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Full text of "A manual and grammar of the Yiddish language"

STEVEN SPIELBERG DIGITAL YIDDISH LIBRARY 
NO. 11265 



A MANUAL AND GRAMMAR OF 
THE YIDDISH LANGUAGE 



J. Mazin 



■¥ 



NATIONAL YIDDISH BOOK CENTER 

AMHERST, MASSACHUSETTS 



NATIONAL YIDDISH BOOK CENTER 

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S'''T« ;1J?inpb lDD3'7J?t DTTKD 



MANUAL & GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

YIDDISH LANGUAGE 

YIDDISH SELF-TAUGHT. 

Enabling an Englishman to learn Yiddish Reading, 
Writing and Conversation. 



S%^^?rice Four Shillings 



^^y Yjjij^j) EDITION 

'E%ISED and ENLAKGED. 

With supplement : vocabulary of words of Hebrew 
origin most frequently used in the Yiddish language 
— each word with translation, and with phonetic 
pronunciation. Also very useful to those who 
desire to master correct Hebrew pronunciation. 



>B. MAZIN & . Co. 
I39-1I1, 'Whitechapel Road, London, E.1 
• ^ 1927. : 



A MANUAL 
AND GRAMMAR 



OF THE 



Yiddish Language 

BY 

J. MAZIN AND S. DE WOOLF 



ENLARGED AND REVISED EDITION 



LONDON 

R. M A Z I N & Co. 

159—141, WHITECHAPEL ROAD., E 1 

1927 



COPYRIGHT BY R. Mf\ZIN & CO 



CHAPTER I. 
THE ALPHABET. 

n T 1 n -I :i 5 « 

Clietli, Zayin, Vaw, Hay, Daletli, Qimel, Beth, Aleph; 

] : D D h 1 2 ^ a 

Noon, Mem, Lamed, Kaph, Yod, Teth 

1 p r 5{ f) s 3? D 

He.sli, Koof, Tsadi, Pay, Oyin, Saraecli, 

n tr t2^ 

Toy. Seeij, Sheeii, 

The Yifldi^b luDguage l)us 22 Consonants wliicli aic read from 
. n<iht to left Four of theye Consonants an' nsed as vowels ^ Aiji7i 
^ Yod, ) Vofc. i\nd^ Aleph, 

Thern are 5 final letters, *[ Chaph. Q Mem. | Noon, f1 7Xy. and 
^* Tsadi, 

Tliese are ^i»e same' letters as ^ Chaph, £D J/<5;m, 3 iVr;o«, S ■^^^^» 
*^ .Tsadi\ But when one of the 5 above letters ha|)pens to )>e the hist 
letter of a word, then it beeonies long and terminates in a |>er|>endieular 
<troke directed <lown wards, except the u. 



There are 5 double letters. 

The n >S(^^*, ri 2^<^^^ tJ-* A^<^e«., 5 Ohaph^ and \^j F<?^// occur only 
in Hebrew words. 

It is of great importance to notice the difference between the \^ 
Seen with its point on the left and \^ Sheen with its, ]H.>int on the ri(jht, 
the former is never used in Yiddish, but a D Samteh is substituted. 

The difference between. £5 Pa?/ and S^ Fay is thnt £ has a point 
and S lias not. 

In Yiddish Pay is printed without, a point und Fay receives a, 
horizontal stroke viz. ^, 

{This ride is not strictly adhered to in viodern literature.) 

Those who know the Hebrew ah^habetwill linve noticed tlie dif- 
ference between tVie ^ V'eth nnd 2 ^*eJh. Tlic \'eth lias no point <.>r 
what is called a Dayesh. 

But in Yiddish the 3 (b) i.^ irsed without the ])oiut or Dnuesh a< 
tS^v^i; except when a Hebrew word is used. . 

The Hebrew consonant ^ Yeth is never u.sed in Yi<idishJ)ut a 
(k>ublc 1 is substituted, viz. IJ/ll (who), an<l is pi-onounced almost as 
V in vine. 

It is important to know that the short guttcrid- H i^ ^i<»t used in 
Yiddish, it only occurs in Hebrew words or words which arc (k'rived 
from Hebrew roots, therefore the ^ is substituted viz: 1J?^J?Dty 
(to prick). 

But there are exceptions s])eeially when a Avord connhences wiilj 

a n viz: ]j?sMn. nv^p.snm 



Script erriploved in writing yiddish. 

p f^ i o ' n J^ I i) "^ (i "r^ If 



U D i 1^ 



D 



t 1 



n e n f ^ ^ f s d I j 



n c^ 



K 



r ^ T 



y D I : 



CHAPTER II. 

^lost Englisli leaders Avill find it difficult to remember" all the dif- 
ricult names of the Hebrew ul[)liabet, We will therefore give their equal 
value of pronuiiciiUion in Eu.dish. These nmst be learnt by heart. 



V 


nericcd 
alue. 


Equal ml HP of 
pron7incififio)t.. 


Kumerical 
value. 




Equal value of 
pronunriatton. 


1 


\s 


ah 


SO 


h 




1 


2 


2 


1. 


40 


D » 




m 


3 




.ii' (as in ,^'o) 


50 


]i 




n 


4 


T 


<1 


()0 


D 




s 


6 


n 


h (aspii'ated) 


70 


V 




e (as in red) 


6 


1 


V 


80 


^B 


p 


3 f 


7 


? 


z 


00 


f S 




ts 


8 


n 


German ch in audi 


100 


P 




k 


9 


ts 


t 


200 


1 




r 


10 


> 


T in yva 


300 


fc* B 


^* 


«h 


20 


1^ 


(Jermnn eh in auch 


400 


n .- 


]^ 


t 



CHAPTER III. 
On the Division and Interchanging of Letters. 

Letters are divided into five classes, according to the organs by 
>vhich they are pronoimced. The common division is as follows. The 
Jj together produces a nasal sound as ng in anger. 



Gutterals 




V 


n 


n 


»< 


Palatals 




D 


^ 


1 


J 


Linguals 


n 


3 


b 


Q 


1 


Dentals 


r 


1 


ty 


D 


T 


Labials 




•1 





.1 


" 2 



CHAPTER IV. 

On the Vowel-points. 

All the twenty-two letters of the alphabet being considered a;s 
consonants by the. best Hebrew grammarians, recourse has been hud 
to certain points or dashes, for supplying the deficiency of aoav'«»1 
letters, by which the natural sounds of the vowels are to be expressed. 

In Yiddish we find seven vowels, five of which are written tuider 
the letters, one wliich is the Chaulom i is written «&ov<3 the letter, and 
tlie Shurnck ?) is written in the letter. 

The Hebrew language has five long vowels and five short vowels, 
and in reading Yiddish one meets occasionally a Hebrew word; it is 
tlierefore necessary to know them. They are the same vowels as em- 
ployed in the Yiddish with the exception of •.. ICMutz, these three 
points -. aj-e never used in Yiddish, only in Hebrew, 



Forms, 



CHAPTER V. 

Hebrew Long Vowels. 



X 

'IN 
N 



Names. 


Soun 


ds. 


Komets 


o. 


in 


Goat, 


Tsavray 


ey 


ill 


They. 


Chirick 


ee 


in 


Thee. 


ChauloiTT 


ou 


in 


Thou. 


Shuruck 


u 


in 


Bive., 


Short Vowels. 








Patach 


s. 


in 


Father 


Segol 


e 


in 


Bdl. 


Chiriek (short) 


J 


in. 


Stzck. 


Komets 


o 


in 


God. 


Kibbutz 


oo 


in 


St<?ol. 


Sheva 


Silent. 





CHAPTER VI. 
The Yiddish Vowels. 





a 
e 
ou 

00 



as in Got 
as in Way 
as in He 
as in Thoiz 
as in Wood 
as in Father 



as the first e in where 



long 



short- 



When a word com men ees wifh a vowel the first letter must be an 
i< except in the vowel 17. 



The vowels- iin<l t always liuve an ^v iit)Ove them viz. '^tj2l^^. 
The (lii'ferenue lH'jw(M.ni -• and t in rea(lin<i: is very slight, .some 
.lews will say I^^X. or npip^S instead of nyiDKfi. 

The vowel ^ is j)i'ec(Ml(M.l by an X wlion the word comnicnoes 
with 00 ^ viz. 1^^. 

When the consonant v )) is followed by the vowel ^ then the 
^ is also preceded by an X ^^i^» ^3^K11, V>ocause three ^ cannot 
follow .(»ach other, 



CHAPTER Vtl. 

Rules of Spelling woixls with long A^owels. 

Tliere ai-e fonr \'ow.els wliieh draw an additional H i^i' order to 
make them soun<l long, these are t, -. -^ v, viz. n'lKt'n inyTyJ, 

Tlie vowid • always draws a *» after it. When a Avord (M)ni- 
mences with a consonant and *» follows viz: "f^ in order to hmgthen 
the vowel J* mnst follow the •» viz : J^aj;**^ (love), *1J?*1j;'»^ (songs). 

The vowel •• ey always draws two •> viz. 1'^*>'^ (pure, clean). 

The vowel v draws an y and is somotimcs pronoimced as as c 
ill manner specially when the *1 follows and the word has more than 
one syllable, viz: jj^TJ^^l^, hnt when a H follows the "^ viz: Hl^ 
tlien the vowel is long- and isprononnced as a. To this last rule there 
is no ex(;eption. .Sometimes the a 1^ is made long by an tidditiona 

y viz. hvvii^m. 



Tiie ovvul - drav\\< aa ^ and is [)ronouiict'(l as a in fast when 
long an additional H follows the i^. sometimes tne ^^ is made long- 
by an additional K viz. ^^^,S| (Hall). 

WJien a word terminates with a vowel the ^5 is dropped viz : 

^^ns (not ,s^n£)). n (not Hn). 

There are some exceptions where the H follows viz, HIT (rest) 
receives a H* 

A^ single consonant between two vowels belongs to the follow- 
ing . syllable y'v/.: |y^y^ (to pray). When two consonants stand 
between two vowels one belongs to the first syllable and the othei- 
to the next, viz: |j;pHB""^J^S (to pack). 

The combinations 11, B/T? iltD, 2/*J0 representing simple 
sounds, are inseparable and belong to the next syllable: ]J?1"''n*Hp 
(to guarantee), ]y2^*?"in (to hiss), |j;nO"|^n (to advise), ]J?E^!n"K£ 
(to slap). 

Prefixes and suffixes are distinct syllables: QD^*n"J?J 
(oppressed), n3HtS^*nj?S (reason), 1'»^-p'»V3 (happy), 
Q£H12^"'n3^''TS (friendshin). 

OH AFTER VIII. 
(Tender. 

There are three Forms of nouns whose gender is seen from the 
definite article : iy*7 masculine, "^l feminine, D^^l neuter. 

Mas. Fern. Meui. 

brother the sister the child the . 

Museuline nouns are na nes of Males, Seasons, Months, Days. 
Mountains. Winds and everytliing that ends in |y. *|'». jj^"^. 

Feminine nouns end in V. ,S'»V J^ jV "s^'^y 'tO^kSL^. JJ^ anM 
some in D''^. 

Neuter nouns are names ot Metals. Lands, and Towns. 

Diminutives end in: *j;5^ V^^ ^''"^^ V^' 







CHAPTER XI. 










Definite Article. 








81 


N.G U LA 11 


PLUKAl. 






Man. 


Fein . 


Neuter 


J/. /: N. 




Nom. 


"iJ'l 


n 


T 


n 


the 


Gen. 


on j'£ 


"i>'7. 


Dyn lis 


.n . 


of (lie 


Dat 


°n- 


"i^i 


an 


n 


to, the 


Ace. 


2>?i 


n 




n 


the 



Note. The German gen. d6.v DJ^T is not used m Yich 
DJ^*T ]^fi is substituted, or I^S is prefixed to the noun. 

The same order is ohservud in deelining. • 



ish but 



-ij?t;-i 


v]n 


D>T-J 




til is 


y^iv: 


vpi 


mv: 




that 


'^^v: 


>15^; 


^vy: 




every 


"•V?*?!?"!.} 


Vf7V'>) 


D5''?'?j^\i 




wkici^ 



CHAPTER XII. 

Indefinite Article. 
SING U L A K 



PLUKAL 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat; 

Aec. 



Mas, 



Fern. 



Neuier 
]"« or « 



a 

of a 
to a 
a 



The indciinito article K is vised before a ooilsonant, viz. mJ^ K 
The indefinite article Vf*ft^ is used before a vowel, viz» p^JS 

p^K takes also the form 3^5 viz. nf!^t?'3^/*^o^e the apostrophe 

The same oi'der 
S I jM G IJ ]. A R 



Mas. 


i'e?», 


Xeuier 




f'<ii 


vr'^. 


^ 


what sort of or one 


r?.. 


>TP.. 


]"P.. 


none 


]""'? 


j?r? 


T^ 


my, mine 


ri 


•;3"'n 


ri 


thy, thine 


ri 


j?3;n 


n 


hi.- 


in^K 


y>'T'^ 


• nnnx 


her 


ijrniK 


ynjfyis 


-lyyikS 


onr 


nr^^N 


vov}"*^ 


T''^ 


your 


nh'K 


VT^'^ 


* 


. your o/' their 



CHAPTER Xlil. 

Declen>sion. 

In tlie singula!', feminine nouns arv the same in all cases. 
TJie neuter nouns are the same in the noni. and ace. cases. 
\\\ piural.npm., gen» and ace. ar<t the same; the dat. ends in Vp ^ 
There are tw(^ declensions, The strong- with gen, sing. D, J^nd rle 
vowei X changes in the plural into ^ and tlie vowel \ into •>, 



lO 

) • . 

JHJxaraples. 
iSiiiiiular Plural 

Xotii. 1^D^5 "lyT tb«^ father 1J???J?B '''^ ^^^^ UWm^v^ 

( ifii. D1J?I:D^^£^ D>n of tlie father DlJ?t3J?5 *»! of the fatln'r^ 
l>«">- lya^^S DJ?T to the father 1J^2)J?3 ''1 to tlie fathers 
'Aoc. n;pDK3 DJ?7* tlie father 1J?^yS ^ the fatlioKv 

TIk' wciik (Icciertsioii wiOi gen. singular in | or tj^, 
Siiio-ular PUiral 

N'oni. S:iSnS^^D "II/T thesohlier tv '^*^n^^<D^''T the soldiers 
< it'll. •^Kn^.SD Dyijli) of the sohlicr ] J/DHlt^XD H^ of the soldi er.« 
l>al . tDt^^!^^5D D J;T to the soUller ] JJJDHpXD '''1 to the soMiej',< 
Ace. . *^,^1^KD i-^n the soldier jyEiK'l^i^D H the soldier.s 

Tlic Po>i.<es.Sive case is formed by adding D to the Nominativ 
viz. T»'»;'p D'£D1^ ''08ej>h'«?ganiient. . 



CHAPTER XIV. 
Examples with the definite article. 

Singular. 

Mas, Fern, Neuter 

the father the daughter the child 

Oen.on J?b«| a J?"lof theDnj?'^?^!^ 1 ; T of theD'nj^j!) DKn of tlje 

Dat. ny^Hs Dyi to the ^jr^ixa^ "lyn to the nrp^Dyn tothe 
Ace. . ^v^^h D];n the S^Dp^D n the n^ip^ oKn the 



II 



Plural, 
the fathers the daughters the children 

Norn, '-)j;aj?S n the i)}pT;p n the i j,n3''p. n the - 
<^en. D'ij?]^V# n "^^ ^^'^ D'nj;Dbj;p n of t^)eDnj;73''p^ n of the 

Bat. 1J;DJ?S n to the lytDSptb n. to the 1J?n^^p n. to the 

Ace. ijjaVf'n tot^^e ^lyDbyp'^^n to the nyni'p ''1 *^ t'^^*- 





Examples 


with the iiKlefiilitc 
Singular, 


iil'tiele. 




Mas, 


Fern. 


Neiittr 




a brother 


a woiiiiiii 


ahorse 


Nom« 


nynni « a 


"'ins K » 


nnys ._ a 


Gen. 


D'"IJ?nn3 X.of a 


D'^ns K "f ■■ 


' onjv'S « "-■ « 


Dat. 


ij;7.ni X to a 


■'lis 'n t,> a 


Tlj?|' N to a 


Ace. 


^j?n^^i H a 


Plural. 


•i-IJ?! K a 




brotliors 


women 


horses 


Norn, 


-lyTia 


IST'l-lS 


inys 


Oen. 


D'-iyTna of 


D'i'nis of 


D'"TiV|" or 


Dat. 


-lyTni to 


l^nis to 


-l'-!j?£) to 


Ace, 


-)j^*in3 


)^'1-|S 





CHAPTER XV. 

Nouns terminating in t^'^^p^ ^"*''D' '*'^' -'^^ '^'*^^ bSHt^ receive 
|Srintheplural, viz. sing, :l3^^D^nnJ;|5 plural ]T?3^i}^bj.$nj^jB. 
Plural noims hav^ always the feni. def. article •»*^ perfixed in 



12 



all cases, Tbe German plural geii. (der) *tp*l and dat, (den) 1J?*7 
are not used in Yiddish viz. 

the people ]J?&*3j;rj H Nom. 

of the people ]Vi?'?V<^ ^1 ]'^^ ^^^^* 

to the people ]V^!'^Vk H ^^ '^^*- 

Nouns o[ mixed deelensions receive a "j or W in the plural. 

Examples. 
Singular Plural 

VI}}!, ^^^ ^^^^ ^-^^^^ ]V^}V, ''1 ^^'^ ^"'^^^ 

1»'»1N DJ<n Mie ear ]I?*ir''1SV ''T tlie ears 



13 



]J?D'»nT outside 
Jl^'jVlljr^X inside 
]J?123*^K* below 
]yi'»1« iibove 
"T^H*1tD bi spite ol; 
t^KlDa^JH instead of 
lJ^r»J/11 on account of 



D'^IX out of 
^'^Hi at, near 

i!f ra np to 
tD^t: wit.ii 

*]^5j after, to 
1^* from, of, by 
Ti to, at . 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Prepositions. 

1. With Genetive. 



town the oiitside of 

The gen, and dative are usually 
contracted with UVI or ^y^. 



2, With Dative. 

garden of the out 
hrother\s my at 

T '^ V • 

day this to up 
sisters his with 

meal after 

land the of 

to''^^ lypi IS 

time this at 



14 



These are usually contracted with DJ^T or DH*!. 
;>. With Accusative* 

hall the through 

money his for 

emperor the against 

an«tD^ ^'T nix 

town the round 



-j^n through, by 
^T'B for 

tJ?3J?3 against, towards 
Q^K ^bout, round 



4. AVith Dative and Accusative. 



^X at, on. to 
•j^i^ in, into, at 
1y"ty*''n"X between 
IKS before 



ri'^IKMipon, on, ro. at 
IJJIDaN'l behind 
*1J/3'*K above, over 
*lj;a31K «nioiio', under 



Some ])repositions are contracted 






D'SJJ instead of DJ?T ]''^^ 



DH, V^s and *n^^ iis^'^1 ^o express time, lakt- tlte dative. 
•♦HD 'iyi5!^\'lS^ D'W on the fiisl ol* May 

jj/D |njr>p;;| n^^s <» fortniii-ht. a-o 



J5 



CHAPTIR XVIII. 

Verbs. 

Infinitive, believe |J?3'>1*?J 

Present. 

Singular Plural 

I- 3^1^^ yn I believe jPl.^'l^-? I^D We believe 

2. BD3'»1^J n thou believest D2'»'lt?J 'irT'K you believe 

3. ea'^I^J 11? he believes |°J?3Ht^:» '^ they believe 

Verb to be I'^'^t 
Past and Perfect. 

' IPtyiiy^ or ]J?11j;j p3 I^K I am, have, wa. ', 

" " l^p''3 n you aro, iiave 

PK 1^ he has 

" ]j;3y] n^'b we have 

" tS'^n in^'K you are, liave 

„ Ipjj;? '•n they are, haw 

Past 1K1J n^ ."^.^Ij "^ns 

Preiient. 
Singular Plural 

1. I'^a y^ I am IP^jyt 1^!: we arc 

2. ap''2 n thou art ^"^n *in\S' you ar(^ 
•■>• r^ IS? he is |j;3yj ^n tiiey are 

Future, 

1. pn t>j;ii •{'»H 1 will be I'^n ]j;5^>nj n\'!: wc win be 

'-'.. " i3pj?11 n thou wilt be " ^yn Srr^K you will ] e 

'■>. " tiyil "13? he will be '' .|>'^>\1 ^7 they will l.o 



i6 



Past Imperi'eeU 
Singular Plural 

I- l^^n iybS y^ I used to he p^ |I?JJ?^& T'D we used to be 

2. " tOD3j?b| rr tbou used to be '' tDJJ?^^S* SrT^N you used to be 

.•-5. • '^ tDJl/^S 1J? he used to be " ]V.ij?'f ''''.I ^^^^^^ used to ])e 

Oonditioniil. 



yaJl^HT "IS^ be should 

tD^NiT irT'X you should 



I sliould have beeu 

thou wouldst have been 

he would* have been 

we would have been 

you would have been 

they would liave been 



]l?lD^U^t T»a we should 
|J?ab«T ^'n they shordd 



"♦n be 



Infinite Present ^^ to be. 

Iiuperative* 

rn n^t:^^ let us be 



('»•'♦ 11^ t'HT let him be ]^n "^n [P^X] let them ))e 

Tlie Vui-i) to have ov had. 

Present. 

Singular Plural 

1. 2Hn l^K I have lyaSn TO we have 

2. t:5DSn n thou ha^t, DXH in^K you have 

• T T • 

\ DSn ni? he has tj;3«n "^n they have 



17 



Perfect and Fast. 

Singular Plural 

1. DKnj?.^ 3Xn -|''K I have had D.SHJ^J ] J?a«n !''» we have Imd 

2. f^ *Dp.sn n thoiHiasthad '' ' cHn "tri'^K you „ „ 

3/ " -i.s^n nr he has had " ]J?3«n ^^ they „ „ 

Future, 

1. ]j;|«ri ^>*n 1\S I .-hall have |j;|Kn ]j;j5j;i1 yt2 we will have 

2. " tropin thou wih have " tDy*!l IrTH you will „ 

3. " dj?11 "12; he will have '^ Xl^'^V)'^ ''^I ^W will „ 

Imperative, 
3«n have |y3Kn 1*^»X^ let us have 

]>?3Nn iy ^^1 ^^t ^^^"^ ^^^^'^' iJ'^^Nn ''''t ]y^Kt let them have 
The Yerl) to have had or / usually had or I used to have. 

1. ]v3Nn :»j;^f "I\S I used to have 

2. " tDCJJ?':?£ n thou used to ha^e 

3. " Di(J?7£ 12f he used to have 

1, ' ]>Jj;^S Tfi we used to have 

2, " t0jy^5'"in''K you used to have 

3, " Ipyt^S ''W they used to have 
Infinitive tJ^JSJ^n to have. 

Auxihary and infinite present J^liyS^H having. 

]J?2h*n to hnve. ]J?^'!^y\'^ t^ become. 

Another form» 

Tlie conditional /sA(>7/?(/' is formed by ^HT, tD^XTJ?J and tDt'>^11J?3 

with the additional Au^rl) tlSHH prefixed in the singular and "[ySXri 

in the |>hiral, 



1 8 



Singular 
Plural 

3, is^«\iy^. ]V^i^{) 'I! 



1 should or would 
thou wouldst 
lie would 

we w^ould 
you would 
they would 



CHAPTER XIX 
Tenses. 

All forms of Verbs consist of ;i root and a suffix. The root is 
found by omitting the 'suffix 'fS from the Inf, Pres. viz: 'tj^ - JpJ^fl 
to follow. 

Present Indicative formed by addiniir the following suffix to 
the root. 

Singular 1 tf-^l^Hl) Plnral 1 ]S;-^3b«fc 

2 DD— " 2 tD-" " 

3 B— * 3 ]X?." " 
2 Present Subjunctive. 

Singular 1 »--3^K| Plural 1 ]y~ J^HS 

2 Bp»— *" 2 t5i;~ '' 

3 ' V— " 3 rsf- " 



19 



3 Past Indicative, 

Singular 1 j;i5-^^S| Plural 1 ]J;*^-J^K| 

3 J?p— " 3 |J?^— " 

4 The future Tudicative is formed by prefixing ^V)) "|^H to 
the Infin. pres. viz: |pi^^^!& ^]))) "I'^K, the future subjunctive is 
the same» 

5 The Perfect Indicative is formed by prefixmg the words 

y^ y^ or 2Kn yn with the past part viz.- aJ^^^sJ?.^ T^ "jns*. 

The perfect subjunctive is the same, also the pluperfect indic- 
ative and subjunctive. 

The future perfect Indicative and perfect Subjunctive is the 

same as the future Indicative p^ ^J/H "]^K or lyj'^X^. 

The pres. and porf. Conditional is formed by prefixing the conditional 

t:))«rij;:5/i:oNn to the infin. present, viz: ti^^i^ir;^ axn "jns 

\u the perfect Conditional the word tDt'^<Ty j is u?ed instead of 

Present participle is formed by adding. ^31^ to the root, viz: 

Past participle is formed by prefixing J,* j to the root and add- 

ino- t2 as a suffix viz. D:i^N'3r:. 

Imperative is formed by a-Ming the following suffix to the root. 

Singular ^-r^Nl) 

••• : T 

Plural *^-jhsk 



CHAPTER XX 

Table of Tenses. 



Tense \ Indefinite 



Imperfect 



Perfect 



!5J 



I praise 

2 I'-a y^ 

I am praised 



1 y^3''l'? "I^^. 

I praised 
I was praised 



I am praising 

2 yip taa-'i'? ]j;a 

I am being praised 



I was praising 

2 I Avas being 
praised, the same 
as I was praised 



1 bvy\ "!'« 
\)}y''sb 

I shall praise 
2 "I'O t3J?11 ]pa 

I shall be praised 



I shall be praising 



3Kn i-iK 

1 have praised 
[ liave been praised 



I had praised 
I had been praised 



I shall have praised 

I shall have been 
praised 



21 



CHAPTER XXI 

Separable Verbs. 

1. Separable verbsS consist of a verb and a prefix which is 
se})arated from it in the simple tenses. 

2. The prefix is always accented* 

]j;rn3X to depart 

]J?J3J?n£''1« to hang up 

^j;"7'''»ji^3^ to cut off 

]j;iN*23^''J^ to invite 

|jr^P*bD;i>;iJ to put away 
In the past part the syllable J? j is placed between the prefix 
and the verb. 

^ LDnynyiS'^IN to cease 

'[j?D^3j;jp%tD to take with 

tD3«.?y3bKJ to imitate 



CHAPTER XXII 

Adjectives. 
The masculine adjectives end in *ll^ in the sing, nom, The 
.other cases end in ]!; viz. nj/ni*l3 "Ij/t^l^ IJ^l "o™. 

brother good the 
Some areithe , D"1j;7n| jP^IJ Dyl gen. 

same in neuter brother good of the 

lyina ]j;mi DJ?T dat and ace 
brother good to the and the 



22 



in the plural tlic "^ is droj^ped in all cases viz. 

The fern, adjective ends in in y in the nonj. and ace. singular, 
the gen, and dat. in *iy viz, 

the good daughter '1j;£23KD J?^^J •»"! nom, 
of the good daugliter D^iyDD^^D 1^??^^ "^^t! ^'^"* 
to the good daughter 1J?aDND 1J?^13 1J?1 <lat. 
the good daughter lytiSDt^S:) J?t!^1J H ace 

The plural ends in J^* (J?D^J) in all cases, 

Some Neutre adjec, end in Dl? ii^ the nom» and ace. singular, 
the 6en. and dat, take 72?, 

a good child 13''p DJ/13^J i< noni. # 

of a good child Dirp,]J7m:iK gen. 

to a good child "^yp^ ]J?^^^ ^ ^^^^* 

a good child •73''^ D^plJ &< ace. 

The plural is J^tD^J in all cases, 

Waen an adjective is used predicatively, it stands after the verb 
and is the same for all genders and both numbers as in English viz. 

