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Full text of "Ṿarsheṿer geṭo-oyfshṭand nayntsenṭer April 1943-1953"

STEVEN SPIELBERG DIGITAL YIDDISH LIBRARY 
NO. 05496 



VARSHEVER 
GETO-OYFSHTAND 



Permanent preservation of this hook was made possible 

by Susan Schwirck 

in memory of 

her sister, Barbara Cohen, author of books of Jewish interest 



'ij 



NATIONAL YIDDISH BOOK CENTER 

AMHERST, MASSACHUSETTS 



NATIONAL YIDDISH BOOK CENTER 

AMHERST, MASSACHUSETTS 

413 256-4900 I YIDDISH@BIKHER.ORG 

WWW.YIDDISHBOOKCENTER.ORG 



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STEVEN SPIELBERG DIGITAL YIDDISH LIBRARY 

WAS PROVIDED BY: 

Lloyd E. Cotsen Trust 

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Righteous Persons Foundation 

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1953''1943 









United Committee to Comm,em>orate the 

Tenth Anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 

225 West 34th Street, Room 1007, New York 1, N. Y. 
BRyant 9-9732 



Simon Federman, 
Chakmcm 

Kalman Friedman 

Chairman, Exec. Comm. 

Prof. Albert Einstein 
Jacob Adler 
Mrs. Beckie Aptaker 
Mrs. Rose Aronoff 
Dr. Edward K. Barsky 
Miriam Baumel 

A. Bergman 

Rabbi Abraham J. Bick 
Joseph Brainin 
J. M. Budish 
Morris Carnovsky 

B. Chazanow 
Barnet Cooper 
Jacob Doroshkin 
Morris Eitzer 

A. Estersohn 
Rabbi Max Felshin 
Samuel Finkel 
Morris Fried 
Herman Goifer 
Jack Goldman 
Mrs. Nina Goldstein 

B. Z. Goldberg 
I. Goldberg 

Mrs. Fannie M. Golos 
Aaron J. Goodelman 



Mrs. June Gordon 
Rabbi Louis D. Gross 
Morris Gross 
A. Grossfield 
Louis Harap 
N. Haykin 

A. Jenofsky 
Albert E. Kahn 
N. Kamenetsky 
Paul Karell 
Moshe Katz 
Isidore Kaufman 
Charles Kelner 
Frank C. BCirk 
Doris Koppelman 
Dr. Charles Kuntz 
I. Lipinsky 
Sholom Levine 
Nathan Mack 

N. Maisel 
J. Mestel 
Herman Migdal 
Paul Novick 
Nathan Padgug 
David Pargament 
Max Perlow 
Sam Pevzner 
David Pitchersky 

B. Podolsky 
Maurice Rauch 
Mrs. Dora Rich 
Ernie Rymer 



I. E. Rontch 

H. Rosen 

Mrs. Philip Rosenberg 

Philip Rosenberg 

Dr. Abraham Rothenberg 

Mrs. Anne Safran 

R. Saltzman 

G. Sandler 

Morris U. Schappes 

Edith Segall 

Elke Shapiro 

Lillian Shapero 

Harry Sherman 

Leo Shlofrock 

W. Shneyer 

Hyman Silver 

Ralph Silver 

Alex Sirota 

George Starr 

Leon Straus 

Yuri Suhl 

Chaim SuUer 

Mrs. Sophie Tobin 

Mrs. Fannie Traister 

Sol Vail 

Z. Weinper 

Paul Weissman 

T. Wendy 

Alfred Whyne 

Joseph Winogradsky 

R. Youkelson 

Mrs. R. Youkelson 



iD"2Nn]"'N 



5 — 1 - — n58tstt^s^iH-Ktsy:! *i{?iij?tnisii 

33 _ p^11^5 vS ^''22>^p 5?tm"'H m 1S?^DSi:iSr-TT» 

41 — p^n ann^. I vhvn 5?:i3?)aip3?:^.^iK n 

63 — v^^ lytrim — ' v^'im P^*tin 

pni^ *^;jj» ' S?isn:^n83:;3!m n 

Ma >*ni^ d'?71i 15?^ "^^^ ^■5?:i''H tyaii^pyr^s^; Di^^n. ois^i ,t9 



nunuLDisn ns ^^stjs hut 

5rM"»t2r5;:\ n^n I'^k iiijd t^» ^m t'^k ,1943 ,^nsK iytoi9 1^1 .v^Tm:^ "iv"^ 

.pb^B ttr;''rK 03;^ lis 

♦l^rrt:;^?^"'^^'^! yns^iiS?^ vmo n t)"»tt' did t'^i s^p pD I3i5;2r:i8&»s 
,tDD8W ri5 T'?^'3?:^ rj? T-ryn nyD^rj?^ nsri rn^ ,'o^b2 min i^xy^' i^a 

D'»%wtDas;» ns;i r& :^nx:»nasj^ nj?^ is:d pk /p'?^ nr'^t ps ovp im nias 
fjDSP it2^''Ki$isrr pyVoynss^'iK nr^'T D"';^ iik .Dfi^Ks lis nV'^p 1st pD 
-i'»n^ psjiii im isnsJa' st2^"'22Hi n rs Vki:^^' n ta.^iis:^nst3iiK ''n in^n 
nimD ytrnnsiSD^iiK n rn tJOi^DSJDKp pK di^ ^in-^iVa tt)^"'5S3 10^:1^5?^ 
•'n ir^rr t3"»)D>nsT ♦Disjtis?:^ yns^^iJi:. n pK tiK p-'is tia- d"»3iSa p^s^, ns^'^K 
n i:\sp ni^w P& :)i2ipiii;D:t2;nKSi ivt 12: *is»"»Dt2ns innn^sti^'^iH m ^m^^^ 
pD X2W TDoa''Di9a' pK iDD^'iy DST •lyrx :\n p'»D'7''ras oyn. px o.''XK3 
♦inyii ]Dsn8& t)"»a '9js^2''"»p toyii. o^ii is^^d^^^ ^ /tj^'Mtrto^s^' 'nst' 
p9p t'^^ ti;DasD psi ytD3"'t2;s?i ny7 pK :\sd yo'^n:; ''t' pa mn^'OTi n 
to'>'»2r nyt pD :ii>i:Ji qst tD-'^S' ,disP"iks -nsn Dns:i'';anKD d^ji ^^.^^t toyii 
-o'»iK Di2t t5)3ip' 5?D'?si'^ .:3i:ns^^Sisn:^K isD'''nx 1ST fiD r^QiD^nKi n ms*ii 
n i3^D ns3SV7ast3i:^iJi:S' pK nsis'bp *?•»& :\stD s'?iSi-Vnn n m V^ P"^^^ 
DST nsn^S' pH pst2^ ts:: is»' r^^ is P>in' ^•'t ; pf^B tiSi i'?^''t3' stootD^'na 
♦M813S> in tt-'D toiis:^: :^ij:d iso'^ni nsiiDsiD>i:a isi o«ii' ,n'»ina?j: ds''*^: 

-nNTll DS-T pS rMS^tDlS'* IDIO 012: ztDX^'K 0^1 ,tO''i ISI^IKIl PV DHNil TK OS 

lo^na DST m P5> P':is*ri« dst ]tk n iis'^'^S' niK;D^irs^'»m-^Ds:x' is*nstr 
t8 ,tsST "T^a^ nsD' I8:i .ddiisis tiK :^inst:D'>'»:^8n. sisosi:^ 183 ti'^n ^^d 
7^i"is tj;^'»tDijipiJsyDSi S*'''^ SD'»ii:\ S2fii?^ 0^1 ii$:i ^p-rp strn^K D.ij;i i;^ tD**:! 

5 



-onins s*?-*© i-'K *tDi^^'»ss?:\ b^Tss 15?di9 iy^ toijni, ]^'»is: v^ i^^ tD"»a ]ik 
-iiTipmx nD ,0115?^' tp^''?'»^ tny:;i^ipsn'ts P'«n^ y^Vsm ,1^7:1^? 5?:inas'^^ 

♦myi^s 11K Diyp'1^:!^ n^ia, ^^h ns?s:?3^p-^Dy:\ V'^^ibvn n ns^'ii' ,niV"''>n 
ttV3?ii 8 ,DS?''SKr^npon, IS tiK y''22^D^i^3op5? lis: /j-'M^nD nyprrusK 

-r^Wa IKD rtSKtl? ]Dy'7DSKt:;r''?3y:\ pS; ^D'^MD^'^A pK t)'''>pD^^n5?l:nni lis 
flD ai'''?Xil'?S' ty^'lpy:^ D"'! P^l; ,1943 ,^n3>J?> ]D19 pD la^Dt^^D-'IK IS?!! 

ltr»: ri< ,5?t33ws?:^ n5?T ]i0 ]is^ yViD-'piiri n p& y^wii^p nyi ^''IK ♦P'»;d 
n p£j nwA: yt2;'nn'':^,i ^t i:\yp 'T:iKDt2;nyTii' ]^v^p^ pK pi*'dk3 nr^r pD. 

"P n PK ,135??' 11^?& ^mp PH ; •^^p^jyn yt2^"'DD'»t2^SS' P« yt2;'»22Kl-ti;'D''n 

n pj^ ,'^yT»OT8tt' PK Qmn::^' srirn pD ts;:^:iD5?iDD'»iiH j?,trnVs?n jrmKi'^ 
"''^''!» ny:^ninnns^m nyAn:iDp^.n^s m pk ,diis:is it2^"»D5?nsO' p'^ik lAn 

Dns^DsnipiD'^iK 0''»iK-:iisD t'^k'^^ n^^^'^^v^ "'t tni^n .^vm pK i5n:'?si'i 
'rD'»ii:i Q^rK pwcm 012: ivr:^^?^ W'^^ 5?3'?5?ii /pnriija y^^yD^n p-*:' n 

pfl miB^ i^n — ,tDDs;3v:^ ^^tD nvi^ m^ ^^^^ lyiiyiz^^Kii nypt:!^"''? 

"n5r3'»K in: to:iD^''22iKs in d**^ dsjh' :\:inst^ i^t d^ — d-^id iik pv? n^iK 
n I2t :^iSAi2r D5?7 pK ,D?yii 15?'T T»iK pipD''iK pjKi n^^n pj< t2;"':is?*iyp 
lyi ^& n^i ,Di^M n8& "^m t)'^: ,ps;'? ny^n ps- tyw^n^ns pK pi<iD 

D''^. ,p:5?^ 11& ta'PSnrK pK pT Q3?T: P& t^'^Dtr^lSS ]15?D3?n 8 D*'^ ,pT»K S-'D 

tTDp pi< .pJO'^p ^vmm pK ftoysiKJijr^Knss ,]n!5?^i^^:KTi2j py'?DS8^r>» 
TiK) 'iSD^a i5?iis;t2;iHTi nisri pa nysjajp' 5?t2;'»iVyn; n tis ^ijs y^'>^'?p ^i: ny'^n 
in^n (m- M ♦K 5?i?''ii' /p'i8:DD^''^'K''n ,iiKDKDoiytz;Di pK ,DSDs?^ yisriis n^ p& 
,115? li^">?anK£3i tm nytiy^ 37t2;''228i n iid p?iis?to8m22D''n;K in p'»iiki 

t228t2^ TD yD^srn ,ntr;^n'' o>?k nuji t)'»i ,pV«.D isttiik D-'tt p'^'^nnjus. ,pm.o'»iK 
-1:3: pK p'y> ps p'»tot2;ii^& Dy-r pD ^''•>D n5?^KnA5?DrK ]«: o'?^i; i^a ,ns? PK 

-O'lny? Dsn pK ♦s?t5D'»ti!^p nyn ]id md^a n3?T '['»k '»itk pitir ^k ojr 
pK n^Ti ,5?"'2rpKyi! psi niniD n pK Dn.ti^ip tis nimi n i^^^m ^'pm^V^ 
■i2r tijr^t^miy^^ ]i& ts'^i^Si yn^Dyn^ r^^ DT^'ti;y:^o'»iK d*''»2: nsri ps it^;');^ 

6 



^aasnsra DTK maiip tm i^kb Ty»;i^^'3"oaa5?V yn5?D$?rii 5?^"'^ ''t nns nys^^^sy? 
,T^n-n5r'ȣ> n ,trKrr nri^'V ^'5?^ D?i< 'Wi\ V^ ^^^^^^ O'Vk niin $?:iini^D'>'ni 

♦rayDonp^ 3?^}5;o ns?TiiK iV''i3K n^a ^^o^dn im nun^ ,y-Ti^''ir|t2?Di^i3i ya^r'^K n 
oyi ii: fi !5?"»>2^iip';sj:-''22.Ka nsri; psi nS''"D'''T'»np v^iubn^ni^w tb n v^ 
ytooyna n m /toinjr^s?! iTH-^nv:^ n inijn ,1943 ,?ns8 |t3i9 iis; r^ijit) p'»na 

nyi^ ;]T&o*»iK 0'5?s^ ty^ lyp ]t^ ''VDDyVtz;,, n pn mp^' Vi^^ ,D'»v^''^:S?t3 
•7i80t2;s;*»iK-^.Dy:^ nyii'^tii^i^liii: n^i tiK ♦iny'? a^iyr^^K d5?t is^'i^^tDijii iV'^sk 
pK f»i?i' Tjj ,nnn inV p'^iji: ttm*»K ps inDt pK D2s:np5?:^^'''»K o^t dijiI 

-UK ;S?'»2rK3'»nnpDn' pD l^DIp S?V^ ]^^p ,D''atZ?' n^^'^t3y''K p& DT^tT^KSi QST.li 

-tj'^na tD-'ia' ,n;aN:p p^^DSSti^r'^^.^ri^ ?^k T'»i'?n' ♦:iaiDD^:iK& pK Aaipnti^D 
-nyii'»K n p.''iDtr;i3i$ 13?^ 1S?P v^'?3 nss' pK ]Dtz; PSD V^ P''T i2r n"'np)ji D''*'p 

v:^yB^bmy^^^V V^ v^bB, t to'^^ii m pD Aiit:^ii?ni^n nyi' 'im nmb^n^^^hv^'^ 
pK /p'?]$B tiD DT»p tmn Tm tiD Drp Dyi pyDni^D 122 iy'?:\5?^! f'K ly-^n 
pK T»T iKD insr*? pv^tz^DJi^^' riMii pK tt3iyDny:\ j^: 12: Dnt2;n^& pnmoD 

-^yD^'»tD s?Di'»:i pK o^^vsasnjji ^rptz^tn n tis ,dV'''»s n pH o^''pDii^tj*iKiis?^ "'t 
n pD n^D^vp ytr^nVyni tiK nyi^'Dn^.^ srisri^K n^mt^iD n pa tix /O^^**!! 

♦^^STT^yii tiK DstDsr:\ 
-ayni' i5?m im^s K toDi>!:Ds?:i! tjnyiv oy tyii ,t3i^^,^,^ t:i''D22''K qo^'K 
•»'»;ai8 stTD^'*! is: iV5?Dtr;Q''iKpni22 pK c^ifKi s?::i'»t33^a n^ dds^ i^t 12J tvx 
D2r'>K n'?>i^'i5?^5?:^ srtz^^iss: $?tOi?K 5?:i'5?:i^'^K n ps Ds^ti^ny'i^sji^ n5?i *i^tDiiK 
-yji it2^"»K"''>r'?ig© ^ pi^S!i2r:i^m ninKa> ^ ddkd^i t^n^n la^^ i^niK pK tyii 
; :5?:inapiyn:-trivn::j?: v% 05?;a.iiD n, pK n^SitnKS tin ^^:i,Di^.p-iyp:i]irr 
5?D^3?TS Di^sy^^snn Dj^ni os;iaaijp ns?:ii?pn5?.^^ n^i^:^'*^^ n$;T:iK ts?ii' ds'^k 

7 



o'l'^K /DrM ]m ♦^'?D n^S' m ^''H'' ni<s t^y^ fiiyiyti^ im iiv^v:i k 122 
-iS:tD5?:i n5?115?t2^'^^^;11 it2;^K;s:is?rT' ayi rs^ :i^t:i;s^ it2^'»iij,Do\n d^t d^ p'?^sis.o*»m 

n58ts^0'^iK-:Ktap ^:j?iij?ta^i8ii a,j?i p& 

.1953 ,'?-^13t? 1D19 DPI ,i?18''-r3 



,''''11 nyni« taio ,p"'S nywix ta-'O ^y ^voip T'O 

.aiD Tjj^w -nmia ~iyt:i« ta-iyr taj?n ?synaB> 

,tar%n DjjT Tii« 'n^^^83 tiT-p-i^o n tayiTD 

,i3js'!S la-iQ nj-inty-isa tayn jtsop nyT |ik 

,1K'»«P nvT !i« ?1T I"! taj;n jyosfise i"'i« lyj 

.in IX nn pa t'*' Dyt pn ^yt ^yisa 8 ^n 

,i''i3 nyi q-iiK '7:t'»ia » 'jia '?t'? \^^p tatj f«'o 
t2jj?n y:ini^»a ]^'<m p^jja s ta.yn d^-t 

,5yn imv'? djjt qc'':! n t« "pm^^^P ta^J J^r ,1510 

— iiw ytap3ynyjD''iK "iv"i« "l^J ts:j;n jyoip 
! is?! tyi''''T n^n — ta^y-nta lyoiK jyta p^ia 8 taj^u'D 

.(9 'I ,ui^''t3Si^, *)5;2?'9jij? nsn 



1943 ,'?^13S 1U1D"19 

"r-jK ly^ipyn^a fK 013:11 ,:ia'nyia5?i5ri"'K y:^naDK»"5?3i$sy n pn-wm D122 
-Jis n tiD pipD>iK TSim Q'a''K '['?''isi). ti& y''iJi:sipis ^ywn lyii |i& it2^^ 

n «T'm pnw»K imB'^i:} nv^ t3t;s:'?yn5?n''K to^jn o^ii ,:\an5?Tinyn'''K is 
nyiis:^ nsri i^tk pb^B wtk r& tos&j jy^nawnni? r& ts^ri^aroans?? 
lis :^iitD.''n8S' yt2;''i]$D0^n. ^:i,"»iay'''>A-D"'^ii fiK t)'?Kni'»K i^s'^d ijri ♦t)?5ni 
n3r'»u?A in tsriypsni tjd: i^n ,o''nx n^'i'p D?3ip' ^lanyiayiyn^^K "i^n'm 

**71SDt2;S3'»1K 

pp iiyi5?'?B-D>iit3D'»nKs n- i5?a^n ,:\nt3''nst2^o."'iK n5?t!;'»D0''^ri'ys;a'»x rn 

lD5;Vr^iwnj?0i'»iK D'')D p^fi ''n tyii ,1938 ,n5?n!^ytos3.3?D 11& i8i!33J$ np5?Da"»;a 

nV2J^s:^ nsH' T'lK w^ m ys^i^'>K T'lK Dti^iyi2c ttSHjmyn "im t3?ai'»ii2r 
-n3?i pK Tjrrn ,1938 nynitt.^11^1 iD"i2 D^T tiH ns?n^Dpi^ ttj-14 Dn ♦o?s?n 
lis ^•>''m^ ito-'D ,y:iKis-n,"»K in ti:sni t^'^^iidkisi 5r»''M^:\ ty^aipvn^D r"? 



nvT ^y^vao 1S1XT ojr vDbvn p& /q^'is]^i< t:it3''t3Da>K ]ttrn»t3DM ft^^n'K,/ d'^id pp 

10 



'^m^^^ibvt OS? T'^K ,Dp''V5ais:p tt2;'»D''V^S3-ti'yD'»iK IK t>K p8s:i''nij 

-D''n8 nyi20!''i''n-ni?o''iH n5?^''i5?^t)*'rf' n5?T to^n ,1939 nHia8"» id21 D3?t 

-i$S3 •'n 8 n«^i5?:^! Di''s^^::)n:n^ iiK^w^n, pK i5?:^n 1938 pK tk ,i5?ii8:mj?T 
0^^ pK ,0'DU tiK nijn ny^n tia ^^in-'no^iK "ivt ^^"^h yim *i''1K lytt^jisi 
5?^2:il'»ntDiig:p K n^'^'^5?^' t:P'>?5?^i:^''n;K n'''i<: S^tr^D^*^ ^^ n^^iK PK ,D5;tls?o.'»lK 

-nsD ny^^tomni nyt322'»3yn:iKn]:)iK "ikd ^^i.^'rtjp •i:s?d5?'?15?i''K p» 8 pK itk 
-n5?T D'S?T pK nyi^Vs-nian'?^^ yi^n n''DiKa'»& 122 n::^ ,n,''n pK aiiDD3?:ip 

is^n 0^11 ,ttr^as?3?t2;s?:^ *'^' ps r^^i^P3?ow 8 PK nmn-n«si » a'»D'''»2: 
tiD p'rpi ot2;t)''n) p& :^ai^"'"'nD^iK n»** 1938 n;^^ pK di^ 78 t^^riya 
I5?i'''i5?i f^H fjTj^c n pa ::iaipii''iii ny7:ni5?Dtri?:2r; in) p:i^T IS^ tos 

ny*T D'?s7Dtr;j?:\2:\5?p'D:iK 1938 pK in u^n: o^it ,:\ayiDtr':i^-mniD n'siiT 
]u^D''n"0:^na pB :\:iip'':i'''»KiKiS 11^1 vb ya^^ia 1^1 T'K tufv^"^ i^^m 

irn 11K ]^mm wt^ D3?t ps p-^npinm d$7t isa ns?:!^'?© n 
lyiiya ,Ain^'7pi5?^ is?a5?:^^'>K ir^t D''t^ ,ij;t'?J!; ,t"»k :\aip'»b''DiKSt i3?^i''to^'':iDiN: 
■linns pK ^aiD*»n83'i'^a p.^ 8 to'*'^^ n5?^y::\*>'>K n5?T 12? pK '?''''D"iJ8tDWi 8 
^'^m i5?i p?A^:^' i^i?t3Wsa:\ypD:i8 in i^iy:^a 5?^^^;3v:^.'?8 n pa p*»t3t:r 
''5?'i3rAnn''i„ n. pa aaiDD^iiKai pK :^iiDDy:ipn8a m n8a liyjis?*?© n ,tD?5?ii 
♦ia85i8a i:s tD^ncusriXi t»t ta^n ^n d^ii ,1^-1^^? "^^ pa n5?p?ya s?trm8"t3^a 
85113 — QTn,y:?DM tia *i8T8'?''S' iyt2;'»D'»^^a n5?t3i8P83-pnsr"'nD lyi 
-^S?a oy^ i^:\K'?miA ,D^iDiy*Tr o-n '7i'?''»ni-tDV3ni o^8t^'// Ti=i P^t pK D^n t^DK 
^11 08^ Dtz;D'»^Di8a ,1939 pK ty5'»t2;"is?7' t>k oijii /'Dim''t3'»ayD'»DJ8 P^P 
-8^2280'"'?8i8''228ii Q'^ia .5?ma i^Dm m n8a tj^r-JK i5?'»'>Dt2; t^.. : m?8£> 
T8 tDiyn DrD'';3i5?0:'»Da8 n^t2;^'"'08i nyT*»,DiDi¥K ny^''^ iimi tt^'^JW*^ 
nyt2^'»tD''^8a r'^t 18a t^i pa n^^SP 8 ]''K in DVii8iii8a.*»isr'?8n5rsja'»K 

11 



/"lins^a tPTip Dyi lis tD"''>2: 
T8 ri)09 TtD''^^ 'i5?mpiy:\D"'nK yiyn-ig:nxi 8 tk .1939 ny^it m^m t'»k oyn 

*l^m ossy is:t35?:i nyiisj t3Kiii:5?Tvn lt2^''T'K ^ rK iiKst2;nK:,s^ pK tsr^ayji^^^ 

"81 V^^wn n tiD D^KH'^K tDyVi5?^"'i!2; tsjim p^D ti^iip t^ i5?»'ipy:^'0'''i'T8 
-on fK tTK ^n t:\yp y"'xnyi30py-*is"it)t2? n; IX i5?»ip tm d^„ 

yu^'»tDyiii$D n^ iiD :i:ip"»^'''DnK& ^yi. p^ii w d5?D'»nt3ti:^ ♦toT'^a^p' IS?iW 

piST'i^ij D^7 im TOD it:^n.''K, D5?i p3?n't2?iKa' rs* si$ t)**^ in t'^srtDtzr 5?3?3?ii 
"sa IS "x^iim K D**^ ts^^ipiscnjit i'?"'SK in p'»i'?i:3?T pi^ o'^ssi 5?PDDy3 

rK T»it2; m ,'?D'''>ns lis ti^ti^n; laoas?,^? oyi tij tf'^i^a' oijii ,tdpk& s;tirn?p 
nsB *i=yiy^s y">y'>n t)j2i^p'7.i$;mKS' oyDOirn^ $rtz^''Dony'?D'»n n ti^n ,1939 
tswi ^''iK yK'?s TO'' T'^ fT'^ lis :^iip"»^'»DiK0 tiH ::iaiDD'»iiK& n3?9i& nyi 



y*T»K rsi :^2iTSDin. lyn is ito^ntopis t^'K 'om^ 5rti?D*»n 5?u"»sii::i n^ 
lis ynJtini2'»K 15?^ 1^,1 T7ii:n iy:iyV3^naiDD"»iii?D 5?t2;n''K""'Dijj: ytzr^aij^iv'^D 
yt2^D'»n n pH ribH^^' ytz;nKii fK /1939 nyMVDSsro: tD"27 dvt 4'?''is 

12 



-D'';a-o^,» 5??:)8rni yA-^^^x^iK n ]i& ♦n*'^^ n 110 iy:aip''r'»9 yD3?^n'»'»w 
12^ iii$?a pn ^ Djnt ,ni''i« ''*T p5?P ii^m t3'T'D'S?:\Din jsrrn D3s:it /W 

5 iymtt:5?:in5?Dim 5?t^''TK y^K ^sri'^K tt:;D'»n 5?:^''D1^, n; ]i& Dyjiipsrsigj'^yyT 

pK 11$'' 12 pD tTK y^:i5 *1^1K n^S^I'^y^' Dr'»'?5?^2i'';nS VK D^l /AiJJI'tS 15?T 

y'?s?:i tD''7i i^^iayi yD'^^1*^ 11D tivm^ "ivT-^v yi'5?'»n *i^ik la^ito 12: is?d^5? 

p'?^5ni ,03?iii:PbiD D5;3n:i' 3?t3*T'T"»i^^i^ n ; '"iD^anJirs :\iK:ii''nJi: nysy^tr^ pK 

tm /taignttp ''n toiSii I'sn ik^ijsi rt'T'K p-'r^^s pK wm^ ^mim^M. p^?t2^ 

-^ijsiiss pK mt2;'»^a yti:^'nn"'22n yiyT:i>i:' ^^22 k t^ ''^ PH yDi^iai^TT n 
n pK yFisn'^ r5« n''K n ps^ py"? 0'^,7 pkdi 122 Dpsrii^jJi^ni p^n^ iy:\ai^ 

0^ ttigin. DVJi:say^^ ♦iin^DD''"»'?'nKS' p;a i^: d^j?. d^sid^a n vt^ iiiiT^PiSfK 
9^T :^5nyp-^ysii:2 wn^x n tk >t3pn^ny:i yp'NiD Dijn pK ip^n^ii tDnrTy:^ 

-nji:& j?pt)D5;nDn3?t)'>ii n *p)^^u {? i^i t:N:ny:\ D^n 03$Dy:^ n pK n''i< ''^ PSJ 
-isa^ DDiT5?:^' T'lK pii^n tTK n- ]i^p ftD^'V^^Kfiia yr'nms:! pK ]y:antt"»i'? 
-n^s S7tr;''SKa •'ir ps tD;s:.^-op"?^s w'^^^'^b n pD n^^r pR nys^ ayi n^yii 

ID**!? ,iTK-t3"»a! n list ]TK n pa- :\inyi:iTa;8: nyDD:^aynDt!^ 15?*t D"»n i)^ti 

♦:iin5?p'?yaKni lytr^ 
-:iaitD'>nAi22 nr'^T toimyisa^ D.''22i3:a n^ ta^ri. ni^'' pnp p'^K T"»iVa' r» 
■Dn*!: iyi^''K:n nynytz^iJjii ''"'11122; tsrrn 1940 nyi^Dp^ v^ pitz; iik ,y''JN:s)a^p 
ny2ryVs"Dni2'»iKii yD5?'?'0''V:2;D''iK o^k ,01^:111 p^'DyDtr^ d-*^ nijii^?:^. to;a'''i2r5?:^ 
^y''2S''a« n''K lyiiyti^n^i n lyrn ,1940 ,"i^iDsnii^a ito-15 nvi ^itk nsa 
lyrn nyai^yn;$j pK iya;s:t3p^ ]^">m ♦^t35?:ii lyi pK n^nP' Dit?S'tnJi;a 
'n ty:\:nKmi22^i p^:^. 5?t2m'»K"D''i i-'K m'»iHnyA i:^i pi^H' y^Vsni /JTk '»t 
-^ic, D'a-'K iy'2ri*>ni? in pK ]s?:^aii"'ixn srAnnynD nr*^T iT^^iija 12: p^pi 

13 



-»K iy:x"»Dif»iD tDis-f:iin-^m n t^h 1939 ipsrii m ^^vpmn "vni^ 

tiK /r'^i'nsr;:^^ t)i>:i oi$-r tiBm^^ :^"»rnn''22i ,1940 ^ynijDpJS fi 1939 i5?i 

?Dn-lD' T'i^ tjN; ''im ,]t).ii5?:\ 5?t2;''^'''is ^miK |is' PK i^nDov ,'7a^'?ti^D'''>^ 
-IJJD Ds?^ n"»m n3^iy:i; fo^iDtr^r^'mJi; n''^ t^^t-'iD 01:^:11,1 nra ons lyi^^n 
-'»K ton- p:]s:n iwn n )m /IS^d^?:^ 15?!' ti& now nvr^bp :i^D5?)2D'»:id?s?i1 
lyaimii^n?! p;rn r">'?ii: iii-'k n ♦D-'ia 15?^? i^npo^ p''2a'»'>K t^^p DT]$7y:^,ns;;:i 
,T»in nyt DID 10 ,Di*«:n *n5?D''in. ^ ^'>n ^^n n nr'i'2''^?2iiN: 113^1$?:^ 
n-'iK p-'ixp. in to^n. Dis^i n 5^ .ts-?:^, iy'?pi7nn 5?P2S''St2; d"»;d: tDp'^ri^i 

PK .^Dp lyi 'isroi-'iK n^^"^^^' ^Bs^^n v^ om 'T'K lyiy'' ♦d-'ID tD"';a 
oKjii ;'i7''K 5?os.^i n^ii^'^'^'^n-Dhm nm ''^ ♦rs^S' id^^ik m^im m^'^v^' 

D3ni^3io'»iK P8'i D:'»2r}i:a n i5?n« *:^:iip'''7'»Di^si iv'pts n>?& ni^ii?^ t);!3'"»t3t:; 

1«ii2?:i^ ,A'»D^2 m: •'11 ,iD:ii?Ai!J-;ssii:.DOs?a yt2?n;''K lis n^^ni ni^ d-'d 

-nj?Tn D^>5 n^m^rs: psws?:^. '?s;*'22ysD tyi^n ys^snt /Oi^to^rri- n' ti? ,D:jrm^^K 
-<ji^^iK vtr^n'^K I'j^. jj 05?S3? l^y^'^t ,]i'^K n pS' :\iip'^V'»Dn^B nj;! lii^) o«,ii 

-jr:^ ixis:^ a'i"»H p^nsrA t3i''B5?;^r'>K ,1939 n5?n)3.yii^i tD28 nyi iiji tsrm 

14 



180 t3!5;>2riD^tDDa"»K Sr^SW^ ^P S D**^ tlX '"'•»r'?^l3 1St2^ni'»K// nSiS:i'»nt 

*i22 ,pm nyiis?32'?M ns?D''in k ly'iip t'^k O'^toy:^ ''^1122 n ftzrniiS :i'inj'»in8D 
-'»'>'?? n5?T pH 3S?nD 5;jis?22'?M: iniT ns?t3^?ps'''n^ x:ii^pn u^h'd p^^ii 

-aiK yw'n n lis- D-'snitz; 3?'?''t3t2^ wtk n^ ,Qnnio pK ttJiJ^^ipsrsD n 

: 1941 pK 113-5^0 

[•TSrn^] ♦ ♦ ♦ ^v^nm r'^S :\^t5 nv'' to^^^i ^^);i\\ D'»iini pa i^s^so^ik di!Jt„ 
SP'*^ ir'niKi' T§3 in p."»iiTD tr?''2 n^ia^c ik ^topi is?t pK fiijnss' t-'K'o 
n «T»iK ♦I5?^^p8i 057^8 ]^p ly^: 1^11 ,t5?;a8ip"^^''str' VD^n pK ns?r*>n-5rs8p 
■^'>'?p 'l^^ ]V^mm v^mv^V r^ ims tyt T3?jai isrp ^atrry*?' px ya:is;t2^ lop 
nn ^DSwnD tj^'^Ti st2^'»DXipi$;DDn8 n.^.^ai^n yDi^s?'? ynso' isrii to:''!^ ij?t 
IS pK i^^'D j?t3'»na5?i o:iJ5:^j??5? ''•^au ♦ ♦ 0's:i Katz^^^V *i"'m ^'KpiDtz^,, S7S8p pK 
♦u08tr95?T5?^ 3?nyD3?n "'^ T'T io'?'''»inJi:Si is^tDo^rpi^ n^^^s^^A' k tis lyaa^^p n 
-on D-j^a: ]iK ,jr.iiT iitz;? tt-j^ji in p?^' tottsraiK^ njan^^i ns^T n^sj?^: ^i*i t3pn& 

tD-^Tij 1941 ns?n;2yxyi pK Di'^niz; m'?n'?v:^:i"'i '?Kii»y P^t ♦(eo pK 53 rr 
tW T'^'K tis^ pr'ni 0811^ ,n^n''na-n^n^'^ ^i33p n^T/. P3?ii' /p^^^ PH ri^t^'^'^i 
•^n 5 t&^iT pK p5?i& iyVD:iP"'K: rpyiis^t in nsroya o^n pK is?i5?^ o^ii 

-»n8 nyi ,oy''2:p8"o^'^ii3:3'*'^i8S' vt^ps^Ti ny^n 12: |Di$nD5?:ii:^ vw tsri^n 
tTK tjafit) p?2t PI opyr pD tp''!2;D''Ti8 uv^ 1^ /ai;T?Tnyn!"»K// iyi5?S'*n2?:x 
tiijii /Owm-T^:^ pK tsriynanKD D12: sTp^i^j^nyiD tiK rs?t:^t^5?^ T''? ^«tD s 
tnf'»'?an8& D'IS'^I' n, m .pii$Tis pk oi?m?"»K t)''nst:;iKSi r'?^ l^^ '^^"^M^ n 

15 



fK n. .]n;y? TWpnDt:;nji:s3i [is?^n] tk nna kii^' ^n n — 5?ii'toDiipDj?Q. 
"•»K n5?n: i&i$iU3?i D^n'o dj^iI' ,yn^jrT dj^i tiiHiins?^ ''n ,|y/3i^^ii: tiik, d^ii 

Di^ ]ti ITK ^^' Ps :!i:iip^'?''Diijs 5?^y^ijp^^& n DD^^^i^^rJ^iyii |ik tiiiuivw 

ni8Dt^i5?ni 

3 

ISDtr^DStt: p'''n^' ^ T1H 1TK S?t2^''^''1B ''t ]12 ^'^SKn^llp''^' V^'^VB "»!' 

1943 T1& "iyJ3'iT mina3?^i?a' in D:i$n pK ,1942 ri^^a. pK ts?^::K3S?^iJJ in to^n 

-Si-^IK nSTT pB tD>'»Sat2^''11iS 1^7 pK ♦tD:!:^^?:^' :S?DT31p^ n3?TlK ''-Ti pK 1?''1S 

"81 H: p^fi /5r''SJi:Tiip"»'7 n^T pa* :\:i^s:ii$ an. t*':i is:t);^:i 1^7 tiD mbvtn^ 
-]jjT^K n ^i^Mi ps^'ppsnit^^ ^ pK ]s:Dy:i i^t pk ]2^b oh^t to^^iiKims o>s 

♦tD''^?-»05?%oy ni lis. tnsxp 0711 n^m n^*!** oym^i^'i^T pK t'^yn iDjjtz^sn 

tIK tDp'»DCTyi nS?rM 5?1V''''T D-'Ja. tl^^K DlSnnnKS* pK: Dl^in'$?A tO^,! tSTD 

"IS tD-^a p'^n D'»sjsu v^^'p^^uo^^ n $?D'7yn ,nait:;;arnn''D p^p 'dhw^ t3'':i t-'K 
05? ♦0'»'>mv:^n.y35?'? p^n:i]s:n tik l3^^^ S^i'^^ii ^n T'IK as^ny:^:iis: ,D'ttonKB 
— ,niaanp wTti v^^biw vi^rn ni8^ r^ t:^''^^'s is hd ,toD8nt)^x 
-UK nw -T^ n5?'n''p-pit iik t5'?K ]ik aii'» — iy"7a"»p pK t$7^iis n^:i^^; 

,]TK toipiD msji^in ^rB n^ •'itj? •'1*^ /i^j^otz^isiisa ")5nw in pk 03? 
$?D5??pi5?itr? 5rir PK la^ri /^DSTA nsrni pK n.;s^ii3?A di^-'i^ikS' p?rn o^ii 
P5rVDSSt2^'?5?r5r:i pD i5;?a."i;8:Q pk oy stdV^tii ,is?^p''iit3i8 D^>'py:\ n^^ta^iK 
-tj-'it) H) iti^'^iis Ts: ,apssi 8 0^7! PK irf .t3^v^i'»DyD"DDai?s?T pK tn^y? 

16 



i570'»t:; -jyrr) '">^Hu;mnDD,/ /'a^wnsrt^'iS^"' /'lyr^^S// 4S?:^iit3'»'>s;. pK ten 
/'m5?n:^, /'pniD nyt// /'nn. lyT// /'T''naai'»iK iv^u /'^ii nyi^/ .(tir''V*'iB! tk — 
n /'xn*»py// /n'^^^rrr naiti^n/, ny^ /'Dip]^Diii?so,/ oysn:^ n /'*iiTDaaiv 

,11s: 1940 ivswiii^i 113-15 nvi r£3' ^w:^ t^'K Dinrs^piis- i^r.^D^r-^K pijn 

n :m:io''Wr'>K ,iD^v3$?^^^i?^' $;^4?:^5?'?"3'*?^n tiK 5?'?^:^^'? 5?^8 i3Xiis^3i!0:'»m 
)^^iVV^);i:k n lyiyD^^^^siHis 121^ ns ,is?ttip'is??a^ns ''n:^m'n)v^^ s?i^Diiyr'»iT8 
■D"'WD m ]is ,'[y''n:y7:ny;3'-'22Ka n lis ^lasr^-ijid'y:^ lis "j^i^Tm^jx n iik 
5?i2^'»T'»H '»"t: vb iD'>vt2^"'^'?5?ni n lis pK ]snixno!'>iK vm'^v^ n pS} D^yirjyn 

nyi!''ii K p^'>imiio'»nK mDn pn ^^t vs^J?*n /y''228T'»a8:\n^-os;asp s?t:;n!^K 

D2^vnyjia'''iK lyr)' i^a ,^i"»rTD.Dimn>Ji:n!-'?''22 ^di^^h^t 1^112; tnsj^n: t;?:^ '»ti /iya"»n 
-''IK isKtz^y:^ D^n ,it3,iKoi5?^in: ]iK tt)2y:;l^!: ynm pK o-^sisia n iin ni^i''3?> 

-to-'n nrn pK '»'*D' p-'Vpi ny^'n iyni3?A i^a^n rir^Dni^s yA"»sr'»K n pa isrn 

Dpn''iii5?:i: 4940 xmit$ pR 1939 m^ /y^ss^sipiS' ^^tTD^'n n,n fiS' iiissais 
]m^b}$B pK n''H p& i^a^Dtrxi PK o^iii ,5;sn:^ ytr^'»DD'»VN::i^''2283n^Di"»K is 
-lytr^n^'K n5?An;$'>-i9 1^1. i^toi pk ij^ts sny^n psj ^^i"''>k pk ^lyi^snsr 
5?n3;'»n pH t)^'»'>2257:\ ia;;$n' "oy22nKDi^;p>, n /'D,^p '»5?t^raR ti^T5?'»)3''t2;THp// nini- 
,pyA'''?yit3a'»K ny:i"'iaDyniiiS n5?t2;'»i"»K i^t pa ?8:.2r s^^^^^tji^ni^ai ii: im 
-1^ pf^ii 'yD?5?ii' /t)'''»>-DDs:KmD'»ni pK n''a5?t:;n''K ,iDJj.p^i™ ,a'»T1t)pp 
-10i8» •'^i pS' Tt2^^ pK ♦toyms yt2;ni5?i'yi2'^iH j?D:^*''>'n'22ii$D p^i 8 t3n''S:»Ji 
pK /1940 nKiiN;'» pK i^-'is pK DTS5?:\Din Dijn ^s>i?D03?:^ n: 0'Is;ti ^iiDOsns: 
nytz^n-'H nsrii pd iyt35?iiii:.to''D p'^n pa ^''Sssid pK Di^'nn on^ pK tsiup 
D3Kiai$?:i)aiiK pK ^ssDOi?:^ i^i. ]^b m^n n pK p^!:a'5?:\a'>ni3J ,p;5rp^3rt3rK 
-'i^a 15?m ''DjrsiiijDisP" ''^ ps^ is?'?pnp yiyii??? 5?D'»n'3?A 15^2^ ♦niijnjrjy 
n5?in5?"'init5> 8 Ds; pk i^i ♦^dsta nis?7 Pk pn:^-t2^n'myt3jnK d.?^ ii^^a 
PV nisnis?:^' Dn''Si5?A:i^ d"»:i js:;03?:i' nynr pK t'»k ,1942 :i^imi^ pn; t;^ ,tDp8D 
sro^'^noi js: ♦ly^n'nns??^' 3?:t2^''2Jjsra n p^?^! n)aJ<p"7i*!:;Dtr^nyT^n' nyDo:ny oitr^ 

17 



-ni*?! n tiD oiaw^V tm oi'72)r"»K. q^t nytoam iDSi'JinnvT tyJiiDy^i, 1942 fj^ 
"Sansp 8 11B r^iiTJiJiipo^iK; 13?^' "im *iVm n^t;$ y22"»Dtz; f'K ov yD'?$nt 
tD"»Ti3L D5?7: IIS' iiiria. TH i^'^SK ,mis?p?ys8n! i5;ti^'>b"»iS' n^?^ 1-22: nm 8 d^):> 

->!:3 'r^T n ,:)i:in5?p'?5?S8n' ^w^bnB n5?T 121: in n^^i'^ 12: :\''Dni ISS' 
DiijD :!ia'n':isni pK fins''iK ^t^ to^^'^i liU^sx *n^K ns;^' o^i^ iD^^n 

/'l^-'is TK Dipmn itz;n'>K p.yn di^^i p^k 

-D&axp v^'^T^ •'i 11 TSK11 ^7^ v:knrnwm' k t^'''»D:i2:a'»^K in pi^tDa^ '^T'^ 
-aT5?iiS8 ^^' ♦:^Jii'?p"'iim8 liy^'n t3.'in'»'78iKai ii^m ti^n ,t$^n ns?n! v^ isii^ 
n^i ">yD'»iK niD ttr^nyS'^yp iii''t3p8 Tt^^nnsriSDiiK piniD'*''^^ 8 ps tD"'^^ 
t3'^'»pn8aan8n')am ^5?Dt2?n,DiibD lyi psni yias?:^^?'? i^t to^jsi I5?^ii:n22 /8t^5?A 
PSn itJi5?:^K-8S)8t30V^' ytr;n^K n pK ny^t^si-i^Ti"' ''t s?d'?'371'^) o^^ssi n pa 
"Das ''t T^.»8Ti28^n8D 12J ^''iK topn''iiy^ tn^n (tt3'»nsiz;i8S' i2r p^isn.jjrAt)'*;^ 

4Dya ny^ t'^K ^"'22,KT''aK.m$-D0^Kp 17t2^''T^K 1^DA''r'»K'^8S 8 PS aai'?p^11 

-'»•»» *i5?T TK tipTiiw, i2^n Ts?:;ii^^^DS?22-*>''Di8S |1H p^Vp yDa«5"i;s?iT n 

♦ai'iDDn i5?aj;A 
nsTT tD§ PK aansnasr ^^ly^wms ]k ts?;D.ip^a fK ,1942 aa^sa^ d^")3? 

tD^n i5r .i$'on n ttwiit3t:^y:^s'»iK t:^^;a to^rr /D'?yii^ v^m^ n (D?o^nD 

-yjl tDi5?T'anaiyA im ,1942 181^8^ l^K /D"2J nyiS?a"»^K n5?t 12{ ♦D'»'»p'183an 

56 I3'>n uv? * 
18 



pni'^jja nsD nin Dv^ TP *iy*''^T n''iK t3^?ydirs?:\i '^^■s i3>a laii^jn yD^yii ,(yn 

pD mp^r">KnK,& "^5?^' 152 tDI-'D O^ill pK D^TK lS?'?0i'»312J DOp^ll OJJTl niSDt2^ 

Diyii iKna^rs' nioi ,]sn:\> 5?t^n^Si^5?P ytr^K^'^DiKS' 3^i5?Ttr^iss' S7t:^n.^K 5rb» 

n5?D3?stz^ ♦ri'?nni fiK (♦o .s) 1^22 •''pyis ,T5?i22n rvywn ,ii">22i-»?yi3 5;pa*»^ 
T'lK ly^'iav in tiD'^w ,t5''^22-nsrttn tis y''22p8-:\aiDsiD''m i^^D't:;i3? m is^ 
n5?DPi^''KnK& i5?i ]iD ,1942 nys:^tDpi$ TK :ian:m:i n^ri d>d ,11$ 'niin,, ny-u 

']om n^ I'T'saiH' ti^ini^:\ais o'':!23s:a n ii^m 1942 "»it» 1^022 on 
ns?,ii3?i2^nKn ^sr-r n& Mnsrp'?s?2Kni i^^ti^^'TK ^m^^m 15?t pD :^:iip"»?"'Di8D 
IPS' ''21'' ]DD22 D'ais ,:\s?tD v:iV'?PV^^' r^t^^nnm'V^K iid it:;;a pK .jsjdsta 
PK ♦'[T'K t):iT^id 300 DD:i5nns?:Dii< isr^nirinyn ^n tn^^n n5?:3iDyDsyo id21 

-Dnn T>K ns? p^3?ii' D''^. ,nn''22:n 3?tr''^^^''t3Dyni n: pH 7n:^;3-op''7^S' pjr'piyT 

-isi^^iw n' D^ m^^v:^Diin' p">'7K in^n yD^i?iii nyn^nt:? pK ivpn^t)0'M 
5?tmn'' tiK ''i2r"»Disa/, D';a,i^i?3?^5:''i: "^^i:!^)? pK •'II) 5?DD.''tr^:i n^^: pK as?D 5;do 
,]n^iD p^ tji?! D**^ 1^ ri^J^ *iS?''''K in DD^'A (^'5?t2^iN:,ii pmni/, D'y'^nsris 
8 t).^n3?:\ la'isjn^ o^i^i ''t vn Tt?' '12^^*^^^' P?t i:s: /ti^''p:iD]s:?wi8 pK np t3'»;:a 

-•'n^l PiaSTDlZ^ 1KD l"?^! ll^D-Op^;ISS' D)?l; D^' 12r niD*>''t2; PK DU 5?D^S?11 
,155?^ p'3?'?DS|i;t2;b^T3?A. Dn '[D1^S:2''>KK1 122, D^''p3i^?:\iy^ n^T^'' 115 nS?11 tDPtD 

/TiV2^''ni^?3 122; n:D DiVi p^iito ito22y^ tfa ?:i,t?2 tin V""^ tD''!a. p'^aijrp is pK 

'T'lSJ^aKD^J fK Oiy T3?11 IWP t3''a plS^T OaDyin^^S yDS?^iy'T'''1t2^ jrD^STS TJ? 

