Skip to main content

Full text of "The numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society"

See other formats



















Factum abiit monumenta manent. Ov. Fast. 




r ' ' 

k , v 








Juno Moneta. By Rev. A. W. Hands 

A Find of Roman Denarii at Castle Bromwich. By G. C. Brooke, 

B.A 13 

Notes on Some Roman Imperial " Medallions " and Coins : Clodius 
Albinus ; Diocletian ; Constantino the Great ; Gratian. By 
Arthur J. Evans, M.A., F.R.S., D.Litt., V.P.S.A. . . 97 

Metrological Note on the Coinage of Populonia. By J. R. McClean, 

M.A. 209 

On Some Rare Sicilian Tetradrachms. By E. J. Seltman . . 223 

The Coinage of the Reign of Julian the Philosopher. By Percy 

H. Webb 238 

Moneta di Argento dei So(ntini). By Dr. Ettore Gabrici . . 329 

Alexandrian Tetradrachms of Tiberius. By J. Grafton Milne, 

M.A. , 333 


Aspects of Death, and their Effects on the Living, as illustrated 
by Minor Works of Art, especially Medals, Engraved Gems, 
Jewels, &c. By F. Parkes Weber, M.D., F.S.A. (continua- 
tion} 41 and 163 

Note on the Mediaeval Medals of Constantino and Heraclius. 

By G. F. Hill, M.A. . 110 



The Coinage of the Keign of Edward IV. (Period of the 
Restoration of Henry VI: October, 1470, to April, 1471.) 
(Continuation.) By Fredk. A. Walters, F.S.A. . . 117 

The Coin-Types of Aethelred II. By H. Alexander Parsons . 251 
Chronology in the Short-Cross Period. By G. C. Brooke, B.A. 291 
The Medals of Paul II. By G. F. Hill, M. A. . . . .340 

Mr. Parsons' Arrangement of the Coin-Types of Aethelred IT. 

A Criticism. By G. C. Brooke, B.A 370 

Mr. G. C. Brooke on " The Coin-Types of Aethelred II." A 

Pieply. By H. Alexander Parsons 381 

Charles I : The Trials of the Pyx, the Mint-Marks, and the 

Mint Accounts. By Henry Symonds, F.S.A. . . . 388 


Muhammad AH, Nawab of the Carnatic (1752-1795 A.D.), and 

his Copper Coins. By Major R. P. Jackson . . . 14G 

The Coinage of Balapur, By Major R. P. Jackson . . . 158 
A Find of Gupta Gold Coins. By R. Burn, I.C.S., M.R.A.S. 398 


The Monogram BR or RB on Certain Coins of Charles I . .203 

Find of Coins at Winterslow, near Salisbury . . 205 

Find of Roman Coins at Nottingham . . . . . . . 205 

Note on the Coinage of Muhammad Ali . . 325 

Vergil and Coins .... 409 

Forgeries from Cacsarea Ma/aca . 411 

Medal of Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, by Cesare da Bagno . 412 






Die Mtinzen von Pergamon. By Dr. Hans von Fritze . . 207 
Die Miinze in der Kulturgeschichte. By F. Friedensburg . . 208 

Catalogue of Coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, including 
the Cabinet of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. Hi., 
Mughal Emperors of India. By H. Nelson Wright, I.C.S. 326 

Roman Coins from Corstopitum 413 



I. Roman Medallions and Coins. 

II. Coinage of Henry VI, 1470-U71 : London Mint. 

III. Coinage of Henry VI, 1470-1471 : London arid Bristol 


IV. Coinage of Henry VI, 1470-1471 : York Mint*. 
V. Coinages of the Carnatic and Balapur. 

VI. Coins of Aethelred II. 

VII. Coins and Medals of Aethelred II. 

VIII., IX. Short-Cross Pennies, Richard I and John. 

X. Alexandrian Tetradrachms of Tiberius. 

XL XIII. Medals of Paul II. 

XIV. Gupta Coins found in Mirzapur. 



MANY of the stories which kindled our youthful imagi- 
nations have faded into myths under the light of modern 
research, and can no longer be regarded as belonging to 
history. It has been proposed to add yet another to the 
list, for Dr. Assmann of Berlin has endeavoured to show 
that the story told by the Eornans to explain the name 
Moneta, given to the goddess Juno of the Citadel, is 
involved with difficulties, which disappear if we regard 
the word " Moneta " as derived from a Punic word in- 
scribed on the Carthaginian tetradrachms. 


Dr. Ernst Assmann of Berlin published a paper on 
Juno Moneta (Klio, vol. vi. p. 477), in which he puts 
forth a new and most interesting derivation of the word 
" Moneta." He suggests that this word was derived from 
the inscription on the silver Carthaginian coins which 
were current in Sicily and Italy before the Punic Wars. 

There are three well-known types bearing the word 
"" Machanat," meaning " camp." 

I. Obv. Deified head of Dido to left. 

Rev. Lion to left, and palm-tree behind. 

In exergue, runD DVt? (" people of the camp "). 



II Ql)v. Head of Persephone surrounded by dolphins. 
Rev. A horse's head ; exergue, n:n DSJ. 

III. Olv. Head of the Tyrian Herakles, Melkarth, in 
lion-skin; copied from coins of Alexander 
the Great. 

. Same as II. Exergue : HTO or TUPIE PI Dtf. 

Dr. Assmann has shown from the Septuagint that the 
" ch " sound of n was softened or omitted, and the word 
would be pronounced Ma-anat. For instance, the 
Septuagint wrote Taa/3 for Dm and 'Ptoi)^ for Dim (Ezra 
iv. 8), and <Po/3oaju for Dinm (1 Kings xi. 43). 

AVe have the same word runo in Gen. xxxii. 8, 11, the 
Septuagint rendering of which is TrapejujSoXi?, " a fortified 
camp or castle." In the title of Psalm liii. we have the 
Greek word MacXt'0 for rhr\n. In 2 Chron. xi. 18 the 
name rferiD is written juoAa'0 by the Septuagint writers.. 
We see, then, from these examples how easily the 
Phoenician word roTO might have been pronounced 
juovtfl, and how the Eomans may have spoken of these 
coins as Moneta. 

AVe have all been taught hitherto that the word 
" Moneta," applied to Juno, signified the goddess who 
warned or reminded ; but we neglected to think that 
such a form as " Moneta " is a strange one if derived from 
monere. The ancients did not understand the science 
of philology, and made many mistakes, such as their 
derivation of Neptune from Nando (Cic., De Nat. Deor., 
ii. 26), or tunica from tuendo (Varro, De L. L., v. 14). We 
do not find any other verb of the same conjugation as 
monere presenting a noun like moneta. There is no 
such word as hdbeta from liabere, or taceta from tacere, or 
volcta from volcre, or terreta from terrere, or doleta from 


dolere, or jaceta from jacere. We have no such words as 
egeta or tdbeta. Have we, therefore, any reason for 
making an exception for the word " Moneta " ? 

If we accept Dr. Assmann's derivation of the word 
" Moneta," we are only adding another to the list of 
Semitic words received by the Komans, such as tunica, 
saccus, canna, asinus, mappa, and cadus. 

According to Polybius (3. 22, 24), the Carthaginians 
in 348-300 B.C. granted the Eomans in Punic Sicily full 
freedom of trade, and the same privileges as their own 
citizens. No doubt during the years the Komans were at 
peace with the Carthaginians, the traders brought many 
of the silver pieces marked " Machanat " to Italy, and they 
would be well known in Kome, and especially by Eomans 
who traded in Magna Graecia and Sicily. 

The word " Moneta " would thus be associated with 
money, but if the Komans knew the meaning of the 
word " Machanat " it would be associated also with war, 
with camps or hosts. The temple of Juno Moneta was 
built or rebuilt in the fourth century, on the hill near the 
Capitol, where now stands the Church of the Ara Coeli. 
Livy tells us (vi. 20 ; vii. 28) that the site had been 
that of the house of Manlius. It is not likely that a 
vow would have been made by a soldier on the battle- 
field to build a temple to the Juno of marriage and 
womanhood ; but if we realize the warlike nature of the 
old Juno Kegina, identified with Astarte by the Cartha- 
ginians, we see how appropriate was the vow made by 
Camillus in 345 B.C. 

The mint was probably established on the arx as a 

site both fortified, secluded, and near the military watch. 

If the mint was established to coin money for the 

army, and if the Carthaginian word " Machanat," which 



had been used for money, was recognized as meaning 
" fortified camp or castle," we can see how suitable was 
the precinct of the warlike goddess as a site for the mint. 
The old Aerarium in the temple of Saturn may have 
been a safe place for the treasury, but not so convenient 
a site for the mint. 

Moreover, if Juno had then been looked upon merely 
as the divine patroness of women and marriage, the 
choice of a site near her temple for a place like a mint, 
with its furnaces and the noise of its workmen, would 
have been extraordinary ; but when we regard Juno as 
the camp goddess, the holder of the spear, we see how 
naturally the means for carrying on the wars over which 
Juno presided, i.e. the money, would have been produced 
near her shrine. 

At the time when a mint was established the Komans 
were aware of the similarity of the Juno Moneta cult 
with that of Hera, and as the Romans received their 
art from Magna Graecia, Juno was represented by 
copies of the images of Hera in those cities. Hence 
we rarely find Juno represented wearing a helmet 
Hera on an ancient Greek vase holds a spear in her 
hand, but her brow is adorned with a fillet. The heads 
of Hera on the coins of Magna Graecia are adorned 
with the sphendoiie and not with a helmet. So on the 
coins of T. Carisius and of L. Plaetorius Cestianus, the 
goddess wears the fillet, not the helmet, and yet is 
not for that reason to be regarded as the Juno 

In his recent work on Historical Eoman Coins, 
Mr. G. F. Hill says, " There can be little doubt that 
Moneta gave rather than owed its name to the goddess. 
Moneta is the personification of money ; and if the 


idea she embodies was of Carthaginian origin, we can 
understand why she became identified with Juno. We 
may take it, therefore, that the Koman mint was from the 
first attached to the temple on the Capitol. But in this 
still comparatively conservative period it is not to be 
expected that the Komans should represent on their 
coinage a deity who was a somewhat unsubstantial per- 

Mr. Hill agrees with Dr. Assmann that the name 
" Moneta " is derived from the coinage rather than from 
the character of the goddess, and he also agrees that at 
that early period " a somewhat unsubstantial personifica- 
tion is not to be expected ;" the word "moneta" then must 
have reference to the actual pieces of money, though for 
a piece of money the Eomans used the word " nummus," 
and no passage of Latin literature supports such a use of 
" moneta." 

We know from Virgil that the Komans in the Augustan 
age recognized Juno as the patroness of the Punic race, 
and there is evidence that this was recognized by the 
Phoenicians in the days of Hannibal. The Komans can 
hardly have been ignorant of the meaning of the word 
"Machanat," and probably pronounced it "Monat." 

The word " camp " would be a most natural adjective 
to apply to the goddess of the camp. The interesting 
point which arises from the consideration of the religious 
ideas involved is the importance which the cult of Hera, 
or Juno, assumed at that date in Italy. It is an illustra- 
tion of the manner in which the Italians were influenced 
by the Greeks long before the conquest of Greece by 
the Romans, and also of the unity of idea which under- 
lies the various names given to the conceptions of the 
ancients concerning the powers above. The attribution 



of sex to the higher powers was a form of anthropo- 


The earliest coin which bears a head of Juno is the 
triens, issued in Campania after 269 B.C., and belonging 
to the third period of that coinage (see Fig. 1). This 

FIG. 1. 


FIG. 3. 

head is decorated with a sphendone, and a curious horn- 
like ornament; the hair is rolled in three plaits, and 
three ringlets hang down behind. 

It may be regarded as a head of the goddess Hera 
Lacinia, to whom the Eomans gave the Latin name 
Juno. It is illustrated on p. 18 of vol. i., Babelon, Monn. 
de la Eep. rom. 

Only two silver denarii bear a head of Juno with the 


R;end MONETA that of L. Plaetorius Cestianus, issued 
..'c. 74 B.C. (see Fig. 2), and that of T. Carisius, issued 
in 48 B.C. (see Fig. 3). The earlier of these coins bears 
a head somewhat similar to that on the early Campanian 
bronze coin. The goddess wears the sphendone, but has 
not the three pendent ringlets behind. On the reverse 
is a nude athlete running, bearing a palm and cestus. 
The head of Juno Moneta on the coin of Titus Carisius 
is more Koman in appearance ; she wears only the taenia, 
and one curl hangs at the back of the neck. The reverse 
type shows the tools of the moneyer the anvil, the 
tongs, and hammer. 

We may consider the veiled head on the denarius 
of L. Kubrius Dossenus, issued in 85 B.C., among those 
representing the Juno of the Capitol, because the three 
obverse types on his denarii are those of the three deities 
of the Capitol Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. The head 
of Juno on this coin is veiled, and she bears the 
sceptre of the Juno Kegina over her shoulder. 

All the other coins bearing a head or figure of Juno 
represent the Lanuvian Juno Sospita, and were issued 
by moneyers belonging to families which were derived 
from Lanuvium. 

The names of the families of Lanuvian origin are the 
Papia, Koscia, Procilia, Mettia, Kenia, and Thoria. The 
coin of C. Eenius, issued in 154 B.C., bears on the reverse 
a goddess driving a biga of goats, and Borghesi con- 
siders her to be the Juno of Sparta ("H/cm aryo^ayoe, i.e. 
"Hera the goat-eater"); but at Lanuvium Juno Sospita 
was generally represented with a head-dress of goat's skin. 
It is from an inscription found in Lanuvium that we 
gather that the family was from that city. Borghesi's 
remark may help us to see how there may have been 


a Greek origin for the symbol of the goddess adopted at 

The only family on whose coins the head of Juno 
appears which did not apparently originate in Lanuvium 
is that of the Cornuficii, who are said by Cicero to have 
come from Khegium. 


In order to judge how far Dr. Assmann's theory may 
be worthy of acceptance, it will be necessary first to dis- 
tinguish the various cults of Juno established in Kome. 
The earliest, and that which made the greatest im- 
pression on the literature, was that which regarded 
Juno as the Queen of Heaven, the wife of Jove. The 
temple on the Capitol, in which Jove, Juno, and Minerva 
were worshipped, was the principal seat of this cult. As 
we find the Queen of Heaven worshipped in the East 
under the name Astarte, regarded both as a goddess of 
love and also of war, so in the West we find a warlike 
Juno, contemporary with Juno the goddess of married 
love. And the same double character or two personalities 
under one name is found in Aegina, where there was the 
one Aphrodite symbolized by the tortoise, and the other 
by the goat ; the one a Queen of Heaven and goddess of 
married love, the other a warlike, lawless one. 

The Juno of the Capitol is the goddess who was 
regarded as the patroness of women, and whose titles 
and surnames all have regard to marriage and female 
life, as Pronuba, Matrona, Juga, Lucina. 

The other Juno the protectress of warriors, was wor- 
shipped on the arx, the hill on which now stands the 
Church of Ar'a Coeli, and this is the goddess of whom 


Dr. Assmann writes, and who should be carefully dis- 
tinguished from the Juno of the triad on the Capitol. 

Ovid, in his Fasti (vi. 183), says : " On the summit of 
the arx, it is handed down, that a temple was built to 
Juno Moneta according to thy vow, Camillus ; formerly 
it had been the house of Manlius, who once repulsed 
the arms of Gaul from Capitoline Jove's (abode)." Her 
temple on the citadel was dedicated in the year 344 B.C., 
after the vow of Camillus in the previous year. To this 
protectress, warriors' vows were made on the battle-field, 
as by Lucius Furius in 343 B.C., by C. Cornelius 
Cethegus in 197 B.C. when fighting the Gauls, and by 
M. Aemilius Lepidus in 187 B.C. during the Ligurian 
War. Juno Moneta was also called Curitis, but it is not 
at all certain what that title meant. Some have derived 
it from a Sabine word curis, "a spear," and say the 
Quirites were the spear-bearers ; others, from an in- 
scription, derive the name from currus, a chariot : IOVI 

p, 39). The words of Festus, " Quiritis Juno Dea Sabi- 
norum, cui bellantes aqua et vino libabant," show that 
she was regarded as a soldier's deity. 

In Italy we find this duplication of a female deity not 
only in Kome, but also at Croton and throughout Magna 
Graecia, where Hera, the old earth goddess, was also the 
goddess of the warrior. In the grounds of her temple the 
youths hurled spears at shields, in the games held in 
her honour. It looks as if the cults of Astarte and 
Aphrodite in the East, and of Juno and Hera in the 
West, had followed some natural development, for they 
appear to have grown independently. 

Besides the two principal cults of Juno, there were 
minor shrines which, however, may be connected with 


the two main cults. The temple of Juno on the Aventine 
hill was built to receive the wooden image of the 
goddess of Veii, a Queen of Heaven, and one in whose 
honour processions of virgins were wont to be made 
such as are described by Livy (xxvii. 37). 

The temple on the Viminal hill was erected to the 
same Juno of marriage. Varro says of it, " Et id 
antiquius quam aedis quae in Capitolio facta" (lib. v. 

As associated with the Juno Moneta, the goddess of 
war, we may regard the Juno Sospita, who was introduced 
from Lanuvium, and to whom a temple was built in the 
Forum Olitorium, circa 338 B.C. From the representations 
of this goddess on the coins of moneyers whose families 
were derived from Lanuvium, we see that Juno Sospita 
was a goddess of warriors. The Latins of Lanuvium, like 
their neighbours the Sabines, evidently worshipped the 
Juno who bore the spear. 

The name Moneta is not necessarily to be connected 
with the legend about the geese giving warning in her 
temple on the citadel when the Gauls made their assault 
in 390 B.C. 

The meanings attached by the Komans to the verb 
rnoneo were wider than the simple idea of warning, and 
included advising and instructing ideas which the 
generals of an army would value highly as attributes of 
their deity. 

The vexillum, according to Dr. Assmann, was displayed 
in her temple, even in time of peace, when the people 
met in comitium, and a tuft of grass from the grove round 
her temple was used in the ceremonies connected with the 
declaration of war. Though no one can doubt Moneta 
was a goddess of war, yet the meaning of the name was 


associated with the idea of a wisdom which was as useful 
in peace as in war. 

Mommsen (vol. i. 225) says, " The oldest registers of the 
Eoman magistrates were preserved in the temple of the 
goddess of recollection (Juno Moneta)." This fact, if it 
can be proved, would tend to show that the name was 
independent of the mint, and that the mint was called 
Moneta after the goddess, and not the goddess after the 
mint. Dr. Assmann's theory would imply that the mint 
gave its name to the goddess. 

In fact, we are not limited to a choice between the old 
derivation of the word from the idea of warning con- 
nected with a legend, and the newly proposed derivation 
from the Punic " Machanat." Moreover, we may agree 
with Dr. Assmann both in what he says about the un- 
likelihood of the Eomans then forming the word 
" Moneta," seeing that such a form is not found with 
other kindred verbs, and also with what he says about 
Juno as a goddess of war, and yet we may see another 
explanation of the word which escapes all the difficulties 
raised as yet, and especially escapes those felt by many 
in regard to Dr. Assmann's theory. 

It is acknowledged that the forms of names are often 
archaic. Now, if we regard "Moneta" as an archaic 
formation, showing the old Aryan suffix " -ta " which 
we meet with in Vesta and Morta (Aul. Grell., iii. xvi.) 
and if we account for the long e as a survival of the 
original supine of the second conjugation which was 
later shortened to -itum, we thus escape all the difficulties 
of the old and new derivations. Moreover, the active 
sense of "Moneta," the reminder or adviser, is also 
that of " Vesta," the light-giver or fire-giver. There 
is considerable difficulty in accepting the idea that 


" Moneta " came to equal " immmus " on account of its 
supposed derivation from an inscription on silver Punic 
coins, which became so common and well known as to 
give them a name more popular than " nummus." 

Coins were commonly called after their distinctive 
types, as the tortoises, the owls, the Victoriati, but only 
rarely after a legend or inscription, as in the case of 
the philippi. There is no evidence from finds, or from 
the commonness of the Punic coins, which would lead us 
to accept such a theory. The question of the origin of the 
word " Moneta " appears to belong rather to philologists 
than numismatists. 

As the German publication called Klio is not very com- 
monly met with in the homes of English numismatists, 
I may be excused for bringing this very interesting 
suggestion of Dr. Assmann to the notice of the members 
of this Society, in the hope that a discussion of the 
subject may shed some further light on this obscure 





AT Castle Bromwich, four miles north-east of Birming- 
ham, a hoard of Roman denarii was discovered during 
ploughing operations on Shard End Farm, in the early 

FIG. 1. 

part of the summer of 1909. The coins were found 
about two feet below the surface, and had been buried 
in a pot, pieces of which were found with them. It 
measured 5J ins. in height and 5^ ins. in diameter. The 


restoration of the pot (Fig. 1) was made by Mr. Cozens, 
to whom I am indebted for the drawing. The find being 
clearly treasure trove, the coins were at once handed 
over to the Treasury, and no inquest was held. They 
are mostly in poor condition. 

Of the denarii of- Imperial times, of which 176 were 
found, the earliest belongs to the second consulship of 
Vespasian (70 A.D.), and the latest is of the reign of 
Commodus (Cos. I, Tr. Pot. I, i.e. Ill A.D.). The 
Emperors represented on them are 

Vespasian (Aug. 69 ; died 79 A. D.) 21 

Titus (Aug. 79; died 81 A.D.) 3 

Domitian (Aug. 81 ; died 96 A.D.) ..... 7 

Nerva (Aug. 96 ; died 98 A.D.) 3 

Trajan '(Aug. 98; died 117 A.D.) 32 

Hadrian (Aug. 117; died 138 A.D.) . ... 44 

Sabina (Aug. 128; died 136 A.D.) 2 

Antoninus Pius (Aug. 138; died 161 A.D.) . . 26 

Faustina the Elder (Aug. 138 ; died 141 A.D.) . 10 

Marcus Aurelius (Aug. 161 ; died 180 A.D.) . 17 

Faustina the Younger (Aug. 147 ; died 176 A.D.) 9 

Lucius Verus (Aug. 161 ; died 169 A.D.) . . 1 

Comrnodus (Aug. 177; died 192 A.D.) ... 1 

Total 176 

With them were found five legionary coins of Marcus 
Antonius. These coins were struck by Marcus Antonius 
shortly before the battle of Actium, to pay the troops 
in his service; their frequent occurrence in finds of 
denarii of the first and second centuries A.D. and even 
later proves them to have continued in circulation for 
a long time under the Emperors. This was due" to 
the fact that being so much debased they were not 


necessarily put out of circulation like the rest of the 
silver coinage, when the standard was reduced by Nero. 
Pliny (Hist. Nat., xxxiii. 46) says : " Miscuit denariis 
triumvir Antonius ferrum." 

The find also contained eighteen base denarii; these 
were struck in copper and washed in silver. It was a 
common practice of the Emperors to circulate these 
forgeries with the good money in order to increase the 
revenue which they derived from the coinage. These 
eighteen pieces, though not treasure trove, were sent 
to the Treasury with the silver coins; they are thus 

Marcus Antonius, legionary coin 1 

Yespasian 2 

Trajan 2 

Hadrian 4 

Antoninus Pius 4 

Marcus Aurelius 4 

Faustina the Younger 1 

Total 18 

The following description of the coins gives references 
to Cohen's Medailles Imperiales, and notices omissions 
and mistakes in the second edition of his work. The 
arrangement is chronological under Emperors, coins of 
the same date being placed alphabetically by their 
reverse inscriptions. 







1, 2 

.3, 4, 5 

C. 7. 8 

<J, 10 

11, 12 


1 ! 

R P C 

Galley to r. 


Aquila between two signa. 
Cohen, 2 I. p. 41, 35. 

Similar, number of legion ille- 

Cos II: 70 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 


Pax(?), seated 1., holding cadu- 
ceus and ears of corn. 

Cohen, 1 1. p. 275, 36 (omitted 
in 2nd edition). 

Cos III: 71 A.D. 


P M. 
Head r., laureate. 


Pax, seated 1., holding caduceus 
and olive-branch. 

Cohen,- I. p. 412, 566. 

Cos IV: 72-73 A.D. 

P M COS Mil. 

Head r., laureate. 


Simpulum, aspergillum, capis 
and lituus. 

Cohen, 2 I. p. 371, 45. 


Concordia, seated 1., holding- 
patera and cornucopiae. 
Cohen, 2 I. p. 373, 74. 


Vesta, seated 1., holding simpu- 
lum. - 

Cohen, 2 I. p. 411, 563 
(VESPA, misprint for VESP). 




Head r., laureate. 


Vesta, standing 1., holding sim- 
pulum and sceptre. 
Cohen, 2 1. p. 413, 574. 


Victory, standing r., holding 
palm and crowning a signum. 
Cohen, 1 I. p. 296, 229 (omit- 
ted in 2nd edition). 

Cos V: 74 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 


Head r., laureate. 


Vespasian, seated r., holding 
olive-branch and sceptre. 
Cohen, 2 1. p. 395, 364. 

Cos VI : 75 A. 


Victory, standing 1.. on a ship's 
prow, holding wreath and palm. 
Cohen, 2 1. p. 395, 368. 

Same legend. Female figure, seated 
1., holding a branch. 
Cohen, 2 1. p. 395, 371. 

Cos VII: 76 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 


Eagle displayed on altar, its 
head turned to 1. 

Cohen, 2 1. p. 377, 120. 

Cos VIII: 77-78 A.D. 

Same legend. Head 1., 


Mars, standing 1., holding trophy 
and spear. 
Cohen, 2 I. p. 377, 126. 

IMP. XIX: 78 A.D. 

Same legend. Head r., 



Modius with seven ears of corn. 
Cohen, 2 1. p. 383, 216. 



VESPASIANUS continued. 






Head r., laureate. 


Head r., laureate. 






Winged caduceus. 

Cohen, 2 1. p. 397, 390. 
Attributed by de Salis to 74 A.D. 


Female figure, seated 1., holding 
her drapery in her r. hand, and 
leaning her 1. arm on the back 
of her chair. 

Cohen, 2 I. p. 370, 28. 
Attributed by de Salis to 78 A.D. 



Victory, standing 1., erecting a 


Head r., laureate. 

trophy ; below, Judaea seated. 
Cohen, 2 I. p. 378, 144. 

SC on a shield borne by two capri- 
corns ; below, a globe. 
Cohen, 2 1. p. 406, 497. 


Cos IV: 75 A.D. 

Head r., laureate. 

Female figure, seated 1., holding 
a branch. 

Cohen, 2 I. p. 443, 162. 

Cos VIII: 80 A.D. 

Head r., laureate. 


Thunderbolt , winged , on a throne. 
Cohen, 2 1. p. 455, 316. 

Same legend. Curule chair, on 
which is a wreath. 
Cohen, 2 I. p. 455, 318. 

Cos V : 76 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 



Wolf and twins to 1. Below, a 
small boat. 

Cohen, 2 I. p. 474, 51. 


DOMITIANUS continued. 
Cos VII: 81 A.D. 




Head r., laureate. 


A goat, standing 1. within a 
laurel wreath. 

Cohen, 2 1. p. 504, 390. 

Cos XIV: 88-89 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 

IMP Xllll COS Xllll CENS 


Athena Promachos to r. 
Cohen, 2 I. p. 491, 235. 

Same legend. Athena Promachos 
to r. on a double ship's prow ; 
at her feet an owl. 

Cf. Cohen, 2 I. p. 492, 237, 
and see note. 

Cos XVI: 92 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 


Athena, standing 1., holding- 

Cohen, 2 I. p. 494, 271. 

Same legend. Athena Promachos 
to r. on ship. 

Cohen, 8 I. p. 494, 274. 

Cos XVII: 95 A.D. 

TR P Xllll. 

Head r., laureate. 


Athena Promachos to r. on ship. 
Cohen, 2 I. p. 496, 289. 

Cos III: 97 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 

Two hands clasped. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 3, 20. 




NERVA continued. 
Cos. Ill : 97 A.D. continued. 





Head r., laureate. 



Fortuna, standing 1., holding 
rudder and cornucopiae. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 7, 71. 


Libertas, standing L, holding 
cap and sceptre. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 10, 117. 




Cos II: 98-99 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 


Vesta, veiled, seated L, holding 
patera and torch. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 40, 203. 

Same legend. Fortuna or Abun- 
dantia, seated 1. on stool, the 
legs of which end in cornua- 
copiae, holding a sceptre. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 40, 206. 


Cos III : 100 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 




Vesta, veiled, seated L, holding 
patera and torch. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 41, 214. 

Same legend. Fortuna or Abun- 
dantia, seated 1. on stool, the 
legs of which end in cornua- 
copiae, holding a sceptre. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 41, 219. 

Same legend. Victory, seated L, 

holding wreath and palm. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 42, 225. 

Cos IV: 101-103 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 


Hercules, standing facing on an 
altar, holding club and lion's 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 43, 234. 


TEAJANUS continued. 
Cos V: 104-111 A.D. 



47, 48, 







TR P. 

Bust r., laureate. 



Rome, seated 1., holding Victory 
and spear. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 26, 69. 

Same legend. Victory, half-draped, 
standing 1. , holding wreath and 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 26, 74. 

Same legend. Victory, fully draped, 
standing 1. , holding wreath and 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 26, 76 (where 
the words " sur des boucliers " 
should be omitted). 

Same legend. Victory, walking to 
1. upon shields, holding wreath 
and palm. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 26, 77 (where 
the words " sur des boucliers " 
should, be inserted after " a 
gauche "). 

Same legend. Pax, standing 1., 
holding an olive-branch and 
leaning on a column. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 27, 83. 

Same legend. Aequitas, standing 
1., holding balance and cornu- 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 27, 85 (where 
" OR " is a misprint for AR 
as the value, 2 francs, clearly 

Same legend. Fortuna, standing 
1., holding rudder and cornu- 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 27, 87. 



TEA J ANUS continued. 
Cos V: 104-111 A.D. continued. 








TR P. 

Bust r., laureate. 


Bust r., laureate wear- 
ing aegis. 

Same legend, 

Bust r., 

Same legend. Head r., 


Same legend. Trophy, with one 
round and two hexagonal 
shields on its arms, at foot one 
round and one hexagonal 
shield, a scythe and two spears. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 28, 100. 

Same legend. DAC CAP in ex- 
ergue. Dacia weeping, seated 
1., on one round and one hex- 
agonal shield ; behind her an 
hexagonal shield, in front two 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 31, 120. 

Pax, seated 1., holding olive- 
branch and sceptre; at her 
feet a Dacian kneeling as a 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 61, 417. 

Same legend. Spes, walking 1., 
carrying flower and holding 
up her skirt. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 64, 457 (mis- 
printed as 455). 

Same legend. Fortuna, seated 1., 
holding rudder and cornu- 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 66, 481. 

Same legend. Trajan, standing 
facing in military dress, hold- 
ing spear and parazonium, 
crowned by Victory, who stands 
holding a palm. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 70, 514. 

Cos VI: 112-116 A.D. 


Bust r., laureate. 

Same legend. ALIM ITAL in 
exergue. Abundantia, stand- 
ing 1., holding ears of corn and 
a cornucopiae; at her feet a 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 18, 9. 


TRAJANUS continued. 
Cos VI: 112-116 A.D. continued. 










Bust r., laureate. 


Bust r., laureate and 

Bust r., laureate and 


Bust r., laureate and 


Bust r., laureate and 

Same legend. ARAB ADCj in ex- 
ergue. Arabia, standing facing, 
her head turned to 1., holding 
a branch and an uncertain 
object. 1 At her feet a camel. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 20, 26 (Cohen 
has mistaken the camel for an 
ostrich, which is not an in- 
habitant of Arabia). 


Mars, walking r., carrying spear 
and trophy. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 29, 103. 


P P S P Q R. 

FORT RED in exergue. For- 
tuna, seated 1., holding rudder 
and cornucopiae. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 34, 150. 

FORT RED in exergue, 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 34, 154. 




Genius, standing facing, head 
turned to 1., holding patera 
and ears of corn. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 46, 276. 

Same legend and type. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 46,277 (TRA- 

1 Cohen describes it as "un roseau?" a most unlikely solution, 
as reeds do not grow in Arabia. The reed requires a damp marshy 
soil, whereas in Arabia Pliny mentions the heat and drought as being 
too great even for the growth of trees, low-growing plants and shrubs 
only being found there. Probably this represents one of the famous 
spices from which Aristotle gives Arabia the epithet evwSrjs, perhaps 
cinnamon twigs tied in a bundle for transportation. 


TRAJANUS continued. 
Cos VI: 112-116 A.D. continued. 







Bust r., laureate and 


Bust r., laureate and 

Same legend. Virtus, standing r., 
his 1. foot on a helmet, holding 
spear and parazonium. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 46, 273. 


On a spiral column a statue of 
Trajan in military dress ; on 
the base, which bears indis- 
tinct reliefs, stand two eagles. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 76, 558. 


Cos I: 117 A.D. 


Bust r., laureate and 
draped, wearing 


Bust r., laureate and | 

CONCORD in exergue. Con- 
cordia, seated 1., holding 
patera ; under her chair a 
cornucopiae, behind her a 
statuette of Spes. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 125, 250. 



FORT RED in exergue. For- 
tuna, seated 1., holding rudder 
and cornucopiae. 
Not in Cohen. 

Cos II: 118 A.D. 

Bust r., laureate and 
draped, wearing 

75, 76 Same legend and bust. 

Across field, FEL AVG. Feli- 
citas, standing 1., holding 
caduceus and cornucopiae. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 158, 595. 


PAX in exergue. Pax, standing 
1., holding olive-branch and 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 190, 1015. 


HADBIANUS continued. 
Cos III : 119-128 A.D. 




Head r., bare. 

Same legend, 

Bust r., 

Same legend. Head r., 

Same legend, 

Head r., 


Bust r., laureate and 

Same legend. Bust r., 
laureate, but not 


Bust r., draped. 

Same legend. Head r., 


Egypt, recumbent to 1., holding 
sistrum and leaning 1. arm on 
a basket ; before her an ibis. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 114, 99. 

Same legend and type. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 114, 102. 


Africa, with elephant's trunk on 
head, recumbent to 1., holding 
scorpion ; before her a basket 
full of fruits. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 116, 138. 


Asia, standing 1., her foot on a 
ship's prow, holding acros- 
tolium and oar. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 120, 188. 

CLEM in exergue. Clementia, 
standing 1., by an altar which 
is garlanded and lighted, hold- 
ing patera and sceptre. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 122, 212. 

Same legend and type. 
Not in Cohen. 


Clementia, standing 1., holding 
patera and sceptre. 

Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 122, 218 
(but bust draped). 


Joy, standing r., holding long 
palm and arranging his head- 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 138, 378. 

Same legend. Pudicitia, standing 
1., veiled. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 139, 392. 



HADRIANUS continued. 
Cos III: 119-128 A.D. continued. 



86, 87 

Same legend. Head r. 





Same legend and head. 


Head r., laureate. 


Head r., laureate. 



Head r., laureate. 


Head 1., bare. 


Same legend. Pudicitia, seated 1., 
veiled. In exergue a globe. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 139, 394. 

Same legend. Rome, seated r., on 
a cuirass and shield, holding 
spear and parazonium. In 
exergue a globe. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 135, 337. 

Same legend. Virtus, standing r., 
his 1. foot on a helmet, holding 
spear and parazonium. 
Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 136, 353 

(head for bust). 

Same legend. Libertas, standing 

1., holding cap and sceptre. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 138, 374. 

Same legend. Abundantia, seated 
1., holding poppy and cornu- 
copiae ; at her feet a modius. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 138, 380. 

Same legend. Female figure, 
standing 1., holding lituus and 
comucopiae, her r. foot on a 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 140, 399 (what 
Cohen calls " une fleur?" is 
evidently a lituus). 


Fides, standing r., holding two 
ears of corn and a basket of 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 168, 717. 


FORT RED in exergue. For- 
tuna, seated 1., holding rudder, 
which rests on a globe, and 

Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 168, 734 
(but different head). 


HADRIANUS continued. 
Cos III: 119-128 A.D. continued. 








100, 101 






Head r., bare. 

Same legend, 

Head r., 


Bust r., laureate and 

COS 111 P P. 

Head r., bare. 


Bust r., laureate. 


Hadrian, standing r., giving his 
hand to Fortuna, who stands 
holding a cornucopiae and 
leaning on a rudder below 
which is a globe. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 171, 761. 

Fortuna, standing 1., holding 
rudder and cornucopiae. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 171, 765. 

P. M. TR. P. COS III. 

LIB PVB in exergue. Libertas, 
seated 1. , holding laurel-branch 
and sceptre. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 181, 903. 

Moneta, standing 1., holding 
balance and cornucopiae. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 186, 963. 


Pietas, standing 1., beside an 

altar, raising both her hands. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 191, 1028. 


Mars, walking r., carrying spear 
and trophy. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 195, 1073. 

Same legend. Home, standing 1., 
holding victory and spear. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 198, 1108. 

Same legend. Aeternitas, stand- 
ing 1., holding the heads of 
the Sun and Moon. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 199, 1114. 

Same legend. Pax, standing 1., 
holding olive-branch and 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 201, 1140. 



HADRIANUS continued. 
Cos III : 119-128 A.D. continued. 


107, 108 







Same legend and bust. 



Head r., laureate. 


Bust r., bare. 



Head r., laureate. 


Same legend. Felicitas or Pax, 
standing 1., holding caduceus 
and cornucopiae. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 201, 1143. 

Same legend. Fortuna, standing 
1., resting on a column, hold- 
ing rudder and cornucopiae. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 202, 1155. 

Same legend. Aequitas, standing 
1., holding balance and cornu- 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 199, 1120. 


Rome, seated 1. on a curule 
chair, holding olive-branch 
and sceptre. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 215, 1304. 


Eomulus, bare-headed, walking 

r., carrying spear and trophy. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 215, 1316. 


Securitas, seated 1., holding 
sceptre, and leaning head on 
1. hand. 

Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 222, 1400 
(bust not draped). 


Victory, standing r., uncovering 
her breast and holding laurel- 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 227, 1455. 


SABINA: 128-136 A.D. 

P P. 

Bust, diademed r. 


Concordia, seated 1., holding 
patera, and leaning 1. arm on 
statuette of Spes ; under her 
seat a cornucopiae. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 248, 12. 

SABINA: 128-136 A.D. continued. 


Bust r., diademed. 



Venus, standing 1., holding an 
apple, and with her 1. hand 
raising her drapery from her 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 253, 73. 


Head r., bare. 

Head r., bare. 

Cos I: 138 A.D. 


124, 125 


Head r., bare. 

Same legend, 

Pietas, standing 1. near an altar, 
raising r. hand and holding 
a fold of her drapery over her 
1. arm. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 372, 1062. 


Fides, standing r., holding two 
ears of corn and a basket of 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 278, 79. 

Same legend. Pallas, standing 1., 
holding Victory and resting her 
1. hand on a shield ; a spear 
rests against her 1. arm. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 277, 67. 

Cos III: 140-144 A.D. 

TR P Clementia, standing 1., holding 
patera and sceptre. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 283, 123. 

Head r. 

Same legend and type. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 283, 124. 


Concordia, standing r., holding 
sceptre and cornucopiae. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 284, 135. 


Genius, standing 1., holding 
branch and sceptre. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 309, 399 (where 
SANATVS is misprinted for 



ANTONINUS PIUS continued. 
Cos III: 140-144 A.D. continued. 






Same legend. 

Head r., 

Same legend. Head r., 

Same legend. Head r., 


Genius, standing facing, head 
turned .to r. , holding sceptre 
and cornucopiae. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 310, 405. 


Victory, standing 1., holding 
wreath and palm. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 312, 437. 


Italy, turreted, seated 1. on a 
globe, holding cornucopiae and 

Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 314, 463 
(but head bare). 







Head r., laureate. 

Cos IV 


COS Mil. 

Vesta, standing L, holding 
patera and sceptre. 

Cohen, 2 II. pp. 292, 203. 

Same legend. Two hands clasped, 
holding caduceus and two corn 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 304, 344. 


LIB 1 1 1 1 in exergue. Liberalitas, 
standing L, holding a tessera 
and a cornucopiae. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 318, 490. 

Same legend and type. LIB Mil 
across field. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 318, 491. 

Cos IV, TE. P. XI : 148 A.D. 



Head r., laureate. 

Salus, standing L, feeding a 
snake which is entwined round 
an altar. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 298, 280. 


ANTONINUS PlUScontimied. 
Cos IV, TR. P. XII : 149 A.D. 


Same, with TR P XII. 


Same legend. Abundantia, stand- 
ing 1., holding two ears of 
corn and an anchor ; to 1. a 
modius filled with ears of corn. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 299, 284. 

Cos IV, TR. P. XIV: 151 A.D. 

Same, with TR P Xllll. 

P P. 
Head r., laureate. 

Same legend. Genius, standing 1., 
holding patera and ears of corn. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 295, 220. 

TR POT Xllll COS Illl. 

PI ETAS in exergue. Pietas, 
standing r., holding goat and 
basket of fruit ; at her feet an 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 830, 616. 

Cos IV, TR. P. XVI: 153 A.D. 

Head r., laureate. 

COS Illl. 

Vesta, standing 1., holding sim- 
pulum and palladium. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 292, 197. 

Cos IV, TR. P. XIX: 156 A.D. 

Same, with TR P XIX. 

Same legend. Artemis (?), stand- 
ing 1., holding in her r. hand 
a small animal (?) and in her 
1. a stag or goat (?) by its 
hind legs. 
Not in Cohen. 

Cos IV, TR. P. XX: 157 A.D. 


Salus, seated 1., feeding a serpent 
which is entwined round an 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 368, 1023. 


Head r., laureate. 

Cos IV, TR. P. XXI: 158 A.D. 

Same legend and head. 


Abundantia, standing 1., with 
1. foot on a ship's prow, hold- 
ing rudder and modius. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 370, 1039. 



ANTONINUS PIUS continued. 

Cos IV, TE. P. XXII: 159 A.D. 






Head r., laureate. 



COS Illl in exergue. Fortuna, 
standing 1., holding rudder 
and cornucopiae. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 308, 387. 

COS Illl in exergue. Octastyle 
temple ; in the centre the 
statues of Augustus and Livia 
seated. In the pediment 
(which is surmounted by a 
quadriga and has statues as 
side acroteria) are statues of 
the three Capitoline gods be- 
tween two recumbent figures ; 
in front of each end column is 
a statue on a base. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 349, 804. 

Cos IV, TE. P. XXIII : 160 A.D. 


Same, with TR P XXI 1 1. 


Pax, standing L, holding olive- 
branch and sceptre. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 327, 573. 

FAUSTINA (wife of Antoninus Pius) : 138-141 A.D. 


145, 146 

Bust r. 

Juno, veiled, standing 1., holding 
patera and sceptre ; at her feet 
a peacock. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 430, 215. 

Same legend. Throne on which 
is a sceptre placed crosswise ; 
below, a peacock to r. with its 
tail displayed. 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 430, 219. 


Struck after the death of Faustina, in 141 A.D. 

Bust r. 


Aeternitas, standing r., arrang- 
ing her veil and holding a 

Cohen, 2 II. p. 416, 41. 


FAUSTINA (wife of Antoninus Pius) : 138-141 A.D. continued. 
Struck after the death of Faustina, in 141 A.D. continued. 



Bust r. 

Same legend. Aeternitas, standing 
1., holding a globe and raising 
her veil over her head. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 415, 32. 


Venus (?), standing 1., holding an 
apple and leaning on a shield. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 419, 73. 


Same legend. Ceres, standing 1., 
raising her r. hand and holding 
a torch. 
Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 421, 101 
(not given in silver). 

? > 

Same legend. Vesta, standing 1., 
holding patera and palladium ; 
at her feet an altar. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 422, 116. 

" " 

Same legend. Female figure, 
standing r., holding sceptre, 
her 1. hand by her side. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 422, 128. 

Same legend. A throne on which 
is a crown, and a sceptre 
placed crosswise. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 423, 131. 

Cos 1 : 140-144 A.D. 


Head r., bare, without 


Juventas, standing 1., dropping 
incense over the flame of an 
incense-altar and holding a 

Cohen, 2 III. p. 40, 389. 

Cos II : 145-160 A.D. 

AVG Pll F. 

Head r., bare, with 
slight beard. 



Spes, walking 1., carrying a 
flower and holding up her skirt. 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 12, 103. 

Same legend. Pax, standing 1., 
holding olive-branch and cor- 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 12, 105. 




Cos II, TR. P. VI: 152 A.D. 





Pll FIL. 

Head r., bare, with 
slight beard. 


Head r., bare, with 
slight beard. 



CLEM in exergue, dementia, 
standing 1., holding patera 
and a fold of her drapery. 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 6, 19. 

Same legend. Genius of the army, 
standing 1., holding patera and 
aquila. At his feet an altar. 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 65, 645. 


Cos II, TR. P. VII: 153 A.D. 
Same legend and head. 


Same type. 

Cohen, 2 III. p. 66, 661. 


Cos II, TR. P. X: 156 A.D. 



Head r., bare, with 
slight beard. 


Aequitas, standing 1., holding 
balance and sceptre. 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 69, 702. 


Cos III : 161-180 A.D. 

Head r. , laureate, with 


Pallas, standing 1., holding 
olive-branch and shield, a 
spear resting on her 1. arm. 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 16, 143. 


Cos III, TR. P. XVIII: 164 A.D. 


Head r., laureate, with 


Soldier, standing r., holding 

spear and leaning on shield. 

Cohen, 2 III. p. 48, 469. 


Cos III, TR. P. XIX, IMP. Ill: 165 A.D. 


Head r., laureate, with 


Roma, seated L, on a shield,, 

holding Victory and spear. 

Cohen, 2 III. p. 49, 481. 


Cos III, TB. P. XX, IMP. IV : 166 A.D. 







Head r., laureate, with 


Victory, standing facing, head 
turned to r., holding palm and 
fastening to a palm-tree a 
shield bearing inscription VIC 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 86, 878. 



Cos III, TR. P. XXII, IMP. V: 168 A.D. 



Head r. , laureate, with 

Aequitas, seated 1., holding 
balance and cornucopiae. 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 89, 899. 

Same legend. Aequitas, standing 
1., holding balance and cornu- 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 89, 901. 

Cos III, TR. P. XXIV: 170 A.D. 


Head r., laureate, with 


Liberalitas, standing 1., holding 
tessera and cornucopiae. 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 43, 413. 


Cos III, TR. P. XXV: 171 A.D. 

Same, with TR P XXV. 


Rome, seated 1., on a cuirass, 

holding Victory and spear. 

Cohen, 2 III. p. 14, 133. 

Cos III, TR. P. XXVII: 173 A.D. 

170 | Same, with TRP XXVI I. j IMP VI COS III. 

Victory, walking r., holding 
wreath and trophy. 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 27, 261. 



FAUSTINA (wife of Marcus Aurelius) : 147-176 A.D. 







174, 175 


177, 178 


Bust r. 


Bust r. 



Bust r., diademed. 

Same legend. Bust r. 
without diadem. 

Spes, standing 1., carrying a 
flower and holding up her 

Cohen, 2 III. p. 138, 24. 


Ceres, seated 1., veiled, on a cista, 
holding two ears of corn and 
a long torch. 

Cohen, 2 III. 139, 35. 

Similar, but Ceres holds small 

Not in Cohen. 


Concordia, seated 1., holding 
flower and leaning 1. arm on 

Cohen, 2 III. p. 140, 54. 

Throne, on which the twin 
children Commodus and An- 
toninus are seated playing. 
No stars above their heads. 
Cohen, 2 II. p. 152, 191. 


Salus, seated 1., feeding a snake 
which is entwined round an 

Cohen, 2 III. p. 152, 195. 


Faustina, standing L, holding 

two children, at either side of 

her two other children stand 

holding out their hands to her. 

Cf. Cohen, 2 III. p. 154, 221. 


Cos II, TB. P. IV: 164 A.D. 


MEN I AC VS. Mars, standing r., holding spear 

Head r., bare. and resting on shield. 

I Cohen, 2 III. p. 192, 229. 


Cos I, TR. P. I: 177 A.D. 





Bust r., laureate, with- 
out beard. 


Victory, walking 1., 
wreath and palm. 
Cohen, 2 III. p. 326, 








P C. 
Galley to r. 




Head r., laureate. 


Head r., laureate. 


Salus, seated 1., holding patera. 
Cf. Cohen, 2 I. p. 401, 431. 
Attributed by de Salis to the 
year 73 A.D. 


Ceres, standing 1., holding ears 
of corn with a poppy and a 

Cf. Cohen, 2 I. p. 372, 54. 
Attributed by de Salis to the 
years 74-79 A.D. 


Cos V: 74 A.D. 

TR P]. 
Bust r., laureate. 



Aequitas, standing 1., holding 
balance and cornucopiae. 
Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 27, 85. 



TEAIANUS continued. 
Cos VI: 75 A.D. 




Bust r., laureate. 

ALIM ITAL in exergue. Abun- 
dantla, standing L, holding 
ears of corn and a cornucopiae ; 
at her feet a child. 
Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 18, 9. 

Cos III: 119-128 A.D. 


Head r., bare. 


Fides, standing r., holding two 
ears of corn and a basket of 

Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 168, 716. 


Germany, standing 1., holding 
lance and resting on shield. 
Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 173, 802. 


HADRIANVS AVG. 1 Rome, seated 1. on a cuirass, 
Head r., laureate. holding Victory and spear. 

Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 197, 1099. 

Same legend and type. 

Same legend. CLEM in exergue. 
Clementia, standing 1. by an 
altar which is garlanded and 
lighted, holding patera and 

Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 122, 212. 

Cos IV, TR. P. XVI: 153 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 

cos mi. 

Vesta, standing L, holding sim- 
pulum and palladium. 

Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 292, 197. 


Cos IV, TR. P. XVII : 154 A.D. 
Same, with TR P XVII 

Same legend. Artemis (?), holding 
two ears of corn and a stag or 
goat (?) by its hind legs. 
Not in Cohen. 


ANTONINUS PIUS continued. 
Cos IV, TE. P. XX: 157 A.D. 





Head r., laureate. 


Abundantia, standing r., her 1. 

foot on a ship's prow, holding 

rudder and a rnodius on her 

1. knee. 

Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 368, 1016. 

Struck after the death of Antoninus, in 161 A.D. 

Head r., bare. 


A column standing on a base 
surmounted by statue of An- 
toninus holding globe and 
Cf. Cohen, 2 II. p. 305, 353. 

Cos II, TE. P. VIII: 154 A.D. 


Head r., bare. 


Pallas, standing 1., holding owl 
and shield, a spear resting on 
her left arm. 

Cf. Cohen, 2 III. p. 66, 663. 

Cos III, TE. P. XVII : 163 A.D. 


Head r., laureate. 


Providentia, standing 1., holding 
globe and cornucopiae. 
Cf. Cohen, 2 III. p. 53, 525. 

Cos III, TE. P. XXIII: 169 A.D. 

Head r., laureate. 

COS III in exergue. For tuna, 
seated 1., holding rudder and 

Cf. Cohen, 2 III. p. 22, 209. 



Cos III, TB. P. XXVI: 172 A.D. 






Head r., laureate. 


Victory, walking 
wreath and palm. 
Cf. Cohen, 2 III. 

1., holding 
p. 27, 265. 


FAUSTINA (wife of Marcus Aurelius). 
Struck after her death, in 176 A.D. 


Bust r. 


Throne with sceptre across it, 
below it a peacock to r. 
Cf. Cohen, 2 III. p. 142, 73. 




(Continued from Vol. IV. p. 417.) 



MOST of these pieces fall under one of the following 
classes : 

(A) Personal or other medals, bearing memento mori 
devices, as, for instance, those of Erasmus of Rotterdam. 

(B) Ordinary commemorative medals, mostly of well- 
known individuals, issued on their death (sometimes on 
their assassination or execution). Some of these, like 
certain sepulchral monuments 64 of Church dignitaries 
and other persons of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seven- 
teenth centuries, and like certain mourning finger-rings 
(described later on), have been designed to serve as a 

14 The sepulchral monument of Archbishop Chichele (died 1443) will 
be referred to later on in connexion with some of these medals. 


memento mori to the living as well as a memorial of the 

(C) Memorial medal ets made, like some memorial and 
mourning finger-rings, " in memoriam," to be distributed 
at funerals. Some of these, like some of those of the 
preceding class, have been designed so to serve the 
double purpose of a memorial of the dead and a memento 
mori to the living. 

(D) Various pieces bearing memento mori devices, used 
as tickets, passes, or badges, in connexion with funeral 
celebrations, medical guilds (Delft and Middelburg), 
medical gardens (Amsterdam), &c. According to Bergs0e 
(Danske Medailler or/ Jetons, Copenhagen, 1893, p. 141), 
certain death's head medalets were at one time used by 
medical students of the Copenhagen University as badges 
on their caps. In Holbein's picture, known as " The 
Ambassadors" (1535), in the National Gallery, London, 
one of the two young men, Jean de Dinteville, Lord of 
Polisy, is represented wearing a little silver death's head 
mounted as a jewel in his black bonnet. Doubtless this 
was not a badge in the strict sense of the term, but 
merely an outward sign of the wearer's mental attitude, 
indicated likewise by the (" hidden ") skull at his feet. 
Needless to say, the death's heads worn as cap-badges by 
some regiments in the German and English armies have 
a very different significance. 

(E) Medals bearing memento mori devices designed to 
have a " moral " significance, and to be used as gifts 
or rewards on special occasions, like the so-called 
" Moralische Pfenninge " of the town of Basel. These 
may be compared to memento mori finger-rings and jewels 
used for devotional purposes, &c. 

In regard to the persons represented on the medals, 


the selection I have made cannot be regarded as a 
" collection of medals of famous men and women," for 
almost unknown individuals are commemorated side by 
side with those whose names are still household words 
amongst the educated classes of the whole world. The 
same may be said of almost every collection of portraits, 65 
and in the case of some medallions, just as in the case 
of many beautifully painted or sculptured portraits, the 
very name of the person represented has been irretriev- 
ably lost. 

In the present paper I have not attempted to describe 
every medal, coin, medallic token, or badge bearing a 
device or inscription relating to death, but those that 
I have selected include characteristic examples of various 
periods. The order followed is mainly chronological, and 
the large Kornan numerals in brackets, as I have already 
stated, refer to the aspects of, or attitudes towards, death 
which I think the devices or inscriptions on the medals 

(X.) Greek coins illustrating a medical and hygienic 
attitude towards preventible death in the fifth century B.C. 

The following silver coins of Selinus in Sicily date 
from about 466-415 B.C., and commemorate the freeing 
of Selinus from a pestilence of some kind (malaria ?) 66 
by the drainage of the neighbouring marsh-lands. 

65 In regard, for instance, to collections of medals of "famous" 
physicians and naturalists, Billroth (1829-1894), the great surgeon, once 
remarked to Dr. J. Brettauer of Trieste (who died in 1905), that the 
medals in such collections are chiefly, not of distinguished and well- 
known, but of forgotten, obscure, or absolutely unknown physicians and 

66 In regard to the question of malaria, it seems to have been at about 
the same period (in the fifth century B.C.) that Greece proper first began 


Obv. Apollo and Artemis standing side by side in a slowly 
moving quadriga, the former discharging arrows 
from his bow. 

FIG. 8. 

ft eVt The river-god Selinus, naked, with short horns, 
holding patera and lustral branch, sacrificing at 
an altar of Asklepios (Aesculapius), in front of 
which is a cock. Behind him on a pedestal is the 
figure of a bull, and in the field above is a selinon 
leaf. Inscription : 2EAINONTION. (Fig. 8.) 

Silver tetradrachm. Catalogue of the Greek 
Coins in the British Museum Sicily, London, 1878, 
p. 140. 

B. Y. Head (Historia Numorum, Oxford, 1887, p. 148) 
says of this piece : " Apollo is here regarded as the 
healing god (aAcSucaicoe) who, with his radiant arrows, slays 
the pestilence as he slew the Python. Artemis stands 
behind him in her capacity of tlXtiOuia. or erowSfva, for the 
plague had fallen heavily on the women too : oWc /cm 
rae ywalKctz cWroKoV (Diogenes Laertius, lib. viii. 2, 
Life of Empedocles, 70). On the reverse the river-god 
himself makes formal libation to the god of health, in 
gratitude for the cleansing of his waters, whilst the image 
of the bull symbolizes the sacrifice which was offered on 
the occasion." 

to suffer severely from malaria, a disease which appears ultimately to 
have taken an important place among the causes of Greek national 
decadence. Vide W. H. S. Jones, Malaria and Greek History, Man- 
chester, 1909. 



. Heracles contending with a wild bull, which he 
seizes by the horn, and is about to slay with his 
club. Inscription : 2EAINONTION. 

FIG. 9. 

Rev. The river-god Hypsas sacrificing before an altar, 
around which a serpent twines. He holds a 
branch and a patera. Behind him a marsh-bird 
(stork) is seen departing. In the field, a selinon 
leaf. Inscription : HYVA2. (Fig. 9.) 

Silver didrachm. Catalogue of the Greek Coins 
in the British Museum Sicily, London, 1878, 
p. 141. 

Head (loc. tit.) says of this piece : " Here, instead of 
Apollo, it is the sun-god Herakles, who is shown struggling 
with the destructive powers of moisture symbolized by 
the bull, while on the reverse the river Hypsas takes 
the place of the river Selinus. The marsh-bird is seen 
retreating, for she can no longer find a congenial home 
on the banks of the Hypsas now that Empedocles has 
drained the lands." It seems that the philosopher 
Empedocles, who at that time was at the height of his 
fame, put a stop to the plague by turning two neigh- 
bouring streams into one, KOI KaTa/uLL^avra yXvKftvai TO. 
ptv/uLara (Diogenes Laertius, loc. cit.). The Selun tines 
conferred divine honours upon Empedocles, and their 
above-described coins still exist as a wonderful monu- 
mental record of the events in question. 


(II.) Greek coins of Eleusis in Attica, commemorating 
the Eleusinian Mysteries. 

The Eleusinian Mysteries were supposed to have 
offered a comforting view in regard to death and a 
future existence. They are commemorated on certain 
bronze coins of Eleusis, supposed to date from the fourth 
century B.C., which represent Triptolemos in a winged 

FIG. 10. 

car drawn by serpents (dragons) on the obverse ; and 
a pig on a pine-torch, or encircled with a wreath of corn, 
on the reverse, with the inscription EAEYSI (Fig. 10). 

Another bronze coin of Eleusis, also referring to the 
Eleusinian Mysteries, has the head of Demeter or Perse- 
phone on the obverse ; and a " plemochoe " on a pedestal 
on the reverse, with the inscription EAEYS. Catalogue 
of Greek Coins in the British Museum Attica, London, 
1888, pp. 112-114. 

In regard to antique gems engraved with devices 
referring to the Eleusinian Mysteries, especially after 
the introduction of these mysteries into Italy and Rome, 
see A. Furtwangler, Die Antiken Gemmen, 1900, vol. 3, 
pp. 208, 253, 339 ; see also C. W. King, Handbook of 
Engraved Gems, second edition, 1885, PL xlvi. No. 3. 

(V.) The murder of Julius Caesar, on the Ides (15th 
day) of March, 44 B.C. 

There is a Koman denarius commemorating the 


murder of Caesar, struck (according to the evidence of 
the historian Dion Cassius 67 ) by actual order of one of 
his murderers, M. Junius Brutus. 

FIG. 11. 

Obv. Bare head of Brutus to right. Inscription : BRVT . 
IMP. L PLAET CEST. (Brutus imperator; 
Lucius Plaetorius Cestianus). 

Eev. Cap or pileus (as the emblem of liberty) between 
two daggers. Below, inscription : EID MAR 
(Eidibus Martis). (Fig. 11.) 

E. Babelon, Monnaies de la Republique Romaine, 
Paris, 1886, vol. ii. p. 119, No. 52. Of this rare 
silver denarius antique plated copies likewise 
occur. The piece was doubtless struck in the 
East some time between B.C. 44 (when Caesar was 
assassinated) and the battle of Philippi (B.C. 42). 
Of the moneyer L. Plaetorius Cestianus no men- 
tion is made in history. 

Several coins struck under Brutus and Cassius after 
the murder of Caesar, have the head of Liberty on 
the obverse, with the inscription, LIBEKTAS or 

During the interregnum which followed the death of 
Nero (A.D. 68), denarii were struck with the head of 
Liberty on the obverse and with the old type of the 
pileus between two daggers on the reverse, the obverse 

67 According to Dion Cassius (Historia Bomana, lib. xlvii. sect. 25) , 
the two daggers on the reverse signify the joint shares of Brutus and 
Cassius in the murder. See also Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum Veterum, 
vol. vi. (1796), p. 24. 


and reverse inscriptions reading : LIBERTAS P. R. 
RESTITVTA (Libertas populi Romani restituta). 
(Fig. 12.) Vide H. Cohen's Medailles Imperiales, first 
edition, 1859, vol. i. p. 249, Nos. 267 and 268. 

FIG. 12. 

The type of the " cap of liberty " between two daggers 
occurs again on the reverse of a medal (described later 
on) commemorating the murder of Alexander de' Medici, 
the first Duke of Florence, in 1537, by his kinsman, 
Lorenzo de' Medici, called " Lorenzino." 

(XI.) Martyrdom of John Huss, the Bohemian 
Reformer, 1415. 

The Reformer's death at the stake is represented on 
various sixteenth- century memorial medals by the 
medallists, Michael Hohenauer and Ludwig Neufarer. 
Hohenauer's monogram was mistaken by Adolf Erman, 
before Fiala's work on the subject, for that of Hieronymus 
Magdeburger. Vide L. Forrer's Biographical Dictionary 
of Medallists ; Eduard Fiala's note on Michael Hohenauer 
in the Numismatische Zeitschrift, Vienna, 1890, vol. 22, 
p. 258 ; and R. Weil, "Die Medaille auf Johannes Hus," 
Zeitschrift fur NumismatiJc, Berlin, 1887, vol. 14, 
p. 125. 

Here it may be mentioned, by the way, that a few 
Byzantine and other relatively early Christian medalets, 
<X:c., exist, commemorating Christian martyrs. Amongst 
the martyrs most frequently portrayed are St. Lawrence, 


St. Agnes, and St. Menas of Alexandria (the last especially 
on little pilgrims' terra-cotta flasks from Egypt). On an 
early Christian leaden medalet with loop for suspension, 
figured by F. X. Kraus (Gescliichte der Christlichen Kunst, 
Freiburg im Breisgau, 1896, vol. i. p. 126), the soul of 
the martyred St. Lawrence is represented as a draped 
(female ?) figure, in the attitude of an " orans," rising out 
of the martyr's roasting body. 

(I. and XVII.) Memento mori medals by Giovanni 
Boldu, of Venice, 1458-1466. 

FIG. 13 (reduced). 
Obv. Bust of Boldu, with Greek inscription. 

Rev. A young man, nude, sitting on a rock, to right, hid- 
ing his face with his hands ; on the right a winged 
child is seated, resting his right arm on a skull 
and holding a torch in his left. Legend : OPVS. 

Diameter, 3-35 inches ; cast in bronze. A. 
Armand, Les Me'dailleurs Italiens, second edition, 
1883, vol. i. p. 36, No. 1. A. Heiss, Les Medail- 
leurs de la Renaissance, Paris, 1887, vol. i. 
(Venetian Medals), PI. ii. No. 2. 



According to Cornelius von Fabriczy (Italian Medals, 
translated by Mrs. G. W. Hamilton, London, 1904, p. 47), 
the winged child on the reverse of this medal is copied 
from the cupid on the reverse of a medal of the Marquis 
Lodovico Gonzaga of Mantua (Armand, op. cit., vol. i. 
p. 27) made by the medallist, Pietro da Fano, about 
1452-1457. I have little doubt that Boldu's reverse 
type, above described (as well as that of another medal 
by Boldu, to which I shall refer in Part IV.)? was intended 
to represent a rather pessimistic aspect of human life, 
reminding one of Goethe's lines commencing, " Wer nie 
sein Brod mit Thranen ass." The child is thrust into 
life and forced to join in its race, with its trials and 
troubles, its punishments and rewards ; and death, a cure 
for grief and misery, awaits him at the end. 

A third medal, made by Boldu in 1446, represents the 
bust of the Koman Emperor Caracalla on the obverse, 

FIG. 14 (reduced). 

with the legend : ANTONINVS. PIVS. AVGVSTVS. 
The reverse is similar to that of the first-described 


medal, but it has the legend, 10. SON. FINE (" I am the 
end ") and the date MCCCCLXYL (Fig. 14.) 

Diameter, 3*6 inches; cast in bronze. Armand, op. 
cit.y vol. i. p. 37, No. 4. Heiss, op. cit., vol. i. PL ii. 
No. 3. 

The reverse type of this medal has apparently sug- 
gested the design for one of the marble medallions which 
I have noticed on the fapade of the famous Certosa di 
Pavia (Carthusian Monastery, near Pavia), but instead of 
the legend, 10. SON. FINE, the marble medallion has 

(V.) Lorenzo and G-iuliano de' Medici and the Pazzi 
conspiracy (1478). 

The Pazzi conspiracy (1478) was formed by members 
of the Pazzi family, assisted by Francesco Salviati, titular 
Archbishop of Pisa. The conspirators decided to assassi- 
nate the two brothers whilst they were attending Mass 
in the Duomo of Florence. Griuliano was killed, but 
Lorenzo escaped and took vengeance on the assassins. 
The following medal was formerly attributed to Antonio 
del Pollajuolo, owing to a statement of Vasari, but has 
recently been assigned by W. Bode to Bertoldo di 
Giovanni, the Florentine sculptor (died 1492). 

Obv. An octagonal scaffolding representing the pillars of 
the Duomo. Above, the head of Lorenzo de' Medici 
to right. Below, priests ministering at an altar. 
Outside the enclosure, conspirators with swords 
drawn, and others, Lorenzo escaping. Inscrip- 

Rev. A similar scene, with the head of Giuliano (to 
left) above it; Giuliano being slain, below. 



Inscription : IYLIANYS MEDICES and LVC- 

Diameter, 2-5 inches ; cast in bronze. C. F. 
Keary, Italian Medals exhibited in the British 
Museum, 1881, p. 16, No. 34. C. von Fabriczy, 
Italian Medals, English edition by Mrs. Hamilton, 
London, 1904, pp. Ill, 112. 

A inedal of Giuliano de' Medici, commemorating the 
same event, has the portrait of Giuliano on the obverse, 
with the inscription : IYLIANYS. MEDICES. On the> 
reverse is a figure of Nemesis, with the inscription, 
NEMESIS. Diameter, 3*55 inches. A. Armand, Les 
Medailleurs Italiens, Paris, vol. iii. 1887, p. 27. 

(II.) Medal of Domenico Kiccio, a Dominican monk 
(circa 1498). 

Obv. Bust, to left, in monastic dress, the head covered byi 
a hood. Inscription : DOMINICYS KICCIYS. 

Rev. Phoenix (emblem of the resurrection of the body and 
immortality of the soul) under the sun. Inscrip- 

Diameter, 2*8 inches. Armand, Les Medailleurt 
Italiens, second edition, Paris, 1883, vol. ii. p. 77 
also vol. iii. (1887), p. 185. 

According to G-. Milanesi (quoted by Armand), this 
Domenico Kiccio was Fra Domenico da Pescia, Savona- 
rola's disciple and companion, who was executed with 
him in 1498. 

(I.) Memento mori medal of Galeotto Marzi (seconc 
half of fifteenth century). 

Olv. Bust to left. Inscription : GALEOTTYS. MAR) 


-Two shelves of books, those in one upright, in the 
other lying flat. Inscription: NASCENTES. 
PENDET. [Manilius, Astronomicon, iv. 16.] 

Diameter, 4 '3 inches ; Italian fifteenth-century 
cast medal. Armand, Les Medailleurs Italiens, 
second edition, Paris, 1883, vol. ii. p. 35, No. 25. 

Galeotto Marzi was a poet and learned man. He was 
tutor to the son of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary. 

There is a similar medal of smaller size (diameter, 31 
inches) with the same design and legend on the reverse, 
but with a somewhat younger portrait on the obverse 
(Armand, op. Git., vol. ii. p. 35, No. 26). 

(XI.) Two Italian medals of about 1500, by the 
medallist termed by Armand, "le Medailleur a la 
Fortune," have on the reverse the inscription : PRIVS. 
MORI. QVA(QVAM). TVRPARI ( " Rather to die than 
be defiled "). On the obverse of one of these medals is 
the portrait of Lodovico Lucio, of Sienna (A. Armand, 
Les Medailleurs Italiens, second edition, Paris,- 1883, 
vol. i. p. 98, No. 2). On the obverse of the other is 
the portrait of Allessandro Vecchietti (1472-1532) of 
Florence (Armand, op. cit., vol. i. p. 99, No. 4). 

(I.) Italian portrait medal (said to be of about 1500 ?). 

Olv. Head of a young man to left. Inscription : PAN- 

Rev. Human skull between what seem to be two closed 
doors with crosses marked on them. Inscription : 

Diameter, 2-7 inches ; bronze. A specimen in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum was obtained 
from the Piot sale at Paris, in 1864. 


The passage in Terence (Eunuchus, 2. 2, 45) from 
which the legend on the reverse is taken is : " Omnium 
rerum, heus, vicissitudo est." The identity of the man, 
whose portrait is represented on the obverse, is appa- 
rently unknown, and the legend seems to be blundered. 
I am indebted for information about this medal to . 
Mr. A. Kichmond and Mr. W. W. Watts, of the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. 

(XI.) Here may be mentioned some Italian bronze 
plaques of the early part of the sixteenth century : the 
bust of Lucretia with a dagger in her hand by Moderno, 
and a larger representation of Lucretia by Andrea 
Briosco, surnamed Eiccio. Moderno likewise represented 
on a circular plaque (diameter, 1*3 inches) the Koman 
tradition of the self-sacrifice of M. Curtius, who, on horse- 
back and fully armed, was said to have leaped into a 
chasm which had appeared in the forum. 

(I.) Medals of Erasmus in 1519 and 1531, with his 
memento mori device. 

Olv. Bust of Erasmus in profile to left. In the field : ER. 
ROT. ("Erasmus of Rotterdam"). Legend: 
HEI (" His image modelled to the living features. 
His writings will represent it better "). Below the 
bust is the date 1519. 

Rev. A man's head to left on a cubical boundary stone 
inscribed, TERMIN VS. In the field: CONCEDO 
NVLLI ("I yield to none"). Legend: OPA 

i!8 A Greek version of the common "Respice fiiiem." The Greek 
word T\os may, however, like the Latin word " finis " and the English 
word " end," signify not merely the end or final event of life, but rather 



LTNEA RERVM (" Keep in view the end of a 
long life. Death is the final goal of all "). (Fig. 15.) 

FIG. 15 (reduced). From a specimen formerly in the author's 

the final object. If this is so, '6pa reAos (or " Respice finem") becomes 
practically equivalent to "Live to die." Similarly, when death is 
described as the "ultima linea rerum," the word " linea" (doubtless 
used by Horace as the goal-line in a race) may signify either the limit 
(end) or the object (goal). 


Diameter, 4-15 inches ; in bronze or lead ; cast. 
Julien Simonis, UArt du Medailleur en Belgique, 
Bruxelles, 1900, PI. ii. No. 3. 

There are two very similar but smaller medals, both 
cast. One (an obverse only) bears the same date 1519 
(diameter, 1*75 inches ; Simonis, op. cit., PI. ii. No. 4) 
as the large medal, and has the inscription, EEASMVS * 
EOTEKO * around the portrait of Erasmus. The other, 
the smallest of the three, is dated 1531 (diameter, 1'35 
inches ; Simonis, op. cit., PL ii. No. 5), and very much 
resembles the largest medal in type and legends, but 
the features of Erasmus are slightly more sharply cut. 

The large medal has been attributed to Durer, and it 
is interesting that Durer 's signed engraving of Erasmus 
(see Fig. 16), dated 1526, bears a very similar inscription 
to that on the obverse of the medal. On Diirer's en- 
graving, however, the head of Erasmus is not quite in 
profile, and his features are much more sharply expressed 
than on the medal. Moreover, the portrait on the 
medal is now supposed to be after a lost original by 
Quentin Metsys. Erasmus himself wrote that Quentin 
Metsys made a portrait of him, cast in metal. According 
to Julien Simonis (op. cit., pp. 80-88), one of the above- 
described medals was the work of the medallist Jean 
Second, who probably modelled it from a medallion by 
Quentin Metsys now lost. 1 do not see why the obverse 
of the large medal should not be the work of Quentin 
Metsys himself. 

The largest and the smallest of these medals of Erasmus 
are likewise figured in the Museum Mazzuchellianum, 
Venice, 1761, vol. i. PI. 45 and PI. 46. In that work it 
is explained that the " Terminus " (terminal head) on 
the reverse is an allusion, not to the great value of the 



writings of Erasmus, as some have supposed, but to 
death, the common goal of all, i.e., as the medal itself 



FIG. 16. Engraving of Erasmus by Diirer. Reduced from an 
example in the British Museum. 

tells us, "mors ultima linea rerum " (Horace, Epist., 
Book i. 16, line 79). 
A man's head on a cubical stone inscribed, TEKMINVS, 


with the legend, CONCEDO NVLLI or CEDO NVLLI, 

was the favourite device of Erasmus. In the Museum of 
Basel is an original sketch, which I have seen, showing 
a rendering of this device, by Holbein (No. 122 of the 
sketches in the Museum), and there is likewise a fine 
woodcut by Holbein, designed for a title-page to the 
works of Erasmus, representing Erasmus standing under 
a highly decorative Kenaissance arch, with his right hand 
resting on the head of a terminal figure (or " Hermes "), 
on which is the inscription, TEBMINVS. On a seal, 
which Erasmus had specially engraved for himself, the 
man's head on the boundary stone was represented facing, 
not (as on the medals) in profile, and the legend was 
CEDO NVLLI, not (as on the medals) CONCEDO 
NVLLI. 69 With this seal, which I shall illustrate later 
on, he sealed his last will, dated at Basel, in the house 
of Jerome Frobenius, 12th February, 1536 ; and an 
enlarged copy of the "TEBMINVS" on this seal was 
placed by his heirs over the tablet where he was buried 
in the Cathedral of Basel (cf. B. B. Drummond, 
Erasmus, his Life and Character, London, 1873). 

The " Terminus " device of Erasmus might be regarded 
as a " masked," " disguised," or " softened " memento mori, 
analogous to the elongated death's head which is repre- 
sented on Holbein's famous picture (to which I have 
already alluded) painted in 1533, known as " The 
Ambassadors," in the London National Gallery. 

39 This seal is figured by J. J. Jortin, together with an antique 
intaglio representing a terminal bust (or " Hermes "), without any in- 
scription, from which Erasmus apparently derived his idea of adopting 
a terminal figure as his memento mori device. See J. Jortin, Life of 
Erasmus, London, 1808, vol. iii. (specimens of the handwriting of 
Erasmus, No. 1). In Part IV. I shall again refer to this seal of 


(I.) Memento mori medal of Pietro Balanzano, of 
Venice (early sixteenth century). 

Obv Head in high relief to left. Inscription : PETRO 

Rev. A. human skull. Inscription: NVLA EST RE- 
DENCIO (that is equivalent to "There is no 
escape from death "). 

Diameter, 2 '3 inches. A bronze Italian medal 
of the first quarter of the sixteenth century, in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 
Armand, Les Medailleurs Italiens, second edition, 
Paris, 1883, vol. ii. p. 128; and vol. iii. (1887), 
p. 205. 

(II.) Medal of Tommaso Moro of Venice, Prefect of 
Verona 1527. 

Obv. Bust to right. Inscription : THOMAS MAVRVS 

Rev. Phoenix in flames, an emblem of the resurrection of 
the body and the immortality of the soul. Inscrip- 

Diameter, 2-0 inches. Bronze medal by Pome- 
dello of Verona. Armand, Les Medailleurs 
Italiens, second edition, Paris, 1883, vol. i. p. 
128, No. 11. 

(II.) A phoenix, with the word REVIXIT, occurs 
likewise on the reverse of a medal of Cardinal Christofero 
Madruzzo, Prince-Bishop of Trento (died in 1578), by 
Lorenzo Parmigiano (Armand, op. cit., vol. i. p. 278, 

(V.) The murder of Alexander de' Medici, the first 
Duke of Florence, 1537. 

Alexander de' Medici was assassinated, in the name 
of liberty, by his kinsman Lorenzo de' Medici, called 



" Lorenzino," on the night of 5th to 6th January, 1537. 
The following medal (which is not very rare, and for 
some information about which I am indebted to Mr. W. 
Wroth) is described by A. Armand, Medailleurs Italiens, 
second edition, Paris, vol. ii. p. 151, No. 3. 

FIG. 17. 

Obv. Bare head of Lorenzino, to right. Inscription : LAV- 

Rev. Cap of liberty (the Roman " pileus ") between two 
daggers. Below : VIII ID IAN (6th January). 

Diameter, 1-5 inches; bronze. (See Fig. 17.) 

The reverse device is adopted from the reverse of the 
Roman denarius of Brutus (which I have already referred 
to) commemorating the murder of Julius Caesar on the 
Ides of March, 44 B.C., but the date under the cap of 
liberty on the Italian medal is of course different. 
After the murder Lorenzino fled to Venice, where Filippo 
Strozzi (called " the younger ") greeted him as the 
" Tuscan Brutus." The medal, which is of the size of a 
Roman large bronze coin or bronze medallion, was doubt- 
less made at that time or slightly later, I would suggest 
at Padua, perhaps by Giovanni Cavino. Lorenzino was 
himself assassinated in 1548. 


(I) German plaque, of about 1530-1540. 

There is a circular plaque (1*8 inches in diameter) of 
white metal, possibly the reverse for a medal, representing 
a lady, in the costume of the time, seated in the interior 
of a room, offering the breast to a baby ; on the table is 
a death's head and on the window-sill an hour-glass. It 
is of good workmanship, and signed L.E., apparently 
by Lorenz Kosenbaum, a goldsmith and a medallist of 
Schaffhausen. There are specimens in both the British 
Museum (see Fig. 18) and the Victoria and Albert 

FIG. 18. Plaque by Lorenz Rosenbaum. From an original in 
the British Museum. 

Museum. The design is taken from a well-known en- 
graving (already alluded to in Part I. : see Fig. 4) by 
Barthel Beham (1502-1540), which, though it may be 
intended to represent the Madonna and Child, seem& 
likewise to suggest thoughts of the beginning and the 
inevitable end of life. Anyhow, two other engravings by 
B. Beham, representing human skulls (in one of these 
engravings there are three, in the other four skulls) 
and a baby with an hour-glass were certainly meant to 
suggest such thoughts and illustrate the line of Manilius : 


" Nascentes morimur, finisque ab origine pendet ; " or, as 
a physiologist has expressed it, "The first cry of the 
newly-born child is its first step towards the grave." 

(II. or III.) Here we may for convenience mention a 
uniface portrait medal by Lorenz Eosenbaum, dated 1531, 
the portrait (bare head to right) being apparently that 
of the artist himself. The inscription is YT MOBTV YS 


L.E. 1531. The medal, which is cast in lead (diameter, 
1-75 inches), is described and figured by E. Merzbacher, 
"Beitrage zur Kritik der deutschen Kunstmedaillen," 
Mittheilungen der Bayerisclien Numismatisclien Gesell- 
schaft, Munchen, 1900, vol. 19, p. 8, and PI. i. Fig. 4. 
I am indebted for this reference to Mr. L. Forrer. Lorenz 
Eosenbaum, probably a son of the goldsmith Conrad 
Eosenbaum, was born at Schaffhausen, but from 1539 to 
1546 worked as a goldsmith in Augsburg. The meaning 
of the legend is either: "Yivo hie moriturus," "I live 
here about to die," i.e. " This is my portrait before death ; " 
"Ut mortuus viverem/' "(I made this portrait) that I 
might live after death " or else : " I live here (on earth) 
about to die (i.e. prepared for death) so that I may live 
after death;" but in the latter case one would have 
expected " vivam " instead of " viverem." 

(II. and XIV.) Memorial medal of Queen Dorothea 
of Denmark (mother of Frederick II), (1560). 

Obv. Profile head of Queen Dorothea to right. Inscrip- 

Rev. Hour-glass over skull and crossed bones. Inscrip- 
STVNDE. (Fig. 19.) 

Diameter, 1-1 inch ; silver gilt. Danske Mynter 
og Medailler i den Kongelige Samling, Copenhagen, 



1791, p. 212, No. 4, PI. xii. No. 5. The meaning 
of the reverse inscription, which is similar to 
some inscriptions engraved on old-fashioned sun- 
dials, is doubtless that of Thomas a Kempis in 

FIG. 19. 

De Imitatione Christi, Book I. chap. xxv. 11 : 
"Memento semper finis, et quia perditum non 
redit tempus." 

(I.) Medal of Onophrius Korn(1562). 
Obv. His bust, to left, with inscription. 

Rev. Male figure, holding hour-glass, leaning on an altar 
or tomb (on which is a death's head) inscribed : 
RESPICE FINEM. The whole reverse device 
is in an architectural " setting." 

This medal, by a German artist signing himself S. W., 
is figured by A. Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 
1884, PL vii. No. 3. 

(XL) Medal of Goffredo Franco (about 1565). 

Ofa>.~- Bust to left. Inscription : IOFREDVS FRANCVS. 
Artist's signature, P. P. R. 

Rev. A nude man standing on a pedestal in the middle of 
the sea, holding a rod in his left hand, his right 
foot resting on a skull. Inscription : POTIVS. 
death than change one's mind "). 

Diameter, 2*2 inches. A medal by Pietro 


Paolo Galeotti, called " Romano." Armand, Les 
Medailleurs Italiens, second edition, Paris, 1883, 
vol. i. p. 229, No. 7. 

(XL) The same reverse type and legend occur on a 
medal of Alberto Litta, dated 1565, attributed to the 
same artist (Galeotti), though not bearing any signature 
(Armand, Les Medailleurs Italiens, Paris, vol. iii. (1887), 
p. 112). 

(I. and VIII.) Medal of Sebastian Zah, of Augsburg 
(about 1571). 

Obv, His bust to right, with bare head and pointed beard. 
Inscription : SEBASTIAN . ZAH . ANNO . 
AET . XXXXV. (Artist's signature) AN. AB. 

Rev. A man in rich costume, with feathers in his cap. 
Inscription : RESPICE FINEM. 

Diameter, 1*6 inches. By Antonio Abondio, 
the younger (1538-1591). Armand, Les Medail- 
leurs Italiens, second edition, Paris, 1883, vol. i. 
p. 274, No. 34. 

(XI.) Massacre of St. Bartholomew (1572). 

The medal of Pope Gregory XIII, commemorating 
this event, bears the signature of the medallist, Federigo 
Bonzagna, called " Parmigiano." 

Ol)V. Bust of the Pope, to left, in cape and skull-cap. 
AN ' I Below the bust, artist's signature, F. P. 

Rev. Destroying angel to right, holding sword and cross ; 
men and women dead, wounded, and flying 
before her. Legend: VGONOTTORYM 
STRAGES 1572. 

Diameter, T25 inches; struck; silver, bronze 
gilt. A. Armand, Les Medailleurs Italiens, second 
edition, Paris, 1883, vol. i. p. 226, No. 37. 
Many restruck examples and later copies exist ; 


the modern English copies, of a somewhat larger 
size, being those most unlike the originals. 

The Massacre of the Huguenots is commemorated in 
the same spirit by Vasari's fresco in the Sala Regia of 
the Vatican at Borne, though the inscription under the 
painting has been obliterated. 

Two French medals of Charles IX (one with the 
inscription : VIETVS IN KEBELLES, on the reverse) 
refer to the same event. See Medailles Frangaises 
dont les coins sont conserves au Musee Monetaire, Paris, 
1892, p. 10, Nos. 35, 36. Many restruck specimens 

(I.) Medal of Gabrielle Fiamma, of Venice, Bishop of 
Chioggia in 1584. 

Obv. His bust to right ; in front, a human skull. Inscrip- 

Bev. Inscription in twenty-five lines. 

Diameter, 3*2 inches ; a bronze cast medal of the 
second half of the sixteenth century, by Andrea 
Cambi, called " II Bombarda," of Cremona. 
Armand, Les Medailleurs Italiens, second edition, 
Paris, 1883, vol. ii. p. 227 ; and vol. iii. (1887), 
p. 96. 

The skull on the obverse may be intended as a memento 
mori device, but the obverse inscription refers apparently 
to Fiamma's passing safely through trials and difficulties 
of life : " Forsan et haec olim meminisse juvabit " 
(" Perhaps some day it will be pleasant to remember even 
these" Virgil, Aen., lib. i. 203). 

(XL) Medal of Faustina Sforza, wife of the Marquis 
of Caravaggio Muzio (second half of the sixteenth 



Bust to right. Inscription: FAVSTINA SFORTIA . 

An ermine-like animal pursued by a huntsman and 
a dog. Inscription: MORI POTIVS QVAM 
FOEDARI ("Better to die than be defiled;" 
" Rather death than dishonour "). Artist's signa- 
ture in incuse letters : PETRVS . PAVLVS . 

Diameter, 3'0 inches. Medal by Pietro 
Paolo Galeotti, called " Romano." Armand, 
Les Medailleurs Italiens, second edition, Paris, 
1883, vol. i. p. 234, No. 35. 

The reverse design on this medal refers to the power 
of some of the " mustelidae " (e.g. the skunk) to save their 
lives by ejecting a fluid of intolerable odour, which com- 
pels their pursuers to abandon the chase. The meaning 
of the reverse is therefore, " It is preferable to die than 
to dishonour one's self by committing a disgraceful 
action ; " " Honesta rnors turpi vita potior " (Tacitus, Vita 
Ayricolae, xxxiii.). 

(I.) A memento mori reverse for a medal, by the 

FIG. 20. 

Silesian medallist, Tobias Wolff (second half of the six- | 
teenth century), is figured in A. Erman's Deutsche 


Medailleure, Berlin, 1884, p. 69. A naked child, holding a 
flower, seated by a human skull and bones ; in the back- 
ground, a tree with a withered leafless branch and a 
vigorous branch rich in leaves. Inscription: SIT NOMEN 
DOMINI BENEDICTVM. (See Fig. 20.) This design, 
which bears the artist's signature, ^W, occurs as a reverse 
with an obverse of much later date. The design obviously 
illustrates the frequently quoted line of Manilius : " Nas- 
centes morimur, finisque ab origine pendet." It also 
illustrates the eternal succession of new life springing 
from the old. 

(II., VII., XVI.) Plaque representing Death yielding 
to Valour (or Virtue). 


M J 

FIG. 21. 

In the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford there is a six- 
teenth-century plaque of white metal (circular ; diameter, 
2*8 inches) with figures of Death and Valour (or Virtue) 
in very low relief. Death (on the left) is represented by 
a skeleton, crowned and holding a scythe, standing in 
an attitude of fear or submission before a fully armed 



Minerva-like female figure approaching (on the right). 
Above the skeleton is the word MOES ; above the armed 
figure, VIET VS. Death may here represent destruction 
and ruin in an enterprise, or merely imminent defeat and 
death in warfare, which can sometimes be prevented by 
courage. The device may, however, be an allegorical 
representation of death being " swallowed up in victory " 
(St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, chapter xv. 
verse 54), that is to say, in a sense, being overcome by 
virtue. For permission to illustrate this plaque, I am 
indebted to Mr. Hogarth and Mr. Bell, of the Ashmolean 
Museum, who kindly sent me a cast (see Fig. 21). 

(II.) A memorial medal of Adolph Occo III (1524- 
1606), a physician of Augsburg, has the following inscrip- 
tion on the reverse: VITA MIHI CHEISTVS MORS 
EEIT IPSA LVCE VM (" To me to live is Christ, and to 
die is gain" St. Paul's Epist. to the Philippians, chapter i. 
verse 21). C. A. Eudolphi, Numismata Virorum de Rebus 
Medicis, &c., Duisburg's edition of 1862, p. 110. 

(II.) Another memorial medal of the same physician, 
communicated to me by Dr. H. E. Storer, has the 
following inscriptions on the reverse : ABSOEPTA EST 
MOES IN VICTOEIAM ("Death is swallowed up in 
victory" St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, 
chapter xv. verse 54) ; and IPSE IVBET MOETIS 
TE MEMINISSE DEVS ("God Himself commands you 
to remember death " Martial, Epigram, lib. ii. No. 59. 70 
Compare Psalm xc. verse 12). 

70 What Martial's meaning was the context will best show 

" Frange toros, pete vina, rosas cape, tinguere nardo : 
Ipse jubet mortis te meminisse deus." 


(II.) Memorial medal of Nicholas and Dorothy Wad- 
ham (1618?), the founders of Wadham College, Oxford. 

O&y. Bust of Nicholas Wadham, three-quarters, to right, 
head bare, in ruff and plain cloak. Inscription : 

ft eVt Bust of Dorothy Wadham, three-quarters, to left, in 
damasked gown, stiff ruff, and broad-brimmed 
hat. Inscription: WE SHAL APPEARE 

A narrow wreath, united by a skull at each 
side and at each end, forms a border on both 
sides. Oval medal, consisting of two plates or 
shells soldered together. Diameter, 2-15 x 1'8 
inches. Medallic Illustrations, London, 1885, 
vol. i. p. 220, No. 73. 

Nicholas Wadham, of a family settled at Merrifield, in 
Somersetshire, died in 1609, at the age of 77 years. 
Dorothy Wadham, his wife, died in 1618, at the age 
of 84 years. She was a daughter of Sir William Petre, 
Principal Secretary of State to Queen Elizabeth. The 
first stone of Wadham College was laid on July 31. 

(V. and XL) Execution of John van Olden Barneveldt, 
Grand Pensionary of Holland (1619). 

There are three different medals commemorating the 
death of Barneveldt, each of which bears his portrait and 
name on the obverse, and an inscription on the reverse, 
referring to his high character and the injustice of his 
execution. These medals are described and figured in 
G-. van Loon's Histoire metallique des Pays-Bas, French 
edition, 1732, vol. ii. pp. 109-111. 

(II. and VIII.) Danish memento mori medal (1634). 


Qlv Inscription in seven lines : NAAR DU : MEENE . 
DIN : WISSE GEST v (" When you think you are 
blooming best, Then is death your certain guest "). 

FIG. 22. 

Rev. Skull and crossed bones, with hour-glass (surmounted 
by a ball to represent human life) and ears of 
corn. Inscription: HVOR . DV . DIG : WENDE 
ER . D0DEN . DIN . ENDE ( Wherever you 
wend, Death is your end "). In the field, the date 
1634. (Fig. 22.) 

Diameter, I'O inch; copper gilt; in the Royal 
Collection at Copenhagen. Danske Mynter og 
Medaillcr i den Kongelige Samling, Copenhagen, 
1791, p. 331, No. 842, PI. xxii. No. 12. 

I do not know whether the ears of corn associated 
with the skull and bones on the reverse of this medal 
refer to the eternal succession of life and death in the 
world, or to the doctrine of the immortality of the soul. 
Perhaps the device refers to the New Testament parable 
of the corn and the tares (Matt. xiii. 24-30), and the 
ears of corn signify the good, who are to be separated 
from the bad (the tares) on the judgment day. Corn 
occurs again associated with a skull on a Danish me- 
morial medal of George Hojer, 1670 (described later on). 

(II. and VIII.) Danish memento mori medal (1634). 

Olv. Bust of a young woman, with coronet on her head, 
to right. Inscription : (in outer circle :) LERE 



(and in inner circle :) D0E AT WI MA BLIFE 
PSAL * 90 (" Teach us to remember that we 
must die, so that we may become wise," Psalm xc. 
verse 12, after Luther's translation). In the field 
to right: IEG ER SKI0N (" I am beautiful "> 

FIG. 23. 

Rev. Skeleton standing by a table resting left hand on an 
hour-glass. Inscription : (in outer circle :) MINE 
EN L0BERE . (and in inner circle :) DE 
9 (" My days are swifter than a post : they flee 
away, they see no good" Job, chapter ix. verse 25). 
In the field, below the table : IEG WAR SKI0N 
1634 ( I was beautiful, 1634 "). (Fig. 23.) 

Diameter, 1 *75 inches ; gold ; in the Royal 
Collection at Copenhagen. Danske Mynter og 
Medailler, loc. cit., p. 331, No. 841; PI. xxii. 
No. 11. 

These last two medals (specimens of which my father, 
Sir H. Weber, kindly examined during a recent visit to 
Copenhagen) are said to have been struck on the 
death of Anna Cathrina, the eldest daughter of King 
Christian IV of Denmark by his morganatic wife, 
Christina Munk (or Munck). The lady in question (born 
in 1618) was betrothed to Frantz Eantzow (or Eantzau), 



Governor of the Koyal Palace, when the latter was (ap- 
parently accidentally) drowned in the moat of the Koyal 
Palace of Eosenborg in 1632. She is supposed to have 
died of grief in the following year (1633). Vide F. C. 
Sch0nau, Leben und letzte Stunden Christina von Munk, 
German translation, Copenhagen and Leipzig, 1757, 

p. 211. 

The last described medal (with words meaning " I am 

FIG. 24. 

beautiful" on the portrait side, and "I was beautiful" on 
the skeleton side) may be compared to certain sepulchral 
monuments designed to serve as a memento mori to the 
living as well as a memorial of the dead. As a typical 
example of such monuments, we may instance the fine 
one in Canterbury Cathedral of Henry Chichele (died 
1443), Archbishop of Canterbury, and founder of All 
Souls' College, Oxford. On a table, under an elaborate 
canopy, is a recumbent figure, representing the Arch- 
bishop during life in full canonicals. On a slab below 
the table an emaciated dead body (wrongly described as 


a skeleton) 71 is represented (see Fig. 24). Bound the 
verge at the bottom of the monument is the memento 
mori inscription 

" Quisquis eris qui transieris rogo memoreris, 
Tu quod eris mihi consimilis qui post morieris, 
Omnibus horribilis, pulvis, vermis, caro vilis." 

With this inscription may be compared that on an 
analogous monument of a bishop in Exeter Cathedral 

"Ista figura docet nos omnes meditari 
Qualiter ipsa nocet mors quando venit dominari ; " 

and also the following from a sepulchral monument in the 
Church of the Celestines at Herverle, near Louvain 
"Nunc putredo terrae et cibus verminoruin." Many 
sepulchral monuments of the kind 72 are referred to in 
Richard dough's Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain, 
London, 1786-1796, vol. i. pp. cx.-cxii., and vol. ii. 
pp. cxviii.-cxx. Compare also T. J. Pettigrew's Chronicles 
of the Tombs, London, 1857, pp. 62-68 : " Admonitory 

(II. and VIII.) German memento mori medal of about 

Olv. Bust of a young woman with coronet on her head to 
right. Inscription : QVAE SIM POST TERGA 

71 See R. Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, vol. ii. (1796), p. 129. 

72 With sepulchral monuments of this kind, those of Greek times, 
with their simple (and in the best examples, very beautiful) so-called 
"parting scenes" may be contrasted. But on the mural paintings of 
Etruscan tombs, the representation of the brutal-looking Etruscan 
" Charun " (as the messenger of death), and sometimes other horrible 
Gorgon-like " demons," holding snakes, &c., invest death and the 
parting scenes depicted with horrors equal to those suggested by 
mediaeval art and legends. 


VIDEBIS (" Who I am you will see on the 
reverse "). 

. Skeleton standing by a table, resting left hand 
on an hour-glass. Inscription : SIC NVNC : 
PVLCHERRIMA QVOND AM ("Like this now; 
very beautiful once "). In the field below the 
table : CVM PRIVIL : CAES : C.M. (Fig. 25.) 

FIG. 25. 

Oval medal, 1*5 X 1*2 inch; illustrated in 
Ferrer's Biographical Dictionary of Medallists, 
London, vol. iii. p. 542. 

The German medallist, Christian Maler, generally 
added the words "cum privil." to his signature C.M., 
as he has done on the reverse of this medal, because he 
held the Imperial permission to strike medals in his own 
house. The designs of obverse and reverse are evidently 
copied, as Mr. C. F. Gebert of Niirnberg kindly pointed 
out to me, from those on the medal last described, which 
is supposed to relate to the death of Anna Cathrina, 
daughter of King Christian IV of Denmark. The 
legends on the medal may be compared with inscriptions 
on memorial rings, &c., such as : " Quod es fui, quod 
sum eris," " Hodie mihi eras tibi." I have to thank 
Mr. L. Ferrer for the kind loan of the blocks for the 
illustration (Fig. 25). 


(I.) A badge of the guild of physicians and surgeons at 
Delft (1635) bears on the obverse a skull and crossed 
bones, with the inscriptions : MEMENTO MOKI and 
CHIRURGr. The device is that on the seal of the guild 
in question. H. E. Storer, Amer. Journ. Num., April, 
1901, p. Ill, No. 1614. 

(II.) Memorial medal on the death of Sir John 
Hotham (1645). 

Ql Vt Bust of Hotham to right ; behind his neck, a minute 
skull, surmounted by a crown. Inscription : 

R eVt Shield of arms of Sir John Hotham impaling those 
of his fifth wife, Sarah, daughter of Thomas 
Anlaby, of Elton, in Yorkshire. 

Diameter, 1'25 inches ; cast and chased in 
silver. Medallic Illustrations, 1885, vol. i. p. 314. 

Sir John Hotham was Parliamentary Commander of 
Hull, but became dissatisfied with the proceedings of the 
Parliamentary party, and was with his son suspected of 
treason. They were both condemned and executed on 
Tower Hill. 

(II. and V.) Memorial medal on the death of King 
Charles I of England (1649). 

Obv. Bust of Charles I to left. Legend : CAROLVS 
D. G. &c. 

Rev. A skull between the letters C. R.; over it, a celestial 
crown with a label GLORIA ; below it, an earthly 
crown with the label V ANITAS. Legend ; 
DAM . AT . GRAVEM. The legend signifies : 
" (I receive) a blessed and eternal (crown). (I 


relinquish) one splendid but burdensome." Floral 
border on both sides. 

Oval medal ; diameter, O8 by 07 inch ; cast 
and chased in silver. Medallic Illustrations, 1885, 
vol. i. p. 344. 

The device on the reverse is illustrated by the 
following passage in the Icon Basilike : " I shall not 
want the heavy and envyed crownes of this world, when 
my God hath mercifully Crowned and Consummated 
his graces with Glory, and exchanged the shadows of 
my earthly Kingdomes among men, for the substance of 
that Heavonly Kingdome with himselfe." The device 
on one of the memorial rings (described in a later portion 
of this paper) on the King's death is similar to that on 
the reverse of this medal. 

The following four pieces belong to the class of so- 
called " Moralische Pfenninge " struck at Basel in the 
seventeenth century. They were apparently designed to 
be given as presents, sometimes probably in connexion 
with funerals. The medallist, whose signature on these 
pieces is F. F., was doubtless Friedrich Fechter or one of 
his family (F. F. standing either for Friedrich Fechter or 
for " Fechter fecit "). In connexion with memento mori 
medalets of this class, it must not be forgotten that the 
devastating epidemics of disease in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries gave them an increased signifi- 
cance at the time when they were issued. 

(I. and VIII.) 

Olv. Basilisk, with leaf-like wings, holding shield bearing 
the arms of Basel. 

Rev. Skull on bone, with worm ; rose-tree with flower 
and buds growing over it. Inscription : HEUT 



RODT MORN DODT (" To-day red, to-morrow 
dead"). In exergue, an hour-glass and the 
engraver's signature, F.F. (Fig. 26.) 

FIG. 26. 

Diameter, O95 inch ; struck in silver. R. S. 
Poole, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Swiss Coins 
in the South Kensington Museum (the Townshend 
Collection of Swiss Coins), London, 1878, p. 45, 
No. 15. 

(I. and VIII.) 

PIG. 27. 

Obv. View of the city of Basel. 

Rev. Skull and crossed bones ; above which, rose-tree 
with flower and buds ; beneath, hour-glass. 
Inscription : HEUT . RODT . MORN . DODT 
(" To-day red, to-morrow dead "). (Fig. 27.) 

Diameter, 0'8 inch ; struck in silver. R. S. 
Poole, op. cit., p. 45, No. 16. 

(I. and VIII.) 

Obv. Branch with three roses. Inscription : HEV SENID 
WIER ROT (" Heut sind wir roth " " To-day 
we are red "). 



, Dead stag to left, transfixed with arrow, beneath 
trees. Inscription: UND MORGEN TODT 
(" And to-morrow dead "). (Fig. 28.) 

FIG. 28. 

Diameter, 0'6 inch ; struck in silver. R. S. 
Poole, op. cit., p. 45, No. 17. 

FIG. 29. 

Olv. View of the city of Basel. 

Rev. Phoenix in burning nest (emblem of the resurrection 
of the body, and the immortality of the soul). 
Inscription : MORIAR UT VIVAM (" I will die 
that I may live "). (Fig. 29.) 

Diameter, 1*2 inches ; struck in silver. R. S. 
Poole, op. cit., p. 46, No. 20. 

(I.) An English seventeenth-century memento mori 
medalet (circa 1650). 

Obv. A child seated on the ground, leaning on a skull. 
On either side, a flower. In the background, 
a building with spires, apparently meant to 
represent a church. The whole type surrounded 
by a serpent with its tail in its mouth. No 



Legend in two circles with a rose in the centre : 
(in outer circle), AS . SOONE : AS . WEE . TO 
. BEE . BEGVNNE : (and in inner circle :) 



(Fig. 30.) 

Diameter, 1'25 inches ; struck in bronze. 

A specimen, which I afterwards presented to the 
British Museum Collection, was described by me in the 
Numismatic Chronicle,1892 (Third Series, Vol. XII. p. 253), 
where I alluded to its resemblance in style of workman- 
ship and in certain details of execution to the medal 
commemorating John Lilburne's trial in 1649 (Medallic 
Illustrations, 1885, vol. i. p. 385, No. 3). A similar 
piece, possibly from another die, but with the same 
legend, was described by J. Atkins (The Coins and Tokens 
of the Possessions and Colonies of the British Empire, 
London, 1889, p. 250) as a jeton or token supposed to 
have been issued by Sir Walter Kaleigh for the Settle- 
ment made by him in Virginia, 1584. 

There is another variety (see Fig. 31) with a slight 
difference in the legend, a specimen of which was kindly 
shown me by the late Sir John Evans, to whom it 
belonged. It is of decidedly rougher and more careless 
workmanship, somewhat smaller (diameter, T15 inches), 
and reading : (in outer circle :) AS . SOONE . AS WEE . 



TO . BEE . BEGVNN (and in inner circle :) WE . 
DID . BEGIN . TO . BE . VNDONN. This variety is 
figured in the Catalogue of the Fonrobert Col- 

FIG. 31. 

lection, by Adolph Weyl (Berlin, 1878, p. 336, 
No. 3728). 

I think these pieces may have been produced to be 

FIG. 32. Design from Wither 's Emblems, 1635. 

distributed at funerals. The obverse design and the 
legend on the reverse were evidently derived from an 
illustration (see Fig. 32) in G. Wither 's Emllems (London, 


1635, folio, p. 45) ; and the legend is an English render- 
ing of the well-known Latin hexameter line : " Nascentes 
morimur finisque ab origine pendet " (Manilius, Astrono- 
mieon, iv. 16). Wither may have derived the idea of 
the child leaning on the skull from one of Giovanni 
Boldu's medals already referred to, or from one of 
Barthel Beham's engravings representing a child and 

The perpetual springing up of new life to replace 
the old life which is decaying, is indicated on these 
medalets by the flowers and by the serpent with its 
tail in its mouth, an emblem of eternity. As Schiller 
(WilMm Tell, 1804) puts it 

" Das Alte stiirzt, es andert sich die Zeit, 
Und neues Leben bliiht aus den Rumen." 

(I.) Halfpenny token of John Brearcliffe or Briercliffe, 
of Halifax (circa 1670). 

FIG. 33. 

Obv. Inscription in five lines : John Brearcliffe in Halifax 
his halfe Penny. 

Rev. A skull and crossed bones, with the inscription : 
RESPICE . FINEM, on a label above the skull. 
(Fig. 33.) 

Diameter, 0'8 inch ; struck in copper or 
bronze. G. C. Williamson's edition of Boyne's 
Trade Tokens, London, 1891, vol. ii. p. 1317, 
No. 104. 



John Brearcliffe was a surgeon and antiquary of 
Halifax, where he died in 1682, at the age of sixty-three 
years. The device on the reverse of this token is one of 
the commonest and simplest memento mori devices of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Shakespeare 
refers to a similar device, when, in the Second Part of 
Henry IV. (act ii. scene 4), he makes Falstaff say, " Do 
not speak like a death's head ; do not bid me remember 
mine end." 

(XIII.) Memorial medal on the death of George Hojer 


#&y. Skull, lamp, and corn. On a ribbon above is 
the inscription : Obiit Amstelodami 26 Aprillis 
CIQIOCLXX. Below : Mors omnibus aequa. 

Rev. Inscription in six lines : P M Cl ss Doct ss Viri 
Georgii Hojer Commissarii Regis Daniae YITA 
EST MEDITATIO ("To the pious memory of 
the most illustrious and learned man, George 
Hojer, Commissary of the King of Denmark. 
Life is Meditation "). 

Oval, 2-1 by 1-85 inches. Illustrated in Danske 
Mynter og Medailler i den Kongelige Samling, 
Copenhagen, 1791 (Coins and Medals of 
Christian V), PI. 62, No. 3. 

The corn with the skull and lamp on the obverse of 
this medal evidently has the same signification as that 
associated with the death's head and hour-glass on a 
Danish medal of 1634, already described and illustrated 
(see Fig. 22). 

(V. and XI.) Murder of the brothers Jan and Cornelius 
De Witt, at the Hague, 1672. 

There are seven medals commemorating the murder of 
the De Witts. All of these are figured and described in 


G. van Loon's work, Histoire metallique des Pays-Bas, 
French edition, 1732, vol. 3, pp. 81-85. The largest 
of these medals (diameter, 2-75 inches), signed by a 
medallist, "Aury" (about whom nothing is known), 73 
bears on the obverse the portraits of the two De Witts 
facing each other ; the reverse design represents their 
murder by the populace in the guise of a many-headed 
monster. There is a fine specimen of this medal struck 
in gold in the British Museum Collection. On the 
reverse of one of the other medals, the dead bodies of 
the two brothers are shown fastened to a post. 

(I. and II.) Memorial medal on the death of Anne 
Eldred (1678). 

Obv. Armorial shield. Legend : ANNE THE WIFE 
THE 31 1678 . AGED 72. 

Rev. A veiled female figure seated, facing, holding a 
skull, and resting her head upon her hand sup- 
ported by a pedestal, on which stands an urn. 

Diameter, 2-0 inches ; a hollow medal, cast 
and chased in silver, in high relief, of rather 
coarse workmanship. Medallic Illustrations, 1885, 
vol. i. p. 571 ; Lady Evans, Numismatic Chronicle, 
Fourth Series, 1908, Vol. VIII. p. 178. 

The Anne Eldred commemorated on this medal was 
the wife of John Eldred (who died November 16, 1682), 
of Olivers, in Essex, and was the daughter and co-heir of 
Thomas G-odman, of Leatherhead, Surrey. For further 

78 " Aury " may not have been the real name of the medallist. More- 
over, the medallist may not have been a Dutchman. 



details, see Lady Evans, "Memorial Medal of Anne 
Eldred," Numismatic Chronicle, 1908, loc. cit. 

(I.) Josias Nicolson. Memorial medal on his death 

Qfa Bust of Nicolson, three-quarters, to left, with the 
NICOLSON. The legend is divided by four 
death's heads. 

Rev. Death leaning on a spade, with the legend (incuse) : 

Diameter, 2*15 inches ; made of two plates of 
silver, cast and chased, in high relief and of some- 
what rude workmanship. In the collection of the 
late Sir John Evans. Medallic Illustrations, 1885, 
vol. i. p. 597. 

In regard to what is known about this Josias Nicolson 
and his family, see Lady Evans's article in the Numismatic 
Chronicle (Fourth Series, Vol. IX. p. 241), where the 
medal is well illustrated. 

(I.) Memorial medal on the death of King Charles II 
of England (1685). 

Olv. Time seated to right, on a tomb, with one foot on 
a skull, holding in one hand a scythe and hour- 
glass, and extending a laurel wreath in the other. 

DOM 1684. (The date is according to the old 


Diameter, 1-55 inches; struck in silver and 
copper. Medallic Illustrations, 1885, vol. i. p. 
601. There are two varieties, differing from each 
other only in the arrangement of the legend on 
the obverse. 


This legend on the obverse is taken from James 
Shirley's The Contention of Ajax and Ulysses (1659) 

" Your heads must come 

To the cold tomb ; 
Only the actions of the just 
Smell sweet, and blossom in their dust." 

A specimen of the second variety, in the British 
Museum Collection, has had the reverse inscription 
erased, and another inscription engraved in its place, 
commemorating the death, in 1702, of Bartholomew 
Gidley, of Gridley, in Devon. Specimens, thus altered, 
were probably distributed at the funeral of Bartholomew 

(VIII.) Memorial medal on the death of King Charles 
II of England (1685). 

0&v. Bust of Charles II to right. Legend : CAROLUS II 
D. G., etc. 

Rev. Sea,, with setting sun. Legend : OMNIA ORTA 

Diameter, 1-95 inches; struck in silver or (as 
in a specimen which belonged to me) in white 
metal. Medallic Illustrations, 1885, vol. i. p. 601. 

The reverse legend, referring to the dissolution of all 
created things, is derived from Sallust, Jugurtha, 2, and 
may be compared with Ecclesiastes, chapter i. verses 4, 5 : 
" One generation passeth away, and another generation 
cometh. . . . The sun also ariseth and the sun goeth 
down, and hasteth to his place where he arose." 

(V.) Execution of Monmouth and Argyle (1685). 
Olv. Bust of King James II of England, with his titles, &c. 


R ev . A. pedestal inscribed : AMBITIO MALESUADA 
RUIT ; on the pedestal, Justice, trampling on a 
serpent, weighs three crowns against the sword, 
the torch, and the serpent of discord. At her 
feet lie the bodies of Monmouth and Argyle; 
their heads are on blocks inscribed : IACOBUS 
Above, the sun. On one side, lightning darting 
against troops at Sedgemoor. On the other side, 
two heads fixed over the gates of the Tower of 

Diameter, 2'4 inches ; struck in silver and 
white metal. MedalUc Illustrations, London, 1885, 
vol. i. p. 615, No. 27. 

This medal is by R. Arondeaux, a Flemish medal- 
list, of the end of the seventeenth century. There 
are other medals commemorating the defeat and execu- 
tion of Monmouth. One of them (MedalUc Illustrations, 
loc. cit., No. 26) presents the rebellion in a different 
light. It bears the portrait of Monmouth on the 
obverse, and, on the reverse, his head spouting blood, 
with the legend: HUNG SANGUINEM LIBO DEO 

(XI.) Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, by Louis 
XIV, 1685. Persecution and Martyrdom of Huguenots. 

A medal commemorating the Revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes bears on the obverse a figure of the Pope 
seated on the beast with seven heads, holding the keys 
in his left hand and wielding a thunderbolt with his 
right hand. On the reverse is a scene representing the 
execution and persecution of Protestants in France, with 
the inscription: EX MARTYRILS PALMAE. Dia- 
meter, 2*25 inches ; struck in silver. 

This and two other medals on the same subject are 
described and figured by G. van Loon, in his Histoire 



metallique des Pays-Bas (French edition), 1732, vol. 3, 
,. 312, Nos. 1-3. 

(II.) Seventeenth-century ornamental memorial plate 

Lady Evans has kindly shown me a small engraved 
and enamelled plate, the design on which is oval, 
measuring 1'75 by 2*0 inches. On a shield-shaped com- 
partment, the following inscription is engraved : " James 
Son of Ben j Warren and Mary Denew ob : 22 d March 
168J aged 5 years. Dreamed 48 hours before he dyed 
that he had Wings and Flew to HEAUEN." Above 
the inscription are two cupids supporting a crown. 

(II. and VI.) Memorial on the death of Marshal 
Schomberg at the Battle of the Boyne (1690). 

Obv. Bust of Marshal Schomberg, three-quarters, to right. 
SCHOMBERG, &c. Artist's signature on trunca- 
tion, P. H. M. (Philipp Heinrich Miiller). 

Rev. Schomberg, in Roman dress, resting on a shield 
ornamented with the Christian monogram, plants, 
like another Hercules, his club, which takes root 
and nourishes as an olive-tree, &c. 

Diameter, 1-95 inches; struck in silver, &c., 
or (as a draughtsman) in wood. 

For a more complete description of the reverse of this 
medal, see Medallic Illustrations, 1885, vol. i. p. 717, 
No. 139. The edge bears the inscription : PRO RE- 
with the initials of Friedrich Kleinert, who is said to 
have been the first medallist in Germany to strike medals 
with an inscription on their edges. 


(V.) Execution of Grandval (1692). 

There are several medals commemorating the execu- 
tion of Barthelemi de Lignieres, Chevalier de Grandval, 
on account of his share in the plot to assassinate 
William III of England. He was hung, drawn, and 
quartered, and on three of the medals gallows and 
poles bearing his head and quarters are represented. 
Medallic Illustrations, 1885, vol. ii. pp. 75-78, Nos. 

(I.) There are various medalets (about 1661-1693) 
of the Guild of Surgeons at Middelburg, which bear 
memento mori devices. One of them has on the obverse 
a skeleton with hour-glass and dart and the inscription : 
VIVE MEMOE LETHI. See H. E. Storer, Amer. 
Jo-urn. Num., July, 1901, p. 17, ISTos. 1636-1639. 

(I.) Various entrance tickets to the Medical Garden 
of Amsterdam bear memento mori devices, such as a 
skeleton with scythe, hour-glass, and tomb. I suppose 
they began to be used in the second half of the 
seventeenth century. See H. E. Storer, Amer. Journ. 
Num., July, 1901, p. 19, Nos. 1651-1664. 

(IX.) Memorial of the death of William Cheselden, 
the surgeon (1752). The Cheselden prize-medal of 
St. Thomas's Hospital, London, for practical surgery 
and surgical anatomy. 

Olv. Bust of William Cheselden (1688-1752), the well- 
known surgeon, to right. Legend : CHESELDEN. 

Below, W. WYON SC. MINT. 

Rev. The body of a man laid out for dissection. In the 
back-ground, on a table decorated with the arms 
of St. Thomas's Hospital, are a skull, book and 
vases; above is a human leg which has been 


dissected. Legend : MORS VIVIS SAL VS. In 
the exergue : ST. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL. w. WYON s. 

Diameter, 2-85 inches ; struck. Medallic Illus- 
trations, 1885, vol. ii. p. 668. 

This beautiful prize-medal, one of the finest works of 
William Wyon, RA. (1795-1851), was founded by the 
late George Vaughan. 

(IX.) The Bristowe prize-medal of St. Thomas's 
Hospital, London, may be mentioned for convenience 
here. On the obverse is the profile head to left of Dr. 
John Syer Bristowe (1827-1895), a well-known physician 
of the hospital. The reverse represents the interior of 
a pathological laboratory, with a young man seated to 
right, examining a human heart. The medal is awarded 
annually in silver for pathology. 

(XIY.) A medal of J. H. Pozzi (1697-1752), poet and 
physician of Bologna, is inscribed on the reverse with 
theHippocratic aphorism, VITA BEE VIS ABS LONG A. 
C. A. Eudolphi, Numismata Virorum de Eebus Medicis, &c. y 
Duisburg's edition of 1862, p. 28. 

The following medals and medalets, bearing the same 
Hippocratic aphorism, are placed here for convenience, 
though somewhat out of their chronological order. 

(XIV.) A medal of Dr. C. G. B. Daubeny (1795-1867), 
Professor of Chemistry at Oxford, has the legend, AES 
LONGA VITA BEE VIS, on the reverse. H. E. Storer, 
Amer. Journ. Num., July, 1893, p. 12, No. 630. 

(XIV.) A medal commemorating the foundation of 
the Medical Association of Warsaw, 1809, bears the 
Hippocratic aphorism, O BIOS BPAXYS H AE TEXNH 


MAKPH, and the names of Dr. A. F. von Wolff and the 
other founders. C. A. Eudolphi, Numismata Virorum 
de Rebus Medicis, &c., Duisburg's edition of 1862, p, 193. 
Dr. H. E. Storer has kindly furnished me with 
descriptions of medals on which this famous aphorism 
of Hippocrates occurs. Besides the medals of Pozzi 
and Daubeny and of the Warsaw Medical Association, 
already mentioned, it occurs in Latin on medalets of 
various Paris medical societies, including the Societe 
Medicale (founded 1796), the Societe Medico-Philanthro- 
pique (1806), and the Societe Medico-Pratique (1808). 

(V.) Threat of death to Admiral John Byng, after the 
loss of Minorca in 1756. 

Obv. Half-length figure of General Blakeney, facing, 
holding the British flag ; on one side is a ship, on 
the other a fort firing cannon. Inscription : 
BRAVE . BLARNEY . REWARD . (in exergue :) 
BUT . TO . B . GIVE . A . CORD. 

-Rev. Half-length figure of Admiral Byng, three-quarters, 
to left, receiving from a hand a purse ; behind him, 
a ship. Inscription: WAS MINORCA SOLD 
BY B (in exergue :) FOR FRENCH GOLD. 

Diameter, 1*4 inches ; struck in brass or bronze. 
Medallic Illustrations, London, 1885, vol. ii. p. 
679, No. 394. There is likewise a slightly smaller 
variety of this medal with a relatively larger 
figure of Byng (Medallic Illustrations, loc. cit. t 
No. 395). 

The island of Minorca surrendered to the Due de 
Kichelieu, on June 27, 1756. This medal is one of 
the toy-shop or popular kind, like those struck to com- 
memorate the taking of Porto Bello by Admiral Vernon 
in 1739 ; and it was doubtless one of the numerous 
means of exciting popular indignation against Admiral 


Byng. On his return he was tried by court-martial, 
condemned, and shot on the quarter-deck of the 
Monarque, 14th March, 1757. 

(V.) Satyrical tokens threatening Thomas Paine 

There are many halfpenny and farthing tokens of the 
end of the eighteenth century, representing on the 
obverse a man hanging from a gallows, with the in- 
scription END OF PAIN". On one variety of this 
type a demon is seated on the gallows, smoking a 
pipe. Amongst the reverse-types of this series are the 
following : 

(a) An open book inscribed : THE WRONGS OF MAN 
JANY 21 1793. 

(6) Inscription : MAY THE KNAVE OF JACOBIN 

(c) A man and a monkey, each standing on one leg, with 
the inscription : WE DANCE . PAIN SWINGS. 

(d) A number of combustibles, intermixed with labels, 
issuing from a globe inscribed FRATERNITY. The labels 

See James Atkins, The Tradesmen's Tokens of the 
Eighteenth Century, London, 1892, pp. 133, 373, 374, 
382, 383. 

Thomas Paine (1737-1809) published his Eights of 
Man in London, 1790-1792, and, after migrating to 
France in 1792, was given the title of French citizen 
and elected a member of the Convention. His Age of 
Reason was published in 1793, and made him still more 
unpopular in England. 

The satyrical halfpenny and farthing tokens of the 
" END OF PAIN " type probably helped to prejudice 


the people against him. Such political tokens doubtless 
served the purpose of cheap political newspapers, just as 
some of the " toy-shop medals " (such as those of Admiral 
Vernon) did during an earlier portion of the same 

(II.) A memorial medal of Aloisio Galvani (1737- 
1798), by Mercandetti (1803), bears on the reverse the 
inscription : MORS MIHI VITA, (and in the exergue : ) 
SPIRITUS INTUS ALIT (Virgil, Aen., vi. 726). 
C. A. Eudolphi, Numismata Virorum de Rebus Medieis, 
&c., Duisburg's edition of 1862, p. 33. 

(IX. and XI.) The Fothergillian medal of the Eoyal 
Humane Society (London), 1810. 

Obv. A raft with a man and two boys. In the distance 
a hastening boat. Artist's signature, w. WYON R.A. 

Rev. A nude child, to right, endeavours to rekindle a torch 
with his breath. Legend: LATEAT SCIN- 
TILLVLA FORSAN. In exergue : EX 
MDCCCX. Artist's signature : w. WYON R.A. 

Diameter, 2- 8 inches ; struck in bronze or gold. 

