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Full text of "Observations of comets, from B. C. 611 to A. D. 1640"

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OBSERVATIONS OF COMETS, 

FROM B.C. 611 TO A.D. 1640. 



OBSERVATIONS OF COMETS, 

FROM B.C. 611 TO A.D. 1640. 



EXTRACTED FROM THE CHINESE ANNALS. 



TRANSLATED, WITH INTRODUCTORY REMARKS, 



COMPRISING THE 



TABLES NECESSARY FOR REDUCING CHINESE TIME TO EUROPEAN RECKONING: 

AND A CHINESE CELESTIAL ATLAS. 



BY 



JOHN WILLIAMS, F.S.A. 

o 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 

ETC. ETC. 




LONDON: 

^rhtltr for % H,ttt{jor 

BY 

STRANGEWAYS AND WALDEN, CASTLE STREET, LEICESTER SQUARE. 

1871. 



TO 

WILLIAM LASSELL, ESQ. F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT, 
AND TO THE FELLOWS OP THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 

THIS WORK 
IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED. 



PEEFACE. 



ERRATA AND CORRIGENDA. 



INTEODUCTORY REMARKS. 

Page x, line 25, for There read These. 

xi, 31, for central one read central ones. 

32, after 'Monthly Notices' insert of the Royal Astrono- 
mical Society. 

xiii, lines 20, 4], 43,/or B.C. 613 read B.C. 611. 
xix, line 32, for Idler read Ideler. 
xx, 22, for after read above. 

xxviii, ,, 7, for and a. Andromedse read and stars near, 
xxix, last line, for computation read compilation. 
xxx, line 3, for Zeitrichnvmg read Zeitrechnung. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

6, lines 21 and 24, after B.C. 1 10 add June. 
33, line 5 from bottom, for January 6 read January 16. 
60, 28, for Seu read Seuh. 
67, 30, for 3rd year read 5th year. 

TABLES. 

105, line I, for Tung Hang read Tung Han. 
112, lines 5 and 6, for ^J{] read ]jfj - 

In the twenty-four divisions of the Chinese year in Table H, the asterisks 
referred to in p. xxiii, line 1, of the Introductory Remarks were accidentally 
omitted. They should be placed before every second line commencing with 
Ta Han, Jan. 21, and ending with Tung Che, Dec. 22. 



fectly consistent, and Mr. Hind was enabled to Dring nis rnvesugauon to a 
satisfactory close. 

This led to an examination of Biot's Catalogue, and I quickly found, 
that although very accurate in its details, it was by no means so complete as 

a 



PEEFACE. 



A FEW years since, when Sig. Schiaparelli announced his discovery of the 
probable connexion between the orbits of certain Comets and those of the 
periodical Meteors, the well-known Astronomer, Mr. J. R. Hind, took up 
the subject, and in the course of his investigation found, among the comets 
recorded in M. E. Biot's ' Catalogue des Cometes observers en Chine depuis 
1'an 1230 jusqu'a 1'an 1640 de notre ere/ &c., which forms a supplement to 
the ' Connaissance des Temps ' for 1 846, one, whose orbit appeared to answer 
the required conditions. It is that of October 25, 1366, and is No. 295 of 
the succeeding Catalogue. But the path of that comet, as given by Biot, 
was apparently so extraordinary, that he was induced to conclude that some 
error had occurred, either in the original text or in the translation. Thus 
the comet is described as having appeared near one of the stars in Ursa 
Major, whence it passed in a south-easterly direction through several of the 
stellar divisions, until, on October 29, it was in a certain place in Aquarius ; 
but on October 30 it was again in Ursa Major, in the same place as at first : 
whence it once more pursued a similar south-easterly course to the same 
place in Aquarius and disappeared. 

Mr. Hind consequently applied to me, to know whether this discrepancy 
could be accounted for by reference to the original text in the Supplement 
to the 'Encyclopaedia' of Ma Twan Lin. Upon carefully examining this, 
I found that there were really tivo distinct accounts of the course of this 
comet ; the one giving its path through the stellar divisions, and the other 
describing the asterisms near or through which it passed in that course ; 
and, reading the account according to this version, the whole became per- 
fectly consistent, and Mr. Hind was enabled to bring his investigation to a 
satisfactory close. 