♦tympn^ 
sr.2'?V22i^'^K n pi^ni .y''22si'^iip^'?""l08»: i^jumiv nyi d^ ps '■]m^ rn 
♦ttops TiSt)ti;i5?T''ii vivDjjB ^'n s t)i^S37;^Din ^,^5?:^' 15?t pa isnA-osittSP 
Tisr 1^ D;n''S'^:iDnii i^v^wp :5?trn:^K n' ini^n 1942 iid ns^^it d'^is iti^D pK 
jj pB topK n^i; TJiK D2D''''22:iKSi nita'?3?:\m ♦tS?^^nii2fi3?DaiK D^i^Tairr tu 

-»^npiK 1^ ''^S' op'"»i ^. piny:\D"'i:T^ o^n o^n ,dvpii.^'?k2 pd Tt>K ^ ps pK 
T^ ,:iiii25?3^''n>?S' 3?t2;''t30i^D;^i30! n^^i tn^^H! Dyi fin ♦pij,^D2ij t^k pK m 
pK ti-'H n; iiai p^'nornK qs?t /';:i2i'?T'n5?n:^K// lyi^ d-'^ rianraiiijsi pK 
pK p?2S?innK0 ,Di2{ nsiW' tip''t2;pns?n''K tyi^n -jn yD^jrn pK ,iyi;s;aiini n^ 
pK p«itr^i;5?^ t3oii'»m unin fi*?! iid iii:?,;ai i'^k D;^2:Ji:i n p'^rr .Kpi'^^a^r'^D 
yio'ps p?iw Tsr:i''n s?is?Dis:t^ii?7 ytjDnsrn n w^d ♦]i,"'k 4,517 ^uyn nyn 

19 



ytt^'^xsi n T:^yp T3^t3ti;iy'T»ii k D^yDtr?yxo^nK pijn o^ii .^^"^ v^^vm^ 
*?>nt^'' nsrS'^yp *iyt to«n 4942 ,tDDt:i*>iK id20 ayn n^iys oy^^ !'»» 

njTDtny 13?^ r^ t-^k ^J^i;Dt^^nK-lD.J?tt t^'^p is: lyn^ ♦Kp:i"''?nisnD r'^P nyi** 

-yrii^D 13''^ TWO" D^nnKs ,5?^^!:;niK 5?do:i:'»dd''1i n m /'v^^m piiny/ r^ 
Dsn iiK D'^'^paDi^nnnx nvo^ni^i nn ns?o'»iK ;iaxDtra''iK-toK;3' pv tvJJ^ip 
i^ri-js n// D'^1 ^topjjs: *iy7 lyi'im vk .pyV '?p"'Du^ Dyi^rr-^K 11m PS^^trr 
-t3^''x pax^ K iiD itz^^i t-'K fix ,n^iiy:\, D^n'-'iip-''? tyrn D^!:'?pn5?DsmJi: ps) 
D1X t")''T''i^i^. iiH n''T''^^n^» /ism ^jj:t Dy n$ni lynsrri t)^i t"»k ^"^wb^ 

ijn riH /1942 nyn^Dp^ 1D.20 d3?t ^ir-^DiKs ytr;"»D'''7p vP7an'»tDDnp3r sr'^S 
Ciyr"»,tty:^'?3s:) 15?^ /'a^tz^,, fi^ 0'y''SJi;T'»:K:i.i^-«i^Njp 3?^^: lis- aii:^'»:^'>Kii43 
a^Dtr^DNiD lo-'niw K T»m WT7p''iit:aK ny^ pK $?''22KT"'aji::^n^-n;Di(p lytzrni^K 

nytz^nny^iyDam nyi tis tpyii o^^r pK amy^ps-'iK n ,:^:nKs-)yt yiyD'»i 
iUtDy:\ lyti pK iiDpr^':i^^tDt!;'iyTi'''n •'t tm ,vdvis nyt2;n;'»K tiK "iyi^"»ny:i^8 

:m /i:a:''tD^ ym pK Di?n^y:^an D:iD''">2riK& nya;3yii.i^i ids orr 

UDirryjiJ m^ lyj^' : *?!? p-^H ty;^' tjnyn /DT-y^i ty?a< lyayii D^'n,, 
,oii;:x pK p^:io^'»ini5 tDi)'Trry:xt DiSrT;^! ,:i:iiVi;''nyi''K *i$?t i2r p^'pivi t3t:?'>: 
♦lo^n ny:iy"' ^"'IK i^tik m Piy^i^ ''*T' to'^nS'^iK ,y'^^ n^^s^iytDiiK 

n^» lyrn D2J'»X .tJlPID 300 p'^p Dt^^^a nyi^, MXnp lyDit'^ID lyA 

"DUp nyum .DVy^^ ny222i?:A nyi: ;*>Kfli n;t:na in nsnn tD'»)D: Dp5?i;s:i 

in Tia: iD'^v 11K Ti''p ni)i:Dt2^iywi J5 I'?yt3t2? t^D n;3. d:s2"'k .nm 

/'KlIU^ Dyt iiyp nyii 

T^x ijDya iynyt2;ii!mi iH' t^h '7a>i:Dt2^S'^iK nyDisis^iijSi lyotz^iy nyi. 
p^n D"»xi?:i n oipi ,y''xrTi^ip'»^ lyD^nis^ ^y-r ps it:;;;a px t5?;aipyan«D 

20 



y"»ii^'tt}<p wt^'^n >?, ]2n:^5?^aiSJ V)^n 64 s?"?"*^ ti3' ysn:\"oa5^ip' » ♦iKnay^ 
-v:i")«& iy:i^n io''iDtrr25?.J2^i2j: yDisi^iKi 5n3?oyi^ .toiiSjimiDi^ n toijii pK 

63 41 ,34 V?"^^' 44 ypOll^aKll^i ,56 tIK 40 n^naSTDKT ,]1T^^^ H' pK 17)31 p 

,lKii ymi'^n n T-'K ,3?P'0'»i tm qssjmyTD^iiT r& py ts'^ik ,22 vpoaKpD!!c:ii8;i& px 

Q'liD s?DD''tzr7:y rn t^K !i:^''?a.ns;p *ioi"' ♦rr Drnir — /'^isj^; fDiti^is? Qi^r,, 

D12J .^^n ]iv:^^K Drns?:^i»inK toi^n n'^M lyD"':^ iia 3?t)ynKp srt2rtD''n n 
-r'»K ,t'75?''i^' lyDaiH ni3? iv^ T'm t^is' itz^D'^n t^rtp t5??2i tD^n. ^15x2 ttDtrny 

Dnyp2i2i fH r^^^'^HK mr^v^ i<!i^' d^'^^-^d^t-oj;// ini^n bt^n. fDtr^r ais ♦^•'ip 

♦iaKt)'ti:^'S'»ii^"'ii!:i^^'' Q'l''^ d:^,'''?'''>dki in ]i^n isrS'WP srt2^''^|^H i57Daf»iD 
tD2i oyi) iy:^2iKn223?3ii is^ii^:^ Ttz^D^n n tyrn/, laKDtr^iym Q^T piii:!'^ 
T^i'?!' iiD Kp:i'»?n3;nD r">p ]p''t:^o"'nx D5?*t i^i "s?22pj< n: iD^ni5?i^K (nxus' 
v^T^'in^n n^ rs^ lyjii'ipi^:! nsrs^srp yti?''^^^ n 11;$^ 1^221^7: ♦i't»k 5,600 

y'»ssT5r"'Sii:T'»aJi;:^i^-n^Kp nyt^^n'^K njrn' ps t^T^Dons i^Ti /'dji^id s p^n^ii 
D5?"T pj< :\anyiaynyn'»K yi7:i:^"'22.i^is:ii3?n n ♦idpjs:iiis;:\d.''1K :in'?8^iii fK 
DT)anpo''iH ijr^^P'^iS' in d^iI :i2n5;p'*?7SKni ivu?'»T'H istt r& piponK 
pK rn O'lST ^^1 lytt'ip^iiK n» T5?»^ n'^m ♦D'»v^'''2i'»iD§i r'^P 5 t):\.''DDysKa' tiK 

♦Hiw p^'Di^i p-'tti D''iD im 1^5?^ T»m ^;^^!:p 

pK DD"'•'roa»^!fp d^t iD'^imi^ss ''^n oy''2:p^;-5r''onsnii''T v^5?T't2^iKs tT0 
-DMXp 5?tr^'»'iiSDXPKn8is. i? nn''iN:mu: •'n ♦5?''2r;Ji;rax:\.*i^^-D*!!;3iN:p '»7 tp'»Dt2?iVT' 

-»3 n 1117 '»n iTnns d''"'S iv^va'^^k i^y ix j "sr:^''? ytr^"'DD'»ii;aijp-'t)ai5/, 
SDynnS' 8 ]TSoi!iT ,]'ba3?n5?tD oy-'X^sD ,]Bm ^tr^D^n n p& D'^Dicny? 
tiK toynrui! n"'^ n' 12: m^:t 15?^ ihh ,rVm^ t^^v tD.tz;n»a^D ,":\ni'?7nnyn''K// 
t?8s pniss ^''onsnv-T tin 5?tr;n^DKp^n^i3 5?Vk n lyn;^ ♦D^'^pisran 
nsn PH y'»22jsiriii:3ii^-«i?3SP i5?t2;n^K ivi^ m to*»''piDKDNtit 15?7 parr}? inn 
nyti/nm ny^ra^:^' nyi ps tao^'n ]t2;nys»yp ]ik rnDoiKHKn idpvti$?:^£3'>ih 

♦:^aiiyp''?s?s??n 
D38D D'^v'iS^^n s?t^'»DDns?'?DM n. toitjn 1943 ns?;3i p& iij^n. yo^nts n* 
tiK "isitr^pis?ii>/ O'STBra *y"'spriri5?t^ 5nyD5?n:\ y?s?^2i:ysD. » i^wnyttiiK 

21 



"83 s inn T'^^^i tDT0 ysiia-DM.ijp' ?t2;''TH n is?nij ♦PiaTisi 11K 
"83 8 tD^n ,n£3nini'»K ni?:i'»nK 6 ,riyD |di3 d^i ♦'7i8totn;s?Tii tDiSiXii 
S^"'» JT»iK T22Wp^sni s?t^to"'n n Di''p'8t38 ^&n:\"oi3^Kp v^'^vt^ 'inm^t^ii; 
♦TTK *i'»iK V8Sin3?:i''K ]8 t3n''S37:^D"in tnijn •'n lyii ,mvm^ ayi t-^k d8:i 

njrswp stm,''K n nmi n^'^'i^?:^' tDiisKntoaK f'K nyom 8 Iik ,is''1'?D::i8 
n iiD nya"''>K iiyn8 .]S;iti;p">^it n *iVm i2i tyD>ipy:i, lyrn d"»'»'7-''*ov-.os?// 
12: ^85a''0' Oi-^s Dan^i^ii D8n d^i 41811'^^ t)3?'7aix,iin83 t'^k D^'^'^-^oy-.o^y,, 
♦«I^8P pit T8 T'T tD"»^'t:; t^^K 5?toD^m 3?'t3it2;i3i ♦a'»5''^n n h-'Ik in Tsn8ii 

pjnis tD;^.'»'>^ 11K ,iiTT D3?t s:8 t)a8^t2^ '2m;i iv"^ I5?a8 /toa8n pK iv'^'W^ t)''^ 
pK it2;D*>n ''^112: pm •»ni?D''ti:^ n5?:\''D^''T:i^'5?P 8 PK ♦d^''?%d^-*o:s? '''*ii22 d''1d 
->n»8P 5?tz;n''i< n ♦•»"»r^8S- 037tr'^'7''iS;) i^niKDxaKnix ^^y^ pD i5?'T^s:tz;D''iK p^x 

♦i$?&:ttyp pm tn'»iVn8s to8n y'»2:8t'»:i8:^")8 
■n8&"^18^^"'|li^"a^''l1 1^2' ''T l^''S.K T8 "^itK /^^^p |yb8PVi& wm^ VK 05?- 
D-'i nsr)^ in i^yii n^K ^^ m ^p^'Dtz^iKs tonay:^ tn'8n' syp in:;^228^ 5?t3S^.ytD 
125 Ito^n:^ 15?»!i^y:^ in p^H' o''228:i ni ♦nto'^nitz^ lyi' is: fosytz^ •»ii its v^b 

.^:i^b^ ]D'»n:i 8 122 •'H ,y'»2:p8"AiiD8io*»iK njrDSs?^ im 
py:\siy 1^j:i']m T»r t)8n /D'^n 'T'JC ps ,5;'»2r8T''i8:\i8"*l^8P 5?t2^'»T'K n 
/i:!8t3t2^S''»iKn8ii8'' D'i'iS' tD^V38iw ti8 'nv^yQi n p5?ii Aii^^Dsn y^iny:; 8 
,D'»2J83 ''^ ps ^8snyi^K-^aiD.8no*''iH n^y.^ip 012? iD^n:^i2: :^n5?n's;a in no 
-jniKD ,s?35?^n5?T"^»' P8^ D)''X82 n T8 /tDDiKii^?::^ ton! D8n 8t35^^ ''^T •7^n'^ 

♦nm 5?*?S P& i^np''^'»tDi83 ny3y?38P^iS' n8Si p?:\iitD'>n 
t?KS:8^:D0Ki38p ;d5?t ti'»D^n8:i 122 :^''D'»ia tyny:^ r*»K iDt^^iy Qy'?8 Q12: 
-::i:i8n^2t tDX^^?yia.''n8 t38n y'»2r8T''i8:^ni8"n^8P yti^n'^K n ♦nyiiy:^ pK ^':ia8?!:> 
D'^Dnitz^ ,ns2:^s8"''^^^^P ,]D:i8^ipysD ,iy7iiyn"5?toi'?Kii «T»iK p?:^Qny'''>Dti^'>3 
tDnr'>Dtr^y:^"»'»ni :^inyDD^ma^ iD^ia^ i!i8n tti^tJiy^' y'Ditr^s tiK ,ib}$:^ ytr^D^m pD 
-ayti'' pD v^'W ''"^ ♦tD'>nnt ti'?yDWia:!: p8n' nypyi ♦ii ^18 ♦k :\31i''s: ,^bv^ 
-n38")B0p'y T^JK rt)D8?3' nytz^D'^n in i8s t);a''Dt2;8ai tyiiy^ fK o^ii m^i 
y?8 '»Ti 138 *Dyto8'?T DifiD A•»'?^5y!!r yiDy^toy t)*>^' Dnyn:iirr — )i^'\m t^TK 
lyayp in V^t y"»S8ri8^'T8"0s^^^P' ^^''TX n^ t8 /tDDy^wmyt t)8n i5?^D''/iDi 
♦V'»i''iin8 tiK nyiiya iD8a8T y:\mD'»n8i' TS8Wi'''»K 
ip:i">m2i:s8 t"»H /U'ryDtz^s?:^: in t>8ni n8t2^T„ 081*1 ,y38:\i3'''iK yD'^nis: n 
"8t3p'8 PK ♦iDiS?A8"8S8t3Dy:^ iiK 0.i8DKp8ii8'^S' ""i' ps riJiiitr^ D':iid 8to3?x n 
-8»"t3ri^yii'» ]iK t3a5?:\8 nytz^^dony'p'DM lyT ]08t2^iyt msni 1942 lys 
-8*7:''iip'»'? nyi D'^n iyTS':i8 iyt2;^K'''»22^'?8s ^v^ P^ t^^'^'^s 'trw^ i^d 

-ya 8 tlTSy:\D117 Dnyil) 1943 n8n:2ys V^ *f VP^'l^b 2'lpH'' y''Xp8"y''2: 
TS /'D^y2J'»St2; ytr?''t3'»'?8S>/ ''T pS P"»tO ni'^D H^IK DKtD2yD8 nyi^Ail? 

Dyt «T»ix } tD,yTOKiin8s nyiii^ Diyii nyr'^i^ pK tD''iu fj'^iK ]D8ii^i5?i: piyii 

nyii it38DayDaK y?8 •'T ♦5?ny7i8 ti^^ ^^''081 '7yns^8 m Diy:\8"^8ttDy3i 

-83^ lyT pK tD^T38nii8Si •'uya Dnyit '?8S •iyny'» ''II /ayT58^ toi^&psm 

♦Djn8i'^yA pK D-^iD D122 tD^'>'>Dnmn8s t3iy:i8 i:yi:!S3nD 

22 



''n tVis^t I ts?jaip ''n t^^t ♦:\ni''mii nsri rn ton^'iKp^KiaiKS in 'iD'i'^ii 

iV'^'^m :i"'iH ! TD lyi nyt:iM ttD'?KnKn rn ^^^I'l T'H tyii /I^d T';^^ 
T»iti7 ny f^K oVis^n nv?a'"'2r t'^K s^p rn ip^toii;rnN: tosnt- '»n r^ 
is?7' r'^T T'K ^5?n *Tt!;SiK ,p^n ]'»'»n lis iVks3i t^yii *>n pa ts?5? n5?r'*»^ 

TS)Dyp 7P:3?p toyi'i nyD^s^ii .wiyjD *i.srt2^n.''K /lypinstDt^^ n5?2^'?]SDt^ nT"*:! 8 
tiK psrVtz^Daytt' j^i^'n pD rt2^ TH :Ti5;:i'i^ T»)3i^^ tiK /'tn:3?V' 'pn iisi pti^ pK 

♦5 
J943 ,'?n9J< Tt3l9 D5?T IST^IpS?! T^'iC IX:]?^ I'S^D^^^I^^ ^V^T 

pjj:i pK DDK^i nrn ixsi -iSDyi^ k n3?n 73?P Tis:t3tr;&''m jjm m ,ti>(n;5?:\ 
n^DVyii /Sis^^si^toD -^iiiisriyi^t '^^n iviiyt2;isii lyi tis p^^Vn nyi ♦jrt^ijpi 
^'pnsK tt)i7 Dyn; STtzMKH; pv fy^ips?:^, ^iiiy^n^iKD o'is;^t)M n>iK pk 

TS ,t:\isT ''n,, Ti?. rto^rtoDnsa ^^^^ iw s^to^KKi ys'^ini v")^im ''^ PH n3;t2?^£j 
-0"'ii^ nv^'^m^'f^ ]K lis Si^'ini^ i^t ns^ii^ l^P ^w^; pn laKDtr^snK *i$r7 
nnitz; 77:5?^ tk ,tD3nKi r'i pK Diy^pnjn susjijitoo. /'ytr^iJtii pK ^^SDtz; 

D5?7 IKD T''^^ ''''0' /ytl^n^H pH tS?)aapynp. tDp'K-ll>i:Dt2;i5?l;"'11 ^tr^'^lNl^DIKB 

'V^iV^'^K in ta^fi isnrDs^iKp 5?t^"'^^i9>/ : loa^'nt:^' S:^,^1ido ♦Q5?^3ip ^^d 

11D) ttOJa^ •'T PK lOinW^nN: in pK tD'''»V-^0^-*D5?/, ]1S ITl^Itt' pK IIJD 

l'?S&3?i^o''iK *Ti8:iA fK D;$n /"^ns^ tDi9 nvi .ri^^i^a t^ik niS^^iy^ Dja-'DU^n' 

23 



^•n'^s: ♦::i^.DDt)*^in5?:^ v'^r ^'l "ijn^B// ti8s nim o^s .niDs sny ,to''5 1^^'' T'm 
*i5?t2n3"»n p0 ]Diini y9S''22s?sD 15:1''^ ,^nss |toi9 ]m^ ms ww /Ddj?:'»'>3 
•JDK? w»ss?SD n IIS' tiK '»'»s"»^^s os?ti:^''^''is) lynKD^mia /yns^nytasM 

t3'»iSA Dtp 4"is?''i»"«:t3yx yDy'?nyO''>m n m^H ((ois 75)^ lytoy^ 25 yiy*' 

8 »•»» inyTisiKiA yDinn^D^j^' ,nyny:i"iy 221x0 TyaK'''?^.Diti '»^ni pisn 
"SDsrinyw-ritz^ "Dy-oy„ nyii ?f^yr0^ 6 id^^ ikj^. 228 110 taKDtr;'Kn 

"82 SnyV'^OnK TS J ny22''0^^ 3 D''b TOSHD 137 ; yny^^^Sn'Hp 110 l^**^ 
tIK ♦ly^S^B^iy 110 llll^jn^l D-'D ,ny2r.''S^ 2 11K ITy'l^lKp 22 D''^i l^.'^^^D 
-•'K D^T 12: D'»'»*tl5?A122 T^t pljn tD^*^?-Dy-Oy ym;'>'?^^DKn! n 110 5?DOiy)3 n 

♦iy:^:iin''H y'?y'»22y0O' 110 10^11 n''0-'»n.^ inn ^.Dy:^' i^t t]^iK ^K0ns?n 
D1S D'»nay:\; t2;nyi''0 t»ik in D^n y"'2rKT'»i^{::iiij:-»n^Kp yii^n^K n 
-08^180 t3iA n: pk isnw f'X iy0/5Dyp s?t2;n^x n, 11s aKDiz; ny^ ♦UDjj^ty 
n-'iK 71 ^mv'? n^iK; :i:!K::io'»nK ?yaiD i? d''^. ,74 iut:;^^ »T'1K: nyp:iii idtp 
n ii!8:ni ,Vn08 ID19 10'»ik idi8 0^110 ,D0Ji:a'»'>i 2:i5 ♦u^n lyt^^nK,/ nyi 
^"»n Dy^i2:np ^^^^^^^©yionK yiy^n 1^12111x0 riii^ i0n:ii-D0mp 5?tr?n;'»K 

-61 /41 ,51 •'p0i"»VKm: /lO ,8 ,4 ytr^D^DD n">1K IS^Dp 110 lDp':l0-bD'»'?U^ H 

n .lom'^B^^n •'ir b tonDi^r Dy-r iDis:'?t^y:\0i^ p^n yD^yii; ,74 ^tz^y*? ,63 
n rK pyiii^ T-'K 11K i!s;:i:ia"'iKiii VT^ DT^?iK0 Dijrr :^iiiyp'?y0Kn! y'r-'H^x 
5;t3'i''p'O:N:^nii:0 ^y'^syso iik ony^yp ,DWT'in' ,it^''»ayD^ynKn! yD'^myai:: 
-'T'»Dn80 ,yto3SD;$m3 mnv:^ ^^n "iya'»'»K nv-iy'» tjyM yD'?yiii 110 ,Dnypiin 
'^ im 7aijDM"'iR D12? I0n0''m ini^!:i t»t pis:ni mm ^^n n T'IK ny3i 
isra'^'n ,'?n0{j itDi9 d^t ,:i8toiK0 ly^^nK opyr /ninD d"»,;3 p^i^tiir/, ly^iir 
nrr r^ o^^tD'>iK-ny225:ss' IIK lypa^-D D''^ iyMiy'»D0^ ytz^n^tD'*'?*'^' ytrm'^n n 
-Ka 3i^n D^-^ni ny'»iD in : iDpa:i0 ''n^ iw ^Dy:i ri< rns a*'D'''»220'''»?i r^'Str^ 
niispsnin 110 tj^'n-Dimi is?^ Tin iik «i^niy^xT inn ,'»p0'»'?kiik5 i^k oypiiyb 
Dy5yo^■t2?Da^!: IK n-'iK iD'»iDt2;y:\;:i;$ in itz^D^n n )2^n IDP110 •'m y'pN: pK 
nsnayiaKt 11K v^'^h 110 :^ii2::'»np lyT ^''i nii^DtriyT'ii it3nyD'»n*iii:0 iik 
110 ]DS38nJi! 110 nr''0 iDT'iDiysi^p K D:i0yyx iy0^yp yt2;n"»K n p^n 
n nnK iDp'"'^ 11K nyii'r^im yt2^^D>i:.^ij:i^''i^ lis iik :\iiDya'iKO'»iK '^yiyr^K 
Dij 11K ,nnaiJ!D; yr^ia yiy'^n d-^d t:'''»?-''oy-Dy/, n 110 ly^n y:!yD^'?t2;ya 
n ri« T*^ iD'?ii;n4i:ni iik n^ni •'H in pn'^i^r n^^bvn., yt2;^22Ki yD'»iia n 
-122 "^n ly^iip nytjy0t2^ '?'0'»D;n: ♦nyt'»M yPK^"»niyi n, 110 pynD iik ivm'^P 
nvwfsi ^i'»2J D'';^' yp^D^-py:^' lyt^n'^K nyn; tk nya^ /iypai(D d'';^' pn 
yny^Tis n ♦tD^Ji:t2;3^!;J^l nyi to-'jo iy^Kn2r Dayi:iiK0 piKD lytot^^ny nn myii 
i2t nyioayya i5?;aipi2: ^n^'^i vw pKiii oay:\$irny2riK0 n iik lypa^i^tD ^ni^2: 
-i2r in 1^2? itz^D'^n n ♦y^22ii:fiK:^ni$-i^i?p iyu?n''K nyi 110 oy''2jn^s n 
♦tos^sioy IIK i'?''»ip D'^D 3i2io^mai "iyDy^03n.t) nypriioD nyi nytDiiK p"»n 
u'^rm t^**!' ''tr^D"»n rn< p'>p t^k nKn=:iy;D)i:T '"?yDyp>, 110 T>ic ,m^ ^mbviv 

24 



♦yDn^1K11:18& pi< 5?D'»1D 200 ITI^ 

o^i? t3iD^"»2rKi Vii:ny2S?:ii nytr;;"»22Ki n^T yD?5?Ti^ /nys?2yp 5;t:?'''?'''is. d'^id. ism^^'^ 
5?^iVtd^">ii n DiyD^biD-y:^ pijn ny&n^i:i'?^ip D'^^n ,1^1 ta^'iK /"iDnaxi/, 

n^i225?::i")S?t:iiK T^JK ri^nijiiD lyii '''^3 /'Kilt:;' iddkhks ds?7 py? /t^'S?^ Q122 

W in o^H// t:7"»tt.iyp f\w m p& VDS^ti'"y:\ n5?DS?'?TS0''ix iv'i^ \:'>^b^ 
15?^ psi finsi tx'»TpSDi Tigs ]K D"»^i DAina5?")^s l^mp ''^^ liS' :^^t3 isr^tz^is? 
tD^i5?;!y 1D''1K t^iiya D'':i pit^ pk DDj^n^D ♦ ♦ ♦ y^2:Kr:l^i::\nl$"Dl:Mp ns?tr;n'»K 

"1K"'^K ly^pnt^ D^H' Dl^li TK ,p]$T 122 An5?l*'K /'^\:i^n p">K PV^ IStaS?:^, p;0 
I^^IV D'ilSJi ta;aKp H' pS |D*>D pK: plt^ .pKIDKO. y't2;^22K:i ytz^D^n n Dn*'^ 

"5ri5?A ,T»^n lyi tix D^a^s pn tiD ii^;ns?:\ D^rytsr^si^nN; nv^Hon^js pk :ii8:.t) 
nsTTsa^ lyDp'snn^ o^k VTii^^a^p n tytti:iy^.iyn'''K Dijn ,p^?K s^^.^'^oo 'i'sn 

♦y''2JpKnn^^ip"»^ 1^7 tiD 

*iy7: pK nto-'^an n'»iKtr ny^r pD n^j^p ttr^n^^ri ]D'»niij:,VA n^aKi r]DV^"JS? 
n^K3 tyi^yi PK T:KDra.'»iK i)?tr^''ii$;DO'"'n' 1^1 t)^. tk ,p^T ix :\i23?:^' ♦^:tDS?:\ 

n DT'SJ^ailS: D^n 3?^22H!T"».lp1i^"ODZ2Kp n yD'?^?^' PH ,7IKD't2;S'''1K-Dp'?p^ K 

pK nynis: ,^'^'^p]D'>ibvn nyDDDOTi in pK y"':i:5rDii:iDD n3?r'»& t3'»D iddik^i^ 
/:ian3?pVysKn' s?^ya'''?2'>K3' piy*? 3?22ik:^ n. D':i:''^^'>D:i?ai in to^n oy npi'^yii 

4ypa^ttny.22msi 11K •»'»nnti: i;yn:5r^!^^' •nyii:^yiii5?n'''K pn tis t)Di^,)D' i5?2J:ij::i 
px ny&wp jrt2;n"»K pinxi t5?W to-'i i$r Dyii |yiK?s3s:i5? p^ 5?n3?^'''DnK 
-niK/, :'?5?SKi' itz^'':ii8:'?ii^^D oyii p:sras?:^0'"'nK nnm ^^n 15? ♦t)3N:'?ti; ny:5?s^ 

"SnilKS ! OnS^plll pK l:yt^%T DSI^- 1371 pK |0''n.S'»1K' ! ^DS?A. n n'^'^^riSTD 

''UVsriitD *»! m 'O'^n iDS'»:\n^.& !it:;D3y^ sriyto^Kn^n; n D''Mn5r:ins?ay'? w 
nsDtrr nyn: is )^t^. «T'm nypm pK ]y?-3iipy:\,;2iK tya^n •'^iiiia ids ds?t 
-DS'i pytti"? ,'?'5?:^'n n:i.t:; ,pp^Tis ^ii^'^d ,t2;D'»ii;sr^y'*2i? •'D71». : lajjDtr^s^ix tis 
T''^ nyto"»''ii T5S^ to'^jjn «ittKp lyi npi^ ♦yiyiiK tiK lya^'^it. psnii^ /t3S% 

25 



pnii tofnirjin in iitn^a s v^ py^'i^ ''^ H'^p^^ |sinroi3;a«p wd 
-yiD^iK ijDsrA rn n»sp ^rr t'*!^ p^^d T»m ♦tD^">b-''oy"D5// n 110 t^ji^isp 

/tTDnpJsn 122 t:i'»iVnyi in tDijrpyji ss^^itDOi Dip •»8n tt3i6 oyr tou^ny 

^n in ins^n iD^sp n ts ^^k mn ny^ Tsrn? ♦ymsii ti& n^'K '''t )^B :km 
nss i''^K D^iT t$^v^ i^'wv'^^m nn r^ *TiJi:Di2^D'»m i^w'rf^^ri njni 
■s^'0'»iK D^n /1943 ,Dou'»iK 1D2 D5?T ♦$;"»22xS'ip^ n^D^n ns?7. lis tj-^asra 

-0SI8 •»T TIB t)aia 8 i5?Dip5r:^n8S f'K "isTn^Dp^ Tt3i4 Dsri ? istoyA ijrp^t^c^''^ 

ni .T8 *K *18a'»n80 TK S?tDTD 

,iain"»:i5rTni'?:\ nyt2;'»'?^is, n3;ii!ji:i^.9 nsi iid niD»5?Vs?i is?*ti iid A:.i?s?Dt2^ 
"ijo ''n 8 tD-'D i^Bmp'^^n ''^ n?M 122 ty^ipjr^ ifi^Bm? 3rt2;'»^'»iS' T5ra'»n 
-Dnn: srsinros^sjp 5?tr?'»^"»iB 8 t:^ udia^ik 1020 on .iDprt3j?tDnirT"»f 

/S''r^'"T8n •lyi «T»1K li^TKD^SjniJD S n«lTO tDT'Syi^Dnn T^H ^nS8 tD22 

DS^T ♦spa'»Vnint)' r^'P H'^i^ t)'»;a' Di^soa^it) s tTso'»ns illSTDur ix ^to 
n T'lK V8&3IJ 18 tDn"»sw:)nn vsiiA-osttsP 5?t2^''^''is 8 t)8n '?'''1S8 7tD23 
in ttr?t)"»n n; i8Q iy'?:^yMiH toD^c^Diya D^n o^ii ,Dija kd^is t»ik tt^^D-jn 
11K ♦•! ♦& ^s tiD 05?p8t38 5r3S?'?:»y jDiypim yir^nm n v^ p^nis::i'»n8 
n >l''iK ns'^'^sa tDTS5;:^:)inf lyi^n ny7'»^:^.D''?a (iDO'»*?8''2rijo jrpa''?) ♦o 3 3 
n, toijsi Din8 ^v^ TD 8 rn ♦WB pK^5?n3?p 11& Dn5?3y nyi rn tuMD'»'>^ 
Kitrsr? «T»iK iw»n •'t p,5?:^ sr^'ssps ^rnyo^'i:^! 8 iDTssrriDinn s?'»r)8iB-op^]s:B 
n a ♦si wm mmi^^'^B '^v^ iv^m t a.'»nn ininK innK pK ♦pytaKms: tiK 

TK /t^'838P n iin, nsrsDjrp v^n^*^ vbmi s js^d^x tia t3i'»s:5r:^iDm8 m 
-yn Str^n'^yn ^^ m *^bm r^ t)n"»fl5?:^s3$ ^n tiK /Diptz^ pB -^^Diisrst y^so 
Pijntt D811 /nysnjrP wn^yn n pD st^-'d t>.5ni5?D8ny:^S8 t^tjrr y'':!tprD.:iiiD 
p^jjs |t2^n"»H 12^18^1 Qi2^ TD'''»p^n''?yiTSi:>5?a n ]iD y^riNiiD px yDD"»t!:^yx n 
-ni pD tD^yii 8 /Dftr^>3:& ]§ tD'?5Mi 8 n8S' ny&^ayp 5;:^'»DDna''iH 5;?8 12: pk 
nyiij ,y'»a'»^5?n /^rosn ps T'»tr;i3?D3iK 115: ,d*»md-''»?:i pK t3^\Tns /D'»v:55?^i5rT 

♦DS?D''?iy;j^x8:i 
itay'? USD tDSWPS?:^ n^^S^n j?tr?n"'K n p^n •'itx .t$?t:^5?:i d^*t t"»k '»i^ 
n n8D tiK .ytTii •i5ray'?tr^DJ5?J3' ny^n i^u ,p^^s nsrn jid una n85> 

26 



12^ TinJi:& ny P3?:^t ^mp Qi^: j fy^'ip^ y^i'^n ^nf^ ]>k Dt'^trKS: i:\.p n^sKp 
Di'?'!!; 05?^ im f]mp D122 nyii^'i^-njan^ia' n' i:^n ,v^^b't$Bn^B |ik srupnii 

I t3P%:\£)'»ii'8 tarn n"'.m m^ 'I'^^vn fix lyTto'is^.-jjD^:^ n pa. pas?iii$ n^n. 



27 



iii3;i85h3sp \m d^siiddj ''i na i])ti 



,tDinVDtfi^pD'»iK T'^H DDK:; n .^•'iDty 
,tavnvn 8 lis ^s^v^ 8 ^I'^iD 8 

ts)«n tD''iD p:'''7ii^ 8 yta^'iK i8 
.^•^ip ■p''8 ta^D n iD'^n |t3^8nn8s 

,tD8'ipV^D'^n8 n^8ii lis :i8tDi8S 
.in ty^'ns ,Dy''''j nvniK nss 



( 13 3 D n J « 1 9 ) 

: npi'^P Dpyr lis j;tD8tD 8 

.T'tD tavnytan — 'pnp-Dj^TvnB — 

*ny5:iin ps i^8n pity nn8ta^* T's 

.]:in;8D jt^ik tD:i8Tv:n5f p« 

— 'D^';j n-^D m**!^:! t"»« .y** td tan-'i^:!, ?•»« 

.pnytat^y:! ^I'^^n vi^ v^ nyn 

28 



v^^-^ xvi^miTm 



,p"ij;nti' .yna }M''n lis a''''X r« 
,tt^yn "lyi n»a jtiw ota'nyn Dymots' n?"''' 

."anyB'sa t''«'d„ ^i'^^n ^^: iss^yn 

,pi«3n8a n^J Tins in fW'D ti'tsya r« 

.ayn nywi« D''i«iys in ta'»x ijjf 

^jstin ^ia ia^3''"'Dty oy 

yta''"'J83 8 la'ryn 8 

.fiDi^ays fix t3'>^3yx .tanyn^ixyx 

ny3'>i^3 n tyj-iir t-d 

— nyi'is Dyi « ta« rs 

!Doip Dy nyan si-iik id*"*!!! td 

(gOW TB):?'ll) 8TT13 V«'"W13 



\ilB"M T}D 



! t3Jyi3 oy ,nyin3 ! tajynn oy 

,Bjyo8tt nyT \vo^;> n'7'>'pn typ'D 

tyn^nx t"*" '&''» ^'sytDB' d^t lyii 

,jyD8'7S tiK B's ta-'o pyns 'jyt 

.tDiyn ytsDie ynsiw 

in 'ITS apip Ti« Js^J^^ i''« r« 

itoayn ytaa-'-'^nss a^n 

in -"ns tapip p« ta^taa' T'K pK 

.ajynn ^taytaty nytJiK m 

! tajyia oy ,-iyT»-D ! tajyna oy 

,mjynyj r''^8 T"'« r« i»J ^''« o»t 
,-ij;i-ii3 ^i«.« jsK 'jiayaty d^t lyn 

,-iy^''s D8T t2i5^'7 p« D"'^3 n anyj 

,tai^a pii« ny-iK t3'»» laiyy^ 

.ttjyp nix D8T1 tsT'iinsa 

29 



yf ''Its tDjj ,'i])T^:i ,tD'»:i ta'^'^iDti^ 

y\ •'ITS b'^:! tDpip p« ,nvmn ,id'':i tD'^^'tD^tj^ 

! tDij;in ^iDytDti^ nj;uiK ^iii 

! tDiynn Dy ,nynnn ! tD^iynn oy 

,ta:ij;n:}' lynjjji ^toytDt^ Dyns iyT:n« 

4j;:i:n'7ti^j;:ii*'''X ]^w diis k^8 

.tDJiynn pw Dins r^8 

^''t •'ITS D*':i tDpip lis nynnn id*':; ^^^^^ 

*tDiynn 'j'tDVtDty nj;T:iis •'H 



y^^^^\im vi^i iiji 



,i:^p ,nytDiD ps'^nss t:isn n^'S 

— tta*'''!if p^'iTS tD'Ht-'s jy^^'n DV 

; iDJi'^ii niji^-'n s i^JTS^i nny,D |ia 

,tT^'j;;3 ly^^'tDti^ nps hitd ps 

^''in ny^n ij;:;''^ jT^ys n 

PS"' :i''5fjisiiif-jis-^j''fi p^n Dj; 

.t:ir)''n:in'j;i id'':i itDJ-'H jT^ys n 

: :i :i •' T 1 if 

.pvii^ T^P tDD^:i ^ws^pj?-^ tD-*:! ns^ 
^'pm^ ''11 tonsn ;is p-'Dty •'n psn 

,nvp Itii^'^if j;t:ii:i nn pyii dj; 

.^SDS i^is v^'^ m:\ is^ tDyiVD 

,n3;^''*'D n m^'na n^itDDvi ,tD''j p^^ii 

.nyiDS'? s T-'S pj;^ dsi 

,np^n nti^ss nsj T's -pi m^^^n 

.•'n r'':D rn pw lyp pis^ ps 

^tpjn iti^iDS isj T'H ^yii tD:3'»%n 

.'^•'tD^ty p-'iity T^s jyp pisn ps 

,iy:ij''^P nyi''^ nps pyn Dy 

.^'»:j nytJiis — 1S1 T''S pn •'na ^•'•'H 

... tD:iS^PP tD**! nsi 

30 



\31J-\1D;i )a"3 V» ViAKl Ts^m'^ 

,p{ji3j?:i ta''! T'K taia *ij?uin 

,p-tt5>-iyi31Kn t^V^ DSn T^K'D 

,nyT«i3 ]v^^t ,y .tJ'BjyD fix n'« 
! ''ns nvn l«T a^yn n TIO'D 

,ip3''P pK :i''^Ti anyi D^n nyn |""« 

.tj?T njjn^n lyn wi« i^yn 

,-ij?i3iKn tn^n tavn tain nvtJi« 

•lyts'jJ^ lyi tsyn D3 nyn ti« 

. . . ta^yn n vts 

,jjBD"its>va n fw ta'78 i2f t''K'd 

,T'K ti« taonp its'-'nx Dsn lis 

,VtaDnj;:!aiK ita^^x lynip'o 

. . . ta^yn n yr 
,1p8i8i pB lysvn ,npvn 

.ta^^a nsp iv y^8 "lys 'n« 



D^yn n vit 



.(^wipigne .siVBOSB f$:^^w r« pinipp 



31 



•ixn 1JJ3 nyiB* ny^t3''n lya i^yn n^a 

. . . Q^i .""a-n""! 