This medal has been awarded in gold on about four 
occasions since it was founded, for the best treatise on 
methods of saving life. The British Museum now 
possesses the specimen struck in gold awarded to the 
late Sir John Erichsen, the surgeon, in 1845, for his 
Experimental Enquiry into the Pathology and Treatment 
of Asphyxia. Amongst others who received the medal 
struck in gold was H. R. Silvester, whose "method of 
restoring persons apparently drowned" was adopted by 
the Royal Humane Society in 1861. The beautiful 


reverse design occurs likewise on the ordinary medals 
awarded by the Society for gallantry in saving life. 
Into the general subject of medals awarded for or com- 
memorating gallantry in life-saving in England and 
other countries, I shall not enter here. It constitutes 
a large subject in itself. 

(X.) Epidemic of cholera in Paris (1832). 

A French medal, by E. Eogat (1832), has on the 
obverse a figure of Aesculapius feeling the pulse of a 
sick woman with his left hand, and warding off a figure 
of death with his right hand. Diameter, 3'3 inches. 
Figured in Pestilentia in Nummis, by L. Pfeiffer and C. 
Ruland, Tubingen, 1882, No. 450. 

(V.) Indignation against the so-called " Massacres of 
Grallicia" in connexion with the suppression of the 
revolt in Austrian Poland (1846). 

Obv. Head of Liberty, to right ; in front, a bayonet ; behind, 
a palm-branch. Inscription (incuse) : DEMO- 
CRATIE FRANCAISE. Below the head is the 
artist's signature, David, with the date, 1846. 

Rev. A gallows. Inscription (incuse) : MASSACRES 
DE GALLICIE (and in the field below the 

Diameter, 1*6 inches; cast in bronze, very low 
relief. A specimen was formerly in my collection. 

It is the work of (or rather from models by) the French 
sculptor, P. J. David d' Angers, whose extensive series 
of portrait medallions (cast in bronze) is so well known. 
In the Musee David at Angers is a large cast bronze 
medallion (diameter, 15*75 inches), by the same artist, 
and commemorating the same historical episode. It 


represents Liberty inscribing on a gallows the names of 
the leaders who were regarded by the French and Poles 
as responsible for the "massacres" (Catalogue of the 
Musee David, by H. Jouin, Angers, 1881, p. 222, No. 210). 
The same museum contains a design for the head of 
Liberty on the obverse of the above-described medal. 
David d'Angers, like his friend and patron, Louis David, 
the painter, was much concerned in the political move- 
ments of his time, and after the coup d'etat of 1852, was 
forced to leave France, owing to the position he had 
taken up. 

(XI.) Death of Denis Auguste Afire, Archbishop of 
Paris (1848). 

There are a considerable number of struck medalets 
commemorating his martyr-like death, having his por- 
trait on the obverse and various devices on the reverse. 
On one reverse the inscription is : MOKT MAKTYE 
1848. A contemporary rough medalet, cast in white 
metal, is figured in Souvenirs Numismatiques de la Eevolu- 
tion de 1848, Paris (not dated), PL 54, No. 6. 

Archbishop Afire was shot on the barricades in Paris, 
whilst endeavouring to prevent bloodshed between the 
Parisian insurgents (red republicans), who were defend- 
ing the barricades, and the tricoloured soldiery who 
were attacking them. He had been warned by General 
Oavaignac of the risk he ran in such an attempt, but 
replied that his life was of small consequence. He was 
removed to his palace, where he died on 27th June, 1848. 

(VII.) Medal of Samuel Plimsoll, "the Sailors' 
Friend " (1875). 


His head to left, wearing spectacles ; neck and 
shoulders clothed. Inscription : S. PLIMSOLL. 
LONDON. Signed on the truncation, A. 


Ship at sea, sinking. On a sail is pictured a death's 
head with crossed bones. In exergue are the 
words, COFFIN SHIP. 

Diameter, 1'4 inches ; struck in bronze or brass, 
with loop for suspension. 

These medalets refer to the " death-traps " termed 
"coffin ships," which Mr. Plimsoll greatly helped in 
abolishing. These or similar smaller medalets were 
made by A. Chevalier, an engraver (of Paris), and were 
worn by those present at a fete given in 1875, when Mr. 
Plimsoll was elected Member of Parliament for Liverpool. 

(X.) Commemorative medal of the International 
Medical Congress held in London (1881). 

This medal has on the obverse the crowned head of 
Queen Victoria to left, and on the reverse an allegorical 
design by Sir John Tenniel (executed by Leonard C. 
Wyon, son of W. Wyon, R.A.), representing Aesculapius 
standing in front of a globe; before him a mother, 
holding her sick child, and two sufferers, seek his aid ; 
behind him a figure of death is represented floating in 
the air. Diameter, 2 - 8 inches; struck in bronze, &c. 
From the artistic point of view, this medal is unfortu- 
nately not pleasing. 

(1) There are, according to Bergs0e, certain " pest- 
tokens" (1889), bearing on the obverse a skull and 
crossed bones, with or without the inscription, MEMEN- 
TO MOKI, and on the reverse the inscription, DEN EE 
DIG VIS (" It death is certain for you"). Vilhelin 


Bergs0e, DansJce Medailler og Jetons, Copenhagen, 1893, 
p. 141, Nos. 989, 990. 

(III.) A cast commemorative bronze plaquette (4'5 
X 3-25 inches) of Philippe de Grirard, by the modem 
French artist, Louis Eugene Mouchon (1892), bears an 
alleg r il representation of posthumous fame. A speci- 
r- .a of this plaquette is exhibited in the Luxembourg 
Museum at Paris. 

Philippe de Girard, the inventor of the flax-spinning 
machine, was born in 1775 at the village of Lourmarin, 
in the department of Yaucluse. He died in 1845. 
During his life he never received due recognition for 
his varied talents, his restless work, and his useful 
inventions; it was not till 1882 that a bronze statue 
(by Guillaume) was erected to him at Avignon. 

(X. and XI.) Medal awarded for help in sanitary 
and medical work during the epidemic of bubonic plague 
at Hong-Kong (1894). 

Obv. Sick Chinaman on a bed, partly supported by a 
European man, who with his left arm presses 
back a figure of death floating in the air and 
aiming a spear at the sick man. On the other 
side of the bed stands a European sick-nurse. In 
the field, on the left, Chinese characters signifying 
Hong-Kong. On the right, A. WYON sc. In 
exergue the date, 1894. 

MUNITY (and in the centre) FOR SERVICES 

Diameter, 1'4 inches; struck in silver and gold. 
This medal is by Allan Wyon, the obverse being 
from a design by Frank Bowcher. Illustrated in 
The War Medal Eecord, London, 1896, vol. i. 
PI. i. No. 4. 

(To le continued.) 



(See Plate I.) 


ONLY two or three " medallions " of Clodius Albinus 
are known to exist, and as one of these, formerly in the 
collection of Consul Eduard F.Weber, 1 has recently come 
into my own possession, I am led, while submitting it to 
the Koyal Numismatic Society, to add a short commentary. 
The coin represents a variety of that figured in the 
third volume of Cohen. 2 The following is its descrip- 
tion : 

to r., without wreath, wearing cuirass and 
paludament um . 

Rev. FORT REDVCI COS II. Fortuna seated to 1., 
holding cornucopiae and rudder resting on globe. 
Beneath her throne, a wheel. 

M. 1-6 in. Wt. 68-40 grammes (1055-5 grs.). 

[PI. I. 1.] 

The parallel type of medallion," reading FORTVNAE 

1 Catalogue, Munich, 1909, No. 1794. 

2 Ed. 2, p. 419, No. 39. The reverse there reads in full : FORTVNAE 
REDVCI with COS II in the exergue. But the coin referred to under 
No. 31, as in MM. Kollin's possession, may be the same as that described 



in full on the reverse, judging from the weight of the 
specimen in the Imperial Cabinet at Vienna, is a piece 
of somewhat lower denomination. The weight of the 
coin in question is 61*7 grammes, which, as Dr. Kenner 
has pointed out, 3 answers according to the average 
weight of the sesterces of Albinus, to fourteen asses. 
On the same reckoning, the present " medallion " is a 
piece of fifteen asses, such as were frequent in the 
immediately succeeding age. 

There can be no doubt that these extraordinarily 
rare " medallions " of Clodius Albinus were struck in 
the period immediately succeeding his assumption of 
the title of Caesar on the nomination of Severus. They 
may indeed themselves be regarded as monuments of 
the treachery of Severus, who, by the conferment of 
the Imperial dignity and other honours heaped on 
Albinus, sought only to disarm the suspicion of his 
Western rival while he still had Pescennius Niger on 
his hands in the East. 

Herodian tells us that he sent letters of flattering 
import to Albinus, requesting him to assist him in his 
old age to bear the burden of Empire by accepting 
Caesarean dignity. At the same time, to keep up the 
deception, Severus wrote to the Senate in a similar 
strain. Amongst the honours that he ordered them to 
confer, besides the setting up of statues, the historian 
expressly mentions the striking of coins in Albinus' 
name. 4 In view of these august recommendations, the 
Senate, in 194 A.D., made Albinus Consul for the second 
time in association with Severus. 

3 "Der romische Medallion" (Num. Zeitschr., six., 1887, p. 111). 
1 Herodian, lib. ii. c. 49. 


The special injunction to the Senate to strike coins 
in Albinus' name naturally carried with it an issue of 
an honorary bronze coinage such as is illustrated by 
our medallions. There is every reason to believe that 
the actual occasion of this honorary issue would have 
been the election of Albinus as Consul for the second 
time the title borne on the reverse inscription at the 
beginning of the year 194 A.D. 

Albinus was then in command of the Eoman forces 
in Britain, and the figure of Fortuna Kedux, constantly 
associated with a reference to his second consulship 
on coins of all metals and denominations, must be 
taken to have a very definite intention. It voices the 
hopes of the strong aristocratic and Senatorial follow- 
ing of the new Caesar to welcome him again in Kome. 5 
This was the last thing that Severus himself desired. 
As a matter of fact, Clodius Albinus, who had privately 
received pressing invitations from his Senatorial friends 
to return to the capital 6 while Severus was still occu- 
pied in the East, did indeed recross the Channel, and 
advanced as far as Lyons at the head of his Britannic 
legions. There, seeing the contest inevitable, he took 
the irrevocable step of proclaiming himself Augustus. 
Meanwhile, Severus, having given a good account of 
Pescennius Niger, was able to concentrate his whole 
forces against his Western rival. After a severe and 
long-doubtful battle, Albinus was defeated and slain 
under the walls of Lyons, on February 19, 197 A.D. 

5 It is to be noted that no bronze or Senatorial coins of Severus struck 
at this time bear the inscription FORTVNAE REDVCI ; though, owing 
to his absence on his Eastern campaign against Pescennius Niger, the 
inscription would have been even more pertinent in his case. 

6 Herodian, lib. iii. c. 16. 



It is not, obviously, to this later period of Albinus' 
Imperial career that these "medallions" can be 


Among the most signal examples of the higher mul- 
tiples of the Koman solidus hitherto known are two 
varieties of coins struck for Diocletian in Nicomedia 
and Alexandria. The coins in question represent double 
quinios, or pieces of ten aurei, and are referred to by 
Dr. Friedrich Kenner, in his epoch-making monograph 
on " The Eoman Medallion." 7 It is true that in his 
original publication Dr. Kenner was inclined to regard 
them as double quateraios, or pieces of eight. 8 But 
further evidence, especially that supplied by the im- 
portant find at Old Szony (Brigetio), 9 has clearly estab- 
lished the fact that they answer to the aurei of similar 
types, examples of which are known, having the approxi- 
mate weight of five and a half grammes. 

The first of the double quinios is in the British 
Museum ; 10 it is 33 millimetres in diameter, and weighs 
53*5 grammes (830'5 grains). [PI. I. 2.] It bears on the 
reverse the inscription IOVI CONSERVATOR!, accompanied 
by a standing figure of Jupiter holding in his right hand 
a globe surmounted by Victory, and resting his left on 

7 " Der romische Medallion" (Num. Zeitschr., 1887, pp. 1-173). 

8 Op. cit., pp. 18, 19. 

9 Dr. Joseph Hampel, " Ein Miinzfund aus Brigetio " (Num. Zeitschr., 
1891, pp. 85-88 ; F. Kenner, op. cit., pp. 89-94, and op. cit., 1894, pp. 1-4). 

10 H. A. Grueber, Eoman Medallions in the British Museum, pp. 79, 1, 
and PI. Iv. 1. 


a sceptre. At his feet is an eagle, and in the exergue 
the Nicomedian mint-mark SMN. 

A specimen of the other variety was published in the 
second edition of Cohen's work from the De Quelen 
Collection. 11 Its weight is there given as 53*59 grammes 
(839 '0 grs.). I a-Ei now able to describe a variant example 
of the same type in my own collection. 12 

head of Diocletian to r, 

CONSERVATORI. Jupiter, naked to the 
loins, with drapery falling from his 1. shoulder, 
seated on a throne and holding a thunderbolt 
in his r. hand, while his 1. rests on a sceptre. 
At his feet an eagle with half expanded wings, 
holding a wreath in his beak. In ex. ALE 

N. 1-35 in. Wt. 52-30 grammes (807-1 grs.). 

[PL I. 3.] 

This piece seems to be from the same obverse die as 
that reproduced by Cohen from the De Quelen Collection. 
The reverse, however, shows a variant type. The dis- 
position of the letters is not the same, an interval being 
left, for instance, between the O and N of CONSERVATORI 
for the end of the thunderbolt. The design also differs 
in details, and shows a better balance. Thus the 
thunderbolt, instead of being held upright as on the 
other coin, slopes outwards, the drapery is more elegantly 
arranged, and the eagle's left wing is half open instead 
of closed. 

11 Medailles Imp&riaUs (Ed. 2), T. vi. p. 441, No. 264, and cut; cf. 
Kenner, op. cit., p. 21, 

12 Formerly in the collection of the late Consul Eduard F. Weber. 
(Cf. Catalogue, Munich, 1909, No. 2453, and PL xlii. It is there de- 
scribed as "aus der Sammlung de Quelen, 1888," but it differs from 
that from the same collection reproduced by Cohen.) 


The coin has been curiously battered in one or two 
places, the beginning of the inscription on the forehead 
of the Emperor on the obverse, and on the reverse the 
left thigh of Jupiter, having in this way suffered. But 
apart from this, the conservation of the types on both 
faces is magnificent, and the coin is exceptionally 
well struck. The style of the design, especially on the 
reverse, has, for the age to which it belongs, a quite 
uncommon merit, and excels that of any other die of 
Diocletian, or his colleagues with which I am acquainted. 
The minuteness of the engraving is also remarkable. 
It is possible thus to make out the thongs and knots 
of the sandals, and the curving stem and its excrescences 
that adorn the border of the throne. This might have 
been supposed to represent a vine, as on the ivory 
border of the throne of St. Maximian at Kavenna. But 
a close examination 13 reveals the fact that several of 
the appendages are clearly acorns. We have here, then, 
an oak spray, a fitting attribute of the Lord of Dodona. 

For the time, indeed, at which it was executed, the 
last decennium of the third century of our era, this coin 
must be regarded as a masterpiece of numismatic art. 

The fact that the reverse of this piece was struck by 
a different die from that used for the piece described 
by Cohen, is of interest, as showing that there must have 
been a considerable mintage of these " double quinios," 
a fact confirmed by the existence of the parallel piece 
from the Nicomedian Mint. The occasion of this mint- 
age has now been made clear by the discovery among the 
coins found at the Old Szony (Brigetio) of the quinio, 

3 The cross-line between the " cup " and stand, or acorn proper, is 
clearly visible. 


or half of the present denomination, struck at Tarraco, 
exhibiting the same types on both sides, but with the 
reverse inscription, CONSERVAT AVGG V ET nil COS. 14 The 
fifth Consulate of Diocletian, here recorded, took place 
in 293, and Diocletian completed the first decennium 
of his reign on the 17th of September in that year. 
It is clear, therefore, as Dr. Kenner has pointed out, 
that the emission of these large gold pieces connects 
itself with the Emperor's Decennalia. 

Two single types of the aureus are known answering 
to the same series, and with the same figure of Jupiter 
enthroned on the reverse. 15 These are from the mints 
of Rome and Tarraco ; and a specimen from the latter 
mint in the Imperial Cabinet at Vienna weighs 549 
grammes. 16 In the case of the single aureus the head 
of the Emperor is laureate, and the reverse inscription 



No apology is needed for calling the attention of the 
Society to the third example known of the double 
aureus, or binio, of Constantine the Great, struck at 
Trier, and exhibiting a view of the city walls and 
bridge over the Mosel. This interesting piece, of which 
the following is a full description, is said to have been 

14 F. Kenner, " Zweiter Nachtrag zu dem Munzenfunde von Brigetio " 
(Num. Zeitschr., 1894, p. 1, and Taf. 1. 1). The weight of this coin is 
26-55 grammes. 

15 Cohen, Md. Imp. (Ed. 2), T. vi. p. 441, No. 265. 

16 F. Kenner, Num. Zeitschr., 1894, p. 3. 


for over two centuries in the possesssion of a family at 
Toulouse : 17 - 

Obv IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Bust of Constan- 
tine to r., wearing radiate crown, cuirass, and 
paludamentum. The crown has seven spikes, 
five along the side of the head, and two in finer 
relief represented as in profile above the forehead 
and the back of the head. The upper edge of 
the cuirass is beaded, and there are three globules 
below it. The paludamentum is fastened by a 
round fibula with a jewelled border, and below 
this is a line of four dots. 

Rev. AVGG GLORIA. Walls and principal gate of Trier, 
showing statue of the Emperor above it. He 
wears a military cloak, and raises his r. hand, 
while holding a sceptre transversely in his 1. The 
gate is flanked by towers, 18 and five others are 
shown on the line of walls, which have a 
hexagonal plan ; on either side are two seated 
captives in the attitude of grief. One wears a 
Phrygian cap, like Francia and Alamannia on 
other coins of Constantine. Beaded lines de- 
scending from their necks to the ground behind 
seem to represent chains. The gate is approached 
by a broad bridge having two flanking turrets 
at each end, and the current of the river is 
indicated below. Only two arches are shown 
on the coin, but this may be due to the necessary 
" shorthand " of numismatic engraving so visible 
in the case of the town plan. In ex., PTRE. 
N. 1-05 in. Wt. 8-97 grammes 19 (138-4 grs.). 

[PI. I. 4.] 

A minute comparison between the present specimen 
of this type and that in the Cabinet of France leads 
to some curious results. It appears that although the 

7 E. F. Weber, Catalogue, Munich, 1909, No. 2579. The coin is now 
iu my own cabinet. 

s The pair of towers that flank the gate show eight stages ; the two 

beyond, nine. It is unsafe, however, to make too much of these details. 

The weight of the Paris example is 138-1 grs. (8-95 grms.) ; of that 

the Berlin Cabinet, 136-5 grs. (8'85 grms.). 


base of the representation is in both cases the same, 
the dies from which the two coins were struck differ 
both on the obverse and reverse as to certain details of 
the engraving [PI. I. 5]. 

The obverse of the present coin depicts a radiate 
diadem with seven spikes, the foremost and hindmost 
of these delineated more finely, as being shown in 
profile. But on the Paris specimen, at first sight, only 
the fine rays at the side of the head are visible. A 
close examination, indeed, shows the faint trace of the 
spike in front as if from a cast, and by the aid of my 
own piece still fainter traces of the spike behind can 
be made out. 

In other words, the engraver of these pieces worked 
up two different dies, each being a cast of the same 
model. In one case two details were neglected, and 
only traces of them appear as shown on the matrix as 
originally cast before engraving. In the other case, 
illustrated by my specimen, the die-sinker had recognized 
these details, and duly worked over that part of the cast. 

The edge of the cuirass shows a parallel instance of 
the same negligence on the part of the engraver of the 
die of the Paris coin. It is rendered as a plain line, 
whereas on my example the edge is beaded and repro- 
duces what we may believe to be the decorative inten- 
tion of the original modeller. So, too, the fibula on 
my own piece appears with a jewelled circle, while on 
the other it is a plain ring, and a dotted ornament below 
is also omitted. Neither has the engraver of the Paris 
coin taken the trouble to work over the upper part of 
the drapery of the bust. 

The reverses show similar discrepancies. The more 
finely executed engraving on the present piece has a 


much more decorative rendering of the upper angles of 
the town walls. We see on it a rounded moulding 
between two beaded lines, while on the Paris coin there 
is merely a flat space between two plain lines. The same 
absence of the beading is observable in other details 
of the latter, and there is no attempt to indicate, as on 
the present piece, the masonry of the bridge. 

It is nevertheless quite clear, in spite of these di- 
vergences on the engraver's part, that both dies were 
cast from the same original model. These phenomena 
may be found to have an interesting bearing of a more 
general character on certain aspects of the ancient 
money er's art. 

In his excellent Numismatique Constantinienne, M. 
Jules Maurice, from the exergual inscription of this 
piece, PTRE, assigns it to the eighth issue of Constan- 
tine. 20 This issue he places between the month of 
September, 326, which followed the death of Crispus 
and Fausta, and the llth of May, 330, the date of 
the solemn inauguration of Constantinople. It further 
appears that, as Constantine came to Trier at the close 
of 328, and stayed some time there during the early 
part of 329, the issue of this commemorative coin must 
probably be referred to the latter date. 21 The inscrip- 
tion AVGG GLORIA is in this case, as M. Maurice points 
out, 22 remarkable, since for at least two years Constan- 
tine had been sole Augustus. The other Augustus, 
Licinius, had been executed by him in 324. 

20 Op. cit., vol. i. p. 474 s%q_. 

- 1 Op. cit., i. p. 477. 

2 Op. cit., i. pp. 476, 477, " II faut done admettre que les formules 
' Providentiae Augg,' ' Gloria Augg,' furent conserves un certain temps 
comine des formules banales, par habitude." 



On the sudden death of Valentinian I at Brigetio 
(Szony) on the Danube, his chief counsellors, who seeni 
to have feared a movement among the Gallic troops, 
thought it politic at once to proclaim his infant son, 
of the same name. Six days after his father's death, 
Valentinian II, at that time a boy of four, was made 
full Augustus by the troops at Aquincum (Ofen). His 
half-brother Gratian, then at Trier, and his uncle 
Valens, who had the Eastern Provinces, did not hesitate 
to recognize this infant colleague. 23 It seems possible 
that the elevation of the young prince was partly due 
to the fact that his mother, Justina, had been once the 
wife of Magnentius, 24 whose partisans had at one time 
been very powerful in the West. Justina had been 
conducted by the officers to Aquincum, together with 
her child, from the Imperial Villa of Murocincta, and 
no doubt helped subsequently to look after her son's 
interests in the provinces allotted to him. 

It is a picturesque historical episode, and it is there- 
fore interesting to notice that this elevation of the 
infant Valentinian II is commemorated by two aureus 
types of Valens and Gratian, issued by the mint of 
Antioch, where Valens was at this time resident. 

One of these, a coin of Valens in the Cabinet of 

23 Ammianus Marcellinus, 1. xxx. 10; cf. Socrat., iv. 31; Zosim., 
iv. 19, &c. 

24 Cf . Zosimus, loc. cit., ol ral-iapxoi Mepo/3ou8rjs Kal 'EKITIOS . . . iraiSa 

v4ov e/c yafAtrris avrip re^QivTa rfjs irp6rfpov Mcryvevriq, 


France, has been described by Cohen. 25 The aureus 
of Gratian cannot be said to have been as yet pub- 
lished. 26 

The following is the description of this piece : 

Obv. DN GRATIANVS P F AVG. Diademed bust of Gra- 
tian to r., wearing cuirass and paludamentum. 

_Ret?. SPES R P. Gratian and Valens on either side 
enthroned in imperial costume, each holding a 
globe and sceptre, with a nimbus round his head. 
Between them is the standing figure of the little 
Valentinian II, apparently clad in the palu- 
damentum or imperial mantle. Above his head 
is an oval shield with the inscription, VOT V 
MVL X. In ex., ANTT+. 
N. 0-85 in. Wt. 442 grammes (68-2 grs.). 

[PL I. 6.] 

The legend on the reverse of this coin, SPES R[El> 
P[VBLICAE], is specially appropriate to its subject as 
commemorating the proclamation of the infant " Hope 
of the Commonwealth." On the other hand, the inscrip- 
tion on the shield, VOT[IS] V MVL[TIS] X, should, in the 
literal acceptance of the words, imply that when this 
coin was struck the young Emperor had already 
reigned five years, and that Vota for his Decennalia 
were already due. That this is an impossible interpre- 
tation, however, is sufficiently shown by the existence 
of the parallel type struck in the name of Valens. 
But Valens himself was slain by the Goths in the 

25 M<!d. Imp. (Ed. 1), vi. p. 415, No. 41, and PL xiii. ; ib. (Ed. 2), 
p. 110, No. 47. 

2li This coin passed into my collection from that of the late Consul 
Eduard F. Weber. It is included in the Weber Catalogue under No. 
2754, but neither the essential features of the type nor the inscription 
are rightly reproduced. The figure between the seated Emperors is 
described as " Victoria (?)," and the inscription on the shield is given 
as "VOT X MVLT V." In the exergue A N TT + appears in place of 


crushing overthrow received by him at Adrianople on 
the 9th of August, 378, when Valentinian II had 
only reigned two years and eight months. As a matter 
of fact, the anticipation of the Quinquennial and 
Decennial Vota for fiscal or political ends was a most 
usual practice during the fourth century. Valens 
himself, who only reigned fourteen years, claimed his 
Vicennalia Yota with all the customary contributions, 
and certain coins of his bear the legend VOT[IS] XX 


There can, in short, be no reasonable doubt that the 
Quinquennial Vota registered on the present coins were 
of an anticipatory nature, and that the occasion of their 
issue was the elevation of the boy-Emperor by the 
soldiery at Aquincum. They would thus have been 
issued by the Antioch Mint under the immediate 
superintendence of Valens, early in the year 376, as a 
kind of official manifesto on behalf of that Emperor 
and Gratian of their recognition of Valentinian II as 
a colleague. 


27 Cohen, Medailles Imperiales (Ed. 2), T. viii. p. 118, Nos. 101, 102. 



THE place in the history of art of the remarkable medals 
of Constantine and Heraclius has been more or less 
definitely fixed since the discovery was made by 
M. G-uiffrey that Jean, due de Berry, possessed similar 
pieces, one having been purchased as early as 1402, and 
both being included in the inventories of his collection, 
made in 1414 and 1416. 1 In an illuminating essay on 
the beginnings of the Kenaissance Medal, 2 Professor 

1 J. Guifirey, " Medailles de Constantin et d'Heraclius acquises par 
Jean, due de Berry, en 1402," in Rev. Num., 1890, pp. 87-116. 

2 J. von Sclilosser, " Die altesten Medaillen und die Antike," in 
Jahrbuch der kunsthist. Sammlungen des Allerhochsten Kaiserhauses, 
xviii. (1897), pp. 65 ff. M. Froehner, in the Annuaire de la Society 
Franchise de Numismatique, xiv. (1890), pp. 472 ff., has thrown some 
light on the symbolism of the Heraclius medal ; but his view that the 
medals are of German origin, and that M. Guiffrey's discovery is with- 
out inlluence on the history of the Italian Kenaissance, is, to put the 
fact gently, not borne out by more recent criticism. Cp. the remarks 
of M. Blanchet in the Annuaire, 1891, pp. 83-86. Dr. J. Simonis also 
has a long article on the subject (Rev. Beige de Numismatique, 1901, 
pp. 68-109, with illustrations) ; and M. Ernest Babelon has a section on 
the subject in Andre Michel's Histoire de VAri (Tome III. ii. pp. 905- 
913). M. Babelon pronounces Dr. von Schlosser's attribution of the 
medals to a Flemish-Burgundian origin to be sansfondement, a criticism 
which may be more justly applied to the theory of an Italian origin, 
until its supporters have shown that such figures (either of human 
beings or horses) could have been produced in Italy in the fourteenth 
or early fifteenth century. In Flanders or Northern France, on the 
other hand, as every student of the transitional art of that district will 
admit, they are quite in place. 


Julius von. Schlosser Las dealt very thoroughly with the 
problems presented by these pieces, although he has 
left one or two small matters still open to discussion. 
It is doubtless now generally acknowledged that they 
are, as he maintains, the product of some of those artists 
of the Flemish-Burgundian school, whose extraordinary 
merits have only of late years begun to win the recogni- 
tion which they deserve. Comparison with the MSS. 
of the end of the fourteenth and beginning of the 
fifteenth centuries bears out the attribution of the pieces 
to that period, and to Flanders or Northern France. 
The object of this note is not to deal with any of the 
larger matters involved, but merely to consider one 
or two small questions which have hitherto remained 
obscure. For illustrations, the plates illustrating both 
the articles named should be consulted, since they 
supplement each other. 

First, on some specimens 3 of the Heraclius medal, 
behind the Emperor's head, occurs a mysterious word 
which has been read AfiOAlNlC. 4 That is neither Greek, 
which would require AnOAAfiNOC, nor Latin, which 
would be APOLLINIS. No wonder it has puzzled the 
critics, since the supposed N is nothing but a second n. 
In the inscriptions on this medal the n is made in a 
peculiar way, with a sort of broken back, and a slight 
defect seems to make this break continue downwards in 
a slanting direction, like the transverse stroke of N. 5 

3 E.g. Rev. Num., 1890, pi. v., and a similar specimen in the British 

4 For M. Froehner's reading AHOAH^IC there is no shadow of 

5 The illustration in M. Babelon's article (op. cit., p. 910) makes the 
letter appear very much like N. On the piece in the British Museum 
the flaw has not proceeded so far. 


Now, the Greek inscriptions on this medal are written 
more or less phonetically: we have, for instance, Y^ICTIC 
for Y^ICTOIC, and niAAC for nYAAC. AnoAinic is merely 
AnoAeineic. What does this mean ? 

As every one who has looked at these medals knows, 
they are packed with symbolism. Heraclius here figures 
as the Emperor who recovered the Holy Cross from the 
heathen Persians, and brought it back to Christendom. 
His triumphal entry is represented on the reverse of the 
medal. On the obverse is his bust, like that of some 
ancient prophet, with long flowing beard; below the 
bust is the sickle of the moon, not crescent, as we shall 
see, but waning the Emperor looks upwards to the 
heavens, from which rays fall upon his face. In the 
field, in front of his head, are these words (adapted from 
a Psalm, 6 which it is significant is still sung at the 
Votive Mass of the Holy Cross) : ILLVMINA VVLTVM TVVM 
DEVS. On the decrescent moon below his bust this 
modified quotation is continued in the words, SVPER 
TENEBRAS NOSTRAS. 7 Then follows the word MILITABOR 
(a mistake for MILITABO), and, on the under side of the 
moon, IN GENTIBVS. This phrase, "militabo in gentibus," 

" I will make war among the heathen," does not occur 
in the Vulgate ; and I have failed to identify its source. 
The words from " super " to " gentibus " have generally 
been taken to be one sentence ; but no one has attempted 
to construe it. Divided as above, it makes sense. 
Heraclius says, " God, cause Thy face to shine upon 
our darkness ; [and] I will make war among the 

11 Ps. Ixvi. 1 in the Vulgate : " Illuminet vultum suum super nos." 
7 The British Museum specimen reads TENEBAS ; cp. Simonis, op. 
cit., p. 105. 


heathen." In all this we have a contrast between the 
light of Christianity and the darkness of heathenism. 
Even the fact that the two words IN GENTIBVS are placed 
on the under side of the decrescent moon has its signifi- 
cance ; they are hardly noticeable in the shadow, for do 
they not represent the nations who sit in darkness ? 
This same idea of shedding light upon darkness perhaps 
accounts for the lamps which are represented on the 

Now, the word aTroXenrae, placed as it is just at the 
tip of one of the horns of the moon, can only have its 
proper technical sense: it means simply, "thou art 
waning." The moon 8 represents the light of heathenism, 
just as the sun's rays, descending on the countenance 
of Heraclius, represent the light of Christianity. So 
that we have here a contrast analogous to that which 
von Schlosser finds and who can doubt that he is 
right ? in the two figures, of Christianity and Paganism, 
the one gazing at the Cross, the other turning away 
from it, on the reverse of the medal of Constantine. 

One or two curious points are raised by the wording 
of the Greek inscription on the reverse of this medal. 
Ignoring the more obvious blunders, chiefly phonetic, 
we read : Aoa lv V^IGTOIC; XpiaTcj) r 6t(t> OTL 
Gi^ripag TruAac /cat riXsvdepwae *%* ayiav fia(n( 
r RpaK\t(iov). In the revised version of the medal, 9 
which was issued some time in the fifteenth century, 
probably in Italy, with the help of some scholar who 
polished up the Greek, omitted that puzzling word 

8 The crescent, as M. Froehner reminds us, was the emblem of the 
Persian kings. 

9 Such as the specimen illustrated by von Schlosser, PI. xxiii., or the 
lead specimen in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 



oVoXnnc, and generally modified the lettering so as to 
suit the fashion of the humanists of the time, aylav has 
been corrected to ayiov. The scholar knew that the 
Greek word for "cross" is masculine, whereas the man 
who made the earlier medal was probably thinking more 
of the Latin word crux, and therefore wrote ay lav. 

But what are the " gates of iron" ? 10 It may be that 
the scribe had in mind a passage in Ps. cvii. (cvi.) 16 : 
2uvrjOf^ TruAac \a\Kag KOI ju.o\Xov vi$i]pov vvvtOXaasv I 
" Contrivit portas aereas, et vectes ferreos confregit." If 
so, he has merely transferred the adjective from the 
" bars " to the " gates." But there is another and more 
probable source. The clerk who made the Duke's 
inventory translates <rtSf/oae TrvAae by " portes d'enfer." 
At first sight it would seem that this was due simply 
to clerical error ; he may have converted " portes de fer," 
which was read out to him, into " portes d'enfer ; " or, 
if he was copying, it was easy to read " de fer " as " defer." 
What printer would not do the same now, if it occurred 
to him? As a matter of fact, however, we have the 
excellent authority of Homer u for saying that the gates 
of Hell, or rather of the place below it, were of iron : 

"H /JLIV eXcoi/ PLIJ/OJ es Tdprapov rjcpocvra, 
e fjLa\\ r)x L fidOiarrov VTTO x$ovos ecrri 
a criS^peiai re vrvAat KOL ^aX/ceos ovSos, 
fTOV eVep^' atSeca, ocrov ovpaj/os eoV OLTTO 

I see no reason for doubting that the man who drew 
up the inscription for this medal, being familiar with 
Greek, should use a Homeric phrase. 12 We must 

10 M. Froehner says the " Gates of Iron " are the Cilician Gates ; but 
he gives no authority for his statement. 

II Iliad, 0. 13 ff. 

12 M. Blanchet (loc. cit.) has noticed a trace of antique influence in 


remember that the phrase " Gates of Hell " or " Gates of 
Death " is common to the Bible and to Greek literature. 
And the idea is eminently appropriate here, in connexion 
with the deliverance of the symbol of Christianity from 
the powers of darkness. 

Another puzzle is concerned with the medal of 
Constantine, and can be dismissed very briefly, although 
it is tempting to linger over the fascinating symbolism 
of the reverse type. Some specimens of this medal bear 
the Arabic numerals Z34 on the obverse, and Z35 on the 
reverse. I think there can be no doubt that these are 
two of a set of running numbers placed on his works by 
the silversmith who cast and chased the two sides of the 
medal. 13 These medals, as existing specimens prove, were 
often made as shells, each side being cast separately, and 
obverse and reverse afterwards soldered together. When 
gold or silver was used, the object of this process was to 
save metal. Such a shell was the origin of the various 
specimens numbered 234-5 which have come down to us. 
Incidentally it may be noted that the form of 5 which 
is used is late ; even in Italy it could hardly occur earlier 
than the last quarter of the fifteenth century, or the first 
quarter of the sixteenth. The form of 4 is possible in 
Italy as early as the beginning of the fifteenth century, 

the little Hercules strangling the serpents which forms part of the 
decoration of the fountain on the Constantine medal. The plant, out 
of which the cross rises, is also a development of the pine-cone, which 
in antiquity was generally associated with fountains (see my Pisanello, 
p. 100, note). And the figure of Constantine on horseback is lineally 
descended from the riding Emperors on Roman medallions, such as 
the no longer existing medallion of Justinian (Wroth, B. M. CataL 
Imperial Byzantine Coins, vol. i. frontispiece). 

13 M. Babelon, in his article, which I had not seen when the above 
was written, also describes these figures as "un numero d'ordre se 
referant a la fabrication de la medaiUe " (op. tit., p. 909). 

I 2 


but in the North it must date from the last quarter of 
the fifteenth century at the earliest. We thus have a 
date, about 1500, for the origin of the numbered edition 
of the Constantine medal, whether we suppose that it 
was made in Flanders (as is most probable) or in Italy. 14 

G. F. HILL. 

14 An advanced form of the numeral, like the modern form, is found 
in the date 1445 on ttie tower of Heathfield Church, Sussex. It is an 
isolated instance, the earlier form prevailing everywhere else through- 
out the fifteenth century in this country ; and it would be interesting 
to know whether the inscription is really contemporary. Then there 
is a 5 resembling the modern form with the top bar removed, occurring 
among a set of thirteenth or early fourteenth century numerals carved 
on the figures of the Resurrection series on the facade of Wells Cathedral. 
Here one would like to have confirmation of the accuracy of the repro- 
ductions on which our knowledge of this set of figures depends (Proc. 
Somersetsh. Archaeol. and Nat. Hist. Soc., xxxiv., 1888, p. 62). The 
figure in question may be a mutilated 3 or 6. In MSS. the late form of 5 
does not seem to occur at all until the fifteenth century, and then only 
in a somewhat undeveloped form, and with extreme rarity. Coins of 
Brabant and Flanders show the S-shaped form (sometimes angular, 
like an early Greek rsigma) as early as 1475 ; but as no coins of the Low 
Countries are known to me with dates in Arabic numerals earlier than 
1474, I cannot say whether this S-shaped form was then used for the 
first time. For the whole subject I may refer to a paper on Arabic 
numerals in the forthcoming volume of Archaeologia. 



(Continued from Vol. IX. p. 219.) 
(See Plates II.-IV.) 

1470, TO APRIL, 1471. 

PERHAPS the most dramatic episode of the reign under 
consideration was the suddenly enforced flight of 
Edward from the country, and the temporary restoration 
of Henry VI after an imprisonment of five years in the 

Within a few days of the departure of Edward, the 
Earl of Warwick, after a victorious progress from Dart- 
mouth (where after recent exile he had just landed) 
triumphantly entered London. The prisoner of the 
Tower was immediately taken from thence to the Bishop's 
Palace, and from there was conducted in state, with the 
crown on his head, to the Cathedral of St. Paul, where 
he was solemnly enthroned. Weak from the first, the 
unfortunate Henry VI. was now further enfeebled and 
broken by captivity, and we are told that "he sat on 
his throne limp and helpless as a sack of wool," " a mere 
pretence and shadow of a king." Warwick was now com- 
pletely master of the kingdom, and could do as he pleased 


with the helpless king. He declared himself Lieutenant 
of the Realm, and making his brother George Nevill, 
the Archbishop of York, once more Chancellor, the 
kingdom was practically governed by them for the next 
seven months. From the evidence afforded by the 
number of coins undoubtedly attributable to the period 
of the restoration of Henry VI which have come down 
to us, we may be certain that there was no delay in 
striking money in the name of the restored king. In 
the Patent Boll Calendar, 1467-77, p. 227, under the 
date October 23rd, 1470 (49 Henry VI) is a grant during 
pleasure to the king's knight Eichard Tunstall, King's 
Chamberlain, of the office of master and worker of the 
king's mints within the Tower of London, the realm of 
England, and the town of Calais, with all fees and profits 
belonging to the office according to the terms of certain 
indentures to be made, with power to hold an exchange 
common and open in the City of London. It is, how- 
ever, strange that the only known indenture for the 
purpose is that made with Sir Eichard Tunstall, dated 
March 7th, 1471, or only about a month previous to 
the return of Edward IV and the murder of Henry 
VI. As is remarked by Mr. A. E. Packe (Num. 
Chron., Third Series, Vol. IX. p. 353), there must have 
been a previous indenture now lost, or possibly the 
one last made with Edward IV was allowed to run 
out, although the king's name was changed on the 
money. There is also implied evidence that the mints 
were at work previous to the last indenture with Tunstall, 
in a grant dated February 24th, to John Langstrother, 
Prior of St. John's, and John Delves, Esq., of the office of 
" Gustos Cambii et Monetae infra Turrim Londoniar," 
and " Custodiam Cunagiorurn auri et argenti infra regnum 


nostrum Angliae et Villam nostram Calesiae " (Num. 
Chron., Third Series, Vol. IX. p. 355). 

In my previous paper (see Vol. ix. p. 179) I gave reasons 
for assuming that the ryal and its parts were being coined 
until very nearly, if not quite, the time of the restoration, 
and that the cross fitchee pierced was the mint-mark then 
in general use at the Tower Mint. The indenture with 
Sir Eichard Tunstall authorized the coinage of nobles to 
weigh 120 grains ; also half and quarter-nobles, together 
with angels, to weigh 80 grains, and angelets. The terms 
of this indenture were the same as that of the fifth year 
of Edward IV, thus implying that the coinage of ryals 
(or nobles of equal value) was not considered to have 
been finally discontinued, although there can now be 
little doubt that none were actually coined by virtue 
of the indenture. The quarter-noble in the British 
Museum formerly ascribed to this coinage, is now with- 
out question given to the heavy coinage of Henry IV. 
It is of importance to note the continuance of the 
coinage of ryals up to the period of the restoration, 
and the evident contemplation of their further issue, as 
it has considerable bearing upon the view I have put 
forward as to the date of the general coinage of angels. 

Although authorized in 1465, these new gold coins 
were evidently not issued in any quantity previous to the 
restoration, as, with the exception of the extremely rare 
specimens that I have quoted in my last paper, none are 
found with any of the mint-marks or other characteristics 
that are met with on the ryals or other coins contemporary 
with them. As previously suggested, the ryals were 
probably found to be too specially identified with 
Edward, while the want of a noble corresponding with 
the reduced weight of the silver coins was beginning to 


be felt. Perhaps for both these causes the angel nobles, 
hitherto issued only in a somewhat tentative manner, 
were found to be a ready and convenient means of 
popularizing and identifying with the house of Lancaster 
a coin which, although authorized by Edward IV, had so 
far been so little used. The opportunity was the more 
readily afforded by the fact that the ryals so specially 
identified with Edward IV were evidently going out of 
general currency, as those with the cross fitchee mint- 
mark are much less common than those bearing the 
previous mint-marks. Although they were issued again 
in succeeding reigns, it was in such small numbers 
(judging by their great rarity) that they evidently 
never again came into very general use, the angels 
completely supplanting them for a considerable time. 
Certain angels of Henry VI, which are evidently the 
earliest issued after his restoration, have characteristics 
which appear to connect them very closely with the rare 
early angels of Edward IV, and thus to fix the position 
of both in the sequence, practically without a doubt. 
The angel to which I specially refer is No. 1 in the list 
of coins at the end of this paper (see PI. II. 1). It is 
characterized by a neatness and fineness of work together 
with a fulness of size not found on the more common 
angels of Henry VI and the later ones of Edward IV. 
The coin illustrated is in my own collection, but another 
very fine specimen was in the Montagu Collection, 
lot 526, apparently (judging from the plate) from the 
same dies as mine. 

In addition to the substitution of Henry's emblem or 
badge of the fleur-de-lys together with the initial letter 
of his name for Edward's badges of the rose and sun, 
the unusually full reading of ^anRICCVS and 


would appear to have been designedly employed, to recall 
not only the name of Henry, but the glories still unfor- 
gotten associated with it. Although very few of these 
earliest angels would seem to have been issued, others of 
rather coarser work, with larger lettering, must have been 
without delay struck in considerable quantities, as even 
at the present day they are fairly numerous, especially 
considering the short period during which they must 
have been issued. On these more ordinary angels the 
head and wings of St. Michael encroach more upon the 
outer circle than on the first variety, partly owing to 
the figure being larger, and partly owing to the smaller 
spread of the coin. The various readings of the king's 
name on the ordinary angels are tyanKICCVS, tyecnKICCV, 
and tyanKICC, but FRTmdieC only occurs on the first 
variety with the small neat lettering. It is curious that 
the reading tyeCRKIdV, which is the most usual one on 
the silver coins, was unknown to Kenyon for the angels 
of the London Mint, and although I have two with this 
reading in my collection, they are the only ones that I 
know of. Half-angels were also now coined for probably 
the first time, and although of the highest rarity, several 
are known, two being in the British Museum. Angels 
were also coined at the only two regal provincial mints 
that were at work when Henry VI was restored, viz. 
Bristol and York. The latter mint has not so far been 
recognized as issuing gold coins at this period, but 
documentary evidence is now available proving that 
gold as well as silver was coined at York (see below, 
p. 131). In Num. Chron., Third Series, Vol. IX. p. 353, 
Mr. A. E. Packe gives fairly conclusive reasons for be- 
lieving that it was, and that the angels and half-angels 
issued there are some very rare ones distinguished 


by the lys mint-mark so identified with the York Mint 
at this period. 

In common with others, I have been considerably 
puzzled to fix upon the mint-marks in use at the time 
of Edward's flight, but I venture to think that I am not 
far wrong in deciding upon (for the London Mint) the 
pierced cross fitchee of what I termed in my last paper 
the second variety. In this the tail of the cross always 
extends over and beyond the inner beaded circle of the 
legend. Now, it will be readily observed, on examining 
the coins of the restoration period, that on many of them, 
if not the greater number, the mint-mark on one side at 
least, is the same cross fitchee pierced, but with the tail 
cut short so as to be the same length as the other limbs, 
and not to extend beyond the inner beaded circle. At 
the restoration the chief new mint-marks adopted were 
a plain cross (pierced or unpierced) and a rather large 
cross pattee, the latter of which is never found on any 
coin of Edward IV. The plain cross pierced is the one 
most commonly used on the London coins, and I believe 
that the shortened cross fitchee was largely made to do 
duty for it in order to utilize the punches in hand. My 
only doubt has been as to whether this alteration may not 
have been made just before the restoration, as, of course, 
we liave coins of Edward IV with this short form of the 
cross fitchee pierced. I believe, however, that these are 
post-restoration coins, although, without anticipating, I 
cannot now give my full reasons for thinking so. The 
large slender cross pattee is the most generally used 
mint-mark that is found exclusively on the coins of the 
restoration, and very rarely we find the lys, similar to 
that on the York coins, used on those of London and 


To follow the principle of my last paper, it may now 
be well to treat rather more fully of the coins under the 
heading of the several mints. 


Nobles and their parts of the same weight as Edward's 
ryals, although apparently contemplated, never appear 
to have been issued, but in their stead angels were 
struck in considerable quantities. Many dies must have 
been in use, as there are quite a large number of varieties 
of a more or less important nature issued from the 
London Mint. The first variety which I have previously 
described, and to which I attach so mnch importance, 
is seldom met with, but what appears to be the next 
variety (PI, II. 2) (if all were not contemporaneous) still 
reads fyeCRBKIVS, but the French title is shortened to 
FBTTOCt, and the mint-mark of the pierced cross is intro- 
duced on the obverse as well as on the reverse, usually 
at the end of the legend. On this and the succeeding 
varieties of the angel, the figure of St. Michael, as I 
have said, is larger, and the nimbus extends almost, if 
not quite, to the outer circle of the coin. The dragon 
is also larger and the tail is thicker. On the reverse of 
this variety the top -castle of the ship is surmounted by 
a plain cross instead of a floriated one. 1 The next 
variety to note (No. 3) is one with the obverse reading 
tyffnRICCV Dai GRTV, &c., and a noticeable feature is the 
large cross in the centre of the archangel's nimbus [PI. 
II. 3]. This obverse reading is unnoted by Kenyon and 

1 One specimen which I have seen of this variety has no mint-mark 
either on the obverse or reverse, and reads D6CI. 


other writers. The mint-mark is the pierced cross at 
the beginning of the legend. The reverse legend is 
also exceptional in the spelling of aKVCCeC, which on 
most other London angels reads curiously CCKVS6C, a 
peculiarity which it is important to note. There is no 
mint-mark on the reverse of this coin. Another angel 
in my collection, with the same unusual obverse reading 
(but from a different die), has the reverse from the same 
die as No. 2. 

Variety No. 4 reads tyecnKICC DI 6E7T, &c., always (like 
the last) ending FRTina. The mint-mark is usually 
on the reverse only, and is either the cross pat tee or the 
plain pierced cross [PI. II. 4]. I believe the foregoing are 
the only distinct varieties of the London angel, although 
no doubt there may be slight varieties of abbreviation 
of the reverse legend and the position of the mint-mark. 
In accordance with my assumption that angels were 
first coined in any quantity at the restoration, the first 
half-angels or angelets struck are the exceedingly rare 
ones issued in the name of Henry VI, as none are 
known corresponding with the pre-restoration angels of 
Edward IV. The obverse type of these half-angels is 
a reduced copy of the angels with the legend slightly 
abbreviated. The design of the reverse is also the same, 
but the legend is, dKVX TtVGC SPSS VniCCTT, the first 
line of a verse in the hymn " Vexilla Kegis," from the 
Breviary Office for Palm Sunday and Good Friday. On 
the specimen found in Haverfordwest there is a trefoil 
in the field to the right of the shield, but not on that 
in the British Museum from St. Albans. 

In silver every denomination is now known from the 
groat to the farthing, of the London Mint, although, 
until quite recent years, the penny, halfpenny, and 


farthing had not been identified. Groats are compara- 
tively numerous when we consider the limited period of 
their issue, but half-groats are very rare, and the smaller 
pieces extremely so. All are so exactly similar to some 
coins of Edward IV in every detail save the name, that, 
without a close examination, they would escape notice 
amongst a number of coins of the latter. This close 
resemblance, however, makes practically unquestionable 
the position in the sequence of certain coins of Edward 
which, I think, have not hitherto been quite correctly 
located. Groats, being so much more numerous than 
smaller pieces, afford more varieties of detail. The mint- 
marks found upon them are the cross pattee (sometimes 
almost resembling a Maltese cross), the short cross fitchee 
pierced, the plain cross pierced or unpierced, and the 
fleur-de-lys. The first is less common than the two 
other forms of cross, and is usually only on one side of 
the coin. Its occurrence on both sides is exceptional. 
The fleur-de-lys is a very rare mint-mark on the London 
groats, and is only found on either the obverse or reverse 
(usually the latter), with one of the cross mint -marks, 
on the other side. The most usual reading is tyGCnRICCV, 
but a good proportion read I^GCREIOC, although Mr. Neck 
was the first to note the latter variety. The stops used 
on the groat are sometimes trefoils and sometimes sal- 
tires, usually the latter ; there are also several slight 
varieties of the king's bust. Half-groats are extremely 
rare, and, when Hawkins wrote, the one which he illus- 
trates from the collection of the late Kev. E. J. Shepherd 
was believed to be almost the only one known. Others 
have, however, been since discovered, but the varieties are 
slight. The mint-mark is always the cross pierced, on 
the obverse only or on both sides. The only reading so 


far published is ^aRKIdV DI 6R7V BSX 7W16L 
but I have one in my collection weighing 22 grains which 
reads rjanRId and FK7V, and which has the mint-mark on 
both sides. At present this coin is, I believe, unique, 
and is interesting as corresponding with the groats 
having the same reading of the king's name. Pennies 
were unknown, even when Mr. Neck wrote (Num. Cliron., 
New Series, Vol. XL p. 151), and are not mentioned in 
the revised edition of Hawkins. A specimen is, however, 
described in the catalogue of the Kev. E. J. Shepherd's 
Collection, lot 171, and the same coin is again found in 
the Catalogue of the Montagu Collection, lot 566. It 
had previously been illustrated in connexion with a 
paper by Mr. L. A. Lawrence (Num. Chron., Third Series, 
Vol. XL PL vii. 21). In the Shepherd Catalogue the 
mint-mark is described as a pierced cross, but the 
Montagu description is a lys. The former is probably 
correct, judging by the illustration, which, owing to 
the condition of the coin, shows the mint-mark very 

I myself have another and finer specimen [PI. III. 
3] which shows the cross mint-mark quite distinctly. 
Both read f]GCnRIttV, but in other respects exactly 
resemble certain pennies of Edward IV. A third speci- 
men has recently been discovered, and is now in the 
collection of Mr. H. B. Earle Fox. It is considerably 
clipped, but the name reads distinctly as on the other 
two. A very fine specimen of the halfpenny weighing 
6 grains passed through the Shepherd and Montagu 
Collections, and was described as " probably unique." It 
is now in the British Museum. The mint-mark is a 
pierced cross, and the reading is fyeCRRICCV DI 6RA, &c. 
[PI. III. 4], Other specimens are now known, although 


they are extremely rare. I have two (from different dies) 
in my collection, and I have seen another. All read the 
same, but there are two varieties of bust, one having 
a taller crown and longer neck than the other. On one 
variety the pellets on the reverse are united as trefoils, 
on the other they are quite separate. I have in my cabinet 
a so-far unique specimen of the farthing weighing 4 
grains and reading ^anRlCt DI 6E7V (EffX 7T) [PL III. 
5]. This coin was formerly in the Lawrence Collection, 
where it was ascribed to the light coinage of Henry VL 
For a time I doubted the correctness of this attribution, 
owing to the close resemblance of the bust to that on the 
early farthings of Henry VI, or even of Henry V, and I 
endeavoured to connect the DI 6R7V legend with certain 
early pennies having the same legend. These, however, 
would, I now feel, be too early, and also there are no half- 
pennies with the DI 6E7V legend earlier than those of the 
light coinage of Henry YI. I therefore no longer feel 
that there can be any doubt as to the proper attribution 
of this farthing. The resemblance to the early Henry VI 
farthing as regards the bust may probably be accounted 
for by the possible use of the same punches for the dies. 
The DI 6R7Y legend appears to leave no alternative for 
the attribution of this farthing to the 1470 restoration 
period. It is at the same time somewhat strange that 
we should have a farthing of this coinage, when the 
existence of a light farthing of Edward IV is very 


It is a curious circumstance that, although in the first 
year of the reign of Henry VI authority was given to 
establish a mint at Bristol, no money should have been 


actually coined there in his name until forty-eight years 
afterwards, and then under strangely altered conditions. 
In 1470 the Bristol Mint had already been for about five 
years striking money of both gold and silver in consider- 
able quantities in the name of Edward IV, and was still 
actively at work, although with the exception of York 
and Canterbury, and perhaps Durham the other pro- 
vincial royal mints appear to have been closed some time 
previously. With the advent of the restoration no cessa- 
tion of work would seem to have occurred at the Bristol 
Mint although no doubt it was, even previous to this 
period, less active than it had been in the full tide of the 
great recoinage of 1465, and after. As at the London 
Mint, angels now took the place of ryals for the gold 
coinage, and, rare as they are, several varieties are to be 
found. They afford grounds, I think, for a strong pre- 
sumption that the dies were not, as formerly, all sent 
from London, but that some at least were made on the 
spot, perhaps by workmen trained at the Tower Mint, with 
punches sent from London, 2 as the execution is mostly 
equally good. It might also have been that, with the 
cessation of work at other mints, Bristol and York afforded 
employment for die-sinkers no longer required in London 
or elsewhere. The Bristol angels read fyGCRKICCVS or 
fyGCRBIdV, and all those that I can trace with the latter 
reading of the name have the obverse legend ending 
DRS, a peculiarity found on none of the, far more 
numerous, London angels of Henry VI. On the reverse 
also of both varieties trefoils are mostly found in the 

- Mr. H. B. Earle Fox has recently shown the great probability 
that punches were made in large numbers from the same matrices in 
London, and sent to provincial mints for the manufacture of dies locally. 


field on either side of the shield, another feature absent 
in the London pieces. Now, both these peculiarities occur 
on the later variety of the pre-restoration angel of 
Edward IV, suggesting that these were copied more 
independently by Bristol workmen. It seems very 
unlikely that if all the dies were made in London only 
those for Bristol should have the Irish title indicated. 
Again, No. 3 in my list, of which several specimens are 
known (one or two being from the St. Alban's find), is of 
distinctly rougher workmanship than any of the London 
angels. Apart from the foregoing variations from the 
latter, the only difference is the B in the waves under 
the ship for Bristol. No half-angels have yet been dis- 
covered, but it is very probable that some were struck, as 
specimens attributable to York are known. 

In silver, groats alone are now known, but although all 
are rare, I have been able to describe eleven varieties in 
my list, showing that many dies must have been in use. 
The mint-marks employed comprise several that are not 
found on the London coins, and are the plain cross 
pierced, rose, lys, trefoil of united pellets, trefoil with 
bent stalk, and, strangest of all, the sun. The usual 
reading of the name is tyanRIdV and on a few tyanRICC, 
while one variety has the exceptional reading of 
f]6CnRICCVS, the sole instance of this complete reading on 
any silver coin of the restoration from either of the three 
mints. The mint-marks on these Bristol groats deserve 
rather more than passing mention, as, in addition to 
their affording proof that at least some of the dies 
were not sent from London, they incidentally throw 
light upon the sequence of mint-marks on the coins of 
Edward IV before and after the restoration of Henry 
VI. Four out of the six are not found on any London 



coins, while one London mint-mark, the cross pattee, is 
never, I believe, met with on a Bristol coin. The pierced 
cross and the lys are common to both London and 
Bristol. The rose is a strange mint-mark for a coin of 
Henry VI at this period, and the sun a stranger one 
still; but they maybe accounted for by the fact that the 
sun was actually in revived use at Bristol at the time of 
the restoration, and there were already symptoms of a 
tendency to revive the use of the rose generally. 

The two forms of trefoil are the most remarkable mint- 
marks, and the strongest evidence of the local production 
of the dies, as these marks must have had their origin at 
Bristol. I can suggest 110 meaning for them, but they 
may have possibly identified an official or die-maker who- 
afterwards moved to London, as the trefoil of united 
pellets appears later on a few rare London groats of 
Edward IV, but any general use of it is confined to the 
Bristol groats of Henry VI, the variety with the bent 
stalk [PI. III. 10] being never found elsewhere. 


As in the case of Bristol, the Eoyal Mint at York was 
actively at work at the time of the restoration, and the 
well-known fleur-de-lys mint-mark was almost ex- 
clusively in use, although even here the sun had begun 
to be revived, there being specimens of the late pre- 
restoration groats of Edward IV which have it together 
with the lys. 

Although it has been generally assumed that no gold 
was coined at York during the restoration of Henry VI,. 
the existence of angels and half-angels bearing the lys 
mint- mark, so identified with York at this period, would 
seem to point conclusively to the contrary. As gold 


was coined at Bristol, there would appear to be every 
reason for supposing that it was not discontinued at 
York, which mint, after London, issued the largest 
amount of silver in the name of Henry VI at this 

In the accounts rendered by the Master of the Mint 
(after the return of Edward IV) we find, 3 " Concerning 
some profits issuing from the mints in the Tower and 
at Bristol, from September 30th, 10 Edw. IV to April 
14th following, there is no account, because John Lang- 
strother (Prior of the Hospice of St. John of Jerusalem), 
late Treasurer of Henry VI, late de facto but not de jure 
King of England, and John Delves, late Treasurer of the 
Hospice of the late King, had and received all issues and 
profits of the Exchange and Money of the King there for 
the said time, as he says on oath. For which issues and 
profits the said John and John ought to account to the 
King. Nor is account given of profits issuing from 
the Coinage of gold and silver minted in the Ex- 
change of the King at York from September 30th, 10 
Edw. IV to Christmas following, for the causes afore- 
said, as he says on oath. But he burdens himself 
voluntarily with 7 9s. 6d. for money received by him 
in the exchange of the King there on April 14th, 11 
Edw. IV, for money issuing from the mint of gold and 
silver worked and minted there between Christmas, 10 
Edw. IV, and Easter following in the time of Henry 
VI, late de facto but not de jure King of England, on 
which Feast of Easter indeed our present King Edward IV 
possessed and enjoyed his former dignity." This docu- 
mentary evidence proves that gold as well as silver was 

3 (Exchequer K. E.) Bundle 294, No. 20. 

K 2 


coined at York during the period of the restoration of 
Henry VI, and it only remains to endeavour to identify 
the coins struck at the mint in that city. 

The angel with the mint-mark lys in the British Museum 
[PI. IV. 1], like some of the Bristol angels, strongly 
suggests that it is from dies not made in London, as it 
differs from any London or even Bristol angel in the 
legends on both sides. It is also of rougher work. It 
is, however, similar in every detail to the one described 
by Mr. A. E. Packe (Num. Chron,, Third Series, Vol. IX. 
p. 353) from his own collection. The only arguments 
against the attribution of these lys-marked gold coins 
to York are, as Mr. Packe observes, first the absence 
of the letter 6C in the waves under the ship, and secondly 
the fact that the lys was occasionally used as a mint- 
mark elsewhere during the restoration period. The 
first, as he says, may well be accounted for owing to the 
letter GC being so conspicuous a feature on Edward's gold 
coins ; and in regard to the second, it appears only 
necessary to point out that at this time the lys was 
practically the sole mint-mark used at York, while in 
the rare instances of its being found elsewhere on groats, 
it occurs, I believe, always in conjunction with another 
mint-mark on the other side, as if intended to mark a 
distinction from the York groats, where it is on both 
sides. Mr. Packe mentions its having been objected that 
it would be strange if, rare as they are, so large a 
proportion of the half-angels extant should (as bearing 
this mint-mark) have come from York. To this I would 
reply that their preservation may easily be accounted 
for by accident. The reading ^SHEICC and Dffl of the 
specimen in the British Museum [PI. IV. 2] is the same 
as that in Euding's plate, and thus again in the case 


of the half-angel, as with the angel, we find a different 
reading from the London specimens, which have fyGCnRICC 
and DI. In silver, groats are more numerous of 
York than of Bristol, although, owing to the all but 
exclusive use of the lys mint-mark, there are fewer 
varieties. The only exception that I can trace is the 
specimen (No. 5 in my list) now in the British Museum 
and formerly in the Montagu Collection, which has for 
mint-mark on the reverse a sun, which appears to be 
either over a rose, or the latter has possibly been punched 
over the sun. This reverse is most probably from one 
of the latest York dies of Edward IV, on some of which 
the sun was revived It is a useful coin in affording evi- 
dence as to the type of groats presumably being struck 
immediately previous to the restoration [PI. IV. 7]. As on 
the London groats, the reading is ^GCREiaV or tyanRICC, 
the former being the most usual, and there are no other 
variations in the legends, which exactly correspond with 
those of the groats of Edward IV. Sometimes trefoils 
are used as stops, and sometimes saltires, and on one 
variety there is a small lys at the end of the obverse 
legend. Half-groats were struck at York, but are of 
excessive rarity, and so far only two specimens appear 
to be known, one of which (the best) is now in the 
British Museum [PI. IV. 5]. It came from the Montagu 
Collection, having previously passed through the Bergne 
and Brice Collections. The other was in the Cuff 
Collection, and subsequently in the Martin, Murchison, 
Whitbourne, and Webb Collections. It is now in my 
own cabinet. Both are exactly similar, having 6C on the 
breast, and read ^REIdY, &c., with trefoil stops. Both 
have the usual lys mint-mark. 

Pennies of the Archiepiscopal Mint are now known, 


although previously unpublished (for that described by 
Hawkins (from Ending) is evidently one of Henry VII's 
first coinage). One in the Montagu Collection (lot 568), 
described as from the Brice Cabinet, reads tyanRld, &c., 4 
but two in my own collection and one or two others 
that I have seen, all read tyecnKICCV. All, including the 
Montagu specimen, have the lys mint-mark, and have 
the usual 6 and key, the marks of Archbishop George 
Nevill, in the field of the obverse [PI. IV. 8]. One of 
mine shows trefoil stops in the obverse legend. Apart 
from the name, they exactly resemble the Nevill pennies 
of Edward IV. 


This paper having been written from the point of view 
that the short restoration of Henry VI in 1470-71 was 
merely an episode in the reign of Edward IV (which 
appeared to the writer to be the only way of treating it 
numismatically), it may not be amiss to summarize briefly 
the conclusions that may be drawn from the theories 
brought forward. 

The light coinage of Henry VI is specially useful 
in arranging the sequence of mint-marks and coins of 
Edward IV, although there has been some difficulty 
even with the aid it affords of satisfactorily deter- 
mining whether certain of them preceded or suc- 
ceeded the restoration period. I trust, however, that 
I have given satisfactory reasons for concluding that 
angels and angelets were not until this period struck in 
any quantity, and that the cross fitchee was the latest 

4 Another [PI. IV. 9] is in the cabinet of Mr. L. A. Lawrence. 


pre-restoration mint-mark for London, while at Bristol 
and York at the same period the sun was being revived 
(after some discontinuance in favour of the crown) on 
groats, with trefoils in the field, and other characteristics 
of the London cross fitchee coins. Briefly the reasons 
are these : 

(1) The first variety of London angel in my list more 
resembles in character the early variety of Edward IV 
than any other angels do, and appears to form a 
connecting link, while on some of the Bristol angels the 
resemblance is carried further in their having the Irish 
title (in part), which appears on no angel of Edward IV 
but the early variety. The Bristol angels also mostly 
have the trefoils in the field, another characteristic of 
Edward's early angels, and found on none of his other 

(2) The adoption to a considerable extent of the modified 
variety of the cross fitchee mint-mark (which does not 
seem to have been previously noticed) on the coins of 
the restoration. 

(3) The exact resemblance in the portrait, lettering, 
and other details of the light groats and half-groats of 
Henry VI to those of Edward IV with the cross fitchee 
mint-mark, more especially those (of London) without 
the trefoils in the field. 5 


5 The half -groat is not noticed in the first paper, but I have since 
acquired a specimen. 






i. oiv. * tyecnBidvs < DI A GETT r Recx A 

FETTRdlGC * St. Michael slaying the dragon ; 
cross in centre of nimbus of the angel. The 
dragon's tail curls up under the wing of 
St. Michael. 

Rev. Mint-mark large cross pattee. P6CR < OCEVS6C 
TOE Ship on waves, with top-castle to inast 
surmounted by cross fleury ; shield with the 
arms of France and England quarterly, with 
cross above. On side of ship ty to 1. and lys 
to r. of cross. [PI. II. 1.] F. A. W. 

This coin, in the neatness of the lettering and fulness 
of the legends, as well as other characteristics, has a 
marked affinity to the angel of Edward IV with the rose 
and sun at the sides of the cross on the reverse. It 
appears to be the earliest example, and is a very rare 
variety, A very fine specimen was in the Montagu 
Collection, lot 526 in Sale Catalogue. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark pierced cross at end of legend. 
^eCRRldVS A DI Y 6E7T Y E6CX r 7TR6L' 
j. S r FE7TRCC Design all as last. 

Rev. Mint-mark pierced cross at end of legend. PGCR 
RaDGC'TOE Usual design, but top-castle 
of mast surmounted by a plain cross. 

[PI. II. 2.] British Museum. 

3. Olv. fiaRBIdVS Y DI A GEft v E6CX Y 7TR6L x 
Usual type. 


Eev. Mint-mark pierced cross pattee. PaR 

TV7T STYLVft ROS XPd RaDa. T. Pellet 
stops ; usual type. 
Montagu Catalogue, lot 183 (final portion). 

4. Legends and mint-mark as last, but on Eev. CCKVCCS6C 

British Museum. 

5. Obv. No mint-mark. I?GCnKI(IVS x Dai x 6R7T x 


Rev. No mint-mark. P6CR ttRVda r TV7V S7VLVA r 
ROS XPCC RaDamPTOR r Plain cross over 

6. Obv. Mint-mark pierced cross fitchee (short). 


FRT^HOC ^ * A Usual type ; cross in centre 
of nimbus of angel. 

Eev. Mint-mark pierced cross at end of legend. 

dRVSa' A TV7T x STYLVfi * ROS r XPtt r 
RaDa'TOR Plain cross over top-castle of 
ship ; fy and lys at sides of cross. F. A. W. 

7. Obv. Mint-mark pierced cross. I^aRRiaV Dai r 
(oRTT xRaXTTRGL Y ^ Y ER7TRa J Large 
cross in centre of nimbus of angel. 

Eev. No mint-mark. PaR CCRVaa' TV7T STtLVTY Y 
ROS r XPa 5 A RaDa'TO' Usual type, 
with {7 and lys at sides of cross. 

[PL II. 3.] F. A. W. 

8. Obv. A JiaRRItt' DI 6R7T * RaX *- 7VR6L A <^ 

FRT^RCC A Usual type ; tail of dragon curls 
out beyond the wing of the angel ; cross in 
centre of nimbus. 

Eev. Mint-mark cross pattee. PttR QRVSa TV7T 
and lys at sides of cross ; usual type. 

[PL II. 4.] British Museum. 

9. Obv. All as last. 

Eev. Mint-mark cross pierced. RaDa'T Pellet 
stops between words of legend. F. A. W. 


10. Obv. As No. 8. 

Eev. Mint-mark cross pattee. P6CR CCRVSeC TV7Y 

S7TLV7T ns xpa RetmmTOR 

Kenyon, 6. British Museum. 


1. 06*.* flGCnRICC DI 6R7Y R6CX 7YRGL S FR St. 
Michael slaying the dragon ; cross in centre 
of nimbus. 

Eev. Mint-mark pierced cross. + + CCRVX x 

nyec ; < srecaec (sic) vmaft Ship with 

shield of arms surmounted by cross. Mast 
with top -castle and cross fleury above, t] and 
lys over shield; trefoil to r. of shield, also 
(possibly) an annulet, but it is doubtful 
whether the latter is not a hole partially 

This coin was found at Haverfordwest, 
and has passed through the Martin, Murchi- 
son, Shepherd, Montagu, and Murdoch Collec- 

ofo. * Cannier A DI GRTT Rax * TYRGL 

Usual type of half -angels ; cross in centre of 
angel's nimbus. 

Eev.~ Mint-mark cross pattee. i * CCRVX Y 
TWO! * SPSS r V * nlCCTV I] and lys at 
sides of cross above shield, two ropes from 
stern and one from prow of ship. 

British Museum; from the St. Albans 
find. [PI. II. 5.] 


1. 060. Mint-mark cross pierced. f?ecnRI(IV DI 

RGCX x 7TR6L $ FRTTnd Small trefoils on 
all cusps of tressure except the two over crown. 

.Ret?. Mint-mark cross pierced. POSVI DGCVJtt 
Usual long cross and pellets. 


2. Obv. All as last, but all cusps of tressure fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross fitchee (short) pierced ; legends 
as last. [PI. II. 6.] British Museum. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark and legends as No. 1 \ one cusp of 

tressure over crown fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark lys ; legends as No. 1. 

[PI. II. 8.] H. B. Earle Fox. 

4. Obv. and Rev. All as last, but reads tyecnBICC Tre- 

foil stops ; cusps of tressure over crown not 
fleured. Montagu Collection, lot 562. 

5. Obv. Mint-mark lys. tyanKId, &c. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced ; usual legends. 

Ruding, Sup., ii 20. 

.- Mint-mark cross. fyanRIdV, &c. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced ; lys after DGCVStt 

British Museum. 

7. Obv. Mint-mark cross pattee. tyecnKICT x DI 6R7T x 
E6CX x 7YR6L $ FRTCRtt All cusps of 
tressure fleured with small trefoils. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced ; lys after DGCVJft 

[PI. II. 7.] F. A. W. 

8. Obv. and Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced. 

Saltire stops after E6CX, TTOGL, and ^ ; all 
cusps of tressure fleured ; lys after D6CV5K 

W. M. Maish. 

9. Obv. Cross pierced. ^GCRRia, &c. ; all as last. 
Rev. Cross pattee ; cross after DGCYm F. A. W. 

10. Obv. Cross pierced. tyanRId, &c. ; trefoil stops 
after all words except DI ; cusps of tressure 
over crown not fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pattee; large saltire cross 
after DetVftl British Museum. 


11. Obv. Mint-mark cross pattee; reads tyeCRRlCC ; sal- 
tire stops. 

fi eVt Mint-mark cross pattee ; saltire after DGTJft 

British Museum. 


1. Olv. Mint-mark cross pierced. t?aRRIdV' DI < 

6E7T A B6CX r 7TR6L A ^ A FR Cusps of 
tressure over crown not fleured. 

Rev. No mint-mark. POSVI D6CV$tt 7YDIVTOE6C' 

mavm - CCIVITTTS LORDOR Pellets 

united in form of trefoils. 

Hawkins, 343. Wt. 22 grs. Was in the 
Shepherd, Brice, and Montagu Collections. 

2. All as last, but mint-mark on both obv. and rev. 

[PI. III. 1.] British Museum. 

3. Ob v , Mint-mark pierced cross. l]etREia' DI 6E7T 

EGCX A 7YR6L ^ FE7T All cusps of tressure 

Rev. Mint-mark pierced cross; legends as last; pellets 
united in form of trefoils. 
Wt. 22 grs. [PI. III. 2.] F. A. W. 


Olv. Mint-mark cross (pierced?). l^GCREiaV DI 6EA 

Rev. dlVITTTS LORDOR Usual cross and pellets. 
Wt. 10 grs. [PI. III. 3]. F. A. W. 


1. Obv. Mint-mark pierced crossed fitchee (short). 
fieCREICCV DI 6E7T R6CX Bather thin bust 
with tall crown. 

Rev. aiVITTVS LORDOR Pellets joined in trefoil 
Wt. 6 grs. 

[PI. III. 4.] British Museum. 
From the Shepherd and Montagu Collections. 


2. Obv. Mint-mark and legend as No. 1 ; bust thicker 
and crown less tall. 

Rev. Legend as before ; pellets entirely disconnected 
and round. 

Wt. 6 grs. F. A. W. 


Olv. Mint - mark cross. fyGCnKId x DI x 6R7V 
(RffX K ) 

LORDOR Pellets joined. 
Wt. 4 grs. [PL III. 5.] F. A. W. 

The weight of this farthing and the similarity of the 
bust to that on earlier farthings might cause a doubt as 
to its correct position here, but the DI 6R7V legend leaves 
little evidence for any other attribution. 


1. 060.* fietRRIdVS * Dffl * GRfi * RaX Y TtRGL 
A ^ r FR7YRa r Cross in nimbus of angel. 

Rev. Mint-mark pierced cross. PaR CCRVSa TV7V 
SfiLVft ROS r XPCC RaDaT' ty to 1., lys 
to r. of cross over ship ; trefoil at each side 
of shield ; B in waves under ship. 

[PL III. 6.] British Museum. 

2. Obv. * fyaRRiaV * DI v 6BJT 

r S r FRTTRa r DRS r Cross in centre of 

. Mint-mark pierced cross. PaR aRVSa TVA 
S7VLV7T Y ROS A XPtt' x RaD'attJT' li to 
1. of mast ; no lys or other emblem to r. ; 
trefoil at each side of shield ; B in waves 
under ship. Manley Foster Catalogue. 

3. 060.* l?6CnRiaV Y DI 6E7T r 

r DRS A Cross in nimbus of an 


Eev. No mint-mark. P6CR CCRVCCeC ^ TV7V * 

STTLVTT nos r XPCC Kara' * TOR ^ 

and lys at sides of cross over ship ; no trefoils 
at sides of shield ; B in waves under ship. 

F. A. W., ex Montagu and O'Hagan 
Collections. [PI. III. 7.] 


I Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced. fyeCRRICCVS x DI 
6R7T x ReCX x 7U7G FRTmd B on 
breast of king's bust ; arcs of tressure above 
crown not fleured. 

Eev. Mint-mark rose. POSYI DOTM x 7TDIV- 


Usual cross and pellets. W had been punched 
on the die instead of V in YILL7T, but the 
error is partially obliterated by two saltires 
punched over the first half of the W. This 
error is of some importance as it enables the 
same die to be identified in use with other 
obverse dies of both Henry VI and Edward IV. 
[PI. III. 8.] British Museum. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark pierced cross. tyetnRICCV' A DI 
6K7T RaX A 7m6L Y <y A FRTTnCt Cusps of 
tressure over crown fleured; B on breast 
of bust. 

Eev. Mint-mark rose ; from the same die as last. 

F. A. W. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark pierced cross. fyecnRICCV, &c. As 

last, cusps over crown fleured ; B on king's 

Eev. Mint-mark trefoil of large pellets. VILLA 
BRISTOW. [PI. III. 9.] H. B. Earle Fox. 

4. Obv. Mint-mark trefoil with curved stalk f f]6CR- 

RICCV, &c., as No. 2 ; saltire stops ; cusps 
above crown fleured : B on breast. 

Eev. Mint-mark pierced cross. VILL7T r BRISTOW 
Trefoil stops in outer and inner legends. 

[PI. III. 10.] F. A. W. 


5. 06v. Mint-mark trefoil without stalk. 

&c., as last ; cusps over crown not fleured ; 
B on breast. 

Bev. Mint-mark trefoil of pellets. YILL7T BRIS- 
TOW F. A. W. 

6. Obv. Mint-mark rose (?). tyGCRRICCV, &c. B on king's 


Rev. Mint-mark lys. VILL7V BRISTOW 

Hawkins, No. 1. 

7. o&v. Mint-mark sun. tyecnRIGC, &c. B on breast. 

Eev Mint-mark rose. VILL7V BRISTOW 

(Num. Chron., N. S., Vol. XI. p. 150.) Neck. 

8. Obv. Mint-mark trefoil. f^RRICC, &c. B on breast. 

Eev. Mint-mark cross (pierced?). VILL7V BRIS- 
TOW Webb Collection, lot 161. 

9. Obv. Mint-mark trefoil. fyaRRICCV, &c. ; B on 

king's breast. 

Eev. Mint-mark lys. VILL7V BRISTOW 

Montagu Collection, lot 563, from the 
Marsham Collection. 

10. Obv. Mint-mark lys. tyeCRRIdV, &c. ; B on king's 

Eev. Mint-mark trefoil. VILL7V BRISTOW 

Montagu Sale Catalogue, lot 194 (final 

11. Obv. and Eev. Mint-mark cross pierced. 

Trefoil stops on both sides. W. M. Maish. 


Usual design of St. Michael 
slaying the dragon ; cross in nimbus of angel. 

Eev. Mint-mark lys at end of legend. PffR QRYtt 
Usual type of other angels ; ty to 1., lys to r. 
of cross over ship. 

[PI. IV. 1.] British Museum. 




Same type as London half -angel ; cross in 
centre of angel's nimbus. 

Rev. Mint-mark lys at end of legend. O CCRV Y X r 
TYVa Y SPSS VA$nia7Yr<$ Usual design; 
t] and lys on either side of shield. 

[PI. IV. 2, 3.] 
British Museum and Evans Collection. 


1. Olv. Mint-mark lys. tyGCnKICCV DI 6E7T EGCX r 
7VR6L A ^ A FRTVna 6C on king's breast ; 
arches of treasure above crown fleured. 

Eev. Mint-mark lys. POSVI DGTJft x 7VDIV- 
TOEa J ffieCVm;aiVIT7VSaBOE7Vai Usual 
cross and pellets. [PL IV. 6.] F. A. W. 

2. All as last, but small lys after 

3. As No. 1, but arches of tressure over crown not fleured. 

4. Obv. Mint-mark lys. f]GCnEICI r DI GETC A EffX < 

7YR6L A ^* FETTRa a on breast ; cusps of 
tressure over crown not fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark lys; usual outer legend; saltire 
after D6C V$tt ; dlVITTTS aBOBTtdl 

[PL IV. 4.] F. A. W. 

5. Obv. Mint-mark lys. ^GCRBia Y DI 6K7T' A E6CX Y 

7TR6L *<> FRTTRa a on breast; cusps of 
tressure over crown fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark sun over rose (?) ; usual legends. 

British Museum, ex Montagu Collection 
(lot 561). [PL IV. 7.] 

6. 0^. Mint-mark lys. fyecnRlCCV, &c. 

Rev. Mint-mark rose (?) ; usual legends. 

Num. Chron., N. S., Vol. XI. p. 151. 

F. A. W. 



Olv. Mint-mark lys. IjffnKIdV A DI * 6E7T E6CX 
r TTRSL A ^ A FR All cusps of tressure 
fleured ; d on breast. 

Rev. Mint-mark lys. POSY! DdTO* TYDIVTOEd 
JRdVm aiVlT7TS eCBOETCai Pellets con- 
nected in form of trefoils. 

Wt. 23*5 grs. British Museum, ex Mon- 
tagu Collection (lot 565). [PI. IV. 5.] 

Pennies (of the Archiepiscopal Mint). 

1. Obv. Mint-mark lys. t]dnRIdV DI 6R7V RdX r 

fiRGL Key to r., 6 to 1. of bust. 

Rev.dlVIT AS ffBORTtdl Usual cross and pellets, 
with quatrefoil in centre. 
Wt. 11 J grs. [PI. IV. 8.] F. A. W. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark lys. F]anRia DI 6R7T RffX 

7VR6L 6 and key at sides of bust. 

eCBORTYCCI Cross and pellets, with 
quatrefoil in centre. 

Wt. 10J grs. Montagu Collection (lot 
568). (See Num. Chron., Series III., Vol. XI. 
PI. VII.) and L. A. Lawrence. [PI. IV. 9.] 

F. A. W. 



(1752-1795 A.D.) AND HIS COPPEK COINS. 

(See Plate V.) 

" THE Carnatic, anciently called Canara, properly 
denotes the tract of country where the Canara language 
is spoken, but has long since lost its original application, 
and has two principal meanings, one more extensive, and 
the other more limited; the former including under it 
nearly the whole of the south-eastern portion of the 
Indian peninsula, from the Kistna to Cape Comorin, 
and the latter adopting the same northern limit, but not 
descending further south than the country immediately 
north of the Coleroon, and at the same time so confining 
it on the west as not to leave it an average breadth of 
more than seventy-five miles. In this latter sense the 
Carnatic is nearly identical with the territory which, 
under the Mogul Empire, formed one of the principal 
provinces of the soubah or government of the Deccan, 
and was administered by the soubahdar's nabob, or 
deputy, under the title of the Nabob of Arcot, the whole 
nabobship taking its name from Arcot, the capital. The 
country thus defined consists of two portions, differing 
greatly in their physical features, and distinguished 
from each other by the names of Balaghaut and 
Payeenghaut, or the land above and the land beneath the 



mountain passes. . . . Immediately south of the nabob- 
ship of Arcot, were the two rajahships or Hindoo states 
of Trichinopoly and Tanjore, which, though governed 
by their own princes, were so far dependent on the 
Nabob of Arcot, who levied tribute from them, not 
indeed in his own name, but as deputy of the Mogul " 
(Beveridge, Hist, of India, vol. i. pp. 430, 431). 

Daud Khan Pani was made Nawab of Arcot in 1698, 
but Saadut Ulla Khan (an able and popular chief of 
Arab extraction) first took the title of Nawab of the 
Carnatic, and governed the province from 1708 to 1733. 
The office was not recognized as hereditary. It was 
held by commission from Delhi, but in the event of the 
Mogul not exercising or delaying to exercise the right 
of nomination, a temporary appointment was made by 
the Soubahdar of the Deccan. Such was the regular 
mode of procedure when the Mogul Empire was in 
vigour ; but in the state of decay into which it had 
fallen, the imperial commission was regarded as only a 
form, and the right of appointment was tacitly, if not 
overtly, contested between the Soubahdar and the 
Nawab ; the one claiming it as his prerogative, and the 
other striving to render it hereditary in his family. 
Saadut Ulla Khan, having no issue, left a will by which 
he bequeathed the nawabship to his brother's son, 
named Dost Ali. Nizam-ul-Mulk, who considered 
himself as independent sovereign of the Deccan, not 
having been consulted, regarded this as an encroachment 
on his authority, but owing to other political entangle- 
ments at the time, was not in a position to give effect 
to his resentment. Dost Ali governed the province 
until he was killed by the Mahrattas in 1740. His son, 
Safaar Ali, governed until 1742, when he was murdered. 



A nephew of Dost All succeeded Safaar All, but he was 
expelled by his troops after a few days. The Nizam of 
the Deccan then appointed Khwajah Abdullah Khan, 
who died in 1744. Anwar-ud-din Khan next governed 
for a few months, but was killed by the French at the 
Battle of Ambur. The son of a former Nawab (Safaar 
Ali) carried on the government until he was murdered 
in 1749. Husain Dost Khan, better known as Chanda 
Sahib, was appointed by the Nizam in 1749, but was 
beheaded by order of Manikji, General of the Tanjore 
Army, in 1752. This Nawab was succeeded by 


who was the second son of Anwar-ud-din. Up to this time, 
the lot of the former Nawabs had not been a very happy 
one, as shown above, but Muhammad Ali's nawabship was 
destined to be an exception, that is, so far as the length 
of time his government lasted. He commenced to rule 
over the province in 1752, and held it until he died on 
October 13, 1795, at the age of seventy-eight years. 
Before describing the copper coins issued by this Nawab, 
it is interesting to note the most important events which 
occurred during his career. 

1744. Muhammad Ali was present with his father at 
the Battle of Ambur, but fled to Trichinopoly after the 
French victory, where he shut himself up and assumed 
the title of Nawab. He implored the assistance of the 
British, which was given, the British and French taking 
opposite sides in the choice of a Nawab. 

1750. When the French captured Trivadi, fifteen 
miles from Fort St. David, Muhammad Ali, to whom it 


previously belonged, made an effort to regain it. With 
this object he raised an army of 20,000 men, which 
included 1900 men furnished by the British Governor of 
Fort St. David. Finding the French entrenched, he 
was urged by the British Commander to force an 
engagement, but was too cowardly to comply, and 
contented himself with skirmishes and a distant 
cannonade. As he refused payment of the expenses 
of the British contingent, the latter returned to Fort 
St. David, when the French, at once taking advantage 
of their absence, brought Muhammad Ali to action and 
gained a complete victory, without the loss of a single 
man. Muhammad Ali escaped with difficulty, and 
reached Arcot with only two or three attendants. 

Dec., 1750. Muhammad Ali was in camp when Nasir 
Jang, the Nizam of the Deccan, was assassinated, and 
he fled again to Trichinopoly, his prospects being very 
gloomy. The British had withdrawn their support, the 
French were bent on his capture, and thus threatened and 
perplexed, " he followed the true bent of his nature by 
weaving an intricate web of policy." He applied for 
assistance to the Mahrattas, the Mysoreans, and the 
British Presidency, and entered into secret communica- 
tions with the French, and made a treaty by which he 
was to renounce his claim on the nawabship and content 
himself with some inferior appointment in the Deccan. 
He offered to surrender Trichinopoly a most important 
link in the scheme of French aggrandizement in 

1751. The British again sent Muhammad Ali aid 
after he had renewed his alliance, but his first campaign 
proved very disastrous. He attempted to subdue Madura, 
but failed ignominiously, and a large portion of his army 


went over to the enemy, the sympathy of his own troops 
being with Chanda Sahib. 

The French (under Dupleix) began to mark their new 
acquisitions with white flags quite close to Fort St. 
David (the seat of the British Presidency after the loss 
of Madras), and the sight of these flags excited mingled 
feelings of fear and indignation. The ruin of the British 
was involved in that of Muhammad Ali, and their only 
safety was in supporting him to the utmost of their 
power. " Influenced by such considerations, the British 
awoke from their lethargy and resolved on action, still, 
however, not as principals, but under their old disguise 
of mercenaries or auxiliaries." 

An expedition was sent against Volconda, in which 
Muhammad Ali's troops and a small detachment of 
British were seized with panic, and were defeated by 
the French. Strange to say, the panic commenced with 
the East India Company's battalion, and although their 
officers Clive ; then a lieutenant, was amongst the number 
endeavoured to rally them, it was in vain, and the 
army retreated to Trichinopoly, the only place of strength 
now belonging to Muhammad Ali. The British at Fort 
St. David were now fully committed to the war, but 
Olive's clever capture of Arcot and other successful 
operations, were the means of placing Muhammad Ali 
in virtual possession as Nawab of a territory yielding 
an annual revenue of 150,000. Before this the Nawab 
did not possess any spot north of the Coleroon. 

1752. Chanda Sahib was put to death, and Muhammad 
Ali, now freed from a rival in the Carnatic, became 
Nawab in reality as well as in name. 

Although Trichinopoly was not his it belonged to 
the Great Mogul it was found that he had secretly 


promised it to the Dalaway of Mysore, but the British 
assisted him to evade this promise, although other 
concessions of territory were made. 

The French commenced to intrigue with the Nizam, 
who first proclaimed himself Nawab, and then conferred 
it on Chanda Sahib's son. Thus Muhammad Ali had 
serious obstacles to contend with, and scarcely a chief 
in the Carnatic voluntarily declared in his favour. The 
British, however, still continued their support, and 
determined to march into the Tanjore country. The 
presence of the Nawab was thought desirable, but his 
troops mutinied, and "the singular spectacle was seen 
of two hundred Europeans, with fixed bayonets, escorting 
the Nawab, in whose cause the Company had already 
expended much blood and treasure, because his own 
troops, so far from escorting him, were bent on commit- 
ting an outrage on his person. A few days afterwards 
the whole of these troops repaired in a body to the 
British commander, and intimated their intention to 
join the enemy. This intimation they accompanied 
with the singular request that he would not fire upon 
them while they were marching off. Glad to be quit of 
them on any terms, he granted their request, and they 
walked off unmolested " (Beveridge, op. cit., vol. i. p. 488). 

The ascendency which the French had endeavoured 
to establish in India, was completely overthrown by the 
capture of Pondicherry in 1761. During the great 
struggle nearly the whole burden had lain on the 
shoulders of the British. "Mahomed Ali, in whose 
cause they were ostensibly fighting, was unable to give 
them any effectual aid. On the contrary, his pretensions 
and intrigues often threw obstacles in their way, and 
more than once involved them in quarrels from which 


they were afterwards unable to disentangle themselves 
without suffering both in their interests and their 
reputation. It is true that he was wholly in their power, 
and could not act in any matter of the least importance 
without their sanction or support ; but it was long before 
either he or they were fully alive to the true position 
in which they stood. At all events, they had so long 
been accustomed to pay him all the external homage 
due to sovereignty, that they did not venture to act 
openly on any denial of it, and were often in consequence 
betrayed into ludicrous inconsistencies. At one time 
they addressed him as petitioners, and supplicated his 
favour with mock humility ; at another time they threw 
off all disguise, and rebuked him in the rudest terms for 
presuming to act as if he possessed a particle of in- 
dependence. The Nabob, who clung to his name 
perhaps all the more tenaciously from having lost the 
reality, was deep if not loud in his complaints of the 
humiliations to which he was subjected, and surrounded 
himself by a host of dependants, many of them European 
adventurers, who played upon his weaknesses, and turned 
them to profit, In this way misunderstandings were 
constantly arising, and it required little sagacity to 
foresee that sooner or later a rupture would take place, 
and transfer the name as well as the reality of power to 
the hands which were actually wielding it " (Beveridge, 
op. cit., vol. ii. p. 207). 

1763. The war with France was concluded by the 
Treaty of Paris in 1763, one of the clauses of which, was 
the mutual obligation to " acknowledge Muhammad Ali 
for lawful Nabob of the Carnatic," a curious arrange- 
ment, as the Nawab was nothing more than the sub- 
deputy of the deputy of the Mogul, and it was necessary 


for the title to be recognized by the superior. The 
Nabob, listening to the sycophants who surrounded him, 
was told that he was henceforth to regard himself as a 
sovereign potentate, equal in rank to the greatest 
monarchs in Europe, and of course infinitely superior 
to all the governors of the Company, since they could 
not deny that they were only subjects. It was a difficult 
task, however, to turn this new dignity to account. 
When the Company originally espoused his cause, they 
stipulated that Madras and the adjoining territory was 
to be held rent free, and the expenses of the war to be 
defrayed from the rents collected in the Nawab's name. 
After much opposition he was induced to hand over a 
"jagheer" to the Company. He began to compel the 
tributary states to pay their arrears of tribute. He 
reduced Vellore after much opposition, and then 
commenced a dispute with the Eajah of Tanjore, who 
claimed that territory as an independent kingdom. 

1767. Muhammad Ali sent an agent to prosecute 
his interests with the English Ministry to London, " as 
he felt galled beyond measure at the control which the 
Company exercised over all his movements," the agent 
being bold enough to offer presents first to the Minister 
and then to his Secretary. 

1787. Muhammad All agreed to four-fifths of his 
revenues being paid to the Company as his proportion 
in time of war; nine lacs as the expense of the civil and 
military establishments, together with twelve lacs to his 
creditors, were to be his payments in time of peace. 

When the war with Tipu Sultan of Mysore commenced, 
the arrears began to accumulate so rapidly as to leave 
the Company no alternative but to take the management 
entirely into their own hands. The Nawab, as usual, 


strenuously opposed, and even threw obstacles in the way 
of the Company's collectors. 

1792. Muhammad All made another treaty with the 
Company, giving it the sole management of revenues in 
time of war, and reserved the management to himself in 
time of peace ; he was, however, to make an annual pay- 
ment for the military establishment of the Company, and 
to pay a fixed sum to his creditors. 

1795. Muhammad Ali died on October 13, 1795, 
after a long and inglorious career. " Though understood 
to have been in possession of considerable treasures, he 
had early become the prey of usurers and sharpers. As 
payments to the Company fell due, instead of emptying 
his own coffers, he met them by raising usurious loans, 
chiefly from the European residents, on the security of 
the territorial revenues. In these loans the lenders 
usually stipulated for the appointment of their own 
managers, and thus the unhappy ryots were handed over 
to the tender mercies of men whose only interest in the 
soil was to wring from it the largest sum of money in 
the shortest possible time. The effects were most 
grievous oppression of the people, general impoverish- 
ment, and consequent decay of revenue." When 
Seringapatam was captured in 1799, documents were 
found which seemed to establish a secret correspondence 
between him and Tipu, for objects hostile to the interests 
of the Company. 

TJmdatuTiimara ("Pillar of Nobles"), the son of 
Muhammad Ali, died on July 15, 1801, and Ali 
Husain, the eldest son of the latter, was deposed by 
the East India Company on July 19, 1801. Azim-ud- 
daulah, another son of UmdatuTumara, delivered over 
the government of the Carnatic to the English by 


treaty on July 19, 1819, when the family became 

The independence of the Nawabs of the Carnatic was 
more definite during the time of Muhammad Ali than 
at any previous period, and, so far as I can gather, he 
was the only Nawab to issue coins in his own name and 
without reference to his nominal chief, the Nizam of 
the Deccan. There was a certain amount of truth in 
the statement made by his agent to the Prime Minister 
in England, when endeavouring to get the Nawab's 
grievances redressed, that " he (the Nawab) was the person 
to whom Britain owed the rise of her power in India," 
and on this account, the copper coins issued by him 
deserve notice. The coins referred to below are by no 
means very common in the Carnatic ; in fact, they 
represent all I was able to procure during a residence 
of several years in that part of India. Captain Tufnell, 
in his interesting book on the Coins of Southern India, 
refers to one or two copper coins issued by this Nawab, 
but as they are not figured I cannot say if they are the 
same as those now depicted. I am not aware of any gold 
or silver coins issued by Muhammad Ali. I had, how- 
ever, in my collection a gold pagoda bearing on the 
obverse a figure of Vishnu, as Venkatesvara, and his two 
wives, and the Arabic letter f in the centre of a convex 
granulated surface reverse, which coin, Marsden ascribes 
to Muhammad Ali Nawab. My specimen I procured in 
a remote village in the province of Mysore. 


WALA-JAH), 1166-1210 A.H. = 1752-1795 A.D. 

Obv. aU.^3 = Wala-jah. 

I P , I (Jj*** <0w = Hijri year 1201 (= 1786 


^ev. r~C Ai- u*$^- *^GI *->j..o =;" struck at Arcot 
in the 35th year of reign." Arcot was the 
capital of Carnatic India. [PL V. 1.] 

Obv. dU.^3 = Wala-jah. 

Rev. Persian numerals, which may possibly be intended 
for the year of his reign. [PI. V. 2-5.] 

Obv. aU^lj = Wala-jah. 

Rev. An attempt at the Tamil letter js (N) for 
Nawab. [PI. V. 6.] 

Obv. ^[ly ] aU^ lj = Wala-jah Nawab. 

. Dots, and possibly his year of reign. [PI. V. 7.] 

Obv. olft^l^ = Wala-jah, within a lined circle. 

Rev. | r * 1 *r>V = Nawab 1206 (= 1791 A.D.), within 
a ring of dots. [PI. V. 8.] 

Obv. ^Ij = Wala] 

I = Wala-jah, in lined circle. 
Rev. oU* = Jah J [PI. y. 9.] 

Obv. c the initial of Muhammad Ali, with crossed 

Rev. Persian numerals and the Sun and Moon, the 
latter very common signs in the Carnatic, repre- 
senting permanency of rule. [PI. V. 10-12.] 

Obv. Initial c (inverted) for Muhammad Ali. Initial 

(J for Nawab. 
Rev. dUJ^tj = Wala-jah. [PI. V. 13.] 


Obv. | r . ^ oU.[*s)t 3 ] = [Wala]-jah 1206 = 1791 A.D. 
= Struck at Arcot. [PI. V. 14.] 

Obv. dU.^lj = Wala-jah. 

Kev. [ | | ] A r *^ = Year [11]83 = 1769 A.D. 

[PI. V. 15.] 

Obv. aU.*^ = Wala-jah. 

Eev. Horse galloping to the r. [PI. V. 16.] 

Obv. S T'tjj = Nawab (?). 

Eev. oU.^ = Wala-jah. [PI. V. 17.] 

Obv. A rude attempt at " Wala-jah." 

Eev.[ | 1 1 vl A^ = Year 1176 = 1762 A.D. 

[PI. V. 18.] 



(See Plate V.) 

GREAT BALAPUR and Little Balapur are situated in the 
Province of Mysore, and were at one time independent 
states, but now form " taluks " of the Bangalore and 
Kolar districts respectively. The following is a short 
history of Great Balapur and Little Balapur, which are 
about twelve miles distant from each other, extracted 
from Hawkes' Coinage of Mysore, pp. 14, 15. 

Great Balapur. " About the year 1610, Shajee, being 
then in the service of the King of Yijeapoor, was 
provincial governor of his conquests in the Carnatic, and 
resided much at Balapoor, Bangalore, and Colar. Great 
Balapoor was afterwards the Jagheer of Eussool Khan, 
the Soubedar of Seera, who in 1728 was superseded in 
the command and killed by Tahir Khan. The Jagheer 
was, however, continued to his son Abbas Coolie Khan, 
who at the suggestion of his mother renounced his claim 
to the office of Soubedar or Nabob of Seera, in favour of 
Tahir Khan. Abbas Coolie Khan plundered the family 
of Futteh Mahommed, the father of Hyder, who in order 
to revenge himself for this insult to his ancestor, formed 
a junction with Basult Jung many years afterwards 
(1761 A.D.) and entered Balapoor, but Abbas Coolie 
Khan effected his escape. In 1770 Madoo Eow took 


Great Balapoor, and the next year Hyder sent a strong 
force by night from Bangalore to retake it, but, failing, 
the troops were cut to pieces. In the treaty with the 
Mahrattas in 1772 Great Balapoor remained in their 
hands, but was retaken by Hyder in 1773. In 1791 the 
Mahratta confederate of Lord Cornwallis threw a garrison 
into the place, but was again ejected by Kummer-ood- 
deen, Hyder's general." 

Little Balapur. "Little Balapoor was first rendered 
nominally subject to Mysore by Canty Eeva Kaj about 
the year 1704. After Hyder's capture of Great Balapoor 
in 1761 he was most anxious to possess this little state 
also. The place was at this time in the possession of 
the former Polygar of Deonhully, who, on the reduction 
of the latter fortress by Nunjeraj in 1749, had capitulated 
on the condition of being allowed to retire to Little 
Balapoor ; from that time he had been engaged in 
incessant attempts to recover Deonhully. Hyder, there- 
fore, laid siege to Little Balapoor in 1762, and reduced 
it, but the Polygar escaping fled to Nundidroog, where 
he was at last captured and sent to perpetual imprison- 
ment in Coimbatore. In 1791 Little Balapoor surren- 
dered without opposition to Lord Cornwallis, by whom 
it was given in charge to the original Poly gars ; from 
these, however, it was again taken by surprise soon after." 

Hawkes gives the following list of coins issued by 
these two small states : 

(1) Gold fanam, struck by Abbas Coolie Khan, which 
bears the word " Balapoor " at full length in Hindustani 

(2) Gold fanam, said to have been struck by Hyder, 
which bears on either side part of the word " Balapur " 
in Hindustani characters. 


(3) Gold fanam, bearing on one side the letters 
" Bala," a contraction for " Balapoor," and on the other a 
symbol not unlike that seen on the Mahratta coins. 

Nos. 1 and 2 were issued in Great Balapur ; and No. 3 
in Little Balapur. 

With regard to the reverse of No. 3, Captain E. IL C. 
Tufnell, in his article " On a Collection of South Indian 
Coins," contributed to the Journal of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal in 1886, was of opinion that the figure which 
Hawkes likened to the device on the early Mahratta coins, 
was merely a perversion of the word Muhammad (j^s*..*). 
Captain Tufnell was correct, as the inscription on the 
three specimens in my collection is quite clear : 

Obv. dl jk<,.=^^ = Muhammad Shah. 
Bev.jjJ*^! (in full) = Balapur. [PL V. 19.] 

Another Balapur fanam, with inscriptions similar to 
No. 1, but much smaller and thicker, is illustrated in 
PI, V. 20. 

Muhammad Shah was the name of the Mughal 
Emperor who reigned at Delhi from 1718 to 1748. 

There are two specimens in my collection of the gold 
fanam issued at Balapur in the name of Alamgir II, 
Emperor of Delhi, 1753 to 1761. 

Obv. ^315 jXoHc- = Alamgir II. 

Rev. j^l/ - Balapur. [PI. V. 21.] 

The other has the same inscription on the reverse, and 
with a name on the obverse which I have been unable 
to read. [PI. V. 22.] It may have been one of Hyder's 
issues the 9- being his initial. 

Gold Balapur Fanam. 

Obv. dlw jt.<>.=..o = Muhammad Shah. 

Rev. Part of the word " Balapur." [PL V. 23.] 


Chittledroog, Nundydroog, Deonhully, Ooscotta, Colar 
Bedenore, Coonghul, Coodeconda, Culian Droog, Sava- 
noor, Harponhully, Gooroomconda, Gooti, and Chen- 
dragherry, as well as the two Balapurs, had their own 
gold coinage, either fanams or pagodas, or both, before 
Hyder established his supremacy. All these states at 
one time formed part of the Vijayanagar kingdom until 
1565, when its power was shattered at the decisive Battle 
of Talikota, by a combination of the armies of the 
four Muhammadan principalities of the Deccan. The 
Muhammadan conquerors issued their gold coins in the 
name of the Delhi sovereign, but none of these 
states appear to have issued a copper coinage. Hawkes 
mentions that Chittledroog issued cash, but these could 
not have been very numerous, as they are seldom seen 
in that place. I have not been able to find any reference 
to a copper coinage of Balapur in any contribution on 
Southern India coins, but in August, 1892, I visited 
Great Balapur at the suggestion of Dr. Hultzsch of the 
Archaeological Survey Department, and whilst encamped 
at the village one of the residents brought to me a bag 
containing thirty-two copper coins of Balapur, which I 
purchased of him. All the coins bore traces of having 
been in constant circulation, and appear to have been 
issued in the name of Muhammad Shah, Emperor of Delhi. 
Although I have travelled over the greater portion of 
the Mysore Province hunting for coins, these were the 
only Balapur copper coins I met with. I could not find 
any specimens amongst the Southern Indian Collections 
at the British Museum, and was thus able to present two 
specimens to that institution. It will be noticed that 
the inscriptions on these copper issues are very similar 
to those on the gold fanams issued in the name of 



Muhammad Shah. Only fragments of the legend on 
the obverse appear on single coins ; the full legend, 
after comparing several, is 

*a.<o = Muhammad Shah, Emperor. 

= " struck at Balapur." 

[PL V. 24-34.] 

The fact that these copper coins have not been more 
frequently encountered, would lead one to conclude that 
copper was given a trial in this state, and that it was 
withdrawn out of deference to popular prejudice, which 
was apt to regard with suspicion any new form of coin. 
No silver coins were issued by these small states, and 
there was no need for them, owing to the small value 
of the gold fanam forty-two fananis being equal to one 
pagoda, which was worth three and a half rupees. For 
petty transactions cowries (the Cyproea moneta) were 
made use of, eighty of which were equal to one fanam ; 
so the necessity for copper coins was not apparent. 
Hyder's son, Tipu Sultan, was the first to introduce 
silver coins into the Mysore Province. In the small 
independent states before Hyder's usurpation (1761-1782) 
the currency was thus limited to gold and shells. 




(Continued from p. 96.) 



THERE seem to be no antique gems engraved with 
-devices which, could make one suppose that they had 
served the purpose of memorial tokens of deceased friends 
or relatives, analagous to the memorial finger-rings of 
relatively modern times, to be described later on. No 
" parting scenes " occur on gems, such as are found on 
some beautiful Greek sepulchral marbles, reminding one 
of the famous lines of Lucretius, commencing 

" Jam jam non domus accipiet te laeta neque uxor 
Optima, nee dulces occurrent oscula nati 
Praeripere et tacita pectus dulcedine tangent ; " 

of Horace's 

" Linquenda tellus et domus et placens 
Uxor neque harum quas colis arborum 
Te praeter invisas cupressos 
Ulla brevem dominum sequetur." 

M 2 



There are, however, various engraved gems of early 
and later Koman times which may be supposed to 
have in a kind of way served a memento mori purpose. 
Thus C. W. King figures a late Koman sard intaglio 
(once the property of Murat), 74 on which a winged Cupid- 
like figure (a kind of " genius of death," like that found 
011 Eoman sarcophagi) is represented {Fig. 34) holding a 
torch downwards (an " inverted " torch). He also figures 
a peridot intaglio of Eoman Empire style, 75 on which 
Charon in his boat receives a soul from Mercury (that 

FIG. 34. A genius of 
death. (After King.) 

FIG. 35. Charon in his boat, receiving 
a soul from Mercury. (After King.) 

is to say, the Greek Hermes, in his character of psycho- 
pompos," see later on) (Fig. 35). Several Koman gems 
(intagli) are engraved with figures of skeletons (" larvae " 
or " shades "). Some at least of these designs seem to 
suggest the popular conception of Epicurean advice, 

74 C. W. King, Handbook of Engraved Gems, London, Second Edition, 
1885, PL xliii. No. 2. In regard to the representation of a "genius" 
of sleep, with or without wings, on Roman tombs, see G. E. Lessing's 
famous controversial essay, Wie die Alien den Tod gebildet (1769). 

75 King, loc. cit., PL lii. No. 6. A so-called " gryllus " of human faces 
combined with a death's head might also be mentioned here, but the 
significance of the device is uncertain, though Venuti and Borioni 
(1763), who figured it, thought it was meant to represent the ages of 
human life. 


namely, to seek pleasure, to eat, drink, and enjoy life 
to-day, since death may come to-morrow. 76 Thus, an 
occasional subject (Fig. 36) is a skeleton with a large 

FIG. 36. The skeleton and wine-jar type. (After King.) 

wine-jar (amphora) 77 or two skeletons with a wine-jar 
between them. 

76 Cf. Horace's ode 

" Hue vina et unguenta et nimium brevis 
Flores amoenae ferre jube rosae, 
Dum res et aetas et sororum 
Fila trium patiuntur atra ; " 

and similar passages already quoted, and likewise the well-known 
students' song ( ? of the eighteenth century) 

" Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus, 
Post jucundam juventutem, 
Post molestam senectutem, 
Nos habebit humus." 

This portion, at least, of the words of the famous students' song is 
older than J. M. Usteri's (1793) 

" Freut euch des Lebens, 

Weil noch das Lampchen gltiht ; 
Pfliicket die Rose, 
Eh sie verbliiht." 

77 C. W. King, in 1869 (Horatii Opera, illustrated from Antique Gems, 
p. 431), described the device on a gem of this kind as follows : " Skeleton, 
the received mode of depicting a larva, or ghost, leaning pensively 
against an amphora, and holding out the lecythus, oil-flask, that indis- 
pensable accompaniment of every Grecian burial. These two vessels 
held the wine and oil, the libations poured upon the funeral pile." But 
in the second edition of his Handbook of Engraved Gems, 1885 (p. 226), 
he describes the same device (i.e. the device on the identical gem) as an 
Epicurean device : " Larva, ghost, leaning upon a tall wine-jar, and 


On one gem a skeleton is seen emerging from an urn, 
by the side of which some armour is piled, and plucking 
a branch from a palm-tree (Fig. 37). C. W. King 78 
alludes to this device as "a speaking allegory of the 
reaping of posthumous fame." It may, perhaps, be held 
to express the emptiness of posthumous fame, and to 
illustrate the lines of Persius (Sat. 5, line 229, Dryden's 

FIG. 37. Allegory of posthumous fame. (After King.) 

translation) : " Live while thou liv'st ; for death will make 
us all a name, a nothing but an old wife's tale." It is, 

holding forth an unguentarium : an Epicurean hint to enjoy life whilst 
one can." In connexion with the skeleton and wine-jar devices on 
engraved gems, it is interesting to note that a figure of a skeleton in the 
posture of a drunken or dancing man occurs on a Hellenistic vase in 
the Schliemann Collection of the Ethnographical Museum at Berlin. 
The vase is illustrated in E. Hollander's Die Karikatur und Satire in 
dcr Medicin, Stuttgart, 1905. This brings one to the uncertain subject 
of the meaning of dancing skeletons in Roman times. On a sculptured 
sarcophagus, found in 1810 near the site of Cumae, three such dancing 
skeletons were represented, and skeletons in similar attitudes have been 
described on a Roman lamp and on a painting at Pompeii (F. Douce). 
A dancing skeleton on an antique gem will be referred to later on. 
Perhaps such devices were intended to imply that what happened after 
death was by no means necessarily unpleasant. Possibly there was 
some superstitious significance connected with the representation of 
dancing skeletons ; for instance, a protective influence against malevolent 
spirits may have been attributed to the devices in question. 
78 Handbook of Engraved Gems, edition of 1835, p. 217. 


however, not quite certain that any " Epicurean " sug- 
gestion was implied by the device. On the contrary, as 
expressing the vanity of posthumous fame, the gem may 
possibly have belonged to a Koman philosopher of the 
type of Marcus Aurelius, who "made it a special object 
of mental discipline, by continually meditating on death, 
and evoking, by an effort of the imagination, whole 
societies that had passed away, to acquire a realized 
sense of the vanity of posthumous fame." 79 

Another gem 80 represents Cupid throwing the light of 
a torch into a large vessel (crater), from which issue a 

FIG. 38. Cupid dislodging a skeleton. (After King.) 

skeleton and a laurel-branch (Fig. 38). This device 
may signify the driving out of an evil spirit (i.e. one of 
the Larvae, as opposed to the Lares) by Love, or it may 

79 See Lecky's History of European Morals, edition of 1905, vol. i. 
p. 186. Lecky says (loc. cit. t p. 185) that the desire for reputation, 
especially for posthumous reputation, " assumed an extraordinary pro- 
minence among the springs of Itoman heroism." 

80 C. W. King, Handbook of Engraved Gems, edition of 1885, PI. Ixxv. 
No. 3. In the first edition of the Handbook (Bohn's Illustrated 
Library, 1866, p. 364) King says that on this gem it is clear that the 
skeleton represents a ghost Ovid's " ossea larva," and Seneca's " larva- 
rum nudis ossibus cohaerentium figuras." Larva, he says, was the 
name given to the shades of the wicked ; those of the good, on the 
contrary, became Lares, or domestic deities. But even amongst the 
Romans themselves there was probably some confusion in regard to the 
terms Larvae and Lemures. 


have been meant to convey the " Epicurean " hint that 
gloomy thoughts might be expelled by the aid of the 
light of Love. 

A few gem-designs of this period seem to suggest the 
possibility of the survival of the soul (Psyche) after death. 
Certain terminal Hellenistic bearded heads (in the style 
of a so-called " Hermes " or " Terminus ") engraved in 
profile with butterfly wings above the ear have often 

FIG. 39. So-called head of Plato. (After King.) 

been described as portraits of Plato 81 (Fig. 39). This 
explanation was apparently due to Winckelmann, 82 who 
regarded the butterfly's wings as an allusion to Plato's 
argument for the immortality of the soul. Furtwangler 83 
speaks of all such heads as representing Hypnos, the 
Greek god or personification of sleep, who on a fine 
bronze head of the fourth century B.C. (from Civitella 

81 C. W. King, Handbook of Engraved Gems, edition of 1885, PL Ixix. 
No. 3 ; A. H. Smith's Catalogue of Engraved Gems in the British 
Museum, 1888, PL i. No. 1512. Similar heads are figured by A. Furt- 
wangler amongst Hellenistic and early Koman intagli. See Furtwangler, 
Die antiken Gemmen, Leipzig, 1900, vol. i. PL xxvi. Nos. 41, 42, and 
PL xxx. Nos. 24-26. Below the bust on one of those pictured on 
PL xxx. (No. 24) is a caduceus (KrjpvKtiov of Hermes), thus bringing the 
gem in question into connexion with the Greek Hermes-busts. 

' 2 Winckelmann, quoted by A. H. Smith, loc. cit., p. 170. On an 
antique gem at Paris, evidently representing portraits of Socrates and 
Plato facing, that of Plato is without the wings. See King, Handbook 
of Engraved Gems, edition of 1885, PL xlix. No. 2. 

s3 A. Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. iii. pp. 209, 292. 



PIG. 40. 
reading from 
a scroll, with 
a skull and 
butterfly on 
a scrinium 
before him. 
(After Furt- 

d'Arno, near Perugia), now in the British Museum, is 
represented beardless 84 and youthful, with the wings of 
a night-hawk attached to his temples (the wing on the 
left side has been broken off). An almost 
certain and unmistakable allusion to the 
doctrine of the immortality of the soul is, 
however, furnished by an early Eoman in- 
taglio (Fig. 40) representing a bearded 
man (philosopher) seated, reading from a 
scroll; on the scrinium before him is a 
human skull (emblem of the mortality of 
the body), and above it a butterfly, the 
symbol of Psyche, or the human soul. 85 
The butterfly was, indeed, as Furtwangler has pointed 
out, employed at a still earlier period to indicate the 

84 There is a marble statue of Hypnos at Madrid and a bronze statuette 
at Vienna. A youthful beardless figure of Sleep, with butterfly wings 
on his back, and with horns (containing balm ?) in his hands, occurs also 
on gems, if C. W. King's interpretation is correct (Antique Gems, 1872, 
PI. xxxvi. No. 1, and Handbook, 1885, PI. Ixxvi. No. 3). On an 
engraved gem, figured by A. Furtwangler (loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xxx. 
No. 53), Hypnos is represented as a bearded figure (King has 
described this figure as Death cf. footnote 95 in regard to the possible 
confusion of representations of Death with representations of Sleep) 
with wings on his back, coming to the relief of the tired Heracles ; and 
on two other antique gems (Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PL xviii. No. 
28, and PI. xxxvi. No. 20) he is represented in the same form, but behind 
the figure, not of Heracles, but of a sleepy or sleeping woman. The 
supposed thunderbolts on a gem of this type (King, Handbook of 
Engraved Gems, edition of 1885, PI. Ixxv. No. 4), which, according to 
Furtwangler, are really ants, made King describe it as representing 
"Jupiter descending in a shower of thunderbolts upon the dying 
Semele." The early and archaistic representation of Hypnos with a 
beard may be compared with that of Hermes in the early and archaistic 
bearded types, so different from the figures of the Koman Mercury. It 
is, of course, quite natural that male figures should be more frequently 
represented with a beard in archaic (and therefore also archaistic) than 
in later art. 

85 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xxx. No. 45. This type was more 
probably intended to represent Pythagoras than Plato. 


soul, and Furtwangler figures an Etruscan scarabaeus of 
the fifth century B.C. (to which I shall again refer), on 
which Hermes, in his character of ^Vvyayuyfa, is repre- 
sented with a butterfly on his right shoulder. 86 

At any rate, Psyche herself is frequently accompanied 
or symbolized by a butterfly on Eoman gems, and a 
butterfly as the symbol of Psyche is often associated 
with a figure of Cupid. Sometimes a Cupid is repre- 
sented burning a butterfly with a torch or at a flaming 
altar, or the butterfly is represented burning itself over, 
a torch or flaming altar. 87 It seems as if the butterfly 
on Eoman gems, though often symbolical of the immor- 
tality of the soul (freed from its chrysalis-like imprison- 
ment in the body), yet may sometimes signify sexual 
love or the consuming passion of love, as if Psyche were 
merely a kind of "female Cupid." 

I am inclined to think that the latter explanation is 
occasionally the correct one, though in some cases both 
explanations are possible. Thus, on a gem figured by 
Furtwangler, 88 a skull is depicted with a 
butterfly above it (Fig. 41). This may be 
taken as an emblematical representation 
of mortality (the skull) and immortality 
FIG 4i.-Skuii (the butterfly), that is to say, of the sur- 

with butter- v J /} J) 

fly above it. vival of the soul (the butterfly) after 

(After Furt- i ,1 /,,! in\ i -n 

wtingier.) death (the skull), or else as an Ji/picurean 

hint contrasting love (the butterfly) with 

death (the skull), just as on the gems previously 

mentioned the wine-jar and the Cupid were contrasted 

86 For other early instances of the butterfly being used as a symbol 
of the soul, see Furtwilngler, loc. cit., vol. iii. pp. 202, 203. 

s7 Catalogue of Gems in the British Museum, 1888, Nos. 832, 833. 
88 A. Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xxix. No. 48. 


with the skeleton. Possibly the choice of interpreta- 
tions was intentionally offered by the engraver of the 
device. On another intaglio the upright figure of a 
skeleton is accompanied by the following symbols a 
wine-jar, a wreath, a ball, and a butterfly. This device 
may be intended to represent the instability of human 
life (the ball), and to contrast temporary sensual enjoy- 
ment (the wine-jar and the wreath) with the immortality 
of the soul (the butterfly) after death (the skeleton), but 
is much more probably intended to convey the Epicurean 
advice that since human life is uncertain and fleeting 
(the ball), and since after death (the skeleton) no pleasure 
is possible, it is better to lose no opportunity of enjoying 
wine and feasting (the wine-jar and wreath) and love 
(the butterfly). Furtwangler refers likewise to a gem 89 
representing a skeleton and a butterfly with a torch 
below the latter, and thinks that this device is meant 
to signify that the soul also is perishable. As I have 
already stated, I think that the burning butterfly on 
Eoman engraved gems may be emblematical of sexual 
love, in which case the device in question would closely 
resemble the Epicurean devices already referred to, but 
it may indeed be an illusion to views current at the 
period, that the soul is no more immortal than the body, 
that, as Lucretius in his great didactic poem, De Eerum 
Naturd, endeavoured to teach, it perishes with the body. 
It is, however, quite likely that amongst the Komans 
the idea of love (i.e. sexual love) was often blended with 

89 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. iii. p. 297. This gem (a carnelian 
intaglio) is depicted in an absurdly magnified form by E.. Venuti and 
Borioni (Collect. Antiq. Roman., Rome, 1736, PL Ixxx.). Amongst the 
various symbols associated with the skeleton, in addition to the skull 
and butterfly, is a wheel, evidently referring to the uncertainty and 
fleeting nature of human life. 


the idea of the human soul, whether the latter was 
regarded as mortal or immortal. It appears, then, natural 
that Psyche (or her butterfly) should be employed as a 
symbol both of sexual love and of the soul, though the 
soul was doubtless regarded by some as mortal and by 
others as immortal. 

The story of Cupid and Psyche was adopted by the 
early Christians as typifying the purification of the soul, 
just as that of Orpheus charming the wild beasts was 
regarded as symbolic of Christ. 