D''ln3 T^'X ]J?15^^53 nj;n the garden is large 
r^'^P '^'*^ ^''*''^ DyTH/ this iiouse is small 
A few adjectives of quality 
a« good IDDP^a* bad pV^i ^^^^^ 



23 



Several adjectives can follow one another and are declined in 
the following order 

Norn. nyoxij ya^Ni:; j;^^^):) j?B?ns DKT. 
Gen. D"ivb«ri j;^^xp_ vi»ip V^^^P ]is' 

Ace. nj;D«ij yQt>Kp_ >Sn^p yE^ns D«n 

Gen. " " « II OyyiH 

Dat. DOSP " " " OVT''^. 

Ace. ]«p ^j?p.3N"!p "lyo^K "1S'P''1« ]''^^ 



CHAPTER XXni 
Compai-ison. 

The comparison is formed by adding "^J} to the positive and 
the vowel is sometimes olian|ied. 

Examples, 

nnb long- ^OT^ longer 

l]fm heavy 1J?']J?1?I2^ heavier 

?j'»tp deep 1S?fl''lD deeper 

p^^^p small "^J^^y^^p smaller 



24 



The following adjectives are irregular, 



good 




better 


the best 


tD^:i 




"lyDJ''! 


ij;*^p>*3 t;! 


high 




higher 


the highest 


Tin 




"^Vp^ 


nj?ap?j?n ^y^ 


great 




greater 


the greatest 


D'lip 




-lypyn: 


-lyDDy^J IJ/'T 


much 




more 


most 


by^l 




invt2 


j?lDp"'''0 




nearer 




the nearest 


i2 -ij?nj?i or 


("i>'!2ij;nx3) "ij/'apa^'j ij?n 



TTien after comparatives is D^J<* 
In' comparing equals as is ^*|1 or ''iTX» 

Cardinals are un declined but the declinable form V^*^H, y^^^H is 
used with nouns instead of DJ^'*^?♦ 

The following example shows how compound numbers arc written, 

♦]nj;s ]i.s naVH-j n^s 4010 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Adverbs. 

t'HD3''''H once Djy^^e^nX; i'ir^^tly 

bKD'*''»nS twice D3yb'"»11X secondly 



25 



^HD'^nT thrice 
^KD*1J?'»S four times 
DjyOpij?n at the most 
Muitiplicatives. 
-jKSi"''»K onefold 
"|K|''»'»11X twofold 
aSySKT double 
'^S*I3.'''»1*1 threefold 
declined as adjectives. 



Diyann thirdly 
Dij?^")!?''^ fourthly 

and fractionals. 

V'im DHT the whole 

Djii^Xn ]'»•!'« one half 

^j;i^n/7 ]'''»« one third 

a^KHD^ynaK one and a half 

decline as nonns» 



IXHfi H a pair 

T T - 

Variatives. 
•»'»^^nj?3''*'K of one kind 

''''!?*!'P''1}^' of two kinds 
■^I^^IV!?^ of all kinds 



NUMERALS. 

1 Cardinals. 
Di^^H one (p^K. yj^-'H) 

•»'»1i:^ two 
^•J^IT three 
*1J?*>S four 
t^yb five 
Dp^Tsix 

]y3J?\T seven 

. h::}t^ eight 



p^3 nine 
]ny^ten 
?|7!S^ eleven 
rj^yjlV twelve 
]nj;X*»n1 thirteen 
iny'^nj?^ fourteen 
]nj?X|{B fifteen 
jnypyT sixteen 
]nj;S];3''T seventeen 



26 



inySDS eigiiteeii 
tnj?X3"^'»i nineteen 
,5^S3N1i:^ twenty 
J-^^SJKn:^ pn j^\S twenty one 
J'»XiK1li]^K '^m twenty two 
* 3''D'»nn thirty 
i^nyS forty 
J'^^S^S .fifty 
a'^YiVT sixty 
Jl^Sj?3n seventy 
J'^sii? eighty 
J'*X3''^3 ninety 
a'ly^a^n hundred 

a hundred and one 



D'lpnj^n ''••nX two hundred 

etc. 

13J?T*»1tD a thousand 

a thousand and one 
etc. 

13j;pil2 ''*»]11t two thousand 

|H'»^''P K a milhon 

are decHned hke tlie def, article. 

2 Ordinals. 

lyae^'ij^ ij?n the or^t 

*iyB''*'»lili: " the .second 
1J/^''*1"I " the tMrd 
^ The following- Ordinalt^. are formed by adding the suffix ytS tc. 
the Cardinal until nineteen, from there until thousand add the suffix 
J?1DD to the Cardhials. 



N. 

a. 

D. 
A. 



CHAPEER XXY. 

Proiioxins. 

1. Personal pv6nouns. 

Singular First person. Plural 

y^ I n-'D or -\^)) we 

*T»D to me |3^i^ to u.> 

-]'»D me ni« us 



27 





Singular 


Second person 


Plural 


N. 


n thou 




irr^K you 


G. 


I'H' ^l^^V^l ^^ ^"""^ 


iy'»''H of you 


D. 


'T'T to thee 




y'^i^ to you 


A. 


yn thea 


Third person Singular 


"!'''•« you 




Masc. 


Fern. 


Neuter 


N. 


IV he 

V 


n slie . 


D» it 


a. 


^IJ^p/n of him 


nj;'in^&5 of her 


nj?3;n of it 


D. 


C/T^K to him 


nn''H to her 


tiri'^N to it 


A. 


Drr^^ Mni 


n her 


or it 



Third person Plural 

Masc., fern., neuter. 

N. ••n they 

G. V^V*^]} of them 

1). "]'''»8 to them 
A. '»'»t them 

The third person reflexive pronoun is y^ for the Ace. and Dat. 
of all genders and both numbers. 

The reciprocal personal pronoun iy*13K3"'^N (one another) is not 
declined, viz. nj;n3W^">K tD'^O. ]y|p'»*nb!?^ 
They fight with one another. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

The adjectival possessive pronouns are used with nouns -a^id de- 
clined like the indefinite article p^t«5 or ^t 



O 

C 



28 



Singular Plural 

Masc. Fem* Neuter 

•jMj yji^l l*!**^ yj'Ji] his, its 

in'»^5 j?nn^K IiT^k j;nn^« iier 

i^^''« y!}^'^ '^??'''**'^ ybr'''^ y^^^ 

Plural form of '[''''D, t**^*! and p^T with the article prefixed. 

Mas. Fern, Neuter 

1J?-5*»r\p nj;i yjJT'^ H P.^''3/%P DNT mine 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 

are both used, substantively and adjectively. 

1 lyi '•T DK*F that, this, the, one, he, she, it 

lyi^T J?.iyn OJJty^n this, this one 

^V^yi V}T., DJ?lj;^ that, that one 

IVD^ST J?3^«T DJ?5b«T such 

These are declined like the det article, tvery *1J?*7J?'» with the 
noun. 



29 



Masc. Feiiu Neuter 

2 Every being Every woman Every child 

lyij/*' without a noun, 
Masc. Fern. 

N. lynynj.;;: V^y^V', 

When the pronoun D^^^T (used subslantivol}') occuis with a pre- 
position, the tollowing contraction takes place. 

with it t^'^t^^l in it ]n{<"T 

through it "j^HH^ out of it, from it D'»1*l8T 

of it, from it Vlbi^l at it ]i<'^K'T 

for it *1^£81 over it, about it 1j;anNl 

to it ^^Kn 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

iyp>yij yph:;]) ^VP^V]) which of, who, whicir 

1P7 n D^?"T who, which 



30 



INTEeHOGATIVB PRONOUNS. 





^^ i!;\i 


who ? 






G. Dj?oyii 


whose ? 






^- iP?yij 


to whom ? 






A. ]j;,^j;ii 


whom ? 






Mas. 


Feai- 


JTeuter 


N. 


■^^^^PIT 


y ?!^>\} 


DJ?0J?11 


G. 


^V'^'PV'^} 


^V^^V^!} 


DJ?3bj?\} 


I). 


Dj;o>yii 


^v:;im. 


Di?5i?yi.} 


A. 


lv'^>j;ii 


V^7V^] 


Dy"?^J?^3 



DX11 ^vhat ? 



PUiral 

which of, and what sort of. 
INDEB'INITE PPvONOUNS. 

*13SDJ?'» somebody, someone 1>?r^pJiobody, no one, none 

DSIIti^y sometliing DtDD**! nothing 

T : V ; ; • 

OypV something 13>^TN somewiiere 

dechned as usuaL 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

rmpersoiial V^erbs. 

tD"i'''P3 DS!J it hghtens 

t^nyni? D2? it freezes 

t2i/*2?3w^* DV it snows 

i-lSyJ Dl^ then' is, are 



31 

IMPERSONAL PHRASES. 

]:2y £2^ an J?11 D^ it gets late 

^^Kp„ rn D» it is cold 

Q'isn p^ 0^ it is warm, hot 



CHAPTER XXVIL 

Adverbs. 



Adverbs oE place ^^11 answering to questions. 

To be in a place To come from a place towards the speaker 

nj?\n here l^.^^ ,ny^'1>'^7 here, hither 

^"^^1 there 'lynK'^ there, hence 

: T ^ V T ' 

'jJ?3''1S upstairs j'^nH, '[''n^H (come) in 

|j;tD3^8 down, below D'^IIH, D''1'1>?n (<-ome) out 

and the i'ollovving. 
.'?K1J?3*'X everywhere ^?J^*P.l'^ nowhere 

DipSy"! on (to) the right Dpi''? on (to) the left 

ibinHB in front ]j;tOrn behind 

Adverbs of time, answering to questions 

mV'^Whow long Dpnyri at first 

Y;^) when •^>'>"'2^'^* at, last 

p|>S5 ^11 how oErcMi S^-t:"^^ always 

D-^'ry jb now r:^srypy navcv 

"l^*n^^^ afterwards *]S3 still, yet 

"I'^S^ soon y')^" alrea<ly 



32 



Adverbs of Manner •'11 how 

^iTK, NT thus / j;p^n ij?5^^p^^;i i"^i^'i»j 

DIJ/HaS otherwise 

PV?. ^^^J"i"8"ly IJ^P^l'i^ together 

J^^ySlS accidentally , :i3''Sx^?S suddenly 

Adverbs of Cause, Motive. 

ni*l8T therefore ^^i^t! ^^^" ^^^*^ 

S^i^npJ?'^, ]j;jj;i1Qpy7^ on that account 



CHAPTER XXVIIL 

Conjunctions. 

nmr ]^K and nj?3H but 

"]'»1^^ also 1^3 ia'»3 not only 

SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. 

•»13 in Older to i^l??''''^ ^"^^^ 

*:>'»'>^1 because 2''1K if? whether 

CHI ^i? so that V2 until 
*1SBJ?3 before 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Interjections. 

n^, 1^, "]i^ well, well, all, alas n>11 "^IK ah woe is nie 

yp nasty ^??"?2'*! >'??'* ^''''''' ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^'^^^ 

n)s\ij;i alarm. 



33 

CHAPTER XXX 

Construction. 

The Construction of words may be arrHiiged in three ways. 

1, Direct order: Subject- verb, finite, adjuncts. 

2, Inverted order : verb finite, subject, adjuncts. 

3, Subordinate order : Subject, adjuncts, verb finite. 

1. Direct ord^r verb finite subject 

the sun is shining 
Adjuncts verb sub, 

found book the have T 

I have found the book 

2. Inverted order subject, verb fin. adjunct. 

not it was nice 

it was not nice 

3« Subordinat order 

verb adjuncts subject 

been ill is he because come could not (had) he 

he could not come because he was ill 



34 



Day? of the week. 
Sunday " JIH^^iKJ 

Monday J^S^JHD 

Tuesday ^S^^DaV^ 



Wednesday •]X11tp"»tt 

Thursday JXtDDnyjHn 
T : : V T 

Friday .*lHtO^**'1£ 

T - : 

Saturday n^W 





Months of the y 


ear in Yiddish. 




January 


-)i55iN: 


July 


'hv 


February 


iNnaye 


August 


topiJ-iN 


March 


rii 


September 


1J^|D:?a£J?D 


April 


tinsN 


October 


•ij?|»<^p« ' 


May 


^Ktt 


November 


-ij;|prij»<j 


•June 


>iv 


December 


"ijripyxj/n 



Months in Hebrew, 
reckoned from new moon 



]D'»3 of April Neh 2 : 1 
n**^*^ of May 

|VD of June 
nm of July 

i}«$ of August 
b^^H of September 



nirr! of October 
Y]Wr\ of November 
)yp2 of December 
HDS of January 
£3512'* of February 
TlH of Marcli 



35 



PART 11. 



EXERCISES. 





KxEliGISE 1. 




• 


UH .%S ,^ 


.1 .J? /^ 






.M— Q 


•a 




Mother {Mama) 




Matne 


yo«a 


Aunt 




Mume 


yaio 


A Mother 




A Mame 


yoxo K 


An Aunt 




A Mume 


yoie K 


Him 




Im 


D'H 


A defect 




A Mum 


mo K 




Exercise 2. 






,^^K /IK 


,\'' ^'•l 






.8H-~ 


-2? 




Hush ! 




Sha 


m 


Mishe {Name M) 




Mishe 


vjy^o 


Mushe {Name^ F) 




Mushe 


ysj'io 


Oh! Ah! 




Oi 


'IK 


Mashe {Name, F) 




Mashe 


J?5?X0 


Ah! Ay! Hey! 




Ai 


'^K 


Brass 




Mesh 


Ji^yD 


A noise 




A Shuin 


DItP K 



36 



Aunt Sime 
A shot 
A measure 
Sashe, shoot ! 
Mishe's measure 
Mashe s nurse 



Old woman 
G-randmother 



A bite 

Bite, lancheon 

By 

Tree 



Grruel, Porridge 

Treasury, Safe -box 

Scythe 

Come 

Sausage, Hose 

Sap-Juice 

Cheek 



EXEKCISE 3. 

•N S-D 

Mume Sime 
A Shoss 
A Moss 
Sashe, Shiss 
Mishes Moss 
Mfishes Am 

Exercise 4. 

Babe 
Bobe 



A Biss 
Bais 
B^i 
Boim 

Exercise 5. 
•K-p . 
Kashe 



Kosse 
Kum 
Kishke 
Sok 

Bak 









ycNp 

J?p!^*'p 
pKD 

P«5 



37 



Comb 




Kam 




Q^p 


Gaiter 




Kamash 




B^KDNp 


Sabre 




Shashke 




Ppi^'KS'* 


Mask 




Maske 




Vpo^ti 


Basket 




Koshik 




p^mp 




Ex-EECIBE 6. 








.^%S 


..V ><^— 3 






Go 




Gei 




'^3 


Give 




Gib 




i'; 


Bend 




Beig 




j**a 


Street 




Gass 




DHJ 


May 




, Meg 




2VD 


Pastry 




Gebeks 




cpv^vi 


Bend out 




Beig ois 




D^IK j^^a 


Pour out 




Gis ois 




Dn« c: 


liub out, erase 




'Mek ois 




D-1K pj?0 


Bake him tasty pastries 




Dpv2r^ 


ypN\^ti'*y:i D\S pK2 






gebeks 


g<»j; 


itiinake iui Bak 


Mashe, give him Change' 




T 


D-N a'J rJ^mD 






oisgob 


im gib MaKh<> 




Exi 


CRCISE 7. 






A frame 




A ram 




DN1 » 


Siberia 




Sibir 




'i-'^-D 


Krookod 




Krum 




Dnp 


-Eggs 




Eier 




ny«« 



3« 



Ear 


Oier 


ly^iN 


Your 


Aier 


IT'^ 


Trees 


Boimer 


1J?D^U 


Magpies 


Sarokes 


Dj?p«n»D 


Better 


Bessere 


ynycyn 


Marble 


Marmor 




Besides me 


Oisser mir 


TD nj?D'i« 


Give me beer 




yn rD 2'^ 

bir mir Gib 


Large pits 


lyanj j?d"'1"ij 




Griber Groisse 


Give lue postage-stamps 


^ 


D^pnKO -I'D y: 

Markess mir gih 


Aunt, give me a knife 


fyoj?!: K n^a 3^:1 .j?did 




messer 


a nair gib Mume 




Exercise 8. 




CH 


(German)—,^ ,3 




Books 


Bicher 


-1p'2 


Quick/ Quickly 


Gicher 


"lp'3 


A Cup, a Goblet 


A Beeher 


1>Oy3 K 


I 


Ich 


-]'« 


You 


Aicb 


"j-'X 


Also 


Oich 


yMi 


Smoke 


Roich 


-]")! 


Cook 


Kocb 


w 


Kitcben 


Kicb 


r? 



39 



A big smoke 
Give him a book 

1 make large goblets 
Send me books quickly. 
I give yoQ tasty pastries 



Wet 

Nuts 
A Nun 
Name;^ 
■Machine 
Kings 
1 know her husband 

^[other, crack nuts 

Can an ailing person eat ? 

Give nie an egg quickly 

Take a bucket from him 



loich groiser A 
bucii a im Gib 

c-iyDyn yo'n: "jnd ya 

becliers groise mach Ich 

; biclier gicher mir Shik 

gebeks geslimake aich gib Ich 
Exercise 0. 
■N-,1 ,3 



Nasse 




yDX3 


Niss 




D'3 


None 




v:^y 


Nemen 




]j?ap 


Mashin 




i''jN,t: 


Ringen 




jpjn 




|KD 


■i\s ]vp yn 




man 


ir ken Ich 




C'2 pHip ,pOKt3 




iiiss 


knak Mame 



y pcj; K^jytt iyp3xnp n pp 

essen mensh kranker a Ken 

an%ii gicher mir Gib 

aii'enier im bai - Nem 



40 



Give me a large goblet 



bedier m'oisen a mir Gib 







ExEKcise 10. 








.F— :] ,^ ,P-^,£ 




A girdle, a 


belt 


A pass 


D«S « 


A drum 




A poik 


P')Lj N 


A pen 




A pen 


y;B K 


Vin&k (Russia?) toum) Pinsk 


pDi'£i 


A pan 




A fan 


]i<B N 


A flag 




A fon 


i«s ^? 


A barrel 




A fass 


DH^ K 


Fine 




Faine 


v^^^^ 


Fish 




Fish 


Z^'B 


To dde 




Foren 


jP?^ 


Buy 




Koif 


^TP 


Edge of a knife 


Sharf 


^im 


Ship 




Shif 


rj^&* . 


Sheep 




Shof 


W 


A letter 




ABrif 


rjnn « 


Sharpen my knife 






messer main on Sharf 


A fine person 






mensh fainer A 



It is possible to buy on trust 



I am riding on the boat 



borg oif koifen ken Men 

pjiCJ^ I'fi^lK IKS yn 
Shif oif'n. for Idi 



4t 



Nice people are arriving 
Send me a letter quickly 

Bring a pen quickly 
Bring nie some pens 

from the shop to-morrow 

Buy me some fresh fish 

in the market to-morrow 

After a meal stroll about 



menshen faine on kumen Es 

brif a gieher mir Shik 

pen a gieher Breing 
penes morgen mir Breing 

csnp ]is 

krojii fun 
mark oif'n morgen mir Koif 
fish frishe 

arum gei an esen Noch 





ExEltCIvSE 11. 






.H- 


-.n .T-,D 




Ink 




Tint 


tDJ'^tS 


Daughter 




Tochter 


nr^n^iD 


A saucepan 




A top 


T "" 


A father 




A tate 


T^m N 


lias 




Hot 


ttisn 


To-day . 




Haint 


tay\n 


You don.t know more 


ihan I 


11:5*3 


ItDDjyp I^D |1£ 1J?0 






nit 


kenstu mir fun Mer 


Don't come late 






aysB^ a' J Dip 

Slipet nit Kum 



42 



T liave had pleasure 
My motlier has brought 



fergenigen gehat hob Ich 

gebracht - mame main hot Haint 
good news to-day D^^^H J?t313 

nais gute 

My good inkstands will be j?r'»a I'^Q (JTO tD:»3'»n:2 C3''*'n 

maine niir men breingt Haint 
brought to me to-day DIJ/tSJ'^tD J?aiJ 

tinters gute 
Send me an answer to-night ^J?|)D3J?'3H ^5^3 '''♦1 tta^'^T ^0 p^'C* 

an'entfer nacht bai haint mir Shik 
from my daughter "lytDlDkSa ]''•'» ]1S 
tochter main fun 



An open door does not bring 
any good 



nit breingt tir Au'ofene 





guts kain 






EXEKCISE 12. 






.^-♦T 




Sweet 


Ziss 


on 


Summer 


Zumer 


njroi? 


They 


Zei 


^n 


Myself 


Zich 


V 


Must 


Muz 


no 


Ice 


Aiz 


n'^K 



43 



Cheese 
Us 
His boots lire not i>'ood 



Kez tj?p 

Unz tll.^ 

gute kain nit zainen s'lioh Zaine 

taier kosfen on 

iiror I'^x ]*'n ?•»» "i\s* *'^:s 

slitub in rein iz ir Bai 

y)n 'm tD^j yip 

s^ hoich azoi nit Krich 

aiz men koift . Zumer 

kez gute farkoifen Zei 
He is fn^quently our guest aDS*:i nj?ID3K J8 T3^X ''^i T\S ly 

gast an'ofter unz bai iz Kv 
We eount liim as tDJp>nnS*S T31X ^'''n T\S* Ij; 

farrechent unz bai iz Er 
one oC ourselves |J?^;^J?0 D^^J^JI^^H'J^ ^^f S 

menshen an'eigenem far 



and cost dearly 
it is clean in her house 
Don't climb so high 
i(*e is bought in the suimner 
They sell good (^heese 





EXKRCISE L3. 






.L- 


~.b 




Life 




Leben 


]V:iVb 


Light, Candle 




Licht 


i^yb 


Candlestick 




Laichter 


'■iV'f^yb 


A lion 




A Leib 


a^^b K 



44 



A ladder 


A leiter 


Weak 


Shlaf 


Sleep 


Shlof . 


Synagogue, School 


Shul 


Mouth 


Moil 


Lazy 


Foil 


Alone 


Alein 


Small, little 


Klein 


Apple 


Epel 


Old 


Alt 


Cold 


Kalt 


Chalk 


Kalch 


like sweet tea 





Candles are not dear to-day 

He is a weak person 

A lazy person sleeps late 

To deep lute is unhealthy 

My father is not lazy 

To-morrow, to-morrow 
says the lazy person 



b'')E> 
bvsiV 

l07Xp 

'^ID >'Dn 2'b ax.l "]\s 

tei zitse lib hob Ich 

taier nit haint iz Licht 

mensh shlafer a iz Er 

shpet shloft niensh toiler A 

ungezund iz shpet Shlofon 

b'<}b tD-j f« J?Q^<ts ]-'a. 

foil nit iz tate Main 
toiler a zogt morgen Morgen 



45 



To sleep to-day and do to morrow |^}a |jrj1N*0 pX iJ/^fiS^r^tS^* aj^ST 

ton niorgen iin shlofen Hjiinr 



Obey your parents 



l^our.s 
To iiire 
Thanks 
Gold 
Cur, 
Both 
Separate 
Brother* 
The evil person says 



Exercise 14. 
Dai no 



eheren daine Foljr 



Dingen 

Dank 

Gold 

Slniaid 

Beide 

Baznnder 

Brider 



zogt nieiish , shlecliter Dei- 
"Yours is mine, and mine — DJ^'O IIX /DJ''^t3 fX— D3''''T 

mains un mains iz Dnins 

T 

niains nor iz 
nit un licht iz Bildung 
fiiisterniss iz .bildung 



is mine oidy.'' 

Kdneation is light, and no 

ediication is darkness. 
None are possessed 
of both. 



lii einem in Beidt 

T 

keinenr bai nito 



46 



I am altoofetlier unable to 



bear so ]imch. 



What 

Cheap 

Word 

To want 

Far 

Winter 

To cry 

Wine 

Few, Httle 

White 



Why don't you eonj< 



13X125*^ yn a'3 -is; y^ ys 

shtand in nit gor bin Ich 
fil azoi trogen 



Exercise 15. 

.v-Tl . 

Yoss . 

Volvel 

Vort 

Vellen 

Yait 

Vinter 

Vein en 

Vain 

Veinig 

Vais 



iber 



tD-!xn 



)"n 

nit kuinatu vops Far 

J should like to see you in t2*» "jn ]ynyT ]y?yn ts'^xn i-s 

-(Hr niit zich zehen vellen volt I(.-]i 
What is cheap, is dear "^p^t^ T'^K t5j?'n':'KTI DNII 

taier iz volvel V(^c^i; 
Later on it will be cheaper ^J? ■:^J/n':'J?11 ]'•''? 10^11 nJ;^DJ/£t^• 

velveler zain vet Shpeter 
The apple falls not far D'tU ^"^^ tD'"**'!! ^^J tO^KS bV^^V ^V^ 
from the tree bcnm fun vait nit fait epel Der 



47 



DonH cry, it is Lmhealtliy 13nj?331« ?*»« Dj; /t^^^'l l^**!! 

ungezund iz es nit Vein 
Keep yonr word and yon y^K *T'1 |j;a SDJ/m 10^^11 IHS ^bm 
alle dir men vet vort nor Halt 
will always be believed |i;i''l'?J b^tO) 

gioibcn mol 
If the winter h warm, the ^ ]J?rn D>?n^n nj?tD3"'n 1J/1 T'^H 

di :^ainen varein vinter der Iz 

orem dorfslait 



villagers are poor 










Exercise 10. 






.TZ- 


-r '^ 


Time 






Tzait 


Sugar 






Tzuker 


Onion 






Tzibele 


Salt 






Zaltz 


G-rease, 


fat 




Shmaltz 


Ail, everything 




Altz 


A cat 






A katz 


With meat salt, fat, 


,r^KT 


tM«n r 






zaltz lioben men bedarf fleisb IV.u 
po,ppe.}' and onions are required y^Jj/^i'lf ]1H "lJ?SyS .f '?KDB^ 

tzibele un fefer shmaltz 
Time can alter everything ]J?3J<0*1J?a"'« fh^ ]J?p I2'"'S H 

ibermachen altz ken tzait D 



48 



New times— new songs ^^^T'*? >''''i— ]>t2''*^X ^^''J 

lider naie tzaiten Naie 

Everything is good, but only D'»'»:t nj/l ]^^5 n^51 tDlj T'*S ]*b^ 

in its time tzait der in nor gut iz Altz 

A cat can also spoil things jyDXtt V'^^p T^^ ]Vp f *^^*p ^ 

nuxchen kalie oich ken katz A 
Fr^^ni excessive eating of sugar y;T;)) ,|>*D>' T;pri b''^ ])t 

voren es.^en tzuker fil Fini 
bad teeth are developed y^'i J/DSy':'!!* 

tzein shlechte 
ExKRcrsE 17. 

Horse-radish Ohre)n l^'^IH 

To catcli, to hurry Chapen ]ySk^n 

Kherson (Russian town) Cherson |k*sD*1J?n 

Kharkoff {Russian town) Oharkov 1*lNp*lKn 

Horse-radish is good for 2/ ''''':'£ tD\t2 ]yD>? Ti QU T^ ]''''*in 

eating with meat fleish mit essen tzu gut iz Chrein 

Kharkoff and Kherson are J?D^n: ]>^rn ]XDn>*n ]1X IIS^pHXH 

groisse zainen Cherson un Charkov 

large towns in Russia ^i^st5D^ ]^^? t2*lVt2S^* 

Eusshmd in shtedt 
It is no use to hurry a thing £^^3 ^''V^ "jXT X ]J?BS*n 

nifc toig zach a Chapen 
A woolf was caught yesterday Tpm N aSKSJ?:! IJTt^iDyj tDJjn ]pi2 

volf a gechapt techten hot Men 
not far from Kherson ]«D*1J?n \\h D'''»11 "s:^*^! ' 

Cherson fun vait nit 



49 






Exercise 18. 

Yes Yo, ye 

To chase Yogen 

Yoke Yoch 

Jew Yud 

Jewish Yudishe 

Colonies Kolonyes 

In some places they say "yo" ''^\, |j;0 tOJNT IJ^^iy jrj'»r\S j'^S 

"yo" men zogt erter einige In 

and in others they say "ye" 'JJ?\, y^Q tOJ.ST lytOlilf J?nj;n3K ]\S ]1X 

"Ye" men zogt erter andere in im 

He pulls the yoke upon himself ,"T"*t »n''1X *li<^ DJ?T DSJ?'?^'* 1J? 

zich oif yoch dera shlept Er 
like an ox in the plough share ^J?pK ]^X DpX'^K ''1V 

aker in an'oks vi 

fil do zainen Palestina In 

Kolonyes yudiwhe 

EXEKCISK 19. 