;yp3^^ipia r^'' laiyT fJiH P^s oyn ,d^njw n 
.jypJity^j^^K iTj? nyn r« pyn l^i l^yn ^n 

. . . Dyi ,"'a-«"iia 

Dyns ''■'1 Dyny lyj jyosnx j^yn i^a 
.□nap yts'tt'-'n jtiik ts:«ta □tj'n nsT □« 



32 






"*T\Q n5?pnto?]s^»si nyt is ^nps^i 8 Dp'»ti;po^'>ns 1942 njrnwi^ i^k 
,l^^is t^K iTK n IIS: a:iidiskid''TK ny7 lAsni i^ii^> pK :\:n'':^yii-ni'?A iv"^ 

5ru?^9'»i9 n lyiypsi i:s I5?ii5?:)i'. t'^k isrrn pyiiis lyt disj^i ,1942 /is njrnwii 
— niDi'?;^ yurH''V8 "»! rs iir:\:nn^i n tk inn; tin — :\^n*»jij?i-ni?:i 
■:iD tn^^n ,iV'>isi p^ ]tk ni y:\,"iii d^s^:i n ]i& D^^nns-MD^no^iK ns?i i3'»;s 

t^K iDjjnmi' n tiD ^§1^ n^t t)n^ 10 s ps?^is2'^ ^^tD'^ia im i^b^nn 

tD^n n5rs'?5?ii ,5;ti;nKi't r^ d8i:i^7i^ d5?t tis nnn? m^^n^m nsri/, 
n iTs^^snns fj^'iK iyn''tDtrp'»K lis di^d 137 pH toprnpo'^iH in 
-ijaPK iSPi3yDt:^?i& n^t i>^ ty^^Dti^tijn^ T^K 0^11 |iK ':\ai'?Tn&"»iK, 

lis lino rS'^1^ P'57^^& n^:is?t2;siiiy:!is^-d^: ^ — c^2s^^^s-?j:D5?a) Doan 

"rv^m^ "ii?i 1SS .^srtDtz; rs''iK n^^n, n$?D:iiH-DD^nt3t^ tD2$?)3ipj$i: ns?i 

: :s?^;na:\?;8;s D151 ,d^^ii 

-8a-y'»2rssipiS; n ps t2;'»:3?S3?t2^^n' o^^ -— D38^"i$tD^A v^'^tk n',, 
-J53 ^57 tiD ]s?::iii}3.'»Dt2^ n D^A''strs?:\Si^. D"»a na'ii'? D^n — ty:\iiA:in 
-ayiD y'»"»5 n- ,a^:^yr-^'?s?i ^r-nrn tix iy^t3^?i^ytr n: t)§ ♦r^anypVsrs 
nm o'Dassip:^ iD^D D^"'^ yD'?5?Dw^s'>in tiK jDons?ni?p ,i^?yt2;D 
in ta^jHi *>n ♦r^ns P'''1H n rn nm Dii?^ ipip t3:i^p3?a Dt^'^i p:;$n 
lis p'^DpSD nyi- :\'»i'»tDDiHwn?^iK nyt^ ;^^anDOiKiiKn |ny:^3?':inyD:iiK 
-jTsrisp '^^''SS p^aymp^S' IM /^n^n im ^^•^d^?:^ : tD^ij-oi^ai^'T.n^iK 
I'Dinv^ "'n ]n]$n: ,^tDj2^?iiri im ^D'pvtou^y:^:!^ tsn:\ yciw n^s d^'»d 
*/'lTK n p^no^'iH lis T^p^ n n^s^^TDnns n'^iK nMon i3?'>n 



-177 ittf»n ,1951 nv-^nsH ,"yoD''wv:^ ip ivt^vVS// ,w^m V^ tsitt'ooa^H iti^ni^oo'n 

33 



tjjjn /'niin,^ usiiss// pni^i Djr'i t:^sii .ti^K '|DS'^i2JD'»ik t^T^p^ ''"f H'^ik 
i5??5;Dt2;DS:ntr 15?^. T'li^ ''ITS ♦Di^^n'7y:i;jn 'i'HiiiiDy ♦in — iy»s:3 rt 

nyt^i^i'^ii ^^«iDt!^ lyit^-VVs nyi^iyu^iKiii nyi ti» .r'^t^^'^^y^^''^ ^Hity'» nsn 

n pD D^'lS Dl!j,T 1221K1W1K& pH "t)1^DynS7DrK1:8S>/ PK :\i1D::>n T'»K D5? 

i5?Vi3Sii5?ni'» n. pS' p^i^pi? yo'^iiij?:^ ♦dikh nsri d''}3 pK^>i22p3?ii8 nisj^i 
PK oy nyag: n.ynfnti;-Tt3:iy5ip'^T n 'T'm f?KSi225;s: T7'»sk in ''•>n; r^5?iB 

'?*»'»D nsTTS?'' iK.ii^ ,Dip;Ki s — ,ijDy:^ nyiwt2^i8ii ns?^ VK OTwm'i^ 
Tt ]W^ "''!'» nyiiiTi^n ,)^^w:k^ iDo^i^y:^ im iPiKn-yA pso is t'»K nsr^'»n 
-yini?D )^ii;^TK pa ^^''Da;$ D^rt psrii in mvi oy ikiI' /^"d lyn ,p>T *^yti;5 
nn 'r^'^ii imyni'^ toitz^s ptti:; ,ib''isi T'H |tx n ps- :\5iDi!jn&'»i>t n^n t'»K lya 

♦2 

IDSiaytr n "[ID VlS:l nS?T P5?11 tO-'ll ?ST'?a :^''DD'»11' "»1T8 PK D^I'^SS 

,D5'K isrti^n^DOM ivn: r'»K sm ? Ti^sto^is? ^^rx) :iiy:^ T5iiy:i d^^i*^ oy 
pj< _ pn D**! -^p iDijT :^'>DD"»ii '»ii n$?aiS !|0''»ii 13?^ Tiirr nm orr- PK 
ayu:y m n5?Pt)D''ii lis:.! PK — ! nm Dyi lo^ii ^sr;a a'»t)D''ii ly'^n pk'o 
oyi p'py:. tn^n ij^Dy:^ ^5?iiytni3^ii lyt iid ^ir^totz^i^s n o;si"t ,mnni'7 
/'nm^ D.^in^Di// d5?t pyni tD^yn nyn i^^"'Xis?t i5?^n im p'^isa w"*^'^^ 
i5?ti;n''K lyt 11K iDKn^yii'' n pa ^i$i '^s^'t psni tD"*! of»'»i*^ tv?^' I^i'i 
-n2ro*»m i35?:^i5;:\2'»'>K c^^si ''t in oijii oy ^itj? nt pi'^n' d'':i ]m ISP ''^2t^'?S^ 
D^K IS /'^nyn ti« '7''^t:)j;i^„ jp?ii5?:i: pk '70''^ ny^n ♦p'psa s tyir:^n?T 
^D''^ yp^:2a^''K Dsn> to-'Ji ♦i5?:xf»^Dtzr nt:5''S"tr^n''"'tD s ^''''i^ tDiijnwas /^to'')^ 
-sr:^:ji:n-DU' ,p57nnKyADnK-D'»nni ny^n px .iyp:i5?Ts?A ]V^ nirr- o^r — 
-I** n. n^rns ♦ty^D-'D *»^?ii3?'?^, pns t^rn /fs^a' "p5?'?'tDast2r:iO''»iv ,iDDritt 
♦tt^s VsitoasriT; 8 ts^^msa tK^a^ an V^ I'^n^^ '''^r'?sa ^rt^^n'^K n pK i^snajr^ 
pTiKDu;iyi'»ii isa ,n^st3u;3'»m isa Dsny:i kii^ los/i tDDS»"'^5?^t:M n 
niOi in psn sw^ nywti^isn lyn lia lyVDtz;^?'^ n, ]yii ! niD nja'»i^ — 

34 



Dijn. nsfD^sii ^BU'^m in^^^^ b^im^ iww:i iyi mm^ nnj? o^n Dyi. 

ny) 1949 r^ ^t^i'KTi 7^K DS'TO r^'t '^^n' — m^ty:^ mny — t^Vt)''?^. yfs 
-y:i' Kni)ii lai^n o'^'^hi n ♦(! n^.iiy:ii D^Dsn^:irn' ,);ii!;nm v^ '^'W^^ t''^ 

♦P'»1S ym IKS' ^KIl''Di « pn D''^ ^ISJT 1$D5?A pK llSDtr3''1K "l^^T Tl? ,1:871 

5?D5?'^22yTw:\' T'K s?D8i^ 's?t:;n^K n t^''''t)y'22 /D3?''ti^'»r •'^^i^^k tsj^t:^ ^n^^^sij 

«T»iK// pyi'^ i2r Dp''ti^^:iiO"'nK ,Dy7 PVI1 ?^DJi:a! d^t ♦n^^ lyDit'^iD i^nm^i. 

/ly'^ntr •in''in;^:^3;s: di^jh ty^ n^Tns?:^ k tni'»iniS?:\D''iK in dish i$d^:^ lyt rn 
Dijn )m DS'^mi"' m 75?^iip^'^: t^h ^n^^i'^n^ i5?i 12^ o^iis t:p"»'ti:r 1^5 ts 
-Dn-tDtr^''a n„ pi^ii Disiy:^ to^n 1^ imii ,nin s tni^:^5?:\D"'ns tt)"24 ayi 

oijii ]iK ''•^r^js^s nyi2^'»Ti< lyi ti& isTTSis^i i5?i i5?)!3'ipyn^miK P'K p-27 
toyii ,A^?'»iipn& Ti^yn t»t d5?ii o.^iii /I5?i5?ir t^i; ^Dij^^pijn tdkpjjVs pK 
**nJi;^y^nK^: ^^•'p p*'K pK D'^na ij^^v *'ni imp 
yt2^'»i"»i« 0']^:^' ito^iiiirciK cski n pa^ k^b nyt2;^Ti'»'>D t^ssjs:^ 13?! 
^nn tosriis •»! t^o : An'?s?Dt^a^''H ^VijDiyjarr^iiS' P^k DJ^riy:ii Dijn p'?](ja 
^n m ♦t^n D-'ii ?^t idpkd n lyD'^ni •'ii ,i^aypis?i^i tyiai m. 05^1, ♦^^K 

-JD1H n oisii ,Drr 12: fis^ni^: in pd ly^^ 1 t^a^DS?i -jn tt'»;3. i^m^ nn no 

♦D^ST^:\:i^ niK pijn j<Sii::\. yDDKiny:i 

D5? ♦t^o?5?:s;22t<p pn'^'^ ivt^Ti iyt2;'»T'K-t2?''^''nn.3?n 1571 lyni^r:^ t'»k "yi'»0 
D'liD iiV'':^)3i pn 11& '[>i22D"'iK s?D3?'?t:y i^itT^ in^vi:^ 12s ,i^t t)Dii:i /I^^d-^u pk 
-I8S) ''p^]$D T^n''K iD5?ain'^^D''ii^ p£} T**? Diji,, ,^,D5r:\ isni^ytnniit )2y\n 

X m^bp 15? — tJ'?^'»22i5?i 15? ♦(1948 ,iip''K :^]t?'? 



♦228-226 p."T ,13X3 Ipl'O^S ,rsa ** 

35 



! DD|5n3y3i?^m itr yr^» — its t)'»» ,ik ^p'^H n D^?r iv» 

.viiiwn ^^t: pa t)D^b mn ,Dn3 pi< ttna p^stt^v:l ! pnK OKi pK 

: tsDibsvx' PK T31K piHti; pD /tD^a ivmiK pD t3S7btt^y:^omH tiiK p^n •>"»r 

'I t3>io ms ,ym pKV^mK ms n^'» vsihiw nVx is ! Dip tap in 

— tDDiTvixmix ttiijT -|i«i pK ]m vi^^^p^nt^m ^'^^^ P& win jr^' p^n ^^n 

♦ts-jna rvivs psv^ Dp /V'U^Hp Vo'a vts^sjrb ori ,p3Kt2^ ps t'^"? v^iv"? oi^t 

! Vn IVn P» IS I't p1p -- op p'lH ! nvn V^lltt^tt ]5?p IV^ — D^ p'lK PK 

— '»nt2^p r^K n5n'>''sv3i o^n^i P'^h pK p^^ p^n^Du^yjio^iK rx dxji ^i 

,^13 t'X OKJ n' — ps p'T"> fK BS-)K t3'»'»'lt pX I'll^ t3'>''n /O'^Tl! — OKA n 

v^ ,'»'ii px 1^ t'K nyiyiyii 1^1^ — iV^v^i'Vii ''f n''')« pip J IT'S ta^D lyipjrn 

.♦♦•"Itt^P s 

— ip n yt PD wen iV'tt /Uivn n tDayiaiss iv^ i P'^ '=3'» lyawn 

? ip DV T^s •'iJ ? t:D5?Vt2^ aibn s on^s ♦ . . unr^T ipip yt'i^^'o ♦ ♦ ♦ T^ 122 TP1P ^^^ 
I ii^ia s ,'»^n^ — pyn n diih v^'^'^^h v''22^>P v^^^tDMsa ^v^^n^tr^Hs P>< 

— ttDs^v^ Tt IS D'^ip ,D^ip tj^p ly '11 ps tt'n s vi^ ^^^m t2^t3"»n nyi 
,pns t>.t2?n in t3u^'?i iy — tyt:''n lyi ,oat3''invT3i& t3^'»tDU^ tJ^"T nyi 

I oaHiav:\»is its vr''» — ]T\^' ^^^ tssn iv j ti^tD^jn *ivt /T'tt ''»ti rT'D •>'»ii 
"I p's n ]^ pip' r]^ pip /iist^ n IS pip I ivayjvn- n ^^J pip 

unp'Si *i.s?t nyaij ♦p3?:^i2r tDS^s:*nr:\ u-'aniji^^ lyia^ d?^ii iTiy& n 125 

Dsr ♦iy'?T?''a-p^'»nDi •'ir^ t5^: i&ik nw2 i^-'sk a-'iK Asr&nstr n$:t t^k 
Dins to^^ D5?iisisoy:\ in toijn '>'>22^Vis:3 ^tr^n^K n '>ii idi^ in D^^^^rnyt 
to^*):!,, — nsTP'^Dt:; tDoayVi^TiSfn r&"'iH ,Q^Mnyt:i''p jj pK n5?T:'»p 150 

•>ii n^» i^a ,t3riStDD3r:^ in ta^n ''•'rVp 5?t2r''i''H n /'DDsa i3?t:?D^n nsri 

]P'»n 0^11 ,(]Driasii*' lis iVTb:^^'>ni) i^^tD^iirrr lyiisj?:^ T't inaun 

? tyiiy:it tD"*! lytDsmss r^i? 
o?s ,'>n taijn ,t)''ay:^; io"»w:^ ^ i5?^mK& ta^n ]]i;tim n •'I't Dn::>i!Ji 

36 



liDSiisni"' — rii?Mp v^'^T^ siyoyi:\ to^^tt^ os?Dt2^ n is& t))2'>Dt:?Kn ?'?d 

tt^i ttitD ns? Ti? ,wivn pum '^n tyii ♦DrD^i^y:^ in p^n o'^ss:! n fD'i'snt 
D?:^'»tDtrr8i tiK t):!ryTs::iS^nK t»:^ i.is:\ d'^h •'n p'^n /anyns^:^ •'n>/ tojrnns r'^t 

smxyryiisijns n< ♦jrii^ni rn rn p3^:^ npy*' p^ipy:^i p^n ''n T"»n ,t)8i^5?T 

nia^iTT//) i$DW hswti^nsii in t:^yi*» l*^:^: r'^t r^ to^^^n^rn pns^^ nyi i5?pn 

tsrn srp'>a ♦rpti^^'a^ ''"^'^ nysyr^^m ^I'^^n in Dijn. nyD^yn /n5?:a'i''ni nrt 
♦tnyjiSiDnis ^n pi^n nyDyinss- /OnoiD •'H q5?i3^:i n'i'Srn ''^'^ ty)aips?:\tt'iK 
-r n tiK 1i38'i:i5nv n pa nyr'Siig: •'i m ^imy^^ pyDoi^)' '»ni2: '»t 
tyin D'»i — W11 t^ii^snily T8 in n>?s to^nsri p^ri '?'?m ny'pDJii'iiy^ 
,tDispi8& nju::;: .iT^i; iDi^nonK >n p^sni ix ^tzr^'iip m ^''^' '0'2Jk:i n 
n 4a'»9pyi0'''m t>''2 wi oy^ /^'?D 0^8 ;nyn^ tn^n •'n ♦n''^^ ivwm^^ 
,i^m'^n nsTT d'*^: tiviiJi:^?:^^^"'^ pijn ,tDVKnya in p^ni o^ii. .tdsiayir 
tD^rsf ^p^t)t2^ K 19:1 m^^ nyTsii^-DKiisrii^ yo'^nyA *n''H ftujionK ]^n^vx 

-iiD t5?i''n pK — niOi iT'»i .nviDK u''^ ,o.^'>^s t3^^ toyniH: n )^mx ''n 
D'»i ns)^ tntzr "^n in^n o^-'^si •»! tyii ,]i^m' t)Dsias?a^m inK pyiiDon 
-ayn** doid t5S'»in nyi isnynyx yni$:\i^DK? iyDt2;ny nn ts ♦ ♦ ♦ tosnsiijra 
t)ijrT' ny tyit tD'»">s i5?7 ps it^n pK ♦n^p^^'nyu^tD dki^? ,yt2;i8ii' v^ t)si 
-nsD Q"»K 11D ^}$n ^Bm^n n o«ii^ T^tsy:^ 17 ts^n ,t);3K ayi iD^sny:^'!^ 
ttijn 5;'»xp8 yD'»'n3i n nyrm :\5?tD n^s d-j^ /I942 ,^'^r id-i8 D$n .0:^28? 
-as*?!?// •»! mpr>^bn n-'K *n5?ii5rt2;n8ii n^ is nn 8 pk i^ d^h^ ,pnnsM^ in 
P511 m^ur i^c^^y^ysKi? pn2j'» .:^aip''i:;om8 nsrn pb' V"'^: un i^^y) nn 

37 



♦ni^^tJoa^^yT ty:iaK:\iKS ,1942 ,'^b'V tD-23 ayi 
lis toss^in: irr tisrris?:^ ,yDoaiy n. rs ,riJj:^yt3Kp i5?tD^"»m imi ix 
/trn^*? 1'»K ^Dy:^ 15?t ?i& tos^'ini n^?! rn- ^oi^a^ :ipT ^^^v^ nya?'»T^ lyi 
-:i^ 5?i5?^n pK tDi<iJni'» n^ tis mnt^K ^i nyn^ ♦vo^W^n n^'^n '^:ii'ij:^ 
-D"»iis — itDps mi'^'^m^' vm^' ''^ ri< iis^ t^*': Dpms?:^^!^ in o^n i^td 

"imu iT^i 'im ^^753: pKiiyti'' n' to^s^^rtot:? riyty^ ti^n i'';^. ''ii ,di«ski 

"psrw an t'?''tow p5;ii s^n rn ith n |is3 itr-^ajTsn^rTKa 5?Dy'?:^s?D-a^,D 

K t)''^ "^n tD^i^o ^n m ,n^5?^ n^ 73'^n iiniisrn'm ps tD'»'»:2// 

iytirns?DS7iswt3:j5?tt' tk ,ynKiiti?tTO i^^t^^n-'M i^t ii& u'^m mwn 
pD lD^'>2r ytoss?^ H' pK pmD'»iK, 012: ^5?^"'in; i^^'ipn v^^ i^rtopsnss 

♦(198 'T /'^^n "^VW^' 

pinK ny^SfDti^Di]>W' m to^n^ i^djrx pK ^rtoypan ik t»ik ijrsDas? is pK 
♦(119 't ,1948 "':ii'»-^'''ii3h: ,''5?DD''t:/s?:\ ikd i^rt^S?'?^) ^'Aiiis^p'^ysijn ytirn'^K n 

n)JiiP aiyipsri oiDn^'^t tt2;'''?'»is |is ]v^^i pn fK di^ski d5?:i5?"' pk 

: S?tJi''K''?K n ]iS' p?:^aiT:\n n tiK ^5n^:;5?i i5?t:;"''?"'is nyi pD 
ps s?'ny:^KiD m^ v^ ypt^it^/ n ps?:i' Dnt^-nj!3pi piyna^ i^^»?:i., 

/'niDi*?^! yDyirnni^a n ps is?t 
-nSD isrr p?ny:^t t^r n^p: *di^ski 1^7 in t^D^'^t^ i.5?Diyn. n tD-'ai 
Dpu myi in p?^: D^rr ,t)ii!jp5?:^ u^»tj53, ^^s-'n T'Ik .^Dy:i lyi 11s rias*? 

px nytDyin^D Q5?7 'T'lR n^'^p k to''^ n.'?'»:i^-5?;DS?is:B p'^t t):^n':5?i>!:D t^,o 
nyn:^ ♦(ts 't ,ki^7) tt3ii^''22"'^p yt:;''TK n' fD^Wi-'iK ?^T'n nn 8 D'»tt 
-iN; n-^m im o-'i^ *i'»m r''T nisT toV^. p,.''iii5?:\i^ ts?^ t>;s:n nan'?;^' ly-r ijp 
,l'»'»iiii8i:^ aninK •'ii ,ijt)y':^ i,s?nvt^iKii lyi, pK Tt3iy:iii:"^sii:Dti^s?:i yiy-r 

38 



♦ ♦ ♦ ^Ti^^i:^ 

0:^11 i^ainj*? i? /"Dnw^ fK •[yi*»i?:^ d^v *iyiij /'pynKo Tik |os?:^n8D// t :\in 
"j^ tz^D^D D3$iii ;yDi'7yTS tK*iKS i5?rn oy pK ♦ ♦ ♦ iyto:!2iy& VT^n lis D^iip 

^♦♦♦"'rKW nam// r^^- Si^i pk'd ♦ ♦ ♦ ht^^/^ i^;^^> t^^H n'^n i^ajjit 
St2rtD''n n iJji! p3s:T "»im lym^; /'Dn^y:i/, i^rnyi pi^n i^Dsnnss yt2^n:^K 

to''! pK pi5?nK& t>'»a t m^in^^' P'isn ?o^:;i rs T^^S^n ti^ n^'tzmp' n 

D"»K p& TK ,T»n isu/^ in iJjp ly^ ♦(73 't ,t)i^i) '"»n tD^y^rt:; r-^K wisrairr 
iljj /^SWiiss ''5r:i5?P"^K//. n iix^y:^' pi^^j isft i^i to*'! pn^ti^y^D'^nN: oi$n 

♦lti:^n''K-D'»i pD "^it ,iDMi22&''iK in isrn^ntr r^x q-'K psj 

]'\:3mn s i:^.5;ii t^^ ni^n;^. in^ oViaKn' oy ♦r'^t d'^:! i^i^it ^n lyn, nyD5?in,iS£> 

♦5 

pi'^nj tD"»;D: in Tyai?MiKn o^ii n fis^ r^ai-^yt^ti^ ^i tooiKii^^n, toil fK oj? 
;Wnp i^yr^iSiD- tiD — nu?np ii& ,toti;n;^i'?D ,iii'?57t5t2r k t^k d^t .^Tb 
•T5T^'? p^n ''n tm /to^ytaursr:^ t^''^ "T:iSDu^in"'ii' ?^'»P P^n o^i^ii n i'?"'SH '?'»ni 
'^m^ JJ 1^:i: tDis:^:^?:^: i^ij< inijn ,to*»\iny:^' j?':\n3iyii*iya>K n. DS8tty3i'0'"»i,K 

n ]iD y'':(.y'7yn''tai8iD lyi nnK s^jid psri' np-^y lyt i'?yDtr di$ii n' 

■^Tttns^ i''iK ♦n"'so>i« ,SDy*?lytr^ ,ytr^«iDi ly^ipKi in in)!3' :^m^t ^m 
ns?i. f'K (ntz^np ytJ^'pKS) ''ntmp// i^'iK/pK iD::y^:^5-t3S'''in ns^t vk t^^'? 
-•'K lyi ]m TD^iinT* "'T' t3^;3- tsr^s^JHK© d'»5 5?pkd in t^D ^ikt ^ip^y 
tD'»i '»n 9;sf oy lyii D^trrnp' i^i p''*^'?iiKS' D-'t^^np n^ ♦'»*'i'''?p' n^u^n 

-''^ip// t3'';an5?nr ,t^ tDOf»M^ ,Tya'»n tih — ly^ipjri^iK i''1r t'^^n: i^^' iyi'»n 
'n t3i8rT,D ?jniiinu^n idkid 122 i^ikd ^^d2. ^.ifK o^n im ♦n.^iiy:^. ''i^p? 
♦ ♦/piS-^ti; "^yD^ni Dvivn tm ,p^bm^ bi$^' y^K o^rTiai ^^ni ,p^K p^Vti^ 
in 13; o-^s^to^ 1)^^^ y'?)^ nmnp 'imbm V^ in 'o'^^:k^m nya^'^^K iy«): 0^11 

39 



in tj?5 niirr, ^laiu^ r^"')^ Dyiiny^ tJ^n O'^r wi tsrr t2?n'»sn is?;^^ nir^ 

♦tDs:ipi2r lyt pK p^p 110 p^? oi§t iy'as?iS3:iiK2i IS nD. n5?ii l^t^yx «nrr 
Pi?^ : ^;$tr;:i^n n^?! ^m m'^n n)?i.''ii in ■^^t pbm &^t l^n ?ss. pk 
ny:^^i^ni o^^i T5?^5?ins& y'':iy^^yi''tDi«D iis mmm ^1^^ W ^tj^ito n?i^ 

n p^iKiinsrnns ]sV«ny:^ p^n^ ''•>s'»?^s jri^^nm •'i tin Tt3ii:i:is?i.T» n 
SiS^ip5?:\^iK B^*?^^ opyt n lis ^^D ♦D^iD tis D''n ^3?^ t»ik '?w^^i1' 
-iSSJ n^ ]v^m tD"*! iD'?i$,ii tm^ |t:;'»ii22 tyi't ,t3S:S?^'W' D''ii,s?:\ tDi^'M^ ID^igni 
'?\$mm n ,ii'»oi lis my^^,^^ n^m ,Ds:iipi2s lyi th V^r 05? no nsroyi 
■SI1 i5?;d nnst ,p?^& pnKS py^ iid to^n lyt «t»ik nsni iriKiij?:^iyn:nN: 
♦r^OT s tiytp ty^ ?ii,^T ,Kiw D5?n Dinsra p^n^ &^ii ^n P5?a is?:i5n 



1113'n VH^'^iYn^nDiQ 



,iiy'ii r« ^n tayn yD 

^iiyii rn ^n tD.yn yD 

^iiy'ii TH ^n Dyn ^d 

^py^iyi'^H ''n DV11 V'D 

* * * py^nyi liji toyii j;d 



40 



fT^isji •ijj'^n ]i& lid *iij?i 
-15?! t]i.rr 0^11 /Hi'^o ly^i 12S? |yn5?D:in:i*iyt ix in n5?iw m}$ t-jk o^jr 

"pn"»ii n m.iy:^Ki PD1D ti^Hi 0^11 ^iD'pKDti^s?^ ^1^5?^ to"»^ D2A5?ma in Tl^i 
8 11D TTj^ii: a^7 dV::i'»Sit2;'ps^ ni^m s?n5?^n pK nssiy^ ?2^ni im t^^^v^S^^ 

♦5?^^n"»?n^K& H' nR& W^ Mn^ t3"»iD i5?^n to'»)3: tm ?:^28i 

n T»K DTflS?:^o'>m nim^t^ yD5?btz;Di5?^ tz^n^JK "i^^n p^rr o^ii /lyn^^Disn 

n5?DDS?D pK pT lyiw ^'^K p;pn rfiKpn^s n jt'IK ]ik :au5?n8a-ni8Dti^ 
iw*»n s'»n''K pK nn.'»nD ,:^:im''2sis?i^ to^iV ♦p'?P iD:^">a^''i3p"ii?'>:i8"it) s pD 

•pH D'»Vt35S?8^ 8180. — 1^1 pK nni8 D12? I^P-^K 7;!3.yi;3 Tyw:)i Dfl'8 ''''T 

'r^ni ♦Dp8 ttz^''K§;iyn p,K ,n?38P' Pi8i:2' P^ t3:^"»5^''Ki8s PK ^■'»dd pk ,D'')Dya 
,nn^ im pd Dj?*'2in8it5"os:^Kp ,p3?^*i^n: n ty;!D:i^y^n^n''K pijn' s??8 
pD t3'''>pD'»nA nn t3''J2' o'>^1^ tyn.ya ,^Dn-io ps^^ f^K ,t3'>'>po'»na! "ly^n t'^k 
/HJ^K *ii?^a'Dpj;'?SiDi8 7t3f^T ii7i n^^i^iiS?^ t)pyVsD:8 f'K -^n inn pK nn 8 
in ns?*'n ii& lyamnsa n r^^Jtosn I5?^'»t3ti?i8s ''n V'»a'»ii «T'1K ,ttz?Di3?^>/ T8 
/'5?tDD^wy:\ n^ tD8^ .pjriay t^:^^n:m8n' ^:^n^n n p"»ii pK 
,o'»">2: ns^^'n p& nsn^-'p ryiip ly^'^n g.n;ii ,p7'?ynn5ri^Di8)a ps oiD^ii^ n 
n ,tD'»'>22 i5?*'n pD ttr;'»a5?yt:^^A ^t t5pn^ii8Si D''t^s?)3^ yi^^n mn tn^n pK 
t^'K 05? t8 .tDD8iy:^^ in t)8n O'^ o^ii /O^t tyj^ipi22'''>:i tomypya tni^jn 5?5'?5?ii 
,pnD0iKn8Si '|D'';a nm tt)''^'?:^8n^ ]^bmm^ 3?:\''do''^ 3?>n8i n /:in3D'»^n»iK 
tD'»a in to8n /aip'0'»iK 18& /Orp ti8s ^P^?^ 180 ^mp 151 /p^^ 051 T8 

♦D22s?Ts?:iii8:3' 101^11 18:1 /Diinayjroi 



113 o'p-)K» ,3 ton!? iv^''^' nvi^tDiKD pVj^n ''i pyii i^Kny^Ha vts^^DKi^i^^a n 

.1947 ,vtt^ip /"t^'»'>ny7 mmn/, 

41 



-m n 18S' *i^8P tt2;niiyiyt32iK tiD iypii& 5?^*'^^''^ n in pK Ti^rttos?:^' 

T»T n^DSp 8 P*»in5:^iis 1^1 V^^ to^Hi d«ii ^^hw** r^ W^ '''*'^S' 8 is& tin 
in p3$'ni t)57mK"D&^8? iy^ lis* ^''^n^ ts'^iJ^ t8 ,i5?^td8:i isni'S?^ ^^yninyT 

-»d:iS D57^ iT.Jat^^o''^^ is'r^nya i^^n 5?^^ ''"'t /n'^v^n "iminn^r ]^'»^^bn 11& 

nytD^;nKn in^ 15?^iy^ t^K pK^S: D5?T tlD nyTS"DS''in H pS 157i'''»K 

nstr;''t)Di'»:ii«)ii$;p m ti& t^:^!D'»^. s 1920 i^y r» tonsrn iik imp st^''D 

^^tan pK 

-»ii:^ n T1& ly^^'^H t^K io5?Ty:^s^ n^'' 13722 vk ])^ ivs^yp ns?t2;"»i*is;iyiDaix 

X'li)^, D."»iK tt3,i!j:,">D5:\si$ to-isni odk^ w^b'^^B n '»ti d5?'7S^i$.i ,1939 ns^^'f^'SrtDSjD 
in toi^ri' '»poimDiKii'$?'? npSii n''iH D5?;!3ntj n- it^,^5?:\ iih w^^''^ "'^ isssi 

-r'>K 1577 t)S7^i1^''1*^57:^ in D^n: 157 IKII ,p^lDO''^.H'»n. t^-'p P5711K 157 fK l^i 
tJjJfl 157 1K11 /UD57^ V^ 157^1P57:^ 1'57 T''K D571D^a ♦D'»D.''^I3 n^n'?^ 110 :\aU5?11« 
♦U5731iJ"in''mi^ 1S7D57'?1''^1571itt1i< 12C i5?5i:i5?:^ in 
ni"»n 57ti:^'^DDn57?t0M n pD t3257ri Hi TK i^ijS57:^i^n8 157^ fH 1942 i57?:5n 

♦1571157^ ''1 110 t:3^57n n px 'tonD aisr 11^115?^ toPl^•»S1^!:s t^k 157 im 
i5?a^ vm T'^K ini''iri57:;i0"»iK toi^ii ''po^i^t3iHit57V o;$ii /i^aKp 110 1^0 n 
PK tti57t:H^057:^ 11K iii$ii57:^ pi^it357A i^D'^'^ni fx n ♦iii$i'»57:i; lT^'?57:^s^1^!: t3"»:i 

♦onnn 57:i'»n 110 Di57n 57PD1)3! n 

-V57n p'^^^ 8 1571157^ r'*?^ T-'K 157D57n.1S:t3'»tt 157DlS71§i 0"»p011K.D1K1157? 

42 



-Dyns i'S??^t2^ in:iv d'pk t'^it^ nsr toisrii' psty"'iiKTKtt-pDa''n ^k 1909 n^** 
-'»'?'»ipns! o'?n: 15? tDi^D 1936 i!^> T'K .D^'V^'^'toyD i3?^''t3Di''ai;!3ij:p 18& idtd 

-a>K n f'i^ Ti'^.^ s;i5?iii!2; d''K im ]^ t5?»ip' p"»^m3!S?i i5?tr'»toD'»^Ji:'»iS:'7 ns^ 
-is?Di''K nyi piKiK ♦s?pns»"iiS'^ TH T'^^PiSisi pS' ny^iS'^"o^^n"'in5?t) 
'>'>trT'7aK Dn5?ii t3Dsnrns?:\i^n: d^k d'':^ jJD'^sni' ,::iiT3iS?i"itDyn;$D nyi lis rw^ 
-5?a 1941 T^i ♦is?S'tt5?p yt^''':i8Bt2^ Sfiyiis id k t)'';^ ly^Kn^? D'^nDKn: \:iTm^ 

."SDVm^^ nsDiM f^in-nsij is v^ T't •^y or© 
ny7 r^ y^»^ '15?'^ P'5?n: I5?^:i8^P v^'^^)^ n n^^ i:s iy'»'':^nyi: o-sr tyii 
:^"''?'»irns^ nyviii in i^bv^]:; 15? ♦t5?'n totz;'': I'yia 15? i^p ;spd5?:i. nsii^rtrisii 
jrt2^nsii TV ^5? tD^ip t^^yi^^^m im^ pyii> 5?iy^''"'t2^i8& Tin: pK Dort ais 
-nyi j?222s:i! rn Ds?»wii ^mM'' i5?Ds?n!'is lyi iis irn n v^ in tD'?5?Dti? ]ik 
D15711 uDKi2?'i5?i^S'^^ rn ns?Dim ♦3?''2ii^,f»ixn^Ti^t5t5ai'?s?T s tsKtr 12^ :ain8& 

pD Dcisi 5?2J'?;$t3tr^ n pK H'^tz;: n '»^^ mT'^iim I3i5?ii toT^t:; "'•^tmajt 
•^STDTn^iin m'sm'2' ii?DS?st2^ D^H' DKD pn ♦tsinii r^i^t^o^i^^^^T 5?t)tr^iy n 

1942 "»8?D; naSt)tZ?D^1« DS?1 D15?^15?T t:'':i Dl$rT P">VK tOT^Sitir nyiisTtt yiT^D 

8 *l'''iJ« T'^K tiK ok:^ p« D5?xiiHS:^:DDy^ inn ti^ii5:;i, t)^:xrnyimns ny r'»K 

♦11^.115?:^ Dsmi^^^iyi l&m ps^ijnnt:; 

nsri pfii nsTTDiKib pK tiVyn •'i; 11^:1 'rK^pinsn' i5?^.^n^'»K iv^"?^^^, y$^ 
V^im i:yt)''ini5?^;&''m-pm2J n5?tD''n&'sn 1^1 v^ m^'^n in tD^sp 03$^' ,13:135;:^ 

♦t3^>pti:^''i^7n: lyD^r'^nii^rDtri^i^?. pK ^^Kp ]D''m^^:i; ps ^^i5'»o 

.^''D i-'X,, Jtnintz;^' iy tD^n d^'^ppd^d pn pa inn:;s: ps r^^fx .im^^ 
v^n ,it)D^ttns?3 in pijjn t^i O'^m jt'ik mi m /?!)S<t jro^nA T5?ti^5?:\'D ?» 
/'ly^ni^D y^8s?iii lyiaip'Si t):is:n ni^p'i w^i"^^ n*.*tj*'ni$i 70^1:1 » 
"sr^^ia nsfii5?OT'i?i^ nsr-i pk piij;nis?i ]i>w:x im TV^rn ns?'?iSi?a.n ns?^ 
n5?'?''tr^ yuoyi n: pSi iyii3?:i! ns? f'K s?nKitt*':i pK ♦rsr^:^^' ^^^v^ nsrtr^nHt) 

♦TD3$'?t2;Da8 pK DOSD pn 12? ttOiiKiiiya n5?ns D^n yDK'?;^' lyA-'T^^ ns?"T: ♦lyjassp 
n tD5ni5?ir'i3;5?:^ p:^n lO'^.rt i.'5?'nyt2;^iiii:n n pK tsrn :^np pi^^s pis'' yt^syiJ n 

43 



nnt» nrr n^ii< pvm t'^k im 5?t2;isni n^^iss ns? D^ni 1939 nyn^^ssrosyo t»k 
PBW 1ST TK in D^yDt^ iiK ytz^isn r**? m^^ in ns tDi5?P I?i3sst2^ ♦tD'^n 

,(D«iDtr; t:^5?i^) '^Qitrr i^iu :^:id'»'»22. j? o^nK ton rT'sm nnit^^ni iid diai** yn 
-Jii im fjjD^p D122 ]sn 0^11 ,ty'?p''Di8 3?:i''Tiy^s'?3 5?:s2nip t3i'»nt2^ njr mil 

157 t3^5r'?s) — /im^Dti; y^s i^jni i>»// ♦t3:i::^ii'» lyi ]'»k nnpa ps ttD'»'>>' dst 

;17'»K DlT-JltD 70 ''Yt Tni'»Vn3?A D*»a 1^^' ty2*»n ytZ^l^^n t'>K t5?11 ,1942 S?T2S? 

iSi'»'?:iD'»D s?p'Tii''£)ii$ ytjiijmyi jrm^ii: ''t t:^)a isr^stist iy t)Tf»:i83ii^ 
0377 1^ tJi-Jin: oiyii ,^22X^1^:11^ os^Kp-^D^rri n tsn.:^"TaKDt:^is?m n 110 
in D^sjn oi$ii ,i^mp pisyV D37T f'n: ,1943 i8ur ttois D571 «i;aKp tDtr;ny 

J943 ^nSS P19 QV*T pi'»in57A2;$ 

570'»na' tj-'n^ iis^ ts^'na tt2^D'»n n. ♦^yto 57^2^57? n in n3?t32wn57TD 
'n •'n 8 i2r in ''n ii57D2yy2i57T :^2nniKn?2Kn lypist^ti^ s 1^1 ♦tDsj7ip 
T57tt8?B lis Q"» 8 *ninnn •»! n*'^^ fo^''^ ]t^ is^'^'^s ''n «inK ]pm ,DiS7T'>^:i 
♦ij:tos7:\i i57:^''Tis;DS7p 1571 diik i'»in tm ir''S P& :^:m. ds7t «T'1212: doyis 

pD 157S!!35?P "'T ^:|$^^ fDiSy'? D12? D^JHS 1^5 t57:\anSti; •'KID IDOTST D57T 
J943 ,'^m tt3-8 lISi 2|JtD 17T' /t5D^?^t2^ 57t:):S57'? 572n2T'»tr;D2ti: H' DIDIp 0^7 

38t3ii^ ps i57piini"Dsnni D1S i57:\''T">Dis& n P'»n2: in ty'Jif tt3''n 57^8 |is 
♦laijtoM^m m sKtJtr? 1371 I57iii3'5?^ in dijiTo 137:3^5711 pK /I8 y'?"»)a n^m 
lyn:^ ,iS7p2ii pi« TKA i^ns d57'»do.j7S' 57t:;tD'»n n tt^? >257:^a'»n8 j'rs iin 

in •»n 157^572 iD^niiJ p^2 n372^^K ♦15?t)21X t)'»2 in p!'»2 nS7?12S7Dt2;0nK •»! 

-1571; ^v^'^y'? 1577 ♦t)257rT o'X2it:; pK 2^57357'? iVss^^ns t>t2;'»2 n^s ,1157^0 

.t2?D^1157'?57''28 ''r^ll^i 728Dt2;S^1K |12t t3181257;3:;8:.p 157T m ttO'^tt^ 

*1572:57^B J715Pn 5715712N: 'I57?i:i5721K& niSP^Sl ^ T'lK fb^B 17^5711 15711 
r& t)1]J P'»T'>V tS^'IK 4t3''15?2 in pp ''157'»1^. 1571 nnx 57D2r57V n,, I^K 

5Pn'»x pK annn 57157'^^ D?57to^tr572 in tn^ii rt)i*'J52't2^ ?ik r^'?oiiHt3iKii57b 

r-'g T'*'? 15711VA t'^X t3221^-^D572 1571 m 157Tmi$ ''1 ]1& 1572^^K WHS pX 
T»1H 157'?p57)a^ 8 157t)^& 8 *>*>a /D'^M 157D^571«18SJ 8 pK ,1916 pK nni57:i 

n57t)''n D571 Dsni^S' n^'' 57tDons n ns- '?^''d a''"*? D^n /Oka 57n8i^ii^S 
1^8^ tD^n rH22'»K 157221'' 1571 •'»n37pm mi5r?572 in mn iy ♦t3n2 iid d57d 

WV)B PK 157T'? p:nt2;572i V}t$n 157 ♦tt)'»^p2'»X573' 5?t2^''18157ti'»'? tT'»11J72D"»11S 
"SB 157^n 15711572 T''8 ''I Tf5 IX t)1571 .157inn 57t312W T»b' pn ♦t^n'^K pK 

44 



.iVpiVB 5?iyii8 rsi ny^ni iik nsrtna ^tr-'iisVo pK yu^n^K 5?2?»n 

SPITIU t Dn'^ntr; ,piSD ♦a; ,;$;D5?i -^yi tiS3 nypn^DOM ns?T "^^^ ,ts?Wa 
n tis T'lK T3sm :}.m 13?^ t^x /wiiiT r& tiK ^^"^ rs o^d'Wi'* /SDD''t:^ 

♦:M.ii;2j;opi'? 

