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Full text of "Yiddish-English Manual"

RG DIGITAL YIDDISH LIBRARY 
NO. OI965 



MGLISH MANUAL 



eph Jacobs 



1? 



L YIDDISH BOOK CENTER 

HERST, MASSACHUSETTS 



NATIONAL YIDDISH BOOK CENTER 

AMHERST, MASSACHUSETTS 

413 256-49OO I YIDDISH@BIKHER.ORG 

WWW.YIDDISHBOOKCENTER.ORG 



MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE 

STEVEN SPIELBERG DIGITAL YIDDISH LIBRARY 

WAS PROVIDED BY: 

Lloyd E. Cotsen Trust 

Arie & Ida Crown Memorial 

The Seymour Grubman Family 

David and Barbara B. Hirschhorn Foundation 

Max Palevsky 

Robert Price 

Righteous Persons Foundation 

LeifD. Rosenblatt 

Sarah and Ben Torchinsky 

Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Foundation 

AND MEMBERS AND FRIENDS OF THE 

National Yiddish Book Center 



The goldene pave, or golden peacock, is a traditional symbol 

of Yiddish creativity. The inspiration for our colophon comes from 

a design by the noted artist Yechiel Hadani of Jerusalem, Israel. 



The National Yiddish Book Center respects the copyright and intellectual property rights 

in our books. To the best of our knowledge, this title is either in the public domain 

or it is an orphan work for which no current copyright holder can be identified. 

If you hold an active copyright to this work - or if you know who does - 

please contact us by phone at 413-256-4900 x!53, or by email at digitallibrary@bikher.org 



1 J *. 221 

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2 20 On Travel, 

of clean underclotning ; two or three suits or 
in the case of a woman, dresses. If you 
wish to have no difficulties and be treated 
nicely on your journey be very careful to be 
cleanly dressed, otherwise many difficulties 
will arise, as the people through whose 
country you travel will take you for a beggar 
and use you accordingly. Do not try and 
make friends on your journey, for you do not 
know who your new friends might be; it is 
dangerous, 

Q. Please direct me to the Railway Station. 

Q 9 Where can I buy my Railway Ticket ? 

Q* How much is a third-class ticket to Manchester? 

Q. I want a return ticket to Sheffield. 

Q. Have you change for half-a-crown ? The 
porter expects 2d* for carrying the box. 

Q. From what platform does the train leave ? 

Q. When do we arrive at Leeds ? 

Q» At what time does the train start for Chicago?' 
I want to go to Chicago through Buffalo. 



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praoys ox oy ntt ,pj;sjN dnt BfijnoyajK o«m B£>»in 
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aiy-nxu y& -ijn»K jj;^ip-ixs iy fl K ^^ -p X ,,„ Dy 
lyax .jinn* is onx paw }jrsw -p? b*d d^>x d«w 

pX DJ? PX jyin^fi B'D T! B'D J]DB» pit? jvdid xn Jjm 

aamfi xh j^yyajw \yny: iiqnxa njnpK b^d ij;:>"^ 
*ra po jyp t)£^ pans .wjnx px pap-iya* w D ^x 
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1*28? N'l ^£^11 Vs , WK D , nJ ¥ , nj ,, j., M ^ p 
."inpn inj ns>2x ijik na-ijni jj^ 
pvQyi ox tw jyaxt y&n povbby&yi to tor jyjxi ,jmB»a 'fi 
•jmn jujx 1 ? x epx jyonyj iy b'd 



2i8 On Travel, 

Q. Will you kindly tell me your experiences ? 

j4. I 'find that the best way is to travel, not as an 
emigrant but as an ordinary passenger, 
although the ticket may be a little dearer, in 
the end it is by far the most convenient, and 
the cheapest mode of travelling; this is es- 
pecially the case in regard to luggage, It 
is best to take as little of that as is possible. 
It is much better to sell everything before 
you leave, if you intend emigrating, and not to 
carry . any quantity of luggage with you, but. 
whatever you do carry, you should not hand 
over to an agent to be forwarded, but take it 
with you in the train and pay the charges- 
thereon, As to the steamers, you can take. 
practically an unlimited quantity of luggage 
without any payment, I have found that 
there are always a lot of so called agents 
telling you that it would be good for you to- 
hand your luggage over to them, and they 
will forward it for you to your destination, 
but I have, found that when the luggage 
reaches Its destination either In London or 
America the charges upon It are so 
exorbitant as to amount to as much as 
and sometimes more than the luggage Is 
worth. 

Q. Please tell me what articles are the most useful 
to take on a long journey ? 

yf . Take as many clean shirts as you can, a change 



y pn ijn «pi k 217 

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♦&jNDjny&rK inyt |yri jjp^kbw uw 7npaKiS pjjn 7K 'h 

,«pnj?D« ijrw ia*6w 1$* yn^v yn '5 

psm** pyj taoiy iy yn tsbhxn i:*6d^n p* jypn w iyi"« '« 
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.\ynmx ywy^iysiir 
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ycnyj yi»n p« k"? &Sn$y ippk |yn m ,p« -pa 
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iy"? btdka oy ny^K ,jy-inK£ jy^i n^t fmww y$b& 
jy^p «^t jmmi ri b^ pk ByVa iyi dki b£k 
i:ih ypyiBP iyi pfi stbynx t£ pi^ in pnn^fi 

.lywyn 1*0 ^e« 
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fc^ni ijn pfi ^hb jyBoyu dpi bp*vj diik san 7a *o '« 



216 ON TRAVEL 

Q (') Do you like travelling ? 
A. (*) Yes, but I have little opportunity, 
a What part of the world do you think you 
would like to see best ? 

A. I think France and Italy would be very 
interesting. 

Q- I should prefer England or America. 
A. Before I undertook to travel abroad I should 
ike to see the principal cities of my native 
land. 

Q. Have you ever travelled to Warsaw ? 
A. No, but I have been to Lodz. 
Q- Is there any risk in travelling abroad ? 
A. Yes, if you trust to unreliable agents. 
Q. I do not understand what you mean by trusting 
to unreliable agents. 

A. I mean agents who profess to be your friends 
and tell you, that they will, on payment to 
them of a certain amount, give you a ticket 
through to the place to which you wish to 
go; but it often happens that instead of that 
ticket taking you to your destination, it 
covers only half the journey and some 
times even less. 

Q. Have you been in foreign countries. 

A. Yes, I have travelled over the greatest part 
of the world. 



(0 Q stands for Question. (If" A. stands for Answer. 



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,tenoD «"n 124 

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ot nyw -pa :n« ^"rtB&rD td tawhby&y* ot jjMkti 
,0 d n k ") a a .* 



212 Claim for damages. 



daw 4€<zcAec/ we €<n a w4y <Amaa^ ccmt/cYu&i. 
/r^U yea aiwa/u <z€Wtde <m€ tidemei m&m 

c/ €&m, aeai <l/<c4. 



.«! y •» 1 a ps y:x-bzoy oyi jy;rayu0y:i 21s 



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1901 -rtW^ 22 



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(♦yto^fi r£n*o*o) p3*a ^np "uik |$n^ 

/lyBDjyayjny ny«K 



48 IO ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF RECEIPT OF LETTER 

<jl pw. flu*. 

tJ /law, S a&KMmmeeme Me 4eee//?J o/umii 
4e^/ei 0/ uej/eia^u d tmJe enowd-tita €we&M4ti €ma 
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.^ain yuyjiy^rN ts^ 

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.prvasyDpa nji« -p^ns *iin p" \ybbHr\ m 

s»b^yz -pa 



208 ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF LETTER. 

V / c /9n 
/M $f^ ^ i€d 



Jam Jn iecetft J foui Itei </ ^e 
/M «**-, "vS* accouUce d*ieu*U J A*«* 
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c/ 



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1901 1^^ jyaia 

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to6 Order for Goods. 



V. 






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J&. J&Madam*. 









z£z- Toenetz. 



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204 Application for a Situation, 

tJdfanafamj tJy.j 
sec. /M /<?W. 



tS4t 4e^fau fa <uea4 acw/&l&d€m€M>lt fai a 
zJiawi/ei €M faaa^u d dittAei, <J &ea fa a/i/t/u 
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nave veeit #mAl0<uea <y <uea4d €<n due /i&ude €^ 
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Cstieetf; <&. v?,; /# tt/ntPm *y 4/ea fa 4e/ei 'uoa 
ad fa <?nw 4ed/i€efa4/c/iY'U and j/kfaedd j/oi -due /i#d£ 
^ / fl'U ieadem &o4 wtducita fa /ea^e jf/wm td rfmzt 
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m-u Aie4en^ dtrfua&tm, <i/£ y&tt ate aed/t&dea fa 



Receipt 203 

*&%6menS */ "account 



t-yia-j 



WJ^ mnce^ M 



'ritzmd. 



-gf. 



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.sin j^d pfi 
♦B a n n a 1 3 a ^ 



£5-17-9. 



202 



I 9°° ^ /^ / '^' /] 

M %n % %• '**& as t"' a!c< ' ] "'""""' "*' ' ' '' 




«W<U 



i/ance due *&<?. */• f 



Mt:::n 



201 



/n.D ftna$6 
1900 n«^^ jya 8 

♦Kp nji« hmd jnKpVjirnyn 

£ s. d. 1899 

14. 5. o. jyyn n £2. 7. tf. ( 3 )iv -ijnwn ( 2 ) pita <J k*b jvb- 75 
d. jo. <5. „ £2.j.d. iy « , pa 3 „ 

6. 1. u a 4J2 iv DT;^p j<? .wn jya-jrp 

2. jo. 5. ( 6 )ijnr % w jimin 5 ( 6 ).yjn jpa-tf 



£37. j*. 9. 



£35- i?- 9. 



1) Debtor JinW (iNBjn) Debtor n«D an^tflty Dr. 

2) Dozen IJWIN (tfttin) Dozen INS t3ny£DE> Doz. 

3) at ljf ^ttnya (a«) at naS tanptat? @ 

4) October (iy:i$t3p«) October &KJKS p«S tan^tofi^ Oct. 

5) December (lynswi) December ta«2«» p«£ tanytat^Dea, 

6) each nyjy (tWK) each n«s anytatf ea. 



2CG ACCOUNT 



'ej^J. Jotin <9L*d $ %c. 



o 



1899 



£ s. J. 

May7sth To 6 doz. ( 2 ) shirts @( 3 ) £2.7.6 per doz. 14. 5- °- 

„ 3 doz ,, @ £2.3.6 ,, ,, 6. 10. 6. 

Aug. 19th „ 18 collars ® 4I 2 >> >> 6 - J> 

Oct.{i) 21st „ / doz overcoats, H- 2 - 6 - 

Dec.( 5 ) 6th „ 8 trousers ® 6J4 ea.{«) 2. 10. 8 



£37- 14- 9- 
Less 5 % discount £1. 17- °- 

£35- 17- 9- 



Letter to a Debtor 199 

txe^/enien, 

t^vla-u t./ Aea fa ea// noai a$en&e:z fa 
vnu mtfafatncuna accotmif, ane/ fa €&& ■/'/ ymc 
ive// uo me Me Aawai fa 4e??ttif me a ey/eatee 
/<?$ Jne dame aJ <utwi eai/cedif convenience. 

CbCwUd mtec/fan^/u 

,nin by 2 a is tjyna 

•ii.d \ipm$b ,anaD Kn^p^n 2 

♦1901 N"D jJ>D-3 

ijimpn pro 
*|tu tk sin p» t» ,|p^Dijrn w y> ,\ytoyz w yx eptn 
*?rS •nm "IBS pjmiaK ipp^y^K t»b n:i« ,jm$iijn ta^n«y w em 
.pwp an *on 1^*0 "nm B»Dip to *w 

.«P uw nwno \nmn \yi^m 



ig8 Reply from a Friend. 



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muen A/eaduie <c?t aeceM&wc 



"olould Jtwcete/u, 



.11.: ^"IBD *WKD^D 5 
1899 «"» pna-3 ]jn 

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lUBDjna ajn a^ |K Drip *p« ^hn^k jfti?jni rQP j$?t*D3itt 

y(nr»na) njnnsn ny"K 



Letter to a Friend. ; 97 

r/ 7 . ap wo 



3 (-sdeUnam zJaaaie, 

^//y 2<nc4 /<?00 

^Cm wj/e and <lX m^// /e veiy d/eccdedf 
y ^u wiu <Une wtM ud &n S^c^Uaay nea&f, 

e/c'e 



eiiewe #ne, 



#teid dtneeie 






♦wis n rt tjyns 
1899 n^d jya-2 jjn 



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(i) Esq. (Esquire) should be used in addressing distinguished persons 
in England but is not used in America. 

yjptD:m vi taipntf ]^o jyn jyo ts^m (Esq.) wipD? -n^n &*n (1) 

apn$?EK p« ta^a jiKta^myji ^aA^y pa iu ta^nn dn*j Tim *j$n j? tray a 

(2) Afn in addressing ordinary persons. 

Messrs. should be used in addressing a partnership firm. 
Jlfi ga'ns K 12? ta^ntr }£» ftrn taamajn "W» (Messrs.) Dl^dD^a 



rwwyn yy-uip «^ny 195 

tjn^ymiN \yw pa -^to jjttjtt jp:w tmnymyt m-o ™ ta^trr 
-j^in kh aan anty ]$nr epiK pjrew w Dy bkbbwk .jj^i^n 
.mkd^ m«^ Dy n:i« BjnJimj/:i:K oybbx 1:1*6 }?•*: djh ps ^n 
ij;:tk pnipn pn iy bkejpjb N"v6#fl «h .ij^Tn t;^ n p? iy 
cp {6a pa jpstyn iv Dy ^njtt jpi;^ ,iy:ni jwn jingri oy 

.ybyyiy) vx 

]yw n- -pi jpbdid dk *m 7? «** yvzxi jnd y:6ynyi 
.^in^njn km & Dy can Dj/:6jm ,i:*6 ny»: djh w itopaai 
niiD yau j6!?« jyDnyiJN ma,, -pr x»z ip j?mni ",;j;nj/i ^n -pa,, 
B^ijn pa "pK f b^w ton \ym\ r> ]ymx din d^^ y^ ^^d ps 
mTn£ y^ nh jwpp -pa -pin mi i:na ^ W y -^n^ -^ D p 
, wy^yi an |j?D8Pi ta^ ^a:"p ^n -pa ^nh py^iy;! -pa kh 
V'ni ,jntbjw:i kh i^i^n^ jj6^ti djnjwk djwd £^d i:ik 
]piaD;*i Diy jyipy:i tszxny) irr yy&y?y:s *oi ,^:s pw oni -p« 
-ys -inpB ta-i jh&d6$s ;yi ynyn T« .)yvt:« Dimi^ j6^n i^s 
t2D M n ^y js/n ijik ,1^113 d^n uij 1J"S n p^E d^k pyaiDNits 
,nvy di^is pfiDii « m) p6a£ Dy *-pN yiiyn pna CNiiay "Vft 
ipddjd pk ay wri ]yw\ w uin \yinyb ijnrp y3"D jniyn -pa 
jiwinp ps -pa simii ut6 djh pK d^h i^^ nytyn p« |j;^ w 
,^«^ DjNjm |^j;^ p^ny^ t»« y^iyii yw ytyn ^w .p;n^p 
kh T5 p«^ nyn pn am tD^piKSp^n Tj)x ysy^b y^D n:i« 



194 Tw0 Short Stories. 

not interfere with the lawful doings of his fellow 
citizens. Instead of trying to thwart him at every 
step, the government of his new country tried to 
make it easy for him in every way to be a good 
citizen. The police, instead of being his masters, 
were his servants, ready to help him in all that 
was lawful 

So this man thought to himself how best to 
prove his gratitude to the new country which had 
treated him so well "I will try n said he to himself 
€ 'to imitate whatever is good in the lives of my new 
fellow citizens to show how proud I am that I belong 
to them, and how much I enjoy the new liberty that 
I have gained, I will no longer hate the government 
but obey its commands willingly, since I feel sure 
they are laid down for the good of all of us. The 
policeman? I will no longer regard as an enemy, but 
as a friend, and do his bidding as I would follow any 
piece of friendly advice. My children I will teach 
what an advantage it is to live in this land as com- 
pared with the one in which I was brought up. So 
that I shall learn to love this land, and my gratitude 
and very love shall be the return for the kind 
treatment we receive from it/' 



mippo 5? y -i .1 p «^n» 193 

. Q 

fp 1^ t2«n ny win -h*6 wk p« t^npjtt ny^a &#n fyte« 
yo^ T N I^nan w jyiiy;i ain'ny -m oy r« Dy .&«ny:i awns 
yiWUiiK kh pa -m -pa jyn n^iK ,n^DtnJDy:i pr p« jyw:iy:i 
ty^iy p« ]my^yn kh jis y:i"p /u*6 on cp« a^ nys** Di^^tr 
-p«ifi EnNtsp ta-o to«n ny ^m'ny \yiyv\y* ay r« jy^wesypya 
-y^N-ifi d^n nyi^ a^ow-DMy-i d^j nynN ,"wap$n obx pn-rB 
f y-nyn cu$py:i b^j -pa ny to^n yyoi» njn p« -vd^n j« .-ind 
b^ Ban ->y .B*n^t -ly^firw d^n jy;yn B^Dy: B«n ry bnmzt* 
bxm isy: bnh ny ,]ybnw yma pa -iyi:pp yj"? jypn? vxypyi 
pzxn py&by yw *ni yt»ii to bik nyn pa b^ jyjyn tuypyj 

.tanny^ DiTK 

-np -lynns ny yBND .jy^ny^ya^x B^ny;; DKYiay ny B$n 
-y^i^ny an ins b£# n^« /myn wip^s nyi pg t^^y^iHy jya 
k«v6$s «h Ban $? B^yniyS *by* ny B*tn .jyfogrcya -lymo w* 
<ro BDyifiy^nyn cy ps ^hb jy^a *to .jyn^fiy^D^N y*b) oy 
•Bairns -\yw :w:n-iy:t fc^D Bpywyji -po oy bkh 

^^ny^y-i y^n BstnBy:* Ban jnd nyn pm lyroTi h oy bm 
ny oyri |y-nyn oy^^ *on j«ov^«fi jyny* *ro /u*s jy^n «^i 

.jya-i«ny^ no 

-iya«s p? jyttfnys iv jytyny:i -j^p^ at narijKD y^yr-iyn 
tni jynyj y®mp ny .B*mns ps n^ a pa jyasip ^ ^i« 1^ 
*iy «-»n ^«^ «^iT8 ,ya^ ^^ D811 pna yo^^p to ,ya^p ny 



192 Two Short Stories, 

THE GREAT CHANGE. 

Once there was a man who lived in a land 
where he had no liberty. He could only live in cer- 
tain parts of his native land, and even in those parts 
he could not live in the country, but had to reside in 
the gloomy and unhealthy towns. None of the higher 
careers of life was open to him. He could not be a 
doctor, or a lawyer, or a professor. He could not be 
an officer in the army, though he was obliged to serve 
in it He could not send his children to good schools 
and he could not even worship God in the way in 
which he had been taught by his father. 

Whatever he did he had to get permission of 
the police to allow him to do, and very often he had 
to pay the policeman for the permission. Whenever 
he gained any money^ the police would be sure to 
find it out, and get some of it from him by threaten- 
ing to interfere with his liberty,, Do you wonder if 
he regarded the government of his own country as 
his natural enemy, and every policeman as a master 
whom he must obey, 

Now this man was fortunate enough to get away 
from his fatherland, and came to a country where all 
was freedom. He could dress as he liked, go where 
he liked, and do what he liked, provided that he did 



rn^j/D pm-ip a^m 191 

|yn ,;.«iro awty? yd ay6rc isdd^ oy -pa ^w dtisyi ,(7^1 |nyt 
B6«t&6y?y;i yaw ma p« -pD 7« Br*r,&y:i ^c^yt yd i^b pa 7a 

"•nyao^D p^o b-d pa 78 jjm ny d^k 
jy&Kny 7* jrwnfi yY\n xh jy^xn ^d jyaam wv ™« 

"? aonyTD^N «n Dy.i£y:i ky„ 
nyiMD ^im 7a ^jys yx u .ny^D-iy nyn ny B-iyssuy "$\, 
T»d BY&pyfiDp ^yD nyiy^ D«n d^vi 7a an ^ik nvi 7« mi 

".71K *iyshw tb 7« pYBpysDjn aj 

Jim,, ny^w nyi to^Nt "Bp-iy&yn nn |« 78 san D*n ^ 

yd pS iiwayri wo &^jn 7a .7* «n ED&mjto 7-1 epnB 78 

wn -na 1 ; oyi ps jy&tsn k«h -mk d^h:d kh jn m^ ony: 7« |yvi 

♦"yd ps ^ysyn Vs *p «n ed^h D^ijtt .pan -p« 

PPP T«« i»"i¥i^« *<n ™n "i^nfi *w^ p^ ,p^ <]»*„ 
pvtyn tm ,m^ 7-1 jyj:yp jnams ny^x ^paptntp {yaw pn 
^«* -w bd-o 7^pYii «n *on ^iT8 jy^n&Yays w: 71 pmjm 

MaDj"Bny wn *ni 
jwjn pjraty xnyrciK ps Durao nh tiw *]yi ijn w po 7*^ 

r.y^w nyn yto^? /'7D n«s ^yj &M 
nyt:Diy -ijn Dy &ny£&:y /'jjm ny^n p« em bd«:i an ny^n 
\]ya"n:nNT)y:} jwn jy&nyi^ ^y 78 ma yd oy r^y^ 
&jpDDyba:nys prism pyaty ynj;w8 ,w n« ny? ! ^5% 
nyp^ys jy^iw tteybv* jw«n ^r ^11 |ynytD^8 jjnuto nyn p« 
T'^ii jy^n »^t ^^DDy^^yfi |yny^ tao^yr |y^yt y^yi? 
m^ «sn awntt d^ikh .D^ty yiyn ps ^yii oyn p« ijttJMitt 



190 Two Short Stories. 

trouble for them, why should I not take it for myself? 
When I am alone I consider myself in as good com- 
pany as when I am in the presence of my master/ 8 

The third time the friends met, and still the- 
ory was "How bright you are ! " 

"Yes," was the reply, 4 i feel as bright as I look 
Since I know that every man must respect me, I 
respect myself/' 

u Yes 3 1 notice you do that/* said the other, "you 
are always boasting when I meet you. Yet perhaps. 
I do not think the less of myself because I do not 
adopt the customs of the people around us. I suppose 
you think yourself very much better than I." 

a No, no, my dear friend/ 5 was the answer, "1 
know your goodness, but the others do not, and men 
judge you, not by what you are, but by what you 
seem to be." 

"But our ancestors' ways are good enough for 
me," grumbled the other. 

"But you do not follow our ancestors 1 ways' 
was the retort. 

"Prove me that, and I will adopt your habits." 

"Well, you see, our ancestors were careless of 
their appearance because they lived among people 
who were equally careless. They followed the man- 
ners of the people round them ; why do you not do- 
as they did ? " 






~iy;"K k^s }ys«iDp ]y»«my in jiDgn ipnvte^« wiiy 

♦yppy jyDDtnBP 

wy ,pn «^t» d^s pn ^y:«^ tyn w yn ^y^jmx r« mas 

"wn im ttttyp wtyQ ]»p ? ymo Vs a^tx -rn «n BDDnjN dkii 
♦ wniy njn ny b-wsshj; ",B«:n8i dik pjndw -po ynp -pa,, 
,jjtt"Bny jiDy^nyD^w ajn spa fjjps -inyr jittjtt njpn ya"7 nh "WK/i 
•pw a^J3"i« jwn mbd T»^*»n BMty? 71 a^n oy nyn jyp^yn «^t 
a^Dy^ainys /p^naa i»k :pDyb*o pk oy njrn iy:>K /p^wn 
flfi y^« taw tpa jj^nfiniiK a"? ^jmjmiK .■pw d":dk y^ 
-nyS "p^naa pn b^vi ^d^ -pn jyn imk ,usik ps \iny ny*** 
yoso yy:;*u myuw ma 71 "pia |j?ii;i:ni p^g -p& cm k"t ]ya:>K 

jyfiS^itaw ^»« i(p T? jh"3 kh p;:i$n a^y yy-fip « 1W 
Wi tayJifiWD^ wii,, : jynynJK wy iy:^« njn j^k? ijny^i i^k 
"? B":n8 jj;:m? on* d^k -j«^ «n bohim ! ddo 
fc":nK «h jjttmpjtt^n y» u ^nytD^iw njn oy enpstup "ip^ 

".jjDgnspjtt th b"d ^n *pK y^yn p£ 

-Wi m^ -pt *pw sAgn t«« : oy w bjw p« ytoixb nrns pn 
•iy d*»i«) yrpDjto-pD jnirug ajp^y T* jy» ;w iininj* «pi« *wi "W 



1 88 Two Short Stories. 

SELF RESPECT. 

Two foreigners met one another at the corner 
of the street, 

"How smart you are," said the one to the other. 

"Your clothes are well brushed, your boots are well 
polished, and so is your face. Why do you take all 
this trouble ? Nobody knows us here." 

"I am going to see about some work' 1 said the 
other, "and people here think a lot of a man's out- 
ward appearance. They think that if he takes care 
of himself, he will take care of his work, and if he is 
slovenly and careless in his appearance, that is a 
sign to them that he will be careless in his work. 
Besides, they judge all of us by each of us, and if I 
were dirty and slovenly they would despise, not alone 
me, but you and all of our race and creed/ 5 

Shortly afterwards the two met again, and once 
more one of them said, "How smart you are ! Are 
you going to see about some work ? " 

"No," said the other, U I have got the work I 
spoke to you about/' 

4 Then why do you trouble to keep yourself so 
clean ? ,? . said the other. 

His friend laughed and said, "I think as much 
of myself as I do of other people, and if I take that 



Glossary •ps-iytsnjm 



187 



tailor 


WW 


send 


\vpw 


cut 


\yyvw 


hymn 


y& 


scissors 


r;yw 


neighbour 


pp 


shear 


pjw 


beat 


JJMgte" 


sharpen 


pSnyw 


locksmith 


ij?dd$w 


Spaniard 


t^ms® 


bedroom 


nyoD^ss^ 


late 


toys^ 


quick 


W>jnp 


a walk 


iy»V8a^ 


key 


^d^ 


yell 


l^nt^ 


bad 


My^- 


write 


;y:nnp 


dirty 


:p¥w 


writing-table 


wm^-ip 


smith 


TBfiP 


compositor 


njWBjnBSnp 


pain 


pnnim 






beak 


tysMta 



i86 



."jmnj?^ oyvbay 



m 


bw^p 


111 


pmp 


cabbage 


m*)p 


shop 


D^np 






patient 


*°iypmp 


clean 


pn 


1 

advise 


pnmi 


right 


mn 


coat 


pm 


radish. 


*pDjn 


calm 


jvrn 


intend 


pwjn 


smoke 


py)i 


right 


Mjn 


risk, venture 


jjrrpnn 


restaurant 


j^&n^ojn 


say- 


\yr;i 


recommend 


jjn^yDB^pjn 


journey 


yrn 






rich 


n^^j 






» 




boots 


bywm 


already 


]m 


chair 


hr\*\m 


sharp 


%pm 


hour 


jruw 


brother-in-law njttgW 


piece, bit 


^pw 


mother-in-law ny&imjmw 


voice 


j?ddw 


father-in-law 


njNMjSnww 


coals 


J^HKp pW 


son-in-law 


fn^njnw 


put, place 


jl^ytap 


feeble 


~\$m 


rise 


*pK nj^CDt^ 


debt, guilt 


ihw 


beam 


f?n«ia^ 


sister-in-law 


pjwip 


knit 


jppnfcp 


fire 


riant? 


distance 


ypjnatp 


cousin 


wpnpBDjmtp 


quiet 


^bp 


shoe 


nw 


handsome 


pp 


heavy 


"WW 


dish 


^D^ 


dull 


aj&BiBP 



Glossary "pai pKnjni 



cigar 

time 

shake 

match 

note 



"Ijwy adopt }J>D8fiiy /|jn«EV/ 

fc"¥ too 1! 

pyata^ too much bwShY 

f^mry sugar basin Jtt*m$;pl¥ 

tyfcj;y cake pJWinypir 



buy 

buyer 

coppersmith 

cabman 

Empress 

Emperor 

never 

kitchen 

kitchen-knife 

child 

filial 

furrier 

ring 

pillow 

clothes 

small 

class 

knee 

can 

boiler 

cheese 



JJ^Ip 

ijrtoanyssip 
njwBip 
pjn»p 

ID^p 

^KD^p 

W»p 

IJJDDyD^p 
TPp 

jMnjn^p 

njwrp 
^p 
pwp 

njrp^P 

DN^p 

j^P 
pwp 

byooyp 
Wp 



envelope 

cat 

cook 

blanket 

coloured 

cold 

gaiters 

chest of dr 

gnat 

comb 

guard 

office 

cost 

box 

cash 

coffee 

potatoes 

quit 

cousin 

short 

scarcely 



fcijniNpi 

ni^P' 

toybxp<- 

fc^Np' 

)^KDKp 

awers yiN^Kp 
"lKDG^p 

DNp 

^tapn:^p-- 

N^^Np- 
tSD8p' 

jPBDKp- 

PDDNp 

yysfi«p 

^ysSyeiNp- 

B'oip 

pp- 

pip 



1 84 



,113-iny^ Dyt&M^jjy 



married 


Byag-wnys 


holydays yJtJBiy^S 


related 


B-wtjvnpfi 


feud &£8EHJ"5 


ready 


jpanyS 


dark nyfiD^S 


desire, want 


mbiyt 


fifty mtvt 


print 


^tpiya 


regular *fbt$pT£> 


different 


\snyw\y& 


five epig 


understand 


jyny&EnyS 


much ^yvj 


pepper 


nysyss 


four ny»g 


Pipe 


yS^Sfi 


just fcpJIfi 


try 


}jn\s*n£ 


design jk^s 


friend 


i^ns 


place Y$bb 


kind 


yybi^ib 


bottle ytpg^s 


ask 


JWN"lS 


meat tP^S 


fruit 


wnfi 


flies jyjy^S 


living 


HDi-lfi 


bald y&K11*O^S 


glutton 


lyDDyiS 


pen njnyS 


breakfast 


paring 


field *pyg 


early 


nnS 


unite pttWKiyS 


spring 


Jtt^m5 


remain S^inyS 


value 


rns 


pleasure pwmys 


fresh 


pns 


forget fyDyjnyfi 

to let jyjwnys 


meanwhile 


wmywm 


pay jy^HBV 


together 


pftmw 


between jyts^Yiy 


train 


m 


twelve £\bym 


add 


pw6w 


writing paper ly^S-^*^ 



Glossary imyta-ijni 



183 



catch cold 


pbn^v 


worse 


nj?:njr 


first 


nyBt&np 


poor 


T»teijr 






feed 


jriwnp 


previous 




pair 


"1«8S 


partial 


tJVWftlKS 


floor 


yjjH^iKS 


abandon 


jjn$6"i«s 


go, travel 


jinnxs 


apron 


TibinS 


photograph < 


t^Ssi^ta^S 


format 


enb-^s 


&jnBi8fi 


delicious 


T^sjna-iBS 


case 


tt«fi 


prefer 


lynyvn^S 


sly 


t^K& 


china 


\$by*nxz 


family 


J^fcKS 


sell 


jps^pnss 


passport 


DKfi 


repair 


jyMnnKS 


post office 


tt&NBD^S 


butter 


nytais 


stage coach 


|Wlt3D$S 


furrier 


njr^T^is 


passenger 


*WWDDK£ 


toe 


IJ^SDlS 


paper 


I^SKS 


full 


Wns 


steamer 


nyn«"i«r 


coachman 


jg&nms 


handkerchief 


yp^vKfi 


lazy 


^IS 


ready 


ByEpny^S 


bird 
leg 


Dlfi 


day before f 
yesterday \ 


pjttsDpn^S 


milliner 


pJteN&Ylfi 


board 


pjnn^s 


floor 


jvn^Dis 


to get, earn 


}JWH">N5 


feel 


f^.TS 


gain 


taD^yn-iNS 


birds 


l^jws 


darn 


|jtt35pmK§ 


nice 


pS 


there is 


pragmas 


fire 


ny^s 


careful 


jpta^n^S 



1 82 



.•pa-iny^ bpvbiw. 



new 


K"* 


needle 


?jntu 


seamstress 


p$&"J 


handkerchief 


•pBWJJ 


absent 


*"jnxn pr em 


nature 


m^Ki 


sew 


\i>»* 


night 


m&j 


sober 


pyM^ 


enquire 


P^t2m 


low^ short 


amjro 


neighbour 


ngasNu 


down 


ijnjpj 


nation 


fK'i'Ki 


never 


o^dj^ 


fool 


^nm 


nails 


^yj» 


use 


\WtoK 


yesterday 


jy^jn 


only 


m:j 


nephew 


ySSjN 


useful 


I^WU 


cream 


D 
JW&yaD velvet 


iSyDDKD 


napkin 


p&jnnyD 


fir 


yYj*ODKD 


doubt 


pfiD 


sardines 


|y:m«D 






joiner 


ny^t&D 




y 




at last 


T><njy 


gimlet 


ny^w 


English 


Tjruj^y 


honest 


"p^nny 


ends 


B:njy 


fowl 


*py 


eat 


jyDDy 


floor 


msay 


eating room 


ny^yoy 


some 


DNTIfcy 


open 


jy^y 


some, a few 


^y^Dy 


exist 


fjmsDnpy 


oldest 


ytDDyts^y 


bail 


many 


reccomend 


jy^nyfiSDy 



Glossary -| 1 S "i J? t: i ;m 



181 



teach 


epd pjn 


blotting 


TJP&tJfiPJ^ 


master 


nyttD^D 


cap 


jwd 


Wednesday 


I^IIB^O 


my 


pD 


for my sake 


pWnajWD 


martial 


wywbv 


minute 


BWD 


have to, must 


IJTD^D 


hire 


p;ntojr& 


tired 


1JP& 


mix, muddle 


\ywft 


me 


td 


to offer 


p ism 


work 


nD«f?D 


furnished 


B-P^JJD 


furnitnre 


^r;D 


possible 


T»^j;d 


more 


nrr;D 


metal 


^Nt^D 


girl 


\VSTjK 


man 


Wtyti 


knife 


lyooyn 


shirts njnJDjm njWB 


west 


siyn 



last, least 



ymyb 
pyb 



D 



shop pWBD 
machine, engine JWPKD 

thin 11N8D 

stomach JlttgD 

malt i^ND 

material ^jny&gD 

make ]jrs«0 

overcoat ^tUXD 

monthly ^tfJKD 
sometime ^DDJ/^ND 

seamstress yp&DHND 

to morrow )^1ND 

morning DJJttl^D 

stamp VpW 

machinist &DWND 

mother ny&BID 

mouth bw 

fear *niD 

east rntfc 

trouble JNTD 

medium tytat^D 

dinner W& 

middle pfc^D 

member Ijr^D 



i8o 



„Ti:nnpf> oyvbi)y 



heir 


mv 


yes 


r 


yearly 


yb^ny* 


year 


ins* 


that 


pnr 


season 


t^Dmru^ 


now 


my* 


yell 


ppcD*p 


boy 


byw 


bachelor 


ybbyiymv 


orphan 


Din* 


young 


M)+ 



utensils 



D^D 



honour 



im 



linen 


-\yyr\»b 


loaf 


\y%ttb> 


easy, light 


®y*b 


shop 


jin«6 


candle-stick 


iptzyb 


lamp 


ysmb 


sheet 


y^L> 


land 


iwb- 


lend 


\y*»b 


long 


mb 


small beer 


ijpa oytz2»b 


slow 


t*wmb 


read 


\y*y»b 


let 


\ymb 


rule 1 


towb 


noise 


mnb 


love ? like 


\yzyb 


moon 


nnb 


life 


\yzyb 


hymn 


^)b 


living 


bw&toDtyzyb 


run 


\yfr)b 


put 


psyb 


liar 


"\ymb 


read 


\yryh 


lithuenian 


pxwb 


length 


ynyb 


pint 


iywb- 


countries 


lyiyyb 


suffer 


\yT"b 


spoon 


bysyb 


idle 


Wi p-inb' 



Glossary 1 1 3 1 y B n JM 1 



179 



seal 


byxiw 


acid 


njnr 


sealing wax 


DpKii bywv 


she, you 


m 


•saw 


w 


south 


TT 


sawing 


pw 


be 


K"? 


very 


injn 


since, for 


•pn 


six 


Mm 


grandfather 


jrvn 


sixteen 


jnjnrw 


are 


cw 


sixty 


WW 


his, to be 


P 


see 


inyt 


sin, guilt, are 


w 


seldom 


]V&bw 


silver 


■ttfcfw 


same 


yzbw 


sweet 


on 


are 


pw 


self 


T* 


mustard 


*pw 


sit 


|yyn%; 


sea-sickness 


o^npwip-yyt 


seven 


IW> 


sea-voyage 


yrn-yjn 
n 


seventy 


wjdjw 


living 


rwn 


union 


man 


sly 


man 


debt 


2\n 


tun 


pta 


ED 
day 


SXto 


tea 


yyn& 


day by day 


ybtyta-*$to 


dear 


nr^ 


cup 


jjddkd 


ink 


b:pb 


dozen, twelve 


pa 


daily 
dry 




pocket hand- 
kerchief 


. 1 -ptoiymb 


drink 


jypanta 


cloth 


T\& 



1 7 8 



.-pannj/'? uyw<bi)y 



for sake., weigh |SW) 


wife 


■ ^ 


go away 


• jjnriKSjjm 


crphan 


Jtt"TI 


will 


aim 


far 


ta^m 


weather 


nwn 


farsighted 


^Mn^if- 


weekly 


ybmyy;)) 


for, because 


^ T . 


world 


r^jm 


wine 


p t 


continent 


b^nmby)) 


wineglass 


rK^^V? 


which 


ysbyv 


grapes 


jj^re^it 


whose 


own 


white 


D"VI 


if 


]W\ 


winter 


npaam 


few, little 


:Mjm 


corner 


bypm 


least 


D^D^r^ii 


wish 


\ym^)i 


less 


-iiwjjni 


to meet again 


inynjnjm 


put \ybyt 


s®py))^\y^bpy)) 


how (much) many by^B^X 


waistcoat 


PBDjm 


muffle 


\bypm 


who 


"Ijm 


we 


^)) 


value 


nKnyn 


become 


ITII 


tools 


^yp-iim 


should 


jnTit 


Sunday 


%m^ 


t 

so 


m 


parasol 


b"\wmw 


immediately 


y^bm 


dawn 


m^my^m 


son 


pm 


sun 


yrM 


thing 


"|8t 


just 


\y%ym 


such 


ipzbw 


stockings 


\Vp$1 


salt 


fbm 


sort 


yta-i^r 


summer 


lynmr 


soup 


£J|T 


Saturday 


liy^mm 



Glossary "]impBnjni 



177 



native 


njmjpn 


capmakei 


njttSDBin 


shirt 


idj/h 


height, high. 