.,T ,m ,ny ,nN 

Year Yohr *inX'' 

T 

More Uehr *int?D 

Honour E/ire J^IHy 



In Palestine there are many 



Jewish Colotiies 



*) This tcord is equently wn^^e/t t?2^^T»X (^i she). 



5« 



A watch 
Rest 
To feel 
Early 
Dear 
Honour is much dearer 



Rnh 
Yihlen 
Wih 
Thaiev 



nn 

nns 



t/iaierer fil iz . EAre 

geld far 

fri^ ze/?r oif immer shteA Ich 

alt iz foter Zeier 

yoAr fertzig 

gut ze/ir haint zich fiM Icli 
His watch has ceased going ]nj?J IS l:D1J?nj?2S''1K SXH imX l-^n, 
geAn tzu oifgehert hot u^r Zain 



than money 
I always rise very early 
Their father is forty 

years old 
I feel very well to-day 



Exercise 20 








,TSH— tt'a 








To bear, to tolerate Tsherpen 


qvi'^b) 


]yfinj?tt't5 


To touch Tshepen 






]j?svtj?a 


Kail Tshwak 






pK'nB''t3 


To torment, to torture Mutshen 






]yB?aio 


A slap A patsh 






troKfi K 



51 



Cloak 


piashtdi ^^^aa^x^s 


To sew carelessly 


Shtshoben ]J?3X^*Dt^* 


1 eannot tolerate liim 


]j;aij?tya a^i dhss ]j;p 7X 




tsherpen nit ihm ken Ich 


He drove a nail 


psna^t^ K ]j?aH^tyj?irnK t^xn rj 




tshvak a araiiigeshlogen hot Er 


into the wall 


nm) ]^« 




vand in 


In the rain it is well to wear ]J?j^$ia ]t 013 T''X ]V^V'^ j**^ 




trogen tzu gut iz regen In 


a cloak 


ts'tstrx'^s s 




plashtsii a 


I slapped him well, 


aa*aK£y:3K Qli DH^K iHH "[ns* 




ODgepatsht gut iAm hob Ich 


because he insulted me t23''*^'»'^t^HD "|''D DHH 1J? b'^'^)) 




baleidigt mich hot er vail 




Exercisb: 21. 




.ZH— a^T 


Eascal, pickpocket 


zhuhk p'^bw^ 


To pity, to spare 


Zhaleven lyilJJ^^S/n 


Frog 


Zhal)e j;iH&n 


Baggage, luggage 


Bagazh m^i^2 


Pluckj bravery 


Kurazh tTTH^p 



Rascals do not possess too much t5j?'»31Tt tS'^J |P«n Dj;p''^1t!?? 

tzufiel nit hoben Zhulikes 

pluck a*T«Tip 

kurazh 



52 



1 will leave my luggage jJ^nNt'^yn^X ST ^K b]!)) a*TS*:iK3 p%t2 

liere iberlozen do ich vel bagazh Main 

The French eat frogs DJJ^St^T ]yDJ? IJ^fl^JSIS H 

zhabes essen frantzoizen Di 
I did not spare anything ta>*nj?'?X&'tP tS'-J IK: IXH -["X 

ge halevet nit gor hob Ich 
and gave him all |>i>*3>?J D>*^X DH'^H ^KH ])H 

Exercise 22. 

X ,1 •• ,1 .- J .• ,v ,. 
Young man, bachelor Bocher (BocMir) IIHS 

T 

Only son Ben yochid 1*'n** 13 

• T I V 

Arithmetician Baal cheshb'n ( Cheshhoin) ]^^^T] ^ J?3 

Business, affair Eisek pDl? 

A dream Cholem (Choloim) DltTi 

T 

Ready money, cash M'zumen (Jkfzumon) IQITD 

Insane, mad M'shuge (M^shvgo) W^t^D 

Canopy Chupe (Chvpv) nSH 

New year's day Kosh hashono n35I^'n ^ti'l 

TT - 

He is a great arithmetician ]12C^n t5>3 T>D^11J i^ T^K 1J? 

cheshb'n baal groisser a iz Er 
The beginning of the year is called •»"»3 tDD'^NT TnH'* 3'»'»n:iS *1 J^T 

bai heist yoAr onheib Der 
by Jews ''liosn Hashono" n3wrn"5^*{*^1 ]yiV 

Hashono Rosh yuden 
The business is not bad ^2]!bU iD'^J T'^i< pDJ? IJ/T 

shlecht nit iz eisek Der 



S3 



An only sou is called a -T^n^ |a ^ ^Q^^f] ]nit nj?i^S3^*'«'3;K 

"]'>eii Yochid" yochid ben a heist zuhn an^eintziger 

i have had a good dream dSn ]J?D13 Jlf DHH^ ^K 2m JD^ %"1 

to-day cliolem guten a gehut ich hob llaint 

It is advisable to sell cheaply t'^llt^^ll IJ/t*'''':' 1S 1>D^''^IT''X DJ? 

volvel leizen tzu glaicher iz Es 

and only for ready cash n^j;j |,^?|T0 t^'^VA "IS*3 

geld in'zumen oif lior 
Me is not mad, he is quite ^^^p |^iK: T\S n>* .);m'D D^3 TX ly 

sane klor gantz iz er m'shuge nit iz Er 





] 


KxEReiSE 23. 












.T- 


<w n 








Book of Psalms 






Thihm 






Q'br\n 


Always, constant 






Toinid 






Ton 


Aj)8vver, Excuse 






Teretz 


(Ter> 


rutz) 


pi^n 


Powerful, influentia 


.1 man 


Takif 






•Tpi 


Student, scholar, pu 


ipil 




Talmid 






rDbn, 



School of religious lore Talmud-toire i^torah) HI W l^D^n 

T , : ~ 

Why are you always confused? ? ]j;:ii«i:D1S IV^n 122D'»i DKITIKS 

tzutrogen torn id bistu Farvos 
He has a ready answer ^ DrT'X ^^3 T^X f ^X ?1*»1X 

do ihm bai iz altz Oif 
for everything Y^'^'^K) ^>0^***^J K 

teretz greiter a 
lie is very influential to-day iV*pF\ plXtSty Q3''^^ I'^X IJ? 

takif shtark haint iz Er 



54 



The teacher says that my 
brotlier is a good scholar 



Our house is not far 



Rebe der zogt bruder main Oif 
tahiiid guter a iz er az 

a'^^ii a*'3 t^'S nn nrtsix 

vait nit iz hoiz Unzer 
from the School of religious lore nnW l^^b^ "IJ/H ]1S 

toire talmud der fun 
He knows the whole Book j^3*»'^nD'»1H D'^S'li? ]j;S3J<:i DJ/T ]yD IV 
of Psahiis by heart oisveinig thilim gantzen dem ken Er 

Exercise 24. 



Prayer-shawl 
End, result 
Bridegroom 
Troubles, aggravations 
Blessings, benedictions 
Pleasure, delight 
For the present 



•-(D) n 

Talles (taliis) n^jPO 

Tachles (tachlis) ri''?2ri 

Chos'n (choson) VTT^ 

Tzoress (izoroiss) TSTSt 

Brochess (brochoiss) ri13*l3 

Nachas 11113 



L*es ate (aio) 



r\F\v-r\vb 



gekoift hot feter Main 

n**^? DJ73J?T'T K 
talles zaideneni a 
What will be the result Vn^^aPl "lj?"t ]^n DJ?1 ]1S tSyil DKll 
of it? tachles der zain dem fun vet Vos 



My uncle bought 

a silk prayer-shawl 



55 



My brother became a bridegroom ]yni^1iy: ?•»« nj?in2 ^^^^ 

gevoren iz briider Main 
(engaged to be niari-ied) ]nn K 

chos'n a 
I have great aggravation tliat DJ?T ]12 Tll^ J?D*'n:( iKH "^^H 

dem fan tzoress groisse hob Teh 
the mother does not write JS^'J 1XJ Q^'^nS/ J?a^ia ''I DJ^II 
anything nit gor shraibt mame di ■ vos 

Rosh TTashono is celebrated H |J?0 Q^KM n3&*n"!iS'*H1 

di men halt hashono Rosh 
on the first two days of the '[''^ Jj;^ '^''TIX J?^t!^1>? 

in icg tzvei ershte 
month of Tishri '»15J'*n S^Hn 

Tishrei choidesh 
The Rabbi blessed my sister |^^D tS2^3J/3>'3 2^/1 ''S^ 1J?T 

main gebensht hot Rebe Der 
with many blessings nii13 J/t'I/'^S ^^''D 1J?t!SDJ/n2^ 

brochess fiele mit shvester 
Grandfather has much pleasure p£ riH^ '!?J?''S DKH J^T'''T *1j?T 

fun naches fiel hot zeide i)er 
from the letters which he |^^ DH^'X Du^p Di^^H ?]j;*'"1Il ^ 
on ihm kumt vos brief di 
receives from America HD*'*1L*DH IIS 

America fun 
For the present no letter has ?]I?''"12 ^''p *{K3 f'X iinX^TS^^ 

brief kain noch iz L'eis-ate* 
yet arrived |J?01pP3.S b''j 

ongekumen nit 



56 





Exp:rcise 25. 








.K-(p) 3 






Anger, wrath 


Kaas 




D!?3 


Day of Atonement 


Yoim Kipper (Kippur) T 


I23-D1- 


Properly prepared 


Kosher {Kosheir) 




•■ T 


Almost 


Kimat 




C»C3 


Cups, goblets 


Koises {Koisois) 




mob 


Utensils 


Keilim 




D-'pS 


Soon, immediately 


Teikef 




^ri 


She is angry to day 


D»3 ]\s ar 


'M rS N" 




kaas in 


hnint zi zi 



Jews fast on the Day of Atonementn^Sa'CV D1S ]>!^Di<S ]>n^^ 

yoim-kipper um fasten Iden 
I am almost twenty tS^X "in«^ 2^X3*?11^ tD^M ^^^ pD ^K 
years old alt yo/ir tzvantzig kimat shoin bio Ich 

We have very fine goblets HlDlS: ^^"'^ irty ? HT T^X T31J< '"»2 
koises faifie zeAr do iz unz Bai 
We bought new utensils D^^^ J?^'»3 tDS'^Ipp j>/3Kn *1\!: 

keihm naie gekoift hoben Mir 
I will come to you immediately ; ]j;<!:51p IH l^i? '^''^5 ^>*11 r|3"»ri 

kuinen dir tzu ich vel Teikef 
wait for me I'^O ^'1S t:"}^^ 

mir oif vart 
Jews may eat only such things J?^^J;T^^ "113 ]>;D>* ]jrj>*-t: ]>n\S* 

azelche nur essen megcn Ideu 
that.are properly prepared 1*^*3 j>r"*T j;3^y11 |>38t 

kosher zainen velche zachen 



57 





Exercise 26. 






.v-^di) n 




Mourner 


Ov'l (oveil) 




Week of mourning 


Shive (shivo) 


T • • 


Wealthy man 


Gvir 


1*33 


Strength, heroism 


Gvure {gvuro) 


T : 


Debt, duty 


Choiv 


am 


Fat, suet 


Cheiiev 


^^.n 


Favorj service 


Toive, {toivo) 


naia 



The mourner is celebrating the week TORUS'* ISX^T 73S "nvT 

of mourning Shive zitzt ov'l D^r 

He is a very wealthy man y*2^ 1>?D'»n3 5< T'*^^ "IJ? 

gvir groisser a iz Er 

Her strength is beyond |J?n''ntr J?3 IS ^'•3 T^« nni3J n/T'K 

description beshraiben tzu nit iz gvure \hv 

He does not hke to pay ^IH J? ]>?^n«Sj;2 Xi 2^^ Q^3 OStn ")>• 

a debt choiv a hetzoAIen tzu lieb nit hot Er 

Candles are made of fnt ^^H ]1S ]Jfit5 ODKp ^S**"? 

cheiiev fun men macht Licht 
He rendered us a trui^ n3lD ^'nfiH'JH ]«QJ?3 T31^5 IDJ^H 1^' 
service toive an'emes'e geton unz hot Er 

Exercise 27. 

Debateg, disputes Vikuchim D^HIS*'! 

Purposely, intentionally B'kiv'n {VUvon) TV33 

Revach niS 



58 



Kecessarily, expressly Davke (davho) Sp1"T 

Commandment, act of faith, Witzv ^ {mitzvoK) 711^13 

act of benevolence 

I need not have any ]J?iSn 0^3 OHSS tS'^D ^"iHiya "]^K 

hoben nit iAin mit bedarf Jch 

disputes with him a'»n^3*'1 P'^'^P 

vikuchim keine 

I will go to her purposely ]nxri Q^M ]r^33 "in%s IS ^^11 yv. 

to-dtiy ge/in haint b'kiv'n i^r tzu vel Jch 

She was not at home Q'^M l^n |\S ]J?11J?J D'^J HpH t\^ t^n 

intention«illy heim der in geven nit davke iz Zi 

The business is not a good one IJ^IDI J ^^'^'p B^3 T^K BSy 2^> 3 n^H 

guter kain nit iz gesheft Der 
as the profit is very small l^^-^^p inj?T f'X Hn 1^*1 t»''''11 
klein ze^r iz revucb der vail 
It is an act of benevolence to I^^J/J ]j;iJ?J IX niTfO N t^« DJ? 

geld geben tzu mitzve a iz Es 
give money to charity? ^p^X »^^^^^ 

tzdoke Oif 
Exercise 28. 
.S-(D) tr 
Joy, celebration, entertainment Simche (simcho) rtnOtT 
Foe, enemy Boine (soinei) Wlb* 

Tuition fee, teacher*s fee schar-limud ^^0^"'^3&* 

Rejoicing of the Law Simchas toire (toiro) n*nri''Jin!35J' 
Fire, conflagration Sreife (preifo) HS'ltS^ 

Sense, reason, intelligence Seich'l («eic^6if) "^St? 



59 



They invited me to their 



entertainment 



I am sure that this man 



oif aingeladen niich hoben Zei 
simche zeier 
man der az zicher bin Ich 



]s my enemy 
The ^'Rejoicing of the Law'^ is a 
pleasant holiday 



soine main iz 

s* rx mm nnDtj' 

a iz toire Simciias 

tov yom fre/dicher 
My father pays a high tuition- jyO'^nJ K IsSlHS IJTtO^S y*^t2 

groissen a tzo^lt foter Main 

bruder main far Hmud schar 



fee for my brother 

Last week there was a 

fire in our town 
What he says is foohshness 

and without reason 



ii gevezen iz vooh Letzte 
.<?ht(>dt unzer in sreife 
narishkait iz zogf. er Vos 

seichel oy^n un 

EXKHCIS!^/ 29. 



Strength, vigor, mjght Koiach 



ns 



6o 



Brains, head 
Noah 






Moiach 
Noiach 


D3 


Smell, odor 






Reiach 


nn^ 


To trouble, to 


give 


trouble 


Matriach 


(pT)nnp» 


About 






Mikoiach 


nso 


Murderer 






Roitzeach 


nsn 



Every person has some strength riS ^J?D'»2 K JDXn B?3J?0 ^V^V" 

koiach bissel a hot mensh Yeder 

tzadik a gevezen iz Noiach 



Noah was a pious man 

The smell of flowers is very 

agreeable 
The boy has sharp brains 



zehr iz blumen fun reiach Der 



angene/im 

moiach sharfen a hot yung Der 
Excuse me for troubling nn^tDO"J'»^« ^3 "[*»« DK11 t'nlD TO fi'^n 

you matriach aich bin ich vosu^moich'l mir Zait 

lie is a murderer upon himself HSIT K l**? «n"^1S 1^**^^ Ti^ ^J? 

(harming himself) roitzeich a zich oif alein iz Er 

Write to me about the affair pDff DJ?T KSD T*0 ^^''^tT 

eisck dem mikoiach mir Shraib 
Exercise 30. 

.tj-(i) . 

Caaopy Chupe ( Chupo) rtSn 



6i 



Repast, meal, feast 


S'ude (S'udo) 




Marriage (jontraxit 


Ksube (fCsnbo) 


nans 

T \ J 


Tabernacle 


Suke (Suko) 


nsD 

T ; 


Tlie rabbi reads the marriao-e 


"iv*a3iK r\2r\2 *»• 


f 'do^Vsjh m ' 



iinter ksube di lezt rov Der 



contract under the canopy 



cliupe der 
1 like to sit in my tabernacle HSD ]'»'»D ]^K ]J/X*!T IS 2>^^ ^KH "I'^H 
suke main in zitzen tzu lieb hob Ich 
My uncle makes a feast for *1>5S Hll^p K SD3S0 IJ^tDJ?© ^'*^t3 

far s'ude a inacht feter Main 

yo^r ale lait orime 



the poor every year 





EXEUCISE 31. 






.Al-S - ,» - 




Pleasure, delight 


Tainug {ta-anug) 


mvT\ 


Questions 


Shailes (sha^aks) 


ni^»»* 


Tales, stories 


Maises {ma'asois) 


nityyo 


Plea, claim, pretence 


Taine (ta'ano) 




Foods, delicacies 


Maicholim (mamhotin 


i) D^S^DKtt 



It is a pleasure to listen wlien p*n ]ynj/*n IS 313!?ri X T''K Dj; 

ven heren tzu tainug a iz Es 
the girl sings a:i3n ^>*T%!3 H 

zingt meidel di 



62 



Ask no questions and do as 
I tell you 

Don t tell me any stories 



vi t/iu un shailes kain iiit Frep: 
Uir lieis ieli 

maises kaine nit mir Dertzelil 
because I do not wish to hear ]]}lyT\ tD''3 b'')) ^i^ b'^*^)) 

heron nit vil ich vail 

I claim that he charged me a3J?3>n>*J n*»S2 t:^^^ IJ? TH 113^0 "[\S 

gerechent mir hot er az taine Ich 
too much for the good.s HIinD H 1i<S b^^ 1^' 

schoire di far iiel tzu 



We sell all dehcacies (foods) 
very cheaply 



maicholim ale farkoifen Mir 
bilior ze/a- 



EXKKCISK 32. 
fwith vowel points.) 



He who laughs last, 

laughs best: 
Thrpw not away bread to 

g:o and seek crumbs. 



]V^,^Vb nix tD3X^ ^V,^V^l 

letzteu tzum lacht es Ver 
besten ani lacht der 

n a">i"i3 pj;iiK ^'i fi"i«ii 

tzu broit avek nit "VarE 
breklech zuchen ge^n 



63 



h is never too late 
to mend. 

Better late than never 

The pen is mightier 
than the sword. 



shpet tzu nit niol kain iz Ejjs 
faricliten tzn 

nit p^or eider shpet Besser 

.^litarker iz feder Di 
shverd der vi 



The best he, is the truth. ,nD8 1J?T T\S ]-;:;^ iy*^D>*| Vl 
eraess dei- iz Ugen bester Der 



64 



PART III. 



WORDS, PHRASES AND CONVERSATIONS. 





Universe {Ganize Velt) B^r^^l yXJKJ 




World 


Velt 




ro^yn 


Heaven 


Himel 




bv^'7\ 


Earth 


Erd 




tt; 


Sun 


Zun 




F 


Moon 


L'vone 




"15^ 


Water 


Vaster 




"IJ^DHli 


Fire 


Faier 




lyi^fi 


Land 


Land 




las'? 


River 


Taich 




-j^^O 


Gold 


Gold 




■t^w 


Silver 


Zilber 




-lya*?'? 


Iron 


Aizen 




IH'^x 


Body 


Kerper 




-lJ?iB-irp 


Soul 


N'shonie 




"l^^ 


Head 


Kop 




£Kp 


Face 


Gezicht, ponim 




,ts3nyj 


Eyes 


Oigeu 




]J?J'1X 


Nose 


Noz 




TW 


Ear 


Oier 




"lyit? 


Mouth 


Moil 




^*1S 



65 



Lips 


Lipen 




]J?£^^ 


Tooth 


Tzohn 




inxs 


Tongue 


Tzung 




iin 


Neck 


Halz 




ihm 


Hand 


Hand 




"13 xn 


Finger 


Finger 




ijrjrs 


Feet 


Fiss 




D^fl 




Food (Essemarg) JIXIIJ^^DJ? 




Bread 


Broit 




0^13 


Meat 


Fleish 




^^'ht 


Soup 


Zup 




SIT 


%gs 


Eier 




ly^^K 


Salt 


Zaltz 




pm 


Pepper 


Fefer 




iysj?fi 


Butter 


Puter 




nyais 


Cheese 


Kez 




TPp 


Milk 


Milch 




I^^D 


Tea 


Tei 




(yj?ni3) ^^B 


Brandy 


Branfen 




|j;S3H13 




Clothing (Kkid€7^) 1J/n^'»^p 




Coat 


Rok 




pm 


Trousers 


Iloizen 




]VV^n 


Braces 


Shleikes 




QVP'^bt' 


Stockings 


Zoken 




]Vpm 


Boots 


Shtivel 




bvw^v; 


Shoes 


Shich 




T^ 



66 



Sbirt 


Hemd 


n»j?n 


Handkerchief 


Tichel 


^yyVi 


Umbrella 


Regenshirni 


nrmv^Vi 


Dress 


Kleid 


T^bp 


Mantle 


Mantel 


^J?tS3K» 


^urniture and Vie) 


isils (Mehd un GesJiir) T'&*J 


'} ])» ^j?aj?o 


Table 


Tish 


ts^'^a 


Chair 


Shtul 


h)v^v 


Looking-gIa?,l^ 


Shpigel 


y;j^£ty 


Bed 


Bet 


tap 


liattres.s 


MatratiJ 


fHIDilD 


Lamp 


Lomp 


Qmb 


Plate 


Teler 


"^ybits 


Spoon 


Lefel 


bvsv^ 


Fork 


Gopel 


bvsm 


Table-cloth 


Tishtuch 


ntssAi 


Clock 

I 


Zeiger 
^\imily (Famitie) J?''t5rtDH£ 


r;y't 


Man, husband 


Man 


]HD 


Wife 


B'roi, Vaib 


T'']) ,''nS 


Father 


Foter 


iya«s 


Mother 


Mutter 


npoio 


Child 


Kind 


'^2'p 


Son 


Zuhn 


]ni! 


Daughter 


Tochter 


*i;?B38<D 



67 



Brother 

Sister 
Uncle 
Aunt 
Cousin 



Bruder 


imin 


Silvester 


nyaoynE? 


Feler 


"i>Bys 


Mume 


j?ttia 



Shvester-kind ^3'»p"•^J?aDJ?^1K^ 
Occupation (Beshe/tigung) Jiir,'»i:j£J?B^J?:i 



Bu.^iness 

'^Yorkmun 

Baker 

Tailor 

Shoemaker 

Uarpenter 

Painter 

Printer 

(xoldsmitl 



Street 

Market 

Building 

Post-office 

Church 

Theatre 



City, 



Door 



Gesheft 


tt£)j;e'*j?j 


Arbaiter 


ira''''a"iK 


Beker 


n>9J?n 


Shnaider 


nn^'isy 


Bhuster 


nj^tsDitJ^ 


Stolier 


iy^^^*tsD 


Farbei- 


^J?2^ȣ 


Druker 


ij?pm 


Goldshmid 




town (SModt:) aiHttty 




Gass 


G»2 


Mark 


piap 


Gebaide 


>n^^3j?: 


Post 




Kircbe 


PI'p 


Theater 


'lyanyntD 


House (Hoiz) p)n 




Thir 


Tnts 



68 



Lock 


Shloss 


DX^& 


Key 


Shlissei 


hvt'^h^ 


Room 


Tzimer 


lyo'^t 


Window 


Fenster 


1J?tSD3J?S 


Wall 


Yand 


^3Kn 


Roof 


Dach 


1«^ 


Cellar 


Keller 


%'bbyp 


Garden 


Gorten 


|yiaiK3 


Animals (TAiere, Chaym) ri1'»n /J?^P^^^ 


Horse 


Ferd 


n^j?s 


Dog 


Hund 


njin 


Cat 


Katz 


r^p 


Cow 


KuA 


mp 


Woolf 


Volf 


?1^N11 


Bird 


Foigel 


>J?J^1fl 


Goose 


Ganz 


MNJ 


Sheep 


Sheps 


Dfijrts^ 


Eagle 


Odler 


ly^nx 


Rooster 


Hon 


ir 


Hen 


Hun 
Plants {Flantzm) ]j;X3K^£ 


]in 


Tree 


Boim 


n*ia 


Plum 


Floim 


D^ibs 


Cherry 


Karsh 


E^1»p 


Flower 


Blum 


m^3 



69 



Grass 


Groz 


wn3 


Nut 


Nusis 


0)2 


Kose 


Roze 


pwn 


Goosberry 


Agress 


DpJN 


wading and ' 


Writing (Lezen tm Shraiben) ' 


fj?a«ns-' p» ]]!r;b 


Book 


Buch 


T3 


Paper 


Papier 


nrsKB 


Pen 


Feder 


iyij?s 


Ink-stand 


I'inter 


-lyarD 


Ink 


Tmt 


t23'a 


Letter 


Brief 


rjyna 


Envelope 


Konvert 
Time (Tzait) a'»'»S 


aij?n:«p 


Minute 


Minut 


aira 


Hour 


Shtunde 


pjiaty 


Day 


Tog 


jxa 

T 


Afternoon 


Nochinittog 


:Kaa'a3K3 


Evening 


Ovend (Ahe^id) 


(liyaK) i:vm 


Night 


Nacht 


a2K3 


Year 


YoAr 


■>'■'«'• 


Month 


Monat 


aK3xo 


Week 


Voch 


TKIV 


Sunday 


Zuntag 


jwam 


Monday 


Montag 


:xa3MD 


Tuesday 


Dinstag 


isaoin 



Wednesday 


Mitvoch 


■jXIIC^O 


Thursday 


Donerstag 


jSaD-lJ?3NT 


Friday 


Fraitag 


JXD"-|£ 


Saturday 


Shabes (Shahos) 


T "■ 


Summer 


Zumer 


"lj;CMT 


Winter 


Vinter 
Counting (Tzehhn) ]J?Sl>X 


*ij?am 


One 


Einer, eine, einss D3'*''X /' 


j^'i'-s np-'-K 


Two 


Tzvei 


s^'in 


Three 


Drai 


K'-m 


Four 


Fier 


ipi 


Five 


Finf 


r]3'£ 


Six 


Zeks 


Dp^'T 


Seven 


Ziehen 


p'ayn 


Eight 


Acht 


MK 


Kine 


Nain 


]«3 


Ten 


Tze^n 


inn 


Eleven 


Elf 


•l^y 


Twelve 


Tzvelf 


?l^yiri 


Thirteen 


DraitzeAn 


^nys'm 


Fourteen 


FiertzeAn 


inysiy-fl 


Fifteen 


Finftze^n 


ppXBVS 


Sixteen 


ZeohtzeAn 


]nj?X3j?T 


Seventeen 


ZicbtzeAn 


]nj;s3yn 


Eighteen 


Achtze^n 


]nj;st33K 


Nineteen 


Kaintze/^tt 


]nj?sr'3 



71 



Twenty 




Tzvantzig 


:i''S3xiix 


Twenty-one 


Ein 


un tzvantzig 


:'*x3Niis px pK 


Twenty-two 


Tzvei 


un tzvantzig j 


^:ik^3snx ]1K •'•»nx 


Thirty 




Draissig 


j^D^m 


Forty 




Fiertzig 


j^xiy^fl 


Fifty 




Finftzig 


i')ilyb 


Sixty 




Zeclitzig 


j^s:d;?t 


Seventy 




Ziebtzig 


:^x:3j?n 


Eighty 




Achtzig 


:^XD2« 


Ninety 




Naintzig 


J^S3^^3 


Hundred 




Hundert 


a^yijin 


Hundred and 


one Hu 


ndert un einss Dl 


^^« pK t^nn^in 


Hundred and 


two Hiir 


idert un tzvei i»^^*»' 


n^? ]ix \:ir;ii)n 


Thousand 




Toizend 


iJj;ntD 


MilUon 




Mihon 


]H'h':i 


First 




Erster 


nj?DDnj; 


Second 


Ane 


lerer, tzvei ter ^^1 


to^Mis nj?n>n3« 


Third 




Dritter 


r;^^ii 


Fourth 




Ferter 


1y*D1j;^ 


Eleventh 




Elfter 


nytost^j; 


Twelfth 




Tzvelfter 


r;i^bby'm 


Twentieth 




Tzvantzigster 


T;t2DJ^Si.^^^^f 


Thirtieth 




Drai^sigster 


n>*DD;rD^n*i 


Hundredth 




Hundertster 


"ijrtoDD^yT^in 


Thousandth 




Toizendster 


nj?aD*73j;?^iD 


Half 




Helft 


a£tJj?n 


Third (Ys) 




Dritel 


^j?an7 



72 



Quarter, fourth (-i-) 


Fertel 


':5yta^ys 


Fifth 


Finftel 


^yasrs 


Pair 


Poor 





Conversation {Geshprech) *|y*)£B^J/3 



Greetings, Conipiiments ]ytD3ya^^£ttS*p ,]J?331Dn3J?i 
{Begrissungen^ KompUmenten) 



G-ood morning, Sir. 
Good morning, madam. 
Good morning, Miss 
Good mo? ling, Mr, Gold. 
Good morning, geutlemeii 
Good evening. 

tlow do you do? 



herr main morgen Guten. 

madam morgen Guten 

frailin morgen Guten 

Gold herr morgen Guteu 

herren maine morgen Gufcen 

(ovend) abend Guten 



^ 



i^r macht Yoss 
du machst Voss 



73 



I am well. 