-i^iyiTO:!''^^ *i5T t)*'^ D-'^is Vk a''iS3^ ,mpKt)iKso iid D8b& tm n^'^'^s Q5?t 

♦t3D8^^ nytr"»x83 ^m 

Dy nytjitt^ p,'»t)&"'^i oay^^i'^ ^ypti^tn iny&^yp-DipKDisso, npnijr^^^D 
^D nio PK S3n:i TK„ annittvopib vm — 3?pti;Tin "iv^m 18 l^riwt t^K 

-nsirp 5?TK r^ t5riHii5?:\! D8n :^nin?3yDpi'? 5?T8*i ikii) 8^^$?^ nnK isrp 
-S8 T8 'Q''i^^ 18 ^r'^W^ t58n' D8iii /*is?''''3 pa y'^D'^DD s?:^'»nn8 n ,ai8' 
.*?8S'i»=i^'*^ 18 ^8^ *li?'T JT'iK V8S0^ii8 18 tD38^y:^ iy^:iy)a;3iK t)8?T /tD?]s^i 
tni$n iy'?T"»tt: ^^tz^n'i'yn' n: ♦to^K^'t:;. 8 t)S'':pn8D in t38?T oy ♦ ♦ * it^D^'n ps 
8 r>^ ^iw'^n ^Pia:i2m:pn8 ^^ r^m^ P« ty^prn pK Dv^'KunKiD m 

45 



VTK ♦s^p TS'»iK ?D^D to^"''?nis?i t2;ns7''is 8 t3"»)D: ,S;5?2r j^T^i^^ni '>'>ns:' d**;^ 
"5?^ ta^n "»n ♦^^''^n pK i^iti^^iiK t:''^' topipv:^ tai^n' p."'iK yVjrn $ro^na 
tti^ii n : 5?tD^4j^ai vt)DPDD'»ii n ps> 05?^^^ ^^ ns'?j''n>? i^k '?^.t prja iDjri 

nssi 8 ♦Viix DVT pD tosra-^nisp! pK is?:^a8:\s?:^':''nK t'^k 'pT^n di$t„ 
nyDiM psi ns^^X' p''):a''K p-^Dtz; p-'^nyA n pk ytDD-'m^ toi^^^i s ^yDiajrt^^ 
•Tyo:i8Diy'?sr nsrD^isyr^Doys- ,n5?D'»*in! ^ p.'»in.5?':\&^m t»t ^^n n^'^^^T'^'i^, oyt 
"aiKii ]a'»op'ii<nip"»'?p Q5?i; n^i'S^ topip'y:^. irn^'H D''tt. s?ai s oi^ni 15? ♦wn 

-s:i Dyii om P*^ t)''»! ]ix isni^^mi^i s to3p5?::i0^iiS' :^ai:is?iiKi nsrVyiti^ 

♦t)P''?5?^pJ?n.K 1;yn''0"p4JDO 

p^St D5?^= to-'D — pni:^ :\yii D3?n^ DDSJ^^y^' n turn t^no 5?A'»Kn t:''tt/, 
-r-JK Dtr;'»i !•»« nyrv ♦p''iK y'DTj$;VyA9;8:iK IIK pnTD>''ij^-a'»as iPTni;ai'';an 

♦Dnn^S?t)'>'*o (yi'in) ywi^a piysD^p srt$bp'Vi^ n wm pk o«i„ 
,'?ij:o^B'ti:? T»i< ?2ii:iD |w»n i^^'^iij: s t))ai'»i;iy:^si$ to^/i s?dpj v^bvi n,, 
-y:i D^ii t2^D"'n nn "iyD'?5?ii nwiiK ya5?i3?s 15?^ inn d''k ph nao^ur 

-180 ytoDtoo^n^ n p& s?r'»K is?iis?:^' D''in'?yD''^D y:Di^:i t^k ,0^71 iyo"»iK/, 

♦D^'n 'nyt:;'»i^./ nya pa- i5?iis:i' 
-ya rmp2 n5D'»'>i'i ip pK TiKDt2;a'^iK-|jDy:i: nvi i:niy?5?iiy3:''K D;^ri n// 
nsTDs^s^tt^i wiirm 5?3y^t)5? t3"')3i pk n V2^ nmv.;^: y'tr^''22JSi •»! pai is^ma 
PD n5??yp n T»K tiujiv:^! D:\"'2'>^snsa pi^ K:iti7 tia m^^n n pK I'^sawa'^ns 

46 



nVjn n lis s?'':i(]s:i?^i''DK)!:' n iin t»:i:2m' o^ii ,^TTn1^'2^ D5?t to'*^ ,r^^ 
: nmniA nsr^jn tDSsrtirsra nin'»t:ns^' v^ lys:;^^?? ''^i P'lsn- l%^ip ''^'^^r lis* 

n!?;iii n-inm isw "pip^ ,^)V) bo tt^isD 

/HViH^n ]''mnb inttt!?i in nx npi 

ps tt^K^tt^ op ,nnn ps pvnp ms ^toi^n pn- ps nrnn ^t nsitt^ ps ^tp nyr 

! ikiw^Vkdd ,niK in lyp : Dnap-iVT^ia 
t)^a n^K D'D p^N itn ♦:^iir''^D^iK, pK ]T']'?^ 12 d^S( pj?;^ pK pr pn nya pK 
ibsyii m>3 ]'>n pH ,ivb tsiVa ]•^^'^^ pR : psyian p''a'»''K ik ih& ttsxtt^i^^ pn iv^'s 

DS^ii in s pD ♦t5'»*»2t 8 pK in' ^ psi Mn"^"?^ xi^v^'''^ni'!;i'i pK nsrun^'to.^KT 

: lD37tt^ y'PISJDII ywni'pS^n P^^l^'^K "'^1'^22; n Tilt p'lSJ^WA DA''a''^>n^?:D T^K o;$iii 



Vtt^">K>jivn n ps' vV^T 1VT' pvn iv» /"i^'^s-ip mann,, cpiKa nya ps * 

♦T)a ps ^^'t3 ]tt^'baav 
47 



...-.MM 

TJS13CD3^12^-STDi;; 



.1 



-trt T's Tasws'is D5?Ji& a^d")^' 713-10 n'-'a fw tm ta^sn b^ ^m 

•>5?35;?7ayEiins& rK isriijVp ■)ya"r'?^i; -is?D"n-D«it .5;D3'2^s?ri5;TBns» 
•!'» ,jji3P "ijrnycrnjm nyi, rs lyaipsrn^s vk d^ii ,0^7 nw ixs oi^n 
ojjit ,tSJ3iJ2ns3 ^rrxiiKj ,5;B^'^i5;tJD.'is n, 7J5?ii ly&T?^ Tr "tD'niyr 
"*iS7 T» nx ,xB5?Ji 15?T T'x n'x n n«s 7sxi2;y^ p^n Dj?'doya jjii^d^t n 
Tantjyj ]axn oiT" 'yiaoinao'ni n 71X SJDM'a^-iisrj'x n. ,mni3 n ti'sw 

IWXSIpJJ 5?»D''n 'T «T1X 7t30'5?KnXS IS TT n'x 5?JS?a'''?a.1XS 'T tO'lB^p, px 

'11 /psr"? n'lx 'iT» da^'j naxp s "t ]'iv^p'tv'! tix nyB^smo'iix jn5?"i 71X 
nns •'11 ,a2?8"n5?a'x "isras'rx ■T5;D"irD{j:n 7n5?ni n^a .o'id 7in,Tii x Tix 
■JT'iB yns?"r o'a ■)5?'?i3s?dto'ix j?e?'tx syprtDoixiixai nsTDiy-nw n, 7a}jn 
ypBO"i n ta^asTsna'ix "i 73!jni anx 'ii ,-ij?j?x33?Ji 7ix lys^ynD'a nsra 
nv^insni IS ^D5?:i lyisroxViz^ixa-iJ^'ByOTjrn njn 7'x nyiw on 7ix nima 
-'^'a 72M5"T 7Bisjjiixa o's n I'a sgp 712 ,7p^xi3t:? 7i2'» Anp Djrjysiy 78 
I5?3'x 7t39xn5raax mn oxii ,iinp x — /5?'S'ais3x-Di'np ■jya-'n 7'"t B'a nya 
-S'nys ly-r 7511 ,ixi rx ixa 7y'!J uixpya in dVxh 0x11 7ix a"s min x 
-»is fsn f\m Brx?y5i tiwi in bVxii xjiir iytt;D"'T nyti^'^x'toeya lyo 
-IS ,BXQir? X ]is im^-y ,dxd27 X ttrsisnyoiix — mntax Sytsnymyi 
-nxs 11X lyjyancnxB ^lymytryjD'ix 71X iyBiyDxay:io''ix n'x D'a 7yaxT 
•onypiia 71X 7"iy'?yp n 7'x AJnyp'jysxa lyu^'Tx iyDS'2?xaaiK lyoj^' 
7iaianxB T'x yu^nxn 7''X Tixistr^s'ix 7E''xxiyni nyt 71s a'lmx lyt 
DXii 'Mwns^a 71B aito-Di' oyr — ,t3^xr^^o nyn d'» ,nos 70''a inx "a 
IS 7't3i^n^ ,7TT'iip''? IS 73'9pyiD^'ix ?y'sysD 7axn: nyiiya ye^D'n n 
71B yi5ra''?a^xB ,7^^ tsii'itj j'^ijys yay^uy yjya"?aiXB n 7TTiip'9 
B'» 73«n o'sxa 'T DXii 71X oay'jyA 7axn Dxn -ujt'id^ tny-rnn yayVDy n 
ny-r .aa^nayjaix .ba'^'s^ixb 7T«t3y» yay!?2M3jyaaix y^xuna "^ny^a 

48 



♦2 

♦p§ia3?:io'»iK rm i^^Dtt^s'^iK nrr t3:n njj*' fyi^ •lyrnnss t^^^'^t o$r 

8 pH pintry:^ /1943 *7^iss tDr23 D^ /n:iKt:t2;si''iK Qsriis d:i5;?2I5;^ ]ddpi 
-nS// 15?^ n"'iK inn r'^t 12: nsrpain; s ps rs?ns? /«t55?:\ ijnisnz^isii' |i& iin^ 

"122 1^ D^n PD'''^22D''">?:i i5?n:^ /'p.^ntt?Ki u^^:i istdi^h rv t^'JD isriDi i^p 
/'ty)2"»nt> ytoD^m 3?is?niK i5?:3''i^ m-^'^iaxi; rimn t^k oijii Oi^^„ m ^i^vm 
tiK '^^^^sn^t^ii '''^lo^iaiis ^i^Tas?'?^ fiK lypasrT^:^ n*'^ p'lST ojsjt im 

P^ 0.^11 ,0$n'?K '|V''^nn'1^n'»K tIK t?^^2J:iyT *iy^. tIK 1^^^ D^ll 05 n5?11 T8 

♦p^Kt pK n;^i^ Diyii ny !•»« /'n.niw:;a; m nn// — 15^ 
T^ ,rnan is?t^ PH ini^m i^d d^ii /D^i d^^^ pn n^ja i^yii ij?d'»^ii pK 
px T5?t 122 ,'n;2:^3? m nmn'?>/ /ni^in/2 t*»k 7''K ])^ tr^D^s?^ i5?is?'' /''dih a'^'^n// 
-''•'ii-^i^sinij ,Dn5^ynys''K r^^ o^-r D^t^ii ks^: is? •'H n^^^i nn p^s^iusa 
tti^^^y^ti^^A 3?^^ /^^'H n tDDKiD^^m niKT n^ ♦Diyn''sy:\Dnn'^ pH d:\'>d 
-i"» n tiD t5:iaiHiD 3?sy^05n n ,a''5?i^s?ri a^tz^s?^ 5?^k n /Jsjidsta m P& 

Di|§11 ;pV^3 ytZ^^l^K 0^,1 tDKIIKS ]a^n O^l^l ,1DK1-|3?11^ ^T ^^y^DSIiSl 

-•»« v:^vnim n i^ii< pK ,10^1:3 ^hwt^ n ipm^i^^^ 12: js^^ns?^ ]2^n 
5?nr^T D''^^ tP^Dt^isi:s?s"'K i^KD ^'•'2 p^ D'';2)?n! nn D^n oi^ii ,"»^22.^'?p. yt2;n 
n^Tii 1^^^ pisigm Y^§ Di^T — ,1,5115)53 pK D5''DD5n, ^ti^D'^n n inmtDK 
Dtz;''! pK in tpyit:;^ Dt^^: iik /T'D pk D-'nni 151 ip pK |5W^s^ik *?i8:id8 

tD5?:\1KS- /ttr^^'IIIKS ,D^?35tO pK pl-'D^n 5151^i^ 151'« n ai'''?1S ,05 piKIIQ 

♦tD5:iiSD p»)a iiK 
-11SJ'' |Da522 D5:iis 5t3^i> n t5i53^''''220^ a^''2, ^in^'^i )m i^o '?k:d^ p>p pK 
-1511 5i^^J35:^'?>J to^n 15^1pS^ n^lKDtrS'>1i^-|$D5^ 1511512^1811 05^ P& :^$t) 
-jjis ,p^n:^8::i D^^pii''D5p'^ns i5i' i^a d''J3 pi^i i'»;3 i«i ,p8is PK 15d 

♦n''S0'»1K 5:i''tO''ia n ^•»n:151 P8?a pK ]TT'^ 

-i8iT*'t:MSS pK 50^n il^ I5?21P5:^S''1H t'^h tiij^ 50225^ m ps ^''i'? pK 
-''?i:252: H' pK DD5^t3as5i8,s |5rn 05 mtDii:i5D'''?-piin 5^>«Di5)3ipaji 5:1^0 
"im P511 /D5t^t2; 5:i5T'^t^1K& P511 153''n; 5^5*'22530: 15t)15Tlin pK I5A 

4siin p^ii:^ 05:112 iDi5^ij/a pH i5'?p:i''ii 5i5T''trii^2 P511 rim^n );iiVT'>Vi; 
-i5T'ii .^■:^'a?ji5A D51' pS' D5tiN:D 5^5T^t2^i8& n t:\511 /AiiDCims' 151. pD 
-'>^'»''DJi:n n ,5?«i "'1 111^1^5:^ tDDi^i35:io^^ii>? vk 05 ni^i:Dt2;s!'»iK pK iiSDt^^ 
•si"i 5t2;n*'K ,D5siix tiK i5*''^t3i8B /nimD!-t5:^^it>3n 5i5i'»"»t^i]^s n ps am 

''^O tIK D:1S:1D'»1K D5:i1S ^"^O^ — /lt:^"»^55U?5:^^ ^1; P& m^ D51 PH 5t2^'»TK-Dl^*':i 
-£)5M 151; lis |D^^pa*'H^'^S-1:lJi:,Dt2;i5T'11 n 1^01^151 pK ITt'^a^JXI^ D51pK 

49 



.3 

in n^iD^*? /'HMnna nan,, •lytrta^n n^i ^^'^toyiD tik pvi^i yDon'»a.''fi^n 

1JJ2 11^^ i^Ji iDsn& )m Di^n t:?"»rH i^a tm i^a rypann 12^, n58;ii5?:^i toKt 

ni3:'?p r^^ U1K nKS Di5?ii O'S? tiK ir:yn.''?ny:^"Dan3;'? ]ix s?:i?i3ip3?:\?D'm n^ 

"5?:^ in t)j$.n i^r^^ oisjii ,]5?riDtr t;^' |ik WT^b t^^ ♦lyj^Dtz^nss tD^ji iik 
n''Tni;3'»^n n- ''ii u;^^ ♦nD'^nii? i^t 122 n^tz^ •'ii ,^nnatiV ik22D„ n''S' t^tJ^^ 
n IX r^b^ 'W^» ^V'l W l^i IT""^ di^Ti' /^^nM"DDs?t:^ n i-'K ly^ysyirr 

♦D^'^s 122, t:'''>22 11S' in Dnjrn "yD„ 

pin ^K„ ♦yDD^a^r^ttiK s^^ ^^y^ in, pos i? pi^ntoD'^nH; tDti:^^:i !:''»• i'iijd 
"oyiiw im ny^nn ,anan v"^yT:iii^ rt:js^^ totr'^i lyiijp i'')^ — /quit m 

♦T^iiyi t:tr^:i iDn^^ lyrn n^'ja. t3?ii ns;^ 

n"'^ /tynyb tnia i^iai ♦i'T'SD^ik yr^i^D**!: n pj?^ !•'» ni)3i ]ik •^"»;3' idik7 

P5?'' TH 0'':nDOimi^a^^.iK ]m PintooiRnifi) D'^yir •'^ai a"»yii'»i n^^W 
im r^t3t2^:iJ4;s3' IS ]i« nyn *i22 n^ — /n^T^T ly^t:;'' T5?^iV — /1d*''>2:. s?:^'»V^n:i 

-nss IS t)'»»:83 in toi^n p?Di o^ii ,d;^' i^ia tj? ,iy9as?J3 I's^'^n t^k 0.2; 

♦inon i5?o^''in:^ 8 — ^tDyi'is nsr:^"*?^^ lyi 0^ iiS3 D^^pA^t>D'»n ^7^7 i^% D'»tt 

50 



/myn: $?r">n pD pi'5?i'» "»T — /'HiTiz^ Qn)3iK DriKi /D'»n^ D^s?2iD n** '»tr^5;5// 
15r:^in D^;!5 ni$a t»t to^yjiisD tk |ij< ,d'' th lypan omy^ yDy'?ti:^t3:y» n 

t^^K — ,ni:^mtti yi^T'^t^iKSi is^i ^pn tvi^n ^^n in^ fK iDsmiis yt^^njr 

in fosrAiJiiD — n^T vD^'^ii^j K iiK /I'H'^tr 5n5?D''s yiynt:^ ns?^n iDmsD 

pD I^DO^^m in r"'?^ tIK ''DK1S<1 DD^l// T'lK rn fT^? t)'''»pPTIS'?DDnD'»'JK 

♦ ♦ ♦ t2^D^111$J/3i^P S 110 

'^m noD |iK t).Q:i$ 15?^' D^n ^isjtz; ^m,/ n: n"''?!^^ ts n^^;*?? tDisni oj; 
lis nnDM yi5?Dn)am im ^t2;ns5 3mj ovs^r Si'»^'i22 — /'D'?iy-^"'n// m u?^su^ 

rn tix niD t^n n''i^i*i3?:\'i^ n^/22j:^i$ ri^-'^P "^^tz^nm i^o'»n:\ is?i. ti^n ,y^^'>T) 
D122 ivmn ^'^ '^^ l^*''^' '"^^ /TOto^Vstz^^s tiH liT^p^rna in Dt^^ya ,di» 



4 



n r^ /TOm^"5?''22N:iDa^2ra^p v^iKfin^ n rx .oi^Dy:^: yDO'»mN:& dstdd n 

-IK — ,i7''K pD '?D'tr^n 8 to^i3i'»t2;T^a ^yi^^ Dnisr'?^:^, n^: d^h 07 imi jtr^^i 

nsD 12^ ,ton!5??s?Ais?i"»K D^n'j^i 0^11 ts?i5?3^^:!ins& 12: i?^n *^s;r'?^M pK :\iKni 
^ijT 0'^ •'ID ,t^AiK:\;5?:\D.nn'K vk ]);ih o^n ,]D"''?y:\a^ in d^,t;:j d^ii ii'»ntrr 
PK w n TK ,t3ni''i?::\yi' r^» IP t^^n'^i i5?D'?5?n PK /t)?sni i^nn 12: p^nsri 

D'?'iS:'2^Ji:n i:sii$ toij:?! ts??^' ♦nnn 5r:^niyttip n n^i:s ta^'^'raiiss' ^sr os? ,:iisnt 
PK m'^^^ ns^oo^na "^^i: D-'iii: ,i^:\in'':i^'»s u-'/a' ,sj?'?p tD'»;!5 tn^ntr^ pn8& 
tianwA pip ni"'J< /Ts?isto:i Dti^'^n^A cnjni 05? israij *D"»it) tD'';!Di — i?^sk 

Dp lyiis pK t5:^n'mss in tjijn pip ns?*7 •»i'i i^ija ,1945 r^ iiip 
onji'i ly'pjai^T p^^in.$?:^ai$ pK ipipis^niK in /^ti^i^n pk ,i':^m pK irin3?:^Jij: 
ns?Ti''Ti 11K Dipmx; /tnmn jo"»n:i: on ps^ o:innt:^i*!:£3 p'»'?ai^s f»K o.y 

51 



(pnin) *iyi im ts — iV'^is pK "yDD'^i^^y:^ iss nsTDsy'pa// ''i 11s i^^ps-ryi 

15?i8t3t2^tDis T''K oy 4Wiytt' r^wB ym T^^ mT^i ,p^nii7 0^1 y"»oyB 

i^^&H iii< i^sn in^jii pntrs?:^ ^jr^'ssii^Di^ mD^n^ tj-'iD toanHns:! ]sii5?:\ ^-^ 
I tDTT''n^nB^"»K ,in tD'''>DnKs. /fi^fi 5;D2:y^' n — ,iDynKsbiUii: s?2218a 

D3|jxt)^nT OS? m nv^im d'>'>:\ n ts ,d'?'»ss?:i 121^1 jros)a n ♦in i^: idt s 
♦tni$iw tDn5?:io'»iK w^r "^n •'im •'11 ,D5?t pyn p'»n Dti^'»:i t^isit D^jn'i n 

pujii P3;? ly^'n r& tDii'»;a 5?d2^5?? n^ tm pK i^ii ,(.t] j — n^m'^i 
5?D2rs?'? n: D''^^ tDjjn T'K i.y5nis:p .is '! n^pi to^ya ,jt^ j i^ntrv:^ nuiip 
/1Dd;$^5?a d"»k tDiSiT):^ mil ,T^in ps d:ik:ii nn n^iK pnii^y:^'^^ niniD iy'?D*»a 

♦(1946 ,1 '2 /"s?'»22sS'ip^ nyt2;^w^n in nyDiiK nit)8ns?D'»9 
T»T D^i Pip-D^yii ifV^'^'^m ns?T •'11 i^Ki ,pm:^ ii!j"» 5?s!s??D5r t)^;^ 
tsisiiti:;// r'^K v^ m /15?i^^» 12: irKs:i ''its Tmy:ii I'^tti ly:!*'^ ^toniS^SD 

♦ItD^SBip? S?tz;''XKa n pD Q''try^r'?'»n:i pK iD^'»p^'^'?8''tDDy:i 5?do"»ti s;'?^ n 
/'niJ:i'7pK„ pVs pK iDn^i, tD^'^ut^^ ^n ,ts ,t)P'>22nyn''K t*:^ is?3i^ in p^n n'»n 

lV''''siviD'»iK PK in^nt^;^^ oa^py^ t3t^'':i isrn to^isn /'di-'D t^iw l^^isii 

"S^ pK iy?D''^^ 3?t)0n''a''SK1 StZ;^''Vl5?DD"'1K Vb^ AV^lWl'^'^B '^'Hf^ ,DJSJT^«: 

-mK im 5?ms3$iiKa»iK yu^n-'K n^ ps iT'»'?-airn'»A 3?55r'?iyt'»w srb^i: .n^lJts 

"srrisnns ta^ii n**^^ o:^ii ,0^1 i^ pn i^;^. ,pnn s psni p^i^ t^ 
v^ ,lT'»iis?:^o^ni^ in D-i^n oy •'ii i5?iis; — /'t^'iini i^Dnt n$?7,/ — dd»» 
lytsiyiaiH: n^rmnt) isiv"^ nw^v)^ i^ ,pnin v^r pv iv^i^:^^ tDt2;*»2 05? 
V'R nijii^:^ pKt^^s?:^ pK iriiyii' PK oy /njDH ♦ni:iin)mn i5?2;§"''?'»;a n5?D:iTnD 
m^^ 5?i5?"» nsrn^ — ,p'?^a ytz^-'TK di^t p^ii^jo'^m '»ii wb i'$^m% 
T^K "isKW// 'is^Ty^ nns!7' nyiy'' ,t:]$Dt2; ;^ p^ bpl'>^^ o);it /^D^Dtr^ D5?t5?'» 
,SKiD8D n5?:^''ttii$ i5?i IK11 /W'2$7n3^ Qip»„ is?is?*T2nsa s nsii3?:i pk ispi^ra 
vn ps pK ttA>^p5?:^ in D^n ly-n^yia •iy:^''Di^, ny^r ^'pit^id nsra^Dm^ m 
-y^ix ns? Diijn j?n^o:8B n3?tr;^'?N:'»tooya isrpisv pK iPDii:'»22':i^H nyisrA'^^K 

52 



-j-^BnjjD IS •>5?)a"0ijii' •'ii tw» S?3s?:i^^K ,isVd^I3, sayA'j^K ti^'^sm 11H toDsnt) 

♦5 

rK n'iSDu^D''iK-i$D5?:^ D5?^is ^i-'injiu qjt Drr 1^^ m ^^^^ iPt5i'»%i '»'»a' 

n-'tt' pi$n n'^opm ,m3iiDT ^ipimr-^H-^rm ,nn5?-n^'^3:^. ,ny:^'»n:^^t) ^oirp^i^nD 
-Si'»iK 5??s n; toi$ tsin:i« :\.s?tt 15?^^ ni'^iK •— ^^itoKiyt)*'^ p'^n j?D*»n:^ s ritz^ 

-DDi'»p ^"^D ,'?"'B T»iK T»' tni^n /mtoKi^t)'''?// n5?'?8t3a5?;a,ips"T *ip"'n ly^ 

-y^»iK ,5?D''it!i s ni$i /"lis 122181112;// r**? t3t2;'»i dsj^k t'»ii2; T5 p^n- 
/p^iijnD ypDi^s. K — iyPD:>n n5?ii8: /'nit)ni5?D'»? j^insi^tr,, yD'>nny^in 

ID^Vnss ^1D^?1,JrD•''?-7i8Dt:;s''1K im-tninin n d^ i^ik ri^ )V^W ^'*^' 

♦Q** tD^n:^ s 12: ,&•» s 12? 
t)'»D ns^'^Ji^jyo^ im^ iV«t •T»a ,t3^^2r vm:i'sn -^i i5?sns?7 ritr; ^h 05? 
-»» p"»n to^'''^'i^' l^^KA DST T^«t 01^11 ,i$;t^ip. ns??^8T b^'s ivoy^^x 8 
♦Tt)srans8:i Anyn^rA •'H iii^ its^&^d^'?? ,iTft3H^ytoo''o. ,iT3n:^' ^snst^ 
-ii? T»K oy iDMiKD pK n''it30.*':\sn'i8s PK 15?^52KT ISC pi'^n ^•»r'ni f^K 05; 
ytr^n^'i^ 5?n5um nj^s- pK^i i3?*?:iipi2J '^snvtoi^^i iD'^n qvi tn» T)a ♦pi'»D 
-iS «T»iK p5?nyn;''K /D'?5?ii 5?0i'>n:\ •'t pjjn lyini-'K. T'IK iti)^ T»tt^ /lo^n 
-nsn'»x pis:n rr-'K di$ii ^icii t3'?yi't nn PK t»ix is?)3: ^^t — /psisii:^ 5?"ij?*t 
Di2;'»a ii^D T)D ♦n3Si''"i3^'i't3M ^DS^D^ ^tDsyV ^ DDs?35?^3in8 tiK Dn:yVy:\ 
,iy:\an5n'^''t2; tin lyi^'^n^ s?:^,''tDi'?ni ^v^^'^ii'i^TWB^m n^f^ pyii t-^KDnsD its'? 
-ija-ii''Diii: yt3Dtt5?iip8n' im 5?tDoa''">D •'^ pK fiyii is^'i:in8s t)u?''i p^u '»n 
♦DD:ipisj i:5?t:^"»ii n5?T n8& p5$i:^ni?s i3t^'»a '»'»r p^D n^'iSi /'|'?'>''S/, iik oy"'S'»? 
-Sp'»?sis n3?'?ii3p nin pyii Dn3?'?y:^s''iK '?^^K"m''ii tii^ ?35?V ttiJD- ■'n 

IIX n5?T11TKai 8 ^''IH Tl^tD IS OyB3? in ty^)5D8a 11H D5? 1^''0 pK 0^ IT"*^!!; 

'pp sD'»ii:i' n Tsrii^ttKi' 11K TS?ii$bnrTi IS :i^t3S''ii v^ oy ♦pin iru'i^n^^ 

53 



oifii nvf^m^ US tivm n tJ5?ai'nsrj -njryamiDT' Miopia wr^mm 
•sm 5?3^5m .binw tw srrmsrans -srpnyas rx T08»-op9K& yir'm n. 

ra^jn tmp nx oysns ,tu?E)i5?a raws b^iim^ o^it n5?3''3-^ai);r 5?jnnj?? 

-nV^Jto-nnain tx tik D^citrr yij?* ,5rD3''!:^sn. i>8 rx b{J:di:^ viv'> fix .pya 
t">5ni T» px .jJit3D'n«a yjs;j"x tw pmn •)yjs;A«x 'tx px d^bk; y-ry 

?B5?0127 ,t>Xt3tt> S ns SJ195?Dt:ri.p STPliSTDB^VlB X tm p'l D^ll ,1S?t^''a: iw 

Bxn 0^11' 'tTjni a'-ryay? 8 'ti 0:'n8 t3»ip fDytjir^ ijnx ci^Btt?' n .onyj jm 
n rs D'9iAVi 5?JVT"trix& taajj&wainK: ,D'?p'niB38 in ',id?^'ii5?j, ,Bais?'?yj, 

IW11 p-)s?ii yiwp5?^jjp 5r?8t3'ssp n /'5?Q'^,/ Tiaijast lycnji nyt 
-snxVa ,tn^ ,vmp' 'poi'a ,nN5»i3DJS?u^t) ,r^a:i'? -p^Dc^s'i ,5?iV'ii ,T'nj:? 
'ITS 1IX ,tJX?xpo ,T2?t5?u?na ,xn5?'X'w ,ysimDo^ TsriKi'^n ,pD'nxp'?^Ti 
nyi isyn iV'isrtJXiai »5?Vt33'tt?5;5 ya'Da'ii m pjjn ^i. nyD'»Tt rx isro^ii 
S?i5?t"ijr->8Si n tiD tm a'aw ytr^'i^'K: yiyT.>,j^.iK& n tJij jib ti^niyj^ij^i^iija 
rx imp ,05r'S8t'38Jri^-iiD'np px ya5?'?t3B>?tr?95?T5?j ,s?t2?'t3''?p ,s?ir'X5?rx 
-xaaiK* ,imiVTi '9xs sro^'ns x Ti nx& t» ta^n — -ip^ya rx .fsrwiM'T 
— -nnan yi5?T'^nxa n t'x a'dstd i5;ti5?j, jyrn o^n /'lya^yt ytojsp 
X 1X0 -Bjrciv's X 1X0 ,t3s«u^3'b X 1X0 .viT^^i -irtT'sximx-V's tix 
-^'•a iix nsruyVa "s?t5ai''V')x&" s^iirT'irrixa 't ti^ rs ay-^n os wnsrixs 
-mar' ,D'0;pJs 5?a'54m n' bjj s??x px .' lyjJinyT^'a^ rx j5?sJia«ntww nn 
-05?a ,5ra'''7''nj -sra'Tx^ia ,j?tr^'5S'iD ya^srr 'i a'a in iji'Tjjfnssi lya^a 
■nxs -ao'inxs isixwx "i p^rr myciDjjja yiir^wn 't ojjii ,ib"P2^''^X'b 
-iSD'a-maf ,D'opas j;a'?yTx 'j'd rx .nj? is?-? ps tJir^'nyssij, px \3vw2 
l!\3mysim n ixb masa ,ij??srap3y.T iy?D3i.»x lyrn pxax»9x-os;DB^ 

0'l3in'-£)"^DTiX'? y3:5?ai''?31X& n 0«T» ,lS?9D5?.t3ll^ pX ByOE> yi3p5?!3:5?5S?j; px 

,TS?»ip5rattix i5?i"r ajjii ,n'insi:?)a i?-i5?->''r ix& px usrua^ ynyn "ixsi I'jyBo 
-37a 05?mx»">S'"r 'BixJnx& ?5?J"r "T 1X11 Dispxa citp'i iV'sx rx oj? px 

♦ . . pxii 
■8ivt3'b-iiXBm5?T'ni ]ix-iamni ns?a"-)' lyt rx :i"ns i5?")y-uiixa x 
,xj»^ya — ns^'X^'-tJXio'ix '7 pjm "iidxivd'?,/ yfy^jyso n m -nu 
px nyt3«ii prx px iiapxo ,D'wasniDx ,5rpi'^as?it3 ,p5riXTxa ,^iam 
,mmp lypa'it la'^an^D is?:"! p5?iij;^-iT{j& px-oayK? '7 ujj ps .is;t3'"n 
1X1 lyajj .n5?JX9-OB5;a->x nyn^yit ,0^0^ n pa pi "ns?sTa>, nyrj^it 
ytjaxoyiytji'x ,5?a'Da'ii ny'n tyjsipxaa'nx nx' yusy^ n -jxa Ta ?a^i 
-io.pi^ yjn'xma n ,'ip'iax&-t:''iD 'i-b^ pa- iDiyaip^t px TS;MP"wxa 

54 



'^u n m PS' T5?:^anni^"»ti:; yDDKsy:^i-r'^V /'S?,^i^'?ko:ik„ th: py:^t2?D'»n;» 

'm :^n5?ns'? — ^^,;2DS^ — ;Dli3^^ s^ti^'^i^K i^d:it'>id ivDnn:iin. uidsii 

isiyii /imp vmn^R n itr''i'^22 i'?"'SK ;:^"'1^'»ii ny^n ,i'>:i^'»iii tDO^'»'ni is?^ 
-Vip i5?t2;n''Ki./ iv^ r^ T'i^ ^i^H: t)^ ♦p^v^ST-'n:^; ytr''XSi"ti?o''n y*?}? n 

-isna 12J. tT'»iiss' n^?T T'K n^D**!, im t^Knyo^tt 5?toss?^to:iS:yiKD iik SDpm 
"nn^Js ,pi;to"»^^t)i-)n ,i^:\,iip"'2^'^s q'» q^t iid ts^no k ,pi$nD s f^i^^ni iy:\ 
5?:in:i5mDtr dkhp t»k ntjn fto^'n v% rs tiK — r'lD^v^P^'^i^ PK ts'^n- 
i3?n8 fi t)i$ni ]3r?3' /oy*'^3 k ip t^k 07 m ,yDi?Vt:jfl:''W rn 5?5)?^7:''d ,p'>ia 
-ipyn^D T-'j^ o^riTK ri? ,t)'?yDt2^y:\ip' Dt^-'np in' tm tJOiKn'sr:^ tDt2^'»in«:i 

t3r'»V ^t)S?:^! i3?Tis?ti^i^ii ns?7 pK 'TaKDM"'iH QV"^' pS' ^^tj^^^ isTD^yi: in 
♦tV'^&nsri ps:xs'»iK pK 5?t)D*'^s n d^ itdd' t;^ ^m 



55 



1DT1D1S13 n^ 

ti^yn n ^1^ p^jjnsH ajri tssiynHis t^^is y''^^ ski •^im ^^n) 
(Ktsp iyiij?ts^iRii *iip lis 

Djn 11D ::^i:nnynKD ]^B :i^d s ,VnsK n5?t)-i9 nyi pk ,1945 mn 
"isjia iT5?''T:i8n:^ oyT onK ijDsr:^ ^^srti 710 ninnin n 'T'm ip; t^isip 

iSDy^ns;'»">& K fK 0^7 ♦t3'':iHn:i ^''IK isanm^ wowb v'^p 'o*>i p^ o^ii 
-nyrj n5?TKiti:?Tnn-nyti^''22nB m tis n^ii5^ to^'na^i is?W2$? tym ■'n ]5?ii 

♦l^^iB Ds?^'*^ 23?^! ps ^ins''iK a^t IKS' t^"»i& tia nims 
stDTf'ijj^'^ •'T ps osjr"»:jK:\5?y7 t):sf^ii^)!D m^ I's^^p rb^im |t3i9 Di?t 

KjT .p'^^B i^b^ D5?7 pi^ PT''^^ PS' tpjnl?ijmK& yt^''D^;a.sro''Da^ n pD lyi 
-an© 5r*?8t)iy)3{5n3is- n. DpnKtotrM8& tm ^^"^^m tiyii ?ni3X tt)i9 ny^ 



56 



-S/'»''S s?pt3i^, n D^. '>'»n' ♦^•A ♦I' ♦K t'pit^ PR TiK tpmss) T^K ,is?^D5;t3t:^ 

n 122 ,tOSSt2;D3^''S lis Dt^liUB^ rit2^ /^''^DniKIKS. TIS f^^'D ]1:5?^ ,QT'»D'»n 

O'^^iK topnt 0^11 niD-Qp 8 ,:i5in5?inniKS ii& niu-Qr s t"'k d^t ;]t^ 

P5?n2:nK5 oVk, tn^^pn^T y^^iD^Dsiijp m 710 70 tiK 69 iiopaiss n ♦rsi^it^ 
T»i^ -Jii ,:^:ii22ymri::\ ly^:^ hkw ti& iD^nst^iKS' oi^^ nsi'??3^ ^s?i P5?A 
n-'fii: i5?ai^2 ps dD^i n n^^^'^^i^S' i3?iij i^^vviivi' i:s nmsu ny''8 

5?*T'5?^ fi^ ^pa'^iii w snK t)^y5 5?D?sni ,y'':ip;3Kp"o:ians?^pD'»iK tK iw 
:^ii'T»ss"in. yi2;ni^:i:s? w 1in^ t^s^'inm' pK n:i^'7 ]'^m ps^ y''22iD^upa''K 
tns?'? D^iit ]VK mv)^ :^*':sss 5?s^yii '»i im :\:^n^to3^iKnD'''>V:i i^^is ps 
l?i$T -jn T8 /:^i^t iys5?^iytDp' n^KS K 1117 i^Vi:!^ tin ,tV''i3 p^ ds"»k 
i,KD ts jp^^ ^ P^^ 1^ iD^M^ay?^:^ ^^K 1^ tjnDis Tt^^topKD 8 pr^ipsi 
-ao'»?t:;r^K ,mi^''2i iks t^^v^y^^'^^i ^?k ly^Dntjii tm p^s pn tV^t •'n 
-:\SJ2 ''^ T'lH •'ii ,pwi( 5??yiit:)^ip ^tz;^''^ s?^k pa ^ai^p-'iimii: jr^is n An 
"Dnpy O'^ii i5iD*^n:\W! lis nint^ yDos^n n 12s P'>"»t3t2;is2'>ii8 p'^v^yb 

4^^123 PK ITtD 

,t3i^"D:i:ii^^iKii p& pt PK to-^i ,|V'»iB pK D^tDy:^ w'^t^ v^^p ^v^^ ^tD^: 
♦niD'K^n v^'^v^ pymt3U?^:^pni^ ^-^^^^^rtHiD yo^'iis?:^! p& pr pK iD-^a 
5?D?sni 122 ri'i^b pa ipnniKD y^Dyiri n pK t32s^K p^2ik pk lyiyp n^'K 
isri^j!3'isn T^i 15711 ♦t^nDi^ w mnv^ ^"^^ nm-^-^p P'^ib id^k pk p^n •'n 
p^rr ,n'i^p itz;K n •'ii ^i^'^is p^K pK piKpn^KS jrti^n^K i'p-'sk m ^in 
y^iD n p^^nr^ss i'^d p^^p /p^^s^^i^' to^: I5?t3yn;ii8 v^'^^vk pV' '?i^m'»'>p 
— is?D5?niK w^Tt^ 4 ppn ,1^:'' p^s?V ^'p^j^^b ,0^11 rpsm :^ni3''n8n 
lyT psi rii^^iy^t:; spy"* im ^nyi& ^i5?n: ny^DKni ^ii^rn ,t2;D'»iis?^8iiA 
lii$ii5?:i ^in^ip^;i. — m^^^Hin pK p^^^KiriKn^t'^^H p& p'^nni^D :\KimsKS 
1V7 ♦loyni^ iyt3:s'''':25?:jiQ''iK n^^n ikd i^^iy^ 5?n5?n,^n pK v:^v'^%^ D'^tt 
-ijn^i I5niij5^t^ni5?t^n m ps ,t3i5?>p^r^D ♦? ^p i^dp5?ti i5nimi''K 
pn ii!:d ,tDii5?^3 ir^yiS' p& is7^ayn5?s '^^ns?^ ^ p^ipKi w^n ,pna8s 
-]^,a pK :iai^^pn5?^i^ ):i)^bmm ♦pnn>r5 pa A:it)^Kiii8& lyi 1:1: i.s;^*'t3!zr»'>3 
-pn^iKs 5?tz;''TK ^isji^^ T''^ v'^im ^- i:s nijiip t)?^'^^^5?AD'»iK pi^n p:\ii:"»i^ 
pD pn^ona^'K 5?^yT^t2;iKB ^1 ))b n^i^nmm Ps i5?i''?AtD''ja' pR nyDsrais 
pK vsikV s^^'? /Opis ♦& ,i.?p ♦D ,)Tmm HK'? : Vra.? '»n /yn^r'ptz^-iyTi 

♦5?15rT18 
ti^tDp:ni''T surn'»K pK n^rtD^rsii!: 5?t^n''K d^ii .^h s?tDoa^t3D"»ii 0^1 

57 



*i:s: nsnitr^ Vcnjj n^Kn o^t ^k ♦(1953 ,?n3K ID-2 /'^Kaiit!;? i:^n^;D-:^«jOy/:) 
♦rDiD^wms-iyp'?S?& pi< taiVtr^ ps d'p^ii r'»i k ly^n o^sjii .tti^Das?^ y^ij 

-&''m ny-T TyiT'/ '1943 /•'s^! ttiis Dn m^m tj? iik ,00^)21^ tyiw T5?i"'n 

i?"»sK i:s?n8j inns^m T'D sts DDSttsr:^ ,''pon^p'»o 3i2iTisrni'?:;i usi pa 
03!ji t>K /'n'^riv vi'»'>)Dy:^'?K tr^yi'i s?i5?i"$nsi s Ps* '?'''»d s •»ii inji,, )m 
PK :iaTT»:i,yTni9:x! ny!2^'»'?'»ir'»pon^p'»o nyi iid r^aiK-^xsn^ V55?'?Ta3?t2r 8 is?Dn 
'"im t^yi't nn.i$ t5?iSP T^'^is T"":^ oi$T t>'»i pK IT^J^ •'T' tD'^a 03^11 rTOiaJsj:'? 
Dp:ii3i fK 0^1 ? If •'iSi Ds?'»>j Dy^ t)'»tti ]^D iijj Dii$T ^^n DIJ11 i^rn^s: ♦iny^ 

ij^tD?:^ ijriiju^isni nn P^ ''•^i^'''?^ lirtrn^K 1^1 tm is?^d>j*t7j;ii'» n, tia 
♦Tsrr^tt^ri^ nnK T'lH T^i^ai i?''SK nn^ ,pV^& tt2^''^^K is^^a on f^'^m 
t3pns Dn^asitniriw pm*' pa tr^ijr-nn'y d^t Dt'^'niKa /Da^t^a ran dj?^ 
laisii t3::^n oijnt ^ntjt:; r'^r m 7''^d^"»2: nnK o^ii. d^t pa ^Dnyp^ija d^t 

,"Ti$t3ps?D-nvt3^nn8 ttr^'»^'»ia oyi im nna^ n)?i>/ m /i5;'?pnTD"'iK tjiy^p 
nna^: iiyt nuiDii^n — pK ivx"»:!2iKnD''na k px nyDy'?u?Di$?;3^ » ijnw nn 

58 



D^K TTi:\nyi fiVn: t^/Dp ;DD5;D^is-i^to">^ivi; D^'tt ri'^rn w^ i$;)D.ip' 

-»"is ay7 n^iH T:^;ia n^2 ,:ian''>n"rii^:i n'^^i n^m d"'^. ^luisaiisiit:? n^'it^ 

u'»iV' i*?^&K nns^' oy/Di5?ii tiK ,^t5y::i! i^n3?tr">Hn is?t ti& ]y:\iiD5;im'»nK 
/'S?P22iKnD'^nn! ^ iik yayVtr'D^s??^ k tyii'y:\ t^'i^// i:k^i nits? Oi'DiiKS^^nijiitr 

]5?iSt)tr3;a rm D^it ,t?'»is tk :\:insnTOi is?tz;n'i5?iyo:im lyt r& '?^*'d i$?7^ 
tix ,8i^iS.''i<:i'P '''^^n^ ''^ ^'^'^ ,:ian'»:\5?i"ni^^ nyi lis t3&8tz;m''SMn n^rtoim 

1P3'''? D5?l pS' »111&^ p^^^SIKHt^'^na: flK p^VMa^ia D^t nn.3^»*^8S pIKIIS 

5?V8i;$'':s2K2 n' ti^; idd"»?s'»2:)J;d Vi^^b' n n: .9 *b n — nssDp'S?ori3?D^5?:2.i8 
in p'^n o^iii ^n'^s^n^ ''T I^S' 1W nny oiji pjjn i''^ i^n^ ♦srni'S'n':^ 
T^ irnmni oigni' ,ni$.pi^:^:\: Kpn^it '»n^ ,7:KtDtDti;s>iK"^Dyi lyii t-'K d31;'»?^'»d8:i 
i5?i rsi iJ^Dpyoi n3?p:^'? i'S?i TK ,'?D''mx lis D'^vsy^^'y^' n^^Doay^p 13?*^ 

d^D ,n5?ii^:\i t)'»D in i^*''^D u^r^ :a''tz;'$?^ d''?^ i-^ik nija n^Dis^n^ d"*^' n^i 
rK /t^s^Kp n iya;"'K iin^s-^s?iii ^n^^nip ^'^tz^nK,/ ,*iy^ipn'nK& pv^xi^)^ 
D**:! ts^i^n ,iyiaiDyiDDi'»inK n s;nK; ♦iti^'D^n. •'t ^nK t^KS"));n:''K tj-'tt ^pijD 

p^^B VK :!^i)T^VTn)b^< ny^r ti& i^^w n Ds>ims?,T i^ii;^:\ d^ vk .^mp 
Ipi*'^ n^T '[^5?Dtz;i^i2: m^rwm in in^i^jn $?3^s?ii: .ypns?;:^^ ]m i5K'^a:is? p£) n^ 
Dpiis p'^yp unj^p pii^ri ^'n tk ^nn ,:i:i2yD^n.]si r^ is^nj?:^ r^i^p *i^,dps?d 

nyn: iid r^ainnnKnMn; im Tpa^tj iik pp-^n-rt^^S^^ /n5?V''tin8 'im ^m:^^^ 

DtD'ttii^D t^^n T^ns r**! o^^^ tk ,:\:in;3''i^n83 Tyr tj"';^ ,aT'»'?r2gi3:0 tis 

rK tsy? WTt^ ^^^'f^m an: rs' idt nm vv is?^* ^Dt:^''! fK nns^ia' 11^7 
n i'?^sK ^Dt^^'i// tyrn t^-'is fK t^ ,in Dr^u^p^n- r^D''^2: nni< /'i^^is 
-;$tt8 r^ P^^ 3?ti;n*'K t:;''rD n i^iis?:\ b^m t5?:i''n oijn ,to^:\ n p& lyi^is?:! 