, tall -pn 


merchant 


Tpbiwri 


house 


nn 


ugly 


yboyn 


pedlar 


ip-win 


darn 


]y®tyn 


skin 


Bin 


hear 


]VV>T\ 


hungry 


an^in 


autumn 


Ejomyn 


dog 


n:m 


come here 


|VDD«pnpn 


home 


o^n 


gentleman, sir 


-nyn 


begin 


jk wvi 


round, after, 


onjm 


to day 


j»*n ,CH"n 


out 


D^nyn 


get married 


{ynojjT^n 


go out 
put 




hot 

sky, heaven 


D«n 


in 


p-iyn 


purpose 


tD^n 


up 


*piyn 


here 


wuwi ,nrn 


cheap 




where 


p 


cheeks 


IJMJ8V) 


goods 


Xn«8tt 


what, how 


D811 


carriage 


l^tfn 


water 


-ij;dnvi 


where 


pnxn 


stay 
word 

why 

washerwoman 




well 
live 

dwelling 
true 


nnNYi 


as, than, how 


m) 


week 


IP 


widow 
widower 




weekday 
guard 





176 



.-pa-iny 1 ? openly 



service 

thick 

lodging 

think 

desert 

the 

present 

afterwards 

pass 

South 

third 

three 

three times 

thirty 

thirteen 



ppvn 

cnyojn 

pwsfnsn 
Dim 

jpd^ts 



country, village 

must 

last 

durable 

dark 

thirsty 

the 

german 

Germany 

beam 

diamond 

Tuesday 

thin 



pJPH 

bypm 
pn 



that ojnjn ijnjn /wn 

the same JDSjnjn 



trade pnjnnwn 

glove nrerwjn 

towel T^an 

handwriting &6nBHJ8n 

hope asaUtfn ^fifi^n 

axe p**n 

hair "** 

listen ptt^n 

hard «n*n 

plane ^^ n 

fowl p^n 

hat »^ 



have 

oat 

hail 

trousers 

has 

had 

half 

throat 

necktie 

to keep 

wood 

hand 



pnan 
bw$n 

yBtagn 
yb$n 



Glossary Tiaiyfciyn 



175 



counterpane 



to like, favour 'Jl^gSjtt 
favour, service to"ptfbbytyi 
tools wy) 

just avr yi&yi 

noise W)iy) 

willingly pjjj 

to like jjfcgn pjtt 

rapidly, quick wwjtt 

ytobybwyy 
yrib$p ' 

taste pg&Pjtt 

present pjjwpji 

business, trade to&ywy) 
talk ^"lfi^ 

straight DJjm \yi^ 

great, large d^ 

grandmother iy&DBlDD*n:i 

green p n «, 

easy, light w^ 

salute \yw\$ 



use jy:n'nw 

opposite, about |jop:i 

contrary ^^HtD^yjjri 

patience i^n^ 

patient wbny* 

remember JPpJjnw 

pay, salary tobxny* 

ob ey t ' jyrn^njN 

8° '• \yr\y* 
in the habit, lived tMn$mj;:i 
certainly, surely dti^ 

ordinarily ybinyvy* 

arm, weapon Tljnw 

well, healthy INyz 

journeyman ybbyiys 

yellow 3^ 

yoik ^ 3 t, w 

common, poor ]»toyii 
m oderate fcllPDD J/D^j) 

enough ^ 

general . , ^njttjtt 

yesterday pyBDW 



thank 


pJtH 


basin 


jN$n 


the 


ONI 


steamer 


*pPSSCNT 


double 


B^fi^n 


then 


D^KISNn 


doctor 


i*iap$n 


here 


}JN*n 



174 



, "pinny 1 ? oyv^av 



hurt 


BJHWD 


amounts 


BSmws 


bread 


"l^-D 


host 


iran by* 


roast 


jytag-o 


artisan 


nD«te tys 


bronze 


yt^KnD 


trouble 


lymDjn 


brandy 


IjnBjk-d 


better 


"lyDDJ?:* 


brother 


njrms 


finish 


jjwiwjd 


bride 


nte ,wr\z 


paid 


tof?n»vj;n 


brown 


p*o 


easy, comfortable DjnipJD 


use 


fy^m 


got 


\y^n 


chest 


toom 


sorry 


myt2^py% 


bring 


jXttma 


baker 


-VplD 


letter 


ejyna 


board 


pmoypyz 


note paper 


njr»S8S njm:t 


bear 


njn 


letter box 


jy&D8p *]jn* 


ready 


B»njD 


shore 


n^siK ,3jm 


ordered 


b^bpid 


give 


IM ,*3^ 


fork 


fwaw 


soon 


"P 


God 


to^i 


glass 
bell, globe 


18&I 


kind 


^itats«^ 


J?pK^ 


gold 


"6^0 


right, just, soon T^ 


all, quite, very p^3 


happiness 


p^ 


street 


Dfctt 


happy 


^p^ 


guest 


ao^ 


native 


nyisn^ji 


inn 


nntacs^ 


birth 


ntaiinp^ 


very 


"1*0 


native country "tf ^DtDTDJtt 


garden 


|J^K3 


native town 


EnaBPD&TDJtt 


kind, good 


em 



Glossary -]i:ny&nini 



*73 



Bavarian 

cheaper 

ticket 

am 

bind 

biscuit 

beer 

fir 

blood 

blue 

flowermaker 

lead 

lead pencil 

remain 

pale 

blind 

tinman 

guide 

meet 

to be sorry 

covered 

special 

attend 

bedstead 

bedding 

pray 

drunk 



taybbv 

mbz 
x»bz 

fcpinitt 



cash 

grandmother 

sheet 

railway station 






soon, in a moment -6n:j 



ceiling 

bank 

bake 

receive, get 

beard 

butter 

belly 

tree 

build 

book 

bookbinder 

book keeper 

cupboard 

bachelor 

at 

pray, pleas@ 

at 

nearly, almost 

example 

both 

fierce 

purse 



\Vtop$S 

in 



172 



.-pa-iny 1 ? Dye^Jjy 



other 


njnjnw 


put on 


|inta« 


answer 


Bn^iiaw 


accept 


p®nym 


suit 


m^ 


put on 


|!Wtt8 


light 


pTWlttg 


arrive 


|3>DDtfp3K 


uncle 


hypw 


Instead 


ogM^g 


often 


&£$ 


orange 


ywbym 


beef 


®^b^y®p$ 


down 


^na« 


artisan, workman ny&":nK 


work 9 labour 


p^aisi 


honest 


■■ptejjnns 


hence 


uil« 


up 


«fng 


cff 


Ding 


kind 


£H8 


place 


&n$ 


in 


png 


poor 


njna 


enter 


pottos 


yard 


pang 


Ash 


fb$r\m 



Europe 

1 

in 

finger 

boy 

while 

inside, indoors 

eight 

eighty 

old 

age 

stale 

myself, alone 

all 

everything 

cupboard 

widower 

widow 

than 

true 

an 

another 

offer 

breakfasted 

complexion 

clothed 

agreeable 

elsewhere 



by^m 

MR 

iyt^K 

Oybb» 



Glo 



ssary "jiaipanini 



Jewish 

him 

you 

is 

always 

peculiar 

than 

egg 

own 

ice 

iron 

railway, train 

you 

oak 

packed 

one, a 

•entered 

unity 

a few 

grandchild 



0,TK 

am ,ra 

-pa 
Bp8Sp:ij»K 

y:pjrK 
typwa 



simply, plainly "^"k 
invitation an«^K 

common, ordinary jttggjpK 
single ^»x 

income $/&D£Jpp^ 

jour ^"N 

the day before fchk ^ 
yesterday pMJW* 



our 

misfortune 

below 

under 

unhappy 

difference 

recently 

sorry, sad 

impossible 
us 

shore 

cause 

such 

so 

union 

here 

breath 

satin 

above 

change 

next year 

change 
breakfast 
the day after 

to-morrow 
persuade 
overcoat 
Jew 



171 

cm 

nnrw 

syr\m 
oxhm 



I/O 



♦ ■pjnnj^ Djm^^jf 



M 



} 



BJW^JttDIK 



second p^mm 
brows p»JHS ^TO^IK 

also T»* 

from D1K 

delicious 
excellent 

emigrate pytigVlD'OK 

choose l^nyHD^IK 

abroad ^DW 

foreign PH^DIK 

except, besides r^om 

go out JJWBBWK 
pronounciation jDtnfitPDIK 

on, for *pK 

rise ttWS^K 

over mynjn^iK 

got up f^KaWS'W 

stoppage & I ?8nBWS v iK 

wind up |*;n$mWK 

rise, get up jynpBPS'W 

write |pvn^im 

to, at D1« 

change jy^toDIK 

return Jjnnpp&W 

and IM 



a, an S 

to leave pmjmK 

though bnwm 

wipe tpr»YD» 
cede jyt^a» ,pN3jnM8 

deny fJWp^«; 

Supper laKnMpR 

but n^^R 

start |ynn«s^t 

CUt fJH^Mal 

Farewell im» 

or ijn* 



address 


jjDDjmg 


awl 


hm 


without 


ym$ 


ear 


-ijw ,tik 


cucumbers ]Vp^ /DppnjWK 


watchmaker 


njngEnmtf 


away 


pjniK 


go away (|jnng6) plttpjniK 


put away 


jjWTtfjniK 


set off 


fjnngspyviK 


if 


:m 


above 


p^m 


eye 


ym 



Fables rmpyD l6g 

necessary to mention that he required "ready money" 
for his hats; few persons wishing credit for an 
article of no more cost than a hat, or if they did, he 
might sometimes find it advisable to give it. These 
words were accordingly struck out, and the sign 
then stood: "John Thomson makes and sells hats." 
A third friend, who was consulted, observed, that 
when a man wished to buy a hat he did not care 
who made it; so, two more words were struck out. 
On showing to another the sign thus abridged to: 
"John Thomson, sells hats," he exclaimed, "Why, 
who will expect you to give them away ?" On which 
criticism two more words were expunged, and no- 
thing of the original sign was left but "John 
Thomson," with the sign of the hat' 



i68 



**\<\%*\nvh oywhny 



important JWYl ,*fWT;n require 

subject -ttgBBttJttJtt credit 

sign ihw did (do) wish 

propose |par>1^§ advisable 






ready money nf?ltt Dyn«81 accordingly ypTt WH *px 

suggest fyt^n^ stood (stand) l%m^ 

entirely \VMM p^ observe JpfntfDja 

superfluous ^DD^SnWK care JPM8JD ^^ ^IMK 



in consequence -p^^S abridge 

struck (strike) out {pDKfwn exclaim 

next njnjnJK expect 

remark f^piyD^n give 

unnecessary ^TOPHK criticism 

mention JJtt^Dnjn expunge 






Franklin used to relate an amusing anecdote 
to illustrate the sufferings of an author who consults 
many friends about his compositions,, When I was 
a young man/ he said, s a friend of mine who was 
about to set up in business for himself as a hatter, 
consulted all his acquaintances on the important 
subject of his sign. 

The one he had proposed to himself was this: 
"John Thomson, hatter, makes and sells hats for 
ready money," with the sign of a hat. The first friend, 
whose advice he had asked, suggested that the word 
"hatter" was entirely superflous, and in consequence 
he struck it out. The next, remarked that It was un- 



Fables nrtPJJD 



167 



injury MWiywyZ 

thought (think) yEDgn 

became (become) jnTiNYi 
pass-along pp WS^S 

now tattEy 



laden (load) fjn*6jn 

at length yblty 

" u„tr„ d d) } t»-w 

conduct fJflDnjttJD 



A little schoolboy pressed a cherry between his 
lips and threw away the stone. An old man picked 
it up and planted it in the ground, much to the 
amusement of the boy, who laughed at him for his 
pains. Some time after the boy passed that way, 
and found the cherry-stone grown into a little shrub. 
The old man still tended it, and preserved it from 
injury. 'What is the use of all his trouble?' thought 
the boy. 

When he became a man, he one day passed 
along the same road, and found the shrub now a 
tree and laden with fruit, and at length he under- 
stood the old man's conduct. 

Too Many Counsel. 



Too many 


by*§> iv 


author nyD&Snys pK 


counsel 


nBKi 


about jsnjni 


relate 


IP^injn 


composition JttlDDNlnjJS 


anecdote 


™j/D N 


about tojn^O 


illustrate pj^piy 


yJPM^jD 


to set up JJW&jttjD -p 


.sufferings 


\m»b 


acquaintance ny&MSpJD 



1 66 



."pmnj^ oyvbHy 



c 0h/ said an old owl, who sat on a tree, 'how 
silly men are! Indeed, I think no one is wise but 
me. They all go out in the sun, and they do not 
seem to know that the sun shines only to put us all 
to sleep. It is very strange, for they hear me hoot 
at night, and they might think I should not be out if 
night were not the best time for going out There 
are no mice to be had in the day. What can men do r 
I should like to know, without mice ? I know where 
there is a fat old mouse. I shall eat him to night 
He will not see me in the dark/ <Oh, oh/ said a fat 
mouse who was near, £ I wonder if it is me the owl 
means to eat ? I will go out then before it is dark, 
and take my supper/ So the mouse took his supper 
by daylight, and the owl had no supper at all that 
night. Such a wise bird as the owl is ! But I think 
she should not talk so loud. 

The Cherry-stone* 



Cherry 


PTp 


laugh 


\yzxb 


press 


jypm 


pain 


y.TD 


between 
threw (throw) 




after some time I ^^ H 


plant 


jjwtefl 


grow 


JPDptjM 


ground 


jn-ip 


shrub 


QVQ -yp^p 


much 


bys 


tend 


jjtti^nys 


amusement JjwmyS ,T\MT\ 


preserve 


jjnwjte 



Fables m*PPD 165 

Men work for it, fight for it, beg for it, steal 
for it, starve for it, lie for it, live for it, and die for it. 
And all the while, from the cradle to the grave, 
there is ever thundering in our ears the solemn 
question — 'What does it profit a man to gain money 
if he lose his soul?' This madness for money is 
the strongest and the lowest of the passions ; it is 
the insatiate Moloch of the human heart, before 
whose remorseless altar all the finer attributes of 
humanity are sacrificed. It makes merchandise of 
all that is sacred in human affections; and even 
traffics in the awful solemnities of the eternal world. 

A vain man's motto is, 'win gold and wear it;* 
a generous man's, 'win gold and share it;' a miser's, 
"win gold and spare it;' a profligate's, 'win gold and 
spend it;' a broker's, 'win gold and lend it; 5 a fool's, 
'win gold and end it;' a gambler's, 'win gold and 
lose it;' a wise man's, 'win gold and use it/ 





The Wi 


se Owl. 






Owl 


(bywt) yb»x 


might 




\ytzbbw 


say 


flMWt 


were 


r» 


tsbm ,mjni 


sat (sit) 


D«T 


mice, mouse 


k 


riD ,j?PD 


silly 


tpnw 


dark 




npaws 


seem 


•p M«n 


before 




njrvK 


put 


\fflb 


daylight 




HD^DJttgta 


hoot 


jrnty 


bird 




fswifi 



164 



♦ •p.ainyf? Dy^^^y 



fight 


jyfifiDyp 


altar 


(rote) ~mh$ 


steal 


l?ynaw 


attributes 


JP&SgEW*** 


starve 


plttain 


humanity- 


j^ntpjyo 


lie 


JJttgT Bffrt 


sacrifice 


pyse$ 


all the while 


a^v ijn f « 


merchandise 


XH&gvi ,miriD 


cradle 


1W»vi 


sacred 


a^n 


grave 


•ap 


affection 


ywb 


ever 


JHty&p 


even 


i^Sk ,nw8t 


thundering 


pyu$n 


traffic 


l^yn^n 


solemn 


Bony 


awful 


ybpy-w 


profit 


^^nan^s 


eternal 


V2*& 


lose 


pnjpfngfi 


motto 


-p-isp 


gain 


Ijwnitt 


wear 


IJttBnia 


madness pjtttf /^TOpnnj/S 


generous 


^jny 


low 


pDjtt ^nyo 


share 


^nta 


passion 


toSS^in^ 


miser 


•W^p ,pr&p 


insatiate 


T^apnimK 


spare 


IPB^njD 


Moloch ) 


^1D 


profligate 


"KiaSin 


human 


T^twyo 


spend 


jjrftjwws 


heart 


pyn 


broker 


lyj^D^Np 


before 


tnSTtfJttJN JW 


lend 


l?:n*o 


remorseless 


t^wnjtt 


gambler 


-ij^rstWB'Wp 



Money is a very good servant, but a bad mas- 
ter. It may be accused of injustice towards mankind, 
inasmuch as there are only a few who make false 
money, whereas money makes many false men. 



♦|)NMJ«D pt *np» DitfK fittJ^S |$/D D811 Z2*tt njmwTi 8 (° 



Fables nrpyo 163 

far off pvm WW out of sight jnjtt IV mV 

crow Hjnp within sight jHJtt IV 

A cock stood on a high wall and said : 'No one 
is so tall as I am. No one has such fine plumes, or 
such a bright-red comb- The hens all mind what I 
say. I call them and they come. I give them 
a worm to eat, and I stand by and say: "Eat it, eat 
it, my good hens, don't mind me ; don't be shy. I am 
very glad to see you like it. I can find you more 
when I please.'" 'The cock makes such a noise,' 
said a man who came into the yard, 'that I must 
kill him, if he is not quiet/ The cock heard 

what he said, and got down from the wall, and hid 
in the barn. Here he would have had no food, but 
the hens found him, and brought him some. He grew 
quite meek and still, and when he got on the wall, 
it was to see that the man was out of sight. If he 
was far off, the cock would give one long crow, and 
then run back to the barn as fast as he could; but 
if he were within sight or hearing, master cock had 
not a word to say. 





Money. 




may 


}yp mankind 


\yvnyn 


accuse 


jjmSpjtf inasmuch 


yniyrwi 


injustice 


MjnJIK few 


WW 


towards 


Ijn^jnw whereas 


IJttB 



l62 



♦ Ti:nnj^ syw^szy 



An Arab had lost his way in the desert. Two 
days he had wandered about without finding any- 
thing to eat, and was in danger of perishing of hun- 
ger. Suddenly he fell in with one of those pools of 
water at which travellers water their camels, and 
near it there lay upon the sand a little leathern bag. 
'Heaven be praised/ said he, after he had picked it 
up, and felt its weight 'I believe it contains either 
dates or nuts ; and what a delightful treat they will 
be i — . How they will refresh and comfort me ! ' So 
saying, and filled with glowing hopes, he opened the 
bag, but, on beholding its contents, he exclaimed, 
with a melancholy sigh, 'Alas ! alas ! they are only 
pearls/— 



Vain 

cock 

stood (stand) 

wall 

tall 

such 

plumes 

bright 

comb 

mind 

worm 

stand by 



The Vain Cock. 

f bmw ,rn*o by* shy 

frmn 

yzbyis 

pjnys 

bbyn flyy:*® 

jnyap ym &"* 



yard 

kill 

quiet 

get down 

hide 

barn 

brought (bring) 

some 



wnynyw 

\y®bmy% T 1 



grew (grow) JJH^TiJtt 

meek ^jm^jnsM wy 
get on jynitt «fn« 



Fables nrtPJJD 



161 



'how dare you muddle the wdter that I am drinking? 1 
'Indeed/ said the lamb humbly, 'I do not see how I 
can disturb the water, since it runs from you to me, 
not from me to you.' 'Well,' replied the wolf, 'last 
year you called me many ill names.' 'Oh, sir/ said 
the lamb trembling, 'a year ago I was not born/ 
'Well/ replied the wolf, 'if it was not you it was 
your father, and that is all the same ; but it is no 
use trying to argue me out of my supper. V And 
without another word he fell upon the poor helpless 
lamb and tore it to pieces. 



The Hungry Arab. 



lose jjnjpfnys 

way jjm 

desert ytoD^Y) ^ID 
wander about jyro^&nKS 

anything DgtiBj; 

perish JlD-igBtP 

suddenly itfferftfi 
to fall in with JpfijnttjyDKny 

pool -pl£ 

to water jjp^fl typty-to 

lay )Jttjr6 

leathern Wiyiyb 

ba g p8t 

pick up IJWnSw 



either — or njn$ ^jnjmtt:? 



dates 


|J^B"B 


delightful 


DnjWJOK 


treat 


ni^D 


refresh 


jjwns-ijr 


comfort 


IJWttiyS 


glowing 


Tjvn^ 


behold 


VT\V1 


contents 


a^rms 


exclaim 


jysnD^ 


melancholic 


arfyq^j/D 


sigh 


pfin 


alas 


^yvb 


only 


mbz 



i6o 



• ■pannj^ Dptp^ny 



j^^mddh ycnjpfi 



♦nrwD jnmp 



The Wolf and the Lamb. 



As 


D^K 


indeed BgnB ")jn }W ,n&K }■»» 


wolf 


^P 


humbly 


JWnfcntffittlK 


brook 


*\m 


disturb 


tiw» 4jnnD 


saw (see) 


jynjttjtt &»n 


run 


p^ht ,p^)b 


lamb 


?\m Dyw 


tremble 


pittas 


distance 


mns/S^ 


ago 


k im /pnw 


down 


jytwiK 


born (bear) 


jm^Dltt 


stream 


DKIt^ 


same 


njntynjn 


seize 


lyfi^-i^-iy 


trying 


jimnpS 


might 


JJWp 


argue out 


fj^n^wK 


justify 


jjw&iySMin 


without 


%%m 


violence 


ta^ptt^nn^ 


fall upon 


jj^ks ep-iK 


villain 


MIWID /P&H 


helpless 


i^s^n ^)w 


dare {npBBnyBJIK 7? ,|Jtt«TI 


tore (tear) 


jpomj;y 



muddle jyt^D 

As a wolf was drinking at a brook he saw a 
lamb at some distance down the stream. Wishing 
to seize her, he thought how he might justify his 
violence. 'Villain!' said he, running down to her, 



Conjunction Bn^rnxn^a 159 

As good as water. Your tea is not so good as mine. As 
I live! As sure as I live! ysy^ ytK IPJgtt NT. Let us not laugh 
(s)$b) \y2$b before, lest we should weep (fiw«) }jw»n after. 
Whether he <??• his servant. Though he is poor, •?#// he is 
an honest man. Fly BS^BJg evil (b)m) Dytosybw and do 
good. At five o'clock I got into the carriage. A /night the 
journey jwn was more interesting than during the day. 
Towards night-fall pjni M*o everything was ready and 
he started off again. I am off DK jnriKfi T& He is 0^ forty 
years of age la^K, The ship is about to sail. The steamer 
sail^ downwards 2NftN*)£^ and not upwards cpN&$ntDfiP» I an? 
short </ money n^ p« pip p "pN 



English and American Money. 



21 shillings make a guinea Jtf^P 21 mr\ Jtt\3 X 

20 shillings make a pound (£) Jj^tP 20 PK tt^yfctP HNS K 

12 pence make a shilling. JJ'tyP $ PK DJJfS 12 

100 cents make one dollar ($) .DtM?D 100 ttgn IN^n *f 

10 cents make a dime (p"i) .D^l ptf W ftjpD 10 

^5 7s. 3d. DJJte 3 i:i« J^^P 7 tMlfi 5 

$8 6c. MtyD 6 iii« ng^n 8 



i 5 8 



^mny^ oywbny 



Conjunction {pwpsm'mxp) vn^ywz 
§ 1 8. 

tn$f\ p« |j;DDKt^ jyn^ y:6jni njranjm j?:6n? irt ^nyiijn^ 
tea and sugar ^jpfltfv* Dl¥ ,pnjn:« DJH M f £2Kt f -« in* 
Conjunctions 1^? ^ nJlK ^ -iptDnjm KH .brandy ^ beer 
if you are thirsty, take a glass of tea. White as milk. 

D«n ojnwiys as ♦-lycnjmjn^ T^ w '/ * as ^vwn ^ n 
pagf pw.jyDDgnv Bjn-M ?/ ;miik tsnp Din t^D white bisy* 

§ 19- 
also (ND^) too "pIK moreover l^Kn *]$J ^nyD "ft* 



and CW) Trot 

as (ty) $1 ,wn 

as soon (psiD) as WVi f?jW m 
as well as tOYl Btt $T 

because (Dn#jM) for b»v\ 
besides (DT^S) DimpDW 
but (p$$) ->JD8 ,-Ytf 

for instance by&W»Z DW 

however *$*] ,PK y&l «n WT) 
"ijmjnn 

if (b)^) ^i« ,pm 

lest (BDyf?) £2\3 HD 

likewise JJtt^Djn 

PWj'W 



nevertheless Dj;nvt3»1t3 ,"|$n 

neither, nor (jw») EM (D*n Wl) 
either, or -ijn$ pjnjmtujr 
provided CiyT^lS) "itf UR 
since (M>D) b»V 

than (jym) ,"W5 ^in*"** 

though, although to$VQ£ 
till, until (^BJK) « 

that Oym) '8 

unless (DDJ^K) t^J S1K ^JH"* 
still (^edd) yet (lay) . "^n 
whether (-iprnjfiK) W ^ 

while (^gw) pi ^ ,ymb$t 



Preposition ai^iiD^lD^yrnyfi 157 



from (D$nS) ]HB 

in (pa) into (!|B:pk) pa 

inside (-pD^N) of jwwk 
instead (lyfcWK) of BgBBttg 
near (vpj) J^^ ,&ttn$0 
of («]$) }NS 

off (t]Sx) ajmu i^s ^m 

on (jx) upon (}KfiN) ffpiK 
opposite (to) -ijnwjWJi 

outside WDI-n 

over (ijrilN) }jtt$ }KS nittw 
past (BDH8S) "Sn^S ,1JDn$S 
respecting "tipSm&jn 

:wBppsDjn 

save (iinyo) pn« 

j# B"? ijn jns ^n 



through (rmnto) *pn 

throughout p*o -pri 

tonnnna 

till, until (^:k) m 

to, unto (sittJg) P3 /iy 

out of JNS d^-j« ,)ircnn 

towards (DTi^B) Jjttjtt 

under (njnJ*0 ijnmik 

up (SDK) sp-ig 

up to (J]D fig) iv P3 y fO *]T1K 
with (ma^iK) * &*>& 

within JTWK yCp^nyfi ftf 

without ji^m |«s ,jttn$ 

on account (ts^lpy) of jjttjm 
on my account )j;j|jmBjWJD 

About that time, my brother came from work. A man 
knocked (ip^) toflj^pjtt ^/the door (inKl). We live at the 
bottom jhdj; ,py of the street. iw^ top to bottom }j/3K jns 
S$n*t PX <9?z the same day. He never writes A? me. I shall 
move (lima) JjwnittW into the country *p$n. Lend me a 
shilling/^ two days. He is out of town fingBp p* SM. It is 
beyond my power (i^ifi) MNO. All but one. -)jw»a in y^ 
He turned towards the door. The war (l^iN) againstFrance. 
Throughout the night mxj jwj&i KH I did not sleep* 



since 

DVD 



156 



.■pannyf? sywhny 



Preposition (pwn$flins) Bn^lD^yrnpfi 
§16. 