I thank you. 

I am much obliged to yor 

And how are you ? 

I am the same. 

I am glad to see you 

I am glad to meet you 

You are welcome 

Many thanks 

Be seated (sit down) 

What news ? 

L"? there anything new ? 
Have you anythiiii^ to tell y 
I have no news 



gezund bin Ich 

(ilir) aich dank Ich 

dankbar fiel aioh bin Ich 

iAr macht voss Un 

.j?j'3t'yT CHI pa "j'N 

zelbige doss bin Ich 
xehn tzu aich inich treht Ess 

i>?3:y5ya IS -|'*K yo enpfl dj; 

begefjnen tzu aich mich iveht Ess 
aiigcneAm tnir zait Ihr 

(pan ]';c'M2 «) ]vpiHt v^V'^ 

(dank groissen a) danken Fiele 
aich zetzt 

? Dv«3 Dj; tonyj Dxn 

naiess ess >?iebt Voss 
naiess epess do Iz 

qy^nys-iy u oyfij? -in>« own 

ertzeMeii tzu epess iAr Hot 

DJ?**3 j?3«p 3«n 7N 

naiess ktiine hob Ich 



1^ 



1 have nothing to tell. 



How are your folks ? 



How is your wife ? 



My family is well. 



How are your parents ? 



They are well also. 



Is your brother well ? 



No, Sir, he is not well, 



^ My brother is ill, 



I am sorry. 



That is bad. 



May he be v\ell. 



IthanKyoufortyJI^Hll 
your kind wish, vunsl 



t'ltzeWen tzu gornisht hob Ich 

?j?iD''i'7 pr'« IP^o DNn 

laite aiere inachen Voss 

?^n£5 nr'*« tD3J5a DK11 

Froi aier macht Voss 

gczund iz familie Main 

elteren aiere raachen Voss 

.■T3"iTj;3 JIN ]j?rn N^n 

gezund oich zamen Zei 
gezund bruder aier Iz 

rM\v;i e-3 t\s ij? ,myn ]''"'0 ,]"'-3 

gezund nit iz er herr main Nein 

krank iz bruder Main 

leid mir t/iut Ej-s 

shlecht iz Dcss 

zain gezund er ;',ol Ha'lvai 



fraindlichen 



aier fir aich dank Ich 



75 



Do you need any thin or? 

I do not need anything 

Good-bye I 

Good day 

Good night 
Oall ao-ain, Sir 

My regards to all 



Do me a favour 



With the greatest pleasure 



V l^axn D'jBV -in\s taans-i 

hobeJi epess ihr Darft 

tD'3 -jST p'p i^na i\s 

nit zach kain brolch Ich 



gezund Zait 
tog guten A 

a3.s*3 >'au N 

nacht gute A 
berr main vider Kunit 

alemen tzu grissen Maine 

gefalen a mir Ttot 

fergnigen gressten Mit'n 

I thank you for yoar, ^^^^Z^T'^b T^'^ T^ "}"*''« p3KT '^''^ 

kTndn(.\<? i'raind^haft aier fir aich dank Ich 

You nre very kiiHi. "|^^^Pn& IHyT D''^ nn\^ 

fraiodUch zehv zait Ihr 
Do not trouble yourself ^^J n***?!^ Dt?n''PyJ3 

oit aich Bern i he t 



What ].¥ the time ? 



Time (72;ajOa''^^ 

zeiger der iz Vifiei 



76 



It is twelve o'clock. 
The clock strikes nine 
It struck eleven 

It is a quarter to ten 

It is a quarter past three 
It is now seventeen minutes 
to one 

It is half past four 

It is early 



It is late 



It is not late yet 



It is noon 



It is midnight 



zeiger a tzvelf iz Ess 
nain shlogt zeiger Der 
elf geshlogen hot Esg 

■tzehn tzu fertel a iz Ess 

K'm 1X3 '?j?ta"ij;S K rx qv 

drai noch fertel a iz Ess 

]yai3^2 ]nri:iJ?"'T mv' v» dj? 

minuten ziebtzeAn yetzt iz Ess 
einss tzu 

nrs i»3 n^»n) fja^s 2h»n t\s dj? 

(fier noch iialb) finf h;ilb iz Ess 

nns T'H DJ? 

trill iz Ess 

aj?£iy r» DJ? 

shpet iz Ess 

aj?£E^ to-3 "^w r« Dy 

slipet nit iioch iz Ess 
a^S 5«OE5-» ?■•« DJ? 
tzait rnittog iz Ess 

aajifs j?3^sn r« DJ? 

nacht huJbe iz Ess 



77 



It dawns 

This clock is right 
Look at your clock 
Look at your watch 
It goes too fast 
It goes too slow 
My clock has stopped 
I must vviiid it 
A hand is broken 
The spring is> broken 



togt Ess 
richtig iz zeiger Dizer 

np^T pn .7%s pip K 3^J 

zeiger dtdn ' oif kuk a Gib 

(-imx)'^nj?j"T fn ?]mk ^yp k ^--j 

(u/ji-) zeigcrl dain oif kuk a G-ib 

(tas'i^ Dj?) "j'j IS onj?: oy 

(loift ess) gich tzu geAt Ess 

(kriecht ess) langzam tzu geAt Ess 

obgeshtelt zich hot. zeiger Main 

]J?.TS3K Oy no I'K 
ontziAen ess muz Ich 

tzubfochen iz vaizer A 

tziibrocheii ia feder Di 



Eating and Drinking {Essen im THnhen) tJ?p3ntS tll^ W'^V 
Are you hungry ? 



It is breakfast time 



hungerig iAr Zait 
t2ait-fri?ishtik ia Ess 



78 



Do you wish to have ? nj?*wDlS (IX tS^'n^ ]yiHn %Ti< ISTIT 

bread and butter ? puter un broit hoben ihr Vilt 

I wish to have coffee and nj?'''*^ ]1K j;S«p ]V2»n b'')) "]'« 
eggs eier un kafe iioben vil Ich 

I sliould Hke to have bread tD''n3 ]J?aKn ]V'^V^) ^btA)) y» 

broit hobeu velen volt Ich 
and cheese lyp ]1K 

kez un 
1)0 you want to have aD«pJ?3 ly'^SS H ]V^^^ ^^'^N V^b^)) 
gekocht eier di hoben i^r Vilt 
the eggs boiled or fried ? ? ] J?tD^J^3 j;^ '^V*!^ 

gebroten oder 

Do you hke sausage ? ? a&m«n ^V'^b iiT^x mn 

vursht lieb ihv Hot 
It is time to dine 3«'tDD'»0 ]5;DJ; IS tS'^'^S TK DJ? 

mittog essen tzu tzait iz Ess 

Tell the servant to set tJ.»"»tD D1S |j;Q''nJ 1!^ tSDJn ^^T JXT 

the table tish tzuin greiteu tzu dinst der zog 

Where are the plates, knives 1J?Dya ^Vb)!*^ ^^ ]V^'''^ 1^**^1 

messer teler di zainen Vu 

and forks V ?]i;'?£N:i jlS 

They are in the cupboard npO'^K TffJ?: D>n I'N ]j;3'>T K'^ 

aimer geshir dem in zainen Zei 

How many dishes have you ? ? -l.T-K aKH ]yt3DnV J '?>* "S-ll 

ike hot gerichtcn Vifiel 
1 have a good many dishes ]J?eDnp ^^S inyT ^KH -j-N 

gerichten fi«l zeAr hob Ich 



79 



Take some bread 



broit etvoss IS^e7^r^t 

?2rt^ nn^x a.sn E5^n2 a^.sD pt^yn 

lieb ihr hot bvoit sort Velclie 
broit vaiss lieb hob Ich 
altgebakeii iz broit Aiei 

^^^•'•-^B-n^xp iiptJ in\s* *^Hr\ 

fleish kalb heb i//r Hot 
mutton or beef ? ? 2'*'''»^S"'73'*"1 Tj!1i< t!^'''^S*ij;D£J?a* 
fleish rind oder fleish shepssen 

D>* T\S JJT 

ess iz Do 
alein aich Bedient 

oi«getzeichent iz fleish Bi 
kartofel di mir Derlahgt 

ugerke&s zoiere NeArnt 



"VVhat kind of bread 

do you like? 
I like white bread 

Your bread is stale 

Do you like veal, 



Here it is 



Help yourself 



The meat is excellent 



Pass me the. potatoes 
Take some pickled cucumbers 
Why do you eat j?o little 
T have no appetite 



'O'^rm ^im in\s* tcjoj; om nKs 

veiuig azoi i?ii esst voss Far 
apetit kain hob Ich 



You did not drink yet ]yp3ni3j?3 ts^i "|K3 tsxH innH 

geirunken nit noch hot Ihr 
May I trouble you for a D1« ]>%Taj;i "|^'»K ^K J5?D 

uni beiniAen aieh ich Meg 
glass of wine? ?pi TH^J K 

vain gloz a 
Most certainly, Sir m^n ]•»•»» ,D'*'n>*J ^Hi 

herr main geviss Gantz 
Pass me a tmnbler IK^i-pintt K 'T'O £2338^1^ 

gloz trink a niir Derlangt 
I will drink the health ta'*%Tl31TJ?3 H T»B ]J?p3ntD t^J/ll "T»K 
gezundhait di fir trinken vel Ich 
of all who are present here «T ]j;3'»n p^yil J?^K ]1fi 

do zainen velehe ale fun 

Hurrah for the host ! I HDI'^II D>?T ^33^ D'^^H^ 

virtA dem Fkoved L'chayini 

Clothes (Kieider) '^yT'^bp 

I will call at the tailor's nyn'''»32? Diif ]nj?33''nx by)) yn 

shnaider tzuin ar&mgehn vel Ich 

1 will order a suit of clothes :nX3K'3K ly^V^E-'ya ^J?n "['X 

an'ontzug beshteien vel Ich 
When will it be reaUy ? ? J-'taiJJfl ]''T D J? tSyil ]J?"I1 

fertig ain ess vet Vten 
In two weeks from now DSJ?"* pS ]J?rN"11 «"nS ]-H 

yetzt fun voclien tzvei In 



8i 



I will bring it to i^ns TMH |\s iprni yii Dj? 'pyn -ex 

your house arain hoiz in breingeii aich esc vel Ich 



Your clothes are ready 

Trj your coat 

I think that it is too long 

It ought to be shorter 
The sleeves are too wide 
You tu'e mistaken, Sir 



fertig zainen kleider Aiere 
rok aier on Messt 

mb IX t-K Dj? m p3j?T i\^ 

lang t,7,u iz ess az denk Ich 

lyif-i^p ]^n tis-ixip tasn dj? 

kirtzer zain gedarft hot Ess 

t3''nn IX ]y3'n '7y:i"i« n 

breit tzu zainen arbel Di 

nnyn fD niyrp k D«n -i.tk 

herr main toess a hot Jhr 
I have a new hat and y^' J?'»^3 ]15^ JCJlH DJ/'''»i « ^S^H *j'»K 

shoes shich naie un hut naiem a hob Ich 

I have also bought new ip^Dyn p'2 l^^^Dj;:! y]^ 2^r\ ^H 
siiirts hemder naie gekoift oich hob Ich 

My shoes are old and ]y:iH1tDyJD^1« ])H t^bi^ ]>^3^n JtH^' Vi''^ 
worn out oisgetrogen un all zainen shich Maine 

They are tight JJ^ ]]!i'^''1 ''''I 

eng zainen Zei 

They must be made wider 1>?IS''n3 jJ?r!Ka ''n TID ]]!D 

breiter machen zei muz Men 



It is not necessary to 
iiierid them 



farrichten tzu zei noit^ig nit iz Ess 



S2 



Dwelling ( Voinung) ji)i*^)i^)) 
I wish to take rooms 



tzimern ne^men vil Ich 

njrtn .-^^iH hv^V^ i^ «T T^« ^y 

dizer oif tzetel a do iz Ess 
slite^t efes velchen oif tAir 
ferlozen tzu Tzimern 

tAir in on Klisp 

eij 'iT« 13'"'? ."i-nta n tsayej? 

gut azoi zait tMr di Efent 

?]nj?T nn^x 12^^11 ]>*opn 

zehn ihr vilt Yemen 
oifzeher dem zeAn vil Ich 

Have you any rooms ? ] pj^l yS IS ]-lJ?a''S y^D'^PIin^S tSKn 
to let ? fer dingen tzu tzimern velche i^r Hot 

How many apartments ?]i;:2^n IH^^K fi^S^HT ]"^j;e'»:S ^^''S'^n 
do you want ? liobe.n ihr darft tziroern Vifid 

I want a dining room, nV^'^^^^V ]^ ]V^^f^ ^^^^ T^ 

tzimer ess an hoben darf Ich 

tzimer shlof a un zal a 



There is a bill on this 
door which says : 
*'Rooms to let" 

Knock at the door 

Open the door, if you please 

Whom do you wish to see ? 

I wish to see the 
housekeeper 



a parlor and a bedroom 



83 



Do you want, the rooms ? ttT^I^ya ]^J?D^!!f ''1 IH^X tSt'^ll 

furnished? mebhrt tzimern di \hr Vilt 

You have there everythmg T'^X DKII D>?^2s* ]j;£S1^1 t^XH liT'X 

iz voss aless dorten hot I^r 
necessary in a furnished ]J?D"1*'^2J/*D 5^ ]•»« :iS1D''13 

mebh'rten a in noit^ig 
room. You have there a K jJ/Dni^*! DKH ^iT^X j^^O'^S 
a dorten hot Ihr tzinjer 
table, a bureau, a looking-glass H*3'*S2/ K jlHOKD K ,a*''D 

shpigel a koniod a tish 
and a lamp S^mb K pX 

lomp a un 
How much do you ask a 2^35^0 K irT'X a:i3X':5ly£ t^y'^S^H 

in on at a i^r ferlangt Vifiel 

month for these rooms ? ? ]*1 j;^''^ J^TH T'fl 

tzimern dize fir 
They are too dear nj?''"'nD IX |J?3'»'»T ^''T 

t^aier tzu zainen Zei 
What will you offer for them? ? ''^ '^•»£) ]J?t3H3 irCX tDJ/Tl DU^II 

?:ei fir boten i^r vet Voss 
I will give you two Pound-, 10312 ''m ]P3p3 "[•'\H %')) ^^S 

funt tzvoi geben aich vel Ich 
I am satisfied j^y ''"'SIX V!!! ^^ 

tzufrieden bin Ich 
Work (Arbait) D^'^J^X 

I am a vsorkingmau lya'*''^^^ ]K j-'i "J'»K 

arbaiter an bin Icb 



What are you by trade ? 

I am a tailor 

Can you operate on 

a sewing naachine ? 
Certainly, I can 



Vir zait man fach a fir Voss 
shn aider a bin Icii 
oif arbaiten ii^r Kent 
mashin ne^ a 
ich ken Geviss 



This man is a common ^ya'»'»:2nX*^pHB3'''^« ]« ?^K ]«» nj?n 
labourer arbaiter einfacher an iz man Dizer 

How much do you earn ? ^m ^ in^S OiymyB ^P'^S*'!! 

a week ? 



I earn thirty shillings 

a week 
Have you constant work ? 



voch a i/ir ferdient Vifiel 
Toch a shiling draissig ferdien Ich 

arbait shtendige i^r Hot 

No, Sir, that is the trouble ! I.n*1| H t\^ DHT ,inj?n l^'^O ^I'^^'J 

tzore di iz doss herr main Nein 



I am going about idle now 

Can you tell me where 

1 may get work ? 



leidig um itzter geh Ich 

"1X11 ^pKT "i-D nn-K aayD 

Yu zogen mir i^r Kent 
arbait krigen ken ich 



85 



In any factory at all, ,t'^K DJ? p^^Xfi np^J?1V]'»« 

iz ess fabrik velcher In 
it makes no difference nj;*'C;nj?ant< ]''''p TK DJ? 

untersliied kain iz ess 
I will commence to look Q'^O^IK ]y21T ]p*»in3^ ^^11 ^X 

for work arbait zuchen onhoiben vel Ich 

I have got work already Q'^^'i^fc? lyj'^^^pl^^ ]*^)^ IlXH 1%X 

arbait gekrigen shoin hob Ich 
I am working very hard ^j;n2? nn>T rD'''':i")H 'T'N 

silver zehT arbait Ich 
How many hours do you work nrT'X Q'^OnX ]n312S2? by^h"^)) 

ihr ' arbait shtunden Vifiel 

daily? ?7^:i>?tD 

teglich 

When do you start ?lD'»'»aiK "1^ "St D*»nS IH^'S tDRj;3 ]j;n 

for work ? arbait der tzu aroiss i^r geAt Ven 

I start at six o'clock l^i'^nN OpJ^T DIN OniK HI?:! ^^ 

azeiger zeks um aroiss goh Ich 
in the morning iT'lfl *1J/T l*'^ 

ivih der in 
How can the workmen ]j;i>DJ?31Kfl nj7a'»'»::n» ^ l^^J^p ^'H 
farbesseren arbaiter di kenen Vi 

improve their condition ? ? J?JS*!? ^J?^**? 

lage zeier 
By uniting themselves pJJ'in ]J?jyJ 3313^3'''»«iy& -j^H 

zeiere gegen fereinigung Durch 
against their employers *1J/3J/ J"C'•''i^^JI 

geber arbait 



S6 



The workers of nlinost every ])!1P '^V^^ ]12 iyt3'*'*31X ''*T 

yedeii kimat fun arbaiter D\ 

trade are united DJ'3'»''t<^yS tJ?i3*''»T INS 

fereinigt. zainen fach 

There are many lyr^'KlpS DtD'^^'illH )}by*'B XT ]y3*'''T DJ^ 

labour unions fereinen arbaits fiele do zainen Ess 

Doyoubelongtoaunion? ?]'''»Hnj?5 N IS "in"»X ^l^fn^i 

ferein . a tzu i^r Gehert 
I don't know whether there is fc< HI VH DJ? i''1N t^'^i D'»''11 yt^ 

a dc iz ess oib nit veiss Ich 

fach main fun ferein 



a union of my trade 

What is your trade ? 
I am a mantle maker 
There is a mantle makers' 

union in this town 
You can join it 

if you like 

W hat is the w eekly 
subscription ? 



fach aier iz Yoss 
macher mantel a bin Ich 

ij;D«a bv^im » «t T'K dj? 

macher mantel a do iz Ess 
shtodt dizer in ferein 
tzushlissen mm tzu zich kent Ihr 

vilt iAr ven 
tzotong vechentliche di iz Yoss 



8? 



Go to the secretary of 



the union and ask 



]i3 np^nr Dili ipn« tanpj 

fnn shrtiiber tzum ariber Geht 

fregt un feroiii 

arliait di ainshtelen voleii Mit 

maisse di iz Voss 

f oderungen aiere zainen Yosa 

Shorter hours and tO^HX^^yM ynp^NT ]%S ]J?n3rvD&* lyj^rMI 



Vi'e will strike 



What is the matter ? 



What are your demands? 



higher pay getzo/ilt 

Ls nobody working in your 

tactory at present ? 



lierhere un sh tun den Veiniger 
nit keiner yetzt Arbait 

fabrik aier in 

A few person-, who do not lynynpM p^j?!! ]y3Knj?s v^b'^v 

tjTcheren velche perzonen Etliche 
ferein unzer tzu nit 



belono- to our union 



We try to get these 

people on our side 
Union is power ! 



dize kngen tzu zich bemihen Mir 
zaifc unzer oif laite 

maclit iz Fereinigung 



88 



Occupation {Sesheftigung) JJIi^^tSSyB/^J/^ 

What is your occupation ? ? i313*aSJ?2?J?3 nj?'»'»« V^ DKII 

besheftigung aier iz Voss 

jM^y occupation is 5;n5;a^s*nii:i PN jii:i'»i^l)j;^*j?2 .p^o 

book-keeping buchhalterye iz besheftigung Main 

/ou know anything ?asj;tyj?:i jj/'jiyn DjTsy ■in\s isD'^n 

about businepis? gesheft vegen epess" i7ir' Veisst 

Yes, Sir, I nm a ]KaDIi£!j?tS'*J?J N ]''3 "j'X ,"nj?n ]''%!3 ,>"• 

businessman o-esheftsman a bin ich herr main Ye 

]:)o you keep a sbop ? ? D^lp K nn\S* D^KH 

krom a ihv Halt 
What artidesdo you keep ? 2 IH^X t!^h^r\ ]Vbp'1!:^'li^ V^V"^^ 

ihv halt artiklen Velche 

I deal in all kiml^ of '^imv;: jr^lKT >*%S* a%t3 ^yn^^^n "]"« 

cloth gevant zorten ale mit hnndel Ich 

Where do you buy your ? nllHD j;iJ?^*»N* IH^X I^SS^Ip 1X11 

goods? schoire aiere i/ir koift Vu 

Where do you import ? H^inD ^jTy'^'^i^ in\s.aji*»ni ]>^ixn |1S 

your goods from ? schoire aiere i//r breingt vanen Fun 

I import my goods from Kpn>?DH ]1£ HninO J?i''%tD JJ'^ni "j'^K 

America Ainerika fun schoire maine breing Ich 

With whom are you doing ]J?lilKT irT'X tDDK.!2 |J/»j;i1 tO%t3 

dorten i^r macht vemen Mit 

business there ? ? Dfl J7t2/ J?J 

gesheft 



89 

Of what firm do you buy ? ? in\S D£'»1p J?an'»£) np^J?^ ""2 

ihr koih fir me vclcher Bal 

I'heir prices are moderate ^^UVDbT^'^ ]V^'''^ ]yT^^13 Pna^n 

mitelmesMig zainen praizen Zeiere 

No, Sir, I think that they ^^T DST p^Vl f'S mV^ ]'^D ,]^'3 
zei doss denk ich herr main Nein 

are high ^IH |y3^n 

hoicli zainen 

I intend to begin a ^t^^)!} D^^^J X ]J?a^inlS3X ]PP "]'» 
new business geshef t naiem a ontzuhoiben rechen Ich 

What kind of business ? ]^n DKT rspi t2sj;2?j?J K IKS D«n 

will that be? zain doss vet geshef t a far Voss 

Jewellery J3nj?'l{ 

Tzierung 

I have already opened DHIp J?^^i y>a '^^yjHW^ p^' SKH "j'K 
my new shop krom naie main geefent shoin hob Ich 

What h the price of a . H ]12 T^^S IVl V» DSII 

a fun praiz der iz Yoss 

gold watch? ?'?'iy;^^TDy3j?n^w 

zeigcrl <roldenem 

Do you want a gentlcnien\>> \-;'\T;r\ K ]V2^n "IH-S aSIST 

herren a lioben ihv Darft 
or a ladies' watch ? ? ^mX I^QNT t? nj?lX 

u/n* damen a oder 

A gentlemen's watch of DM^: IJj'^'pQ^D ]12 tJl^nT ]J?1-|J?n K 
medium size groiss miteler fun zeigerl herren A 



90 



I hope that you will y^^ ]j;tiBi!S IS];?!! in\^ CHI ^Nn 7X 

be satisfied zain tziifriden vet i/ir do3S hof Ich 

I shall always buy of you -['»\S* iS'»'»3 ]V^'^p Jn3J?D2^* ^^m "J\S 
aieh bai koifen shtendig vel Icli 

ifyou will treat ]j;^'^i,sn>ri tii: yt2 t:ij;ii ^n\s ]yii 

me well beliandlen gut rnieh vet ihr yen 

I only want a chain t>yjO'''»p X IHi rjlXn "[''N 

keitel a nor darf leh 
Do you also keep rings ]p3n y]H Itl^H at^NH 

ringen oich ihr Halt 
with diamonds? . 'Mya^J/On {^'♦0 

diujenten init 
Can you sell me a wateh hiy^'^^l N ]J?S'»1pnj?2 'l^Q in\S t33j;p 
zeigerl a ferkoifen mir ihr Kent 
on instalments ? ? |y33lSniSSD'»!S ^^1K 

oisslzoMungen oif 
r cannot afford to pay ]j;t?n«Sp TS j^TT^'^np a^^J ]j;p ^H 
betzo/den tzu bevaizen nit ken Ich 

oif betrag gantzen deiii 

nioM ein 
hoizirer a iz man Dizer 

schoire gantze zaine trogt Er 

p^t?«p X ]%S 
koshik a iu 



the wliole amount at 

one time 
This man is a peddler 

He carries all his goods 
in a basket 



91 



Show me a pair of good 

braces 
I need a pair of 



slileikes gute poor a mir Vaizt 
pool a hoben darf Ich 
zoken kindershe 
velche nehmt zei zainen Do 

gefeMen aich 
zei kossten Voss 

shiling ein Nor 

I cannot sell them ^>*:i*'3'»'»n TS ]J?S''')pnj?S Q'^J ''^ ]!?? ^K 
for less veiniger fir ferkoifen nit zei ken Ich 

Give me change from ]^np yS^Kn K pS ytODyn n'»0 QM 

haH«a'Crowii kroin halbe a fun resste mir Git 



children's stockings 
Here they are ; take your 

choice 
What do they cost ? 
Only one shiQing 



Do you only sell good^? for 
cash ? 

1 also sell goodh on 
instalments 



fir nor ?=ehoire \hv Ferkoift 
gelt baaress 

p|MX nninp "[-is ?)'ipij?s ya 

oif st;hoire oicb ferkoif Ich 
oistzohlungen 



92 



What do you want ? |]Pfr?n I'T'X tSlnXH C^ll 

boben i^r darft Voss 
I want some calico for a dress T»>^D S SH^'IX ]1IS1KP ^1^?^ T'H 

kieid a oif kartun darf Ich 

I want a lew yards of that J/^JJ?** p3 1^^^ J?3'»Saj? ^IHST TK 

yene fun yard etHcbe darf Teh 
stut'l too "n"»1{.$ JliHnf 

oich tzaig 
1 need a few yards ot satin Dp*:^O^il nnS5'' >?i'»t»tDJ/ ?)*1KT "|*'K 

atless yard ethche darf J eh 
for lining iK^&nj?E:531N fj^'IK 

untershlag oif 

I will sell you all these J?^^ ^5^^ |J?£'''pnj/i ^^H by)) y^ 
ale di fei-koifen aich vel Ich 

'articles on easy terms ]J?J3i:i3np Vl^^^^b fj'^IX jJ/6p*'JS'nX 

bedingungen laichte oif artiklen 
Have you any money for me? ?TD "IHS Q^J?.! DJ/SJ? ^n^N S^KH 

mir far gelt epess i?tv Hot 

I am sorry to say ]j;:XT IS y'^H T'^b ^Q tDIHtD DJ/ 

zogen tzu aich leid mir tJmt Ess 
I have no money at tD^J?J |"»*>p tDSJ/'' I^KH "['•^5 DJ^T 
present gelt kain yetzt liob ich doss 

Call to-morrow, if you please ^''^ *'1TK t}''''? j?J/ji*lHD t^DIp 

gut azoi zait morgen Kumt 
I am without work now^ tO^''^^^^ ]n^ ^Sy PHl T'K 

arbait oAn yetzt bin Ich 



93 



As soon as I will get 
work, I will pay off 
my debt 

I will pay you off to 
the last penny 



]y3np hv'\^ l^^ x^n "i^^i^ '^^^ 

krigen vel ich vi bald Azoi 
obtzoWen ich vel arbait 

choiv mam 
biz obtzoAlen aich vel Ich 
peni letzter der 



In the market {In mark) p*l!!<a ^^A 



Will you go to market ? 