59 



njri ♦t3'»3 in f'K d^d iti^n-JK ow r**?- to^n t5?»^^ *is*t in ddstti ♦''o^71W 

n rsi isr^^a Qvi P^nto tD**! i^T pk:^ n«9 8 ttDO^"»i^ni^s ikii ,*?d5?du^ 

.iT'^K p^*?!!? rt^tu^s- nsr"»8 rsi nt^^^ ^Dt2? DSTT t3''i^ ♦na ♦'? •'^ fs ly^^i 
-''nsri *?•»& 8 ,]'2ris lis tiK nVsn"^Dy> n tis ly^^j?! n ,nn tDDn^ ,"isrn 
t)8n t^^is "^njj ♦ii .rs ♦» ''ovpii^'r^:!// to^i^ii c^i •»ii /p:s;*7i^ nsrViso:»:itD 

DjH' fK TDn?ni 5;9s?nit3?ip 5rti^n"»miD Diai??'»iit3i8 iik :\:nDMs^ ,:in?tt8TsnK 

iy^ IIB V^^n ra'^iK pVsny:\o.nj< inyn t'^itz^ n jr^s ♦t:^n''K fK uri^^n 
-i5?*iy'? D5?T pD ^ytDt2^:i$?)38Tn as;7 d^'i'? ^"^d ,d8i:^8*iS' n$?'»n tD"'i'? '»">d ♦nDi^;:^ 
oiji ♦nm» I'SD'^irr ny^:i'''>ii5?iii?o^ii'^ 18 T'IK t^it2^ n^ to^ is^n^tr^ V8:i80'iys 

53r?ii}DD8is n t:tna5n8£3' a*''*3i iD^sHiVi t3t2;^y ]v^i D^n ,ytrn8i't ddit83 sss^n 

1«a ♦*^t:8yt) ^i^u r^. 8t8 t)''^ tT2J?8t3t2^ t)^i ly? sia^^jay:^ sn2^n'»K 
,ttD0'>tDn8 7tois'»'>s;57:xD'»m yDV5?T8 D:\8;Dn8B i5?t)8ytD nyi o^\ ,rH nyA'»t3:)"»ii 
SD^yii /''pxKi'»ii nsro^s:'' ,tK:^.Tii: VTiiKtz; ,DiKnDxi n.py'» ^Kpor^Kp ktk ^11 

-njDiKi fi^a- DTSi?MD"'iK Diyii n^t)8yt3 f^K 18 /I3?^i't38:i ♦tooiip lyu^n^K 

♦pnsm 5n2^nx?9Doa"»p 

,^t^»? /tyrn ^p8*ip pi^ AW v^'^^^m tia niu^ip nsrtz^nm "iv^ p& piy^i: 

n5r"'ipK'>p 5rD'?8 STDiansn n ♦isrVv^payT pK a'»i'»:n ^ti;n'>K 5?d^8 rann 

♦ttDp8 yto'^s n lis I't-'Dis DS?^ pK i^'im W'^'i ys'^sni .T^nytDsia n p& 
ny^ipmp D'»'>i ?'»'>DSi$-nid?ip Dy-T pD p^^ijra D*T»B$?:\D^n: t^rn pyn'^8 n 
-i'^K itz^nijioo'Ti lu^-'TK lis DDn3"»ix lyi iyD:iiK .d81"^8^8''S^ Itr^>t38t3ii^ 

nss nyD' T'm toiD ,s?t2;n8i'^ v^ mtD'»t)DrK ^5?t^n.8t)0'^n nyt2rn'»K m 

5rnyia8 pk oj? yij'??!'^ •»ii ,:inp-tD'?yit tD'^miif ps -T^nyB on ti& ^sr^iiiysD 

60 



tssu^y:^! tspn 015,11 .pnsnrDDsii? Sf^'»& tsrsy:^ 'T'K ♦p^p TtJ^n^*»K iiS3' nv0 
-ipsr».H n m m'^n v^''b^'\B sriyt^s im nyiii)?t:;'n8ii ly^r fR ni$ii5?:\ 

-jiisjD ,Toaj?)3ip«*T: ,piyii yt^^nsiyD''^ ^yi^i m'^^n i'^h ni ,m *k inioB^ipo 
pjj "j^o — TSiiiD^iK ]iK is?:iaio^'»x yt)i'»Dsi^^,'»tt'»» /imn ,iD£>nu^ nwa 
-yx TH ♦OiijDja n tiS' nysMp tm nyio .nsn^nt:; n; tiD •>'»d ,n''R v'^^im^ 
tD'»)D r2t8Sip3$ i5;ti7'»t:;D''n lytrnyiny^i nyi 110 tivD^^s n T»m di^t m"'s 
-3$i9' ^^&*'i'^ 11K tio^pj?:^ •'n tD^n OS '?'»D''iv ;nuiawn 5;im5rD'?8nDii nr^t 
-I8D i2t p'St^y^D; srt2;'»'?HiP'>D S2j?iwn8s> nm r^ t3D8»5?:i p:s$n "^n 10^0 
-y:^ •T'K ; mii''iH-m3i. n ]S"»iaD'»iK dd^ps?:^ ui^n oy ?^s''ii ? itk n ids'*: 
D»a ^i& D3t3D8p 5r:j?:iK:i tirm^ i''K ;T8:^ ns^'^ "^22 t5?:^:in:;5:nK& n r? ^^''S^ 
-ayiDKtii tz^srnTOtt: ^''S' •'itii: tj^D lyi-^n o^ii ])Ttim 3;u^''^ns?i?t}aiK n 
srn 11K Di'?n?5?:\an ^ku^j? m inn n^ii^:^ loVKn^n tm n«ii^A id?s;dwa 

m**!)?! ,pst)^"''?n''»n"Daiitr)iSS r'^t r^ .DiD'^DorK lti?n^DD^^i on t'>K 

IKHK'' iiD pnyii n "»ii ,nmyDD'»:i"'D-o:iJiit'?'»a: wi'^)B pa hVmd^id n5?T 
ti$D^iW y^in'** tis> "D'?i5? riiD''^rp// ; (1^)3) "Hp''»i<'»Hni'' K:^«::\^ro„ ,TiK7opii 
-3T1"' oyopsiay,/ onp:.y»:is?T^">K ti& 5?ais:3iO"'iK ytDtr^is? n 5(i634 ^t^T^?) 
-7:i>, o^'t^TiuoKn: j(i72i) 'wnny?T KpSDr^i'^=i>/ o''7H^n'» ji7i7) ''dio 

-|$p 5?D'>n S ; (1713 ,yn«X0''1H J?OX?21S5?^15?3*'K 5?t312^15r) ''p'^K m 5?tD0'»tr 
-:xinnis'' tt)-i9 n^'ims 11k tto'is 110^ tosf^n isrto^^iis ]^B I'lw^n:^' r^sp^b 
"tw **n :^3ins?offnn«jD 3?oy^n^n'»i; n; nyn^'K// i^oi^iist n?iKii •'ii /toijri 
-r">iiyxi5?0i''iK 18 ; (1789) ""T^K 110^ s?"»:^is:'?P^'^ o's^'iia^n: ti'^p^st ,* (1796) 
-ni$^ 1D19 D'lio' ys.isi^'>K t*>K yojrn© nyt2;'»T»K is?t tis :^aiVJ38T s?D'»n is?"? 
-10,/ J (1823-1824) ,"^5?03'»">ii lyT i5?DmnKs?n„ D5?'?B»Kp ♦i^ — •'ii /DniTTam 
/'imn// /T"»?)DnM /n'»;;i^rT// ii& :M5?anr srtjy^s^^p j(i837-i808) ''d-j^sV 
-A'»a^^i DST 110 :\i8:\-nr 8 t iriyiaii: iik ^ni'' n^ni// /'nTsxn/, /ni'»ns// 
5ra'»'';i5?3i?S// ? (1868-1867) n3itD'»">22 nyti?n;''K n5;"»iti7iii:ii// Ds^aao^sjii tD^ijpsi 

♦11 *m ♦» ''OaiD511'» OKT 3121D'»^X 

.V^ii'^bn ns© 0'S"'SiD''Do:i.''X fi^n; d^'Ii t5?rn ,p3?to;5'»'?n^^i-o:\awnpi pK 
njny^ /imjiitooi n^Dpns ps oy"»onipopv^ |is dditks! :\'nayDt2^ tns?ii ^n 
n 11D pi5?iro:^aiDD'»n^S' yur'»iK^ii^'>D n d''^^ •'•^o ^-t in ty^s^P'^i' S^^^s^ii 
y3$n'»t2^nii;D n* r^^ i3?'?n5?s:i^'>ii7K3 i^t lyp ty;a j?D'?yii OiS^'^tooyi jrts^^ssa 
Tt^n'^x fisi iDnsrirniD'pip yuo^n n d*'^ T'IK -i^5 ,tDKmsop5? jrob^^w 
-81' tiK itD:i80-iipop5r n T5?)a'ip8:i' oy"'2{p!^9 tm t^A^msr^pnsrt inn. ♦p^^s 
110 pK p^pis^o Tt2^n'»K 110^ yt30'»ti75?3i lyn tio :\:iAni$?Dt2^n8s $?n5?D3?ai 8 npir 
-0't)'»wnD Dyn ^80 'J'^o /t?'»i3 poi aiiKi^''S8i' ns^n n80 ''^o nr''t3ti;'>'>i' pn 
110 tj^'^p v:iTi^^^ n t}'»2{ DiD'»DOi'»K njn ♦^Voai o*'Mtr?Di5?D lyn iio n?38P 

61 



Ty>s^n:\82)^iK d^'K t^ik 1;K& m nsr^afnaKi^aiK ^itk Dpns rn t^jn osn 

-l19tt:Sn^!:s"^1D^1p w^^vt^ ^i^im i22&i& n ,d*'''P''ds?d 5?V^iiD?ip s?piyi 
-Jin tiD ]iti^m DDimn^ ty:i^n tm 1952 v^ lympyxip^ lyi'^n 0^11 ,15?:^ 

/qi3-t2;n''K// :\i?^i^s isrii D^ni ,1952 rn ♦yDy^D:i:^i'» n iii:s 'oaN::is''iK// ^^^i 
u;mi^D p5^t3'':imi:n' s t)">^' nya^'ni vt^^^'T'K y:!^^^^^^.^ 31 isy:iy:^o^'»ii^ 

♦n«^s?25?Tp5?^ oiyiain ^VB mt'^iD f^VB iid 

Disjfi t'?''i& r^ tx ,t'»'?D'»'>:s: s |iD ty:i:jiiy?pi5?T ^^ iv^Bm^^ 122 d''^ iy?:iy?a 
y'oiK^D s 0?^ "p^^ijs it2;n'^K D^i IP nnnj^ ^// D-^yDtr^ppynK Dt:;n?3l'7D 1^^= 
-D"»:iKi:i! t'&nK imt:^5?ia''iH mn p'^^B r**! o^ij^ ♦:\an;?3'»i^nKD 5?p'?'^ii"'n pH 
J p^ip '[^'»TK 01:2// : iiii;t5tr'S''iK-^,Dy^. iyii3?ti:^"i^ii as?i lis d:!3?)21J8./3- nyi2 
pj^Ti^ nypiynj;^ tb^ i:^a ^na^r^ d.^k d^'i — ^nyi^ioiKia pK D'»niaa yrn 
-»K n iKfii ;:^aii5?pnyii$ lys^'^D nynm ps pmo'>iK d'^k^ ,:i:inyi^a tin 
-^n&^3 lyt 1:2 ly'^'^Dti^^'^n; ]D^in:i ^k tDD,^;^^?:^ P^n ^d^^^ii nys^^yp 5?ti:^n 
■iti;tTO-tr^^22:ns ny'T tis pK ^aitoDy^piss n:s?i2;'>:sKa i^t tis i^^is ps, :^:im 

"»« pQ *>^U ,'»'?3iS'»1H tIK DIlKOpyi D5?T im P^^'^'Wl 0?^ pK ,1^^ Q^JTiJ 

♦DSKuri'5?D5?in8t:'»^' 



62 



♦68 "^pa^^Vi^n^i^ik r^n n^i^tw^s* ti'i'\s n^^ ism^ 1950 ^n^v nw^^ 

-p***? ^^wn^« ^T' \^a injiri r^^ i^njnp^s^D^^ "^^^ n^is'pw ,^'?n^3 ^nj^n*^ 
-Vtt'^n ,'^p^^n^n'^^n3 ^ r^ tai^^np^n n^n ta^ A942 n'^mt ri^ "^'^'55^n*^'\'\ 

-^1 n^n i^a \n^ "i^^^>55i ri^ w^^^ ^''i^ ^^^^u ipB p'^^'^^pisu ^v"^ l^a 

"in'^Si rn^^ \^p to^^^ p^ta'^V^si ^ — ^n^'^'J "^^ ^"^^^ p^tt^'?^B ^j^^^^j'ptt^n 

-p^-i$p *^^a i:\nn 1$ ;n^'i:i>^^ ■^^'^^u'^^^'^^istj i^k ^j^^ttti^^V^^^s^p ^n v\^ 

^^ 

"^B w^'mi toon iV'^ op ,]DnKno'iK v^'t:Dvioivi'i '"i d"»d' iv^^tis ,t)pn vt^'tson 

♦^Dva ivnvtfi^'ip lis Miiypv'Vsp 

■jiy IR tJ^''^:SV3l 1942 ^^^^T* ]t3-22 IfS ttHH ,t):>Vfi^i 1>K 1KD ttbj^WtJTV^ t:Hn iT^Mp Vitt^^T 

r^ ]3ni?i>v:i im ^1^012^^31 in t:^n iv^ ♦nwsi mt-'its rsats tm Diyinn ^nii p,s| 

.0VD4JP tt^^'D 'IT /"itt'ittrp Di^n nvwai^n ]'3im h Dvnytt^iW' ^^n oi<iii /Ois^t: lyi 
"t3%T n ♦tt^'iin >5 T)W^: v^j^ mnt3 ipsj v2 td pd ivDiayais 1:15,1 iv^ain nyi 
pywDjrriiD ,5^; pym ybx itt^t:jy» tJDxiayritt'iH pN lOKt^^p ]2Nn torn v^^^'t^Dnyb 
.pHtta cyr p'l^iHs totj^-*! px (oavby^i tJia — mvsxis lyp^Vp kj) wiyVya ^v p^n 
♦pyyiyyx nyny»-abvn oyr /t)nn Dvi'v:iitt^» nyr *iv» «y)i 'iioi !?d «iid th 
•y3t nytz^'TK iys« nyn' px nvi3t«jiKiW' lyT ,:,^^ lysiKiw k iv^ipyji lynn pixi 

♦ . ♦ 1942 f'^bv ]^r22 ps r^ijo lyi — ytoa'^ti; 
PK'O ♦n^na yo'jnsii lytnx p^ntj^i^ro^i^ pn mm bi^T op: oyiys 't Rtttt^^a rK'oi 
p& si^^i? n p^^pi2ttyix ^lXDt^^»"»K pn ^ijr oxn ,K''ai nyr Jjtstt^^i nyt^on lyi pt^^'i 
— lyirj? yny«T pnyai?ynK :i^t3 i^yn p'» pK w^jn lya yDbyn "i ,oy»i5a yiytiix 

♦oyiitt^tstt^ DiK Dwyia iy» "jii ,miyiaya»iK pK 

63 



^MT 11H v^"?^ — pm mt^iD ^iyi3in >p "'•'lis lyaippsi^ pw t^K m^%i pa 

iVi«» rp ^S^^i /t5''"'a 05? '11 o'lb 1^2^ .Dsrb p^t '?$io ^Kii^n .i^D^^^rin'ya ^ tih 

!?^ (p i^nrr5?a^.y n^a t^k v^^^th s^ii^) o>yiv yo'^na^ n- t^ .ipnyi? ^^ii^ h^k 

♦pD^tt^Vi^o'iK im op w* ''1TB ^11 /ps^ii TiKii5?:i' op ivo-'np X pK ts^op 
,lV»^ottr i;s3KarK o-ti^^' i^vii' oyop n n'i« ,ti>'OKj?D pn i^yn nnw ya''^?^ a"»iK 
PK 1TOD j$ ioVk,! 1^3 li^p' TH 'im '11 /Ott^'i p'bi« o''ii T« ♦r'T ^ma td p?;!3 ^^t 

♦oa^rj li^i 

1942 ,Vn5K ]o-i7 DVT pitt^ p'ln^riaH p^'pmm yoo'ii oj^t ^n op iv^oai^'^K 

j;ti^itt^t^>n n ♦p'lnpaij yi ojr ok natt^ »piK :^wnD po odk3 i^ri fo'D pK pK 
3'1K) ,To lyay' pK i^n^ ly^r pK osnVpysiK ,^oya pt^n^x pK tipiKo iva^n o'a'^n 
op — oisyyji. ot2?n ly'io oki^ ^psi 'im okh ,yx o^ots^iKD oye^n'K h ,u?Tnoo iyi 

♦do^ti^iyi 01^ I'Si'iK D'K ly;^ 
-'K rsDi& iiH pvboy osy^u^po'HK ,]2iott? vu^'TK pK pnK p?a'»T Q'a'bn 't 
y:>yboy ]DK^ lO'MVi ,0Ka lyT f|'iK p'SiSKiK i!?'isKa /ly'iis. pK nya^:;^ ,itro3v;i yts^n 
py^v:^' T'K 05?DD op iTO' TiK .pnK BKp px ]m^v:x^ ioim ps px o'ikiks ono 

onn ivonjs'y:^ k 'ii 'i?k pybp — nwo^t^iyt k 

ytj^'TK n lyiiyTipo'iH op p^inpiij t^' ^^n — 1^ oodkiix awns nyay' ps 

♦02K3 iyi •[0'm''K aanyp^ysHa 
vayT'tt^iKS ]1D — pi^oaya pViay^j k iyaip»iK ott>n i^kt oy 03K3 'i lynp oti^'a 

♦oyoyops yiyi'u^iKa pK pK^p 
op iyi p:'»rK ! pKt2>y:i orn yu^'ODny!?o'n n pKn lyo^ o'ibs pyoi'n iio 
oVyi p'^K PK pKOtt^i'T pK lyiK nyiD k py^ ann nyi oTKby:\ ♦i^ik o^p pK 
pp /pyi § ']^i ])^mm 'ii ,pp^iiy]i lypn op /io>Kot2?aK-,Tn> yt^'TK n ♦p^ny:; 
ysap n pK — 0:i!?a oki lu^KnyasK pKn oymnoo yu^'TK n .omin n^ oi^^'iips^ 
V'lD op oii^'iiyris^ op (nam pK ^m^' nyo'iia lytaiK is) aanypbysKa yti^'TK 
">mm ,oiypya n ,!7t2>a^ ,oiyb:\i»t2? n .oay^ya tt^'^iyoo'iK ♦osy^y:^ lyo^n pK 
-y:\ ]2^n „ppya n^pm^nb)^ lyrn op ,]ti?Day»-oVyiiiyoiiK pK paK'bipyso yiyi 
-ps 99 ,oo"n op /^"o lyi^nys'K iyi ♦tt^'i^ai'-a^i:^ ,'ioniK& /ts^nyiaywiKO oay^ 
ppya lo'ati^ip ,ny^ayot2^Dia) iy::iain po pK:i. n pK pipti^ya lypn p'K oays 

p^^ri: OJ^T pK OIS'O 110 

51^0 lyiyosja'sj iyi ♦1942 ,'^t pr22 jis i^j^o iyi opny:^ijj in op b^inyi 
lyxap lyT lys'K nioiTK ps ik2 ,]ti^'>'is ps Piba tsts^'a yoi't2?y:i! lyt pn 

♦obyn 

: iy?:sipyaiKS oy pk 'iTi§ o>^ 
'T oyii ]y» TK ^lyaiKbp yp'a lyijapya pw lya'n' /'bp 10-22 pKs o^'s p'ou? k 
-pKip n o'D Ayi'Vai^ n o'» iKoysi oy op ]y^ 'n 'itk /IP'u^o'iik p'k nynyt^^ip 

n*" yiyiiK o^a pK iwup n o'd nyn 

oyii iTK 01P10 rt^sfliu ]ik onj/mn 'm^ ^oa'ibnya oa^'a pyntDoyraio pKn itk 
o'a IP lyD oyii op ? p'no "t ly^ oyn pniKii ? yts^ip ps t^'noo'iiK iy» 
,P'S30W oy ny iiki oijii is pK ? iTsisoin okt imot^^'K lyi pk "iy!?o'n ? "t 
]3p '1TK ♦D'K im oymK Koysi^ okt ?k /lyaK'b'D nypViayx pyix po osp -ly th 
ya'113 n PK ,]Tn pyii^ o"a oy s'ik tk ,in obyot^y^nKO^ ots^'i ]ik o'nayo'y:^ n">K 

♦o^yii n pK» IS nin i3Kot2;»'K yooya 
.^siKii ]pa ,p'a p'a 0DKay;:i am op n pK 

64 



1942 ^^''^l'^ t^22 bj?n — ^'JJ'^^:81*>11p'^^ J?^^h;j?/, 
•n^tt^n i^Dvao'w fH ii?ia) — 1942 ,''Vi^ p"22 dvt nytsys^^ •''n:^ ^s nyts^ h t^>D 

t5p't5^5»oniB n''^ V^i i^P t:3^?3 i^t^^'^n^ i^'i lis ^^sRa rs^m m ^w^W"^ TH ts^"^ 

y^in^T n ♦luyann iis 3i;">k'''>s ivm oKn ,]i'i^ $?33?'' ti^ P^ tt^D-'^ijp-Dsb'n ]tt?n'">K ]id 
-iKTKi? p^m ivt'»M 5^^V'^VSD pH iva''iH'n' i^vn '^n nn ,pvn ^'T'lH^iSi? ]'?n' ]t\^ 
♦T»nnya iti^n'VtJ'b'a iti^tj^n pp Idv^ix i^j^n pK pw iti^^a 
m'^^ pitz^ ]ij in tonkin /tDKp^^s pK p^nv^ m^tva nytD''"'Ti T'^j? ,:^3i>PTi5?n'''x n 
/l^Vi3m:iypm» in tivn'o nyn /pVHnKao'ix pt uyirD lyn ♦nsiprx ivrnK 11 

♦wii? p-'i^? pyii' pi^tz^ivt tjyn 
Vitt^n^H n ♦t:'»na px 0^11311 i^^m in pn p^inpaKi in to^vi p'b^^iiiH dkt pi^ 
iV^VStJ^ I'D oyiyo^ VD!?yn! layn /torn ytz^^tonaxs mp)^ '>'ns vpt^t n ^to-^'y^rb^s 
,05?ai« nvi^ IS paiay:i pr in^n ,mDn«3 •ib'>':iiyi ix ivmpD^iK 

*]i!$m ]&'iK t3iK p-'K lis ]i^)m pipv::invnm pn t:p'i:^vnya''K 

DJ^n /ITK pv^p*'^:^»iH. iyt33f'it: lyrbiayx paisy:i pi ]'2nn oy ih'Ii ^pspais yiysiiya 
-ytt^ip 1V7 ]iS' !?pbD n lyDnK.^T p« pii3''M 5?iv'n pa p^iip Dp'tz^yaoniK ivrn 

♦Dis'o ps pH iy:inn ps ]vaiK:;$?:iDnK nb^ip lyii 

: ]y»va wij^yni m^i yt i^^n op ,y3^5?T^ ''n lu^ms prnp lyrn' pywDyiais 

.p^KHp ,P^VD3^ ,]X>imi ,1315?^^^ TT pJjn "T 

VSiiGi px va!?xn pB ail oiji iv'tstt^KS op ,n*'''!?-"S''^H9 ytt^n''X n ]:ip t3:>py7 
'^m lyi pD ,ivV7nT ytt^^'iniD ys'^n iid /i5?^t:xpKinx yayipiyi t3t2?'»2 ps ,Dn'ait2^;:3 

.piyp •'n op ttnij;! — D3cn'» lyanb^^a lya^'^ 
py!?l>'b3yniH n pn^ti^ p^iav^i' *»'! ]:i^n ,oipyt3t£^ ano px oapytstj^ yayau' ts^a 
pa iyiv» n /DVM!» n ps lyirp n pny:\p2?nK ]:i^r] -jn ♦niii-msa lu^my^-ttpa-is 
aV iy pMxav3i ivi^t mb^^ n t^^a ir^itt^yix n — in n- ]i& oyDxo 't /pms n^ 
ytjiiyi-'^tttrnKS) wxny^i' uxn — didii a»t£? n»' — '^'^v'?m yti^'^i'x lynix lya^ ,D'»at2^n 
-yn n ipiK ftr^myD ^t tjpnsyiiianiK ,r^''»^ is ^P'^^^ i^^. mvnyrianx m-^i nysiyn 
iy» t3'T>s nyiysiyii yoVytx pK ♦rxVs-siK^ts^^siKi panp dis tDTsy:\pyiiR px ,iy3y:^ 

— .n^^n iyi is vtosu^^np 

pVyit t)'» ,pax'S'^KS ytt^^nm 2,000 n tx ,ppya ua^ionyi lyns ints^ t^k oy 
yD'jn PD lyapu^xa mi oiji- ]^i'>'^i ,t:'?:iiiny:^?3''iiH in t:Kn iiKipK-'nyts^tD oytvi® lyi 
tstt^'^a nD nytj^va- v^^i% ixd ly'''^^ yt£^''X'''S''^HS n ]'k tJD>ipy3ir"'x in p^n o^n lybTrr 
♦(py^iK^ n pa t3,'»nsp ]nn Tm •'^s-'Vp 'T) pymV-tsyaix n- pK pyit is oaxDyii 
-'flDX pn) ^pDanuu] i»it2?» k, ivp'x lypn ivciiT' ytt^''X"''S'Vp yan^i n pa iyi'D3i< n 
TOitJ^a lyDm X PK PR'i'^ t:Hp:^inH tx — lyr^K iKi .(ivpavtz^ P^ |y»^i lyan 
t!;^'is T» ♦D3yir'''S''bp k lynya ''pupi^^ v^ ]u''''s yt^^^na n^ px pitr^ jr^iunco 
nyt ttoin is D^ytstt^yn in' tDj^n O'^it ;yDt2^iy n ps lyr''^ ]vny:i iy t^x ^i^xsyn t^x 
ttyn-jKyri tjxn iy /'! pminp^ia yiK-a,, lynyx. tm ^tD^to pn ^^skiddva: iv^^'toony^oM 
tooyiayaonH rP'K t3i''ti:^TXD3Ki2? tsj^n iy ,to""pnv:iiv3"'X t3^a ^ts^arni'Da D-ja ^-jnt^ya 
T'n ,t3^y:i aaji^y np ^^naxa /pyax!?-5?^sHit)35?s3^p n pn Dapy:^ /DiytDmv::^' nyt:^yA 
ypa'V ttDKn ,'poa.nytt^' tDDyip nynoya 'T'k t|§ ,pKWDy::i. ivt is lysaH^ivt tm oy 
T» ,t3oyi»tt^y:^ tjp ]yD ♦oTooyni? d'k ly^ oxn ,]'''>3 «; o''a ^' § la^mis ♦loaya^jn 

65 



/DittiTK lynyti^iKn vsiJO dkt iv^a^nnDix pN& ,D^nii< ^'^i^'>^ ip;nx7 nyiT iks 

m^^^VWi^ ^^''i ^^1^^ IP'TVmiD Dvi t:Kn ^^ip n th /t3!7''sv:^' ^m lyo^tr^ ivt> t:Kn 

"V^t tott^'a ^p'lp rv ii?3 OKH D'K .rP^iJ^ tJHp^jmK ivnyi t'R !?miD lyts^^^nij 1^7 

♦nsii' K px — iTtiWia ^ — n'limiB ocm Vmi» ivt^ni lyT .id^i^ 
lyaij ,'»'S^Vp lyi p& ivi.^S3:N iv^pvi^' V? wtt^'i T*'X DKTi' ,iVP"'K 1X1 KT tm by 

KVPOKB K) TSiin-DVii? rv ^^'3, 0:^1^10 ly ♦n'>Mp ivnytt^np nyi T'k nyrtDS'in n 
,t:''!?-KSKt30v:t y>« o'ik ivy? ^nx ♦tott^'a tt ly Din yp'^MSi ]^p tx /^itdi^ ]>k u">'^;i 

♦]Diym-D''''nva dVh — iTK t3ivi3in ysv^wv ]uyaix ^sspoysi -ivi pK tk 

TT pijn iv:i3^Viyttt£^ 11X ivrp'vV d''d lymns /Vo^nyttr ''p'lnijpbiss,, ixs lyi iik 

_ ^^^ ^ t33T'it3 iv:: VS3X31 1R3 ^DpvT ott^'i iby^tt^isis ]vai3vnyt3aiK 

ttDKmxQ /lobKHKa iKn-fvnv W? Y"?^ ♦D'lu vi< Di?a. ysaxa n : ib's k t'k tjij 

P^IK n PH pVltt^-D^ID D''» /DVt3>5 Dy3yt3^KnVWi''"»K' IK D^^D Dip: f>H ♦t:p'>t3t2?1KD pK 

-ya ^ /■»nt^p uom^ H inrVsi^s iik ♦jix'nvjs iDKivao'^ii^ t'x opi otiiii pvosrs id''ir 

♦tt^^av:i^'» K px *'n5rs'»'»D 
pH ,DVin^n' DSKs D^:\pt2?t: m ,Ri'tn i?' r« l^xsyu*'nH' torn vu^^tk n ivi-^n okt 
♦»in is^ix r^i^s^ii? ibKT 1VP1KWX v*?!? TK ,iv^ntt^ ivttiaya m^ip vms'ii^ ytbrn: o.^» 
^yt^a^^ n5r2*''K ]'?^m yr "p^r ivtt ,t''"i P« tayi^. ^p-'^p pn o^na .toVx pK iiiir — v>» 
-ipj^T n Dijn DV -ivn' ♦imvDipKT vivn ivTDKi 1VD Dyn ,''n lyT o.-'iV ,nvi2K nyi 

.t:-i:i? ]Q^iR p'»^b3 Dyn nvT /Wiav'Ti^ px pav» 
-Dya ytt^'»TR H' ,tD33ii3|?3 Dt^n^ in -^n inx.i ''nvD''"'D d''» px ir'^^^V^ D'ja t^iVa 

-V31S451K /laiDtt? 'T pSi t3SV>tt?pO^TlK ,lPRDt2?' V^H lyn'N ItipV^ IV^'^T "Jn /D-^'b-pRD 

1KD .]^'?'iim ]T'\n^:x:i^ ♦ . ♦ pR oiyVvp '^ pS' wsv^ti^^yxD^TiR nvavTia n ps3 osyVar 
''s^p„ R pa rns ivi pk iiiyw v^^^V "''^ P^^ ♦p^'ipD^iK mypya in ly^ t)^n uVya 

»oyt3ij'!?T Diyinn' T"'a :i^ssts pa lynyji 
,Dr'n pH ttat^iD 'T'IR i»nyi ♦oyDKVT tiiyiain ^i^n ym ]r^^n ov ^>jn lyoystt^ 
-i''X iVm: ynynas ♦oywi^bT' mt^iD »qi"'s "SRp,, r piti? ^mp /rrnw n a•'ntt^ tk lyii 
♦p-^-^b^i DKT px T^^'?>?'T yayi'?K:i ,]t3iH'^na — iyMR'?iH;D •'n .t:*?y^ T"p ou^^i paipi 
PV Ti? /wyoaa^ysiiK p» tsTaxiysiiH b'D"'nR upti ]^w pnn ly^irt yD'*^ y^T*?! >i 



119 ,'?N]Np ^NTU]^ lUanXIR lUtDn^S l-Dl ID^CDUJ rpT3Jni3Q TIM ID^H IDJNpNl ^11 * 

•TDl — .(13U]"'DD''3inSP /■'■'T3183 — lUDDllg 13U)^"2^13) ."1 .9 .3 DUlD^n^p nUllPUJ 

66 



-IKS it^D^n n ]i^n m^^n ♦toDxaip v''S''^KnK3 't ,Di*'pH^n t'n Kiti^^v^ n^ /r"*^ ^^^^'^ 

DjrttKD ♦irnu^V'^ r'P ^^'^ P^vn 05? r]vr''np p-jp torn ]Q>y,i dv ♦n^nsii' j?t3Dvi:i' '»i 
p'^n pnasi n ivnx ♦iV73''P ViV^r ivnv.tsHi i^-'ii ]ik pnaxa n lis tonta n ]t2^ip 
-rp pnp' ,]Dva n lis vpaxip ]bvV^ •'n ,•»? m» in tDio oy dkii ^tDts^^^a i**'^^ pit^ 
on^^tt^^ 1V» ,t)mt) lyD ,m^^ ]v» ov^wn 'T'IH iva t:i>s t^^-^^ yt:^^ ♦p^n n pa. -lyi 

,n22i msa 

UbVOtt^VaiS: tOtt^'l pKH lyiny?^ Vtt^'TK n a-'P^n^ lynyix ,0''1N tOT-^^n ,iy3'^: T'K^Oi 

♦riV ri< TT t3t2^'Dppnt? pK ]V)m n''it:a 
Vtt^riTipiK lis i^'K'^is X ^^Tti ^'>vb'^^ vt^n-'K vayr-'X n ^^m is lyDiayji tsi^n n 
tt^n n ♦pitoHvnp' yt^DDy^oyn n ^pm^no^ix vt^DsyVnyTitt^ n iv^'^n dhi' »pn3Ka 

♦:;nivnK pXD T'nK: Ktoy:; ]''n iv^ip^x TV» t^x — 
PD yitt'D'^t2?y:y ivt pK ^tD'^axp yoo^-'tDi^D: dkt ,bt:''S3»p •'''3 k ]^ in t:i'in hi ]ik 

nti^n^ *^S;i is? 

,'»n'VD^^& ]iK ^ntfi^v:^^ to-^tt pnx n^in px ivaipva ]vpn' imK-'s^bp vt2^''TK n^ n"'iK 
♦PViT^^Hip T1D ''nyo^'^ts^y:^ k d"'^ ^n inyn lom is ]3y:^v:i; n-'nsn yti^'ti^D^n 't p^n 
yi!?'n '11 ,n'3^Vn"D: '11 ^li^i^Dyiiiia'nK ]vrn to^'-'b-KSKitDoya: yts^'n^K n tj-'D iv^ktis ^n' 
'11 /]!?iap 1X3 ,'n ]2>j.n pnits^^?:^ tjti^^a ]ih nrn ytoniD'ts^'pi^ mi ^ly^s i^p^taiBf 

.m>n y3yixiiy:^-5?jit£^» 
/DDitp tsti;'! ny^yii'in ^^m ,]V"^m'^i v^^n i^nx piDtj^ n px ]vrn itt^o-'n n 
ytt^'TK n' tiTsyrio'iK pKn riDK^a $?anK"T n on t3T'^>vasj<iK Dtt^^a pnx py^vp i'k 

py tD'D tjyiiyti^iii ns:i» n px :ip nytsoa'saps ii^j oytoays lyt pit£^' two 
nit^ VP /Ptif^K Dit^ rp m^-^i fK'o nyrrninTDK nxD iiy t^'a ,iypip.tj^ n^D 
-yiiywiiK ,t)K!p»>S' lytrns k ]iy'i» n ^m yr tonnp rip. iiyw j?';k " ♦miani 
(p^Mya oy t3K,i 'iTKi) v'spx n^ TK ^''S'^KS lyti^n'N i5?7 pD :i3it3""b lyi iin p^it:; 
n .tt^ytttrynaK in ts^n p'^'pimn mi m ^pi^'^ nb'!?n tot^^^a p» ^^T' ♦lyD'^n tjiyn 
-^»btt^»ix is'iK r!?nrns prVvD *pr t:yii lys-'DV a^iK tk /loni is m ''S'^^s yt^^n^K 
ly-p tt'a pyii DT'ti^ys' to.tt^'i toyii iy pK D'lia ij>'p 'nT Di^na i^np^ iy toyii ,fx^s 

67 



->_ — ^ ,D^Dnw n IS in pw:xn5?2\s ipp pK 3'>^'n »'»» pK i'»''s n ix 
wp iv^ T'liH')'!' .]wm'$f^ mv)^ ]^^ ra ^ii'^s ps> t3p"»t2?ppyii^ iva up rigw ]W 

♦DHiuti; itt^ntDpv^v P'^ "^Vi^ 'pH^i t),''a dik ]V'» oiivi^ 

yo'»n:i p^ix : ib'^w •'•'ns »T>m t3!?*''>Dya ^n u^n ijop iviivti^^nn o^i : tsivn ^^ 
1^%^ ]Sj^iK n'"T — Kt:v3i np-'^^p p'^iK ps — ]^''ki DVpny^Kr^au^y^ p^m »T7 /^V3i 

jnin*»T;i^ jj'jK 'ijjtfiSiH tss^*»ntfi^ tD«*i^yii'» 

jy'saKm pK *i^s Diviiin fi ,tnvi3in pa iiy ]« ua^iKnya p^n py^i Dvr^Vp pi^ 
nKS T^K '>''T' iV3iiV")a»i» PH t:nK p'K jq^ix iv^iipajrami:^ priip IV^'^n ""t ♦itk mtno 
-j?^' piu? tt^n iv^ ^")i' /DvioKi T''K ♦iDi^T vivittz^. n p& ]vnv3i ^tz?^: tjrn vt^^'cns n 

n ♦i^ttva va''^!?P dxt pkViks ith v^« 1ti» nsivi3''H 6 iinija i^n m ,!?vsk1' k 0^1115 
1^1 ^t^P' nv3''^Vp pK ]T^b2 Dvii' oKn. ,i^x ivijr"' .]s^ p"*^!?! pia ]ait3«:^ n p& p»o 

-'K np iin nn ,m'^ w^r^ Dyi im pnu/ynytDam lynvm t'k mpK!?& ivt 

"K^s vVn iv^''^ 4942 ,'»Vv 10-22 p& :y»Tn'>in3K m fVn' opiyDSi' p' T1» :m 
y$i iw "iViK. ,t3H-i iti^n^K nvi inn ip^ /pijiip pnu^vr^nvoaiH rrnnsi v^k ,pKp 
"VJinytJiiK ^^n op oDKa-ysKsipK vt2?''tyt)'>n n .'>''vb^B -)yt£^''TK ivt pD aaio'''*^ 
-flio K :inio^'n ,orn yt^'^oony^aM n ♦MiiyiKiKs p'» p'p ,oxpxVs p-JH p'j? pntj^ 
in n^i pK!?nyn:''K o^pysi ott?''a pp .ostt^a -lyiJiKiitt? k «t 'T'm ly^ip oyn ,niD-V:> 
Dyr oTsyjio-in pKn ^n ott^^^i f^ /ivf lyoystj^ ly^ ^it .D'izy>o yDy!?osnt2^ pv 

,p?>K n^'np yt^n'K n i^i .tr^ni^ po-jn 

ny3i'>"'TK 6 DTiH pn oaijpy^' op py^i» n^ «piK p^nip in o^n n^n n lyit f^K 
op •»-iDnyiP»:'»q3''& im ♦oins pH 9 n ik5 oavay::^' lya op dk^i v^ p^si .oDHaip 
PK ? ly^sD^iiK in lytt !?Nt ]n f « — op pH p^nma' ontjoy^ ot2^*»2 i^w in iy» 
px ♦ ♦ ♦ Tttyn X ^iti^v K : i^ik lyayao'^ oyay «inm iy» ? ly^s in lya !?jjt pmRtt 
in» fVK pijVnys'K ox^k pn pyb k ovnyiKny^iis^ ? idxt otj^yn n o^a lya oio o^n 

1 ? npDH 

"Vxai^ osn oy m /:inoonm& ktk ,p-nn xm ik otz^n oskt) nsi'trr yooyiii n 

♦mna yisiKW yanij'T n oidnm 
-yji iKiw IX pn oy oyii ,ppy:i i^m ]vrn lu^oaya n th ,p^T Vyn i^ix a'>ii< 
'lob^ti;^' OKH pt K ♦rvp vm'^^'^ ''11 ^y^ny ,ppy:; ''n lya-^n nvn nt iy:ny ♦ooijT 
]1K pi^novio-'iK i''K nyosiys pQ ivp v^ pn^nya oxn y»H» r ,rom k p^^tt^ys.^ px 

»p-}py:io'» in p''Vx pR *^iy or'nyao'ix 

-nyoiiK ^n ,pi?^p lyi^n iy»'is yr^nt o-'a ,p'm yavsnts^a o^a itt^aya m:n» 

♦HDria viyoxa^s i? pa yox^P ''Tii ^yay-rnxya 
ITK n lyaiaiRD ot2?"»i pijn orn ytz^^oonyVo^ n .lyny:^ m^P W t^^ op ^^^ 

n «ini< ^nyonfi^ 15 ]a^iny:i^ o'n rn ]1d in o^n ♦p'lb ^ni? oir>x 1^^ 

♦ay^y3i i^'Ti s o^n nyo'^nis nyr ps iik yanis^i^ 

68 



♦pp 

♦l^nx ^tsyri p^na ps is^ib 

WT^IO pvVU:y; "[l^bSIKD fVX.I^ ^DP aV3^^^P V^ IV^^'T H'^^^'^ tSplpya tJtt^^l 



^IKttD^n ,ii?»t!;|« ,fbitt^ /D^ynvD ^it lyDyi p^vth o^d /0'S?»td ^vw'o'^'^i 5?D5?>t3$r; 

pp topnKVa pKH pHDtJ^IKI) n ♦p"^:; DX7 pH ''n:Vimi''p ,''nyit3DW ,''nVT'''5t2r 

Avt3V"'a 'it£?''ti?o"'n 

IS iVT-'K nymn iid torn' n px i^raipisDm iv'7''''k fto3|^ti^iyt3$?ai» yur'TH n^ 
1KD tj^rr — "iiV3iH>'V''SHit33vs5Kp n ]m pyn is dsh^p ivt^k ^ly'^taya in i^vt^ti^ 
DB'»ip*iKS Dvuij^T v^V^t^v pa riK^is » t:''» sit pmyop' ^ ihs ,3iKtj R to'*™ boiya k 

xi'i'i))^ pH t3ib3 TK Tn:ybu^'^ 

-UM n 1K& pn3i» tosytjtt^p iiR to-'-'aya ^Kt: pK nye^ nVyns 3.^,1 Diyn yti^nm 

IKS Dpimiji:^ pK iv!7S"'^it: o^^ap — nvit)mi p-^a ]^k sanypVyana iv^'^'^'^^ i^t ^^n 
.pj^wya oVvmytDiiK pj^ipy»'»nx t>^ oysKty j?a''Tm n pH in tssjn ai'D^''SD''"»ba 

♦pO">mmiKt2? rppRl'^aaRp ,pV1 R IP iy?3R1W ni ,10ppp: ^^V^ pR 'lV3'>n' DRII 

n pR ppyjii lyrwiKS VDinRT n ivpn ,pD^tJ^TR3t3t2; vi^'^ti^D-'n ]*i9 iq^'n lyn »'» 

: ♦llja ORII ttCm 1R"' lyun PR lyi'S ^pRDpyTJl' ,D1pR;» OySX^ 

-IRS vnytnR oyitJ-VVD v^vvm^ yt3^yt3U^y:^'a''nR ti^ o^^;s|?^ ''T TR in isrh man 
^if» tDSvVva ,np"''a ^t oytj^'RBV^i in "'n pRn nynR t'3 ♦oiy^iiRr-nyi ynyTSiR ny^iRT 
-'R iViT ^is ,m!?y pm ms 2."'it3 ivny:^ ,p't3 n '>"'s D^mts^a pb^nyi ,oyiR pR t)^ 

.tDH^a ]^t^p^^ PD iynRt:v!?Ri& ii^nyiiii VR»Rt)''a "'n lya^n ri pk t)**!! lyt^^'T 

ysnptj^ ysiRju R ^ysRtt? R T'R uiR ]Ri irip ::'"'» ,^7aRn nysaRji r tiRiiy:\ t^r 
/Oytt^br ttamo "SRp,/ r ]is tariiRbiRs oysRt^ n^ jis ivt's n pm T^nin vi^ .ynya 
-Ran'^^a n ivn ^iVrq ivnyi^ tir p?a^n oy .tDa^io iqa^D /Dat^it) •'•'ns — iyt3vat£^ 
DjrwK^T mt^itj i"'sa:Rns is pR ]ys is oivsRa n toVijsv:^^ laRn ivn^^t^v^ijis yayp 

/'&Rp// R IRS 
.pinV3i n iy» t5^n vsRtJ^ oavayt) ♦rdv:^ nva*»''bp pK ivnya i^ir i^r ysRtt^ rtr 
ipr PR ivacn ,pva oya^^^p ps ]t^ n^ pi''itjpD'ii|§ wkh iva m ,Dn ijj^s pR 
lya »}jn lya-^iRn ms ♦oy^V^^nRS yiyn o'-a itk toants yDv^uy ]n"'b2ynyi*»R ysRtJ? 
lyrM n .ys^u^ lyi ps ^■•'m ts^^'a '^yT•'^^ •'n-r "js pms p:s?n*^s^ it^^tsayD V3inRi n 
-ya ny^nRtDyV^ns yayT»iiyr'>''a n ]:im ri ,p"'i^s t3">a ppyix^ m^rm^'^^^^ )f^^^^ 
^n pp pn]<: vm lyi^'^rnan^tt^ r ]^r iyi^ i^nR o^a lyiaR pv pn ♦tya'iHH m^n 
4w*)|5 s^p i^K V^ip R tJ'D tj^iTva w^n sy .lyaipa^nRi Di|$t3ya t3t2?^a ]ir tja^pya' tats^'a 
PR «ia^» IS •— uyans nyi is oTsyao^n^ t^oaya n lya tDijn nsivta^K lyx^nR opyt 
pe tJDpp ,t3VDyapnis ">n iv» tj^n tssRaiRs fypnR 6 j itsaR^oyii? m ''Itr p^-) r 

— — «]iRiaRtt^T yu^''t5»t)'>n 

69 



X ti^^» iy'!?r'ii5M ^11! .V»M ps •'n /'I'i'pv^isKis, dviiks vt^^t^ts^n tv^'^n ,piRT tVm 
/ttKtttt^iKni lis D'^'ni? ttnttp pxn v^x ♦'[V»i?T iv^iip lis ib^n ti^''t:pn t3'» ."jntt^i 
-VV3i vanni uVpyrii inp dhii' ,v^x ^o^ lyt 'T'ih' iVyt:tt?D^iN tDni^va in tap v^k 
♦ttri?i3i r-JK r^p 1ND1V1 toVKSKi tau^n 11K' ivns lis t^vaiRV^ PP oP' /V'^ 11^^ ivts 