He was in the room -«rcm pt pWUH ^K njr 

He went ^ the room ijns^ pK p^^nK BPK ny 
My uncle resides ^ Kovno y^ll^p \K ®$ni$)) nytDyS J»D 

Prepositions (DWi$sjns) nytanjrnD'OBtyn 
§ i7- 

.About (B*DlO mnjrn behind (WTi) 



above (h*djO ijwk ypDW 

.according to 1 ,Djn -|*0 

.across (D^npy) T^H 

.after (njND5n«0 l$tf 

against (BDJHiW) \VW 
.along (^)}^r« 

.amid (-st) (BD-TD?) \VWto |^ 

.around Owiy) om p« or* 

.among (^DP) |^W 

.as for, as to ^yntayn pK 

at (m) D1« ^ 4^ /W 

because (DHKp'O) llDW ^"Yl 
before C"in$S , Q) nym^S 



below (mb^) \y&m 

beside ('VD'O) |JDJtt ^nn 
between (jnwtr^) P^W 

beyond (W) -J ^^ 

but (m%) w^ ww 

by (v*) JJDJN i]«tfi /TVn /«** 
concerning c]jnt9}D pK 

JjmyD^p 
contrary to (njntM^p) IV p^ 

down (pn) ^KnK ,*iy&:myn 
during (^nvi) ^ynnyn 
except, excepting lyo^H ,pn 
BSyDpy ^MJ/Dpy 
for (-i$6) T»S 



Adverb tD"!X11Dl^Kta^D1K 



155 



so, thus £31K p« #1 spN $) 

$d cam 

nearly, almost ynW'tt 
scarcely (^DnypD) D'np 

only (^N) tf^K ,TD 

quite (a^NSlp) p&l 

together (nyrnjMB) \ywm 
altogether JJNHW fN 

gradually D"VD$^D^ 

indeed agflto njn jw j'nDKpi 

much (^fcKfc) } ty»6 
very much > , _ 

greatly (^n^))^ injn 
perhaps (DSJjmys) M"^S 
probably T^BnnslI 

even (jwk) i^fijj ^nuk* 
also (ND^K) too (n-ita) y)H 
of course (DH$p ^) ^TBfrO 
ordinarily yblTWW 

especially 1 

particularly I 

exceedingly ^njmjttM 



extremely fcDDnyD^K 

chiefly (^£,T0B) T^iftfcSnn 
rather nnjftAjpS ^IW^' 

■wmtn 

well, (^«) better,? £ 
best (&DJD) C nyDja 

badly (^JD) ill (^«) Mj^p 
worse, worst ) DM y "l^iy 



little, less 






more, most |pBD"inyD /"injft: 

wherefore Dp IKS yTS^Vr 

therefore tSnh /pHST 

by no means ^N§ DJWp epK: 

else (pby) 1 

otherwise V Diyw 

too, too much 1 

too many (\3>/D)J 

surely (^W) nj^T /D^YIJN- 

doubtless ^S^IIV mnK: 



154 



.■panful Dpan^jy 



To-day (njrMB) Bjv»n 

to-morrow(nK1ND !|B) pWl^D 
yesterday (ninni^D?'') pMjn 
always (Dnjfi*6n$) nyOD^« 
never (njmjtt) D^jBjrtf 

ever (-ljnw) nyaDW ^^^K 
sometimes ^KD DJ/^KD 

seldom, rarely ptsbyi 

again (|njr^y) ^KD p« -j^ 
often (}JN5n$) afitf 

long ago {^ JttJ^ }K£ 

lately (^anjA) 33*6 EM 

formerly ^gjDg ,1J/mS 

directly (^BpyTH) ""6*0 *p^ 
meanwhile | 

in the meantime 1 \yb")) 

p*Vn EP^TD J J 

by day (njn ^) $m R»Z 
daily (^nin) "p^ya 

weekly (^pnwiK) "p^wyDim 



} 



m^ 



then (]ym) ®bmm 

now (n*0) 
at present 

&y awis 

once (D^ijK) ^$DJ"K 

soon (jnsiD) 1 ; ibm 
sooner ("lyjpiiiD) >mi ;r;y% 
soonest )jyaD:wow 

already (^y^bm) ]#& 

before (iKfi^) nymfi 

beforehand D^tO^S 

afterwards lyayfifc^ ^yn^Ki 
D*ny.i*nyaSnK 

first (aDiyfi) nyaD^y 

now and then D^Vttya^V 

yet (ay*) -^n w* 

not yet (ay a^) ai3 ^j 
as yet, till now I ;a?y* ft3 

?y ay ^a hkj J ^^nyi 

still (^aD) ny&fcW -|#J /ftj 
early (^ny) mfi 

late (anyty ays^ 

by night (a*\3 ^) MK3 K"* 
monthly (^n&J$D) T^ag^a 
yearly (^inyO T»^inr 



.How (••in) 



817 Why (»&ix) 



ongn 



Adverb KngniDn j« tDtS>D1K 



i5S 



§ H- 

gay DVPBpjwnp «h $s -^^st^^n dw ,(^) /y jrup D^n pwfriy 

pjnwi pa (nna) true ,-iwi^p pa (t^s-w) wise ,-p^ns (njn) 

yf?jps *n w Dynyow .true^, wise/y, gay/y Mijnny jimiw 

.B^yjtt |ya:nK tap« oy wii fl^ymy 

§15. 

$5 [c] ,&»¥ jk£ [b] ,En$ $s [a] :w A* j^nsw:i an 
T .[tyn iwjm &pk -|«r *n tang jjttfyn ^ik ]jtt"vi d«ii ,n'"i] ,b-)8 



Here, 


"Wn« ,tn 


nppn 




there, ps ^n^n^ 


nym 




where (nnjNN) 


nii 


at home (Dn$n toy) ywn w 


everywhere 


^njDW 


-inywnyny 




nowhere (in$MK$0) DUJttTJ 


elsewhere 


NiiDiynN 


TijNKDty 




somewhere } 




army^** 


anywhere 1 
& ) 


»r»« oy an 


below (n^Jto) 


jy&uiK 


before (nn^S^) 


a^nas 


behind (l^no) 


jyta^^n 



back (pjtt) pnw 

hence (Djyn) pttKI $S- 

thence (D^ym) pairi $S- 
whence (DJJNK) jjNNVi |N5- 
from home D"H "iyi |N5 

to and fro (N1£) nyn n^K |TT 
up and down DK"iK *\m fplK- 
upward (-s) Dfc-ijmSW 

downward (-s) SNINr 

abroad n^DW D*»« ^DITT 

indoors SltfiP p« ^nJlttim 

out of doors \yD*>1Tl 



152 .-pmnj^ oyv^btsv 

im fi5*nzy* &M do, did pmjni nyanyiite^y-ofi^n £m -imij 

I cannot, I may not I could not, I might not 

[thou canst not, thou [thou couldst not, thou 

mayest not] mightst not] 

he cannot, he may not he could not, he might not 

we cannot, we may not we could not, we might not 
you cannot^ you may not you could not, you might not 
they cannot they may not they could not, they might 

[not 
B^K ®V fotfVDtf ,do M*VttJtt & Wl be \$S imperative pK 7D 

&y% Tn do not be &3K?jn ttvi oy im ^i^insa^yDS^n p« tij 



Adverb (swoO ^pD^ywDiK 
§ 13- 

I know him well £ 1 J DiTN Jtt^p *pK 

he is very glad JjnnSW i n jn BPK I? 
he sleeps /^^ j; 3 3 k *? ftS^fcy ly 

-jd 5/s6jm ,0^) long /nyn) very X^$n*0 well n^nyii an 
glad wtapypny Dyn im know, sleeps "nytDnymtD^v «h |yDW 



Verb isn^iia^y 



151 



.^sr^ jw«in n*n \vm /pwotnpfi wa ojn ^ tf» dw" 



Present 

Do I write (&"-))? read ? 
[dost thou write ? read ?] 
does he, she, it write?read? 
do we write ? read ? 
do you write ? read ? 
do they write ? read ? 



Imperfect 

?"pt wb iv ?t»k sjmp iv 
Did I write ? read ? 
[didst thou write ? read ?] 
did he, she, it write? read? 
did we write ? read r 
did you write ? read ? 
did they write ? read ? 



fii^ws Dm njras: ■uw d^vid^v dot Wifi d«jt jys n rN i 

?T»k j>mvd iv ?-pK j/tsjKp iv 

Could I ? might I ? 
[coulds/thou? mights thou?] 
could he ? might he ? 
could we ? might we ? 



?7« wd iv ?t»« p>p iv 

Can I ? may I ? 
[canst thou? mayest thou?] 
can he? may he? 
can we ? may we ? 
can you? may you? 
can they? may they? 



could you ? might you ? 
could they ? might they ? 



:by^w"i div /notwb dpk inSjnosn 



I do not buy (sell) 

[thou dost not buy, sell] 
he does not buy, sell 
we do not buy, sell 
you do not buy, Sell 
they do not buy, sell 



I did not buy (sell), 

[thou didst not buy, sell] 
he did not buy, sell 
we did not buy, sell 
you did not buy, sell 
they did not buy, sell 



i5'G ^)%*)nyh ovwhny 

Imperative. 

call ■ &sn ,*p love asy^ ,ay6 

let me call |ysn ""pD ?*6 let me love jyay*^ "pD mh 

let him, her, it ) ,m ,ny 1*6 let him, her, ) ,*w ,iy ?§6 

call J jylrn Dj; it love j jyay6 D^ 

let us call jpgn TV) jy?*6 let us love jyay^ TV) |ytK^ 

let them call }pSn ion }yt$6 let them love jyay^ W>i pmh 

§». 

f k -win imperf . pK ogvi y^a? w nyanyii£^ b yjpDDyD^yjytM 

KH ^ySE^a DW /£ iy*lK ^ spD DW B'O jyagn participle past 

j-N ta^ jy^n ^y^nn (^nn) ^'^ 4y3y3 (vm) give n^^nyiia^^ 

TO thrmged 131K give;/ p ^"IH^n Dy KT y part. p* im imp. 

|yD BSn D11K1 X^^m) brought ^lyYM) given X^H^) gave 

^yEnyvlB"? p^DD^D^pm *W 

§ 12. 

-tD^y jysy^ jyn thk y^jjiS y^ dik ftjTTt anyiita^ dki }yii 
■UDisma^yDS^n dkt M^ray:i tit f*n ,p (®p) not mym mt$)i 
]j?d did ,; ?^k sy^ w„ :|yi«ns frrn jyD jyn ^yw^ ovsr ,to do 
"IM^ ny^ "p*^ :jy,TTlD , nK ^11 jyD jyn *m z><? I love? -:|y^l 
^K) I do not love :}JMK? jyD DID ^My^yj) M\3 2«n ^ /"W^ 

fyjyn ytyn (,My^y:i mvj a»n -p«) I ^ not love y (M^ sy6 
-ta^yos^n t^D tarjTDy:! jymyvi dkh jy&vy «n p« (1 -: m^ a^ 
^ys^'O div y p^K nytanyiiia^vDS^n k^ d^kd^j (2 .nyanyvi 
Vt t do yjnK s/m// 1 love? wbny r\m ao^n "?jy^ -p« ^yii w„ 
a*tn w,, rjyD^^Dyi shall mm&^zh^ nyi {ytfKrn^s ap« m 

mn yx tl ; Bo I have aiD^ njttg Have I ? :|y^K? jy& DID "?7« 
I ^ not have M\3 iy^K I have not : tf^jy *pK ar>K "aDM 

.tan^yiB^yDS^n pn ana* have ^t 



Verb Bnanifi"? 



149 



callt) 

have 
calledj) 



I shall 
[thou wil^] 
he, she, it will 
we shall 
you will 
they will 

Conditional 

,YM,K ,|yfin EJ^II 7K 
I should 
[thou woulds/] 
he, she it would 
we should 
you would 
they would 



J 



call§) 

have 
called If 



Future. 

I shall 
[thou wil^] 
he, she, it will 
we shall 
you will 
they will 

I should 
[thou woulds/] 
he/she, it would 
we should 
you would 
they would 



lovef) 

have 
lovedj) 



love§) 

have 
lovedf) 



Subjunctive dins ytatam 



(jyfiinjN) tysn b^yi t>* ]jm 

If I call njn# have called 
[if thou call] have called 

lf it ^aU 6 ' I njn * have ° alled 
if we call njnN have called 
if you call njn$ have called 
if they call njn« have called 



If I love njHK have loved 

[if thou love] ,, „ 

if he, she, 1 
it love J 

if we love „ „ „ 

if you love „ ,, ,, 

if they love ,, ,, „ 



.future ")ifla"Yi¥ (J .future T^Dny (f 
perfect (H present (§ 



148 



■panny 1 ? oywb-My 



Indicative D1HS y £3 D *"} y 



I call (bnxp) 

[thou calks/] 
he, she, it calk 
we call 
you call 
they call 

I calW 
[thou calks/] 
he, she, it caltea? 
we called 
you called 
they called 

I have ^ 

[thou hay/] 
he 5 she, it has ] 
we have ' 

you have 
they have 

I had \ 

[thou had.?/] > 
he, she, it had ) 
we had \ 

you had > 

they had ) 



y®STb y& 



Present. 

yfin v* I love (mb) yypb y* 

[thou loves/] 
he, she, it loves 
we love 
you love 
they love 
Imperfect. 

«]im yx I love^ 

[thou lovedst] 
he, she, it love<i 
we love<i 
you loverf 
they love^ 
Perfect 

I I have \ 

[thou hast] > 
he, she, it has j 

we have 1 

you have > 

they have | 
Pluperfect. 

I had \ 

[thou had-tf] > 

he, she, it had * 

we had \ 

you had > 

they had ) 



called 



loved. 



called 



loved 



Verb ttntmtt"? 147 

May (nj») pttVp s]VW* 
Present. Imperfect 

I may )Kp ,#D T* X mi S ht ^" D ) ^ Dj;D T* 

[thou may*tf] [thou mighty/] 

he, she. it may he, she, it might 

we may we might 

you may you might 

they may they might 



Must (bdbd) ptt»n ^ntajN ^"Wi ,|jniD 
I must *pm ,D1D -p* We must l^"^ 1 W*™ nni 

[thou must] you must 

he, she, it must they must 



II 

: \ptoy\x wyi conjugation jwk fittgn lytanjw^ woyD^W) 

Love. Call. 

Infinitive. 

to call (^p w) l?sn t0 love (^ w ) P*^ 

Participle, 
present calling O^HKp) WV&T\ loving (m%b) myiwb 
past called (-\bnxp) jySnw love ^ C™^) Mjr^W 



146 



• Tia-iny^ ov®*b%%y 



[thou dost] (potp) BDinfc 8H [thou didst] 

he, she, it does £infcs oy m ,-y he > |Jf' lt } 

we do JjnriB TYl we did 

you do Binta nrrw you did 

they do |jr»n& Wl they did 



tsoj/aa™ kit 



Participle. 

present: doing Omn) :THJjnntD 
j^w/; done (f*n) JgntDJtt 





Ought (pru$) \ybb^i 




Imperfect 


I ought 


yvhb$1 T* We ought 


[thou oughts/] 


you ought 


he, she it ought 


they ought 



iwhbifi 



Present 



I can (\Vp) 
[thou canst] 
he, she, it can 
we can 
you can 
they can 



Can (jyp) pxyp 

Imperfect 

|Kp 7« I could (yip) ym$p yx 
[thou couldrf] 
he, she, it could 
we could 
you could 
they could 



Verb B^lliB^V 145 
Imperative (WBjnps&W) DINS Dtt)br\y5yZ 

Have i,tn taa«n s m sgn Be wk fiw ,Kn «"»n 

let me have jjDgn ^ fN let me be p "pD ?$6 

let him, her, | y an y ny ixb let him, her, "k ,m ^y \$b 

it have j pttgn Dj; it be J pt oy 

let us have jjnan Tn |^TX^ let us be p T»n p$6 

let them have JjDgn K"? JJtt^6 let them be p N"? p$6 

Will ji^sm 

Present. ■ Imperfect 

I will DID b^ "pK * should PB^t -pK 

[thou shah?] ^DID ytSD^T KH [thou should?/] BDyB^K KYI 

he she it shall i D5 > '*V^ he, she, it D*; ,W ,nj> 

he, she, it shall j ^ ^ should ^^ 

we will jyo^D y |y^T Til we should \Vtob$1 n^ 

you shall ED1D ,£&$? -),TK you should ttjtta^T -lTTK 

they shall p^D ,|J^$T WT they should jyta^T K"? 

Shall jj^nj 

Present Imperfect 

I shall ^11 7» I would PB^VI -pK 

[thou wil#] BD^V) KH [thou wouldrf] BDPB^NYI XH 

ta.d-.it .HI *,«,,».■» "^• d i « } W^.T 

we shall jp^n Til we would jjJB^ii tii 

you will . fca^Vi niTK you would Djn^p n«TK 

they will jj;Wi N"T they would fpB^Yi N*'* 

To do (n jid) pna 

Present Imperfect 

I do (H) JMH22 "p« I did (Tl) BKHB TK 



144 



,-jUiny^ oywbny 



Conditional (fyj$n^$p)Dn$S yta^llY 



.yi.t.k tJD«n pb^yi -pa 
I should (*w) 
[thou wouldy/] 
he, she, It would 
we should 
you would 
they would 



have ) 
have 



I Should (W) 
[thou would?/] 
he, she it would 
we should 
you would 
they would 



be°) 

have 

beenj) 



Subjunctive (wapwroso) cnK§ pa am 



/IM.K jWKH ^t 7« (OKI) H5 

That (aym) I 
[that thou] 
that he, she, it 
that we 
that you 
that they 



havef) 

have 

hadH) 



/IMK pn ^Kt 7« (DH1) HD 

That (toym) 1 

[that thou] 
that he, she, it 
that we 
that you 
that they 



bef) 

have 

beenf) 



Imperfect &"¥ ittyu^nyS }1D? 



If I 

[if thou] 
If he, she, It 
If we 
If you 
if they 



were (injfiK) 



mini "pa ^1« 

mini oy y «n ,-iy ^i« 
jjnpn n^i ^ik 

jjnjni wt 31K 



♦pt ^p 7« <p$m &bm y& pres. -vs (° 

•tinijtt ^p *pK ^np vb$v\ t« perf . ts ( J 

•M^-Ditt jyfiAyr -m ]j;nnjw \y^m jnri perf. (if pres. (t 



Verb tn$iiB"y 143 

they had jyaagn K»t they were pngn N"t 

Perfect (tDpyfinyfi) &*»3f jttjtt«:nyfi (2 

had 



I have 

[thou has/] 
he, she, it has 
we have 
you have 
they have 



^> 



had 



E? I have 

^ [thou has/] 

=* w he, she, it has 

. *£ we nave 

- 1 you have 

^ they have 



J 



been % 

5-*- 

been ** 



Pluperfect (Bpj>£nyfiJ|>te) &"? w^anys i^ (3 



I had 

[thou hads/] 
he, she, it had 
we had 
you had 
they had 



had 



had 



I had 

[thou hads/] 
he, she, it had 
we had 
you had 
they had 



been 



been 



Future ("WB-VS) JlflDIp BJttl DK11 y B"? JWBfiyp 
I shall (hhsw) 



[thou wil/] 

he, she, it will 

we shall 
you will 
they will 



.=* I shall 
hav e°)% [thouwil/] 



*2 
U 



"«n$ '§ he, she, it will 

have ^ we shall 

hadf) =* y° u win 

~| they will 



be0) I 



V5 



have ^f 

beenf) -J 



.future np»*nw (f .future IjJBtnp (° 



I4 2 ,1131111^ Dya^juy 

I 

To have (I1jm W) fy^n To be 05 W) p 

Infinitive (YMDWStfK) B1$11B"lf |^S D1N§ 15111 

ToJ) have to be 

Participle (^^BlgS) aiKII^E^D 

Present owons) &"* WW P ast (BDrwfi) b»v iwa *aiyfi 

having (inij/n) uyssn had (ij/n) Mgnjtt 

Indicative [wr\yp^m*\ oiks j;&Diy 

Present tHjnjn& a"^ JttW 

I have (iiyn) JD«n f»K I am (DJ7) p T* 

[thou ha^t] (BDJM)t3D«n «H [thou ar/] (Bin*) toff* 811 

he, she, it has mr\ OV W ^V he, she, it is &PK D? ,K1 ,1? 

we have JJDKn Til we are W Til 

you have M8H TTK you are 1"T liTK 

they have pDKn K"T they are |jn$n K"? 

Imperfect (BpyfiljJflDW) &"¥ WPtt&nyS |JW (i 

I had (ijm) ytDtogn -pK I was (?KW) 1811 T* 

[thou hads/] &DJN3BKn K11 [thou was#] IQDnBII 811 

he, she it had { ^£^ he, she, it was { * <£<* 

we had pttSttKn 111 we were fyiKII Til 

you had BJttDBKn 1!TK you were £21811 12T8 

to engine DJH 18§ JjmjflSP llflDDW DID infinitive p (J 
you pjnJ$t ,t31fttlD Mtf B1TJP 1T11 811 thou (f 



Pronoun B")$1iV5 141 

Each (pbjtk) ipyp Both (non^) jnva 

either (wr*) {»*^™ neither (W ro) { P^f P 

none (f*o) no one / nothing mvj ^t pp 

nobody \ y r 

some one, somebody, anyone, any body njww -ttitt-pK 

something, anything bpk Dj; Dgll ,D«Ti&p 

whatever (ijniy&B!|K) whoever (njttljftn) W Dj; njm ,pk Dp DNll 

other, another (nymw p) njnjnjg pa ^jnjnJN 

each other ]injn» DJH 1JWK 



bvvpQKp owsnya 
Verb (snjni) En$w>y 

§ 10. 
(fin^D) sleep ,]njtt (n#i) go ,jy:rntp (t^n) write *oyi aian n:k 

DJ> ^"V) /(mjni) verb B^y «pK ^^VIB"? SOD^H .N.T.N ,}P£n6p 

^ynfiy T»«— I wrote ; byjp ^"IP "pa aD^n I write .bsn^p jj;& 

nyajtety p^nty ynyyi 7a — I shall write ; (lynns W:w) 

$S jy»n$s y^x .jy^^nyn im ,jy&&$p ayvi dn-h d^v nh pa 

.(jyEWPn^p) conjugation jyD«n Kn$T)B"y 

^ytoiynt^y-DS^n jny* jpn^n^s jy:yr jnwnstp jyp^y nyn pK 
|ypm iv dnk ynyuK jy^yn d«yi npEnjmB^y y^N? ^d^h dni 
«h Til \yw *n — .jycn^S kh }^s -iyj# jyia«y an jks dj"n 
iow |ns in** nyiDnyiiD^y-Dfi^n jnyv yryn |ns conjugation 
lycnyiii^y y^DDyD^yjyi 



our, ours ,jn»»« W™ y our > J our \ '^'T* 
C their, theirs (tnmwn /fl*m) W> ,rw«t .-n 
^Li-SL horse ,TorD*ybook -.h** fin*mw 

W«£ bV* TO DK1 the book is mine : M ,*Wjn 1 " * * 
S4a \^ its - .DJWS tOW Ttfftft DK1 the horse » fc« 

S ^nin the "able and * cloth : *t* ,8^ ^W 

E 
Myself % (T«) H* Ouj^ves r* (™) «* 

thyself r^» ^ 'T« y° urse ^ e ) s J ]«■* (in*) rr* 

( Sf rfcc*)^ ^ives r*w<T» 

herself (^myn) |^N (K"*) "p 

itself C^yDB^) rbx (DJ?) /"H , , 

I think myself happy -|V» 1* 1W T* 
I make it myself r^^l 80 ^ 

One ( t ^) P* P»™ F A11 (**> „ ^ '^ 

1 f-ijnjp everything 3T1D7N 

everyone everybody | ^ D every "ljnjT 

nm nm thyself bibbimk ;yo sai-a diss po^w an C 



Pronoun BINnve i 39 

Nam he ny she m if) D? they ^ 

W 0») (aw) (nym) 

<*w. .(D BW3B pNMIK TJ1« A BW3M WSK jmjw) 

Zfc/.tohimOiVKW to her to it DJH w to them «»,* 

^. him D ,TK hen,T« it D y them M «r 



B 



Am. Who ?njm what D ^ which -^jm 

6^. whose (Dffln) DJttSjm of what of which 

Bat. to whom jyajm w to what to xvhich 

(•1B ornn) 

-4a. whom(OfMn) {j?aj>u what which 

c 
^. , Singular. PlumL 

This(o*m) vm.ytnrtm These (t,Tm) w-, 

that (aym) d W ^,iw those (mm) L, 

such^BKD) Djnty ,j«ty ^j^, such(^D) j^ 

the same TOWD »ml -f N ''" , '" 1 ^" 1 tlle same Jtt'wH 

*g, mine W ^ ^f*^ W ,„„ ^ 

to '(db Jf ^ { W <™ <H CwKS?nT TPK ' mM ' n ™ 

njw the good son : Wa ow a;*? jye ^yaar^j * n m 
the good table -ow the good sister -px 



I3 g .iiannyS oyvbiil 

SfS cock mlnyn the son ,<*»* njn the father >^ 

« ithe Life V* np the table ;*, she p» B*» 

masculm gender :*fc* «pn K™ BajfcW jwto» Din 
T D S feminine gender - W^^ ;(njnW*n ^pD,D> 
1 .(nyOT) neuter - 0jP*W ;tWW 

§ 9- 

^^y/ixmwv** man*** Www 
1 .yoDnaryaiw (f) ; sruynjw 

A 

iV«» I 0*) T« We(*W) nD 

(139 ya^D awasiW') 
Dot. to me OD IB) TO («) to us O^B) W« W 

^. me On) T» us 0«) " 

jV*». thou Oim) «n You [rw] ™* 

Gen. ,(, 3 9^DtM»a«yW) 

Zfc* to thee Tl (W) to you T * C £ 

Ace. thee "P J™ 1 



Adjective fc-) Kll-D&SKtS^ jn^R 137 

tM^yjtt jjwn jj?^in *n .5 ^nins $fi fyjjn *n 1*0 pn tssnjrj 

Positive Comparative Superlative 

Good (yij) ^ )• 

well(W) ^11 J T better ("WO best(BDya) 
bad(ljtt) My^ ] , , 

ill (St) pj*np j worse (Dn ^ worst ( M ^«) 

little (S^) ]"bp less (D}A) least (BOiT 1 ?) 

many (vjy&) fy-»S more (1HKD) most (EDHND) 

farhn«fi) B»ti 1 f arther ^ nr « fi ) farthest (ttDym-HJfl) 

J further [lynriyS) furthest (ftDyrmyfi) 

late (anj£) ay** 1 later (W^O latest (awanjrtO 

J the latter the last (bDnsf?) 

near (irro) a:n$o nearer (-ijnJTJj) nearest (aDyTM) 

old hS) aS I older (^¥) oldest W) 

' J elder ("lyity) eldest (aDjnty) 



Pronoun (pi^is) aDy^JN ,ai$1WS 

§ 7. 
«t« aw D»n (pl^-lfi) Pronoun wbtty *p« ao"n aiavn^ DK1 
,an#na£nn D>5i jyfiriivja agatwg a^mw -mi oyaSn aian 
♦p^njn ™« ,oy (aw) zOjm (^n) w^ ,ny On) /^ m^/ 

§ 8. 

— :(dw&) nya^;^ «"tj dj> aw yag-iap jjw^y nyn pa 
O811 mrna ™* ty^npettBa-^fi [id* pa] wy^w Dy^ya (1 
TS [nip: pa] aayteyji Dy^^ii (2 ; ^y& ma*q nyn jks \yw 



136 •Tianny 5 ? tiywbzy* 

§ 5* 
jrass^K y yaD"iy «n ♦jyssiBtp wm mr\ ^m-mmmy^-n mi- 
~"b$iy& /j;D^w «n ,(vpotks) positive wbtty ^ik bo^h yssitsfc* 

^JDtam «H ^W^^P) comparative BD"n yS&lfctP D^D 

.(TPBy^nySID) superlative BD"n yfi&lBP ytowyn 

pa^iiv an p« oy a»n /C^wn bpk fin^ri-DtassEtty^K Den jytt 

nh pa |yn ,^ nyi& /^ yaiam «h f k ^r j:mjy an ySSia^ 

•yiiy dw * p« 7? B^ya yS&iBP yaony 

1) small (hn^W) \"bp large (^nHH^) DK^ 

2) smalkr (iyf?n$DD) Itftybp larger (lytPnriN 1 ?) "lyDytt 

3) smalls -\ymyybp Urgest{wywnn$b) ywy^x 
orrw *\$% \m tsbbym ,:^pw &m mpD^K&oy^ mi \y\r 

♦(boh^d) most ywn &n p« X^kd) #20^ ySitttp y^m" «h j*»« 

1) useful (^jfim-V) ybw* prudent (twyins) .I^^HHS 

2) ;wm? useful ny^W mw prudent *)ymy*nm 

3) watf useful ny&D^YB'tt m*tf prudent ny^D^Mnip 

dw jy pa yssifcp jnsDnj; «h pa Ban lan^v-fcSgBtty^K om jyn 
♦s'&tf yam «h pK ^r ysfii^ ya^ny kh pK d? bkh ,y w 

1) lazjv (^nyb) bm happy Osayn) ybp^bx 

2) ikzier (nynnyV) •nyfns hkppier (^myti) ^yyhp'b* 

3) lazzks^ (BDynny^) nyiDD^iS happ^(BDy wn) yBDr^p^a 

§ 6. 

im y®")w «n y:6yii a^ ^yBnytt-DBSgawy^N y^r «n w oy 
~y^ Bgn oy wvi m^ *t\"i ^syfebyzy*) toy* w yfiSiBP ya^m 



la^ttD^yt l ^ k *m B»n ay jyn j^wk aw tan^ii D*n (° 
yi^y D*t 1T11 e mi) large nyiK small m)m j(^pm) 



Noun En^iiBsnn 135 

Plural. 

Nomin. the merchants shops (Dfi^) JJHH6 (yby£) 

Genit. of the merchants of shops 

Dat. to the merchants to shops 

Ace. the merchants shops 

hnw^yfc ]"»« wi-dim m^ tvyi typing ij;E&wjn:m -ijn 

m»byW TVV) gen. |^ ;nom. DVSf yfyl TyDDW tOfK accus. njn 
.IV (sits) to W^ym nTVi dat. pK ,]$g (ff]«) of 

n^D ' ^Dntap pa ^n«y^K p« ,pw^iy <y bkb^k gen. j«>« jnd 
^ktc6 ,p^>N ^nap p« -m ^riNmnyD p« -hik ;'s n f/ i ,s p« 

PW ]yft |8p /ISOS^p D$n J$S }jng*? IJH ^ shop of the merchant 

^ngnnjflD p« n^N ; ]y\Rb DJNftlhp Ojn //fe merchant's shop 

$W8t ]Vb J8p tne wisn (EWttN) 0/" ^ merchants fcNBt£>:# 

♦JW^Ip K*n $5 EWKtt IJH the merchants' wish. 



Adjective (wtapypnjO tan^ivDafitj^^K 
§ 4. 

j]"bp (^HKDD) s^// ,np"nB (inn) dear WW y D^DD JW»T t^D -1JHN 
.(YPBpJttPnj;) adjective 

: ^fit^n diy ^nwnnyD pa tni wis ^ngiWK pa 
Sing, ^town ngfctf yta^K good thing *]8?j;ta^ 

Plur. ^ towm yta^yta^ yta^s ^W things jjttNtt ytau 



134 .liainy* oywbav 

Box (op*a) bWBfp (r x ) Box ^ ( D ? W) ybatyp 
match (wsjtts) ftyrwv (p«) matches (djwbjhs) njnrtyrrw 

Bin |j?d pm t brwtF* p* pmjm BD^iayj jup an^naem Djnr 
pi« njn$ nnn ]n« $5 /nJ8B»WJ jj^swhk d^k \m 
anjn pro pm ^bxtijmd p« pnnjm aaTniw |«p ny njn$ ,mi?se 
^nxvnnyD p« .jjnwBt^inp ijnfynjn ]bs inyo njn* k«yi* \m 

~.(o nJ1« ch ,sh ,ss y x 1KJ es njn$) s p k < BS^m" nTTl 

^n«vnn^a -un« Xnj^WJio) singular e^ay epa BD"n Snsyjw* 

(^XT^a) plural BD"n 

§ 3- 
i) The boy sleeps (Dflfrf© HP W) Bfitsto to« WT 

2) the father */&* boy 1 ^j* D JH IKS WS -ljrt 

\m nynnxs ^ inn ^a J 

3) give the book to the boy 1 ^ QJ?n D|n M ^ 

1113 inn pis sits inn i«a J 

4 ) I love the boy fta inn mb ««) tou* oxn aj?^ f* 

k«d ^namnyD r K ^ /tfW""* 1 ,K X " D fin^oB'nn pnr Te- 
ar* ^ypana ^BDiBa»yaii« oyn bid k«d ,js?BDiaE>ya ojn an> 
nominative bd»h S^a npaBnp nsn .p^S^a nye pna8m$S. 
nyaann njn Xii^wn) genitive npannv njn /ironm^:!) 
.(l1i»K>VpjO accusative nj?Bnj?ifi njn yCiVBjn) dative 

Singular. 

Nomin. 7/&* merchant |NDSilp njn A shop (SSW) ]V"\i$b «• 
(bjjwbij/d) 

Genit. ^"^ merchant of a shop 

Dat. & /&? merchant * « shop 

Ace. the merchant a shop 



*33 



..Dip |is ytys;^ "iy»S ^ngnnya ^ngyji^w ,byp^-\$ ^i^iitafi^n 

§ i. 

The boy (^2 vn) fy^K -}jn A boy (^ ny) fyWK pK 

the cat (tayp TH) f>B8p «n a cat (pyp ny) f Bgp yj»K 

the child (n^ara th) nrp D*n a child (n^wta ny) irp p« 

the egg (jy vn) "K DHT an egg (Jiy \y) "X pa 

a i n 11 b & ■> i n dd^'H n^at^y^ nyiN -j«t pa jks jmSvub «h 
(pa) noun t^ay cpa 

7 i:«ta^^^ jyiaDiNny:: nyn$ jytsDwy:} p« |ks aijn jyD |yvi 
dt;i jyD jyn nys** ^ fin^viBfiin oyn i«s jytyBP w jy& mti:i 
•ej^s D'lKiiDS^m dk'i jyn -wia ,0 jyn bjkt UNt^y^K ono $5 
— *m tsD^nw -n^n ^sta^M Ciynayta^ttD^yt p« ^ 1* T* 
.SySfiN pa <m apple (^sy) ,jttTS pa pear (nyfi) -:^tt& 

-typing yBD'wysjiN an nyiN a ^p^n« nytatrtatpy:^ bo^h the 
Dog (j$n) -i Jin (p«) Dogs (d^k-i) ynain 

horse (Dip) TySS (p«) horses (TyD"l$n) V^V^ 

-on JTD^T "wt y^Kp^ii -|JH£ jySKDtiOIS yiayta^taMSyt (° 
p^ jyjyp dmii nyiN y D^ Dyr;^^ p« |yn«n y:Ayn p^st:^ 
y:m:rK y^K ,y ,u ,o ,i ,e ,a -.-^Vl ^"nyn jySKIt^y^lN 

".tyaa&^D^p,, lyigt ''ynayB^BD^yTM^ |yD"n p^^om 



I3 2 ,*p:nnj^ oyvbsw 

paper, pen and Ink, .JfetfB niW nyiyfi irWfi 

nysnys |yfi nay. P^ 

New-York, July 25-th. ,«6v ^-25 ]yi pn^-va 

"I must apologise, I -&jy dik tw yatt T«,, 

could not write to you till w pwnp bm yvnifp T« 

•top a$i t^n ^ nv ^a ro 7^ 
now, because I have been pwmjW p T* W1 ^' 

HK3 onspo "8 nyn p*o 
much occupied and have jn«n -MK a^aSypya nny? 

paga T^s-vps i:sy Yiyn 

not had any time. From |$S .aSBny:! a"V y^p 

a*u nyn w D"a dkis 

this time forward I will "pa tyn iya«Vi ™« J8 airy* 
cm D^a m$i*n$S ^h ^«ji« 
write to you regularly :r«Dyaty;iyn pwnp "p K *>* 

a^n Jia w ^ny'wi 
every month according to pa a^ aa^a |yny^ 

nyny na^a ^-napy *ia 
my promise. I send you -|"K ypw T»« .jyDyteBnyS 

a hearty greeting from ]m DDn:» lyD^vnyn p« 

ny ^a-i^n ^^nn^ dhis 

Your devoted friend,... .." ^..TPnfiDyawy:iy:nyny»K 
w nyanKiiyi -ay-is 



Travelling ] m n g S |JPn 



131 



London, May 3-rd. 

