ambuscade of Cilicians, which 
had been contrived by a stratagem of the widow of the late 
Homonadensian leader, and was himself taken and slain. 

With Amyntas, the independence of the kingdom of 
Galatia came to an end. Dio expressly states, 21 that " at 
the death of Amyntas, Augustus did not give the govern- 
ment to his sons, but brought Galatia and Lycaonia into 
the rank of a subject province, with a Roman governor; 
and the parts of Pamphylia which had been formerly 
assigned to Amyntas, were restored to their own govern- 

This hasty and imperfect sketch of the principal events 
in the life of Amyntas, leads to a consideration of the date 
on the first described of the two coins before us. 

Although, with one exception, 22 no coin of a king of 

* ; 

20 Situated in Cilicia, according to Strabo, Jbut according to 
Pliny, in Isauria. 2l Dio, liii. 26. 

22 The only other coin hitherto known ascribed to a king of 
Galatia with a date (and which is also of silver), is the unique 
coin of Brogitarus, described by Mionnet, vol. iv. p. 405, No. 12, 
and engraved in vol. vii. Supp. pi. xiii. fig. 3. He should, how- 
ever, rather be called high-priest of Pessinus, with the title of 
king. Brogitarus acquired this pontifical dignity, as well as the 
royal title, by purchase, of P. Clodius, when Plebeian Tribune, 
B c. 58. (Cf. Clinton, Fasti, vol. iii. p. 185, col. 4, and Cicero, 
Oral, de Haruspic. Respons.) This highly curious coin, as it bears 
the date of the sixth year of his reign, was therefore struck in 
the current year, B.C. 53. Its weight is 186'8 Troy grains, and 
as it appears from the plate to be in perfect preservation, we may 


Galatia bearing a date has been discovered till now, numis- 
matic analogy seems fully to warrant the opinion, that the 
letters IB are numerals, indicating the twelfth current year 
of the reign of Amyntas. The coin of Brogitarus, just 
cited in the preceding note, has the numeral C in the exer- 
gue^ indicating, in like manner, the sixth current year of 
his reign; and the coins of the kings of Cappadocia (an 
adjoining kingdom) almost all bear the date of the reign 
of each monarch, down to Archelaus, the last king, who was 
contemporary with Amyntas. 

We have already seen, that the reign of Amyntas began 
during the current year, B.C. 36; and we have just remarked, 
that his death occurred during the current year, B.C. 25. 
This coin was therefore struck in the year in which he was 
killed, that is in the twelfth current year of his reign. He 
therefore probably reigned about eleven years, namely ten 
complete years, and the portions of the two current years 
during which his reign began arid terminated ; which por- 

conclude that it is a tri-drachm on the Attic standard of that period, 
giving approximately a drachma of 62'3 Troy grains, and being of 
about equal weight to the cistophori of the adjoining provinces, then 
in full circulation. The name of the Proconsul, c. PVLCHER, 
the brother of P. Clodius, the friend and patron of Brogitarus, 
occurs on the cistophori of Tralles and Pergamus ; and the name 
of another member of the same family, also a Proconsul, occurs 
en the cistophori of Apamea and Laodicea, in Phrygia (Eckhel, 
Doct. Num. Vet. vol. iv. p. 360). 

23 Mionnet (loc. cit.) has omitted to notice the numeral C on 
this remarkable coin of Brogilarus ; and on referring to the ori- 
ginal publication of it in the Magazin Encyclopedique, 8vo. Paris, 
An. Rev. 7~ 1799, torn. v. p. 461>, I find that it was mistaken for 
a II, and looked upon as the initial letter of Pessinus, where 
Brogitarus probably resided as high-priest. In putting the year 
of his reign on his coins, as well as the title Philoromceus 
(BA2IAEOS BPOriTAI'OT SIAOPflMAIOY), he adopted the 
usage of the kings of Cappadocia, when in friendly relation with 


tions may or may not have made, together, one year or 
more. 24 

According to our promise at the commencement of these 
remarks, 25 we have now to discuss, in the last place the 
weight of these two important coins of Amyntas. This, if 
taken in connection with the weight of the latest tetra- 
drachms of Side, seems likely to throw an unexpected light 
upon a question, which, though agitated soon after the 
revival of learning, has never yet been quite satisfactorily 
disposed of. 

The question, or difficulty, alluded to, arose during the 
early attempts to discover the exact weight of the Attic 
Drachma, and of the Roman Denarius; and mainly consisted 
in the apparent impossibility of reconciling the testimony of 
the classic authors, with the evidence afforded by the 
weights of the coins themselves. A few words of digres- 
sion, before we recur to the coins of Amyntas, may make 
this matter more clear. 

It is well known that the Greek and Roman writers, 
respectively, not only identify the Attic Drachma with 
the Roman Denarius, and vice versa ; 26 but that they all 

24 We find this to have been the usual system of dating adopted 
by the ancients, wherever it was customary to put the date of the 
reign on the money. Thus the coins of ^Emilianus, struck in 
Egypt, bear L.A. (year 1), and L.B. (year 2), although he only 
reigned three months ; because the termination of the first current 
year, and the commencement of the second, happened to occur 
during the three months that he reigned. 

25 In the Note 3, page 70. 

26 As in the following passages. Cicero, in an epistle to 
Atticus (lib.xvi. 8.) says, Veteranos quiqui Casilini, et Galatiae 
sunt perduxit ad suam sententiam;necmirum : quingenos Denarios 
dat." Dio (lib. xlv. c. 12.), stating the same fact, says, " Ktu 
'iouKEv evQvg TOTE KdTO. TrevTciKOffiag ^pa^juac." Again, Strabo, 
(lib. v. p. 249) records an event which occurred at Casilinum 

as IO11OWS, ' V7TO \IUOV ClttKOfftWl' dpCtVUWV TrpCt0VTOQ 


uniformly speak of both coins as of equal weight or value. 
A few of the most positive among many passages which 
might be adduced, will suffice to shew this : 

Livy, 2 ? when speaking of the triumph of T. Quinctius 
Flamininus, says, " Signati argenti octoginta quatuor 
millia fuere atticorum, tetradrachmum vocant : III \Jeye 
II II] 28 fere denariorum in singulis argenti est pondus." 
A passage in Scribonius Largus 29 is to the same effect. 
" Erit autem nota denarii unius pro Graeca drachma ; 
seque enim in libra denarii octoginta quatuor apud nos, 
quot drachmae apud Graecos incurrunt." Again, Pliny 30 
informs us that, " Drachma Attica denarii argentei habet 
pondus." In A. Gellius 31 is the following passage, to the 
same effect. " Lais fjuvpias Spa^a^ 17 rdXavrov poposcit, 
hoc facit nummi nostratis denarium decem millia." A 
fragment of Cleopatra 32 also states that, "To 

ffwOr) fie o 7rpia/j,evoQ." Pliny (Hist. Nat. 
lib. viii. c. 57,) narrating the same story, says, " venisse 
murem ducentis nummis [denariis] Casilinum obsidente Annibale, 
eumque qui vendiderat fame interisse, emptorem vixisse annales 
tradunt." Similar passages have been very fully, and very ably 
discussed by M. Letronne, who, although he proves that they 
are to be regarded as mere translations, fully admits the force of 
the positive assertions as to value, or weight, which are to be found 
in other passages. See page 98 of his Considerations Generates 
sur devaluation des Monnaies Grecques ei Romaines. Paris, 
1817. 4to. 

27 Lib. xxxiv. 51. 

* This correction of a very early error of the copyists, has 
boon readily adopted by all numismatists. It was first proposed 
by Greaves, at page 83, of a work to be mentioned presently. 
(See Note m , page 78.) 

29 Ad. C. Jul. Callist. Epist. prefixed to his Compositiones 

30 Hist. Nat. lib. xxi. cap. 34. 

31 Noct.Att. lib. i. cap. 8. 

a Apud Galen. Opera Omnia, LipsiaB, 1830, vol. xix. p. 788. 



The unequivocal and concurrent testimony of these, and 
similar passages, as might naturally be expected, induced 
the earliest writers on the weights and measures of the 
Ancients, to assign too low a value to the Attic Drachma. 
Indeed, with such apparently irrefragable proof, its equality 
to the Consular Denarius was never doubted, until the 
publication of the " Discourse of the Romane Foot and 
Denarius" 1647, by John Greaves, Professor of Astronomy, 
at Oxford, 33 made it known to the learned of Europe, that 
the Attic Drachma was, in fact, much heavier than the 
Consular Denarius, 34 the former weighing 67 Troy grains, 
and the latter 62. 

33 In a letter, prefatory to his curious little book, addressed 
" To his truly noble and learned friend, John Selden, Esquire, 
Burgesse of the University of Oxford, in the honourable House 
of Commons;" he says, " seeing .... it was therefore necessary, 
that both the weight and valuation of the Denarius should be 
exactly known, .... in Italy, I examined with a balance (the 
scale of which the eightieth part of a grain would sensibly 
turn) many hundred fair Denarii, both Consulares and Ccesarei. 
.... With these Denarii, for the greater certainty, I compared 
such Grecian coins (especially Athenian) as I had either seen 
in choice cabinets, or bought of mine own. . . . By which com- 
parison I first discovered, that howsoever the Romanes. . . .equal 
the Denarius to the Drachma, . . . . and though the Greeks.... 
equal the Drachma to the Denarius, . . . . we may evidently 
discern in the scale, the Drachma Attica to be heavier than the 
Denarius;. . . .consequently all modern writers, following their 
traditions in discourses de ponderibus, and de re nummarid, have 
erred." In conclusion, he informs us in his quaint style that he 
owed his discoveries to his "travels in Italy, Greece, and 
JEgypt ;" and that " after the manner of travellers," he had 
published at home the observations which he had made abroad. 

34 In Hussey's "Essay on Ancient Weights and Money, etc.," 
8vo. Oxford, 1836, at pp. 19 and 135, are lists of those writers, 
who, since the revival of learning, have treated of the weight of 
the Attic Drachma, and Roman Denarius; and the following are 
the results which the most accurate of these have brought out : 


The discovery that the testimony of the coins themselves 
was so much at variance with the uniform evidence of the 
writings of the ancients, gave rise to a difficulty, which the 
arguments of the early writers, including those used by 
Greaves himself, 35 were unable to reconcile and explain. 
In claiming, therefore, for our learned countryman the 
honour of being the first to discover the weight of the Attic 
Drachma, we must at the same time admit, that in his day, 
numismatic study was too much in its infancy to enable 
him to approach the real point of the difficult question to 
which his discovery had given rise. 

Greaves seems not to have adverted to the fact, that he 

The Weights are in Troy grains and decimal parts. 

Weight of Weight of the 
the Attic Roman Consu- 
Dtachma. lar Denarius. 

Bude, De Asse, 1516 .... 59-04 59'04 

Greaves, Professor of Astronomy, at Ox- 
ford, Discourse of the Romane Foot and 

Denarius, 8vo. London, 1647 . . 67 '0 62-0 

Eisenschmidt, De Pond, et Mens. 1708. 

The Drachma of Solon . 68'2 60-9 

of later times 65-53 

of Philip . 65-6 

Raper, Philosoph. Transac.for 1771, vol. 

Ixi. page 462 . . ' . . . 66'5 60-0 

Barthelemy, Anacharsis, 1778, vol. iv. 
p. Ixii. The Drachma up to the period 

of Pericles . . . 67-24 
That of later times . . 64-78 
Letronnc, Considerations Generates sur 
V evaluation des Monnaies Grecques et 
Romaines. 4to, Paris, 1817. 

The Drachma of true standard weight 67-37 59-939 

To the preceding,, may be added the result 
obtained by Hussey himself, (1836), in 
the work above cited, 

At page 18 the Drachma of Solon 66-5 60-0 , 

At page 21 that of later times . 63-5 
35 Loc. cit. pp. 54, 55. 7881, 129. 


was comparing the weight of a Drachma of the time of 
Solon or Pericles, with that of a Denarius of about 
the age of Cicero, or Livy. It appears never to have 
occurred to him, and others of his time, that in the course of 
many ages, and during so many political troubles and changes 
at Athens, the weiyht of the Drachma might have been dimi- 
nished. This will be found to be the clue to the diffi- 
culty. But, although a diminution in the weight of the 
Attic Drachma has been noticed, especially of late years, 36 
little or nothing has been hitherto made known, in the 
way of proof, deduced from a reference to the weights of 
individual coins, that the Attic Drachma, after having been 
slightly diminished in weight shortly after the death of 
Alexander the Great, was afterwards subjected to still 
further occasional diminutions ; till at length, between the 
middle and the end of the century which preceded the 
commencement of our sera, the Attic Drachma, and 
Roman Consular Denarius, were equal, or so nearly equal, 
as fully to warrant the classic writers just now cited. In 
other words, approximate proof has been wanting, up to the 
present time, to shew that the old Attic Drachma of 

36 By a reference to the note 34 , page 79, it will be seen that 
the earliest hint of a diminution in the Attic Drachma, is due to 
Eisenschmidt. Subsequently, Barthelemy (Anacharsis, Table 
xiv., Evaluation des Monnaies d'Athenes), gave a more distinct 
notice of the reduced weight of the large spread tetradrachms of 
later times. The learned Abbe, however, in consequence of the 
difficulty which he experienced in an attempt to ascertain the 
respective ages of these coins, fixed the amount of diminution in 
the weight of them at 2'46 Troy grains, by a mean weight, taken 
on a pretty large scale. Still later, Letronne (Loc. cit. page 99) 
further reduces the weight of the Attic tetradrachm to between 
304 and 308 French grains, but of which result, it is to be regret- 
ted, he has given no details. 


to 67 grains, had been gradually diminished, till in the 
time of Livy, 37 it only weighed about 61 grains. 

To demonstrate this fully and absolutely, would require, 
we are but too well aware, many more than two coins of 
Amyntas; but, if we are enabled by means of such scanty 
data as are within our reach, to give such a view of a 
difficult truth as may carry conviction, the time occupied 
in perusing these lines will not be entirely thrown away. 

In calling the question before us a difficult truth, it would 
be superfluous to remind the numismatic reader, that the 
sole cause of difficulty is the same now as it was in the 
days of Greaves, though in a less degree ; namely? our 
ignorance of the precise ages of civic coins. Those of Athens 
in particular, for many obvious reasons, present extreme 
difficulty to an exact discovery of their respective ages. 
If the coins of Athens had borne dates, Professor Greaves 
would not have compared so ancient a Drachma, but 
would certainly have chosen one of the age of Cicero 
or Livy, to weigh against a Consular Denarius ; and thus, 
he and the early writers, so far from finding a stumbling- 
block in the passages which we have quoted, would have 
found that the books and the coins mutually confirmed each 

Ending here, this somewhat long digression, it will be 
perceived that its object has been, first, to set the 
question before us in a clear point of view, by means of a 
rapid sketch of its early history ; and secondly, to shew the 
nature of the proof, or illustration, required to clear it up. 
We now, therefore, recur to the remark already made, 38 

37 Livy is the earliest writer who distinctly mentions the 
equality of the Denarius to the Attic Drachma. 

38 Supra, page 70. 


that the Tetradrachms of Amyntas are so identical with 
the latest Tetradrachms of the City of Side, 1st in type : 
2ndly in style of workmanship, as well as style of mint- 
age; and 3rdly in weight; as to leave no reasonable 
doubt, even to the inexperienced eye, that they were not 
only struck in the same town, but at about the same period 
of time. 39 These points of identity, and especially this 
equality in weight, are important; inasmuch as Side was 
a city, which adjusted its money to the Attic standard; the 
coins of Side, therefore, provided we are in possession of a 
series of them, and can discover their respective ages, will 
illustrate our question, as well as the coins of Athens 

For this object, nothing could have been more fortu- 
nate and satisfactory than the discovery of the coins of 
Amyntas : which not only fix the age of the latest coins 
of a city which used the Attic standard, but shew them to 
be referable to so low a period as about B.C. 25. 40 It was 
also important for the solution of our question, that these 
coins should be in perfect condition, and in sufficient quantity ; 
and although, on the latter point, we have still to wish for 
the further confirmation, which a few more coins of each 
kind would furnish, it is fortunate that, as to the preserva- 
tion of the coins, nothing more perfect could be desired. 

39 This opinion is confirmed by information subsequently re- 
ceived, that these Tetradrachms of Amyntas, were actually found 
mixed with Tetradrachms of Side of the latest kind. See 
Appendix, page 93, Coins No. 23 and 24. 

40 The date on the coin being of the year in which Amyntas 
was killed (Supra, page 73), and corresponding exactly with the 
period in which Livy wrote his history, namely B.C. 29 9, (Cf. 
Clinton, vol. iii. pp. 229 and 251), he being the earliest writer 
who mentions the equality of the Attic Drachma and Roman 
Denarius, as we have just remarked. 


The fine condition, therefore, compensates in some degree 
for the small quantity. 

The great use of regal coins, in aiding the judgment as 
to the age of coins of cities, is well known and generally 
admitted ; but it is an event of most rare occurrence, to be 
enabled to ascertain the age of a civic coin by means of a 
regal one, so accurately as on the present occasion. 

As it is now needful to compare with each other, the 
weights of a series of coins of Side, of different ages, 
we have subjoined a short appendix, to which reference 
can be made for details, as it is here only required to state 

To shew first that the coins of Side are adjusted to 
the Attic standard, we merely refer to their weight ; and 
to prevent doubt, or mistake, a selection has been made 
so as to include the weights of the published coins of 
Side, of different cabinets, 41 of which the following is the 
result : 

Troy Grains and 
Decimal Parts. 

The three heaviest Tetradrachms of Side, in the 
British Museum, give a mean, or average drachma 42 
of 65-2 

The three heaviest in the Royal Cabinet of France, 

give 65-3 

The same from the Hunter Collection, give . . 65'2 

Two specimens from the late Mr. Thomas's Collec- 
tion, give ........ 65-0 

The almost exact (and yet perfectly uncontrived) coinci- 

41 See Appendix, page 91, Coins of Side, Nos. 1 to 11. 

42 The truth of the system, of judiciously adopting the mean 
weight of a given number of ancient coins, in perfect preservation, 
has been fully established by the experience of all those who 
have occupied themselves extensively in experiments upon the 
weights of coins. The names of Raper, Barthelemy, Letronne, 
Hussey, and many others, may be cited in proof of this 


dence in the mean weight of the Drachma of Side, 
deduced from so few coins, is remarkable. It proves, that 
at the period when they were struck, a small diminu- 
tion had taken place in the Attic drachma, which ought 
to weigh at least 66-5 Troy grains. This renders it 
very desirable to know their age ; but the besetting diffi- 
culty of such an inquiry immediately assails us, and 
prevents any other than an approximate opinion. The best 
we can form would assign these coins to the reign of Anti- 
ochus III., and probably to the middle or latter part of it. 

The following, among many other reasons may be ad- 
duced for thus referring them to above a century after the 
death of Alexander. 1. It is on record, that in his march 
through Asia, on his Indian expedition, Alexander took 
Side, and left a garrison there. 43 During his life time, 
that city like the other conquered cities of Asia, no doubt 
struck coins of Alexander himself. 2. It is well known, 
that the money of Alexander was of the full Attic weight; 44 
some time must, therefore, have been required for the 
occurrence of the diminution above remarked. 3. These 
coins bear a general resemblance in fabric to many of 
those of Antiochus III., and the design of the type, as 
well as the style of the workmanship, indicate with tole- 
rable certainty a period corresponding with his reign, 
namely, B. c. 223187. 

Having thus fixed, approximately, the age of the oldest of 
the coins of Side, which are adjusted to the Attic standard,* 5 

3 Arrian. lib. 1. cap. 27. 

4 The occupation of Side, and of the chief cities of Asia, by 
Alexander, was probably the cause of tbe subsequent adoption 
of the Attic standard there, and elsewhere. 

3 The coins of Side, anterior to Alexander, are not on the 
Attic standard, and are of a different type, having been probably 
struck under the Persian swav. 


we dare not venture to attempt to fix the ages of any 
more, for a period of about sixty years. The coins of 
Amyntas however, which, as before said, 46 bear the date 
B.C. 25, enable us readily to distinguish two kinds of late 
coins, which must necessarily have been struck during the 
century which preceded his time, and which, we think, 
may be safely assigned, approximately, to B.C. 125 75, 
for reasons given in the Appendix. 47 

We have thus two kinds, or classes, of late coins of 
Side, independent of those of the period of Amyntas ; 
and the mean weights of these three late classes are as 
follows : 

Troy Grains and 
Decimal Parts. 

Class I. gives an average, or mean drachma of . . 63-1 

II. gives 48 62-8 

III. being the latest (of the period of Amyntas) 

gives ....... 61-4 

But when, on weighing Class III. of the coins of Side, 
we perceive, for the first time, that we possess tetradrachms 
(adjusted to the Attic standard), which give a drachma of 
only 61*4 Troy grains, a new and unexpected light dawns 
upon us ; and we discover at once that we have approached 
the solution of the old question, as to the equality of the 

46 Supra, page 75. 

47 See Appendix, pages 9193 ; Coins of Side, No. 12 to 25. It 
may be well here to state, that we are fully aware of the dis- 
advantages attendant upon an endeavour to shew, on the apparently 
slight authority of so few coins (in Classes I. and !!.) results 
so important to fix the gradual diminution of the Attic drachma ; 
but as these results presented themselves, we feel justified in not 
withholding them. If they do not approximate to the truth, it 
will be easy to correct them, by means of a greater number of the 
same kinds of coins, in perfect condition, without affecting our 
main question. 

8 It is worthy of remark, that the coin of Brogitarus, struck 
B.C. 53, gives a Drachma of 62'3 Troy grains. See page 74, 
Note 22. 



Attic Drachma and Consular Denarius. At the same 
time, the weight of the latter being now fixed at 60 Troy 
grains, 4 ** it follows that it is to the Attic Drachma that we 
must look for some diminution of a difference of 1*4 Troy 
grains, or about 2-3 per centum, which still remains between 

This cannot be satisfactorily accomplished without 
more coins. The two of Amyntas afford very slight help. 
They give us an average drachma of 61-3 Troy grains; 50 
which corresponds so remarkably with the average of the 
eight tetradrachms of Side (Class III.) of the period of 
Amyntas, as before stated, 51 as to lead to the inference 
that we have arrived at very nearly the minimum weight of 
the Attic Drachma- 52 If this be supposed to be the case, 
the most probable means of explaining or accounting for 
this small remaining difference, appears to be a combination 
of the three following considerations : 

49 For the weight of the consular Denarius, see the note 34 , 
page 79, but particularly the admirable work of Letronne there 
mentioned. By a most satisfactory and elaborate process of weighing 
singly 1350 Family Denarii with the greatest accuracy, and de- 
ducing therefrom a series of averages, M. Letronne has practi- 
cally fixed the weight of the Roman pound, and proved that the 
nearest possible approximation to the weight of the Consular De- 
narius is 73-0597 French grains = 59-939 grains troy. This re- 
sult agrees very accurately with a previous trial which he had 
made on gold Consular coins, and Solidi of Constantine. 

50 See the weight of them at page 71. 

51 Supra, page 85. 

52 It appears probable that if we had a greater number of the 
coins of Amyritas, as well as of the Class III., we should obtain 
an average drachma still lighter. The four tetradrachms, Nos. 
17, 22, 23, and 24, in the Appendix, which we personally examined 
and weighed (of which three are as they came from the die, and 
the fourth in very good condition), give an average drachma of 
61*07 Troy grains only. 


1. That the authors cited, notwithstanding their posi- 
tive testimony and apparent precision, adopted the usual 
and popular calculation, which was, in fact, merely a dose 

2. That future discoveries will diminish, in some degree, 
the average weight of the Attic Drachma at the period of 
Livy, or Amyntas. And 

3. That the irregularity in the adjustment of the individual 
Drachma and Denarii respectively, would have nullified in 
practice the assumption of any nicer distinction. 

We proceed, in conclusion, to add a few words in illus- 
tration of these propositions. 

If the discovery of more coins should hereafter reduce 
the Attic Drachma a fraction under 61 grains, which seems 
very probable, 53 the difference would then be 1-5 per 
centum ; or reduced to 60-6 grains, the difference would 
be only one per centum. Either of these differences would 
perhaps justify the passages cited; especially when we 
consider that variations of more than two per centum con- 
stantly occur between one tetradrachm and another. 54 

The Consular Denarius was also, on the other hand, so 
irregularly adjusted, that individual pieces frequently shew 
much greater variations in weight. 55 This remarkable irre- 
gularity in the adjustment (with the same weight of the 
Denarius, as in the Consular times), continued during the 
period of Julius Caesar, M. Antony, and Augustus, as 

63 See Note 52 , page 86. 

54 On comparing the weights in the Appendix, of the tetradrachms 
Class III., this will be quite evident; and even the two (Nos. 
23 and 24) as they came from the die, and found with the coins oj 
Amyntas, differ in weight one and a quarter per centum. 

55 Raper had remarked this. He says, " The Consular silver 
is so unequal, that the Romans must have been very negligent in 
sizing their pieces" (Philosoph. Transac. for 1771, vol. Ixi. p. 505). 


will be exemplified by a reference to the weights of 
twenty-five Denarii in the Appendix. 56 Notwithstanding 
this curious fact, the mean weights of the respective kinds 
approximate to the truth with singular correctness, although 
the number of coins of each kind is so small. 

It would be needless to say, that the following results 
were in no way anticipated or contrived. 

Troy Grains and 
Decimal Parts. 

The six Denarii of Julius Caesar, rejecting No. 5 as 

over weight, 57 give a mean weight of . . . 60-5 

The six Denarii of M. Antony, rejecting No. 1 1 as 

over weight, give $ *,.],< . . ; ,; : 60-5 

The four Denarii of Augustus, which were perhaps 
struck in Asia Minor, rejecting No. 14 as over 
weight, give ' Vi .. . . . V. . . 60-5 

The four struck after B.C. 27, with the cognomen Au- 
gustus, give . . . "... '* r 59*7 

The four among the Monetarii of Augustus, give . 60' 1 

Average, or mean weight of the whole 25 Denarii . 60'6 

Average of the 25 Denarii, after rejecting the three 

over weight, Nos. 5, 11, and 14 . . ^ jS 60-3 

Passing over the practical evils which must have been 
felt in the use of a currency of which the individual coins, 
whether Greek or Roman, differed so widely in weight ; 
the fact being undoubted, may serve to explain why 
the traveller in Greece and Asia now finds such an abund- 
ance of rubbed Denarii, and notices the almost total dis- 
appearance not only of Athenian drachmae of a late period, 
but of Asiatic drachmae also, both having been soon driven 
out of circulation by the Denarii. 

66 See Appendix, pages 93 95. 

57 This coin, and those in the two following averages, being so 
extraordinarily overweight, could not have been fairly included 
with so few coins. They are, however, included in the average 
weight of the whole 25 Denarii. These having been selected for 
their very perfect condition, previous to submitting them to the 
balance, it became needful rigidly to abide by the result, and to 
note the weights of the whole, whether over or under-weight. 


We here close this investigation. The final result to 
which we have been led by the weight of the coins of 
Amyntas may be summed up as follows : 

The Drachma, usually considered as that of Solon, weigh- 
ing, according to some, 66-5 Troy grains?* and according to 
others, 67 '37, continued in use until an uncertain period after 
the death of Alexander the Great. 

Troy Grains and 
Decimal Parts. 

About B. c. 223187, it had fallen to . . 65-365-0 
About B.C. 125 75, it had further diminished to 63-1 62-8 
About B.C. 25, at the death of Amyntas, it weighed only 61 '4 61*3 

and thus became very nearly equal to the Roman Denarius; 
the weight of which, as before observed, has been fixed at 60 
Troy grains. 

We cannot refrain from adverting here to the notable 
fact, that the gradual diminution in the weight of the 
Drachma of Athens, seems to mark, with singular accuracy, 
the gradual decline of her political influence; and it is 
curious further to observe, that at the period when the 
equality of the Drachma and Denarius is first mentioned, 59 
the power of Athens may be said to have ceased, 60 and that 
of Kome to have attained its zenith. 61 Very shortly after- 
wards, we find the Denarius, in its turn, beginning to wane ; 
and we may clearly trace, first, its decline in weight, and 

58 See note 34 , page 79. 

59 Livy, xxxiv.51, who wrote B.C. 29 9. Cf. Clinton, Fasti 
Hellenici, vol. iii. pp.229, and 251. 

10 It is pleasing, however, to remember, that the celebrated city 
to which we owe so much, retained her pre-eminence as the seat 
of science and learning, for above five centuries subsequent to 
this. Her schools were not closed till about A. D. 529, in the 
reign of Justinian. See Topography of Athens, by Colonel 
Leake, vol. i. p. 62, second edition. 

11 Soon after the battle of Actium, B.C. 31, during the reign 
of Augustus. 


subsequently its adulteration, through the decline and fall 
of the Roman Empire. 

Apologising for this long discussion, the subject of which, 
however, would be quite worthy of a full and separate 
investigation, it will be perceived, that in endeavouring to 
develope the gradual diminution of the Attic Drachma, we 
have not merely had in view the clearing up of an old 
difficulty, but the introduction of a new principle, or ele- 
ment, which, when fully established by more extended 
labours, will be applicable to assist us (with proper limi- 
tation) in judging of the age of civic coins by their weight. 
The importance of such an additional means of arriving 
at this great desideratum will be readily felt and admitted ; 
and the coins of Side, by their abundance as well as by their 
uninterrupted sequence throughout the two centuries B.C., 
during which the diminution of the Attic Drachma chiefly 
took place, seem more eligible than those of any other 
city (except Athens) to be called to our aid, in further 
inquiries into this interesting question. 

I remain, 

Dear Sir, etc. 


British Museum, 
August 1st, 1845. 


ALL the following coins of Side bear the usual type ; 

Obv. Helmeted head of Minerva to the right. 

Rev. Winged Victory, in motion, to the left, with a laurel 
wreath in her extended right hand, and supporting her drapery 
with the left. A pomegranate in the field, to the left. 


The first eleven Tetradrachms are from among the earliest 
of this type, 1 and are of the best workmanship ; they will also 
be found to be the heaviest. They may be readily recog- 
nised by the following letters, etc. in the field of the reverse. 

Of these, the three heaviest in the British Museum weigh 
as follows : 

Weight in Troy Grains Condition of 

and Decimal Parts. the Coins. 

1 With 21 in a monogram - 26l'5 Very good 2 

2. With AEI in a monogram - 261 '5 Good. 

3. With AEIN - - 260 Good. 

The three heaviest in the Royal Collection of France 3 
weigh : 

4. With E and monogram - 261 '2 - Good. 
5. With H and monogram - 259-8 Good. 

6. Idem - - - 262*4 Good. 

The three heaviest in the Hunter Collection 4 weigh: 

7. With AP and a wreath - 259 '25 - Unknown. 
8. With AEINO - - 260'75 - Unknown. 

9._With AHM - - 262'75 - Unknown. 

The two fine Specimens in the Collection of the late 
Mr. Thomas 5 weighed: 

10. With AI 260-2 - Fine. 

11. With AK - 259-7 Fine. 

The following are the weights of the later Tetradrachmae 
of Side. They may be readily divided into three kinds or 
classes; namely, 

I. Those with CT in the field to the left, which are known to 
belong to the later period, by the form of the sigma, as well as 
the style of the workmanship. 

1 See note 45 , page 84, 

2 T. Combe, Vet. Num. in Mus. Brit. p. 184, No. 6. 

3 Mionnet, Vol. iii., p. 473, No. 149; page 475, Nos. 166, 167. 

4 Combe, Hunter, Num. Vet., &c., p. 270, Nos. 6, 9, and 12. 

5 Sale Catalogue, page 335. 



II. Those with a helmet, and AP in the field, to the left, 
which are also recognised by the form of the letters and style of 
the workmanship. 

III. Those with KAEYX (sic) across the field, which, by 
their style and coarse workmanship are, no doubt, the latest 
silver coins of Side extant. 6 

Weight in Troy Grains 
and Decimal Parts. 

I. 12. Of the first class, 

the heavier of the 

two Specimens in the 

British Museum weighs 2 55 7 

13. -The other, in the 

same Collection 250*8 

14. A Drachma in the 

Hunter Cabinet 8 61 '5 

II. 15. Of the second class, 
the only specimen in 
the British Museum 
weighs - 253-8 

16. Another in the Hun- 
ter Cabinet 9 249'0 

HI. 17. Of the third class, 
the only Specimen in 
the British Museum 
weighs - 245-9 

18. The heavier of two 10 
in the Hunter Cabinet 244" 3 

Condition of 
the Coins. 

Good. 7 
Very good. 

Very good. 

Very good. 

6 We have entertained this opinion for many years ; and it is 
now confirmed by the discovery that the coins of Amyntas, when 
found, were mixed with some of this kind or class. The two 
(Nos. 23 and 24) which we have seen, are in the same perfect 
condition as the coins of Amyntas, and average the same weight 
within two grains. A stronger proof of the age of the coins with 
KAEYX could not be desired. 

7 T. Combe, Vet. Num. in Mus. Brit. p. 184, No- 5. 

8 Loc. cit. p. 271, No. 18. 

9 Ibid. p. 270, No. 15. 

10 Ibid. p. 270, No. 13. The other, No. 14, weighing only 
233 grains, is, no doubt, in bad condition, and therefore unfit for 
our purpose. 


Weight in Troy Grains 
and Decimal Parts. 

19. The heaviest of the three 

in the Royal Collection 

of France, weighs 11 - 250*2 
20. Another 13 - 245-7 

21. Another 14 - 248'6 

22. The weight of one former- 

ly in my own collection 245'0 

23. The weight of one of two 

now before me, which 
were found with the 
two coins of Arnyntas - 244'6 

24. The weight of the other 241 6 

25. A Drachma in the Collec- 

tion of the late Mr. 
Thomas, 15 weighed - 59'7 

Condition of 
the Coins. 

Rubbed. l2 
Has a hole. 




With a view to shew the fluctuating weight of the 
Roman Denarius, during the period of Livy and Arnyntas, 
and which was the same during the Consular times, the 
following Danarii of Julius Caesar, M. Antony, and Au- 
gustus, were selected from among those in the British 
Museum, as likely to give a fair approximate mean 
weight, 16 in consequence of their beautiful condition. 

Six Denarii of Julius Caesar, weighed as follows: 

Weight in Troy Grain 
and Decimal Parts. 

1. Rev. Venus standing with 

sceptre and victory 17 60'7 

Condition of 
the Coins. 


11 Mionnet, vol. iii. page 474, No. 159. 

12 Mionnet (Poids des Medailles Grecques, etc , 8vo. Paris, 
1839) says of this coin " fruste," but if the weight of 4 gros 
17 grs. be correct, the coin can hardly be much rubbed, and 
weigh so heavy, except it be an example of a coin much over 
weight, which sometimes occurs, as the following weights of 
Roman Denarii will shew. 

13 Mionnet, vol. iii. page 474, No. 160. 

14 Ibid. No. 161. 

15 Sale Catalogue, page 335. 
6 See Note 42 , page 83. 

17 The description of the reverses alone will suffice to identify 
the individual coins, 




Weight in Troy Grains Condition of 

and Decimal Parts. the Coins. t 

2. Rev. L.B VGA, Venus seated 

with sceptre and 

victory 59'7 Perfect. 

3. Rev. L. BVCA. Caduceus, 

globe, joined hands, 

etc. - 59-8 Perfect. 


DIANVS, etc. 61-3 Fine. 


GRACCHVS, stan- 
dards, etc. - 62-1 Fine. 18 

6. Rev. Q. VOCONIVS, etc., 

a calf- - 61-0 Fine. 

Six Denarii of M. Antony weighed as follows : 

7. Rev. Armenian tiara, bow 

and arrow, etc. - 6OO 

8. Rev. PIETAS cos. across 

the field. Female 
standing, with cor- 
nucopia, etc. 61'0 

9. Rev. CAESAR IMP. Cadu- 

ceus - - 60*7 

10. Rev. M. ANTONIVS, etc. 

head of the Sun 

radiate, to the right 60'5 

11. Rev. PIETAS cos. under 

a standing female 
figure, with rud- 
der and cornucopia, 
and a stork at her 
feet - 63-2 

12. Rev. Head of Octavius - 60-5 

Very good. 


Very good. 

Perfect. 19 

* Of the following thirteen Denarii of Augustus, the first 
four, which appear to have been struck in Asia Minor, 
weighed : 

13. Rev. CAESAR roivi. F. a- 
cross the field, the 
Emperor standing 

61 '2 


18 Coin remarkably over weight, and unfit to be taken into the 
average weight of so few coins. 

19 Another coin remarkably overweight, and therefore, to be 
rejected in adopting the mean weight of so few coins. 


Weight in Troy Grains Condition of 
and Decimal Parts. the Coins. 

14. Rev. IMP. CAESAR across 

the field, statue of 
the Emperor stand- 
ing on a base, 
etc. - 63-3 Fine. 20 

15. Rev. IMP. CAESAR, under 

a quadriga, on a 

triumphal arch - 59'5 Fine. 

16. Rev. IMP. CAESAR, on the 

frieze of a build- 
ing, with three 
statues on the pedi- 
ment, and four short 
columns before it - 60 7 Perfect. 

Four, which were struck after A.V.C. 7*27 =B.C. 27, with 
the cognomen Augustus, weighed : 

17. Rev. AVGVSTVS, bull to the 

right- 61-1 Fine. 

18. Rev. AVGVSTVS, Capricorn 

with rudder, globe, 
and cornucopia to 
the right - 58'5 Fine. 

19. Rev. IMP. xii., across the 

field, Apollo to the 
right, draped, hold- 
ing a lyre, under 
his feet ACT. 60- 1 Fine. 

20. -Rev. Car in a round temple 

with four columns, 
s. p. Q. R. under- 
neath - 59 1 Perfect. 