What do you in ten u to 

buy there ? 



? pisD ]'•« ]ny:i nrr'X tDj;ii 

mark in ge^n ihr Vet 
tzu dorten ihv 



rechent Voss 

koifen 

I intend to buy some tDSIIS ^J?D"'n b* ]V^'V "l^ l>''^I^"^ 1'^ 

fruit frucht bissel a koifen tzu reclien Ich 

There you can get all D^bX W^'^^p "IH^S ID3j;p ]^"C1H1 

aless krigen ihv kent Dorten 
you want 133^^3 in^X DH11 

broicht lAr voss 

I shall be there to-morrow r\'-\B ]j;jnKa ]^n ]j;tD^«n b]?)) ^N 
early in the morning inh morgen iain dorten vel 



Ich 



94 



Is this the market ? ? p*^l<J3 ^y*^ DJ^*I f-fj^ 

mark der doss Iz 
Yes, Sir, Avhat is it you ? "in^K ta:i3«^*1J?S DXII ^1)!^ p^'O ,r 
want? iAr ferlangt voss herr main Ye 

I want to buy some vegetables ]>r!2J?J ]yS'*1p b^)) T'H 

gemizen koifen tH Ich 
Will you have potatoes ^J?SXa^«D ]V^m IH^K ^^''11 

kartofel hoben iAr Yilt 
or cabbage? ? l^^'llp •1J?*TK 

kroit Oder 
I want these and also turnips, ,J?np1*l3 y)H Y\H J^TH I'^ni "fK 

brukve oich un dize broich Ich 
carrots, radishes and DJ?p^J?J1K ]1K 1J?3'»aj?T ,pi>*D 
cucumbers ugerkess un reticher meren 

Is that all you want a3"»n3 Hn^'H DK11 DV^K DHT P» 

broicht ihv voss aless doss Iz 

to have? ?|j;:iHnix 

hoben tzu 
You may also give me |j;3p y)^ -)«»0 ^JJ^D IH'^H 

geben oich mir kent Ihr 
sopie beans lH^-SJ?2>J?DO K 

beblach bissel a 
T have enough of every tlimg J?^^Mn>n m^i DVbH 2m ^H 
for the present dervaile genug aless hob Ich 

Taking a walk (Shpatziren) |J?1'»SH£B^ 

It is fine weather IJ/ttJ^n DJ?inj?2^ ?•»« DJ? 

veter she^ness iz Esfs 



95 



Let us take a walk 
Let us enjoy the fresh air 
Will you go with me? 
I will accompany you 
Where shall we go ? 



shpatziren gehn L'omir 
luft frishe di genissen Lo'mir 

? Ta ts^o ]nj;j in\s tDyn 

mir mit gehn ihr Vet 
begleiten aich vel Ich 

ge^n niir zolen Vuhin 



Will you ride or ? D1S ix ]nj;.i TyHs |-;ins*s nn^s tsyii 

walk? fuss tzu gehn oder foAren ihr Vet 

I prefer to walk D1S IX ]nj?j IX 1>OJ?^^ aNH 7« 

fuss tzu geAn tzu lieber hob Icb 

You are right ; that is li^ViH^ VH DKl ; ta3J?n '^NH in'S 

healthy gezund iz doss recht hot l/jr 

Will you goby water ?ij?DNn j'ta'D jHj;:! iS/'sH "in\s ayn 

perhaps? vasser luit'n geAn efsher iAr Vet 

glat ze^r iz vasser Doss 

Dn*;3j?j:K in>'T t\s din* ipn 

angene^m ze/'ir iz ort Dizer 
unter avekleigen zich Lo'mir 

en i< 

boim a 



The water is very smooth 
This place is very pleasant 
Let us lie down under 
a tree 



96 



The shade of this tree Q*^):^ ]]^T1 ])S ]J?tSJ<5^* ^J^*T 

boim dizen fun shoten Der 
is very cool ^r\^p -)nj?? T\S 

ki/il zehv iz 
You walk too fast yx IX aHJ/J ^H^K 

gich tzu geAt I^r 
I cannot follow you ]nj?:i3«i a**: •]^'»K ]j;p 1\S* 

nochge/in nit aich ken loh 

Go a little slower nj?D.Ht:i3Ht' ^j?D'^n s* !::nj?j 

langzamer bissel a Geht 
Let us rest a little ^^h^'^)) K ]j;nn3K yt 'T'D'Ht' 

vaiie a ohruhen zich Lo'mir 

Let us sit down upon the fHlj \b')H |J?X5;?pJ?nK "]n 1^D.'«^ 

grass groz oif'n avekzetzen zich Lo'mir 

What a beautiful place ! ! ^1^ *1I?3nt?^* K "T^S DNII 

ort she/^ner a fir Voss 
Here are fine orchards *lJ?3ai>j"a:Dnfl J/Hnyty ]J?3''n XT 

gertner frucht sheAne zainen Do 
There is a great deal of fruit ^illS "ID i^ HI VH DV 

frucht sach a do iz Ess 

I see apples, pears and lytS-^lHp pS* pKIl ^b^S^V n>?T ^H 

cherries karshen un barn epel, zeh Ich 

I would like to taste ]j;31?ipl) ]VbV)) 2^X11 ^K 

ferzuchen velen volt Ich 
some fruit 2!5lDn5 J?iiH^ 

frucht manche 



97 



Jt is time to go home 



aheim ge^in tzu tzait iz Ess 



Theatre {Theater) ^j;DKj;na 

Are you going to theatre ? ? ^ytSK yHQ ]*»« IH^S tSn J?:i 

ti^eater in ihr Ge^t 

A new play is performed p^^aS^ Dj;'»''3 H IH^V^^^Vi tt^J/^'StJ^ ] J?D 
to-day shtik naiess a haint shpielt Men 

Is this the first performance? ?J31^J?tDa^n5«aj;BDn» H DX1 TK 

forshtelung erste di doss Tz 

No, Sir, it has already been y^W PK DHT ,1")^ ]'»''» ,]^''3 

fehoin' iz doss herr main Nein 

mol drai gevoren geshpielt 

gevoren oifgenunien dojss iz Vi 

mol ersten .dem 

gevoren oifgenumen iz Bsp 

aplodirung algemeiner mit 

lozhe a neAmen mir Zolen 

nyitj?^£ ]j?Dn>*3 nj?Dyn y^u^") 

pletzer ne^men besser Lo'mir 
theater in unten 



played three timess 



How was it received 



the first time ? 



It was received with 



universal apphiuse 



Shall we take a box ' 



Let us better take seats 



in the pit 



98 



1 would like totkke a seat ^K^fi « 'jj;j2nj?3 l^^yil ^b^)) ^H 

plat^ a netoen velen volt Ich 
-near the stage J?3n*»i "iP ]yDJ?3 

bi^ne der neben 
1 like to sit in the pit ]\S |Va31K ]VT1 IS 5J?'»^ ^ifr^H I'^X 

in uoten zitzen tzu licb hob Ich 
because I can see and ]pt31^T |J/p ^X b"^"^)) nj;tDNj;na 
dorten ken ich vail t/ieater 
hear better there than Dt^H ]J?1>n ]1K ]j;nj/T *1J?DJ?i 

alss heren un zehen besser 
in a box J?a^T»^ « pX 

lozhe a in 

How do you like this scene V ? J?1J?SD J?Tn "j^'^X aSlJ/Sp ''11 

stzene dize aich gefeMt VI 

How do you like the ? Dpx n^'DDij? nj?T i^^^ t3Snj;£>*j ^'n 

first act? akt erster der aich gefehlt Vi 

What a crowd there is here ! I T%S »"! D^lj; ]K 1''fl DXIT 

iz do oilom an fir Voss 

The galleries are full hih ]J/3''n DJ^nj/t'XJ H 

ful zainen galeriess Di 

\ never saw the D5jn IPnpTJ?^ ta*'3 SnXD^ ^P DXH •j-'X 

do^s gezehen nit keininoM hob Ich 

theatre so full h^l •'ITX nj?aXJ?na 

ful nzoi theater 
Mr. X is a good actor "iH'^apX lytCii:! X TX X -jiyn 

aktior guter a it X. Herr 



99 



He distwgniished himself tDjy^^^'^^fyj^ TT a^^^ ^l^? 

many times oisgctzeichei;it mol fiei zich Jiot Er 

He is a first class comedian 1J?p\t3t<p pOKt'p ytODnj? T\S -TJ 

komiker klasse erste iz Er 
He is the people's favourite D^HS ]l5 Ji'^^^J?''':' *1J?T T'l< ^IJ? 

folk fun liebling der iz Er 

The weather (Doss veter) ^y*t3J?n DS^I 

veter sheAnes a iz Ess 

iyt2j?il Dj;t5:>pB^ « r« oy 

veter shlechtess a iz Ess 

angene/im nit iz veter Doss 

. K*9^3 ?'« Dy ]1« a3""«S^ ]TT n 

nito iz ess un shaiut zun Di 

volken kain 

volkendig vert himel Dor 

pn inj?t i^j'-n DiyD'^nn n 

dik ze/ir zainen volkeiis Di 

ren-enen tzii on hoibt Ess 

ess obtT nit nocli regent Ess 

]yjy:iyi iSn:! aj;n 

regenen bald vet 



It is fine weather 

It is bad weather 

The weather is disagreeable 
The sun shines and there i s 

no cloud 

The sky is getting clondy 
The clouds are very thick 
It is beginning to rain 
U does not rain yet but it 

will rain soon 



It is rainy JniV^P TK D^ 

regendig iz Es?: 

It will rain the whole day ^NCJ ]J?^3K3 Dyi ]PP>n aj?!! D^ 

tog gantzen dem regenen vet Ess 

It will soon cease to ]y3 j?^^"! iif ]j;-i v'ns-iN iVk^ aj?n Dj; 

J'aiii regenen tzii • oifheren bald vet Ess 

It hails a'?yjsn. DJ? 

hogelt Ess 

Now it snows DJ? anj/3t2? ttSJ?'' 

ess shneH Yetzt 
It is a very hard frost t^mit lyp^lXlDa^ K "inj?T VH DJ/ 

frost shtarker a zeAr iz Ess 

It is stormy jnO^iati* TN DJ? 

shtnrmdig iz Ess 

There blows a great storm *73'^irD*ntD£^/1J?D'''nJ « tiTN^^ DJ? 

vind shturm groisser a biozt Ess 

It thunders mj73n DJ? 

dunert Ess 
It lightens tDif'*'?-! DJ? 

blitzt Ess 
The storm is over .'»*'i1y£ p12/* T"'K D11tD2^ *1J?T 

ferbai shoin iz shturm Der 
The weather clears up *lK^p tD*1J?lV l^aj?!! DK'T 

klor vert veter Doss 
The sky is clearing up C'lX "]n tt^^a'^'*^ *?J?D\T 1J?T 

oiss zioh laitert hiniel Der 



A fog is rising 



It is foggy 



The weather is very damp 



oif zich hoibt (nebel) tliman A 
tumanne iz Ess 

faicht zehr iz veter Doss 



With a doctor (Mit a dohtor) IWapKn H ^''D 
Are you sick ? 



What ails you ? 



I have a cold 



I have a headache 



I have no appetite 



krank i^r Zait 
aich feMt Yoss 

:i2'i'?n"'pij?s « a«n ■j'-x 

ferkiAlung a hob Ich 
veAtog kop a hob Ich 



i3-t2j;sx I''"? axn yn 

ape tit kain hob Ich 

You must take a ^j?!3''0-DJ3nn'S3K ]x ]yonj?3 isnD -in\s 

physic mitel obfi^rungs an neAmen muzt I^r 

Ton have to take an emetic ^5;a\tD-3p:i « ]J?anj?3 BTIS in*»X 

mitt-1 brech a neAmen muzt lAr 
Take this remedj^ bV^'^D'b'^'^n DJ?>^ aDn>*3 

mitel heit dizess NeAmt 
I will give you a prescription tDfiJ?Sy1 H ]V^V^ T*^ ^J?11 T'X 

retzept a geben aich vel Ich 



Take it after meals 
Take it when you get up 

and before you go 

to bed 
I have also a throat- ache 



Take the medicine twice :i«t2 >« ^KD *^^\))i I'^SfnyD ^ tSOnj/l 
a day tog a mol tzvei nieditziii di Ne/«rnt 

The dose is a table spoon b^/SV^^QV ]^ 7''^ 0^^ "^^ 

lefel ess an iz moss Di 

rao/^ltzaiten di noch ess KeAmt 

oif shte^t ihv ven ess NeAmt 

shlofen ge/it . i/^r ven un 

(tsj?3i:i) 

bet tzu 

ve^tog halz a oich hob Ich 

Gargle you thro^it with ^yDNirpXT Q'»0 TSViT n»'»''N {DpmiB^ 
salt water vasser zaltz mit halz aier Shveinkt 

i have caught a cold tS^T^pnyf "]''0 ^KJl ^H 

ferki^lt mich hob Ich 
i have a hard cough t:5Din |ypnKa&* N I^NH "|''N 

bust sbtarken a hob Ich 

Syrup of liquorice Avill ]Kna DJ?B1J •j'»\S 0^11 £)«n''Df''^j;D«^ 
do yon good t/ion gutess aich vet sirop Lakeritz 

It softens the chest CJOnS H "|'»'»n tD:5XD DJ? 

brust di veich macht £ss 

pulss aier prubiren mich Lozt 



Let me try your pulse 



I03 



lou have much i^eat r>\T Sj;^S g^XH irT'X 

' bitz fi^l hot i;^r 

Take. a few baths OJ/JHII J/D^t^tDj; tD.!:nj?3 

vanciSs etliche Ne^mt 

Age) life, death (Altei^, lehm, toidt) a'J'ia .V^T^b /^J/D'pX 

How old are you? ? ^H'^K tD^''T ttt'K "'IT 

i/ir zait alt Vi 
How old is your brothef ? ? ^J?^^^2 *1J?'''»H T'*^^ ]^b^ '•11 

bruder aier iz alt Vi 

lamtwenty-fiveyear.^ Q^tJ ^nX'' ^''^J^HIX jlX rjJ'^S ]U ^S 

old alt yo/ir tzvantzig un finf bin Ich 

He is twenty-two years at^^ inX'' J-'S^KHX ]%S '»'»nS T\S 12? 

of a«:e alt yo/ir tzVahtzig Un tzvei H Er 

You are older than I am ^^VJ 1XS Hyti^Vj? tD'*''? IH^N 

niir fn,r elter zait Ihv 
Ate you younger than ?1j;n'nn I^^VS IXS ")J?J3*''' in\S J2''n 
your brother ? bruder aier far yinger iht Zuit 

Is your father old ? ' ? D.^^< nj/tDXS nj?'''^K T''i< 

alt foter aier Iz 

Yes, Sir, he is an ]«» nj;i:iinK^j;n i^ T\s ij? ,mj?n ]'»''D .y** 

aged man. man beya/irter a iz er herr main Ye 

His children are cxrown up ]>?DpNini? jJ/J'^n IJ/'lJ^'p y3'''»l 

ervakaen zainen kinder Zaine 
Are you married ? ? t^^nD^JT'N'nyS IPT^i^ D'^'^T 

ferheir.at/iet i/ir Zai 



104 



I am a bachelor 

Have you parents ? 

Are your parents still living ? 



bocher a bin Ich 
eltern i^r Hot 

elteren aiere noch Leben 



aiere 
toidt iz foter Main 
iAr hot kinder Vifiel 
techter oder z\hn ihr Hot 

n'keivess oder zchorira 

I have one son and three nytDDvlS ^m ]1« ]mT {'♦''H ^IJjn "]•»« 

daughters techter drai un zuy^n ein hob Ich 

How many brothers have you? ? 1<TK tDS^H 1 J/ THIS ^J?'ȣ)''n 

ihr hot brider Vifiel 

lebt voss keinem hob Ich 



My father is dead 
Hov^'- many children have you ? 
Have you sons oi* daughters, 
males or females ? 



I have none hving 



Enquiring, forgetting, {Kochfreg^njergessen) ] j;DJ?i*lJ?S ,]J?jynSDH3 
remembring (gedenJcen) 1J?plJ?*7J/J 



Bo you know this gentleman ? 



?piX?n |j?Tn ^lTK tD3j?p 

herrn dizen ihr Kent 



I05 



I know Wm very well ^U injjrCn^K ^p ^••J^ 

gut zehr iJim ken Ich 
Do you know this lady? ? J?OKT ^^H nrT^X D3J?p 

dame dize ihr Kent 
Are you acquainted with him ? ? DH'^X B^'O tDJ^^i irT^X t^''^ 

i/im niit bekont ihr Zait 
I am not acquainied with him DH^X IS%!D t^JJXDJ?! ti5^3 1''^ 1^^ 

i^ra mit bekont nit bin Ich 
Do you know one another ? ? pJ?n3K C>n 1 j:r\S nrT'K D3J?p 

andern dem einer ihr Kent 



We know each other 
very well 

I know him by name 
They knew me Avell 
Do you know me ? 
Don't you remember mo V 



]iyi3N Dp ivya .]]!r;p to 

andern dem einer kenen Mir 
gut zehr 

nomen bai'n iAm ken Ich 

gekent gut ndch hoben Zei 

mich ihr Kent 

nit mich ihr Gedenkt 
1 have forgotten your name ]J?^SJ ip'^H |>Dj;:!1j;S n^H l-^X 

nomen aier fergessen hob Ich 



I am Mr. X 



X herr bin Ich 



106 



yes, now I recollect -['♦^ -j'^X nj?3\^*1J? ^>aX''X ,y'» K 

mieli ich eriner itzter ye 

whoyoirare i::j'»n' ")n\s* nj?ii 

zait ihr ver 
Sh^ has forgotten me i J?D>?.*ny£ TD QSn i<"^T 

fergessen micli hot Z'l 
Remind her of that irT^S^ DKI tD*1p"»X1>? 

\hv (loss Erinert 
You are forgetful; you have t:>«n in'»« ; ']''^Dj;3n>*£ a"»n ^HSS 

hot i^r fergesslich zait Jhv 

a short memory piST IJ/^^p K 

zikorn kurtzen a 

Who is that gentleman ? ? "njjn IJ/iJ/"* T'^X *iyV. 

herr yener iz Ver 
He is an Englishman "lyTiJ/'^Jij; ]S TJ^ 1]} 

englender an iz Er 

Do you know where he lives ? ? ISrit^ll TJ 1H11 irT'K tDD'»'»n 

voint er vu iAr Yeisst 

In whose house does he lodge? ? 1> tD1'*t&*TXVnn D'3J?aj?11 I'^K 

er lozhirt hoiz vemen's In 
Is he married ? ? Qj;na«'T'\Tl j;^ 1J? r\S 

ferheirat/iet er Iz 

To whom is he married? ? DyriffiNT^TliyS ^J?. I'*^ jyOVn D''D 

ferheirat^et er iz vemen Mit 

He is married. tt) Mr. p^^yn D'^O tDynSDN'T'NniyB ?"»« n^? 

herrn mit ferheiratAet iz Er 

Goldstein s eousin J^imp D'3'»'»aS?n^NJ 

kuzine goldshtein's 



t07 



That is a good match 

How mucli money did her 

parents give her for a 
portion? 
She ivS a handsome lady 

Is he an honest man ? 

Are you still living in the 

same place ? 
t intend to remove to some 

other pbice 

Will I find you here 

tins evening? 

You will find me at home at 
any time of the day 



shidech guter a iz Dosi^ 
i//re Ihv hoben gelt Yifid 

?]snx3 ]v^ViV^ |J?"iyt3^j? 

nadan gegeben elteren 

daiiio sbeArie a la Zi 

? )Sp ij?3"'yt2jr-is ]x -ij; T\s 

man orentliclier an er Ik 

dem in noch iAr Voint 
ort zelbigen 
ibertzuklaiben mich recben leh 
ort ander ati in 

y;yt;:^ nt ya ya hvr\ 

gt'finen do iijcb ioh , Vcl 
abend dizen 
hoiz tzu gefinen micb vet Ihr 
tog in tzait yeder tzu 



io8 



Travellinii: {Rahen) 'jj?t'*^l 

1 intcMKl to leave this place Dn^5 ]J?Tn ]J;T^jJ^*1J?S IX ]V^V^ T*^ 

ort dizen ferlozon tzu rechen Icli 

1 have come to take leave n'»'»tyiS ];*ani?3 ]j;»1Dj;j \*2 ^i^ 

obsheid ue/imen gekumen bin Ich 
1 conie to bid you farewell fl31TJ?J 0'*^ ]yjXT "j'^'^X DID ^^ 

gezuiid zait zogen aich kum Ich 

?nrT'« EjinNS ]\"TiK'n 



Where are you going ? 



When do you set out? 



\hv iohvt Vuhin 

?3N nn'K tarn ]yn 

ob iliT raizt Yen 

I will set out this evening Q3K3 nSS a^NT ]I?T'»naK ^J?!! ^'K 
nacht far haint obraizen vel Ich 



How far is it from here 

to...? 
Not more than seventy 

five miles 
It is getting late 

The train leaves at eight 

o'clock 
I have yet several things 

to arrange 



biz danen fun ess iz mail Vifiel 
mail ziebtzig un finf vi meAr Nit 
shpet vert Ess 
uAr acht urn ob geAt tzug Der 

]y3«T j?a*3'w ";n3 a^n I'n 

zachen einige noch hob Ich 
bezorgen tzu 



I09 



MvtraveUing bag is already {5pKS1J?£ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^'^*^ >*^^'''^ Y*'^ 

packed ferpakt shoin iz tash raize Main 

Farewell, my friends li^^S J?3'''*D ^b"^)^)) tH^l^^b 

fraind maine veil Lebt 
Speaking Yiddish ( Yidish snprechen) ]J?:DJ?1S2^ fr^H'''' 

yidish i/ir (redt) Shprecht 
lierr main bissel A 



Do you speak Yiddish? 
A little, Sir 



I can understand it better 



than speak it 



fershte/m besser ess ken Ich 



reden vi 
r am already able to make 'l''^13J?a!2^n>?fl V^W "CD ]J?P "]'*« 

fershtendlich shoin rnich ken Ich 
myself understood !J?DKD 

machen 
If you don't speak too fast >)J?3a* 1S]J?nj?n tO''3 tt^XT nn\H |J?n 

shnel tzu reden nit zolt 'ihv Yen 
I shall be able to jH^^at^nj?!) ]pj?p yV< ^K ^J?n 
understand you fershte/^n kenen aich ich vel 

Well, let us speak Yiddish JJ^n'^'* V^'^V^ 'T'O'N^ jXt^K 

yidish reden lo'mir Alzo 
AVhat do you think of ?pX-)Stt^»D'»1K pops in^X tOpJH DHII 
my pronunciation? oisshprache main fun i/^r denkt Toss 
Do you understand me ? ? -|^rj ^^H-'H tDnj/DK'*'! J?£ 

rnich iAr fershteAt 



I^ho Yiddish pronunciation is 
very difi'ieult 



How is this word 
pronounced? 



(j?2>nr .j;2'*n\s) yt^n^'* :"i 

(yudishe Idishe) Yidishe Di 
shver ze/ir iz oisshprache 

n>OJJ"i£tJ*PDMS' anxii Dj?n tsipn mi 

ois*?gftsljpro(^]ieu vort dizess vert Yi 



asyiny'py: -in\s mn mb '•n 

geleArent ihv hot lang Yi 
yidish 

mit bloiz oiigefangen hob Ich 

tzurik tzait kurtzer a 

guten a gemacht iAr hot Dan 

forshrit 
Please, speak slower as ^•»ni "IJ/DKT^JK^ tS'^y'l ,"]''•»« t3j;3 "]\S 
vail, langzamer redt aich bet Ich 
I cannot follow you ]j;tiDSHn:3H3 t^-'J y>H ]j;p "]''H 

nochhalten nit aich ken Ich 
I lack practice in |J?DJ?-l£{y ]\^ yp^Dp^lS TO SS'lJ/^S DJ? 
-speaking shprechen in praktike mi)' tehlt Ess 

I must take lessons as ^TK ]j;3H''SpJ?^ |J?Dnj?3 tlO "|\S 

azoi lektzionen neAmen muz Ich 
soon as possible yhj)!Q '»T) ^J/Jt^ 

meglich vi shnel 



How long have you been 

learnmg Yiddish V 
I have commenced but a 

short time ago 
Then you have made good 

progress 



Can you recommend me 

a good teacher ? 
I must have a method, 



reading book 
I hope soon to be able to 



rekoniendiren mir \hv Kent 

le/»rer giiten a 

liiet'ioilc a hoben muz Icli 
a dictionary and a good ]J?ai;3 1^ ]1i< imj-'ta-iyn K, 

guten a uii vei-terbuch a 

buch leze 

kenen tzu gichen in hof Ich 
speak, read and write IX^'^T^ jyi'^na* ]1« y^V^b ,]J?nyn 
Yiddij^h yidish shraiben un lezen reden 

Pkase, give me your nr\S* 1''» t!^2':^ jIH tOIJ '^ITH t^''^ 

aier mir gibt un gut nzoi Zait 

address > D J/'nK 

adresse 

Good bye! I wish youssnttnHs ybyiK' K 7'« D'^ii ^K ! j?n» 

rapid progress i'orshrit slmele a aich vit>sh ieli Adye 

Writing letters {Shraiben Brief) ?jj?n3 ]v*2'n^ 

I have to write a letter . JriJ?n3 8 ]'j:i''''^^ IX ^XH ^i^ 

brief a shraiben tzu hob Ich 

To whom do you write ? ? IH'K !25^n{i^ ]j;a»"n IS 

i/ir shraibt vemen Tzvt 



112 



Tt) my parent,^ 
I need a peii and ink 
Have you a pen-knife ? 
The letter is finished 

-Now write the address 
Have you an envelope ? 
Here is one 

It is too small, I want 
a larger one 

I will go to get a 
postage stamp 



eltern maine Tzu 

tint xm feder a broich Ich 

menserl pen a ihr Plot 

geendigt shoin iz brief Der 

adresse di oif sliraibt Yetzt 

konvert a ihr Hot 

einer iz Ot 

hoben darf ich klein tzu iz Ess 

gresseren a 

marke post a krigen geAn vel Ich 



What kind of a stamp do 
you want ? 



i/ir darft marke a fir Voss 

hoben 
Bring me also a few' jytDINDt^iD^S y:''J''\S "[''IS* I^O tD:i3*'nn 
post cards postkarten einige oich mir Breins^t 



m 



r have several letters to write yet, rjj;n3 J?3'*3'''^K "|»3 iKil "J^X 

brief einige noch hob Ich 
and I am short of I^D ]1N ,]y::''n2<* IX 

mir un shraiben tzu 
paper IJ/^^BJJS D^IX '^bnVt 

papier oiss feMt 

Tailoring (Shnaiderai) ''•»nj?n''*»3ty 

Does the tailor live here ? ? 1 J?\n 1 J/n^''3!r IJ?! tDl'^IKH 

hier shn aider der Toint 
Yes; lam the tailor 1J?T'^32^ IH ]'»i ^K ;»' 

shn aider der bin ich Ye 

What willyou charge me for TS ]J?3pyn yf2 ^TS DJ?11 DXIl 

fir rechenen mir i^r vet Voss 
aL'oat and vest of V -|1{^ DJ?3*''»£ ]1S DOyiT pK D«1; » 
fine cloth ? tuch fain em fun vest un rok a 

Three pounds upwards ipj?n ]1K Q31S ,*»m 

hecher tin funt Brai 
Make me a coat and vest i:sbj?11 ]1N pXI K n^'O ID^KD 

vest un rok a mir Macht 

for three pounds JD31fl ''*'*n TS 

funt drai fir 

What style would you like nrT'N tD^SJII ]«D»S K ^'»B DK11 

iftr volt fasson a fir VosiS 

to have? ^pxn ]j?^pn 

hoben velen 



114 



Make it after the latest J?lXD n^a!f>*^ 1]}1 "I^J D^ tODXrj 

fashion mode letzter der noch ess Macht 

And how would you like to |>?nS\n ]y*^J?ir liTX tnhm '•11 (IX 

hobeil velen ihr volt vi Un 
have your vest made ? i'DDJ/ll IJ/'^^N a3{<!2>J 

vest aier gemacht 

I should like to have it a:!s,t:j;: ]j?3Nn ]j;'7j?n n a'?s"ii 7« 

gemacht hoben velen zi volt Ich 
made with a colhir ]J?J^^'^p 8 lD^tD 

kragen a mit 
What kind of lining and |1S JK^2?"lyuijnS *T*5 DKII 

nn nnteishlag fir Voss 
trimming shall I give ? ]J,'a>*J 7\S* "]\S ^S^ .3mi£p 
you? geben aich icli zol beputzung 

Give the best Hning and ]%S i.S^yi'nyiDr.S* J^tSSJ?:} n tO^j 

nn untershlag besste di Git 

toHH nn\s omt :ji:fisri 

hot ihr voss beputzmig 



trimming you have 

in your stock 

What kind o! buttons ? 
Of the finest pattern 

you can get 



lager aier in 

kneplech a fir Voss 

nmsster she/msten dem Fun 

y^'^'^^p tD3>*D nn\S* DKII 
krjo-en kent ihr voss 



1^5 



You can choose anv 



kind you like 
Do you keep buttons too ? 