This led to an examination of Biot's Catalogue, and I quickly found, 
that although very accurate in its details, it was by no means so complete as 

a 



vi Preface. 

could be wished ; many comets being recorded in the ' Encyclopaedia ' of Ma 
Twan Lin, and in the great historical work called the ' She Ke/ that are not 
noticed by him. It therefore appeared to me, that a Catalogue comprising 
the whole of the observations of the comets contained in the two Chinese 
works just mentioned, translated from the original, and arranged chrono- 
logically, with an explanation of all the particulars connected with them, 
might be of some service to astronomers, particularly to those engaged in 
cometary researches. 

Such was the origin of the present work ; and as during its compilation 
many other interesting particulars relating to Chinese astronomy presented 
themselves, I have been induced to incorporate the principal of them with 
the Introductory Remarks, which immediately follow. 

It was likewise absolutely necessary for the finding the dates, &c. of the 
vaiious observations, that certain Tables should be constructed, by which 
Chinese time could be reduced to our reckoning. These will be found in the 
Appendix, and consist of a complete set of Chronological Tables, giving the 
succession of the Dynasties and Emperors from the earliest period to the 
present time ; and of other Tables for finding the Months or Moons, and 
Days. Instructions for using these Tables are given in the Introductory 
Remarks, and they will be found of great service, not only to astronomers 
but also to persons engaged in' historical or numismatic investigations, as 
they will find in them all they require to ascertain the various dates, as far 
as regards China proper. I have also included in the Appendix a complete 
Chinese Celestial Atlas, from an original work, so that the names and 
relative positions of the asterisms and stars can be readily found. 

I may also express my conviction that this Catalogue will be found as 
complete as any that has hitherto appeared, if not more so. It has likewise 
the advantage of being a work per se, and, consequently, will appear in the 
library or in catalogues as a separate work, and not as forming a portion of 
any other publication. 




INTRODUCTORY REMAKES. 



THE progress of Astronomy among the Chinese is a subject of the highest interest, 
whether it be considered as recording observations of the heavenly bodies made by one 
of the most ancient and primitive races of mankind, which appears in extremely remote 
times to have advanced to a high degree of civilisation ; peculiar, however, to itself ; 
and which has preserved the manners and customs established by its early rulers, more 
than two thousand years before the Christian era, in a great measure unaltered to the 
present day. Or whether the fact that/ at a period long anterior to the commencement 
of civilisation among the Western nations, and when (with the exception, perhaps, of 
the Egyptians and Assyrians) almost universal barbarism prevailed among them, Astro- 
nomy had been carried to a great degree of perfection by the Chinese, as manifested by 
their still existing records, whose authenticity is not only strongly asserted by that 
people, but is acknowledged by some of the most eminent European scholars of the 
present day/ 

In their later records, in additioji to a vast amount of valuable historical and other 
information, we find chapters devoted exclusively to their astronomy : in which are 
detailed their arrangement and classification of the stars ; observations of the sun, moon, 
and five planets ; notices of eclipses, falling stars, and other extraordinary phenomena : 
among which those of comets, which are extremely numerous, and which frequently are 
minute in the description of the times and places of their appearance, and of the paths 
they pursued in the heavens,} are perhaps the most interesting to modern astronomers. 

As far as my experience goes, it is not easy to find a complete record of these obser- 
vations in any European language ; and if such does exist, it is contained in publications 
not readily accessible to the general reader. Pingre, in his ' Cometographie,' quotes 
lists of Chinese comets by Mailla and Gaubil. Mailla's list was taken from the 
Chinese historical work called ' Tung Keen Kang Muh,' which he translated, and of 
which I possess a copy, which is occasionally referred to in the following work. That 
by Gaubil is said by Pingre to have been in MS., and to have been preserved in the 
library of the Depot de la Marine. I have been unable to ascertain whether this MS. 
is still in existence, or whether, as is highly probable, it was lost in the early days 
of the French Revolution. Under any circumstances, it does not appear at present to 
be easily accessible to the general inquirer. The important lists in the ' She Ke ' and 
in the 'Encyclopaedia' of Ma Twan Lin do not appear to have been known to Pingre. 
The Catalogue by M. E. Biot, published in the ' Connaissance des Temps' for 1846, 



viii Introductory Remarks. 

although very accurate, is by no means so complete as could be wished, many observa- 
tions of comets being passed over without notice. 

