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Full text of "The numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society"

J 



THE 

NUMISMATIC GHEONICLE 

AND 

JOURNAL OF 
THE ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 



(THE) 

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE 

ASD 

JOUBNAL 

OP THE 

ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

EDITED BY 

G. P. HILL, M.A., 

KEEPER OF COINS, BRITISH MUSEUM, 

OLIVER CODRINGTON, M.D., F.S.A., M.R.A.S., 

AND 

G. C. BROOKE, B.A. 

FOUKTH SERIES VOL. XIV. 




Factum abiit monuments manent. Ov. Fast. 

LONDON : 
BERNARD QUARITCH, 11, GRAPTON ST., W. 

PABIS : 

MM. ROLLIN ET FEUARDENT, RUE DE LOUVOIS, No. 4. 

1914. 



"fe 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 
DUKE STREET, STAMFOHD STREET, S.E., AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET, \\. 



CONTENTS. 



ANCIENT NUMISMATICS. 

PAGE 

A Cilician Find. (Plates I.-IV.) By E. T. Newell . . 1 

On the Coinage of Commodus during the Keign of Marcus. 

(Plate V.) By Rev. C. H. Dodd 34 

A Find of Third-century Roman Coins at Puncknoll, Co. Dorset. 

By Henry Symonds, F.S.A 92 

Greek Coins acquired by the British Museum in 1913. (Plates 

VII., VIII.) By G. F. Hill, M.A 97 

The Coinage of the Civil Wars of 68-69 A.D. (Plates IX., X.) 

By H. Mattingly, M.A .110 

Index of Ethnics appearing on Greek Coins. By E. S. G. 

Robinson 236 

A Hoard of Coins of Temnos. By J. Grafton Milne, M.A. . 260 

On the Series of Quadrantes usually assigned to the Reign of 

Augustus. By H. Mattingly, M.A 261 

The Silver Coinage of Smyrna. (Plates XVI.-XVIII.) By J. 

Grafton Milne, M.A 273 

The Coinage of Pisidian Antioch. (Plate XIX.) By G. F. 

Hill, M.A 299 

Portraits d'Imperatrices de 1'Epoque Constantinienne. (Plate 

XX.) By Jules Maurice 314 

The Dadia Hoard of Coins of Knidos. By J. Grafton Milne, M.A. 379 



11 CONTENTS. 

MEDIAEVAL AND MODERN NUMISMATICS. 

PAGE 

The Steppingley Find of English Coins. (Plate VI.) By L. A. 

Lawrence, F.S.A., and G. C. Brooke, B.A. ... 60 

Offa's Imitation of an Arab Dinar. By J. Allan, M.A. . . 77 
A Seventeenth-century Coining-press. By G. F. Hill . . 90 
Edward VI and Durham House. By H. Symonds, F.S.A. . 138 

Nicholas Briot and the Civil War. (Plates XII.-XV.) By 

Miss Helen Farquhar 169 

A Find of Long-Cross Pennies at Slype (West Flanders). By 

G. C. Brooke, B.A. 256 

The Gold Coinage of Charles I. By H. Symonds, F.S.A. . . 264 

The Coinage of the Eeign of Edward IV. (Plates XXI.-XXIV.) 

ByFredk. A. Walters, F.S.A .330 

Carsphairn Find. By G. C. Brooke, B.A 382 



ORIENTAL NUMISMATICS. 

Coins of Some Kings of Hormuz. (Plate XI.) By H. W. 

Codrington . 156 



OBITUARY. 
Barclay Vincent Head 168, 249 



NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

Handy Guide to Jewish CoinSi By Rev. E. Rogers ... 95 

British Museum : Catalogue of the Coins of the Gupta Dynasties, 

&c. By J.Allan 266 

Aspects of Death in Art and Epigram. By F. Parkes Weber . 269 

Copper Coins of India. Part I. By W. H. Valentine . . 270 



CONTENTS. lii 

PAGE 

Catalogue of the Coins in the Panjab Museum, Lahore. By 

R. B. Whitehead 383 

Oriental Numismatics. By John Robinson .... 387 

Catalogue of the Coins in the Colombo Museum. Part I. By 

H. W. Codrington 388 



LIST OF PLATES CONTAINED IN VOL. XIV. 

FLATUS 

I.-IV. A Cilician Find. 

V. Coinage of Commodus under Marcus. 

VI. Henry III ; Varieties of Long Cross Coinage. 

VII., VIII. British Museum, Greek Acquisitions, 1913. 

IX., X. Coinage of the Civil Wars of 68-69 A.D. 

XL Coins of Kings of Hormuz. 

XII.-XV. Nicholas Briot and the Civil War (Coins of Charles I). 

XVI -XVIII. Silver Coinage of Smyrna. 

XIX. Coinage of Pisidian Antioch. 

XX. Portraits d'lmperatrices. 

XXI.-XXIV. Coinage of Reign of Edward IV. 



I. 

A CILICIAN FIND. 

(See Plates I.-IV.) 

THE great value of " finds " in solving problems both of 
numismatics and of history, in determining doubtful 
mints and dates, and in placing before our eyes the 
actual currency of a given time and place, is to-day too 
much of an established fact to need further comment. 
While in England and on the Continent comparatively 
few of such hoards are allowed to escape the interests of 
science, in Eastern lands I am speaking particularly of 
those under Turkish rule this fortunate state of affairs 
does not exist. Here only a rare chance ever preserves 
a find intact. If the hoard is not immediately divided 
between the actual finders it almost invariably falls into 
the hands of dealers, and is soon hopelessly dispersed in 
every direction. We are thus deprived, once for all, of 
any important data which a careful study might have 
given us. 

The following little find has fortunately escaped the 
usual fate thanks to the late Prof. Haynes, onetime 
superintendent of the excavations carried on by the 
University of Pennsylvania at Nippur. Though not a 
numismatist himself, Prof. Haynes evidently recognized 
the value of this branch of archaeology, and appreciated 
the importance of securing a find and keeping it 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. B 



2 E. T. NEWELL. 

together for future reference and study. Of the ante- 
cedents of this little hoard nothing is known beyond 
the fact that it came to light among the personal effects 
of the late professor, and was thence brought to the 
present writer's notice. As all Prof. Haynes' notes 
and records had previously been lost or destroyed, we 
are deprived of any specific information they may have 
contained concerning the " provenance " and subsequent 
history of the hoard. For these and for all further in- 
formation we shall have to rely upon the hoard itself. 

In the following catalogue the coins are arranged 
geographically, starting with Syracuse in the west, 
thence proceeding eastwards to Athens and Byzantion, 
thence to the various cities of Asia Minor, Cyprus, and 
Phoenicia, finally ending with the sigloi of the Persian 
kings. In every case where there is any decided 
difference of opinion, among the latest authorities, as 
to the dates to which certain coins are to be assigned, 
all the variations are given. The works which con- 
stitute at the present time the last word on the pre- 
Alexandrine issues of Asia Minor are E. Babelon, Traite 
des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines; Barclay V. Head, 
Historia Numorum, 2nd edition ; and the catalogues of 
Greek coins in the British Museum, especially Gr. F. 
Hill, Lycaonia, Isauria, and Cilicia ; Phoenicia; and 
Cyprus. These, at any rate, will be the authorities 
followed in the present case. 

As a general rule the weight of a coin is of com- 
paratively little value for scientific purposes unless the 
actual condition of the coin is known as well. There- 
fore, in our catalogue, the following scale of "con- 
ditions " has been used : F.D.C. = " Fleur de coin," 
or uncirculated ; Fine = very slightly worn ; V.G. = 



A CILICIAN FIND. 3 

very good ; Good = medium condition ; Worn = smooth 
through long circulation. 

SYRACUSE. 
Circ. 425 B.C. 

Obv. ZYPAKOIION. Head of nymph to 1., wearing ear- 
ring and plain necklace ; hair rolled ; around, four 
dolphins ; beneath neck, EY. 

Rev. Quadriga to 1. ; horses galloping in step ; charioteer 
crowned by flying Nike ; in exergue, dolphin to 
right pursuing fish. (Attic tetradrachru.) 

1. Obv. Three test-cuts. Eev One cut. V.G. 17-35. 

[PI. I. 1.] 

The occurrence in a Cilician hoard of an example 
from the Syracusan mint, dating from the best period 
of its numismatic art, is particularly interesting. For 
in it we have the actual proof that during the fourth 
century B.C. Syracusan coins made their way by trade 
as far east as Cilicia. Hitherto we have only inferred 
this from the apparent fondness Cilician die-engravers 
seem to have had of imitating the types, if not always 
the artistic merit, of some of the finest coins of Sicily 
and Magna Graecia. 1 

ATHENS. 
Before 407 B.C. 

Obv. Head of Athene of archaic style, her helmet adorned 
in front with three olive leaves, and at the back 
with floral scroll ; her hair in bands across her 
temples, and indicated by dots under neck-piece of 
helmet. 



1 Pharnabazos and Datames on their coins copied the facing head 
of Arethusa by Kimon ; Tarsos the Herakles and lion group of certain 
Syracusan gold pieces ; Mallos a similar group on coins of Heraklea in 
Lucania ; &c. 



E. T. NEWELL. 



Rev. A E. Incuse square ; within which owl r., head 
facing, wings closed ; behind, olive spray and 
small crescent. (Attic tetradrachm.) 

2-6. (Only one of these wasj 
weighed) . . . ) 

7. Obv. One cut. Bev. One cut . 

8. Obv. Bev. Three cuts 
Q-l\. Obv. One cut. Bev. Four cuts 






Bev. ) 
(Piece missing)) 

12. Obv. Two cuts. Bev. No cuts . 

13. Obv. No cuts. Bev. One cut . . 
14-21. Obv. No cuts. Bev. Two cuts . 



F.D.C. 17-10. 

Worn. 16-99. 

16-99. 

V.G. 17-10 
Worn. 16-72. 

14-60. 



22-24. Obv. No cuts. Bev. Three cuts 



25-26. Obv. 

27. Obv. No cuts. 

28. Obv. 

29. Fragment . 

30. Obv. No cuts. 

31. 06?;. I 
32. 



Bev. Four cuts 

Bev. Four cuts 
Bev. Seven 

P. Bev. Five cuts, 
i. Bev. Two cuts 



Bev. Five cuts. 1 
(Punchmark partly obliterated)) 

33. Obv. Punch indistinct 
Bev. Punch indistinct 



V.G. 
Worn. 



16-86. 
17-07. 



V.G. 



16-88. 
17-10. 
17-12. 
16-83. 
16-88. 
17-07. 
17-18. 

F.D.C. 17-15. 
[PI. I. 2.] 

Worn. 16-99. 

17-05. 

V.G. 17-09. 

Worn. 17-07. 

17-08. 

V.G. 17-00. 

16-65. 

. 3-23. 

V.G. 16-66. 

[PI. I. 3.J 
Worn. 17-05. 

[PI. I. 4.] 

V.G. 17-07. 
17-06. 



A CILICIAN FIND. 



34. Obv. No cuts. 

Rev. Three cuts. Punch, Fig. 1. 1 

35. Obv. Circular depression 
Rev. Two cuts 



:} 



Worn. 17-08. 

[PI. I. 5.] 
V.G. 26-93. 

[PI. I. 6.] 



EASTERN (?) IMITATIONS. 



36. Obv. Cut. Rev. Two cuts . . Worn. 17-08. 


37. Obv. Stab. Same die as above . .) 17-10. 
Rev. Two cuts $ [PI. I. 7.] 


38. Obv. Punch, Fig. 1.2 . . .\ 17-00. 
Rev. Two cuts, punch, Fig. 1. 5 .$ [PI. I. 8.] 







A 


ft 


$ 


@ 


^5 








2 


3 * 


^ 


5 


6 






7 X 





o 


]0 \ 


, 


ju> 









V 


J 


K 

16 


X, 


tg \j 






?> 


5 


B3 


tt 


V 


ft 








20 


21 


^2 


23 


24 






B 


ty 


R 


f*l 


X 


I 








26 


27 


28 


23 


3O 















# 


X 











32 


33 


34 


35 


36 








J_ 





& 


K 










37 


3S 











FIG. l. 

4/Ver 397 B.C. (Athenian Mint). 
Same types as the preceding but of later style. 

39. Obv. Cut and punchmark, Fig. 1. 4 . F.D.C. 16-12. 

[PI. I. 9.] 

It is but natural that we should find these far- 
travelling Athenian " owls " in a fourth-century hoard 
from the coasts of Asia Minor. For nearly two cen- 
turies, until displaced by Alexander's tetradrachms, 
they formed the principal medium of exchange between 
East and West. 



6 E. T. NEWELL. 

Of the regular Athenian issues of these famous 
" owls " the hoard contains many distinct varieties, 
ranging from the fine archaic to late transitional style. 
The most interesting, though, are Nos. 36-38, which 
are foreign imitations. Taken as a whole, the style of 
these imitations is not bad, just enough "off" to reveal 
their true character. In weight they compare very 
favourably with the genuine Athenian issues, and so, 
evidently, were not intended for fraudulent purposes, 
but simply to supply the trade demand for this variety 
of coin when, towards the end of the Peloponesian war, 
and for some time afterwards, the mint at Athens 
seems to have ceased coining tetradrachms in any 
large quantities. 

The majority of our pieces have seen considerable 
circulation, and nearly all have been badly defaced by 
repeated blows of a chise]. Special interest in these 
coins lies in the punchmarks some of them bear. 
No. 30 seems to have a form of the Cypriote sign for 
" Ko " ; No. 31 what may either be the Phoenician " B> " 2 
or the Cypriote "U." No. 38 bears on its obverse a 
sign that may either be taken for the Cypriote "Ti" 
or the Lycian "Kh"; while on its reverse it has the 
Phoenician " D." These counter-stamps have the appear- 
ance of private marks rather than of official stamps, 
and were probably used by the merchants and bankers 
of Cyprus and the opposite coasts, in much the same 
way as the Chinese used their " chopmarks " which 

2 It is possible that the punches on Nos. 30 and 31 may represent 
respectively the Greek letters Fl and Z. On the strength of the 
indubitably non-Greek letters found on No. 38, and from the fact 
that the style and technique of l~l and W are identical with that of 
/j\ it would seem preferable to look upon the two former also as 
non-Greek letters. 



A CILICIAN FIND. 7 

occur so frequently on the silver dollars of various 
nationalities circulating in the Far East. The two 
forms of the "crux ansata," on Nos. 34 and 39, also 
remind us of the coinages of Cilicia and Cyprus on 
which this symbol so often appears. 

BYZANTION. 
416-357 B.C. (Head). 

Obv. "flY. Bull standing to 1. on dolphin. 

Rev. Incuse square, quartered, of " mill-sail " pattern. 
(Persic drachm.) 

40. Obv. No cuts. Rev. No cuts . . F.D.C. 5-34. 

[PI. I. 10.] 

41. Obv. Rev. . . V.G. 5-40. 

42. Obv. One cut. Rev. 5*37. 

43. Obv. ,, Two stabs. Rev. No cuts. 5-35. 

44. Obv. No cuts. Rev. One cut . . 5-37. 

KALCHEDON. 

412-394 B.C. (Babelon). 

Obv. KAAX. Bull standing to 1. on ear of wheat. 

Rev. Incuse square, quartered, of " mill-sail " pattern. 
(Persic drachm.) 

45. Obv. No cuts. Rev. One cut. V.G. 5-37. [PI. 1. 11.] 

It is interesting that the coinages of Byzantion and 
Kalchedon, two politically and numismatically allied 
cities, should both be represented in our find. As M. 
Babelon has shown that this particular variety of the 
Kalchedonian coinage without magistrate's symbol, 
monogram, or letter should be attributed to the 
period 412-394 B.C., it follows that the corresponding 
and contemporary coinage of Byzantion must also be 
limited to this period. In other words, our Byzantine 



8 E. T. NEWELL. 

coins were not struck much, if any, later than about 
394 B.C. 

SINOPE. 

453-375 B.C. (Head}. 
Circa 400 B.C. (Babelon). 

Obv. Head of the nymph Sinope to 1., hair in sphendone. 
Rev. ZINQ. Sea-eagle to 1. on dolphin. (Persic drachm.) 

46. (^.-(Early style). One cut . . > Worn _ 6<()g 
ttev. E. One cut . . j 

47. Obv. Nl Two cuts . . . . \ ^ ~ QA 

- U5 



Rev. HH (?) cuts . . 5 -- 

Obv. (Poor style) ....) 4-87. 
Hev.\N\- . 5 [PI. I. 12.] 



No. 48, to judge from its poor style and abnormal 
weight, is probably a contemporary forgery. Never- 
theless there are no signs of its being a plated coin. 

These types were inaugurated on the introduction 
of a democratic government in Sinope (453 B.C.), and 
lasted until the capture of the city by Datames in 
375 B.C. These particular varieties, according to M. 
Babelon, belong to the first part of the fourth cen- 
tury B.C. 

MILETOS. 
Before 387 B.C. 

Obv. Forepart of lion to r., looking back. 

Mev. Floral star in incuse square. (Milesian diobol.) 

49. Earlier style. See Babelon, Traite, <&c.,[ -r^ T n _ 

PI. cxliv. 2 . . . .( 

50. Similar. Pierced and with cut on rev. . 1-11. 

51. Later style. See Babelon, ibid., PI. cxliv.') , n _ 

3-4 ..... r " 

52. Similar. Pierced 1-00. 



A CILICIAN FIND. 9 

The coins of this type were probably discontinued 
about 387 B.C., when Hekatomnos, the Carian dynast, 
struck Attic drachms of the same types, but with his 
abbreviated name over the lion's head. 

SAMOS. 
390-365 B.C. 
Obv. Lion's scalp, facing. 

Rev. Forepart of bull to r. ; behind, olive branch ; below, 
ZA and monogram, Fig. 1. 5; above, magis- 
trate's name, HTHZIANAZ. (Rhodian tetra- 
drachm.) 

53. Rev. Five cuts. F.D.C. 15-31. 

[PI. I. 13.] 

The fine style and pronounced incuse square of the 
reverse point unmistakably to the first decade of the 
period. 

ASPENDOS. 

After 400 B.C. (Head). 

After 394 B.C. (Babelon). 

Obv. Two wrestlers of vigorous build ; the one on the 1. 

seizing his opponent by 1. leg to throw- him. 

Early style. 
Rev. EZTFEAIIYZ. Slinger to r. in incuse square. Tris- 

kelis in front. (Persic stater.) 

54. Obv. One cut. Rev. One cut . . F.D.C. 10-92. 

[PI. II. 1.] 
Obv. Similar type ; but the two wrestlers are seizing each 

other by the arms. Fine style. 
Rev. Slinger as above. (Persic stater.) 

55. Obv. Crack. Rev. Four cuts. Punch-} - 10-86 

mark, j 

56. Obv. Weakly struck. Rev. One cut.] V.G. 10-91. 

Punchmark : Lion's head twice I [PI. II. 2 
repeated .... .1 (Rev.).'} 

57. Obv. Weakly struck. Rev. One cut. F.D.C. 10-93. 

[PI. II. 3 (Rev.).] 



10 E. T. NEWELL. 

The early (No. 54) and the fine (Nos. 55-57) style 
displayed by these coins, and the absence of all 
magistrate's symbols or letters, would place them in 
the early days of this particular coinage that is, 
circa 394-380 B.C. 

SIDE. 

400-300 B.C. (Head). 
394-350 B.C. (Babelon). 

Obv. Athene, helmeted, standing to 1. ; r. hand holds 
owl, 1. rests on shield; behind, spear; in front, 
pomegranate. 

Rev. Aramaic inscription. Apollo standing to 1., holds 
laurel branch in r. hand and bow in 1. In front, 
altar ; behind, raven. Square countermark, in 
which can be seen wolf running to right ; above 
and below, indistinct letters. (Persic stater.) 

58. Obv. One cut. Rev. Four cuts . V.G. 10-59. 

[PL II. 4.] 

This, too, must have been struck not long after 
394 B.C., as the style clearly indicates. 

TLOS. 

400-364 B.C. (Head). 
After 362 B.C. (Babelon). 

Obv. Head of Athene to r., wearing Attic helmet. 

Rev. WE and sign, Fig. 1. 7. Two lions facing each 
other ; between, sign Fig. 1. 6. (Lycian stater.) 

59. Obv. Weakly struck. One cut . .j F.D.C. 8-31. 
Rev. Two cuts. Broken die . .$ [PI. II. 5.] 

M. Babelon supposes this coin to have been struck 
at Tlos under the domination of the satraps of Caria 
that is, after 362 B.C. ; Dr. Head, on the other hand, 
allows it a wider margin of time, in attributing it to the 



A CILICIAN FIND. 11 

period 400-364 B.C. As we shall see later, the occurrence 
of the piece in the present hoard places its date of issue 
in the first twenty years of the fourth century B.C. 
The rather pronounced incuse form of the reverse die 
confirms this. Furthermore, the style of the head and 
the circular shape of the incuse reverse die are very 
similar to the coins of certain Lycian dynasts who 
nourished about 400 B.C. 3 The slightly later style of 
the coin of Tlos would place its issue between 390 and 
380 B.C. 

As with the other known specimens of this coin, the 
obverse die is very weakly struck, but enough remains 
to show that the type is certainly a head of Athene 
in Attic helmet as Dr. Head hesitatingly suggests. 
M. Babelon sees in it a lion's scalp (mufle de lion de 
face), but adds "mal venue a la frappe" in the 
description of the Lycian coinage in his Traite. 

The Lycian inscription on our coin seems slightly 
different from that found on the other known staters of 
this type it seems to be the inscription of the obol pub- 
lished by M. Babelon (Traite, &c., 2 me Partie, No. 448). 

KELENDERIS. 
Circa 450 B.C. 

Obv. Naked youth seated sideways on horse galloping to 1. 

Rev. Forepart of goat preparing to kneel to 1. 

(Persic stater.) 

60. Obv. Two cuts and two punchmarks ;\ 

the upper one represents an ^y" orn 10-57 

ibis, the lower one the Egyptian - rp, ' jj g -j 

sign"NEFER." 

Rev. Two cuts . 



3 Babelon, Traite, <&c., Vol. II., PI. C, Nos. 18-20; 01, Nos. 
13-20, &c. 



12 E. T. NEWELL. 

400-350 B.C. 

Obv. Naked youth seated sideways on horse galloping 
to r. 

Rev. KEAEN Goat preparing to kneel to r., head reverted. 

(Persic stater.) 

61. Obv. Somewhat weakly struck . . j F.D.C. 10-79. 
Rev. Two cuts . .$ [PL II. 7.] 

No. 60 appears to be an unpublished variety of the 
Kelenderite coinage. In style it is a contemporary 
of B.M.C. : Gilicia, PI. ix. 1, and forms the transition 
between the earlier types (PI. viii. 13-15) with the 
incuse reverse, and the later types (PI. ix. 1-6) with the 
kneeling goat looking back. This representation of a 
goat's forepart is an entirely new motive among 
Kelenderite numismatic types. The coin is also note- 
worthy for the two remarkable countermarks on its 
obverse. The Egyptian sign " nefer," meaning " good," 
together with the ibis, would seem to indicate that this 
particular coin had circulated in Egypt, or, at least, had 
passed through the hands of Egyptian merchants or 
bankers. 

No. 61, with its fine style and total absence of 
magistrate's symbols or letters, must be assigned to the 
first decade of the fourth century. 

SOLI. 

Before 386 B.C. (Hill). 
400-350 B.C. (Bdbelon). 

Obv. Head of Athene r., in griffin-ornamented Attic 
helmet. Fine style. 

Rev. Bunch of grapes with leaf and tendril ; and A- B, in 
diamond shape incuse; around, ZO AE HN. 

(Persic stater.) 

62. Rev. Four cuts. F.D.C. 10'62. 



A CILICIAN FIND. 13 

Obv. Similar head of Athene of fine style. 

Bev. ZOAIKON Bunch of grapes with tendril in incuse 
of circular shape ; above grapes, A I. Fine style 
and high relief. (Persic stater.) 

63. Obv. Crack. Bev. Two cuts . . F.D.C. 10-65. 

[PI. II. 8.] 

Obv. Similar head of Athene, low relief, weaker style. 

Rev. Bunch of grapes with leaf and tendril placed 
diagonally in incuse square. Low relief. 

(Persic stater.) 

64. No cuts. F.D.C. 10-15. 

[PI. II. 9.] 

65. Rev. Z - O. Three cuts. F.D.C. 10-22. 

[PI. II. 10.] 
Obv. Similar head and similar style. 

Bev. Bunch of grapes with leaf and tendril in circle of 
pearls, ZOAI below. 

66. Bev. Three cuts. F.D.C. 10-33. 

[PI. II. 11.] 

67. Bev. One cut. F.D.C. 10-15. 

[PI. II. 12.] 

68. Bev. Three cuts. F.D.C. 10-10. 

No. 63 appears to be an unpublished variety of this 
type. Mr. Hill places the lower limit of this series of 
Solian autonomous coins at 386 B.C. When we come to 
study the hoard, with a view to determining its date of 
burial, we shall see that Mr. Hill is undoubtedly right 
in fixing on this date rather than continuing the series 
down to 350 B.C. as M. Babel on does. 

MALLOS. 

425-385 B.C. (JKW). 

After 387 B.C. (Babelon). 

Obv. Winged figure running (in kneeling posture) to r. ; 
holding in both hands circular disk, on which star 
of eight rays. 



14 E. T. NEWELL. 

Bev. M A P. Swan to 1. ; in front, dolphin; behind, 
" crux ansata." (Persic stater.) 

69. Obv. Cracks. Rev. Two cuts . . V.G-. 10-20. 

[PI. II. 13.] 
Obv. Similar figure to r. ; in front, " crux ansata." 

Rev. M A P. Swan to r. ; in front, altar and ear of 
corn. (Persic stater.) 

70. Obv. Cut. Bev. Six cufo . Worn. 10-60. 



ISSOS (?). 

j 

Sixth Century B.C. 

. 

Obv. Forepart of lion to 1., jaws open. 

Rev. Incuse square divided by diagonal bar into twc 
triangles. (Persic stater.) 

71. V.G. 10-94. 

[PI. II. 14.] 

The attribution of this coin to Issos is still con- 
jectural, but is supported by the presence of the piece 
in this particular hoard. 

ISSOS. 
Before 386 B.C. (Babelon). 

Obv. Above, on 1., AHATOPIOY (sic!) in small letters; in 
field, IZZI KON. Apollo, naked to waist but for 
himation over 1. shoulder, standing facing, head 
to 1. ; r. arm outstretched holding patera ; 1. rests 
on laurel branch. 

Rev. Herakles, naked, standing facing, head turned to 
r. ; r. hand rests on club ; 1. holds lion's skin, 
bow, and arrow. To 1., above shoulder, wreath ; 
to right, sign, Fig. 1. 8. (Persic stater.) 

72. Obv. One cut. Rev. One cut . . F.D.C. 10-59. 

[PI. III. 1.] 

On this fine stater we are at last able to read, in 
n.inute but perfectly legible letters, the name AHATOPIOY 



A OILICIAN FIND. 15 

above Apollo's right shoulder. M. Babelon has already 
noticed the legend; but owing to the condition of the 
piece he publishes, 4 he describes it as Aramaic in his 
own words, "Les vestiges d'une legende Arameenne 
(peut-etre le nom de Tiribazos)." As both coins seem 
to be from the same obverse die, AHATOPIOY must also 
be the inscription found *i the Copenhagen specimen. 

What is ^Airaropiov to be considered as a magistrate's 
TIP*- o, a divine epithet, or perhaps an artist's signature? 
three solutions have their difficulties, as we shall 
To begin with, the form 'Airaropio^ is new. As 
AiraTovptoQ it has been preserved for us by various 
authors and inscriptions as a personal name in Athens, 
Delos, Byzantium, Alabanda, &c. 5 It also appears as a 
magistrate's name on certain coins of Smyrna and 
Kyme. 6 'Airaropiov may be merely an orthographical 
error of the die-sinker or a dialectical variation of the 
usual 'ATTdTovpiov, or simply due to the confusion 
prevalent about this period in the writing of the pure 
and impure vowel-sounds. The simplest explanation of 
this name would be to consider it as that of some magis- 
trate in charge of this coinage. With rare exceptions 7 
Cilician magistrates did not sign their names in full 
on their coins till well after the middle of the second 
century B.C., and in the few cases where they did, never 
in the genitive case. Our coin is of a period when 
seldom anything more than a symbol or, at most, one 



4 Now in Copenhagen. See Babelon, Traits, &c., 2 me Partie, Vol. II. 
No. 1373. 

5 W. Pape, Worterbuch der Griechischen Eigennamen, 1863/70. 

6 Mionnet, iii. 192 ; S. vi. 11. 

7 Babelon, Traite, <&c., 2 me Partie, Soli; Nos. 1437, 1443, both after 
350 B.C. 



16 E. T. NEWELL. 

or two letters are found. Outside of Cilicia, at Ephesos, 
at Samos, at Chios, at Knidos, at Klazomenae, and other 
cities of Asia Minor, magistrates signed in full from the 
commencement of the fourth century B.C., but always 
in the nominative case. 

Can we explain it as an artist's signature ? It is in 
a conspicuous place, and the custom of signing dies was 
not prevalent in Cilicia. On the other hand, the extreme 
minuteness of the letters, the accompanying fine style 
of the coin itself, and lastly, the genitive case, might all 
argue in favour of this last hypothesis. The great 
Syracusan artists Eumenes and Euainetos were accus- 
tomed to sign their names in the genitive case. As 
the Cilician die- engravers more than once turned to the 
masterpieces of Sicily for their inspiration, it might 
have happened that in one instance, in an excess of 
pride and emulation, the Cilician artist signed his name 
to his production, in imitation of his Western masters. 

By far the most plausible explanation of the word 
'Airaropiog is that probably it was intended as an epithet 
of the god it accompanies. We know that 'A-n-aTovpia 
was an epithet of Aphrodite and Athene, ' A-n-aTovpiog of 
Zeus and Dionysos. 8 As far as I know, however, we 
have no instance of its having been used as an epithet 
of Apollo. But there is no reason to suppose that he 
might not have been given this name at Issos, if he 
were associated in that city with an Apaturia festival. 
Our coin would then be a most interesting (as it is the 
only) proof that such a festival had been held at Issos, 
and that the god Apollo was there associated with it. 

8 Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. Apatourios. 



A CILICIAN FIND. 17 

SATRAPAL ISSUES OF TIRIBAZOS. 

386-380 B.C. 

SOLI. 

Obi-. ZO on 1. ; Aramaic inscription (in*~in) on r. Baal 
standing to 1., r. arm extended beneath flying 
eagle, 1. arm resting on sceptre. 

Rev. Ahura-mazda to front, head r., nude body terminated 
by winged disk of Persian form ; in r., wreath ; 
in 1., lotos. (Persic stater.) 

73. F.D.C. 10-95. 

[PI. III. 2.] 

74. Obv. One cut. Rev. Three cuts . Fine. 10-59. 

Obv. Head of bearded Herakles r., lion's skin fastened 
around neck. 

Rev. Head of satrap (Tiribazos?) r., bearded and wearing 
Persian tiara. In front, ZOAEflN. (Persic 
stater.) 

75. Fine style, high relief .... F.D.C. 10'20. 

[PI. III. 3.] 

76. Around head, ZOMKON. Low relief.} -r, ^ n a on 

-.-> f*. . > .T..U.O. y ou. 

Rev. Cut . . . .$ 

77. Similar. Rev. . Fine. 9-80. 

Rev. Two cuts 10-19. 

Obv. Cut . . F.D.C. 10-19. 

[PI. III. 4.] 

MALLOS. 

Obv. Head of nymph r., hair done up in sphendone; ear- 
ring and pearl necklace. 

Rev. Head of satrap (Tiribazos ?) r., bearded and wearing 
Persian tiara. In front MA A. (Persic stater.) 

80. Coin nearly divided by deep cut. Fine) F.D.C. 9-99. 

style . . .j [PI. HI. 5.] 

81. Rev. Cut. Fine style. Fine. 10'54. 

[PI. III. 6.] 

82. Obv. Two cuts. Rev. Three cuts . V.G. 10-68. 

83. Rev. Two cuts . 10'39. 

[PI. III. 7.] 

NUM. CHKON., VOL. XIV., SEEIES IV. C 



18 E. T. NEWELL. 

These coins are interesting, as they represent the 
coinage issued by Tiribazos the Satrap to defray the 
expenses of the expedition he was preparing in Southern 
Cilicia against Evagoras I, the revolted king of Cyprus. 

ISLAND OF CYPRUS. 
KINGS OF SALAMIS. 

EVAGORAS I. 
411-374 B.C. 

Obv. Cypriote inscription, p<o-yo- Fa-v-E (Euayo/ow). He- 
rakles beardless, seated to r. on lion's skin 
stretched over rock; r. hand holds club, 1. band 
holds bull's horn. 

Rev. Fo-X.-r]-crL-^a (/BamXrjo). Goat reclining to r. on dotted 
base. (Persic stater.) 

84. Eev. Two cuts . F.D.C. 11-02. 

[PL III. 8.] 

Obv. Bearded head of Herakles to r. covered with lion's 
skin. 

Fo-Xrj-o-L-fta 

Rev. Fa,. Goat reclining to r. on dotted base ; 

crc E V above, grain of wheat. (Persic stater.) 

85. Rev. Two cuts . . F.D.C. 10-50. 

[PL III. 9.] 

The first of these staters is particularly interesting, 
as it seems to be unpublished. Tetrobols bearing the 
same types are well known, but this is the first time 
that a corresponding stater has made its appearance. It 
evidently was the first issue of Evagoras' reign, and was 
shortly superseded by the more usual coins in gold and 
silver, bearing on their obverses the bearded Herakles 
head of No. 85. Neither of the two coins catalogued 
here has seen any circulation whatsoever. 



A CILICIAN FIND. 19 

KINGS OP KITION. 

BAALRAM. 
Circa 400-392 B.C. 

Obv. Herakles, the lion's skin hanging from his shoulders, 
advancing to r. ; in r. hand he brandishes club, in 
extended 1. he holds bow. Before him " crux 
ansata " (?). 

Rev. Phoenician inscription (D~fcy2^>). Lion springing upon 
falling stag, all in dotted square. (Persic stater.) 

86. Bev. Three cuts. V. Fine. 11-23. 

[PI. III. 10.] 

MELEKIATHON. 
392-361 B.C. 

Obv. Same type as above. 

Rev. Same type as above. (Persic tetrobol.) 

87. Obv. Weakly struck. Rev. Two cuts. Fine. 3-53. 

[PI. III. 11.] 

PHOENICIA. 

ARADOS. 

Early Fourth Century (Hill). 

Obv. Head r. of male deity, laureate ; eye in full, border 
represented by line instead of by dots. 

Rev. Phoenician inscription (tf O). Galley r. ; below, three 
wavy lines ; the whole in incuse square bounded 
below by crescent- shaped depression (Hill, Phoe- 
nicia, Series B). (Persic stater.) 

88. Rev. Cut . . Fine. 10-38. 

[PI. IV. 1.] 

Early Fourth Century to c. 350 B.C. (Hill). 

Obv. Similar head to previous stater. 

Rev. x Galley to r., as above. Style later ; probably 
same issue as the following, but in this case the 
numerals are off the flan. (Persic stater.) 

89. Obv. Two cuts. Slightly worn. 10-38. 

c 2 



20 E. T. NEWELL. 

Obv. Similar head to previous staters. 

Rev. -x -. Galley as above (Hill, ibid., Series D). 

(Persic stater.) 

90. Eev.~ Punchmark, Fig. 1. 9. Fine. 10-78. 

[PI. IV. 2.] 

In these three staters our hoard corroborates Mr. Hill's 
conclusions that their issue must have been slightly 
earlier than 350-332 B.C., the period to which M. Babelon 
would assign them. 

TYRE. 
420-400 B.C. (Babelon). 

Obv. Melqarth riding r. on hippocamp with curled wing ; 
with r. he holds reins, with 1. strung bow ; below, 
two lines of waves and dolphin r. 

Rev. . Owl standing r., head facing ; over 1. shoulder 
crook and flail. (Phoenician stater.) 

91. Obv. Cut. Rev. Two cuts . . Good. 13-21. 

[PI. IV. 3.] 

Circa 400-312 B.C. (Hill). 

Obv. Melqarth as before. 

Rev. Owl as before. Flat fabric. (Phoenician stater.) 

92. Obv. Crack. Rev. Cut . . . Fine. 13'56. 

[PI. IV. 4.] 

The dies of both the foregoing coins are placed at 
right angles to each other. M. Babelon's dating for 
No. 91 seems to me more in accordance with the evi- 
dences of our find than Mr. Hill's. For No. 92 Mr. 
Hill leaves a possible margin of 68 years, but the occur- 
rence of a specimen of this type in our hoard places its 
issue in the first quarter of the fourth century B.C., for, 
as I hope to show later, the hoard was buried about 
380 B.C. 



A GILICIAN FIND. 21 

SATEAPAL (?) ISSUE IN PHOENICIA. 
UNCERTAIN MINT. 

Obv. Bearded and wreathed male head to r., eye seen 
from the front. No border. 

Rev. Ahura-Mazda to r. ; wears turreted crown and 
mantle which falls below waist ; body terminates 
in sun disk from which four wings extend. No 
border. (Phoenician stater.) 

93. Obv. One cut Fine. 12-12. 

[PI. IV. 5.] 

This seemingly hitherto unpublished stater is some- 
what of an enigma. In fabric it reminds us, perhaps, 
most strongly of the staters of Arados, being lumpy 
with rounded edges. Also the hair of the head is repre- 
sented by dots as at Arados, but the beard by straight 
lines. Whose may this head be, with its highly indi- 
vidualized features ; is it god or satrap ? The former 
is certainly the most likely, as it lacks the satrapal 
bonnet. Like the Melqarth of the Aradian staters it 
is wreathed, it is dignified in bearing and in its flowing 
beard for the time being we may therefore consider it 
as a representation of that god. The reverse type is 
certainly Persian, and immediately reminds us of the 
Ahura-Mazda figures on certain coins struck by Tiribazos 
in Issos, Mallos, and Tarsos. The style and workman- 
ship, however, are decidedly not Cilician, but purely 
Eastern and savouring strongly of Phoenicia. The 
weight, too, may be taken as that of a light Phoenician 
stater (the heavy gash may account for this lightness). 
Where and by whom was it struck? Unfortunately, 
no legend helps us to answer this question. As the 
Phoenician weight standard seems never to have been 
used in Cilicia or on the Island of Cyprus, Phoenicia 



22 E. T. NEWELL. 

alone remains. Arados is suggested by the style and 
fabric, but, on the other hand, the Phoenician standard 
is not found in the coinage of this city. 

By its types our coin is satrapal in character. I 
would see in it, therefore, the sole survivor of an issue 
struck in some city of the Phoenician coast by some 
satrap (or Persian king) preparing an expedition either 
against Cyprus or against Egypt. The actual date of 
issue is placed by the style of the coin itself about the 
commencement of the fourth century B.C. Perhaps 
we might refer it to Sidon (where also the Phoenician 
standard of weight was employed) at the time 396 B.C. 
when by special order of the Great King the vassal 
king of this city fitted out an expedition of eighty 
warships to assist Conon against the Spartans. 9 With 
even greater probability we might refer the coin to 
the years 389-387 B.C., when Artaxerxes made his great 
attempt to recover Egypt for the Persian Empire. 
Phoenicia was undoubtedly used by him as his base 
of operations. Here were collected the supplies of men 
and food for the army in the field, and here, as so often 
happened in Cilicia under similar circumstances, a special 
coinage might well have been issued by the Great King 
or his generals for the payment of the troops. 

SIGLOI OF THE PERSIAN KINGS. 
SERIES I. ATTRIBUTED TO XERXES, 486-465 B.C. 

Obv. King of Persia bearded, crowned, kneeling r. on one 
knee ; at his back, quiver ; in r. long spear, and 
in his outstretched 1. a bow. 



9 G. F. Hill, Cat. of the Greek Coins of Phoenicia, xciv, 38, and 
note 3. 



A CILICIAN FIND. 23 

Rev. Irregular oblong incuse. (Persian siglos.) 

94. Obv. Stab. Rev. Stab ; three punch-) Worn. 5-50. 

marks, Fig. 1. 10-12 . .] [PI. IV. 6.] 

95. Rev. Five cuts ; punchmark) -^ _ , ^ 
obliterated . . . .} 

96. Sep. Stab 5-51. 

97. On edge, Fig. 1. 16, three times repeated.) - -~ 

Rev. Punchmark, Fig. 1.13-15] " 



SERIES II. ATTRIBUTED TO ARTAXERXES I, 465-425 B.C. 

98. Obv. Cut. Rev. Cut . . . Worn. 5-50. 

99. Obv. Stab. Rev. Three cuts ; punch-) .. , fi 

mark, Fig. 1. 17 . . .5 

100. Obv. -Stab. Rev. Punchmark, Fig. l.\ , AQ 

19 5 " 

101. Obv. Cut. Rev. Two cuts . . 5'54. 

102. Rev. Indistinct punch-) 5'50. 
mark j [PI. IV. 7.] 



SERIES III. ATTRIBUTED TO ARTAXERXES II, 405-359 B.C. 

103. Good. 5-53. 

[PI. IV. 8.] 

104. Rev. Crescent-shaped punch . Worn. 5'50. 

105. Obv. o, ^^. Rev. Cut ; punchmark,) 5>4 g 

Fig. 1. 20 ... .) 

106. Obv. ^. Rev. Two cuts. . . 5-55. 

107. Obv. Punch : ^. Rev Two cuts . 5'46. 

108. Rev. Three cuts ; punch, o Worn. 5 -41. 

109. 5-49. 

110. Rev. Two cuts . . . Fine. 5'44. 

[PI. IV. 9.1 



24 E. T. NEWELL. 

SERIES IY. UNATTRIBUTABLE BECAUSE OF POOR 
WORKMANSHIP. 

111. Obv. Fig. 1. 21, twice repeated . -j Worn 4-91 
Eev. Fig. 1. 22 J 

112. Obv. Fig. 1. 38, and stab . . ) 5 ' 46 - 
Rev. Three cuts and Fig. 1. 23, 24, 25, > [PI IV. 10 

and) . . (Rev.).'] 

113. Eev. Stab . . Worn. 5-50. 

[PL IV. 11.] 

114. Obv. Crescent punch . .) Worn 5 . 4o 
Rev. Obliterated punchmark . .$ 

115. Rev. Two cuts and Fig. 1. 26 . 5-42. 

116. Rev. Three crescent punchmarks ,, 5-05. 

117. Rev. Two cuts 5-40. 

118. Rev. Six cuts and Fig. 1. 27 . 5*44. 

119. Pierced. Obv. Circular punch . .) _ , _ 
Rev. Cut 5 " 

120. Obv. Crescent punch and Fig. 1. 28 .) ^.^ 
Rev. Fig. 1. 29, twice repeated . .) 

121. Obv. Stab. Rev. Three cuts . . 5'51. 

SERIES V. UNATTRIBUTABLE BECAUSE OP WEAR. 

122. Rev. Nine cuts . Worn. 5-48. 

123. Obv. Fig. 1. 30. Rev. Three cuts . 5 '54. 

124. Obv. Stab. Rev. Two cuts . 5'51. 

125. Obv Fig. 1. 31 ) 

Rev. Two cuts and obliterated punch 5 " 

126 Rev. Four cuts and Fig. 1. 19 5'40. 

127. Obv. Several indistinct punchmarks .) _ - 9 
Rev. Six cuts 5 " 

128. Obv. Stab and Fig. 1. 32, and ^ .) g. 39 
Rev. Five cuts ; obliterated punches .3 

129. Obv. Fig. 1. 19, 28 . . . .) 6 . 5g 
Rev. Two cuts and Fig. 1. 33 . .5 

130. Obv. Stab. Rev. Three cuts . . 5'34. 

131. Fragment. Obv. Fig. 1.4 . .\ 9 . ftn 
Rev. Fig. 1.34 > " 



. Itev. Stab, and Fig. 1.) Tir K ,., 
, . \ Worn. 5-43. 

and 4 . j 



A CILICIAN FIND. 25 

SERIES VI. ATTRIBUTED TO ARTAXERXES III, ARSES, 
OR DARIUS. 

Obv. The king of Persia bearded, kneeling r. on one knee ; 
in outstretched 1. he holds bow, in r., drawn back, 
a dagger. 

Eei: Irregular oblong incuse. (Persian siglos.) 

132. Obv. Three cuts, and Fig. 1. 35, 32, 36. Worn. 5-67. 

133. Eev. Two cuts and two ). 5-61. 

134. Eev. Six cuts 5-60. 

135. Eev. Two cuts . 5-52. 

[PI. IV. 12.] 

136. Obv. Stab. 

37 

137. Obv. Fig. 1. 38. Eev. Cut, and Fig.) 5-37. 

1. 4, 39, and goat recumbent Lj [PI. IV. 13.] 

138. Obv. Fig. 1. 40. Eev. Three cuts . Worn. 5-49. 

139. Obv. Stab. Eev. Gut . 5-49. 

140. Eev. Two cuts . . 5-27. 

141. Obv. Stab. Eev. Stab and Fig. 1. 38 5'54. 

The attribution (as proposed by M. Babelon) to 
individual rulers of the darics and sigloi of the Achae- 
menid sovereigns has not, as yet, been definitely 
accepted. It is only the close observation and study 
of finds of these coins that will prove the theory one 
way or the other. I have, therefore, taken particular 
pains to arrange the forty-eight sigloi of our hoard 
on the lines laid out by M. Babelon in his Traite, 
vol. i. pp. 257-264 ; vol. ii. pp. 37-72. On the whole, 
this has been of considerable difficulty as these sigloi 
have not only suffered severely by long circulation but, 
in addition, have been badly disfigured by stabs, punch- 
marks, and chisel cuts. They fall into the following 



26 E. T. NEWELL. 

six groups: I., II., and III. attributed by M. Babelon 
to Xerxes (486-465 B.C.), Artaxerxes I (465-425 B.C.), 
and Artaxerxes II (405-359 B.C.) respectively ; IV. 
contains those designated by M. Babelon as " types 
banaux " which are impossible to assign to individual 
kings on account of inferior workmanship ; V. contains 
those which the vicissitudes of circulation have made 
indecipherable; VI. those on which the king is repre- 
sented holding a dagger or short sword in his right 
hand. Groups IV. and V. may be left out of considera- 
tion. Groups I. to III. support M. Babelon's theory in 
so far as they have been assigned to sovereigns who 
reigned before the probable burial of our hoard, and 
because the coins of group III. (Artaxerxes II) are, on 
the whole, less worn by circulation than I. (Xerxes) and 
II. (Artaxerxes I). But with group VI. we meet a 
serious difficulty. This type, particularized by the dagger 
in the king's hand, M. Babelon has distributed among 
the three kings, Artaxerxes III (359-338 B.C.), Arses 
(338-337 B.C.), and Darius III (337-330 B.C.), accord- 
ing as the features of the king vary on the coins. With 
our coins long circulation and poor striking combine to 
preclude the possibility of distinguishing these varia- 
tions, and so they have been collected in a single group. 
This also makes it more convenient in discussing the 
group as a whole. Now we have seen that the very 
latest coins of our hoard, that can be dated with any 
degree of certainty, are those struck by Tiribazos, circa 
386-384 and 381 B.C. Besides, there are six or more 
groups of autonomous coins which cover the period 400- 
350 B.C., but in every case I have endeavoured to show 
that the coins in this find are of comparatively early 
style, and so could not have been struck after 380 B.C. 



A CIL1CIAN FIND. 27 

at the latest. This point will be taken up later. It 
would, therefore, controvert all the strong evidences of 
a burial about 380 B.C., which the remainder of our 
coins present, if we should accept the attributions of 
group VI. as suggested by M. Babelon. In dating 
these sigloi, as he does, between 359 and 330 B.C. we 
should have a series of coins struck anywhere from 
thirty to forty years after the latest in the find a 
numismatic anomaly impossible to explain. We must 
also note that these sigloi are worn by circulation, 
about in a similar degree to those of group III., 
and so must antedate by some ten years the hoard's 
burial. 

All our sigloi had evidently been in circulation for 
many years along the coasts of Lycia, Cilicia, Cyprus 
some had even been out to India and back before their 
final owner saw fit to bury his little hoard. Among the 
punchmarks with which their surfaces are pitted we 
find the tetraskelis (Lycia or India), the " crux ansata " 
(Cilicia and Cyprus), Fig. 1. 33, the so-called " taurine 
symbol" (India), 10 Fig. 1. 19, so often found on Sas- 
sanian bronze coins, and on one (No. 137) a goat of the 
type peculiar to Kelenderis. No. 94 had certainly 
been in India, for on it we see the Elephant punch- 
mark so common to the flat, punchmarked puranas of 
Indian numismatics, we have also the letter forms Fig. 1. 
11 and 10, very similar to " gha " and " ta " of the 
Kharosthi alphabet. Furthermore, we have what appear 
to be letters of the Brahma alphabet : Fig. I. 32 or 
16 (97), 40 (138), 24 (112), 31 (125), S7 (136). The 

10 For the Indian provenance of the majority of these punchmarks 
see E. Rapson, " Countermarks on Early Persian and Indian Coins," 
J.R.A.S. for October, 1895. 



28 E. T. NEWELL. 

Fig. 1. 18 (99) may be either a Brahma or a Kharosthi 
character. Several other more or less obscure characters 
seem to be variants of these alphabets. 

These punchmarks were undoubtedly private signs of 
various merchants and bankers ; the stabs on these 
sigloi were also probably private safeguards against the 
possible presence of a copper core ; the cuts, on the other 
hand, I would suggest, were carried out by some one in 
authority. It is a curious fact that whereas the punch- 
marks and stabs occur indiscriminately on obverse or 
reverse, the mutilating cuts are found almost invariably 
on the reverse only. Of the forty-seven sigloi of the 
hoard there are only three exceptions to this rule. In 
two cases the coins are so badly worn and blurred by 
previous punches that, in the hurry of defacing them, 
it might have been almost impossible to distinguish the 
obverse from the reverse. In the third case the cut is very 
slight and has the appearance of accident rather than 
of design. Moreover, this rule applies only to the sigloi ; 
the remainder of our coins have the cuts indiscrimin- 
ately on obverse or reverse. Is this a coincidence? 
Otherwise the mutilation of the coins must have been 
carried out under Persian authority, and it was found 
inexpedient as well as sacrilegious to disfigure the 
image of the great king. That this prejudice is real, 
witness the fact, in our own twentieth-century times, 
when, it is stated, the Kussian authorities saw fit to 
withdraw the new stamps celebrating the four hundredth 
anniversary of the Eomanoff family because the post- 
marks obliterated the royal portraits which these stamps 
bore. The further discussion as to the significance of 
these chisel cuts will be taken up in the resume*. 



A CILICIAN FIND. 29 

KESUME. 

On looking over our little hoard one is immediately 
impressed by the wide limits it embraces ; for in it are 
found represented the coinages of Syracuse, of Athens, 
and of various cities and islands along the coasts of Asia 
Minor and Phoenicia. A closer inspection will reveal 
that, after all, only three varieties predominate : 
Athenian " owls," Persian " archers," and the issues of 
certain cities and Persian satraps in Cilicia. It is these 
latter that give our hoard its chief characteristic. For 
as the Athenian tetradrachms were everywhere current 
along the shores of the Mediterranean, and the Persian 
sigloi throughout Asia Minor and Syria, it is the Cilician 
coins other data being wanting that definitely place 
the locality where the hoard was once deposited. For 
these are purely local issues, the coinages of small 
autonomous cities, or of Persian satraps temporarily 
collecting troops and stores in their vicinity for distant 
expeditions. From the nature of things, their circula- 
tion could never have been very extensive nor their 
quantity large, and so, by their predominance over the 
coins of other Asiatic cities in our Find, they must 
determine the district where their former owner buried 
his little treasure. Incidentally it is certain that Prof. 
Haynes spent three years at the Central Asia College 
at Aintab, Turkey-in-Asia, and that during this time 
he often had occasion to visit Adana and other modern 
Cilician towns. It is most likely that in the course of 
one of these trips he secured the Find in question. 

In discussing the actual coins I have tried to empha- 
size the fact that our hoard, in its contents, seems to 
revolve about the year 380 B.C. Some of its coin-groups 



30 E. T. NEWELL. 

definitely come to an end by 380 B.C. ; the coins which 
belong to groups usually roughly assigned to the first 
half of the fourth century B.C. are in every case of 
early style and so must be attributed to the first two 
decades of this century ; in the very few cases, e.g. 
Tlos, where certain of our coins are sometimes dated later 
than about 380 B.C., there seems to be considerable un- 
certainty among numismatists, some authorities placing 
them before, some after, this date. The latest coins of 
undisputed date are those struck by the satrap Tiribazos 
at Mallos and at Soli between the years 386 and 380 B.C. 
This was the period during which the famous satrap 
was mobilizing the Persian forces in Cilicia against 
Evagoras I, King of Salamis. 11 In 380 B.C. Tiribazos 
died and Pharnabazos was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the great forces now being collected in Cilicia 
and Phoenicia against the recalcitrant King of Egypt. 12 
During the course of the year 379-378 B.C. he took up 
his post and spent several years in recruiting the army. 
It is probable that very shortly after his arrival he 
inaugurated the abundant series of Cilician coins which 
bears his name. 13 In 378 B.C. Datames was appointed 
as his colleague and struck coins of identical types, but 
signed with his name. Now, as stated above, the latest 
coins in our hoard are those of Tiribazos. These, 
together with the contemporaneous autonomous issues 
of Soli and Mallos, are all in very fine or mint condition. 
On the other hand, our hoard contained not a single 
specimen of either Pharnabazos' or Datames' very 



11 Died. Sic., xv. 2 ft. 12 Ibid., xv. 29, 41-43. 

13 The types are: Obv. Head of Arethusa (?) facing. Rev. Bearded 
and helmeted head of Ares (?). Behind, name of Pharnabazos in 
Aramaic. 



A CILICIAN FIND. 31 

common coins. What more probable, therefore, than to 
suppose the hoard was buried during the troublous times 
between the Cypriote expedition of Tiribazos and the 
arrival of Pharnabazos ? 

Owing to the unfortunate loss of Prof. Haynes' notes 
it is impossible to say whether we possess the find intact 
or not. If our hoard was buried much after | | B.C. it 
is certain that it would have contained at least a few 
examples of Pharnabazos' and Datames' comparatively 
common coinages. Prof. Haynes was more or less inno- 
cent of any very deep knowledge of numismatics. It is 
very doubtful, therefore, if he would have been able to 
select from a find only the scarcer varieties of Cilician 
coins in other words, such as we have before us. It is 
much more probable that he would have avoided the 
common and very poorly preserved Persian sigloi and 
Athenian tetradrachms and have taken instead the pro- 
bably far better preserved staters of Pharnabazos. On 
the other hand, the hoard does not have the appearance 
of the relics of a " picked over " lot ; such rarities as 
Nos. 1, 59, 61, 69, 71, 72, 73, 84, 85, 93, &c., would not 
then have fallen into Prof. Haynes' hands. The most 
convincing argument in favour of our supposition that 
we have the find intact before us, is that every variety 
of coin we should expect to be circulating in Cilicia at 
just this period, 386 to 380 B.C., is represented. There 
are no noticeable gaps to make one suspect that the 
hoard has not come down to us as it was buried. I 
think we are therefore justified in basing our conclusions 
concerning the probable date of burial on the total 
absence of Pharnabazos' coinage. 

Of the 141 coins which compose the hoard 114 are 
disfigured by what is generally known as " test cuts " 



32 E. T. NEWELL. 

deep incisions probably made with some chisel-like 
instrument. For some unknown reason this practice 
seems to have been particularly common in Cilicia. 
The generally accepted explanation of these cuts is that 
they were tests for copper cores the usual expedient 
of ancient counterfeiters in making their debased and 
spurious coins. In the majority of cases this is probably 
correct, but for our coins this explanation will hardly 
suffice. Instead of one cut (which would have been 
ample to detect the presence of 'a copper core) often as 
many as five or six, sometimes even more, disfigure the 
coin in a most effective fashion. The thoroughness of 
these mutilations seems premeditated, and suggests the 
explanation that, in the present case, these multiple 
cuts were intended to make the coins unfit for further 
circulation in other words, to demonetize them once 
for all. Pharnabazos, on his arrival in Cilicia to take 
over the supreme command of the Persian forces against 
Cyprus, would naturally follow what was fast becoming 
a customary habit of Persian satraps under similar 
circumstances, namely, to issue a coinage bearing his 
own name and types for the pay of the soldiery. Bullion 
at this time may have been more or less scarce in the 
satrapal coffers, certain it was that the previous cam- 
paigns in Cyprus had been long and arduous, and, in 
addition, had not been crowned with startling success. 
As a result of this probably very little booty had been 
brought back to replenish the war-chests of the Persian 
generalissimo. To tide over the period until fresh 
supplies of bullion arrived from Susa (where the royal 
treasures of the Persians were stored), Pharnabazos may 
well have had recourse to the expedient of melting down 
the current coin to furnish immediate material for his 



A CILICIAN FIND. 33 

own issues. 14 The old coinages of Tiribazos, the auto- 
nomous issues of Cilician cities, and such foreign coins 
as happened to have arrived in Cilicia by trade, were 
disfigured and then sent to the melting-pot. Our little 
hoard, for some unknown reason, has escaped this last 
fate, but the truly vicious chisel cuts are only too plain 
to be seen. 

After all, whatever these cuts may signify, the chief 
interest of our hoard lies in its contents. For here we 
have a brief summary of such moneys as were at one 
time current in the Satrapy of Cilicia, among the soldiers 
of the Great King and his Greek subjects, in the stirring 
days of Tiribazos the Satrap. 

I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. 
G. F. Hill who in editing this paper very kindly called 
my attention to certain articles and notes which have 
considerable bearing on the subject. 

E. T. NEWELL. 



14 A piece of corroborative evidence that Pharnabazos, and perhaps his 
successor Datames, followed this policy of melting down the old coins 
for their own issues, lies in the fact that, while their coins are to-day 
exceedingly common, those of Tiribazos are very much the reverse. This 
is surprising when we remember that Tiribazos was twice in Cilicia, 
and for six years was busily engaging in collecting troops, stores, and 
ships for his military expeditions. His issues ought, therefore, to have 
been most abundant in order to enable him to defray the enormous 
expenses of his military preparations. 



NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. 



II. 

ON THE COINAGE OF COMMODUS DUKING 
THE EEIGN OF MAJRCUS. 

(See Plate V.) 

THE early coinage of Commodus presents a very difficult 
chronological problem. It is only when we come to his 
fourth consulate, which coincides with the third year of 
his tribunician power, that we are on really firm ground. 
This year is quite certainly dated 179 p.C. Previous 
to this there is much confusion. I propose to exhibit as 
accurately as I can the various changes of title which 
appear on the coins, and to make some attempt at a 
solution of the questions that arise. 

The earliest appearance of Commodus on the coinage is 
upon a large bronze medallion 1 [PI. V. 1], where his head 
appears, with that of his brother Annius Verus, on the 
obverse, with the inscription COMMODVS CAES. VERVS 
CAES. The reverse is one which reappears in the coinage 
of Commodus in later years a group of figures sym- 
bolical of the four seasons, with the inscription FELICITAS 
TEMPORVM. Commodus is recorded by Lampridius 2 
to have received the title "Caesar" on October 12, 166. 
His brother Verus died in 170. The medallion, therefore, 
belongs to the period 166-170, and we may reasonably 

1 Cohen, III. p. 169 (2nd ed.), Comm. et Annius Verus, 1. 

2 H. A., vii. 11, 13. 



COINAGE OF COMMODUS DUE1NG REIGN OF MARCUS. 35 

conjecture that it was struck to commemorate the 
elevation of the two brothers to the rank of Caesar. 

The next coin in the series is the medallion 3 which 
has already been given among the coinage of Marcus for 
173, having on the reverse a youthful bust of Commodus 
with the inscription COMMODVS CAESAR GERM. ANTONINI 
AVG. GERM. FIL. This medallion was probably struck to 
commemorate the bestowal of the title Germanicus upon 
the emperor and his heir. The title was actually given, 
according to Lampridius, 4 on October 15, 172, but Eckhel's 
report 5 of a Germanicus-coin for that year does not 
seem to be confirmed. In any case the title did not 
become habitual for some years. 

The first coin issued in the sole name of Commodus 
is a rather small medallion [PI. V. 2] which I describe 
from an example at Berlin : 6 

JE m . Obv. COMMODVS CAES. AVG. FIL. Youthful bust 
r., loricate, paludate. 

Rev. PONTIF. Cultella, bucranium, apex, and sim- 
pulum. 

The inscription and type alike indicate that the medal 
was struck to celebrate Commodus' admission to the 
pontificate. Here again the invaluable Lampridius 
comes to our aid. 7 " Adsumptus in omnia collegia sacerdo- 
talia sacerdos XIII. M. Invictas Pisone Juliano coss," i.e. 
January 20, 175. One of the " collegia sacerdotalia " was 



3 Cohen, III. p. 133, Harc-Aurele et Comm., 2 : see Num. Chron., 4th 
Ser., Vol. XIII. p. 190. 
H. A., vii. 11, 14. 

5 Eckhel, vii. p. 59. The question of the title Germanicus is dis- 
cussed in the previous article, Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. pp. 189 
sqq. 

6 Cohen, III. Comm., 599. " H. A., vii. 12, 1. 

D 2 



36 C. H. DODD. 

that of the Pontifices. This medal, therefore, can be 
fixed to the early part of 175 p.C. 

The next fixed point in the coinage is the beginning 
of the first consulate of Commodus, which is definitely 
dated to 177 p.C. Here he is still plain " Caesar 
Augusti filius" We may now examine the intervening 
coins. The obverse inscriptions give CAES. AVG. FIL. 
GERM, and CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. SARM. Now, both these 
fresh titles appear on the coins of Marcus during the 
twenty-ninth year of his tribunician power December 
10, 174, to December 9, 175. It will be worth while 
to exhibit again the proportional numbers of coins of 
Marcus with the various titles, as represented by the 
Berlin collection : 

TR. P. XXIX. IMP. VII. COS. III. P.P. . . .21) 

GERM. TR. P. XXIX. IMP. VII. COS. III. P.P. . ll! oq 
GERM. TR. P. XXIX. IMP. VIII. COS. III. P.P. . ll 
GERM. SARM. TR. P. XXIX. IMP. VIII. COS. III. P.P. 6J 

This suggests May or June for the assumption of 
the title GERM., and September or October for GERM. 
SARM. Eoughly, then, we may date the coins of 
Commodus with GERM. June to September, 175, while 
for those with GERM. SARM. we have no means of dating 
from the titles between October, 175, and December, 176. 8 
For the former period the Berlin collection possesses only 
three coins, for the later twenty-five. 

Turning to the reverse types, we find that the 
commonest among those of the former period is that 
of a Congiariuin, with the inscription LIBERALITAS AVG. 9 
On corresponding coins of Marcus we have a figure of 
Liberality, with the inscription LIBERALITAS AVG. VI. 

8 See Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. pp. 292 sqq. 

9 Cohen, Comm., 291-294. 






COINAGE OF COMMODUS DURING REIGN OF MARCUS. 37 

The reference is no doubt the same, and the Congiarium 
is to be identified with that at which Commodus presided 
adhuc in praetexta just before his departure for the 
limes, 10 i.e. about June, 175. This corresponds with the 
the conjectural dating of these coins. 

The other important type of this group is as follows : n 

N. Obv COMMODO CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. Youthful 
head, bare. 

Eev. PRINC. IVVENT. Figure in tunic, cloak, and 
boots, standing 1., holding in 1. hand sceptre, 
in r. hand bough ; to r., trophy. 

On the specimen I have seen in the British Museum [PI. 
V. 3] the figure looks like a fernale,-recalling the Virtus- 
type which later becomes common ; and as the inscription 
stands for PRINCIPI (not PRINCEPS), it does not neces- 
sarily identify the figure ; but on the whole it is probable 
that it is intended to represent the young Commodus 
himself, and this is apparent on other coins of this class 
in other metals. The bough which he holds is the laurel 
of victory, and the trophy behind him has the same 
significance. But the chief chronological interest lies 
in the fact that the coin is dedicated COMMODO 
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS. Lam pridius lla records that Com- 
modus was " cooptatus inter printipes juventutis, cum 
togam sumpsit." The latter event we know took place 
on July 7, 175, 12 so that this coin again is closely dated, 
within the period already conjecturally fixed on the 
basis of numerical proportions. 

I now pass to the later, and much larger, group of 
coins with GERM. SARM. Here we have in the first place 
repetitions of the types we have already observed, and 

10 H. A., vii. 2, 1. ll Cohen, I.e. 605. 

"a H. A., vii. 2, 1. 12 H. A., viii. 2, 2 ; 12, 3. 



38 C. H. DODD. 

variations of them. The Princeps Juventutis types are 
very prominent : 13 

N. Obv.COMMODO CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. SARM. 
Youthful head, bare. 

Eev. PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS. Altar, inscribed FORT- 
REDVCI. 

This appears to connect itself with the FORT. RED. 
coins of Marcus given by Cohen 14 for the year 176. 
Another type with similar reference is the following : 15 

M 2 . Eev. EQVESTER ^ 
ORDO / 

PRINCIPI \ in laurel wreath. 
IVVENT 1 
S.C. ) 

Other types proper to the heir to the throne occur 
Hilaritas 16 and Spes Publica. 17 The following also 
repeats an early coin of Marcus before his accession : 18 

JE 2 . Obv COMMODO CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. SARM. 
Youthful bust r., paludate. 

Rev. PI ETAS AVG. Cultella, aspersorium, ewer, litum, 
simpulum. 

The cult-implements have reference to the sacerdotia 
held by the prince. 

These types exhaust by far the greater part of the 
coins of this group. There is nothing in them to indicate 
any special date. The following, however, connects itself 
with the coinage of Marcus, and with the history : 19 

3 Cohen, I.e. 601-602. 

4 Cohen, Marc. Aurele, 210, and especially 939. 

5 Cohen, Comm., 104-105. 

8 Ibid., 215-217; cf. M. A., 230-233. 

7 Ibid., 708-712 ; cf. M. A., 600. 

8 Ibid., 401-406; cf. M. A., 450. See Num. Chron., 4th Ser., 
Vol. XI. PI. I. 8. 19 Cohen, Comm., 76-78. 



COINAGE OP COMMODUS DURING REIGN OF MARCUS. 39 

JR. Obv. COMMODO CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. SARM. 
Youthful bust r., paludate. 

Rev. DE GERMANIS. Trophy ; at foot of which, to 
1., female figure, seated 1. on shield in 
attitude of grief ; to r., male figure, apparently 
nude., seated r. on shield, with hands behind 
back. 

This coin belongs to the issue which celebrated the 
conclusion of the Germano-Sarmatian Wars. Sarmatian 
coins of Commodus are apparently not known, but this 
type, and one with DE GERM, and a pile of arms, clearly 
belong to the series, and are to be dated to 176 p.O. 

One more type of this group may be mentioned. 
It becomes fairly frequent in the later coinage of 
Commodus : ^ 

JE 1 . Obv. L. AVREL. COMMODO CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. 
SARM. Youthful bust r., paludate. 

2J ey . IOVI CONSERVATORI S.C. Jupiter, nude, stand- 
ing L, holding in 1. hand sceptre, in r. hand 
fulmen ; the uplifted hands cause the robe 
to spread widely behind ; to 1. Commodus 
(on small scale), togate, standing L, holding 
in r. hand Victory, in 1. hand scroll [PI. V. 
4]- 

The type has no parallel among the coins of Marcus for 
this period. Its significance is obvious. 

Finally,' there is an interesting type which though not 
identical with any type of Marcus himself for this year, 
falls into place in the history of the period : a 

.V. Obv. COMMODO CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. SARM. 
Youthful bust r., paludate, loricate. 

Eev. ADVENTVS CAES. Commodus on horseback r., 
raising r. hand. 

- Cohen, II. Comm., 243-244. 21 Cohen, I.e. 1-2. 



40 C. H. DODD. 

This coin preserves a record of the return of the 
emperor and his son from the East in the autumn of 176. 
On the coins of Marcus, the same type, without inscrip- 
tion, appears on coins of the thirty-first tribunician 
year (i.e. 177), and the same event is commemorated in 
the type of a galley with the inscription FELiCiTATi 
AVG. 22 This type appears in 177, and is paralleled by 
a coin of Commodus' first consulate ; but there is no 
need to date the present coin within Marcus' thirty-first 
year of tribunicia potestas. 

The coins with CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. SARM., therefore, 
are in no case earlier than July, 175, and in all cases 
which can be definitely dated fall within 176. 

We now come to the coins of the first consulate, 
which falls in 177 p.C. The inscription COS appears 
on all coins up to the beginning of the second consulate 
in January, 179, and for the present I will treat all with 
this inscription as forming a single group. Within this 
group appear the following varieties of titular inscrip- 
tion (I append the number of each variety at Berlin) : 23 

(i) ... CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. SARM. COS. . 4* 
(ii) IMP. CAES. ... GERM. SARM. TR. P. COS. . 4 
(iii) IMP. CAES. . . . GERM. SARM. TR. P. II. COS. 4 ) 
(iv) ... AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. II. COS. P.P. . 9 [= 14 
(v) ... AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. II. IMP. II. COS. P.P. 1 j 
(vi) ... AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. III. IMP. II. COS. PlP. 1*| 

. AVG. TR. P. III. IMP. II. COS. P.P. . . 16*[=21 
. AVG. COS. P.P 4 J 

43 



22 Cohen, M. A., 368, 188. See Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. 
pp. 308 sq. 

23 * j n each o f these cases there is one more coin which is hypo- 
thetically attributed to the group in question, but which is not suffi- 
ciently legible to make the attribution certain. 



COINAGE OF COMMODUS DURING REIGN OF MARCUS. 41 

The order of the seven groups is clearly chronological, 
and represents seven stages in the development of the 
titulature between January 1, 177, and December 9, 
178. It will perhaps be best to consider the later 
stages first, as here it is easier to obtain certain dating. 
The fourth trib. pot. begins with the second consulate 
practically ; there are, however, a few coins (see Cohen, 
224) with TR. P. nil. IMP. II. COS.; whence we may 
conclude that by this time, at any rate, the tribunician 
year of Commodus began normally, i.e. on December 10, 
three weeks before the beginning of the consular year. 
If we now regard TR. P. III. as a normal tribunician year, 
we have a rough division of the total number of coins 
into two equal parts, representing two years, within the 
first of which fall two tribunician periods. Here is the 
crux. We have, in the first place, to verify the hypo- 
thesis, which is already supported by the proportions of 
the coins, that the third tribunician period was a normal 
year. This can be done by a comparison with the 
coinage of the thirty-second tribunician year of Marcus, 
extending from December 10,177, to December 9, 178 p.C. 
We have already seen that during this year Marcus 
drops the titles GERM. SARM. and very early in the 
year, for Cohen gives very few coins for this year bearing 
these titles, and the Berlin collection has no such 
specimen. Similarly, among the coins of Commodus for 
the third tribunician period, only one (or possibly two) 
of the specimens at Berlin bears the titles GERM. SARM. 
On the remaining sixteen examples with TR. P. Ml. it is 
missing, while there are four other coins without any 
tribunician number and also without GERM. SARM., 
which almost certainly belong to the same tribunician 
period ; in any case, the huge majority of coins of this 



42 C. H. DODD. 

tribunician period are without GERM. SARM. The con- 
clusion is that the third tribunician period of Commodus 
coincides with the thirty-second of Marcus, i.e. with the 
year December 10, 177/8 p.C. 

Further, among the coins of Commodus with TR. P. II. 
COS. there is one out of a total of fourteen which bears 
also the inscription IMP. II. Now we saw that the coins 
of the thirty-first tribunician year of Marcus testified to 
a renewal of the imperatorial salutation within the 
last month or two of that period, i.e. about the begin- 
ning of November, 177. 24 (The proportions are: with 
IMP. VIM 37 ; with IMP. Vim. 6, of which 3 have same 
type.) The ninth salutatio of Marcus must surely 
correspond to the second of Commodus. It follows that 
in November, 177, Commodus was still TRIB. POT. II. 
This leaves it practically certain that the third tribuni- 
cian period of Commodus coincided with the thirty-second 
of his father, and with the year December 10, 177/8 p.C. 

Of the types belonging to this year, the great 
majority are mere " repeats." One only is an entirely 
new introduction, a figure of Liberty with her Phrygian 
cap, inscribed LIBERTAS AVG 25 [PL V. 5]. The type has 
no analogue in the contemporary coinage of Marcus, and 
it would be difficult to discover the special reason for 
its introduction, unless it has some relation to the 
legal reforms with which Marcus was occupied at this 
time, and which are probably commemorated in his 
Justitia type of the following year. 26 The only other 
fresh type of this year is a sacrifice-scene expanded from 
a type of the second tribunician period (see below). 

24 See Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XII. p. 306. 

25 Cohen, Comm., 330-333. 

2 See Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. pp. 313-314. 



COINAGE OF COMMODUS DURING REIGN OF MARCUS. 43 

The coins inscribed simply COS. with AVG. and P.P. 
are in all probability to be dated to the year 178, since 
they lack the titles GERM. SARM., 27 and their types are 
identical with those of fully dated coins of this year. 

Working backwards into the second tribunician 
period, we come first to the latest coins of that period, 
those with the title IMP. II., corresponding with the 
IMP. VI 1 1 1., which appears on the coinage of Marcus 
towards the end of 177. 28 Five types occur upon the 
coins of Commodus for this period, of which three are 
new introductions. The first is as follows : w 

Jf. Obv.L. AVREL. COMMODVS AVG. Youthful bust r., 
laureate, loricate, paludate. 

Eev. TR. P. II. IMP. II. COS. P.P. Youthful male figure, 
wearing chlamys and conical cap, standing 1., 
holding in 1. hand reversed spear, and in r. 
hand the bridle of a horse stepping 1. 

The figure is clearly one of the Dioscuri, the patrons of 
the ordo equester, of which, as yrinceps juventutis, Com- 
modus had been the titular head, and does not appear to 
have any special reference to contemporary events. The 
second new type may have such a reference : * 

J5 1 . Obv.L. AVREL. COMMODVS AVG. GERM. SARM. 
Youthful bust, laureate, loricate, paludate. 

Rev. IVNONI SISPITAE TR. P. II. IMP. II. COS. P.P. 
Female figure, with peculiar horned head- 
dress and long robe, standing r., holding on 
1. arm hexagonal shield, and with r. hand 
brandishing javelin ; to r., snake coiled, head 
extended 1. [PI. V. 8]. 

This type is a revival of one of Pius, who called it Juno 



27 Cohen, Comm., 63-68. 23 See Num. Chron., I.e., p. 306. 
M Cohen, Comm., 754-755. 3 Fold., 270-271. 



44 C. H. DODD. 

Sospita. The goddess belonged to Lanuvium, 31 and so 
was in some sort a patroness of Commodus, who, like his 
grandfather, was a native of that town. She is here 
represented as fighting for the emperor in the campaign 
which won the second salutatio (cf. Marcus' fighting 
Minerva and Jupiter Propugnator). But the third of 
these new types is the most important historically : 32 

^E 1 . Obv. L. AVREL. COMMODVS AVG. GERM. SARM. 
Youthful bust, laureate, loricate, paludate. 

Rev.VOTA PVBLICA TR. P. II. IMP. II. COS. P.P. 
Male figure (apparently youthful = Corn- 
modus), togate with cinctus Gabinus, standing 
1., holding in r. hand patera over flaming 
tripod. 

This is clearly a companion to the similar type of 
Marcus, which appears on coins of 177 with IMP. VI III. 
and which I have taken to refer to the ceremonies 
performed at the end of the year in preparation for the 
emperors' departure for the front in 178. 33 On coins of 
Commodus (though not of Marcus) for the latter year, 
the type is worked up into an elaborate sacrifice-scene for 
a bronze medallion [PI. V. 6] ; the figure of the emperor 
sacrificing stands before a hexastyle temple, accompanied 
by a victimarius with a bell, a camillus, a flute-player, 
and figures representing attendant priests and the crowd 
of citizens and soldiers. 34 

We now come to the kernel of the difficulty the 



31 See article on " Juno Sospita of Lanuvium," by Miss E. M. Douglas, 
in J. E. S., vol. iii. part 1. 

32 Cohen, Comm., 931. I have not seen the type on coins of this 
year. I describe it after the examples in the British Museum and the 
Berliner Miinzkabinett, dated to 178. 

33 See Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. pp. 303-309. 

34 Cohen, Comm., 977. 



COINAGE OF COMMODUS DURING REIGN OF MARCUS. 45 

coins with four different stages of titulature, all of 
which have to be brought in between January and 
November (or thereabouts), 177. I will first endeavour 
to establish correspondences between coins of this group 
and coins of Marcus' thirty-first tribunician year. 

We are not helped here by any parallel titulary 
changes, for Marcus' titles are quite constant through- 
out the year. We must, therefore, have recourse to 
the types. Take first the following coin ; I supplement 
the inscription of a worn specimen at Berlin from 
Cohen : 35 

JE 1 . Qbv.\MP. CAES. L. AVREL. COMMODVS GERM. 
SARM. Youthful bust r., laureate, loricate, 
and paludate. 

.Rev. LIBERAL IT AS AVG. (exergue), TR. P. II. COS. 
(margin), S. C. Congiarium scene : two 
figures seated 1. on curule chairs upon 
platform, extending r. hand ; behind them, 
also on platform, figure standing 1. ; to 1. 
female figure in diadem, X<,TOJI>, and i/m-rioi/, 
standing 1., holding in 1. hand cornucopiae, 
and in r. hand abacus; to 1. of platform, 
man mounting steps r., extending sinus of 
robe. 

This is the ordinary congiarium type, representing the 
emperor and Commodus with the praetorian prefect 
and Liberality. An identical type appears on the 
coins of Marcus for this year, with the inscription 
LI BERALITAS AVG. VII. The seventh Liberality of Marcus 
is probably to be identified with this one of Commodus. 
The inscription, in spite of the two figures, must be read 
" Liberalitas Augusti" for the Commodus coin belongs 
to the third stage of this year's titulature, when Com- 
modus had the title Imperator, and had entered upon his 

35 Cohen, Comm., 299. 



46 C. H. DODD. 

second tribunician period, but was not yet Augustus. 
This fact forbids the identification of the Congiarium 
here represented with the one labelled 36 LIBERAL(ITAS) 
AVGVSTOR(VM). without any number (the latter bears 
no tribunician date). Cohen gives another coin of Corn- 
modus (296) with LIBERALITAS AVG. II., and a somewhat 
abnormal Congiarium type : it is cited from Eollin's 
catalogue, a not too reliable source ; and the tribunician 
date is obliterated. He further gives a coin similarly 
inscribed, with the type of Liberality, bearing the same 
titles as the one described above. Evidently this coin 
belongs to the same event, and apparently it corre- 
sponds with the coins of Marcus bearing the same type 
and the inscription LIBERALITAS AVG. vii. 37 About 
the identification of the Congiarium Cohen is some- 
what confused here, and indeed appears to contradict 
himself. Eckhel (vol. vii. p. 106) identifies it with 
the one given on the occasion of the marriage of 
Commodus with Crispina, mentioned by Capitolinus 38 
between the bestowal of the tribunician power upon 
Commodus and the outbreak of the " triennial " war with 
the Marcomanni, Hermunduri, Sarmatae, and Quadi, i.e. 
the " expeditio Germanica secunda " of 178-180. The 
marriage is mentioned by Dio (Ixxi. 33) in the same 
place in the order of events. Eckhel (p. 106) gives a 
coin of Commodus and Crispina : 

Obv. IMP. CAES. L. AVREL. COMMODVS GERM. SARM. 
Gaput laureatum. 

Rev. CRISPINA AVG. Caput Crispinae. 
But the great medallion commemorating the marriage 

3a Cohen, M. A., 427. 3r Ibid., 421-422. 

38 H. A., iv. 27, 8. 



COINAGE OF COMMODUS DURING REIGN OF MARCUS. 47 

given by Eckhel (p. 107) and by Cohen (Crisp, et Comm. 

3) has IMP. COMMODVS AVG. GERM. SARM. [PI. V. 7]; 
and Cohen knows no medal of Conimodus and Crispina 
in which the AVG. is absent from Comrnodus' style. 
Indeed, the coin given by Eckhel cannot be accepted, 
for it is impossible that Crispina should be Augusta when 
her husband was not yet Augustus. The coins, therefore, 
do not confirm Eckhel's identification of the Congiarium, 
though they do not, of course, by any means exclude it. 
At the same time the fact that Crispina only occurs 
on coins with AVG. rather suggests that the marriage of 
Conimodus was associated with his elevation to the 
rank of Augustus. The marriage, we are told, was 
hurried on because of the pressing nature of the 
troubles on the Danube. The same motives would 
lead to the complete restoration of the collegiate 
character of the Empire by the investiture of Corn- 
modus with the supreme title. It may be worth while, 
therefore, to consider whether any other identification 
is possible. Capitolinus mentions in the chapter (27, 
4-5) already cited that a Congiarium was also 
distributed on the occasion of Commodus' investment 
with the tribunician power. His language is " Romam 
ut venit, triumpliavit. Exinde Lanuvium profectus est. 
Commodum deinde sibi collegam in tribuniciam potes- 
tatem junxit ; congiarium- populo dedit" &c. The date 
of the triumph was December 23, 176. 39 The succeed- 
ing events must have happened early in 177. The 
LIBERALITAS AVG. VII. of Marcus might therefore equally 
well be referred to this occasion, which is probably to 
be identified with the distribution of 200 drachmae 
to each citizen mentioned by Dio (Ixxi. 32 : cf. the 

39 H. A., vii. 12, 5. 



48 C. H. DODD. 

order of events in the two authors). But there is a 
fresh difficulty if one further goes on to identify the 
Congiarium of Commodus TR P. II. COS. with this one, for 
it apparently took place immediately upon his investi- 
ture with the tribunician power, i.e. one would suppose 
in the first and not the second tribunician period. In 
any case it appears that we have two concjiaria for a 
period during which only one is represented on the 
coins, unless, indeed, we take the undated LIBERAL. 
AVGVSTOR. of Marcus (which certainly falls within this 
year or the next) to represent a different congiarium 
from the LIBERALITAS vu. of Marcus and II. of Com- 
modus. With this I will leave the question of the 
Congiaria for the present. There are other and greater 
difficulties. 

But to return to the types. We may take next a 
group associated with the Germano-Sarmatian triumph, 
which are more or less common to Marcus and Com- 
modus. Take first the following reverses : 40 

1. TR. P. II. COS. (margin), DE GERM, or DE SARM. (ex- 

ergue). Pile of arms. 

2. TR. P. II. COS. (margin), DE SARM. (exergue). Trophy ; 

at base two captives (both apparently female) seated 
on ground ; one to r. of trophy is seated r. in attitude 
of grief, and the one to 1. of trophy is seated 1. with 
hands behind back. 

These are found with the obverse inscription IMP. 

CAES L.AVREL. COMMODVS GERM. SARM. The types are 

also found as follows, with obverse inscription IMP. L. 

AVREL. COMMODVS AVG. GERM. SARM. 

1. TR. P. II. COS. P. P. (margin), DE GERMANIS (exergue). 
Pile of arms. 

40 Cohen, Comm., 79-92, 95-103. 



COINAGE OF COMMODUS DURING REIGN OF MARCUS. 49 

2. TR. P. II. COS. P. P. (margin), DE GERM, or DE SARM. 
(exergue). Trophy and captives as above. 

These types are identical with types of Marcus for 
176-177, and are also represented on coins of Commodus 
for the period October, 175, to December, 176 (with 

titles CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. SARM. and without COS.) 4011 

The following type of Jupiter Victor, again, which occurs 
with the obverse inscription IMP. L. AVREL. COMMODVS 
AVG. GERM. SARM., is identical with a type of Marcus for 
177 : 41 

Eev. TR. P. II. COS. P.P. Jupiter, nude to waist, with 
robe hanging behind from shoulders and falling 
over knees, seated ]., holding sceptre in 1. hand 
and Victory in r. hand. 

The same inscription accompanies the ordinary type 
of Victory with palm and wreath which appears on the 
coins of Commodus as on those of Marcus for 177. 

The actual triumph, which on the coins of Marcus is 
represented by a complete triumph scene, and also by 
the type of the emperor enthroned holding a laurel 
bough and sceptre, is represented among issues of 
Commodus by the following medallions and coins : 42 

M R \ Obv. IMP. CAES. L. AVREL. COMMODVS GERM. 
SARM. Youthful bust r., laureate, paludate, 
with aegis on breast. 

Rev. TR. POT. COS. (exergue). Quadriga, decorated 
with reliefs, the horses stepping 1. ; within, 
Marcus and Commodus standing 1., each hold- 
ing branch ; the car is preceded by a soldier 
walking 1., looking backwards, holding spear 
in r. hand ; above, Victory flying L, carrying 
trophy. 

40a Cohen, Comm., 76-78, 93-94. ' Ibid., 744. 

Ibid., 738, 749-750. 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. E 



50 C. H. DODD. 

^EI. Obv. IMP. CAES. L. AVREL. COMMODVS GERM. 
SARM. Youthful head r., laureate. 

Rev. TR. P. II. (upper margin), COS. (exergue), S. C. 
Quadriga, decorated with reliefs, stepping 1. ; 
within, Commodus standing 1., holding in r. 
hand sceptre, surmounted by eagle ; behind 
him in car apparently a small figure. 

The group of coins associated with the triumph of 
December 23, 176, therefore, covers three stages in 
the development of the titulature IMP. CAES. with 

TR. POT., IMP. CAES. with TR. P. II,, 'and AVG. with TR. P. II. 

all corresponding to Marcus' TR. P. XXXI. 







COIN OP COMMODUS (Paris).* 3 

It remains to notice the coins of the first consulate 
which have neither IMP. norTR. P. The most noteworthy 
of these is the following : 43 

^2_ 06u. COMMODO CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. SARM. COS. 

Youthful bust r., paludate. 

R ev . FELICITATI CAES. (on upper margin), S. C. (ex- 
ergue). Galley with six rowers and steersman 
moving over waves 1. ; objects on prow and 
stern not recognizable. [Cohen gives standard 
and banner on stern, mast with sail on prow.] 

43 Cohen, Comm., 118. Cohen gives the false, and indeed impossible, 
reading GERM TR. P. COS. The coin in the Cabinet de France, 
which is reproduced above, shows the reading GERM. SARM. COS. 
beyond doubt, although the first letter of SARM. is obliterated by 
wear, and the R seems to have been faultily cut. 



COINAGE OF OOMMODUS DURING REIGN OF MARCUS. 51 

This is the corresponding type to Marcus' FELICITATI 
AVG., and celebrates the safe voyage of the emperor and 
his son from the East at the close of 176. 44 It is just 
what one would have expected, that this type belongs 
to the earliest group of the coins of the first consulate, 
though, according to Cohen, it overflows into the second 
group. The only other type . on these earliest coins 
worthy of note is the following : 45 

Obv. COMMODO CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. SARM. COS. 
Youthful bust r., loricate and paludate. 

Rev. PR I NCI PI IVVENTVTIS. Clasped hands holding 
standard resting on prow 1. 

This type has no parallel among the coins of Marcus 
for this year. It recalls the clasped hands with 
caduceus and ears of 176, and the clasped hands in- 
scribed CONCORD. EXERC. of 175. Possibly the female 
figure with orb and standard of 177 is a Concordia 
Exercituum, though it is more like Fides. 

This type as well as others of the early group 
(Hilaritas, &c.) would seem to connect with the coinage 
of previous year, and this is quite marked in the case 
of the inscriptions. Everything is identical with the 
coinage of 175-6, except the addition COS., which shows 
that the coins certainly belong to the period after 
January 1, 177. Here comes the fatal conflict with 
the literary authorities. Nothing is clearer than that 
all the coins we have examined with COS. fall into place 
in the thirty -first tribunician year of Marcus, and if we 
applied our usual canon based on the proportion of coins 



4 * See Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. p. 302. 
45 Cohen, Comm., 603-604. 

E 2 



52 0. H. DODD. 

in each group, we should draw the following con- 
clusions : 

IMP. and TR. POT. appear (together) about February, 177. 
TR. POT. II. appears about April, 177. 

AVQ. P.P. appear (together) about June, 177. 
IMP. II. appears about November, 177. 

Lampridius, however, states quite plainly "<</// 
patre appellatua imperator V. Id. Ex8uperu/< l'"llione 
at Apro cots." i.e. November 27, 176 p.C., and in 
another passage (2, 4) he gives the date again, and 
places it before the triumph. This, as Eckhel has 
shown, can only mean that he was on this date en- 
titled to use the praenomen imperatoria as his father's 

roll, ,, L r||,. j n (],,. r , ',,! ritnn. Kurllicr, ( 'upi- 

tolinus 46 thus dates the beginning of the tribunician 
power : " Romam ut venit, triumphavit. Exinde Lanuviutn 
profectus eat. Commodum deinde sibi collegam in trilm- 
nitiam potestatem junxit" This would make the begin- 
ning of Oommodus' first TR. POT. fall not long after 
December 23, 176 say late in January or early in 
February, 177. This in itself corresponds well enough 

uitli Hire,, ins; I. ul it involves lu. ns-iimpl ions nf tlic 
trilnmiriiiii puwrr in it y-nr. 
There are therefore two difficulties : (a) the coins do 

not r, ,-,,. MII/.- tli.- \\-||-:iM.-|i-.| iiiNcslitnn- of( 'oniniodus 

with the imperium on November 27, 176; and (6) the 
coins, supported by the order of the narrative in the 

B<ma AII-JK ./", I.IIUM- tin- LciMlillin;/ c! I In- IUII',. POT. 

early in 177, closely followed by the beginning of 
TR. POT. ii., which gives place to TR. POT. in. in the 
normal way, at the end of the year, so that we have two 

//. A. t Iv. 27, f 4-5. 



COINAGE OF COMMODUS DURING REIGN OF MARCUS. 53 

tribunioian periods in less than one year. Eokhel 
accepts the evidence of the coins as it stands, supporting 
it by the supposed example of the double TR. POT. in 
192. This example, however, is no longer valid, for the 
few coins with TR. P. XVIII. are now attributed to the 
period December 10 to December .'U, ID'J, thi> bo^imuMi; 
of a fresh tribunioian year. Eokhel was led astray, as 
was Cohen also, by the idea that the tribunieiaii year 
coincided with the consular. On the other side, we have 
Klebs' Prosopographia (s.v. " Commodus "), which outs the 
knot by rejecting the coins as inaccurate, and dating 
the first TR. POT. November 27 to December 9, 170, in 
defiance not only of the coins but also of the Life. I 
do not quite know what Klebs means by the " inaccuracy " 
of the coins. Surely the coinage is, under a settled 
government, the most authoritative document \u> could 
wish for. It is primary, other sources secondary. 
Mommsen l7 attempts a solution which allows due weight 
to both sources of evidence. He supposes that Capi- 
tolinus is right in dating the beginning of the im^< rium 
only on November 27, 17(5, and that of the tribunioian 
power early in 177. Consequently the lirst trihuniciaii 
period would be regarded as extending from (say) 
January, 177, to December 9, 177. But soon November 
27, 176, came to be recognized (somewhat as in the case 
of Vespasian) as the <//<> imp,-fi/ in the full sense, and 
in consequence the tirst year of tribnnician power would 
end on December 9, 176, and the remaining portion ol 
176/7 would become TR. p. n. This hypothesis still 
leaves open the question why the title IMP. does not 
appear on the coins until 177. I do not see how the 

Staatarecht (Aufl. 8), II. p. 801 (p. 757* in original edition, 1875). 



54 C. H. DODD. 

question is to be answered. It would appear as if for 
some reason Marcus did not regard the conferring of the 
title of imperator as a complete measure. It was only an 
instalment of the powers which were conferred upon the 
heir to the throne, and awaited consummation by the 
conferring of the tribunician power. The reason it was 
conferred is clear from the context in the Life of 
Commodus (2, 4) : " Cum patre imperator est appellatus 
V. kal Dec. die Pollione et Apro coss. et triumphavit cum 
patre ; nam et hoc patres decreverant" No person could 
triumph who was not in possession of the imperium. 
Commodus had up to date held no office involving the 
imperium (Prineeps Juventutis is of course purely 
honorary). On his return from the victorious cam- 
paigns on the Danube the Senate voted the suspension 
in his favour of the Leges Annales and designated him 
consul : this must be the meaning of the words " venia 
legis annuariae impetrata consul est factus." But as his 
tenure of the imperium did not begin till January 
12, 177, a special vote conferred on him pro forma the 
imperium proconsulare (which brought with it the title 
IMPERATOR and was reckoned as a salutatio), to enable 
him to take part in the triumph. Marcus would seem 
not to have fully made up his mind to make the empire 
again collegiate at once, and hence the tribunician 
power was not conferred. But even so, it is not ex- 
plained why the title IMP. does not appear on the triumph 
coins. But it is without precedent since 23 B.C. for an 
" Imperator" not to hold the tribunician power. On the 
coins of Marcus himself the IMP. does not appear until 
his accession to the sole empire in his fifteenth trib. pot. 
This may possibly suggest a reason why Marcus with 
his regard for the constitution shrank from allowing one 



COINAGE OF COMMODUS DURING REIGN OF MARCUS. 55 

who was not a colleague in the empire to bear in an 
official way the title IMPERATOR. 

In any case Mommsen's theory seems to be the only 
one so far propounded which explains the coins while 
allowing due weight to the literary authorities. Klebs 
does justice to neither. We might suppose the case to 
be somewhat as follows : In November, 176, Marcus and 
Commodus had returned from the front. The emperor 
wished that the Princeps Juventutis should share in the 
triumph, and for that purpose caused the title Imperator 
to be bestowed upon him by a vote of the Senate on 
November 27. This, however, was not regarded as 
having any effect upon the actual position of the prince ; 
perhaps, indeed, it was merely a sort of anticipation of 
the imperium which would naturally be his from 
January 1 in virtue of his consulate, as seems to be 
implied in the fact that the designalio to the consulate 
precedes the appellatio imperatoris in the narrative of 
the Life. The triumph took place duly on December 23, 
and it is not surprising that the coins celebrating it did 
not appear until after Commodus had entered upon his 
consulate in January 1, 177. We may assume that for 
this event the father and son remained in the city 
(Eckhel takes one of the coins which I have attributed to 
the triumph as a representation of the processio consularis 
of that date). Then follows the retirement to Lanuvium, 
and it was perhaps there, and in view of disquieting 
news from the frontier, that the emperor matured the 
design of raising his son to the same position which he 
had himself held for fifteen years under Pius. The vote 
conferring the tribunician power and the various pre- 
rogatives associated with it was then passed, and the 
heir to the throne was described, as Pius had been 



56 C. H. DODD. 

described during Hadrian's lifetime, as IMP. CAES. . . . 
TRIE. POT. 

But this is not the end of the changes of this year. 
There was another step, which apparently has escaped 
the notice of the biographers the consummation of the 
collegiate character of the empire by the elevation of 
the Caesar to the rank of Augustus. After Commodus 
had come to be recognized as the junior colleague of his 
father, apparently it was decided that the recognition 
should be antedated to the day on which the first step 
had been taken November 27, 176. As a December 10 
now intervened, it followed that the present year was 
the second of the tribunician power of Commodus, and 
the fiction is perpetuated on the coins. One may 
compare again the case of Vespasian, who threw back 
his dies imperii to the date on which he had been 
saluted imperator, though his recognition as emperor 
and his acceptance of the tribunician power fell some 
time later. It was apparently at no long interval after 
this change that the status quo before the death of Verus 
was restored, and there were once more two Augusti. I 
have already suggested the strong probability that this 
last step was taken on the occasion of Commodus' 
marriage with Crispina, and it was doubtless hastened 
from the same causes as the latter event. The growing 
seriousness of the reports from the front would seem to 
have forced Marcus against his will to rush through stages 
at which he would have preferred to have stopped for 
awhile. Having made sure of the succession of Commodus 
by admitting him sooner, even here, than he had 
originally intended to the tribunician power, he must 
surely have intended that for a considerable period he 
should hold the position which he had himself enjoyed 



COINAGE OF COMMODUS DURING REIGN OF MARCUS. 57 

under Pius, and Pius ^ under Hadrian. But the 
weakness of his own health and the pressing nature 
of affairs on the Danube led him to give up that idea, 
and against his desire, to install Commodus as a full 
emperor, in order that there might be perfect con- 
tinuity in the government in case of his own sudden 
decease with the war unfinished. The event proved 
the wisdom of his precautions, while the reluctance 
shown suffices to clear him of the aspersions commonly 
cast upon him for thrusting a mere boy into the im- 
perial power. 