Dear Friend, 

-inn -ojn6 

"You cause me much 
sorrow by your long silence. 
What is the cause of it? Per- 

haps you are ill, or some 

szyn n.y» Tig f&»K na dnd 
other misfortune has hap- 

pened to you. In any case I 
-we sita w p« ■># onyp "$ 

beg you to answer this letter 

as soon as possible and tore - 

W jroiD rj; ' ^d&s -up jib -n 

assure your sincere friend." 

Now do not refuse to write 

n$j n &#j twsn sib a«»n 
a few words in answer to 
nv H'VS dti^k pa npwns -its 
my friend's letter. 

Well. Please give me note 



? j^ski y^ma «n tara D8Y1 
-ijhn paanp -iiTk Tn M^S 

■p« 

*pK 

♦cjyns Di^ns pa 



13° 



.■p:nnj^ oywbny 



about here ? What is the 

postage of a letter to 

pnytaon^s *\$ ny nyataj;^ ^ 
London or Manchester ? 

When does the mail leave 

jjmk ' ?ki th buy® mb 
for America ? To day at 

*ixb apnjflDg jib njn £$? 
two o'clock in the afternoon 
n-ita p^pK pom ponpBSns 
What is the postage of a 

bwk -rn ■•m ^npBDn^s ^k ny 
registered letter to London. 
"nj/BDwijn nptDj^ sib }#-\i$b 
The postage of a registered 
vn tsnjraDn^s ^k ny ta npBD , wjjn 
letter is double, but it does 

not matter to what city. 

§ 5* 

Do me the favour to read 

•«n ^d \tt n«nps jib nnn 
this letter. With pleasure, 
D%m -^bbj^ nta*»«!i« rymyb^ 
Please give it me. 

on^fi iiu ta^K ^d 



•jnj «iyna pK ts -^jmbd^s 

D1K y&"T\ ?Kpnj/DK -]83 

>]$Tjttb 

-jn ayy»x \m iby$®m% dhi 

\ym^mmp 

oy -lym fibymi bpk e]jma 

pSj/n "]K3 DW IDD^ £3KD 

■oik jlMgfiyj jjh td aina 
B?yf? 

.t>d o?t»k t35^ ^aa-n 



Travelling JjnngS /|yrn 



129 



Note size and ruled, — 
What is the date ? 
The fifth of October, 
Do you wish to have a 
giimmed envelope ? 
No, I will close my letter 
with sealing wax. 

PIBWK J^ITD DpJNK 

Where can I get stamps? 

"ipijnk ]Vp '"$ tajrj dsd^ed 
Where is the post office? 

Not far from here. 

mi n«s D$nfi "invr 
It is near. Give me some 
&•»« r« -m tpji •»& dnd 
blotting-paper; I have still 

to address my letter. I will 
•id DDjmy "n iymyb »$ y?wi« 
add a few words in a post- 

iy r\y n-vfi dti^i« p« ny EDnNS 
script. Is there a letter-box 
m^pd pk nym ny lyvyb-Qp^ 



xnwb ttik end-ins djw^p 
?dj; tar« dibni r^yii 

.DpgYi bym wn 
? jypiND tPD^pya yx \np #11 

? BDN-BDNS DN1 SPN Nil 

♦pan $S 2^11 m^ 
jmjni 

-t2DN£ p« 

ptt3D8pSjr»-D p« 



128 



.■prnnp^ ay®* buy 



c6ming. Have you anything 

,W3Kp r\yn n^ ^n&w 
to declare? I have nothing 
*& nnyi?pin ^k npn ^^na^ 
at all I have only a few 
m hnt$ »i$ r\yn ^hm ny n-vfi 
small things. 
hnnm own® 

Can you recommend me 

\yp n-v njpDD^pn ^ 
an inn ? What kind do you 

\y \m mm tpp n n-v 
want ? A very clean one 

mm^ ny njni }!T^p |kw 
but moderate. 

Coachman, what do I owe 

you ? It is too much for 
rvv taw pk n-iia wkd iks 
so short a distance. 
$D 2n$P T\y D^BDH 

§ 4- 

I must write a letter. Give 

"K £2Dkd ^n ny -iptsaj^ vm 
me white note paper, not 

coloured. What size ? 



.jytD^p^i^^p' 

p« -ps dkii ? nn&Dtu p» 

bin 

Djwn my? \m ? tpk asisi 

wntaD&i 

.Djny"nB p« m^ ij^k 

T>5 ^ysw am Dy ,,1^W 



.^•d p« |y^*u*/ did -pN 
toy* .nyfiNtfiSynn d^d^ti td 






Travelling Jjnnsfi /jyr v 



127 



gers, please go on shore. 

tnym d<t^ np \$ inx^ 

The engine makes a great 

vn j^n^« opnyn ny E>njn:i 
noise. Everything shakes. 

This shaking is tiresome. 

I feel unwell. 

Do you feel sea-sick ? 

Not yet, but I am afraid 
&$* toy 4 ' tt*o •>■»« oy nnyisy 

I soon shall. You should 
try to eat by all means. 

It is better to remain in the 

t^N r>« nyByn jib jnj^Dn pa vn 

open air. 

]psn$ nny 

Have you had a good night? 

nyn n-v ipn riy im D": 
The noise of the engine 

prevented me from sleeping. 

The custom officers are 

VH OKBDKp DnyD^fifi^ TJX 



on cpx jnw iv y^a y-wt 
.(Wis) -lysw 

|yDNi:i J«K MgB y WKD XH 

•T^Dmips BPX pPBB'tf DX1 

(pa*np) ^nxiuix j^rps -px 

-p^-ip-W xn tpx mxh 

?B"n 

y^-vs^x ny^x py* -j$j 

(xtid :ixn) 

.jyaxn y^ m tyn *px dxi 

fny? d<?xt irpK 

tjwtenys w nyDys bpx oy 

«H pX 

?bdx^ ytM x BKnjM vpx axn 
y^xD xn fx£ Diy^ "im 
♦jysx^ jxs BiyBtyy^^D axn 



126 



,-p2inj/^ Dytsn^-ny 



I wish to go to Boston. 

Have you got your pdpers? 

Here is my passport 

It is all right. 

What is the fare ? When 

mw rw mi nnps jink 

does the steamer leave ? 

Have the passengers their 

food free on board ? Yes, 

nros ms ft iti^d or 

but all drinks are at their 

own expense. How long 

p# o:pfiDpy '•in ^*6 

does the voyage last ? 

mi w ^n^p aon«^ 

Nearly nine days. 

ifnrM pa onjn 
The bell is ringing on deck. 

th ^tn m ^run \t$ p$n 
It is the signal for starting. 

Those who are not passen- 



*DKID pD tar** njpn 
,mn tDr« (DKfi ijn) djt 

(jn 

?e)B^ OJH «flK MKp JWJD 

♦jttgfis p: (ynfcW'o) if?w 
♦pin jSik ta'^^p p^ "ijn 

(jj^y) ^^"D -Ijn tDT*»« Dgl 



Travelling {jnngfi /|3>Pn 125 

o 

First, (second, third) class, mbp (yam ;W)W) y^o^ 
ed-ijnb -uypjjD myna onx^p 

Please weigh my luggage. .pyfijtt J"D fcOJ^n jndb'Q 

Take care. Handle the an &Dy3 ♦:pM , »n$fl ^n 
pnya nnjrp *ri^n *m 

packages carefully. jPD^nss pysjtt 
cswnpppfl ^Sinj;p 

Do you travel for pleasure? ? pWJJnyfi W ttk am 

No, I travel on business. We •toSjwiM jjwti m "pa ,pa 

have reached the stdtion. «n *p« ]y®mpym w ™ 

Twenty minutes stoppage, js^nows™ prawD :ny«TOt 

Are you going to get out ? ? p^BBWiK n,TK B^m 

I '11$) remain in the carriage. .ftOKn D^ pwto jrnjm -pe 

We have arrived, ^£D^p^K TPt -vn> 

§ 3. 

1 want a pdssenger ticket, .sr;^ nwDKf) p« S^n 7** 

*n t^NW np lywityuayb tappet: 

Where are you going, sir, ?vipn t»» ,vr« Din«S pn*m 



I will $s jjnjn iwp p* k rpryb (i 



124 



.■p^nnj^ oy^^b^y 



trunk ? ^s your luggage 
pw\to m nrw wiyz&b 

ready ? Everything is pre- 
nyl ^manyny m -ne 

pared. — Do not forget 

to write to us, 

I will do it with pleasure, 

^k bb^m® n em nta w« iy^jy^ 

Farewell, a pleasant journey 

and good healths 
nay tm ntD^jrn 



§ 2. 

Coachman, to the railway. 
]y£P&n#p ^ ••m nyii*6yn 

Make haste, Be quick. 
pnyD mnyn *o p^p 

The train, starts in an hour. 
H r\i pyr^ DEnngED jw jy nyw 

We are at the station, Sir, 
•WIN 1HK Dy Tin {ywyBD iyD 

Where is the booking-office? 

VlJttK m th .l^pW-D^MK 

A ticket for Manchester, 
r.y tapp^ iks -ly&DypfiuyD 

if you please. What class? 
.«)■>« n-V DH^S B$|K DHK^p 



pj;sp ny^K am ?*nyfiS^p 

&pk oybtt (&"nys) j^myfi 

mm aoyjnys ♦ByB""ay:n$S 

•jy^np w mk vsr 

-nyfi m pnD oy ynyn yt$ 

^rmi?y:i ym im 

ya^K }•»« ^k &ny:i m> nyr 

Dyn spa ,-nyn p& <in tm 

? yDDKp «n &r« p 
(y^DiK tsy^^) 
lyaDytPtMBO *|N3 tsy'&a p« 

?yDD^7p yzbyn .yetr:? 



Travelling jjnngS ,|pT-»n 



12 3 



going next week; at the end 

mx$) bopyi p,TKW toy vn nay 
of next week. 

At the beginning of next 

toy im :wj:p^ ^ BDpjtt 
summer. In the middle of 
nyDf^D pa \-n f?TD *]# 
winter. A week after 
■Wtuwa ny prrwiK nyafins 
Easter. In a few days. In 
nyaorpK px ny -vs onjn p« 
a short time. In a month- 
ny a-w D*t3 p« ny nta^D 

One of these days. 

l$|K *]$ D,Tm DH3H 

Will you go by rail or by 

sea ? A steamer leaves to- 

rpa ny nyDiTBD onn^ -^ 

morrow. I go to the town 

of... in the stage-coach. 

s]« px *>m tpnnpBD-PBn^p 
The sea voyage is too long. 

I don't like the sea voyage. 

"« to'ivn p*^ \n itd ^nyp 

Have you packed your 

nyn n-v ipyfi w 



yuy dk ,jn$ni ptDDDpj ynnxs 

JlttD^D p« iyiDD$r 

py&D$ iw IP pw ♦nyarn 

(HD£5) 

y^*»K PX ^NtD y:wK p«. 

ymp 

•&&¥& pw p« ,&"2r 

♦(Dyaota Dyj«K) 4^nip pa 

nyn tra jjnnas in^x ayir 
Dyn nysw nyia ^nscnypa 
e]S^-c]£D»n pw .(d 1 *) * yn 
^8 any:i 
iyi 1M yingfi 7« ♦jy^D, 

.JlttgttBD^S oy^« px. 

♦^*6 nr aw ym (d*) yyt *n 
♦jwn-yjn *n toD^ ysy^ -pa 



.122 



• 1i:nni^ cywbn*; 



.Hebrew (n^iTH)) 

Jew (*wn) ) ' 

Jewess (DJWH) *W)fi JW»TK 
Saint-Petersburg J-VQ-iyays 

Moscow OlpDKD) i)pO#ft 

Warsaw (HKDIKW) WIKngn 

Vilna (g^n) K^Vt 

Berlin (l^njtt) p^njtt 
Konigsberg (:n$Dm)yp) 

Vienna (g^jPYl) jyil 

Paris (Dnjfi) PlgS 

Rome (DH§n) DK1 

London (}K*p*6) ]X*tittb 



Liverpool (hn^*\ywb 

Manchester (iptDDJWBJJflD) 
Lithuania (tj^yJinta^) KB^ 
Lithuanian KB^ |$6 <p$Viwb 

Madrid (TI^D) TTIKD 

New- York (jTl^-W) 
Washington fKM^ini 

Boston (fg£DK3) 

Philadelphia (^S^nK^fi) 

Chicago (K^W) 
Constantinople ^S^tMgBD^p 
Jerusalem (D$?^M^mi)D^1T 



§ 3- 

The East (DD^^ni) £DDK ,mtD The North (ritai^nm) ,|1S¥ 

the West (taDjntt w) my& the South (piemd *ni) in ,orn 



Travelling (^V)jn&) JjnngS ,}jmn 



Now I must say good-bye. 
When are you going ? 

|J?-1K Tig H^ ^HK3 

"To-morrow at six. ■ — - I am 



jjn w*nyfi yn t»« did &!W 
? tpk iann«S }im 

T»« «T1K DpyT D1« {J^KD 



Continents jy^n&toSjni 121 

.^jno^DMp DSttDanSttE^B 

§ 1. 

The Continents (Dto:ijWtt:#p Tin) jy^nB-fctyyi «H 

Europe (££OV) K£*n"K American njtt«pnjfl2N 

European (jy^fi^^fi^ny (pp^ym) 

Asia («^ry) IJ^B Australia 

Asiatic (p^rry) 'W^^K (y^BDn^) 

Africa (yp^&$) tip^zx A 

a r • / _ , "' " Australian 
African (|ppnS8) njttKpnSK , 

America (KpnjJDK) apnjNDg ™ yntDDn ^ 

§ 2. 






•won k 

p«^fi 8 



Countries and Towns (D^IB 

Russia (K^so) 

Russian (jwtMJl) 

Poland ("\tyb ! nm) 

Pole (bnm) 

Germany 

German (jp&njwn) IJ/WH $ 
Austria (yn&DHK) "pnBDy 
Austrian (jynDDHN) "iJ^nBDy 
Gali'cia (*w6k^) JIP^^M 

Galician (} W^tt) TJM^bm 
Prussia (a^*0£) fj^ns 

Prussian ({jwana) ijw»d«"1S 
France (DinwnS) "pnpJKlS 
Frenchman JttNmis K 



nay onta^p) tmp&p m ijn^ 

England (nap^y) n:«^:y 
Englishman 

Italy (%t^N) 

Italian (jj^yfiM) 

Canada (jnjttyp) 

Turkey Opiyto) 

Turk (piya) 

China (&^W) 

Chinese (tJWtyfc) 

Persia (ioanys) 

Persian (jyKnys) -ij^wnys N 

Spain (jnyfiD) jy^££* 

Spaniard (niK^pfiD) -lyjKfitr 

Palestine *?*W pK K^DJ^NS 

(pBDytys) 



ry^bm^ 

frHN^p 
wpTB 



120 



.•painp^ oywbuy 



samples on Friday next 

I came here in the year one 

"« onpp irm pK vn inr $w 

thousand eight hundred 

ijynriB an? ijm^n 
and eighty-five, 

He was born on the 26-th 

*n t«w p^s |k mi 

of October. My eldest son 

•e$ ipis&pK "d &Djr6y |nd 
died on the fifth of July 1882, 

T»n ]K mi prases ^k "^eti 

I wrote to him thrice, and 
m i^n .its dvi D^ina -ay 
have not yet received an 

npn b$o ay itirwi jj; 
answer from him. The letter 

lyoanK dkis dm mi nyrDtay? 

bears the date of May 1 i-th 

Dip mi &njn ^k nj/D 

and the letter of Mr. 

Tj% mi nytotDp^ ^k i^dus 

Gordon is of July the 23-rd. 

Itm^ w ^ ^wn mi 
At last we have received an 
&p &mh win nyn ivm^dm jj? 
answer from Messrs. Stone. 



4W3N~i3iK-&p5 n:i« 

m |jmp }$n*ow &r»« ij; 
jyD-26 

p&? ij/m^j; pis npx^pK 

1882 ^bv 

arm w jjnpi^jn n^n t« 

jya^mjr m^ *p ^nm 
«iyn^ ijn *d«tk $s Bi^vitttg 

pijM {ks c|jrn:i in i^ik 
ptsbm^y tti p^n yb*uy 



Numbers pJfBOIJ 119 

§ 3 

The four seasons (wytrpD -mas th) |y&"yDynn^ ny»s «H 

Spring (jjnSD) Jtf^nnS Autumn (d^hn) BDSnyn 
Summer (nyDDND) nyDDNT Winter (-lyarfclK) "lyBJIl 



I received your letter last 
Monday the twenty-fourth 
of J uly. What day of the 
month is it now ? 
It is the twenty -fifth (25th) 

of August 

«]« bowk 

We dispatched the wine on 

wik •wtaysD'n th paw |k 
Tuesday last, and intend to 
jnwB &B8& "uy nay^x i& 
send the oil next week on 

the fifteenth of January. 

I will send you fresh 



(jyjn^fi) jytovyf? 
owiy-i^K-ny^ jn J8BJ$d 

(? dj; Bra mtsici ny:6yvi) 
-jwww-njiK-^s nyi p« oy 

•bdwik nytaD 

pn jyn Bp'wyjpyYi |y2Nn tit 

jyiDjn tna JsjtaDjyn jy:mKS 

yr^n yaDDj;^ ^>ny D*n jypw 

»n«W jytMnyyS.rS fyn 

ypnfi \ypw yw ynnyii -p** 



n8 



•Tiaini6 Dpan^jp 



tenfold tyi^ bm^yt 
twentyfold " te&WJBW 
hundredfold ; ^ ^d finjrwin 
once (D^Jjh) bm^H 

twice (D«#|B) ^JD«Vl¥ 

thrice (D^nnb) ) 
three times > bm WTI 



four times 
five times 

a hundred times 

ny njmjgn dd^b 

a thousand times ^KD 1000 



^KD IOO 



•fwiMJNp Dy»33«15r»B 



§ i. 
The days of the week (pwm VH *)$ Dnjn vn) *]p }^S #& KH 
Sunday (jn^D) j«tM$t Wednesday (inuyw) -jkiid^d 

Monday (yi^D) %mM® Thursday (yrnyn®) mtnyiqn 
Tuesday (JTICW) JBBDJH Friday (yTnfi) SKWnS 

Saturday (jmyayD) m® ^kmdk? 

§ 2 e 

The months of the year (nnr TH e$ DHfis^D \m) 

January (ntfWJWn) n»J^ July («^»n) 
February (ntfnayfi) ijttyS August (BDMntf) 
March (Pttvn») pyD September 

April (^nsny) ^nss ny^DyMyo 

May \r\yti) k*d October CijtttfBptf) ny^ap^ 

June (JIWH) v^ November (njttDyn^o) ny:>Dyvi$o 

December (nyjaDyDH) ny^Dyvyn 



EDWIN 

ny^y^yo 



Numbers pyD»13 II? 

§ 3- 
Fractions (wjwpjnG) irana ^ntflriwio 

5^ One-half, a half. V 5 One fifth, a fifth. 

tpm-insn ny ?pm W^ ^^ W TOS,£) 

}4 One-third, a third. 8 / 5 Three .fifths. 

}NW--nj?nt3 nynyna nnnta ontse^ 

^ Two-thirds. 1# One and a half. 

ruo-D-npnia 2 ^ two and seve n-eighths 
% One-fourth, a fourth 

|K.'ix-nta-in*s ny ntann^s 3*/ B three and four-fifths. 

„ A quarter. a quarter of an hour. 

ny nytr^ip jniiBB* Syany^s sw* 

Haifa pound 1 DKAtSn 8 ™ B * D1 >' S >" K 

B)n»n ny iris ) -diss a third of a year. 

Half a year. j oya^n l» -in* 11 ^m p« 

epan ny nnr } .-irw a fifth of a m ;i e . 

Half a mile. ) y^sn « ^ ^^ «,« 
c]n»n ny f?»o ) >o 

o 4. 
Multiple numbers (DnjttBBJ ^b<?KD) p£n«¥ DJ^fiyi 

Double, twofold B^SSI fivefold «*** ^'fi 

f?a«n n^smo sixfold brm ^P"' 

treble, threefold 1 ^B""n sevenfold ty>S*t SsenjDjH 

^ojnta n^Snnna j ^yaw eightfold brm' bw^x 

fourfold bvt J*i *?«» ny'S n i ne fold Vs*" b$W2 



Ji6 



• "pannj^ Dy&n^jy 



§ 2 

Ordinal numbers (DiySDjtf ty^VHO jytojjy MW)# 

y&-21 



The first yft-t 

the third y&-3 

the fifth ^&~5 

the seventh (nauyriyD vn) ya-7 
the eighth y^-8 the ninth ytt-9 



the second ytD-2 
the fourth j;&~4 
the sixth y®~6 



w n^Dp^D 



the tenth (ntMyB Tn) 
the eleventh yfij-11 

^m nBjyny^K 

the twelfth y&-12 
the thirteenth ya-13 
the fourteenth yfc-14 

vn tunm-i^s 
the fifteenth yfij-15 

vn nfcUppBS*»s 
the sixteenth ya-16 

vn ntDin^Dp^D 
the seventeenth y&17 

vn nturptwyviyD 
the eighteenth jfla-18 

vn n&:;rany 
the nineteenth y&-19 

vn na^n^^^ 

the twentieth y£-20 

vn niayiajjnB 



the twenty-first 
\Tl ^3J?S|CD-fi3DnyS 
the tw T enty-second yD-22' 

vn ^yjiB-n^pyD 
the thirtieth ytD-30- 

vn nt^t^™ 

the fortieth y£D~40 

vn ntDyca-^s 

the fiftieth y^~5Q' 

ya-lO ^ mayB^s 

the sixtieth yfc-60' 

vn may , taDp , 'D 
the seventieth yta-70- 
vn PiBytwynyD 
the eigthieth yft-80 

vn niar^ny 
the ninetieth yfc-90- 

vn ntD^^cD^^ 

the hundredth yfc-100' 

vn nmsni^n 

the hundred and first y&-101 
the hundred and second ya- 102 
the five hundredth 

the thousandth 

vn nanaynntD 

the thousand and first 
the two thousanth 



the millionth 

vn pi&j^b 



ytD-500 
yia-1000 

ya-1001 

yfc-2000 

wa-1,000,000' 



Numbers py&DIJ 



US 



Numbers (DnjttDiO) \ybm? t yWM 

§ 1. 
Cardinal numbers (DlJDD^ ^jwn«p) pbnw nana 



1. One. 2. two. 3. three. 

|nj]k ma nnnta 
4. four. 5. five. 6. six. 

7. seven. 8. eigth. 9. nine. 
\yy\yo ®ny ps 
10. ten. 11. eleven. 

12. twelve. 13. thirteen. 

.14. fourteen. 15. fifteen. 

Putins p^Srs 
16. sixteen. 17. seventeen 

p^op^D p^mipo 

18. eighteen. 19. nineteen. 
:20. twenty. 21 . twenty-one 
22. twenty-two. 30. thirty. 
,31. thirty-one. 40. forty. 
•44. forty-four. 50. fifty. 



60. sixty. 

''DDp^D 

70. seventy. 
^TIPD 
80. eighty. 

90. ninety. 



55. fifty-five 

66. sixty-six. 

^Dp^D-Dp^D 
78. seventy-eight. 

87. eighty-seven. 

99. ninety-nine. 

100. a (one) hundred, (ijm^n) 

101. a (one) hundred and one. 

102. a (one) hundred and two. 
200. two hundred. 

550. five hundred and fifty. 
1000. a (one) thousand. 

ny (jaw) "ttpmna 

2000. two thousand. 

1 nine thousand nine 
* ) hundred & ninety nine 
1,000,000. a (one) million. 

ny (|^i«) ]if^D 

1,000,002. a million and two. 



H4 



.■pannp^ oywbszy 



I want a light and dry room, 
*8 tu$itt ny wb *n$? «Ti orm 
I want a bed room and a 
"8 BJ8W ny ijn mn "w ny 
parlour, on the first or 

second floor* 

-j^ppo nn$6s 

We have what you want. 

This room is too small and 
dvh arm r»a rwfiD to^DD n:y 
too dark. Here is a larger, 

and lighter room, 

ny nya»t> onn 

It is large enough but the 

furniture is too soiled and 

the chimney smokes. 
VH ^DW DpIDD 
What price do you charge ? 

how much a month, 

wishing included ? It is 

wwm ly^bpm taw ?^ 
very dean It is too dear 8 
•njm -inn aw pk rwa inn 



thk djwm^ pw ^11 -pa. 
i^ik nyD^SK^ pw ^11 -p 

.(P^bbO WW? ]vww 

n^w j^p w ®m ip&t Djnn 
-yi^ pK &r>K nrn 3ypm ir 

DjnjHD 

DH1 njttg ,;ittjtt DK13 BPK DJT 

♦M^n p&gp njn 
fc^D ^WKB pw ^sir 



At supper B^nS-nySB D^ft 113 

I prefer Bavarian beer. npz oywiPZ ")$£> yrvy ytt 

Take a little cold chicken, /|mn DjflK&gp DNMBy aDjtt 
pnyta ny ^ i^Np |ypw 

and don't forget the pickles, fibypb *n ED'O BDynyS law 

mustard and pepper. 

■nytaDSB nay ' nyeyfi 

Thank you, I am satisfied 
pzynto n-v "t$ oy T^ayo. 

1 eat very little, especially 

■"8 ann* nyn te^ ^ypyfloy 
at supper. 
.ay ny&ssD 

§ 10. 
Lodging (j:wn$>) tim$n 

Are you looking for a 

■Tig 'rw wpb i$s ny 
lodging ? Yes. 

I wish to hire a lodging. 

Have you, sir, an apartment 

■nyn n-v nyo jy Bjy»&n8fi8 
to let ? Can you let me the 
■•lis c^ jyp n-v ay*? *>& mi 
kind of room I want. 
-tt"p ^ onn "k ta^M 
What kind? 



(\yvt2yi yto2xnytt»K roy \% 
•nyfiyss inN epyt 

.lyrnfiw p -pK /;p^i t« 

Diyi^ys^yri nnyr yoj; -pa 



wyg ,-iyn p» ,-wk M«n 

td i,tk twyp .jyos^nyfi w 
pa jyaH-iyfi 



?(en$D) &n& y:£jm 



&KW vp 



112 



• •pan nvh Dyen^ay 



§ 9- 

At supper (nyfiflgo ay) a^mTiyas D*a 



Will you take supper with 

^wk n-v pnyia "iy££8D hbwik 

us? Thanks, It is too late. 

?k Dpjyna taw pk rnta tanyf? 

It will only take us half an 

hour, I live too far away. 

nyw ^k 11^ n-ies irms ny-iag 

We will accompany you 

wk ^wk ^y£5D^tpy w 
home. In that case I accept 

dhkh pK taym onyp ^ tafiyops 
your Invitation* 

nn-v jypnytD'WK 
Do you like cold meat ? 

n n.v p^ i^Kp bppd 

Accept this slice of roast- 

beef. Excellent 

cfrQ ajytyopy 
It is roasted to perfection. 

t^K ph ny^on^n jib fyppyfinys 

Which do you like best, 
BrawN -ii n-v p^ £Dy:i 
wine or beer ? 



i^-a-'ttyatj fyDDy tpk asm 

iy bpk oy ,ypjjn -p* » D ^ 

,ay£^ 

y^K py>n ma d:w eyvs oy 

y^Kn 

•nyn 

-jbj f ya^yn 7%* tynyii mil 

y^nyi y^«s Dytyn pt ,y wi 

? ty^fi oyt^Kp tpk My^ 

-«ia typ'rap oyryn BDny: 

.tty^TsryjDW .jyo, 

.pflfi^p^S iyt3«nny^ tara Dy 



At dinner iiNDEPD a 11 3 



ill 



Will jrou take a pear or an 

^KW w pnya ny nnye ik jy 

orange or a few grapes ? 

tfnjjn^ n$ ny n-vs D£n$n:i 

It does not matter which. 
Whatever you offer me 
I shall take willingly. 

You may select any of the 

nv nya tDpytyo ^y ^ •rn 

several dishes. These apples 
^mirnyo djwh Dirrn Dtysp 
I can recommend to you. 
v k jyp nwD^pn m n-v 
Do you like vegetables? 
*n n-v p^ D^jNawnjm 
I like all vegetables: — 
»8 p"^ f?n$ D^a^njni 
potatoes, carrots, cabbage, 
D^tiaya^fi Dfcjmpp tynjnapp 
peas, turnip cauliflowers, 
DiTfl fi^iyD DIHN^^nNp 
spinach, all but beet root 
fcmjwfiD ^hk b*o bito arm 
-und radish. And cucumbers ? 
nap pnin nay Dn^D^p-rp 
That is what I like best. 



? )y^nD 

♦DNV! D^1« tDD^ DDKft Dy 

•jyDnyj^ y:njn -pa jmyn 
Il^njrnDw -pa Bjyp ippk 

.jy^nys 

?yr>&y:i oyjn:i -i,tk My^ 

:|ypDy:i yf?« y^y^ -pa 

/ta^np /jjnyfc ^yS$&n*$p 

,BT)p ytai^p ^ysn ,]yD:ny 

oypnn -lyo^ d^k ,B«:pstp 

? (Dypny:nK) 

dn yayf? -pa dkii v» D&n 

♦jyfcDy:i 



no 



♦ Tianny^ oys^jny 



I do not like stale bread. 

m sn b$w p"b bny&o iy*D 
There is good and fresh fish 
nnym r»« "M *w t^ynS er>fi 
May I trouble you to 

nj/D ^ ^kid rw w 
pass me the salt ? 

Will you have some 
Vwik n-v nyn okd 
mutton ? Thank you, 

I prefer roast fowl, and 
*8 nyfins taon^n Sn^S nay 
salad but without oil 

*\$byo m% mm^m b^ 
I drink to your health. 

Your wine is excellent. 

w i^k-ik pk aiy^yDpy 

Do you like small beer or 

porter ? 

nytsnas 

I prefer Bavarian beer. 

"« nyfins fynrtyiito -lira 

And what may I offer you 
for your dessert ? 



jdtd oytsbs m^ y^y^ tk 
ymfi im ym hi tana oy 

? f ^k? D*n jy^gfnyi 

?e^fijyDsytP tpk t^p 

/]"« yp^ri 7« 

Dyjyasi^ p« iy^ ^n *pK 
liiK spy (pin) 

AnyD^n y^riK ny^K tDK^KD 

-n:roy:i yny^ e\m yppw -pa 
/■p^Sy-uan^S taw pi ny^K 

? nytan^s 

ny^ Dy^n^ n$fi ynnr t*k 
jyay»^« T^ T** ^ D ^ 11 "^ik 



At dinner J$BB*D H"2 109 

us go into the dining room. .njflDEW-j^stP pa |njtt (pm 

«$ n$i ww w .ww arm 

Please sit down here, at nyTJ 81 "pK & y W ,J?bbo 

the side of this lady. tftotn ytpn jjttjtt 

m *pd *$ cm mj^ 

What can I offer you ? jjttjm -ptf *pK |Hp dkyi tr» 

Will you take soup ? ? yzzv jpDnjtt TPK t^Kii 

I shall willingly take some, .)Vm y&y)) V**V* ^ f « 

»8 typ ^r^K pnyta dnd 

don't give me much. .ty»fi ttM Tfc bw 

The table is not ready, ,BpjnW M^ ^ W t^to ijn 

bring two forks and one ]"* ™« J^IttW ^w to^na 

^nn nsit? opn^s nay \m 

spoon. Will you take beef (|J>Dp$) tpk B^tfi ,fy5j£ 

'psifiD ^wk w pnpia ep'O w»bb 

or some chicken. ?|nm njn^t 

I shall take chicken. .pin jyDDp by)) -pK 
«& bbyw pnyta jypwB 

Do you like new or stale oytabs njHN Djwnfi in^ wf? 

bread ? I prefer new. ,DjwnS ins yrw yn ?cm 

It does not matter which. .Djtt^jm D1K acj MgD Djr 



,- I0 8 •■pannx^ Djfttn^ay 

Anything ; Either boiled -JN njHjrn&W ^« W W 

or smoked fish, sardines, ^m ,0* jmwnjN "ijn* 

nK npnNDD t^S oanmBD ,|pn 

cold meat, cheese and toast. -g-Djtt ^i« typ ,^S B^j> 

i^p sdto ?wa -up boh^d # ^n^ djwb 

I will pour out another jv»k i^ pDjr^nK fyn y& 

cup of tea for you. Thanks, ^p^i /-pK tS JWna yDKD. 

sgp ^ rra na§ nv Dp#n& 

I have to leave you now, .jyDB^nyS W T® D1D 7* H: 

So soon, I am very sorry. # -injn jrvni« T« #>JW ^ 

Good bye, till we meet (jnynpTY) eyw) ™$N tto"bz 

y& "*o Vtd wk tarpD om p^pp -mi rn 

again. Farewell t <?n$Yi My*? bw*"* IP 
piW y?m*nnps 

§ 8. 