In regard to the doctrines of metempsychosis and 
the question of a spiritual existence independent of 
bodily life, I shall for convenience here refer to a 
Graeco-Scythian gold finger-ring (about the first century 
B.C.) found in the tomb of a woman at Kertch (the 
ancient Panticapaeum), and presented by Dr. C. W. 
Siemens to the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. Accord- 
ing to the description exhibited in the 
Museum, the facing head engraved in in- 
taglio on the bezel represents the Oriental 
moon-god (Deus Lunus of later Kome), 

and the figure of the bee above the head 

FIG. 42. From 

a Gracco- is the symbol of the moon as the abode 

Scythian gold . . -. _. 

finger-ring. oi spirits (rig. 42). In the old Persian 

religion (according to the same account) 

the moon represents the cosmic bull from whose carcase 

bees, typical of the vital principle in souls, swarmed to 

earth. 90 Thus, in Mithraism the moon itself came to 

110 Compare Virgil's description (Oeorg., iv.) of a method, said to have 
been practised in Egypt, of raising a stock of bees from the putrefying 
carcase of a steer. Compare also the story of Samson and the swarm 
of bees in the lion's carcase (Judges, ch. xiv. ver. 8). In reference to 
Virgil's mistaken belief, Mr. S. G. Shattock has drawn attention to the 


be known as the Bee (cf. Porphyrius, De Antro 
Nympharum). For permission to illustrate the ring in 
question I am indebted to Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Keeper 
of the Ashmolean Museum, who kindly sent me an 

There are several antique gem-types to which we 
must still allude. In the first place, Hermes has some- 
times been represented on early intagli in the exercise 
of his functions as ^UXOTTO/ITTOC (vtKpay oryoc? 
etc.), the conductor of the shade (et^wXov) or soul 

FIG. 43. Hermes Psych opompos. FIG. 44. Hermes with butterfly 
(After Furtwangler.) on right shoulder. (After Furt- 


of the deceased from the upper to the lower world. 
Particularly interesting is an Etruscan sardonyx scara- 
baeus, 91 on which (Fig. 43) Hermes is seen standing 
with petasos slung at the back of his neck, holding a 
diminutive human figure (evidently intended to signify 
a human soul or shade) on his left arm, whilst in his 
right hand is the kerykeion (caduceus) ; the Acheruntian 
water of the nether world is indicated at his feet on the 
right. A quite similar device occurs on a carnelian 
Etruscan scarabaeus of older style, 92 but the water is 

striking resemblance to bees and wasps (mimicry) observed in certain 
species of the family Syrphidae, the maggots of which are found in 
decaying matter. J. H. and A. B. Comstock (A Manual for the Study 
of Insects, p. 471) say that a common representative of this family, 
Eristalis tenax (the "Drone-fly"), is often mistaken for a male 

91 Furtwangler, Die antiken Gemmen, vol. i. PI. xviii. No. 12. 

92 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xvi. No. 54. 


not indicated as it is on the last-mentioned one. On 
an Etruscan scarabaeus 93 of the fifth century B.C., Hermes, 
holding his kerykeion, is represented with a butterfly 
on his right shoulder (Fig. 44) ; and Furtwangler points 
out how interesting it is to find that at that early period 
already the butterfly was employed as a symbol of the 
human soul or Psyche. 94 

It is noteworthy that the Etruscan " Charun," armed 
with his long hammer, seems never to occur on Etruscan 
gems, nor (it is supposed) on Etruscan mirrors. From 
the representations on the mural paintings of Etruscan 
tombs, on Etruscan sarcophagi, on painted vases, &c., 
we know that he was imagined as the inflexible and 
brutal-looking messenger of Death, who conducted the 
soul or shade (a^wAoy of the Greeks, probably the 
"hinthial" of the Etruscans) of the deceased to 
the lower world. He corresponds more to the Hermes 
Psychopompos than to the Charon of the Greeks, and 
was evidently supposed to be in attendance in order to 
separate the soul from the body (this is probably why 
he holds the long formidable-looking hammer or hammer- 
like instrument) at the moment of death, like Azrael, 
the Jewish and Mohammedan " Angel of Death." The 
winged bearded deity appearing to fatigued Heracles, on 
an early antique intaglio, which was supposed by C. W. 
King to be a Charun-like representation of Death, is 
regarded by Furtwangler as Hypnos, the personification 
of Sleep. 95 

113 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xviii. No. 22. 

111 For other early instances of the butterfly being used as a symbol of 
the soul, see Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. iii. pp. 202, 203. 

1)5 See Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xxx. No. 53. It is hardly 
surprising that in the interpretation of symbolic representations in 
ancient art there should have been occasional confusion between Death 


In Etruscan death-scenes the Etruscan Charun is 
sionally represented (see Fig. 45) accompanied by 
various Gorgon-like or Fury-like demons, sometimes 
lolding snakes in their hands, including "Vanth," 
>robably the Greek Thanatos (GaWroe). 96 A somewhat 

FIG. 45. An Etruscan " parting scene " with the Etruscan " Charun " 
holding hammer and a winged demon holding snakes. From a 
painted vase (after Dennis). 

similar winged Gorgon or Fury (but with four wings), 
holding a serpent in each hand, is represented on an 
itique gem figured by 0. W. King. 97 Here we may 
refer to a carnelian scarab (in Berlin), figured by 
Furtwangler, 98 representing a winged figure bending 
forwards, holding an urn in both hands and apparently 

and Sleep, " twin-brothers " as Homer calls them, when they carry off 
the hody of Sarpedon, slain by Patroclus, to Lycia Iliad, book xvi. 
line 671 ne^UTre 8e jj.iv iro^Ttolffiv a/j.a Kpaiirvolffi (pepeffGcu, "Yirvcp Kal Qaj/dry 
ocni'. Sleeping is, in a sense, "living without life," and dying 
luring sleep has been poetically alluded to by the poet-laureate, Thomas 
Warton the younger, as dying without death " sic sine morte mori." 
See also footnotes 74 and 84 in representations of Death and Sleep. 

96 See G. Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, London, 3rd 
edition, 1883. 

97 C. W. King, Handbook of Engraved Gems, 2nd edition, 1885, 
PI. xlv. No. 6. 

98 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xix. No. 68. 


about to lay it down (Fig. 46). Furtwangler suggests 
that this winged figure may represent the demon 
" Thanatos." 

Certain representations of Hermes on antique gems 
are thought by Furtwangler " to relate to Pythagorean 
and Orphic 10 doctrines of a transmigration of souls 
(metempsychosis), doctrines probably originally derived 
from India and the East. Thus, on a carnelian Etruscan 
scarabaeus 101 (Fig. 47), Hermes with his kerykeion 

FIG. 46. Winged figure holding FIG. 47. Hermes summoning a 
urn. (After Furtwangler.) soul from the lower world. 

(After Furtwangler.) 

(caduceus) seems to be summoning a soul from the 
earth (or rather, from the lower world). On another 
Etruscan scarabaeus (of calcedony), 102 Hermes seems to 
be calling up a soul from a large jar (pithos) ; a bearded 
head is seen emerging from the jar, which is perhaps 
intended to represent an exit from the lower world 
(Fig. 48). Furtwangler likewise figures several early 
Italian intagli, 103 on which Hermes (mostly with his 

99 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. iii. pp. 202, 255 et seq. 

100 In regard to the Orphic doctrines of an existence after death, see 
especially the account of Orphic inscribed tablets of thin gold, found in 
tombs of Lower Italy, &c., in Miss J. E. Harrison's Prolegomena to the 
Study of Greek Religion, 2nd edition, Cambridge, 1908, pp. 572 et seq., 
and the Critical Appendix by Mr. G. Murray. 

101 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PL xviii. No. 55. 

102 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xx. No. 32. 

103 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PL xxi. Nos. 64-72. C. W. King 
(Handbook of Engraved Gems, edition of 1885, PL Ixxv. No. 1) describes 
a similar gem-type as : " Mercury, by the magic power of his caduceus, 
drawing up a soul from the Shades." 


kerykeion) is represented " raising " souls or spirits out 
of the earth, the soul or spirit being indicated by a 
human head (Fig. 49), or by a head and upper portion of 

FIG. 48. Hermes calling up a FIG. 49. Hermes raising a soul 
soul. (After Furtwangler.) (After Furtwangler.) 

the body. On two Etruscan scarabs, 104 Hermes appears 
to be placing a human head on the body of a swan or 
bird of some kind (Figs. 50 and 51). Furtwangler 

FIG. 50. Hermes placing a FIG. 51. Hermes placing a 

human head on the body of human head on the body of 

a bird. (After Furtwangler.) a bird. (After Furtwangler.) 

thinks that these gems do not refer to mere magic or so- 
called "necromancy" (veKpojuavrtta), that is to say, the 
magical invocation or " raising " of ghosts or shades of 
the dead (for the purpose of obtaining information about 
the future), as believed in by the credulous of many ages 
and many countries. He supposes that the idea of 
metempsychosis is indicated, 105 and that Hermes is 
represented calling up souls from Hades that they may 
live again on earth. 

A peacock, thought by Furtwangler to signify ever- 
lasting life, occurs not rarely on Eoman intagli. It is 

10 * Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xix. Nos. 49, 50. 
105 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. iii. pp. 254, 262. 



represented alone or together with other birds; some- 
times at a fountain or basin of water, or with a thyrsus. 106 
It may be accompanied by a butterfly, 107 or may be 
apparently standing on a butterfly ; 108 and in one case a 
peacock, a "hermes" of Priapus, and a butterfly are all 
represented on the same gem. 109 I have already pointed 
out that on some Eoman gems the butterfly, especially 
the burning butterfly, appears rather to be an emblem of 
sexual love than an emblem of the soul, as if Psyche her- 
self were regarded as merely a kind of " female Cupid." 
It seems as if in many Eoman minds ideas of love (sexual 
love), the human soul, and immortality, were closely 

In Imperial Koman times the peacock, as the special 
" bird of Juno," was sometimes placed on the reverse of 
coins of the " consecratio " kind, commemorating the 
" deification " or " immortality " of an Empress, just as the 
eagle, the special bird of Jupiter, was placed on similar 
("consecratio") coins commemorating the deification of 
an Emperor. By the early Christians the peacock was 
adopted as a symbol of immortality, because it renews its 
tail-feathers every year, or for some imaginary reason 

We may here for convenience mention the numerous 
Koinan Imperial coins with reverse types symbolic of 
" aeternitas." Eternity was represented in various ways : 
often by a veiled figure, standing, holding the heads of 
the Sun and the Moon in her hands, with an altar at her 
feet ; by a figure of Ceres in a chariot ; &c. The phoenix, 

io.i Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xxix. Nos. 57 (with thyrsus), 
60 ; PI. Ixiv. Nos. 51, 52. 

): Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xxix. No. 55. 

18 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xxix. No. 61. 
109 Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. i. PI. xxiv. No. 59. 



as a symbol of eternity, appears on pieces of Constantine 
the Great and his children; and, needless to say, this 
fabulous bird has been much employed in Christian 
countries as an emblem of the resurrection. 

A. F. Gori no figures an antique gem (see Fig. 52), on 
which is engraved a man (countryman, peasant ?) seated 
on a stone, with his right foot resting on a globe ; he is 
piping on a double flute, and before him a skeleton dances 
grotesquely. Is this device meant to signify that the 

FIG. 52. Skeleton in dancing attitude before a man seated piping. 
(After Gori.) 

idea of death is not unpleasant or terrifying to the poor 
peasant, whose life in the country may be supposed to be 
a quiet and natural one, and who is therefore thought to 
be able, calmly, without anxiety, to meditate on and be 
ready for death ; or does the skeleton signify the inmost 
part or essence of the man, namely, his innocent mind or 
soul, "dancing" in harmony with Nature's best music, 

110 Gori, Museum Florentinum, Florence, 1731, vol. i. PI. 91, No. 3. 



the music of a pure and happy life? On the whole, 
however, I think the skeleton was more probably meant 
to represent a malevolent ghost or spirit (one of the 
" larvae," an " ossea larva " of Ovid), and the device of 
the piping man was intended to show that any one lead- 
ing a natural life with innocent pleasures had no occasion 
to fear the apparition or malignant interference of ghosts 
or evil spirits. On the other hand, a contrast was possibly 
intended, the man being represented unaware or unmind- 
ful of some threatening danger or disaster, connected 
with the appearance of the skeleton. All this is, after 
all, mere fancy, and I do not know any certain interpre- 
tation of the gem, which may also have been used as an 
amulet supposed by some talisnianic virtue to protect the 

Furtwangler m figures some early Italian and Eoman 
intagli representing one or two peasants (rustics) stand- 
ing by a skull, on which there is sometimes a butterfly. 
It is possible that this type refers to the calm meditation 
supposed to be associated with a country life. 

In this connexion one should, however, note the exist- 
ence of many gems representing one or more persons 
looking at a human head. Superficially some of them 
resemble those just mentioned (representing a man 
standing by a human skull), but on several of them the 
head is evidently speaking or prophesying (sometimes 
the mouth is open), and a man is writing down the 
(prophetic?) words uttered. Furtwangler 112 figures 

11 Furtwangler, loc. tit., vol. iii. p. 252 ; and vol. i. PI. xxii. Nos. 12, 
15 ; and PI. xxx. Nos. 46-48. Needless to say, the word " Italian" is 
not usually employed in England in the sense in which Furtwangler 
uses it in his description of antique gems. 

112 Furtwangler, loc. tit., vol. iii. pp. 245-252 ; and vol. i. PL xxii. 


several such gems, one of them an Etruscan scarabaeus 
of the finest style, the others early Italian intagli of the 
kind immediately succeeding the Etruscan scarabaeus. 
He thinks that the type may relate to Orpheus legends. 
C. W. King described a gem of the kind as representing 
an Etruscan sorcerer raising a ghost in order to give 
responses to those consulting him. On the gems on 
which two or more persons are looking at (and listening 
to) the head, one of them has a stick or wand in his 
hand, and either points out the head to the others and 
explains what it is saying, or else is a magician who has 
"raised" the head from the infernal regions so that it 
may reveal the future to his clients (ordinary necromancy, 

In regard to superstitions connected with death and 
the idea of a future existence, we may here mention that 
there are several antique gems which have been supposed 
to represent human sacrifices, but it is generally difficult 
to be sure that such gems are not merely representations 
of mythological incidents. 113 

One may here also refer to the numerous ancient 
Egyptian amulets, not rarely cut in gem-stones, that 
have been found with mummies. They were placed 
either on the mummified body itself or between the 
mummy swathings, and were intended to help the 
deceased in his future existence. Amongst the amulets 
(dating from early Egyptian civilization to Ptolemaic 
times) of this class exhibited in the British Museum 
are : scarabs, or beetles, representing new life and 

Nos. 1-9, 13, 14 (all in early Italian style immediately succeeding the 
Etruscan scarabaeus) ; and PL Ixi. No. 51 (an Etruscan scarabaeus of 
the finest style). 

113 See Furtwangler, loc. cit., vol. iii. pp. 229, 260. 


resurrection; heart-amulets to protect the heart (to the 
protection of which chapters xxvii.-xxx.B of the Book 
of the Dead are devoted); the serpent's head, protecting 
its wearer against the attacks of worms and snakes in the 
tomb ; the human-headed hawk, assuring to the deceased 
the power of uniting his body, soul and spirit, at will ; 
the ladder, representing the ladder by which Osiris 
ascended from earth to heaven ; the two-finger amulet 
representing the fingers (index and middle fingers) which 
Horus used when he helped his father Osiris up the ladder 
which reached from earth to heaven ; the steps, symbolic 
of the throne of Osiris, and obtaining for the wearer 
exaltation to and in heaven; the buckle or "girdle of 
Isis ; " the pillow or head-rest (usually made of haema- 
tite) ; the papyrus sceptre ; &c. 

In this connexion also the subject of " Charon's 
money " may be alluded to. In Ancient Greece a small 
coin, such as an obolus or " danace," was placed between 
the teeth of a corpse ; it was intended to serve as a charm 
(see ADDENDUM) or as Charon's fee for ferrying the 
shade of the departed across the rivers of the lower 
world. Certain very thin circular embossed plates of 
gold ("gold bracteates" of modern numismatists) were 
likewise buried with corpses, doubtless to serve a similar 
purpose, or in some way to help the deceased in his 
future life in the world below. I had two such gold 
" bracteates " in my collection, one with a simple rosette 
pattern, the other with a figure of Triptolemos seated in 
his winged car (" dragon-chariot ") drawn by serpents. 
The latter was apparently made by pressing a thin sheet 
of gold over the obverse of a bronze coin of Eleusis in 
Attica of the type which I have already described in 
Part III. (see Fig. 10). 


The use of Charon's obolus or " danace " is alluded to 
by several ancient authors (e.g. Pollux, ix. 82), and 
Lucian (De Luctu, 10) ridiculed the custom, asking how 
people knew whether Attic, Macedonian, or Aeginetan 
obols passed as current coin in the infernal world. In 
spite, however, of Lucian's ridicule, the custom of placing 
coins in the mouth of the dead survived from Ancient 
Greece, through Eoman and Byzantine ages, to modern 
times in Kumelia and Anatolia. 114 The worthless nature 
of the coins or coin-like objects employed in this way is 
apparently indicated by certain passages of Pherecrates 
and Hesychius,and reminds one of the tinsel-like character 
of jewellery and ornaments manufactured exclusively for 
sepulchral purposes. 

FiNGER-KiNGs, 115 JEWELS, &c. 

A death's head occasionally formed the bezel of a so- 
called " decade ring," that is to say, a finger-ring with ten 
projections to serve the devotional purpose of a rosary. In 
some of these decade rings, like one in the British Museum 
(seventeenth century?), the death's head is enamelled 
white and attached to the ring by a swivel mounting. 
Kings decorated with death's heads, skeletons, and such- 
like, used to be occasionally worn by persons who were, 
or affected to be, of a serious turn of mind, in the same 

m See also the ADDENDUM, at the end. 

115 For information concerning memorial rings that I have not seen 
myself, I am greatly indebted to Sir John Evans's pamphlet on Posy 
Rings (London, 1892), to the chapter on "Memorial and Mortuary 
Rings " in Mr. W. Jones's Finger-Ring Lore (London, edition of 1898), 
and to the section entitled " Facts about Finger-Rings," in Mr. F. W. 
Fairholt's Rambles of an Archaeologist (London, 1871). There are many 
memorial and mourning rings in our great London Museums, and Sir 
John Evans kindly showed me those in his collection. 



way as in Holbein's picture, already referred to, known 
as "The Ambassadors," Jean de Dinteville, Lord of 
Polisy, is represented wearing a memento mori jewel 
(a silver death's head set in gold) as a cap-piece. Dr. 
Martin Luther is said to have worn a gold finger-ring 
with a small death's head in enamel, and the words, 
" Mori saepe cogita " (" Think often of death ") ; round 
the setting was engraved : " mors, ero mors tua " (" 
death, I will be thy death "). 116 In the collection of the 
Kev. W. B. Hawkins was a gold official ring of the Grand 
Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Malta), 
with skeleton, scythe, and hour-glass in enamel, on the 
bezel, and with death's head and crossed bones on the 
shoulders. Kings with a death's head are said to have 
been in favour amongst the English Puritans. 117 A 
gold ring engraved with a death's head, the words 
" Memento mori," and the initials J.B., was found in 

110 Cf. St. John, chap. xi. 25, 26: "I am the resurrection and the 
life : he that believeth in Me, though he were dead, yet shall he live : 
and whosoever liveth and believeth in Me shall never die." Compare 
also St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, chap. xv. 54 : " Death 
is swallowed up in victory" i.e. "Mors Christi, mors mortis mihi." 

117 W. Jones (loc. cit., p. 551) says: "By a strange inconsistency the 
procuresses of Queen Elizabeth's time usually wore a ring with a death's 
head upon it, and probably with the common motto, ' Memento mori.' " 
He quotes John Marston, who, in The Dutch Courtezan (1605), says : 
"As for their (loose women's) death, how can it be bad, since their 
wickedness is always before their eyes, and a death's head most com- 
monly on their middle finger?" E. C. Brewer (Dictionary of Phrase 
and Fable, 1904 edition, p. 338), in support of a similar statement, 
quotes a passage in Massinger's play, The Old Law (act iv. scene 1) : 
" Sell some of my cloaths to buy thee a death's head, and put upon 
thy middle finger. Your least considering bawds do so much." How- 
ever, as Mr. C. H. Read tells me, it seems primd facie improbable that 
such a custom should really have existed. Is the true explanation to 
be found in the probable fact that some procuresses, &c., of the time 
wore death's-head rings in order to give themselves the appearance of 
leading a religious and meditative life, just as some criminals of modern 
times have been notorious church-goers ? 


1765 amongst the ruins of the North Gate House on 
Bedford Bridge, and has been supposed to have belonged 
to John Bunyan (1628-1688), who was imprisoned there. 
According to Fairholt, 118 skull and skeleton decorations 
for rings and similar memento mori devices on jewellery 
came into regular fashion at the Court of France when 
Diane de Poitiers, who was then in widow's mourning, 
became mistress of King Henry II. 

Shakespeare, in his Love's Labour's Lost (act v. scene 2), 
makes Biron compare the countenance of Holofernes 
to " a death's face in a ring ; " and death's-head rings 
(with inscriptions such as " Memento mori," or " Eespice 
finem") are likewise alluded to by Beaumont and Fletcher 
in The Chances : " 111 keep it as they keep death's 
heads in rings, to cry Memento to me." Shakespeare 
may have been thinking of a similar kind of memento 
mori ring, when in the First Part of Henry IV (act iii. 
scene 3) he makes Falstaff say to Bardolph, "I make 
as good use of it ( Bardolph 's face) as many a man doth 
of a death's head or a memento mori ; " and again in the 
Second Part of Henry IV (act ii. scene 4) when 
Falstaff says to Doll Tear-sheet, " Peace, good Doll ! 
do not speak like a death's head; do not bid me 
remember mine end." 

Memento mori devices and inscriptions were more 
frequently adopted for memorial rings and mourning 
rings, bequeathed or given away at funerals. Many 
such memorial rings were designed to serve the double 
purpose of a memorial of the dead and a memento mori 
for the living. Many of them have a death's head 
enamelled or engraved on the bezel ; in some rings of 

us F< Wf Fairholt, Rambles of an Archaeologist, 1871, p. 148. 


more elaborate and delicate workmanship, the bezel 
itself is in the form of a minute skull, enamelled white ; 
in others again the skull is engraved in cameo on a 
gem-stone mounted in the bezel ; in the less expensive 
rings the death's head was occasionally of mother-of- 
pearl, &c. Some have the shank or whole ring enamelled 
or chiselled with figures of skeletons, skulls, and crossed 
bones, &c. In the British Museum there is an English 
gold enamelled ring of the seventeenth century, the bezel 
of which consists of a small case, made to open on a 
hinge, and containing a minute death's head in white 
enamel. Fairholt illustrates a gold enamelled ring 
now in the British Museum, formed by two figures of 
skeletons supporting a miniature sarcophagus, the lid 
of which was made to slide off so as to show a tiny 
skeleton in the interior. 119 In another ring the bezel 
carried a coffin-shaped crystal engraved with the figure 
of a skeleton. " Skull-decorations " were also sometimes 
used for the chiselled or enamelled backs of small seals 
or signets, such as that figured in Paul Lacroix's Arts in 
the Middle Ages (English edition by Sir W. Armstrong, 
p. 135, Fig. 139). In some memorial rings an actual piece 
of bone (presumably human bone) has been inserted in 
the gold, behind the bezel or elsewhere. 

Memorial and mourning rings bear such inscriptions 
as : " Memento mori ; " " Eemember death ; " " Live to 
die ; " "Dye to live ; " " Breath paine, Death gaine" (in 
the collection of the late Sir John Evans) ; " As I am, 
you must bee " (" Quod es fui, quod sum eris ") ; " Hodie 
mini, eras tibi " (on a seventeenth-century specimen in 
the British Museum); "Death sy myn eritag" (on a 

F. W. Fairholt, Miscellanea Graphica, London, 1856, pi. x. Fig. 2. 


sixteenth-century gold ring) ; " Nosse te ypsum ; " 12 
" Prepare for death;" " Prudenter aspice finem;" "Behold 
the ende;" "Oritur non moritur;" "Prepare to follow 
E. J. ; " "I arn gone before ; " " Prepared be to follow me " 
(on two memorial rings of King Charles I of England, 
in the British Museum) ; " Eram non sum ; " " Heaven is 
my happyness ; " " Not lost, but gone before " (eighteenth 
century); "Fallen to rise" (eighteenth century) ; "Omnia 
vanitas " (eighteenth century). 

Mr. W. T. Keady tells me of a finely made old 
German memorial ring, which he has seen, bearing a 
Latin inscription signifying, "Death opens the gate of 
life/' A sixteenth-century gold ring exhibited in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum has a hexagonal bezel 
with a death's head enamelled on it and the inscription, 
" Nosse te ypsum " (" Know thyself ") ; on the edge of 
the bezel is a second inscription, DYE TO LYVE. 
Another sixteenth-century gold ring to be seen in the 
same Museum has a death's head in enamel on its 
hexagonal bezel surrounded by the inscription, " Behold 
the ende ; " on the edge of the bezel is another in- 
scription, "Kather death than fals fayth." 121 A large 

120 TvaOi <rcavT6v (" Nosce teipsum," " Know thyself"), the " Heaven- 
sent " words (vide Juvenal, Sat. 11, 27) inscribed over the portico of the 
great temple of Apollo, at Delphi, though they have not actually a 
memento mori significance, are frequently associated with memento mori 
sentences, the idea being that those who learn to know themselves are 
ready for death whenever death comes. The Greek saying has been 
enlarged in the Arabian: "Who knows himself knows his God" (see 
Abhandlung ilber die Siegel der Araber, <fc., by Freiherr Hammer- 
Purgstall, 1848, p. 49, note). " Nosce teipsum " perhaps suggested the 
" See yourself as you are " on Solario's painting (dated 1505) of Giov. 
Cristoforo Longono, of Milan, now in the London National Gallery : 

" Ignorans qualis fueris, qualisque futurus, 
Sis qualis, studeas posse videre diu." 

121 This ring, like several others in various collections, was said to 


gold ring found in 1780 by the sexton of Southwell 
Church, and supposed to have belonged to one of the 
Knights Hospitallers of Winckbourne, bore the following 
motto deeply cut on the inside : + MIEV -f MOEI + 
QVE + CHANGE + MA + FOI + (" Better to die 
than change my faith" cf. family motto, "Mutare 
fidem nescio "). 

Some of the memorial rings of King Charles I of 
England are of curious workmanship and design. One 
that belonged to Horace Walpole has the King's head 
in miniature, with a death's head between the letters 
C.E. in front, and the motto, " Prepared be to follow me." 
Another has a death's head, with an earthly crown below 
it, and the word VANTTAS (on one side) ; above the 
death's head is a celestial crown with the word GLORIA 
(on the other side). 122 It contains the miniature portrait 
of the King, and is inscribed, " Gloria Angl. Emigravit," 
with the date (old style) of the King's execution. Two 
other rings bear the King's portrait and the inscription, 
" Sic transit gloria rnundi." Another gold ring had the 
King's portrait in a little case (forming the bezel), on 
the outside of which the four cardinal virtues were 
represented in enamel ; on the inner side of the lid, a 
skull and crossed bones were enamelled. 

Izaak Walton, in a codicil to his will (1683), fixed both 
the value of his memorial rings and the legend they 
were to bear. The value was to be 13s. 4d. 9 and on those 
given to his family the words or mottoes were to be, 

have been given by King Charles I of England on the day of his 
execution to Bishop Juxon. But the ring itself is of earlier workmanship. 
'- This device is similar to that on the reverse of a memorial medal 
(already described) on the King's death, and is illustrated by a passage 
in the Icon Basilike, commencing : " I shall not want the heavy and 
cnvyed crownes of this world." 


" Love my Memory, I. W., obiit ; " and on one for the 
Bishop of Winchester, " A mite for a million, I.W., 
obiit ; " and on those for other friends, " A friend's fare- 
well, I.W., obiit." In all he bequeathed about forty 
rings. Speaker Lenthall (1591-1662) directed by will 
that " Oritur non moritur " should be inscribed on fifty 
gold rings to be given away in his family at his death ; 
and Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639) left to each of the 
Fellows of Eton College a gold black-enamelled ring 
with the motto within : " Amor unit omnia." W. Jones 
quotes the following clause from a will dated 1648 : 
" Also I do will and appoint ten rings of gold to be 
made of the value of twenty shillings a piece sterling 
with a death's head upon some of them." It is probable 
that jewellers kept memorial rings of this kind in stock 
ready for inscriptions to be engraved on them as required. 
Memento mori devices have occasionally been adopted 
for seals, and the backs of small seals or " signets," just 
as the shanks and other parts of finger-rings, were 
sometimes chiselled in memento mori fashion (" skull- 
decorations," &c.). 123 I have already alluded to the 
seal of Erasmus (a man's head, facing, on a boundary 
stone or terminus, with the inscription, CEDO NVLLI) 
with which he sealed his last will, dated at Basel, 1536 ; 
and I now picture it (Fig. 53) from the figure in Jortin's 
Life of Erasmus, together with an antique intaglio 
which belonged to Erasmus. The latter forms part of 
a finger-ring, and represents a bearded terminal head, 
or "Hermes," possibly the Indian Bacchus, in Hellen- 
istic style, without any inscription ; from this Erasmus 

123 One such signet is figured in Paul Lacroix's Arts in the Middle 
Ages, English edition, by Sir W. Armstrong, p. 135, Fig. 139. 



apparently derived his idea of taking a terminal figure 
as a memento mori device (Fig. 54). The seal of the 

FIG. 53. Seal of Erasmus with his " terminus " device. (After Jortin.) 

Guild of Physicians and Surgeons at Delft was a skull 
with crossed bones, and the inscription, MEMENTO 

FIG. 54. Finger-ring with an antique intaglio, from which apparently 
Erasmus derived the idea of his "terminus" device. (After Jortin.) 

Inscriptions referring to death occur on a few 
Oriental seals. 124 Thus on a seal of Chosroes I (Nushir- 
van), the Great, of Persia (531-579 A.D.), there is said to 
have been a pessimistic inscription (such as might have 

121 There is some confusion between Oriental seals and Oriental talis- 
mans. A talisman may be a gem-stone engraved with an incuse Arabic 
inscription like a seal, but in a talisman the inscription should not be 
reversed as in a seal. Carnelians are favourite stones for Oriental seals, 
and are likewise used for talismans ; in the latter case the incuse 
inscription is sometimes filled in with white enamel. Such carnelian 
seals, owing to the red colour of the stone, have been likened by poets 
to red wine and red lips, and kissing has therefore been playfully likened 
to sealing, and a kiss to the device known as " Solomon's seal." 


been derived from Ecclesiastes) signifying : " The way is 
very dark, what can I see ? One lives once only, what 
can I desire? Behind me is Death, what can delight 
me ? " On the seal of Moawiyah II (683 A.D.), the third 
Caliph of Arabia of the Ommiad dynasty, there are 
said to have been words meaning, "The world is 
vanity." On the seal of Walid I (705-715 A.D.), the 
sixth Caliph of the same dynasty : " Walid, thou art 
dead and shalt be brought to account." On the seal of 
Walid II (743-744 A.D.), the eleventh Caliph of the 
same dynasty : " Walid, take heed of death." 125 An 
Arab seal of the Blacas Collection 126 bears an inscrip- 
tion signifying : " Khalil, remember death, and put 
thy trust in God. That will be sufficient." For contrast 
with these seal-inscriptions a rather different memento 
mori idea may be quoted from one of the tales of the 
Caliph Haroun al-Kaschid (Claud Field, Tales of the 
Caliphs, London, 1909, p. 81). Abu'l Kasim shows 
the Caliph his treasures, amongst which, on a throne of 
gold, the embalmed figure of their first owner is seated, 
with an inscription stating : " Whosoever shall see me 
in the condition I now am in, let him open his eyes; 
let him reflect that I once was living like himself, and 
that he will one day die like me. . . . Let him make 
use of it (the treasure) to acquire friends and to lead an 
agreeable life ; for when the hour appointed for him is 
come, all these riches will not save him from the 

125 See Abhandhmg iiber die Siegel der Araber, dc., by Freiherr 
Hammer-PurgstaU, 1848, pp. 6, 8, 9. I am indebted to Dr. Oliver 
Codrington for reference to this paper. 

26 J. T. Reinaud, Description des Monuments Musulmans du Cabinet 
de M. le Due de Blacas, Paris, 1828, vol. ii. p. 292, and PI. iv. No. 128. 
For this reference I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. J. Allan. 


common destiny of men." In regard to passive fatalistic 
(" Kismet ") attitudes towards death and the events of 
life (see Part II., Heading XVI.), another Oriental seal 
of the Blacas Collection 127 may be instanced, the inscrip- 
tion on which signifies that it is " of no avail to defend 
one's self against destiny." 

Memento mori death's heads (sometimes pierced for use 
as rosary beads or for suspension in various ways) are 
met with in ivory, rock-crystal, amber, silver, &c. In 
the British Museum is an Ancient Mexican rock-crystal 
death's head, that is to say, a mass of rock-crystal cut 
and polished in the shape of a human skull. It is nearly 
if not quite as large as an average adult skull, and is 
referred to by Gr. F. Kunz in his Gems and Precious 
Stones of North America (2nd edition, 1892, p. 285), who 
says that similar skulls exist in the Blake Collection 
(United States National Museum), the Douglas Collection 
(New York), and the Trocadero Museum (Paris). A 
much larger rock-crystal skull is in the possession of 
G. H. Sisson of New York, measuring 18^- inches in 
length, 15;| inches in width, and 15|J inches in height. 
Kunz (loc. cit., p. 286) adds that the making of these 
rock-crystal skulls may have been suggested by the real 
skulls, incrusted with torquoise, &c., such as the Christy 
specimen now in the British Museum. The actual pur- 
pose, however, for which the Mexican rock-crystal skulls 
were made appears to be unknown. It seems to me 
quite possible that they were in some way connected 
with Aztec religious observances. One may recall the 
descriptions of the " teocallis " or temples of Ancient 
Mexico, and the gruesome rites practised by the priests, 

127 J. T. Reinaud, loc. cit., vol. ii. p. 28, PI. i. No. 8. 


as they appeared to the Spanish conquerors. Cortes and 
his companions, on their arrival in the city of Mexico, 
found that human sacrifices to the Aztec idols were of 
very frequent occurrence, and saw human hearts which 
had evidently quite recently been torn out of the bodies 
of unfortunate victims. From the terraces of a lofty 
teocalli on to which the Aztec " Emperor," Montezuma II, 
conducted them, they could enjoy the fine view over the 
surrounding country, but at the shrines the loathsome 
smears of blood and nauseous odour contrasted most 
unpleasantly with a dazzling display of gold and gems 
or precious stones. 

Jean de Dinteville, Lord of Polisy, as represented in 
Holbein's picture (1533) known as " The Ambassadors," 
wore a hat-jewel formed of a silver skull set in gold. 
The enamelled gold hat-medallion (sixteenth century) 
in the British Museum, with the original owner's name, 
Carolus von Sternsee,, bears an elaborate allegorical device 
(relating to the fickleness of fortune and the uncertainty 
of human life, and to the world, the flesh, the devil, 
life, death, &c.), in which both death (a skeleton) and 
the devil figure. Skulls, skeletons, and decaying bodies, 
as memento mori devices in jewellery, just as in paintings 
and engravings, were frequently represented with long 
worms, snakes, toads, &c., that is to say, being " eaten by 
worms," the idea having been doubtless chiefly suggested 
by the well-known passage in Ecclesiasticus (ch. x. ver. 11) : 
" For when a man is dead he shall inherit creeping things, 
beasts, and worms." 

In the British Museum are several memento mori 
carved ivories of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
mostly made as beads, or for suspension. One represents 
a human head and a human skull back to back ; the 



face of the former is " eaten by worms ; " in the mouth 
of the latter a toad is visible ; on the forehead of the 
face is the inscription in black letters, " a la saint . . ." 
on the frontal bone of the skull is : " point de devant a 
la rnort." 128 Another of these ivories represents on one 
half a lady's head and on the other her skull, below 
which is a pair of scales. 129 - Another has on one side 
the head of a woman (head-dress of the early sixteenth 
century), with the inscription : ELLAS NEST ( ? ) IL 
MENTO ; on the other side are the head and shoulders 
of a skeleton. 130 An elaborate one (of about 1600) has 
on one side the head of a moribund person, on whose 
forehead is a band inscribed, " dura et aspera ; " on the 
other side is a skull with worms ; below are two gold 
labels enamelled with INKI and MAKIA ; from the 
base hangs a small gold enamelled pendant representing 
two hearts crowned ; at the top a small chain is attached 
for suspension. 131 In the Victoria and Albert Museum 
(Mr. Pierpont Morgan's collection in the Loan Court) 
are exhibited some similar carved ivories (of the sixteenth 
century). Two have on one half the head of a man, and 
on the other half his bare skull. 132 Another has on one 
side the head of a youth (sixteenth- century dress), and 
on the other side the upper part of a skeleton, with the 
inscription, COGITA MOKI. Another has on one side 

128 Catalogue of the Ivory Carvings of the Christian Era in the British 
Museum, London, 1909, p. 148, No. 441. 

129 Ibid., p. 148, No. 442. 

130 Ibid., p. 149, No. 443. 

131 Ibid., p. 149, No. 444. 

132 Mr. Henry Oppenheimer has kindly shown me a similar rock- 
crystal bead in his collection, representing on one side a human faca 
and on the other side a skull. 


the portrait of a woman, and on the other side the upper 
portion of a skeleton, with the inscription : V. QVOT (?) 
EEIS (" See what you will be "). Another represents 
the portraits of husband and wife, and on the other side 
(back to back with them), a skeleton with worms. 

Here one may mention certain jewels, small bronzes, &c., 
bearing devices referring in one way or another to the 
subject of death. Mr. W. T. Keady has kindly given 
me an illustration (Fig. 55) of an early sixteenth-cen- 

FIG. 55. German shell-cameo of the sixteenth century. 

tury German shell-cameo, which is circular, 1*1 inch in 
diameter, and mounted in a silver-gilt setting of the 
time. It represents a nude man and a nude woman 
seated facing, with a figure of Death, holding a scythe, 
standing between them in the background. The woman 
has two infants in her arms, one of whom is being seized 
by Death. Before the man is an anvil, on which he is 
hammering a child, whilst he grasps another child 
tightly between his knees. This device 133 appears to 

133 The arrangement of the device may have been suggested by some 
group representing Venus in the workshop of Vulcan. 

o 2 


me to represent a somewhat pessimistic view of life 
(man, woman, and children) and death. The child is 
thrust naked into the world to take part in the trials 
and penalties and pains of life, whether he wishes or not ; 
death stands by, awaiting him, and often seizes him, not 
during his troubles, when he is being hammered on 
the anvil, but when he is happy and contented with 
life and does not wish to die. I would further explain 
the device by the help of the type on the medals (dated 
respectively 1458 and 1466), already described and 
figured (Figs. 13 and 14) in Part III., by Giovanni 
Boldu of Venice, representing a nude man seated, hiding 
his face with his hands, with a winged child and a skull 
before him. Compare the passage in Goethe's Willielm 
^leisters Lehrjahre (part i cap. xiii.) : 

" Wer nie sein Brod mit Thranen ass, 
Wer nie die kummervollen Nachte 
Auf seinem Bette weinend sass, 
Der kennt euch nicht, ihr himmlischen Machte. 

"Ihr fiihrt ins Leben uns hiiiein, 
Ihr lasst den Armen schuldig werden, 
Dann iiberlasst ihr ihn der Pein, 
Denn alle Schuld racht sich auf Erden." 

In this connexion another medal, made by Boldu in 
1458, may likewise be referred to. It represents the 
artist's bust on the obverse, with inscription in Greek 
and Hebrew. On the reverse (Fig. 56) is a young man, 
nude, seated to left, resting his head on his right arm. 
Under him is a skull, and behind him an old woman is 
striking him with a whip. In front of him is a winged 
genius, standing, holding a cup. Above is the sun. The 
VENETI - MCCCCLVIII. This medal, cast in bronze, 



FIG. 56. Eeverse (reduced) of a medal by Giovanni Boldu of Venice. 
(After Heiss.) 

FIG. 57. Italian bronze statuette (fifteenth century ?), representing an 
allegory of life. 


3'4 inches in diameter, is described by A. Armand (Les 
Medailleurs Italians, 2nd edition, 1883, vol. i. p. 36, No. 2) 
and A. Heiss (Les Medailleurs de la Renaissance, Paris, 
1887, vol. i., Venetian medals, pi. ii. No. 1). 

I will here likewise refer to a little Italian bronze 
figure of Boldu's time (Fig. 57), for permission to illus- 
trate which I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Henry 
Oppenheimer, in whose collection it is. This bronze 
statuette (5'5 X 5 x 2'15 inches) represents a naked boy 
seated on the ground in a meditative attitude, leaning 
with his left elbow on an hour-glass, and with his right 
hand supporting a skull on his right knee ; a snake 
issuing from the skull is coiled round the boy's arm. 
The base of the statuette is inscribed 

IL - TEMPO PASSA . E - LA - MOETO (sic) V(I)EN. 
GVAEITO (?) LYI (?) CHI - NON . FA . BEN - 

The actual appearance of the part of the inscription 
for which the words " guarito lui " are suggested is : 

This inscription is apparently one of consolation for 
those who find life wretched or who take a pessimistic 
view of life, suggesting that when death comes it comes 
as a cure for the miseries of life. Mr. A. M. Hind has 
kindly directed my attention to a somewhat similar design 
in a Florentine woodcut by an unknown master of the 
fifteenth century, reproduced by G-. Hirth and E. Muther 
in their work 011 Meister-Holzschnitte (Muenchen, 1893, 
Plate 31). The woodcut represents a naked boy leaning 
on a skull with an hour-glass on the trunk of a tree at 
his head and the inscription : LHOEA PASSA. 


A German medal of about 1634 by Christian Maler, 
which I omitted to describe in its proper place in 
Part ILL, may be mentioned here on account of the 
pessimistic type of its reverse, which likens human life 
to soap-bubbles, and might have been inspired by 
Ecdesiastes. The obverse is the same as that of 
Christian Maler's memento mori medal figured in Part 
III. (Fig. 25), which was copied from another medal 
(Fig. 23) supposed to relate to the death of Anna 
Cathrina, daughter of King Christian IV of Denmark. 
But the reverse (Fig. 58) represents a boy seated on 

FIG. 58. 

the ground, leaning on a death's head, and playing with 
soap-bubbles. Inscription: OMNES BULL^E SUM(VS) 
INSTAB, ("We are all like a bubble"); 134 in the 
exergue, c . PEIVIL c& c M (the ordinary signature 
of the medallist, Christian Maler). I am indebted for 
the illustration of this piece to the sale catalogue, by 
Otto Helbing of Munich, 1901, of the J. J. Schrott 
Collection, in which it formed No. 1443. My attention 
was kindly drawn to the existence of the piece by 
Mr. A. E. Cahn of Frankfurt-a.-M. 

134 Cf. the Greek saying, n<>ju<oA.u| 6 faQpuiros (" Man is a bubble "). 


In Thomas Wright's introduction to Fairholt's Miscella- 
nea Graphica (London, 1856, p. 63), a curious seventeenth- 
century jewel in the Londesborough Collection is illus- 
trated, which appears to have belonged to King James I 
of England. It is a silver apple containing a small skull, 
the top of which opens like a lid. Inside the skull are 
representations of the Creation and the Kesurrection, with 
the inscription : " Post mortem vita eternitas." 

Watches of the seventeenth century were occasionally 
made in the form of a death's head, so as to serve memento 
mori purposes, reminding one that with every hour one is 
nearer one's end, and that hours misspent cannot be re- 
gained. In this respect they resemble old sun-dials and 
clocks with quaint memento mori inscriptions. Compare 
the words of Thomas a Kernpis, " Memento semper finis, 
et quia perditum non redit tempus " which could have 
been used for an inscription on a sun-dial or a clock. 

Amongst memento mori jewels in the British Museum 
are locket-like pendants (seventeenth century) shaped 
like a coffin, containing the minute figure of a skeleton. 
One of these coffin-shaped pendants is of gold, enamelled, 
bearing the words, COGITA MOKI YT VIVAS (" Think 
of dying so that you may live "). Another in silver is in- 
scribed with the name of the deceased. A locket-like 
memorial pendant of a later date in the possession of 
Lady Evans is in the shape of a minute coffin ; the lid is 
made to open on a hinge, and in the inside is some hair 
in an ornamental border of gold thread, with a death's 
head (there were originally doubtless two death's heads) 
and the initials P.B. in fine gold wire; the back is in- 
scribed : " P.B. obit y e 17 Mar: 1703 Aged 54 years." 

A little pendant (early seventeenth century) in the 
British Museum is of gold and enamel in the form of a 


skull ; 135 in the interior of the skull, which opens on a 
hinge, is a minute enamelled figure of a skeleton with an 
hour-glass under its neck as a pillow. A small heart- 
shaped memorial locket of gold, enamel, and gold thread 
ornamentation (late seventeenth century) represents a 
skeleton emerging from a tomb, with an angel on either 
side, trumpeting the resurrection ; below is the mono- 
gram of the deceased, with the inscription, COME YE 
BLESSED. A small memorial brooch of the same 
period and kind of work bears the device of a figure 
seated at a table with open book, candle, and death's 
head; and the legend, LEAEN TO DIE. A small 
eighteenth-century mourning brooch exhibited in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum has a miniature painting of 
the deceased's relatives mourning at his tomb, in the 
usual style of the period, with the inscription, HEAVEN" 

In conclusion, I wish to express my great indebtedness 
to all those who have assisted me, especially Mr. H. A. 
Grueber, Mr. Warwick Wroth, Mr. G. F. Hill, Mr. J. 
Allan, Mr. C. H. Kead, Mr. E. L. Binyon, and other 
officials of the British Museum ; the late Sir John Evans, 
President of the Eoyal Numismatic Society, Lady Evans, 
Dr. H. E. Storer, Dr. Oliver Codrington, Dr. Ernest 
Schuster, Mr. Alfred Schuster, Dr. J. P. zum Busch, Mr. 
W. T. Eeady, and Mr. L. Forrer ; and, needless to say, 
the authors of the numerous books and papers to which 
I have referred. 


135 It is figured in F. W. Fairholt's Miscellanea Graphica (London, 
1856, PI. i. Figs. 3, 4) from the Londesborough Collection, but is now 
exhibited in the Gold Ornament Eoom of the British Museum. 



WITH the admonitory devices and inscriptions on sepulchral 
monuments and memorial medals, finger-rings, &c., may be 
compared some of those on funeral palls. The hearse-cloth 
or state pall of the Vintners' Company of London, still pre- 
served at the Company's Hall, bears, amongst other devices 
in embroidery, four representations of Death, supporting a 
coffin with one hand, and in the other holding a spade. 
Above these four figures are labels with the following inscrip- 
tions : (1) " Morere ut vivas," i.e. " Die so that you may live 
(for ever);" (2) " Mors p(ec)catoru(m) pessima," i.e. "The 
death of sinners is most wretched ; " (3) Moriri disce quia 
morieris," i.e. " Learn to die because you shall die ; " (4) "Mors 
justoru(m) vita a(n)i(m)aru(m)," i.e. " The death of the just 
is the life of souls." Similar state hearse-cloths are in the 
possession of several other City Companies : the Merchant 
Taylors' Company possess two ; the Ironmongers', the Fish- 
mongers', the Brewers', the Saddlers', each possess one. 


For a notice on the subject of the " danace," and " gold 
bracteates," see especially E. Babelon's Traite des Monnaies 
Grecques, vol. i. part i. (1901), pp. 514-519, and pp. 629-633. 
See also A. Sortin-Dorigny, " Obole funeraire en or de Cy- 
zique," Revue Numismatique, Paris, 3rd series, 1888, vol. vi. p. 1. 
For these references I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. 
W. Wroth. If Mr. J. C. Lawson (Modern Greek Folklore and 
Ancient Greek Religion, Cambridge, 1910, pp. Ill et seq.) is 
right in supposing that the coin or coin-like object placed 
between the teeth or in the mouth of a corpse was ever 
intended to serve as an amulet to prevent an evil spirit from 
entering, or the soul of the deceased from re-entering, the 
dead body, then of course the ancient custom of providing 
the dead with ' ' Charon's money " may indeed be regarded as 
to some extent connected with the Eastern European belief 
in " vampires." 

F. P. W. 



I WOULD venture to suggest that the attribution of these 
pieces to Bristol should be reconsidered in the light of the 
undermentioned facts. The coins bearing this cipher in the 
lower part of the field or in the legend were originally 
regarded as a product of the mint at Oxford, but were trans- 
ferred to Bristol by Hawkins (cf. 3rd edit., p. 326), who 
dismisses the Oxford tradition as altogether mythical. It is 
possible, however, that the author would not have advocated 
the attribution to the western city if the evidence which is 
now available had been at his disposal when writing. Ruding, 
it may be added, expresses a similar but less decided opinion 
in vol. iii. p. 106. 

In the Bodleian Library (Rawlinson MSS. D 810) is Thomas 
Baskerville's topographical description of Oxford in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. The writer gives an account 
of many of the Colleges and their alumni, and when describing 
St. John's he makes the following statement : 

" I am informed by my worthy friend Mr. Richard Rod y* 
when King Charles y e first had his residence in Oxford in y e 
time of our Civil wars, the King wanting cash to pay his 
soldiers he was necessitated to send for the colledge plate to 
coyne money and accordingly had it delivered to him, but 
St. John's colledge people being loath to loose the memory 
of their Benefactors gave y e King a sume of money to y e value 
of it, and so it staid with them some time ; but y e King's 
urgent occasions for money still pressing him forward he sent 
to demand it a second time and had it, upon wch y e King 
ordered the rebus of Richard Bayly the then President of 
St. John's, 1644, to be put on y e money coyn'd with y e plate ; 
Mr. Rod did help me to half a crown of this money wch had 
y e rebus of Rich. Bayly on both sides, viz* under y e King a 
horseback on one side, and under this motto Rel Pro Le 
Ang Lib Par and under 1644, on y e other side." 


(The whole of the MS. has been printed by the Oxford 
Hist. Society in Collectanea, vol. 4, p. 197.) 

Baskerville wrote his pages in 1684, not quite forty years 
after the capitulation of Oxford, but he does not mention 
the year in which Rod communicated the information and 
obtained the specimen of the coinage. We have here, then, 
almost contemporary testimony from a man who lived near 
Oxford, and who had friends, as he tells us, among the senior 
members of the college in question, from whom it would have 
been easy to obtain confirmation or contradiction if he had 
felt doubtful. Unless Baskerville's informant was misled by 
coins brought from Bristol, which is almost inconceivable, it 
appears to be a fair inference that at some date prior to 1684 
there was a belief in Oxford that the plate from St. John's had 
been ear-marked at the local mint in the manner described. 

Let us now see how far the archives of that college support 
the particulars furnished by the Bodleian manuscript. 

The fourth report of the Historical MSS. Commission 
(App., p. 466) deals with the records of St. John's, from which 
I have extracted such facts as are material. 

The report cites a letter from Charles to the President and 
Fellows on Jan. 6, 1643, asking for the college plate to be 
delivered for melting down. Repayment is to be made at 
the rate of 5s. per oz. for silver, and 5s. 6d. for silver gilt, 
" as soon as God shall enable us." The authorities unani- 
mously consent, adding a request that a considerable part of 
the plate should be coined for the use of the college so that 
they might answer the debt contracted for their new build- 
ing, etc. Then follows a receipt from the wardens of the 
Oxford Mint (date not mentioned) for 176 Ibs. 2 ozs. 10 dwts. 
of white plate, and 48 Ibs. 1 oz. 10 dwts. of gilt, coupled with 
a memorandum that the President and Fellows had reserved 
300 for the use of the college, which sum the Wardens 
promise to pay to them. The report also notes that St. 
John's had previously lent 800 to the King (when he was 
at York) ; this earlier payment may have given rise to the 
statement that the college had, in the first instance, com- 
pounded by handing over an equivalent amount of cash. 
The value of their surrendered plate, on the basis of the 
King's offer, works out at 688 approximately, but there is 
no clue as to whether the college did in fact receive the 
agreed sum of current coin. This documentary evidence 
shows that St. John's was exceptionally favoured in respect 
of its silver treasure, as I can find no trace of any such 
concession being attached to the receipts given to other 
Foundations in 1643. 


To support the case for Oxford as against Bristol, it is, 
of course, necessary to read the monogram as RB instead of 
BR, and having regard to the form of the cipher I would 
submit that the subordinate position of the R, which is 
represented only by a reversed stroke on the lower loop of 
the B, indicates an intention to denote the Christian name 
of Dr. Bayly ; the first letter of his surname would naturally 
occupy the chief portion of the cipher. 

As regards the type of the coins assigned to Bristol, it is 
fortunate that no difficulty stands in the way of a re-transfer 
to Oxford, if such a step should be approved on other grounds. 
All writers admit that the Bristol type very closely resembles 
that of Oxford at a parallel date, hence the earlier attribu- 
tion to the latter city. 

To sum up the points which I wish to make: (1) the 
information imparted to Baskerville before 1684; (2) the 
records at St. John's showing that an unusual transaction 
was negotiated with Charles ; (3) the similarity of type ; 
(4) the absence of any proof from Bristol sources that these 
coins were struck there. 



A SMALL hoard of coins was dug up in a garden at Winter- 
slow, near Salisbury, on March 10, 1910. It contained 50 
shillings one of Edward VI (mint-mark Ton), one of Philip 
and Mary (dated 1555), 14 of Elizabeth with mint-marks, 
Martlet, Cross crosslet, , Escallop, Hand, Ton, Woolpack, 2 ; 
10 of James I, with mint-marks, Thistle, Lis, Rose, Escallop, 
Mullet ; 24 of Charles I, with mint-marks, Harp, Portcullis, 
Crown, Ton, Anchor, Triangle, Star, Triangle in circle. They 
were mostly in poor condition. 

The hoard covers a period from 1551 to 1641 A. D. ; just before 
the opening of the Civil War. As even the latest pieces of 
Charles I are somewhat rubbed, their burial may, however, 
not have taken place till after the beginning of the war. 
The absence of any coins of the local mints confirms their 
somewhat early burial. 

G. C. B. 


WHILST some workmen were recently engaged in laying a gas- 
main in Nottingham City, they came upon an earthenware 


vessel, or rather vessels, which contained some Roman silver 
and bronze coins. The depth of the excavation was a little 
under 3 feet, and the soil was sand with a loam covering. 

The hoard consisted of nineteen silver, and forty-six bronze 

The silver coins were all denarii of the Imperial period, as 
follows : Vespasian, 1 Titus, 1 ; Domitian, 1 ; Trajan, 4 ; 
Hadrian, 5 : Antoninus Pius, 2 ; Faustina Senior, 3 ; Marcus 
Aurelius as Caesar, 2. 

In the report supplied by Mr. F. A. H. Green, the Town 
Clerk of Nottingham, to H.M. Treasury it is stated that the 
bronze coins were of the same reigns as the silver, with the 
exception that two pieces were of the reign of Nerva. As 
these bronze pieces were not treasure-trove, they were not 
forwarded to H.M. Treasury for examination. 

The earliest of the silver coins belongs to 72-73 A.D. 
(Vespasian), and the latest specimens are a denarius of 
Aurelius (as Caesar) of 157 A.D. ( = "Trib. Pot. XI., Cos. II.") 
and one of Antoninus Pius (Cos. IV. and clasped hands), 
which may have been struck as late as 161 A.D. or as early as 
144 A.D. It is probable, therefore, that this small hoard was 
hidden by its owner at the end of the reign of Antoninus 
Pius or early in the reigri of his successor, approximately 
161 A.D. 

The silver coins were contained in a small earthenware pot 
made of a sort of iron clay, with a diamond pattern incised 
upon it. This pot was 3J inches high, and the outside 
diameter at the widest part was 3^ inches. This vessel, 
together with the forty-six bronze coins, was placed inside a 
larger earthenware vessel (5 inches in diameter, internal 
measurement) made of a similar but not identical clay. On 
this larger pot there was an irregular incised pattern. In the 
course of the excavations the larger vessel had been thrown 
out with the soil from the trench, and as it lay there a 
workman stepped upon it, and another workman struck it 
with a long chisel, smashing both pots. 

Mr. Green further reports that the land where the coins 
were unearthed was in old days undoubtedly forest-land, and 
until fifteen or twenty years ago it was a corn-field. It is 
situated at some distance from any known Roman road, and 
no trace had hitherto been found in Nottingham of a Roman 

H. A. G. 



Die Munzen von Pergamon, von Dr. Hans von Fritze. (Aus 
dem Anhang zu den Abhandlungen der kon. Preuss. 
Akad. der Wiss. 1910.) Mit 9 Tafeln. Berlin : Reimer. 

THAT great stock, the Berlin Corpus Nummorum, although 
producing fruit in the shape of volumes less plentiful than 
could be wished, has thrown out certain secondary processes 
of considerable importance. Such were the articles by Dr. 
Gaebler on the Macedonian coinage ; such was Dr. von 
Fritze's article on the autonomous coinage of Pergamon in 
Corolla Numismatica ; and such is his monograph before us, 
the object of which is to propound the questions now at 
issue, on the basis of the present state of our knowledge, and 
answer them as far as possible. It is impossible here to give 
even a summary of the contents of the monograph, which is 
closely packed with matter. We note only a few discon- 
nected points of interest. Although the essential lines of 
Imhoof-Blumer's arrangement of the Attalid silver coinage 
are preserved, the new material necessitates a slightly 
different arrangement of the issues of the first three rulers : 
Philetairos strikes with the portrait of Seleukos, Euinenes I 
with that of Philetairos wearing the fillet, Attalos I with the 
same portrait adorned with diadem and laurel-wreath com- 
bined (sometimes also with the laurel-wreath alone thi& 
after his great victory over the Gauls). The beginning of 
the Pergamene cistophori is assigned to about 190 B.C. rather 
than to the reign of Attalos I. Reason is given for suppos- 
ing that no Alexandrine coinage may have been struck at 
Pergamon, the Attalid issues sufficing for all purposes served 
by this international currency. Dr. von Fritze does not 
believe in the supposed portrait of Attalos I on Mr. Wace's 
tetradrachm, and the series which he shows seems to confirm 
his sceptical attitude. One of the most interesting results 
achieved is to prove that many of the copper coins hitherto- 
attributed to Pergamon were struck at the cities in the 
Attalid dominions (mostly cistophoric mints), doubtless in 
connexion with the panegyris of Athena Nikephoros or 
Asklepios Soter. Most of the important types receive an 
explanation at the writer's hands ; but he is baffled by one y 
which we had hoped he would explain, viz. the temple of 
Aphrodite of Paphos. What is this doing at Pergamon ? 

The veiled cultus statue, holding two branches, and another 
holding one branch and a Nike, are identified as the same 


^oddess, probably the Great Mother. Besides the Great 
Altar, which was first identified on the coins by M. Heron 
de Villefosse, a more modest structure is shown to be the 
altar erected to Demeter by Philetairos and Eumenes, and 
rediscovered in 1909. If the basin-like vessel with a high 
foot on a coin of Augustus is really connected with the 
gymnasium, it may possibly be not a washing-basin, but an 
oil-basin (cp. the coins of Anazarbus and other cities in 
Cilicia, B.M.C., Lycaonia, PI. vii. 2, &c.). The custom of 
representing busts of deities in temples, referred to on p. 90, 
is very common at Phoenician mints, besides those mentioned 
by the author ; the most remarkable instance is at Caesarea 
ad Libanum. Still, we cannot always argue that, because 
only the bust is represented on the coin, therefore the deity 
in the temple was actually represented in the same way ; 
rather the bust was employed by the die-engraver to allow 
him to show details on a larger scale. But we have already 
exceeded our space, without, it is to be feared, giving any 
idea of the great value of the monograph. 

G. F. H. 

Die Milnze in der Kulturgescliiclite, F. Friedensburg. Berlin. 


THIS little book is an interesting addition to numismatic 
literature, and ought to do much to extend interest in the 
subject. It professes to be a work for the general reader 
rather than the student, but the student of coins will find 
much to attract him in it. Dr. Friedensburg discusses none 
of the great problems of numismatics and avoids controversial 
points ; his work is an attempt to show the place of coins in 
the history of civilization and their value as historical docu- 
ments. The book is divided into seven sections, of which the 
first is introductory, dealing with the history of the study of 
coins and coin-collecting ; the other chapters deal with coins 
as official and historical documents ; as monuments for the 
history of religions ; coins and commerce, a history of the 
development of coinage ; coins and art, including medals 
and plaquettes ; historical or medallic coins. The seventh 
chapter is perhaps the most important contribution to know- 
ledge in the book ; it deals with coins and folklore, treating 
of proverbial expressions, superstitions, &c., about coins, 
love-tokens, offerings, &c. A glance at the very full index 
will show the vast amount of information contained in the 
book. It is written in a light, readable style, and illustrated 
with 85 blocks of interesting coins. 

J. A. 

Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PL I 


Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PL II 



Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PL III 


Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PL IV 


Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PL V 







32 ' 33 








SESSION 19091910. 

OCTOBER 21, 1909. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S.,F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of May 20 were read 
and confirmed. 

Miss Agnes Baldwin, Mr. Stephen K. Nagg, Mr. Herbert 
Nicklewicz, and M. Michel Soutzo were elected Fellows of 
the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Journal International d'Arche'ologie Numismatique, 
1908. Pts. 1, 2, 3. From J. N. Svoronos. 

2. Bonner Jahrbiicher, Heft. 118, Pt. 1. 

3. Notices extraites de la Revue Numismatique. From 
A. Blanche t. 

4. Shannonsystem zur Anordnung ostasiatischer Loch- 
munzen. From F. v. Wendstein. 

5. Das Iseum Campense auf einer Miinze des Vespasianus. 
By H. Dressel. From the Author. 

6. American Journal of Numismatics. Yol. xliii., Pts. 2 
and 3. 



7. Medals, &c., illustrative of Medicine. By Dr. H. R. 
Storer. From the Author. 

8 Aarbogen for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic, 1908, 

9. Monatsblatt der nuinismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 311 to 315, and Jahresbericht, 1908. 

10. Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain 
and Ireland. Plates xci.-c. From the Trustees of the 
British Museum. 

11. Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 
Nos. lii.-liv. 

12. Revue Beige de Numismatique, 1909. Pts. 3 and 4. 

13. Tin and Lead Coins from Brunei. By Dr. R. Hanitsch. 
From the Author. 

14. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica. Pt. 2, 1909. 

15. Annual Report of the Deputy-Master of the Mint, 

16. American Journal of Archaeology. Yol. xiii., Nos. 2 
and 3. 

17. The Canadian Antiquary. Vol. vi., Nos. 2 and 3. 

18. Un Sou d'or pseudo-Imperial du V. ou VI. siecle. By 
Vicomte B. de Jonghe. From the Author. 

19. Coinage of the Sultans of Madura. By Dr. E. Hultsch. 
From the Royal Asiatic Society. 

20. Revue Numismatique, 1909. Pt. 2. 

21. Le Tir a 1'Oiseau de Farney du 25 Aout, 1775. By E. 
Demole. From the Author. 

22. Bulletin de 1'Academie royale de Belgique, 1909. 
Pts. 4-8. 

23. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xxxix., Pt. 2. 

24. Medailles concernant Jean Calvin. By E. Demole. 
From the Author. 

25. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Vol. xxvii., 
Sec. C, Pts. 14-18. 

26. Archaeologia Cantiana. Vol. xxviii. 


27. Index to Archaeological Papers published in 1907. 
By Bernard Gomme. From the Author. 

28. Revue Suisse de Numismatique. Vol. xv., Pt. 2. 

29. Appunti di Numismatica Romana, No. xciv. By F. 
Gnecchi. From the Author. 

30. Historical Roman Coins. By G. F. Hill. From the 

31. Facing Heads on Ancient Greek Coins, By Miss A. 
Baldwin. From the Author. 

32. Sir John Evans : Bibliographic et Biographic. By L. 
Forrer. From the Author. 

33. Zeitschrift fur Numismatik. Vol. xxvii., Pts. 3 and 4. 

34. Journal of the British School at Athens. No. xiv. 

35. Biographical Dictionary of Medallists. Vol. iv. By L. 
Forrer. From the Author. 

36. The Roman Fort at Manchester. By F. A. Bruton. 

37. Excavations at Toothill and Melandra. By F. A. 
Bruton. Nos. 36 and 37 from the Publishers. 

38. Archaeologia Aeliana. Vol. v. 

Mr. T. Bliss exhibited five base testoons of Edward VI, 
including a specimen from the Bristol Mint with Thomas 
Chamberlain's mint-mark, a specimen countermarked with 
a greyhound, and two others bearing the portcullis counter- 

Mr. Percy H. Webb exhibited an interesting series of 
second and third brass coins of Carus and Carinus and their 

Mr. F. A. Walters showed four unpublished varieties of 
the light groat of Henry IV, including a specimen bearing 
a remarkably early type of bust with the name HENRIG 
punched over RIC&RD. 

Mr. J. H. Pinches exhibited a specimen in bronze of the 
medal presented by the Royal Geographical Society to 
members of the Antarctic Expedition. 


Mr. C. T. Seltman read a paper on " The Coins of Anti- 
gonus I and Demetrius Poliorcetes," in which he proposed a 
chronological arrangement of their issues. It has hitherto 
been thought that only staters and tetradrachms, with types 
and name of Alexander the Great, were struck by Antigonus 
and Demetrius before the battle of Salamis in 306 B.C. Mr. 
Seltman described two unique tetradrachms, with the types 
of Alexander and the names of Antigonus and Demetrius 
respectively, which, from the absence of the regal title, must 
have been struck before the battle of Salamis, when Anti- 
gonus and his son assumed the title of " king." These pieces 
are of Asiatic, and probably Syrian, work. To the period of 
the stay of Demetrius in the Peloponnese, from 304 B.C. to 
301 B.C., when he was recalled to Asia to aid his father, gold 
staters and tetradrachms with the legends BAZIAEQZ 
of Alexander the Great were ascribed. The last issues of 
Demetrius cover the period from his seizure of the throne of 
Macedon in 294 B.C. to his overthrow in 287 B.C. To this 
period Mr. Seltman ascribed the series of coins in gold, silver, 
and copper, with or without portrait, having the inscription 
BAZIAEQZ AHMHTPIOY and reverse types, horseman, 
Poseidon, Pallas, or a prow. This Paper is printed in 
Vol. IX. pp. 264-273. 

A Paper by Mr. G. F. Hill on "Two Italian Medals of 
Englishmen," was also read. The first of these was a medal 
of Sir John Cheke (1514-1557), who is known to have been 
in Italy in 1555. The medal is clearly the work of a Paduan 
classicizing artist of the sixteenth century, and from the 
remarkable similarity of the work to that of Martino da 
Bergamo's medal of the Paduan jurist Marco Mantova Bena- 
vides, might be his work. The second medal described was 
of Richard White (1539-1611) of Basingstoke, made at Padua 
by the artist Ludovico Leoni, who signed it. This Paper is 
printed in Yol. IX. pp. 292-296. 


NOVEMBER 18, 1909. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., President, 
. in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of October 21 were 
read and confirmed. 

Colonel J. Biddulph and Mr. F. W. Voysey Peterson were 
elected Fellows of the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Progress Report of the United States National Museum, 

2. Forvannen-Meddelanden fran K. Vitterhets-Historie og 
Antikvitets Akademien, 1908. From the Academy, Stock- 

3. Medals, Jetons, &c., illustrative of Medicine. Art. 80. 
By Dr. G. H. Storer. From the Author. 

4. Revue Numismatique, 1909. Pt. 3. 

5. Journal International d'Archeologie Numismatique, 
1908. Pt. 4. From J. N. Svoronos. 

Mr. F. A Walters exhibited a groat of the second coinage 
of Henry VII with mint-marks a greyhound's head on the 
obverse, and the very rare rose mint-mark on the reverse. 

Lady Evans exhibited a specimen in bronze of the Hudson 
Fulton anniversary medal recently issued by the Circle of 
Friends of the Medallion. 

Mr. Horace W. Monckton showed a one-bajocco piece of 
the " Roman Republic," cast at Ancona in 1849 ; and a 
bronze admission ticket to the Botanic Gardens of Amster- 
dam, dated 1684. 

Mr. Percy H. Webb exhibited two Roman bronze coins 
in fine condition : one struck by P. Canidius Crassus in 
Egypt in 31 B.C., and the other struck by Q. Oppius, one of 
Julius Caesar's prefects in the East, about 45 B.C. 


Prof. C. Oman read a Paper on " The Fifth-Century Coins 
of Corinth," which he arranged chronologically in nine classes. 
In Class I. were placed the latest issues of the Archaic Series, 
characterized by the letter Jcoppa on both sides. The pieces 
of transitional fabric formed the next three classes. In the 
first of these (451-448 B.C.) the archaic Pallas head dis- 
appears, and is replaced by a severe head of almost masculine 
type in an incuse square ; the second transitional series 
(448-440 B.C.) is marked by the trident symbol on the 
obverse, the disappearance of the incuse square, and the 
introduction of a more elegant Pegasus ; the last transitional 
series (440-433 B.C.) has no symbols on the reverse, and is 
marked by the introduction of the neckguard on the helmet 
of Pallas. In Class V. (433-431 B.C.) Prof. Oman placed 
several rare coins having a murex shell as symbol on the 
obverse, and in Class VI. (431-414 B.C.) those with the 
palmette symbol. In Classes V. and VI. appears the later 
straight-winged Pegasus. Class VII. (414-412 B.C.) contains 
the interesting series having a circle of dolphins around the 
head of Pallas, which undoubtedly commemorates the Syra- 
cusan alliance of 414 B.C., as the circle of dolphins, which had 
long appeared on Syracusan coins, was unknown in Greece 
proper. To the period 411-404 B.C. was allotted the class 
having the symbols palmette and dolphin on the reverse. 
Class IX. (404-394 B.C.) is distinguished by the dolphin on 
the reverse and varying annual symbols. Prof. Oman also 
discussed the position of the small series of staters having as 
obverse type Pegasus standing tied up to a large ring, and 
proposed to place them about 421-414 B.C., suggesting that 
the type was emblematic of the peace of Nicias in 421 B.C. 
This Paper is printed in Vol. IX. pp. 333-356. 


DECEMBER 16, 1909. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of November 18 were 
read and confirmed. 

Mr. Edwin L. Arnold was elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol. xxix., Pt. 2. 

2. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xxxix., Pt. 3. 

3. Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain 
and Ireland. Plates ci.-cx. From the Trustees of the 
British Museum. 

4. American Journal of Numismatics. Vol. xliii., No. 4. 

5. Notices extraites de la Chronique de la Revue Numis- 
matique. 3 me trim., 1909. From A. Blanchet. 

6. Catalogue du Cabinet Numismatique de la Fondation 
Teyler a Harlem. From the Directors. 

7. Y e Olde Mint (Philadelphia). By F. H. Stewart. From 
the Author. 

Mr. Thomas Bliss exhibited some English farthings, in- 
cluding two of the Commonwealth in brass, and a third in 
copper (a pattern with the initial of Rawlins under the 
centre pillar) ; a farthing of Cromwell, and four others in 
4 pewter of Charles II. 

Mr. A. H. Baldwin showed two unpublished Roman coins : 
a denarius of Septimius Severus with reverse type Veritas, 
and a second brass of Jovian with reverse type Anubis on 

Dr. Codrington exhibited, and read notes on, a series of 
copper coins of Makalla in Hadramut, lent by Mr. D. F. 


Mr. H. A. Grueber read a Paper on " The Silver Coinage 
of the Roman Republic." He explained the reasons which 
have enabled modern numismatists to ascribe the introduction 
of a silver currency to Rome to 269-8 B.C., and showed that 
the coins which have been attributed by some to the time of 
the kings are forgeries, probably of the eighteenth century. 
Mr. Grueber next discussed the origin of the scruple standard, 
the various changes which took place in the silver standard 
and officially-issued plated coins, and concluded by dealing 
with the origin of the various denominations, the development 
and historical significance of their types. Mr. Percy H. 
Webb exhibited a series of Roman silver coins to illustrate 
the Paper. 

JANUARY 20, 1910. 

HORACE W. MONCKTON, ESQ., F.G.S., F.L.S., Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of December 16 were 
read and approved. 

Mr. J. T. Bennett-Poe, M.A., was elected a Fellow of the 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table : 

1. Numismatic Circular. Vol. xvii. From Messrs. Spink 
& Son. 

2. Coins of Magna Graecia. By Rev. A. W. Hands. 
From Messrs. Spink & Son. 

3. Revue Beige de Numismatique, 1910. Pt. 1. 

4. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1909. Pts. 3 and 4. 

5. Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest, 1908 
and 1909, Pt. 1. 

6. Bulletin of the Archaeological Institute of America. 
No. 1. 


7. Revue Suisse de Numismatique. Vol. xv., Pt. 1. 

8. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London. 
Vol. xxii., No. 2. 

9. Publications de la Section Historique de 1'Institut de 
Luxembourg. Vols. liv., Ivi., Ivii. 

10. Monatsblatt der numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 317. 

11. Report of the Government Museum, Madras, 1908- 

12. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. xiii., No. 4. 

13. Deux deniers Lossains frappes a Hasselt. By Vicomte 
B. de Jonghe. From the Author. 

14. Portraiture of our Stuart Monarchs on their Coins 
and Medals. Pt. 1. By Miss Helen Farquhar. From the 

Mr. H. A. Parsons exhibited a heavy half -groat of Edward 
IV, struck at Dublin, supposed to be unique ; Mr. W. E. 
Marsh, a light groat of Henry VI; and Mr. Monckton, 
six Roman coins of the second century A.D., selected to 
illustrate the relation of the bronze to the copper coinage 
of the period. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence showed a series of gold and silver coins 
of Edward IV and Henry VI to illustrate the Paper of the 

Mr. F. A. Walters read a Paper on "The Restoration 
Coinage of Henry VI, 1470-71." After a short historical 
introduction, he proceeded to discuss the gold coinage of the 
period. On the restoration of Henry VI the want of a gold 
coin corresponding to the reduced silver coinage was felt, and 
the noble was probably considered to be too closely identified 
with the house of York. The angel the issue of which had 
actually been ordered in 1465, though very few specimens 
appear to have been struck was adopted as the gold coin of 
Henry VI. Henry's badge of the fleur-de-lis and his initial 


replaced Edward's badge of the rose and sun, while the 
name of France was added to his titles. The chief new 
mint-marks were the plain cross (pierced or unpierced), and 
a rather large cross pattee. Angels were struck in large 
quantities at the London Mint, and can be arranged in four 
classes according to the legends. Half-angels or angelets 
were also struck, similar to the angels, but having the reverse 
legend ORYX VE SPES VNICft. In silver every 
denomination from the groat to the farthing is now known of 
the London Mint, though the groat alone can be called 
common. The silver coinage closely resembles Edward IV's, 
except in the name. The mint-marks on the groats are the 
cross pattee, the short cross fitchee, the plain cross (pierced 
or unpierced), and the fleur-de-lis. At the Bristol Mint 
several varieties of angel were issued, which Mr. Walters 
suggested were struck from dies made in Bristol, and not in 
London, as usually supposed. The groat is the only silver 
coin known of this mint, and eleven varieties were enume- 
rated, giving a number of mint-marks differing from the 
London Mint. 

Mr. Walters discussed Mr. Packe's suggestion that certain 
gold coins should be attributed to the York Mint, though 
they do not bear the E which one would expect, and con- 
cluded that this attribution was correct. The groat, which 
is common, and the half-groat, of which two specimens are 
known, were also struck at York. Archbishop Nevill struck 
pennies at the Archiepiscopal Mint during this period, having 
the lis and usual episcopal marks. 

Among those who took part in the discussion was Mr. 
Lawrence, who pointed out the danger of laying too much 
stress on mint-marks, slight varieties of legends, &c., and 
held that Edward IV must have struck many more angels 
than we know of, so that it was impossible to say that the 
noble was characteristic of Edward IV, or the angel of 
Henry VI. He also regarded it as certain that the dies for 


the provincial mints were engraved in London, and not at 
lose mints. This Paper is printed in Vol. X. Part II. 

FEBRUARY 19, 1910. 
H. A. GRUEBER, ESQ., F.S.A., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of January 20 were 
read and approved. 

Mr. R. Sutcliffe and Mr. W. I. Williams were elected 
Fellows of the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Transactions of the Japan Society. Vol. viii. 

2. Monatsblatt der numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 318. 

3. Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal. 
Vol. vi., No. 4. 

4. Academie royale de Belgique. Bulletin de la Classe 
desLettres. Nos. 9, 10, 11. 

5. Revue Numismatique, 1909. Pt. 4. 

6. Sitzungsberichte der numismatischen Gesellschaft zu 

7. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
Vol. xliii. 

8. La Jambe Monnaie de Sinope. By A. Blanchet. 

9. Une Nouvelle Theorie relative a 1'expedition des Cimbres 
en Gaule. By A. Blanchet. 

10. Notices extraites de la Chronique de la Revue Numis- 
inatique. By A. Blanchet. Nos. 8, 9, 10. From the Author. 

Mr. F. A. Walters exhibited a series of gold and silver 
coins of Henry VI described in his Paper on " The Restora- 
tion Coinage " of that king ; Mr. Horace W. Monckton, six 


thalers of Saxony and Bohemia of the sixteenth century, to 
illustrate the portraiture of the period ; and Mr. T. Bliss, 
a fine set of nine pattern farthings of Charles II in silver, 
bronze, and pewter. 

The Rev. A. W. Hands read a Paper on " Juno Moneta," 
in which he gave an account of an ingenious theory of the 
etymology of moneta proposed by Dr. Assmann in a recent 
volume of Klio. There are certain difficulties in accepting the 
traditional etymology of the important word. Dr. Assmann 
suggests that it is a corruption of machanath, " camp," the 
legend on the coins of Carthage of the fourth century B.C., 
which were no doubt well known to the Romans, and may 
have been called machanaths, which ultimately became cor- 
rupted to moneta. Analogies for the loss of the guttural 
are to be found in the Septuagint. Machanath, meaning 
" camp," would be associated with war and also with Juno, 
the warlike goddess, the spear-holder. Money being the 
sinews of war, the temple of Juno was a peculiarly fitting 
place for the minfc. The epithet Moneta clung to Juno, and, 
from a false etymology from moneo, gave rise to the stories 
which have been handed down in support of the traditional 
etymology. Mr. Hands argued that the Roman conception 
of Juno was essentially that of a warlike goddess, otherwise 
vows would not have been made to her on the battle-field. 
The conception of Juno, the goddess of marriage, &c., grew 
up later. 

Mr. J. Allan said that it was improbable that these coins 
were known as machanaths, as the inscription would have 
been unintelligible to the Romans. It was also impos- 
sible for machanath to have become Moneta, the argument 
from the Septuagint not being a justifiable analogy. Even 
if the guttural were lost, the short final a could never 
become e. Moneta was an archaic and legitimate formation 
from moneo, analogous to Vesta and Morta. The -e- of the 
second syllable was really evidence of its antiquity. Even 


if we disregard the Roman explanation of the epithet, Juno 
might well be called the " adviser " in her capacity as Juno 
Pronuba. Juno was primarily the goddess of women and 
marriage, and not a warlike goddess. 

Mr. Grueber also disagreed with Dr. Assmann's theory ; 
and Mr. Webb emphasized the difficulty of finding instances 
of moneta meaning coin or mint in classical times. 

MARCH 17, 1910. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., P.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of February 17 
were read and confirmed. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Monatsblatt der numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 319. 

2. American Journal of Numismatics. Vol. xliv., No. 1. 

3. Academic royale de Belgique. Bulletin, No. 12, and 
Annuaire, 1910. 

4. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xxxix., Pt. 4. 

5. Bulletin de la Socie'te des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest, 1909. 
Pt. 2. 

6. Bulletin of the Archaeological Institute of America. 
Vol. i., Pt. 2. 

Dr. Arthur J. Evans exhibited a fine stater of Elis of 
the fifth century B.C., obverse type eagle's head to left, 


having the letters A A beneath clearly legible, confirming it 
to be the work of Daedalus of Sicyon, which has been 
doubted ; a specimen of the stater of Elis with obverse type 
Victory seated, which was taken by Wyon as the design 
for his Waterloo medal; also a specimen of the Waterloo 
medal, and a stater of Terina with a similar Victory on the 

Mr. F. A. Walters showed a rare groat of the third 
coinage of Henry VIII, having the bust to right in a 
tressure similar to that on the second coinage; and Mr. 
L. A. Lawrence, a fine series of short-cross pennies, illustrating 
typical and crucial parts of the series. 

Mr. G. C. Brooke read a Paper on " Chronology in the 
Short-Cross Period." He maintained that there were no 
short-cross pennies of the second class of the Chichester 
Mint. Those at present attributed to this mint were to 
be attributed to the York and Canterbury Mints, on the 
ground that their attribution to Chichester violated the 
principle that the reverse inscription sufficed to identify 
the money er responsible for the purity of the coin. The 
York coins had been attributed to Chichesier owing to the 
confusion of C and E in the characters of the period, and 
the Canterbury coins owing to failure to notice that the I 
which frequently ended reverse inscriptions ought to be 
interpreted as the first stroke of another letter, and so in 
this case CI should be interpreted CA. Mr. Brooke believed 
1189 to be too early a date for the commencement of 
Class II., and preferred 1194, on the ground of Eichard's 
absence from England, and consequent neglect of domestic 
affairs before that date. The Lichfield coin struck in 1190 
he assigned to Class I. ; and with regard to the Canterbury 
Mint he held that Archbishop Baldwin did not avail himself 
of the privilege of reopening his mint, which was granted 
to him in December, 1189, owing to his hasty departure 
for the Holy Land in March of the following year. Mistakes 


had been made in dating accounts, writs, charters, &c., of 
the reigns of Richard I and John, owing to a misunder- 
standing of the mode of reckoning Exchequer and regnal 
years; the Chichester Mint, for example, was reopened 
in 1205, and not in 1204, as had been previously held. 
There was strong evidence to show that the reformation 
of the coinage in the reign of John took place in 1205, 
and not in 1208, the great summons of money ers and 
other mint officials to appear in January, 1208, being 
issued with a view to checking the circulation of counter- 
feit coins. This view was consistent with the absence of 
Chichester coins of Class II. and the reopening of that 
mint in 1205. 

The President, Mr. H. A. Grueber, and Mr. L. A. Law- 
rence also spoke ; the last-named pointed out that no strict 
lines of demarcation could be drawn between the classes. He 
agreed that there are no coins of Chichester of Class II., 
but disagreed with the change in date of the beginning of 
Class II. from 1189 to 1194; the Lichfield coin was of 
Class II,, and was issued in 1190. Mr. Brooke's proposal 
to change the date of the reformation of the coinage from 
1208 to 1205 seemed reasonable. 

APRIL 21, 1910. 

HERBERT A. GRUEBER, ESQ., F.S.A., Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of March 17 were 
read and approved. 

Rev. Edgar Rogers was elected a Fellow. 



The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. The Royal Society. By Sir W. Huggins. From the 

2. Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires du Nord, 1908- 

3. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica. Pt. 1, 1910. 

4. Monatsblatt der numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 320-321. 

5. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute, 1908. 

6. Report of the United States National Museum, 

7. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Vol. xxviii., 
No. 192. 

8. The Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal. 
Vol. vii,, No. 3. 

Mr. T. Bliss exhibited six shillings of Charles I of the 
Tower Mint, with mint-marks lis, negro's head, plume (two 
varieties), bell, and harp; Mr. F. A. Walters, a specimen 
of the denarius, mentioned by Dion Cassius, struck in 
42 B.C. by M. Junius Brutus, with reverse pileus and 
two daggers, and inscription, E ID. MAR. referring to the 
assassination of Julius Caesar ; and Mr. L. A. Lawrence, the 
second known specimen of the silver penny of Wulfred, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, with reverse legend DO ROVER N I 
CIVITATIS, one of the few Saxon coins without the moneyer's 

Dr. A. J. Evans showed the Roman medallions and coins I 
mentioned in his Paper ; and Mr. P. H. Webb, a fine series of j 
coins of Julian II to illustrate his article. 

Dr. A. J. Evans read a Paper on " Some Roman Medallions j 
and Coins " in his collection. The pieces described were : (a) a j 
bronze medallion of Clodius Albinus ; reverse, Fortune seated I 
left,, struck in 194 A.D., when the) 


Senate made Albinus Consul for the second time \ (6) a ten- 
aureus of Diocletian struck at Alexandria for the Decennalia 
in 293 A.D. ; reverse, Jupiter enthroned with eagle at his feet, 
IOVI CONSERVATORI . in exergue ALE.; (c) the third ex- 
ample known of the double aureus of Constantine I. with 
reverse, view of the city of Treves, GLORIA. AVGG, probably 
struck in 328-9 A.D., when Constantine was in Treves ; (d) 
an aureus of Gratian commemorating the accession of Valen- 
tinian II, reverse Gratian and Yalens enthroned, between 
them the young Valentinian II, above his head a shield 
inscribed VOT. V . MVL . X., in exergue ANTS. Dr. Evans 
discussed the question of the denominations of Roman 
medallions ; showed that the piece of Diocletian described 
was a ten- (not, as hitherto thought, an eight-) aureus 
piece ; and suggested that the bronze medallions were also 
struck to a standard, the piece of Albinus being a piece of 
fifteen asses. This Paper is printed in Yol. X. Pt. II. 
pp. 97-109. 

Mr. Percy H. Webb read a Paper on "The Coinage of 
Julian II." After a sketch of Julian's career, he proceeded to 
discuss the coins, which were shown to fall into three classes : 
(a) coins with beardless bust and title of Caesar, struck before 
360 A.D., when he received the title Augustus ; (&) a small 
class of coins with diademed, usually beardless bust and title 
Augustus, covering the period from shortly before the Quin- 
quennalia of 360 A.D., to shortly after the death of Con- 
stantine II ; (c) coins with full-bearded bust and title 
Augustus, covering the remainder of the reign. Mr. Webb 
showed that there is virtually no trace of pagan types on 
coins which can be definitely assigned to Julian, and that he 
seems to have been as careful not to hurt Christian suscepti- 
bilities as he tells us he was. With regard to the anonymous 
issues with personifications of Sarapis and Isis, Mr. Webb 
supported the traditional attribution to the time of Julian, 
and suggested that they were unofficial issues of Alexandria. 



He showed that the Isis on these coins was not, as hitherto 
supposed, a portrait of Helena, and that the bull which occurs 
on the reverse of some coins bearing Julian's names is not 

In the discussion on the Papers, Mr. Grueber, the Rev. Mr. 
Hands, Mr. Webb, and Dr. Evans took part. 

MAY 26, 1910. 

HERBERT A. GRUEBER, ESQ., F.S.A., Vice-President, in 
the Chair. 

The ordinary meeting appointed to be held on the 19th May 
was, by order of the Council, postponed to this day. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of April 21 were read 
and approved. 

Mr. Frederick J. Brittan and Mr. M. Crawfurd Burkitt 
were elected Fellows of the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Appunti di Nurnismatica Romana. No. xciv. By 
Francesco Gnecchi. 

2. Revue Beige de Numisrnatique. 1910, Pt. 2. 

3. Academic royale de Belgique. Bulletin, No. 12,j 

4. Proceedings of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society 
of Philadelphia. No. 25. 

5. Les jetons representant les Metamorphoses d'Ovide. B$ 
E. Demole. 

G. Medal commemorating the Tercentenary of the Founding 
of Quebec. From the National Battle-fields Commission. 


r . American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. xiv., No. 1. 

8. Revue Numismatique. 1910, Pt. 1. 

9. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xl., Pt. 1. 

10. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol. xxx., Pt. 1. 

11. Revue Suisse de Numismatique. Vol. xvi., Pt. 1. 

12. Monatsblatt der numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 322. 

13. Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 
Vol. xv. 

14. I diversi Stili nella Monetazione romana. Pts. vi. and 
vii. By L. Laffranchi. From the Author. 

15. Chronique de Numismatique Celtique. 

16. Notice extraites de la Chronique de la Revue Numis- 
matique. Pt. 1, 1910. 

17. Les dernieres Monnaies d'or des Empereurs de Byzance. 

18. Les " Sous Gaulois " du V. Siecle. 

19. Plombs de Caen, de Louviers et d'Ervreux. 

Nos. 15-19 by A. Blanchet, and presented by him. 

Mr. Leopold P. G. Messenger was nominated to represent 
the Fellows of the Society at the next audit of accounts of the 

The Society then resolved itself into a Special Meeting, 
when the following address to His Majesty the King was 
passed, on the motion of the Chairman : 

The Royal Numismatic Society, 

22, Albemarle Street, London, W. 

To the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

The Humble Address of the President, Council, and Fellows 
of the Royal Numismatic Society. 


We, the President. Council, and Fellows of the 
Royal Numismatic Society in Special Meeting assembled, beg 


leave humbly to approach Your Majesty with the expression 
of our deep sorrow and respectful sympathy at the great and 
irreparable loss which has befallen Your Majesty and the 
Royal Family in the death of our beloved and venerated 
Sovereign and Patron King Edward VII. His unceasing 
sympathy with all classes of his people, the kingly wisdom 
with which he guided the affairs of the nation, and his 
influence in maintaining the peace of the world, will cause his 
memory to be ever cherished by this Society. 

We desire humbly at the same time to express our earnest 
hope that Divine Providence may in its Goodness and Mercy 
be pleased to bless Your Majesty with health and length of 
days, and that Your Majesty's reign over a loyal and grateful 
people may be long and glorious. 

The sympathetic interest which Your Majesty has con- 
stantly manifested in all that concerns the progress of 
Antiquarian Research and Historical Study encourages us 
to hope that Your Majesty will be graciously pleased to 
continue to our Corporate Body that beneficent Patronage 
which it enjoyed at the hands of Your Majesty's Royal 
Father since the granting of the Charter in the year 

The following address to Her Majesty Queen Alexandra 
was also passed, on the motion of the Chairman : 

To Her Most Excellent Majesty Queen Alexandra. 

The Humble Address of the President, Council, and Fellows 
of the Royal Numismatic Society. 


We, the President, Council, and Fellows of the 
Royal Numismatic Society in Special Meeting assembled, beg 
leave humbly to profess our sorrow at the great and irrepar- 
able loss which has befallen Your Majesty and the Royal 


House and the Nation in the death of our beloved and 
venerated Sovereign Lord King Edward VII., our Patron, 
whose memory will ever be faithfully cherished by a grateful 

JUNE 16, 1910. 

HERBERT A. GRUEBER, ESQ., F.S.A., Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Annual General Meeting of June 17, 
1909, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. E. Shepherd and Mr. H. Symonds were appointed 
scrutineers of the ballot for the ensuing year. 

Mr. Alexander Goodall and Professor Harvey Porter were 
elected Fellows of the Society. 

The following Report of the Council was then read to the 
meeting : 

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, The Council have again the 
honour to lay before you their Annual Report as to the 
state of the Royal Numismatic Society both numerical and 

It is with deep regret that they have to announce the 
death of the following four Fellows : 

Sebastian Evans, Esq., LL.D. 

Mons. J. P. Lambros. 

J. F. Neck, Esq. 

Thomas Wakley, Esq., L.R.C.P. 


The Council also much regret to announce the resignation of 
the following Fellows : 

G. B. Bleazby, Esq. 
Miss E. C. Clarke. 
Captain J. R. P. Clarke. 
A. W. Dauglish, Esq. 
N. Heywood, Esq. 
A. T. Martin, Esq. 
T. C. Martin, Esq. 

They have also to announce that the name of Mr. G. C. 
Adams has been removed from the list of Fellows under 
Rule 15. 

On the other hand, the Council have much pleasure in 
recording the Election of the following fifteen Ordinary 

Fellows : 

Edwin L. Arnold, Esq. 
Miss Agnes Baldwin. 
J. T. Bennett-Poe, Esq., M.A. 
Colonel J. Biddulph. 
Frederick J. Brittan, Esq. 
Miles Crawfurd Burkitt, Esq. 
Alexander Goodall, Esq. 
Stephen K. Nagg, Esq. 
Herbert Nicklewicz, Esq. 
F. W. Yoysey Peterson, Esq. 
Professor Harvey Porter. 
Rev. Edgar Rogers. 
Mons. Michel Soutzo. 
Robert Sutcliffe, Esq. 
W. I. Williams, Esq. 

The number of Fellows is, therefore : 

Ordinary. Honorary. Total. 

June, 1909 291 22 313 

15 15 


. . . 4 

22 328 

Resigned, &c 

. . 8 


June, 1910 294 22 316 

The Council have to announce that they have awarded the 
Medal of the Society to Hofrat Dr. Friedrich Edler v. 
Kenner, Keeper of the Imperial Coin Cabinet in Vienna, 
for his researches in ancient archaeology and numismatics, 
especially in the Roman series. 

The Hon. Treasurer's Report, which follows, was then sub- 
mitted to the Meeting : 


FKOM JUNE, 1909, 

s. d. s. d. 8 . 
Cost of Chronicle 
To Messrs. Clowes and Sons, Ltd., 
for printing Chronicle, 
Part I., 1909 . . 49 3 3 
Part II., 1909 . 67 12 4 
Part III., 1909 . 40 15 4 
1 ^7 10 11 


-L iJ i .1 U J.J. 

., University Press (Plates for 
Chronicle) . . . 27 6 
Ditto (ditto) . . . 27 5 

Ditto (ditto) . . . 33 1 6 
07-19 p 

O / 1& O 

Artist Illustrators, Ltd. (En- 
graving Coins) . .132 
Ditto (ditto) . . .303 
Ditto (ditto) . . .090 
Ditto (ditto) . , . 12 4 
1 fi 1 (\ ^ 

,, F. Anderson, Drawing Coins 100 
Ditto (ditto) . . .100 
Ditto (ditto) . . 1 10 
3 10 
265 9 
Books, &c. 
To C. Fox (Bookbinding) . . . ."748 
., Ditto (ditto) 406 


Messrs. Williams and Norgate (Books) . 1110 
Messrs. Hachette and Co. (Books) . 039 
12 10 


Sundry Payments 

To Rent, Royal Asiatic Society . 
Refreshments, &c. 



Insurance Premium 


Engraving Medal 


Sundry Petty Payments 

8 17 


Research Fund (Searching at Record 

Office) . . 3 13 


332 11 


., Balance (Research Fund) . 

13 12 4 


. 298 18 10 

312 11 


645 2 



TO JUNE, 1910. 


s. d. . d. 

By Balance in hand (General) . . . . 272 11 11 
Montagu Bequest, transferred to Research 

Fund 10 13 7 

283 5 6 

Subscriptions, 234 members at 1 Is. (less loss 

on foreign cheques) ..... 245 12 11 

Entrance Fees 11 11 

257 3 11 

Subscriptions to Research Fund 4 14 6 

Sale of Chronicle 65 3 5 

Dividends on 800 London & North-Western 
Railway Preference Stock, 4 % 

50 Research Fund . . . 1 17 9 

750 General Fund . . . . 28 6 3 

30 4 

Return on Income Tax 4 10 11 

645 2 3 
PERCY H. WEBB, Hon. Treasurer. 

Audited and found correct, 

THOS. BLISS, _^ I Hon . Auditors . 

" ' 

June, 1910. 


The Reports of the Council and of the Treasurer having 
been adopted, Mr. Grueber presented the Society's Medal to 
Mr. Allan, to be forwarded to Dr. Friedrich Edler v. Kenner, 
who was unable to be present, and addressed him as 
follows : 


I have much pleasure in handing to you the Medal 
of this Society for transmission to Dr. Friedrich Edler von 
Kenner, Director of the Imperial Cabinet of Coins and 
Antiquities in Vienna. The Medal has been awarded to 
Dr. Kenner by the Council in recognition of his long and 
important services to ancient numismatics and archaeology. 

The duty which has fallen on me, in the absence of the 
President, is particularly pleasing, as the Society is paying 
a tribute to one who may well be called the doyen of numis- 
matists, and whose name, with the exception of that of Dr. 
Irnhoof-Blumer, has been the longest on our list of Honorary 
Fellows, Dr. Kenner having been elected in 1878. 

So far back as 1858 Dr. Kenner began to give to the 
world of archaeologists the benefit of his knowledge, as it 
was in that year that he published his work on Terra Cotta 
Lamps in the Imperial Cabinet. This work, which was issued 
over half a century ago, shows the intimate acquaintance of the 
writer with his subject, and has since been considered one of 
the text-books of its class. Ten years later, in conjunction 
with his colleague Dr. Yon Sacken, Dr. Kenner described the 
contents of the Imperial Collection of Coins and Antiquities 
at Vienna. It is a work which deals with a great variety 
of objects Ancient Sculpture, Inscriptions, Ceramic and 
Toreutic Art, Bronzes, Coins, Gems, and various objects of 
similar classes of the Renaissance period. 

From that time Dr. Kenner's writings have been very 
numerous and of wide scope, and his contributions to the 
Numismatische Zeitshrift, the organ of the Numismatic 
Society of Vienna, of which he was one of the founders in 


1870, show what an active life he has led. To us here he is 
best known for his contributions to Roman numismatics, 
amongst which I would mention his work on Roman Medal- 
lions, which was published in parts in the JaTirbuch from 
1883 to 1890, and to which he subsequently issued a series of 
plates. To this work he has added many contributions as 
well as articles on Greek numismatics, and useful records of 
finds of various classes. It is in acknowledgment of these 
services to the science of numismatics that the Society has 
awarded to Dr. Kenner its Medal. In transmitting the 
Medal to Dr. Kenner, I will ask you to convey to him not 
only our gratitude for his past achievements, but also our 
hope that his labours in the future may produce equally 
valuable and satisfactory results. 

In accepting the Medal of the Society on behalf of Dr. 
Kenner, Mr. Allan expressed regret that Dr. Kenner was 
unable to be present, and read the following letter from him 
to the meeting : 

Vienna, June 4th, 1910. 

I have the honour to announce the receipt of your 
letter of the 30th May, and to declare that I feel myself most 
highly honoured by being awarded the Silver Medal of the 
Eoyal Numismatic Society, and I accept it with sinceresfc 

Will you kindly convey to the Council of the Royal 
Numismatic Society, whose great energies I have always 
admired, my expressions of the deepest gratitude, and accept 
my best thanks for your congratulations. 
Believe me, 

Yours most sincerely, 

K. u. K. Hofrat i. R. 

J. Allan, Esq., 

Secretary to the Royal Numismatic Society. 


Mr. Grueber then delivered the following Address : 


When it was notified to me, only a few days ago, that our 
President would not be well enough to be present here this 
evening, my first inclination was that there should be no 
Annual Address to the Fellows. On subsequent reflection 
it seemed to me, however, that a year should not be allowed 
to pass without some mention of the Society's work, and I 
have therefore at the last moment put together a few notes, 
which I fear will throughout bear the stamp of having been 
prepared in great haste and without much reflection. These 
notes will be very short, and of a somewhat superficial 
character. I will therefore ask for your indulgence, and 
must beg you not to consider what I have to say quite in the 
nature of an Address. 

You have heard from our Treasurer that the financial 
state of the Society is satisfactory. Our income is a limited 
one, but what we spend it on I think bears good fruit. With 
the exception of rent, which is not a serious item, nearly 
all our income goes to the publishing of the Numismatic 
Chronicle. This is, as I am sure you will agree, the most 
satisfactory way of using it. The duties of the officers of 
the Society are purely honorary, and we are grateful for 
the time and patience which they bestow upon them. 

I am glad to hear from the Secretary, that there 
has been a slight increase in the number of our Fellows. 
There have been only four deaths since this time last year ; 
but, unfortunately, no less than seven resignations. Those 
who have passed away are gone for ever, but of those who 
have resigned their Fellowship, there is always a hope that 
on a future occasion some of them will return to the Society. 

The four Fellows whose decease we deplore were all remark- 
able men in their particular vocations. 


The first I have to mention is Dr. Sebastian Evans, who 
died on December 18 last. He was, as no doubt you are 
all aware, the brother of Sir John Evans, our late and much- 
esteemed President. So far as I know, Dr. Evans was not a 
numismatist, though he had been a member and Fellow of this 
Society since 1861. He was, however, a man of conspicuous 
abilities, and was well known as an author, a poet, and a 
journalist. He was also a keen politician, and took an active 
part in the organization of the Conservative Party in con- 
nexion with the National Union of Conservative Associations. 
He contested Birmingham in the Conservative interest in 1868, 
but without success. It was in the pursuit of journalism, 
however, that he won most fame in his early days. In 1867 
he undertook the editorship of the Birmingham Gazette, 
which he held for three years, when he was called to the bar 
and joined the Oxford circuit. Four years later he returned 
to his former vocation, and, in concert with Lord Percy and 
Mr. W. H. Smith, he started the People, which he edited for 
three years. His subsequent life was one of great activity, 
and he occupied himself to an increasing extent in matters 
historical, archaeological, artistic, and literary. Amongst his 
large circle of friends he was known as a no mean executant 
in various fields of art, from oils to miniatures and carving. 
It was in connexion with this side of his varied talent that 
he made his only contribution to the Numismatic Chronicle in 
1861. The subject on which he wrote was " Modern Art and 
the New Bronze Coinage." He died at Canterbury, where he 
had resided for many years, and where he was much esteemed 
by the inhabitants of that archiepiscopal city. 

Mr. J. F. Neck was one of a generation of English 
numismatists, whose number has of late greatly decreased. 
His association with this Society goes back to 1864, a*nd his 
early years were marked by singular numismatic activity, 
combined with great modesty and gentleness. His first 
contribution to the Numismatic Chronicle was on an 



Aberystwith half-crown of Charles I, which showed a 
connexion between the mint of that city and the one 
established at Shrewsbury. This paper was published in 
1866. Two years later he began his series of articles on the 
Coinages of Henry IV, V, and VI, which threw much 
light on the monetary history of those reigns, and which 
have served as the basis of subsequent investigations. The 
contents of these articles and the views expressed by Mr. 
Neck are so well known that it is not necessary for me to 
enter into any details. The subject aroused a good deal of 
interest amongst English numismatists, and produced kindred 
papers from Archdeacon Pownall, Mr. Longstaffe, and others. 
The whole subject was summed up and amplified in 1871, 
when Mr. Neck set out in complete order the coinages of those 
reigns. It was in that year that the Stamford hoard was 
unearthed, and the first year of my service in the Medal 
Room. It was when registering and incorporating the coins 
from that find that I made the acquaintance of Mr. Neck, 
who volunteered to go over my work, as I was then a novice, 
and to see that I had classified the coins correctly. It was 
my first piece of work, and I am glad to say it passed his 
criticism. Not long after this Mr. Neck was unfortunate in 
business, through no fault, I believe, of his own, and, being 
of a very sensitive nature, his attendance at our meetings 
gradually slackened, and it is now many years since we have 
had the pleasure of his presence. Mr. Neck formed a 
considerable collection of coins, which, I believe, passed in its 
entirety into the possession of the uncle of our Treasurer. 
Mr. Neck's death took place on April 2 last. 

Mr. J. P. Lambros was the well-known dealer in coins and 
antiquities at Athens. His only numismatic work, so far 
as I am aware, was a treatise on the coinage of Peloponnesus. 
He and his brother, and their father before them, were long 
acquainted in business transactions with the British Museum, 
and it was from them that for many years the National 


Collection obtained most of its more important Greek coins. 
Mr. Lambros died quite unexpectedly on May 20, 1909, in his 
66th year. 

Mr. Thomas Wakley was one of our more recent Fellows, 
as he did not join the Society till 1902. He was a somewhat 
frequent attendant at our meetings. Though chiefly occupied 
in matters connected with the medical profession, in his 
capacity as editor of the Lancet, he devoted a good deal of 
time to forming a collection of English coins, which consisted 
chiefly of crown pieces and coins used in their place in all 
parts of the British Dominions. The collection was dispersed 
by Messrs. Sotheby in December last, and it contained many 
exceptional and rare pieces, amongst which were the crown of 
Henry VIII, the Oxford crown, and the Petition crown ; also 
half-crowns of Philip and Mary, and Elizabeth. Dr. Wakley 
died on March 6 of last year. 

Turning to the labours of the individual Fellows of the 
Society, I think you will find that the pages of the Numis- 
matic Chronicle contain many articles of considerable merit 
and importance. 

In Greek numismatics we have had, I am glad to say, a 
revival, and they show that our old friends have not deserted 
us for the benefit of other Societies whose chief work is mainly 
outside the sphere of numismatics. 

Mr. Michael P. Vlasto, to whose pen we are indebted for 
several previous papers, has given an interesting account of 
a find of coins which were unearthed on the ancient site of 
Tarentum, and which he has ascribed to the time of the 
Hannibalic occupation, which extended over a very short 
period, circ. 212-209 B.C. The find consisted of 114 staters 
and half-staters, not only of Tarentum itself, but also of 
Metapontum and Sicily, the last struck in that island by the 
Carthaginians. We have in this hoard a fair sample of the 
coinage which was current at Tarentum at this particular 
tune; and as we are able to fix the burial of the hoard 



within a period of four years at the outside, it forms a basis 
for the classification of the coinage of the previous and 
succeeding years. The hoard confirmed in a somewhat 
remarkable way the classification proposed by Dr. Arthur 
Evans, in his Horsemen of Tarentum. 

In an article on the coinages of Antigonus I and 
Demetrius Poliorcetes of Macedon, Mr. C. T. Seltman has 
proposed a new chronological classification of their issues, 
dating some back to the period previous to the Battle of 
Salamis, 306 B.C., when hitherto it has been supposed 
that Antigonus only issued coins in gold and silver with 
the name and types of Alexander the Great. These coins 
bear the names of Antigonus and his son Demetrius without 
the title /fao-iAevs, and Mr. Seltman therefore concludes that 
they must have been struck before 306 B.C., when Antigonus 
assumed the title of " king," and conferred it also on his son. 
Subsequent issues give to both the royal title. The classifica- 
tion proposed by Mr. Seltman seems to be quite borne out by 
numismatic as well as by historical evidence, and we have 
much pleasure in welcoming his first contribution to the pages 
of the Chronicle. 

Professor Oman has returned to his previous study of the 
coinage of Corinth, a series as difficult to classify in chrono- 
logical order as the contemporary issues of Athens, on account 
of the paucity of distinctive land-marks. The period over 
which the coins dealt with by Professor Oman extended 
was from circ. 470 to 394 B.C. Since Professor Oman published 
his paper on this subject in the Corolla Numismatica four years 
ago, he has met with many pieces which, whilst not dis- 
turbing his previous classification, made it possible to carry 
out a more minute subdivision. The series treated of opens 
with coins of the latest archaic type, which he assigns to 
circ. 470-451 B.C., in the production of which Corinth pro- 
bably for commercial purposes appears to have followed the 
example set by Athens, that is, preserving its ancient style 


and types. During the following twenty years the head 
of Pallas on the obverse undergoes some slight modifications, 
especially in the arrangement of the hair, which enabled 
Professor Oman to divide the coins into three separate 
classes, which he designates as first, second, and last tran- 
sitional series. Special symbols also favour this subdivision. 
The two next periods, 433-431 and 431-414 B.C., are marked 
by the symbols of a murex shell and a palmette, the coins of 
the latter series being associated with the earlier years of the 
Peloponnesian War. In 414 B.C. Corinth formed an alliance 
with Syracuse, and to commemorate this event she placed 
on the coins a circle of dolphins, such as are met with on 
the coins of the latter city. The same process of classifica- 
tion has been carried out in the later issues, which take 
us just beyond the close of the fifth century. The changes 
in symbols are accompanied by marked differences in style, 
in the form of the head of Pallas, and also in variations 
of the position of the Pegasus. The order suggested by 
Professor Oman will, in our opinion, stand the most critical 
examination, and we shall greet with pleasure any further 
researches he may lay before the Society in connexion 
with the later coinages of that great commercial centre, 

In an article which is a reprint from Le Musee, Mr. 
E. J. Seltman maintains the genuineness of the well-known 
" Medallion " of Agrigentum in the Royal Collection at 
Munich, which had been called into question by M. A. Sambon 
in a previous article in that periodical, now, I believe, defunct. 
We need not enter into any detail of the arguments brought 
forward by Mr. Seltman ; but we may remark that no one, 
so far as I know, ever believed the two specimens in the 
Bibliotheque Rationale at Paris to be authentic pieces. In 
my own knowledge I am aware that M. Babelon does not 
consider either of the coins to be genuine. The authenticity 
of the Munich piece must therefore rest on its own merits, and 


we are of opinion that stronger evidence will have to be 
produced before it can be said to have lost the good character 
which hitherto has been accorded to it. 

On Roman coins several interesting papers have been read 
at our meetings. 

The Rev. A. W. Hands has called attention to Dr. 
Assmann's recent theory put forth in Kilo as to the etymology 
of the word Moneta as applied to money. Dr. Assmann is 
of opinion that its derivation from Juno Moneta is not feasible, 
but that the word is a corruption of Machanath, i.e. camp, the 
legend found on some Carthaginian coins of the fourth century 
B.C., struck in Sicily, which were probably known to the 
Romans. The Roman divinity Juno appears to have been 
of a double character, like many others of the Roman 
Pantheon. As Juno of the Capitol she was regarded as the 
protectress of women, whence she received the surnames of 
Pronuba, Matrona, Juga, Lucina ; but there was another Juno, 
who was the protectress of warriors, whose cult was centred 
on the Arx, the hill where now stands the Church of the 
Ara Coeli. This is the goddess of whom Dr. Assmann writes, 
and who, as he says, should be carefully distinguished from 
the Juno of the Capitol. Arguing from this, Dr. Assmann 
supposes that the epithet Moneta was given to the goddess 
because the mint was established in her temple, and that 
the word as applied to the coinage was not originally derived 
from the goddess as the " Averter of Evil," the " Adviser," 
the " Warner." The suggestion is certainly ingenious, but it 
is not altogether convincing, though it seems to be widely 
accepted by numismatists on the Continent. It seems to me 
that several points are raised which need more elucidation, 
viz. (1) etymologically, can Moneta be derived from Ma- 
chanath ? (2) Were the Romans so conversant with the money 
of the Carthaginians that they applied the word to their own 
coinage? and (3) Is the word Moneta of such antiquity in 
literature that it would be possible to attach to it such a 


derivation? These are points which may probably be dis- 
cussed at a later date. 

Mr. G. C. Brooke has given an account of a hoard of 
Roman denarii which was discovered at Castle Bromwich, near 
Birmingham. The bulk of the coins extend over a period of 
just on a century, i.e. from the reign of Vespasian to that of 
Aurelius. There were many varieties which are not men- 
tioned by Cohen. The interesting feature of the hoard was 
the presence of denarii of Mark Antony of the legionary type, 
which were struck during 32-31 B.C., probably at Ephesus, 
when he was preparing for the final struggle with Octavius, 
which took place at Actium. These coins are of base metal, 
so their circulation was not affected by the lowering of the 
standard, both as regards fineness of metal and weight, by 
Nero. In the finds which took place somewhat recently at 
Silchester, these coins of Antony were discovered with other 
denarii of the second and third centuries. Their frequency 
at the present time shows that the issue must have been a 
large one. 

Another interesting paper has been provided by Dr. Arthur 
Evans on " Some Imperial Coins and Medallions." It is an 
account of some pieces recently acquired by him. The 
earliest piece is a medallion in bronze of Clodius Albinus, 
having on the reverse a figure of Fortuna Redux. There is 
no difficulty in fixing the approximate date of this medallion, 
as Albinus was made Consul iterum in 194 A.D., and he pro- 
claimed himself Augustus early in 196 A.D. This medallion 
weighs 68'40 grammes, equal to fifteen asses ; a similar one 
at Vienna weighs 61 '7 grammes, equal to fourteen asses, and 
it is supposed by some that these pieces were intended to 
be current at these values. The unequal weight of the medal- 
lions throughout the Roman series seems to be pretty conclusive 
evidence that they were never intencj^d for circulation as 
money. A still more remarkable piece is a medallion, or as 
Dr. Evans calls it a double-quinio, or ten-aureus piece of 



Diocletian, with the reverse type of Jupiter seated. It was 
struck at Alexandria. The Museum has a similar piece, but 
with Jupiter standing, and struck at Nicomedia. In this case, 
again, we are able to fix the date of issue, as there exists a 
similar medallion but of smaller size, struck at Tarraco, which 
gives the fifth consulship of Diocletian, viz. 293 A.D. If 
other evidence is necessary, it is to be found in the style and 
portrait of Diocletian, which are those of the reformed 
coinage, which was instituted in 292 A.D. The piece must 
therefore have been issued in that or the following year : 
and as it is of the weight of 10 aurei it was probably current 
at that value. 

An equally interesting piece is a double aureus of Con- 
stantine the Great, struck at Treves, and showing a view of 
the walls and gate of that city with the swift Moselle flowing 
in the foreground. It is scarcely possible to imagine a more 
picturesque scene in so small a compass. Any one who 
knows Treves can easily recognize the spot, though the 
buildings are now gone. The bridge, however, remains, but 
of a different age. A special interest is attached to Dr. 
Evans's coin in the fact that it is from the same die as the 
one in Paris, but with slight improvements in the form of 
decoration, showing that between the issues of the two pieces 
the dies were retouched and embellished. The Society may 
well congratulate Dr. Evans on the acquisition of these 
remarkable additions to his collection. 

Our Treasurer, Mr. Webb, has again given us the benefit of 
his researches in Roman Numismatics, in communicating to 
the Society an article on the coinage of Julian the Philosopher. 

He has arranged the coinage of this Emperor in three 
classes, which coincide with three epochs of his reign, each 
class also being provided with a different portrait as a boy, 
then a youth, and then a man of full age. The chief object 
of the paper was, however, to discuss the date and issue of 
certain small bronze coins with the heads of Serapis and 



Isis, and with the figures of other Egyptian divinities. In 
spite of his perversion to paganism, Julian seems to have 
been careful not to hurt the feelings of his Christian subjects 
by paganizing his coin-types. It is very evident, then, that 
these small coins must be looked on as forming a special issue, 
and as their types are Egyptian, there can be no hesitation 
in assigning them to Alexandria, and to the period of the 
murder of George of Cappadocia, and the restoration of 
Anastasius in 362 B.C. when Julian wrote to the Alexandrians, 
forgiving them the crime they had committed in considera- 
tion of their founder Alexander and of Serapis their tutelar 
divinity. It was probably to commemorate this event that 
these coins were issued. 

The only other paper on Koman Numismatics to which I 
need refer is that on the Alexandrian coinage of Galba by Mr. 
Milne, in which he suggests a chronological arrangement for 
the billon coins of that reign. 

Though a great portion of the pages of the Numismatic 
Chronicle has been devoted to ancient numismatics, the interests 
of those who are more concerned with English and British 
coins have not been neglected. 

Mr. F. A. Walters has given us another of his exhaustive 
papers. This time it is on the coinage of Henry VI, struck 
during his short restoration. Being a series quite separate 
from that of his earlier reign, it was not included in his 
previous article on Henry VI. New denominations had since 
been issued, former ones were suspended, and the standard of 
both the gold and silver money had undergone a reduction. 
The article is a sequel to his recent one on the first coinage 
of Edward IV, and a prelude to Edward's later issues, which 
it is Mr. Walters' intention to attack next. The only mints 
in operation during this short period were those of London, 
Bristol, and York, the three principal royal ones. The only 
ecclesiastical mint was that of York, which may be accounted 
for by the circumstance that Nevill, the then Archbishop, was 



made Chancellor ; but his coins consisted only of pennies of 
recent identification. The gold issues were confined to the 
angel and half-angel, pieces introduced by Edward IV, but 
of which he had made but little use. Mr. Walters suggests 
that the new ryal was a little too Edwardian in character 
for Henry to have continued at once its production. For the 
chronology of the series Mr. Walters has taken chiefly as his 
guides, first, the mint-marks, and then style and fabric, and 
a careful perusal of his paper will show to what good purpose 
he has followed this course. It is very interesting to compare 
what Mr. Walters has written with what Ruding said in the 
middle of the last century. In the one case there is decision, 
in the other a strain of considerable uncertainty. Ruding 
admits that these light groats with the name of Henry must 
have been later than the fourth year of Edward IY ; but as 
Henry VII coined of the same weight, and used the same 
mint-marks, it has not hitherto been possible to ascertain to 
which monarch these belong. This doubt has been dispelled 
by Mr. Walters, and he is to be congratulated on the 
successful result of his researches, which I believe he is able 
to confirm with further documentary evidence which has 
lately been brought to light. 

Mr. G. C. Brooke, in a paper entitled " Chronology in 
the Short-Cross Period," has raised certain questions about 
the short-cross coinage, more as regards its chronology than 
its classification. He quite agrees with the divisions pro- 
posed by Sir John Evans, corresponding to the reigns of 
Henry II, Richard I, John, and Henry III ; but he differs 
from him as to the precise dates to which two of these 
divisions are to be attributed. In the case of Richard I, 
whose coins are of Class II., the varieties in type were made 
to correspond with the date of his accession in 1189. This 
date Mr. Brooke considers too early, on the ground that 
Richard was absent from England, and that a consequent 
neglect of affairs at home took place, and also that it is 



very doubtful if Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, issued 
any coins before he left for the Holy Land. This occurred 
in March, 1190, the grant of coinage being received by him 
only five months before. Mr. Brooke therefore considers 
that the issue of Class II. did not begin till 1194, a date 
which is supported by coins of Lichfield and other places. 
He proposes another change in the case of Class III., the 
coins of which are assigned to John. It was suggested by 
Sir John Evans and others that this class originated in 1208, 
when a general summons was issued to all the moneyers and 
their workmen to appear at Westminster to take counsel 
respecting the making of the coinage and checking the 
circulation of counterfeit pieces. Mr. Brooke does not con- 
sider, from the wording of the summons, that these men were 
called together to consider the issue of a new coinage, but 
only to give advice for the prevention of existing evils in the 
form of counterfeits. He would therefore assign the intro- 
duction of Class III. to 1205, and in support of this date he 
cites the evidence of the coinage of the Chichester Mint 
which was reopened at that date, and began its new issue 
with pieces of this class. 

Mr. Brooke has also made some pertinent remarks relating 
to the attribution of coins to certain mints from their legends. 
Wrong attributions have in many cases been made through 
the incompleteness of the legend for lack of space. For 
instance, there has often been confusion between E and E for 
want of the middle stroke ; and the letter I, which frequently 
ended reverse inscriptions, ought to be interpreted as the first 
stroke of another letter, and so in this case CI should be 
interpreted CA. The paper throughout is full of other 
suggestions which are quite worthy of careful consideration, 
and we must therefore congratulate Mr. Brooke on his 
successful debUt in the branch of numismatics which gives so 
much promise in the future. 

From Dr. Parkes Weber we have been having a series of 



articles on "The Aspects of Death and their Effects on the 
Living as illustrated by Medals, Engraved Gems," &c. Dr. 
Weber has classified his subject under no less than sixteen 
headings, but I am sure you will excuse me if I do not 
mention them individually. Dr. Weber shows considerable 
professional experience in discussing his subject from various 
aspects scientific, metaphysical, and materialistic. The paper 
is full of research and scholarly reference, and it will no doubt 
be perused with considerable interest, not only by numis- 
matists, but also by members of his own profession. 

Mr. Hill has supplied two interesting additions to the 
English Series of Portrait Medals in a paper entitled " Two 
Italian Medals of Englishmen." These are of Sir John Cheke 
(1514-1557) the scholar and humanist, who did so much to 
revive Greek studies at Cambridge ; and Richard White 
(1539-1611), son of Henry White of Basingstoke, jurist and 
historian, who was King's Professor at Douay, and subse- 
quently " Magnificus Rector " of that University. The medal 
of Cheke was executed at the time that he was lecturing in 
Padua on Demosthenes, in 1555, and from its resemblance in 
style to one of Marco Mantova Benavides, it may be attri- 
buted to Martino da Bergamo. The medal of White was 
known to Armand, who published it under the title of 
' ' Ricardo Vito Basinstocchi ; " the name being given on the 
medal as " Ricardus Vitus Basinstochius." White went also 
to Padua about 1565, when he was created a Doctor of Civil 
Law and Canon Law. This medal is signed by Ludovico 
Leoni, who had his home at Padua. As early medals of 
Englishmen are so rare, it is a matter of great satisfaction to 
have two new ones added to the list, and it is a subject for 
congratulation that these additions have been made by two 
of our Fellows, Mr. Max Rosenheim and Mr. Hill. 

Amongst other papers which have appeared in the Chronicle 
I would mention the description and illustration of a cliche 
reverse from a touch-piece of Charles II, by Miss Helen 


Farquhar ; and an account of the Coinage of Assam of the 
Ahom Dynasty, by Mr. Allan, which has the inscriptions in 
two scripts, Ahom and Sanskrit. H.R.H. Prince Louis of 
Battenberg has honoured the Society with a contribution on 
"Medals of Admiral Vernon," describing many unpublished 
varieties in his collection, thus further increasing the number 
of this extensive series. 

I must apologize for having detained you too long in 
listening to my summary ; but I should like to add that it 
is a great satisfaction that, in spite of our severe losses of 
late of the older Fellows of the Society, the attendance at 
our meetings has been maintained, and that we still have so 
many interesting exhibitions. I know of no greater tribute 
that can be paid to the memory of our late President Sir 
John Evans. 