The salutation which closes the year the second for 
Commodus corresponding with the ninth of Marcus has 
already been noticed, 49 and I have suggested that it was 
for a victory gained by Bassaeus Rufus, the praefectus 
praetorio, or some other of the commanders in the 
provinces. 

The question that remains for decision is that of the 
Liberalitas (or Liberalitates) of this year. The coins give 
TR. P. II and no AVG. If it was the congiarium distributed 
when Marcus " Commodus sibi collegam in trib. pot. junxit " 
one would have expected TR. P. ; if it was the one on the 
occasion of his marriage one would have expected AVG. 
The latter is, I think, the more serious objection. I 
incline, therefore, to identify Commodus' second Libera- 
litas, and Marcus' seventh, with the congiarium distributed 
on the occasion of Commodus' receipt of the tribunician 
power. After all there are extremely few coins with 
TR. P. ; the interval was no great one, and if there were 



48 Pius had the title of IMP. T. AEL. CAESAR ANTONINVS. 
TRIB. POT. while Hadrian still lived, and at first was called IMP. T. 
AEL. CAESAR ANTONINVS AVG. on his accession. 

49 Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. p. 310. 



58 



C. H. DODD. 



any coins struck during it with the Liberalitas, they may 
well have been lost. For the Congiarium on the occasion 
of Commodus' marriage, might not the LIBERAL. 
AVGVSTOR. coin of Marcus serve? It has no TR. P., but 
clearly belongs to this year (for before this year there 
was only one Augustus, and after this year Marcus was 
IMP. VI ill). The emphasis upon the fact that there are 
two Augusti would suit the supposition that the occasion 
of Commodus' marriage was also the occasion on which 
for the first time since the death of Verus the empire 
had two equal rulers. 

If the above reasoning be accepted, the accompanying 



TITLES OF MABCUS. 



TITLES OP COMMODUS. 



166 . 
173 . 

174 Dec. 10th 

175 Jan. 20th 
circ. June 

July 7th 
circ. Oct. 



Dec. 10th 
176 Dec. 10th 
177 Jan. 1st 
circ. Feb. 

circ. Apr. 
circ. June 
circ. Nov. 

Dec. 10th 



Armeniacus p.m. tr. pot. 

xx. imp. Hi. cos. Hi. 
[Germanicus] tr. p. xxvii. 

imp. vi. cos. Hi. 
Tr. p. xxviii. imp. vii. cos. 

Hi. 

Germ. tr. p. xxix. imp. 
vii. cos. Hi. 



Germ. tr. p. xxix. imp. 

viii. cos. Hi. 
Germ. Sarm. tr. p. xxix. 

imp. viii. cos. Hi. 
Germ. Sarm. tr. p. xxx. 

imp. viii. cos. Hi. 
Germ. Sarm. tr. p. xxxi. 

imp. viii. cos. Hi. 



Germ. Sarm. tr. p. xxxi. 

imp. ix. cos. Hi. 
Germ. Sarm. tr. p. xxxi. 

imp.ix. cos. Hi. 



Caesar. 

Caesar Germanicus Aug. 
fil. 



Caesar Aug. fil. pontifex. 
Caesar Aug. fil. Germ. 

Caesar Aug. fil. Germ. 
princ. juv. 



Caesar Aug. fil. Germ. 
Sarm. 



Caesar Aug. fil. Germ. 

Sarm. cos. 
Imp. Goes. . . . Germ. 

Sarm. tr. pot. cos. 
Imp. Goes. . . . tr. pot. cos. 
Aug. tr.p. ii. cos. 
Aug. tr. p. ii. imp. ii. cos. 

Aug. tr. p. Hi. imp. ii. cos. 



COINAGE OF COMMODUS DURING EEIGN OF MARCUS. 59 

parallelism of coins of Marcus and Commodus may be 
found useful. 

From the commencement of his third tribunician year 
the coinage of Commodus runs quite parallel with that 
of his father, and presents no further difficulties. 

C. HAROLD DODD. 



III. 

THE STEPPINGLEY FIND OF ENGLISH 
COINS. 

(See Plate VI.) 

EARLY in September, 1912, a hoard of "Long-cross" 
pennies was discovered in the Church of Steppingley 
St. Lawrence, Bedfordshire. The Kev. C. Swynnerton, 
who was at that time rector of Steppingley, has kindly 
supplied the following details of the discovery. The 
church is a modern building, but the pavement under 
which the coins were found is old. This ancient floor, 
paved with coarse red tiles 9 inches square, was left 
as it was when the church was rebuilt sixty years ago, 
and the present floor laid 4 feet above it. The coins 
were found 1 foot below the ancient floor, about 10 
inches or 1 foot from the north wall of the chancel, and 
about 2 feet or so within it. They rested in the natural 
hollow of a rough stone measuring about 2 ft. X 1 ft. 8 in. 
X 10 in. He suggests that the hoard was deposited by 
Peter di Vitella, who was rector from 1247 to 1273, or 
during his long absence in Italy, where he died in 1273. 
The hoard consisted of 498 pence and 33 halfpence, 
of which there were 456 pence and 31 halfpence 
English, 15 pence and 1 halfpenny Scottish, 12 pence 
and 1 halfpenny Irish, 2 pence Continental, and 13 
pence which, being unintelligible, we are unable to 



THE STEPPINGLEY FIND OF ENGLISH COINS. 61 

assign to any locality, although they were of the 
general type of the long-cross coinage of England. 

The English part of the hoard contained one short- 
cross penny and one short-cross halfpenny; the 
remainder consisted of 455 pence and 30 cut half- 
pence of the long-cross coinage of Henry III. The 
Scottish coins were all of the long double-cross issues 
of Alexander III. The Irish were long-cross coins of 
Henry III, and the two Continental bore the name of 
Bernhard of Lippe. The short-cross penny was of the 
type known as Class V. and was struck by Ledulf in 
London, and the halfpenny was of the same type 
curiously double struck, and read IOAN ON 
obviously of Canterbury, the only place where the 
name IOAN appears. The remainder of the coins do 
not call for comment, and they are fully set out in the 
list. It is satisfactory to know that the only two short- 
cross coins were of Class V., as, with the exception of 
the great Brussels hoard in Mr. Baldwin's possession, 
this is the first deposit in which short-cross and long- 
cross coins have been found together. In the Brussels 
hoard, however, we understand all classes of short-cross 
coins were present, whereas here we have, happily, only 
examples of Class V. From records we know that the 
short-cross coins were withdrawn on, or shortly after, the 
issue of the new long-cross coinage. 

In order to make the classification used in the find 
intelligible, some few words of explanation are necessary, 
as the paper dealing fully with the subject, and read 
before the British Numismatic Society a year ago, is 
not yet in print. 1 

1 This paper is now published in Brit. Num. Jmirn., vol. ix. 



62 LAWRENCE AND BROOKE. 

The arrangement of the various types to be found on 
the long-cross coinage is guided almost entirely by 
variations of the king's bust and by the obverse legend. 
The moneyers' names, of which we have a complete list 
in the appendix to John of Oxenede's chronicle, fur- 
nishes us with full information in reference to the 
provincial mints at the beginning of the coinage in 
1248. From a knowledge of these provincial early 
types we are able to decide on the early types of the 
mints not included in the list, viz. Canterbury, London, 
St. Edmundsbury, and Durham. The last mint need 
not be taken into account, as there were no early coins 
issued by it to our knowledge, and there were no 
Durham coins in the find. Additional help is to be 
found in the patent rolls which give us the dates of 
appointment of nearly all the moneyers of London and 
Canterbury. The mint of St. Edmundsbury is also 
one of extreme usefulness, as has been shown by Mr. 
Earle Fox, since this mint was only allowed one moneyer 
and one set of dies at a time. By using all these sources 
of information we are able to draw up a scheme of classi- 
fication which in the main is thoroughly satisfactory, 
and which is as follows (the varieties of type here 
described are figured on PI. VI.) : 

The whole long-cross coinage is sharply divided by 
the absence of the king's hand holding a sceptre in the 
early coins and its presence in the later ones. The 
coins without the hand and sceptre are divided into four 
groups, excluding one issue without mint-name, obviously 
London, reading hSNRiavs RQX on the obverse and 
ANGUS TeRQl on the reverse. 

I. Coins without a money er's name, reading hQNRiavs 
RSX ANS on the obverse and the continuation of the 



THE STEPPINGLEY FIND OF ENGLISH COINS. 63 

obverse legend on the reverse, thus US T6RCU LON, CAN, 
AQD : mint-mark, star and crescent. 

II. Coins reading on the obverse hQNRiavs RSX T6RCLI, 
the moneyer's name and that of the mint forming the 
reverse legend : mint-mark, star. 

The bust on both these groups is a well-defined 
one, with a pointed beard and a couple of curls on 
either side of the head. The crown consists of a 
flat band, with a central ornament and two large end 
pellets. 

III. Coins reading hSNRlOVS RQX in. This large 
group is further subdivided by the shape of the bust 
into 

(a) A head like those in group II. 

(&) A smaller and rounder head. 

(c) A bust usually showing some neck and with a 
pellet between the upper and lower curls on each side 
of the head. A colon : is generally found in type (e) 
between RQX and III, whereas one pellet only is the rule 
in the earlier types (a) and (&). Mint-mark, star on all 
groups. 

Division I. is entirely confined to the dominant 
mints, London, Canterbury, and St. Edmundsbury. 
Division II. occurs on coins from these mints and on 
many provincial coins. Division III. is represented at 
all the mints except Durham. 

Coins with the sceptre are capable of division into 
four main groups. 

IV. Coins precisely like those of Division III. but 
with a sceptre in the king's hand which divides the word 
RQX from the numeral III; in other words, the title RQX 
is just outside the sceptre. The legend begins at the 
top of the coin as on the non-sceptre pieces, and the 



64 LAWRENCE AND BROOKE. 

mint-mark, star, is present. The king's eyes are round. 
These coins are very rare. 

V. A large group, in which the sceptre divides the 
obverse legend between III and the king's name. The 
legend begins on the left side of the head and the mint- 
mark is removed. 

These coins are further subdivided 

(a) Bust with round eyes, usually crescents inter- 
spersed among the curls, a crown of which the central 
ornament reaches the level of the letters of the legend 
above it, called a high crown, the letter A formed with 
a curved and ornamental initial stroke, and the R with 
an ornamental tail. The $ as noted. 

(b) Like (a), but with Jft. 

(c) As the last, but the king's eyes are oval. 

(d) A differently formed bust made from different 
irons. The most noticeable feature is the crown, which 
has a well-defined fleur-de-lis as a central ornament and 
half lis as end ornaments in place of the pellets before 
referred to. (New crown.) 

(e) Coins which exhibit most of the peculiarities of 
group (d), but in which the band of the crown is double 
and is ornamented with a row of pearls. (Pearled 
crown.) 

(/) Here the crown is again altered and is made with 
a plain double unornamented band. The old-fashioned 
pellet endings used in (a), (&), and (c) are reverted to, but 
the central ornament shows a short stumpy fleur-de-lis, 
which hardly ever reaches the level of the bottom of the 
legend. Eows of tiny pellets are generally seen by the 
line of the cheek and under the chin and single large 
pellets between the curls. Three pellets thus | are often 
found before the first letter h of the king's name ; h itself 



THE STEPPINGLEY FIND OF ENGLISH COINS. 65 

has usually a well-marked tail. The R differs in form 
from the earlier one, and the 3C i s what Burns in his 
Scottish Coinage called curule-shaped. 

(g) In this type the doubling of the band of the crown 
finally disappears, otherwise the whole type is very like 
that of (/). The pellets before h, are not unknown, 
though seldom to be found. The central ornament on 
the crown is sometimes a well-formed lis, and sometimes 
composed of three pellets gradually disappearing into 
the band of the crown on later coins of this group. 
Following this, Division V. contains some coins which 
are obviously more carelessly worked where a trefoil of 
three pellets marks the central crown ornament, and 
which would appear to be a later form of coin. 

Divisions VI. and VII. hardly concern us, as they are 
Edwardian types of long-cross coins issued subsequently 
to any coins in the find which is the subject of this 
paper. 

These coins with the sceptre are practically confined 
to the four large mints which carried on the country's 
money-making. There are now known a few very rare 
coins with the sceptre bearing provincial names, but 
they present difficulties which have not yet been over- 
come. Thus most of them would not seem to be of the 
same work as the ordinary coins, and names on some 
are misspelt. Further, there is no mention of the 
moneyers' names in the rolls as there is of the large 
mints of London and Canterbury. 

This, the latest find of long-cross coins, varies in some 
particulars as regards its contents from other finds that 
have been more or less carefully described. Coins from 
all the mints except those of Durham and Shrewsbury 
will be found noted in the list. Why representatives 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. F 



66 LAWRENCE AND BROOKE. 

of these places should be absent no adequate reason 
occurs to us. Perhaps coins of Durham and Shrewsbury 
are of some degree of rarity, but they are certainly not 
less common than coins of some of the other mints 
figuring in the list. The small number of coins found 
may be the chief reason, as it probably is for the absence 
in the list of many moneyers' names under the provincial 
mints. The coins of Canterbury give us the names of 
all Canterbury moneyers previously known. There are 
four absentees from the list of London, viz. Davi, 
Eobert, Thomas and Phelip. Of these, Davi certainly 
should have been in evidence as the coins bearing the 
name are quite common, and he was at work during the 
period covered by the find. Phelip should as certainly 
be absent, as his appointment was not gazetted until 
1278, long after the latest coin in the hoard. 

The mint of St. Edmundsbury, the key to the whole 
situation, supplies us with 13 coins, of which 10 bear the 
name of John and 3 the name of Kandulf. The first 
John held office at any rate from 1248, and struck coins 
reading Rex Terci, also coins without the sceptre reading 
REX 1 1 1, then coins with the sceptre and star mint- 
mark, and lastly, early varieties of the ordinary sceptre 
coins. In this find we get one " Eex Terci " coin and two 
early sceptre coins bearing his name. He was followed 
in 1252 by Randulf, of whom we also get three coins, all 
early sceptre varieties. Then we get seven late sceptre 
coins also bearing the name of John. These must be 
given to John de Bernadise, the date of whose appoint- 
ment 1265 we know. The earliest long-cross coin in 
the find, one reading REX ANG of London, was struck in 
1248. The short-cross penny of Ledulf of London and 
the halfpenny of Joan of Canterbury will throw the 



THE STEPPINGLEY FIND OF ENGLISH COINS. 67 

date back a little, we do not know exactly how much, 
but both coins were of the latest variety of the short- 
cross coinage. The later limit of the find is more 
certain. John II of St. Edmundsbury was appointed 
in 1265, and Richard of Canterbury (an archiepiscopal 
rnoneyer) in 1268. Coins by both these men were pre- 
sent in the hoard. There were no coins of Phelip or 
late ones of Kenaud, whose die Phelip took at London, 
nor were there any late types at St. Edmundsbury, so 
that so far as the English coins go, shortly after 1268 
is as near as we can approximate to the date of burial of 
the hoard. 

The slight evidence to be gleaned from the Scottish 
coins points to the same conclusions. They were all 
absolutely contemporary with English coins present with 
them in the hoard. The few Irish coins again are worth- 
less in proving anything as regards the date of burial. 
We are thus left with the Continental sterlings bearing 

the names BSRNh/RDV, III' and B'6RN DV B', the former 

of which has a blundered attempt at the legend RiCffiDON 
LVND on its reverse, while that of the second coin bears 
the legend he^|RiO|NLV|NDS. These are attributed by 
Chautard (Monnaies du Type Estcrlin) to Bernhard III of 
Lippe, 1229-1265, so that here again the Continental 
sterlings are within the period fixed by the English coins 
and are of no use for dating purposes. We must, there- 
fore, consider that the hoard under description represented 
currency issued and in use from shortly before 1247 to 
some time, possibly a year, after 1268, a period about 
twenty- one or twenty-two years. 



F2 



68 



LAWRENCE AND BROOKE. 



TABLE OP LONDON, CANTERBURY, AND BURY COINS m THE 
STEPPINGLEY FIND. 



I. 


in. 


v . 


V. 




a 


b 


c 






l) 


c 


d 


e 


f 


Sth 


LONDON 3 
NICOLE . 
HENRI 


3 2 
4 


1 
6 


12 
3 




3 


11 

4 


1 

7 








8 


DAVI .... 
RICARD . 




9 


1 






1 


5 
3 


1 




1 
2 


5 
5 


WILLEM . 














3 


1 




1 




lOhS .... 






















5 


WALTER . 
























THOMAS . 
























ROBERT . 






















123 


RENAUD . 
























PHELIP . 


















__ 




. 


CANTERBURY- 
NICOLE . 


1 


6 


6 




6 


6 


2 

Mu 


e. 




1 


8 


WILLEM . 
GILBERT . 
ION (or lOhS) . 
ROBERT . 




2 


1 
1 




5 

1 


1 
1 
3 


13 1 
6 
12 
6 






1 


10 
4 
3 
24 
3 


WALTER . 






















13 


ALEIN 






















2 


AMBROCI 






















2 


RICARD . 
























BURY ST. EDMUNDS- 
























ION . 


1 








2 


f 


1 










RANDULF 














JL 










RENAUD . 
























STEPHANE . 






















r 


ION (or lOhS) . 
























IOCE 


























THE STEPPINGLEY FIND OP ENGLISH COINS. 69 

LIST OF COINS. 
PENNIES. 

SHORT-CROSS. 

Class V. 

LONDON. 

1. LSDVLF ON LVN3 

LONG-CROSS. 

BRISTOL. 

2. aLI|SON|BRV|ST . III. b (double-struck). 

CARLISLE. 

3. /OA|MO1N(X|>RL . . III. b. 

EXETER. 

4. IOM|CNQaC6(|TRQ . III. 6. 

5, 6. ION|OM9|ace(|-Ra . III. 6 (2). 

7. Phl|LIP|OMa|a<H . III. 6. 

8. Phl|LIP|ON|Qaa . III. c. 

9. RCB|eRT|osie(|aae( . III. 6. 

10. wAT|eRO)NQa[aaT . in. b (?). 

GLOUCESTER. 

11. ICN|ON|GLO|Vae( . III. 6. 

12. LVa|ASO|NG|LOV . III. 6. 

13. RI<X|/RD|OMG|LOV . III. 6. 

14-16. ROG|6RO|NG|LOV . II.,III.6,III.c(Re(X: III). 

HEREFORD. 
17. Ria|/RD|ONh|6RQ . III. b. 



70 LAWRENCE AND BROOKE. 

ILCHESTER. 

18. hVG|acN|ive(|Lae( . in. 6. 

LINCOLN. 

19. ION|ONL|INCX|OLN . III. b. 

20. ICN|CNL|INa| . III. 6. 

21-23. Ria|/RD|CNL|INC( . III. a (2), III. 6. 

NEWCASTLE. 
24-26. heN|RIO|NNQ|W9a . III. 6, III. c (2). 

NORTHAMPTON. 

27, 28. LVa|ASO|NN|CRh . III. a, III. 6. 
29, 30. Phl|LIP|OMN|ORh' . HI. b, III. c. 

NORWICH. 

31. hVG|QCN|NCR|WIZ . III. a. 

32. ION|ONN|OR|WIZ . III. 6. 

33. Wll_|LSM|ONO|RWI . II. (T6RC(). 
34-36. WIL|L6M|CNNiCRW . III. a (2), III. c. 

OXFORD. 

37. GQF|Rai|ONO|XCN . III. a. 

38. GEFJRI|CNO|XON . III. c. 

39. WIL|LM|CNO|XCN . III. b. 

WALLINGFORD. 
40, 41. RCB|6RT|CNW|ALI . III. b (2). 

WILTON. 
42. ION|ON|WIL)TCN . III. b. 



THE STEPPINGLEY FIND OF ENGLISH COINS. 71 

WINCHESTER. 

43. hVG|QON|WINjCXha . III. c. 

44. IVR|DXNjCNW|INa . III. b. 

45. Nia|OLQjCNW|INa . III. b. 

46. NiaOL9|ON|WIN . III. c. 

[47-49. WIL|l_eM|CNW|INa . III. b, III. c (2). 

YORK. 

50. ieRQ|MlQ|OMSiVQR . III. a. 

51. ieRQ|MI9|CNe(jVeR . III. b. 

52, 53. ION|CNQ|VeR|Wia . III. a (2). 

54. ICN|CNe(|VeRiWia . III. 6. 

55. ReNiQRO|NSV|eRW . III. a. 

56. TCM|ASO|N9|V6R . III. 6. 

BURY ST. EDMUNDS. 

57. ION|ONS'|e(DM|VND . II. 

58, 59. ICNiCNS'iSCM|VlSD . V. a (2). 

60. R/N|DVL|F:.OM|S'-QD . V. b. 
61, 62. R/N|DVL|FCN|S'e(D . V. 6, V. c. 

63-65. ION|ONS|SlN|TaD . V. g (3). 

66. IOh|SCN|SSI|TQD . Y. g. 

67-69. lOh SCN|SeN|TQD . V. g (3). 

CANTERBURY. 

70-101. Nia|OLQ|CNa|XNT . III. a, III. 6 (3), III. c 

(6), V. a (6), V. 6 (6), 
V. c, V./, V. 0(8). 
102. Nia|OLQ|ON|axN . III. b. 

103. NiaoreicNai/NT . m. &. 

104, 105. Nia|OLQ|ONa|XNT . III. b, Y. c. 

106-136. WIL|l_eM|CNa|yNT . III. b (2), III. c, Y. a (5), 



137. WII_|l_eM|ONa!/NT . Y. c. 

138. WIL|LQM1QON|KM . Y. c (with reverse of 

Y. d). 



72 



LAWRENCE AND BROOKE. 



139. GILB6R|TCN|/NT 
140-149. GIL|B6R|TCN|aXN 



III. c. 

V. , V. 6, V. c (4), 
V. g (4). 



150. 
151. 


GIL 


B6R| 
B6R 


CNC(| 
TON 


/NT . V. c. 
COW . V. c. 


152-163. 
164. 
165-169. 


ION 
ION| 
lOh 


ON|a/N|T6R . V. b (2), V. c (9), V. g. 
ON|a/N|T6R . V. b. 
SON|aXN|T6R . V. c (3), V. g (2). 


170,171. 

172. 
173-187. 
188. 
189-200. 


RCBjeRT] 
ROB|RT 
ROB|6RT 
ROBGRT 
ROBQR1 


oNai 

ONC 

|o\a 

|ON| 
1ONC 


XNT . Y. c (2). 
( /NT .V. c. 
I/NT . V. c (2), V. g (13). 
CX/N . V. c. 
(/NT . V./, V. 0(11). 


201,202. 
203. 


WAJTQR 
WA_|TGR 


ONQ /NT . V. g (2). 
|ONa|/NT . V. g. 


204. 
205, 206. 
207, 208. 
209-215. 
216. 


ALQ 
A_Q| 
AL0 
ALQ 
ALQ 


INJlONai 
NO|NCX|/* 

eiN|oNa 

IN'|CNa|/ 
INO|NOA 


. V.0. 
IT . V.0(2). 
/NT . V. g (2). 
NT . V. g (7). 
/NT . V. g. 


217,218. 


/MB|ROC(|liCN|a/N . V.gr(2). 


219, 220. 


RIO 


XRD|ONa> 


NT . V.0(2). 










LONDON. 


221, 222. 
223. 


^h 


SNRI 
?> 


avs 


RSX/NG Ll9TeR|ai'.|LVN (2). 

LiaiTeRiar. LON 



224-227. NiaiOLQ|ONL|VND 

228-230. NiaOLS|ONL|VhO 
231-258. NI!OLa|CNL|VND 



259-261. NiaOL|ONLlVND 
262-290. heNRIO|NLV]ND6( 



291. h6N RIO|N_V|ND 
292,293. h6N|RIO|NLV|ND 
294-296. h6N|RIO|NLV|NDe( 



II. (3) (one reads TSRC( 
for TSROI), III. a. 

III. a, III. c, V. 6. 

III. b (6) (one reads 
hQVRiaVS), III. c (9), 
V. a (2), V. b (10), 
V. c. 

III. b, III. c (2). 

III. a (4), III. 6 (4), 
III. c (2), V. a, V. 6 
(4), V. c (6), V. (8). 

III. b. 

III. &, III. c. 

V. a (2), V. c. 



THE STEPPINGLEY FIND OF ENGLISH COINS. 



73 



297-306. Ria/RDOML|VND 



307-311. Riai/RDjONL|VND 

312-315. WIL|LQM|CNL|VND 
316-321. 



322,323. IOh'jSONjl_VN|DeN 
324, 325. IOh'|SCN|LVNiDeN 
326. IOh'jSON|LVN|DQN 

327-329. WA_TQR|CNL|VND 

330. WA_T6(R|ONL|VND 

331. WA_|T6R|ONL|VND 

332-453. R6N AVD|CNL|VND 
454. R6N|AVD|ONL|VND 

455, 456. Uncertain moneyers. 



III. 6 (?) (double-struck), 
III. c, V. &, V. c (4) 
(one reads RIQARQ), 
V. g (3). 



V. c, V. g (3). 
V.c(2),V./(2),V.<K2). 

V.c,V./. 
V. c (2). 
V.L 

V. g (3). 



V. g (122). 
V.g. 

V.*(2). 



UNCERTAIN MINTS. 



457. 


Nia|ION|NLV|xNT 


\ J.-LJL. U 

\ (broken) 


J12-1 grs.^ 


s_X 

OS 

- 


458. 


RID|>RD|CND|VM5 


V. c. 


15-4 grs. 


3 






^) 






<O 


459. 


/RiaiwoL|mia|c 




Y. c. 


20-6 grs. 


ft 


460. 


/Ria|WlQ|RVG|T 


ao 


V. c. 


18-3 grs. 


+J 


461. 


Ria|TVO|XRia|WlG 


V. c. 


18-4 grs. 


fl 

<o 


462. 


/Ria|WIL|RVG|OST 


V. c. 


20-0 grs. 


1 


463. 


XRIL|VNa|/RILONa 


V. c. 


20-8 grs. 


o 

/-\ 


464. 


Ria|Wia|TOL|RVG 


V. c. 


19-5 grs./ 


465. 


Niai ICCON 


. 


V. c. 




466, 467. 
ifi 


Uncertain 

RHRIPRTI _ 





V n 





Contemporary Forgery (?) 
469. h6( NRI CVS R6(X III' DNI[aOLlSON|LVN 19'3grs. 



Continental Deniers Esterlins. 



470. BQRNh/RDV, III' 

471. B'SRN DVB' 



RIO OAL XRDJVND 17'2 grs. 
heN|RIO|NLV|IDQ 18-7 grs. 



74 LAWRENCE AND BROOKE. 

SCOTTISH. 
ALEXANDER III. 

(Long Double Cross Issue.; 
BERWICK. 

472. IOh|AN|CNB|9R 

473. IOh|AN|ON3|QR 
474-476. IOh|AN|ON|BeR (3). 
477, 478. IOh|AN|ON|BS (2). 

479. WA|LTS|RCN|BeR retrograde. 

480. WI|LL|CN3|e(R 

EDINBURGH. 

481. 



TORRES (?). 
482. WA|TeR[CNF|Re( : 

STIRLING. 

483. h9lx|R'OI|ST|}|V 

484. h8N!RI|CNS|TR 

UNCERTAIN. 

485. WM|Wia|TN|DeR 

IRISH. 
HENRY III. 

(Long-Cross Issue.) 

DUBLIN. 
486-488. DAV|ION|DIV|6(LI' (3). 

489-496. Ria|/RD|OND|IVe( (8). 

497. Ria|/RDONO|IVS_ 

Contemporary Forgery (?). 

498. Blundered. 13-2 grs. 



THE STEPPINGLEY FIND OF ENGLISH COINS. 75 
HALFPENNIES. 

SHORT-CROSS. 

1. IOANON . (Canterbury). 

This halfpenny appears to have been tooled in 
such a way as to extend the cross to the edge 
of the coin, and so pass the coin as a long- 
cross halfpenny ; but there is some doubt 
whether this is the true explanation of its 
strange appearance. It is now in the National 
Collection. 

LONG-CROSS. 
GLOUCESTER. 

2. [ROG|6RO|]NG|LOV . III. b. Same dies as 

penny in B.M. 

LINCOLN. 

3. ICN CNL| | . III. &. 

4. WAL|[T6R|ONL]|INa . II. Same die as penny 

in B.M. 

NORTHAMPTON. 

? ? 

5 - [Phl]|LIP|ONN|[ORh] . III. 6. 

CANTERBURY. 

6. |i_eM|(Na| . v. c. 

7. - - |SIN|CNa| . V. g. 

8. ALfl|IN?| . V. g. 

9-12. "Uncertain moneyers. III. & or c (?),V. a or 6 (?), 

V. & or G (?), V. g. 

LONDON. 

13-15. Nia| |VND . V. a, V. 6 (2). 

16. |OI_a|ONI_! . V. 6. 



76 THE STEPPINGLEY FIND OF ENGLISH COINS. 

17. h6N| ----- ISDS . V./. 

18. Riaj 



19. ILBMJCNLI . v. g. 

20. |L6M|ONL| . V. g. 

21, 22. R6N|AVD| . V. g (2). 

23. R6N| |VND . V. g. 

24. |AVD|CNL| . V. g. 

25-27. Uncertain moneyers. II., III. a or b (?), V. 

6 or c (?). 

UNCERTAIN MINTS. 
28-31. III. , III. c (2), V. g. 

SCOTTISH. 
32. |ON| . Bust to right. 

IRISH. 
33. Ria[/RD| 

L. A. LAWRENCE. 
G. C. BROOKE. 



IV. 
OfTA'S IMITATION OF AN AKAB DINAR 

(See Figure, p. 89.) 

THE gold coin of Offa, which forms the subject of this 
paper, formed lot 269 of the Carlyon-Britton Sale and 
was acquired for the British Museum collection, which 
already possessed one of the very few other known gold 
Saxon coins (that of Wigmund, Archbishop of York, 
837-854 A.D.). 

It is only five years since Mr. Carlyon-Britton read a 
long paper on this piece to the British Numismatic 
Society, which was afterwards published in the British 
Numismatic Journal, 1908, pp. 35-73. Mr. Carlyon- 
Britton, after recapitulating the evidence, comes to the 
same conclusion as Longperier and Kenyon, the previous 
writers on this coin, namely, that it is a gold mancus 
expressly struck for payment of Peter's Pence to the 
Pope. In this paper I am approaching the question from 
a different point of view, which may justify me in once 
more discussing this important coin ; sufficient emphasis 
has not been laid by previous writers on the fact 
that the piece is an imitation of an Arab dinar, and the 
conclusions to be drawn from this fact. 

Previous writers have been content to take the piece 
as evidence that Arab dinars circulated in England ; but 
it is necessary to investigate whether Arab dinars were 
known to Offa and how they came to England. It is 
well known that enormous quantities of Arab coins have 



78 J. ALLAN. 

been found in the lands around the Baltic and in 
Bussia, and we also know from the evidence of the Arab 
geographers that there was a very busy trade, chiefly in 
furs, between the Arabs and these lands. These coins 
are found in Russia, Sweden, Norway, Pomerania, 
Prussia, Denmark. The finds that have been made in 
Iceland, Scotland, and England do not belong to the 
same class as the preceding ; they are coins brought 
from the Baltic lands by the Vikings, and are not 
evidence of direct intercourse with Arab lands. The 
remarkable feature of these finds, sometimes containing 
10,000-20,000 pieces, is that they consist entirely of silver 
coins ; one or two gold coins have been found in the 
Baltic lands, but no such hoards as those of the silver 
dirhems have been discovered. This is entirety in agree- 
ment with the statement of Ibn Fazlan that the people 
of the North used only dirhems and not dinars. Similar 
evidence of the preference of the barbarians is given by 
Istakhrl and for an earlier period by Procopius. The 
suggestion that Arab gold coins reached England via 
the Baltic may be dismissed for two reasons : one is 
that they did not circulate in these lands, and the 
second is that even the few finds of Arab silver coins 
made in England did not reach England in the ordinary 
course of commerce ; they belong to a period later than 
Offa's reign, and are due to the migrations of the Vikings. 
On the other hand, finds of Arab silver coins are practi- 
cally unknown in South-West Europe with the exception 
of Arab Spain. The object of this paper is to show that 
Arab gold coins were well known in South- West Europe, 
roughly the Carolingian Empire, and to show that it 
was through the latter that Offa came to imitate a coin 
struck at the other end of the known world. 



OFFA'S IMITATION OF AN ARAB DINAR. 79 

In the first place, let us examine the coin itself (Fig., 
No. 3). It is a copy of the coin of the Abbasid Caliph 
al-Mansur, 754-775 A.D., struck in the last year of his 
reign 157 A.H. = 774 A.D. (Fig., No. 1), with the ad- 
ditional legend " Offa Rex " on the reverse ; the mint is 
not stated. That it is a copy is evident from the fact 
that the "Offa Hex" is clearly part of the same die as the 
Arabic inscription, and not counterstruck, while although 
the legends are closely copied from the Arabic original 
there are a number of slips chiefly omissions which 
show that the engraver was unfamiliar with his model ; 
he was, however, a skilful workman and did his work 
very faithfully. On the obverse the most notable point 
is the bungling of the word *i, (year), which an Arab 
workman could never have done ; other points are that 
the 9- of J^-I slopes the wrong way, and the y in the 
first line of the obverse inscription is more of a cross 
than it should be. On the whole, however, it is doubtful 
if but for the " Offa Eex " the inscriptions would ever 
excite comment among a number of contemporary dinars. 

Three very important pieces to be studied with this 
dinar are another dinar (Fig., No. 2) of the same year in 
the British Museum (Cat. Or. Coins, I. p. 39, No. 24), a 
second in Berlin (Nutzel, Ostl. ChaL, No. 633, barbari- 
siert), and a third in Paris (Lavoix, Cat. Khal. Or., No. 
604, fabrique barbare). The B.M. coin was first published 
by Marsden, who called attention to the fact that the 
legend was slightly bungled, and Mr. Lane-Poole in 
his Catalogue likewise notes its remarkable features. 
Neither, however, has any doubt as to its genuineness, 
and it is undoubtedly, as has been suggested, a con- 
temporary imitation. One feature common to this coin 
and to the Offa piece has not, however, been properly 



80 J. ALLAN. 

emphasized. This is the border of dots ; as may be seen 
from a comparison with the silver coins of Offa (Fig., 
No. 4), the border on the two gold coins, which is practi- 
cally complete and well defined, is identical with that 
on the former. Now, Arab dinars of this time have, as a 
rule, no border, although on some of them a straight 
ridge is formed by the edge of the die, which looks like 
a border; on a very few specimens there do seem to be 
traces of a border of dots of somewhat different style, but 
it is clear that the great majority of specimens never had 
any dotted border. The Paris and Berlin coins present 
similar features, but in style resemble the Offa dinar 
rather than the B.M. dinar. Now, it is remarkable that 
the only coins, which can at once be said to be imitations 
of dinars, should be of the same year, and bear this well- 
defined border, and that this border should be identical 
with that on Offa's silver coins, which was probably 
suggested by the identical border on contemporary 
Carolingian coins. This is probably evidence that the 
barbarous coins of 157 A.H. were made in England or 
France, and mark a stage in the development of the 
Offa dinar. A reference to Queipo's table in his Systemes 
Metriques shows that more dinars of the year 157 are 
known than of any year in the second century A.H. 

A comparison of the Roman letters on the gold coin 
with those of the silver of the same king reveals a 
great similarity. The characteristic of both is the 
blobs at the ends of the letters, a feature which is 
introduced, it might be noted, in the Arabic legends 
also, although this may be due to an exaggeration of 
a tendency in this direction in the original. The F, 
R, and E in both are identical. The form of the A 
found on the gold coin does not seem to occur on any 



OFFA'S IMITATION OF AN ARAB DINAR. 81 

of Offa's silver coins, but it is a well-known mediaeval 
form. It may, however, be mentioned that the making 
of the O half the size of the other letters on the coin 
illustrated here is not usual on the silver, and most of 
the latter have all the letters the same size. There is 
then every reason to believe that the coin was struck 
in England by Offa. OFFA REX is of course his usual 
legend. 

The only recorded instance of an Arab dinar being 
found in Britain is the discovery of a dinar of the 
Omayyad Caliph Hisham (724-743) at Eastbourne 
(Num. Chron., IX. p. 85), but this can hardly be taken 
as evidence that these pieces circulated in Britain. 
Isolated specimens may have been brought to Britain 
in various ways, but it can hardly have been from such 
casual specimens that Offa imitated his piece. Nor does 
it seem likely that, as has been suggested, Arab dinars 
were brought from Spain. In the first place, we have 
no records of such intercourse ; what relations existed 
between the Moors of Spain and their Christian allies 
were decidedly hostile ; besides, there is no particular 
reason why Abbasid coins should have come from Spain, 
which had an extensive currency of its own. 

The balance of trade between East and West was, 
moreover, against the West at this period; there was 
little that the Arabs wanted to purchase from the West, 
while there arose a keen demand for Oriental luxuries 
in the West, a demand which rapidly exhausted the 
extensive gold Merovingian and Visigothic currencies of 
the fifth and sixth centuries. Arab money could hardly 
have come to England and France in the course of trade 
in any considerable quantities, as the few things required 
by the Arabs would be more than paid for in imports. 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. G 



82 J. ALLAN. 

The only country with which England had any 
intimate relations in the eighth century was the Caro- 
lingian Empire, and it is through the latter that the 
dinar or dinars which suggested to Offa his gold piece 
must have come. We will now inquire to what extent 
these pieces were known in the Carolingian Empire. 

We have considerable evidence to show that there 
was much intercourse between the Carolingian Empire 
and the East in the eighth century. Marseilles was 
then a great centre for trade with the East, and Arab 
merchants were settled there. Pilgrims went to Syria 
in large numbers every year. Alexandria was the great 
centre of the East, and it was thither that pilgrims and 
merchants from Europe first went ; there, too, they con- 
verted their gold and jewels into Arab money. The 
remarkable purity of the latter rendered it unnecessary 
to have it changed before leaving the East again ; it was 
probably found a convenient form of hoarding wealth 
just as the English sovereign and 5 piece is in India 
at the present day and cannot long have remained 
unknown in Western Europe. 

The accounts of the interchange of embassies between 
the Carolingian Emperors and the Abbasid Caliphs 
may here be briefly summarized. In 768 Pepin sent 
an embassy to Mansur, which returned three years 
later accompanied by a return embassy. Similar 
exchanges of courtesy took place, till in 797 Charle- 
magne sent two ambassadors to Hartin al-Rashld; they 
died on the journey, but their retinue returned in 801 
with a return embassy laden with gifts, which were 
officially presented to Charlemagne in Aachen in 802. 
Contemporary chroniclers wax eloquent over the elephant 
sent to Charlemagne by " Aaron, King of the Persians, 



OFFA'S IMITATION OF AN ARAB DINAR. 83 

who rules over almost all the East except India." 
Einhart (ch. xvi), for example, says that it was the only 
one Hartin had, but so great was his affection for " his 
brother " Charlemagne that he at once sent it at the 
latter's request. In the list of presents sent by the 
Caliph, Saxo (iv, 89) expressly mentions " aurum " along 
with gems, garments, scents, and all the wealth of the 
East. This aurum was presumably coined money, and 
must have formed a considerable portion of the presents 
brought by previous envoys also. " So great was the 
wealth brought by the Arab ambassadors," says the monk 
of St. Gall (ii, 8), " that they seemed to have emptied 
the East and filled the West." The return gifts sent 
by Charlemagne included horses and dogs, the latter 
being particularly prized. Charlemagne was on equally 
good terms with the " King of Africa," and these rela- 
tions were continued by his successors, for we find Louis 
the Debonnaire receiving an embassy from the Amir 
al-Muminm of Persia in 831. 

As Weil has pointed out, these relations were probably 
fostered by a common enmity against the Arabs of Spain, 
who had been driven out of France by Charles Martel, 
and against whom Pepin and Charlemagne waged con- 
tinual war. Finds of Andalusian coins have been 
made in France, but they do not concern this article 
and are readily explained. 

So far we have shown that there was much intercourse 
between the Carolingian Empire and the East in the 
eighth century A.D., sufficient to justify the assumption 
that Arab coins must have been known in France 
and might thence have reached England. We have, 
however, contemporary evidence that this really was 
the case. Theodolphus, who was sent in 797 by 

G2 



84 J. ALLAN. 

Charlemagne on a tour through Provence, has described 
his journey in a poem called the Paraenesis ad Judices, 
in which he satirizes the corruptness of the judges; 
among the bribes which they accept from litigants, he 
mentions gold pieces with Arab legends. 

" Iste gravi numero nummos fert divites auri 
Quos Araburn sermo sive caracter arat." 

Prou suggests that the few gold coins of Charlemagne 
now known were originally issued to compete with the 
Arab gold that circulated in France. It seems from a 
passage in one of Longperier's essays, that finds of gold 
Arab coins have been made in France, but he gives 
no details. The only other gold coin of the period 
that could vie in popularity with the Abbasid dinar 
was the solidus of the Byzantine Empire, and a com- 
parison of the number of gold coins of these two great 
currencies of the period in any modern collection 
shows that the Arab dinar must have had the greater 
circulation. We are fortunate in having at least one 
find of the period which illustrates the gold coinage of 
the Carolingian Empire of the eighth and ninth centuries. 
In 1857, during the erection of a bridge over the Keno 
near Bologna, a number of gold coins were found eight 
feet below the bed of the river. These were 41 By- 
zantine solidi, 5 of Beneventum, and 13 dinars of the 
Abbasid Caliphs al-Mansur, al-Mahdi, Harun al-Rashid, 
and al-Amm, the latest coin being of Constantine 
VII (813-820) and the latest Arab coin was dated 
198 A.H. = 814 A.D. As a number of human bones were 
found with the coins, and the coins could hardly have 
been buried in the bed of the river deliberately, it seems 
probable that the owner was drowned there while carrying 



OFFA'S IMITATION OF AN ARAB DINAR. 85 

his wealth with him. It was suggested by Dr. L. Frati, 
who first described the find, that the owner was an Arab 
merchant, but there is no real ground for supposing that 
this was so. The main point is that this find shows 
that about the end of the reign of Charlemagne Arab 
dinars were current along with the Byzantine and Bene- 
ventan gold coins in the Carolingian Empire. 

It was probably mainly as a means of hoarding 
wealth that these coins were esteemed in France, and 
they probably did not circulate like contemporary silver 
coins, as the fine preservation of gold coins of this period 
in modern collections suggests. A certain number may 
have been brought from France to England in various 
ways, but it is unlikely that they were used much for 
commercial transactions, chiefly because the balance of 
trade lay on the other side. It is more probable that 
these coins were first brought to Offa's notice in a more 
remarkable fashion. We have already seen that both 
Pepin and Charlemagne had received presents of great 
value from the Caliphs al-Mansur and Hariin al-Rashid, 
including large quantities of gold. It may fairly be 
presumed that this gold was in the form of coined money 
dinars such as formed the original of this coin of Ofia. 
Here we have a large quantity of gold dinars directly 
imported into France, and the expenditure of the Arab 
ambassadors during their stay in the Carolingian 
dominions must have considerably increased the amount 
of Arab money in the country. That there was a good 
deal of intercourse between England and France about 
this time is clear from the correspondence between 
Charlemagne and his " very dear brother " Offa regard- 
ing English pilgrims to Rome (pilgrims were exempt 
from customs' dues on their way through France, and 



86 J. ALLAN. 

Charlemagne's tax-collectors very greatly suspected a 
good many English pilgrims of being merchants, who 
carried on their business, under a guise of piety, without 
paying the legal dues). Charlemagne and Offa were on 
terms of great friendship except for a brief period of 
estrangement ; many presents are known to have passed 
between them ; for example, in 795 when Charlemagne 
defeated the Avars he sent some of the spoil of the 
barbarians to Offa. English pilgrims and merchants to 
England may have brought back specimens of Arab 
dinars to England; we would suggest, however, that 
Charlemagne sent specimens of the Arab dinars which 
he and his father had received from the Caliph, and 
that this is how Offa first became acquainted with gold 
coins. The fact that so many dinars of the year 157 have 
survived and that it is the year of which imitations exist, 
suggests that an unusual number of these coins must 
have been brought to Europe ; this would not happen 
in the ordinary course of commerce, and the inference 
is that coins of this year were specially struck by the 
Caliph for presentation to the Carolingian Emperor. 
Offa therefore having already instituted a silver coinage 
on the model of the Carolingian now desired to have 
a gold coinage, and following the universal practice in 
such cases, copied the coinage that had suggested the 
idea to him as closely as possible ; it would have been 
quite contrary to all numismatic laws for him to have 
instituted at once a gold coinage of the same style as his 
silver coins ; to him the essential features of a gold coin 
were those of the only gold coins he knew. 

We thus see that this piece of Offa is quite a natural 
commercial development such as can be paralleled in 
the history of many coinages, and there is no reason to 



OFFA'S IMITATION OF AN ARAB DINAR. 87 

suppose that it was struck for any special purpose. The 
imitations of Almoravid dinars, bearing Christian legends 
in Arabic issued by Alfonso VIII of Castile (1158-1214 
A.D.) and the coins of the Crusaders in Syria, also with 
Christian legends in Arabic, imitating the coins of the 
Fatimids and Seljuks, are not quite analogous to this 
dinar of Offa. The closest parallel is found in a silver 
coin of Henry II of Germany, the reverse of which still 
retains the name and titles of the Imam Hisham (976- 
1005 A.D.) (cf. Dannenberg, Die Deutschen Mimzen der 
Kaiserzeit, p. 460 ff., PL liii. 1185). 

Now it has generally been held that this piece is a 
inancus, a gold piece specially struck for the payment 
of the annual tribute of 365 gold mancuses to the Pope 
for the maintenance of the English school in Rome, the 
lighting of St. Peter's, &c. The fact that the coin is 
believed to have been originally acquired in Borne has 
been held to be evidence that it originally went to 
Rome as Peter's pence ; while this may show that it 
reached Rome even in Offa's time, and perhaps even 
as tribute, it certainly does not prove that it was 
specially struck for this object. As Rome was the 
centre of the mediaeval world coins of all countries 
reached it in the ordinary course, and other rare 
English coins are known to have been found there, but 
these were most likely brought by pilgrims for their 
ordinary necessities. It is more probable that the coins 
if the payment was made in coins that were sent to 
Rome did not get into circulation in their original 
form, but were melted down and re-issued. It has 
been suggested that Offa would not have presented 
coins with Muslim legends to the Pope, but it is 
unlikely that Offa knew what the legends were, nor 



88 J. ALLAN. 

do we think it likely that they would have been 
considered. 

A more serious objection is that there is no evidence 
that the mancus was a coin ; it seems to have been a 
money of account, and the mention of 365 mancuses 
does not imply 365 coins. The tribute was probably paid 
in silver, the standard of Northern Europe at this time. 
It is probable that this currency of Offa's was quite an 
ephemeral attempt to institute a gold currency just as 
Charlemagne's gold issues were. The dinar must have 
been about the same value as the mancus of silver, and 
indeed we find mancus glossed by bazanticuin (the 
Byzantine solidus) and aureus, but it must be insisted 
that when Offa struck this coin he was not striking a 
gold mancus but an imitation of a dinar. 

It has been customaryto quote the MVNVS DIVINVM coin 
of Louis the Pious (814-860 A.D.) as further evidence that 
Peter's pence was paid in special coins. But, as M. Prou 
has pointed out, the legend munus divinum does not 
mean a gift to God, but refers to the laurel wreath 
on the reverse, which is exactly like that on the king's 
head on the obverse. The legend is a sign that the 
crown, the symbol of regal power, is a gift from God, an 
allusion to the coronation by the Pope, the representative 
of God ; it thus bears some resemblance to the well-known 
formula Dei gratia. This particular coin, though it soon 
disappeared in France, was much imitated in the north 
by the Frisians such imitations have been found in 
Frisia and Norway. It was probably through Frisia 
that the type was brought to England, where we find it 
imitated by Wigmund, Archbishop of York (837-854). 
This latter piece weighs 68*4 grains. 

One more point remains to be discussed, the suggested 



OFFA S IMITATION OF AN ARAB DINAR. 



89 



etymology of the A. S. mancus from the Arabic manJcush, 
an etymology which seems to have the support of Dozy, 
but he apparently relies on Ducange, and does not 
discuss the word in his Glossaire. The word " mancus "- 
the form " manca " is also found seems to be of Germanic 
origin, although it is also found in Old French, but it is 
not found in other Romance languages, the usual medium 
by which Arab words penetrated into European lan- 
guages. The Arabic word mankush is the past participle 
of nakasli, to engrave; it is not correct to say that it 
means a coin, although it is occasionally found in 
poetical language applied to coins as the "engraved" 
pieces. It certainly never was a common word in Arabic 
for a coin, like dinar or dirhem, and it is improbable 
that it could have been adopted by any European nation 
as the name of an Arab coin. As the first Arab gold 
coins only date from the end of the seventh century it 
seems incredible that a highly poetical word like man- 
Jcush, rarely used and not quotable till later, could have 
been well established in the Germanic languages early 
in the eighth century as the name of a particular coin. 

J. ALLAN. 




MISCELLANEA. 



A SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY COINING-PRESS. 




THE press here illustrated stands about nine inches high, ex- 
clusive of the top screws, and was acquired in Cordova by 



MISCELLANEA. 



91 



the owner, Mr. W. G. Buchanan, who has kindly allowed it 
to be reproduced in these pages. The two cases for holding 
the dies are of cast bronze; the rest of the machine is of 
iron. 1 The dies are sections of cylinders of roughly two 
inches radius. The mechanism was a rocking one. The base 
was fastened to a block of some kind, and a lever lashed to 
the top horizontal bar. By depressing this lever to one side, 
the whole machine, except the bottom case (containing the 
lower die) and the base, was rocked, and A came in contact 




with A', so that there was space to insert the blank between the 
dies. The lever was then pulled over in the opposite direction ; 
when C and C' came into contact with each other (save for 
the blank between them) a great pressure was exerted, and 
the coin was struck. When, the movement being continued, 
B came in contact with B', the finished coin could be ex- 
tracted. 

The two dies which were acquired with the machine are 
very much worn and must have been much used. The coins 
which were struck with them were of Philip III. It is 
possible to make out on the dies only two letters (the last 
I of III and the D of D.G.) on the obverse; on the reverse 
PANIARV is legible. The types are the usual lion and castle. 
The castle is flanked by a chalice surmounted by a star on 
the left, and jf surmounted by O on the right. Apart from 
these mint-marks and the reading HISPANIARVM instead of 
HISPAN. REGNORVM the coin seems to have been similar 
to the copper piece illustrated in Heiss, I. PI. 33. 20. Don 
Guillermo de Osma, consulted on the identification of the 
coin, writes : 

" The impression gives, undoubtedly, a Philip III coin. 
Save the difference of the shortened HISPAN., I think it is 
the same as the rubbing I enclose. At this time, the greater 
part by far the greatest of the coinage would be done 
at Segovia, where they had water power. Heiss's examples 



1 Some portions of the iron-work (e.g. the ring 
than the rest, and may be restorations. 



look more modern 



92 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

are nearly all Segovian. At the smaller ' cecas ' one being 
Cuenca there may have been many minor differences, like 
the ' Hispan.' vice ' Hispaniarum.' So much so that in a 
small find of copper coins (of the reigns of Philip III and 
Philip IV) quite half might be considered ' inedita.' " 

The machine is so roughly made, as is plain from the photo- 
graph, that it is possible to doubt whether it was the property 
of an official mint. If it was not, then the unauthorized 
coiner exercised his art for a considerable period, judging 
from the state of the dies, unless he stole them after they had 
been discarded as worn out. 

The relation of this form of press to the others which 
were in use in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is 
a point which, having described the object before us, I leave 
to others more competent to deal with the subject. 

G. F. H. 



A FIND OF THIRD-CENTURY ROMAN COINS AT PUNCKNOLL, 
Co. DORSET. 

THESE coins formerly belonged to Colonel W. L. Mansel of 
Puncknoll, and after his death in 1913 they were presented 
by Mrs. Mansel to the Dorset County Museum at Dorchester. 
The date of the discovery of the hoard cannot be stated with 
actual certainty, but it is known that the coins came into the 
possession of the family during the lifetime of Colonel Mansel's 
father, who died in 1859. Since that date the parcel had 
remained in the manor house at Puncknoll. 

Hutchins' History of Dorset, in the course of a description 
of this coast parish, tells us that "about the year 1850 an 
earthen jar was turned up by the plough in the middle of 
a field near the Knoll. In this process it was broken, and 
many coins of the emperors, Postumus, &c., who reigned in 
the third century, were scattered and are ia the possession 
of various persons of the neighbourhood " (3rd ed., vol. ii. 
p. 769). It is believed that the coins now in the Dorchester 
Museum comprise that portion of the original hoard which 
the then lord of the manor, Mr. Morton G. Mansel, was able 
to recover after the finder of the jar had dispersed the con- 
tents. The foregoing statement by the county historian is 
confirmed by another member of the late owner's family, 
through whom I learn that the coins in question were found 
about 1850 in a field named "Walls" on the Abbotsbury 
side of the Knoll, a prominent hill which overlooks the sea. 
Several other finds, both of Roman and of prehistoric objects, 



MISCELLANEA. 93 

have occurred in the parish from time to time, the most 
recent including a Bronze Age cinerary urn of unusual shape. 
A reputed Roman camp lies about two miles to the north, and 
in the surrounding district are other hill-camps, many barrows, 
and some megalithic remains. 

As to the coins themselves, they were 107 in number, all 
being third brass with the exception of two billon pieces ; 
a few of the former exhibited signs of having been washed 
with tin or debased silver. They ranged, but not in com- 
plete sequence, from Gallienus to Carausius, thus extending 
over a period of about forty years, A.D. 253 to 293, and in 
this respect it seems probable that they would be fairly repre- 
sentative of the entire deposit. Of Postumus there were 
55 coins with 16 separate types, and of Victorinus 40, with 
9 types, according to Cohen's arrangement. 

The great majority of the specimens were remarkably 
uniform in colour and free from corrosion, indicating that 
they had been deposited in a closed vessel and not in contact 
with the soil, and they showed very slight traces of wear 
by circulation. I noticed, too, that as a rule the obverses 
were carefully struck, and bore good portraits, whereas the 
reverses were for the most part ill struck or carelessly centred. 
There were not, however, any overstruck pieces, nor any 
which had been impressed with one die only. 

A similar inequality in the workmanship on the two faces 
of the coins of the Tyrants' period is mentioned by Lord 
Selborne, in his description * of the great hoard of Roman 
money discovered at Blackmoor, in the adjoining county of 
Hants, a find in which the limits of date coincide, substan- 
tially, with those of the Puncknoll coins. 

Unfortunately, my examination of the latter did not dis- 
close any new types or varieties, and the reverses have in 
many instances been already noted in connexion with other 
finds in Britain. One coin should, perhaps, be specifically 
referred to, viz. the solitary example of Carausius, which 
resembles Mr. P. H. Webb's No. 1035 (Num. Chron., 4th Ser., 
Vol. VII. p. 391), and is not unlike No. 104 in the Blackmoor 
hoard (supra, p. 147). This is apparently a somewhat un- 
common type. 

Although there happens to be little that is of numismatic 
interest in the following list, it may be useful to set out the 



1 " In others, the impression is regular and in its proper position on 
the one side, but imperfect and out of position on the other " (Num. 
Chron., New Series, Vol. XVII. p. 94). 



94 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

numbers and the facts as to the provenance of the undispersed 
portion of this find of about sixty years ago. 

The numbers within brackets are taken from the second 
edition of Cohen's Medailles Imperiales. 

GALLIENUS. 

(149) Deo Marti, billon, 1 
(859) Provid aug, 1 
(1014) Ubertas aug, 1 3 

SALONIKA. 

Fecunditas aug, 1 

Felicitas publica, billon, 1 .... 2 

POSTUMUS. 

(67} Fides militum, 2 
(101) Here pacifero, 2 
(153) Jovi propugnat, 1 
(159) Jovi statori, 3 
(161) Jovi victori, 2 
(199) Moneta aug, 5 
(215) Pax aug, 13 

8 with P in field, 5 without. 
(220) Pax aug, 1 

(243) P.M. TR. P. COS. II. P.P., 4 
(295) Provident] a aug, 7 
(331) Saeculi felicitas, 7 
(336) Salus aug, 2 

Globe on ground. 
(360) Serapi comiti aug, 2 
(365) Ubertas aug, 2 
(377) Victoria aug, 1 
(419) Virtus aug, 1 ... 55 



VICTOBINDS. 



9 

36 
'49 
(79 



Aequitas aug, 1 
Fides militum, 2 
Invictus, 9 



Pax aug, 10 

V and star in field 
83) Pax aug, 1 
Pietas aug, 7 
Providentia aug, 3 
Salus aug, 5 
Victoria aug, 2 ..... 40 

TETEICUS, THE ELDER. 



90 
(101 
(112 
(126 



(54) Hilaritas augg, 2 
rev, illegible, 1 



NOTICE OF RECENT PUBLICATION. 95 

TETBICUS, THE YOUNGEB. . 
Rev. illegible, 1 1 



CLAUDIUS GOTHICUS. 



(74) Felic tempo, 1 
(83) Fides milit, 1 



CABAUSIUS. 



(233, var.) Pax aug, 1 1 

or, Webb, 1035 

Total . 107 

HENRY SYMONDS. 



NOTICE OF RECENT PUBLICATION. 



A Handy Guide to Jewish Coins. By the Eev. E. Rogers, 
M.A., London. Spink & Son. 1914. Pp. 108; with 
9 collotype plates. 2s. 6d. 

THE Jewish series is one of peculiar difficulty, owing to the 
bad craftsmanship which distinguished the die-engravers at all 
periods ; the puzzles which it affords belong for the most part 
to what may be called the " higher numismatics " ; and it is 
entirely devoid of artistic interest. But all these defects are 
compensated by its connexion with Biblical history, which 
will always attract people to it, especially in this country, 
where, as a French critic once remarked, you cannot get 
people to take an interest in archaeology unless you can tack 
it on to the Bible. Thus for the public for whom Mr. Rogers's 
book is intended there will seem to be nothing superfluous in 
the " pulpit references " with which it is generously adorned, 
although hardened numismatists may find them to some degree 
embarrassing. The book is, however, by no means a mere 
popularisation of other writers' views ; Mr. Rogers has thought 
out the problems for himself, and has made some interesting 
contributions towards their solution. He starts his chrono- 
logical classification by attributing the copper coins of " year 
4 " to the early days of the Maccabees, i.e. to Judas Macca- 
baeus, in 161 B.C. (being the fourth year after the fortification 
of Zion in 164 B.C.) ; while the thick shekels and half-shekels 



96 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

in silver he gives to Simon and John Hyrcanus. I cannot 
believe, for epigraphic reasons, that these two sets of coins 
were issued within so short a distance of each other; but 
that argument can only be expounded with the help of tables. 
There is nothing said about silver in the rescript of Antiochus 
Sidetes ; and to say that, if Antiochus gave the Jews the right 
of coinage, it was gratuitous waste of record for the writer of 
1 Mace. xv. 5, 6 to mention it unless the right was used, and 
used to the full, is to ignore the evidence of numismatic 
history, which is full of such unused privileges. The curious 
quarter-shekel in silver in the British Museum is assigned by 
Mr. Rogers to the First Revolt. He uses its poor workman- 
ship as an argument against the attribution to that period of 
the thick shekels and half -shekels. It is certainly poor ; but 
it is quite common to find a mint taking more trouble over 
its higher denominations than over the lower ones. However, 
the attribution of the shekels may be argued about for ever, 
and is not likely to be finally settled until we have the 
evidence of some such find as in a large degree cleared up the 
question of the Second Revolt. 

Mr. Rogers supplements his account of the purely Jewish 
coins with two chapters on all the others which can possibly be 
brought into connexion with Jerusalem such as the colonial 
coins of Aelia Capitolina (in his description of which the 
word " colon " betrays his use of a French authority), the 
Arabic and Crusader coins, and Roman coins circulating in 
Palestine. There are also plates illustrating the coins of 
Christian and Turkish claimants to Jerusalem, and coins 
mentioned in the Old and New Testaments. The figure of 
Livia-Ceres, by the way, on the denarius of Tiberius, is mis- 
described as the "Emperor seated as priest." A word of 
praise is due to the plates, which are much better than could 
have been expected from the extremely moderate price of the 
book. 

G. F. H. 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV., VOL. XIV. PLATE I. 




A CILICIAN FIND. 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PLATE 








A CILICIAN FIND. 



46 

NUM. CHRON. SER. IV., VOL. XIV. PLATE III. 
















A CILICIAN FIND. 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PLATE IV. 






















10 




ii 








A CILICIAN FIND. 



X 

. 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV., VOL. XIV. PLATE V. 



^ 

^ 1 5 / 

1 4 

"7 




COINAGE OF COMMODUS UNDER MARCUS. 



tfc* 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV., VOL. XIV. PLATE VI. 







me 







-vg-i 

^mffj 



vg 






VI VII 

HENRY III; VARIETIES OF LONG CROSS COINAGE. 






V. 

GEEEK COINS ACQUIKED BY THE BKITISH 
MUSEUM IN 1913. 

(See Plates VII., VIII.) 

FKOJH the present account of the recent acquisitions 
I have omitted, as before, such coins, especially of 
Cyrenaica, as are likely to appear before long in the 
official Catalogue. 

FISTELIA. 

1. Obv. Head of Athena r., wearing crested Athenian 

helmet adorned with owl (?) on olive branch. 

Rev. [*]IV\/3T*I[S] above forepart of human-headed 
bull swimming r. 

M. ^ 10 mm. Wt. 8-0 grs. (0-52 grm.). 
[PI. VII. 1.] Cp. Sambon, Monn. Ant. de 
Vltalie, p. 334, No. 839. 

METAPONTUM. 

2. Obv. Head of Persephone 1., crowned with barley, 

wearing triple-drop ear-ring. 

Rev. META on r. upwards ; ear of barley, with leaf, on 
which is perched an alabastos ; in field 1. A I ; 
concave field. 

JR. *\ 20 mm. Wt. 116-0 grs. (7-52 grms.). 
[PI. VII. 2.] 

This beautiful coin is apparently from the same 

NUM. CHEON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. H 



98 G. F. HILL. 

obverse die as the one sold at Munich in 1905. 1 It 
belongs to Head's period 330-300 B.C., and cannot be 
much later than the earlier date. 

THUEIUM. 

3. Obv. Head of Athena r., in crested Corinthian helmet, 

decorated with sea-horse. 

Rev. [0]OYPin[N] in exergue. Bull charging r. ; above, 
owl flying r. 

JR. <- 19 mm. Wt. 96-4 grs. (6-25 grms.). 
[PI. VII. 4.] From a find made at Taranto. 

This is one of the coins of the period 281-268 B.C., 
struck on the reduced standard to which Sir A. J. Evans 
called attention (Horsemen, p. 228), and with which Keg- 
ling has also dealt (Klio, vi. p. 516). 2 

It may be noted that the Museum possesses five 
specimens of the class which combine the reduced 
weight with the old types (head in Attic helmet 
decorated with Scylla), viz. B. M. C. 70 and 95, and 
three others : (a) <1>A in exergue, 98*8 grs. (6'40 grms.) 
(PI. VII. 6); (6) fish r. in exergue, 97'7 grs. (6'33 grms.) ; 
(c) in I above bull, hippocamp (?) r. in exergue, 84'0 grs. 
(544 grms.). 

CAULONIA. 

4. Obv. KAV on 1. downwards. Apollo standing r., wield- 

ing branch in r., holding small winged figure on 

1 Hirsch, Katal. xiv. Taf. ii. 101. Others which come close to it in 
style are B. M. C., 114 (cp. Hirsch, Katal. xvi. Taf. ii. Ill, and 
Feuardent Sale, Paris, June, 1913, PI. i. 82) and the Lambros coin 
(Hirsch, Katal. xxix. Taf. ii. 52). 

2 The statement there made in Note 2 that B. M. C. 94 has a head 
in Corinthian helmet is not correct ; the present is the first specimen 
of the class to be acquired by the British Museum. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 99 

1. hand ; in field r. stag standing r., head re- 
verted. Guilloche border. 

Rev. Stag standing r. ; border of fine dots; circular 
incuse. 

JR. I 22 mm. Wt. 113-0 grs. (7'32 grms.). 
[PI. VII. 7.] Circa 480 B.C. Restruck on a 
Corinthian stater ; the curved wing and hind- 
quarters of the Pegasus are plainly visible on 
the reverse. 



CKOTON. 

5. Obv. (pPO 1. upwards, TOK r. downwards ; tripod ; 

guilloche border. 

Rev. No inscr. ; similar type incuse ; hatched border. 

M. f 20 mm. Wt. 27'4 grs. (1-77 grms.). 
[PI. VII. 8.] 

Apparently not a third, but a quarter, of the stater. 
The only other instance of this denomination at Croton, 
or anywhere in the Italic system, seems to be a coin 
formerly in the Benson collection. 3 

6. Obv. Tripod ; traces of linear border. 

Rev. Eagle with closed wings standing 1., head re- 
verted ; above and below it, o ; to 1., remains 
of <J> (?) ; concave field. 

JR. ^ 11-5 mm. Wt. 13-2 grs. (0'85 grm.). 
[PI. VII. 3.] A diobol of the fifth century, of 
apparently unpublished types. 

RHEGIUM. 

7. Obv. Lion's scalp ; border of dots. 

Rev. H within a large O. 

JR. A 8 mm. Wt. 4'4 grs. (0*29 grm.). 
[PI. VII. 5.] 

3 Sale Catalogue, Sotheby's, February, 1909, lot 105, 28 grs. I owe 
the reference to Mr. Robinson. 

H 2 



100 G. F. HILL. 

The two letters on the reverse mark the denomination 
as a hemi-obol. The same method of naming the 
denomination is employed on a later copper coin of the 
same place (Payne Knight, Num. Vet., p. 234, B. 1, 
under Heracleiae). 

GELA. 

8. Obv. Slow quadriga r., passing meta ; border of dots. 

Rev. C above, EAA r. ; forepart of human-headed bull 
r., the neck wreathed with olive. Traces of 
incuse circle. 

M. f 29 mm. Wt. 261-3 grs. (16-93 grms.). 
From the Virzi collection. [PI. VII. 9.] 

This coin, unfortunate!^ not in the best state of pre- 
servation, is from the same obverse die as B. M. C. 10, 
and from the same die on both sides as the magnificent 
Jameson specimen, 4 and another, of which an electrotype 
is in the British Museum. 

MESSANA. 

9. Obv. Mule biga r., driven by charioteer ; above, Nike 

flying r. to crown the mules ; in exergue, leaf ; 
border of dots. 

Rev. ME82AN I ON around, beginning below; hare 
running r. ; above, B. Dotted incuse circle. 

M. <- 30-5 mm. Wt. 265-5 grs. (17-20 
grms.). [PI. VII. 12.] 

Presented by Sir Athelstane Baines, C.S.I. The 
tetradrachm, B. M. 0. 19 (from different dies on both 
sides), also shows B, but under the animal, whereas the 
drachm, B. M. C. 20, has it above, like the new 

4 Catal. 581 = Burlington Fine Arts Club, Exhib. of Greek Art, 1903, 
No. 139. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 101 

tetradrachm. A tetradrachm with the older legend 
MESSENION (B. M. C. 16) has A above the hare. 5 One 
is tempted to assume that this is a case of the number- 
ing of issues ; and this seems to be confirmed when we 
find C and D on coins of the same style (Benson Cata- 
logue, PI. vii. 230, and Sotheby's Catalogue, "A 
Bachelor," 1907, lot 70, PL iii. 42; MEaaANiON 6 ). 
If this series is continuous, then the coin marked A 
must belong to the year before the expulsion of the 
Samians (some time before 476 B.C.), while the others 
follow immediately on it. 

MESEMBRIA. 

10. Obv. Beardless head r., wearing crested helmet with 

cheek-pieces. 

Rev. Pelta-shaped shield, seen from inside ; below 
and on it, M E T A ; border of dots ; concave 
field. 

JE. I 12-5 mm. Wt. 29-1 grs. (1'89 grms.). 
[PI. VII. 11.] 

Cp. Berlin Beschreibung, I. p. 189, Nos. 12, 13. The 
two marks which appear in the middle of the shield are 
the loops for the arm. 

OKRHESCII (?). 

11. Obv. Centaur r., carrying a nymph in his arms ; 

border of dots ; chisel-cut. 

Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. 

JR. 21-5 mm. Wt. 122-4 grs. (7-93 grms.). 
[PI. VII. 10.] 



5 Cp. Hirsch, Katal. xxix. No. 94. 

6 A second specimen, with the D below the hare has recently been 
presented to the Museum by Mr. B. Taylor. Mr. E. J. Seltman, who 
called my attention to the Benson coin, also points out that E occurs 
in the Rollin and Feuardent coin (Catalogue, June 20, 1906, 469) ; but 
there the inscription is given as MEZZENION. 



102 G. F. HILL. 

The only peculiarity of this specimen is its low weight. 
A specimen at Berlin (Babelon, Traite, 1478) weighs 
810 grms., and a third in the British Museum (Montagu 
Sale, II. 99) 135'4 grs. (877 grms.). As the last rises 
just above the normal of the Euboic standard, these low 
weights must be taken as due to casual degradation of 
the " Baby Ionic " standard, and not to the adoption of 
the Euboic. 

CORINTH. 

12. Obv. Pegasus flying r. ; below, <p. 

Rev. Head of Athena r. in Corinthian helmet ; behind, 
pileus and E. Concave field. 

^R. Stater f 24-5 mm. Wt. 128-8 grs. 
(8-35 grms.). [PI. VII. 13.] 

First half of the fourth century. 

MELOS. 

13. Obv. MXoi/ on stalk with two buds. 



Rev. /W A A I in the four quarters of a four-spoked 
wheel, surrounded by border of dots in incuse 
circle. 

JR. 24mm. Wt. 212-1 grs. (1374 grms.). 
[PL VII. 14.] 

14. Obv. Similar, the buds obscure. 

Rev. A/V A A i C N around a triskeles of human legs 
turning to r. ; border of dots ; incuse circle. 

M. 23 mm. Wt. 216-0 grs. (14-00 grms.). 
[PI. VII. 15.] 

15. Obv. Similar, but one bud and one leaf; border of 

dots. 

Rev. AV A A I C V\ around a crescent ; border of 
dots ; traces of incuse circle. 

JR. 22 mm. Wt. 212-1 grs. (1374 grms.). 
[PI. VII. 16.] 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 103 

From the famous Melos find. 7 The acquisition of 
these specimens by the Museum is due to the generosity 
of Mr. Henry Oppenheimer, F.S.A. They correspond to 
M. Jameson's Nos. 9, 11, and 17 ; his No. 11 is from the 
same reverse die as our No. 14, and perhaps also from the 
same obverse ; of the others it is not possible to judge. 

In a note appended to M. Jameson's article is recorded 
the opinion of M. Svoronos, that the type of the obverse 
is not a pomegranate, as it was always supposed to be, 
but a quince; and Dr. A. B. Kendle, consulted on the 
question, agrees that the quince is a better identification 
than any other (such as lobed citron) which has been 
suggested. 

IONIA. 
16. Obv. Pegasus with curved wing walking 1. 

Rev. Two incuse squares side by side. 

EL. f 14 mm. Wt. 72'5 grs. (4'70 grms.). 
[PL VIII. 1.] Specific gravity (approxi- 
mately), 13'4 ; percentage of gold, according 
to Head's curve, 47*5. Presented by Mr. W. 
H. Buckler. 

Of this rare coin, which belongs to some unidentified 
mint of the West Coast of Asia Minor, M. Babelon 8 
describes two other specimens, weighing 4 grs. 73 and 
3 grs. 67. As thirds of the Milesian standard he assigns 
them to Southern Ionia or Caria. He associates with 
them the sixth in the British Museum with the forepart 
of Pegasus, but both by its style, and by the decorative 
treatment of the reverse, the smaller coin is shown to 
belong to a different category. 

7 R. Jameson in Rev. Num., 1909, pp. 188 ff. 

8 Traite, IT partie, p. 67, Nos. 71-72 ; PI. ii. 25. 



104 G. F. HILL. 

HYPAEPA. 

17. Obv. AV KAITIAIAAPI ANTHNINOC Undraped bust 

of Pius r., laureate. Border of dots. 

Eev eniA no M APTGMA around, VTTAITTHNIQN in 

exergue ; temple showing four columns, with 
phiale in pediment ; within, cultus-figure of 
Artemis Anaitis, veiled, and holding two 
phialae in her extended hands. Border of 
dots. 

M. ^ 30 mm. Wt. 244 grs. (15-81 grms.). 
[PI. VIII. 2.] Presented by Mr. W. H. 
Buckler. 

An unusually well-preserved specimen, from the same 
obverse die as B. M. G. 22. The type of the goddess does 
not bear the least resemblance to that of the Ephesian 
Artemis, with which it is the fashion to identify almost 
all primitive cultus-statues of goddesses represented on 
coins of Asia Minor and even Syria. The dress is an 
ordinary chiton with kolpos, such as would have been 
provided for a female figure by any artist of the sixth 
century B.C., in which period it is probable that most of 
the cultus-figures took the form in which they have 

come down to us. 



NYSA. 

18. Obv. Cista mystica, with serpent issuing from it; all 

in ivy -wreath. 

Rev. Bow-case and bow between serpents ; above, 
AHIEPE|nZ; on r. q, and small figure of 
Dionysos standing 1. with grapes (?) and 
thyrsos. 

M cistophorus, ^ 28 mm. Wt. 160-4 grs. 
(10-39 grms.). [PI. VIII. 4]. 

Similar to the Vienna specimen : Regling in Jahrb., 
Erganzunc/sheft x. p. 73. The date is 129-8 B.C. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 105 

19. Obn. KTTOAIKINN BAAEP- - Bust of Valerian r. 

laureate ; on the neck, uncertain countermark. 

Rev. EflFMAVP 1., AAIANOYN r., YCAEHN below. 
Eudely made prize crown containing branches 
and inscribed GEOrAMIA|OIKOYMNljK A 

M. xj, 34-5 mm. Wt. 227-2 grs. (14-72 grms.). 
[PI. VIII. 3.] Cp. Mionnet, iii. 372. 404; 
Head, B. M. C. : Lydia, p. Ixxxiii. 

PHILADELPHIA AND SMYRNA. 

20. Obv. AIMAV 1., PHKOMOAOC r. Undraped bust 

of Commodus r., laureate. 

Eev. OPeCTlNOC 1., - - EA<1>KCMVP r., OMONOIA in 
exergue. On 1., Artemis r., wearing short 
chiton, r. taking arrow from quiver at 
shoulder, 1. holding bow (?) ; on r., facing her, 
Nemesis (?) (details obscure). 

M. ^ 29 mm. Wt. 186-6 grs. (12-09 grms.). 

Although poorly preserved this coin 9 serves to correct 
the reading of the coin (Mionnet, SuppL, vii. 403. 396), 
on which the supposition of the existence of a city 
Oresteion was based. See Imhoof - Blumer, GriecJi. 
Munzen, p. 720, No. 604, where the name of the 
magistrate Oresteinos is given as occurring on a quasi- 
autonomous coin. 

21. CYPRUS. 

The late Sir Kobert Hamilton Lang presented 394 
small Cypriote coins, being the remainder of the hoard 
contained in two small jars discovered by him at Dali in 
1869. 10 Few of the types are new to the Museum, but 

9 Apparently the same specimen which is described rather differently 
from a paper impression by Imhoof-Blumer, Eev. Suisse, 1913, p. 55. 
He thinks the goddess on the right may be Athena. 

10 Num. Chron., 1871, p. 17 f. 



106 G. F. HILL. 

the acquisition of these remains of the hoard is valuable 
as illustrating the general appearance of the small silver 
currency of Cyprus towards the end of the fifth 
century B.C. The coins were all (with the exception of 
one stater) of small denominations, the heaviest being 
tetrobols of Azbaal I of Citium. This king (who came to 
the throne soon after 449) conquered Idalium, and since 
the only mints represented in the hoard are Citium, 
Amathus, Paphos, and Salamis, it would seem that the 
conquest resulted not only in the cessation of the inde- 
pendent Idalian coinage, but also in the calling in of 
such old coins of that mint as were current. Otherwise 
the hoard would probably have contained some tetrobols 
of Idalium. A study of the hoard serves to correct my 
dating of the small one-sided ram's head obols of 
Salamis (B. M. C. : Cyprus, PI. ix. 7-9). The presence of 
fairly well-preserved specimens of these in a hoard 
which dates from the latter half of the fifth century, 
and which contains apparently no coins of the early 
fifth century, shows that these obols are not of the 
time of Euelthon, as I had supposed, but a good deal 
later. 

LAPETHUS. 
22. Obv. BA on r., downwards ; krater (kylix-form). 

Rev. PP on r., downwards ; head of Apollo 1., with 
short hair, laureate ; concave field. 

M. f 15 mm. Wt. 36-9 grs. (2-39 grms.). 
[PI. VIII. 5]. Presented by the late Lt.-Col. 
R. Manifold Craig. 

The coin is attributed to Praxippos, the king of 
Lapethus, who was deposed by Ptolemy in 313-2 B.C. 
See B. M. C. : Cyprus, p. liii f. 



GEEEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 107 



SELEUCDS I. 

23. Obv. Head of young Herakles r., wearing lion-skin ; 
border of dots. 

Rev. BAZIAEQZ in exergue, ZEAEYKOY r., down- 
wards ; Zeus aetophoros seated 1. ; in field 1. 
AZT and monogram fiffl (?) ; beneath throne A ; 
border of dots. 

M. <- 28 mm. Wt. 259-5 grs. (16-82 grms.). 
[PI. VIII. 7.] 



SELEUCUS III. 

24. Obv. Head of Seleucus III. r., with whisker, wearing 
diadem of which one end flies up ; border of 
dots. 

Bev. BAZIAEQZ r., downwards ; ZEAEYKOY 1., down- 
wards ; Apollo, nude, seated 1. on omphalos, 
resting 1. on bow, holding arrow in r. ; in field 

i.y. 

M. f 30 mm. Wt. 260-5 grs. (16-88 grms.). 
[PI. VIII. 8]. The object in the field is 
doubtless meant for the monogram which 
occurs on B. M. C., No. 1. 



ANTIOCHUS III. 

25. Obv. Head of Antiochus r., wearing diadem with short 
ends, falling straight ; border of dots. 

Bev. BAZIAEQZ r., downwards ; ANTIOXOY 1., down- 
wards ; Apollo, nude, seated 1. on omphalos, 
resting 1. on bow, holding arrow in r. ; in 
field 1. A, r. IS ; in exergue, humped bull 
charging 1. 

M. f 30-5 mm. Wt. 262 grs. (16-98 grms.). 
[PI. VIII. 9.] From Aleppo. 

. Cp. Macdonald, Hunter Catal., iii. p; 31, No. 7. The 
portrait is exactly the same as that on the British 
Museum stater catalogued under Antiochus III (B. M. C. : 



108 G. F. HILL. 

Seleucid Kings, p. 25, No. 3), and the left-hand monogram 
also occurs on No. 7 of the same series. 

TlMARCHUS. 

26. Obv. Head of Timarchus r., helmeted ; fillet border. 

_R etv _[BAIIA]EfiZ MEFAAOY in arc above, TIMAPXOY 
in exergue. 

M. <- 29 mm. Wt. 256 grs. (16-59 grins.). 
[PI. VIII. 10.] 

This coin, which was procured in Persia, is the third 
known specimen of the tetradrachm of the usurper 
who ruled for a few months in Babylon in 162 B.C., 
having set himself up against Demetrius I ; the others 
are that which was restruck by Demetrius I and Laodice 
with their own types (B. M. C. : Seleucid Kings, PI. xv. 2) 
and that formerly in the E. F. Weber collection. 11 The 
gold stater and the silver drachm are even rarer, being 
represented by specimens, unique so far as we know, in 
the Berlin and London cabinets. 

The types and the regal style (BaavAf'we MeyaXou) are 
evidently inspired by the coins of Eucratides of Bactria. 
The tetradrachm shows signs of being re-struck over 
older types. The marks outside the fillet border above 
the head may possibly be the remains of spear-heads. 
Was a coin of Eucratides with the charging Dioscuri used 
by Timarchus as a blank ? 

TYRE. 

27. Obv. Dolphin r., over waves ; above, Phoenician in- 

scription, I A ' ( 'no; border of dots. 

11 Hirsch, Katal. xxi. 4078. This and the new coin have different 
reverse dies, but the obverse die is possibly the same. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 109 

Rev. Owl standing r., with flail and crooked sceptre ; 
incuse square. 

JR. \ U mm. Wt. 49-3 grs. (3-19 grms.). 
[PI. VIII. 6.] From the Hirsch Sale, Katal. 
xxxii. (1912), lot 587. 

The inscription on a similar half-shekel has been read 
by Babelon, 12 ma-hatsi ke[seph]. But of the two signs 
which follow the denomination on the present specimen 
the first is clearly not a kaph, and the two together 
seem to represent a number, viz. 11. The gimel-shaped 
sign for 10 occurs on coins of Aradus, though not, so far 
as I know, elsewhere on Phoenician coins ; but there 
was much variety in the numeral systems of this district. 
The inscription, therefore, seems to mean " half shekel of 
the eleventh year ; " the era, of course, is uncertain. 

HISPANO-CARTHAGIXIAN. 

28. Obv. Head of Heracles 1., beardless, laureate, with 
club over r. shoulder ; border of dots. 

Rev. Elephant walking r. ; border of dots ; concave 
field. 

JR. f 26 mm. Wt. 172'3 grs. (11-16 grms.). 
[PI. VIII. 11.] From Feuardent's Sale, Hotel 
Drouot, 10 Juin, 1913, lot 360. 

The tridrachm of the Barcid coinage of the mint 
of Carthago Nova was hitherto unrepresented in the 
British Museum. For the tetradrachm recently acquired, 

see Num. Chron., 1913, p. 274. 

G. F. HILL. 

12 Traitt, II. 983. 



VI. 

THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WAES OF 
68-69 A.D. 

(See Plates IX., X.) 

THE present paper was originally read before the Royal 
Numismatic Society in October, 1913. The general plan 
remains the same, but some sections of purely descriptive 
matter have been omitted and some of the results have 
had to be altered in the light of further study. 

The title indicates fairly accurately the scope of the 
essay ; within it faU the " Autonomous " series, the coins 
of Galba, Otho, and Yitellius, the latest issues of Nero 
and the earliest of Vespasian. My main object is to fix 
the date and place of the various coinages ; but I shall 
have to deal also on occasion with the meanings of types, 
when they are likely to throw light on the conditions of 
striking. The coinage of the Civil Wars of 68 to 69 A.D. 
offers many attractions to the numismatist. In the first 
place, it is full of variety and full of difficulty ; in the 
second, it may teach us much about the imperial issues 
of the first century in general. So long as settled con- 
ditions prevail, there is often little to be known about 
them ; it is when the break comes that we stand our best 
chance of catching glimpses of the old order, before it 
finally disappears. In the same way the numismatist 
may hope, from a study of the period of civil strife and 
chaos in 68 and 69 A.D., to throw some light on the 
Julio-Claudian period that precedes and on the Flavian 
that follows it. 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. Ill 

The aids to study are comparatively rich. Our 
chief literary authority is the Histories of Tacitus ; we 
can supplement him by Plutarch's Lives of Galba 
and Otho, Suetonius's Lives of Nero, Galba, Otho, 
Vitellius, and Vespasian, and the fragments of the 
history of Dio Cassius. Secondly, we have the coins 
themselves. Considerations of style and fabric will 
lead us to arrange them in certain groups ; a study of 
types and legends will help us to check our arrange- 
ment. Having classified our coins, we have next to 
apply history to our classification, in order to give to 
our numismatic researches their proper historical 
meaning. One class of evidence the evidence of finds 
is, unfortunately, of little use for our purpose. I have 
not been able to hear of a single find that really throws 
much light on our period * : the most I have been able 
to discover is the provenance of a few isolated coins. If 
any reader of this paper can call my attention to any 
evidence of this sort that I have missed, I shall be 
sincerely grateful. Comparatively little has been 
written on the subject by modern numismatists; but 
there are a few excellent monographs on portions of it, 
to which I shall refer in the proper places. 

It will be well to start with a brief survey of the 
coinage at the death of Nero. The dated series of 
aurei and denarii comes to a close in the year 62-63; 
from then to the end of the reign the coins are undated 
and show the obverse inscriptions NERO CAESAR 

AVGVSTVS, IMP. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS and IMP. NERO 

1 Just after writing this, I read the account of an interesting find, 
extending from Republican times to the reign of Vespasian and con- 
taining nine " autonomous " coins, described in the Berliner Miinz- 
bldtter, No. 150-151, 112 ff. This find confirms the dating of the series, 
but hardly assists us in placing the different issues. 



112 H. MATTINGLY. 

CAESAR AVG. P.P. The reverse types, too, change in the 
same year ; new reverses, such as AVGVSTVS AVGVSTA, 
CONCORDIA, IVPPITER CVSTOS, ROMA, SALVS, and VESTA, 
replace the standing figures of Mars, Roma, and Ceres, 
and the formula EX S. c., regular on the earlier series, 
disappears. The undated series cannot be arranged 
with certainty, and, indeed, it is probable that the same 
types were coined over a number of years. It is, how- 
ever, fairly certain that the obverse legend IMP. NERO 
CAESAR AVG. P.P. is characteristic of the end of the 
reign. It does not occur with the temple of Janus 
reverse, which may be dated to about 64 : therefore it 
can hardly come at the head of the series. It, alone of 
the three obverse legends, occurs with the three types 
of IVPPITER LIBERATOR, ROMA (seated figure, legend in 
field) and Eagle and Standards : it is, therefore, un- 
likely to occur in the middle of the series, and must 
come at the end. The Eagle and Standards is probably 
the last type of the reign : it might be connected 
with the eastern expedition projected by Nero, but 
more probably it refers to his warlike preparations 
\ against the rebel Vindex. The brass coinage of Nero 
offers some difficult problems, on which I can only just 
touch here ; I will merely mention what seems im- 
portant for our present purpose. The great bulk of 
these coins bear no date; those that are dated fall 
between the years 64-67. It is probable that nearly 
the whole of the series belongs to the period between 
62-63 and 68. This view involves some difficulties in 
the explanation of reverse types, but has very strong 
support in the coins themselves ; the imperial portrait 
on the brass practically never shows any likeness to that 
on the dated aurei and denarii of the years down to 






THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 113 

62-63, but constantly to that on those of the later 
period. The brass of Nero was issued from two mints, 
one, of course, the mint of Borne, the other a mint that 
distinguishes its products by a small globe placed under 
the neck, as also by peculiarities of obverse legend and 
portrait. R. Mowat, noticing these points some years 
ago, suggested Lugdunum as the place of issue, 2 and 
I think we may accept his suggestion, though we cannot 
suppose with him that the small globe is the peculiar 
mint-mark of Lugdunum ; it certainly occurs also on ? 
coins struck in Spain. If, however, as seems reasonable, 
we think of this new series as being, in a sense, a 
continuation of the coinage of the early emperors at 
Lugdunum, we may still regard his attribution as ex- 
tremely probable. I would also attribute some of 
the aurei and denarii of Nero's later period to this 
mint. 3 

The way is now clear for the discussion of the coins 
of our special period. We start with the so-called 
" Autonomous " series, denarii and a few aurei, without v 
name or head of any emperor, usually expressing in 
their types republican or military sentiments. Excel- 
lent pioneer work in this field was done many years 
ago by the Due de Blacas, 4 and much that he wrote then 
holds good to-day ; on a few points, however, I am bound 
to disagree with his results. There is no serious doubt 
that these coins belong to the years 68 and 69 A.D. ; for 

(1) The weights are, mainly, those of the reduced 
aureus and denarius of Nero. 



2 See R. N., 1895, p. 160 ff. 

3 On the interesting question of the imperial mint of Lugdunum, 
see L. Lafiranchi in Biv. Ital., 1913, 803 ff. 

4 See B. N., 1862, 197 ff. 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. I 



114 H. MATTINGLY. 

(2) The types show the closest relations with those 
of Nero, Galba, Vitellius, and Vespasian, 
j (3) The whole character of the series is well suited 
to the chaotic conditions of these years. 

Eckhel proposed to place a number of these coins in 
the reign of Augustus ; for instance, he very plausibly 
assigned the coin with obv. MARS VLTOR, rev. SIGN A P. R. 
to the year 20 B.C., seeing in it a clear reference to the 
restoration of Roman standards by the Parthians. But 
this ingenious explanation takes no account of other 
coins, with which the MARS VLTOR coin has undoubted 
connexions, and must therefore be abandoned. The Due 
de Blacas suggested that these coins should be assigned 
to Rome, Gaul, and Spain. I accept his attributions 
to Gaul and Spain, but cannot believe that any part 
of the series was struck at Rome. The decisive ob- 
jection seems to me to be this : if issued by the Senate, 
the coins should bear some sign of its authority for 
example, the letters S.c. As a matter of fact, we find 
that this is not the case. The few coins on which S.C. 
does occur cannot, on account of their style and fabric, 
possibly belong to Rome. The S.P.Q.R. in a wreath, 
which is a common reverse type, alternates with other 
reverses which omit all mention of the Senate. The 
Due de Blacas quotes, in support of his view, a passage 
of Tacitus, " patres laeti, usurpata statim libertate 
licentius ut erga principem novum et absentem ; " 5 but 
1 can hardly believe that the Senate could have dared 
to usurp the right of coinage and deliberately omit 
\| all reference to the emperor, whom it had itself 
adopted. On this point we must be quite clear ; there 

5 Tac., H., I. 4. 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 115 

was, strictly speaking, no interregnum at Home in 68 ; 
the same meeting of the Senate that deposed Nero 
bestowed the imperial office on Galba. If, then, the 
Senate struck " Autonomous " coins, it did so in defiance 
of an acknowledged emperor ; and this is really an im- 
possible hypothesis. It was only in the provinces that / 
there was something like an interregnum, i.e. a period 
of uncertainty, during which men felt that the power 
of Nero was over, yet did not know his successor and 
could not tell to whom their allegiance was due. At 
Corinth, for example, between the series of Nero and 
Galba occur coins without any emperor's name and with 
such legends as SENATV P.Q.R. and ROMAE ET IMPERIO. 6 

The " Autonomous " coins fall into three large classes, 
fairly clearly divided from one another. The first of 
these classes I assign to Spain, the second to Gaul, and 
the third to Gaul or Upper Germany. 

A. The Spanish Class. N, M. The coins composing 
this class are connected by similarity of types and, to 
some extent, of style ; but minor distinctions of style 
suggest a further subdivision into three sections : 

(a) tf, M. Coins of the following types: GENIO P.R., 

Rev. MARTI VLTORI; BON. EVENT., Rev. PACI P.R. [PI. 
IX. 2]; LIBERTAS, Rev. P.R. RESTITVTA; LIBERTAS 
RESTITVTA, Rev. S.P.Q.R. on shield; DIVVS AVGVSTVS, 
Rev. SENATVS P.Q. ROMANVS; ROMA, Rev. PAX P.R. ; 
MONETA, Rev. SALVTARIS; 7 and a very interesting coin 
in the collection of Sir Arthur Evans : 

6 See Earle Fox, Journal International d' ' Archtologie Numis- 
matique, 1899, 89 ff. 

7 These lists make no pretence of being exhaustive : I have picked 
out a number of prominent types of each mint. Since I am not 
dealing with the types in close detail, I have quoted them in the 
briefest possible form. 

i2 



116 H. MATTINGLY. 

Obv. HISPANIARVM ET GALLIARVM. Two small busts 
facing ; between them a small Victory on a globe ; 
above her, a star in a crescent ; below the busts, 
r. a shield, 1. a trumpet. 

Eev. VICTORIA P.R. Victory in biga r., drawing her 
bow. 

For coins of Galba from the same mint see below, 
p. 123. 
(I) M. Coins of the types BON. EVENT., Eev. ROM. 

RENASC. [PL IX. 1] and BON. EVENT., Eev. ROMA 
RENASCES. 

(c) A gold coin of the types BONI EVENTVS, Eev. 
VIRTVS, weighing 122 grs. I assign this coin to Tar- 
raco, the chief Spanish mint of Galba. (See below, 
p. 121 ff.) Its place there is determined (i.) by its 
exceptional weight a feature which recurs in aurei of 
Galba of this mint; (ii.) by very close similarity of 
style to Galba's issue. 

V Sections (a) and (b) are probably the issues of two 
other Spanish mints ; it is impossible to fix names 
to them, though Clunia might be suggested for one. 
I suppose these coins to have been struck by Galba 
in Spain between April 6 and early June, 68 A.D., i.e. 
between the dates of his acceptance of the offer of 
Empire from Vindex and of his receiving news of his 
recognition by the Senate. As we shall see later, they 
show clear traces of connexion with other " autonomous " 
coins, which I attribute to Gaul, and with coins, bearing 
Galba's portrait, which I attribute to Spain. 

-v B. The Gallic Class. N, M. A large class, which seems 
to form, in a sense, one single whole, although differences 
of style suggest that further subdivision may be required. 
To this class belong ROMA RESTITVTA, Eev. IVPPITER 



THE COINAGE OP THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 117 

LIBERATOR; VIRT., Eev. IVPPITER CVSTOS [PI. IX. 16] ; 
VOLKANVS VLTOR, Eev. GENIOP.R.; ROMA RESTITVTA, Rev. 
IVPPITER CONSERVATOR; GENIVS P.R., Eev. MARS VLTOR ; 
VOLKANVS VLTOR, Eev. SIGNA P.R.; MARS VLTOR, Eev. 
SIGNA P.R. [PI. IX. 17]; SALVS ET LIBERTAS, Rev. SIGNA 
P.R.; SALVS GENERIS HVMANI, Rev. SIGNA P.R.; and, with 

Rev. S.P.Q.R. in wreath, the following obverses: GENIVS 
P.R., MARS VLTOR (bust), MARS VLTOR (standing figure), 
PAX ET LIBERTAS, SALVS ET LIBERTAS, and SALVS 
GENERIS HVMANI [PI. IX. 18]. 

There are several points to notice : 

(1) The occurrence of the same types in various com- 
binations, marking a relationship between the coins on 
which they occur. 

(2) A certain resemblance to the Spanish classes. 
Compare, e.g., the types ROMA RENASCENS (Spanish), / 
ROMA RESTITVTA (Gallic), GENIO P.R. (Sp.), GENIVS P.R. ' 

(G.), S.P.Q.R. on shield (Sp.), S.P.Q.R. in wreath (G.). 

(3) The connexion with coins of Nero. Note the 
types IVPPITER CVSTOS and IVPPITER LIBERATOR, both 
used by Nero, and compare the type, SIGNA P.R. with " *. 
eagle and standards, with Nero's similar uninscribed type. 

These coins certainly form a single group ; but they 
display no absolute uniformity of style, and it seems 
possible, or rather probable, that they are the product 
of more than one mint. We can hardly be wrong, I 
think, in assigning them to the revolt of Vindex in 
Gaul ; the appeals to republican and military sentiment 
and the constant references to the Senate and people 
of Home fit in admirably with this hypothesis. If we 
must suggest a place, Augustodunum, the capital town 
of the canton of the Eemi, who were among the most J 
ardent supporters of Vindex, might be considered. 



118 



H. MATTINGLY. 



Evidence of finds to confirm our attribution would be 
very welcome ; hitherto I have only been able to hear 
of single specimens found in Gaul and Britain. 