Four among the monetarii of Augustus weighed: 

21. Rev. c. ANTISTIVS, etc., 

tripod, simpulum, 

lituus, etc. - 60'5 Fine 

22. Rev. M. DVRMIVS in. VIR. 

Lion devouring a 

stag, to the left - 60 '3 Fine. 

Example of another coin remarkably over weight, and unfit 
for an average of few coins. 


Weight in Troy Grains Condition of 

and Decimal Parts. the Coins. 

23. Rev. c. MARIVS, etc., quad- 

riga bearing a palm 

branch 596 Perfect. 

24. Rev. L. MESCINIVS, etc., 

naked male statue 
on an inscribed 
base - 60-0 Perfect. 

A Denarius of Augustus, probably struck B.C. 27 : 

25. Rev. Head of M. Agrippa 61-1 Fine. 21 

[P. S. November, 1845. In consequence of the lapse of time 
which has intervened between the date of this paper and its pub- 
lication, and moreover as an article on the same subject has appeared 
in the interval, in the Revue Numismatique, from the pen of a 
learned and noble Antiquary, for whom I entertain a deep feeling 
of respect, I wish distinctly to state, that the present remarks 
were written previous to the date which they bear, and that 
they have not since been altered, except for the press. With- 
out this explanation, the different view of the subject which I 
have taken in the preceding pages, might appear in the light of 
a disguised reply, or indirect attack, of either of which I should be 
sorry to be thought capable. The delay in the final revisal for 
publication, was occasioned at first by indisposition, and after- 
wards by the consequent pressure of various occupations. T. B.] 

21 In publishing the weights of coins it becomes absolutely 
necessary to note their condition, or state of preservation. I 
usually adopt the use of the four following words, good very 
good -fine perfect ; to be understood in their common accepta- 
tion, as used by numismatists. The first word being applied to 
coins, the weight of which, if they were more rubbed, would cease 
to be useful ; and the last, reserved only for such coins as are in 
the state in which they came from the die, and perfectly clean ; 
consequently, having neither lost nor gained any sensible weight. 

Numismatic. Chronicle, Vol . 




NOTWITHSTANDING the dictum of Pinkerton, many persons 
are yet found, who collect Tradesmen' 's Tokens; and, even 
in Germany, where not a tittle of Numismatic evidence is 
slighted or despised, these media of " charitie and change" 
are not considered unworthy the attention of those who can 
appreciate a better and a more legitimate coinage. It 
must be confessed that, as mere works of art, they have 
nothing to interest us ; but we submit that, as containing a 
list of names only, they are not deficient in information to 
the antiquary and the genealogist. Whether they are now 
" collected by some antiquaries with an avidity truly 
puerile," as the aforesaid authority states they were in his 
days, it is not our business to inquire; but we protest 
against his sweeping assertion, that " not one purpose of 
taste, information, or curiosity, can be drawn from them." 
" It need hardly be added," he continues, " that they are 
recommended to the supreme scorn of the reader, who may 
justly regard the studying, or collecting of them, along 
with the admiration of counters, as beneath any man of 
taste." 1 

Now, though we yield to none in admiration of the 
classic beauty of the coins of Greece and Rome, we 
do not utterly reject the humble record of Tradesmen's 
Tokens: though they bear not "the representations of 
statues before which the politest nations of the world have 

1 Essay on Medals, vol. ii. p. 83. ed. 1789. 


fallen down and worshipped:" though they record no 
victories, bear no pompous nor high-sounding inscriptions, 
nor the effigies of dynasties, which have gone down the 
stream of time, they are yet not without their interest in 
our eyes, 

Evelyn in his " Discourse of Medals," thus prophetically 
alludes to these pieces : " The tokens which every tavern 
and tippling-house (in the days of late anarchy and con- 
fusion among us) presumed to stamp arid utter for 
immediate exchange, as they were passable through the 
neighbourhood, which, though, seldom reaching further 
than the next street or two, may happily in after-times 
come to exercise and busy the learned critic what they 
should signifye." 

The tokens, however, of this period, were not issued by 
the keepers of " taverns and tippling-houses " alone, but, 
as would appear, by tradesmen, generally, in every town 
in England. There must have been some great manu- 
factory of them either in London or Birmingham, for with 
few exceptions, the style of their workmanship is the same, 
and the devices are in most instances perfectly uniform for 
the several trades. 

It is observed by a celebrated writer, that those events 
which excite the wonder and surprise of posterity, occasion 
but slight remark at the period of their occurrence ; and 
we, who now marvel that such a coinage as that under 
notice could be tolerated by an English Government 
scarcely two centuries ago, almost forget the spurious 
issue of the Birmingham Mints in the reign of George 
the Third. 

The historian and numismatist will pardon our here 
taking a short review of the English coinage 

The weight of the earlier Saxon penny was 24 grains, 


hence the term " penny-weight"; but it was soon reduced, 
and under the Norman kings it became still less. In suc- 
ceeding reigns it gradually dwindled, until in the reign of 
Elizabeth it became a mere spangle. There must have 
been a considerable coinage of half-pence and farthings 
in the reigns of the first three Edwards, and in the reigns 
of Henry the Fifth and Sixth, for they are common at this 
day; and yet the Parliamentary rolls furnish us with abundant 
evidence of the inconvenience experienced by persons of 
the humbler ranks, through the want of small change. 
Many of these complaints state, that for want of small 
money the poor man lost his penny, an expression implying 
great inconvenience, whatever might have been its precise 
signification. From the specimens remaining of the half- 
pennies and farthings alluded to, it is evident that the 
greatest care was necessary to prevent their being lost or 
destroyed. The coinage of a piece in silver of less denomin- 
ation than the farthing, was of course out of the question, 
(though, considering the value of the penny in those days, 
such a coin must have been required), and a sort of pseudo 
moneta appears to have had its origin in consequence. 
Many of the broad thin tokens, commonly termed " Abbey 
Pieces," might have represented a coin of less denomination 
than the farthing, though struck originally as jettons or 
counters. 2 Queen Elizabeth was obstinately averse to 
a copper coinage for England ; but in the reigns of James 
the First and Charles the First, the royal antipathy was 

2 Vast numbers of these pieces bear the figure of a shield 
(Ecu), and were struck in Holland and Flanders. In old accounts 
the "Cu" is described as half a farthing, for which amount these 
tokens may have passed. For reasons similar to those which 
forbid our utterly disdaining " Tradesmen's Tokens," we hope 
some day to see these abbey pieces described and illustrated. 


greatly modified, and authorized farthing tokens were 
minted in prodigious numbers, the locality of their coinage 
being still known to the metropolitan antiquary, as " Token 
House Yard." The whole history of this coinage may be 
seen in Ruding's Annals. The days of " anarchy and con- 
fusion" soon followed, and while 

" The pulpit was usurped by each imposter," 
every tradesman issued HIS HALFPENNY or HIS FAR- 
THING TOKEN, to the disgust of loyal Evelyn, and the 
contempt, in after-days, of the most irate and rabid of 

We conclude this preface to the following list, by repeat- 
ing our conviction, that as records of names and locations 
of families, these tokens may occasionally assist the inqui- 
ries of the antiquary and the genealogist ; and in support of 
this opinion, we may cite the example furnished by Captain 
W. H. Smyth, in a most amusing article on the tradesmen's 
tokens of the town of Bedford. 3 

It may be remarked, in conclusion, that this list seems 
to shew, that the different classes of society, now so much 
amalgamated, were once better distinguished, since we find 
among these lists of Wiltshire tradesmen scarcely any but 
the commonest names borne by yeoman families in the 


1. Obv. IOHN. ADEE. OF. ALBORN. and three diamonds. In 

the field, a cinquefoil between i A. 

R. IN. WILTSHIERE. 1656. Three rabbits, feeding, two 
and one. (Plate, No. 1 .) 

2. Obv. RICHARD. CLARK. IN. In the field 1668. 

R. ALBORN. WILTSHER. and a mullet. In the field, R. E. c. 
and three diamonds. 

3 Numismatic Journal, Vol. I., p. 139. 



1. Obv. MARY. BRENE. IN. The arms of the Ironmongers' 


R. BARFORD, 1667. In the field, HER. HALFPENY, and 
a cinquefoil. 


1. Obv. i. CLARK. BISHOPSTON. and a mullet. In the field, 

i. c. divided by a mullet. 

R. IN. WILTSHIF.RE. 1656. and a mullet. The Mercers' 
arms. (Plate, No. 2.) 


1. Obv. IOHN. COOKE. a cinquefoil, 1666, and another cinque- 

foil. In the field, HIS. HALF-PENY. a cinquefoil, and 
two pellets. 

R. OF. BRADFORD, two cinquefoils and a mullet. In the 
field two cinquefoils, the stems interlaced ; between 
the letters i. M. c. 

2. Obv. JOHN. COOKE. AND. JOSHUA. FARRAND. a mullet. 

In the field, a lion rampant. 

R. OF. BRADFORD. THEIR. HALF-PENY. and a mullet. In 
the field, three bugle horns. (Plate, No. 3.) 

3. Obv. PAULE. METHWIN. and three mullets. A coat of arms. 

Crest, a cross. (Plate, No. 4.) 

R, IN. BRADFORD, and two mullets. In the field, a cross 
between the letters P. M. 

4. Obv. WILLIAM. BAILY. MERCER, and a quatrefoil. In the 

field, the bust of an ancient queen, like that on the 
shield of the Mercers 1 Company. 

R. IN. BRADFORD. 1668. and three cinquefoils. In the 
field, a horse's head couped bridled between the 
letters w. B. 

5. Obv. DANIEL. DEVERELL. and a cinquefoil. A regal crown 

of the period. 

R. IN. BRADFORD. 1663. and a cinquefoil. In the field, 
D. D. four pellets, and two cinquefoils. 

6. Obv. THOMAS. IBBOTSON. and three mullets. In the field, 

HIS. HALF-PENNY, and six pellets. 

R. MERCER. IN. BRADFORD. Three flowers, the stems 
twisted in a knot, between the letters T. i. 

7. Obv. WILLIAM. CHANDLER, and a mullet. The Grocers' 


R. IN. BRADFORD. 16... In the field, w. c. and two 



8 Obv. JACOB. ELBEE. OF. and four cinquefoils. In the field, 

two tobacco-pipes crossed, saltier-wise. 

R. BRADFORD. 1665. two cinquefoils and a mullet. In 
the field, i. E. three cinquefoils, and four pellets. 

9. Obv. IOHN. PRESTON. OF. A shield of arms. 

R. BRADFORD. 1666. and a cinquefoil. In the field, HIS. 
HALF-PENY. and a cinquefoil between two pellets. 

10. Obv. JOHN. GAGE. OF. The bust of an ancient queen, 

like that on the shield of the Mercers' Company. 
R. BRADFORD. 1649. a mullet, and two pellets. In 
the field, the letters r. G divided by a pellet. 


1. Obv. ARTHUR. FORMAN. 1669. In the field, HIL. MAR. 

TEN. in three lines. 

R. CHANDLER. OF. CALNE. In the field, A. i. F. and three 

2. Obv. IOHN. JEFFREIS. three pellets and a large cinquefoil 

pierced. In the field, the Grocers' arms. 
R. OF. CAUN. 1668. and a cinquefoil. In the field, i. M. i. 
and five cinquefoils. 

3. Obv. GRACE. LAWRENCE, and a cinquefoil. In the field, an 


R. OF. CAULN. 1669. and two cinquefoils. In the field, 
i. G. L. and three cinquefoils. 

4. Obv. STEPHEN. BAILIE. The Mercers' arms. 

R. OF. CAULN. In the field, s. s. B. and three cinque- 

5. Obv. AT. THE. GLASS. HOUSE. In the field, a square build- 

ing with a tower or clock house on the roof. 
R. IN. CALNE. 1669. and a cinquefoil. In the field, A. i. s. 
and three cinquefoils. 

6. Obv. WITHERSTONE. MESENGER. and a cinquefoil. In the 

field, three rolls. 

R. OF. CALNE. BAKER, and a cinquefoil. In the field, 
w. M. M. and two cinquefoils. Plate, No. 5.) 

7. Obv. JAMES. BARTLETT. and a cinquefoil. In the field, a 

regal crown of the period. 

R. OF. CALNE. 1669. and a cinquefoil. In the field, i. B. 
two cinquefoils, and four pellets. 

8. Obv. IOHN. FORMAN. and two mullets. In the field, two 

tobacco-pipes crossed in saltier. 

R. IN. CALNE. The words divided by two mullets, and 
three cinquefoils. 


9. Obv. WIL. IEFFREY. ELDER. The Grocers' arms. 

R. IN. CALNE. and two cinquefoils. In the field, w. i. 
and two cinquefoils. 

10. Obv. IOHN. DASH, and four cinquefoils. In the field, a 

shield of arms. 

R. IN. CALNE. 1669. and two cinquefoils. In the field, 
i. P. D. and three cinquefoils. 

11. Obv. IOHN. NORMAN, and two sunflowers. In the field, 

the Grocers' arms. 

R. IN. CAULNE. and three mullets. In the field, i. M. N. 
and two mullets. 

1. Obv. THOMAS. BERY. MERCER, and a mullet. In the field, 

T. i. B. and three mullets. 

R. IN. CASTLE. COMBE. 66. A castle, surmounted by an 
ancient crown. (Plate, No. 6.) 


1. Obv. s AMU ELL. GAGE. OF. In the field, three birds to the 

left, each holding a branch in its beak. 
R. CHIPPENHAM. 1653. and a mullet. In the field, the 
letters s. E. G. and three pellets. 

2. Obv. IOHN. EDWARDS, and a mullet. In the field, i. E. 

between six cinquefoils. 

R. OF. CHIPPENHAM. 1665. and a mullet. In the field, 
LINEN-DRAPER, two cinquefoils, and four pellets. 

3. Obv. HENRY. LAMBERT. IN. A shield bearing the Mercers' 


R. CHIPPENHAM. MERCER, and a mullet. In the field, 
the letters n. s. L. and three cinquefoils. 

4. Obv. IOHN. STEVENS. OF. and a mullet. In the field, i. M. s. 

and three pellets. 

R. CHIPPENHAM. 1652. and a mullet. In the field, 
i. M. s. 

5. Obv. IOHN. WILLSHEARE. OF. anda cinquefoil. In the field, 

CHIPENHAM. in three lines. 
R. ANDREW. WILCOX. 1668. and a cinquefoil. In the 

field, a cinquefoil and two pellets. 
6 Obv. SAMUELL. ELLIOTE. and a mullet. In the field, two 

swords crossed in saltier, and a carbine, with four 

R. OF. CHIPPENHAM. A cluster of four pellets, and 

a mullet. In the field, s. A. E. 1666. and three 





OF. CLACK. 1658. In the centre, F. I. R. 


1. Obv. EDITH. A D . DA D . WOODMAN. In the field, a distillery. 

R. MERSER. IN. CORSHAM. and a diamond. In the field, 
D. M. w. three mullets, and a diamond. 

2. Obv. WILLIAM. GIBBONS. In the field, a true lovers' knot (?) 

between the letters w. G. 

3. Obv. EDW. SALWAY. CLOTHER. A pair of shears. 

ft. IN . CORSHAM. WILTS.;;" In the field, E. K. s. 


1, Obv. THOMAS. DEIGHTON, and a mullet. A cross placed 

on steps. 

R. MERCER. IN. CRICKLAD. and a mullet. In the field, 
T. s. D. two pellets, and a cinquefoil. (Plate, No. 7.) 


ft t CRIKILAD. CARRIER. In the field, A. A. W. 


1. Obv. FRANCIS. GOULDING. A castle. 

R. IN. Y E . DEVISE. GROCER. A shield, charged with the 
Grocers' arms. 

2. Obv. EDWARD. HOPE, a ship in full sail. 

R. OF. THE. DEVIZES. 1652. an anchor. 

3. Obv. IOHN. FREY. OF. a shield ermine, charged with a 

R. THE. DEVISES. In the field, i. F. 

4. Obv. IOHN. HAMMOND. In the field, H. i. s. and three 

R. OF. THE. DEVIZES, three closed books with clasps. 

5. Obv. RICHARD. WOTTEN. and a mullet. In the field, R. w. 

two cinquefoils or mullets, and four pellets. 
R. GROCER. IN. DEVISES. In the field, R. w. two cinque- 
foils, and four pellets. 

6. Obv. FRANCIS. PARADICE. A shield charged with the 

Tallow Chandlers' arms. 

R. CHANDLER. IN. Y E . DEVIZES. In the field, three 
cinquefoils between the letters F. M. p. and the date 


7. Qbv. GRACE. NASH. OF. THE. A castle. 

R. DEVISES. 1 652. In the field, three cloves. 

8. Obv. RICHARD. SLADE. and a mullet. In the field, a shield 

charged with the Grocers' arms. 

R. IN. THE. DEVIZES. 1663. and a mullet. In the field, 
R. s. two mullets, and four pellets. 

9. Obv. JOHN. FRY. 1664. two cinquefoils. In the field, a 

right hand open. 

R. IN. THE, DEVIZES, two mullets, and a cinquefoil. In 
the field, two tobacco pipes saltier-wise, the letters 
i. F. and a cinquefoil. 

10. Obv. STEPHEN. BAYLEY. OF. A mermaid. 

R. DEVIZES. MERCER. In the field, s. B. 1668. 

11. Obv. WILLIAM. SOMNER. OF. arid a mullet. A shield charged 

with the Grocers' arms 

R. THE. DEVIZES. GROCER, and a mullet. In the field, 
w.s. 1652. 

12. Obv. JOHN. SLADE GROCER, and a mullet. In the field, a 

sugar loaf. 

R. IN. THE. DEVIZES. 1668. In the field, i. s. three 
cinquefoils, and four pellets. 

13. Obv. WILLIAM. STEVENS, and a mullet. In the field, the 

Grocers' arms. 

R. IN. THE. DEVIZES, and a mullet, In the field, w. A. s. 
and two mullets. 



IN. DOWNTON. 1670. 


1. Obv. IOHN. BUSHELL. OF GREAT, and a pellet. Iii the field, 
three birds to the left, each with a branch in its 

R. BEDWIN. MERCER. 1669. and a cinquefoil. In the 
field, i. E. B. and four cinquefoils. 


1. Obv. LEONARD. BOLI. IN. a mullet. A shield ermine, charged 

with a chevron. 

R. HIGHWORTH, GROCER, and a mullet. In the field, a 
cinquefoil between the letters L. B. 

2. Obv. THOMAS. OSBORNE. and a mullet. A shield. 

R. OF. HIGH WORTH. 1653. and a mullet. In the field, a 
cinquefoil between the letters T. o. 


3. Obv. IOHN. TOMES, and a mullet. The Grocers' arms. 

R. OF. HIGHWORTH. 1652. and a mullet. In the field, a 
cinquefoil between i. T. 

4. Ob Vt RICHARD. WILLIAMS, and a mullet. In the field, a 

pair of spectacles. 


w. F. and two mullets. 

5. Obv. JOHN. ELTON. 

HIGHWORTH. In the field, i. E. c. 


1. Obv. JOHN. BUTLER, and a mullet. In the field, three birds, 

each with a branch in its mouth. 

R. IN. HUNGERFORD. and a mullet. In the field, i. E. B. 
and three diamonds. 




1. Obv. ROBERT. HAYWARD. A ship in full sail. 

R. IN. LAVINGTON. 1668. In the field, three flowers 
the stalks terminating in a knot, between the letters 
R. H. 


1. Obv. RICHARD. GRYST. and two cinquefoils. In the field, a 

lion rampant. 

ft. IN. LACOCK. 1669. and a cinquefoil. In the field, R. G. 
five pellets, and two cinquefoils. 

2. Obv. RICHARD. GRIST. In the field, a pair of scales. 

R. IN. LACOCK. 1669. and a large cinquefoil pierced. 
In the field, R. G. G. two small, and two large cinque- 
foils, the latter pierced. 

1. Obv. A castle. 

K. OF. LUGGASALE. 1665. In the field, wi. in monogram. 
(Plate, No. 8.) 




IN. MAIDEN. BRADLEY. In the field, G. A. 

2. Obv. IAMES. ISHER. The Grocers' arras. 

R. OF. BRADLEY. 1669. In the field, I. I. and three cin- 


1. Qfa EDWARD. BROWNE, and a cinquefoil. In the field, a 

workman standing near a still. 

R. OF. MALMESBURY. two pellets, and a cinquefoil. In 
the field, E. M. B. a diamond, four pellets, and a 

2. Obv. WILLIAM. WAYTE. and a mullet. A shield, charged 

with the Grocers' arms. 

R. IN. MAMSBURY. 1651. and a mullet. In the field, 
w. w. 

3. Obv. WALTER. WOODMAN, and a cinquefoil. A shield, 

charged with the Grocers' arms. 

R. CARIER. MALMESBURY. In the field, XXX a cinque- 
foil, and an M inverted. 

4. Obv. ELIAS. FERRIS. APOTHECARY, and a large cinquefoil. 

The Apothecaries' arms. 

R. IN. MALMSBURY. 1669, and a cinquefoil. In the field, 
HIS. HALF. PENY. E. A. F. and three cinquefoils. 
(Plate, No. 9.) 

5. Obv. NICO. IAFFRIS. WOOL, and a cinquefoil. In the field, a 

Woolstaplers' comb(?) 

R. MALMESBURY. ABYE. In the field, N. M. I. and three 

6. Obv. ROB. THOMAS. OF. and a mullet. In the field, an ox. 

R. MALMESBURY. 64, a mullet, and two pellets. In the 
field, R. H. T. and four diamonds. 

7. Obv. THOMAS ANER. CARIER. In the field, a wool- 


R. IN. MALMES. BURY, two diamonds, and a mullet. In 
the field, T. o, L. 

8. Obv, IOHN. GOLDNEY. IN. and a mullet. In the field, I. M. G. 

and three small mullets. 

R. CLOTHY K . MALMSBURY. and a mullet. In the field, 
i. M. G. and three small mullets. 


IN. MALMSBURY. 165. R. M. F. 


10. Obv. JOHN. SANSUM. A pump. 

OF. MALMSBURY. 166... I. I. S. 







14. Obv. THOMAS. EVANS. 





1. Obv. JEREMIAH. SLOPER. and a mullet. In the field, a sugar 


R. IN * MARLBOROUGH. and a mullet. In the field, the 
the letters i, E. s. and two mullets. 

2. Obv. IOHN. HAMMOND. OF. a cinquefoil. In the field, a 

closed book with clasps. 

R. MARLBOROUGH. 66. and a cinquefoil pierced. In the 
field, the letters I. K. H. five cinquefoils pierced, and 
three pellets. 

3. Obv. JOHN. SMITH. IN. two -cinquefoils pierced, and a mullet, 

In the field, two tobacco pipes saltier-wise. 
R. MALBROUGH, 1665. and a mullet. In the field, i. K. s. 
and three cinquefoils. 

4. Obv. WILLIAM. CRABBE. two small, and one large cinque- 

foil. A half-length figure dipping candles. 
R. OF. MARLBROUGH. 1668. a large cinquefoil. In the 
field, w. M. c. and three large cinquefoils. 

5. Obv. RICHARD SHIPRE, and a mullet. A shield, charged 

with the Salter's arms. 

R. OF. MOULBROUGH. a pellet, and a mullet. In the field, 
a cinquefoil between the letters R. s. 

6. Obv. THOMAS SHIPERE, and a mullet. Full-faced bust of an 

an ancient queen. 

R. IN. MARLBOROUGH. and a cinqnefoil. In the field, 
T. A. s. 

7. Obv. IANE. PEARCE. 


R, IN. THE. COUNTY, OF. WILTS. 1668. An ox standing, 
to the left. 


9. Obv. IOHN. MORGAN. 1656. and a mullet. A shield, charged 

with the Grocer's arms. 

R. AT. MALBURROW. a mullet, and a pellet. In the field, 
a cinquefoil between the letters I. M. 

10. Obv. OLIVER. SHROPSHIRE, and a mullet. An angel with 

clasped hands, standing full-faced, 

R. IN. MARLBROUGH. 1665. and a mullet. In the field, 
s. o. two mullets pierced, and four pellets. 

11. Obv. THOMAS. KEENE. In the field, three birds, one and 

two, each with a branch in its beak. 

R. IN. MARLBOROUGH. and a mullet. In the field, T. K. 
divided by a diamond; below 1652. 

12. Obv. WILLIAM. PUREUR. FINN. The Mercers' arms. 

R. MAKER. IN. MARLBROW. In the field w. D. p. and 
three diamonds. 





OF. MEERE. 16 .... In the centre, R. i. P. 


1. Obv. A. A. OF. MELKESHAM. and a ciuquefoil. A shield, 

charged with the Mercers' arms. 

R. i. A. OF. STEEPLE. ASHTON. In the field, 1665. four 
pellets, and two cinquefoils pierced. 

2. Obv. RICH. LUKEY. AT. and a mullet. In the field, a pump 

with the water issuing from the spout. 

R. LOWER. END. MILK. s. and a cinquefoil. In the field, 
a shield. (Plate, No. 10.) 


1. Obv. IOHN. EARMER. In the field, F. i. E. and five mullets. 

R. OF. PYRTON. 1668. In the field, HIS. HALF. PENY. and 
three mullets. 

2. Obv. IOHN. FARMAR. 1656. A tobacco roll in the field, 

R. IN. PYRTON. In the field, the Grocer's arms. 

(Plate, No. 11.) 

1. Obv. JOHN. STON. OF. and a mullet. Full-faced half-length 

figure of a man dipping candles. 

R. RAMSBURY. 1653. and a mullet. In the field, i. M .s. 
and three diamonds. 



2. Obv. WILLIAM. WHITE, and two mullets. A shield. 

R. IN. RAMSBERY. and three mullets. In the field, W.R.W. 
two mullets, and two pellets. (Plate, No. 12.) 


1. Obv. SIMON. BOLEE. A shield, charged with three birds pas- 

sant ; crest, a similar bird. 
R. IN. SARUM. 1666. In the field, HIS. HALF-PENY. 

2. Obv . EDWARD. FRIPP. and a cinquefoil. A shield of arms. 

R. IN. SARUM. 1668. and a cinquefoil. In the field, HIS. 


3. Obv. SIMON. ROLFE. A coat of arms ; the shield, charged 

with three partridges passant; crest, a partridge 

R IN. SARUM. 1666 I In the field, HIS. HALF-PENY. 
and four pellets. 

4. Obv. THOMAS. HAYTOR, OF. SARUM. and a mullet. A shield, 

charged with three goats' heads erased between a 
chevron or. 

R. HIS. HALFE-PENY. 1666. with a cinquefoil and four 
pellets ; three cinquefoils meeting at the stems, which 
are interlaced ; on either side, T, H. 

5. Obv. HENRY. COLE, and a mullet. A full-faced bearded 

bust, probably intended for the Saracen's head. 
R. OF. SARUM. 1655. and a mullet. In the field, a cinque- 
foil between the letters H. c. 

6. Obv. THOMAS. PARISH. IN. two pellets and a mullet. In the 

field, I. D. P. two pellets, and a cinquefoil. 
R. CHEESE. CROSSE. SARUM. and a mullet. A shield, 
ermine, charged with a chevron. 

7. Obv. EDWARD. LISTER. IN SARUM. and a large cinquefoil. In 

the field, the rising sun. 

R. AT. WINCHESTER. GATE, and a large cinquefoil. In 
the field, HIS. HALF-PENY. and a cinquefoil. 

8. Obv. EDWARD. PENNY. IN. and a cinquefoil, The Butchers' 

R. SARU 1667. In the field, HIS. TOKEN. 

9. Obv. EDWARD. MASON, a mullet pierced, and three pellets. 

In the field, a grotesque figure of a naked boy ; his 
left arm a Jcimbo, his right extended. 

ft. ....SARUM. 1658. In the field, E. E. M. with two 
diamonds and a pellet. 


10. Obv. FRANCIS. MANNINGS, and a mullet. In the field, an 

animal resembling a he- goat, but with the tail of a 

R. IN. SARUM. 1664. a cinquefoil and a mullet. In the 
field, F. i. M. and three cinquefoils. 

11. Obv. EDMOND. MACKS, and a cinquefoil. A mitre. 

R. OF. SARUM. and four cinquefoils. The letters E. M. 
and two cinquefoils. 

12. Obv. EDWARD. FALCONER, and a mullet. A shield ermine ; 

three arched crowns on a chief. 

R. IN. NEW. SARUM. 1659. and a mullet and two diamonds. 
In the field, E. M. F. and three diamonds. 

13. Obv. IN SARUM. 1667. two pellets and a mullet. In the 

field, c. E. F. four cinquefoils, three of them large, 
and pierced. 

R. HIS. HALF-PENY. and a mullet. In the field, two 
snakes twined together. 

14. Obv. THOMAS. CUTLER. IUNIOR. and a mullet. In the 

field, HIS. HALF-PENY. 

R. IN. SARUM. 1666. three mullets and six pellets. In 
the field, T. I. c. three cinquefoils pierced, and a 

15. Obv. GEORGE. GODFREY, a mullet pierced, and a pellet. In 

the field, a rabbit squatting. 

R. IN. SARUM. 1659. a pellet, and a mullet pierced. In 
the field, G. G. and two diamonds. 

16. Obv. ROGER. GODFREY. IN. and a star of five points. A 

cleaver, and some other object. 
R. NEW. SARUM. 1660. In the field, R. E. G. and three 


17. Obv. GEORGE. CLEMENS, a mullet, and a cinquefoil. In the 

field, a dragon passant. 

R. IN. SARUM. 1664. three cinquefoils, and a mullet. In 
the field, G. A. c. and two cinquefoils. 

18. Obv. IOHN. GILBERT. AT. THE. and a cinquefoil. In the 

field, a large bell. 
R. BELL. IN. NEW. SARUM. In the field, i. H G. 

19. Obv. THOMAS. CUTLER. SENIOR, and a mullet. In the 

field HIS. HALF-PENY, a mullet, and two pellets. 
R. IN . SARUM. 1666. three mullets, and four pellets, two 
and two. In the field, two serpents entwined be- 
tween the letters T. c. 


20. Olv. ROGER. GODFREY. IN. and a mullet. In the field, a 

cleaver, and some other instrument. 

R. NEW. SARUM. 1666. and a mullet. In the field, R. E. G. 
and three mullets. 

21. Obv. IOHN. HALE, and a mullet and a pellet. In the field, 

a lion passant. 
R. GROCER. IN. SARUM. and a mullet. In the field, i. H. 

22. Obv. IOHN. HANCOCKE. IN. NEW. and a diamond. In the 

field, i. H. and two mullets, with five diamonds. 
R. APOTHECARY. SARUM. and a pellet. In the field, a 
Turk's bust, full-faced. 

23. Obv. WILLIAM. JOYCE. A camel couchant. 

R. IN. SARUM. 165... In the field, w. i. and a cinquefoil. 

24. Obv. FOR. THE. MAIOR. OF. THE. 1659. 4 and a spread eagle, 

with double head for a mint-mark. In the field, a 
spread eagle, with double head. 

R. CITTY. OF. NEW. SARUM. and a spread eagle, with 
double head for a mint-mark. In the field, the arms 
of the city. (Plate, No. 13.) 

25. Obv. THOMAS. PARISH. IN. In the field, i. D. P. two dia- 

monds, and a cluster of four pellets. 

R. CHEESE. CROSSE. SARUM. and a mullet. In the field, 
the Grocers' arms. 

26. Obv. CHRISTOPHER. EGG. and a mullet. In the field, the 

Ironmongers' arms. 
R. IN. SARUM. and two mullets. In the field, c. E. 

27. Obv. THOMAS. SHERGOOD SARUM. and a large cinquefoil, 

pierced. In the field, a regal crown of the period. 
R. HIS. HALFE-PENNY. 166... In the field, two flowers, the 
stalks entwined together between the letters T. s. 

28. Obv. VAUGHAN. RICHARDSON, and a mullet. In the field, 

a dolphin. 

R. KATHERINE STR. IN. SATIUM. In the field, V. C. R. 

1668. two pellets, and two cinquefoils. 

29. Obv. GEO. G. PAGE. GROCER, and a mullet. In the field, a 

bird with expanded wings, holding a branch in its 

R. IN. SARUM. 1657. a mullet and a cinquefoil. In the 
field, G. K. P. and two cinquefoils pierced. 

30. Obv. HENRY. M. , . . . ERSHAW. and a mullet. The object in 

the field, detrited. 

4 In the engraving of this piece, the date is erroneously 1699. 


R. IN. SARUM. COOKE. 58. In the field, H. F. M. and 
three diamonds. 

31. Ol)i). GEORGE. GODFERY. and a mullet. A rabbit. 

R. RAT. KILR. (sic.) IN. SARUM. In the field, G. G. 

32. Obv. GEORGE (?) GODFERY. and a mullet pierced. In the 

field, a rabbit. 

R. RAT. KILR. IN. SARUM. In the field, G. G, and two 




1. Obv. ROB. JEFFREYES. and a cinquefoil. In the field, a 

building resembling a chapel. 

R. STEPLE. ASHTON. and a cinquefoil. In the field, R. M. i. 
and two mullets. 


1. Obv. THOMAS. IHONSON. and a star of five points. The 

Grocers' arms. 

R. AT. STOWR. 1650. and a star of five points. In the 
field, a cinquefoil between the letters T. i.; above, 
a fieur de lis. 


1. Obv. JOHN. SMITH, four pellets and a mullet. A shield, 

charged with the Bakers' arms. 

R. IN. SWINDON. 1664. and a mullet. In the field, i. c. s. 
and three cinquefoils pierced. 

2. Obv. HENRY. RESTALL. and a mullet. Two tobacco-pipes, 

crossed saltier-wise. 
R. IN. SWINDON. 1668. and a mullet, three sugar loaves. 

3. Obv. AMOS. WILKINS. M. and a mullet. In the field, the 

Grocers' arms. 

R. SWINDON. IN. WILTSHER. and a mullet. In the field, 
the letters A. w. 

4. Obv. WILLIAM. HEATH, and a cinquefoil. In the field, w. E. 

four pellets, and two mullets pierced. 

R. IN. SWINDON. four mullets pierced. In the field, w. E. 
four pellets, and two mullets pierced. 

5. Obv. IIENERY. RESTALL. and a mullet. In the field, two 

tobacco-pipes crossed in saltier. 

R. IN. SWINDON. 1664. and a mullet. In the field, two 
tobacco-pipes crossed in saltier. 


6. Obv. AMOS. WILKINS. AT. and a diamond and two pellets. 

The bust of an ancient queen, like that on the 
Mercers' arms. 

R. SWINDON. IN. WILTS, and a diamond. In the field, 
A. M. w. and three diamonds. 



8. Obv. HENRY. MUNDAY. CHANDLER. In the field, the 

Grocers' arms. 

R. HIS. HALF-PENY. IN. SWINDON. the words divided by 
diamonds. In the field, the letters H. M. divided 
by a branch ; below, 1669, a cinquefoil, and two 


1. Obv. JOHN. BERRY. OF. and a mullet. The Mercers' arms. 
R. TINHEAD, 1668. and a mullet. In the field, I. A. B. 
a cinquefoil, and two diamonds. 


1. Obv. WILLIAM. SMITH, two tobacco-pipes crossed in saltier. 
R. IN. TRUBRIDGE. In the field, w. s. Another bears, 


2. Obv. ROBERT. DARCKE. 1669. In the field, 

R. IN. TRUBRIDGE. IN. In the field, six large pellets ; 
between them, WILLTS. 

3. Obv. TROWBRIDG. IN. wiLTis. In the field, H. D. four 

pellets, and two mullets pierced. 
R. Precisely the same, except that the field bears the letters 

E. D. 


1. Obv.- THOMAS. TOOMER. and a mullet. In the field, a bird 

with expanded wings, holding a branch in its mouth. 
R. OF. WARMESTER. 1651. and a mullet. In the field, 
cinquefoil between the letters T. T. 

2. Obv. IOHN. SLADE. 1667. and a mullet. In the field, a heart. 

R. IN. WARMISTER. three pellets, and two mullets. In 
the field, three flowers, the stalks terminating in a 
knot, between the letters I. s- 




R. IN. WARMISTER. 1651. In the field, I. B. 


1. Obv. FRANCIS- PASHENT. the Tallow-Chandlers' arms. 

R. OF. WESTBURY. 1668. In the field, p. F. K. 

2. Obv. THOMAS. HANCOCKE. In the field, a cock. 

R. IN. WESBURY. 1656. and a mullet. In the field, a right 
hand open. 








1. Obv. FRANCIS. WAGE. OF. two swords crossed saltier-wise. 

R. WILTON. 1658. and a mullet. A shield, charged with 
three ancient crowns. 

2. Obv. STEPHEN. BRASSIER. 1667. and a mullet. In the field, 

four stars between the letters s. H. B. 

R. WILTON. IN. WILTSHEE E.^ In the field, HIS. HALF- 


3. Obv. THOMAS. CLARK, a cinquefoil and a mullet. In the 

field, three leopards' heads cabossed. 

R. OF. WILTON. 1664. and a mullet. In the field, T. c. a 
cinquefoil, and five pellets. 




1. Obv. GABRIEL. ARMAN. A shield, bearing the bust of an 

ancient queen. 
R. IN. WIIETEN. BASSETT. In the field, A. G. E. 

2. Obv. JOHN. KNIGHTON. and a cinquefoil. In the field, a 

crown like that of Charles I. 

R. IN. WOOTTON. BASSETT. and a cinquefoil. In the field, 
the letters I. I. K. and three cinquefoils. 

3. Obv. JOHN. KNIGHTON. four pellets, and a cinquefoil. In 

the field, two keys crossed saltier-wise. 
R. I N . WOOTTON. BASSETT. and a cinquefoil. In the field, 
1. 1. K. and three cinquefoils. 