I would mention that lately at one of the Council Meetings 
a change of the hour of our meetings was discussed. Seeing 
that the attendance at the meetings has been so well main- 
tained, I did not myself consider any alteration necessary. I , 
am quite sure that if the meetings were held at an earlier JatJur 
many of you who come regularly would be prevented doing 
so, and if much later it would be inconvenient to those who 
live outside London. 

Colonel Massey moved and Mr. Messenger seconded a vote 
of thanks to the Yice-President for his address. 

Mr. Grueber then announced the result of the ballot for 
the Council and officers for the ensuing year, which was as 
follows : 








Foreign Secretary. 

r VEB CODRING' . ^sj., M.I> , F.S.A., M.R.A.S. 

Mem * f he Council. 


G. u. JROOKE, ESQ., B.A. 







T\ AC , W. MONCKTON, ESQ., F.G.S., F.L.S. 




THE standard of the weights of Populonia gives the 
necessary opportunity of demonstrating the foundation 
of the Eoman or Central Italian standard. The long 
paper of Haeberlin in the Zeit. f. Num., 1909, which 
requires so much patient following, seems to me to be 
beside the point. The standard of Central Italy is 
probably based upon the full weight of what may be 
called the Sardinian copper ingot, and the possibility 
of that weight being originally derived from Hittite, 
Egyptian, or Babylonian sources, may be left to theo- 
retical and academic discussion. 

It will not be surprising to those who have closely 
analysed Dr. Arthur Evans's article in Corolla Numis- 
matica, upon Minoan Weights and Currency, to find 
that the true weight of the Sardinian ingot is obtain- 
able from the information he there lays before us. 

In the year 1902 the Italian Mission to Crete, under 
the direction of Professor F. Halbherr, discovered there 
a series of copper ingots. 1 These were found in a 
walled-up cellar of the Palace or Koyal Villa at Hagia 
Triada, near Phaestos. The ingots were nineteen in 
number, arranged in five groups, one of five, three of 
four, and one of two. Five of these exhibited incised 

1 Evans, Corolla Numismatica, p. 358. 


signs ; and No. 11 in the list given below is figured by 
Evans ; another, No. 13, by Pigorini. 2 

In passing, it will be well for the reader to note these 
signs, as they are important evidence in the mythological 
history of money. 

The weights of these ingots, the numbers of which in 
the list given by Evans are retained, are as follows, in 
order of magnitude : 

15. 32,000 grammes. 1. 29,400 grammes. 17. 29,000 grammes. 

10.30,900 3.29,400 18.29,000 

6.30,700 4.29,400 7.27,900 

9.30,000 8.29,400 19.27,600 

5.29,900 14.29,300 11.27,300 

2.29,500 16.29,200 13.27,000 


Nos. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, have signs cut in their surface. 

These weights show a definite indication of a standard 
lying somewhere between 30,000 and 29,000 grammes, 
certainly higher than 29,400 grammes, and, if anything, 
nearer to 29,500 than 29,400 grammes, as the maximum 
of a series of middle weights of a number is usually the 
most correct estimate of the standard. Now, Haeberlin 
estimates the talent of the common standard, which he 
calls Babylonian, but which I would call Minoan, if we 
may use that term as governing the islands of the 
Mediterranean 3 generally, at an exact figure, 29,470*5 

This weight is fairly accurate, though possibly a 
gramme too heavy or too light, but for the sake of 
uniformity with the figures published by Haeberlin, and 

2 Bullettino di Paletnologia Italiana, 1904, pp. 102, 103. 

3 " The Isles of the Great Circle," Egypt. Ancient Bccords, Breasted, 
vol. ii. 73. Tombos Stela of Thutmose I. 


in view of the Corpus which he intends to publish, we 
will appropriate it without further comment. 

We have, then, a standard weight slightly exceeding 
the amount of 29,400 grammes, and the ingots are 
evidently mostly of this calibre. It is probable, how- 
ever, that No. 15 is of a higher standard. 

Of this other standard there is evidence in the weights 
of the ingots found at Serra Nixi, in Sardinia, weighing 

FIG. 1. End of Inscribed Tablet, Knossos with Ingot and Balance. 

33,300 grammes, 4 and in what may be half-standard 
ingots found in the sea near Chalcis. 5 

The nature of the difference between the two standards 
is luckily given to us exactly by an inscribed tablet 
found in the Palace at Knossos. 6 

Evans interprets the inscription upon it as follows : 
" It shows, after the (copper) ingot sign, six horizontal 
lines, indicating sixty, according to the regular numera- 
tion in vogue in this class of linear script. This is 
followed by a balance ; after which comes an indication 
of fifty-two units, and what seems to be a fraction of 
double character, probably representing one-half." 

We have, therefore, a distinct statement that sixty 
copper ingots of one standard weighed fifty-two and 
a half ingots of another. The higher standard would 

4 Pigorini, op. cit., p. 105. 5 Evans, op. cit., p. 359. 

6 Evans, op. cit., p. 361, Fig. 14. 



therefore be reduced by one-eighth, to make it equivalent 
to the Cretan. 

We should, therefore, have to add one-seventh to the 
Cretan standard to obtain the higher one. This higher 
one should exist nearer to the provenance of the copper, 
one-eighth being probably deducted in transit. 

Weight of the Cretan standard |454,791 -66 grains 
copper ingot . . . . I 29, 470*5 grammes 

/ 64,970-24 grains ) 
Addition of one-seventh . . { 4^ 1Q-07 grammes/ 

Weight of Sardinian standard |519,761'9 grains 
copper ingot . . . . I 33, 6SO'57 grammes 

If, therefore, the Cretan ingot was imported via Sar- 
dinia, the amount deducted to pay the expenses of the 
journey for freight and commission would be one-eighth. 

It appears, however, that the Sardinian copper was 
itself imported, 7 perhaps from Spain qwien sabe ? per- 
haps from Italy itself. We may, then, for the moment 
assume a customary toll in the copper trade of one- 
eighth, and we get a heavier ingot still. 

, TT . , . ,, , f594,013'6 

Weight of heavy mgot . { ^^.o 

Of this standard we have a light example in the ingot 
from old Salamis, 8 which scales 37,094 grammes. 

Whether this weight was native or foreign to Cyprus 
for its measure of copper, we need not inquire; it is 
sufficient to show that a higher standard did exist 
than that appropriate to Sardinia. For it must be 
remembered that the Egyptian copper of Sinai, as well 
as the native ore of Cyprus, were trade material of the 
Eastern Mediterranean. 

7 Perrot and Chippiez, Art in Sardinia, i. p. 90. 

8 Evans, op. cit., p. 359. 


Here, however, we have three standards, of which we 
have only discovered the lowest weight accurately re- 

It would be a natural circumstance, considering the 
various standards, that there should be a unit of weight 
of copper, in which all these could be measured. Such 
a unit is found in a small ingot obtained by the late Sir 
John Evans from Makarska, on the Dalmatian coast, in 
the year 1880. 9 It was one of the objects contained in 
a small hoard, including a hammer, probably the belong- 
ings of a smith. 

One of the horns of the ingot is wanting, but its 
approximate weight when restored would be 

1 1674-4 grains J ^ 
I 108'5 grammes) 

The weight of ^} f the Cretan ingot is 

(1684-41 grains 1 

{ 1 An ., c > JE,., and this we may safely take to 

I 10915 grammes) 

be the standard weight of this small ingot. 

Now, there is almost irrefutable evidence of two series 
of weights, one within the basin of the Eastern Medi- 
terranean, and the other outside its boundaries, the 
former weighing three-quarters of the latter. Whether 
this reduction of one-fourth was due to the cost of 
transit or not, is open to argument, but the fact of its 
existence is certain. 

We may, therefore, take it for granted that if the 
trade weight of a copper ingot was 270 units within the 
Cretan sphere of commerce, the full weight at the source 
of supply was one of 360 units. 

9 Evans, op. cit., p. 360. 


If such was the case, therefore, we should get the 
solution of the one-eighth reduction for transit from 
Sardinia to Crete, in the fact that Sardinia was the half- 
way stage between Crete and the source of supply. The 
reduction by one-fourth would be divided into two 
deductions, each amounting to one-eighth. 

We should, therefore, get an original series of weights 
as follows : 

Ingot at source of 1 360 unitg w {606,388-88 grains } 

supply . J I 39,294-0 grammes - 

Ingot after first} ,KQO KQ/VO'T ,,,,,- 

journey (reduced 315 units." Wi "J^g = es 

by an eighth) .) 
Ingot beforesecond) 3m { w |B19,761-90 grains \ x 

journey . J I 33,680'57 grammes ) 

Ingot after secondj /454,791-6 grains \ 

journey (reduced I 270 units. Wt.{ 29 470-5 famines ! M ' 

by an eighth) . ) 

wrj. (1684-41 grains \ 71? 
C PP er umt W M 109-150 grammes/^' 

10 There is an example of a direct derivative from this weight. The 
Olivieri Collection at Pesaro has an as weighing | 390-30 grammes) ^' 
For this reference I have to thank Mr. H. A. Grueber, Keeper of the 
Coins, British Museum. 

11 This is Solon's coinage talent of 63 minas (63 X 50 = 3150) 
(Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, 10). It will be further noted that 
the half-weight ingots of copper found in the sea near Chalcis have a 
maximum of 17,640 grammes 17,000 grammes (Evans, op. cit., p. 359). 
It must be remembered that we have taken Haeberlin's common 
standard weight as a basis ; perhaps if we took the Attic standard at 

I 8'61 grammes) ^ ^ e ^i^ racnm instead, we should have a more 
accurate result. The weight of talent taken here is equal to 4000 

(132-65 grains ) 
x \ 8-595 grammes/ lf the suggested weight were taken, 

Q32-89 grains \ _ f581,562-5 grains \ 
)U x \ 8-61 grammes) ~ \ 34,445-25 grammes) ^' 

It will be noted that a deduction of the customary toll of | from the 
Attic talent of 8000 drachms gives the Babylonic and Aeginetic talents 
each of 7000 Attic drachms, or 70 local Attic minas of 100 drachms. 


The reduction between the two half-journeys of the 
copper bullion is due to the fact that the amount of 
copper, after the first deduction of one-eighth, is too 
much, by the difference between one-seventh and 
one-eighth, for the amount necessary to form a 
Cretan copper ingot by the second deduction of one- 

In time, therefore, we should probably get a degraded 
series working back from the Cretan ingot ; its primary 
series would be as follows : 

Weight of Cretan) 27f) . w {454,791-66 grains 
ingot . ./ 2 umts ' W M 29,470-5 grammes 

Weight of Sar-| /519,641-59 grains \ -, 

diman" ingot 308* unite. Wt.{ 33 672 . 775 b grammes }^ 
(reduced) . . J 

Weight of supply) m ^ ^ s m (593,755-78 grains |^ 
ingot J I 38, 475 -375 grammes) 

We note here that we have very accurate approxima- 
tions to the Sardinian ingots at Serra Nixi, and to the 
heavy example from old Salamis. 

The importance of the Minoan standard as a starting 
point for the Babylonic weights should be noted. 

There are probably further degradations of this series ; 
but for the moment we have proceeded far enough 
to determine the standard weights of the Etruscan 

We have seen that the unreduced standard of the 

(530,590-27 grains ) 
"Sardinian" copper ingot is j 34) 3 82 . 2 5 grammes}^ ' 

It must be always borne in mind that the silver varies 
after the first issue from the mint, but that the gold is 
a constant weight, or intended to be such, for as Pollux 


says, " a gold piece is always a stater." 12 Let us, there- 
fore, take the gold weights of the Populonian coinage, 
and discover their unit. Sambon, Monnaies Antiques de 
ritalie, and the Collection Strozzi, Sale Catalogue, Kome, 
April, 1907, are the best references. 

Sambon, i. 1 ; Strozzi, 526. Wt. 2'83 grammes, 50 

Sambon, i. 2, 4, 5 ; Strozzi, 527, 530, 531, 532. Max. 
wt. 1*42 grammes, 25 units. 

Sambon, i. 6, 7 ; Strozzi, 533-538. Max. wt. 0'58 grammes, 
10 units. 

Unit of gold, 0'058 grammes, or rather less. 

Let us now divide the weight of the " Sardinian " cop- 

88,431*71 grains I 
per ingot by 6, and we get the figures ^^.^ gmmmes |, 

so that this gold unit is GooWo ^ ^ ne c PP er ingot in 

The exact figure, therefore, of the gold coin, which 
44*22 grains 

2*865 grammes] 
that the maximum weight of 25 units is 1*42 grammes, 
and though the figures from Sambon would lead us to 
suppose that the weight of the piece of 10 units some- 
times reached 0*60 grammes, yet the more accurate 
weighing of the Strozzi Catalogue reduces this weight 
to 0*57 grammes, which is as accurate a result as ordinary 
balances will attain. 

represents 50 units is 

A7. We note 

12 Pollux, ix. 59. Ridgeway, Origin of Weights and Currency, p. 308, 
discussing the stater: "Some were termed staters of Darius, some 
Philippians, others Alexandrians, all being of gold, and if you say gold 
piece, stater is understood ; but if you should say stater, gold is not 
absolutely to be understood." 


Turning next to the heavier silver, which is not 
represented in this collection, but which is described in 
Sambon, p. 41, we get a maximum weight of 11'45 
grammes. If we divide the copper ingot by 3, we get 

(176,863-42 grains ) 

the figures i ., ., A}f , -- f, so that the silver com 

| 11,46075 grammes) 

is 3 X o of the copper ingot. 

In the Strozzi Catalogue, No. 108, we have an ex- 
cellent example of the " Dupondius," weighing 286 
grammes &. If we divide the copper ingot by 12, we 

(44,215-86 grains j 

get the figures \ OK in >, so that this copper 

( 2,865-19 grammes) 

coin is -j J-Q- of the ingot. 

The ordinary silver coinage of Populonia next claims 
our attention. The fourth part of the copper ingot is 
(132,647-57 grains I . . 
1 8,595-56 grammesj' gmng a Value to the Sllver f 

(132-65 grains ) 

i o en* ( ?R"y or 4:00 of the copper ingot. 

( 8-596 grammes| 

That this is the full original value of the common 
silver coinage of Populonia, we can judge from the 
figures given by Sambon : No. 26, 1 unit ; max. wt. 
0'8o grammes ; No. 31, 5 units, max. wt. lf'21 grammes ; 
No. 32, 2J units, max. wt. 2' 10 grammes ; Nos. 35-67, 
10 units (20 half-units) max. wt. 8'60 grammes. 

We have, therefore, the certain fact that these weights 
were originally derived from the weight of the full 
" Sardinian " copper ingot, since each is a simple fraction 
of its amount. 

We must here carefully note that we have two series 
of silver weights, one three-quarters of the other, which, 
as we have said, is customary on the boundary-line of 
the Phoenician sphere of influence. 

value of 

. (vide Neapolitan and early 


The weights of Etruria would then arrange themselves 
as follows : 

Heavy silver coin of 10 scriptula \ w f 176-86 grains 
(Sambon, i. 11, 12) . . ./ V M 11-46 grammes 

Based, perhaps, upon a gold weight of 2 f- scriptula, of a 
[117-91 grains 

7 - 64 grammes 

Koman silver weights). In each case these weights are 
four-thirds of those of the common issues. 

The rate of exchange would seem to be N. = 15 M., for 

117-91-i 15 _/1768-6 grains \ w (176-86 grains 
7-64/ X "\ 114-6 grammes/' X \ 11-46 grammes 

Accompanying this heavy series we may have a copper 
weight of 

4 - f 4421-59 grains \ /5895'45 grains \ _, 
- OI I 286-52 grammes/' Or I 382-03 grammes/^ 

It is, perhaps, noteworthy that Haeberlin finds traces of 
this standard (vide Zeit. /. Num., 1909, p. 59). 

These heavier weights are not those of Populonia ; but 
we may point out that the heavier silver is of the same 
weight as that of Corcyra. So that in all probability this 
series must be attributed to the east coast of Italy, to- 
gether with the heavy copper which is found at Picenum. 

The normal series truly attributable to Populonia now 
differentiates out- 

Gold : 100 units, 5 scriptula 

- grammes 

Coined examples : 50 units, 25 units, 10 units. 
Silver: 10 units, 20 half-units, /1 32 -65 grains ) 
15 13 half-script. .1 8'596 grammes/ 

Copper: 250 scriptula. Wt. / ranS } 

- grammes.' 

13 Note Sambon, Nos. 41 and 51. 


We should appear, therefore, to get the following 
equation : 

5 scrip tula A7. = 75 scriptula M. = 25,000 scrip tula M. 

or 12,500 scriptula M. 
Coinage 1 unit N. = 10 units M. = 100 units JE. 

Scriptulum = l 17 '/' 

I 1-146 grammes. 

It is doubtful whether the copper unit of coinage is 
286-519 grammes or 143-259 grammes. 
The rates of exchange are therefore 

N. = 15 M. = 5000 JR., 

or 2500 M. (probably). 

A comparison with the actual weights will definitely 
show the accuracy of these figures. The reason of Haeber- 
lin's failure to deduce the correct weights (his results are 
incorrect on the showing of his own figures, for the whole 
of the above deduction is worked out, for the sake of 
comparison, from his value of the talent of the common 
standard) is the usual one of anticipating a result which 
does not exist. He gives no evidence for the basis of 
his work, nor any sequence by which his weight -standards 
could have arrived in Central Italy. The method by 
which he appears to have reached a true figure for his 
starting-point must, I think, have been one of precon- 
ceived elimination. He would most probably have been 
able to correct his errors, had he not insisted upon 
taking an average for his weights. He would not then 
have taken his Koyal Standard B, instead of the Eoyal 
Standard A, as a basis. That the latter is the original 
standard is clearly proved by the composition of the 
weight of the ingot, viz. 315 copper units. I cannot 
personally understand how an average can be considered 


as a foundation for scientific work, for an average must 
be wrong. 14 

The safe principle is to rely implicitly upon the gold 
weight ; if the rate of exchange varies, the gold weight 
does not, only the silver and copper lose weight. The 

(10612 grains ) 

Koman gold weight was { or7r , \ A/., or six 

j 6-876 grammes) 

scriptula, in the years about 280 B.C. ; hence the weight 
of the gold scriptulum did not change, and upon it all 
values must be based, for, as Pollux says, " a gold coin is 
always a stater/' that is, a valuer. 



Since the above note was written, I have been informed 
that the fallacy of taking an average is not apparent to 
many numismatists. 15 I will try to point out the reasons 
why this process must be misleading in numismatics. 

The chief reason is that the mints and money-changers 
were not likely to give a heavier weight of precious metal 
than was necessary. 

In addition to this, and besides the obvious remark that 
an average must be wrong, there is the possibility, and, 
in the case of the Central Italian copper weights, the 
certainty, that more than one standard may have been 

14 There is a story told of the great engineer, Brunei, who, before 
giving an order for the first horse-boxes ever built for a railway, sent 
round to measure the length of horses. He took the average of the figures 
received, and had the horse-boxes built. The first horse that came along 
was too big to get in. So it is with these average weights. Take the 
first weight in the Strozzi Catalogue, No. 108, and it will not fit. If this 
story can prevent the use of averages except where they are obviously 
wanted as an estimate, science will have benefited. The average is 
useful only as evidence, when it is required ; it establishes no fact. 

15 In his Introduction to the Cat. of Coins of the Roman Republic, 
Brit. Hits., pp. xx.-xxii., Mr. Grueber confirms my view as to the 
fallacy of taking averages as the basis of calculations. He, however, 
had not space there to point out that if Haeberliii's figures do not hold 
good, his whole theory falls to the ground. 


employed. Hence, if an average be taken, not only are 
worn and false weights brought in, but also the different 
standards are added together. When these are divided 
up, they make a figure which, under no circumstances 
can be correct for more than one of the various standards. 

I will give two examples of what I mean. 

Take the note on the Egyptian gold standard in Minoan 
Weights and Currency, p. 339. It is there stated that 
" the range of weight in the unit of this system is from 
12*30 grammes to 13*98 grammes. This gives an average 
weight of about 13*14 grammes." Now, there are two 
Egyptian gold standards, the heavier one weighing about 
13*45 grammes, the lower one 12*76 grammes, being four- 
thirds respectively of the Babylonian hundredth of a heavy 
mina, and of the gold weight of 9*57 grammes, found later 
at Carthage. Their average of 13*10 grammes is evidently 
a wrong basis for calculation. 

Take next Dr. Haeberlin on the Hatrian heavy as : 
" 54 Hatrian asses weighed by me yield from 415*49 
grammes to 323*40 grammes, giving an average of 371*77 

Now, as a matter of fact, this as was four- thirds of the 
Etruscan as. When the latter weighed T |^ of the talent, 
or 286*35 grammes, the Hatrian as weighed 382*02 

When the Etruscan-Koman as was reduced to T ir 16 of a 
talent, or 275*06 grammes, the Hatrian as had a new 
standard of 366*74 grammes. 

Further, the weight was at times degraded, and the 
standard of 327*45 grammes was occasionally used. 

This being so, if the average of the first two official 
weights be taken, a result of 377 '38 grammes is obtained. 
Some allowance further has to be made for the use of the 
standard of 327*45 grammes. The result then obtained 
is corroborated almost exactly by Dr. Haeberlin's figures. 
Even if only the first two weights had been taken, the 
addition of 6 grammes, which is allowed (I believe) for 
wear and tear by Dr. Haeberlin, would make his figure 

16 It will be noted that Haeberlin constructs two talents, keeping 
the as constant, whereas in reality the talent remained constant and the 
as reduced. 


exactly correct for the average of the two standards, but 
obviously not one upon which to found a theory. 

The Italian heavy copper series is admittedly one of 
reducing weights ; how, therefore, can the average give a 
scientific datum ? 

Suppose, again, that a very light standard was inaugu- 
rated for a period, say, of revolution. The result of taking 
such weights into account would obviously be misleading. 

Weights are facts. Their value is entirely lost if they 
are placed upon the bed of Procrustes, to make an average 
or to fit a theory. 

I can quite sympathize with the feeling that this 
note may raise amongst those who put their faith in 
averages, and whose work has to some extent been vitiated 
thereby. The basis of their arguments, however, cannot 
suffer, for that will stand upon some acknowledged fact. 

It is absolutely necessary to point out this fatal error, 
which has become so prevalent of late, so that it may 
never again appear in scientific metrology. 

J. K. McC. 



FIG. 1. Tetradrachm of Thermae Himerenses. 

THE French National Collection has owned for many 
years 1 the following tetradrachm : 

Obv. EPMITAN. Head of goddess to r., with her 
hair in sphendone and crowned with reeds. 
She wears pearl necklace and ear-ring. In 
front, two dolphins ; behind, one. 

J5 et?< Fast quadriga to 1., guided by charioteer, who 
wears the Phrygian cap. Above, Nike, about 
to crown charioteer. Double exergual line, 
below which, to 1., an altar. 

Wt. 267 grains (17*30 grammes). 

This coin was generally accepted as genuine, 2 till 
Gabrici, in his Topografia e Numismatica dell 1 Antica 
Imera, wrote as follows : 

" Questo tetradramma mostra a chiare note 1'arte 

1 Mionnet, 1806, vol. i. pp. 242, 280. 

2 Hist. Num., p. 128. 


moderna dal volto di Proserpina, nel quale le labbra 
sono modellate assai male, conie pure 1'occhio. La leg- 
genda basta da sola ad attestare la falsita." 3 

In December, 1907, there was sold at Paris 4 a tetra- 
drachm (weight 16'95 grammes = 261 grains), the 
obverse of which, as the reproduction below shows, came 
from the same die as the first, although, owing to careless 
striking, the legend is off the flan. 

FIG. 2. Tetradrachm of Thermae Himerenses. 

The reverse is from a different die, with EPMITAN 
in the exergue, KAH below the horses' feet, and dotted 

This tetradrachm, presumably on the rather doubtful 
claim of an artist's signature, 5 reached a sum of more 
than 700 at the sale surely an excessive price for a 
coin devoid of artistic merit. In any case, the piece, 
being accepted as unquestionably genuine, was eagerly 
competed for. Happily, since its obverse is struck from 
the identical die, it also proves the genuineness of the 
coin in the French National Collection. 6 

3 Eivista di Num., 1895, p. 27. 

4 Cat. cVune Collection de Monn. Antiques, PI. vi. 178 (Sarnbon and 

5 Ibid. " C'est la seule piece carthaginoise qui porte le nom d'un 
artiste grec," KA.77Ti'as. 

6 Since writing the above, I have had an opportunity to examine the 
original coin in the French collection, and to convince myself completely 
of its authenticity. 


I hope enough has been said to rehabilitate an impor- 
tant and interesting coin. But even without this proof, 
the grounds alleged against it could not have been 
admitted. Badly modelled lips or eyes prove nothing 
in the case of a Punic coin, for the modelling of Punic 
engravers was, with rare exceptions, notoriously bad. 
Nor can I see anything seriously wrong with the ductus 
of the lettering. The utmost that could be said against 
it is a certain want of ease in one or two letters. But 
that is in keeping with the rigid character of the design. 

I must ask the reader's indulgence for introducing my 
subject in a rather unusual way. I was obliged to clear 
away an obstacle which otherwise would have debarred 
me from approaching it ; for, in view of the identity of 
both obverses, and with a doubt resting on the authen- 
ticity of these two inscribed tetradrachms, no certainty 
could be secured for the attribution of similar but anepi- 
graphic examples, such as will be dealt with hereafter. 

Before entering more fully on a discussion of the few 
extant tetradrachms of Thermae Himerenses, I may be 
permitted to mention briefly the events that led to the 
foundation of this new Himera. 

In the year 409 B.C. the Carthaginians had sent a fleet 
and army to Sicily in support of Segesta against Selinus. 
The expeditionary force quickly reduced, and partly 
destroyed, the latter city, advancing thence against 
Himera, which shared the same fate. A portion of the 
inhabitants escaped, mostly by sea, before the enemy 
took the city ; the rest were either slain or carried to 
Carthage to be sold as slaves. The destruction of the 
city is said to have been complete. 

When, less than two years later, the Carthaginians sent 
another expeditionary force against the Sicilian Greeks, 



they brought over a number of colonists who founded a 
new city to the west of the old, near the hot springs long 
famous for their curative properties, and hence called 
EPMAI. The nucleus of Carthaginian settlers is said 7 
to have been increased by the return of many of the 
former inhabitants who had fled from the old city. 
Although, then, Thermae Himerenses was subject to 
Carthage till the conquest of Sicily by Kome, yet the 
Greek element in the population, if we may judge by 
the Greek legends and types of its coins, appears to 
have been numerically the stronger. It seems, however, 
reasonable to suppose that the Carthaginian settlers and 
their descendants were, and remained, the ruling families 
in this mixed community ; hence, presumably, the Punic 
style and fabric of many, if not most, of its coins. 

I now proceed to describe the tetradrachms of Thermae 
which have come to my knowledge. 

FIG. 3. Tetradrachm of Thermae Himerenses. 

Obv. Head of goddess crowned with reeds, to 1. 
Behind, prow of galley ; below it, two dolphins 
to 1. Dotted border-line. 

Rev. Fast quadriga to 1., guided by bare-headed 
charioteer ; above, Nike, about to crown him ; 
below the exergual line, altar. 

Wt. 262-4 grains (17-297 grammes). 

British Museum. 

7 Cicero, In Verrem., ii. 35. 


This coin is manifestly copied from a decadrachm of 
Evaenetus, in the British Museum. The work appears 
heavy when compared with the graceful original. Still, it 
is not unpleasing, and might have been done by a second- 
rate engraver of any Greek mint. It is, in any case, 
greatly superior to the two coins figured before it, and, 
hence, should be placed first in point of time ; indeed, 
judging by style alone, a considerable interval would 
seem to have elapsed between them. 

Head 8 has dated the coins issued at Thermae previous 
to the Koman dominion from 405 to 350 B.C., with a 
qualifying sign of interrogation behind the latter 

Some of the smaller silver coins, especially litra 
pieces, 9 are of excellent and purely Greek design, and 
may well date from the first years of the new city. After 
that, as the settlement gathered strength, the issue of 
our large coins would follow. It would be natural, as 
Gabrici has pointed out, 10 for the Carthaginian over- 
lords to prohibit the re-introduction of the ancient 
Himeraean coin- types. Hence the tetradrachms had to 
conform to the already well-known coins of other Siculo- 
Carthaginian cities, and the local Greek element could 
only venture on a veiled reference to the past by the 
introduction- of the altar of the nymph Himera, which, 
with a rare exception, 11 had appeared on the tetra- 
drachms of the old city from first to last. 

The other adjunct, the prow of a galley behind the 

8 Hist. Num., p. 128. 

9 Biv. di Num., 1895, PI. i. 2. 

10 Ibid., p. 14. 

11 The Pelops coin wants the altar ; see Hill, Coins of Ancient Sicily, 
PI. iv. 4. 



head of the goddess, does not readily admit of an expla- 
nation. It is hardly ever found on Greek-Sicilian coins. 
Perhaps it is the signature of a mint magistrate or 
engraver. Or, if we are to venture on another conjecture 
at all, we might suggest a reference to the foundation 
of the city by Carthage, " Mother of Navies." Thus 
there would appear a conciliating allusion on this 
principal coin to the metropolis of either race. 

This coin may, it seems to me, have been issued at any 
time from the beginning to the middle of the fourth 
century; but more probably towards the middle, if we 
take into account the greater delicacy of the design and 
execution of the smaller coins, which doubtless were 
struck soon after the foundation of Thermae. 

Next in order, though separated by a somewhat 
lengthy interval, stands the coin shown at the head of 
our paper (Fig. 1). Indeed, I should not venture to 
place it much, if at all, before the end of the fourth 
century, for a twofold reason. First, there is' apparent a 
very marked deterioration both in design and execution. 
The face of the goddess, if not yet barbarous, has become 
vacuous and insipid, while the reverse has even fared 
worse, the horses being hardly of better design than on 
some coins of the Northern barbarians. 12 The tetradrachm 
next in order (Fig. 2) had, it will be remembered, its 
obverse struck from the same die, and must, therefore, 

12 It has been said that this reverse connects itself by its style with 
that of the tetradrachm of Himera, Brit. Mus. Catal. : Sicily, p. 81, 
No. 48 (Holm's Gesch. Sic., iii. p. 635). I must confess that I see no 
connexion. The coin has become famous on account of the signature 
of the engraver, MAI. It would appear that MAI, after the destruction 
of Himera, found employment at Syracuse, for I am in possession of a 
Syracusan tetradrachm of the finest period with his signature below the 
head of Arethusa. 


have been issued about the same time. Next, it should 
be observed and this is the other reason that the 
letters on this last coin terminate in dots, a peculiarity 
which is rarely found on other Sicilian (Syracusan) coins 
before the time of Hicetas (287-278 B.C.). The letters 
on the first of our two coins are not terminated in dots, 
hence I have placed it before the other in point of time, 
although, as I have just said, it can only be separated 
from it by a very narrow space of time, so that both must 
be brought down to a late period. 

Meanwhile, the Carthaginian influence seems to have 
been in the ascendant amongst the inhabitants, for, as 
a visible sign of it, the horses are now guided by a 
charioteer who wears the " Phrygian " cap or helmet, 
which had, frequently and since early times, been a 
badge of the Eastern as opposed to the Hellene. Thus 
Dido, as the representative of her race, wears it on the 
beautiful and well-known Siculo-Punic tetradrachm, 
doubtless the work of a Greek artist. 13 I hardly think, 
then, that I am straining my point unduly, if I assume 
that Dido deified may be represented on our coin, just 
as on the other. This will receive support from the coin- 
type of another mint to be dealt with later on. On our 
second coin (Fig. 2) the figure in the chariot also seems 
to wear this Oriental head-cover. Unfortunately, her 
head is placed so near the edge that barely the top of 
the helmet is shown. 

I had already expressed a doubt regarding the alleged 
" artist's signature " on this coin, and my reason for 
doing so will now be apparent. The coin is too late for 
such a claim. It is coming to be recognized that the 

13 Hist. Num., p. 738, fig. 394. 



quest for these signatures in the better periods, when 
coins can lay claim to artistic merit, has been overdone. 
To extend the hunt even to late and inartistic productions 
would, surely, be worse than useless. 

The next, and apparently last, stage in the issue of 
tetradrachms at Thermae Himerenses is represented by 
the following coin. 

FIG. 4. Tetradrachm of Thermae Himerenses. 

Obv. Head of goddess of debased style to 1., with hair 
in net. In front, two dolphins. 

Rev. Fast quadriga to 1., guided by charioteer in 
Phrygian helmet ; above, Nike, about to crown 
charioteer ; double exergual line ; below which, 
to 1., altar. 

Wt. 257 grains (16-65 grammes). 

My Collection. 

It would be difficult, if not impossible, to fix even an 
approximate date for this coin. Its far-off prototype is 
doubtless the splendid decadrachrn of Kimon, which has 
the head of Arethusa in a jewelled net ; but this type 
had been badly copied at Panormus and Motya 14 some 
considerable time before our coin was issued, and the 
latter is probably a still more debased copy of the 
tetradrachms of those cities. 

Thermae was taken by the Komans in 252 B.C., and, 

14 Num. Chron., 1891, PI. IX. 8, <J; ibid., PI. X. 5, 6. 


judging from the late and debased style of our coin, there 
seems nothing against its attribution to the last years 
of Carthaginian rule. It is usually thought that the 
issue of Carthaginian coins in Sicily came to an end in 
the time of Agathocles (317-289 B.C.). But no less an 
authority than Head has brought down the issue of the 
tetradrachms of Heraclea Minoa to the end of the first 
Punic War (241 B.C.). 15 In point of style, the best, as 
well as the worst, of these tetradrachms form a suffi- 
ciently close parallel to those of Thermae, and the 
carelessness and rudeness in the design and execution 
of our last coin are so marked, that it seems safe to 
place it as late as our knowledge of local history permits. 
It is interesting to observe that the charioteer is still 
characterized by the Asiatic helmet. 

The great rarity of these coins seems to show that 
their issue, although it extended over a long period, 
was never large. Till recent times the coin in the 
French National Collection was the only known 
example. Together with the coin of the Paris sale of 
1907 there appeared another anepigraphic piece which 
closely resembles the tetradrachm in my possession. 16 
Gabrici had already published such a piece but as of 
uncertain attribution which was then in the collec- 
tion of Imhoof-Blumer, and is now, doubtless, in the 
Koyal Collection of Berlin. 17 Neither of these coins, 
however, has a well-centred reverse type, and, in con- 
sequence, the Phrygian helmet of the charioteer is 
not seen. 

15 Hist. Num., p. 124. 

16 Cat. d'une Collection de Monn. Antiques, PI. vi. 179. 

17 Eiv. di Num., 1895, p. 28. 



FIG. 5. Tetradrachm of Camarina. 

Ob v . KAMAPINAION. Bearded head of Melkarth, in 
lion's skin to 1. 

jfoy. Female charioteer in long chiton and Phrygian 
helmet, holding long goad and guiding fast 
quadriga to r. ; above, Nike, about to crown 
charioteer ; in the exergue, fluted Ionic column, 
broken short ; below it, in minute letters, 1X3. 
Dotted border-line. 

Wt. 271 grains (17'55 grammes). 

Another example like the last, but with 1x3 above the 
head of Melkarth. Weight 267 grains (17'30 grammes). 

Both these coins were in the Auctionskatalog Griech- 
ischer Miinzen, Egger, Vienna, January 7, 1908, PI. i. 
26 and 27. 

A third example, but with the signature 1X3 obliterated 
by wear. See Salinas, Monete delle Antiche Citta di 
Sicilia, PL xvii. 5. 

All three from the same dies. 

The remarkable tetradrachm shown above ranks with 
the best productions of a mint pre-eminent for the 
beauty of its coins. It is to be regretted that our 
illustration does not do it justice, and those who are in 
possession of the Vienna Sale Catalogue should not fail 
to compare the photographs of both examples of this 


The obverse type might mislead the hasty observer 
in regard to the time of issue, for the bearded head, with 
one notable exception, 18 is associated with the earlier 
coins of this class. Indeed, as their heavy and ungrace- 
ful reverse types show, the bearded head belongs to the 
transitional and early fine period not to the finest, 
like those with the young head ; also the difference in 
the development of the reverse type of both classes is so 
marked, that one feels tempted to assume an interval 
between their issues. It may be that missing links 
still remain to be discovered; or that as seems to 
have been the case at Syracuse in the early fine period 
the older engravers could not, or would not, keep pace 
with the "eleven young men." The reverse type of 
our coin is as advanced in its art as the latest examples 
of this series. 19 The substitution of a female figure with 
the Eastern helmet in place of Pallas, who had, hitherto, 
appeared on all these tetradrachms from first to last, 
is sufficiently extraordinary to warrant our connecting 
this new issue with the events of the great Carthaginian 
invasion of 405, when the army of Himilco overran 
and ravaged the Camarinaean territory. The city itself 
was not taken at first. Nevertheless, the inhabitants, 
urged by Dionysius, quitted it and sought temporary 
safety at Leontini. Peace having been concluded in the 
same year, the Camarinaeans were permitted to return, 
but as subjects of the Carthaginians. They were for- 
bidden to fortify their city, and obliged to pay tribute. 

We may, I think, interpret our coin in the light of 
these events. 

18 CataL Hirsch XIX., PI. ii. 116, Munich, November, 1907 ; and 
Salinas, PI. xvii. 15. 

19 B. M. Cat. : Sicily, pp. 35, 36. 


The head on the obverse as the phototypes of the 
Vienna Catalogue show has an almost cruel expression. 
The bearded heads on the earlier coins never wear this 
expression, and the young heads of the latest are even 
rather effeminate in character. It seems tempting, 
therefore, to recognize in this head the stern Melkarth, 
the guardian divinity of Tyre and Carthage. Even the 
head in the lion's skin on later Siculo-Punic tetra- 
drachms is usually regarded as the same deity. 

With regard to the figure on the reverse, we are, I 
think, on still safer ground. As at Thermae Himerenses, 
the charioteer appears here in her victorious chariot; 
this time with the shattered column of Greek freedom 
under her. It does not matter much whether we call 
her Carthage or Dido. But the analogy of the tetra- 
drachm with Dido's head, as well as numerous coins 
that bear heads or figures of oekists, speak in favour of 
the latter. 

The broken column can hardly be an upturned meta, 
for it is placed outside the field of the coin, below the 
line of the exergue. The meta, whether standing or 
overturned, is always kept in the main field, where it 
should be. Nor is there anything new in such an 
allusion to contemporary events by means of adjuncts 
placed in the exergues of Sicilian coins. The reference 
to vanquished Carthage by means of the lion in flight 
on the Demaretion is universally accepted, as is that to 
the victory over Etruria in the shape of the pistrix on 
many Syracusan coins. 

The designer of this beautiful and interesting type 
has only left us three letters of his name, EX I. The 
sinallness of these letters, and the modest and unobtru- 
sive manner in which they are introduced, leave little, 


if any, doubt that we have here the signature of a new 

The coinage of Camarina ends with her subjection to 
Carthage. There was a revival in the time of Timoleon, 
but very faint and short. 

Assuming, as we have done, our tetradrachm to be 
the last of a long series, there still remains the question 
as to the precise time and the circumstances of its issue. 

The coin bears the usual legend, viz. the name of the 
inhabitants, like all other tetradrachms of the town. 
But if issued under their authority, one would have to 
account for the Punic character of the types by sup- 
posing the coin to have been struck while the enemy 
was devastating the country-side. The citizens would 
anticipate, as it were, by such an issue the calamity 
and disgrace which were shortly to befall them. 

But there is another, and I think more satisfactory, 
explanation. Diodorus Siculus, 20 who gives a fairly full 
account of the disasters that befell Camarina along with 
other Greek-Sicilian cities, does not expressly say that 
the Carthaginian army occupied the town after it had 
been quitted by the inhabitants. But there can be 
little doubt that it was occupied for the sake of plunder, 
if for nothing else. Is it not possible that during that 
occupation coins were issued by the Carthaginians from 
the local mint ? 

Panormus, though always a Carthaginian town, has 
left us coins with Greek inscriptions. So have Motya 
and Solus. So did Thermae. Why not, a fortiori, 
Camarina? Greek die-engravers as well as workmen 
of the mint would be at hand among the prisoners from 

20 xiii. 108-114. 


newly captured Gela and other cities, and the old dies 
could readily be adapted. Such an issue would not be 
large, because the former inhabitants returned soon. 
Thus we could not only account for its Punic character, 
but also for the rarity of the coin which, apart from 
the two examples recently discovered, was only known 
through the piece published by Salinas. 


FIG. 6. Siculo-Punic Tetradrachm. 

In the Catalogue of the Benson Collection 21 there 
occurred a Siculo-Punic tetradrachm of the usual type, 
the reverse of which strongly resembles that of our 
No. 3 of Thermae Himerenses. But instead of the 
altar, there is a swan with open wings below the 
exergual line (see Fig. 6). Although the lower portion 
of its body is off the coin, enough remains to show that 
it is swimming rather than flying, for it is in swimming 
that a swan's neck assumes the graceful bend shown on 
the coin, and it calls up at once the only other Sicilian 
coins with similar pictures of the beautiful bird, viz. 
the didrachms and lesser silver coins of Camarina. A 
flying swan is found in the exergue on the reverse of 
almost all the earlier tetradrachms with the bearded 

21 London, Sotheby, February, 1909, PI. viii. 250. 


head of Hercules, and a tiny swan with closed wings 
occurs on every one of the archaic litra pieces of the 

All this, in conjunction with the parallel case of the 
Himeraean altar in the exergue of the Punic tetra- 
drachms of Thermae, is evidence in favour of its con- 
jectural attribution to Camarina. 

It would, however, be difficult to fix its issue chrono- 
logically, owing to the fragmentary nature of our 
information. The history of Camarina subsequent to 
the re-occupation by the inhabitants in the time of 
the elder and younger Dionysius, Dion, Timoleon, and 
Agathocles, seems to have been of a very chequered 
description. As an unwalled city, it certainly would 
lie open to the contending armies of Carthaginians 
and Syracusans, and it does not seem improbable that 
the coin was issued during a perhaps somewhat pro- 
longed occupation by the former. 

Perchance the discovery of a similar coin with, as in 
the case of the tetradrachm of Thermae, the city's name, 
may one day turn probability into certainty. 




Follis of Julian : rev. Isis and Horus. 

COHEN has divided the coins struck during this reign into 
three sections, giving to Julian himself those bearing his 
bust either as Caesar or Augustus, and those bearing a 
bust of Serapis only. Those bearing the jugate busts of 
Serapis and Isis he gives to Julian and Helena his wife, 
and those which present the bust of Isis alone to Helena. 

This classification is based on the assumption that the 
female portrait on the coins dedicated to Isis is that of 
Helena personified as the goddess, and it may be interest- 
ing to consider by what evidence this assumption is 
supported, and whether the classification can be justified. 

Julian, son of Julius Constant ius and grandson of 
Constantius Chlorus, was born on November 6, 331 A.D. 
On the death of his uncle, Constantine the Great, a general 
massacre of possible competitors for the throne was effected 
by Constantius II, but Julian and his elder brother 


Constantius Gallus were spared. They were well educated 
in seclusion, and developed very different dispositions. 
Gallus was raised to the dignity of Caesar in 351, but 
was grasping and brutal, and was executed by order of 
Constantius in 354. Julian proved industrious, thought- 
ful, and self-denying in his retired existence. In 351 
he fell under the influence of certain Athenian pagan 
philosophers, and in adopting their faith there can be 
little doubt that he acted from honest conviction. It is 
recorded that at this time he commenced to wear a beard 
in token of his conversion to paganism. On November 
6, 355, Constantius took him from his obscurity, raised 
him to the rank of Caesar, married him to Helena (the 
Emperor's sister), and sent him to take command in Gaul, 
then overrun by the Germans. The marriage was no 
doubt a purely political one ; the exact date of Helena's 
birth is unknown, but as Fausta, her mother, was put to 
death in 326, she must have been a good many years 
senior to her bridegroom. 

For five years Julian displayed remarkable military 
talents in Gaul, driving the Germans over the Ehine, 
which he crossed several times, rescuing 20,000 prisoners 
and rebuilding many ruined cities. Early in 360 Con- 
stantius, jealous of the Caesar's growing fame, ordered 
the finest legions of the army of Gaul to march eastward 
to the Persian War. Julian was then in winter-quarters 
at Paris, and his soldiers, who had enlisted only for service 
near their homes, mutinied, and acclaimed him Augustus, 
truly, it appears, against his will. This occurred in April 
or May, and Julian at once wrote to Constantius, telling 
him what had taken place, and asking his confirmation. 
The Emperor refused, and long delay and correspondence 
followed, throughout which, Julian says in his Epistle to 


the Senate and People of Athens, he used the title of 
Caesar, and did his best to arrive at a peaceful arrange- 
ment. During the summer of 360 he again crossed the 
Khine, defeated the Attuarii, captured, he tells us, letters 
which showed that the Emperor was stirring up the 
barbarians against him, and, as the year drew on, he 
returned to Gaul, and went into winter-quarters at Vienne. 
Here, in November, 360, he celebrated his Quinquennalia, 
and here Helena died, her body being sent to Home for 

In January, 361, the final messengers from Constantius 
were received by Julian in public audience at Vienne. 
To the Emperor's demand that he should abandon the 
Imperial dignity, he replied that he would do so if his 
soldiers, who had elevated him, would give their assent. 
This, of course, they clamorously refused, and Julian 
sent the messengers back to their master with a letter in 
which he at last threw off his allegiance, and scathingly 
exposed the brutality and unfairness with which the 
Emperor had treated his family and himself. At this 
time also he made public profession of his paganism. In 
the spring of 361 he crossed the Khine, defeated the 
Germans for the last time, and having heard of prepara- 
tions for his destruction, and the accumulation of war 
stores at Bregenz and in the Cottian Alps, he rushed 
eastward and appeared with startling suddenness before 
Sirmium, which opened its gates to him, the legions 
stationed there joining his army. Three days later, he 
hurried on again, and established himself in an important 
strategic position on the Hhodope Mountains. Here he 
waited the attack of Constantius, and hence he wrote his 
letter to Athens, in the course of which, after alluding to 
the accumulation of war stores for his destruction, he 


scribes his actions and states his position in a passage 
which is not free from obscurity -, but which may be 
rendered as follows : 

"I thought it necessary, therefore, to get together 
powerful forces and to provide good money of gold and 
silver." Duncombe, who translated in 1784, reads, "to 
coin lawful money of gold and silver." 

Julian's position was precarious, as he himself admits, 
but civil war was avoided by the death of Constantius 
from fever, on November 3, 361, while on the march from 
Persia. Julian was then acclaimed sole Emperor, entered 
Constantinople on December 11, and remained there till 
May 15, 362, when he went to Antioch. Thence, on 
March 13, 363, he set out for the Persian War, in which 
he received a mortal wound in the moment of victory, 
and died on June 26 in the same year. 

The reign of Julian consists, therefore, of three periods, 

Period I. From November 6, 355, when he obtained 
the title of Caesar, till April or May of 360, when he 
was acclaimed Augustus by the army. 

Period II. From the latter date until the death of 
Constantius on November 3, 361. 

Period III. The remainder of the reign. 

It will be found that his coinage may also be divided 
into three classes, which nearly correspond to the above 

Class I. Coins bearing a boyish clean-shaven bust 
and the title of Caesar. 

Class II. Coins bearing a diademed bust of a young 
man, generally clean-shaven, but sometimes with a slight 
beard, and the title of Augustus. 

Class III. Coins bearing a full-bearded bust, with the 



title of Augustus, and, probably, the whole of the series 
dedicated to Egyptian deities. 

The coins which show a slight beard are scarce, some 
of them are medallions and some barbarous ; but their 
style is similar to that of Class II. 

In view of Julian's assertion that he used the title of 
Caesar in his correspondence until his final breach with 
Constantius in January, 361, and his allusions to the 
provision of gold and silver for the war above quoted, it 
might well be supposed that the coinage of Class II. did 
not commence till that date, but examination of the 
coins does not support this supposition, for we find the 
legend VOT.V MVLT.X. used with some frequency on 
the coins of this class, and it would appear therefore that 
the issue began before the celebration of the Quinquen- 
nalia in November, 360. Nor did it cease immediately 
on the death of Constantius, for specimens are found 
bearing the marks of the mints of Antioch, Constanti- 
nople, and Thessalonica, which were entirely in the power 
of Constantius until his death. It seems, therefore, that 
the issue commenced about the middle of 360 and con- 
tinued till about the end of 361. The coins of this class 
are scarcer than those of Classes I. and III., and the 
subjoined table shows that several mints did not issue 
them at all. Silver coins from the mints of Gaul appear 
to be the commonest specimens of the class. 

The commencement of Period III. coincided with that 
revival of the pagan faith which Julian so greatly 
desired. The Christian writers say that he promoted it 
by persecution, while the pagan historians, Ammianus 
Marcellinus, Libanius, and others allege, in effect, that he 
merely rectified abuses which had grown up in the forty 
years during which the Church had been paramount, and 


that he accorded fair treatment to all religions. The 
latter is Julian's own view of his conduct, and it may be 
that his coinage gives some evidence in his favour. 
Modern writers, judging, perhaps, from the numerous 
varieties of the coins bearing the personification of 
Serapis and Isis, have attributed to him a special 
devotion to the Egyptian cultus, forgetting that, although 
the types are numerous, the individual specimens of 
these coins are extremely scarce, and that though the 
writings of the Emperor abound in allusions to the 
Greek and Koman deities, those of Egypt are hardly 
mentioned. I have only discovered six references to 
Serapis and one to Isis. Julian was always careful to 
refer to the tutelary deities of the place to which he 
wrote, and accordingly we find that four of the references 
to Serapis and the solitary one to Isis are in his letters 
to Alexandria. 

Serapis is also once mentioned incidentally in the 
" Oration to the Sun " and once in the " Caesars," 
where, annoyed by the tumultuous arrival of Galba, 
Otho, and Vitellius together before the assembly of the 
gods (Vitellius still blazing with the flames of the 
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which he had burnt), Jove 
calls to his " brother " Serapis, " Send that miser out of 
Egypt to extinguish these flames " alluding, of course, 
to the election of Vespasian by the Egyptian legions. 
Harpocrates, Anubis, Horus, and Apis are nowhere 
mentioned by Julian. One would expect to find the 
mints of a persecuting Emperor issuing coins in honour 
of the gods whom he principally worshipped, but, since 
M. Dieudonne, in Melanges Numismatiques, ser. 1, has 
convincingly removed the Antiochian and Nicomedian 
coins dedicated to Jove, Apollo, and Ceres, from this 

K 2 


reign and attributed them to the Tetrarchy, there remains 
no coin of Julian on which the name or image of a 
Greek or Koman god appears. 

In fact, leaving for a moment the Egyptian types out 
of consideration, it would appear that care was taken 
to avoid any type which must necessarily offend the 
Christians. It is true that the beard was considered a 
symbol of paganism, but, as the Emperor wore one, it 
was but natural to depict it on his coins, and the reverse 
types used are, with one possible exception, never purely 

The exception is, of course, the common large brass, or 
foil is, bearing the legend SECVRITAS REIPVB. and for 
type a bull beneath two stars and sometimes also an 
eagle. This bull is generally identified as Apis, but is 
that identification unavoidable ? 

The bull is not uncommon on the Eoman coinage, 
being found, for instance, on votive coins of the Anto- 
nines and others, and stars are common under both 
Christian and pagan Emperors. They are not attributes 
of Apis, and his well-known marks on forehead and flank 
might easily have been depicted on the coins, but they 
do not appear. Neither does the occasional presence of 
an eagle beside the principal type in any way connect 
the coin with Apis ; for the eagle, far from being attri- 
buted to him, was quite unknown in Egypt. 

The connexion of the bull with votive types above 
referred to is somewhat suggestive when we remember 
that the only other common type of Period III. bears 
the inscription VOT X MVLT XX. The vota were com- 
memorated on both Christian and pagan issues. 

Whatever the Emperor had in his mind, therefore, it 
would seem that there is nothing on the coins which 


must be accepted as purely pagan, and therefore 
abominable to his Christian subjects. Julian himself 
appears to protest that this was so. A passage in the 
Misopogon, written in 363, refers, Socrates tells us, 1 to 
this very coin. Julian says to the Antiochians, " You 
insult your own princes, and in particular deride their 
beards and the devices of their coins. First you say 
I have subverted the world. In answer I know of 
nothing I have subverted, either by design or in- 
advertence." The Emperor appears here to protest that 
he did not use pagan coin-types, and I submit that we 
may accept his protest. 

There remains for consideration the Egyptian series, 
and doubts have been expressed whether it should be 
attributed to Julian's reign at all. Cohen records no 
less than 116 varieties of these coins, and three more 
are added by this paper. As above mentioned, though 
varieties are numerous, specimens are rare, and their 
fabric is peculiar ; some of them are of fine style for the 
period, and even those which are badly executed show 
some imitation of the style of the finer pieces. 

Their size and weight vary greatly, and a considerable 
number of them are pierced with well- drilled and often 
large holes, suggesting that they were used as amulets. 
These holes occur in well- executed specimens, and 
perhaps more frequently in the pieces of poorer execu- 
tionj which may be later imitations. The place of issue 
of the whole series is open to question, for only those 
inscribed DEO SANCTO NILO bear a mint-mark, that of 
Alexandria. The keepers of the National Collection have 
attributed all of them to that mint, and the style of the 

1 Socrates, lib. iii. c. 17. 


finer pieces is not dissimilar from that of the rather 
scarce coins of the votive types of Class III. which bear 
the Alexandrian mint-mark. 

The personification of Serapis on many of them 
resembles the bearded portrait of Julian, and there are 
a few very scarce pieces combining that portrait and the 
Emperor's name and titles with pagan reverse types, 
which, so far as I have been able to examine them, 
are similar in style to those on the series under 
consideration. The coin illustrated above is the well- 
known specimen in the Danish National Museum. 

The great Marlborough cameo of Serapis and Isis in 
the National Collection shows the features of the 
Emperor in the personification of the god, and forms a 
valuable connecting link between his bearded portraits 
and those of the god on the coins. 

It will not be forgotten that Egyptian deities are 
found depicted on the reverses of coins of Licinius I, 
Constantine the Great, Crispus, Constantine II, Mag- 
nentius, Constantius Gallus, Jovian, Valentinian I, 
Valens, and Gratian, several of whom were most Christian 
Emperors, and can hardly have authorized such issues. 
These coins are all very rare, and none of them bear 
mint-marks. They differ distinctly in style from the 
pieces attributed to Julian, and resemble the ordinary 
issues of the Emperors whose names they bear ; while, as 
above mentioned, a resemblance between Julian's ordinary 
coins of Class III. and the pieces in question is traceable, 
though these pieces are unlike the issues of earlier or 
later Emperors. 

I submit, therefore, that the common attribution of 
the series to the reign of Julian is correct, but suggest 
that it may have been an unauthorized issue. 


Some numismatists are inclined to go farther and 
look upon these pieces as tesserae rather than coins, and 
in this connexion Mr. Messenger draws attention to a 
specimen in his collection, an ordinary bearded small 
brass, or nummus centenionalis, the reverse of which 
now bears the figure II engraved on a flat field, which 
appears to have been obtained by scraping down the 
original type. As the coin bears a blackish patina cover- 
ing both obverse and reverse, the alteration appears to 
be ancient. Akerman gives five varieties of these pieces, 
bearing respectively the Numerals H, III, IV, Vin, and Xlli, 
but they are not mentioned by Cohen. 

It seems impossible to accept the identification of the 
portrait of Isis as that of Helena. " I do not find," writes 
an eminent numismatist, "in the features of Isis the 
portrait of Helena, because I do not know the portrait 
of Helena ; " and we are in the same difficulty. Helena 
died some time before Julian's paganism was proclaimed, 
the marriage, as we have seen, was a political one, and we 
have no reason to suppose the existence of such devotion 
to his somewhat elderly wife during her life and to her 
memory after her death as would have induced him to 
commemorate her on a special series of coins. On the 
contrary, in all his writings he never mentions her name, 
nor is it inscribed on any coin. She had no special 
connexion with Egypt. The portrait on the coins bears 
no resemblance to those of the members of the Flavian 
family ; it is severe and dignified, and may well be a high 
conception of the personification of the goddess rather 
than a portrait of any human being. The Marlborough 
cameo, to which I have referred as supporting the elder 
numismatists in their attribution of the series to the 
reign of Julian, fails to support Cohen's classification, 


for the portrait of Isis on the gem differs from that on 
the coins, the features being somewhat less noble and 
the chin weaker in a marked degree, differences which 
would hardly have occurred had the faces been actually 
portraits of the same lady. 

The fact that the series is dedicated to the Egyptian 
gods renders it the more probable that it was struck in 
Egypt. The cult of Isis was followed in Borne, but not 
to the exclusion of those of the Graeco-Koman gods, 
and, though for a short time in Julian's reign the 
pagans had, no doubt, the upper hand in Kome as else- 
where, it seems impossible to suppose that the Roman 
mints would, while issuing so many types, have used 
none in honour of the Eoman gods. It is difficult to 
believe that so large a series could have been issued, 
even in Egypt, under Christian Emperors, and the 
position of affairs in Alexandria during Julian's reign 
lends some colour to the suggestion that the moment 
was favourable for a large unauthorized issue. The 
citizens were always turbulent; as soon as the news 
of Julian's accession to sole power reached them they 
rose and massacred their Archbishop George and Dra- 
contius the master of the mint, the latter because he 
had removed an altar set up in the mint. These 
murders took place on December 24, 361, and it 
is probable that the see remained vacant until 
February 21, 362, when Athanasius, who had been dis- 
possessed by George, retook possession of it. Towards 
the end of the same year he was again expelled by 
order of Julian, who, in Letter vi., addressed to Ecdicius, 
Prefect of Alexandria, says, "I swear by the great 
Serapis, that unless before the Kalends of December 
this Athanasius, enemy of the gods, has departed from 


Alexandria, nay from Egypt, the officers of your govern- 
ment shall pay a fine of one hundred pounds of gold. 
You know my temper; I am slow to condemn, but I 
am slower still to forgive." The see was again vacant 
till the death of the Emperor, when the irrepressible 
Athanasius returned once more. It is probable that the 
bearded portrait of Julian had not reached Egypt before 
February, 362, for, as above mentioned, the issue of the 
coins of Class II. was not abandoned for some time after 
the death of Constantius. It is suggested, therefore, 
that the pagan issue may very possibly have been made 
in the early part of 363, but this must be considered as 
mere conjecture. 

In conclusion, it is submitted that the whole of the 
coins published by Cohen under his three divisions, 
except those removed by M. Dieudonne, should be attri- 
buted to Julian alone, and that all reference to Helena 
should be abandoned. 

Subjoined is a table showing the working of the mints 
so far as I have been able to verify it. The number of 
secular types employed during the reign was small : 
nearly all the common coins commemorate either PEL. 

Vota, or bear a star within a wreath without reverse 

The following coins appear to be unpublished : 

1. Obv.D N IVLIANVS P F AVG. Diademed draped 

bust, r. 

. SPES REIPVBLICE. Julian in military attire, 
standing 1., holding r.' globe surmounted by 
a star, 1. vertical spear. In exergue, T CON. 

M. Size 16 X 18 mm. 

2. Obv. DEO SARAPIDI. Draped bust without radiation, 
r., the features resembling those of Julian. 



t VOTA PVBLICA. Egyptian priest walking 1., 
holding r. long vertical staff, 1. arm bent, the 
hand resting on his chest. No mint-mark. 
J&. Size 13 x 14 mm. ^^- 

3. Variety of Cohen, Julian 14. JE,. 3 , with obverse legend 


4. Variety of Cohen, Julian 47. JR. 3 , with obverse legend 


5. Variety of Cohen, Julian 163. JR., with obverse legend 

PL CL IVLIANVS P P AVG. The ornament on the 
diadem resembles a lotus-flower. 

6. Variety of Cohen, Helena 14. M*, with draped bust 

r., without sistrum. 

7. Variety of Cohen, Helena 16. j33. 3 , with bust as last; 

on reverse, Isis faces 1. and the dog r. 


JX T o. 

Mint City. 

Period I. 

Period II. 
Augustus beardless. 

Period III. 
Augustus bearded. 


m.'/E. 1 

A^. 3 



A^. 1 

A^. 3 



A^. 1 

A^. 3 


Alexandria . . 






Antioch . . . x 










Aquileia. . . - 






Aries . ! x 









5 Constantinople 











Cyzicus . . . : 






Heraclea . . 





Lyons . . . - 








Nicomedia . . - 







Rome . . . x 







Sirmium . . x - 








Siscia . . .x 






Thessalonica . - 









Treves . . . ! - 





NOTE. Medallions were struck during Period I. in gold at Aries and 
Constantinople, in silver at Aries, and in bronze at Rome ; during 
Period II. in silver at Aries and Constantinople ; and during Period III. 
in silver at Antioch, Constantinople, and Sirmium, and in bronze at 
Antioch, Constantinople, Heraclea, and Rome. 

No. ^E. 2 bearing mint-marks are recorded. 

The mint-marks R A V and LV N D are recorded, but, I think, erroneously. 



(See Plates VI., VII.) 

AETHELRED II was born in the year 968 A.D., and, on 
the assassination of his half-brother, Edward the Martyr, 
was consecrated king in 978 A.D. In 1013 the pressure 
of the Danish invasions caused him to fly to his father- 
in-law, Kichard, Duke of Normandy, but in the following 
year, on the death of the Danish King Sven, he was 
recalled by the Witan. He survived only two years, 
ending his days in London in 1016 A.D., after a calamitous 
reign of thirty-eight years. 

The very large payments made to the Danes in this 
reign, much of which was in coin, and the disturbed 
state of the whole of Northern Europe at the time, which 
caused the secretion of part of the plunder, have resulted 
in numerous examples of Aethelred's coins being handed 
down to our age ; and this paper will be an attempt, 
first, to elucidate the sequence of the types on more 
final lines, and, secondly, to suggest their times of issue 
and probable meanings. 


Besides desultory efforts suggested by finds of coins, 
there appear to have been only two complete attempts 
to elucidate the different coin-types of Aethelred II. 



The first of these was by Hildebrand, when compiling the 
Catalogue of Anglo-Saxon Coins in the Eoyal Cabinet at 
Stockholm, and the second by the authors of the Catalogue 
of Anglo-Saxon Coins in the British Museum, vol. ii. In 
the first case, seven distinct issues were suggested, and in 
the second, eleven issues. Before going further, it will 
be well to ascertain whether all these can be really 
admitted as distinct types, or, indeed, as Anglo-Saxon 
coins at all. Probably owing to the huge payments 
made to the Danes, which, as a glance at the Saxon 
Chronicle will indicate, could not sometimes be handed 
over fast enough, an abnormal number of mule coins 
and other aberrations occur of this reign, and these, at 
first sight, lead one to suppose that there is a greater 
number of distinct issues than is really the case. For 
instance, Types iv., v., and vi. of the British Museum 
Catalogue are simply excessively rare mule coins, while 
on the other hand, there is little doubt that Type iv. 
var. a, of that arrangement, corresponding with Type D 
in Hildebrand, is a distinct issue. Type vii. of the 
British Museum Catalogue is an excessively rare varia- 
tion of Type viii., with the letters C. R. V. X. in place of 
the quadrilateral ornament of the latter issue. Type ix. 
of the British Museum Catalogue, with its variety, which 
are represented in Hildebrand as Type F and F, var. a, 
are Danish, as stated in a footnote in the former work. 
They are imitations of the coins of Aethelred II, struck 
at Lund, in Sweden. Type x. of the British Museum 
Catalogue, corresponding with Type G of Hildebrand, 
commonly called the " Agnus Dei " type, is more of a 
medal or commemorative issue than a coin, as will be 
shown later ; while Type xi. of the British Museum 
Catalogue, Hildebrand Type G, var. a, is simply a 


mule composed of an " Agnus Dei " obverse, and a 
reverse of the coins current at the time the " Agnus 
Dei" medals were struck. It should be mentioned, 
however, that the British Museum Catalogue does 
not pretend to prove the number of types and their 
sequence, but is rather a faithful record of the coins in 
the National Collection. With the exceptions enume- 
rated above, the present writer is in agreement with the 
compilers of the two works mentioned as to the number 
of distinct types of coins of Aethelred II. In other 
words, this number is reduced to five, excluding the 
"Agnus Dei" issue, viz. Types A, B, C, D, and E, of 
Hildebrand; Types i., ii. var. a, iii. var. a, iv. var. a, 
and viii. of the British Museum Catalogue; and 
No. 205, Types 5 and 2, Nos. 207 and 203, in Hawkins' 
Silver Coins of England. The investigations of the 
present writer have, however, led him to the conclusion 
that these five issues were struck in the order of the 
following descriptions. 

As previously indicated, there were a good many 
departures from, or modifications of, the standard types 
during this reign, but as this paper is primarily one 
in which it is proposed to elucidate the types and suggest 
their times of issue, and also for the sake of clearness, 
it is not proposed to describe what might be termed 
the minor varieties, that is, those which have apparently 
no relation to the general authorized designs, and which 
consist, usually, in the addition of small crosses, single 
or in number, pellets, annulets, and letters, &c., in the 
field of the obverse or reverse, often in positions where 
it was obviously not the official intention that any 
addition or alteration should be made (see PI. VI. 12 
and 13). These symbols were probably private marks of 


engravers or moneyers certainly so in some cases and 
consequently they do not bear on the question of the 
sequence of the issues like the mule coins, or have 
the character of authorized departures as in the case of 
the other major varieties. The necessity for describing 
and properly placing the major varieties consists also 
in the fact that some have been confounded with the 
distinct types, and, if they were omitted, the same mis- 
apprehension might occur in the future. 


(Hild., B. ; B. M. C., ii. var. a; Hawkins, Type 5.) 
Obv. Broad diademed bust to r., clothed in a mantle 
with circular folds. Around, inscription 
between two circles. 

-Ret?. Divine hand issuing from clouds, a pellet or 
annulet sometimes in the centre of the cloud 
space; at the sides of the hand, A and G3. 
Around, inscription between two circles. 


*\Rev. + MANNA M"0 T0TAN (Totness). 
Author's Collection. 

Obv. Long diademed bust to r., clothed in a Y-shaped 
mantle. Around, inscription between two 

Rev. Divine hand issuing from the cuff of a sleeve ; 
at the sides of the hand, ft. and 00. Around, 
inscription between two circles. 

PI VI 2 iv. +/E-DELRED REX ftNLL.Cn* 

'\Rev. + /EADLAR MO OEOTFOR(Thetford). 

Author's Collection. 
Obv. As PL VI. 1. 
Rev. As PL VI. 2. 


(Rev. + OBAN MX) EF ER PI (York). 
Author's Collection. 


This type, although fairly plentiful, is the least 
common of the reign. The coin represented by PI. VI. 3 
is, however, a rare mule, and has only been noticed 
amongst the coins of York. 

Type 1, var. a (Hild., B 1, var. a; B. M. C., ii.). 

Obv. As PI. VI. 1, but the bust is turned to the 1. 

Rev. As PL VI. 1. 

Rev. + LIFINC M"0 C/ENTPARA (Canter- 

Author's Collection. 

This is an extremely rare variety. 

Type 1, var. b (Hild., B 1, var. b- B. M. C., ii. var. c). 

Obv. As before, but the bust is turned to the r. as in 
the main type; a cross pommee sceptre in 

Rev. As PI. VI. 2. 

. __- (Obv. + /EOELR/ED REX ANDLO1X 
fl. VI. 0.\ jRe ^_ + LYTELMAN M - 0rj | PES (Ip SW i c h). 

Royal Cabinet, Stockholm. 

This is an excessively rare variety, made up with a 
reverse of the type (PI. VI. 2) and an obverse of the next 
variety, PI. VI. 6. 

Type 1, var. c (Hild., B 2 ; B. M. C., ii. var. d ; Hawkins, 

No. 206). 

Obv. As before. 

Rev. As PL VI. 1, but with lines curved outwards 
issuing from the clouds ; pellet under ft and 
under (x). 


PL VI. v.-ft ev -fXPETINr; M"O LVND (London). 

Author's Collection. 

This variety is little less common than the type, and 


the addition of the sceptre constitutes, it is thought, a 
connecting link between Types 1 and 2, as on the coins 
of the latter the sceptre invariably appears, while on the 
coins of Types 3, 4, and 5, it is never seen. 

Type 1, var. d (Hild., B 2, var. a ; B. M. 0., ii. var ; e). 
Obv. As before. 

Rev. As before, but without the letters A, GO, and 
pellets at the sides of the hand. 


\Rev. + /ELFXTAN M~O LECC:E (Chester). 
Royal Cabinet, Stockholm. 

This variety is excessively rare. The omission of the 
letters ft and U) is perhaps accidental, in which case the 
coin should not have had a place here. But it may 
possibly be a transitional piece between varieties c and e, 
and it is included on that account. 

Type 1, var. e (Hild., B 3 ; B. M. C., ii. var. /; Hawkins, 
Type 6). 

Obv. Bareheaded bust to r., with smooth hair. In 
front, a sceptre, cross pattee. 

Rev. Divine hand giving the Latin benediction, i.e. 
the third and fourth fingers closed ; small 
cross generally in the clouds. 

pl v , ft (Obv.~ + /E> EL/RED REX ANCLCOX 

'\Rev. + XPYRLINC M~O )EO (Thetford). 

British Museum. 
This is a scarce variety. 

Type 'n mule (Hild., C, var. c ; B. M. C., iii. var. Z>). 

Obv. Similar to Type 1, var. c. [PI. VI. 6.] 
Rev. Similar to Type 2. [PI. VI. 11.] 

ri. VI. y-\jtfcy. + VNBELN M~0 LINIOL (Lincoln). 
Royal Cabinet, Stockholm. 


Type rey ' 2 mule (Hild., C, var. d; B. M. C., iii. var. c). 

Obv. Similar to Type 1, var. e. [PI. VI. 8.] 
Rev. Similar to Type 2. [PL VI. 11.] 

PI VT inl bv ~ + /EOELRED REX AN:LO 

^'\Rev.~ + BYRHXIDE M"O BEAR(Barnstaple). 
Carlyon-Britton Collection. 

These are excessively rare mules. 

(Hild., C ; B. M. C., iii. var. a Hawkins, Type 2.) 

Obv. Bareheaded bust to 1., smooth hair. In front, 
a cross pomme'e sceptre. Around, inscription 
between two circles. 

Rev. A short voided cross, frequently with a pellet in 
the centre. In the angles, the letters CRV+. 
Around, inscription between two circles. 

PI VT 11 i^ v " + /E>ELR/ED REX AfSCLOTX 

VI. Ll..\ft ev _ + BYRHSICE M~O PIN (Winchester). 

Author's Collection. 

This is one of the three very common types of the 

(Hild., E ; B. M. C., viii. ; Hawkins, 203.) 

Obv. Helmeted and armoured bust to the 1., very fre- 
quently an annulet on the shoulder. Around, 
inscription divided by the bust ; no inner 
circle. On some coins more of the body is 
visible, and the helmet is plain. 

Rev. A compartment with curved sides, three pellets at 
each corner ; over it a long voided cross, each 
limb terminating in three crescents ; pellet in 
centre. Around, inscription ; no inner circle. 

PI. VI. 12. Amplitude of shoulder and figured helmet. 



. __ |- EfiDPOLD MO LVN (London); minor variety 
with an annulet in two quarters. 

Author's Collection. 

PI. VI. 13. Small bust and plain helmet 

fi ev . + COLLRIM MO EOF (York); minor variety 
with pellet in one quarter. 

Author's Collection. 

This type, although fairly plentiful, is not so common 
as Types 2, 4, and 5. 

Type 3, var. a (Hild., E, var. c ; B. M. C., vii.). 
Obv. As PL VI. 12. 

Rev. Long voided cross reaching to the edge of the 
coin; pellet in centre. The letters CRV+ in 
the angles. Around, inscription; no inner 

fQl Vt + /E-DELRED REX AfSCh. 

PI. VI. l4.\Rev. + LOL DVX M'O 5EREBRIL (Salis- 

Royal Cabinet, Stockholm. 

This is an excessively rare variety, showing a lingering 
trace of the preceding issue. 

Type l- mule (Hild., E, var. 6; B. M. C., vi.). 

Obv. As Type 3. [PL VI. 12.] 
Eev. As Type 4. [PL VII. 2.] 


(Eev. + PVLM/ER M^O L INI (Lincoln). 
Royal Cabinet, Stockholm. 

This is an excessively rare mule. 
A mule of an uncertain mint composed of an obverse 
of Type 4 and a reverse of Type 3 was listed in the 


Numismatic Circular of 1900, but the writer has not been 
able to discover its whereabouts. 

(Hild., D; B. M. C., iv. var. a; Hawkins, 207.) 

Obv. Bareheaded bust to 1., with outstanding hair. 
Around, inscription divided by the, bust ; no 
inner circle. 

Rev. Similar to Type 3, but without the quatrefoil 
ornament in the centre of the cross. 

(Obv. + /E0ELRED REX 
*'\Rev. + EADPINE M'O LVND (London). 
Author's Collection. 

This is one of the three most common types of the 

There are coins of this type, and perhaps of others, the 
obverse die for striking which was cut the wrong way. 
Consequently, the impression is retrograde, and the coins 
have a very curious appearance. 

oViv 4- 

Type - - mule (Hild., A, var./; B. M. C., i. var. e). 
rev. o 

Obv. As Type 4. [PI. VII. 2.] 
Rev. As Type 5. [PL VII. 5.] 



*'Rev. + PVLXTEN MO LVNDE (London). 

Royal Cabinet, Stockholm. 

Type ^4 mule (Hild., D, var. a; B. M. C., iv.). 
rev. 4: 

>. As Type 5. [PI. VII. 5.] 
Bev. As Type 4. [PI. VII. 2.] 



'Hev. + DVDA M'O PINTO (Winchester). 

Royal Cabinet, Stockholm. 

These are two excessively rare mules. 



(Hild., A; B. M. C., i. ; Hawkins, 205.) 

Obv. Small diademed bust to 1., within an inner 

circle. Around, inscription. 
Rev.- Small cross pattee within a circle. Around, 


fL Vll. v-\fi ev _ + QXLOT M'ON EOFRFI (York). 

Author's Collection. 

This is, perhaps, the most common type of the reign. 

Type 5, var. a (Hild., A, var. a ; B. M. C., i. var. a). 
Obv. As before, but bust turned to r. 
Rev. As before. 


PL VII. 6. Rev. + LEOFXTfiN ON C/ENT: (Canter- 
bury). Author's Collection. 

This is a very rare variety. 

Type 5, var. b (Hild., A, var. e ; B. M. C., i. d). 

Obv. Bust of a transitional character between those 
on Types 4 and 5. It is diademed like Type 5, 
but descends to the edge of the coin like 
Type 4 . Around, inscription divided by the bust. 
Rev. As before. 
, (Obv. + /EOELRED REX 7X1 

''(Rev. + EfiDPOLD MO LVNDE (London). 
Royal Cabinet, Stockholm. 

This is an excessively rare variety. 
There are mules of this reign, as of others, which 
were not struck from dies of successive issues, one or two 
types intervening. Those known to the writer may be 
described as follows : 

Mule a (Hild., A, var. b ; B. M. C., i. var. 6). 
Obv. As Type 2. [PL VI. 11.] 
Rev. As Type 5. [PL VII. 5.] 


. + ARNCYTEL M"O EOFR (York). 
Carlyon-Britton Collection. 

Mule b (Hild., C, var. b ; B. M. C., iii. ; Hawkins, 204). 
Obv.A* Type 5. [PI. VII. 5.] 
Bev. As Type 2. [PL VI. 11.] 


' \Eev. + PVNXTAN M"0 PIN (Winchester). 
British Museum. 

These two mules, although rare, are not excessively so. 

Mule c (Hild., E, var. a; B. M. C., v.). 
Obv. As Type 3. [PI. VI. 12.] 
Rev. As Type 5. [PI. VII. 5.] 


PI. VII. 10. \Rev. + LEOFDOD ON PIHRACX (Wor- 

Royal Cabinet, Stockholm. 

This is an excessively rare mule. 2 

It is significant that the three mules above described 
were all struck during the issue of Type 5, which is pro- 
bably the most common of the reign, and the fact bears 
out the inference, which may be gathered from the Saxon 
Chronicle, that that type was issued under great pressure, 
necessitating the use of all available dies, whether old 
and obsolete, or new. 

1 I am indebted to Dr. Lawrence for the suggestion that the obverse 
of this coin was struck from a die of Type i., var. a, with the bust 
turned to the left instead of to the right. If this is the case, the 
number of miscellaneous mule coins will be reduced to two, and an 
additional link in the chain of evidence connecting Types i. and ii. will 
have been forged. 

2 In the collection of Mr. Carlyon-Britton is one without the usual 
inner circle on the reverse, but the legend is blundered and retrograde. 



(Hild., G; B. M. C., Type x. ; Hawkins, Type 7.) 

Obv. The Agnus Dei to r. ; below, AG or AGN, within 
a beaded compartment. Around, inscription ; 
no inner circle. 

Rev. The Holy Dove with wings outspread. Around, 
inscription no inner circle. 

L< LLm (Rev. + BLTXCfiMfiN :: DY RE BY (Derby). 
Carlyon-Britton Collection. 

This interesting piece is extremely rare. 

Obv. As the Agnus Dei medal. [PL VII. 11.] 
Rev. As Type 5. [PI. VII. 5.] 


PI VTT 19 



PINE ON STA (Stamford). 
Royal Cabinet, Stockholm. 

This is excessively rare, being represented by the prob- 
ably unique half-coin in the Koyal Cabinet at Stockholm. 

The coins represented by 1. Hild., Type A, var. c, 
B. M. C., Type i., var. c; 2. Hild., Type A, var. d; 3. Hild., 
Type B 1, var. c, B. M. C., Type ii. var. I ; and 4. Hild., 
Type C, var. a, have been omitted, as it is considered that 
they are only minor varieties. There were precedents in 
former reigns for the addition of the four smaller crosses 
on the first two, and these crosses certainly give symmetry 
to the design, but that does not, in itself, seem a sufficient 
reason for differentiating the coins from the other minor 
varieties which have a less number of additional crosses. 
The reversal of the letters A and U) on Hild., Type B 1, 
var. c, B. M. C., Type ii., var. &, is evidently accidental. 

An analysis, on broad lines, of the designs on all the 
coins described above will also bear out the proposition 


that there are only five distinct types of the reign, 
excluding the Agnus Dei pieces. The nomenclature 
adopted, which is based on the most prominent features 
of the reverses, is evidence of this so far as the reverse 
designs are concerned. As regards the obverses, the 
busts on the coins of Type 1 are generally diademed, but 
towards the end of the issue they are bareheaded with 
smooth hair. The sceptre, which is the characteristic 
feature of Type 2, had, by then, also been introduced. 
The busts on Type 2 are short, with head bare and 
straight hair. Those on Type 3 are helmeted and 
armoured, and descend to the edge of the coins. Those 
on Type 4 are bareheaded again, but the hair is now 
outstanding, and they also follow the preceding type 
by descending to the edge of the coins. The busts on 
Type 5, whether turned to the right or left, are small 
and diademed, and are enclosed, almost invariably, in the 
inner circle. The varieties of the types, which have led 
to so much confusion in the past, are, generally speaking, 
made up by the striking of mule coins, by the transposition 
of the busts, by the addition of a sceptre where, in the type, 
it is absent, and by slight modifications on the reverse. 

The way is now clear to make the attempt to prove 
the sequence proposed. 

The writer is not aware that it has previously been 
noticed that the transition from M"O for " monetarius," or 
"monetarius of," to ON for "of" or "in," between the 
moneyers' and mint names, has a very important bear- 
ing on the question of the order of the types. 
Although the writer came to a conclusion as to the 
correct sequence on other grounds, it is proposed first 
to consider the deductions to be made from this transi- 
tion, as they seem the most convincing. It is well 



known that M"O is the early abbreviation shown on the 
coins, and that ON is the later form of connecting the 
moneyers' name with that of the mint. It naturally 
follows, therefore, that the class in which the form IVTO 
occurs most frequently is the earliest, and that the type 
on which ON preponderates is the last. To apply this 
to the coins of Aethelred II, the pieces of that King in 
the Royal Cabinet at Stockholm, as represented by the 
catalogue of 1881, have been analyzed, with the results as 
shown in the statement below. The Stockholm Collec- 
tion was selected as constituting a fair test of the above 
theory, not only because it is a far larger assemblage of 
coins of Aethelred II than exists here, but because it 
contains no actual duplicates which, as a matter of fact, 
went largely to supply the cabinets in this country. 





M O 




(Hild., B ; B. M. C., ii. var. a ;} 
Hawkins, Type 5) . . . ./ 



(Hild., C ; B. M. C., iii. var. a ;\ 
Hawkins, Type 2) . . . ./ 



(Hild., E; B. M. C., viii. ;\ 
Hawkins 203) / 




(Hild., D ; B. M. C., iv. var. a ;\ 
Hawkins, 207) / 




(Hild., A ; B. M. C., i. ; Haw-\ 
kins, 205) / 





It will be observed that in Types 1 and 2 the form ivro 
is practically universal, No. 2 departing from that form 
to a slightly greater extent than No. 1. The test seems, 
therefore, to prove beyond doubt that these two types 
were the first of the reign. At the other end, although 
the form ON was at least commenced on Type 4, the 
very large proportion of coins of Type 5 with this form 
certainly leaves little room for doubt of its place as last 
of the series ; while on Types 3 and 4 there is a large 
proportion of intermediate forms which fixes their position 
between Types 2 and 5. It should be mentioned that 
there is nothing in the B. M. C. to militate against the 
above arrangement. The coins described therein point 
in the same direction. 

This transition was practically commenced in the reign 
of Aethelred II, and it may be said to have been com- 
pletely carried out in the next, that of Cnut, as it will be 
found that the form ON, after a gradually increasing ratio 
to the earlier form, is nearly universal on Cnut's coins of 
the type of Hild., Type H., B. M. C., Type xvi., which 
are the latest of the three common issues of that reign. 
From this period the form IN/TO entirely disappears from 
the coinage, beyond an accidental piece or two of the 
reign of Harold I, and perhaps that of Harthacnut ; and 
the form ON maintains its monopoly until Edward I, in 
the latter half of the thirteenth century, abolished the 
custom of placing the moneyers' names on the coins. 

Incidentally, it might be mentioned that in preparing 
the above table, it was found that the variations in the 
form of the connecting link between the mint and the 
moneyers' names have some bearing on the question of 
die-sinking. It was discovered that the introduction 
of ON was territorially, as well as chronologically, a 


gradual one ; the innovation being very tardily adopted 
by the towns in the North. In illustration of this it may 
be mentioned that the coins of Type 5 of Winchester, a 
very " common " mint, practically all have the late form 
of ON, while, at the other extreme, there are no coins of 
York of Type 5 in Hildebrand which have this form ; 
the places between adopting varying proportions of the 
two forms or their intermediates. It has hitherto been 
supposed that, as a general rule, the dies at this time 
were made at one centre, and London has been suggested 
as that centre ; but the test of the sequence of the types 
which has been under consideration seems to prove that, 
during the latter part of Aethelred's reign at least, 
Winchester initiated the changes in the designs and 
inscriptions, since it was in that city that the new form 
of ON was first universally adopted, and it seems, from 
the proportion of coins of other towns in the country on 
which the change was effected, to be beyond question 
that no one centre was wholly responsible for making 
the dies. It appears to be probable that England was 
divided into what may be called " die-sinking areas," in 
the chief towns of which the dies for the surrounding 
mint boroughs were cut. These areas may very well 
have coincided with the great ealdormanries, as it is an 
historical fact that these had their own local customs 
and usages, and probably, until at least as late as the 
reign of Aethelred II, their own witenagemots (Stubbs, 
Const. Hist., p. 132). As an illustration of this it might 
be mentioned that the Saxon Chronicle, under the year 
1004, records a convention, by Ulfkytel the thane, of a 
meeting of the witan of East Anglia for the purpose of 
discussing peace with King Sven, who had just previously 
ravaged Norwich ; an almost regal act, quite on a par 


with the independent making of dies for a coinage. A 
comparison of all the coins of the different minting- 
places might very possibly demonstrate the limits 
of these die-sinking areas ; but the subject is not 
quite pertinent to the present paper. To return to 
this, it will have been seen that the order of the 
issues, as disclosed by the test of the reverse inscrip- 
tions, is as proposed above; but it will be well to 
examine what other corroborative evidence there is 
of this. 

An important test is that of the evidence of " finds." 
Most of these have been unearthed in Scandinavia and 
Denmark, or, indeed, generally around the shores of 
the Baltic Sea ; but, for the reason of difficulty of re- 
ference or lack of proper record, the following summary 
of these finds must not be considered as in any way 
complete. In most of the finds a record of the types 
represented has not been preserved, and they are there- 
fore of no assistance in ascertaining the sequence of the 
issues. (See Table, p. 268.) 

The Scandinavian finds enumerated contained also 
German, Oriental, and Scandinavian coins of a varied 
and mixed character ; but, with the exception of a few 
cases . hereinafter mentioned, these coins are of no 
assistance in elucidating the subject under treatment. 
A record of such coins has, therefore, not been included 
in the statement. 

Hildebrand says of Find 4 that the Anglo-Saxon coins 
contained in it were all of Aethelred II, mostly of Type 
2 (his Type C). The hoard also included two Swedish 
coins of Olaf Skotkonung, so that the deposit was not 
earlier than 993 or 995 A.D., and the coins of Aethelred II 
not of Type 2 were very possibly of Type 1 (Hild., Type 



I |3 J-s g . |L 

M 8t c-iHs2 """*. 'I 


1 ^S |E-|| HI 


^ Mg r-l ^ 03 "oT-i "S ^ 


I^Ss ^S".. s a!n 


" ^^'"sS ^ -g"S "* M ~2 -2 


S ^a 1 "! ^o^l -ilj 

J ^- _; M'Si'i'J^ S'^''- H ''^ 5^.1 OD 

"^ of ^3 ^-"S 2 1 "*" " Ei"S *r*S'.2 * 

Slw 1^^1 Mr ^ v ~' " 

j9(I snufcy 

i i i i i + i i M i i i i i i i i + 

('SOS ''H 


JT'O'IM - e -V"PI!H) 

IIM++ +M+++M | | + ] + 



| (-405 "H inuiM. 


| Aj'-o-w'syi'THH) 


+1111 1 ++II++II 1 ! + | + 


=3 t t C-OS"H 4 

llllll+IIM + lll! 1 1 + 


a '2 adAjj 


"i (7 od.fy '-JI S -Jt?A 


; in t> '0'i\i' > a i o' t pim) 

I++++I ++I++++++I | ++ 


'S ^d^x 



I++7+I i+ + + + + ++ | + + + 


^- | 


fo ^_ 


10 ^ 


11 P9ai9may jo suioo jo -0^3; 

acoaaww n ^ M - * a w .... |^| i^ o g 


^- 2 ^ ^ 


r i <q 


i-4 > ^" g 


fe ri 1 ^ S r i^a 



^ ri a! of Is j a ^. 




C d d o d d d dodo d - d ? b ^ ^ ^ m .5 
_.O^ftC, fi Q QfiQQ a Sft|^ r g"v g|S 


B 6w*^^^8.*jil 

g g . g | | 

^ Ll sZ !~ 

. . 00 . 

00 rH 
CO * 

,:,.;; ' 2 -g 

S '1 2 * ^Ss^'lSioSS" ' ' M '^ 

" ^ o"~l 2 'O 00 Sc?' s S 00 >l ' ' ^ 'oo 


SiliiM |!i if 

g=!is i :-"-fi & *& * :- s i * 
ill! HIS 1 1 1! 


^NM^OO ^OOWOrH^M^^tD ^ 000> 


B) as in find No. 3. The composition of the two hoards 
was, in other respects, similar. 

Find No. 5 contained a fragment of a coin of Basil II, 
Emperor of the East from 976 to 1025, also a coin of 
Olaf Skotkonung, 993 or 995 to 1022, so that the hoard 
could have included all the types of Aethelred II. This 
is important, as it proves that the absence of Types 3 and 
4 was accidental, and not because they could not have 
been present. 

The types of the 134 coins of Aethelred II in Find No. 6 
were not recorded except one specimen and a fragment 
of the Agnus Dei issue. As, however, the rest of the 
Anglo-Saxon coins contained in the hoard were of Cnut, 
Harold I, Harthacnut, and Edward the Confessor, there 
is very little doubt that the bulk or all the Aethelred 
coins belonged to Type 5. 

Find No. 10 is the one on which Hildebrand appears 
to have based his theory of the succession of his Types 
A, B, and C, and of their place as first in the reign. The 
hoard certainly contained some older coins than usual, 
but, fortunately, it also included one of Bernard, Duke 
of Saxony. This might have been struck by the first of 
the name, or his successor, the second Bernard. If the 
latter, the deposit could not have been earlier than 
1011 A.D., but if the former, it might have been hidden 
any time up to and including that year. The absence 
of Types 3 and 4 was therefore clearly accidental, as in 
the case of Find No. 5. 

The same may be said of the absence of Type 3 from 
Finds Nos. 8 and 11. It will be observed, from the last 
column of the statement, that coins of whole reigns 
were absent from some of the finds, notably No. 11. 

All the other hoards tabulated need no comment. They 


mostly speak forcibly in favour of the order of succession 

Another test of the sequence of the types is to bei 
found in the evidence of the mule coins, although this 
evidence, in itself, is not, during Aethelred's reign at least, 
conclusive, as impressions from dies still capable of 
service of two or even three preceding issues were muled 
with impressions from a later one (see mule coins a, I, and 
c, PI. VII. 8, 9, and 10). So far as the writer has 
been able to ascertain, there are no connecting mules 
between Types 2 and 3 ; but the excessively rare coin 
of Cnut represented in Hild. as Type A, var. a, and in 
the B. M. C. as Type v. is a connecting link between 
the last type proposed for Aethelred II and the first of 
Cnut; the obverse being of the latter reign and the 
reverse of the former. 

As regards the first and last types, valuable corrobora- 
tive evidence of their correct position is to be obtained 
by a comparison with the coins of Edward the Martyr 
the preceding, and Cnut the succeeding, monarchs. Of 
the two issues of Edward the Martyr there can be no 
reasonable doubt that the "Hand" type (Hild., B; 
B. M. C., ii.) is the later. It is represented by an unique 
coin of Canterbury see Montagu Catalogue, No. 751 
and that the issue should be excessively small is not alto- 
gether remarkable when it is remembered that Edward's 
reign was so abruptly closed by assassination. This type 
is identical, except as regards the sovereign's name, with 
the "Hand" type of Aethelred's coins, and on this ground 
alone it is reasonable to assume that the latter is the first 
of the reign under discussion. Sir John Evans expressed 
this opinion when commenting on the Ipswich find. 

As regards the last issue proposed, it is identical with 


some very rare pennies of Cnut represented by Hild., 
Type A, and in the B. M. C. by Type i. The resemblance 
is especially pronounced in the coins of Oswold, a 
moneyer of Norwich, of whom there are coins of both 
reigns. The reverse inscription on these coins reads 
+ OZFOLD . MON ONR-D, from which it will be observed 
that the two first letters of the mint-name have been 
transposed. Incidentally, this seems to indicate that 
Hild., Type A, of Cnut, B. M. C., Type i., is not a distinct 
issue of that monarch, but that it is simply composed of 
coins struck from old dies of Aethelred's last issue 
pressed into service, with the obverse slightly altered, 
probably during the pressure of the great payment 
of 72,000 Ibs. of silver levied at the commencement 
of Cnut's reign, and paid in 1018 A.D. It is thought 
probable that the coins of Hild., Type B, of Cnut, B. M. C., 
Type ii., were issued at the same time and for the same 
reason, from dies of Type 4 of Aethelred II, or copies of 
those dies. At least, it is a significant fact that a large 
proportion of the money went to pay Cnut's troops, 
which returned to Denmark in the same year, and 
that all, or nearly all, the coins of these two issues of 
Cnut have been found in Scandinavia or Denmark. 
The single coin at Stockholm representing Type C of 
Cnut (Hildebrand's arrangement), and described in the 
B. M. C. as Type iii., is palpably a rough copy of 
Type 3 of Aethelred II (present arrangement). In- 
stances of Cnut's die-makers copying Aethelred's types, 
either for the obverses or reverses of their coins, are not 
infrequent. Type D of Cnut in Hildebrand, and its 
variety, are manifestly Scandinavian, and consequently 
Type E is left as first of the reign of Cnut. This is 
evident on other grounds. 


There seems to be a tendency to exaggerate the im- 
portance of the moneyers' names as a test of the sequence 
of the issue of coins. So many circumstances unknown to 
us may enter into the case, however, that it cannot be 
deduced with certainty that a given type should not 
appear among a number of other types apparently, by 
the evidence of the moneyers' names, continuous; or, 
in other words, the existence of a given moneyer's name 
on several types is not conclusive proof that those types 
were continuous. Still, the moneyers' names on coins 
tend to corroborate, although they cannot, by themselves, 
prove a sequence. 

In order to make a test by this means, it is obviously 
best to take, as an example, the town of which we possess 
the largest number of coins, and of names on them, and 
that town, at least so far as the reign of Aethelred II is 
concerned, is undoubtedly London. It will, it is thought, 
be sufficient to bring again Hildebrand's invaluable 
catalogue into use, and the following statement, compiled 
from that catalogue, shows the sequence of the names of 
moneyers coming in the different types as laid down, 
first, by Hildebrand, and secondly, in the present 
paper. It has not been considered necessary to include 
the names of moneyers represented by one type of 
Ethelred II only, as they would unduly lengthen the list 
for practically no useful purpose, but the coinage of 
Edward the Martyr, and Type E of Cnut (Hildebrand's 
arrangement), have been given as having an important 
bearing on the question at issue. The latter type is, 
as previously suggested, the first of the reign of Cnut. 

An analysis of the details given in the statement will 
show at once that the evidence is neutral in the majority 
of cases. Kejecting as proof of either arrangement those 


names where there is a break in the sequence, and 
where they are continuous in both arrangements, it 
will be found that nothing can be deduced either way ; 
in the cases of thirty-nine names out of fifty-two, nine 
names are in favour of the present arrangement, viz., 


only four moneyers, viz., A^LFGET, /ELFNOO, HEAPVLF, 
and TOGA, in favour of Hildebrand's arrangement, and 
consequently that of the British Museum which, in the 
main, follows Hildebrand. It is beyond question that 
many changes in the moneyers occurred when Cnut com- 
menced to rule. It follows, therefore, that the moneyers 
whose names appear without a break in a series of types 
including the first of Cnut, are the most important as 
corroborative evidence of the continuity of those types. 
Five such names are found to be in favour of the pre- 
sent arrangement, viz., EADRIC, GODMAN, LEOFRED, LIFINC, 
and PVLFPINE, as against one only in favour of Hildebrand's 
arrangement, viz. TOGA. 

On the whole, it will readily be seen that the balance 
of evidence afforded by a consideration of the moneyers' 
names supports the sequence of types proposed in this 
paper. (See Table, p. 275.) 

For the reasons given in connexion with the evidence 
of the moneyers' names, no definite proof can be adduced 
from a consideration of the types represented in the 
various mints ; but for the sake of completeness, a state- 
ment embodying the information which can be culled from 
this source has been prepared (see Table, pp. 276, 277). 
Granting that a continuous sequence of two or more 
types from a mint tends to prove the order of those 
types, and omitting the sequences which occur in both 



arrangements, it will be seen that there are twelve mints 
exclusively in favour of the present arrangement, viz., 
Bristol, Cadbury, Dorchester, Dublin, Dunwich, Hastings, 
Romney, Sidbury or Sidnaceaster, Stafford, Tamworth, 
Taunton, and Ythaiiburh or Ythanceaster. The types 
of the four mints of Bridgnorth or Bridport, Sandwich, 
Sudbury, and Winchcombe would be exclusively in 
sequence were Hildebrand's arrangement the correct one ; 
while the remainder of the mints, sixty-two, afford no 
satisfactory evidence either way. Obviously, the balance 
of proof is in favour of the present arrangement. 

It should be mentioned that the table does not include 
some readings in Hildebrand and the B. M. C., which 
have been considered to represent mints additional to 
those here tabulated, either because these inscriptions 
are rnisreadings of mints already given, or by reason of 
their claim to represent towns in this country being 
more than doubtful. 

In connexion with the evidence of the mints, it 
should be mentioned that certain coins of Bedford afford 
noteworthy proof that the " Hand " type is the first of 
the reign. This is in the use of the form "moneta" 
on the reverse, one which is extremely rare on the coins 
of Aethelred II. At Bedford this form was consistently 
adopted by all the monarchs from Eadwig to the first 
issue of Aethelred II, when it seems to have been abruptly 
dropped, although there is a specimen in the British 
Museum of Type 5 struck at York. This city, however, 
as has already been noticed, was extremely conservative 
in regard to coin inscriptions, and but tardily relinquished 
forms which had long dropped into desuetude in the 

To summarize the deductions made, six independent 

London Mint. 


Types of 



Types of 
Aethelred II. 



















































































































































































































GODERE ." . 




























































4 4- 



























































ODA . 
































































i ' 































































Types of 
Aethelred II. 



Types of 
Aethelred II. 







































Bath .... 




























Bridgnorth or Bridport . 









Bristol . 





Bruton .... 





Buckingham . 





























Canterbury . 









































































Derby .... 


























Dover .... 













Dublin 3 


















Exeter . 




























































+ 4- 



















Huntingdon . 

+ + 












+ 1 + 


























Launceston . 



Lewes .... 











































































3 This was probably not a mint of Aethelred II, although coins of it were 
struck in his name. 





o H 

Types of 
Aethelred II. 



Types of 
Aethelred II. 





























Malmesbury . 













Milton or Milbourne 






















Nottingham . 









Oxford .... 





































Shaftesbury . 













Shrewsbury . 










Sandwich . 





Sidnaceaster or Sidbury . 










































































































Totness . 













Wallingford . 

















































Warminster or Warming-! 
ton . . . ./ 







Wilton .... 













Winchcombe . 








Winchester . 

























Ythanceaster or Ythan-t 

burh . 








York .... 















methods of testing the sequence of the types of Aethel- 
red's coins, as advanced in this paper, have been 
employed, viz. the evidence of the reverse inscriptions, 
of finds, of mule coins, of a comparison with the coins of 
the preceding and succeeding sovereigns, and, to some 
degree, of the mints and of the moneyers. As the main, 
if not the only, contemporary records of the time, viz. 
the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a Life ofDunstan (or perhaps 
two), and the laws and charters of the reign, do not give 
any clue to the sequence of the types of the coins, it is 
the hope of the writer that the proofs adduced may 
commend themselves for acceptance by those interested 
in the problem. 


To propose, even approximately, the times of issue 
and the meanings of the types is a far less certain task 
than ascertaining their sequence, and it is at once admitted 
that the following suggestions will be largely specula- 
tive. It is also the writer's desire to state that, while 
advancing what he considers to be the most reasonable 
explanations, based on a study of the contemporary or 
other records of the time, as well as on the coins, his 
interest in the period will cause him to be the first to 
welcome any more probable theories. 

The issue of the "Hand" type in 978 A.D., when 
Aethelred succeeded to the throne, seems beyond ques- 
tion. In addition to the evidence of this already adduced, 
it should be mentioned that, according to Hildebrand 
(1846), this is the only type of which there are no 
barbarous copies in the Museum at Stockholm, and the 
Table of Mints discloses the significant fact that it is the 


only type absent from the probably native mint of Dublin. 
The inference is that it is the only issue in which a large 
tribute payment was not made. In other words, that it 
was the first emission of the reign, and that it ceased to be 
issued before 991 A.D.. The " Hand " design is, of course, 
not new, as it was adopted on certain coins of Edward the 
Elder; but the addition of the Greek letters alpha and 
omega at a time when, in this country, Greek scholars 
were extremely few, adds a literary as well as ecclesiastical 
interest to the coins. There seems great probability that 
Dunstan, the then Archbishop of Canterbury, was re- 
sponsible for the adoption of the design. His pre- 
eminence in literature, his love of painting and design- 
ing, his paramount position on the councils of the King 
in whose reign the complete type was first introduced, 
all point to him as its author, more especially as the 
only known specimen of the initial issue was minted at 
Canterbury. If this proposition can be accepted, two 
facts seem to indicate the reason for its adoption. The 
first is the almost universal belief which then obtained, 
that the millennium would begin in the thousandth year 
after Christ. So strong was this belief in some parts 
of Europe, that the ordinary occupations of life were 
abandoned, and industries in many places came to a 
standstill, on the supposition that it was futile to do that 
which, in a short time, might be destroyed. The second 
fact is the religious, almost superstitious, tone of Dunstan's 
whole life, which found expression in vision, prophecy, 
and miracle. It is not unreasonable to suppose, there- 
fore, that he should make or prompt such a design as the 
one under notice. As a student, and especially as a 
student of religion, he would naturally be well acquainted 
with such passages in the Bible as bore on the popular 


belief of his time, and on the symbols placed on the 
coins ; such passages as, " Behold, He cometh with the 
clouds 1 ' (Kev. i. 7), and, "Behold, I make all things 
new. . . ." " They are come to pass ; " "I am the Alpha 
and the Omega, the beginning and the end " (Kev. xxi. 
5 and 6), and, " I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first 
and the last, the beginning and the end " (Rev. xxii. 13). 
The inference seems almost irresistible that the type 
expresses the popular belief of the time, and that it was 
prompted if not designed by Dunstan. 

The CRVX type, the next in order, was, by early 
writers, thought to have been imitated by Hakon, Prince 
of Norway, who was probably assassinated in 995 A.D., 
but it has been almost conclusively shown by Mr. Keary 
(Num. Chron., 1887), in a summary of the work of Dr. 
Hans Hildebrand, entitled Nordens Aldsta Mynt, that the 
earliest Scandinavian coinages, outside this country, 
were struck by the following princes : 

Ireland Sihtric III, 989-1029 A.D. 

Sweden Olaf Skotkonung, 993 or 995-1022 A.D. 
(1000-1015 in Norway). 

Denmark Sven Tvaeskegg, 985-1014 A.D. 

Norway Hakon Eriksson, 1015 A.D. ; St. Olaf, 1015- 

Bearing in mind Aethelred's temporary exile in 1013, 
and his death in 1016, it will readily be seen that the 
coins of the above princes might have been copied from 
types issued at practically any part of Aethelred's reign. 
Consequently, no satisfactory assistance in gauging the 
times of issue is forthcoming from a consideration of the 
contemporary Scandinavian coinages. 

A clue to the time of commencement of the CRVX type 
is, however, to be seen, perhaps, in the Danish attacks. As 


in the case of the Vikings of former times, these first 
came from the West, viz. by the Danes of Ireland, the 
Isle of Man, and the Western Isles of Scotland. There 
seems reason to suppose, therefore, that the Isle of Man 
find (No. 15) was the share of some Dane of that island, 
of the first national payment of 10,000 Ibs. of silver, made 
in 991 A.D., more especially as the coins were of mints 
universally situated, and all those pieces which were 
deciphered were of one type, that under notice. The 
issue of this type may, therefore, on these grounds, be 
placed in or just prior to 991 A.D. 

A not unreasonable explanation of the type can now be 
suggested, and it will also tend to corroborate the deduc- 
tion made in regard to the time of issue. This explanation 
is to be found partly in the meaning of the word CRVX 
itself, and partly in the prophetic utterances of Dunstan. 

Hitherto the common interpretation of the word CRVX 
viz. "cross," seems only to have been applied to an elucida- 
tion of the meaning of the type, as, for instance, when 
Mr. W. B. Dickinson, in commenting on the Isle of Man 
find, put forth the suggestion that it commemorated the 
triumph of the cross over paganism in the conversion of 
some Danish chief; and, again, in the British Numismatic 
Journal, vol. v. p. 370, where it is suggested by Mr. 
W. J. Andrew, that it may refer to the text, " Having 
made peace through the blood of His cross." But in a 
metonymic sense the word " crux" means "torture, trouble, 
misery, destruction/' &c., and that these misfortunes over- 
took the people at the time is abundantly evident from 
the pages of the Saxon Chronicle. They first became 
universal at the period proposed for the issue of the 
CRVX type, when the Danish irruption became combined 
and organized. The dismay and alarm universally 


caused by this organized descent on the country was 
accentuated by the prophetic utterances of Duns tan, 
who, as well as being the greatest scholar, was also the 
most influential man in Britain during his time. From 
the reign of Edmund through those of Eadred, Eadwig, 
Eadgar, and Edward II, he may be said to have guided 
the destinies of this country, and there is little doubt 
that the glory of the reign of Eadgar the Peaceable, the 
prosperous and happy period of the Saxon dispensation, 
is directly attributable to him, and his death in 988 A.D. 
was, therefore, an occasion of universal sorrow and 
dismay. His religious and prophetic character has 
already been referred to. The later chroniclers record 
his prophecies in some detail. Matthew of Westminster 
retails one, uttered at the coronation of Aethelred II, in 
the following words : " The sword shall never depart from 
your house, but shall rage against you all the days of 
your life, slaying your offspring, until your kingdom 
is transferred to another family, whose manners and 
language the nation which you govern knows not ; nor 
will your sin, and that of your mother, and of these men 
who assisted her wicked design, be expiated, except by 
a long course of punishment." A similar account is 
also given by William of Malmesbury, who also records, 
about four years later, that Dunstan, incensed against 
the King for his attack on Kochester, whose Bishop had 
given some unrecorded offence, sent messengers to 
Aethelred with the following words: " Since you have 
preferred silver to God, money to the apostle, and 
covetousness to me, the evils which God hath pronounced 
will shortly come upon you; but they will not come 
while I live, for this also hath God spoken." The 
chronicler further records : " Soon after the death of this 


holy man, the predictions speedily began to be fulfilled 
and the prophecies to have their consummation. For 
the Danes, infesting every part and making descents on all 
sides with piratical agility, so that it was not known where 
these could be opposed, it was advised by Siric, the second 
Archbishop after Dunstan, that money should repel those 
whom the sword could not ; so a payment of 10,000 pounds 
of silver satisfied the avarice of the Danes " (991 A.D.). 

Recollections of Dunstan must have been still fresh in 
men's minds at this time. His prophecies would recur 
to their memory and the huge payment shared in by all 
the people might reasonably be supposed to be the 
tangible sign of that trouble and misery which had been 
foretold. By this time the expectation of the millennium 
would naturally have become of secondary consideration 
in the presence of the organized Danish attack and its 
attendant calamities, and that the engravers of the dies 
should therefore place a badge on the coins indicating 
the tribulations of the people would not, at that time, 
be improbable, more especially when it is considered that 
the Church, which owed so much to Dunstan, would have 
been largely responsible for the selection of appropriate 
designs. The conclusion seems almost irresistible that 
the "crux" type was issued about the year 991 A.D., 
when the making of new dies would be necessary for 
striking the proportion of the bribe made in coin. 

The " Crux " type is the third most common of the 
reign, and it is probable, therefore, that it was still in 
currency at the date of the next great national pay- 
ment to the Danes of 16,000 Ibs. of silver, made in 
994 A.D. ; and possibly continued to be issued for ordinary 
purposes for some years after. It is considered that 
the next coinage, viz. the " Quadrilateral " type, was 


issued between 995 and 1002, but probably in or immedi- 
ately after 1000 A.D., for the following reasons. First, a 
considerable number of coins of this type have been found 
in Scandinavia, which tends to indicate that a Danegelt 
payment was made while it was current. Secondly, as 
the type, although plentiful, is the least common of 
the reign, except the " Hand " type, only one Danegelt 
payment was probably made in it, viz. that of 1002. 
Thirdly, the obverse design seems to be symbolic of that 
remarkable spasm of aggressiveness which Aethelred 
displayed in 1000 A.D., when, in spite of his difficulties 
with the Danes (who had plundered the whole of West 
Kent in 999 A.D.), he ravaged Cumberland, attacked the 
Isle of Man, and sent an expedition against Eichard of 
Normandy. Lastly, although the " Crux " type would 
constitute a not unsuitable one for the period up to 
the beginning of the expected millennium, the " Quadri- 
lateral " type, with its aggressive bust in armour and 
helmet, would scarcely voice the feelings of the time ; 
but when the prophecies in regard to the millennium 
were found to be unfulfilled, a design symbolic of the 
King's intentions would be likely to be adopted. In or 
immediately after the year 1000 A.D., it is possible, 
therefore, that the " Quadrilateral " type was first 
struck. It is not thought that the quatrefoil design on 
the reverse of this issue has any special significance. 

The next national payment of 36,000 pounds of silver 
was made in 1007 A.D., and there seems little doubt 
that the very common " long cross " type, No. 4, was in 
circulation at the time. The tribute was promised in 
1006 A.D., arid it is suggested that in that year new dies 
were made and the type changed at the same time. 

Finally, the possibly still more common " small cross " 


type, the last of the reign, was almost certainly in 
currency at the time of the next payment of 48,000 
pounds of silver, in 1012 A.D., and also of the "full 
tribute " exacted by Sven in 1013 A.D. The former was 
promised in 1011 A.D., by which date no doubt the dies 
of 1006 A.D. required replacing ; the type being probably 
changed at the same time. 

The simple device of a cross only adopted for Types 4 
and 5 scarcely needs comment. It was a return to an 
ancient and favourite form of design, which at least had 
the merit of simplicity, and this was a consideration at a 
period when the die-sinkers were no doubt pressed for 
time. It should here be mentioned that Mr. Carlyon- 
Britton, in writing on the coins of Edward the Confessor 
in the Numismatic Chronicle of 1905, threw out the 
suggestion that the three undivided crescents at the four 
points of the long cross of Type 4 symbolize the Holy 
Trinity ; but nothing in support of this was adduced. 

It will have been noticed that the small cross on 
Type 2 and the long crosses on Types 3 and 4 are 
voided, and it is not improbable that this form was 
adopted in order to facilitate the cutting of the coins 
into halves and quarters to circulate as halfpennies and 
farthings, as suggested in the Introduction to the British 
Museum Catalogue, vol. ii. The number of these cut coins 
which has survived to our time is, however, not so large as 
the adoption of this special device would lead one to expect. 

The remarkable Agnus Dei pieces are connected, in 
time, with the last issue by the unique mule in the 
Koyal Cabinet at Stockholm, one side of which was 
struck from a reverse die of the " small cross " type ; and 
also by the presence, in some cases, of ON between the 
moneyers' and mint names. 


There is no doubt in the mind of the writer that these 
pieces cannot be regarded as coins. The absence of the 
King's bust, in itself, seems to prove this, more especially 
when the character of the King is recollected. This has 
been described by Green as showing "a haughty pride 
in his own kingship " (The Conquest of England, p. 371), 
and the historian goes on to say, "The imperial titles 
which had been but sparsely used by his predecessors 
are employed profusely in his charters ; nor was his faith 
in these lofty pretensions ever shaken even at the time 
of his greatest misfortunes." It seems inconceivable, 
therefore, that such a monarch should have consented 
to dispense with a representation of himself on the coins 
at a time when such a practice had become firmly estab- 
lished, a practice which was not broken until the intro- 
duction of the gold currency. On the other hand, to 
issue a medal would certainly be in keeping with a 
character such as that above described. It is true that 
Aethelred's name and titles are borne on the pieces, but 
these may very well have been placed there to show 
when and in connexion with whom they were struck, as 
was done on the medals of later times. It is a fact, also, 
that some of the specimens preserved to us have been 
found in Scandinavia mixed with coins ; but this is 
explained by the probability that any silver at hand at 
the time was pressed into service in order to make up the 
total weight of treasure exacted, as ingots of silver, rings, 
&c., are also found in the hoards as a general rule. 

Another peculiarity about these Agnus Dei pieces is 
the absence on the majority of them of the usual con- 
necting link of M~O or ON between the names of the 
places and those of the money ers. Where a departure 
from this is made, M"O, for "moneyer," is never used, 


and in at least one reading, viz. BLfiCfiMftN :: DY RE BY 
[PI. VII. 11], four pellets take the place of ON, seeming 
to indicate that the omission of that word was inten- 
tional, and to imply that such pieces were not coins. 
That the moneyers' names are on these pieces is not at 
all remarkable, as they would be the only persons likely 
to have the work of striking medals, and there seems no 
reason why, if they had to put their names on the coins 
as a guarantee of correct weight and purity, they should 
not also do it on medals, if it had been the practice to 
issue such memorials at the time. 

Again, if the Agnus Dei pieces were coins, their dis- 
tinctiveness would mark them out as a separate issue, 
not a variety, and there was at the period such a demand 
for currency that all the dies would have been used 
to their utmost capacity, with a result that numerous 
specimens would have been handed down to our times. 
This is the case with the five undoubted coinages of 
Aethelred II, but it is not so with the Agnus Dei pieces, 
which are extremely rare, not more than eleven being 
known to the writer, as follows : 

1. BLAEAMAN :: DYREBY . . . (PL VII. 11). 

2. BLftCAMAN :[:] DYREBY . . (Num. Cliron., 1893). 

3. A^-DELPIG ON HERFO . . . . (Hildebrand). 

4. EALDRED MALDMEZ . . . . ( ). 

5. EALDRED O[N . ME]ALDMES . (Rashleigh Cat.). 

6. One of Nottingham ..... (Copenhagen). 

7. PVLFNOO H7XMTVN .... (Hildebrand). 

8. . . . Ift HAM . . . Fragment . . ( ). 

9. ALFPOLD.ON.STA^FORA. . . ( ). 

10. A^DELPINE STAN FOR DA . . . (Erbstein). 

11. ... PINE . ON . STA . . . Mule halfpenny. [PI. VII. 12.] 

NOTE. Coin No. 2 is illustrated in the Bergen's 
Museums Aarsberetning for 1891, and appears to be 
from the same dies as coin No. 1. 


Finally, it should be mentioned that Aethelred II 
instituted several innovations of far-reaching importance, 
which prove him to have been in advance of his time in 
other respects, and which show his total disregard of 
precedent. The Danegelt payments were themselves 
an innovation, and the levy in 1008 A.D. of a ship from 
every 300 hides of land, and a coat and helmet of mail 
from every eight hides, are considered by historians to be 
the first attempt at direct taxation, the former, indeed, 
forming the precedent upon which Charles I based his 
claim for the payment of ship-money. 

The following points are therefore in favour of the 
medal 4 theory. 1. The absence of the King's bust. 
2. The absence of M"O for " moneyer," and, in the majority 
of cases, of ON. 3. The extreme rarity of the issue, 
when all others are, in the nature of things at this time, 
common. 4. The known character of the King, which 
is in keeping with the issue of a medal. 5. The intro- 
duction of other innovations equally new to the time. 
6. The designs adopted. 

As regards the reason for the issue of these medals, 
it was suggested by Mr. Lindsay, in his View of the 
Coinage of the Heptarchy, that the Malmesbury piece, 
at least, was struck on the occasion of a conference of 
the clergy held there in 977 A.D. ; but the date is 
sufficient to condemn the suggestion. Mr. Grueber, 
in an article on them published in the Numismatic 

4 Since this paper was written, objection has been made to the use 
of the term " medal," on the grounds that the pieces bear mint and 
moneyers' names, that they were subsequently imitated in Sweden, 
that no other pieces of the time have been definitely identified as medals, 
and that the cut piece is a halfpenny. Did space allow, these objections 
are capable of explanation not unfavourable to the medal theory, but 
the question must now be left to the individual opinion of those 
intimately acquainted with the period. 


Chronicle of 1899, put forward the far more probable one 
of the connexion of them with a personal event in the 
life of the King, and, after citing several events to which 
the medals might have applied, ultimately selected 
the restoration of the King in 1014 A.D., which was 
regarded as an act of Providence, as the one most likely 
to account for the issue. The shrewdness of this con- 
clusion is evidenced from the proofs adduced in the early 
part of this paper of the time of issue of these medals ; 
the restoration of Aethelred on the death of Sven 
certainly being the most important event of the period 
of the "small cross" coinage. The striking-places of the 
medals known also, in the main, support Mr. Grueber's 
suggestion. Aethelred's return to England, in 1014 A.D., 
was immediately followed by an energetic advance against 
Cnut, the son and successor of Sven, who was at Gains- 
borough. This expedition probably accounts for the issue 
of the medals at Stamford, Nottingham, Derby, and per- 
haps Stafford. In 1015 A.D. the King was apparently at 
Malmesbury. He was certainly in Hampshire in the same 
year, and this western expedition would account for the 
medals struck at Southampton, Hereford, and Malmesbury. 

It now only remains to sum up the results of the 
above theories in regard to the times of issue of the 
five coin-types and the medal or commemorative issue of 
Aethelred II. 

The " Hand " type was issued in 978 A.D. 

The " Crux " type was issued about 991 A.D. 

The " Quadrilateral " type was issued about 1000 A.D. 

The " Long Cross " type was issued about 1006 A.D. 

The " Small Cross " type was issued about 1011 A.D. 

The " Agnus Dei " medal was issued in 1014 and 
1015 A.D. 



For detailed descriptions of the mints and moneyers 
of the coins of Aethelred II the reader is referred to 
the very comprehensive catalogues of such coins in 
the British Museum, and in the Koyal Cabinet at 

In conclusion, the writer wishes to accord his thanks 
to the Curator of the Koyal Swedish Cabinet of Medals 
at Stockholm, to the Keeper of Coins and Medals in 
the British Museum, and to Mr. Carlyon-Britton, for the 
illustrations which have been procured from those 
sources, more especially to the first, in supplying to 
this country, for the first time, casts of important coins 
which could not be procured elsewhere, and which are 
essential to the proper illustration of the subject. 



(See Plates VIII., IX.) 

THIS paper has not in prospect a revision or reclassifi- 
cation of this complicated series; its sphere is more 
limited and less difficult than its title might imply, its 
interest lies chiefly in the reigns of Kichard I and John, 
and its purpose is to explain the results of a careful 
examination of the passages in the chronicles and rolls 
which give evidence for numismatic dates in this period. 
To this examination I was led by the difficulty I found 
in reconciling a few facts quoted by the many writers on 
this subject with the rather general reflections which 
occur to one to whom the coins are not sufficiently old 
and familiar acquaintances to allow him to take the 
liberty of drawing from their style and fabric con- 
clusions about their respective ages. 

For the clearer and more coherent exposition of my 
results I have chosen to arrange these notes in the order 
in which they occurred to me ; to begin, that is to say, 
with the impressions which I formed by examining the 
coins, and afterwards to pass to the statements I found in 
contemporary documents and early historians. 

I think there are few who would not agree that the 
conditions of the coinage of this and earlier times justify 
the assumption that when there are two moneyers of the 



same name working at the same time at different mints, 
the distinction of the mints will be clearly marked on 
the coins which they strike, or, if an ambiguity occurs, 
the coins belong to the more important of the two mints 
to which they might be attributed ; e.g. if two moneyers 
of the name Willelm were striking coins in the year 
1200, one at London, the other at Lincoln, neither of 
them would appear on coins of that year as " Willelm on 
L" (that is to say, the second or distinctive letter of 
the mint would be added) ; or, if they did, coins bearing 
the inscription " Willelm on L " should be attributed to 
London and not to Lincoln. 

The reason for this is obvious : the names of moneyers 
and the towns at which they worked were engraved on 
their dies as a safeguard against the issue of coins lack- 
ing in weight or purity of metal ; if debased coins were 
found to be in circulation, the moneyer was identified by 
this inscription, and punished accordingly ; so, to revert 
to our hypothetical case, if a coin of untrue weight or 
purity were found bearing the inscription " Willelm on 
L," it would be impossible to decide whether the London 
or Lincoln naoneyer were the criminal, unless it were 
understood that L was the abbreviation for London and 
not for Lincoln. This is especially likely to be the case 
in a period when the dies were distributed from London 
to the provincial mints, as the die-engravers would then 
certainly know of the existence of two moneyers of the 
same name, and might therefore be expected to be careful 
in distinguishing their dies. 

This postulate, which seems necessary from an a 
priori argument of common-sense, is supported by the 
evidence of coins in the use of the surname to dis- 
tinguish moneyers of the same name at the same mint. 


Of the " Paxs " type of William I we find Silac and Silac 
Wine at Gloucester, Godric and Godric Brd (Brand ?) at 
Norwich, and at Kochester Lifwine Horn ; in the reign 
of Henry I we have at London of Type 255 (Hawkins) 
two moneyers named Dereman, one appears on coins as 
DEREMAN, the other as DEREMAN R, RC, or Rl. In 
Henry II's first issue we have 

Canterbury. London. Thetford. 



And on short-cross pennies 





Class V / ROGER r i lflQa V / W|L -LEM 



Class L{ WIL1 _ D p 


Class I | ALAIN Class T / HENRI Classes /PIERES 

PASS l.( ALA|N v Class I.( HENR| p , LandIL { PIERES M 

Classes III. ( RICARD 

RICARD B Classes III. 

a * div - (RICARD T and iv. 