,]^m'^iy ViVt3^y ^T ir:iivt avi^^P ^i to-'a tv^iis ''i iv^i^Vi^i^ ''"'T pxrr >D-mip 
t^x n^tt^ ^n-T^'nis K pB «T'iViXD ps iik — pK'» v^Vt:^» ^k ]t2;m'jf^ ">! — lyuvstrr 

!?Ti:i n^n 11X pvnnK p-Jbav^ IV^'n' op' ,]t£^u3v» ts-iV'^^in V^V"?^^ v^'iv^^k ''^ 
Ip'tttz? piiji .pni? n,! rK> pK ivriKii i3p''tr?v^'iva;'» 1V» t:Kn /inn k «qn» oi^avn 

D1J7 inK TK ,1^' t:''^t5t£?iHD .D'VSRti^ v^^V^R v^v^DV tpp 1^3*"^' Kt3y:\, "iD'»'n:ii I'N 

liri^'n ita^Tai^a n T^a /ivf'M vt3i''pKVa lyini: /pKa viv,OK>ti^viSH ivini .d^dik vttr»iKt: 
Vpa^V n ;Di?:^ viy ny^i? ^n ♦ix'^s- it^^n^biT'^to nv^n k 'T'Ix p^t^n anto dv^*'^^ k r^ 
-tDV 11SJ "inViKD rn IT^ vVi« lis pviii wn-'mv^isx ti» op u^n. v^avi ^ ivth ^tD^n 
^DKflift?©^ m''%T ra iv'so^iik ]^m ]m yr vm \v^ v'?i5 ^o^^t otjii .nytzr pv^ 
pD v^s^^p'jj.1 p^tttt? 0H7 •i^KDv::i: T^x pip lytJtt^iy ly-T ♦nsivia-'N p1K» fi lyiK 

lytJVaix n .iVDvai'i? vt2^''TX ^^t^'it: vaV'^t:v tsi^Dsvtt^Ka v^'T's VxnxT n /'f?'W» 
'B^ vs^'^p-ija P'Dti^ nm oijT Ti» lyanvi .itoKtott^ixTi n tis tsavxa fynnn pi>n 

♦vsxtt^ D'sVity lis ivtavaix n ihb pvit o:^^^ 

tttt^n J p^iV IS miii ivnvn to^-'i t^j< oy .ipv vT'''a ps pxnva pHVt2?)?::isK dki 'i t^x 

p^n in iRDisrni? ^m im ivriaiansn v^V^'n itkVikd p^'^nyn ttt?t:iv?3 n toKn *iv» 

♦tjxnyai tDtrrn -^n 

,r'S pVViVinti^ DVT li^ '?"'Ti3ii DVT i'Vt3ivii r« PV^iS"iVa''K iv^3iv»'»ix pk ov 
pijn Dp 1VT P''» r^ nva'^ixnr''K v'w&tyi^n'NS3-D''ito dix v^nxT n ibssna rn op 
-s-niK oayn 't — ovp^asKiH pK tivn^^ii'Vi o^n o'^nsn vts^'ts^o'n pv^ov oi^sxsu^ 
♦Bijp DVT ]y)p iv^n ip^n5» diik oia^tt k i^x pirn dkii ,D''3^^n '»t m ntx ,oxi^t2^v^ 
-ono^ r« ]''X in pKH n^i^ ^T 1V3P' lis ;pitot^ n nva^'K nvt•'^^ ''t iva'^K tik 
* lonaxa vt£^n''»ipiK n orn vm^^'f^ ni pK^v:^»'^ii? iva^n iv^:!2oniN oiwiibvx PV^^ 
"V3nx n oivov»t£^Vs /p^o p''i^:^s''i« pnn ''n ♦]9-nKinonN v^'^vk n o^d iv^pis 
tt-BvVti^ iVD ''n /SiJ"i^ lu^mv^ 't osv^tr^v^ ♦Voivstp okt ^vpt'^P 't ,riW^p iks vopi?B 



70 



lyis ♦ ^^r "ir^t i^op pijn 0^11 ,d^i^bn vu>''>t£?'U'»''7 n ii?s •'^r to!?^^^^ iik Dnina 
♦ri$!?s->HVt2?»ix iS3^ij< ivt)VS5tt? nv«; ik9 k ts^tt lyiK ,tDi>j tS'^iK t^nn 
Vxn^T DijT tajjn toayn vs'^'t tr ,t3bKn dkii^ ,t33i5^s'!?K5 vts^n-'x KTa taV'^'^siyT t:Ki 

tott^^a ]mH irnis^a n^a^Kipix n ]id iVm ivt O'-'a iV's^k tw^-'t n tt w^jjit /^>s"»>2^ 

— : ♦pbxnK.a yi pkh 

nrnix v:>5^^^3Vt2^ ,n"'t3iVa: t)''D pvni pntt^ii^s d^ii oxn n-'i^ ov^Vtosrs ,iyuD^n x 

ttljn 1J? «D^DVbt2? p"'Dt£? T'-'K T^R ,^T'R yDT^'^D^OR y:inR7 OKI .a^UJUUD^'? .n «t£?TrR 

♦impRniyti^D ''11' /nxii •it£?'^t£?-t:''''T Dj?T ivnp :i'3yt3iyt33iR iy» 
♦D"nvi''R *[R nyns'iR *[r 

fisini n i^R lyia'p ,vt:a'>iiR3 ,voyinRi iir ytovpRi ^iti^tjaya ivdit^io "iv^^biays 

-V3l tSTSVlD'HR niB^ pD'H DVIJ?' TR IVl""! — lyilD VipiRIW — Dati:^''P I'R I^I^^P 

10 R ♦D^i^nrr ibpyrt iviTiI' ivr^t ^im .y^^-M^rii^K p^iR v'b^Vruki ps ]'^m 
n p^5tJ?V3iS"»i^ in WRn oy iv;ii ^no inn- -i^n : T't t^^io t:sR^v:x f]io i§ p-'bR p^n 
1ViR:iRirtDDRist n pR wnyn 'n, •'itr pRiiy:i dvuvirVirs ivrn vmya^'R n ,pviK 

.DipDiR R^'iR pRii'v:\ t:p''tr?vapviiR iiR 

tV5Wtt? IV'^niya OIR p-^IR y^b^ IV^ t2Rn VbVp5?t3t:^'»11"»tt^^ R IIIT ''11 ''im pR i 
np a'»'t:t2? R ^11 •'ITR /tD0R»1RD DRl! n tSRH IV^ ♦Dp VS^VRMa py yi"2 1'1R p^l!?S 

,V3VaipV^'»w /WaR^tj^iyt ^yivDwivT ,v3pnt)v:iD^nR ''i ps nimn n 'T'ir ♦nrn 

in pfipiSP^R ^ta tORHVX' pKH DR11' ,]TK V'lVI^R P''Sr''1R pliR^ yi p^)) ,]m 
Ip 11D tOIVTHTyaSi? tD''lb3 R tO^tt ODR^IRS ]''''T I^VIl ''n .VaRti^ I^T pR pS^^lli^ 1U 

uyn ^n fiD iV3''''p PR •'"'T IX p;!:>'ipi2i''''iR ooyn P'P P^n Dt£?''i oyii' ivr''P 'tO'^yn 
.to^i^s pvt:rn "(la •cmxciiR tDDVi p''p pKn tots^^a •p'^^ 

K 1^^2 ,Rt3V3l P''R t:tt^'3 .Rt5V:^^ R 1R3 pRIiyri' ]tmn Rtjya ]'R T'R DIIR ^ITR 
R tt3DVVl T^ ^^'T ORl IVIV JpIR DV;23 DIIRII ♦IV'^f^'^'^^V^' V^'pm ^O''^ "^P^ 

-ns tDSViyarnR ]1R "p'^x voRimsw pntDV^iciiR p^ toRn om lyiv'' pa /ys^;t£^ 

♦OVSRtS? n p& lyt^V^'IR n /VDTl^V^'ll 

,V^i>V,tt?n ,vps^!?y»iKp ,''ps"'^Rn'R3 ^^ir Pridv:\ bin lyi t^r v'S''bRii:R3 •nyt *ir3 

-p^l pS p^lSyjiD'HR pSV3 in pRH op. ,n mOD ''1TR PR VP''tS^T1 .yU^ORDO 

PD in^»ivi''R /Vabytrn po ]^'^^n^ ,vp^^'?v^'i^P ps p'i> on^va oi''\-; i^rh ,v^s''b 

.yti^tJRttO 

ODKnRO V2 tR /VVflRa R P^lpRi ''''aOS''1R :iKO p^R 'CR ORn ''^''^p Vtt^n^R ''1' 
O'lR OORD — ]03R''S^bRS OIT'10 ''''nS /'SVp/' yti;''TK( OIPIO ]VS V"'**^ l!?V0t2?1S 'T n» 

.03R^:s^bRSi nv' 'I'lx "svp„ »irs ix 

IIR OOm IPb pm y^R ,1V0'>''11 p:\3RlVSl' OyiTR Vi^''0l'7a ''T fR OROtt^ pR ]1R 

.oivisRnnRS' prn iv^i'^VHP V^R ^piRtots^v^onR 

yoym n i^'iti^ on^ ov ,]:i^)y opvt piti; t''^'o .sr oti^'i i^r o^ytots^i oy iv3r 
P» Ott^^a ,ooy ptt ott>'3 /-ivooaystt^vi m our in pv^tit^ iri pyb drii ,n np 
in irni'SD ''isnyiai^R ly^^nn opyr 3^p oyi pyott^iso^^iiR Riia oRrr ]y» .osRVtt^ 
p^Vyria^ p^n pR p?^n ^n /'ovs^^tt?/, "ji i'r o^ri-'oavti^P^ P3''n op nyoyaiR ''i 
TR /lyjyoyi' ^jn .ippi pR a^m o'» ]V!^V3 ''n .ony-'x-nritt ">i ni 'itr ,oyan^>o o'» 
♦mn&tt^» yiyn ''■'o ,in -^^o ]vm2 /Iomirb -jn pvn ''ovbr^^/ 'i PR oiijt 

71 



pnpV5i3''nK in top iv» 'i^t'^h (tai^a p^ ^^P) n'^mi ptt» ooKpya tDi^n oy 
♦pV^ippsrnK px T^vn vt32Jy> OKI in lis iv»i5V:^3^iK tnp ]^^iv^ /'vs^^^/, k ^k 

.t3tt?''3 ^KiTiN ]^n •'RtTis — n^tt^i n ii« /iqiri on tJtJ^n tsyn'VttK-iv:^' ^^''3 p>?n -^n 

.^)>n 1HD DvsNtz? n rs pi?ipv:irnx nn p^n oy 

VJV im ,VBKt^ n fr^DKa iva m tDnrr nvVyn "ivi ps pn :^xd k iVDipvn ?■>« 
T'Va pijn -jn nvt^va!-!^ n toT'snyT «i^vn vt^^t^onv^tDTi n pxn t3ii< ]snK 

n "jn IS t)pv"it3tt^v3iD''ix /tt^inanvjani? tva dhh iti^t:2V» vtDb>? ,VDvbt323n'» /lyiiv 

rx nxa pjjVty p'i2p yti;''t£?tD'>n n) svp n ivn^R oyp^asp t3">» ]yp^n A^P'^^ 

.ts-Jito IID f Kbs p^ix Di^spsx px (r^H s^p 

-a57tDSyO p-6 p'JIX 10-5 Dyi pS 0DR3 1^1 ^^ ♦OSIIK f^ IVt^^nK 9 PI :i,lJO-lKB IV^l 

yrii^'-'x /VP"»P^ ^ lyosiyD n 1^02^1 t3iyniyi ixi'^^xiVs iv^s tssn — 1942 nya 

?Di«^ PR IKS t)X>K D»1p DKIl .D'JS pV^tZ^OlV^ nVDlT'lO A^Oit^lO ]1S :i31DiyT!Ra 

iVT »i''i« os'K in irniRn' is t:i» dvt dv okh lyn .t:DX3 lyaVRn liji i^t two 
ts^jnuKa oVyn^ n r*'^ ^''^ P^' rriiti^mn'^ r iy»i3v^3"R nyboM ritt^ oxn ? oxii' 

? 03in p'01^3 DVT ps p^iiv^ 

ITniKS in pKH naiyi5''R iy:\:''nK 7 miK ♦or^:^ ivnysi: utj^-^i vpxu v^ oy pK 
on^ TK ,0Hi 'itL>n''R pin Tn>a lyrn pntj^ynvoaiK /pvn» n «tik pKpnVB 
pKH ti^nn nyi V3i:')33 *(v:i3i3iiKiKs yb») osR»: nytt>''u^t3''n iv'T ps aimiKiijo nvi 
OKI lyinKUKi: OKit ,]V)i^ v^R ]Tm (lyVip;^ n'?Mp iyt£?n''R 1VT pv:iV3i. itz^o^jn' n 
nDivia'»R nv3i''nK 10 fa oi'^i 1J?a^^^ v^V^n itkVikd ^Rtoysi vo-m:\. vavo'nvr"»iT» 
♦fKVs nymoms it^a yp'^tt^ti ,'$mn .yt^oxao : px:^> n n^i^ T'^ i5?^»KnKs px 
p^'»^a Ti» aioti? ^JR in oa-'sv^^^ oy op ,f^H ♦pH^ti^iKo pyn ^^'^i pKo piot2^ n 
'Vd k iir myo '»nt inx riipsoy fiVa ivd :iy?3' ivavio"'^ ♦o'^-'ott^ pK o^"»:^ oy ni 
lyr nypnn 10 ir3 kos?:^ pnicn r^^ P^'^^ t^yn oy ]im n po lyn .lyop' i^ik 

,p5^ii lORttri-iyi toyn 

^''•n ,'>"'S^!?KS lytyn^R nyr ir lyaama o''nsii vu^''t2^t3''n n in lyi^n* bm 0^1 
-lyno yayVoy n pR ly'p/SRTip otidp in pp dim vt2;''K^"»is''^^s yt2r^T»x n tik 

♦pKDi yo3>j»iyT 

n pK o^v^^^Vto-'^'V n i^xViKa i^iti^ inKn o^mti^a yts^n^'R n tx ,o'ik oyro 
rx /0D1KTK3 ott^n ]'^w oiMrriK"' n oxn fyji .w^bm^ v^'»tDonyboM n ps pnx 

♦lyov'^ann'yri' x lynyx i^ix ^ni nyn 
lyaxns :\nas'ib /lytyao^ix pxn p^yn y3in>(i n 'itx m lyr osTxixa lya o^n 
ott^'i — ,ypma ,y:insy3vi ^ivny^i; op lya^n m^^n vavp^r^ys .yav'^p'^^JiaiK yb^ o'» 
iq^ix in p^KHKa n''s ybx i'ik iD^ipy?.' ivs'^n op fV^"? ip ,iy^03r^Xi 03>n rp 
"Xiys px opxny:xD'»m pxn I'^^x ^n o^n /lyr^^is'inn ]m — oiy't'yp px nv»yi^ia 
oaoo;$s ynyn ori^tyi^s^ oii^ p-'ix iy» ^p toar^'^l?® y^n^x tsiyisin pdib .oynya 
yt^>x'»^S'b^B n pi^ny:\9i^ix p^n ''n ,]^xi'»i •>■? is ^n tsiyo^^yi^o'ix on^ ^nij ]ik 

72 



^11 /ix^isyyi ,riKrr oj^i tt^^pva toiKD in "^n i^^^n ^^^n ^in ]■»•',•? isiKurK ritz^ t'K 

np lis p^KHKlD^IH T^ l^^n PK^ T'^D V^'ttOn^S n "''11 ,|S"»lb IDTlKlliriJ* v«^n^K n 

rv ]Dm v^v^ PK lya^n m'Q^'tn v^^ m)> nvo'»^n! '^m ]i« vpi^n ,V2^iVX 

-ii$ ♦tDi^ p-'iK iD^t^^ivi ]iK ts^iisp f^D up 10 K ♦p>KnK3DnH in ta^jn o^r itk 

.]n 

"O^nK UKn n^Mp n ^^d dp ,pvji2i3 pKny:x tsa'^wKn ivw mv)^ ^35 V3in>?T n iks 
.t35?:n^V^' PHH p'^ inn /fv^siDV^^'iVtsaiK vt^'tyt^^n n '^o im pvw 

♦tDiT^iu 35 ''n 1VD t3u?n iTK^ivn''^ pi^ to^nti 115 pn^^a'K n ij?DKn&»f ivd 

,1Vm IK1 «in pDH^a ayi PH ,^nti;va pDiPD Dyi ik ,t3Dvt:~^n3 lis tjip luoir^ 
n T» ,tDaiKiH!i ijT 15?)::^ dhh ]5?»vit .pn is. lynp ^i m ]vm^ is iix.'^rw ikj 
nti? px 5?DaKKi vi^i< lis mysxis 75 toi^snyi tDii? p-'iK r^h t^nn ^^^^p vt^n^R 
n — ivaipp uts^^a nv^^ii p-^p pKn '»n .to'it: ]id oayn n pK 'n p3nm5;a^K diik 
rv IViiV^ tot2^'3 m i5?»i5 ^ ]^ ♦ninsu^n yiy''n wts^^a pK ^n t)t2^n — yt3»KK3 v:in^*T 
p^^pvi^D^iH pKH ya''i"»^K ♦f H^s-:iixbt2;?3ii» lyiK niKaDon-^vr ijnij : :^v'nO''''iK ij^i^k 
pK Dnnn ps p'^in n r^ ^r]^'r\p i5?ti?^Tx nvi iia tjih p-jik ]ik /nvn itDtj^iy tm 
o^a — ]t2?D3yD mntD' pV'^Dv ,iy2H an lyi ♦p^v^ ijy^n' is tsDpya jr]io k ,t:rns 
n iK!^ pipp.' /DnajuiDD^:? .n ♦trH D»i iK^n^H iia ij?snip lyi t)Kn T3''p'"iik a^'ii 

♦ni"»n 5?t2^i^t3onvbttM n ps d^d 
PK TK ivVj^r^K 1^1 ,iriguj Dn1.11? iKii ,t2»Hn''''StJ?^a "lyi l^t:yx i^K ttijn ^itk 

nvsm>p lynyui 
">n n lis- t3Tviy:x5K rit£^ ,t35?t3^tt^p-Di}bM lytJ^^'R 1^7 fxtsp i^ix t)^n ^ir^ 

. * ♦ ]im m^^ti^m:i ]:i^n oijn ,iy:^3i»vnyt33iK v^w^ 
'Ti '1TK ,DysK!7p n ^m ^n t3v^>^sii?v:iij^ ]m pv»ia prpP P^n op ,n v>» 
w^i '^vm v^p p^n op ^vinys^H v^l< /'n^m •'»„ is ]'$\m hdit lyi'^n nvDyinKs 
^a,/ IS ]')^y\n ^^mnm p'^aia-'iK r« V^ ly^^''^ (r^^a :3iii r^^ aii *>VT) p^ipn- 

♦*ni»'» 
nv:^'»nK lo ,1942 ,i5ra;D5?osvD ]o-6 dvt A^tsait p^myriaK in ojjn "ni^^ ^a„ ivt 
-*iKD nitj^n tt^j^n aij? opayosyo ]o-ii ;axo:"iD t'^a ly op oiy^np fin n&iyirK 

.oaK3 

-SK iv^ t:xn ivViyaii n o:hk»i^3 pKn op v>^ tk ,i5?r"'):5 ots^n^ lyjis ^^t lya^ 
D'»K T'K lys-jay n^iK nvp3vn iti^^ti^o^n oyi i-jh oiavnyri vw in op okt «OT^^yi 
-nya ,^n ny^ tiS' osvVtt^vrio'inH a-'X iv op — "lyttii k o-^d ^t ^v» 'i^vsyx oc^^i 
vowvaii VDb5?TK .y^oBiti^ttni?& n is h'^n op^tj^y^s^ tiK B^p pya^x p-'ioK^a iv^*iyi 

♦nyojTno n' r» tvnyJi iva^n 

ivrW3vs 0^10 D1S lya m^^ o^n rm ps^ : 15?? oiypya ]ya op ok:i nvt n^iK 
o"»n nyiyiaB iyi lis 11K it^oay^ ya^oti^^n- ,yoiyMinv:io>iK ,vo3i"»r'»snp lyoanio 

73 



."l^-ni? Dillon' n «ti» 

mD''"'S t>i!?a oRi ♦tn^a toin oarup n pa ♦]v»htis vV^ "ivi^'P oV2'V» 'IV'IIQ ♦P^' 

♦piati^ vts'^ii tt"»tt ->))■ ^iTi? ,^^11' DV"^' 

lyDl^^ttT pn n^lH tD-lXT T^ pSaiXQ ,r^» PV'1» V3l'tD'>''T f^ M'^^^'ST '''T tJ''^ tOtJ^IVIS piJD 

-iK&-|iKa t)''» ,vt5:i"'t}i>niND n r» pit ;n^tt^i2>tt n- nmin ''i lis mm ]t^ pK 

n' pD ^.ui^a tJin; iv^^V^^n n lis ,t3iVn pa in dbvVp to^y:^' oki ♦(iVDi3v:^'t:^» ovsv 
0Vt>vst2? t3ti:^iV .sx Dtt^^a OKI upyitzr iv'^v^x-n^i^j?. n iv^n ,01^1 t:Dnt: ivbnpa^B 
l^mi r» n''''^^ P''^''^ ''^^ IV^ ^s"ip /tDDvi ivn n-'xnn n ipyasK in^ ^^^'^ ivi> 

♦d'^iv IT'S pnx •'n t:3v!?tJ^ iva pH 

p^nn K PR r'^^ ''''^' 1V»' W3"ip IV'^''^' li» IV'^^ "'n nt /nm 1x1 ;D^DnDn rp ''''^ 
KTX IS ;nmtt Ktx IS .]m ^^n ^^ip rV' '''t liji tovn iV^-'V IIK in ]Vi'^v^ *ivi'''5 

-tt^Ki anv ra axa nv-m pa ,tDD''M oxt nvatty'^ayD p"ii ifi ,''^1^ p-22 iia 
VtDDva vt2?''t3onv'?t:%T n ttxn mvtD 53 pa »T'i^iKa r^^ ♦nt3''nti^ n tDnvnw tt^n nmi 
tji^p^in bN» '>m n items' ♦n"'X mvi^ toiviim Vxa '»n7 pa y^Tp k tosKiav^aiK 
ivwix ,t)B3ipis nv«ii? nvi^v V1VT31K rmtnw 150 pa iiy ix ivny:^ ivi^t ]th witntD 
♦'IVt3^''» pDTrttt nvT fK taix tsVsiKnv^tjnx ,pn.tr?yanvt3aii< ♦py^ :fiivtt''m 
ivrn iVTia viytaiH toitno toiv^nn Vrk) •'nT ]ia tx ,t3m is fx 1K11 ivt^om k 

, ,t:aTnt3 50 tia 115? 1^? P^Vava 

Dp ♦nai-Kavtt^in inty fx nnw- vrrp "ji inay n-'-'a to^xn r^ ]n /^i^^i' 
p''>ni nvt^^'ni' r^^ tux tsyn oijiT ♦aKa-nvti^fi pnsv3iDmx v^ pxn bt:mp v^^i^w 
rm ttxrr'D nywy rixu' is mw pa xtDv:; oxii uivn ^''nnjn ♦t3''"'V-x3Xt:Dv:^ n ixi 
-^Vti^n^ixf^^'Viii^it: Wlf^x ,''ps^>x'nxa ,v'9''^^ti^5 Ps ^^^^V^ ^V'lr pa pntoviiio^nx 
tMVn» 1V» *Wy^ piKTnvT px t3p"»t3ti^iyi t-^ piXT x"t /piu? px r^^s"'^V'nP''^*'S 
n ra op iv^Kptr^ii^Daxia ^ytriya' p"'» px pn t>v.n iv^i^ n — diix •'^aoa'^ix tnx 
n^'np vt^n-'X n .pxa nj^ox dvI' ivaxp tsti^n ibyn I'a ixn ntJtt^' x — axa pxia^'ap 

♦pitott^ ''1 pa D^nx tssvVty^ lyix ,0x1 ivt »inx tsan n 
-V3^ /IVv^wr^x T^K n ♦ti'xia D^niDiDD^"? ovtvia p^» n^^np vi^^n-'x n tsio ^Vk 

♦ITX uitnta tti^Tain !?xa •>m ipav^a^ix b^t n ^jq^nyi pi^np pxtt^ 
lyiV ♦"P^i" P^^ "J^ ^1^ ^V^ tjxnva tsti^^a pxn pt^oaya t:antD civiain ^^» '»nT 
,]nn anpa iv» w»n luxts Dvr^^p-'X ix iV'ax ,in ixi p?Tivt:xi tsVpv:^ w^n iv^'^'i^ 

♦ivirp pyr-'x px a^m ir^x ix ,v^m m^'''^ 1^ 
-p ]ix mPV^ "i^cx in tDi<n oxn ma ivrsi^'x lyi ,t:axK?ivt>vanx yts^^TX •>! 

74 



fiVi^ n iW' 111T in iD^n. n^« v>^ ivn /IVt^m n ps o-'iik iv''^2i. ]t>^ vb» ivii 
,t:avVv3iiyrx t)t2^^3 ttiba nviyp^K i^'^d dV' t:xn op lyi ♦i^vottMKS yi ]Kj? ijtj^ nt 

pK piJID » PK ,npva pnti^Hl RT T^X DHIT rf^i? OKI ♦fS^'nilKa m'^l OV t^VTl' ijrT 

>ii:\ ]'^m ]''K iv»yi»i^^ 1V3KP DV !?XT Dijn nvivs '"^ i^^tott^n t^x'd ♦n'» 

vaniji n wnDpa lyavi rivrDv:\ in i^yiT "^n' ixii ,pib^n rv ^^"'2 ^P''^^a l^Vit op 
♦1V;»V3 n»pj ivJKp pK ini'-'bi op n 1X3 a''inix ]k pn^ t^i ivoivn 

♦1942 2/10—8/31 



75 



forces, it is very important to have a reserve of new active workers. 
The heroic girls, Chaika, Frumka [the sisters Chaika and Frumka 
Plotnitska were couriers of the Jewish underground movement- 
Ed.] and others present a topic that would challenge the pen of a 
great writer. These brave heroic girls travel back and forth over the 
cities and towns of Poland. They have Aryan documents, as Aryan 
Poles or Ukrainians. One of them wears a cross at all times, though 
she cannot wear it in the Ghetto. Every day they face the greatest 
dangers. Taking advantage of their Aryan appearance and the 
kerchiefs they wear on their heads, they take every risk. They un- 
dertake the most dangerous missions and carry them out without 
a murmur and without the slightest hesitation. If it is necessary to 
go to Wilno, Bialystok, Lwow, Kowno, Lublin, Czestchowa, Radom, 
etc., and smuggle illegal material into the cities, such as under- 
ground publications, supplies, money, they do it all as something 
quite natural. If it is necessary to rescue some comrades out of 
Wilno, Lublin or other cities, they undertake the mission. They 
recognize no obstacles, no interferences. If it is necessary to strike 
up an acquaintance with the railroad engineer—the German— in 
order to be able to travel by train outside of the province, (permitted 
only to people with special passes) they do it simply, as if it were 
their specialty. 

They reach regions never reached by any delegate of any Jewish 
institution, such, for instance as Volynia and Lithuania. They 
were the first to bring us the tragic news from Wilno. They were 
the first to carry a message of encouragement and support to the 
surviving remnants in Wilno. How many times did they look into 
the face of death? How many times were they arrested and ex- 
amined? But luck was with them. They were "the messengers of the 
people that are never harmed." With what simplicity and modesty 
they submit their reports on what they accomplished during their 
travels on trains, on which Christian men an women were rounded 
up for work in Germany. 

The Jewish woman has written a beautiful page into the Jew- 
ish history of the present world war. The Chaikas and the Frum- 
kas will take first place in this history. These girls know no rest. 
They just arrived from Czestchowa after delivering illegal mate- 
rial and two hours later they leave on a new mission. They do it 
without a moment's hesitation and without a minute's rest. 



53 



JEWISH RESISTANCE 

November 5, 1942 
A terrible pessimism holds sway among the Jewish population. 
M oritur i— {dooxat A. to slaughter)— that is the correct designation 
for the Warsaw Jews. The majority of the people are determined 
to resist. I think we will no longer go to the slaughter like sheep. 
The people want the enemy to pay dearly for every life. We will 
attack him with knives, sticks, coal-buckets. We will not allow 
any more blockades. We will not allow ourselves to be seized in 
the streets because we know now that today every labor camp means 
certain death. We would rather die in our own homes. Naturally, 
the resistance will take place only when it will be organized and 
if the enemy does not carry out his plan suddenly, as he did in 
Cracow, where at the end of October in a space of seven days, 
5,500 Jews were stuffed into the wagons. 

Thus is confirmed the well-known psychological law, that re- 
sistance can not come from a slave who is totally crushed. Ap- 
parently the Jews have come to their senses after the terrible events; 
our experiences have caused us to reckon up the sober estimate 
that going peacefully to the slaughter did not lessen the tragedy, 
but increased it. Everyone says the same thing: we should never 
have allowed the "re-settlement" to take place. We should have 
taken to the streets, set everything afire, torn down the walls of the 
Ghetto and fled to the "Aryan" part of the city. The Germans 
would have taken a terrible revenge. It would have cost tens of 
thousands of lives, but not 300,000. Now we are covered with shame 
and disgrace in our own eyes and in the eyes of the world, because 
our abjectness brought us nothing. No recurrence must be per- 
mitted; resistance must be the program now. Every one, men, 
women and children, must rise and resist the enemy. 

THE JEWISH WOMEN 

June 1942. 
The future historian will have to devote a proper chapter to 
the Jewish Woman in the war. She will have an important place in 
Jewish history due to her courage and persistence which contributed 
so much to the fact that thousands of families could survive the 
bitter times. Lately, we can note an interesting development. In 
a number of House Committees the women take the place of the 
men who retired, exhausted and tired from their work up to this 
moment. There are House Committees, the entire leadership of 
which consists exclusively of women. Keeping in mind the extent 
of the social aid, which is in need of such great numbers of fresh 

52 



misfortunes which have come upon the Jews in the cities and towns 
of Poland, etc. The observant reader of our material will find 
hundreds of documents which show something quite the contrary. 
In more than one report from a town he will read how humanely 
the Polish population conducted itself toward the Jewish escapees; 
of the hundreds of occasions when peasants hid and fed escapees 
for months at a time. 

HOPE FOR SECOND FRONT 

npHE bombing of Cologne has brought great joy to the general 
•*• population here. In the first place, we saw in this act a new 
tactic of the English, who had up to now been asleep. We saw in 
this the beginning of a new period, perhaps the beginning of a 
second front in Europe, especially since the bombing was accom- 
panied by much propaganda threatening to destroy systematically 
all the industrial centers of Germany. The joy of the Jewish 
population was something entirely different. In hundreds of cities 
in Poland and Russia thousands upon thousands of Jews are being 
massacred daily according to a preconceived plan and we see no 
one to avenge us. The bombing of Cologne, the destruction of 
thousands of homes, the thousands of dead among the civilian 
population have somewhat slaked the psychological thirst of the 
Jewish population. Cologne was an advance payment of the ven- 
geance which must and will be exacted for the millions of murdered 
Jews. And therefore the Jewish population in tortured Europe re- 
garded the bombing as an act of vengeance. After the affair of 
Cologne I felt a little better. I felt that even should I perish at 
their hands, at least my death has been paid for in advance! 

SPIRITUAL STEADFASTNESS 

December 1^42 
Out of 300,000 victims, why were there only several hundred 
suicides? The people, the great masses, and the overwhelming ma- 
jority of the intellectuals did not allow themselves to be crushed 
and resisted passively as long as possible. To the question why the 
Jews did not defend themselves, it must be answered: We presented 
a strong, successful spiritual resistance. No other people would so 
long have maintained a spiritual steadfastness as did the Jews. And 
the best proof of this is the small number of suicides among the 
Warsaw Jews. For this very thing the Germans were frequently 
galled by the Polish Jews. They even expressed themselves to the 
effect that the Polish Jews, unlike the German Jews, did not have 
a sense of honor as shown by the small number of suicides among 
them. 

51 



LIQUDATION OF JEWISH POLICE 

When the Jewish population became so small that fewer police 
were needed, the next step was the liquidation of the police and 
their families, even though all this time they had been bought off 
with the assurance that they and their families would not be 
touched. It was all done in a very refined manner. The men were 
duped into going to a certain place, where they were scheduled to 
carry out a blockade. In the meantime the SS and the Ukrainians 
came to the dwellings of the police and instructed the women and 
children to come with them supposedly for registration. The first 
group were "registered" for work in Lublin and their identifica- 
tion cards were staken away. Then the entire group of 800 women 
and children were sent to the selection center and loaded into the 
wagons. The Jewish police found out about this during the "block- 
ade" and rushed to the selection center. Here they were stopped 
by the SS and told that anyone who approached the wagons would 
be shot. The same thing happened with several hundred other 
police who were taken to another camp. Thus perished the hang- 
men of the Warsaw Jews— the degenerate and corrupt Jewish police. 

JEWS AND POLES 

August 1 94 1 
TTEARD an interesting fact which shows the relationship of the 
"■••■" workers with the Jews. A Jewish worker was employed in the 
chocolate factory "Alpha." After the closing of the Ghetto, he and 
his wife and three children were left without a means of livelihood. 
He decided to sell all his belongings. The Polish workers wrote 
to him a few times but received no reply. One evening a Polish 
comrade came to his home. The Pole perceived the situation and 
together with some other friends sent the Jewish worker a cart and 
350 zlotys to equip it. Thanks to his Polish friends, the man is now 
able to earn a living. 

^943 
npHE horrible deeds of the Germans toward the Jewish population 

-*- takes prior place in our work. You will also find, however, not 
a little material showing humanity by the Germans. In the finished 
papers, as in the sketchiest notes, we have always been careful to be 
objective even about our deadly enemies and to give an objective 
picture of the relationship of the Germans toward Jews. 

The same is true about the relationship of the Poles toward the 
Jews. There is a belief that anti-Semitism grew considerably during 
the war; that the Polish people in the main are pleased with the 

50 



the bodies of the women. The numbers of the policemen and the 
names of the women are known. At the time of the deportations 
from the Ghetto the police were unrecognizable as human beings. 
They were in a constant frenzy against those who refused to let 
themselves be taken away. They were constantly being threatened 
with destruction and the destruction of their own families. They 
had long been demoralized. The victims whom they caught, especi- 
ally the women, often resisted. This created an impossible situation 
for the police, who raged and did terrible things. 



GERMAN PERFIDY 



December 1^42 



TITHEN one thinks about the question "Why did the Jews allow 
" themselves to be taken without putting up any resistance?" 
the answer always comes back to the ingenious perfidy of the Ger- 
mans. Always they deceived everyone about the real purpose of 
the "re-settlement." In the first days of the re-settlement a high 
commander of the SS came and gave his word of honor as an officer 
that the Jews were really being taken to settle in the east and 
not to crematoriums. Always they said that the "action" was coming 
to an end. With the help of several hundred Jewish agents they 
kept the population in a constant state of expectation that the 
"action" would end tomorrow or a day later. I attended in August 
a meeting of representatives of various organizations concerning 
resistance (during this consultation the representatives of the gene- 
ral Zionists and the Bund argued against resistance). It was de- 
cided to postpone the decision because on the first the "action" 
would be over. Always new dates were being mentioned in order 
to weaken every attempt at resistance. 

This refined, Germanic perfidy reached its highest point in 
relation to the Jewish police. For a long time the SS and the 
Ukrainians showed an unusual concern for the police and their 
families. They were always spared. When entire streets were closed 
up the police were always separated from the others and let go. 
Their conduct toward the Jewish police was always correct, almost 
cordial. They associated freely and even transacted "business" to- 
gether; together they broke into homes and looted. Together, for 
a ransom, they let people go from closed up streets whose entire 
population was marked for deportation. There even sprang up 
a number of "contact men" who could "reach" certain of the SS. 
But this did not prevent these same SS men from deceiving their 
"associates" in a very refined way. 

49 



pression of that society. There are others, however, who point out 
that in the police force were found only the weaker types, who 
tried by any means to survive the hard times; who believed that 
anything was a means to the end, and the end was to live through 
the war, even if it meant sacrificing human lives. 

With this kind of unprincipled attitude, which was observable 
from the highest to the lowest ranks, it is no great wonder that 
the Jewish police executed the orders of the Germans regarding 
the deportations with greatest zeal. . . . 

In general the Jewish police displayed a savage brutality beyond 
understanding. Whence this cruelty in "our" Jews? When had we 
nurtured so many hundreds of cut-throats, who seized children in 
the streets and hurled them upon the wagons? It was a common 
sight to see women thrown by their hands and feet into the "Kohn 
and Heller" wagons or on ordinary dray wagons. . . . Every Warsaw 
Jew, every woman and child can relate thousands of facts about 
the inhuman cruelty and ferocity of the Jewish police. Those who 
remain alive will never forget these facts and a proper penalty 
should be paid for these crimes. . . . 

Now that the people have quieted down somewhat and are 
reviewing what happened, a feeling of great shame is arising over 
the fact that no resistance was shown even to our own police. When 
we think back over who was guilty in the mass-murder, we are 
convinced that much of the blame lies with the Jewish police. 
Many place the entire blame on them. At every opportunity the 
Jewish police are reminded of their guilt 

Now the time has come for a reckoning, for reflection upon 
the past. People want vengeance from the guilty. A mysterious 
force is trying to disclaim the responsibility of the guilty ones dur- 
ing the "re-settlement." The Jewish police now are harassed at 
every step, in every possible way. The Polish population displays 
the same animosity to the Jewish police. The former Jewish police 
who now work in the car-barns are constantly badgered by the 
Polish workers. ... In many shops there were protests against 
placing police as plant-guards or in the factory. ... I know for 
a fact that former policemen in certain places wear their "caps" 
only as far as the Ghetto boundary, since in the Ghetto the police- 
man's cap is still honored; outside the Ghetto they take them off, 
because they are afraid of the Polish population, which detests the 
Jewish police for the deeds they performed during the deporta- 
tions — — 

The police had no mercy on any one, no matter how valuable 
or important, unless the ransom which they demanded was paid. 
It is known that often the police took additional payment upon 

48 



ber of Jewish intellectuals, writers, artists, and the like. The Jew- 
ish Kehilla under President I. Lichtenbaum did nothing to rescue 
the active community workers. All their energies were given to 
saving their near and even distant relatives. . . . 

Sherinsky and Leiken, who were in charge of the resettlement, 
and the commandant of the Selection Center, Shmerling, had no 
conception of the importance of the community workers. The con- 
vert Sherinsky was an anti-Semite, who thought only of pleasing 
the Germans. They had let him out of prison at the price of 
properly carrying out the instructions of the Germans. (Sherinsky, 
before the *'re-settlement,'* had been in prison for hiding his fur 
coats outside the Ghetto.) Leiken, a lawyer, wanted to make a 
career with the Germans and showed great diligence in carrying 
out their orders. His first distinction and a reward of 300 zlotys 
he received from President Cherniakov for his brilliant achieve- 
ment in seizing Jews for the labor camps 

The same was true of Shmerling, a giant with a small beard and 
the face of a murderer. He understood only one thing: money. 
Whoever paid, went free. The Jewish intellectuals had no money 
so they went to Treblinka. 

Together with Jewish writers, artists, etc., there have been 
destroyed great cultural works, which are lost forever. As soon as 
anyone was taken away, his neighbors broke into his quarters and 
destroyed everything. . . . Books, paintings, manuscripts were 
thrown out of windows and either destroyed or burned. Thus Sh. 
Gilbert's works were lost. 

THE JEWISH POLICE 

November i^^2 
rilHE Jewish police had an evil reputation even before the "re- 
•*• settlement.'* In contrast to the Polish police, who did not take 
part in the seizure of persons for the labor camps, the Jewish 
police did carry on this odious work. . . . People are now wracking 
their brains over the riddle: how was it possible that Jews, mostly 
intellectuals, former lawyers (most of the officers of the police 
were lawyers before the war) would with their own hands destroy 
their brothers? 

How was it possible that Jews would drag women and children, 
the aged and the sick, through the streets, knowing full well that 
they were leading them to the slaughter. There are those who say 
that every society has the police force it deserves; that the disease 
of helping the occupation authority to murder 300,000 Jews is the 
fault of the entire society and not of the police, which is an ex- 

47 



dren's Month" (October) ail consumers goods were equally taxed. 
The same with postage. When money is needed to fight epidemics, 
everyone is taxed equally, 2 zlotys for a bread card, etc. Many such 
examples can be given. The expenses of the Kehilla are covered by 
the poor Jews. The rich carry on enormous businesses and are 
entirely free of tax paying. This is the only Kehilla which pursues 
such criminal policies. 

December ip^i 

Of the gang of war millionaires who concern themselves with 
only one thing: how to live better, to eat and drink the best (which 
sometimes costs them thousands of zlotys), two gentlemen, Emil 
Weitz and Jacob Silverstein, distinguished themselves. Both are 
from Torne, where they are still living. They come to Warsaw 
from time to time to conduct their business of brushes for the Ger- 
man army, from which they make literally millions. Their monthly 
sales recently reached two million zlotys. They boast of real mir- 
acles. They make brushes from sticks, rugbeaters and the like. 

December ip^i 

If Ganzweich is seeking clearance through literature and art, 
then Kohn and Heller are seeking the same through orthodox re- 
ligious circles. They contribute to Hebrew schools and seminaries, 
they assist rabbis and other synagogue functionaries. People have 
seen panegyrics written by Meyer Alter, brother of the Gerer 
Rebbe, in honor of Kohn and Heller. They also seek clearance by 
contributing to foster homes, children's homes and the like, to 
which they throw from time to time several hundred slotys, 
sometimes a thousand. They never waste too much money for these 
purposes. But then, perhaps the blessings of the pious Jews will 
actually help, if not in this sinful world, then certainly in the next. 
Kohn and Heller do a very good business. They have their own 
establishments in Luchnow, horse-cars, various concessions and so 
forth. Besides that, they have made millions by bringing hundreds 
of escapees from Lodz, at 3,000 to 5,000 zlotys a head. They say 
that Kohn and Heller are very reliable businessmen- If they prom- 
ise to free someone from prison at a certain price, then they accept 
payment only upon release. Thieves' honor! 

December ip^2 
With great shame it must be remembered that the Jewish Ke- 
hilla and the Jewish police are guilty of the death of a great num- 

46 



DIARY OF WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING 

By DR, EMANUEL RINGELBLUM 

Dr. Ringelblum is the martyred historian of the Warsaw 
Ghetto. He organized the Oneg Shabbat gatherings which served 
as a cover for a group of Warsaw Ghetto scholars and writers 
who devoted themselves to the gathering and preserving for 
posterity the record of the life of the Jews in the Ghetto and in 
the occupied regions under the nazis. These records, known as 
the Ringelblum archives, which were carefully packed by the 
authors in milk cans and buried within the ruins of the Ghetto, 
were gradually dug up after the war. Following are passages 
from Ringelblums own diary that was found in 1950 and pub- 
lished in Yiddish in Warsaw in 195s as Notes from the Warsaw 
Ghetto by "Yiddish Book" publishing house.— JEd^. 

THE CLASS NATURE OF THE KEHILLA 

January 1^42 
Periods of convulsion have this good feature—they light up, as 
with a giant searchlight, that which has been obscured up to now. 
The beastly nature of the Jewish bourgeoisie, its cannibalistic qual- 
ity, found unmistakable expression in the recent days of hunger. 
The entire activity of the Kehilla [Jewish community council] is 
a shocking wrong against the poor. And if there were a God in this 
world. He would have destroyed with great thunderings this nest 
of evil, hypocrisy and blackmail. The entire finance-politics of the 
Kehilla is one gigantic scandal. "All are equal"— that is the un- 
happy device of the finance minister. They levy indirect taxes, 

which fall as a heavy burden upon the poor 

Even the assistance given to the poor is contributed by the 
needy themselves. Adults, for instance, pay 70 groshen for a meal, 
when the actual price is only 50 groshen, in order to cover the 
deficit of 20 groshen which is created because children pay only 
25 groshen. The same is true of the per cent tax which is levied 

equally upon the rich and the poor 

All medicine is taxed 40 per cent for the benefit of the Kehilla. 
This hits first of all the poor people, who suffer greatly from dis- 
ease and must sell their belongings to buy medicine. During "Chil- 

45 



strength, vigor and durability. In this Zog nisht kaynmol Hirsh 
Click has succeeded in articulating the prevailing mood and feel- 
ings of the Jews of the ghetto of Wilno and of resistance in all other 
ghettos and concentration camps. He had forged a fighting weapon. 
The poet had adapted his words to an appropriate melody. The 
music was originally a Cossack Cavalry song composed by the 
Pokras brothers, two Jewish Soviet composers, for a poem written 
by the Soviet poet A, Surkov. 