At dinner Own lap) WD ^ 

We have two hours more ]jra^ ww ^ p»*n -pit 
wk nyn rro Dnjna ^ D 

till dinner, meanwhile we B^y«nw njn ^ .^0^ ^ 
^ta npn ^nsikjitd wk 

can take a walk. ^WW* t^ ™ flWp 
prp pr\V® np pn^K 

■ Dinner is on the table, let ^ on rp« ar« WD can 



At breakfast p^wn^S D^l 107 

you, 1 do not smoke at all ♦BM ittf y3T) *pK ,-pK 
n-r •»•»« n ms pn#»D toy fo$ 

Have you had breakfast ? ? BpwnnfijM i.tk Mgn 
iiyn n-v npn BDyspy-D 

Not yet; I seldom eat so NT jy&^yt yDy *pK ; mvj -]*o 

early. I drink only a cup of yDND pa ^ p,nft yx >W1& 

*6ny »$ pvi*} ^k nv mp *\$ 
tea in the morning, and eat yoy "HlK .D:»y:n$D Dyn yynto 

bread and butter and boiled yi^Npyj) &•»& iKiS-iyDtsn 
nyn:n -uy -lyas^o nay i^xn 

•eggs. I like cold roast -jn oyvbxp wb -p« wx 
Djy "g p^ n^p BDn*n yjya>o:: 

meat or smoked fish and t^S yaiyD , » , ny^ nyiNt t^S 
ftlTD IK 'IpHNDD t^s n:y ^^ 

tea in the morning. &W)xn oyi yyn® 

Will you take breakfast wp^mn^z i,tk b^mi 

with me ? Thanks, I will y^y)) yx ,ypj*n ? 7»B epd 

take a cup of tea. ?yyrua yDDNB ywx ty&nyj 

pny® nv fi»p ^ .tb 

At eleven o'clock I take y» ynrw -im« nfy dik 
ay jny^N p^p^ ^ pny® 

luncheon. .p^prrnfi oyta^ny 

What do you eat then ? # p«i nrrn BDy m)i 

mw vi n-v tan^w tym 



io6 



^nnny^ nyvbtsy 



Is it too strong ? Delicious. 

It is Mocha, is it not ? 

Will you have cream or 
b*m n-v nyn onnp n^ 
milk in your coffee ? 
pb^ pK *w *»SS$p 
Cream, if you please. 
onnp tf& n-v on^fi 
Is the coffee strong enough? 

It is very good 

aw m njrn t-u 

Take some more sugar. 

It is sweet en6ugh. 
taw pk mm® *)WK 
Will you have another cup 
S*ik nv iiyn nym*oy sap 
of coffee. Thank you, sir, 
*1$ ififitfp ptynto n-v n?D 
I have enough, I never 
»8 viyn *iw»k "8 "fiWJ 
take more than two cups 
pny® ~\nm jym r«B oegp 
Will you smoke a cigar or 

do you like a pipe ? Thank 

in w p"^ n? s"fi p#n& 



-t$6 ?pn«B0 w iy am 
? nrmii m^ ,8pp$o ^ K D ^ 

? yssap n$/"K p« 1^ D 

?:ittltt pngBP ySSgp njn am 

.km inyt ar>K ny 

<nypi¥ tij?d miW B&njtt 

My* Dn bp« %y 

j^« ^ pD«n lira a^rr 

yDDga 

/■nyn p» ypsn T« ? ySS«p 

nw* p« |jwi tpn ayri 
^ys^ss p^« *w« aay6- 



At the -''Mandarin" shop, 
at two shillings a pound. 
Have you finished already? 

Yes, I have taken two cups 

or "*niyn jrpnya nsitfl D£«p 
and that is enough for me. 
nay apm pk ^n -ins *»d 
One more ? Thank you, 

no more. I never take more. 
n*o tind »$ -ljrnjtt pnvto *^d 

§ 7- 

At breakfast (BDySpJTD 



At tea yyntz k^s 105 



|J>DKtt 

•7» n*»s xm pk Dan ^ik 
ay) p^pnns D"2 



Have you had breakfast? 

nyn n-v nyn BDyspjns 
No sir, not yet. 

p n^D ta^ tar 
I have but just got up. 

What will you take? Coffee 

or tea ? I prefer coffee. 

in ,t& "g Spans *sa$p 

How do you like the coffee ? 

*in n pw» p^m ^fis^p 



ytmp ?j^«n nrr« &^«n dkvi 

n$S pnjw -pa ? ypna iyi*$ 

.pssgp 

?yfiS8p -ijpw iiTK a^ mi 



io4 ♦Tiannj^ oyw^hzw 

hot and also very sweet ? ? on nnjtt yiK mK D^rt 

mn *tiy mh® njrn bttwid 

No, I prefer it cool and im &http n#S pnjw -pK ,pi 

not sweet Do you take JjDKrt nnw ^11 ,Dn 20M 

cream In your tea ? ? yynta nj^K pK yp^yiayDD 

Dnnp pa w mta 

Very little. Sometimes I Djtt 7KD DjttJKD ,^3/11 "instf 

take a little. Do you like tyb "t»TK fc«n .:Mjtti p« 7K 
pnya ny ^ *n w p*b 

biscuits or cakes ? ? pjftjtt-nypw ijn# MpQ^. 

DaypD^ nK opnyp 

1 would rather have bread WD jjttsn nj^f? p&Dpfc *pK 
"k twin iym«n nyn njns 

and biitter. I do not eat jtt"p tfDDy 7« npfcfcan nm 

nay nyBBNQ «*$ -h w^rfK 

either biscuits or cakes. .pymiypw pp 1M ^mipo^ 
nj?m"K DtappD'o ^ Dpnyp 

Have the kindness to pass (fitt Kt W) ya^ «H M«n 

iiyn th oywp sib dhkd &Mg6njn 

me the sugar basin. .Jft$n-iypw «H td 

Your tea is very good. ,m injn WK yj/TO ip^- 
w itb ?^k njrn ny 

Where do you buy it DiTK nrPN taS^p &m 

tijmk ^ n n-v "gs taw 
and at what price ? IJ^Jtti W (ly^tfl K^ll) tntf 

*ity soy t*m® D"")*) ?pn£) 



Inquire the time jnaiBt* ton ll>i*T6 103 

I have forgotten the key. .W» Djn pm* a«n T « 
*>« nyn jBi^s th •T'p 

Try mine. It is too small. W taw V .p»«o BT3*na 
11-10 |iid aw r« nio "?n$3D .p^p 
It is too large. It fits. ,no*B I? ,D$-» w Bi* ">? 

■ai« pk niB Banns'? b i k db^s 

It is five o'clock by my j»«d *pK inw *ptf w dj? 
tS^K ?i« ii"2 p$6ps< "3 "D 

watch ; what is it by yours ? ? jn*K *pK DJ? PK ^fiil .-iniK 
E>BNW B«W PSU0^"3 DIHV 

I must wind up my watch, ,-inw J»"D pHTifS'W mo T« 
^n bond -wbik et< "a pbxjik 

§ 6. 

At tea (rvB ay) CiysoyB) yyno ira 



Is the tea ready ? Yes, we ™ ,* .OT6 wna -ijn pk 
r« vn mB njn or w« 

are going to take it now. pmt* l^ 3 ^ P™ a 

tin j^kw vb pnj?B b^ n$3 

Here is' the teapot, milk, ^DWppDxnOTTn 
vph pn m B^tsn-'B p^o 

cups and teaspoons; each W Aj>6j^nB T3W P"*tt 
D£«p nJ}? DjrwsDrPB 2>Brrx 

may help himself according tflb p»JH}» BD^jn Tt t«P 
nya s^n sfaotfn M*n$ppP 

to his taste. .P»«*J» D ^ ,,J 

iid D*»n toDnysD 

Do you like your tea v6ry TTW WHO nr* ™ Mjrt 
•n n-v p"^ w rm mm 



I02 



• •pinni^ oyw^bny 



It is not late. It is early. 
&w pk ®p t^nyb ^h m +nny 
It is later than I thought 
fi3*»« pk nytan^ jpm »$ &n$nB 
it was. It is only eleven 

o'clock. Is your watch right? 
pttbp'tt pk nn-v tPB&iK a>n 
It is two minutes too fast 
bw pk n-iB d&wd n-iB Bongs 
It is a little too slow. Do 

you know the time exactly ? 

rw ^ mi d«b ^piw 
It is nearly two o'clock. 
empk *nTJ TOta p$bp'i$ 
The clock is just striking. 

vn p$6p W aostpn ^p^nao 
I did not think it was so 

late. The clock is not going. 
tanyb vn p*6p pk ®p wx$* 

My watdh stopped. It is 
"D &&$)# n^K^D bv* pk 
necessary to wind it up e 

Then wind it up. 

I have not the key. 
"8 iiyn &$) vn ,Tp 



bpn oy .Bpsp m^ ^pk op 
nns 

^y nu &pk op hkii djt 
?^n iniK jnp"K &pk .-inn* 
.jpiatPD wny m bs^ *or 

♦tun K^y ibm bpk Dp 

BPK D$? W^JM ttt'tf ^KH T»fct 

•M'u &n$tt nniK «h *d$/s^ 

,^$wjn 7? agn iniK jwd 
bpk oy 

.\ynwmsm m vmsy* 



To salute |?D^^ TV 



ior 



a^:nap an w e^vi oy tara 

ja£ (Tlt^ap) 

papw:i Bra oy ?ps |nnyn 



Is it far to the office of 

r»« i^a mas w vn o^ss^t «$ 
Mr. Fine ? It is about an 

-lyBD^ ps ta*»« r»a way ]y 
hour's walk. It; is about 
o'-iyia pn^ia t^a pa- tainy 
half an hour's walk. 

*nan ]V o h r;m pnaw 

§ 5- 
To inquire the time (D"B vn n^Wp^K «l») 
*(y-irw) ta^y an |^8"iSdw 

What o'clock is it ? 



\vm tor« oy .jjw y-rtistp 
•ttW ymt^ y:6an y^a 



«!i« P^P'^ ^ ^ 



? oy apa nma f?ys ail 

/■iroa pa tar« oy 

a*>m iw jyBWD «]^s tor« oy 



It is one o'clock. 

It is five minutes past three. 
i^a p« ivS dbwd mias nnn& 
It is a quarter past four. 

.^arany nyan^p toonas nnas 

It is twenty minutes past 

t^K pa ^Wft dbtd toonaa 

six. It is ten minutes to iv lyai^D ]nyy er« Djr .(Dppt 

Dp^D t^a pa |ya Dta^D *ib 

eight. It is already a quarter 

lsh-; t^a ^ ny-6na ny nytan^ip 
to seven. It is just five 

«it2 :ynyD t^a pa Dca^n vp-S 



(ny>S ia^) tyBTS pa ara oy 
.ep^s rpa 

ppa ptairD ^'^am* ara Dy 
l&u) pry 



byto'vl* pa $p Bra oy .Ma 
*ps lapiifi ^t^a Dy .jyayn w 



minutes to nine. Is it late? 

DBW& w p-i ^ ^ ^ny*? 



? &y£t£> oy tapa .pa iv jytw^ 



ioo .-panny^ oywbziy 

trouble. No trouble at all. $r\^yT*p im Brwoy *yn*n 
^na $j ^na ay bru$ 

Don't mention it, please. $&W5 yftSan m^ myn 

Will you smoke a cigar /l&py ]"H pjwi nn^ ityi 

fwia n-v pn^D ny nnw^D 

or a cigarette ? lymy*)®^ jwk njn$ 

n$ ny Bjnw»D 

Thank you. Willingly. ,y:ny:i Mjn /"pw yp$m -pa 

Can you oblige me with a JJ^SSjtt p« 7»D TPK totyp 

\yp n.v wi^n ^d mawa ny p« m pnia 

match? With pleasure. Ijy^xnys M ?f^rrwr 
t^D hewn nj;^Tjrf?£3 

Here it is. You will do me p« pnfc TD Bjni nPM njr»n 
urn aw pk n-v ^«w «n ^ 

a great service, ♦fc^p^ySitt yD^nJt 

ny ^nyn^ D^vnyD 

Allow me to light my cigar, -lya) fyi^MK TD M^ry 

HK^y *»d jib a^ "& ihk^d ,i8H p& (>jny:nn 

Do you speak English, <wbtty 1.TK ^y*\m 

German or French ? ? mytm>% ry^ pe^h 

I only speak German. .ti^H TD yDjnap *f K 

*»« ^k prroD fyDnym 

Though 1 am a foreigner, nrtiptelK p« p -pa ^nKim 
*im •> •$ oy ny ny^yn^s 

I speak a little English. •rtouy D«nay y& yajnsp 
*g prpso ny ^ r^y 



To salute jyonJI U 



99 



children and your wife ? 
My wife is not well. She is 

very ill. What ails her ? 

njni ^« to«JiK o^ny i?n 
She is feverish. How long 

n? r»« myiT* '•in ^ 
has she been ill ? About a 

fortnight. — The doctor 

attends her every day. 

Will you be so kind as to 

tell me where is the 

Railway Station ? 

You will do me a great 

favour. You will not refuse 

ijrnyS n-v ^W8 ta^o onvSn 
a glass of wine. Will you 
ny on«^ 1$ paw ^rwK rw 
take a cup of coffee ? 
pnya ny fi8p ^ ^MKp 
I give you a great deal of 
"8 in rw ny &njn:i torn *$ 



^iw bm &w n^S IW& 
? nrp« e&nps d»ii ,pm^p "iny* 
y^ wri ,f^n &8n wi 

INDp^l njn — ^dkii K"ii* 

•J8B ]yn^ «n mitjd 

to ma pt law $) ippk ajni 

.(*)$na8S) j^8^~jnK:nitt"K 
jyDN-u pa pnta to ajni nn^ 
m^ -pa ajm tpk .}y^«sw 
n,TK aim *pn T8^» p« j^s 
?yySS8pyD8to jwk jypjntD 
yDgnj ton -pa P8& "pa 



98 



.-pinny 1 ? oywbay 



§ 3- 

To salute and to take leave 

Good morning sin How do 

"M ^hkd nyo ■nn -H 
you do? How are you? 

It is a long time since I had 
aw m ny ^16 d^b d^d "» nyn 
the pleasure of seeing you, 

I am very well Please take 
"8 oy nyn W>y.w dh^s pny® 

a chain Thank you, I can- 
ny -lnypta pjynta n-v *k -^p 
not stay any longer, 

I am in great haste. 
"8 cy p« Dnp^ tDDnyn 
When shall I have the 

jjmk ^ya> ^k nyn ^m 

pleasure of seeing you 

-iytPTyf?fi f]K jjwd n-v 
again ? In a few days, 

pyw p« np n-vs onyn 
In a short time. Farewell! 
p k nj; mi$$ d^b bbymny% 
Adi6u ! How are your 



(wrf? pnyto w uy w^sd w) 
uik |yDn:i 
d«yi ,riyn pD ,|yin$D jy&tt 

? T^k D'&ny:i K*n ? -wtk 

^n ta^nr y^$6 yy*x ®m oy 

,|ny? w t»k jy^mys dki 

,uity^ |yDDKp^Kfi p t k 

jgp -pa yyp58i T** ^niia» pw 

•iy^yf? ^ jya^nys ®y% 

•y^K yDKU y^K pa pa t k 

DKn lysKn t>« fym pKii 

^ jnyr w "pw ly^^nys 

,yj8& yjwa p« ?^kd^« 

3np a^ ^ jwmp k p« 

jny^K jy^KD Dgn — /yng 



To buy and to sell jyfinpnyS TJIK jyS'np 97 

Come and examine this JIWH BTOgna 1M tmxp 

• D«p w \ytzmy o\m 

article. Come and look at |« ^nj^T *\M BDKp bypwg 

bp^m mp ^y p^ toy 

this. Here is an drticle, byp^ix p« 22W nrn .J JWH 

dtpi nrr»n f« fy ^pna-ins 

for which there is a great Wiia pa PK DJ/ iintyn ^ 
ins t^ta^K ipm pk ny tonyi* 

demand. It is the latest ymyb *rn raw %y ,mbry£ 

njngDjn taw f»« %*n BDy&nj^ ytaoj;^ 

fashion. The price is am r»nfl njn m*& 

It costs... We sell that at... pS'OpnyS tyi ♦ •„&D$p Dy 

taw DtDDKp w ^d taprn ay .♦..•)¥ 

Impossible to take less. njWJjni |yDH$n w "p^I^K 

^ddksd^k -its pnpta ddj/^ 

It is the lowest price. .rna ny&DjnTJ njn tot^ Dy 
taw rw mi »t3Dy^ d^is 

It is very cheap. Such a pa Ht J^^ injtt tam Dj/ 
taw rw njni ennpta ®mo ny 

good article you will get -Jtt ta^JTW 1T11 typWK 

n^ ^finng pi-v ^«-ik tap 

nowhere. Here is a cheaper pa ssrx Tn .$rnay:nw }?Dip 

article, if you please. <Jtfata^ ,byp^*\$ ~\yvbb^ 



9 6 



Please send the goods to 

DH^fi TjVO TH DIM S|E3 

my house. Here is my 

address. 
Dim? 
I will be in at five o'clock* 

What do you require ? 

What do you want ? 

Willingly ! with much 

pleasure. Immediately. 

Sit down, please. 

END pm DH^fi 

Take a seat, please. 

pnyts ny bppd on^s 

Do you want common, 

medium, or special articles 

I have all kinds. 

"n y\yn Sn$ on^p 
I can show you all kinds. 
"8 jpp w n-v ^ D-wp 
Select to your taste sir, 

tapybyo m *w ®my® nyo 



pK jnKKii kh ap^ ^bb^ 



jwd bpk ijm .fin pa 
.yDDjms 



(d^) by^ &^ ! psn injrr 

^p^K 

-taw ybbs ]yw "p« \$p y& 
,(f^nm) ]P^Jita 
ypsot^^ ny^ nw om tsbny^ 
.v\yn p& 



To buy and to sell jpSnpiyS T5'.« JtfS'np 95 



§ 3. 
To buy and to sell (^D i|ta TjV 

Good day, sir, I should like 
no njn nyo "8 w p^ 
to buy a good knife, but 

•la "*o ny ' no cp m$ 

at a moderate price. 

&y ny Bjnjn^is ens 
This is too common. The 

price is too high. I do not 

o^ne ra rfita "n "n n jd^ 
like this, I desire something 
p»b ovn "k nnn ^riBDKD 
good. Let us see another. 

kind. How much is this? 



TO 



••in 



pbnd r« D-m 



What is the price of this 

and that ? It is too dear. 

TjV Bpm taw pn n-ita °nn 

You want too much for it. 

n-v C33«.i« nsjtD wbnd ins &pk 
You must reduce the price. 
n-v bdnd own m ens 
You will surely make a 

nv ^k-ik ^w pnjriD nj? 
reduction. 

Il^psin 



d^h t»« ,iyn pis ,)j;:n$D an 
njDg ^dj/d oym pa jyeip 
♦rns jjtt^DDyDjtt |jw»k ts 
njn ♦pDjtt iv bpk dni 
t»d (n$p^) T»in iv bpk pns 

jnjnJN pa djik jm^ ♦DyBU 

jjttjm jtfs rns *ijn bp« Dan 
•ij^nta w &r»K oy ,jjw im 

an }jn#fni;Bjnj;n ddid "vpk 
p« |pd«d enp &jm -i,tk 



94 



• imn^ oywbny 



way to Canal street Is 
njfiK sifiD ^?JWp tanmao pk 
this the way to Canal street? 

dvh \m hjmk sib fyjyp anniaD 

Where does this road lead 

injttN ?ri D^rn tiki nn^ 

to ? It is the second street 

-IB &*»« pk \-n \^pj;D anneD 
before you to the right 

It leads straight to the 

em Dim 4 ? BnjnBD jib ^m 
street that you are asking 

for. You are on the right 
nKiD •n-v ihk }^ vn &vn 
road. You have only to 

go straight on. 

n^ tanmBD $ 

How far is it from here 

')n nn«S pk raw D$ns i.th 
to the post-office ? 

•IB VH BD*lS D^SK 

It is very fan It is nearly 

&•»« pk np nn«s &•»« pk ^nrw 
a mile. It is near. It is in 

ny b"n era m nn^ &•»« pk p« 

the second street on the left, 
vn ukp>;d annao jk vn &Sj^ 



^wsp iv ^11 ijn dki 
?^ii nytyn Enmfi pnp 

«H w D^yn^iK^i ann-a ay 
jEDjn am ^ik ti -lira rp 

•DW jn*jn:i |H^ 
♦BD$£ "Ijn iy pa 

bpn Dy ^^ii inyt bpk d^ 

ynxwz 

pk ay ;&Tm pk dj/*^d p*t 

»jw? \ypvb njn 



Daily Life \yiyb jo^yta 93 

before twelve o'clock. — .nmK *)tyrtt n«5 

-invito i^jmb P^P'^ 

I shall call again. .\WQ#p b$n*»& •]& ^11 "pa 

"8 ^>jw Sn$p pjNy 

Did not a joiner of the epd njrt>$BD pa ta^J taan 
th ta^o ny -ijw$pn *)$ %tj Djn 
name of Bernstein live tajnpjtt piatwnjD \yn& 

here ? I don't know. ♦fc^: d^ti t»k ? njr»n 

Tpn "N ta^xi ^ 

Nobody in the house ynn Djn pa njwwn* p^p 
•n^on^ p* \m nn 

knows such a name. .p^M {jn^NJ p« taD^ tuyp 

na ^BgD ny onjn 

Mr. Bernstein left this tar^yS ^n ptt^ijr^ myn 

•vpwb }.tbdjijd &5j^> dvh own 

house about three years nng'' "TT nnyfiymtf 1K£ fin 
cm ta^^jr nnnta D-iny 

ago. I do not know his jwravjp jwn D3^ D"n y& 

present address,, 

Bjjnjne DDjrrw 

§ 2. 

To inquire for any street (anntOD W 1££ T^p^K !)ta) 
•Djtf JWK «pK |W»nSD^ 

Pray, where is Canal street? ?yD«-)BP ^Kp rot an ^sa^ 

nips tijmk m ^ayp tanntao 

Please, tell me the shortest pawn-p Djn to a»t jk» 

on^s ^ta *o vn taDpsan^ 



92 



♦ "p^nny^ Dpttn^jp 



in this house ? On which 

px DNTI D^in }K PBWK 

floor ? — On the second 

floor at number eighteen. 

nn$6s tojr njttfcto pptanj; 
Do you know whether Mr. 
n n-v ^ npnnjfiK ^taD'a 
Smith is at home ? I do 

nwtzo r»K nay on$n "x n 

not know ; go up and see. 

mz ^ p bh n:y ,*vd 

You have to ring the bell* 

n-v npn sito an vn ^yn 

Is Mr. S. at home? No, sir, 

r»« ^tao^ .d tap mnn p nyo 
he is just now gone out 
*»n r« BDgtpn n$u jn^o tD^« 
Can you tell me, when he 

will be back ? Is he coming 

Vwik ^ pjD pk \n a^aNp 

back soon ? When can I 
pjtt jn-iD jink jyp "g 

see him ? I cannot tell you. 
n^D D\n "g ta^yp*^pta n-v 
He will certainly be here in 

^n ^«ji« tbtytrtyo ^ i,Tn p< 
an hour! 9 He will not return 

p r;m vi Vwik &K3 pyaan 



.fnjnr 

ir\yn 2K tpk bd"ii 

T»k ?pwn w bpk nia^D 

tiik *pij/n isanjtt ;ta:n d^ii 

.tanpr 

ypH^ an jynjw isddid IiTK 

,p .pmn w .d myn tara 

,-nyn p» 

-D^-ipn my JJW &rw -iy 

^ jjm 4 ]$w -vb tpk tajyp 

ny taDD^p ? pniv pr itti 

-pa |Kp pan ,pniy n^n 

t3D^ "pH |Kp *pN ? pjtt d.tk 

fK p? an ny^t *nn ny 

Mtt mil ny ,yn^taB* ny^K 
jyD^ppmv 



Human body ipanyp pD^tP apo 91 

It has blue eyes and such in* JJWIK ink kNn Djr 

a sweet complexion .MijttJN Dj?Dn p«- 

Do not eat too much, lest ™ dw tyt w ^ &Djr 

you put your stomach out V®* W ^ T« ^r 

of order. I have an empty P™ l»*n T* .pwnyfr 

stomach. lam empty, and S»n7K)pycr:pT» •!?-«» 

you have already -jtt ptf M^n TPK *m 

breakfasted. (jyDDtty^K) tap^t^nnS 

ryDDyljpjnn 

Daily Life (bj^ ^njn) lW? rtlS«3 

§ I. 
Good morning, sir, *T)jm po ,|?:n$D paw 

Can you tell me where wn ,]?«** -v»D -i.tk mpp- 

jyp ftv tya •»» tijnk 

Mr. John Smith lives ? ?tun$m nansD p$wn -nyn 

njrtao^ p^t^n nt^DD owb 
Does Mr, John Smith live nt^DD ptfm vij?n aanair 

t$n ny^D pat^n nt^M iy6 



become dumb ? Do not M'tt Emmy ?DW fjn^Jtt 

tire your eyes too much. ^JPS W JjttlK jnj/«K 

■vb w d^k pi-ib ^&nd 

Muffle your neck, lest you 6m ny^K Dnyn d^ypii 
^6kb w pin tsoyb n-v 

■catch cold. ♦fySrrpny M'o *pK ta^t nrm 

myp ib$p 

Cover your head otherwise torn \yn /]£Np wx ttpjnya 

you will catch, a cold, for b")) ^rrpTy "pK "irpK tt»ii 
n-v ^w« PByp ny n^p n$5 

the weather is very cold. &b$p "inyt BPK nytatayvi D*n 
vn -lyrnysiK r« nyn i^p 

A hungry belly has no ears. jw»p enh 71^ i^n^m p« 
ny n^Kn fyy* m nm di.tk ^ % 2m nj ^ n) ^^ 

,n at one ear out at the *pn X ik r>nyn t^ik pa pt 
«k ^ ,^k wk &» M &9 w, §D ^ n pm mi 

ether. 

What an ugly woman ! she (VOTft) y^boyn K t>S DKtt 

has a yellow face, and red 1j1« M-tyJ Dy^yj p« ^kh 

tyn ny n*6f?y onys n^y nyn yi^n 

hair and brows. The Dyn .lyna-jy^iK "oik nKKn 

*inyn Try dh^-d vn 

patient's skin turned green. jyiNViy:i epk mn D'jypaanp 
trtuypnys rpo wy& pns pj 

What a beautiful child ! n^p DjttnjW |^K tS D«tt 
b$ik ny ^s^va *^w 



Human body nysnyp ya^tnyo 



89 



He has a sound head and W ]jnW p< B » n njr 
■»n tyn nj; ino nyn uy n^K 
a weak chest. ^na ya«w yj»it 

ny pwa BDyp& 
His blood boils with anger, .p*¥ JnS M$p" afa p 



One man is short-sighted, 
ftsiK |^d w Kn^-nya^D 
another on the contrary, is 

long sighted. It is better 

jtf^ *\yto»o taw m nyBtaya 
to be near-sighted than 

sib ^ •m-'W'D \ym 

completely blind. 

I am more far-sighted than 
w oy nn^D ngfi-njra^D |ym 
you. The poor woman is 

blind of one eye. 
whs ^ t^« "8 
Speak louder, he is deaf 
prr£D nyTiS \n rot ^yn 
in both ears. 

Is it true, that he has 
y»« em nnta taym vi tyn 



^ntMyjy:! d^ /nynyTJK pt 

lyDDys aw oy ^Mn-ta^iv 

tb$ ^armnip pt ir 

aw *on£ yD-w kh *irw 
:pin pa *pN tr6:i- 

Hia aW iy ^ya^ tDDyiS^' 

♦|y"inN yT*o ^w- 
aw ny osn iinsn oy aw-- 



tyzirwb oywbny 



with a long face. 

hbwik ny u$b onyz 
The traveller put his pack 
vn nj^nmB &)& en pys 
on his back 
ft D\n py^ 

The merchant shrugged his 

-vn ta^y^a-iyD *u*o^ en 
shoulders. His brown 

D-iir6$p on p-D 

beard has become grey. 

"nTS tyn D»p^ npi^ 
Since his wife died he 

D^D DV1 *pg!|K TH V! 

became old and grey. 

myp'o *6k n:y ny^ 

Do not take it to heart, 

•n £K3 pnyta aw jib mm 
do not be sorry. 

It is time to cut your 

nails, my son. 

If I had a sharp knife, 

*TK "« nyn ny snap *p 

I should have them cut long 

"8 w nyn aym agp x$b 

since for they are too long. 

d^d i^s nym irm n-ia ju*6 



.&ety:i oy^ pa &<»& 

-yjfiTiyn a«n ny^yp-i nyi 

.jyppn pr *p« 

y^n tDpiyp^ a«n ftD^ip nyn 

-iyrm pr .pya^ty 

jy:n$Bpy:i d?^k "»ns yj"T a*? 
ny bpk 

,jynyn air idd^ oy ^Dyi 

y^H jyTWimg ta^y ar»a Dy 

,pK? pa ^yjiyj 

pa a^Knyji £^kii t>k fyv? 

yiyooyD DySiKP 

-5K vmb \nb k»? *pK a^n 

jyrata^t^y^ 

j«6 w }yjy? *on bw 



Human body nysnyp ym^BnyD 



tooth-ache. Do not gnash 

ntaniiB pny n a*o pjn 
the teeth, I do not like it. 
vn ntairia "k n com p"^ taw 
"My tongue is my enemy", 

says the proverb. 

onyo vn myitis 

My hand is tired of working 

I prefer to go on foot than 

"Kiysns jib '^ |K tasis |j;rn 

to ride. We have feet for 
iia -pn wk iiyn bits n$S 
walking. 
i^pn^iK 

Do not put your finger into 
•n b$o B! J fi "W ^^ ^n 
his mouth. 

DTI ilBID 

§ 2. 

The woman had pale 

vn p^a npn *?nys 
cheeks and brown hair. 

opnw& -ay p$-Q -lnyn 
Her chin was round and 

-iyn ppta tw« n^n nay 
beautiful Here is a boy 
^^•Q tph pk ny ^s 



m^ ta^n^p .jynyDBorw 

jgs yra bpk i:«n y^D 

.pa":nK 

dis iv \nyz iv Iks ynyy T** 

jya«n te ♦(p-irms) jyto^n iv 
♦pyj iv di« yo^s 



nyipfi "iy"N p-)« cm &:^ 
>id p? JW 

oy:n-D i:n« (pp^) p^n 
iii« uri bpk pfrorp irptf 
yw pa &pk njrn .jiw 



86 ^ninjo oyt^^jjy 

one thousand eight hundred Bljran &DK najwiB p« 
$w TipnnB tan? n^m^n 

and eighty-two, ,HB3N 131K K^W uik 

*W •my rniB 



Ijae human body (^NS |KW vn) npsnyp yybvtyb njn 

§ i. 

The poor man lost one Jjn$6ipS Bgn JND jrcng -ijn 

eye in battle. .mn^p i$n m jwik 

Why do you speak through nyBMiN n,TK mjn Dngtt 

the nose ? His right ear tjk DyMjn p? .ymj kh 

was larger than the left. $pvb cm obx -iyDDjn:i -i*m 

He could not open his pn pttSSy m^ j?toij«p ny 

mouth from fear. ,pjnp nxs b')n 

hm dkis -),t5 

Draw out the bad tooth and ptssybw Djn miyn anr? 

you will no longer suffer. 4 pn^ nyjtfs^ m^ n*ni tt« 

There is nothing worse than DjnjflDD^P DM^ M^ dj; 



Numbers pyfcttia 



85 



of the debt and two hundred 

fi$ vn tD^i *\ty roita -jjm^n 
on account of the rent. 
]« tompy |r |N th twin 
This merchant gains no 

less than two thousand 

pounds a year, and that 

owe ny nnjp n^y aym 
worker earns no more than 

one hundred a year. 

What a great difference 

between them. 

He has, at least, a million 

•»n wn toy taon^ ny jn^d 
pounds of capital, 

Dims e\$ bywzyp 
The income of the bank 

mi DKpr« f\t$ ^m pr>n 
amounts to three millions 

of pounds a year. 
tj« on^ifi ny -iny 
I came here in the year 



nnpD two aiynnys nyt^mtf 

D<?K 

•"injo pa Enjnain ptf 

ijm 

,*on jiww tarn 

p« }yt2Dwn Dg tssn ijr 

jn^d *om ro ipssjntsjn-. 
r\ntp p« mss 



84 .-painy? tfvbav 

The rent of my lodging is yi«D jns im nn dnt 

fifty shillings a quarter and bvvny* \"* ^^ ^S3-S 

ibS^S d^W nj? -)j?t3-i$!ij? -up nnN 1 

my brother pays sixty. ^ayt B^n8» njnro po "UiK 

«o -iym$-Q onys itaopiD 

I gave him seventy pounds TOSS wan dpi* 5?syJ -p* 

"« wu« dti '•BjyiiyD cuia 

in cash, besides those fifty JNffiitf J»l?n "WW /"I883 p« 

that I gave him in goods. jyayjyj on* ys»n t« yaf?jm 
toym "« iinp D^rt p« dim .(mino) yiNNii p« 

§ 3- 

I prefer to have ninety 3TO \mn *W^ ^i -p* 

"x -iy§na to iiyn W''} 

pounds in cash than a |«K D^« ,pn»IP p« ™ S2 

owe pK t!>yp jym ny 
hundred in goods. .(mino) ynsm r« cnyw 

nynata px dim 

My wages are never more obwv^ tsfK atenya po 
»e> DyemyiK inx nyny: nnxo -inyo 
than a hundred and fifty wft'fi-'WK-Kny-uin p< D?s 
jym ny nj?mj«n "ny ^a 
pounds a year. W P* ™* & 

owe -%nj? nnr 

He received only one hun- -am p» "W lyDD^pya axn ny 

^n inrron ^ ftflK -i«n 
dred and ten on account Ml»p *p* pyy "U1K Enyr 

urn "uy u» ft "^ 



Numbers pj/fifin 83 

In fifteen days she will «n tvti \lttm \T\yvtyS pK 
pa p^^s ^ onjn w frwa 

return home. .ynn ^i jyDDNppni? 

pyan Dn$n 

The price of the overcoat -^« &$n $S r»ns -)jn 

is sixteen shillings. Jsr^W pjn^y? EPK 

r« jn^Dp^D d^^ 

The clerk receives nineteen pyw DDKpjn n^n^ -)jn 
vn (°p-ij£p oviiTDn p^^ 

pounds a month as salary, D^K -p^K^D mb^ym n^Sfl 

Dibits ny nia^D tj; ni^po ^gnjtt 

and twenty pounds . as a pa obx n^Sfi ^P^Nm* i:i« 

y; Wib ms w ny p^p^ DjD^nnjr 
yearly present. 