It will be noticed that in every case here men- 
tioned, except one, 1 where we find the surname used, 

1 In this one case (Lifwine Horn at Rochester) I think the cumula- 
tive evidence of other instances is sufficient ground for assuming that 
coins of the " Paxs " type were struck at Eochester bearing the simple 
name Lifwine, though I know of none now extant. 


we know of coins bearing the single name without this 
addition. 2 This shows that the addition of the sur- 
name was not the caprice of certain moneyers or of 
certain die-engravers, but a definite attempt on the 
part of the engravers to distinguish between moneyers of 
the same name working contemporaneously at the same 

Nor do I find anything to disprove my postulate in 
the attributions of coins struck by moneyers of the same 
name at different mints. Of the coins of William I and 
II, I see that Mr. Carlyon-Britton 3 has attributed to 
Chester a coin of Type 246 (Hawkins) reading 6ODRIC 
ON LEH, while there is in the British Museum a coin of 
the same type reading 6ODRIC ON LEH RE, which is un- 
doubtedly Leicester. 4 For the attribution to Chester I 
can see no ground. We have coins reading 6ODR1C ON 
LEH RE of Types 241, 242, 244, and 246 in the National 
Collection, these must all be Leicester coins. 4 There are 
two other coins of Godric attributed by Mr. Carlyon- 
Britton to Chester: 6ODRIC ON LESEI of Type 234, and 
SODRic ON LEHST of Type 245. The former of these, if 
the attribution is correct, does not affect my present 
argument ; but for my part, I Avould rather attribute it 
to Leicester, as we know Godric to have been a Leicester 
moneyer under William II, and we have no evidence of a 
Godric at Chester in either reign (the I at the end of the 
mint-name must be the first stroke of another letter a 

2 The only other case I know to the contrary is a coin of Stephen, 
Type 268 (Hawkins), reading GODPIE ty : ON : 1}VN, the reading of 
which is very doubtful, but if correct implies, I think, another moneyer 
of the name Godwie at Huntingdon at this time, just as the "Paxs" 
coin above mentioned. 

3 British Numismatic Journal, vol. iv. p. 65. 

4 See Numismatic Chronicle, 1891, p. 12 ff. 


common feature, with which I shall deal later and this 
letter must, I think, in order to make a correct reading 
for a mint, be C or R, if L it is Chester, if R Leicester). 
The second a mule coin between Types i. and ii. (Mr. 
Carlyon-Britton's arrangement) gives, I take it, Mr. 
Carlyon-Britton's reason for attributing GODRIC ON LEH 
of Type ii. to Chester. He does not say where this coin 
is ; assuming the reading to be correct, it is the only 
coin I know which has this strange mint-abbreviation. 
Mr. Carlyon-Britton gives SVNOLF ON LEHST of Type 
244 from the Tamworth find, but on turning to the 
account of that find, 5 1 see that the reading there given 
is SENOLF ON LE-ST ; his correction of the money er's 
name is certainly probable, but the illegible letter of the 
mint might be restored with more probability as c or 6. 
I should suggest that the mint on the coin of Godric, 
if rightly read, would be continued RE, LEHSTRE being 
an abbreviation for a form analogous to Lethecaestre. In 
the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 6 under the year 1124 may be 
found the form Lethecaestrescire, which Mr. McClure 7 
compares with the Doomsday form Ledecestre. I can find 
no authority for any form of the name Legionis Castra 
which could give an abbreviation LEHST; Legeceastre, 
Legceastre, and Ligceastre being the regular forms until 
the first part of the name (Legionis) was dropped. 

Lincoln and London are a source of much confusion in 
these reigns, the form LI 1 1 may be read as either LIN or 
LVI (I being the first upright of N); Li may be for LV 
(I being half of V, which is written 1 1 at this time) and 
LI I may be for LV, or Li and the first upright of N (I am 

5 Numismatic Chronicle, 1877, p. 343. 

6 MS. E, f. 84. 

7 E. MoClure's British Place-Names, p. 304. 


doubtful if this last occurs). So in Mr. Carlyon-Britton's 
original list 8 (changes will doubtless be made when he 
comes to those mints in his account of the reigns in the 
British Numismatic Journal : he now repudiates his 
former readings) we find BRIHTRIC ON LI of Type 238 
(Hawkins) attributed to Lincoln, and BRIHTRIC ON LV 
and Ll and BRHTRIC ON LVl of the same type attributed 
to London. The reading BRIHTRIC ON LVNl of Type 236 9 
makes it probable that all these should be placed under 
London ; at all events, there is no need to separate them 
(LV = Ll I = LIN, LVl = LI II = LIN ; but the London attribu- 
tion is better, Ll = LV). 6ODPINE ON LIN of this type 
appears under Lincoln; 6ODPINE ON LVND and LVN of 
the same type make the attribution of this coin to 
London almost certain (LIN = LIII = LVN). Similarly, 
BRIHTPINE ON LIN of Type 241 should be transferred to 
London, where we have BRIHTPINE ON LVN of the same 
type. Of Type 250 we have also PVLFPORD ON LIN and 
LV; these might be attributed to either mint (I prefer 
London), but not to both. 

In the first issue of Henry II we have coins reading 
there is no difficulty in attributing those with Eft to 
Carlisle, as we have no evidence of a Willelm working at 
this time at Canterbury. 

In the short-cross period we have Groldwine striking 
coins of Class II. at Canterbury, London, and Chichester, 
and some coins of the same class bearing the inscription 
GOLDWINQ ON without any mint-name. Those of London 
are very rare : I can trace only two [PI. VIII. 1, 2], both 
from the Colchester find ; and these are both of a very 

8 Spink's Numismatic Circular, 1902. 
11 National Collection. 


late type of Class II. I know that one treads on dan- 
gerous ground if one attempts to arrange the order of the 
many different busts in this class, but the fact that one 
of these coins has a pellet in the middle of the moneyer's 
name a common feature in later classes, but extremely 
rare, if not unique, for Class II. 10 and the other a 
monogram in the mint-name (LW), which occurs rarely 
in Class II., but very commonly in Class III., makes me 
confident that I am not involving myself in any such 
controversy when I attribute them to a late period in 
Class II. ; whereas the coins without mint-name must be 
of an earlier date. On the first f PI. VIII. 3] the bust is 
very closely allied to that of Class I., and the lettering 
not yet very flat. The second and third [PI. VIII. 4, 5, 
from Mr. Lawrence's Collection] are of coarser work, but 
the bust retains in general appearance its old form. The 
fourth [PI. VIII. 6] shows a later and quite different style 
of work ; it is struck on a smaller flan, and the portrait is 
worked on different lines : the beard is now a semicircle 
of pellets outlining a squarer jaw, the head is quite full- 
face and evenly balanced by the one curl on either side, 
the crown is again represented by five pellets, but these 
are now strung on a thin line. This is the style of bust 
which we see in a more degraded condition on the London 
coins [PI. VIII. 1, 2], which are carelessly struck, the one 
in shallow relief with thin, meagre lettering, and the 
other with coarse heavy lines; the pearls on the crown 
are again irregular in number, and in the second example 
pellets are added in an additional curl on either side. I 
think, therefore, that the coins without a mint-name 
were struck at Canterbury before there was a moneyer of 

10 It occurs on three Canterbury coins of Coldwine of the third class, 
which have the cross pommee. 


the same name at London ; possibly the Canterbury 
Gold wine himself went to London n for a short time. To 
the Chichester coins I must return later. 

I have mentioned above that the vertical stroke at the 
end of a mint-name seems often to be in reality not 
an I, but the first portion of another letter, suggesting 
that LESEl may be for LE6ER or LEGEC, LIN for LVN, 
LI for LV, &c. This is a point which I think has not yet 
been sufficiently noticed. When the first die of a new 
type is being cut the engraver is likely to have before 
him the full inscription, and he proceeds with it as far as 
he can till he comes round to the cross with which he 
started. That as late as the beginning of the thirteenth 
century the engraver did not space out his letters before 
he began to punch them in seems hardly to need proof in 
the face of the very scanty abbreviations that occur, e.g. 
one letter only of the mint-name, and such an inscription 
as <3OLDWIN6( ON omitting the mint entirely. A slack of 
space caused the engraver to divide the name of the mint 
in the middle, so, too, lack of space seems to have caused 
him to divide in the middle even a letter of the mint- 
name, that is to say, to punch one stroke only instead of 
the two, three, or four strokes required to complete the 
letter. 12 This feature may be very clearly seen in titles 

11 The pellet in the middle of the name seems to supply a link between 
the London coin and the cross pommee coins of Coldwine. There is 
no reason to doubt the identity of Goldwine of Class II. and Coldwine 
of Class III. at Canterbury. In the same London coin [PI. VIII. 1] 
there seems to have been some hesitation about the first letter of the 
name ; the single punch of a 6 was first put, then, instead of a serif 
being added at the end of the top line, it was struck over the upward 
curve in such a way as to turn the 6 into CX. 

12 A good account of the process of punching inscriptions on mediaeval 
coins may be found in the second volume of the British Museum Cata- 
logue of English Coins (Grueber and Keary, 1893), introduction, p, xcix. 


on the obverse of earlier coins, where the most common 
abbreviations are REX I for A, REX AI for AN (Anglorum), 
Rl for RE (Bex). 13 These examples show that it was a 
common thing for engravers, in punching the obverse 
inscriptions, to fill up the available space even to the 
extent of putting only half a letter at the end, and why 
should they not do the same on the reverse? Indeed, 
we find on short-cross coins the London Mint abbreviated 
to LVN, and York shortened to flVSRV and Norwich to 
NORV, where V must be the first two strokes of W ; so, too, 
LVN I must be for LVND, LVNDl for LVN Dec, 14 and LVNDGU 
for LVND3N. I have affirmed that this happens only on 
first dies of new types, because I believe that in making a 
second die the first die would be used as a model, and 
not so much care would be bestowed upon getting the 
most possible into the available space as upon giving a 
faithful copy of the model ; this would account for the 
existence of half-letters at the end of inscriptions where 
there would be room to complete the letter, the engraver, 
copying a die where a meaningless I ended the inscription, 
would reproduce the meaningless I, though he had room 
to complete an A, N, or other necessary letter. 15 

13 See British Numismatic Journal, vol. ii. pp. 130 ff., and Numismatic 
Chronicle, 1901, passim. After Henry I the titles become stereotyped 
(on Stephen's coins RE, on Tealby coins REX ANGL, and occasionally 
RE, on short-cross pennies REX). As there was no radical change in 
the method of punching inscriptions from Anglo-Saxon times till the 
thirteenth century, these coins of William I to Henry I can be used to 
illustrate an argument of a later period. 

14 The use of I for Q seems to be a survival from the time when the 
square E was in use ; after the round 6( came in, an upright stroke was 
punched when there was no room for the whole letter, although the 
letter (9) had ceased to begin with an upright stroke. A London coin 
of Class III., reading WLATGtR ON LVNDC , shows a curved stroke 
instead of an upright used for Q. 

15 This question is somewhat complicated, owing to our ignorance of 
the working of mints in mediaeval times ; if, as seems not unlikely, the 


Let us now apply these principles to the coins attri- 
buted to the Chichester Mint in Class II. of the 
short-cross series. Of them we notice the following 
points : 

(1) There are three moneyers, none of whom occur in 
Classes III. and IV. particularly strange when we are 
told that the mint was reopened in 1204, only four years 
before the commencement of Class III. 

(2) Each of these moneyers occurs at another mint in 
the same class Keinaud and Goldwine at Canterbury, 
Everard at York. 

(3) The mint reads always Cl or C, except on one coin 
where CIC 1G has been read, and on some I. 16 

The following list gives the coins attributed to this 
mint, as at present read, in the British Museum ; these 
include all the coins so attributed in the Eccles and 
Colchester finds except one, and this I have added to the 
list (No. 6) : 

1. SVSR7XRD ON ma. [PL VIII. 7.] Colchester find. 

2. SVSRfiRD ON a. [PL VIII. 8.] Eccles find. 17 

3. aVSRfiRD ON ai. [PL VIII. 9.] 

4. SVetRARD ON ai. [PL VIII. 10.] Colchester find. 

5. e(V6(R7\RD ON at. [PL IX. 11.] 

6. e(VSR7\RD ON I. [PL IX. 13, 14.] Colchester find 

(Mr. Lawrence's Collection). 

7. SOLD WINS ON a. Provenance uncertain. 

8. GOLDWINS ON ai. [PL IX. 15.] King George Ill's 


9. SOLDWINS ON ai. [PL IX. 16.] Colchester find. 

dies sent from London to the provincial mints were used as patterns 
and copied by the moneyers or their workmen, the reproduction of 
mistakes is easily accounted for. 

16 Colchester find (Numismatic Chronicle, 1903). 

17 Numismatic Chronicle, 1865. 


10. R6UN7WD ON a. Eccles find. 

11. R6UN7WD ON CO. [PI. IX. 17.] King George Ill's 


12. R6CIN7WD ON C(l. [PI. IX. 18.] Colchester find. 

And I know of no other published varieties. 

No. 1 [PI. VIII. 7], even from the photograph in the 
plate, can, I think, be seen to be a misreading. After the 
first letter of the mint-name can be seen the outer edge 
of a line which slopes, as it approaches the inner circle, 
away from the first letter ; then comes a blur, at the end of 
which can just be seen the outline of what may be either 
(X or S ; the second letter cannot possibly be I, because 
the space requires a larger letter, and also the sloping 
stroke that can be seen does not tally with the edge of 
an I ; the only letter which occurs to me as giving an 
outer edge sloping so strongly away towards the inner 
circle is V ; this then gives us C(VC( (or 8 ?). It will surely 
not be rash to assume that this first letter is either an 
engraver's mistake or has been worn down by much use 
or circulation from 9 to Q, when we consider how often 
these two letters are interchanged. To take as an 
example this same coin : if we insist on reading the first 
letter of the mint as CX, we must for consistency read the 
money er's name QVC(RARD. 

The mint-letter of No. 2 [PI. VIII. 8] is certainly a, 
the cross-bar of the 8 being visible near the top of the 
letter, not in the centre as usual. 

The two next coins (Nos. 3 and 4) [PI. VIII. 9, 10] are 
from the same dies. The reading c(i is, I think, correct. 
If it can be allowed that CX and 8 are often interchanged , 
or that a worn S is not distinguishable from a, then we 
can quite well read the mint eu (for SV), and attribute 
them to York. 


No. 5 [PI. IX. 11] is misread: the money er's name is 
QVSRAD, the second R being omitted; in the last letter 
of the mint the fork of a V is clearly visible, and the first 
letter is better read as 9 when we notice that the coin is 
clipped through the middle of the N of ON and the two 
letters of the mint-name. 

Of SVSRARD ON I (No. 6), I have illustrated two 
specimens from Mr. Lawrence's Collection [PI. IX. 13, 14]. 
Mr. Grueber says of a specimen in the Colchester hoard : 
" a I ? this coin, from its money er's name, evidently be- 
longs to Chichester." 18 These coins are, therefore, of no 
importance as evidence, for we might equally well read 
I for e(i, and say that from the money er's name they are 
evidently York coins. We can illustrate the omission 
of the first letter of the mint by coins of Class III. in 
the British Museum, reading : QVflRARD - ON - V (for QV), 
WILLSLM B-ON-V (for LV), WILLQLM- L - ON . V (for LV). 

The coins of G-oldwine are rightly read. No. 7 belongs, 
of course, to Canterbury : there were several coins reading 
SOLDWlNec ON a that were attributed to Canterbury in the 
Colchester find. So too R6UN7WD ON a (No. 10). No. 11 
[PI. IX. 17] reads RQINALD ON a //// (of the missing letter 
the only part visible is what appears to be the second 
foot of an A). No. 12 [PI. IX. 18] reads clearly ai. 

Now, it is a striking thing that coins of these two 
money ers should read only c(l for this mint, at a time 
when there were moneyers of the same name striking 
coins at Canterbury, the more so when we consider how 
rare is this abbreviation for Chichester (the only coins 
of Chichester from William I to the end of the short- 
cross series which I know having less than Cic for the 

18 Numismatic Chronicle, 1903, p. 122, note. 


mint-name are two of William I : (1) BRVMMAN ON c 19 
of Type 238 and SPRIECLINC ON n 20 of Type 241, and in 
neither case is there any ambiguity, as there were not 
at this time moneyers of these names at Canterbury, 
Colchester, or Cricklade) ; when we consider too that we 
have coins of both Gloldwine and Keinaud with only (X 
for the mint-name, which have been attributed in the 
Colchester find to Canterbury, and some coins of Gold- 
wine with no mint-name at all. That these moneyers 
were working at Canterbury, and Everard at York, is 
amply proved by coins reading QAN, c(fi, e(ve(, and e(ve(R. 
I have, therefore, no hesitation in taking the I of this 
mint-reading to be the meaningless I or upright stroke, 
of which I have spoken above, originally inserted by a 
die-sinker at the end of an inscription where he had no 
room to punch an ft. 21 

To return a moment to one coin we mentioned above. 
Compare, on PI. IX., Nos. 11 and 12. I think it will be 
admitted (it is difficult to judge from photographs, but 
I have the authority of others who have seen the coins 
to support me) that these coins are struck from the same 
obverse and reverse dies : No. 11 is the Chichester coin 
No. 5 on my list; and No. 12 is a York coin of the 
Colchester find, reading e(ve(RfiD ON 3V. 

Our list now resolves itself to this 

1. 3Ve(RfiRD ON a (or Q) V C( (or ). A York coin. 

[PL VIII. 7.] 

2. QVeCRrtRD ON 8. A York coin. [PL VIII. 8.] 

19 Mr. Carlyon-Britton's list in Spink's Numismatic Circular, 1902. 
29 National Collection. 

21 As C(fi I occurs in Class II. undoubtedly for CXAN 
ON (Xfil), why not also C(l for 


S.ISVQRfiRD ON ai (from same dies) for 91 ? perhaps 
4.1 York coins. [PL VIII. 9, 10.] 

5. SVSRfiD ON QV (from same dies as a York coin). A 

York coin. [PI. IX. 11.] 

6. eCVSRfiRD ON I mint uncertain ?York or Ilchester. 

[PI. IX. 13, 14.] 

7. 6OLDWIN6C ON CX. A Canterbury coin. 

8. ( SOLDWI N6( ON ai for C(fi ? Perhaps Canterbury coins. 
9.1 [PI. IX. 15,16.] 

10. RSIN7WD ON a. A Canterbury coin. 

11. R6(IN7XLD ON C(fi. A Canterbury coin. [PI. IX. 17.] 

12. R6UNAVD ON (XI for W\ ? Perhaps a Canterbury coin. 

[PI. IX. 18.] 

We are thus left with only five coins that can possibly 
be attributed to Chichester, of which two (from the same 
dies) may equally well be attributed to York, and the 
remaining three with strong probability to Canterbury. 
In addition to these, Mr. Lawrence has a coin which 
is of considerable importance to my present purpose 
[PI. IX. 19], it reads M6UNIR -ON -ON -ai. As this gives 
us another moneyer who does not appear at Chichester 
in Class III., but is a well-known Canterbury moneyer 
in Class II., it leaves, I think, no doubt that these coins 
reading ai must be attributed to Canterbury. On this 
coin the engraver, by duplicating ON, left himself no 
room for a complete ft at the end of the inscription. 
Another of Mr. Lawrence's coins [PI. IX. 20] is interest- 
ing for the last letter of the inscription, which I think 
may be explained in this way : the engraver punched I, 
meaning to leave the mint-reading a I, he then found he 
had some space still left, and attempting to complete 
the ft punched another stroke obliquely and added the 
top line of ft, thus forming a strange hybrid letter. This 
supplies a link from Ql to (Xfi. It will surely now be 
admitted that we have not sufficient evidence from coins 


to justify the existence of the Chichester Mint during 
the second class of the short-cross coinage. 22 

I now pass on to the records. My intention is to 
expose some mistakes in chronology which I find have 
been started by Euding and continued up to the present 
time. That Euding should have originated these errors 
is easily understood, when we consider that, at the time 
when he brought out his first edition, the records on 
which he was working were not edited. Editions of many 
of them, such as the Patent and Close Eolls of King John, 
were published before the third edition of Euding, and 
the mistakes might then have been corrected ; we can 
understand that the editors of the third edition might 
well shrink from the enormous task of looking up all 
the references that Euding gives, and later writers can 
be excused for assuming that the editors of Euding had 
done their work properly. 

These mistakes have mostly arisen from a fact which, 
though known to students of history for more than 
seventy years, has apparently not yet come to the notice 
of numismatists. This fact is that King John, being 
crowned on Ascension Day, May 27, 1199, counted the 
years of his reign, not as we should expect, from May 27, 
but from Ascension Day in each year. Ascension Day 
being a movable feast, the result is that his regnal 
years are some longer, some shorter than 365 days, and 
care has to be taken in examining writs, &c., in the 
Patent, Close, and other Eolls to be certain whether the 
date, e.g. May 18 of his sixth year, occurs at the begin- 
ning or end of that regnal year. For the greater 

22 I am much pleased to be able to say that Mr. Lawrence has inde- 
pendently arrived at the conclusion that no Chichester coins are known 
of Class II. 



convenience of numismatists I here append a table of 
the regnal years of King John, which I take from Sir 
Harris Nicholas's Chronology of History : 

(27 May, 1199. 

(19 May, 1205. 

(12 May, 1211. 

L 1 17 May, 1200. 

'' 1 10 May, 1206. 

'12 May, 1212. 

(18 May, 1200. 
2< 1 2 May, 1201. 

f 11 May, 1206. 
b * (30 May, 1207. 

( 3 May, 1212. 
b> (22 May, 1213. 

( 3 May, 1201. 
' (22 May, 1202. 

J31 May, 1207. 
9> (14 May, 1208. 

(23 May, 1213. 
1D> ( 7 May, 1214. 

(23 May, 1202. 
4 ' 1 14 May, 1203. 

(15 May, 1208. 
' ( 6 May, 1209. 

( 8 May, 1214. 
'' 127 May, 1215. 

(15 May, 1203. 
J< ( 2 June, 1204. 

f 7 May, 1209. 
(26 May, 1210. 

(28 May, 1215. 
7> (18 May, 1216. 

( 3 June, 1204. 
6< (18 May, 1205. 

f 27 May, 1210. 
" (11 May, 1211. 

1 19 May, 1216. 
' (19 Oct. 1216. 

It will be seen that in the third, fifth, eighth, 
eleventh, fourteenth and sixteenth years certain days 
in May occur twice, both at the beginning and end of 
the regnal year. 

With the Pipe Kolls the case is different. The 
Exchequer issued its accounts regularly on Michaelmas 
Day in each year, undisturbed by deaths or accessions of 
kings; therefore the first exchequer year of each King 
will overlap the last regnal year of the previous King, 
e.g. the first exchequer year of King John dates from 
Michaelmas, 1198, to Michaelmas, 1199, two-thirds of 
it belonging to the reign of Eichard. And may I here 
point out a serious pitfall ? The Pipe Eoll for the first, 
year of Kichard I has been published by the Kecord 
Commission under the date 1189-1190 ; this, as Mr. 
Kound has pointed out, is a mistake ; Kichard's regnal 
years date from September 3, 1189, so the first issue of 
accounts in his reign took place at Michaelmas, 1189,. 
and contained the accounts for Michaelmas, 1188, to 


Michaelmas, 1189 ; and this is called the Pipe Koll of 
his first year. 

The first limit for the short-cross coinage is fixed for 
us by several chroniclers 23 as 1180. In the Annales de 
Wintonia 1179 is evidently a scribe's error ; and 1181 in 
the Annales Cambriae ; 1181 is also given by Koger of 
Wendover and the Annales de Bermundeseia, though 
both derived their information from Kalph de Diceto, 
who gives the correct year, 1180 ; Matthew Paris copies 
the mistake from Koger of Wendover. 

For the end of this coinage Sir John Evans gives 1247 
or 1248, and Mr. Grueber places it in 1248; there is 
abundant proof that the long-cross type commenced in 
the year 1247, 24 the only authority I can find for the 
later year being a statement in Matthew Paris (who 
himself gives an account of the new coinage, with a 
drawing in the margin under 1247), that in 1248 the 
whole realm suffered grievous damage owing to the 
reminting of the money that had been debased by 
clipping, as for one pound's worth of badly clipped 
pennies they would get scarcely a mark in exchange. 25 

I think it unlikely that the second class of short-cross 
coins can be placed so early as 1189 ; this date was given 
rather hypothetically by Sir John Evans, and followed 
by Mr. Grueber. But it was not usual at this time for 
a King to change the coinage as soon as he came to the 
throne, except in a few cases when his title was disputed 

23 See lists in Ruding, vol. i. p. 171, and Numismatic Chronicle, 1865, 
p. 259. 

24 Matthew Paris (Minor History), John de Oxenedes, Annales de 
Burton, Annales de Wintonia, Annales de Waverleia, Bartholemaeus 
de Cotton, Chronicon de Mailros. 

25 Matthew Paris, sub anno 1248 (Minor History and Chronica 



and he hastened to assume the regal privileges; we 
know, for instance, that Henry II did not strike coins 
in his own name till 1158. Kuding, it is true, preferred 
1156, but to oppose the large number of chroniclers who 
place the new coinage in the year 1158, 26 we have only 
Hoveden placing it in 1156, and of him Stubbs says, 27 
"For this period 1148-1170, it would seem that our 
author found himself obliged to attempt original arrange- 
ment and composition. The result is meagre in the 
extreme, and as we might expect confused in the best- 
known points of the chronology, and in the obvious 
sequence of the best-known events." The authority of 
the Pipe Roll of Michaelmas, 1157, to Michaelmas, 1158, 28 
quoted by Ending and Longstaife, is conclusive. Had the 
dies been received in the year 1156, the payment for new 
dies would have come into the accounts of the third year 
(1156-1157), if not of the second (1155-1156). 

John also, we know, did not renew the coinage in his 
first year. Therefore, for lack of any authority for an earlier 
date, I am inclined to except Trivet's statement 29 under 
the year 1194, " Unam insuper monetam per totam 
terram, ad magnam populi utilitatem, qui ex ejus diversi- 
tate gravabatur, statuit admittendam," to mean that the 
new coinage was issued in this year (in spite of Sir John 
Evans's assertion that there is no statement of the money 
being called in and a new coinage issued), because, even 
if we allow that the King could achieve the object of 
keeping one kind of coinage only in circulation without 

26 Bartholemaeus de Cotton, Ralph de Diceto, Annales de Waverleia, 
John de Oxenedes, Chronicle de Dunstaple, and others. 

27 Stubbs's Introduction to Boger of Hovedene, p. xli. 

28 Pipe Boll 4 Henry II (payment at London for changed dies). 

29 Triveti Annales (ed. T. Hog, 1845), p. 153. 


calling in the current money and issuing a new coinage, 
we must admit that it implies a radical reform of the 
currency, which is likely to carry with it any modifica- 
tions in type which seem to be the result of definite 
design rather than gradual development. 30 

This interpretation of the passage in Trivet is strongly 
supported, ex hypothesi, on historical grounds. Kichard 
succeeded his father in July, 1189, while in France, 
paid a flying visit to England in August, to go through 
the formality of coronation (September 3), spent the 
rest of his stay in England making arrangements for 
his Crusade, and on December 11 left for France, not to 
return to England till he was ransomed in 1194. This 
year is therefore the earliest in which we can suppose 
that Kichard paid any attention to the coinage, beyond 
putting his signature and seal to the necessary writs 
and charters. We have of the year 1189 two charters 
which may help us in deciding whether Class II. begins 
in this year or later one grants dies and moneyers to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the other to the 
bishop's mint at Lichfield. In the account of the 
Canterbury Mint, in Kuding, we find the statement that 
" it [i.e. the archiepiscopal mint] was not restored until 
the first year of Kichard I, 1189, who gave to Hubert, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and his successors, the liberty 

30 As Mr. Lawrence has pointed out, it is impossible to suppose that, 
on the issue of Class II., coins of Class I. ceased to be legal tender; it 
is, therefore, possible that the difference in the portrait of Class II. is 
not due to any monetary reforms, but is a degraded type of the first 
portrait developed by unskilled engravers after the expulsion of Philip 
Aymari. In this case it would be necessary to abandon the "class" 
distinction of these two periods, and to attempt, by arranging their 
sequence from style and lettering, a chronology based on dates fixed by 
the records. 


of three dies and three money ers in that city." 31 Sir 
John Evans and Mr. Grueber have accepted this state- 
ment, quoting it in their accounts of this coinage, but 
it is evidently incorrect, as Hubert did not become 
archbishop till 1193. From the reference in Kuding 
I have found the charter in the Society of Antiquaries. 32 
The grant was made to Baldwin, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, as might have been discovered by referring to 
John's charter, in which he confirms to Hubert the three 
dies, &c., granted by Eichard to Baldwin. 33 As this 
charter of Eichard I seems to have been missed by the 
Canterbury historians, who all refer to the grant through 
the charter of John, I here transcribe it, omitting only 
such phrases as I think quite unimportant 

" Eicardus dei gratia Eex Angliae Normanniae et Aqui- 
tanniae et Comes Andegaviae Archiepiscopis, Episcopis, 
Abbatibus . . . Sciatis nos reddidisse et praesenti carta 
confirmasse Deo et Ecclesiae Christi Cantuariensi et 
venerabili patri nostro Balwino Cantuariensi Archi- 
episcopo et omnibus successoribus suis sibi canonice 
substituendis tres monetarios cum tribus cuneis ad 
monetam fabricandam in civitate Cantuariensi perpetuo 
habendos . . . ita libere . . . sicut aliquis praedecessorum 
suorum liberius et quietius monetarios suos cum cuneis 
suis habuit. Testibus Waltero Eothornagensi Archiepis- 
copo, Johanne f ratre nostro Comite Moretun, Hugone Dunol- 
miensi, Godefrido Wintoniensi, Hugone Coventrensi, 
Johanne Norwicensi, Willelmo Wigorniensi, Gilberto 
Eoffensi, Huberto Surburiensi, Eeginaldo Bathoniensi, 

31 Kuding, vol. ii. p. 181. 

32 Society of Antiquaries, MS. 116. 

33 Kot. Chart., 1 John (1199), 29 Sept. (ed. Rec. Com., 1837, p. 24, 
cols. 1-2), confirmed in Eot. Chart., 2 John (1200), 7 June (p. 68, col. 2)^ 


Episcopis, Hamelino Comite Warenn., Willelmo Mares- 
callo, Willelmo de Sancto Johanne et aliis multis. 

" Datum Cantuariae per manum Willelmi Cancellarii 
nostri Eliensis Elect! die prima decembris Kegni nostri 
anno primo. 

"(Exlibro Cartarum Cantuariensis Archiepiscopatus.) " 
The grant, therefore, was made by Richard to Baldwin 
on December 1, 1189, and confirmed by John to Hubert 
in 1199 and 1200. That it was made use of and the 
mint reopened at this date, we have no proof. The 
procedure of the mint 34 required that, after receiving 
the grant, the bishop should first appoint some person 
to the office of moneyer : in this case three are required. 
As a special knowledge would be necessary, the selection 
might take some time, and probably one moneyer at least 
would be taken from another mint ; these moneyers have 
then to be presented at the Exchequer, and the dies cut 
in their names, and sent down to the mint. The choice 
of custodes monetae and custodes cuneorum could be 
made after the commission for the dies was in the 
hands of the London die-engraver ; but the moneyers 
must be chosen and presented at the Exchequer before 
the order could be given for the dies to be cut. There- 
fore the preliminaries of opening or reopening a mint 
must have occupied a considerable time before the mint 
could start work. Now, in March, 1190, only three 
months after the grant was made, Baldwin left England 
to join the Crusade, and died in the Holy Land on 
November 19 of the same year. Though it seems very 

34 This procedure in the reign of Edward I is clearly shown in 
K. R. Mem. Eoll 49, m, 11 d, and L. T. R. Mem. Roll 51, m. 7 ; there 
is no reason to think that any alteration had been made since the reign 
of Richard I. 


probable that the mint would cease working on the 
bishop's death, 35 there appears to be no reason to 
suppose that his absence in the Holy Land would have 
stopped its activity ; but the time intervening between 
his receipt of the grant and his departure seems too 
short to suffice for setting the mint in operation. 

I have said above that the moneyers would require a 
special training, and that one of them at least would 
probably be taken from another mint, and I think the 
names on coins support such a view. I have no doubt, 
for instance, that Pieres and Pieres M., who worked at 
London in Classes I. and II., went off, the one to 
Durham, the other to Chichester, the Chichester one 
returning again to London, as we see by a coin of 
Class IY. from the Colchester hoard. An examination 
of the Canterbury moneyers of Class II. shows four 
having identical names with moneyers working in 
Class I. at other mints; these are Johan, Keinald, 
Koberd and Simon, of which Johan, Eoberd and Simon 
are names occurring too profusely to give any evidence 
of their identity; Eeinald, however, is an extremely 
uncommon name for a moneyer, the only coin I know 
between the Norman Conquest and the short-cross period 
bearing this name is one of Stephen at Nottingham. 
On short-cross pennies the name occurs at Norwich 
throughout Classes I. to IV., and also at London in 
Class I. and on an early coin of Class II., at Canterbury 
in Class II., at York in Classes III., IV. Leaving the 
Norwich moneyer, who seems to work continuously at 

3i ' On a bishop's death the revenues from the mint would revert, with 
the other temporalities, to the Crown until their restoration to the 
succeeding bishop. The King, having several mints of his own, would 
have nothing to gain by striking money at an episcopal mint. 


that mint, out of the question, it does not seem rash, 
in dealing with so uncommon a name as Keinald, to 
suppose that this is one man who went from London to 
Canterbury to start the Canterbury Mint, and was 
thence transferred to the other archbishop, the London 
coins of Class II. being struck either at the end of 1189 
or in 1194 (before the opening of the Canterbury Mint 
by Hubert), according as we place Class II. in 1189 or 
1194. Admitting the possibility of coins being struck 
at Canterbury by the Archbishop Baldwin in the year 
1190, I think it more probable that the mint did not 
open till after the accession of Hubert to the see, in 
1193. 36 

The Lichfield grant 37 makes the case stronger for fixing 
the commencement of Class II. in 1194. On November 
12, 1189, Eichard granted a pair of dies to the Bishop of 
Lichfield, and this is illustrated by a coin in the British 
Museum [PL IX. 21]. Of this coin Mr. Grueber said, 38 
" It is undoubtedly of Class II.," though Sir John Evans 
had assigned it to the first class. The coin cannot be 
struck earlier than 1190, so on this disputed point 
(whether it belongs to Class I. or Class II.) depends the 
dating of the second class. I firmly believe that Sir 
John Evans was right when he placed it in Class I. 39 
Apart from the vexed question of the portrait, the 
relief and lettering and the shape of the flan are all 

36 If Baldwin did not work the mint, Hubert would require a new 
grant which he could hardly have got until the King was ransomed 
from his imprisonment in 1194. 

3T Harley MSS. 84, P 25. 

38 Numismatic Chronicle, 1903, p. 166. 

39 Mr. Grueber agrees with me in this attribution ; his previous state- 
ment was probably based on the date of the charter, and not on 
the style of the coin. 


characteristically Class I. Another point is the abbrevia- 
tion mark a straight line through the last letter of the 
mint-name. This form of abbreviation occurs on a Lin- 
coln coin which reads WILL D F ON NICXO, on London 
coins bearing the money er's name Fit. AIMER, and on 
some coins of Northampton, where the mint is shortened 
to NORt), and, I believe, on no other short-cross pennies. 
These coins all belong to Class I. Will. D. F. and Fil. 
Aimer are not known to have struck any coins of 
Class II., nor do we know any coins of Class II. having 
this abbreviation for Northampton. The fact that the 
Lichfield coin bears this abbreviation forms in itself a 
strong reason for placing it in the first Class. If I am 
right in this conclusion, Class II. cannot have begun 
so early as 1189, and in the absence of Canterbury 
coins of Class I. we must assume that that mint was 
not opened until Hubert became archbishop. 

Sir John Evans, on the authority of Madox's quotation 40 
from the Pipe Koll of the fourth year of John, says that 
the moneyer Lefwine was working at Lincoln in the year 
1202-1203 ; but the Pipe Boll for the fourth year of John 
gives accounts from Michaelmas, 1201, to Michaelmas, 
1202. We must therefore place him a year earlier. The 
same is the case with Everard Bradex, who appears as a 
York moneyer in the Pipe Eoll for the third year of John. 
This should be dated 1200-1201, not 1202, as has formerly 
been held ; in this Pipe Koll also appear Johan rnone- 
tarius at York, G-odard at Lincoln, Wulfric and Alard at 
Worcester, Teobald in the Nottingham and Derby 
accounts, and the " defalcatio' quattuor monetariorum " 
at Thetford. 

40 Madox, History of the Exchequer (1759), p. 737, note (w). 


I will now deal with the important writ of October 7, 
in the ninth year of John. 41 Owing to its importance 
and the use that has been made of it as a foundation on 
which to build up a history of the coinage of this reign, 
I give a full transcript of the text 

" Rex, etc., omnibus monetariis et examinatoribus 
monetae et custodibus cuneorum Londiniensium salutem. 
Praecipimus vobis quod sicut vos et vestra diligitis statim 
visis litteris istis signetis sigillis vestris omnes cuneos 
vestros et sitis cum illis apud Westmonasterium a crastino 
Sancti Dionisii in quindecim dies audituri praeceptum 
nostrum. Et faciatis scire omnibus operatoribus monetae 
de civitate vestra et eis qui sciunt dare consilium ad 
faciendam monetam quod tune sint ibi vobiscum et 
habeatis ibi has litteras. Teste domino Petro Wintoniensi 
Episcopo apud Westmonasterium vii die Octobris. 

" Sub eadem forma scribitur omnibus monetariis et 
examinatoribus monetae et custodibus cuneorum [apud] 
Wintoniam, Exoniam, Cicestriam, Cantuariam, Roffam, 
Gripes wicum, Norwicum, Lenn., Lincolniam, Eboracum, 
Cardull., Norhamptoniam, Oxoniam, Sancti Edmundi, 

The date at which this writ was issued was October 7, 
1207 (not 1208), and the summons was for January 10, 
1208. Longstaffe 42 seems to have assumed that this 
could mean nothing else than a recoinage. Sir John 
Evans makes no comment on the object of the writ, 
quoting it only in order to show that the mints here 
named are identical with those appearing on the coins 
which he attributed to this reign ; Mr. Grueber has taken 

11 Rot. Pat., 9 John (1207), 7 Oct. (ed. Rec. Com., 1835, p. 76, col. 1). 
42 Numismatic Chronicle, 1863, p. 177. 


it to mean a recoinage, assuming, like Longstaffe, that 
no other interpretation is possible. I find, however, that 
in reading carefully the phrases of this writ, there is 
considerable difficulty in supposing it to be issued for 
the purpose of a recoinage, and I would rather take it to 
mean that there had been a large circulation of counter- 
feit money at this time, and that the King therefore 
intended to take steps to prevent this and punish any 
malefactors on whom he could lay his hands. It orders 
all the moneyers, custodes cuneorum, and assayers of all 
the mints to appear at Westminster, with all the workmen 
of the mints and any others that are qualified to give 
advice in the making of money. The first thing to 
notice here is that the London die- engravers, who sent 
out dies to all the mints at this time, are not specially 
mentioned, and if the matter for consideration were the 
striking of a new type, they would surely be the best 
advisers. The people particularly mentioned are (1) 
moneyers and custodes cuneorum, whose duties are to 
see the coinage is properly struck and issued, and to 
hold themselves responsible for its good weight and 
purity, and the safe custody of the dies; (2) assayers, 
whose work is to test the coins issued ; (3) operatores, or 
mere labouring hands ; (4) any qualified to advise ad 
faciendam monetam, the words here used are, I think, of 
some importance : they convey to my mind a suspicion 
that the advice required was concerning the methods 
employed in the actual striking of the money, especially 
concerning the machinery in use ; had the King required 
advice about striking a new type of coinage, I think he 
would have used the word reformandam or renovandam. 
A consideration of the recipients of the summons 
brings one to the conclusion that King John's purpose 


was to take advice about the conditions under which 
his coins were struck, and the precautions taken 
against the counterfeiting of them, rather than to 
issue new coins, as he would in the latter case certainly 
have summoned his die-engravers and certainly not 
his operatores. 

My second point is that they are ordered to seal up 
their dies and have them with them at Westminster. 
This is surely a strange step to take when a new 
coinage is merely contemplated. They need not deliver 
their dies at London at all events until the commission 
for striking the new type was in the hands of the die- 
engravers. On the other hand, if an inquiry were to 
be held about counterfeit money, the King would wish 
to have the dies examined to see if any had been 
tampered with, or again, a careful examination of the 
dies might bring to light the fact that some moneyers 
had not used their dies so much as others, which would, 
in the absence of explanation, and with proof of the 
quantity of bullion used by each moneyer, be almost 
conclusive evidence that they had used counterfeit dies 

Still more important are, I think, the words, " praecipi- 
mus vobis quod sicut vos et vestra diligitis statim," &c., 
that is to say, they are to appear under pain of personal 
injury and confiscation of property. I cannot believe 
that the King would have given the provincial moneyers, 
&c., such a serious injunction, involving penalties in 
case of failure to appear at a mere inquiry into the 
advisability of issuing a new coinage ; it was not his 
practice to use such strong language in his writs; e.g., 
when he orders Fitz Otho to make dies for Chichester as 
soon as possible, he merely writes, " praecipimus quod 


illos [cuneos] sine dilatione fieri facias." 43 But if the 
moneyers and others were summoned to be put on their 
trial for the counterfeiting of money, an offence in- 
volving the terrible penalty of mutilation, there was good 
reason for imposing severe penalties for failure to appear 
in answer to the summons. 

I now return to the Chichester Mint. We have three 
writs relating to this mint in the reign of King John, 
each of which I fully transcribe. 

(I) 44 "Rex Eeginaldo de Cornhill, etc. Sciatis quod 
concessimus venerabili patri nostro Cicestrensi Episcopo 
quod habeat cuneum suum in civitate Cicestrensi, et 
quod currat donee nostri in eadem civitate currant, et 
tune una cum illis currat. Et ideo vobis praecipimus 
quod ei vel certo nuncio suo cuneum ilium habere sine 
dilatione faciatis. Teste, etc., apud Westmonasterium 
xxix die Aprilis. 

" Sub eadem forma scribitur Vicecomiti Sussex. 

" Sub eadem forma scribitur Willelmo filio Othonis." 

(2) 45 " Eex Willelmo filio Othonis, etc. Sciatis recog- 
nitum esse per inquisitionem per nos factam quod tres 
cunei debent esse apud Cicestriam unde duo debent esse 
nostri et tertius Episcopi Cicestrensis, et ideo tibi prae- 
cipimus quod illos sine dilatione fieri facias et episcopo 
vel certo nuntio suo unum liberes et duos quos habere 
debenius liberes Archidiacono Tantonensi et Eeginaldo 
de Comhull. ad ponendum ibi. Teste G-aufrido filio 
Petri apud Westmonasterium xvii die Maii. per 


43 Rot. Glaus., 6 John (1205), 17 May (ed. Rec. Com., 1833, p. 32, 
col. 1). See infra. 

Rot. Glaus., 6 John (1205), 29 April (p. 29, col. 2). 
<' Rot. Glaus., 6 John (1205), 17 May (p. 32, col. 1). 


(3) 4G " Kex Willelmo de Wrotham, etc. Sciatis quod 
joncessimus domino Cicestrensi Episcopo duos cuneos 
nostros de Cicestria cum cambio ad illos pertinente et 
5um omnibus pertinentibus et libertatibus suis ad firmam 
pro xxx marcis a festo Sancti Petri ad Vincula anno, etc., 
septimo in unum annum. Et ideo vobis mandamus 
quod cuneos illos cum cambio ad illos pertinente et cum 
omnibus pertinentibus et libertatibus suis eidem Epis- 
copo sine dilatione habere faciatis. Teste me ipso apud 
Mucheledevrum xxvii die Julii. per ipsum Eegem. 

" Sub eadem forma scribitur Keginaldo de Cornhull. et 
custodibus cuneorum Cicestrensiuin." 

These all belong to the year 1205. Through previous 
mistakes the mint at Chichester has been supposed to have 
reopened in 1204. The first writ, on April 29, grants 
one die to the bishop, to be current till the King's dies 
are ready, and afterwards to be current with them ; the 
second, on May 17, orders William Fitz Otho to make 
the three dies one for the bishop and two for the King 
and send them to Chichester as soon as possible ; the 
third, on July 27, orders the royal dies to be handed 
over on one year's lease to the bishop on August 1 ; this 
last seems to imply that the dies were made and were 
already at Chichester, or were being sent with the writ, 
one copy of which was addressed to the custodes cuneorum 
at Chichester. We must therefore conclude that coins 
were struck at Chichester in the year 1205. 

Of this year we have also a writ of January 26, 47 
appointing William de Wrotham and Keginald de Corn- 
hill his commissioners to carry into execution an assize 

46 Rot. Glaus., 7 John (1205), 27 July (p. 44, col. 1). 

47 Rot. Pat., 6 John (1205), 26 Jan. (p. 54, col. 2). 


allowing the currency of " old money " which had not 
lost more than a certain weight, and forbidding the 
reblanching and clipping of coins. Previous to this, in 
1204 (wrongly dated 1205), was a writ of November 9, 48 
forbidding the circulation of clipped money after the 
St. Hilary's Day following (January 13, 1205). But more 
important than these are two notices in our chronicles. 
The Annales Cambriae and the Annales de Wintonia 
both say, under the year 1205, "Mutatio monetae facta 
est ; " and the Annals of Waverley give us a reason for 
this change in the money in the phrase, "Facta est 
turbatio rnagna in regno per toiisuram sterlingorum." 
Also in the " Miscellanea " of the Numismatic Chronicle 
for 1887 (p. 341), Mr. Andrew drew attention to a passage, 
before unnoticed, in the continuation of Florence of 
Worcester, which says, " Moneta olim A.D. MC.LVIII. facta, 
hoc anno [1205] est renovata." Sir John Evans noticed 
the first two of these references to a new coinage; but 
Mr. Grueber did not follow them in dating the five 
classes of short-cross coins he seems to have chosen the 
year 1208 for the commencement of the third class, on 
the ground of the writ of October 7, 1207, summoning 
the moneyers, &c. That we cannot ignore the chroniclers' 
statements in this way is evident ; a simple statement 
made by a chronicler recording a change in the currency 
gives a more definite proof of a new coinage having taken 
place than we can get from any writ in the Patent or 
Close Kolls. The King might issue a writ ordering a new 
coinage to be in currency and all other to be withdrawn, 
but might later cancel his order ; we have an example of 
this in the writ of February 21, 1222, 49 in which Henry 

4S Rot. Pat., 6 John (1204), 9 Nov. (p. 47, col. 2). 

49 Eot. Glaus., 6 Henry III (1222), 21 Feb. (p. 516, col. 1). 


III orders round halfpennies and farthings to be current. 
This order was undoubtedly cancelled, as no round half- 
pennies or farthings of his reign have been found, in 
spite of the large finds that have made his coins so 
common in our time. On the other hand, a chronicler is 
not recording any intention of the King or his officers, 
he is giving a bare statement of a fact which it was very 
necessary for him to know that a new type is in 
circulation, and previous types perhaps no longer legal 
tender. Stow 50 says of this year, " Also, the money was 
so sore clipped, that there was no remedie, but to have it 
renued." Bishop Fleetwood 51 also says, "King John, 
^bserving that the Abuse of Money was either in a great 
part continued or revived, called it in again, and caused 
it to be new coined ; and thereby brought it to a greater 
Purity and Fineness than it had been before in any of 
his Predecessors' reigns. On which Account some Authors 
fix upon him as the Inventor or first Ordainer of Sterling 
Money." I think they were right in putting the new 
coinage in this year. I admit that the annalists are known 
occasionally to make mistakes in point of chronology, 
but before we can assume a mistake in them, we must 
have some reason for thinking their statement is wrong. 
Here we have strong reason for believing this statement 
in the Annales de Wintonia, the Annales Cambriae, and 
the continuation of Florence of Worcester to be correct. 
The likelihood of a new coinage in this year is very 
strong in consideration of the fact that until December, 
1203, John was only in England on three separate occa- 
sions after his accession : (1) in 1199, from May 27 to 

50 Stow, Annals of England (1615), p. 167, sub anno 1205. 

51 Fleetwood, " Historical Account of Coins," p. 12, in Appendix to 
Chronicon Preciosum (1745). 



June 29, for his coronation ; (2) in 1200, from February 27 
to April 28, for the purpose of raising 20,000 marks to 
pay Philip for his admission as heir to Kichard's French 
possessions ; (3) from October 6, 1200, till May 14, 1201, 
for his queen's coronation, after which he went to Lincoln 
to receive homage from the Scottish and Welsh kings, 
staying there till November 26 for Bishop Hugh's funeral : 
he spent Christmas at Guildford, and then made a tour 
in the north with Isabel till March 1, held an Easter 
crown-wearing at Canterbury on March 25, and, after 
raising an army for his expedition to Normandy, returned 
to France on May 14, 1201, where he stayed till December, 
1203. In 1204 we see, by the writ of November 9 and 
the entry in the Waverley Annals, that the clipping and 
debasing of the coinage was causing great distress; 
therefore John, I think, made preparations for a new 
coinage at the end of this year, the earliest possible 
opportunity, and the purpose of the assize of January 
26, 1205, was to allow the old 52 coinage to continue in 
circulation until the dies were ready to strike the new 
type ; then, when the dies were made, I assume that an 
order must have been issued cancelling this clause of the 

This agrees entirely with my former conclusion with 
regard to the Chichester Mint ; if these coins are wrongly 
attributed, as I have attempted to prove, we have no 
coins of this mint in Class II. ; we know that the mint 
began working in 1205, and if we put the new coinage 
(Class III.) at the end of 1207 or early in 1208, we are 
at a loss to account for the survival of no coins of 

53 rpkg ( ( ve US nioneta " must imply a "nova moneta," either in 
circulation or in preparation. 


Chichester struck between the reopening of the mint in 
1205 and the new coinage in 1207 or 1208. But putting 
the new coinage, as Sir John Evans suggested, in 1205, 
the Chichester Mint reopens with Class III. 

This date for the new coinage will also give us the 
reason for the summons of money ers in 1207 ; Longstaffe 
says, 5a "A new silver penny was much more easily 
counterfeited than an old one, and rogues seem to have 
been more than usually busy at new coinages." A new 
type obviously lends -itself to forgery, as the fraudulent 
moneyers can easily pass even a poor imitation into 
currency before the type of the true money becomes 
familiar to the public eye. I think this new coinage of 
1205 must have been followed by a large issue of 
counterfeit coins which necessitated the inquiry in- 
stituted with the peremptory summons of October, 1207. 

Further, this summons was sent to the mints at Lynn, 
Oxford, Eochester, and St. Edmundsbury, which seem not 
to have been working during Class II. ; if Class II, con- 
tinued till 1207, why were the officers at these mints 
ordered to bring their dies to London, when they had 
none to bring ? At Shrewsbury the reverse is the case : 
this mint was working in Class II. and not in Class III., 
but no summons was sent to Shrewsbury in 1207. It 
seems not unnatural to suppose that at the reformation 
of the coinage in 1205 mints were reopened at Lynn, 
Oxford, Eochester, and St. Edmundsbury, and at the same 
time the mint at Shrewsbury was closed. 

In conclusion, I would say, with regard to the corrections 
I have made in the dates assigned to writs, &c., that any 
doubt can easily be satisfied by an examination of the 

53 Numismatic Chronicle, 1863, p. 177. 


Itinerary of King John. 54 I will illustrate this by the 
charters I have transcribed, which refer to the Chichester 
Mint. The first of them is dated April 29, 1205, and 
signed at Westminster : by the Itinerary we find that John 
was in London from April 27 to April 29, 1205, whereas 
in 1204 (the date previously given to this charter) he 
was at Marlborough on the same days of this month. 
The second is dated May 17, 1205, and again signed at 
Westminster, and the King was at Westminster from 
May 15 to May 17, 1205; but in 1204 he was at 
Southampton on May 15, and Winchester on May 18. 
The third is signed on July 27, 1205, at Mitcheldever, 
where we find by the Itinerary King John stayed from 
July 27 to July 30 in this year. 

I am much indebted to Mr. Johnson of the Public 
Kecord Office, and Mr. Ellis and Mr. Herbert, of the 
Department of Manuscripts in the British Museum, for 
the kind assistance they have given me, and also to Mr. 
Lawrence, to whom belong some of the coins which 
illustrate this paper. 


54 The Itinerary may be found in Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy's Intro- 
duction to the Patent Eolls. 



IN Plate V. of this volume illustrating Major Jackson's article 
on the Coinage of the Carnatic, two coins, Nos. 1 and 14, differ 
so conspicuously in fabric from the others that one at once 
doubts their attribution to Muhammad Ali. Major Jackson's 
readings of these coins (pp. 156, 157) support his attribution, 
but neither has been read correctly, owing, no doubt, to their 
poor state of preservation. The obverse legend of No. 1 is 
s \j (Jj^ & ' r A dx ~- The (j which is above >&> has apparently 
been taken for aW- by Major Jackson, but the points are quite 
distinct. The title W. $\j does not occur on the coin, and the 
date is not 1201, but 1208, which is the year 35 of Shah 
Alam II, and not of Muhammad Ali. As to No, 14, all that 
can be read on the obverse of the specimen illustrated is 

^ and the date. If several specimens be compared, it will 

be found that the complete legends are as on No. 1, of which 
it is the half. These are both well-known coins. They are 
the Madras issues (2 and 1 pai) of the E.I.C., and have been 
described in the B. M. Catalogue, MogJiul Emperors, p. 296, 
Nos. 184-187, and more recently by the late Mr. Johnson in 
Numismatic Chronicle, 1903, p. 97. Major Jackson appears 
to have followed Captain Tufnell (Hints to Coin-Collectors in 
South India, p. 36) in attributing these coins to Muhammad 
Ali, but their weights and style leave no doubt that the 
attribution to the E.I.C. is the correct one. We may note 
that the following dates are known, all in regnal years of 
Shah Alam II: 1200, 27; 1201, x ; 1206, 34; 1207, 34; 
1208, 35. 

There is, however, a series of coins which were certainly 
issued by Muhammad Ali, which are not described by Major 
Jackson, i.e. the small copper coins, obverse, aW N) *_->/>, and 
reverse, date and mint, j&yv, Nahtarnagar (Trichinopoli ; cf. 
Manual of Administration of Madras Presidency, vol. iii. s.v. 
" Trichinopoli "). There are two denominations of these coins ; 


the larger, octagonal in shape, bears the date 1207 A.H., and 
is of very neat workmanship. Marsden attributed his 
specimen (MXLVIII I) to Mysore, and suggested it might be a 
pattern-piece, but it can only be Muhammad Ali's or possibly 
an E.I.C. pattern in his name. Another specimen of this 
rare coin is in the collection of Mr. J. Stephens Blackett, who 
recently presented specimens of the smaller denomination to 
the British Museum. These are small round pieces closely 
resembling the other coins of Muhammad Ali. Among other 
coins not included in Major Jackson's list are those with 
obverse fiW 3^, and date 011 reverse i r I p, and specimens having 
reverse walajah in Tamil. 

J. A. 


Catalogue of Coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, including 
the Calinet of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. iii., 
Mughal Emperors of India, by H. Nelson Wright, I.C.S. 
Oxford. 1908. 

THE Trustees of the Indian Museum are to be congratu- 
lated on having again secured the services of Mr. Nelson 
Wright in the compilation of the third volume of the Catalogue 
of Coins in the Indian Museum. The Catalogue, compiled under 
circumstances of great difficulty by the late Mr. Rodgers, has 
been of much use to students of Indian coins, but it could 
only be regarded as a preliminary arrangement of this fine 
collection. Mr. Nelson Wright has been freed from the re- 
strictions under which his predecessor laboured, notably the 
mysterious method of numbering which has puzzled most users 
of the old Catalogue. This volume contains not only the old 
Indian Museum collection, but also the Mughal Cabinet of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which is now brought within 
reach of students for the first time. In the old Catalogue 
only two plates were devoted to this series ; this volume is 
illustrated with twenty-two plates admirably executed by the 
Clarendon Press, illustrating all the more important coins. 

The author of this volume has adopted a useful and lucid 
method of arrangement, which, we hope, will be followed in 
future Catalogues of this series. In the British Museum 
Catalogue the arrangement was primarily chronological, and 
the coins of different years of the same mint were separated. 


Mr. Nelson Wright has arranged the coins of each Emperor 
under mints, the coins of each mint being then arranged 
chronologically. The advantages of this method are obvious. 
It is possible to tell at a glance whether a particular mint 
was in use during the reign of any Emperor. Coins of 
similar fabric are brought together, and for the first time we 
have the material for the study of the fabric and mint- 
characteristics of Mughal coins, a subject that has been barely 
touched on. There is undoubtedly such a thing as " fabric " 
in Muhammadan coins ; in the Mughal series, for example, 
one soon learns to recognize the Lahore coins by their fabric. 
It is a difficult subject, however, and it is only by such an 
arrangement as this that further progress can be made in its 
study. Mr. Nelson Wright has arranged the mints in the 
order of the English alphabet rather than the Persian. 
Opinions may differ as to the legitimacy of this, but it seems 
to us to be justifiable. The object of the Catalogue is to 
make the collection accessible, and the more lucid the arrange- 
ment the better ; few of those who will use this volume have 
reached that stage of scholarship where they think more 
readily in Persian than in English. Though an elaborate 
index of mints is rendered unnecessary, we think that the 
volume might have contained a list of the mints in the Persian 
character, which would have been useful to refer to when 
trying to identify a coin with a fragmentary inscription. 

The most valuable part of the work is the introduction of 
eighty pages dealing with the history of each mint in the 
Catalogue, though founded on material from much wider 
sources. Mr. Nelson Wright shows great familiarity with 
the principal public and private collections, and his introduc- 
tion is a mine of information on which all future more 
elaborate monographs must be based. It is to be hoped that 
the author's suggestion will be taken up, and we shall soon 
see a series of historical monographs on Indian mints. Dr. 
G. P. Taylor has furnished an admirable model in his account 
of the mint of Ahmadabad in the J.B.BM.A.S., vol. xx. 
pp. 409-447. 

Want of space will not allow us to call attention to the 
rare mints to be found here. We must question the suggested 
Kharpur on coin No. 2493, and would suggest that it is a coin 
of Saharanpur with an incomplete legend. Mr. Nelson Wright 
has followed the B. M. Catalogue in classing as Mughal all 
coins bearing an Emperor's name till the end of the reign of 
Shah Alam II. He is undoubtedly right (p. 243) in suggest- 
ing that all the coins of Muhammad Shah of Surat are not 


official issues. They fall into two distinct classes one readily 
recognizable by its good fabric, which may be taken to be 
official the second of rude fabric with fragmentary mint 
inscriptions and various symbols, notably one which Prinsep 
calls a H, which must be unofficial, and indeed was attributed 
by him to " Nagpur and the Narbadda " (P. U. T. y ii. pp. 66, 
68, PI. xlv. 10), an attribution supported by their present 
provenance. We have never seen a specimen which read dis- 
tinctly Surat, though that is the most likely reading unless 
the so-called H is not a Nagari letter but Persian. Similar 
doubts might be entertained regarding the numerous Katak 
coins of Ahmad Shah, very few of which can be official issues. 
No. 2257 (mint not read) is a coin of Bikanir State with 
legends of Shah Alam II (Webb, p. 61), probably of Surat 
Singh. No. 2487 is probably to be attributed to Orcha 
rather than Jodhpur. 

Besides the usual indices, the work contains a comparative 
table of the Christian and Muhamniadan eras, and a valuable 
note on the IlahT era, a table of ornaments, and a mint-map. 
It is unfortunate that the author has not adopted the system 
of transliteration so strongly recommended by the Royal 
Asiatic Society. It is true that only three letters differ in 
the two schemes, but Mr. Nelson Wright gives us four z's 
where two might have done (^ z, j z, <j> z, k z), and three 
s's in place of the orthodox two (**> s, LT s, ^ s). This 
is a small matter, however, as the letters concerned are not 
the commonest. We should have preferred also to see the 
long vowels marked by a horizontal stroke rather than by an 
acute accent. 

The whole work has been most carefully printed 'by the 
Clarendon Press. All who have perused the three volumes 
of this Catalogue already issued will look forward to the 
fourth, feeling satisfied that it will at last supply that long- 
felt want, a satisfactory work on the nineteenth-century 
coinages of India. 

J. A. 


In the Proceedings for Session 1909-1910, issued with Part III. : 

Page 16, line 9, for " Henry VIII" read " Henry VII." 
Page 39, line 9, for " Anastasius " read " Athanasius." 


Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PI. VI 

V - - Y&J A- N ^ 

. ,><;-i- - UC?i t^ 

S^.-"l^ la;- '=:.r 

%l^K : VM5& ^ 



Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PL VII 
Ty. 4 

. y- 

- ^ 


Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PI. VIII 


4V* ' 


^ - - v :iUYv- 
:,-(Lq ^U* 

;Hi --^ 


,. v'-.t 

ca ' 





Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PI. IX 

1 1 





In rilievo : toro a s. retrospiciente ; le gambe 
posano sopra una fascetta formata da una serie 
di perline fra due linee continue; sopra OM, 
intorno giro di perline fra due linee continue. 

Rov. In incavo : lo stesso tipo in perfetta corrispon- 
denza dell' altro ; i due segni grafici appena visi- 
bili a luce tangente ; la fascetta, dove il toro 
posa, e il giro circolare sono formati da una 
serie di intacchi paralleli. 

Arg. ; diam. maggiore mm. 27 ; peso gr. 5'30. 

LA moneta descritta non e compresa nei trattati di 
numismatica, perche non e divenuta di dominio della 
scienza. Un esemplare di essa comparve la prima volta 
in un catalogo di vendita a Parigi, e non so dove ora si 
trovi. 1 L' esemplare che io pubblioo mi fu recato in 
esame tempo fa da un mio amico di Eogliano (prov. di 
Cosenza), possessore di una piccola raccolta di monete, 

1 V. Catalogo di vendita, fatta nei giorni 11 e 12 dicembre, 1901, al 
Hotel Drouot dai Sigg. Dr. A. Sambon e C. Canessa, Tav. i. n. 121. 



che egli aveva acquistate a volta a volta da contadini del 
suo paese. Di modo che, se mi sfugge il luogo esatto di 
provenienza, si pub esser certi che esso resta nel ter- 
ritorio di Kogliano. 

II tipo di questa moneta e identico a quello delle 
ultime monete incuse dei Sibariti, essendo il disco 
metallico poco espanso e il fregio presso il bordo non 
essendo formato dal caratteristico tortiglione. 2 La 
tecnica e buona, il toro vi e espresso con un sol corno, 
perche la testa e in perfetto profilo, 3 con 1'occhio circo- 
lare, con le pieghe della pelle parallele sotto al collo, con 
la delicata modellatura del corpo e delle gambe. Ma le 
lettere iniziali non rispondono al nome dell' antichissimo 
popolo di Sibari. Quella di destra, che nella epigrafia 
arcaica ha il valore di ^ o di o-, se la studiarao in rapporto 
con le simili forme alfabetiche di monete delle colonie 
achee dell' Italia meridionale, ne risulta essere senz' altro 
un o-. Sulla moneta d'alleanza dei Sirini con Pyxoes, 4 
su alcuni esemplari dei Sibariti e dei Posidoniati 5 questa 
lettera presenta le due piccole sbarre estreme parallele 
fra loro, e la stessa forma ha nella leggenda Krathis della 
moneta di Pandosia. 6 Solo che nella moneta in esame le 
due sbarre mediane sono brevissime, ed in genere tutta 

2 Sullo sviluppo di questo ornato nelle monete delle colonie achee 
della Magna Graecia, leggasi cio che ho espresso nella memoria Sul 
valore dei tipi monetali, p. 66 (Atti del Congresso internaz. di scienze 
storiche, 1904, vol. vi.). 

3 Pel riscontro tipologico e stilistico giova esaminare il toro retro- 
spiciente intagliato su cristallo di rocca di lalysos in Perrot et Chipiez, 
Hist, de I'art, vi. PL xvi. 1. 

4 Garrucci, cviii. 1 ; Friedl.-Sallet, Miinzkab., vii. 470 ; Head, 
Coins of the Ancients, viii. 14. 

5 Per Sibari v. Head, Coins of the Ancients, PI. viii. 15. Per Posi- 
donia v. Garrucci, cxx. 5, 6. 

' ; Garrucci, cxi. 5. 


la lettera e poco espansa in larghezza per Pangustia dello 
spazio riserbato alia leggenda. 

Nessuno potra quindi revocare in dubbio, che i due 
segni grafici di questa moneta rarissima debbano essere 
intesi come iniziali di un nome etnico incominciante per 
So. II tipo del toro per se stesso potrebbe trascinare alia 
ipotesi di una imitazione barbarica o falsificazione antica 
dello statere dei Sibariti ; ma rendono insostenibile tale 
ipotesi il disegno e la tecnica della moneta, relativamente 
incensurabili. Ne il tipo del toro deve distogliere dal 
ricercare in questo So un nome etnico diverse da quello 
dei Sibariti, poiche anche i Sirini, alleati di Pyxoes, 
anche gli Aminei adottarono il tipo del toro retro- 

Fra le popolazioni mediterranee della Lucania enu- 
merate da Plinio e inclusa quella dei Sontini. Mediter- 
ranei Brutiorum, Aprustani tantum : Lucanorum autem, 
Atenates, Bantini, Eburini, Grumentini, Potentini, Sontini, 
Sirini, Tergilani, Ursentini, Volcentani, quibus Numestrani 
iunguntur (Plin., N. H., iii. 15). I commentatori collegano 
1'etnico Sontini ad una citta Sontia, che si crede corri- 
sponda alia odierna Sanza, tra Policastro e il fiume 
Tanagro. 7 Nulla percio impedisce che questa moneta, la 
quale per il tipo, per la tecnica, per la paleografia e 
provenienza si collega cosi strettamente alia serie mone- 
tale delle colonie achee nella Magna Graecia, possa 
riferirsi al popolo dei Sontini, del quale non e pervenuta 
a noi che la semplice menzione di Plinio. E con essa 
cresce la lista delle monete di tecnica cosi detta achea, 
con iniziali di nomi di citta o di popoli, che sotto 

7 II Nissen, Ital. Landesk., ii. p. 905, nulla di nuovo aggiunge a 
quanto erasi prima detto. 

z 2 


1'influenza della civilta di Sibari cominciavano a pros- 
perare fino ad emettere moneta propria, allorche la 
distruzione della grande metropoli (510 A.c.) segno nella 
Italia meridionale il termine della sua influenza politica 
e di un indirizzo artistico, oggi detto ionico per con- 

Per la famiglia di nionete, alle quali questa appartiene, 
il peso di gr. 5*30 e molto singolare, poiche non si pub 
in alcun modo ricondurre allo statere corinzio ridotto 
delle colonie achee dell' Italia, e ci richiama senz' altro 
alia dramma eginetica delle colonie calcidiche e parti- 
colarmente alle primitive nionete incuse di Khegium e 
Messana. Questa particolarita influisce moltissimo a 
f'arci amniettere, che la stirpe dei Sontini abitasse un 
paese molto prossimo al mare, e che i suoi interessi 
commerciali fossero legati piu alle due citate colonie 
calcidesi che alle colonie achee. Un fatto analogo si 
avvera per Posidonia, la quale nelle primitive sue nionete, 
pur adottando la tecnica achea, segue il sistema monetale 
dei Focesi di Elea. 




(See Plate X.) 

A HOARD of nearly two hundred tetradraehrns, which had 
been found in Egypt, recently came into my possession, 
through the kind assistance of Signor Dattari ; and the 
evidence derived from an examination of the coins 
suggests some interesting conclusions. 

The composition of the hoard may be briefly given, in 
terms of the standard catalogues, as follows : 

Ptolemy II, PMladelphus. 

Svoronos 713 

1 specimen 

Ptolemy XIII, Neos Dionysos. 

1823 (year 9 


1824 ( 


3 specimens 

1825 ( 



1826 ( 


3 , 

1827 ( 


6 , 

1828 ( 

14) 9 

1829 ( 

15) 6 , 

1830 ( 

16) 3 

1831 ( 

17) 2 

1832 ( 

18) 15 

1833 ( 



1834 ( 

, 20] 


1835 ( 

, 22) 2 

Tiberius . . " . 

[date effaced] 
Dattari 78 ( 7) 


There can be little doubt that the hoard was buried 
soon after the last-named coins were struck in the seventh 


year of Tiberius. The issue of tetradrachms in this year 
was the first which had been made by the Alexandrian 
mint since the conquest of Egypt by Augustus ; i.e. for 
just half a century. There are also tetradrachms of the 
eleventh, fourteenth, and later years of Tiberius known ; 
and, as no specimens of these years occur in the hoard, 
and the coins of Tiberius in it are almost all without 
evidence of wear, it may safely be concluded that the 
date of deposit of the hoard lies between the seventh and 
the eleventh years i.e. between August 29, 19 A.D., 
and August 28, 24 A.D. 

The combination of Ptolemaic and Koman tetradrachms 
in the hoard calls for little comment. The Ptolemaic 
coinage was probably never withdrawn from circulation 
by the Eoman government ; in fact, until the first issue 
of tetradrachms by Tiberius, the silver currency of Egypt 
must have consisted of the coins of the old dynasty, and 
for many years afterwards it is not uncommon for pay- 
ments to be specified as made in Ptolemaic coin. I have 
found Ptolemaic silver in a hoard which came down as 
late as the second year of Probus (276/7 A.D.); and the 
existence of a considerable quantity in circulation in the 
third century is shown by the fact that a British Museum 
papyrus (No. 1243), dated in 227 A.D., records a loan of 
152 drachmae apyvpiov TraXaiov riroX^aV/coO vo^'a-^aroc. 

If, however, the Ptolemaic tetradrachms continued to 
circulate, those of Tiberius apparently did not. I have 
observed and my observation is confirmed by the wider 
experience of Signor Dattari that tetradrachms of Tiberius 
do not occur in hoards associated with those of later 
Emperors. In several large hoards which I have examined, 
containing some hundreds of coins of Claudius, and 
thousands of Nero, there was not one of Tiberius. The 


tetradrachms of Tiberius are only found in hoards, in com- 
pany with earlier coins, or else sporadically, as they were 
casually lost ; and it seems reasonable to conclude that 
they were called in shortly after the close of the reign in 
which they were issued. It is possible that the cause of 
their withdrawal may be found in the facts given in the 
following paragraphs. 

When examining the coins in this hoard, I was struck 
by the evident difference in the weight of the specimens. 
I accordingly tested each, and found that the range of 
weights was from 5' 54 to 13-32 grammes. It is hardly 
necessary to give each individual weight, but the result 
may be stated summarily in groups of a half-gramme 

Specimens weighing 5J and less than 6 grammes 4 


> j 

, -64 , 


> > 

, 7 



, 7* , 












9i , 



10" , 



104- , 



11" , 



H4" 5 






12J , 







, 134 , 


[Seven specimens are excluded from the above summary, 
as they are more or less chipped.] 

This remarkable variation in weight, taken in con- 
junction with certain differences in appearance, led me 
to suspect that some of the coins might be of baser 
metal than others; and Professor Letts, of Belfast, 


very kindly analysed four of them, with the following 
result : 

A. B. C. D. 

Weight (grammes) 5'90 9-26 9-50 12-62 

Silver (%) . . 61-08 54-58 35-20 28-72 

Copper (%) . . 32-35 43-35 61-66 69-37 
Tin(%) . . 6-43 1-18 2-14 1-63 

Iron (%) traces traces traces traces 

It would appear, from this analysis, that the proportion 
of silver in these coins varied almost as widely as their 
weight ; and, on further investigation, it became clear 
that several examples were plated. The conclusion to 
which these facts lead is that this first coinage of tetra- 
drachnis under Tiberius was issued without any regard to 
fineness or weight; and, if the same holds good of the 
later coinages of his reign, it is not a matter for surprise 
that these tetradrachms should have lost favour in the 
eyes of the public, and have disappeared from circulation 
when the mint, under Claudius, struck large quantities 
of fairly uniform weight and fineness, even though the 
proportion of silver was lower than in those here 

It may be suggested that this hoard represents the 
work of a forger ; but, if this were the case, it would be 
reasonable to expect that the number of dies would be 
limited, and a fair proportion of the specimens would 
be from the same dies. This, as will be seen later, is 
not found. Neither do any of the coins seem to have 
been cast, so far as can be judged from outward ap- 
pearances. The indifference of the strikers of this issue 
with regard to weight may be seen from the fact that 
two specimens, from the same obverse and reverse dies, 


weigh respectively 8'14 and 5'54 grammes ; while three, 
from the same obverse, but different reverse, dies, weigh 
13-29, 12 02, and 5-76 grammes. The analyses given 
above also show that the weight of a coin does not bear 
any relation to the percentage of silver which it 

The gross carelessness of the mint officials at this time 
appears no less in the execution of the dies than in the 
material of the coins. The heads of Tiberius on the 
obverse and of Augustus on the reverse can in many 
instances hardly be called portraits. A selection of the 
representations is given on the accompanying plate, from 
which it will be seen that the die-engravers not only did 
their work very roughly, but did not succeed in most 
cases in producing a head which resembled either the 
actual likeness of the Emperor or the representation of it 
on other dies of the same series [see PI. X. 1-15]. There 
are many instances of careless work to be found in the 
later history of the Alexandrian mint; but I have not 
come across such a variation in portraiture of the 
Emperor after this until the reign of Valerian. The 
flans are also, in nearly every instance, too small, and 
frequently of irregular shape. 

I examined and compared all the 136 specimens, to 
discover how many instances there were of two or more 
coins from the same die, and found one set of three 
from the same obverse die, two of which were from the 
same reverse ; one set of two from the same obverse and 
reverse dies ; two sets of three, and seven of two, from 
the same obverse, but different reverse, dies ; and one set 
of two from the same reverse, but different obverse, dies. 
It occurred to me that it might be possible from these 
figures to ascertain the probable number of dies used ; and 


Mr. W. F. Sedgwick very kindly worked out the problem 
in a long series of calculations, from which it appears that 
the most probable number of obverse dies used was 610, 
and that, on making certain suppositions, the most pro- 
bable number of reverse dies used up in connexion with 
each obverse die was between 8 and 9. 

These conclusions are of considerable interest, especially 
the latter. It is common ground that the reverse dies of 
ancient mints wore out more quickly than the obverse 
ones ; but at first sight it may seem that the rate of 
eight or nine reverse dies to one obverse is rather 
excessive. A high rate is, however, supported by other 
evidence which I have been able to obtain. In comparing 
309 coins of Valerian from one hoard, I found 32 sets of 
two coins from the same obverse dies, of which 11 sets 
were from the same obverse and reverse, the remainder 
all from different reverse, dies ; five sets of three, and one 
of four, from the same obverse, but different reverse, dies ; 
and three sets of two from the same reverse, but different 
obverse, dies. After examining specimens from two 
hoards, I have made a series of five coins of Otacilia Severa 
from the same obverse, but different reverse, dies. These 
facts, so far as they go, appear to be in general accordance 
with Mr. Sedgwick's conclusion. And this rapid wear 
of reverse dies furnishes an explanation of the great 
inferiority in execution of the reverses of Alexandrian 
coins as compared with the obverses : it is quite usual 
to find an obverse type of considerable artistic merit 
associated with a very rudely designed reverse type ; 
and it is not unnatural that the greater pains should 
have been spent on preparing the dies which were 
likely to be of longer service. It may be noted that 
it is not uncommon to find an Alexandrian coin struck 


from a split obverse die, but very rare to find one 
from a damaged reverse, which suggests that a large 
supply of reverse dies was always at hand, and as soon as 
one began to crack it was thrown away ; but a damaged 
obverse die would not be so readily discarded. Probably 
a flaw in a reverse die would be more easily noticed than 
one in an obverse. 


NOTE. The examples shown on Plate X. have been chosen 
to show the range in variation of the portraiture. 5 and 13 
(the obverse and reverse of the same coin) are instances which 
show how the plating has perished in some cases : while in 6 
the plating is splitting away across the cheek of the Emperor's 


(See Plates XI.-XIII.) 

THE medals of Pier Barbo, both as Cardinal of San Marco 
and as Pope Paul II, although seldom of very high 
artistic interest, are well worthy of study. For with 
this Pope begins the series of official Papal medals. 
True, there are medals of Nicolas V, Calixtus IV, and 
Pius II, by Guazzalotti, but these are isolated portrait 
pieces of an essentially personal kind. With Paul II, 
on the other hand, begins 'a long series of commemora- 
tive medals, which, although in the first instance made 
by fairly good artists, foreshadow the depressing pro- 
ducts of the Papal mint in the sixteenth and later 
centuries. Pier Barbo was himself, it is well known, 
an enthusiastic collector of coins and medals, ancient 
as well as modern. 1 It was he who, in 1455, by some- 
thing like main force, extracted from Carlo de' Medici 
some silver medals (or coins) which Carlo had bought 
from Pisanello's garzone ; and he had the queer notion 
of copying some of Pisanello's medals on the tiles which 
he used to roof the Basilica of San Marco in 1467. It 

1 See the inventory of his collection published by Miintz, Les Arts d 
la Cour des Papes, ii pp. 265-279. Canensius, Pauli II . . . Vita 
(ed. 1740), pp. 31, 32, gives a naive account of Paul's skill in identifying 
the portraits of Roman Emperors on coins. 


was thus but natural that he should wish to see himself 
commemorated by this pleasing art. 

I propose first to give a list, as complete as possible, 
of the medals which concern us, before entering on the 
discussion of their significance and possible attributions 
to known medallists. The later struck pieces, restora- 
tions of the sort which are attributed to Paladino, do 
not of course call for description or consideration here. 2 


MARC I Bust to 1., tonsured, wearing cope. 

CCCCLV Shield (heater- shaped) of the arms of 
Barb6 of Venice : [azure], a lion [arg., langued 
gu.], debruised by a bend [or] ; surmounted by 
a cardinal's hat. 

Rosenheim Coll., bronze, 34 mm. [PI. XI] : 
British Museum, bronze, 34*5 mm. See Keary, 
Guide, No. 309; Armand, ii 31. 2 (34 mm.); 
Supino, 175 (34 mm.); Fabriczy (Eng. trans.), 
pp. 156, 157, PI. xxxii 2. 

2. Obv. From the same mould entirely as No. 1. 

CCCCLV View of the Palazzo di Venezia. 

British Museum, bronze, 35 mm. [PI. XI] ; 
Arm., ii 31. 1 (34 mm.). The inscription on 
the reverse is from the same model as that on 
No. 1, showing that the models of inscription 
and type were separable. 


Bust to 1., from the same model as on Nos. 1, 2. 
The first two words of the inscription are 
also from the original model. 

2 My best thanks are due to Mr. Max Bosenheim and to M. J. de 
Foville of the Bibliotheque Nationale for casts of medals concerned. 
All the medals here described, except the original of No. 14, were cast, 
not struck. In the descriptions, ligatured letters are represented with 
a line above them. 




Rev. 14 64 across the field ; shield of the Barb6 arms 
as on No. 1, surmounted by crossed keys and 
Papal tiara ; the shield is apparently from the 
same model as that on No. 1. 

Bibliotheque Nationale, 31 mm. [PI. XI]. 
Arm., ii 31. 3. 

tonsured, wearing cope with floral decoration 
on orphrey, and a morse with a nimbate bust. 

CCCCLXV The shield of the Barbo arms 
surmounted by the Papal tiara. 

Arm., ii 32. 6 (after Litta). 

5. Obv. Same as No. 4 (doubtless same model). 

CCCCLXV The Palazzo di Yenezia. (See 
No. 10.) 

British Museum, bronze, 33-5 mm. [PI. XI]. 
Arm., ii 32. 4; iii lQ3a (set in a rim making 
diameter 52 mm.) ; Supino, 177 (32 mm.). 

6. Ol>v. Same model as No. 5. 

R ( ,. Vt LETITIA SC HOLASTICA and in exergue A 
BO Female figure standing to 1., in attitude 
of Spes (holding flower in raised r., raising 
skirt with 1.) ; beside her, two small scholars, 
one (on left) with bare legs, the other (on right) 
wearing mantle and carrying a circular object. 

Rosenheim Coll., bronze, 32mm. [PI. XI]; 
Arm., ii 32. 7. 

7. Obv. Same as No. 5. 

i.HILARITAS PVBLICA Female figure, classically 
draped, standing to front, looking to 1., sup- 
porting palm-branch with r., holding cornucopiae 
in 1. ; beside her a small boy (nude) and girl. 

Arm., ii 32. 8 (after Litta). The type is 
copied from Hadrian's coins with HI LA RITAS 
P R 


1., as on obverse No. 5 (from the same model). 

Rev. Same as No. 4 (doubtless from the same model). 
British Museum, bronze, 33-5 mm. [PI. XI]. 

9. Obv. Same model as No. 8. 

CCCCLXV Same type as No. 8, and from the 
same model ; the inscription is also from the 
same model, the first two words only having 
been altered from HANG ARCEM to HAS 

British Museum, bronze, 33 mm. [PI. XI]. 
See Arm., ii 32. 9 (34 mm.) ; Supino, 179 (32 
mm.). That this reverse is made from No. 8, 
and not vice versa, is shown by the irregularity of 
the spacing between the first two words, as 
compared with the rest ; in No. 8 the spacing is 
regular throughout. In fact, traces of the C of 
HANG are visible. 

10. Obv. Same model as No. 8. 

Rev. Same as No. 5, from the same model. The 
inscription is from the same model as was 
used for No. 9. 

British Museum, bronze, 34 mm. ; cp. Supino, 
No. 176 (32 mm.). 

11. Obv. Same as No. 8. 

Rev. Same as No. 7. 

Florence. Supino, 180 (32 mm.). 

12. Obv. PAVLVS VENETVS PAPA II Bust to L, as 

on obverse No. 8. (This obverse has been 
made from a specimen of obverse No. 8 by 
leaving out the II after PAVLVS, and altering 

R eVt Similar to No. 9, from a specimen of which it 
has been made, but the whole of the inscrip- 
tion has been shifted round some 3 mm. 

Mr. Lincoln's stock, 33 mm. Specimens 
occur set in a moulded rim ; e.g. Tresor de 


Num., Med. Ital., i PI. xxiii 6 (50 mm.); 
Arm., ii 32. 5; Supino, 178; Mr. Lincoln's 
stock (52 mm.). 


as on obverses Nos. 4 and 8 (same model) ; 
inscription from same model as obverse 
No. 8, II-VENETVS having been altered to 

Rev. Similar to No. 7, and doubtless from the same 

British Museum, bronze, 33'5mm. [PI. XI] ; 
Bibliotheque Rationale, 33 mm. See Arm., 
iii 162J3. 


The Pope, enthroned, presiding ; on either 
side of him, six Cardinals seated ; in the centre, 
three clerks, members of the clergy, and two 
persons in lay dress ; behind the Cardinals, 
the public ; below, the Barb6 arms on a kite- 
shaped shield surmounted by crossed keys and 

DO MISERERE - NOSTRI Christ in glory, 
in a mandorla of cherubs' heads, held by two 
angels issuing from clouds; in the Heavens 
are seen the Saints, the Sun, Moon and Stars ; 
lower, the twelve Apostles seated (each with a 
book and an attribute), and, behind them, 
fifteen other saints, all nimbate ; below, on an 
altar or tomb, emblems of the Passion (column, 
nails, lance, sponge in a cleft reed, and two 
scourges), and above them two angels issuing 
from clouds holding cross, on which is the 
crown of thorns ; on either side, the dead 
rising from their graves to the sound of trum- 
pets blown by two angels ; on 1. of the altar, 
the Virgin ; on the r., St. John Baptist. 
Inscription between two plain circles, of which 
the inner one is double. 

British Museum, bronze (78'5 mm.), cast 
from a struck original (Fig. 1). Friedlander, 



Die gepragten Ital. Medaillen des fimfzehnten 
Jahrh. (Berlin, 1883), p. 14, PI. ii 12 (silver, 
78 mm.). Armand (ii 33. 19) describes a 
specimen struck in gold, value 20 zecchini 
(cp. iii 163e). Is this the piece that was given 
in 1497 by Alexander VI to Boguslav X of 
Pomerania (Z. /. N., vi p. 254) ? In the Print 
Room of the British Museum are impressions 
from a specimen, but they are modern. Cast 
specimens like the one described are in most 


Bust to 1., wearing cope similar to obverses 
Nos. 4, 8, and 12, but with plain morse. 

Rev. Within a heavy oak- wreath, ANNO| CHRIST I | 

British Museum, lead, 39 mm. [PI. XII, 
rev.]; cp. Arm., ii 33. 16; Supino, 185 
(38 mm.). 

16. Obv. Same as No. 15. 

SALVTIS (in exergue). SS. Peter and 
Paul nimbate, seated, each in front of a palm- 
tree ; between them, a flock of sheep moving 
up to the Sacred Mount, to drink of the waters 
which flow out under arches ; the arches sup- 
port a structure, in which stands the Agnus 
Dei, with a chalice beside him ; above his 
head, the Christian monogram (?) in a circle ; 
above the roof, a large cross. 

British Museum, bronze, 39'5 mm. [PI. XII] ; 
see Arm., ii 33. 14 ; Supino, 184 (38 mm.). 

17. Obv. Same as No. 15. 

Rev. Within a laurel- wreath IACOBVS | GOTTIFRE- 
E REX IT in seven lines. 

British Museum, bronze, 38-5 mm. [PI. XII, 
rev.]; Arm., ii 32. 11. 


18. Obv. Same as No. 15. 

Rev. Same as No. 24, below (same model), but the 
inscription replaced by SACER SENATVS 
Mr. Lincoln's stock, bronze, 40 mm. 

19. Obv. Same as No. 15. 

R ev> FELIX above, ROMA below. Summary and con- 
ventional view of Rome. Plain linear border. 
British Museum, bronze, 37 mm. I mention 
this late after-cast and hybrid only for the 
sake of completeness. The reverse is one of 
those invented in the sixteenth or seventeenth 
century for the series with imaginary portraits 
of the early Popes ; it is used on various pieces 
representing Popes from Pelagius II onwards. 


Bust to 1., orphrey decorated with panels, 
showing SS. Peter and Paul standing side by 
side, St. Peter healing the cripple, &c. ; on the 
morse a half-figure of the Virgin and Child. 
(This obverse has been made from a specimen 
of obverse No. 15, the whole of the bust, 
though not the head, having been re-worked.) 

Rev. Same as No. 17 (same model). 

British Museum, bronze, 38'5 mm. [PI. XII, 

21. Obv. Same as No. 20. 

Rev. Same as No. 15 (same model). 

Bibliotheque Nationale ; cp. Arm., ii 33. 
16 ; Supino, 185. 

22. Obv. Same as No. 20. 

DIDIT and, in exergue, ROMA View of the 
Tribune of St. Peter's; on the arch, TRIBVNA 
S PETRI and, on the apse, figure of Christ, 
blessing, in a mandorla supported by two 
kneeling angels. 

British Museum, bronze, 39 mm. [PI. XII, 
rev.] ; lead, 38 mm. ; Arm., ii 32. 10 (39 mm.) ; 

2 A2 


Supino, 183 (37 mm.). Both Armand and 
Supino give the date as MCCCCLXV; but on 
both the British Museum specimens, which 
show no sign of alteration, the date is clearly 

23. Obv. Same as No. 20. 

Rev. CONSISTORIVM | PVBLICVM (in exergue;; the 
Pope, accompanied by Cardinals, seated on a 
dais, receiving and blessing the faithful, who 
kneel to kiss his toe ; in the background, 
architecture, with the Barbo shield suspended. 

British Museum, bronze, 39 -5 mm. [PL XII, 
rev.] ; Rosenheim Coll., bronze, 39 mm. ; Arm., 
ii32. 12; Supino, 181. 

24. Obv. Same as No. 20. 

Eev. Same as No. 23 (same model), but the shield 
erased and the inscription replaced by 

British Museum, bronze, 39 mm. [PI. XII, 
rev.]; Arm., ii 33. 13; Supino, 182. The 
lettering on this reverse is of the same 
crowded, niggling kind as is found on the 
reverse of the Gottifredo medals (Nos. 17, 20). 
That of No. 23, on the other hand, is bolder 
and better. 

25. Obv. Same as No. 20. 

Rev. Within a laurel wreath, shield (horse-head shape) 
of the Barbo arms, surmounted by Papal tiara. 

British Museum, bronze, 38'5 mm. [PI. 
XII, rev.]. 

26. Obv. Same as No. 20. 

Rev. Within a heavy, formal wreath, shield (heater- 
shaped; of the Barbo arms surmounted by 
crossed keys and tiara, all in high relief, the 
field being deeply cut away. 

British Museum, bronze, 38 mm. [PI. XII, 
rev.] ; Arm , ii 33. 15. See below, No. 30. 




FVNDATORI and ROMA (the last word between 
three ears of corn tied together, and a bunch 
of grapes on a stalk). Bust to r., wearing 
cope adorned with floral scroll-work ; large 
circular morse. The whole in formal wreath. 

Rev. Same as obverse (same model). 

Rosenheim Coll., bronze, 44*5 x 38 mm. 
[PL XIII] ; British Museum, bronze (same 
dimensions); Supino, 180 (45 x 38 mm.). 

28. Obv. Same as No. 27 (same model). 

Rev. Shield (horse-head shape) of the Barbo arms 
surmounted by crossed keys and tiara ; formal 
wreath border. 

(a) Rosenheim Coll., bronze, 44'5 x 37-5 
mm. [PL XIII, rev.] ; (6) British Museum, 
bronze, 43 '5 x 37*5 mm. These two specimens 
vary in minute details on their reverses. 

-29. Obv. Same as No. 27 (same model), but wreath re- 
placed by border of dots. 

Rev. Same as No. 28a (same model). 

British Museum, bronze, 43-5 x 37 mm. 

30. Obv. Same as No. 29 (same model). 

Rev. Shield (heater-shaped) of the Barbo arms sur- 
mounted by crossed keys and tiara (same 
work, perhaps same model, as the shield and 
insignia on No. 26) ; formal wreath border. 

Rosenheim Coll., bronze, 42-5 X 36 mm. 
[PL XIII]; Arm., ii 33. 17 (44 X 38 mm.); 
Supino, 186 (42 x 36 mm.). 

31. Obv. Same as No. 27 (same model), but wreath removed 


British Museum, bronze, 38-5 x 32-5 mm. ; 
cp. Litta, Barbo No. 16. 

This obverse exists, so far as I know, only 
without a reverse (Mr. Lincoln's stock) or 
attached to a plaquette of Apollo and Marsyas 
(as Molinier, Plaquettes, i p. 2, No. 2, but with- 
out inscription). It hardly deserves to count 
as a separate variety of medal. 



FVND Bust to 1., wearing cope with plain 
orphrey and circular morse. 

and ROMA between two cornuacopiae in saltire. 

British Museum, bronze, 19 mm. ; Arm., ii 

33. 18. 

FIG. 2A (No. 34). Obverse. 

CATIONIS IVBILEI and, below the bust, 
ROMA, between three ears of corn tied together 
and a star. Bust to r., wearing tiara and 
cope fastened with circular morse. 



Rev. Same as obverse. 

Guilloche border on both 

British Museum, bronze (68-5 x 45 mm., 
with ear, making the height 82 mm.) [PI. 
XIII] ; Arm., iii 162D (66 x 44 mm.) ; Simon 
Collection, No. 331 ; Lobbecke Sale, lot 63 
(64 x 41 mm.). 

FIG. 2B (No. 34). Reverse. 

34. Obv. Between two cable circles, + PAVLVS VEI/1ETVS - 
PP MCCCC LXIIII (stops: lozenges with in- 
curved sides ; after the fourth C of the date, 
a mask). Bust to 1., wearing richly jewelled 
tiara and cope. 



Rev. Crossed keys surmounted by tiara. 

Rosenheim Coll., bronze, 94 mm. (Fig. 2 A 
and 2s) ; see Burlington Magazine, December, 
1907, p. 149, PI. iv 2 ; Arm., ii 34. 23 (from the 
Heiss Collection, 98 mm.). Armand has some- 
what rashly placed this medal among the "resti- 
tutions." It looks more like a jeweller's than 
a medallist's work, and this may have aroused 
his suspicions. The tiara seems to be meant 
for the same one that is worn by the Pope in 
his bust in the Palace of San Marco, the decora- 
tion being mainly of fleurs-de-lis. The morse 
seems, however, to be different. 

35. Obv. PAVLVS |~PP II . in the field; the Pope seated 
r. on the throne, between two cardinals, receiv- 
ing seven kneeling persons. 

St. Peter (holding keys and book) on r. and St. 
Paul (holding sword and book) on 1., seated to 
front, nimbate, looking at each other ; between 
them, on the ground, a cross on a base ; above, 

^ Cable border on both sides. 

V T 

Paris, 42 mm. (with ear for suspension) 
[PI. XIII]; Arm., iii 1620; Rosenheim 
Coll., 41 mm. This is really only a cast from 
a bulla, worked up. It seems, however, to 
have been used as a medal, since it exists in 
a number of specimens in bronze. 3 

3 For the bulla on which this is modelled, see Bonanni, i p. 79 
(document of 1467, from Macrus, Hierolexicori) ; d'Arcq, Inventaire, 
6079 (attached to a bull of 1468, given at San Marco in favour of the 
goldsmiths of Paris), also 6080; Birch, Catalogue of Seals, 21954 ff. 
In the medal the decoration of the field has been chased away. 
If this medal is only a cast of a seal, there is, on the other hand, 
some doubt about the bulla of Calixtus III (Birch, 21946). This 
bears on one side a portrait of the Pope modelled exactly on Guazza- 
lotti's medal (Arm., i 49. 7). The other side (with the usual design of 
the two heads) does not match it in size ; and unless a specimen of 
this bulla is found appended to an actual document, some suspicion 
must attach to it. 


The interpretation of the medals described above is in 
most cases fairly simple, although their chronological 
arrangement is not very easy. First of the Papal medals 
I have placed that which was remade out of one of the 
medals of 1455 (No. 3). When exactly this piece was 
cast, it is difficult to say with certainty ; but there is no 
strong reason to suppose that it was not made in the 
year which stands on the reverse. The forms of the 
numerals are those in use at the time. Also, any person 
making a " restitution " at a later date would have been 
more likely to use one of the numerous other medals 
which originated during Paul's tenure of the see. The 
existing medal of the Cardinal, on the other hand, might 
very naturally be seized upon at the time of his election 
and modified so as to commemorate the event. 

All the pieces which bear the inscription HAS AEDES 
or HANG ARCEM CONDIDIT were obviously made for use 
in foundation-deposits. The Pope's implacable enemy, 
Platina, makes this harmless practice a count in his 
charge against the man who dismissed him from his 
post : "He used to deposit, after the ancient custom, an 
almost infinite number of coins of gold, silver, or bronze, 
bearing his portrait, sine utto senatus consulto " (a serious 
aggravation of the crime in the eyes of the pedant !) " in 
the foundations of his buildings, herein imitating the 
ancients rather than Peter, Anacletus, and Linus." 
Cardinal Ammanati also makes the same complaint, 
that the Pope not only strikes coins with his portrait, 
but places them in the foundations and walls of build- 
ings, in order that, when they fall to the ground with 
age there may fly out, after a thousand years, monuments 
of the name of Paul. 4 So indeed it has come to pass. 

4 The passages are quoted by E. Miintz, Les Arts d la Cour des 


Specimens of Paul's medals, both of 1455 and of 1465, 
were found in the walls of the Palazzo di Venezia in 
1857 and in 1876. 5 Again, Jacopo Gottifredo's house in 
the Piazza di Pasquino was converted into the Oratory 
of the Arciconfraternita degli Agonizzanti in 1692, and 
on this occasion there was found a bronze specimen of 
one of his medals (No. 17 or No. 20). Other medals, 
including some with the type of Nos. 23 and 24, were 
buried in the portion of the Vatican front which was 
built by Paul. 7 

There is, of course, no doubt that the building which 
appears on Nos. 2, 5, and 10 is the Palazzo di Venezia 
or di 8. Marco. We know little about the appearance 
of the original palace. It is interesting to note that 

Papes, ii p. 5. With reference to this custom of burying medals, 
Timoteo Maffei has an interesting passage in a letter written in 1453, 
to Sigisrnondo Malatesta (quoted by Friedlander, Ital. Schaumiinzen, 
p. 43, from Zanetti, Raccolta, v, p. 414 n. 327) : ad quandam tui nominis 
immortalitatem Matthaei Pasti Veronensis opera industriague [Zanetti 
gives industris quidem, which makes nonsense] vidi aere auro et argento 
innumcras quasi coelatas imagines quae vel in defossis locis dispersae vel 
muris intus locatae vel ad exteras nationes transmissae sunt. 

3 Dengel, Dvorak und Egger, Der Palazzo di Venezia in Rom 
(Vienna, 1909), p. 14, note 2. Signer G. Zippel, "Per la storia del 
Pal. di Venezia," in Ausonia, ii (1907), p. 116, gives entries from 
accounts for making bochalette (earthenware receptacles) for putting 
medals in the new walls of S. Marco (May 13, 1466), also ^n? faciendis 
fragalibus in fabrica S. Marci (February 15, 1470), and ad emendum 
vasa pro reponendis medallis in muris fabricarum (November 16, 1470), 
and for certis pingatis depictis cmptis ad ponendnm fragallas in fabrica 
(March 16, 1471). Signer Zippel has, with the utmost courtesy, allowed 
me to make use of the proofs of the appendices to his edition of the 
Lives of Paul II in the new issue of Muratori. From documents there 
collected by him we learn that payments were made on March 2, 1469, 
to Christoforo da Mantova for mBikingfragallos scu medalias pro fabrica 
sancti Marci ; and on July 19, 1469, to the same medallist, for making 
medalias for the same object. The etymology of the word which is 
here equated to " medal " is unknown to me. 

* P. Mandosio, Qsarpov (ed. 1696), p. 105. See also below, p. 358. 

7 Miintz, op. cit., p. 34, note. 


the medal shows trefoil-headed windows, and that one 
such is still preserved in the building. 8 The wording 
of the inscription, HAS AEDES, &c., on the medal is 
identical with that which stands on the east front of 
the palace. 9 What, however, is the arx referred to on 
Nos 4 and 8 ? It is hardly likely that the word would 
be applied although not altogether unsuitable to such 
vast fabrics to the Palace of S. Marco, or to the Vatican. 
On the other hand, it would be apt to the Capitol or to 
the Castle of S. Angelo. 10 But the work which we 
know to have been done on those buildings during Paul's 
pontificate would hardly warrant such a reference as the 
medal makes. May it not be that Paul, among his other 
magnificent schemes, had a plan for extensive alterations 
in one or other of these places, and that the medal was 
prepared accordingly ? Such anticipatory medals are 
common enough, the most famous being the medal of 
the " Descente en Angle terre " of Napoleon ; and a nearer 
parallel is afforded by the medal of Sigismondo Malatesta, 
showing the never- completed facade of S Francesco at 
Rimini. It is some slight argument in favour of this 
interpretation, that the words HANG ARCEM were cut out 
of the inscription and replaced by HAS AEDES. This 
looks as if the medal was originally made for an object 
which was afterwards abandoned. 11 

8 Dengel, &c., op. cit., p. 14 and PI. xiii. 
8 Dengel, &c., op. cit., p. 155, No. 1. 

10 Documents referring to work here, chiefly on the dungeons, from 
January, 1466, onwards, are given by Miiiitz, pp. 90-92, 94; cp. E. 
Rodocanachi, Le Chateau de Saint- Ange, p. 73. 

11 Bonanni, Numismata Pontificum, i pp. 87 f., describes a specimen 
with the obverse of the Cardinal medals, and the reverse of No. 4, but 
with the date MCCCCLV, which is an impossible or at any rate false 
combination, since the type shows the Papa] tiara. His illustration 
of the reverse, however, has the correct date. 



We have also medals referring to work begun or carried 
out in 1470 on one or more constructions. One of these 
was doubtless still the Palazzo di Venezia, since, as we 
have seen above, 12 medals were being made for it in that 
year. No. 15 does not specify any particular building, 
but No. 22 identifies the aedes (aedem would have been, 
perhaps, more correct here) as the Tribune of St. Peter's. 
As Miintz has remarked, it is in this year 1470 that entries 
begin to appear in the accounts referring to work on the 
Tribune. 13 Paul's splendid enterprise never seems to 
have been carried very far by himself, although he spent 
enormous sums on it, and it was not continued by his 

The medal "Letitia Scholastica " (No. 6) has been 
referred u to the reorganization by Paul of the Koman 
University. This piece is the only one of the series 
which bears an artist's signature, A. BO. Bonanni, 15 it 
is true, explains this as an abbreviation of Academia 
Bononiensis, so that the medal would refer to benefits 
conferred by Paul on the University of Bologna. But 
Milanesi's identification 1(i of the artist as Aristotile 
Fioravanti, to whom we shall return, is much more 

"Hilaritas Publica " (Nos. 7 and 11) seems to com- 
memorate the celebration of the election of Paul to the 
papacy. 17 He added greatly to the gaiety of the people 
by his elaboration of the Carnival festivities, and the little 

12 P. 354, note 5. 

13 Op. cit., pp. 44 ff. 

14 Miintz, op. cit., ii p. 2, note 1. 

15 Vol. i p. 86. 

1H Armand, iii 1636. 

17 Bonanni, i p. 83. For the public rejoicings on "this occasion, see 
also Ganensius, op. cit., p. 34. 


medal (No. 32) commemorating a public banquet doubt- 
less refers to the feast given to the chief citizens in front 
of the Palazzo di Venezia at the end of the games, and 
may indeed have been distributed among the guests. 18 
Platina seems to date this banquet to 1468, after the 
pacification of Italy, and not to the first Carnival after 
Paul's accession ; and he would seem to be right, since 
on the obverse of the little medal Paul takes the title of 
"Founder of the Peace of Italy." But the feast, at 
any rate, became annual. 19 

The " Pabulum Salutis " (No. 16) is one of the most 
interesting of the reverses in this series. Bonanni 20 
makes the very interesting suggestion that the sheep 
which are seeking the sources of Divine salvation are 
the Maronites of Mount Lebanon, who in 1469 sent to 
consult the Pope on certain mysteries of the Christian 
faith. The whole type is clearly derived from some 
original of early Christian date, possibly from a relief 
such as is found on Ravennate sarcophagi. 20 ' 1 Grirolamo 
Gualdo, whose account of medals supposed to have been 
made by Bartolommeo Bellano for the Pope we shall 
discuss later, has a curious note on this piece, which 
he refers to the occasion when Paul "edifice il 
Presepio in Santa Maria Maggiore, dove si vede la 
Beatissima Vergine con il Puttino fra animali e pastori. 
Pabulum Salutis e il suo motto." He has apparently 
altogether misinterpreted the design, unless he is refer- 
ring to another piece which is now lost. 

18 The nummi argentei, on the other hand, which Paul scattered 
among the crowd at these feasts (see Canensius, op. cit., p. 51), were 
probably not medals, but coins. 

19 Canensius, loc. cit. 

20 Vol. i p. 74. 

20a See Diitschke, Ravennatische Stolen, Leipzig, 1909. 



Of Jacopo Gottifredo, called Jacopo del Zoccolo, who 
is mentioned on Nos. 17 and 20, we, have already spoken. 
He was Paul's chief physician, and a great favourite, 
being made Chancellor of the City in 1469. His house, 
on the north side of the Piazza di Pasquino, was 
purchased in 1691 by the Archconfraternity of the 
Agonizzanti, for their church. 21 

The Public Consistory mentioned on No. 14 may very 
well be, as Bonanni urges, 22 that of December, 1466, in 
which sentence was pronounced against G-eorge Podiebrad, 
the heretic King of Bohemia, or the Consistory of Holy 
Week, 1467, when the sentence was confirmed. This 
sitting seems to have been one of peculiar solemnity, to 
judge by the descriptions which have come down to us. 
Bonanni notes that the Last Judgment 23 represented on 
the reverse is appropriate to the occasion. It is especially 
recorded that representatives of the orders and doctors 
of canon law were summoned to this Consistory, and 
their opinion was taken. 

On the other hand, the various medals Nos. 18, 23, 24, 
which, sharing a common reverse type, are 'inscribed 
PVBLICA PONT- MAX-, can hardly have any particular 
significance. The type, it will be noticed, is similar to 
that of the Pope's bulla (see No. 35), but here the sup- 
pliants seem to be adults. No. 23, with CONSISTORIVM 
PVBLICVM, would at first sight seem to have been the 
earliest version; No. 18, with SACER SENATVS, the latest 

21 See P. Cancellieri, II Mercato, &c. (Borne, 1811), p. 99, note 2 ; 
G. B. Piazza, Eusevologio Romano (1698), p. 410. I owe these references 
to Miss Edith Hewett. Of. also above, p. 354. 

12 Vol. i pp. 80 f. 

23 Strictly speaking, the actual Judgment is not represented. 


(if, indeed, that inscription is at all contemporary). 
The shield which is seen in No. 23 has been removed in 
the two others. And yet, of the three inscriptions, 
AVDIENTIA PVBLICA is the only one that seems really 
appropriate to the type. 

Bonanni (p. 82) very plausibly suggests that the type 
of the bulla (No. 35) commemorates the benevolence of 
Paul II towards the children of the exiled despot of 
Morea, Thomas Palaeologus. Thomas died in Kome on 
May 12, 1465, and Paul recognized his son Andrew as 
titular despot of Morea. 24 Bonanni recognizes in the 
suppliant figures the two sons and a daughter of Thomas, 
with a tutor. The three most prominent figures certainly 
seem to be youthful. 25 

The title of" Founder of the Peace of Italy," which the 
Pope claims on many of his medals, obviously refers to 
his attempts towards the pacification of Italy. Thus, 
upon the death of Francesco Sforza in 1466, he sum- 
moned the cardinals, and after consultation wrote letters 
to all the princes and states of Italy, exhorting them to 
maintain peace ; and again in April, 1468, it was by his 
mediation that Colleone was induced to consent to a 
peace including all the Italian states. In 1470 he made 
yet another attempt to unite all Christian princes, 
especially the Italians, against the Turks. 26 

The inner portion of the Jubilee medal (No. 33) is a 
reproduction of a carnelian intaglio at Florence, the 

24 G. F. Hertzberg, Gesch. Griechenlands seit d. Absterben des ant. 
Lebens, ii p. 781, note 1. 

25 It has also been suggested (Marino Marini, quoted by Mas Latrie, 
Tresor de Chronologic, 1139) that this bulla type represents the Pope 
receiving in consistory the envoys of Italian princes who were charged 
to come to an agreement with the Holy See in the matter of the 
anti-Turkish alliance. 

26 Ciacconius, ii col. 1076. 


dimensions of which are 58 x 34 mm. The represen- 
tation of the tiara here is quite different from what is 
found on the large medal No. 34, the chief element in 
the decoration being palmettes instead of fleurs-de-lis 
(Paul's tiaras were famous for the richness of the jewels 
with which they were adorned). 27 On the other hand, 
the morse, with its large central stone, may be the same 
as the one worn by the Pope in the bust variously 
attributed to Bellano, Mino da Fiesole, and Giovanni di 
Sicilia (lohannes lurdi Catalanus), 28 although naturally 
enough in the medal the morse is rather summarily 
represented. The mention of the publication of the 
Jubilee fixes the date of the intaglio from which the 
medal was made to 1470. 29 

Three or four medallists are associated by documents 
or tradition with Paul II. We may naturally consider 
first Aristotile Fioravanti of Bologna, whose signature 
appears on the " Letitia Scholastica " medal. This 
artist was primarily an engineer and architect, and is 
famous for having anticipated modern engineering 
science by bodily moving buildings, such as the Torre 
della Magione at Bologna. It is worth noticing that 
while at Eome, in 1473, Fioravanti was accused by his 
enemies of issuing false coins. 30 Whether true or not, 

- : See Canensius, pp. 43 f., and the passages quoted by Bonanni, 
i p. 71. 

2S See Zippel, Appendix to his edition of the Vite di Paolo II. 
Payments to this artist for what appears to be a bust are recorded 
in 1469. The bust is finely illustrated by Dengel, &c., Dcr Palazzo 
di Venezia, PL xxv, xxvi. 

29 The printed copy of the bull proclaiming the Jubilee is dated 
" MCCCCLXXIII. decimo" (for 1470, tertio decimo) "Kal. Mali 
pontificatus nostri Anno VI," i.e. April 19, 1470. 

30 Gualandi, in Atti e Mem. della E. Dcp. di Storia Patria per le 
Prov. di Romagna, ix (1870), p. 64. 


this charge squares with the supposition that he was 
employed at the mint. When he went to Kussia, in 
1475, he apparently became engraver to the mint of 
Moscow, and coins exist bearing his name, ORISTO- 
TELES or ORRISTOTELES, in full on the reverse. 31 
That they are of no artistic interest whatever is doubt- 
less chiefly due to the traditions of the Kussian 

If Fioravanti made the reverse " Letitia Scholastica/' 
it is very likely that he also made the reverse " Hilaritas 
Publica," which is akin to it in style. But there is 
nothing to show that he made the obverse which is 
associated with these and two or three other reverses. 
It is hardly necessary to say that the unsatisfactory 
practice of commissioning different men to design the 
obverse and the reverse of the same piece has prevailed 
at many mints at many periods in the history of coinage. 

Another artist, traditionally supposed to have worked 
for Paul, both as sculptor and as medallist, is Barto- 
lommeo Bellano of Padua. The tradition goes back to 
Vasari. 32 Armand cautiously declined to distinguish 
the work of this artist among the numerous unsigned 
medals of the Pope. Whether it is to be distinguished 
depends upon the amount of credence which is to be given 
to a certain statement by Grirolamo Gualdo of Vicenza. 33 
This person wrote, in the middle of the seventeenth 

31 C. Malagola, in Atti e Mem. delle ER. Dep. di Storia Patria per le 
Prov. delV Emilia, N. S., i (1877), pp. 217 f. 

32 Vita di Vellano da Padova. " Fece il medesimo molte medaglie, 
delle quali ancora si veggiono alcune, e particolarmente quella di quel 
Papa, e quelle d' Antonio Rosello Aretino, e di Batista Platina ambi di 
quello segretarj." This passage does not occur in the first edition of 

33 For what follows in the text, see B. Morsolin, in Biv. ItaL, 1890, 
pp. 550 ft, and Nuovo Archivio Veneto, viii. (1894), pp. 198 ft. 



century, a description of the Museo Gualdo, which had 
been founded at Vicenza by his ancestor of the same 
name, who died in 1566. According to Girolamo the 
younger, this museum contained no less than five 
medals of Paul II by Bellano ; they are sufficiently 
described by him to enable us to identify them. How 
much, however, is the statement of Gualdo worth, 
dating as it does nearly 200 years later than the 
medals themselves? Even supposing that his state- 
ment embodies the attribution accepted by the founder 
of the museum, that only brings us one century nearer 
to the time of Bellano. The fact that an attribution 
to Bellano of medals of Paul II first appears in print in 
the second edition of Vasari's Lives, published in 1568, 
just after the death of Gualdo the elder, can hardly be 
regarded as a confirmation of the tradition. This is a 
question not easily to be solved, but it is obvious that 
Gualdo' s statement, taken as it stands, cannot count as 
first-class evidence. 34 

On the other hand, there is a general consensus of 
opinion that of the three medals mentioned by Vasari 
as having been made by Bellano, of Paul II, Antonio 
Koselli, and Bartolommeo (often, as by Vasari himself, 
wrongly called Baptista) Platina, the second at any rate 
is to be identified. Eoselli spent his old age in Padua, 
and his monument was carved by Bellano. The medal 
represents him at an advanced age ; its style is quite 
unlike that of any other known medal, and its uncom- 
promising realism and the ungainliness of its forms 
are certainly quite in keeping with what we know of 

31 The latest writer on Bellano (A. Moschetti, in Thieme and Becker's 
Lexicon, iii p. 234) seems to me to exaggerate the importance of 
Guaklo's evidence in this connexion. 



IBellano's style in sculpture. This is the piece 
pig. 3): 
TIE Bust to 1., wearing flat cap with soft 
crown, brim turned up close all round, and 
gown ; in the field, on the r., the figures 91 

FIG. 3. Medal of Antonio Eoselli, by Bartolommeo Bellano. 

Rev. CELITVM BENIVOLENTIA Semi-nude male figure 
(Roselli) with loose drapery, seated to 1. on a 
seat of which the legs end in dragons' heads, 
his r. hand raised in exhortation ; the whole 
figure supported by an architectural bracket ; 
in the field, C V 

British Museum, bronze, 46*5 mm. Cp. 
Friedlander, Ital. Schaumiinzen, p. 82 ; Arm., i 
47. 3; Fabriczy (Eng. trans.), pp. 61 f. The 
figures 91 cannot indicate the sitter's age, if it 
is true that he was only 85 when he died on 
December 10, 1466. 33 

As Friedlander has already remarked, this piece is 
absolutely different in style from any of the known 
medals of Paul II. They cannot be by the same hand. 
Paul's medals show not a single one of the peculiarities 

Semrau, Donatella's Kanzeln, p. 151. 

2 B 2 


of conception, modelling, or lettering by which the 
medal of Eoselli is so strongly characterized ; and as 
some of these peculiarities are precisely those which 
we should expect to find in a medal by Bellano, 
there is a very strong presumption that Bellano did 
not, so far as we know, work as a medallist for the 

Oristoforo of Mantua, generally known as Cristoforo 
Geremia, is in different case. On the death of Cardinal 
Scarampi on March 22, 1465, Cristoforo, who had been 
in his service, entered the employment of the Pope. 
Payments were made to him in 1469 for medals for the 
foundations of the Palazzo di Venezia, and also for 
making artillery for the defences of the " arces S. Eo. 
Eccl." 36 

Kaphael Maffei of Volterra, in his Anthropologies also 
tells us 37 that Cristoforo of Mantua made a medal of 
Pope Paul II. On the strength of this statement it 
has been suggested 38 that Cristoforo is responsible for 
the portrait of Pier Barbo as Cardinal (Nos. 1, 2). 
Cristoforo seems to have been in Eome at the time, 
but to have left for his native Mantua in 1456 ; from 
1461 to 1465 he was back in Eome with Cardinal 
Scarampi. From 1465 onwards he was in the Pope's 

The attribution of these early medals to Cristoforo 

3ti The entries referring to the medals have been quoted above 
(note 5). I repeat my thanks to Signor Zippel for communicating 
them to me. The medallist was dead by February 22, 1476, on which 
day certain credits were assigned to his heirs. 

37 The passage is most conveniently accessible in Muntz, Les Arts 
d la Cour des Papes, ii p. 305, or Friedlander, Ital. Schaumunzen , 
p. 121. 

38 See Fabriczy, Ital. Medals (Eng. trans.), pp. 156, 157. 


requires to be supported by the evidence of style ; but 
it is difficult to find points of analogy between them 
and the authenticated works of the artist, his medals, 
namely, of Alfonso Y of Aragon and of the Emperor 
Augustus. I see no resemblance in the modelling of 
the busts ; and in lettering and arrangement of the 
legend there is a remarkable difference. The Barbo 
medals are distinguished by a neat, well-spaced inscrip- 
tion, with plain but well-proportioned letters, and with 
rather wide intervals between the words. The medals 
signed by Cristoforo, on the other hand, and also the 

FIG. 4. Medal of Ludovico Scarampi, by Cristoforo Geremia. 

medal of Cardinal Scarampi which Fabriczy rightly 
attributes to him (Fig. 4), 39 show a tendency to crowd 
the inscription, running the letters into each other, 
and leaving no space between the words; and the 
letters themselves are not plain, but have strong serifs. 
Cristoforo also uses a border of dots, which is not found 
on the Barbo medals. Of course, the differences might 
be due to a modification in the artist's style, but more 

39 I have to thank Mr. H. P. Mitchell for kindly obtaining for me a 
cast of the fine specimen in the Victoria and Albert Museum, here 


evidence seems to be required before the proposed 
attribution can be accepted. 

I have said that Fabriczy's attribution of the medal 
of Scarampi to Cristoforo seems to be right. Among 
the medals of Paul II those which it most resembles 
are to be found in the group measuring from 40 to 
38 mm. (Nos. 15-26). The resemblance in the lettering 
is often very close, as in the " Audientia Publica " and 
G-ottifredo medals ; but there is, moreover, a family 
likeness in the treatment of the groups of figures on 
the reverse, as in the " Audientia Publica " and " Pabulum 
Salutis " medals. The only date which is mentioned on 
any of these pieces is 1470, which is, at any rate, not 
inconsistent with the fact that the only payments which 
we know to have been made to Cristoforo for medals 
are recorded in 1469. It seems reasonable, therefore, to 
attribute to Cristoforo the original model for the 
obverses of this group (as we have seen, there is essen- 
tially only one obverse model for all of them), and 
also a certain number of the reverses, such as those of 
Nos. 15-17, 20-24. The others are probably rifacimenti 
by less skilled hands. The fine model of the various 
oval pieces, Nos. 27-31, may also be his, as well as 
the little medal commemorating the public banquet 
(No. 32), which, if Platina is right, is of or after 1468. 

Signor Zippel has suggested that some of the medals 
of Paul II attributed to Bellano may be from the hand 
of Andrea di Piccolo da Viterbo, the Pope's favourite 
jeweller. He publishes documents relating to him 
from September 22, 1464; on December 12 of that 
year he is mentioned with Milianus Permathei de 
Orsinis de Fulgineo as Master of the Mint. On 
August 5, 1468, Pierpaolo della Zecca is substituted 


for Andrea. 40 It might therefore seem possible to assume 
that he made the series of smaller medals, mostly of 1465 
(Nos. 4-13), except in so far as we have seen reason to 
attribute the reverses " Hilaritas Publica " and " Letitia 
Scholastica" to Aristotile Fioravanti. Nevertheless, they 
show no resemblance in lettering to the great struck 
medal of the Consistory (No. 14), which would certainly 
be made at the mint under the supervision of the master 
for the time being. It seems preferable, therefore, 
assuming that the Consistory is that of 1466 or 1467, to 
attribute this piece, rather than the others, to Andrea da 

But, if this struck piece is by Andrea, then we may, 
with all but certainty, say that two other medals were 
also produced under his supervision, if not by his own 
hand. First there is the great chased medal of 1464 
(Fig. 2). This is, as already remarked, handled in a 
jeweller's style; that is to say, the chasing, not the 
original modelling, is of paramount importance. That 
fact is sufficient to account for the superficial difference 
in style between it and other medals produced in a 
different way, like No. 14, as well as for the doubt which 
has unreasonably been cast upon its authenticity. 
Between this large piece and the struck medal we may 
notice a most remarkable resemblance in lettering : the 
gradual broadening of the legs of the letters, and the 
hollowing out of their extremities, are most characteristic 
and unusual. 41 Secondly, these peculiarities occur on 
only one other medal of Paul II, and that is the bulla- 

40 For other information about him, see Miintz, op. cit., ii pp. Ill, 

41 Lettering closely approaching it is found on Papal bullae of 
Paul II' s predecessors. 


medal, No. 35, which is further connected with the large 
chased medal of 1464 by the use of cable-circles, a mark 
of jeweller's work. We may then have little hesitation 
in assigning all three pieces, Nos. 14, 34, and 35, to the 
same hand ; and to whom more naturally than to that 
jeweller and goldsmith who was at the time in charge 
of the mint ? 

Another jeweller whom Signor Zippel shows to be 
concerned with medals is one Angelo, possibly Angelo 
Paci dalF Aquila ; but all that we know is that in 1470 
he was paid a certain sum for two " medaliae " of gold 
and certain others of silver. We are not told that he 
made these pieces, and as we know that Paul was a 
collector, they may have been merely pieces, ancient 
or other, acquired through him for the Papal collection. 

We have thus arrived at a rough and (be it under- 
stood) tentative classification of all the ordinary 
medallic series of Paul II. The medal made from the 
carnelian intaglio stands by itself. Artistically regarded, 
the medals have no very great value, although a consider- 
able power of characterization is shown in the portraits 
which we have assigned to Cristoforo Geremia. To the 
numismatist the chief interest lies in the extreme economy 
of models revealed by a comparison of the varieties. Just 
as in modern times we continue to use the same model for 
coinage for many years, so the same bust was used over 
and over again ; but a superficial appearance of novelty 
was given to it by altering the decoration of the cope, 
or one or two words of the inscription. The circular 
inscriptions were not worked on the same piece as the 
bust or other design, but on a detachable circular strip, 
so that they could be removed and attached as a whole 
to different types, or could have certain words cut out 


and replaced by others. This was not a new practice ; 
it was already employed by Amadeo Milano in his 
medals of Borso d'Este, 42 and doubtless by other 
artists who were jewellers before they were medallists. 
It obviously tends to destroy the unity which ought to 
exist in a medal between type and legend, and one 
cannot credit that any of the greater artists of the 
fifteenth century would be likely to indulge in it. 