I keep everything in the 

tailoring line 
Now you will be good enongh 
to take my mea^sure 

In a minute; I will call 



fir voss oissklaiben kent I^r 

a'?"!! in\s tS-|KT K 

vilt i/ir zort a 
oicli kneplech i/ir Halt 

dem fun zach yede halt Ich 



fach slinaider 

aij ■'ux ]"T -i.TS tapn mv 

gut azoi zain ihr vet Yetzt 
moss a neAmen niir 



rufen vel ich minut a In 
menshen main 

pvi nnyi ."iyn« Dip i byDS"- 

dizeu ne/mi aber kum Yossel 
measure of this gentleman andli-'na^ ]1« D^|IO If;? ]11J?n 

shraib un moss a herrn 



ray man 
Joe I Come here. Take the 



enter it into the book 



Please, Sir, stand straight 



bucli in arain 
glaicli shteAt herr main Bite 



ii6 



coat to be ? 

One yard and a half 
And your vest? 
Forty inches long 



and I will take your DXD X ]]?».! J?J 1''\S ^>*n -;">S ]1X 

measure moss a nei^men aich vel ich un 

How long do you want your p«n 1j;'^\S ^H'^ ^^'11 J3X^ '•11 

rok aier i^r vilt lang Vi 

zain zol 

IIS'' ivi'pNnta-ij/'ils 

yard Onderthalben 

vest aier Un 

lang tzol Fertzig 
Your waist measures thirty two ]1S "''•IVS tS^Xn J?''t'NtD ^y'^'^X 

uti tzvei halt talie Aier 
inches and a half i^^H Ij^ ]]H bH'i J^'D'^m 

halb a un tsol draissig 
Make my coat full thirty-three p^^ ''•»^-I j;^1£) pJ<T pv^ tO^^tt 

uu drai fule rok main Macht 

to^'ni hi^t j''D'»m 

T 

breit t2ol draissig 
fuftzeAn zainen akslen Aiere 

T 

breit tzol 

aless iz Boss 
Here is the measure of this ]1*1J?n ]J?Tn IIS DSD "^l ?••{< ^J?\'l 
gentleman herrn dizen fun moss di iz Hier 



inches wide 



Your shoulders are fifteen 



inches wide 



That is all 



1V7 



How, Joe, take the scissors ^];^ ^ CrtJ?3 ,^J?D«^ ^^JJlfiX'^N 

slier di ne/im yossel Jtzter 
and cut the cloth DT?T tiD**!^ '^Itt DST ni'»3a* ]1H 

accordingly dem loit tuch doss sbuaid un 

I am done with tjie ]J/fT''''32'*1^' DyH tD\tD J''tD1>*£ ^2 "] i^ 

cutting tzubhnaiden dem mit fertig bin Ich 

The operator says that the ]^£^^;:D H DST MST IS^^^lD:^ "IJ?! 
maehin di doss zogt shteper Der 
machine is now out of order— ^'♦^ D>:3 tO^JT'' fS 

in nit yetzt. iz 
the needle is ]pirinn T^« b]!l^^ H -J^in^^ 

broken tzubii'ochen \z nodel di ordnung 

Go and get a needle ; buy Tj^p } ^pN*3 N* i^'^ip ]1« tl)}) 

koif nodel a krig un Ge/? 
also plain needles, ,]J?^1N*3 rD^<£^'•^< "[''IkS 

nodlen einfache oich 
a few thimbles and thre^ '''•'m pS tOMIyJir^ y^y^y 

drai un fingerhit etliche 
spools of cotton No. 32 32 ^yll^l-] ^5^*11X3 D^p'r'II^D 

32 numer bavel spulkess 
But before you go away p];])^ tDDH);:! H T;1''^ IpiH 

avek geJmt du eider Ober 
take the iron and jIN* ]p7'»'»>^''Dj;i2 QyT Dnj;j 

un aizen press dein nehm 
iron these trousers and p{i^ jyT'^in ^TH D^l^ DJ/lS 

un hoizen dize oiss press 
this cloak ^J;D3KD ]]fVl 

mantel dizen 



liS 



I am done with tliei ironing ]J?DJ?n3 DJ?T ^'»D 3'»tS1J?5 ]'»i "]•»» 

pressen dem niit fertig bin loh 
Now you can go your errand 53W j^'H ]nj?J 1tDD3J?p ")J?rDS''« 

gang dain geAn kenstu Itzter 



Names of the Months ]J?eXJ«D H ]1fi ]y D^J 
{Ne men fun di monateri) 



Nisson ID'^J 

lyor n'»«»K 

Sivon ]VD 

Tamuz t^ian 

Ov a>« 

T 



Tishrei '»12'*n 

Oheshvon ]W'n 

Kislev T»^D3 

Teivess (Te^fiJ^) HitD 

Shvot aai2; 

Ador 'niK 



First of the month ■— — (Roish Choidesh) ti^^'T] SS^KI 



T^BLE OF JEWISH FESTIVALS. 

Feast of Passover Peissach riDS 

Eight davs, 15th to 22nd of Nisson. 



U9 



Scholar's Feast Lag Boimer ^DiyS 2''7 

18tli Tyar. (Minor Festival) 

Feast of Weeks Shvucss niJ^^iE'* 

Two days, 6tli and 7th of Si van. 

Chamisho ossor B^ov iXS ib^lT nt&*an 
T : T T T • -; 

15th day of Ov. (Minor Festival) 
IsTew year Rosh Hashono HJl^n 2*NT 

T T - 

Two days, 1st and 2nd Tishrei. 
Day of Atonement Yom kipur *1^£3 QV 

10th of Tishrei. 
Feast of Tabernacles . Sukess rilSD 

15th to 23rd of Tishrei, 
.7thdayof ni3p Hoshaine Rabo n^in n^3y.&*in 

21st of Tishrei. 
8thdayofni3D Slimini Atzeress Dl^? 'J^'fi!?^ 

22nd of Tishrei. 
Rejoicing of the Law, 9th day of ]ni3p Simchass Toire rTlin nHDiJ^ 

23rd of Tishrei. 
Feast of Dedication Chanuko HS^JTl 

25th of Kislev. (8 days) 
Kew Year for I'rees Chamisho ossor Bishvot Diii'*^ 1^]} 11^*1-11 

loth of Shvot (Minor Festival) 

14th of Ador Purira W^'^B 

15th of Ador (Minor Festival) Shushan Purim D**"1^B ]pW 

Minor Purim Purim Kot'n )pp D^'IIB 

14th of First Ador (in a Leap Year) 



TABLE OF JEWISH FASTS. 



Fast of the first Bor Toness Bchoirim D'»^133 n'^JS^Fl 

14th of Nisson (For first born only) 

Shivo ossor B'taixitJz TIGnS ^WV TW!!^ 



Fast 01 Tarn muz 
Fast of Ov 
Fast of Gedaliah 
Day ot Atonement 
Fast of Tebeth 
Fast of Esther 



17th of Tammuz. 

Tisho B'ov 2\A2 ny&*in 

t- 1 t: • 

9t}i of Ov. 

TzumGdalye IfV^^IJ D1X 
3rd of Tishrei. 

Yom Kipwr 1^23 UV 
10th of Tishrei. 

Assoro B'teivess n5D3 T\"^^V 
10th of Tebetk. 

Toness Ester ni^DX n'»lS?f) 
lathofAdor. 




121 



WORDS OF HEBREW ORIGIN 
most frequently used in the Hebrew Language. 



By Philip Blackman, F.C.S. 




father, 


ov, 


2J^ 


loss, 


ah-vay'-do. 


nnnx 


patriarchs, 


aw— vace'. 


nn^ 


but, no matter, 


ah-be'. 


^3^t 


loss, 


ah-vay'-do. 


nr?^ 


poor ; beggar, 


ev'-yon, 


r?^ 


poor (woman), 


ev'-yon-ta, 


i!^m^ 


mourner, 


ov'-el, 


^3^ 


mourning, 


ah-vay'-less, 


ni'?5^? 


limb, 


ay'-ver, 


'^^N 


incidentally. 


ah-guv'. 


m 


indirectly, 


ah-guv-oor'-cho, 


ar^ym-i^ 


legend, fable. 


ah-go'-do, 


nn 


master; gentleman, 


aw'-den, 


]MH 


mighty ; knight. 


ah'-dir, 


y^^ 


man. 


od'-om, 


D"1X 


eaiMh, 


ah-do'-mo, 


npiK 


on the contrary; so much the 


ah '-drab-bo. 


"in.-ix 


[better 


9 




love. 


ah'-a-vo, 


n;JD^ 


aleph. 


ah'-lef, 


n^^ 


alphabet, 


uV-fo-bace, 


n^rxflV^jt 


displeasure. 


00 m'- chain, 


]nm 


disgrace, dishonour, 


oom'-ko-ved, 


T)3|pm 


mechanic ; expert, 


oom'-en, 


]Dm 


artist; expert, 


oom'-en-yod. 


irjD^N 


no sooner said than done, 


oim'-er-ve-oi'-seh.T^iyrnpiN 


compelled, (man), 


ay'-ness, 


djHk 


treasure, 


ay'-tser. 


iX"iK 


gue-^t; visitor, 


ay'-rech. 


niiK 



122 



letter, 

sign, 

warning, 

unity, 

besides, 

battocks, hind-quarters, 

last 

responsibility, 

repeat, 

fear, dread, 

husband ; man, 

wife; woman, 

cruel man, 

cruelty, 

food, 

eater ; gourmand, 

eat, to consume, 

inn, 

Month of EUul, 

widower, 

widow, 

alphabet, 

matriarchs, 

faith, 

if it please God, 

if so, 

Amen, 

truth, 

man, 

forbidden, 

guardian, 

darkness, 

even, 

dessert, 

heretic, 

perhaps, 

smaU " talith,'' 



ace (ace'yes), (nvniK) ni^« 

ace (ace'es), .. (mrnx) ni>t 

ahz-ho'ro, iTO|}< 

ach'-doos, mifjit: 

ah-choots', pn»v 

aw'-cher, n'tnK 

ach'-ren, p-l^^< 

ach ro'-yoos nrnnx 

ib'-er-chah-zern ni'^lJ^I'^ 

ay'-mo hd'h 

ish, i^'i^t 

ish'-o, n^i^ 

ach'-zor, '1n^? 

ach-ze-re'-yoos, nriDX 

ah-che'-lo, , n^'sx 

ach'-lon, jV?n 

ach'-len, ]]}hDi(: 

ach-sun'-yo, •'^;^p?^:^ 

er-ool, h^hi{ 

ahl'-men, |D^i< 

ahl-mo'-no, "jd^k 

ah'-lef-bace, n'r^./^>^ 

im-aw'-hess nincx 

em-oo'-no, nm^ 

im-yip'-tse-hah-shem' 

im-kane', , irn^^ 

aw-mane', \i?i< 

em'-ess, nD^? 

en'-aysh, B'ijK 

oss'-oor, -i^D^ 

ah-pet-ro'-pis, d'sIi^ih 

ah'-fay'-lo, . ^^m 

ah-fil'-oo, . ?'?'9x 

ah-ftk-o'-^nen, I^ip'st? 

ah-pe-ko'-ress, Din'ip?^ 

ef'-shop, i^Dx 
ahr-be-kun'-f e§p, niS43'y5i?< 



123 



holy ark, 
shrew, 
Palestine, 
rubbish, 
wife ; woman, 
married woman, 
valiant woman, 
citron, 

indeed ; in fact, 
in detail, 
owing to, 
fable ; idle talk, 
garments 
stealthily, 

comedian ; comic ; clown, 
after the fact, 
ruined, 
in poverty, 
of mind, 
wittingly, 
whereas, 
dread, terror, 
dolt, fool ; beast ; cow, 
on credit, 
young girl, 
undoubtedly, 
creator, 
shame, 

contemptible fellow, 
shame, 

insults, disgrace, 
young man ; bachelor, 
spinster, 
gratis, 
•fine, 

naturally, 
certain ; sure, 
null, 
idler. 



aw-ren-kay'-desh, si'iirpnx 

ah-roo'-ro, nin« 
er'-ets-yis-ro'-el, ^^7frn^> 

aish'-po, ns^K 

ay'-shess, nid^ 

ay'-shess-ish', a^'x-n-^N 
ay'-shess-chah'-yil,'?:n-nK'x 

ess'-rog, ynjp.vj. 

be-em'-ess, nmj 

bah-rich'-oos, ri?D'>^3 

bah-ah-sher', i^vsa 

bob'-e-mah'-se, n^j;D"N33 

beg'-ed, i^r 

big-nay'- vo, .13435 

bud'-chen, |ni3 

be-di-ev'-ed, "^rH'l^ 

be-diF-hah-dar, ^in-*?'!? 

be-dul'-ess, n^^? 

be-day'-o, n^i3. 

be-dah'-ahs, nyi^ 

be-yoice', nVn? 

be-hor-o, T^hn:?. 

be-hay'-mo, nnn^ 

be-hah-ko'-fo, nsi?n3 

hayg'-ress, rriais 

be-vud'-i, \x^i5 

bay '-ray, n-ib 

boo'-sho, n^i3 

be'-zoo, 'm 

biz-o'-yen, }rj:ii 

biz-yo'-nace, niji^ja 

boch'-oor, im|t 

boch'-oor-ta, y^iini 

be-chin'-om, * nrnf 

bo-chir', Tna 

be-tev'-ah, j;^^^ 

bo-too.'-ach, t n^D^ 

bot'-el, . ^ '?D|t 

but'-lon, fj)p3 



124 



for less than nothing, 

excommunication, 

commentary, 

vacation, 
meanwhile, 

house, 

court of justice, 

heavenly court, 

court usher, 

synagogue, 

synagogue-school, 
water closet, 

cemetery, 

hospital 

cemetery, 

school 

cemetery, 

cemetery, 

respectfully, 

in order that, 

intentionally, ■ 

first-born, 

in general, 

in writing, 

secretly, 

unseen, 

false charge, 

without doubt, 

in cash,, for cash 

intentionally, 



bah-chah-tsi'-chin'- om, 
be-chay'rem, onn? 

bay'oor, i^ik^^i 

bain-haz-mah'-n im , 
bay-no-le vay'-no, ir^^ira 
bay'-tso, nv'5 

bah'-yiss, n>3 

bess'-din, r^"n'3 

bess'-din-shel^mah'. lo, 

bess-din-shum'-ess, 

bace-hah-kne'-sess, 

bece-hah-med'-resh, 
bace-hah-ke'-say, nD3n-n'5 

bace-hah-kvo'-ress, 
bace-cho'-lim, o^^n-n^a 



bace-chah'-yim. 


D'!n-n*5 


bace-say'-fer 


■^sp-n^a 


bace-ay'-lom, 


cV^rn^S 


bace-ahl'-min, 


wbrn'3. 


be-cho'-ved. 


-ii3D3 


bich-day' 


■ "V^ 


b«-kiv'-an, 


p?? 


be-chor'. 


nb? 


bich-lul', 


^^?? 


bich-suv', 


35?? 


be-lo-yoid'-im. 


D^Vii^-KVl 


be-lo-re-e-yo, 


n;K"|-K^? 


bil'-bool, 


. V^3^2 


ble'-so'-fek. 


P9p4? 


be-me-zoo'-men, 


IP^tp? 


be-may'-zid. 


• rim 



125 



as a gift, 

son, 

inmate, 

concerning, 

only son, 

building, 

Israelite, 

prince, 

rebellious son, 
pleasantly, 
with God's help 
in toto, 
haughty (man), 



master of the house ; owner, 

sufferer, 

debtor, 

strong, 

benefactor, 

hospitable (man) 

working man, 
lover ; adventurer, 

trustworthy man, 
coachman, 
easily insulted, 
business-man, 
adviser, 
charitable man, 
faith-healing Rabbi, 
entertainer, 
lustful man, 
prayers-leader, 
horn- blower, 

at the time, 
publicly, 
expressly, 
in particular, 



be-mah-to'-no, n:)jiD3 

ben, II 

ben-bah'-yiss, n:3-|| 

be-no-gay'-eh, j/jhsi 

ben-yoch'-id, "''cri? 

• bin'-yon, };^2 

ben-yis-ro'-el, "^^li^rfl 

ben-mel'-ech, ^./'Pll 

niiDriiiD-ii 

ben-so'-rer-oo-mo'-reh, 

bin-im'-oos, n^D'y;? 

be-ez'-rus-ha-shem', OK'n-niij;? 

be-sach'-hah'-kel, "^sn-nDii 

bah'-al-gah' vo njt?a-^y3 

bah'-al-hah-bah'-yis, 
ba-al-yo-soo'-rim, □n^D;-'?j;3 
bah'-ul-chave, nin-^ys 

ba'-ah-ko'-ach', nr'^ya 

bah'-al-tay'-vo, n^ia-'?y5 
bah'-ahl- niiK-D^2?D-'?y3 

much'nis-ay'-ruch 

ba'-al-me-lo'cho, n^N^D-^ya 
bah'-lon, ]bii,z 

n»DNr'?y3 
bah'-ul-ne-em-on'-oos, 
bah'-ul-ah-go'-la, n^jy-^ya 
bah'-ul-ttv'-lo, n^iy'^ya 
bah'-ul-ay'-sek, P^T^V,^ 
bah'-ul-ay'.tsa, nyy-'^ya 
bah'-ul-tse-do'-ko, np-i^ "^ys 
bah'-al'-shem, D|?^"''y3 

bah'-ul-sim'-cho nriDb'-Vys 
bah'-al-tah'-vo ni{<Fi"'?y3 
bah'-al-te-fir-o, nk^"Vy3 
bah'-al-te-ke'-o, ni;^i?ri-'7y3 

nryp-ny3 
be-ace-mah'-ah-say, 
be-fahr-hess'-yo, n;5)n-|23 
be-fay'-roosh, ^^iq^ 

be-frut-, t2i33 



bok'-e, 

bah-ko'-sho, 

bahr-oor'-yon, 

bahr-dah'-us, 

bray'-gez, 

bo-rooch-ha-bo', 



■jnVK-i3 



bo'-rooch-ha-shem,DC'n.?in3 



; 126 

versed, well-read, 

request, 

scholar, 

intelligent man, 

angry ; not on talking terms, 

welcome ! 

blessed be God, 

Thank Goodness I am rid of it, bo-rooch-she-pot-rah'-ni, 

■ nxni 

n3"]3 
niD-13 

. nivP"i3 

NDDD-13 

:jW3 

D',P'^3 
nx;B'3 



bro'-o, 

ber'-ro, 

bray'ro, 

briss, 

bro'-cho, 

brochous, 

be-rem-iz'-o, 

bar'-me-nun. 



creature, 

capable woman, 

alternative, 

circumcision ceremony, 

benediction, 

blessings, 

by a hint, 

corpse, 

13th anniversary of Jewish boy,bar-mits'-vo, 

reliable man, bar-sum'-cho, 

unintentionally, be'-shoi'-gog, 

tidings, be-soo'-ro, 

at rest ; in peace be-shul'-vo, 

in peace, be-sho'-lem, 

spices, be' som'-im, 

when, be-shah'-us, 

at the time, be-shahs'-mah'sa, 

flesh and blood; human being, bos'-or-ve-dom', QlP^I 

virgin, be-soo'-lo, n^?n3 

only daughter, bus-ye-chid'.o; nrn^-na 

Jewess, bus-yis-ro'-el, '?N-]i^:-n3^ 

pride, gj'-^o, mxa 

redemption, ge-oo'-Io, nhm 

Gaon ; genius, gaw'-en, pxa 

president, gah'-by, '«3a 

boanda-ry, gvool, "^i^^ 

hero, gib'-or, liaa 

heroism, gvoo'-ro, nina 

rich man, gvir, ^'n| 

great man. god'-el, Viia 



127 



greatness, 


ge-doo'-lp. 


ri^Al^ 


pride, 


gud'-loos, 


n6ii 


hell, 


ge-hen'-om. 


Dj\7a 


non- Jew ; dunce 


goy> 


'i-i 


great number, 


gooz'-mo, 


nona 


automaton ; doU, 


gay'-lom. 


dVij 


return thanks to God for 




rr;yrWiJ 


narrow escape, 


gay'-mel-ben'-shen, 


body, 


goof, 


^ij 


dying man. 


gay'-sess. 


Dpi a 


oneself, 


goof'-a, 


am 


lot. 


gay'-rel. 


Wia 


to cause. 


gay'rem-(zine). 


irt) Dlia 


robbery, 


gzay'-lo. 


nh^ 


robber, 


guz'-lon. 


\'?n 


to rob, 


guz'-len-en. 


]^l^n 


decree. 


gzay'-ro. 


^m 


divorce. 


get, 


^?. 


transmigration, wandering 
soul, 


gil'-gel, 


^:^ 


shaven man, 


gloo'-ach. 


m^ 


exile, 


gor-oos, 


m^i 


priest, cleric. 


gab 'loch. 


n^3 


rolling up of scroll, 


g e'-lo, 


n^'^^ 




gmil.oos-ches'-< 


ed, ■ 


charity ; favour ; loan, 




ipn"n^rp| 


decision, 


gmar," 


noa 


Gemarah, 


gmo'-ro. 


aiD-i 


shrewd fellow. 


gmo'-ro-kep el, 


^vmr^19^ 


thief, 


gun'-ov, 


m 


theft. 


gnay'-vo, 


n^^^ 


paradise, 


gun-ay'-den, 


mv- 


deatb-agony. 


gse'-so. 


HD^p^ 


proselyte. 


ger. 


^a 


divorcee, 


groo'-sho, 


HB^n; 


worry, anxiety. 


dy'-go. 


i^i^l 


evil spirit, 


dib'-ook. 


pl3^ 



128 



talk, 


dlb-oo'-rim. 


Dn^ai 


great devotioD, 


dvay'-koos, 


nip?7 


pig, 


dov er-ach'-er. 


in><"n5^; 


fish, 


dog, 


r) 


for spite, expressly, 


dav'-ka, 


J<i5n 


generation, 


dayr, 


-r^i 


difficulty, 


day'-chuk, 


pni 


judge, 


dah'-yen. 


in 


law ; sentence ; judgment, 


din, 


r^ 


law-suit, 


din-tor'-ab, 


niiiri-p-^ 


dwelling, 


de'-ro. 


ni/T 


poverty, 


dah'-less, 


n^V"^ 


poor fellow, 


dul'-fen. 


]^s)l 


blood, 


dom. 


°? 


blood, 


dom'-im, 


n'Di 


adjudge, 


don'-zine 


rw 


opinioD, 


day'-o, 


r^Hl 


sense ; reason, 


dah'-us, 


r\V.l 


grammar, 


dik'-dook, 


iWi?n 


infant teacher, 


dar' de kay-me-l 


Lah'-med, 


south, 


dor'-em-zite. 


D'\rDh7 


incidentally, 


der'-ech'-ah-guv 


•', ^m-v:^. 


politeness. 


der'-ech-er'-ets, 


YW^Il 


homiletical explanation, 


drush', 


B'lT 


sermon, 


dro'-sho, 


n^17 


wedding present. 


dro'- sho-ge-shunk' 


preach, 


dar-'shen-'en. 


m^V 


preacher. 


dar'-shen. 


iri? 


promise, 


hahv-to'-cho. 


riQtpnn 


Hagadah, 


hah-go' do, 


nijn 


\}hough, 


hah-gum', • 


oarr 


myrtle; spice-box, 


hod'-ess, 


DlfT 


supplement. 


hay-so'-fo. 


nDDirr 


expense, 


hay-tso'- o, 


ni<^\n 


osier-bunch, 


hoi-shah'-no. 


mv^Sn 



129 



loan, 


hul-vo'-o, 


^W^ 


interval, 


huf-so'-ko, 


nf^-ert 


wonderful, 


huf'-la vo feF-a, 


K.^srKi??n 


luck ; success, 


huts-io'-cho, 


nn^^-rt 


workhouse, 


hek'-desh, 


^1?,^ 


habit, 


her'-gel, 


hyirj 


hills and valleys, 




niyn:rDnn 


absurd 


promipes,hor '- i m-oog- vo'- < 


ess, 


idea, conception, 


hah-so'-go, 


nf^n 


education, 


hus-ko'-lo, 


nhs-i^'n 


obligation. 


hiss-chy'-voos, 


nn:n];in 


beginning, 


hus-cho'-lo 


n^nrin 


perseverance, 


hus-mo'-do, 


niD^in 


enthusiasm, 


hiss-po'-ah-loos, 


w'?j;sjpri 


escape, 


vah-yiv-ruch, 


ni?n 


confession, 


ve'-doo, 


'IT"! 


dispute, 


ve-koo'-ach, 


0^3"! 


liberal person, 


vut'-ron, 


n?'i 


mate. 


ziy'-oog. 


m ^^^ 


merit, 


zo'-che-zlile, 


r™>^ 


olive, 


zah'-yiss, 


^n 


merit, privilege, 


zchoos, 


niDl 


ancestral merit, 


zchoos ov'-ess, 


ni3K-n^Di 


honour, 


zche'-yo, 


•"»:?! 


male, 


zoch'-er, 


VI 


remembrance, 


zay'-cher, 


■ VI 


memory. 


ze-kor'-en, 


P'llI 


abuse. 


zil'-zool, 


"^^T^I 


Sabbath hymns, 


zmir'-ess, 


nn^pi 


time, 


zmun, 


PI 


hymn, 


zem'-er 


ip.l 


adultery. 


znoos, 


nm 


old man. 


zok'-en, 


m 


old woman, 


zkay'-no, 


^m 


prompt man, 


zriz, 


^m 



130 



percussion of the grave, 


chib-oot-hah-kev'-er, 


composition ; thesis, 


chib'-oor, 


mri 


chum; companion, 


chuv'-er, 


^W 


society, 


chev'-ro. 


^1W 


member ; fellow, 


chev'-ro-mun, 


\i<Q-ni2n 


tricky-fellow, 


chev'-ro-nik. 


P'^n"j?n 


society, 


chuv-roo'-so. 


nnnan 


holiday, 


chog'-a, 


m 


the greatest man of the age, 


chud-be-do'-ro, 


N-inrin 


nonsense, 


chud-gud'-yo. 


Nnrin 


room ; school 


chay'-der, 


V.^ 


school-hoy, 


chay'-der-yin-gel,''?yj;^ri^n 


month. 


chay'-desh, 


B'lh 


debt ; duty. 


choiv. 