THE tokens engraved in the accompanying plate were 
recently discovered on the site of the ditch without the 
ancient London Wall, during some excavations near Alders- 
gate-street. There were several hundreds ; but the speci- 
mens engraved comprise all the remarkable varieties. 

The extreme rudeness and quaintness of style of these 
pieces favours the conjecture that they are of a much earlier 
period than the end of the fifteenth, or the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, as a friend supposes ; the occurrence of 
the Roman letter R on one of them indicating, as he con- 
ceives, a period not earlier than the reign of Elizabeth. 

It will be observed, that the reverses of Nos. 4, 5, 7, and 
9 are varied ; and on this account, the R applied as one of 
the reverses to No. 7, may probably be of a later date. At 
any rate, the devices are for the most part of a character 
and execution which remind us of much earlier work. 

The history of the English coinage furnishes us with 
many anecdotes, illustrating the inconvenience and misery 
arising from the want of a proper supply of the fractions of 
the commonest current coin, the penny, which, considering 
the commodities it would then procure, was much too large 
for very general use among the poor. The practice of 
dividing that coin must have been found extremely incon- 
venient, and the issue of its half and quarter, mere spangles 
of silver, does not appear to have remedied the evil. In 
such an extremity, recourse seems to have been had to the 
issue of tokens in the baser metals. Before the coinage 
of farthings in our own time, almost every circular piece 


of metal, even a button without a shank, often represented 
that coin ; and it may be readily imagined, that in the 
middle ages similar substitutes were readily found. It is 
not unlikely that leaden tokens were more commonly used 
in taverns, and that the specimens engraved bear some 
allusion to the signs, as the spread eagle, the bishop, the 
palmer, the lion, the hart, the fleur de Us, etc. etc. A 
passage in the Reliquiae Antiques, vol. ii. p. 58, alludes to 
the currency of lead in taverns ; and it appears, from the 
following extracts from the parish-account book of St. 
Peter's, of Mancroft, Norwich, communicated by Mr. God- 
dard Johnson to the British Archaeological Association, 
that they were commonly used on solemn occasions. 

A.D. s. d. 

1632. Paid for moulds to cast tokens in - 040 

1633. Paid to Norman for leaden tokens - 006 
1640. Paid to Thomas Turner for 300 tokens - 030 
1644. Paid to Howard the plomer for tokens - 000 
1659. Paid to goodman Tenton for cutting a mould 

for the tokens - 026 

1680. Paid to the widow Harwood for lead tokens 050 

1683. Paid Mrs. Harrold for new tokens - 010 

1684. Ditto ditto ditto 1 
1686. Paid for tokens bought, and herbs for the church 026 

The following is an account of the receivings by tokens 
of the communicants at various times : 

1682. Paid for bread and wine, more than received by 

tokens - - 19 1 

1683. Paid for bread and wine, more than received by 

tokens - 15 1 

1685. Received by tokens 3 11 

1686. Received by tokens at eleven communions in the 

said year - 3186 

1687. Received by tokens at ten communions in the 

said year - 323 

The last similar entry in the book is in 1696. 

VOL. vin. 




In a Letter to the Editor. 

Bromley, in Kent, 13th Nov., 1845. 


If you consider the following notices of a few 
coins in my possession, sufficiently interesting to be in- 
serted in the Numismatic Chronicle, they are much at 
your service. 

Locri. IE, size 7. 

Obv. Galeated head of Pallas. Above EY. 

Rev. AOKPIiN. Female seated with patera and poppy. On 
each side, a star. 

It was probably from having seen only an imperfect 
specimen of this coin, that Sestini describes the poppy as 
" sceptrum cum globo," and Eckhel <c sceptrum." 

Tyra. AR, size 4, weighing 86 grs. 

Obv. Head of Ceres, full faced, veiled. 

Rev TYPANON. Bull butting. Between his legs A. 

Procured through Mr. Curt from the Revil Collection. 
This coin claims attention not only because unpublished, 
but because it is the only autonomous coin hitherto dis- 
covered of Tyra. It is further interesting, as shewing a 


very good state of art in one of the remotest corners of 
Numismatic Geography. The types much resemble those 
found on the coins of the neighbouring city of Olbiopolis. 


Rev. Apollo seated. In the exergue " Sidon." 

This coin weighs 258| grains, being adapted to the 
Attic talent. (Vide observation under Lot 2562 of the 
Thomas collection.) It will probably be found a general 
rule, that whenever Sidon or any of the neighbouring cities, 
for political or other causes, adopted the usual Syrian 
types, they adopted also the Syrian weight, and adjusted 
to the ^Egyptian talent those coins only which bear the 
Egyptian type of the eagle. 


This coin is unique as to the style of the head dress 
on the obverse. 


Obv. Head of Peace. 

Rev. CAESAR. DIVI. F. The emperor standing, his right 
hand raised ; in his left, a spear reversed. 

Of this coin Eckhel says, " aversae sensus mihi ignotus." 
Connecting the two sides, it appears to represent the 
emperor in the character of pacificator, extending his right 
hand to forbid further slaughter after victory. " Dextra 


vetat pugnas." In fabric, it resembles the coins struck 
about the time of the battle of Actium. 


Obv. Head and legend, as usual. 
Rev. Bull butting, &c., as usual. 

In noticing these very common coins, Eckhel gives a 
summary of the opinions of his predecessors, but being 
dissatisfied with them all, adds, " quis sit hujus typi expli- 
catus, quin conjecturis indulgeam, adfirmare vereor." If 
after this, I might venture to give an opinion, it would be 
that the type, which is copied from the coins of Thurium 
alludes to the name Thurinus, which the emperor bore in 
youth. " Infanti cognomen Thurino inditum est, in me- 
moriam majorum originis," &c., &c., says Suetonius in 
vita, cap. 7. 

NERO. JE. 3. 

Obv. NERO CAESAR AVG. G. IMP. Laureated head, 
to the right. 

Rev. The emperor riding to the right, lance in hand ; behind, a 
soldier with lance and spear ; before, another soldier, 
similarly armed, who has fallen down. In the exergue 

From the Thomas collection. 


Obv. Head of infant, veiled, and crowned with sea weed. 

Rev. S. C. in an olive garland. Akerman, Roman Coins, 
vol. ii. p, 506. 

Where certainty is not attainable, probability is desirable, 
and with this view, 1 would suggest the appropriation of 
this coin to the infant son of Domitian, 

1st. Because the fabric resembles that of the other third 
brass of Domitian. 


2nd. Because the infant is commemorated in other 
metals and sizes, and, therefore, is probably commemorated 
also in third brass; a coinage, which, under Domitian, was 
struck in such unusual quantities, and with such variety of 

3rd. The infant is anonymous on all coins, and the 
omission on this coin of any inscription, such as DIVVS 
CAESAR, may possibly have arisen from his being the 
first deceased infant thus honoured. For testimonies as to 
the importance attached, at the time, both to his birth and 
death, see Eckhel, vol. vi. p. 400. With respect to the 
crown of sea weed, if sea weed it be, I have neither expla- 
nation nor conjecture to offer. 


To the Editor of the Numismatic Chronicle. 

Weight, 22 2 grs. 



Frankfort on the Maine, 
bth November, 1845. 

DEAR SIR, I have received through the medium of Mr. 
J. E. Gray, the impression of the small gold coin of an 
Abyssinian king, which I pointed out to you among the 
unclassed medals of the British Museum. Having exa- 
mined this impression carefully, I think I can refer the 
coin to one of the rulers of Axum, a list of whom I pub- 
lished in the second volume of my Travels in Abyssinia. 


There can be scarcely any doubt, that the coin in ques- 
tion dates its origin to the century in which Aphidas reigned 
in Axum, A. D. 530 542, its workmanship so much re- 
sembling the gold coin of this king I published in my 
Travels (pi. viii. fig. 6). The description of the coin belong- 
ing to the British Museum would be 

Obv. Crowned head, turned to the right, between two ears ; a 
sword in the right hand, surrounded by the inscrip- 

Asa(hel) Bas(ileos) Sin (?) Thach^?)' 

Rev. Shaved head, turned to the right, between two ears ; in 
the right hand three leaves. 

Gebise. Ian. Alph. 

The second successor of Aphidas bore the name Esahel 
(No. 45 of my list, vol. ii. p. 346). He reigned only two 
months, and seems to have been put aside by his minister, or 
servant, Egabes. The former is figured and named in the 
obverse of the medal; the second in the reverse. Ian 
Alph is most probably an adoptive name which Gabes 
assumed. Since he has no crown on his head, he seems to 
have governed as a substitute of the legitimate sovereign 
Asahel. The adoptive names, Ian and Aelaf, were used by 
several Abyssinian kings; for example, Johannes (No 125 
of my list) was named Aelaf Saged. 

I hope this short notice may be of service to you ; it is 
given by me as mere conjecture. I am yours most obliged, 


To SAMUEL BIRCH, Esq., British Museum. 

[This coin was obtained from Colonel Claude Steuart, who pro- 
cured it at Aden. The weight of these coins corresponds with 
that of the small gold coins of Justin, weighing '23.2 grs. The 
drawing having been made from a cast, is unfortunately reversed ; 
the description is, however, correct.] 

1 The meaning of Sin Thach I do not know, 



month of August last, I spent a day or two in the city of York, 
and endeavoured to ascertain all the circumstances of a discovery 
which had been accidentally made a few months before, of a 
number of pennies of William the Conqueror. I was informed, 
that, in digging out the foundation of a house near Jubbergate, a 
number of silver coins were found, which turned out to be pennies 
of the Conqueror, of type No. 234 of the Silver Coins of 
England. It was said, that the total number discovered was about 
600 ; but with the able assistance of Mr. Wellbeloved, who took 
much pains to assist me, I could obtain a sight of only 167 ; and 
I am therefore inclined to believe, that the total number found is 
somewhat less than that stated above. I have given below a list 
of the moneyers and mints, with the number of their respective 
coins ; by which it will be seen, that by far the greater number 
have been struck at York, as might be expected, especially as all 
the pieces seem to have suffered in some degree from wear, and 
must, therefore, probably have been withdrawn from the local 
circulation of the place where they were deposited. It will be 
perceived, that amongst the moneyers of even this small number, 
twenty-eight names are not mentioned, or are differently spelt, in 

With these there was one penny with a profile head; but I was 
not able to procure a sight of it, and cannot therefore say what 
was the type. 

There was also one penny of Edward the Confessor. 























4. IDEN 








































+IEOTNF, i.e. Thetford 


































Sion College, October 11, 1845. 

SINCE I last wrote to you, some new coins have fallen in my 
way, which I think sufficiently interesting- to describe to you : 

I. A penny, which I hesitate not to ascribe to Henry IV.' 
and to one of his earlier coinages. It is very much clipped, on 
one side down to the inner circle, and is worn considerably about 
the edges ; but in spite of this it weighs 14J grs., and must have 
weighed 18 when perfect. The workmanship, too, is that of an 
period earlier than Henry VI., the head and hair precisely like 
that of the last coinage of Richard II. ; and the reverse almost a 
fac simile of the Durham penny of that king. The letters are 
old English, and where the N can be decyphered, it is not the 
Roman N which is employed. 

Obv. HENRICVS *****. On the right of the crown, a 

star ; on the left, an annulet, or pellet. 
ft_***** DVNOLM. Cross and pellets, as usual. 
I think the weight and workmanship of this coin, both on the 
obverse and reverse, justify its attribution to Henry IV. ; and it 
presents us with a new mint of that sovereign, and an instance 
earlier than any yet known, in which private marks are placed by 
the sides of the crown. 

II. A specimen of the heavy groat of Henry IV. This coin, 
like the other, is clipoed. Indeed it is cut down to the middle of 



the outer legend all round, yet it weighs 60 grs. Here, too, as in 

the former case, the old English N is substituted for the Roman N. 


Head resembling that of Richard II. MM. cross. 
RPOSV1, etc. CIVITAS LONDON. Crosses between 
the words. 

III. A penny of the first coinage of Edward IV. clipped con- 
siderably, but otherwise well preserved. Weight, 12 grs. MM. 


R CIVITAS LONDON. Cross and pellets, as usual. 

IV. A halfpenny of the heavy coinage of Henry IV. Weight, 
8 grs. nearly, more than 7| (clipped). 

Obv. HENRIC VS REX **#. 

These coins are all remarkable for being cut down to the exact 
weight of a subsequent coinage, but exhibiting at the same time, 
by the extent to which they have been clipped, that they belonged 
to an earlier and weightier issue. There seems to have been a 
determination not to reduce any of the coins in question below 
the legal weight of the last coinage current, when the clipping 
took place. May it not have been done by authority ? 

I have also been fortunate enough to obtain specimens of two 
open crown pennies of Henry VIL, but as they are engraved in 
Mr. Hawkins' work (367) (370), they only serve to confirm the 
accuracy of that excellent treatise. 

V. A York half-groat of Henry VII.'s second coinage, resem- 
bling the London ones, with the open crown, MM. lis. On the 
breast, a lis ; in centre of reverse a lozenge, inclosing a pellet ; 
before, CIVI, and EBO, and after T AS, roses; rose also after 


VI. A denarius of Augustus. 

Obv. Head of Augustus. No legend. 

R Temple of a peculiar form ; unpublished, so far as I have 
been able to ascertain. No legend. 

VII. Egyptian coin of Philip the elder (brass 5, ordinary size). 
Obv. AK. M. IOY. fclAinnOS. EYS. Head of the emperor, 


R Jupiter borne on an eagle, with expanded wings ; in the 


I CONTINUE my notes, with a notice of a coin of Plegrnynd. 
Ruding gives one with a moneyer's name, SIGEHE1M NOK, 


but suspects that NOR must be a blunder for MON. 1 am 
happy in being able to confirm this idea. I possess a penny of 
this archbishop in fine preservation, which reads 
I. Obv. + PLEGMVND. AjlCHIEP. Small cross. 

R. i-SIGEHELML MON. In two lines, three crosses 


Thus it appears that the name, as well as the designation of 
the moneyer, was blundered on the coin described by Ruding. It 
is singular, too, that considering the extreme rarity of the coins of 
Plegmund previous to the Cuerdale find, not one among the sixty 
specimens there found should bear the name of Sigehelm. 

II. A penny of Henry I., the most usual type, three-quarter 
face, the reverse presenting a new moneyer, ESTMVND ON. 
LVND. The coin is in a high state of preservation. 

III. A halfpenny of Edward VI. in a fine state of preservation ; 
base metal. Weight, 6 grains. 

Obv. The king's head, in profile, to the left. ED. 6 D. G. 

R_Cross and pellets. CI VITAS BRISTOLIE. Between 

each of the forks of the large cross, a small cross. 
This is the second halfpenny of Edward VI. which has been 
made known, and by a singular piece of numismatic good fortune, 
both have been communicated by me. The first, which is of 
London, is now in the cabinet of J. B. Bergne, Esq. ; the second, 
now described, in my own. 

IV. A billon coin of Otacilia Severa, one of the small Alex- 
andrian series. 

Obv. M. OT2EOYHPA. SEB. SS. Head of Ot Severa. 
R L. E. A female figure to the knees ; helmeted, and 
looking to the left ; holding out her right hand, and 
having a spear in the left. 

V. A coin of Volusian, of Alexandria Troas ; size between 
second and third brass. 


Laureated head of the emperor. 

R COL. AVG. TROAS. A horse grazing, to the left; 
above the horse, a man's bust. 

VI. Coin of Thurium, much clipped. Weight, 108 grs. AR.5. 

Obv. Head of Pallas, to the right ; behind, the head TIMO. 
R eOYPION ET$A. A bull, butting, to the right; 

beneath, a fish. 

This coin differs from the one described by Mionnet (vol. i. 
p. 169, No. 661), by having the letters TIMO, behind the head, 
inclosed in a kind of circle, by the crest of the helmet ; doubtless 
an abbreviation of the magistrate's name, by whose order the coin 
was struck. HENRY CHRISTMAS. 





Signor Cavedoni gives a very full notice of a new edition of 
Riccio's important work, entitled, Le Monete delle Antiche 
Famiglie di Roma, etc., Naples, 1843, pp.288, 4to., and 72 
plates, in which a great number of new coins are made known, 
partly from the author's collection, partly communicated by the 
Chevalier Borghesi, the celebrated Baron d'Ailly, and other col- 
lectors. Signor Cavedoni adds some interesting remarks on the 
types of certain new coins of various families, among which are 
those of Afrania, Horatia, Lutatia, Minucia, Plaetoria, Pompeia, 
Pomponia, Sempronia, Servilia, etc. etc. 

MARCH, 1844. P. 42. 

At the meeting of the Institute, January 19, Signor Kestner 
exhibited an unpublished coin of Tiberius, on the reverse of which 
is the legend PONTIF. MAX., within a wreath. It is to be 
regretted, that no indication of size or metal is given. 

P. 46. 

Signor Cavedoni contributes some remarks on certain coins of 
the kings of Cyprus. 

1. Evagoras, Neumann, pars ii. p. 106 ; Eckhel, D. N. Vet. 
p. 305 ; and Sestini. Mus. Hederv. parsiii. p. 72, n. 14, are quoted 
to prove the reading not to be always BA, but sometimes BIA, 
which Signor Cavedoni supposes to mean BIA0r)e, a title in 
Cyprus equivalent to eWaorrje, as appears from Schleusner, Lexic. 
N. T. V. fiiaarfe. 

2. The coin, reading EY, and attributed by M. Lenormant, 
Tresor de Numismatique, pp.73 76, pi 31 32, to Evagoras, 
Signor C. thinks may belong to Eunostus, king of Solus, in 
Cyprus. See Athenteus, xiii. p. 576, E, as the coins of Evagoras 
usually read EYA. 

3. On a coin with the letters MEN (attributed by Borrell to 
Menelaus), Signor C. thinks, that the object called the double 
cross, behind the head on the reverse, is the Phoenician letter 
aleph, and supports his opinion by several pertinent quotations. 

4. The legend NI, on a coin, Eckhel, D- N. Vet. p. 305, he 
supposes to refer to NI0AAHN, the son of Pnytagoras, one of the 
trierarchs of Alexander the Great, Arrian, Indie, xviii. 8, not to 
Nicocles, whose name is written NIK. 


5. Obv. Head of Apollo, laurelled, with bow behind, and BA. 
Rev. Female head, diademed and turreted ; behind, NK, in a 
monogram. (Mus. Este.) This coin differs from four others 
described by Lenormant, Tresor, L c. pi. 31, n.16 18. 

6. The coin, Obv. female head with long hair, necklace, and 
ear-rings, etc. ; behind, IIN Rev. Similar head, with short 
hair ; behind, BA (Mus. Este.), is considered to be of Pnytagoras ; 
as it is contended that the letters IIY, as read by Borrell, ought to 
be read IIN. 

7. Obv. Female head, laurelled. Rev. HA. Head of Diana, 
Sestini, Mus. Hederv. in Cyren. No. 17. This coin, if not of the 
Pallenses of Cephalonia, is considered to be probably of Pasicrates, 
king of Solus, in Cyprus. Arrian, Exp. Alex. ii. 22, 2. Plu- 
tarch in Alex. p. 681, D. Signer Cavedoni further considers the 
restitution of these coins to Cyprus, particularly No. 5, to confirm 
the attribution of the Roman copper money to that island, struck 
by M.Canidius Crassus. See Morell, Famil Rom. Licin. tab. 3, 
lit. B ; Liebe, Gutha Num. p. 393. See also Signer Cavedoni's 
further remarks, Bullettino, July, p. 1*24. 

APRIL, 1844. P. 49. 

Contains the interesting and elaborate arguments at length of 
Dr. Emilius Braun, and Signer Capranesi, in favour of the 
genuineness of the Quinipondio Borgiano, said by Signer Raffaello 
Gargiulo to be false. 

MAY, 1844. P. 96. 

A notice of Signer Avellino's work, " Rubastinorum Numorum 
Catalogus" Neapol. 1844, in 4to. cum tab. 2, by Signer Cave- 

This work, observes Signer C , is executed with the greatest 
care. The coins of Rubastini are admirably arranged and de- 
scribed, with full references to the works of former numismatists. 
The perfect resemblance of some of the silver coins of Rubastini, 
to those of Metapontum and Tarentum, is referred by Signer 
Avellino to a peculiar monetary system in Apulia, the result, as 
he supposes, of a commercial relation with Metapontum and Taren- 
tum, the emporia of Magna Grecia. Signer Avellino follows 
Mr. Millingen, in supposing the Rubastini were derived from 
Rhypae, in Achaia. 

JULY, 1844. P. 116. 

Dr. Koehne publishes four unedited medallions, in copper, from 
the cabinet of the Chevalier Schmidt, of Berlin, namely, 



Sep. Severus. 

1. Qbv. AY. KA....CEn. CEYHPOC II. Head of Severus, 
to the right, laurelled. 

draped figure standing, with mural crown, holding in each hand a 
temple. AKTIA IIYeiA, in the field. 

Dr. K. traces, with much research, the history of Perinthus till 
the time of Severus, by whom it was much favoured, and in 
honour of whom the public games, Philadelphia, inscribed on the 
coin, were instituted. The female figure he explains to represent 
the tutelary goddess of the city, or the city itself. The two 
temples are those dedicated to Apollo and to the emperor, which 
stood in the circus of the city. 

Alexander Severus. 

2. Obv. -AY. K. M. AYP. CEYH. AAE#ANAPOC....Bust of 
the emperor, in the paludamentum, with radiated crown, to the 

R IIEPINGmN AIC. NEQKOPilN. Victory in a biga. 



relled bust of the emperor, to the left, with the -ZEgis. 

R KOINON 6PAK11N AAE#ANAPIA. The emperor, on 
horseback, to the right, crowned with a wreath, clad in the tunic 
and paludamentum ; in his left hand, the sceptre, his right raised ; 
between the legs of the horse, ei; below,^. 

Dr. K. remarks, that this type of the emperor on horseback is 
quite unknown. The legend, AAE^ANAPIA, refers to the 
games in honor of Alexander the Great, which must have been 
instituted by Caracalla, when, during his visit to Thrace, he cele- 
brated the memory of that monarch. 


4. Obv. TON KTICTAN. Bust of Hercules, with the lion's 
skin, and club on the right shoulder, to the right. 

R EPAKAEQTAN. Theatre, full of spectators ; in the centre, 
a seated figure of Hercules, opposite whom stands the victor, 
placing a wreath on his own head with his right hand, and holding, 
in his left, a palm-branch. On his left hand is a temple ; in the 
exergue, MATPOC AIIOIKflN HOAIQN. This coin Dr. K. 


considers to have been struck, probably, in the reign of Gor- 
dian III. Cf. Mionnet, ii. 443, n.174. Dr. K. is unable to 
find, in any ancient writer, a notice of the public games, to which 
the type of the reverse refers. ' 


Signer Cavedoni publishes an archaic coin, recently brought 
from the coast of Africa, which he supposes to be of Gyrene, with 
the type of the Gardens of the Hesperides. On the obverse of 
this coin (which is of silver, and size 4 of the scale of Mionnet), 
are two objects, like hearts ; their bases joined by a kind of bar, 
out of which, on each side, spring objects like flowers. On the 
reverse is an incuse square, bisected by a bar, in one division of 
which is an oblong space, containing three globules ; on each 
side a globule, and at each end, three oval objects, like a flower. 
In the other oblong division is a lozenge-shaped object, having a 
globule in the middle, and at each end of w.hich is a flower(?). 
Comparing the representation on this reverse, with the well-known 
reverses called the Gardens of Alcinous, on the coins of Corcyra, 
Apollonia, and Dyrrhachium, and also with the plan of the Cretan 
labyrinth on the coins of Cnossus, Signer Cavedoni conjectures 
that it may represent the celebrated Gardens of the Hesperides, 
near Cyrene. The two objects, like hearts, he supposes to be 
buds of the silphium. 

In the same number of the Bullettino, at p. 156, is a notice by 
Signer Cavedoni, of Mr. Millingen's " Supplement aux Considera- 
tions sur la Numismatique de V Anclenne Italie" Florence, 1844. 
8vo. Pp.32, and 2 plates. 

The learned writer of this article does ample justice to the 
importance and candour of the corrections and additions in this 
valuable supplement, although he does not uniformly coincide in 
the opinions promulgated by Mr. Millingen. The coins which 
he particularly discusses are those of Heraclea, Lucaniae ; Hip- 
ponium, and Terina, in Bruttiis ; Uxentum, or Uzentum ; Cuma, 
Campanise ; and Asculum, Apuliae. 


We are obliged to our foreign correspondents who occasionally 
forward us a sale catalogue of coins, but necessity compels 
us to say, that unless sent by private hand, the expense of 
carriage is considerable. It is mortifying to be compelled 
to refuse a packet containing a pamphlet of the value, per- 
haps, of one shilling, upon which there is a charge of ten, 
and this has been oar lot on several occasions. 

C. R. The barbarous imitations of the Macedonian tetradrachms 

are not Gaulish, but should be classed to Illyria, Pannonia, 
etc. It does not follow, that because a coin is an imitation 
it is necessarily British or Gaulish. 

J. K. The leaden token, with " God save ye Queene," is of the 
time of Elizabeth, and is not uncommon. 

D. H. We do not believe that the coin was really discovered 

where it is stated to have been, but the owner doubtless 
thinks so. Careless or unauthenticated statements of " finds" 
are not only worse than useless they are mischievous in 
the highest degree, and lead to much embarrassment and per- 





MANY ancient coins, both Greek and Roman, so strikingly 
illustrate the historical, or narrative portions of the New 
Testament, that it is surprising no detailed notice of these 
interesting and significant monuments has been undertaken 
by some practical hand. It is true that commentaries have 
been written by the learned, and an occasional coin has 
been intercalated in their text by way of illustration, but, 
with scarcely an exception, they have been carelessly copied 
from some already very imperfect engraving, although the 
originals exist in many public and private cabinets. The 
most impudent forgeries have also found a place among 
these illustrations. 

It is with no desire to disparage the labours of those who 
have attempted to avail themselves of the evidence to be 
derived from numismatic sources, that this deficiency is 
noticed, but simply to guard the inexperienced from being 
misled by representations which cannot be relied upon. 
With infinite disgust we have often discovered, in the 
cabinets of collectors of coins, specimens highly prized by 
the possessors as illustrative of Jewish history, which the 
slightest acquaintance with ancient art would have enabled 



them, at a glance, to pronounce forgeries of the most clumsy 

But the blind zeal of some commentators is a more 
serious stumbling-block in the pathway of the student. 
Writers have been found indiscreet enough, not only to cite 
false coins as illustrating their theme, but also to publish 
explanations opposed to sound numismatic interpretation, at 
utter variance with the truth, and calculated to do much 
permanent injury to the cause they undertake to advocate. 

The aim of the writer, in the following pages, is not to 
prove the truth of divine revelation by an appeal to ancient 
monuments, however striking and significant. He indulges 
no hope of reclaiming one erring doubter by the production 
of such representations, however vivid and curious. Among 
those who are of that creed, which teaches them to receive 
the words of eternal truth with child-like simplicity, they 
may merely interest or amuse, but they cannot fail to shew 
to //, that the inspired penmen of the New Testament 
Scriptures wrote of the times in which they or their imme- 
diate predecessors lived, agreeing "not only in articles of 
public history, but sometimes in minute, recondite, and very 
peculiar circumstances, in which, of all others, a forger is 
most likely to have been found tripping." 1 

The following descriptions were originally written and 
mingled with other foot-notes of an historical character for 
an edition of the New Testament, but the printing of the 
entire text being found too expensive, the design has been 
abandoned, and the numismatic illustrations are here given 
by themselves. 

1 Paley. Evidences, part ii. ch. vi. 




THE following coins are classed to this prince by Mion- 

1. Obv. HPHAHC. A bunch of grapes. 

R. GGNAPXOY. A helmet, with cheek-pieces: on one 
side a small caduceus. (Liebe, p. 139.) ^E 3. R 4. 

2. Obv. HPilAOY. A bunch of grapes. 

R. eeNAPXOY. A helmet, as on No. 1.; on one side, a 
small caduceus. JEi.3. R.4. 

3. Obv. HP&AOY. A bunch of grapes. 

R. GGNAPXOY. A caduceus. (From the Chamillard 
Cabinet.) ^E.3. R.5. 

4. Obv. BAEIA. HPW. An anchor. 

R. No legend. Two cornucopia and a caduceus, crossed 
saltier wise. JE,.3. R.4. 

5. Obv. The Macedonian shield. 

R. BA2IAEliS HP&AOY. A helmet, with cheek pieces ; 
in the field, 61 (year) 15. ^E.5. R.5. 

6. Obv. Another, without date. M.5. R.4. 

7. Obv. A helmet; on one side, a palm branch. 

R. BASIAEilS HPiiAOY. An altar, with the fire 
kindled: in the field, L.F (year 3 of Herod's reign), 
and a monogram. JE.6. R4. 

8. Obv. Another, similar. ./E.G. R.4. 

The coin engraved above appears to be a variety of 
the last number. The altar, if such is the object intended 


to be represented, is of a tripod form, and there are two 
branches and a star, a most remarkable type, when the 
great event of the first Herod's reign is taken into considera- 
tion. It appears doubtful, however, whether all the above 
coins belong to Herodes Magnus. He was first made a 
tetrarch by Antony, who subsequently obtained for him, of 
the Koman Senate, the title of king ; and it does not appear 
that he ever bore that of Ethnarch ; while the coin here 
engraved is of a different size and workmanship, and bears 
the legend HPQAOY E0NAPXO(Y), i. e. (money) of Herod, 

It is proposed, therefore, to assign this example to 
Herod's successor, whom the Evangelist calls Archelaus. 
This prince was the son of Herod the Great, by a Syrian 
woman named Malthace. His father disinherited him, in 
consequence of the false accusations of his eldest brother, 
Antipater; but the treachery of that prince being dis- 
covered, he was put to death by order of Herod, at the 
time of the massacre of the innocents; 2 and Herod, making 
a new will, appointed Archelaus his successor, with the 
title of King, a title which he refused to accept, until he 
had submitted his claim to Augustus; for which purpose 
he proceeded to Rome, where he succeeded in obtaining 
the style of Ethnarch only, and was appointed governor of 

2 It was on this occasion that Augustus is said to have uttered 
the sarcasm, " Melius est Herodis porcum esse quam filium!" 
It is better to be one of Herod's swine than his son. Macrobius, 
Saturnalia lib. ii. c. 4. 


Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea. The word ftaaiXevei, (did 
reign) 3 , must not, however, be objected to; for when Arche- 
laus preferred his claim, it was alleged that he had already 
exercised the kingly prerogative, and that this submission 
to Augustus was an affectation of deference to the emperor. 
Besides this, Josephus 4 speaks of the province governed by 
Lysanias, which was a tetrarchy only, as " the kingdom of 
Lysanias" /BacrCkeiav rrjv Avcaviov. The government of 
Archelaus was so tyrannical, that the Jews accused him 
before Augustus, who banished him to Vienne, in Gaul, 
where he died. The coins of Antipas bear the name of 
Herod only; and the conjecture that Archelaus also bore it 
as a ruler, and that it was common to the Herodian family, 
receives something like confirmation from Dion Cassius, 
who calls him ' 


The phrase, " throughout all Syria," 6 is illustrated by an 
interesting, and not uncommon coin of the province of 
Syria, with the legend of the reverse in the generic form, a 

not unfrequent practice among the Greeks. The piece 
here engraved bears on the obverse the legend AYTOKparw/o 

3 Matthew ii. 22. 4 Bell. Jud. lib.ii. c.xi. 5. 

5 p. 567, ed.1606. 

H Eig o'Xr/i/ rt]v Svptav. Matt. iv. 24. 


KAICa,o NEPova TPAIANOC CEBa<m>c rGPMavtKog, i.e., the 
Emperor Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus Germanicus. The 
female head typifies the province, and the legend is KO1NON 
CTP1AC, i.e. the community of Syria. 


Although the word 'A&crapiov, in Matthew, 7 and in 
Luke, 8 are, hereafter, with KoSpavTys, 9 rendered in our 
version of the New Testament indifferently " farthing," it 
nevertheless cannot be objected to. The Assarion, or 
Assarius, a term derived from the Latin, As, Assis, appears 
to have been adopted by some Greek cities, when under the 
Roman dominion. Its size and weight, which were pro- 
bably accommodated to those of the obolus, must have 
differed at various periods, and in different cities. The 
whole subject of the relative value of Greek coins is one 
of the most perplexing questions in numismatics. Thus, 
though the coin here engraved is indubitably a specimen of 

the Assarion, struck in the island of Chios, we find others, 
similar in fabric, and of the same nominal value, twice as 
large in weight and circumference. The multiples of the 

7 Matt. x. 29. 8 Lukexii.6. 

9 Matt. v. 26. Markxii.42. 


Assarion struck at Chios, and inscribed with their designa- 
tion AYO and TPIA, frequently bear no relative proportion 
to each other. The coins of the numerous cities of Judaea 
and Phoenicia, doubtless, circulated at Jerusalem in the 
time of our Lord's ministry ; and it is not improbable that 
the brass pieces struck by Simeon the high priest, in the 
time of the Syrian king Antiochus Soter, 140 B.C. (Macca- 
bees, i. 25), continued to be current in the Holy City; but 
these bear no indication of their value. Being especially 
Jewish money, and bearing the impression of no pagan idol, 
they would naturally be preferred before the Greek coins, 
which bore the representation of objects held in abhorrence 
by the Jews. The Chian Assarion here given, from a 
specimen in the British Museum, bears on one side a sphinx, 
with the word XKiN, i. e. (money) of the people of Chios. 
Reverse, an amphora between two stars, and the denomina- 
tion ACCAPION. A half Assarion, bearing the words 
ACCAPION HMYCY (tffuavs), is also represented; but it will 
be perceived that it is of the same size as the Assarion. 

4. "A PENNY A DAY." Matt. XX. 2. 

The penny here mentioned was the denarius, which, at 
the time of our Lord's ministry, was equivalent in value to 
about sevenpence half-penny of our money. With the 
decline of the Roman empire, the denarius was, by degrees, 


debased; and, before the time of Diocletian, had entirely 
disappeared, or, rather, had ceased to be struck in the 
imperial mints; but this emperor restored the coinage of 
silver, and denarii were again minted, though reduced 'in 
weight. This reduction went on after the division of the 
empire, until the denarius, once a very beautiful medalet, 
became a coin of very inferior execution, low relief, and 
reduced thickness and weight. On the model of these 
degenerated coins some of the types of our Anglo-Saxon 
money were struck, under the denomination of penny, and 
of the weight of twenty-four grains: hence the term 
" penny- weight." The weight of these pennies declined 
before the Norman Conquest; and, in subsequent reigns, 
they were gradually reduced until the time of Elizabeth, 
when the penny in silver was a mere spangle, as it is at this 
day. The term " denarius" is yet preserved in our notation 
of pounds, shillings, and pence, by . s. d. The relative 
value of money in ancient and modern times is a subject of 
much difficulty of illustration, and need not be discussed 
here; but it is worthy of remark, that in this country a 
penny a day appears to have been the pay of a field labourer 
in the middle ages; while among the Romans the daily pay 
of a soldier was a denarius. 10 


Of these great and famous cities of antiquity we have 
many numismatic monuments, the types of which shew that 
idol worship reigned in them. Though often in the neigh - 

10 Tacitus, Ann. lib. i. c. 17. 


bourhood of both, our Lord appears not to have entered 
within them. In the mention of these cities in the same 
sentence with Bethsaida and Chorazin, he seems to allude 
to the idolatrous practices of the people. Even an outline 
of the histories of Tyre and Sidon could not be comprised 
in this article. Specimens of their earliest known coins are 
here given; but these are not anterior to the days of the 
Seleucidse, who struck money in both these cities on the 
same model. The first is a tetradrachm of Tyre, with the 
laureated head of Hercules, the Baal or lord of their city; 11 
reverse, an eagle standing on a rudder. Legend: TYPOY 
IEPAS KAI ASYAOY, i. e. (money) of Tyre the holy and 

inviolable. In the field are a monogram, and the characters 
61, i. e. year 19 of the era of the Seleucidae. 

11 Arrian. Exped. lib. ii. c. 1 6. " Among the people of Phoeni- 
cian origin," observe MM. Lindberg and Falbe, " Baal (Molok), 
and Melkart (Hercules) were, without doubt, different divinities ; 
but both ancient and modern authors have confounded them. 
The cause of this confusion was evidently the sense of the word 
^>jn ' Dominus] signifying the supreme or tutelar divinity of the 
city. The Phoenician inscription, found at Melita, shews, beyond 
doubt, that Melkart (Hercules) was the Baal of Tyre ITTp^p 
"IV ^JD." Annonce cFun ouvrage sur les Medailles de VAncienne 
Afrique, p. 18. This was well understood by Milton, who says of 
the divinities of these countries, that they 

had general names 

Of Baalim and Ashtaroth ; those males, 
These feminine." Paradise Lost, b. i. 1.421. 




This is probably an example of the pieces mentioned by 
Josephus 12 as coins of Tyre, containing four attic drachmas. 
The titles of " holy," or " sacred and inviolable," boasted 
by many Greek cities, and pompously inscribed on their 
coins, were probably of service to Tyre and Sidon at a later 
period, when Cleopatra endeavoured to persuade Antony 
to give her those cities. 13 

The other coin is of Sidon, and of the same denomination. 
The obverse bears a turreted female head, personifying the 
city; the reverse has the eagle and palm branch, with the 
legend, SIAONI&N THS IEPAS KAI ASTAOY, i. e. (money) 
of the Sidonians the holy and inviolable; with a monogram, 
and the date L. AH, the 81st year of the era of the Seleucidaa. 