G. F. HILL. 

42 Burlington Magazine, January, 1909, p. 216. 



(Num. Cliron., 1910, pp. 251 ff.) 

IN this paper by Mr. Parsons it is the object of the 
author to prove : (A) the Sequence, (B) the Dates 
and Meanings, of the Coin-Types of Aethelred II. 

A. The sequence which he wishes to prove is set out 
clearly on pp. 252, 253. Eliminating from the main 
types those numbered in the British Museum Catalogue, 
iv., v., vi. (as mule pieces Hildebrand, 1881, pp. 27, 
28), vii. (as a variety of Type viii. op. cit., p. 28), ix., 
ix. a (as Danish op. cit., p. 31), x. (as a medal), and 
xi. (as a sort of mule between a medal and a coin), 
he is left with five main types : B. M. Cat., i., ii. a 
(ii. being a variety of this), iii. a (iii. being again the 
variety), iv. a and viii., which correspond with Hilde- 
brand's Types A, B (which includes, I suppose, B 1, 
B 2, B 3), C, D, E ; and his intention is to show that 
his own arrangement of these types, viz. B, C, E, D, A, 
is a likely one, or at least more likely than that of 
Hildebrand, for which purpose he compares the two 
arrangements, A-B-C-D-E and B-C-E-D-A, most care- 
fully, and sets both out in tables to show how far 
his arguments favour one or the other. Nobody, how- 
ever, has ever yet shown certainly Hildebrand, at least, 


never has any reason for adopting this sequence 
A-B-C-D-E, with A ceasing at the commencement of B, 
which the author quotes throughout as Hildebrand's 
arrangement. On p. 29 of the 1881 edition, Hilde- 
brand repeats the statement he made in the 1846 
edition (p. 23), that "without doubt the same type 
[Type A] was used continuously, together with the 
later types, during the whole of King Aethelred's 
reign," in proof of which he cites the large variety in 
size, weight, workmanship, and inscriptions seen on 
coins of this type. Now, considering the large tributes 
paid to the Danes in the years 991 (10,000 pounds of 
silver), 994 (16,000 pounds), 1007 (36,000 pounds), 1011- 
1012 (48,000 pounds), and the speed with which money 
for these tributes had to be raised, it is no unreasonable 
thing to suppose that the dies of this first type, the 
reverse of which is the simplest and easiest to engrave, 
were reproduced at such periods of necessity ; and 
though Hildebrand does not state clearly whether he 
thinks the type continued incessantly or was recalled 
into use at these urgent periods, the former view is so 
unnatural, and the latter so suitable both to the history 
of the period and to Hildebrand's notes on the coins, 
that I think he must have had the latter view in mind. 
However that may be, Mr. Parsons' negligence of this 
important point invalidates his arguments from beginning 
to end, because, in consideration of the recurrence of 
Type A throughout the reign, these arguments support 
Hildebrand's arrangement as well as, and in most cases 
better than, his own. This point, among others, will 
be shown by a brief examination of Mr. Parsons' 
arguments, of which the most important is 

(1) The transition from M~o to ON in the reverse 


inscriptions (pp. 263-267). To corroborate this he uses 
the arguments of 

(2) Finds (pp. 267-270). 

(3) Mule coins and types of the preceding and suc- 
ceeding reigns (pp. 270, 271). 

(4) Moneyers (pp. 272-275). 

(5) Mints (pp. 273-274, 276-277). 

(1; This main argument is certainly an important 
one. The author says, ' The writer is not aware that it 
has previously been noticed that the transition from 
M~O...toON... between the nioneyers' and mint 
names, has a very important bearing on the question 
of the order of the types.' But why is he "not 
aware"? He quotes Hildebrand constantly throughout 
his paper, using the 1846 edition to compile his table 
of finds on p. 268. On p. 23 of this first edition, 
Hildebrand points out the importance of this transition 
from IVTO to ON, as showing that Type A continues 
throughout the reign, some coins of this type having 
M~O, and the others, ' presumably the later ones,' the 
varieties MO, M-O, M-ON, &c., and finally O, ON ; in his notes 
on other types also Hildebrand is careful to point out 
which form of abbreviation finds use. Now, does this 
argument support Mr. Parsons' arrangement as opposed 
to Hildebrand's ? We are given on p. 264 a table which 
seems to fit the author's arrangement very nicely : he 
has taken it from the catalogue of coins in the Stock- 
holm Collection, and says that the coins described in 
the British Museum Catalogue point in the same direction. 
But a table compiled from the British Museum coins 
(including those acquired since the publication of the 
catalogue) gives the following percentages 1 : 

1 The regular use of M~O in the preceding reign necessitates this 





1 (Hild. B) . 



2 (Hild. C) . . . 


3 (Hild. E) . . . 



4 (Hild. D) . . . 




5 (Hild. A) ... 




This table shows a great point of difference, in that 
here M~O is seen to be almost completely obsolete in 
Types 3 (E) and 4 (D). This disappearance of the older 
inscription in the third and fourth types leaves us in 
need of an explanation, if we accept Mr. Parsons' arrange- 
ment, why it reappears in the fifth type; with Hilde- 
brand's arrangement, on the contrary, it is what we 
should expect, the M~O coins being struck during the 
original issue of Type A, those with the other readings 
during its later issues. With regard to the order of 
Types 3 (E) and 4 (D), neither Mr. Parsons' table nor 
the one here printed gives any help, as these two types 
do not in either table differ in any percentage to a large 
enough extent (3 per cent, is the maximum) to throw 
any weight on either side. 

The author mentions (pp. 265-267), in connexion 
with this matter, the local conservatism of some mints, 
especially in the North, arguing from this that " it is 
beyond question that no one centre was wholly respon- 
sible for making the dies." The argument, however, is 
faulty in ascribing the local peculiarities to the engraver 
of the die instead of to the moneyer who was sent to 

abbreviation being placed alone in the first column ; in the second must 
come all the varieties MO, M-O, M'O, MilO, &c. ; and in the third the 
forms O, ON, which are regularly used in the reign of Cnut. (See 
Hildebrand, 1846, pp. 23, 24.) 


London to have his dies engraved, 2 and doubtless 
controlled, or at least influenced, the form of the inscrip- 
tion engraved on his die. 

(2) The evidence of " Finds " is treated, very rightly, 
as an important argument. Again we are given a table, 
this time with a cross or dash to show if a particular 
type was represented in each find or not ; but how does 
it help in any way to know that a type occurred in a 
particular find, unless we also know, at least approxi- 
mately, the number of coins of each type that occurred ? 
Take, for example, Find No. 12 : suppose the coins to 
have been thus distributed 

Type (1) 6, Type (2) 10, Type (3) 60, Type (4) 80, 
Type (5) 100, 

it would then be an argument that this were a correct 
arrangement of the types ; if, however, the figures were 

Type (1) 100, Type (2) 80, Type (3) 60, Type (4) 10, 
Type (5) 6, 

the reverse order of types would be a more likely 
arrangement. So with all the finds : it is useless to 
know that certain types occur without also knowing in 
what proportion they occur. 

The comments on the finds are equally untrustworthy 
as evidence of the sequence of types. 

Find 4 seems likely to have been buried somewhere 
about 995 (i.e. soon after Skotkonung became King, as 
only two of his coins were found), therefore Type C, the 

2 Gf. Domesday, folio 172: " Quando moneta vertebatur, quisque 
monetarius dabat xx solidos ad Lundoniam pro cuneis mouetae 
accipiendis ; " and folio 179 : " Quaiido moneta renovatur, dabat quisque 
corum xviii. solidos pro cuneis recipiendis, et ex eo die quo redibant 
usque ad unum mensem dabat quisque eorum regi xx solidos." 


commonest in the find, was probably then in circulation ; 
but as for the other coins of Aethelred, which are not 
described, being "very possibly of Type 1 (Hild. B)," 
they are just as likely to have been of Type 5 
(Hild. A), or of both Types A and B. 

Suppose Find 5 to have been deposited in 996 (which 
will allow for the presence of a coin of Basil II and 
one of Skotkonung), then it could not possibly have 
included all the types of Aethelred, and Types 3 (E) 
and 4 (D) must have been struck after that date ; this 
would agree with Hildebrand's arrangement, the coins 
of Type A belonging to its first issue. 

In Find 6 one can only assume that the coins of 
Aethelred belong to Type 5 by first assuming that 
Type 5 is the last type of his reign ; this assumption, 
then, as an argument in evidence of the sequence of 
types, is an argument in a circle. 

In Find 10, Hildebrand (1846, p. xlv.) from which 
source the author takes his account of the finds says 
that Duke Bernard, of whom a coin occurs, is probably 
the first duke of that name ; 3 so Mr. Parsons has no 
authority for saying that this coin might have been 
struck by either the first or second Duke Bernard, and 
then arguing as if it were the second. This is important, 
because this coin is the latest in the find, and the find was 
therefore buried before 1011, certainly not later, and the 
absence of Types 3 (E) and 4 (D) is therefore not alto- 
gether accidental, but due to one or both of them not 
being yet issued. As Find 5, this find also is strongly 

3 Had Hildebrand's attribution of this coin been incorrect, he would 
doubtless have made a statement to that effect in the second edition of 
1881, seeing that the publication of Dannenberg's Deutsche Mitnzen in 
1876 left no doubt in distinguishing the coins of these two Dukes. 


in favour of Hildebrand's arrangement, the Type A coins 
belonging to this type's first issue at the beginning of 
the reign. 

Similarly the absence of Type 3 (E) from Finds 8 and 
11 cannot be called accidental, but militates strongly in 
favour of putting Type 3 (E) after Type 4 (D) which does 
occur in this hoard, as Hildebrand puts it. The other 
finds which, our author says, " need no comment," are of 
course as strongly in favour of Hildebrand's arrangement 
as his own, in view of the important fact that he makes 
Type A occur not only at the beginning, but also 
throughout the reign. 

(3) The evidence of mule coins is, our author says, not 
conclusive for this reign, as many different obverses occur 
with the same reverse [e.g. obverses of 1 (B I), 4 2 (C), 
3 (E), 4 (D), all occur with the reverse of 5 (A)]. This 
is surely in itself as strong an argument as could be 
found in favour of Hildebrand's arrangement, the recur- 
rence of Type 5 (A) at intervals of necessity throughout 
the reign being an excellent I think the only possible 
explanation of the strange phenomenon that the dies of 
this type (for it is this type only that is promiscuously 
muled in this way) are used in combination with all the 
other types of this reign. 

The argument connecting the "Hand " type (Parsons, 1 ; 
Hild. B) with the same type of Edward the Martyr 
(p. 270), is very slender. A unique coin represents this 
type in the earlier reign ; but the ordinary type of Edward 
the Martyr's reign does connect with Type 5 (A) of 
Aethelred's reign a point strongly in favour of Hilde- 
brand ; the further connexion of this Type 5 (A) with the 

4 See Hildebrand, 1881, p. 25, Type A, var. a. 


succeeding reign supports Hildebrand as strongly as 
Mr. Parsons a fact which the latter naturally fails to see, 
as he was not aware of Hildebrand 's true explanation of 
Type A. 

Mr. Parsons points out that Types 3, 4, 5 (E, D, A) 
recur on coins of Cnut ; that of 3 (E) is dismissed as " a 
rough copy," though no explanation is given of a rough 
copy being made of a type that had been so long out of 
circulation. The dies of Types 4 (D) and 5 (A) are said 
to be pressed into service for the payment of 1018, 
and this is cited as valuable corroboration of the 
correct position of Type 5 ! The only possible deduc- 
tion would be that these two types were both in use 
at the end of Aethelred's reign, certainly not that 5 
was later than 4. 

(4) Next follows the evidence of moneyers' names with 
another of these misleading tables : misleading in the first 
place because in it, as in the others, Hildebrand is again 
treated as having arranged the types in order of A-B-C- 
D-E with A ceasing at the commencement of B ; and 
here, as throughout the paper, the whole effect of the 
argument would be completely changed were Hilde- 
brand correctly quoted as making Type A continue 
throughout the reign (for example, the five names occur- 
ring in Cnut's first type, which are said to be in favour 
of the author's arrangement as opposed to Hildebrand's, 
viz. Eadric, Godman, Leofred, Lifinc and Wulfwine, all 
fit Hildebrand's arrangement equally well); misleading 
also because to take but one type before and one after 
the reign under consideration makes no allowance for the 
many moneyers' names that are likely to have occurred 
on a type of which but few specimens have survived (of 
Edward the Martyr's reign, for example, there are only six 



London coins in Hildebrand's catalogue of 1881, and only 
one in the British Museum), coins of these moneyers of 
that particular type or reign being now lost. Many of 
the moneyers' names in this list which are not known on 
coins of this particular type of Cnut's reign, appear on 
other of his types : Aelfgar, Aelfget, Aelfric, and Aelfstan 
are instances. 

(5) On the evidence of mints it is hardly necessary to 
repeat what I have just said under the evidence of 
moneyers' names with regard to the misrepresentation of 
Hildebrand, and the fallacy of arguing from one preced- 
ing and one succeeding type. My remarks on both these 
points apply to this case also. 

With regard to the " Moneta " coins, it is difficult to 
place a York coin with the " Moneta " legend on the 
reverse so late as the last few years of the reign. Admit- 
ting the conservative tendency of York, it is nevertheless 
hard to account for the appearance of this abbreviation 
in the first and last types, when it is absent in all the 
three intermediate types. Hildebrand's arrangement 
affords less difficulty, Bedford coins being so rare (there 
are nine of Type A in Hildebrand 1881, and none in the 
British Museum) that the absence of " Moneta " coins of 
Type A struck at Bedford proves less than the existence 
of one of this type struck at York. 

B. The Times of Issue, and Meaning of the Types are, 
on the author's admission, speculative. As the correctness 
of the dates must depend absolutely on the correctness 
of the sequence of types, little more need be said on this 
subject. Further, as each type after the first is dated 
roughly by the tribute-payments, the author's chronology 
is not convincing, when he argues from the commonness 
of each type that each type in succession, after the first, 


was in circulation during the large payments of 991, 994, 
1007, 1011-12. 

The author has assumed the "Hand" type to have 
been started by Edward the Martyr, and continued, as his 
first type, by Aethelred ; he now attributes to Dunstan 
responsibility for the design. But if Edward the Martyr 
took the type in honour of Dunstan, how comes it that 
Aethelred continues so to honour an Archbishop who 
retired from politics in disgust at the murder which 
brought him to the throne ? 

Again, if this type refers to the millennium, why is it 
adopted twenty-two years before the millennium is 
expected ? 

" Crux," the author would have us believe, is used on 
the next type in the sense of " trouble, misery, &c." He 
is surely reading a modern sense into a mediaeval symbol ; 
such phrases as " crucem tollere," in the Christian sense 
of the cheerful bearing of affliction, occur of course in 
the earliest times, but there seems no authority for 
" crux " being used absolutely to mean " trouble " or 
" adversity : " the English word " cross " is not found in 
that sense before the year 1573. And why go so far 
afield ? If the word CKVX is placed in the angles of a 
cross, what should it mean but " cross " ? 5 

Of the treatment of the Agnus Dei pieces as medals 
little need be said. As Mr. Lawrence has pointed out, 
the last figure on the author's second plate a cut half- 
penny with the Agnus Dei obverse is proof positive 
that they are coins ; no further proof is necessary ; if it 
were, the following points have already been mentioned : 

5 This usage is very common on mediaeval European coins. See 
Engel et Serrure, Num. du Moyen Age, pp. 585, 670, 868, 1222, 1262. 



(1) the adjustment of their weight to the standard coin- 
weight ; (2) their issue from various mints, six or seven in 
number ; (3) the appearance of the moneyer's name and 
mint upon them (a safeguard against the issue of pieces 
of impure metal or false weight) : (4) the use of an obverse 
die in conjunction with an undoubted coin-die ; (5) the 
hopeless anachronism of the author's theory. 




I DESIRE to preface a reply to Mr. Brooke by saying that 
the points of my paper were, generally speaking, dealt 
with on purely independent lines i.e. a conclusion as to 
the sequence of the types was arrived at without reference 
to the previous numismatic writings on the period. 

Perhaps the main point to be considered is Hildebrand's 
theory that his Type A was used continuously, together 
with the later types, during the whole of the reign. It 
is at once admitted, with regret, that the significance of 
the words conveying this statement was, owing to the 
absence of a translation of Hildebrand, not appreciated. 
This is a regrettable omission on rny part, and I crave 
leave to deal with it here briefly. The theory seems to 
me to be untenable on the following grounds : 1. There 
is no coin which can unquestionably be considered a mule 
of Types A and B. 2. Type A is not found in a good 
many of the hoards : it ought never to be absent if 
continued throughout the reign. 3. Type A is, for all 
practical purposes, the only one on which the form ON 
occurs. 4. The simple device of a cross only equally 
applies to Hild. D, and the variations in inscription and 
workmanship are very considerable on other types. 5. If 
Type A was a kind of universal tribute-money, it would 


be reasonable to suppose that the majority of the barbarous 
copies of Aethelred's coins would be of that type, but 
Hild. D takes the first place in that respect. 6. The 
almost entire absence of the early and intermediate forms 
of MO on the very numerous coins of Type A of 
Winchester. If Type A was continued throughout the 
reign, specimens with all the variations of inscription 
should be known of this important mint. 

I have also to regret overlooking the fact that Hilde- 
brand referred, to some extent, to the transition from MO 
to ON. This transition was noticed by me quite indepen- 
dently, and, as a result, it has been applied somewhat 
differently. Mr. Brooke, following Hildebrand's method 
of application, has therefore compiled his table on quite 
different principles, and his comparison is consequently 
nugatory. My basis of compilation, the only one admis- 
sible to my idea, was all coins with MO whether the two 
letters were divided by a dash, dot, n, comma, or 
nothing, which are simply contraction marks at one 
end, all coins with ON at the other end, and combinations 
of these two in the centre. In the table on p. 264 
M~o is intended to cover all coins with MO, whatever the 
mark of contraction. In a test of this kind it is obviously 
necessary to take a large number of coins, and to elimi- 
nate all duplicates. As indicated in my paper, these 
conditions are amply fulfilled by the 4000 to 5000 coins 
in the Stockholm Catalogue (1881), not one of which is 
duplicated. On the other hand, there are only 408 coins 
described in the British Museum Catalogue, some being 
in duplicate. 

On the question of where the dies were cut, Mr. Brooke, 
in saying "the argument is faulty," presupposes the 
establishment of one die-sinking centre only at London 


in Saxon times, and quotes two passages from "Domesday" 
in support ; but surely this is a palpable anachronism. 
The question of where the dies were cut in Norman 
times, which is not in dispute, is very different to that of 
where they were made nearly 100 years before, and, 
what is more important, under an entirely different 

In regard to Mr. Brooke's remarks on the "finds," I 
originally acknowledged that the table was imperfect. 
In the majority of cases no record of the number of 
coins in each type was published, and the whole matter 
had to be looked at from a broader standpoint, as has 
had to be done before in connexion with other reigns. 
At least the table is useful in showing how improb- 
able it is that Type A was continued throughout the 
reign. Otherwise it would be in all, or nearly all, the 

In his remarks on Find 4, Mr. Brooke omits to mention 
my comparison of it with Find 3, which, in itself, justifies 
the supposition that the unrecorded type was Hilde- 
brand B. 

In regard to Mr. Brooke's remarks on Find 5, it can 
equally be supposed that the coins could have been 
deposited any time after 996. 

Keferring to Find 10, as Hildebrand was uncertain to 
which Bernard the coin of Saxony belonged, it might 
well have been of the second as of the first Duke of that 

My critic says the "other finds" are as much in favour 
of Hildebrand's arrangement as my own, having regard to 
Type A occurring throughout the reign. If so, then why is 
Type A absent in a large number of the finds, especially 
those numbered 2, 3, and 8 ? It ought to be present in 


every one if there is anything in Mr. Brooke's statement. 
I repeat, the evidence of the finds is strongly against 
placing Type A from the beginning to the end of the 

In regard to the mule coins, Aethelred's reign is not 
the only one in which mules occur made up of types 
which do not immediately succeed each other, although 
such anomaly is more pronounced in the period under 
discussion, for the reason given on p. 261. It is extremely 
doubtful whether Hildebrand A, var. a (PL VII. Fig. 6) 
is a mule of Types A and B. The size and general 
workmanship indicate that it is merely a variety of 
Type A with the bust turned the opposite way, as 
described on p. 260. The coin illustrated seems to show 
that the artist himself was uncertain which way to engrave 
the bust, and another specimen, also in my collection, 
indicates the same thing. 

As regards the test of the nioneyers' and mint names, 
attention is drawn to my remarks on p. 272 (first 
paragraph) and p. 273 (last paragraph). In these para- 
graphs it is indicated that no importance is attached to 
these tests. The fact that the tables are rendered to 
some degree ineffectual by the omission to show, in the 
sections relating to Hildebrand's arrangement, Type A 
as continuing throughout the reign, does not therefore 
affect the general argument. I quite agree that such 
tables would be more useful if extended to show more 
types of preceding and succeeding sovereigns, but a limit 
has to be fixed somewhere, and the tables are quite large 
enough as they are. 

With regard to the M ON ETA coins, Mr. Brooke says, 
" It is difficult to place a York coin with the * Moneta ' 
legend on the reverse so late as the last few years of the 


reign." But if York practically refused to have the 
legend, ON, at the end of the reign, as was the case, it 
might very well have refused to relinquish the old form 
" Moneta " at the same time. 

Mr. Brooke says, " The author has assumed the ' Hand ' 
type to have been started by Edward the Martyr, and 
continued, as his first type, by Aethelred " (p. 379). In 
this I am supported by the weighty opinion of the late 
Sir John Evans, and in other parts of my paper I brought 
forward reasonable arguments in support of the contention. 
In connexion with this issue I am credited with saying 
that "Edward the Martyr took the type in honour of 
Dunstan." My statement is that "there seems great 
probability that Dunstan . . . was responsible for the 
adoption of the design," and I followed this by giving 
reasons (p. 279). As regards the continuation of the type 
by Aethelred II, politics had, probably, nothing to do 
with the question, except so far as they forced Dunstan 
to devote more of his time to art, literature, and science. 
By his pre-eminence in these matters Dunstan, notwith- 
standing his political retirement, would be likely to have 
much to say regarding coin designs. If the political 
aspect is admitted at all, it is in favour of the adoption 
of something different to the widespread type bearing 
Edward's name, as the Government, headed by Aethel- 
red's mother during her son's minority, bitterly antago- 
nistic to the late king and his party, would be likely to 
adopt something different to what was, for all practical 
purposes, the only type of Edward's reign. 

The question, "If this type (Hild. B) refers to the mil- 
lennium, why is it adopted twenty-two years before the 
millennium is expected? " (p. 379) seems to me to be quite 
answerable. Compared with 1000 years 22 is a very short 


time, and the popular belief, reflecting itself in the 
industry of the period, might reasonably be reflected also 
in the coinage. 

On the question of the word "crux," my critic has 
again failed to substantiate his point. He will find that 
even in Konian times pain, affliction, trouble, and un- 
prosperous affairs, were called " crosses " (see Complete 
Concordance, by Alexander Cruden, M.A.). The fact that 
the metonymic meaning of the word does not appear in 
" English " writings until 1573 and I presume my critic 
is referring to Turner on Husbandry has no bearing 
on its use or not in the Latin tongue. My critic says, in 
effect, the word is to be interpreted simply as "cross," 
and asks, " Why go so far afield ? " The obvious reply 
is, Why use the word at all, when the object itself is 
plainly depicted, unless it is intended to specially 
symbolize something? Beyond, apparently, a solitary 
and doubtful English coin of Harthacnut, the word does 
not appear on other Anglo-Saxon issues of coins, although 
some form of cross is almost universal, on many emissions 
so engraved as to leave plenty of space for the insertion 
of the word. Its presence on this one issue only must, 
therefore, be intended to refer to something more than 
the mere object, " cross." 

On the question of the " Agnus Dei " cut mule, it should 
be stated that I have had no other belief than that it is 
a halfpenny. It is so described in my list of the mints of 
the "Agnus Dei " (p. 287), and it should have so appeared 
on the plate. Its existence can be explained, but this 
must be left over, together with other evidence in 
connexion with the medal theory, for a separate paper. 

As regards my critic's points 2 and 3, the matter has 
already been explained (see pp. 287 and 289). As regards 


point 1, there was no standard weight at this time. The 
coins of most if not all the types constantly vary from 
16 grs. to 27 grs. A few go below 16 grs., and there 
are some above 30 grs. Point 4 has been dealt with 
above ; and as regards 5, " the hopeless anachronism " has 
to be proved. There are certain pieces known of Saxon 
Britain and of the Continent which partake more of the 
character of medals than coins ; and medallions, at least, 
are known of Eoman times. It would perhaps have been 
better to call the "Agnus Dei" pieces a "commemorative 
issue," but I wished to convey the idea that they were 
not struck, primarily, as coins. It is very possible that 
some of them were afterwards used as such, as in the 
case of medalets of later times. 




ONE of the most remarkable of the many unusual 
characteristics of this King's coinage was his steady 
adherence to the correct standards of the metals used 
at the Mint, and this at a time when an empty privy 
purse and political misfortunes must have offered the 
strongest of inducements to leave the straight path. 

That Charles impressed his determination upon the 
officials is shown by the satisfactory results of the formal 
tests known as the trials of the pyx, which were con- 
tinued, so far as the Tower was concerned, during the 
darkest period of the Civil War. 

At the Public Record Office are to be found the 
contemporary papers and books concerning these trials, 
but before citing extracts from the national archives on 
this and the kindred subjects, it may not be out of place 
to say a few words on the history of the pyx and the 
method of procedure. 

The proving of the coinage by assay and weighing 
was first regulated by an indenture of Edward III, 
and the custom has been followed at varying intervals 
from that time onward. It was the duty of those in 
charge of the Royal Mint to place, immediately after 
striking, a fixed proportion of each coinage in a chest, 
or pyx, kept at the Tower and duly safeguarded, 


where it remained until the Crown directed a trial of 
the contents. In Harl. MSS. 6364, a Master of the 
Mint, writing tempore James I, lays down the propor- 
tion as one piece out of every 15 Ibs. weight of gold, 
and two pieces out of every 30 Ibs. weight of silver, 
which practice no doubt obtained during Charles's reign. 
A trial having been ordered, the next step was to pro- 
duce the standards by which the fineness of the metals 
could be determined; these standard trial plates have 
been kept from time immemorial in a second chest, 
which was secured in the gloomy chamber known as 
the Chapel of the Pyx, in the cloisters of Westminster 
Abbey. Popular tradition points to this chamber as 
the place of trial, but there is direct evidence that, at 
all events from the nineteenth year of Henry VIII 
until 1640, the ceremony took place in the Star 
Chamber, at the old palace of Westminster, as will 
presently appear. 1 

The judicial body known as the Court of Star Chamber 
was abolished by statute in 1640-41 ; it may be only 
a coincidence that the pyx verdicts of July, 1641, and 
subsequent years invariably denote the place of meeting 
as being " near," and not in, that Chamber. The con- 
tents of the respective chests, or pyxes, thus furnished 
the materials for the trial by fire and balance, which was 
conducted before a tribunal of Lords of the Council by 
a jury of practical goldsmiths, who by their verdict 
either relieved or condemned the Master of the Mint. 
In 1643 the Privy Councillors gave place to a joint 
Committee of both Houses, to which some of the Com- 
mittee of Ke venue were afterwards added. 

1 Harl. MSS. 698 says that in Elizabeth's reign the pyx was tried 
" in the middle chamber next the mint furnace in the Star Chamber." 


I will now set out, as an example, a transcript of the 
original documents relating to one of Charles's trials of 
the pyx, premising that the Tower Mint only was subject 
to these tests ; it would appear that the country mints, 
even before the outbreak of hostilities, never submitted 
their productions to the central authority, and there- 
fore the purity of their standards is the more to be 

Warrant to summon a jury, 1631 

" These are to will and require you forthwith upon receipt 
hereof to somon and warne all and every the persons here- 
under named, being citizens and goldsmithes of London 
retorned by the Wardens of that Company to make tryall 
upon their othes of the pixe of moneyes coyned in the Tower 
of London, to appeare personallie on Thursday the xxx th dale 
of this instant June in the Star Chamber by viii of the clock 
in the morning before the Lords of his Ma ts privy counsell for 
the performance of that service, as they and every of them 
will answere the contrary at their perills. And this shalbe 
your warrant in that behalf. 

"From Durham House the xxiiii of June 1631. Tho 

" To Humfrey Leigh esq r his Ma'ties sergeant at Armes 
attending the great seale. 

" Thomas Sympson, Cheapside. William Warde, Cheapside. 

John Acton Edmond Rolf, St. Olave's 

Gyles Allen, Fleete bridg. Hart St. 

Symon Owen, Noble St. John Hill, Lombard St. 

John Williams, Cheapside. Frauiicys Manyng, Cheapside. 

John Hawes, Richard Tayler 

William Haynes, Lorn- William Gibbs, Foster Lane. 

bard St. Alexander Jackson 

Symon Gibbon, Cheapside. Thomas Masters, lower ende 
Robert Hooke of Milk St." 

Robert Dodson, Lombard St. 


Next follows a report of the proceedings, and their 

" The assaies and tryall of the Pixe monies in the Star 
chamber before the Right Honorable Lords of his Ma* 8 most 
honorable privie councell the thirtith day of June Anno Dni 
1631. S r William Parkehurst Knight beeing wardein, S r 
Robert Harley Knight of the Bath m r and worker, and 
Richard Rogers esqr comptroller of his Ma te mynte. 

"Goulde of the standard of 23 carrotts 3 graynes and a 
halfe taken out of the pixe, the privie marke being the 
Feathers, accordinge to the Indenture bearinge date the 
eight day of November in the second yeare of the raigne of 
our Soveraigne Lord Kinge Charles, weighinge viii d - wt 2 graines 
q'ter and halfe, makeing in coyned moneys consistinge of 
three Angells the some of thirtie shillings, arisinge in the 
pounde weight to xliiii" ix s , is founde at the assaye one quarter 
of a grayne better than the Standard of his Ma 1 ' Treasury 
dated the xx*! 1 of August 1605. 

" Goulde of the standard of 22 carrotts taken out of the 
same pixe, the privie marke beeing the Feathers, accordinge 
to the same indenture weighinge ix liwt one ounce vi dwt 
x graynes, makeing in coyned moneys consistinge of unites 
dooble crownes and Brittayne crownes the some of ccclxxiiii" 
xv s , arisinge in the pounde weight to xli" ii s viii d ob, is founde 
at the assaie agreeable to the standard of his Ma ts Treasurye 
(scant) dated the xix'! 1 of November 1604. 

" Silver money taken out of the same pixe, the privie 
marke being the Feathers, accordinge to the same indenture 
weighinge xix 11 wt iiii oz xiiii d wt viii graynes, makeinge in coyned 
moneys consistinge of crownes, halfe crownes, shillinges, halfe 
shillinges, two pences, and pence, the some of sixtie poundes 
eight shillinges and eight pence, arisinge in the pounde 
weight to iii" ii? iii d three farthinges, is founde at the assaie 
just agreeable to the Standard of his Ma ts Treasury dated 
the xix* of November 1604." 

" The Yer edict. 

"Wee finde by the assayes and tryalls of the severall 
moneys above menconed that they are agreeable to the said 


standards in his Ma ts Treasury and covenants in the said 
indenture, and in weight Tale and allay within the remedies 
ordayned in such manner and forme as is above expressed 
and declared, accordinge to our best knowledge and 


Then follow the signatures of 17 jurors, Wm. Warde 
being marked " non jurat." 

On this occasion eleven Privy Councillors were present, 
and a sum of 4 10-s. 2^d. is allowed in the Warden's 
accounts for the recoining and waste of gold and silver 

Under the earlier Stuarts it was customary to change 
the privy, or mint, mark after each trial, and to continue 
it until the next visit to the Star Chamber, but some- 
times the demand for currency or other exigencies led 
to the adoption of an intermediate mark, in which case 
two would appear in the same pyx and would be tried 
separately. The first pyx trial of Charles, viz. on July 
7, 1625 (rn.m. Trefoil) was less than four months after 
his accession, and as it contained the coins of his father, 
James I, and none of his own, it has been omitted from 
the tabular statement which follows. For a similar 
reason I have included the assay held after the King's 
execution, viz. on November 9, 1649, as that was solely 
concerned with money bearing his portraits and legends. 

In the fourth column of the table are the amounts of 
silver coin found on each opening of the pyx, which 
figures are a reliable guide to the comparative rarity of 
the mint-marks ; it will be observed that the Triangle 
in Circle is the most plentiful, and that the Blackmoor's 
Head occupies the place of honour at the other end of 
the scale. 



Date of trial. 


Denominations in pyx. 

of silver 
in pyx. 

June 29, 1626 


Gold, 23 c. 3J grs. Angel. 
Gold, 22 c. Unite. Double 

crown. Britain crown 

Silver, 5s., 2s. 6d., Is., 


6d., 2d., Id., ^d. 

Apr. 27, 1627 

Blackmoor's head 

Omits 5s. 



Long cross 2 

As 162G (a second pyx) 


July 3, 1628 . 
June 26, 1629 


Omits 5s. 


June 23, 1630 


Omits 5s. 


June 30, 1631 


Omits id. 


June 21, 1632 


As 1626 


July 11, 1633 



June 27, 1634 



June 18, 1635 




Feb. 14, 1636 


Omits Angel 



As 1626 (a second pyx) 


May 8, 1638 . 



July 4, 1639 . 



June 26, 1640 



July 15, 1641 




May 29, 1643 

Triangle in circle 

Omits %d, 


July 15, 1644 

P in two semicircles 

Omits Angel. 


May 12, 1645 




Nov. 10, 1645 



Feb. 15, 1646 


M J> 


Nov. 9, 1649 . 


,, ,, and 5s. 


In the light of the foregoing table certain minor 
modifications of the text-books of Hawkins and Kenyon 
would appear to be desirable, but a consideration of such 
points is not within the scope of these notes. 

A comparison of the dates in the first column with 
the mint accounts for the same period raises a puzzling 
question. The latter documents contain entries relating 
to the expenses of at least three trials of the pyx at 
Westminster, in 1628, '29, and '30 respectively, which 
have no counterparts among the papers dealing with 

2 I.e. cross on steps, or cross Calvary. 


the trials and verdicts: whether these have been lost, 
or whether the additional trials referred to matters out- 
side the ordinary coinage, it is difficult to say. The 
various issues of Briot's money have never been traced 
in the pyx returns, although it is not improbable that 
his work bearing m.m. Anchor was included in the test 
of 1639, when the Tower coins show the same mark; we 
are, however, left in doubt as to when the remainder 
of his issues were tried, assuming that they are to be 
regarded as ordinary currency, and that they were pro- 
duced in the Tower. It would be natural to suppose 
that these pieces would have to undergo the usual 
formalities before or after being circulated. Can it be 
possible that one or other of the supplementary but 
unrecorded trials included the earlier examples of 
Briot's skill? 

TOWER," 1625-1649. 

These rolls contain among other items the details of 
the working costs of the mint, which were returned 
annually into the Exchequer for audit, the periods being 
from April 1 to March 31, unless otherwise stated. A 
lew of the entries appear to be of some numismatic 
interest, and therefore worthy of reproduction in the 
pages of the Chronicle. 

1628-9. Edward Greene as chief graver received .30, 
and Charles Greene as under-graver ,40, which is not 
what one would expect. The yearly payments were 
in the nature of retaining fees, as the engravers claimed 
additional remuneration for patterns of seals, medals, 


or coins. The chief graver was here allowed a sum 
for making patterns for five varieties of gold and nine 
of silver coins, which had been shown to the King, but 
they are not identified in any way. 

The expenses of a pyx trial at the Star Chamber on 
26 June, 1628, are allowed, in addition to those in- 
curred on 3 July. (See Table.) 

1629-30. Expenses of a second pyx trial on 10 Oct., 1629, 
are allowed. 

1630-1. Again, a second pyx on 26 June, 1630. 

Allowance for preparing patterns for largesse at the 
baptism of the Prince, and " square dies fit for the 
impression of the said largesse." 

1634-5. John East is now under-graver. 

Allowance is made for an annuity of 50 to Nichas 
Bryott, as granted by letters patent of 22 Jan., 
9 Charles, for the exercise of the office of one of the 
principal gravers or workers in iron of his Majesty's 
moneys in the Tower, payable during pleasure at the 
four usual Feasts, and to begin from Christmas, 1632. 
This definitely settles the status of Briot as from the 
end of the last-named year, and negatives the sug- 
gestion often put forward that he was chief graver. 
The accounts prove that he never held the latter office 
at the English Mint, 

Ed. Greene is now allowed 220 for preparing 
patterns for five gold and four silver coins " for the 
moneys new made." 

1635-6. Allowance of a payment to the chief graver for 
making tokens used for the healing of the King's evil 
and delivered to William Clowes, sergeant chirurgeon, 
at 2d. the piece ; the number being 5500. This is an 
interesting discovery, proving, as it does, that Charles 
used a touch-piece of base metal when the gold Angels 
had become too valuable to be distributed at such 
ceremonies. This is the first mention of copper or 
brass touch-pieces, but similar entries recur in the 
later accounts. There are also frequent references to 
the striking of " healing Angels." 



Mr. Grueber suggests that this so-called token is 
identical with the small medal shown on pi. 33, No. 23, 

of Medallie Illustrations, which reads 

Obv. He touched them = A hand over four heads. 
Rev. And they weare healed = Rose and thistle under a 

I think there can be no doubt as to the correctness 
of this attribution. The same piece is included by 
Boyne, 2nd edition, among the XVII.-Century Trade 
Tokens, p. 1427, No. 102, and I have a specimen bored 
with a large hole for the white ribbon that was used. 

1640-1. There is here a charge for preparing the Irish 
Mint houses for the striking of " copper money to have 
been coyned there this yeare," which probably refers 
to the abortive suggestion in that year to issue 
shillings containing 9 d in a base metal, the only 
occasion, I believe, on which Charles wavered as to 
the fineness of his money. In the same year it was 
decided by the Council to remove the mint to Leaden 
Hall, as the workmen were afraid of the soldiers and 
the city afraid to bring in bullion (Dom. S. P.). But 
nothing more is heard of the proposal. 

1641-2. David Ramagh is allowed 85.10.0 for pro- 
viding several instruments for the two mints at York 
and Shrewsbury, as detailed on a bill dated 7 July, 
which is unfortunately not forthcoming. This is 
evidence in favour of a close association between the 
Tower and the country mints as late as 1641-2. In 
the same account we learn that Nicholas Burgh, 
graver, was pressed into the service to engrave coining 
irons, and that John Decroso and Abraham Preston 
were similarly employed during portions of that year. 
This entry introduces three new gravers at the Tower ; 
perhaps the first-named is identical with the Nich. 
Burghers, who prepared a medal at Oxford in 1648. 


There is now a regrettable gap in the accounts from 
1642 until 1645, in which latter year Ed. Wade and 
Thos. Simon appear as chief gravers, with John East as 
their deputy. 

1646-7. The payment of Briot's annuity for nine months 
to 25 Dec. shows that he died during the Christmas 
quarter of 1646. 3 

1 April, 1647, to 15 May, 1649. Esther, the relict of Nich. 
Briot, receives from the Com. of Public Revenue, by 
warrant of 17 June, 1647, the sum of 258 . 10 . for 
his mills, presses, and tools, which were delivered to 
the Warden of the Mint, to remain there for service. 

It has been generally assumed that the famous 
engraver followed the fortunes of the King, and retired 
with his patron to Oxford and elsewhere. If that were 
so, it would argue great magnanimity on the part of the 
Parliamentary Government to continue the payment of 
the annuity down to the day of Briot's death at the end 
of 1646, when, ex Jiypothesi, he had thrown up his work 
at the Tower some two years previously. 

In conclusion, I wish to make acknowledgment to 
Mr. W. J. Hocking, who has kindly answered several 


3 Since the foregoing paper was finished, the closing scenes of Briot's 
life have been made clear. He died, not in Oxford or in France, as has 
been stated, but in London, and by a freak of chance the window near 
which I am writing looks out upon his resting-place in the church of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, where " Nicholaus Briett " was buried on 
Dec. 25, 1646. His will (P.C.C. 10 Fines) is dated Dec. 22, 1646, when 
he was no longer able to sign his name, and is stated to have been 
written in the parish of St. Martin, without giving any more precise 
place of abode. It is somewhat pathetic to read that the portions of 
his youngest daughter and younger son depended upon the payment of 
a debt by Charles I. 



(See Plate XIV.) 

CONSIDERABLE hoards of Gupta gold coins are compara- 
tively rarely found. Writing in 1889, Mr. V. A. Smith 
was able to refer 1 to only ten or eleven. Since the work 
of examining treasure trove found in the United Pro- 
vinces was entrusted to a committee connected with the 
Lucknow Museum, a few odd coins have turned up, but 
none in any number till the present year. A find of forty 
has now been reported from a village called Tikri Debra, 
in police circle Gopiganj, in the district of Mirzapur. In 
view of the uncertainty attaching to the reading of 
some of the inscriptions, a full account of all the coins 
is here given. I am indebted to Mr. J. Allan of the 
British Museum for assistance in preparing this paper, 
and selecting specimens for publication. All the coins 
will be acquired for the Lucknow Museum. 

The following abbreviations will be used in quoting 
the leading authorities on the Gupta coinage : 

V. A. Smith, J.R.A.S., 1889, pp. 1-158. 
Notes: E. J. Kapson, Num. Chron., 1891, pp. 48-64. 

Observations: V. A. Smith, J.B.A.S., 1893, pp. 77-148. 
History: J.A.S.B., 1894, pp. 164-212. 

I. M. Cat. : ,, Indian Museum Catalogue of 

Coins, vol. i., 1906. 

1 J.R.A.S., 1889, pp. 46 and 49. 


Arranging the coins by their main types, as classified 
by Mr. V. A. Smith, in Coinage (pp. 11 sqq.), the follow- 
ing summary is obtained : 

King. Type. Number of coins. 

Samudragupta Javelin 2 . . .2 

Battle-axe . . .1 

Candragupta II Retreating Lion . . 1 

,, Horseman to 1. . .3 

,, Horseman to r. . .5 

Lion-Trampler . . 4 

,, Combatant Lion . 4 

Lion-Slayer" . . 1 

Archer . . ,15 

Kumaragupta I Combatant Lion . 1 

,, Horseman to 1. . .1 

,, Horseman to r. . .1 

Archer . . .1 


The principal novelties are two coins of Candragupta, 
a " Eetreating Lion " of a new variety, and the " Lion- 
Slayer," which may fairly be classed as a new type. A 
full description of the coins follows, with notes on those 
which present novel features. 


Javelin or Spearman. 

Refs. : Coinage, p. 68, with reading corrected in Notes, 

p. 53; Observations, p. 100; and /. M. Cat., p. 102. 
1. Obverse. Reverse. 

King 1., casting incense Throned goddess with 

on altar, and grasping staff feet on lotus. Legend r. , 
or spear with 1. arm ; Garuda- Pardkrama ; mon., PI. xviii. 4 
-standard 1. with crescent 9 ; line between legend and 
above. Samudra, vertically, goddess. Above, cornu- 
under 1. arm. Marginal copiae a mark A 
legend, Samarasatav(i)tata 
y(o) j(i)tar(i)puro 
jit(o) .... A7. -85. Wt. 112-4. 

2 Called " Spearman " in I. M. Cat., p. 102. 

3 I give this name to a new type in which the king attacks a lion 
with a sword. 

4 The references for the monograms are to I. M. Cat., PI. xviii. 


2. Obverse. Keverse. 

As on 1, but Samudra Asonl ; mon.,P].xviii. 8. 
inside, and Gupta outside 
the staffer spear, vertically. 
Marginal legend, .... 
-marasatavitata m . . . . ^j .gg ^N\j 112'3 

Refs. : Coinage, p. 72 ; and I. M. Cat., p. 104. 

3. Obverse. Keverse. 

King facing, with head Throned goddess. Le 
L, leaning with 1. arm on gQnd,Kritdntaparasu ; mon., 
battle-axe ; r. hand on hip. PI. xviii. 2 ; above cornu- 
An attendant in 1. field copiae, PI. xviii. 47. 
supports a crescent-tipped 
standard. Legend under 1. 
arm, vertically, Samudra. 
Marginal legend, Kritdnta- 
-parasu ja .... ty(a)j(i)ta 

A7. -8. Wt. 114. [PI. XIV. 1.] 

The legend on the obverse points to a new reading, 
which cannot at present be completed. There is no 
space between (para)su and ja for the rd of rajddhirdja, 
which is usually read. For the last word of the legend 
compare L M. Cat., No. 29, p. 104, where, however (see 
PL xv. 9) -tyajita appears on right margin, and not on 
left, as on the coin now described. 


Refs. : Coinage, p. 80; Notes, p. 55 ; Observations, p. 104; 
History, p. 168 ; and I. M. Cat,, p. 105. 

4. Obverse. Reverse. 

King standing 1. ; in 1. Goddess on lotus. In r. 

arm bow with string out- hand holds (?) noose, and in 
wards; beyond string, ver- 1. flower \ f mon., PL xviii. 9. 
tically, Candra; Garuda- Legend, Sri vilcTcrama h. 
-standard behind r. arm. 
Marginal legend, Deva Sri 
ma .... (letters very 
faint). A7. '8. Wt. 121-2. 



This coin appears to differ from any published hither- 
to, in having the lotus reverse combined with an obverse 
bearing the bow-string outwards and the right hand of 
the king pointing downwards. Both obverse and 
reverse, however, conform to known types. 


King facing L, grasping 
with 1. arm bow with string 
inwards ; r. hand extended 
over altar; Garuda-standard 
behind r. arm ; below 1. 
arm, vertically, Candra. 
Marginal legend, (?) Deva 
Sri .... Candraguptah. 


Goddess seated on lotus ; 
holds noose in r. hand and 
flower in 1. Legend, r., 
Sri vikrama ; mon., PI. 
xviii. 9. 

A7. -85. Wt. 120-6. [PI. XIV. 2.] 

I cannot find that any variety of this type has been 
published on which the king is shown as casting incense 
on an altar, though the " Umbrella" type (Coinage, 
p. 91) depicts this. 

6-12. Obverse. 

King standing 1., holding 
bow in 1. hand and arrow 
in r. hand ; Garuda-stand- 
ard behind r. arm; Candra, 
vertically, below 1. arm. 
Marginal legend gone. 

A7. -75. Wts. 119-7 [PL 
120-1, 121-2, 122-5. 



As on 6-12, but marginal 
legend, Deva Sri mahdrdjd- 



As on 6-1 2, but marginal 
legend, .... Candragup- 


Goddess seated facing, 
on lotus, holding noose in 
r. hand ; 1. hand raised 
and holding lotus near the 
flower. Margin, &ri vi- 
-krama ; mon., PI. xviii. 15. 

XIV. 3], 120-8, 122, 120-1, 


As on 6-12, but 1. hand 
extended downwards, hold- 
ing lotus with long stalk ; 
mon., PI. xviii. 9. 

A7. '8. Wt. 122-4. 

As on 13. 

A7. -85. Wt. 122-5. 



15. Obverse. 

As on 6-12, but marginal 
legend, Deva . . . gupt . . . 

16, 17. Obverse. 

As on 6-12, but marginal 


As on 13, but mon. 

A7. -7. Wt. 118-8. 

As on 6-12, but 1. hand 

legend, Deva Sri malid .... rests on knee, and lotus is 

behind 1. arm ; mon., PI. 
xviii. 14. 

AT. -8. Wt. 125-2. 
A/. -75. Wt. 120. 


Goddess seated facing, 
on throne, holding noose (?) 
in r. hand, and cornucopiae 
in 1. Margin, Sri vikrama. 

N. -75. Wt. 120-5. 

18. Obverse. 

As on 6-12, but . 
Ca n dragupta Ji . 

On Nos. 13, 14, and 15 the king's right hand points 
downwards, these coins being thus exceptions to the 
general rule, pointed out by Mr. Kapson (Notes, p. 56), 
and accepted by Mr. V. A. Smith (Observations) p. 104), 
that, with the lotus reverse, the right hand of the king 
on the obverse always points upwards. Nos. 6-12 and 
16, 17 are normal in this respect, while No. 18 conforms 
to type for the throne reverse. 

Horseman to Left. 
Refs. : Coinage, p. 85 ; Notes, p. 58 ; Observations, p. 

L M. Cat., p. 

19. Obverse. 

King on horseback to L, 
horse prancing ; in 1. hand 
holds an object which sticks 
out behind ; sword on 1. 
thigh. Marginal legend, 
Parama . . . . ma(hd)ra- 
-jadliiraja Sri Candraguptali. 

N. -8. 

109 ; 



Goddess seated L, on 
round stool, holding double 
noose in r. and lotus in 1. 
hand. Legend, Ajitavifckra- 
-mali; mon., PL xviii. 18. 

Wt. 120-9. [PI. XIV. 4.] 


Mr. Allan thinks that the object near the king's left 
hand is part of his dress, and this is possible. It is 
clearly not a bow, as in some varieties, e.g. the following. 
A Bodleian coin (Notes, PL ii. 5) resembles it. 

20, 21. Obverse. Eeverse. 

As on 19, but no sword ; As on 19, but noose is 
the object in king's 1. hand single ; mon., 9?. The sub- 
is a bow. One coin has script ra in km makes a 
bhagavata after parama. long curve to the 1. 

N. -75. Wt. 117-7. [PI. XIV. 5.] 
N. -75. Wt. 119-8. 

This variety may be distinguished from No. 5 by the 
absence of a sword, the clearly defined bow, the single 
noose, and style of writing km. I. M. Cat., PL xv. 15, 
appears to be of this variety. 

Horseman to Right. 

Refs. : Coinage, p. 84 ; Notes, p. 58 (amplifying the reading) ; 
Observations, p. 109 ; and I. M. Cat., p. 107. 

22. Obverse. Eeverse. 

King on horseback to r., Goddess seated L, on 
a streamer attached to r. round stool, holding noose 
arm, and bow slung behind in r. and lotus in 1. hand ; 
back. Legend, Parama . . . mon., PL xviii. 51. Legend, 
Candraguptdh. Ajitamkrama (?/i). 

N. -8. Wt. 120-6. [PL XIV. 6.] 

23. Obverse. Eeverse. 

As on 22, but streamers As on 22, but mon. cut, 
absent, part of bow visible, and no final li. Legend 
Legend, ... ndra . . . separated from goddess by 
-pta. a row of dots very close 


N. -75. Wt. 119-8. 

24. Obverse. Eeverse. 

As on 22, but only hinder As on 22, but mon. is 

portion of bow visible; wanting, and there is no 

crescent above head. Le- final li. 
gend, Paramabhaga .... 

CandraguptaJi. X. '85. Wt. 121-8. 



25. Obverse. Reverse. 

As on 24, but legend, As on 24, but legend 
Paramdbhaga .... ndra- blurred. 

N. -8. Wt. 117-7. 

26. Obverse. Reverse. 

As on 22, but no trace As on 22, but mon. want- 
of bow. Legend, Parama- ing, and final h is clear. 
-bJidgavata .... ndra . . . 

A r . -85. Wt. 120-5. [PI. XIV. 7.] 

It is almost certain that the obverse should be read 
bhagavato, as in Notes, p. 58. 

Lion- Tr ampler. 

Eefs. : Coinage, p. 87 ; Observations, p. 110; L M. Cat., p. 108. 

27-29. Obverse. 

King in energetic atti- 
tude to r., trampling 011 
lion with 1. foot, holding 
bow in 1. hand, and shoot- 
ing animal in mouth ; girdle 
with loose ends. Marginal 
legend, Narendra Candra 
.... read doubtfully. 

N. -75. 

rpi. xiv. s 



King in energetic atti- 
tude to r., trampling on 
lion with 1. foot, holding 
bow in 1. hand, and shoot- 
ing animal in mouth. Figure 
differs from 27-29 in hav- 
ing 1. leg bent instead of 
r. Legend, Nam .... 

AT. -8. 


Goddess facing, seated 
011 lion 1. ; (?) cornucopiae 
in r. hand ; lotus in 1. arm. 
Legend, Sihliaviltkramdh \ 
mon. (on one coin), PL 
xviii. 2. 

Wts. 120-9, 120-6, 119-4. 
(obv. of 28 and rev. of 27).] 


Goddess astride of lion, 
both facing 1. ; holds lotus 
in r. hand, and has 1. hand 
resting on quarters of lion 
mon. wanting. Legend, 
Sihhavikramah . 

Wt. 121. [PI. XIV. 9.] 


Combatant Lion. 

Refs. : Coinage, pp. 89, 158; Notes, p. 58; Observations, 
p. Ill; and I. M. Cat., p. 108. 

31. Obverse. Eeverse. 

King to 1., with 1. leg Goddess seated facing, 

bent ; holds bow in r. hand, on lion to 1. ; holds noose 

and shoots lion on 1. in in r. hand and flower in 

mouth. Marginal legend, 1. Legend, Sihhavikrama ; 

Na .... nhamkrama. mon., PI. xviii. 17. 

N. -75. Wt. 119-4. [PL XIV. 10.] 

32. Obverse. Reverse. 

As on 31, but legend, As on 31, but mon., PI. 
Nara .... hhavikrama. xviii. 9. 

A7. -75. Wt. 120-2. [PI. XIV. 11.] 

33. Obverse. Be verse. 
As on 31, but legend, As on 32. 

.... krama. 

A7. -75. Wt. 119-7. 

34. Obverse. Eeverse. 

As on 31, but king's r. As on 31, but lion faces 

foot is not quite clear of r., and goddess holds cornu- 

lion. Legend, .... ri (?) copiae in 1. hand instead of 

.... Sihhavikrama. a flower ; mon. doubtful. 

A/. -8. Wt. 121-3. [PL XIV. 12.] 

As pointed out by Mr. V. A. Smith (Coinage, p. 89), 
there is very little difference between the types styled 
respectively " Lion-Trampler " and " Combatant Lion." 
It seems possible that Nos. 31-33 should really be classed 
with variety 8 of the former (Coinage, p. 88), but these 
coins show clearly that the right foot of the king rests 
on the ground, and not on the lion. The obverse of 
No. 34 resembles that of the coin of variety 8 in the 
Bodleian (Notes, PL ii. 9), but the reverse, with lion 
facing right, differs. 


Retreating Lion. 

Refs. : Coinage, p. 89 ; and Observations, p. 112. 
35. Obverse. Eeverse. 

King facing, with head Goddess facing, seated on 
turned to 1., holding bow lion r. ; noose in r. hand, 
in r. hand and arrow in 1. ; and lotus in 1. ; mon., PL 
lion on 1. with back to king, xviii. 49. Margin, Sinha- 
Marginal legend, Deva ri -vikramali. 
maJidrajddh(i)r .... Can- 

AT. -8. Wt. 122. [PI. XIV. 13.] 

This coin differs in inscription, and in some details, 
from the only specimen hitherto known of this type, in 
the British Museum. I see no trace of an arrow sticking 
in the lion's head. On the reverse the lion faces to 
right, and it is the right foot of the goddess, not the 
left, which hangs over the lion's back. There is no 
staff or axe between the goddess and the inscription, 
which reads sinha and not singlia. The name of the 
king is plain, thus supporting Mr. V. A. Smith's attribu- 
tion of the other specimen (Coinage, p. 90) to Candra- 
gupta II. 


This is a new type, differing from other types in which 
the king attacks a lion, in that his weapon is a sword, 
and not a bow and arrow. 

36. Obverse. Keverse. 

King standing to r., Goddess seated facing 

holding sword uplifted in on lion to 1. ; holds noose 

r. hand ; to r. lion rearing in r. hand and lotus in 1. 

up and looking back at Margin, SinhamTckramaJi ; 

king. Margin, Naren[dra] mon., PI. xviii. 9. 
Can[dra\ priihi .... 

N. -8. Wt. 121-2. [PI. XIV. 14.] 

The letters in square brackets are by no means clear, 
but Mr. Allan tells me they are often lightly indicated. 



Tiger (Combatant Lion). 

Refs. : Coinage, p. 107, corrected in Observations, p. 123 ; see 
also I. M. Cat., p. 114, for a fairly complete reading of 
the inscription. 

37. Obverse. Reverse. 

King facing, with head Goddess standing 1., 

turned to 1. ; bow in r. with 1. hand on hip, holding 

hand ; king shooting tiger lotus ; feeding peacock with 

in mouth. Under 1. arm, r. hand ; mon., PI. xviii. 2. 

Ku, with crescent above. Legend, Kumaraguptodhi- 

Legend, &rl ma (? a) . . . . -rdj(d). 
vya(ghra) . . . 

Pi. -75. Wt. 125-4. [PI. XIV. 15.] 

Horseman to Left. 

Refs. : Coinage, pp. 39 and 103 ; Observations, p. 120 ; 
I. M. Cat., p. 113. 

38. Obverse. Eeverse. 

King on horseback to 1., Goddess seated on stool 
carrying bow at back. to L, feeding peacock with r. 
Legend .... mahendra hand, and holding flower in 
kamajito jaya. 1. Margin, Ajitamahendra. 

Mark over r. hand. 

A7. -75. Wt. 123-6. [PI. XIV. 16.] 

The full inscription on coins of this type is doubtful. 
At p. 39 of Coinage, Mr. V. A. Smith says that a coin in 
the Bodleian gives the title Kramajita, but this state- 
ment is not repeated at p. 104, where the obverse legend 
on that coin is described as illegible. It is not figured 
in Notes, though it is mentioned in the list of coins 
(p. 63). The letter ~ka bears no sign of subscript r, but 
this is possibly intended, as in the parallel case on No. 36 
of this paper. Mr. Allan suggests that the word may be 
Jcarmajito. There is a slight mark above the ma, which 
might be either r or a. On the reverse there is no trace 
of the vowel o in ajita, as read in Coinage, p. 103, 


though the vowel is clear on the obverse. On the left 
of the coin, in the place usually occupied by the mono- 
gram, are two clusters of dots. 

Horseman to Right. 
Refs. : Coinage, p. 100 ; Observations, p. 118 ; I. M. Cat., p. 112. 

39. Obverse. Reverse. 

King on horseback to r. Goddess seated on stool 
Marginal legend, KulacJia- to r. ; with r. hand offers 
masa !$ri jaya .... ma- fruit to peacock, and in 1. 
hendrah . . . gupta. arm holds flower. Margin, 

Ajit(o) mah(endra). No 

A7. -75. Wt. 126-8. [PL XIV. 17.] 

The first five letters of the obverse inscription, though 
apparently clear, do not make sense. They differ com- 
pletely from the various readings suggested in the 
references quoted above. 

Refs. : Coinage, p. 95; Observations, p. 115. 

40. Obverse. Reverse. 

King standing 1. ; bow Goddess seated on lotus, 

in 1. hand, with string in- holding noose in r. hand, 

wards ; r. hand extended and lotus in 1. Margin, 

across Garuda - standard ; rl makendra ; mon., PI. 

no name under arm. Mar- xviii. 2. 
ginal legend, .... ptaJi. 

N. -75. Wt. 125-1. 

The statement at p. 98 of Coinage, that coins of this 
type always seem to have ku under the king's left arm, 
on the obverse, is corrected at p. 115 of Observations. 




FOLLOWING a suggestion of Mr. G. F. Hill, 1 I wish to call 
attention to five references to cities in the Aeneid which are of 
such a character as to appear to one familiar with the monetary 
series of those cities to have been influenced by the coin-types 

The passages in question are as follows : 

1. Agrigentum. Aen. 3. 703 f. : 

" Arduus inde Acragas ostentat maxima longe 
moenia, magnanimum quondam generator equorum." 

Compare the occurrence of the quadriga, or the free horse, 
on various Agrigentine issues from c. 415 to c. 287 B.C. 2 A 
better epithet than magnanimi for the horses of the famous 
" medallion " it would be hard to find. 

2. Carthage. Aen. 1. 444 : 

"... capul acris equi." 

Compare the occurrence of the horse's head on Carthaginian 
issues of the periods c. 410-310 and c. 241-218 tetra- 
drachms and hexadrachms/ 5 

3. Gela. Aen. 3. 702 : 

" immanisque Gela fluvii cognomine dicta" 
Compare the occurrence of the river-god on Geloan coins 
from the earliest period until c. 405 B.C. ; many of these 
coins are tetradrachms. 4 

4. Selinus. Aen. 3. 705 : 

"... palmosa Selinus." 

1 Coins of Ancient Sicily, p. 50. 

2 I follow the chronology of Head, Hist. Num. 

3 HiU, op. cit., p. 145. 

4 See Hill, op. cit., p. 50. 



Compare the selinon-leaf which occurs either as type or as 
symbol on almost all the Selinuntine issues (chiefly didrachms 
and drachms) from the beginning of the coinage to the 
destruction of the city in 409 B.C. 

This rare plant, as represented on some at least of the 
coins, might well have been mistaken by the Augustan 
antiquaries for the palm, 5 a tree which itself, althQugh 
occurring occasionally in Sicily in antiquity as now, 6 can 
hardly have been strikingly characteristic, one would suppose, 
of the Selinuntine flora. 

5. Tarentum, Aen. 3. 551 : 

"... sinus Herculei . . . Tarenti." 

Compare the occurrence of the head, or some one of the 
labours, of Herakles on Tarentine issues of small silver from 
c. 400 to c. 272, and of small bronze from c. 300 to 
c. 272 B.C. 

In each instance it will be observed that the coin-type in 
question is represented by numerous examples and several 
issues ; on coins which bear on their face clear indications as 
to the issuing mint, 7 and, except in the case of the very 
frequent Tarentine type of Herakles, by pieces which in 
appearance might well have been attractive to the Augustan 

It is a reasonable inference from the oft-quoted passage in 
Suetonius, Aug., 75, that the collecting of ancient coins was 
in vogue in the circle of Augustus. The confronting of the 
above passages in the Aeneid with the respective monetary 
series conduces to the impression that the coins were known 
to Vergil, and that to him, as to a modern amateur, the 
mention of the particular city evoked a mental image of its 
coin-types, which in turn influenced the poet in his choice of 

'' Mr. G. P. Hill, who has been so kind as to read this note in manu- 
script and to make some much-appreciated suggestions, informs me 
that " many a modern also mistakes the selinon-leaf of Selinus for a 

t! Compare the didrachm of Camarina (Hill, op. cit., p. 80). 

7 The curious misinterpretation of the Agrigentine inscription so 
ingeniously traced down by M. Th. Reinach, L'Histoire par les 
Monnaies, p. 81, notwithstanding ; the Rhodian antiquaries, who were 
Pliny's ultimate source, did not realize that the decoration and the 
inscriptions on the cups which they saw had been made by a mould 
taken from a coin, and thus they were led to attribute the cups to a 
toreutes *Acragas. 



descriptive epithets, or, as in the case of Carthage, in his 
choice of local myths. 8 

The above is perforce in the nature of a suggestion rather 
than a demonstration. But in view of the interest attaching 
to the question of Vergil's methods of composition, as well as 
to all that has to do with the history of antiquarian pursuits 
in the Augustan age, I feel that it is deserving of 


The American School in Rome. 


A NUMBER of silver coins of the four types figured above 
have reached Europe through Smyrna, where a large hoard 
composed chiefly of type 2 was bought up, apparently in good 
faith, by local and Athenian dealers from an Armenian 
jeweller in the bazaars. I saw a few of types 3 and 4 still in 
the jeweller's hands (May, 1910), and inquired as to their 
provenance. The reply " Kaisaryeh " raised my suspicions, 
as the place (Caesarea Mazaca) is a well-known centre for 
forgeries, and type 1 has Lycian characters on the reverse. 
Arriving at Kaisaryeh in the course of my journey, I became 
acquainted with the forger of the dies for type 2 ; and a coin 
of type 1, which I came across a few days later in the bazaars, 
was sold to me as a forgery by another hand. This condemns 
the whole hoard, since all four types were represented in the 
stock of the Smyrna jeweller when a collector-friend of mine 
had the pick of the lot. The handling of the coins, which are 

8 The introduction of the story of Arethusa in connexion with 
Syracuse, Aen. 3. 694 ff., may in like manner have been influenced by 
the frequent occurrence of the head of a goddess on Syracusan coins ; 
but the legend, apart from the coins, was so familiar from literature as 
to suggest itself to the poet. 

2 E 2 


(a) made of silver, (b) struck with a punch, and (c) put on 
the market in hundreds, speaks eloquently for the misdirected 
intelligence of the exploiters. I may add that the artist of 
type 2, who is reputed the most skilful at Kaisaryeh, is 
entirely illiterate, and nominally Mohammedan by religion. 
He is a fair cameo-engraver, and when I left the town was 
being solicited by his patrons to engrave (after the illustration 
of a tetradrachm from Svoronos' edition of Head's Historia 
Numorum) a decadrachm of Tigranes: the result, I should say, 
will deceive no one. 

Athens, Nov. 3, 1910. 



CESARE di Niccolo di Mariano Federighi, called da Bagno, 
from his birthplace, S. Maria in Bagno, died in 1564 at 
Milan. Armand, in his first volume (p. 174, No. 3), attributed 
to him a rare medal of Cosimo I as Grand Duke. But later 
(vol. iii. p. 77) he rightly points out that, since Cosimo was 
not made Grand Duke until 1569, Cesare da Bagno cannot 


have made this medal. And, indeed, the resemblance in style 
on which Armand originally based his attribution is anything 
but clear. 

Nevertheless, there is a medal of Cosimo by this artist, 
although it exists only, so far as I know, in the form of a lead 
proof of the obverse, which, owing to the faulty casting at the 
edge, was never even trimmed. It is in my collection, and 
represents the bust of the Duke to left, wearing a richly 
decorated cuirass, and sash fastened on his right shoulder. 
The inscription is COS ME DVX FLO II. The diameter 
(ignoring the remains of the runner at the edge) is 76 mm. 
(see figure). Although unsigned, it bears all the marks of 
Cesare da Bagno's hand, in its low relief, sketchy modelling, 
and elaboration of the decorative portion of the bust. 



Roman Coins from Corstopitum. 

LAST year attention was called in these pages to Mr. H. H. E. 
Craster's report of coins from Corstopitum (Num. Chron. 1909, 
p. 431). In the latest report on the excavations (reprinted 
from ArcJiaeologia Aeliana, 3rd series, vol. vi.) Mr. Craster 
again earns the gratitude of all who are interested in Roman 
Britain by giving a list of all coins earlier in date than 
260 A.D. found during the last season. Of eight asses of Pius, 
he notes that three bore the " Britannia " reverse, and 
considers that this supports Mr. F. A. Walters' theory that 
the "Britannia" coins were minted in Britain. Until, 
however, some evidence is forthcoming of peculiarities of 
fabric, as distinct from type, distinguishing these "Britannia" 
coins, we shall prefer to suppose that they were minted in 
Rome and exported to Britain. It was only natural that 
coins of a type calculated to bring home to the Britons the 
reality of the Roman conquest should be sent to this country 
in greater numbers than elsewhere. 

Of coins certainly struck in Britain, Mr. Craster notes an 
interesting, if minute, variety. It is a coin of Crispus (rev. 
within a wreath on the altar. This shows " that Christian 
symbols were used in the London mint in the reign of 
Constantine, and that, too, at a time when they had not yet 


been introduced at Rome or into the three Gallic mints of 
Trier, Lyons, and Aries." 

Finally, we may mention a large bronze coin of Septimius 
Severus struck at Hadrianeia, in Hellespont : one of the few 
authenticated instances of a "Greek Imperial" found in 
Britain. To the other instances noted by Mr. Craster may be 
added a denarius of Amisus found at Silchester; but as that 
by its weight would easily circulate with the Roman Imperial 
denarii, its occurrence in this country is less surprising. Mr. 
Craster is inclined, if we may say so, to exaggerate the 
medallic, as distinct from the monetary, nature of these Greek 
Imperial bronze coins. That they were struck on special 
occasions, such as local festivals, may be true ; but to speak of 
them as "medals" merely is to imply that they were purely, 
commemorative, and that cannot be proved. They were issued 
doubtless to supplement the ordinary currency at times when 
a press of visitors made this necessary. They were also, some- 
times, in a sense commemorative, but they still remained 
coins, although the larger ones may have been treasured and 
transported to distant provinces. 

G. F. H. 



A and Cx) on coins of Aethelred ' 
II, 254-257 

Abbas Coolie Khan, career of, 

Aesculapius on French medal on ' 
cholera outbreak (1832), 93 ; on 
medal of International Medical 
Congress (1881), 95 

Aeternitas, type of, on Roman 
coins, 178 

Aethelred II, coin-types of, 251- 
290, 370-387; number of dis- 
tinct issues of, 253; "Hand" 
type of, 254, 257 ; date of, 278, | 
376, 377, 385; "Crux "type, 257; i 
date of, 280-281 ; "Quadrilateral " 
type, 257-258; date of, 284; ! 
"Long Cross," 259 ; date of, 289 ; 
" Small Cross," 260-261, 379, 316 ; 
date of, 289 ; " Agnus Dei " type ! 
of, 262, 379-386 ; date and mean- 
ing of, 285-289; finds of coins 
of, 267-269, 374-375, 383-384; 
mules of coins of, 270, 381 ; ! 
moneyers and mints of, 271-278 ; 
character of, 286 ; Hildebraiid's 
type A of, 382 ; relations 
with Dunstan, 279-280, 379, 

Affre, Archbishop, death of (1848), 
medal on, 94 

" Agnus Dei " type of Aethelred 
II, 262 ; meaning and date of 
issue of, 285-289, 379, 386 

Agrigentum, suggested reference 
by Vergil to coins of, 409 

Ahmad Shah, Mughal Emperor, 
Katak coins of, 328 

Alam II, Mughal Emperor, E.I.C. 
coins in name of, 325 ; Bikanir 
coins of, 328 

Alamgir II, Mughal Emperor, 
coins of Balapur in name of, 160 

Albinus, Clodius, bronze medallion 
of, 97-100 ; occasion of striking, 
98:; death of, 99 

Alexandria, double quinio of Dio- 
cletian struck at, 100-103 ; coins 
of Julian II of, 250; tetra- 
drachms of Tiberius of, 333-339 

ALLAN, J., M.A., M.R.A.S.: 
Notice of F. Friedensburg, Die 
Milnze in der Kulturge- 
schichte, 208 

Notice of H. Nelson Wright, 
Catalogue of Coins in the 
Indian Museum, vol. iii., 

Note on the Coinage of Muham- 
mad Ali, 325-326 

Altar of Himera on coins of 
Thermae, 226-227 

Amisus, denarius of, found at 
Silchester, 414 

Ammanati, Cardinal, refers to 
Paul II' s fondness for striking 
coins, 353 

Amulets, Egyptian, found with 
mummies, 181-182 

Andrea da Viterbo, medallist of 
Paul II, 366-368 

Angel nobles, first issue of, 120 

Angels and angelets, coinage of, by 
Sir Richard Tunstall,authorized, 
119-120; half-angels first coined, 

Angels " healing," 395 

Angelo (Paci dall' Aquila?), possi- 
bly a medallist of Paul II, 368 

Anna Catherina, daughter of 
Charles IV of Denmark, medal 
on death of, 71-72 

Antioch, coins of Julian II struck 
at, 250; aureus of Gratian 



struck at, on elevation of Va- 
lentinian II, 109 

Antoninus Pius, coins of, found at 
Castle Bromwich, 29-32, 38-39 ; 
found in Nottingham, 206 

Antony, Mark, legionary coins of, 
found at Castle Bromwich, 14, 
16, 37 ; their circulation, 14 

Anwar-ud-din Khan, Nawab of 
the Carnatic, 148 

Aphrodite of Paphos, temple of, 
on coins of Pergamon, 207-208 

Apis not the bull 011 coins of 
Julian II, 244-245 

ATTOAINIC, former reading of a 
word on medal of Heraclius, 

ATTOAITTIC, true reading of word 
on medal of Heraclius, 112 ; 
meaning of, 112-115 

Apollo and Artemis as healing 
deities on coins of Selinus, 44 

Apostles, the Twelve, on a medal 
of Paul II, 344-345 

Aquileia, coins of Julian II of, 250 

" Archer " type of Candragupta I, 
coins of, found in Mirzapur dis- 
trict, 399, 400-402 ; new variety 
of, 401 ; of Kumaragupta I, 408 

Aries, coins of Julian II of, 250 

Assmann, Dr. E., his theory of 
the etymology of moneta, 1-12 

Athanasius, Archbishop of Alex- 
andria, 248-249 

. Attalos I, supposed portrait of, 
on tetradrachm, 207 

Aurelius, Marcus, denarii of, 
found at Castle Bromwich, 14, 
33-36, 38-40; at Nottingham, 

Aureus of Gratian struck at 
Antioch, 109 ; ten-aureus piece 
of Diocletian struck at Alex- 
andria, 100-103; do. Nicomedia, 


Babylonian standard, 210 ff. 
Bagno, Cesare da, his medal of 

Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, 


Balaiizano, Pietro, medal of, 59 
Balapur, coinage of, 158-162 ; 

gold fanams, 160 ; copper coins, 


Baldwin, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, receives grant of coinage 

from King John, 310-311 ; death 

of, 311-312 
Barbo, Pier, arms of, on medals of 

Paul II, 341, 342, 348, 349. 

See also Paul II 
Barneveldt, John van Olden, medal 

on execution of, 69 
Bartholomew, Massacre of Saint, 

medal on, 64-65 
Basel, Moralische Pfennige of, 

Basil II, coin of Emperor, found 

with coins of Aethelred II, 269 
Baskerville, Thomas, his testimony 

to the striking of coins of 

Charles I with monogram Bv 

at Oxford, 203 
" Battle- Axe " type of Samudra- 

gupta, 399-400 
Bay ley, Kichard, his monogram 

on coins of Charles I, of Oxford, 

Bedford, ring supposed to have 

belonged to John Bunyan, 

found at, 185 
Beharn, Barthel, engraving by, 

Bellano, Bartolommeo, probably 

not a medallist of Paul II, 361- 

364 ; medal of Roselli by, 362- 

Bernard, Duke of Saxony, coin of, 

found with coins of Aethelred 

II, 269, 375, 383 
Berry, Jean Due de, possessed 

medal of Heraclius, 110-114 
Binio (double aureus) of Con- 

stantine I, with view of Treves, 


Blakeney, Admiral, medal of, 90 
Boldu, Giovanni, memento mori 

medals by, 49-51, 196, 198 
Bowcher, Frank, his design for 

Hong-Kong plague medal, 96 
Brearcliffe, John, halfpenny token 

of, 81-82 

Brier cliffe. See Brearcliffe 
Briett. See Briot 
Brigetio, Roman gold coins found 

at, 100, 102 
Briot (Briett, Bryott), Nicholas, 

money by, not mentioned in Pyx 

records, 394 ; one of the gravers 

to the Mint, 395; annuity to, 

397 ; death of, 397 



Bristol mint of Henry VI (restora- 
tion period), 127-130 ; gold coins 
of, 128; silver (groats only 
known), 129-130 ; mint-marks 
of, 129; legends of, 129; local 
origin of dies discussed, 129-130 ; 
coins described, 141-143 ; coins 
of Charles I with monogram EH, 
to be transferred from Bristol to 
Oxford, 203-205 

Bristowe prize medal, 89 

"Britannia" coins, where struck, 

BROOKE, G. C., B.A. : 
A Find of Eoman Denarii at 

Castle Bromwich, 13-40 
A Find of English Coins (Edward 

VI Charles I), 205 
Chronology in the Short-Cross 

Period, 291-324 

Mr. Parsons' s Arrangement of 
the Coin-Types of Aethelred 
II, 370-380 

Bull, type on Eoman coins, dis- 
cussed, 244-245 ; on coins of 
Julian II not Apis, 245 

Bunyan, John, ring said to have 
belonged to, found at Bedford, 

Vergil and Coins, 409-411 

Burgh, Nicholas, graver at the 
Mint in 1641, 396; probably 
same as Nicholas Burghers (q.v.) 

Burghers, Nicholas, prepared a 
medal at Oxford in 1648, 396 

BURN, R., I.C.S., M.R.A.S.: 
A Find of Gupta Gold Coins, 

Byng, Admiral, medals of, on loss 
of Minorca, 90 


Caesar, Julius, denarius referring 
to assassination of, 46, 47, 60 

Caesarea Mazaca, forgeries from, 

Camarina, tetradrachm of, 232 

Camillus, vow of, 9 

Campanian coin with head of 
Juno, 6 

Candragupta II, coins of, 399, 

Canterbury Mint in the short- 
cross period, coins of the moneyer 

Goldwine, 296-297 ; hitherto 
wrongly attributed to Chiches- 
ter, 304; coins of Reinaud of, 
wrongly attributed toChichester, 
304, 312; coins of Archbishop 
Baldwin of, 309-310, 313 
I Carisius, denarius of Titus, with 
head of Juno and legend 
M ON ETA, 6-7 

, Carnatic, copper coins of Muham- 
mad Ali of the, 146-157 

Carthaginian coins circulated in 
Sicily and Italy, 1; suggested 
reference by Vergil to, 409 
j Castle Bromwich, Roman denarii 
found at, 13-40 

Cesare da Bagno, his medal of 

Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, 412 

I Cestianus,denarius of T.Plaetorius, 

with legend M ON ETA and head 

of Juno, 6, 7 

Chanda Sahib. See Husain Dost 

Charles I, memorial medal of, 75- 
76 ; memorial rings of, 184-185 ; 
shillings of, found at Winters- 
low, 205 

Charles II, memorial medal on 
death of, 84, 85 

Charles IX of France, medal of, 
on Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 

Charon receiving soul from Mer- 
cury, on intaglio, 164 ; obolus 
of Charon, 182-183, 202 ; survival 
of custom, 183 

Charun, the Etruscan Charon, 
174, 175 

Cheselden, William, the surgeon, 
memorial prize medal of, 88-89 

Chester, coins of Leicester of 
William I and II, wrongly 
attributed to, 294 

Chevalier, A., a Paris engraver, 
medal by, of Samuel Plimsoll, 94 

Chichele, Henry, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, sepulchre of, 72-73 

Chichester Mint, no coins of class 
II. of short-cross period of, 300- 
305 ; writs of reign of John 
referring to, 318-319; date of 
reopening, 319-323 

Chosrces I, inscription on seal of, 

Christ in glory on medal of Paul 
II, 344-345, 347 

Cistophori, date of Pergamene, 207 



Clowes, William, surgeon, record 

of delivery of bronze touch- 
pieces to, in 1635-6, 395 
Cnut repeats a type of Aethelred 

II, 377 

Colchester find, 291 ff . (pass.) 
"Combatant Lion" type of 

Candragupta I, 399, 405; of 

Kumaragupta I, 399, 407 
Commodus, coins of, found at 

Castle Bromwich, 14, 37 
Consistory, public, medals of Paul 

II referring to, 344, 345, 348, 

352, 358, 359 
Constantiiie I, double aureus of, 

struck at Treves, 103-106 ; date 

of issue of, 106 ; mediaeval medal 

of, 115-116; Arabic numerals 

on, 115-116 ; probably made in 

Flanders, 116 
Constantinople, coins of Julian II 

of, 250 
Constantius II, his relations with 

Julian, 238-240 
Corstopitum, Roman Coins from, 

noticed, 413 
Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, medal 

by Cesare da Bagno, 412 
Cowries, used as currency in Bala- 

pur, 162 
Crete, copper ingots discovered in, 

Crispus, coin of London of, with 

Christian symbols, 413 
Cristoforo of Mantua, medallist of 

Paul II, 364-366 

Cross fitchee mint-mark of Ed- 
ward IV, 119, 120, 135. 
Cross, long, type of Aethelred II, 

259 ; date of, 285 
Cross pattee (larger) mint-mark 

adopted by Henry VI, 122 
Cross pierced, mint-mark of Henry 

VI, of London, 125 
Cross, plain (pierced or unpierced) 

mint-mark of Henry VI, 122 ; 

of London, 125 ; (pierced) of 

Bristol, 129 
Cross, small, type of Aethelred II, 

260-261 ; date of, 285 
" Crux " type of Aethelred II, 257 ; 

date and meaning of, 280-282, 

379, 386 
CRVX legend on mediaeval coins, 

Cupid dislodging a skeleton, type 
on a Koman gem, 167 

Cupid and Psyche, 170-172 
Curitis, or Curritis, epithet of 

Juno, 9 
Curtius, M., modern medal on 

sacrifice of, 754 


Danace, the obolus of Charon, 
182-183, 202 

Danegelt, payments of, in reign 
of Aethelred II, 251 ff. 

Daubeny, C.G.B., Professor of 
Chemistry at Oxford, medal of, 

Daud Khan Pani, Nawab of 
Arcot, 147 

Death, medals referring to, 41-96, 
163-203 ; death yielding to 
valour, design 011 a plaque, 67 

Death's head rings, 183-185 

Decroso, John, a graver at tho 
Mint in 1642, 396 

Deities, busts of, custom of plac- 
ing, in Phoenician temples, 208 

Delft, badge of Guild of Physicians 
of, 75 

Demeter, altar of, on Pergamene 
coins, 208 

Dido, head of, on Carthaginian 
coins, 1-2 

Dies, for coins of Aethelred II, 
where made, 265-267, 373-374, 
382-383 ; for coins of Henry VI, 
probably made at provincial 
mints from designs from London, 

Dieudonne, A., on the true attri- 
bution of certain coins of 
Antioch and Nicomedia formerly 
attributed to Julian II, 243-244 

Diocletian, ten-aureus piece of, 
struck at Alexandria, 100 

Domitian, coins of, found at Not- 
tingham, 206; denarii of, found 
at Castle Bromwich, 14, 18-19 

Dorothea, Queen of Denmark, 
memorial medal of, 62 

Dost Ali Khan, Nawab of the 
Carnatic, 147 

Dunstan, his relations with Aethel- 
red II, and suggested influence 
on coin-types, 278-279, 282-283, 
379, 385 

Diirer, Albrecht, engraving of 
Erasmus by, 56-58 ; medal of 
Erasmus attributed to, 56 




East, John, engraver at the Mint, 

1630, 395, 397 
Eccles find, short-cross coins from, 

Ecclesiastical mints of Henry VI i 

(restored), 133-134, 145 
Edward the Martyr, "Hand" 

type of, 270 
Edward III institutes trial of the 

Pyx, 388 
Edward IV, flight of, in 1470, ; 

Edward VI, shilling of, found at 

Winterslow, 205 
Egyptian deities on Roman coins, i 

245-247 ; on coins of Julian II, 

Eldred, Anne, memorial medal of, | 

83 < 

Eleusis, bronze coins of, 46 
Elizabeth, shillings of, found at j 

Winterslow, 205 
Epicurean ideas of death, &c., on | 

gems, 168-171 
Erasmus, medal of, 54-58 ; engrav- j 

ing of, by Diirer, 50-53 ; seal of, 

58, 189-190 
Etruscan gems, 174 ff. 
Eumenes I of Pergamon, coins of, 


EVANS, A. J., M.A., F.R.S., 
D. Litt., &c. : 

Notes on some Roman " Medal- 
lions " and Coins of Clodius 
Albinus, Diocletian, Constan- 
tine I, and Gratian, 97-109 
Everard, short-cross moneyer, 

coins of the second class of, 

wrongly attributed to Chiches- 

ter, 300-305 

Evil, king's, 395 ; bronze touch- 
pieces for, 395-396 
EX I = 1X3, initials of engraver 

on coins of Camarina, 232-235 


Fanams of Balapur, 159-160 
Faustina I, coins of, found at 

Nottingham, 206; denarii of, 

found at Castle Bromwich, 14, 

32-33, 40 
Faustina II, denarii of, found at 

Castle Bromwich, 14, 36 

Fiamma, G-abrielle, Bishop of 

Chioggia, medal of, 65 
Finds of coins 

Brigetio (Roman gold), 100, 102 

Castle Bromwich (Roman dena- 
rii), 13-40 

Corbridge (Corstopitum) (Roman 
and Greek Imperial), 413-414 

Mirzapur (Gupta), 398-408 

Nottingham (Roman), 205-206 

Winterslow (English, Edward 
Vl-Charles I), 205 

Of Aethelred II (table of), 267- 

269, 383-384 
Fioravanti, Aristotele, medallist 

of Paul II, 342, 360-361; in 

Russia, 361 
Fleur-de-lys mint-mark of London 

of Henry VI, 125 
Fothergill Medal of the Royal 

Humane Society, 92 
Foundation deposits of Paul II, 


Franco, Goffredo, medal of, 63 
Friedensburg, F., notice of his Die 

Milnze in der Kultergeschichte, 

Fritze, H. von, notice of his Die 

Miinzen von Pergamon, 207-208 


GABBICI, Ettore : 

Moneta di Argento dei So(ntini), 

Galleotti, Pietro Paolo, medals by, 

Gallicia, massacres in, medal on, 


Galvani, Aloisio, medal of, 92 
Gela, suggested reference by Vergil 

to, 409 
George Podiebrod, King of 

Bohemia, medals of Paul II, 

probably referring to Consis- 
tory of 1466, 358 
Gerard, Philippe de, medal of 

G. L. E. Mouchon, by, 96 
Geremia, Cristoforo (of Mantua), 

364-366, worked for Paul II, 

364-365 ; medal of Scararnpi 

by, 365-366 
Gidley, Bartholomew, medal on 

death of, 85 
Giovanni, Bertholdo di, medal on 

Pazzi conspiracy by, 51 



Godric, Leicester moneyer of 

William I and II, 294 
Godwine, short-cross moneyer, 

Goldwine, coins of short-cross 

moneyer, wrongly attributed 

to Chichester, 300-305 
Gottifredo, Jacopo, medals of 

Paul II and, 346-347, 358 
Grand val, Chevalier de, medal on 

execution of, 88 
Gratian, aureus of, on elevation 

of Valentinian II, 107-109 
Greene, Charles, under-graver at 

the Mint, 394 
Greene, Edward, chief graver of 

the Mint, 394, 395 
GEUEBEE, H. A., F.S.A. : 

Roman Coins found in Notting- 
ham, 205-206 


Hadrian, coins of, found at Castle 
Bromwich, 14, 24-28, 38 ; found 
in Nottingham, 206; coin of, 
with reverse Hilaritas copied on 
medal of Paul II, 342, 344 

Hadrianeia, coin of Severus struck 
at, found at Corstopitum, 414 

Haeberlin's theory of Roman 
metrology criticized, 209-222 

Halifax, halfpenny token of J. 
Brearcliffe of, 81, 82 

"Hand" type of Aethelred II, 
254-257, 376-377, 379 ; of 
Edward the Martyr, 376, 379 

HANDS, REV. A. W. : 
Juno Moneta, 1-12 

HASLUCK, F. W., M.A.: 

Forgeries from Caesarea Mazaca, 

Hat-jewels with memento mori 
devices, 193 

Haverfordwest, angel of Henry VI 
found at, 124 

Helena, wife of Julian II, 239, 
248 ; not Isis on the coins, 247 

Henry VI, restored in 1470, 117 ; 
restoration coinage of, 117-145 ; 
early angels of, 120; London 
Mint of, 123-127, 136-141 ; 
Bristol Mint of, 127-130, 141- 
143; York Mint of, 130-134, 

Heraclea, mint of Julian II, 250 

I Heracles and bull on coin of 

Selinus, 45 

Heraclius, mediaeval medal of, 
110-115 ; explanation of type of, 

! Hermes Psychopompos on gem, 
173; with butterfly, 173; and 
caduceus, 174, 176, 177 
Hilaritas, on medal of Paul II, 
342, 344 ; meaning of, 356-357, 

HILL, G. F., M.A. : 
i Note on the Mediaeval Medals 
of Constantine and Hera- 
clius, 110-116 

Notice of Die Milnzen von Per- 
gamon, by H. von Fritze, 
The Medals of Paul II, 340- 

Notice of Roman Coins from 

Corstopitum, 413-414 
Himera, altar of, on tetradrachm 

of Thermae, 226-227 
Hojer, George, memorial medal of 

(1630), 82 

Holbein's "Ambassadors," me- 
mento mori jewel in, 184 
Hong-Kong Plague medal, 96 
"Horseman" type of Candra- 
gupta I, 399, 402-404 ; of 
Kumaragupta I, 399, 403 
Hotham, Sir John, memorial 

medal of, 75 

Hubert, Bishop, opens Canterbury 

Mint in short-cross period, 313 

Husain Dost Khan, Nawab of the 

Carnatic, 148 

Huss, John, medals on martyr- 
dom of, 48-49 

Hypsas, the river-god, sacrificing, 
on coin of Selinos, 45 


I not necessarily I on early 

English coins, but first stroke 

of a letter, 298-299 
Ipswich, Anglo-Saxon coins found 

at, 268 
Isis on Roman coins and on the 

Marlborough cameo, 246 ; not 

to be identified with Helena, wife 

of Julian II, 247-248 
Isleworth, find of Anglo-Saxon 

coins at, 268 





Muhammad All, Nawab of the 
Carnatic (1752-1756 A.D.), and 
his Copper Coins, 146-157 
The Coinage of Balapur, 158- 

James I of England, memento 
mori jewel belonging to, 260 ; 
shillings of, found at Winters- 
low, 205 

" Javelin " type of Samudragupta, 

John, King of England, errors in 
chronology in reign of, corrected, 
305-306 ; Exchequer and regnal 
years of, 305-306; writ of the 
ninth year summoning money- 
ers, &c., 315 ; occasion of, 316- 

John the Baptist, Saint, on medals 
of Paul II, 344-345 

John's, St., College, Oxford, gives 
college plate to Charles I, 204 

Jubilee medals of Pope Paul II, 
350-351, 359-360 

Julian II, coins of, 238-250 ; rise 
of, 239-241 ; his beard, a sign of 
paganism, 239 ; his marriage, 239 ; 
division of coins of, 241 ; use of 
title Caesar by, 242 ; his treat- 
ment of Christians, 242-245; 
allusions to Egyptian deities, 
243 ; as Serapis on cameo, 246- 
247 ; unpublished coins of, 249- 
250 ; mints of, 250 

Juno, temple of, 3 ff . ; goddess of 
the Veii, 10 ; identified with the 
Astarte of the Carthaginians, 5 ; 
cult of, on coins, 6-8 

Juno Curitis (or Curritis), a 
Sabine divinity, 9 

Juno Moneta, temple of, 3 ff. ; 
nature of, 3, 4 

Juno Sospita, on coins, 7 ; goddess 
of warriors, 10 

Jupiter, seated, type on reverse of 
a ten-aureus piece of Diocletian, 


Katak coins of Ahmad Shah not 
all official issues, 328 

Kharpur, suggested Mughal mint, 

Kletias, suggested signature on a 

Carthaginian tetradrachm, 224 
Korn, Onophrius (1662), medal of, 

Kumaragupta I, coins of, found in 

Mirzapur, 399, 407, 408 


Langstrother, John, grant to, of 
office of Gustos Cambii from 
Henry VI, 118 

Lawrence, St., on early Christian 
medalet, 49 

Lefwine, Lincoln rnoneyer in 
1202-1203, 314 

Leicester coin of William I 
wrongly attributed to Chester, 
294 ; early forms of name of 
Leicester, 295 

Letitia Scholastica, type of medal 
of Paul II, 342 ; explained, 356 

Liberty, head of, on denarii struck 
after the death of Nero, 47 ; cap 
of, and daggers on medal of 
Lorenzo de' Medici, 60 

Lichfield, dies granted to Bishop 
of, by Richard I, 313-314 

"Lion, Retreating" type of Can- 
dragupta I, new variety of, 399, 

" Lion-Slayer," new type of Can- 
dragupta I, 399, 406 

" Lion-Trampler " type of Candra- 
gupta I, 399, 404 

Litta, Alberto, medal of, 64 

London, coin of Crispus, struck at, 
with Christian symbols, 413 

London, short- cross coins of, 297- 
299; distinguished from Lincoln, 
297-299; mint of Henry VI, 
123-127 ; angels of, 123-124 ; 
silver of, 124-127; denomina- 
tions of, 124 ; mint-marks, &c., 
of, 125; legends of, 123-127; 
coins of, described, 136-141 

Lucio, Lodovico, medal of, by the 
" MMailleur a la Fortune," 53 

Lucretia, bust of, on Italian 
sixteenth-century plaque, 54 

LVN D, erroneously recorded mint- 
mark of Julian II, 250 

Luther, memento mori finger-ring 
of, 184 



Lyons, mint of Julian II, 250 
Lys, mint-mark of York Mint of 

Henry VI, 133 ; of Bristol, 129. 

See also Fleur-de-lys 


Machanat, Phoenician inscription 

on coins, suggested original of 

Latin moneta, 1-12 
Madras, E.I.C.'s coins of, 325 
Madruzzo, Cardinal, medal of, 59 
MAI, engraver's signature on coin 

of Himera, 228 

Makarsha, ingot found at, 213 
Maler, Christian, medals by, 74, 

Malmesbury, " Agnus Dei " penny 

of Aethelred II of, 288 
Man, Isle of, Anglo-Saxon coins 

found in, 268 
Marlborough cameo of Julian II, 

Marsden, coin attributed to Mysore 

by, 326 

Marzi, Galeotto, medal of, 52 
MCCLEAN, J. R., M.A. : 

Metrological Note on the Coin- 
age of Populonia, 209-222 
" Medailleur a la Fortune," medals 

by, 53-54 
Medallions, unpublished Roman, 

Medical Congress, International, 

medal on, 95 
Medici, Alexander de', medal on 

murder of, 48, 59-60 ; Lorenzo 

de', medal on escape of, 51-52 
Melkarth, on Carthaginian coins, 

2, 232-234 
Memento mori medals, Danish, 

67-72 ; English, 76-81 
Mercandetti, medal of Aloisio 

Galvani by, 92 
Metsys, Quentin, made a medal 

of Erasmus, now lost, 56 
Middelburg, Guild of Surgeons of, 

meclalets of, 88 
Millennium, belief in approach of, 

in Aethelred II's reign, 279-280 
MILNE, J. G., M.A. : 

Alexandrian Tetradrachms of 

Tiberius, 333-339 
Mint-marks of Edward IV, 122 ; 

alterations in, by Henry VI, 

120-122; of Bristol, 129; of 

London, 125; of York, 132; 
tables of, of Charles I, 393-394 
Mirzapur district, Gupta coins 

found in, 398-408 
Moawiyah II, seal of the Caliph, 

I Moneta, etymology of, 1-12 

>: MONETA on Roman coins, 7 
MONETA on coins of Aethelred 
II, 378, 384 

i MO-ON transition of, on coins of 
Aethelred II, 263-267, 372-373 

I Moneyers : method of identifying 
moneyers of the same name, 

j Monmouth and Argyle, medal of 

execution of, 85-86 
Moralische Pfennige of Basel, 

Morea, despots of, and Paul II, 359 

! Moro, Tommaso, medal of, 59 
Muhammad Ali, Nawab of the Car- 
natic, 146-157; seeks British 
assistance, 148-149 ; his suc- 
cesses, 150 ; treaties with the 
British, 153-154 ; death of, 134 ; 
coins described, 156-157 ; coins 
wrongly attributed to, 325 

| Muhammad Shah, Mughal Em- 
peror, coins of Balapur in name 
of, 160-162; of Surat, 327, 

Mules of coins of Aethelred II, 
252, 270, 376-377, 384 

! Mysore, coins of Tipu Sultan of, 


Nagpur, late Mughal coins circu- 
lating in, 328 

Nahtarnagar, coin of Muhammad 
Ali struck at, 325-326 

Nantes, Revocation of Edict of, 
medal on, 86 

Nerva, coins of, found at Castle 
Bromwich, 14, 19-20 ; at Not- 
tingham, 206 

Nesb0, Anglo-Saxon coins found 
at, 268 

Nevill, George, Archbishop of 
York, coins of, temp. Henry VI 
(restored), 134, 145 

Nicolson, Josias, memorial medal 
of, 84 

Nicomedia, mint of Julian II, 250 



Notices of books : 

H. H. E. Craster, Report on 

Roman Coins from Corstopi- 

tum, 413-414 
F. Friedensburg, Die Miinze in 

der Kullurgeschichte, 208 
H. von Fritze, Die Miinzen von 

Pergamon, 207-208 
H. Nelson Wright, Catalogue of 

Coins in the Indian Museum, 

vol. Hi., 326-328 

Nottingham, Roman Coins found 
in, 205-206 


Oak-spray, attribute of Jupiter on 

medallion of Diocletian, 102 
Obolos of Charon, 182, 183, 202 
Occo III, Adolph, medals of, 68 
Olaf Skotkonung, coins of, found 

with those of Aethelred II, 267, 

Old Szony (Brigetio), Boman gold 

coins found at, 100, 102 
Oswald, moneyer of Norwich, of 

Aethelred II, 271 
Oxford, coins of Charles I, with 

monogram Br, to be attributed 

to, 203-205 


of Paul II, 346, 357 

Packe, A. E., his view that 
Henry VI coined gold at York 
confirmed, 121 

Paine, Thomas, satirical tokens 
of, 91-92 

Palaeologi of the Morea and Paul 
II, 359 

Paris, medal by Rogat on cholera { 
epidemic of 1832 in, 93 

Parmigiani, Lorenzo, medal of , 
Cardinal Madruzzo by, 59 

The Coin-Types of Aethelred II, 


Mr. Brooke on " The Coin-Types 
of Aethelred II : " A Reply, 

Paul II, medals of, 340-369 ; a col- 
lector of coins, 340 ; his fondness 
for foundation-stone deposits, 
353 ; finds of coins of, 354 ; re- 
organizes Roman University, 

356 ; and Peace of Italy, 359 ; 

Jubilee medal of, 389 ; medal- 
lists of, 360-369 
Paul and Peter, Saints, on medals 

of Paul II, 346, 347, 352 
Pazzi conspiracy, medal on, 51-52 
Peacock, a symbol of immortality 

on coins, &c., 178 
Pergamon, coins of, 207-208 
Persephone, head of, on Cartha- 
ginian coins, 2 
"Pest-token," Danish, 95 
Philip and Mary, shilling of, 

found at Wmterslow, 205 
Phoenix, symbol of immortality 

on coins, &c., 52, 59, 178 
Phrygian cap worn by charioteer 

on tetradrachm of Thermae 

Himerenses, 229-230 
Platina, Bartolommeo, on charac- 
ter of Paul II, 353 
Plato, so-called portrait of, on 

gems, 168 

Plimsoll, Samuel, medal of, 94 
Populonia, metrology of, 209-223 
Pozzi, J. H., physician of Bologna, 

medal of, 89 
Preston, Abraham, graver at the 

Mint in 1641-2, 396 
Psyche on Roman gems, 168-176 
Ptolemaic coins circulated in 

Roman times, 334 
Ptolemy II, coin of, found in 

Egypt . with coins of Tiberius, 

Ptolemy VII, coins of, found in 

Egypt with coins of Tiberius, 

Puritans, wearing of rings with 

death's heads by, 184 
Pyx, trial of the, 388-394; in 

time of James 1, 389 ; of Charles 

I, 390-394 


" Quadrilateral " type of Aethel- 
red II, 257-258, 289 

Quinio, Roman gold coin of five 
aurei, struck at Tarraco, found 
at Old Szony (Brigetio), 102 


Ramagh, David, makes mint 
machinery for York and Shrews- 
bury, 396 



RAV erroneously recorded mint- 
mark of Julian II, 250 
Reinaud, coin of Class II of short- 
cross of, wrongly attributed to 

Chichester, 312 
Renius, L., denarius of, with head 

of Juno Sospita, 7 
Riccio, Domenico, medal of, 52 
Richard I grants dies to Bishop of 

Lichfield, 313 
Rod, Richard, his testimony that 

B-L coins of Charles I were 

struck at Oxford, 203 
Rogat, E., medal by, on cholera 

epidemic of 1832, in Paris, 93 
Roman coins found atCastle Brom- 

wich, 13-40 ; in Nottingham, 


Roman medallions and coins, un- 
published, 97- 109 
Roman standard, origin of, 209- 

" Romano," epithet of medallist 

Pietro Paolo Galeotti, 66 
Rome, coins struck at, by Julian 

II, 250 
Rose, mint-mark of Bristol, of 

Henry VI, 129, 130 
Roselli, Antonio, medal of, by 

Bartolommeo Bellano, 362-364 
Rosenbaum, Lorenz, plaque and 

medal by, 61 

Medal of Cosimo I, Duke of 
Florence, by Cesare da Bagno, 
Royal Humane Society, Fother- 

gill medal of, 92-93 
Ryals discontinued by Henry VI 

on his restoration, 119 


S. W., a German medallist, 63 
Saadut Ulla Khan, Nawab of the 

Carnatic, 147 
Sabina, denarii of, found at 

Castle Bromwich, 14, 28-29 
Safaar Ali, Nawab of the Carnatic, 

Salisbury, coins found near. See 

Samudragupta, coins of, found in 

Mirzapur, 399-400 
Sardinia, ingot found in, 211 
Scandinavian coins, earliest, 280 

Schornberg, Marshal, medal on 
death of, 87 

Seals with memento mori inscrip- 
tions, 189-192 ; Oriental, 191 

Seleucus, portrait of, on Per- 
gamene coins, 207 

Selinus, coin of, commemorating 
freedom from pestilence, 43-45 ; 
the god sacrificing to Aescula- 
pius, 44-45 ; suggested reference 
by Vergil to coins of, with 
selinon-leaf, 409-410 


On some Rare Sicilian Tetra- 
drachms, 223-237 

Serapis on coins of Julian II, 

Severus, Septimius, and Clodius 
Albinus, as consuls, &c., 98-99 

Sforza, Faustina, medal of, 65- 

Shakespeare refers to " death's 
head " tokens, 82, 185 

Short-cross coinage, chronology of 
the, 291-324 ; date of second issue, 
307 ; of third issue, 320-322 

Siculo-Punic coins, 223-232 ; last 
issue of, 231, 236-237 

Silchester, denarius of Arnisus 
found at, 414 

Simon, Thomas, chief engraver at 
the Mint, 1648, 391-397 

Sirmium, coins struck at, by Julian 
II, 250 

Siscia, coins struck at, by Julian 
II, 250 

Skeleton and wine- jar on Roman 
gems, 164-165; and butterfly 
on Roman gems, 170-171' ; danc- 
ing on Roman gems, 179 

Skulls, ancient Mexican, of crys- 
tal, 192-193 

Smith, Vincent A., Esq., on Gupta 
coins, quoted 398-408, pass. 

ZO on tetradrachm of the Sontini, 

Sontini, unpublished tetradrachm 
of the, 329-332 

Star Chamber and trial of the 
Pyx, 389 

Sun, mint-mark of Henry VI of 
Bristol, 129, 130, 135 ; of York, 
133, 135 

Surat, late Mughal coins of, 328 

The BR or RB on certain Coins 
of Charles I, 203-205 



Charles I : The Trials of the Pyx, 
the Mint-Marks, and the Mint 
Accounts, 388-398 


Tarentum, suggested reference by 

Vergil to coins of, 410 
Tarraco, quinio of Diocletian struck 

at, 103 
Tenniel, Sir John, his design for 

International Medical Congress 

Medal, 95 
Terminus on medal of Erasmus, 

54-56 ; on seal, 58 
Thermae Himerenses, tetradrachm 

of, 223-231 
Thessalonica, coins of Julian II 

struck at, 280 
Tiberius, Alexandrian tetra- 

drachms of, 333-339 ; found in 

Egypt, 333 ; did not continue 

in circulation, 334 ; weights of, 

335-337 ; analysis of, 336 ; dies 

of, 337-338 
Tikri Debra (Mirzapur), Gupta 

coins found at, 398-408 
Tipu Sultan introduced silver 

coinage into Mysore, 162 
Titus, coins of, found at Castle 

Bromwich, 14, 18 ; at Notting- 
ham, 206 
Tower Mint, mint-mark of Edward 

IV of, 119 ; alone subject to the 

trial of the Pyx, 396 
Trajan, coins of, found at Castle 

Bromwich, 14, 20-24, 37-38 ; at 

Nottingham, 206 
Trefoil mint-mark of Henry VI, of 

Bristol, 129 
Treves, view of, on double aureus 

of Constantino I, 103, 106; 

coins of Julian II of, 250 
Tribune of St. Peter's, building of, 

recorded, 347, 356 
Triptolemus on coin, of Eleusis, 



UmdatuTumara, definition of, 


Valens represented on aureus of 

Gratian, on elevation of Valen- 

tinian II, 107-109 
Valentinian II, aureus of Gratian, 

on elevation of, 107-109 
Valour (or Virtue) overcoming 

death, plaque, 67 
Vecchietti, Alessandro, medal of, 

by the " Medailleur a la For- 
tune," 53 
Venezia, Palazzo di, on medals of 

Paul II, 341, 342, 343 ; medals 

found in, 354-355 
Vergil and coins, 409 
Verus, Lucius, denarii of, found at 

Castle Bromwich, 14, 36 
Vespasian, coins of, found at 

Castle Bromwich, 14, 16-18 ; at 

Nottingham, 206 


Wade, Edward, chief engraver at 

the Mint in 1645, 397 
Wadham, Nicholas and Dorothy, 

memorial medal of, 69 
Walajah, a title of Muhammad Ali 

Walid I, caliph, memento mori 

legend on seal of, 191 
Walpole, Horace, ring belonging 

to, 188 

The Coinage of the Reign of Ed- 
ward IV (contd., Period of the 
Restoration of Henry VI), 
Walton, Izaak, his bequest of 

memorial rings to friends, 188- 

Wardens of the Exchange, &c., in 

the Mint from 1625 to 1649, 

Warren, James, enamel on death 

of, 87 
Warsaw, medal on foundation of 

Medical Association in, 89- 

Warwick, Earl of, declares himself 

Lieutenant of the Realm, 118 ; 

crowns Henry VI, 119 

Coinage of Julian II, 238- 




Aspects of Death, &c., illus- 
trated by medals, gems, &c. 
(continued), 40-96, 163-203 

Winterslow, English coins (Ed- 
ward VI-Gharles I), found at, 

Witt, Jan and Cornelius de, medal 
on execution of, 82-83 

Wolff, Tobias, memento mori medal 
by, 66-67 

Wright, H. Nelson, I.C.S., notice 
of his Catalogue of Coins in the 
Indian Museum,vol. iii., 326-328 

Wyon, Allan, medal on plague in 
Hong-Kong by, 96 

Wyon, L. C., medal on Inter- 
national Medical Congress by, 95 

Wyon, W., Gheselden Medal by, 89 


York Mint, coin of Aethelred II, 
with legend M ON ETA, 378, 384- 
385 ; coin of Everard of short- 
cross Class II., wrongly attri- 
buted to Chichester, 298-304; 
coins of Henry VI of, 130-134 ; 
documentary evidence as to issue 
of gold at, 131; gold ascribed 
to, 132 ; silver, 133 ; mint-mark 
of, 132, 133 ; archiepiscopal 
coins of, 134 ; the coins described, 


Zah, Sebastian, medal of, 64 




INDEXES TO YOLS. I. X., 1901-1910. 




ALLAN, J., M.A., M.R.A.S. : 

The Coinage of Assam, ix. 300-331 

Notice of Die Miinze in der 
Kulturgeschichte, by Dr. F. 
Friedensburg, x. 208 

A Note on the Coinage of 
Muhammad Ali, x. 325-326 

Notice of Catalogue of the Coins 
in the Indian Museum, vol. iii. : 
Mughal Emperors, by H. Nel- 
son Wright, I.C.S., x. 326-328 
AMEDEOZ, H. F., M.R.A.S. : 

The Assumption of the Title 
Shahanshah by Buwayhid 
Rulers, v. 393-399 
ANDERSON, J. G. C., M.A. : 

Two Pontic Eras, iv. 101-102 
ANDREW, W. J., F.S.A. : 

A Numismatic History of the 
Reign of Henry I, i. 1-515 


Coins of Blaundus in Lydia, iv. 


H.S.H. PRINCE Louis OF : 
Medals Commemorative of 
Vice - Admiral Edward 
Vernon's Operations 1739- 
1741, ix. 418-429 


Coins of the Ancient Britons 

found in France, vii. 351 

H. A. : 
Treasure-Trove, its Ancient and 

Modern Laws, ii. 148-176 
BLISS, T. : 
Anglo-Saxon Coins found in 

Croydon, vii. 339-342 
BROOKE, G. C., B.A. : 
A Find of English Coins at 

Constable Burton, ix. 285- 

A Find of Roman Denarii at 

Castle Bromwich, x. 13-40 
A Find of English Coins at 

Winterslow, near Salisbury, 

x. 205 
Chronology in the Short-Cross 

Period, x. 291-324 
Mr. Parsons' Arrangement of 

the Coin-Types of Aethelred 

II, x. 370-380 

Vergil and Coins, x. 409-411 
BURN, R., I.C.S., M.R.A.S.: 
Note on the Mughal Mints of 

India (corrections to Mr. 

Longworth Dames's article), 

iii. 194-196 
A Find of Gupta Coins, x. 






German Renaissance Medals in 

the British Museum, iv. 39- 


F.S.A. : 
Bedwin and Marlborough and 

the Moneyer Cilda, ii. 20- 

On a Rare Sterling of Henry, 

Earl of Northumberland, ii. 

On the Coins of William I and 

William II, and the Se- 
quence of the Types, ii. 208- 

Eadward the Confessor and his 

Coins, v. 179-205 
Notes on some Original 

Documents relating to Touch- 
pieces, vii. 121-123 
CODRINGTON, 0., M.D., F.S.A., 

Some Rare Oriental Coins, ii. 


Two Coins relating to the 

Buwayhid and Okaylid 

Dynasties of Mesapotamiaand 

Persia, iii. 177-189 
Malwa Coins of Bahadur Shah 

of Gujarat, iii. 314-315 
A Round Copper Coin of Ghi- 

yath Shah of Malwa (?), iii. 

Some Silver Buwayhid Coins, 

ix. 220-240 
CBEEKE, A. B. : 

Unpublished Stycas of Aelfwald 

I and Aethelred I, ii. 310- 


CRUMP, C. G., and JOHNSON, C. : 
Notes on a Numismatic History 

of the Eeign of Henry J, ii. 

372-378; corrections to, iii. 




I.C.S. (retd.) : 
Some Coins of the Mughal 
Emperors, ii. 275-309 



Contorniates and Tabulae 

Lusoriae, vi. 232-266 
An Unpublished Medallion of 

the Younger Faustina, viii. 

EVANS, A. J., M.A., D.Litt., 

F.R.S., V.P.S.A. : 
Notes on some Roman Imperial 

" Medallions " and Coins : 

Clodius Albinus ; Diocletian ; 

Constantino the Great ; 

Gratian, x. 97-109 

F.R.S. : 
Note on a Gold Coin of Addedo- 

maros, ii. 11-19 
The Burning of Bonds under 

Hadrian, ii. 88-92 
On some Rare or Unpublished 

Roman Coins, ii. 345-363 
The Cross and Pall on the Coins 

of Alfred the Great, ii. 202- 

Ancient British Coins of Veru- 

lamium and Cunobelinus, iii. 

A New Type of Carausius, iv. 

An Advertising Medal of the 

Elizabethan Period, iv. 353- 

Rare or Unpublished Coins of 

Carausius, v. 18-35 
The Horseman Shilling of 

Edward VI, v. 400-401 
The Silver Medal or Map of 

Francis Drake, vi. 77-89; 

supplemental Remarks on, 

An Unpublished Coin of 

Carausius, vi. 328 
Some Silver Coins of Carausius, 

vii. 272-273 
On some Rare or Unpublished 

Roman Gold Coins, viii. 85- 

Ancient British Coins found 

with Roman Coins in England, 

viii. 80-81 

Hair-dressing of Roman Ladies 

as illustrated on Coins, vi. 




EVANS, LADY (cont.) 
A Silver Badge of Thetford, vii. 

Memorial Medal of Anne Eldred, 

viii. 178-194 
A Silver Plaque of Charles I as 

Prince, viii. 266-272 
Memorial Medal of Josias 

Nicolson, ix. 241-249 


A Half-Crown of Charles I of 

Uncertain Mint, vi. 219-220 
A Note on William Holle, 

Cuneator of the Mint, viii. 

Nicholas Hilliard, "Embosser of 

Medals of Gold," viii. 324- 

Clich6 Reverse for a Touchpiece 

of Charles II by Thomas 

Simon, ix. 297-299 
A Note on the First English 

Coinage at Bombay, vi. 351- 

Fox, H. B. EARLE : 

Some Athenian Problems, v. 1-9 
The Initial Coinage of Corcyra. ! 

viii. 80 



Moneta di Argento dei So(ntini), 

x. 329-332 
GRA.HAM, T. H. B. : 

The Re coinage of 1696-1697, vi. 

Cromwell's Silver Coinage, viii. 


A Penny of Baldred, vi. 90-91 
GRUEBER, H. A., F.S.A. : 

Some Coins of Eadgar and 

Henry VI, ii. 364-371 
Notice of Catalogue of Greek 

Coins in the Hunter Collection, 

vol. ii., by G. Macdonald, ii. 

Notice of Traite" des Monnaies 

grecques et romaines by E. 

Babelon, Part I. vol. i., ii. 


GRUEBER, H. A. (cont.) 
A Unique Naval Reward, " The 

Breton Medal," ii. 311-312 
A Find of Silver Coins at 

Colchester, iii. 111-176 
A Find of Coins of Alfred the 

Great at Stamford, iii. 347-355 
Roman Bronze Coinage from 

45-3 B.C., iv. 185-244 
Notice of Roman Coins by 

Comm. F. Gnecchi, trans, by 

Rev. A. W. Hands, iv. 288 
Notice of Les Medailleurs et les 

Graveurs de Monnaies, Jetons, 

et Medailles en France, by 

Natalis Rondot, iv. 362 
A Find of Coins of Stephen and 

Henry II at Awbridge, near 

Romsey, v. 854-363 
Notice of John of Gaunt, by S. 

Armitage-Smith, v. 315-316 
Notice of Traite" de Numisma- 

tique du Moyen Age, vol. iii., 

by A. Engel and R. Serrure, v. 

An Unpublished Half -unicorn of 

James IV of Scotland, vi. 66-76 
Notice of Die Mttnzen der 

Flottenprafecten des Marcus 

Antonius, by M. Bahrfeldt, 

vi. 91-92 
William Hole or Holle, Cuneator 

of the Mint, vii. 346-350 
The " Descente en Angleterre" 

Medal of Napoleon I, vii. 

An Anglo-Saxon Brooch, viii. 

Notice of Coins and How to 

Know Them, by Miss G. B. 

Rawlings, viii. 379-380 
A Find of Roman Coins at 

Nottingham, x. 205-206 


HANDS, REV. A. W. : 

Note on a Phoenician Drachm 

bearing the name " lahve," ix. 


Juno Moneta, x. 1-12 
HASLUCK, F. W., M.A. : 

Notes on Coin-collecting in 

Mysia, vi. 26-36 ; vii. 440-441 
Forgeries from CaesareaMazaca, 

x. 411-412 




LL.D. : 
Two Hoards of Roman Coins, 

ii. 184-186 
Find of Roman Silver Coins near 

Caistor, Norfolk, ii. 186-188 
Greek Coins at Exeter, vii. 145- 

HEAD, B. V., D.C.L., D.Litt., 

Ph.D. : 
Notice of Greek Coins and their 

Parent Cities, by John Ward, 

F.S.A., and G. F. Hill, M.A., 

ii. 191-192 
The Earliest Graeco-Bactrian 

and Graeco-Indian Coins, vi. 


Ephesian Tesserae, viii. 281-286 
HEADLAM, REV. A. G., D.D. : 
Some Notes on Sicilian Coins, 

viii. 1-16 

Anglo-Gallic Coins (Henry II- 

Edward I), v. 364-392 
Contd. (Edward II-Henry of 

Lancaster), vi. 267-327 
Contd. (Edward the Black Prince 

-Henry IV), viii. 102-177 
HILL, G. F., M.A. : 

Timotheus Refatus of Mantua 

and the Medallist " T. R.," ii. 

Roman Coins found at South- 

wark, iii. 99-102 
Notice of Mcdaillen der italien- 

ischcn Renaissance, by Cor- 
nelius von Fabriczy, iii. 190- 

Some Coins of Caria and Lycia, 

iii. 399-402 
The Seal of Bernhardus de 

Parma, iv. 179-180 
Roman Coins from Croydon, v. 

Roman Silver Coins from 

Grovely Wood, Wilts, vi. 

Account of Presentation of 

Corolla Numismatica to Dr. 

Head, vi. 387-389 
Dr. Haeberlin on the Earliest 

Roman Coinage, vii. 111-120 
Two Hoards of Roman Coins 

(Weybridge and Icklingham), 

viii. 208-221 

HILL, G. F. (cont.) 

The Barclay Head Prize for 
Ancient Numismatics, ix. 

Two Italian Medals of English- 
men, ix. 292-296 

Roman Coins from Corbridge 
and Manchester, ix. 431- 

Notice of Melanges Numis- 
matiques, by A. Dieudonn6, 
ix. 251-252 

Notice of Die Munzen von Per- 
gamon, by Dr. Hans von 
Fritze, x. 207-208 

Note on the Mediaeval Medals 
of Constantino and Heraclius, 
x. 110-116 

The Medals of Paul II, x. 340- 

Notice of Roman Coins from 

Corstopitum, x. 413-414 

Notes on some Coins of William 
II in the Royal Mint Museum, 
v. 109-112 

Simon's Dies in the Royal Mint 
Museum, with some Notes on 
the Early History of Coinage 
by Machinery, ix. 56-119 
K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A. : 

A Note on some Coins generally 
attributed to Mazaios, the 
Satrap of Cilicia and Syria, 
ii. 81-88 

The History and Coinage of 
Artaxerxes III, his Satraps 
and Dependants, iii. 1-47 

Some Coins attributed to Baby- 
lon by Dr. Imhoof-Blumer, 
iii. 1-38 

Some Notes on Coins attributed 
to Parthia, v. 209-246; con- 
tinuation, vii. 125-144 

Early Parthian and Armenian 
Coins, vi. 221-231 

The Coins of Ecgbeorht and his 
Son Athelstan, viii. 222- 


The Mint at Babylon : a Re- 
joinder, vi. 17-25 




Muhammad Ali, Nawab of the 
Carnatic (1752-1795 A.D.) and 
his Copper Coins, x. 146-157 
The Coinage of Balapur, x. 158- 


JOHNSON, J. M. C. : 
Gold Coins of the Muwayhids, 

ii. 77-80 

Coinage of the East India Com- 
pany, iii. 71-98 


KEN YON, R. LL., M.A. : 
A Find of Coins at Oswestry, v. 

A Find of Coins at Bridgnorth, 

viii. 319-323 

(retd.) : 
History and Coinage of Malwa, 

Part L, iii. 356-398 ; Part II., 

iv. 62-100 


Notes on Phocian Obols, iii. 


LAWRENCE, L. A., F.S.A. : 
A Find of English Silver Coins 
of Edward IV-Henry VIII, 
ii. 34-54 

The Coinage of Henry IV, v. 


The Coinage of Tigranes I, ii. 

Numeral Letters on Imperial 

Coins of Syria, iii. 105-110 
The Pseudo-Autonomous Coins 

of Antioch, iv. 105-135 
A Recent Find of Roman Coins 

in Scotland, v. 10-17 
A Hoard of Edward Pennies 

found at Lochmaben, v. 63-82 
Roman Medallions in the Hun- 

terian Collection, vi. 93-126 

MACDONALD, G. (cont.) 

Greek Coins at Exeter (with 

Professor Haverfield), vii. 

Notice of Die griechischen Miin- 

zen der Sammlung Warren, by 

K. Regling, vii. 352 
Notice of Nomisma, Part I., 

by H. von Fritze and Hugo 

Gaebler, vii. 441-442 
Roman ContorniatesintheHun- 

terian Collection, ix. 19-55 
A Find of Coins of Henry I, v. 


Classification Chronologique des 

Emissions Monetaires de 

1'Atelier d' Alexandrie pendant 

la Periode Constantinienne, 

ii. 92-147; de Nicomedie, 

iv. 211-285; de Heraclee de 

Thrace, v. 120-178 

Was there a Pre-Macedonian 

Mint in Egypt ? viii. 197-207 
MCCLEAN, J. R., M.A. : 

The True Meaning of # on the 

Coins of Magna Graecia, vii. 