§ 2. 

A month has either thirty njnjmtwy B«n ek:ind pa 

np hd^d Tjrn -ipnTw wyna awti 

or thirty-one days. ysm :PDD"Ti iii« p« -ljna 

A day has twenty four hours mmw-^-t;^ &«n ^D K 

My friend is a man of forty m , ND pK ^K ^ nS ? „ D 

or forty two, and his wife tafc 

is a little older. . 

w ny ^ njn^s n ^ D * 11t ^ a ™ 



.jjmjm j^^^d^ ^aw nnjn ddid '"n„ djkh (° 



82 .*psnnj^ oyt^»^iy 

shortly get married. The -"n b«y jyvnp iy^« p* 

old man Is a widower, and nynt^n p« bpk j«d nya 4 ?* 

iSk |yD r« ny -lygrpK-iK iw im (pbn) 

the woman is a widow, ynizni y:»"K aw wnS «h 



Numbers (Dnitt&JM) pyDIM 

§ 1. 
About ten o'clock eleven *)ty TO nrm pmr pW* 

passengers arrived who had D«li pflDDtfpJNW J? TW8DD8S 

d-ijwwdj;s wnny -in ryn psm 

emigrated from Russia. na^on $5 my^r^D^. 
npBnjw&y D^ns awn 

My little son is nearly ibm &W p$T ny^f?p pD 

twelve years old. AyW *]tynv 

I have lived here for &:in$V)ltt nrn V%m T R 

"8 nyn tiv6 wn n^s .j^ py^n 

thirteen days. 

|ppBiyn& onm 

My cousin earns fourteen pynrfi Wis pip po 

"d j?«p o:ny pmi^s 
shillings a week. WW ^ ^» 

d^^w ny prrMN 



Family JP^dkS 



8i 



Your relation is a poor 

seamstress. 

I came here a bachelor and 

*»«Dnyp nn\n ny n$6ytMDjD -up 
I am now, thank God, a 
*8 DP n^o p^ynto n^ np 

father of six children. 
What will become of the 
little orphans ? 

This boy has no father, and 

D\m ^a ^n n^ T;mxs nay 

that girl lost recently her 
mother, but the boy is not 

so unfortunate as the girl, 

,kd &y2itPEn$£j« tp Tn ^njN 

for he is older than she. The 

n#5 \n r« njn^t jpm rw \-n 
boy is ten years old, and 
**D pa |pts onnr ^ nap 
the girl is only six years old. 
m ^w pk ^o$ Dp^D dvijp ^ 
My eldest brother will 



•pgranyj pong 



-av pa |PD8pp:npn p 7« 
nii« (-m-q) jMptjn 
;pwi *w bb#i /-pa p ayy* 
pa 

njrwp Dppt jNS IPEKS 

«h $5 |impvi nn^i djw 

iptSNS JJWp DKH JttW nptH 

jniVK jpTi^nps 

w& vw npn npnx ,-ijn3Bid 

,timpD osn wyi 7^p^^iK nt 

npi ,«n *r»vi npafy bpk np 

y tD^8 pnnio jnp^ bpk p:w 

njiK 

Dppt ti5 bpk jpanpa c*n 

.ta^« pn™^ 

tapn npnins npBDpaty pn 



8o 



,*\i%"\nyb ovwbny 



My daughter-in-law will 
*d nyan^n )•»« ni$b bwm 

remain here. 

Next week I shall dispatch 

BDpJN p.T&IK "K %y^ tPttySDH 
a letter to my sister-in-law. 
ny ^y&yb aito "& ny^D-pa-n^ 
Last week my grand-son 

entered service, and my 

"nytary D*myD nay "D 

grand - daughter entered 

Tijn:i "lyan^n *nyi^y 
a school 

nj; fosipD 

§ 3- 

My son-in-law has a good 

"D |KD-|^»n^ ?yn ny -m* 

business. My brother~in- 

law is not as lucky as you. 

n^ pk d*o ?y ypp«6 ?y n-v 
I have many relatives in 

"« nyn ^y& Diray^yn p« 

that town. Your relative 

apm pita ti-v ii^y^n 
is a rich merchant. 



(nw) nyM^ta-iyjyw y;ro 

.pw^nys hi Dyn 

-s« 7« ynyri pKii y^Dsy: 

|yp^ 

.pyjyYit? p^D iv cjyn^ pa 

bpk ysp (ytDVj? 4 ?) y:m$6 

*dik ,bdwh jw jy^yitDy^^ 

bpk (jysnyD pa) typ^a 

.ytotp tn f>K jytsy^yiPK 



DyCM p« DKH 

ny:i8w p?3 mywyz 

-irrw 

p* ytaiismys ywfi a»n *pK 

-njKYnyfi iy^K .Kngap jay* 
nyto 

♦]8DS^p ny^n p« tat^K 



uncle's. Do you know my 
uncle and my aunt ? 
My cousin intends to 
return home. 

§ * 

My grand-father died two 

»d najn:i -ipmas Tn rvita 
years ago, but my grand 

mother is alive, thank God. 

Did you see my nephew 

TH n.v iTD "D -Wl^ 
anywhere ? He is still a 

bachelor, but he will shortly 

-i^jwBjn ens \n ^«-i« ^b®~\m 

get married to a beautiful 

girl. 1 PW "i/i «H dd-id "ijrn 
^np:i J pjm p^^ns^D^ ^yip 
To-morrow my son's bride 

jib hntind "D d'jkd th* 

will come. 

*?WK D«p 



Family JP^DKS 79 

p& nrva tupp .typas 



-jn (n^p nytaoynt^) pip p& 



nytaiDD^n^ jwd njng ^n^ 
.mi?*? y p^n K"t taw y (jtt*o) 
|jwd pnjnjn tvk Man 

p« "ftO BPK iy ?1«11 "UJMTN 

t?mp j*»k tvvi 

pttnjw djwn wis \ynmyri 

.\ynyo 



•jVDip (rfa) 



78 



♦ "painy^ Dyt^:ny 



but the wife will remain at 

END VH cptflK- ^tf|N pj;Dn £3y 
home for a short time, 

dhkh IKS ny aiK^ D^t3 

Their parents refuse to go 

lym Dtwyinys m-ven ••)& n$o 
abroad, and to quit for ever 

im~\T; *iw jib to^sip nKS nyny 
their native country. 

They have but one child. 

nj;m njrn m% $w n^w 
My father is as well as a 

"to nymgfi pk ?y ^yw ?y np 
young man, but my mother 

m^ jy& m% »n ^ymm 
is sometimes ill and feeble 

like her sister. I had a 

pv^ ^ n -ipbdid ^k nyn ny 

brother, but he died long 

lyrnx-D m% vi th :u*6 
ago. His son is a book- 

®m dvi jkd w ny -p-Q 
keeper and his ddughter is 

nyfin^p *ny on nyan^ tk 
a seamstress. They both 
ny DynaoayD nym to*d 
live in New- York at their 
1.1^ pK w p*^ &y nym 



iy ]yn 

•t^r* yynp yr^ cpa pin 

py^ m^ jy^vi py&bv yiy^? 

.i^DtDTDy:! ny^t 

n^p pw n^ jyaNn w»? 

wn njity^ K? tsp« -iyt3«S pu3 

fK 

nn« pajnp bmcyTM® dpk 

fy^K tDsny^ agn 

^kd }K^ pk iy ™)y%H ,-iynm 

-on pw wk |hkt pn .yj^ 

pk nyMK^ pn *m ^yra^n 

y*pn «"t .pi^&nya y^K 

nyn «"* pn^^-vi pK jy^np 



Stationery ^jpny&8D3*n» 



77 



except some words written 

tteyapy dkd n^m ty&tan 

with a pencil. 

town ny ^wps 

Lend me a sheet of ruled 

paper and an envelope, for 

nyfinjrs nay jy e^jnus -i$S 
I want to write a letter. 

The address is already 

written on the envelope. 

The post-office is not so 

far as you think. 

The stationery 

near the post 
nrra mi mis 



Family (^»yS) JT^&tJS 

§ i. 
The hdsband will go away, pnntJSpmiK TO |NB "V5 



-ntpjKi nj«nxro jnwk lysm 
|Xtt 

-JN $P BW tfDDjmB KH 







.&:)"& ttk nii b^vi 


shop 


is 


aw jjn*6 njrsxs njn 


£Nfc£> 


W 




office. 




♦bdks njn |«s ta^i b:m 


D^Sg 







76 



speak or read English. 

pn^o *\$ inn ty^y 
Do you write with a pen 

n n-v ta*»n n&WK ny |ya 
or a pencil ? I prefer a pen. 
ik ny bwys "8 npsnsj ny jya 
I never use a pencil. 
*8 lynya w ny rwysj 

§ 3- 
Teach your children to 

read and to write. 

inn my ^ £^n 
Your hand-writing is worse 

nn-v myn ^Epn t^« di^ik 
than mine, 
jym p& 
Between this and that hand- 

jiTWtDys dth my ayni isyn 
writing there is not much 

difference, they are both 

wyiyssn "yni inn n&n*D 
very good. He can read 

nyn i-u \i |yp inn 
all writings in the world. 
Hik wa^n p« mi i^ik 
It is easy to read all the bill 
&•>« pn wk w inn *?n$ mi %o 



iyiyfi p« ^d ima wnt? 



nyiyfi ]»x i$s yny^v "p** 

iyi^p yiy^K t^iy 1 ?' 

iyjny bw tssn^i^n lyw 

yjsy^ n^w ytyn \yrnw 

pp wh BSnt&n^rr 

fyjy? an /ly^iytDiiK lyDW 

yi^ 

jy?y^> jHp iy ,m inyr 

iyi }•»« fyDfin^mi y^K 

.t^yn 

tn jyryf? rc ed"^ af»8 oy 

jn^yi ysuw 



Stationery f?«np£8&3^ltP 75 



2. 



I wish to write a letter ^ns p« jy^ntP ^n tk 
*^n pwk Jits ta^i nj; nptsj^ 

home, but I have neither a j?i->p j;^n 7N -ijttK ,D"n*$ 
dhkh t^xn "n viyn nj^ntD^j ny 

stamp, nor an envelope. .Enyngp pp >ms ppngD 

£Dyt3D 1^ }y fi^yiUg 

You can get that at a «^ |^Kp^ dni t^yp in^ 

n-y ^ jyp ay* aym ay ny ny^yn ny^e oyi 
stationer's. 

D"iy:yfcyyED 

Be not so sad, you will soon nnw yMBiMK at £2\3 &"? 

■o &$o nd nyo nv ^w« jn-iD -j^n ^ 

have a letter from him. iD ,tk \k5 m pa jw«n 

iiyn ny nytatap dkis an " 

He is happy, he has just jy^y mn r; ^^ wtn y 

received a letter. .emna ty3"tf lya^Nmy 

Tii.TDn «iy lytsay^ ' 

Which of you can read W, r;p T a , 1fi ^u^ 

and speak English ? I can ]Hp ?H ^ ? 

n:y prpso ts^y «g jyp M J • ! 

speak, but I cannot read M , 3 , wp ?K ^ 1Jnjn 

prreo law »8 B«t^P ^n ^ M l " ' 

English. I understand ynvwr;z ™ wbm 

every word, but I do not ^ yH w ^ Dyiy* 



74 



• ■pannp 1 ? nywizsy 



paper. It Is easy to get 
lysnys taw m wk *ib bin 
such a pen as you want, 
mm ny jys ?y n-v taasw 
for there Is a stationer near 
nKS -inym m ny w^^d nn^ 
who sells very good pens. 
•in abyo nyn *m D:ys 
Put the Inkstand on the 

writing-table. 

From whom did you receive 

d^-is on-in in n-v TirpDn 
a letter yesterday ? From 
ny *\y&yb rump W o$ns 
whom have you received an 

Dn-in nyn w minion fy 
account this morning. 

The bill is written In pencil. 

vn ^*o r« fytatan pK ^oaya 

Give me a sheet of writing- 

■ma •»& ny tarw ^ aa^n 
paper. I have a w r hole quire 
npsnpa ^8 nyn ny bn$n n^p 
of common paper, but not a 
*]$ jy^DKp lysnys ^k^ taaa ny 
single sheet of foreign paper 



w m^ wh ay ?ny»S8& 

%tk wyi nynyfi p^K? jwg 

ryb^yn r^m& n px oy ^n 
taan«a 

ytaia nnjn taSipiyS ny^yn 

•pjnyfi 

tpK DKflay^ta D*n ta^ytatp 

♦t^ta^ntp Din 



|yta^my ima BSgn dp |# 

jk§ .pptaoya c]yn^ Jiww 

fy^amy in^ mkh Djm 

?fyr)KDpnyn aaiaajn. 

lysyn^ya taw aaiasm «n 

^yiys"^ tana 

-^nt? }ya*o p« -Ma ta^i 

yyaw iww y^«n t>« .nyfiNifi 

iywb 

ta^a nysx ny^ns Dy^sa^: 






Metals and Timber f b$n 1J1« }1^8&y& 73 

On workdays she wears «n EMtna jjttKBjpDNYi m 

cheap common clothes, but ,ljm^p Jtt"Djtt iw^ 

on holidays she dresses in *p an Bjrr^p ttttK£np"S W 

satin, silk and muslin. y%!2 ^a jnuj .Dg^iDjj 
pWD p^D "H? p?»0 

We want ten yards of calico, tw k) tw jnyy wSiki -wi 

five yards of print and ten jnjw "WK ^tp-ips "nw n^S 
iy*£ dtis* *$ tuna nay jnya- 

yards of linen. .-wrou^ dtw- 

I shall buy some yards of dtw ywx \yfr)p byn T« 
*8 T>)W "82 DND Ding* *]$ 

lace to trim my hat. mn pa wyBlSJtt n> ^a 
onjrc jib onto "d &yn 

Here is the lace I bought -pa jjDtyn Via nyn bpk i^n 

nrrn mvn Dnj6»8 an^n y^n afi^pw 

yesterday in the shop t p^ ojn m njtoDM 



Stationery (njNWBD) (.;n.K ,&md /irfl»fl) tenjrc«$D *vnp 

§ 1. 

Have you any ink and TDK B^B DtfllBj; lira Man 
ityn n-v ^y p^a n^j; 



72 



§ 3- 



Have you any coal ? I am 

•nj/n rw ^y ^nap ^» d^ 
cold, and I should wish to 
ibt$p ity »$ w PWK -IB 
light the fire. 

wb •rn njr^S 
Copper is more durable 

than lead and tin. 

\ym iyb iw Y& 

Gold is more beautiful 

ibm vx nnKD faswa 

than bronze. 

If I had money I should 

buy a dozen of silver table- 

spoons and two dozen of 

tea spoons. 

This woman likes to wear 

DMn pflDW Dp^ ^ -jy!^ 

a velvet mantle though she 

earns very little, 

o:ny mm te^ 



^gp ?^k td 4^ 



-t^ta 

tuyvn ^m im bvtvb 

hy&vb-vvnto 

jlttsntD iv Mjr6 mis myn 
^wn Tim wnys 



Metals and Timber f^n "niK ])>b$toyn 71 



Birch wood is better than fir 

tpenjtt mw rx iytoyn jym nys 
It is neither birch nor fir. 

Ash is a cheap wood, it 

is cheaper than fir. 

In our native town fires 

fK tin ypttjtt pa Diy^s 
are made of wood, but here 
ins nnyD ^ mw aw nrn 
they make them with coal. 
r\ym pnyn nym nami** fo#p 
I prefer a china dish to a 
'^ nyfins ny j;^^a ^n ^ ny 
metal one. We want to buy 

■a china plate. 

A china tea-pot costs less 

than a metal one, but I 
jpm ny btoyn }^!|M saw "8 
prefer the metal. 

I do not like eating from 

tin dishes. 



cbx -\yoys bpk p^n-jypTQ 
m^j -hik lPpTaM*o bpk sy 

.j>jdkd d^k iyrt^ Era oy 

TH -)Jtt8 ,f^n E^D MN&W 

♦|j£n$pj»BP &•>& oy »? j^d 

jsfyn^fl pa 1N£ ynyiy y& 

pa zbx ,byow 

\yfr)p p^v, tvi .Dy^gayD 

T** n$tt« Mybxvyto k d^k 
d*»i« jpDDy w toy* yzy^b yx 



Lead Is not so diirable as BSsmr'n m torw BW K»te 

iron or c6pper. »^ S1 P ™« P»"* 

jKT>^ IK -IJJM^p 

Silver Is not so h6avy or njrw Kt dm &r« nysW 

so testing* as gold. ^P ^ fcSamrn ^ 

I bought yesterday a pt pyBDjtt BS*ipJtt l*8n T* 

good steel knife. rVDoyizbnwv Djrttti 

Nomdtal is as light as wood. ^1 M^ ^ tot* to» pp- 

k: W^ pk w &"b v "flaw .p^n 

The gentleman presented njn BpWW B«n Ttj;n -ijrr 

the seamstress with a fine pnjD^T \ys»S p« p¥&njft 

th DDjnBDDpD ntawa n$; ps ^imjnra 
silver thimble. 



§ a. 

What wood is it ? 

Is it oak or ash ? 
r« aw pn$ m m 
There is an oak table 

in the room. 
pK vn arm 



? SKI EPK f S^n p« T§ D«1V 

-f^nps^ p& fK Djr- 



Time 2a*> ■>¥ 



69 



very well, but afterwards "]Wjn ij/^ ^ W J» na* 

lie got ill. t p^y nnqxqn nj; ttPW 

-vi taw bbw 



Metals and Timber (/iJfciMD n# D^d) p^n "Hi* p6*BpD 



§ 1. 
Silver is a precious metal, 

but gold is finer and dearer 

toga -6^ pn ijwij n:y njnm 
than silver. 

This wdtch-chain is made 

of silver, and that is 
*\# njni^D *w taym pk 
made of fine gold. 

nnpo ^ ps ibxs 
One thing is made of iron, 

|nw J^nta pk tjjnd ^ j$n"g 
and another of lead or 

copper, or steel and tin. 



^8&p& p§ pa bpk -ijd^t 



bpk w tjik ny^n $5 

jns mjjdjn epk j^k* m»& 
whs jns min:i« jww -\m 



68 



;pmnyf> nyvibuy 



weekly or 6very fortnight. 

The train arrives just at 

•»m \ny-\® own-iy BDgpn ay 
a quarter past one, and 
ny -ipKn^ip &dks $w "ay 
starts at half past two. 

ddikbd say £\nm bdks tw 
Spring is the finest season 

in the year. 

In summer we earn more 

than in winter, butthe worst 

time for us is autumn. 

Formerly I was not so poor, 

nor so unfortunate as now. 

^ m Bynpen$6J8 ty ^ 
The passage over the sea 
•»m Envoys nyYi$ '•m mo 
lasts ten days and is $ot 
dbdb 1 ? \y& onyn nay w &$* 
always agreeable. 

When I saw him he was 



why yiy nyi^T^ipy^ 
asap (psor;p^) m> nyi 

nm« wm ^sn dik ng tsnya 
ytaoa^S «n aw j^irnS nyi 



nnyo n*n pwy-nyfi t;dk? P* 

*rn ny^ pytwn fK wii 

ytsony 

.taonyn nyi d:i« ^5 w to^v 

Dig 

ja^y 1 wri i^p^^ih ^ ton 

(~yyti) w pyn^ tynngs dnh 

&pk *nia *y^ts py* Enyvi 

.ony:y^« lyeD^ 

|ynyty^ on^ vmn T« P™ 
tytyiw ny taw 



Time &*■>¥ 



67 



accustomed to dine at four 

iDyBDgpg j© pi &y viks 
o'clock, no earlier. 

Is to day a workday or a 

holiday ? 

It is half past two and the 

&\s r« epgn &dns pro nv w 

steamer will arrive just at 

nj?DrpBD ^>wik rpnny BDgwn say 
three o'clock. 
nnna p$6p'$ 

When he finished eating it 

{jan ti ntsws jmTK taw 

was five minutes past eight. 

At the same time the 

servant came. 

Only a fool can think that 

he will live for ever. 

Such a fool I never saw. 

mm ny bn*i& "$ njnijn nm 
Do you receive your sdlary 



nina ^b^kh pa ytD^n tw 
JSEnr^ p& 



own i2i« wm ^sn taw d^ 

dni &:n:i!;jD town nj; pn 
♦DDK ^«i jyawD «i^s jjmjtt 



d«i ,jypjjn jyp -nw pa ™ 



66 



# *p:nnsn oywbny 



I shall write to you this 

^8 bbyw ta^n -ita w cm 
day week, 
njn pn^w-w 
This day fortnight his 

wife will come. 

A fortnight hence I shall 
ny B"ttn$s myr\ "* bby® 
set off for America. 

mo c]6$ nnfl «pnyD« 

§ 3- 
Do you not know what 

o'clock it is ? 

I have not got a watch, 

so I do not know. 

On workdays I rise at six 
|k onynpn^w "g pn tay Dp"»D 

o'clock and on holidays at 
pttbp'® *w ]$ myrbm tap 

eight or nine o'clock, 
my nK p P$V$ 
It is two o'clock and I am 

aw vh nm pt$bp f n ity »# W 






mi Di-ipn |ysp k^hy p « 

,|yDDKp KmS Jtt"T 

tyn onyn pnp *ow pK 



p^jni ,a^ tw bd^yi 



nro*ojW8& y^p y%m y& 

*p« yx nym \yzmy;3m) jk 

DpJTT DIN 

-p« nm nrriN n^iw tat^K oy 

n 



Time &•>>¥ 



65 



his br6ther went for a short 

dvi lyn^s ^yw Iks ny en#p 
time to England or to 
D"& jib n^^j^ nx -id 
his ndtive land. 

I am not used to write 

"8 D^ fc^O -n.v !)& £3^ 

at night. I do not like 

*W B"J "8 .11 &$j p^ 
to sleep by day. 
Jid fin^o ^ nyn 
We often earn less than ten 
wik jysn* py DDy^> jym jy& 
shillings a week and seldom 
d^^ ny prrwia *ny o$r6yo 
more than two shillings 

a day. 

ny nyn 

I do not remember in what 

"8n en:j ny^Dyon pa &$)** 

year I came to London but 

inr "8 Dnyp sib j*n^ ^ 

I shall leave in a week's 

"8 W>jw wrt> p« nyD'pnwiK 
time, and in any case no 

D"& i;y pa vjy Dnp p ^ 

later than in ten days 
*V®nyh jym jpk pya onyn 



ts jjnrmsw wk nyim pn 
ymp p^ 

.1^8^ DBTQy:i Dy^j 
-*na> w tMn$my:i m\j ps ^k 

^ M\3 38H "pa ,MW K"3 

njwjjm to£$ jy^ymys tii 
\Vtobw im -]p px dj^w 

J8B p« 



pfttyn p« aw ypjyiyj -pa 

183 l^^D^py^ p* T-K TW 

mt pK jyinjjfi jjyn ^ -p K 

wo ^85 fyiy> pK tun ,&*y 

W8& jnyy pa am nyayap 
.onyn 



64 



• -p^ny^ cyan^y 



§ 2. 

1 cannot run so rapidly as 

"KB^ttyp t^ ^ D ^"Payi ?y 

you. My friend intends 

nip ^d n^yis Dnaytuw 
to return home soon. 

sib pj;^n mm jrflD 

Write me a letter as 
Epn •»& ny nytata^ ?y 
soon as possible. 

pID ?y ^DDKS 

A steamerhas just arrived 

nj; nyDiTBD ;yn bdnph wmy 
from Europe, 

The man whom you wish 
vn jyD on-in w pwk 
to see, has gone away. 
jib jtd ?yn }n$M njM«« 
I knew him for a long time, 

but I never heard he was 

m% "$ nyiip -nyn 71 mw 
married and had children. 

Tviya n^y nyn fyi^w 

The merchant remained for 

7n ^Kt^nyD *unyDn iks 
a long time at Paris and 

ny ^^ o^a By onye n^y 



-yj k? jys^ bm }Kp -pa* 

.yrin *]*w pnypivDix -6jo 

k? «]yn^ ]•»•»« td wn&y 

»7^yD wn ^y^ 

.fy^K^y^ jyn bpk jynyt if 

yttxb ywx on\s yjjyp *pK 

iy^K ^"y 

,Enyny:i ohmv^ V%m yn 
nys "ikti ny o*n 

fy^y^nys tDT*»x fKDfinp nyi 
y tn«fi }*»« a^y y^K^ y^w 



Time ej^V 



63 



arrived with mdny Jews JJW yby^ M J^bKpy^N 

from Russia and Poland. ♦jJ^NS "UIK l^^DDn D'W 

DN12 gwgn izy vybntiz 

I would write a letter, pa jwntyjtt a^n y$ 

"8 twk a^n ny lymyb ejjna 

but I have no time. ,&*¥ jw>p j^an -pK njna 

The day before yesterday, (ppBDjtt-iaS) lyMj^j^K 
mi njn invito njrnyaDjp 

I met our neighbour. njmiN ajn^jn "pa jttan 

"8 tapo -via n^onjtt ns^w 

In two or three days I jmkb k«tj njna «^iiv r« 

pa ma ik nnna onjn "k anyn 

shall set off. ^ inK ^ ^ ™ ^ 
bbyw bind *|S$ 

He is in the habit of changing i)rt>Dpjm rc BJiiKTiitt aw ny 

his lodging every year. %w DjnjP mnw jwn 

dm ^ww njmy nnr 

I shall pay you monthly -tDK^D r^nNy T^« ^11 tk 
"8 bbyw nyz n-v ^na^D *j£ 

or weekly. /ptejjrajm im* 

My friend comes to me -^ w afiW p nrn g p D 
nearly every day. ^ _ ^^ 



62 



.■psini^ Dywbziy 



Last week we received 



pWK WW TTl.TDn 
a letter. It is the first 
ny -\yvMyb kpk pk vn taDiyfi 
happy day in my life. 

I shall return in an hour 
"x bbyw pt;^n f»« |y tik 

and ten minutes. 
Ity \y® DEG^^D 
In a minute we will go to 

table. Stay a second till 

I finish my work. 

To-day I shall return 

m~nyi "« bbyw> pyian 
home late in the evening. 

mm tonyb ]•»« %in ^iiitk 

To-morrow I intend to 

^D-nrn^D »# iyywx m 

rise very early in the 

morning, no later than 

jm^D" m rymyb \ym 
at five o'clock. 
By ri"fl p^p'¥ 
Yesterday a steamer 



"ljn BPK D^ ,C)pnD pit 

Y k jjtdd^p pnn* ynnj^n -pat 

\ybyv\ (ibm) ptswo jwn \m 

pjn th 

-yysrn pn BjN-n«vi *r>to it 

m p^o 

jwd \ywyyz by\) yx 

I^DDKp pntjf -pa tyn p^rr 
♦TJJDg pK BjtetP o^mt 

-iy epIK *pN Jtt^jn }Jtt-|gD 

d^i n^B Tim \yny\2& 

-ytoysw wo .d^mi^d 

♦iniK ^5 OIK D^« 

-c]S&*n pK bpk pjNaojn 



Linen, Clothes ♦ lyv^p ,\y^b 61 

place, and bring instead the Djnattt^ Bttna im fts«f?s 

umbrella or the parasol. ♦DTEttjtt^T *ijn8 DTEOjttjn 

Why are you dressed in pa pnay^K -),tk ta^t onKtt 
«#in tin n-v nojm px 

so dirty an apron? ♦"paigS pmaiBP pN K? 

It is time to change the nh |yt£»1£2l¥DlN EW BPX Dj? 

pillow-case. .Qy^^p $S) ^jm 

n$6^s-Dnj;p 



J»W*DNp DJJlDDpyt 
Time (D"fc) £"y k*| 



§ I. 



My father came here WB&Npjtt m* iya«S po 

»d W«6 onyp to nynnrn 

a y ear a g°' AW M TKfi 

I have lived in this lodging mn^Vi jn?H T« S^n T* 

nearly a month. ^pjtt B^ND P** njM*© 



oo 



• "psnnj^ oywbuty 



Why do you not put on 

your new suit? 
nn-v ?w b-vd 
The table-cloth and the 

napkin are dirty too. 

My wife recently bought a 

gown and it is already old. 

pu tij; ^k pk np^nx n^K 
Take off your overcoat, 
pnya ^ w Bn$pijrn$ 
and sit down. 

"tip s^d pn 

The tall man was dressed 

th ^n$& p^ ?k.ik nojm 
in a new hat, and the short 
-p« ny nw Bpn -up vn &n$p 
one had on an old cap. 
■\m nyn }^ p n^K syp 

I like to dress plainly, 

•"8 P^ 21123 DDjm ^H^S 

though not poorly, but you 
always dress richly. 

Put niy stick in Its usual 

JttS "& p^fcD pK D^H bmw 



}« m\j nnw tanjrw Drum 
?^iy^K p^i -ijpk 



kh nnx Tirana d*o 
jpn?^ -pa pjjn yparmyD 
-^ ^*6 d^ &*tn ^11 |^d 

.tt^N p^ BPK Dy UIK T^p 

Bjn"f?pjtt 

nyi nji« am or^ pw px 

.py^D ytaf?8 jwk p« 

w *i»5j"n *p& jny^ ^k 
,jirp^p 

**pn i^dd^k *pK ajm^P 

*pa jppjrap p^ jpn D^yiatr 
jpa^npYiW pn 



LiNEN, Clothes ijn^p yptpjni 



59 



on goloshes. It rains and ^$n dj; Aymbxp kh m 
you are badly clothed. WT ^ pw My ^ Tn nrm 

The rain is over, I shall ^"lynj^iK torn tjttjn njn 
take a parasol, for the sun ^Ttwyttw pa W&nw 

.pnwap -lnyr am; 



is very strong. 



§ 3- 
of 

1* 



How many pairs 

■on ^d Dinyfi 
stockings have you ? 
D^pK^D iryn n-v 
I wear new thick boots and 
^ktijmk n-v-3 p™ dedho -ny 
woollen stockings. 

Your waistcoat is not so 

old as mine. Can you not 

ibx ry pa pp n-v &$> 
lend me a white collar? 
ityb ^ r\y b^nw i^ap 
All my shirts and collars 
bru$ »!2 smyw vsy c-iybxp 
are at the washerwoman's. 
Tig W ^m t^ym^ym^ 



M*$n jyp^t inks tyig *oir 



bywm ypn jw j^ana -p** 

at a:^ tavx paDjm yyy»& 
irrtf ajpp w*b wn a^t 
{$?DD"n px \yn»b a\3 Ta 

|W*np ^ 

.wnsawi ijn w>s m 



58 



.Tirnnp*? oyvbuv 



bring the linen to-morrow. 

Your apron is dirty, it is 
nn-v i^nsny n« ■'ta-ijn s^k pk 
time to give it to the 

D"B Jita m kpk sua *»rn 

washerwoman. 

}P£M*OP^KW 

The sheet is quite clean. 

Have you not seen my 

handkerchief ? 
spptPEnppjyn 

Your handkerchief is in 
w ^^tanyp^n pk j*»« 
your pocket 

Beg the servant to lay the 

necktie 011 its ordinary place 

in the chest of drawers. 

Do not take off your over- 

coat, for it is cold here. 
mnp ^m wh pk -6$p nrrn 
Take an umbrella and put 
pnm ]V 8^>jnj»D8 nay m 



jpyBiDP bpk -ptaigfi njrK 

PK Dp 



,pn p*o pk -pW? npn 






-lypjniK -ijwh dpi ajnafc'* 

dkt fpr^ 

■onpyutt Djwn epa -pai^n 

,j;ikd^p «h p« 
npn^np^^K Dpi d^ik tars Bina 

-jjpn af?Np bpk Dp b^n 

-win onnwjttjn pK ^dp^ 



Linen, Clothes ijn^p ,ytPjm 57 

Do you like these stockings. ? ]VpW JNjn yw \vhbySy* 
n n-v p"^ Drpm dj^p^bd 
How finely they are knitted! IBpnatPjtt j$wt wn p§ ^n 

I never saw such work. ]yr\y*y$ D^r^ Jttan "pK 

I like them much better -\yoyz bpt td \ybysyz wt 

*$ p»b opm pb^d nyataw 

than the bonnet. ,Din (|yD8l) "in *ni 

§ 2. 

He is very rich, but he -y -^ /Tn nnjn ^ ny 

vi pk njni pan nasi ^n 

is poorly dressed. jayT^PW T^iy tara 

pa ••rims nop-H 

I wish to buy .. petticoat ? -^^ w p M w fi v,p ^ TH 
"8 pwn -la "83 ny tan^BBps ^ 

Have you one? M T ? , y: p* W KMKn 

I sell a dozen of shirts - WD ^ nHTO ^ T H 
and nve chemises. 