The remarks which follow are intended to supply certain desiderata, which appear 
to be essential to the full comprehension of the observations which form the subject of 
this work. They consist principally of, 

Firstly, A brief account of the early astronomy of the Chinese, extracted entirely 
from original sources, chiefly historical. 

Secondly, An explanation of the means to be employed in reducing Chinese time to 
our reckoning, including all particulars relating to the dates of the Emperors who 
were reigning when the comets described appeared, such as the years of their reigns 
and epochs ; and the dates of the Moons or Months, and Days referred to in the 
descriptions, and an explanation of so much of the Chinese calendar as may be needed 
for the understanding the mode of their reduction ; together with the requisite Tables 
for that purpose. 

Thirdly, An explanation of the astronomical portion of the observations, showing 
the mode of ascertaining the various asterisms and stars mentioned as occurring in the 
paths of the comets, as they are described in the Chinese lists and maps of stars, with 
other particulars relating to them necessary to be noticed. 

Fourthly, An explanation of the plan followed in the translation and arrangement 
of these observations. 

These, it is confidently hoped, will render the work intelligible to the general reader. 

According to Chinese tradition, the introduction of astronomical observations is to 
be attributed to Shin Nung, the immediate successor to Fuh He, the founder of the 
empire. The reign of Shin Nung commenced about B.C. 3253.' 

It is also related that the Emperor Hwang Te, B.C. 2698-2598, was the monarch 
who introduced the system of reckoning their chronology by the cycle of 60 years, 
which he regulated by means of two series of characters ; the one of 10, the other of 12 
characters, called, from the first of each series, Kea Tsze. ; This system is in use to the 
present day, and will be fully explained in a subsequent page. \ The year of the intro- 
duction of the cycle is the starting-point of Chinese chronology ; and I may observe that 
the present cycle is reckoned by the Chinese as the y6th, the first year of which was 
A.D. 1864. It therefore follows, that in 1863 the 75th cycle was completed: conse- 
quently 75 x 60 = 4500, the number of years then elapsed from the first year of the 
first cycle; and 4500 1863 = 2637, the date B.C. of that year, which is said to have 
been the 6oth year of Hwang Te. | He is also considered as the inventor or discoverer 
of the lunar cycle of 19 years, by which the return of the conjunctions and oppositions 
of the sun and moon can be calculated, and the intercalary moons regulated. Hence 
it should appear that the lunar cycle of 19 years, introduced among the Greeks, many 
ages after, by Meton, was known to the Chinese more than 2000 years before that astro- 
nomer was born. These are mentioned merely as Chinese ^traditions, and not as resting 
on any other authority? 

In the Chinese annals it is recorded, that in the reign of Chuen Kuh, the grandson 
of Hwang Te, in the spring of the year, on the first day of the first moon, a conjunction 



Introductory Remarks. ix 

of the five planets occurred in the heavens, in Ying Shih. Ying Shih, or, as it is more 
usually denominated, Shih, is one of the 28 stellar divisions, determined by a, /3, and 
other stars in Pegasus, extending north and south from Cygnus to Piscis Australis, and 
east and west 17 degrees, and comprising parts of our signs Capricornus and Aquarius. 
The Emperor Chuen Kuh is said to have reigned 78 years, from B.C. 2513-2436, and to 
have died in his 97th year ; and from modern computations (I believe, by Bailly the 
French astronomer) it has been asserted that a conjunction of the five planets actually 
did take place about the time and M r ithin the limits indicated, i. c. on the 2gth of 
February, 2449 B.C., being the 65th year of Chuen Kuh. Should this, on further inves- 
tigation, prove correct, it will afford a strong presumption of the authenticity of the 
early Chinese annals, as there is no appearance of their astronomers having been at any 
time able to compute the places of the planets so far back ; and the account is found in 
works published long before any intercourse with Europeans had taken place. 