Metrological Note on the Coin- 
age of Populonia, x. 209-222 
MILNE, J. G., M.A. : 

Roman Coin-Moulds fromEgypt, 

v. 342-353 
The Leaden Token-Coinage of 

Egypt under the Romans, viii. 

The Alexandrian Coinage of 

Galba, ix. 274-285 
Alexandrian Tetradrachms of 

Augustus and Tiberius, x. 

Mow AT, R. K. : 

The Countermarks of Claudius 

I, ix. 10-18 

B.C.L., F.S.A. : 
Two Medals of the Academy of 

St. Luke at Rome, iv. 180-183 



The Coinage of William Wood, 
1722-1723, iii. 47-70 



A Plumbago Mould for the 
Fabrication of Coins of Henry 
VII, v. 205-206 


OMAN, PROF. C. W. C., M.A. : 
The Fifth - Century Coins of j 
Corinth, ix. 353-356 


Note on the Re-coinage of 

William III, vii. 124 
A Unique Penny of Henry I, 

struck at Derby, ix. 332 
The Coin-Types of Aethelred II, 

x. 251-290 
Mr. G. C. Brooke on "The 

Coin-Types of Aethelred II : " 

a Eeply, x. 381-387 

Obituary Notice of George 

William de Saulles, iii. 311- 


Bristol Tokens of the Sixteenth 

and Seventeenth Centuries, 

ii. 385-387 


RABINO, H. L. : 

Coins of the Shahs of Persia, - 

viii. 357-373 
BAPSON, PROF. E. J., M.A., ! 

M.R.A.S. : 
Ancient Silver Coins from Balu- i 

chistan, iv. 311-325 
Notice of A Manual of Mussul- j 

man Numismatics, by Dr. i 

Codrington, iv. 103-104 
Notice of Catalogue of Coins in 

the Indian Museum, vol. i., : 

by Vincent A. Smith, vii. 273- ' 


An Unpublished, or Unique ; 

Half-crown of Charles I, i 

from the Exeter Mint, iii. : 



Some Pontic Eras, ii. 1-11 ; 
correction, 184 

A Stele from Abonuteichos, v. 


An Alleged Portrait-Medal of 
John of Leyden, vi. 385-387 

Medal of Cosimo I, Duke of 
Florence, by Cesare da Bagno, 

A Large Hoard of Gold and Sil- 
ver Ancient British Coins of 
the Brigantes, found at South 
Ferriby, Lines., in 1906, viii. 

A Unique Ancient British Gold 
Stater of the Brigantes, ix. 

A False Ancient British Coin, 
ix. 430 


SEARLE, REV. W. G., M.A. : 

Some Unpublished Seventeenth- 
Century Tokens, ii. 378-384 

A Synopsis of the Coins of 
Antigonus I and Demetrius 
Poliorcetes, ix. 264-274 

A Tetradrachm with the Name 
of " Hippias," viii. 278-280 

Lacedaemon versus Allaria, ix. 

The "Medallion" of Agri- 
gentum, ix. 357-364 

On some Rare Sicilian Tetra- 

drachms, x. 223-237 

Some Notes on the Coins struck 
at Omdurman by the Mahdi 
and the Khalifa, ii. 62-73 
M.R.A.S., I.C.S. (retd.) : 

Notice of E. J. Rapson's Cata- 
logue of the Coins of the 
Andras, Western Ksatrapas 
and the Bodhi Dynasty in the 
British Museum, ix. 119-120 

The Coinage of William I and 
William II, part i., iv. 144- 
179; part ii., 245-287 



SYMONDS, H., F.S.A. : 
The Monogram BR or RB on 

certain Coins of Charles I, x. 

Charles I : The Trials of the Pyx, 

the Mint-marks, and the Mint 

Accounts, x. 388-397 


VLASTO, M. P. : 

Rare or Unpublished Coins of 
Taras, vii. 277-290 

On a Recent Find of Coins struck 
during the Hannibalic Occu- 
pation of Tarentum, ix. 253- 


WALTEES, F. A., F.S.A. : 
Some Remarks on the Last > 

Silver Coinage of Edward III, j 

ii. 176-183 
The Silver Coinage of the Reign 

of Henry VI, ii. 224-266 
The Gold Coinage of the Reign 

of Henry VI, iii. 286-310 
The Coinage of Richard II, iv. ! 

The Coinage of Henry IV, v. \ 

An Unpublished Variety of the j 

Groat of the First Coinage of 

Henry VII, v. 207-208 
The Coinage of Henry V, vi. 

A Find of Early Roman Bronze I 

Coins in England, vii. 353- ! 

Groats from a Presumed Find in | 

London, vii. 427-433 
An Unpublished Half-groat pro- 
bably of the Heavy Coinage of 

Henry IV, vii. 120 
York Halfpenny of Henry VIII ! 

(second coinage) struck by 

Wolsey, vii. 121 
A Find of English Silver Coins 

in Hampshire, viii. 311-318 
A Rare Sestertius of Antoninus 

Pius, viii. 194-196 

WALTERS, F. A. (cont.) 

The Coinage of the Reign of 
Edward IV, ix. 132-219 ; contd. 
(Period of the Restoration of 
Henry VI, October, 1470- 
April, 1471), x. 117-145 

Coins found on the Premises of 
the Worshipful Company of 
Carpenters, about 1872, iii. 

The Coinage of Allectus, vi. 

The Reign and Coinage of 
Carausius, vii. 1-88, 156-218, 
291-338, 373-426 

Fausta N F and other Coins, 
viii. 81-83 

Notice of Numismatique Con- 
stantinienne, vol. i., by Jules 
Maurice, viii. 376-379 

The Coinage of Julian the Philo- 
sopher, x. 238-250 
F.S.A. : 

Medals and Medallions of the 
Nineteenth Century relating 
to England, by Foreign 
Artists, vii. 219-271 

Aspects of Death, &c., illus- 
trated on Medals, Gems, &c., 
ix. 365-417 ; x. 41-96, 163-202 

Greek Coins acquired by the 
British Museum in 1901, ii. 
313-314 ; in 1902, iii. 317-346; 
in 1903, iv. 289-310 

The Earliest Parthian Coins : A 
Reply to Sir Henry Howorth, 
v. 317-323 

Select Greek Coins in the 
British Museum, v. 324-341 


YEAMES, A. H. S., M.A. : 

Romney Penny of Henry I, vii. 


Three Lead Tickets of the 
Eighteenth Century, ii. 74-77 
Folly Tickets, iv. 183-184 



OCTOBER, 1900 JULY, 1910. 


Addedomaros, staters of, ix. 15 

Aelfrici, moneyer of Bath, penny 
of Cnut of, vi. 18 

Aelfwald I, styca of, i. 15 

Aethelred I, styca of, i. 15 

Aethelred II, penny of, probably 
of Thetford Mint, viii. 19 

AIOQN, magistrate's title on coin 
of Kydonia, v. 10 

" Ambrose, Bishop of Bath," token 
of 1660, v. 5 

Amsterdam, admission ticket to 
Botanic Gardens of, 1684, x. 7 

Ancona, coin of "Roman Repub- 
lic " cast at, x. 7 

Antioch, early fourth-century coin 
of, with figure of city, vii. 18 

Antonia, aureus of, found at Pin- 
bury (near Cirencester), ii. 6 

Antoninus Pius, sestertius of, 
with Britannia, viii. 9 ; with 
terminal figure, v. 11 

Anubis on dog, reverse type of coin 
of Jovian, x. 9 

Apollo, obv. type of coin of Atar- 
neus, iii. 13 

Aquitaine, half-groat of Edward 
III of, with Irish title, vi. 7 

Aquitaine, groat of Edward the 
Black Prince of, vi. 7 

Archelaus of Macedon, double- 
struck coin of, v. 17 

Asclepios on coin of Epidaurus, 
iv. 17 

Atarneus, drachm of, with type 
obv. Apollo, and rev. serpent, 
iii. 13 

Athens, Imperial bronze coin of, 
with reverse design copied from 
Marathon memorial, i. 13 

Augustus, sestertius of, counter- 
marked with head of Vespasian, 


Bainbridge, Archbishop, half- 
groat struck at York by, ii. 1 

Baldred of Kent, penny of 
moneyer Danan, iv. 7 

Bath, penny of Cnut of moneyer 
Aelfrici, vi. 18 

Becker's dies for forging Hun- 
garian coins, iv. 14, 16 

Beeston Castle, Charles I siege 
pieces of, i. 10 

Beggar's badge of Huntley parish, 
iv. 7 

Belfast halfpenny of 1734, iv. 12 

Blake medal awarded to Captain 
Haddock, v. 8 

Blondeau, pattern half-crown of 
1651 by, iii. 6 

Boar on Shropshire shilling of 
1811, iv. 10 

Boar's head, mint-mark of Richard 
III, iv. 5 

Boduoc, gold coin of, found at 
Sapperton, ii. 6 

Exclusive of matter afterwards published in the Chronicle. 



"Bonnet" type of William I 
penny of Sandwich of, v. 17 

Brigantes, doubts cast on attribu- 
tion of coins to, viii. 6 

Bright, John, bust of, on Free Trade 
Medal, vii. 13 

Briot, pattern crown of Charles I 
by, ii. 3 ; pattern broad, pattern 
shilling, and coronation medal 
of 1628 by, v. 19 

Bristol, medals, &c., found at, v. 5 

Bristol testoon of Edward VI with 
Thomas Chamberlain's mint- 
mark, x. 5 

Britannia on sestertius of Anto- 
ninus Pius, viii. 9 

British coins found in Hayling 
Island, iv. 9 

British coins of " Hod-Hill " type 
found at Romsey, viL 16 

Brutus, M. Junius, denarius of, 
with El D. MAR., x. 18 

Bull, type on gold stater of Gor- 
tyna, ix. 5 

Burton-on-Trent, seventeenth- 
century farthing token of John 
Wakefield, iv. 18 

Byzantium, didrachm of, with 
obv. bull, rev. Hercules strang- 
ling snakes, i. 5 


lished legend of Licinius I, 
ii. 11 

Calais Mint, unpublished groat, 
half -groat, and penny of the i 
rosette-mascle issue of Henry | 
VI, ix. 9 

Camoludunum, bronze coin of 
Carausius of, with rev. centaur, 
iii. 12 

Canterbury, sede vacante coins of 
the moneyer Oba, i. 3 

Capri, plated votive denarii from 
well in, vii. 9 

Carausius, unpublished solidus of, 
i. 14 ; bronze coin of Camulodu- 
nurn of, iii. 12 ; unusual variety 
of Pax denarius of, iv. 10 ; bronze 
coin of, restruck on coin of 
Claudius II, iv. 18; ancient 
forgery of coin of, viii. 7 

Carlisle, siege piece of Charles I 
struck at, i. 10 

Ceolwulf I, penny of monever 
Oba of, i. 2 

Chamberlain, Thomas, his mint- 
mark on a Bristol testoon of 
Edward IV, x. 5 

Charles I, unpublished farthing 
token of, i. 10 ; siege pieces of, 
ibid. ; pattern crown of, by 
Briot, ii. 3 ; Oxford 3 pieces of 
1642, 1643, 1644, iv. 10 ; pattern 
broad of, in silver, by Rawlins, 
vi. 5 ; proof shilling with mint- 
mark rose and pellets of, pattern 
shilling by Briot, and coronation 
medal of 1628 by Briot of, v. 19 ; 
half-crown probably of Salisbury 
of, vii. 5 ; York shilling, mint- 
mark lion, and Tower shilling, 
mint-mark eye, of , vii. 14 ; Tower 
shillings of, x. 18 

Charles II, siege piece of Ponte- 
fract of, i. 10 ; pewter proof of 
crown of 1673 of, ii. 8; two- 
guinea piece of 1671 of, iv. 7 ; pat- 
tern broad by Thomas Simon, 
with his initial, of ,v. 12 ; restruck 
and blundered crown of 1682 of, 
v. 17 ; pewter farthings of, x. 9 ; 
pattern farthings in silver, 
bronze, and pewter of, x. 14 

Charles Edward, "Young Pre- 
tender," medal on arrival of, in 
1745, viii. 7 

Chichester, penny of Henry I of, v. 8 

Chinese sycee, 10-tael piece, i. 8 ; 
50-tael piece of Jang-yang- 
Hsien, ii. 8 

Cirencester, solidus of Carausius 
found at, i. 14 

Claudius II, bronze coin of, re- 
struck by Carausius, iv. 18 

Clavia, relievo showing burning 
of, by Trajan, i. 3 

Clippings of coins from Edward 
VI to Charles II, ix. 13 

Cnossus, tetradrachm of, with 
Minotaur, v. 10 

Cnut, penny of moneyer Aelfrici 
of Bath of, vi. 18 

Cobden, Richard, bust of, on 
medal, vii. 3 

Colchester, siege pieces of, i. 11 

Commodus, sestertius of, rev. 
Emperor spearing lion, iii. 8 

Commonwealth pattern half- 
crown, 1651, vi. 8; halfpenny 
by Rawlins, x. 9 



Commune Asiae, sestertius of 

Augustus of, iii. 16 
Congo Free State, medal on twen- 
tieth anniversary of the founda- 
tion of, viii. 15 
Constantinian coins found in 

Dorsetshire, iv. 12 
Constantinople, unpublished triens 

of Valentinian I, vii. 5 
Constantius II, gold medallion of 

Treves, iii. 16 
Coritani may have struck coins 

attributed to the Brigantes, 

viii. 6 
Crassus, P. Canidius, bronze coin 

of, x. 7 
Cromwell, Oliver, medal by Simon 

of, as Protector, in gold, viii. 7 ; 

coins of 1649, ix. 13 ; halfpenny, 

x. 9 
Crown mint-mark on Durham 

penny of Edward III, ii. 2 
Cunobelinus, copper coin of, 

found at Sandy, ii. 2 ; gold coin 

of , with name on both sides,iii.4-5 
Cyprus, new English coinage for, 

i. 8; Greek copper of, with 

inscription EYA, iv. 9 


Daedalus of Sicyon, stater of 
Elis by, x. 15-16 

Danan, moneyer of Baldred of 
Kent, iv. 7 

David I of Scotland pennies of 
Edinburgh and Roxburgh, found 
at Nottingham, i. 8 

Dollar of U.S., pattern on silver 
standard, v. 13 

Dorchester, sceatta found at, iii. 14 

verse legend on penny of 
Wulfred, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, x. 8 

Dorsetshire, Constantinian coins 
found in, iv. 12 

Dublin heavy groat of Edward 
IV, x. 11 

Durham penny of Edward III 
with mint-mark crown, ii. 2 


Eadgar, penny of, moneyer Wer- 

stan, ii. 4 

Edinburgh, penny of David I 
struck at, found at Nottingham, 

Edward the Elder, penny of 
Wynstan of Totnes, vi. 14 

Edward III, Durham penny of, 
i. 2 ; London halfpenny of, iii. 
13 ; coins of, found at Southend, 
iii. 5 ; half-groat of Aquitaine 
with Irish title, vi. 7 ; early 
London groat with Roman 
M's, vii. 7 ; half-groat reading 
DI.GRA, viii. 7; half-noble 
with trefoil on reverse, viii. 16 ; 
noble of 1351-1360, with rev. 
leg. beginning I HE, ix. 15 
j Edward the Black Prince, groat 
of Aquitaine, ii. 11 

Edward IV, heavy half-groat of 
London of, i. 10 ; groat of Nor- 
wich of, viii. 5 ; heavy Dublin 
groat of, x. 11 ; discussion on 
Mr. Walters's paper on coinage 
of, x. 12 

Edward V, unique halfpenny of, 
vii. 7 

Edward VI, pattern half-sovereign 
of, i. 3 ; sovereign with mint- 
mark ostrich's head, v. 5 ; gold 
crown of, with name of Henry 
VIII, v. 12; Bristol testoon 
with T. Chamberlain's mint- 
mark, x. 5 

Egypt, bronze coin of P. Canidius 
Crassus struck in, x. 7 

EID. MAR. denarius, x. 18 

Eleonora, wife of Francis I, medal 
presented to, iv. 14 

Elis, stater of, by Daedalus, x. 

Elizabeth, hammered groat and 
half-groat probably of 1558, ii. 8 ; 
pound-sovereign of 1602, v. 7 

Epidaurus, drachm of, with 
obv. Asclepios, iv. 7 

Essex, Earl of, gold badge of, v. 8 

Euboic standard, electrum half- 
stater of, vii. 14 

EYA inscription on Greek coin 
found in Cyprus, iv. 9 


Finds of coins at 

Capri (votive denarii), vii. 9-10 
Challow (Berks), (Verica), i. 10 



Finds of coins at (cont.) 
Cirencester (Carausius), i. 14 
Dorchester (sceatta), iii. 14 
Dorsetshire (Constantinian), iv. 


Hay ling Island (British), iv. 9 
London, Drury Lane (sceatta), 
iii. 6; Roman gold (site of 
new G.P.O.), viii. 16 ; South- 
wark (clippings of English 
coins), ix. 13 
Marsham (Abingdon), (clippings 

of English coins), ix. 13 
Naukratis (Athenian), vi. 14 
Nottingham (David I), i. 8 
Pinbury (Antonia), ii. 6 
Reculver (Gaulish), v. 15 
Romsey (Roman with " Hod- 
hill" type), vii. 16 ; viii. 11 
Salbris (Loire), (Roman), iii. 10 
Sandy (Beds.), (British), ii. 2 
Sapperton (Gloucester), Boduoc, 

ii. 8 

Soissons (Gaulish), viii. 10 
Southend (Edward III), iii. 5 
Wiltshire (Gaulish), ii. 8 
France, Bank of, centenary medal 

of, ii. 14 

Frey, A. R., medal of, vii. 14 
Fuchs, Emil, South African medal 
by, i. 3 


Gaulish stater found in Wiltshire, 
ii. 8 ; half-stater found at Re- 
culver, v. 15 

Gauvain, Jacques, medal by, iv. 

Geographical Society, Royal, Ant- 
arctic medal of, x. 5 

Geological Society, Prestwich 
medal of, ix. 7 

George I, half-crown of, with Tl R- 
TIO, v. 13 

Gibson, Messrs. A. and Co., tokens 
of, v. 5 

Gondo mine, 20-franc piece of 
gold from, i. 8 

Gordian III, medallion of, iii. 10 

Gortyna, gold stater of the third 
century B.C. of, ix. 5 

Gun-money, gold proof of half- 
crown of 1690, i. 4 ; silver and 
pewter proofs of crown, i. 6; 
silver proofs of crown and half- 
crown of 1690, vi. 8 


Haddock, Captain, Blake Medal 
awarded to, v. 8 

Halaliya, era on Mongol coins, ii. 11 

Harold II, forgery of Lewes coins 
of, vii. 12 

Hayling Island, British coins 
found in, iv. 9 

Henry I, Chichester penny of, v. 8 

Henry IV, heavy half-groat of, 
vii. 10 ; half-noble of, with 
crescent, viii. 16 ; late noble of, 
viii. 16 ; unpublished light groat 
of, with name H 6( N R I CX punched 
over RIC(ftRD, x. 5 

Henry V, noble of last coinage 
of, with mint-mark perforated 
cross, vi. 16 

Henry VI, half and quarter nobles 
of annulet coinage, iii. 8 ; Lon- 
don pennies of rosette-mascle 
and pine-cone-mascle coinages, 
iii. 11; London halfpenny of 
annulet and rosette coinage, vi. 
12 ; heavy penny of York, viii. 
7 ; angels of restoration period, 
viii. 10; unpublished Calais 
groat, half-groat, and penny of 
rosette-mascle coinage, ix. 9 ; 
light groat of, x. 11 

Henry VII, angel, mint-mark rose 
of, reading DNS.HIB, vi. 9; 
groat of second coinage of, x. 7 ; 
groat of third coinage of, x. 16 

Hercules strangling snakes, type 
of Byzantium, i. 5 

Hod-hill type of British coins 
found at Romsey, vii. 16 ; viii. 11 

Huntley, beggar's badge of, iv. 7 


Iceni, plated gold coin of the, ii. 14 
! Inchiquin money, crown, half- 
crown, shilling and fourpence, 
i. 11 
I Ionian Islands, proof of George 

IV's penny for, iv. 5 
! Irish imitations of coins of Harold 
II, William I and Henry I, ii. 2 


James I (of England), sixpence 
mint-mark thistle-head, vi. 5 ; 
shilling of, vii. 14 



James II (of England), proof in 
gold of gun-money half-crown, i. 
4 ; in silver and pewter of 
crown, i. 6; in silver of half- 
crown, i. 6 ; in silver of half- 
crown and crown, vi. 8 ; Irish 
pewter halfpenny of 1690, iv. 10 

James III (of Scotland), half-rider 
of, without Us under sword, v. 17 

James V, half-bawbee of, unpub- 
lished, vi. 7 

James, " Elder Pretender," medal 
of 1697 of, viii. 7 

Jang-yang-hsien, 50-tael sycee of, 
ii. 8 

Jovian, bronze coin of, rev. Anubis 
on dog, x. 9 

Juba II, coins of, ix. 5 

Julia Domna, denarius of, rev. 
legend VASTA (sic), iv. 7 

Julia Maesa, denarius of, rev. 
" Fides Militum," iii. 10 


King's Theatre, pass to Prince of 

Wales's box in, iv. 7 
Kydonia, tetradrachm of, with 

engraver's name, v. 10 


Leofine of Lewes, forgeries with 
moneyer's name, vii. 12 

Lesbos, hecte of, obv. head of 
Pallas, i. 3 

Lewes, forgeries of Pax pennies of, 
vii. 12 

Licinius I, unpublished coin of 
Siscia, ii. 11 

Linnean Society, Darwin Medal 
of, ix. 5 

Lis mint-mark on groat and half- 
groat of Elizabeth, ii. 8 

Liverpool, medal on 700th anni- 
versary of foundation of, viii. 7 

Liverpool and Manchester Rail- 
way, medal on opening of, v. 8 

Lochwannoch, tokens of, struck 
on Spanish coins, v. 5 

London, Roman gold coins found 
in, viii. 16 

London, C.I.V. medal, ii. 4 

London Mint, heavy half-groats of 
Edward IV, i. 10 ; halfpenny of 

annulet and rosette coinage 

of Henry VI, vi. 12; groats of 

Edward III and Henry IV, 

vii. 7 
Louis XV, medal of, on visit to 

Utrecht, iv. 14 
Louis XVI, medal of, on abolition 

of royal privileges, vii. 10 
Lysimachus, coins of Kydonia with 

types of, v. 11 


Man, Isle of, proofs of coins of, 

i. 4 
Mare and foal, type of coin of 

Cyprus, iv. 9 
Marsham, clippings of coins found 

at, ix. 13 
Mecca, dinar of al-Radi struck 

at, ii. 8 
Minotaur, type on coin of Cnossus, 

v. 10 
lf<wea,criticisms of Dr.Assmann's 

etymology of, x. 14 


Natal Rebellion, 1906, war-medal, 

viii. 19 
Naukratis, coins of Athens from, 

vi. 14 

Nelson, medals of, vi. 5 
NEYANTOS ETTO El, inscription 

on coin of Kydonia, v. 10 
Newark shilling of 1640, i. 6 
New Jersey cent by Wyon, i. 2 
Norwich, unique groat of Edward 

IV of, viii. 5 
Notices of books : 
Avebury, Lord, History of Coins 

and Currency, ii. 39 
Babelon, T&.,Traitt des Monnaies 
Grecques et Romaines, vol. i., 
ii. 88 
Dattari, G., Numi Alexandrini, 

ii. 37 
Fabriczy, C. von, Medals of the 

Italian Renaissance, iv. 39 
Forrer, L., Biographical Dic- 
tionary of Medallists, &c., vol. 
i., ii. 39 ; vol. ii., iv. 40 ; vol. 
iii., vii. 45 

Hands, Rev. A. W., Common 
Greek Coins, vii. 45 



Notices of books (cont.) : 

Hauberg, P., Myntforhold, &c., 

i Danmark indtil 1146, ii. 40 
Head, B. V., B. M. Cat. : Lydia, 

ii. 38 ; Phrygia, vii. 45 
Hill, G. F., Coins of Ancient 

Sicily, iii. 36-37 ; B. M. Cat. : 

Lycaonia, &c., i. 32-33; 

Cyprus, v. 41 
Hocking, W. J., Catalogue of 

Coins, dc., in the Royal Mint 

Museum, vol. i., vi. 40-41 
Hohenzollern, die Schaumiinzen 

des Hauses, i. 33 
Macdonald, G., Catalogue of 

Greek Coins in the Hunterian 

Museum, vol. ii., ii. 35-36 ; 

Coin-Types, <&c., vi. 39-40 
Bapson, E. J., B. M. Cat. : 

Andhras, &c., ix. 39-42 
Begling, K., Sammlung Warren, 

viii. 46-47 
Beinach, T., L'Histoire par les 

Monnaies,iu37 ; JewishCoins, 

v. 40-41 
Stainer, C. L., Oxford Pennies, 

v. 42 
Ward, J., Greek Coins and their 

Parent Cities, iii. 36 
Wroth, W., B. M. Cat. : Parthia, 

iii. 35-36; Byzantine Em- 
perors, ix. 35-39 
Nottingham, coin of David I 

found at, i. 8 
Nottingham penny of William II 

(Hks 243/247), ii. 16, 
Nottingham Yeomanry, medal 
presented to, by Lord Newark 
on their disbandment, vii. 13 


Oba, moneyer of Ceolwulf I, i. 

Obituary notices : 

BagnaU-Oakley, Mrs., iv. 32 
Barthelemy, A. de, v. 26-27 
Brown, Joseph, ii. 28 
Buick, David, vii. 34-35 
Bush, Colonel Tobin, ii. 27 
BusheU, Dr. S. W., ix. 55 
Carfrae, B., i. 23 
Clerk, Major-General M. G., vii. 


Copp, A. E., iii. 27-28 
Cuming, Syer, iii. 28 

Obituary notices (cont.) : 
Dickinson, Bev. F. B., v. 32-33 
Drouin, E., iv. 30-31 
Evans, Sir John. viii. 25-31 
Evans, Sebastian, x. 31 
Gosset, Sir Matthew E. W., ix. 


Griffith, Henry, iv. 31 
Grissell, H. de la G., vii. 35 
Hoblyn, R. A., vi. 28-29 
Hodge, E. G., vii. 32 
Inderwick, F. A., v. 32 
lonides, C. A., i. 23-24 
James, J. H., \. 31 
Kitt, T. W., vi. 29-30 
Krumbholz, E. C., v. 31-32 
Lambert, G., ii. 37 
Lambros, J. P., x. 32-33 
Lincoln, W. S., ix. 56-57 
Mackerell, C. E. G., vi. 30 
Madden, F. W., v. 27-28 
Mitchell, E. C., iv. 32 
Mommsen, Theodor, iv. 29-30 
Murdoch, J. G., iii. 29 
Neck, J. F., x. 31-32 
Neil, B. A., i. 24 
Oldfield, E., ii. 28 
Oliver, E. E., ii. 28 
Price, F. G. Hilton, ix. 34-35 
Bashleigh, Jonathan, v. 29-30 
Smith, Samuel, vii. 30-31 
Spence, C. J., vii. 34 
Spicer, F., ii. 27 
Tiesenhausen, Baron Wladimir 

von, iii. 27 

Wakley, Dr. T., x. 33 
Willett, E. H., iv. 31-32 
Wood, Humphrey, iv. 32-33 
Wyon, Allan, vii. 32 
Oppius, Q., bronze coin of, x. 7 
Orange Free State, pattern penny 

of, i. 8 
"Order of Blue and Orange 

Club," badge of, i. 6 
Oscar II., Jubilee medal of, viii. 9 
Ostrich head,mint-mark of Edward 
VI, v. 5 


Paduan copy of coin of Vespa- 
sian, ix. 19 

Partridge, John, medal awarded 
to, v. 8 

Peel, Sir Bobert, bust of, on medal, 
vii. 13 

Phaestus, tetradrachm of, v. 11 




Pitt, William, memorial medal of, 

ii. 10 ; kit-box label of, viii. 5 
Plymouth Independent Bangers, 

medal of, v. 8 
POIS D' ESTER LIN, inscription 

on a mediaeval weight, i. 6 
Pontefract siege-piece of Charles 

II, i. 10 
Prestwich Medal of the Geological 

Society, ix. 7 
Prevost Volunteer Medal, ii. 8 

al-Badl, dinar of Mecca of. ii. 8 

Bamage, pattern Commonwealth 
half-crown of 1651 by, vi. 8 ; ix. 

Bawlins, pattern broad of Charles 
I by, vi. 5 ; pattern Common- 
wealth farthing by, x. 9 

Beading 40s., 2s. 6d., and Is. Qd. 
tokens, iii. 7 

" Bestored " Boman coins, i. 32 

Bichard II, halfpenny of London 
of, v. 17 ; groat of, with crescent 
on breast, vi. 18 ; half-groat of, 
struck by Henry IV, vi. 14 ; 
noble of, with slipped trefoil on 
obverse, viii. 7 

Bichard III, half-groat of, mint- 
mark boar's head, iv. 5 

Bochester " canopy " penny of 
William I and II, iv. 9 

"Boman Bepublic " coin of 
1849 of the, x. 7 

Bothesay Cotton Works, tokens 
of, v. 5 

Boty, 0., medal of Bank of France 
by, ii. 14 

Boxburgh, penny of David I of, 
i. 8 

Buyter, Admiral de, medal of, 
vii. 18 


Salisbury half-crown of Charles I, 

vii. 5 
Sandwich penny of William I, 

v. 17 
Sandy, coins of Verulamium and 

Cunobelinus found at, ii. 2 
Scantilla, sestertius of, vi. 7 
Scarborough siege-pieces of Charles 

I, i. 10 

Sceatta found in Dorchester, iii. 

14 ; in Drury Lane, iii. 16 
Serpent on coin of Atarneus, iii. 

Severus, Septimius, unpublished 

dupondius of, iv. 15 ; denarius 

of, x. 9 
Shrewsbury, medal on battle of, 

iv. 5 

Shropshire shilling of 1811, iv. 10 
Simon, Blake Medal by, v. 8 ; 

pattern broad of Charles II by, 

v. 12 ; gold medal of Cromwell, 

1650, by, viii. 7 
Soissons (Loire), Gaulish coins 

found at, viii. 10 
Southend, coins of Edward III 

found at, iii. 5 
Southwark, clippings of coins 

found at, ix. 13 

Spanish dollars restruck in Scot- 
land, v. 5 
Swiss 20-franc piece of gold from 

Gondo mine, i. 8 


Terina, stater of, x. 16 
Tesserae, Boman, viii. 13 
Thetford (?) penny of Aethelred 

II, viii. 19 
Tibet, silver coin of, with head of 

Chinese Emperor, ix. 13 
Tigranes, gold stater of, v. 15 
Titus, sestertius of, without S . C ., 

v. 15 
Totnes penny of Edward the Elder 

of Wynstan, vi. 14 
Transvaal crown with double 

shaft, ii. 14 ; pattern penny, 

1894, viii. 13 

Travancore, gold coin of, i. 4 
Treves, gold medallion of Con- 

stantine II of, iii. 16 


United States dollar pattern on 
silver standard, v. 13 


Valentinian I, unpublished triens 
of Constantinople of, vii. 5 



"Vasta" blunder for " Vesta," 

iv. 7 
Venetian sequins, brass copies of, 

from Seistan, vii. 6 
Verica, silver coin of, from 

Challow, i. 10 
Veritas, type of denarius of Septi- 

mius Severus, x. 9 
Verulamium, bronze coins of, 

found at Sandy, ii. 2 
Vespasian, coin of Augustus coun- 

termarked with bust of, vi. 9 ; 

Paduan copy of coins of, ix. 19 
Victoria, pattern penny of 1865 of, 

iii. 6 
Victory, medal of copper from the, 

Nelson's ship, vi. 7 
Victory, type of coin of Terina, 

x. 16 
Villiers, bust of, on Free Trade 

Medal, 1846, vii. 13 
VO-COR I, legend on British coins, 

ii. 6 


Wakefield, John, of Burton-on- 
Trent, farthing of, iv. 18 

Wareham, Archbishop, half-groat 
and penny of, i. 11 

Werstan, moneyer, penny of Ead- 
gar I of, ii. 4 

William I, Irish copies of pennies 
of, ii. 2 ; iv. 7 ; Rochester penny 
of " canopy " type, iv. 9 ; 
"bonnet" type of, v. 17; for- 
geries of Lewes coins of, vii. 12 

William II, Rochester penny of, 
iv. 9 

William III and Mary, pattern 
copper farthing of, ii. 6 ; pattern 
pewter halfpenny of 1689 of, 
vii. 5 

Wilson, bust of, on Free Trade 
Medal, 1846, vii. 13 

Wolsey, Cardinal, York halfpenny 
of, vi. 5 

Wulfred of Canterbury, penny of, 
without moneyer's name, x. 18 

Wynstan, moneyer of Totnes of 
Edward the Elder, vi. 14 

Wyon, New Jersey cent by, i. 2 


York Mint, halfpenny of Cardinal 
Wolsey of, vi. 5 ; shilling of 
Charles I, mint-mark Us, of, vii. 
14 ; heavy penny of Henry VI 
of, viii. 7 



VOLUMES I X., 1901-1910. 


A and CO on coins of Alfred, iii. 
350, 354 ; on coins of Aethelred 
II, x. 254-257 

Abbas I, Shah of Persia, weights 
and legends of his coins, viii. 

Abbas II, Shah of Persia, weights, 
&c., of his coins, viii. 362-373 

Abbas III, Shah of Persia, weights, 
&c., of his coins, viii. 365 

Abbas Coolie Khan, career of, x. 

Abbasi Caliphs, unpublished coins 
of, ii. 269 ff. 

Abbeville, Anglo-Gallic mint of 
Edward I, v. 387 

Abd-al-Mumin, a Muwahhid, di- 
nars of, ii. 78 

Abdullah. See Khalifa 

Abern, Ingbram de, perhaps 
same as Engebram, a Thetford 
moneyer of Henry I, i. 428 

Aberystwith mint removed to 
Shrewsbury (temp. Charles I), 
v. 107 

Abetot, Urso d', i. 212, 215, 416- 
417, 472, 475-476 

Abingdon (temp. Henry I), i. 101, 
148, 177, 352 

Abonuteichos, stele from, v. 113 ; 
coins of, 116 

Abu Abd-allah Muhammad, a Mu- 
wayhid, ii. 80 

Abu Kalinja. See Imad-ad-din 

Abu Ya'akub, Yusuf I, a Muwah- 
hid, gold coins of, ii. 79 

Abu Yusuf, Ya'akub I, a Muwah- 
hid, ii. 80 

Abydos (Troas), tetradrachm of, ii. 

330 ; bronze coin of, v. 334 
Accius, the poet, seated, type on 

a contorniate, ix. 28 
Accolti, Francesco, supposed medal 

of, ix. 416 
Achaean cities, didrachm of early 

federation of, ii. 324 
Acharis (Pharaoh), throne-name 

of, on Athenian obol, viii. 201 
Acre, medal on capture of, vii. 267 
Actian era, date of, iv. 106 
Adam Khan invades Malwa, iii. 

Addedomaros, coins of, ii. 11 ; 

types of, 13, 14 ; finds of, 15-18 ; 

weight standard of, 18 
Adeliza of Louvain, wife of 

Henry I, i. 156, 194, 329-330 
Adolphus I, Archbishop of 

Cologne, denier of, in Colchester 

hoard, iii. 136 
ADVENTVS legend on coins of 

Carausius, vii. 33 
Advertising medal of the Eliza- 
bethan period, iv. 353 
Aegae (Achaia), silver coin of, iv. 

Aegium (Achaia), bronze coin of 

Antoninus Pius of, with reverse 

Zeus, ii. 323 
Aelfwald I of Northumbria, styca 

of, ii. 310 
Aeneas fleeing from Troy, type on 

a contorniate, ix. 39 ; on coin of 

Aeneia, ix. 39 
Aeneia, coin of, with type Aeneas 

fleeing from Troy, ix. 39 
Aenus (Thrace), silver coins of, ii. 

317 ; v. 329 



Aesculapius, type on French medal 
on cholera outbreak (1832), ix. 
408 ; x. 93 ; on medal of Inter- 
national Medical Congress (1881), 
x. 95 

Aeternitas, type on Roman coins, 
x. 178 

Aethelred I of Northumbria, styca 
of, ii. 311 

Aethelred II, laws of, concerning 
coinage, i. 277-279; coin- types of, 
x. 251-290, 370-387, number of 
distinct issues of, 253 ; " Hand " 
type of, 254-257; date of, 278, 
376-377, 385 ; " Crux " type of, 
257 ; date of, 280-281, 379, 386 ; 
" Quadrilateral " type, 257-258 ; 
date of, 284; "Long-Cross" type, 
259; date of, 289; "Small-Cross" 
type, 260-261, 378, 386 ; date of, 
289 ; " Agnus Dei " type of, 262, 
379, 386 ; date and meaning of, 
285, 289 ; finds of coins of, 267- 
269; 374-375; 383-384; mules of 
coins of, 270, 381; moneyers 
and mints of, 271-278 ; character 
of, 286 ; Hildebrand's type A of, 
382 ; relations with Dunstan, 
279-280, 379, 385 

Aethelwulf, King of Wessex, coins 
of, found at Croydon, vii. 342 

Afire, Archbishop of Paris, medal 
on death of (1848), x. 94 

African, South, War, medals of, 
vii. 232, 258, 268 

Agen, Anglo-Gallic Mint of Edward 
III, vi. 276 ; of Edward the Black 
Prince, viii. 102 ; coins of, 108ff. ; 
silver coins of, 130, 132, 148 

"Agnus Dei" type of Aethelred 
II, meaning and date of, x. 262, 
285-289, 379, 386 

Agrigentum, " Medallion " of, in 
Munich, ix. 358-364 

Agrippa, P. Lurius, coins of, iv. 233 

Agrippa, M. Vipsanius, bronze 
coins of, found in Southwood, 
iii. 99 

Ahmad Shah, Mughal Emperor, 
coins of, ii. 303 ; x. 328 

A horn language on Assamese coins, 
ix. 309-310, 313-315, 319-320 

Akbar, Mughal Emperor, coins of, 
ii. 285 ; conquers Malwa, iii. 
397 ; coins for Malwa, iv. 93 

Akbar II, Mughal Emperor, coins 
of, ii. 307 

Ala-ad-daulah, a Buwayhid chief, 
ix. 226-227 

Alam I. See Bahadur Shah 

Alam II, Mughal Emperor, E.I.C. 
coins in name of, x. 325 ; Bikanir 
coins of, 328 

Alamgir II, Mughal Emperor, 
coins of, ii. 303 ; Balapur coins 
of, x. 160 

Albert, Prince Consort, medal on 
visit to France of, vii. 248 

Albinus, Clodius, bronze medallion 
of, x. 97-100 ; occasion of strik- 
ing, 98 ; death of, 99 

Aldred, Archbishop of York, 
strikes coins, iv. 150 

Aldrovandi, Ulisse di Tesco, medals 
of, by T. E., ii. 59 

Alexander I, Bala, of Syria, and 
Cleopatra Thea, silver coin of, 
iv. 307 

Alexander II of Scotland, pennies 
of, in Colchester hoard, iii. 112, 

Alexander III of Scotland, pennies 
of, found at Lochmaben, v. 64, 81 

Alexander III of Macedon, silver 
coins of, attributed to Babylon, 
iv. 16, 18 ; Arrian on, v. 218 ff . ; 
coins of, probably struck in 
India, vi. 1-12 ; head of, type on 
contorniates, ix. 20-26; mounted, 
type on contorniates, 20, 22, 34,40 

Alexandria, Constantinian coins 
of, ii. 92-147; clay moulds for 
coins of, v. 342-353 ; era of, ix. 
274 ; Galba's coinage of, 274- 
284 ; a type on coins of 
Alexandria, 275 ff . ; blunders on 
coins of, 280; tetradrachms of 
Tiberius of, x. 333-339 ; double 
quinio of Diocletian struck at, 
100-103 ; coins of Julian II 
struck at, 250 

Alfonso V of Portugal, coins of, 
found in England, ii. 45 

Alfred the Great, coins of, found at 
Stamford, iii. 347 ; new type of 
halfpenny of, 354 ; cross and 
pall on coins of, ii. 202 ; 
moneyers of, 206 

Algod, Ralph Fitz, probably 

Allaria, tetradrachms ascribed to, 
to be given to Lacedaemon, ix. 

Allectus, coinage of, vi. 127 ff. ; 



mint-marks of, 133; mints of, 

134 ; types of, 138 ; coins of 

London, 142 ff. ; of Camulodu- 

num, 156 ff. ; uncertain mints 

of, 169 
Altar of Himera, on coins of 

Thermae, x. 226-227 
Amasia (Pontus), era of, ii. 7, 8 
Ambika Devi, an Ahom queen, 

coins of, ix. 304, 318 
American Colonies, Wood's coinage 

for, iii. 53-63 
Amisus, denarius of, found at 

Silchester, x. 417 
Ammanati, Cardinal, on Paul II's 

fondness for striking coins, &c., 

x. 353 
Amphitheatre, type on coins of 

Caesarea Germanica, iii. 330 
Amulets, Egyptian, found with 

mummies, x. 181-182 
Ancyra (Galatia), coin of Caracalla 

of, iii. 341-343 
Andragoras of Bactria, gold and 

silver coins of, v. 210 ff . ; history 

of, 217 
Andrea da Viterbo, a medallist of 

Paul II, x. 366-368 
Andrieu, Bernhard, medals by, vii. 

Andromeda, wife of Sextus, coin 

of, struck at Mytilene, ii. 334 
Andros, drachm of, ii. 328 
Angel, introduction of, ix. 151 ; 

its coinage by Tunstall, autho- 
rized, x. 119-120 
Angel nobles of Edward IV, ix. 

182-185 ; of Henry VI, x. 120 
Angels, " healing," x. 395 
Angelo (Paci dalP Aquila ?), 

possibly a medallist of Paul II, 

x. 368 
Angers, A. R., Governor of Quebec, 

medal of, vii. 225 
Aiigliiia, silver coin struck for 

Bombay, vi. 355 
Anglo-Gallic coins, Henry II to 

Edward I, v. 364-392 ; not issued 

by Edward II, vi. 267; of Edward 

III, 268, 281 ; gold coins of, 268 ; 

silver of, 294; of Henry, Duke 

of Lancaster, 320-322 ; of 

Edward the Black Prince, viii. 

102-163; of Eichard II, 163- 

168 ; of Henry IV, 169-177 
Anglo-Saxon charters, spurious, 

viii. 222 ft. 

Anglo-Saxon coins found at 

Croydon, vii. 339-342 
Aninetus (Lydia), bronze coin of, 

iii. 335 
Anna Catherina, daughter of 

Charles IV of Denmark, medal 

on death of, x. 71-72 
Anne of Denmark, medal of, by 

Charles Anthony, viii. 350, 352 
Annius, , coins of, iv. 228 
Annulet oil coins of Henry I, i. 

28, 156, 158, 364, 376, 378, 467, 

481-486, 491 
Annulet coinage of Henry VI, ii. 

227 ; iii. 291, 302 
Annulet noble of Henry V, iii. 293 
Antalcidas, Peace of, ix. 352 
Anthony, Charles, chief engraver 

at the Mint, viii. 343 ; medals of 

Anne of Denmark and Henry 

of Wales attributed to, 350- 

352 ; bezant of James I by, 354 
Anthony, Derick, chief engraver 

at the Mint, viii. 346 
Antigoneia, coin of Antigonus I, 

probably struck at, ix. 265 
Antigonus I, coins of, ix. 264-273 ; 

gold stater of, 268-269 ; death of, 

Antimachus Theos of Bactria, coin 

of, found in Baluchistan, iv. 320 
Antinous, coin of the Arcadians of, 

found at Godmanchester, viii. 

374 ; bust of, as Pan, type on 

a contorniate, ix. 48 
Antioch (Syria), numeral letters on 

Imperial coins of, iii. 107, 109 ; 

pseudo-autonomous coins of, iv. 

105 ; archieratic coins of, 108 ; 

coins commemorating Hadrian's 

visit to, 128 ; Imperial coins of, 

vi. 337 ; coins of Julian II of, x. 

250 ; aureus of Gratian of, on ele- 
vation of Valentinian II, x. 109 
Antiochia ad Eiiphratem, numeral 

letters on imperial coins of, iii. 

Antiochia (Pisidia), bronze coin of, 

iii. 339 
Antiochia ad Sarum, bronze coin 

of, iv. 165 
Antiochus I, Soter, coins of, found 

in Baluchistan, iv. 317 ; Graeco- 

Bactrian copies of, vi. 14 
Antiochus II, Theos, coins of, 

found in Baluchistan, iv. 318 
Antiochus III, the Great, attacks 



Parthia, v. 229; coins of, and 
imitations found in Baluchistan, 
iv. 318-319 

Antiochus VII of Syria, attacks the 
Parthians, vii. 135 

Antistia gens, aureus of, with 
reverse sacrificial scene, viii. 85 

Antonia Tryphaenia of Pontus, 
coins of, ii. 4, 5 ; regnal year of, 
5 ; daughter of, 6 ; era of, 7 ; suc- 
cession to throne of Pontus, ib. 

Antoninus Pius, coin of Aegium of, 
with reverse boy Zeus, ii. 393 ; 
aureus of, with Liberalitas, 
349 ; bronze coins of, struck at 
Cos and Miletus, iv. 304 ; medal- 
lion of, vi. 94 ; bronze coins of, 
found at Croydon, vii. 369 ; aurei 
with figure of Jupiter, viii. 88 ; 
with " Primi Decennales," 89 ; 
sestertius of, with Britannia, 
194 ; head of, on contorniate, 
ix. 49 ; coins of, found at Castle 
Bromwich, x.>14, 29-32, 38-39 ; 
at Nottingham, 206 

Antony, Mark, coins of, found in 
Scotland, v. 11 ; at Castle 
Bromwich, x. 14, 16, 37 ; bronze 
coins of, struck in the East, iv. 
192-197, 205 ; date of consulship 
and Imperatorship of, 200 ; and 
Cleopatra, bronze coins of, struck 
in the East, 196, 197, 205 ; and 
Octavia, bronze coins of, struck 
in the East, 192-196, 205 

Anwar-ad-din Khan, Nawab of the 
Carnatic, x. 148 

Aphrodite of Paphos, temple of, 
on coins of Pergamon,x. 207-208 

Aphytis (Macedonia), bronze coin 
of, ii. 314 

Apis, not the bull on coins of 
Julian II, x. 244-245 

Aplustre on coins of Corinth, ix. 

of Heraclius, x. 111-115 

Apollo, head of, on coins of Scione 
(?), v. 328 ; Hyakinthos on coins 
of Tarentum, vii. 277 ; type on 
contorniate, ix. 47 ; and Mar- 
syas on contorniate, 38 ; of 
Amyclae, statue of, on coin of 
Areus, ix. 3 ; on coin of Nabis, 
4 ; and Artemis on coins of Seli- 
nus, x. 44 

Apollonia (Mysia), coins of,vi.29fL 

Apollonia Pontica (Thrace), bronze 
coins of, ii. 318; silver of v. 

Apollonia ad Ehyndacum, bronze 
coins of Nerva, Faustina I, and 
Commodus, vii. 440 

Apollonius of Tyana, bust of, on 
contorniate, ix. 26 

Apollonos-Hieron (Lydia), bronze 
coins of, ii. 335-336 

Aquileia, Roman mint, coins of, 
found at Groveley Wood, vi. 336 ; 
at Icklingham, viii. 218, 220 ; 
coins of Julian II of, x. 250 

Aquitaine, coins of Henry II of, 
v. 365-366; of Eichard I of, 
368; of Eleanor, 369-379; of 
Edward I, 386, 392 

Aramaic legends on Athenian 
tetradrachm, iv. 10; on coins 
of Mazaios, ii. 82 

Arbela, battle of, iv. 1 

Arcadians, coin of Antinous of the, 
found at Godmanchester, viii. 374 

Arcadius, coins of, found at 
Groveley Wood, vi. 330 ; at Ick- 
lingham, 218 

" Archer " type of Candragupta I, 
coins of, found in Mirzapur, x. 
399, 400-402 ; of Kuniaragupta I, 

Arelatum, Roman coins of, vi. 335, 
viii. 218, 228; of Julian II, 
x. 250 

Arensberg, denier of, in Colchester 
hoard, iii. 136 

Areus of Lacedaemon, ix. 3 

Argyle, Duke of, medal on execu- 
tion of, ix. 400 

Ariaspes, son of Artaxerxes II, 
death of, iii. 2 

Aristoxenos, signature of, on coins 
of Tarentum, vii. 286 

Arkat, E.I.C. coins of, iii. 73, 75, 
78, 95 ; x. 325 

Aries. See Arelatum 

Armada badge, attributed to 
Nicholas Milliard, viii. 338 ; de- 
sign of, compared with Irish 
Great Seal, 347 ; Armada Jewel 
in collection of Mr. J. Pierpont 
Morgan, 336, 340 

Armenian and Parthian coins, vi. 
221 ; provenance of, 222 ; origin 
of types, vi. 224; vii. 132; of 
Tigranes I, ii. 193 

Armour on coins of Henry I, i. 89 



Arnost, Bishop of Kochester, 
coins struck by, iv. 163 

Arsakes, King of Parthia, history 
of, v. 226 ft. 

Artabazes, Satrap of Phrygia, re- 
volts, iii. 4 ; allied with Athe- 
nians, 5 ; invades Mysia, 22 

Artaxerxes II, history of, iii. 1-3 

Artaxerxes III, history and coin- 
age of, iii. 1 ff. ; invades Egypt, 4 ; 
Phoenicia, 13-15; attacks Sidon, 
16 ; invades Egypt, 18-21 ; 
coinage of, 25 ff ; destroys Sidon, 
ix. 123 

As, type of, struck in the East, iv. 
211-212; reissue of, at Rome, 
240; its metal, 241; its type, 

Assam, coins of Ahom kings of, 
ix. 300-331 ; languages and 
characters used on, 309-310 ; 
eras used on, 310-311 ; transla- 
tion of legends on, 330-331; 
shape of, 300, 307; denomina- 
tions of, 311 

Assmann, Dr. E., his theory of 
the etymology of Moneta, x. 

Atarneus (Macedonia), drachm of, 
v. 336 

Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, 
x. 248-249 

Athens, tetradrachm of, with figure 
of Harrnodius, ii. 323 ; bronze 
coins of, iii. 322-329; tetra- 
drachms with Aramaic legends, 
iv. 10 ; early bronze coins of, v. 
1 ; Graeco-Indian imitations of 
coins of, vi. 6, 10-12 ; coins of, 
current in Egypt, viii. 202, 205 ; 
with Egyptian hieroglyphs, 
197 ; with name of Hippias, 278 

Athos, Mount, darics found at, iii. 

ATLE, supposed mint, due to mis- 
reading of a Canterbury coin, 
i. 503 

Atratinus, L. Sempronius, bronze 
coins of, iv. 192-196, 202 

Attalea (Lydia), bronze coin of 
Caracalla of, iii. 336 

Attalia (Pamphylia), bronze coin 
of Valerian I, iii. 339 

Attalos I, coins and portrait of. 

Atys and Cybele, type on con- 
torniates, ix. 40, 44, 50 

Aubenheimer, R. L., medal by, vii. 

Augusta Trevirorum. See Treves 

" Augustale " of Frederick II, de- 
sign of, used for seal, iv. 180 

Augustus, bronze coins of, struck 
in the East, iv. 198 ; in Spain, 
210; in Gaul, 221; at Rome, 
225, see also Octavius ; geneth- 
liac sign of, ii. 3 ; head of, type 
on a contorniate, ix. 29 

Aungier's new coinage for Bombay, 
vi. 353 

Aurangzlb, Mughal Emperor,coins 
of, ii. 294 

Aurelianus, bronze coin of, struck 
at Cremna, ii. 340 

Aurelius, Marcus, aureus of, with 
reverse Minerva, ii. 350 ; bronze 
coin of, struck at Tabae, iv. 304 ; 
medallion of, vi. 97 ; and L. 
Verus medallion of, 99 ; coins of, 
found in Scotland, v. 12; at 
Croydon, vii. 371 ; at Castle 
Bromwich, x. 14, 33-36, 38-40 

Aurifabri or cuneators, temp. Henry 
I, i. 25, 26, 38, 44, 46-47, 74-86 

. Otto family, i. 25, 26, 27, 

38-41, 44, 46-47, 71, 74, 87, 97, 
99, 155, 160, 275, 389, 410 

Leostan, i. 78-87, 275 

! Wyzo Fitz Leof- 

stan, i. 275 

Richard, i. 127 

i Ewart, i. 280 

Auxilium, i. 160, 164-165 

connected with mints, 

i. 165, 171 

j Awbridge, coins of Stephen and 
Henry I found at, v. 354 

Azad-ad-daulah, Buwayhid, ix. 
221-223; coins of, 228-229, 235 


Baal, type on satrapal coins, iv. 

6,10,22; identified with Zeus, 

ix. 124 
" Baaltars " on coin of Tarsus, a 

place-name, iii. 42 
i Babar, Mughal Emperor, coins of, 

ii. 283 
j Babba (Mauretania), coin of 

Claudius I of, ix. 13 
1 Babelon, E., his classification of 
i satrapal coins criticized , iii. 30 ff . 



Babylon, mint of, coins attributed 

to, iv. 1-38 ; vi. 17-25 
Babylonian standard and Roman 

metrology, x. 210, 211 
Bacallaos, region of, on Drake 

medal, vi. 80 
Bacchus, type on contorniates, ix. 

21, 43, 45 

Bactrian coins found in Baluchis- 
tan, iv. 319 ; barbarous imita- 
tions of, 321 ; copied by Par- 

thians, vii. 128 
Bagdad, unpublished coins of 

caliphs of, ii. 267-273 
Bagno, Cesare da, his medal of 

Cosimo I of Florence, x. 412-413 
Bagoas commands Greeks in Egypt, 

iii. 19 ; Satrap of Upper Asia, 21 ; 

poisons Artaxerxes, 24 ; coins 

attributed to, 32 
Baha-ad-daulah, a Buwayhid 

prince, ix. 224-227 
Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, coins 

of, struck for Malwa, iii. 314 ; 

iv. 93 ; conquers Malwa, iii. 

388-330 ; his title on coins, iv. 

Bahadur Shah (Alain I), coins of, 

ii. 297 

Bahadur Shah II, coins of, ii. 308 
Bainville, J., medal by, vii. 220 
Bakhtiar. See Izz-ad-daulah 
Balacros, Satrap of Cilicia, ii. 83 
Balanzano, Pietro, medal of, x. 59 
Balapur, coinage of, x. 158-162 ; 

gold f anams of, 160 ; copper coins 

of, 161-162 
Balbinus, aureus of, with reverse 

Victory, ii. 355 ; viii. 95 
Baldred, King of Kent, penny of, 

vi. 90 

Baldwin, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, receives a grant of coinage 

from King John, x. 310-311 ; 

death of, 311-312 
Baldwin Fitzgilbert, strikes coins 

at Exeter, iv. 154 
Baluchistan, ancient coins found 

in, iv. 311 ; classes of, 313-316 
Bambyce (Cyrrhestica), bronze 

coin of, iii. 344 

Bandel, J. E. von, medal by, vii. 220 
Barbo, Pier. See Paul II 
Baristughan, a Buwayhid, assumes 

title of Shahanshah, v. 395 
Barneveldt, Jan van Olden, medal 

on execution of, x. 69 

Barn staple, types and moneyers of 

William 1 and II of, iv. 256 ; 

history and coinage of, under 

Henry I, i. 102-107 

Bartholomew, Massacre of Saint, 

medal on, x. 64-65 
Basel, " Moralische Pfennige " of, 

ix. 375, 392-393 ; x. 76-78 
Basil I, Byzantine Emperor, coin 
of, found with coins of Aethel- 
red II, x. 269 

Baskerville, Thomas, his testimony 

to the striking of coins of 

Charles I with the monogram 

Bx at Oxford, x. 203 

Basset, Ealph, King's justiciary, 

temp. Henry I, i. 342, 430, 450 
Basset, Eichard, Sheriff of Peter- 
borough, i. 361, 422, 428 
Bassus, P. Betilienus, coins of, 

iv. 234 

Bath Mint, moneyers and types of, 
under William I and II, iv. 
256 ; history and coinage of, 
under Henry I, i. 107-113 
Bath metal used for American 
colonial>coinage, composition of, 
iii. 53, 54 
" Battle-axe," type of Samudra- 

gupta, x. 399-400 
Bayley, Richard, his monogram on 
coins of Charles I, of Oxford, 
x. 203-205 
Bayonne, Anglo-Gallic coinage of 

Edward III at, vi. 280 
Baz Bahadur, his rule in Malwa, 
iii. 396-398 ; coins of, iv. 93, 100 ; 
titles of, 97 
Beachy Head, Roman coins found 

near, ii. 184 
Beagmuiid, moneyer of Ecgbeorht, 

viii. 245, 247 
Beaworth, coins of William I and 

II found at, iv. 145 
Beaworth and Colchester finds 

compared, iii. Ill 
Beck, Bishop of Durham, mint- 
mark of, v. 68, 72, 76 
Becket, Gilbert a, i. 282, 298 
Bedford, types and moneyers of 
William I and II of, iv. 256 ; 
history and coinage of, under 
Henry I, i. 113-117 
Bedford, ring supposed to have 
belonged to John Bunyan found 
at, x. 185 
Bedwin, mint of Edward the 



Confessor and of William I, ii. 

10, 22, 24, 25 ; of Henry I, 407 
Bee-charms (?), Ephesian, viii. 284 
Beham, Barthel, engraving by, x. 

Beham, Hans Sebald, medallist, 

his signature, iv. 57 
Behnesa, Roman coin-moulds 

found at, v. 342-353 ; lead 

Roman tokens found at, viii. 

Belesys, Satrap of Syria, attacks 

Phoenicia, iii. 14 ; coins attri- 
buted to, 40 
Belgium, medal on restoration of 

peace to, vii. 261 

Belgium, Peace conference relat- 
ing to (1831), medal on, vii. 237 
Bellano, Bartolommeo, probably 

not a medallist of Paul II, x. 

361-364; medal of Roselli by, 

Bellerophon, type on a contorni- 

ate, ix. 33 
Bemme, J. A., medals by, vii. 221- 

Benares, E.I.C. mint at, iii. 75, 76, 

78 ; coins of, 87 
Benavides, Marco Mantova, medals 

of, ix. 224-295 
Bengal, E.I.C. mint of, iii. 72-75 ; 

coins of, 90 
Beornehart, Wessex moneyer of 

Ecgbeorht, viii. 253 
Bergamo, Martino da, medal of 

Benavides by, ix. 295 
Bergerac, Anglo-Gallic mint of 

Edward III, vi. 280 ; of Henry 

Duke of Lancaster, 320 
Bermondsey, coins of William I 

and II found at, iv. 154-155 
Bernard, Duke of Saxony, coin of, 

found with coins of Aethelred 

11, x. 269, 375, 383 
Bernardus de Parma, seal of, iv. 

Beroea (Cyrrhestica), numeral 

letters on coins of, iii. 106 
Berry, Jean, Due de, possessed 

medal of Heraclius, x. 110-114 
Bertrand, A., medals issued by, vii. 

Berwick pennies of the Edwards 

found at Lochmaben, v. 75 
Bes, a Phoenician god, ix. 129 
Bethune, Robert de, sterlings of, 

found in Hampshire, viii. 314 

Bezant of James I, by Charles 
Anthony, viii. 351 

Bharatha Sirhha, an Ahom king, 
coin of, ix. 307, 326, 327 

Bhrajanatha Sirhha, an Ahom 
king, coins of, ix. 308, 328-329 

Bibulus, L. Calpurnius, bronze 
coins of, iv. 192, 196; history 
of, 203 

Bigod Roger, i. 163, 228, 326-327 

William, i. 229, 233-235 

Hugh, i. 233-237 

Bilbao, medals on battle of, vii. 

Binio of Constantine I with view 
of Treves, x. 103-106 

BISES, supposed mint of Henry I, 
probably Bristol, i. 49, 117-118, 

Blackfriars Bridge, coins placed in 
foundation-stone of, iv. 182 

Blackmoor hoard, coins of Carau- 
sius, &c., in, vii. 35 

Blakeney, Admiral, medal of, x. 90 

Blandus, C. Rubellius, coins of, iv. 

Blaundus, coins of, iv. 102 

Bloccenus, Levinus, medal of, iv. 

Blondeau, Peter, invited to Eng- 
land, ix. 85 ; made machinery 
only, 88 ; invented new method 
of inscribing edge, 88-89 ; coin- 
age of Blondeau and Ramage, 

Boar, obverse type of silver coins 
of the Brigantes, viii. 44 

Boehm, Sir J. E., medals by, vii. 

Boileau, F., medal by, vii. 223 

Boldu, Giovanni, memento mori 
medals by, x. 49-51, 196, 198 

Bologna, engraved dies first used 
in, ix. 58 

Bombay, first English coinage of, 
vi. 351-355 

Bordeaux, Anglo-Gallic mint of 
Edward I, v. 388-390; of 
Edward III, vi. 272-276; of 
Edward the Black Prince, viii. 
102, 108 ; gold coins of, 116, 
117, 121, 124, 127 ; silver, 131, 
134, 142, 150; biUon, 160; of 
Richard II, 164-167 ; of Henry 
IV, 170 

Borrel, Val. Maurice, medals by, 
vii. 223, 224 



Borza, Wessex moneyer of 
Egbeorht, viii. 253 

Bosset, C. P. de, Governor of 
Cephalonia, medal of, vii. 228 

Bottee,L. A., medals by, vii. 224-226 

Bouvet, L. C., medal by, vii. 226, 227 

Bovy, J. F. A., medal by, vii. 227 

Bowcher, F., his design for Hong 
Kong plague medal, x. 96 

Boxmoor, coin of Hadrian found 
at, ii. 88 

Bramente, the inventor of the 
screw-press, ix. 60 

Brandon, Alicia, wife of Nicholas 
Hilliard, miniature of, viii. 354 

Brandt,H. F. , medal by, vii. 227-228 

Brantygham, Thomas de, receiver 
of the Calais Mint, ii. 225 

Brearcliffe (Briercliffe), John, 
halfpenny token of, x. 81-82 

Breitenbach, Georg von, medal of, 
iv. 54 

Breton naval reward medal, ii. 311 

Briconnet, R., medal of, ix. 410 

Bridgnorth, English coins (Mary- 
Charles I) found at, viii. 319 

Bridport, moneyers and types of, 
under William I and II, iv. 256 ; 
of Henry I, i. 407 

Brigantes, gold and silver coins of, 
found at South Ferriby, viii. 17- 
55 ; types of gold, 19 ; of silver, 
44; analysis of weights of gold, 
51 ; of silver, 54 ; unique gold 
stater of, ix. 7-9 

Brigetio, Roman gold coins found 
at, x. ICO,' 102 

Briot (Briett orBryott), Nicholas, 
and his coinage in England, ix. 
82 ; in Scotland, 82-83 ; money 
by, not mentioned in Pyx re- 
cords, x. 394 ; one of the gravers 
to the Mint, 395; annuity to, 
397 ; death of, 397 

Bristol Mint, moneyers and types 
of William I and II of, iv. 257 ; 
history and coinage of, under 
Henry I, i. 199-201 ; of Henry 
II, ii. 228 ff. ; coins of Edward 
I-III of, found at Lochmaben, 
v. 67-71 ; re-established in 1465 
by Edward IV, ix. 152 ; coins 
struck at, by Edward IV, 138, 
170-171, 181-182, 213-214; by 
Henry VI (restored), x. 127-130 ; 
gold coins of, 128; silver (groats 
only known), 129-130; mint- 

marks of, 129 ; legends of, 129 ; 
local origin of dies discussed, 
129-130; coins described, 141- 
143; coins of Charles I with 
monogram B\ to be transferred 
from Bristol to Oxford, 203-205 ; 
tokens of Bristol of sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, ii. 
385 ; recoinage of 1696-1697 at, 
vii. 358 

Bristowe prize medal, ix. 407 ; x. 

Britannia on coins of Antoninus 
Pius found in Britain, vii. 317, 
359, 362 ; viii. 351 ; their striking 
in Britain suggested, vii. 359- 
362 ; doubted, x. 414 

British, ancient, coins, found in 
France, vii. 381 ; at South Fer- 
riby, viii. 17-55 ; ix. 7-9 ; forgery 
of, ix. 403 

British Museum, Greek coins ac- 
quired by the, in 1901, ii. 313- 
344 ; in 1903, iv. 289-310 ; select 
Greek coins in, v. 324-341 

Brooklands, Roman coins found 
at, viii. 208 

Brown, Commodore, medals of 
Admiral Vernon and, ix. 428-429 

Browning, Robert, medal of, vii. 

Brucher (Brulier), Aiitoine, not 
the inventor of the laminoir, 
ix. 71-72 

Brunswick, Franz, Duke of, medal 
of, iv. 53 

Bucer, Martin, medal of, iv. 49 

Buckinghamshire, unpublished 
tokens of, ii. 378 

Bull, type on Roman coins, dis- 
cussed, x. 244, 245 ; on coins of 
Julian II not Apis, 245 

Bunyan, John, ring said to have 
belonged to, found at Bedford, 
x. 185 

Burgh, Nicholas, graver at the 
Mint in 1641, x. 396 ; probably 
same as Nicholas Burghers (q.v.) 

Burghers, Nicholas, prepared a 
medal at Oxford in 1648, x. 396 

Burning of bonds by Hadrian com- 
memorated on coins, &c., ii. 88 

Bury St. Edmunds, history and 
coinage of Henry I at, i. 385-392 ; 
pennies of Edward I-III of, 
found at Lochmaben, v. 75 

Buwayhid dynasty, coins of, iii. 



177 ft . ; ix. 220-240 ; assumption 
of title Shahanshah by, v. 393 

Byblos, coin of Mazaios attributed 
to, iii. 45 

Byng, Admiral, medals of, on loss 
of Minorca, ix. 368, 400 ; x. 90 

Byzantine coins found on the 
premises of the Carpenters' 
Company, iii. 103 

Byzantium, alliance of, with 
Erythrae, ix. 12 ; 'counter- 
marked coin of, ibid. 


C. A. (Commune Asiae) on Roman 
bronze coins, 45-3 B.C., iv. 198; 
explained, 208 

Caesar, Julius, denarius referring 
to assassination of, x. 46-47, 60 

Caesarea Germanice, bronze coin 
of Hadrian of vii. 441 ; bronze 
coin of Julia Domna of, iii. 330 

Caesarea Mazaca, forgeries of 
Greek coins from, x. 411-412 

Caesarian years on coins of Antioch, 
vi. 243 

Caistor (Norfolk), Roman coins 
found at, ii. 186 

Cakradhvaja Simha, an Ahom king, 
coins of, ix. 301, 309, 314 

Calais Mint, nobles and half-nobles 
of Richard II of the, iv. 333, 
344-346; coins of Henry V of, 
vi. 188, 215-218; accounts of, 
during reigns of Henry V and VI, 
ii. 225 ff.; iii. 287 ; gold coins of, 
29G; quarter-noble of, ii. 300; 
last issue of gold coins of, ii. 
257 ; iii. 304 ; Edward IV and 
the, ix. 176 

Calculi or contorniates, vi. 243 

Calcutta, E.I.C. mint of, iii. 73, 
75, 79 

Calverd, Felix, token of, ix. 248 

Camarina, tetradrachm of, x. 232 

Cambridge, moneyers and types of, 
under William I and II, iv. 257 

Camillus, vow of, x. 9 

Campanian coin with head of 
Juno, x. 6 

Camulodunum, coins of Allectus 
struck at, vi. 134, 156; of 
Carausius, iv. 142; vii. 46, 58, 
186-218 ; of Carausius with name 
of Diocletian, 417; of Maximian, 

420; of Carausius, Diocletian, 
and Maximian, 414 

Canadian Exhibition of Agricul- 
ture, Quebec, medal of, vii. 226 

Candragupta II, coins of, found in 
Mirzapur, x. 399, 400-406 

Candrakanta Simha, an Ahom 
king, coins of, ix. 308, 328 

Canning, George, medal of, vii. 268 

" Canopy " type of William I ex- 
plained, iv. 155 

Canterbury Mint, of Ecgbeorht, 
vii. 241 ; moneyers and types of, 
under William I and II, iv. 
257; of Henry I, i. 128-139; 
short-cross pennies of, in the 
Colchester hoard, iii. 112, 119, 
139, 157, 162 ; short-cross pennies 
of second period of, wrongly 
attributed to Chichester, x. 304, 
312 ; Archbishop Baldwin and, 
309, 310 ; pennies of Edward I- 
III of, found at Lochmaben, v. 
68, 70, 72, 75, 77 ; revived in 1465, 
ix. 156 ; coins of Edward IV of 
Royal Mint of, 160-163, 177, 
191, 197, 206-210; of archi- 
episcopal mint of, 163-164, 177, 
178, 197, 211 

Capella, C. Naevius, coins of, iv. 

Capito, C. Fonteius, bronze coin 
of, iv. 195, 204 

Car, winged, a coin-type, ix. 127 

Caracalla, bronze coin of Attalia 
of, iii. 336 ; of Ancyra, 341, 343 ; 
aureus of, with reverse Liberty, 
viii. 94 ; with reverse Victory, 
95 ; bust of, type on a contorni- 
ate, ix. 51 ; Caracalla and Julia 
Domna, aureus of, ii. 351 

Carausius, aurei of, with reverse 
Pax, ii. 359 360; denarius of, 
with reverse head of Sol, 361 ; 
new type of coin of, iv. 36 ; un- 
published coins of, v. 18 ; vi. 328 ; 
coinage of, vii. 1, 156, 291, 373 ; 
history of, 1 ; finds of coins of, 31, 
35, 37 ; mint-marks on coins of, 
52 ; coins of London, 158 -185 ; of 
Colchester (Camulodunum), 186- 
218 ; with R S R, 303i; of Roto- 
magus, 316 ; uncertain mint of, 
331, 373; (British) coins with 
name and bust of Diocletian, 
415, 417 ; with name and bust 
of Maximian, 419, 420 



Carausius, name of a later ruler, 
vii. 39 

legend on coins of Carausius, 
vii. 34, 81 

Caria, coins of, iii. 399 

Carinus, aurei of, with figures of 
Carinus and Numerian, viii. 96 ; 
medallion of, vi. 118 

Carisius, P., bronze coins of, struck 
at Emerita, iv. 216 ; history of, 

Carisius, Titus, denarius of, with 
head of Juno and legend 
MONETA, x. 6, 7 

Carlisle, history and coinage of 
Henry I at, i. 139-143 ; silver 
coins of, 140-141 ; sterling of 
Henry, Earl of Northumberland, 
struck at, ii. 26 ; short-cross 
pennies of, in the Colchester 
hoard, iii. 112, 122, 142, 163 

Carlists, defeat of, at St. Sebastian, 
medal on, vii. 264 

Carlyle, Thomas, medal of, vii. 223 

Carnatic, copper coins of Muham- 
mad Ali of the, x. 146-157 

Carolina, name of a gold coin of 
Bombay, vi. 355 

Cartagena, medals on capture of, 
in 1741, ix. 428-429 

Carthage, Punic coins of, circula- 
tion of, in Italy and Sicily, x. 1 ; 
Roman coins struck at, found at 
Weybridge, viii. 215 

Carus, medallion of, vi. 118 

Cast Roman coins, method of 
making, v. 342 

Castle Bromwich, Roman denarii 
found at, x. 13-40 

Catholic Poor School Committee, 
medal of, vii. 263 

Catullus, L. Valerius, coin of, iv. 

Caunois, F. A., medal by, vii. 228 

Cavino, medal of Benavides by, 
ix. 295 

Celer, C. Cassius, C. F., coins of, 
iv. 230 

Cellini, Benvenuto, coinages by, 
ix. 62-67 ; his Trattato, 64 ; in 
France, 66-67 

Censorinus, L. Marcus L. F., coins 
of, iv. 225 

Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, coins of, found at Croydon, 
vii. 341 

Cera'itae (Pisidia), bronze coin of, 

ii. 339; and Cremna, bronze 

coin of, 339-340 
Cesare da Bagno, his medal of 

Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, 

x. 412 
Cestianus, T. Plaetorius, denarius 

of, with legend MONETA and 

head of Juno, x. 6, 7 
Oestrus (Cilicia), bronze coin of, 

v. 341 
Chaise, or 6cu, Anglo-Gallic coin 

of Edward III, vi. 270, 272; 

classification of, 282 
Chalcis (Chalcidice), numeral 

letters on imperial coins of, iii. 

Chancton and Colchester finds 

compared, iii. Ill 
Chanda Sahib. See Husain Dost 

Chaplean, J. A., Lieut. -Governor 

of Quebec, medal of, vii. 225 
Charioteer, obverse type on 

contorniate, ix. 52-53 
Charles the Bold, half-denier of, 

found at Stamford, iii. 350-354 ; 

coins of, found in England, vi. 44 
Charles I, coins of, found at 

Oswestry, v. 104, 105 ; at 

Bridgnorth, viii. 321 ; at 

Constable Burton, ix. 288-289 ; 

at Winterslow, x. 205 ; medalet 

of, copied by Wood for Irish half- 
penny of 1724, iii. 62; unique 

half-crown of Exeter of, 193 ; 

silver plaque of, as prince, viii. 

266-271 ; memorial medal of, x. 

75, 76 ; memorial rings of, 184, 

Charles II, reverse of a touch-piece 

by Thomas Simon for, ix. 297- 

299 ; memorial medal on death 

of, x. 84-85 
Charles IX of France, medal of, 

on Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 

x. 65 

Charon receiving soul from Mer- 
cury on intaglio, x. 164; obolusof 

Charon, ix. 396; x. 182, 183, 202 ; 

its survival, x. 183 
Charun, the Etruscan Charon, x. 

174, 175 

Cheke, Sir John, medal of, ix. 293 
Cheselden, William, the surgeon, 

memorial medal of, ix. 401 ; x. 




Chester, coins of Leicester of 
William I and II, wrongly 
attributed to, x. 294 ; moneyers 
and types of William I and II, 
at, iv. 259 ; history and coinage 
of, under Henry I, i. 143-151 ; 
recoinage of 1696-1697 at, vi. 358 

Chevalier, A., a Paris engraver, 
medal of Samuel Plimsoll by, 
vii. 229 ; x. 94 

Chichele, Henry, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, sepulchre of, x. 72, 

Chichester Mint, moneyers and 
types of William I and II of, iv. 
259 ; history and coinage of, 
under Henry I, i. 151-158; 
short-cross pennies of, in the 
Colchester hoard, iii. 112, 142, 
163 ; no coins of class II, of 
short-cross period of, x. 300- 
305 ; writs of reign of John 
referring to, 318-319; date of 
reopening, 319-323 

Chosroes I, inscription on seal of, 
x. 190 

Christ in glory on medal of Paul 
II, x. 344-345, 347 

Christy, Miller, his account of 
Drake's silver map medal, vi. 77 

Cilbiani Nicaei (Lydia), copper 
coin of, ii. 336 ; copper coin of 
Geta of, 337 

Cilda, moneyer of Bedwin and 
Marlborough, ii. 21-25 

Cilicia, satrapal coins of, attributed 
to Mazaios, ii. 81 ; iv. 5 

Circus Maximus, type 011 contor- 
niate, ix. 22-24, 30,i34, 42, 47 

Cisthene (Mysia), satrapal coins 
of, iii. 11 

Cistophori of Ephesus and Per- 
gamon, ii. 330 ; of Pergamon, 

^ date of, x. 207 

Claudius I, bronze coins of, found 
in Southwark, iii. 100 ; at Croy- 
don, vii. 366 ; countermarked 
coins of, ix. 10-18 ; coins of 
Lycia of, iii. 400 

Claudius II, medallion of, vi. 116 

Clausentum, mint of (?), of Allec- 
tus, vi. 134 ; of Carausius, iv. 
142 ; vii. 46 

Clay Coton, groats of Edward IV 
found at, ix. 155 

Clazomenae (Ionia), drachm of, v. 

Clement XIII, medal of Pope, 

found under Blackfriars Bridge, 

iv. 181, 182 

Clement XIV, medal of, iv. 183 
Cleopatra and Antony, bronze 

coins of, struck in the East, iv. 

Cleopatra Thea and Bala of 

Syria, silver coins of, iv. 307 
i Clovius, C., coins of, iv. 224, 235, 

Clowes, William, surgeon, record 

of delivery of bronze touch- 
pieces to, in 1635-6, x. 395 
i Cnut repeats a type of Aethelred 

II, x. 377 
I Cockleshell, symbol on coins of 

Corinth, ix. 343-344 
Coenwulf of Mercia, coin of, found 

at Croydon, vii. 340 
Colchester find of short-cross 

pennies, iii. Ill 
Colchester Mint, moneyers and 

types of William I and II of, 

iv. 260 ; history and coinage of 

Henry I of, i. 159-167 
Colchester, mint of Carausius. See 

Collar, segmental, introduced to 

strike inscription on edge of 

coins, ix. 70-71 
Cologne, deniers of, in Colchester 

hoard, iii. 136-137 
Colophon (Ionia), coins of, iii. 10 ; 

iv. 302 

Colvart, Felix, token of, ix. 247 
j Comana, era of, iv. 101 
Combe, Taylor, medallion of, vii. 

Comets, appearance of, recorded 

on coins of William I, iv. 165 ; 

of William II, 253 
Commagene, numeral letters on 

coins of, iii. 106 
Commodus, medallion of, vii. 102 ; 

bronze coins of Apollonia ad 

Rhyndacum of, vii. 440 ; of 

Poemanenum, 441 ; of Germe, 

ii. 337 ; denarii of, found at 

Castle Bromwich, x. 14, 37 
Consistory, public, medals of Paul 

II referring to, x. 344, 345, 348, 

352, 358, 359 
Constable Burton, English coins 

found at, ix. 285-291 
Constans I, coins of Heraclea of, 

v. 174, 176; of Alexandria, ii. 



141 ; of Nicomedia, iii. 279 ; ] 
medallion of, vi. 123 ; bust of, on j 
contorniate, ix. 54 

Constans II, coins of, found at . 
Croydon, v. 37, 53 

Constantino I (the Great), coins j 
of Alexandria of, ii. 100 ff. ; I 
of Nicomedia, iii. 218 ff. ; of | 
Heraclea, v. 135 ff. ; medallion 
of, vi. 121 ; double aureus of, 
of Treves, x. 103-106; date of 
its issue, 106 ; mediaeval medal 
of, 115, 116 ; Arabic numerals 
on, 115, 116 ; probably made in 
Flanders, 116 

Constantine II, coins of Alexan- 
dria of, ii. 134 ff. ; of Nicomedia, 
iii. 244 ff . ; of Heraclea, vi. 53 ff . ; 
medallion of, 122 

" Constantinopolis " coins of Con- 
stantine I of Alexandria, iii. 
142 ff. ; of Nicomedia, 279, 280 

Constantius I, Chlorus, coins of 
Alexandria of, ii. 98 ff . ; of Nico- 
media, iii. 213 ff. ; of Heraclea, 
v. 124; medallion of, vi. 120; 
bust of, on contorniate, ix. 54 

Constantius II, coins of Alexandria 
of, ii. 134 ff. ; of Nicomedia, iii. 
259, 262 ff. ; of Heraclea, v. 166 ; 
medallions of, vi. 123 ; coins of, 
found at Croydon, v. 37, 47 ; at 
Groveley Wood, vi. 330 

Constantius Gallus, coins of, found 
at Croydon, v. 37, 61 ; medallion 
of, vi. 125 

Contorniates and tabulae lusoriae, 
vi. 232; symbols on, 236-237; 
used as draughtsmen, 237-241 ; 
date of, 246 ; types of, 234 ff . ; 
Dressel's theory of, ix. 18 ; 
Froehner's theory of, 19 ; in the 
Hunterian Collection, 19-58 

Corbridge (Corstopitum), Roman 
coins found at, ix. 431 ; x. 413, 414 

Corey ra, initial coinage of, viii. 80 

Corinth, classification of fifth-cen- 
tury coins of, ix. 333-356 

Cornwall, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century tokens of, ii. 378 

Corvey, Abbey of, coins of, in 
Colchester hoard, iii. 136 

Cos and Miletus, copper coins of 
Antoninus Pius of, iv. 204 

Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, 
medal by Cesare da Bagno of, 
x. 412 

Countermarks on sigloi, iii. 28 ; on 
coins of Claudius I, ix. 10-18 

Coventry, mint established at, in 
1465, ix. 152 ; coins and mint- 
marks of Edward IV of, 158- 
159, 171-172, 178, 206, 207 

Cowries current in Assam, ix. 
301 ; in Balapur, x. 162 

Cox's Museum, admission tickets 
to, ii. 76 

Crassus, P. Canidius, coins of, iv. 
197 ; history of, 206 

Creighton, Captain, medal awarded 
to, vii. 251 

Cremieux, Adolphe, medal of, vii 

Cremna (Pisidia), copper coin of 
Aurelian of, ii. 340; and 
Ceraitae, copper coin of, 339 

Crescent, mint-mark of Richard 
II, iv. 335; badge of Henry IV, 
v. 255 ; and star, type on Irish 
coins of John, iii. 174 

Crete, copper ingots discovered in, 
x. 209-211 

Cricklade Mint, moneyers and 
types of, under William I, iv. 
259 ; abolition of, i. 407 

Crimean War, medals of, vii. 220, 
248 ; Turkish medals of, 268 

Crispus, coins of, struck at Alexan- 
dria, ii. 134 ff. ; at Nicomedia, 
iii. 247 ff. ; at Heraclea, v. 
153 ff. ; coin of London of, with 
Christian symbols, x. 413 

Cristoforo of Mantua, a medallist 
of Paul II, x. 364-366 

Crommelinck, Dr., medal of, vii. 

Cromwell, silver coinage of, viii. 
62 ; not legally current, but 
probably circulated, ix. 94 

Cross and pall on coins of Alfred, 
ii. 202 

Cross and pellet coinage of Henry 
VI, ii. 261 

Cross fitchee, mint-mark of Ed- 
ward IV, ix. 179, 216-218; x. 
119, 120, 135 

Cross, long, type of Aethelred II, 
x. 259, 285 

Cross pattee (long), mint-mark 
of London adopted by Henry VI, 
x. 122 

Cross, pierced, mint-mark on 
annulet coinage of Henry V or 
VI, ii. 230, 370 



Cross, plain, mint-mark of Henry 

VI, x. 122, 125, 129 
Cross pornmee on short-cross 

pennies, iv. 158 
Cross, " Small," type of Aethelred 

II, x. 260, 261, 285 
Crown, demiurgic and archieratic 

on coins of Tarsus, ii. 343 
Croydon, Anglo-Saxon coins 

found in, vii. 339 ; coins of the 

Antonines found at, 353 ; Roman 

(late) coins found at, v. 26-41 
" Crux " type of Aethelred II, x. 

257 ; date and meaning of, 280- 

282, 379, 386 
CRVX legend on mediaeval coins, 

and on coins of Aethelred II, x. 


Cunobelinus, bronze coin of, iii. 192 
Cupid dislodging a skeleton, type 

on a Roman gem, x. 67 
Cupid and Psyche, x. 170-172 
Curitis or Curritis, epithet of Juno, 

x. 9 
Curtius, M., modern medal on 

sacrifice of, x. 754 
Cut pennies, i. 55, 56, 69, 492 
Cybele, figure of, on medallion of 

Faustina II, viii. 56 ; a type on 

Roman Republican and Imperial 

coins, 57 ; on contorniates, 59 ; 

and Atys, type on contorniates, 

ix. 40, 44, 50 

Cyme (Aeolis), silver coin of, ii. 333 
Cyprus revolts against Persia, iii. 

14 ; coinages of, 26 ; coins of 

Evagoras of, ii. 37-39, 43-44 
Cyrrhestica, numeral letters on 

coins of, iii. 166 
Cyrrhus, numeral letters on coins 

of, iii. 106 
Cyzicus (Mysia), hemidrachm of, 

ii. 329 ; coin of, vi. 26 ff. ; bronze 

coins of Gordian III of, vii. 440 ; 

clay mould for coins of, v. 347 


"Danace" obolus of Charon, x. 

182, 183, 202 
"Dance of Death" in art and 

literature, ix. 376-379 
Danegelt, payments of, in reign of 

Aethelred II, x. 251 ff. 
D'Angers, David, medals by, vii. 


Danish imitations of coins of 

Alfred, iii. 351 ff. 
Darics coined for circulation 

among the Greeks, iii. 28, 29; 

classification of, 29 ff . 
Daubeney, C. G. B., Professor of 

Chemistry at Oxford, medal of, 

x. 89 
Daud Khan Pani, Nawab of Arcot, 

x. 147 
D'Ax, Anglo-Gallic mint of 

Edward III, vi. 280 ; of Edward 

the Black Prince, viii. 102 ; 

coins of, 108 ff. 
Death, medals, &c., illustrative of 

ideas of, ix. 365-417 ; x. 41-96, 


" Death or Glory " badge, ix. 403^ 
Death's heads, as military devices, 

ix. 402-404 ; on wings, x. 184 
Decroso, John, graver at the Mint 

in 1642, x. 396 

Deitenbeck, E., medals by, vii. 230 
Delft, badge of Guild of Physicians 

of, x. 275 
Delmatius, coins of Alexandria of, 

iii. 143 ff. ; of Nicomedia, iii. 

279, 284 ; of Heraclea, v. 176, 177 
Delphi, silver coins of, iv. 295 
Demeter, altar of, on coins of 

Pergamon, x. 208 
Demetrius of Bactria, coins of, 

found in Baluchistan, iv. 319 
Demetrius I, Soter, of Syria, 

imitations of coins of, found in 

Baluchistan, iv. 319 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, coins of, ix. 

Demi-gros of Edward III, vi. 277, 

Demi-sterling of Edward III, vi. 

298, 308 
Denarius, first issue of, iv. 186 ; 

reduction of weight of, 188 
Denier of Edward III, vi. 278, 

Deniers esterlins in Colchester 

hoard, iii. 112, 136, 175; see 

also Sterlings 

Derby, moneyers and types of Wil- 
liam I and II of, iv. 260 ; penny 

of Henry I struck at, ix. 332 
De Salis, Count. See Salis, de 
De Saulles, G. W., biography of, 

ii. 311-312 
" Descente en Angleterre " Medal, 

vii. 434 ; imitated by Droz, 437 



Deschler (or Teschler), Johann, I 
medallist, iv. 59 

Devizes, money ers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 260 

Diadumenianus, aurei of, reverses 
Spes and Princ. Juventutis, iii. 
352 ; and Macrinus, medallion 
of, vi. 109 

Diana of Mantua, medal of, by 
T. R., ii. 60 

DIAN/E REDVCI on coins of 
Carausius, vii. 73 

Dido, head of, on Carthaginian 
coins, x. 1-2 

Dies, for coins of Aethelred II, 
where made, x. 265-267, 373-374, 
382-383 ; for coins of Henry VI, 
probably made at provincial 
mints from designs sent from 
London, 128 ; for medals first 
used in Bologna, ix. 58 

Dieudonne, A., on the true attribu- 
tion of certain coins of Antioch 
and Nicomedia formerly attri- 
buted to Julian II, x. 243, 244 

Diocaesarea (Cilicia), (copper coin 
of Philip I of, iv. 306 

Diocletian, coins of, struck at 
Alexandria, ii. 96 ; at Heraclea, 
v. 124 ; at Camulodunum, vii. 
414 ; aurei of, with reverse Jupi- 
ter, viii. 97, 98 ; aureus of, reverse 
Emperor seated, ii. 358 ; medal- 
lion of, vi. 119 ; ten-aureus piece 
of Alexandria of, x. 100-103 

Dionysos, type on coin of Ancyra, 
iii. 342 

Diormod, moneyer of Ecgbeorht, 
viii. 241, 246 

Doerrer, Lucia, medal of, iv. 42 

Doliche (Commagene), numerals 
on imperial coins of, iii. 106 

Dolphins on coins of Syracuse and 
Messana, viii. 6,7; on coins of 
Corinth, ix. 343-352 

Domard, J. F., medal by, vii. 231 

Domitian, sestertius of, ii. 348 ; 
coins of, found in Scotland, v. 
11; at Croydon, vii. 366; at 
Timsbury, 81; at Nottingham, 
x. 206 ; at Castle Bromwich, 14, 
18-19 ; and Titus, coins of 
Laodicea, iii. 340 

" Donatio " legend on coin of 
Cremna (Pisidia), ii. 340 

Dorchester, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 260 ; 

history and coins of Henry I 

of, i. 167-172 
" Dorobernia," monogram of, on 

coins of Ecgbeorht, viii. 237 
Dorothea, Queen of Denmark, 

memorial medal of, x. 62 
Dortmund, denier of, in Colchester 

hoard, iii. 137 

Double daric, &c. See Darics, &c. 
Dover, moneyers and types of 

William I and II of, iv. 261; 

history and coinage of Henry I 

at, i. 172-176 
Downton. See Devizes 
Drake, Sir Francis, map medal 

of, vi. 77, 348 
Drakon of Pellene, suggested type 

parlant on coins of Atarneus, v. 


Drapier's Letters, iii. 57 
Droz, J. P., his imitations 

of " Descente en Angleterre " 

Medal, vii. 437 
Drury House, coining plant at, 

ix. 95 
Dublin, pennies struck at, in 

Colchester hoard, iii. 134 
Dubois, A., medal by, vii. 231 
Dunstan, relations with Aethelred 

II, and suggested influence on 

coin-types, x. 278, 279, 282, 283, 

379, 385 
Dunun (Dynyn), moneyer of 

Ecgbeorht, vii. 244 
Dunwich, its claims as a mint of 

Henry I, i. 181 
Dupondius, types of, struck in the 

East, iv. 211 ; revived in Rome, 

240 ; type, 242 ; change of type 

of, ibid. 
Diirer, Albrecht, medal of, iv. 42 ; 

his Wappen des Todes, ix. 376, 

378 ; engraving of Erasmus by, 

x. 56-58 ; medal of Erasmus 

attributed to, 56 
Durham, moneyers and types of 

William I and II of, iv. 281 ; 

history and coinage of, under 

Henry I, i. 176-186 ; short- cross 

rnies of, in Colchester hoard, 
112, 122, 143, 163 ; coins of 
Richard II of, 339, 359 ; pennies 
of Edward I-III of, found at 
Lochmaben, v. 68, 72, 76-77; 
coins of Henry V of, vi. 194, 203, 
208, 211, 213 ; of Henry VI, iii. 
233 ff. ; of Edward IV, ix. 164, 



172, 178, 198, 215 ; ecclesiastical 

mint of, 211, 215 
Durmius, M., Roman money er, 

iv. 226 
" Dutch " crown of Cromwell, vii. 

63, 74, 77 ; ix. 109 
Dymchurch, coins of William I 

found at, iv. 145 
Dynyn. Sec Dunun 


Eadberht Praen, coins of, viii. 229 ; 
history of, 230-234 

Eadgar, coins of, struck at York, 
ii. 364 ff. 

Eanwald, Essex money er of 
Ecgbeorht, viii. 252, 253 

East, Roman bronze coins struck 
in the, iv. 192 ff. ; denomina- 
tions of, 211, 213, 214 ; weights 
of, 213, 214; analyses of, 213, 
215, 244 

East Anglian coins of Ecgbeorht, 
viii. 251 

East India Co., coinage of, iii. 71 
ff. ; distinguished from native 
issues, 72, 78 ; period of, 72-74 

East, John, engraver at the Mint 
in 1630, x. 395, 397 

Easton, Norfolk, Roman imperial 
coins found at, ii. 185 

Eccles and Colchester finds com- 
pared, iii. 111-112 

Eccles find, short-cross coins from, 
x. 291 

Ecclesiastical coinages of reign of 
Henry I, i. 18, 28, 29, 131, 212, 
214, 362-369, 371-376, 481-489 ; 
of reign of Edward IV : Canter- 
bury, iv. 163, 164, 177, 178, 197, 
211, 216 ; Durham, 178, 211, 215 ; 
York, 165, 167, 168, 178, 181, 211, 
215; of Henry VI (restored) , x. 
133, 134, 145 

Ecgbeorht of Wessex, coins of, 
viii. 222-266; identification of, 
222 ; coins of, as King of Kent, 
277 ; at court of Charlemange, 
231 ; his return to England, 238 ; 
moneyers of, 240 ff . ; Canterbury 
Mint under, 249 ; East Anglian 
coins of, 251 ; Wessex coins of, 
252 ; appropriates East Anglia, 
260 ; coins of, found at Croydon, 
vii. 341 

Echter zu Mespelbronn, Peter, 
medal of, iv. 56 

Ecu, or. chaise (Anglo-Gallic), of 
Edward III, vi. 270, 271 ; first 
issue of, 272; classification of, 

Edinburgh, Alfred Duke of, mar- 
riage medal of, vii. 258 

EDW. REX pennies, their classi- 
fication discussed, v. 78 

Edward the Elder, coin of, imita- 
ted for an Anglo-Saxon brooch, 
viii. 83 

Edward the Martyr, "Hand" type 
of, x. 270 

Edward the Confessor, his por- 
trait on coins, i. 88 ; coins of, 
struck at Bedwin, ii. 20-22 ; law 
of treasure trove under, 160 ; 
coins of, v. 179 ; classification of, 
183-200; chronology of types, 

Edward I, changes feudal cha- 
racter of the coinage, i. 19, 20 ; 
| treasure trove laws of, ii. 161; 
Anglo-Gallic coins of, before his 
accession, v. 381 ; after acces- 
sion, 382 ; classification of, 385 ; 
coins of, found at Lochmaben, 
63, 64 ; penny of, found in Hamp- 
shire, viii. 314 

Edward II, pennies of, found at 
Lochmaben, v. 63 ; classification 
of, 64 ff . ; issued no Anglo-Gallic 
coins, vi. 267 

Edward III, last silver coinage of, 
ii. 176 ; coins of, found at Loch- 
maben, v. 63 ; classified, 64 ff . ; 
Anglo-Gallic coins of, vi. 268 ; 
their denominations, 270; classi- 
fication of, 281 ff . ; coins of, 
found in Hampshire, viii. 314 ; 
institutes trial of the Pyx, x. 

Edward IV, find of silver coins of, 
ii. 34, 35, 45 ; coins of, ix. 132- 
219 ; first issue of, 186-188 ; 
heavy gold coins of, 186 ; early 
heavy silver of, 187, 188 ; heavy 
coins with rose mint-mark, 189- 
191 ; light coins with ditto, 193- 
201 ; coins with sun mint-mark, 
211-213; with crown mint-mark, 
213-215 ; with crown fitchee 
mint-mark, 216-218 ; angel 
noble of, 181-185 

Edward VI, coins of, found at 



Oswestry, v. 101; at Constable 
Burton, ix. 286 ; at Winterslow, 
x. 205 ; coins of, used at game 
of shovel-board, v. 310; their 
enhanced value accounted for, 
311 ; horseman shilling of, 400 

Edward VII as Prince of Wales, 
medal of, vii. 232 

Edward the Black Prince, Anglo- 
Gallic coins of, viii. 102 ; gold, 
116-130; silver, 130-158; billon, 

Egypt, Roman coin-moulds from, 
v. 342 ; suggested pre-Mace- 
donian mint in, viii. 197 ; 
leaden token coinage of, 287 ; 
their current values, 302 ; their 
provenance, 301 ; tetradrachms 
of Tiberius struck in, x. 333-339 ; 
coins of Julian II struck in, 245- 
249 ; war-medal of 1801 of, vii. 

Eighteenth-century lead tickets, 
ii. 74 

Eirene, type on Alexandrian coins 
of Galba, ix. 271 ff. 

Elagabal on aureus of Elagabalus, 
ii. 353 

Elagabalus, bronze coin of Tarsus 
of, ii. 343 ; aureus of, with 
Elagabal, ii. 353 ; bronze coin 
of Prostanna of, iii. 340 ; bronze 
coin of Ephesus of, iv. 302 

Eldred, Anne, memorial medal 
of, viii. 178-194 ; x. 83 

Eleanor, queen of Henry II, coins 
of Aquitaine of, v. 369 

Eleusis, bronze coins of, x. 46 

Eleutheria, type of Alexandrian 
coins of Galba, ix. 275 ff . 

Elis, silver coins of, ii. 327; iv. 
298 ; bronze, v. 334 

Elizabeth, reform of English cur- 
rency by, ix. 72 ; milled six- 
pence of, v. 312 ; coins of, found 
at Oswestry, v. 101 ; at Con- 
stable Burton, ix. 286, 287 ; at 
Winterslow, x. 205 

Els track, Renold, silver plaque of 
Charles I attributed to, viii. 271 

Emerita, coins of, iv. 216 

Emisa, numeral letters on coins 
of, iii. 107 

Emmersweiler, Roman coins found 
at, viii. 209 

England and France, medal on 
alliance of, against Russia, vii. 

248 ; treaty of commerce, medal 

on, 248 
Engraved dies for medals, first use 

of, necessity for, ix. 58-59 
Ephesus, cistophori of, ii. 330 ; tes- 
serae of, with bee and stag, viii. 

281 ; bronze coin of Elagabalus 

of, iv. 302 
Epicurean views on life and death 

ix. 371 ff . ; x. 168-171 
Epidaurus, bronze coin of, iv. 299 
Epping Forest, medal on openino- 

of (1882), vii. 249 
Eppius, M., bronze coin of, struck 

in Spain, iv. 216 ; history of, 218 
" Eques Romanus" on coins of 

Constantine the Great, iii. 339 
Eras of Pontus, ii. 1 ; of Sebasteia, 

9, 10 ; of Sebastopolis, 7-9, 184 ; 

of Sidon, 198 

Erasmus, medal of, x. 54-58 ; en- 
graving of, by Diirer, 50-53 ; 

seal of, 58, 189-190 
Eretria (Euboea), tetradrachm of, 

ii. 321 ; bronze coin of, 322 
Erivan, a Persian mint, coins of, 

viii. 370 
Erythrae, copper coins of third 

century B.C., iv. 303 ; in alliance 

with Byzantium, ix. 12 
Escallop shell on coins of Richard 

II, iv. 338-341 

Essex, unpublished token of Rom- 
ford in, ii. 379 
Etenna (Pisidia), copper coins of 

Otacilia Severa of, iii. 339 
Ethelmod, moneyer of Ecgbeorht, 

viii. 243, 247 

Ethelred. See Aethelred 
Ethelweard, King of East Anglia, 

viii. 262 
Ethelwulf, son of Ecgbeorht of 

Wessex, viii. 255 ; King of 

Kent, 257, 261 ff. 
Etruscan gems, x. 174 ff. 
Etruscilla. See Herennia 
Euboea, uncertain coin of, iii. 322 
Euboic- Attic standard, date of in- 
troduction of, by Alexander the 

Great, vi. 21 
Eucratides, coins of, found in 

Baluchistan, iv. 320 ; barbarous 

imitation of, 321 
Eugenius, silver coins of, found at 

Icklingham, viii. 218 
Eumenes I of Pergamon, coins of, 

x. 207 




EVSTADVS,coinof, i. 89 

Euthydemus II, coins of, found in 
Baluchistan, iv. 319 

Evagoras II of Cyprus, coins of, 
for Sidon, iii. 34; for Cyprus, 
37-39, 44 

Evelyn, John, reference by, to the 
invention of coining plant in 
Italy, ix. 65; to edge-inscrip- 
tions, 92 

Everard, short-cross moneyer, his 
coins of the second class wrongly 
attributed to Chichester, x. 300- 

Evil, king's, x. 395 ; bronze touch- 
pieces for, 395, 396 

Exeter Mint, moneyer s and types 
of William I and II of, iv. 261 ; 
coinage of Henry I at, i. 186-196 ; 
ii. 373 ; short-cross pennies of, 
in the Colchester hoard, iii. 112, 
113 ; moneyers of, 143, 157 ; 
history of, 164 ; unique half- 
crown of Charles I of, iii. 193 ; 
recoinage of 1696-1697 at, vi. 

EXI = 1X3, engraver's signature, 
x. 232-235 

EXPECTATE YEN I on coins of 
Carausius, vii. 33, 69, 70 

Eye on coin of Scione, v. 327 

Eyres, Kingsmills, associated with 
Wood in his Irish coinage, iii. 

Ezekiel, vision of, and the type of 
a Phoenician obol with name 
"lahve," ix.,122 


Fakhr-ad-daulah, a Buwayhid 

prince, ix. 223-224 
Fame, a type on an Italian medal, 

ix. 398 

Fanarns of Balapur, x. 159, 160 
Farrukhabad, E.I.C. mint of, iii. 

75-78, 86 
Farrukhsiyar, Mughal Emperor, 

coin of, ii. 299 
Farthings of Henry I, i. 8-12, 55 ; 

of Richard II, earliest issue of, 

iv. 330, 351 

Fausta, coins of, struck at Alexan- 
dria, ii. 137 ; at Nicomedia, iii. 

259, 266, 267; at Heraclea, v. 


Faustina I, aureus of, with reverse 

Fortune, ii. 349 ; viii. 90 ; coins 

of, found at Croydon, vii. 370 ; 

at Castle Bromwich, x. 14, 32- 

33, 40; at Nottingham, 206; 

bust of, type on a contorniate, 

ix. 50 ; standing at altar, type 

on a contorniate, 35 
Faustina II, bronze coin of, struck 

at Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, 

vii. 440 ; at Syedra, ii. 343 ; at 

Hadrianopolis (Thrace), iii. 320 ; 

at Nicomedia (Bithynia), 332; 

coins of, found at Croydon, vii. 

371 ; at Castle Bromwich, x. 14,36 
Felicitas, type on a contorniate, 

ix. 53 
Ferdinand, Prince of Roumania, 

marriage medal of, vii. 257 
Ferriby. See South Ferriby 
Fiamma, Gabrielle, Bishop of 

Chioggia, medal of, x. 65 
Figeac(orFontenoy), Anglo-Gallic 

mint of Edward III, vi. 272; 

of Edward the Black Prince, 

viii. 102, 108, 135, 150, 158 
Filongleye, Richard, his accounts 

for the coinage of Aquitaine, 

viii. 105-107 
Finds of coins at 

Awbridge (Stephen and Henry 
II), v. 354 

Beachy Head (Valerian Aure- 
lian), ii. 184, 185 

Bridgnorth (Mary Charles I), 
viii. 319-323 

Brigetio (Old Szony), x. 102, 103 

Caistor (Tiberius Faustina II), 
ii. 186-188 

Castle Bromwich (Antony, Ves- 
pasian Commodus), x. 13-40 

Colchester (Henry I, Stephen ; 
short-cross pennies ; John 
(Irish), William the Lion, and 
Alexander II, and foreign 
sterlings), iii. 111-176 

Constable Burton (Edward VI- 
Charles I), ix. 285-291 

Cor bridge (Roman), ix. 431 ; x. 
413, 414 

Croydon (Claudius Faustina 
II), vii. 353-372 

Croydon (Constantius II, Con- 
stans, Magnentius, Gallus), 
v. 36-62 

Easton (Gallienus Constans), 
ii. 185, 186 



Finds of coins at contd. 
Exeter (alleged find of Greek 

coins), vii. 145-155 
Garhgaon (Assamese), ix. 305 
Godmanchester (Greek and 

Roman), viii. 374 
Groveley Wood (Constantius II 

Arcadius (silver), vi. 329-347 
Hampshire (Edward I Henry 

VI and a Flemish sterling), 

viii. 311-318 
Haverfordwest (Henry VI), x. 

Icklingham (late fourth-century 

Eoman silver), viii. 215-221 
Irk (river), Greek (?),ix. 432 
Kirkintilloch (Antony, Ves- 
pasian Aurelius), v. 10-17 
Larnaca (Philip II, Alexander 

III, Philip III), iii. 320 
Lochmaben (Edward I-III and 

foreign sterlings), v. 63-82 
London (Richard II Henry VI, 

groats), vii. 427-433 
Lowestoft (Henry I), v. 112 
Manchester (Roman), ix. 431 
Mirzapur (Samudragupta 

Kumaragupta I), x. 398-408 
Nottingham (Vespasian Aure- 
lius), x. 205, 206 
Oswestry (Henry VIII Charles 

I), v. 100-108 
Sandy (Verulamium and Cuno- 

belinus), iii. 192-193 
South Ferriby (Brigantes), viii. 

17-55 ; ix. 7-9 

Stamford (Alfred), iii. 347-355 
Tarentum (silver of period of 

Hannibalic occupation), ix. 

Timsbury (Agrippa Domitian, 

and British), viii. 81 
Umm-al-Atl (Roman), ix. 278 
Weybridge (bronze of the 

Tetrarchy), viii. 208-215 
Winterslow (near Salisbury) 

(Ed ward VI Charles I), x. 205 
Provenance unknown (Edward 

IV Henry VIII), ii. 34-54 
Finds of coins of , lists of 
Aethelred II, x. 268 
Carausius, vii. 31, 35, 37 
Henry I, i. 506 
William I and II, iv. 145-147 
Fioravanti, Aristotele, medallist 
of Paul II, x. 342, 360, 361 ; in 
Russia, 361 

Flaccus, L. Pomponius, strikes 

coins for Antioch, iv. 116 
Flag on gold coins of Calais of 

Henry VI, iii. 396 ; iv. 333 
Flaischer, Lorenz, medal of, iv. 53 
Flavius Victor, silver coins of, 

found at Groveley Wood, vi. 

330 ; at Icklingham, viii. 218 
Fleur-de-lys, mint-mark of Richard 

II, iv. 339 ; of Henry VI, iii. 
289-290, 294, 302, 297 ; x. 125 

Florianus, medallion of, vi. 117 
Florin, Anglo-Gallic, of Edward 

III, vi. 270, 281 

Florus, L. Aquillius, Roman 

moneyer, iv. 226 
Flotner, Peter, medallist, his work, 

iv. 52-53 
Follis, weight of, &c., iii. 212; 

v. 133-136 

Folly Inn tickets, iv. 183, 184 
Fontenoy. See Figeac 
Foreign artists, English medals by, 

vii. 219 ff . 
Forgeries, modern, of Henry I, 

i. 84, 89, 326, 433 ; from Caesarea 

Mazaca, x. 411, 412 
Formschneider, representation 

of, at work, iv. 357, 358 
Forum Romanum, plan of tabula 

lusoria in, vi. 240 
Fothergill Medal of the Royal 

Humane Society, ix. 407 ; x. 92 
Foundation deposits of Paul II, 

x. 353, 354 
France, law of treasure trove in, 

ii. 151-155, 174 ; coins of ancient 

Britons found in, vii. 351 ; coin- 
age by machinery in, ix. 66-72 ; 

see also England 
Francia, Francesco, first to use 

engraved dies for medals, ix. 58 
Franco, Goffredo, medals of, x. 63 
Frederick II, Emperor, denier of, 

in Colchester hoard, iii. 137, 138 ; 

augustale of, used as design for 

a seal, iv. 180 
Frederick William, Crown Prince 

of Prussia, marriage medal of, 

vii. 238 ; silver wedding medal 

of, 245 
Friedrich, Abbot of St. Giles in 

Nuremberg, medal of, iv. 50 
Fuchs,Emil,medals by, vii. 232-234 
Furnext Pelham, token of Felix 

Calverd of, ix. 248 
Furtenagel, Lucas, medal of, iv. 44 




Galatia, " Koinon " of, bronze coin 

of, iv. 307 
Galba, denarii of, struck in Spain, 

ii. 346, 347 ; Alexandrian coinage 

of, ix. 274-284 ; praenomen of, 278 
Galeria Valeria, wife of Galerius, 

coins of Alexandria, ii. 186 ft". ; 

of Nicomedia, iii. 222, 223 ; of 

Heraclea, v. 126 
Galerius, coins Sf Alexandria of, 

ii. 103 ff. ; of Nicomedia, iii. 

213 ff . ; of Heraclea, v. 124 ff. ; 

bronze coins of, found at Wey- 

bridge, viii. 211 
Galleotti, Pietro Paolo, medals by, 

x. 63-66 
Galley half -pence, description of, 

ii. 247 
Gallicia, medal on massacres in, 

ix. 401 ; x. 93 
Gallienus, bronze coin of, struck 

at Gertae, ii. 338 ; aureus of, 

with reverse, Victory, 357 ; 

medallion of, vi. 16 ; bust of, 

on contorniate, ix. 54 
Gallus, C. Asinius, C. F., coins of, 

iv. 230 
Gallus, C. Cestius, coins of, struck 

at Antioch, iv. 121 
Galus, coins of, iv. 234 
Galvani, Aloisio, medals of, ix. 

393 ; x. 92 
Garhgaon, Assamese coins found 

at, ix. 305 
Gart, G., name on Folly Inn 

tickets, iv. 183, 184 
Garter badge of Queen Elizabeth, 

viii. 340 
Gascony, Anglo-Gallic coins of 

Edward I of, v. 382 
Gaul, Roman bronze coins struck 

in, iv. 220 
Gaunt, John of, Duke of Aqui- 

taine, viii. 163, 164 
Gauriniitha Sirhha, an Ahorn king, 

coins of, ix. 307, 321, 326 
Gayrard, Raymond, medal by, vii. 

Gaza, Phoenician drachm of, with 

name " lahve," ix. 123 
Gazur (Cappadocia), satrapal coins 

of, iii. 43 

Gebel, Matteas, medallist, iv. 54 
GENIO BRITANNI on coins of 

Carausius,iv.l36,141; vii. 69, 70 

Genius on Roman coins, origin 

and history of, iv. 136 
Genius of the Roman people, cult 

of, iii. 227 
George I, Wood's Irish coinage of, 

iii. 57 ff. ; American coins of, 

62 ff. 

! George IV, medals of, vii. 223, 247 
George Podiebrod, King of 

Bohemia, medals of Paul II, 

probably referring to Consisto- 
ries against, x. 358 
Gerard, Philippe de, medal of 

G. L. E. Mouchon, by, x. 96 
Gerbier, L. A., medal by, vii. 235 
Geremia, Cristoforo (of Mantua), 

x. 364-366 ; worked for Paul II, 

364, 365 ; medal of Scarampi by, 

365, 366 
German Renaissance Medals in 

the British Museum, iv. 39-62 ; 

early medals how produced, 


of Carausius, vii. 35, 74 
Germany, law of treasure trove in, 

ii. 156 

Germe (Mysia), coins of, vi. 35 
Germe (Lydia), copper coin of 

Commodus of, ii. 337 
Geta, copper coin of, struck by the 

Cilbiani Nicaei, ii. 337 ; struck 

at Lysinia, 341 ; aureus of, with 

busts of Severus and Domna, 

viii. 94 
Ghias-ad-din of Malwa, coins of, 

iii. 316; iv. 79-99; history of, 

iii. 377 ; title of, iv. 95 
Ghisi, Diana, medal of, bv T. R., 

ii. 60 
Gidley, Bartholomew, medal on 

death of, x. 85 
Gilbert, John, chief engraver to 

the Mint, viii. 274, 275 
Giovanni, Bertholdo di, medal on 

Pazzi conspiracy by, x. 51 
Gladstone, W. E., medal of, vii. 241 
Glasgow Assembly, admission 

tickets to, ii. 74 
Gloucester, moneyers and type of 

William I and II of, iv. 262 ; 

history and coinage of Henry I 

of, i. 124, 125, 196-203 
Godfried II of Arensburg, coins 

of, in Colchester hoard, iii. 136 
Godmaiichester, coins found at, 

viii. 374 



Godric, Leicester moneyer of 

William I and II, x. 294 
God wine, short-cross moneyer, 

x. 296, 297 
Goldbeter, Bartholomew, Master 

of the Mint, temp. Henry V and 

VI, ii. 228, 231, 232, 335; iii. 

297, 299 ; vi. 188 

Goldschmidt, Hermann, astrono- 
mer, medal of, vii. 231 
Goldwine, coins of short-cross 

moneyer, wrongly attributed to 

Chichester, x. 300-305 
Gordian III, medallion of, vi. 110 ; 

copper coin of Cyzicus of, vii. 440 
Gottifredo, Jacopo, medals of 

Paul II and, x. 346, 347, 358 
Gower, Lord Konald, medal of, 

vii. 240 
Gracchus, T. Sempronius, coin of, 

iv. 225 
Grandval, Chevalier de, medal on 

execution of, x. 88 
Gratian, coins of, found at Groveley 

Wood, vi. 330; at Icklingham, 

viii. 218 ; aureus of, on elevation 

of Valentinian II, x. 107-109 
Graxa (Calabria), copper coin of, 

iv. 291 
Greek coins, alleged find of, at 

Exeter, vii. 145 ; found in 

Baluchistan, iv. 314, 317, 321 
Greene, Charles, under-graver at 

the Mint, x. 394 
Greene, Edward, chief graver of the 

Mint, viii. 274, 275 ; x. 394, 395 
Groats, find of (in London ?),vii. 427 
Groom leading horse, type on a 

contorniate, ix. 28, 36 
Gros of Edward III, vi. 275, 294 
Groveley Wood, find of Eoman 

silver coins at, vi. 329-348 
Grueber, H., medal by, vii. 235 
Guessin or Guiche, Anglo-Gallic 
mint of Edward I of, v. 390 ; of 
Edward III, vi. 270-272 
Guiennois, Anglo-Gallic coins of 

Edward III of. vi. 270, 272, 273, 
Guildford, money ers and types of 

WiUiam I and II of, iv. 263 ; 

mint of, discontinued, i. 299, 309 


H. B., initials of H. S. Beham(?), 
medallist, iv. 57 

H. R., initials of Hans Beimer, 

medallist, iv. 60 
Hadow, supposed mint of Henry I 

explained, i. 203 
Hadran, a Phoenician deity, head 

of, on coins of the Mamertini, 

ix. 131 
Hadrian, medallion of, vi. 94 ; 

copper coin of Laertes (Cilicia) of, 

iii. 341 ; coins commemorating 

his visit to Antioch, iv. 128; 

coins of, found at Croydon, vii. 

368; in Scotland, v. 12; at 

Castle Bromwich, x. 14, 24-28, 

38 ; in Nottingham, 206 ; reverse 

type Hilaritas of a coin of, copied 

by Paul II, 342-344 ; burning of 

bonds by, ii. 88 
Hadrianeia(Mysia), copper coins of, 

ii. 329 ; coins of Severus struck 

at, found at Corbridge, x. 414 
Hadrianopolis (Thrace), copper 

coin of Faustina II struck at, 

iii. 320 
Hadrianutherae (Mysia), coin of, 

vi. 34 ; of Julia Domna struck 

at, vii. 441 
Haeberlin's theory of Roman 

metrology criticized, x. 209-222 
Hagenauer, F., medallist, iv. 42, 

Hair-dressing of Roman ladies on 

coins, vi. 37-66 
Hakr (Pharaoh), throne-name of, 

on Athenian obol (?), viii. 201 
Half-broad of 1656, probably struck 

by Tanner, ix. 101, 113-115 
Half dan, Danish leader, London 

coin of, iii. 352 
Half-victoriatus, where struck, iv. 

Haliartus (Boeotia), hemi-obol of, 

ii. 321 
Halifax, halfpenny token of J. 

Brearcliffe of, x. 81, 82 
Haller von Hallenstein, medal of, 

iv. 57 

Hamel, , medals by, vii. 236 
Hampshire, find of English silver 

coins in, viii. 311 ff. 
" Hand " type of Aethelred II, 

x 254-257, 376, 377, 379; of 

Edward the Martyr, 376, 379 
Han Hans, advertising medal of, 

iv. 353-361 

Handy, Thomas, and Wood's half- 
pence, iii. 52 



Hannibalic occupation of Taren- 
tum, coins of, ix. 253-263 

Harmodius on tetradrachm of 
Athens, ii. 323 

Harold, , engraves dies for 
Wood's American coins, iii. 53 

Harpasa (Caria), copper coins of 
Gordian III struck at, iii. 334 

Hart, L. J., medals by, vii. 237 

Hastings, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 263 ; of 
Henry I, i. 204-210 

Haverfordwest, angel of Henry VI 
found at, x. 124 

Hawkesbury, Lord, his statement 
on the alteration of the date 
1636 on Simon's crown die, ix. 

Heaberht, coins of, viii. 229 

Head Prize for ancient numis- 
matics, founded in Oxford, ix. 
250, 251 

Helena, coins of Alexandria of, 
ii. 137 ; of Nicomedia, 261, 264 ; 
of Heraclea, v. 166 

Helena, wife of Julian II, x. 229, 
248 ; not Isis on the coins, 

Henri II of France introduced 
coinage by machinery, ix. 68 

Henry I, coinage of, i. 1-515 ; 
Romney penny of, vii. 343 ; 
Derby penny of, ix. 332 ; coins 
found at Lowestoft, v. 112 ; law 
of treasure trove in time of, ii. 

Henry II, coins of, found at 
Awbridge, v. 354 ; Anglo-Gallic 
coins of, 364 ; short-cross period 
of, iii. 156 

Henry III, no Anglo-Gallic coins 
of, v. 389 ; short-cross period of, 
iii. 156 

Henry IV, coinage of, v. 83, 247 ; 
change of standard, 88 ; heavy 
coinage of, 252 ; classification 
of, 253, 290; light coinage of, 
267, 208 ; classified, 273 ff., 296 ; 
badges of, 254 ; heavy half-groat 
of, vii. 120 ; groats of, found in 
London, 430 ; in Hampshire, 
viii. 315 ; Anglo-Gallic coins of, 

Henry V, coinage of, v. 83, 90, 
91 ; vi. 172-219 ; mint accounts 
of, 179; classification of, 179; 
groats of, found in Hampshire, 

viii. 315 ; in London, vii. 

Henry VI, find of silver coins of, 
ii. 34, 36, 45 ; silver coinage of, 
224; noble of, 369; groats of, 
found in London, vii. 431 ; in 
Hampshire, viii. 315 ; noble of, 
ix. 136; restoration coinage of, 
x. 117-145 ; early angels of, 120 ; 
London Mint of, 123-127, 136- 
141 ; Bristol Mint of, 127-130, 
141-143 ; York Mint of, 130-134, 

Henry VII, plumbago moulds for 
forging coins of, v. 205 ; un- 
published groat of, 207 ; find 
of silver coins of, ii. 34, 46 
Henry VIII, coins of, found at 
Oswestry, v. 101 ; sequence of 
mint-marks of, ii. 48-52 ; use 
of Roman and Lombard letters 
on, 50 
Henry, Earl of Northumberland, 

rare sterling of, ii. 26 
Henry, Prince of Wales, medal of, 
by Charles Anthony, viii. 350- 

Heraclea, issues of the mint of, 
during Constantinian period, v. 
120 ; mint of Julian II. x. 250 
| Heraclius, mediaeval medal of, 
x. 110-115 ; explanation of type 
of, 112-115 

| Hercules, on Parthian coins, vii. 
130-131 ; head of, on coin of 
Demetrius and Antigonus, ix. 
265-274 ; and centaur, type on 
a contorniate, 37 ; and bull on 
coins of Selinus, x. 45 
I Hereford, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 263; 
of Henry I of, i. 216-218; un- 
published seventeenth-century 
tokens of, ii. 379 
i Herennia Etruscilla, medallion 

of, vi. 115 
Heriot, George, jewel attributed 

to, viii. 353 

' Hermes Psychopompos on gern, 
x. 173 ; with butterfly, 173 ; and 
caduceus, 174, 176, 177 
i Hertford, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 264 ; 
unpublished seventeenth-cen- 
tury tokens of, ii. 379 
', Hesse, Princess Victoria Melita 
of, medal of, vii. 230 



Hieroglyphs on Athenian obol, 

viii. 198 ff. 
Hieron of Syracuse, coinage of, 

viii. 9 
Hieropolis (Cyrrhestica), copper 

coins of, iii. 344 
Hilaritas on medal of Paul II, x. 

342,344; meaning of, 356, 357,361 
Hilliard, Laurence, limner to 

James I, viii. 335 
Hilliard, Nicholas, miniature- 
painter and goldsmith, viii. 