To this Gallic class may be appended a series of 
countermarked brass coins of Nero. They are all du- 
pondii and asses and, so far as I have observed, belong 
without exception to the class, distinguished by portrait, 
legend, and small globe under the neck, which are 
assigned to Lugdunum (see above, p. 113). The counter- 
marks found on them are P.R. (Fig. 1), S.P.Q.R. and ^ 
(VESPA). The last of the three is undoubtedly the mark of 
Vespasian; what of the P.R. and the S.P.Q.R.? Can any 
better explanation be suggested than that these coins, 
circulating in Gaul, were so countermarked by the 
adherents of Vindex and thus form a series of brass, 
corresponding to the gold and silver described above ? 





FIG. 1. As of Nero, countermarked on obverse P.R. 

A third class of " Autonomous " coins, which I at- 
tribute to Upper Germany or Gaul, will be found 
described below (see p. 129 f.). 

Before passing on to the coinage of Galba, we must 
pause for a moment over that of Clodius Macer in Africa. 
This man, who was " legatus Augusti pro praetore " of 
the legio III Augusta in ISTuniidia, renounced his loyalty 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 119 

to Nero in the spring of 68 A.D. ; he refused, however, 
to associate himself with Vindex and G-alba and pro- * 
fessed allegiance only to the Senate. Even after the 
death of Nero he still refused to acknowledge Galba ; 
he raised a new legion, the legio I Macriana Liberatrix, v 
and auxiliary cohorts, and threatened the corn supply of 
Rome. However, before he could do much mischief, he 
was put to death, on Galba's orders, by the procurator 
Trebonius Garrutianus. His troops evidently left him 
in the lurch. For a detailed account of his coins I will 
refer to an excellent monograph by E. Mowat ; 8 here I 
will only call attention to a few important points : 

(1) The formula S.C. which appears regularly on all 
his coins. 

(2) The title PROPRAE(TOR) AFRICAE, assumed by him, 
apparently as a Eepublican equivalent for his official 
title of " legatus Augusti pro praetore." 

(3) The imitation of Mark Antony's legionary types </ 
galley and standards. 

One denarius requires a little further attention : 

Obv.L. CLODI MACRI CARTHAGO S.C. Draped bust of 
turreted female, r. ; behind, a cornucopiae. 

Rev. SICILIA. A triskelis with a Medusa head for centre. 
[PI. IX. 10.] 

How can we explain the types? Macer certainly 
never held Sicily ; did he succeed in winning Carthage ? 
It is impossible to say with certainty, as Tacitus and 
our other authorities give us the briefest of accounts 
of his fall. But it is rather probable that he did ; there 
were certainly no troops in the province of Africa 
capable of resisting him, and an invasion of that province 

8 In Bin. Ital., 1902, 165 fi. 



]20 H. MATTINGLY. 

.from Numidia would be his first step, when he had 
VI decided to hold out against Galba. 

We now come to the large and varied coinage of 
Galba himself and to the problems that arise over its 
classification. We shall have to take account of varieties 
of style and fabric, of legend and of portrait ; a careful 
study of these may help us to class the coins, and we 
can then check our system by a comparison with other 
nearly contemporary issues. We start with a group of 
denarii, presumably the earliest of the reign, which show 
as obverse type a figure of Galba, riding right or left : the 
accompanying legends are either (1) GALBA IMP- or 

(2) SER. GALBA IMP. and SER. GALBA IMP. AVG. 

(1) With GALBA IMP. Eev. HISPANIA (small draped 
bust, r., with spears, shield, and ears of corn) [PL IX. 4], 
Probably from the mint of Tarraco (cp. above, p. 116, 
and below, p. 121 ff.). I have noted two small varieties 
of style, but both may belong to the same mint. 

(2) With SER. GALBA IMP., &c. (The legend SERVI. 
GALBA IMP. occurs with the rev. ROMA RENASCENS 
[PI. IX. 19]). The reverses are HISPANIA (small draped 
bust, r., with spears, shield, and ears of corn), GALLIA 
(bust, r.), TRES GALLIAE (three small busts, r.), VIRTVS' 
(bust, r.). 

The reverse types practically prove that these coins 
belong to a Gallic mint probably, I think, the mint, 
or mints, which issued the autonomous coins described 
above, p. 116 ff. (cp. too p. 123, below). 9 Mowat con- 
fidently assigns the "TRES GALLIAE " type to 
Lugdunum ; but 

(1) The globe below the neck is certainly not, as he 
assumes, the mark of one mint only ; 

9 This suggestion is based largely on considerations of style. 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 121 

(2) Coins of very different style and fabric may be 
assigned, for really strong reasons, to Lugdunum, leaving 
no place there for these. 

We proceed to the coins of Galba that bear his 
portrait. 

A. Spain. 

1. Mint of Tarraco. N, M. 

Two series, with obverse legends (1) GALBA IMP. (2) 
GALBA IMPERATOR. Although to some extent distinct 
in style, the two series may belong to the same mint. 
If not, I would assign (2) to Tarraco, (1) to another mint 
in Spain. The chief reverse types found in these classes 
are CONCORDIA PROVINCIARVM, DIVA AVGVSTA, GALLIA 

HISPANIA, HISPANIA, LIBERTAS PVBLICA, ROMA RENASC. 
[PI. IX. 6], ROMA RENASCENS [PL IX. 5], ROMA 

VICTRIX, S.P.Q.R., viRTVS. (3) A series of coins, with 
obverse legend SER. GALBA IMP. CAESAR AVG. P.M. 
TR. P., and reverses ROMA RENASC., ROMA VICTRIX, 
S.P.Q.R. OB. C.S., ViRTVS [PI. IX. 7], is clearly marked 
out by style as a later continuation of the same mint. 
It is a curious fact that aurei of series (2) and (3) 
always weigh about 118 grains, i.e. the weight of the 
unreduced aureus. 10 

Why should this class of coins be assigned to Tarraco ? 
The reasons are fairly convincing. We find coins of 
Vitellius and Vespasian, which unmistakably belong to 
the same mint. Now, as Otho must have struck at 
Home, his coins show us the style and fabric of the 
Roman mint, and we can thus detect the Roman coins 
of Vitellius ; another class of coins of Vitellius seems to 
belong to Lugdunum. The only probable place for a 
third mint common to Galba, Vitellius, and Vespasian is 

10 I have not been able to learn the weight of any aureus of series (1). 



122 H. MATTINGLY. 

somewhere in Spain. Further, a coin of Vespasian and 
a coin of Divus Augustus, both of this mint, bear the 
Rev. HIS PAN I A, and an as of Vitellius, apparently of 
similar style, has the Rev. CONSENSVS HISPANIARVM. 
We know, too, that Galba struck gold and silver in 
Spain, 11 and we expect his Spanish mint to be, as this 
is, a prominent one. The mint then being certainly 
Spanish, Tarraco, the capital of the province of Tarra- 
conensis, is the natural place to think of. 

The next question is that of the date of these coins, 
a question which we can best answer by taking it in a 
more general form. To what period do those coins 
belong on which Galba bears the title of IMPERATOR, 
but not of CAESAR or AVGVSTVS? Suetonius (Galba, 10) 
tells us that " Galba was hailed imperator by his troops, 
but declared himself the legate of the Senate and people 
of Eome ; " and Dio Cassius (Ixiii. 29. 6) informs us that 
Galba only took the title of Caesar on hearing of his 
recognition by the Senate, and would not even accept 
the title of imperator on any public document before 
that date. Plutarch (Galba 20) leads us to suppose 
that Galba struck coins very soon after his acceptance 
of Vindex's offer of the Empire. After much con- 
sideration I think we must accept Dio's statement as 
applying to the coins and must therefore date all 
the coins that give Galba the title of IMPERATOR to 
the period immediately following early June, when he 
received news of the fall of Nero. The only coinage 
of Galba, prior to that date, will be the " autonomous " 
pieces, which we assigned to Spain (see above, p. 115 f.). 
One might have expected that Vindex and his supporters 
would have placed the name of Galba on their coins. 

11 Cp. Plut., Galba, 20. 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 123 

It is, perhaps, just possible that some of the coins of 
Galba, assignable to Gaul, may belong to them ; they 
may not have respected his objection to the title of 
IMPERATOR. More probably, the end of the movement 
of Vindex, coming quite soon after the elevation of 
Galba to the Empire, prevented the starting of a new 
coinage. The adoption of the full imperial title, 

IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS P.M. TR. P. by Galba probably 

dates from early July, when he met the envoys of the 
Senate at Narbo. 12 

(2) Uncertain mint, the same as that of " Autonomous," 
Spanish, class A above (see p. 115), JR. 

Obverse legend GALBA IMPERATOR. Eev. LIBERTAS 
RESTITVTA (head, r.), LIBERTAS RESTITVTA (standing 

figure), VICTORIA P.R., VIRTVS [PL IX. 3], BON. EVENT., 

GALLIA HISPANIA. It is the style, and particularly the 
lettering, that leads us to associate these coins with the 
above-mentioned " autonomous " series. 

B. Gaul. 

(I) JR. Coins with Obv.SER. GALBA iMP.andSER. GALBA 

IMPERATOR and Eev. VICTORIA P.R. and VIRTVS [PI. X. 1], 

probably from the same mint as "Autonomous" Gallic (1), 
and the horseman type of Galba (2), above (see p. 116 
and p. 120). The place may possibly be Augustodunum. 
(2) N, JR. Coins with Obv. SER. GALBA IMPERATOR, 
clearly distinct in style from (1). Coins of the same style 
show also the legend SER. GALBA IMP. CAESAR AVG. P.M. 
TR. P. The reverse types in this class are CONCORDIA 

PROVINCIARVM, VICTORIA P.R. [PL IX. 14], and VICTORIA 

GALBAE AVG. The mint may be Narbo (see below, p. 128). 

(3) Mint of Lugdunum. N, JR. Obverse legend SER. 
SVLPICIVS GALBA (with AVG. IMP. on reverse) and, more 

12 Suet., Galba, 11. 



124 H. MATTINGLY. 

commonly, IMP. GALBA CAESAR AVG. P.P.; chief reverse 

types AEQVITAS AVG., FORTVNA AVG. [PI. X. 3], PAX. AVG. 

The style is curious and the lettering is particularly dis- 
tinctive ; we may note especially the form X for A. 

There are several reasons for assigning these coins to 
Lugdunum : 

(a) We find coins of Nero, Vitellius, and Vespasian 
of unmistakably similar style. We can fix with some 
confidence the issues of Vitellius at Rome and Tarraco ; 
his one remaining issue must, practically speaking, have 
been in Gaul, and Lugdunum is the only Gallic mint 
that could well have been common to Nero, Galba, 
Vitellius, and Vespasian. 

(&) The title IMP. . . . CAESAR AVG. P.P. was the latest 
in use on Nero's coins. If, as I suppose, there was an 
imperial mint at Lugdunum, it would naturally carry 
over the old imperial title to the new Emperor. 

There is also a small class of denarii with Obv. GALBA 

IMP., Rev. CONCORDIA PROVINCIARVM [PI. X. 2], which 

seem to belong to Lugdunum ; they show very great 
likeness of portrait to brass coins, which, for other reasons, 
must be assigned to Lugdunum (see below, p. 127). 
The difficulty is that the style of these pieces is not 
exactly that of the coins just above described ; but, as the 
reasons for attribution seem sound in both cases, I class 
the two series together. 13 

C. Africa. 

\f 

To this province I assign a small class of denarii, 

distinguished mainly by bearing the letters S.C. : 



\ 



* 13 One might suppose that Lugdunum had two mints an imperial 
for gold and silver, a senatorial for copper, working independently ; in 
this case, the former class here might be the product of the imperial 
mint, the latter an exceptional silver issue of the senatorial. 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 125 

1. Obv. HISPANIA S.C. Draped bust of Hispania, r. ; 
behind, two spears ; below, small round shield ; 
in front, two ears of corn. 

Bev. A shield lying on two crossed spears ; in the 
angles formed by the spears, S.P.Gj.R. 

[PL IX. 11.] 

2.' Obv. SER. SVLPICIVS GALBA IMP. AVG. Type similar 
to no. 1. 

Bev. Similar to no. 1. [PL IX. 12.] 

3. Obv. SER. SVLPICI GALBAE IMP. A. Type similar 

to no. 1. 

Bev. Similar to no. 1. 

4. Obv. SER. GALBA IMP. AVG. Head of Galba, laureate, 

r. ; small globe under neck. 

Bev. VICTORIA P.R. S.C. Victory standing r. on globe, 
holding wreath and palm. [PL IX. 13.] 

I assign this class to Africa and date it to the 
latter half of June, 68. Note the following points : 

(1) S.C. appears as on the coins of Macer. 

(2) There is some similarity of style and lettering 
between these coins and those of Macer. 

(3) The unusual genitives in the obverse inscrip- 
tions, SER. SVLPICI GALBAE and L. CLODI MACRI. (/ 

(4) These coins are quite unlike the classes assigned 
to Gaul and Spain. If they stand apart from these 
groups, Africa is one of the few remaining places where 
they could have been struck. 

If our suggestion is correct, we shall have to assume^ 
that they were struck by friends of Galba, probably at 
Carthage, in direct protest against Macer's hostile 
attitude. If Macer, as I believe, seized Carthage, he 
must have interrupted this issue to strike his own coins ; i/ 



126 H. MATTINGLY. 

then, on the overthrow of Macer, the coins with Eev. 
VICTORIA P.R., presumably the last of the series, would 
be struck. 

D. Rome. N, M. 

To this mint may be assigned a very large number of 
coins, showing some seven or more distinct portraits 
and the obv. legends SER. GALBA CAESAR AVG., IMP. SER. 

GALBA AVG., IMP. SER. GALBA CAESAR AVG. (or AVG. P.M.), 

and, very rarely, GALBA IMP. The favourite reverses are 

DIVA AVGVSTA [PI. X. 12], HISPANIA, ROMA RENASC., SALVS 
GENERIS HVMANl, S.P.Q.R. OB. C.S. in wreath [PI. X. 10], 
VICTORIA P.R. [PL X. 11]. 

/ The head is usually laureate, but is occasionally found 
bare, notably on the fine coins with Obv. IMP. SER. GALBA 
AVG. Eev. S.P.Q.R. OB. C.S. The series will date from 
June 6, 68, the day of Galba's accession at Kome, to 
January 15, 69, the day of his murder. Of the obverse 

Megends GALBA IMP. will naturally be placed earliest; 
IMP. SER. GALBA AVG. must follow, for it occurs with 
practically the same portrait as does GALBA IMP.; 
SER. GALBA CAESAR AVG. probably comes next, and 
then IMP. SER. GALBA CAESAR AVG. closes the list. 
Perhaps something further in the way of arrange- 
ment remains to be done here ; but my present plan 
will not allow me to attempt greater detail. In spite 
of all varieties of legend and portrait, I think we must 
treat this class as a single whole. The general style, 
especially in the lettering, is remarkably uniform 
throughout and undoubtedly corresponds to that of the 
coins of Otho, which must have been struck at Rome. 14 



14 Count de Sails, who arranged the British Museum Series with 
great skill and judgment, assigned a part of this group to Gaul ; but 
I can find no reason for his classification. 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 127 

This completes our survey of the gold and silver coins 
of Galba, and we come now to his brass. We have seen 
above (p. 113) that Nero struck brass at two mints, 
(a) Borne, (6) Lugdunum. There is practically no doubt 
that Galba did the same. We can pick out a series, 
marked by a distinctive portrait, frequently with the 
small globe under the neck, which would correspond 
well to Nero's Gallic series. Further, a number of coins 
(Fig. 2) of this class bear, as an adjunct to the reverse 
legend, the letters R. XL. (Remissa Quadragensima), which v 
very probably refers to the famous customs-duty, the 








FIG. 2. Sestertius of Galba, with R. XL. on reverse. 

" Quadragensima Galliarum." 15 We know for a fact that 
Galba did remit certain Gallic taxes ; whilst, on the 
other hand, if the reference is not to this tax, we have 
to invent a meaning for the phrase, by supposing the 
remission of some tax, called " quadragensima," at 
Rome. The rest of the brass coins of Galba are pre- 
sumably to be referred to Rome, with the exception of 
a few second brass, which show a style very similar to 
that of Tarraco and probably belong to that mint. The 
many obverse legends are bewilderingly difficult to 

15 See Mowat, E. N., 1895, 160 f. 



128 H. MATTINGLY. 

class ; I suggest, for the Eoman mint, the following 
sequence : 

(1) SER. SVLPI. GALBA IMP. CAESAR AVG. 

(2) SER. GALBA IMP. CAESAR AVG. 

(3) IMP. SER. GALBA AVG. TR. P. 

(4) IMP. SER. SVLP. GALBA CAESAR AVG. 

(5) IMP. SER. GALBA CAESAR AVG. 18 

Lugdunum apparently has only two varieties of 
legend : 

(1) SER. GALBA IMP. CAESAR AVG. 

(2) IMP. SER. GALBA AVGVSTVS. 

After the intricacies of Galba's coinage that of Otho 
is quite refreshing in its simplicity. Otho issued gold 
and silver from the mint of Kome, with the obverse 
legend IMP. OTHO (or M. OTHO) CAESAR AVG. TR. P., and 
Rev. PAX ORBIS TERRARVM [PI. X. 13], PONT. MAX. (with 
several different types), SECVRITAS P.R., and VICTORIA 
OTHONIS. But one aureus in the British Museum 
belongs to some other mint. It has 

Obv. IMP. OTHO CAESAR AVG. TR. P. Head of Otho, 
bare, r. 

Rev. PONT. [MAX.] Vesta seated 1. [PI. IX. 15.] 

The style is quite distinct from that of the ordinary 
series, and the weight, 117'4 grs., is equally unusual. If 
we look for a likeness to this coin in the series of Galba, 
we shall find it among coins which we have attributed to 
the mint of Narbo (see above, p. 123); as an aureus of Galba 
of this class weighs 116'2 grs., we may regard the weight 
as a further indication of relationship between the coins. 
If then we have here a mint, other than Kome, common 
to Galba and Otho, Narbo is a very probable suggestion ; 

18 I leave minor varieties out of account. 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 129 

the province of Narbonensis originally declared for Otho 
against ViteHius, but soon threw in its lot with the 
German armies. The only trouble then is that we 
might have expected coins of Vitellius from the same 
mint ; but this negative objection can hardly be allowed 
much weight. 

Otho, as every schoolboy knows, is unrepresented in 
the series of Koman brass. The fact is undoubted ; no 
coin with any serious claim to genuineness has ever yet 
appeared. But the reason usually assigned, that the 
Senate did not recognize Otho as Emperor, is demon- 
strably false. 17 The fact is, we do not know the precise 
reason of his lack of brass coinage. It has clearly some- 
thing to do with the very short period of Otho's stay as 
Emperor in Rome ; probably the Senate, which certainly 
had no love for Otho, discovered some colourable pretext 
for holding back the new issue for a time. 

Next in order comes a third series of " Autonomous " 
coins already referred to above (see p. 118). 

C. Class of Upper Germany. Denarii, many of them 
plated and of very rude fabric, showing the following 
combinations of types : 

FIDES EXERCITVVM, Eev. FIDES EXERCITVVM ; FIDES 
EXERCITVVM, Rev. FIDES PRAETORIANORVM [PI. X. 8]; 
FIDES EXERCITVVM, Rev. CONCORDIA PRAETORIANORVM ; 
VESTA P.R. QVIRITIVM (bust), Rev. FIDES EXERCITVVM ; 
VESTA P.R. QVIRITIVM (bust), Rev. I.O.M. CAPITOLINVS 

(seated figure) [PI. X. 7]; VESTA P.R. QVIRITIVM (bust), 
Rev. SENATVS P.Q. ROMANVS; I.O.M. CAPITOLINVS (bust), 
Rev. VESTA P.R. QVIRITIVM (seated figure) ; DIVVS AVGVSTVS, 
Rev. SENATVS P.Q. ROMANVS. 

17 Cp. Tac., H., I. 47. 
NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. K 



130 H. MATTINGLY. 

We notice 

(1) the interlinking of types ; 

(2) the predominant military sentiment ; 

(3) the close connexion with the coinage of Vitellius, 
who himself uses the types FIDES EXERCITVVM, CON- 

CORDIA PRAETORIANORVM, FIDES PRAETORIANORVM, 
I.O.M. CAPITOLINVS (seated figure), SENATVS P Q. ROMANVS, 
VESTA P.R. QVIRITIVM (seated figure). 

It is certain, then, that these coins form a single group 
and stand in close relation to the revolt of the troops in 
the Germanies, which raised Vitellius to the throne. But 
it is difficult to fix either time or place with absolute 
precision. The coins seem to belong to the period of 
the revolt of the legions in Upper Germany, before the 
legions of Lower Germany had declared Yitellius 
Emperor. Yet the interval here was one of a very 
few days (January 1 to 3, 69), a very short time allow- 
ance for our coinage. It is perhaps possible that, as 
the rebellion had been some time in planning, pre- 
parations for a coinage were already well advanced, 
when the revolt actually broke out. Where then were 
the coins struck ? Some specimens show a style 
approximating to that of Lugdunum ; others are very 
rough and crude. On the whole, it seems most 
probable that the coins were struck in Upper 
Germany, presumably at the military headquarters 
at Mogontiacum. The references to the praetorians 
are explained by a passage in Suetonius (Galba, 
16), " sed maxime fremebat superioris Germaniae 
exercitus, fraudari se praemio navatae adversus Gallos 
et Vindicem operae. Ergo primi obsequium rumpere 
ausi Kal. Jan. adigi sacramento nisi in nomen senatus 
recusarunt, statimque legationes ad praetorianos cum 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 131 

mandatis destinaverunt : displicere imperatorem in His- 
pania factum ; eligerent ipsi quem cuncti exercitus 
comprobarent." The frequently recurring type of two 
clasped hands is illustrated by a passage in Tacitus 
(Histories, I. 54), " Miserat civitas Lingonum vetere 
institute dona legionibus dextras, hospitii insigne." 18 

The study of this last class brings us naturally to the 
coins of Vitellius. After our earlier discussions classi- 
fication here is a simple matter. 

A. Spain. Mint of Tarraco. -V, JR. Obv. legend, 
A. VITELLIVS IMP. GERMAN, or GERMANICVS. Head, 

laureate, usually 1. (occasionally r.). Sometimes there 
is a small branch in front of the neck. 
Rev. types, CLEMENTIA IMP. GERMANICI, CONSENSVS 

EXERCITVVM, FIDES EXERCITVVM, L. VITELLI III COS. 
CENS., LIBERI IMP. GERMANICI, LIBERTAS RESTITVTA 
[PL IX. 8], VICTORIA AVGVSTI, VICTORIA IMP. GERMANICI. 

The rev. I.O.M. CAPITOLINVS and VESTA P.R. QVIRITIVM 
do not occur here. 

A few asses (Fig. 3) of rough fabric, with the rev. 

CONSENSVS EXERCITVVM, FIDES EXERCITVVM, show a 





FIG. 3. As of Vitellius. 

similar portrait to the gold and silver and may be 
assigned with some confidence to this mint. The date 

18 Cp. too Tac., H., II. 8. 



132 H. MATTINGLY. 

of the issue will be from early January to early July, 
69 ; it was not till his arrival in Eome in July that 
Vitellius adopted the title of Augustus. Style and 
fabric clearly mark these coins as the issue of that mint 
which, as we decided above, must be Tarraco. 

B. Gaul. Mint of Lugdunum. N, M. Obverse 
legend, A. VITELLIVS IMP. GERMAN. Head, laureate, r. 
The style marks these coins as belonging to the same 
mint as that which we decided above to be Lugdunum. 

Eev. types, CONSENSVS EXERCITVVM, FIDES EXER- 
CITVVM, I.O.M. CAPITOLINVS, LIBERI IMP. GERMANIC!, 

VESTA P.R. QVIRITIVM [PI. X. 4], The date will be the 
same as for the issues of Tarraco above ; but probably 
this mint started coining for Vitellius rather earlier than 
that. A few coins belong to a date after early July ; cp. 
the aureus in the British Museum, A. VITELLIVS GER. IMP. 

AVG. P. MAX. TR. P., rev. CONSENSVS EXERCITVVM 

[PI. X. 5]. 

0. Eome. N, M. 

(1) Without title of AVGVSTVS. Obverse legend, A. 
VITELLIVS GERMAN. IMP. TR. P. (a) head, bare, r. ; 
(&) head, laureate, r. ; date, April 19, to early July, 69. 

(2) With title of AVGVSTVS. Obverse legend as above ; 
head, laureate, r. 

Ke verse types of the Koman mint, CONCORDiA P.R. 

[PL X. 14], IVPPITER VICTOR, LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, 
LIBERI IMP. GERMANICI, L. VITELLIVS COS. Ill CENSOR 

(bust, and seated figure), PONT. MAXIM [PL X. 15], 
XVVIR. SACR. FAC., Victory seated 1. (uninscribed). 

The Rev. FIDES EXERCITVVM occurs only with (1) (a). 

The brass of Vitellius, apart from the few asses 
mentioned above, belongs entirely to the mint of Kome. 
The portrait is fairly uniform, but there are a number of 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 133 

small varieties of legend. As all the coins bear the 
imperial title of AVGVSTVS, they are all later than early 
July, 69, when Vitellius on his entry into Rome adopted 
that title. 

Rev. types, CERES AVG., L. VITELLIVS COS. Ill CENSOR, 
MARS VICTOR, PAX AVGVSTI, S.C. (Mars, r.), VICTORIA 
AVGVSTI. 

A few coins may, with high probability, be assigned to 
the Gallic re volt against Rome in 69-70. I will describe 
the few specimens that seem to me to belong here : 

1. Obv. GALLIA. Bust of Gallia, draped, with hair in 

roll, torque round neck, r. ; behind head, a 
Gallic trumpet. 

Rev. FIDES. Two clasped hands holding two ears of 
corn and a standard surmounted by a wild 
boar. JR.. 

In the Haeberlin collection. 19 

2. Obv. LIBERTAS RESTITVTA. Bust of Libertas, draped, 

veiled and diademed, r. ; in front of bust, a 
corn-ear. 

Rev. CON COR Dl A. Concordia seated 1., holding in r. 
hand a spear, surmounted by a boar, and in 1. 
hand a caduceus. JR. 

3. Obv. Similar to 2. 

Rev. MARS ADSERTOR. Mars standing facing, look- 
ing r., holding standard and shield. JR. 

4. Obv. Similar to 2. 

Rev. Similar to 3. But Mars holds trophy and shield. 

JR. 

5. Obv. Similar to 2. 

Rev. MARS V LTO R . Mars standing r . , holding standard 
and shield. JR. 



19 See M. Hermann, Eine Gallische Unabhangigkeitsmiinze aus 
romischer Kaiser zeit. 



134 H. MATTINGLY. 

6. Obv. SALVTIS. Head of Salus, diademed, r. 

Jfojj. CONCORDIA. Concordia standing 1., holding an 
olive-branch and a cornucopiae. N. 

The wild boar on the reverses of (1) and (2) was the 
national emblem of Gaul. 20 The appeals are all to the 
love of liberty and to martial spirit and there is a total 
absence of reference to the Senate, people, or armies of 
Borne. These coins, then, form a group somewhat apart 
from any other and probably belong to the Gallic revolt. 
The date will be from January to late in 70 ; the place 
can hardly be ascertained, but would probably be in 
Upper or Lower Germany. 

A remarkably interesting denarius in the collection 
of Sir Arthur Evans seems to require a place by itself. 
Its description is as follows : 

Obv. ADSERTOR LIBERTATIS. Head of Mars (?) hel- 
meted, r. 

j&>0. LEGION. XV. PRIMI[GEN]. Victory standing r., 
erecting a trophy, consisting of a cuirass, a 
round and an oblong shield and a pair of 
greaves. 21 [PI. X. 9.] 

If types mean anything, this coin has some special 
connexion with the legio XV Primigeneia. During 
the whole of our period it was stationed at Vetera in 
Lower Germany. Its companion legion, the V Alauda, 
and a detachment of itself marched with Valens to 
Italy; the main body of the XVth stayed at Vetera 



20 See Hermann, quoted above, n. 19. 

21 I am deeply indebted to Sir Arthur Evans for permission to 
publisb this and other of his coins. The trophy has been described as 
Celtiberian, but I have the authority of Mr. Horace Sandars for stating 
that there is nothing distinctively Celtiberian about it. 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WARS OF 68-69 A.D. 135 

and was besieged there by Civilis during the German 
revolt. I would attribute this coin, then, to Vetera, 
during its siege by the Germans. How are we to account 
for the omission of all reference to an Emperor ? Tacitus 
(H., IV. 37) will supply the clue ; he tells us " Vitellii 
tamen imagines in castris et per proximas Belgarum 
civitates repositae, cum iam Yitellius occidisset," i.e. the 
troops, after having accepted Vespasian, once more re- 
turned to their old allegiance to Vitellius, not knowing 
him to be dead. What did they do when the news of 
his death arrived ? Having no allegiance left to which 
to turn they must have based their last hopes on their 
own valour and on their patron god of war. 

The coinage of Vespasian is too large a subject to 
bring within the scope of this paper : I can only deal 
with it in the briefest outline, noting its points of 
connexion with the issues we have been discussing. 

A. Spain. Mint of Tarraco. N* JR. Coins identified 
by style, on comparison with issues of Galba and Vitel- 
lius. Among the reverse types are COS. ITER. FORT. 

RED. [PI. IX. 9], IVDAEA, PAX, CONSENSVS EXERCITVVM, 
HISPANIA, MARS CONSERV, MARS VLTOR. 

Two coins with Obv. Diws AVGVSTVS, Rev. HISPANIA and 
PAX P.R. respectively, certainly belong to this same mint, 
and probably to this period of it. 

B. Gaul. Mint of Lugdunum. N, M. Coins identi- 
fied by style, on comparison with issues of Galba and 
Vitellius. Among the many reverse types are IVDAEA 

DEVICTA, DE IVDAEIS, TRIVMP. AVG. [PI. X. 6], PACI 
AVGVSTI, S.P.Q.R.P.P.OB.C.S., TITVS ET DOMITIANVS 
CAESARES, and VESTA. 

This coinage certainly extends from 69 to 72, and 
perhaps later ; but after 72 it is rather more doubtful. 



136 H. MATTINGLY. 

Both these mints, Tarraco and Lugdunum, seem to 
have issued brass, at any rate in the early years of 
Vespasian. 

C. Rome. N t M. It is not easy to decide exactly 
which of the earlier issues of Vespasian are from this 
mint. One class of coin, however, is marked down to 
Rome by the portrait of Vespasian, which is little more 
than an adaptation of the Roman portrait of Vitellius 
[see PI. X. 16]. 

Other coins of Vespasian belong to other parts of the 
Empire and lie apart from our subject. Such are 

(1) The Syrian class, struck at Antioch and possibly 
at other places, such as Berytus. 

(2) The Asia Minor class, struck at the mints of 
Ephesus, Byzantium, and probably several other 
cities. 

(3) Coins struck for the armies of Illyricum, at 
Aquileia (?). 

There are probably a few other subordinate mints still 
to be traced. I trust to follow up this question in a later 
paper. 

We have now completed our survey of the coinage of 
the Civil Wars and have seen how well it mirrors the 
stirring events of the time. We have seen how the right 
of coinage, attached to the imperial office, is naturally 
exercised by each Emperor in that part of the Empire in 
which he happens to be ; this fact may throw light both 
on the origin of the imperial coinage in general and on 
the placing of certain special issues in the first and 
second centuries A.D. And, although numismatics cannot 
add much to our historical knowledge of the time, it can 
at least perform its useful and normal function of illus- 
trating and vivifying history. 



THE COINAGE OF THE CIVIL WAKS OF 68-69 A.D. 137 



I conclude with two charts, giving a conspectus of 
the coinage which we have been discussing 







Gaul. 


Upper 
Ger- 


Spain. 


Africa. 


Gold and silver. 


Rome. 




many. 






Lugdn- 
num. 


Augusto- 
tlunum (?) 


Narbo. 


Mogon- 
tiacnm 


Tar- 
raco. 


Un- 
certain. 


Un- 
certain. 


Car- 
thage (?) 


Nero .... 


X 


X 


_ 


_ 










_ 


Clodius Macer . 





_ 





_ 


_ 


_ 


_. 


_ 


X 


" Autonomous " 





9 


X 


_ 


X (?) 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Galba .... 


X 


X 


x (?) 


X 


_ 


X 


X 


_ 


X 


Otho .... 


X 


_ 


_ 


X 


_ 








_ 


_ 


Vitellius . . . 


X 


X 








_ 


X 


_ 








Vespasian . . 


X 


X 











X 














Brass. 


Rome. 


Lugduuum. 


Tarraco. 


Nero . . . 


X 


X 




Galba . . . 


X 


X 


X 


Otho . . . 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Vitellius . . 


x 





X 


Vespasian . 


X X 


X 



H. MATTINGLY. 



VII. 
EDWABD VI AND DURHAM HOUSE. 

THE shadow of uncertainty has rested upon the com- 
ments of writers who have from time to time affirmed 
or doubted the existence of a working mint during the 
reign of Edward VI in the Strand palace of the Bishops 
of Durham. I shall, however, hope to prove in the 
following pages that the affirmative tradition can now 
be accepted as an established fact, as it has apparently 
fallen to my lot to bring to light certain evidence which 
should remove the main question, at least, from the 
region of speculation. 

The Durham House of Tudor days, as shown in early 
prints, occupied a fine position facing the Thames, its 
land running northwards from the river to the line of 
the Strand. The site was eventually cleared by the 
brothers Adam in the eighteenth century for the purpose 
of erecting the buildings known as the Adelphi, but the 
name of the old palace is perpetuated by Durham Street. 
Stow in his Survey of London (1598) when describing 
the house makes no reference to a mint, although he 
mentions elsewhere the similar establishment at Suffolk 
House in Southwark. It is also remarkable that the 
King's Journal does not contain any allusion to the new 
departure in 1548-1549. 

Before dealing with the recently acquired informa- 
tion I will turn aside for a moment to consider two 



EDWARD VI AND DURHAM HOUSE. 139 

mutually destructive stories which have grown up side 
by side with the real history of the undertaking. These 
are the allegations (1) that Sir Wm. Sharington, in 
collusion with Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudeley, carried 
on this mint, and (2) that Edward, Duke of Somerset, 
" erected a mint at Duresme Place for his own private 
advantage." It is, I think, quite obvious that the 
former statement is due to a confusion between Durham 
House and Bristol, which latter mint had been fraudu- 
lently exploited by Sharington and Thomas Seymour 
(Num. Chron., Ser. IV. Vol. XI. pp. 331-350), both of 
whom were, as a matter of fact, prisoners in the Tower, for 
other reasons, at the date when the industry at Durham 
House came into being; and it would seem the more 
desirable to correct this misapprehension as it has lately 
obtained wider circulation in Mr. E. B. Chancellor's work 
The Annals of the Strand (1912). The charge against 
the Duke of Somerset cannot perhaps be so absolutely 
refuted, but it is, I believe, equally untrue, although 
it was put forward in his lifetime. 

Edward Seymour, in his capacity as Protector of the 
realm, undoubtedly established the new mint, a step 
which may have given rise to the imputation, as the 
Bristol scandal had then recently become public 
property. But the most significant circumstance in 
favour of the Protector's innocence in this matter is the 
absence of a single word suggesting malpractices at 
Durham House from the 28 articles of accusation which 
were preferred against him at his subsequent impeach- 
ment. Such evidence would have been easy to find if 
there had been any truth in the charge. Among the 
confessions of Sharington there is a conversation which 
affords an instance of these contemporary rumours, and 



140 HENRY SYMONDS. 

illustrates the bitterness which then existed between the 
two members of the Seymour family. On February 15, 
1548-1549, Sharington alleged that at the opening of 
the mint in Durham Place, Thomas Seymour said to him 
that he hoped the "Lord Protector do not make that 
rnynt for himself," to which Sharington replied, "No, 
they have indenturs as well as we [i.e. at Bristol] betwixt 
the King and them," and that the Lord Admiral rejoined 
that Bowes the treasurer was the Protector's man, as he 
had been informed (Haynes's State Papers of Lord 
Burleigli, 1740). 

[Returning now to the principal subject, the first 
document is that which sets out the constitution of the 
mint in a form which is unusual in the case of a new 
organization, the more general custom being to execute 
an indenture, or agreement, between the Crown and the 
intended officers. 1 

A Commission was directed to " John Bowes esquyer 
treasaurer of oure mynt within oure maner called 
Dureham Place, Robert Eecorde esquyer comptroler of 
the same mynt, and John Maire gentilman general 
assayer there ; " reciting that the King, by the advice 
of his well-beloved uncle, Edward, Duke of Somerset, 
and others of the Privy Council, was resolved to make 
certain new moneys of gold and silver of the standards 
and valuations thereinafter mentioned, " after oure 
pclamacions be set fourth in that behalf." The three 
officers were ordered to strike into print four manner of 
coins of 22 c. fine gold and 2 c. alloy in the Ib. Troy, viz. 



1 In an Exchequer account (303/5) certain sums are allowed for the 
cost of writing the respective indentures for the mints at the Tower, 
Southwark, Canterbury, York, Bristol and Dublin, between the regnal 
years 1 and 4 Edw. VI, but no mention is made of a document for 
Durham House. 



EDWARD VI AND DURHAM HOUSE. 141 

The sovereign, running for 20s., of which 34 shall 
weigh 1 Ib. Troy. 

Half sovereign, "Our Edward royall," for 10s., of 
which 67 shall weigh 1 Ib. Troy. 

Crown, for 5s., of which 136 shall weigh 1 Ib. Troy. 

Half-crown, for 2s. Gd., of which 272 shall weigh 1 Ib. 
Troy. 

A " remedy " of 2 grains, or of a carat, in the Ib. 
Troy. 

The treasurer might buy fine gold of 24 c. at 3 the 
ounce, in lawful moneys by tale, and gold of less fineness 
at proportionate rates. 

And to strike into print two manner of coins of 8 oz. 
fine silver and 4 oz. alloy in the Ib. Troy, viz. 

The shilling, running for I2d., of which 96 shall weigh 

1 Ib. Troy. 

Half-shilling, running for d., of which 187 shall 
weigh 1 Ib. Troy. 

A " remedy " of 2dwt. in the Ib. Troy. 

And shall continue to make, notwithstanding any- 
thing within the present commission, groats, half- groats, 
pence, halfpence and farthings of 4 oz. fine silver and 
8 oz. alloy, according to the limitations of "a pair of 
indentures made between us and other our officers there " 
and bearing date December 2, 2 Edw. VI (1548). And 
furthermore shall continue the converting of " our 
money latelie called testons" according to the com- 
missions directed to the treasurers and others of the 
mints within the Tower, and dated February 16, 

2 Edw. VI (1547-1548). And to the intent that the 
moneys aforesaid might be richly made in weight and 
fineness, the officers were authorized to make the same 
as nigh unto the said standards as they, "being kept 



142 HENRY SYMONDS. 

out of danger," might conveniently make them. Dated 
at Westminster, January 29, 3 Edw. VI (1548-1549). 
(Patent Boll, 3 Edw. VI, part 3, m. 22 dors.) 

The terms of the document are peculiar in more than 
one respect. First, it is unquestionable that this com- 
mission was not the earliest step in the process of setting 
up the mint at Durham House, because we are told that 
in the previous December the customary indenture had 
been executed by certain unnamed officers. At this 
point, however, the Exchequer records fail us ; the pro- 
visions of this indenture, the names of those entrusted 
with the work, and the reason for their presumed dis- 
missal after seven weeks only, cannot now be ascertained, 
and to that extent the history of the undertaking must 
be left incomplete, unless the requisite facts should be 
incidentally disclosed by other public or private records 
not directly relating to the coinage. Again, the con- 
cluding extract from the commission seems to be quite 
without precedent, inasmuch as it gives the officers an 
unusually free hand (beyond the limits of the " remedy ") 
in the making of the coins ; under such circumstances 
the omission of a proviso as to the trials of the pyx, 
either in the mint or at Westminster, is not altogether 
surprising, and it should also be noted that there is no 
order for the use of a privy mark. One other feature 
of interest in this document calls for notice. For the 
first time in the annals of our mint history the coins 
described as the " shilling " and the " half-shilling " were 
ordered to be struck for currency. It is, of course, true 
that several indentures in the first year of Edward VI 
provided for silver coins of twelve pence, but these 
were called " testons " and were of much greater weight. 

With respect to the three men who were responsible 



EDWARD VI AND DURHAM HOUSE. 143 

for the operations at Durham House, I find no record of 
their appointments other than is contained in the com- 
mission, an oversight which is characteristic of the hap- 
hazard methods of administration in vogue during this 
reign. John Bowes, the head of the establishment, will 
be referred to later in connexion with the mint-marks 
on the coins, meanwhile I think that I recognize in 
Robert Eecorde, the comptroller, a trusted and expert 
servant of the Crown who was sent to Bristol to help 
Sir Thomas Chamberlain, and who was afterwards chief 
technical adviser at the mines and the mint in Ireland. 
Possibly he was the physician and mathematician who 
bore the same names and who died in 1558. Of John 
Maire, the assayer, I know nothing ; he comes upon the 
stage for the first time, and leaves it when the curtain 
falls at Durham House. 

It will have been observed that the commission does 
not allude to an engraver, and therefore we probably 
ought to .assume, in the absence of direct evidence to 
the contrary, that the dies were prepared at the Tower 
by Henry Basse, or by his assistant Robert Pitt, in 
accordance with the practice which then obtained when 
coining irons were required for the subsidiary mints, 
excepting Dublin and Bristol. This economy in working 
expenses does not facilitate the task of distinguishing 
between the products of the Tower and Durham House, 
for a second artist might introduce some detail of his 
craft which would enable a student to identify the coins 
issued from the Strand workshops. 

The proclamation "for the valuation of new coins 
of gold and silver " is dated 24 Jan., 2 Edw. VI, viz. 
five days earlier than the commission, which refers to its 
publication as a future event. The King orders that the 



144 HENRY SYMONDS. 

four pieces of gold (again styling the half-sovereign as 
" Edward royall ") and the two pieces of silver, which he 
" hath caused to be made," shall be thenceforth current 
within his dominions, at the values already set out in 
the extracts from the commission. The proclamation 
concludes by directing that all manner of groats, half- 
groats, pence and halfpence, " not clipped or full 
broken, albeit they may be much cracked," shall be 
received without refusal, under a penalty of arrest. 

At present I have only proved that the mint was duly 
inaugurated; the next step will be to show that coins 
were in fact struck there, in order to set at rest the 
doubts which have arisen, but unfortunately this cannot 
be done in the form I could wish, as the usual accounts 
of the under-treasurer, which would disclose his trans- 
actions, have not come down to us. It is, however, 
possible to obtain, in a restricted shape and through 
another channel, the desired assurance that Durham 
House was not merely a mint on paper, one in which 
the moneyer's hammer was never used. Sir Edmund 
Peckham, the high treasurer, to whom all the mint 
establishments in England and Ireland accounted for 
their gains, drew up a statement of the sums so paid to 
him during a period extending from 36 Henry VIII to 
5 Edward VI. This return is in excellent condition, 
and among the labyrinth of figures is a note of the 
amounts received from John Bowes. We may infer that 
the earning of profits connotes industrial activity of 
some kind, but whether the coinage was of gold or of 
silver, or whether it included both the striking of the 
new currency and the conversion of the old, must re- 
main unsolved as far as this particular document is 
concerned. 



EDWARD VI AND DURHAM HOUSE. 145 

Peckham acknowledges to have received from the 
" undertreasorer of the Kinges mynte in Duresme Place 
in the suburbes of London, of the revenue and encrease 
of bullion coyned," the sum of 9100 in nine separate 
payments, of which the first was on May 2, 3 Edw. VI 
(1549), and the last on October 21 in the same year. 
(Declared acct 8 ., Pipe office, 2077.) These figures go 
to show that the output was considerable, but it would 
be impossible to make a reliable calculation as to the 
aggregate number of coins produced unless we could 
ascertain the respective quantities of gold and silver 
bullion. As the above memorandum is the only entry 
which relates to the mint in the Strand, notwithstanding 
that the account extends to the beginning of 1551, I 
suppose that the date of the payment on October 21, 
1549, represents in point of time the end of the opera- 
tions, more or less approximately. If this deduction be 
well founded, Durham House would probably be the 
shortest lived among English mints which were formally 
constituted, seeing that a period of about eleven months 
is all that can with certainty be assigned to it. 

Some might regard it as an ominous coincidence that 
in October, 1549, the Protector was deposed from office 
and sent to the Tower, but not to that part of the fortress 
in which we are chiefly interested. I prefer to think 
that the unexplained cessation of work by John Bowes 
was caused in a large measure by scarcity of bullion, 
and in support of this view I will add extracts from two 
letters which throw light upon the straits to which 
Peckham and others were reduced. 

On June 22, 1549, Sir Thomas Smith, the King's 
secretary, tells the Protector that " necessity will drive 
to leave York and Canterbury mints as well as Bristow " 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. L 



146 HENRY SYMONDS. 

for lack of bullion, unless small moneys be coined from 
the " reliques " of testons. (By a slip which very rarely 
happens, the printed calendar of State Papers gives an 
exactly contrary sense to this passage.) On the same 
day Peckham sends a despairing letter to Smith, saying 
that the writer will find it hard to make payments 
" unless it may please you for to write your letters to 
M r Bowes of Deresme Place for to make payment to 
my hands of the m 1 - 11 which he did promise unto you of 
the profits rising of his office, of the which yet hitherto 
sithence the erection of the same he hath paid but 
vi c Ji , so that it is not to be doubted but that he may well 
spare one m 1 - li more, and wherefore I do heartily pray 
for [you] to write unto him for to pay the same unto me 
now at this need." (S. P. Dom., Edw. VI, vol. 7. 38-9.) 

Only once more do I find a trace of the abandoned 
mint, viz. on August 18, 1551, when the Privy Council 
instructs Sir John Yorke "to deliver iii ml - H of suche 
money as he receaved of the mynte at Duresme . . . 
after the rate of xii d the shilleng," for use in Ireland. 
It would appear, therefore, that the remainder of the 
coin and bullion at Durham House had been removed to 
Southwark, or to the Tower, in the meantime. I should 
not omit to state that, happily, no one employed at 
Durham House is to be found in the list of eight respon- 
sible persons at various other mints who were eventually 
pardoned for having permitted or committed trans- 
gressions of every conceivable kind in relation to 
the coinage ; these offences form a painful commentary 
on the disorderly methods, to use a temperate phrase, 
which were evidently commonplaces during Edward's 
reign. 

The end of such historical evidence as came under my 



EDWARD VI AND DURHAM HOUSE. 147 

notice in the course of an exhaustive search has now 
been reached, and accordingly I propose briefly to con- 
sider how far it is practicable to assign any coins or 
series of coins to this mint. I had hoped to obtain a 
preliminary clue from the half-sovereign to which the 
unusual name of " our Edward royall " was attached both 
in the commission and in the proclamation, but I found 
that the weights and the mint-marks offered an easier 
path along which to travel. 

Dealing first with the question of weights, it is 
possible, I believe, to identify satisfactorily the shilling 
of 8 oz. fine silver which the commission ordered to be 
of such size and thickness that 96 should be equal 
to one pound Troy, i.e. 60 grains in each coin. In the 
National Collection there is a profile shilling of 
Edw. VI with the Inimicos legend (transposed) and mint- 
mark bow; this coin is in beautiful condition, it is 
obviously of fine silver, and its weight is 58^ grains 
Troy, only 1 grains less than the order, and even this 
slight discrepancy may be due to the edge being a little 
chipped (see Handbook, pi. xvi., 456). I regard this 
shilling as furnishing one key to the situation, partly 
by reason of its mark and also because it turns the 
scale-beam at some 20 grains less than the profile 
shillings of more debased silver, the standard weight of 
which is said to be 80 grains, a disparity sufficiently 
large to prevent any confusion between the two issues. 
The coin of 58 grains is here illustrated, A. 

1 have not been able to trace the existence of a " half- 
shilling" marked with the bow; this coin should be 
30 BT grains. 2 

2 If my attribution of the bow mark be correct, it follows that the 
reverse legend Inimicos, etc. (taken from the Vulgate, Ps. cxxxi. 18), 

L2 



148 



HENKY SYMONDS. 



Unfortunately, the weights of the gold coins men- 
tioned in the foregoing commission are not so distinc- 
tive as in the case of the inferior metal. The sovereign, 
although ordered, is as yet unknown to me, while the 
half-sovereign, which ought to be 85{jf grains, is too 
near the weight of contemporary coins to be useful for 




Shilling and Half-sovereign of Edward VI (British Museum). 

comparison with the products of other mints. Before 
leaving the subject of weights, I will refer to an illus- 
trated note by Mr. Murchison in Num. Chron., Ser. I. 
Vol. XX. p. 187, where he described a " pattern " half- 
sovereign of Edward VI. The coin shows the crowned 
bust in armour of the second issue type, with the bow 
as mint-mark, the weight being 84^ grains. The writer 



was used exclusively at the Strand mint, as these shillings are not 
known with any other privy mark. They also occur in what is presum- 
ably the 4-oz. standard of fineness, with a weight approaching 80 
grains. 



EDWARD VI AND DURHAM HOUSE. 149 

tentatively, and as I think rightly, assigned this coin 
to Durham House. It must, surely, be one of the 
" Edward royalls." (Of. illustration B.) 

Some of the various mint- marks of this period must 
next be considered, and an attempt made to settle 
their respective places of origin. At the outset I 
was confronted with a difficulty which arose from the 
surname of the treasurer, i.e. the head, of the new 
establishment in the Strand being the same as that of 
a more widely known mint official at the Tower, viz. 
Sir Martin Bowes, once Lord Mayor. There were already 
quite enough complications in the monetary system of 
Edward VI, without the addition of duplicated names, 
but I had to take things as I found them. As the 
coincidence of name and arms must be an important 
factor in any scheme of redistribution, it will be con- 
venient to summarize the more essential points in Sir 
Martin Bowes's personal history. That he belonged to 
an armigerous family is proved by the inclusion of his 
name in the Visitation of Essex in 1552 (Harl. Society}, 
but he was not the father of John Bowes at Durham 
House, nor was he, as far as I can discover, closely 
related to him. John Bowes was also entitled to bear 
arms (in one grant he is described as armiger) and was 
probably a member of a distinct branch of the family 
whose coat differed only slightly from that of Sir Martin. 
The charges upon Martin Bowes's armorial shield were 
(1) three bows bent, (2) a swan holding a ring in its 
beak, and (3) two lions' faces. His crest appears to have 
been a sheaf of arrows. 

Before it became possible to make a claim, as I now 
do, on behalf of Durham House and John Bowes to be 
allotted a position alongside the other mints of Edward VI, 



150 HENRY SYMONDS. 

the practice was to assign to the Tower all coins of the 
Henry-Edward period which showed the marks of the 
bow, the swan, or the arrow, and to regard these three 
symbols as being directly associated with the arms of 
Martin Bowes. But I feel that it is now desirable to 
revise this arrangement, and to suggest an attribution 
to the smaller mint of those coins which are respec- 
tively marked with the bow and the grappling-iron, 
retaining at the Tower any pieces marked with the 
arrow or the swan. I shall presently offer some 
reasons on behalf of the proposed alterations, without 
in any way saying that there cannot be other types 
or marks which have an equal right to be accepted as 
products of Durham House, for I am conscious that the 
result does not meet every objection which might be 
urged. But, on the whole, the probabilities seem to 
favour this system of division. In the course of examin- 
ing the evidence I shall assume that we are on common 
ground in holding the belief that some portion, as yet 
undetermined, of the later types of Henry VIII were in 
fact struck by his son, Edward VI, and for a considerable 
period. 

The rearrangement would include the following 
denominations, all of which are mentioned in the commis- 
sion of 29 January, 1548-9 : 

1. Groats and pence of Henry's 4th and 5th types 
(Haivkins) with m.m. grappling-iron or bow, and the 
Posui legend. 

2. Groats, half-groats, and pence of Henry's 5th 
type, with m.m. bow and grappling-iron, and the Eedde 
cuique legend. 

3. Half-sovereigns and half-crowns of Edward's 
2nd issue (Kenyan), with m.m. grappling-iron, and 



EDWARD VI AND DUEHAM HOUSE. 151 

Scutum fidei legend. Also the young portrait half- 
sovereign of Henry with the same mark. 

4. Shillings of Edward with profile portrait, m.m. bow 
or grappling-iron, and with the Inimicos or Timor 
legends. 

The two mint-marks of the bow and grappling-iron 
occur on shillings of Edward dated 1548 and 1549, and 
the same marks are to be found on silver coins of 
Henry VIII. Therefore, if we follow, as I think we 
should, the proposition laid down by Sir John Evans, 
that " all coins bearing the same mint -mark, and 
evidently of no very different age, belong to one and 
the same limited period " (Num. Chron., Ser. III. 
Vol. VI. 122), we must transfer to the years 1548 and 
1549 of Edward's reign such coins of Henry as exhibit 
the two last-mentioned symbols. 

Now, Martin Bowes was appointed a master-worker at 
the Tower in 1533, an office which imposed an obliga- 
tion on the holder to insert a mark upon the coinages 
under his control, and he was promoted in 1544 to an 
under-treasurership in the same establishment. Although 
there were precedents for using mint-marks of an heraldic 
character derived from the arms of an official, and 
although Martin Bowes had ample opportunities of 
adopting the bow at any time after 1533, the mark does 
not occur until 1548 (if we have transferred Henry's 
coins, as proposed above), viz. the identical year which 
synchronizes with the opening and working of the new 
mint. From these premisses I draw the inference 
that any coins, whether of Henry or of Edward, which 
bear the bow as a mark were struck by John Bowes at 
Durham House, and not by Sir Martin Bowes at the 
Tower. 



152 HENKY SYMONDS. 

Turning to the grappling-iron mark, this attribution 
is chiefly based upon the fact that some of the Redde cuique 
coins of Henry VIII are distinguished by this mark on 
the reverse and by the bow on the obverse. The reverse 
legend on these groats and smaller pieces is so uncom- 
mon as to negative the possibility that it was used at 
more than one mint, and, having claimed these coins on 
the score of the bow and grappling-iron marks, I must 
also transfer to Durham House all other pieces which are 
stamped with the latter mark alone. 

The bow mark is rarely seen on silver and still more 
rarely on gold coins ; on the other hand, the grappling- 
iron occurs with comparative frequency upon the debased 
silver issues, and consequently it seems probable that 
this symbol was used (1) for the 4oz. fine silver coinage 
which the Commission ordered to be " continued " in 
accordance with the indenture of the previous December, 
and (2) for the smaller moneys converted from testons. 
It is also to be observed that the grappling-iron is found 
on shillings dated 1549 only, thus supporting the attri- 
bution to this mint, which was working in that particular 
year. 

The mint-mark rose has sometimes been given to 
Durham House, but as the rose is known upon shillings 
dated 1547 and 1551 respectively (see Montagu sale 
catalogue), it must be definitely rejected on the ground 
that the mint was not in existence during either of those 
years. 

Then as to the mark commonly known as the arrow. 
This symbol occurs on Henry's second-issue gold and 
silver coins (1526 onwards), and may therefore have been 
adopted by the Tower authorities before Martin Bowes 
received his earlier appointment in 1533, a contingency 



EDWARD VI AND DURHAM HOUSE. 153 

which raises a doubt as to whether the mark has any 
affinity at all with the arms or the name of that family. 
Therefore I think that the arrow should be ruled out as 
regards Durham House, seeing that it had been in use 
at the Tower during the previous twelve or fifteen years, 
and for that reason would not have been chosen by a 
new official at a new mint. 

The mint-mark swan should be regarded as being, in 
all probability, associated with the arms of Bowes, but 
as it is found on a profile shilling dated 1550, it must be 
given to Sir Martin, at the Tower Mint, if we accept the 
evidence that the Strand moneyers had ceased to work 
at the end of 1549. The swan also occurs, in conjunc- 
tion with the arrow, upon a second-issue gold crown of 
Edward VI in the cabinet of Mr. P. Carlyon-Britton, 
which is an additional reason for assigning the former 
mark to the Tower. 

Having finished what I have to say on the main sub- 
ject of this paper, I wish to propound a general theory 
as to the source of Henry VIII's posthumous silver coins, 
and to deduce therefrom a possible interpretation of an 
elusive fragment of numismatic history. I believe that 
the silver upon which these coins were struck was derived 
solely from the melting down of the condemned testons 
which had been issued in the previous reign, and that 
the titles and portraits of Henry were used on all 
occasions when such a conversion was carried out, but the 
motive which induced Edward's advisers thus to recreate 
the coinage of his father is not very apparent. The 
opinion has been expressed that the King, being desirous 
of restoring the old standards of fineness, elected to 
reproduce Henry's titles for the debased money until the 
economic situation permitted him to institute a general 



154 HENRY SYMONDS. 

scheme of improvement ; this is, at any rate, a not 
improbable solution of a difficult point. 

A study of contemporary documents proves that a 
considerable part of the work done in each of Edward's 
mints related to the conversion of the discarded pieces 
of twelve pence into groats and smaller denominations, 
chiefly of 4oz. fine silver, which was the latest and the 
worst of the standards ordered by Henry. We have an 
instance at hand of these instructions to continue the 
conversion of testons and the striking of small moneys, 
in the Durham House commission, from which extracts 
have been already quoted. Great numbers of the large 
coins must have been remelted, for in one document 
alone a sum of four thousand pounds in value is named. 
This was the occasion, in February, 1549-50, when the 
officials at Southwark were directed to revert to the 
image and superscription of the King's father (Num. 
Chron., Ser. IV. Vol. XI. p. 346). 8 The cost of the 
operation was presumably borne by the Crown, as the 
holders received by tale twelve pence in groats, &c., 
for each teston brought in, but as a few of the latter 
were of a higher standard than 4oz. fine silver, the loss 
may have been partially recouped in that way. My sug- 
gestion would account for the comparatively plentiful 
supply of posthumous groats and smaller coins of 
Henry's types, and for the corresponding scarcity of his 
testons. 

If this explanation be regarded as acceptable, I could 
use it as the foundation for a comment upon the legend 
Redde cuique quod suum est, which appears on one of the 

8 I then said that 1st February, 4 Edw. VI, the date of this interesting 
order, was in " 1550-51," which was incorrect. That day in the fourth 
regnal year should have been rendered as 1st February, 1549-50. 



EDWARD VI AND DUEHAM HOUSE. 155 

groups of coins which I have ventured to assign to 
Durham House. Sir John Evans, on p. 136 of his 
article previously cited, mentions this novel legend as 
being inappropriate to a debased coinage, as indeed it 
was at first sight, and I am not aware that its inward 
meaning has subsequently been elucidated. 

In the absence of any other solution, I think that the 
legend was placed upon a limited number of pattern 
coins which were afterwards rejected, the object of the 
graver being to indicate, somewhat obliquely, the source 
whence the metal was obtained. Accordingly I would 
paraphrase the words as, " Kender to Henry the things 
which are his." If the Eedde euique groats, &c., were 
made from teston silver, my interpretation would not be 
inconsistent with the facts, and the legend would be no 
longer inappropriate. 

It only remains to add that all the original documents 
here quoted are to be found at the Public Kecord Office. 

HENRY SYMONDS. 



VIII. 

COINS OF SOME KINGS OF HORMUZ. 

(See Plate XI.) 

THE gold coins described below were purchased, with 
the exception of No. 2, in Colombo. With them were 
26 Othmanli sequins and one Indo-Portuguese S. Thome. 
Coin No. 2 and a sequin of Murad III were found in the 
Kandy bazaars. 

The S. Thome, in weight 51 '6 grains, is of an unknown 
issue and bears no date, but very closely resembles the 
tangas of 1594 and is attributed to Philip I of Portugal 
(1580-1595). Of the sequins eleven are of Sulaiman I 
(A.D. 1520-1566), one being cut down to the weightand size 
of the gold coins under discussion, five of Selim II (1566- 
1574) and nine of Murad III (1574-1594), only oneof which 
has the formula CHJ??" O^ aA -' : the remaining piece bears 
the legend j^-JI ->j^ on both sides. Other sequins from 
the same hoard had been disposed of before the inspec- 
tion of those above mentioned by the writer. The 
evidence available points to one find in the neighbour- 
hood of Kandy two or three years ago. The silver larins 
were found in various places in the island. 

On the gold pieces occur the names of three sovereigns, 
viz. Muhammad Shah, A.H. 939 ; Salghar Shah, A.H. 942 ; 
and Tiiran Shah, A.H. 95x, 952, and 958; all appear in 
the list of the kings of Hormuz. According to the Shah 



COINS OF SOME KINGS OF HORMUZ. 157 

namah, composed in the fourteenth century by King 
Turan Shah and translated from the Persian into Spanish 
by Pedro Teixeira, 1 one Muhammad, a member of a royal 
family in southern Arabia, migrated with his followers 
to the Persian coast about A.D. 1100 and founded there 
the city of Old Hormuz, of which he became the first 
king. Later on the princes of his family would seem to 
have ruled as governors on behalf of the Salgharid 
Atabegs of Fars until, on the decline of that dynasty, 
Amir Rukn ad-din Muhammad, who died in A.H. 676 
(A.D. 1278), declared his independence. 2 About the year 
700 (A.D. 1301) the invasions of the Ilkhans led to the 
foundation of the city of New Hormuz on the island of 
Jariin at the entrance to the Persian Gulf and the 
transfer of the seat of government thereto. At the 
beginning of the sixteenth century the kingdom included 
besides the capital, the islands of Bahrein, Kishm, and 
Kais in the Gulf, Kalhat, Muscat, and Sohar on the 
Arabian coast, as well as some territory held as a fief of 
the Shah of Persia on the opposite mainland. 

Hormuz was then of such importance as a centre of 
trade and of such wealth that de Albuquerque resolved 
to subject it : accordingly he visited the city in 1507, 
when he made the king Ceifadim (Saif ad-din) a 
tributary of Portugal and began the construction of a 
fortress. Ceifadim died of poison, and was succeeded, 
apparently at the end of 1513, 3 by his brother Torunxa, 
Terunxa, or Turuxa (Turan Shah), in whose reign de 

1 The Travels of Pedro Teixeira, Hakluyt Society: Appendix A, 
Kings of Hormuz. 

2 Kings of Hormuz, p. 161, note 3. 

3 Hakluyt Society's Commentaries of Afonso Dalboquerque, Part IV., 
capp. 24, 30 (p. 136), and 33 (p. 147). Correa gives 1515, Lendas da 
India, torn. II., p. 420. 



158 H. W. CODRINGTON. 

Albuquerque again visited Hormuz and firmly established 
the Portuguese power, but without interference in the 
internal administration of the kingdom. Some years 
later, however, Portuguese officials were placed in charge 
of the customs and a general revolt broke out : on its 
failure Torunxa fled to Kishm and was poisoned by his 
minister, who raised Mahamed Xa or Patxa Mahmet Xa 
(Padshah Muhammad Shah), son of Ceifadim, to the 
throne early in 1522 (A.H. 928). This prince dying in 
1534 (A.H. 940-1), his son, a child of eight, succeeded, 
but was soon poisoned by his " uncle " Rayx Ale (Rais 
'Ali), who assumed the sovereignty. 4 Deposed in 1541, 
according to Correa he was restored early in 1544 and 
died of poison shortly afterwards. 5 He is doubtless 
identical with Xargol Xa (Salghar Shah), son of Torunxa, 
who, according to de Couto, succeeded Mahamed Xa and 
died in November, 1543 (A.H. 950). It was this prince 
who surrendered the customs to the King of Portugal in 
Muharram A.H. 948. 6 His son Torunxa, a boy of twelve, 
was sent from Goa 7 to take his place, and died about 1563 
(A.H. 970-1), when the throne was occupied for a few 
months by his aged uncle Babu Xa or Mamu Xa. The 
next ruler was this prince's son Ferrago Xa (Farrukh 
Shah), who began his reign in 1564 or 1565 (A.H. 971- 
973), and dying about 1601 (A.H. 1010), was succeeded in 
turn by his sons Firruxa (? Firoz Shall), who governed 
until his death in February, 1609 (A.H. 1071), and 
Mamede Xa (Muhammad Shah), during whose reign the 

4 Castanheda, Liv. VIII., cap. 76. 

5 Correa, torn. IV., capp. 16, 23, 47, and 49. His name is not 
mentioned. 

6 De Couto, Dec. V., liv. IX., cap. 5, and liv. X., cap. 1. 

7 According to Correa, cap. 53, he was in Hormuz at his father's 
death. 



COINS OF SOME KINGS OF HORMUZ. 159 

capital fell into the hands of the allied English and 
Persians in 1622 (A.H. 1031). 8 Hormuz thereafter ceased 
to be of importance and its trade passed to Bandar 
'Abbas. 

The Shi'ah formula appearing on these coins also points 
to Persia or the Persian Gulf as a probable locality of 
the mint of issue. According to Teixeira the people of 
Hormuz were Shi'ahs and Sunnis, the kings belonging 
to the latter sect : 9 Pyrard, however, states that the 
kings " sont Mahometans comme les Perses." 10 If they 
were not Shi'ahs, the political dependence of Hormuz on 
Persia may perhaps account for the presence of the 
formula. 11 Further, the weight of the coins is not incom- 
patible with their identification as Hormuz xerafins of 
300 reis each, when compared with the Venetian sequin 
of 420 and the pagoda of 360 reis. The general con- 
clusion, therefore, is that these gold coins are ashrafis or 
xerafins of Hormuz, struck by the kings of that place 
under the suzerainty of the Portuguese. 

The Commentaries of Afonso Dalboquerque show that in 
the early years of the sixteenth century the xerafim was 
the chief coin of the countries bordering the Persian Gulf 



8 The historical sketch given above is chiefly from Mr. Donald 
Ferguson's notes to the Kings of Hormuz. Mr. Ferguson, however, is 
not quite correct in attributing to de Couto the statement that on the 
death of Ceifadim there succeeded Xargol Xa, son of Torunxa. The 
original Portuguese has : " For morte deste (sc. Mahamed Xa, que 
reinou nove annos, e era filho de Ceifadim) succedeo Xargol Xa, filho 
de Torunxa." He adds, however : " Este Xargol mandou depois Nuno 
da Cunha ir succedir no Beyno, vindo-lhe novas da morte d'El-Bey 
Ceifadim," an obvious error (Dec. V., liv. IX., cap. 10). 
9 Kings of Hormuz, p. 168. 

10 Paris edition of 1679, Vol. II., cap. 18, p. 155. 

11 In 1513 Ceifadim accepted " the cap and prayer of the Xeque 
Ismael " (Sh&h Ism'ail I) and admitted his supremacy : he apparently 
became a Shi'ah. Comm. Dalboq., Part IV., capp. 18 and 30. 



160 H. W. CODRINGTON. 

and the Arabian Sea. Correa 12 mentions " xerafins e 
tangas de prata " at Hormuz under the date 1507, and 
in the same year the tribute extorted from the king of 
that place was paid in xerafins, as was the ransom of 
Muscat, a town then in his dominions. 13 

Nunes, describing the moneys of India in his Lyvro 
dos pesos da Ymdia, written in 1554, puts the value of the 
xerafim of Aden at 360 reis and gives the following 
detailed account of the Hormuz currency : 



Faluz of 10 dinares . . . 1^ reis (nearly) 
gadim (^+*> 100 ") of 100 dinares 13|i 
Azar (jtJA 1000 ") of 10 cadis . 139f* ; , 
Pardao de ?adis of 2 azares . . 279^ ,, 
Xerafim douro (xerafim of gold = 21^ cadis of good 
money or 300 reis in Hormuz. In India its value was 
2 or 3 per cent, higher through shroffage, but by the 
author's time had fallen to 300 reis, gold of less fineness 
being used for the coin. 

Tanga de prata (silver tanga or larin)=4^ gadis (62^ 
reis), but in 1554 had risen to 5 9adis (69| reis), five 
making the pardao of 360 reis. 

Of these denominations the dinar was the unit, for in 
the surrender of the customs to the King of Portugal by 
Salghar Shah already referred to, 40 lakhs are said to 
be equal to 1800 xerafins of gold and 250 lakhs to 9036 
pardaos of gold (pardaos douro). 14 A payment of 2000 
"faluzes" is recorded as having been made by Albuquerque 
at Kalhat, then under Hormuz. 15 

12 Tom. I., p. 239, quoted by Aragiio, Mocdas cunhadas em name dos 
reis, &c., Vol. III., p. 93. 

13 Comm. Dalboq., Part I., capp. 34 and 24. 

14 De Couto, Dec. V., Liv. IX., cap. 5. 

15 Comm. Dalboq., Part I., cap. 59. 



COINS OF SOME KINGS OF HORMUZ. 161 

In Aragao's Document, No. 96 of 1668, mention is made 
of coinage at Goa from " sadis," " abacis," and other silver 
pieces, taken as prize from the Arab fleet by D. Jeronymo 
Manuel. The silver of the sadi was very base, for to 
every mark of it two ounces of refined silver had to be 
added to make ten ounces of standard silver, namely, that 
of the current xerafins. This piece is said by Teixeira 
in his Kings of Persia, written at Hormuz, to have been 
"just half a real." 16 Da Cunha in Contributions to the 
Study of Indo- Portuguese Numismatics, also mentions 
under the year 1618 " Salares," Persian coins from 
Hormuz, in value about 90 reis each. 

In the first half of the sixteenth century the Venetian 
sequin was valued at seven tangas, of 60 reis each, the 
pardao douro or pagoda at six, and the xerafim of Hormuz 
at five : the two last with the silver tanga continued to 
form the bulk of the gold and silver currency in Goa 
until the minting of the gold S. Thome between 1545 
and 1548. 17 The first disturbance of these values appears 
to have been caused by the issue of a patacao of bad 
silver in 1550 as the equivalent of the pagoda ; its 
coinage was stopped in 1566, but the relief obtained was 
short as two years later debased silver xerafins of 300 
reis were struck in Cochin (Aragao Doct., No. 9). 



16 Teixeira's Travels, p. 214. The sh&hi at Basra was of the value of 
the real sexille, ibid., p. 30. Thus 100 Hormuz dmfirs equalled approxi- 
mately 25 Persian. 

17 [1510-?1545] "e por auer muita moeda de pard&os douro, xerafins, 
tangas laaris, que vinhao dormuz, nfio quisera mandar laurar mais que 
esta moeda de cobre pela muita abastanga que da outra auia." 

" e nunca ate entiio [1545-8] nhu destes Visorreis e governadores 
entenderao no lauramento da moeda douro nem prata, vendo que auia 
muita bastana della, e vallia hu pardao redondo seis tangas laarins, 
e hu xerafim dormuz cinquo, e hu venezeano sete." (Aragao, Doct., 
No. 9, pp. 459, 460.) 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. M 



162 H. W. CODKINGTON. 

By a letter of the king D. Sebastiao dated June 16, 
1569, the coining of the Cochin xerafim was forbidden 
and the old values restored : accordingly the pardao 
douro redondo and the S. Thome were to run at six 
tangas of 60 reis each, and the Venetian at seven, while 
five larins of silver were to equal one pardao douro of 
six tangas ; all other gold coins, presumably including 
the Hormuz xerafim, were to be valued in proportion 
according to their weight and fineness (ibid., Doct., No. 9). 
However, in August of the same year the Viceroy D. Luiz 
de Athayde struck new silver xerafims of 11 dinheiros 
fine to be current at 300 reis each (ibid., Doct., Nos. 10 
and 11), and in his second term of office (1578-1581) 
issued others, but so debased that the Venetian rose 
from seven tangas to ten, the pardao redondo from six 
to nine, and the xerafin douro from five to seven and a 
half (ibid., Doct., No. 16). 

From the above it would appear that the xerafim of 
Hormuz was identical with the xerafim douro and was 
the prototype of the Indo-Portuguese silver coin of the 
same designation and nominal value. 

The larins, Nos. 8-12, described below bear the same 
design as the gold coins : on two is the name of Turan 
Shah, and on three that of Farrukh Shah. The " tangas 
laaris " of Hormuz, already mentioned by Correa in 1507 
under the name of " tangas de prata," were current in 
Goa with the gold pardao and xerafim apparently from 
the conquest of that city in 1510, and so continued at 
least until 1569 (ibid., Doct., No. 9, pp. 459, 463). 
Pyrard in the early years of the seventeenth century, 
speaking of the silver larin, says : " C'est une sorte de 
monnoye qui court par toutes les Indes, & il s'en fait en 
beaucoup d'endroits, mais la meilleure se forge a Qrmaz " 



COINS OF SOME KINGS OP HORMUZ. 163 

(vol. I. chap. 27) ; and again in his account of that place : 
" II en vient aussi quantite de monnoye d'argent que 1'on 
appelle Larins, qui est le rneilleur argent du monde, & 
on les nomme Larins d'Ormus " (vol. II. chap. 18). 

This coin, in common use on the west coast of India, 
was current for many years at 60 reis. Thus in 1525 at 
Diu 5^ fedeas or one tanga, and in Cambaya one tanga 
lary, were equal to this sum (Lembrancas das cousas da 
India, in Subsidies para a historidia da India-Portugueza, 
pp. 36, 38), and a letter of the king, dated February 18 
of the same year, reprehends the practice of giving five 
tangas in silver for the gold pardao, which it states 
was generally worth six (Aragao, p. 123). In 1534-1535 
at the building of the fortress of Diu, the chief money 
was the tanga de prata, five going to the pardao of 300 
reis and six to the pardao douro, and although it after- 
wards rose in value as bullion until five went to the gold 
pardao, it continued until 1557 to be reckoned locally at 
60 reis (ibid., Doct., No. 4). 

That this tanga was the larin is shown by the letter 
of the king D. Sebastiao already referred to, in which it 
is stated that before the governorship of D. Joao de 
Castro (1545-1548) the pardao redondo was worth six 
"tangas laarius," the xerafim of Hormuz five and the 
Venetian seven (v, note 17). At Goa in the time of 
Nunes, though the old valuation remained in force in 
some places, the silver tanga was current for 60 leaes or 
72 reis, namely, at the rate of five to the pardao douro : 
this circulation, however, was forced, as on the mainland 
it was valued at 80 leaes (96 reis) or more (Aragao, Doct., 
No. 9). 

The first Portuguese tangas of 60 reis each appear 
to have been struck with the silver patacoes, though 



164 H. W. CODKINGTON. 

probably not at their first issue in 1550, and were styled 
" tangas redondas " or round tangas, presumably to 
distinguish them from the wire larin (ibid.) ; there can 
be but little doubt that they were derived from it 
through the medium of a tanga of account. It would 
thus seem probable that the currency system finally 
adopted by the Portuguese, namely, of 60 reis to the 
tanga and 5 tangas to the xerafim, differing as it did 
from that of de Albuquerque at Goa, 18 was based, at 
least for the higher denominations, on the two principal 
trade coins of the Arabian Sea, the larin and the ashrafi. 
The design of all the coins consists of an area enclosed 
in a square, the sides of which are produced, and in its 
general appearance may be compared with that of the 
coins of the Shahs Ism'ail I and Tahrnasp I, where, 
however, the sides of the square are formed of the name 
<A (cf. British Museum Catalogue of the Coins of the Shahs 
of Persia, Plate I, Nos. 3 and 10). In the area on the 
obverse is the date in letters or ciphers, and in the reverse 
area, the name of the king. The legend in the margin is 
divided into four compartments by the prolonged sides 
of the square, but does not commence at the same point 
in all the coins : that on the obverse of most appears to 
be *JJI ^ ^U | AJJI J 5 ^, j**~* | AJUt ^1 AM N) and on the 
fourth side ^w [>>*> *->j*b ?] the word iiw being trans- 
ferred to the area when the date is in ciphers, and on 
the reverse: AU? AJDI? jJL*. | li ^ ? \^t^\ \ ^UaJLJi 
The weights of the gold coins may be compared with 
those of the Salgharid Atabegs of Fars, to whom 
Hormuz, as already stated, appears to have been once 
subject. 

18 Based on the local bazaruco, barganim, (barakani) and pardao 
douro or pagoda. 



COINS OF SOME KINGS OF HOBMUZ. 165 



MUHAMMAD SHAH. 

Obv. Rev. 

1. N. Area: *~[3] or *j[jl] j^a*^ 

^ j li 

^^[Xj] and ornament. 

23 

U*-.[3] 
Margins : 

left : *XM ^1 A) I [}] right : [aSX]* jJU. 

below : J^>A~O below : [al]w ^[j] 

Dated 939 (1532-3) or 934 (1527-8). Weight, 38-7 
grains. Diameter, 0'590 inch. [PI. XI. 1.] 



SALGHAR SHAH. 
2. N. Area : j O^' 

jJ-jSUjI 

AJ and ornament. 



Margins : 

above : <Uw ? illegible. 

Dated 942 (1535-6). Weight, 38 -5 grains. Dia- 
meter, 0-570 inch. [PI. XI. 2.] 



TURAN SHAH. 
3. N. Area: ^-o-i. 



Margins : 

right : >[>] ? above : [^ 

below : -u [?] right : j^Xi. or 

Dated 95. Weight, 37-2 grains. Diameter, 0'531 

inch. [PI. XL 3.] 



166 H. W. CODKINGTON. 

Obv. Rev. 

4. N. Area : Sj 



Margins : 

right: <U)[I] above: 

above : not read. right : 

Dated 9Gic. Weight, 39' 1 grains. Diameter, 0-531 

inch. [PI. XI. 4.] 

5. N. Area: 



Margins : 

right: ^3 jXc left: 

Dated 952 (1545-6). Weight, 38-5 grains. Dia- 
meter, 0-570 inch. [PI. XI. 5.] 

6. ^V. Area : *^I s 



Margins : 

above : &*> and ? J-[^A] above : 
Dated 952 (1545-6). Weight, 38 grains. Diameter, 
0-531 inch. [PI. XI. 6.] 

7. N. Area : ^ > A o 



Margins : 

above : aJUl *})[!] above : [ 

below : [al].w ^>[j] ? 
right : [**]^ 

Dated 958 (1551). Weight, 39-4 grains. Diameter, 
0-531 inch. [PI. XI. 7.] 

JR. Area: o5 Lf^l 



Margins : 

left : dJ I *^ ? above : ~ 

right : [ J>]wj below : ^j 

Weight, 75 grains. [PI. XI. 8.] 



COINS OF SOME KINGS OF HOKMUZ. 167 

Obv. Eev. 

9. JR. Area : ? ? ^ v UJ 

Margins : 

right : not read. left : <tJU 

Weight, 75-8 grains. [PI. XI. 9.] 

FARRUKH SHAH. 

10. JR. Area: 

part of square. 

Margins : right : 

left : <ixU or jJl*. 
Weight, 69 grains. [PI. XI. 10.] 

11. M. Area: [ ? ^ v] r ? 



Margins : 

right: [*JU]| ^ above: 

left : illegible. below : illegible. 

Dated (?) 972 (1564-5). Weight, 69-4 grains. 

[PI. XL 11.] 

12. JR. Area: | r 19 
Margins : 

above : illegible. left : illegible, 

below: [J>]-fj] right: O UaJLJI 

Dated (?) 993 (1585). Weight, 75 grains (bent). 

[PI. XI. 12.] 

H. W. CODRINGTON, 
Ceylon Civil Service. 

19 i is on the edge of the larin and may be part of * , the whole read- 
ing 1 1 r. 



BARCLAY VINCENT 'HEAD. 

As we go to press, the news comes of the death, on 
June 12, after a long and painful illness patiently 
endured, of Barclay Vincent Head, formerly a Vice- 
President of the Eoyal Numismatic Society (1908), 
and from 1869 to 1910 one of the Editors of the 
Numismatic Chronicle. Mr. Head joined the staff of 
the British Museum in 1864; from 1893 to 1906 he 
was Keeper of the Department of Coins and Medals. 
For readers of the Numismatic Chronicle it is un- 
necessary to dwell upon the achievements of the man 
under whom the English School of Greek Numismatics, 
rose to the first rank. Nor is this the place to 
characterize the personal qualities which endeared 
him to those who had the good fortune to work with 
or under him. In our next issue we hope to give 
a full bibliography of his numismatic writings. 

THE EDITORS. 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PL. VII. 




BRITISH MUSEUM, GREEK ACQUISITIONS, 1913. 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PL. VIII. 







BRITISH MUSEUM, GREEK ACQUISITIONS, 1913. 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PL. IX. 




3. UNCERTAIN SPANISH. 4-9 TARRACO. 10-13 CARTHAGE? 14,15 NARB 
16-19 UNCERTAIN GALLIC (AUGUSTODUNUM ?). 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PL. X 




f i-fp &) 

vi 

iv^LtiBy 





1. UNCERTAIN GALLIC (AUGUSTODUNUM ?) ; 2-6 LUGDUNUM ; 
7,8 MOGONTIACUM (?); 9 VETERA (?) ; 10-16 ROME. 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PL. XI. 

















COINS OF KINGS OF HORMUZ. 



IX. 
NICHOLAS BKIOT AND THE CIVIL WAE. 

(See Plates XII.-XV.) 

IT is many years since Thomas Carlyle sketched in 
rapid strokes an episode in the life of Thomas Simon, 
connected with the history of Oliver Cromwell, dismiss- 
ing the affairs of the eminent engraver and his pre- 
decessor, Nicholas Briot, as only worthy of mention in 
that " they have the honour of passing relation to the 
Lord General, and still enjoy, or suffer a kind of ghost- 
existence in the Dilettante memory." l 

The noted historian quotes from Harris's Life of 
Cromwell Oliver's letter of thanks to the Committee of 
the Army, which refers to Simon's journey to Scotland, 
undertaken for the purpose of modelling the General's 
portrait, for reproduction upon the Dunbar medal. This 
is a letter which contains a recommendation that the 
artist should succeed to the " imploym 1 in yo r service w h 
Nicholas Briot had before him," 2 and Carlyle terminated 

1 Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, by Thomas Carlyle, 
edition of 1845, vol. ii. p. 110. 

2 Letter dated Edinburgh, February 4, 1650, printed in the Life of 
Cromwell, by Dr. W. Harris, ed. 1762, pp. 538-539 ; see also Vertue's 
Medals, Coins, &c., of Thomas Simon, Gough's edition of 1780, p. 74, 
where it is noted that the name of Briot is inscribed in the original 
MS. in another hand, Cromwell merely desiring the vacant place for 
Simon and apparently leaving a blank to be filled by one more con- 
versant with Mint affairs. 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SEEIES IV. N 



170 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

his brief review with the words " Symonds, we see, did 
get the place of Nicholas Briot, and found it like other 
brave men's places full of hard work and short rations 
Enough of Symonds and the Seals and Effigies." 
Deeming it, however, necessary to explain the nature of 
the appointment, requested for Simon by Cromwell, as 
a personal favour to himself, Carlyle devotes a few 
sentences to Nicholas Briot, quoting an order printed in 
the Commons' Journals under date August 20, 1642, 
with regard to the retention of a cargo of mint material 
shipped by him from London to the King's assistance. 4 
We read "that the Earl of Warwick be desired, that 
Monsieur Bryatt may have Delivery of his Wearing 
Apparel, and all other his goods, stayed at Scarborough, 
not belonging to Minting and Coining Monies." 

Carlyle thereupon disposes of the life-story of Charles 
I's favourite graver in a few characteristic words as 
follows : " This Nicholas Briot, or Bryatt then must have 
been Chief Engraver for the Mint at the beginning of 
the Civil Wars. We perceive he has gone to the King 
Northward, but is here stopt at Scarborough with all his 
baggage, by Warwick, the Lord High Admiral ; and is 
to get away. What became of him afterwards or what 
was his history before, no man and hardly any Dilettante 
knows." 5 

But although the artist may occupy a less important 
position in the world's chronicles than that filled by 
Oliver Cromwell, the student of history admits that the 
various coinages of Charles I offer an interesting itinerary 
of the King's travels. Let me therefore assume the part 

3 Carlyle, ibid., vol. ii. p. 113. 

4 Commons' Journals, vol. ii. p. 728. 
3 Carlyle, ibid., p. 111. 



NICHOLAS BBIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 171 

of Carlyle's " Dilettante," availing myself of the help 
afforded by many writers, who have outlined the portrait 
of Nicholas Briot, since the time of the Scottish historian, 
yes, and before, had he cared to acquaint himself with 
their publications. 6 I crave forgiveness for unavoidably 
repeating an oft-told tale, on the plea that some manu- 
scripts have fallen in my way, which although ably 
calendared at the Public Eecord Office, were necessarily 
curtailed in the printed indices. I hope by their aid to 
throw light upon questions which have hitherto puzzled 
us with regard to Briot's career, especially in reference 
to the coinages of York and Oxford. 

We need not carefully review the early history of the 
man, for Monsieur Mazerolle 7 and other foreign writers 8 
have patiently elucidated the details of his life. More 
recently Mr. Henry Symonds has brought before us 
episodes concerning our artist's struggle for supremacy 
at the Tower Mint, 9 and has cleared away a certain 
mystery which hung about the date and place of his 
death. 10 Moreover, I, myself, have ventured to deal with 



H Snelling's View of the Silver Coins, p. 37, Folkes" A Table of English 
Silver Coins, p. 79, and Buding's Annals of the Coinage, vol. i. pp. 
395 to 397, dealing with Briot's history, were all published some time 
before the first edition (1845) of Carlyle's Letters of Oliver Cromwell. 

' Les Mtdailletirs Franqais du XV iime au XVII iime Siecle, par 
F. Mazerolle, and Nicolas Briot Tailleur General des Monnaies, in the 
Revue Beige de Numismatique, 1904, pp. 191 to 203 and 295 to 314. 

8 Les Medailleurs et les G-raveurs de Monnaies, par N. Bondot, 6dite 
par H. de la Tour, pp. 261-5, &c. ; L'CEuvre du Medailleur Nicolas 
Briot, par J. Bouyer, Revue Beige, 1895, pp. 132 to 136, 371 to 399, and 
508 to 553 ; also A. Dauban in the Revue Numismatique, N.S. 1857, 
Tom 2, pp. 14 to 64. 

Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. pp. 363 to 367: " English Mint 
Engravers," by Henry Symonds. 

19 Ntim. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. X. p. 397, note 3 : " Charles I. Trials 
of the Pyx." 

N2 



172 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

Briot's history in an early volume of the British Numis- 
matic Journal. 11 Were it not for some chronological diffi- 
culties, therefore, we need not discuss his career in detail 
previously to the outbreak of the Civil War. But suffice 
it for our immediate purpose that a member of a noted 
Protestant family of engravers and medallists, Nicholas, 
or rather Nicolas, according to the original spelling of 
his name, was born a French subject, circa 1579 or 1580, 
at Damblain in Bassigny in the Duchy of Bar ; that 
although Tailleur General des Monnaies de France from 
1606 to 1625, he was unsuccessful in his endeavours to 
establish a milled currency, in spite of being upheld by 
Louis XIV in his desires. His constant insubordination 
to the Cour des Monnaies and his visits without leave 
to Nancy, the capital of Lorraine, where he intermittently 
superintended the mint, militated against a peaceful 
settlement of all questions which related to his position. 12 
From 1622 to 1625 his methods of coining were under 
constant discussion, but in July, 1624, he as Fermier 
General de la Monnaie owed six months' wages to his 
workmen, and could no longer battle with the situation. 
In May, 1625, he offered his place for sale, and although 
the King granted him a delay for the settlement of his 
affairs, his situation in France became untenable and he 
fled to England. 13 His presence is attested in Paris so 



11 British Numismatic Journal, vol. v. : " Portraiture of our Stuart 
Monarchs on their Coins and Medals," Part I. 

12 Briot became Tailleur Ge'ne'ral to the Due de Lorraine in 1611, 
but in 1616, in consequence of his frequent absences from Paris, he 
was forbidden by the Cour des Monnaies to work " pour aucuns princes 
et monnoys estrangeres," but some exceptions were, however, made 
later. See Mazerolle's Briot Tailleur General, p. 198, and Medail- 
leurs, vol. i. pp. cxii to cxiv. 

13 See Mazerolle's Medailleurs, cxxi to cxxv, and Tailleur General, 
pp. 303 to 309. Monsieur Mazerolle writes : " Le roi le 15 Mai accorda 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 173 

late as July 9 (N.S.), 1625, 14 and Monsieur Mazerolle 
places his departure between September 16 and 
October 31 (N.S.), 1625, 15 and to these dates I shall 
have occasion to refer later. 

It does not concern us to follow the controversies of 
French writers as to how much the mechanical ap- 
pliances, which our Briot had fruitlessly tried to impose 
upon the Paris mint, were his own, or only a revival 
of those used in the Monnaie du Moulin by Bechot, 16 or 
more probably the result of his studies in Germany. 17 
Be this as it may, to Charles I his methods were wel- 
come. 

cependant un delai a Briot pour quitter 1'hotel des Monnaies de Paris. 
Un nouveau fermier Gabriel Davin etait nomme le 3 Juin suivant " 
(Tailleur General, p. 309). 
u Mazerolle's Medailleurs, vol. i. p. 472. 

15 Briot Tailleur General, p. 309, and Hedailleurs, vol. i. p. 484, and 
Introduction, p. cxxvi. 

16 The Monnaie du Moulin was established in Prance for a short 
time under Henri II, but with few exceptions milled coins were not 
made between the death of Henri in 1559, and 1639 when Varin 
revived the method. See Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. IX. pp. 68 
and 83. 

17 It is only necessary to remember that his method included the 
use of two engraved cylinders, a machine then employed in Germany 
but which had the defect of producing somewhat bent pieces. This 
unintentional curve is discernible both on the Scottish and York 
coinages, but was avoided by the care bestowed on the Tower pieces 
(see Medailleurs, vol. i. p. 384). By the adoption of a double crank 
to his press he partly remedied this curvature in France in 1613, 
but not being entirely successful, he added a flattening press in 1624. 
His flattening mill was moved by horse power, whilst his " monnoyoir " 
was an instrument which must somewhat have resembled the seven- 
teenth-century Spanish press described by Mr. Hill at our last 
February meeting (see Num. Chron., 1914, Part I. pp. 90-92). Briot's 
invention was worked by two men only, and superior to the old 
Monnaie du Moulin, in that " la monnoye ne s'y marque pas entiere- 
ment et tout d'un coup entre deux carreaux, comme faisoit celle du 
Moulin, ains en coulant entre deux rouleaux d'acier sur lesquels la 
figure de 1'espece de monnoye est gravee." See Mazerolle's Medail- 
leurs, vol. i. pp. cxiv and 399. 



174 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

It is not known whether Theodore de Mayerne, who, 
filling the office of physician to James I, had continued 
his ministrations under his successor, suggested that 
his confrere should be invited to the Court, but it is 
stated that Briot practised as a doctor on his arrival in 
England, 18 and it is possible that the two Frenchmen 
met in the exercise of their profession. That they 
were acquainted is clear, for Briot 's first dated medal iu 
this country portrays de Mayerne in 1625. Amongst 
the Miscellanea in the Numismatic Chronicle is men- 
tioned a writ for a large payment due to the French 
artist in April, 1626, for working in the King's employ 
only a few months after his arrival, resulting in the sum 
of 100 being paid to him under an order of the 
following November. It appears that Briot had pro- 
vided " sundry particulars by him brought by His 
Majesty's commandement needful and necessary for the 
making of stamps to stamp certain pieces of largess of 
gold and silver in memory of His Majesty's Coronation, 
as also for his labour and pains, taken in making and 
graving certain puncheons for the shaping of His 
Majesty's picture and the other devices upon the said 
pieces of largess ; and likewise for making a little 
signet for his Majesty, remaining in his own custody," 
&c., &c. 19 

From this time forward the history of Briot is mainly 
a repetition of the antagonism outlined in France. 



18 " Nicolas Briot estoit retir6 en Angleterre. II exergoit audict 
royaume la mMecine et avoit faict de belles cures, mesme qu'il avoit 
faict et grav6 les sceaux du roy d'Angleterre." Evidence given in 
January, 1628, before the Cour des Monnaies. See Mazerolle's Mtdail- 
leurs, vol. i. pp. 484-5 and cxxvi. 

19 Printed from the Pell Records in Num. Chron., 1st Ser., Vol. IV. 
p. 182. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 175 

Accepted by the King, unacceptable at the Mint, the 
foreign artist was, however, permitted more freedom in 
London than in Paris, and although his position at first 
received less official sanction than in his own country, 
the comparatively large issue of milled currency attri- 
butable to him attests the success of his methods. 

But we cannot follow him now through the period of 
his semi-recognition ; there are frequent grants under 
the Privy Seal from 1626 onward there is a definite 
appointment bestowed by Charles I in December, 1628 ^ 
there is evidence of his constant employment from 
that time forward. His official status was assured as 
" one of the chief gravers " on January 22, 1633-4. 21 
In Scotland also his position was regularly defined in 
1635, 22 but he had already given passing attention to the 
northern mint for a considerable time, reporting upon 
desired alterations in 1632-5, when opposition to the 
introduction of the milled methods alone caused delay. 23 

Let these facts suffice, and let me refer my readers in 
search of details concerning his private contracts with 
the King for the making of seals and other matters 
to my articles on Stuart portraiture in the British 



20 Printed in abstract by Rymer (see Fcedera, vol. xix. p. 40), but 
for the first time published in extenso by Mr. Symonds in Num. 
Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. pp. 364-365. 

21 This grant was of an annuity of 50 from Christmas, 1632, 
during pleasure (see Num. Chron., as above, p. 367). 

- His appointment to the Scottish Mint was of August 7, 1635. His 
superintendence of the northern currency was principally in 1637 (see 
Burns, The Coinage of Scotland, vol. ii. pp. 446-451). He was, how- 
ever, temporarily in Scotland in 1633 (see British Numismatic Journal, 
vol. v. pp. 172-173) ; and had been commended to the Scottish mint 
to "sett up " the required "instruments" for making copper money 
in the year 1631 (see Cochran-Patrick's Records of the Coinage of 
Scotland, vol. ii. pp. 75-88). 

23 Burns, ibid., vol. ii. p. 448. 



176 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

Numismatic Journal?* where references will be found to 
various State Papers ; or rather let them turn to the more 
recent publication in the Numismatic Chronicle* 5 on the 
" English Mint Engravers " by Mr. Henry Symonds, who 
generously placed his proof sheets at my disposal for 
reference, and has constantly afforded me much assist- 
ance from the time when we first found ourselves 
engaged on the same line of research at the Public 
Record Office last year. 

Let us take Briot then as we find him at the out- 
break of the Civil War, the servant of the State at a 
yearly salary of 50, 26 but owing his position to the 
steady patronage of the King, whose patent, as we have 
just learned from Mr. Symonds, had granted him the 
far larger fee of 250. 2 7 

The political situation in the early months of 1642 
had become so strained that the King deemed it prudent 
to quit the capital and gather his more loyal subjects 
about him in the North. He made his way to York 
on March 19, 1641-2, and used this city as head-quarters 
and the rendezvous of his party for five months. He 
sent for and obtained the Great Seal, but before long, 
considerations concerning money for carrying out his 
war preparations obtruded themselves upon his mind. 
According to tradition, as held by Folkes and Ruding, 
York had enjoyed minting privileges under Charles I 



24 British Numismatic. Journal, vol. ii., " Portraiture of the Stuarts 
on the Royalist Badges," and vol. v., " Portraiture of our Stuart 
Monarchs on their Coins and Medals." 

25 Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. X., " Charles I. Trials of the Pyx " ; 
and Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII., " English Mint Engravers of 
the Tudor and Stuart Periods, 1485 to 1688." 

26 See note 21 above. 

27 Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. p. 365. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 177 

since 1629. 28 Be this as it may, the well-designed, well- 
minted coins issued from this city have always been 
attributed to Briot. 

What could be more natural than that the King, who 
had always patronized this engraver, should require his 
presence in the north ? It would seem that the Mint, 
if it existed at all at that date, was deficient in instru- 
ments and accommodation, and was not prepared for the 
task thrown upon it. Plate was contributed to the royal 
cause, and no time was to be lost in converting it into 
currency. The difficulty of conveying money to the 
King was great, although the Tower mint was still 
nominally in his hands, and we may wonder whether 
the emergency of the moment and the temptation held 
out by the possibility of coining upon the spot without 
supervision, caused the monarch's advisers to revive a 
proposition of making coins of inferior quality or lighter 
weight than those then current, a proposal which had 
been negatived by Charles at the instance of Sir Thomas 
Roe in the previous year. 29 Possibly this was the case, 



28 Ruding's Annals, vol. i. p. 385, edit. 1840, and Folkes' A Table of 
English Silver Coins, p. 79, edit. 1763. "It is said that a mint was 
erected at York when the great Earl Strafford was president of the North, 
which office he entered upon about the beginning of the year " [1629]. 
Folkes and Ruding suggest that the well-rounded York coins were 
probably due to Briot's presence with the King in his progress to Scot- 
land in 1633. Doubt has, however, been thrown upon so early a 
foundation for this mint, as we shall see later. 