The next notice of Chinese astronomy appears in the ' Shoo King,' one of their five 
classical works, which is considered by the Chinese as the most ancient of their books. 
We have it as revised by Confucius, about the sixth century before our era. It was 
even then considered as of extremely remote antiquity, and from the peculiarities of 
the style of the early portions of that work there is but little doubt of such being the 
fact. Not .only do the Chinese themselves assert its authenticity, but many of the best 
European scholars believe it to be genuine. Among these, Father Gaubil expresses no 
doubt of that fact ; and M. J. B. Biot, in his account of Chinese astronomy, informs us 
that M. Stanislas Julien, without doubt the most accomplished Sinologist in Europe, has 
expressed the same opinion, which he derives from internal evidence, founded on its 
peculiar archaic style and construction. On examination, it appears to be rather a col- 
lection of historical documents of different ages than a continuous history, and may be 
considered as being quite as much to be relied upon as any of the histories of ancient 
nations that have descended to us. 

The first section of the ' Shoo King ' is called Yaou Teen, and records the actions of 
the Emperor Yaou. According to the Chinese authorities, this prince ascended the 
throne in the 4ist year of the 5th cycle of 60 years. It has just been shown, that the 
reckoning by cycles commences with the year B.C. 2637. Four cycles of 60 years will 
be 240 years, and 41 years of another cycle will make 281 ; consequently 2637 less 281 
will give 2356 for the first year of Yaou. 

In the first section of the 'Shoo King,' just mentioned, in the paragraphs 3 to 8 
inclusive, the instructions of Yaou to his astronomers, under the designations ofJEEe and 
Hoj are given. These names, He and Ho, are possibly not those of individuals but of 
two families, under Vhose superintendence the arrangement of the calendar for the year, 
and the making the necessary observations and the requisite computations, were placed, 
and whose office, in accordance with Oriental custom, was probably hereditary. These 
instructions are of great interest, as being probably the earliest relating to astronomy 
on record ; and a summary of them will, therefore, not be out of place here. It must 
also be observed, that these paragraphs have each a commentary of far more recent 
date ; without which, such is the abstruseness of their style, there would be great diffi- 
culty in understanding them. 

b 



x Introductory Remarks. 

In the first of these paragraphs Yaou is described as commanding He and Ho ' to 
observe the heavens, to compute the calendar, to form an instrument by which the 
motions of the Sun, Moon, and twelve signs might be represented, and with due respect 
to impart information respecting the seasons to the people.' 

The comment on this paragraph is worthy of attention. In it we are informed that 
one of the words employed (Leih) signifies the recorded observations or computations. 
Another (Seang) refers to an instrument, probably resembling our armillary sphere. It 
is also stated that the Sun represents the male, or superior principle of nature, and the 
Moon the female, or inferior principle ; that the Sun passes round the Earth in one day, 
and that the Moon is every lunation in conjunction with the Sun ; that the word Sing, 
or stars, indicates not only the 28 stellar divisions, but also the five planets, Mercury, 
Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn ; and the commentator fancifully compares the 
heavens to a piece of cloth in the loom, the stars forming the warp and the planets the 
woof : thus not inaptly indicating the paths of the planets among the fixed stars. An- 
other word (Shin) is explained as signifying the twelve places in which the sun and 
moon are in conjunction : thus, in some measure, answering to our twelve signs. This 
may serve to give some notion of Chinese astronomy in those early times, and also to 
show the general nature of the commentary. 

In the second paragraph Yaou establishes a division of the duties, and orders He 
Chung (or, as he may be called, He the Second) to go to a certain place in the East. 
He directs him to receive the rising Sun with due respect (that is, to perform the cere- 
monies necessary for that purpose), and to arrange the business of the spring. He was 
to observe whether the \days and nights were at that time of equal length. A certain 
star (Neaou) is mentioned as being the correct indicator of the season, and certain tests 
are named as showing the middle of spring. There are the people going abroad on 
agricultural business and the pairing of birds and beasts/' 