2Sr, 


mockery, 


chay'-zek, 


ppr^ 


hair's breadth, 


choot-hah-shah' 




mockery. 


chay-cho-oo-tloo'-lo, 


ill. 


chay-lo' 


n^n 


Intermediate Horydays, 


8 chayl-hah-may'- 


nyitsn-Vin 
ed, 


difaculty, 


choom'-ro, 


a-it^m 


Penbateuch, 


choom'-esh. 


ran 


flatterer,] 


chay'-nef, 


n^'^n 


canopy. 


choo'-po. 


n^m 


outside ; except. 


choots. 


pn 


impudence. 


choots'-po. 


r^^m 


ruin. 


choor'-bo. 


na-i^n 


destruction. 


choor'-bon, 


]^r^ 


feeling ; sense. 


choosb, 


mn 


wise man. 


cho'-chom, 


W 


wise woman, 


chah-cho'-mo. 


no?D 


wisdom, 


choch'-mo. 


nippn 


white bread, 


chahlo. 


n^n 


blasphemy, 


chil-ool-hah-shem',Di^n-V^VrT 


dream. 


choF-em, 


DiVn 



131 



dream, 

exchange, 

difference, 

distribution, 

Ood forbid ! 

epilepsy, 

cavity, 

slaughtering-knife, 

money-changer, 

part ; portion, 

weak; sickly, 

faint ; swoon, 

disgusting, 

to faint, 

ruflftan, 

ass ; fool, 

leaven, 

eh arm ; grace, 

Hanukah, 

Hanukab top, 

Hanukah candle, 

Hanukah lamp, 

liouse-warming, 
flatterery ; cringing, 
flatterer ; cringer, 

(woman) flatterer, 

to flatter, 

pity, 

favour ; benevolence, 

God forbid ! 
God forbid ! 
pious man ; Chassid, 



choF-em-en, . p^'iVn 

chiF-oof, ^i^n 

chiF-ook, p^Vn 

chah-looVrO, r:\^rf 

cho-Je'-lo, . nV"?!! 

chol-e -nayf -lim, D^^sir^^n 

chol'-el, hhn 

chuF-ef, n!?!^ 

chul-fen', ]^b^ 

chay'-lek, p^n 

chuF-osh, ^hri 

chu-lo '-shoos, nw^ri 
chah-losh'-oos-dig, rijpv^^n 

ohah'-lesh-en, ]W^r\ 

chom, on 

cha-mayr', liDq 

chom'-ets, fpn 

chain, |n 

chah'-noo-ka, na^jq 

chah'-noo-ka-dray- del, 

chah'noo-ker-lich'tei, 

chah'ndo-ka-lem-pel, 

chah-noo-kus- n^^n-ns^nq 
hah-bah'-yiss, 

chah-ne'-fo, nQ^m 

chah-ne-foosh'-nik,p':f^s':n 

chali-ne-foosh'-ne-tser, 
chun'-fen, jys^n 

chus, DO 

ches'-ed, , npn 

chuss-ve-chol-e'-lo, 

chuss-ve-sho'-lem, DiV^ron 
chos'-id, I'pn 



132 



Chassidic synagogue, 

Chassidic, 

crazy; insane, 

fault, 

(precious) object, 

impudent fellow, 

impudent woman, 

midnight service, 

at half price, 

investigation, 

investigator, 

destroyed, 

destroyed, 

nut-pap, 

regret ; repentance, 

sharp-minded, 

acuteness, 

ban ; excommunication, 

shame, 

account ; sum, 

count ; reckon, 

suspicion, 

eminent, 

eminence, 

diligence ; desire, 

wedding; marriage, 

signature, 

to sign, 

bridegroom, 

immersion, 
nature, 

marriage-ring, 

clean, ^ 

(dear) ablution board, 

favour, 

to immerse, 



chah-se'- dim-shte^-bel, 

chah-se'-dish, ^'TPU 
chah-sar'-day'-o, ni^T"'P!7 

che-so'-ren, j'npn 

chay'-fets, fan 

chots'-oof, fpin 

chah'tsoo'-fo, ns^jfq 

chah-tsace\ niiin 
chah-tse'-chin'-om, ojn-'vn 

chah-ke'-ro, nTprj: 

chuk'-ron, pipn 

chor'-ev, n-jrr 

choor'-bon, ||in 

chah-ray'-sess, npnn 

chah-rot'-o, nD-jn: 

chor'-if, rjnn 

chah-rif'-oos, msnn 

chay'-rem, Din 

cher'-po, nsirr 

chesh'-bon, fia^rr 

chesh'-bay'-nen, li^p^'n 

chah-shud' wu 

chosh'-oov, D^jj'n 

chah-shiv'-oos, n^n^'n 

chay'-shek p^n: 

chah'-soo-no, njfiQ 

chah-se-'mo, ngrtn 

chahs'-men-en, ly^'^P^DD 

chos'-on, |nrr. 

tve'-lo, n^'5p. 

tev'-a, j;3^ 

tae-bah'-us-ke-doos'-in, 

to'-hayr, ninti. 
tah'-ha-ro-bret Dy-n^'n-iq^ 

tay'-vo n;iisj' 

tay'-vel-zine r\T-^?'ii3' 



133 





titesh'-choo-mesh 


Tiddish Pentateuch, 




E'pm-B'Q^^t? 


Prayer Shawl, 


tah'-liss, 


n^^Q 


;small Prayer Shawl, 


tah'-liss-kot'-on. 


I^p-n'^^ 


Tinclean, 


tom'-ay, 


m^ 


<lipt ; excretion, 


tin'-oof, 


f]^:^ 


excrete, 


tin-ay'-fess, 


pisi3^ 


error, 


taw'-ess. 


roya 


•excuse ; plea 


tah'-no, 


m.^ 




tah'-no oo-mah'-no 


<;ontroversy. 




mp'^-m^ 


to plead, 


tah'-nen, 


ly'njy^^ 


fool, 


tip'-esh. 


. B^isp 


palm ; hand-breadth, 


tef'-ech, 


nsa 


l3usy, 


tor'-ood. 


nna 


forbidden (unclean), 


trafe, 


V-^ 


forbidden food, 


tahr'-fess. 


n^s-iL) 


despair, 


yay'-oosh, 


v;m:. 


dry land, 


yah-bosh'-o. 


n^r- 


hand. 


yud, 


11 


friend. 


ye- did', 


"I'l? 


knowledge ; information, 


ye-de'-o. 


nrj: 


jubilee, 


yay'-vel, 


^2V 


day of judgment, 


yaim-hah-din', 


pin- Di^^ 


festival. 


yaim'-tave, 


3iJ0-DV 


festive. 


yame'-tave-dig, 


jn-3b-DV 


Day of Atonement, 


yame-ke'-poor, 


1?23-Dr 


to do one's duty, 


yai'-tse-zine, 


VTi^t' 


liturgic poetry, 


yates'-ress, 


nn?;r 


lineage; pedigree importance, ye'-choos, 


Dm> 


^eneological documents, 


ye-'choos-brif. 


?]yn^-D5n: 


to boast, 


ye'-choosen-zich 


, rrfo^n: 


important fellow, 


yuch' son. 


m: 


pain. 


ye-soo'-rim, 


D'TD, 


i>eauty, 


ye-fay-fe'-yo. 


'"^tS'nD; 


belle, 


ye-fas-tay'-ar, 


-ixin-ns):. 


temptation ; tempter ; evil inc-yai'-tser-ho'-ro, 


i^lO"^^; 


linatioD, 







134 



scarcity ; high price, 


yuk'-roos, 


nnp! 


profiteer, 


yuk'-ron. 




fear of God, 


yir'-us-sho-mah' 


-yim 


ineritance, 


ye-roosh'-o, 


n^n; 


herbs; vegetables, 


ye-rok'-ess, 


^^Pll 


inherit, 


yar'-shen-en. 


\vmT- 


brandy, 


yah'-yin-so'-rof. 


yash,'r"! 


consideration ; colony, 


y©'-shoov, 




consideration, 


yish'-oov hah-dah'-us. 


country-woman. 


ye-shoov'-nits-a 


, y^'n^K': 


country -man. 


ye-shoov'-nik, 


p'jnw?- 


salvation, 


ye-shoo'-a, 


nviB': 


college. 


ye-she'-vo, 


n^T;- 




ye-she-vo-bo' choor, 


college-student. 




iin;i-n:;T^- 


upright man, 


yush'-ron, 


nt- 


fairness, 


yush-ron'-oos, 


n^^J^l 


Israel ; Israelite, 


yis-ro'el, 


VxTf: 


orphan (boy), 


yo'-sem, 


Din;: 


orphan (girl), 


ye-say'-mo, 


npin^ 


remainder, 


yo'-ser, 


i=in!' 


honour. 


kov'ed, 


niaS' 


treating ; treat, 


kib'-ood, 


1^33- 


worth (while). 


ke-die'. 


'*<■]? 


sphere ; globe, 


kah'-door, 


n?^5» 


according to law. 


ke-din^ 


n?^ 


according to law, 


kah-doss', 


mil 


priest, 


ko'-hen, 


103- 


high-priest. 


ko'-hen-god'-el, 


ynrjns- 


universal. 


ko'-lel. 


%2' 


to contain. 


ko'-lel-zine, 


ri'^bv 


intention ; devotion, 


kah-vo 'no, 


n2T3> 


cup, 


kois; kase, 


Di3' 


heretic. 


kay'-fer. 


*lSi3' 


kneeling, 


kayr'-im, 


D^VliS: 


lie, 


kez'-ev, 


3)|. 



135 



morsel, 
strength, 

power of speech, 

power of imagination, 

so it was, 

carelessly, 

as if ignorant, 

dog, 

rascality, 

rascal (woman), 

rascal (man), 

bride, 

as if, 

as long as, 

vessels, utensils, 

weapons, 

musical instruments, 

musician, 

generality, 

many times, 

almost, 

literally, 

louse, 

in order, 

anger, 

passionate man, 

ungrateful man, 

hell, 

heresy, 

double ; doubly, 

to double, 

atonement, 

eity; volume, 

extirpation, 

sorcery; witchcraft, 

properly, 



ke-zah'-yiss, riM? 

kay/-aeh, nb 

kay^-ach-hah-dib'oor, 

|vp"nri"nb 
kay/.ach,liah-dim/-yen, 

kuch-ho'-yo, "nttib 

kil-ah^'-char-yod, "ipnx'ps 

klay-yo^-dah, VirN^? 

kel'-ev, 3^3 

kol'-bay, S^-hz 

kol-bay'-nits-a, j;^'2i3.'?| 

kol-bay'-nik, p':i3-'?3 

kah'-lo, nbs 

kloim'-erst, '^Pl^i'^? 

kol-zmun^, I^r"^? 

kay'-lim n'hz 

klay-zah'-yin, r'.l-'b^ 

klay-zem'-er, "'P.l-'^l 

klez'-mer, 'i?|-'i?? 

klul, " hh:?. 

kum'-o-mol, '^iiD-rtjp^ 

kim-ut', joyp? 

ke-mush-mo'-ay, Wf^li 

kin'-o, ' .133 

ke-say'-der, "i-ip? 

kah'-us, oy^ 

kie'-son, • jdj;;? 

ke-foo-tay'-vo, n:3it3-^«? 

kuf-hah-ke'-la, vb^r^-rp 

ke-fe'-ro, m/D? 

kof'-el, Vssj 

kof-len, ]v^B3 

kup-o^-ro, n-js? 

kruch, Till 

kor'-ess, ni| 

kish'oof, f]w:^ 

ke-shoo'~ro, n-j^B'? 



136 



fitne-is (ritual S 

to fit (ritually), 

fitness (ritual), 

wriiing; document, 

manuscript, 

sect, 

marriage license, 

writing, 

script, 

not ; no, 

to nothing ; lost, 

after the act, 

extortion money ; bribe, 

be it not so with you, 

courage ; heart, 

moon, 

leviathan, 

at all, 

to make a distinction, 

for spite, 

calendar, 

funeral, 

palm-branch, 

good health, 

absolutely, 

bread, 

phlegm; puss, 

mockery, 

no choice, 

at the beginning ; in fact, 

to what purpose, 

saint, 

erudite ; scholar, 

study, 

fool, 

about ; circa, 



kosh'-er, t^b 

kush'-roos, nn-fj 

kush'-ren, IVl?'! 

kosh'er-kite, ^''Pl^'l 

ke-suv', 301 

ke-suv'-yod, X-'^^^ 

ke'-to, n3?3 

ke-soo'-vo, n^^n? 

ke-siv'-et, ^y^^i 

lay, k'? 

le-ib'-ood, n^xV 

le-ah'char-hah-maii'-sa, 

lay-yech' -ruts-geld, 
l^y-ah-lay'-chem, dd'Ipj;;-^'? 

lev, ' -nh 

le-von'-o, n}:^h 

liv-yo'-son, |p;i^ 

le-gum'-ray, nD:5> 

le-huv'-dil, ^"=3?n^ 

le-huch'-iss, D'y?n^ 

loo-'ach, n?'? 

levah'-yo, .ti^ 

loo'-Iov, 3^^*? 

le-chah'-yim, D'*n^ 
lah-chah-looHin, yi^^hnh 

lech'-em, on^ 

laj^'-cho, nn^b 

lay-tson'-oos, n«v'^ 

les8-bray'-ro, nnn.rn^|? 

le-chut-chil'o, '""^OP?,^ 

le-iny', \x^^ 
lah-med-vov'nik, p^nNi/-iD^ 

lam'-den, {^p^ 

lim'-Ood, Tis^ 

lem'-ech, n^h 

le-er'-eeh, ^Qi^h 



137 



in the future, 
for the present, 
for appearance' sake, 
mocker ; buffoon, 
eclipse of sun, 
eclipse of moon, 
tongue ; language, 

Hebrew, 

antiphrasis, 

food ; dainty ; delicacies, 

to gather, 

extend ; prolong, 

interpreter ; commentator. 

deluge ; flood, 

confused, 

tipsy ; drunk, 

to put to shame, 

to assure, 

to annul, 

connoisseur ; judge, 

to clear, 

to exaggerate, 

preacher, 

to reveal, 

shield of David, 

plague, 

to materialise, 

desert, 

manner ; habit, 

agreement, 

prvince ; country, 

to be particular, 

degree, 

to guide, 

if, 

to be nice, 



le-oss'-id-lov'-o, J^ii^-Tni;^ 

le-ace'-ah'-to, nriyny^ 

le-pon'-'m, d'js^ 

lets, yh 

le-koo-chum'-o n-^n-^^pV 

le-koo-le-von'-o, ni:2h'"nph 

losh'-on, ]wh 

losh'-on-hah-kay '-desh , 

losh'-on-sug-e-no-hor,' 
my'-chol, '?pNp 

me-us'-ef-zine, pT^s^p 
mah'-rich-zine, p\n'lKp 
me-vo'-er, ixnp 

mub'-el, h^2D 

me-vool'-bel, hsh^ip 

me-voos'-em-dig, jnomnD 
me-vaz'-a-zino, p\i.nnp 
muv-te'-uch-zine, pTn^pnp 
me-vut'-el-zine, pT^^np 
may'-vin, yno 

me-vah'-er-zine, p\Pi!;ip 
me-gooz'-em-zioe, PT^UD 
mug'-id, r^D 

me-gul'-e-zine, p\rnVjp 
mog'-en-dov'-id, ilTj;!'? 
mug-ay'-fo, nB^D 

me-goosh'-em-zine.pTC'^jp 
mid'-bor, nanp 

mid'-o, n'^D 

me-doob'-or, nanp 

me-din'-o, nriD 

me-duk'-dek-zine, pT=]"!li?lP 
mud-ray'-go, nj-iip 

mud'-rich-zine, P'l-"qnp 
mah'-doch, tjynp 

me-hud'-er-zine, p'n^tnD 



138 



tumult ; confusion, 
form ; nature^ 

well, 

walk; ditance, 

to benefit ; to honour, 

probably, 

ruin ; convulsion, 

to think, 

to acknowledge ; to confess, 

to inform, 

declaration ; announcement, 

circumciser, 

brain ; brains, 

bookseller, 
defect, 
expert, 
apostate, 
agreed upon, 
to deliver, 

to sacrifice oneself, 

morals ; rebuke ; example, 

to chastise ; to rebuke, 

moral-teaching (book), 

genius, 

scholar, 

libertine, 

Sabbath evening 

lucky, 

improper to handle, 

fear ; awe, 

fearful ; awful, 

rebel, 
agreed on, 
ruler^ 



me-hoom'-o. 


ne^np 


me-hoos', 


n^np 




iij:i^B-i<yr}D 


me-hay'-cho-tay' 


-so, 


me-hah'-lech. 


^^qp 


me-hah'-ne-zine, 


p\rn-!np 


me-hus-tum'. 


m^LfD 


mah-pay'-cho. 


nDsnp 


me-hur'-her-zine 


, }*\pn*inp 


may'-da-zine. 


p'rniiD 


may-de'-ah-zine. 


{"i-yniD 


may-do'-o 


niiiSD 


mo'-hel. 


hr})D 


may-'ach. 


niD 


may-cher-sfor'-im, 


moom, 


D^D 


moom'-cho, 


^«^p^D 


moom'-er, 


-ID^D 


moos'-kem, 


Dap^D 



may -ser-zme, pn-iDiD 

•]n-p;T-npi£5 
may'-serizine-zich> 

moos'-er, imD 

moos'-er-en, jyio^^ 

moos'-er-say'-fer, nsp-nmD 

moof'-lo, K^S^D 

moof-log, :i^2^o 

moof'-ker, ni5?^D 

moits-a-shub-os naK'-K^fiD 

moots'-loch, n%'^Q 

mook'^tso, n^ip^D 

may'-ro, kiid 

may'-ro-dig, yiti-r\D 

(niD^Dn) iiX) 
may'-red (be-mur-chbos), 

moosh'-vo, , ni^^o 

may'-shel, ViriD 



139 



accomplished man, 

accomplished woman, 

permitted, 

temper, 

to warn, 

door-post schedule, 

cash ; three adult males. 

demon, 

to hurt, 

luck, 

success, 

lucky, 

good-luck ; festivity 

hymn, 

east, 

east-side, 

dt mon, 

an thor, 



moosh'-lom, nhmo 

moosh-lem'-esh, rip^^^o 

moo^'-ter, -ij^^d 

mez'-eg, jid 

muz'-hir-zine, r\rTn|D 

mez-oo'-zo, nmD 

mez-oo'-mon, jD^Tp 

muz'-lk, pMD 

muz'-ik-zlne, P'hPlD 

muz'-el, •?!)? 

muz-el— bro'-cho, rtpn2J?iD 

muz'-el-dig, J'"}'>JP 

muz'-el-tov, n*")t3-Wp 

miz'-mer, YiDip 

miz'-roch, nnto 

miz'-roch-zite, ii^\T-nn|p 

me-chah'-bel, Vanp 

me-chah'-ber, lanp 
pM-is'^np 
me-chah'-desh-zine. 



to renew, 

(female) relative by marriage, me-choot'-en 



|i?5inD 



marriage relationship, 

(male) relative by marriage, 

** Festival Prayers "Book, 

business, 

delight ; pleasure, 

to delight ; to refresh, 

delightful ; refreshing, 

to necessitate ; to declare gull 

ty, 

dispute ; quarrel, 
to profane, 
because (of), 
camp, 
erasure, 
thought. 



tsDNr^fiinp 
me-choot'-en-shafti 

yap^n^np 
me-choo-ten'-es-ta, 
much'-zor nirnp 

much-zok'-o, npmp 

me-chah'-ya, n*nD 

me-chah'-ye-zine, |'']-Tnp 
me-chah'-ye-dig, :n'n;:np 

' pn-a.inp 
me-chah'-yev-zine, 
much-lay'-kess, niDiVop 
me-chur-el-zine, }'t'?.Vop 
much'-mess, npqp 

much'-na, niqp 

mech'-ek, pno 

much-shov^-o, n^^DP 



140 



bo the way, 
coin, 

encumbrance, 
insane (man), 
to make amends, 
delicacies, 

to put to trouble, 

ugly, 

ugliness ; ugly thing, 

depress, 

to despair, 
imbecility, 

to consider, 
death, 

violent death, 

to honour, 

plague, 

to guess ; to hit, 

bankrupt ; spoiled, 

about ; concerning, 

to prepare, 

hospitable (man), 

obstacle, 

wizard, 

witch, 

angel, 

work, 

Angel of Death, 

garment, 

lender, 

to accompany 



much-shov'-ess-en, 

mut-bay'-a, ya^D 

me-too'-pel, hmt^Q 

me-tay'-ref, Tl^^^ 

may'-tiv-zine, P'l-^'^P 

mut-um'-im, Q'pypo 

P'l-nn^Q 
mut-re'-ahch-zine, 

me'-roos, d^u'd 

me'-oos-kite, d^'j^d^k^p 

me-yah'-aysh-zine,pM-5i'^-P 

me-yah'-aysh-zine-zi ch , ' 
may'-choosh, jym'p 

!jn.pnoii':p 
me -y ah/-shev-zine-zich) 
me'-so, nn'p 

me'-so-me-shoo'-no, 
me-cliub'-ed-zine, pn-nasp 
mah'-ko, nsD 

me-chuv'-en-zine, p'T-p?.5P 
me-choo'-la, nh^DQ 

me-kay'-ahch, nap 

may'-chin-zine, pn-pDp 
much'-niss-ay'-ruch, 

mich'-shel, ^la^pp 

me-chush'-ef , fp:2D . 

me-chush-ay'-fo, nm^D 
mur-och, Tj^i^p 

me-lo'-cho, n?^^P 

nien-TiN^p 
muF-uch-hah-mo v'-ess , 
mur-boosh, m^hD 

mul^va, n)hQ 

mur-ve-zine, p'l-ni^p 



141 



learned man, 


me-loo'-mod, 


nDq'?p 


war; battle, 


mil-cho'-mo, 


nipn^p 


advocate, 


may'-lits. 


r^^ 


rhetoric 


me-lits'-o, 


nrho 


kingdom, 


me-loo^-cho, 


riD^^D 


queen, 


mul'-ko, 


"l^» 


flagellation, 


mul'-kess, 


nip^p 


in either case, 


me-mo'-nuf,shoch. 


,^^?a-npp 


money, 


mom'-en, 


jiDD 


(male) bastard, 


mum'-zer, 


i]P» 


(female) bastard, 


mum zer'-ess, 


nm 


of itself ; well, 


me-may'-lo. 


K^'PP 


to kill, 


may'-me-sen. 


rc'pp 


to fulfil, 


me-mul'-a-zine, 


pn-j<Vpp 


successor; substitute. 


me-mu I'-a-mok'-em, 


to plead for, 


me-may'-lits-zine 


,i"'-r^^^p 


actually, 


mum'-esh, 


B^sp 


actuality ; solidity, 


mum-osh'-oos, 


n^B'sp 


government; rule. 


mem-sho'-lo, 


n^^DD 


sweetmeats, 


mum-tuk'-im, 


wm^p 


poppy-seeds, 


mon, 


19 


to donate, 


me-nud'-ev-zine, 


n-^m 


custom, 


min'-hog, 


^^P 


leader, 


mun'-hig, 


rri^D 


probably, 


min-hus-tum,' 


D5pn-|p 


lamp ; candelabrum. 


me-nay'-ro, 


•Tii^P 


ten adult males, 


min'-yon, 


VrP 


obstacle, 


me-ne'-o, 


ni^'jP 


to overcome, 


me-nah-tsay'-ach- 


r'T-n;fjp 
zine. 


to explain, 


mus'-bir, 


T3PP 


to arrange, 


me-sud'-er-zine, 


p'T-n-iDp 


marriage official, 


me-sud'-er-ke-doosh'-in. 


trade. 


mis'-chor, 


"inpp 


to attain, 


mus'-ig-zine, 


yi-rWD 



142 





r 


rh^ii'i'WD 


to encroach, 


mus-ig-gvool'-zine. 


to finish, 


me-sah'-yem-zine 


j'TOrDD 


agree, consenting, 


mus'-kim. 


. D^3i?D : 


risky, 


me-soo'-kon. 


]m- 


treatise, 


me'-sich-to, 


NP13PP- 


to settle, 


me-suF-ek-zine, 


{''T.P.VDP 


to mourn ; to deliver a 


mus'-pid-zine. 


|-t--i'Sipp 


funeral oration, 






to betray ; to inform, 


mus'-er-en,- 


IIPP 


evidently, 


mis-to'-mo. 


J<D^ipP- 


pregnant (woman), 


me-oo-ber'-ess, 


nii^yp 


money, : 


mo'-ess, 


niyD 


advantage ; quality, 


mah'-lo. 


nhv.p 


state ; situation, 


mah'-mod, 


, ^mp 


west. 


mah'-rev, 


;.- ^1^-P: 


west-side, 


mah'-rev-zite, 


^""l-'^lllp 


lot, 


mah-ro'-cho. 


r^Pim 


deed ; action ; fact ; matter ; 


tale, my '-sa. 


nbji/D' 


diabolical deed, 


my'-sa-sot'-on, 


]w-nfm' 


tithe, 


my'-ser, 


T^y,^ 




D^ni£2-DTi^P 


good deeds. 


mah'- ah -sim-tov'- 


im, 


occasionally, from time to time,me-ace'-le-ace'. 


m^ m^ 


map, 


mah'-po, 


nsp 


delicate, pampered, 


me-foon'-ok. 


p:^SD 


famous. 


me-foor'-som, 


DDI^SD 


expressly, 


me-fay^-rosh. 


Wl)Bq 


to miscarry. 


mup^-il-ziue, 


] -n-'^^sp 


miscarried child, 


mup'-il-kind. 


Trp-'?'3P 


defeat, 


mah-poV-o, 


nhsD 


to pause, 


muf-sik-zine, 


|^M"p'pDP 


to sacrifice, 


muf'-kir-zine, 


r^-rp^D 


to support, 


me-far'-ness-zine 


,PTD2-1SP 


to make knowUj 


me-far'-sem-zine 


|"l"Dp^5P 


condition, 


muts'-ov. 


3VP 


tomb-stone, 


muts-ay'-vo, 


n^wP 


Passover-bread, 


mah^-tso, 


n^t2 



143 



Passover-bread meal, 



'guarded' Passover bread, 

commandment ; good deed, 

bargain, 

deliverer, 

sparingly, 

to give pain, 

to receive, 

to prevent, 

to inter, 

th devote, 

to betroth, 

swimming-bath, 

fulfilled, accomplished, 

place, 

haven of rest, 

holy place, 

source, 

price, 

mistaken price, 

accuser, 

to fulfil, accomplish, 

to pay the penalty, 

to envy, 

meticulous ; critical, 

to be particular, 

to shorten, 

to befriend, 

reference, 

melancholy, melancholia j 

melancholy, 

willing, 

to keep away, 



mah'-tso-mel, hnijn-n^D 

mah'-tso-shmoo'-ro, 

mits'-vo, m^P 

me-tse'-o, n^^sib 

mutz'-il, *?'vn 

me-tsoom'-tsom, dv9^9 

me-tsah'-er-zine, p'T-nyno 

me-kub'-el-zine, pn-'?3pD 

muk'-dim-zine zich, 

me-kuV- er-zine, j''T-"i5pp 
muk'-dish-zine, ]''-i-ti}'ii^D 
me-kudMsh-zine, p't-iy-npp 
mik'-vo, nipp 

me-koo'-yom, n^^po 

mok'-em, Dipo 

nn^jD"D"ipD , 
me-kom'-me-n po'-cho , 

mo'-kom-ko'- dash,tynp-DipD 
mok'-er, lipo 

mek'-ach, npD 

mek-ach-taw'-ess, niyip-npD 
me-kut'-reg, JlPpP 

me-ka'-yem-zine, r'rD.=:pD ' 
me-ka'-yem-psuk', pD5-a.^pp 
me-kun'-a-zine, p^i-n-ipp 
muk'-pid, . i^BpD 

muk'-pid-zine, pn-i^spD 
me-kuts'- er-zine, pn-i^pD 
- me-kah'-rev-zine, pn-nipp 
mar-a-mok'-em, DipD-nx-ip 
mor'-o-shcho'-ro, n-jinEf-nno 

mor-o-shcho'-ro-dig, 
me-roo'-tsa, n^np 

mar'-chik-zine, p'T-P'nnp 



144 



TI-p'i-Dnip 



to have mercy, 


me-ruch'-em-zine-zich, 


bath. 


mer'-chots, yniD 


distance, 


mer'-chok, priip 


shrew, 


mir-shah'-us, n^vy? 


load, 


mus'-o, nfD 


business, 


nius'-o-oo-mut'-on, |J?o^-Kf » 


supervisor ; inspector, 


mush-ge'-uch, n^aifD 


supervise, 


much-ge'uch-zine,pM-n^ii^p 


to unite, 


me-shud'-ech-zine,pn-TjiiB'p 


to be in affinity 


me-shud'-ech-zine-zich. 


mad, 


me-shoo-ga, yj^i^p 


lunatic asylum, 


me-shoo-goy'-im-hoys,' 


madness ; caprice, 


me-shoo-gah'-us, nyj^e'D 


agent, 


me-shoo'-Joch, nWp 


convert, 


me-shoo'-mod, no^ii'p 


singer ; poet, 


me-sho'-rer, nm 


destroyer, 


mush'-chish, nm^D 


to conceive, 


mus'-ig-zine, pn-j%p 


Messiah, 


me-she'-uch, nV» 


pledge. 


mush'-ken, f3^t^ 


intelligent (man). 


mus'-kil, h'^fD 


parable; example. 


mosh'-el, '?^» 




p^i-nVaJD 


to send away, 


me-shul-ay'-uch-zine, 


plague. 


mish-luch'-us, nnhf^ 




pn-nsa'D 


to rejoice, 


me-sum-ay'. uch-zlne. 


evidently. 


mush-maw'-ess, niyc^'p 


to change, 


me-shun'-a-zine, p^-nfB'D 


to suppose. 


me-shah'-er-zine, rt--^^^^ 


family, 


mish-po'-cho, rins-^D 


judgment ; law-suit. 


mish'-pot, tssi^p 


to judge, 


mish'-pot-en, \VW^^ 


to litigate. 


mish'-pot-en-zich. 