29 Rushworth, in his Collections (vol. iii. p. 183, edit. 1706), after 
speaking of the King's lack of money in July, 1640, writes : " It was 
therefore propos'd in Council to mix Silver and Copper together and 
to coin 300000Z., three Pence in silver added to a quantity of Copper 
being to go for Twelve pence, which by proclamation should be declar'd 
current Money to pay the Army marching to Newcastle " [to oppose 
the Scots]. " After several days debate his Majesty and the Council 
thought fit to hear Sir Thomas Row's opinion (a member of the 
Council) who was well skill'd in coins and spake to this effect. He 



178 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

for, judging from a correspondence which passed between 
Secretary Nicholas 30 and our friend the engraver, who 
was still at the Tower, some such suggestion must have 
been made, greatly to the chagrin of Briot. The first 
letter belonging to this series, preserved at the Public 
Record Office, is assigned to May 1, 1642, and Briot 
therein requests the King to appoint deputies to hear a 
proposal from himself that the currency be not debased. 31 
He writes in French and at some length, but does not 
state what plan he wishes to bring forward further 
than to suggest his conviction that thereby the King is 
sure to find persons who will lend the required money, 
until such time as he shall enjoy his own again. He 
argues against any idea of raising the nominal value 
of the gold or silver coins extant, and deprecates the 
entire recoinage which would be necessary if the standard 
and alloy were altered. " S'il plaist au Roy somniettre 
et deputter Tel de ses Conseillers on autres quil luy 
plaira pour Entendre Briot sur la proposition et reigle- 
ment quil entend de proposer Concernant Les Monnoyes 
de Sa d Majeste, au moyen duquel il fera veoir, que 



conceiv'd the intended Project of enfeebling the Coin, would intrench 
very far upon the Honour, Justice and Profit of the King," &c., &c. 

30 Sir Edward Nicholas (1593-1669) was appointed Secretary of 
State by Charles I in 1641, and acted as one of the King's Com- 
missioners at the Treaty of Uxbridge (1644-5). He remained with 
Charles I until the surrender of Oxford in 1645, and then resided 
abroad until the Restoration, when he served Charles II in the same 
capacity until August, 1662. 

31 MS. State Papers, Domestic, Carl. I, Vol. DXXXIX. No. 87. 
Without suggesting that experiments were made with the King's 
consent in a base coinage at York, I may call attention to the 
occasional occurrence of specimens of Hks. types 1 to 4 of inferior 
quality, whilst types 5 to 7 are usually remarkably fine. It is, how- 
ever, not unlikely that the pieces of poorer metal are contemporary 
forgeries. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 179 

Legitimement et prompternent il se trouvera personnes, 
qui feront des auances de Sornmes nottables a Sa d Majeste 
pour Entrer en ses droicts Sans augmentation de prix, 
des Especes de poid, diminution d'alloy et en se 
faisant le revenu annuel de Sa d Majeste sera hausse. 
Ausquels Sieurs Comissaires deputtez, Le d Briot fera 
Cognoistre plus particulierement, Les Consequences et 
pertes que Sa d Majeste et Estats feront, en receuant 
La proposition a eux faictte pour augmenter le prix 
De L'or et de L'argent Ensemble L'jmpossibilite De 
L'Execution de la d proposition et La Longeur du Temps 
quil faut pour jouir du pretendu proffit, de la reffontte 
generalle des monnoyes de tous les Roys Ses predeces- 
seurs, et par la Supputation qui peust estre faitte de 
la somme, dont Sa d Majeste peust proffiter, en usant de 
Cette Extremitte N'Excedera de beaucoup, ce qui luy 
peust reuenir de bon En receuant L'advisdu d Briot qui est 
un reiglement, Lequel sera juge juste, bon et raisonable." 
We have noticed that in the year 1640 a suggestion 
had been made and rejected for the issue of a debased 
shilling three-quarters copper to one quarter only in 
silver but this was not the first time during the reign 
of Charles that thoughts of altering the standard had 
been mooted, Buckingham being held responsible for 
a similar project in 1626. 32 It is, perhaps, for this 
reason that the calendarer of the State Papers Domestic 
of Charles I has assigned, with a query, to an early 



K See Disraeli's Life and Times of Charles I, vol. i. pp. 194-5. 
Mr. Disraeli states that by the advice of Buckingham 60,000 worth of 
shillings, half silver and half alloy, were coined, but were recalled by 
the King on the advice of Mr. Robert Cotton, whose memorial on the 
subject dated September, 1626, was seen by Mr. Disraeli in the original 
MS. form, and must not be confounded with the protest of Roe in 
1640. 



180 HELEN FAEQUHAE. 

date, i.e. 1628, certain undated documents referring to 
a proposed debasement of the coinage. These papers 
express at great length Briot's views on such matters. 
It has crossed my mind that possibly one at least of 
these protests would be more correctly placed somewhat 
later than 1628, because allusion is therein made to 
recent alterations in the French currency, and between 
the years 1636 and 1641 material changes took place 
in the Paris mint, whereas in 1628 no special reduction 
in money-values appears to correspond with a proclama- 
tion to which Briot refers as having been " newly made 
in France." 33 Indeed, so far as my small knowledge 
of French numismatics suggests, the radical alterations 
of 1636, which ultimately caused the reforms of 1640-1, 
would be more in consonance with a remark made by our 
engraver on the " raising of the prise of the monyes by a 
fourth part." Be this as it may, this document and another 
of the same nature, 34 although, perhaps, of the earlier 
indicated date, embody alternative schemes considered 
by Briot as permissible. He urged "that the forging 
of gold coins shalbee continued with the same finesse 
weight and value as it is at this present", but in the 
one argument 35 advised the King "to raise silver and 
to sheare it upon 66 peeces by the pound weight which 
are fower peeces of augmention in one pound weight ", 
whilst in the second ^ he limits this computation to 
"Sixty fower shillings, which is the proportion of 12J 
of Silver to the Gold," but wishes " to make litle peeces 



33 MS. State Papers, Domestic, Carl. I, Vol. DXXIX. No. 97. The 
French edict had, it appeared, been registered at the " Court of 
Monnyes " without the consent of the " Chamber of Accounts." 

34 MS. State Papers, Carl. I, Vol. CXXIV. No. 68. 
33 Ibid. 

38 State Papers Domestic, Carl. I, Vol. DXXIX. No. 97. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 181 

of Mony cutt upon 66 to the pound weight as greatly 
necessary for the Comodiousness of the People and 
Trade." The concluding paragraphs of his extremely 
long arguments are directed against the state of the 
copper coinage which should, he thought, remain in the 
King's hands, and besides the making of the smaller 
silver coins " of 4. 3. 2. and 1 penny the pound weight 
being cutt upon 3 u -8 s -4 pennie," he advocates the use of 
"Brass or copper coine in peices of 2. 1. and a halfe- 
farding," suggesting that these " may be made six times 
more heavie and strong then the fardings w ch now are 
currant and yett his Ma tie may profitt in it 33. in the 
hundred. The small Copper money ought not to come 
into greate payments but only is stablished by Soveraigne 
Princes for the buying of small Wares or giving of 
Almes." 37 

Without in any way believing that either of these 
two papers is the actual "proposition" which Briot in 
May, 1642, desired to lay before the King, I venture 
to think he perhaps wished to reiterate his calculations 
and to impress upon Charles that it was wiser, as he 
expressed it, " to remayne by the goodness of the Mouyes 
as they goe at present, w th a conformity of price and 
sorts within his Ma' 3 three Kingdomes, unto whom the 
glory, and to the Subiects the proffitt shall redound." ^ 

On the other hand, Briot may have been anxious to 
suggest to Charles the advisability of opening country 
mints of coining his own plate of borrowing that of 
his supporters especially of requesting the aid of 
the Universities 89 for we shall see that shortly after 

37 State Papers Domestic, Carl. I, Vol. CXXIV. No. 68. 

J " Ibid., Vol. DXXIX. No. 97. 

39 Ruding, vol. i. p. 397, mentions the despatch by Charles of 



182 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

communications had commenced between the King and his 
engraver these projects matured in the mind of Charles. 
May we not suppose that Briot was thinking of the 
College silver when in the French letter which I have 
quoted above he proclaimed his certainty that, were 
security given that the currency would remain pure, 
persons would be found who would advance considerable 
sums to enable his Majesty to regain his rights ? 40 

But a truce to speculation : Briot's " proposition " was 
answered on May 6 from the city of York by Edward 
Nicholas, who desired the engraver's immediate presence 
to confer with the King. 41 

The letter runs as follows : " Monsieur, Sa Ma w me 
comande Vous mander icy, le plustost que Vostre 
comodite le pourra permettre, et ce sur le Sujet de 
Vostre Lettre escrite a S.M. qu'Elle receut quelques 
iours passez, dont Vous ne manquerez sur la Notice qui 
vous en vient faicte par Mons r Vostre bien affectionne a 
vous seruir Edw. Nicholas A York ce 6 me May 1642." 
" A Monsieur, Monsieur Briot. A Londres." On May 26, 
however, as Ruding 42 notices, a Commission was deputed 



messengers to request plate from the University as being " when he 
was at Nottingham," and the date of his residence in that city as 
"from July 10th till about the middle of September" (see note 2 to 
above). The first letter from Charles I which I have seen on the 
subject is one of thanks on the reception of a consignment from 
Oxford, dated from " our Court at Beverly July 18th 1642 " (see 
Works of that Great Monarch and glorious Martyr Charles I, published 
at the Hague, 1648, p. 191). A letter from the Mayor of Oxford, under 
date July 22, 1642, at Nottingham, refers to the " very ample testi- 
monie the King had received in subscriptions from the University." 
We, however, note an order of Parliament on July 12, 1642, that 
the highways to Oxford should be watched, owing to the King's request 
to the Universities that plate should be sent to York. 

40 State Papers Domestic, Carl. I, Vol. DXXXIX. No. 87. 

l Ibid., Vol. CCCCXC. No. 33. 

42 Ruding's Annals, vol. i. p. 395. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 183 

to inquire concerning the bullion in the Mint, and one 
of their number, Sir Walter Erie, the following day re- 
peated to the House of Commons some information that 
he had consequently obtained from Monsieur Briot, the 
King's graver. 43 His presence at the Mint is therefore 
established, and in his report to the Commission he men- 
tioned transactions at the Tower both of the 18th and 
26th. We might, however, suppose that he made a 
hurried journey to York and had returned, but from the 
next letter despatched to the north it seems likely that 
indisposition had prevented his departure, for the State 
Secretary wrote on the 30th of the month begging him 
not to hurry his journey unduly. 44 " Monsieur," writes 
Sir Edward : " Je souhaite que la presente vienne 
encore a temp car ie viens de recevoir tout a cestheure 
celle de Mons r Parkhurst du 25 me courant, par laquelle 
i'apprens vre resolution de Vous mettre en chemin vers 
la Cour nonobstant la debilite qui Vous reste d'une 
derniere Maladie. C'est porquoy ie vous avise par celle 
cy que Sa Ma 16 se passera pour apresent de 1'occasion 
qu'Elle avoit pour vous employer icy : en sorte que 
pouvez demeurer, pour Vous bien remettre chez Vous, en 
la sante que je vous souhaitte, estant Mons r Vostre tres 
affectione a vons servir Edw. Nicholas. A York ce 
30 May 1642. Mons. Briot." This letter is addressed 
fully : " A Monsieur Mons r Briot, Graveur du Eoy, en 
son logis dans la Tour de Londres," and clearly Nicholas 
was satisfied that the engraver was still in residence at 
the Tower Mint, not yet confiscated by the Parliament. 
This was indeed apparent rather later, for on June 21 



43 Commons' Journals, vol. ii. pp. 587 and 588. 

" State Papers Domestic, Carl. I, Vol. CCCCXC. No. 74. 



184 HELEN FAEQUHAB. 

another missive was despatched "To my verie good 
friend Mr. Briot, his Ma ties Graver of his Mint, At his house 
in the Tower," 15 Nicholas being, it seems, convinced 
that by this time convalescence was assured and a speedy 
departure would be possible. " Monsieur," writes the 
Secretary, " J'ay a ce matin receu coniandem 1 de Sa 
Ma w de vous mander icy en toute diligence possible, et 
Vous avertir qu'avez a mener avec Vous les Eoues et 
toutes autres sortes d'instrunV 8 requis et necessaires pour 
icy battre de la Monnoye que S Ma" aura occasion 
d'ordonner dez que vous serez arrive. Ce qu'ayant 
notifie je me dis Mons r Vostre tres affectione serviteur 
Edw. Nicholas. A York ce 21 me Juin 1642. Mons. 
Briot." 

On June 30 a further communication was sent to the 
same address to the effect that Sir William Parkhurst 
would provide money for the journey, and that the 
Secretary expected Briot's immediate attendance. 46 
" Monsieur, J'ay par comandemt du Roy escript a Mons r 
Le Chevalier Parkhurst qu'il vous face avoir telle some de 
deniers en avance que vous sera necessaire pour expedier 
ce qui faudra aux provisions pour Vostre Voiage icy. Je 
ne veux douter done de vostre bonne diligence pour 
vous rendre icy au plustost possible pourvu selon que la 
presente occasion le requiert. Entretant je me dis 
Monsieur Vostre bien affectionne a vous servir Edw. 
Nicholas a la Cour a York 30 Juin 1642. Monsieur 
Briot." 

The next move in the game is to be recognized in a 



45 State Papers Domestic, Vol. CCCCXCI. No. 27. 
M Ibid., Vol. CCCCXCI. No. 43. Addressed : " A Monsieur Briot, 
Graveur du Boy dcmeurant a la Tour dc Londres." 



NICHOLAS BKIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 185 

long parchment roll a statement of Mint accounts 
undecipherable in parts, to which nevertheless Mr. 
Henry Symonds directed my attention, he having found 
many interesting pieces of information therein, of which 
he gave an abstract in his " Trials of the Pyx " and 
his " English Engravers." This document contains 
entries of various disbursements carrying us up to, or 
in some cases beyond, November, 1642. 47 

One of the payments chronicled in the Warden's 
account is to "Nicholas Briot," and amounts to 100 
for some service performed in the autumn of 1642, but 
the obliterated state of the entry renders it useless, 
taken as evidence of the movements of the engraver 
on September 30, 1642, the day indicated by this 
Privy Seal, and it is impossible to say whether Briot 
was paid by order under the King's hand for dies 
made for Charles I's use in the country mints as we 
should deem likely at so late a date. 48 It is, however, 
clear that the Parliamentarians, although the Tower 
was in September, 1642, in their hands, recognized the 
obligations thrown upon them by the King's orders, in 
spite of the fact that they speak of his authority in the 
past tense. 

The same parchment mentions the disbursement in 
1642 of 115 to " Thomas Kichardson, clothworker, for 



47 Declared Accounts (Audit Office) Ble. 1599, No. 42. By an error 
in the calendar this account is printed as terminating in March, 1642, 
but Mr. Symonds discovered entries up to the month of November, 
after which time the manuscript becomes still more illegible. 

Declared Accounts (Audit Office), Ble. 1599, No. 42, at the Public 
Record Office. The few legible words run : " Nicholas Bryot .... 
assist him in such (?) seruice as the late king expected to him perform' 1 
of him ... by warrant under the Signe Manuel dated the 30th day of 
September 1642 for allowance thereof and signification under ... of 
one of the Secretaries of State . . . 100"." 

NUM. CHKON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. O 



186 HELEN FARQUHAK. 

eleven iron presses for coinage of moneys and one great 
iron rnorter and pestle by one bill, cxv"." 49 

Whether these were instruments ordered by Briot 
under the authority of the letter from Nicholas to Park- 
hurst it is hard to say, but if so they would have suffered 
the same detention as the other objects "belonging to 
Minting and Coining Monies " at Scarborough, and it 
would be only fair that they should be paid for by the 
government. We must, however, remember that certain 
mills were made for the Tower Mint at Intervals, and 
we find reference to these " about the year 1633," 50 and 
again in 1638, for Briot's trial of skill, and in 1640 when 
the King required "five presses and other Instruments 
to be used about his Mats Coins, his Highnes having 
caused some alteracon to be made in them." The 
expenses of these presses reached 65, which sum was 
paid to Edward Greene, the chief graver, 51 whilst 1700 
was spent on setting up the apparatus for Briot. It 
is, therefore, somewhat doubtful how far Eichardson was 
employed for the work at the ordinary mint establishment. 

Another note in the roll refers to David Kamage, 
and may in part pertain to the ill-starred consignment 
sent to the King's assistance, for we have seen by the 
Secretary of State's letters that Briot was to bring or 
send instruments for coining with which York was 
evidently not sufficiently provided. 

49 Quoted by Mr. Symonds in Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. p. 
367, and this writer takes the above as evidence that Briot's appliances 
were used in 1642. With this opinion I am agreed, but I think it was 
more likely that the consignment was for York, where they would be 
required for the milled coinages. See Num. Chron., as above. 

30 State Papers Domestic, Interregnum, May 7, 1651, Vol. XV. 
No. 69. 

51 Declared Accounts (Audit Office), Ble. 1599, No. 42, 19th Aug., 
1640. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 187 

31 r. Syiiionds has quoted this item in his " Trials 
of the Pyx," 52 and kindly showed it to me in the 
original Audit Office Accounts, 53 at the Record Office, 
that I might print it verbatim if I so desired. The 
words showing the payment made on July 7, 1642, are 
as follows : " David Eamagh for monies by him disbursed 
in providing several instruments for the two mints at 
Yorke and Shrewsbury, as by one bill dated the vil of 

July 1642 appeareth. nfj.y.5 [85 10s.]-" Now David 
Kamage was, as we know, custodian under the Common- 
wealth of the " mills, presses, cutters, and other engines 
for making monyes " at the Mint, 54 and was confirmed 
in this place by Charles II, and the plea that he had 
as above supplied the King in his necessity would 
no doubt be regarded as a reason for retaining his 
services after the Eestoration. 

He held, it seems, no official position at the Tower 
under Charles I, and we find Blondeau informing Par- 
liament in June, 1650, that the Master of the Mint 
"hath brought in an Irish Lock Smith, one David 
Eamage a man ill-affected to the present Government, 
who hath been Servant formerly [to] the late deceased 
Master Briot, for whom he forged his tools and marked 
his Brass Counters." 55 Blondeau complained that the 
Mint Master had "caused the said Irish Smith to be 
associated with the workmen of the Mint," apparently 
in consequence of his knowledge of Briot's methods. 
We cannot enter here upon the differences between 
the milled coinages of Briot and Blondeau, but we see 

52 Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. X. p. 396, 

53 Audit Office Accounts, 1599-42. 

44 See Treasury Books, T. 51. 1. July 7, 1660. 

55 See Thomason Tracts, 669, f. 15 (33), Brit. Mus. 

o 2 



188 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

that at the time of the Civil War Kamage was only 
in the employ of the former, and held no official 
status, although he appears amongst the Moneyers 
in November, 1651, and again in 1652. 56 That Eamage, 
although worsted in his competition with Blondeau, 
obtained a post as superintendent of mills is seen 
from the confirmation under Charles II above noticed. 
But to us the important matter is that the payment 
given to Kamage in 1642 was evidently for instruments 
such as he was in the habit of making for Briot. 

I am informed by Mr. Symonds that he has not 
and neither have I found his name in any list of 
officials of so early a date as the reign of Charles I, but 
he was obviously in the habit of supplying the instru- 
ments as required for this King, for a remonstrance 
framed by the wardens of the Mint in the commencement 
of Charles II's reign refers to his having so done. 57 It is 
stated that several sorts of engines, presses, mills, rollers, 
and other instruments for the fabric of his medals and 
Tryals for his monies " were ordered by Charles I " at 
great expense, and that the " Money Tryals not answer- 
ing his Mat vs expectation, Those Instruments were 
comitted after to the care of David Kamadge (the 
Artificer who made them) for preservation in the Mint." 
The wardens thought these tools were likely to encourage 
false coining unless kept for safety in the Tower, and 
objected " that since the late distempered tymes divers 
of those Instruments and Tooles have beene by warrants 
and other meanes comanded of out of the Mynt." It 
seems possible that Kamage or, if not he, Parkhurst 

56 Thomason Tracts, E. 1070, 10, No. 2 ; and Henfrey, Coins and 
Medals of Oliver Cromwell, p. 63. 

57 State Papers Domestic, Carl. II, Vol. XXII. No. 182. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 189 

or some other succeeded in sending some puncheons 
to Shrewsbury, for some rare pound and half-pound 
pieces (Hawkins, type 1) bear the same horse as we 
find on the Tower half-crowns, type SA, mint-marks 
Portcullis to Star, a puncheon which was just going out 
of use, and would therefore be spared the more easily. 
I am not suggesting that they are the work of Eamage, 
having nothing in common with his known productions, 
whilst we know that Briot was the recognized designer 
of the obverses for the Tower coinage of 1628 onwards. 
The puncheons intended for the hammered coinage 
would be delivered to the mint and remain at the 
disposal of the Warden, in whosesoever charge they 
might be, and the jurisdiction still lay in the hands 
of Parkhurst, who, as we know, was commissioned to 
supply the York Mint, and clearly "instrum ts " for 
Shrewsbury were despatched at similar date. 

About the beginning of July, then, the less fortunate 
shipload, carrying Briot's personal baggage and heavy 
presses, started for Scarborough, and was held up on 
the 15th of the month by the Parliamentary patrol. 
Let us turn to the Commons' Journals, and under date 
of July 23, 1642, we may read the matter in greater 
detail than in the version given by Carlyle. 58 " A 
letter," so runs the report, " from Mr. Jo. Stevens, 
Captain of one of the ships of the Fleet now at Sea, 
and riding about Scarborough, of the 15th of July. 
Ordered that the Committee for the Navy do send for 
Monsieur Bryatt of the Minte, and examine the Business 
concerning the Materials belonging to the Minte sent 
by him and stayed at Scarborough by Captain Stevens : 

58 Commons' Journals, Vol. II. p. 687. 



190 HELEN FARQUHAK. 

and that they give order to Captain Steevens to detain 
them in his hands, till he receives further order from 
the House. Resolved, That Mr. Steevens, Master of 
the Ship that rides about Scarborough, that stayed the 
Materials of all Sorts belonging to the Mint (no Authority 
appearing for Transporting of them) has done well in 
Staying of them." From an entry commanding the 
attendance of Briot before the Committee, Ruding 
infers that he was at this moment i.e. on Saturday, 
July 23 in London, 59 probably deeming that were it 
otherwise some notice would have been taken of his 
non-attendance, and also the remark that the words 
" sent by him " as applied to the mint material suggests 
that if he went north at all at this moment his presence 
escaped detection at this period, and he made his way 
back to London. Concerning this voyage we shall have 
more to say presently, but we have now reached the 
moment in the month of August, outlined by Carlyle 
at the beginning of our narrative, when on the 20th 
the order for the restoration of Briot's wearing apparel 
was issued by the Commons. 60 On July 23, 1642, a 
decree had been pronounced that thenceforward neither 
arms nor war material should be shipped from the 
Tower without the Lieutenant's permission, 61 but 
curiously enough it was not until October 5 that 
the prohibition was formally extended to the Mint. 
Under this date we read : " Ordered that the Officers 
of the Minte be required not to suffer any Officer, Work- 
man, or Instrument, belonging to the Minte, or Coining, 
or Graving to quit their Charge or to be carried from 



59 Ruding, vol. i. p. 397. 

60 Commons' Journals, Vol. II. p. 728. 

61 Ibid., Vol. II. pp. 687 an* 689. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 191 

thence without order of this House." 62 It seems likely 
that this Parliamentary ukase was issued on the dis- 
covery that the King had sent for Parkhurst and other 
officers to attend him ; but we have reason to believe 
that money would be considered as " War Material " at 
an earlier period. 

The seizure of the Tower was now complete, so far as 
the King was concerned, for he could no longer obtain 
help thence, unless secretly. The sequestration of the 
royal estates and revenues followed after an interval, the 
ordinance of Parliament directing the spoliation being 
dated September 21, 1643, 63 but Mr. Symonds informs 
me that he has made extracts from an account furnished 
by a Parliamentarian receiver of mint revenues, which 
runs from November 25, 1642, and that from entries in 
this document it appears that the Mint was actually 
seized as from August 10, 1642. 64 

From thenceforth therefore certainly from the date 
of the above order of October 5 if Nicholas Briot 
supplied the King with dies he did so at considerable 
risk, and the question has been raised whether he 
abandoned his master or whether he, as tradition asserts, 
threw wife and children, habitation and salary, to the 
winds in pursuit of loyalty. 



62 Commons' Journals, Vol. II. p. 795. 

63 Ibid., Vol. in. p. 250. 

64 On this day a Committee was appointed in the House of Com- 
mons to look after some monies which had been seized (see Commons' 
Journals, vol. ii. pp. 712-713). Nevertheless, so late as December 3, 1642, 
we still find the King's Gentleman of the Robes, George Kirk, appealing 
for 1000 out of coinage money in the Tower for the King's apparel. 
This sum had been authorized by Parliament, but by another order 
had been devoted to the expenses of H.M.'s children, who had re- 
mained in London, and had not been used for the King's robes. 
Hist. MSS. Comm. Report V., House of Lords MSS., p. 59. 



192 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

In the light of recent discoveries it seems to me that 
he perhaps adopted a middle course, visiting the King 
by stealth only, under pretence perhaps of journeys to 
France in obedience to more than one summons, such as 
he had, we believe, received earlier from the Cour des 
Monnaies to be again repeated in these crucial years. 65 
He might possibly supply the want of dies by means of 
a messenger or give a general superintendence to the 
mints of York and Oxford in flying visits, as he had 
done in Scotland, but as we shall presently see, he did 
not pass wholly undetected and he suffered for his 
loyalty. 

Mr. Symonds was the fortunate discoverer of evidence 
concerning the engraver's last days, of his payment by 
the Mint authorities during the concluding nine months 
of his life, of the date of his last will and testament, of 
the place of his death and burial, 66 disposing once for all 
of the theory held until recently by myself and others 
that he died at Oxford actually at the Court of Charles. 



as c( j} revint en Prance peutetre en 1642, mais certainement en 1644. 
Le 2 Sep. 1642 [N.S.], Jean Varin et un certain Briot durent comparaitre 
devant la Cour des Monnaies. . . . S'agit il de Nicolas Briot ou d'Isaac 
Briot, son frere ? Le 20 (?) Avril [N.S.] 1644. Nicolas Briot, etant en dis- 
cussion avec Jean Varin, est cit6 par la Cour des Monnaies " (Maze- 
rolle's Mtdailleurs, vol. i. pp. cxxvii and cxxviii). Mr. Henfrey, in his 
Numismata Cromwelliana, p. 5, whilst quoting Walpole's Anecdotes of 
Painting (vol. i. p. 256, edit. 1886) in support of the theory that 
Briot returned to France in 1642, discountenances that of George 
Vertue (Medals, Coins, (&c., of Thomas Simon, edit. 1780, p. 61), that the 
year 1646 was that of his return, deeming the date to be " probably a 
misprint as Briot appears to have gone to France from Scarborough in 
1642." Mr. Henfrey did not give his authority for this statement. 

66 Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. X. p. 397. I understand by Mr. 
Symonds' courtesy that this payment of 37 10s. for three-quarters of 
a year at the annual fee of 50 appears in the Warden's account which 
runs from April 1, 1646, to March 31, 1647. The payment extends 
to December 25, 1646, the actual day of Briot's burial. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 193 

Mr. Symonds tells us that the engraver's will was dated 
a considerable time after the fall of the University city, 
i.e. on December 22, 1646, and that it was written in the 
parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields in London, but that 
no precise place of abode is mentioned, and finally, that 
Briot was buried in St. Martin's Church three days later. 
He further informed me that Briot desired to be interred 
in the parish wherein he might die, from which I think 
we may conclude that he did indeed suffer for his efforts 
in the King's cause, being turned out of his lodgings in 
the Tower. But the natural inference was drawn by 
Mr. Symonds that Briot, dying in the pay of the Parlia- 
ment, the Government moreover paying to his widow 
eighteen months later an additional sum 67 for his tools 
and presses, which remained at the Tower for the use 
of the Mint, 68 was the servant of the Commonwealth 
rather than of the King, and with this we are agreed. 

When publishing some years ago his " Trials of 
the Pyx," in the Numismatic Chronicle, Mr. Symonds 



67 By warrant of June 17, 1646, the sum of 258 10s. for his mills, 
presses, and tools (see " Trials of the Pyx" in Num. Chron., as above, 
p. 397). 

68 In 1656 when the milled coinage was attempted by Oliver Crom- 
well, Blondeau was at first allotted " that house in the Tower, where 
M. Biott formerly worked," and he was permitted the use of " all such 
forges and tools as are there." By his own choice, however, different 
premises were prepared for him (see British Numismatic Journal, vol. 
v. p. 238). This matter of the mills used by Briot was already in dis- 
cussion in May, 1651, the provost and company of moneyers suggesting 
on the 7th of that month that if 1000 were provided for repairs they 
made " no question of supplying " a milled coinage as " faire, beautiful 
and cheap as any Frenchman," alleging, however, that " it will require 
several mills and horses and houses to be sett up, the workhouses in ye 
mint being within these few years mightily decayed, the same being 
done in Briott's time about the year 1633 and the charges thereof cost 
seventeen hundred pounds before any Tryall could be made by the 
same Briott " (State Papers Domestic, Interregnum, Vol. XV. No. 69). 



194 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

remarked upon the "regrettable gap" in the Warden's 
Mint accounts between 1642 and 1645, and although this 
hiatus was covered in many cases by those of the master- 
worker, the graver's fees which would have been paid 
by the Warden were uuchrouicled. However, in the 
light of the salary received in 1646 we felt bound to 
believe that Briot, after perhaps endeavouring to supply 
the needs of the King by starting obediently for York, 
was stopped at Scarborough, returned to London, and 
lived and died quietly in Government pay. Moreover, 
Mr. Symonds' research now affords the further informa- 
tion, kindly placed at my disposal, that the Warden's 
account from May 13, 1645, to March 31, 1646, discloses 
the fact that Briot, together with other officers, within 
that period received three and a quarter years' fee ending 
at Christmas, 1645, namely, 162 10s. ; therefore although 
the accounts are missing for three years, Briot obtained 
his arrears when payments were resumed The case 
against the engraver seemed complete ; nevertheless 
tradition is at times a valuable adjunct to research, and 
tradition is in favour of Briot's loyalty. Besides, the 
evidence of the coinage in several instances is against 
the acceptation of the adverse theory unmodified. There 
are York half-crowns initialled with the letter B within 
the O of EBOR [PI. XII. Fig. 1] which, by reason of their 
analogy with similar coins bearing mint-mark Star, 
Triangle in circle [PI. XII. Fig. 2] and (P) at the Tower, 
should not be placed earlier than the year 1640 probably 
later, for the mint-mark Star shows several varieties. 
It is most likely upon this account that the type is 
catalogued as the last in the York series by Hawkins. 69 



69 Hawkins type 7, Fig. 498, but the initial passes unnoticed by 
this author. The type with the horse's tail visible between its legs 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 195 

There are York shillings [PI. XII. Fig. 3] 70 with the 
same signature and type of reverse, and on these the bust 
almost exactly reproduces Briot's special coinage with 
the mint-mark Anchor [PI. XII. Fig. 4] forming a con- 
necting link between these beautifully engraved coins 
and the Tower issues of about the same period, the latter 
being, however, noticeably less well executed. 

There are Oxford coins bearing the rather peculiar 
horse first designed by Briot on some of his patterns 
and used in his London and Scottish coinages, 71 whilst 
the Tower issues after the outbreak of the Civil War 
show a very diverse collection of dies, especially as 
regards the half-crowns and shillings, and, excepting 
in spasmodic instances, a lamentable decrease in tech- 
nical proficiency in the reproduction of established 
types. Here again Mr. Symonds comes to our rescue, 
for we learn from his English Mint Engravers 72 that 

prevailed on half-crowns at the Tower upon coins marked with the Star, 
Triangle in circle, and in rare instances with (P), but on the crowns we 
find it in (P), (R), and Sun, until it is replaced with the last-mentioned 
mint-mark by the type usually attributed to Simon (Hks. type 5). It 
appears, therefore, that these York half-crowns cannot reasonably be 
placed earlier than 1640, at the very soonest. I may note that of the 
Tower Mint I have seen but one half-crown bearing this York horse 
with the mint-mark (P), that in the British Museum. We may, there- 
fore, assume that the smaller horse, which had been in evidence until 
the introduction of the Star mint-mark in July, 1641, resumed its sway 
about 1644 upon the half-crowns. 

70 The busts upon the York shillings, Hks. type 4 and 5, reproduce 
Briot's type 2. Some of the shillings assigned by Hawkins to an 
earlier date are connected with the Briot issues by the reverse, having 
a cross extending to the edge of the coin like Briot's Hks. type 1. The 
coins numbered by Hks. in shillings 1 to 3, in half-crowns 1 to 4, are 
less well designed than the later types, and the busts and equestrian 
figures have no such prototypes at the Tower. 

71 Besides the Oxford series of half-crowns dated 1643 to 1646, there 
is in the British Museum a solitary pound-piece of this type bearing 
date 1643. 

7 - Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII., p. 367. 



196 HELEN FAEQUHAR. 

Nicholas de Burgh, John Decroso, and Abraham Preston 
were temporarily employed at the Tower at various dates 
between 1641 and 1644, John East being still under 
graver, whilst Edward Greene, the official chief graver 
of many years' standing, died towards the end of the 
last-mentioned year. 73 The coinage at Oxford presents 
more difficulties, if we attempt to judge by style, than 
does that of York, for not only have we to dismiss from 
our mind the peculiar method of striking which we are 
accustomed to associate with the name of Briot, but we 
have a formidable rival in artistic merit with whom to 
contend in Thomas Kawlins. Uncertainty haunts our 
steps when we endeavour to draw a line between his 
work and that of Briot, for portraiture, which should be 
our surest test, fails us, in that identical medals were 
made by these two artists whilst the King was at Oxford 
in 1643, the only difference being in the artists' initials 
under the bust. 74 It is believed that the taking of 



73 Simon was at this time also working at the Mint, but his attention 
appears to have been principally absorbed in making seals. His 
official appointment as maker of coins is of April 4, 1645. 

74 Med. III., vol. i. pp. 308--309, Nos. 134, 135, and 136, dated 1643. 
We notice that No. 135, as catalogued in Medallic Illustrations of 
British History, is not signed, but a similar example in the Hunter 
cabinet has . CO . below the bust, and I think a trace of the signature 
in this form can be made out on the Museum specimen. We find 
some of Briot's dies still in use after his death (see Med. III., vol. i. 
p. 336, Nos. 179 and 180, and p. 309, No. 136), some reverses bearing 
date 1648 (p. 336, No. 179), and even 1660 (p. 309, No. 136), but marks 
of rust on these prove that the dies had been laid aside for the time, 
whilst I venture to think the undated pieces (see No. 180) belonged 
originally to the issues of 1643. The earlier issues, known in 
Medallic Illustrations as "Peace or War," are therein referred to 
the period of the " taking of Bristol in consequence of the King's 
expression of his wish for peace as opposed to these miserable 
bloody distempers, which, as he informed his Council, " have dis- 
quieted this poor kingdom" (see Clarendon's History, 1843, p. 411). 
On the other hand, another likely occasion of yet earlier issue may have 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 197 

Bristol by Prince Kupert on July 27 of that year was 
commemorated by these "Peace or War" medals. If 
this indeed be the date and occasion of this medal 
rather than the previous April when terms of peace 
were debated and rejected, we must remember that 
Rawlins produced also two other very poor medals 75 in 
commemoration of the reduction of Bristol, and their 
extreme rarity suggests that the King did not like the 
portrait, and choosing Briot's design made Rawlins copy 
the work of his senior. These medals may, I think, be 
taken as evidence that whilst Rawlins was working 
steadily in Oxford in 1643, Briot either paid one of his 
flying visits to the King about the middle of that year 
or supplied his master with dies from London. 

It is not my intention, however, at present to say 
more than I can help concerning Rawlins, but we 
cannot discuss the Oxford currency without reference 
to his signed coinage of 1644 to 1646, and the impres- 
sion that he served the King from the beginning of 
Charles I's residence in the University is suggested by 
the multitude of badges which, during the Civil War, 
occupied the place of the war medals of to-day. This 
belief is further strengthened by a badge in my own 
collection which bears date 1642. 76 ' 

Mr. Symonds has shown that the initialled coinage 
of Oxford was followed instead of being preceded by 
an official appointment as " Chiefe Graver to his Ma ts 



been the meeting at Oxford to discuss a treaty, the King on April 12, 
1643, making a communication to the Parliamentary delegates of his 
readiness to cease hostilities (see Clarendon, as above, p. 379). 

Med. III., vol. i. p. 307, Nos. 131-132. 

76 This badge, although unsigned, is so much like one of Rawlins' 
other medallions, that it is almost impossible to assign it to any other 
artist. 



198 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

mints in the Tower of London and elswhere in England 
and Wales " under a sign manual of April, 1645, 77 
some months after the death of Edward Greene, who, 
although in the Parliamentary employ, originally held 
his appointment from the King. This Privy Seal, with 
its grant to Rawlins of a position, which, as Mr. Symonds 
points out, it was no longer in the power of Charles to 
bestow, was probably the only reward he could offer 
him, and was rather a guarantee of past services than an 
actual gift of present preferment. 

Not unnaturally the office of chief graver was almost 
simultaneously filled by the decree of King and Parlia- 
ment, for the letters patent granted by the latter 78 
bestowing the post upon Edward Wade and Thomas 
Simon in lieu of " Edward Green deceased " are dated 
April 4, 1645, 79 and possibly the King, having learned 
of these changes at the Tower, endowed Rawlins with 
the title of chief graver as a protest. 

We know not where Kawlins first fell in with Charles, 
nor whether he was an amateur throwing in his lot with 
the King as did so many of the cultured youth of the 
day. He had already distinguished himself as a play- 
wright and man of letters, his proficiency as a writer 
being acknowledged^ some years before the outbreak of 
the Civil War. 80 

We have no evidence to prove that he had fallen in 

77 Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. p. 369. 

78 It appears from contemporary evidence brought forward by Mr. 
Symonds from the Pipe Office Accounts that Nicholas de Burgh 
temporarily filled the office after Greene's death until the appointment 
of Simon and Wade was made. 

78 See Num. Chron., 1st Ser., Vol. IV. p. U, and 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. 
p. 368. Edward Greene died shortly before Christmas, 1644. 

80 It is believed that Bawlins produced his play, Tlie Rebellion, in 
1637, although it was not published until 1640. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 199 

with Thomas Bushell, the mine-owner and mint-master, 
and came to Oxford with the latter on his removal of 
the Shrewsbury mint to the University town ; rather 
the contrary, for he can hardly be held responsible 
for the unfortunate quadruped which appears on most 
of the Shrewsbury and Oxford coins at this early date. 
We do, however, believe that Kawlins was with Bushell 
before the year 1642, according to the old style of 
reckoning, had expired, for the pound-piece coined at 
the latter city (Hks. type 4) 81 bears this date together 
with an admirably delineated horse much resembling 
the signed crown of 1644 with Oxford in the back- 
ground. We must, therefore, rather attribute the ugli- 
ness of the early Oxford equestrian figure in general to 
the fact that Rawlins's activity was employed in making 
badges, a somewhat lengthy process, in that they were 
cast and usually chased, and consequently required the 
supervision of the artist. By the help of these badges, 
some of which bear excellent equestrian portraits, and 
of his signed coins of 1644 to 1646, it seems possible to 
identify his part in the coinage, assigning to his credit 
the superior pieces both in gold and silver from the 
three-pound downwards, beginning, with the exception 
of the silver twenty-shilling piece just mentioned, in 
the year 1643. Our first official notice that Rawlins 
was engraver of coins lies in a warrant addressed to him 
on June 1, 1643, concerning a gold badge to be pre- 
sented to Sir Kobert Walsh, who had distinguished 
himself at Edgehill in the previous October. Eawlins 



81 This pound-piece bears a Shrewsbury reverse, but the obverse has 
the Oxford plume. We must therefore assume it is of early Oxford 
issue. This equestrian portrait is carried forward throughout 1643 and 
1644 with fresh reverses, see Hks. types 5 and 7. 



200 HELEN FARQUHAK. 

is therein addressed as "our trusty and wellbeloved 
graver of Seals, Stamps and Medals." I lay stress upon 
this point, because on going to the Herald's College 
to examine this grant, I found that the word " stamps," 
i.e. dies, appeared in the original document, and had 
been accidentally omitted by another writer, who had 
published the warrant. 82 With regard to lettering a 
curious anomaly presents itself, and were it invariable 
we might find in it a clue, for on much of the Oxford 
coinage beginning in the course of the year 1643, after 
the change for the better had commenced, we notice 
a peculiar closed serif in the letter R, generally in 
the word Rex, and often throughout the legend. 
It has the appearance of a monogram, although less 
definitely than the mint-mark on certain coins upon 
which some discussion has been raised concerning 
their attribution to Bristol or to St. John's College, 
Oxford. 83 

Our first idea was that Briot might have used this closed 

82 See article on the " Medal presented to Sir Robert Walsh," Num. 
Chron., 1st Ser., Vol. XV. pp. 80-81. 

83 The R with the closed serif is not found in the legend of the 
specimens where the monogram is used as a mint-mark, and they bear 
an ugly horse, such as that in use at Oxford until 1643 only. Whether 
the removal of this engraver's dies to Bristol, or the desire to set them 
aside for a particular issue at Oxford, gave rise to the substitution of 
Briot's horse, is a question which it boots not to renew here, but half- 
crowns exist with a horse of the early Oxford type on the obverse, 
combined with a reverse bearing the B. monogram as mint-mark, and 
when new puncheons were made with a slightly differing equestrian 
figure, we observe that it is still of the same coarse workmanship and 
clumsy drawing as though from the hand of the same engraver. It 
is apparent from a manuscript in the British Museum that Bushell 
was " at great charge in Repairing the Castle [at Bristol] and setting 
up a mint therein." The expense incurred by him in so doing 
amounted to 1000, and, giving my opinion for what it is worth, it 
seems natural to assign his removal to a period shortly after the 
capture of the city, i.e. in the late autumn of 1643. 



NICHOLAS BKIOT AND THE CIVIL WAS. 201* 

serif in the legend giving to the B. the appearance of 
a monogram just as he enclosed his initial within the 
o of EBOR or frankly placed it on his London milled 
coinage. But this may hardly be, for it is noticeable on 
the Oxford Pattern crown signed by Eawlins, who for 
such a personal exhibition of his skill would hardly 
employ a lettering denoting partnership with another. 
We might just as easily suggest that this composite 
letter stood for the partnership of Bushell and Rawlins, 
Bushell as mint master, Kawlins as chief graver, but 
such dates as we possess concerning Bushell's move- 
ments are indicative of his moving to Bristol just as this 
strangely shaped R first meets our eye, also we must 
notice that the closed serif is not upon any of the war- 
badges which Eawlins first designed at the suggestion, 
and in some cases, if not all, at the expense of Bushell. 8 * 
It is true that lettering is often a help in determining 
to what artist a coin is likely to be attributable, and 
we notice in the later half-crowns at Oxford a certain 
shaping of the letter A, a frequent use of a lozenge and 
of rosettes and stops which, unlike the closed serif, are 
reminiscent of Briot's most careful early coinage. This 
fact suggests that not only were the puncheons for the 
equestrian figure from his hand, but that he also 
engraved the pattern dies or at least that tools from his 
workshop were in use. It is, however, not wise to lay 
much stress on this point, for the lettering is not 

invariable, and was probably rather the fashion of the 

f 

84 Amongst the services enumerated by the King in a testimonial to 
Thomas Bushell under date June 12, 1643, Charles mentions " yo r 
invention for o r better knowinge and rewardinge the Forlorne Hope 
with Badges of Silver at y r own Chardge, when the souldiers were 
readie to run awaye through the instigation of some disafected 
persons " (see Harl. MS., Charters 111, B. 61). 

NUM. CHKON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. P 



202 



HELEN FARQUHAR. 



moment than the exclusive hall-mark of the man. It 
is, moreover, rare to find the silver coins in such condition 
as would enable us to judge fairly of the engraver's pro- 
ficiency, especially as regards the half-crowns, and I 
must reluctantly admit that I have never seen a specimen 
of this denomination at Oxford, in which one could 
recognize the precision of his workmanship. 

Oxford was, as York had been at first, but badly pro- 
vided with implements for coinage upon a large scale, 
such as was demanded by the melting of the College 
plate. The King, shortly after the seizure of the cargo, 
which had been intended to facilitate his coining 
operations in the north, had, on setting up his standard 
at Nottingham on August 22, 1642, 85 sent requests to 
Oxford and Cambridge for contributions in plate, and 
receiving the same, again sent "secret orders" to the 
officers of the Mint " to be ready to come to his Majesty 
as soon as he should find a place convenient." 86 Sir 
William Parkhurst, the Warden of the Mint, obeyed 
the King's summons, and to his superintendence, in 
co-operation with Thomas Bushell as joint master, was 
committed the Oxford mint set up at New Inn Hall 
on January 3, 1642-3, a considerable time having 

85 This date is usually accepted as that of the setting up of the 
Standard, being that given by Rushworth (edit. 1708, vol. iv. p. 
503) ; by Lilly the astrologer (see Tracts of the Civil War, vol. i. pp. 
176-177) ; and by Gardiner in his History of the Great Civil War, vol. i. 
p. 1. Charles appointed this day as a rendezvous in a proclamation 
written from York on the 12th of August (see Works of Charles I, vol. 
ii. p. 102). Clarendon says that the King arrived two or three days 
before he had appointed to set up the standard," and he did so on the 
25th " at about six of the clock in the evening of a very stormy and 
tempestuous day," that it was blown down, and " could not be fixed 
again in a day or two till the tempest was allayed " (History of the 
Rebellion, edit. 1843, pp. 288-289). 

86 Clarendon, edit. 1843, p. 301, where the account is given of plate 
arriving at Nottingham from both Universities. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 203 

elapsed since the arrival of Charles, who had reached 
the University city on October 29. Thomas Bushell, 
whose mint at Aberystwith, in operation since 1637, had 
produced a weekly output of some 6S, 87 carried his 
experience and, so far as in him lay, his help to the 
King at Shrewsbury, but Clarendon notes that even 
there, although bullion came in, the coining operations 
were delayed. " Such proportions of Plate and Money," 
says the historian of The Rebellion, " were voluntarily 
brought in, that the army was fully and constantly paid. 
The King having erected a Mint at Shrewsbury, more 
for reputation than use (for, for want of workmen and 
instruments, they could not coin a thousand pounds a 
week) and causing all his own plate, for the service of 
his household to be delivered, thus made other men 
think, theirs was the less worth preserving." ^ 

This small apparatus, then, reached Oxford on January 3, 
and so early as the 6th we have records of the King's 
orders to All Souls' College to deliver plate to Parkhurst 
and Bushell at the rate of five shillings per ounce " white 
silver " and five shillings and sixpence per ounce " gilt 
silver," 89 "to be repaid," as the unfortunate monarch 
sanguinely promised, " when God shall enable us." 90 



87 " A Glance inside the Mint of Aberystwith," by Henry Symonds, 
in the British Numismatic Journal, vol. viii. p. 205, where the average 
weekly output between January, 1638, and September, 1642, is calcu- 
lated at 68 Is. 5d. by tale. 

88 Clarendon, p. 305 ; see also Hawkins' Silver Coins, p. 320. 

89 Ruding, vol. ii. p. 206. We must note that the first instalments 
of College plate are thought by Ruding to have been minted at York 
(see Ruding, pp. 209 and 232), but all the bullion despatched did not 
reach the King (see Commons' Journals, August 22, 1642, vol. ii. p. 731). 
" The Plate belonging to Maudlyn College in Cambridge stayed as it 
was going to Yorke to promote the war against Parliament shall be 
forthwith brought to London," &c., &c. 

90 The same form was employed in asking for plate from St. John's 

p2 



204 HELEN FAKQUHAR. 

Not only was the Oxford mint called upon to melt the 
cups and platters of the Colleges, but, judging from a 
testimonial given by Charles to Bushell, such foreign 
money as was contributed to the royalist cause had to 
be converted into English currency. 91 This document, 
amongst the benefits for which the King thanks Bushell, 
mentions particularly that of " yr changinge the dollars 
with w ch we paid o r Souldiers at Six Shillings a peece, 
when the Malignant partie cried them downe to five." 
The value of the dollar fluctuated somewhat, and 
judging from the specimens I have had the opportunity 
of weighing, the issues of this period did not reach an 
ounce in weight, but older pieces sometimes turned the 
scales at 490 grains ; if, therefore, Bushell was enabled 
partly to recoup himself by means of the heavier ex- 
amples in recoining the money, we can believe his allega- 
tion that the loss he sustained "For changing 8000 
dollars from 6s. to 5s. p. Dollar" was 300 a computation 
otherwise somewhat puzzling as the difference should be 
nearer 400 than 300. 92 Not being able to ascertain at 



College, Oxford (see Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. X. p. 204). Parlia- 
ment, beforehand with the King in requesting contributions, had on 
June 10, 1642, offered that those who should lend plate or ready 
money to them " shall have their money repaid with Interest according 
to Eight Pounds per cent, and the full value of their Plate with Con- 
siderations for the Fashion, not exceeding one Shilling per ounce . . . 
and for this both Houses of Parliament do engage the Public Faith " 
(see Commons' Journals, vol. ii. p. 618). I have seen at the Record 
Office (State Papers Domestic, Carl. I, Vol. CCCCXCI. No. 26) a 
receipt for one of these loans dated June 20, 1642. 

91 British Museum MS., Harleian Charters, 111, B. 61. Mr. Wroth, 
in his article in the Dictionary of National Biography, gives extracts 
from this testimonial, which is also published in Ellis's Letters, 2nd 
Ser., vol. iii. p. 309. 

92 A crown or 5s. piece weighs on an average 460 grains ; the ounce 
of silver was, as we have seen, valued at 5s., and weighed 480 grains. The 
average dollar from 1624 to 1630, as found in the National Collection, 



NICHOLAS BEIOT AND THE CIVIL WAE. 205 

what moment the Parliament effected this manoeuvre to 
hamper Charles in the use of foreign money, I referred 
to another Harleian document, BushelFs own statement 
of his claims after the Restoration, and find amongst the 
many testimonies given by Parkhurst and others to his 
loyalty, " that at Shrewsbury he was at a charge of about 
300Z. for changing Dollers, by his Ma 13 appointment 
and proclamation." 93 The Queen had probably sent 
over the dollars from Holland, whither she had journeyed 
on February 23, 1641-2, to escort her little daughter 
Mary to the Dutch husband, to whom she had been 
married in the previous May. Young William II 
generously supported his father-in-law's cause, and when 
Henrietta returned to England in February, 1642-3, he 
advanced her 1,200,000. The Queen had taken jewels 
to pawn to supply the King's immediate needs, but it 
is obvious that the large quantity of dollars arriving in 
1643 would have to be treated as bullion by the King at 
Oxford and by the Queen at York, whither she almost 
immediately repaired on landing." 94 

I cannot pause here to tell in detail of Bushell's 
many services to the King. He not only provided 

turns the scale at 420 grains, the preceding issue, on the other 
hand, came out at 490 grains. In the reign of Anne it was decided 
not to recoin the dollars taken at Vigo, because they passed at 5s. 9d., 
and if melted did not realize 5s. 6d. in bars (see Treasury Papers, 
Vol. LXXXIX. No. 32). 

93 Harl. 6833, f. 71b, Brit. Mus., letter from Sir William Parkhurst to 
the Lord High Treasurer under date 16th March, 1662. Parkhurst states 
that the various services performed by Bushell without remuneration 
cost him 36,000. 

94 March 7, 1642-3. "The Queen came to York, attended by 
the Duke of Richmond," &c., &c. . . . after " staying about a Fort- 
night at Bridlington to refresh herself " (see Christopher Hildyard's 
Antiquities of York, edit. 1664, p. 54). She had left Holland on 
February 25, and encountered very bad weather. She remained at 
York until June 1. 



206 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

Charles with "a thousand stoute Myners in tenn days 
time, for his said Mats. Life Guarde," but dissuaded 
another 2000 men from going over to the side of the 
Parliament in Yorkshire. 95 

By the sight of his mint and " the store of Plate and 
Bullion, which he procured," he prevailed on the army 
to encounter the enemy at Edgehill, distributing coins 
at his own expense, but in the King's name at Wolver- 
hampton, " with a motto on the Reverse to show, what 
they fought for, which soe incouraged them when pay 
was wanting, that the next Day they gott the Field." % 

He fortified the castles of Bristol and Lundy at a cost 
of 1000 for each place, " repayring " the first, and in the 
case of the latter building " a Chapell and Castle from 
the ground." He established a mint actually within the 
castle in the midst of Bristol, which he supplied with 
pure silver from his own mine "to equall the allay of 
soldered plate ... to uphold his Majestie's Standard, 

95 Bushell not only provided the Forlorn Hope medals at his own 
expense at a cost of 100 (see p. 201, note 84), but gave 3600 pounds of 
tobacco when there was a difficulty about the men's pay, and frequently 
provided the clothing of entire regiments (see Harl. 6833, Brit. Mus.). 

88 Bushell's own statement (Harl. 6833). According to another 
deposition made by Richard Nichols, a London moneyer under Charles 
II, who was in the employ of Bushell at Shrewsbury, Oxford and 
Bristol, we must not confuse these gifts with the medals given for the 
Forlorn Hope, although in parts of the MS. they are spoken of as " a 
Medail of Silver with a motto " or " a medaile of 20s.," &c. Nichols 
says Bushell presented " each Colonel with a twenty shilling piece of 

f*f 

Gold and all other officers ten or five and every Comon Soldier half 
a Crowne with this mottoe upon the band Cross in the Middle vizt 
(Relig. Protest. Leg. Ang. Libert. Parliam.) that the Enemy might 
know ye Cause to bee Just and what they faught for, as well as 
themselves find money in their pocket, which prudent policy gaue 
them all such Content coming from a Kings guift as if they had 
had ye whole of their arrears paid." Bushell gives the legend as 
Religo Prot Legi Angll" Libert Parlia, but we have found no coin 
reading exactly thus. 



NICHOLAS 3RIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 207 

. . . until the Parliament had seased his Mynes " in 
Wales. 97 

The date of the Bristol coinage is not specified more 
precisely, neither have I been able to ascertain exactly 
when the seizure of the Welsh mines rendered his 
active co-operation impossible ; but the evidence of 
one Pigott, a Major in Lord Inchiquin's Irish con- 
tingent of troops, proves that Bushell there clothed 
his and Lord Broghill's regiments in the year 1643, 
whilst another order to the same effect is addressed by 
the King "to our trusty and well beloued Thomas 
Bushell Esqre, one of the Wardens of our Mint at 
Bristoll," so late as 3Iay 17, 1644. 98 

If we assume that Bushell removed the dies of poor 
design so soon as the castle was ready for the recep- 
tion of his mints, we should be inclined to think that 
the year 1643 was drawing towards its close, for the 
inferior quadruped on the half-crown is commoner at 
Oxford than its successor with the "Briot horse." 
Bristol was in the hands of the Royalists from July 26, 
1043, to September 11, 1645 ; but before the time when 
Eupert evacuated the stronghold, Bushell had shut 

97 Parkhurst states that but for the 100 weekly sent to Bushell " out 
of Wales in Cakes, for a Long time we could hardly have made money 
at Shrewsbury and Oxford for after he caried his silver to Bristol I 
was forced," writes Sir William, "to refine much soldered plate to 
uphold his Majestie's Standard." By Bushell's own showing the fine 
silver weekly supplied by him in 1642, 1643, and 1644 to the mints of 
" Salop [i.e. Shrewsbury] Oxford and Bristol " amounted in the end 
to 15,000. 

98 The King on November 10, 1643, accepted the offer made 
by Lord Taaffe that 2000 Irishmen should be sent over. The first 
Irish contingent was defeated by Fairfax on January 25, 1643/4, and 
by Thomas Pigott's evidence it appears that " 1000 suites of cloathes " 
were delivered for the use of his regiment in the course of the year 
1643. Inchiquin, Pawlett, and others give similar testimony (see 
Harl. 6833, Brit. Mus.). 



208 HELEN FARQUHAE. 

himself up in Lundy Island, which he defended for 
three years. One of the conditions offered in January, 
1645-6, for its surrender a bait rejected by him until 
September, 1647, more than a year after he had 
received permission from the King to capitulate 
was that his mines should be restored to him by the 
Parliamentarians, but how long they had been in the 
hands of his enemies is not clear. 

But our interest in Bushell and his probable trans- 
ference of his dies to Bristol has carried us too far from 
the earlier working of the Oxford mint, and we must 
close our recital of the benefits he conferred on Charles 
by a quotation from the King's testimonial special 
thanks being due to the proprietor of the Aberystwith 
mines for "supplyinge us at Shrewsburie and Oxford 
with y r mint for the payment of our armie when all 
the officers in the Mint of o r Tower in London forsook 
their Attendance except S r William Parkhurst." " 

We might be inclined to assume from the above 
that Briot was not with the King in the beginning of 
the war, for the medals figuring the Sword and Olive 
Branch, symbolical of " War and Peace " (Med. III., vol. i. 
pp. 308-309, Nos. 135-136), present the first signed 
indication we have of his working for Charles during 
the monarch's residence in the University town in 1643, 
and in 1642 we have no evidence of his handiwork at 
Oxford. We know, however, that he had already 
endeavoured to send puncheons to York at the desire 
of Charles ; possibly the non-arrival of the cargo 



89 Harl. Charters 111, B. 61. We learn, moreover, from Harl. MS. 
6833, that Bushell brought with him out of Wales to Shrewsbury his 
" Mint, Instruments and Moneyers, when neither men nor Tooles 
could bee had from London." 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 209 

diminished the monarch's appreciation of his services 
in the north. The letter to Bushell, dated from 
Oxford June 12, 1643, moreover precedes the capture 
of Bristol by a short period, but is an indication that 
he was about to start on one of the expeditions on 
which the King from time to time employed him. So 
much uncertainty is attached to the movements of all 
these persons that it seemed well to me to examine 
more carefully two petitions which were put forth 
by Briot's widow, the one mentioned by the late 
Mr. Henfrey in his medallic history of Oliver Cromwell, 100 
the other of later date, which I had cursorily read some 
years ago, when the matter of Briot's loyalty had not 
been called in question, and which I then quoted in 
abstract from the Calendars of State Papers, in the 
British Numismatic Journal. 101 

The petition to the Protector throws little light on 
the subject, for it reads but briefly : " Hester Briott 
relict of Nich. Briott ref 1 . 102 Her Husband serv* to ye 
late K. in ye Mint had his patent for 250' p. ann. 2800' 
due at his death whereof litle rec' 1 . Prays a considerable 
sum in Lieu therof or competent pension till discharged, 
22 Jan (1655-6) submitted." 103 

100 Numismata Cromwelliana, Appendix, p. 224, note 2 to page 3, line 
7, " We find among the Abstracts of Interregnum Petitions in the 
Public Record Office mention of a petition to the Protector from Hester 
Briot, relict of Nich. Briot, dated the 22nd of January 1655-6. It 
states that 2806 was due to Briot at his death and his widow prays a 
considerable sum in lieu thereof or a competent pension till dis- 
charged." I think 2806 is a misprint for 2800, for so the last figure 
reads in the original State Papers. 

101 British Numismatic Journal,vol. v., " Portraiture of the Stuarts," 
part i. p. 186. 

104 The abbreviated word " ref* 1 " here introduced means, of course, 
" referred," this petition being marked as " submitted," although no 
indication is given of the Protector's decision. 

103 State Papers Domestic, Interregnum, I. Vol. 92, No. 443. 



210 HELEN FAEQUHAR. 

We may assume that Oliver turned a deaf ear to the 
widow's appeal, for it comes again before us at the 
Restoration the sum then demanded being just so 
much larger as to imply that Esther 104 had asked the 
Protector only for the overdue salary ; but in her 
request to the son of the late King she added the price 
of services privately performed for the latter. 

Endeavouring, then, to sift at the Public Eecord Office 
the grounds on which the widow based her undated 
petition to Charles II, I found it so interesting that 
I think I may be excused for quoting the entire 
manuscript verbatim, for we shall find proofs that 
the foreigner was more loyal to the monarch of his 
adoption than were many of Charles I's own subjects. 105 

" To the King's most Excellent Majesty. The humble 
Petition of Esther Briott the Relict of the deceased 
Nicholas Briott Sheweth 

" That yo r Pet ls late Husband was a Servant to the 
late King yo r Majesty's Royall ffather of blessed memory, 
for the space of 25 years, both as Maker of his Effigies 
and great Scales, and as chief Graver of his Maty 8 Mint 



104 Esther (or as she is called in the Interregnum Papers, Hester) Briot 
was the second wife of our artist, married in 1611. He married firstly 
Pauline Nisse, who died in 1608 (see Ferrer's Dictionary of Medallists, 
and Mazerolle's Medailleurs, p. cxxviii). Esther was the daughter of 
James Pintaut (sometimes spelt Petau), and I am kindly informed by 
Mr. Symonds, who has made notes concerning Briot's will, dated 
December 22, 1646, that he left her his sole heir, subject to legacies to 
the children of his deceased son " Phillip," and to the testator's other 
children, the payment to the two youngest of these being dependent on 
the discharge! of the King's debt (see Num. Chron., Ser. 4, Vol. X., 
" Trials of the Pyx," p. 397). Philippe was the eldest son, and we find 
him giving evidence in Paris in 1628 of his father's employment in 
England, whence he himself had just returned (Mazerolle's Midailleurs, 
p. 485). 

105 State Papers Domestic, Carl. II. Vol. LV. No. 100. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 211 

of England, for w h his Mat v allowed him the yearly 
salary of 250 U . 

" That during the late Warres, he not only continued 
in his Loyalty to his Ma ty , for w ch he suffered very much, 
and lost all his fortune, but even in the worse of times, 
as long as he lived, he from time to time did goe to 
York, and Oxford at his Ma tv ' s commaund (and during his 
absence the Mint Tools were seised upon out of the Ship 
and his Wife and Children thrown out of their dwelling 
in the Tower [)?] and 'notwithstanding, with very great 
danger to his person, he furnished still the Mint at 
Oxford, with the necessary Stamps and Puncheons, as 
it is well known both to S r Edward Nicholas and to 
S r Wm. Parkhurst. 

" That the said Briott dying in the yeare 1646, left y r 
Pet r in a very disconsolate condition, who hath ever 
since been forced to live with her children, 106 a poore 
Widdow and Stranger, in an indigent estate, under 
many straights and wants, not having been able to gett 
satisfaction for 3000 11 that then remained due by his 
Ma ty to her sd husband for his Wages and are unpayd 
toe this day. 

106 Besides Philippe (who was most likely the son of the first wife, 
since he appeared to be independent of his father so early as 1628), the 
will mentions Esther, married in Scotland, therefore probably the 
wife of Falconer the Master of the Scottish Mint ; Anne, also married, 
and Judith and Theodore, evidently still residing with their mother. 
At least one other son must have existed, for one Vasson, in evidence 
before the Cour des Monnaies in 1628, said that on Christmas Day, 
1626, he took some shoes home to Briot, then resident in London, and 
that " il vit aussy avecq ledit Bryot 1'un de ses fils, noapas l'ain ni le 
plus jeune." Whether Theodore was the youngest here mentioned, or 
was born later in England, is not apparent, but I have not found his 
name amongst the baptismal registers of the French Protestant 
Church in London, published by the Huguenot Society, so that it is 
likely he was born before Briot's journey to England. Judith acted as 
witness at a christening at the above church in November, 1640. 



212 HELEN FAKQUHAK. 

"And that yo r Pet r is now informed that y r Ma lv 
hath been graciously pleased to order the paying of a 
certaine proportion to all his said late Mat y ' s Servants, 
for supplying of their present necessitys. 

" Yo r Pet r therefore doth most humbly pray yo r Mat y 
graciously to be pleased in commiseration of her sad 
condition, and of her great age (being now above 72 years 
old) to commande that her name be inserted in the List 
of those of his Ma ty ' 9 Servants, whom yo r Maty intends 
now to be relieved : Or else to give order that she may 
have a present reliefe, and that a Pension bee given 
her yearly for her subsistence as yo r Maty shall think 
fitt, the same to be deducted out of the said Summe of 
3000 11 due, as aforesaid, to her said late husband. 

" And yo r Pet 1 will ever pray as in duty bound," &c. 

Unfortunately the petition is undated, but we may, 
I think, assume that the calendarer is correct in cata- 
loguing it to the early Restoration period, and its exact 
date is immaterial, the reference to Sir Edward Nicholas 
rendering it likely that it was put forth before August, 
1662, when he retired from office. 107 That which is far 
more regrettable is that I personally have been unable 
to discover in the State Papers any response proving 
that the widow's claims were admitted, but the late 
Mr. Wroth, a thoroughly reliable authority, in his 
article on Briot in the Dictionary of National Biography, 
says that Esther's name " was one of those, which were 
ordered to be placed on the list for relieving the servants 
of Charles I." 108 



ior This petition is calendared in abstract in the State Papers 
Domestic, 1661-1662, p. 383, amongst a number of miscellaneous 
petitions, mostly of May, 1662. 

108 Mr. Forrer, in his Dictionary of Medallists, also assumes that the 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 213 

This is much in favour of the petitioner's veracity, 
for Charles II was unable, although willing, to meet 
the many demands made upon him at the Restoration, 
when he was obliged not only to return to his father's 
adherents such of the sequestered estate as he could 
restore, but also to leave in possession those who had 
replaced him in power. 

In calling her husband " chief Graver of his Mat y8 
Mint of England," Madame Briot arrogated to him a 
position which belonged rightly to Edward Greene, but as 
his patent from the King entitled him to usurp the privi- 
leges of his official chief the expression may well pass 
muster. It is but lately that the terms of the grant 
made to Briot have come to our ears, through the 
fortunate discovery by Mr. Symonds of the particulars 
published by him in the Numismatic Chronicle. 109 

This patent carrying the permission to make " the 
first designs and effigies of the king's image ... to be 
put into the hands of our engraver, thereby to conform 
the work together," was exclusively limited to the ob- 
verse design, clear evidence that it was from the King's 
desire to encourage an artistic style of portraiture alone 
that he offered so large a salary. It is probable that 
had Briot obtained the place of " mr workman " which 
as I find in the State Papers he at one time craved, he 
would have made special terms with his sovereign, and 
the 250 might have been withdrawn, for Windebank, 

arrears were indeed paid, following no doubt the authority of Mr. 
Wroth. 

10B Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII., " English Mint Engravers," 
pp. 364-365, giving reference to Patent Roll, 4 Carl. I, Part 11. m. 5. 
We may also note that the Scottish documents designate Briot as 
" Chief grauer to his Majestie in the Mynt in England " (Cochran- 
Patrick, vol. ii. p. 52). 



214 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

the Secretary of State, noted that our engraver was dis- 
posed to be more moderate than others "that shall stand 
for the place." He mentions that Briot was ready "to 
pduce sufficient and able men for the seruice " and had 
" lately deliuered to the King at Greenwich by his Mats 
expresse command certayne notes concerning the mr 
workman's place and fabrications of his Mat 8 Mint upon 
conditions for his Ma ts benefitt and advantage." no 

It is, however, apparent that long before the outbreak 
of hostilities had depleted the royal treasury the pay- 
ment of the salary had fallen in arrears, but we know it 
was continued until or even after the Scottish Mint ap- 
pointment in 1635, for it was already within our know- 
ledge that Briot in refusing to be bound to constant 
residence at Edinburgh alleged that this would interfere 
with the 300 derived from his employment in London 
a matter now explicable by his salary of 50 from 
1633 onward at the Tower plus the King's grant. 111 I 
had, moreover, noticed amongst some Exchequer re- 
ceipts in the State Papers " from Sep. 4 1630 until the 



110 State Papers Domestic, Carl. I, Vol. DXXXVII. No. 143, 
where it is calendared, I think mistakenly to Briot's trial of skill of 
that date, June, 1638. Presumably the place desired by Briot was 
that of Master of the Mint, but possibly he only aspired to that of 
Provost of the Moneyers which was not a Court appointment. The 
Provost was elected by the Company of Moneyers by whom under the 
Mint Master (usually known at that time as Master Worker) the 
coinage was effected. If it was the place of Master Worker that Briot 
desired, it is more likely that the application was made in August, 
1635, when Sir Ralph Freeman and Sir Thomas Aylesbury temporarily 
succeeded Sir Robert Harley, who assumed office a second time in 
1643 (see Mint Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 231). Again, were the date 
earlier, the request might have referred to Scotland, but Briot became 
Master-Coiner of the Edinburgh Mint in 1636. 

111 Burns' Coinage of Scotland, vol. iii. p. 445, June 11, 1636 ; and 
Num. Chron., New Ser., Vol. XIV. p. 254, article on the Annals of 
the Scottish Coinage, by R. W. Cochran- Patrick. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 215 

28th of the same being Michas Eve " that " Mr. Bryott " 
received " 62 H 10," 112 ergo, the quarterly payment was 
evidently paid for a certain period. Apparently it was 
admitted, although less punctually discharged, after 
the more certain salary from the Warden of the Mint 
came into force in 1633. It is evident that Briot when 
making his will considered his arrears in the light of 
a legal claim to be made good in course of time, but 
that very little of the yearly 250 had reached him 
since the date above mentioned. 

But how truthful soever Esther may have been con- 
cerning the amount of money due to her husband, her 
arithmetic was at fault when she told Charles II that 
Briot " was a Servant to the late king yo r Majesty's 
Hoy all ffather of blessed memory for the space of 25 
years." In her favour we may say that the number in 
the copy of her petition at the Record Office is in figures 
merely, and the possibility of a clerical error must be 
taken into consideration. We have seen that the artist 
came to England in the September or October of 1625, 113 
and, moreover, Briot himself made no assertion of so 
long a residence in England, although he, in a petition 
minuted by Aylesbury at Hampton Court on October 2, 
1630, seems to magnify a few weeks into the space of a 
year. In this appeal for the hastening of a trial of skill, 
authorized by an edict of February 2, 1629-30, Briot 
complains of the delays of the Mint officials, and speaks 



112 State Papers Domestic, Carl. I, Vol. CLXXIII. No. 74. 

lu See p. 173, also Mazerolle's Mddailleurs, vol. i. pp. 470 and 472, 
where evidence is printed that Nicholas Briot signed a power of 
attorney in favour of his brother Isaac Briot, who acted consistently 
on his behalf before the Cour des Monnaies from the 2nd October, N.S., 
onward, answering to our September 22, for the old style was still in 
use in England. 



216 HELEN FAEQUHAE. 

of having " allready lost about six yeares since upon yo r 
Mats expresse comande " he came over. 114 

A definite pronouncement is given by Charles I in 
the patent roll of December 16, 1628, that he had a 
"particular knowledge of his dexterity . . . during 
the space of three years of divers works perfected by 
him at the royal command." 115 

On the whole it is safer to adopt the end of 1625 as 
the time of Briot's advent, allowing, however, for the 
possibility that the artist may have performed some 
work for Charles when in 1623 the latter passed through 
Paris in the month of February on his way to Spain, for 
the words that "upon yo 1 Mat* expresse comande" he 
came over are suggestive that the King had some 
knowledge of his powers. But of whatever slips or 
exaggeration the widow may have been guilty she brings 
forward two unimpeachable witnesses in Mr. Secretary 
Nicholas and Sir William Parkhurst in support of her 
assertion that her husband " with very great danger to 
his person furnished still the Mint at Oxford with the 
necessary Stamps and Puncheons." 

She also shows forth that " as long as he lived," i.e. 
until the end of 1646, " he from time to time did goe 
to York and Oxford at his Mat ys commaund," and there- 
fore we look not only for coins bearing his designs, but 
personal, if temporary supervision. 

The fact that on the death of Edward Greene, the chief 
engraver at the Tower at the end of 1644, Briot was not 
elevated to his post, is indicative that either he was 
still absent in France, where his presence is attested in 

114 State Papers Domestic, Carl. I, Vol. CLXXIV. No. 4. 

115 Patent Boll 4, Carl. I, Part 11, No. 5, as quoted by Mr. Symonds 
in Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. p. 364. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 217 

the April 116 of that year, or else that he had lost the 
confidence although we know that he had not forfeited 
the pay of the Parliament. 

This seems likely, for we note Esther's words 
" during his absence the Mint Tools were seised upon 
out of the Ship," suggesting that Briot was actually at 
York on July 15, 1642, when the goods which were not 
sufficiently portable to be concealed about his person 
were detained at Scarborough. 

It is possible that Briot was not himself a traveller 
by the sea route, and contrived to escape the vigilance 
of Captain Stevens and returned hurriedly to London, 
perhaps in time to answer for his proceedings before 
Parliament. 

Be this as it may, it is clear that his absence then or at 
some other time was noticed and " his Wife and Children 
thrown out of their dwelling in the Tower " in conse- 
quence, whilst the fact that he died in the parish of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields shows that his reinstatement 
was never complete. Although his action in going to 
the King's assistance in July, 1642, was not illegal, and 
the responsibility for it lay with Parkhurst, it would 
naturally produce annoyance in London, and whether 
the expulsion took place before or after the Mint 
sequestration, there is justice in Esther Briot's plaint 
that he " suffered very much and lost all his fortune," 
risking even his life in pursuing his policy of loyalty 
after the removal of Mint property was forbidden by 
Parliament. 

Let us now turn again to the coins and endeavour to 

116 April 20, 1644, in new style, according to the French record, 
ergo, April 10 old style, as used in England. See note 65 to our 
p. 192. 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. Q 



218 HELEN FARQUHAB. 

recognize Briot's handiwork. May I, however, express 
a hope that others more competent than myself to deal 
technically with the subject may employ some leisure 
moments in comparing the varieties of workmanship of 
York and Oxford? The busts perhaps afford the most 
accurate opportunity of tracing the sequence of the 
coins, but I have already too long trespassed on my 
readers' patience to detail the probabilities which occur 
to me especially with regard to the Oxford portraiture, 
and I purpose accordingly to follow a shorter and more 
suggestive route, using the equestrian figure of the King 
solely as my basis. 

We need not be long tempted aside to discuss the 
York pieces, because Briot has always been virtually 
held responsible for the whole coinage of that city, 
but the date of its commencement demands strict 
scrutiny. 117 

Unfortunately the early history of the York mint is 
hidden in the obscurity of tradition ; Folkes, 118 Kuding, 
and other writers, following in their footsteps, carry back 
its foundation to the year 1629 when Strafford became 
Governor of the North, and mention a probable coinage 
in 1633 when the King was on his progress to Scotland 
for his coronation. I have met with no success in 
searching for any record of this event amongst the 
State Papers, and by the kindness of Mr. Baldwin, 



117 I am not suggesting that Briot engraved all the York coins 
himself any more than he did the Scottish, which were copied 
admirably by Falconer and mauled by Dickeson, but the York 
coinage, like the Scottish, is the product of Briot's roller-mills, and 
just as Briot delivered his patterns to be copied at the Tower, even for 
pieces not struck according to his process, so his dies must often have 
been copied at York. 

118 Folkes' English Silver Coins, p. 79 ; Kuding, vol. ii. p. 365. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 219 

who procured some information for me from Mr. George 
Benson, at present resident in York, I understand that 
no local research has so far corroborated this tradition, 
whilst my courteous informant writes that the city 
records of the reign of King Charles previously to 1645 
have not been published. 119 Mr. Benson referred me to 
the printed writings of Mr. Robert Davies, 120 who in 
1854 produced an article on the York mints, telling me 
that so noted an antiquary could not have overlooked 
any obtainable information, and I find that Mr. Davies 
discredits the early foundation of the mint. In support 
of his argument he quotes one Christopher Hildyard, 
Becorder of Hedon and Steward of St. Mary's Court, 
York, and member of an old Yorkshire family. This 
Hildyard was born in 1615 and died in 1694, having 
published a small chronological work on the affairs of 
York in 1664, wherein he stated that " about the latter 
end "of January 1642-3 the King's Mint began to coin 
in Sir Henry Jenkins' house in the Minster yard." 121 

Mr. Davies, who as town clerk must have had access 
to the unpublished city records, regarded this evidence 
as conclusive that no former coinage had been effected, 
and inferred that "the York mint was first erected 
immediately after the Earl of Newcastle entered the 
city as Lieutenant General of the north," and held from 

118 Amongst the documents briefly catalogued by the Hist. MS. 
Com. (Appendix I. p. 108) is a volume chronicling the affairs of York 
from July, 1645, to January, 1652. 

120 Davies's Historical Notices of the Royal and Archiepiscopa I Mints 
and Coinages of York, published 1854. 

121 Antiquities of York City, p. 54, published by C. H. in 1664, and re- 
published, with additions by James Torr in 1719, p. 104. All events of 
importance are briefly chronicled, such as the setting up of the King's 
printing-press in the same house in the previous March, less than a 
week after his Majesty's arrival. Edit. 1664, p. 53 ; edit. 1719, p. 103. 

Q2 



220 HELEN FAEQUHAK. 

the variety of the types that " its operations were con- 
tinued during the whole time he held the city for the 
King namely from January 1642-3 to July 1644 when 
his defeat at the battle of Marston Moor placed the 
Government in the hands of the parliamentarians." 122 

He clearly deemed that Ending is mistaken in be- 
lieving that the first consignment of plate dispatched 
from Oxford was coined at York, 123 and assumed that 
the delay caused by the embargo laid on the ship at 
Scarborough resulted in the earliest coinage being that 
at Shrewsbury. This pronouncement, which revolutionizes 
the whole of Mr. Hawkins's arrangement of types, is so 
startling that although I am myself inclined to think 
that in the absence of any record in London or York 
of the early establishment we may accept Hildyard's 
evidence, we must yet look at it critically. He clearly 
regards Strafford's governorship of the north as unworthy 
of notice, giving no details of the year 1629 beyond the 
name of the Mayor, nor of 1633 saving the mention of 
the King's visit, namely, that he " lay at the Mannor four 
nights" in the month of May, and he may have only 
recorded the removal of an old mint to more commodious 
premises. Here, according to this seventeenth-century 
chronicler, " His Majestie's Printers set up their Presses 
in the House belonging to Sir Henry Jenkings in the 
Minster Yard " on the 24th of the previous March, and 
the idea presents itself that possibly the roller mills 
required for coining might be moved by the same horse 
power as the lever press used in printing. It is notice- 
able that Sir Henry Jenkins's house, which is on the 



122 Historical Notices, p. 54. 

'" Buding, vol. i. p. 398, and Historical Notices, pp. 51 and 53. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 221 

east of the Minster, is not the place where the coinage 
was performed in the sixteenth century, neither is it 
the locale chosen by the advisors of William III who 
coined at the Koyal residence the Manor in 1696-8, 
although King Charles I's mint in the Minster Yard, 
which has resumed its original name as S. William's 
College, still stands to the present day. 124 

It is, therefore, only fair to suggest that previously to 
January, 1642-3, operations may have been carried on 
in St. Leonard's Hospital in the premises still known as 
the Mint Yard on the north-west side of the Minster, 
held by Mr. Davies to be the site of the Crown mint 
under Henry VIII. 125 That this Mint Yard was 
sequestrated after the fall of York as the property of 
Sir William Saville, " a delinquent in arms," is proved 
by extracts given by Mr. William Giles 126 from the 
Proceedings of the Committee of the City and County of 
York between the years 1645 and 1651, 127 and it seems 

124 Information kindly supplied by Mr. Benson, who tells me that 
Jenkins' house has recently been restored as the home for the Houses 
of Convocation for the Northern Province. It had upon the dis- 
solution of the religious houses, passed into the hands of the Stan- 
hopes, and thence into those of Jenkins. See also Pictures of Old 
fork, by A. Purey Gust, p. 52. 

125 Historical Notices, p. 69. Mr. Davies herein differs from an earlier 
writer, Mr. Drake, who in his Eboracum, published in 1727, p. 337, 
carries back the name of Mint Yard to the Episcopal mints. Francis 
Drake's book is compiled from various contemporary MSS., but he does 
not throw any light upon the establishment of Charles I's mint at 
Jenkins's house, although he mentions the printing-press there. 

126 rpkg no ti ces referring to Mint Yard are of November 23, 1646, 
May 10, 1647, and March 30, 1648, and comprise an order to deliver 
sequestrated timber in the Mint Yard for public use, another for 
preserving portions of the structure, and a third concerning the 
reception of the rents and profits of the lands and tenements. The 
Mint Yard, including the site of St. Leonard's Hospital, was sold in 
1675 by George Lord Savile to the Mayor and Commoners of York, and 
a portion of the building still remains. 

127 Published in the Yorkshire Weekly Herald from November 30, 



222 HELEN FAKQUHAR. 

just possible that the old mint did in truth exist, as 
tradition asserts, but being inadequate to the strain 
cast upon it, it was supplemented in 1643 by the 
presses in the King's printing house. Of an earlier 
issue of coins than the Civil War period, the types of 
many York pieces are suggestive, but this evidence is 
not conclusive, because they often have no exact prototype 
at the Tower, and even if they had it was more easy to 
abstract and send to the North puncheons already out 
of use than those likely to be required. But to whatever 
date we attribute the bulk of the York dies the excellence 
of their graving in most cases, and the process of 
manufacture by roller mills, point to the occasional 
presence and general if intermittent superintendence of 
Briot over the coinage. 

Some of the York coins are very fine, and certain 
examples such as a half-crown in my collection (in very 
high relief, but otherwise resembling Hawkins No. 497), 
are suggestive of expert striking. 

We are reluctant to cast away the belief that our 
friend. Nicholas Briot had in truth superintended the 
erection of a York Mint in 1629, or more probably, as 
the coins suggest, in 1633 on his way to Scotland. But 
even putting this matter aside as " non proven " we 
should still think it likely that he visited Charles 
during the King's occupation of the city, and granting 
this premise we may then more easily follow Mr. Davies's 
chronology and allow for the time taken in necessary 



1912, to March 8, 1913, and concerning which the author, Mr. William 
Giles, the present deputy Town Clerk, has kindly supplied me with 
further information, promising also to search amongst the records for 
earlier information, a quest which has, I fear, so far proved un- 
availing. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 223 

preparations, and defer the opening of the mint until 
the time of the Queen's residence and Newcastle's 
governorship. We may wonder why the artist respon- 
sible for the entire coinage should have signed two dies 
in particular, the one for a shilling, the other for a half- 
crown [PI. XII. Fig. 1], from the latter of which the 
impressions are very rare, probably for the reason that 
it cracked immediately, as is shown by the flaw on the 
few specimens known to me ? 128 

The shilling bearing Briot's signature [PI. XII. Fig. 3] 
is less rare, but by no means common. The answer to 
the problem perhaps lies in the fact that these initialled 
dies would establish the engraver's claim upon the King, 
were proof needed of his loyalty, whilst the minute 
letter would pass unnoticed unless special attention were 
directed to it, and would not therefore endanger his 
position at the Tower. We have seen, moreover, that 
on May 30, Sir Edward Nicholas had written, informing 
Briot that in view of his illness his Majesty would 
dispense for the moment with his attendance on "the 
requirement he had for your employment here," thus 
suggesting that a substitute had been found. Neverthe- 
less Briot despatched his heavier instruments and 
apparently smuggled through on his person some dies 



128 There is one specimen of the half-crown in the British Museum, 
one was in the collection of the late Mr. Bliss, there is my own, once 
the property of Mr. Lawrence, and one in the late Mr. Dudman's sale 
of December, 1913. I ought to mention that some collectors (amongst 
others Mr. Bliss, who kindly showed me his example) have been inclined 
to read the letter as an R rather than a B, the return of the letter 
being lost in the circle of the O, but on the exhibition of the coin to 
the Society the majority were in favour of B, and it was so catalogued 
at the Museum ; the specimen in the Dudman collection reads B more 
clearly. We need, therefore, not discuss their transference to Rawlins 
or Ramage, with whose workmanship they are not agreed. 



224 HELEN FAKQUHAK. 

and puncheons, or made them on his arrival. The 
presence of a rival at York would account for the 
signature, and the fact that this type the horse with 
forward mane and the tail visible between the legs, 
Hks. type 7 is usually found unsigned, denotes that 
more dies were subsequently made from Briot's puncheon, 
and that undergravers must have been present at York 
as at the Tower. 129 

But the Tiame of no rival rises to our lips when we 
review the possible engravers, capable of making so 
good a coinage as that of York ; for even if we accept 
the tradition, now mostly discredited, 130 that Simon 
was a Yorkshireman,' and was first trained by Briot 
in that city, it seems improbable that Thomas Simon, 
a Puritan, should have been on the side of Charles. 131 
His work from the making of an Admiralty Seal in 
1636 is well known, and we have the certainty that he 
was already in the Parliament's employ in July, 1643, 
when he received an order to make a new great seal to 

129 ^6 have already shown that the equestrian figure on these signed 
half-crowns agrees with the type principally, although not invariably, 
in use at the Tower from mint-mark Star to (P) on the half-crown [see 
PI. XII. Fig. 2J, and throughout the later period of (P) to Sun on the 
crowns. A type attributed usually to Simon commences with Sun on 
these large pieces, and on the half-crowns extends to Sceptre there- 
fore beyond the date of Briot's work his death taking place during 
the period marked by the Sun. 

130 See Vertue's Simon, edit. 1780, p. 60 ; see, however, Mr. Wroth's 
article in Dictionary of National Biography ; Num. Chron., 1st Ser., 
Vol. IV. p. 213, and Vol. V. p. 165. 

131 Simon's Seals, Medals, and Coins, by George Vertue, p. 60. It 
is there suggested that Briot obtained the services of Simon when 
establishing the mint at York on his way to Scotland in 1633, but 
Simon, if born, as we believe, in 1623, could not have been of great use 
at so early a period, and the doubt as to the foundation of the York 
mint prior to the Civil War renders the question still more difficult 
of solution. It is now considered more likely that Simon was of a 
Guernsey family, settled first in Canterbury and then in London. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 225 

replace that taken to the King at York in May, 1642, 132 
and we have no evidence later than a medal of 1639 
of his following the fortunes of Charles. 133 Were Briot's 
signed coins at Oxford they might result from a rivalry 
with Eawlins. Let us now turn to the University city. 

At Oxford we must dismiss from our minds the precise 
rounded shape so characteristic of Briot's coinage, and 
yet retain in our memory the peculiar style of equestrian 
portrait, which he most affected and which had appeared 
on patterns in his early years, recurring on the coinages 
known by his name, with mint-marks Flower and B, and 
Anchor. It was in use in Scotland, it re-appeared as a 
familiar type at Oxford, filtered thence to the Exeter 
mint, and in the form of a very inferior imitation to 
Wey mouth. Let us arrange these coins in proper 
sequence. 

Mr. Symonds tells us that amongst the disbursements 
ending November 30, during the year 1632, there is a 
charge for a dinner for the officers of the mint " when 
Bryott did work, it being no mint day." 134 Also, he 
informs us that Sir Thomas Aylesbury 135 somewhat 
later delivered to the King " fair silver moneys," viz. 
three crowns and three half-crowns of Briot's moneys 
and three crowns, three half-crowns, and ten shillings 



132 Simon delivered this seal to Parliament on September 28, 1643. 

133 The medals on the Scottish Rebellion (Med. III., vol. i. pp. 
282-283, Nos. 91, 93, and 94) are signed by Simon. 

134 Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. p. 366. 

135 Sir Thomas Aylesbury was Master of the Mint from 1627 to 1643, 
but appears to have held the post in conjunction with Sir Robert 
Harley, whose first tenure of office was from November, 1626, to 
August, 1635. Sir Ralph Freeman then shared the position with 
Aylesbury from 1635 to May, 1643, when Harley returned, until 1649, 
when differences with the Parliamentary party caused his final retire- 
ment (see Mint Catalogue, vol. ii. p. 232). Aylesbury, being a Royalist, 
was deprived of his place during the Civil War. 



226 HELEN FARQUHAK. 

of the moneyer's making, in all 55s. 136 He further 
explains that Briot must have " worked at his own 
coinage on certain unnamed days within two stated 
periods only, viz. (1) between November 30, 1631, and 
the same date in 1632, when the mint-marks Eose and 
Harp were successively used, and (2) between July 31, 
1638, and the same date in 1639, when the Anchor and 
Triangle were the current marks, the latter being in use 
for about three weeks." 137 

I would like to suggest further that, apart from the 
special coins which we call by Briot's name, apart also 
from the patterns which differ from the currency, there 
are some very beautiful specimens of busts upon the 
current coin, with Rose and Harp mint-marks, which, 
although they have not the artist's signature, show 
forth the stamp of his handiwork. We must remember 
that Briot was called upon to deliver obverse designs 
to be copied on the currency, and again we find 
specially well-engraved pieces with these and other 
mint-marks, which were no doubt made for this purpose, 
but from their rarity we assume were not approved. 
Amongst these possibly is a half unite (Kenyon type 3) 
in the British Museum with mint-mark Eose, suggesting 
the innovation of a turned-down collar in the place of 
the King's ruff. Be this as it may, the varieties bearing 
the mint-mark Eose are many, and I must thank Mr. 
Symonds, in that he has cleared from the path many 
difficulties in arranging the sequence of Briot's coins of 
all kinds, and incidentally the crowns and half-crowns 
to which I now purpose to call attention. 

136 Num. Chron., 4th Series, Vol. XIII. p. 366. See also Walpole's 
Anecdotes of Painting, vol. i. p. 256. 

137 Num. Chron., as above, Vol. XIII. p. 366 ; also Vol. X. p. 393. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 227 

These coins are adorned upon the obverse with an 
equestrian design, which for the moment I name the 
Briot horse, in that he gave it the preference on his 
special milled coinage. 

First, then, we must place the rare pattern crowns, 
signed by the artist's initials, one of these bearing on 
the obverse a crowned bust, the other bareheaded 
[PI. XIII. Fig. 1] ; both have the equestrian figure on the 
reverse, somewhat larger than the ultimate presentment, 
but reminiscent of Van Dyck's pictures in the stately 
pose of both man and beast. 

Then follow the crown [PI. XIII. Fig. 2] and half- 
crown with the Flower and B as mint-mark, the anemone 
being, perhaps, later re-echoed in the stops on some of 
the Oxford coins. The curious A's, so peculiar to Briot 
and Simon, have made their appearance, although 
neither these nor the diamond-shaped stops are abso- 
lutely invariable. Whether upon the occasion of placing 
three crowns and three half-crowns before the King, 
our artist offered him the choice between the patterns 
specified above and the third, afterwards circulated, 
who shall say? Neither can we pause to speak of 
alternative half-crowns, which are not of equestrian 
type we must follow the authorized issues. 

We then pursue Briot to Scotland, and remind our 
readers of the coins of 1637 (Crown on PI. XIII. Fig. 3) 
with mint-mark Thistle and B, afterwards copied by 
Falconer. 

PI. XIV. Fig. 1 brings before us the half-crown of 
the artist's special coinage with mint-mark Anchor and 
B at the Tower for which in 1638-9 Mr. Symonds 
has prepared us, and at this moment, strangely enough, 
begins a rougher and extremely rare series of coins 



228 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

bearing Briot's horse, lettering, and stops, but struck 
with the hammer and little better in execution 
than the ordinary Tower issue of the day, being 
apparently an attempt on the part of the engraver to 
introduce his favourite design into popular use with the 
mint-marks Anchor and Triangle. Ruding, in figuring 
in his Plate F, No. 3, a somewhat curious half-crown 
which I illustrate on our PI. XIV. as Fig. 2, ascribed it, 
on account no doubt of its peculiar square-topped shield, 
to an unknown country mint. But its mint-marks on 
both sides of prostrate Anchor suggest the Tower 
sequence, and we may note that my specimen of this 
curious type has the recumbent Anchor altered to a Tri- 
angle, both upon obverse and reverse [PL XIV. Fig. 3] ; 
a second example struck from this die is in the 
Museum, and a third is in Colonel Morrieson's cabinet. 
This carries us on to another half-crown in my collec- 
tion [PI. XIV. Fig. 4], still with the Triangle altered 
from an Anchor, and in this instance again on both 
sides, whilst the reverse is decorated with the ordinary 
Tower shield. Colonel Morrieson also has a specimen 
of the coin. The British Museum contains two examples 
of Euding F. 3, and we have seen that there are at 
least the same number of specimens of our Tower issue 
[PI. XIV. Fig. 4], perhaps more, for one appeared in the 
Murdoch sale, and neither is Colonel Morrieson nor am 
I aware whether our respective coins passed through 
the hands of that collector, but several pieces with 
minute differences must have been struck. It would 
seem as though a continuous movement had been made 
by Briot to introduce his favourite design at the Tower 
between 1639 and 1643, for not only are the above 
suggestive of such an effort, but a curious and very rare 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 229 

crown so far as we know from a unique puncheon so 
decorated is brought before us at the Museum with the 
mint-mark, Triangle-in-circle. This must have been 
struck between July 15, 1641, and May 29, 1643 138 
[PI. XIII. Fig. 4]. 

Now let us turn to Oxford, and we shall find a solitary 
pound piece [PJ. XIV. Fig. 5] in the National Collection 139 
struck in 1643, the year in which "the Briot horse" first 
makes its appearance in the University city, supplanting 
its less correctly modelled predecessor. This graceful 
type did not come into regular use upon the silver 
pounds nor appear at all upon the Oxford crowns, and 
so far as we know this twenty -shilling piece is unique, 
but the half-crown of this obverse design is so common 
that the animal is usually known as the " Oxford horse," 
and holds sway throughout the years 1643, 1644, 
1645, and 1646 [PI. XV. Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4]. The 
changes in dies with small differences in the stops prove 
how large was the issue of these coins, and the puncheons, 
attributable to Briot's design, show in many instances 
increasing signs of wear. How often these were renewed, 
how often fresh dies were engraved with the co-operation 
of inferior workmen, it is hard to say, for sometimes, 
although not often, we find a better specimen in the 
later than in the earlier years, proving that new 
puncheons must have been made. In all cases the 
striking is extremely faulty, and it is difficult to dis- 
cover pieces sufficiently well struck for observation of 
such minutiae. I hope I am not unduly pressing my 



138 See Mr. Symonds' table of Mint-marks in Num. Chron., 4th Ser., 
Vol. X. p. 393. So far as I am aware no crowns bearing this mint- 
mark have been seen in other types. 

139 Prom the Montagu Collection, lot 493. 



230 HELEN FAKQUHAR. 

point in suggesting that Briot probably selected in 
London his own puncheons, they not being in demand, 
or perhaps engraved such on purpose, and sent or took 
them and some specimen dies to Oxford. It will be 
admitted that these equestrian portraits with their direct 
descent from his early patterns are more reminiscent 
than any other Oxford coins of the French engraver's 
handiwork. But I am bound to confess that one obstacle 
presents itself in the fact that this type reappeared 
almost exactly in three forms at Exeter 14 : undated with 
two differing reverses [PI. XV. Figs. 6 and 7], and dated 
[PI. XV. Fig. 5] the numerals 1644 being visible in the 
legend. We have no documentary evidence of Briot's 
presence at that place, but a possible explanation may 
be found in the Queen's movements. She joined her 
husband at Oxford in July, 1643, and remained in the 
University city from the 13th of that month until 
April 2, 1644, residing at Merton College. From thence 
she made her way to Exeter, 2500 being provided for 
the purpose of her journey by Bushell. Is it not 
possible that part of this money consisted of half-crowns 
with the Briot horse, and in compliment to her the 
Exeter mint produced a fairly faithful copy of the obverse 
design ? There were many varieties of coins struck at 
Exeter, some being of excellent workmanship, but I 
am not prepared to suggest that Briot visited the place, 
neither know we who produced the superior pieces. But 
if we prefer to assign the undated specimens with " the 
Briot horse" to the earliest probable date, i.e. 1643, 141 



horse is slightly more bushy, otherwise the copy is 
fairly exact. 