Although words of the Cossack song are not related to the con- 
tent of Click's poem, the music seems to blend harmoniously with 
the words of Zog nisht kaynmol Without straining for symbolism 
one cannot help but reflect on this association— a Soviet Cavalry 
song wedded musically to a Jewish partisans' battle poem. It is 
known that in areas liberated by the Red Army the Jewish partisans 
changed the fourth line of Click's song from ''Svet a poyk tun 
undser trot; Mir zenen duhV (Our marching steps will thunder: 
we are here) to: "Die Stalinshe chavayrim zenen duhV (The com- 
rades of Stalin are here). 

Zog nisht kaynmol has been translated into many languages. 
We know about versions in Rumanian, Dutch, Polish (three ver- 
sions), Spanish, Hebrew and English (five versions). Of the five 
English versions, that of the young Jewish American poet Aaron 
Kramer seems to me the most successful. "Niederland Film/' a 
Dutch film company, produced a documentary based on Click's 
song in 1947. And the famous Soviet Jewish poet, Peretz Markish, 
created an heroic character based on his conception of Hirsh 
Click in his monumental Yiddish poetic work. War, 

Thus a Yiddish song, inspired by the heroic uprising of the 
Warsaw Chetto, written by a young Jewish partisan in the Wilno 
ghetto and adopted by the partisans of this ghetto as their official 
battle hymn, has reached out to the far corners of the globe to 
become a battle song for peace for millions of people. For the 
message of this song, the warning it sounds, is as timely and vital 
for us today, when nazism is being restored in Western Cermany 
became a battle song for peace for millions of people, as it was to 
the embattled Jews of the ghettos and the fighting Jews in the woods. 

In these days, when the architects of war pacts and the cold 
war use every device to sow gloom and despair in the hearts of the 
people, every expression of strength, courage and reaffirmation 
of faith in democracy is a rallying force. Hirsh Click's Zog nisht 
kaynmol is, in this sense, a weapon in the arsenal of democracy. 



44 



SPARKS FROM THE WARSAW GHETTO 

Those flames, though geographically distant, set off sparks of 
revolt in other ghettos and filled the Jews with a deep sense of pride 
in their Warsaw brethren. They gave the call to arms. The search 
for weapons was more feverish than before. It was in those turbu- 
lent days under the direct impact of the uprising of the Warsaw 
Ghetto, that Hirsh Glick wrote his immortal Zog nisht kaynmoL 
And when the staff of the underground met to work out strategy 
and assign battle stations, the song was adopted as the official battle 
hymn of the partisans. But the people had preceded the under- 
ground staff in this choice. Long before the staff had accorded the 
song this singular honor, Zog nisht kaynmol was tremendously pop- 
ular in the entire ghetto. 

On the first of September 1943, when the Gestapo began the 
liquidation of the Wilno ghetto, the partisans barricaded themselves 
in various parts of the ghetto to battle the Germans. Hirsh Glick 
and his group were surrounded by the Gestapo before they could 
get to their weapons. They were taken prisoner and sent to the 
labor camp at Goldfield, in Estonia, where conditions were even 
worse than in previous camps. Even the privilege of possessing 
pencil and paper was denied to Glick. This, however, did not 
prevent him from continuing his creative work. He composed and 
recited by heart to his fellow prisoners. 

One year later, in August 1944, the rapidly advancing Red Army 
forced the Germans out of their positions. The nazis began to li- 
quidate the concentration camp in an effort to erase the traces 
of their fiendish work. Glick realized that liquidation of the labor 
camp spelled death for the Jews. Together with a group of fellow 
prisoners he escaped to the nearby woods. There he ran into a 
detachment of retreating Germans and was killed in the brief en- 
counter. He died in the true spirit of his song— fighting the enemy 
of his people. 

Zog nisht kaynmol has attributes of a folksong— simplicity of 
form, an easy, natural rhyme scheme, clarity of expression and unity 
of mood. Not a single word or line in it is incomprehensible to the 
least sophisticated person. It is unaffected to the point of artless- 
ness. Yet it has a lyrical quality, and is permeated with a richness 
of imagery that places it in the category of a poem of high artistic 
caliber. It is indeed a rare combination of simplicty and art, 
blending harmoniously into a unified and heightened expression. 

But all these elements, however fine, would not suffice to give 
this poem the stature it has achieved. It is the mood of the song, 
so clearly and forcefully expressed, which is the core of this poem*s 

43 



to form one unified whole, that gives this song its quality. Any 
proper evaluation of it must begin with its origin and its author, 

^''^HirshkVas he was affectionately called, was born in Vilna in 
1020 His father was a poor tradesman who eked out a precarious 
living To supplement his father's earnings, Hirshke was forced to 
seek a job at the age of 15. He worked as a clerk, first in a paper 
business and later in a hardware store. The sensitive youth was 
often seen going home from work late in the evening, his tired 
face showing the strain of long hours and hard work 

The urge to write manifested itself early in Ghcks life and 
his first literary products aheady revealed a vigor and freshness 
characteristic of a genuine poetic talent. He was a leadmg member 
of a young literary group of Vilna called "Fung^aicJ which had 
publilhed, under the editorship of the poet Leizer Wolf, several 
issues of a literary magazine bearing the name of the group. 

When the Germans occupied Vilna, and herded the Jews into a 
ghetto, Hirsh Click, together with several hundred other Jews, was 
sent to Veisse Vake, a work camp 12 miles from Vdna. There they 
were set to digging peat. The working hours were long and living 
conditions in the camp extremely difficult. Although hard labor 
and inhuman treatment at the hands of the nazis robbed Glick of 
his physical energies, they failed to break his spirit. More than 
ever he was now possessed of a burning desire to record the miser- 
able life of the work camp. Late at night, when his fellow pris- 
oners lay exhausted on the floor of their hovels, GUck cried out 
both for them and himself the anguish of their souls in poetry. Many 
of these poems he had managed to transmit to the ghetto Twice 
he was awarded literary prizes for his poetry by the Jewish Writers 
and Artists Association of the Vilna ghetto. On several occasions he 
even managed to come to the ghetto himself. He would then spend 
most of his time in the Youth Club, reading his poetry to enthralled 

^"Ifthe early part of 1943. the Germans liquidated the work 
camp Veisse Vake and transferred all the Jews to the ghetto o 
Wilno. Those were not "ordinary" ghetto days. At dawn of April 
5th, 4,000 Jews were put to death at Ponar. Those in the ghetto 
who had harbored the illusion that life in the ghetto had been 
"stabilized," were suddenly shaken out of their complacency. A 
frantic search for weapons ensued. Then came a piece of news that 
electrified the ghetto. The underground radio operator picked up a 
brief bulletin: "The remainder of the Jews in the Warsaw ghetto 
have begun an armed uprising against the murderers of the Jew- 
ish people. The ghetto is in flamesl" 



42 



hand the extent of the popularity of this song and its power to 
move the Jews. My experience fully corroborates Mr. Meisel's 
statement. I recall a spring morning in the town of Lignitz in 
Lower Silesia. As in every other town on my tour through Poland, 
several members of the local Jewish committee took me on a round 
of visits to Jewish institutions. We began our day with the Jewish 
children's school, a large renovated building with spacious class 
rooms and modern facilities. The teachers had been informed be- 
forehand of my scheduled visit. Upon my arrival, all classes were 
suspended and the students were assembled in a large auditorium. 
I greeted the several hundred pupils in behalf of the Jewish chil- 
dren of America and then read a story to them. In response they 
sang for me songs of the ghetto and of the new life in Poland. When 
the director announced that the visit with the American guest had 
come to a close, the children rose spontaneously to their feet and 
began to sing Zog nisht kaynmoL 

I watched the expression on their faces, the look in their eyes. 
It was as though these young children had suddenly become mature 
and serious adults. They began singing slowly in a low but unfal- 
tering tone. Gradually their voices rose, swelled to a high note 
and dropped again. It was not the music that controlled the volume 
of their voices, the even-measured cadence of their tones. It was the 
meaning of the words that determined their tonal emphasis. For it 
was not just a song that they were singing. They were making a 
vow. They had sung this very song in the ghetto or had heard it 
from their fathers and mothers, who were no longer alive. Some 
remembered that it was with this song on their lips that partisan 
Jews had died fighting the nazis. For the children the song was a 
firm resolve never again to be children of the ghetto. It was a song 
to honor the dead and to inspire courage in the living. 

Wherein lies the strength of this song? What single feature 
of its composition is the source of its popularity? Do its thoughts 
and sentiments express the essence of its vigor or does its form give 
this song its special quality? Is it the melody—strong, confident, 
hope-giving and uplifting, yet permeated with an undertone of deep 
sorrow— that makes this song reach out to millions? Or do the cir- 
cumstances out of which it was born endow the song with the touch 
of immortality? 

HIRSH CLICK, RESISTANCE POET 

Though each of these elements is worthy of separate treatment 
and serious consideration, it would be a grave error to ascribe the 
song's vital message and overwhelming popularity to one single 
factor. Rather is it the aggregate of all these elements, combined 

41 



M 



SONG HEARD ROUND THE WORLD 

By YURI SUHL 

ANY songs came out of the ghettos and concentration camps 
of Europe during the last war. Most of these songs are of un- 
known authorship. They have about them the anonymity of the 
pashaik— the striped prisoner's garb— and the numbers tattooed 
on the victim's arm. Singly, each depicts, both in concrete imagery 
and in general terms, either a particular phase of ghetto life, or the 
predominant mood of the ghetto dwellers at a given time. To- 
gether, they are the collective outcry of people subjected to an in- 
human persecution. They form a record of martyrology and cour- 
age seldom met in human history. 

These songs, though saturated with the pain and anguish that 
marked the life of the inhabitants of the ghetto, were nevertheless 
songs of hope and not of despair. The mood of resignation is ab- 
sent from these songs. Their underlying theme is a deep yearning 
for a brighter day and an unswerving conviction that such a day will 
finally come and bring with it the destruction of Hitlerism and the 
liberation of Hitler's victims. 

With these songs on their lips the prisoners of the ghettos helped 
lighten the burden of their daily miseries, to face the gallows, fir- 
ing squads and the torture chambers and the walk on the last path 
to the gas chambers. And with these songs on their lips, hushed 
by the rules of security, muted by the laws of secrecy, the under- 
ground met in dark bunkers to plot the strategy of the ghetto up- 
risings. 

Some of these songs are still sung by ghetto survivors in various 
parts of the world; some form a part of artists' repertories and are 
sung from the stage; others have become part of memories too pain- 
ful to be stirred into consciousness. But one song, written in the 
ghetto of Vilna by a young poet named Hirsh Glick, has in the 
short space of a few years achieved a unique popularity. From 
being the official battle song of the Jewish partisans of the Vilna 
ghetto during the war, it has become, after the war, a hymn of Jew- 
ish people all over the world. Nachman Meisel, well-known Yid- 
dish literary critic, writes in his booklet Hirsh Glick And His 
Song ''Zog nisht kaynmoV [Never say]: "It is a significant and amaz- 
ing phenomenon that without the sanction of any authoritative 
publication Zog nisht kaynmol was taken up spontaneously by all 
the sectors of the Jewish people as the highest and fullest expression 
of the sorrow and suffering, the protest and courage, that filled our 
hearts in the recent years of annihilation and rebirth." 
During my trip to Europe in 1948, I was able to observe at first 

40 



Central Committee of Polish Jews. The democratic unity of Jews 
and non-Jews survived,^ and is now the basis for the fact that the 
Jews are an honored and in some respects, because of their great 
losses, a favored part of the people's democratic Polish govern- 
ment. 

For us in the United States, and for Jews and other people all 
over the world, there have survived lessons and examples, patterns 
of what to do and what not to do in the fight against reaction and 
fascism. 

Everywhere that there is reaction, fascism and imperialism, re- 
sistance is the only lesson. It is still easier to resist in the United 
States than it was in the Warsaw Ghetto. One must resist the 
propaganda that nourishes the "cult of self-preservation" by telling 
us that the attack is aimed "only" at the communists, or at "greedy" 
labor, or at the foreign-born, or at the Negro people, and not at 
"us." The road to fascism is paved with exceptions that lead no- 
where except to the extermination centers. The infinite cunning 
of nazism was penetrated only too slowly and at too great cost in 
the Warsaw Ghetto. The American face of reaction will have its 
own special features, but we must learn soon to penetrate the dis- 
guises and read the death-warrants made out for our names. It will 
be a deluding comfort that we shall be taking if we lull ourselves 
into the "belief" that the Taft-Hartley road, the McCarthy-Mc- 
Carran road, the remilitarization of a renazified West Germany 
road, the deportation road, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 
Marshall Plan, Middle Eastern Command and Korean War road of 
Eisenhower and Dulles in Europe, the Near East and the Far East, 
are anything but the roads to fascism, American style. 

In order that it be not desecration, commemoration of the 
Warsaw Ghetto heroes should mean resistance above all; resistance 
immediate, continuous and victorious. 



2 Much has been written of the inadequate and grudging aid given the ghetto 
fighters by the Polish "underground" that had its headquarters in London and 
that had other objectives than to fight the nazis. Not enough is yet known in 
this country of the splendid aid rendered by the Polish Workers' Party, founded 
in January and February, 1942, with headquarters in Lublin. Thus Christina 
Kovalska, secretary of the Warsaw Branch of the P.P.R., was almost a daily con- 
spiratorial visitor in the ghecto during the preparations for the uprising, sup- 
plying contact, arms, and instructors limited only by the available means. 



39 



another, their philosophy was antithetical to that of the **cult of self- 
preservation." 

Therefore it was first among the organized labor and then 
Zionist forces— trade unionists, communists, socialists, labor Zion- 
ists, socialist-Zionists— that the resistance took shape. Some of them 
had already in the past, so it seemed to the self-preservers, "courted'* 
danger. Thus an Elia Moses, who had been in the International 
Brigade in Loyalist Spain in 1936, was a military instructor of 
Warsaw Ghetto fighting squads until he was killed in the summer 
of 1942. 

But to be effective, these separate resistance movements had 
to be unified. Unity too came slowly, but, under the pressure of 
the left labor groups and the growing horrors of nazism, it came. 
By March and April, 1942, an anti-fascist bloc had been formed 
consisting of the Hashomer Hatzair, the Left Labor (Poale) Zion- 
ists and the Jewish division of the (Communist) Polish Workers' 
Party (known as the P. P. R., the initials of the name in Polish). 
Yet at an all-party conference in March, "Jewish socialists . . . 
refused to merge their groups with those of the Socialist-Zionists." 
(Marie Syrkin, p. 207.) But the anti-fascist bloc persevered in the 
campaign for unity, and from its efforts there emerged the Jewish 
National Committee, which added to the three parties already men- 
tioned the Labor (Poale) Zionists, the Socialist-Zionists, and demo- 
cratic miliant elements among the General Zionists. By October 
20, 1942, all-party unity was finally achieved in a fighting organi- 
zation when even the Socialist Bund adhered to the organization. 
Preparations for the active large-scale military resistance were car- 
ried out under the leadership of five commanders, headed by Mor- 
decai Anilewitz of Hashomer Hatzair, and including Michael Rosen- 
feld of the Polish Workers' Party (P. P. R.). Other leaders came 
forward: Adam Berman, the Labor Zionist, Sonia Novograduka of 
the Bund, Henoch Kirschbaum, the Zionist. In the fighting itself, 
both on January 18, 1943, when the nazis met armed resistance for 
the first time, and in the weeks after April 19, 1943, when the final 
ghetto battle was joined, mass heroism was forged. The unity that 
had already been achieved was further tempered in the heat of 
battle and the flames of the Warsaw ghetto. 

Of the 40,000 who were in the ghetto when the rising took 
place, most were annihilated. The nazis lost more than 1,000 
troops, materials, time and prestige. And it was more than indi- 
vidual Jews that survived. An example survived, and spurred on 
resistance in other ghettoes, in death-camps, and in other partisan 
movements. Jewish unity against fascism survived, and has been 
since the end of the war the basis of the all-party unity of the 

38 



to give themselves up. . . . Today the Jewish police gathered up all 
the beggars from the streets and emptied the refugee camps. . . . 
Today we received a package of food from Uncle Abie, in which he 
enclosed a note. Fortunately for us, he is on the police force, other- 
wise he would not have been admitted to Dzielna Street. His short 
note expressed despair. He cannot accept the idea that as a police- 
man he will have to help in the deportation, and is thinking of 
resigning from his job. But, on the other hand, his job protects 
him from deportation. He wants to know what we think about it. 
. . . The police must supply the rest [of the daily quota of de- 
portees] by means of force. They drag their victims out of their 
homes or seize them in the streets." (Pp. 170-171.)* 

Nevertheless, despite the nazi terror and the nazi cunning, the 
Jewish underground began to organize itself. It was met by a propa- 
ganda preaching resistance to the idea of resistance. In the "safety" 
of the ghetto, resistance was denounced as "dangerous," and the re- 
sisters were branded as enemies of the Jews. As Miss Syrkin says 
very temperately: "there was frequently the active opposition of 
the Jewish councils and the Jewish police. . . . The appeals of 
the underground were characterized as the irresponsible propaganda 
of young hotheads who were prepared to bring catastrophe down 
upon all. Again, it should be remembered that this point of view 
was advanced by people who held it in good faith. . . ." (Pp. 197- 
198.) Need it again be asserted that if ever good faith was a bad 
justification for ruinous tactics it was such pre-eminently in this 
"active opposition" to the underground? 

What was the source, then, of the idea of resistance, which spread 
despite all obstacles? It rose primarily among organized groups 
based on class or national consciousness (or some combination of 
both), and dedicated to programs of struggle to achieve their ends. 
Such groups, before the war and the institution of the ghetto, had 
become accustomed, in their attitudes and conduct, to integrate 
the aims of the individual with those of the group and the cause. 
To the extent that they were dedicated to struggle, these groups 
understood that risks were involved, and that victories were never 
won without losses. They realized that they had an enemy to 
overcome, and that interfering with the enemy, and damaging him 
at all costs, was a necessary part of their program. In one degree or 



♦On September 22, 1942, the nazis ordered the deportation of over 2,000 
Jewish policemen and their families, leaving only about 400 of this police for 
work still to be done. Uncle Abie, who had decided after all not to resign, et- 
caped from the nazi round-up, and is last noted in the diary on October 2, 1943, 
after the ghetto had been razed, as working in the Warsaw suburb of Praga. 



37 



even Jewish communists, might be a scapegoat for them did not 
fool or divert the nazi; they made it easier for him to kill Jews ac- 
cording to his own undisturbed schedule. 

Underlying these and many other attitudes that slowed up the 
development of the resistance movement was an intense individual- 
ism that was the product of the basic social structure of capitalism 
in which the Jews of the ghetto had lived. "Save yourself/' "per- 
sonal survival," these became not only ends in themselves, but they 
were ends that were considered an adequate justification of any 
means used. The ghetto fighters themselves have openly described 
the situation. Thus Marek Edelman, the Bund leader, reports 
that with the establishment of the ghetto, ''The most important 
thing was simply 'to be alive/ . . . The instinct of self-preservation 
finally drove the people into a state of mind permitting them to dis- 
regard the safety of others in order to save their own necks. • . ." 
{The Ghetto Fights, Warsaw, 1945, translation into English, New 
York, 1946, pp. 5, 18, my emphasis—M. U. S.) 

Did this "instinct of self-preservation" lead to self-preservation? 
On the contrary, it led to mass extermination, and must be judged 
as such. Tactically, nothing but resistance succeeded; morally, 
nothing but resistance was "good." 

There are those who would exculpate, or at least warn us against 
harshly judging, not only those who did not resist but even those 
who collaborated with the nazi with the best of intentions. Yet it 
is becoming clearer that the role of the Judenrat, for instance, was 
vicious. Miss Syrkin remarks that the head of the Council, Adam 
Czerniakow, "beleved that he was tempering the fury of nazi perse- 
cution by his parleys and compromises" (p. 189), and that when he 
finally realized that the Council was actually administering the or- 
ders for the mass deportations to death that began on July 22, 1942, 
he immediately committed suicide the next day. Lest we fall for 
similar illusions, however, what should be instructive for us is not 
what he believed, but that he was wrong, 

"The condemnation of the Jewish police," Miss Syrkin reports, 
"is more universal" among survivors of the ghetto. But she asks us, 
"in justice to them [the Jewish police]," to believe that the nazis 
would have been worse had they done their own policing. Essen- 
tially, would the nazis have been worse? Evidently the nazis thought 
the Jewish police could do the job better, and they did so good 
a job for the nazis that the nazis refrained from killing the Jewish 
police until near the very end. On the day the death deporta- 
tions began, July 22, 1942, Mary Berg wrote in her diary: "The 
Jewish police is charged with the sad task of preserving order dur- 
ing the deportation and of employing force against those who refuse 

36 



their own regulations to make the Jews strong and skillfull It 
took time for the young Zionists, who later played a role in the re- 
sistance, to turn from miracles and illusions to fight against the 
nazis. 

Cruder but even more successful was the nazi ruse by which 
they beguiled many Jews who were unregistered in the ghetto to 
report their presence. In response to an announcement calling for 
registration with the ghetto authorities to all Jews who wanted to 
go to Palestine, more than 150,000 Jews had their names placed on 
a list that then made the nazi objective of extermination easier 
of attainment, and the warnings of those who exposed the snare 
were disregarded. 

Illusions were bred on the basis of wealth and class. The ghetto 
was a miserable place, but there were oases, and money was useful. 
Mary Berg testifies: **New cafes and expensive grocery stores have 
appeared, where everything can be had. On Sienna and Leszno 
Streets women are seen in elegant coats and dresses fashioned by 
the best dressmakers. The ghetto even has its own styles. Most 
women wear long jackets without collars or lapels, so-called Trench 
blazers,' and full skirts. The hats are mostly small . . . high cork 
heels . . . stylish colors are gray and dark red . . . good dresses of 
French silk. . . ." (May 20, 1941, p. 60.) This ghetto after all had 
had its origin in capitalism, and so it revealed all the characteris- 
tics of that system: its morality, its class differentiation, its free en- 
terprise, its black market, its inequality, its way of life. Money, 
it was thought, could buy protection— from disease, from deporta- 
tion, from death itself. 

MOTIVE OF SELF-PRESERVATION 

There was always a misleading middle-class "theory'* to explain 
away the looming facts. In October 1941 the news from execu- 
tions in the Vilna ghetto arrived and was authenticated, but "an 
explanation arose," states Miss Syrkin, "that the Germans were 
killing Jews in former Russian-occupied territories on the charge 
that they had supposedly been communists and had supported the 
Russian regime. If this reasoning were correct, the Jews of Warsaw 
could consider themselves safe, particularly as large factories had 
been opened in Warsaw in which Jews had to work as slave labor- 
ers. . . . The slaughter should be interpreted as an anti-communist 
rather than as an anti-Jewish act." (Pp. 163, 2105.) How did this 
"explanation" arise? Were the nazis the only ones to launch it? 
Or did the Judenrat, and the social-democratic Bund, and Zionists 
spread the explanation? But those who hoped that communists, 

35 



able, money helped, too. . . . Their uniform consists of a dark blue 
police cap and a miliary belt to which a rubber club is attached. 
Over the visor of the cap there is a metal badge bearing the 
Star of David and the inscription Juedischer Ordnungsdienst (Jew- 
ish Order Service). ... I experience a strange and utterly illogical 
feeling of satisfaction when I see a Jewish policeman at a crossing 
—such policemen were completely unknown in pre-war Poland. 
. . ." (Warsaw Ghetto^ a Diary, ed. by S. L. Shneiderman, New 
York, 1945, pp. 40-41.) Those who could see progress and a prom- 
ise for the future in such mockeries of Jewish aspirations were of 
course not ready to jeopardize these "advantages" by resistance. 

Another factor was the nazi abuse of the Jewish community's 
faith in education. An "official" school system was established and 
certain types of cultural and artistic activities were encouraged 
in order to dupe the people. The idea was nurtured that so long 
as the Jewish youth could study the history and culture of their 
people, learn Yiddish and Hebrew and so forth, a future of death 
was incredible. Shortly before the official liquidation of the ghetto 
began on July 22, 1942 (during the next eight weeks about 300,000 
Jews were deported to death), the nazis allowed the Judenrat to 
organize several new elementary classes and kindergartens, as a blind 
almost to the very end. Those who preached self-education as a 
substitute or a foil for resistance did not serve our people well. 

NAZIS CREATE PALESTINE ILLUSION 

The Palestine ideal fostered by the Zionists also was exploited 
by the nazis. Sometimes they were subtle and sometimes they were 
crude; too frequently they were successful. On May 20, 1941, Mary 
Berg noted this in her diary: "The German authorities permit a large 
group of volunteer farm workers to leave the ghetto every day to 
cultivate the fields outside the city. The work affords the young 
people of the ghetto the opportunity to breathe a little fresh air. 
Most members of these groups are young Zionists who believe that 
by some miracle they will succeed in getting to Palestine. For that 
a feeling of pride at these ranks of boys and girls who march along 
the ghetto streets, returning from work outside. All of them are 
tanned by the sun and refreshed by the free air they have breathed 
in the fields beyond the city. . . . Every one of them carries a loaf of 
fresh bread received from the peasants. Officially it is forbidden 
to bring bread in from the outside, but in this case the Germans 
let it pass because they need the labor power of these young peo- 
ple.'* (Ibid,, pp. 61-62.) How accommodating of the nazis, to help 
train pioneers for Palestine, and even to wink at infractions of 

34 



tioii to know whether, from the point of view of the struggle 
against the nazi, it was right or wrong to be passive, to oppose 
resistance, to die by the hundreds of thousands with no damage to 
the enemy, and to leave it to a remnant at last to take up arms. If 
it was wrong, we do not want to repeat that mistake, and there- 
fore we must ask why it was made and analyze the causes. 

Once the question is placed, the main answers emerge without 
too much difficulty. In general I should say that resistance in the 
Warsaw Ghetto was so slow in developing because the bulk of the 
population underestimated the Germans' will and capacity for the 
destruction of the Jews and overestimated the ultimate strength 
of the Germans. Therefore those working-class groups that from 
the beginning told the truth about nazi objectives were derided 
as alarmists. Miss Syrkin notes that "despite the candid declara- 
tions of policy by Goebbels and Hitler, very few believed that these 
pronouncements [of extermination] were more than threats" (Ibid., 

P- 153)- 

The nazis were cunning. They fostered every possible illusion. 
They sought to make the masses feel that their fate depended upon 
the nazi will— good-will or caprice—rather than upon their own 
courage in resisting and thwarting that will. 

GHETTO AS ESCAPE 

In the first place, there were many so steeped in middle-class 
nationalistic beliefs that they found "national" and spiritual 
comfort in the fact that the nazis had arranged for a Jewish "ad- 
ministration" (the Judenrat), Jewish signs and outward symbols 
of authority, a Jewish police. While some Jews tried painfully to 
organize an underground resistance, others were soothed by the 
fact that they could ride in Jewish-owned street horse-cars painted 
in blue-and-white, with the Star of David big and clear on the 
sides. Thus Miss Syrkin observes that "to some the ghetto even ap- 
peared as a shelter," while some who had escaped from Warsaw to 
Soviet territory "returned to the Warsaw ghetto of their own ac- 
cord. They had heard that an autonomous Jewish community had 
been set up in Warsaw/* (Ibid., pp. 153, 157, my emphasis— 
M. U. S.) 

Mary Berg, who escaped from the ghetto after three years be- 
cause she was an American citizen, wrote the following in her 
diary on December 2^, 1940, about five weeks after the ghetto 
was officially organized: "The Jewish police is an accomplished 
fact. More candidates presented themselves than were needed. A 
special committee chose them, and 'pull' played an important part 
in their choice. At the very end, when only a few posts were avail- 

33 



RESISTANCE IS THE LESSON OF THE 
WARSAW GHETTO 

By MORRIS U, SCHAPPES 

npHE tenth anniversary of the unforgettable rising of the Warsaw 
•** Ghetto will be commemorated by the Jews of many lands and 
wherever heroism in the war against nazism is still praised. We 
who mourn the loss of all our six million dead pay the sp^ial 
tribute of honor to those who died fighting. Boundless pathos and 
tragedy are stamped on the death of the unresisting millions who 
went down with no hand lifted against the enemy, but inspira- 
tion comes to us from those who took arms and killed Germans 
before they died. There is fearful warning but no example in the 
millions dead; but the spur to emulation rises like a light above 
the unmarked graves of the tens of thousands of Jews who actively 
resisted the nazi. 

Speed and timing are essential in battles. As more and more 
accounts of the Warsaw Ghetto are published, one great question 
keeps welling up. Why, in the Warsaw Ghetto that contained 
all told some 600,000 to 650,000, did so few fight so late? Why was 
the real fight begun only after about a half million Jews had been 
exterminated, and there were only some forty or fifty thousand 
left to make the last unbending stand? 

Perhaps we should first inquire: dare we even ask the ques- 
tion? Dare we Americans, who did not face the terror of nazi oc- 
cupation at first hand, ask why Jews who lived under that terror 
in the frightful conditions of the ghetto were so slow to organize 
resistance? Should we not heed the caution of the Labor Zionist, 
Marie Syrkin, that "those who were never subjected to a similar 
test should be wary of passing moral judgments" (Blessed Is the 
Match, The Story of Jewish Resistance, Philadelphia and NeW 
York, 1947, p. 189)? 

But the matter is not only or even now primarily one of moral 
judgments given from on high by those who are on the side-lines 
nf hattle. It is urgent for those who wish to fight fascism and reac- 

32 



FIGHTING TO THE END 

Ob May 7 th, the day before the leaders of the uprising died 
in the staff bunker at 18 Mila Street, I saw my fighting ghetto 
comrades for the last time. I was bringing greetings of my comrades 
in Leshno to the staff. There was a great crowd of several hundred 
people there, the last heroic remnants of all the fighting units of 
all political groups, together with their commanders. They were 
waiting for help, which was being prepared on the Aryan side. 
I had my last talks with Comrade Mikhal Biali and with Shia. 
When it became clear that the bunker was completely surrounded, 
a heated discussion arose of how to meet the inevitable death facing 
us. The Shomer Yurek, one of the most heroic figures I knew, pro- 
posed collective suicide. Our comrades Mikhal Byaly and Sarah 
Zshagel opposed the idea and expressed themselves in favor of 
meeting the enemy and fighting to the last. 

RESCUED BY POLISH COMRADES 

But this was no longer feasible. The gas shot in by the Germans 
had begun to take effect. Even though some comrades had already 
begun to suffocate, they greeted the incoming German soldiers 
with a volley of shots. By that time, I was no longer in the bunker, 
because I had been sent once more to find a way through the sewers 
to the Aryan side. When I returned with the other scouts, every- 
thing was finished. The last comrades were dying. Mikhal Biali was 
found in a half-gassed condition. It was said that these heroes died 
with two songs on their lips— the Internationale and Hatikva. 

I was among those lucky enough to be rescued by Polish com- 
rades of the PPR through the horrible sewers to the Aryan side. My 
contacts were the Polish Comrades Stanislav Legetz and his wife. 
In broad daylight they transported all the rescued fighters of the 
ghetto uprising in a truck to the woods of Lomianka. There a new 
chapter in my life began: the woods, the Aryan side, Auschwitz. 
I am one of the few ghetto comrades who had the luck to survive 
everything and live on into the new period of liberation and recon- 
struction. But I will never forget those dear people, my closest 
friends, with whom I lived through that remarkable way leading 
from the schoolroom and **Spartakus'* to the last positions of the 
fighting Warsaw ghetto. 

{Translated from the Yiddish by Nathaniel Shapiro) 



31 



PPR and Hashomer. The commander of our group was Comrade 
Sarah Nelkenbaum. Our weapons were for the most part incendiary 
bottles. We waited all night, trembling with impatience. About 
the middle of the next day German units appeared. A tank rumbled 
ahead followed by German units in battle-dress. At the command 
we threw down incendiary bottles. The tank stood motionless, in 
flames. The crew was burned alive. When we saw the tank in 
flames, we danced for joy. Never before or after did we experience 
such a wonderful moment. 

After this battle, I was once more assigned to my old job as 
liaison. Once again I darted over roofs, through holes in fences, 
through ruins, back and forth between Central Ghetto and Leshno. 
Once I had a job to do on the Aryan side. I went through the sewers 
and barely came out alive. 

After that I found myself again in the Tebens districts. Despite 
inhuman suffering, I still felt much better there than anywhere 
else, because I was with my closest comrades. Once again I alter- 
nated with Tola Blumenfeld as liaison with the Aryan side. 

THE HEROISM OE THE WOMEN 

Once Tola stayed on the Aryan side as a flower-girl selling a 
gigantic bouquet of flowers. She would sneak into the ghetto, and 
in the bouquet she would conceal some grenades. Her luck was 
such that she came out of the uprising alive and well. Later she 
joined the partisans in the woods and there died a heroic death. 

Our girls distinguished themselves with their unusual heroism. 
One example of courageous self-sacrifice was Holianka Rokhman. 
She was practically idolized by the comrades. She always sacrificed 
herself for others. And she died sacrificing herself for others. This 
is how it happened. After a protracted struggle with the Germans, 
the group was forced to retreat to an underground bunker in 
Leshno. Overhead was a curtain of fire, which made it impossible to 
go out by day to organize an attack. We were forced to stay inside, 
weapons ready for the final moment at any time. No one knows 
how the Germans made their way into the bunker. The group had 
to decide not to give up without a struggle. These heroic people 
hid in corners and fired on the Germans who were pouring in. 
Then Holianka saw a soldier aiming at the group's commander, 
Ruzshka Rosenfeld. Holianka understood that the fight would end 
if the commander was killed. So she shielded Ruzshka with her 
own body. They tell of her last words, as she lay soaked in blood, 
*Tm glad they shot me instead of Ruzshkal'' This great sacrifice 
was in vain. For the leader Ruzshka Rosenfeld also died in that 
battle. 

30 



without lunch and ate bread and marmalade instead. 

The Jewish Fighting Organization gained a great deal of 
authority. The masses believed in the organization as one believes 
in God. 

The Jewish Fighting Organization carried on propaganda 
work. Mietek Shtem stole a typewriter and brought it to our secret 
place in the garret of 53 Novolipie Street. There we typed out our 
proclamations. We were helped in propaganda work by Conurades 
Shakhna and Shia. But Shtern was not destined to live to see the 
great uprising. One night, on a sabotage mission to set fire to the 
warehouse of the Schultz Company on Novolipka Street, Shtem 
fell from the garret through carlessness. His comrades heard his 
last words: "Where's my Koldf" (a type of revolver). Although he 
died a senseless death, he was a his post in the line of duty. 

The Organization carried out death sentences against those 
who collaborated with the Germans. We also executed Germans 
who trailed us. We had our own patrol group for this. One of 
the best of this group was the remarkable girl Tola Blumenfeld, 
daughter of Rabbi Blumenfeld. Tola looked like an "Aryan" and 
went about the streets as a match-seller. She brought us extremely 
accurate reports. "So-and-so is palling around with the Germans." 
Then we would send a letter like this: "For your collaboration 
with the Germans, the Jewish Fighters Organization hereby sen- 
tences you to death." We were so greatly feared that Jewish police- 
men stopped wearing their blue caps with numbers. More than 
one of them came over to us bringing much important information. 

By the time of the uprising, we had many weapons. Every 
member of the Jewish Fighting Organization was well-armed. In 
the Schultz-Tebens-Hoffman district alone, we had several hundred. 

GROUP OF P.P.R. AND HASHOMER ON APRIL 19, 1943 

On the day of the uprising [April 19, 1943], I was in one of 
Ruzshka Rosenfeld's units on Leshzno Street. I was assigned to be 
the liaison between the PPR groups at 74 Leshno, 61 Novolipie and 
51 Novolipka Streets and several houses on Smotcha Street. I 
was also responsible for maintaining contact with the leading 
people in the Central Ghetto, Comrades Chaim and Shia. On 
April 19, firing continued all day on Leshno Street. There were 
sporadic clashes. Our people mined the street in front of 4, 8 and 
10 Smotcha Street in the "wild" district. To our great disappoint- 
ment, the mine didn't explode. The next day we were lucky enough 
to come up against the Germans. At midnight the Shomer Israel 
came into our bunker and said, "Comrades, we're going into ac- 
tion!" We took up our position in the garret. We were a group of 

29 



ATTACKS ON COMMAND POST AND POLICE STATION 

In addition to contact with the Central Ghetto, we made contact 
with the Aryan side. The main liaison with the Aryan side was 
through Yurek Zolotov and Uzshek Yarost. They maintained con- 
tact with Kazshik Dembyak. This was after the January demonstra- 
tion. Our spirits had grown stronger. More and more young fighters 
distinguished themselves by their coolness, courage and determina- 
tion. Among the bravest were Comrades Stakh and Salek. While 
they were on an errand to the "wild" ghetto district, the German 
Klastermeyer rode by and arrested them. They were taken to the 
command post in Leshzno. As soon as we learned of this, we or- 
ganized an attack on the command post. Comrade Bronek Yavorski 
led the expedition. We terrorized the policemen and freed Stakh 
and Salek. 

A short time later Bronek himself was arrested. This time he 
was taken not to Leshzno, but to the police station at the end of 
Novolipka and Smotcha Streets. A permanent German military 
guard was there. Our Hershl Kava and Motl Goldstein im- 
mediately worked out a coordinated attack. A group of fighters went 
out in the afternoon, terrorized the guard and the police comman- 
dant, took away the keys and freed all the prisoners, including 
Bronek. This happened at six P.M. The police notified the Ger- 
mans at the command post, who were afraid to enter the ghetto at 
night. 

During this period our group had losses as well as victories. 
Heroic comrade Stakh was finally caught by the German butchers 
through a slip-up. Stakh had participated in the attack on the 
police station in Novolipka-Smotcha and had worn the cap of a 
Jewish policeman for security reasons. But one of the policemen 
had copied the number on the cap. Stakh later went out on another 
mission and wore the same cap with the same number. This was 
a tragic mistake. The police surrounded him, for they realized 
that this blond boy was a member of the fighting organization. 
Stakh didn't want to be caught alive by the Gestapo. He threw 
himself at one of the Germans, who shot him dead. Stakh was 
25 years old. 

"JEWISH FIGHTERS ORGANIZATION ' 

What sort of life did we lead between the two armed uprisings? 
After the January uprising we decided to mobilize. We broke away 
from parents and relatives, living together, ten in a group. We spent 
very little for food, but used all our money to buy arms. We went 

28 



London Polish Government-in-Exile--Eds.] issued to the under- 
ground 50 rusty old revolvers and four kilograms of dynamite, on 
condition that none of this equipment be given to any PPR groups 
in the general Jewish Fighters Organization. That was the report 
we heard in our group. It is to the credit of the general Jewish 
Fighting Organization that they nevertheless gave our groups some 
weapons. But the party leadership decided to be very careful and 
to collect weapons for our separate party arsenals. We also decided 
to form super-secret PPR fighting units along with the party groups 
which belonged to the general Jewish Fighters Organization. 

I went through the battle of January 18, [1943] in the Schulz- 
Hoffman-Tebens district. The entire organization had a total of six 
revolvers and two grenades. In addition to this weakness in arms, 
we made the mistake of considering the bunkers a bourgeois notion. 
We thought it disgraceful to barricade ourselves in hidden places 
and launch attacks from there. We believed only in direct frontal 
attack. Besides this we were very poorly mobilized. 

JANUARY 18, 1943 

After the January struggles, we self-critically analyzed our mis- 
takes. 

Our resistance struggle in January had two aspects. We attacked 
German units, terrorized them with our inadequate arms and 
retreated. We frightened them. We also attacked with gasoline 
bottles and the two grenades hurled from a garret. The PPR 
comrades and the Shomrim were most glorious in battle. Our 
Comrade Stakh and the Shomer Israel threw the grenades. Several 
days after the January incidents we learned of the heroic death of 
our comrade Mikhal Asharni in the Central Ghetto. 

The period between the two great battles from January to April 
passed in an ever-rising fever of work. It was a very hard time. The 
Jewish district was divided into several ghettos. Contact between 
the ghettos was impossible. For contact meant sure death. Certain 
women comrades dared to make contact anyway. Riva Shmutka, 
who came from a wealthy hasidic family, distinguished herself by 
the greatest valor. This courageous girl actually laughed at death. 
She slipped back and forth between the Central Ghetto and ours 
in the Schultz-Tebens district. 

Her example inspired two other comrades, Eva Bonder and Itka 
Heiman. We made a path between the ghettos. With our own hands 
we made holes in the walls of garrets. The path led through Novo- 
lipie, Novolipka and part of Smotcha Streets. The girls crawled 
through the garrets and over the roofs of the German factories. 

27 



this happened. Everything was gloriously in bloom. Despite the 
horrible conditions of ghetto life, we youth could not help being 
stirred by the lovely spring. For several days I had been preparing 
to go to the Aryan side on an assignment— they thought I made 
a good appearance. The day before I was to go, I went to the 
Povansk Catholic Cemetery and carefully investigated where I 
would scramble through. Next morning I was to see Tadek and 
get some addresses. For a long time I hung around lo Zamenhof 
Street, where we were supposed to meet. With a dire premonition 
I left the rendezvous and went to Comrade Wasserman's tobacco 
stand. I found her extremely depressed. She gave me the bad 
news. Tadek was missing, along with the entire PPR district 
committee. 

Soon after the tragic period of the ghetto began— the first liqui- 
dation. 

GHETTO DETACHMENTS OF POLISH "PEOPLES GUARD" 

During this terrible period, when so many dear comrades were 
taken from us, we in "Spartakus" proved ourselves worthy to bear 
the name of the great leader of the slave uprising in Rome. We 
did not lose our bearings. In the worst moments our 18- and 19- 
year-old girls gave little thought to themselves. They devoted all 
their strength to maintenance of broken contacts. In those stormy 
and troubled days Comrade Gina, an old acquaintance of mine 
from *'Spartakus," came to us. I don't really know where we got 
our strength. Surrounded by despair, we managed to reweave the 
torn fabric of our organization. At this time Gina brought us our 
orders: to organize the remnants of all the self-defense groups 
in the ghetto immediately into a ghetto detachment of the general 
Polish People's Guard. 

I still remember Comrade Gina's words: "The People's Guard" 
is not a narow party organization; the People's Guard unites all 
those who honestly wish to participate in struggle against the 
Hitlerite occupation. Among you in the ghetto, the People's Guard 
must include not only PPR people, but also all friends and sympa- 
thizers from other groups who are ready for struggle." In the 
last days of July [1942], at the feverish peak of the liquidation, 
we mobilized several groups of the People's Guard under the 
leadership of Comrade Mikhal Biali. 

We had very few weapons before January 1943. Tl^n tne 
leadership of the A.K. [Army a Krayowa, the organization of the 

26 



P.P.R. IN THE GHETTO 

Inwardly cleansed and outwardly strengthened, we entered 
the year 1942. Like mature revolutionists, we swam out into the 
mainstream of the new, yet old movement, only recently resurrected 
in the shape of the Polish Workers Party, the PPR. 

At the beginning of February 1942 we got news of the founding 
of the PPR through Comrade Leib Feil (Ignatz), one of the finest 
young workers, who was self-educated and had literary and oratori- 
cal leanings. As we were sitting in a secret apartment on Novolijpka 
Street, Ignatz suddenly burst into the room, crying, "Mazel Tov! 
Long live the Party!" We discussed the organizational problems 
of the new unity movement among the Jewish ghetto masses. We 
debated the question of relations with the Soviet Union, with 
the left wing PPS [Polish Socialist Party] and with the [Jewish 
Socialist] Bund, with which we were engaged in a sharp theoretical 
struggle, especially with those elements which took a negative 
attitude toward the Soviet Union even under ghetto conditions. 
But at all times we were not only ardent theoreticians, but also 
men and women of action. 

At our second meeting we decided to transform ourselves into 
a fighting organization. We found an empty house at 53 Novolipie 
Street. There we established the main warehouse of our group. We 
immediately began to to collect stolen German uniforms, especially 
S.S. uniforms, and bits of equipment and arms. In another apart- 
ment of the same house we organized a secret PPR reading room. 
Here I read the organ of the PPR ghetto organization, Einigkeit 
(Unity), for the first time. Comrade Tadek, whose real name was 
Dovid Vloska, was the representative of the regional committee of 
the PPR ghetto organization of our group. 

A new chapter in our lives began. We threw ourselves into 
work with redoubled energy. For a time I was taken out of the 
group and made a courier for the central executive of our under- 
ground political organization. I was in touch with two people. 
Comrade Tadek used to turn over to me hectographed radio 
bulletins of the Jewish PPR, and I in turn would hand them to 
a second coiurier, Comrade Isabella Wasserman, who had a tobacco 
stand at the corner of Zamenhof and Gensia Streets. But I was 
dissatisfied with this work, because I disliked being separated from 
my group and from mass activity. 

But I finally gave up my job, not because I wanted to, but be- 
cause of a terrible accident, which came about through the terrible 
"vsipa'' (failure). One of our contacts on the "Aryan" side com- 
mitted a provocation. Even now I remember the day in May when 

25 



The second major discussion in 1941 concerned the creation 
of a united front of the courageous ghetto youth. There was no 
sharp division on this question. All of us were not only enthusiastic 
supporters of the united fighting front—we were also the active 
builders of this front. 