Although the money of Augustus was, doubtless, circu- 
lating in Judaea at this, and at a much later period, we may 
reasonably suppose that the denarius exhibited on this occa- 
sion bore the effigies of the Caesar then reigning, namely, 
Tiberius. The titles of Caesar and Augustus were common 
to all the Roman emperors, as their coins testify. The 

12 Bell. Jud. lib.ii. c. 21. 2. 
18 Joseph. Ant. lib. xv. c. 4. 1. 



names of Caius (Caligula), and Tiberius, being given in a 
contracted form, the former denoted by C only, the latter 
by XI, as in the example here given, while the word C^SAR 
'is given at length. There is a denarius of Tiberius much 
more common than all the rest, and the numerous examples 
yet remaining, and repeatedly found in almost every country 
included within the Roman empire, shew that this particular 
type must have been struck more frequently, and was in 
more general circulation than the others. It is extremely 
probable, therefore, that the coin submitted to our Lord's 
inspection was of this common type. The engraving here 
given is from an unusually fine specimen. It bears on one 
side the portrait of Tiberius, with the legend Tlberitts 
CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. F. AVGVSXVS. i. e. Tiberius Casar, 
Son of the Divine Augustus. The reverse has a seated female 
figure, holding the hasta and an olive branch, the legend 
being a continuation of the Emperor's titles, PONXIFeo; 

The reply to the question, (ot Be elirav avra> KAISAPOS;) 
is aptly illustrated by a small brass coin circulating in 
Judaea at this period. 

The obverse has the type of a palm-tree with fruit, and 
the Greek numerals, L. A9. i. e. \vKaftas \0, year 39, from 


the battle of Actium. The reverse bears an ear of corn, 
and the legend KAICAPOC, i.e. (money) of Casar, or 


This was the common appellation 6f Jerusalem, and the 
epithet, nfcmp Kadusha, is constantly found on the Jewish 
money. An example is here given of the shekel of the age 
of the Maccabees, the type of which exactly resembles that 
of the half shekel, or didrachma. 

The Samaritan legend of the obverse is expressed by the 
Hebrew characters, h$r\W h\)W i- e. the shekel of Israel ; that 
of the reverse by n^llpn D^HJW i. e. Jerusalem the holy. 

It has been held that Herodotus speaks of Jerusalem under 
the name Cadytis, KCL&VTLOS TroXio?; 14 and that the victory 
obtained by Necho, king of Egypt, described by that histo- 
rian, and the subsequent capture of Cadytis, the great city 
of Syria, KaSimv TTO\LV 7779 2vpia<$ eovaav /^eyaX^jv elXe, 
compared with the account of the defeat of Josiah, and the 
events which follow, 15 leave no doubt that Cadytis and 
Jerusalem denote the same city. 16 This, however, has 
been objected to; and it has been maintained, that a mere 
epithet would not have given a name to a city ; but it is 

14 Thalia, c. 5. 15 2 Kings xxiii. 33, 34. 

16 Lightfoot, Chorograph. Decad. vi. 


worthy of observation, that the Evangelist Matthew styles 
Jerusalem " the holy city," even after the murder of our 
Lord. 17 The modern Arabic name, El Rods, favours the 
supposition, that Kadusha was the name by which Jerusalem 
was known to the ancients, the termination being altered, 
to agree with the Greek pronunciation. 


It is not necessary to remind the scholar, that in the 
original of the passage, rendered in our version of the New 
Testament, Doth not your master pay tribute? mention is 
made of the didrachma. 18 This was the half -shekel, which 
the Jews were commanded to pay yearly for the support 
of the temple. 19 On the taking of Jerusalem by the 
Komans, they were compelled to pay this sum to Jupiter 
Capitolinus. 20 

The hemi-staters current in Syria at this time, in all 
probability were occasionally used for the half-shekel, 
the stater being equal to the shekel. 21 But as the half- 
shekel, struck at an earlier period, was doubtless still in 
circulation, and examples have been preserved to this day, 
an engraving of one of these coins is here given. It bears, 
on the obverse, the legend in Samaritan characters h\>wr\ ()n 
i. e. ghatsee hashehkel, and the figure of a cup, above which 

17 Matt, xxvii. 53. 
* 'O 3i3a<T/cA.oe vjuwv ov reXet TCI ^joa^jua. Matt. xvii. 24. 

19 Exod. xxx. 13. 

20 Xiphilin. Ix. ; Joseph. Bell. Jud.vii. 6. 6. 

21 This is shewn by Christ's words, " Thou shalt find a piece 
of money (tvptjoretg orarj/pa) : take that, and give unto them for 
me and thee." Matt. xvii. 27. 



is the letter N, denoting the year (the first) of the reign of 
Simon Maccabeus. 22 

The reverse has the budding rod, and 
salem the holy. 


9. COIN OF C^ESAREA PHILIPPI. Matt. xvi. 13. 

The more common name of this city was Ccesarea Panias, 
from the worship of the tutelar deity Pan, who is figured 
on many of its coins, of which specimens exist from the 
time of Augustus to the days of Elagabalus. It was com- 
prised in the tetrarchy of Iturea, and was anciently called 
Dan ; but Philip, having enlarged and improved it, gave it 
the name of Csesarea, in honour of the emperor: and, to 
distinguish it from other cities of the same name, it was 
called Csesarea Philippi, though, on the coins of Augustus, 
as in the specimen here given, the city is indicated by the 
letters CA, Ccesarea Augusta. These coins must have been 
in circulation at the time of our Lord's visit to that district. 

22 Maccab. xiv. 


This coin was erroneously ascribed to Csesaraugusta in 
Spain, by the earlier numismatic writers, 


TOGETHER." Matt. xxiv. 28. 

Nothing can illustrate the force and significance of this 
metaphor better than the type of many of the coins struck 
by the Komans in the various cities subject to them. 
Jerusalem was soon to become the prey of a nation, whose 
thirst for blood and conquest was insatiable. It will be 
seen by the two tetradrachms of Tyre and Sidon, that the 
eagle, being a type of kingly power, was a favourite badge 
of the Syrian monarchs. There is a whole series of the 
legionary denarii of Antony bearing representations of the 
Roman ensigns surmounted by the eagle; and as they are 
to this day very common, and are found repeatedly in the 
East, there can be no doubt that they were circulating in 
Judaea in the days of our Lord's ministry, bearing the 
appropriate symbols of conquest and possession. 23 

These ensigns were objects of especial horror and disgust 
to the Jews, not only as evidence of their subjection and 
degradation, but, also as the idols of the legions, by whom 
they were regarded with the greatest veneration. 24 

23 The legionary eagles are a perpetual type of Roman colo- 
nial coins. 

24 See Josephus Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. ix. 3, for an account of 
the tumult on Pilate's bringing the legionary ensigns to Jerusalem. 


Mark v. 1 . 

In Matthew 25 %c6/oav TWV Tep^eo-Tjvwv^ but in Mark and 
Luke, 26 %co/>av TWV raSapyvwv. Notwithstanding the remarks 
and conjectures of some commentators, it seems probable that 
Gergesenes in the Gospel of Saint Matthew is an incorrect 
reading. Lightfoot says that there was a city called Gergesa ; 
but it is not found in Strabo, Pliny, or Stephanus. The 
"country of the Gergesenes" was doubtless the metropolis 
of Perea, in Decapolis, 27 of which city many coins exist, the 
types shewing that the people were heathens, their tutelary 
divinity being Astarte, as seen on this coin of Nero, which 
bears, on the obverse, the bust of the Emperor, and NEP1N 
(KAI)SAP. Reverse, FA A A PA ; Astarte holding a garland 
and a cornucopias: a star and a branch in the field, and the 
date, L.AMP. 

Wiclif, and the translators of the Rhemish Bible, appa- 
rently perplexed by this discrepancy in the two Evangelists, 
have used Gerasa (Tepaa-^vwv being found in several MS S.); 
but a reference to the maps will at once shew, that Gadara 
was much more likely to be the town which gave the name 
to the district. FaSapTjvMV is now found in the most 
approved texts. 

25 Matt. viii. 28. 26 Luke viii. 26. 

27 Josephus, Bell. Jud. lib. iv. c. vii. 3. 


12. COIN OF HEROD ANTIPAS. Mark vi. 14. 

The prince mentioned in this chapter was Antipas, the 
son of Herod the Great, nominated in the will of that tyrant 
Tetrarch 28 of Galilee and Petrea. His sway appears to 
have been mild, especially when compared with that of his 
brother Archelaus: hence Joseph found a refuge when " he 
turned aside into Galilee.'" 29 He enlarged and improved 
several places within his dominions; among others Beth- 
saida, to which he gave the name of Julias, in honour of 
the empress; and Cinnereth, which he called Tiberias, in 
compliment to Tiberius, then Caesar, and afterwards Emperor. 
The coin here engraved is of Antipas, and was struck in the 
newly endowed city of Tiberias. The Obverse bears HP(szc) 
w^ov TGTPApicoi/, i.e. (money) of Herod, Tetrarch: the Ke- 
verse has the name of the city TIBGPIAC, within a garland. 

28 See the remarks on the titles of Basileus and Tetrarch in 1 . 
There appears to be much misconception regarding the office or 
rank of Tetrarch. In the "table of offices and conditions of men," 
appended to our version of the New Testament, Tetrarchs are 
erroneously described as having "kingly power in four provinces." 
Whatever might have been its original signification, it certainly 
did not imply at this time the rule of a fourth part of a kingdom, 
for Herod the Great divided his kingdom into three parts only. 
Lightfoot (Harmony, part 1.) appears to give the best definition 
of the title : "a tetrarch," he says, " seemeth rather to be one 
that was in the fourth rank or degree of excellency and govern- 
ment in the Roman empire : the emperor, that was lord of all 
the empire, being first ; the pro-consul, that governed a province, 
the second ; a king, the third ; and a tetrarch, the fourth. So 
n^D and &?W in the Hebrew signify a man second or third to 
the king." *y Matt. ii. '22. 



13. COIN OF PHILIP. Mark vi. 17. 

The Evangelist calls this prince Philip, but Josephus 
speaks of him as Herod. 30 Both Lardner and Paley, 
remarking on this discrepancy, account for it by sup- 
posing that the sons of Herod " bore some additional 
name, by which they were distinguished from one 
another." Of this there can be no doubt; and it appears 
equally clear, that Herod, like Casar, was the common 
name of the family as rulers. Its absence on the coins of 
Philip may be connected with the appearance of the em- 
peror's head and titles, which are not found on the money 
of the earlier Judaean princes. The example here en- 
graved is ill preserved, and bears the head of the Emperor 
Augustus; reverse, a temple, and the legend $IAIII(nOY) 
TRTPAXOT (sic). 

Markxi. 15. 

TWV /coXXu/3tc7Twv. Lightfoot seems to be some- 
what in doubt as to the precise nature of the office of money- 
changer; but the term appears to explain itself. Suetonius 
tells us, that Augustus was said to be the grandson of a 

30 Ant. lib. xviii. c. vi. 1,4. 


money-changer, or nummularius, " nepos nummularii." 31 
And a little further on, this author quotes a sarcasm of one 
Cassius of Parma, who wrote of the emperor thus: 
"Materna tibi farina; siquidem ex crudissimo Ariciae pistrino 
hanc finxit manibus collybo decoloratis Nerulonensis mensa- 
rius." The word collybus (a small coin), which occurs in 
this passage, shows the origin of the designation Ko\\v~ 
^<7T7J9, a money-changer. According to the Talmudists, 
money-changers took their seats in the Temple on the 15th 
of the month Adar, and exchanged the coins of those who 
came up to Jerusalem to pay the half-shekel. 32 This tax 
was not allowed to be paid in any other than Jewish money ; 
and the great variety of coins circulating in Judaea rendered 
such accommodation necessary: but the money-changers 
took care to profit by it, by charging a small commission, 
contrary to the spirit of the law. 33 

But there was another office of the money-changer, as we 
learn from a passage in Apuleius ; namely, the inspection 
of sums of money, and the detection of false coins, which 
abounded in those days; so much so, indeed, that the 
denarius of Tiberius, circulating at this very period in 
Judsea, will be generally found to be copper plated with 
silver. 34 The term Mensarius, with which the above quota- 
tion concludes, is derived from the Mensa, or table, on which 
those men counted their money. " A man of this trade," 
observes Lightfoot, who has a long note on the subject, 

31 In Aug. c. 4. 

32 The half-shekel, as is well known, was the annual tribute of 
every adult Jew towards the repairs and maintenance of the 
temple For an account of the immense treasure which thereby 
flowed into the temple, see Josephus, Antiq. lib.xiv. c. vii. 2. 

33 Deut. xxiii 20/21. 

34 See an article on the Forgeries of Public Money, Num. Chron. 
vol. vi. p. 59. 


" was called itffrw Shulchani, or ' a man of the table,' 
among the Jews." 


Mark xii. 42. 

AeTrra 8vo o ea-Tt, KoSpavr^. See the note on Matt. x. 29, 
where specimens of the Chian assarion and half-assarion are 
given, and where it is observed that the relative sizes of 
Greek coins are no guide to those who attempt to ascertain 
their relative value. But for this, the coin of Chios, here 
represented, might be supposed a specimen of the lepton, 
seeing that it is about half the size of the piece illustrating 
the note in question. It bears the name of the place in 
which it was struck, namely, the island of Chios, and the 
figure of a sphynx, crouching on a caduceus; reverse, an 
amphora, the usual Chian type, and the name of the magis- 
trate, AISXINHS. 

The Gospels of Ulphilas, in the rendering of this passage, 
give us the value of the Anglo-Saxon styca tpejen rcicaj-, ty 
ir, peopling penmngef . 


NATIONS." Luke xxi. 24. 

The fulfilment of this prophecy came to pass forty years 
after our Lord's ascension. The details of the destruction of 
Jerusalem are given at great length in Josephus, and are 
of course known to all readers. The city was defended 


with unparalleled obstinacy ; upwards of a hundred thousand 
people are said to have perished in the siege and the final 
assault, of whom six thousand were burnt in the porch of 
the temple. Nearly a hundred thousand Jews were dragged 
away into miserable captivity, some to wear out their lives 
in hopeless slavery, others to furnish actors in the bloody 
sports of their merciless enemies. 36 

The Romans did not fail to record on their coins the 
conquest of this unhappy country ; and the money of 
Vespasian and of Titus bears very significant types and 

It is a remarkable fact that the year of the consulship 
noted on the coins of Titus corresponds with that of the 
year after the destruction of Jerusalem, 37 though coins of 

36 Great numbers were thrown to wild beasts, or pitted 
against each other as gladiators, in the public shows given by 
Titus at Caesarea Philippi. Joseph, lib. vii. c. ii. Titus has been 
severely censured by some writers for his indulgence of the 
popular taste for these truly horrible exhibitions, and some have 
expressed their surprise, that " the darling of mankind" should 
have tolerated them ; but it should be remembered that this was 
not the time to curb it. To check the most favourite amusement of 
a licentious soldiery, flushed with the pride of conquest, after an 
obstinate and protracted siege, would have been a task greater 
than even the subjugation of Judaea. Julius Caesar, on his election 
to the Dictatorship, did not distribute presents among the people, 
but entertained them with sixty couple of gladiators, as the most 
popular form of acknowledging the honour conferred upon him. 
So utterly barbarous and savage were these people in their tastes, 
that, not content with the excitement of combats of armed men, 
they made a jest of the dead and dying left on the Amphitheatre. 
Two figures entered, after the fight was over, one dressed as 
Mercury, the other as Pluto ; and the first having discovered and 
pointed to any dying wretch with his wand, the other dashed out 
his brains with a hammer! Vide Tertullian Apolog. c. xv. 

37 The earliest coin of Titus with IVDAEA CAPTA, records the 
second consulship, (cos. n.,) corresponding with the year of Eome 
825, or A.D. 72. The specimens engraved, bearing the sixth 
consulship, are selected on account of their preservation. 


Vespasian occur which were minted in the actual year of 
the conquest. 

History is silent as to the motives which influenced the 
Conscript Fathers to delay the striking of these records of 
the Caesar's military fame; and we know not whether it may, 
be attributed to any jealousy which Vespasian felt towards 
his son, 38 or to the reluctance of the senate to strike coins 
in his honour and thereby give offence to the emperor. This 
appears to have been compensated for by the striking of 
coins with Greek legends commemorating the event, as 
hereafter noticed. 

Most of these coins appear to have been issued in great 
numbers: many differ in details of type, though in the 
greater part the devices are essentially the same. The 
female figure recalls the prophetic words, " and she desolate 
shall sit on the ground." The male captive is doubtless 
intended for the obdurate Simon, the chief actor in that 
ever-memorable siege. On some of these coins he is de- 
picted looking straight forward with a bold or dogged air, 
contrasting well with the dejected attitude of the seated 
woman; but in one type he appears to be regarding her 
with attention. 

38 If this could be ascertained, it would furnish a very opposite 
picture to that of our third Edward, who refrained from taking 
any part in the famous battle of Crecy, that his son might have 
the sole honour of the victory. 

Numismatic Chronicle. Vcl. Vtil. p.155 

JT.t Off. del'et sculp* 




No. L IMPerator CAESar VESPASIANi AVGustus, Pontifex 
Maximus, TUibunitia Potestate, Pater Patrice COS. III. 
Laureated head of Vespasian to the right. 

R.IVDAEA CAPTA. A female figure seated on the 
ground at the foot of a palm tree, near which stands the 
emperor holding the hasta and parazonium, his foot on 
a helmet; in the exergue, S.C. (Senatus Consulto.) 

(See Plate, No. 1J 

This coin was minted in the very year of the destruction 
of Jerusalem, namely, when Vespasian was consul for the 
third time, in the year of Rome 824, or 7 1 of our era. 

Laureated head to the left. 

ft. IVD. CAP. (Judcea Capta) across the field. A female 
figure seated on a heap of arms in an attitude of dejec- 
tion, at the foot of a palm tree ; near which stands a 
male figure regarding her ; a helmet and long shield at 
his feet: in the exergue, S.C. (See Plate, No. 2.J 

This coin was struck four years after the preceding one, 
and shows that the Romans still remembered with pride 
their subjugation of the rebellious Jews. 


of the emperor to the right. 

R. IVDAEA. A female captive with her hands bound 
behind her back, seated on the ground at the foot of a 
palm tree. (See Plate, No. 3 J 


No. II. (CAESAR) IMP. VESP. P. PON. TR. POT. Laureated 
head to the right. 

R. (No legend.) A female figure seated on the ground 
at the foot of a palm tree ; near which stands the em- 
peror, holding the hasta and parazonium, his left foot 
resting on a globe. (See Plate, No. 4.) 


head to the right. 

R. IVDAEA. A female figure seated on the ground 
at the foot of a trophy. (See Plate, No. 6.) 

head to the right. 

R. IVDAEA DEVICTA. A female figure, with her 
hands bound before her, standing before a palm tree. 

(See Plate, No. 5.} 



(Titus Caesar, Imperator, Augustifilius, Pontifex, Consul 
sextum, Censor}. Laureated, to the right. 

R. IVDAEA CAPTA. A female figure, in an attitude 
of dejection, seated on a heap of arms at the foot of a 
palm tree ; on the other side of which stands a male 
captive with his hands bound behind his back : in the 
exergue, S. C. (See Plate, No. 7.) 

No. II. Legend as No. 1 . Head as No. 1 . 

R. Legend as No. 1. Type as No. 1, except that the 
male figure has his back to the palm tree, and turns to 
regard the captive female. 39 (See Plate, No. 8.} 

39 The coin from which the engraving is made was discovered 
in 1830 at Lincoln, five feet below the surface of the ground, 
while opening the postern of Newport Arch. 


No. 111. IMP. T. CAES. VESP. AVG. PM. TR. P. COS. Vlll. 
Laureated head to the left. 

R. IVD. CAP. S. C. Similar figures to those on the pre- 
ceding coin, with slight variations. (See Plate, No. 10.J 

COS. II. Laureated head of Titus. 

R. S. C. (Senatus consulto.} Titus in a triumphal car, 
drawn by four horses, holding an olive branch. 

The consular date of this coin agrees with the year 72 of 
our era, and doubtless therefore refers to the triumph of 
Titus on the subjugation of Judaea. 


reated head of Titus to the right. 

R. IVDAEA CAPTA. A female figure seated at the 
foot of a palm tree, against which is placed a heap of 
arms, among which is seen a military standard. 

(See Plate, No. 9.J 

Laureated head of Titus to the right. 

R. IVDAEA NAVALIS. A female figure seated be- 
neath a palm tree ; on the other side, a heap of arms ; 
in the exergue, S. C. 

This remarkable and unique coin was first communicated 
by M. Durnersan of the Bibliotheque Royale, to the Numis- 
matic Journal, 40 with the following observations: " The 
legends, Judcea Capta and Judaea Devicta, are well known 
on the coins of Vespasian and Titus; but Judaa Navalis was, 
until the discovery of this example, unknown. The Jews 
never enjoyed a great reputation as seamen; but I think I 
have found in Josephus a narration of the event to which 

40 Vol. i. p. 88. 



the legend and type of this coin allude, the character of 
which is rather derisive than triumphal. This author re- 
lates in his history of the war with the Romans (lib. iii. c. 9), 
that when the town of Joppa was destroyed by Cestius, the 
inhabitants, driven by famine, soiight refuge by sea, the 
Eomans having destroyed the neighbouring towns and vil- 
lages. They built vessels (a/cdfa) and committed piracies 
on the shores of Syria, Phoenicia, and Egypt. The town 
being attacked a second time by the Roman troops, the Jews 
fled during the night towards their ships; but a violent 
tempest drove them on the rocks which border on the coast 
of Joppa, and they were exterminated. Soon after this they 
were defeated on the Lake of Gennesaret, their barks being 
unable to cope with the war-like vessels of Vespasian. To 
these events, and most probably to the first, the legend 
Judaea Navalis must allude, Titus, as is well known, having 
accompanied his father in the Judaic war. This curious 
coin illustrates that of a large brass example of Vespasian 
with the legend Judtsa Capta, upon which a Roman warrior 
is represented resting his right foot on the prow of a vessel, 
a type but imperfectly explained until the discovery of this 

In an editorial note appended to these observations, 
some doubts were expressed as to the coin having been 
blundered in the striking, and also as to the idiomatic pro- 
priety of the legend ; but subsequent inquiry has removed all 
suspicion of its genuineness. 

No. III. Legend as No. 2. Head as No. 2. 

R.__ VICTORIA NAVALIS. Victory holding a gar- 
land and palm-branch, standing on the prow of a vessel. 

This coin commemorates the naval action already spoken 
of, and more distinctly recorded on the preceding one. 


In addition to the foregoing, coins of Titus were struck 
(probably in Judea) with the following types and legends : 

No. I. AYTOKPA. TITOS KA1SAP. Laureated head of Titus 
to the right. 

R. IOYAAIAS EAAftKYlAS. (Judcea deperdita.) A 
female figure seated at the foot of a trophy: on the other 
side, a buckler. 

No. II. AYTOKP. TITOS KAISAP. Laureated head of Titus 
to the right. 

R. Legend as the foregoing . 41 Victory inscribing a buckler 
attached to a palm tree. 

Pellerin 42 gives a coin of this type, with NEIKH KAIC. 
on the shield. 


Kal ol e^ovaid^ovres aurwv ETEPFETAI Kakovvrcu. 
The title Evepyerr)? is found on the coins of Mithridates 
king of Pontus, and on those of Pylaamenes of Paphla- 
gonia, and also on the money of the Syrian monarchs, 
Demetrius the third, Antiochus the seventh, Evergetes and 
Alexander the first. It was assumed, too, by Ptolemy the 
third, and by some of the Parthian kings, 43 but it is found 
more frequently on the regal Syrian coins, which in the days 

41 The characters sometimes vary on these coins, E being used 
for S and W for fl. 

2 Kecueil, tome iii. pi. 134, fig. 1 . 

43 A coin of Laodicea, in Phrygia, cited by Eckhel, Doct. 
Num. Vet. vol. iii. p. 159, and Num. Vet. Anecd. p. 249, is re- 
markable for this title, given, as it would seem, to a citizen named 


of Christ's ministry were of course circulating in Judasa. 
The very beautiful tetradrachm here engraved, is of the 
Syrian king, Antiochus Evergetes. The obverse bears the 
royal portrait ; the reverse, Pallas holding a figure of 
Victory ; legend BASIAG&S ANTIOXOY EYEPrETOY, i. e. 
(money) of King Antiochus Evergetes, and the date GOP 
year 175 of the era of the Seleucidse. 44 


MOUNTAIN." John iv. 20. 

Although Josephus, himself a Jew, gives us a very un- 
favourable picture of the Samaritans, there is no reason for 
doubting its accuracy. According to that historian, the 
Samaritans were ever ready to change their religion and 
their customs, when advantages tempted or danger threatened 
them. When Alexander granted to the Jews immunities 
and privileges, these people, whose capital was Shechem, 
invited him to come to Mount .Gerizim and do honour 
to their temple, as he had done to that of Jerusalem, al- 
leging that they were of the posterity of Joseph, Ephraim, 
and Manasseh ; 45 but, being pressed to say if they were really 

44 The first year of the era of the Seleucidse corresponds with 
the year of Rome, 442. 

45 Josephus, Antiq. lib. xi. c. viii. 6. 


Jews, and not Sidonians, they answered that they were 
Hebrews, but had the name of Sidonians, living at Shechem. 
Alexander dismissed them, saying, that what he had granted 
was to the Jews ; but, that, if he afterwards found they were 
of that stock, he would consider their petition. At a later 
period, we learn from the same authority, 46 that when the 
Syrian king Antiochus pillaged Jerusalem, and inflicted 
horrible tortures on its inhabitants, the Samaritans protested 
that they were not of Jewish origin, but Sidonians, and 
entreated that they might be permitted to dedicate their 
temple, hitherto without a name, 47 to Jupiter Hellenius. 

The coin here engraved bears the head of the Emperor An- 
toninus Pius; legend, AYTOK(joarwp) KA1CAP. ANTONINOC. 
CEB(a<rroc;) EYC6(/3r/c). i. e. The Emperor Ccesar Antoninus 
Augustus Pius. Reverse, A Temple on the summit of a 
mountain, with a flight of steps, etc. Legend, $A. NGAC- 
nOAG^C CYPIAC HAAAICTINHC. i. e. (Money) of Flavia 
Ncapolis, of Palestine in Syria. 

16 Josephus, Antiq. lib. xii. cap. v. 5. 

47 The avwvv/jLov iepbv of Josephus furnishes a singular con- 
cordance with the words of our Lord, " Ye worship ye know not 
what," and is evidence of the vague religious notions of these people. 
The coins of the Samaritans show their Sidonian predilections, 
many of them having representations of the goddess Astarte, the 
Ashtoreth of Scripture. 



Photius in his Bibliotheca 48 notices the assertion of 
Marinus, a Samaritan writer, that Abraham erected a temple 
to Jupiter Maximus, at Neapolis, in Palestine, close to 
Mount Argarizus ! 

John xix. 12. 

OVK el </>/Xo9 TOV KaLa-apos. Among the various titles 
found on Greek coins are those of Lover of his Father, 
Lover of his Mother, etc. 49 This style appears to have 
been adopted by the princes of other countries tributary 
to the Romans; and we accordingly find <iXo/3a)//,ato9, 
Lover of the Romans, on the money of the kings of Cap- 
padocia. 50 The Parthian Princes frequently added to their 
other high-sounding titles, <tXeXX?jvo9, Lover of the Greeks ; 
but the money of some of the princes of Judaea more 
strikingly illustrates the phrase $1X09 TOV Kalaapos. Agrippa 
the first, of Judaea, inscribed on his coins <f>i\oKaiaap, and 
Herod of Chalcidene, <f>i,\oK\avSios. 

Edit. 1 824, p. 345. 49 Vide Num. Manual, p. 1 7. w Ib. p. 1 9. 


ONE of the most interesting types of the currency of 
Magna Grsecia, and at the same time the most difficult to 
explain, is that of Caulonia, among the Bruttii. It has 
engaged the attention of the most celebrated numismatists 
of the continent; but the attempts to solve it are all rather 
plausible conjectures, than satisfactory determinations of 
what it is intended to represent. A precis of the literary 
history of this type has been given by M. De Witte and 
Panofka ; and to the last-mentioned savant we owe a most 
elaborate analysis of its history in the " Archaologische 
Zeitung," October 1843, No. 10, p. 166. I consider this 
precis so valuable and instructive for the history of numis- 
matical progress and research, that, although I differ as to 
the ultimate conclusion arrived at, yet I shall give a suc- 
cinct review of it previously to offering my own views of 
this archaic type. 

The obverse of the early incuse coins of Caulonia repre- 
sents a naked figure with long hair, falling in regularly 
disposed curls on the neck, and bound by a fillet; stretch- 
ing forth the left hand, in which is held a small figure in 
the attitude of running; and elevating the right, with which 
the figure brandishes a laurel branch. In the area is 
generally a deer, to which, on some specimens, is added a 
swan. The larger figure is constant on the archaic coins, 
but the smaller figure is sometimes omitted, and replaced, 
so to speak, by a fillet, or tunic, thrown over the arm. 
The smaller figure generally holds in the hands some 
object, on all the specimens which 1 have seen, very 



indistinctly struck ; on one most important variety in the 
Museum it more resembles a crown than any other object. 
The same general type, differing only in the distribution 
of the parts on the obverse and reverse, and by the intro- 
duction of adjuncts into the field, is continued down to 
the cessation of the monetary issue of this town, which 
was destroyed before the time of the elder Dionysius, 
Olymp. 97.4. B.C. 388. It is impossible to fail remarking, in 
style and attitude, the general appearance which this type 
has with that of Poseidon in the archaic coins of Poseido- 
nium ; but to this I shall subsequently refer. Hardouin l 
and Mazocchi 2 have represented the larger figure as a 
Jupiter, and mistaken the bush or tree for a thunderbolt ; 
Eckhel contented himself with pointing out the errors of 
his predecessors, and left to posterity the discovery of the 
meaning of the type. 

The first attempt, after Eckhel's abandonment of the 
question, was that of Avellino, who conjectured that the 
laurel branch was employed as a whip, that the large 
figure represented Dionysus, that the deer was a 
Dionysiac symbol, and the small figure " madness," or 
Otcrrpo?, as the stimulating influence of the god exerted 
over mankind. 3 This is so unsatisfactory, considered in 
reference to art, and so totally dissonant to the principle of 
archaic interpretation as scarcely to deserve serious refut- 
ation. Miiller 4 considered the type to represent the purify- 
ing Apollo, holding in his hand Orestes, who is known to 
have received purification in this locality; but the age of 
the early types is certainly prior to the great development 

1 Opp. Select, p. 81. 2 Tab. Heracl. p. 527. 

3 Giorn. Numism., torn. ii. p. 24 ; Opuscoli diversi, vol. ii. p. 
110, sq., following Nonnus. ix. 262. 

4 K. O. Denkmaleiy A. K. 1, xvi, 72; Handbuch, p. 516. 


of the Oresteid of ^Eschylus, and the small figure cannot, 
either in attitude or attributes, be identified with any 
known representation of Orestes. 5 After Miiller, the Due 
de Luynes 6 proposed the subject of Apollo and Aristeeus 
[Aristeas], who were particularly worshipped at Metapontum 
in the character of fcaOdpTTjs, or Kaddfxnos. Subsequently 
M. Raoul-Rochette, in his observations on the types of the 
coins of Caulonia, put forth the conjecture, that the larger 
figure represented the 877/^09, or people of Caulonia, in the 
attitude of lustration, and that the smaller was the Agnismos, 
dyvio-fios, or KaOdppos, " the genius of lustration," repre- 
sented in the hands of the principal figure, in the same 
manner as the three Graces were in the right hand of 
the Apollo at Delos, and the three Sirens in the hand of 
the archaic Hem at Coronaea, or Nike in that of Zeus, or 
of Pallas- Athene, 7 or Damas in the hands of the Chrysor- 
rhoas. 8 After Rochette, M. Streber, 9 at Munich, re- 
viewed the whole discussion of the type; he dismissed 
an erroneous conjecture made by Steinbiichel, that the 
small figure was a Satyr, or rather Pan, which it, in some 
respects, on some of the secondary specimens, seems to 
resemble, and would have it to be the return of Hercules 
from the land of the Hyperboreans, accompanied by the 
golden-horned stag, and bringing with him the branch 
of the olive, the reward of the Olympian games, and 

5 Panofka, 1. c. p. 167. 

6 Nouv. Ann. de la Sect. Fr. del'Inst. Archaeol., tom.i. p. 426. 

7 Raoul-Rochette, Observations sur le type des monnaies de 
Caulonia, in the Mcmoires de 1'Academie des Inscriptions et de 
Belles Lettres, torn. xiv. ; cf. Memoires de Nuraismatique et 
d'Antiquite, pt. 48 ; Rev. Num., 1843, 67. 

8 De Witte, in Revue Nuraismatique, 1844, p. 1844, on an 
imperial coin of Damascus. 

'' Gel. Anz. d. k. Bayer. Ak. d. W. Juni 1837, No. 128-9; 
Juni Intelligbl. s. 1052; Sitz. v. Jan. 1837. 


holding in his hands one of the Cercopes : but the two fatal 
objections to this explanation, offered by Panofka, are, 
first, that the figure is destitute of all the attributes of 
Hercules, and that the Cercopes in art are always repre- 
sented in the dual number, and seldom, or indeed never, 
as " one." The conjecture of Cavedoni, 10 that this type 
may be referred to Apollo and Cyparissus, is deserving of 
some attention. Cyparissus, it is to be remembered, was 
the son of Telephus, 11 or of Amydicus, of Cea; 12 the 
former of whom would be directly connected with the deer. 
The Cyparissus myth is referred to Crete, and Cyparissus 
himself is beloved of Apollo and Zephyrus, 13 or according to 
the later authorities, 14 of Silvanus, 15 who has a tame stag 16 
which was killed by Cyparissus. The type of Silvanus 
particularly coincides with the Cyparissus myth, 17 as he 
holds in his hand the cypress, or brandishes lilies and 
flowers. 18 But this divinity, who is alternately compared 
with Pan, 19 and interchanged, as we have seen, with Apollo, 
is a purely Latin rustic divinity; possibly, it is true, 
derivable from the Apollo Hylates, the Latin Sylvan us, 
and connected with Hercules through the youthful Hylas. 
My objection to the Cyparissus myth is, that it is too recent, 
that it is restricted in its appearance to the Latin mytho- 
logists, and that it is consequently not sufficiently early to 
be referable to the archaic currency of Caulonia ; that the 
appearance of Sylvanus is late in art, and entirely differs from 

10 Bullet, d. Cor. Arch., 1843, June. 

11 Serv. ad JEn. iii. 680. 

12 Lact. Mir., fab. x. 3, p. 857 ; Ovid, Met. x. 120. 

13 Serv. ad Georg. i. 20; Ovid, Met., x. 107. 

14 Serv. ad Mn., iii. 64, 680. 

15 Her. tres Myth. Lat. Myth, a Bode. p. 174. 

16 Ibid. 17 Georg, i. 40. 18 Eel. x. 24. 
ly Prob. ad Georg. i.20; Virg. JEn. viii. 600. 


that of the early Hellenic Apollo, Neither does the branch 
held in the hand resemble the cypress; it possesses an 
infinitely nearer relation to the olive, or to the laurel 

The conjecture of Panofka, 20 that the larger figure repre- 
sents a colossal statue of the divinity Apollo Hylates, 21 
who was reverenced at Magnesia, and allied with the par- 
ticular ceremony of lustration there practised by olive 
branches is particularly ingenious, as well as that the small 
figure represents the eponymous hero and founder of the 
town of Caulonia, or Caulon, Caulos, the son of the Amazon 
Clita. 22 This would give the myth a local relation, in all 
cases exceedingly desirable ; and my only reason for pro- 
posing another hypothesis is the peculiarity observable in 
some specimens of this type ; the youth in the hand of 
Apollo, if without any attributes, may be, with equal possi- 
bility, any of the eromenoi of Apollo, as Hyacinthus, 23 
Cyparissus, or Daphnis, 24 whom De Witte proposes, as 
alluded to by the appearance of the laurel branch, and 
who was not only connected with the laurel himself, but 
secondarily through the nymph Thaleia, 25 whose name 
would also be in relation with the branch held in the hand 
of Apollo. But the legend of Daphnis is not of an anti- 
quity sufficient to refer to the archaic type. 

Now Minervini 26 has remarked that the small figure 

Loc. cit. p. 174. 

21 Paus. x. xx-x. 4. 

22 Serv. ad Virg. /En. iii. 552, 553. 

23 Cf. De Witte, Rev. Numism., 1845, p. 400 ; Due de Luynes, 
Choix de Medailles Grecques, pi. v. No. 69 ; Paus. i. 35 ; Virg., 
Ecl.ii. 18, iii. I think there is some confusion here with the 
Apollo Hyacinthinus of Tarentum. 

4 Serv. ad Virg., Ecl^x. 26. 

5 Sositheus apud Schol. ad Theocrit. Idyll, viii. 93. 

16 Bulletino Archaeologieo da Napoli, 4to. 1844, p. 108, 


held in the hand of the Apollo, on a tetradrachm of Mr. 
Steuart's collection at Naples had winged sandals attached 
to the feet, although, he still continues to think, with 
Avellino, that the two represent Dionysus and CEstrus. I 
find the same peculiarity on two coins in the cabinets of the 
British Museum; and, although not distinct on ail the 
specimens of this type, yet its appearance suggests another 
hypothesis, and that is, that the figures are Apollo pursuing 
the young Hermes, after the theft committed by the juvenile 
divinity upon the sylvan god, while he was absent with 
Hymenaeus from the cattle of Admetus, 27 the subject of 
the Homeric hymn to Hermes, 28 of the Me<yd\ai, 'Ha^ai 
of Hesiod, and of a hymn of Alcseus. The figure is naked, 
and consequently a male, as at this period of art female 
figures were always draped, while the winged sandals are 
only referable to Hermes or to Perseus. The latter, it is 
true, is occasionally seen upon the most ancient monuments, 
but almost always in connection with the Graiae, or Gorgons, 
and only incidentally in relation with Apollo ; but there are 
several monuments of the archaic or early school, which offer 
different portions of the incidents of the Hermes mythos. 