111 Exeter was at first in the hands of the Parliament, but sur- 
rendered to Prince Maurice in September, 1643. Unless it was struck 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 231 

may we not believe that Charles I in issuing to "Sir 
Richard Vyvyan Knt " an authority to open mints 
within the counties of Devon and Cornwall, "and to 
make and engrave irons and stamps with his Majesty's 
effigies," may have sent him certain puncheons and dies 
as patterns ? 142 

Our list is not quite finished, and those who disagree 
with the line of argument I have tentatively advanced 
may say : What of those curious Weymouth coins with 
various reverses [PI. XII. Fig. 5] sometimes confounded 
with the Exeter issues in that for mint-mark they bear 
a small rosette, whilst the type of the shields proclaims 
their Weymouth origin ? My answer is that so poor a 
copy bespeaks a very inferior workman, endeavouring to 
reproduce the Oxford-Exeter horse, and that in describ- 
ing an example of this rare coin now in my collection 
the cataloguer wrote : " This coin has been ascribed to 
Exeter : specimens struck from the same obverse die 
and with an unmistakable Exeter reverse are said to 
exist." 143 

We need, therefore, carry the Briot horse no further 
afield than Exeter in the year 1644, whilst it remained 

for the Parliamentarians or as a complimentary medal with no reference 
to Exeter, the so-called half-crown bearing date 1642 is an unexplained 
problem. The man who engraved this free copy of Simon's Scottish 
rebellion medals (Med. III., vol. i. pp. 282-283, Nos. 90-94) was no mean 
artist. The same type recurs in 1644, at which time the town was held 
by the Royalists. We cannot, therefore, easily transfer the type to the 
side of the Parliament. Folkes placed it amongst the coins struck at 
York, but Hawkins discountenanced this attribution on account of the 
Rose mint-mark. If, moreover, a specimen really exists dated 1645, 
the same difficulty would reappear, for York fell in 1644. Exeter 
finally capitulated to Fairfax on April 9, 1646. 

142 Document in the Bodleian Library, quoted by Mr. Symonds in 
Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIII. p. 370. This warrant is dated 
January 3, 1643-4. 

143 Catalogue of the Hamilton Smith Sale, No. 125, June 21, 1913. 



232 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

in use at Oxford until such time as the city surrendered 
on June 20, 1646 fully six months before the death of 
Briot. The King had left for the north on April 27 ; the 
engraver's sphere of usefulness was closed. 

And now to sum up chronologically the whole matter, 
stripped of the somewhat clumsy evidence. 

In 1625 Briot comes to England. 

In 1626 he begins to work for Charles. 

In 1628 Briot receives a grant of 250 yearly from 
the King to engrave the obverse pattern dies of all his 
coins. 

In 1633 Briot obtains the appointment at the Tower 
of " one of the gravers " at 50 per annum. 

On May 1, 1642, Briot communicates from the Tower 
with Charles who is at York, deprecating a suggested 
debasement of coin. 

On May 6 Briot is commanded by the King to attend 
him at York. 

On the 22nd of May the King's great seal is taken to 
York, but is not replaced in London until July 19, 1643, 
when Simon is ordered to engrave a copy the new seal 
is completed on September 28, 1643. This suggests the 
absence of Briot from London in the middle of 1643. 

On May 26 Briot is in London giving evidence on 
mint matters before Parliament. 

On May 30 Nicholas, the Secretary of State, begs 
Briot not to hurry to York, having heard that he is 
ill, but has received a letter dated the 25th from Park- 
hurst notifying Briot's intended departure. 

On June 21 Nicholas writes to desire the engraver's 
immediate presence bringing dies and puncheons to York. 

On June 30 a further communication concerning 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 233 

financial arrangements for the journey is made by 
Nicholas. 

On July 7 Ramage is paid at the Tower for supplying 
minting materials for York and Shrewsbury. 

On July 12 Parliament orders the highways round 
Oxford to be watched, the King having commanded the 
University to send treasure to York. 

On July 15 the ship containing mint materials is 
stopped at Scarborough. 

On July 23 the Commons commend this detention 
and command Briot to appear before the House. 

On August 20 his private possessions are returned, 
but not such as belong to minting. 

On October 5 the Commons prohibit "any Officer, 
Workman or Instrument, belonging to the Mint or 
coining or graving to quit their charge." It is likely 
that it was during the absence of Briot after and not 
before this event that his wife and children were turned 
out of his house in the Tower, inasmuch as such absence 
before would not have been illegal. 

On January 3, 1642-3, the Oxford mint is opened by the 
help of apparatus brought from Shrewsbury by Bushell, 
who had taken his men and tools thither from Aberyst- 
with. The King in the following June, in a letter of 
thanks to Bushell says that his help was given " when 
all the Officers in the Mint of o r Tower of London for- 
sooke their attendance except Sir William Parkhurst " : 
this probably refers to the opening of the Shrewsbury 
mint, for Briot attended the King both at York and 
Oxford. 

" About the latter end of January 164|," it is recorded 
that " the King's Mint began to coin in Sir Henry 
Jenkins' house in the Minster Yard " at York. 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. R 



234 HELEN FARQUHAR. 

Before the end of the year 1642, according to old 
style, ergo, before March 25, 1643, Eawlins makes 
badges for the King, and the new large horse is 
seen on a 1 piece (Hks. type 4). 

A warrant for making a badge is dated Oxford, 
May 18, 1643, and another under date June 1, 1643, 
speaks of Eawlins as " our Graver of Seals, Stamps and 
Medals." 

On July 13, 1643, the King and Queen met at Kineton, 
and Eawlins commemorates this event medallically. 
Both Briot and Eawlins make medals commemorative 
of the King's manifesto on the desirability of Peace 
after the taking of Bristol on July 27, 1643. 

In the middle of the year 1643 the character of the 
equestrian coinage at Oxford changes. 

Bushell departs for Bristol where he has opened a 
mint in the Castle, taking with him, as we should judge 
from the style of the coinage, some engraver, name 
unknown, who clearly had been responsible for the 
badly drawn horse, which preceded Briot's equestrian 
portrait. 

In 1643 the style of Oxford portraiture improves, and 
Eawlins should, I think, be given the honour of the new 
gold pieces and equestrian figure on the silver pounds, of 
which the puncheon has been already used in 1642 and 
continues in use in 1643 and 1644. 

On April 20 to 22 n.s. in the year 1644, M. Maze- 
rolle notes Briot's presence in Paris. 

The exact date of Bushell's departure for Bristol from 
Oxford is not known, but he was still at Bristol on 
May 17, 1644, and the fact that he clothed the soldiers 
arriving from Ireland suggests that he was already at 
Bristol in January, 1643-4. 



NICHOLAS BRIOT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 235 

In 1644 we have Rawlins' signed coins continuing to 
1646, the date of the fall of Oxford. 

In April, 1645, the King gives Rawlins a warrant of 
"chief graver in the Tower of London and elswhere 
in England and Wales," the last holder of this office, 
by the King's appointment, Edward Greene, having 
died at the end of the year 1644. This grant to 
Kawlins is almost contemporary with the parliamentary 
appointment of Simon and Wade, the place having, it 
seems, been held for a short time by Nicholas de Burgh. 

The King left Oxford on April 27, 1646, but the city 
held out until June 24. Six months later Briot died in 
London, in the Parish of St. Martins-in-the-Fields, in 
December, 1646, in receipt of the Warden's pay at the 
Tower of 50 a year, the arrears of which had been 
allowed to him. 

After his death his widow appealed to the Lord 
Protector and to King Charles II for the far larger 
arrears due from the King, and produced evidence, when 
putting forth her petition after the Restoration, that her 
husband had loyally tried to assist Charles I at great 
danger to his person, for " even in the worse of times, 
as long as he lived, he from time to time did goe to 
York and Oxford at his Matys command." 

I leave it to my readers' indulgence to decide whether 
this was a true claim and whether the loyalty of Briot is 
vindicated. 

HELEN FARQUHAR. 



R 2 



X. 

INDEX OF ETHNICS APPEAEING ON 
GEEEK COINS. 

THE list of Ethnics in the genitive case arranged by 
terminals in Boutkowski's Petit Mionnet de Poche has 
proved of great practical value to collectors, but it is 
forty years since it was first published and there are 
many gaps to be filled. 

The following Index, compiled chiefly from the 
Historia Numorum (2nd edition), is based on Bout- 
kowski's list, but differs from it not only in length but 
in one important detail of arrangement : the order of 
the terminals is strictly alphabetical and consequently 
the arrangement by districts has been abandoned ; the 
name of the district is, however, given with each town. 
The last three letters of the genitive have throughout 
been regarded as the terminal, but this terminal may 
comprise several subordinates: thus BEQN, rEnisl, 
AEQN, GEflN, AlEDN, &c., will be found as sub- 
divisions under the terminal EQN. The arrangement 
is alphabetical, beginning with the first letter before the 
terminal, i.e. the fourth letter from the end, and work- 
ing backwards to the beginning of the word. The last 
decisive letter, which determines the alphabetical posi- 
tion of the name, and those following it are printed in 



ETHNICS ON GREEK COINS. 



237 



capitals, the letters which precede the decisive letter in 
small type x : e.g. 

TepAZON 

ni,uojAl 
EMI 

Of the class of adjectival terminations in ON on early 
coins, only those are included of which it is impossible 
to say with certainty whether they are masculine geni- 
tives plural or neuter nominatives singular. Thus 
Mtaatviov is included but 2f/>jui*Xicoi/ excluded. In all 
such cases MV has been substituted for ov. The 
alternative spelling SITMV for ITWV, so common on 
later coins, has been disregarded in the alphabetical 
arrangement, e.g. <&\XtiT&v appears as 4>fXXrwi/. Titles 
of cities, such as Kataa/ot n>v, have been inserted in cases 
where they may be mistaken for the ethnic, and in such 
cases the name of the city as well as of the district is 
given in the second column. 

This list is confined to genitives plural. The other 
categories included by Boutkowski in his list are held 
over for another occasion. 

E. S. Gr. KOBINSON. 



OwAAAN Acarnania 


in A NAT AN Sicily 


Teufll ,, Arcadia 


FTtTAN ,, Samnium 


H5QNAN Macedonia 


A<7iP Achaea 


TeFEATAN Arcadia 


KoAAto-T ,, Arcadia 


AAE 


M 


AiAuBAITAN Sicily 


EAE 


Epirus 


KePA , 


Crete, Pisidia 


AIE 


Arcadia 


KoAAciroA , 


Caria 


HoffelAQNI 


Lucania 


0EPM , 


Sicily 


KYAONI 


Crete 


TlavOPM , 





AiroAAQNI 


Illyricum ASpAN , 


,, 


KaYAQNI 


Bruttium Toi/po^uEN , 


,, 


Kpc/mNI 


TaMN , 


Aeolis 


Aoull 


Arcadia PtON , 


Illyricum 



Except of course the initial letter. 



238 



E. S. G. ROBINSON. 



2oYNITAN 


Samnium 


OABEQN 


Cilicia 


Tw/5AP ,, 


Sicily 


Ai/afcP ,, 




EverirEP 


Cyrenaica 


KacSY . 


Lycia 


Ato-Z 


Illyricum 


26ATEQN 


Pisidia 


HpoKAEOTAN 


Bithynia 


AP 


Acarnania 


M {fpKI 


Epirus 


AAAAEON 


Pisidia 


2KfAl 


Sicily 


AuZIA ,',' 


Phrygia 


AAAoPI ,, 


Crete 


A/t/SAA ,, 


Pisidia 


Map A ,, 


Cilicia (Mallus) 


2WNA 


Phrygia 


AireiP ,, 


Epirus 


Ai/AH '' 


Pisidia 


4>epAIOYN 


Thessaly 


Ni/coMH 


Bithynia 


Kpcwj/ouNI ,, 





Nofl 


Cilicia 


rOyU<p(T ,, 


,, 


XaAKI 


Euboea, Mace 


AAQN 


Laconia 




don, Syria 


AIN 


Macedonia 


AiroAAa>NI ,, 


Lydia 


KoAflN 


Troad 


AAoBAN 


Caria 


TePON 


Macedonia 


ApuKAN 


Lycia 


OiT 


Thessaly 


2iAAN 


Lydia 


MTjSABON 


Arabia 


OicOAN ,, 


Lycia 


EucrE ,, 


Cilicia (Zephy- 


AaPAN 


Lycaonia 




rium) 


AaAiZAN 




Ileppal ,, 


Thessaly 


AAIN 


Caria 


Te/CTOo-AfQN 


Galatia (Ancyra) 


IZIN 


Pisidia 


Ap/cAAQN 


Crete 


B \ 




OupaNI ,, 


Macedonia 


M |AAYN 


Phrygia 


mzi 


Pisidia (Sagalas- 


2<3tSOYN 


,, 




sus) 


MafY 


Pamphylia 


2iN 


Bosporus 


KAcwNOY 


Lydia 


2eP ,, 


Thrace 


ArTOY 


Phrygia 


AY 


Lydia (Mostene) 


KwaieEQN 


Arcadia 


A.TAEQN 


Aeolis 


ChaN 


Locris 


MjA 


Phrygia 


A.fAIEQN 


Aeolis 


Karl 


,, 


IffTl 


Euboea 


Ne.K 


Lydia (Cilbiani 


NIK 


Bithynia 




Inf.) 


4-olNIK 


Epirus 


*wK 


Ionia 


AeYK 


Ionia 


AK/cIA ,, 


Phrygia 


*OK 





AopYA 


n 


Ao-Ti/TroA ,, 


Caria 


n-roAeM 


Ionia (Lebedus), 


FlroAeM 


Phoenicia 




Phoenicia 


HeA^N 


Thessaly 


TleAij/N 


Thessaly 


An 


Arcadia 


HP 


Arcadia 


HP 


,, 


HelP 


Pontus 


NuZ 


Samaria 


BoYP 


Achaea 


KpHT 


Crete 


AaplZ 


Thessaly 


MAlT 


Thessaly 


NYZ 


Lydia 


AjriEQN 


Achaia 


HpOYZ ,, 


Bithynia 


KAa</AlEQN 


Syria (Leucas) 



ETHNICS ON GREEK COINS. 



239 



ITo/m-HIEON 


Decapolis (Ga- AAOAIKEQN 


Phrygia, Syria, 




dara) 




Coele Syria 


MAAIEQN 


Thessaly 


KAauSiOAAOAl 


Lycaonia 


AupH ,, 


Ionia (Neapolis) 


EupYAl 


Ionia (Smyrna) 


1 


Troad 


Tep/xANl 


Commagene, 


O/coK 


Phrygia 




Phoenicia 


0/j.O 


Thessaly 




(Ptolemais) 


M60Y 


n 


Qeffffa AONI 


Macedonia 


IOY 


Lydia, Phrygia, 


2rpoTON[E]l 


Caria, Lydia 




Syria (Lao- 


ZEAEY 


Lydia (Tralles), 




dicea) 




Pisidia, Cilicia, 


Kan-n-n 


Decapolis 




Syria, Mesopo- 


AAMIEQN 


Thessaly 




tamia 


KePA 


Garia 


KAauSiOZEAEY 


Pisidia 


Auo-INIEQN 


Pisidia 


*a 


Phocis 


EIKO 


Lycaonia 


AAEON 


Thessaly.Arcadia 


KAauAEIKO 





TABA 


Syria 


0PO 


Locris 


TABA 


Lydia 


Bi0Y 


Bithynia 


KoZTABA 


Cilicia 


KoAQ 


Messenia 


*I[P]A 


Arcadia 


Ena 


Bnittium 


TPfA 


Phrygia 


Eu/SOIEON 


Euboea (Eretria) 


EFIA 


Cyclades 


0<F<rniEnN 


Boeotia 


A 7 XIA 


Thrace 


IKAPIEQN 


Ionia 


ArTA 


Pamphylia 


Me0uA 


Arcadia 


na>r 


Pisidia 


TIBE 


Pisidia (Pappa), 


*urE 


Ionia 




Galilee 


ZaIE 


Thraco - Mace - 


CAauSiOTlBE ,. 


Galilee 




donian 


KIE 


Thessaly 


*A.o/*H 


Phrygia 


AyaK-rO ,, 


Acarnania 


KopuSAA 


Lycia 


EpET 


Euboea 


IDA 


Mysia 


Arj^HT 


Thessaly, Coele 


AIO 


Aeolis 




Syria, Assyria 


NaKO 


Phrygia 


AjtaZT 


Paphlagonia 


20 


Cilicia 


Ave/ioY ,, 


Cilicia 


KoSpoY 


Pisidia 


AQ 


Phrygia (Syn- 


AirAMEQN 


Phrygia, Bithy- 




nada) 




nia, Syria 


IIAAPAZIEQN 


Caria 


AoKI 


Phrygia 


Del PA 


Thessaly 


TAAaPI 


Caria 


A</>po8[e]l ,, 


Caria 


EupQ 


,, 


IIpiaN 


Crete 


AAANEQN 


Cilicia 


KuirapiZ ,, 


Messenia 


ASplA 


Mysia 


nPOY 


Bithynia 


BAAA 


Syria 


ATOY 


Assyria 


ReAAA 


Achaea 


op0a 


Caria, Phoenicia 


KoMA 


Pontus 


KpHTIEQN 


Bithynia 


KoNA 


Pisidia 


H(f<a(Z ,, 


Thrace 


mTA 


Mysia 


*a r AKEnN 


Pontus 


TYA 


Cappadocia 



240 



E. S. G. ROBINSON. 



PA<t>ANEON 


Syria OpOoyOPEnN 


Macedon 


E7T|CJ)A ,, 

EuME 


Syria, Cilicia 
Phrygia 


EK/rAP 
OYP 


" 


Thessaly (?) 
Acarnania 


4>E 


Arcadia 


HAT 




Achaea 


nplH 


Ionia 


SooYAT 


,, 


Lycaonia 


FUAAH 


Achaea 


KvBIZT 


,, 


Cappadocia 


Mai/rl ,, 


Arcadia 


IAIZT 


,, 


Lycaonia 


Kp^M ,, 


Pisidia 


ETnSAY 


,, 


Argolid 


TTpoffrAN ,, 





THMENO9Y 


,, 


Phrygia 


ErEN 


,, 


TplMENOGY 


,, 


M 


TON 


Thessaly 


Aj/TiKY 


.. 


Phocis 


Ai/TifO ,, 


Arcadia (Man- 


MY 





Lycia 




tinea) 


AIMY 


,, 


() 


HAD 


Macedonia 


BAOY 






ApvZO 


Caria 


KoABAZEQN 


Pisidia 


Ep/xlO 


Argolid 


IA 


, t 


Caria 


A/cMO ,, 


Phrygia 


AAAA 




Cilicia 


KAPY 


Achaea 


MYAA 


,, 


Caria 


0<J>PY 


Troad 


AMA 




Pontus 


BouBO 


Lycia 


nAAPA 




Caria 


QefjuI-Q. 


Phrygia 


NaKPA 


,, 


Lydia 


ApAZEHN 


Lycia 


Tv^vH 


,, 


Caria 


eiZOEON 


Arcadia 


TAI 


, , 


r> 


KepeTAHEON 


Phrygia 


KopOTrEI 


,, 


Cilicia 


ropfin 


Bosporus 


TaP 


,, 




A 7 Pin 


,, 


KoABAZ 


,, 


Pisidia 


EYin 


Caria 


ApEAZ 


,, 


,, 


Eu/caP ,, 


Phrygia 


ApIAZ 


,, 


n 


Su/n 


Paphlagonia 


SafAAAZ 


,, 


,, 


MEfAPEON 


Megarid 


AAAAZ 




Cilicia 


TaPTA 


Mysia 


[MINAZ 


,, 


Pisidia] 


TaAA 


Decapolis 


AAjraPNAZ 


,, 


Caria 


n ( NA 


Lycia 


KoAu)8PAZ 


,, 


Cilicia 


KAIZA 


Bithynia, Cilicia 


TirYAZ 


,, 


Pisidia 




(Anazarbus), 


ESEZ 


,, 


Macedon 




Bosporus 


TeA[E]MHZ 


,, 


Lycia 


NEOKAIZA 


Pontus, Lydia 


TePMHZ 


,, 


Lycia, Pisidia 




(Philadelphia) 


npu^NHZ 


)> 


Phrygia 


AlOKAIZA 


Phrygia, Cilicia 


KiSYHZ 


,, 


,, 


lePOKAIZA 


Lydia 


A/cAAIZ 


)> 


Lycia 


DoTA 


Lycia 


HeSi/HAIZ 


!> 


Pisidia 


2uEA 


Cilicia 


KoponiZ 


,, 


Cilicia 


*oAeKANA 


Cyclades 


Aju4>IZ 


,, 


Locris 


AAeZANA ,, 


Troad, Cilicia 


Pl 


,, 


Syria 


Ai/TANA 


Troad 


EAATEQN 


Thessaly, Phocis 


0H 


Cyclades 


ZeuyMA 


,, 


Gommagene 


AXt^EI ,, 


Arcadia 


BaPA 


,, 


Lycaonia 


KaMI 


Caria 


2a/ioZA 


,, 


Commagene 



ETHNICS ON GKEEK COINS. 



241 



ATroAAcoj/IHTEnN 


Thrace 


AIKAIQN 


Macedon, Thrace 


TeAH 


Lucania 


TpiKK 


,, 


Thessaly 


Eiri/cTH 


Phrygia 


BaPK 


,, 


Cyrenaica 


IlapAAl 


Lycaonia 


Aaj/KA 


,, 


Sicily 


A/^inOAl 


Macedon 


nAA 


,, 


Macedon, Deca- 


NEOnOAl 


Campania, Mace- 






polis 




don 


NQA 


,, 


Campania 


>AlOnOAI ,, 


Sarmatia (01- 


2AM 


,, 


Cephallenia 




bia) 


MeAM 


,, 


Bruttii 


MapwNI ,, 


Thrace 


MeZM 


,, 





A57?PI ,, 


,, 


AYM 


,, 


Achaea 


IlaAAaN ,, 


Arcadia 


KYM 


,, 


Campania, Aeolis 


2iAAYEQN 


Pamphylia 


OiZYM 


,, 


Thrace 


Kact> 


Arcadia 


PQM 


,, 


Pisidia (Sagalas- 


*iAa8eA(l)EQN 


Cilicia, Decapo- 






sus), Cilicia 




lis, Lydia 






(Anazarbus) 


roM<J> 


Thessaly 


AoyFAN 


,, 


Sicily 


2caP 


Locris 


M60AN 


,, 


Argolis 


Ai/o-iyuAXEnN 


Thracian Cher- 


KPAN 


,, 


Cephallenia 




sonnese 


KYPAN 


> 


Cyrenaica 


AvriO 


Troad (Cebren), 


KATAN 




Sicily 




Caria, Pisidia, 


nlTAN 


n 


Mysia 




Cilicia, Com- 


IIuAN 


M 


Macedon 




magene, Phoe- 


A0EN 


)! 


Thrace (Imbros) 




nicia (Ptole- 


EnpuMEN 




Thessaly 




mais), Syria, 


A0HN 




Attica 




Mesopotamia 


MurjAHN 


M 


Lesbos 




(Edessa and 


MwpEIN 


( , 


Aeolis 




Nisibis) 


OIN 


)> 


Ionia (Icaria) 


TAQEQN 


Lycia 


Ka/xAPIN 


M 


Sicily 


mrANHflN 


Mysia 


TEPIN 




Bruttium 


FuPN 


Aeolis 


AfYPIN 


- 


Sicily 


2ea(rT ,, 


Thessaly (Koiv6v) 


MYPIN 


)l 


Aeolis 


TjBAIQN 


Boeotia,Thessaly 


AZIN 




Messenia 


nAF 


Megarid 


a \ 




Lesbos 


AIT 


Achaea 


il) V 


" 




nePF 


Pamphylia 


*aAANN 


)) 


Thessaly 


MeNA 


Macedon 


[H]ENN 


,, 


Sicily 


MQA 


Crete 


HeAlNN 


,, 


Thessaly 


AiFE 


Cilicia 


Na/cON 


,, 


Sicily 


EuPE 


Thessaly 


EAeuflEPN 


,, 


Crete 


rAZ 


Judaea 


Z\ YpN 




Ionia 


AAYZ 


Acarnania 


2/^ 


)J 




Kap0 


Cyclades 


T*ZN 





Aeolis 


KAauAl 


Syria (Leucas) 


ATN 


I 


Sicily 


BpOI 


Macedon, Cyr- 


IXN 


,, 


Macedon 




rhestica 


KAEQN 





Argolid 


BorTI 


Macedon 


MoQN 


,, 


Messenia 



242 



E. S. G. ROBINSON. 



SKIQNAIDN 


Macedon 


AlNAiaN 


Caria 


NaKQN 


Sicily 


MYN 


M 


KoPHN 


Messenia 


PO 


|f 


icrO 


Arcadia 


ApFEiaN 


Acarnania, Ar- 


Aann ,, 


Crete 




golid 


Kan 


Boeotia 


OpO\ 


Thessaly 


Kao-zan 


Epirus 


K ,, 


Cyclades 


AiflAP 


Sicily 


FAA 


Peloponnesus 


ATI-TAP 


Crete 


HA 


f> 


TavaFP 


Boeotia 


H;paKA 


Lucania 


2<AEP ,, 


Sicily 


KiEP " 


Thessaly 


IMEP 


,, 


0uPP 


Acarnania 


ATrTEP 


Crete 


PojT 


Troad 


<t>EP 


Thessaly 


MoT 


Thessaly 


HP 


Sicily ?, Cyclades 


HTjpa/cAHinN 


Lucania 


EpuQP 


Ionia 


T 


Ionia 


AIP 





S/ciAGIflN 


Thessaly 


HEIP 


Pontus (Amisus) 


ITeTrapH ,, 




AKP 


Sicily 


AKAN 


Macedon 


Kop/cYP 


Epirus 


ZAN 


Lycia 


AoplZ 


Thessaly 


HEPIN 


Thrace 


E5EZZ 


Macedon 


KOPIN 


Peloponnese 


2/coroYZZ 


,, 


ZaKYN 


M 


KoroYZ 


,, 


T/PYN 


Argolid 


TV AT 


Thessaly 


IKiaN 


Thessaly 


AHT 


Macedon 


npi 


Illyricum 


MeAIT 


Africa 


OppEZ ,, 


Macedon 


OIT 


Thessaly 


nppHZ 


|f 


E7*ZT 


Sicily 


PAY 


Crete 


<t>YT 


Thrace 


AY 


Lycia 


A4>YT 


Macedon 


MAAiaN 


Cyclades 


MorY ,, 


Sicily 


4*ap^A , , 


Thessaly 


AX 


Achaea 


2TUitCj>A jy 


Arcadia 


Ao\IX ,, 


Commagene 


ByB 


Phoenicia 


*AABiaN 


Phrygia(Philad., 


AH 


Gyclades 




Grimenoth.) 


MH 


,, 


AeZ 


Lesbos 


Tpal 


Macedon 


ApnaN 


Acarnania 


nY 


Messenia 


Ar/>A ,, 


Thessaly 


Ki^tfi ,, 


Cyclades 


AeuKAAiaN 


Acarnania, Coele 


SAMiaN 


Ionia, Samo- 




Syria 




thrace 


APA 


Phoenicia 


I5Y 


Caria 


AeBE 


Ionia 


AopAANiaN 


Troad 


TeNE 


Troad 


Me0A 


Argolid 


Vucj>E\ 


Arcadia 


Me<rZA 


Sicily, Messenia 


KNI 


Caria 


IT A 


Crete 


a>4>l ,, 


Arcadia 


KXaZOME 


Ionia 


Ao-irEN 


Pamphylia 


EPXOME 


Arcadia 



ETHNICS ON GREEK COINS. 



243 



OPXOMENIQN 


Arcadia 


0AZIQN 


Thrace 


MetrZE 


SicUy 


*A.lA 


Phliasia 


TpotZH 


Argolid 


XepffoNA ,, 


Crete 


HtpirEPH 


Mysia 


EAr<t>A 


Arcadia 


DoAYPH 


Crete 


EPE 


Lesbos 


Meo-ZH 


Sicily, Messenia 


E4>E 


Ionia 


TH 


Cycledes 


KopoKH 


Cilicia 


KvQ 


,, 


M[e]AH 


Ionia 


Al 


Thrace 


PTjffAINH 


Mesopotamia 


TpraKI 


Crete 


ANINH 


Lydia 


KaAuM 


Caria 


AAonrfKoNNH ,, 


Thracian Cher- 


4>opKAAO 


Thessaly 




sonnese 


KoAXAAO 


Bithynia 


HpAl 


Crete 


Mi>KO ,, 


Cyclades 


Al 


,, 


AaKeSaiMO ,, 


Laconia 


TYAI 


n 


IlpweP ,, 


Thessaly 


NaK 


Sicily 


IfpttTrvT ,, 


Crete 


IIpiaN ,, 


Crete 


KpavvOY ?, 


Thessaly 


2upa/cO ,, 


Sicily 


TOPTY 


Crete 


AZ 


Troad 


KOPTY 


Arcadia (Gortys) 


I/ a AY 


Rhodes 


2i<t> ,, 


Cyclades 


W 




2.AQ 


Phoenicia 


P.ZOY 


Thessaly 


KpavNQ 


Thessaly 


Kpi0OY 


Thracian Cher- 


FupTQ 






sonnese 


2</cYQ 


Sicyonia 


EAalOY 


Cilicia, Thracian 


KoAo<t>n 


Ionia 




Chersonnese 


[FJAZIQN 


Crete 


A^MOY 


Mesopotamia 


NA 


Cyclades, Sicily 


2eA.iNOY 


Cilicia 


A.ucpA 


Macedon 


eeAflOY 


Arcadia 


OAoiY 




KvQ 


Crete 


npnninN 


Attica 


AATIQN 





AZQ 


Laconia 


neuMA 


Thessaly 


FlAPinN 


Cyclades 


2rPA 


Acarnania 


rYA 




2u)3pl ,, 


Crete 


<1>A 


Illyricum 


BuCAN 


Thrace 


I^B 


Thrace 


OAON 


Crete 


ANA 


Cyclades 


2eANON 


Sicily 


ArTANA 


Troad 


onoN 


Locris 


Ku0H 


Laconia 


TpaireZOYN 


Pontus 


KAelTO 


Arcadia 


n<r(rjNOYN 


Galatia 


A^aKTO 


Acarnania 


KepaZOYN 


Pontus 


(?) NlK7J<J)O 


Mesopotamia 


2HZ 


Thracian Cher- 


Kufl 


Cyprus 




sonnese 


BAY 


Crete 


*alZ 


Crete 


0OY 


Lucania 


KopYZ 


Euboea 


ZY 


Cyclades 


BpET 


Bruttium 


NIZY 


Caria 


AYT 


Crete 


TY 


Phoenicia 


BipY 


Troad 



244 



E. S. G. ROBINSON. 



TAYIQN 


Galatia OuAniANflN 


Thrace (Anchi- 


*AaO 


Phrygia (Phila- 




alus) 




delphia, Grime- 


Anni 


Phrygia 




nothyrae) 


ITAPI 


Mysia 


2epelcJ>inN 


Cyclades 


BPI 


Phrygia 


XIQN 


Ionia 


Me{aMBPI 


Thrace 


"5i<v M' 1 M 


r r t rno/ ; 1 


V^" 




\H 


XlUciU 


AAPI 


Mysia 


TeAniQN 


Sicily 


2ouHPI 


Bithynia (Cius 


K 


Caria 




and Claudi- 


IAKQN 


Peloponnese 




opolis), Cilicia 


PA 


Pisidia (Apol- 




(Adana) 




lonia) 


A/uOPI 


Ionia (Neapolis), 


2a;uO0PA ,, 


Thrace 




Phrygia 


T\cu>\ 


Gallia 


A^uAZTPI ,, 


Paphlagonia 


nereAAQN 


Thessaly 


KaYZTPI 


Lydia 


0e<rZA ,, 





Tl 


Bithynia 


nepnrO 


Samnium 


KaAAATI 


Moesia 


na^Y 


Pamphylia (Side) 


TAOYI 


Galatia 


Ann 


Aetolia 


*juAOYI 


Phrygia 


A5eApj/AHMQN 


Seleucis 


TfpK 


Lydia 


TpoK 


Galatia 


A0AM 


Epirus 


OpAANQN 


Italy 


KOM 


Pontus 


MoZE 


Phrygia (Dioclea 


A/coPN 


Acarnania 




and Siocharax) 


KoMn 


Campania 


AioKAE 


Phrygia 


APR 


Apulia 


MuPAE 


Bithynia 


vn 


Elis 


MoZE 


Phrygia (Dioclea 


AyKYP 


Phrygia, Galatia 




and Siocharax) 


TYP 


Sarmatia 


KiABI 


Lydia 


AvyovtrT ,, 


Cilicia 


OusPBI 


Pisidia 


TwTENQN 


Macedon 


AaAAl ,, 


Lydia 


ASpAHNQN 


Arabia 


Ko/iOAt 


Cilicia (Aegeae 


TAB 


Trachonitis 




and Tarsus) 


TAB 


Caria 


KAPAI 


Thracian Cher- 


AafB 


Pisidia 




sonnese 


Po^aGMnB 


Arabia 


ZAPAI 


Lydia 


XopaXMOB 





IIo/rHI ,, 


Cilicia 


BAP 


Lydia 


Kl 


Bithynia 


Ko^MAF 


Commagene 


AEKI 


Cilicia (Mopsus) 


ToPA 


Lydia 


AYK1 


Lucania 


ABYA 


Troad 


2BAI ,, 


Phrygia 


DaAoJojSEYA 


Phrygia 


TpaAAl 


Lydia 


Ttra/cAZ ,, 


Lydia 


MaiMI 


Cilicia (Adana) 


EpIZ 


Phrygia 


AIM 


Thessaly 


BpoYZ 


,, 


Ma(MEIM 


Cilicia (Adana) 


KaNA 


Decapolis 


AJ/TO.NEIM 


(Mopsus) 


MaPA 


Phoenicia 


Ma/cPEINI 


,, (Adana) 


Bio-aN 


Thrace 



ETHNICS ON GREEK COINS. 



245 



AEIHNQN 


Decapolis 


BoTPYHNON 


Phoenicia 


AAI 


Phrygia 


AAINQN 


Lucania 


l<rrP\ 


Moesia 


MeNA 


Sicily 


Aa/uYAK 


Mysia 


p>?r 


Bruttium 


KvCIK 





2oAPE 


Illyricum 


AauoZK ,, 


Coele Syria 


HeTPE 


Sicily 


MAA 


Pisidia 


Pu)8arTE 


Apulia 


ZAA 


Lydia 


nAK 


Sicily 


A0IA 


Decapolis 


EpYK 


,, 


Ka0YA 


Thrace 


RerHA 


Bruttium 


nepl~AM 


Mysia 


KalA 


Apulia 


KAM 





Ei/reAA 


Sicily 


K.SPAM 


Garia 


A/3a/ca;N 


,, 


rPM 


Lydia 


SaXAn 


Apulia 


IToi/uaN ,, 


Mysia 


K(vrop\r\ ,, 


Sicily 


KaAO ,, 


Phrygia 


2oAn 


Apulia 


OrPO 


>> 


nopnn 


Sicily 


IIpiAn 


Mysia 


BAP 


Apulia 


Tirol n 


Lydia 


AAP 


Frentani 


OAoMfl ,, 


Lycia 


TAAAP 


Sicily 


nAnn 


Pisidia 


2/coAP 


Illyricum 


inn 


Decapolis 


NouKP 


Bruttium 


BAP 


Pisidia 


AAalZ 


Sicily 


ToMAP 


Lydia 


Ep/3i?ZZ 


,, 


Ile/mEP 


Mysia 


KavYZ 


Apulia 


iwrelP 


Lydia 


TplAT 


,, 


SreKTOP 


Phrygia 


A/urjo-rPAT 


Sicily 


KaPP 


Mesopotamia 


ACET 


Apulia 


KEZTP 


Cilicia 


lalT 


Sicily 


BOZTP 


Arabia 


KaAaKT 


,, 


2nf>flP 


Galilee 


AKpAfANT 


,, 


BapfAZ 


Caria 


MoPfANT 


,, 


ApnAZ 


,, 


TaPANT 


Calahria 


E M IZ 


Syria 


OpZANT 


,, 


E5EZZ 


Mesopotamia 


AEONT 


Sicily 


KoAOZZ 


Phrygia 


AAONT 


,, 


Kaj/AT 


Decapolis 


2OAONT 


,, 


nAAT 


Syria 


MeranONT 


Lucania 


nEAT 


Phrygia 


BuTONT 


Apulia 


2ej8AZT 


Pontus, Cilicia, 


Ma/iePT 


Sicily 




Phrygia, Sa- 


Aa/xAZT ,, 


Illyricum 




maria 


Tei/EZT ,, 





MOZT 


Lydia 


npa-NNQN 


Cephallenia 


2<TT 





AuKAONDN 


Lycaonia 


A5pa/*YT 


Mysia 


nA 


Paeonia 


B.ZY 


Thrace Ma/ceA ,, 


Macedon 2 



See also under Beroea Mac. 



246 



E. S. G. ROBINSON. 



- MetZONON 


Pisidia (Termes- KE[N]NATnN 


Cilicia 




sus) 


TpeBENN ' 


Lycia 


MAI 


Lydia 


SapNO 


Illyricum 


nAi 


Paeonia 


KijSYP 


Phrygia, Cilicia 


Bu\AI 


Illyricum 


Ai7IP ,, 


Achaea 


AyU^)t/cTI ,, 


Phocis 


KAZ 


Cilicia 


[EjinNftN 


Thrace (Perin- 


Apra|IZ ,, 


Armenia 




thus), Phrygia 


ATTAETHN 


Mysia 




(Synnada) 


E 


Thessaly ? 


**\innQN 


Macedon 


SlAHTaN 


Pamphylia 


TOUA.APON 


Pontus 


PDA 


Hispania 


rai/r 


Paphlagonia 


A/E 


Macedon 


Ko/SH 


Pontus 


1 


Cyclades 


AoK 


Locris, Bruttium 


Kl 


Cilicia (Anemu- 


Boo-T ,, 


Arabia 




rium, Philadel- 


I<rAY 


Isauria 




phia, Coropiss.) 


raOY 


Pontus 


Mairo-AAl ,, 


Gallia 


TspAZHN 


Decapolis 


BapyYAI 


Caria 


UiftcaM ,, 


Paphlagonia 


KepaMI 


,, 


EMI 


Syria 


KowK 


Gallia 


AooP 


Illyricum 


Ao-yyoo-rAA ,, 


,, 


MoAoZ ,, 


Epirus 


TEA 


Lucania 


MY 


Phrygia 


MafN 


Thessaly, Ionia, 


rafATO-N 


Lycia 




Lydia 


FaZE 


Judaea 


Ai^elN 


Aegina 


r^ee 


Laconia 


Mi^O ,, 


Cyclades 


ArroAE ,, 


Lydia 


KP 


Crete 


Pe^ANE 


Seleucis 


A/3BAITHN 


Phrygia 


TENE 


Peloponnese 


FaZ 


Judaea 


4>ENE 


Arcadia 


EA ,, 


Aeolis 


KuSQNE 


Crete 


AeoNN 


Phrygia 


AZE 


Arcadia 


2YN 


,, 


BorTE ,, 


Macedon' 


nacTKcaFI 


Tauric Cherson- 


MoYE 


Thessaly, Cilicia 




nese 


ZouGH ,, 


Mesopotamia 


KeP 


Pisidia 


Aii/EI ,, 


Macedon 


ArT 


Mysia 


TlvQ\ 


? 3 


AX 


?' 


KuAflNI 


Crete 


A^BITON 


Cilicia 


ATToAAClNI 


Lydia, Mysia, 


neAarunN 


Epirus 




Caria, Pisidia 


EITQN 


See ITQN 


BOI 


Laconia 


StoxopaKITHN 


Phrygia 


0ouPI 


Messenia 


ZHAITQN 


Pontus 


Ka</>YI 


Arcadia 


T5PH 


Phrygia 


To A 


Galatia 


EpjuoJcariH ,, 


Lydia 


AajcAN ,, 


Cilicia *aZH ,, 


Lycia 



Wiener Monatsbl., V. p. 281. 
Eev. Suissc, 1913, p. 112. 



ETHNICS ON GREEK COINS. 



247 



0EAAITQN 


Lycia 4-iAtTrnOnOAITriN 


Thrace, 


A"H<1>EA 


,, 




Thessaly, 


NEAnOAITON 


Ionia, Mace- 




Arabia 




don, Caria 


IEP 


P hrygia, 


PoSIA 


Lycia 




Cilicia, 


lePA 


Phrygia 




Cyrrhestica, 


TPI 


Lydia,Phoe- 




Pontus 




nicia 




(Heraclea) 


V*' 
nAAEOriOAITON 


Macedon 
Pisidia 


M{TP 


Thessaly, 
I; 


HpoKAE 
NE 


Pontus 
Campania, 




o n i a, 
Phrygia 




Apulia 


Atofi/Z ,, 


Moesia, 


TpoireZ ,, 


Caria 




Phrygia 


2/cuG 


Samaria 


MetAHT 


Mysia 


Ha\AI 


Pisidia 


2eaZT 


Pontus, 


*A.ABI 


Phrygia 




Caria 


OABI 


Sarmatia 


Aa-ePAITON 


Lycia 




(Olbia) 


FAY 


Gaulos 


KAAYAI 


Bithynia, 


Bp'OY 


Lydia 




Cilicia 


T/uQ 





NeOKAAYAl 


Paphlagonia 


TOMIT^N 


Moesia 


IIo/tirH 1 


Cilicia, Pa- 


AiZANITQN 


Phrygia 




phlagonia 


TA 


Crete 


AupHAI 


Lydia 


KYA 


Lycia 


loYAI 


Bithynia 


n| fSloffeAH 


Lesbos 


T/3ePI 


Phrygia 


\aA 




TfTI 


Cilicia 


TAM 


Aeolis 


*AooYI 


Bithynia, 


THM 







Cilicia 


n[e]iO 


Troad 


NIK 


Moesia, 


A<r*cAAn 


Judaea 




Thrace, 


KOAQ 


Messenia 




Pontus, 


MoPn 


Thrace 




Syria, 


IwrAniTriN 


Cilicia 




Judaea 


Ao-n 


Laconia 


Tep/xANIK 


Cilicia 


KeAe^AEPITQN 


Cilicia 


HryAA 


Arcadia 


AiroAAwNIE 


Lydia 


TpAIAN 


Thrace, 


A.oZIE 


,, 




Phrygia A0AH 


Thrace 


MapKIAN 


Moesia 


ASpjai/oGH ,, 


Mysia 


A5PIAN 


Thrace, 


Toirel ,, 


Thrace 




Phrygia, 


4-ayaFO 


Bosporus 




Cilicia 


Ej^nO ,, 


Hispania 


Ao/utTIAN 


Phrygia 


MaffraY ,, 


Lydia 




(Sala) 


AQ 


Phoenicia 


EtpHN 


Cilicia 


NaKpAZITON 


Lydia 


IIAcoTelN ,, 


Thrace 


O5?jZ 


Thrace 


IQN 


Paphlagonia 


XaijuATITON 


Lycia 






248 



E. S. G. KOBINSON. 



AaePTITON 


Cilicia 


BaAANEnTHN 


Syria 


KYITQN 


Caria 


Pa<t>ANE 


M 


M 


Cilicia 


KwpuKI ,, 


Cilicia 


TopSIOTEIXITQN 


Caria 


RoAAAl ,, 


Lycia 


UaveMOTE\ 


Pisidia 


nai/TAAl 


Thrace 


A/SeoNOTEl 


Paphlagonia 


KapaAAl 


Cilicia 


XaflAKTfiN 


Pontus 


BOI 


Boeotia 


A/xANTON 


Illyricum 


Zt^uPI ,, 


Cilicia 


4>(Ao<reBAZTQN 


Caria (Stra- 


A/cpAZI ,, 


Lydia 




tonicea) 


Kopa/cHZI 


Cilicia 


*aKIA 


Thessaly 


MaAA ,, 


,, 


*oA.wPIA ,, 


,, 


AtBYON 


Libya 


KuppH ,, 


Cyrrhestica 


AEAcl>nN 


Phocis 


HpaKAEGTHN 


Macedon, 


AAEA 


Seleucis 




I o n i a, 


Afj.<f>i\oxnn 


Acarnania 




Caria 




(Argos) 



XI. 
BARCLAY VINCENT HEAD. 

To the bibliography of Head's works, which was promised 
in the last issue of the Numismatic Chronicle, we are glad 
to be allowed to prefix the sympathetic notice which was 
contributed to the Athenaeum for June 20 by one 
who knew him well. We take the opportunity also 
of mentioning that he was elected an honorary member 
of the Academia Komana of Bukarest a few days after 
his death, but before the news had reached the Academy. 



Barclay Head was one of the rare and happy men who 
seem to have been born to do a particular piece of work 
in the world, and to do it admirably. Most people will 
think of ancient numismatics as a small field of specialist 
study, almost as a refuge of dilettantism. They will 
admire the exquisite productions of the mint of Cyzicus 
or Syracuse, and pass them by. But Head saw that coins 
are serious historical monuments, that they contain in a 
nutshell the whole history of the cities which issued 
them, and that by an intensive and comparative study of 
them ancient history can be made real and living. 

He entered the Department of Coins in the British 
Museum in 1864, and about 1870 was set by the Keeper 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. S 



250 BARCLAY VINCENT HEAD. 

of Coins, E. S. Poole, to work on the newly planned 
Catalogue of Greek Coins, of which the first volume 
appeared in 1873 and the twenty-seventh in 1914. 
Every scientific specialist knows that compiling cata- 
logues is the best of all training. The work of catalogu- 
ing thoroughly suited Head. He had unlimited patience, 
an excellent talent for comparison, a sense of style in 
art, and a great love of historic research. The prelimi- 
nary work in preparing the Catalogue of the Coins of 
Sicily gave him his opportunity. The beauty of Sicilian 
coins, and their value to Greek mythology, had long 
been recognized ; but no one had yet worked out their 
value as historic documents on the political and com- 
mercial history of the island. Brandis and Momrnsen 
had seen the lacuna, but their pupils had as yet done 
little to fill it. 

Head's paper on the Coinage of Syracuse, published 
in 1874, was but 80 pages long, but it revealed a true 
historic method applied for the first time to the whole 
of the coinage of an ancient city. Its value was imme- 
diately recognized abroad ; the French Academy crowned 
it, and the University of Heidelberg bestowed a Doctorate 
on the writer. From this time Head's task lay clear 
before him : to treat other series of Greek coins by th& 
same method which had been successful in the case of 
Syracuse, and so by degrees to make numismatics not a, 
morass, but a cultivated field with paths in all directions.. 
Hence came the great Historia Numorum, published by 
the Oxford University Press in 1887, of which a new 
edition came out in 1911. It has enjoyed the honour of 
being translated into modern Greek, and has become an 
invaluable book of reference to all who have worked upon 
Greek history. English historical writers generally find 



BARCLAY VINCENT HEAD. 251 

much of their material in German books ; but in the 
matter of numismatics Head turned the tables. He won 
the rare distinction of being a corresponding member of 
the Academies both of France and Prussia. A Doctorate 
at Oxford came appropriately, though somewhat late. 

What kind of reputation he had acquired throughout 
Europe was best shown when he retired from the British 
Museum. A volume of numismatic papers then published 
in his honour contained contributions from almost all 
the authorities on ancient numismatics. Of the thirty 
contributors, ten wrote in German, five in French, one in 
Italian, and one in Greek. It was an oecumenical offer- 
ing, and the day on which Sir John Evans, in the 
name of the subscribers, presented the first copy of the 
book to him was a fitting consummation of his career. 
The volume was well entitled Corolla Numismatica. 
Barclay Head was Keeper of the Department of Coins 
and Medals from 1893 till 1906. He was also joint 
editor of The Numismatic Chronicle from 1869 to 1910. 

In England there is not much endowment of research ; 
but the British Museum serves, in fact, as a great in- 
stitution for the purpose. The Museum never fostered 
a better example of research than Head. In character 
he was the typical student of the sort at his best : sweet- 
tempered, of infinite patience, perfectly free alike from 
self-assertion and from jealousy of his colleagues. He 
was always ready to retract on Monday a view published 
on Saturday, if good cause were shown. He always 
weighed in even balance his own published opinions and 
those of others ; yet his mind was so well poised and 
cautious that he seldom had to retract. More than a 
specialist he was not ; probably he never published a 
line on any subject but numismatics ; yet so blameless 

9 

a - 



252 BAKCLAY VINCENT HEAD. 

a career, and a success within its own limits so complete, 
can seldom have been exhibited in any country. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

From this list are excluded the reviews, signed or unsigned, 
of numismatic works which Head contributed to the Numis- 
matic Chronicle and other periodicals. The place of publica- 
tion, where not otherwise stated, is London. 

1867. Account of the Hoard of Anglo-Saxon Coins found 

at Chancton Farm, Sussex. Num. Chron. 

1868. Anglo-Saxon Coins with Runic Legends. Num. 

Chron. 

1868. Notes on Ilion, numismatical and historical. Num. 
Chron. 

1870. Translation of Ernst Curtius "On the Religious 

Character of Greek Coins." Num. Chron. 

1871. On some rare Greek Coins recently acquired by the 

British Museum. Num. Chron. 

1872. British Museum : Guide to the Select Greek Coins 

exhibited in electrotype in the Gold Ornament 
Room. 

1873. British Museum Catalogue, Italy (with R. S. Poole 

and P. Gardner). 

1873. Greek autonomous Coins from the Cabinet of the 

late Mr. Edward Wigan. Num. Chron. 

1874. History of the Coinage of Syracuse. Num. Chron. 

1875. Metrological Notes on ancient electrum Coins. 

Num. Chron. 

1876. British Museum Catalogue, Sicily (with R. S. 

Poole and P. Gardner). 

1876, 1877. Notes on a recent Find of Staters of Cyzicus 

and Lampsacus. Num. Chron. 

1877. The Coinage of Lydia and Persia. (International 

Numismata Orientalia, pt. III.). 

1877. Notes on Magistrates' Names on Autonomous and 
Imperial Greek Coins. Num. Chron. 



BARCLAY VINCENT HEAD. 253 

1877. British Museum Catalogue, Thrace (with P. 

Gardner). 

1878. Himyarite and other Arabian Imitations of Athe- 

nian Coins. Num. Chron. 

1878. On an unpublished archaic Tetradrachm of Olyn- 

thus. Num. Chron. 

1879. Note on a Find of Sicilian Copper Coins struck 

about the year 344 B.C. Num. Chron. 
1879. British Museum Catalogue, Macedonia. 

1879. Origin and Transmission of some of the principal 

Ancient Systems of Weight. Journal of the 
Institute of Bankers. 

1880. British Museum : Guide to the Select Greek and 

Roman Coins exhibited in electrotype. New 
edition. 

1880. A Himyaritic Tetradrachm and the Tresorde San'a. 
Num. Chron. 

1880, 1881. History of the Coinage of Ephesus. Num. 

Chron. 

1881. Chronological Sequence of the Coinage of Boeotia. 

Num. Chron. 

1881. British Museum : Guide to the Principal Gold and 

Silver Coins of the Ancients from circ. 700 B.C. 
to 1 A.D. Second edition. 

[This is the second edition of the Guide pub- 
lished under a different title in 1880 ; it appeared 
in six " issues," each containing the whole text 
but only a portion of the 70 plates. Subsequent 
editions, some with only seven plates, appeared 
in 1883, 1886, 1889 ("third edition"), 1895 
(" fourth edition ")]. 

1882. The Coins of Ancient Spain. Num. Chron. 

1883. Coinage of Alexander : an explanation. Num. 

Chron. 

1883. Remarks on two Unique Coins of Aetna and 

Zancle. Num. Chron. 

1884. British Museum Catalogue, Central Greece. 

1886. Greek and Roman Coins. In L. Jewitt's " English 
Coins and Tokens." 



254 * BAKCLAY VINCENT HEAD. 

1886. The Coins found at Naukratis. In W. M. F. 
Petrie's Naukratis (Egypt Exploration Fund). 

1886. Coins discovered on the site of Naukratis (reprint 

of the preceding, with introductory remarks). 
Num. Chron. 

1887. Electrum Coins and their Specific Gravity. Num. 

Chron. 

1887. Historia Numorum, a Manual of Greek Numis- 

matics. Oxford. (See also 1898 and 1911.) 

1888. British Museum Catalogue, Attica, Megaris, 

Aegina. 

1888. Germanicopolis and Philadelphia in Cilicia. Num. 

Chron. 

1889. Notanda et Corrigenda. I. N or M on Athenian 

Coins. II. Two misread coins of Ephesus. III. 

Philadelphia Lydiae. IV. Lydian Gold Coinage. 

Num. Chron. 
1889. British Museum Catalogue, Corinth and her 

Colonies. 
1889. Apollo Hikesios. Journal of Hellenic Studies. 

1891. Archaic Coins probably of Gyrene. Num. Chron. 

1892. British Museum Catalogue, Ionia. 

1893. Coins recently attributed to Eretria. Num. Chron. 
1893. The Initial Coinage of Athens. Num. Chron. 

1897. British Museum Catalogue, Caria. 

1898. 'IcTTOpta rail/ Nojatcr/xaTtDV TJTOL ' 



VTTO 'Iwdwov N. S/Sopwvou. 2 vols. and plates. 
Athens. 

1901. British Museum : Guide to the Department of 

Coins and Medals in the British Museum 
(assisted by H. A. Grueber, W. Wroth, and 
E. J. Rapson). 

1902. British Museum Catalogue, Lydia. 
1906. British Museum Catalogue, Phrygia. 

1906. The Earliest Graeco-Bactrian and Graeco-Indian 

Coins. Num. Chron. 
1908. Ephesian Tesserae. Num. Chron. 
1908. British Museum : Coins discovered in the British 



BAKCLAY VINCENT HEAD. 255 

Museum Excavations at Ephesus. (The Archaic 
Artemisia.) 

1911. Historia Numorum, a Manual of Greek Numis- 
matics. New and enlarged edition. (Assisted 
by G. F. Hill, George Macdonald, and W. 
Wroth.) Oxford. 

To these may be added : 

Corolla Numismatica : Numismatic Essays in 
honour of B. V. Head. Oxford, 1906. 



XII. 

A FIND OF LONG-CEOSS PENNIES AT SLYPE 
(WEST FLANDEES). 

I AM indebted to M. A. Visart de Bocarme, who published 
this find in Eev. Beige, 1914, pp. 71-72, and to M. le 
Baron Maleingreau d'Hembise, the owner of the coins, 
for putting themselves to much trouble in order to enable 
me to see a large portion of the coins found at Slype. 
The number of coins found is estimated at about 2000, 
and of these I have seen rather more than 1350; they 
were English Long-cross pennies of Henry III, with 
the customary addition of a few Scottish and Irish 
pennies of the same period ; the usual accompaniment 
of Continental sterlings was apparently absent from 
this hoard. 

The hoard is very similar to that recently found at 
Steppingley (Num. Chron., 1914, pp. 60 ff.), but slightly 
earlier in date. Of Eenaud of London we have 7 coins 
as against 123 at Steppingley, none of Ambroci or Eicard 
at Canterbury, and at Bury St. Edmunds 1 of Eenaud 
but none of Stephane, the later Ion, or loce ; this Eenaud 
was appointed at Bury in 1258 and Ion de Burnedisse 
(of whom we have no coins) in 1265. The burial of the 
hoard must therefore have taken place very near the 
year 1260. 

The following brief description analyses the portion of 



A FIND OF LONG-CROSS PENNIES AT SLYPE. 257 

the hoard, which I have seen, in the arrangement of types 
proposed by Mr. Lawrence in Brit. Num. Journ., vol. ix., 
pp. 145 ff., and Num. Chron., 1914, pp. 60 ff. 

ENGLISH (HENRY III LONG-CROSS). 





I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 








a 


6 


c 




a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


/ 


g 


LONDON- 


7 1 


























NICOLE . 




12 


36 


35 


33 




27 


57 


3 










HENRI 






10 


27 


15 




12 


23 


23 






7 


12 


DAVI .... 










2 




6 


7 


11 


1 




2 




RICARD . 










1 




10 


19 


22 






3 


16 


WILLEM . 


















16 


3 




4 


20 


JOHN 


















6 






3 




WALTER . 


















4 






2 


17 


THOMAS . 




























ROBERT . 




























RENAUD . 


























7 


PHELIP . 




























CANTERBURY- 




























NICOLE . 




6 


15 


22 


18 


2 


16 


47 


18 


4 




5 


18 


WILLEM . 




1 


3 


5 


5 


1 


9 


23 


52 2 


4 3 




7 


42 


GILBERT. 




1 


1 


3 


2 




7 


8 


22 


1 




5 


8 


JOHN 














4 


13 


35 


3 




2 


13 


ROBERT . 


















9 






1 


17 


WALTER . 


















4 4 


1 


1 


2 


8 


ALEIN 


























5 


AMBROCI 




























RICARD . 




























BURY ST. EDMUNDS- 




















i 








JOHN 




1 




4 


4 




4 














RANDULF 
















9 


8 










RENAUD . 


























1 


STEPHANE . 




























JOHN 




























JOCE 





























Four are mules having reverse of type II. with name of Nicole. 
Three are mules having reverse of V. d reading WILLQMSOHK/M. 
One is a mule with reverse of V. c reading Wl LLQMONQ^NT. 
One is a mule with reverse of V. d reading WA"_Te(ROI/KA"H. 



258 



G. C. BKOOKE. 



DURHAM Ricard V. b (3). 

BRISTOL Elis III. b (6), III. c (1). 

Jacob III. b (5), III. c (2). 

CARLISLE John III. a (1), III. b (3). 

Willem III. b (2). 

EXETER John III. a (2), III. b (1). 

Philip II. (1), III. a (1). 

Robert III. a (1), III. b (1). 

Walter II. (1), III. a (1). 

GLOUCESTER Lucas III. b (2), III. c (1). 

John III. a (2), III. b (1), III. c (1). 

Ricard II. (1), III. a (1), III. 6 (3). 

Roger III. a '(1), III. b (3). 

HEREFORD Ricard III. a (1), III. 6 (2). 

Roger III. b (2). 

Walter III. a (1), III. 6 (3). 

ILCHESTER Huge III. b (3). 

Randulf III. b (4). 

Jerveis III. & (1). 

LINCOLN John III. a (I), III. b (9). 

Ricard III. a (I), III. b (3). 

Walter II. (1), III. a (1), III. b (6), III. c (3). 

Willem II. (1), III. b (3). 

NEWCASTLE Adam III. b (5). 

Henri III. b (1), III. c (1). 

John III. b (4), III. c (1). 

Roger III. a (I), III. & (1). 

NORTHAMPTON Lucas III. 6 (2). 

Philip III. a (1), III. 6 (6). 

Tomas III. a (3), III. 6 (4), III. c (I). 

Willem III. a (3), III. b (2), III. c (1). 

NORWICH Huge III. a (5), III. b (I), III. c (4). 

Jacob III. a (2), III. c (I). 

John III. a (5), III. c (1). 

Willem III. b (6). 

OXFORD Adam III. a (4), III. 6 (3). 

Gefrei II. (1), III. a (1), III. 6 (2), III. c (1). 

Henri II. (1), III. a (3), III. 6 (4). 

Willem III. a (3), III. b (7). 



A FIND OF LONG-CKOSS PENNIES AT SLYPE. 



259 



SHREWSBURY Lorens III. a (1). 

Nicole III. b (1), III. c (1). 

Peres III. 6 (1), III. c (1). 

Ricard III. a (1), III. b (1). 
WALLINGFORD Alisandre III. a (2). 

Robert III. a (2). 
WILTON Huge III. b (3). 

John III. 6 (3), III. c (2). 

Willem III. b (3). 
WINCHESTER Huge III. 6 (4), III. c (3). 

Jurdain III. a (2), III. b (3). III. c (1). 

Nicole II. (1), III. a (1), III. 6 (2), III. c (1). 

Willem III. b (4), III. c (2). 
YORK Alain III. a (4), III. 6 (1). 

Jeremie II. (1), III. a (1), III. b (3). 

John III. a (1), III. b (5). 

Rener III. a (2), III. b (2), III. c (2). 

Tomas III. 6 (7). 

21 coins of uncertain mints or money ers. 
3 contemporary forgeries and 2 blundered coins. 
SCOTTISH (Alexander III Long-cross). 

Aberdeen (1), Berwick (8), Dun[dee?] (1), For- 

far? (1), Perth (3), Roxburgh (1). 
IRISH (Henry III Long-cross). 

Dublin (10). 
Irish-Enlish mule with reverse reading 



G. C. BKOOKE. 



MISCELLANEA. 



A HOARD OF COINS OP TEMNOS. 

A NUMBER of small copper coins of Temnos, of the third 
century B.C., recently reached me from Smyrna : and a few- 
days later a lot consisting of similar coins was offered for sale 
at Messrs. Sotheby's rooms on February 3, 1914, and was 
purchased by Mr. Baldwin, who very kindly lent them to me 
for comparison with my own. As the two groups had evi- 
dently formed part of the same hoard, I asked Mr. E. D. 
Barff of Smyrna, who had obtained mine for me, to make 
inquiries about them ; and he ascertained that about three 
hundred coins, all of similar types, had been found together 
with five or six tetradrachms of Alexander bearing the 
Temnos symbol, a bunch of grapes, on the hills above the 
Menemen plain and brought into Smyrna for sale. 

There were fifty-two coins in my lot, and thirty-eight were 
lent to me by Mr. Baldwin : both groups consisted of the four 
following varieties, in about equal proportions in each of the 
two : 

(1) Obv. Youthful head of Dionysos r., wearing wreath of ivy, hair 

falling on neck in locks. 

Rev. Vine-branch with bunch of grapes and leaves ; in field, 
below, T A, to r. EpI (11 specimens). 

(2) Obv. Head of Athene r., wearing crested Corinthian helmet ; 

hair falling on neck in locks. 

Rev. Warrior standing r., wearing crested helmet and cuirass; 
in raised r. hand a short javelin, on 1. arm a round shield ; 
in field, below, T A (5 specimens). 

(3) Similar to (2), but on reverse also in field, above, A (27 

specimens. 

(4) Similar to (2), but on reverse also in field, above, <J> Z (47 

specimens). 

The die-position in practically all cases was f f, only six 
examples showing an irregularity of a few degrees : and the 
normal diameter was 13 mm., five specimens of (1), one of (3), 
and eight of (4), measuring 12 mm. ; one of (2), four of (3), 
and three of (4), 14 mm. ; and one of (3), 15 mm. 

I compared the dies of all the coins, and weighed them, 
with the following results. The obverse dies are lettered in 
capitals, the reverse in small letters, in each variety in 



MISCELLANEA. 261 

separate series : the weights are in grammes : the order is 
the same in each case. 

(1) Dies. Aa, Bb, Cc, Dd, Ee, Ef, Fg, Fh, Gd, He, li. 
Weights. 1'56, 2-02, 1'93, 1-72, 1-92, 1-65, 2-17, 2-46, 1-70, 1-95, 2-20. 

(2) Dies. Aa, Ab, Bb, Bb, Gc. 
Weights. 1-81, 2-08, 2-21, 1-99, 2-18. 

(3) Dies. Aa, Ab, Ac, Ba, Ba, Be, Be, Be, Cb, Dd, Dd, De, Df, Eg, 

Eh, Fi, Fk, Gi, Gl, Gl, Gm, HI, HI, Hn, Ho, Ip, Kq. 
Weights. 2-19, 1-81, 2-45, 2-34, 1-79, 1-69, 1-92, 1-90, 2-11, 2-36, 
1-69, 1-96, 2-15, 1-71, 1-70, 1-91, 1'58, 3'31, 1-88, 2-09, 2-39, 
1-87, 2-53, 1-90, 1-95, 2-11, 1-77. 

(4) Dies. Aa, Aa, Ab, Ab, Ab, Ab, Ac, Ac, Ad, Ad, Ae, Ae, Af, Af, Ba, 

Bg, Bg, Bh, Ca, Cd, Ce, Ci, Dk, Dk, El, El, El, Fc, Ff, 
Fm, Gn, Gn, Ho, Ho, Hp, Iq, Kr, Ls, Mt, Nu, Ow, PI, 
Qx, By, Sz, Ts, Uaa. 

Weights. 2-23, 2-10, 2-16, 1-63, 1-61, 2'35, 1-81, 1-82, 1-72, 2-34, 
2-60, 1-79, 2-16, 1-93, 2-20, 2-30, 1-81, 3'35, 2-35, 1-98, 2-40, 
1-68, 1-82, 2-00, 1-70, 1-96, 2-55, 2-52, 2-05, 1-39, 1-60, 2-02, 
2-37, 2-05, 2-09, 2-09, 2-06, 1-55, 1-64, 2-02, 1-70, 2-75, 1-92, 
2-07, 1-78, 1-39, 1-95. 

It will be observed that in the case of type (1) there were 
nine different obverse dies and nine different reverse noted : in 
type C 2), three and three; in type (3), ten and sixteen; in type 
(4), twenty and twenty-five. There were no instances of the 
same obverse die being used for coins belonging to different 
varieties in (2), (3), and (4). 

There is an account of what is clearly a part of the same 
hoard in Monatsbl. Num. Ges. Wien, 1913, p. 164. In this 
note eighty coins are described, which are said to have been 
found by a shepherd at Nymphi, 25 km. east of Smyrna : 
there were eight specimens of (1), two of (2), forty-one of (3), 
and twenty-nine of (4). It is also mentioned that eighty-one 
coins of similar types were subsequently in the hands of a 
Smyrna dealer. 

J. G. MILNE. 

ON THE SERIES OP QUADEANTES USUALLY ASSIGNED TO 
THE REIGN OP AUGUSTUS. 

IN an ingenious and interesting article, 1 Signor Lodovico 
Laffranchi has suggested a new attribution for this somewhat 
mysterious series ; he would remove it from the reign of 
Augustus, in which it has hitherto by general consent been 
placed, and assign it to various dates within the period 
35-50 A.D. But personally I have not been convinced by 
his able pleading ; and I should like to state briefly why I 
still hold to the old arrangement. 

1 Riv. Ital, 1911, 319 fi. 



262 MISCELLANEA. 

Signer Laffranchi's arguments may be summarized thus : 

(1) The style of these quadrantes is unlike that of the 
sestertii, dupondii, and asses of Augustus, bearing moneyers' 
names, but identical with that of the quadrantes of Caligula 
and Claudius. 

(2) Such of the moneyers as we can trace may with better 
reason be assigned to the end of the reign of Tiberius than to 
the reign of Augustus. 

(3) The survival of the names of moneyers on the smallest 
denomination, after they had disappeared from the larger, 
is not so very surprising, and analogies can also be adduced 
for the omission of the name of the Emperor. 

(4) In finds these quadrantes always occur in company with 
coins of Caligula and Claudius, never with coins of Augustus. 

I will first attempt to answer these arguments and then 
add some evidence on the other side. 

(1) Style is a difficult matter to discuss. For myself I 
cannot see the identity of style and fabric between these 
quadrantes and those of Caligula and Claudius. Considerable 
similarity there certainly is, but not enough to require us to 
place the two series immediately together. Neither series 
of quadrantes bears any close resemblance to the larger 
denominations. Coming to details, I would point out that 
the S. C. on this series of quadrantes is markedly distinct 
from that on the quadrantes of Caligula and Claudius and 
very similar to that on the sestertii, dupondii, and asses of 
Augustus. 

(2) Since we have no means of proving that our moneyers 
are the same as men of like names mentioned elsewhere, 
arguments based on this ground can hardly be conclusive. 
As a matter of fact, there is no clear evidence here in favour 
of Signer LafFranchi's view. We find on these quadrantes a 
moneyer Apronius ; if we accept the ordinary dating, we can 
identify him with an L. Apronius, who was consul in 8 A.D. 
A " P. Silius, P. f." was consul in 3 A.D. ; he may well be 
the Silius of our coins. The C. Rubellius Blandus, who 
was " quaestor divi Augusti " and consul before 20 A.D., and 
the Livineius Regulus mentioned by Tacitus in the year 
20 A.D. may be identical with the moneyers C. Rubellius 
Blandus and Regulus. The Betilienus Bassus, mentioned by 
Seneca as a quaestor of C. Caesar, cannot, on our dating, be 
identified with the moneyer ; he may, of course, have been his 
son or grandson. The fact is that our information about the 
moneyers is far too slight and indefinite to justify us in 
drawing any certain conclusion from it ; I cannot see that 
it militates against the ordinary attribution. 



MISCELLANEA. 263 

(3) That the names of the moneyers should survive on 
the quadrans, after disappearing from the sestertius, the 
dupondius, and the as, is certainly not inconceivable ; but that 
they did not in fact so survive is surely proved by the 
quadrantes of Caligula and Claudius, on which they are 
missing. Again, the absence of the Emperor's name is not 
very surprising ; according to our own theory the name of 
Augustus is omitted ; but that in the reigns of Caligula and 
Claudius the Emperor's name appeared on the quadrans is 
surely proved by the series of quadrantes on which the 
names actually appear. I cannot believe that two series of 
quadrantes one, with name of moneyer, but without name 
of Emperor ; the other, with name of Emperor, but without 
name of moneyer alternated with one another, as Signor 
Laffranchi would have us believe. 

(4) Any definite evidence from finds is, of course, worthy 
of full consideration, and I look forward to receiving from 
Signor Laffranchi chapter and verse for his statement. But 
I must protest against the use of such vague assertions in 
argument ; one can neither accept nor reject them, and can 
only suspend judgment. 

I will add one positive argument in favour of the accepted 
date, which seems to me well-nigh conclusive. Mr. George 
Macdonald, in an interesting article in Corolla Numismatica, 2 
has discussed the importance of die-position as a criterion 
of the date and place of minting and has given examples 
of its use. If we apply this test here, we obtain a remark- 
ably clear result ; the quadrantes with moneyers' names 
show no regularity of die-position, the quadrantes of Caligula 
and Claudius a regularity that, so far as I can trace, is 
never broken ; 3 and, in this matter, the former series 
agrees with the sestertii, dupondii, and asses of Au- 
gustus, the latter with the same denominations of Caligula 
and Claudius. This apparently slight piece of evidence will, 
I think, be seen to rule out Signor Laffranchi's view. We 
are left, then, with the ordinary attribution of these coins to 
the period from 15 B.C. onwards, which is perhaps the most 
likely time for them ; absolute proof can hardly be looked for. 

1 shall look with interest for further arguments from 
Signor Laffranchi in support of his view especially for a 
definite statement on the subject of finds ; till then, I must 

2 Fixed and Loose Dies in Ancient Coinage, pp. 178ff. 

3 Twenty coins in the British Museum all show the same die- 
position. Prom the beginning of the reign of Caligula this position 
becomes well-nigh invariable on Roman brass. 



264 MISCELLANEA. 

reluctantly express my dissent from his conclusions, while 
fully acknowledging my warm appreciation of his acute and 
successful researches on Roman Numismatics. 

H. MATTINGLY. 



THE GOLD COINAGE OF CHARLES I. 
(From the verdicts at the pyx trials.^ 

IN Num. Chron., Ser. IV., Vol. X., p. 393, I published a table 
which showed in the fourth column the quantities of silver 
money contained in the pyxes which were opened at the Star 
Chamber. Some of our Fellows who are interested in this 
period having expressed a wish for the corresponding data as 
to the two classes of gold coins, I have compiled and now 
offer to the Society the desired particulars, which have been 
obtained from Exch : acc'ts, " Proceedings on trials of the 
pyx," bundle 3, vols. 1 and 2, at the Public Record Office. 

The appended table does not allude to the rose ryal for 
30*. and the spur ryal for 15s., which were ordered by an 
indenture of 2 Charles I, and confirmed by a commission in 
the King's eleventh year ; neither of these denominations was 
found in any of the pyxes, nor are the two coins otherwise 
known. 

During the earlier part of the reign the coinage of 22 c. 
gold was considerable, while that of silver was relatively very 
small, as is shown by the two sets of figures. Later on, 
however, the position was reversed ; crown-gold was struck 
in steadily diminishing quantities, whereas the aggregate of 
the silver coinage during the last ten years largely exceeded 
that of the higher metal. Therefore the comparative rarity 
of the mint-marks on gold and silver respectively varies 
according to the period in which they were used. For 
example, the "Heart" is seldom met with on the silver 
issues, but it occurs quite frequently on crown-gold coins ; on 
the other hand, the " R in two semi-circles" is commonly 
seen on silver, but is rare on the unite or its half or quarter. 

As to the angels of 23 c. 3^ grs. gold, they were without 
exception struck in very limited numbers, and all their marks 
are rare, some more so than others. Mr. R. LI. Kenyon says 
on p. 150 of his Gold Coins that none were issued after 1634, 
but the pyx returns confute this opinion, and I have seen at 
least one example marked with "Triangle in a circle," the 
symbol on the coins which were tried in May, 1643. This, 
the latest of the angels, was in fact struck before November 
25, 1642, on which day the Parliamentary receiver of the 



MISCELLANEA. 



265 



Tower revenues began a new account, which mentions that no 
angel-gold was used during the period of about two and a half 
years covered by that document. It is a debatable topic 
whether these angels, although duly authorized for general 
circulation, were not made solely as touch pieces. The few 
which exist are almost always pierced for suspension, and 
there is also the significant circumstance that shortly after 
the King was dispossessed of the Tower, in August, 1642, the 
striking of angels entirely ceased, possibly because they were 
not then regarded as current coins, but rather as medals 
associated with a ceremony the underlying principle of which 
did not commend itself to an anti-royalist party. 

HENRY SYMONDS. 



Date of trial. 


Mint-mark. 


Amount of 23 c. 3! grs. 
gold in pyx (Angels'). 


Amount of 22 c. 
gold in pyx 
(Unites, double 
crowns, and 
Britain crowns). 












June 29, 1626 


Fleur-de-lys 


1 


613 


April 27, 1627 


Blackmoor's head 


1.10.0 


122 


i 



Long cross (second 


10s. (i.e. one angel) 


291 




pyx) 






July 3, 1628 


Castle 


8.10.0 


375 


June 26, 1629 


Anchor 


6 


178 


June 23, 1630 


Heart 


3 . 10 . 


335 


June 30, 1631 


Feathers 


1.10.0 


374 


June 21, 1632 


Rose 


4 


170 


July 11, 1633 


Harp 


6 


141 


June 27, 1634 


Portcullis 


3.10.0 


98 


June 18, 1635 


Bell 


3.10.0 


110 


Feb. 14, 1636 


Crown 


nil 


28 


2 

!> 


Crown (second pyx) 


3.10.0 


176 


May 8, 1638 


Tun 


3.10.0 


102 


July 4, 1639 


Anchor 


3 


113 


June 26, 1640 


Triangle 


4 


41 


July 15, 1641 


Star 


3 . 10 . 


92 


May 29, 1643 3 


Triangle in a circle 


1.10.0 


143 


July 15, 1644 


P in two semi-circles 


nil 


67 


May 12, 1645 


R 


,, 


46 


Nov. 10, 1645 


Eye 


,, 


24 


Feb. 15, 1646 


Sun 


> 


78 


Nov. 9, 1649 


Sceptre 




62 



1 The two pyxes were due to a change of officers, not to an altera- 
tion in the coins. The " Long cross " coins must have been earlier 
than those with "Blackmoor's head," although the former were in the 
second pyx. 

2 Caused by the same reason as in 1627 (see note, supra). 

3 In June, 1643, " a new pix box with locks hinges and bindings " 
was bought from Richard Martin at a cost of 68s. (Declared acc'ts 
Pipe office, 2186). 

NUM. CHKON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. T 



( 266 ) 
NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 



British Museum : Catalogue of the Coins of the Gupta Dynasties 
and of SasdnTca, King of Gauda. By John Allan, M. A., 
Assistant in the Department of Coins. With 24 Plates. 
London, Printed by order of the Trustees, 1914. 

THE Catalogue of the early pre-Muhammadan Indian Coins 
in the British Museum, begun many years ago by Professor 
Percy Gardner's standard work on the Graeco-Bactrian and 
Indo-Scythian issues, was continued after a long interval by 
Professoj 1 Rapson's exhaustive treatise on the obscure coinages 
of the Andhras and their contemporaries. Mr. John Allan 
has now produced a third volume dealing with the coinage of 
the Imperial Gupta Dynasty in the fourth and fifth centuries 
of the Clmstian era, and also with certain minor connected 
mintages. Mr. Allan's work is quite equal in quality to that 
accomplished by his eminent predecessors. His catalogue has 
been produced, as is always the case with the publications 
of the Trustees of the British Museum, regardless of expense, 
the plates being numerous and beautifully executed, while 
the legends of each coin are reproduced in facsimile. The 
printing is accurate, and clerical errors or misprints are 
extremely few. Mr. Allan has devoted special study to the 
subject for several years past, and has read everything pub- 
lished concerning it. His official position has enabled him to 
collect material from a great variety of sources and to enrich 
his catalogue by the inclusion of specimens not comprised in 
the Museum series, which is by far the best in the world. 

The Gupta coinage having been studied by me from time to 
time for more than thirty years, I propose to discuss briefly 
some of the more interesting problems suggested by the coins. 
As might be expected, Mr. Allan has been able to make some 
corrections in my work, especially in the reading of certain 
legends. He has devoted immense pains to the elucidation of 
the more difficult legends and has attained considerable suc- 
cess, although a good many details still remain obscure. 

The coinage of the Imperial Gupta Dynasty is by far the 
most interesting of the Hindu series of coins, as distinguished 
from the essentially foreign Graeco-Bactrian and the more 
than half-foreign Indo-Scythian series. The only Hindu 
coins possessing any substantial claim to artistic merit are 
those belonging to a few classes of the gold issues struck by 
the great Gupta emperors within the space of about a century, 



NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 267 

350-450 A.D. The artistic excellence thus displayed in the 
coinage was only one manifestation of the extraordinary 
intellectual activity of the age in question, which expressed 
itself in sculpture, painting, literature, and science. I have 
lately discussed the brilliant achievements of the Gupta age 
in the third edition of the Early History of India and in an 
article on Gupta Sculpture in the Ostasiatische ZeitscJirlft 
(1914), which may be consulted by persons interested. Mr. 
Allan passes over the topic. Here it will suffice to say that 
I have no doubt that the Gupta Renaissance was intimately 
connected with and stimulated by the active intercourse main- 
tained between the Gupta Empire and the Graeco-Roman 
civilization of Egypt and Western Asia. 

The comparatively high artistic quality of the Gupta coinage, 
as seen in the best pieces struck by Samudra-gupta and his 
son Chandra-gupta II, is only one of the reasons for the 
exceptional interest of the Gupta coinage. A second equally 
potent reason is that the coins can be studied in the light of 
numerous contemporary dated inscriptions, as well as of the 
narrative recorded by the first Chinese pilgrim, Fa-hien (Fa- 
hsien), who travelled in the Gupta empire in the reign of 
Chandra-gupta II at the beginning of the fifth century. The 
chronology in its main outline is certain, and the evidence of 
the coins, consequently, can be used with unusual confidence 
and effect. They throw light on the contemporary records 
and works of art, while those records and works in their turn 
help us to understand the coinage. For instance, the inscrip- 
tions of Samudra-gupta's successors tell us about his celebra- 
tion of the Asvamedha or Horse-Sacrifice, and the Allahabad 
panegyric describes the royal skill in the art of music. The 
coins include about sixteen specimens of the gold medals dis- 
tributed by the king to the Brahmans engaged in the sacrifice, 
and another type, of which about eleven examples are known, 
depicts His Majesty in the act of playing the lyre. Many 
other illustrations of the extraordinary value of the Gupta 
coins as historical documents might be cited. To mention 
one only, we learn from the coins alone that Kumara-gupta I, 
like his grandfather, celebrated the Horse-Sacrifice in vindica- 
tion of his claim to paramount sovereignty. The extant 
inscriptions do not happen to mention the fact. 

The first member of the dynasty to attain independent 
power was Chandra-gupta I (320 to about 335 A.D.), who ruled 
the Gangetic basin, including the modern province of Oudh, 
from below Patna to Allahabad (Prayag). Certain gold 
coins, of which about a score are known, present on the 
obverse effigies of Chandra-gupta I and his queen Kumara- 



268 NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

devi, with their names, and on the reverse a goddess with the 
marginal legend, Licchavayah, " the Liechavis," in the nomina- 
tive plural. We know from the inscriptions that Kumara- 
devl was a princess of the famous Licchavi clan of Tirhiit, 
often mentioned in early Buddhist legend, and that her son, 
the great conqueror, Sarnudra-gupta, was proud of his Licchavi 
descent. The coins, on the face of them, appear to have been 
struck by Chandra-gupta I, and the reverse legend, in the 
nominative plural, may be interpreted as meaning that they 
were issued under the joint authority of Chandra-gupta and 
his consort's clan. It may be assumed as probable that the 
Licchavi alliance was the foundation of the power of Chandra- 
gupta. That view, maintained in my publications of various 
dates, has been generally accepted. 

But Mr. Allan holds that the Gupta coinage began rather 
late in the reign of Samudra-gupta, who struck the pieces 
in question to commemorate the marriage of his parents. 
Mr. Allan accordingly catalogues these coins (" King and 
Queen " type of my nomenclature) under the name of Samudra- 
gupta. He bases his opinion on the observations that these 
King and Queen coins are rather more removed from the 
northern Kushan type than are the Standard (alias " Javelin " 
or " Spearman ") type coins of Samudra-gupta, and that the 
fabric closely resembles that of many pieces issued by that 
prince. I confess that the arguments are not convincing to 
my mind. If Samudra-gupta did not issue any coinage until 
"a comparatively late period" in his reign, it would be odd 
conduct for him then to commemorate the marriage of his 
parents by the issue of coins recording their names, but not 
making the faintest allusion to himself. There is no difficulty 
in admitting the similarity of fabric between his coins and 
those of his father a few years earlier in date. In my opinion 
the " King and Queen " coins were struck by Chandra-gupta I, 
as they profess to have been. 

I am not satisfied that the name Pura really occurs on 
Dr. Hoey's coin (PI. xxi. 23). I have examined the piece. 

I am inclined to accept the real existence of a Chandra- 
gupta III and a Ghatotkacha-Gupta, about 500 A.D. (p. liv). 

Mr. Allan convincingly justifies the reading Chandraditya 
on certain late coins. The title, pronounced by Hoernle to 
be "an impossible Sanskrit compound," actually occurs in 
three inscriptions and in the Kathdsaritsdgara (p. Ixi). 

The discovery that most of the longer legends on the Gupta 
coins are in sundry Sanskrit metres, the most common being 
the Upaglti variety of the Arya, is important and fully estab- 
lished (p. cviii). 



NOTICES OP RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 269 

The discussion of the metrology of the coins (p. cxxxi) is 
hardly adequate. 

The book contains many other points of interest to an 
expert in Indian numismatics, but I must not take up more 
space. 

VINCENT A. SMITH. 



Aspects of Death in Art and Epigram, illustrated especially 
by Medals, Engraved Gems, Jewels, Ivories, Antique 
Pottery, &c. By F. Parkes Weber, M.A., M.D. Second 
Edition, revised and much enlarged. 461 pp. With 
126 illustrations. London: T. Fisher Unwin and B. 
Quaritch. 1914. 

READERS of the Numismatic Chronicle will not have forgotten 
the series of articles on the subject of Death which were 
contributed to its pages by Dr. Parkes Weber in 1909-10, 
and which subsequently took form as an independent volume. 
The second edition of this volume is now before us. It is 
swollen to more than twice its original bulk, and is indeed 
a solid and weighty book, although the author in his modesty 
describes it as a little volume. 

The amount of information of a miscellaneous kind which 
is stowed away in its pages is extraordinary. Death being 
the complement of life, it is clear that the " farrago " of any 
book which deals with death must practically be " quid- 
quid agunt homines." Consequently nothing less than an 
encyclopaedia would be necessary if the matters dealt with 
were to be arranged and classified on any strictly scientific 
plan. About half the book is concerned with the philosophical 
and psychological sides of the subject, the consideration of 
the various ideas of death and of man's attitude towards it. 
There is for instance a section (pp. 69-83) on the ideas of 
the Italian Renaissance, the influence of Petrarch's Trionfi, 
and the " Triumph of Death " designs. (In this connexion the 
remarkable fresco of the Triumph of Death at Palermo might 
have been mentioned.) The whole of this half of the book 
is crammed with quotations from and references to the 
literature of death, showing a faculty of laborious collection 
which reminds one of the Anatomy of Melancholy. Part III 
(pp. 220329) is the strictly numismatic portion of the work. 
It consists of a list, arranged chronologically, of coins, medals 
and tokens, having more or less direct reference to the subject. 
One might perhaps cavil at the inclusion of some examples, 
such as the Greek coins of Eleusis with types that refer to 



270 NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

the Eleusinian Mysteries, so remote is the reference. But no 
one, with such a subject, could possibly make a selection 
which would please all his critics. It is more to the point to 
recognize that one does not notice the omission of anything 
of importance. I note, merely for completeness' sake (and 
with full consciousness that, among the mass of material in 
the book the instances to be mentioned may be really given 
but have escaped my notice) : first, a medal by Hagenauer of 
1543, of which the reverse is illustrated by Habich (Jahrbuch 
der Preuss. Kunstsammlungen, xxviii, p. 259); it consists merely 
of the motto BEDENCK DAS END. Next, among non-numis- 
matic works, are the three very interesting pictures, two at 
Strassburg and one at Valenciennes, given in Reinach's 
Repertoire, III, pp. 748, 749, all of the school of Memlinc ; 
the bronze Lucretia with her foot on a skull at Vienna ; and 
W. F. Moll's little ivory putto asleep with his head on a 
skull, also at Vienna. The crest of Graeme is described as 
" two arms issuing from a cloud erected and lighting up a 
man's skull encircled with two branches of palm, over the 
head a marquess's coronet, all proper." What is the meaning 
of that? But there is no point in multiplying instances, 
which, as I have said, are really of small importance. Dr. 
Weber has cast his net wide and has missed little. 

In his preface he suggests certain other subjects for 
investigation. I would call his attention to a crying want. 
There is no book making even the slightest pretence to 
exhaustiveness on the impress or devices of the Renaissance, 
with their accompanying mottoes. It would be of immense 
use to students of medals, and also of other arts, to have a 
critical list of those known to have been actually used by 
persons, as distinct from those which were invented for 
general purposes by writers like Alciati or Ripa. 

G. F. H. 

W. H. Valentine, The Copper Coins of India, Part I., Bengal 
and the United Provinces. Spink & Son, Ltd., London, 
1914. (5s.) 

SINCE the publication of his Modern Muhammadan Coins three 
years ago, Mr. Valentine has been studying the copper coins 
of India. His first volume on this series has now been 
published, and in accordance with the geographical plan of 
the work deals with the copper coins of Bengal and the 
United Provinces. Bengal is here used in its old sense and 
is equivalent to the modern provinces of Bengal, Behar and 
Orissa, and Assam. The plan of the work is similar to the 



NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 271 

author's previous volume (see Num. Chron., 1911, p. 202), and 
again he has spared no pains to collect specimens from all 
sources. Over three hundred coins are illustrated and de- 
scribed with transliteration and translation of the legends. 
The book is much more than a catalogue of coins, however ; 
it contains an interesting sketch of the main outlines of 
Indian history, which will give the reader a clear idea of the 
relative positions of the numerous dynasties that have ruled 
in India. The separate sections of the work each have more 
detailed historical introductions. The dynastic tables, the 
various alphabets, the glossary, and the comparative table of 
eras contain all that the layman requires to become proficient 
in identifying intelligently the coins described in the text. 
Collectors of Indian coins, who now form quite a numerous 
body, will find in Mr. Valentine's book the solution of many 
of their puzzles, and will look forward to the succeeding parts 
with interest. 

J. A. 



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CHARLES I; OXFORD AND EXETER HALF-CROWNS. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OP THE 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
KOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



SESSION" 19131914. 

OCTOBER 16, 1913. 
H. B. EAELE Fox, ESQ., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of May 18 were read 
and confirmed. 

Messrs. H. \V. Codrington and W. Gilbert were proposed 
for election. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their 
donors : 

1. Aarbogenfor Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie, 1912. 

2. Academie royale de Belgique, Bulletin 1913, Nos. 1-6. 
1912, No. 10. 

3. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. xvii., No. 2. 

4. Annual of the British School at Athens. No. 18. 

5. Appunti di Numismatica Romana, cv-cvi. By F. 
Gnecchi. From the Author. 

6. Archaeologia Aeliana. N.S., Vol. ix. 

7. Administration Report of Madras Government Museum , 
1912-1913. 

8. Brandenburgisch - preussische Miinzstudien. By E. 
Bahrfeldt. From the Author. 

a 2 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

9. Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal. 
Vol. x., Nos. 2 and 3. 

10. Die Tetradrachmenpragung von Syrakus. By L. O. T. 
Tudeer. From the Author. 

11. Demi-Patagon frappe a Bruges par Philippe V. Roi 
d'Espagne. By Vicomte B. de Jonghe. From the Author. 

12. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol. xxxiii., Pt. 1. 

13. Forvannen Meddelanden fran K. Vitterhets Historic 
och Antikvitets Akademien, Stockholm, 1912. 

14. Horniman Museum Report, 1912. 

15. Journal International d'Archeologie Numismatique. 
1913. 

16. Les Doubles Souverains d'or frappes a Tournai par 
Philippe I. By Vicomte B. de Jonghe. From the Author. 

17. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 358-362. 

18. Monnaies, Mesures et Poids de 1'Inde et de la Chine. 
By J. A. Decourdemanche. From the Author. 

19. Notices extraites de la Chronique de la Revue Numis- 
matique, 1913. Pts. 1 and 2. 

20. Royal Irish Academy Proceedings. Vol. xxxii., Sec. C., 
Nos. 1-4. 

21. Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. Vol. xliii., 
Pt. 2. 

22. Revue Beige de Numismatique, 1913. Livraisons 
3 and 4. 

23. Revue Numismatique, 1913. Pt. 1 and 2. 

24. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1913. Pt. 2. 

25. The Date of Kanishka. By F. W. Thomas. From the 
Royal Asiatic Society. 

26. Zeitschrift fiir Numisinatik. Band xxx., Heft 1-4. 
Mr. F. A. Walters, F.S.A., showed a bronze medallion of 

Commodus with rev. Britannia seated BRITTANNIA P . M . TR . 
P . X . IMP . VII . COS . Illl .P.P., having a countermark on 
the edge (Cohen, No. 37 ; Gnecchi, PI. 78, 2). 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

Mr. P. H. Webb exhibited a series of third brass of Marius 
and Quintillus from a find made in 1912 near Treves, and 
denarii from a find near Luxemburg in 1912. 

Mr. H. B. Earle Fox showed a series of copper coins of 
Corinth including : 

Nero. Coins commemorative of the Emperor's visit to 
Corinth in 67 A.D. Two types (1) ADVENTVS; (2) AD- 
LOCVTIO ; signed by the duumviri P. Memius Cleander and 
L. Rutilius Piso, each of whom struck both types. 

(The name of the emperor is always in the nominative case, 
and that of the duumvir in the ablative.) 

Autonomous types all issued by the duumvir L. Caninius 
Agrippa, who seems to have had no colleague. 

(Contrary to the usage of all previous issues the duumvir's 
name is in the genitive (or dative) case.) 

Obv. Head of Poseidon, NEPTVNO A/G. 

Rev, (1) Clasped hands holding poppyhead and ears of corn. 
(2) Isthmos, naked, holding two rudders (a local type). 



Obv. (1) Head of the Senate, wearing stephane and veil, SENATV 

P. Q. R- 
(2) Head of Roma, turreted, ROMAE ET IMPERIO. 

Combined with 

Rev. (1) Clasped hands holding poppyhead and ears of corn. 

(2) Victory holding wreath and palm branch. 

(3) Temple approached by steps. 



(The combination, head of Rome, rev. temple, was not 
represented in this exhibit.) 

Galba. SVL GALBAE CAESAR AVG (or sometimes CAE 
A/G IMP) (genitive or dative). Rev. the three types of the 
previous group. These like the autonomous types were issued 
by L. Caninius Agrippa. 

Sir Arthur J. Evans exhibited two solidi, eight denarii of 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Galba, and five autonomous denarii of the period including 
one of the XVth Legion on which he read the following 
note : 

Obv. ADSERTOR LIBERTATIS. Head of Mars Adsertor in 
crested helmet to r. 

Rev. LEGION XV PRI M[IGEN] Victory draped to waist, with 
hammer in right hand, nailing up trophy. The trophy 
consists of helmet, greaves, and Attic and Iberian shields, 
the former hexagonal, the latter round. [See PI. X. 9.] 

The fabric of this coin is fine, but the style and the subject 
of the trophy suggest provincial fabric. 

There seem to be faint traces of parts of the I and G of 
PRIMIGEN (iae). The XVth Legion was at one time quartered 
on the Rhine. This Legion or some detachment of it was in 
Home with Galba, since it is connected with his own fate in 
a peculiar way. Tacitus l mentions that, during the mutiny 
of the troops and general tumult which preceded Otho's 
elevation, Galba in his hurried attempt at flight was thrown 
from his saddle, and according to the general report his 
throat was pierced by the sword of Camusius, a soldier of 
the XVth Legion. 

Mr. H. Mattingly read a paper on " The Coinages of the 
Civil Wars, 68-69 A.D." After briefly recapitulating the 
history of the period, the reader attempted to assign a place 
and date to the various series of coins falling within the 
scope of the paper, and to elucidate the circumstances in 
which they were struck. The so-called " autonomous " coins 
which bear republican or military types, without the name or 
head of any emperor, were first passed in review ; it was 
suggested that they should be assigned to three districts 
Spain, Gaul, and the Germanies and that the first two 
groups should be dated early in 68, and the third late in the 
same year. Reasons were given for not assigning any of 

1 Hist., i. 41. 



EOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 7 

these coins to the mint of Rome. A short account was then 
given of the coinage of L. Clodius Macer in Africa, and 
attention was called to the salient points of interest. The 
coinage of Galba came next in order. Mr. Mattingly sug- 
gested a division into some five or six groups, to be attributed 
to the mint of Rome and also to mints in Spain, Gaul, and 
possibly Africa. The points of contact between the coins of 
this Emperor and the " autonomous " class were noted, and 
an explanation of the connexion was suggested. The various 
issues of Vitellius were next discussed, and different groups 
of coins were assigned to Lower Germany, Gaul, and Rome, 
and in the case of Galba a theory was proposed which might 
explain the great similarity between the Imperial coins and 
certain groups of " autonomous." Finally a very brief survey 
was taken of the early issues of Vespasian ; a number of coins 
showing marked differences of style and fabric were illustrated, 
and possible mints were suggested for some of them. (This 
paper is printed in this volume, pp. 110-137.) 

In the discussion that followed, Sir Arthur Evans com- 
mented on some very interesting coins of the period which 
he had exhibited earlier in the evening. He suggested the 
importance of the evidence of finds to check or confirm the 
proposed classification. Mr. Earle Fox called attention to 
the series of Corinthian coins bearing the name of a duumvir, 
and certainly to be attributed to the year 68, bearing, instead 
of an emperor's name, the inscription ROMAE ET IMPERIO 
and SEN AT V P Q R, and pointed out that they supplied some 
evidence of a sort of " interregnum," if one may so term it, 
between the death of Nero and the general recognition of 
Galba as emperor. 



8 PROCEEDINGS OP THE 

NOVEMBER 20, 1913. 

Sm HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S.,F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of October Id were 
read and approved. 

Messrs. H. W. Codrington, M.R.A.S. (Ceylon Civil Service), 
and W. Gilbert were elected Fellows of the Society ; Rev. 
W. L. Gantz was admitted to the Society. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their 
donors : 

1. Academie Roy ale de Belgique, Bulletin. Nos. 7-8. 

2. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. xvii., No. 3. 

3. Appunti di Numismatica Romana, cvii-cviii. By F. 
Gnecchi. From the Author. 

4. Archiv fur Medaillen- und Plaketten-Kunde. Heft. 1. 

5. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique. vi., 1913. 

6. Bonner Jahrbiicher. Heft 122. 

7. Forty-Third Annual Report of the Deputy -Master of 
the Mint, 1912. 

8. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xliii., Pt. 3. 