FOR A UNITED FRONT 

As early as the end of 1940, we were in touch with Hashomer 
Hatzair, which was closest to us because of their outspoken pro- 
Soviet orientation. We exchanged illegal literature, lecturers and 
military instructors. Frequently one of the best marksmen, the 
Shomer Shimen, came to see us, and we used to send Comrade 
Lena to them. We even held several joint meetings at which we 
discussed current political problems. 

One other important question troubled us. We knew that 
there were many communist groups and circles in the ghetto. The 
"Spartakus" was one of the strongest organizations in the ghetto, 
with a broad network of sympathizers, not only among the student 
youth, but also among the working youth. Once I got hold of 
a copy of the Morgen Freiheit (Morning Freedom), an illegal 
Yiddish ghetto newspaper, and I recognized the similarity of ideas 
in this paper with our own paper Dawn, 

In the course of our mutual aid activity we also came upon 
various revolutionary workers groups which were carrying on simi- 
lar work. But no revolutionary body in the ghetto had an internal 
organization as good as our "Spartakus/' Not only did our comrades 
accept discipline. We also enjoyed a friendly, warm, family-like 
atmosphere. The death rate in the ghetto was appalling. Typhus 
raged. Every day starvation took a huge toll of Jewish lives. Every 
morning fresh corpses, covered with newspapers, appeared at the 
gates. Many of us were orphans, many homeless and new arrivals 
from the provinces, many starving. We therefore arranged that 
every group should live in communal fashion. Those who lived 
in better homes had to bring as much food, clothing and money as 
possible to the group and these were shared equally. There were 
two reasons for this. One was simply to help each other. The other 
was to mobilize our comrades in preparation for the military life 
we would soon be leading. 

We undertook the difficult job of re-educating our sympathizers. 
The groups of '^Spartakus'* created an atmosphere that left no place 
for hysteria or despair. There was no occassion for personal quar- 
rels, egotism or cowardice. 

24 



ESIA TVERSKA 

About this time we suffered our first losses. Gestapo agents began 
to trail us everywhere. One day, one of our best comrades, Esia 
Tverska from Karmelitzka Street, was arrested. The excitement over 
her arrest was terrifying. But we were sure that she would conduct 
herself in a manner worthy of a member of our group. We tried by 
every means to rescue her, but they all failed. We learned of the 
horrible tortures inflicted on her. Not an inch of her body was 
left unbruised. Yet she betrayed no one. The hangmen couldn't 
get a word out of her. With magnificent heroism the unforgettable 
Esia Tverska died at the age of 17. 

During 1941, our group discussed two questions, which proved 
important also in later struggle. One concerned the place to 
carry on our activities. One side argued that all youth should be 
mobilized to go to the woods. In line with this plan, all sorts of 
tools for twisting rails and for other kinds of sabotage were brought 
to us. The argument of the comrades was that we shouldn't wait 
until the enemy attacked, but we ourselves should attack. But 
attack, they argued, was impossible from the ghetto, because this 
would provoke a wave of reprisals by the Germans against the 
entire ghetto population. It was therefore better, argued these com- 
rades, to join the newly organized Polish partisans in the woods. 

FIGHTING IN THE WOODS AND IN THE GHETTO 

The second group argued that we dared not desert the ghetto, 
that we must guard the lives of the Jewish masses in the ghetto. 
This discussion continued for many days and sleepless nights. At 
the head of the group which favored going into the woods im- 
mediately was Ruzshka Rosenfeld. At the head of the second group 
was Comrade Tsharni Mietek, whom we nicknamed "Brain." As 
a result of this discussion, we worked out a line that included both 
viewpoints. Some comrades were sent into the woods (this work 
was led by Comrade Joseph Levsky, with much self-sacrifice). We 
also trained cadres in the ghetto and continued training in fire- 
arms, sending out patrols, distributing literature and popularizing 
the idea that the entire youth of the ghetto should prepare itself 
for resistance. 

The comrades who went into the forests did not break contact 
with the ghetto. Ruzshka Rosenfeld, one of the bravest comrades in 
the whole resistance movement, many times passed back and forth 
between the woods and the ghetto. She kept both areas informed 
of developments, always stressing in her reports to the various 
units, that these were two sectors of the same front. 

23 



warned the Jews about German preparations for the physical de- 
struction of the ghetto population. "Don't Believe the GermansI 
Prepare for Resistance!" This was the title of an article by the 
Polish comrade Kazshik Dembiak, translated into Yiddish by the 
young printer Ignatz Feil. 

Even then, we didn't know just how the Germans planned 
to destroy the ghetto. We likewise had no idea of the form re- 
sistance should take. But both the Pole Dembiak and the Jew Feil 
continued to repeat at all meetings and gatherings that we must 
be prepared for the worst. We must, they insisted, learn as soon 
as possible to master our weapons. We must distribute many more 
leaflets and newspapers among the Jews in the ghetto. This hap- 
pened at the beginning of 1941. 

PATROLS AND SCOUTS 

A very serious discussion began in our circles on the direction 
of our work. Should "Spartakus" concern itself with education 
and mutual aid or should we transform our circles into self defense 
groups? One comrade, Lola Himmelfarb, favored the first view- 
point but the majority held that we should begin the struggle 
immediately. What form could the struggle have taken then? We 
wanted to punish every German and every Jewish traitor for 
beating, killing and kidnapping Jews. The discussion continued 
for a long time. Finally our position for immediate struggle won 
out. Every day we sent patrols and scouts through the streets of 
the ghetto to protect Jews from every kind of attack. We organ- 
ized a staff for these patrols at 5 Karmelitzka Street. We had already 
heard that the Polish resistance organization, called "Organization 
of Fighting W^orkers and Peasants," had been founded. One of 
its sections was in the ghetto. Unfortunately, none of the communist 
groups in the ghetto had yet established contact with one another, 
nor did any have close ties with this group. 

"Spartakus" had its own military unit, whose leader was our 
instructor Lena. Nevertheless we considered ourselves part of the 
"Workers and Peasants Fighting Organization." From our staflE 
headquarters on Karmelitzka Street we used to go on patrols for 
important reconnaissance work. We often warned Jews on the 
streets— particularly the Jews on the streets which led from Bie- 
lanska to Paviak district [the area of the Paviak prison— Eds.] 
along which cars full of Gestapo agents were cruising and shooting 
up the streets. We also warned various suspicious characters of 
"The Thirteen" [a nazi-coUaborationist extortionist gang— Eds.], 
not to attempt blackmail they were planning. 

22 



Youth Alliance? The Alliance became my second home. How un- 
happy I was when the deep shadow of the occupation descended 
upon us and I lost contact with this second home of mine. 

Just before the war I was drawn into a new organization, 
"Spartakus/' Several months later I lost contact with it. For six 
months I went about broken-hearted. I felt the drive to work, 
to continue the activities of our "Spartakus" group. Then one 
day a working class girl, Edka, came to see me. I knew her only 
by name. Perhaps I had even seen her once. She was a seamstress. 
She talked to me, listened to my opinions and finally gave me an 
appropriate contact with the group. How happy I was when I 
discovered that my "Spartakus" had never for one moment stopped 
working. I learned that many familiar people, old comrades, were 
still alive and working, that activity was going forward with greater 
spirit and ardor than before. New people were being recruited 
into the group. This day was one of the happiest of my hard life 
in the ghetto. 

I remember our first lesson in the use of firearms. We sat there, 
five girls in all. How clearly I see iti And it seems so close. There 
is Lutka Arbetsman from Vronia Street, youngest of all. In 1939, 
she had just finished the third year of gymnasia. What fire, what 
determination she had. Next to her is Renya Niemietzka, whose 
father, a Sochatshever hasid, made her suffer so much at home. And 
here is heroic Esia Tverska, from Vilna, and also Ruzshka Rosen- 
feld, leader of the group. Before us is a wooden rifle. The instruc- 
tor. Comrade Lena, especially assigned to us, shows us how to use 
it. We stretch out on the floor, crouched under the window, practic- 
ing aiming. We are convinced that all this is nothing but a game. 
We are disappointed. We demand real weapons. Lutka refuses 
even to touch the wooden rifle. We make our instructor teach us 
the mechanisms of the revolver and hand grenade by means of 
diagrams. At the second meeting of the class she shows us a real 
revolver and a real grenade. 

STRAZHALI AND B AGIN EN 

I remember another meeting very clearly in a flat on Novolipie 
Street. A Polish comrade, Kazshik Dembiak, has come from the 
other side. We had been put to work at the hectograph to turn 
out the first illegal publication in Polish, Strazhaly (The Shot). 
Soon afterward we got out a Yiddish publication, Baginen (Dawn). 
I hardly remember the contents. There was much information in 
it about the military situation on the different fronts, but it dealt 
mostly with the dangers threatening the ghetto. Down aroused and 

21 



MEMOffiS OF A GHETTO FIGHTER 

By DORKA GOLDKORN 



T SEE events and people, gone forever, as though through a 
•*- heavy fog. Even now, I seem to speak to them, to meet them 
on the bustling streets of the old Warsaw. A moment later they 
fade from memory, as though they had never existed. Now I see 
my father, dressed in his hasidic garb, always busy. Here is my 
mother, who lingers in my memory, as the spirit of goodness itself. 
I see my brothers going to heder, I am sent, like all daughters of 
hasidim, to study in the gymnasia. My father, the hasid, doesn't 
even know that this gymnasia gives more than an education. It 
is turning me into a new kind of person, it is drawing me into new 
ways, is bringing me in touch with new friends, with whom I 
dream about a new society. I can see all of them now, after these 
many years of agony and pain, although between them and me 
lies a bloody deluge. 

Not one of them is alive. My father, along with thousands of 
other Jews, was consumed by flames in the bombed out houses. 
My mother is no more. She died almost gently, like a bird, unable 
to look any longer upon the suffering of her children, her husband, 
her family. My brothers, aunts, uncles, the whole great family, 
gone. Gone are all those Jews who had so much strength for re- 
joicing on a holiday, so much strength to survive the worst troubles. 
Gone also are my closest friends, those with whom I sat in the 
schoolroom and with whom I worked in the underground organiza- 
tons. 

SPARTAKUS 

Now it seems to me that I was only a child then, a student in 
the sixth class in Mrs. Zisf eld's gymnasia. Or had I already then 
understood what it meant to be a member of the Socialist Student 

20 



today we can definitely point to one more turn of historic justice: 
thanks to the Soviet Union, thanks to the democratic people's 
forces of new Poland, Jewish life is growing and developing in Vo- 
land,* True, the number of Jews has been tragically reduced. But 
the surviving remnant fosters the ideals for which the military units 
of the Warsaw Ghetto fought and died. 

* Sec Yiddish, p. 54. 



19 



vital community of Jews in Europe fell in the ruins. Individual 
Ghetto dwellers, by luck or with the help of workers* organiza- 
tions or the Council to help Jews, who survived the cataclysm, 
lived the precarious lives of hunted animals. The German police 
was not alone responsible for the sad plight of the few Ghetto 
survivors. The scum of Polish society, contemptible informers, 
preyed upon the helpless victims. 

JUSTICE FOR CRIMINALS 

However, the historic drama of the Warsaw Ghetto did not end. 
After several years of hard, bloody, sacrificial and victorious fight- 
ing, justice triumphed. The Soviet Army and the democratic Polish 
Army caught up xvith the criminals responsible for the Warsaw 
Ghetto tragedy. Justice caught up with the arch-executioner of 
Poland and of Polish Jews, Governor General Frank. At the Nur- 
emberg trial, he was sentenced to death by hanging. 

The new Poland, for which the Pole Bartoszek and the Jew 
Lewartowski fought and died, meted out justice to the oppressor and 
Army caught up with the criminals responsible for the Warsaw 
District. 

Gen. Stroop, who was in command during the destruction of 
the Ghetto and who gave orders to shoot Jewish mothers who 
tried to jump from fire-swept building was sentenced to death by 
the Supreme National Tribunal in Warsaw in 1951, and was 
executed. Konrad, Gen, Stroop's partner in crime against the War- 
saw Jews, was also tried by the People's Tribunal, sentenced to 
death and executed. As yet, justice has not caught up with Hoeffle, 
the third executioner of the Warsaw Jews. As special emissary of 
Globotznik and his chief Himmler, Hoeffle was sent to Warsaw 
on a mission to organize the first liquidation of the Jews in the sum- 
mer of 194s. He returned in April 1943 on a mission of complete 
annihilation. This war criminal and executioner of the Jews is at 
large in Austria under American care, and has not been extradited 
to Polish authorities, who are preparing the trials of criminals 
responsible for the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto. Toebbens, a 
manufacturer, partner in crime with Fischer and Hoeffle, trusted by 
the SS, a man whose very name evoked terror in the Warsaw Ghet- 
to, is still at large. On the way from Austria to Poland, he escaped 
from the ''custory" of the American convoy. 

The very same people who stuffed their ears up with cotton 
in the last months of the Warsaw Ghetto liquidation to keep out 
the S.O.S. of the Jewish National Committee, are now holding 
the war criminals in protective custody. 

On May 16, 1943, Stroop wrote that the Jewish Section in 
Warsaw is no more, that there aire no more Jews in Warsaw. But 

18 



arms, forces that were rested and numerically superior, well-quali- 
fied officers and freedom of movement behind the front line. Under 
pressure of the destructive German military machine, the outposts 
of the insurrectionists crumbled one by one. For the fighting Jews 
were poorly equipped, hungry, without trained commanders and 
had no country behind them. The Jewish forces took an awful 
beating. Open warfare gave way to partisan actions. This sort of 
fighting continued, with some interruptions, till the end of May. 
The echoes of the fighting through the ruined streets becomes 
more and more subdued as the month wears on. 

By the end of April, the defense posts on Leszno and Mowo- 
lipki are captured. The defense post on Stawki, commanded by 
Engineer Edward Fondaminski, is annihilated to the last man in 
the early days of May. Together with Commander Mordechaj 
Anielewicz, the Jewish Fighters Organization perished in its head- 
quaters at i8 Mila Street. 

The last battles on Gesia Street took place on May lo, 12 and 
16. Szymon Melon, in charge of the so-called rubble fighters, is 
killed here. 

Meanwhile, the Soviet air force makes a strong attack on War- 
saw. The fighting unith on Okopowa Street (commanded by Marysia 
Zober), vainly tries to break through the German lines via the Pa- 
wazkowski cemetery. German encirclement still keeps the Ghetto 
in the pincers of its artillery, tanks and automatic arms. 

Mila Street, the heart of the Jewish working class districts, falls 
around May 75. Soon the opposition on Nalewki Street collapses. 
On May 16, Gen. Jurgen S troop informs his superior officer and 
General of Police Kruger in Krakow: "There was a Jewish section 
in Warsaw, but it no longer exists. Today at 20:16 the Grossaktion 
(great project to liquidate the Ghetto) came to an end." 

But the Hitlerite general was mistaken. The destroyed Za- 
menhoff, Muranov, Pawia, Bonifraterska, Majzels streets give proof 
that there were skirmishes on June ^ between the last of the Mo^ 
hicans of the uprising, entrenched in the rubble, and the German 
patrols. On that date and on succeeding days, the Zacharjasz Artsz- 
tejn group, last of the Jewish Fighters Organization, entrenched 
in the rubble, carried out raids against German guards and brown- 
shirted police, who were searching in the ruins for legendary treas- 
ures, and dispersed them to the great consternation of the con- 
querors. 

With fire and dynamite. Gen. Stroop crushed the Warsaw 
Jews and their uprising. Truly, the "Jewish Section*' had ceased to 
exist. In the rubble that once had been the Ghetto, tens of thou- 
sands of Jews, dead and alive, were buried. The largest, most 

17 



PEOPLE'S GUARD UNIT JOINS BATTLE 

With Franciszek Bartoszek ("Jacek*') and Zygmunt Bobowski 
at their head, a unit of the People's Guards comes to the rescue 
of the Ghetto fighters on the second day of the uprising. The 
Polish Guards take postions on Nowiniarska, whence they attack 
the battery of the German field artillery that was bombarding the 
Ghetto. 

On April 21, the third day of the uprising, fighting was resumed 
on Nowolipie and Smocza, and carried over in part beyond Nowo- 
lipie. The example set by youth of the Jewish Fighters Organiza- 
tion affects the Ghetto masses, some of whom are inspired to take 
up the fight against the enemy. On the following day, the PPS 
(Polish Socialist Party— Eds.) organization, commanded by Waldy- 
slaw Andrzejczak (*'Antek"), attacks the Germans on the corner 
of Franciszkanska and Bonifraterska Streets. 

On April 23, the People's Guards assault the Germans in various 
sectors of the city. In command of these attacks are "Gustow'' (Dr. 
Henryk Stenhal), Tetmajer and Leszak. Over-all command is given 
to Engineer Andrzej Skrypij, commander of the People's Guards of 
Warsaw. The Guards assault the Germans in the streets adjoining 
the Ghetto, Freta, Kiercelzak, Powazkowska and corner of Leszno. 

Two tactics of the Polish underground of the left movement 
during these tragic days of the desperate Jewish fight for survival 
emerge from these actions: first, to penetrate into the Ghetto (it is 
known that one group commanded by Grom-Potyka did enter 
Franciszkanska Street through the canals to join Jewish fighting 
units); second, to spread the uprising throughout Warsaw so that 
the "Aryan" Poles would be drawn into the struggle and thus 
to extend the base of fighting. 

LAST-DITCH FIGHTING 

Neither goal was achieved, despite the fact that the left forces 
suffered losses and were ready to carry on. Obstruction to these 
aims came from the stubborn stand of groups in control of the 
armed forces, arsenals and finances of the Polish underground— 
the London government groups, the right (conservative) and right 
of center parties. If these parties had taken a different stand, the 
armed uprising of the Jews in April and May, 1943, might to some 
extent have taken a different turn. 

Up to April 2^, the Jews fought openly. After that date the 
situation changed. Nobody was under the delusion that the ini- 
tial Jewish successes in battle would scare the Germans. The 
enemy had at its disposal tanks, artillery, airplanes, automatic 

16 



developed after October 1942 when the Home Army policy of 
marking time until the end lost favor. Warsaw became the scene 
of frequent heroic fighting and sabotage organized by the People's 
Guards. The possibility of an armed uprising in the Ghetto then 
appear^. 

UPRISING BEGINS 

The first shots of the uprising were fired at 6 A.M. on April 
19, 1943, from the corner houses at 29 and 31 Nalewki. Fighting 
units in the attics of 33, 35 and 37 Nalewki joined in the battle. 
The battle continues on Nalewki and the adjoining part of Gesia. 
The Jews fight with hand grenades, with bottles filled wih gasoline, 
with carbines. The enemy is better equipped; they are motorized 
and have automatic arms. Pawel Bryskin, Meneik Zylberberg, Zach- 
arjasz Artsztejn command at Nalewki. An encounter with the 
enemy takes place on the corner of Mila and Zamenhoff. Fighting 
units of Lejb Gruszalec, Morechaj Growas, Berek Braudo and 
Dawid Hochberg take their positions on street corners. Protected 
by tanks, the German column moves forward and is caught in 
the crossfire of the Jewish marksmen. The enemy is forced to retreat. 

On the same day a battle rages at Muranow. This was one of 
the toughest battles ever waged by Gen. Jurgen Stroop, German 
army commander in charge of liquidation of the Ghetto. The 
fighting units hung on the roof of 1 1 Muranow the flags of the up- 
rising, one red, one white and red, and one white and blue. Leon 
Rodal, who hung out the flags, was shot dead by a German sharp- 
shooter. In this sector the fighting was tough for the Germans, 
since the German positions on the "Aryan'* side of Muranow were 
attacked by the Poles. But the Jewish, as well as the Polish, de- 
fenses were pierced. On the seconr day the fighting units retreated. 
The fourth encounter with the enemy took place on the same day on 
Szczesliwa, where the ''wild" front-line units commanded by Szymon 
Kaufman fought. 

On the following day fighting was extended to Leszno, Smocza 
and Nowolipie. Eliazar Geller, Dawid Nowodwirski, Hersz Kase, 
Janek Szwarcful, Rozka Rozenfeld, Majer Majerowicz, Benjamin 
Wold, Jehoszua Winogron and Wolf Rozowski were in command. 
April 20 saw the defense of the brushmakers district in the four- 
cornered Swietojersko-Walowa-Franciszkanska. The Jews detonated 
a mine at this junction and the Germans, having suffered great 
casualties, were forced to retreat. Brushmakers' groups of Jurek 
Grynszpan, Mersz Berlinski, Jurek Blones, Henoch Gutman, Jakub 
Praszkiea and Marek Edelman distinguished themselves in this 
battle. 

15 



it be carried into the woods as well? The left wing fought to give 
an anti-fascist character to the whole Jewish resistance movement. 

But the most important problem of all was that of unity, the 
creation of a united, anti-fascist, national front of the fighting 
Ghetto. For a long time, some elements mentioned above opposed 
united armed action. These elements joined the united front only 
in the face of eventual annihilation. 

The movement adopted the slogan of Jozef Lewartowski, Ghetto 
secretary of the PPR: **We are all brothers and children of one 
family.*' It also accepted his call to battle during the first enemy 
attack in the summer of 194^: "Attack the walls. Tens of thousands 
will perish, but thousands will get through.** 

JEWISH FIGHTERS ORGANIZATION AND 
POLISH UNDERGROUND 

By October 194s, the united Jewish Fighters Organization in 
the Warsaw Ghetto was an accomplished fact. The composition of 
the staff symbolized fighting unity of the people and was not as- 
signed according to numerical or political-ideological preponder- 
ance. The staff included members of "Shomer,** PPR, "Halutz,** left 
poale-Zionism and the Bund. Mordechaj Anielewicz became com- 
mander. 

From the January incidents until the day of insurrection hurried 
preparations were made for the final battle. During this period 
the program of the left won out. The Judenrat no longer controlled 
the situation and the masses lost confidence in this collaborationist 
institution. The stooges, nazi agents and police commanders were 
eliminated. A war to the end was declared against speculators and 
black marketeers. No longer did the Ghetto rely on the Home 
Army. The insurrection incorporated into practical life the ideas 
and concepts promulgated by the left-wing, anti-fascist element of 
the Ghetto. > 

The insurrection also saw the realization of the slogans of the 
left-wing Polish underground. From the start, the PPR called upon 
the Jews to fight in the common battle, just as it appealed to the 
non-Jewish Poles to maintain solidarity with the suffering, fighting 
Ghetto. 

The Ghetto movement could not broaden the scope of its work 
until the Polish underground of the left developed larger plans. 
The People's Guards partisans had been active since May 194^. 
The Jewish youth who joined the partisans in the woods were 
then able to send well- trained commanders back to the Ghetto 
and the Jewish Fighters Organization. A new fighting temper 

14 



resistance movement was to wipe out members of the "Thirteen" 
and the criminal police commanders. Deceptive illusions of the 
Judenrat also had to be reckoned with. The Judenrat had to be 
exposed as a detriment to the welfare of the Jewish people. 

CONFLICT IN THE UNDERGROUND 

But the underground Ghetto was no more homogeneous than 
the Polish underground as a whole. Conflict of ideas among the 
Ghetto leaders reflected political divisions. One group was ready to 
undertake armed insurrection, sabotage, assasinations, preparations 
for armed attacks. On the other hand, the London government's 
slogan, **Arm yourselves and wait/' seeped into the Ghetto. Maurycy 
Orzech, representing the right wing of the Bund, and Menachem 
Kirszenbaum, representative of the General Zionists, supported the 
latter group. 

Thus the second task of the resistance movement was to destroy 
fear of armed struggle. The theories of the WRN (Freedom, 
Equality and Independence, a fascist group— Eds,) and of the Home 
Army on Ghetto soil had to be uprooted. 

Still another division arose. Certain Jewish cutural leaders 
proclaimed the theory that under Ghetto conditions of isolation 
from the wicked world, a truly Jewish national culture could thrive. 
One of these leaders coined the laotto:'' Oneg Shabat is more im- 
portant than fighting." 

Oneg Shabat were cultural affairs held under the guise of 
ceremonies of religious psalmists. Later the leader of this group 
admitted his mistake. The resistance movement did not challenge 
the importance of cultural work; indeed, it actively participated. 
But it construed such work as a form of education that gave the 
Ghetto prisoners a spiritual lift and prepared the youth for the 
greatets task of all, revenge and self-defense. It did not regard cultural 
activity as an influence toward pacifism and national-Ghetto mys- 
ticism. The third task of the resistance movement, therefore, was 
the elimination of the harmful belief that Jewish culture would 
be saved from dissolution in the Ghetto, and that enforced isola- 
tion from the world would help to preserve Jewish "national" 
existence. 

Jewish opinion in the Ghetto was also divided on the conception 
of both a liberated Poland and its relationship to the USSR. 
Groups differed on whether the resistance movement should be 
limited to the confines of the Ghetto or become part of the common 
struggle of the people to throw off the Hitlerite yoke. Further, 
should the fighting be undertaken in the Ghetto alone or should 

13 



by the enemy from the air. Most of the prisoners who escaped were 
machine-gunned by the enemy pilots, but the death camp had been 
partially destroyed. The Germans feared that the surviving fugitives 
would spread, the truth about Treblinka. 

Meanwhile, the Jewish resistance movement had spread beyond 
the confines of the ghettos. 

JEWISH PARTISANS 

"They drove us out of the cities, so we took to the forests, and 
there we raised our heads high,*' says a Jewish partisan song. Jewish 
youth had taken to the woods as early as May 1942. Warsaw youth 
were the first and they were folloyed by the youth of Bialystok 
and other cities and towns. Jewish youth groups did not take part 
in large-scale military operations until August and September 1943, 
at first among the People's Guards, and later with the People's Army 
and the Soviet detachments. The ''Forojs'' company won fame 
in the battles of Suprailski and Kysznski forests. In the forests 
near Wyskowice and Warsaw the "Defenders of Ghetto" company 
fought, only to be treacherously routed and massacred by the NSZ 
(National Armed Forces, a reactionary Polish force— JBdLy.j. In the 
woods of Lublin district the famous division of Captain Chil was 
organized as a unit of the People's Army in October. Jewish groups 
also participated in the partisan movement in Byelo-Russia, Wolyn 
and Lithuania. 

But the most important and powerful act of resistance in 1943 
was the uprising of the Warsaw Ghetto, which has a special place in 
the history of the Jewish people. 

Some time passed before the idea of armed resistance won over 
the people of the Ghetto. They harbored theories which reflected 
trends in the Polish underground itself. 

JUDENRAT AND "THIRTEEN" 

The enemy organized two legal institutions in the Ghetto, the 
Judenrat and the "Thirteen." The Judenrat was composed of old 
bourgeois leaders who worked on the theory that hard work and 
bribery would enable some of the people to survive somehow; in 
any case, at least some of the people would survive; if the majority 
died of exhaustion and hunger, then a more important minority 
woruld survive. The Juderant gambled on a false idea like that of 
"good" and "bad" Germans. 

But the Germans were not satisfied with the Judenrat alone. 
In the Ghetto the enemy had to have its "eyes and ears." The 
"Thirteen" played the part of informers. The first task of the 

12 



an understanding with the Jews that any arms given to them should 
later be used against the Red Army. Since the doomed people in 
the Ghetto refused to comply with such terms, they received no 
munitions. Despite the unprecedented German terror, despite the 
cold or, at best, passive attitude of the A.K. (Home Army), despite 
the resigned attitude prevailing among the hungry maltreated 
prisoners of the Ghetto, 1943 marked the turning point of resistance. 
All through 1943, the poorly-equipped surviving Jews chal- 
lenged the might of the enemy. True enough, the resistance move- 
ment had existed in the ghettos before 1943. But this movement 
was a sort of psychological preparation for armed struggle and was 
expressed in individual acts of heroism, assassinations, etc. Begin- 
ning with January 1943, the opposition movement becomes better 
organized and coordinated, advancing from individual action to 
mass street attacks and from passive to active resistance. 

ARMED RESISTANCE 

The first armed resistance of the Jewish Fighters Organization 
in the Warsaw Ghetto took place on Mila and Zamenhoff Streets 
on Jan. 18-21, 1943. Jewish fighters made a surprise attack on SS 
companies, which had entered the Ghetto to ship the remaining 
inhabitants to the labor camps of Lublin district. The plan of the 
nazi commander in Poland was foiled. After a hard street battle, the 
Germans retreated hastily. A pitched battle took place on Leszno 
and Nowolipie Streets. 

The Jews also fought a defensive battle in Bialystok on Feb. 
5, 1943. Here, too, Jewish youth in a heroic fight inflicted another 
defeat on the enemy. The Germans then appealed to the Judenrat: 
"If the Jews continue to work loyally in the factories, we'll forget 
what happened." The attacks ceased. The Judenrat gave their 
promise but the masses of Jewish people now resorted to sabotage. 
It should be emphasized that the Bialystok defenders maintained 
contact with the Jewish Fighters Organization and the Central 
Committee of the PPR (Polish Workers Party), both in Warsaw. 

It was in April and May 1943, that the Jews of the Warsaw 
Ghetto made their last heroic stand. 

REVOLT IN TREBLINKA 

The prisoners at Treblinka concentration camp had for a long 
time prepared a plan of revolt. On August 2 this plan was put into 
operation by the Jewish Fighters Organization. Survivors of the 
Warsaw uprising assumed leadership here. The guards were wiped 
out and the prisoners found themselves "free," only to be attacked 

11 



THE UNVANQUISHED 

By BER MARK 

lyriNTEEN FORTY-THREE marked the turning point for Polish 
^ ^ Jewry. In that year Polish Jewry was virtually annihilated. But 
in that year, too, the will to resist and the determination to fight 
back against the Hitlerite murderers ripened. The liquidation of 
the Jews began in March 1942 and ended in 1943. 

Here is an account of the Jewish tragedy given by the Jewish 
National Committee of Poland in April 1943, in its organ. The 
Sparky which was smuggled abroad through the underground: 

"Within the confines of Poland, only 220,000 Jews remain alive. 
Shipment of Jews to the toture chambers of Belzen, Oswiecim and 
Treblinka continues. On January 17, the second evacuation of the 
Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto began. Except for a few Jews re- 
maining in the city, the Bialystok district has been completely 
'purged' of all Jews. Outside of small ghettos in the cities of Wilno 
and Lodz, not a single Jew is left in the districts of Wolyn, Podole, 
Byelo-Russia, Silesia, Pomorze, Lodz and Wilno. Recently the Kra- 
kow Ghetto was liquidated. Jews in eastern Galicia are being put 
to death; all Jews found in hideouts and in the woods are killed 
immediately. Death by electric current, gas, steam asphyxiation, 
machine gun, crematorium— millions of Jews from Poland and other 
occupied countries face this Golgotha. Death is the destiny of every 
transported Jew. 

"Destruction of Jewish life continues. Synagogues are burned 
down, cemeteries plowed under. All territories east of the German 
border must become absolutely Judenrein ('purged' of Jews— Eds.) 
within the next three months. Thereafter, no Jews will be left 
between the Oder and the Dniester rivers. Every day brings 
thousands of new martyrs; every passing day provides fodder for the 
torture chamber. S.O.S. Help.'' 

The Spark was dispatched to London, according to a marginal 
note to the above text in a copy found in Bialystok. In reply to the 
S.O.S. of the few remaining doomed Jews, the Anglo-Saxon world 
remained silent. The English torpedoed two ships transporting 
several thousands of Jews seeking shelter in Palestine. In Poland 
the underground representative of the London emigre government 
replied to the appeal of the Jewish Fighters Organization for arms 
and instructors, that the time for military action against the enemy 
had not arrived. At the same time these representatives demanded 

10 



PARTISAN SONG 

By HIRSH CLICK 
English by AARON KRAMER 

Never say that there is only death for you 
Though leaden skies may be concealing days of blue— 
Because the hour that we have hungered for is near; 
Beneath our trend the earth shall tremble: We are herel 

From land of palm-tree to the far-off land of snow 
We shall be coming with our torment and our woes, 
And everywhere our blood has sunk into the earth 
Shall our bravery, our vigor blossom forth! 

We'll have the morning sun to set our day aglow, 
And all our yesterdays shall vanish with the foe. 
And if the time is long before the sun appears; 
Then let this song go like a signal through the years. 

This song was written with our blood and not with lead; 

It's not a song that birds sing overhead. 

It was a people, among toppling barricades, 

That sang this song of ours with pistols and grenades. 

So never say that there is only death for you. 
Leaden skies may be concealing days of blue- 
Yet the hour that we have hungered for is near; 
Beneath our tread the earth shall tremble: We are here! 




Din 



Zog nit 
Never 



kein-mol az 
say that there 
Gm 



du gaist dem letz - tn 
is on - Xy death for 




"XT 

veg7 
you, 

Dm 



iTen him - len bla-ye - ne far-shte-ln bio - ye 

The* lead - en skies may be con-ceal-ing days of 

Dm 




teg, 
blue, 

Gm 



Vail ku - men vet noch imd- zer ois-ge-benk- te 
Be-cause the ho - ur we have hung-ered for is 
Dm Gm A7 Dm 



m 



'AiJMZzmEEzSE^^: 



T 



shoh; 
near; 



:&! 



Es vet a poik ton un - ser trot: "Mir eein-en < 
Be-neath our tread the earth shall trem-ble "We are here'/ 



attempt is made to introduce a system of thought control, to put in 
prison all non-conformists; at present when our Congress passes 
such racist-fascist legislation as the McCarran- Walter law and Smith 
Act; at present when imperialist incendiaries threaten to plunge 
us into an atomic world war— in these fateful times it is especially 
urgent and essential to remember the mandate of the martyrs and 
heroes of the Ghetto— their behest that we close our ranks and fight 
unitedly and unremittingly against reaction, against anti-Semitism 
and fascism in whatever disguise they may infringe on our human 
and civil rights. 

Not by meekness, not by submission, not by divisions but by 
united and fearless struggle will we be able to find the road that will 
lead us out of the perils threatening our people and nation to a 
world of peace and security, to a better and happier life, for the 
individual and the nation. Today, on the Tent Anniversary of the 
immortal Warsaw ghetto uprising we rededicate ourselves and all 
our resources to this great task, to the fulfillment of the sacred his- 
toric mandate of the heroes and martyrs of the Warsaw ghetto up- 
rising. 

The United Committee to Commemorate the 

Tenth Anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 

New York, April 19, 1953. 



This is the way of history. In the continuous struggle between 
the forces of progress and the forces of backwardness and reaction, 
new and higher conceptions of social life are forged. These advanced 
conceptions of social life and struggle and cooperation usually re- 
ceive their formulation and trial under fire in the self-sacrificing 
exploits of the heroic vanguard during the great crises of history, 
during such upheavals as the American Revolution, the French 
Revolution, the Paris Commune, the October Revolution. Many 
of the heroes fighting at the outposts lost their lives in those great 
struggles for the upbuilding of a better and happier life. But the 
conceptions which they forged in those great days of history have 
remained with the nation and with mankind for all coming genera- 
tions as mileposts on the road to a happy future. 

That day, the 19th of April, not alone the Warsaw Ghetto but the 
great majority of the Jewish people hammerred out for themselves, 
for all future times to come, the conception that only by unremitting 
and united struggle against every fascist attack will they be able to 
defend their human dignity and honor, nay, even their very lives. 
During the four horrible years of the German-nazi occupation the 
Jews learned that there is no greater, no more menacing danger 
than the delusion that by submissiveness, by sacrificing the so-called 
"bad" Jews it would possible to accomplish something or even to 
save the bare lives of the so-called "good" Jews. And the Warsaw 
Ghetto uprising chiseled it into the collective memory of the Jewish 
people for all generations to come that only by gallant struggle will 
it be possible to repulse the assaults of the Hamans of every colora- 
tion, the attacks and persecutions of every form of fascism; that only 
by united struggle will it be possible to put an end to discrimination 
and oppression. Only by means of vigorous and united resistance 
combine with a preparedness to self-sacrifice for one's neighbor and 
for the community as a whole will it be possible to repel the assaults 
of anti-Semitism and fascism, of the imperialist drive to a new world 
war for world domination. Only by closing the ranks in whole- 
hearted cooperation will it be possible to safeguard the existence 
of the individual and of the community, as well as their continued 
progress to real security and a genuinely humane and happy life. 

This is the mandate of the heroes and martyrs of the Warsaw 
ghetto uprising, of the Anilevitches and the Shmidts, the Levar- 
tovskys and the Feils, of the Ruzhke Rosenfelds and the Nute Teitel- 
baums, and of the thousands of other martyrs and valiant fighters 
in the ghettos and the woods. And this mandate is never to be 
forgotten. 

At present when an attempt is made to restore the former nazis 
to power and to reestablish a German army under the leadership of 
the same old nazi generals; at present when in our own land an 



the entire new great democratic Poland pays tribute to the heroes 
and martyrs of the Vv^rsaw Ghetto uprising. 

The 19th of April is now cherished and honored throughout 
Poland, and not only in Poland. In many peace-loving countries 
that sacrificed millions of lives in order toMPepx^l the onslaugh of 
the Nazi and fascist hordes, the heroic defenders of the Ghetto are 
given ever greater recognition, and their memory is ever more 
honored. The names of the Ghetto fighters will forever be remem- 
bered, together with all the heroes of the vanguard of mankind— 
the vanguard that has given expression to the innermost best aspira- 
tions of man for continued progress to a world of genuine freedom, 
a world without exploitation and without discrimination, a world 
of brotherhood and equality, of collective creative effort for the 
common happiness of all. 

The uprising of April 19, 1943 was not a sudden, self-generated 
outburst. In the crucible of the indescribable suffering and pain of 
the Ghetto life greedy selfishness, treachery, falsehood, meanness 
and cowardice were gradually and totally consumed. The fateful 
years of their imprisonment within the forbidding walls of the 
Ghetto, their own passive and active resistance to the tortures in- 
flicted upon them by the German nazi and fascist hangmen, their 
daily struggle for life, the daring exploits of their heroes and martyrs, 
the victories on the Soviet front, the increasing resistance of the 
militant partisans and underground in the woods and cities through- 
out Poland, literally hammered out the new higher conceptions and 
outlook of the Ghetto Jews that were crystallized on that great day 
of April 19, 1943. 

The leap made on that day by the survivors of the 500,000 Jews 
of the Warsaw Ghetto— the leap from meek submission, letting the 
nazis lead them like dume lambs to slaughter to armed resistance 
unto death— this leap marked a revolution in their entire outlook 
on life, in their approach to the problems facing them, a revolution 
in their standards of behaviour not for the moment alone, but for 
all generations to come. This great change really created a new type 
of Jew with a better understanding of the nature and meaning of 
life, with a deeper appreciation of his human dignity, with an en- 
tirely new conception of the way people can and should live to- 
gether, struggle together and work together. And though only a very 
small number of the heroic defenders of the Warsaw Ghetto (and 
other ghettoes in Czestochowa, Bialystock, Wilno, Minsk, etc.) came 
out alive of the murderous Nazi assault, the decisive change in the 
outlook on life that crystallized in their heroic struggle remains with 
our people, not alone as an appreciated and honored heritage, but 
as ari integral part of our understanding of life and our approach 
to its problems. / 

6 



THE MANDATE OF THE HEROES AND 

MARTYRS OF THE WARSAW GHETTO 

UPRISING 

In the history of nations and mankind there are days that are 
revered as mileposts of a new beginning. These are the days in which 
the developments of long periods of time, indeed of epochs, are 
concluded and srystallized into a new departure, marking the turn 
of a new pager in the history of man's progress: The 19th of April 
is such a day in the history of the Jewish people. 

On the 19th of April, 1943, the 40,000 Jews still surviving within 
the walled in ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto, surrounded on all 
sides by the overwhelming murderous Nazi battalions, raised high 
the banner of their glorious historic uprising. Armed with only 
scanty and primitive weapons, but with an unbroken unity forged 
during the bestial Nazi occupancy, the exhausted and semi-starved 
Ghetto Jews fought heroically for 44 days and night against the most 
modern weapons of the bloody enemy, defying its machine guns, 
armored cars, tanks, artillery and planes. 

To the very last drop of their blood, until the last of the heroes 
fell in battle, the Ghetto defenders fought for their human dignity, 
for the honor and survival of their people, and for the liberation 
of mankind from the curse of fascism. And with their unforgettable 
intrepid stand they undermined the morale of the nazi murderers 
and inspired the underground forces all over Poland and in all 
other ghettoes with renewed faith, courage and will to resist. The 
uprising made an invaluable contribution towards the strengthening 
of the struggle against the German nazis and the ultimate victory 
over the bloodiest enemy of mankind, a contribution that will be re- 
membered for all time. 

The glory of these great days in the history of man and nation 
does not fade away with the passage of time. On the contrary, as 
the years roll on ever greater parts of the people come to gain a 
clearer and deeper understanding of the decisive change, of the re- 
volution wrought in these fateful days. The people learn to appre- 
ciate and honor to an ever greater exentent the new beginning 
inaugurated in these red calendar days. It is therefore not surprising 
that today, on the tenth anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, 
Jews throughout the world commemorate this great day with still 
greater homage and awe. More than that, not the Jews alone, but 



CONTENTS 

Part I 

The Mandate of the Heroes and Martyrs of the 

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising g 

Partisan Song Hirsh Glick 6 

The Unvanquished Ber Mark 7 

Resistance Is the Lesson of the Warsaw Ghetto 

Morris U. Schappes s8 

Song Heard Round the World Yuri Suhl 36 

Diary of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Emanuel Ringelblum 41 

Part II: in Yiddish 

Pre-History and History of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising /. M. Budish 

Songs From the Ghettos and Woods 

Judenrat and Jewish Police P. Novick 

Martyred Heroes A, Bick 

On the Tenth Anniversary N. Maisel 

"To the Jewish People: Their Heroes and Martyrs" 

M. /. Wachman 

Warsaw Razed /. Perle 



Cover, English: Picture of the magnificent monument erected by 
the new democracy of Poland to commemorate 
the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. The inscription in 
Polish, Hebrew and Yiddish reads: "To the Jew- 
ish People: Its Heroes and Martyrs." 
Sculptor: M. Rappaport. 

Cover, Yiddish: Drawing — "Uprising in Warsaw Ghetto" by 
Zuni Maud, 



Published by 
UNITED COMMITTEE TO COMME>iORA.TE THE 
TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING 



BOOK COMMITTEE: 
Simon Federman, Chairman 
Emma La2arus Federation 
Furrier Joint Council of N. Y. 
Joint Board Fur Dressers & Dyers Unions 



J. Adler 

Mrs. B. Aptaker 
Rose Aronoff 
Miriam Baumel 

A. Bergman 

Rabbi Abraham J. Bick 
Rose Borsky 
J. M. Budish 
Morris Carnovsky 

B. Chazanov 
Barnet Cooper 
Israel Cramer 
Jacob Doroshkin 
Maurice Eitzer 
A. Esterson 
Samuel Finkel 
Nathan Frankel 
Philip Frankel 
Charles Friedman 
Kalman Friedman 
M. Fried 
Herman Goffer 
Jack Goldman 

I. Goldberg 
Mrs. Nina Goldstein 
Mrs. F. M. Golos 
Aaron J. Goodelman 
Mrs. June Gordon 
Morris Gross 
Arnold Grossfield 
Louis Harap 
N. Haikin 



Jack Heber 
Abraham Jenofsky 
Nathan Kamenetsky 
Albert E. Kahn 
David Kass 
Isidore Kaufman 
Paul Karell 
Moshe Katz 
Chas. Kelner 
F. C. Kirk 
Doris Koppelman 
Dr. Charles Kuntz 
Max Levin 
Sholom Levine 
I. Lipinsky 
Nathan Mack 
Nachman Maisel 
J. Mestel 
Herman Migdale 
Paul Novick 
Nathan Padgug 
David Pargament 
Max Perlow 
Sam Pevzner 
David Pitchersky 
B. Podolsky 
Morris Ranch 

0. Reiner 
Mrs.. Dora Rich 
Ernie Rimer 

1. E. Routch 
H. Rosen 



Pearl Rosenberg 
Philip Rosenberg 
Dr. A. Rothenberg 
Mrs. Anne Safran 
Ruben Saltzman 
G. Sandler 
Morris U. Schappes 
Edith Segal 
Elke Shapiro 
L. Shapero 
H. Sherman 
Leo Shlofrock 
W. Shneyer 
J. Silver 
Dr. Max Silver 
Hyman Silver 
Ralph Silver 
Alex Sirota 
George Starr 
Leon Straus 
Yuri Suhl 
Chaim Suller 
Sophie Tobin 
Mrs. Fannie Traister 
Sol Vail 

Yetta Vishnefsky 
Z. Weinper 
Paul Weissman 
Joseph Winogradsky 
T. Wendy 
Alfred Whyne 
R. Youkelson 



d209 



Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 

Aprit 19th 



10th Anniversary 



EDITORIAL BOARD: 

Rabbi Abraham J. Bick, I. Goldberg, 
Louis Harap, Moshe Katz, Nachman 
Maisel, Paul Novick, Z. Weinper. 

Editor: 

J. M. Budish 



Published by 

THE UNITED COMMITTEE TO COMMEMORATE THE 

TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE WARSAW GHEHO 

New York, 1953