The most celebrated of these, the cup of the Vatican, 
presents the theft of the oxen of Apollo, 29 under circum- 
stances different to that of the Caulonian type. The youth- 
ful god has returned to his cradle, and lies surrounded by 
the cattle ; but this does not prevent the subject of the pur- 
suit itself, being that of the coins of Caulonia. The diffi- 
culty is the non-appearance of the cattle; for the bull seen 

27 Antoninus Lib. xxiii. 

28 Hymni Homerici, ii. p. 544, seq., Ed. Wolf, Halae, 1784. 

29 Mus. Gregor. ii. 81, 1, 2, explained and republished by 
Panofka. Hermes der. Kinderdieb, in the " Archiiologiscbe 
Zeitung," 4to. Berlin, Aug. 1844, No. 20, p. 321-26, taf. xx. 


as an adjunct on one specimen, can scarcely be dragged 
into the mythos ; and the constant appearance of the deer, 
suggests that this animal must be particularly connected 
with it. When arrived at the cave of Maia, in the Homeric 
hymn, 30 Apollo, after some inquiries, takes Hermes up in his 
hands, and placing the cradle on his back, he proceeds to 
the spot where the oxen are. 31 Is the Xt%vo? the peculiarly 
large object resembling a wreath seen in the hands of one 
type ? The winged sandals Hermes had already invented to 
commit the theft ; 32 and exactly resembles those seen on the 
archaic bas relief from Corinth, 33 where Hermes appears 
at the birth of Aphrodite, and the branch of Apollo is the 
pdfiSos, which, transferred to the hands of Hermes, became 
the celebrated /crjpvtcelov of that god. The naked bronze 
statue of Apollo at the temple of the Olympian Jupiter, 34 
had the bucranium of a bull under its foot, in allusion to 
this myth : but the great difficulty is not the connection of 
the stag in Apollo ; for a statue of this god killing a deer, is 
known to have been dedicated by the Macedonian inhabit- 
ants of Dium at Delphi, 35 but with the Hermes mythos. 


Hymn ii. 1. 293-8. 31 Ibid 305. 32 Ibid 80, et. seq. 

33 Cf. Dodwell alcuni Bassirilievi della Grecia, Roma, 1812. 
Travels in Greece, vol. ii. p. 201. M tiller's Dorier, 1. 43, Gerhard's 
Antike Bildwerke, from a tracing of Stackelberg. Taf. xiv. 
Hymn, 1. c., 1. 525, strictly speaking paffioe is a stick, a peeled 
branch, distinct from flaXXoe, a branch. In the hymn it is 
called TpiirlTrjXoQ, 1. 527. The subject of this hymn is given, 
Apollodorus, iii. 10, 2, and it had also formed that of another by 
Alcasus, Paus. 1. c. 

34 Pans. Achac. vii. c, xx. p. 574. 

35 Paus. x., Phocic. c. xiii. p. 829. 


MARY. Dear Sir, In addition to the several varieties of the 
Irish Base Groats of Philip and Mary (Simon, Plate 5, No. 1 13), 
found in the Dungarvon hoard, as communicated by me, and 
inserted in the Numismatic Chronicle for January, 1842, (Vol. IV., 
pages 208, etc.) I have lately picked up the three following 
varieties, not included in that list, and which also belonged to 
the same deposit. 

Obv. 1557. Philip, z. Maria, d. g. rex. z. regina. angl. No 


Rev. Posuimus. deum. adivtorem. nostrum. Rose, Mint-mark. 
Obv. 1557. Philip, z. Maria, d. g. rex. z. regina. No Mint 


Rev. Posuimuss. deilm. adivto. nostr. Rose, Mint-mark. 
Obv. 1558. Philip, z. Maria, d. g. rex. z. regina. a. No 


Rev. Posuimus. deum. adivto. nostr. Rose, Mint-mark. 
The first of these is the variety figured in Simon. The second 
is remarkable for having the double s in the word Posuimuss. 
I remain, very faithfully, yours, 


Cork, July 20th, 1845. 
To the Editor of the Numismatic Chronicle. 

About twenty-five years ago, thirteen silver pennies were found 
at Bermondsey, by some workmen sinking for the foundation of 
a house. Eight were of William Rufus. Of these three were of 
type 246, one of 249, and four of 250. Five were of Henry I. ; 
viz. four of type 251, and one very similar, but without the 
amulets over the shoulders. 

This small find tends to show, that numismatists have been 
correct in considering 251 as the earliest type of Henry I., and in 
placing 246, 249, and 250, as the latest of William Rufus. E. H. 

British Museum, 22d October, 1845. 

Swedish newspapers state that a fresh hoard of coins has lately 
been brought to light in the Island of Gothland, where so many 
discoveries of the kind have already been made. The treasure 
consisted of two coins of Olaf Skotkonung of Sweden ; nearly 
600 Anglo Saxon, from Eadgar to Edward the Confessor; nine 
Irish of Sihtric III; ninety Danish, of Cnut the Great and 
Magnus the Good ; upwards of 900 German coins, besides coins 


of the emperors Otho I., II., and III. ; 4 Byzantine, 1 Persian, 
and 37 Cufic coins, and many silver ornaments. By the laws of 
Sweden, all treasure-trove must, in the first instance, be placed in 
the hands of the Government, which has the right of pre-emption. 
In the present case, the Government has exercised this right by 
purchasing, for the Swedish national collection, the whole of the 
find, with the exception of 50 of the Anglo-Saxon and Danish, 
and 376 of the German coins, of which there either were dupli- 
cates in the find, or the Swedish museum already possessed 

A view of the Coinage of Scotland, with copious tables, lists, 
descriptions, and extracts from Acts of Parliament, and an 
accbunt of numerous hoards or parcels of Coins discovered in 
Scotland, and of Scottish Coins found in Ireland, illustrated 
with upwards of 350 engravings of Scottish Coins, a large 
number of them unpublished. By JOHN LINDSAY, Esq., Barris- 
ter-at-Law, etc. etc. Cork: BOLSTER, 1845. 4to. 

The coinage of few nations is more interesting, and at the 
same time more difficult, than that of Scotland ; and the close 
connection which has ever been maintained between the ancient king- 
dom of Scotland and our own gives an additional value to all 
that concerns her history and antiquities. 

In the work before us, Mr. Lindsay has given by far the most 
complete and accurate account of this subject, and henceforth the 
large book of Caidonnell may be laid aside. 

Mr. Akerman in his "Numismatic Manual^ published in 
1839, has the following remarks, "It is a reproach to Scottish 
antiquaries, that we have no work of recent date on the coins of 
that country. The volume of Cardonnell is so imperfect, and 
the plates so execrably engraved, that little use can be made of 
them." This reproach is now wiped away, and the subject of 
Scottish coins is as fully discussed in the volume before us as 
that of the English Silver by Mr. Hawkins, and in a more philo- 
sophical spirit. The appropriation of the short cross pennies, 
bearing the name of Alexander, to the second monarch so called, 
is clearly made out, and an additional reason is thus given for 
the appropriation to Henry III. of the similar coins in the 
English series. This is not the first time Mr. Lindsay has done 
good service to the cause of numismatic science. His works on 
the Irish coinage, and on that of the Anglo-Saxons, are of the 
very highest degree of merit, and it is not a little owing to his 
exertions, that so vigorous a spirit has been infused into the 
minds of our more recent investigators into the antiquities of 
Ireland and Scotland. It would be unjust to close this brief 
notice without alluding to the successful researches in the same 
field, of Mr. Sainthill and Dr. Aquila Smith. 





I. Eloi Johanneau. Nouvelle Explication de la Legend " DUCISIT 
AQUITANIE." Pp. 81 84. 

Two opinions have been given upon the meaning of this word. 

1. That of Ainslie, who thinks that it stands for DUCISIA; and, 

2. That of M.Jouannet, who supposes that it is another word 
for the French, Ducat. M. Johanneau proposes a new reading, 
Ducisita, which he imagines may be a diminutive of Ducissa, and 
would suit Alienor, duchess of Aquitaine, in 1136. This seems 
to be a very probable idea. 


II. A. du Chalais. Explication des Sigles Merovingiens, C. A. 

There has been considerable doubt as to what these two letters 
refer. Many have thought that they should be interpreted Clo- 
tarius ; others Crux Ave, Crux Admirabilis, etc. M. du Chalais, 
with M. Cartier, have come to the conclusion, from a sarcophagus 
which has been found near Herculaneurn, that it should rather be 
Crux Adoranda. 

III. A. de Gourgue. Denier de L'Abbaye de Sainte-Marie de 


This is a short notice of an attribution by M. Barthelemy, in 
the Revue for 1843, of a denier to this abbey, which M. de 
Gourgue doubts. The whole question turns on the proper inter- 
pretation of the Chartulary of the Abbey of Saintes, which was 
first published by M. Barthelemy. 

IV. Discovery at Nogent-sur-Eure. 

A husbandman, in tilling the ground at Nogent-sur-Eure, in 
the Arrondissement de Chartres, has discovered lately a pot, in 
which were 610 Roman coins in silver, copper, and billon, and 
comprehending emperors from Maximinus to Postumus. 

V. Du Mersan. Rectification Numismatique. Pp. 238239. 

M. du Mersan notices a mistake which Mionnet has made in 
the translation of a Latin description by Sestini, of a coin of 
Lacedternon, and adds, that Sestini is himself wrong in his attri- 
bution, as the coin really belongs to Patraus, king of Pseonia. 


VI. Marquis de Lagoy. Evaluations ponder ales sur les Monnaies. 

Pp.239 243. 

This is a reply to a paper in the last monthly number of the 
Revue, in which M. du Chalais calls in question some dates on 
Merovingian coins which M. de Lagoy had suggested. M. de 
Lagoy points out, that M. du Chalais has not quoted Eckhel to 
much purpose, in that, in the passage to which he refers, Eckhel 
does not state whether drachma means value or weight; and, 
secondly, That the modern French pieces, which M. du Chalais 
cites, are not money at all. 

VII. Anatole Barthelemy. Denier de Sainte Marie de Saintes. 

Pp. 243244. 

This is a reply to M. de Gourgue, who in the last number of 
the Revue, had disputed the attribution by M. Barthelemy, of a 
denier, to this abbey. M. Barthelemy fortifies his previous 
opinion, by reference to the charter of St. Marie de Saintes, and 
to the explanation given by M. Du Cange, of the words moneta and 


VIII. /. de Whitte. Nouvelles Annales publ. par la Section 
Francaise de I'Institut. Archeologique. 1836-1839. Second 
Notice. Pp.222 234. 

M. de Whitte has already in the previous monthly number of 
the Revue, called attention to some numismatical essays in the 
Nouvelles Annales. He now proceeds to notice a very interesting 
one by M. de Longperier, sur les Medailles inedites de Samus, de 
Philadelphie et de quelques autres villes de la Cilicie. M. de 
Longperier^ in the essay, gives an account of some coins, hitherto 
unedited, belonging to the Cilician town of Samus, Hierapolis, 
Coracesium, Philadelphia, and Dio Caesarea, and examines, with 
considerable ability, the local legends and myths which have 
determined the 1ypes on the Cilician money. Under the head of 
Hieropolis, he discusses the questions, whether Eckhel is right in 
supposing Hieropolis and Megarsus to be one and the same place ; 
and considers Mionnet is correct in his idea, that the coins which 
bear the united names of Hieropolis and Castabala, refer to an 
alliance between these two cities, an hypothesis which Eckhel had 
rejected, because he thought this Castabaia was rather a city in 
Cappadocia than in Cilicia. M. de Whitte concludes his analysis 
of M. de Longperier' s paper, with some sensible remarks on the 
application of myths in the explanation of types. 


IX. J. de Whitte. Nouvelles Annales publ. par la Section Fran* 

qaise de VInstitut. Archeologique. 1836-1839. 

M de Whitte proposes to give a concise survey of the principal 
numismatic papers which have appeared in these Annales. The 
first he notices is a letter by M. Raoul-Rochette to M. Grotefend, 
entitled " Lettre sur quelques Medailles des Rois des Odryses et 
des Thraces," which M. de Whitte justly thinks of some import- 
ance, from the determination of certain coins (hitherto attributed 
to Asplepon in Bceotia) to Sparadacus, king of the Odrysce. 
M. Raoul-Rochette then makes some remarks on the coins hitherto 
assigned to the Osscei. The second paper M. de Whitte considers, 
is one by the Due de Luynes, " Sur les Monnaies incuses de la 
Grand Grece" in which he attempts to shew that these coins are 
as early as the time of Pythagoras, and are the result of an 
alliance between the Italian states, owing to the influence of that 
philosopher. For this purpose, the Due de Luynes examines 
the topography, mythological traditions, and historical events of 
Tarentum, Metapontum, etc. etc., and concludes his paper, by 
attributing to the influence of Pythagoras the type of the crane 
standing by the tripod of Apollo, on the coins of Crotona. Thirdly, 
M. de Whitte mentions a review by the Due de Luynes, of a work 
by M. Millingen, called a " Sylloge of Ancient Unedited Coins of 
Greek Cities and Kings." 

X. E. Cartier. Recherches sur les Monnaies des Comtes et Dues 

de Bar, etc. etc. Par M. de Saulcy. 1843. 
This is a notice by M. Cartier, of a valuable addition by M. de 
Saulcy to the numismatic monographies of the French provinces, 
and especially to the ecclesiastical history of Toul, Verdun, and 
Metz, and the duchy of Bar. It is chiefly valuable as a supple- 
ment to the history of the ducal money of Lorraine since the 
duchy of Bar, which in early times had been severed from Lor- 
raine, became, again, in the fifteenth century, subject to the 
dukes of Lorraine. The earliest known money of Bar is that of 
Henry II., the eleventh count ; but M. de Saulcy argues strongly 
in favour of the probability, that earlier coins will eventually be 
found, drawing his conclusion from the analogy of the similar case 
of the coins of the rulers of La Basse Lorraine. 

XI. A. du Chalais. Medaille incdite f rappee a Lyons lors du 
passage de Louis XII. , dans ceite ville, par M. A. Barthelemy. 
Paris, 1843. 

This is a short notice of a curious medal, struck during the 
residence of Louis XII., at Lyons, in 1499-1500, and published 
by M. Anatole de Barthelemy, in the Revue de Provence et de 
Paris, pp. 313 et seq. M. Desains published, not long ago, some 
mereaux of Louis XII., with a similar legend. 




THE subject of Grecian monograms has engaged the 
attention of several learned numismatists ; but the results 
have been so unsatisfactory, that most have given it up in 

Both Montfaucon and Havercamp have attempted their 
explanation, but with only partial success. The former 
referred them all to cities and people. 1 Frolich candidly 
confesses that the signification of the monograms on the 
Syrian coins was a riddle 2 ; but he has nevertheless given 
explanations of the eighty-six monograms contained in his 
twentieth plate. These explanations are probably copied 
from the work of Havercamp which was published fifteen 
years before he wrote. Spanheim admitted the value of 
the monograms, but did not attempt their explanation. 
Haym in his " Tesoro," declares with great simplicity that 
"because they are of unknown signification, they do not 
deserve to be described." No explanation is attempted of 
the four hundred and twenty monograms in Combe's cata- 
logue of the Greek coins in the Hunterian Museum, nor of 
the four hundred and fifty-five monograms in Rasch's 
" Lexicon Numismaticum." Lastly Gusseme in his " Dic- 

1 Cough's Coins of the Seleucidae, p. 7,8. 

2 Annales comp. Regum et Rerum Syrise, Prolegom. p. 55. 
" Oedipo Opus." 



cionario Numismatico," quietly gives them up as of 
" uncertain signification, from their appearing on so many 
different coins." 3 

In 1841, 1 prepared the accompanying plate of mono- 
grams, found on the Ariano-Grecian coins of the several 
collections that had been kindly submitted to me for pub- 
lication. At the same time, I laid before Professor Lassen 
many of the explications now published ; of which several 
appeared to him decisive. Mine was, I believe, the first at- 
tempt; for M, Raoul-Rochette, in his learned papers on the 
Bactro-Grecian coins in the "Journal des Savants,'' had con- 
fined his accounts of the monograms to a notice of the 
simple fact that each was composed of a certain number of 
Greek letters. In 1836, however, Mr. Masson, after a care- 
ful comparison of his large collection, came to the conclusion 
that " as the same monograms occurred on the coins of more 
than one prince, they might be presumed [to be] mono- 
grams of locality." 4 Professor Wilson also, writing in 
1841 (although his work was not published till the year 
following), says that the monograms on the Bactrian medals 
denote "probably the places where they were coined." 5 

Just one year before the publication of Havercamp's work, 
Bayer had issued his " Historia Regni Graecorum Bactriani," 
in which he describes a tetradrachm of Eucratides with the 
monogram HP forming, according to him, the two letters H 
and P, or one hundred and eight of the Bactrian era, 148, 
B.C. 6 But the same monogram occurs on a coin of Alex- 
ander Balas, along with the date r, B, P or one hundred 

3 Gough's Coins of the Seleucidse, p. 7,8,9. 

4 Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. v. p. 545. 
3 Ariana Antiqua, p. 223. 

fi Bayer, Hist. Reg. Grsec. Bactr. p. 56. 


and sixty-three of the Seleucidan era, 149 B.C.; and again 
on a coin of Alexander II. of Epirus, B. c. 272, which is 
attributed by Frb'lich 7 to Alexander the Great. It is clear, 
therefore, that this monogram cannot refer to a date. In- 
deed, I have always considered it impossible that any dates 
could have been expressed in monograms ; for although the 
monogram just discussed may be read simply as H and P, 
yet it may also stand for H, I, P, or one hundred and 
eighteen ; and for H, n, P, or one hundred and eighty-eight. 
This uncertainty is, in my opinion, alone sufficient to prove 
that dates could never have been expressed in monogram- 
matic characters. 

Indeed, it seems to me obvious, that when the same 
monograms are found on the coins of several princes, they 
must represent the names either of persons or of places; 
that is, of mint-masters, or of mints. It was this conclusion, 
that led me to attempt the explication of the monograms, 
now offered. 

In the accompanying plate, I have numbered all the 
monograms which have come to my knowledge, after a 
careful examination of several thousands of coins. I have 
also arranged them in a manner peculiarly convenient for 
reference; so that one may see at a glance, the names of all 
the princes who used any particular monogram, and all the 
monograms used by any one prince. Or, in other words, 
if my explication of the monograms is correct, this plate 
shews at one view r all the princes who possessed any parti- 
cular city, as well as all the chief cities over which any 
particular prince ruled. The monograms thus become of 
the greatest value and assistance in enabling us to fix the 

7 Annales, tab. i. fig. 1. 


localities of the different dynasties of the Greeks, the suc- 
cessors of Alexander in Ariana and India. 

The number of mints which are found in the Kabul 
valley alone, is almost beyond belief ; but Alexandria, Kar- 
tana, and Peukela, appear to have been the only three which 
were permanently established, Some others, such as Taxila, 
Nikaia, Ortospana or Kabul, and Dionysopolis, were used 
only occasionally : perhaps according to the caprice or ne- 
cessities of their different rulers. Ortospana or Kabul, 
however, would appear to have been the favourite residence 
of Hermaeus and his immediate successors. 

There can be little doubt that the Kabul valley was the 
scene of fierce contention amongst the petty Indo-Grecian 
princes, for many years after the murder of Eucratides, 
until the whole country was effectually brought under the 
sole rule of Menander. It is possible, therefore, that the 
same city might have belonged to two, or even three diffe- 
rent princes within the same year, according to the fortune 
of war. We may thus account for the same monograms 
appearing upon the coins of several princes who must have 
been contemporaries. 

On some coins of Demetrius, Eucratides, Apollodotus, 
and Menander, the monograms are accompanied by single 
letters ; and on a solitary specimen of Apollodotus, there 
occur two separate letters with the monogram. As these 
letters, with a single exception, alt represent low numbers, 
they probably denote the current years of the reigns of the 
different princes. The exception is the letter 2 which is 
found in company with two different monograms on the 
coins of Diomedes, Lysias, Antialcidas, and Strato. 

No. 1. Also No. 1 of Wilson's monograms. This is found 
on the unique and beautiful tetradrachm of Diodotus, and 
on the unique didrachrn of Euthydemus. From its occur- 


rence on a coin of Diodotus, this monogram must represent 
some city in Bactria, Margiana, or Aria. It forms 
TATKIANA the name of a city placed by Ptolemy near 
the Arius river, which should probably be read as 
TAAIKANA. The Chinese pilgrim Hwan Thsang men- 
tions Ta-la-kian 8 to the westward of Balkh, in A.D. 628 
645. It is the ^Ullk, Talikan of the Arabian geographers. 
Jenghiz Khan took the place by storm, after a desperate 
siege of seven months; at which time it was considered 
" the strongest fort in all Asia." 9 It stood on a steep hill 
called Nukra-koh, or " silver mountain," by the Moguls, 
because it possessed several silver mines. This last cir- 
cumstance, combined with its natural strength, renders it 
highly probable that Tdlikdn should have been chosen by 
the early Bactrian kings, as a convenient place for a mint as 
well as a safe place for a treasury. Talikan was one hun- 
dred and sixty-eight miles to the W. S. W. of Balkh, on the 
high road leading both from Merv and from Herat. 10 It is 
probably the Tapauria of Polybius near the Arius river, 
where Euthydemus placed his army to oppose the advance 
of Antiochus the Great ; and which must, therefore, have 
been on the high road between Aria and Bactria. 

No. 2. Also No. 57 of Frolich; Nos. 5, 9, and 46 of 
Gough. This occurs on a drachma of Diodotus, and on 
both the silver and copper coins of Seleucus Nicator, but 
not on those of his successors. The natural inference from 
these facts is, that this monogram represents the name of 
a city, which once belonged to the Seleucidse, but was after- 
wards wrested from them by Diodotus. The monogram 

8 Foe-kue-ki, Appendix, p. 378. 

<J History of Jenghiz Khan by Petit de la Croix. English 
translation, p. 286. 

10 Idrisi. French translation, vol. i. p. 478. 


forms MAPriANH, the name of the capital of Margiana, 
which was at first called Seleucia Margiane, and afterwards 
Antiochia Margiane ; and which was undoubtedly one of 
the principal cities belonging to Diodotus. 

No. 4. Also Nos. 8, 84, 87 and 89 of Wilson. This 
monogram is of common occurrence on the coins of 
Agathocles, Euthydemus, Demetrius, Eucratides, Amyntas 
and Hermaeus. As the coins of the last three kings are 
never found to the north of the Caucasus ; and as those of 
Hermaeus are found only in the upper and middle Kabul 
valley; it must be the name of some city either of the 
Paropamisadae or of the Aspii and Nysaeans. The mono- 
gram is formed of the letters O<J>I which I take to repre- 
sent O$IANH, or "Alexandria ad Caucasum." Stephen of 
Byzantium 11 calls this place Alexandreia Opiane, and the 
people Opiai. In A.D. 628 45, the Chinese pilgrim, Hwan 
Thsang, 12 calls Hu-phi-na the capital of Foe-li-shi-sa-tang- 
na, or Pa-rashasthan ; that is the country of the Parashas, 
whom I identify with the Parsii of Ptolemy, in their towns 
Parsia and Parsiana ; and with the modern Pachais, who 
yet inhabit the Panjshir valley in the neighbourhood of 
Opiyan. The Emperor Baber, 15 in coming to Kabul from 
the north, crossed the Hupian Pass, which still bears the 
same name. 

Masson says, " Hupian is distinguished by its huge arti- 
ficial mounds, from which copious antique treasures have 
been extracted :" and again, <* it possesses many vestiges of 
antiquity; yet, as they are exclusively of a sepulchral and 
religious character, the site of the city to which they refer, 

1 In voce A\eE,a.v$pta. TrtjUTrrrj, kv rfj 'Omarf}, Kara rr\v \ 
The name of the people is QHIAI, with the L 

12 Foe-kue-ki. Appendix p. 395. 

13 Commentaries, p. 133. 


may rather be looked for at the actual village of Malek 
Hupian on the plain below, and near Charikar." 14 The 
position of Hupian agrees also with that obtained from the 
measurements of Diognetes and Boston ; which place 
Alexandria fifty Roman miles, or forty-five and a half Eng- 
lish miles, from Ortospaiia or Kabul. Now, the distance 
from Hupian to Kabul is only thirty-eight miles : but, as it 
is most probable that the old capital was situated at Be- 
gram, eight miles to the south-east of Kabul, this distance 
will be increased to forty six miles, which is within half a 
mile of the measurement of Alexander's surveyors. 

Again the distance from Alexandria to Peukelaotis was 
two hundred and fifty Roman, or two hundred and twenty 
seven British, miles. Now the distance between Hupian 
arid Hashtnagar, via Charikar, Akseria, and the Ltittabund 
Pass, is about two hundred and twenty-five miles. If the 
measurement be made along the northern bank of the 
Kabul river, the distance will be something more, or about 
two hundred and thirty miles. 

These measurements alone are sufficient to point out 
that the position of Alexandria can only be to the north of 
Kabul. Many writers have fixed upon Bamian or its 
vicinity, for the position of Alexandria; but Bamian is ninety- 
nine miles to the westward of Kabul, or two hundred and 
ninety -four miles from Hashtnagar or Peukelaotis : that is, 
sixty-seven miles in excess of the measurement given by 
Alexander's surveyors. Bainian, is besides, on the northern 
or Bactrian side of the Caucasus, which is a fatal objection 
to its identification with Alexandria. 

No. 5. Also No. 90 of Wilson forming API. 

14 Baluchistan, Afghanistan and the Punjab, vol. iii. p.l26 : 
and p. 161. 


No. 6. Forming AP1FAI. 

As these monograms occur on the coins of Agathocles 
and Apollodotus, they most probably represent the name of 
some town in the Kabul valley. The only one which I 
can propose is Arigoeum^ a place so commodiously situated, 
that Alexander ordered Craterus to rebuild it. 15 Its posi- 
tion must be looked for on the right bank of the Kunar 
river, probably at Nurgal or Chagan- Serai. 

No. 7. Nos. 2, 3, and 83 of Wilson ; forming KAP. 

No. 44. Nos. 56 and 73 of Wilson ; forming KAP. 

This is the commonest of all the monograms, as it occurs 
on the coins of no less than eleven different princes from 
Euthydemus to Hermanns. It must, therefore, be the 
name of some place of great consequence which was once 
the capital of the upper Kabul valley. During the pure 
Greek period, there are but two princes whose coins have 
been found in any number, that do not use this monogram. 
These princes are Antimachus and Philoxenes: but on their 
coins there occurs a very common monogram, No. 10, and 
also another less common one, No. 46, neither of which 
have I found on any coin of Apollodotus. Now these two 
monograms form combinations of letters, which I take to 
represent the names of Dionysopolis and Peukela, or the 
modern Jelalabad, and Hashtnagar to the north of Pesh- 
awar. The greater number of the coins of these two 
princes have been discovered in the lower Kabul valley 
and in the Punjab, while those of Apollodotus, which 
abound at Begram are but rarely found to the eastward of 
Kabul. These facts seem to point out that the city re- 
presented by the monogram now under discussion, must 
have been situated in the upper Kabul valley. 

15 Arrian, book iv. chap. 24. 


I believe it to represent the Kartana of Pliny, a town 
situated at the foot of the Caucasus, which was afterwards 
called Tetragonis. l& Ptolemy has a town named Kaisana 
or Karnasa, below the Lambage, and a little to the east- 
ward of the Paropamisadae ; and in the Peutingerian tables, 
there is a large town called Karsania at four hundred and 
twenty-four Roman, or three hundred and eighty-six and 
a half British, miles from Bucefalos. All these various 
readings, Kartana, Karsania, Kaisana, and Karnasa, seem to 
me to be only slightly different spellings of the same name, 
which I shall call Kartana ; although three readings are in 
favor of the s in preference to the t. 

I propose to identify Kartana with the ruins of Begram 
to the north of Kabul. This emplacement agrees exactly 
with the measurement already quoted from the Peutin- 
gerian tables ; for the distance from the town of Jehlam 
(Bucefalos) to the plain of Begram, by either the northern 
or the southern road, is between three hundred and eighty, 
and three hundred and ninety miles. The position of Begram 
is, besides, precisely as Pliny describes that of Kartana, 
" at the foot of the Caucasus." But the strongest proof 
in favour of the proposed identification of these two places, 
is the other fact mentioned by Pliny, that Kartana was 
afterwards called Tetragonos, or The Square; which agrees 
precisely with the description of the ruins at the present 
day. Masson 17 , who examined them carefully, says, " Tra- 
dition calls Begram, ShehrYunan (a Greek city)." Again, 
south of Abdula Burj on the northern side of the plain of 
Begram, there "are some mounds of great magnitude, 


Pliny, lib. vi. sec 25. 
17 Baluchistan, Afghanistan, and the Panjab, vol. iii. p. 155. 



accurately describing a square of considerable dimensions/' 
These mounds are made of sun-dried bricks, and are the 
remains of walls sixty feet in thickness. It is probable, from 
these accounts, that the town was called Kartana; and that 
the gigantic brick mounds sixty feet in thickness, accurately 
forming a square, are the ruins of a Grecian citadel named 

The ruins of Begram are so extensive, and their situa- 
tion at the junction of the rivers and roads of all the 
northern valleys is so happy, that there can be no doubt 
they are the remains of a great city which was once the 
capital of the upper Kabul valley. The number and 
variety of the coins that are yearly found there, ranging 
from Alexander the Great down to Mohammed Ghori, show 
clearly that Begram must have been one of the chief cities, 
if not the capital of the valley for a period of at least fifteen 
hundred years. 

No. 10. Nos. 34, 36, 41, 46, 51, 53, 62, and 80 of 

This is also a very common monogram ; as I have found 
it on the coins of no less than eight different princes from 
Eucratides to Strato. Apollodotus, as before mentioned, 
is the only prince whose coins are common who does not 
use this monogram. I read it, with some hesitation, as 
HEYKEAAZ, the Peukela of Strabo, which is a literal 
rendering of the Pali, Pukkala. The Sanscrit is Pushkala, 
the contracted form of Pushkalavati, which is preserved by 
the Chinese pilgrim Hwan Thsang 18 in Pu-se-ko-la-fa-ti. 
The other Greek readings, Peukelaotis, and Peukolaitis, 
are derived from Pukkalaoti, the Pali or spoken form of 
Pushkalavati. According to Hwan Thsang, this city was 

18 Foe-kue-ki. Appendix, p. 379. 


on the opposite side of the river at fifty li to the N.E. 
from Pa-lu-sha or Pu-la-sha-pu-lo; the Pershawur of Baber 
and Abul Fazl, and the Peshawar of the present day. 
This corresponds exactly with the position of Hasht- 

A preferable reading of this monogram, in my opinion, 
would be AHMHT, for Demetrius : but unfortunately we 
have no notice of any place of this name, either in the 
Kabul valley or in the Western Panjab. It is quite 
possible, however, that Demetrius, following the example of 
his father, should have named more than one place after 
himself. We know of one Demetrias in Arachosia; and 
that there was a Euthydemia on the Hydaspes, besides 
one in Bactria. 19 This reading is rendered highly probable 
by the addition of the letter P to this monogram, which is 
found upon the unique coin of Strato and Agathoklea 
(No. 34 of Wilson). It is just possible, that this addition 
owes its existence to the original engraver, Jas. Prinsep, a 
point which can easily be ascertained by an inspection of 
the coin itself, which is now in England in the possession 
of Dr. Swiney. If, however, the additional letter is correct, 
it is clear that this monogram can only represent some 
name containing the letter P. Amongst the few names in 
which that letter occurs, I do not find one that can be 
formed by the present monogram. The only natural com- 
bination that 1 can trace, is AHMHT, extended on the 
coin of Agathoklea to AHMIITPI, which is clearly Deme- 
trias. This must be the name of a city founded or 

19 Bayer was the first to correct Ptolemy's EY0TMHAIA to 
EY0YAHMIA. In the same way I propose to read Ptolemy's 
a correction which seems as natural as it is necessary. 


rebuilt by Demetrius ; and if my reading be admitted, I can 
suggest no position so probable as that of Peukela itself, or 
the Begram near Peshawar; for there is only one other very 
rare monogram which can represent Peukela; and as that 
occurs upon but two coins of a single prince, we have not, 
as far as I can trace from the coins, any recorded city in 
the lower Kabul valley which possessed a mint. Peukela 
or Peukalaotis may therefore have either been rebuilt 
under a new appellation, or eclipsed by a new city es- 
tablished near Peshawar at Begram ; a name which signifies 
that the spot was once occupied by a capital city. 

No. 1 1. No. 66. of Wilson, MINNAFAP. 

No. 34. MINNAFAP. 

This monogram is not used by any of the purely Greek 
princes excepting Apollodotus; and only upon his coins 
which have the title of Philopater. It occurs afterwards 
upon the coins of the first Scythians, Mauas, and Azas. 
The name is distinct and unequivocal. Of the many coins 
of Mauas which have come to my notice, including no less 
than thirteen different types, all, save one solitary specimen 
from Peshawar were procured in the Panjab. Colonel 
Stacey, however, informs me that some few are met with at 
Kandahar. Of the coins of Azas also, which are particular- 
ly numerous, it is remarkable that not a single specimen was 
obtained by Masson at Begram. They are occasionally found 
at Kandahar; and in the Panjab they are very common. 

These facts point to the Panjab as the seat of govern- 
ment of Mauas and Azas ; who perhaps also possessed an 
indirect sway over Arachosia. Spalirisas, a prince certainly 
of Parthian origin, places the name of Azas on the 
reverses of two of his coins. Now it is remarkable, that 
all the Philopater coins of Apollodotus which have come 
to my knowledge have been found in the Panjab. It is 
certain, therefore, that the city represented by this particular 


monogram must have been either in the Panjab, or at some 
place on the lower Indus leading to Arachosia. Such a 
place was Minnagara, which we know to have been a capi- 
tal city shortly after the Christian era. It was probably 

The occurrence of this monogram upon the Philopater 
coins of Apollodotus alone of all those of the purely Greek 
princes, is of the greatest importance in illustrating a much 
disputed point in the history of these Indo-Grecian 

This point is, Who was the son and murderer of Eu- 
crafides ? 

This is not the place for me to discuss either the existence 
of a second Eucratides, or the assumed filiation of Heliocles 
by Mionnet. It will be sufficient for me to state here, that 
the former supposition was based upon very slight evidence, 
which has since been disproved ; and that the latter was at 
first founded upon an absurd reason by Mionnet ; and has 
since been continued by a misapprehension of the legends 
of the three-headed coin of Eucratides and his parents, ob- 
tained by Dr. Lord. On that coin, the persons represented 
are not, as stated by Professor Wilson, the paramount king 
Eucratides, and his associated son Heliocles, but the youthful 
BA2IAEYS MEFAS EYKPAT1AHS, King Eucratides the 
Great (the son) HAIOKAEOYS KAI AAOAIKHS, of Heliocles 
and of Laodike ; who are both portrayed of a more mature 
age. The connection between the two legends is obvious, 20 

20 This is still more clearly shown by the opening words of the 
Adulitic inscription, Bao-tAtve peyae Hro\efj,aio^ VIOQ fiaaiXewQ 
UroXefJiaiov KO.I fici(n\i(T(7r) ApfftvorjQ, from which we may supply 
the three words omitted on the coin for want of space, BASIAEY2 


and the marked difference of ages alone is sufficient to 
declare the relationship of the parties. 

So far back as 1840, I published 21 my own opinion, that 
Apollodotus was the son of Eucratides; and my first 
opinion has since been amply, and I think satisfactorily, 

My principal reasons for this belief may be shortly stated 
as follows. 

1. We know that Mithridates the Great, of Parthia, 
wrested Arachosia and Drangiana from the Eastern Greeks, 
either during the latter end of the reign of Eucratides, or 
shortly after the accession of his son. Now there are found 
in those countries the coins of only four purely Greek 
princes, Euthydemus, Demetrius, Eucratides, arid Apollo- 
dotus ; agreeing exactly with the number of princes to 
whom the possession of Arachosia and Drangiana can be 
assigned from the brief notices of ancient authors. These 
are Euthydemus and his son, Demetrius; Eucratides and 
his son, whose name has not been recorded. This last 
prince must therefore be Apollodotus. 

2. We know that the title of Philopater denotes associ- 
ation in the government. Now this title is borne by Apol- 
lodotus alone of all the Eastern Greek princes ; and Eucra- 
tides is the only king who is recorded to have given his son 
a share in the government. It is therefore highly probable 
that Apollodotus was the son of Eucratides. 

3. We know that Eucratides was murdered by his son, 
when on his return from his Indian campaign, which must 
have been directed from Arachosia against the country 
along the lower Indus ; for the eastern extension of the 

21 Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, No. 105, p. 869 70. 


Grecian dominion was afterwards effected by Menander. 22 
Now Minnagara was one of the chief cities on the lower 
Indus ; and as the Philopater coins of Apollodotus are the 
only pure Greek coins minted at that city, I believe that 
Minnagara was the scene of the association of Apollodotus 
in the government with his father, and that the Philopater 
coins were struck upon the occasion. 

No. 14. Nos. 7, 23, and 27 of Wilson TA&IA. 

No. 18. TA#IA. 

The former of these monograms occurs on the coins of 
Euthydemus, Demetrius, Menander and Mauas ; the latter 
upon the coins of Hippostratus and Azas. As the dominion 
of Mauas was confined to the Panjab, we must look for 
the city represented by this monogram to the east of the 
Indus. Taxila answers this description; and it is at Rawal 
Pindi, the presumed site of Taxila, that the coins of Mauas 
are obtained in the greatest numbers. 

No. 16. No. 44 of Wilson. 