145 



beverage, 
balance, 

to busy oneself, 

attendant ; servant (male), 

surprised, astonished, 

dead person ; corpse, 

to obligate, 

originally, 

to bind oneself, 

sweetness, 

to permit, 

assiduous (man) 

gift, 

present ; blow, 

funeral attendants, 

to pray, 

prophet, 

prophesy, 

shameful act, 

carcase, 

tune, 

rich man, 

rich woman, 

plague-sore ; nuisance, 

riches, 

plague, 

alms ; donation, 

donator, 

dowry, 

vow, 

to enjoy 

to act according to custom, 

at the point of death, 
formula ; system ; rite, 



mush'-ka, n,Tf d 

mish-kay'-less, nVipifp 

mish-tud'-el-zine-zich , 
me-sho'-ress, ni^D 

mish-to' mem, opin^p 

mess, np 

mis-chah'-yev-zine p^-nvn^ip 
me-te-chil'-o, n^n^p 

mis-chah'-yev-zine-zich, 



me-se'-koos. 


nip^np 


mut'-ir-zine. 


pn-i^wp 


mus'-mid. 


"Tp^P 


mut-o'-no. 


njjjip 


mut-nus-yud', 


T-n:?ip 


mis-us'-kim. 


D^^Jipy^p 


mis-pul'-el-zine, 


p>T-'7.VsJnP 


nov'-e. 


N'?2 


ne-ve'-oos, 


mN'5| 


ne-voF-o, 


"^^^ 


ne-vay'-lo. 


n^5| 


nig'-oon, 
nog'-id, 


P32 


ne-gid'-o, 


n'^} 


ne'-ga-tso-ra'-us, 


r^iiirm 


ne-gid'-oos, 


n^rn 


neg'-a. 


^^^ 


ne-dov'-o. 


' ^r.} 


nud'-von, 


m^ 


nud'-un, nud-un', 


VJ 


nay'-der, 


v.^ 


neh'-ne-zine, 


r'^-^m 


nay'-hig-zine-zich. 


'T-pn-:niJ 


nay'-ta-lah-mov'-ess. 


noo'-such, 


np?3 



146 



to be revenged, 


nay'-kem-zine-zich, 


-p?-Di3i> 


giver, 

to be careful, 


nay'-sen, 
niz'-hor-zine. 


pi. 


comfort ; consolation, 
pleasure; delight, 
calm, 


ne-cho'-mo, 

nah'-chus, 

nah-chus-roo'-uch. 


nn: 
nn-nni 


tiresome, 


nim'-os. 


Oi<^^ 


miracle, 


ness, ; 


DI) 


trial ; experience, 


ne-so'-yon, 


p^Dl. 


journey, , 
wandering, 
vagabond ; wanderer. 


ne-se'-o, 

nah-ve-nud' 

nah-ve-nud.'-nik, 




deceased. 


nif-tor, 


n^sr 


difference. 


nuf-ka-min'-a, n*:p-Np?i 


soul ; creature ; being, 


nef-esh, 


^?l 


triumph ; victory, 
female, 


ne-tso'-chen, 
ne-kay'-vo, 




vengeance, 
soul, 


ne-kom'o, 
ne shom'-o. 




surprised, 


nish-tay'-mem. 


DDiPi-^i 


to give, 

enthusiastic ; astounded. 


noss'-en-en, 
niss-po'-el, 




cause ; accident, 


se'-bo, 


n-ia 


neighbourhood, 
tolerant man, 


sve'-vo, 
suv'-lon. 




tolerence, 


suv-lon'-oos. 


n53^:?D 


opinion, svo'-ro, 
charm ; remedy, sgoo'-lo. 
Prayer Book, se'-door, 
order ; Passover-night ceremon-say'-der, 
ial. 




drunkard, 

secret. 


say'-ve, 
sayd, sod, 


lib- 


merchant. 


say'-cher, 


nniD 


business -woman, , 


, say'-cher-ta. 


yti-inip. 


hut. 


soo'-ko. 


n2^D 


Feast of Tabernacles, : 


soo'-kes. 


niam 



147 



end^ 

scribe, 

trifles, 

to contradict, 

goods, 

amount ; much, 

sum ; total, 

tax, 

branches for roof covering, 

danger ; risk ; peril, 

danger to life, 

dispute ; confusion, 

settlement, 

to settle, 

poison, 

deadly-poison, 

licence, 

point of support, 

sign ; m2LYk, 

banquet ; meal, 

doubt, 

book. 

Scroll of the Law, 

broker, 

indefinitely ; at random, 

mysticism, 

work ; service, 

idolatry, , 

hard labour, 

leap-year, 

sin ; wasteful, 

grass widow, 

grief, 

witness, 

to transgress, 

wrong, 



safe, sof, n'^D 

say'-fer, nsio 

soor-boor', lia-nio 

say'-ser-zine, pn-nn'iD 

schay'- ro, niinp 

such, ^P 

such-ha-kor, hbJi-^o 

schoom, D^2p 

schuch, ^5P 

sah-kon'-o, n|2d 

sah-kon'-ess-ne-foshi'-ess, 

sich'-sooch, ^^D?P 

seMook, P^'?P 

seMook-en, iyi?/>'^P 

sum, op 
sum-hah-mov'-ess, ni»n-DD 

sme^-cho, np'pp 

sem'-ech, ^op 

sim'-on, jsp 

se-oo'-do, ni^yp 

sof'-ek, pBD 

say'-fer, ^§P 

say-fer-tay'-ro, nn'tn-nsD 

sar'^soor, i^d"]P 

stum, D^P 

sis-ra-tay'-ro, nnm-n.^ip 

ah-vay'-do, nninj;^ 

ah-vay-do-zo'-ro, n-ii-niin^^ 

ah-vay-dus-per'-ech, 

ib'-oor-yor, nnK^-i?3v 

ah-vay'-ro, n-j'nj;. 

ah-goo'-no, ^i^^^.. 

ug-mus-nef'-esh, ^^i-nmy. 

ay'-doos, niiy 

ay'-ver-zine, r'i-"i?''y 

uv'-lo, n^]y 



148 



(the world of trutli), heayen, 

future world, 

to extirpate, 

riches, 

arrogance ; impudence, 

impudent fellow ; impudence, 

evil eye, 

genius, 

capable, 

at all events, 

illiterate man, 

illiterate, 

column, 

poor man, 

meek man, 

humility, 

humble, 

poverty, 

subject, 

business, 

advice, 

main thing, 

obstinate (man), 

obstinacy, 

eve, day before, 

riff-raff, rabble, 

length ; 

rich man, 

riches, 

side curl, 

defect ; notch, 

carcase ; death, 

fault, 

corpse, 

redemption, 

unanimously, 

Purim, 

interpret. 



oi'-lom-ho-em'-es, npxn-DViy 

ay-lom-ha'-bo, Kan-DViy 

ay'-ker-zine, P'rnpii; 

ay'-sher, nmy 

ah'-zoos, ma 

uz-oos-pon'-im, o^^-n^ij;? 

ah-yin-ho'-ro, yi^-na 

e'-looy, >?Vv 

oF-ool, h^^ii 

ul-kol-pon^m, du3-V|-^j;; 

um-ho-o'-rets, n^C-°i? 

um-ho-ruts'-ish, K^'x-ixn-oy 

um'-ood, imii 

on'-e, M^ 

on'-ov, vi^i 

ah-ne'-voos, n^v:;;. 

ah-ne'-yoos-dig, :i'"?ip=iw 

ah-ne'-yoos, nv^:j;. 

in'-yon, j^^j; 

ay'-sek, ppi? 

ay'-tso, n^y 

e'-kor, n,7j; 

uk'-shon, j^py 

uk-shoa'-oosh, n^^^py 

er'-ev, , ^n^ 

er'-ev-rav, ^rnnj^ 

er'- ech, ^nj; 

osh'-ir, n>B5j^ 

ah-)She'-roos, nn^a^j; 

pay'-o, HKS 

pe-gim'-o, HD'j? 

pe-ge'-ro, ni;j$ 

pog'-om, Dj^ 

pay'-ger, im 

pid'-yon, pn^ 

pay-ech'-od, ^^N-^^ 

poo'-rim, nnm 

pay'-ser-zine, pn-nnis 



149 



dread ; fear, 


pah'-chud, 


ins 


coward ; timid man, 


puch'-don, 


nris 


exempt, 


pot'-oor, 


■TIE33 


to end ; to lose ; to slay, 


put'-er-en, 


n-^5 


wonder, 


per-a. 


^^^B 


escape, 


pi ay '-to, 


na^s 


sophistry. 


pir-pool, 


^^B^S 


uniDarried (man), 


pon'-ooy, 


>,33 


unmarried (woman), 


pnoo'-yo, 


n;u5 


conning, 


pne'-yo, 


n;39 


face ; appearance. 


pon'-im. 


D':3 


ledger, 


pin'-kos, 


Di5^9 


unfit for nse, 


pos'-el. 


h^^5 


dross. 


psay'-less, 


n.^iD5 


verse, 


pos'-ook, 


P^D3 


Passover, 


pay'-such, 


npS) 


of Passover 


pay'- such-dig, 


^nODB 


to declare unfit for use, 


pus'-len, 


iy.)c5 


sentence, 


psuk, 


PC5 


judgment-fee, 


psnk'-geld, 


l^'VJ-pD? 


effect, 


pe-ooMo, 


nbw^ 


seeing, wide-awake, 


pe-kay'-uch, 


nps 


refreshing draught, etc. 


pe-koo'-uch-ner 


■esh, 


wild fellow, savage, 


pe-re-o'-dom, 


D^r^ll 


farthing, 


proo'-to, 


nmiB 


monk. 


por'-oosh, 


c'ns) 


particular ; individual, 


prut. 


an? 


fruit, 


pay'-ra, 


n^ 


president, 


par'-ness, 


0313 


income ; livelihood, 


par nos'-o, 


^m^ 


portion, 


par'-sho. 


.T^-|3 


plain ; simple, 


posh'-oot, 


£211^3 



plainly, pshoo'-tay-ke-mush mo'-ay 

commentary ; simple meaning, pshut, m$ 

small commentary, pshet'-eJ, ^m$ 

arbitration ; agreement, pshor'-o, ni^s 



150 



simple ; simpleton, 


pe'-se, 


^n^ 


interpretation, 


pis'^ron. 


|ilris 


hypocrite, 


tsyoo-yuk', 


pm^n^ 


side, 


tsud, 


1¥ 


just man ; pious man, 


tsud'-ik. 


P'l^ 


charity, 


tse-do'-ko, 


^i^l^ 


cliarity-money. 


tse-do'-ko-geld, 


'^^vr^m 


just woman ; pious woman, 


tsid-kon'-iss, 


n'^i?lV 


dung ; excrement, 


tsay'-o. 


n^iif 


will, 


tsah-vo'-o, 


HNJ^ 


face ; form ; appearance, 


tsoo'-ro, 


n-viu 


enemy ; oppressor, 


tsay'-rer, 


inis 


sorrow ; pain ; anguish, 


tsah'-ar, 


lyv 


north, 


tsof'-en. 


jisV 


norfch-side, 


tsof-en-zi\3e, 


ii>'»?-ps^ 


trouble, 


tsor'-o, 


niy 


burial, 


kvoo'-ro, 


niuj? 


receipt ; Kabbala, ^ 


kah-bo'-lo, 


^)W 


receipt. 


kah-bo'-lo- 
tset'-el, 


^y^yi? n^ip 


welcome ; reception, 


kah-bol-us-pon' 


-im, 


beggar ; poor man, 


kub'-tsen, 


IV?P 


grave, 


kay'-ver. 


'■^^n 


grave-digger ; sexton. 


kvor'-os-mun, 


IND-niinj^ 


fever. 


kah-doch'-oos, 


nmn 


holy man, 


kod'-esh. 


^^15 


sanctification, 


kid'-oosh. 


mip 


martyrdom. 


kid'-oosh-hah-shem', 


marriage ceremony, 


ke-doosh'-in, 


ITni? 


prayer for the dead ; son, 


kud'-ish, 


.^'IP 


public. 


kaw'-hol, 


}^P 


community ; congregation, 


ke-he'-lo, 


r^^r}\^ 


before, 


kay'-dem. 


' tmp 


voice, 


kale; kol, 


-hSp 


buyer, 


kay'-na, 


;^2ip 


existence ; firmness, . 


ke'-yoom, 


". '::^:ovi? 



151 



amount, 


ky-me-lon', 


l^-«9:p 


curse, 


klo'-lo, 


n^^^ 


amulet, charm, 


kum-ay^-a. 


UW- 


miser, 


kum'-tson. 


IVPi3 


possession ; contract. 


kin'-yon, 


i:^p 


jealousy, 


kin'-o, 


^mp 


meticulous person, 


kup'-don. 


n^p 


butcher. 


kah'-tsov, 


3Vi3 


adridgment, 


ke-tsoor. 


llSfp 


magnate, 


kaw'-tsin, 


m 


•ofiering; victim, 


kor'-bon, 


mpr 


relation, relative. 


kor'-ev. 


a-ni5 


in rags, 


kroo'-a-bloo'-a. 


V^Sl-ynp 


capital, 


ker'-en, 


Hi^ 


question, 


kash'-yo, kush'-o, 


K^P- 


evidence ; proof, 


rah'-yo, rah'-a, 




head of community, 


raysh-hah-ko'-hol 
rosh'-hah-shon'-o 


> 


New Year, 


rosh'-hah-shon- 


•o, 


New Moon, 


raysh-chay '- desh 


, li'lh-iytin 


head of Talmudic seminary, 


rosh-ye-she'-va, 


nn^B':-is'i<i 


Rabbi, 


rov, rav, 


31 


Mr. 


reb, 


31 




D^iy W-*"i3i3i 


Lord in Heaven ! 


re-bay'-nay-shal-; 


a-lom. 


Oentlemen ! 


rub-ay'-sy, 


^niai 


Rabbi ; teacher, 


reV-a, 


'3-1 


teacher's fee. 


reb'-a-geld, 


iv*?r^?-! 


rabbinate, 


rub-on'-oos, 


ni3|n 


usury. 


re'-bis. 


n'3") 


Rabbi's wife, 


reb'-a-tsin, 


r^m 


moment; second, 


reg'-a. 


vn 


anger, wrath. 


ray'-gez. 


U)l 


spirit ; ghost ; bogey, 


roo'-uch, 


nn 



holy spirit, 



roo'-ach-hah-kay'-desh. 



152 



doctor, 
murderer, 
mercy; pity, 

God preserve us from i 
pity ; mercy, 
gain ; profit, 
odour ; smell, 



roy'-fe, 


t?s1-> 


ray-tsay'-uch. 


n^fh 


ruch'-mim, 


D^pqi 



sweet odour, 




nin^j-nn 


slander, 


re-chir-oos. 


n^'7'37 


slanderer. 


re-chil'-oos-nik. 


, p^^m"?^?! 


deceiver ; cheater, 


rah'-my, 


'mi 


idea, 


rah '-yon, 


ro 


tumult. 


rah'-ush. 


^V.1 


cure ; recovery, 


re-foo'-o, 


nN^S7 


complete cure, 


re-foo'-o-shlay'- 


mo. 


will. 


ro'-tsen. 


rn 


murderer, 


ruts'-chon. 


mi 


murder ; outrage, 


re-tse'-cho, 


nn^Vl 


permission ; power. 


re shoos', . 


nw"] 


list, 


re-she'-mo, 


r^Q^p 


wicked man, 


rosh'-o, 


- yn 


wickedness, 


rish'-oos, 


mi^i 


utter villain, 


rosh'-a-me-roosh'-a. 


question, 


■ shyMo, 


nh^t 


oath ; week. 


shvoo'-o, 


n];i3^ 


Pentecost, 


shvoo' ace. 


niyn^ 


heart-ache. 


shiv'-ray-lev', 


3|?-n.3^ 


praise. 


shev'-uch, 


. . n5f 


nuptial benedictions, 


shev'-a-broch'-ess, 


mourning week, 


shiv' 0, 


r^liW 


heart-ache, 


shiv'-roos-hah-lev', 


potsherd. 


shiv'-ra-kay'-la, 


'bh'lW 



153 



shub'-oss, nf# 

shub'-oss-dig, ^nr^W 

shed, -ir 

shid'-ooch, ^nr 

shud'-chon, ]pw 

shud'-chen-ta, V^^.^']P 

shud'-chen-en I^^?!^ 

she-he'-yoos, nvu'^ 

shay-'chud, nnii:^ 

shay'-chet, ^nw 

shay'-ta, n^iij^- 

shoom, Disy 

sliay'-mer, npw 

say'-na, f<^i2J^ 

shay'-for, iq'ie' 

shoo'-tof, n^=iB^ 

shoot'-fess, n^ispiia^ 

shoot'-fess-dig, r-i^iismB^ 

sot'-on, ]W 

she'-dooch, r\^rt 

slie'-koor, ii2^ 

she'-koor-ta, v^l'^^P 

she'-koor-en, jy^ar 

sche'-roos, niTDf 

say -chel, ^9'^ 

say'-chel-dig, J^I^^Ji' 

sboch'-en, p^ 

schar, i3f 

shchay'-noos, m^?^ 

scliur-lim'-ood, -i^»'p-i3f 

shul^-vo, n)^# 
shul-uch-mon'-ess,m3D-nV 

sho'-lem, Qi'?^ 

How do you do I ; Shake hands! sho'-lom-ah-lay'-chem, 

messenger, ^ shle'-ach, n^V^ 

ruler, ' shTil'-it, " ^'W^ 

influence ; power, shle'-to, r\^'W 



Sabbath, 

of Sabbath, 

devil ; demon ; ghost, 

match, 

matchmaker, 

matchmaker (woman), 

to recommend as a match, 

delay, 

bribe, 

slaughterer, 

fool, dolt. 

whatsoever, 

guard ; keeper ; watchman 

enemy, 

horn (trumpet), 

partner, 

partnership, 

in partnership, 

Satan , 

match, 

drunk; drunkard (man), 

drunk ; drunkard (woman), 

to drink to drunkenness, 

salary, 

sense ; intelligence, 

wise ; sensible, 

neighbour ; tenant, 

reward, 

neigbourhood ; tenancy, 

teacher's fee, 

calm, quiet, 

Purim present, 

peace, 



154 



ill-luck, 


shlim-muz'-el. 


^JD-D*^?' 


ill-luck ; unlucky fellow, 


shle-muz'-el. 


'Vjd4^ 


unlucky, 


shle'-muz- el-dig, 


nb^r^W 


careless fellow, 


shle-mez-ur-nik, 


p'^WW 


name, 


. shame, 


Diy 


conversion ; apostasy, 


shmud, 


l'?^ 


famous thing, 


shem-dov'-or, 


ini-DB? 


tidings, 


shemoo'-o. 


n;;^Dif' 


joy, festivity, 


sim'-cho, 


nnptf' 


great joy, 


sim-cho-gdoi'-lo, r 


iVna-nnptf 


Hear O Israel ! 


she-ma'-yis-ro-el,'?NtiFrj^c;i?' 


usher, beadle, 


shum^ess, 


\^Dp 


hatred, enmity, 


sln'-o. 


nx;j?' 


prejudice, 


sin-us-chin'-om. 


D3n-nK4i(J' 


low, humble, 


shof-el, 


^W 


abundance, 


shef-a, 


V^^ 


lie. 


shek'-er. 


^W 


conflagration. 


sray'-fo. 


nsiV' 


reptile ; creeping thing, 


sher'-ets, 


nw 


lord, 


sro'-ro, 


^7W 


mediator. 


shtud-lon, 


]him 


lust, passion. 


ty'-vo. 


m^ 


corn, produce. 


tvoo'-o, 


nw2Jn 


deep; abyss 


te-haym', 


DiniFi 


Psalms, 


te-he'-lim, til'-im, 


D'Vn^ 


substance, 


taych, 
tay-cho'-cho, tay'- 


r()Fi 


rebuke. 


cho-cho. 


nnaiPi 


contents. 


tay'-chen. 


]^^ 


Law, Pentateuch ; learning, 


tay'-ro, 


m> 


native, 


tay'-shov, 


a^in 


remedy, 


tuch-boo'-lo. 


nh^2t7B 


prayer, 


te-chin'-o, 


nrnp 




te-che'-yus-hah- D^risri-ninj? 


resurrection, 


may'-sim. 




trousers ; pants. 


tuch-tay'-nim, 


DUin09 


answer, 


ter'-oots, 


r^'i^a 


result, 


tuch'-lis8^ 


n*^?9 


at once. 


tay'-kef, 


W 


shrouds. 


tuch-rich-im, 


D*?n?n 



155 



jewel ; precious thing, 
heap of rains, 
gallows, 
executioner, 
Talmud, 
Talmudist, 
Hebrew School, 
pupil, 

scholar, 

ingenuous man, 

always, 

naive, 

essence, 

tanna ; scholar, 

condition, 

conditional divorce, 

marriage-engagement, 

motion, 

Old Testament, 

delight, pleasure, 

fast-day, 

prison, 

prayer, 

prayer in vain, 

rising, 

correction, 

assurance by hand-shake, 

powerful person, 

might, power, 

law, statute, 

remedy, cure, 

answer ; repentance 

strong desire, 



tuch'-shit, 

tayl, 

te-le'-yo, 

tul'-yen, 

tul-'mood, 






tul-mood-Jst', tson^D^J? 
tul-mood-tay'-ro, n-jin-n^D^D 

tur-mid, TD^n 

tul-mid-cho'-chom, 

torn, turn, °?? 

tom'-id, "I'P^ 

tom-a-vut'-a, J^^Nnyoj? 

tum'-tsiss, n'VPD 

tah'-no. m 

tny. 'm 

tny'-get, ^r^i^ 

tnoi'-im, ^'m 

tnoo'-o, nj^'3? 

tun-uch', ^"iB 

tah'-noog, ^>m 

tah'-niss, r\^m 

te-fiss'-o, n^'?^ 
te-fil'-o, nVa^ ^nh'^J? 
te-phil'-us-shov, KiV'-nVs^ 

te-koom'-o, ^^^P^ 

tik'-oon, VP^ 

te-ke'-us-kuf, ^s-ny^P^i 

tuk'-if, TP^ 

tuk-if-oos, nis'p^ 

tuk-o'-no, ^^li^ 

troo'-fo, nsn^ 

tshoo'-vo, ^^m 

tshoo'-ko, np^«^^ 



156 

PHONETIC PRONUNCIATION. 



'* ah " as 


"a'* 


in 


« father " 


•*ar" — 


"ar" 


— 


"dart" 


"ay*» — 


"ay'' 


__ 


"day" 


*' aw " — 


UqJ» 


— 


" not '• 


n ^ " 


^'e" 


. — 


*' met " 


**a " + consonant + •* e ' 


' ** a " 


— 


"race" 


"e'' — 


'*e" 


— 


"be" 


** e " + consonant — 


"e" 


— 


'*met" 


W i M _ 


U i » 


— 


" die " 


** i " + consonant — 


"i" 


— 


**in" 


**i" + consonant + "e 


.» .ii" 


— 


"die" 


U Q H 


"o" 


— 


"no" 


"oi, oy" — 


"oi" 


^ 


" oil " 


^* o " + consonant 


" oo " 


— 


*'took" 


** oo " 


'*u" 


__ 


"put" 


*• u " — 


** u " 


— 


" nut " 


**y" -- 


.y, 


__ 


"by" 


*' y " (beginnning of 
syllable) 


"y ' 





" you " 


**ch" 


"ch"in 


German 


(guttural) 



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INDEX 



1 


The Alphabet 




2 


Equal value of pronunciation in English 


3 


On the division of the letters 


4 


Note on the vowel points 


5 


The Hebrew vowels 


6 


The Yiddish vowels 


7 


The long vowels 


8 


Words terminating with a vowel 


9 


Formation of syllables ... 


10 


The gender 


11 


The definite article 


12 


The indefinite article ... 


13 


On the declension 


14 


Examples with the definite article 


15 


The plural of the feminine noun . . . 


16 


The changing of the article in the plural 


17 


The plural of nouns of one syllable 


18 


Nouns of different declensions ... 


19 


Words to be learned by heart 




20 


The preposition 




21 


Contracted prepositions 




22 


On the verbs ... 




23 


Formation of tenses 




24 


Table of tenses 




25 


Separable verbs 




m 


The adjective 




27 


The comparison 




28 


Numericals ... ... 




29 
30 


Pronouns ... ... 

The reciprocal personal pronoun 





1 
1 

3 

4 

5 

5 

6 

7 

7 

7 

8 

8 

9 

10 

11 

11 

12 

12 

12 

13 

14 

15 

15 

20 

21 

21 

23 

25 

26 

27 



2 



Pag& 

31 The possessive adjective pronoun ... 27 

32 The demonstrative pronoun ... ... 28> 

33 Contraction ... ... ... 29- 

34 Relative pronoun ... ... ... 29- 

35 Indefinite pronoun ... ... ... 30 

36 Impersonal verbs ... ... ... 30 

37 Adverbs ... ... ... ... 31 

38 Adverbs of time ... ... ... 31 

39 Adverbs of manner ... ... ... 32 

40 Adverbs of cause, motive ... ... 32 

41 Conjunctions ... ... ... ... 32 

42 Subordinate conjunctions ... ... 32 

43 Interjections ... ... ... ... 32 

44 Construction ... ... ... ... 35 

45 Days of the week, & months of the year in 

Heb. & Yiddish 34 

46 Exercises ... ... ... ... 35 

Words, Phrases and Conversations 

Universe ... ... ... ... 64 

Man ... ... ... ... 64 

Food ... ... ... ... 65 

Clothing ... ... 65 

Furniture and utensils ... ... ... 66- 

Family ... ... ... ... 66^ 

Occupation ... ... ... ... 67 

City, town ... ... ... ... 67 

House ;... ... ... ... 68 

Animals ..» ... ... ... 68 

Plants ... ... .. ... 69^ 

Reading and writing ... ... ... 69 

Time ... ... ... ... 6^ 

Counting ... ... ... ... 70 

Greetings, compliments ... ... 72 

Time ... ... ... ... 7e 

Eating & Drinking ... ... ... 7g 



Page 

Clothes ... ... ^1 

Dwelling ... ... ••• ••• ^^ 

Work S^ 

Occupation ... ... ... ••• ^^ 

In the Market ... ... ••• ^* 

Taking a walk... ... ... .«• ^^ 

Theatre ^^ 

The Weather ... ... ... ... 99 

With a Doctor ... ... ... 101 

Age, life, death ... ... ... 103 

. Enquiring, forgetting, remembering ... 104 

Travelling ^08 

Speaking Yiddish 109 

Writing Letters ... ... ... m 

Tailoring ... ... ... ••• H^ 

Names of the months ... ... ... 118^ 

Table of Jewish Festivals ... ... 119 

Tableof Jewish Fasts ... ... ... 120 

Words of Hebrew Origin most frequently 
used in the Yiddish language. 

(By Philip Blackman, F.C.S.) 121-155 

Phonetic Pronunciation 1^^ 



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