The Commentator informs us, that ' after the completion of the Calendar a division 
of the duties took place, in order that certain observations might be made to verify the 
computations, lest inadvertently some error might have been introduced. These form 
the subject of this and the three succeeding paragraphs.' He also observes, 'Some 
suppose that these particular instructions were given to the second and third brothers of 
He and Ho, while others are of opinion that He and Ho are official denominations, and 
not the names of individuals, and that the others were assistants of different grades : 
which opinion is correct,' says he, ' cannot now be rightly ascertained.' The duties to 
be performed in this verification are distinctly named, and the star ' Neaou Bird ' is said 
to refer to a star in one of the seven stellar divisions of the southern quarter, denomi- 
nated that of the ' Red Bird.' He also informs us, that 'by a Chinese astronomer named 
Tang Yih Hing the star Neaou is considered to be the same as the zodiacal division 
Shun Ho, ' the Quail-fire.' This star appears to be identical with a or Cor Hydra?, 
which is the central star of that division, and which is said to have culminated at sunset 
on the day of the vernal equinox in the time of Yaou. 

Now if a Hydrse were observed culminating at sunset on the day mentioned, the Sun 
must have been in our sign Taurus, or in the Chinese division Maou, determined by the 
Pleiades ; which was, consequently, then the equinoctial point. Reckoning from the 



Introductory Remarks. xi 

middle of that constellation (the Pleiades), we find it may be roughly estimated as being, 
at the present time, rather more than 58 degrees from the equinoctial point say 58 
degrees. Now the precession of the equinoxes being at the rate of about a degree in 
72 years, by multiplying 72 by 58 we obtain 41 76 years as having elapsed since the time 
of Yaou to A.D. 1870, and 4176 less 1870 will be equal to 2306 B.C. as the date of the 
observation. It has been before shown, that the reign of Yaou commenced in the year 
2356 B.C. He is said to have reigned 100 years, and 2356 less 2306, the number just 
found, will give the 5oth year of that reign. This may be considered sufficiently near 
for a rough computation like the present, and thus a strong presumptive proof is again 
afforded of the veracity of Chinese history as recorded in the ' Shoo King.' 

In the third paragraph Yaou directs He Shuh, or He the Third, to go to a place in 
the South. He is there/Jto observe, with due ceremony, the length of the Sun's shadow, 
and thus to ascertain the middle of summer. Another star (Ho) is mentioned as indi- 
cating that period, and the tests are, the people still more actively engaged in agri- 
culture, the moulting of birds, and the change of the fur in animals. This evidently 
refers to the observation of the summer solstice by means of the shadow of the gnomon. 
The star Ho, or Ta Ho, is the central one of the seven stellar divisions of the western 
quarter, that of the ' Azure Dragon,' and is identical with ft in Scorpio/ 

The fourth paragraph contains the instructions to Ho Chung, or Ho the Second. He 
is directed to proceed to the West, and respectfully to escort the departing Sun. The 
days and nights are again equal. The star (Heu) is mentioned as the indicator of the 
season, and the tests are the people resting from their labours, the birds being well 
fledged, and the beasts having sleek coats. The star Heu is the. central one of the seven 
stellar divisions comprised in the northern quarter, that of the ' Black Warrior,' and is 
identical with /3 Aquarii. 

In the fifth paragraph Ho Shuh, or Ho the Third, is commanded to go to the North, 
to observe the northern changes. The day is then at the shortest, and the stars Maou 
are mentioned as those by which the winter solstice may be correctly ascertained. The 
tests are, the people keeping themselves wi thin-doors and the birds and beasts having 
their winter covering of down and hair. 

The stars Maou form the central one of the seven stellar divisions of the eastern 
quarter, that of the ' White Tiger,' and answer to the Pleiades.// I may here observe, 
that the stars mentioned as the indicators of the seasons are about six hours of R. A. 
apart from each other : thus affording another presumptive proof of the accuracy of the 
early Chinese astronomical observations. The stellar divisions and the four quarters 
mentioned will be fully explained in a subsequent part of this work. 

In the sixth paragraph Yaou thus addresses his astronomers : ' He and Ho, ye know 
that a year has 366 days. Fix the intercalary moons, regulate the hundred offices, and 
all things will prosper.' 

The Commentator upon this paragraph informs us, tha^the year of 366 days men- 
tioned by Yaou is that of the revolution of the heavens, and that the length of the solar 
year is 365^ days/ He minutely describes the various computations needed for ascer- 
taining the exact length of the year, with many other particulars of interest, but which 
can hardly be entered into here. 