This occurs only upon the coins of Menander, Archerius, 
and Mauas. For the reason just stated, we must again look 
to the Panjab, for the city represented by this monogram. 
It forms NIK, which I believe to be intended for NIKAIA, 
or Niccea, the city built by Alexander on the Hydaspes, to 
commemorate his victory over Porus. It was probably on 
the site of the modern town of Jehlam. 

No. 19. 

This occurs only upon the coins of Hermseus, whose do- 
minions did not extend below the middle Kabul vallev. 

22 I attribute to Demetrius the extension of the Grecian domin- 
ion to the south, in Patalene and Syrastrene. His Indian terri- 
tories must have embraced the country on the Lower Indus as 
well as Arachosia. 


The combination appears to form KAB, for Kaboura the 
modern Kabul. The name in Ptolemy should certainly be 
KABOYAA, for he calls the people KABOAITAI. 

No. 20. No. 118 of Wilson. 

This is found upon the coins of Azas alone, and only 
upon those large square copper pieces which have Neptune 
on one side, and the river Indus personified on the reverse. 
It forms the name of BAZAPIA, the modern Bajawar ; 
from which place my brother procured me upwards of one 
hundred of the coins of Azas. This explication is therefore 
probably correct. The combination, however, also forms 
ANAPA, and there is a town named Andrapana, to the west 
of the Indus, which may possibly be the modern Drabund 
near Dera Ismael Khan. It may also represent BANA, for 
Banagara^ which I believe to be the modern Kana- 

No. 22. No. 119 of Wilson. 

This occurs only upon the coins of Azas; and as it forms 
the syllable AZ, I suppose that it may represent AZfta, the 
name of a city either founded or rebuilt by Azas. It is 
true, that we have no record of such a place; but neither 
have we any mention of Azas himself: and it is quite in 
accordance with Oriental as well as Greek usage, for princes 
to found or rebuild cities with their own names. As the 
Indians would have pronounced this name Ajaya, " the un- 
conquered," it might have been given as a punning alteration 
of name to Alexander's city of victory, Niccea on the 

No. 23. No. 113 of Wilson. 

This is found only on the coins of Diomedes and of Azas 
As the dominions of Azas certainly did not extend to the 
westward of the Khaiber pass, although they most probably 
embraced the Kuram valley, to the south of the Safed Koh, 


we must look for the city represented by this monogram, 
somewhere near the banks of the Indus. It forms the 
syllable NAS, which I suppose to be the abbreviation of 
NASBANA, a town to the west of the Indus. This is 
possibly intended for the celebrated fortress of Naghz in 
the Banee country, which was strengthened by Timur. 

The monogram is, however, always accompanied by another 
in the native character, of which one component letter is 
certainly s, which is likewise one of the letters of the Greek 

The lower portion may be either shi, or I and pi. We 
have thus the syllables Salapi; which can also be clearly 
traced in the Grecian monogram. The only name like this 
is the SAAAFEI2A of Ptolemy, for which if we might read 
SAAAI1EI2A, the identification would be complete. This 
place is probably the modern Syalkot. 

No. 25. 

This monogram occurs only upon the silver coins of 
Hermseus and his Queen Kalliope, of which I have seen 
two specimens. At first, I read the combination as forming 
the name of NI$ANAA, a town of the Paropamisadae men- 
tioned only Ptolemy; but I think that it may equally well 
form the name of D<MAN or DIIIAN, for Alexandria 
Opiane, which has already been discussed under the head 
of Monogram, No. 4. It seems to me highly probable that 
Ptolemy's Niphanda may be a misreading for Ophiane. 

No. 26. Also No. 26 of Wilson. 

This is a rare monogram, as it occurs only upon single 
coins of Euthydemus and of Eucratides. It forms the 
letters O#I, or O7Y for H^IANH; which may be either 
Oxiane itself, or Alexandreia Oxiane founded by Alexander. 
Both towns were on the northern bank of the Oxus, in the 
neighbourhood of Termed. 



No. 27. 

This monogram I have found on a single beautiful 
tetradrachm of Heliocles. It is very doubtful what name 
it may represent ; but I believe it must be some city of 
Bactria. It is just possible that it may be a new com- 
bination of the syllable KAP for Kartana, of which I have 
treated under the head of Monogram, No. 7. 

No. 32. No. 13 of Fr51ich. 

This monogram I have found only upon the coins of 
Eucratides. It forms the syllable KAII, which is probably 
intended for KAITI2A, a town of the Paropamisadse, per- 
haps still existing as Kushan at the entrance of the Kushan, 
or the Hindu-Kush pass. This, however, is a very doubt- 
ful reading ; for I believe that Kushan is a name derived 
from the Kuei-shang tribe of Yuchi, who did not settle in 
this locality until some time after the era of Eucratides. 
But Kapissa is particularly mentioned as a town which 
had been destroyed by Cyrus. My identification of 
Kushan as a town of the Kuei-shang tribe may therefore 
be erroneous. 

No. 33. No. 82 of Wilson. 

This likewise occurs only upon the coins of Eucratides. 
It possibly forms MA2SA, for Massaya, the chief city of 
the Assakani, which is probably the modern Manglor on 
the Swat River. 

No. 35. NIA. 

No. 36. NIA AY. No. 7, 8, 9, and 68 of Frolich. 

These monograms occur only upon the coins of Apol- 
lodotus. They probably represent the town of Nilaubis 
or Naulibis, the modern Nilab in the Ghorband valley. 
" Near this place " says Masson, 23 " we find the remains 
of a most stupendous fortress." 

23 Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. v. p. 7. 


No. 37. Nos. 5, 17, and 29 of Wilson. 

This monogram is found on the coins of Euthydemus, 
Heliocles, Eucratides and Apollodotus. It forms the 
syllable HAH, which probably respresents the city of 
Plegerium^ or Plemyrium^ mentioned by Strabo 24 as on the 
bank of the river in the lower Kabul valley. I am 
unable to offer even a conjecture as to its actual position. 

No. 38. 

This occurs only upon a single square copper coin of 
Apollodotus. It forms AAE57ANA, for Alexandria Opiane, 
or the Caucasian Alexandria. Below the monogram are two 
separate letters El, or fifteen, which may probably denote 
the fifteenth year of the reign of this prince. 

No. 42. Nos. 15 and 24 of Wilson. 

This is found only upon the coins of Eucratides and 
Apollodotus. I read the combination as forming IIPO^>, 
for Prophthasia, the capital of Drangiana, in which country 
the coins of these two princes are still found. In Professor 
Wilson's examples, where the upright central stroke is 
wanting, the monogram simply forms OIII, for Opiane. 
In my own examples, and I have examined several coins 
with this monogram, the central stroke is as distinct as the 

No. 45. 

This monogram I have found only upon a single coin of 
Apollodotus. It forms the syllable OYZ, possibly for 
OYZHNH, the city of Ujain, which we know has existed 
from a very early period. I believe that Patalene and 
Syrastrene formed part of the dominions of Demetrius, 
which were wrested from him by Eucratides during his 
Indian campaign. It is possible also, that some part of the 

24 Strabo, lib. xv. 


province of Larike was subdued by the Greeks; and I 
should certainly not be surprised to find this monogram on 
the coins of Demetrius and Eucratides. Apollodotus may 
very probably have succeeded to the possession of these 
southern conquests ; but he could only have held them for 
a very short time. 

No. 46. Nos. 9, 13, 50, and 59 of Wilson. 

This monogram is found only upon the coins of Eucra- 
tides, Antimachus, and Menander. It forms AION, no 
doubt the abbreviation of Dionysopolis^ called also Nagara ; 
which is placed by Ptolemy just to the south of the junc- 
tion of the Choes with the Cophes ; or very near the 
position of Jelalabad. To the west of this place, there is 
a spot called Begram ; which I believe to have been the 
actual position of Dionysopolis. Ptolemy's Nagara is no 
doubt derived from the name of the district, which is still 
called Nangrihar ; a name more accurately preserved in 
the travels of Hwan Thsang, 25 where it is spelt Na-ko-lo-ho. 
Dionysopolis I suppose to be the Nysa of Alexander's his- 
torians. It was the capital of the middle Kabul valley. 

No. 48. No 60 of Wilson. 

This monogram is found only upon a single coin of 
Menander. It forms the syllable EY, probably representing 
Euthydernia, a city on the Hydaspes, which was also called 
Sagala. As Pliny places the Dangalse in this neighbour- 
hood 26 I believe that we should read Dangala in Plotemy, 
and so identify the place with the modern Dangali on 
the Jehlam river, which is certainly an old site, as there is 
a Begram in its vicinity. 

26 Foe-kue-ki. Appendix, p. 378, 
M Pliny, lib. vi., chap. 22. 


No. 53. No. 46 of Frolich, and No. 43 of Wilson. 

This is found with only slight differences, upcn the coins 
of Heliocles, Eucratides and Archerius. It forms HAPSIANA, 
which is the name of a town amongst the Paropamisadae 
according to Ptolemy, which probably still exists in 

No. 55. 

This monogram occurs only upon a single coin of Antial- 
cidas. It may be composed of the letters KAZM, for 
KAZMEIPA, or Kashmir ; for although Ptolemy calls the 
place Kaspeira, and the people Kaspeircei, yet the M and n 
might easily have been interchanged in MSS of his work; 
and it is scarcely possible that the Greeks dwelling in the 
Panjab would have misspelt the name. It may, however, also 
represent the town of Kush-ab or Kush-ab-pur on the 
Jehlarn; a name which is most probably derived, like 
Kashmir, from the Kas tribe Kas-apa is the river of the 
Kas, or the Jehlam ; and Kas-apa-pura is " the-town-on- 
the-river-of the- Kas." This last is certainly the Kaspapuras 
of Scylax. 

No. 56. Nos. 33 and 85 of Wilson. 

This is found only upon the coins of Amyntas. I read 
it as forming IIEYKEAA, the city already mentioned, as No. 
10 monogram. 

No. 57. No. 86 of Wilson. 

This monogram, whether with the round O or square Q 
may possibly form OP6O, or QPTD CIIANA, the modern 

No. 58. 

This occurs only upon the coins of Spalygis, or Spala- 
grames. It seems to form KABOAITW, for Kabul . 

No. 59. 


This also is a unique monogram, which I found upon a 
well-preserved coin of Eucratides. The combination pro- 
bably forms AAE#ANAPEIA2, the Alexandria Opiane 
already mentioned. 

No. 60. From Wilson's plate of monograms, No. 1 2. 

This is found only upon the coins of Demetrius ; the 
letters are but two, forming the syllable O#, probably for 
Oxiane, or for Alexandreia Oxiane, both of which towns 
were on the northern bank of the Oxus, somewhere near 

Of all these monograms, that which occurs most frequently 
is No. 7, or KARTANA, which I have found upon the coins 
of no less than eleven different princes. No. 4. OPHIANE, 
and No. 10. PEUKELA or Demetrias, I have found upon 
the coins of eight different princes. These were apparently 
the three great mints of the Greeks of Ariana and India. 
Masson says, that No. 10., PEUKELA, is the commonest 
monogram on the coins of Eucratides. It certainly is so on 
those of Menander : and the fact may easily be accounted 
for ; for in the lower Kabul valley, there was but one mint 
of any consequence, at Peukela ; whilst among the Paropa- 
misadae there were the great mints of Kartana and Alex- 
andria Opiane, besides the lesser mint of Ortospana. It 
will be observed that Eucratides uses more monograms than 
any other prince; which we could have foretold must have 
been the case, from his long and chequered reign, and from 
the great extent of country which he at different times 

In conclusion, I beg it may be clearly understood, that the 
foregoing remarks are offered only as an attempt to explain 
what must always be considered a very difficult subject. I 
do not believe that all the monograms found upon these coins 
represent the names of cities where mints were established. 

Chronicle Vol. VIII. . p. 19', 

T& E GOb Iitk, 



I simply contend that dates cannot possibly be expressed in 
monograrnmatic characters. I think, however, that the illus- 
trations which I have given of most of the principal mono- 
grams bear the stamp of great probability, if not the actual 
impress of truth. 




[To the Editor of the Numismatic Chronicle.] 


I send you a drawing of a coin discovered amongst 
a collection of small value, which came to the British 
Museum a few days ago. It seems to be a coin of 
some interest, having been struck, as I believe, by Guy de 
Lusignan, king of Jerusalem, and afterwards of Cyprus. 
There is no mention made of any money of this prince, either 
by M. Cousinery, who published many of the coins of the 
crusaders in the last volume of M. Michaud's Histoire des 
Croisades, or by M. Lelewel in his Numismatique du Moyen- 
age. Indeed I find that M. Buchon, 1 who has devoted much 
attention to the subject, adopts and confirms the opinion of 
M. Miinter, 2 that no coin of Guy de Lusignan is known to 
exist " even in the richest cabinets of Italy." 

1 Recherches, etc., sur la Domination Fran^aise en Orient, etc. 
Par J. A C. Buchon. Paris, 1840. 

2 Om Frankernes Mynter i Orienten. Ved F. Miinter. Viden- 
Selsk. Skrifter, Deel. iv. Kiob. 1807. 


Before entering on the immediate subject of the coins, 
let us take a short glance at the history of the period. 

On the death of Baldwin V., king of Jerusalem, in 1185, 
Guy de Lusignan, who had married his sister, and had for 
some time conducted the affairs of the kingdom, was made 
regent during the minority of Baldwin VI., and, on the 
death of the young king, which occurred not long after- 
wards, was elected to the throne, and was crowned on the 
second of October, A.D. 1187. Within a year after this, 
Jerusalem was taken by the Saracens ; but Guy de Lusignan 
continued to reign, with the same title as before, at Tyre and 
Ptolemais, until the year 1 192, when he exchanged the king- 
dom of Jerusalem for that of Cyprus. Richard Ccetir de 
Lion, on his way to join the Crusaders in the Holy Land, 
had conquered, and had been crowned king of Cyprus, in 
the previous year. He had then pledged the island to the 
Templars for a sum of money, to enable him to carry on 
the crusade; and now, in the year 1192, he gave the 
sovereignty of his new conquest to Guy de Lusignan, on 
condition that the latter would resign the authority and 
title of king of Jerusalem in favour of Marie, a daughter of 
Conrad de Montferrat who married a sister of King Baldwin 
IV., and of her husband, Henry, count of Champagne ; 
and that he would also repay the money which Richard had 
borrowed from the Templars. 

Guy de Lusignan immediately took possession of the 
island of Cyprus, over which he reigned for nearly three 
years. He died A.D. 1 194, and was succeeded by his bro- 
ther Amaury, whom he had successively created constable of 
Jerusalem and of Cyprus. 

In the year 1197, the throne of Jerusalem was again 
vacant by the death of Henry de Champagne ; and the 
princes of the kingdom requested Amaury de Lusignan, 


the king of Cyprus, to accept at once the crown and the 
widow of their late sovereign. Hence the kings of Cyprus 
acquired the title of king of Jerusalem, and continued to 
enjoy the name, though without the possession of that 

This short notice of the principal events of the period 
will be sufficient for the present purpose. I shall next 
describe a few coins, by which the attribution of that which 
is the object of these remarks may be determined. 

Fig. 2. AMALRICVS RE. Within a circle of dots, a 
cross patee, having a pellet in the second and third 

ft. D6I6RVS [A] LEM. Within a circle, a building. M. 

3. BOEMVNDVS COMES, between two circles of 
dots. Within a tressure composed of four arches and 
four angles, having a pellet in each spandril, a cross 

R. CIVITAS TRIPOLI, between two circles of dots. 
Within a tressure of eight arches, having a pellet in 
each spandril, and each point ending in a pellet, a star of 
eight rays. M. 

4. BAMVND COMS. Within a circle of dots, a cross 
patee, having a pellet in the first, second and fourth 
quarters, and three pellets in the third. 

R. CIVITAS TRIPOLI. Within a circle, a star of 
eight rays, having a pellet in the middle and in each 
angle. jfR. 

5. RAIMVN.... Within a circle of dots, a cross patee, 
having an annulet at the extremity of each limb. 

R. [M]ON6TA TRIPOL. Within a circle of dots, a 
cross patee, having three annulets in the first and second 
quarters, and one in the fourth. JE. 

6. RENALDVS. Within a circle, a building, with battle- 
ments, and an arched doorway in the middle. 

R. SIDONIA. Within a circle, an arrow. JE. 
The first of these coins, fig. 2, has been 'taken from 



M. Buchon's engraving. 3 There seems to be no reason for 
doubting the attribution of it to Amaury de Lusignan, who 
was made king of Jerusalem, A.D. 1197, and died A.D. 1205. 

All the rest are taken from M. Cousinery's Catalogue. 4 
Fig. 3 is attributed by him to Boemond VII., Duke of 
Antioch. He also publishes a coin which reads S6PTIMVS 
BOGMVNDVS COM6S. 5 It is of a larger size than this 
coin, but of similar workmanship, and, like it, of pure silver. 
This similarity is assigned as the reason of the attribution. 
As far as it is possible to judge from engravings, there can 
be no doubt that both these coins are of a very much 
later date than the others, which I have described above. 

I am unable to discover from M. Cousinery's Catalogue 
at what period he supposes figs. 4 and 5 to have been struck. 
With respect to fig. 4, it is not easy to tell from an en- 
graving whether the reading is correct, or whether the coin 
may not read RAMVND ; but, supposing the first letter to 
be a B, there seems still to be some doubt remaining whe- 
ther the name of Boemond, or of Raimond be intended. 
If the latter, from the evidence of its fabric, we cannot suppose 
it to have been struck by either of the two first princes of this 
name; and we must therefore assign it, either to Raimond 
Rupin, duke of Antioch, 1216, who, like Boemond VIL, may 
have struck money with his title of Count of Tripoli, or to 
his predecessor, Raimond III., who was the contemporary 
of Guy de Lusignan, and occupies a prominent place in 
the history of the period. 

On reference to the series of counts of Tripoli, it will be 
seen that these two names occur in immediate chronological 

3 See Note l . 

4 Michaud, Hist, des Croisades, torn, v.; Tab. iii. 4, 6, 7. Paris, 

5 Ibid., Tab. iii. 1. 


juxtaposition; and, consequently, though the probable date 
of this coin can be inferred from its fabric, the inference 
will not enable us to determine the attribution of it to one 
of these contemporary princes in preference to the other. 
Fig. 5, is unquestionably a coin of one of the Raimonds, 
counts of Tripoli. 

On the whole, therefore, looking at the great similitude 
in fabric, workmanship, and the forms of the letters (at 
least as far as we can judge of these points from an engrav- 
ing) between these two coins, figs. 4 and 5, and that of 
Amaury de Lusignan, and seeing moreover, from a compa- 
rison of these with the coins of Boernond VII. (fig. 3), how 
much they differ from those of a later period, I am 
inclined to believe that No. 5 should be attributed to 
Raimond III.; and No. 4, either to the same prince, or to 
his immediate successor, Boemond, the duke of Antioch, 
who usurped the county of Tripoli. 

No. 6 was unquestionably struck at Sidon ; and has been, 
with great probability, attributed to a Renaud, lord of 
Sidon, who was a contemporary and friend of Raimond III., 
and " retired with him into that town after the battle of 
Tiberias." 6 Its similarity in workmanship to the three 
coins, figs. 2, 4, and 5, confirms the date which I have pro- 
posed for them. 

Having stated these preliminary attributions necessary 
to my argument, I now come to the coin which is the 
immediate subject of these remarks. It is of copper or 
base metal. 

Fig. 1. REX GWIDO. Within a circle, a star with eight 
rays, having a pellet in each angle. 

R. The inscription is not distinctly legible. The two 
first letters are D6 ; afterwards there is a C, and the last 

6 Michaud, Hist, des Croisades, page 545. 


letter is an O. I read the whole, DE CVPRO. The 
type is : within a circle, a cross patee ; a pellet in each 

With respect to the type : the form of the star, having 
pellets between the rays, is exactly similar to that found on 
the contemporary coins of the counts of Tripoli ; and, as far 
as I can discover, is peculiar to those of the crusaders. I 
shall not attempt any explanation of this emblem. The star 
is sometimes found in conjunction with a crescent: 7 and, in 
this case, M. Cousinery supposes it to symbolise the light 
of Christianity rising over the darkness of Islamism. Some 
doubt may be thrown on this interpretation, by the question 
whether the crescent was at that time the emblem of the 
Mahomedan power. A star in conjunction with a crescent 
is found on Babylonian cylinders, on some of the imperial 
Greek coins, those, for example, of Byzantium, and on those 
of Carrhoe, in Mesopotamia, as well as on the coins of the 
Sassanian princes, at the end of the sixth and the be- 
ginning of the seventh century of our era. 

The worship of Apollo and Diana sufficiently accounts 
for the adoption in classical art of these symbolical repre- 
sentations of those deities, in accordance with the feelings 
which actuated the ancients, in the selection of the subjects 
which appear on their money ; and Oriental astrology may 
have adopted the same symbols which a mythological 
motive stamped on the money of the Greeks. But why 
the star and crescent were adopted by the Crusaders, or to 
what Christian feeling, the mythological or Oriental motive 
accommodated itself ; or whether these symbols were by 
them introduced into the West, and so made their appear- 
ance on the coins and seals of the kings of England, com- 
mencing from that of Richard I., and also on the seals of 

7 Michaud. Hist, des Croisades, Tab iii. 3, 5, also p. 543 


monasteries, are questions beyond the limits of these 

The other type, the cross, is exactly similar to that on the 
coins of the other princes of the Crusade, and approaches 
in form to that which was adopted by the knights of St. 
John, and was subsequently called the Maltese cross. 

With respect to the legend, some doubt may be thrown 
on the reading I have proposed, by the unusual introduc- 
tion of the DG, instead of the common form, REX CVPRI. 
It is remarkable that on the coin of Amaury de Lusignan 
fig. 2, the same use of the De occurs. It is true that M. 
Buchon reads this coin RGI, and not REX: however, from 
the engraving, it would appear that the last letter is illegible ; 
it may therefore, possibly, have been an X. There are coins 
of the later kings of Cyprus in which DI appears; but these 
legends seem to be a sort of Italian, not Latin. I do not 
know any actual authority for the use of such a form as 
this; but, considering the probability that the coin of 
Amaury may offer either such an authority ; and, at any 
rate, the near approximation it presents to the same form; 
considering also the apparent impossibility of reading any 
other letters than those I have proposed, 1 cannot think 
the irregularity of sufficient importance to be urged as an 
objection to my interpretation. 

On the whole, then, keeping in mind the history of the 
period, I conclude that this coin was struck by Guy de 
Lusignan, after he had received the kingdom of Cyprus, 
and had dropped the title of king of Jerusalem ; that is, 
between the years A.D. 1192, and 1194. The analogy of 
its legend with that of fig. 2, may be accounted for, by the 
supposition that Amaury, on acquiring the title of King of 
Jerusalem, adopted the same style which his brother had 
introduced upon the money of Cyprus. 


The only other coin I shall notice is the following: 

Fig. 7. TVRRIS. Within a circle of dots, a building. 

R. DAVID. Within a circle of dots, a star of eight rays, 
a pellet in each angle. JE. 

This coin was published by M. Cousinery, from whose 
plate mine has been taken, and was by him attributed to 
Godefroi de Bouillon, 8 the first king of Jerusalem. M. 
Lelewel publishes the same coin, but offers sufficient reason 
for questioning the correctness of M. Cousinery 's opinion. 9 
There is no coin known which can be unquestionably 
attributed to the first king of Jerusalem. Those of his 
immediate successors are of a fabric totally different, not 
unlike the oriental coins current in the country ; the 
legends moreover are Greek. But the coin before us has 
a Latin type and inscription, and is European in its fabric. 
For these reasons, it seems, M. Lelewel is of opinion that 
it is not earlier than the thirteenth century. He assumes 
also, from the evidence of the type and legend, that it 
must have been struck at Jerusalem ; in order, therefore, 
to satisfy these two hypotheses, he attributes it to the year 
A.D. 1229, when the Emperor Frederick II. recovered, for 

a short time, the holy city. 


The type, the representation of a tower, and the inscrip- 
tion, Turris David, may be taken as sufficient evidence of 
the coin having been struck at Jerusalem. The tower of 
David was a place of considerable strength and importance 
iiTthe time of the Crusades. It is thus mentioned by 
William of Tyre, giving a description of the holy city, 
" In occidentali ergo, quasi in supremo mentis vertice, 
ecclesia est, quse nomine montis dicitur Syon, et non longe 

8 Michaud. Hist, des Croisades, torn. iii. Tab. ii. 1, and p. 538. 

9 Numismatique du Moyen age. Lelewel. Paris, 1835. Vol. iii. 
p. 29. 


ab ea turris David opere constructa solidissimo, quae quasi 
presidium civitatis cum turribus rauris, et ante muralibus 
sibi annexis universes sub se positse praeeminet civitati." 10 

We may, then, admit it to be highly probable, that this 
coin was struck at Jerusalem ; but there seems to be less 
reason for adopting the other supposition, that it was riot 
struck before the thirteenth century. 

It has been shewn in the preceding remarks, that 
the Latin legends, types, and fabric, were in use in 
the Holy Land before the year A. D. 1200. The type, 
moreover, of the coin of Amaury de Lusignan, the building, 
though not identical with, is very similar to that on the 
coin before us; whilst the other type, the star, is exactly 
the same as that on the coin of Guy de Lusignan, now 
published. I hope I shall not be considered presumptuous 
in offering an opinion, differing from that of so learned and 
distinguished a numismatist as M. Lelewel ; but, taking a 
review of all the coins before us, and of the reasons I have 
given for their attribution, I had rather believe that this 
coin is contemporary with those of Raimond, of Renaud, 
and of Guy de Lusignan, than that it belongs to so late 
a period as 1229. Besides, unless there were some his- 
torical evidence of the fact itself, the circumstances under 
which the Emperor Frederick II. occupied the holy city, 
and the shortness of his stay there, would not lead one to 
suppose it very probable that he had struck money. I 
would therefore suggest, both as a more probable hypothe- 
sis, and also as one more consistent with the evidence of the 
coins themselves as regards date, that the coin before us 
was struck by Guy de Lusignan, during the early part of 

10 Hist. Bell. Sac. William of Tyre. Basilia?, 1564, lib. viii. 
chap. 3. 


his reign, previously to the taking of Jerusalem by the 
Saracens, that is to say, in the year 1187 or 1188. 

If this conjecture be true, this coin will probably 
be found to be the earliest instance, at present known, 
in which the Latin legends and types are introduced on 
the coins of any of the princes of the Crusades. Indeed, 
the peculiar inscription, in honor, as it were of the holy 
city, and not of its ruler, 11 seems to support the idea that 
this coin preceded the period when the name of the 
prince and the declaration of his title is uniformly found 
upon the coinage; whilst at the same time the fabric and 
language place it after the period when the Greek legends 
were in use, and which, if they introduced the name of the 
king, always accompanied it by some pious invocation. 

I fear I have troubled you with lengthy observations on 
a subject which may not be thought very interesting to the 
generality of your readers ; but I have done so, not only 
because the coin which has occasioned this letter, is, I 
believe, unique, but also, because the name of the king 
which it bears (there being but one of that name), leaves 
no uncertainty as to its date ; and thus it seems to determine 
the arrangement of several coins of its class, and also to 
throw some light on a branch of numismatic study hitherto 
too much neglected in this country. 

I beg to remain, 

My dear Sir, 

Yours very truly, 


BRITISH MUSEUM, April 21st, 1846. 

II I am indebted to my colleague Mr. Burgon, for this observa- 
tion, which I consider of great importance. 




IN previous communications which I have had the honor 
to submit to the Numismatic Society, and to the editor of 
the Numismatic Chronicle, I have endeavoured to make 
some small addition to the information afforded by others, 
upon the subject of bullion currency and jewel money. I 
now beg permission to offer a few observations upon the 
concurrent use of jewel currency with medal money. 

Established as it is, upon the highest authority known in 
the world, that bullion, passed by weight, was the medium 
of exchange during the life-time of the sons of Noah; 
and almost equally certain as it is, that bullion was 
generally kept for such purpose in the form of personal 
ornaments, or of articles of domestic use, as cups, and other 
vessels ; it may be imagined that when the convenient and 
ready form of medal money was invented, jewel currency 
would speedily be laid aside. But such was not the case : 
and if we duly consider the state of society in many places, 
in ancient, and also in modern times, we shall find abun- 
dant reason why it should not be so. In rude countries, 
where the habits of people were migratory, and the state 
and usages of society uncertain, an extensive medal-money 
circulation could scarcely be maintained. The stamp of 
one petty chieftain or tribe would be little respected by 
other chiefs or tribes; nay, often it would be so offensive to 
the prejudices of the people, that it would be changed as 
soon as possible, by recoinage with the impress of the fresh 
possessors. Again, the weights and values of money 
might be so different amongst various people, that coined 



money would pass little by tale, but almost exclusively by 
weight, as before the invention of the medal form. There 
would be little inducement, therefore, to coin bullion be- 
yond what was needed for smaller payments ; and the 
chief wealth, as heretofore, would be kept in the jewel 
and vessel form. 

In those states in which the rule of governors was des- 
potic, and the possession of property insecure, bullion, in 
like manner, would be preferred in a form carriageable 
about the person, and not more of the precious metals 
would be coined than was absolutely needful ; and bullion 
ornament, and bullion coin, would both be used as ex- 
changeable media. 

What from theory we should surmise, history proves to 
have been the practice. It is stated by Herodotus, in his 
history (Calliope. Sec. xli.), that when Mardonius was 
left by Xerxes in Greece, the Persians had in their pos- 
session a great quantity of coined and uncoined gold, with 
an abundance of silver and plate ; and it was recommended 
to send these, with no sparing hand, to those in chief 
authority amongst the Greeks, to induce them to surrender 
their liberties (Beloe's translation). 

But it is chiefly in the mediaeval ages, that we find authen- 
tic accounts, in the records of the northern nations, of this 
intermixture of jewel and medal money, and of the use of 
the former in a manner closely like that of the Eastern 
nations before the invention of coinage. This is so de- 
cidedly manifested in various scattered passages in Mr. 
Laing's translation of the Heimskringla, or Chronicles of 
the Sea Kings of Norway, from the Icelandic of Snorro 
Sturleson, a writer of the twelfth contury, that it strikes 
me it will be interesting to numismatists to see these 
evidences collected together. In one instance, a gold 


ornament, a collar, is given as part of a marriage dower, 
as thus stated: "Visbur inherited after his father Vanland. 
He married the daughter of Aude the Rich, and gave her, 
as her marriage gift, three large farms and a gold orna- 
ment" (vol. i. p. 229). This ornament was a collar ; for 
King Agne, her son, who had it, was told by Skialf to " take 
care of his gold ornament which he had about his neck ; 
therefore he took hold of the ornament, and bound it fast 
about his neck before he went to sleep" (p. 233). " Egvind 
had a great gold ring, which was called Molde, that 
had been dug up out of the earth long since. This 
ring, the king said, he must have as the mulct for the 
offence; and there was no help for it." Then Egvind 


from the falcon-bearing hand, 

Harald has plucked the gold snake-band 
My father wore by lawless might 
Has taken what is mine by right. 

Olaf Haraldsson, the saint who reigned 1015 1030, is 


The giver of rings of gold, 

The army-leader bold. vol. ii. 85. 

and Harald Hardrada, 1046 1066, is spoken of as 

He whom the ravens watch with care, 

He who the gold rings does not spare. vol. iii. 107. 

It is plain that these rings were given as payment to the 
soldiery, but this will be seen more clearly presently. 
That rings, so given for payment or reward, had a fixed weight 
or value, or both, attached to them, will be evident from the 
following passages, which specify rings of various weight 
given to Scalds as rewards or payments for their songs. Olaf 
Haraldsson gave to Thorrnod, the Scald, a ring for singing 
the war-song, Biarkamal ; " the king thanked him for 
the pleasure, and took a gold ring that weighed half a 


mark and gave it him" (vol. ii. 314). 1 He gave to Sigvart, 
as " a reward for his verse, a gold ring that weighed half 
a mark" (vol. ii. 40). " Sigvart, the Scald, had been with 
King Canute, who had given him a gold ring that weighed 
half a mark. The scald, Birse Thorleson, was also 
there, and to him King Canute gave two gold rings, each 
weighing two marks " (vol. ii. 195). 2 Harald Hardrada 
"gave Thorer of Steig," at a feast, several valuable presents ; 
one a bowl " filled with money of pure silver. With that 
came also two gold rings, which together stood for a mark" 
(vol. iii. 24). The mark of gold appears to have been a 
common payment or gift, for the same Harald gave the 
Scald Thiodolf this amount for a song, as appears 

I got from him, in sea-fight strong, 

A mark of gold for my ship-song. vol. iii. 102. 

The above quotations will prove the common practice of 
making rings of specific weights, for here we have the half- 
mark, the mark, and the two mark rings. From one 

1 The half-mark seems to have been a common mode of pecu- 
niary computation amongst the Danes ; as the following shews, 

; * De precio Occisi Daci vel Angli." 

" Si quis occidatur, omnes reputamus eque caros, Dacum vel 
Anglum, ad viii. dimidias marcas cocti auri," c. Foedus Inter 
Alfredum et Guthrum. Public Records, Saxon Laws, p. 505. 

2 The Scald Egill was so great a favorite with our King 
Athelstane, that he at one time presented him with "duobus 
annulis et scriniis duobus bene magnis argento repletis. . . . Quin- 
etiam hoc addidit, ut Egillus quidvis praeterea a se petens, obtin- 
eret ; bona mobilia, sive immobilia, praebendam f el praefecturas. 
Egillus porro regiam munificentiam gratus excipiens, Carmen Enco- 
miasticon, a se lingua Norvegica (quae turn his regnis communis) 
compositum, regi dicat ; ac pro eo, duas marcas auri puri (pondus 
marcae 8 uncias a?quabat) honorarii loco retulif." Atngr. Ion. 
Rcr. Islandic. lib. ii. p. 1^9 ; Relics of Ancient Poetry, vol. i. 
p. 75. 


pa?>ane it would almost scorn that the mark of gold was 
stamped to mark its weight or value. In Olaf Haraldsson's 
Saga, there is this statement : "instead of a goose he paid 
a gosling; for an old swine, a sucking pig ; and for a mark 
of stamped gold, only a half mark" (vol. ii. 122). 3 That, 
whether stamped or not, gold was paid by weight, we may 
see from the following extract 

Gold too, for service duly paid, 
Red gold all pure, and duly weighed, 
King Olaf gives. vol. iii. 1 14. 

The mark of gold had its equivalent in silver. Thorer 
the spoiler of the temple of Jomala was ordered to pay to 
three parties ten marks of gold each : to gain time he paid 
in silver. " Then Thorer came and paid silver; of which 
from one purse there were weighed ten marks. Thereafter 
Thorer brought many knotted caps ; and in some was one 
mark, in others half a mark, and in others some small 
money." 4 It would have been interesting had the exact 
amount or weight of silver been specified, as it would have 
explained the then proportion of silver to gold. 5 The 

3 Whether marks of gold were stamped or not, to express their 
due weight, may be a question to which this passage would seem 
to lead. Certain weights were stamped, as may be seen below, 

" Et ipsi qui portus custodiunt, efficiant> per overhirnessam 
(forfeiture) meam, ut omne pondus, sit marcatum ad pondus quo 
pecuuia mea recipitur, et eorum singulum signetur, ita quod xv. 
ore libram faciant." Laws of King Eihelred, p. 129, Public 

It may be surmised that the term mark itself implies some 
mark set upon a specific weight, being derived from the Saxon 
mearc signum. 

4 It is to be noted, that the silver as well as the gold is said to 
be paid by weight ; and from the expression " some small money," 
\vo may infer that silver in quantity was paid in bullion or 
ornaments, the coined money being simply used as small change. 

"' Mr. Kuding says (vol. i. '2*25), " a mark is a Danish mode of 
'vmputation. The term first appears in England in the league 


value of wadmal to the silver penny is stated. The king 
"required the Icelanders to adopt the laws which he had 
set in Norway, also to pay him thane tax ; and nose 
tax, namely a penny for every nose, and the penny at 
the rate of tenpennies to the yard of wadmal" (vol. ii. 
212). 6 

That gold rings, armlets, and collars, with gold in various 
forms, were held as the representations of property, and 
given as payments, may be gathered from the following 

Dag accused Thorer of being a traitor to King Olaf, and 
said, " He has taken money from King Canute the Great 
for thy head." The king asked, " What proof hast thou 
of the truth of this?" Dag replied, "He has upon his 
right arm, above the elbow, a thick gold ring, which King 
Canute gave him, and which he lets no man see." This 
ring was found upon his arm (vol. ii. 265). 7 

King Canute's agent also bribed Biorn. The messenger 
says, " Receive now thy reward ; and he displayed to him 
a large bag full of English money." " Now when the mes- 

between Alfred and Guthrun, ann. 878. The marks there are 
of gold. The silver mark in the tenth century was estimated at 
100 pennies, but in 1194 at 160." 

6 " Wadmal, a coarse woollen cloth made in Iceland, and so 
generally used for clothing, that it was a measure of value in the 
north, like money, for other commodities." Laing's note. 
Wadmal was used as cloth and is now used in some parts of Africa, 
as a medium of exchange by measure, as gold by weight. In Adal, 
South Abyssinia, blue Surat cloth passes current at half a dollar 
the cubit length ; such length being folded into a three-cornered 
packet. Johnson s Travels in Southern Abyssinia. 