324-356 ; seal of Elizabeth by, 

341, 346 ; seal for Ireland by, 

346; gold medals of James I, 

348, 352 
Himera, altar of, on tetradrachm 

of Thermae, x. 226, 227 
Himerus of Parthia, coins to be 

attributed to, vii. 442 
Hind, J. K., astronomer, medal 

of, vii. 231 
Hippias, tyrant of Athens, name 

of, on coin of Athens, viii. 278 
Hipponium (Bruttii), copper coin 

of, iv. 291, 292 
Histiaea (Euboea), silver coin of, 

iv. 297 
Hitchin,mint of (?), under William 

I, iv. 264 
Hohenzollern, Prince Ferdinand 

of, marriage medal of, vii. 257 
Hojer, George, memorial medal 

of (1630), x. 82 
Holbein's portrait of Sir Brian 

Tuke, ix. 385, 386 ; of the 

" Ambassadors," memento mori 

jewel in, x. 184 
Hole or Holle, William, cuneator 

of the Mint, vii. 346 ; viii. 273 ; 

coins by, 275 
Holland, Wilhelmina, Queen of, 

medal of, vii. 243 
Homer, bust of, on contorniate, 

ix. 27 

Hong Kong Plague medal, x. 96 
Honorius, silver coins of, found at 

Icklingham, viii. 218 
Horace, bust of, on contorniate, 

ix. 28 
Horseman shilling of Edward VI, 

v. 400 
"Horseman" type of Candra- 

gupta I, x. 399, 402-404; of 

Kumaragupta I, 399, 408 
Hoshang, Shah of Malwa, coins | 

of, iv. 70, 94 

Hotham, Sir John, memorial 

medal of, ix. 393 ; x. 75 
Howard, John, philanthropist, 

medal of, vii. 239 

Hubert, Archbishop, opens Can- 
terbury Mint in short-cross 

period, x. 313 
Hudson's Bay Company, medal of, 

vii. 239 
Hulbert, name on Folly Inn 

tickets, iv. 183, 184 
Humayun, Mughal Emperor, 

coins of, ii. 284, 285 
Hungary, law of treasure trove in, 

ii. 156 
Hunter and boar, type on a 

contorniate, ix. 22, 27, 33, 39 
Hunterian Museum, Roman 

medallions in, vi. 93-126; 

contorniates in, ix. 19-55 ; 

Tanner's crown in, 103 
Huntingdon, moneyers and types 

of William I and II of, iv. 264 ; 

history and coinage of Henry I 

of, i. 219-237 ; coin of Stephen 

struck at, v. 359 
Husain Dost Khan, Nawab of the 

Carnatic, x. 148 
Husain, Shah of Persia, weights 

and legends of his coins, viii. 

363, 373 
Huss, John, medals on martyrdom 

of, x. 48, 49 
Hydisus (Caria), copper coin of, 

iii. 335 
Hypsas, river-god, sacrificing on 

coins of Selinos, x. 45 
Hythe, money ers and types of 

William I and IT of, iv. 264 


I not necessarily I on early English 

coins, but first stroke of a letter, 

x. 298, 299 
I. D. initials of John Deschler (or 

Teschler), medallist, iv. 59 
" lahve," origin of name, ix. 125- 

127; Phoenician drachm with 

name, 121-131 
Ibn Kakwayh, a Buwayhid prince, 

ix. 226, 227 
Ibrahim Shah, coin of Malwa of, 

iv. 91 
Icklingham, Roman silver coins 

found at, viii. 215-224 



Iconium (Lycaonia), copper coin 
of, ii. 342 

If a, Wessexmoneyer of Ecgbeorht, 
viii. 253 

Ilchester, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 265 ; (?) 
short-cross pennies of, in Col- 
chester hoard, iii. 112, 123, 
144 ; history of the mint of, 

Imad-ad-daulah, Buwayhid prince, 
ix. 221 

Imad-ad-din Abu Kalinjar, a 
Buwayhid prince, coins of, iii. 
178 ; iv. 227 

Indian coins from Baluchistan, 
iv. 311-316 

lo, nuptials of, on coins of Tralles, 

111. 338 

lolla, supposed coin of, iii. 9 
Ipswich, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 265 ; 
history and coins of Henry I of, 
i. 228-238 ; short-cross pennies 
of, in Colchester hoard, iii. 

112, 123, 144, 165 ; Anglo-Saxon 
coins found at, x. 268 

Ireland, Wood's coinage for, iii. 
47 ff. ; Celtic ornaments found 
in, and law of treasure trove, 
ii. 164, 173 ; Great Seal of, by 
Nicholas Billiard, viii. 346 

Irish coins in the Colchester 
hoard, iii. 112, 134, 173 

Irk (river), Greek coins said to have 
been found in, ix. 432 

Isfahan, coins of Sultan Husain 
struck at, viii. 373 

Isis on Eoman coins and on the 
Marlborough cameo, x. 246 ; not 
to be identified with Helena 
wife of Julian II, 247, 248 

Isleworth, find of Anglo-Saxon 
coins at, x. 268 

Isma'il I, Shah of Persia, coins of, 
viii. 359, 368 

Issoudun, Anglo-Gallic coins of 
Richard I of, v. 378 

Istrus (Moesia), silver coin of, iv. 

Italy, law of treasure trove in, 
ii. 156, 175 ; coinage by 
machinery in, ix. 57-66 

Ivy-branch, symbol on coins of 
Corinth, ix. 357 

Izz-ad-daulah, a Buwayhid chief, 
ix. 222, 223 


| Jahandar, Mughal Emperor, coin 
of, ii. 298 

Jahangir, Mughal Emperor, coins 

of, ii. 289 

, Jalal-ad-daulah, a Buwayhid 
prince, v. 396, 397 ; ix. 227 

James I of England issues warrant 
to Nicholas Hilliard to make 
gold medals, viii. 348; bezant 
of, by Charles Anthony, 351 ; 
memento mori jewel belonging 
to, x. 260 ; coins of, found at 
Oswestry, v. 103-105 ; at Bridg- 
north, viii. 320, 321; at Con- 
stable Burton, ix. 288, 289 ; at 
Winterslow, x. 205 

James III of Scotland, unicorns 
of, vi. 67 ; half -unicorns of, 68 

James IV, half-unicorn of, vi. 66 ; 
unicorns of, 69 

James V, unicorns of, vi. 71 

Jason yoking bulls, type on a con- 
torniate, ix. 27 

" Javelin," type of Samudragupta, 
coins of, x. 399 

Jenner, Dr. Edward, medals of, 
vii. 222, 236, 239, 245, 263 

Jette, L. A., Lieut .-Governor of 
Quebec, medal of, vii. 225 

JogesVara Simha, an Ahom king, 
coins of, ix. 308, 329 

John, King of England, Irish 
pennies of, in the Colchester 
hoard, iii. 112, 134 ; short-cross 
period of, 156 ; no Anglo-Gallic 
coins of, v. 379 ; errors in chrono- 
logy in reign of, corrected, x. 
305, 306 ; Exchequer and regnal 
years of, 305, 306; writ of the 
ninth year summoning money- 
ers, &c., 315; occasion of, 816- 

John of Gaunt, Duke of Aquitaine, 
grant of coinage to, vi. 279, 321 ; 
viii. 163, 164 

John the Baptist, Saint, on medals 
of Paul II, x. 344, 345 

John's, St., College, Oxford, gives 
college plate to Charles I, x. 

Johnson, Stefano, medals by, vii. 
237, 238 

Jovian, silver coins of, found at 
Groveley Wood, vi. 330; at 
Icklingham, viii. 218, 221 



Jubilee Medal of Pope Paul II, x. ! 
350, 351, 359, 360 

Julia Domna, copper coin of, 
struck at Caesarea Gernianica, , 
iii. 330; medallion of, vi. 109; ; 
aureus of, reverse Empress as j 
" Mater Castrorum," viii. 93 ; j 
copper coin of Hadrianutherae 
of, vii. 441 ; and Caracalla, j 
aureus of, ii. 351 

Julian II, coins of, x. 238-250 ; rise } 
of, 239-241 ; his beard, a sign of 
paganism,239 ; his marriage,239 ; I 
division of coins of, 241 ; use of 
title Caesar by, 242; his treat- 
ment of Christians, 242-245 ; 
allusions to Egyptian deities, by, 
243 ; as Serapis on cameo, 246, 
247 ; unpublished coins of, 249, 
250 ; list of mints of, 250 ; coins 
of, found at Groveley Wood, vi. 
330 ; at Icklingham, viii. 218 

Julius Caesar, bronze coins of, 
struck in Spain, iv. 216 

Junker, J. C., medal by, vii. 238 

Juno, temple of, x. 3 ff . ; goddess 
of the Veii, 10 ; identified with 
the Astarte of the Carthaginians, 
5 ; cult of, on coins, 6-8 

Juno Curitis (or Curritis), a 
Sabine divinity, x. 9 

Juno Moneta, temple of, x. 3 ff. ; 
nature of, 3, 4 

Juno Sospita, goddess of warriors, 
x. 10 ; on coins, 7 

Jupiter, seated, type on reverse of 
a ten-aureus piece of Diocletian, 
x. 100-102 


Kadir Shah of Malwa, iii. 393 
KAA, artist's signature on coin of 

Tarentum, vii. 288 
Kam Baksh, Mughal pretender, 

coins of, ii. 296 
Kamale^vara Simha, an Ahom 

king, coins of, ix. 307, 327, 

Kamran, Mughal governor, coins 

of, ii. 285 
Kashan, coin of Isma'il Shah I 

struck at, viii. 368 
Katak coins of Ahmad Shah not 

all official issues, x. 328 
Kazwin, a Persian mint, coins of, 

viii. 369, 370, 372 

Kellow, Bishop of Durham, mint- 
mark of, v. 77 
Kendal,Duchess of, receives patent 

for Irish copper coinage, iii. 47 
Khalifa, The, coins of, struck at 

Omdurman, ii. 62-73 
Kharpur, suggested Mughal mint, 

x. 327 
Khevenhuller von Aichelberg, C., 

medal of, iv. 55 
Khilji dynasty of Malwa, history 

of, iii. 367 
Kl on Phocion obols, initials of 

Kirrha (?), iii. 207 
Kirrha (?), obols of, iii. 205 
Kiel Canal, medal on opening of, 

vii. 250 

King's evil, touching for, ix. 298 
Kingsley, Charles, medal of, vii. 260 
Kirkintilloch, Roman coins found 

at, v. 10-17 
Kletias, suggested signature on a 

Carthaginian tetradrachm, x. 224 
Koppa (letter), symbol on coins of 

Corinth, ix. 337 

Korn, Onophrius, medal of, x. 63 
Kratesis, type on Alexandrian 

coins of Galba, ix. 275 ff. 
Krug, Ludwig, medallist, iv. 51 
Krueger, C. J., medal by, vii. 239 
Kriiger, President, medals of, vii. 

241, 243, 247, 258 
Kuchler, C. H., medal by, vii. 239 
Kullrich, W., medal by, vii. 239 
Kumaragupta I, coins of, found in 

the Mirzapur district, x. 399, 

407, 408 

L, initial of unknown German 

medallist, iv. 54 

Lacedaemon, tetradrachm attri- 
buted to, ix. 1-6 
Laconia, coin of, found at God- 

manchester, viii. 374 
Laertes (Cilicia), copper coin of 

Hadrian struck at, iii. 341 
Lakshmi Simha, an Ahom king, 

coins of, ix. 306-310, 323-324 
Lamia, Q. Aelius, L. F., coin of, 

iv. 227 
Lammas, , engraves dies for 

Wood's American coins, iii. 53 
Lampsacus (Mysia), coins of 

Orontes struck at, iii. 8, 9 



Lancelot-Croce, Madame M. R., 

medal by, vii. 240 
Lanchberger, J., medal of, iv. 45 
Lanchberger, P., medal of, iv. 45 
Langa, Count von, medallist, vii. 

Langstrother, John, grant to, of 

office of Gustos Cambii from 

Henry VI, x. 118 
Laocoon and serpents, type on a 

contorniate, ix. 38 
Laodicea (Lycaonia), copper coins 

of Titus and Domitian struck 

at, iii. 340 
Larissa (Thessaly), silver coins of, 

ii. 318 ; v. 333 
Larissa Phriconis (Aeolis), silver 

coin of, ii. 332 
Larnaca (Cyprus), gold coins of 

Philip II from find at, iii. 320 
Lauer, L. C., medals by, vii. 241, 

Laurel wreath on coins of Corinth, 

ix. 342 
Laval, Mons. F. de, Bishop of 

Quebec, prize-medal of, vii. 237 
Leaden token-coinage of Egypt, 

viii. 287; types of, 288-295; 

analysis of, 295; date of, 300, 

302 ; provenance of, 307 
Le Bourg, C. A., medal by, vii. 242 
Lechevrel, A. E., medal by, vii. 243 
Lefwine, Lincoln moneyer in 

1202-1203, x. 314 
Legionary types on coins of 

Carausius, v. 27 ; vii. 25 f. 
Leicester, coin of William I 

struck at, wrongly attributed to 

Chester, x. 294 ; early forms of 

name Leicester, 295 ; money ers 

and types of William I and II 

of, iv. 266 ; history and coinage 

of Henry I at, i. 239-251 
Lenn or Lynn, short-cross pennies 

of, in the Colchester hoard, iii. 

112, 124, 144, 156, 165 
Leonardo da Vinci designed 

machine for striking coins, ix. 

60, 61 
Leoni, Ludovico, medal of Richard 

White of Basingstoke by, ix. 

295, 296 
Leontini, date of tetradrachm of, 

viii. 56 
Leopard, Anglo-Gallic coin of 

Edward III, vi. 270, 271, 273 ; 

classification of, 283 

Leopold I, medal of, vii. 261 

Le Roy, Hippolyte, medal by, vii. 

Letitia Scholastica, type on medal 
of Pope Paul II, x. 342, 356 

Leucas (Coele-Syria), copper coin 
of Trajan struck at, iii. 345 

Lewes, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 266 ; 
history and coinage of Henry I, 
of, i. 251-257 

Ley den, John of, alleged portrait- 
medal of, vi. 385 

Liberty, head of, on denarii struck 
after the death of Nero, x. 47 ; 
cap of, and daggers on medal of 
Lorenzo de' Medici, 60 

Lichfield, dies granted to Bishop 
of, by Richard I, x. 313, 314 ; 
short-cross coins of,in Colchester 
hoard, iii. 144, 166 

Licinius I, coins of Alexandria of, 
ii. 108 ; of Nicomedia, iii. 222 ; 
of Heraclea, v. 130 

Licinius II, coins of Alexandria 
of, ii. 125 ; of Nicomedia, ii. 
125 ; of Heraclea, v. 147 ; aureus 
of, with reverse Jupiter, ii. 363 

Lilaea (Phocis), obol of, iii. 200 

Limavody (Ireland), Celtic orna- 
ments found at, ii. 164 

Limerick, pennies of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, iii. 134 

Limoges, Anglo- Gallic mint of 
Edward III, vi. 272 ; of Edward 
the Black Prince, viii. 102, 108, 
122, 128, 135, 143, 151, 160 

Lincoln, penny of Alfred of, iii. 
340; its Danish fabric, 351; 
moneyers and types of William 
I and II of, iv. 266 ; history and 
coinage of Henry I of, i. 257- 
273 ; short-cross pennies of, in 
the Colchester hoard, iii. 112, 
124, 145, 147, 166 

Lincolnshire. See South Ferriby 

Lind, Jenny, medals of, vii. 220, 
241, 245, 254, 255 

Lippe, denier of, in Colchester 
hoard, iii. 137 

Litta, Alberto, medal of, x. 64 

Little Haddon, token of Felix 
Calvert of, ix. 247 

Little Malvern, Roman coins 
found at, viii. 208 

Lochmaben, pennies of the Ed- 
wards found at, v. 63-82 



Lodowich or Lowys, John, Master 
of the Mint, temp. Henry V, vi. 

Loewenstark, A. P., medal by, vii. 

Lombardic letters on coins of 
Henry VIII, ii. 50 

Lomellini, Cardinal, medal of, by 
" T. R.," ii. 58 

Londinium, mint of Allectus, vi. 
134, 142 ff. ; of Carausius, vii. 
46, 60 ; gold coins of, 158 ; silver, 
159; bronze, 160; coins of Carau- 
sius of, with name and bust of 
Diocletian, 415 ; of Maximian, 
419 ; aureus of Magnus Maxi- 
mus of, viii. 108 

London Mint, monogram of, on 
coin of Alfred, iii. 352 ; coins of 
Danish fabric of, 348, 351; 
coins of Ecgbeorht of, viii. 249 ; 
moneyers and types of William 
I and II of, iv. 146 ; history and 
coinage of Henry I of, i. 273- 
316 ; short-cross pennies of, in 
the Colchester hoard, iii. 112, 124, 
146, 158, 166 ; short-cross coins 
of, x. 297-299 ; distinguished 
from Lincoln, 297-299 ; coins of 
Richard II of, iv. 326 ; gold, 343, 
345 ; silver, 347-351 ; coins of 
Henry V of, vi. 179 ff., 200-217 ; 
of Henry VI of, ii. 225, 246-249 ; 
mint of Henry VI (restored), 
x. 123-127 ; angels of, 123-124 ; 
silver of, 124-127 ; denomina- 
tions of, 124 ; mint-marks, &c., 
of, 125 ; legends of, 123-127 ; 
coins described, 136-141 ; un- 
published seventeenth - century 
tokens of, ii. 329 

London, suggested Roman mint 
in second century in, vii. 427 ; 
x. 414 

London, supposed find of groats 
in, vii. 427 

London International Exhibition, 
medals of, vii. 223, 231, 258 

London Moneyers' Corporation, 
hostility of, to Mestrell, ix. 74 ; 
to Blondeau, 85 

Longinus, C. Crassus, C. F., strikes 
coins at Antioch, iv. 116 

Loos, D. F., medal by, vii. 245 

Loos, G. B., medal by, vii. 245 

Louis Philippe, medal of, vii. 224 

Louvre, balancier de, ix. 83 

Lowestoft, coins of Henry I found 

at, v. 112 

Lowys. See Lodowich 
Lucilla, medallion of, vi. 101 
Lucio, Ludovico, medal of, by the 

" Medailleur a la Fortune," x. 53 
Lucius Verus, medallion of, vi. 

99, 100 
Lucretia, bust of, on Italian 

plaque, x. 54 
Lugdunum, coins struck at, 

found at Groveley Wood, v. 

335; at Weybridge, viii. 213; 

at Icklingham, 218 ; coins of 

Julian II of, x. 250 
LVN D, erroneously recorded mint- 
mark of Julian II, x. 250 
Lundgren, Peer, medal by, vii. 245 
Lupercus, C. Gallius, C. F., coins 

of, iv. 230, 231 
Luther, C. T. R., astronomer, 

medal of, vii. 231 
Luther, Martin, memento mori 

finger-ring of, x. 184 
Luxemburg, Grand - Duchy of, 

law of treasure trove in, ii. 156 
Lycia, coins of, iii. 400 
Lydae (Caria), coins of, iii. 399 
Lynn. See Lenn 
Lyons, altar of, on Roman coins, 

iv. 221, 223 ; see also Lugdunum 
Lysimachus, tetradrachms of, 

countermarked by Claudius I, 

ix. 10, 11 
Lysinia (Pisidia), copper coin of 

Geta of, ii. 341 
Lyte jewel attributed to George 

Heriot, viii. 353 


M on coins of Alexander the 

Great probably struck at 

Marathus or Mallus, iv. 16, 18, 

Macdonald, Sir Hector, medal of, 

vii. 247 
Macedonian coins, Graeco-Indian 

and Graeco-Bactrian imitations 

of, vi. 12 
Machanat, legend on Phoenician 

coin, suggested original of 

Latin moneta, x. 1-12 
Machinery, coinage by, in Italy, 

ix. 57-66 ; in France, 66-72 ; in 

England, 72-118 



Macrinus, aureus of, with reverse 

Jupiter, ii. 351 
Macrinus and Diadumenianus, 

medallion of, vi. 104 
Madras, E.I.C. mint of, iii. 73, 

95 ; x. 325 
Madruzzo, Cardinal, medal of, ix. 

393 ; x. 59 
Magna Graecia, <p on coins of, vii. 

Magnentius, coins of, found at 

Croydon, v. 37, 56; medallion 

of, vi. 118 
Magnesia ad Maeandrum, copper 

coin of, v. 340 
Magnia Urbica, medallion of, vi. 

Magnus Maximus, coins of, found 

at Groveley Wood, vi. 330; at 

Icklingham, viii. 218 ; solidus 

of, with Maximus and Flavius 

Victor, viii. 99 

Mahdi, the, coins of, ii. 62-69 
Mahendra, Mount, position of, ix. 


Mahmud of Ghazni, ix. 225-227 
Mahmud I of Malwa, iii. 367 ; 

coins of, iv. 72, 94, 100 
Mahmud II of Malwa, iii. 380; 

coins of, iv. 88, 97, 100 
MAI, engraver's signature on coins 

of Himera, x. 228 
Majad, a Buwayhid prince, ix. 

224-227 ; coins of, 229, 237 
Makarsha, ingot found at, x. 213 
Maldon, moneyers and types of 

William I and II of, iv. 271; 

mint of Henry I, i. 160, 162, 

Maler, Christian, medal by, x. 74, 


Maler, Valentin, medallist, iv. 60 
Malms, double-darics of, iv. 16, 18, 

Malmesbury, "Agnus Dei" penny 

of Aethelred II of, x. 288 ; 

moneyers and types of William 

1 and II of, iv. 271 ; mint 

abolished at, i. 407 
Malvern. See Little Malvern 
Malwa, history and coinage of, 

iii. 356-399 ; iv. 62-100 
Mamcrtini, coin of the, with head 

of the god Hadran, ix. 131 
Man, Isle of, Anglo-Saxon coins 

found in, x. 268 ; Wood's coin- 
age for, iii. 56 

Manchester, Roman coins found 

at, ix. 431 
Manlius Torquatus, L., denarius 

of, with torque, ix. 411 
Marathus, probable issue of double- 
darics at, iv. 16, 18, 33 
Marcus Aurelius. See Aurelius 
Maria Alexandrovna, Grand- 
Duchess of Russia, marriage 
medal of, vii. 258 
Maria Theresa, dollars of, circula- 
ting in the Sudan, ii. 64 
Marie of Edinburgh, Princess, 

marriage medal of, vii. 257 
Marlborough mint, coin of the 
moneyer Cilda of, ii. 20-24 : 
moneyers and types of William 
I and II of, iv. 271 ; abolition of, 
i. 407 
Marmande, Anglo-Gallic mint of 

Henry IV, viii. 169, 173 
Mars, type on a contorniate, ix. 31 
Martinianus, coins of, struck at 

Nicomedia, iii. 253 
Mary I of England, coins of, found 
at Oswestry, v. 101 ; at Bridg- 
north, viii. 320 
Marzi, Galeotto, medal of, ix. 393 ; 

x. 52 

Masler, Johann, medal of, iv. 60 
Masson, L. F. R., Governor of 

Quebec, medal of, vii. 224 
Masulipatam, E.I.C. coins of, iii. 


Matilda, wife of Henry I, i. 93, 
194, 234, 413; her rights at 
Norwich, 328-331 
" Matri Deum Salutari " on medal- 
lion of Faustina II, viii. 56 ; on 
contorniate, 60 

Maximian I, medallion of, vi. 119, 
210 ; and Carausius and Diocle- 
tian, coins of, struck at Camu- 
lodunum, vii. 414; coins of 
Alexandria of, ii. 97 ; of Hera- 
clea, v. 124 ; aureus of, with Her- 
cules and Salus, ii. 359 ; coins 
of, found at Weybridge, viii. 

Maximinus Daza, coins of Alexan- 
dria of, ii. 98 ff. ; of Nicomedia, 
iii. 213 ff. ; of Heraclea, v. 125 
Mayer, W., medal by, vii. 247 
Mazaios, Satrap of Cilicia, coins 
attributed to, ii. 81 ; iii. 41, 44, 
45 ; iv. 1, 5, 6, 8 ; coins struck 
in Babylon by, vi. 23 



Mazandaran, coins struck by 
Abbas I at, viii. 371 

" Medailleur a la Fortune," medals 
by, x. 53, 54 

Medallions, Roman, in the Hunter 
Collection, vi. 93-126; in the 
Evans Collection, x. 97-109 

Medical Congress, International 
medal on, x. 95 

Medici, Alexander de', medal on 
murder of, ix. 402 ; x. 48, 59-60 ; 
Lorenzo de', medal on escape of, 
x. 51-52 

Megalopolis and Sebasteia identi- 
fied, ii. 9 

Melkarth, a Phoenician deity, ix. 
130; x. 2, 232, 234 

Memento mori devices, mediaeval, 
ix. 383-387 ; Shakesperian allu- 
sions to, 386 ; modern, 387-392 ; 
medals, Danish, x. 67-72 ; Eng- 
lish, 76-81 

Mercandetti, medal of Aloisio 
Galvani by, x, 92 

Mercator, Michael, medal of, iv. 
48 ; executed Drake map-medal, 
vi. 348 

Merlen, J. B., medals by, vii. 247 

Merley, Louis, medal by, vii. 248 

Mescinius, L., Roman moneyer, 
iv. 225 

Messalla, coins of, iv. 234 

Messalla, Volusus Valerius, coins 
of, iv. 231 

Messana, coins of, with dolphins, 
viii. 6, 7 

Mestrell, strikes coins at Tower 
Mint in 1561, ix. 73, 74; con- 
fusion between Philip and Eloye, 

Metapontum, coins of, found at 
Tarentum, ix. 235-257 ; alliance 
with Tarentum, 260 

Metrology, Persian, 1502-1739, viii. 

Metsys, Quentin, made a medal of 
Erasmus, now lost, x. 56 

M. G., initials of Matteo Gebel, 
iv. 84 

Middelburg, Guild of Surgeons of, 
x. 88 

Middlesex, unpublished seven- 
teenth- century token of, ii. 382 

Miletopolis, copper coins of, iv. 
299; vii. 441 

Miletus and Cos, copper coins of 
Antoninus Pius of, iv. 304 

Miliarensis, first issue of, iii. 276- 
277 ; v. 161 

Mill-money (monnaie du monlin) 
instituted in France, ix. 68 ; 
opposition to, 72 ; in England', 
74 ; re-established in France in 
1640, 84 ; definition of and con- 
fusion with milled money, 77-79 

Milled money, modern use of the 
term, ix. 78 

Millennium, belief in approach of, 
in Aethelred IPs reign, x. 279, 

Minerva, type on a contorniate 
ix. 44 

Minorca, medalet on loss of, ix. 365 
400 ; x. 90 

Mint, Royal, Simon's dies in the, 
Ac., ix. 56-118 

Mirzapur district, Gupta coins 
found in, x. 398-408 

Miscal, Persian weight, weight of 
viii. 357, 358 

Mithradates Euergetes of Parthia, 
v. 117, 118, 231, 238; coins at- 
tributed to, 137, 245 

Mithradates I, coins to be attri- 
buted to, vii. 129 

Mithradates II, coins to be attri- 
buted to, vii. 141 

Moawiyahll, Caliph, seal of,x. 191 

Molossi (Epirus), silver coin of, 
iii. 321 

M ON ETA on coins of Aethelred 
II, x. 378, 384 

MONETA on Roman coins, x. 7 

Moneta, etymology of, x. 1-12 

Monetae (Tres), type on a contor- 
niate, ix. 54 

Monetagium, tax of, and change 
of coin-type, ii. 209-211 

Moneyers at Rome, their number, 
iv. 238 ; revival of, under Augus- 
tus, 238, 239 

Moneyers, English, method of 
identifying moneyers of the 
same name, x. 292-294 

Monmouth and Argyle, medal of 
execution of, ix, 400 ; x. 85, 86 

Montagny, J. P., medals by, vii. 

Montefiore, Lady Judith, medals 
of, vii. 249, 262 

Montefiore, Sir Moses, medals of, 
vii. 244, 249, 250, 262, 267 

Montgomery, James, medal of, 
vii. 223 



Montreal Civic Library, medal of, 

vii. 238 
MO- ON transition on coins of 

Aethelred II, x. 263, 267, 372, 373 
Moralische Pfennige of Basel, ix. 

375, 392, 393 ; x. 76, 78 
Morel-Ladeuil, L., medal by, vii. 


Morgagni, medal of, vii. 252 
Moro, Tommaso, medal of, ix. 393 ; 

x. 59 
Morrison, Alfred, medallic portrait 

of, vii. 243 
Mould for fabrication of coins of 

Henry VI, v. 205 
Mouton d'or wrongly attributed 

to Edward III, vi. 274 
Mucianus, C. Licinius Crassus, 

coins of Antioch of, iv. 122 
Mughal Emperors, unpublished 

coins of, ii. 275 ff . ; coins of later, 

distinguished from E.I.C., iii. 72 ; 

additional mints of, 194 
Muhafiz Khan, Governor of Mandu, 

iii. 380, 383 
Muhammad I of Malwa, iii. 366 ; 

iv. 71, 94 
Muhammad II of Malwa, iii. 381- 

383 ; iv. 91, 97 
Muhammad, Mughal Emperor, 

coins of, ii. 301 ; coins of 

Balapur in name of, x. 160- 

162 ; of Surat, 327, 328 
Muhammad Ali, Nawab of the Car- 

natic, x. 146-157 ; seeks British 

assistance, 148, 149; his suc- 
cesses, 150 ; treaties with the 

British, 153, 154 ; death of, 134 ; 

coins described, 156, 157 ; coins 

wrongly attributed to, 325 
Muhammad Ibrahim, Mughal 

pretender, coin of, ii. 301 
Muhammad bin Dushmanzar, 

coins of, ix. 226, 227, 229, 230, 

Muh ammadKhodabandah, weights 

of coins of, viii. 360-370 
Muizz-ad-daulah, a Buwayhid 

prince, ix. 221, 222 
Mules of coin-types of Aethelred 

II, x. 252, 270, 376, 377, 384 
Munbai (Bombay), E.I.C. coins of, 

iii. 73, 91 
Miinster, denier of, in Colchester 

hoard, iii. 137 
Murex symbol on coins of Corinth, 

ix. 342 

Murphy, P. J., prize medal, vii. 

Murshidabad, E.I.C. mint of, iii. 

75, 78, 80 
Mu'tamid-ad-daulah, an 'Okaylid, 

coin of, iii. 179 
Muwahhids, gold coins of the, ii. 

Mylne, Robert, F.R.S., medal 

awarded to, by the Academy of 

St. Luke, iv. 181-183 
Mysia, coins collected in, vi. 26- 

36 ; vii. 440 
Mytilene, silver coins of, ii. 333 ; 

copper coin of, with portraits of 

Sextus and Andromeda, 334 


NA as abbreviation for a mint of 

Henry I, i. 316-318, 359 
Nabis, tyrant of Lacedaemon, 

coins of, ix. 3-6 
Nadir, Shah of Persia, weights of 

his coins, vii. 365 
Nagpur, late Mughal coins circu- 
lating in, x. 328 
Nahtarnagar, coin of Muhammad 

Ali struck at, x. 325, 326 
Nankenreut, Siegmund von, medal 

of, iv. 57 
Nantes, medal on Revocation of 

Edict of, x. 86 
Napoleon I, medal of, vii. 234; 

" Descente en Angleterre " 

Medal of, 434-439 ; imitation of 

Droz, 437 
Napoleon III, medal of, vii. 236 ; 

medal of, on visit of Queen 

Victoria and Prince Albert, 248 
Nasir-ad-din Khilji of Malwa, iii. 

379 ; coin of, iv. 85, 96, 99 
Nassaro, Matteo del, his coin-mill, 

ix. 68, 69 
Nathan Gebriider, medals by, vii. 

249, 250 
Natorp, Gustav, medal by, vii. 

Naukratis (Egypt), copper coin of, 

ii. 344 ; Athenian coins found 

at, viii. 202, 204 
NE as abbreviation for a mint of 

Henry I, i. 312, 313, 316-318 
Neandria (Troas), silver coin of, 

ii. 331 



Neapolis ad Harpasum (Caria), 
coin of, iii. 400 

Neapolis (Campania), didrachm 
of, iii. 319 

Nero, coins of, found in Southwark, 
iii. 100 ; in Croydon, vii. 366 ; 
head of, on contorniates, ix. 
32-34 ; as Mercury, 31 ; as 
Hercules, 31 

Nerva, coins of, found at Croydon, 
vii. 366; at Castle Bromwich, 
x. 14, 19, 20; at Nottingham, 
206; copper coin of, struck at 
Apollonia ad. Rhyndacum, vii. 

Nesb0, Anglo-Saxon coins found 
at, x. 268 

Nevill, Archbishop of York, coins 
of, ix. 180, 181, 211, 218 ; x. 134, 

Nevill, Bishop, his badge on coins 
of Durham, ii. 260 

Newark, mint of Henry I, coins 
of, i. 316-318 

Newcastle, coins of Henry I of, 
i. 181, 182 

Newton, Sir Isaac, his report on 
Wood's coinage, iii. 352 

Nicias, Peace of, perhaps com- 
memorated on coins of Corinth, 
ix. 355 

Nicolson, Josias, memorial medal 
of, ix. 241-249 ; x. 84 

Nicomedia, coins of Constantino 
period struck at, iii. 211 ff. ; 
copper coin of Faustina II struck 
at, 332 ; clay moulds of coins of, 
v. 247 ; coins of Julian II of, x. 

Nicostrates commands Greeks in 
Egypt, iii. 18, 19 

Nike of Samothrace, on coins of 
Demetrius, ix. 267-269 

Nimbus on Roman coins, symbol 
of Imperial power, iii. 244, 269 

Normandy, custom of treasure 

trove in, ii. 130 

Northampton, moneyers and types 
of William I and II of, iv. 271 ; 
of Henry I, i. 318-326 ; short- 
cross pennies of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, iii. 112, 129, 149, 
158, 167 

Norwich, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 271 ; of 
Henry I, i. 326-339 ; short-cross 
pennies of, in the Colchester 

hoard, iii. 112, 129, 149, 168 ; 
mint established in 1465 at, ix. 
152 ; coins of, 159, 160, 173, 174, 
199, 207 ; coinage in 1696-1697 
at, vi. 358 
Notices of books : 

Armitage-Smith, S., John of 

Gaunt, v. 315, 316 
Babelon, E., Traitt des monnaies 

grecques et romaines, vol. i. 

pt. i., ii. 189-191 
Bahrfeldt, Die Miinzen der 

Flottenprafecten des Marcus 

Antonius, vi. 91, 92 
Codrington, 0., A Manual of 

Musulman Numismatics, iv. 

103, 104 
Craster, H. H. E., Roman 

Coins from Corstopitum, ix. 

431 ; x. 413, 414 
Dieudonne", A., Melanges Nu- 

mismatiques, x. 251, 252 
Engel, A., et Serrure, E., Traite 

de Numismatique du Moyen 

Age, vol. iii., v. 401, 402 
Fabriczy, Die Medaillen der 

italienischen Renaissance, iii. 

Friedensburg, F., Die Munze in 

der Kulturgeschichte, x. 208 
Fritze, H. von, Die Mttnzen von 

Pergamon, x. 207, 208 
and Gaebler, H., 

Nomisma, pt. i., vii. 441, 442 
Gnecchi, Fr., An Elementary 

Manual of Roman Coins 

(translated by Eev. A. W. 

Hands), iv. 288 
Haeberlin, E. J., Die Systematik 

des ciltesten rb'mischen MiLnz- 

wesens, vii. 111-120 
Macdonald, G., Catalogue of 

Greek Coins in the Hunterian 

Museum, vol. ii., ii. 188, 189 
Maurice, J., Numismatique Con- 

stantinienne, vol. i., viii. 376 
Eapson, E. J., Catalogue of 

Andhra, (&c., Coins in the 

British Museum, ix. 119, 120 
Eawlings, Miss G. B., Coins and 

How to Know Them, viii. 379, 

Eegling, K., Die griechischen 

Miinzen der Sammlung 

Warren, vii. 352 
Eondot, N., Les Medailleurs, 

<&c., de France, iv. 362 



Notices of books contd. 
Smith, V. A., Catalogue of Coins 
in the Indian Museum, vol. i., 
vii. 273-276 
Ward, J., Greek Coins and their 

Parent Cities, ii. 192, 193 
Wright, H. N., Catalogue of 
Coins in the Indian Museum, 
vol. iii., x. 326-328 
Nottingham, moneyers and types 
of William I and II of, iv. 272 ; 
of Henry I, 340-351 ; Roman 
coins found at, x. 216 
Numeral letters on coins of Syria, 

iii. 105 
Nummi Castrenses, nature of, iv. 

Nummus Centenimialis, issue of, 

iii. 236 ; v. 149, 175 
Nuremberg counters and galley 

halfpence, ii. 248 

Nysa (Lydia), copper coin of, v. 


Oak-spray, attribute of Jupiter, on 

medallion of Diocletian, x. 102 
Oba, money er of Ecgbeorht, viii. 

Obole, Anglo-Gallic coin of Edward 

III, vi. 278; classification of, 

Obols, Athenian, with hieroglyphs, 

viii. 198 ff . 

Obolus of Charon, x. 182, 183, 202 
Occo, Adolph III, medals of, ix. 

393 ; x. 68 

Ochus. See Artaxerxes III 
O'Connell, Daniel, medal of, vii. 

O'Connor, Arthur, senr., medal of, 

vii. 229 
O'Connor, Arthur, junr., medal of, 

vii. 230 
O'Connor, Eliza C., medal of, vii. 

Octavia and Anthony, bronze coin 

of, struck in the East, iv. 192, 

196, 205 
Octavius, bronze coins of, struck 

in the East, iv. 198, 208; in 

Gaul, 220. See also Augustus 
Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, i. 173-175, 

Odo of Winchester, i. 393, 396 

Oertel Medallic Establishment, 

medals issued by, vii. 250 
Ohrwalder, Father, on the coinage 

of the Sudan, ii. 65, 67 
Okaylid dynasty, coin of, iii. 177 ; 

history of, 187 
Olaf Skotkonung, coin of, found 

with those of Aethelred II, x. 

267, 268 
Old Szijny (Brigetio), Roman gold 

coins found at, x. 100, 102 
Olive-branch, its significance on 

the coins of Syracuse and Gela, 

viii. 2, 4, 8 
Oliver, Aubin, superintendent of 

the French mint, ix. 69 
Oliver, Isaac, pupil of Nicholas 

Hilliard, viii. 333 
Olophyxus (Macedonia), copper 

coin of, iii. 319 
Olympias, type on contorniates, ix. 

35, 37, 44 
Orndurman, coins struck by the 

Khalifa at, ii. 62 
Oppius, Q., bronze coins of, iv. 

224 ; struck at Rome, 235 ; 

history of, 237 
Orange Club Medal, vii. 262 
Orichalcum, when first used in 

Roman coins, iv. 214, 240 ; its 

composition, 241 
Orontes, Satrap of Mysia, iii. 6-8 ; 

coins of 8, 11 
Osbert, Sheriff of York, temp. 

Henry I, i. 483, 484 
Osmund, moneyer of Ecgbeorht, 

viii. 245, 247 
Ostrich head, badge of the Peckham 

family (?), v. 400 
Oswald, moneyer of Norwich of 

Aethelred II, x. 271 
Oswestry, find of English coins at, 

v. 100-108 
Otacilia Severa, medallion of, vi. 

112 ; copper coin of, struck at 

Etenna, iii. 339 ; medallions of, 

with Philip I and II, vi. 113 
Otrnar, Hans Wolf s medal of, iv. 


Otto, M. Salvius, coins of, iv. 232 
'Otto IV, Emperor, deniers of, in 

the Colchester hoard, iii. 137 
Otto, moneyer of William I and II, 

last work of, iv. 247 
Oxford, moneyers and types of 

William I and II of, iv. 273 ; of 

Henry I, 351-359, 434, 435; 



short-cross pennies of, in the 
Colchester hoard, iii. 112, 130 ; 
moneyers of, 150, 158 ; history 
of mint, 168 ; coins of Charles I 
with monogram Bn, to be 
transferred from Bristol to 
Oxford, x. 203-205 

Oxford University, foundation of 
the Head Prize in, ix. 250-251 

Oxfordshire, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century tokens of, ii. 

Oxyrhynchus. See Behnesa 



of Paul II, x. 346, 357 
Packe, A. E., his view that Henry 

VI coined gold at York con- 
firmed, x. 121 
Paine, Thomas, satirical tokens 

of, ix. 401 ; x. 91, 92 
Palaeologi of the Morea and Paul 

II, x. 359 
Pall and cross on coins of Alfred 

the Great, ii. 202 
Pallas, head of, on coins of Corinth, 

ix. 334 ff . ; on coins of Deme- 
trius, 267 ff. 
Palm-branch, symbol on coins of 

Corinth, ix. 344, 345, 349 
Palmette, symbol on coins of 

Corinth, ix. 353 
Pan, head of, on coin of Syracuse, 

viii. 14 
Pandina, figure of, on coins of 

Hipponium, iv. 292 
Pantheon Gardens, Spa Fields, 

tickets of admission to, ii. 75 
Panticapaeum, copper coin of, iv. 


Paquet, A. C., medal by, vii. 251 
Paris, cholera epidemic of 1832 in, 

medal on, x. 73 
Paris, Peace of, 1814, medal of, vii. 

269; Peace of, 1856, medal of, 

Parlais (Lycaonia), copper coin of, 

ii. 342 
Parmigiani, Lorenzo, medal of 

Cardinal Madruzzo by, x. 59 
Parthia, early coins of, v. 209, 

233, vii. 125 ; to be transferred 

to Armenia, v. 243; vi. 222; 

provenance of, v. 319 ; vi. 222 ; 

types of, v. 320; vi. 224; vii. 
127, 128 

Parthian coins found in Balu- 
chistan, iv. 314 

Passe, Simon van de, his engraved 
portraits, viii. 269; plaque of 
Charles I attributed to, 271 

Pau, machine-made coins of 1556 
of, ix. 70 

Paul II, Pope, medals of, x. 340- 
369 ; a collector of coins, 340 ; 
fondness for foundation-stone 
deposits, 353; finds of coins 
of, 354; re-organizes Eoman 
University, 356; and Peace of 
Italy, 359 ; Jubilee medal of, 389 ; 
medallists of, 360-369 

Pausanias of Macedon, copper 
coin of, vi. 317 

Pawlick, F. X., medal by, vii. 251 

" Pax " coins of Edward the Con- 
fessor, v. 202 

PAXS type of William I, i. 179, 
183 ; iv. 170, 171 

Pazzi conspiracy, medals on, ix. 
402 ; x. 51-52 

Peckham family, badge of, v. 

Pegasus, on coins of Corinth, ix. 
334-343 ; straight-winged, 346- 
351; curled-winged, 347, 349, 
350 ; drinking, 350, 351 ; tied to 
a ring, 353-356 

Peloponnese, coins of Antigonus 
and Demetrius issued in the, ix. 
265, 269 

Pergamon (Mysia), cistophorus of, 
ii. 330 ; copper coins of, iv. 300 ; 
H. von Fritze on coins of, x. 
207, 208 

Perger, B., medal of Pope Clement 
XIV by, iv. 183 

Perinthus (Thrace), copper coins 
of, iv. 294 

Periwig, introduction of the, ix. 

Persephone, head of, on Cartha- 
ginian coins, x. 2 

Persian coins (1502-1737), metro- 
logy of, viii. 366 

Pescennius Niger, aureus of, with 
reverse " Fortuna redux," viii. 

Pest-token, Danish, x. 95 

Peterborough Mint, moneyers and 
types of William I and II of, iv. 
274 ; of Henry I of, 360-371 

2 i 



Petronius, P., P. F., strikes coins 

for Antioch, iv. 116 
Pevensey Mint, moneyers and 

types of William I and II of, iv. 

274; temp. Henry I, i. 204, 

Phalanna (Thessaly), copper coin 

of, ii. 319 

Philiarchos, a Tarentine magis- 
trate, ix. 260 
Philip III of Macedon, gold stater 

of, iii. 320 
Philip V of Macedon, tetradrachm 

of, ix. 5 
Philip I, Roman Emperor, copper 

coin of Diocaesarea, iv. 306; 

with Otacilia and Philip II, 

medallions of, vi. 113 
Philip II, medallion of, vi. 114 ; 

see also Philip I 
Philip, Archbishop of Cologne, 

denier of, in Colchester hoard, 

iii. 136 
Philip and Mary, coins of, found 

at Oswestry, v. 101 ; at Bridg- 

north, viii. 320 ; at Constable 

Burton, ix. 286 ; at Winterslow, 

x. 205 

Phocian obols, notes on, iii. 197 
Phoenician obol with name 

" lahve," ix. 121-131 
Phoenix Street, Wood's coins 

struck in, iii. 50, 55 
Phraates, King of Parthia, coins 

attributed to, v. 237 
Phriapates, King of Parthia, coins 

attributed to, v. 237 
Phules'vari, an Ahom queen, coins 

of, ix. 304, 316, 317 
Pieria and Seleucus, numeral 

letters on coins of, iii. 107 
Pieroiii, , medal by, vii. 252 
Pine - cone - mascle coinage of 

Henry VI, ii. 241 ; iv. 304 
Pine-cone-pellet coinage of Henry 

VI, ii. 257 ; iv. 308 
Pine-cone-trefoil coinage of Henry 

VI, ii. 251 
Piso, Cii. Calpurnius, coins of, iv. 

228, 229 
Pistrucci, Benedetto, medals by, 

vii. 252 

Pixodaros, dynast of Caria, coin- 
age of, iii. 26 

Placia (Mysia), coin of, vi. 35 
Plancus, L. Munatius, coins of, iv. 

224, 235 

Planta, Joseph, medallic portrait 

of, vii. 253 
Platina Bartolemmeo, on character 

of Paul II, x. 353 
Plato, so-called portrait of, on 

gems, x. 168 
Plimsoll, Samuel, medal of, vii. 

229 ; ix. 404 ; x. 94 
Plumbago mould for fabrication of 

coins of Henry VII, v. 265 
Pnytagorag, King of Cyprus, coin- 
age of, iii. 37, 39 
Pocket pieces, early milled coins 

used as, ix. 73 
Poemanenum (Mysia), coins of, vi. 

35 ; vii. 441 
Poitiers, Anglo-Gallic mint of 

Edward III, vi. 272 ; of Ed- 
ward the Black Prince, viii. 

102, 108 ; gold coins of, 122, 125, 

129 ; silver, 137, 144 ; billon, 158, 

160, 161 
Poitou, Anglo-Gallic coins of 

Henry II of, v. 366 ; of Richard 

I, 373 
Polemon II of Pontus, coins of, 

ii. 4 
Pompey, Cnaeus, bronze coins of, 

struck in Spain, iv. 216, 217 
Pompey, Sextus, bronze coins of, 

struck in Spain, iv. 216, 217 
Ponthieu, Anglo-Gallic coins of 

Edward I of, v. 386 ; of Edward 

III of, vi. 281, 320 
Pontic eras, ii. 1-11 
Populonia, metrology of, x. 209- 

Poseidon on coins of Demetrius 

Poliorcetes, ix. 271, 272 
Potidaea (Macedonia), copper 

coins of, ii. 315, 316 
Pozzi, J. H., physician of Bologna, 

medal of, x. 89 
Pramathes"vari, an Ahom queen, 

coins of, ix. 305, 307, 319, 320 
Pramatta Simha, an Ahom king, 

coins of, ix. 301, 309, 313 
Pratapa Simha, an Ahom king, 

coins of, ix. 301, 309, 313 
Preston, Abraham, graver at the^ 

Mint in 1641-2, x. 396 
Priapus (Mysia), coins of, vi. 35 
Probus, medallion of, vi. 117 
Proconnessus, Island of, silver 

coin from, iv. 301 
Prostanna (Pisidia), copper coin of 

Elagabalus of, iii. 340 



Prussia, Frederick William Victor 

of, marriage medal of, vii. 239 
Psyche on Roman gems, x. 168- 

Ptolemaic coins circulated in 

Roman times, x. 334 
Ptolemy II, coin of, found in 

Egypt, x. 333, 334 
Ptolemy VII, coins of, found in 

Egypt, x. 333, 334 
Pulcher, Clodius, coins of, iv. 226 
Punic coins found at Tarentum, 

ix. 256, 257 
Puritans, wearing of rings with 

death's heads by, x. 184 
Pylaemenes Euergetes, King of 

Paphlagonia, copper coin of, iii. 

Pythodoric era, commencement 

of, ii. 1 
Pyx, trial of the, x. 388-394 ; in 

time of James I, 389 ; of Charles 

I, 390-394 


al-Qadir, a Buwayhid prince, ix. 

Quadrans, issue of, in Gaul, iv. 

222, 223 ; reissue at Rome under 

Augustus, 241; metal of, 241; 

type of, 242 
Quadratus, C. Ummidius Durmius, 

strikes coins for Antioch, iv. 117 
Quadriga, victorious, type on con- 

torniates, ix. 32, 35, 36, 44, 51-53 
" Quadrilateral " type of Aethelred 

II, x. 257, 258, 289 
Qualla, Theodorus, medals of, by 

Timotheus Refatus, ii. 55, 56, 61 
Quebec Agricultural and Industrial 

Exhibition, medal of, vii. 235 
Quebec, Laval University of, medal 

of, vii. 237 
Queen's College, Cambridge, 

seventeenth-century tokens in, 

ii. 378 
Quinarius, first issue of, iv. 186 ; 

probable cessation of, 188; re- 
issue of, 189 ; (?) of Allectus, vi. 

Quinctilianus, Sextus Nonius, 

coins of, iv. 232 
Quinio, Roman gold coin of five 

aurei, struck at Tarraco, found 

at Old Szony, x. 102 


Radnitzky, Count, medals by, vii. 

Rafia'-ad-Darajat, Mughal Em- 
peror, coins of, ii. 300 

Ragha, a Moran rebel in Assam, 
ix. 306 

Rajesvara Sirhha, an Ahom king, 
coins of, ix. 305, 309, 320-322 

Ramage, David, at the Royal 
Mint, ix. 85-87 ; x. 396 

Ramakanta, an Assamese rebel, 
said to have struck coins, ix. 

RAV, erroneously recorded mint- 
mark of Julian II, x. 250 

Reading, history and coinage of 
Henry I at, i. 371-378 

Refatus, Timotheus, of Mantua, 
medals by, ii. 55-61 

Reginus, C. Antistius, Roman 
moneyer, iv. 231 

Regulus, L. Livineius, coins of, 
iv. 226 

Reimer, Hans, medallist, iv. 60 

Reinaud, short-cross moneyer, 
coin of Class II. of, wrongly 
attributed to Chichester, x. 312 

Renius, L., coins of, with Juno 
Sospita, x. 7 

Rey, Koos de la, medal of, vii. 

Rhoemetalces I of Thrace, copper 
coin of, iv. 294 

Rhuddlan Mint, moneyers and 
types of William I and II of, 
iv. 274; temp. Henry I, i. 147, 
492 ; short-cross pennies of, in 
Colchester hoard, iii. 112, 133 ; 
moneyers of, 155, 158 ; history 
of, 172 

RIG, supposed mint of Henry I, 
explained, i. 378 

Riccio, Domenico, medal of, ix. 
393 ; x. 52 

Richard I, short-cross coinage of, 
iii. 156; grants dies to Bishop 
of Lichfield, x. 313; Anglo- 
Gallic coins of, v. 367, 372 

Richard II, coinage of, iv. 326- 
352 ; groats of Edward III 
attributed to, 329 ; earliest half- 
pence and farthings of, 329 ; 
nobles and half-nobles of, 330 ; 
varieties of bust on groats, 335 ; 
mint-marks, 337; classification 




of coins of, 343-352; iv. 85; 
coin-dies of, used by Henry IV, 
iv. 260 ; Anglo-Gallic coins of, 
viii. 163-168; groat of, found 
in London, vii. 430 ; in Hamp- 
shire, viii. 315 

Richborough. See Rutupiae 

Rieneck, Thomas, Graf zu, medal 
of, iv. 47 

Rings, memorial, ix. 393 ff. ; x. 
183 ff. 

Roberts, Earl, medal of, vii. 234 

Rochelle, Anglo-Gallic Mint of 
Edward III, vi. 272, 276; of 
Edward the Black Prince, viii. 
102, 108 ff. 

Rochester Mint, of Ecgbeorht, viii. 
248 ; moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 274 ; of 
Henry I, i. 378 384; short- 
cross pennies of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, iii. 112, 130; 
moneyers of, 151, 158 ; history 
of the mint, 168 

Rod, Richard, his testimony that 
the B\ coins of Charles I were 
struck at Oxford, i. 203 

Rogat, E., medal by, on a cholera 
epidemic in Paris (1832), x. 93 

Roma, type on a contorniate, ix, 
35 ; on coins of Alexandria, 
275 ff. 

Rome, bronze coinage of 45-3 B.C., 
iv. 185-244; struck in the 
East, 192 ; denominations, 211, 
213, 214 ; weights, 213, 214 ; 
analyses, 213, 215 ; struck in 
Spain, 216 ; denominations and 
analyses, 220 ; struck in Gaul, 
220 ; denominations and analy- 
ses, 223 ; struck at Rome, 
224 ; temporary reissue of, 235 ; 
renewal of, under Augustus, 238, 
239 ; analyses and types of, 241 ; 
first silver Republican coinage 
of, iv. 186 ; standards of bronze, 
186, 188 ; first issue of gold, 187 ; 
method of production of cast 
coins, v. 342 ; origin of Roman 
standard, x. 209-222 

Roman Empire, medallions of, in 
the Hunterian Museum, vi. 93 ; 
contorniates in the Hunterian 
Museum, ix. 19-55 ; rare or un- 
published gold and silver coins 
of, ii. 345 ; viii. 85-101. See also 
Finds of coins 

Roman law of treasure trove, ii. 

Roman letters on coins of Henry 

VIII, ii. 50 
" Romano," epithet of medallist 

Pietro Paolo Galeotti, x. 66 
Romney Mint, moneyers and types 

of William I and II of, iv. 274 ; 

not operating temp. Henry I, i. 

" Rosa Americana " coinage struck 

by William Wood, iii. 53, 56, 63 
Roselli, Antonio, medal of, by 

Bellano, x. 362-364 
Rosenbaum, Lorenz, plaque and 

medal by, x. 61 
Rosette-mascle coinage of Henry 

VI, ii. 238 ; iii. 303 
Ross, Sir Patrick, medal of, vii. 269 
Roth, J. G., medal by, vii. 256 
Rothschild family, medals of, vii. 

Rotomagus, coins of, under 

Carausius, vii. 31, 47, 50, 316, 

423, 424 ; mint -marks of, 65 
Rouen, Anglo-Gallic coins of 

Richard I of, v. 379 
Rouen, Roman Mint. See Roto- 
Roumania, Crown, Prince of, 

marriage medal of, vii. 257 
Royal Humane Society, Fother- 

gill medal of, x. 92, 93 
Royal Mint Museum, coins of 

William II in, v. 109 ; Simon's 

dies in, ix. 56-118 
R S R, mint-initials on coins of 

Carausius, vii. 46, 49, 303 ; pro- 
posed explanation of, 48 
Rudolph II, Emperor, medal of, 

iv. 59 
Rudra Sirhha, an Ahom king, 

coins of, ix. 302, 303, 309, 315 
Rufus, C. Plotius, coins of, iv. 229 
Rukn-ad-daulah, a Buwayhid 

prince, ix. 221, 222 ; coins of, 

228, 232, 234 

Rumford, Count von (Sir Benja- 
min Thompson), medal of, vii. 

Russia, Alliance of England and 

France against, 1853, medal of, 

vii. 248 
Rustius, Q. Roman money er, iv. 

Rutupiae (Richborough) mint (?) 

of Carausius, vii. 47 



Byal, introduction of, ix. 151; 
discontinued, x. 119 


S. W., a German medallist, x. 63 
Saadut Ulla Khan, Nawab of the 

Carnatic, x. 147 
Sabina, copper coin of, struck at 

Tmolus (Lydia), iii. 337 ; denarii 

of, found at Castle Bromwich, x. 

14, 28, 29 
Sabine women, rape of, type on 

a contorniate, ix. 33 
Safaar Ali, Nawab of the Carnatic, 

x. 147 
San I, Shah of Persia, legends 

and weights of coins of, viii. 

361, 372 
Sahib Khan revolts, ii. 381-382; 

assumes title of Muhammad II 

of Malwa, 383 

St. Bartholomew, medal on Mas- 
sacre of, x. 64-65 
St. Denis, half-denier of Charles 

the Bald of, found at Stamford, 

iii. 350, 354 
St. Edmundsbury Mint, history 

and coins of Henry I of, i. 385- 

392 ; short-cross pennies of, in 

the Colchester hoard, iii. 112, 

130 ; moneyers of, 151 ; history 

of mint, 169 
St. Giles, Friedrich, Abbot of, 

in Nuremberg, medal of, iv. 50 
St. John the Baptist on medals of 

Paul II, x. 344, 345 
St. John's College, Oxford, gives 

college plate to Charles I, x. 

St. Luke, Academy of, at Eome, 

medal of, iv. 180-183 
St. Mary Hill Church, London, 

coins of William I found at, 

iv. 145 
St. Peter and St. Paul on medals 

of Paul II, x. 346, 347, 352 
Salamis, battle of, and coins of 

Antigonus Poliorcetes, ix. 265, 

Salis, Count de, his classification 

of the Roman Republican coin- 
age, iv. 185 
Salisbury, mint, moneyers, and 

types of William I and II of, 

iv. 275 ; of Henry I, 392-402 ; 

coins found near, see Winter- 

Sallust, bust of, type on a con- 
torniate, ix. 38 

Salonina, medallion of, vi. 116 
Samos, copper coin of, struck by 

Trajan, iv. 303 
Samudragupta, gold coins of, 

found in Mirzapur, x. 399, 400 
Sandrart, Joachim, medal of, iv, 

Sandwich, mint, moneyers, and 

types of William I and II of, iv. 

275 ; of Henry, i. 402-405 ; coins 

previously attributed to, 390 
Sandy (Beds.), ancient British 

coins found at, ii. 192 
Sanquinius, M., M. F., coins of, iii. 

Santa Maura Canal constructed, 

medal of, vi. 269 
Sardinia, ingots found in, x. 211 
Sarhind, Mughal mint, history of, 

ii. 280 
Sarvananda Sirhha, an Ahom king, 

coins of, ix. 307, 327 
Sarvesvari, an Ahom queen, coins 

of, ix. 304, 318, 319 
Sassanian coins found in Balu- 
chistan, iv. 315 
Satrapal coins of Mazaios, ii. 81 ; 

iii. 26, 27, 29 
Saturninus, L. Volusius, Q. F., 

strikes coins for Antioch, iv. 100 
Saulles, George William de, 

obituary notice of, iii. 310-312 
Scandinavian coins, probably of 

Lincoln, i. 261 ; the earliest, 

x. 280 
Sceptre and sword on coin of 

William II, iv. 246, 247 
Sceptres (two) on coins of William 

I, iv. 159 

Scharff, Anton, medals by, vi. 257 
Schnitzpahn, Christian, medals by, 

vii. 258 
Schomberg, Marshal, medal of, ix. 

394, 411 ; x. 389 
Schwab, Marx, supplies machinery 

for coining to Henri IV, ix. 68 
Schwarz, Hans, medallist, iv. 43 
Scione (Macedonia), early silver 

coins of, v. 325 
Scotland, law of treasure trove in, 

ii. 173 ; coins of, in the Colchester 

hoard, iii. 112, 135, 174 ; Roman 

coins found in, v. 10 ; find of 



Edward pennies at Lochmaben 
in, v. 63 

Scotussa (Thessaly), copper coin 
of, ii. 320 

Screw-press probably first used by 
Brabante, ix. 60 

Scylla attacking Ulysses, type on 
contorniates, ix. 23, 26, 47 

Seal of Henry I, i. 44 

Seals of Elizabeth, viii. 338, 341, 346 

Seals with memento mori inscrip- 
tions, x. 189-192 

Sebasteia (Pontus), era of, ii. 9, 10 

Sebastopolis (Pontus), era of, ii. 
7, 8, 9, 184 ; iv. 101 

" Sede Vacante " coins of Canter- 
bury (so-called), viii. 238; 
moneyers of, 239 

Seguier, Chancellor, instrumental 
in re-establishing mill-coinage 
in France in 1640, ix. 83 

Seleucia Pieria, numeral letters 
on coins of, iii. 107 

Seleucid coins, found in Baluchis- 
tan, iv. 317, 318, 322 ; imitated 
by the Parthians, vi. 128 ff . 

Seleucus and Antiochus of Syria, 
Graeco-Bactrian imitations of 
coins of, vii. 14 

Seleucus, portrait of, on Pergamene 
coins, x. 207 

Selinus, coin of, commemorating 
freedom from pestilence, x. 43- 
45 ; the god sacrificing to Aescu- 
lapius, 44, 45 

Semis, type of, struck in the East, 
iv. 211, 212 

Serambos, a magistrate of Taren- 
tum, ix. 260 

Serapis on coins of Julian II, x. 
246, 247 

Sestertius, bronze, type of, struck 
in the East, iv. 211, 212; first 
issue of, 212 ; prototype of coin 
struck at Rome, 215 ; issued in 
Gaul, 223, 224 ; first issue of, in 
Rome, 240; its metal, 241; 
change of type, 242 
Sestertius, silver, first issue of, iv. 
186 ; cessation of, 188 ; reissue 
of, 189 

Severus, Septimius, aureus of, 
with reverse Liberalitas, ii. 350 ; 
medallion of, vi. 108 ; aureus of, 
with reverse a galley, viii. 92 ; 
relations of, with Clodius Al- 
binus, x. 98, 99 

Severus II, coins of Alexandria of, 
ii. 98 f . ; of Nicomedia, iii. 213 ff . ; 
of Heraclea, vi. 124 ff . 
Severus Alexander, medallion of, 

vii. 110 
Seyntlowe, Gerard, controller of 

the Calais Mint, ii. 255-258 
Sforza, Faustina, medal of, ix. 409 ; 

x. 65-66 

Shadiabad, coins of, iv. 70-81 
Shaftesbury Mint, moneyers, and 
types of William I and II of, iv. 
276 ; closed in reign of Henry I, 
i. 418 
Shahanshah, title of, assumed by 

Buwayhid rulers, v. 393 
Shakespeare, a numismatic ques- 
tion raised by, v. 307 ; references 
to death's head rings by, x. 82, 
Shillington, coins of William II 

found at, iv. 146 
Shiraz, coins struck at, viii. 373 
" Short-cross " type of Henry I, i. 

15, 16 

Short-cross coins in the Colchester 
hoard, iii. Ill, 113-117, 156; 
chronology of short-cross period, 
x. 291-324 ; date of second 
issue, 307 ; of third issue, 320- 
Shortt, Captain, and Greek coins 

at Exeter, vii. 145 f . 
Shovel-board, game of, described, 

v. 308 ; coins used at, 330 
Shrewsbury Mint, moneyers, and 
types of William I and II of, 
iv. 276 ; in reign of Henry I, 
i. 94, 191 ; short-cross pennies 
of, in the Colchester hoard, iii. 
112, 131 ; moneyers of, 151 ; 
history of, 170 ; removal of, to 
Oxford by Charles I, v. 187 
Shuja' Khan, his rule in Malwa, 

iii. 394 
Siculo-Punic coins, x, 223, 232 ; 

last issue of, 231, 236, 237 
Side (Pamphylia), coin of Gallienus 

of, ii. 338 

Sidon and Tripolis, era of, ii. 198 ; 

coinage of, under Tennes, iii. 83 ; 

under Evagoras II, 34 ; sigloi, 

&c., attributed to, 34-36 

Sigestef, moneyer of Ecgbeorht, 

viii. 241,246 

Sigloi, coined for circulation among 
the Greeks, iii. 28, 29 ; counter- 



marks on, 28 ; classification of, 

29; type of, 35; attributed to 

Sidon, 34-36 
Silanus Creticus, Q. Caecilius 

Metellus, strikes coins for 

Antioch, iv. 113 
Silianus, A. Licinius Nerva, coin 

of, iv. 231 

Silius, 0., coins of, iv. 28 
Simon, Thomas, chief engraver at 

the Mint in 1648, x. 391, 397 ; 

his coinage for Cromwell, viii. 

62 ; his coinage of 1656, 64 ; of 

1658, 68 ; list of coins by, 76-78 ; 

dies by, in the Royal Mint, ix. 

56-118 ; assisted Blondeau, 87 ; 

prepared dies for Cromwell's 

coins, 93, 94 ; description of his 

dies, 96-118 ; alteration of date 

in his dies, 101-106 ; design for 

a touch-piece of Charles II by, 

Simpulum on Alexandrian coins, 

ix. 281, 282 
Sirmium, coins of Julian II of, 

x. 250 

Siscia, coins of Julian II of, x. 250 
Sisenna, Roman moneyer, coin of, 
, iv. 234 
Siva Simha, an Ahom king, coins 

of, ix. 303, 309, 316-319 
Skeleton and wine- jar on Roman 

gems, x. 164, 165 ; and butterfly 

on ditto, 170, 171 ; dancing on 

ditto, 179 
Slatin Pasha on the coinage of the 

Mahdi, ii. 65, 67 
ZO on tetradrachm of the Sontini, 

x. 329-332 
Sogenes, a Tarentine magistrate, 

ix. 260 
Solis, Diego de, medal of, by 

"T. R.," ii. 57 
Sontini, unpublished tetradrachm 

of the, x. 329-332 
Sophytes of Bactria, coins of, iv. 

323-325 ; vi. 14 
South African War, medals of, vii. 

232, 258, 268 
South Ferriby, coins of the 

Brigantes found at, viii. 17-55 ; 

ix. 7-9 
Southampton Mint, moneyers and 

types of William I and II of, iv. 

276 ; history and coins of Henry 

I of, i. 405-410 
Southampton Water, find of 

English coins near, viii. 311- 

Southwark Mint, moneyers and 
types of William I and II of, 
iv. 276 ; history and coins of 
Henry I of, i. 273-316; un- 
published seventeenth-century 
token of, ii. 383 ; Roman coins 
found in, iii. 99 

Spa Fields, Pantheon Gardens, 
ticket of admission to, ii. 75 

Spain, medal on defeat of the 
Carlists at St. Sebastian, vii. 264 

Spain, Peace with, gold medal on, 
by Nicholas Hilliard, viii. 349 

Spain, Roman bronze coins struck 
in, iv. 216 ; denomination of, 
220; analyses, 220; denarii of 
Galba struck in, ii. 346, 347 

Spanish bullion, Simon's coins 
made from, ix. 94 

Stafford Mint, moneyers and types 
of William I and II of, iv. 277 

Staffordshire, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century token of, iii. 383 

Stamenes, Satrap of Babylon, 
coins attributed to, iv. 19, 27, 

Stamford, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 277 ; of 
Henry I, i. 360-371 ; coins of 
Alfred found at, iii. 347 

Standbroke, , engraves dies for 
Wood's American coinage, iii. 13 

Star or stars on coins of William 

I, iv. 164 ; on coins of William 

II, 253 ; on coins of Henry I, i. 
62, 63 ; and crescent on Irish 
coins of John, iii. 174 

Star Chamber, trial of the Pyx 
held in the, x. 389 

Stein, Marquardt von, medal of, 
iv. 56 

Stephen, coins of, in the Colches- 
ter hoard, iii. 112, 118 ; coins 
of, found at Awbridge, v. 354 

Stepney Mint, moneyers and types 
of William I and II of, iv. 278 

Sterling, Anglo-Gallic coin of 
Edward III, vi. 278 ; classifica- 
tion of, 307 

Sterlings (foreign), found at Loch- 
maben, v. 64, 81, 82 

Steyning, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 278 

Stigard, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
strikes coins, iv. 151 



Stole, P. Licinius, coins of, iv. 

226, 227 
Sudbury Mint, moneyers and types 

of William I and II of, iv. 278 ; 

history and coinage of Henry I 

of, 409-415 

Suffolk, unpublished seventeenth- 
century tokens of, ii. 383 
Suhung, an Ahom king, coin of, 

ix. 302, 309, 314 
Sulpicianus, T. Quinctius Cris- 

pinus, coins of, iv. 225 
Sunderland, Earl of, grants patent 

for Irish coinage to the Duchess 

of Kendal, iii. 47 
Sunyatpha, an Ahom king, coins of, 

ix. 302, 309, 315 
Surat, E.I.C. mint of, iii. 74, 78, 

93 ; late Mughal coins of. x. 

Surdinus, L. Naevius, coins of, iv, 


Surrey, unpublished seventeenth- 
century tokens of, ii. 383 
Swefiieard, moneyer of Ecgbeorht, 

viii. 247 
Swift, Dean, and Wood's coinage, 

iii. 51 
Sword and sceptre on coins of 

William II, iv. 246, 247 
Syedra (Cilicia), copper coin of 

Faustina II struck at, ii. 343 
Syracuse, tetradrachm of, viii. 1 ; 

date assigned to tetradrachm 

of, 4 ; dolphin on coins of, 6, 7 ; 

types of coins of, 10 ; unpub- 
lished copper coins of, 14 ; 

alliance of, with Corinth, ix. 

Syria, medal on campaign in, vii. 

257 ; restoration of, to the 

Porte, medal on, 256 
Syria, numeral letters on coins of, 

iii. 105 
Syrinx on coin of Syracuse, viii. 



Tabae (Caria), coin of M. Aurelius 
of, iv. 304 

Tabriz, coins of, viii. 372 

Tabulae lusoriae, their purpose, 
vi. 233; their form, 237; de- 
sign of, in the Forum Romanum, 
240, 243 

Tachereau, Cardinal, medal of, 
vii. 220 

Tahmasp I of Persia, weights of 
coins of, viii. 359 ; legends of, 369 

Tahmasp II, weights of coins of, 
viii. 364 

Talbot, Hon. J. Chetwynd, medal 
of, vii. 252 

Tamworth, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 278 ; 
history and coins of Henry I 
of, i. 415-420 ; coins of William 
I and II found at, iv. 146 

Tanner, John Sigismund, his coin- 
age of Cromwell, viii. 62 ; list of 
coins, 71 f., 76, 78, 79 ; ix. 104, 

Tarbes, Anglo-Gallic mint of Ed- 
ward the Black Prince, viii. 102 ; 
coins of, 108, 131, 140, 146, 157 

Tarentum, rare or unpublished 
coins of, vii. 277 ; coins struck 
during Hannibalic occupation 
of, ix. 254-287 ; alliance of, with 
Metapontum, 260 

Tarraco, quinio of Diocletian 
struck at, x. 103 

Tarsus (Cilicia), copper coin of 
Elagabalus of, ii. 343 ; supposed 
coins of, struck by Orontes, iii. 
9 ; coins with legend " Baal- 
tars," 42, 341 

Taunton, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 279 

Taylor, Lady Maud May, medal of r 
vii. 243 

Tealby and Colchester finds com- 
pared, iii. Ill 

Teneth, a Phoenician goddess, ix. 

Tennes, King of Sidon, coinage of t 
iii. 33 

Tenniel, Sir John, his design for 
International Medical Congress 
Medal, x. 95 

Terminus on medal of Erasmus, 
x. 54-56 ; on seal, 58 

Teschler (or Deschler), Johann, 
medallist, iv. 59 

Tesserae with stag and bee struck 
at Ephesus, viii. 281 

Tetzel, Georg, medal of, iv. 59 

Teuthrania(Mysia), supposed coins 
of, iii. 9 

Theodosius, coins of, found at- 
Groveley Wood, vi. 320; at 
Icklingham, viii. 218 




Thermae Himerenses, tetradrachm 
of, x. 223-231 

Theseus and Amazon, combat of, 
on a contorniate, ix. 51 

Thessalonica, coins of Julian II 
struck at, x. 280 

Thessaly, copper coin of Nero of, 
v. 332; double-victoriatus of 
confederacy of, iii. 321 

Thetford, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 279; 
history and coins of Henry I of, 
i. 420-429 

Thompson, Sir Benjamin, medal 
of, vii. 261 

Thurium (Lucania), silver coin of, 
iv. 291 

Thymaterium, symbol on coins of 
Corinth, ix. 327-352 

Tiberius, genethliac sign of, ii. 3, 
4 ; Alexandrian tetradrachms of, 
x. 333-339; found in Egypt, 
333 ; did not continue in circu- 
lation, 334; weights of, 335- 
337; analysis, 336; dies of, 

Tideman, Wessex moneyer of 
Ecgbeorht, viii. 253 

Tiffin, N. J., medal of, vii. 238 

Tigranes I, coinage of, ii. 193 

Tikri Debra (Mirzapur), Gupta 
coins found in, x. 398-408 

Timotheus Befatus. See Befatus 

Timsbury, find of Boman coins at, 
viii. 89 

Tinny, tin coin struck at Bombay, 
vi. 355 

Tiolier, P. J., medal of, vii. 259 

Tiolier, P. N., medal by, vii. 259 

Titus, copper coin of Bithynia of, 
iii. 390 ; coins of, found at 
Croydon, vii. 366; at Castle 
Bromwich, x. 14, 18 ; at Not- 
tingham, 206 

Titus and Domitian, coin of 
Laodicea Combusta of, iii. 340 

Tmolus (Lydia), copper coin of 
Sabina of, iii. 337 

Token coinage, lead, of Egypt, viii. 
287 ; types of, 288-298 ; date of, 
300, 304 ; values of, 302 

Tokens,un published English, of the 
seventeenth century, ii. 378-384 

Tolstoi, Count F. P., medal by, vii. 

Totnes, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 280 

Touch-pieces, documents relating 
to, vii. 121 ; base metal of 
Charles I, x. 395 ; of Charles II 
by T. Simon, ix. 297-299 

Tower Mint, alone subject to trial 
of the Pyx, x. 396; Mestrell 
at, ix. 73; his improvements, 
77; mills introduced at, 78; 
Blondeau at, 87-91 

Trajan, coin of Leucas (Coele- 
Syria) of, iii. 345 ; coin of Samos 
of, iv. 303 ; coins of, found in 
Scotland, v. 12 ; at Croydon, 
vii. 367; at Castle Bromwich, 
x. 14, 20-24, 37-38; at Not- 
tingham, 306; bust of, on 
contorniate, ix. 39-47 

Trajan Decius, medallion of, vi. 
114 ; bust of, on contorniate, ix. 

Trajanus, M. Ulpius, strikes coins 
at Antioch, iv. 125 

Tralles (Lydia), copper coin of 
Tranquillina of, iii. 337 

Tranquillina. See Tralles 

Treasure trove, law of, ii. 148- 
175 ; see also under various 

Trefoil coinage of Henry VI, iii. 

Trefoil on coins of the Brigantes, 
ix. 7-9 ; on Gaulish coins, 9 ; 
slipped, on coins of Bichard II, 
iv. 338 

Treves, coins of Julian II of, x. 
250 ; view of, on double aureus 
of Constantine I struck at, 103, 

Tribune of St. Peter's, x. 347, 

Tricennalia of Constantine I, date 
of, iii. 281 

Trident, symbol on coins of 
Corinth, ix. 338 

Trinity College, Dublin, tercente- 
nary medal of, vii. 238 

Tripod, symbol on coins of 
Corinth, ix. 353 

Tripolis and Sidon, era of, ii. 196 

Tripondius, type, etc. of, struck in 
the East, iv. 211, 212 

Triptolemos on Greek vase, ix. 
127 ; on coin of Eleusis, x. 46 

Truchsess, Lorenz, of Pommers- 
felden, medal of, iv. 51 

Trussell or upper die, its liability 
to fracture, iv. 168 



Tryphaenia. See Antonia Try- 

Tuke, Sir Brian, Holbein's por- 
trait of, ix. 385, 386 

Tullus, M. Maecilius, coins of, iv. 

Turpilianus, P. Petronius, Roman 
moneyer, iv. 226 

Tutbury and Colchester finds com- 
pared, iii. 11 

Tyche, on coin of Tigranes I, ii. 
193 ; on Parthian coins, vii. 133 


Udayaditya, an Ahom king, coins 

of, ix. 302, 309, 314 
Ujjain, coins struck at, iv. 93 
Ulysses, attacked by Scylla, type 

on a contorniate, ix. 26, 47 
Umayyad Caliphs, coins of the, 

ii. 267 
UmdatuTumara, definition of, x. 

Unicorns of James III of Scotland, 

vi. 67; of James IV, 69; of 

James V, 71 
" Urbs Roma," coins of Constan- 

tine I of Alexandria, ii. 142 ; of 

Nicomedia, iii. 279, 280 


Valarsakes, King of Armenia, v. 

Valens, coins of, struck at Alexan- 
dria, ii. 123 ff. ; medallions of, 
vi. 126 ; coins of, found at 
Groveley Wood, 330 ; at Ickling- 
ham, viii. 218 ; representation 
of, 011 aureus of Gratian, on 
elevation of Valentinian II, x. 

Valentinian I, coins of, found at 
Groveley Wood, vi. 330; at 
Icklingham, viii. 218 

Valentinian II, coins of, found at 
Groveley Wood, vi. 330 ; at 
Icklingham, viii. 218 ; aureus 
of Gratian, on elevation of, x. 

Valerian I, copper coins of Attalia 
of, iii. 339 

Valour (or Virtue) overcoming 
death, plaque of, x. 67 

Vanbranburgh, Gilbert, engraver 

of dies in reign of Henry V, vi. 

Varin, Jean, director of the Paris 

Mint, ix. 83 ; his coins, 84 
Varus, P. Quinctilius, S. F., strikes 

coins for Antioch, iv. 106 
Vecchietti, Alessandro, medal of, 

by the "Medailleur a la For- 
tune," x. 53 
Venezia, Palazzo di, on medals of 

Paul II, x. 341-343; medals 

found in, 354, 355 
Vergil and coins, x. 109 
Vermeiren, M., medal by, vii. 260 
Vernon, Admiral, medals of, ix. 


Verulamium, coins of, iii. 192 
Verus, Lucius, medallions of, vi. 

100 ; denarii of, found at Castle 

Bromwich, x. 14, 36 ; and 

Aurelius, medallion of, vi. 99 
Vespasian, aureus of, with reverse 

" Equitas," viii. 87 ; head of, on 

contorniates, ix. 39 ; coins of, 

found in Southwark, iii. 102 ; in 

Scotland, v. 11 ; at Croydon, vi. 

366 ; at Castle Bromwich, x. 14, 

16-18 ; at Nottingham, 206 
Vetus, C. Antistius, Roman 

moneyer, iv. 225 
Veyrat, , medals by, vii. 261 
" Vicennalia " of Constantine I, 

date of, iii. 270, 272, 281 ; of his 

sons, 281, 284 
VICTORIA GERM., legend on 

coins of Carausius, vii. 35, 74 
Victoria Melita, Princess. See 

Hesse, Grand-Duchess of 
Victoria, Princess Royal of 

England, marriage medal of, 

vii. 238 ; silver-wedding medal 

of, 245 
Victoria, Queen, medal of, vii. 

241 ; medal on visit to France 

of, 248 
Victoriatus, date of issue of, iv. 

Vinicius, L., Roman moneyer, iv. 


Vinci. See Leonardo da Vinci 
Y (= VL) on gold coins of Nico- 

media, iii. 216, 218, 220 
V M, initials of Valentin Maler, 

medallist, iv. 60 
VN M R on coin of Constantine I, 

struck at Alexandria, ii. 146 



Volusian, medallion of, vi. 115 
" Vota publica " on coins of 

Carausius, vii. 85 
Vulcan, type on a contorniate, ix. 



Wade, Edward, chief engraver at 

the Mint in 1645, x. 397 
Wadham, Dorothy and Nicholas, 

memorial medal of, ix. 394 ; x. 

Walajah, a title of Muhammad Ali 

Wales, Prince of, medal of, vii. 

Walid I, Caliph, memento mori 

legend on seal of, x. 191 
Wallace, Lady, medal of, vii. 242 
Wallingford Mint, moneyers and 

types of William I and II of, 

iv. 280 ; history and coinage of 

Henry I at, i. 430-437 
Walpole, Horace, ring belonging 

to, x. 188 
Walpole, Sir Eobert, satirical 

medal of, ix. 401 

Walton, Izaak, bequeathed me- 
morial rings to friends, x. 188, 

Wardens of the Exchange, &c., in 

the Mint, x. 394-398 
Wareham Mint, moneyers and 

types of William I and II of, 

iv. 281 ; history and coinage of 

Henry I at, i. 437-442 
Warren, James, enamel on death 

of, x. 87 
Warsaw, medal on foundation of 

Medical Association in, 89, 90 
Warwick, Earl of, declares himself 

Lieutenant of the Realm, x. 118 ; 

crowns Henry VI, 119 
Warwick Mint, moneyers and 

types of William I and II of, 

iv. 281 ; history and coinage of 

Henry I of, i. 443-447 
Warwick, unpublished sixteenth- 
century tokens of, ii. 384 
Watchet, moneyers and types of 

Wiiliam I and II of, iv. 282 
Werheard, moneyer of Ecgbeorht, 

viii. 242, 247 
Wessex coins of Ecgbeorht, viii. 

252 ff. 

West, Mr., medal of, vii. 226 

Wet, General de, medal of, vii. 251 

Weybridge, Roman copper coins 
found at, viii. 208-215 

White, General Sir George, medal 
of, vii. 234 

White, Richard, of Basingstoke, 
medal of, by Leoni, ix. 295, 296 

Wicker, Agnes, medal of, iv. 45 

Wiener, Charles, medals by, vii. 261 

Wiener, Leopold, medals by, vii. 

Wilhelmina, Queen of Holland, 
medal of, vii. 243 

William I and William II, coinage 
of, iv. 144, 245 ff . ; list of mints 
of, 256 ; sequence of types of , 
ii. 208-212 ; mints and types of, 

William I, coins of Marlborough 
of, ii. 23, 24 

William II, some coins of, in the 
Royal Mint Museum, v. 108 

William III, recoinage of 1696- 
1697, vi. 358 ; mints of, 358 ; 
description of coins of, 366; 
note on, vii. 124 

William I of Holland, medal of, 
vii. 221 

William II of Germany, medal of, 
vii, 241 

William the Lion, pennies of, in 
the Colchester hoard, iii. 135 

Williams, John, engraver of 
medals, viii. 354 

Williamson, Sir Joseph, arms of, 
on a badge of Thetford, vii. 89 ; 
life of, 89 ff. ; arms described, 
101, 104 

Wilson, J. W., medal of, vii. 257 

Wilton, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 282; 
history and coins of Henry I of, 
i. 448-452 

Wiltshire, unpublished seven- 
teenth-century token of, ii. 384 

Winchelsea Mint, moneyers and 
types of William I and II of, iv. 

Winchester, Anglo-Saxon brooch 
found at, viii. 83 ; a mint of Ecg- 
beorht, 254 ; moneyers and 
types of William I and II of, 
iv. 283 ; history and coinage of 
Henry I of, i. 453-471; short- 
cross pennies of, in the Col- 
chester hoard, iii. 112, 131; 



moneyers of, 152, 158 ; history 
of the mint, 174 

Winterslow, English coins found 
at, x. 205 

Witney Mint, moneyers and types 
of William I and II of, iv. 285 

Witt, Jan and Cornelius de, medal 
on execution of, x. 82, 83 

Wolfe, General, medal on death 
of, ix. 404, 411 

Wolff, Tobias, memento mori 
medal by, x. 66, 67 

Wood, William, coinage of, iii. 
47 ; place of striking coins of, 
48 ; patent for American coinage, 
53, 54 ; description of Irish coins 
of, 56 ff. ; American, 63 ff . 

Woodhouse, James, medal of, vii. 

Worcester, moneyers and types of 
William I and II of, iv. 285; 
history and coinage of Henry I 
of, i. 472-478; short-cross 
pennies of, in the Colchester 
hoard, iii. 122, 133 ; moneyers 
of, 153 ; history of, 171 

Wulfred, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, his bust on coins, viii. 235 

Wyon, Allan, medal on plague in 
Hong-Kong by, x. 96 

Wyon, L. C., medal on Inter- 
national Medical Congress by, 
x. 95 

Wyon, W., Cheselden Medal by, 


Yezd, coin of Tahrnasp I struck 
at, viii. 369 

York Mint, coins of Eadgar of, ii. 
366 ff. ; coin of Aethelred II, 
with legend MONETA, x. 378, 
384, 385 ; history and coinage of, 
under Henry I, i. 141, 478-491 ; 
coins of William I found at, iv. 
144, 146; moneyers and types 

of, under William I and II, iv. 
285; short-cross pennies of, in 
the Colchester hoard, iii. 112, 
133 ; moneyers of, 153, 158 ; 
history of, 172; fleur-de-lys, 
symbol of, 297 ; coin of Everard 
of short-cross Class II., wrongly 
attributed to Chichester, x. 298- 
304 ; coins of Richard II of, iv. 
339, -340, 351 ; coins of Henry V 
of, vi. 192, 203, 207, 211, 212, 
216 ; coins of Henry VI of, ii. 
224-266 ; coins of Henry VI (re- 
stored) of, x. 130-134 ; documen- 
tary evidence as to issue of gold 
at, 131 ; gold ascribed to, 132 ; 
silver, 133 ; mint-mark of, 132, 
133 ; archiepiscopal coins of, 
134 ; the coins described, 143- 
145 ; coins and mint-marks of, 
in time of Edward IV: Royal, 
ix. 165-166, 174-176, 181, 200, 
208; archiepiscopal, 167, 175, 
178, 181, 200, 201, 211, 218; 
halfpenny of Henry VIII of, 
struck by Wolsey, vii. 121 ; re- 
coinage of 1696-1697 at, vi. 


Zagar, Jacob, medallist, iv. 58 
Zah, Sebastian, medal of, x. 64 
Zeleia, Troas, coins of, vi. 35 
Zeno-Artaxias, King of Armenia, 

ii. 6 

Zeugma (Commagene), numeral 
letters on imperial coins of, iii. 
106, 108 

Zeus, as a boy, statue of, on coins 
of Aegium, ii. 323 ; identified 
with Jehovah by the Phoencians, 
ix. 123, 124 ; with Baal of Tar- 
sus, 124; symbol on coins of 
Corinth, 381-382 ; Aetophoros, 
type on coins of Demetrius and 
Antigonus I, 265 


Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PL X 




Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PL XI 


Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PI. XII 


Num. Chron. Set-. IV. Vol. X. PL XIII 

>\-IU *- I V 


Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. X. PI. XIV 














The sign * indicates that the Fellow has compounded for his annual 
contribution : f that the Felloiv has died during the year. 


G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., 87, Queen's Gate, S.W. 

1873 *ALEXEIEFF, M. GEORGES D', Maitre de la Cour de S.M. 
1'Empereur de Russie, 40, Sergnewskaje, St. Petersburg. 

1907 ALLAN, JOHN, ESQ., M.A., M.R.A.S., British Museum, W.C., 

Hon. Secretary. 

1907 ALLATINI, ROBERT, ESQ., 18, Holland Park, W. 
1892 AMEDROZ, HENRY F., ESQ., 48, York Terrace, Regent's Park, 


1884 ANDREWS, R. THORNTON, ESQ., 25, Castle Street, Hertford. 
1909 ARNOLD, EDWIN L., ESQ., 108, Nightingale Lane, S.W. 
1900 AVEBURY, RT. HON. LORD, P.O., F.R.S., High Elms, Down, 


1882 BACKHOUSE, SIR JONATHAN E., BART., The Rookery, Middleton 

Tyas, R.S.O., Yorks. 
1907 BAIRD, REV. ANDREW B., D.D., 247, Colony Street, Winnipeg, 


1909 BALDWIN, Miss A., 415, West 118th Street, New York, U.S.A. 
1902 BALDWIN, A. H., ESQ., Duncannon Street, Charing Cross, 

1905 BALDWIN, PERCY J. D., ESQ., Duncannon Street, Charing 

Cross, W.C. 
1898 BANES, ARTHUR ALEXANDER, ESQ., The Red House, Upton, 


1907 BARRON, T. W., ESQ., Yew Tree Hall, Forest Row, Sussex. 
1887 BASCOM, G. J., ESQ., The Breslin, New York, U.S.A. 
1896 BEARMAN, THOS., ESQ., Melbourne House, 8, Tudor Road, 




1906 BEATTY, W. GEDNEY, ESQ., 55, Broadway, New York, U.S. A 
1910 BENNET-POE, J. T., ESQ., M.A., 29, Ashley Place, S.W. 

1909 BIDDULPH, COLONEL J., Grey Court, Ham, Surrey. 

1880 *BIEBER, G. W. EGMONT, ESQ., 4, Fenchurch Avenue, E.G. 
1885 BLACKETT, JOHN STEPHENS, ESQ., C.E., Inverard, Aberfoyle, 

1882 BLACKMORE, H. P., ESQ., M.D., Blackmore Museum, Salisbury. 

1904 BLACKWOOD, CAPT. A. PRICE, 52, Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. 
1882 *BLISS, THOMAS, ESQ., Coningsburgh, Montpelier Eoad, 

Ealing, W. 
1879 BLUNDELL, J. H., ESQ., 157, Cheapside, E.G. 

1907 BOSANQUET, PROF. W. C., M.A., Institute of Archaeology, 

40, Bedford Street N., Liverpool. 


Copped Hall, Totteridge, Herts. 

1903 BOUSFIELD, STANLEY, ESQ., M.A., M.B. (Camb.), M.E.C.S., 

35, Prince's Square, W. 

1897 BOWCHER, FRANK, ESQ., 35, Fairfax Koad, Bedford Park, W. 
1906 BOYD, ALFRED C., ESQ., 7, Friday Street, E.G. 

1899 BOYLE, COLONEL GERALD, 48, Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. 

1895 BRIGHTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, The Curator, Brighton. 

1910 BRITTAN, FREDERICK J., ESQ., 28, Gowan Avenue, S.W. 

1908 BROOKE, GEORGE CYRIL, ESQ., B.A., British Museum, W.C. 

1905 BROOKE, JOSHUA WATTS, ESQ., Eosslyn, Marlborough, Wilts. 

1896 BRUUN, HERR L. E., 101, Gothersgade, Copenhagen. 
1878 BUCHAN, J. S., ESQ., 17, Barrack Street, Dundee. 

1881 BULL, EEV. HERBERT A., M.A., J.P., Wellington House, 

1910 BURKITT, MILES CRAWFURD, ESQ., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

1897 BURN, EICHARD, ESQ., I.C.S., M.E.A.S., c/o Messrs. Grind- 

lay & Co., Parliament Street, S.W. 

1881 BURSTAL, EDWARD K., ESQ., M. Inst. C.E., North Green, 
Datchet, Bucks. 

1904 BURTON, EEV. EDWIN, St. Edmund's College, Old Hall, Ware. 
1878 *BUTTERY, W., ESQ. (address not known). 

1904 CAHN, DR. JULIUS, Niedenau, 55, Frankfurt-am-Main, 


1886 CALDECOTT, J. B., ESQ., The Stock Exchange, E.G. 
1908 CALLEJA SCHEMBRI, EEV. CANON H., D.D., 50, Strada Saluto, 

Valletta, Malta. 
1904 CAMPBELL, W. E. M., ESQ., I.C.S., c/o Messrs. Grindlay & Co., 

Parliament Street, S.W. 



1894 CARLYON-BRITTON, P. W. P., ESQ., D.L., J.P., F.S.A., 43, 

Bedford Square, W.C. 

1898 CARNEGIE, COLONEL D. LINDSAY, 6, Playfair Terrace, St. 
Andrews, N.B. 

1905 CARTHEW, COLONEL E. J., J.P., Woodbridge Abbey, Suffolk. 

1910 CHETTY, B. C., ESQ., Curator, Mysore Government Museum, 

1886 CHURCHILL, WM. S., ESQ., 102, Birch Lane, Manchester. 

1891 *CLAUSON, ALBERT CHARLES, ESQ., Hawkshead House, Hat- 
field, Herts. 

1903 CLULOW, GEORGE, ESQ., 51, Belsize Avenue, Hampstead, 

1886 CODRINGTON, OLIVER, ESQ., M.D., F.S.A., M.E.A.S., 12, 

Victoria Eoad, Clapham Common, Librarian. 

1895 COOPER, JOHN, ESQ., Beckfoot, Longsight, Manchester. 

1906 COSSINS, JETHRO A., ESQ., Kingsdon, Forest Eoad, Moseley, 

1902 COVERNTON, J. G., ESQ., M.A., Director of Public Instruction, 

Eangoon, Burma. 

1910 CREE, JAMES EDWARD, ESQ., Tusculum, North Berwick. 
1886 *CROMPTON-EOBERTS, CHAS. M., ESQ., 52, Mount Street, W. 

1884 DAMES, M. LONGWORTH, ESQ., I.C.S. (retd.), M.E.A.S., 
c/o J. Allan, Esq., British Museum, W.C. 


1902 DAVEY, EDWARD CHARLES, ESQ., St. Aubyn, Bloomfield 
Avenue, Bath. 

1878 DAVIDSON, J. L. STRACHAN, ESQ., M.A., Balliol College, 

1888 DAWSON, G. J. CROSBIE, ESQ., M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., F.S.S., 

May Place, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 
1897 DAY, EGBERT, ESQ., F.S.A., M.E.I.A., Myrtle Hill House, 

1886 *DEWICK, EEV. E. S., M.A., F.S.A., 26, Oxford Square, Hyde 

Park, W. 

1889 DIMSDALE, JOHN, ESQ., Summerhill, Hollington Park, 

St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

1868 DOUGLAS, CAPTAIN E. J. H., Eosslyn, Hardy Eoad, West- 
combe Park, S.E. 

1905 EGGER, HERR ARMIN, 7, Opernring, Vienna, 
1907 ELDER, THOMAS L., ESQ., 32, East Twenty-third Street, New 
York, U.S.A. 



1898 ELLIOTT, E. A., ESQ., 16, Belsize Grove, Hampstead, N.W. 

1895 ELY, TALFOURD, ESQ., M.A., D.Litt., F.S.A., Ockington, 
Gordon Road, Claygate, Surrey. 

1888 ENGEL, M. ARTHUR, 23, Rue Erlanger, Auteuil, Paris. 

1872 *EVANS, ARTHUR J., ESQ., M.A., D.Litt., LL.D., F.R.S., 
V.P.S.A., Corr. de 1'Inst., Whitebarn, near Oxford, Vice- 

1892 *EVANS, LADY, M.A., Britwell, Berkhamsted, Herts. 

1904 *FARQUHAR, Miss HELEN, 11 Belgrave Square, S.W. 

1886 FAY, DUDLEY B., ESQ., 287, Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., 

1902 FENTIMAN, HARRY, ESQ., Murray House, Murray Road, Ealing 

Park, W. 

1910 FISHER LIBRARY, THE, University. Sydney, N.S.W. 
1908 FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM, The Curator, Cambridge. 

1901 FLETCHER, LIONEL LAWFORD, ESQ., Norwood Lodge, Tup- 
wood, Caterham. 
1898 FORRER, L., ESQ., 11, Hammelton Road, Bromley, Kent. 

1894 *FOSTER, JOHN ARMSTRONG, ESQ., F.Z.S., Chestwood, near 

1891 *Fox, H. B. EARLE, ESQ., 37, Markham Square, S.W. 

1903 Fox, HENRY ELLIOTT, ESQ., Jeune House, Salisbury. 

1906 Fox, MRS. IDA MARY, Jeune House, Salisbury. 

1905 FRANCKLIN, EDWARD, ESQ., 20, Hyde Park Square, W. 

1868 FRENTZEL, RUDOLPH, ESQ., 28, Springfield, Upper Clapton, 


1882 *FRESHFIELD, EDWIN, ESQ., LL.D., F.S.A., New Bank 
Buildings, 31, Old Jewry, E.G. 

1905 FREY, ALBERT R., ESQ., 1083, Lincoln Place, Brooklyn, New 
York, U.S.A. 

1896 *FRY, CLAUDE BASIL, ESQ., Stoke Lodge, Stoke Bishop, 


1897 *GANS, LEOPOLD, ESQ., 207, Madison Street, Chicago, U.S.A. 

1871 GARDNER, PROF. PERCY, Litt.D., F.S.A., 105, Banbury Road, 

1907 GARDNER, WILLOUGHBY, ESQ., Deganwy, North Wales. 
1889 GARSIDE, HENRY, ESQ., 46, Queen's Road, Teddington. 





Barton, Canterbury. 

1894 GOODACRE, HUGH, ESQ., The Court, Ullesthorpe, Rugby. 
1910 GOODALL, ALEX., ESQ., 5, Maria Street, Kirkcaldy, N.B. 

1907 GOUDY, HENRY, ESQ., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., Eegius Professor 
of Civil Law, All Souls College, Oxford. 

1899 GOWLAND, PROF. WILLIAM, F.I.C., M.C.S., F.R.S., F.S.A., 13, 
Russell Road, Kensington, W. 

1904 GRAHAM, T. HENRY BOILEAU, ESQ., Edmund Castle, Carlisle. 

1905 GRANT DUFF, EVELYN, ESQ., Knowle, Cranleigh, Surrey. 

1891 *GRANTLEY, LORD, F.S.A., Oakley Hall, Cirencester. 

1865 GREENWELL, REV. CANON W., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Durham. 

1903 GRIFFITH, FRANK LL., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., 11, Norham 

Gardens, Oxford. 
1871 GRUEBER, HERBERT A., ESQ., F.S.A., Keeper of Coins, 

British Museum, Vice-President. 
1910 GUNN, WILLIAM, ESQ., 19, Swan Road, Harrogate. 

1899 HALL, HENRY PLATT, ESQ., Toravon, Werneth, Oldham. 
1898 HANDS, REV. ALFRED W., 13, Grove Road, Wanstead, Essex. 

1904 HARRIS, EDWARD BOSWORTH, ESQ., 5, Sussex Place, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
1904 HARRISON, FREDERICK A., ESQ., 10-12, Featherstone Street, 

1903 HASLUCK, F. W., ESQ., M.A., The Wilderness, Southgate, N. 

1902 HAVERFIELD, FRANCIS J., ESQ., M.A., LL.D., F.S.A., Christ 

Church, Oxford. 

1864 HEAD, BARCLAY VINCENT, ESQ., D.Litt., D.C.L., Ph.D., Corr. 
de 1'Inst., 26, Leinster Square, Bayswater, W., Foreign 

1906 HEADLAM, REV. ARTHUR CAYLEY, D.D., King's College, London. 

M.C.P., 1, Pond Street, Hampstead, N.W. 
1901 "HENDERSON, REV. COOPER K., M.A., 8, Via Garibaldi, Siena, 

1906 HERCY, THOMAS F. J. L., ESQ., J.P., D.L., 40, Albert Palace 

Mansions, Battersea Park, S.W. 

1892 HEWITT, RICHARD, ESQ., 28, Westbourne Gardens, W. 

1900 HEWLETT, LIONEL M., ESQ., 27, Roxborough Park, Harrow- 

on-the-Hill, Middlesex. 

1903 HIGGINS, FRANK C., ESQ., 5, West 108th Street, New York, 




1893 HILBERS, THE YEN. G. C., St. Thomas's Eectory, Haverford- 


1898 HILL, CHARLES WILSON, ESQ. (address not known). 
1893 HILL, GEORGE FRANCIS, ESQ., M.A., British Museum. 
1898 HOCKING, WILLIAM JOHN, ESQ., Eoyal Mint, E. 
1895 HODGE, THOMAS, ESQ., 13, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 
1910 HOWORTH, DANIEL F., ESQ., 24, Villiers Street, Ashton- 


1878 HOWORTH, SIR HENRY H., K.C.I.E., F.E.S., F.S.A., 

30, Collingham Place, Earl's Court, S.W., President. 
1883 HUBBARD, WALTER K., ESQ., 6, Broomhill Avenue, Partick, 

1885 HUGEL, BARON F. VON, 13, Vicarage Gate, Kensington, W. 

1908 *HUNTINGTON, ARCHER M., ESQ., Secretary to the American 
Numismatic Society, Audubon Park, 156th Street, West 
of Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 

1897 HUTH, EEGINALD, ESQ. , 32, Phillimore Gardens, Kensington, W. 

1907 JACKSON, MAJOR E. PILKINGTON, Howielands, Cradley, 

1910 JEKYLL, EDWARD J., ESQ., J.P., D.L., Higham Bury, Ampthill. 

1879 *JEX-BLAKE, THE VERY EEV. T. W., D.D., F.S.A., Deanery, 


1898 JONAS, MAURICE, ESQ., 7, Northwich House, St. John's 

Wood, N.W. 

1843 fJoNES, JAMES COVE, ESQ., F.S.A., Loxley, Wellesbourne, 


1873 KEARY, CHARLES FRANCIS, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., Savile Club, 

Piccadilly, W. 

1874 *KENYON, E. LLOYD, ESQ., M.A., Pradoe, West Felton, Salop. 

O.M., G.C.S.I., G.C.M.G., c/o Messrs. Cox & Co., Charing 
Cross, S.W. 

1901 KOZMINSKY, DR. ISIDORE, 20, Queen Street, Kew, near 
Melbourne, Victoria. 

of H.M. the King of Sweden, Director of the Numis- 
matic Department, Museum, Gottenburg, and Eada, 

1871 *LANG, SIR EOBERT HAMILTON, The Grove, Dedham, Essex. 



1906 LANGTON, JOHN GORDON, ESQ., F.C.A., F.I.S., 90, St. Mary's 

Mansions, St. Mary's Terrace, Paddington, W. 
1910 LAUGHLIN, KEY. A., M.A., Nogales, Arizona, U.S.A. 

1898 LAYER, PHILIP G., ESQ., M.E.C.S., 3, Church Street, Col- 



Studio, Chelsea Gardens, S.W. 

1877 LAWRENCE, F. G., ESQ., Birchfield, Mulgrave Koad, Sutton, 

1885 *LAWRENCE, L. A., ESQ., 44, Belsize Square, N.W. 

1883 * LAWRENCE, EICHARD HOE, ESQ., 15, Wall Street, New York. 

1871 *LAWSON, ALFRED J., ESQ., Smyrna. 

Magherymore, Wicklow. 

1900 LINCOLN, FREDERICK W., ESQ., 69, New Oxford Street, W.C. 

1907 LOCKETT, EICHARD CYRIL, ESQ., Clounterbrook, St. Anne's 

Eoad, Aigburth, Liverpool. 

1893 LUND, H. M., ESQ., Waitara, Taranaki, New Zealand. 

1903 LYDDON, FREDERICK STICKLAND, ESQ., 5, Beaufort Eoad, 

Clifton, Bristol. 
1885 *LYELL, ARTHUR HENRY, EsQ.,F.S.A., 9, Cranley Gardens, S.W. 

1895 MACDONALD, GEO., ESQ., M.A., LL.D., 17, Learmonth Gardens, 

1901 MACFADYEN, FRANK E., ESQ., 2, Grosvenor Eoad, Jesmond, 


1895 MARSH, WM. E., ESQ., Marston, Bromley, Kent. 
1897 MASSY, COL. W. J., 96, Oakley Street, Chelsea, S.W. 
1880 *MAUDE, EEV. S., The Vicarage, Hockley, Essex. 

1905 MAVROGORDATO, J., ESQ., 4, Dalmeira Court, Hove. 

1906 McCLEAN, JOHN ROBINSON, ESQ., M.A., Eusthall House, Tun- 

bridge Wells. 

1901 McDowALL, EEV. STEWART A., 5, Kingsgate Street, Win- 

1905 McEwEN, HUGH DRUMMOND, ESQ., Custom House, Leith, N.B. 

1868 MCLACHLAN, E. W., ESQ., 55, St. Monique Street, Montreal, 

1905 MESSENGER, LEOPOLD G. P., ESQ., 151, Brecknock Eoad, 
Tufnell Park, N. 

1905 MILLER, HENRY CLAY, ESQ., 35, Broad Street, New York, 



1897 MILNE, J. GRAFTON, ESQ., M.A., Bankside, Goldhill, Farn- 

ham, Surrey. 
1906 MiTCHELL-lNNES, E. A., ESQ., Churchill, Hemel Hempstead, 

1910 MITCHELL LIBRARY, THE, Glasgow, F. T. Barrett, Esq., 


1906 MITCHISON, A. M., ESQ., 7, Eaton Place, S.W. 

1898 *MONCKTON, HORACE W., ESQ., F.L.S., F.G.S., 3, Harcourt 

Buildings, Temple, E.G. 

1888 MONTAGUE, L. A. D., ESQ., Penton, near Crediton, Devon. 
1905 MOORE, WILLIAM HENRY, ESQ. (address not known). 

1879 MORRIESON, LIEUT.-COL. H. WALTERS, K.A., F.S.A., 42, Beau- 
fort Gardens, S.W. 

1904 MOULD, EICHARD W., ESQ., Newington Public Library, 

Walworth Eoad, S.E. 
1894 MURPHY, WALTER ELLIOT, ESQ., 17, Longridge Eoad, Earl's 

Court, S.W. 
1900 *MYLNE, EEV. EGBERT SCOTT, M.A., B.C.L., F.S.A., Great 

Am well, Herts. 

1909 NAGG, STEPHEN K., ESQ., 1621, Master Street, Philadelphia, 


1898 NAPIER, PROF. A. S., M.A., D.Litt., Ph.D., Headington Hill, 

1905 NATHAN, SIDNEY, ESQ., M.D., 50, Harrington Gardens, S.W. 

1864 fNECK, J. F., ESQ., c/o Messrs. F. W. Lincoln, 69, New 
Oxford Street, W.C. 

1910 NESMITH, THOMAS, ESQ., c/o J. Munro & Co., 7, Eue Scribe, 


1905 NEWALL, HUGH FRANK, ESQ., M.A., Madingley Eise, Cam- 


1906 NEWBERRY LIBRARY, Chicago, U.S. America. 

1905 NEWELL, E. T., ESQ., Knickerbocker Buildings, 247, Fifth 

Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 
1909 NIKLEWICZ, H., ESQ., 28, Park Place, Brooklyn, New York, 


1904 NORFOLK, DUKE OF, E.M., K.G., Arundel Castle, Arundel. 
1904 NORTHUMBERLAND, DUKE OF, K.G., 2, Grosvenor Place, S.W. 

1898 OGDEN, W. SHARP, ESQ., Hill View, Danes Eoad, Eusholme, 

1897 *O'HAGAN, HENRY OSBORNE, ESQ., Al4, The Albany, 

Piccadilly, W. 
1882 OMAN, PROF. C. W. C., M.A., F.S.A., All Souls College, 




1904 PAGE, ARTHUR W., ESQ., Woodstock House, Sion Hiil Place, 

1890 PAGE, SAMUEL, ESQ., 12, Vickers Street, Nottingham. 

1903 PARSONS, H. ALEXANDER, ESQ., " Shaftesbury," Devonshire 

Eoad, Honor Oak Park, S.E. 

F.E.G.S., Bank House, Wisbech. 
1896 PEERS, C. E., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., 14, Lansdowne Eoad, 

1894 PERRY, HENRY, ESQ., Middleton, Plaistow Lane, Bromley, 

1862 *PERRY, MARTEN, ESQ., M.D., Spalding, Lincolnshire. 

1909 PETERSON, F. W. VOYSEY, ESQ., B.C.S. (retd.), 38, Bassett 

Eoad, W. 

1888 PINCHES, JOHN HARVEY, ESQ., 21, Albert Embankment, S.E. 

1904 PITT, JAMES SMITH, ESQ., Mannering, 11, Waverley Eoad, 

Eedland, Bristol. 

1910 PORTER, PROFESSOR HARVEY, Protestant College, Beirut, 



Birchington, Thanet. 
1887 PREVOST, SIR AUGUSTUS, BART., F.S.A., 79, Westbourne 

Terrace, W. 

1903 PRICE, HARRY, ESQ. (address not known). 
1878 PRIDEAUX, COL. W. F., C.S.I., F.E.G.S., Hopeville, St. 

Peter's-in-Thanet, Kent. 
1899 PRITCHARD, JOHN E., ESQ., F.S.A., 85, Cold Harbour Eoad, 

Eedland, Bristol. 

1906 EADFORD, A. J. VOOGHT, ESQ., Vacye, College Eoad, Malvern. 

1902 EAMSDEN, HENRY A., ESQ., Charge d' Affaires of Cuba, P.O. 

Box 214, Yokohama, Japan. 

1887 EANSOM, W., ESQ., F.S.A., F.L.S., Fairneld, Hitchin, Herts. 
1893 EAPHAEL, OSCAR C., ESQ., New Oxford and Cambridge Club, 

68, Pall Mall, W. 

1890 EAPSON, PROF. E. J., M.A., M.E.A.S., 8, Mortimer Eoad, 


1905 EASHLEIGH, EVELYN W., ESQ., Stoketon, Saltash, Cornwall. 
1909 EAYMOND, WAYTE,Esq., South Norwalk, Connecticut, U.S.A. 
1887 EEADY, W. TALBOT, ESQ., 66, Great Eussell Street, W.C. 

1903 EEGAN, W. H., ESQ., 124, Queen's Eoad, Bayswater, W. 
1876 *EOBERTSON, J. D., ESQ., M.A., 17, St. George's Court, 

Gloucester Eoad, S.W. 



1910 ROGERS, REV. EDGAR, M.A., St. Sepulchre's Vicarage, 5, 
Charterhouse Square, E.G. 

1903 ROSENHEIM, MAX, ESQ., F.S.A., 68, Belsize Park Gardens, 


1900 BOSKELL, ROBERT N., ESQ., 1, Gray's Inn Square, W.C. 
1896 *ROTH, BERNARD, ESQ., J.P., F.S.A., King's Wood, Enfield. 

1904 fRowLANDSON, HERVY, ESQ., Nant-y-Glyn, Clapton Common, 

Stamford Hill, N. 

1903 RUBEN, PAUL, ESQ., Ph.D., Alte Rabenstrasse, 8, Hamburg, 


1904 RUSTAFFJAELL, ROBERT DE, ESQ., Luxor, Egypt. 

1872 *SALAS, MIGUEL T., ESQ., 247, Florida Street, Buenos Ayres. 

Hurst, Hayling Island, Havant, Hants. 

1906 SAWYER, CHARLES, ESQ., 9, Alfred Place West, Thurloe 

Square, S.W. 

1875 SCHINDLER, GENERAL A. HOUTUM, C.I.E., Teheran, Persia. 
1905 SEARLE, REV. W. G., M.A., 11, Scroope Terrace, Cambridge. 

1904 SEEBOHM, FREDERICK, ESQ., LL.D., Litt.D., F.S.A., The 

Hermitage, Hitchin. 

1895 SELBY, HENRY JOHN, ESQ., The Vale, Shortlands, Kent. 

1907 *SELTMAN, CHARLES T., ESQ., Kinghoe, Berkhamsted, Herts. 
1890 SELTMAN, E. J., ESQ., Kinghoe, Berkhamsted, Herts. 

1900 SHACKLES, GEORGE L., ESQ., Wickersley, Brough, R.S.O., E. 

1908 SHEPHERD, EDWARD, ESQ., 2, Cornwall Road, Westbourne 

Park, W. 

1896 SIMPSON, E. C., ESQ., Huntriss Row, Scarborough. 

1893 *SIMS, R. F. MANLEY-, ESQ. (address not known). 


1883 SMITH, B. HOBART, ESQ., 141, East Avenue, Norwalk, 
Connecticut, U.S.A. 

1892 SMITH, VINCENT A., ESQ., M.A., M.R.A.S., I.C.S. (retd.), 
116, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

1890 SMITH, W. BERESFORD, ESQ., Kenmore, Vanbrugh Park Road 
West, Blackheath. 

1905 SNELLING, EDWARD, ESQ., 26, Silver Street, E.G. 

1909 SOUTZO, M. MICHEL, 8, Strada Romana, Bucharest. 

1894 SPINK, SAMUEL M., ESQ., 17, Piccadilly, W. 



1902 STAINER, CHARLES LEWIS, ESQ., 10, South Parks Road, Oxford. 
1890 STANFORD, CHARLES THOMAS-, ESQ. (address not known). 

1869 *STREATFEILD, REV. GEORGE SIDNEY, Fenny Cornpton Rectory, 

1896 STRIDE, ARTHUR LEWIS, ESQ., J.P., Bush Hall, Hatfield. 

1864 *STUBBS, MAJOR-GEN. F. W., R.A., 2, Clarence Terrace, St. 

Luke's, Cork, Ireland. 

1910 SUTCLIFFE, ROBERT, ESQ., 21, Market Street, Burnley, Lanes. 
1909 SYMONDS, H., ESQ., Union Club, Trafalgar Square, S.W. 

1896 *TAFFS, H. W., ESQ., 35, Greenholm Road, Eltham, S.E. 

Road, S.W. 

1897 TALBOT, W. S., ESQ., I.C.S., c/o Messrs. King & Co., 9, Pall 

Mall, S.W. 

1888 TATTON, THOS. E.,EsQ., Wythenshawe, Northenden, Cheshire. 
1892 TAYLOR, R. WRIGHT, ESQ., M.A., LL.B., F.S.A., 8, Stone 

Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
1887 TAYLOR, W. H., ESQ., The Croft, Wheelwright Road, 

Erdington, near Birmingham. 

1887 THAIRLWALL, F. J., ESQ., 12, Upper Park Road, Haverstock 

Hill, N.W. 
1896 THOMPSON, SIR HERBERT, BART., 9, Kensington Park 

Gardens, W. 
1896 THORBURN, HENRY W., ESQ., Cradock Villa, Bishop Auckland. 

1903 THORPE, GODFREY F., ESQ., Falklands, 62, Nightingale Lane, 
Balham, S.W. 

1888 THURSTON, E., ESQ., Central Government Museum, Madras. 

1894 TRIGGS, A. B., ESQ., Bank of New South Wales, Yass, New 

South Wales. 

Charles Street, Berkeley Square, W. 

1874 fVERiTY, JAMES, ESQ., High Bank, The Drive, Roundhay, 

1903 VINTER, WALTER FREDERICK, ESQ., Lindisfarne, Walton-on- 

Thames, Surrey. 

1874 VIZE, GEORGE HENRY, ESQ., 15, Spencer Road, Putney, S.W. 
1899 VLASTO, MICHEL P., ESQ., 12, Allee des Capucines, Marseilles, 

1892 VOST, LIEUT.-COL. W., I.M.S., Muttra, United Provinces, 




1905 WAGE, A. J. B., ESQ., M.A., Leslie Lodge, Hall Place, St. 

1883 WALKER, E. K., ESQ., M.A., Watergate, Meath Koad, Bray, 

1897 WALTERS, FRED. A., ESQ., F.S.A., 37, Old Queen Street, 
Westminster, S.W., Hon. Secretary. 

1894 WARD, JOHN, ESQ., J.P., F.S.A., Farningham, Kent. 

1901 *WATTERS, CHARLES A., ESQ., Highfield, Woolton Eoad, 
Wavertree, Liverpool. 

1901 WEBB, PERCY H., ESQ., 4 & 5, W T est Smithfield, E.G., Hon. 

1885 * WEBER, F. PARKES, ESQ., M.D., F.S.A., 19, Harley Street, 

1883 * WEBER, SIR HERMANN, M.D., 10, Grosvenor Street, Gros- 

venor Square, W. 

1884 WEBSTER, W. J., ESQ., Melrose, Beulah Eoad East, 

Thornton Heath. 

1904 WEIGHT, WILLIAM CHARLES, ESQ., 6, Ship Street, Brighton. 

1905 WEIGHTMAN, FLEET-SURGEON A. E., Junior United Service 

Club, Charles Street, St. James's, S.W. 

1899 WELCH, FRANCIS BERTRAM, ESQ., M.A., Oswestry School, 
Oswestry, Shropshire. 

1869 *WIGRAM, MRS. LEWIS, The Kookery, Frensham, Surrey. 

1908 WILLIAMS, T. HENRY, ESQ., 85, Clarendon Eoad, Putney, 

1910 WILLIAMS, W. I., ESQ., 3, West Terrace, Northallerton, Yorks. 

1881 WILLIAMSON, GEO. C., ESQ., F.E.S.L., Burgh House, Well 
Walk, Hampstead, N.W. 

1906 WILLIAMSON, CAPT. W. H., Blenheim Club, St. James's 

Square, S.W. 

1869 WINSER, THOMAS B., ESQ., F.E.G.S., F.I.A., 81, Shooter's 
Hill Eoad, Blackheath, S.E. 

1904 WINTER, CHARLES, ESQ., Orinskirk, Durham Eoad, W. 

1906 WOOD, HOWLAND, ESQ., 93, Percy Street, Brookline, Massa- 
chusetts, U.S.A. 

1860 WORMS, BARON G. DE, F.E.G.S., F.S.A., V.P.E.S.L., F.G.S., 
D.L.,J.P.,17, Park Crescent, Portland Place, W. 

1903 WRIGHT, H. NELSON, ESQ., I.C.S., M.E.A.S., Allahabad, 
United Provinces, India. 

1880 WROTH, W. W., ESQ., Assistant-Keeper of Coins, British 



1904 YEAMES, ARTHUR HENRY SAVAGE, ESQ., United University 

Club, Pall Mall East, S.W. 
1889 YEATES, F. WILLSON, ESQ., 7, Leinster Gardens, Hyde 

Park, W. 

1880 YOUNG, ARTHUR W., ESQ., 12, Hyde Park Terrace, W. 
1898 YOUNG, JAMES, ESQ., 14, Holland Eoad, W. 

1900 ZIMMERMANN, KEV. JEREMIAH, M.A., D.D., LL.D., 107, South 
Avenue, Syracuse, New York, U.S.A. 



Palazzo Quirinale, Eome. 

1891 BABELON, M. ERNEST, Mem. de 1'Inst., Bibliotheque Nationale, 

1903 BAHRFELDT, GENERAL-MAJOR M., Eastenburg, East Prussia. 
1898 BLANCHET, M. J. A., 40, Avenue Bosquet, Paris. 

1898 DRESSEL, DR. H., Miinz-Kabinet, Kaiser Friedrich Museum, 


1899 GABRICI, PROF. DR. ETTORE, S. Giuseppe dei Nudi, 75, Naples. 
1893 GNECCHI, COMM. FRANCESCO, 10, Via Filodrammatici, Milan. 
1886 HERBST, HERR C. F., late Director of the Museum of Northern 

Antiquities and Inspector of the Coin Cabinet, Copenhagen. 
1886 HILDEBRAND, DR. HANS, Eiksantiquarien, Stockholm. 
1873 IMHOOF-BLUMER, DR. F., Winterthur, Switzerland. 
1893 JONGHE, M. LE VICOMTE B. DE, Eue du Trone, 60, Brussels. 
1878 KENNER, DR. F., K.K. Museen, Vienna. 

1904 KUBITSCHEK, PROF. J. W., Pichlergasse, 1, Vienna. 
1893 LOEBBECKE, HERR A., Cellerstrasse, 1, Brunswick. 
1904 MAURICE, M. JULES, 33, Eue Washington, Paris. 


1908 MOWAT, COMMANDANT EGBERT KNIGHT, 10, Eue des Feuillan- 
tines, Paris. 

1899 PICK, DR. BEHRENDT, Miinzkabinet, Gotha. 
1895 EEINACH, M. THEODORE, 9, Eue Hammelin, Paris. 

1891 SVORONOS, M. J. N., Conservateur du Cabinet des Medailles, 

1886 WEIL, DR. EUDOLF, Schoneberger Ufer, 38, in., Berlin, W. 







1884 AQUILLA SMITH, ESQ., M.D., M.E.I. A. 



18 OHN EVANS, ESQ., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S., ?.S^ 

" <* ~ 

1888 DR. F. IMHOOF- . UMER, Winterthur. 


1890 MONSIEUR J. P. Six, Amsterdam. 

1891 DR. C. LUDWIG MULLER, Copenhagen. 


1893 _-!ON^ 'EUR W. 7 WADDINGTON, Senate? Membre de 1'Insk 


1894 CHARI ss FWci, KEARY, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A. 

1895 PROF ".OR DR. THEODOR MOMMSEN, I> t :lin. 

1896 ^R RIG W. MADDEN, ESQ., M.E.A.S. 

1897 DR. .FRED VON SALLET, Berl 1 ' i. 

l c , TFE EV. NON W. GREENWELL, M.A., F.E.S., F.S.A. 

1899 I >N 5UB ERNEST BABELON, Membre de 1'Institut, Con 

p.rvp^ ar des Medailles, Paris. 



1902 ARTHUR J. '. ANS, ESQ., M.A., F.E.S. , F.S.A., Keeper of the 

Museum, Oxford. 






1905 SIR r:r ^RMANN WEBER, M.D. 

1906 Co FRANC co GNECCHI, Milan. 

1907 P " VINCENT HEAD, ESQ., D. Litt., D.( L., Ph.D 


1908 ] sso:. . H^INRICH DRESSEL, Berlin. 

1909 A. GRUEb. ; ^SQ., F.S.A. 


mibre de I'ln^titut, 




.:G DEPT. MAR 1 1958 






The Numismatic chronicle 
and journal of the Royal 
Numismatic Society 







i :: 



111 IS I