9. Papers of the British School at Rome. Vol. vi. 

10. Report of the United States National Museum, 1912. 

11. Revue Suisse de Numismatique. Tome xix., 2, 1. 

12. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica. Fasc. 3, 1913. 

13. The Date of Kanishka A Discussion. From the 
Royal Asiatic Society. 

Mr. Henry Garside showed specimens of the new eighteen 
and nine piastre pieces of Cyprus of George V. 

Miss Helen Farquhar exhibited a silver medallion of 
Charles I attributed to Varin, clearly dated 1649, which 
shows that the date 1642 read on the only other specimen 
(in bronze) hitherto known is wrong. 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 9 

Mr. F. A. Walters, F.S.A., showed two very rare denarii of 
Septimius Severus and Caracalla each with reverse LAETITIA 
TEMPORVM, a circus-vessel in full sail from which various 
wild beasts are leaping ; these remarkable pieces were issued 
on the celebration of the decennalia and the marriage of 
Caracalla in 202 A.D., and commemorate an entertainment in 
the amphitheatre, described by Dion Cassius, in which seven 
hundred wild beasts were let loose in the arena from a model 
ship and afterwards slain. 

Mr. P. H. Webb exhibited a third brass of Augustus, obv. 
AVGVSTVS DIVI F. head 1. ; rev. L. CASSIO/ C. \A_ERIO 
/IIVIR in three lines in laurel wreath; this piece corrects 
Cohen's reading C. NERIO the monogram \A_ was mistaken 
by him for N ; the Valerii belonged to the Julian party, while 
C. Nerius was an adherent of Pompey, 

Mr. G. F. Hill read a paper on a " New Medal by Claude 
Yarin." This medal, which has been recently acquired by the 
British Museum, is a hitherto unknown portrait medal of 
John Prideaux (1578-1650), Regius Professor of Divinity in 
Oxford 1615-1641, Bishop of Worcester 1641-1650, and 
Vice-Chancellor of the University for various terms ; it is 
dated 1638, and bears the signature C. Yarin. Mr. Hill 
pointed out that the workmanship of this medal bore a 
remarkable resemblance to the well-known medal of Sir 
Thomas Bodley, founder of the Bodleian Library, and con- 
firmed the supposition that the latter was by Claude Yarin. 
Mr. Hill proceeded to discuss the attribution of the various 
English medals of this period signed " Warin " only, and 
showed that they fell into well-marked groups to be assigned 
to different members of the Yarin family. (This paper was 
printed in Yol. XIII. pp. 422-426.) 

Mr. G. C. Brooke read some notes on " Muled Types in the 
English Coinage of the Norman Period," and showed a slide 
illustrating two mules of William I of which the obverse dies 
had been worked up to resemble the two obverses that were 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

in issue with the reverses of these mules. The evidence of 
these two mules, and the rarity of the mules of the London 
mint (where coinage was continuous), suggested the conclusion 
that mules of this period were irregular coins issued by the 
moneyers with the object of saving themselves expense by 
using an old die, and not, as had been thought, an authorized 
issue, the frequency of their occurrence being due to the 
difficulty of their detection. The obverse of mules belonged 
usually to the earlier of the two types muled because the 
obverse, or standard, die had less hard wear, and usually out- 
lived one or even more reverse dies. A discussion followed, 
in which Messrs. H. B. Earle Fox, who gave his experiences 
of muling in the Plantagenet period, P. H. Webb, H. 
Symonds, and the President took part. 



DECEMBER 18, 1913. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of November 20, were 
read and approved. 

Messrs. V. B. Crowther-Beynon, Richard Dalton, Robert 
Kerr, and R. J. Williams were proposed for election, and 
Mr. William Gilbert was admitted to the Society. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their 
donors : 

1. Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal. Vol. x., 
No. 4. 

2. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 363-364. 

3. Notices Extraites de la Chronique de la Revue Numis- 
matique. 3rd trimestre, 1913. By A. Blanchet. From the 
Author. 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 11 

4. Oriental Numismatics. By J. Robinson. From, the 
Author. 

5. Revue Numismatique. 3rd trimestre, 1913. 

6. Sur les Chretiens et les Seconds Flaviens dans 1'Histoire 
Auguste. By Jules Maurice. From the Author. 

7. The Early Weights and Measures of Mankind. By 
Sir Charles Warren. From the Author. 

Mr. J. G. Milne exhibited a tetradrachm of Smyrna, obv. 
head of Cybele r., and rev. lion recumbent r., of the magistrate 
Herodotos. 

Mr. L. G. P. Messenger showed a small bronze medallion 
of Antoninus Pius, rev. Hercules standing in front of an altar, 
behind him a column surmounted by a statue (Gnecchi, 
PI. cxlix. 4). 

Rev. Edgar Rogers exhibited three Jewish bronze coins 
of Eleazar, one of the usual type of the first year of the 
" deliverance of Jerusalem," and two new types of the 
" redemption of Israel." 

Mr. Henry Symonds, F.S.A., showed a second brass of 
Vespasian, rev. PAX AVG ; a first brass of Titus, rev. PI ETAS, 
Domitilla between Titus and Vespasian; a first brass of 
Caracalla, rev. VICT. BRIT., Victory erecting a trophy; and 
a third brass of Allectus, rev. VIRTVS AVG., Trophy between 
two captives (Webb, No. 86), of the London mint, all found 
in Dorset. 

Mr. J. Allan read a paper on the English imitation of an 
Arab dinar, usually known as the mancus of Offa, which has 
recently been acquired by the British Museum with the 
assistance of private individuals. This piece is a very good 
copy of a dinar of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur of the year 
157 A.H. (774 A.D.) with the additional legend OFFA REX. 
Ofla probably became acquainted with the Arab dinars 
through intercourse between England and France, as from 
the evidence of finds and contemporary literature, they are 
known to have circulated in the Carolingian empire ; he 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

might even have received them from Charlemagne among 
the latter's presents to him, as gold coins were probably 
included among the presents sent by al-Mansur to Pepin, as 
they certainly were among Harun al-Rashid's many gifts to 
" his brother " Charlemagne. There was no real reason to 
suppose these dinars of Offa were specially struck or even 
used for the payment of Peter's pence. They were evidence 
of an attempt, probably quite ephemeral, to institute a gold 
coinage which would pass current with the standard gold 
coin of the time. The idea that the munus divinum solidi of 
Louis the Pious were specially struck for tribute to Borne 
was, as M. Prou has shown, due to a misinterpretation of the 
legend which was really a kind of equivalent to Dei Gratia ; 
so that the argument from the analogy of these pieces falls to 
the ground. Although the value of Offa's dinar must have 
been about that of a mancus of silver, it must be called 
a dinar and not a mancus, which was solely a money of 
account. The etymology of mancus, from the Arabic mankush, 
the " engraved," sometimes applied to coins in poetical 
language, was untenable, and all theories founded on it must 
be abandoned. (This paper is printed in this volume, 
pp. 77-89.) 

Sir Arthur Evans and Dr. Codrington suggested that Arab 
dinars might . also have reached England by the northern 
route through Russia and the Baltic, but the President 
pointed out that the greater majority of the coins found on 
the northern route were Samanid silver of a later date than 
the coin in question. 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 13 

JANUARY 15, 1914. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of December 18, 1913, 
were read and approved. 

Messrs. Richard Dalton, Robert Kerr, and R. James 
Williams were elected Fellows of the Society ; and Mrs. 
Sidney Streatfield and K. u. K. Regierungsrat Eduard Fiala 
were proposed for election. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their 
donors : 

1. American Journal of Archaeology. Yol. xvii., No. 4. 

2. Contos para Contar (Jetons Portugueses). By J. Leite 
de Vasconcellos. From tlie Author. 

3. Elencho das Ii9oes de Numismatica. By J. Leite 
de Vasconcellos. From the Author. 

4. Inventaire das Moedas Portuguesa da Bibliotheca 
National da Lisboa. By J. Leite de Vasconcellos. From the 
Author. 

5. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol. Ixiii., Pt. 2 and 
Supplement. 

6. Le Monete e le Bolle plumbee Pontificie del Medagliere 
Vaticano. Vol. iii. By C. Serafini. From the Administration 
of the Vatican Library. 

7. Monnaies de Juste-Maximilian de Bronckhorst. By 
Vicomte B. de Jonghe. From the Author. 

8. Numismatische Zeitschrift. Band vi., Heft 2 and 3. 

9. Numismatic Circular. Vol. xxi., 1913. From Messrs. 
Spink & Sons. 

10. Medhala Commemorativa de Congresso de Numismatica, 
1900. By M. J. de Campos. From J. Leite de Vasconcellos. 

11. O Numismata; Manoel Joaquin de Campos. From 
J. Leite de Vasconcellos. 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

12. Revue Beige de Numismatique. Pt. 1, 1914. 

13. Zeitschrift ftir Numismatik. Band xxxi., Heft 1 and 2. 
Miss Helen Farquhar showed a series of coins from 

<! pieces to half-crowns with equestrian figures illustrative 
of the style and workmanship of the Civil War engravers, 
including signed pieces by Rawlins and Briot. 

Mr. William Gilbert brought an unpublished milled six- 
pence of Elizabeth of 1562 with a dot between A and D of 
the reverse legend. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence, F.S.A., exhibited a small iron tobacco 
box with a portrait of Charles I in silver on the lid. 

Mr. F. A. Walters, F.S.A., showed a medallion of Hadrian, 
being a large brass (Cohen, No. 184) enclosed in a broad 
moulded bronze circle, found in the Tiber in 1913. 

Mr. Percy H. Webb exhibited a rare second brass of 
L. Domitius Alexander, tyrant in Africa 308-311 A.D., with 
reverse, INVICTA ROMA FELIX KARTHAGO (Cohen, No. 6). 

Miss Helen Farquhar read a paper on " Nicholas Briot and 
some Country Mints during the Civil War." Mr. Symonds 
had recently shown that Briot had died in the service of 
Parliament, which had disproved the tradition of the artist's 
uninterrupted service of Charles I at Oxford. Miss Farquhar 
was able to show that Briot continued to serve the King by 
making secret journeys from London to York and Oxford 
after the outbreak of hostilities, as was clear from his widow's 
petition to Charles II at the Restoration, recalling the 
miseries she and her family had suffered when this was dis- 
covered. Miss Farquhar showed how Briot's hand could 
be traced in the Civil War coinages of these two mints. 
From an unpublished Harleian manuscript Miss Farquhar 
traced the route of Thomas Bushell, who carried his Aberyst- 
with mint via Shrewsbury and Oxford to Bristol, and she 
suggested that the clumsy equestrian portraits in use on 
silver issues at Shrewsbury and Oxford owed their origin to 
some graver unknown, in the employ of Bushell, removing 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 15 

with his master to Bristol in 1643. She believed that the 
improvement of the Oxford coinage in that year was partly 
due to Rawlins, who since 1642 had been engaged in making 
war badges for Charles, and partly to Briot, whose special 
horse as depicted on his patterns and private coinage at the 
Tower, makes its first appearance at Oxford in 1643. By 
the help of lantern slides she traced this equestrian figure 
from 1630 to 1646. 

With regard to York, where B riot's co-operation is technically 
manifest, the reader drew attention to the similarity between 
his initialled half-crown and the Tower type beginning in 
1640, for which, as the King's designer of obverse, he may be 
held responsible ; and she referred to some little-known con- 
temporary evidence concerning the establishment and locality 
of the Civil War mint in the northern city. (This paper 
is printed in this volume.) A discussion followed, in which 
Mr. Symonds, Mr. Brooke, Colonel Morrieson, and the 
President took part. 



FEBRUARY 19, 1914. 
PERCY H. WEBB, ESQ., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of January 15 were 
read and approved. 

Mrs. Sidney Streatfield, Mr. V. B. Crowther-Beynon, and 
K. u. K. Eegierungsrat Eduard Fiala were elected Fellows of 
the Society. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their 
donors : 

1. Academic Royale de Belgique. Bulletin, Nos. 9, 10, 
11, 1913. 

2. Archaeologia Aeliana. Vol. x. 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

3. Chats on Old Coins. By F. W. Burgess. From the 
Publishers. 

4. International Stamp and Coin Collectors Address Book, 
1914. By E. W. Hensinger. 

5. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
1912-1913. 

6. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Vol. xxxii., 
S.C., Nos. 5 to 9. 

7. Revue Numismatique. 4th trimestre, 1913. 

8. Ri vista Italiana di Numismatica. Pt. iv., 1913. 

9. Smithsonian Institution Report, 1912. 

Mr. J. G. Milne exhibited specimen types from a hoard of 
bronze coins of Temnis, in Aeolis, of the third century B.C. 

Mr. P. H. Webb showed a memorial follis of Galerius 
Maximianus struck by Maximinus Daza at Alexandria and 
another struck by Diocletian at Antioch, and a curious cast 
medal of Galba. 

Mr. G. F. Hill exhibited a coining press of the reign of 
Philip IV of Spain, probably the earliest press that has been 
discovered. (See this volume, pp. 90-92.) 

Mr. Henry Symonds, F.S.A., gave an account of a find 
of Roman coins made over half a century ago at Puncknoll, 
in Dorsetshire, and recently presented to the Dorchester 
Museum. The coins, which were contained in an earthen jar, 
covered the period 253-293 A.D., and were of the Emperors 
Gallienus, Postumus, Victorinus, Tetricus I, Claudius II, and 
Carausius, and the Empress Salonina. (This paper is printed 
in this volume, pp. 92-95.) 

Dr. Oliver Codrington, F.S.A., read a paper by Mr. H. W. 
Codrington on " Coins of the Kings of Hormuz." After 
sketching the history of Hormuz under Muslim and Portu- 
guese rule, the reader described a number of the gold coins of 
the kings of Hormuz of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
which have been hitherto unknown. Dr. Codrington was also 
successful in reading the names of the same kings on a 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 17 

number of silver larins which had been struck from the same 
dies as the gold coins. (This paper is printed in this volume, 
pp. 156-167.) 



MARCH 19, 1914. 
HENRY SYMONDS, ESQ., F.S.A., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of February 19 were 
read and approved. 

Sir Thomas H. Elliot, K.C.B., Captain J. S. Cameron, and 
Mr. Sidney W. Grose were elected Fellows of the Society. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their 
donors : 

1. Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest. 
Trimestre 3 and 4, 1913. 

2. Catalogue of Coins in the Panjab Museum, Lahore. By 
R. B. Whitehead. 2 vols. From the Delegates of the 
Clarendon Press. 

3. Chronique de Numismatique Celtique. 



4. Discours de M. A. Blanchet. 

5. Notices Extraits de la Chronique de 



By A. Blanchet. 
From the Author. 



la Revue Numismatique. 

6. Memoires de la Societe Royale des Antiquaires du 
Nord, 1913. 

7. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
Vol. xi. 

8. The Canadian Antiquarian. Vol. xi., No. 1. 

9. Was there a Kusana Race ? By Baron A. von Stael- 
Holstein. 

Mr. "W. Gilbert exhibited an unpublished halfpenny token 
of " George Smith Cheesmonger over against ye Shippens in 
Smithfield." 

6 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence and Mr. H. B. Earle Fox exhibited 
two series of forgeries in illustration of the paper. 

Mr. H. B. Earle Fox read a paper on contemporary 
forgeries in the English coinage. Contemporary forgeries 
went as far back as the art of coinage itself ; in ancient 
times it was a common practice for the authorities to issue 
a certain proportion of plated coins and enforce their currency 
to pay mint expenses. It was impossible to forge the thin 
silver coins of the middle ages by plating them, so that the 
usual practice was to make them in debased metal. The 
reader devoted special attention to the coins of the Edwards 
and their forgeries and continental imitations ; the latter were 
of importance for dating hoards. Mr. H. B. Earle Fox 
concluded his paper with some remarks on modern forgeries 
and the points usually overlooked by the forger. 



APRIL 16, 1914. 
H. B. EARLE Fox, ESQ., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of March 19 were 
read and approved. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their 
donors : 

1. Academic royale de Belgique. Bulletins No. 12, 1913 ; 
No. 1, 1914. 

2. Les Monnaies de Bronze dites incertaines du Pont ou 
du Royaume de Mithridate Eupator. By Miss Agnes. 
Baldwin. From the Author. 

3. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 365. 

4. Numismatische Zeitschrift. Heft 1, 1914. 

5. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica. Fasc. 1, 1914. 

6. Revue Beige de Numismatique. Part 2, 1914. 

Mr. H. B. Earle Fox, Mr. L. A. Lawrence, and Mr. 






ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 19 

Walters exhibited extensive series of coins in illustration of 
the paper to be read. 

Mr. F. A. Walters, F.S.A., read his paper on the third and 
last period' of the Coinage of the reign of Edward IV, from 
1471 to 1483. He showed how there was a special reason for 
assigning with certainty the annulet mint-mark to the first 
issue after the return of Edward from exile, as it represented 
the ring of St. Edward and was the emblem of the Abbey of 
Westminster where the Queen and his children had received 
sanctuary in his absence. The regular sequence of mint- 
marks at the Tower was then traced up to the end of the 
reign. It was shown from the mint accounts at the Record 
Office that the Royal Mints at Bristol and York continued to 
work after the restoration of Edward IV, although only for 
a comparatively short time. York only worked for six 
months or to September, 1471, and Bristol only fourteen 
months or to July, 1472. The amount of bullion coined at 
both mints was comparatively small. The sequence of coins 
from the Prelatical mints of Canterbury, Durham, and York 
was followed through the vicissitudes and changes of the 
occupancy of the Sees. (This paper is printed in this 
volume.) 



MAY 21, 1914. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of April 16 were read 
and approved. 

The Rev. Edward H. Sydenham was elected a Fellow of 
the Society. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their 
donors : 

1. Academic royale de Belgique. Annuaire, 1914. 

62 



20 PBOCEEDINGS OP THE 

2. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. xviii., Pt. 1. 

3. Appunti di Numismatica Romana cix. By F. Gnecchi. 
From the Author. 

4. Bonner Jahrbiicher. Heft 121, and Beilage. 

5. Catalogue of Coins in the Colombo Museum. Part 1. 
By H. W. Codrington. From the Author. 

6. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum : 
Palestine. By G. F. Hill. From the Trustees of the British 
Museum. 

7. Imitations Seigneuriales Limbourgeoises du XV. Siecle. 
By Vicomte B. de Jonghe. From the Author. 

8. Journal of Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xliv., Pt. 1. 

9. Horniman Museum. Report for 1913. From the 
London County Council. 

10. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 306 to 369. 

11. Note on the Name Kushan. By J. Allan. From the 
Royal Asiatic Society. 

12. Revue Numismatique. Part 1, 1914. 

13. The Name Kushan. By J. F. Fleet. From the Eoyal 
Asiatic Society. 

14. Zeitschrift fur Numisrnatik. Band xxxi., Heft 3-4. 
Messrs. G. C. Brooke and L. G. P. Messenger were ap- 
pointed to audit the Society's accounts for 19131914. 

Sir Arthur J. Evans exhibited the following coins : a new 
example of the alteration of a die of a Tarentine coin by the 
introduction of a symbol. The coin is a didrachm showing the 
horseman with a flowing chlamys and a small pegasos below. 
A coin exists (Vlasto Coll.) from the same dies both in its 
obverse and reverse, but without the symbol. This is pro- 
bably the badge of a new magistrate. The obverse and 
reverse types show affinities in the Horsemen, &c., Per. iv., 
Type E. ; a didrachm of Metapontum (head in sphendone, 
single drop earring) with inscription OAYA clearly visible 



EOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 21 

behind the head ; a tetradrachm of Katane with signature 
of Prokles beneath the head of Apollo one other example 
is known, in the Luynes Collection ; and a tetradrachm of 
Syracuse with the "large head" and M, probably the signa- 
ture of Kimon behind. (Cf. Tudeer, Die Tetradrachmenprd- 
gung von SyraJcus, 42, PI. iv.) The chariot type here found 
in association with this was not known to Tudeer. 

Mr. H. B. Earle Fox showed an unpublished copper coin 
of the Achaean league of Psophis. Obv. AAEZAN. Rev. 
AXAIQN WfcNAIttN. 

Mr. P. H. Webb exhibited three bronze coins of 
Constantine I, viz. : 

1. Obv. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Bust of Emperor r., un- 

draped, and with bare head. 

Rev. SAPIENT PRINCIPIS. Altar surmounted by a bird, to 
left of base shield, to right helmet. Across altar, trans- 
versely, spear pointing r. upwards. 

In exergue R . . . (Rome). Size 13 mm., wt. 0-93 
gramme (or allowing for a fracture of the edge, 1 gramme). 
(Variety of Cohen 486.) 

This coin appears to be of a denomination less than the 
nummus of MM. Maurice andDattari (see Num. Chron., 1913, 
p. 431), the theoretic weight whereof is 1*44 grammes. 

2. Obv. As above. 

Rev. FVNDAT PACIS. Mars helmeted, semi-nude, walking r., 
holding r. trophy over shoulder ; his 1. hand dragging 
small captive after him. 

In exergue RS. (Rome). Size 15 mm., wt. 1'36 gramme. 
(Cohen 157.) 

3. Obv. As above. 

Rev. GLORIA PER PET. Two victories walking r., between 
them a military standard. 

In exergue RT. (Rome). Size 15 mm., weight 1'77 
gramme. (Cohen 259.) 

Mr. G. F. Hill read a paper on " Greek Coins recently 
acquired by the British Museum." Among the most notable 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

pieces were three coins of Melos from the recent find, with 
reverses four-spoked wheel, triskeles, and crescent ; an electrum 
coin of Ionia, with obv. Pegasus, rev. two incuse squares ; a 
copper coin of Praxippos, king of Lapethus (Cyprus) ; a 
tetradrachm of Timarchus, the usurper who ruled in Babylon 
in 162 B.C., of which only two other specimens are known; 
and a tridrachm of the Barcid coinage of Carthago Nova. 
(This paper is printed in this volume, pp. 97-109.) 



June 18, 1914. 
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Annual General Meeting of June 19, 
1913, were read and approved. 

Messrs. W. Gedney Beattie and L. G. P. Messenger were 
appointed scrutineers of the ballot for the ensuing year. 

The following Report of the Council was then read to 
the meeting : 

The Council have again the honour to lay before you their 
Annual Report as to the state of the Royal Numismatic 
Society. 

It is with deep regret that they have to announce the 
death of one Honorary Fellow : 

Dr. Hans Hildebrand, 
and of the following four Fellows : 

Thomas Bliss, Esq. 

Barclay Vincent Head, Esq., D.C.L., D.Litt., Ph.D. 

W. Talbot Ready, Esq. 

W. H. Taylor, Esq. 



EOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



23 



They have also to announce the resignation of the following 
six Fellows : 



Cumberland Clark, Esq. 
Edward Francklin, Esq. 
Edward J. Jekyll, Esq., J.P., 
D.L. 



J. Gordon Langton, Esq., 

F.C.A., F.I.S. 
A. M. Mitchison, Esq. 
R. N. Roskell, Esq. 



On the other hand, they have much pleasure in announcing 
the Election of the following twelve Fellows : 



H. W. Codrington, Esq., 

M.R.A.S. 

V. B. Crowther-Beynon, Esq. 
Capt. J. S. Cameron. 
Richard Dalton, Esq. 
Sir Thomas Elliot, K.C.B. 
K.u. K. Regierungsrat Eduard 



William Gilbert, Esq. 
Sidney William Grose, Esq., 

B.A. 

Robert Kerr, Esq., M.A. 
Rev. E. H. Sydenham. 
Mrs. Sidney Streatfield. 
R. James Williams, Esq. 



Fiala. 

The number of Fellows is, therefore : 

Ordinal 

June, 1913 283 

Since elected 

Deceased 

Resigned 

285 



rdinary. 

283 


Honorary. 

19 


Total. 

302 


12 





12 


295 


19 


314 


4 


1 


5 


6 





6 



18 



303 



The Council have to announce that they have awarded the 
Society's Medal to M. J. N. Svoronos, Keeper of the 
National Museum in Athens, in recognition of his dis- 
tinguished services to Greek numismatics. 

The Hon. Treasurer's Report, which follows, was then laid 
before the meeting : 



STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSE- 

FROM JUNE, 1913, 
Hr. THE KOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY IN ACCOUNT 

. d. s. d. 
To Cost of Chronicle 

Printing . . . . . 218 7 7 

Plates and Illustrations . . 70 4 

288 11 7 

To Books, &c. . . 4510' 

To Lantern Expenses . . . . 797 

To Bent and Refreshments 41 11 2 

To Sundry Payments 10 7 9 

Balance in hand 

General Fund . . . . . . 245 7 5 

Eesearch Fund . . . . . 16 1 6 

261 8 11 

613 14 10 



MENTS OF THE ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY, 

TO JUNE, 1914. 

WITH PERCY H. WEBB, HON. TREASURER. Cr. 



By Balance in hand 
General Fund 
Research Fund 


s. d. i 

. 238 18 3 
. 14 3 10 


*. d 

9 1 



By Subscriptions. &c. 

2 Life Subscriptions . . . . 31 10 

212 Ordinary Subscriptions at 1 Is. (less loss 
on foreign cheques, &c.) .... 222 1 

8 Entrance Fees 880 

261 19 

By Sales of Chronicles, &c 63 4 3 

By Dividends on Investments 

General Fund . . . . . 33 11 10 
Research Fund 1 17 8 

35 9 6 



613 14 10 



PERCY H. WEBB, Hon. Treasurer. 



Audited and found correct, 

LEOPOLD G. P. MESSENGER, 
GEORGE C. BROOKE, 

June 27, 1914. 



> Hon. Auditors. 



26 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE 

The Reports of the Council and of the Treasurer were 
adopted on the motion of the President. 

The President referred to the great loss sustained by the 
Society by the death of Barclay Vincent Head, and moved 
that an expression of the Society's sympathy in her bereave- 
ment be conveyed to Miss Head. 

The President then handed the Society's medal to Mr. Allan 
to be forwarded to M. Svoronos, who was unable to be 
present, and addressed the meeting as follows : 

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, 

My first duty to-day is to present our medal to the 
scholar who has been selected by your Council for that dis- 
tinction. It is our habit in giving the medal to alternate 
between English and foreign numismatists. This year it is 
the turn of the latter, and we have selected M. Svoronos, 
the Keeper of the great collection of Greek coins at Athens, 
for the distinction. The fact that at so young an age he 
has been thought worthy of such an honour enhances the 
compliment we are paying him. Another reason which 
makes his position notable is the fact that he is the first 
Greek who has reached the position of authority in the 
science of Numismatics which entitles him to rank among 
the first exponents of the study. This is a great fact when 
we remember what a dominating position Greek coins hold 
in the eyes of us all. He began his career as a sub- 
ordinate in the Athens Museum, where he worked under 
a patient and accurate master, Postolakka. On the latter's 
death he succeeded him as Keeper, a position he has filled 
with quite remarkable vigour and activity. He began by 
uniting the old collection belonging to the University with 
the smaller one belonging to the State, and persuaded the 
Greek Government to pass a stringent law by which all 
coins found in Greece were to be sent to the Museum. The 
result of this has been a gigantic growth in the collection, 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 27 

making it, so far as Greek Numismatics are concerned, one 
of the finest in the world, as it ought to be. One result we 
naturally feel to be an embarrassment. It is often said 
that it is no use collecting Greek coins in these days because 
so few of them come into market. It has been argued that 
this is due to few being found. It is rather due to the 
leakage from Greece having been largely stopped. This, 
again, tempts me to moralize a little ; I often think that 
the great museums might help each other more than they 
do by the exchange of duplicates. The passion of some 
collectors to possess every coin of the same type that exists 
and thus to prevent others from securing a specimen is a 
miser's instinct, and not a scholar's. Once a collection 
has secured an adequate representation of a type surely it 
is better to exchange with other collections, and thus to 
do homage to the cosmopolitan character of science as repre- 
sented by coins. To return to M. Svoronos, we all of us 
congratulate him on the mighty collection he presides over, 
which contains so many rare prizes, and we congratulate 
the Greek nation on having such a fine scholar and fine 
courteous gentleman in charge of its numismatic treasures. 
His first work was a notable monograph on the Coins of 
Crete which received the distinction of being academically 
crowned. He has since written a great work in four volumes 
on the Coins of the Ptolemies which puts all other works on 
that series in the shade. He has translated the Corpus 
Numorum of our own Father Anchises Head into Greek, 
and is now editing a volume on the Coins of Athens for 
the great Corpus of Greek coins published by the Berlin 
Academy. In 1898 he founded and has since edited the 
Journal International d'Archeologie Numismatique, in which 
numerous papers from his pen have appeared. This is a 
great deal to have done in so short a space. May he 
continue to have the same vigour and the same imaginative 
genius (which sometimes runs away with all of us but 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

without which our studies are so often mere dust), and may 
he found at Athens a school of Greek disciples to help him 
to unravel the thousand puzzles and mysteries which are still 
hidden in the lovely and illuminating Coinage of Greece. 

You will convey our kind thoughts to him, Mr. Allan, and 
you will tell him that we English people put at the head 
of a long list of our teachers the Greek scholars and school- 
masters, Theodore of Canterbury and Hadrian, Abbot of 
St. Augustine's, and we at present close the list in one great 
field of culture with the name of Svoronos. 

Mr. Allan then read the following letter of thanks from 
M. Svoronos : 

" DEAR MR. ALLAN, 

" The great honour and token of appreciation 
conferred on me by the illustrious Royal Numismatic Society 
of Great Britain fills me with deepest gratitude no less than 
with joy and pride. 

" By universal consent the Eoyal Numismatic Society and 
the distinguished Department of Coins and Medals in the 
British Museum, which is closely linked to it by the bonds 
of a common science, constitute the greatest, most distin- 
guished, and most erudite centre of numismatic research. 
In consequence, it is the highest honour to which a numis- 
matist can hope to attain in his lifetime, to be named out 
for distinction by those who form the head and centre of 
his science. The greatest proof of this are the thanks which 
your Society has received from the notable array of univer- 
sally reputed scholars who have been thus honoured by you. 
The more I am conscious of my own insignificance as com 
pared with the greatness of all those whom you have honoured 
from 1883 down to the present day, the greater is my 
gratitude and pride, most especially as I belong to Greece, 
the country which in olden times taught other nations the 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 29 

highest civilization, and has left as an heritage the glorious 
monuments to which our studies are above all directed. 
Greece, once the teacher, is now the pupil, full of ambition 
speedily to become the equal of her teachers and worthy of 
her ancient glory. 

" Hereafter, when I look on the medal which you have con- 
ferred on me, I will remember the words of your distin- 
guished countryman and our colleague, Arthur Evans, spoken 
about the medal of your Society, ' a medal seems to be the 
fitting badge of one who has fought a good fight.' 

" I would end with this last conceit, and I would request 
you, Sir, to act as my mouthpiece, and ask that through the 
medium of your eloquence, the warmest expressions of my 
deepest gratitude may be conveyed to your distinguished 
Society. 

" Believe me, Sir, 
" Sincerely yours, 

(Sig.) "JEAN N. SVORONOS." 

The President then delivered the following address : 

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, 

According to recent precedent I shall take as read the 
obituary notices of those of our Fellows who have left us 
recently. Exceptions must be made, however, in the case of 
three of them with whom our ties have been the closest. First 
among them was my very old friend of many years, Barclay 
Head, a singularly charming personality, gentle, urbane, con- 
siderate, and kind to everybody, and full of knowledge which 
was always at the service of his friends. He was an ideal 
numismatist with a remarkable memory and a keen inductive 
instinct, and he has greatly enriched the literature of our 
science. His monumental work, the Historia Numorum, has 
passed through two editions. It is a marvellous monument 
of accurate description, lucid arrangement and wide re- 
search, and has gained the honour of translation into Greek. 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Besides this he wrote many notable papers in our Chronicle, 
showing a breadth of sympathy and an amplitude of range 
and horizon seldom reached, while eight of the most excellent 

7 O 

volumes in the great Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British 
Museum are from his hand. 

How much he was regarded by the distinguished cultivators 
of our science may best be gathered from the collection of 
Memoirs which were brought together in the Corolla Numis- 
matica in honour of him. He was for many years one of the 
editors of our Chronicle and, until his health broke down, a 
very regular attendant at our meetings. But for this mis- 
fortune he would have also sat in this chair, which I did my 
best to press upon him when I was constrained by your pres- 
sure to undertake a duty for which he and others were so 
much better qualified. He has gone away, like many others 
who have suffered much here, to the land of peace and sunlight, 
and has left us a trail of light to guide our own feet, if we 
are disposed like him to cherish modesty and gentleness as 
the sovereign virtues of good men. 

A very constant attendant at our meetings and our Council 
Board, and one who exhibited many rare coins at our table, 
and was also a charming personality, was Mr. Thomas Bliss. 
We shall greatly miss him. Lastly, another friend of us all, 
a remarkable man, Mr. Talbot Ready. Few possessed so 
accurate and discriminating an archaeological eye as he did, 
and his range was great. He was as acute in discriminating 
between false and true in the difficult field of Greek terra- 
cottas and Italian fayence as in that of sixteenth-century 
medals and the whole field of ancient coins, and was gifted 
with a great memory. He also was a gentle and sympathetic 
person, always willing to sacrifice his time and to put his 
knowledge to the service of others. The British Museum and 
its coin room will miss him greatly ; with him disappears the 
last representative of the great firm of Rollin and Feuardent 
in London, and a notable figure among our friends. 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 31 

Another successful year has been added to the now vener- 
able age of this Society which for so long collected round its 
hospitable table all the serious students of Numismatics in 
this realm. Since our last Annual Gathering our meetings 
have been well attended, our discussions have been animated 
and profitable, the papers contributed to our Journal have 
more than reached the level of former years, our family affairs 
have been conducted, I hope, with marked friendliness and 
good humour, and our intercourse with our younger rival, 
which also shows proof of marked vitality, has been friendly 
and sympathetic. All this, I think, you will agree with 
me, is a pleasant retrospect for us all, and for no one more so 
than for the present occupant of this chair. You have con- 
tinuously treated him with much cordiality and kindness and 
with much consideration for shortcomings. I hope he may 
have partially succeeded in any efforts he may have made to 
help you according to his opportunities and gifts to maintain 
peace at home and abroad, to encourage the shy and timid 
to make their voices heard, and perhaps also to widen the 
scope of our science by reminding you betimes that we are 
historians as well as collectors and cataloguers of coins, and 
that we have the duty (here at all events) of studying and 
analysing the coinage of the whole world and not merely of 
limiting ourselves to our domestic issues. If in this work I 
have in any way gained your approval I can only say that the 
reason for any success in the effort has been due really to the 
loyalty and, may I say, affectionate ties which have bound us 
all together, and which have not even led you to reprove and 
resent occasional digressions into the fields of playfulness 
which from primeval times have been found useful in watering 
the arid sands of science. Ladies and gentlemen, the time 
has come for me to quit this chair. It ought to have come 
before and would have done so if we had not had to steer 
through some shoals and rocks, which perhaps needed the 
quality of tact rather than any endowment of wisdom. I am 



32 PBOCEEDINGS OF THE 

strongly of opinion that it is only exceptional circumstances 
which can justify so long a term as I have had in the Presi- 
dency. It is good for the Society and for Numismatics that 
its Presidential chair should pass on at shorter intervals from 
one of its Fellows to another so that fresh minds and fresh 
ideas should be put at its service, .and it is fortunate indeed 
that we should have so many among us whose gifts and 
qualities so eminently fit them for the position and notably 
their possessing a commanding and wide knowledge of the 
science of Numismatics, which I cannot pretend to rival. My 
own role in life has been that of an historian who has used 
coins galore in his work and who in his heart loves coins as 
historical documents of the first class rather than as a syste- 
matic numismatist loves them. It is pleasant indeed for me 
to find myself succeeded by one whom I have known intimately 
and have greatly regarded since he was a boy. He has made 
himself famous in more fields of archaeology than one, and as 
a numismatist has written monographs of the first quality. 
Lastly, he has another special qualification for this post, 
namely, that he is a famous collector and has put his collec- 
tions, and will, I know, put them often again, at the service of 
the Society. I wish him every success, and I know that you 
will be as kind to him as you have been to me. It is pleasant, 
ladies and gentlemen, to be able to sing my " Nunc Dimittis " 
with these thoughts and these words. 

Let me now turn from personal matters to others more 
interesting. Last year I ventured to bring before you the 
question of the two Numismatic Societies uniting in one effort 
to bring out a new edition of Ruding's Annals, which should 
incorporate the great mass of documents which have turned 
up since the last edition and also include a complete corpus 
of English coins up to date. The project was approved by 
unanimous votes in both societies, whose members considered 
that their country which is so rich in numismatists and so rich 
in documents should not be behind France, Italy, and Spain, 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 33 

in having a more or less complete and up-to-date monograph 
on its coins. The matter has been delayed by accident, but I 
hope that it will take a practical start in the course of next 
year, and that the opportunity of utilizing the phenomenal 
number of skilled English numismatists who are now available 
will not be lost. 

It is a satisfaction to us all, I am sure, that the British 
Museum has after much delay initiated a series of volumes 
on the English coins later than the Conquest in the National 
Collection by a volume now in progress on the coinage of 
the Norman Kings. This is being edited with skilled and 
learned scholarship by Mr. Brooke, whose presence at our 
meetings is as welcome to those who love the sunshine as to 
those who wish English coins to be treated according to the 
very latest methods of analysis. We all hope he may live to 
see the whole English series through. 

Mr. Hill, who now presides over the Coin Department of 
the British Museum with so much accurate and far-reaching 
knowledge and taste, has brought out a volume of the highest 
interest to historians as well as coin-men, namely, a catalogue 
of the very rich collection of Jewish Coins in the Museum, 
which is now by far the most important in the world. The 
series of coins there described is naturally attractive to a 
public outside that of regular numismatists. It is a difficult 
series to arrange and not attractive artistically, and the fine 
and illuminating memoir on it by Madden has naturally 
become largely obsolete. I need not say that the work is 
admirably done. This does not mean that every one will 
agree svith the author in all matters; our Fellow, Mr. Rogers, 
who is quoted several times in it, I believe has other views on 
some details. It would make Numismatics a forlorn study if 
its puzzles and problems were to be finally exhausted by any 
inquirer, however skilled. What we want and what we value 
far beyond any final decision on difficulties and ambiguities 
in matters of detail is the presence in such works as this of 

c 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

the scientific method and precision at their best in describing 
the style of the coins, the meaning of the types and also the 
wide knowledge of the literature of the subject, and this I 
think you will agree that you are pretty sure to find at least 
in the later volumes of the Museum Catalogues and notably 
in that edited by Mr. Hill. 

In looking through the pages of this and other Catalogues 
of the Greek Series, one thing which has often struck me as 
not quite logical or illuminating is the arrangement of the two 
great series of classical coins. I am speaking now as a pro- 
fessed historian whose work has necessitated a continual use 
of coins as witnesses of the best kind and not as a systematic 
cataloguer of coins, and my purpose is the facilitating of the 
use of coins for historical study and not the convenience of 
finding coins in a series of cabinets. 

I have always felt that the coinage of the later Roman 
Republic and the Empire has been arranged and catalogued 
rather in the interest of the coin-man than the historian that 
is to say, rather in the interests of those who are engaged in 
analysing the various issues by particular mints than accord- 
ing to the strictly historical needs of the student. Let me be 
more precise and concrete. When I am writing a monograph 
on a Roman Emperor I want to know and to study all available 
materials for his history, including the coins he has issued. 
I want to know where and when he struck coins and what 
those coins have to say about him and the period when he 
reigned, and to illustrate that reign, by all the information 
which can be gathered from coins about the local magistracy, 
the religious rites, the special gods worshipped, the records of 
victories, the commemoration of the dignities held by himself 
and his family, &c. The separate history of each particular 
mint from its rise to its fall is an interesting study, but 
nothing like so important as the utilization of coins to 
illustrate a particular epoch. By the method of arranging 
the coins of the Empire, which prevails among numismatists, 



EOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 35 

that important series is sharply divided into two entirely 
different classes described in different volumes by different 
men. Those with Latin inscriptions and struck at European 
mints are put together under the Emperor in whose reign 
they were struck and arranged under his name geographically 
and also chronologically. You do not take all the coins 
issued at Siscia or London or Tarragona respectively and 
put them all together in a continuous series, under each of 
their mint groups, but you distribute them among the various 
Emperors who issued them. When we turn, however, to the 
coins struck by the same Emperors or during their reigns by 
the subject towns, which are inscribed not in Roman letters 
but in Greek or Aramaic or Jewish letters and coined in the 
Eastern dominions of the Empire, they are treated in an 
entirely different way. The coins are then treated not as 
local issues of one Imperial master, but as the successors of 
the autonomous series of the mint towns which were struck 
before the Romans became their masters, and are scattered 
through endless volumes and pages of the Catalogues of the 
Greek series, and can only be discovered by hunting for each 
coin individually, at a great loss of time and temper by those 
who have a vast mass of literature to read through in their 
work beside coins. Why a coin of Hadrian, for instance, 
struck at Rome, or Lyons, or Treves should be catalogued 
under the coins of Hadrian while the coins of the same 
Emperor struck at Ephesus, or Miletus, or Philippi, should 
not even be mentioned in treating of the coinage of his reign, 
passes my comprehension. The fact that the inscriptions on 
the coins of Hadrian are written in different alphabets and 
languages does not affect the first element in them, namely, 
that they are coins of Hadrian. The series of his coins 
enables us to understand better than any of his monuments, 
the extent of his empire, the vast and wide-reaching activities 
of that very ideal and gifted ruler, the changes made in 
his reign and the local officers he employed. I mention 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Hadrian because probably the most interesting of his labours 
were what he did in the eastern parts of his dominion and 
especially in the Greek world which he so greatly cherished, 
but the same argument applies to many other Roman 
Emperors. It is quite true that in all sciences you have 
overlaps and that you have to treat the same facts from two 
or more points of view ; that for different purposes you want to 
know the history of all the issues of a particular mint as well 
as all the issues of a particular Emperor. The ideal system 
would no doubt be to have a double catalogue. This ideal 
standard, however, like most ideal things, including men and 
women, is practically unattainable and the question remains, 
which is the most useful method of arrangement in cataloguing 
coins ; to treat them as historical monuments or as the different 
kinds of local money, a point on which the numismatist and 
the historian would probably not agree. I should like to 
suggest a compromise. There is a plan which was followed 
by the older numismatists and which was also followed 
partially and imperfectly in later times in Babelon's Cata- 
logues, which would, if more elaborately carried out, meet 
the difficulty I am mentioning. I tried to persuade my friend 
Grueber to adopt it in his learned work on the Coinage of 
Republican Rome, which is a vast magazine of information 
on a difficult and involved subject. The plan I would 
suggest, which might perhaps be adopted in the volumes 
dealing with the Imperial series, is to put at the end of 
the coinage of each emperor an alphabetical list of all the 
known so-called Greek Imperial coins struck in the reign with 
a reference in each case to the volume of the Greek series or 
the monograph or treatise where each coin has been described 
and is discussed in detail. May I commend the suggestion to 
my friends Mr. Hill and Mr. Mattingly, the latter of whom 
is preparing the first volume of the Roman Imperial Series. 
In default of this solution could not one of them give us 
a special volume containing a list of Imperial Greek coins 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 37 

arranged under Emperors? I know nothing that could be 
more welcome to the serious students of Roman history and 
that is more needed. As I am on the subject of catalogues, 
may I venture to depart again from the conventional methods 
of my predecessors in this chair and to say something on 
another aspect of the question. When you have to face the 
stupendous task of cataloguing such a collection of coins, for 
instance, as that in the British Museum, it is difficult to 
know where to begin and what series to select for cataloguing. 
The usual solution in such cases 1 has been to start at some 
arbitrary point and to drive along the level road that leads 
from the beginning of the series to the end. This is perhaps 
the best plan for the cataloguers, but it may not be the best 
plan for the historian and the man who has his eye on the 
whole known series, whether in any particular museum or not. 
To me it is better that a series which interests me and would 
help me in my work should be published in my lifetime rather 
than a hundred years hence. It seems to me therefore that 
in cataloguing a great collection of coins those series should 
be first attacked which have been hitherto neglected, and on 
which no modern or tolerable monograph exists, especially in 
English ; secondly, those in which the particular museum is 
most rich, and in which therefore the catalogue will most 
completely cover the whole subject of the series ; and thirdly, 
those in which there happens to be the greatest number of 
students who need help and assistance from such a catalogue, 
and whom it is our duty to assist. 

Let me be more concrete. I will illustrate my meaning by 
the Indian series in the Museum. The Coinages of India 
before the Mohammadan conquest have been the object of 
assiduous attention and work in endless memoirs in the trans- 
actions of the Bengal and Bombay Societies, and in the works 
of Thomas, Prinsep, Cunningham, Rapson, Vincent Smith, &'c., 
and may be said to be very well known. Two volumes 
dealing with the subject have appeared among the recent 

c'2 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

British Museum Catalogues one by Rapson on the Andhra 
and Ksatrapa Coins, and the other by Allan, which was 
recently published, on the Gupta Coins, both of them models 
of the best kind and both of them much needed. The next 
series to be treated, if the whole Indian Coinage is to be 
treated from end to end continuously, would bring us to the 
pre-Mohammadan coins of Hindustan and its border, a sub- 
ject upon which nearly everything that is known at present 
is available in the works above mentioned. 

On the other hand, there are two series which loudly cry 
for consideration at an early date, and for different reasons. 
The first is the Sassanian Coinage. I must not enlarge to 
any one who has studied Eastern history (I spent thirty 
years at it myself) on the very important part played by the 
famous dynasty of Sasan, the successors of the Parthians, and 
the predecessors of the Arabs as the masters of Persia and 
Central Asia. They had an immense influence on the 
renascence of Zoroastrianism and on the literature and the 
arts of the east in the pre-Mohammadan times, an influence 
which has been shown by Stein and others to have penetrated 
to the very borders of China. 

We know from other sources how it also greatly affected 
the arts and especially the coinage of India, where several 
series are directly derived in their types from the Sassanian 
coins. It is quite lamentable that under these circumstances 
there should be no monograph of any kind available in 
English or in any continental language except Russian 
dealing with the series. In English my old friend Thomas 
half a century or more ago did some excellent work on 
some of the Sassanian coins, as you may see by turning to 
the older numbers of the Chronicle, but nothing whatever 
adequate or approaching adequacy exists in English. If you 
add to this that the British Museum is most exceptionally 
rich, probably by far the richest, of any coin collection in the 
Sassanian series, you may combine some excellent reasons for 



EOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 39 

cataloguing it as soon as may be. These reasons become 
almost dramatic when you happen to have a particularly 
gifted person for this kind of work available in my versatile 
friend Allan. It rather strengthens my plea that Mr. Hill 
is at this moment attacking a very difficult and to myself 
and others most important series in view of the historical 
puzzles to be unravelled, which is really a kind of complement 
of the later Parthian and of the Sassanian series, and deals 
with the later Aramaic coinages of Mesopotamia, Persis, 
Idumaea, &c., which have been the subject matter of many 
polemics. This volume will fill an almost absolute void in 
our own numismatic literature. 

Let us now say a word or two about another side of the 
cataloguing question. In olden days it has been the custom 
to buy coins largely for the National Collection in order not 
so much to fill gaps everywhere, as to strengthen the 
particular series in process of being catalogued. This is not 
a bad plan, when as unfortunately happens too often in 
English Museums the Treasury grant is so miserably insuffi- 
cient, but there are limits to it. My own view is that it is 
far more important for students that the Museum should com- 
plete those series as far as it can in which it is most rich rather 
than those in which it is most poor. It is where the finest 
collections exist that the student will naturally turn for his 
best help, and we ought to make his path as easy as we can 
by making the already rich collection as complete as we can. 

Lastly, there is the question of reprinting catalogues. The 
fact that a catalogue is out of print is the best proof of the 
number of people who have found it useful, and the best 
excuse for reprinting it. This is not the only reason, however. 
There are some others sometimes which are even more pressing. 

Take the so-called Indo-Bactrian and Indo-Scythian Series. 
Thanks to the almost unparalleled generosity of my old friend 
and master, General Cunningham, the British Museum col- 
lection, which was formerly deemed very rich, has been more 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

than doubled. It is now quite beyond the reach of competition 
and very nearly complete. No work is crying louder for re- 
publication than a new edition of the volume dealing with this 
series and incorporating Cunningham's additions, which as I 
have said have more than doubled it. It is due to his memory 
and to the obligations many of us owe to him that this work 
should be done before long. It ought indeed to have been 
done years ago, not merely on grounds of affectionate loyalty 
to one of the Great Masters in our science, but to the very 
great importance of the series in illustrating the art, my- 
thology, and history of our great dependency and its border 
lands, including Parthia. A similar need has been felt by 
many of us for a reprint of the early volumes of the Greek 
Catalogue, especially that dealing with the coins of Italy, the 
Museum series of which has been greatly enlarged since the 
Catalogue was made. Apart from this, that volume in method, 
in illustrations, and otherwise is now quite obsolete, while the 
series of coins comprised in it is itself of surpassing value in 
solving the paradoxes of early Italian history. 

I have to apologize for devoting this address to certain 
practical everyday and pressing matters connected with our 
studies rather than to an account of the recent literature of 
Numismatics, which would have been really " chewing the 
cud " and repeating an old story already known to you. It 
is not indeed easy to find a subject for an address like this 
which is not stale and otiose. You will pardon me if I have 
failed to interest you. In conclusion, let me once more thank 
you all for the many happy hours I have spent with you in 
this room, for your consideration and patience and urbanity. 
May all the pleasant things which kind thoughts can suggest 
attend you and all you love best. Lastly, let me commend 
you as a parting gift some lines of an old writer whom I 
greatly love, Sir Thomas Browne. They have a scent of 
rosemary and lavender about them, and embody the thoughts 
I would leave with you. He was not a very orthodox person, 



EOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 41 

but his fine words may help to lift students like ourselves to 
a higher plane, which science with all its great achievements 
is apt to blind us to. " There is no sanctum sanctorum in 
philosophy," he says, "the world was made to be inhabited 
by beasts, but studied and contemplated by man ; 'tis the 
debt of our reason we owe unto God, and the homage that 
we pay for not being beasts. The wisdom of God receives 
small honour from those vulgar heads that rudely stare about, 
and with a gross rusticity admire his works. Those highly 
magnify Him whose judicious inquiry into His arts, and 
deliberate research into His creation, return the duty of a 
devout and learned admiration. Therefore 

" ' Search while thou wilt ; and let thy reason go 
To ransom truth, e'en to the abyss below. 
Rally the scattered causes, and that line 
Which Nature twists be able to untwine. 

* * * * 

Give thou my reason that instructive flight 
Whose weary wings may on thy hands still light. 
Teach me to soar aloft, yet ever so 
When near the sun to stoop again below. 
Thus shall my humble feathers safely hover 
And though near earth more than the heavens discover, 
And then at last, when homeward I shall drive 
Rich with the spoils of nature to my hive, 
There will I sit, like that industrious fly, 
Buzzing thy praises ; which shall never die 
Till death abrupts them, and succeeding glory 
Bids me go on in a more lasting story.' " 

The President then announced the result of the ballot for 
office-bearers for 1914-1915 as follows : 

President. 

SIR ARTHUR J. EVANS, P.S.A., M.A., D.Lrrr., LL.D., 
PH.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. 

H. B. EARLE Fox, ESQ. 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A. 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

Treasurer. 
PERCY H. WEBB, ESQ. 

Secretaries. 

JOHN ALLAN, ESQ., M.A., M.R.A.S. 
FREDERICK A. WALTERS, ESQ., F.S.A. 

Foreign Secretary. 
GEORGE FRANCIS HILL, ESQ., M.A. 

Librarian. 
OLIVER CODRINGTON, ESQ., M.D., F.S.A., M.R.A.S. 

Members of the Council. 

G. C. BROOKE, ESQ., B.A. 

Miss HELEN FARQUHAR. 

HERBERT A. GRUEBER, ESQ., F.S.A. 

W. J. HOCKING, ESQ. 

L. A. LAWRENCE, ESQ., F.S.A. 

J. GRAPTON MILNE, ESQ., M.A. 

REV. ROBERT SCOTT MYLNE, M.A., B.C.L., F.S.A. 

F. W. VOYSEY PETERSON, ESQ., B.C.S. (retd.) 

EDWARD SHEPHERD, ESQ. 

HENRY SYMONDS, ESQ., F.S.A. 

A vote of thanks to the President was moved by Mr. 
H. B. Earle Fox and seconded by Mr. Hill. 



XIII. 
THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 

(See Plates XVI.-XVIII.) 

THE following paper deals only with the main silver 
series struck at Smyrna the tetradrachms and drachms 
of Attic weight issued during the second and first 
centuries B.C. In these two series it is possible, by 
comparison of the dies, to ascertain with a reasonable 
degree of probability the sequence of the magistrates 
responsible for the coins ; and they therefore offer the 
best starting-point for an attempt to classify chrono- 
logically the whole of the autonomous issues. In a 
future paper I hope to deal with the much more plenti- 
ful, but more puzzling, bronze coinage. For the present 
also the other issues of silver Sir Hermann Weber's 
tetradrachm of Kolophonian types, the tetradrachms of 
Lysimachos and of the Alexandrine series, and the 
cistophori are left aside, together with the solitary 
issue of gold. 

In the list of coins given are included and numbered 
all the specimens of which I have been able to obtain 
casts or to see satisfactory reproductions. A few others 
are noted which are mentioned in catalogues but are 
not figured. In some cases I have suggested the identity 
of a specimen described in one catalogue with another 
of the same types, from the same dies, and of the same 

NUM. CHKON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. U 



274 .1. G. INILNE. 

weight, described elsewhere ; but I have added a mark 
of interrogation except where I could get a definite 
statement of the identity. 

The tetradrachms fall into three series, distinguished 
by the types of the reverse, the obverse type remaining 
the same throughout. There is no change in the types 
of the drachms, which range with the second and third 
series of the tetradrachms. 



FIRST SERIES: TETRADRACHMS. 

Obv. Head of Kybele (or Amazon Smyrna as city goddess) 
r., wearing crown of three turrets ; hair knotted 
behind and fallin in two locks. 



Rev. JY/Ak. an d monogram below ; whole in oak-wreath. 



k. 
NAIQN 



1. AKIST(ION ?). 

(a) London (B. M. G. 3) : 33 mm., 16-44 grins. 
(1) Petrogracl : 34 mm., 16-20 grms. 

(c) Paris (Waddington 1929) : 33 mm., 15-97 grms. 
(<l) E. F. Weber sale (lot 2942): 36 mm., 
15-97 grms. 

2. POSEIDONIOS. 

(a) Berlin (Inihoof) : 33 mm., 15-88 grms. (6) Berlin 
(Lobbecke) : 35 mm., 16-26 grms. (c) Brussels 
(C. H.): 35 mm., 16-63 grms. (d) Oxford 
(Bodley Greek 767) : 35 mm., 16-58 grins, 
(e) Paris (4156) : 35 mm. (/) J. G. Milne : 
34 mm., 15-64 grins, (edge cut). (<j) J. G. 
Milne (== Hirsch's sale 17/11/13, lot 845): 
33 mm., 15-85 grms. (h) Berlin duplicates sale 
(lot 487) : 33 mm., 15-9 grms. (f) Carfrae sale 
(lot 260); 35 mm., 16-0 grms. (/) Montagu 
sale (lot 583) : 33 mm., 16-26 grms. 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYKNA. 275 



3. MENEKKATES. 

(a) Berlin (Ace. 28786) : 35 mm., 16-02 grms. 
(6) London (B. M. G. 4) : 35 mm., 16-62 grms. 
(c) Naples (8180) : 34 mm., 16-62 grms. (d) 
Rhousopoulos sale (lot 3775) : 35-5 mm., 16' 53 
grms. (e) Hirsch's sale 17/11/13 (lot 844) 
(? = Prowe sale 1914, lot 1021) : 36 mm., 16-52 
grms. 

4. ZOPYROS? 

(a) Glasgow (Hunter cat. 1) : 34 mm., 16-61 grms. 
(b) Hague : 33 mm., 16-1 grms. (c) Paris (de 
Luynes 2286) : 34 mm., 16-30 grms. (d) Petro- 
grad : 34 mm., 16-65 grms. (e) M. R. 
Jameson : 34 mm., 16-67 grms. (/) Sir H. 
Weber: 33 mm., 16-71 grms. (g) J. G. Milne 
(= Benson sale lot 690) : 34 mm., 15-38 grms. 
(h) Philipsen sale (lot 2212) : 37 mm., 15-48 
grms. (i) Hess's sale 7/10/07 (lot 750): 37 
mm., 15-85 grms. (/) Prowe sale 1914 (lot 
1022) : 35 mm., 15-30 grms. 

[Lot 198 of the Bunbury sale, catalogued as 
"monogram of TEY " weight 16-07 grms. 
presumably belonged to this type ; as it was not 
illustrated, its further identification is impracti- 
cable.] 

5. METRODOROS. 

(a) Cambridge (Leake suppl.) : 32 mm., 16-15 grms. 

(b) Glasgow (Hunter cat. 2) : 33 mm., 16'41 grms. 

(c) Delbeke sale (lot 194) (1 Merzbacher's sale 

15/11/10, lot 708) : 37 mm., 16-26 grms. 

[There is a specimen of this type in the McClean 
collection at Cambridge weight 14-41 grms. 
which appears to be a cast from the Leake coin 
No. 5 (a) in the same cabinet. The Vienna 
cabinet has a forgery, with the monogram of the 
same form as (c) No. 15771, weight 17'67 grms. ; 
another specimen of this forgery, from the same 
dies, is at Naples No. 8181, weight 18-5 grms.] 

U2 



276 J. G. MILNE. 

The obverse dies used in this series occur as follows : 

A. 1 (a) [PL XVI.], (6), (c), (d), [(c) and (d) same rev. 

. die] ; 2 (6), (c), (e), (g), (/*), (,/), [(e) and (g) same rev. 
die]; 3 (a), (6), (c), (e). 

B. 2 (a), (d) [PI. XVI.]- 

C. 2 (/) [PL XVL], (0. 

D. 3(d);4(c)[Pl. XVI.], (d), ( ; 5 (&). 

E. 4 (a) [PL XVI.], for) ; 5 (a). 

F. 4 (6). 

G. 4 (e) [PL XVI.], (A). 

H. 4 (/) [PL XVL], (*) [same rev. die]. 
I. 5 (c) [PL XVL] . 

There is no great difficulty in determining the order 
in which the magistrates of this series should be placed. 
From a comparison of the casts of the various specimens 
it is quite clear that, in the case of the coins struck from 
die A, the examples of type 1 are earliest in date ; on 
those of types 2 and 3 slight flaws in the die appear, 
which are rather more marked in type 3 than in type 2. 1 
The order of these three magistrates is therefore fairly 
certain. The use of die D gives a connexion for types 3, 
4, and 5. I have not got a cast of the coin 3 (d), but, 
so far as can be judged from the illustration in the 
Uhousopo'ulos sale catalogue, it was struck before the 
examples of types 4 and 5 which are from the same die. 
In the case of the coins from dies D and E, those of 
type 4 are clearly earlier than those of type 5. 

As regards the resolution of the monograms, those on 

1 This obverse die seems to have beeii an exceptionally strong one ; 
it occurs in conjunction with no less than twelve reverse dies, which is 
double the number found in the case of any other die of Smyruaean 
silver. At Alexandria in the time of Tiberius the life of obverse dies 
used for striking billon tetradrachms seems to have been on an 
average between seven and eight times the length of that of reverse 
dies (sec Num. Chron., 1910, p. 338). 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 277 

types 2, 3, and 5 are probably to be taken as no<m<Wtou, 
MewK/oaroue, and M JJTJOO&^OOU ; that of type 1 is obviously 
'Api(rr( ), but it is open to doubt what the termination 
should be. These four names all occur on the bronze 
coins of a series which on other grounds can be regarded 
as about contemporary with "this series of tetradrachms. 
Unfortunately the name of 'A/otor( ) is given on the 
bronze coins also in this abbreviated form. The mono- 
gram of type 4 is more puzzling ; but, if it represents 
the name of any magistrate who is found in the same 
series of bronze coins as the other four, the only such 
name which fits it at all closely is ZwirvpoQ or '/Mirvpimv, 
one or other of which is presumably to be found in the 
abbreviated Z<I>TTI( ) of the bronze. 

SECOND SERIES: TETRADRACHMS AND 
DRACHMS. 

Tetradrachms. 

Obv. As last series. 

Itev. Lion standing r., 1. forepaw raised ; above, 
IMYPNAIQN (sometimes in two lines) ; below, 
magistrate's name (sometimes with title, pa- 
tronymic, epithet, or monogram) ; whole in oak- 
wreath (monogram or title occasionally outside 
wreath). 

Drachms. 

Obv. Head of Apollo r., laureate ; hair knotted behind 
and falling in two or three formal curls. 

Rev. Homer seated 1. on low throne, wearing himation, 
resting chin on r. hand and holding roll in 1. ; 
staff over r. shoulder ; in field r. y, IMYPNAIQN, 
1. >Jf, magistrate's name (sometimes with title or 
epithet ; occasionally monogram in exergue). 

It is possible to divide this series into three groups on 



278 J. G. MILNE. 

considerations of style, helped by die connexions. The 
characteristics of each group will be dealt with in the 
notes following the catalogue of the coins. It may also 
be remarked here that while in the first group the 
magistrate's name is given alone, in the second and 
third it usually has some dfstinguishing epithet or other 
adjunct. 

First Group. 

6. APOLLODOTOS. 

Tetr. AflOAAO ( a ) Berlin (Lobbecke) : 33 

AOTOZ ram., 16-45 grrns. (b) 

London (B. M. C. 5): 
34 mm., 16-59 grins. 

[There was a specimen 
of this type in the Pro we 
sale 1914, lot 1023 
.">5 mm., 16'10 grms. ; it 
was not illustrated in 
the catalogue.] 

Dr. AflOAAOAOTOZ (a) Paris (de Luynes 2289): 

22 mm., 3*90 grms. 
(ft) Dr. Jrnhoof-Blumer : 
21 mm., 4'01 grms. 
(y) Prowe sale 1914 (lot 
1027): 20 mm., 3'96 
grms. 

7. APOLLOPHANES. 

Tetr. AnOAAO*A ( a ) Hague: 35 mm., 1(5-6 grms. 

NHS (b) London (= Montagu 

sale 1896, lot 585): 34 
mm., 15-29 grms. (c) 
Vienna (17570): 35mm., 
16-51 grms. 

(NAIQN) ^ Brussels (C ' H ' } : 35 mm " 

16- 16 grms. 

Dr. AnOAAO<t>A ( a ) Berlin (Irnhoof) : 19 mm., 

NHZ 3-71 grms. 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 279 



8. HERAKLEIDES. 

Teh: HPAKAEIAHZ (a) Hague : 34mm., 16-6 grms. 

(b) J.G. Milne (=Butler 
sale, lot 241): 34 mm., 
16-21 grms. (<) Prowe 
sale 1914 (lot 1024): 
35 mm., 16-37 grms. 



9. MOSCHOS. 

Tetr. MOZXOZ (a) Brussels (A. F.) : 35 mm., 

16-01 grms. (b) Cam- 
bridge (Leake) : 33 mm.. 
16-8 grms. 

/IMYP \ ( r ) Paris (Waddington 1935) ; 

VNAinNJ 35 mm., 16-06 grms. 

(d) E. F. Weber sale (lot 
2943) (= Cumberland 
Clark sale, lot 233, and 
? Merzbacher's sale 
15/11/10, lot 709): 34 
mm., 16-12 grms. 

[There was a specimen 
of this type in the Bor- 
rell sale, lot 19616-79 
grms. which is perhaps 
the one now at Cam- 
bridge ; also one in the 
Dryasdust sale 1869, 
lot 261, 35 mm., 16-26 
grms.] 

Dr. MOZXOZ (a) Vienna (17573): 18 mm., 

3-98 grins. (ft) E. F. 
Weber sale (lot 2945) : 
1 7 mm., 3-95 grms. 



10. KTOUPON. 

Tetr. KTOYnnN (a) Cambridge (McClean) : 33 

mm., 16-54 grms. 



280 



J. G. MILNE. 



11. PHANES. 

Tetr. *ANHZ /IMYP\ ( a ) Copenhagen : 33 mm., 16-6 
^NAIQNy srms . 



Dr. c|>ANHZ 



(a) Berlin (Fox): 19mm., 3- 1:5 
grms. [broken], (ft) Paris 
(Waddington 1939): 19 
mm., 3-77 grms. [broken]. 



12. NlKOSTEATOS. 



Tetr. 



NIKOZTPA / IMYP \ 
TOZ VNAION/ 



Dr. NIKOZTPA 
TOZ 



Berlin (Ace. 28832) : 31 
mm., 16-46 grms. (b) 



Ha< 



;ue 



erms. 



31 mm., 16-2 
(c) Paiis (Wad- 
dington 1936) : 30 mm., 
15-98 grms. (d) Vienna 
(33941 )(?= E.F.Weber 
sale, lot 2944) : 31 mm., 
16-14 grms. (e) J. G. 
Milne (= Benson sale, 
lot 689, and ?Bunbury 
sale, lot 199) : 33 mm., 
16-19 grms. (/) H. P. 
Smith sale (lot 255) 
(= "White King sale, lot 
231) : 31 mm., 16-39 
grms. 

(a) London (Lennep, 1894) : 
20 mm., 4-07 grms. 



13. LEOKRATES. 

Tetr. AEQKPA / IMYP \ ( a ) Berlin (Liibbecke) : 32 
THZ VNAIQNy' mm ., 16'87 grms. (b) 

Paris (Waddington 
1933): 33 mm., 16-17 



grms. 



The following list shows the occurrence of obverse 
dies in this group. It will be noted that the two first 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 281 

on the list of tetradrachin dies were previously used for 
coins of the first series. 

Trtradrachm*. 

F. (a), (b) [PI. XVI.], [apparently same rev. die, which 
Avas slightly recut for (ft)] ; 7 (1), (r), (d), [(/>) and 
(c) same rev. die]. 

H. 7 (a). 

J. 8 (a), (b), (c), [(b) and (<) same rev. die] ; 9 (b) 
[PI. XVI.], (d). 

K. 9 (a) [PI. XVI.], (c). 

L. 10 (a) [PI. XVI.]; 11 (a). 

M. 12 (a) [PI. XVII.], (/>), (c), (rf), (c), (/), [(ft) and (c), 
and (d) and (e), same rev. dies]. 

N. 115 (a) [PI. XVII.], (ft). 

Drachms. 

a. 6 (a), (ft) [PI. XVIII.], (y) [all same rev. die] ; 7 (a) ; 

9 (a), ((3) fsame rev. die] ; 11 (a), (ft) [same rev. 

die]. 
ft. 12 (a) [PI. XVIII.]. 

The order of the first six magistrates of this group 
is definitely shown by die connexions. Apollodotos, 
Apollophanes, Moschos, and Phanes all used the same 
obverse die for their drachms ; and a comparison of the 
state of the die in the various coins points to the 
succession being as given. Apollodotos and Apollo- 
phanes are also proved to come at the beginning of the 
group by their use of dies F and H, inherited from the 
previous series. Die F was used by both, showing 
more signs of wear in the coins of Apollophanes ; die 
H seems to have been left aside during the term of 
Apollodotos and to have been brought out again by 
his successor. Herakleides apparently did not strike 
drachms ; but he can be interpolated in the list by the 



282 J. G. MILNE. 

evidence of die J, which he used in common with 
Moschos. Both the coins of Moschos struck from this 
die show a flaw between the two front turrets of the 
crown, which does not appear in the coins of Herakleides. 
Herakleides, therefore, preceded Moschos, but probably 
came after Apollodotos and Apollophanes, and had a 
new die made to replace the old ones F and H used by 
his predecessors. Ktoupon is similarly brought into the 
list on the evidence of die L, which he seems, so far as 
can be judged from the coins, to have used before 
Phanes. Up to this point all the obverse dies of the 
group show such close likeness in artistic treatment that 
they may reasonably be supposed to have been engraved 
by the same hand ; and this may equally be said of the 
reverse dies, with the exception of that of Phanes, 
which looks to be the work of an inferior artist. The 
position of Nikostratos and Leokrates is more uncertain, 
since they did not use the same dies as any other magis- 
trates ; but the resemblance of the style of their obverse 
dies to that of the rest of the group is so close as to 
justify their being placed here ; and the general treat- 
ment of the reverses is also similar. These two should 
probably be put together at the end of the group, and 
not interpolated anywhere between Apollodotos and 
Phanes ; their coins are struck on flans which are on the 
average of distinctly smaller size than those of the 
magistrates already discussed, which gives a presumption 
that they are later, as the general tendency of the silver 
in this series shows a gradual diminution in size of flan ; 
also Nikostratos struck drachms, for which he did not 
use the same obverse die which had served all the 
magistrates who issued drachms down to Phanes. The 
relative position of the two is uncertain ; Nikostratos 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 



283 



may have preceded Leokrates, or vice versa ; at present 
there is no evidence to show which was the earlier. 



Second 



14. DIONYSIOS. 



Tetr. AIONYZIOZ 
BA YZ 



/ IMYP \ 
\ NAIQN/ 



(a) Berlin (Prokesch- 
Osten) : 33 mm., 
16-37 grms. (6) 
Glasgow (Hunter 
cat. 3) : 30 mm., 
16-87 grms. (<) 
Hague : 31 mm., 
16-35 grms. (rf) 
London (Lambros, 
1894): 31 mm., 
16-56 grms. (e) 
Paris (de Luynes 
2287) : 31 mm., 
16-67 grms. (f) 
J. G. Milne 
( = Sotheby's sale 
3/4/14, lot 64) : 
33 mm., 16-45 
grms. (<j) Philip- 
sen sale (lot 22 13): 
31 mm., 16-70 
grms. 



15. POLYNIKOS. 
Tetr. nOAYNIKOZ / IMYPNAIX 



bel W \( 

wreath! 



(a) Berlin (Imhoof) : 29 
mm., 16-75 grms. 
(fe)Vienna(35306): 
29 mm., 14-83 
grms. 



16. METRODOROS. 



Tetr. MHTPOAOPOZ 
below I 
wreath/ ** 



(a) Cambridge (Mc- 
Clean) : 33 mm., 
16'41 grms. 



284 J. G. MILNE. 



17. HEBAKLEIDES. 

Tetr. HPAKA6IAHZ (a) London (B. M. C. 6) : 

29 ram., 16-84 
grins. (1) I'aris 
(4159) : Itt inm. 
(c)Vienna(15772): 

30 mm., 16-67 
grms. (d) Prowe 
sale 1914 (lot 
1025) : 32 mm., 
16-39 grins. 

[Lot 259 of the 
Carfrae sale was 
probably of this 
type : its weight 
agrees with that 
of (d), but it was 
not figured in the 
catalogue.] 



18. METROBIOS. 

Tetr. MHTPOBIOZ (a) Paris (4162) : 31 

below \ BA YZ mm- 

wreath/ 

Dr. MHTPOBIOZBA () Paris (Waddington 

1938): 19 mm., 
4-22 grms. 



19. ARTEMOK. 

Dr. APTeMQNreA () Berlin (Fox) : 19 

mm., 4'10 grms. 



20. THEOTIMOS. 

Tetr. eeOTIMOC () Iterlin (Imhoof) : 30 

mm., 16-54 grms. 
(ft) Paris (Wad- 
dington 1932): 31 
mm., 16-65 grms. 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 285 

IMYPNAIX ( c ) Cambridge (Mc- 

^N Clean): 33 mm., 

16-28 grms. 

Dr. 860TIMOC (a) Copenhagen : 21 

mm., 3-88 grms. 

The following are the obverse dies used in this 
group : 

Tetradrachms. 

O. 14 (a) [PI. XVII.], (c), (d), (e), [(a) and (c) same rev. 

die]. 

P. 14 (/) [PI. XVII.]. 
Q. 14 (6) [PI. XVII.], (r/), [same rev. die, on which 

BA YZ has been erased] ; 15 (a), (b). 
R. 16 (a) : 17 (a) [PI. XVII.]. 
S. 17 (6) [PI. XVII.], (c), (d); 18 (a); 20 (c). 
T. 20 (a), (b) [PI. XVII.]. 

Drachms. 

y. 18 (a) [PI. XVIII.] ; 19 (a) ; 20 (a). 

In this group the order of the magistrates can be 
determined by the dies, as in the last, with one break. 
Dionysios appears to have used two dies, and P, which 
are not shared by any other magistrate ; O is found 
associated with three different reverse dies, and may 
have been worn out during the magistracy of Dionysios ; 
on the other hand, only one specimen from P seems to 
have survived, and when this was struck the die was 
evidently in a very bad condition ; so it may have been 
a poor die, which broke up at once. His third die was 
also used by Polynikos, whose coins from it show it in 
a more worn state ; and this was presumably the latest 
of the three dies used by Diouysios, as the reverses of 
the coins struck from it show that the word BA YZ has 
been erased on the die. This was doubtless an official 



-8(5 J. G. MILNK. 

title,' 2 which lapsed during the monetary magistracy of 
Dionysios, and was accordingly removed from his dies. 
The work of dies and Q is clearly from the same hand ; 
P is rather different in style. 

There is a successive connexion of dies between the 
remaining magistrates. Metrodoros and Herakleides 
shared die K, which has some minor peculiarities ; the 
goddess wears an earring, and there is a small spike in 
each space between the turrets of the crown. This die 
seems somewhat fresher in the case of the coin of 
Metrodoros. Herakleides also used die 8, which was 
subsequently used also by Metrobios and Theotimos : 
there is a slight flaw beginning to show on the coin of 
Metrobios, which is more spread on that of Theotimos. 
Metrobios and Theotimos also struck drachms, from the 
same obverse die ; and this die was also used by Arte- 
rnoii, of whom no tetradrachrns are known ; from com- 
parison of the states of die in the drachms it appears 
that Artemon came between Metrobios and Theotimos. 

All the dies of these tetradrachrns of the last four 
magistrates, both obverse and reverse, show very similar 
work ; the reverses 16 (a) and 20 () are rather different 
from the rest, but 20 (e) at any rate is linked to the other 
coins of Theotimos and that of Artemon by the use of 
the lunate forms of 6 and C ; the lunate also occurs on 
the coins of Herakleides. 

It might also be questioned whether Dionysios and 
Polynikos come at the beginning or the end of the 



- The title should no doubt be expanded Bao-i\evs. I am not aware 
that this form of contraction has been found before, but the contracted 
adjective j8a" s occurs in Ptolemaic papyri. Though fia<n\evs is not 
known as a title of a magistrate at Smyrna on which my inquiries 
have been confirmed by Mr. F. W. Hasluck it is used elsewhere on 
the coast of Asia Minor, occurring close to Smyrna at Kyme. 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 287 

group ; but the style of their coins is rather more akin 
to the previous group. 

Third Group. 
21. ANAXENOU. 

Tetr. ANAZHNQP ( a ) Copenhagen: 31 mm., 

A0HNIQNOZ 16-72 



22. DIONYSIOS. 

Tetr. AIONYZIOZ (a) Berlin (Prokesch-Osten): 

MOTYAOZ 31 mm ., 16-49 grins. 

23. APOLLAS. 

Tetr. AHOAAAZ - (a) Berlin (Imhoof) : 30 

TAAATHZ muii) 16-36 grms. 

24. THEODOTOS. 

Tetr. 0EOAOTOZ (a) Glasgow (Hunter Cat. 

fcsf 4) : 30 mm., 16-78 

gruis. 

25. MENODOTOS. 

Tetr. MHNOAOTOZ (a) Goth a : 33 mm., 16-35 

zAPAmnNoz ffring 

o 

26. HERAKLEIDES. 

Tetr. HPAKAEIAOY (a) Brussels (C. H.) : 29 

[^p under lion's mm., 16'36 grms. (6) 

L P aw Paris (4161) : 31 mm. 

[Lot 200 of the 
Bunbury sale was ap- 
parently a speqjmen 
of this type.] 

HPAKAEI ( C ) Berlin (Fox): 33 mm., 

A HZ jfr 16-60 grms. (d) Mu- 

nich : 31 mm. (e) Sir 
H. Weber: 33 mm., 
16' 17 srrms. 



288 J. G. MILNE. 

HPAKAEI , (/) Paris (4160): 31 mm. 

AHZ m (0) Paris (de Luynes 

2288) : 29 mm., 16-40 
grms. 

])r. HPAKAEIAHZ ( u ) Berlin (Fox) (= Borrell 

in ex. p$> sale 1852, lot 198) : 19 

mm., 3'94 grms. 

27. HERMIPPOS. 

Tetr. EPMinnOZ / IMYP \ ( a ) Berlin (Ace. 19562) : 
ZinYAOY VNAinNy' 31 mm., 15'30 grms. 

(6) Cambridge (Mc- 
Clean): 33mm., 16'52 
grms. (c) Hague : 31 
mm., 16 4 grms. (d) 
Munich : 30 mm. (e) 
Paris (Waddingtou 
1931): 34mm, 16'40 
grms. (/) Sir H. 
Weber: 29 mm., 15-74 
grms. (g) Rhouso- 
poulos sale (lot 3776) : 
33 mm., 16*25 grms. 
(h) Prowe sale 1914 
(lot 1026) : 33 mm., 
16-30 grms. 



28. DEMETRIOS. 
Tetr. AHMHTPI / IMYP \ (a) Vienna (34969): 32 

oz |f VNAION/ mm ., IG-OI grms. 

AHMHTPI (6) John Ward coll. (675): 

OZ ftq 32 mm., 15-88 grms. 

[There was a coin of 
this magistrate in the 
Lambros sale, 1910 
(lot 737) : 31 mm., 
16'03 grms. It was 
not illustrated in the 
catalogue, so I cannot 
say to which variety it 
belongs.] 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 289 

29. PHANOKRATES. 
Tetr. 1>ANOKPA ( a ) p ar i s (4163) : 34 mm. 



Dr. *ANOKPATHZ ( a ) London (B. M. C. 8) : 

in ex - ffT 18 mm., 3-38 grms. 

The following obverse dies are used in this group : 

Tetradrachms. 

U. 21 (a) [PI. XVII.] ; 22 (a). 

V. 23 (a) [PI. XVII.]. 

W. 24 (a) [PI. XVII.]. 

X. 25 (a); 26 (a), (b) [PI. XVII.], [same rev. die]. 

Y. 26 (d) [PI. XVIII.], (e). 

Z. 26 (c), (/), (g) [PI. XVIII.], [(/) and (g) same rev. 

die] ; 27 (c), (e), (^), (A), [(e) and (h) same rev. die ; 

(c) same rev. die as (/) with obv. BB ; (g) same 

rev. die as (b) with obv. BB]. 
AA. 27 (a) [PI. XVIII.], [same rev. die as (d) with 

obv. BB]. 

BB. 27 (b) [PI. XVIII.], (d), (/), [(&) same rev. die as 
(g) with obv. Z ; (d) same rev. die as (a) with 
obv. A A ; (/) same rev. die as (c) with obv. Z] ; 
28 (a). 

CO. 28 (b) ; 29 (a) [PI. XVIII.]. 

Drachms. 

8. 26 (a) [PI. XVIII.]. 
e. 29 (a) [PI. XVIII.]. 

The determination of the order of the magistrates 
whose coins are included in this group is a matter of 
greater uncertainty than in the two previous ones. In 
some cases there is no connexion to be obtained by 
a common use of dies ; and there is also less similarity of 
style in the dies of the group taken as a whole than is 
the case in the first and second groups. The order of 

NUM. CHKON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. X 



'290 J. G. MILNE. 

the first four names is therefore rather tentative. Anaxe- 
nor and Dionysios may be placed together on account 
of their common use of die U, which appears to have 
been employed at an earlier date by Anaxenor than by 
Dionysios. This die and V, which was used only by 
Apollas, are rather hard in style, and V in particular 
shows inferior workmanship; but the general effect is 
similar to the later coins of the second group, and 
accordingly these dies may perhaps be regarded as the 
earliest of this group. They introduce a new detail of 
work in the form of two pellets in each of the two spaces 
between the turrets of the crown a detail which recurs 
on dies W and X, which are accordingly placed next in 
order. The general workmanship of these two dies is, 
however, much better, and shows a much softer style ; 
W, which is used only by Theodotos, is placed first to 
avoid breaking the series of die connexions which exists 
between the remaining magistrates of the group. 
Menodotos and Herakleides are connected by the use of 
die X, and Herakleides and Herniippos by that of die 
Z. The coins of Herakleides show a good deal of varia- 
tion in style and details, both on the obverse and on the 
reverse ; his reverse die used with obverse die X has his 
name in the genitive case, and the monogram in front 
of the lion, while the reverse dies used with obverse dies 
Y and Z give the name, according to the usual practice, 
in the nominative, and place the monogram after it. As 
regards the obverse dies, Y is distinctly inferior in style 
to X, and seems to be by a fresh artist ; while Z appears 
to come from yet another hand, and is of coarse execution. 
The last die was also used by Hermippos, whose coins 
show a rather puzzling set of combinations of obverse 
and reverse dies ; in eight specimens there are examples 



THE SILVEK COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 291 

from three obverse and four reverse dies ; one reverse 
die occurs with Z only, two others with Z and BB, the 
fourth with AA and BB. As the number of coins of 
Hermippos which still exist is larger than in the case of 
almost any other magistrate in the three series, it is 
possible that his issue was an exceptional one and 
involved the concurrent use of two obverse dies, between 
which the reverse dies were interchanged; or Z may 
have been worn out before two of the reverse dies used 
with it, a third reverse die may have been made for A A 
and have outlasted it, and all three old reverse dies may 
have been brought out for use with BB. It may be 
noted that 27 (a), the one coin struck from AA, shows a 
badly flawed die ; so perhaps A A, just as was suggested 
for P above, was a poor die which broke up quickly. In 
style AA and BB are very similar, and may well be from 
the same hand as Y ; so that it may be suggested that 
Z represents the interpolation of a fresh artist for a 
single occasion at the mint. A difference begins to be 
noticeable in a detail of the treatment of the reverse type 
about this time. In the earlier coins of the second series, 
the lion is represented standing, in a restful pose ; but in 
some of the coins of Herakleides, and more markedly 
still in all those of Hermippos, he is almost crouching, 
as if about to spring. The two remaining magistrates 
of this group can be placed by die connexions; Deme- 
trios used die BB, after Hermippos, in a rather flawed 
condition; and he shared die CO with Phanokrates, 
whose coin appears to show a later state of the die than 
that of Demetrios. This last die is again by a fresh 
artist, and shows distinctly better work than most of the 
preceding ones in the group; at the same time it has 
some affinity of style to the dies of the next series. 

x2 



292 J. G. MILNE. 

There is not much information to be obtained from 
the dies of the two drachms of this group, during which 
the issue of drachms was evidently very small. They 
are from different obverse dies, and all that can be said 
is that the work of die 8 resembles very closely that of 
the dies of the second group, while that of die e shows 
less affinity of style. 



THIRD SERIES: TETRADRACHMS AND 

DRACHMS. 
Tetmdrachms. 

Obv. As last series. 



Rev. Lion couched r. ; above Mitrts ; below, magis- 

IN f\ I ^ L IN 

trate's name ; whole in oak-wreath. 

Drachms. 

Obv. and Rev. As last series. 

30. SARAPION. 

Dr. ZAPAni.QN ( a ) London (B. M. C. 7): 19 

(cut over IMYPNAIQN) mm . ? 3 . 6 2 grins. 

31. APOLLONIOS. 

Tetr. AflOAAO () Berlin (Lobbecke) : 35 

NIOZ mm., 16-31 grms. 

Dr. AHOAAQNIOZ ( a ) Paris (Waddington 1937): 

(cut over IMYPNAICIN) 19 mniv 3.34 grms . () 

J. G. Milne (= Benson 
sale, lot 691) : 19 mm., 
3 - 86 grms. (y) Philip- 
sen sale (lot 2215) : 17 
mm., 4'05 grms. (1 = Hel- 
bing's sale 9/4/13, lot 
567). 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 293 



32. HERMAGORAS. 

fir. EPMArOPAZ ( a ) London (Lennep, 1894) : 

A 19 mm., 3-72 grms. 



33. DIOSKOURIDKS. 

Tetr. AIOZKOY ( a ) Athens : 36 mm., 16-58 

PIAHZ grms> (fc) Berlin (Im- 

hoof) : 30 mm., 16-45 
grms. (c) Paris (Wad- 
dington 1930) : 30 mm., 
14-04 grms. (<1) M. R. 
Jameson : 35 mm., 16-25 
grms. (e) Sotheby's 
sale 26/4/07 (lot 93) : 
33 mm., 16-32 grins. 

[There was a specimen 
of this coin in the Bor- 
rellsaleof 1852 (lot 197) 
30 mm., 14-02 grms. 
which I imagine is very 
probably the one now at 
Paris.] 



34. MEGAKLES. 

Tetr. MEfA () Paris (Waddington 1934): 

KAHZ 35 mm., 16-69 grms. 



35. HERODOTOS. 

Tetr. HPOAO () J. G. Milne (= Philipsen 

TOZ sale, lot 22 14): 34mm., 

16-51 grms. 



36. EPANDROS. 

fir. EHANAPOZ: on throne, FE, ( a ) Paris (4165) : 18 mm. 
in field r. bunch of grapes () Dr. Imhoof- 

Blumer: 18 mm., 3-7 5 
rms. 



294 J. G. MILNE 

37. IATKODOROS. 
Dr. I ATPOACiPOZ: enthrone, FTP, (a) Munich: 17 ram. 

I 

in field r. bunch of grapes 

The following obv. dies occur in the group : 

Tetradrachms. 

DD. 31 (a) [PL XVIII.]. 

EE. 33 (e). 

FF. 33 (a), (6) [PI. XVIII.], (c), [(*>) and (c) same rev. 

die]. 

GG. 33 (d) [PL XVIII.]. 
HH. 34 (a) [PL XVIII.]. 
II. 35 (a) [PL XVIII.]. 

Drachms. 

s. 30 (a) [PL XVIII.]. 

. 31 (a), (j3) [PL XVIII.], (y), [all same rev. die]. 

77. 32 (a) [PL XVIII.]. 

0. 36 (a) [PL XVIII.], (j8). 

1. 37 (a) [PL XVIII.]. 

The arrangement of the coins of the third series is 
more difficult than that of any of the preceding groups. 
There are no instances where the same die is used by 
two magistrates, and the only criterion in the coins 
themselves for determining their order is the style : this, 
however, can be helped by some considerations arising 
from comparison with the bronze coins. In fact, it is 
primarily the latter test which leads to the placing of 
some of the drachms in this series : the tetradrachms are 
distinguished from the second series by the attitude of 
the lion on the reverse, but the type of the drachms is 
virtually unchanged. The fullest series of magistrates' 
names on the autonomous coins of Smyrna is to be 
found in the bronze Homereia : and certainly the latest 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 295 

group of the Homereia consists of those with a star on 
the reverse. Of the names on the tetradrachms of the 
third series, two Dioskourides and Herodotos do not 
occur on any of the Homereia : Apollonios is found both 
on the Homereia with a star and on earlier ones : 
Megakles only on the star-group. This gives a slight 
presumption that the third series of tetradrachms are 
practically coincident in period with the star-group of 
Homereia. As regards the magistrates striking drachms, 
Apollonios is placed by his tetradrachms : Epandros 
and latrodoros occur on the Homereia only in the 
star-group, and so, following the presumption just stated, 
may be assigned to the same period. The drachm of 
Hermagoras is classified by style : but that of Sarapion 
has other indications, which again need reference to the 
bronze coins. In the reverse dies both of Sarapion and 
Apollonios, the magistrate's name, on the left side of 
the coin, has clearly been cut over the ethnic : on the 
right, in the usual place for the drachms of this type, 
there is the ethnic with no signs of recutting. It is 
hardly likely that in two separate cases the die-cutter 
made the blunder of cutting the ethnic on the wrong 
side of the coin, and had to alter the die, before he cut 
the magistrate's name : it is more probable that dies 
originally designed with the ethnic only were reused 
and altered with the insertion of magistrates' names. It 
is true that no silver coins of Smyrna of this period with 
ethnic only and without magistrate's name are known : 
but an issue of bronze coins, both of Homereia and of 
the smaller denomination with reverse-type statue of 
Aphrodite, does occur on which there is no magistrate's 
name ; and they probably belong in date just before the 
star-group of Homereia : the Homereia of this issue are 



296 J. G. MILNE. 

almost always restruck on earlier Homereia, which, so 
far as they can be made out, belong to the group pre- 
ceding the star-group. The reason for, and date of, this 
issue of bronze without magistrate's name will be dis- 
cussed later : but its existence gives support to the 
supposition that dies for drachms may have been cut 
without a magistrate's name on the reverse, and that it 
is two of these dies which are found altered for the 
issues of Sarapion and Apollonios. 

The foregoing are the general reasons for grouping 
together the coins given as the third series : the order 
in which they are arranged is largely tentative. On the 
assumption that the series was coincident in date with the 
star-group of bronze Homereia the commencement of 
which was accompanied by modifications in the reverse 
types of most of the bronze denominations, which may 
well be parallel to the modification in the reverse type 
of the tetradrachm in the third series the considerations 
stated above with regard to the alteration of dies by 
Sarapion and Apollonios suggest that they came earliest 
in the series, and reused the old nameless dies of the 
previous authorities. The style of the obverse die of 
Sarapion is better than that of Apollonios, the latter 
being in lower relief and rather heavy : and on this 
ground, perhaps, Sarapion may be put before Apollonios. 
Apollonios, being the only magistrate of the series who 
struck both tetradrachms and drachms, so far as we 
know at present, may serve as a starting-point for 
arranging the remaining coins of either denomination, 
In the drachms, the obverse die of Hermagoras seems to 
be by the same artist as that of Apollonios, though the 
reverse die is poorer work ; but, as already pointed out, 
Apollonios reused an old reverse die. The obverse 



THE SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 297 

dies of Epandros and latrodoros are clearly from one 
hand, and that of a fresh artist, whose style is flat and 
sketchy : the reverses also probably are by the same 
man, and introduce new details in the bunch of grapes 
as a symbol in the field and the monogram on the throne. 
As for the tetradrachms, die EE of Dioskourides comes 
very close in style to die DD of Apollonios ; the other 
two dies of Dioskourides, FF and GG, show a considerable 
degradation in style, which is shared by the obverse die 
of Megakles. The obverse die of Herodotos is not quite 
so debased as GG and HH, and perhaps represents a 
new hand ; it rather resembles in flatness of workmanship 
the dies of the drachms of Epandros and Jatrodoros. 
On the whole, it seems probable that Apollonios and 
Hermagoras were closely connected in point of time, 
Apollonios being the earlier, as shown by his reverse 
die : that Dioskourides and Megakles may be grouped 
together, Dioskourides coming first : and that Herodotos, 
Epandros, and latrodoros represent the latest and 
weakest art in the silver coins of Smyrna. The relative 
order of the last three is, however, quite uncertain. 

In concluding this part of my paper, I have to 
acknowledge with grateful thanks the help which I 
have received from many sources. I am indebted to the 
officers in charge of the cabinets at Athens, Berlin, 
Brussels, Cambridge, Copenhagen, Glasgow, Gotha, the 
Hague, London, Munich, Naples, Oxford, Paris, Petro- 
grad, and Vienna for casts of the coins in their 
charge and for much information : the coins at Athens, 
Cambridge, London, Oxford, and Paris I have examined 
personally, when every facility was given to me. Dr. 
Imhoof-Blumer, M. Eobert Jameson, and Sir Hermann 
Weber have most kindly supplied me with casts of their 



298 J. G. MILNE. 

coins; and I have to thank Dr. Hirsch also for some 
casts. To Mr. Edward Barff of Smyrna I owe a special 
debt of gratitude, as it is through his constant and ready 
assistance that I have obtained the greater part of my 
coins of Smyrna, without which I should hardly have 
taken up the study of the series. 

,T. fr. MILNE. 



XIV 
THE COINAGE OF PISIDIAN ANTIOCH. 

(See Plate XIX.) 

THE coins here described belong to three groups. 

(1) During journeys made in connexion with the Asia 
Minor Exploration Fund through the region of Pisidian 
Antioch during the last thirty-two years, small sets of 
coins have been purchased in the villages and towns 
from time to time and carefully preserved. Many of 
them were in a very bad condition, and this is naturally 
also the case with many of those which belong to the 
next group. 

(2) During the recent excavations at the Hieron of 
Men Askaenos, near Pisidian Antioch, a certain number 
of coins have been found, and many not actually found 
in excavation, but coming from the neighbourhood, have 
been shown to the excavators. By the courtesy of 
Sir William Eamsay I have been allowed to examine 
practically all these coins and make full lists of them 
from time to time. The bearing of these coins on the 
dates of occupation of the site excavated will be dis- 
cussed after the excavation of the city, which may last 
for several years yet, is completed. 

(3) Some coins belonging to the British Museum, but 
not published in the Catalogue of Pisidia, are included. 

The object of the present paper is to describe a 



300 G. F. HILL. 

selection of coins which are of interest to numismatists 
primarily. In one or two cases the provenance enables 
us to attribute to the Pisidian colony coins of which the 
attribution would otherwise be uncertain. 

Babelon 1 and Imhoof-Blumer 2 have restored to 
Pisidian Antioch the autonomous coins, with a bust of 
Men on the obverse and a humped bull with ANTIOXE 
and various magistrates' names on the reverse, which 
had usually been ascribed to the Carian city of the 
same name. In confirmation of this change, it may be 
mentioned that there were at least four of these coins 
among those submitted to me. Unfortunately all were 
quite illegible, except one which appears to read 
APAKON. 

The new evidence also confirms, if further confirmation 
were necessary, Imhoofs attribution to Pisidian Antioch 
of the group of coins with eagle on obverse and star on 
reverse. 3 

Three specimens of the kind without magistrates' 
names, two with the eagle to right, one with the eagle to 
left, are recorded in the lists which I have made. To 
Imhoofs list may be added another, with eagle to right 
on obverse, and the magistrate's name [0]PA ZY on the 
reverse (^E. 13 mm.), which has long been in the British 
Museum. [PI. XIX. 1.] 

It may be noted that the magistrates' names 
APAKO[N] and MENANAPO[Y] occur on both this series and 
on the series with the bust of Men and the humped bull 
mentioned above, showing that the two series belong to 
the same place and period. 

1 Invent. Waddington, Nos. 3566-70. 

2 Kleinasiatische Mi'mzen, p. 357. 

3 Revue Suisse, xiv. (1908), p. 141. 



THE COINAGE OF PISIDIAN ANTIOOH. 301 

The small coins of the Colony without Emperors' 
heads, or at least without their names, are represented by 
the following varieties : 

Types : Obv. Bust of Hermes, with caduceus behind 
shoulder. 

Rev. Modius containing corn. Cp. B. M. C., 
No. 2. 

1. Obv. ANT) 1., OCH r. Bust r. 

Rev. COLO 1., NIAE r. 
M. 14 mm. 

2. Obv. ANTIO 1., C r., H below. Bust 1. 

'Rev. AICO 1., L above, ONI r. (i.e. COLONIAl). 
JE. 12 mm. [PI. XIX. 4.J 



Types : Obv. Bust of Hermes, with caduceus behind 
shoulder. 

Rev. Bull standing. Cp. Imhoof-Blumer, Kleinas. 
Miinzen, p. 358, No. 6. 

3. Obv. [ANJJI 1., QCH r. (?). Bust r. 

Rev. AN T above, IOC r. Bull r. 
M. 13 mm. 



Types : Obv. Bust of Hermes, caduceus behind shoulder. 

.Bet. "Winged caduceus. Cp. Imhoof-Blumer, 

Kleinas. Miinzen, p. 358, No. 7. 

4. Obv. ANTIO 1., C - - r. Bust 1. 
Rev. COLO L, NIA r. 

M. 13 mm. [PI. XIX. 2.] 



302 G. F. HILL. 

Types : Obv. Bust of Hermes, caduceus behind shoulder. 
Be*. Cock. Cp. B. M. C., No. 1. 

5. Obv. ANTIO 1., CHIA r. Bust 1. 

Eev. CO 1., LON r., I below. Cock r. 

M. 12-5 mm. [PI. XIX. 3.] Same 
dies as jB. M. (7., No. 1. 

6. Obv.k ]., NTIOC r. Bust r. 
Eev. CO 1., LON (?) r. Cock r. 

M. 12-5 mm. 

Types : Obv. Bust of Men on crescent. 