1 It is here distinctly stated that the armlet was held as money; 
not a valuable memorial of kindness to be preserved, but a form 
of property to be passed away into other hands when need re- 
quired, without any violation of respect or delicacy towards the 


senger saw that Biorn's inclinations were turned towards 
the money, he threw down two thick gold rings, and said, 
Take the money at once, Biorn, and swear the oath to King 
Canute." This he did. 8 But that these jewels were offered 
and received as pay for services will be most clearly proved 
by the following lines, in which Astrid, the widow of Olaf 
the Saint, at a Thing, or national assembly, strove to 
win the Swedes to the party of her son Magnus the 

Now Astrid, Olaf s widowed queen, 
She who so many a change had seen, 
Took all the gifts of happier days, 
Jewels, and rings, all she would raise, 
And at a Thing at Hungrar, where 
The Swedes were numerous, did declare 
What Olaf's sons proposed to do, 
And brought her gifts, their pay in view. 9 

These transactions, be it recollected, all took place when 
there was a silver medal-money currency. 

8 Here again the gold rings are associated with the silver coin 
as money. 

9 Major Twemlow, Bengal Army, Brigadier, Nizam's service, 
has called my notice to a precisely parallel case in the instance of 
" the mutinous soldiers of the Punjaub, who not only exacted 
increased pay of their government, but also golden bracelets of 
weight, so that they would only fight for those ministers * who the 
gold ' bracelets * did not spare,' and they looked for changes, and 
renewed donations of golden ornaments." The Bombay Over- 
land Times (Nov. 15th, 1845), in stating that the government at 
Lahore, with the anxious wish of the troops, had sent a deputa- 
tion to Jamoo, to the Rajah Goolab Singh, to invite him to accept 
the Viziership, observes, " This rapturous attachment to the 
Jamoo Rajah is said to have taken its rise in a still more passion- 
ate regard for certain golden bracelets, which they demanded as 
the price of the office, and which they considered no other person 
would be likely to bestow upon them." Here the golden bracelets 
are spoken of as a (( price," or money purchase; and the affair is 
exactly like the sale of the Roman purple by the Pra3torian 


A remarkable instance of the conjunction of golden or- 
naments and silver medal-money, as treasure, is given 
in the plunder of the temple of Jomala, the Biarrne- 
land people's god, by piratical freebooters. " They took 
from Jomala a silver bowl that stood upon his knee full of 
silver money:" again, there is jewel treasure, " Thereupon 
Carl immediately ran to Jomala ; and observing he had a 
thick gold ornament hanging around his neck, he lifted his 
axe, cut the string with which the ornament was tied behind 
his neck; and the stroke was so strong, that the head of Jo- 
mala rang with such a great sound that they were all 
astonished. Carl seized the ornament" vol. ii. 201. The 
above may be doubly interesting, as, possibly, offering an 
explanation of the bulbous or trumpet-shaped ends of collars 
and other articles, the ends probably affording a hold, to 
prevent the string with which they were tied from slipping. 
Various instances are related of gods richly adorned with 
gold ornaments ; such deposits of treasure being there 
made for safety most probably against pillage and con- 
sidered as national property. It is said (Judges ix. 4), 
of Abimelech, that the men of Shechem " gave him 
threescore and ten pieces of silver out of the house of Baal- 
berith" their idol god. 

From the whole of these extracts from the Heimskringla 
it appears, that in the times to which it refers, and amongst 
these northern people, gold in jewels was used for the more 
considerable transactions of business, silver medal-money 
being an ancillary currency ; a kind of small change. This 
view is singularly borne out by Tacitus' description of the 
manners of the Germans, where the author says, that when the 
Germans, near the border of the empire, became acquainted 
with the Roman coin, they preferred the silver to the gold ; 
" because," as he says, "the inferior metal is of more ex- 


peditious use in the purchase of low-priced commodities" 
(Murphy's translation). 10 

I have shewn in a paper upon African ring-money pub- 
lished in the Numismatic Chronicle (Vol. VI. p. 201), that 
the native traders from the interior of Africa use penan- 
nular gold rings for the purchase of goods in the Sierra 
Leone market, although they are well acquainted with our 
medal-money; and the regular and extensive use of this 
jewel currency goes far, at least in my judgment, to prove 
that the gold rings, armlets, and collars mentioned by 
Snorro Sturleson, were not so much formed for personal 
ornament, as for a convenient form of storing representative 
property. That the African penannular gold rings are 
made almost entirely with this object in view, I think will 
be admitted from the following passages, taken from a work 
of Rene Caille, a French traveller, who made a journey in 
1827 from Senegal to Timbuctoo. He says, (vol. i. 283), 
"the country of Boure is covered by hills in which are many 
very abundant gold-mines. . . . The gold when obtained is 
formed into rings and ingots. . . . The gold of Boure circu- 
lates throughout the whole interior, and finds its way to the 
French and English settlements on the coast." The rings 
from the gold of Boure, according to the same author, are 
made of a specific weight or value, like the half-mark, and 
two-mark rings of the Norwegian kings ; for in speaking 
of the town of Kaukan, he says, " There is a market twice 
a week. All the dealers [in gold] are provided with small 

10 May not the passage from Tacitus in some degree tend to 
explain the reason why our Anglo-Saxon forefathers confined 
their coinage to the small sceattse, admitted to be copied from the 
Roman denarii ? And does it not seem that they paid for large 
purchases in bullion by weight, such bullion being often stored in 
the shape of ornaments and vessels, the coined silver being used 
" in the purchase of low-priced commodities" ? 



scales, made in the country, and which seemed to be toler- 
ably accurate. The seeds of a tree which grows in the 
Fonta Dialon are used for weights. These seeds are black, 
and of the size arid shape of Corossol seeds, but rather hea- 
vier. A piece of gold of the weight of two of these seeds 
is worth six francs. The gold which I saw in the Kaukan, 
and which I was told came from Boure, was made into 
earrings of the value of six gourdes; there are also some 
worth 25 gourdes" (vol. ii. 283). n 

The use of ornaments as a representative of wealth is 
not confined to those of bullion alone, in some parts of 
Africa. To the Reverend N. Denton, of Regent, near Sierra 
Leone (to whom I am under much obligation for very 
valuable information upon African ring- money), I am in- 
debted for the following interesting particular. " The 
Rev. J. W. Weeks informed me of a woman in his parish, 
who wore a very handsome pipe-coral necklace: but on 
being taken ill, and reduced to difficulties, she was obliged 
to dispose of it, which she did by taking off a single pipe at 
a time, and living on the proceeds of that until obliged to 

11 I have not been able to discover what the Corossol seed is, 
though Mr. Walter Hawkins, at the obliging request of my friend, 
Mr. B. Nightingale, very kindly made enquiries for me of several 
friends of his who had visited the African coast. From the same 
gentleman (Mr. Walter Hawkins) I received through Mr. B. 
Nightingale, two seeds of a bright red colour, with the following 
valuable information, for which I beg here to express my grateful 

" AdenantTiera pavonia, weight four grains, as near as possible ; 
these seeds are used in the East Indies for weighing gold and 
precious stones. They are known in the East by the name of 

" Bruce speaks of the carat as a bean, the fruit of an Abyssinian 
tree called kuara (erythrina corrallodendrum, Linn.). This bean, 
from the time of its being gathered, varies very little in its weight, 
and seems to have been, in the earliest ages, a weight for gold in 


take another in like manner, and so on till they were all 
sold." 12 

I have formerly mentioned (Num. Chron. Vol. VII. p. 
98), that in Socotra, according to the account of Lieut. C. J. 
Cruttenden, I. N., Assistant Political Agent at Aden, 
silver rings circulate as money amongst the Bedouin Arabs 
of the higher range of mountains in that island, in common 
with German crowns, being equally a current medium of 
exchange. That a similar practice obtains at the present 
time amongst the natives of India, there is ground to be- 
lieve, from the following facts. 

In looking over the articles in the archaeological depart- 
ment of the Natural History and Archaeological Society of 
Warwick, I was struck by observing a native Indian brace- 
let of a very peculiar form, made of a white mixed metal 
of inferior value. The bracelet was formed of a succession 
of rings, ornamented externally, and flattened and indented 
within. Through these rings a tape was strung, and each 
ring was separately fastened, so that a single ring could be 
removed without loosening the whole. At one end was a 
ball, over which the rings would not pass; at the other, a 
simple loop, over which the rings could be withdrawn. 
The form seemed so well adapted for the use of consecutive 
removal, that I felt convinced the type was copied from one 
in gold, where the object was the use, if needful, of a 
single ring of the bullion for the purpose of an ex- 
changeable medium. 13 With this impression, I wrote to 

12 The coral here must have been bought for its intrinsic value, 
pipe by pipe. The fact reminds one of the passage in Job xxviii. 18, 
" No mention sball be made of coral, or of pearls : for the price 
of wisdom is above rubies." 

13 With this bracelet was another, penannular in form, and with 
small trumpet-shaped ends, exactly like the Celtic penannular 
armillse. It will bp seen from Brigadier Twemlow's letter, that 


a friend, Brigadier Twemlow, residing at Ellichpoor, to 
ascertain if my conjecture was correct; and from him I 
have been favoured with an assurance of its accuracy. 
He says, "I could, if you desired it, purchase for you golden 
bracelets, similar to those, you describe, as being sewn 
on tape in successive rings. 14 Many of the ornaments 
in gold and silver at present in use in India, are strung 
like pearls, or sewn on velvet or cloth, in portions that 
could be used in succession. I have sent for your ac- 
ceptance two toe-rings, and one finger ring, procured from 
a money-changer (Schroff) at this station. They weigh 
equal to 12 of the rupees current here. They may be 
considered curiosities. A penannular ring of gold was 
brought to me similar to the Celtic fibulae: in fact there 
is no form scarcely in which ornaments are not made, or 
bullion run for ornament or store. The gold of India (all 
that remains) is at present either made into ornaments or 
concealed in coins, bars, rings, or other convenient shapes. 
Gold is marketable at so much per tola and masha ; and 
soldiers and travellers carry it with them on their persons 
in any convenient form of rings, chains, or bars. History 

this was also a copy of a gold penannular bracelet. There were 
also heavy ancient-shaped oval anklets, to be slipped over the foot 
and then turned, and " tinkling ornaments" to be attached to them. 
These " tinkling ornameuts" were shaped something like two small 
kidney-beans, attached together at the ends ; they were hollow, 
and held each a dried pea, and had a small slit at the extreme ends 
to emit sound. The pea produced a soft tinkling sound. The 
only mode of fastening appeared by a string at the central part to 
the anklet. The whole suite called to mind forcibly the female 
ornaments described in Isaiah, chap. iii. 

14 The object of this form will receive much illustration from 
the demand of gold bracelets by the Sikh troops, whose use of 
them might and probably would be like that of Balafre with his 
gold chain, as so admirably imagined by Sir Walter Scott in 
" Quentin Durward." 


makes known to us, that when Dowletabad, Tritchinopoly, 
and other places capitulated, or were taken, ornaments and 
jewellery have been found more abundant than coins : the 
want of security for property which exists amongst native 
states is the chief cause of treasure being concealed and 
buried." 15 

From the foregoing statements, it will appear, that long 
after the invention of coinage, bullion and jewel-currency 
continued in use together with medal-money; and that such 
practice was continued, from the insecurity of property, and 
the greater safety of bullion in a form capable of being 
carried about the person and not calculated to betray fear, 
and thereby invite spoliation. It will also appear, that in 
ancient times jewels were frequently made of weights com- 
prising the half, the whole, or multiples of recognised 
amounts of weight, and modes of computation. The same 
circumstances which in ancient times caused such a system 
of exchangeable medium, have produced in modern times 
the same result in countries similarly conditioned as to 
insecurity, and moveable habits. Bullion in mass or jewels is 
not to be looked upon in these cases as an article of traffic, 
but as an admitted representative of property, in itself 

15 In ancient times there was another reason for burying treasure, 
as stated in the Heimskringla. " Thorer explained, that it was so 
established in this land (Biarmeland), that when a rich man died 
all his moveable goods were divided between the dead man and 
his heirs. He got the half-part, or the third-part, or sometimes 
less ; and that part was carried out into the forest and buried, 
sometimes even a house was built over it" (vol. ii. 200). Odin 
ordered that a man's property should be burnt with him. " Thus," 
said he, " every one will come to Valhalla with the riches he had 
with him on the pile, and he would also enjoy whatever he himself 
had buried in the earth" (vol. i. 223). For a man of consequence 
a mound was to be raised ; for distinguished warriors, a " standing 


available for the purchase of goods without being first con- 
verted into coined money; and therefore it is to all intents 
and purposes to be considered not money's worth, but 
itself money, or a medium of exchange. In civilised 
society, the sale of jewels or vessels of the precious metals, 
is only resorted to in cases of dire necessity, or upon 
divisions of personal property, or upon some extraordinary 
occasion ; and such sale is made for, and compensated by 
the circulating medium. In the instances to which I have 
alluded, jewels have been passed from hand to hand as 
regularly as sovereigns, and without any feeling of in- 
delicacy or imputation of poverty. And when we consider 
in our country the insecurity of property during the Anglo- 
saxon and Norman periods, we shall not wonder at the 
continuance of a bullion medium in the form of articles of 
use or ornament, and the absence of a large-sized silver 
currency, and the non-adoption of a gold coinage. To pay 
the bard or the soldier, to buy the services of an individual, 
or discharge a fine, there were no silver crowns or golden 
ducats ; and therefore the ring, the bracelet, the armlet, or 
collar, were of necessity used. To pay a large sum in 
silver pennies would have been irksome, or been held, as 
in Thorer's case, a vexatious course, equivalent to our 
paying in sixpences "to gain time." Such views will 
therefore justify us in believing the co-existence of a bullion 
and jewel currency, with a medal-money medium. 



SESSION 1844-5. 

NOVEMBER 28, 1844. 

The following Presents, received during the Vacation, were an- 
nounced and laid on the table : 


Coutumes locales du Baillage d'Amiens, Series 1 THE SOCIETY OF AN- 
L, II., III. Amiens, 1840 3. J TIQUARIES OF PICARDY. 

Bulletins de la Societe des Antiquaires de Pi- ] 
cardie, Nos. I., II., III., IV. (1842), et Nos. - 
I., II. (1843) J 

Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de Pi- 
cardie. Tomes 2, 3 ; Suppt. du tome 4 ; 
Atlas du tome 3. 

Statuts et Reglemens de la meme Societe ,, 

Bulletins de 1'Academie des Sciences et Belles ] 

Lettres de Bruxelles. Tome 10, 2 de partie ; ^THE ACADEMY. 
tome 11, l re partie. Brussels, 1843 4. ) 

Annuaire de 1'Academie Royale des Sciences et 1 

des Belles Lettres de Bruxelles, 10 me annee J " " 

Memoires de la Societe' d'Archseologie du De- 1 

partement de la Somme. Tome 1. 4miens, I THE SOCIETY. 
1838. J 

Questions par le Comite Historique du Minis- ~| 

tere de 1 Instruction Publique, Departement LTHK COMMITTEE. 
du Pas de Calais. 

Notice sur un Denier inedit d'Uranius Antonius, \ 

par M. le Normand. / THE AlIT "- 

Esquisse de 1'Histoire de la Monnaie chez les) 
Hebreux. Par J. G. H. Greppo. 1 844. / 

Bliitter fur Miinzkunde (Journal of Numisma- 1 DR. GROTK, THK 
tology). Vol. 4. Leipzig, 1844. / EDITOR. 



available for the purchase of goods without being first con- 
verted into coined money; and therefore it is to all intents 
and purposes to be considered not money's worth, but 
itself money, or a medium of exchange. In civilised 
society, the sale of jewels or vessels of the precious metals, 
is only resorted to in cases of dire necessity, or upon 
divisions of personal property, or upon some extraordinary 
occasion ; and such sale is made for, and compensated by 
the circulating medium. In the instances to which I have 
alluded, jewels have been passed from hand to hand as 
regularly as sovereigns, and without any feeling of in- 
delicacy or imputation of poverty. And when we consider 
in our country the insecurity of property during the Anglo- 
saxon and Norman periods, we shall not wonder at the 
continuance of a bullion medium in the form of articles of 
use or ornament, and the absence of a large-sized silver 
currency, and the non-adoption of a gold coinage. To pay 
the bard or the soldier, to buy the services of an individual, 
or discharge a fine, there were no silver crowns or golden 
ducats ; and therefore the ring, the bracelet, the armlet, or 
collar, were of necessity used. To pay a large sum in 
silver pennies would have been irksome, or been held, as 
in Thorer's case, a vexatious course, equivalent to our 
paying in sixpences "to gain time." Such views will 
therefore justify us in believing the co-existence of a bullion 
and jewel currency, with a medal-money medium. 



SESSION 1844-5. 

NOVEMBER 28, 1844. 

The following Presents, received during the Vacation, were an- 
nounced and laid on the table : 


Coutumes locales du Baillage d'Amiens, Series "1 THE SOCIETY OF AN- 
L, II., III. Amiens, 1840 3. J TIQUARIES OF PICARDY. 

Bulletins de la Societe des Antique ires de Pi- 1 
cardie, Nos. L, II., III., IV. (1842), et Nos. I 
I., II. (1843) J 

Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de Pi- 
cardie. Tomes 2, 3 ; Suppt. du tome 4 ; 
Atlas du tome 3. 

Statuts et Reglemens de la meme Societe ,, ,, 

Bulletins de 1'Academie des Sciences et Belles 1 

Lettres de Bruxelles. Tome 10, 2 de partie ; [-THE ACADEMY. 
tome 1 1, l re partie. Brussels, 1 843 4. J 

Annuaire de 1'Academie Royale des Sciences et 1 
des Belles Lettres de Bruxelles, 10 me annee J 

Memoires de la Societe* d'Archseologie du De- 1 

partement de la Somme. Tome 1. Amiens, > THE SOCIETY. 
1838. J 

Questions par le Comite Historique du Minis- 1 

tere de {'Instruction Publique, Departement L THE COMMITTEE. 
du Pas de Calais. 

Notice sur un Denier inedit d'Uranius Antonius, "1 

par M. le Normand. } THE AUTHOR. 

Esquisse de 1'Histoire de la Monnaie chez les ) 
Hebreux. Par J. G. H. Greppo. 1 844. j 

Bliitter fur Miinzkunde (Journal of Numisma- 1 DR. GROTE, THK 
tology). Vol. 4. Leipzig, 1844. J EDITOR. 




Anteckningar ur Kongl. Witterhets, Historic " 
och Antiquitets Akademiens Dagbok, samt 
om de under Akademiens inseende stallda 
kongl. Samlingarna for ar 1843. (Notes 
from the Journal of the Royal Academy of V.THE AUTHOR. 
Science, History, and Antiquities ; together 
with Observations on the Royal Collections 
placed under its superintendence). By B. E. 
Hildebrand. Stockholm, 1844. J 

Bemerkungen iiber Sassam'den Munzen. (Re- "1 

marks on the Coins of the Sassanidse.) By >THE AUTHOR. 
Dr. Bernhard Dorn. St. Petersburg, 1844. J 

Die Reichelsche Miinz-Sammlung in St. Peters- "1 
burg. (Catalogue of M. Reichel's Collec- I 
tion of Coins.) Two sets of all the parts f M 
published. J 

Berlinske Politisk. May 15, 1844. THE EDITOR. 

Collectanea Antiqua. No. 5. THE EDITOR. 

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 1 

1836-7, 1841-2, 1842-3. / THE ACADEMY. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 15, 1 


Two Lithographs of Torques. EDWARD HOARE, ESQ. ' 

A silver-gilt Medal of George III. M.DURAND.OF CALAIS. 

A copper Coin brought from Pompeii. GEORGE GROVE, ESQ. 

A specimen of Burmese Tin Money. j Jo ^ 

Medal, struck to commemorate the first Annual "I 

Meeting of the British Archaeological Asso- I C. ROACH SMITH, ESQ. 

jxiccviug ui uic -oiiusu zuuueuiugu;tu ^\.ssu- y 

ciation at Canterbury, by W. J. Taylor. 

Read, a further portion of Mr. Borrell's communication on unedited 
autonomous and imperial Greek coins. The coins described in the 
present paper were of the cities of Crannon, Cierium, Ctimene, Eu- 
rymense, Histiseotis, Lamia, and Tricca, in Thessaly; Aleta, or 


Aletta, Apollonia and Dyrrachium, in Illyria ; the islands of 
Peparethus (on the coast of Thessaly), and Sciathus ; Alexander II, 
king of Epirus ; and Alexander, tyrant of Pherse, in Thessaly. The 
paper is printed at length in the Numismatic Chronicle, No. xxvi. 
page 115. 

DECEMBER 19, 1844. 

LORD ALBERT CONYNGHAM, President, in the Chair. 
The following presents were announced : 


Berlinske Politisk, for November 22. THE EDITOR. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 15,1 

part 2. j THE SOCIETY. 

Bulletins de la Societe des Antiquaires de Pi- 1 

cardie. No. 3, 1844. j THE SOCIETY. 

Histoire Numismatique de la Revolution Beige. 

l re et 2 de Livraisons. Par M. Guioth. j 


Read, a paper by the Rev. Henry Christmas, on 1. a penny of 
Eadgar, supposed to have been minted at Bury St. Edmund's ; 2. an 
unpublished half-penny of the base coinage of Edward VI., struck at 
London ; the obverse, similar in type to the penny engraved in 
Ruding, pi. 9, No. 5, but the reverse having the cross and pellets, 
like the farthing No. 18 in the same plate; and 3. a specimen of the 
short cross penny, generally considered to be of Henry III., but by 
Mr. Hawkins attributed to Henry II., reading HALLI ON RVLA, 

This paper is published in the Numismatic Chronicle. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith then read a paper which had been communi- 
cated through him to the British Archaeological Association, by 
Thomas Baker, Esq., recording the discovery of a large quantity of 
Roman coins, in a field called the Church Piece, near Lilly Horn, 


adjoining the highway from Oakridge Common to Bisley ; and ex- 
hibited some of the coins and casts of others. They were as 
follows : 









Valerian us . 

... 2 

Brought up . . 
Tacitus ...... 







Victorinus . 

. . . 353 

Numerianus . . 

Quintillus . 

... 6 

Claudius II 


Maximianus . 
Diocletianus . . ., * 
Carausius . 
Allectus . . . . 



... 73 

Tetricus . . 

. . 629 

. . 9 

Severina . . 
Carried i 

... 2 

ip . 1161 

Mr. Smith observed that the list of the reverses of these coins 
presented only one new variety, which is that of the coin of Allectus, 
reading . . ICTORI GER Victoria Germanica. In the exergue, C ; 
in the field, S.P. Trophy and captives. This reverse, although 

common on coins of the period, had not been previously noticed on 
those of Allectus. Doubts have been cast upon the historical im- 
portance of some of the coins of Carausius and Allectus, from their 
close resemblance in type to those of their predecessors, of which it is 
therefore alleged they are mere imitations. There are, however, 
many which certainly cannot be placed in this category, as they afford 


types both novel and appropriate ; and Mr. Smith suggested that the 
coin now first published may have been struck to record a victory 
gained by Allectus over some of the German or Saxon pirates infesting 
the British coast. The cut lias been supplied by the Central Committee 
of the British Archaeological Association. 

JANUARY 23, 1845. 
DR. LEE in the Chair. 

Read 1. A paper by the Rev. Dr. Whitaker, of Blackburn, on the 
coins found at Cuerdale, near Preston, in the year 1840 ; in which he 
endeavoured to prove that they were minted by a Spanish Jew, named 
Cortena, whose name Dr. Whitaker considered to be given on the 
obverse of the Cunnetti coins (Numismatic Chronicle, Vol. V., pi. ix. 
Nos. 118, et seqq.), and in Hebrew characters, on the reverse of a 
penny of Alfred (Vol. V., pi. i. No. 8). 

2. A paper by Walter Hawkins, Esq , accompanying a drawing 
of a Russian token, struck by Peter the Great, in the year 1724, for 
the purpose of being given as a receipt to those who paid the tax for 
wearing a beard. The paper and drawing are published in No. 27 
of the Numismatic Chronicle. 

3. A paper by Samuel Birch, Esq., containing a description of 
the Sycee silver received from the Chinese government, in payment 
of the indemnity due to this country. As the paper is published at 
length in the Numismatic Chronicle, it will suffice to state that the 
Sycee silver is formed into ingots, stamped with the mark of the 
office from which it issues, and the date. According to Dr. Morrison, 
there are five sorts, of different degrees of fineness. The specimens 
inspected by Mr. Birch bore dates from 1793 to 1839. 

4. A further portion of Mr. Borrell's papers, on unedited au- 
tonomous and imperial Greek coins. 


FEBRUARY 27, 1845. 

The following presents were announced : 


Essai sur la Numismatique Gauloise du Nord ) 
Quest de la France. Far Ed. Lambert. J T 

NumiMohammedani, Fasciculus I. Bv Ignatius) ^ 

Pietraszewski. Berlin. j THE AUTHOR. 

Erster Jahrsbericht derNumismatischen Gesell- ~\ 

schaft zu Berlin. (First Annual Report of > DR.KOHNE. 
the Numismatic Society of Berlin.) 1845. J 

Zeitschrift fur Miinz-, Siegel-, und Wappen-~| 
kunde. (Journal for the study of coins, seals, I 
and armorial bearings). Third year. Edited T 
by Dr. Kohne. Berlin, 1843. J 

Ueber die Darstellung der Vorsehung und der^l 
Ewigkeit auf Romischen Munzen. (On the I 
representations of Providence and Eternity f 
on Roman coins.) ByDr.Kohne. Be?'lin ) lS44. J 

Die Miinze der Balearischen Inseln. (The coins 1 

of the Balearic Isles,) By C. Von Bose. STws AUTHOR. 
Berlin. J 

Bulletins de la Societe des Antiquaires de Pi- 1 

cardie. Annee 1844. No- 4. | THE SOCIETY. 

The Secretary exhibited a quantity of coins, forwarded by the 
Rev. Edward Gibbs Walford; found, with other antiquities, during 
the summer and autumn of 1844, on the site of the Roman station of 
Brenavis, at Chipping Warden, near Banbury. They were of the em- 
perors from Hadrian to Honorius, but neither were remarkable for 
preservation, nor presented any new reverses or other points of 


The Secretary likewise exhibited an impression in wax of a noble 
of Edward III., with the letter D in the centre of the reverse, instead 
of E, as usual; and read part of a letter on the subject from Robert 
Newton Lee, sq. 

Dr. Lee exhibited a Chinese medal, having on the obverse the 
figure of a dragon, and on the reverse a star or sun. 

Read, a letter from Edward Hoare, Esq., of Cork, describing a 
penny of Henry II. or III,, with the moneyer's name, TERRI 

The following gentlemen were ballotted for, and elected into the 
Society : 

The Right Hon. Lord Bagot. 

Thomas Crofton Croker, Esq., F.S.A., M.R.I.A. 

Dr. Lowe. 

James M. Lockyer, Esq. 

MARCH 27, 1845. 
Professor WILSON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Read 1. A letter from E. H.Bunbury, Esq., addressed to Thomas 
Burgon, Esq., on the date of some of the coins attributed to Himera. 
In this paper the change of the standard of weight from the ^Eginetan 
to the Attic talent, observable in those coins of Himera which, having 
the crab, the well-known symbol of Agrigentum, on the reverse, in- 
dicate an alliance between the two cities, is accounted for by the fact 
that Theron usurped the government of Himera, partly peopled it 
with a Doric colony, and for ten years ruled over both cities. A com- 
parison of the dates given by Diodorus and Herodotus places the 
commencement of the authority of Theron in Himera at about the 



year 482 B.C. ; and therefore the coins in question were probably 
struck during the ten years subsequent to that date. 

2. A paper by Samuel Birch, Esq., on some unedited imperial 
Greek coins in the British Museum. 


(Gallus and Volusian.) 


LVSIAN. Laureated heads of the two emperors, facing 
each other. 

R. P. M. S. CO. VIM. The two emperors dressed in the 
paludamentum, facing each other, each holding a victoriola 
and a spear. Exergue, AN. XIII. between a lion and a 
bull. J&. 9. 


(Marcus Aurelius.) 

emperor, bearded and laureated, to the right. 

R. COL. IVL. CONC. AVG. APAM. Diana in a chariot 
drawn by two stags : on her head, a crescent ; and in each 
hand, a torch; above and beneath, D.D. ./. 7. 250'5 grs. 


(Severus Alexander.) 

M. AYP. CGYH. AAEZANAPOC ATP. Laureated bust of the 
emperor in the paludamentum, to the right. 

R. E'K 



In a laurel wreath. _/E. 7. 

Bust of Eros, to the right. 
R. HA A- A$P. Arose. ^.1. 



(Caracalla and Geta.) 

AY. KAI. MAP. AYP. ANTON. ..KAI. Laureated head of Ca- 
racalla, to the right. That of Geta, to the left, erased, 
but traceable, countermarked with the word 6EOY, " of 
the god." 

KGON. Hecate, draped in a talaric tunic and peplos, hold- 
ing in her right hand a torch ; in her left, a patera over a 
lighted altar. JE. 10. 



AYT. KAI. HO. A. TAAAIHNOC. Laureated bust, to the right, 
in the paludamentum ; before the head, B. 

R. APX.. IACONOC CIABOY TABHNON. Fortune standing 
to the left. J&. 9. 


(Marcus Aurelius. ) 

AYT. KAI. M. AYP. ANTO CG. Bust of the emperor, 


tomb of Sardanapalus, pyramidal, surmounted by an eagle. 
Before, a small bearded figure, with a quiver at the left side, 
standing on a horned griffin, to the right. The tomb 
stands on a rectangular base, with doors or pillars, and over 
it is an arched embattled wall ; at each side, a figure on a 
cidaris, standing, facing inwards, holding in one hand a 
lance, perhaps winged. JEi. M. M. 


AOMITtANOC RAICAP. Bust of the emperor, to the right. 

R. MAITAEWN. Pallas Nicephorus standing, to the left, a 
spear in her left hand ; before her, at her feet, an argolic 
buckler. yE. 4. 



(Antoninus Pius*} 

ATT. KAI. A AP. ANTONGINOC. Head of the emperor, to the 

R. TIBePIOnOAITHN&N. Mensis standing, to the right, 
the moon at his back ; a globe in his left hand ; in his right, 
a sceptre ; his foot on the head of a bull. M. 4. 

Mr. Bunbury's and Mr. Birch's papers are published in full in the 
Numismatic Chronicle. 

Dr. Rigollot, of Amiens, was elected an honorary member of the 

James M. Lockyer, Esq., elected at the last meeting, was admitted 
a member of the Society. 

APRIL 24, 1845. 

Mr. Edwin Keats presented to the Society a fine specimen of the 
scudo, or dollar, of Pope Gregory XVI., of the year 1831. 

Obv. The pope's head and titles. 

of four figures, representing the presentation of the infant 
Jesus in the temple. In the exergue, ROMA. 

This coin is well engraved byCerbara. 
Mr. Keats also presented an Egyptian piastre of Mehemet Ali. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith exhibited a quantity of shillings of Charles I., 
recently discovered in Suffolk. The entire number amounted in weight 
to 80 Ibs. Those exhibited presented no new varieties, and were all 
of the commonest types ; but Mr. Smith remarked that the great bulk 
had been claimed by Trinity College, Cambridge, and he hoped the 
heads of the college would ensure their examination by some com- 


petent person, with a view to record and make public the necessary 
particulars. Scarcely any of the great discoveries of coins in this 
country were properly published, or made subservient to Numis- 
matic science. 

Mr. Smith also exhibited specimens of plated Roman denarii, dis- 
covered during the excavation of the ground in King William Street, 
City, for the foundations of houses there. There were some Consular, 
some of Augustus, M. Antony, Tiberius, and a very few of Claudius, 
in whose reign they were probably brought to England by the Roman 

Dr. Ignatius Pietraszewski was elected an associate of the Society. 

Mr. J. B. Burton was balloted for, and elected into the Society. 

MAY '22, 1845. 
Lord ALBERT CONYNGHAM, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith exhibited casts of some Gaulish and British 
coins, in silver and in brass, discovered some years since on the South 
Downs, near Worthing. Among them are two in silver of Viridovix, 
one of Comius, and others of different localities in Gaul. There were 
also a sceatta, and a number of Roman coins, in large, middle, and 
third brass. The spot in which these coins were discovered appears 
to have been occupied by dwellings, and also used for sepulture. A 
sketch of the site, and a brief account of the objects discovered, have 
been published by Mr. Smith, in the sixth number of his "Collectanea 

Mr. W. H. Rolfe exhibited the following coins : 
Edward III., groat, reading HI BE. 

Henry IV., groat, with Roman N in London. 55 grs. 

From the use of the Roman letter on this coin, as on the 
groats of Edward III. and Richard II., it is fair to 
presume it to be of Henry IV. ; although no coins can 
with certainty be assigned to him, but such as weigh 
in the proportion of 18 grs. to the penny. 



Henry IV., V., or VI., groat, reading ANGLE ; star on left 

breast. 55 grs. 
Edward IV., groat, reading DEI. 41 grs. 

with pierced rose on the king's breast. 

Henry VII., flat crown; cross after CI VITAS, and lis 
after LONDON. 39 grs. 

Henry VIII., base penny of the London mint; three quarter 
face, with plain mantle and falling collar. 

This variety of the London mint is not mentioned in Haw- 
kins, but it is not unknown in private cabinets. 

Read, a continuation of Mr. Borrell's papers on unedited autonomous 
and imperial Greek coins. The coins illustrated in this paper were 
of Chotis, king of Cibyra, in Phrygia ; of Chersonesus, in Crete, 
hitherto attributed to the small island of Clides, near Cyprus ; and of 
the following cities : 





Mallus Olba. 



















Beudos, vetus 



Cadi and JEzani 









The paper is printed in full in the Numismatic Chronicle, vol. viii. 
p. 2. 

Charles Stokes, Esq., and Mr. C. R. Taylor, were balloted for, and 
elected into the Society. 

Thomas Crofton Croker, .Esq., F.S.A. (elected Feb. 27, 1845), 
was admitted a member of the Society. 


JUNE 19, 1845. 

EDWARD HAWKINS, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 
The Secretary announced the following presents : 


Choix de Monnaies et de Medailles des Maisons ^ 

Royales de France. Par M. Combrouse. -THE AUTHOR. 
Paris, 1845. J 

Die Reichelsche Miinz-sammlung in St. Peters- 1 

burg. (Catalogue of the Collection of Coins >M. REICHEL. 
of M. Reichel, at St. Petersburg.) Part 9. J 

The Journal of the British Archaeological As- "1 BY THE CENTRAL 
sociation. No. 1. London, 1845. / COMMITTEE. 

The Chairman, at the request of the Council, took the sense of the 
meeting on the question of proceeding to the ballot for the election 
of three candidates, whose certificates had been suspended in the 
meeting-room during the last two ordinary meetings of the Society. 


The proposition to this effect having been unanimously agreed to 
Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.P., W. Bardoe Elliott, Esq., and Frederick 
William Fairholt, Esq., F. S. A., were balloted for, and elected into 
the Society. 

The Report of the Council was then read, as follows : 


The Council submit to the Meeting the following Report on the 
progress of the Numismatic Society during the past, or eighth year 
of its institution. 

The casualties, the Council are happy to state, are few ; the Society 
has lost by death but two resident Members, Francis Baily, Esq. and 
Robert Benson, Esq., and one foreign Associate, Professor Micali, of 
Florence. The first of these gentlemen enjoyed deserved celebrity as a 
distinguished cultivator of Astronomical Science, and was the author of 
various important works on subjects relating to it. An appropriate 
tribute has been paid to his memory, in the transactions of the Royal 
Astronomical Society. Mr. Benson was well known among the Numis- 
matists of this country as a collector of coins, especially of those of 
England. Professor Micali was a scholar eminent for his classical 
and archaeological researches, of which an example is afforded by his 
work on Etruria before the time of the Romans. 

The number of resignations this year amounts to seven ; and to these 
must be added three names which it is useless to retain longer upon 
the Society's list. On the other hand the Council are happy to an- 
nounce the accession of the following ten gentlemen, several of whom 
will be readily recognised as the liberal promoters of more than one 
department of literary and scientific research : 

Members Elected. 

The Lord Bagot 

James M. Lockyer 

T. Crofton Croker, F.S.A. 

Dr. Lowe 

J. B. Burton 

Charles Stokes 

C. R. Taylor 

Beriah Botfield, M. P. 

W. Bardoe Elliott 

F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A. 


The Society has also elected the following gentlemen as Asso- 
ciates : 

Dr. Rigollot, of Amiens Dr. Ignatius Pietraszewski 

The numerical state of the Society is as follows : 

Original. Elected. Honorary. Associates. Total. 
Members, 1 
June, 1844 / 
Since elected 


















i 4 





Resigned or withdrawn 4 

55 75 1 46 177 

The following statement, prepared by the Treasurer, shows the 
state of the Society's finances. 

JJfi. : ... 

lB rllsi 

O O 
O <N 

O O O Tf O O TJI <N O ?O 
O O >O <> O O Oi ?O 00 i t 


eo o 

't? <-> a 

2-5 c - 






2 c; 'r T3 





f'S >r d c^ ; 3 ( ^r 3' l3 C'3 S^Sw^o^S^S^^S^S 

^ O O ^ ^^ /"s *^ ^*^ O O -k C ^K T^ -*. . ^. ,. -^ . 

T3T3 C^ 
,0 O 3 ^ 


The following papers have been read at the meetings of the 
Society : 

Continuations of Mr. Borrell's valuable papers on Inedited Greek 

A paper by the Rev. Henry Christmas, on certain Inedited English 
and Anglo Saxon coins. 

A paper by C. R. Smith, Esq. recording the discovery, near 
Gloucester, of a large quantity of Roman coins in third brass. 

A paper by the Rev. Dr. Whittaker, of Blackburn, on some of the 
Cuerdale coins. 

A note by W. Hawkins, Esq. on the Russian Beard Token. 

A note by Samuel Birch, Esq. on the Chinese Sycee Silver. 

A note by R. Newton Lee, Esq., on a Noble of Edward III. with 
the letter D in the centre of reverse. 

A memoir, by E. H. Bunbury, Esq. on certain Coins of Himera. 