V 

xii Introductory Remarks. 

Such is the substance of these curious notices of early Chinese astronomy, perhaps 
the most ancient on record. It must, however, be borne in mind, that the correctness 
of this account depends entirely upon the degree of credence to be given to the ' Shoo 
King.' / Assuming its authenticity, of which there can be but little doubt, we find that 
at a very remote period, /. e. between two and three thousand years before the Christian 
c*a, the Chinese had made great progress in astronomy, that they were acquainted with 
the true length of the year, that they observed the equinoxes and solstices, that they 
had discovered the necessity of frequent intercalations of moons, or months, to keep the 
seasons in their true places, and were able to perform the computations requisite for 
that purpose ; together with many other facts, proving the high degree of knowledge of 
astronomy to which they had attained. 

The second section of the ' Shoo King,' called ' Shun Teen,' is devoted to the actions 
of the Emperor Shun, the successor of Yaou. In this the following curious passage 
"occurs : 'He examined the Tseuen Ke and the Yuh Hang, that the seven Ching might 
be duly regulated or observed.' The Tseuen Ke was the instrument before mentioned 
as resembling our armillary sphere ; it is described as having been enriched with pearls : 
and the Yuh Hang appears to have been a kind of quadrant, having a jewelled tube 
fixed transversely. The seven Ching are the Sun, Moon, and five planets. There is a 
very full commentary upon this passage, occupying nearly four pages. The object of 
this examination by Shun is said to have been that he might ascertain whether the 
instruments were in order, so as to enable correct observations of the heavenly bodies to 
be made ; which observations were required in the computation of the Calendar. There 
are some curious passages in this Commentary relating to the theories of the heavens, 
and many other particulars, explaining the construction and use of the before-men- 
tioned instruments. There is also a description of one made upon the ancient principles, 
about A.B. 450, in which the tube is said to have been 8 cubits in length and i inch 
in diameter. In this both these instruments were combined in one, and the tube being 
fixed to one of the circles of the sphere, which was movable, it could be turned about, 
and the positions of the Sun, Moon, and other heavenly bodies, could be ascertained by 
looking through it. 

There are many other allusions to astronomy in this very ancient book, the ' Shoo 
King.' The eclipse described by me in the ' Monthly Notices,' vol. xxiii. p. 238, which 
occurred in the year 2158 B.C., is there recorded. 

In other early books of the Chinese, astronomical notices occur. In the ' She King,' 
a collection of ancient poems, selected and arranged in their present form by the cele- 
brated Confucius, comets and the stellar divisions are alluded to. In the ' Chun Tsew,' 
a work written by Confucius, the eclipses -'of which I have given an account in the 
' Monthly Notices,' vol. xxiv. p. 39, are recorded. / In the ' Tso Chuen,' another ancient 
historical work, there are many astronomical notices ; and in the ' Urh Ya,' a kind of 
dictionary of terms, even then considered of high antiquity, compiled during the Chow 
dynasty, i. e. between B.C. 1122 and 314, the twelve Kung, or zodiacal signs, and many 
of the stellar divisions, are mentioned. The great historical work, the ' She Ke/ which 
commences with Hwang Te, about 2650 B.c.^'and to which I am indebted for a large 
proportion of the observations of comets detailed in the subsequent pages of this volume, 



Introductomj Remarks. xiii 

is highly deserving of notice. This truly great work was commenced by the historian 
Sze Ma Tseen. lie brings the history of China down to the year 97 B.C., and it has 
been continued by a succession of historians to the end of the Ming dynasty, A.D. 1 644^' 
In this work certain sections are devoted exclusively to astronomy ; and these, of course, 
in the present investigation, are the most important. In these, among other interesting 
matters, are to be found observations of the Sun, Moon, and five planets ; occupations tf 
stars ; and notices of extraordinary appearances in the heavens', among which comets 
hold an important place. 