Eev. Cock. Cp. B. M. C., No. 3. 

7. Obv. ANTIO 1., CHIA r. Bust 1. 

Eev. COLO r., - - 1. Cock r. 
M. 13 mm. 

8. Obv. ANTI r., OCHI 1. Bust r. 

Eev. Inscr. illegible. Cock r. 
^E. 14 mm. 

The busts oil these small coins seeni to me to be assimi- 
lated to various emperors. Thus the Hermes on Nos. 1, 
4, and 5 seem to resemble Hadrian, while that on No. 2 
may be meant for the young Caracalla. On the follow- 
ing coin we seem to have busts of Pius and Marcus : 

9. Obv. ANT r. Bearded bust r. (Pius?). 

Eev. COLO 1. Beardless bust 1. (Marcus as 
Hermes ?) with caduceus over shoulder. 

M. 13mm. [PI. XIX. 5.] 
Imhoof-Blumer, however, 4 considers that these and 



4 Kleinasiatische Milnsien, p. 358. 



THE COINAGE OF PISIDIAX ANTIOCH. 303 

other small copper coins of the same class probably 
belong to the time of Severus. However, the re- 
semblances which I have pointed out seem to indicate 
a longer period for the issue of these coins ; and indeed 
it is not probable that so many varieties of small change 
should have been issued during so short a period. 

The following issues (with the possible exception of 
No. 10) belong to the time of Augustus and Tiberius : 

10. Obv. CCAN above. Founder ploughing r. with 

yoke of cattle. 

Rev. in middle. Four military standards (two 
with eagles). 

M. 18 mm. [PI. XIX. 6.] 

11. Obv. CAESAR on r. Head of Augustus r., bare. 

Rev. COL CAES above ; AV | GVS | TVS in middle, 
between four military standards as on pre- 
ceding. 

M. 2-2 mm. [PI. XIX. 7.] Cp. Imhoof- 
Blumer, Kleinaa. Miinzcn, p. 358, No. 9. 

The new specimen was poorly preserved ; that which 
is here illustrated was already in the British Museum. 

12. Obv. - V! AVG F AVGVST IMP VIM Head 

of Tiberius 1., bare. 

Rev. C C (large) across field. Statue of the Julia 
Gens, seated r., resting with 1. on sceptre, 
holding patera in r. 

M. 22 mm. [PI. XIX. 8.] 

The type of the reverse is found not only on Konian 
coins of the period (Cohen 2 , Tiberius, 17) but at Corinth 
(Irnhoof and Gardner, Num. Comm. E xcvi.) and at 
Caesaraugusta in Spain (Heiss, PI. xxv. 27). 



304 G. F. HILL. 

Under the latter mint, in the British Museum trays, 
the following coin has long been placed ; but in its 
fabric and style it is distinctly not Spanish, and Don 
Antonio Vives informs me that nothing similar to it is 
familiar to him in his experience of Spanish coins. It 
may just possibly be of Antioch, although it does not 
seem to bear any indication of the mint : 

12a. Obv, Tl 1., TVS r. Head of Tiberius r., 

bare. Plain border. 

Rev. IVLIA A 1., - - - TA r. Similar figure to that 
on. No. 12. Plain border. 

M. 24 mm. [PI. XIX. 9.] 

A propos of the coin of Augustus, Imhoof remarks that 
on this earliest coin the colony bears only the title 
Colonia Caesarea. The coin of Tiberius (No. 12) shows 
that it still bore that title in his reign ; whereas the 
coin No. 10 seems, if my reading of the obverse is 
correct, to mark the transition to the new name. Un- 
fortunately we cannot date it exactly. 

A coin of Tiberius mentioned by Babelon, 5 reading 
CAE ANTIO COL S R is described as retouched ; this 
we may well believe, since the letters S R do not 
normally appear on Antiochian coins until a much later 
period, and the size of the piece (34 mm.) is also a sign 
of lateness. 6 



3 Invent. Waddington, 3580. 

* Cp. Mionnet, iii. p. 492, No. 2, which appears to be a tooled coin of 
Gordian III. Sir W. M. Ramsay writes : " The name of the colony 
appears simply as C. C. in an inscription which belongs to the period 
about 50 A.D. The revival of the old name Antiochia as an adjunct to 
the Roman title Colonia Caesarea may probably have taken place under 
Vespasian, or perhaps Nero ; and coins reading C . C . AN . may be 
dated accordingly." 



THE COINAGE OF PISIDIAN ANTIOCH. 305 

Between the earliest period of the colony and the reign 
of Vespasian there seems to be a gap in the coinage. 
Hitherto coins of Titus but none of his father have been 
attributed to the colony. But among the new coins are 
three of Vespasian, all extremely badly worn. The 
greater part of the legends can, however, be restored 
with the help of a similar coin at Berlin (from the 
Imhoof-Blumer collection), the description of which I 
owe to Dr. Imhoof-Blumer's kindness : 

13. Obv. IMP VESPASIANO CAESAR I AVG COS VII P P 
Bust of Vespasian r., laureate. 

Rev. LEGV on 1. upwards, CC (?) on r. 

upwards ; eagle staiiding, with wings spread, 
between two military standards. 

JEt. 26-5-24 mm. Three specimens. Two 
of them are countermarked on the obverse 
with a figure of Men, standing to front, 
crescent at shoulders, resting on sceptre 
with r., holding Victory in 1. 

[PI. XIX. 10.] 

These coins date from the year 76, when Vespasian 
was consul for the seventh time. 

Indications of the presence of veterans of the fifth 
legion (Gallica 7 ) at Antioch are already known in four 
tombstones from Antioch (C. I. L., iii. 293, 294; cp. 
Le Bas-Waddington, 1823 ; and two others of which 
Sir W. M. Ramsay informs me). One at least of these 
must belong to quite the earliest period of the colony. 
Otherwise it would have been tempting to suppose that, 
since the name of the fifth legion does not occur on the 



7 The identity of Gallica with Alaudae is not certain, though assumed 
by earlier authorities with no evidence. Dessau (Index to Inscr. 
Lat. Sel.) distinguishes them. The name Alaudae is never used in the 
Antiochian inscriptions. [W. M. 11.] 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. Y 



306 G. F. HILL. 

coins until the year 76, it may have been veterans of 
the fifth Macedonica (which served in the Jewish war), 
rather than of the Gallica, who were settled at Antioch. 8 
Such a veteran may have brought with him the coin of 
Titus commemorating the subjection of Judaea which is 
mentioned below. 



ICRS 



This countermark occurs on a number of coins, all but 
one uufortuf ately worn so smooth that it is impossible 
to deterrninl their date with certainty. Three were 
among the coins submitted to me. A fourth [PI. XIX. 12], 
which came from the same district many years ago, is a 
Greek coin of Titus, commemorating the suppression of 
the First Revolt of the Jews, and doubtless struck in 
Judaea. 9 One of three others [PI. XIX. 11] is counter- 
marked on the opposite side with a bust of Men on a 
crescent to right, indicating a further connexion with 
Antioch. The letters of the countermark can hardly 
be read as anything but CRAS, although on some 
specimens there seems to be no horizontal bar to the R. 
It is highly improbable that it was impressed by the 
authority of Sulpicius Crassus, who was proconsul of 
Asia towards the end of the reign of Commodus ; 10 for 
by what authority should a proconsul of Asia counter- 
mark coins in Antioch ? Whatever be the meaning of 
the mark, the extremely worn condition of all the coins 
shows that the originals may have been in circulation 



8 Several other veterans, who had served in Syrian legions, are men- 
tioned in inscriptions of Antioch. [W. M. R.] 
11 B. M. C. : Palestine, PI. xxxi. 3-5. 
10 Waddington, Pastes des Provinces Asiatiques, p. 243, No. 159. 



THE COINAGE OP PISIDIAN ANTIOCH. 307 

for something like a century before they were counter- 
marked. 

From the remainder of the coins available I single 
out the following, mostly of Antioch itself, and worthy 
of notice : 

14. Obv. LAVR - - r., [CjAISAR 1. Bust of L. Verus r., 

bare (1). 

R ev . ANTIOCH above, COLON in exergue. Wolf 
r. suckling twins. 

M. 15 mm. [PI. XIX. 13.] 

15. Obv. PI VSAVGSE L, VERVS r. Head of Sept. 

Sever us r., laureate. 

Rev. ANTI OCHGE 1., NICOL CAES r. Female 
genius (Fortune), standing L, with branch 
and cornucopiae. 

M. 22 mm. Cp. Mionnet, iii. p. 494, 
No. 17. 

Obv. IMPCAE L, SMAVRAN r. Bust of young Cara- 
cal la r., laureate. 

tfer [FORTVJNACOLONIA E r., ANTIOCH 1. For- 
tune, standing 1., with branch and cornu- 
copiae. 

16. JE. 22 mm. 

17. JE. 24 mm. (same olv. die, rev. ORTVNACOL - - r., 

ANTIOCH F 1.). Of. Mionnet, iii. p. 495, 
No. 25. 

18. Obv. IMPCAES 1., MAVRAN r. Bust of young Cara- 

calla r., laureate, wearing paludamentum 
and cuirass. 

licv. AN Tl OCHFOR 1., TVNACOLONIAE r. For- 
tune 1., with branch in r., cornucopiae in 1. 

M. 22 mm. 

This corrects my description of B. M. C., No. 17, which 
is also of Caracalla. 

Y'2 



308 G. P. HILL. 

19. Obv. ]., gfTASCAE r. Bust of Geta r., wearing 

palud amentum and cuirass. 

Rev. ANT[I] ]., OCHCOL r. Eagle to front, wings 
open. 

^E. 19 mm. Cp. Babelon, Invent. Wad- 
dington, 3595, and Mioiinet, iii. p. 498, 
No. 40. 

20. Obv. ANTON IN VSPjVSFELAVG around. Bust of 

Elagabalus r., laureate. 

Rev. ANTIOCHCO L above, ONI in exergue. Wolf 
r. and twins. 

JE. 17mm. Cp. Imhoof-Blumer, Kleinas. 
Miinzen, p. 361, No. 21. 

21. Obv. - - SEVER L, ALEXAND - - r. Bust of 

Severus Alexander r., laureate. 

Rev. COLCE 1., SANTIOCHIA r. Bust of Men r. 
M. 22mm. 

22. Obv. IMPCMIVLPHILIPPVSPFAVG around. Bust of 

Philip Jun. r., laureate, wearing paluda- 
meutum and cuirass. 

Rev. ANTIOCHCOLON - - in arc below, beginning 
on r. ; in field, S R. Two cornuacopiae 
crossed, with caduceus between them. 

M. 19 mm. [PI. XIX. 14.] 

23. Oto.IMPCAESGMESSQDECIOTRAlAV around. Bust 

of Trajan Decius r., radiate, wearing palu- 
damentum and cuirass. 

Rev. ANTIOCHICOLCA around, S R in exergue. 
River- god Anthios reclining 1., r. holding 
cornucopiae, 1. resting on overturned urn 
from which water flows. 

JSi. 23 mm. Same obv. die as B. M. 6'., 
No. 124. Cp. Babelon, Invent. Waddinyton, 
3614 ; Mionnet, Supp., vii. p. 107, No. 10. 



THE COINAGE OF PIS1DIAX ANTIOCH. 309 

24. Obv. IMPCAESPLICGALLIENVS around. Bust of 

Gallienus r., laureate. 

Bev COLCAE 1., S above, ANTIOC H r. Double 
cornucopiae containing two busts. 

M. 30 mm. 

This coin is from the same dies as that described by de 
Saulcy, Terre Sainte, p. 18, No. 6 Us [here PI. XIX. 15], 
which is accordingly of Pisidian Antioch. Compare the 
coin of Volusiau, Rev. Num., 1902, p. 348, No. 92, PI. x. 
11, on which the two busts represent Volusiau and the 
god Men. 

25. Obv. I MPCAESPAILCAINGALLIENO(?) around. Bust 

of Gallienus r., radiate. 

J5ei,. ANTI O 1., CHICL r., SR in exergue. Legion- 
ary eagle between two standards. 
M. 23-5 mm. 

The following coins, belonging to groups (I) and (2), 
are of other mints : 

Attaleia Pamphyliae (?). 

26. Obv. Two heads of Athena r., jugate. 

Jfrtf. [ATTAjAEQN (?) on r. Zeus seated 1. 
M. 17 mm. 

Apollonia Pisidiae. 

27. Obv. Inscription obscure. Bust of Geta (?) r. 

R ev . AHOAAQN 1., IATQNAY - - r. Hygieia stand- 
ing r., feeding serpent. 

M. 21 mm. 
Sagalassus. 

28. Obv. AY KMAY ANTQN6INO C C6B around. 

Bust of Caracalla r., laureate, undraped. 

_Re0._CArAAAC I., CeQN r. Apollo seated 1., head 
r., with lyre on column beside him. 
M. 25 mm. 



310 G. F. HILL. 

Apamea Cibotus. 

29. Obv. Head of Athena r., helraeted ; countermark, 



Rev. Inscription illegible. Eagle with spread wings 
on maeander, between caps of Dioscuri. 

M. 23 mm. 



Philomeliutn. 

30. Obv. IOYAIA 1., MAM6AC6B r. Bust of Mamaea r. 

on crescent. 

R ev . 4>lAOMHAUN6niMIOYAnAYA6l around, and 
in centre S P Q R 
M. 34 mm. 

31. Obv. AYKMAN[TnjrOPAIANO around. Bust of 

Gordian III r., laureate, undraped. 

JJ et? . cj>|AOM 1., HA6ON r. Eagle to front, wings 
spread. 

M. 17 mm. 

32. 33. Two coins of Trajan Decius, as B. M. C., 39 

and 43. 

Iconium. 

34. Obv. IMPCAESMANGORDIANVSAVG around. Bust 
of Gordian III r., laureate, wearing paluda- 
mentum and cuirass. 

.Ret?. COCEL IHAD 1., ICONIHS r., S R in exergue; 
Roma, helmeted, seated 1., holding Victory 
in r., resting with 1. on spear, at foot of 
which shield. 

M. 34 mm. [PI. XIX. 16.] 



The blundered inscription on the reverse is intended 
for Colonia Aelia Hadriana (Augusta) Iconensium. 



THE COINAGE OF PISIDIAN ANTIOCH. 311 

Parlais. 

35. Obv. [IMJPLAVR L, COMMO - - r. Bust of Corn- 

modus r., laureate, undraped (?). 

Rev. IVLAVGHA 1., COLPARLA r. Men standing to 
front, head r. resting on sceptre, 1. holding 
pine-cone ; at his feet r. a cock (?). 

M. 21 mm. Cp. Imhoof-Blumer in Rev. 
Suisse, 1908, p. 88, No. 3, where it is re- 
marked that HA (for Hadriana) is not other- 
wise found on coins of the colony. 
Adana. 

36. Obv. Bust of Gordian III and inscription as on 

B. M. C., No. 19 (same die). 

Jfci;._CABeiNTPANKYAAINAC - - [AAANG] and 
in inner circle ON. Bust of Tranquillina r. 

M. 30 mm. 

Seleucia ad Calycadnum. 

37. Obv. nTAK!ACYHPANY - - around. Bust of 

Otacilia r. 

J?f.--CAYK[6n] NTONnPKAAYKeA around, GV06 
in field 1., PAC in field r. Nike 1., carrying 
wreath and palm-branch. 

JE. 31 mm. Cp. Mionnet, iii. p. GOT, 
No. 326 ; Supp., vii. p. 244, No. 347. 

Another specimen in the British Museum has the 
same reverse type with a different arrangement of the 
legend. 

Tarsus. 

38. Obv. [A]YT - - A[Y]PC - HP OCCGB around. 

Bust of Caracalla r., laureate, wearing palu- 
damentum and cuirass : in field, f! [l~l] 

Rev. [ANTONJIANHCC 1., Y - - r. ; in field 1. 
A|MK|rB The god Saudan standing r. on 
lion. 

M. 35 mm. Cp. Dressel in Z. f. N.< 
xxiv. p. 84. 



312 G. F. HILL. 

159. Obv. C6YHP OCAN - - around; in field, [PI] 

[PI] (?) Bust of Caracalla r., laureate, un- 
d raped. 

jffo^ [T]APCO[Y]MH|[T]POKOINOB|[O]YAION in ex- 
ergue; in field, f B. The Emperor with spear 
standing 1., confronted by a female figure 
carrying Nike on globe, who crowns the 
Emperor. 

M. 34 mm. 

Uncertain Greek Imperial. 

40. Obv. IMPA - - r., TR POT 1. Head of Augustus r. 

Rev. Inscription obliterated ; founder ploughing r. 
with yoke of oxen. 

M. 27 mm. 

In fabric, in the style of the head on the obverse, and 
in the obverse inscription, this closely resembles the 
coins of the Syrian Antioch. On the other hand, the 
colonial reverse type does not occur there. In some 
lights the letters in the exergue of this specimen seem 
to suggest ANTl - - , but perhaps the wish is father to the 
thought. 

A word may be added here about the sources of coins 
other than those struck at Antioch itself which occur 
among those examined and identified by me. In the 
following list all coins are of Imperial times and of 
bronze unless otherwise stated : 

Macedon. Thessalonica, 1 (late autonomous, after 88 B.C., 
as S. M. C., No. 32). 
Bithynia. Nicaea, 1 . 
Caria. Aphrodisias, 1. 
Phrygia. Apamea, 1 (autonomous, 133-48 i?.c.). 

Philomelium, 6. 

Cappadocia. Caesarea, 1. 
Lycaonia. Iconium, 1. 
Parlais, 2. 



THE COINAGE OF PISIDIAN ANTIOCH. 313 

Pisidia. Apollonia, 1. 
Baris, 1. 
Pappa Tiberia, 1. 
,, Sagalassus, 1. 

Selge, 1 (JE. -tth cent. B.C.). 
Pamphylia. Aspendus, 1 (autonomous, 2d.-lst cent. B.C.). 

Attaleia (?), 1 (late autonomous). 

Cilicia. Adana, 1. 

Seleucia ad Calycadnum, 1. 
Tarsus, 3. 
Syria. Antiochus I (?), 1. 
Seleucus IV, 1. 
Antioch, 2. 
Judaea. Judaea Capta, 1. 

It will be observed that very few coins have travelled 
far, and that coins of neighbouring cities, such as 
Philomelium and those in Pisidia and Lycaonia, are in 
the great majority. Provenance is thus shown, as 
always in the case of bronze coins, to be good evidence 
for attribution. 

It is a curious fact that not one of the large coins of 
sestertius size issued at Antioch from Septimius Sever us 
to Grordian III has passed through my hands, although 
they are, comparatively speaking, not rare. 11 On the 
other hand, coins of apparently the same denomination 
from mints like Iconium, Philomelium, and Tarsus were 

not wanting. 

G. F. HILL. 

11 Sir W. M. Ramsay has since shown me a specimen of the Gordian, 
B. M. C., No. 85, acquired in the district. He adds that he has observed 
very large numbers of Antiochian coins in the hands of shopkeepers at 
Iconium. Coins of the colony evidently circulated in great numbers 
about Iconium as well as in the rest of the region and towns around 
Antioch. As regards the large coins, their comparative scarcity on the 
spot may be due to the fact that they are thought to be valuable, so 
that when discovered they speedily find their way to more important 
commercial centres. 



XV. 

PORTRAITS D'IMPERATRICES DE L'EPOQUE 
CONSTANTINIENNE. 



L'EXISTENCE de la jeune Helene, femme de Crispus, 
belle-fille de Constantin, que j'avais admise comme 
demontree dans ma Numismatique Constantinienne, 1 a 
ete mise en doute, pour des raisons fort serieuses, par 
M. Percy Webb. 2 

Les arguments mis en avant par ce tres-savant et 
consciencieux auteur ont ebranle mes propres con- 
victions. Je le lui ai ecrit ; et il a bien voulu publier 
une note dans les Miscellanea 3 du Numismatic Chronicle 
pour mettre au point le probleme de 1'existence de deux 
imperatrices du nom d'Helene, sous le regne de Con- 
stantin le Grand. 

Depuis lors, inon attention a ete attiree sur un 
caractere distinct if des bustes des deux Helenes, que je 
n'avais pas suffisamment utilise dans mes recherches. 
Je veux parler de la difference de coiffure de ces deux 
imperatrices. 



1 Numismatique Constantinienne, tome ii., pp. 450-456, dans 1'etude 
sur "!' Atelier de Thessalonica." 

2 Percy H. Webb, "Helena N. P.," dans Num.- Chron., 1912, 
pp. 352-360. 

3 Num. Chron., 1913, pp. 377-379. 



PORTRAITS D'IMPERATRICES. 315 

J 'avals, en realite, indique dans ma Numismatique 
Constantinienne que les effigies de la jeune Helene 
presentaient des cheveux ondules, sans aucune decora- 
tion speciale. 4 J'avais fait remarquer egalement, an 
sujet des effigies de Galerie Valerie, 1'importance de 
1'arrangement de la coiffure pour la determination des 
bustes des imperatrices. 5 Mais je ne m'etais pas avise 
de ce que Sainte Helene portait toujours deux varietes 
de coiffures, avec ou sans diademe, que ne presentaient 
jainais les effigies de la jeune Helene. 

La question a besoin d'etre reprise d'un pen plus haut. 

Une remarquable publication de Lady Evans, parue 
dans le Numismatic Chronicle en 1906, avait attire 
1'attention sur les coiffures des imperatrices romaines 
et il etait facile, a 1'aide de ce beau travail, de suivre 
tous les aspects de la mode. 6 L'auteur avait indique 
les caracteres les plus distinctifs des coiffures de chaque 
imperatrice jusqu'au V me siecle de Fere chretienne, et 
avait bien defini les coiffures de Ste. Helene. 7 Des ondu- 
lations sur le front sont surmontees d'un large bandeau ; 
lequel maintient en place une tresse de cheveux qui, 
ramenee du derriere de la tete, vient former une boucle 
par devant, sous le bandeau. Parfois, disait Lady Evans, 
le bandeau est une large bande, appareinrnent de laine, 
qui entoure la tete. Cette bande encercle la partie de la 
chevelure qui couvre la tete, comme un turban est 



4 Numism. Constantinienne, t. ii., p. 356. 

5 Ibid., t. ii., p. 306. 

6 Lady Evans, " Hair-dressing of Roman Ladies," dans Num. Chron., 
1906, pp. 37-65. 

" Op. cii., p. 60 ; voir la Planche vi ; on y trouvera No. 71 une coiffure 
de GalSrie Valerie, No. 76 le medallion de Ste. H61ene, No. 73 un 
medallion au nom de Fausta avec 1'effigie de Ste. Helene; No. 72 
1'effigie de Fausta. 



316 JULES MAURICE. 

dispose autour (Tun fez. Et 1'auteur rappelait les 
invectives de Tertullien dans le De Virginibus Velandis 
centre celles qui portent des uiitres et des bandes de 
laine qui ne voilent pas leurs tetes, mais en font des for- 
teresses. On ne voit pas ce que ces chevelures massives 
avaient d'immoral, mais Tertullien etait austere jusqu'a 
Fabsurde. 8 Ses critiques n'ont pas empeche Ste. Helene 
d'adopter cette coiffure. J'irai meme plus loin. J'ai 
fait remarquer 9 que Lady Evans avait fort judici- 
eusement defini une certaine mode persistante de 
coiffures (Syrian tradition}. Ce genre de coiffures, inau- 
gure par Julia Paula et Julia Soaemias, si Ton tient compte 
de 1'existence siumltanee d'un croissant et d'une certaine 
rnaniere de relever les tresses de cheveux sur la uuque, 
a ete conserve par Orbiana, Otacilia Severa, Severina, 
Magnia Urbica et Galerie Valerie [PI. XX. 1-3]. Les 
tresses de cheveux relevees sur la nuque et ramenees 
sur le crane avancent de plus en plus vers le sommet de 
la tete et viennent enfin se fixer sous le croissant. 10 

Ce genre de coiffure est le prototype de celle qu'a 
portee Ste. Helene [PI. XX. 4-10]. Le diademe on le 
bandeau ont remplace dans la coiffure de Ste. Helene le 
croissant de celle de Galerie Valerie. Mais la masse des 
cheveux chez Ste. Helene, comme chez Galerie Valerie, 
apres avoir reconvert la tete, descend sur la nuque, y 
forme une large boucle et est ramenee en une ou deux 
tresses qui remontent sur la chevelure jusqu'au sommet 
de la tete. Ces tresses se fixent sous le diademe. 

s Tertullien, D. V. V., c. 18. 

9 Dans Num. Constantin. , t. ii., p. 306. 

10 Voir sur ces coiffures les planches, annexees au travail de Lady 
Evans. PI. V. No. 60 = Julia Paula ; No. 59 = Julia Soaemias ; 
No. 61 = Orbiana ; PI. VI , No. 63 = Otacilia Severa ; No. 66 = Seve- 
rina ; No. 69 = Magnia Urbica ; No. 70 et 71 = Galeria Valeria. 



PORTRAITS D'IMPERATRIGES. 317 

II est assez interessant de voir la mode d'un certain 
genre de coiffure passer de Galerie Valerie a Ste. Helene. 
Ces imperatrices ont-elles suivi toutes deux la tradition 
orientale ou bien Ste. Helene a-t elle voulu irniter 
Galerie Valerie ? 

On sait, par Lactauce, que cette lille de Diocletien et 
femme de Galere a ete persecuted ainsi que sa mere 
Prisca pour sa religion, et que Diocletien voulut con- 
traindre ces imperatrices aux sacrifices paiens. 11 Entin 
Maxiniin Daza les poursuivit de sa baine 1 ' 2 et Licinius 
les fit mourir. 13 Elles etaient chretiennes, tout porte a le 
croire. Ste. Helene n'a-t-elle pas trouve dans la religion 
de Galerie Valerie une raison suffisante pour Finiiter en 
tout ? La tradition syrienne serait devenue une tradi- 
tion chretieune. Mais Sainte Helene n'a porte le 
diademe qu'apres avoir ete proclaruee Augusta, en 324. 
Quelle coiffure portait-elle conime jeune fille ou jeuue 
femme ? La tres interessante decouverte d'un buste de 
Ste. Helene par M. Delbrueck nous 1'apprend peutetre, 
mais il faut d'abord identifier ce buste. Ste. Helene 
(Augusta) se presente sur certains medaillons que j'ai 
decrits, sans le diademe, mais avec le lourd et large 
bandeau de laine dont il a ete question plus haut. La 
coiffure se compose, sur le beau medaillon de Londres 
[PI. XX. 13] que j'avais signale, d'un tour de front forme 
de grosses ondulations de cheveux qui encadrent le front, 
surrnonte d'un lourd bandeau de laine, lequel entoure 
une calotte de cheveux qui couvre le crane et est lisse 
sur le medaillon. 

M. Delbrueck a compare ce medaillon au buste ignore 

11 Lactance, DC Mortibus Persecutvrum, c. xxix. 

12 Ibid., c. xli. 

13 Ibid., c. li. 



318 



JULES MAURICE. 



du Musee des Conservateurs qui presente les parties 
essentielles de la coiffure de Ste. Helene. Les traits 
de la figure correspondent, autant qu'on en peut juger, 






FIG. 1 Buste de Ste. Helene. 



ii ceux du medaillon, inais nous ne possedons que des 
effigies de Ste. Helene agee, tandis que le buste est celui 
d'une jeune fenime. Yoir pour le buste les figures Nos. 
1 et 2. 



PORTRAITS D'IMPERATRICES. 319 

II semble toutefois (|ue les traits du buste et ceux du 
medaillon soient assez seinblables pour qu'on puisse 
attribuer 1'un et 1'autre de ces portraits a Ste. Helene. 14 




FIG. "2. Buste de Ste. Helene. 

Cette princesse aurait adopte, des le debut de sa vie, le 

14 B. Delbrueck, Portraits Byzantinischer Kaiserinnen, dans Mit- 
tciluiujen d. k. D. Arch. Instituts, RomiscJie Abtcilmig, vol. xxviii., 
1913, pp. 327 a 330. 



320 JULES MAURICE. 

genre de coiffure qu'elle conserva toujours, mais apres sa 
nomination comme Augusta, elle aurait porte le diademe 
et 1'on n'aurait plus represente qu'exceptionnellement le 
lourd bandeau que 1'on voit autour de sa tete sur le 
medaillon et sur le buste. Le bandeau est forme sur le 
buste d'une maniere difficile a expliquer. Les cheveux 
du dessus de la tete, di vises en deux masses par une 
raie, fournissent par derriere deux tresses qui remontent 
et encerclent la tete, mais on ne voit pas le point ou les 
deux tresses se reunissent sur le sommet de la tete. II 
en resulte qu'un bandeau de fausses tresses a du etre 
applique sur les cheveux naturels, ou bien que 1'artiste 
a coinmis une bevue et represente une coiffure im- 
possible a realiser. II faut ajouter que les cheveux qui 
encadrent le front sur le buste ne sont pas ramenes en 
avant et ne sont pas ondules comme ceux qui forment le 
tour de front de Ste. Helene, sur le medaillon de 
Londres. 

Quoiqu'il en soit, les parties essentielles de la coiffure 
sont les memes et 1'effet produit est analogue. Le buste 
fait songer au medaillon. 

II est remarquable que la coiffure de Ste. Helene ait ete 
reproduite dans ses traits essentiels sur les monuments 
chretiens de 1'epoque de Constantin et notamment qu'elle 
ait ete attribute aux femmes des Hebreux sauvees de la 
catastrophe de la mer rouge et en particulier a Marie, 
sceur d' Aaron, dans les bas-reliefs des sarcophages 
d'Arles et de Rome. 

Je presente aux lecteurs la photographie du groupe 
des Hebreux dans le bas-relief de la face anterieure 
du sarcophage de 1'eglise St. Trophime a Aries (Fig. 3). 
On peut observer sur cette photographie la coiffure 
de Marie, soeur d' Aaron, qui tient le tambourin et est 



PORTRAITS D'IMPERATRICES. 321 

placee a droite de la scene. Cette coiffure se coin- 
pose des trois parties essentielles de la coiffure de Ste. 
Helene, a savoir : un tour de front ondule, un bandeau, 
et uue calotte de ckeveux sur la tete, couvraut le crane. 
Deux autres fenimes, qui se dissiinulent dans le fond 
de la scene, ont des coiffures pareilles. M. Delbrueck a 
signale egalement Fimitation de la coiffure de Ste. 
Helene dans la peinture de Marie, soaur d'Aaron, qui fait 
partie de la mosaique de 1'arc de triomphe de Ste. Marie 
Majeure a Eome. 15 

II en resulterait que la coiffure de Ste Helene, 
derivant elle-meme de celle de Galerie Valerie, aurait ete 
reproduite par les sculpteurs et les peintres en niosaique 
chretiens. 

Les effigies de Fausta [PI. XX. 12 et 14] et la jeune 
Helene [PL XX. 11] presentent un genre de coiffure 
differant completement du genre de celles de Galerie 
Valerie et de Ste. Helene. Fausta a remis en usage la 
coiffure de Lucilla, femme de Lucius Verus, 16 derivee 
elle-meme de certaines coiffures de Faustine jeune. 17 
Elle consiste essentiellement en epaisses ondulations 
courant sur la tete perpendiculairement a la longueur 
des cheveux lesquels sont releves en un no3ud sur la 
nuque. 

La chevelure de Fausta presente un nceud inter- 
mediaire entre ceux de Lucille et de Faustine. II est 
forme de 1'extremite des tresses enroulees. 

II est permis de se demander si Fausta n'a pas vu 

15 Delbrueck, op. laud., p. 332. Cette mosaique est repre'sentee dans 
J. P. Richter and A. C. Taylor, " The Golden Age of Classic Christian 
Art," PI. 13-15. 

16 Lady Evans, op. laud., p. 54 et PI. iv., Nos. 44 et 45. 

17 Ibid., voir la coiffure toute simple et charmante de cette impera- 
trice dans la Planche iv. 41 et 42. 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. Z 



322 



JULES MAURICE. 



dans 1'analogie de son nom avec celui de Faustine 18 
une raison flatteuse de copier la coiffure de cette iin- 
peratrice dont elle se rapprochait un peu par sa beaute, 
bien que ses traits fussent moins reguliers. 

Lady Evans a emis 1'opinion vraisemblable que les 
tres-epaisses ondulations qui couvrent la tete de Lucille 
etaient reniplies, ouatees. 19 Celles de Fausta sont moins 



WOK 




FIG. 3. Bas-relief d'un sarcophage. 

epaisses. Les plis des cheveux courent au travers de 
ces ondulations et leur masse se forme en tresses qui 
se reunissent pour former le noeud de la nuque. 

La coiffure de la jeune Helene non plus n'a rien de 

18 Ainsi que 1'a pens6 M. Percy H. Webb, " Fausta N. F. and other 
Coins," dans Num. Chron., 1908, pp. 81-83. 

19 Lady Evans, >op. laud., Num. Chron., 1906, p. 54; J. Maurice, 
Num. Constantin., t. ii., p. 452. 



PORTRAITS D'IMPERATRICES. 323 

celle a trois etages de Ste. Helene. Nous ne connaissous 
la jeune Helene que par les effigies monetaires et meme, 
ainsi que je 1'ai deja explique et le rappellerai plus loin, 
que par ses effigies gravees sur les coins de 1'atelier de 
Tliessalouica et reproduites sur les inonnaies de cet 
atelier. 20 

La coiffure de la jeune Helene [PI. XX. 11] est de la 
plus extreme simplicite. Les cheveux lisses sont ramenes 
en arriere ; ils forment des plis fins et se reunissent en 
quelques tresses pour former un noeud sur la nuque. 
Assez voisine de celle de Fausta, cette coiffure s'eu 
distingue par sa simplicite ; elle ne presente aucun 
arrangement elegant, tel que les ondulatious de la cheve- 
lure de Fausta. 

Cette coiffure est caracteristique et distingue, d'une 
facon qui me parait certaine, la jeune Helene de Ste. 
Helene, a condition de considerer, comme je 1'ai fait, les 
premieres pieces de Helena Augusta (Ste. Helene), 
frappees a Alexandrie, comme Fayant ete avant que 
Fimage officielle de cette imperatrice ne soit parvenue 
en Egypte On s'explique ainsi facilenient que ces 
premieres effigies ne se ressemblent pas eiitre elles, 
ay ant ete mal copiees sur les pieces emises, un an 
plus tot, aux noins de Fausta N(obilissima) F(emina) et 
de Helena N. F. 21 Les ateliers avaient en effet 1'habi- 
tude a cette epoque, lorsqu'il leur manquait 1'effigie de 
la personne iniperiale au nom de laquelle ils devaient 
frapper monnaie, d'en einprunter une autre, de quelqtie 
personne de la situation la plus voisine de celle dont le 
portrait manquait. 

10 Num, Constantin., t. ii., pp. 450-456. 

21 Le travail de M. Gnecchi et la planche qu'il a donnee dans la 
Rivista Italiana de 1890, Fasc. II. et PI. iv., sont a cet egard significatifs. 



324 JULES MAURICE. 

II faut egaleineiit reconnaitre, avec M. Percy Webb, 
qu'exceptionnellement le buste et Feffigie de Ste. Helene 
ont ete pretes a Fausta a 1'epoque ou leurs medailles 
furent frappees simultanement de 324 a 326. 22 C'est 
meme le cas qui se presente sur uu celebre inedaillon du 
Cabinet de France [PI. XX. 15]. Apres ces eliminations, 
on reconnaitra qu'il existe trois types de coiffures ab- 
solument caracteristiques, sous le regne de Constantin ; 
;i savoir celui de Ste. Helene avec ses trois etages ; celui 
de Fausta aux cheveux lisses et ondules formant une 
seule masse et termines en nceud sur la nuque, celui de 
la jeune Helene se rapprochant de celui de Fausta 
mais ne comportant pas d'ondulations et differant totale- 
ment par sa simplicite de la coiffure de Ste. Helene. 

L'existence de la jeune Helene est bien etablie, a mon 
avis, an point de vue historique. En effet elle ue repose pas 
sur un document unique, mais sur deux : 1 Une loi du 
code Theodosien dans laquelle raninistie est accordee a 
beaucoup de condamnes de droit commun a 1'occasion de 
la naissance du premier enfant de Crispus et de la jeune 
Helene. 23 2 Les monnaies frappees a Thessalonica et 
ne pouvant pas etre attributes a Ste. Helene parce que 
1'efKgie ne s'y presente pas sous les aspects constants 
et protocolaires de celle de cette imperatrice. 

Pour repondre aux objections qui m'ont ete faites, 
je dois resuiner une communication a 1'Acadeinie des 
Inscriptions et Belles Lettres du 22 Mai dernier 24 et y 
renvoyer. Les documents concernant la jeune Helene sont 
rares comme ceux relatifs a Crispus parce qu'apres la mort 

21 Percy H. Webb, dans Num. Chron., 1912, pp. 352-360 et PI. xxi., 
voir le No. 29. 

23 Cod. Theod., libre ix., titre 38, loi 1. 

21 Comptes rendus de 1' Academic des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 
seance du 22 mai, 1914. 



PORTRAITS D'IMPERATRICES. 325 

de ce dernier, qui eut lieu au benefice des enfants de 
Fausta, ceux-ci firent disparaitre toute trace de 1'histoire 
de Crispus et de la jeune Helene. Le nom de Crispns 
ne parait meme pas dans La vie de Constantin par Eusebe 
publiee, apres la mort de cet auteur, dans le regne de Con- 
stance II et retouchee sous 1'influence de cet empereur. 
Toutes les lois relatives a la legitimation de Crispus, 
qui le rendaient Fheritier de son pere, ont ete supprimees 
on decoupees. Elles sont raanifestement retouchees ou 
supprimees pour faire disparaitre la memoire de ce 
malheureux prince. 25 

Le nom de Crispus, qui se trouvait en tete des lois 
promulguees en faveur des Chretiens, a disparu. 26 C'est 
par miracle que la loi unique que nous possedons sur 
Crispus et Helene nous soit parvenue. Les codes pre- 
sentent d'autres exemples de lois qui ont echappe a une 
destruction voulue. Apres avoir indique ces raisons de 
la rarete des documents relatifs a Crispus et a la jeune 
Helene, j 'attire 1'attention sur un fait tres important : 
toutes les monnaies autbentiques de la jeune Helene ont 
ete frappees a Thessalonica en S23-324. 27 

M. Percy Webb a reconnu 1'importance de ce fait. 
II a bien voulu dire, pour confirmer ma classification de 
ces pieces, que le style de celles memes qui ne portent 
pas de marques d'atelier permet de les attribuer a 
celui de Thessalonica. Mais M. Percy Webb se 
demande si 1'attribution de ces pieces a cet atelier 
confirme mes autres raisons de croire a 1'existence de 



23 Cod. Theod., livre iv., titre 6, " de naturalibus filiis." La 1* loi 
a disparu, la seconds est incomplete. L'empereur Z6non fait allusion 
a cette legislation disparue. 

26 Sozomene, Hist. Eccles., i., 5. 

- 7 Num. Constantin., ii., 450 ff. 



326 JULES MAURICE. 

la jeime Helena 28 Je repondrai : certainement oui ; 
puisque d'une part il n'y avait aucune raison de 
frapper exclusivement dans 1'atelier de Thessalonica 
les raonnaies de la mere de 1'empereur, c'est a dire Ste. 
Helene. II existait au contraire une raison positive 
d'y frapper les monnaies de la jeune Helene et de ne 
les emettre que dans cet atelier ; Crispus organisait, en 
cette annee 323, a Thessalonica, la flotte avec laquelie 
il devait livrer a son pere la clef de Constantinople, la- 
quelie ne pouvait etre prise que par mer, et assurer ainsi 
la conquete de 1'Orient. 11 etait destine a cette epoque, 
et le fut jusqu'au jour de sa mort, a tenir le second 
rang dans 1'empire. II etait le fils prefere de Con- 
stantin le Grand. Ce fut ce qui amena sa fin tragique 
provoquee par les intrigues criminelles de 1'imperatrice 
Fausta. 29 Constantin voulait reconstituer, au profit 
de sa famille, la tetrarchie de Diocletien, et Crispus 
devait occuper le rang du second Auguste. Cette 
situation exceptionelle de son fils aine justifiait, en 
323, la frappe des monnaies au nom et a 1'effigie de 
sa femme, la jeune Helene, en meme temps de celles 
de Fausta. L'ordre d'emettre ces monnaies ne pouvait 
pas venir de Crispus, ainsi que M. Percy Webb s'est 
demande. 80 II n'y avait en 323-324 qu'une seule ad- 
ministration central e des monnaies envoyant des ordres 
a tous les ateliers de 1'empire. 31 L'ordre venait done de 
Constantin le Grand et faisait partie de son plan de 
reorganisation de 1'empire, au benefice de sa famille. 



28 Percy Webb, Miscellanea, dans Num. Chron., 1918, p. 378. 
49 Je suis oblige de renvoyer a mon travail indiquee, en cours de 
publication. 

30 Dans Num. Chron., 1913, p. 378. 

31 Num. Constantinienne, t. i., pp. xi., xv. 



PORTRAITS D'IMPERATRICES. 327 

II faisait f rapper monnaie au nom des deux impera- 
trices qui allaient devenir en 326 les epouses des deux 
Augustes. II donna, il est vrai, en 324, le titre 
d'Augusta a Fausta, mais ce fut parce qu'il avait 
eleve sa mere a ce rang. II n'en voulut pas priver sa 
femme ; et en attendant qu'il put y elever la jeune 
Helene, il etait naturel qu'il fit cesser remission de ses 
mommies. 

Ste. Helene, au contraire, ne devait pas monter en 
rang. Nous savons d'autre part par Theophanes qu'elle 
recut le droit d'effigie, apres la guerre d'Orient et 
avant que Constantin ait commence a construire Con- 
stantinople dans Byzance. 32 Or cette affirmation de 
Theophanes est d'accord avec le fait que des la fin de 
la guerre entre Constantin et Licinius, en Orient, et 
dans tout 1'empire apres cette guerre, on frappa dans 
tous les ateliers monetaires des pieces au nom de 
Helena Augusta, dont 1'effigie etait diademee. 33 II est 
naturel d'admettre que, le dire de Theophanes et le 
temoignage des emissions concordant, nous pouvons 
fixer le commencement de 1'emission des monnaies de 
Ste. Helene apres la guerre d'Orient, a la fin de 
1'annee 324. 

Les projets de Constantin le Grand pour 1'annee 326, 
dont il vient d'etre question, sont signales par les 
monnaies comme par les lois. Si les lois avaient fait de 
Crispus 1'heritier legitime de son pere, devant s'elever 
au rang supreme ; M d'innombrables monnaies, d'autre 
part, frappees dans tout I'empire apres la decheance 



31 Theophanes, Chronographia, anno 5816 mundi. 

33 Voir toutes les emissions mone'taires commenQant en 324. 

34 Cf. Cod. Thtod., livre iv., et Cod. Just., livre v. Constantin fait 
allusion a son propre rescrit disparu, dans Cod. Just., v. 27, 5. 



328 JULES MAURICE. 

de Licinius, etaient dediees a la Providence des 
Augustes. 85 

J'ai montre que ce pluriel ne pouvait s'expliquer 
que par le projet arrete de Constantin d'elever son fils 
aine au rang d'Auguste et que dans d'autres occasions, il 
s'etait ainsi servi des monnaies, comme moyen de pub- 
licite pour faire connaitre ses intentions a ses sujets. 36 

Je dois, pour finir, rappeler les caracteres des portraits 
de la jeune Helene que nous pouvons relever sur les 
petites pieces frappees a Thessalonica. 37 

Cette princesse avait un cou epais, des traits lourds et 
une machoire fortement accusee. Elle n'avait pas la 
majeste et les nobles traits de Ste. Helene, dont le nez 
aquilin, la bouche bien fendue et calme, le regard 
profond et 1'expression severe du visage presagent 
la figure de Constantin le Grand. 38 Elle avait encore 
moins le cou fin, souple et elegant, et les traits 
delicats qui donnaient a la figure de Fausta une 
grace seductrice. On ne peut toutefois arriver a ces 
conclusions qu'en tenant conipte des substitutions 
d'effigies. II est natnrel que, vivante ou morte, apres 
1'effroyable drame de 326 qui vint bouleverser 1'empire 
au moment ou il devait atteindre a son apogee, la jeune 
Helene disparut de 1'histoire. Une loi d'avril 326 
par laquelle Constantin ecarte les accusations d'adul- 
tere lorsqu'elles proviennent par des parents consanguins 
du mari, 39 et les monnaies de Crispus frappees jusqu'en 

35 Elles composent les Emissions de tous les ateliers qui debutent en 
novembre 324. 

36 Avant les guerres de 314 et 324; cf. Num. Constantinienne, t. i., 
190, 278, 325 ; t. ii., 450. 

37 Num. Constantin., t. ii., p. 456. 

38 Ibid., t. i., Planche viii. 

39 Cod. Theod., ix. 7, 2 les parents sont ainsi d6sigm's : " patrueli 
consobrino et consanguineo maxirae fratri." 



PORTRAITS D'IMPERATRICES. 329 

jnillet 326, 40 prouvent que Constantin n'avait pas 
encore accepte les accusations portees centre son fils, 
pendant la premiere partie de 1'annee 326, et que ce fut 
au moment meme des fetes des Triennalia (juillet 326) 
qu'une revelation subite qui ne put etre qu'une mise 
en scene savamment ourdie comnie celle qui avait en 
310 amene la mort de Maximien Hercule, 41 vint de- 
barrasser Fausta du rival et maitre de ses fils. Crispus 
etant mort, la jeune Helene rentra forcement dans 
1'ombre et lorsque les fils de Fausta regnerent, on 
s'attacha a ne rien laisser subsister des memoires mal- 
heureuses et condamnees de Crispus et de la jeune 
Helene. 

JULES MAURICE. 



40 Ces pieces ont et6 6mises pour celebrer les anniversaires des 
Cesars; t. ii., pp. 353, 464; t. iii., pp. 70, 205. II est probable 
que ces monnaies ont etc frappees en 325 et 326. 

41 Lactance, De Mwtibus Persecutorum, cxxx., confirme par le Pan6- 
gyrique, vii., c. 20. 



XVI. 

THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF 
EDWARD IV. 

(Continued from Vol. X. p. 145.) 
(See Plates XXI.-XXIV.) 

THE POST-EESTOKATION PERIOD, APRIL, 1471, TO 
APRIL, 1483. 

IN the consideration of the coinage of the reign of 
Edward IV the writer has now reached the last of the 
three periods into which it appeared naturally to divide 
itself, and a brief historical survey may be desirable of 
events from the final deposition of Henry VI after his 
brief restoration until the death of Edward IV. 

After residing in Flanders since his flight from Eng- 
land in October, 1470, Edward with a few followers re- 
turned and landed at Ravenspur early in March, 1471. 
He was soon joined by other adherents, and at first gave 
out that he had only come back to claim his Duchy of 
York, but with rapidly increasing forces he shortly 
dropped this pretext and, boldly proclaiming his kingly 
right, advanced rapidly to London, which he entered on 
April 11, having avoided the Lancastrian army under 
the Earl of Warwick which had advanced northward to 
meet him. Warwick had left his brother, the Archbishop 
of York, in charge of the unhappy Henry VI, but this 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 331 

time-serving prelate no sooner heard of the successful 
advance of Edward than he hastened to secure a pardon 
for himself by assisting his admission into the city and 
by delivering his charge into the king's hands. After 
putting King Henry together with the Archbishop into 
custody, Edward went by boat to Westminster, where, 
after having the crown set on his head by the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, he hastened to see the queen in the 
sanctuary of the Abbey, where she had lived unmolested 
since his flight from England. Here in the previous 
November she had given birth to their son, afterwards 
Edward V, whom to his great joy she now placed in his 
arms. After passing the next day (Good Friday) at West- 
minster he hastened northward to meet the Lancastrian 
army under Warwick, which in order to secure the capital 
he had previously avoided. After the defeat and death 
of the earl at the battle of Barnet, Edward proceeded to 
deal with the army assembled in the west under Queen 
Margaret and the young Prince Edward her son. The 
victory of Tewkesbury and the death of the prince 
having entirely crushed the Lancastrian cause, there 
only remained the imprisoned Henry VI as a possible 
obstacle in Edward's path, and he was murdered in his 
prison on the night of the king's triumphant return to 
London. The remainder of Edward IVs reign was occu- 
pied mainly with the restoration of order in the affairs 
of the State, and no important events occurred affect- 
ing the coinage excepting in as far as the ecclesiastical 
mints of York and Durham are to some extent concerned ; 
these will be noticed in treating of these mints. The 
Royal Mints of York and Bristol continued to work for 
some time after Edward's return, Bristol only ceasing 
to do so in July, 1472. After that date no money was 



332 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

struck at any Royal Miut but the Tower. 1 There 
appears to have been no delay in coining money after 
Edward's return, but fresh obverse dies must have been 
made in all cases, as I have detected no instance of 
an alteration of the king's name, but apart (in most 
instances) from the mint-mark the same punches were 
employed as had served for Henry VI. The annulet 
mint-mark which I unhesitatingly associate with the 
first coins struck after Edward's return has, I believe, a 
special meaning which locates its position. The annulet 
is the ring of St. Edward, which was the badge or 
cognizance of Westminster Abbey, often used as an 
addition to the regular shield of arms, or by itself alone. 
Edward's gratitude and joy at the protection received 
there by the queen during his absence, and the birth 
of his son in the sanctuary would naturally have sug- 
gested for the new coins such an emblem as this. 2 

A brief summary of the legend connected with St. 
Edward's ring may here be of interest. King Edward 
in his old age was present at the hallowing of a church 
at Havering in Essex to be dedicated to St. John the 
Evangelist. During the procession an old man begged 
an alms from him in honour of God and St. John. The 
king having nothing ready to give took off the ring 
from his finger and gave it to the poor man, who thanked 
him and departed. Some time after two English 



1 Exchequer Accounts K. R. Bundle 294, No. 28. 

2 It is not necessary in this connexion to assume that the king 
personally selected the mint-marks, but as some of them, at least, are 
obviously chosen out of compliment to him with reference to personal 
events or associations, such as the sun and the rose, and as the mint 
was part of the Royal establishment in the Tower, it would appear not 
to be improbable that the king's approval was given for those marks 
which had reference to himself even if he may not have ordered them. 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 333 

pilgrims in the Holy Land who had lost their way were 
met by a " fair ancient man " who spoke to them, and 
after putting them on their right way told them that 
he was John the Evangelist, and gave them a ring 
which, as he said, he had received from their King 
Edward at the hallowing of his church, and charged 
them on their return to take it to the king, and say 
that St. John the Evangelist had sent it to him as a 
sign that he should settle all his worldly affairs, for 
he would shortly be with him in heaven. The king 
received the ring, which he at once recognized with joy, 
and thanked God and St. John for giving him this 
warning of his death, which occurred shortly after. The 
ring is recorded to have been given to the monastery of 
Westminster by Abbot Laurentius, who died in 1175, 
and was preserved as one of the most valued relics of 
the Church. It was frequently used as a cognizance of 
the Abbey in all succeeding periods until the dissolu- 
tion, the last instance probably being on the funeral 
roll of Abbot Islip 1533. Edward II at his coronation 
offered, it is recorded, a pound of gold made like a king 
holding a ring in his hand, and a mark of gold made 
like a pilgrim putting forth his hand to receive it. 3 

Although the annulet or ring of St. Edward was very 
shortly after the king's return adopted as the special 
mint-mark, the short- cross fitchee used during the restora- 
tion of Henry VI, and on some previous groats of 
Edward IV, was at first continued to some small extent, 
but in most instances it only appears on the reverse, and 
is owing probably to the use of a Henry VI reverse 
die, with the new annulet obverse. Bristol issued post- 
restoration coins of gold and silver with the annulet 

3 Dart's History of the Abbey Church of Westminster, pp. 50, 51. 



334: FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

mint-mark, aud it appears on pennies of the same period 
struck at York, although at the latter mint the long- 
established lys mint-mark is not displaced on the larger 
coins. The post-restoration coins of the Koyal Mint of 
York are very rare, and, so far, are only known in silver, 
although according to the mint accounts gold was also 
struck there, but the quantity of both metals coined was 
very small. The mint accounts as far as at present 
classified make no mention of any money struck at 
Canterbury, but on the contrary state for several of the 
later years of this reign that no money was struck any- 
where but at the Tower. 

On a few of what I consider the earliest annulet 
coins the mint-mark on the reverse is a trefoil of 
pellets joined together, which is probably emblematic 
of the Trinity, seeing that the annulet had also a 
religious significance, and that sacred emblems were at 
the period in question rather frequent on the coins. 
The earliest post-restoration angels have St. Michael 
with a cross in the centre of his nimbus, and in some 
instances a trefoil where its meaning is more obvious 
than on the groats. The groats with the trefoil-marked 
reverse have almost invariably small annulets as stops 
on the obverse, and the annulet mint-mark is larger 
than when it came to be used on both sides. The 
annulet stops are found on no other groats of Edward IV. 
One of the first necessities after the king was again 
firmly seated on the throne was a new great seal, as 
his last one, having been altered to serve for Henry VI 
by the obliteration of his name and badges, was useless. 
The new seal was a very fine one, showing the king 
seated under a rich canopy wearing an arched crown 
(thus long anticipating a similar presentment of the 



THE COINAGE OF THE 11EIGN OF EDWARD IV. 335 

royal bust on the coins). 4 On either side is a shield of 
arms with roses and suns in splendour (separately) above 
and below. There is also a rose and a sun below and 
on either side of the pedestal to the throne, while 
above the king's head and below the canopy is a six- 
leaved rose. The legend has roses between the words. 
It will be noticed that on this last seal the roses and 
suns are used separately, and are not like the former 
roses on suns. I have given these details of the last 
seal of Edward IV as its characteristics are found, in 
some form and as circumstances suggested, on the coins 
of almost all the issues after his return from exile 
until his death. His family badge of the rose and his 
personal badge of the sun are brought into great pro- 
minence, and in a different manner from formerly. These 
features were very soon introduced or revived upon the 
coins, particularly on those of Bristol and the prelatical 
mints. On a few half-groats of London the rose is used 
as a reverse mint-mark with the annulet on the obverse; 
but this is the only instance of its use on the early 
silver post-restoration coins of London. At Bristol 
both the rose and the sun are used as obverse mint- 
marks for groats where the annulet serves for the 
reverse. On the angels and half-angels, now the only 
gold coins issued, the rose at once took the place of 
the fleur-de lys of Henry VI, and occasionally is intro- 
duced in and at the end of the reverse legend on half- 
angels. A few early post- restoration angels have the 
sun in place of the rose at the right of the cross, a 



4 Although not used on the coins until the second coinage of Henry VII, 
the arched crown is shown in the Coronation group of Henry V on his 
chantry at Westminster, and over the arms of Henry VI at Croydon 
Palace. 



336 FllEDK. A. WALTERS. 

specimen being described in the Montagu Catalogue 
(Lot 593). It is a very rare coin, and I have not seen a 
specimen, but several are known on which the sun can 
be seen beneath a rose which has been punched over 
it on the die. On the later issues of both gold and 
silver, roses and suns are found as on the great seal 
between some of the words of the legends, but in no 
case do we find the rose on the sun, as on the pre- 
restoration gold coins, which is again a following of 
the principle adopted for the latest great seal. To 
return to the sequence of mint-marks, the first change 
was the introduction of a pellet into the centre of the 
annulet, when also a distinct change is to be observed 
in the character of the king's bust, which becomes 
generally larger with the hair standing more away from 
the face. The legend reads D6CI and the B-like E 
now disappears. At the same time the position of the 
annulet-and-pellet mint-mark is clear, for we find coins 
on which it appears on one side, while the original 
annulet alone is on the other. A special feature of 
probably the earliest annulet-and-pellet groats is a 
large rose at each side of the king's bust, which is, 
however, discontinued very shortly, and, indeed, the 
annulet-and-pellet mint-mark on any coins had a very 
short life, as all are rather rare. I have a half-groat 
and a halfpenny both of which are hitherto unpublished, 
as is also the penny of which I have seen a specimen. 
Angels and groats are much less rare than other 
denomination s. 

The mint-mark coming next in order is a cross with 
four pellets in the angles. I place it here because 
the bust and lettering on the groats approach nearest 
in character to the annulet-and-pellet groats, while 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 337 

the reading D6CI is continued only on the coins of 
this issue and on those of the early plain cross pierced 
issue which followed ; the location is confirmed by a 
groat in my collection having the cross and four 
pellets mint-mark on the obverse, while that on the 
reverse is the cross pierced punched over the annulet 
(and pellet ?). 5 Angels are found with the cross 
and four pellets mint-mark, but I have not seen the 
smaller denominations in either gold or silver. With 
this issue a new feature appears which was continued to 
the end of this reign, and even after. An 7f with a V- 
shaped bar is found on the obverse in ARGL', and on 
the reverse in TSS, but only in these two instances, 
the other TCs being unbarred, as on all previous coins. 
The barred X would seem to be a privy mark to which 
importance was attached, as after its first appearance it 
is never wanting in the two positions mentioned. After 
a very short time (judging by the fewness of the coins) 
the cross and four pellets gave way as a mint-mark 
to a plain cross pierced of rather the pattee form, 
but the character of the bust and the reading D6CI 
continued. Half groats and pennies attributable to 
this period are found, but the cross mint-mark is nearly 
always punched over the annulet (and pellet?). Up to 
this time the fleurs to the cusps of the tressure are 
always trefoils of pellets. With the next succeeding 
issue a general change is to be noticed ; the king's head 
becomes larger, and the features and other details are 
executed with greater neatness. The fleurs of the 
tressure become large three-leaved terminals, while a 
new and special feature, usually of the reverse only, is 

s The plain cross pierced is more often than not the reverse mint- 
mark of the cross and four pellets groats. 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. 2 A 



338 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

the introduction of small roses or suns in the outer 
legend, generally in two places, after DSVfll and 
TYDIVTORGC. In this particular another feature of the 
latest great seal is to be observed. The mint-mark is 
now a pierced cross with a pellet in one angle not 
always the same one, but usually in the lower right or 
left corner. Whether this difference of position for the 
pellet was intentional or merely the result of careless- 
ness there is nothing to indicate, as no other variation 
is to be remarked on coins with either variety of mint- 
mark. The pierced cross and pellet must have con- 
tinued in use for some time as angels and groats are 
very common, although smaller pieces are much rarer, 
as is the case with all issues of this reign. After the 
pierced cross and pellet had been in use for some con- 
siderable time a return appears to have been made to 
the cross pierced without any pellet, although I am 
inclined to think that the position of the pellet or 
pellets (which was probably a privy mark) was merely 
given a different place, as on some of the groats in 
question a pellet is placed on either side of the king's 
neck, and between the ordinary pellets in two quarters 
of the reverse, while on others a pellet is found in the 
centre of the piercing of the cross mint-mark giving 
the effect of a sunk circle. 6 Some groats are, however, 
without the pellets in any position on the obverse. 
This last group I place here because the same punches 
have obviously been used for the bust, &c., as were 
used for some of the earlier groats of the next issue. 
The halfpenny with pellets at sides of bust is known, 
but I believe no other values have been discovered so 

6 I am indebted to Mr. H. B. Earle Fox for calling my attention to 
this groat. 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 339 

far. But for this they might have seemed more correctly 
located after the first variety with the pierced cross 
mint-mark. 

The last mint-mark adopted was the well-known 
heraldic cinquefoil, which was probably in use for several 
years, as the cinquefoil angels and groats are very abun- 
dant, much more so than those of any other post-restora- 
tion issue, while the mint accounts for the later years of 
Edward's reign show a regular coinage of a considerable 
amount of both gold and silver. The groats of this issue, 
but not the smaller silver coins, all have a rose on the 
king's breast or what has been considered to be a rose, 
although I believe it to be a curled leaf of conventional 
foliage ^, as a similar object used as a mint-mark on 
the York and Durham pennies, and on some Canterbury 
coins at this period, certainly is. On the groats the 
break in the circle is not generally visible owing to its 
coming on the front of the cusp of the tressure, but 
where used in other positions it is quite distinct when 
well struck up. A reason for believing that the cinque- 
foil was in use as a mint-mark for a lengthy period is 
that we find it on groats and smaller pieces with more 
than one type of bust. On the earliest it is the same as 
on the last variety of the pierced cross and pellet issue, 
and on the latest it exactly resembles the bust on the 
groats of Edward V and Richard III, while on the groats, 
at least, there are intermediate varieties. One variety 
has the A with V-shaped bars in every instance where 
the letter occurs in both obverse and reverse legends. 

As previously stated no money was coined at any 
provincial Royal Mint after the closing of that at Bristol 
about July, 1472. The Archiepiscopal Mint at Canter- 
bury appears to have issued half-groats which can be 

2 A 2 



340 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

fairly connected with all the post-restoration London 
issues by the character of the king's portrait. No change 
occurred on the occupancy of the See, and Cardinal 
Bourchier appears to have enjoyed the uninterrupted 
favour of the king, with the result that nothing occurred 
to cause any very marked changes in the coinage from 
the Archbishop's mint, save that his badge was latterly 
omitted. 

At York there were several changes, and things went 
very differently, as we shall see in treating of this 
mint. 

At Durham the changes in the occupancy of the See 
are reflected on the coins, as we shall find in treating 
the issues during the period under consideration. 



THE EOYAL PROVINCIAL MINTS. 

THE BRISTOL MINT. 

The mint at this town continued working without 
interruption after the return of Edward IV and until 
July, 1472, up to which date the amount of gold and 
silver coined during each successive month with one 
exception, is given in the Exchequer rolls, 7 and here it 
may be well to give the accounts in which these are set 
forth. 

7 Exchequer Accounts, K. B. Bundle 294, No. 20. 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWAKD IV. 341 



llth of Edward IV. 


Gold. 


Silver. 




Ibs. ozs. 


Ibs. ozs. 


May . . 
June . . 








28 3 
9 4 


127 3 
80 6 


July . . 
September 
October . 








10 5 
10 6 
7 6 


82 9 
74 6 
21 8 


November 








7 3 


24 4 


December 








8 3 


24 


January . 
February . 








5 8 
4 


34 6 
40 


12th of Edwa 


-dl 


V. 








March 








4 6 


77 3 


April 
May 
June 








6 6 
3 6 
5 6 


85 
68 
75 


July 








6 9 


88 6 



In an account (subsequent to this latter date) of John 
Wode, Esq., keeper of the exchange and money within the 
Tower of London and keeper of the mints of gold and 
silver in the Kingdom of England ... of profits issuing 
from the exchanges and mints, in the Tower of London, 
City of York and town of Bristol from the September 30, 
10 Edward IV, to April 14 then following, " he does not 
render account it being the time of the usurpation of 
Henry VI late de facto, but not de jure king of England, 
and because he (the said John) received during that 
time no issues or profits of the said office nor could he 
receive the same." He proceeds to state in reference 
to the Bristol Mint that " he does not account for 
17 17s. 10H part of 51 17s. Wd. the amount of the 
the king's seigniorage, or 117 Ibs. 3 ozs. of gold and 
903 Ibs. 3 ozs. of silver weighed, worked and minted in 
the king's exchange in Bristol between April 14, 11 
Edward IV, and July 23, 12 Edward IV, because Hugh 
Brice, deputy of Lord Hastings, master of the said mint 
had and took the said 17 17s. W^d. on account of the 



342 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

king and still holds the same and refuses to deliver the 
same, for which 17 17s. 10^., the said Hugh Brice 
ought to account to the king (which he does later). But 
accounts for 34 the residue of the said 51 17s. IQ^d. 
issuing from the coinage of the said 117 Ibs. 3 ozs. of 
gold and 903 Ibs. 3 ozs. of silver received by him from the 
hands of John Mokelowe, deputy of the said keeper of 
the king's exchange in the said town for the time afore- 
said." 8 Although as much as 117 Ibs. 3 ozs. weight of 
gold was coined into angels and probably angelets also 
between May, 1471, and July, 1472, it is interesting to 
note that possibly out of the whole only two angels have 
come down to our times. One formerly in the Cuff collec- 
tion is now in the British Museum, while another is in 
the Evans collection ; both are almost identical in every 
detail and have the annulet mint- mark on the obverse 
only. There was no specimen of this coin in either the 
Montagu or Eashleigh collections, and I have been 
unable to trace any other specimen than the two I have 
mentioned. Probably the earliest post-restoration groat 
of Edward IV struck at Bristol is one with the rose 
mint-mark on both obverse and reverse. This coin is 
struck from the identical reverse die used for the Bristol 
groat of Henry VI reading fiffRBICCVS (No. 1 in my 
list, Num. Chron., Fourth Series, Vol. X. p. 142), where 
certain peculiarities which I have noted can be readily 
identified on both coins. As I have before remarked, 
the mint-mark and other features used in the London 
Mint would seem to have taken a little time to reach 
the provincial mints, and consequently the annulet, 
which I consider the earliest mint-mark introduced in 

8 L.T.R. Foreign Accounts, 16 Edw. IV, No. HO. 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 343 

the post-restoration period, is not found on what appear 
to be the earliest Bristol coins where the rose is used 
alone at first, but later it is used with the annulet as a 
reverse mint-mark. The sun is also found as an obverse 
mark with an annulet reverse, and some groats have the 
annulet on both obverse and reverse. In the British 
Museum there is a Bristol half-groat of this period 
which has the rose mint-mark on the obverse and the 
short- cross fitchee on the reverse (probably a Henry VI 
die). It is the only specimen I have met with and 
was purchased as long ago as 1840. It is to be noted 
that all post-restoration coins of Bristol are without 
emblems in the field of the obverse, a feature which 
would appear to have continued at this mint until the 
restoration of Henry VI, when it ceased, and was not 
revived. No Bristol coin smaller than the half-groat 
has so far been discovered of this coinage, but there is 
no reason to suppose that all denominations were not 
struck, particularly as we now have in the British 
Museum a Bristol halfpenny of the light coinage of 
Henry VI, which only came to light after I wrote on 
that period. 

THE ROYAL MINT AT YORK. 

The Eoyal Mint at this city continued, like that at 
Bristol, to work after the return of Edward IV, but its 
activity was not for long, as from the mint accounts it 
appears to have stopped after the following September. 
As in the case of Bristol I will here give the monthly 
amounts of bullion coined according to the Exchequer 
rolls from April to September, 1471. 



344 



FEEDK. A. WALTEKS. 













Gold. 


Silver. 


April . 










Ibs. ozs. 
7 4 


Ibs. ozs. 
38 4 


May . 










8 4 


40 8 


June . 










11 6 


51 4 


July 










9 4 


44 4 


August 










9 6 


36 6 


Septembei 










8 6J 


31 6 



Out of 54 Ibs. 6J ozs. of gold coined during these six 
months into angels or angelets no specimen appears so 
far to be known, and very possibly none exists, seeing 
that in the case of Bristol, where more than double the 
amount of gold was coined, we can only trace two angels. 
In silver, groats, half-groats, and pennies are found, but 
all are rare or very rare, as is to be expected when we 
see how comparatively small an amount was coined. 
The absence of emblems in the field of the obverse is, 
as in the case of Bristol, the chief distinctive mark of 
the York post-restoration coins from the Eoyal Mint. 
Except on pennies the mint-mark continued to be the 
invariable fleur-de-lys which had never been discon- 
tinued since it displaced the sun and crown mint-marks 
in the early days of the light coinage. I have a penny 
with the annulet mint -mark, which, from the character 
of the bust, I should place a little later than the one I 
have seen with the lys mint-mark, and I am now of 
opinion that the penny with the rose mint-mark and 
a rose on the king's breast belongs to this period, 
although I at first placed it with the earlier rose-marked 
coins. The bust is distinctly of later character, and I 
felt doubts about its location from the first. As the 
York regal coins of this issue offer so few distinctive 
marks by which they can be identified in describing 
them, it is specially necessary to bear in mind that they 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 345 

are to be easily recognized by the characters of the bust 
and lettering, which are identical with the same features 
of the restoration coins of Henry VI. 



THE ECCLESIASTICAL MINTS. 

YORK. 

Although not in the usual alphabetical order it is 
perhaps better to take first the Archiepiscopal Mint of 
York as being the most important of the ecclesiastical 
mints, and at this period the most historically interest- 
ing. As we have already seen Archbishop Nevill 
obtained a pardon from Edward IV dated April 13, 1471 
(two days before Edward's entry into London), in return 
for his treachery to Henry VI, and for about a year after, 
until probably April, 1472, remained in favour with 
the king, being entertained by him at Windsor, when 
Edward promised to come and hunt with him at his 
palace of the Moor near Langley in Hertfordshire, but 
the day before the king should have come the Arch- 
bishop was commanded to go to Windsor, and on his 
arrival was arrested on a charge of high treason for 
conspiring with the Earl of Oxford, the most powerful 
remaining Lancastrian noble. All the goods of the 
Archbishop were seized by the king's command, and he 
himself was sent to Calais and thence to the Castle of 
Hammes, where he lingered in prison till the autumn 
of 1474, "and the king all this season took the profit 
of the Archbishoprick." He returned to England after 
being again pardoned, a broken man, and died a few 
months later. 9 After the death of Archbishop Nevill in 

9 Stratford's Edward IV, pp. 210-211. 



346 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

1474 the See remained vacant for a period, as Bishop 
Booth of Durham was only appointed to the Arch- 
bishopric on September 1, 1476, and during this 
vacancy the king would enjoy the temporalities. Arch- 
bishop Booth died in May, 1480. He was succeeded in 
the same year by Archbishop Thomas Rotherham, who 
held the See for the next twenty years until well into 
the reign of Henry VII. 

During all these changes the Archbishop's mint would 
seem to have been continually active, and we have 
pennies which appear to belong to every period. Those 
which from the character of the king's bust must have 
been struck very soon after the return of Edward IV 
have the short-cross fi tehee pierced as a mint-mark. 
Others with the lys probably were also struck during 
the year previous to the imprisonment of Archbishop 
Nevill. During the time of his deprivation, when the 
king " took the profit of the Archbishoprick " his 
emblems 6 and a key were replaced by an 6C to the left 
of the king's bust, and on the right by the curious 
curled leaf, formerly mistaken for a rose, to which I have 
previously alluded. 

The mint-mark of these pennies is a rose. It is 
probable that Archbishop Nevill after his pardon and 
return struck no specially marked coins, and if he 
continued the working of the mint he may have used 
the royal dies during the short time that elapsed before 
his death. Between this event and the appointment of 
Archbishop Thomas of Kotherham in 1476, the mint 
would again have been in the king's hands, and there 
are pennies which from the late character of the bust 
are evidently attributable to this period. They have 
the key, denoting the archiepiscopal mint, to the right 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 347 

of the king's head, and to the left we find the curled 
leaf emblem, which may readily be mistaken on badly 
struck specimens for the 6 of Archbishop Nevill, 
although the general character of the coins is after his 
time. I have specimens with a rose mint-mark and also 
with a cross, but it is uncertain whether the latter is 
pierced or not. With the accession of Archbishop 
liotherham the rose ceases to be used as a York mint- 
mark, and he appears to have adopted and retained the 
curled leaf, which, however, has been usually called a 
rose. The other distinctive feature of all his coins is 
the letter T to the left of the king's bust. On some a 
mullet or star is introduced either on the king's breast 
or to the right of the crown or sometimes in both places. 
The mint would not appear to have issued so large an 
amount as previously during the latter part of the 
reign of Edward IV, as the pennies of both Archbishop 
Rotherham and the periods of the Royal occupation 
are not nearly so numerous as those of Archbishop 
Nevill. 



THE CANTERBURY MINT. 

Although it has been assumed that both a royal and 
an ecclesiastical mint continued to be worked at Canter- 
bury during the latter part of the reign of Edward IV, 
it would appear to be very doubtful whether any coins 
were struck in that city except at the Archbishop's 
mint. After the closing of the mints at Bristol and 
York, the mint accounts state that no money was minted 
anywhere but at the Tower, and even apart from this 
evidence it would seem unlikely that,, when so much 
more important provincial mints were definitely closed, 



348 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

one should have been continued at Canterbury for merely 
striking a few half-groats and smaller coins. We find 
half-groats, with the Bourchier knot and other ecclesi- 
astical emblems, which from the character of their details 
can be identified with the London coins of similar value 
of every succeeding issue after the return of Edward IV 
until the cinquefoil was introduced, when the Canterbury 
half-groats cease without exception to bear the special 
badge of Cardinal Bourchier, and the mint-mark adopted 
is a rather large rose for both obverse and reverse. 
Whether the Archbishop was directed to make less dis- 
play of his own cognizances or whether he thought it more 
politic to do so as the king's power became more abso- 
lute there is no evidence at present to show, but the con- 
tention that these rose-marked half-groats are ecclesiastical 
is strengthened by the fact that what are evidently the 
latest do bear a rather unobtrusive ecclesiastical emblem 
in having as an obverse mint-mark a cross fitchee which 
at first sight seems quite out of place here. It is, 
however, one of the crosses fitchee that are woven 
on the archiepiscopal pallium or pall, and has nothing 
to do with the similar London mint-mark of the earlier 
part of this reign. These half-groats have the cinque- 
foil for the reverse mint-mark as used on the London 
coins, which would only seem to have reached Canter- 
bury quite at the last, as the coins on which it appears 
are very uncommon. Pennies and also halfpennies are 
found corresponding with the late rose-marked half- 
groats, but I have seen no specimen with either the 
cross fitchee or cinquefoil mint-marks. All coins of this 
late issue, except those with the cross fitchee, have a 
CC on the king's breast, and some of the half-groats have 
it in the centre of the cross on the reverse, some are said 



THE COINAGE OF THE EEIGN OF EDWARD IV. 349 

to have a rose instead of the CC on the obverse or reverse, 
but it is really the curled leaf emblem, although a dis- 
tinctly struck specimen is very rarely to be met with. 
A penny with the Bourchier knot under the bust and 
no emblems in the field, which I at first attributed to 
the earlier part of this reign, I now consider to belong 
to an early post-restoration issue. 

THE DURHAM MINT. 

Bishop Laurence Booth, who was so high in favour 
with the king that he was appointed Lord Chancellor 
in 1473, obtained a charter dated July 21 in that year, 
by which he and his successors were allowed to coin both 
pennies and halfpennies, and also to make trussels and 
standards for the same during the king's pleasure. The 
grant recites that it had been immernorially the privi- 
lege of the Bishop of this See to coin the former but 
never the latter. Bishop Booth, by his licence dated 
August 26, the same year that he received his charter, 
authorizes William Omoryche of York, goldsmith, to 
grave and print two dozen of trussels and one dozen of 
standards for pennies, and four standards and eight 
trussels for halfpennies. Another licence, dated 
August 4 following, to the same person was to grave 
and print three dozen of trussels and two dozen of 
standards for pennies, but no mention is made of half- 
pennies. 10 

On September 1, 1476, Bishop Booth was promoted 
to the Archbishopric of York, and was succeeded by 
Bishop Dudley, who, although elected on the 26th of the 

10 Mark Noble, " On the Mint and Coins oftiie Episcopal-Palatines of 
Durliam," p. 39. 



350 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

same month, did not have the temporalities restored to 
him until October 14, 1477, or more than a year after- 
wards, during which interval the mint as part of the tempo- 
ralities would have been in the hands of the king and 
worked by his deputy. Bishop Dudley, in consequence 
of the charter granted to Bishop Booth, gave his licence, 
dated March 21 in the first year of his consecration, to 
William Omoryche, who is now called of Durham, to 
make, grave, and print three dozen of trussels and two 
dozen of standards for pennies, and two dozen of trussels 
and one dozen of standards for halfpennies within the 
Castle of Durham. 

Bishop Dudley died in 1483, the same year as the 
king. 

What may be considered the earliest type of post- 
restoration pennies of Durham are apparently from 
London-made dies ; they have B to the left and D to the 
right of the king's bust, and on the reverse there is a 
B in the centre of the cross. After Bishop Booth 
obtained his charter the pennies struck from the dies 
made by William Omoryche are easily recognized from 
their different character and inferior workmanship. 
Those which are probably from the first set of dies 
ordered have a B to the left of the crown, which latter 
is varied from all previous examples in having a leaf of 
five points in the centre instead of the usual fleur-de-lys. 
A curious object which resembles a V is conspicuous on 
these coins. It is placed on the obverse in the centre 
of the king's neck, and on the reverse with the pellets 
in the second quarter. The only meaning that I can 
suggest for this peculiar emblem is that it denotes the 
dies made by William Omoryche, as it occurs on all 
that are from their workmanship attributable to him, 



THE COINAGE OF THE KEIGN OF EDWARD IV. 351 

although it is not clear why he should use this mark, 
and possibly it had no meaning, and was merely a fancy 
of his own. Some of the pennies of which we are 
speaking have a cross at each side of the neck, which 
would seem to be another mark of the die engraver. 
Very similar pennies which it may be permissible to 
attribute to the second set of dies ordered of William 
Omoryche omit the V on the breast, but retain it in the 
same position on the reverse, while the two small 
crosses are now placed above the king's crown instead of 
at the sides of the neck. On all these pennies of both 
varieties the mint-mark is a rose, and there is a D in the 
centre of the cross on the reverse. After the translation 
of Bishop Booth to York, and during the year which 
elapsed before the temporalities were restored to Bishop 
Dudley, the mint would have been in the hands of the 
king's deputy, and the coins attributable to this period 
are quite unmistakable owing to their being from 
London-made dies with the king's bust corresponding 
in character with the later London pennies, and they 
are usually better struck than the preceding and suc- 
ceeding episcopal issues. Apart from their distinctive 
character their only special mark is a lys at each side of 
the king's bust. The mint-mark is the curled leaf, and 
on some there is a D in the centre of the reverse cross, 
while others are without it. The inferior work of 
William Omoryche is at once recognizable in the pennies 
struck for Bishop Dudley ; they vary little from those of 
Bishop Booth save in having a I) to the left of the 
king's neck, and V to the .right, while D is continued in 
the centre of the reverse. 

Although Bishop Booth had made four standards and 
eight trussels for halfpennies, and Bishop Dudley two 



352 FEEDK. A. WALTERS. 

dozen trussels and one dozen of standards for the same 
small coins, only one specimen appears, as far as I can 
ascertain, to be at present known. It is in the British 
Museum, and resembles the ordinary light halfpennies 
on the obverse, while the reverse reads dlVITTVS D6CR7SSH 
with D in the centre of the cross. In Num. Chron., N.S. 
Vol. I. p. 21, Mr. Christmas alludes to one in his col- 
lection with a lys each side of the head. This would 
correspond with the pennies struck during the royal 
occupancy of the mint, and would prove that halfpennies 
continued to be struck after Bishop Booth's time until 
their issue was resumed by his successor. 

There is a question in connexion with the coins 
struck during the episcopate of Bishop Booth that I 
have not found possible to solve in a satisfactory manner. 
It has been said that this Bishop behaved so discreetly 
during the troubled period of his episcopate that he 
enjoyed the confidence and esteem of both parties, 
although he was probably at heart a Yorkist. There 
seems to be no evidence that he was at any time in 
disgrace with Edward IV, or had his revenues seques- 
trated, yet there are pennies of more than one period 
presenting the same characteristics as those struck while 
the king was in possession of the temporalities between 
the translation of Bishop Booth and their restoration to 
Bishop Dudley. I refer to the early pennies with the 
crown mint-mark, and to a later variety on which the 
bust is quite of the 147 1 type. These are some of the 
coins that gave rise to the assumption that there was a 
Koyal Mint at Durham, which it is now admitted was 
never the case. I trust, however, that others may be 
able now or later to clear up the difficulty. 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 353 



LIST OF COINS. 

COINS OP THE LONDON MINT AFTER APRIL, 1471, DURING 
THE PERIOD WHEN THE SHORT-CROSS FITCHEE PIERCED 
AND THE ANNULET WERE IN USE. 

GOLD. 

Angels. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark short cross fitchee pierced. ffDWTTED A 
DI * 6R7V A E6CX A TTOGL A <> FET^RCC Y St. 
Michael slaying the dragon as on the angels of 
Henry VI ; a cross in the centre of the nimbus 
of the archanel. 



Rev. No mint-mark. P6CE ttEYSff' TV7T S7VLV7S 
ROS XP(T EffDO;' TOE Ship with shield of 
arms and cross above all as on angels of 
Henry VI, but an &. to the 1. and a rose to the 
r. of the cross. [PI. XXI. 2.] 

British Museum. 

2. Obv. Minkmark annulet (to 1. of angel's head). Legend 
as No. 1, but D6CI instead of DI ; .trefoil stops. 



Eev. No mint-mark. All as No. 1, but 

trefoil stops between words. F. A. W. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark annulet (to r. of angel's head). All 
as No. 1, but reads FETTRCCIGC trefoil stops. 

Rev. No mint-mark. Legend, &c., as No. 1, but 
; saltire stops. F. A. W. 



4. Obv. Mint-mark annulet to r. ; legend as No. 1, but 

DGCI ; trefoil stops ; trefoil in centre of nimbus 
of St. Michael. 

Rev. No mint-mark. Legend as No. 1 ; trefoil stops. 

F. A. W. 

5. Obv. Mint-mark annulet to r. Legend as No. 1 ; no 

cross or trefoil in nimbus of St. Michael. 

Rev. No mint-mark. Legend as No. 1, but EGCDeCTO' 

F. A. W. 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. 2 B 



354 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

6. Obv. Mint-mark annulet. All as last, but DGCI 
Rev. Legend as No. 1. [PI. XXI. 5.] British Museum. 

Half-angels. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark short cross fitchee pierced. 

CTRVX A TtVeC r SPeCS y V r niCCfi x Usual 
obverse type of the archangel Michael pierc- 
ing the dragon. 

Rev. No mint-mark. ffDWTYRD DI GRTT EGCX 
7YR6L' ^ FE7T Usual reverse type of ship 
with 6C and rose at sides of mast. 

[PL XXI. 4.] British Museum. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark annulet. 6CDW7TED DI 6E7T R6CX 

7YR6L' Usual obverse type. 

Rev. Mint-mark annulet and rose side by side. O 
dRVX 7VVGC Y SPSS A VRICC7Y r Usual 
reverse type. British Museum. 

3. 0&0. Mint-mark annulet. eCDWT^RD Y DI Y 6E7V A 

RffX Y 7VR6L A Usual obverse type ; ci'oss 
in nimbus of angel. 



Rev. Mint-mark annulet. dRVX Y TTVeC A SP6CS 
VnidTY ^ Rose after SP6CS and 
; usual reverse type. F. A. W. 



SILVER. 

Groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark large annulet. ffDWTTRD DI 



6R7V RffX o KYlGL <> FETTRtt Annulet 
stop after DI and ESX ; bust exactly as on 
restoration groats of Henry VI. 

Rev. Mint-mark short cross fitchee pierced. POSVI 

mvm r TYDIVTORGC mecvm QIVIT^S 

LORDOR The same B-like R's as on restora- 
tion groats of Henry VI. [PL XXI. 3.] 



THE COINAGE OF THE EEIGN OF EDWARD IV. 355 

2. Obv. Mint-mark short cross fitchee pierced ; usual 

legend and type. 

Rev. Large trefoil ; usual legends and type. 

L. A. Lawrence Collection. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark large annulet. ffDWTTRD' DI 

GR7V RSX TtnSL' o y FRTmCC An- 
nulet stop after all words except DI and 
FR7VRGC ; all cusps of tressure fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark large trefoil ; legends as No. 1 ; no 
stops ; usual cross and pellets. F. A. W. 

4. Obv. Mint-mark smaller annulet; legend as No. 1, 

but saltire stops ; all cusps of tressure fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark large trefoil ; usual legends ; trefoil 
after DSVm F. A. W. 



5. Obv. Mint-mark smaller annulet ; legend as No. 1 ; 

saltire stops ; cusps of tressure above crown 
not fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark smaller annulet ; usual legends ; no 
stops. 

6. Obv. Mint-mark smaller annulet ; legends as No. 1 ; 

trefoil stops. 

Rev. Mint-mark smaller annulet ; usual legends ; 
saltire stops. [PI. XXI. 7.] 

7. Obv. Mint-mark annulet; usual legends and type; 

saltire stops ; all cusps of tressure fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet ; usual 
legends ; no stops. [PI. XXI. 8.] F. A. W. 

Half-groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark annulet. 6CDW7VRD' x DI x 6R7V 
EGCX x 7TRGL S FR Saltire stops ; similar 
bust to Henry VI restoration half-groats ; 
cusps of tressure above crown not fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark annulet. POSVI D6CV5H 7VDIV- 
TOR6C maVftl CQVITfiS LCmDOR Pellets 
united as trefoils. [PI. XXI. 10.] F. A. W. 



356 FREDK. K. WALTERS. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark annulet; legend as No. 1, arch on 

breast plain. 

Rev. Mint-mark rose ; usual type and legends. 

L. A. Lawrence Collection. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark annulet ; legend as No. 1 ; all cusps 

of tressure fleured. 

Rev. No mint-mark ; usual legends ; pellets trefoil- 
wise. W. M. Maish. 

Pennies. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark annulet. 6CDW7TRD DI 6E7I E6CX 

7TR6L 

Rev. aiVITTYS LORDOR Usual cross and pellets 
(not united). F. A. W. 

2. Obv. Short cross fitchee pierced ; " restoration " type 

of bust ; legend as No. 1 . 

Rev. No mint-mark ; usual type. dlVITTVS LORDOR 

Half-penny. 

Obv. Mint-mark annulet. 6CDW7YRD DI 6R7T EffX 

Rev. dlVITTVS LORDOR Pellets united as trefoils. 

F. A. W. 



COINS FROM THE LONDON MlNT WHILE THE ANNULET 
ENCLOSING PELLET WAS USED AS A MINT-MARK. 

GOLD. 
Angels. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark annulet. ffDWTVRD' A DQI A 6R7V A 
R6CX A 7VR6L A ^ A FRTVRd A Usual type 
for angels. 

Rev. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet. P6CR 

ccRvaam x TVTT x STVLVTV x ROS x xpa' x 

RffDecmPT' Usual type; 6C to r. of cross 
and to 1. rose punched over a sun. 

[PI. XXII. 1.] 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 357 

2. Obv. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet. 

6CDW7TRD A Dai v GRft r RaX * 7YOGL 
A <> r FRTYnOU Usual obverse type. 

Rev. Annulet enclosing pellet. P6CR dRVdfffll 
TV7T SfiLVTY ROS XPff RSDamPT Sal- 
tire stops ; usual reverse type ; GC to 1. and 
sun to r. of mast. 

Montagu Collection, lot 593. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet ; legend as 

No. 1 ; angel rather shorter and somewhat 
different to usual character ; saltire" stops. 

Rev. No mint-mark. PffR dRVSa TV7V STtLVTY A 
DOS XPd RGDamTO a to 1., rose to r. of 
cross. F. A. W. 

Half-angel. None discovered or recorded. 



SILVER. 
Groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet. 6CDW7TRD' 

Dai x GR7F x Rax x 7TR6L' FRTYnCC 
Larger bust with more bushy hair ; rose in 
field each side of bust. All cusps of tressure 
fleured with trefoils of pellets rather larger 
than on last issue. 

Rev. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet ; usual type 
and legends ; saltire stop. [PL XXI. 9.] The 
R's in the legends cease to resemble B's and 
return to the usual form. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet. 

6CDW7VRD' x DSI x GR7T Rax x TmGL' ^ 
FR7TRCC x All arches of tressure fleured ; 
same bust as last ; no roses in the field. 

Rev. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet ; usual 
reverse type and legends. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet. 

DI aRTT RaX x TYRGL' FRTYnd x 



Rev. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet; usual 
legends and type. 



358 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

Half -groat. 

Obv. Annulet enclosing pellet. ffDWTSRD DGtl 
GRTt RflX 7VR6L ^ FR7Y Peculiar bust; 
no emblems or marks ; cusps of tressure 
above crown, and on breast not fleured. 

Eev Mint-mark rose. POSVI DQTfll 7VDIVTOR6C 

mavm diviTTvs LORDOR Usual type; 

pellets united as trefoils. [PL XXI. 11.1 

F. A. W. 

Penny. 

Obv. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet. 6C D W7VR D 
Dai 6R7Y RffX TTRGLa Bust correspond- 
ing with larger pieces. 

Eev. dlVITfiS LORDOR Usual cross and pellets. 

W. T. Ready. 

Half-penny. 

Obv. Mint-mark annulet enclosing pellet. ffD W7VRD 
DI 6K7V R6CX 

Eev. dlVlTTYS LORDOR Pellets united as trefoils. 

F. A. W. 



THE CROSS AND FOUR PELLETS MINT-MARK. 

Angels. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark cross with pellet in each angle. 



Dffl x 6R7T x RffX x 

# FRTYRtt * A ^ Large trefoil at end of 
legend. St. Michael and the dragon as 
before ; no cross in nimbus. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross with pellet in each angle. 

aRvaam TVTT STYLVTT ROS xpa' 

Type as usual. [PI. XXII. 3.] 

2. Obv. All as No. 1. 

Eev. Mint-mark plain cross pierced ; legend and type 
as before. 

Half-angel. None discovered so far. 



THE COINAGE OP THE EEIGN OF EDWARD IV. 359 

Groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark cross with pellet in each angle. 

dDWftRD' Ddl * GR7T x RdX x ARGL' 
FRTYRd *. Large trefoils of pellets or fleurs 
to all cusps of the tressure ; bust varying 
from the last type, more bushy hair and 
crown larger and higher ; the X in ARGL 
has now for the first time a V-shaped bar. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross with pellet in each angle; 
usual legends and type. The A in TSS has 
the V-shaped bar for the first time. 

[PI. XXII. 4.] 

2. Obv. Mint-mark cross with pellet in each angle ; 

portrait and legends as No. 1. 

Rev. Mint-mark plain cross pierced ; legends and type 
as usual. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark cross with pellet in each angle ; 

legend and type as No. 1, with barred A in 



Rev. Mint-mark cross punched over annulet (and 
pellet ?) usual legends and type, but no barred 
7T in TftS 



Half-groats. None have been so far discovered. 
Pennies or halfpennies are still unknown. 



THE CROSS PIERCKD MINT-MARK (FIRST VARIETY). 

Angel. 

Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced. dDWTYRD' x Ddl x 
GR7T x EdX x TmGL FRfiRd x Usual 
type. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced. PffR dRVdffm 
TV7V S7YLV7Y ROS XPd RdDffmPT Usual 
reverse type. A. H. Baldwin. 



360 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

Half-angel. 

Obv. Cross punched over annulet (and pellet?). 
ffDWTTRD DffI 6RTC RffX 7Yn6Lff Usual 
type. 

Rev. Cross over annulet (and pellet ?). CCRVX 
TCVff SPffS xvnidfi* Usual reverse 
type. British Museum. 

Groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark plain cross pierced. GCDWTVRDx 

DffI x 6R7T x RffX x AI76L' x y FRfina 
Bust very similar to the last issue ; trefoil 
terminals to all points of tressure. 

Rev. Mint-mark plain cross pierced ; usual legends 
and type ; barred X in TXS. 

[PL XXII. 5.] 

2. Obv. Mint-mark plain cross pierced ; legend as No. 1. 

Rev. Mint-mark pierced cross with pellet in first 
quarter ; usual legends as last. 

Half -groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark pierced cross over annulet (and 

pellet ?). ffD W7VKD DCI 6E7T K6CX 7VR6L 
^. FKT^R Bust corresponding with groat ; 
all cusps of tressure fleured with trefoils of 
pellets. 

Rev. Mint-mark pierced cross with pellet in fourth 
quarter ; usual legend and type ; pellets tre- 
foilwise. [PI. XXII. 7.] 

2. Obv. Mint-mark cross over annulet (and pellet ?) ; 

legend as No. 1. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross over annulet (and pellet ?) ; 
usual legend and type ; pellets trefoil wise. 

Pennies. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark cross over annulet (and pellet). 
EDWARD Dffl 6R7T EffX TTOGLff This 
obverse is from the same die as the penny 
previously described under the annulet and 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 361 

pellet issue before the cross had been punched 
over the original mint-mark. Guided mainly 
by this penny, I have ascribed all coins from 
dies showing the cross punched over the 
annulet to having been struck from dies 
originally belonging to the annulet and pellet 
issue, to which their other characteristics 
also locate them. 

No mint-mark. dlVITTTS LORDOR Usual 
design ; pellets not united. [PI. XXI. 12.] 



2. Obv. Mint-mark plain cross (pierced ?). 

DSI 6Rfi RdX TmGL' Large bust with 
bushy hair. 

Rev. No mint-mark. CCIVITfiS LORDOR Pellets 
not united. F. A. W. 

Halfpenny. 

Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced. aDWTTRD Dffl 
GRfi RSX 

Rev. aiVITTTS LORDOR Usual type ; pellets tre- 
foilwise. F. A. W. 



THE PIERCED CROSS AND ONE PELLET ISSUE. 

Angels. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced. GCDWT^ED'x DffI * 

6R7Y x RaX x 7VR6L <> FETTRtt Usual 
obverse type. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced with pellet in fourth 
quarter. PffRdRVdam TVA SftLVTV 
ROS x XPd * RSDamPT Usual reverse 
type. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced pellet in third quarter ; 

legend as last, but reads DI ; usual obverse 
type. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in third 
quarter ; legend as No. 1 ; usual reverse type. 



362 FEEDK. A. WALTERS. 

Half-angel. 

Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in third 
quarter. ffDWTVED' x DI x QRK x KGCX x 
Usual obverse type. 



Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in fourth 
quarter. x x CCRVX x 7YV6C SPffS x 
VRIOC7T # Usual reverse type; rose after 
7VT6C, sun after VnidTt. [PI. XXII. 9.] 



Groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in fourth 

quarter. GCDWTTRD'x DI x GR7T x E6CX x 
SR6L FRTmCC Large bust, with full 
bushy hair; cusps of tressure, except those 
above crown and on breast, fleured with 
large three-leaved terminals. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in fourth 
quarter. POSVI x DCVm x TTDIVTORGC'x 

mecvm aiviTAS Loncon Usual cross 

and pellets. [PI. XXII. 11.] 

2. Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in fourth 

quarter ; legends and type as No. 1. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in third 
quarter ; rose after DQTJR 

3. Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in third 

quarter; legend and type as No. 1. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in fourth 
quarter. 

4. Obv. Mint-mark as last ; legend and type as before. 

Rev. Mint-mark as last ; rose after D6CVJH, sun after 
TYDIVTORff 



5. Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced; pellet in third quarter. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced ; pellet infourth quarter; 
sun after 



THE COINAGE OP THE EEIGN OF EDWAKD IV. 363 

Half-groat. 

Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in third 
quarter. SDWTYRD'x DI x GKTV'x EffX x 
7\[RGL FKTTx Large pellet trefoils as 
cusps to tressure ; no fleurs on breast or 
above crown. 

Rev. Cross punched over annulet (and pellet?). 

POSVI Davm TtDivTOKec mavm 

dlVITTVS LORDOR Pellets trefoilwise. 
[PI. XXII. 6.] F. A. W. 

Pennies. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in fourth 

quarter. ffDWfiRD' D6CI 6R7V' R6CX 7VRGL 
Late type of bust, with larger face and less 
bushy hair. 

Eev. No mint-mark. dlVITTTS LORDOR Usual 
type. F. A. W. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in third 

quarter ; legend as No. 1. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced. GCIVITTVS LORDOR. 

[PI. XXII. 12.] 

Halfpenny. 

Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced, with pellet in third 
quarter. ffDWTVED Dffl GRfi EffX 

Rev. CCIVITfiS LORDOR Pellets trefoilwise. 

F. A. W. 



THE PIERCED CROSS MINT-MARK (SECOND TYPE). 

Angel. 

Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced. 6CDW7TED x DI r 



6EA r EffX A 7YR6L A ^ r FKTmCC Usual 
type. 

Eev. No mint-mark. PffR x dRVdffm x TVfi x 
STCLV7T x ROS x XPd KffDecmPT Usual 
reverse type. British Museum. 

On account of the reading DI this is placed here, but 



364 FEEDK. A. WALTERS. 

with the gold there is not the same difference of character 
as with the silver by which to distinguish the second 
from the first variety of this mint-mark. 

Groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced. CtDWTtRD DI GKft 

K6CX SR6L S FRT^nd Large bust with 
bushy hair ; large three-leaved fleurs to cusps 
of tressure ; none on bust. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced ; usual legends and 
type ; rose after DQTfll 

2. Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced ; legend as last, and 

bust of similar character with a pellet each 
side in the field ; cusps above crown and on 
breast not fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark cross pierced ; usual legends ; rose 
after 7YDIVTOR6C ; small extra pellet in 
second and fourth quarters. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced of rather pattee form, 

with pellet in centre of sinking ; legend as 
No. 1. 

Rev. Mint-mark pierced cross ; usual legends ; rose 
after 7TDIVTOK6C ; extra pellet in second and 
fourth quarters. H. B. Earle Fox. 

4. Obv. Mint-mark pierced cross pattee with pellet in 

centre ; legend and bust as No. 1 ; no fleurs 
above crown or on breast. 

Rev. Mint-mark pierced cross pattee with pellet in 
centre ; usual legends ; rose after DffVSft ; 
usual type ; no extra pellet in quarters of 
cross. H. B. Earle Fox. 



Half-groats and pennies have not so far been noted, but as 
the half -penny is known, they may probably 
be looked for. 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 365 

Half -penny. 

Obv. Mint-mark cross pierced. SDW7IED D6CI 6E7V 
E&X Pellet each side of bust. 

Rev. dlYlTTVS LOODOn Usual type. 

[PI. XXII. 8.] F. A. W. 



THE CINQUEFOIL MINT-MARK. 
Angels. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil. GCDWTYED'x 

DGCI * 6E7T x E6CX x 7YRGL' x S FETmCC x 
Usual obverse type. 

Rev. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil. P[R 

dEvaecm x TVTT X STVLVTV x nos x XPCC x 

EffDamPT Usual reverse type. 

[PL XXIII. 1.] 

2. Obv. All as last. 



Bev. As last, but 

3. Obv. and Bev. As No. 1, but 

4. Obv. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil ; legend as No. 1 ; 

saltire stops. 



Rev. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil. Pff 

TV7V SfiLVTt RS RffDamPT No stops. 
Montagu Collection, No. 596. 

Half-angels. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil over cross pierced. 

GCDWT^ED x DI x 6E7V x E6CX x T^RGL' 
Usual type. 

Rev. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil over cross pierced. 

x o CCEVX x Trvec @ spas x vnia7v x 

Rose after 7VV6C and VRICCT^ ; usual reverse 
type. F. A. W. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil ; legend and type 

as No. 1. 

Rev. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil ; legend and type 
as last ; rose after CCEVX and SPGCS 

Montagu Collection, No. 600. 



366 FKEDK. A. WALTERS. 

Groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil. 6CDW7TKD DI 

6E7V RaX 7TOGL <> FRTmd Rose after 
7VR6L ; rose (or curled leaf) on breast. 

Bev. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil ; usual legends ; 
rose after DffVfll 

N.B. On the groats of this issue the " roses " on the 
breast and in legends appear to be the curled leaf and 
not regular roses as on previous issues. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil ; legend as No. 1, 

but all X's with V-shaped bars ; rose or 
curled leaf on breast. 

Rev. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil ; usual legends, 
with all A's barred ; rose after DGCVSR 

3. Obv. and Bev. All as last, but A's barred only in 

SR6L and TAS [PI. XXIII. 2.] 

4. Obv. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil, with pellet to 1. ; 

all cusps of tressure fleured ; " rose " on 
breast ; late type of bust like Richard III. 

Bev. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil, with pellet to 1. : 
usual legend; curled leaf after POSVI and 
TYDIVTOKa ; small extra pellet in centre of 
group in first quarter. 

5. Obv. and Bev. As No. 1, but no roses or suns in 

legends. 

Half -groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil. 6CDW7TRD 
Dai 6R7T RSX TTOGL <> FE7V Bust with 
long and outstanding hair. 

Bev. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil ; usual legends 
and type. F. A. W. 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 367 

2. Obv. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil ; legend as last, 
but different type of bust with fuller face, 
short neck, and smaller hair ; all cusps of 
tressure fleured except that on breast. 

Rev. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil ; legends as last ; 
pellets trefoilwise. [PI. XXIII. 3.] 

British Museum. 

Pennies. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil. GCDWTCRD 

DCI 6R7T RffX 7VR6L' Bust with long 
hair and large crown. 

Rev. dlVITfiS LOnDOR Usual type. 

2. Obv. and Rev. All as last, but different bust, similar 

to that on No. 2 half-groat. 

[PI. XXIII. 4.] British Museum. 

Halfpennies. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil. 

Dffl GRft RSX Usual type. 

Rev. aiYITTVS LORDOR Pellets trefoilwise. 

2. Same as last, but reads DI 



THE PROVINCIAL ROYAL MINTS. 
COINS STRUCK AT BRISTOL PROM MAY, 1471, TO JULY, 1472. 

Angels. 

1 . Obv. Mint-mark annulet, with small trefoil in centre. 
6CDW7TRD Dffl GRTC R6CX 7TO6L <> 
FET^nOCY Trefoil in centre of the archangel's 
nimbus and at each side of the cross in his 
hand. 

Rev. No mint- mark. PCR $ ttRVSeC' A TVTC 
S7VLV7T r nOS r XPd'v KffDffTOR r Usual 
reverse type, with 6C and rose at sides of ship's 
mast ; B in the waves beneath. 

Evans Collection. 



368 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark annulet ; legend as last ; no stops, 
but the trefoils after FBTmCC Trefoil in 
archangel's nimbus. 

Rev. No mint-mark ; legend as last ; two trefoils 
after P6CE and one after dBVSeC, S7VLV7T, 
ROS, and XPCC. [PL XXIII. 5.] 

British Museum, from the Cuff Collection. 

Groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark rose. GCDWTttU)' DI r 6E7T E6CX v 

7YR6L A ^*FE7Tna Bust of the restora- 
tion type ; B on breast ; no emblems in the 
field ; tressure fleured with small trefoils ; no 
fleurs above crown. 

Rev. Mint-mark rose. POSVI DGCVm x TVDIVTOEeC 

mecvm - X X VILLTV x BEISTOW - The v 

in Villa has been a W of which the first part 
has been obliterated by punching two saltire 
stops over it. [PI. XXIII. 6, 7.] 

The reverse of this coin is from the same 
die as the groat of Henry VI reading 
fySREICIVS Both coins are shown on the 
plate for comparison. F. A. W. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark rose ; legend and other details as 

No. 1 ; B on breast. 

Rev. Mint-mark annulet; usual outer legend. VILL7V 
BRISTOW F. A. W. 



3. Obv. Mint-mark sun ; legend, &c., as No. 1 ; B on 
breast. 

Rev. Mint-mark annulet ; usual outer legend. VILL7V 
BRISTOW F. A. W. 



4. Obv. Mint-mark annulet ; legend, &c., as No. 1 ; 
cusps over crown fleured ; B on breast ; 
trefoil stops. 

Rev. Mint-mark annulet ; usual outer legend ; trefoil 
stop after DGCVm - VILL7T r BEISTOW 

[PI. XXIII. 9.] 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OP EDWARD IV. 369 

5. Obv. Mint-mark annulet, all as last ; trefoil stop. 

Rev. No mint-mark ; usual outer legend ; no stops. 
VILLft BRISATOW [PI. XXIII. 8.] 



Half-groat. 

Obv. Mint-mark rose. ffDWTYRD r DI GK7T R6CX 
7TI76L ^ FR7V B on breast; no emblems 
in field. 

Rev. Mint-mark short cross fitchee pierced. POSVI 

Decvm TVDIVTORGC mavsn - VILLTY 

BRISTOW Pellets trefoilwise. 

[PI. XXIII. 10.] British Museum. 



COINS STRUCK AT YORK FROM APRIL TO SEPTEMBER, 1471. 

Gold. 

No angels or angelets have so far been discovered, 
although a certain amount of gold was coined 
at the York Mint during this period. 



Silver. 
Groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark lys. ffDWTVRD DI GRTf r 

7YI76L A<^ FRTVnCC GC on breast; no em- 
blems in field. Small trefoil fleurs to cusps 
of tressure ; bust of the period of the restora- 
tion. 



Rev. Mint-mark lys. POSVI 

mecvm aiviT^ 

[PI. XXIV. 1.] 

N.B. Both sides have the B-like R's of 
this period. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark lys ; legend, &c., as last, but saltire 
stops after all words but DI and FRTTRCC ; 
no emblems in field. 

Reo. All as last. 
NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. 2 C 



370 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

Half-groat. 

Glv. Mint-mark lys. eCDWTTRD' DI x 6R7f x RffX 
7TR6L <> FR7TR No 6C on breast ; all cusps 
of treasure fleured with small trefoils except 
those above crown ; no emblems in field. 



Eev. Mint-mark lys. POSVI 

metVm - dlVITTCS eCBORTtai Pellets 
separate. [PI. XXIV. 2.] F. A. W. 

Pennies. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark lys. EDWARD DI 6Rfi RGtX 

7VR6L Bust of the restoration period ; no 
emblems in field. 

Eev. dIVITfiS eCBORTVdl Cross with quatrefoil 
in centre, and usual pellets in angles. 

H. B. Earle Fox. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark annulet. 6CDW7VRD DI 6R7V 

R6CX 7YR6 " Restoration " type of bust ; 
no emblems in field. 

Eev. dlVITTTS aBORftdl Cross with quatrefoil 
in centre and usual pellets not found. 

[PI. XXIV. 3.] F. A. W. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark rose. 6CDWARD DI 6R7V R6CX 

7VR6L Bust of late character, with rose on 
breast. 

Rev. Cross with quatrefoil in centre and usual pellets. 
CQVITTYS aBORTtdl 

This last may be a sede vacanle coin of 
later date. 

In the first portion of this reign (Num. Chron., Fourth 
Series, Vol. IX. p. 175) reasons are given for the assump- 
tion that the quatrefoil in the centre of the cross, although 
originally a mark of the archiepiscopal mint, had by this 
time become so identified with the York pennies that it 
was used on these coins from both mints. It is found 
on pennies of Eichard III without the archiepiscopal 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWAED IV. 371 

emblems, which there can be no doubt are from the 
Eoyal Mint. 

THE ECCLESIASTICAL MINTS. 

YORK. 
Archbishop Nevill, 1471 (all pennies). 

1. Obv. Mint-mark short cross fitche"e pierced. 

CDW7TED DI GR7V R6CX 7U16 "Restora- 
tion " type of bust ; 6 to the 1. and key to 
the r. iu the field. 

Rev. (IIVITfiS GCBOETVar Cross with quatrefoil in 
centre and usual pellets in angle. 

N.B. Other specimens read TTOSL on the obverse. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark rose, reads 7TR6L' ; " restoration " 

bust ; 6 and key in field. 

Rev. All as last. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark lys ; legend, &c., as No. 1. 
Rev. As No. 1. 

During the Sequestration of Archbishop NeviH's Temporalities. 

Obv. Mint-mark roae ; legend as before. 7VR6L 6C 
to the 1., and curled leaf to the r. in field. 

Rev. All exactly as previous pennies, with quatrefoil 
in centre of cross. 

Sede Vacante Pennies after the Death of Archbishop Nevill. 

1 . Obv. Mint-mark cross ; bust of later character ; 

curled leaf to the 1. and key to the r. in field. 

Rev. All as on previous pennies. 

2. All as last, but mint-mark rose. 

2c2 



372 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 



Archbishop Laurence Booth, 1476-1480. 

Obv. Mint-mark rose ; legend as before ; B to the 1. 
and key to the r. of bust. 

Rev. All as previous pennies. 



Archbishop Thomas of Rotherham^ 1480. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark curled leaf. 6CDW7YED DI 6E'A 
EffX 7CR6 T to the 1. and key to the r. of 
bust in field. 



ffBOKTVdl Usual type, with quatre- 
foil in centre of cross. 



2. Obv. Mint-mark curled leaf ; legend ends 7VR6L T 
and key in field ; star or mullet on breast. 

Rev. All as last. 



3. Obv. Mint-mark and legend, &c., as last, but star or 
mullet on breast and to r. of crown in field. 

Rev. All as before. 



THE CANTERBURY MINT. 

Coins with the " Restoration " Type of Bust and other details. 

Half -groat. 

Obv. Mint-mark archiepiscopal pall and cross (the 
arms of the See). 6CDW7VED DI 6E7V E6CX 
7YR6L ^ FE7VR Bust characteristic of this 
period, with Bourchier knot on breast ; no 
emblems ; in field, tressure fleured with small 
pellet trefoils, none above crown. 



Rev. Mint-mark pall and cross. POSVI 

TVDiviOEff mecvm - QIVITTTS CITVRTOE 

Usual cross and pellets ; stalk from inner 
beaded circle to centre of group in first 
quarter. F. A. W. 



THE COINAGE OF THE EEIGN OF EDWARD IV. 373 



Coins with Bust and Characteristics of the London Coins, with 
the Pierced-Cross and Cross-and-Pellet Mint-marks. 

Half-groatg. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark pall. ffDWTCED DI 6E7T EffX 

7YRSL ^ FE7T Bust with large crown and 
full hair, with Bourchier knot beneath ; no 
emblems in field ; cusp of tressure fleured, 
with large three-leaved terminals, none over 
crown. 

Rev. No mint-mark ; usual outer legend. CCIVIT7YS 
CCT^RTOE Stalk from inner circle to group 
of pellets in second quarter. 

[PI. XXIV. 6.] 

2. All as last, but on rev. stalk in first group of pellets 

which are all trefoilwise. 

Penny. 

Obv. Mint-mark pall. Similar bust to that on 
half-groats, with Bourchier knot beneath. 
ffDWTVRD DI GETt E6CX 7YR 

Rev. dlVITTTS dTYRTOE Usual cross and pellets 
(which are not united), with stalk to group 
in second quarter. 

[PI. XXIV. 7.] F. A. W. 

Coins corresponding in character of details with the Half-groats 
and Pennies from the Tower Mint, while the Cross Pierced 
and Pellet, and the Cinquefoil Mint-marks were in Use. 

Half -groats. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark large rose. ffDWTTRD'x DI GETt x 

RffX x 7TRGL x ^ FE7V Bust characteristic 
of the period ; (I on breast ; all cusps of tres- 
sure fleured with small trefoils. 

Rev. Mint-mark large rose. POSVI DCVSH * 
7W)IVTOK' X SRffVm Cross and pellets 
(trefoilwise), but no stalk in any quarter ; 
ff in centre of the cross. [PI. XXIV. 8.] 

2. All as No. 1, but no fleurs to cusps of tressure. 



374 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark large rose; legend as No. 1, but 

FR7VR Curled leaf on breast ; all cusps of 
treasure fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark large rose ; legends as No. 1 ; nothing 
in centre of cross ; pellets trefoilwise ; no 
stalk. 

4. Obv. Mint-mark curled leaf; legend as No. 1. CC on 

breast ; cusps above crown not fleured. 

Rev. Mint-mark large rose; legends as No. 1 ; nothing 
in centre of cross ; pellets trefoilwise. 

5. Obv. Mint-mark large rose ; legend and bust as No. 1 . 

CC on breast ; no fleurs to cusps of tressure. 

Rev. Mint-mark large rose; legends, &c., as No. 1. 
Curled leaf in centre of cross ; pellets trefoil- 
wise. W. M. Maish. 

6. Obv. and Rev. Mint-mark curled leaf ; OC on breast. 

Cusps of tressure fleured except over crown ; 
legends as No. 1. 

7. Obv. Mint-mark cross fitchee ; same bust and cha- 

racteristics as previous half-groats ; no fleurs 
to tressure ; no letter or emblem on breast. 

Rev. Mint-mark heraldic cinquefoil; legends as No. 1; 
nothing in centre of cross ; pellets trefoilwise. 

Pennies. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark rose (or curled leaf). 6CDW7TRD 

Dai 6E7T ECCX 7VR6L Bust as on late 
London pennies ; no emblems in field or knot 
under bust. 

Rev. ttlVITTCS CCTmTOK Usual cross and pellets. 

British Museum. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark curled leaf (in form of rose) ; legend 

as last ; late bust with short close hair ; CC on 
breast. 

Rev. aiVITHS CCTtnTOB Usual type. F. A. W. 



THE COINAGE OF THE REIGN OF EDWARD IV. 375 

Halfpenny. 

Obv. Mint-mark rose (or curled leaf). 6CDW7YED 
Dffl 6E7V EffX Usual bust of the period, 
with CC on breast. 

Rev. aiVITTVS CmRTOE Pellets trefoilwise. 

F. A. W. 



THE DURHAM MINT. 

Between April, 1471, and August, 1473. 
Penny. 

Obv. Mint-mark rose. 6CDW7YBD DI 6E7V E6CX 
TfRSL Bust of the restoration period. B to 
the 1. and D to the r. in the field. 

Rev. ttlVITTVS * DffEfiStt B in centre of cross. 
These coins appear to be from London-made dies. 



The Coins struck by Bishop Booth after obtaining his Charter 
in July, 1473. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark rose. GCDW^ED D6CI 6E7T EGCX 
7VR Bust with high crown having the 
centre ornament more elaborate than the 
usual fleur-de-lys. B to the 1. of crown and 
V on breast. 

Eev. dlVlTTtS DVROLmiGC D in centre of the 
cross ; small extra pellet in centre of the 
usual group in each quarter ; V in top corner 
of second quarter. [PL XXIV. 9.] 



2. Obv. Mint-mark rose ; legend and other details all 

as No. 1, but sal tire cross at each side of 
neck. 

Rev. All as No. 1. 



376 FREDK. A. WALTERS. 

3. Obv. Mint-mark rose. GCDWTtRD x DI x GRTt RffX 

TfRloL Bust of same character, but centre 
crown ornament a fleur-de-lys ; two small 
crosses above crown ; no emblems on letters 
in field or on breast. 

Eev. All as No. 1, with V in second quarter. 

4. Obv. Mint-mark rose (?) ; legend and other details 

all as last, but cross or quatrefoil on king's 
breast. 

Eev. All as before, but additional pellet only in fourth 
quarter. 

N.B. All the above four coins are from the locally 
made dies of William Omoryche. 



Sede Vacante Pennies struck after the Translation of Bishop 
Booth to York in 1476, and before the Temporalities were 
restored to his Successor, Bishop Dudley, in October, 1477. 

1. Obv. Mint-mark curled leaf. ffDWTTEI) DI 6R7V 

R6CX 7V06 Bust similar to that on the late 
London pennies, with lys at each side in the 
field. 

Eev. dlVITfiS DffRTWft D in centre of cross. 

[PI. XXIV. 10.] F. A. W. 

2. Obv. Mint-mark (?) ; legend as last, ending 7VR6L ; 

bust of apparently rather earlier character ; 
lys on each side in field. 

Rev. GQVITTfS DffRTVm No D in centre of cross. 

F. A. W. 

N.B. These coins are from London-made dies. 



Pennies of Bishop Dudley, between 1477 and 1483. 

Obv. Mint-mark rose. ffDWTSRD DI GRft RGtX 
7VR6 Bust of the king, having D to the ]. 
and V to the r. in the field. 



THE COINAGE OF THE KEIGN OF EDWARD IV. 377 

Eev. dlVITTTS DffRTWn D in centre of the cross 
and V in second quarter. 

N B. These coins are practically always badly struck 
from rudely executed dies, presumably of William 
Omoryche. 

Half-penny. 

Obv. Mint-mark rose(?). CDW 

No marks visible in field or on breast. 

Eev. dlVITTVS D6C x RTOtt D in centre of cross. 
[PI. XXIV. 11.] British Museum. 

FREDK. A. WALTERS. 



MISCELLANEA. 



THE DADIA HOARD OP COINS OP KNIDOS. 

SINCE I wrote the note on coins of Knidos which appeared 
in the Numismatic Chronicle, 1911, p. 197, a number of other 
specimens from the same hoard, which appears to have been 
found at Dadia in the Knidian Chersonese, have come into my 
hands ; and a general account of this series of Knidian coins, 
describing examples from this hoard and elsewhere, has been 
published by Dr. Imhoof-Blumer in Num. Zeitschr., xlv. 
(1912), pp. 193ff. As the hoard has now been dispersed far 
and wide, there seems little chance that any summary of its 
contents as a whole can ever be compiled; but it may be 
worth while to place on record such facts as have emerged 
from my examination. 

The hoard would appear to have consisted mainly, if not 
entirely, of the two small denominations mentioned in my 
previous note hemidrachms (or possibly diobols) with types 
obv. head of Aphrodite r., rev. head of bull, and tetrobols 
with types obv. bust of Artemis r., rev. tripod. Other coins, 
of Knidos and elsewhere, have been offered for sale with these, 
but I have not had any satisfactory evidence that they came 
from the same hoard, although they may have done so. The 
tetrobols form much the larger proportion of the coins from 
the hoard which I have seen, and are on the average in fresher 
condition than the hemidrachms ; this fact, together with 
considerations of style, would seem to suggest that the series 
of tetrobols was later in date of issue. The magistrates' names 
on the two series are distinct. 

In the hemidrachms some coins have on the reverse a bull's 
head to front only, but usually on the left of the head a 
portion of the neck is shown. These variations do not appear 
to mark any distinction of issue ; but the coins of this de- 
nomination may be divided into two classes on other grounds. 
The first class is formed by the coins of the magistrates 



MISCELLANEA. 379 

Epikrates and Epiphanes ; in these there is no border of dots 
on the obverse, and on the reverse the magistrate's name 
begins on the right of the bull's head and curves underneath 
it, reading inwards. In the second class there is a border 
of dots on the obverse, and on the reverse the name begins 
on the left, reading outwards, and usually curving under the 
head ; this class includes the coins of Agesikles, Antipatros, 
Mnasitheos, and Sostratos. The specimens of the first class 
are the more worn, and presumably earlier in date. In both 
classes the ethnic on the reverse is above the bull's head ; 
there is a third class, with generally similar types, but on the 
reverse the ethnic to the left of the head and the magistrate's 
name to the right, no examples of which seem to have occurred 
in the Dadia hoard. The die-position is normally f *\ : this 
position is so regular that it looks as if it were due to design ; 
the only coin with the die-position ff which 1 have noted is 
one of Sostratos. 

The following summary gives the respective dies used in 
the specimens which I have had (omitting those magistrates 
of whom there was only one example), and the weights of 
those coins which were not given in my previous note. The 
dies are lettered in capitals for obverses, in small letters for 
reverses, separately for each magistrate ; the weights are in 
grammes. 

AGESIKLES. 

Dies. Aa, Ab, Ac, Ad, Be, Bf, Bg, Bh, Ci, Ci, Dk, Ek, Fl, Gm, Hn, 

lo. 

Weights. 1-32, 1-08, 1-30, 0-81 (worn), 1-15, 1-23, 1-20, 1-21, 1-01, 
1-17, 1-04, 1-16, 0-97 (worn), 0'90 (worn), 1-14. 

EPIKKATES. 

Weight. 0'93 (worn). 

EPIPHANES. 

Dies. Aa, Aa, Ab. 

Weights. 0-99 (worn), 0-84 (worn), 1-32. 

MNASITHEOS. 

Dies. Aa, Ab, Be. 
Weights. 1-15, 1-18. 

The tetrobols can be more satisfactorily grouped than the 
hemidrachins, partly on account of the large number of 
examples available ; the die connexions give some clues to 
the chronological order of the issuing magistrates, and con- 
siderations of style help in the arrangement. 



380 MISCELLANEA. 

The coins of Kallippos are far superior in style to any 
others in this series, and on this account may perhaps be 
placed earliest. 

Next to them in respect of style comes a group including 
the issues of Agias, Aristokleidas, Epigenes, Kleumbrotos, 
Kydosthenes, and Moirichos, all of whose obverse dies are 
so similar in workmanship as to suggest that they are from 
the same hand. Four of these magistrates can be placed in 
chronological order. Moirichos and Kleumbrotos used the 
same obverse die, the coins of Moirichos being apparently 
the earlier struck ; and another obverse die served for coins 
of Kleumbrotos, Aristokleidas, and Agias, probably in this 
succession. The position of Epigenes and Kydosthenes in the 
group is uncertain. 

Theuteles and Hippokrates form the next group ; they had 
one obverse die in common, the coin of Theuteles being from 
a fresher state of the die. The style is distinctly poorer than 
that of the two preceding groups, but has a point of similarity 
with them in the fact that behind the shoulder of Artemis on 
the obverse there are shown a bow and quiver ; on the coins 
of the next two groups only a quiver is visible. 

Aristiadas and Diokles may be classed together by the 
style of their obverse dies, which look as if they were by the 
same artist ; but there is no evidence at present to show which 
was the earlier of the two. 

The last group comprises the coins of Epigonos, Epion, 
Eutherses, Telesippos, and Philokles, whose obverse dies are 
closely similar in their workmanship, which is very weak. 
Only Philokles and Eutherses can be connected by their use 
of the same dies, but their connexion is very clear ;- Eutherses 
employed not only an obverse die from which coins of Philokles 
were struck, but also a reverse die on which his name is cut, 
retrograde, over that of Philokles. 

If an examination could be made of all the coins from the 
hoard, probably further die-connexions could be established ; 
but, as they have been scattered to various parts of Europe, 
this is impracticable at present. It may be noted that, of 
the magistrates known to have struck tetrobols of this type, 
Exakestes, Euphron, Karneiskos, Kydokles, and Sosigenes 
were not, so far as I am aware, represented by any specimens 
in the hoard, and may have been in office later than the date 
of its burial. 

The die-position in this series is regularly / | W J V . 

There follows a summary of dies and weights of tetrobols 
on the same lines as in the case of the hemidrachms. 



MISCELLANEA. 381 

AGIAS. 

Dies. Aa, Bb. [A = Aristokleidas and Kleumbrotos B.] 
Weight. 2-32. 

ABISTIADAS. 
Dies. (Name in two lines) Aa, Bb, Be ; (name in one line) Bd, Be, 

Be, Bf, Bg. 
Weights. 2-27, 1-19, 2-25, 2-46, 2-34, 1-89 (worn), 2-42. 

EPIGENES. 

Dies. Aa, Ab, Ac, Bd, Bd, Be, Of, Dg. 
Weights. 2-17, 2-25, 2-39, 2-34, 2-15, 2-41, 2-46. 

EPIGONOS. 

Dies. Aa, Ab, Ab. 
Weights. 2-13, 2-31. 

EPION. 

Dies. Aa, Aa, Aa, Ab, Ac, Bd. 
Weights. 2-40, 2-13, 2-22, 2'45, 2 -27. 

EUTHEESES. 

Weight. 2-50. 

THEUTELES. 

Dies. Aa, Bb. [A = Hippokrates A.] 
HIPPOKRATES. 

Dies. Aa, Ab. [A = Theuteles A.] 

Weight. 2-29. 

KLEUMBBOTOS. 

Dies. Aa, Bb, Be. [A = Moirichos ; B = Agias A and Aristokleidas.] 
Weight. 2-51. 

KYDOSTHENES. 
Weight. 2-47. 

MOIRICHOS. 
Weight. 2-14. 

TELESIPPOS. 
Dies. Aa, Ab. 
Weight. 2-44. 

PHILOKLES. 

Dies. Aa, Aa, Ab, Ac, Ad, Be, Bf, Bf. [B = Eutberses.] 
Weights. 2-20, 2-25, 2-32, 1-96, 2-24, 2-38, 2-11. 

J. G. MILNE. 



382 MISCELLANEA. 



CARSPHAIRN FIND. (Coixs OF EDWARD I AND II.) 

A LARGE hoard of pennies of Edward I and II recently dis- 
covered at Carsphairn in Galloway corresponds so closely 
with the Blackhills hoard (described by Dr. G. Macdonald in 
Num. Chron., 1913, pp. 57, ff.) that a detailed description of 
it could add nothing to the knowledge acquired from the 
Blackhills find. It contained pennies of all classes from 
D RX to Dr. Macdonald's Group XXIX., and in this latter 
group there were sixteen coins of Durham with the mint-mark 
of Bishop Beaumont (1317-1333). The date of the deposit 
must therefore be approximately the same as that of Black- 
hills, circa 1320. There were also a few Scottish (Alexander 
III and Robert Bruce) and Irish (Edward) pennies, and 
Continental sterlings of Alost (Robert de Bethune, 1305- 
1322), Yvoy (Gaucher de Chatillon, 1303-1329), Serain 
(Valeran II, 1316-1354), Valenciennes (Jean II d'Avesnes, 
1280-1304), Aix-la-Chapelle (Louis de Baviere, 1313-1347), 
Cambrai (Guillaume de Hainault, 1292-1296); all these are 
compatible with the date 1320 for the deposit of the hoard. 
There were also four sterlings of Toul attributed to Thomas 
de Bourlemont (1330-1353) and three Anglo-Gallic sterlings 
attributed to Edward III. 

Of the four sterlings of Toul three were of the type of 
Chautard, No. 196, reading QC( MONSTE NOSTRE (bust 
facing crowned) and TOLLO QIVITSS (three pellets in each 
angle of cross), the fourth being No. 197, LVNTOLLSNGIQN. 
In his account (Num. Chron., 1905) of the Lochmaben hoard, 
a hoard of smaller number but covering precisely the same 
ground as the Blackhills and Carsphairn hoards, Dr. Mac- 
donald, describing a similar sterling of No. 196, commented 
on the difficulty in the generally accepted attribution of this 
sterling to Thomas de Bourlemont, as all other coins of the 
hoard pointed to a date earlier than 1330 for its deposit. I 
find that in the Tutbury hoard (1831), described in Archaeo- 
logia, XXIV.), there was a sterling of No. 197, and this hoard 
again covers precisely the same period ending with pennies 
of Bishop Beaumont of Durham (Macdonald, Group XXIX.). 
I think, therefore, that there can be no doubt that the attri- 
bution to Thomas de Bourlemont, which Chautard says is 
open to question, is incorrect. This view is strengthened by 
another sterling which Dr. Macdonald tells me was in the 
hoard; it had the obverse of Chautard, No. 190 (Ferri IV, 
1312-1328), and reverse of Chautard, No. 197 ; hence it is 
most probable that No. 197 and the kindred No. 196 are 



NOTICES OP RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 383 

both of the period of Ferri [V. The Anglo-Gallic sterlings 
are described by Mr. Hewlett in Num. Cliron., 1906, p. 307 ; 
they are similar to " var. a," but omit the annulet at the end 
of the reverse legend. Mr. Hewlett attributes these sterlings 
to Edward III on the ground of style, and explains that 
there is no external evidence to assist in the arrangement 
of the coins of the "Dux Aquitanie " period (before 1360). 
The Carsphairn find seems sufficient evidence for removing 
these sterlings to the reign of Edward II, to whom Mr. 
Hewlett was not able to assign any Anglo-Gallic coins. 

This hoard is described by Dr. Macdonald in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. He suggests 
as a possible alternative that this and the other kindred 
finds should, perhaps, be placed ten or fifteen years later 
than he previously supposed. 

I am greatly indebted to Dr. Macdonald, who not only 
enabled me to see these coins but supplied me with valuable 
information about the find, and especially about some coins 
which I was not able to see as they were already in the 
possession of the Scottish Society of Antiquaries. 

G. C. BROOKE. 



NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 



Catalogue of the Coins in the Panjab Museum, Lahore, Vol. I., 
Indo-Greek Coins (1) : Vol. II., Coins of the Mughal 
Empire (2 10*.), by R. B. Whitehead, I.C.S., M.R.A.S. ; 
published for the Panjab Government by the Clarendon 
Press. 

IT is over twenty years since the coins in the Lahore Museum 
were catalogued by Mr. Rodgers; since then the collection 
has been practically doubled by acquisitions from treasure 
trove, and in the case of the Indo-Greek series by the notable 
purchase of the collection formed by Mr. G. B. Bleazby during 
a long residence in the Panjab. The niggardly policy of the 
Government of Mr. Rodgers' day in archaeological matters 
prevented the results of his long study of Indian coins being 
given to the world in the form they deserved, so that his 
catalogue, without proper introductions, or indices, and with- 
out a single illustration, only served to make the need of a 
satisfactory catalogue more apparent. A more enlightened 



384 NOTICES OP KECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

policy largely due to Mr. Whitehead's efforts now prevails 
with the authorities, and students of Indian history and 
archaeology are deeply indebted to them for the handsome 
volumes now published. 

Mr. Whitehead's first volume is the most important con- 
tribution to our knowledge of the foreign coinages of Ancient 
India that has been made since the publication of Professor 
Gardner's jB. M. Catalogue nearly thirty years ago. In the 
interval considerable attention has been devoted to these 
series, which form our main source for the history of the 
various foreign invaders of India. Most of this material is 
contained in scattered articles in the various Oriental periodi- 
cals, and Mr. Whitehead's volume is particularly valuable as 
summing up the progress that has been made. Nothing of 
note in English or foreign periodicals seems to have escaped 
him. Into the numerous controversies that have raged round 
this period Mr. Whitehead only enters from the numismatic 
side ; he is content to show what evidence may be legiti- 
mately deduced from the coins, and is careful not to exaggerate 
the latter's importance to suit one side or the other. His 
introductions may therefore be recommended as valuable 
guides to the historian unaccustomed to deal with numismatic 
evidence. The volume is divided into the three usual sections, 
Bactrian and Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythic and Indo-Parthian, 
and Kushan, each with historical introductions. The first of 
these, although weak compared with the British Museum in 
Bactrian coins, has some very fine coins of the Greek kings 
of India, notably the two unique coins of Polyxenes, the 
coins of Theophilos and Telephos, and the fine series of coins 
of Hippostratos. We are glad to see prominence now given 
to such corrections as Marquart's kavisiye nagaradevata on 
certain copper coins of Eucratides, and Buhler's ingenious if 
still doubtful hitajasame = Agathocles on the latter's copper 
coins. Mr. Whitehead rightly follows Professor Gardner's 
view that the object on the shield on his type K of Menander 
ifi a Gorgon's head, and not as suggested in /. M. Cat., i. 
p. 26, an ox's head ; his correction in the attribution of 
B. M. Cat., PI. viii. 4, really a coin of Antimachus, may 
certainly be accepted. 

Mr. Whitehead, in our opinion rightly, restores the title 
Indo-Scythic in the second section; the problem of dis- 
tinguishing the Saka from the Parthian rulers is a difficult 
one, but we are convinced that such a distinction exists. 
The features of this section are the fine series of coins of 
Azilises, the unique gold coin of Athama, and the lead coins 



NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 385 

of Raj uvula hitherto unpublished. All the coins bearing the 
name Azes or Aya are here attributed to one ruler ; it seems 
probable that there must have been more than one Azes, but 
Mr. Whitehead is right in holding that the distribution to 
two on grounds of style alone is a fallacious one. It is inte- 
resting to note that the view held by Cunningham that Sasasa 
is the genitive of a proper name, and followed by Mr. 
Whitehead, has been now confirmed by Dr. Marshall's recent 
discoveries. 

In the Kushan section the traditional order is retained, 
and the Kadphises group placed before the Kanishka group. 
The recent discussion on the date of Kanishka in the 
J, B. A. S. has only served to accentuate the divergence of 
views on this point. The question is a difficult one, and it 
has not been sufficiently emphasized that the coins of Kad- 
phises I, Kadaphes, Kadphises II, and the Kanishka group 
form from the morphological point of view not two but four 
distinct groups. The Lahore collection is a good one, although 
not so fine as the British Museum collection, strengthened as 
the latter is by the Cunningham collection. Mr. Whitehead 
has carefully examined the British Museum, Bodleian, and 
Paris collections, and has incorporated the results of his 
labours there in the body of the Catalogue, so that it practi- 
cally forms a corpus for the period ; in addition the rarest 
coins not in the Lahore collection are illustrated in supple- 
mentary plates, so that the work is as complete as the student 
can desire. The Catalogue also contains much information 
regarding the provenance of the coinage of various rulers 
derived from the author's own experience as a collector in 
the Panjab, while his notes on the forgery of Bactrian and 
other corns should do something to dispel the tendency to 
suspect everything new or rare that comes from the Panjab 
dealers. 

In his second volume on the coins of the Mughal Emperors 
Mr. Whitehead has a subject to which he has already con- 
tributed a great deal of new matter ; his numerous papers 
in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal have already 
established his reputation as one of the leading authorities 
on this series, and this volume is characterized by the same 
thoroughness that marks his Mints of the Mughal Emperors, 
an Index of all published coins. Since the publication of 
Mr. Nelson Wright's Indian Museum Catalogue, which itself 
marked an epoch in the study of the series, numerous new 
coins have been brought to light through the efforts of 
Messrs, Whitehead, Nelson Wright, Burn, Brown, Dr. 

NUM. CHRON., VOL. XIV., SERIES IV. 2 D 



386 NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

Taylor, and other contributors to the J. A. S. B. The Lahore 
collection, containing nearly 3300 coins, is one of the finest 
in existence ; except for a number of gold coins it is quite as 
good as the British Museum collection (which we may note 
now contains nearly 4000 coins in place of 1200 when it was 
catalogued twenty years ago). Mr. Rodgers' collection which 
formed the nucleus was a very fine one, and numerous coins 
have been since acquired from treasure trove and miscella- 
neous purchases : as Mr. Whitehead does not mention it 
himself, we may point out that a number of the rarest coins 
in this catalogue were presented by him to the Museum from 
his own collection in order that the Catalogue might be as 
fine as possible. A.S in the previous volume, Mr. Whitehead 
has used his knowledge of the British Museum, Paris, and 
Bodleian collections to incorporate in his introduction much 
of the unpublished material in these collections in addition 
to that already available from other sources. The plan of 
the volume is that of Mr. Nelson Wright's third volume of 
the I.M. Catalogue. The Catalogue itself occupies 450 pages, 
and is a model of careful labour. The coins of each ruler are 
arranged under the mints, the latter being in the order of 
the Persian alphabet, a point on which Mr. Whitehead 
differs from Mr. Nelson Wright. A useful innovation is the 
arrangement of the distichs in metrical form beneath the 
coins on which they occur. We are sorry the author has not 
seen fit to give us fresh translations instead of repeating the 
doggerel of his predecessors ; perhaps some day a numismatic 
Fitzgerald will arise, who will give us something better than 
the traditional renderings of these couplets, although it must 
be confessed that some of the originals hardly deserve more. 
Another useful addition which greatly enhances the value of 
the work is the list of mints known of each Emperor in each 
metal, unrepresented in the Museum, added at the end of 
each reign with details of the earliest and latest coins. 

The general introduction contains much material on 
denominations, titles, &c., which has never before been 
collected in so convenient a form. We should prefer to 
translate al-Siddik, the epithet of Abu Bakr, simply as " the 
trustworthy," and' the translation " eminent is his glory " for 
jalla jaldla loses the assonance of the original. The main 
body of the introduction contains a series of histories of the 
various Mughal mints and summarizes the advance made 
since the publication of Mr. Nelson Wright's work, which 
forms the basis of these notes. 134 of the 200 known mints 
are represented in the Lahore collection, practically the same 



NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 387 

number as in the British Museum collection. These notes 
include a number of rectifications to Rodgers' and the B. M. 
Catalogues. Mr. Rodgers' "unique" coin of Bandar Shahl 
now proves to be a poor specimen of a not unknown coin of 
Srinagar. Mr. Whitehead for the first time calls attention 
to a series of rupees of Akbar of Dar al-Sultanat Shahr-i 
Mu'azzam Ahmadabad. As to the reading of the " Bairata " 
silver coins of Akbar, we have no doubt that Mr. Nelson 
Wright is right in giving the real reading as Berar. Mr. 
Whitehead makes out a good case for reading the date on the 
earliest Ilahf coins of Dehli as 35 instead of 30. Mr. Nelson 
Wright's zodiacal mohar of Urdu is not unique, as there is a 
duplicate in Berlin. The zodiacal rupee and mohar of 
Fathpur, formerly in the Guthrie collection, are dated not 
1030 but 1028. 

We cannot here detail any of the numerous unique coins 
now published in this volume, or the many new facts brought 
to light in the introduction. As befits the finest collection 
yet catalogued the volume is the finest and most complete 
yet devoted to the series, and is likely to remain the standard 
handbook for many years, for it seems hardly possible that 
new material will continue to accumulate as rapidly as it has 
done in the last decade. 

The French Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 
has awarded the Prix Drouin to Mr. Whitehead for these 
two volumes ; it is particularly fitting that this prize should 
go to the author of works on two of the series in which 
M. Drouin was himself particularly interested. The honour 
is all the more merited as Mr. Whitehead's volumes are the 
products of the scanty leisure of a busy Indian Civil servant. 

___ J. A. 

John Robinson : Oriental Numismatics. Salem, Massa- 
chusetts. 1913. 

THIS beautifully printed volume is a catalogue of the collec- 
tion of books on Oriental Numismatics presented by the 
author to the Essex Institute, Salem, along with a fine collec- 
tion of Oriental coins. It does not claim to be a bibliography 
of Oriental Numismatics, but so complete is it that it cannot 
fail to meet the want of one. Over five hundred works are 
enumerated under various geographical headings, the library 
being particularly rich in items relating to the Far East. The 
only remarkable omissions are the third (Indian) volume of 
Teixeira de Aragao's standard work on Portuguese coins and 
Da Cunha's Contributions to the same subject. On No. 455 we 



388 NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

may note that a second part was published in the following 
year. No 181 is a reprint from the Journal Asiatique and 
No. 231 from the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

Students of Oriental coins owe a great debt to Mr. Robinson 
for this handsome volume, which he has published and distri- 
buted at his own expense, and it is to be hoped they will 
show their gratitude by sending their future publications to 
the Essex Institute in order that this fine library may be 
kept up to date. 

J. A. 

Catalogue of the Coins in the Colombo Museum. Part I. ; by 
H. W. Codrington, M.R.A.S., F.R.N.S. Hertford, 1914. 

THIS neat little volume of sixty pages and four plates describes 
the Muhammadan and European coins in the Colombo 
Museum. The collection has been mainly formed from 
treasure trove, and the Muhammadan collection is therefore 
representative of the great trading currencies of the twelfth 
to the fourteenth century, and recalls the Broach find. It 
includes some rare pieces of the Atabegs and Ilkhans. The 
collection also contains a number of coins of the earlier Shahs 
of Persia, one of them countermarked by the Dutch East 
India Company. The collection of coins of the Maldives 
is a fine and representative one. The European coins are 
naturally Venetian, Dutch, and Portuguese. The Portuguese 
include a very rare S. Thome and a number of scarce early 
silver coins, one countermarked by the Dutch East India 
Company. The Dutch series is a very fine one, and includes 
such rare pieces as the rupee of Colombo of 1784, formerly in 
the Grogan collection, and the rare " cinnamon bush " duit of 
1782. Mr. Codrington points out that the word on the rupee, 
previously read suku, is really the mint-name Colombo. The 
collection of British coins is not so complete as one would 
wish. Perhaps the most important section of the book is that 
on larins, in which Mr. Codrington has for the first time 
been able to attribute a number to definite rulers. He has 
been able to recognize in their fragmentary legends portions 
of the coin legends of Persian and Ottoman rulers ; we have 
therefore now larins of Tahmasp I of Persia, Ahmad I, and 
Ibrahim of Turkey and Farrukh Shah of Hormuz, all struck 
in the lands round the Persian Gulf. The book has been 
most accurately printed, and the plates are very well done ; 
it will form a very useful handbook of the coinages of the 
European colonies in the East. 

J. A. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Adana, bronze coin of Gordian 

III of, 311 
Alexander III of Scotland, coins 

of, found at Steppingley, 61, 74 ; 

at Slype, 259 
ALLAN, J. 

Off a's imitation of an Arab dinar, 
77-84 

Notice of Valentine's Indian 
Coins, 270-271 

Notice of Whitehead's Cata- 
logue of Coins in the Panjab 
Museum, 383-387 

Notice of Robinson's Oriental 
Numismatics, 387 

Notice of Codrington's Cata- 
logue of Coins in the Colombo 
M^lseum, 388 
Anaxenor, a magistrate of Smyrna, 

287 
Antioch in Pisidia, coins of, 

299-313 
Antiochus IV, tetradrachm of, 

106 
Antoninus, bronze coin of Hy- 

paepa of, 104 
Apamea, coin of, from Antiocb, 

310 
Apollas, a magistrate of Smyrna, 

287 
Apollodotos, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 278 
Apollophanes, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 278 

Apronius, a Roman moneyer, 262 
Arab coins in Europe, 77-78 
Arados, coins of, from Cilicia, 

19 
Aristion, a magistrate of Smyrna, 

274 



Artemon, a magistrate of Smyrna, 

284 
Aspendus, coins of, from Cilicia, 

9-10 
Attaleia, coins of, from Antioch, 

309 
Augustus, quadrantes of, 261-264 



B. 

Bernhard of Lippe, coins of, found 

at Steppingley, 61 
Bologna, Arab coins found at, 

84-85 

Booth, Bishop, of Durham, 349 
Bourchier, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 348-349 
Bowes, John, and Durham House, 

141, 143, 146, 149 
Briot, Nicholas, and the Civil 

War, 169-235 
BBOOKE, G. C. : 

A Find of Long-cross Coins at 
Slype, 256-259 

The Carsphairn Find (Edward 

pennies, &c.), 382-383 
BROOKE, G. C., and L. A. 
LAWRENCE : 

A Find of Coins at Steppingley, 

60-76 
Bristol Mint of Edward IV, 341- 

343 

British Museum, Greek Coins ac- 
quired by the, 97-109 
Buckler, W. H., coins presented 

to the British Museum by, 103- 

104 
Bury St. Edmunds. See St. 

Edmundsbury 
Byzantium, coins of, found in 

Cilicia, 7 

2D3 



390 



INDEX. 



C. 

Caduceus, a type of Antioch in 

Pisidia, 301 
Calchedon, coins of, from Cilicia, 

7 
Canterbury Mint of Edward IV, 

347-349 
Caracalla, bronze coin of Sagal- 

assus, 309 ; of Tarsus, 311 
Carausius, coins of, found at 

Puncknoll, 95 
Carsphairn, coins of the Edwards 

found at, 382-383 
Carthago Nova, didrachm of, 109 
Caulonia, stater of, acquired by 

British Museum, 98 
Celenderis, coins of, from Cilicia, 

11-12 
Charlemagne, his intercourse with 

the East, 82-84; with Offa, 

85-86 

Charles I, gold coinage of, 264-266 
Cilicia, a find of Greek coins from, 

1-33 
Cinquefoil mint-mark of Edward 

IV, 239-240 

Citium, coins of, from Cilicia, 19 
Claudius II, coins of, found at 

Puncknoll, 95 
Cock, a type of Antioch in Pisidia, 

302 

CODEINGTON, H. W. : 

Coins of the Kings of Hormuz, 

156-167 

Notice of his Catalogue of Coins 
in the Colombo Museum, 388 

Coining-press, a Spanish Seven- 
teenth-century, 90-92 

Commodus, coin of, of Phila- 
delphia and Smyrna, 105 ; 
earliest coins of, 134-135 ; 
coinage of, during the reign of 
Marcus, 39-59 

Corinth, new coins of, 102 

CRAS, countermark, 306-307 

Cross and pellets mint-mark of 
Edward IV, 336-337 

Croton, half-stater of, 99 

Cyprus, find of small coins of. 
105-106 



D. 



Demetrios, a 
Smyrna, 238 



magistrate of 



Dionysios (a), a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 283 
Dionysios (b), a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 287 
Dioskurides, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 293 
DODD, Rev. C. H. : 

Coinage of Commodus during 

the Reign of Marcus, 34-59 
Durham House mint of Edward 

VI, 138-155 
Durham mint of Edward IV, 349- 

352 



E. 

Eastbourne, Arab coin found at, 

81 
Edward I and II, coins of, found 

at Carsphairn, 382-383 
Edward IV, post-restoration 

coinage of, 330-337 ; restoration 

of, 330-332 ; seal of, 334-335 
Edward VI and Durham House, 

138-155 

St. Edward's ring, 332-333 
Edward royall = half-sovereign, 

147-149 
Epandros, a magistrate of Smyrna, 

293 
Ethnics, index of Greek, 236- 

248 
Evagoras I, coin of, from Cilicia, 

18 



F. 

FARQUHAR, Miss HELEN : 
Nicholas Briot <and the Civil 

War, 164-235 
Farrukh Shah of Hormuz, coin of, 

167 
Finds of coins : 

Bologna (Arab and Byzantine), 

84-85 
Carsphairn (Edward I-II), 

382-383 

Cilicia (Greek), 1-33 
Dadia (Cnidus), 378-381 
Slype (English and foreign 

sterlings), 256-259 
Steppingley (long-cross), 60- 

76 

Fistelia, coin of, acquired by the 
British Museum, 97 



INDEX. 



391 



G. 

Galba, classification of the coin- 
age of, 120-131 
Gallienus, coins of, found at 

Puncknoll, 94 
Gaul, coins of, during 68-69 A.D., 

116-117 
Gela, tetradrachm of, acquired by 

the British Museum, 100 
Gordian III, bronze coin of Philo- 

melium of, 310; of Iconium, 310 ; 

of Adana, 311 
Greene, E., chief graver at the 

Mint, 186 



H. 

Harun al-Rashid and Charle- 
magne, 82-83 
Haynes, Professor, a Cilician find 

belonging to, 1-33 
Head, Barclay Vincent, memoir of, 

168, 249-255 

Helena, portraiture of, 314-329 
Henry II of Germany, Arab coin 

imitated by, 87 
Henry III of England, coins of, 

found at Steppingley, 61-76 ; at 

Slype, 256-259 
Herakleides, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 279, 284, 287 
Hermagoras, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 293 
Hermippos, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 288 
Herodotos, a magistrate of Smyrna. 

293 
HILL, G. F. : 

Greek Coins acquired by the 
British Museum, 97-109 

Coins of Pisidian Antioch, 
299 

A Seventeenth-Century Coin- 
ing-Press, 90-92 

Notice of Rogers' Handy Guide 
to Jewish Coins, 95, 96 

Notice of Weber's Aspects of 

Death, 269-270 

Hisham, coin of, found at East- 
bourne, 81 
Hormuz, coins of kings of, 156- 

167 
Hypaepa, bronze coin of Antoninus 

of, 104 



latrodoros, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 294 
Iconium, bronze coin of Gordian 

III of, 310 

Ionia, early electrum coin of, 103 
Issus, coins of, from a Cilician 

find, 14-16 



K. 

Ktoupon, a Smyrna magistrate, 
279 



Laffranchi, his attribution of 
certain quadrantes criticized, 
261-264 

Lapethus, coin of Praxippos of, 
106 

Larins, 162-164 

LAWRENCE, L. A. See Brooke, 
G. C. 

Leokrates, a magistrate of Smyrna, 
280 

Long-cross coins found at Step- 
pingley, 61-76 ; at Slype, 256- 
259 



M. 

Maire, John, assayer at Durham 

House, 143-144 
Mallus, coins of, from a Cilician 

find, 13-14 
Mamaea, coin of Philomelium of, 

310 
Mancus, a money of account, 

87-89 
Mansel, Colonel, a find of Roman 

coins belonging to, 92-95 
Mansur, dinar of, imitated by 

Offa, 77-89 
MATTINGLY, H. : 

The Coinage of the Civil Wars 
of 68-69 A.D., 110-137 

On a Series of Quadrantes, 261- 

264 
MAUKICE, JULES : 

Portraits d'Imperatrices de 
1'Epoque Constantinienne, 
214-329 



392 



INDEX. 



Megakles, a magistrate of Smyrna, 

293 
Melos, staters of, from a recent 

find, 102-103 
Melekiathon of Citium, coins of, 

19 
Men, bust of, on coins of Antioch, 

302 
Menekrates, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 275 
Menodotos, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 287 

Mesembria, bronze coin of, 101 
Messana, silver coin of, with , 

97 

Metapontum, stater of, 97 
Metrobios, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 284 
Metrodoros, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 275, 283 
Miletus, coins of, from a Cilician 

find, 8-9 
MILNE, J. G. : 

A Find of Coins of Temnos, 260- 
261 

The Silver Coinage of Smyrna, 
273-294 

The Dadia Hoard of Coins of 

Knidos, 378-381 
Modius on coins of Antioch in 

Pisidia, 301 
Moschos, a magistrate of Smyrna, 

279 
Muhammad Shah of Hormuz, 

coin of, 156-168 
MVNVS DIVINVM, significance 

of the legend, 88 

N. 

Nero, last coinage of, 111-113; 

countermarked coins of, 118 
Nevill, Archbishop, 345-347 
NEWELL, E. T. : 

A Cilician Find, 1-33 
Nicholas, N., and Briot, 180-184 
Nikostratos, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 280 
Notices of Books : 

Allan, J., Catalogue of Gupta 

Coins, 266-269 

Codrington, H. W., Catalogue of 
Coins in the Colombo Museum, 
388 

Robinson, J., Oriental Numis- 
matics, 384 



Notices of Books continued. 
Rogers, Rev. E., A Handy Guide 

to Jeivish Coins, 95-96 
Valentine, W. H., Copper Coins 

of India, 270-271 
Weber, F. Parkes, Aspects of 

Death, 269-270 
Whitehead, R. B., Catalogue of 

Coins in the Panjab Museum, 

383-387 

Nysa, coin of Valerian of, 104, 
105 



0. 

Offa's imitation of a dinar, 77-89 
Omoryche, W., engraver of Dur- 
ham, 350-351 
Orrhescii, coin of the, 101 
Otacilia, bronze coin of Seleucia 

ad Calycadnum of, 311 
Otho, classification of coins of, 
128-130 



P. 

Parlais, coin of Commodus of, 311 
Phanes, magistrate of Smyrna, 

280 
Phanokrates, magistrate of 

Smyrna, 289 
Philadelphia and Smyrna, coin of 

Commodus of, 105 
Philomelium, coin of Mamaea of, 

310 ; of Gordian III, 310 
Polynikos, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 283 
Poseidonios, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 274 
Puncknoll, Roman coins found 

at, 92-95 



Q. 

Quadrantes, the attribution of 
certain, 261-264 



R. 

Ramage, engraver at the Mint, 

186-188 
Rawlins, worked at Oxford, 197- 

199 



INDEX. 



393 



Recorde, Robert, controller at 

Durham House, 143 
Rhegium, hemiobol of, 99 
ROBINSON, E. S. G. : 

Index of Ethnics on Greek 

Coins, 236-248 
Robinson, J., Notice of his Oriental 

Numismatics, 387 
Rogers, Rev. E., Notice of his 

Jeioish Coins, 95-96 
Rotherham, Archbishop of York, 

346-347 
Royall = half-sovereign of Edward 

VI, 144, 149 
C. Rubellius Blandus, Roman 

moneyer, 262 



S. 



Sagalassus, coin of Caracalla of, 

309 
St. Edmundsbury, importance of 

mint of, 61, 67-68 
Salamis, coins of, from Cilicia, 18 
Salghar Shah of Hormuz, coin of, 

156, 165 
Salonina, coins of, found at 

Puncknoll, 94 

Samos, coins of, from Cilicia, 93 
Sarapion, a magistrate of Smyrna, 

189 

Scarborough, Briot at, 189 
Seleucia ad Calycadnum, coin of 

Otacilia of, 311 

Seleucus I, tetradrachm of, 106 
Seleucus III, tetradrachm of, 106 
Sharington's coinage, 139-140 
Short-cross pennies from Stepping- 

ley, 61, 69 
Shrewsbury coins by Ramage, 

187 
Side, coins of , f rom a Cilician find, 

10 
Sigloi, from a Cilician find, 22- 

28 
Sinope, coins of, from a Cilician 

find, 8 
Slype, English coins found at, 

76-79 
SMITH, V. A. : 

Notice of Catalogue of Gupta 

Coins, 266-269 

Smyrna, silver coinage of, 273-294 
Soli, coins of, from Cilicia, 12-13 
Steppingley find, 60-76 
Sterlings, foreign, find of, 67, 73 



SYMONDS, HENRY : 
A Find of Roman Coins at 

Puncknoll, 91-95 
Edward VI and Durham 

House, 138-155 
The Gold Coinage of Charles I, 

264-266 

Syracuse, coins of, from a Cilician 
find, 3 



T. 

Tarsus, coins of Caracalla of, 

311 
Temnos, a find of coins of, 260- 

261 
Tetricus I, coins of, found at 

Puncknoll, 94 
Tetricus II, coins of, found at 

Puncknoll, 95 
Theodotos, a magistrate of 

Smyrna, 287 
Theodolphus on Arab coins in 

Prance, 83-87 
Thurium, coins of reduced standard 

of, 98 

Timarchus, tetradachm of, 108 
Tlos, coin of, from Cilicia, 10 
Toul, sterlings of, found at Cars- 

phairn, 382 
Trefoil mint-mark of Edward VI, 

334-335 
Turan Shah of Hormuz, coins of, 

156, 161-166 
Tyre, coins of, from Cilicia, 20 ; 

acquired by British Museum, 

108, 109 



V. 

Valentine, W. H., notice of his 
Copper Coins of India, 270-271 

Valerian, coin of Nysa of, 105 

Vespasian, classification of coin- 
age of, 135-137 

Victorinus, coins of, found at 
Puncknoll, 94 

Vitellius, classification of coins 
of, 131-135 



W. 

WALTEBS, FBEDK. A. : 
The Coinage of Edward IV 



394 



INDEX. 



continued : The Post-Restora- 
tion Period, 330-377 
Weber, F. Parkes, notice of his 

Aspects of Death, 269-270 
Whitehead, B. B., Catalogue of 
Coins in the Panjab Museiim, 
notice of, 383-387 
Wode, John, Keeper of the Mint, 
341 



Y. 

York mint of Edward IV, 343- 
345; of Charles I, 176-178, 
194-195 

Z. 

Zopyros, a magistrate of Smyrna, 
271 



LONDON : PBINTKB BT WILLIAM CLOWKS AND SONS, LIMITED, 
BUKK STREET, STAMFORD STREET, 8.E., AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET, 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PL. XVI. 




v'\";4 





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4 (a) 




6 (b) 




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SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA. 



10 (a) 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PL. XVII, 




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14 (b) 




17 (a) 





20 (b) 




21 (a) 





23 (a) W '" 24 (a) 

SILVER COINAGE OF SMYRNA 




(26b) 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PL. XVIII. 





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NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PL. XIX. 













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LONDON COINS OF EDWARD IV. OF 1471 AND AFTER. 



NUM. CHRON. SER. IV. VOL. XIV. PL. XXII. 



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COINS OF EDWARD IV. 
YORK 1471-CANTERBURY AND DURHAM 1471 AND AFTER. 



ROYAL 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

1914 



PATRON 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING 
LIST OF FELLOWS 

OF THE 

EOYAL 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

1914 



The sign * indicates that the Fellow has compounded for his annual 
contribution : f that the Fellow has died during the year. 



1909 ADMIRAL H.S.H. PRINCE Louis OF BATTENBERG, P.O., G.C.B., 

G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., A.D.C., F.R.G.S., Kent House, 

East Cowes, Isle of Wight. 
1873 f*ALEXEiEFF, M. GEORGES D', Maitre de la Cour de S.M. 

1'Empereur de Russie, 40, Sergnewskaje, St. Petersburg. 
1907 ALLAN, JOHN, ESQ., M.A., M.R.A.S., British Museum, W.C., 

Hon. Secretary. 

1907 ALLATINI, ROBERT, ESQ., 18, Holland Park, W. 
1892 AMEDROZ, HENRY F., ESQ., M.R.A.S., 48, York Terrace, 

Regent's Park, N.W. 

1884 ANDREWS, R. THORNTON, ESQ., 25, Castle Street, Hertford. 
1909 ARNOLD, EDWIN L., ESQ., c/o " The Daily Telegraph," Fleet 

Street, E.G. 



1882 BACKHOUSE, SIR JONATHAN E., BART., The Rookery, Middleton 

Tyas, R.S.O., Yorks. 
1907 BAIRD, REV. ANDREW B., D.D., 247, Colony Street, Winnipeg, 

Canada. 

1909 BALDWIN, Miss A., 404, West 116th Street, New York, U.S.A. 
1902 BALDWIN, A. H., ESQ., 4A, Duncannon Street, Charing Cross, 

W.C. 
1905 BALDWIN, PERCY J. D., ESQ., 4A, Duncannon Street, Charing: 

Cross, W.C. 
1898 BANES, ARTHUR ALEXANDER, ESQ., The Red House, Upton,. 

Essex. 

1907 BARRON, T. W., ESQ., Yew Tree Hall, Forest Row, Sussex. 
1887 BASCOM, G. J., ESQ., The Charles Building, 331, Madisom 

Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 
1896 BEARMAN, THOS., ESQ., Melbourne House, 8, Tudor Road, 

Hackney. 



4 LIST OF FELLOWS. 

ELECTED 

1906 BEATTY, W. GEDNEY, ESQ., 55, Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 
1910 BENNET-POE, J. T., ESQ., M.A., 29, Ashley Place, S.W. 

1909 BIDDULPH, COLONEL J., Grey Court, Ham, Surrey. 

1880 *BIEBER, G. W. EGMONT, ESQ., 4, Fenchurch Avenue, E.G. 

1885 BLACKETT, JOHN STEPHENS, ESQ., C.E., Inverard, Aberfoyle, 
N.B. 

1904 BLACKWOOD, CAPT. A. PRICE, 52, Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. 

1882 f*BLiss, THOMAS, ESQ., Coningsburgh, Montpelier Eoad, 

Ealing, W. 
1879 *BLUNDELL, J. H., ESQ., 157, Cheapside, E.G. 

1907 BOSANQUET, PROF. E. C., M.A., F.S.A., Institute of 

Archaeology, 40, Bedford Street N., Liverpool. 

1896 BOCLTON, SIR SAMUEL BAGSTER, BART., J.P., D.L., F.R.G.S., 

Copped Hall, Totteridge, Herts. 

1903 BOUSFIELD, STANLEY, ESQ., M.A., M.B. (Camb.), M.E.C.S., 
35, Prince's Square, W. 

1897 BOWCHER, FRANK, ESQ., 35, Fairfax Eoad, Bedford Park, W. 
1906 BOYD, ALFRED C., ESQ., 7, Friday Street, E.C. 

1899 BOYLE, COLONEL GERALD, 48, Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. 

1895 BRIGHTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, The Curator, Brighton. 

1910 BRITTAN, FREDERICK J., ESQ., 28, Gowan Avenue, S.W. 

1908 BROOKE, GEORGE CYRIL, ESQ., B.A., British Museum, W.C. 

1905 BROOKE, JOSHUA WATTS, ESQ., Eosslyn, Marlborough, Wilts. 

1911 BROWNE, EEV. PROF. H., M.A., 35, Lower- Leeson Street, 

Dublin. 

1896 BRUUN, HERR L. E., 101, Gothersgade, Copenhagen. 
1878 BUCHAN, J. S., ESQ., 17, Barrack Street, Dundee. 

1881 BULL, EEV. HERBERT A., M.A., J.P., Wellington House, 

Westgate-on-Sea. 

1910 BURKITT, MILES CRAWFURD, ESQ., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

1897 BURN, THE HON'BLE MR. EICHARD, I.C.S., M.E.A.S., c/o 

Messrs. Grindlay & Co., Bombay. 

1881 BURSTAL, EDWARD K., ESQ., M. Inst. C.E., St. Stephen's 
Club, S.W. 

1911 BURTON, FRANK E., ESQ., J.P., Euddington House, Eudding- 

ton, Notts. 
1878 *BUTTERY, W., ESQ. (address not known). 

1904 CAHN, DR. JULIUS, Niedenau, 55, Frankfurt-ani-Main, 

Germany. 
1886 CALDECOTT, J. B., ESQ., The Stock Exchange, E.C. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. O 

ELECTED 

1908 CALLEJA SCHEMBEI, EEV. CANON H., D.D., 50, Strada Saluto, 
Valletta, Malta. 

1914 CAMERON, CAPTAIN J. S., Low Wood, Bethersden, Ashford, 
Kent. 

1904 CAMPBELL,W. E. M., ESQ., I.C.S., Mirzapur, United Provinces, 

India. 

1894 CAELYON-BRITTON, P. W. P., ESQ., D.L., J.P., F.S.A., 43, 

Bedford Square, W.C. 

1905 CARTHEW, COLONEL E. J., J.P., Woodbridge Abbey, 

Suflfolk. 

1912 CAVE, CHARLES J. P., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., pitcham Park, 

Petersfield. 

1914 Ciccio, GIUSEPPE DE, 131, Via Stabile, Palermo, Sicily. 

1891 *CLAUSON, ALBERT CHARLES, ESQ., Hawkshead House, Hat- 
field, Herts. 

1911 CLEMENTS, LUTHER, ESQ., Charlton House, Peckham Eye, 

S.E. 
1911 COATES, E. ASSHETON, ESQ., 15, Onslow Crescent, S.W. 

1913 *CODRINGTON, HUMPHREY W., ESQ., B.A., M.B.A.S., Kegalla, 

Ceylon. 

1886 CODRINGTON, OLIVER, ESQ., M.D., F.S.A., M.E.A.S., 12, 
Victoria Eoad, Clapham Common, Librarian, 

1895 COOPER, JOHN, ESQ., Beckfoot, Longsight, Manchester. 

1906 COSSINS, JETHRO A., ESQ., Kingsdon, Forest Eoad, Moseley, 

Birmingham. 

1902 COVERNTON, J. G., ESQ., M.A., C.I.E., Director of Public 
Instruction, Eangoon, Burma. 

1910 CREE, JAMES EDWARD, ESQ., Tusculum, North Berwick. 
1886 *CROMPTON-EOBERTS, CHAS. M., ESQ., 52, Mount Street, W. 

1914 CROWTHER-BEYNON, V. B., ESQ., Westfield, Beckenham, Kent. 



1914 DALTON, EICHARD, ESQ., Park House, Cotham Park, Bristol. 

1884 DAMES, M. LONGWORTH, ESQ., I.C.S. (retd.), M.E.A.S., 
Crichmere, Edgeborough Eoad, Guildford. 

1900 DATTARI, SIGNOR GIAXNIXO, Cairo, Egypt. 

1902 DAVEY, EDWARD CHARLES, ESQ. (address not known). 

1888 tDAWsoN, G. J. CROSBIE, ESQ., M. Inst. C.E., P.G.S., F.S.S., 
May Place, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

1886 *DEWICK, EEV. E. S., M.A., F.S.A., 26, Oxford Square, Hyde 

Park, W. 
1911 DRUCE, HUBERT A., ESQ., 65. Cadogan Square, S.W. 



6 LIST OF FELLOWS. 

ELECTED 

1905 EGGER, HERE ARMIN, 7, Opernring, Vienna, 

1907 ELDER, THOMAS L., ESQ., 32, East Twenty-third Street, New 

York, U.S.A. 

1893 ELLIOTT, E. A., ESQ., 16, Belsize Grove, Hampstead, N.W. 
1914 ELLIOT, SIR THOMAS TL, K.C.B., Deputy Master, Eoyal 

Mint, E.G. 
1904 ELLISON -MACARTNEY, ET. HON. WILLIAM GREY, P.O., 

Government House, Tasmania. 
1895 ELY, TALFOURD, ESQ., M.A., D.Litt., F.S.A., 92, Fitzjohn's 

Avenue, N.W, 
1888 ENGEL, M. ARTHUR, 23, Rue Erlanger, Auteuil, Paris. 

1872 *EVANS, SIR ARTHUR J., P.S.A., M.A., D.Litt., LL.D., 
Ph.D., F.B.S., F.B.A., Corr. de 1'Inst., Youlbury, near 
Oxford, President. 

1892 *EVANS, LADY, M.A., c/o Union of London and Smiths Bank, 
Berkhamsted, Herts. 

1904 *FARQUHAR, Miss HELEN, 11, Belgrave Square, S.W. 

1886 FAY, DUDLEY B., ESQ., 287, Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., 
U.S.A. 

1902 FENTIMAN, HARRY, ESQ., Murray House, Murray Eoad, Baling 
Park, W. 

1914 FIALA, K. u. K. Eegierungsrat Eduard, Palais Cumberland, 
Vienna. 

1910 FISHER- LIBRARY, THE, University, Sydney, N.S.W. 

1908 FITZ WILLIAM MUSEUM, The Curator, Cambridge. 

1901 FLETCHER, LIONEL LAWFORD, ESQ., Norwood Lodge, Tup- 
wood, Caterham. 

1898 FORRER, L., ESQ., 11, Hammelton Eoad, Bromley, Kent. 

1912 FORSTER, E. H., ESQ., M.A., LL.B.,F.S.A., 2, Enmore Eoad, 
Putney, S.W. 

1894 *FOSTER, JOHN ARMSTRONG, ESQ., F.Z.S., Chestwood, near 

Barnstaple. 

1891 *Fox, H. B. EARLE, ESQ., 37, Markham Square, S.W., Vice- 
President. 

1868 FRENTZEL, EUDOLPH, ESQ., 46, Northfield Eoad, Stamford 

Hill, N. 
1882 *FRESHFIELD, EDWIN, ESQ., LL.D., F.S.A., New Bank 

Buildings, 31, Old Jewry, E.C. 

1905 FREY, ALBERT E., ESQ., New York Numismatic Club, P.O. 

Box 1875, New York City. 

1896 *FRY, CLAUDE BASIL, ESQ., Stoke Lodge, Stoke Bishop, 
Bristol. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 7 

ELECTED 

1897 *GANS, LEOPOLD, ESQ., 207, Madison Street, Chicago, U.S.A. 

1912 GANTZ, REV. W. L., Norton Eectory, Market Drayton. 

1871 GARDNER, PROF. PERCY, Litt.D., LL.D., F.S.A., F.B.A., 105, 

Banbury Road, Oxford. 

1907 GARDNER, WILLOUGHBY, ESQ., Deganwy, North Wales. 
1889 GARSIDE, HENRY, ESQ., 46, Queen's Road, Teddington. 

1913 GILBERT, WILLIAM, ESQ., 35, Broad Street Avenue, E.G. 

1904 GOLDNEY, FRANCIS BENNETT, ESQ., F.S.A., M.P., Abbots 
Barton, Canterbury. 

1894 GOODACRE, HUGH, ESQ., Ullesthorpe Court, Lutterworth, 
Leicestershire. 

1910 GOODALL, ALEX., ESQ., 5, Maria Street, Kirkcaldy, N.B. 

1907 GOUDY, HENRY, ESQ., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., Regius Professor 
of Civil Law, All Souls College, Oxford. 

1899 GOWLAND, PROF. WILLIAM, F.R.S., F.I.C., M.C.S., F.S.A., 13, 
Russell Road, Kensington, W. 

1904 GRAHAM, T. HENRY BOILEAU, ESQ., Edmund Castle, Carlisle. 

1905 GRANT DUFF, EVELYN, ESQ., C.M.G., British Legation, Berne. 
1891 *GRANTLEY, LORD, F.S.A., Red Rice, Andover, Hants. 

1865 GREENWELL, REV. CANON W., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Durham. 

1914 GROWSE, S. W., ESQ., Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. 
1871 GRUEBER, HERBERT A., ESQ., F.S.A., British Museum. 
1910 GUNN, WILLIAM, ESQ., 19, Swan Road, Harrogate. 



1899 HALL, HENRY PLATT, ESQ., Toravon, Werneth, Oldham. 

1898 HANDS, REV. ALFRED W., The Rectory, Nevendon, Wickford, 

Essex. 
1912 HARDING, NEWTON H., 110, Pine Avenue, Chicago, U.S.A. 

1904 HARRIS, EDWARD BOSWORTH, ESQ., 5, Sussex Place, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
1904 HARRISON, FREDERICK A., ESQ., 10-12, Featherstone Street, 

E.G. 
1903 HASLUCK, F. W., ESQ., M.A., The Wilderness, Southgate, N. 

1902 HAVERFIELD, PROF. FRANCIS J., M.A., LL.D., D.Litt., 
V.P.S.A., F.B.A., Headington Hill, Oxford. 

1914 HAYES, HERBERT E. E., ESQ., Hythe Road, Greenhithe, 

Kent. 
1864 fHEAD, BARCLAY VINCENT, ESQ., D.Litt., D.C.L., Ph.D., Corr. 

de 1'Inst., 26, Leinster Square, Bayswater, W. 

1906 HEADLAM, REV. ARTHUR CAYLEY, M.A.,D.D., Whorlton Hall, 
Barnard Castle, Durham. 



8 LIST OF FELLOWS. 

KLKCTED 

1886 *HENDERSON, JAMES STEWART, ESQ., F.R.G.S., M.R.S.L., 

M.C.P., 1, Pond Street, Hampstead, N.W. 
1901 *HENDERSON, REV. COOPER K., M.A., Flat 4, 32, Emperor's 

Gate, S.W. 
1900 HEWLETT, LIONEL M., ESQ., Greenbank, Harrow-on-the-Hill, 

Middlesex. 
1903 HIGGINS, FRANK C., ESQ., 5, West 108th Street, New York, 

U.S.A. 
1893 HILBERS, THE VEN. G. C., M.A., V.D., St. Thomas's Rectory, 

Haverfordwest. 

1898 HILL, CHARLES WILSON, ESQ. (address not known). 

1893 HILL, GEORGE FRANCIS, ESQ., M.A., Keeper of Coins, British 
Museum, Foreign Secretary. 

1883 HOBART, R. H. SMITH, 619, Third Street, Brooklyn, New 
York, U.S.A. 

1898 HOCKING, WILLIAM JOHN, ESQ., Royal Mint, E. 

1895 HODGE, THOMAS, ESQ., 13, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

1875 HOUTUM - SCHINDLER, GENERAL SlR ALBERT, K.C.I.E., 

M.R.A.S., Petersfield, Fenstanton, Hunts. 

1910 HOWORTH, DANIEL F., ESQ., 24, Villiers Street, Ashton- 

under-Lyne. 

1878 HOWORTH, SIR HENRY H., K.C.I.E., D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., 45, Lexham Gardens, S.W., Vice-President. 

1883 HUBBARD, WALTER R., ESQ., 6, Broomhill Avenue, Partick, 
N.B. 

1885 HUGEL, BARON F. VON, 13, Vicarage Gate, Kensington, W. 

1908 *HUNTINGTON, ARCHER M., ESQ., Secretary to the American 
Numismatic Society, Audubon Park, 156th Street, West 
of Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 

1911 HYMAN, COLEMAN P., ESQ., Royal Colonial Institute, 

Northumberland Avenue, W.C. 

1879 *JEX-BLAKE, THE VERY REV. T. W., D.D., F.S.A., 13, 

Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 

1911 JOHNSTON, LEONARD P., ESQ., The Cottage, Warningcamp, 
Arundel, Sussex. 

1911 JONES, FREDERICK WILLIAM, ESQ., 22, Ramshill Road, 
Scarborough. 

1874 *KENYON, R. LLOYD, ESQ., M.A., J.P., D.L., Pradoe, West 
Felton, Salop. 

1914 KERB, ROBERT, ESQ., M.A., Royal Scottish Museum, 
Edinburgh. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 9 

ELECTED 

1876 KITCHENER, FIELD-MARSHAL EARL, OF KHARTOUM, K.P., 
G.C.B., O.M., G.C.S.L, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., c/o Messrs. 
Cox & Co., Charing Cross, S.W. 

1901 KOZMINSKY, DR. ISIDORE, 20, Queen Street, Kew, near 
Melbourne, Victoria. 



1883 *LAGERBERG, M. ADAM MAGNUS EMANUEL, Chamberlain 
of H.M. the King of Sweden, Director of the Numis- 
matic Department, Museum, Gottenburg, and Eada, 
Sweden. 

1910 LAUGHLIN, DR. W. A., M.A., Box 456, Virginia City, 

Nevada, U.S.A. 

1898 LAYER, PHILIP G., ESQ., M.E.C.S., 3, Church Street, Col- 
chester. 

1877 LAWRENCE, F. G., ESQ., Birchfield, Mulgrave Eoad, Sutton, 
Surrey. 

1885 *LAWRENCE, L. A., ESQ., F.S.A., 44, Belsize Square, N.W. 

1883 *LAWRENCE, RICHARD HOE, ESQ., 15, Wall Street, New York. 

1871 *LAWSON, ALFRED J., ESQ., Smyrna. 

1893 LESLIE-ELLIS, LIEUT.-COL. HENRY, D.L., J.P., F.S.A., 
F.E.G.S., Magherymore, Wicklow. 

1900 LINCOLN, FREDERICK W., ESQ., 69, New Oxford Street, W.C. 

1907 LOCKETT, EICHARD CYRIL, ESQ., Clounterbrook, St. Anne's 
Eoad, Aigburth, Liverpool. 

1911 LONGMAN, W., ESQ., 27, Norfolk Square, W. 

1893 LUND, H. M., ESQ., Waitara, Taranaki, New Zealand. 

1903 LYDDON, FREDERICK STICKLAND, ESQ., 5, Beaufort Eoad, 

Clifton, Bristol. 
1885 *LYELL, ARTHUR HENRY, EsQ.,F.S.A., 9,CranleyGardens,S.W. 



1895 MACDONALD, GEORGE, ESQ., M.A., LL.D., F.B.A., 17, Lear- 
month Gardens, Edinburgh. 

1901 MACFADYEN, FRANK E., ESQ., 11, Sanderson Eoad, Jesmond, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1895 MARSH, WM. E., ESQ., Eosendale, 35, Holligravel Eoad, 
Bromley, Kent. 

1897 MASSY, COL. W. J., 30, Brandenburgh Eoad, Chiswick, W. 
1912 MATTINGLY, HAROLD, ESQ., M.A., British Museum, W.C. 
1905 MAVROGORDATO, J., ESQ., 6, Palmeira Court, Hove. 
1901 McDowALL, EEV. STEWART A., 5, Belvoir Terrace, Cambridge. 
1905 McEwEN, HUGH DRUMMOND, ESQ., F.S.A.(Scot.), Custom 
House, Leith, N.B. 



10 LIST OF FELLOWS. 

ELW.TED 

1868 McLACHLAN, R. W., ESQ., 310, Lansdowne Avenue, West- 
mount, Montreal, Canada. 

1905 MESSENGER, LEOPOLD G. P., ESQ., 151, Brecknock Eoad, 
Tufnell Park, N. 

1905 MILLER, HENRY CLAY, ESQ., 35, Broad Street, New York, 
U.S.A. 

1897 MILNE, J. GRAFTON, ESQ., M.A., Bankside, Goldhill, Farn- 

harn, Surrey. 

1910 MITCHELL LIBRARY, THE, Glasgow, F. T. Barrett, Esq., 
Librarian. 

1898 *MONCKTON, HORACE W., ESQ., F.L.S., F.G.S., 3, Harcourt 

Buildings, Temple, E.G., and Whitecairn, Wellington 
College Station, Berks. 

1888 MONTAGUE, L. A. D., ESQ., Penton, near Crediton, Devon. 
1905 MOORE, WILLIAM HENRY, ESQ. (address not known). 

1879 MORRIESON, LIEUT. -CoL. H. WALTERS, E.A., F.S.A., 42, Beau- 
fort Gardens, S.W. 

1904 MOULD, RICHARD W., ESQ., Newington Public Library, 

Walworth Eoad, S.E. 

1900 *MYLNE, REV. EGBERT SCOTT, M.A., B.C.L., F.S.A., Great 
Amwell, Herts. 

1909 NAGG, STEPHEN K., ESQ., 1621, Master Street, Philadelphia, 

U.S.A. 

1893 NAPIER, PROF. A. S., M.A., D.Litt., Ph.D., F.B.A., Headington 
Hill, Oxford. 

1905 NATHAN, SIDNEY, ESQ., M.D., 11, Bolton Gardens, S.W. 

1910 NESMITH, THOMAS, ESQ., c/o J. Munro & Co., 7, Rue Scribe, 

Paris. 

1905 NEWALL, HDGH FRANK, ESQ., M.A., Madingley Eise, Cam- 

bridge. 

1906 NEWBERRY LIBRARY, Chicago, U.S. America. 

1905 *NEWELL, E. T., ESQ., Box 321, Madison Square, New York, 
U.S.A. 

1909 NIKLEWICZ, H., ESQ., 28, Park Place, Brooklyn, New York, 
U.S.A. 

1904 NORFOLK, DUKE OF, E.M., E.G., P.C., Arundel Castle, 
Arundel. 

1904 NORTHUMBERLAND, DUKE OF, E.G., P.O., LL.D., D.C.L., 
F.R.S., 2, Grosvenor Place, S.W. 

1898 OGDEN, W. SHARP, ESQ., F.S.A., Naseby, East End Road, 
Finchley, N. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 11 

ELECTED 

1897 "O'HAGAN, HENRY OSBOENE, ESQ., Al4, The Albany, 

Piccadilly, W. 
1882 OMAN, PROF. C. W. C M M.A., LL.D., F.S.A., F.B.A., All 

Souls College, Oxford. 
1911 OPPENHEIMER, HENRY, ESQ., 9, Kensington Palace Gardens, W. 



1903 PARSONS, H. ALEXANDER, ESQ., " Shaftesbury," Devonshire 

Eoad, Honor Oak Park, S.E. 
1882 *PECKOVER OF WISBECH, LORD, LL.D., F.S.A., F.L.S., 

F.B.G.S., J.P., Bank House, Wisbech. 
1896 PEERS, C. E., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., 14, Lansdowne Eoad, 

Wimbledon. 
1894 PERRY, HENRY, ESQ., Middleton, Plaistow Lane, Bromley, 

Kent. 
1862 *PERRY, MARTEN, ESQ., M.D., Spalding, Lincolnshire. 

1909 PETERSON, F. W. VOYSEY, ESQ., B.C.S. (retd.), 38, Bassett 

Eoad, W. 

1888 PINCHES, JOHN HARVEY, ESQ., 21, Albert Embankment, S.E. 

1910 PORTER, PROFESSOR HARVEY, Protestant College, Beirut, 

Syria. 

1889 POWELL-COTTON, PERCY H. GORDON, ESQ., Quex Park, 

Birchington, Thanet. 
1903 PRICE, HARRY, ESQ., Arun Bank, Pulborough, Sussex. 

1911 PRICHARD, A. H. COOPER-, British School, Palazzo 

Odeschalchi, Eome. 

1878 *PRIDEAUX, COL. W. F., C.S.I., F.E.G.S., Hopeville, St. 
Peter's-in-Thanet, Kent. 

1906 EADFORD, A. J. VOOGHT, ESQ., F.S.A., Vacye, College Eoad, 
Malvern. 

1902 BAMSDEN, HENRY A., ESQ., Charge d' Affaires of Cuba, P.O. 

Box 214, Yokohama, Japan. 
1887 EANSOM, W., ESQ., F.S.A., F.L.S., Fairfield, Hitchin, Herts. 

1913 EAO, K. ANANTASAMI, Curator of the Government Museum, 

Bangalore, India. 
1893 EAPHAEL, OSCAR C., ESQ., New Oxford and Cambridge Club, 

68, Pall Mall, W. 

1890 EAPSON, PROF. E. J., M.A., M.E.A.S., 8, Mortimer Eoad, 

Cambridge. 

1905 EASHLEIGH, EVELYN W., ESQ., Stoketon, Saltash, Cornwall. 
1909 EAYMOND, WAYTE, ESQ., South Norwalk, Connecticut, U.S.A. 
1887 fEEADY, W. TALBOT, ESQ., 66, Great Eussell Street, W.C. 

1903 BEGAN, W. H., ESQ., 124, Queen's Eoad, Bayswater, W. 



12 LIST OF FELLOWS. 

ELECTED 

1876 *ROBERTSON, J. DRUMMOND, ESQ., M.A., 17, St. George's 
Court, Gloucester Eoad, 8.W. 

1911 EOBINSON, E. S. G., ESQ., B.A., British Museum, W.C. 

1910 EOGERS, BEV. EDGAR, M.A., 18, Colville Square, W. 

1911 EOSENHEIM, MAURICE, ESQ., 18, Belsize Park Gardens, N.W. 
1896 *BOTH, BERNARD, ESQ., J.P., F.S.A., King's Wood, Enfield. 

1903 EUBEN, PAUL, ESQ., Ph.D., Alte Eabenstrasse, 8, Hamburg, 

Germany. 

1904 EUSTAFFJAELL, EGBERT DE, ESQ., Luxor, Egypt. 



1872 *SALAS, MIGUEL T., ESQ., 247, Florida Street, Buenos 

Ayres. 

1877 *SANDEMAN, LIEUT.-COL. JOHN GLAS, M.V.O., F.S.A., Whin- 
Hurst, Hayling Island, Havant, Hants. 

1906 SAWYER, CHARLES, ESQ., 9, Alfred Place West, Thurloe 

Square, S.W. 

1907 *SELTMAN, CHARLES T., ESQ., Kinghoe, Berkhamsted, Herts. 
1890 SELTMAN, E. J., ESQ., Kinghoe, Berkhamsted, Herts. 

1900 SHACKLES, GEORGE L., ESQ., Wickersley, Brough, B.S.O., E. 
Yorks. 

1908 SHEPHERD, EDWARD, ESQ., 2, Cornwall Eoad, Westbourne 

Park, W. 

1913 SHIRLEY-FOX, J. S., ESQ., E.B.A., 5, Eossetti Studios, Flood 
Street, Chelsea, S.W. 

1896 SIMPSON, C. E., ESQ., Beech Grove, West Parade Eow, Scar- 
borough. 

1893 *SIMS, E. F. MANLEY-, ESQ. (address not known). 

1896 SINHA, KUMVAR KUSHAL PAL, EAIS OF KOTLA, Kotla, Agra, 
India. 

1912 SMITH, G. HAMILTON, ESQ., Killoran, Seymour Eoad, 
Finchley, N. 

1892 SMITH, VINCENT A., ESQ., M.A., M.E.A.S., I.C.S. (retd.), 
116, Banbury Eoad, Oxford. 

1890 SMITH, W. BERESFORD, ESQ., Kenmore, Vanbrugh Park Eoad 
West, Blackheath. 

1905 SNELLING, EDWARD, ESQ., 26, Silver Street, E.G. 
1909 SOUTZO, M. MICHEL, 8, Strada Bornana, Bucharest. 

1894 SPINK, SAMUEL M., ESQ., 17, Piccadilly, W. 

1902 STAINER, CHARLES LEWIS, ESQ., 10, South Parks Eoad, Oxford. 

1878 STRACHAN-DAVIDSON, J. L., ESQ., M.A., LL.D., Master of 
Balliol College, Oxford. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 13 

ELECTED 

1869 *STREATFEILD, REV. GEORGE SIDNEY, Goddington Eectory, 
Bicester, Oxfordshire. 

1914 *STREATFEILD, MRS. SIDNEY, 27, Park Street, Mayfair, W. 
1910 SUTCLIFFE, ROBERT, ESQ., 21, Market Street, Burnley, Lanes. 
1914 SYDENHAM, REV. EDWARD H., The Vicarage, Wolvercote, Oxon. 

1885 SYMONDS, H., ESQ., F.S.A., Union Club, Trafalgar Square, 
S.W. 

1896 *TAFFS, H. W., ESQ., 35, Greenholm Road, Eltham, S.E. 

1879 TALBOT, LiEUT.-CoL. THE HON. MILO GEORGE, Hartham, 
Corsham, Wilts. 

1888 TATTON, THOS. E.,ESQ., Wythenshawe, Northenden, Cheshire. 

1892 TAYLOR, R. WRIGHT, ESQ., M.A., LL.B., F.S.A., 8, Stone 
Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

1887 fTAYLOR, W. H., ESQ., The Croft, Wheelwright Road, 
Erdington, near Birmingham. 

1887 THAIRLWALL, F. J., ESQ., 12, Upper Park Road, Haverstock 
Hill, N.W. 

1890 THOMAS-STANFORD, CHARLES, ESQ., J.P., M.A., F.S.A., 
Preston Manor, Brighton. 

1896 THOMPSON, SIR HERBERT, BART., 9, Kensington Park 

Gardens, W. 

1896 THORBURN, HENRY W., EsQ.,Cradock Villa, Bishop Auckland. 
1903 THORPE, GODFREY F., ESQ., 270, Balham High Road, S.W. 

1913 THORPE, W. BERTRAM, ESQ., Cleveland House, 270, Balham 
High Road, S.W. 

1894 TRIGGS, A. B., ESQ., Bank of New South Wales, Yass, New 
South Wales. 

1887 TROTTER, LIEUT.-COL. SIR HENRY, K.C.M.G., C.B., 18, 
Eaton Place, W. 

1912 VAN BUREN, A. W., ESQ., American School, 5, Via Vicenza, 

Rome. 
1874 fVizE, GEORGE HENRY, ESQ., 15, Spencer Road, Putney, S.W. 

1899 VLASTO, MICHEL P., ESQ., 12, Allee des Capucines, Marseilles, 

France. 
1892 VOST, LIEUT.-COL. W., I.M.S., Muttra, United Provinces, 

India. 

1905 WAGE, A. J. B., ESQ., M.A., Leslie Lodge, Hall Place, St. 

Albans. 
1883 WALKER, R. K., ESQ., M.A., Watergate, Meath Road, Bray, 

Ireland. 



14 LIST OF FELLOWS. 

ELECTED 

1897 WALTERS, FRED. A., ESQ., F.S.A., 37, Old Queen Street, 
Westminster, S.W., Hon. Secretary. 

1911 WARRE, FELIX W., ESQ., 231A, St. James's Court, Buckingham 
Gate, S.W. 

1901 *WATTERS, CHARLES A., ESQ., 152, Princes Eoad, Liverpool. 

1901 WEBB, PERCY H., ESQ., 4 & 5, West Smithfield, E.G., Hon. 
Treasurer. 

1885 *WEBER, F. PARKES, ESQ., MJX, F.S.A., 13, Harley Street, 
W. 

1883 * WEBER, SIR HERMANN, M.D., 10, Grosvenor Street, Gros- 

venor Square, W. 

1884 WEBSTER, W. J., ESQ., 76, Melford Eoad, Thornton 

Heath. 

1904 WEIGHT, WILLIAM CHARLES, ESQ., Erica, The Broadway, 

Letch worth. 

1905 WEIGHTMAN, FLEET-SURGEON A. E., F.S.A., Junior United 

Service Club, Charles Street, St. James's, S.W. 

1899 WELCH, FRANCIS BERTRAM, ESQ., M.A., Wadham House, 
Arthog Road, Hale, Cheshire. 

1869 *WiGRAM, MRS. LEWIS, The Eookery, Frensham, Surrey. 

1914 WILLIAMS, E. JAMES, ESQ., Ascalon, 37, Hill Avenue, 
Worcester. 

1908 WILLIAMS, T. HENRY, ESQ., 85, Clarendon Eoad, Putney, 
S.W. 

1910 WILLIAMS, W. I., ESQ., Brook Villa, Nelson, Cardiff. 

1881 WILLIAMSON, GEO. C., ESQ., F.E.S.L., Burgh House, Well 
Walk, Hampstead, N.W. 

1906 WILLIAMSON, CAPT. W. H. (address not known). 

1869 fWiNSER, THOMAS B., ESQ., F.E.G.S., F.I.A., 81, Shooter's 
Hill Eoad, Blackheath, S.E. 

1904 WINTER, CHARLES, ESQ., Oldfield, Thetford Eoad, New 
Maiden, Surrey. 

1906 WOOD, HOWLAND, ESQ., Curator of the American Numismatic 
Society, 156th Street, W. of Broadway, New York, 
U.S.A. 

1S03 WRIGHT, THE HON'BLE MR. H. NELSON, I.C.S., M.E.A.S., 
Bareilly, United Provinces, India. 



1889 YEATES, F. WILLSON, ESQ., 7, Leinster Gardens, Hyde 
Park, W. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 15 

ELECTED 

1880 YOUNG, ARTHUR W., ESQ., 12, Hyde Park Terrace, W. 
1898 YOUNG, JAMES SHELTON, ESQ., 19, Addison Gardens, W. 

1900 ZIMMERMANN, REV. JEREMIAH, M.A., D.D., LL.D., 107, South 
Avenue, Syracuse, New York, U.S.A. 



HONORARY FELLOWS 

ELF.CTKD 

1898 His MAJESTY VICTOR EMMANUEL III, KING OF ITALY, 
Palazzo Quirinale, Rome. 

1891 BABELON, M. ERNEST, Mem. de l'Inst.,Bibliotbeque Nationale, 
Paris. 

1903 BAHRFELDT, GENERAL-MAJOR M. VON, 9, Humboldstr., Hilde- 

sheim, Germany. 

1898 BLANCHET, M. J. A., 10, Bd. Emile Augier, Paris. 

1898 DRESSEL, DR. H., Munz-Kabinet, Kaiser Friedrich Museum, 

Berlin. 

1899 GABRICI, PROF. DR. ETTORE, S. Giuseppe dei Nudi, 75, Naples. 
1893 GNECCHI, COMM. FRANCESCO, Via Filodrammatici 10, Milan. 
1873 IMHOOF-BLUMER, DR. F., Winterthur, Switzerland. 

1893 JONGHE, M. LE VICOMTE B. DE, Rue du Trone, 60, Brussels. 
1878 KENNER, DR. F. von, K. u. K. Museen,' Vienna. 

1904 KUBITSCHEK, PROF. J. W., Picblergasse, 1, Vienna. 
1893 LOEBBECKE, HERR A., Cellerstrasse, 1, Brunswick. 
1904 MAURICE, M. JULES, 10, Rue Crevaux, Paris. 

1898 MILANI, PROF. LUIGI ADRIANO, Florence. 

1899 PICK, DR. BEHRENDT, Mlinzkabinet, Gotha. 

1895 REINACH, M. THEODORE, 9, Rue Hammelin, Paris. 

1891 SVORONOS, M. J. N., Conservateur du Cabinet des Medailles, 

Athens. 
1886 WEIL, DR. RUDOLF, Schoneberger Ufer, 38, in., Berlin, W. 



16 LIST OF FELLOWS. 

MEDALLISTS 

OF THE KOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

ELECTED 

1833 CHARLES ROACH SMITH, ESQ., F.. .A. 

1884 AQUILLA SMITH, ESQ., M.D., M.R.I. A. 

1885 EDWARD THOMAS, ESQ., F.R.S. 

1886 MAJOR-GKNERAL ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM, C.S.I., C.I.E. 

1887 JOHN EVANS, ESQ., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A. 

1888 DR. F. IMHOOF-BLUMER, Winterthur. 

1889 PROFESSOR PERCY GARDNER, Litt.D., F.S.A. 

1890 MONSIEUR J. P. Six, Amsterdam. 

1891 DR. C. Luowia MULLER, Copenhagen. 

1892 PROFESSOR R. STUART POOLE, LL.D. 

1893 MONSIEUR W. H. WADDINGTON, Senateur, Membre de 1'Institut, 

Paris. 

1894 CHARLES FRANCIS KEARY, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A. 

1895 PROFESSOR DR. THEODOR MOMMSEN, Berlin. 

1896 FREDERIC W. MADDEN, ESQ., M.R.A.S. 

1897 DR. ALFRED VON SALLET, Berlin. 

1898 THE REV. CANON W. GREENWELL, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

1899 MONSIEUR ERNEST BABELON, Membre de 1'Institut, Con- 

servateur des Medailles, Paris. 

1900 PROFESSOR STANLEY LANE-POOLE, M.A., Litt.D. 

1901 S. E. BARON WLADIMIR VON TIESENHAUSEN, St. Petersburg. 

1902 ARTHUR J. EVANS, ESQ., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Keeper of the 

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 

1903 MONSIEUR GUSTAVE SCHLUMBERGER, Membre de 1'Institut, 

Paris. 

1904 His MAJESTY VICTOR EMMANUEL III, KING OF ITALY. 

1905 SIR HERMANN WEBER, M.D. 

1906 COMM. FRANCESCO GNECCHI, Milan. 

19U7 BARCLAY VINCENT HEAD, ESQ., D. Litt., D.C.L., Ph.D., Corr. 
de 1'Inst. 

1908 PROFESSOR DR. HEINRICH DRESSEL, Berlin. 

1909 H. A. GRUBBER, ESQ., F.S.A. 

1910 DR. FRIEDRICH EDLER VON KENNER, Vienna. 

1911 OLIVER CODRINGTON, ESQ., M.D., M.R.A.S., F.S.A. 

1912 GENERAL-LEUTNANT MAX BAHRFELDT, Dr.Phil., Hildesheim. 

1913 GEORGE MACDONALD, ESQ., M.A., LL.D. 

1914 JI:AN N. SVORONOS, Athens. 



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