He sold all the linen which v ^ m m mwS Ban V 

he had bought. tE)fi1ipw ttKn ^ ^^ 

^n lyn amp 

The washerwoman will ttjni wnSW) KH 



5& . 1 1 a -i n p <? oywbHy 

It was a long time ago. B"2f ymb p« Jjnijn bpk oy 

Button your coat, if not, jjm ,pan ij^k iy afifivjp 

you will catch cold. ^ (Tpij; ? , K 

n-v ^tn-ik PBpp n^p ' ' ' 

All my clothes are new K"J w ijn^P jwd j^k 

excepting the cap. w&& kh -^ik 

^®&yopy vn app 

Put on your overcoat, and tlK tyfcJKD nj/^K |K BnjTY 
let us go. .jynjN D ^ 1K DK ^ 

In what shop did you buy Mgn MJ^jn QJ^jni },, K 

p* d($!)m idk^ -n w ««a ae^p W -, iT k 
your trousers ? ^ mn ^^ 

w D-iyrn^iCD T 

I like your white necktie, djjd^vi -ij^k t^bbyt^ **n 

where did you buy it, how ^pyj Dy nrPK MMn N „ 

much did you pay for it. ? ^ n ., , 



Have you seen my new yj „ D " _ y ., ^ MK 

b °°Il ? To " day * intend to tk s^»sn y B «n .bV)VW 

put on the old shoes. iJ?nw ^ ,ynjrcnwK 

ta-12 ;n im i^m orw ' 



55 



Clothes (DntD$6p) njrr^p Linen (\yvb) IWn 



§ i. 
I have asked the dealer the -1WH ojn a^ifiw ltt»n T»K 

price of the coat but he did ny ijng ,p$n D$n j$s mD 

D*»ns ^ m DHNp to*o \n in ^n 

not answer. .ejyaiNiia^sj;^ M^ 

I intend to buy a suit of JJWK ]V^p W jMjn T* 

clothes. 

onan^p 

My overcoat is quite old. t £^g pgj w& ^ya^D pD 
"d &ntfpT;v)N pa ta^p n^ 

If I had money I should ^jn jinan fc^tfn -pa jjm 
buy a new one. ^v> p K afi^ipw 

How much did you pay vbwm *m* &«n bpt «m 

•an ^dnej nn n-v nys 

for the waistcoat ? ^laoim «h t£) 

nxs \m an^pBDjttK 

I do not remember. ^ PpJjnjtt T** 



54 



.-panny^ oyv^hny 



I should prefer to drink 

^k • w lyfins sia p^nn 

something, coffee or tea, 

it is all the same to me. 
a^K m °?nx m onyo sia •»& 

In this boarding - house 

there is a good cook. 
*inj?m m np 1 m pip 

My wife can cook v6ry 
well 

After the first glass he got 

-lyasg s m aDiys DHK^ VI aN3 
drunk. He did not eat 

p3KTJ T! TH E5^ arm 

for some days. 

n#s dkd onjn 

I never eat meat or fish 

^k -ljmstt arm ama ")$ t^S 

at supper. 



jypana 

pyna -ima jwSSkp .DNviap 

.Mm dj^k to ins am oy 

*n am Tapana ojnjn pa 
/ftp nya^ }m 



pw jpd^p i»p ^ r° 

.aw 



am d*6jj jyaoiy ojn -^hj 

.pooy^w ^\3 wsa 

njn$ p^s D^Najro pop -pa 



Eating and Drinking JJJpjnfc 151« \V^Oy 53 

dining very late, two hours ffl£W nnjtt )&&&& \VOty 

jwn njm any*? iw or;m jjn^w wm 

after coming home. j;mn IV pJDDNp Djn l&tt 

I am in the habit of break- -nnS IV tMnpjtt JO "p« 
"n Dy ]\s th ^oyn ^ -pirn 

fasting very early, just y*b* ,nnfi nnjft j*;pw 

after rising. .jynjttD^w ojn i«i 

Have a couple of eggs or ijnN nrw ^£ P** B*W 

some thing else if you an }jni ,Djnjrtt8 DgYittjr 

dnd wn® cby w n-v ^n^in w 
are hungry. 

tin nmn 

When I am thirsty I drink ypFito ^ttDnn JO *ptf }jro 

pMK "N B^ ^DTHD "g p^m -pK 

nothing but cold water. .nyDD«Yi Dya^tp D^N Dfim 
^nia^ ens n^p Ty^rmw 

It is better than beer. 30 ob$ "ijjddjd Era D$f 
aw rs nytajM pm -imn 

Why do you refdse to eat J1W BM WK B^n Dn»n 
^wn n n-v tn-vfin jib arpN 

a piece of meat ? ^"^ pnpn^ p* 
ny cms *]$ b,td 

Thank you, I have just IWy y^«n t« ^,tk pp«i 

dined, and I am not hungry. P T» ™* lyDDiNjN ^B 



52 



• ■p:nnyf? Dyan^Jiay 



I am not a drunkard. 
"8 d$? m$ r\y -nNpjKTi 
He is already sober. 

Have the goodness to bring 

nyn th DDpnu .112 ana 
me some wine-glasses. 

^d mo paw-Dyon^ 
Here is a bottle of wine. 

nrpn t^ ny b&m ^ p«w 
I want three loaves of bread 
*8 DJJ8W n^m mmb ^k iy*D 
How much does a loaf of 

bread cost ? A loaf of brown 

1%*)% bd$p ny *]n$6 ^ jngm 
bread costs less than a loaf 

i$m DtoDKp oyb }ymny^pt$b 

of white bread. 

§■3. 



.nyp^n^ pp wo p t»» 

,pyD^^ \m tarn ny 

^m ma em k? i^t 

♦nyty^Yi yjwN td 

•pvi y^*6& y^K Era nyvr 

•Kprn ^y^ wm f^ri y» 

^^^ p« tSDKp ^ys am 

p-n ^y 1 ? p« — .^m 
p« d^k ny^yn MNp ^m 



fyp ^n^in &m d«ii nyi 



He that is hungry can 

■»n aym pk n^n pp 

eat anything. 

&rr»K 3rrt£2\3y 

We ordinarily dine at noon. $hw® yb%r\y))y% 
wk ^ny^m^ pi &y jrm 
They are in the habit of 



]^l~L,y 



TVT 



.[>«& wa] ini« e^ym* dix 
w Bjn$ny:i jy:y? wt 



Eating and Drinking jypjnfij tjik \yoy 51 

board ? We board at our jypsp t»yi /"pa nn^K Dra 

mr^o wk iinND toy -ijrw nyuia «^ 

neighbours. He always nj?D^ B^ ~\y [pp] n*ar*o 

gives good board for a -jtt }"« tS BDNp yau 
dvpji tu Tin$tt n$s r\y 

moderate price. With whom pflDjni tfv£ ^ns jifla^DDyo 

do you intend to board ? w &DNp niTK BJjDm 

*n n-v -uj;b:pk jib nnn^ .WDnjN 

He eats little but my ,^ .^^ hhk _ 

brother eats less, 

Tmtnn ran* dd^ ^^ ^ ^™ 

Do you not know that this -y^ DDN1 ^ m gj^ 

man is a glutton. .-lyDDjnfi pa &pk bwb 

Our friend drinks very nn j;r apana wfi npww 
nrw "wins op:m njni 

much, but the joiner drinks ny^D l$n njttK Vs 
still more. 

If you drink so much you wprifi ^fi kt &^TK ttm 

*\w n-v prm nd ^ekd rw ' 

will get drunk. •Wpjn&Jft my)) irw &jm 

^«w bin pwm M l 

I do not wish to get drunk, ,wp:,ri&jD jjnj^ ^ ^11 t* 



5o .•p:nnj^ oywbny 

We have no tea or coffee. pp "ttiK yyn^s pp pttNn -W 

W« viyn hk: jtd nK *>MKp .ypssgp 

We have some wine and htik pn dhiid^ \pMn Ti* 
^« nj/n dkd p#i« n^ 

beer. Which do you like ? ?tph &2wi DjttSjm .njra 
tto ptmiK n n-v p^ 

He sometimes drinks bm DjttJjjD EpjnB n^ 

brandy, but I only drink y& ypwz -pK lyzx ,\yt^z 

nsjrn to*p "« ^bm pjm 

water, beer, wine and tea. j^na 1^ pn 13/^ y njrDD«n 

The bread is without salt ybttl ^HK tarw ££pm dki 

and the meat is not quite &yi tsv$ tp^s dnh i^r 

fresh. Bring me some salt, r ^ Ht mm ^ Mn:3 tB , n& 

pepper and mustard. #ttfiVT ^ -lygpsa 
nyaays nap tij/ddkd 

§ 2. 

The roast meat is good, BPK tP^S py&K*Dy:i dkt 

but the soup is bad. ,Mpte ar»K sir «H -una 

Why do you eat the meat? ?^S D*n %TK bdj; Dnw 

In which house do you -Dypjtt T^n Dy^jni m 



Eating and Drinking 

and butter. Do not drink 

TjV nyBBM *n ts$o pam 

the milk, it is sour. 

Ml p^D t^K pn 1JWD 
How much does a pint of 

fresh milk cost. 

#ms p^D tSD^p 

I have just eaten some 
^8 nyn BDNtpn |yrsrpK dnd 
eggs, and I am not at all 

DJiy isy «g dj; tag: ay ^hn 

hungry, I am thirsty. Give 
nagn "k ay ^Diyna ym 
me something to drink, 

if you please. 

^k n.y» Drr6s 

Is your coffee sweet ? if not, 

add some sugar to your cup 

my dnd nyw na nn-v fi^p' 
It is sweet enough 

After meat and potatoes it 
■npaSK e.td *oy D$tDnyB$s &■»« 
is well to drink. Have you 

rw^lMnta pirn nyn n«v 
any tea or coffee ? 



jppjna i^k jyDy 49 



-«k |yoDy^yji jysy ysNn t»k 
jypjna my DNii^y -ra 



pa nppw D*msy w ^y^ 
.on jujn tarn* oy 

mkpi .jypnft w taw oy bpk 
♦yyss«p -iin$ yyna dbyibp 



4 8 



^nin yb-oyvbuy 



We shall cut nothing, but -IK \pTVW DM\i \ybyn -ptt 

wk ^>j;p mp j^nmj Esq nyo 

bread and meat. ,&*^£D *D1K T*m 
ny-a nay eivd 

We never eat stale bread, -Dy^K D^Dyu ]V*W ^ 

wk -lynyj b.tk bnym ny-a ^m 

Put the key into the lock. }•»« by&bw oyi pig apjriSDt? 

ma *m rr>p jib^k vn p$6 ^\$b^ oyi 



Eating and Drinking (^p^Tl *\ty J^ttiTK) JUpmB -MK fyDy 



§ I. 

I am hungry, let us go 

"8 Dy nugn tsyS ?k n^ 

into an eating house. 

^m \y mwx o^in 

We have long dined. We 

wk nyn mb wi wk 

are already hungry. Give 

us some bread and cheese, 

m dkd njns nsy Trrwta 
What do you like, cheese 
ta«t-iK n n-v p^ ?rw& 
or butter? I like both cheese 
"Hj ny&D*p "K p"^ ma^s trwes 



fnj^ djik d*6 Jin^in p yn 

.taagTiBDyn p« pK 

jm^d y^ jp> |y^«n tii 

jyp -nia Tm DKniay mik 

typ atn My^ dkh 
yro sy^ T»« ny&ssn -lyn^ 



Furniture hysyn 47 

needles nor thread. .DjHgS ]"p i:ik ftyiM 

Can you lend me your JWK ]vn»h td -i?tn a#p 
jyp n-v ^ ^ w 

scissors for a short time ? .B"¥ pmp jwk *p« jnpjw 

Dn$r»D n^s ny £n$p d^bj 

My own are very dull. tjjn n^n jttjww jtt"B 

»d |n« tw njro tttn .epo^ 

What is the price of jn£ pns ijn bpk c«n 

ordinary scissors ? ? jnjtyP jngfi^K j/r*N 

I bought a dozen of chairs. W^ P« MV| PW J*» n T« 

Take a chair and sit down. m W ™* ^TifctP pa EEnjN 

pn^D ny -inypta nay wo pn ♦i"** 

Thanks, I prefer to stand, w "i$S ynjw T** /^*n 

Dpaynta "k nysna jib njjrciD .]jrnyat^ 

You can go to dinner, the sm ,w& n> piM fty;p -utk 

n-v pp n^ jib -ljttJH th 

cloth is laid. .tMj^j;:i ]K£> bpx "ptat^fc 

The towel is clean, but ipsa ^n top« "pta-tfKn Dgn 

the napkin is dirty. .MftaiBP tara ppByrnyD «n 
\m ppfijr^ pk win 

I wish to sharpen the knife. ."«We c»n jpSniw ^11 -p* 

It is too dull. It is no use. ftPattTWD? .e]S»ttaeny eraoy 



4 6 .-p:nnj^ owbny 

Put the kitchen-knife in nyoDyBtf^p d»t pjm mb . 

its place. 

cb^n ony^s 

I do not know whether it oy sm bm D"ii -p« 

*8 n b$o ^ nymjfiK BW 

is sharp or dull ,^DW njn$ «p«* bpk 

Lend me a comb I lost V^^mp^^m-h 
i^ ^d ny armp *« bd^6 |yn*6nys 
my comb yesterday. .plTCDJN D»p p& 

"o Dn»p njmyBDr 

This needle is good, and ™« ^ *™ ^W Wi 
D\-n ^nrr* vh im *ny 

that is a bad one. .*Mjto* P^ BPN W 

Bym r« ny nys j^k 

The table is still without WW* W bpk fc^B nyi 
vn ^yB pn ^bd b^hbwk j;^nN 
a cloth. Lay the cloth, ^ib^b om myb /"pBt^B 
ny nra^p ny 1 ? ••m nB*6p 

I wish to dine. .jycoy ^kbb^d ^n T« 

*>k p'wk -IB pn 

It is time to change the jy^Bimy^ B"¥ Bra oy 
b*»« p« d^b -IB ^mnyt^B th ^ 
napkins. .DypBymyo 

orpsya 
I wish to darn my stockings jyp*T V^ jyBsymyfi ™ yx 

"$ EWMK -IB pan "B D^pgBD 

but I have no knitting- -pnBt* V^p V**T\ T« "B^ 
b*o "h riyn n*o -o^bb** 



Furniture *?jnyD 45 

one can scarcely see it. .pm?? mp an^ }«p |«& 

ftWK |yp ^DT^pD ,TD t^N 

How much did you pay ttfriBYjD tm tsagn byfrn 
•nn pbnb th n^ nys 
for the chest. ?[T;*£Np] ]ytaDKp Djn t? 

"INS W EDJrtPB 

In the corner stands a chest JWK BnjratP typ^i ]*k 
p« ■•m -)jnn$p Diaysao ny Boy^a # jn$&$p 
of drawers. 
f]K D-iyn$m 

The axe is dull and is "NIK cjfiDiia^ saw p«n «H 
\m Dp*; rw ^tn nay pa &pk 
not of use. ^taia diy mm 

fn^ver saw such a box. «?t?W^WW n ^ 
"« nynya n$D pbkd ny Dp^i npfiS^p pa 
Where did you get it ? ?JlflBlpltt O.TK -).TK M»n p 

nnyw th n-v &y:i &•»« 
I should like to buy such 

"8 W p"^ -IB "83 t^£28D .ptt^T p« JpS^p yMJJD 78 
a one. 

§3. 

Put these forks into the p* frtt8J 1WH pjm ta^ 

e-is onvn Dpn^S siid^« ^m kh 
cupboard, and on the table t^ta Dyi epK TrtN ^yi^8 

myM8p nay jn %-n ^yta 
in the eating-room. ♦nyDD'WDy Dyi pK 

]•»« ••m :uwk onn 



44 



dish or a clean plate, 

ph n$ ny p^p tanj^s 
He brought a candle-stick, 
\n tan^m ny ^nyp p^d 
bnt he had no candle nor 
m% ti iyn n^ ^yp ^ 
matches. It was dark. 
oymv® ta^ t$iK pnsi 
Put the candle-stick on its 

place the candle is alight 
mybz ^m ^wp ^ ta^^j; 
Lend me, for a few days, 

ityb , •»& iKs np n-vs onyi 
a lamp and a candle-stick. 
ny My? TjV nv bisvp-p^® 
1 must buy some pots 

v»K IS3D8D "*0 DgD DtaNS 

and a can. 

nay ny |yp 

Shut the door and open 

Bgp th nnKi nay jys$ 

the window. 

The floor is dirty, why do 
■»nn nn$6s r« •'tanyn "k-ik n 

you not wash it ? 

nv ta^o bwik taw 
The ceiling is very high, 
w mbwo pk nyn »n 



.-panny*? ®y®^bn% 

.ny^yta oy^n 8 nyn« tyo^ 

.nyta^ 8 M*my^ ta^n iy 



M^f? pp ytaiaKn ny nyag 

p^p nm 

.nytaojpfi ngn oy .ny^yma^ 

*p« nyM"^ Dyn pyn ta^ytat? 

sysa yawa *p« td dh^^ 
♦nyM^pa naia yeis^ yj"K 

yssyD y:n:pK jySip did -pa 
.mnp pa^K naw 

ay^sy naiK n*»nta «h w mn& 
•nytaoays D«n 



^•widw tar« pn^aDis nyn 

?ra^ DiT»« niTN tatw> 

/■pn nny? pk psa^o nn 



Furniture byzyfc 



43 



Please give me a clean 

on^fi m n ny jn^p 
sheet. The sheet you gave 

fcrpp vn tow® n-v Yinjtt 
me yesterday is already 

dirty. Give me another. 

We must buy some pillows. 

§ 2. 

Put the glass into the 
cupboard. 

Do you want a glass or a 

•n n-v ta^x ny on*6:i -i$ np 
cup? Well here is one. 

£»p V?yw nn\n pk jnw 
The sugar-basin is on the 

table. Bring some knives 

from the kitchen. 

0815 \*n fy^p 

Clean the spoons and the 

p^p vn D^nifiD tiy -»m 
forks. Give me a clean 
cpn$s ym •>& ny jn^p 



♦DiyTw pa t»d taw j^aiD^ 
jnwk jps^p jyoo^D -ni 



pa tk^a D^n piN &W>y&tp 



njna t«^ pa wk a^x^yfi 

Dyi epa ar« y?*mypiv an 

nyoDyB yw« Bjuns .wa 
.y^p nyn $s 

kh n^ix Sysy^ nh awn 



42 .Tianny^ oywbMy 

I want to buy a writing- ~^n^ pa jy^lp ^11 7N 
"« bj#ik jib "sa nj; 3wn 

table. What is the price ma nyn &w dkvi ,^ir 
^y& tasw pk *»m D^ne 

of twelve chairs ? ?\ybr\)m ^yiiv $& 

*$ v^y-ita Dnnytw 

Ask the dealer in furniture. ^ybim-byzy® Dyn Bi«iS 
pDK \*n ny^m pa nye^-iys 

It is necessary to buy a p« jyfi^lp W ^niaj;: tor« Dy 
aw rw nyoyoyj ji& "Kn ny 

bench, and to change the \vm* w D1K W ,paa 
t^ya i^y aito t^n^^a \-n kh 
furniture in the kitchen, yD^p k^i pa f?y^yD 

and in the bed-room. .nyDfi^SB^ Dyn p« Tn« 

-ny ]•»« *rn iy% onn 

If I had money enough I ,*6y:i jmy:i jrtatayn "pK jyn 

would have bought a bed- &jtt p« ^ipy^ yn vh$tt 
nwa nyn an^o ny iy^ 

stead and bedding. .^VBjtt n:iK 

nys^D *ny otiw 

Do you know who sells ts^p^ys &y nyn ,tpk &D"Yi 

blankets. 

D&ypjy^ 

Our neighbour sold me TD yafinpnyS pp nyuw 
■via n^nyi *6$d *& 

a counterpane. .ym^p [yasyiapy:!] pit 

ny |ysnyi&sn£p 



Workmen lyai^lX 4.1 

1 wish to enter service. jwk *\m \yb$pw by)) yx 

I shall enter service ybyw p« r\m ]N j;DD^p -pa 

to-morrow. Pray, sir, take ^ryn p& d ym^ .\y^m 

me into your service. ♦fcD^H nj^N p« -p£ 

To-morrow I shall enter j^ p« -pa y^yntD jitt^D 
the factory. 



Furniture (njWB\nyS) ^^D Utensils (D^DJyasp) fi^bi 

§ 1. 

This lodging is well fur- -Zyft fctt r« ^unNn jNjrn 

nished, but our lodging mnp jnjnnN njr^N ,tt"v^ 

is badly furnished. .BT^OJJD Ms;^ ttPK 

Go to the joiners and 1M 7$bwtz Djn iv Enjn 

n^u -its \m Dijw^n izy 

order a table. 4^113 p& sa^ft^jn 



40 ^mn^ Dp^^y 

too little to support his JW? p» Ti DJiSfc D1K :Mjm ir 

ma ^ jib tai^sMD dm # jr>^&85 

family. 

Everybody must do some- dkti pnco cpai unyn n>HF" 

n^Qniniy tabND n dkd pk Dy 

thing to get a living for t»s nDJ"iS cpN jJWH"^ iv 
umb !|B bjm np iiw? n$s 

himself and for his family. jr^BKS IN»i tS n:i« -pr 
^ddm n:j; i$S dm ^dj;s 

I hope to get a place as p« ]j;D»#pin i? y§S#n "p# 

»k fin^n ^ ?^jn ny onybz tj; d^k jMpiap 
a machinist, .bd^kmd px 

ny bdwpsd 

If I had money, 1 should ^p ^jn ymyn -pa pn 

tpa "x nyn \sxd "X *w -p^ 

buy an alarm clock. nmx-pjrn yj«x m^pyx 

^ p Dnxty ppp 

It is a useful thing. rjx? yybm^ jtt"X bpx dxi. 
epx px njr Sist-v ^md 

My neighbour is a clock- px bpx [pp] nxnaxj p» 

^d ixnnp px ny -p$6p -nmx 

maker. I wish to sell the pl^ipiyiD ^11 -px ."ij/sxf^ 

nypnya "x t^x-ix jib tyo mi Kn 

watch and to buy a clock. ^ K p^p ^ m pnmywm. 

vm* tiy i* »i» ny p*6p #WWJ11 
A clock is cheaper than 

r\y p$bp m -lys.wB ]ym i^f?^ bpx tiwubyi px- 

a watch but not so useful iy:sx nrrixJiWXB jwx d^r 
nj; ^x-ix m% &#: m ^?.v t^tem x? mm 



Workmen nyB^^IK 39 

what is your tradej). ? BfiJWJtt ^^ W C«ii 

At home I was a gldzier, PWW T* P *«* W 1* 

oy DH8n "« uj-ik nj; iynny^ /^PW^ \"& 

but here I do not know Wi a^ i* D»n *n njtts 

tt«n titi "K n a^ ^ •pnta re 

what to do. 

Ask the joiner whether he V *i« /^^ 0^ »r;-ifi 

pog vn i^\wn nyrnjnK m .M'o njn$ ^ypnjni tsgn 
has tools or not. 

I sew badly, that is true, A18H W D«T ,My^ n^ T« 

but I knit very well. W WW p^*® T« "?-« 

eki "« ^ njni ^jan 

Whatever trade you know, *K™ pnjnn^n pa tS ckh 

you will never be hungry Wftn p Df?«Dp^ n.TK tsjni 

in this city. 

Do what I advise you, and *]»* jmain T K D ^ 11 wnn 

•n csx2i« "n pvrw n-v nay ma 

you will not repent. .pn^n ntnn ]»p tayn -iitk 

He was a furrier and earned 'WrwnjNaiS * ]VWW ™ ^ 

\n ?«.i« nj; -imps ny i:ny EttynnpS t^Kn nriK (-ijwvp) 



•n^ V1K nnjra tt&W what trade are you njn$ (J 



3§ 



• Ti:nnj^ oyw^hny 



The tinman is in the work- 

vn fpD^to W pK vn -pl^H 
shop. 

The old man is a merchant 
vn *6k }jtd pk nj? tuKPKnyD 
The young man whom you 

vn ^ jyfi dpi-ik n.v 
saw yesterday, is a dealer 

in old clothes* 

pK n^K ontD^p 

Do not be lazy and you 
will be happy. 

This boy is a compositor, 

dvjb ^ pk n^ nKt2n^£DKp 

and his father is a capmaker. 
tip D^n "lyrnss pn nj; -lppnpDspp 
The master has now two 

journeymen, besides 

jp&npri^n own 

five apprentices. 

§ 3. 

Tell me, my dear friend, 

bbyto ■»» "is inn wis 



-pijm «h pK m ipj^ njnr 

ippk pn^ii \m ijttw "ijn 

» bpn ]j?np?p py&Djtt Bgrr 

njn^p y&b® pa 

tDjrii iitx 1^ fy)S m a^r 

rp^p^ pn 

-aantp pw am fyir* djwh 
-ain i^k am i^ks pn n^N 
wviv tara mn nytao^D njn 



njW 1 ? p^D ,*y& *w jj/jui 



Workmen i j; ft ^ ^ 2 ") 8 



37 



*dle, he would earn more 

than ten shillings a week. 

]ym pya d^^p r\y pnwx 

Some days ago I met the 

dsd onjn n^8 "8 bj?» "th 

poor woman who came with 

us by the same steamer. 

My father is a baker, but 
"B nyrnnss r« n? "ippnjn &8a 
he thinks of taking a 
\n .Dp^nta *]8 mpytz ny 
boarding house 

Do you not remember what 

he did then. 

I forgot what he did in 

^8 fc^n^S B8W Tl TH pK 

his own country. 

on pN nttn^P 

If I do not forget I shall go 

^k "8 n ts$o Ey:n$S "8 ^>iw n$o 
to the joiners to buy a 
•id \-n onyr^^n jib "8^ np 
new table. 



r\#v\ «h JJ^fw pyv mi 
7« j^sn j^8ta ]j/w>« "i8s 

")J?pJD p« 22PK lytS^S pD 
*IJtt8 

pa jpDnjwwK tujnjn ny 



-iy D811 £\3 in^ Bpajnitt 

|"»N }8nt:^ t28H 

-Dyr.ys tsa^ jnnjni -pa pyn 

pyj t>* vvvw p d 

jjr*: p« jy^ip ny^a dw 
t t^ta 



36 



^-psnny 1 ? oyw^bny 



A good and h6nest work- 
ing *m nay ®ov*# p^kw 
man can everywhere get a 
jya |^p nysianyviy w% ny 
living easily. 

It is better to be a poor 
&•»« pk nyBaya jib •a ny -ime 
artisan than a rich pedlar. 

jp^ng jym ny pan ny^nye 
His wife keeps a boarding- 

dvi e]«#iK osrpp ny ^HinKn 
house. 

.D'nn 
Her husband is a 

nyn i^y^t^n pk ny 

bookbinder. 

§ 2. 
If I could sew I should 

be hdppy. 
•a ••asyn 
If he came here he would 

be hippy. 

^ issyn 

If the tdilor were not too 



ny^^^^yiiK uik nyM pt 

."lya^mK 

jyiymyS ^n^ ^Kny^K ]Kp 

.none epa 



p« pn iv r;ocy2 bpk oy 
nyD-iK 

nyD^n pw d^k ,t;d^^ik 
.nyrpin 



nywM'D p« bpk |nd nrpK 



jy»^ £U8py:i b^yi -pa jyn 
/■p^p^ jytyiiyj t^ t^p 



jyDB$py:nyn t^p ny |yn 

^^p,^ p;?yiiy^ ny 

em ta^ii nyTW nyn jyn 
vsr |yny^ 



Workmen ~i 

and my son is a joiner. 

iw "d jkd p« np iji^n 
He lives with me. 

Did you see the flower- 

th n-v rro vn -t£s 
maker who came a year ago 

-jypnpD sin snyp ny nnjr n^8 
from Vilna ? 

I wish to buy a pair of 

gloves but I do not know 

where a glove shop is. 

I wish to learn the business 

"« b>wn sita py^ th Djwa 

of a copper-smith, and my 

e]# ny -wsfi^p-nr^DD ^y "d 
brother prefers the business 

of a locksmith. 

*]K np n^DDp^6 

Are you a blacksmith or a 

tin n-v nj; nwrnpybz i# ny 
tinman ? I am neither a 

p^ra •*« sy -wnw ny 

blacksmith nor a tinman 

r\w&opyb$ °)p r\y \ynm 



pa^ms 35 

•n*6$BD pa pk |nxt pa nii« 

pDDKpjn arx dxii pjngr 
♦so^i j$S "lnw p« ins 

n^XID p« jyS-lp J?MJflD T'K 

•tar« BSptpjn rwijgn pa km 

own |^njr^ y^yn yx 

tm ny^-^y^ip pa $s 

pD 

*t v *dd^ p« jgs pijm 

p« njn# tdp p« tw £"? 
tde> p^p p tk ?i$oj;^5 



34 



• -pannj^ syw^ny 



is a seamstress. We think 
pk ny DDyn^DD^D wia pm& 

to work together. 

Dress-makers earn very 

DDjrn Diypn^D py njm 
much here. 

At home he was a shoe- 

®y nmn ^n t«ji« ny ~rw 

maker. I saw the boot- 

nypnyD "« hkd \-n -mo 

maker who came from 

*iypnj;D -in anj/p D*ns 
Russia together with us. 

Recommend me a good 

n^j/DDKpn ^d ny tm 

watchmaker, 

^ypnymm^ 

Our neighbour's wife is a 

njnK Dnn^onp eprciK w ny 

seamstress. 

DDjnBDDyo 
Do you know where a 

joiner lives ? 

My daughter is a milliner 
*& nyBn^n r>*$ ny -ijw^d 






-injn jjwnyfi DypBDH$D arm 



jjnyviltt ry *dpk D^n nyn pK 
Dyn |yny?y:i agn 7*$ ,^dkd 
jy^py:? r« ny^yii ^y&om 

pK T'D Kn jyi^yDDKpyi 

ny^mniK ]ym 

^11 (D'n«^«i) D ; p^ nyniK 






To have JJJSNn To be p*>t 33 

I shall have four glasses /"ilW^i nyS pttgn by)) y» 

and five cups. 

i:y vps DfiKp 

He will have a good lodging. ,nm yBM K jjttgn apri ny 
To-morrow we shall have N Jiftgn "PA ]j^jni piND 

a letter. 

ny nyt^ 

You will get at this place Jttjn *pN JJttgn fcyn niT»« 

eight shillings. 

He will have nine shillings N ^^ p jyagn ttlttl ij; 
m f&wK vipn pa d^^^ ^p 

a week. 

ny prmw 

I hope to have a good Dyfctt pa jysgn w ps$n T K 

"k en^n JifiD Yipn r\y *M .BSjwjtt 

business. 

DJWO 

He thinks to be home 6arly. P« nnfi pt w ^Jttjn iy 

Workmen f}jflDp-)$K-) iptD^niX 

T § 1. 

I am a tailor and my wife UtN yipT'OP pa ps -pK 
•"w dj; ny n$6np& *uy ^d -ep#iK ^n p^ 



32 ♦'■pJnnj^DyBn^jy 

They had two knives and ^ mn ^^ P*»* *"* 

^/m vn rua dyw *nj/ tiik dij;d 
three forks. *]bv%p K»T? 

I wish to hire a lodging, for ^ W*i 8 IWH ^1 T K 

the lodging I have now is m ®^ l^Kn T K D ^ nin K^l 

*>m Jiwn^ "*$ npn n^ pk ana 

too small for my family. .r^D«5 jWD Tg f ^p iv 

§ 3 
I shall be for some days pK ^jrta jnj^tap p? ^jm ^H 
»k W>jw ^ np dkd on$n ^b dotk) =pri 
in the country. 

pK vn nrwn^p 

He will be sorry to hear pyn i¥Mjrn&sn p? cayn iy 

such news, 

®mo onn 

We shall be glad to have jjttNH i¥ jyng 7? jfyn tvj 

some work. 

DKD plttW 

You will be certainly at P& feSra P D ^W W TPK 
my daughter's. 

They will be at home early. "^ P K nnS P P^ «"* 



To have |y^KH To be ]"1 31 

§ 2. 
I was yesterday at the shop. -Jtt (pytSDjn) jpMjtt y* -pK 

We were happy like our ybp^b) ^H jjttjmjtt }JW? T»n 
wik ima ^fifiyn p^ tw n ^ nS ^ 1K ^11 

friends. 

They were then in a bad ptf |Jttjmjtt D^kdni Jjttjtt *on 

tym w jym pa nynjD jttt£ yMjrtw » 
condition. 

lytsrn^p 

My condition is very bad, 
but the condition of my 



brother is still worse. 
I always had some trade. 

He seldom had anything 

\n n^byo iyr\ wnww 

to do. 

We had only bread and 
•wk r;n *b*$ r>m iw 

water, but you had cheese, 

-\ymw 22*0 n-v iyn jjtot 

butter, milk and cream. 

•ytzm* p^fc 1:5; orrnp 



."Winy 1^ pn njnm 
a^nw ^d y^« inn yx 



-IN &8n lira njng ,nyDD8H 



30 



• Ti :n n y^> oyw^bny 



1 have many friends, 1 ) and few yau ybyt jn&n -pa 
"8 npn ^/d D-ujns -ay ^s yij"S ^yriTna y-wns 
enemies. 

oynysy 

He has nothing but his hands, 

*»n ryn ^sro^ m% Q^n D-pyn 
She has to feed a great family, 

^ ?yn ib irpfi r\y Bny-u ^DyS 
We have many kinsmen and 
wk iiyn ^yD jyDD^p ijy 

kinswomen. 

Your Sister has many friends. 

-\nv -lya^D ?yn ^yD D-uyiS 

You have a good lodging, and 

rw iiyn ny to :wpn$6 *uy 



pn ^ ^k? j*p dkh iy 
ywna y Vs jyagn Tn 



n^nfi ym ^ys 

they have a bad lodging, but fa ]vm N nyaM nnn 
nprn nyn ny nyn jjwnp? a*o ^ 
a good host 2 ) landlord. 
r\y iu tao^n i^nay^ 

We have long looked for a 
wik nyn ^ ip^> n^s ny 

lodging, 

but we cannot find one, 

x ) There is a distinction between n^nS and "WHS nyw 
the former means "a blood relation' 5 the latter "an ord- 
inary friend*" This distinction is confined to Lithuania,. 

.yBTTOn by* /DytSDKn) hostess ,(DjnBD'D) mistress nyiK ( 2 






a*: tyayp 



.)yj*»Sy:j. 



29 



To be 03 .ia) pt To have (npn -IB) |jnnn 

§ I. 

I am a worker but you are 1JD8 ,n3Kte ^jn K p 7« 

"8 dj; nj; ij;pi^i« tags rvp nng .ipfnapn k d"? -inw 

a merchant. 

nj? bjjwb-ij/d 

He is poor, and she is very mjn pk an law Djn$ pk T 

vi pk insifi nay ^ pk njni t ^ n 

rich. 

We are well but you are ~rm njttN ™W pW TO 

•win nrm ^yw ta«3 nv nn« t pw\p Tn 

sick. 

They are h6nest, straight- -anew s^iny ]?w w 

nym ins bdjn$ -BnjnBD jwb 
forward and good merchants ♦ij^tf J>n JJBtt '"Dltf 

in8.i«netS ity m DtwjwtanpD 



28 .-pmnj;^ oywbmy 

We like meat better than "ljn^N lyoy^ fcP^fi jy:r6 TO 
^aw p^ b ( tb -lyatajD ;yrn ^% 
milk. 