Astronomical notices also occur in many other historical and scientific works, among 
which the accounts of comets in the celebrated ' Encyclopaedia ' of Ma Twan Lin must 
be particularly mentioned. It is only recently I have obtained a sight of this important 
work, for which I am indebted to the Rev. J. Summers, Professor of Chinese in King's 
College, London, who has kindly favoured me with the loan of the volume containing 
the cometary observations ; and has thus enabled me to render my list far more 
complete, both as to details and number, than it otherwise would have been. Ma Twan 
Lin flourished during the later Sung dynasty, A.D. 960-1279. His laborious compilation 
of the Encyclopaedia bearing his name is looked upon by the Chinese as one of the most 
extraordinary works ever produced by man. It is much admired by them for the 
immense amount of information it contains, and for the elegance and perspicuity of its 
style. The volume I have just referred to contains notices of comets from B.C. 613 to 
A.D. 1222, shortly after which date the author appears to have died. A Supplement, 
bringing the work down to A.D, 1644, has since been published, containing the cometary 
observations from the death of Ma Twan Lin to that date. Of this I had previously 
seen a copy, and made the necessary extracts. 

The ' Tung Keen Kang Muh,' an abridgment of Chinese history from the earliest 
times to the end of the Yuen dynasty, A.D. 1367, in 100 volumes, is another work con- 
taining brief accounts of comets, some of which are not found in the ' She Ke.' It has 
been translated into French by M. Mailla. 

Various works, professedly on astronomy, also occur, from one of which the Chinese 
Celestial Atlas, hereafter to be noticed, has been copied. / 'In one of these works, printed 
in 1652, there is a list of 155 of the most important treatises on astronomy then existing 
in China. These afford another proof of the great attention paid by the Chinese to that 
science. It must, however, be observed, that astrology is almost universally coupled 
with astronomy by that people. 

Such is a very brief summary of the state of astronomy among the Chinese. As we 
proceed, other portions of the subject will be touched upon and explained. It is chiefly 
from the works just mentioned, and more particularly from the ' She Ke ' and the 
' Encyclopaedia ' of Ma Twan Lin, that the observations of comets, that form the subject 
of the present compilation, have been derived ; and it may be observed, that the ma- 
terials thus collected 'consist of observations of comets made under the various dynasties 
from the period of the Chun Tsew, B.C. 613 to A.D. 1640: shortly after which time the 
Ming dynasty was subverted by the present reigning one, the Tsing. 

They commence with B.C. 613, that being the year in which the cometary ob- 
servations of Ma Twan Liu begin. The observations of comets earlier than this are 

c 



xiv Introductory Remarks. 

not only very few, but are also so vague and unsatisfactory in their details, that it was 
thought advisable to omit them altogether. 

The number of observations of comets thus brought together amounts to 373. Some 
of these may possibly be meteors, and may consequently be rejected on future revision. 
M. E. Biot, in the Supplement to the ' Connaissance des Temps ' for 1 846, has published 
a catalogue of comets observed in China under the following heads : 

Those from A.D. 1230 to 1649, of which he notices ... 94 

Those from B.C. i34toA.D. 1203 64 

Those near oppositions of Halley's Comet .... 66 

Making a total of 224 

It appears, therefore, that the list of cometary observations in the present work 
contains 149 more than Biot's catalogue. 

The translation is as literal as the idiom of the two languages would allow, and every 
care has been taken to make it as accurate as possible. It must, however, be observed, 
that no attempt has been made to translate the names of the Chinese asterisms, as no 
useful purpose would be answered by it ; and to give the meaning of a few and not of 
the whole would tend to introduce confusion in the narrative. The original names 
have, therefore, been everywhere retained. It may also be remarked that the Chinese 
names are quite as fanciful as our own. Thus, Canopus is called Laou Jin, ' the Old 
Man ;' Arcturus, Ta Keo, ' the Great Horn ;' the seven bright stars in Ursa Major, Pih 
Tow, ' the Northern Measure ;' and the stellar division in which our constellation 
Gemini occurs is called Tsing, ' the Well.' These and other Chinese words will be 
found in the English version of the text untranslated : they are, however, in every 
instance, fully explained beneath the text. They have been so placed, not only for the 
convenience of classification, but also as enabling explanatory remarks to be introduced 
where necessary. 