A description, by S. Birch, Esq. of certain Coins of Apamsea. 

The Society is indebted to its Members and Friends for the follow- 
ing donations : 
The Society of Antiquaries of Pi- The Publications of the Society. 

The Academy of the Belles Let- Ditto ditto. 

tres of Brussels. 
The Society of Archaeology of the Ditto ditto. 

Department of the Somme. 
Comite' Historique du Minis- Ditto ditto. 

tere de 1'Instruction Publique 
M. Lenormant, Notice sur un Denier d' Uranius 

M. I. G. H. Greppo, Histoire des Monnaies chez les 

M. Reichel, Catalogue of his Collection at St. 


Royal Asiatic Society, The Publications of the Society. 

Royal Irish Academy, Ditto ditto. 

M. Guioth, Histoire Numismatique de la 

Revolution Beige. 




C. R. Smith, Esq. 
Dr. Bernhard Dorn, 

George Grove, Esq. 
A. Durand, Esq. 
John R. Smith, Esq. 
C. R. Smith, Esq. 

C. Bose, Esq. 

M. Lambert. 

M. Ignatius Pietraszewski, 

M. Combrouse, Choix de Monnaies et de Medailles 

des Maisons Royales de France. 

Collectanea Antiqua, Nos. I. to VI. 

Bemerkungen liber die Sassaniden 

Copper Coin from Pompeii. 

Silver-gilt Medal of Geo. III. 

Specimen of Burmese Tin Money. 

Medal of the British Archaeological 

Die Miinze der Balearischen Inseln. 

Numismatique Gauloise du Nord- 

Numi Muhamedani, Fasciculus I. 
The Council is not aware of the occurrence of any event of peculiar 
interest to Numismatic Science during the past year ; but, from the 
number of works announced as recently published, or in the course of 
publication, they have every reason to infer that the study is pursued 
in this country, and still more upon the continent, with unabated 
zeal and unimpaired activity ; and that it continues to engage the at- 
tention and excite the exertion of vigorous and cultivated minds. 

The Council advert, with pleasure, to the prospect of a Catalogue 
of the Coins in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, which it is ex- 
pected will shortly be published, under the superintendence of the 
Rev. Bulkeley Bandinel, D.D., librarian. 

The Council consider it advisable to propose to the Meeting the 
introduction of a rule, which is intended to obviate what may be 
regarded as an injustice to Members joining the Society late in the 
year, who have hitherto been charged with the subscription for the 
whole year. A Subscriber who is not elected till the first meeting 
of the Society in the season, or at the end of November, has but a 
limited opportunity of availing himself of the privileges to which his 
election entitles him; and a subscription for the whole of that year 
cannot therefore be reasonably expected from him. It is therefore 
proposed to adopt the following rule : 

" Members elected subsequently to the anniversary meeting, shall 
commence their subscription from the first of January following, in 
advance, as usual, for the succeeding year." 


The Council, in concluding their Report, deem it incumbent upon 
them to advert to the delay which has taken place in the issue of the 
last Number of the Journal, and to state that it has occurred partly 
from insufficiency of materials, partly from accidental circumstances. 
They have every reason to hope, however, that the usual Numbers 
published annually will yet be supplied during the rest of the year to 
the Members of the Society ; and arrangements have been made, 
with a view to determine if it may not be possible to secure regu- 
larity for the future. 

The Report was received, and ordered to be printed. 

The accounts of the Society for the past year not having yet been 
audited, in consequence of the Treasurer's absence from England 
until within a few days of the present meeting, James C. Jones, Esq., 
and John Wilkinson, Esq., were appointed auditors for this purpose. 

The following Rule was proposed to the meeting, in conformity 
with the recommendation of the Council, and unanimously carried. 

" Members elected subsequently to the anniversary meeting shall 
commence their subscriptions from the 1st of January following, 
payable in advance as usual for the succeeding year." 

The thanks of the meeting were unanimously voted to H. W. Dia- 
mond, Esq., the Librarian, for his skill and care in preparing a 
catalogue of the library. 

The meeting then proceeded to ballot for the election of officers 
and council for the ensuing year ; and the scrutineers appointed by 
the meeting having announced the result of the ballot, the following 
gentlemen were declared duly elected as Officers and Council : 


HORACE HAYMAN WILSON, ESQ., F.R.S., M.R.A.S., Boden Professor 
of Sanscrit, Oxford. 

Vice Presidents. 






Foreign Secretary. 


Members of the Council. 


JOHN LEE, ESQ., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., V.P.R.A.S. 


SESSION 1845-6. 

NOVEMBER 27, 1845. 

The following Presents, received during the Recess, were announced 
and laid upon the table : 


A view of the Coinage of Scotland, with copious "] 
tables, lists, and descriptions ; illustrated I 
with engravings of upwards of 350 coins. ( THE AuTHOR - 
By John Lindsay, Esq. Cork, 1845. J 

Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. 1 , 

TT- i OA r> 77- lo/ie > THE ACADEMY. 

Vol. 20. Dublin, 1845. J 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. No. 16. ) ^ 


Part 1. j 

Journal of the British Archaeological Associa- ) THE CENTRAL COM- 
tion. No. 3. 1845. J MITTEE. 

Die Typen Romischer Munzen. (On the types 1 m 

CTS x -r. T-k T;-- i r* T loir > THE AUTHOR. 

of Roman coins.) By Dr.Kohne. Berhn,lS45. J 

Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de Pi- 1 

cardie. Tome 7, avec un atlas de 20 planches J> THE SOCIETY. 
lithographiques. Amiens et Paris, 1845. J 

Bulletins de la Societe des Antiquaires de Pi- 
cardie. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, de 1'annee 1844 ; 
Nos. 1, 2, de 1'annee 1845. 

Petit Glossaire, traduction de quelques mots^j 

financiers, esquisses de mceurs administra- I ^HE AUTHOR 
tives, par M. Boucher de Perthes. 2 torn, j 
Paris, 1835. J 

Nouvelles, par M. Boucher de Perthes. Paris, 1 
1832. J " 

Romances, Ballades, et Legendes, par M. "1 
Boucher de Perthes. Paris, 1830. J " 

Le Marquise de Montalle. Comedie en cinq "1 

actes. Pur M. Boucher de Perthes. Paris, \- : , ,, 

1820. J 




Satires, Contes, et Chansonettes. Par M. ) . 

Boucher de Perthes. Paris, 1833. j" T 

Memoires de la Societe royal d'emulation) M. DE PKRTHES, THE 

d'Abbeville. 1841, 2, 3. J PRESIDENT. 

Das K. K. Miinz- und Antiken- Kabinet be- "1 

schrieben von Joseph Arneth. (Description I THE AuTHOR> 
of the Imperial Cabinet of Coins and An- C 
tiquities, by M. Arneth.) Vienna, 1845. J 

Teodora Ducaina Paleologhina, Piombo unico ^j 

inedito. Illustraziorie di F. Carrara. Vienna, \ ,, ,, 
1840. J 

Twelve Swedish Coins PROFESSOR HOLMBOE. 

Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol.xx. THE ACADEMY. 

Engravings of two specimens of the ancient"! 

ring money, found in the bogs of the South \ ED. HOARE, ESQ. 
of Ireland. 

A Satirical Medal of Pietro Aretino. w. SHEPHERD, ESQ. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith exhibited a small thin silver coin, weighing 
three grains, recently discovered by Mr. Rolfe, of Sandwich, with 
some common sceattas, in an extensive Anglo-Saxon cemetery, 

which has been cut through by the Ramsgate and Canterbury Rail- 
way. This curious and interesting little coin adds a new variety 
to the early Anglo-Saxon series, and is a link in the numismatic 
chain leading from the Roman to the Saxon coins. It exhibits 
on the obverse a diademed head, to the left, with traces of letters, 
two of which are DN. On the reverse will be recognized the 
seated figure so common upon the coins of the lower empire, 
with a portion of the accompanying inscription, VICTO. A. 
( Victoria Augustorum) . Among other remarkable objects discovered 
by Mr. Rolfe in this cemetery are, a pair of scales, with weights formed 
out of Roman coins, which, Mr. Smith stated, he hoped to lay before 
the society at an early opportunity. A detailed account of the cir- 
cumstances under which the above discoveries have been made is 
published in the Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 
vol. i. p. 242. 


The Rev. J. Gunn exhibited, through Mr. C. 11. Smith, a quantity 
of Roman coins, chiefly small brass, of the lower empire, found at 
Caister, and at Burgh Castle, near Great Yarmouth. 

Mr. Pfister exhibited 

Denar. of Waiferius, Lombard Prince of Salerno, A.D. 861 876. 

Gold Florin of Giovanni Bentivoglio, Lord of Bologna, struck 
1494 to 1506. 

Teston of Francis II., Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua, struck 1510 
1519. The inscription on the reverse of this fine and 
rare coin is taken from Psalm cxxxix. " Domine, probasti 
me et cognovisti me" The field represents the singular 
device of a melting pot surrounded by flames, out of which 
stand forth seven bars of gold (or silver) fastened together. 

It happened in the year 1509 that the marquis was imprisoned 
by the Venetians, on suspicion of being in league with the French 
against them. The senate, however, convinced of his innocence, 
acquitted him, June 12, 1510. The coin was struck to commemorate 
that event. 

DECEMBER 18, 1845. 
Professor WILSON, President, in the Chair. 

The following Present was announced : 
Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires de Pi- ) 

T ir,, ~ XT o \ FROM THE SOCIETY. 

cardie, 184^, No. 3. J 

Mr. Pfister exhibited a silver coin of Frederick, king of Naples, of 
the house of Aragon, 14961501. 

Obv. Royal crowned bust, in profile, to the right. ^ FEDERICVS* 
DEI- G- REX- SI- HIERV- (Fredericus del gratia Rex 
Sicilice Hierosolymce). 

Behind the king's bust the letter T (which he believed alludes to the 
name of the mint master, Giovan Carlo Tramontane, who held 
the same office under the former king, Ferdinand II.*). 

The reverse of this scarce coin represents a book in flames. 
I-RECEDANT- VETERA. Of this type he gave the following 

Shortly after King Ferdinand II. had returned to Naples, and had 
driven out the troops left by Charles VIII., king of France, he occupied 

* Fiasco, sulle monete dette Cinque, page 9. 


himself in endeavouring to render his people happy, of which he was 
well capable, from the kindness of his heart and his good sense. Death 
prevented his fulfilling his intention. He expired September 7th, 
1496, at the age of 27, after a reign of only twenty months ; and 
having no children, he left Frederick, his uncle, his heir and suc- 
cessor to the throne of Naples. 

This wise prince governed with justice and great clemency. He 
reconciled himself with the rebellious barons, not alone by a liberal 
pardon, but also by giving them back their confiscated fiefs. Previous 
to these acts of clemency, a book was one day presented to the king, 
in the presence of several of his ministers, which was said to contain 
the names of the principal part of the men of note charged with 
having conspired against the government. The king immediately 
ordered a fire to be lighted in the court-yard of the palace, and in 
presence of them all committed the book to the flames, with these 
words, " Let the past be forgotten ;" and to that event the type of 
the coin alludes. 

Mr. Pfister at the same time begged leave to address himself to the 
members of the Numismatic Society, for information whether there may 
perhaps exist a medal or coin the type of which may refer to a similar 
noble action of William TIL, king of England ; namely, his reply to 
Charnock in 1696, who had acted as the medium of communication 
with persons in France, with a view to the restoration of the exiled 
family, and who offered to disclose to the king the names of those who 
had employed him. " I do not wish to hear them," said the king; and 
this (observes a historian) did more to repress discontents, and to 
soothe the violence of faction, than the subsequent executions in the 
reign of George I.* 

Dr. Lee exhibited three medals, brought from Geneva: one on the 
establishment of the Peace Society, one on the erection of a monu- 
ment to Calvin, and one with a bust of our Saviour. 

Dr. Lee also read a communication from Mr. Drach, of 10, Castle 
Street, Bevis Marks, containing a description of a method of producing 
representations of coins in relief, on the same principle as stamps, for the 
purpose of illustrating Numismatic Books, as more distinct and striking 

* No such medal is known to exist. 


to the eye than engravings. It was remarked, that in Mr. Lindsay's 
late works, he had endeavoured to obtain the same object of greater 
distinctness, by the use of colour ; the field of the plate being tinted, 
and the coin left white, or vice versd. 

Mr. Birch made some observations on the coins of Caulonia. 

Mr. C. Eoach Smith exhibited a number of coins, forwarded for 
the inspection of the society by Thomas Wright, Esq. ; they were 
obtained by Mr. Wright at Paris, where they had been taken at the 
barriers, in payment of duties, by the officers of the Octroi, Besides 
several liards of Henry III., Henry IV., and Louis XIII., and manv 
coins of the States of Germany, there were among them five Roman 
coins, affording a remarkable instance of money of remote antiquity 
circulating at the present day. 

JANUARY 26, 1846. 

Professor WILSON, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith exhibited an unpublished Sceatta, found at 
Bittern, near Southampton, and belonging to Mrs. Stewart Hall.* 

Obv. A Dragon ? 

Rev. Four semi-circles disposed in the form of a cross ; a small 
circle in the centre. 

Mr. Bergne observed that from the cruciform arrangement of the 
reverse, it is obvious that this coin was struck after the introduction 
of Christianity into Britain ; and that the type of the reverse appears 
a link between the types of the Sceattse engraved in Ending, pi. 26, 
Nos. 13 and 14, and those of the pennies of Offa (Hawkins, Nos. 63 
and 64). 

Mr. Pfister exhibited from his series of mediaeval imperial coins, 
those of the Emperor Frederick II., 1214 1250, consisting of 
twenty- one different specimens in gold and silver ; the two. largest 
coins in gold bearing a striking resemblance to the aureus and half- 
aureus of the Roman Emperors of the third century. 

* The wood-cut has been supplied by the British Archaeological Association. 


Also, two coins struck by rivals of Frederick II. for the imperial 
throne. One, a bracteate coin of Henry Raspo, Count of Thu- 
ringia, in Saxony, who was elected Emperor at Wiirzburg, in 1246, 
through the intrigues of Pope Innocent IV. (Fieschi). In 1248, he 
was mortally wounded at the Siege of Ulm, arid died at his castle of 
Wartburg, near Eisenach. The other, a Denar, struck at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, by William, Count of Holland, who was elected Emperor 
in 1248, in opposition to the excommunicated Frederick. William 
lost his life in the campaign of Friesland ; his horse breaking through 
the ice, he was slain by some Frisian peasants. 

Mr. Pfister exhibited also a silver medal of the 16th century, 
representing the wife of a patrician of Nuremburg. From the 
inscription on the reverse of the medal, it appears that it was 
executed to commemorate her being the mother of no less than 
twenty children. The lady is represented at the age of sixty, and 
the execution of the bust is such as would do no discredit even to 
Albert Durer. 

Mr. Powell communicated, through Mr. Cuff, a paper describing 
a pair of dies for a shilling of James I. with the Lis mint mark, lately 
discovered at Fingal, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, a model of 
which, in sulphur, accompanied the communication. The surface of 
the dies appears to be in much better preservation than is usually the 
case in the few specimens of ancient dies which have been preserved 
to our time. The construction is peculiar. The reverse, instead of 
being on the surface of the lower iron, is engraved in a circle 
inscribed within a square which is sunk considerably below the 
surface. The obverse is engraved on the surface of the upper iron, 
which slides telescope-wise into the cavity of the lower iron. The 
object of this arrangement is to prevent the coin from shifting under 
the blows of the hammer, and becoming what is called double struck. 
These dies were accidentally discovered in a blacksmith's forge. 

The Chairman remarked on the similarity of the old English dies 
to those used by the Indians, the Greeks, and the Romans. They 
were frequently too large for the piece of metal placed in them, so 
that only a part of the legends appeared upon the coin. He believed 
that, until the invention of the mill, there had been little improve- 
ment or change in the mode of striking, from the very earliest times. 


Signer Carrara, of Dalmatia, was elected an Associate of the 

Mr. William Webster was balloted for, and elected into the Society. 

Mr. C.R. Taylor (elected May 22, 1845) was admitted a Member 
of the Society. 

FEBRUARY 26, 1846. 
W. D. SAULL, ESQ., in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced : 


Journal of the British Archseological Association, \ THE CENTRAL COM- 

NO. 4. 1846. / M1TTEE. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 16, Part 2. THE SOCIETY. 

Bulletins de L'Academie Royale des Sciences et "1 

Belles Lettres de Bruxelles/ Tome XI. Parties I THE ACADEMY. 

I. et II., 1844. J 

Mr. Pfister exhibited two ecclesiastical Medals : one in bronze, of 
Melchior Phinzing, Provost of the Abbey of St. Alban, near Mayence, 
which was destroyed by the French towards the end of the last 
century ; the other in silver, of Albert, Margrave of Brandenburg, 
Archbishop of Mayence. These medals are of the best period of 
the revival of art in Germany, and are worthy of being ranked with 
similar productions of Greek and Roman skill. 

Mr. Pfister also exhibited a Denar of Conrad, Count of Hoch- 
stetten, Archbishop of Cologne from 1237 to 1261, the founder of 
the celebrated Cathedral. 

Obv. The Archbishop, bareheaded, seated on his episcopal throne, 

holding in each hand a flag; possibly denoting his temporal 

as well as ecclesiastical power. CONRA . . . ELECT (Elector). 

R. A Church with towers, surrounded by a wall. SANCTA 


Conrad crowned Richard Earl of Cornwall, brother to King 
Henry III., as King of the Romans, at Aix-la-Chapelle, May 
28, 1257. The Archbishop had previously visited England, and 
taken the oath of fidelity to Richard, who presented him with a 
costly mitre. 

Read, a list of 175 Roman coins, discovered in the year 1845 in the 
Caldwells or Black Grounds, the site of the Roman Station of Brinavis, 


in the parish of Chipping Warden, Northamptonshire ; now in the 
possession of the Rev. E. G. Walford, and Mr. Painter. The list was 
communicated by Mr. Walford, who forwarded some of the coins for 
the inspection of the Society. The list comprised coins in silver of 
Trajan, 2 ; Caracalla, 1 ; Julia Paula, 1 ; R. Concordia. The rest were 
of third brass. Among them were three of Carausius, and one of 
Quintillus; the bulk being of the Constantine family, and not remark- 
able either for type or preservation. :o ijtfafl 4 ! ,iM 

Read, a paper by Mr. Charles Dowse, descriptive of a specimen of 
a coin designed by him, with a view to supersede the use of in- 
conveniently large coins of the inferior metals, or of inconveniently 
small coins in silver. Mr. Dowse remarked the vast disparity in 
bulk and weight between the same value of coin in the different metals. 
If a sovereign be exchanged for silver, the quantity of the latter 
metal exceeds the gold 56 times in bulk, and 37 times in weight. 
If the silver be exchanged for copper, the latter will exceed the gold 
4312 times in bulk, and 2442 times in weight. The coin designed 
by Mr. Dowse for the purpose of remedying, in some measure, the 
inconvenient bulk of our copper currency, is a penny composed of a 
small silver centre piece, bearing on the obverse the head of the 
Queen, and on the reverse, the figure 1, value -J of a penny, set in 
a rim or outer circle of copper, value ^ of a penny, the whole being 
of a size between that of the ordinary copper farthing and half- 
penny. The invention, therefore, offers a coin of a convenient size, 
and of a denomination in general use for postage and other purposes ; 
while, as the silver centre is thinner than the copper circle in which 
it is set, and consequently protected from abrasion, it would be well 
calculated to endure circulation, and difficult to submit to the 
fraudulent process termed " sweating. " 

Mr. T, Peter Whelan was balloted for, and elected into : the, 
Society. > o 9[qo<; 

' ^feffohfiv ,ft btm 

ritiw 89ito9(ft ffl MARCH 26, 1846. 

JOHN B. BBRGNE, ESQ. Treasurer, in the Chair. 
Mr. Bland exhibited 51 Roman small brass coins, found in plough- 
ing near Great Bookham, in Surrey. They were chiefly of Gallienus, 
Salonina, Tetricus, and Victor in us, and exhibited no new type. 


Mr. Pfister exhibited a bronze medal of Francis I., king of France, 
by Benvenuto Cellini. 

Obv. Bust of the king laureated, and in armour, holding a sceptre 
surmounted by a lily. FRANCISCVS I. FRANCORVM REX. 

Rev. The king on horseback, trampling on Fortune ; behind, a 
rudder. FORTVNAM VIRTVTE DEVICIT. In the exergue 

Mr. Pfister observed that he was not aware of more than two 
other undoubtedly genuine specimens of this rare and beautiful 
medal, namely, one at Florence, and another at Geneva. There 
is a third specimen at Paris, which, however, Mr. Pfister does not 
consider to be the genuine work of Benvenuto Cellini. 

Mr. Birch read a paper on the coins of Caulonia in Magna 

The obverse of the early incuse coins of Caulonia represents a 
naked figure with long hair, falling in regularly disposed curls on the 
neck, and bound by a fillet ; the left hand stretched out, and holding 
a small figure in the attitude of running ; the right hand elevated, 
and brandishing a laurel branch. In the area is generally a deer; to 
which, in some specimens, is added a swan. The larger figure is 
constant on the archaic coins, but the smaller figure is sometimes 
omitted, and its place supplied by a fillet or tunic thrown over the arm. 
The same general type, with modifications of arrangement and varieties 
of adjuncts, continues down to the cessation of the coinage of this 
town, which was destroyed prior to the year 388 B.C. 

The type of these coins has, from time to time, engaged the 
attention of the most celebrated numismatists on the continent ; and 
an elaborate analysis of its literary history has been given by M. 
Panofka, in the Archaoloyische Zeitung for October, 1843. The 
larger figure has been variously conjectured to represent either 
Dionysus, Apollo, Hercules, or the Crjfjof or people of Caulonia; 
and the adjuncts of the type have of course been as variously inter- 
preted, in order to accommodate them to the different theories with 
regard to the principal figure. After recapitulating the ideas of 
preceding writers, M. Panofka conjectures that the larger figure 
represents a colossal statue of the divinity Apollo Hylates, who was 


reverenced at Magnesia, and was connected with the particular cere- 
monies of lustration by olive branches there practised ; and that the 
small figure represents the hero and founder of the town of Caulonia, 
Caulos, the son of the Amazon Clita. 

Mr. Birch considers this conjecture as peculiarly ingenious, inas- 
much as it gives the myth a local relation. He, however, states his 
reasons for preferring a different interpretation ; and suggests that the 
figures represent Apollo pursuing the young Hermes, after the 
theft committed by him upon Apollo, while the latter was absent 
from the castle of Admetus with Hymenseus. 

The paper is published in full in the Numismatic Chronicle, No. 
XXX. page 163. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith exhibited casts of two sceattse, discovered at 
York, which had been sent to the British ArchaBological Association 
by Mr. Bateman, jun., of Youlgrave, Derbyshire. 

The one resembles fig. 8, pi. 26, of Ruding. The other, of which 
a representation is here given, exhibits on the obverse what appears 

to be a barbarous copy of the full-faced figures on the Byzantine 
coins ; on either side is a cross. The reverse resembles that of fig. 
26, pi. 2, of Ruding, which, it will be observed, is a very rare variety 
of sceatta. What renders this coin the more remarkable, is the 
alleged fact of its being in gold. Mr. Smith observed, that though 
there seemed every reason to believe this assertion, it would of 
course be necessary to verify it by an inspection of the coin itself. 

APRIL 23, 1846. 

PROFESSOR WILSON, President, in the Chair. 
The following Present was announced : 


Annuaire de 1' Academic Royale des Sciences et "1 
Belles Lettres de Bruxelles, ll me Annee / 



Read, a paper by Lieutenant Alexander Cunningham, in which he 
seeks to explain some of the monograms found upon the Grecian 
coins of Ariana and India. After reciting the unsuccessful attempts 
of various numismatic writers to explain the monograms found on 
Greek coins, and the abandonment, on the part of others, of all 
endeavours to arrive at their signification, he confutes the notion put 
forth by Bayer, in his Historia Rcgni Grcecorum Bactriani, that the 
monograms were intended to record a date ; and states his reasons for 
considering them to refer for the most part to the mints, or towns 
where the coins were struck. An extensive table of monograms is 
annexed to the paper, many of which are illustrated and explained at 
length. Lieutenant Cunningham's essay is published, with a plate of 
the monograms, in No. XXXI. of the Numismatic Chronicle. 

The President communicated the substance of a paper received 
from Mr. Thomas, on the subject of the Coins of the Kings of Delhi. 


_ - qDl K 

MAY 26, 1846. 

JOHN B. BBRGNB, ESQ. Treasurer, in the Chair. 
The following Present was announced : 


Histoire Numismaticme de la Revolution Beige, ) 
par M. Guioth, Livraisons 3, 4, 9, 10. j 

Mr. Pfister exhibited 

1. A Denar of Otho V. (suruamed the Great), Duke of Bavaria, 




On the obverse of this rare and interesting coin, is represented the 
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, crowned and seated, having his right 
hand placed on his breast, and holding in his left a sceptre surmount- 
ed by a lily. Near the emperor, to the right, stands the figure of 
Otho of Wittelsbach in the office of standard-bearer (signifer) to 
the emperor on great solemnities, holding a sword. 

The reverse shews a warrior in helmet and coat of mail, armed 
with a sword and a kite-shaped shield, chasing a lion. The lion is 
intended to represent Henry the lion, duke of Brunswick and Saxony, 
and also lord of Bavaria, who was outlawed and banished by the 
Emperor Frederick, in 1180. He fled to England, where he was 
well received by King Henry II., who gave him his daughter Matilda 
in marriage. From this marriage, the present royal house of Great 
Britain traces its descent. After the flight of Henry of Brunswick, 
Otho of Wittelsbach was created duke of Bavaria, by the emperor, 
in acknowledgment of important services rendered in Italy. This 
event has been lately commemorated by a fresco painting in the 
Hofgarten at Munich. 

The fabric of the coin is remarkable, as indicating a transition from 
the bracteate to the usual hammered coins of Europe during the mid- 
dle ages ; and its characteristic type exhibits an attempt to hand down 
to posterity, after the manner of classical times, the memory of impor- 
tant historical facts, by means of commemorative devices on the cur- 
rent money. 

2, rA fine bronze medal and two bas reliefs, by the eminent 
Italian artist Valerio Belli (Valerio Vicentino), 1478 1546, bear- 

3. A fine Venetian medal in silver, by an unknown artist. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith exhibited several coins of the Emperor Ca- 
rausius, in third brass, which had been lately discovered near Rouen, 
and had passed into the possession of Mr, Joseph Curt, who had 
kindly permitted them to be laid before the Society. The portraits 
on them all differed considerably from that ordinarily found on the 
coins of this emperor, being more in the style of the coins of 
Maximianus, and of preceding emperors. 


The following coin offers a new legend. n Q 

Obv. IMP. C. CARAVSIVS AVG. Head of Carausius to the 
right, with radiated crown. 

Rev. EGVITAS (sic} MVNDI. A woman standing, holding 
scales in her right hand, and a cornucopise in her left. 

Mr. Smith stated, that having mentioned the type of this coin to 
Mr. Rolfe, of Sandwich, the latter was led to examine the numerous 
coins of Carausius in his possession, and discovered among them 
another specimen of the same legend, which on comparison appears 
to be from the same die. 

A specimen of the quarter florin of Edward III., stated to have 
been lately found in a miscellaneous lot in the shop of a dealer in old 
gold and silver, was also exhibited by Mr. Smith. 


tf^.EXALTABITAR (sic) IN GLORIA. Type as in Rud- 
ing, Plate 1, No. 1, of gold coins. 

It is remarkable that the specimen of this coin, of which only two 
or three are known, engraved in Ruding, if correctly represented in 
the plate referred to, also contains a blunder in the legend of the 
reverse, which reads EXADTABITVR. 

Read, a list of Roman coins found near Castor, at various times 
from 1820 to 1836, but chiefly from April to October 1844, during 
the construction of the Blisworth and Peterborough railway. They 
comprise specimens in first, second, and third brass, and in billon, 
from Nero to Arcadius. The following are the only remarkable 


FAUSTINA SEN. Rev. AVGVSTA. JE. 1. This coin is re- 
markable, as, although it has an incuse reverse, the tvpe is 

CARAUSIUS. Rev. . . . G II PARTH. M. 3. A centaur 
marching to the left, in his right hand a rudder ; in his left, 
a wreath. 

CARAUSIUS. A billon coin with Rev. PAX AVGGG. 


A coin of William I, or II. of the Pax type (Hawkins, No. 241) 
was exhibited. 


Rev. SIMIER ON CNTI. (Canterbury). The portrait on 
this coin is fuller and shorter than in the type referred to, 
and more like that on the type No! 246, The reading 
of the obverse differs from that generally occurring 1 on the 
coins of this type, by the addition of the two strokes after 
REX, which, however, cannot be considered as numerals, but 
either as the commencement of the word ANGLO RVM, or 
as having no meaning, and added merely to fill up the 
space in the legend. 

Mr. Tovey and Mr. Wilkinson were appointed auditors of the 
accounts of the Society for the session 1845-6. 

Mr. F. W. Fairholt (elected June 19th, 1845), was admitted a 
member of the Society. 

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JULY 9, 1846. 

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PROFESSOR WILSON, President, in the chair. 

81857 (flBOJ lOt iiiui 05: 

THE Report of the Council was read, as follows : 


The Council of the Numismatic Society, at this its ninth Anniver- 
sary, have to submit the following Report of its proceedings and pro- 
gress during the past year. 

The Society has lost by death, since the last Annual Meeting, one 
member, Mr. Bradfield of Winchester ; and one foreign associate, 
Mr. Millingen of Florence. Mr. Bradfield was a zealous local 
antiquary, and a lover of archaeological pursuits generally, though not 
known to be a collector of coins as a specific branch of study. 

The name of James Millingen must be familiar to every member of 


the Numismatic Society. He was born in this country of foreign 
parents, and was educated at Westminster. His father, who had 
himself been a merchant in Batavia, destined him for commercial 
pursuits : but the bias of his mind from childhood was towards the 
study of archaeology ; and this bias was strengthened by the oppor- 
tunities which he enjoyed in his youth, of unrestricted access to the 
valuable collections of Mr. Towneley and Mr. Cracherode. After a 
time he relinquished the occupation which had been assigned him by 
his friends, and devoted himself to the more congenial pursuit of the 
investigation and illustration of the works of ancient art, and in par- 
ticular of the fictile vases of antiquity, and of Greek coins. Though 
a most acute and discriminating writer on numismatic science, his 
works, devoted specifically to that branch of archaeology, are not of 
great extent. Their interest and value, however, are such as to place 
them in the first rank of numismatic writings, and to make it a sub- 
ject of regret that he did not undertake some more extensive and 
systematic work on Greek coins. His numismatic works consist 
chiefly of A Description of certain Greek Coins, published at Rome, 
in 181.2 ; a Medallic History of Napoleon, published at London and 
Paris, in 1819, with a Supplement added in 1821; A Description 
of Unedited Coins in Collections in Great Britain, published in 1831 ; 
A Sylloge of Unedited Coins of Greek Cities and Kings, published in 
1837; and Considerations on the Numismatics of Ancient Italy, 
published at Florence, in 1841. Mr. Millingen had for many years 
past resided at Florence, and died there last summer, at the time 
when he was meditating a journey to England. 

The number of resignations and secessions during the past 
year, is eight ; and the two following members have been 
elected : 

Mr. William Webster. 
Mr.T. P. Whelan. 

Signor Francesco Carrara, of Dalmatia, has been elected a Foreign 


The numerical state of the Society is as follows : 

Original. Elected. Honorary. Associates. Total. 

memueis I 

June, 1845) 



1 46 


Since elected 






1 47 






Resigned or withdrawn 




Present number 52 71 1 46 170 

Annexed is a statement of the finances of the Society, prepared by 
the Treasurer, and audited by Mr. Wilkinson, one of the Auditors 
appointed for that purpose at the last meeting ; the other Auditor, 
Mr. Tovey, having been prevented from attending by indisposition. 





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The Council would again respectfully point out to those Members 
who reside in the country, how much they may assist the officers of 
the society, by the punctual remittance of their annual contributions 
to the Treasurer. The Council are anxious to avoid the accumula- 
tion of arrears ; but without the co-operation of the members at large, 
it will not be possible for them to do so, whatever diligence may be 
used in collecting. 

It is with pleasure that the Council state that some progress has 
been made towards reducing the arrear in the issue of the Numisma- 
tic Chronicle, to which allusion was made in their last year's report. 
Four numbers have appeared since the last anniversary. The council 
are given to understand that a fifth will very shortly be published; 
and they trust that five numbers will again be given in the course of 
the ensuing year, so as to complete all that will be due to the 

The following papers have been read at the meetings of the 

An account of Roman Coins discovered in 1844, on the site of 
the Roman Station of Brenavis, in the parish of Chipping Warden, 
Northamptonshire, by the Rev. E. Gibbs Walford. 

Ai} account of a pair of dies for a shilling of James I, recently dis- 
covered at Fingal, in Yorkshire, by Mr. Powell. 

A paper by Mr. Charles Dowse, descriptive of a coin designed by 
him, and intended to supersede the use of inconveniently large copper 
or small silver coins. 

A paper by Mr. Birch, on the Coins of Caulonia. 
A paper by lieutenant Alexander Cunningham, entitled, An Attempt 
to explain some of the Monograms found upon the Grecian Coins of 
Ariana and India. 

Various communications from Mr. Pfister, illustrative of rare 
Italian and German mediaeval coins and medals in his collection. 



The Society is indebted to its Members and Friends for the follow- 
ing donations. 

the Publications of the Society. 
Ditto ditto. 

The Royal Irish Academy, 

The Royal Asiatic Society, 

The British Archselogical Associ- 

The Royal Academy of Sciences 
and Belles Lettres of Brussels, 

The Society of Antiquaries of 

The Royal Society of Emulation 
of Abbeville, 

Mr. Lindsay, 

Dr. Kbhne, 

M- Boucher de Perthes, 
M. Guioth, 

Professor Arneth, 

Professor Hohnboe, 
Mr. Hoare, 

Mr. W. Shepherd, 









His work, entitled " A View of the 
Coinage of Scotland." 

An Essay on the Types of Roman 

His various publications. 

Numismatic History of the Bel- 
gian Revolution. 

Description of the Imperial Cabi- 
net of Coins and Antiquities at 

Twelve Swedish coins. 

Prints of two specimens of gold 
ring money, found in bogs in 
the South of Ireland. 

A satirical medal of Pietro Aretino. 

Before concluding their report, the Council would notice some Nu- 
mismatic Works which have appeared in this country within the last 
twelve months. 

Mr. Lindsay's View of the Coinage of Scotland is a work of much 
utility and value. The learned author has devoted great industry 
and patience to the collection of materials from the various public and 
private cabinets in the United Kingdom, and has displayed much 


judgment and acumen in the deductions which he has drawn from 
them. The work will doubtless supersede the prior publications of 
Snelling and Cardonnel. The former, like every thing published by 
Snelling, shews throughout the practical numismatist, but is imper- 
fect and unsatisfactory, in consequence of the small share of attention 
which had been in his time devoted to the subject of Scottish coins. 
The plates in Cardonnel's book are so wretchedly done, that they 
are rather caricatures than representations of the coins. The draw- 
ings for the numerous plates which illustrate Mr. Lindsay's work, 
were made either from the coins themselves, or from casts commu- 
nicated by his friends; and their accuracy may be relied upon. 

Mr. Haigh of Leeds has published an essay on the numismatic 
history of the kingdom of the East Angles, illustrated by five plates 
containing most accurate and beautifully engraved representations 
(from his own drawings), of nearly sixty rare and unpublished coins. 
Every person conversant with Anglo-Saxon coins is aware of the pe- 
culiar difficulty and uncertainty which exist as to the appropriation 
and chronology of many of the coins presumed to belong to the East 
Anglian series. Mr. Haigh, in discussing this doubtful portion of 
our numismatic history, and in bringing together a larger number of 
specimens than have ever before been presented at one view, has ren- 
dered good service to the study, and has furnished important 
materials and data for the researches of others. It is to be 
hoped that the tract may have a circulation sufficiently extensive, 
to induce Mr. Haigh to go on with the publication of his remarks on 
the other branches of tke Anglo-Saxon series, for which he has long 
been collecting materials. 

Mr. Akerman, one of our Honorary Secretaries, has lately com- 
pleted a volume, the first of a series intended to comprise an account 
of the coins of the ancient world, on the basis of the plan proposed 
by Pellerin, and matured by Eckhel in his Doctrina Numorum Veterum. 
The volume in question includes the coins of Hispania, Gallia, and 
Britannia ; and will be followed by a volume on the coins of Italy and 
Sicily. It contains descriptions of very many coins hitherto unpub- 
lished, and is illustrated by twenty-four plates, comprising upwards 
of 320 specimens. 


The Council cannot refrain from mentioning on the present occa- 
sion, that the Prix de Numismatique has recently been awarded to Mr. 
Akerman by the French Institute, for the new edition of his work on 
the Coins of the Romans relating to Britain ; feeling assured that the 
members of the Society will regard this honourable tribute of appro- 
bation conferred upon one of their officers, as a subject for just con- 
gratulation to themselves, as well as to Mr. Akerman himself. 

The Report was received, and ordered to be printed. 

The Meeting then proceeded to ballot for the election of Officers 
and Council for the ensuing year ; and the Scrutineers appointed by 
the meeting having reported the result, the following gentlemen were 
declared duly elected : 


fessor of Sanscrit, Oxford. 

Vice Presidents. 





Foreign Secretary. 



Members of the Council. 









JOHN LEE, ESQ., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., V.P.R.A.S. 




J. Wertheimer and Co., Printers, Finsbury Circus, London. 



The Numismatic chronicle 
and journal of the Royal 
Numismatic Society