Milk is cheap and meat is m vr*b& 1M bynbijM vn -j^o 
p^D r« £rwa *uy b,td pk ^^^ 
dear. 

Life in a city is dearer than tem mm® K p« jyapf? D*n 

*f6 p« ny ^d ?^k nynnn jym m) ny-i^nia 
in the country ; but it is m Dy r^H Aim K fK 

]•»« -th ncuap t^ aw pk 

more agreable. .Dnyjy^K Tiya 

The father loves his child. /"Wp m My6 rjmb nyi 

I like my friend like myself, wyi vim -wnS pD ay^ TK 
^K p^ "B nyiS p^ ^yD"D p^ K ^ D 

and my children more than ^ nnj;D njrwp p „ D ^ 1K 
nay »d pm^ra vitfo jpm ^ 
myself. 

f)^yD"B 

Time is money, say the «H JPK? ,n^y:i pk ta^y 

English* 

ts^y 

All is well that ends well BJHJy DKli ^u bpn Dy^N 

^hk pk ^yw taym D^y ^yw ^ *jn 

All in good time. ,&"¥ g oy^K spa 



, y 3 K "1 £3 & D *» 1 K 



27 



Take-a cup of tea, if you 

pnj/ta r\y egp ^ rr&a ^k n-v 

please. 

I thank you, I never drink 
"« pr;nta rw "8 npnitt pirn 

any tea. 
^y rr»ta 
I am a foreigner, I do not 

^k op ny nyayn**£ "g n &aN3 

know. 

nj 



We 


are tired and 


very 


WN 


nrm nnj;"B 


nay 


njm 


hungry. 

^n^a^n 








Give 


him a 


bit 


of 


bread 


ii\3 


D^n ny 


ta^ 


*]* 


njm 


and cheese. 








nay 


trwta 








The 


cheese 


is 


good, but 


s m 


TiTPta 


t'K 


TO 


eks 



the butter is not quite fresh. 

rn nytasaan f« m: ta^sip ^yns 

Tell me how much a pound 

of good and fresh meat 

^k *m i:j; Pins tarpB 

costs in your town. 

oao^tp pt nn-v pa 



ysata^ ,yynsa v$b* pa ta»njfr 



l^p panta yx ,yw pm y* 
.yynto ya"p ta^a ^nd 



7« y nynay^DiK pa p -p*. 



nnyt naiK ,nr& w nw 



.typ naia 

nyau* ,tati rw typ *pt 
,t?n5 paw ^ pk nyiM «h 

tP^S DjwnS nii« oytaia 
♦t3i«2ati> jnrpK pa tao^p- 



26 



♦ ■p:nni;^ syw*bn$ 



New-York Is larger than 
vj-p$* m nyt^nn^ jym 
Moscow. 

I live in a small room, but 

■"« 11^ pK ny ^hkdd onn Baa 
your room is still smaller. 

We do not speak English. 
•wk n e^o p«T£D t^jy 
We speak German,, 
•WK prp£D jyony^n 
I am learning to write and 
"8 sy wnyb ^ t^n -uy 
to speak English. Teach me 
m prp£D t^jy mTB ^ 
to speak English. 
Ira prpeo p^y 
Well, I will teach you. 

In what street do you live? 

•p« tsN.i« tsnnBD n n-v n^ 
In the same street as you. 
■p« *m onyo tann^D ?y nr 
I wish to buy some bread 
■"« pwk »itD "a dkd ny-o 
and cheese. Give mea glass 
-ny tjtpb 11^ ^d ny on«^ 
of water. I am thirsty and 
■^Hny^nMK ^k Dy uaonynta nay 
nave nothing to drink, 
nyn ^n&p jib prn 



.yiipo^D 

,wy oy^p k p« jhkh -pa 
iy^K 

.nyj^p 

,B^y tara lynyn td 

.pb*h jyny-i TD 

•m jy:rntp y:ny^ "p« 

*pD any^ .ts^y jyny-i 

.a^juy fynyn 

?tvk mnpDio iy^yii pK 
.iiT'N p d*o y:6y? kh p« 
^m DKiitoy |ys^p ^n -p« 
00*63 k i^d b:m ,typ n:"j« 

i^ik ^^Din pa -pa nyooKvi 
.jyp-mB iv t^ ^k? j^p sgn 



,y3«nst*D*iK 



25 



e]S^-s]fiD81 pa WW ta^rr 

,pD1p^ 

poo* pa* y* tyn pwsenyyK 

,jnipD»B pS 



I purpose to set off to- pin** * *W pn T* 

morrow. 

To-day a steamer will 

arrive. 

rpmy 

The day after to morrow 

I shall arrive at Moscow. 

"8 bby® rpniN tap ••ipo^D 
Yesterday I saw my friend. 
njnnytaDr "g hkd "D najns 
The day before yesterday 

he was in Paris. 

•»n nw pa tnys 

Many men set out for 

•w» ps ^^ D m ** "^ 

England. 

Everybody wishes to earn 

n^Dnjmj? djwmk ita py 
his bread 
mn lyna 
We like to live in a nice 



wik p»b sitD 11^ |^ rr; d^5 
house and in a large city. 

mn nay v»n n " ®™$b ^' D 



pD jynjnitt T* a»n jytaap 

(pytoDy^n^S) ptar;;ny^ 
.tnga pa p^!W "W toT^« 

.(\yzyb my) 



24 



^nnyb oyvhuy 



\m pm wi'vymiv5 ty»S fiv* MiynjN few w*n njn ,"ijn:j£ 

oy™ \m -iij th ojn yDx-is^D^^ an 7? jkd jKp p^ari^n dm 

w 

Water Cvb^k) -i?dd»n Well (^k) n^W ,C2« 

We (wk) (t&) th Wipe (£^«.i«) ptr^ 

Word (-n W «) ^ii k Wool (Sim) hSnt» 

Write (®^) py^ World (1 ^ 1K) ^ Kn 



Six (Dp"D) Dpjtt Example (b^m^V) b*£®"2# 

Mix (Dp^D) jjwd Exist (aonw) fjn^cpy 

"WIS 

hw ^vfi K^tN E3i^y;i TVn 
Who (m) -jyii Which (^dw«) njttfytt 



.yaNlSPD'IK 2 3 

Length {mwb) msfi Earth (nany) TV «*\ 

Thought (naxna) aaKTya Thin (pa) iyas» ,p 

Both (nana) yi«a Cloth (na*6p) "P* 

Birth (rwnya) amayj Breath (nayna) Dynes 

p yunya y«w «n |«» aaana ,|yayn£WD^ th ya^ii dk- i oik 
(nyaanaa) nyaan Dxnay mi (yrrmyrs yoanya'iK) yatf> yawn 
p .way-iewD™ i oyaa^ p< yr^i yiyn v* aainye ijik 
vn .prum anynya n oyr« ]«s o«may -pw bid »^« s D ^ n 
.m a-'O a^ pyn lyaa^xya 

Father (iym»S) t;bks The (<m) OKI ,K*i .">jn 

Mother (nymxa) lyaaio This (ovn) yty^ -Wi 
Either (nym**) ijnyfflwy These (tnvn) *** 

-iyny They (nym) (»"0 « ,? 

Neither (nyn-va) a-a -p« That (aym) W pynn 
Weather (nymyti) nyaayi.i .y^ .vvn 

Other (nym«) jnyUK Those (triKm) y»y^ 

Thick (pna) -iypn « Brother eiymma) nyma 

n naia yan«n dkt t* oa ,m naix na BKats>at< bnxn tyaayp ™ 
D«n yaxneww tyanaan lyn p nyax m -I5W J th ya^i vtn ts 
jo ddio ty-ny" iya«ifi»yaD*iR i^yo nw &* W® «' i "W* Q 
ya^tiWK y»^fi inyt yr« to nynx oa p nyW nyn -p» J"™ 
naw yaaayp tynyfl aanynyaa* aa^ ki aa^a yabyn jyanynyaax 
bpm ootna w pnaynyb t^aay nyn Sn«s »m kti na^aay p m 
-ny nVwiyn ,-u»6 oyTjn 1W nyv>naxM"x nyn Snsv «n ™ 
m -nix ottyfl -vm th oyn yaKifleww pwaan njn aaia^ 
mkvwmk yroa-n an ]yaiy^ Dyaa^ynnmxa n«a*t ytyfl nny: 
»wi"n«fi3«« waSytoyn a^ ]yan«n pn tw ,]yayp M,i th Djn 
-jay |yn Tfi oy aw w ^yaynnww n «w a^i^ fya^n tin naw a 



.22 ^nin^ dj/^^^p 

T 

ture t/nbrn tpo p^ tr>to w^n Basr^a -rw 

.Nature ("Wftnjn) 112D&0 Venture (Wttjjrn) im^nn 

TI 

^ ^^ u, o, e. a, *^£ ttay^ya Tm 

Martial (^EnKD) Pnyt^B Patient (&JJWJ7S) g ^n^W 
Nation \ywnyi) ftpygj K nypiKlp 

Partial (^$Bn8S) PWWgfi y *|M "«n ]•»« JMU K ^jnjrWTJtt K 

TH 

*m (mbw\> yy^ im yian»n njn) n^ ,(t *nw d mi ^m) 
*m ymb \yr^ jnjn ,n n) ^^^jn^ prwnsp \ywbuy njn 
yzbyiyn ybtytsm tsm sy tm (hi jn*o£^ \ywbuy njn f k ma 
tvn &iS ymm -isn *fsn$/mnjns^i jprwasntp jnjnJS pn 

tup*? (p.Tn-ijttnpy jjttsEnj;:nK) jttnpni^ an jk m^ nny? wm* 
^^m* njix MinpS jw^wd^n d jwk yr^ii jnjn *pa n^iK 
ypu jnm *pa dki .ddnewik DynBN jjh (a^v \ysbyi "ijn f k) 
-•^njmjtt pa *n«i Km tsywib d dw^i^pd^ik (}£ik ojn rpK) 

ED-ipn^ N^KI B DJWN $5 DgVIBp T>1K DD1D D^ pjn^? ,D DJtt 

-m Kt 4^hd w i^TiyBBnps Mm jm^r^n^ jn$nJ8 inn t^<6 

.p.xv *m ,na m ^s^^ djtk *ni jin^nr 
Thank (p#n&) \ypm ,ps$i Death (n^m) (ena) mis® 
Nothing (ttVlto^) DBM Think (p3Vf£D) jypjjn 



ips: 

Photograph ny^^K-i^a^£N Orphan flBfi'HO our X 

Night (b«j) a=)^ Right (B«n) /ljnsajn /OMl" 

yaan ,bu ,T ,! « 

QTJ 

Quit(BWp) B^P Quite (B«Wp) |W^* 

s 

Sell(^D) ]ySipn«fi Sugar (TJNW) "Wpw 

Use(tnv) p?SB'j ^a^a Easy (m) onimpjtt ,oa^ 

SH 
She?--'-irw) pn«J»Dn ,pjw Shop (b*») r»»o*e « ' D *">PS 



2o **])%*)nyb cyw^ny 

J" 

Joiner ("W WH) njfyttDD K Jug (Mvni) b^typ 8 >Jttnp tf 

zee 

Knee (n^) yvp K Knife (ep:i) nyDD^D R 

Knit (&•*) (}pp$t) jppnaty Know (^) jj^yp ^psD^ 

L 

alf, alk, aim -^"Wl r)1D ^1 ^N EM^ya 2T3 TTY) 

Half (^HKH) ^NH yBS^n tt Talk (pnm) T'H 8 ^infi^ltf 
Calm (Dnxp) ijmin ,-)j;^bb> Calmly (^bnmp) b^m ,mn 

Autumn (DWIN) ^BMnyn Hymn (DTl) f£n ,*W g ,y)b K 

IP 

Psalm (QHHD) n ,af?$DS m Receipt (EPDn) k ,B£pyjn tt 
Psalter (nj^n^D) D^nn K 



♦ ystnstPDnK 19 

Cat (p9p) fB8p N Cream (DiT1p) yp3«iayD» 

CH 
Child (ib"m) n^p » Much (p&8D) ty* 

Rich (tPBn) ip^n 8 Such (t^E5«D) IJ^jn N 

ID 

^njttaty *rr own "WB-wn an pN tMjr^w tw -n^n 

Handkerchief ypb»y&S « Handsome (DND^H) -^^ 
(e]y^EjnypWn) "■pBJJWB K Wednesday (njnttjm) ^Illfi-D 

>t?n tm osyw'att y "ww * e -ind 211 d^-t -mi 
a-om n n«o ton o n""yi jyiNtfltwa srttnaN imb 

General fonjttjwn) toTJWJ Ginger (-ljwwim) *iJttJM« 
God (l£l) BB$l Gloom (DH^J) D^J?t2DrS 

Design(ptjn) 1$?tSD10 ^SK Gnat (bjh) l^W^fi T^P * 

-nm worn ^d r M "^ ' n ***'' n VW^V* ■ nvn 

.aay^Vya ty>3 ~\v 

Heaven (pmjffi) ftfODVl Hail (^W n ) ^* n * 

Hour (-cw) jruw ,jw « Honest (bdj?^) njn^-iny JK 



i8 .])**\T\yb nyw^Hy 

Every loaf has Its price* p B*tn wm \ymb nyiy* 

Lend me some tea and im yyr\& D^nay td ttrr 4 ? 

*uy^ ""O dkd mta liy ^p iy 

sugar. 

nyw 

I have not got enough mi iby$ Jttyj w: s$n y& 
*»« yyn ms ®p c\xm ,|y^ip ^ 
money to buy It, 

Lend me a spoon for a few ^y& yaytey ?\m ,tid tt^ 
•uyf? •»& ny pieo iks ny a-vs ^^ $ 
days. 

Your suit is still very new. m^ n^ -ro r»K m^K ny*K 

•w bjpd pk V»bd nyn spa 
My overcoat has become p«* ar« nyny^nyaw pa 

"£ mpiym ?yn DKp«o ^ \mww 
already old. 
Hy6n$ nbr\$ 

IB 

t ^hs tw 7n» m >» toujr^a toa^ -rvn 

Comb (Dn$p) jyDyp ,DKp g Lamb (DDJ?^) D^y^ nyav R 
Debt (BBjn) Sin K ,-ftitP g Doubt (Km) pflD K 

C 

snsna^ imd *d wn twjn^stt * ton © ^md Trni 

♦p trm pDMto^aia 
City Ob*d) engtw 8 Cede (tpd) iyitffc$ ,|yByiM$ 



No, I never buy bread, a:w to«M«P W T* <P 

but I "bake it myself. .p^B W P* 3 T* ^X 

I never eat butter M' * ' 

^s -\yryi bh^ nytataga ."W^ie 

At breakfast I am accus- ->» T" P P wnn * ^ 

By BDySpyD "X ay -°Bp« 

tomed to drink tea or coffee ijns yyriB ppinB w Bn¥fl 

noyts to pjm hto in , sS8p ,ysxp 

and After dinner I like to -p« JDT 1 ? a»B<D l»3 131K 

-i:y -lyoax t;jjh "n p ,,! ? to is 
drink a glass of beer. .-ijra DD8"H x ]yp:mB 

He is now very poor, for ^Wi«W""nj 
>n rx '•li ">nj;n "iras ins 

he has lost all his money, r*" I l* 

^ ran box 1 ? *?nx D^n ^xd ^ 

You have looked very bad asyte nnjTT om any? ttx 

nv iwn ip^ ^jm "W 3 (pjxnp) 
for some time. .a«¥ WS B"t 

-IKS DXD D"B 

Buy for me a loaf and a ,BTia W3i£ X TD as^ip 

"3 -ins ie ny epx 1 ? -us? ny x -^k 

pound of butter. ."ij/au esiS 

iris 'IN nyaaxa 

Tell me how much a loaf X BDxp ^6 X>11 ,TD BJX? 

^ya ^ •'in b>bnd ny fp 1 ? .Bins ^ax 1 ? 

costs ? 

OBDNp 



l6 .v^ny 1 * w*^*™ 

Persuade CW«) PTOVW Guard (-n*.) WW ^ 

TTIE 

Tuesday (n^VD) awaon valued) ma ,rm-m 
True (nna) no* -w n 

TJI 

Do you buy bread and i» «™ ™ -T 

btitter ? 



.yatnsponN 



15 



Ask him how much he 
paid for it 

I have only one pound of 
"8 wn ^ ]m i^ifi ^ 
bread 

I sleep 6nly five hours 

a day, as a general rule. 

np njn r; ny bxyjiyvn brvn 
for I go late to bed and 

rise early. 

Our eating-room is small, 
■nk ^an^-onn rot fo«BD 
but our sleeping-room is 

still smdller. 

Do you drink coffee or tea? 

Tea is good but coffee 

is better. 

I prefer to drink coffee. 






•ems 






♦ W^p 1^ 



.ItyHB 

IPp^na iv *njfi ynjp* ^k 
•IMBfitfp 



01, oy 

Boy OP) ^« Voice (D^1) V™ * 

oo 

,n* « h^ T»« *«* ™ **" ****** ^ 

Book(pO) 1** Moon(pD) ^ 

c ,,L^ -M Good (-W) ^ 

SSL) «te Floor (^)«^ 

OTJ, OW 

House (Wl) M»K,nnK NowN W 

Low(nU W Bought W) MVJ 

I have a pair of new boots. ,^» ^ ^ * »" T* 
Your house is very small, -m* wt («pn) mn V 
How are you, my inena r « u ^ i 



My old friend died to-day. - W ^ ws ^ 

;° ** nJ!n ? n ^ «-** j»«n prove* ' 

Yesterday I received a „ j,^ ?x ^ 

new letter. ' |y 

I do not love him for he .,♦♦ l 

is a liar. " ' >V& * r* 

I fear a fierce doe. 

"S nrrs ny Dims ^ ^ 8 n * fi * 11D *** -pa 

New-york. 



.n*r-&n 



A steamer arrived yester- 

ny -lya.TBD nrmp -nyaoy^ "° w 1$^PW ^ iKhJONS # 
day from Europe. - Kfi *™ W* P>* 

nin o*ns £^n.v 

CXA_, OE 

Toe(n«B) wfiD1fi Oats(Dan«) nmn 

Roast (BDna-i) waj<naj?j ,jpbn-d 



I2 ,-imny^ ovv*huv 

IETT, IEW 

Europe (fitW) 8B<P W * New (WW) , ^ 

Feud (wi) M*™* * FeW <"*> P ^ '^ 

Filial (^S)" i«njwp SpaniardC-nrWB^W 
clage(,n^p) „»«» Diamond C^)B«Dn« 

IE 

Field (-An*) ^* Fiend (niTfi) ^« 

Fierce (DTP*) T**« Flies (D^s) ,£- 

Friend CojnS) ^ns * Lie (toty l>» ™ 

I see a high tree and a « ™ *tt t*™ « ny» T« 

short man 

fi-i$» IS" 3 . ... bvi-i3 r? BajmsS na*n6 r e 

My friend gets his living ' 

easily. 



II 



. V 3 N *) £3 tJ> D ■> 1 N 

EL BY 

.^ nj£ Mir, isajri^j jsrrcm 

Eight (,nr) ** Obey(n^) p,^ 

Height (^n) Tin Eye^) -^ 

Foreign (|jn*fi) tJn^D'IK M6ney (w D ) ^ w 

Receive (mwi) pas^s Heir (yy) ^ M 



i ^-f ^ 7 , ardS ° f "^ ^ ■"» **" TK 



foreign velvet 



^ ^frf r f 6iVed 6ight ^'^ »»" W» i«D 



shillings 



^ G ^tZ 1 H e / esand -tWOTBinwwu 
became blind. L 

is a native. 



A workmen can Easily gain -•** W W W** 1* 

bread. 

u'is still very early. jr*WTP«W 

KNt r« S^bd nyri '•Tiny 

BE 

F6ebly(to6) T^W Grtenflmi) P* 

Feel (fa*) P** F^CWB) os 



Ishouldliketogo.but my ^ W ^ WT * 

legs are tired. 

I feel great pain in my feet. T« pnrw " 

LeTd me sol'meal and « tap ** ™ -'" 

■uyS ns 080 faro nay .-ijfDtatt 
butter. 

I hope to meet him to-day. « » J" 



? 



9 

Lend me an duger for -ay «pa ny^j, p TD Dn „4, 

a few days, 

ny .vs onn 

^J lw!l y intends to 1WP W IflWT P^DKfi p^D 

come in August. 

njr. ma Mini c:yi«.^3 d^d^ tvti 
Eat (an*) , w Bear(injra) iwrnia ,-, w * 

Beak(p,Ta)^iSji|iS^^ Hear (-| lT n) ... T , n 

Beam ( CTO ) ^ BB , > Dp „™ Ear (ti , m) ^ * ' 

Beat (an*) w^v lW shp Read ( in n) ,w, 



Give him something to eat PK ^ ^i ,m D y w d,tk b M 

for he is hungry. 

"iss Tl px njJNH 



8 >-\)%"\nyb ®yw^bny 

for some days. Jj?ia ysybtoy spn- 

"\m dkd onyn 

Put on my gaiters, ,]ymmp jwd jk dihd 

and bring me some nails. <^Wjn jnytey td y^nn -ttw 
-up j^-n id dkd D*?n^ 

Everybody must have fWgn did "ijnjnjr 

a trade. 

A workman can at all times ybbn n JKp nya^-iN \h 

r\y j^DpiKssK \yp m bm dd^b j^v^ 

gain a living. , n o^fi |WW8 

I remain here for some yybtoy *pK TH a^:nif£) "pK 
^k jnjrDn nyn i#5 dkd ^ d 

days. 

onjn 

.A.TT, ^"W* 

(fop "VMn 1 ? m) r?^ «m tosy^ya twi 

August (tOD^HK) BDWIK Awl (f?H») ("WDDIEW pS) ^ 

Auger (njnrm) T»i^y f dij^ /j^nt^ 

Cause On*p) X ikhik Bawl C>n*fc) { ^ KD 

Saw (HKD) Jittjtt ^j;r « Dawn (\n$i) ttjtfS'W-jj/i^t 



Bail (foya) nmy ,p? my Day (njn) jga 

Captain ftyBSyp) JKB^pK Daily (^njn) "p^iya 

Gain(jnw)lWH*l8SfiDDim8S Curtain (jyBiyp) ttam^S K 

Say (nyo) jy^* ,jyTn Gaiters (D-i^^n^) jyP«B$p 

•Lay (nyf?) j W«m ,\y^b / fi6n*«ry:i ,?y^ 

Pray( (V ) ^j* Pay(n^)j^ n ^ 

Nail (foyj) tyjyj ^ \yMbww ^y^ a 



He earns five shillingsaday 

'n ,my v^s d^S^ ny nyi 
I earn only one shilling 

a day. 
ny njn 
His daily wage is 

shillings. 

Everybody 

•H^onyny 

living here. 

Pray lend me five shillings 



seven 

jy^yD 



can gain a 

pp jnw nj; 



^Wrw pa 113 jyv-nys -pa 



&pk BwymaS nya^pB p? 



j^Hi«S jyp (twyD) lyiny* 
ej^fi t»b B^ ,-pK tt y2 .pit 



6 .Tiannj^ Dj^^^ajj; 



Only (^hm) 
Very (njni) 
Fifty OtDfi^S) 


n^ Yes (DJP) 
T1JN Sky ("pD) 
^S31S Sly O^D) 





It, is useful for many by* pt -p^ffiM WH D*n 

purposes. 

1 have fifty yards of linen. -2»b \ybby WfiflS ^n -p» 

Do it for my sake. .pttjm BJWB ]Kfl DK1 aiTO 

n &*■« iks "& pnyo 
Give me some eggs and *\m r;^H (yybvy) *V>D toM 

salt. 
tob$b 

I have not got it. .t^ D*n ^Kn 7K 

"N nyn taw taw taw 

I have no butter, nor milk. W* W^n pp a*n T* 
^k ir;n rw ny^an n^ p^D .^d 
He gave me a cup of milk yDtfD k \yzym V& B»n T 
^n nnjtt ^d nj; fi«p *)$ p^D ^psnta re ^» 
to drink, 
aita pirn 
I have many letters from njn pfi ep^D ^ 3*n 7K 

home, 



u 

rN JltSJN ^"^jni Purse (DlJJfl) $^B"n K 

Put (ifiMfi) I ^j^t^H /T ^p Tun (^) p^ ^ 

Full (&1S) ^ifi ^j^is N Cup (fi«p) p^lp n ,j;dkd k 

Sugar (lym) nypW Cut (Bgp) pTW 

Unite (t^W) jyWfcOys Unity (WW) 23"pWN 

Union (]kw) man k But (a«n) ma ,r;m 



Give me a cup and some (dntibi;) p« yoga n to b\3 

in •>& nv mp nay bkd •njrpiv 
sugar. 

A full cup of milk. <1™ ™ ^ * 

n? ^Sis fi«p ^ p^D 

I never had a purse. &«njN w* b«tn»p ^n -pt 

*»« -iinijN ipn ny nya .j;tyB"3 pp 

tsin (°) ^ wr\ man mnd3« d^ iMsr^stt twi 

/*ta ^t* ton wn d-wi:n 

Yolk (pnw) »x j» ps ^Ajtt Yard (nn*o) ,jMp •w^p 
Dry (^m) pnyp™ ,jypvi& «pn a 

My ("D) p& ,JWB Yell (^) ]jr»np ypyDD^ 



AIX e a K11 ]y^8tD^DW JWJW&tMaMty? IKS "pH m) (° 



4 



/panny^ nywbny 



He is a kind man, 

vi m r\y wp \yn 
i live in an inn. 

•"•k vp 1 ? ]•»« |y p^ 

He finds a live bird. 

^n on^S r\y wb tijd 
I like (t) birds. 



.nntao^ n p k |np -pa 
?\pbyy*b yypb y$ 



o 



n« « Wll IDJr'jM TWl 



Often (\ybnx) 
Long (:a*6) 
Dog ()$i) 
Old ("6rm) 
More (-in^tf 
Go (np) 



&£K Do (11) pna 

33*6 To (id) iy 

n:nn k Lose (trrfr) pny^nxs 

E&K One (|K1K) njtt"N ^"K ,pK 

nnj?D Son Qkd) jnir k 

pvj Dozen (jjtttn) t|Sjmir /fV£ x 



Men often lose all hope. ybb# ®m \yr^bryt \ymy® 

\yo \ybn$ imnb brv$ &n$r\ ^mbm 
Old men are often bald. 
ibm jj?d in« \ybru$ *6n*o 
1 have a dozen of eggs 
"« nyn ny \ym ^ o^y 
He is old and I am older, p T* ™« ^ B™ n ^ 
vi r« "6n$ n# m ay lyibntf .-\yvby 



■yyb% e§$ \yy*i ywb yvbx 
,ym)) 



.(Ylfe6) love ijn8 (J 



• yagnfitPDnK 



Enter (Tftoty) p^lN Empress (Qy*\£fcy) pjN»p K 

Lend ("tfj£) \y»b He (vi) ny 

Pen (jys) njnps 8 Me (■»&) *p ,t& 

Send (nr;D) jypw Mend°) (tjjjd) jyMm«S 

Be (-Q) p 



Member (njttDyD) T^D K 



Lend me a pen. 
He sent me a letter- 
An artisan mended a table 
Send for pens and paper. 






Jfc ^ "*** wnn Bay^jtt twi 



ice (D"K) 


t"K 


I ("*0 T** 


Idle (*h*k) 


jnw ^t^ 


Like (p"<?) ^11 vita ,|5W6 


Bind (nr^) 


pm* 


Life (s\"b) pwb mi 


Kind (Wp) 


i^d ,m 


Find (wS) JJWfiJN 


If ft*) 


pi /3 


Fire (n»S) nfiltP K W»S 


Inn (pw) 


nntDDW pa 


Ink (p^«) twa 


Bird ("njn) 


f?y:ms « 


First (aonyS) nyDtn? 



.pfMmyfi bt6:i# cpa -pi« B^tam (inysn) repair (° 
.tyDK-ifi^vjo^ m^ e njn ty»yi tanan *yiD ore C°° 



2 .-pmrr;'? oyvbuy 

a'HXwrbny yio nvrnN «n imp* 1 ? ]sns «^i yfasw*<2. 

Artisan (|WBnx) T^W Absent (B3PM8) *rijn p tM 
Arm (on«) -lnyvijH All (brut) v% /"unr ,pw 

Acid (TDK) "Wit Bald C" 5 ^) <*^ n 1 n ^ 

Add (ny) IJW^Y Malt (b^id) f^ 

Ad&pt (°BfllH8) ^DSfiW Plane (p^B) p^Oin ,f?JD"in* 
A (nj?) an fly) p« 



An artisan adapted a B3KDJHW a^n na>6D ^JD « 

|j? |Kren« lyaeNiN y p->« 

handle to an axe. -,^ n p N iv (fys^BtP) >ar>/n 

'ruyn =ia |j? opy 

A man had planted an ("BS^SSyJi axn twye X 

apple tree 

tysp nna 

Not all men are rich ,-p-i jyiin pHMye vr» &* 

a^ij ^ ,|j?d nns t^an 

IE 

.« jr. N*n i"n d«i to3sr»^ya twi 

Egg (#) "* P* Emperor ("i$nySDy) Wp S 






HIVTiK-piT 


n nivriN"^^ 5 


^anas 


rnvux-pm 


rwrm'ivnv 


imvs» 


A 


a 


<lJZ i €1 


n« 


N 


n 


sr 


<n 


# 


B 


b 


& 


/ 


^ 








& 


<a 


m 





c 


f 


c 


**& 


P 


P 


& 


/ 


*B 


D 


d 


m 


J 


H 


Q 


q 


M 


f 


vp 


E 


e 


<e 


€ 


w 


E 


r 


4 7 


4, 


"1HK 


F 


f 


¥ 


/ 


m 


S 


s 


<£f J 


6- 


^ 


0- 


g 


? 


/ 


tt 


T 


t 


<r 


/ 


V 


H 


h 


$p 


/ 


tivny 


U 


u 


^ 


€1 


V 


I 


i 


j 


€ 


"$ 


V 


V 


r 


<u 


*IJ 


J 


J 


f 


f 


vv 


w 


w 


w 


/ l/lA 


p-barr 


K 


k 


cjf . / 


nyf?. 


X 


X 


op 


6C 


D px 


L 


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& j / 


ty 


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Wl 


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Z 


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♦D^yiye B^«nr« 



yn^T 




5?ta»f 




117 


yyi2 tphm^n® 


2 


yzvtisiWDi'w* 


117 


\ybnm omhmi 


29 


p ,]jnNn 


118 


-|$n n j*S jya n 


33 


n^^aiK 


118 


in^ pfi s?enj#d h 


41 


^5;;D .n^D 


lid 


]^wv Djnrw nys h 


48 


fj/pjnia tm jyoDj? 


119 


jwi£B":i wirsnys 


55 


-^T^p y ypjm 


121 


js^nisE&sm n 


61 


ja^y h 


121 


cnpBP i^k -ijnJJ^ 


69 


^ -^ ly^r^D 


122 


jsnnKS y |jmn 


73 


^KnyBBfc^nty 


133 


Enfctviias^n ; p^dkxi 


77 


j/^ekS 


135 


aip~Dasp^^\H 


82 


|?S"INV .p^DDI^ 


137 


DIpTS 


86 


-ipe-iyp i^-^jya -ijn 


141 


mp^nr 


91 


]y.ay^ dpd^b 


152 


B"l£tt-Di:8BPfiW 


93 


ON,! Jtt"K fflK |j;jN-lfiD^ 


156 


lan^ii Draatympij 


95 


jy^ipnj/a ina jyfinp 


158 


D-ipr^m 


98 jyfcnj/: iv^nn im jvon;? 


159 


yty'W^ 


101 


JJHMP H ]>MK1SDKJ 


159 


i^ dj/e^jj; 


103 


ypnta n^n 


160 


nw^D 


105 


^mnnb o^n 


170 


"p:nyEnjm 


108 


JK^D D"3 


188 


nvpya pywp "vjy 


112 


srixn^nK D":i 


196 


ybyiz 


113 


.irunp 


217 


?pn ijn epx 


115 


jj/Sinvi^"^ ,pyDM 




— «»-WV 


116 


JJ/^nNY DJJWl^ 



PREFACE. 



In compiling the Yiddish Manual at the request of 
our colleagues on the English Evening Classes Committee, 
we have made much use of the most practical work on the 
subject with which we are acquainted. Vanel's Englischer 
Dolmetch (Warsaw 1891). We have, however, corrected the 
English, largely supplemented the dialogues and added reading 
lessons and glossary, We have also adopted an entirely differ- 
ent system of transliteration which will, we trust, be found 
to be both more practical and more accurate than Vanel's 
or other Manuals that we have consulted and hi parts utilised. 

In making these alterations, we have had much assist- 
ance from the printer, Mr. E. W. Eabbinowicz, who devoted 
much time and labour to the task, which was specially oner- 
ous owing to the short space of time which could be given to 
the production of the book. For all matters relating to 
publication, application should be made to him. addressed 
91, High Street, Whitechapel, London, E. 

For all matters relating to the Classes, applications 
should be addressed to the Honorary Secretary H. E. Levin- 
sohn, Esq., c/o B. B. HalfordEsq., 28, Austin Friars, E.C. 

Joseph Jacobs. 
Hermann Lais bail 



.-nas^ ]K£v;n ins* orixp^n *]jtt*wn 
.n^snn p a d p in 



+^r^>^^o. 



: ) X T 3 K *? 

r^y^^nn .tmeso "n 91 ytffirn^MNi .11 ,n 
1910 



YIDDISH-ENGLISH 

MANUAL. 



COMPILED FOR THE 



ENGLISH EVENING GLASSES COMMITTEE 



in connection with the 



RUSSO-JEWISH COMMITTEE 

BY 

-JOSEPH JACOBS AND HERMANN LANDAU. 

8th EDITION, 



LONDON 
E. W Rabbinowicz, Printer, 91, High Stkket, Whitkchapel, E. 

v.no. 



^rilDIDTSBI-IElNra-LISE 

: : MANUAL.