The manner in which these observations are recorded in the original is more or less 
explicit. In some we have merely the dynasty, emperor, year, and moon ; in others, 
the day and place of the heavens in which the comet was seen are added ; and in those 
which are the most fully described we have, in addition to the particulars before men- 
tioned, the path of the comet through the heavens : comprising the stellar divisions in 
which it was seen, the asterisms through which it passed, and the stars near to which 
it approached ; together with the various days on which it was observed and the length 
of time it was visible, its colour, the length and direction of the tail, and other circum- 
stances considered worthy of notice. 

The description may, therefore, be considered as divided into two general heads ; 
the one chronological, the other astronomical. In the chronological part we have to 
ascertain all particulars respecting the dates of the dynasty, the emperor, the epoch and 
its year, the moon or month, and the day on which the comet appeared, and the days 
subsequently mentioned until its final disappearance. In the astronomical part we 
have, in like manner, to ascertain the stellar division in which the comet was first seen, 



Introductory Remarks. xv 

and those through which it subsequently passed ; and the various asterisms and stars 
mentioned as being in its path. To these must be added the description of the ap- 
pearance of the comet, as regards colour, length of tail, &c. 

For the first of these objects, viz. the ascertaining the various dates mentioned, it 
has been found necessary to construct several Tables. The first portion of these consists 
of a complete set of Chronological Tables, in which are to be found the succession of the 
Emperors from the earliest times, the dates of their accession to the throne, and the 
duration of their epochs and reigns, reduced to our reckoning. These Tables comprise 
the whole of the dynasties considered as regular by the Chinese, in their succession from 
the most remote period to the present time, with the names of the Emperors and of the 
epochs adopted by them. These are arranged in columns. The names of the Emperors 
and epochs are given in the original characters, with the pronunciation in English ; 
together with the date of the commencement and duration of each epoch and reign. To 
these are added Tables of the Minor Dynasties, with the names of their princes and 
epochs as far as could be ascertained. The whole from original sources. 

In forming these Tables, valuable assistance has been obtained from a chronological 
work compiled by the Japanese Prince of Mito, and published in Japan about 1863 ; in 
which not only is the chronology both of Japan and China given from the earliest times 
to A.D. 1860, but also the corresponding dates B.C. and A.D., according to our mode of 
expressing them. This work affords much valuable information, and deserves great 
praise for the perspicuity of its arrangement and the able manner in which it has been 
carried out. I need scarcely say the work is in Japanese ; but the characters being the 
same as the Chinese, and as, although differing phonetically, they have precisely the 
same meaning, there was, therefore, no difficulty in making them out. The title in Chinese 
reads, ' Sin Chuen Neen Peaou, A newly compiled Guide to Years,' or Chronology. 

The word Epoch having been frequently used, it may be necessary to explain what 
is meant by that term. In this and the succeeding pages, the word Epoch is employed 
to designate the appellation of the years of the Emperor's reign. The term is not 
strictly correct, the Chinese equivalent being 'Neen Haou, The Years' Name,' or 
designation ; but it is the nearest I could adopt. It is now about 2000 years since it 
has been the custom of the Chinese Emperors to assume certain adulatory titles to 
express the years of their reign ; and it is by these titles these personages are designated 
by the people at large and by strangers. The true name of the Emperor is never men- 
tioned, as it would be considered as highly insulting to him to do so. Upon his death 
another name is given him, by which he is hereafter to be known in history. This is 
called his Temple name, being that placed in the Temple of Ancestors. It follows, 
therefore, that Kang He, Keen Lung, Taou Kwang, are not the names of the Emperors 
thus usually designated, but only the appellations of the years of their respective reigns ; 
and in history they are only known as Shin Tsoo, Kaou Tsung, and Tseuen Tsung. It 
was formerly customary to change the epoch several times during a reign, and we have 
one instance in the early part of the Han dynasty of 1 1 such changes in a reign of 54 
years ; and under the Tang dynasty there are no fewer than 14 changes in a reign of 
34 years. From the accession of the Ming dynasty, A.D. 1368, to the present, excepting 
in one instance, no change has been made in the epoch during the reigns of any of the 



xvi Introductory Remarks. 

Emperors, that assumed at the accession having been kept until the close of the reign. 
These circumstances render the study of Chinese history a matter of some difficulty at 
the first, and hence the value of accurate tables in any investigations involving dates. 

In using these Tables, the dynasty having been ascertained, the names of the Em- 
perors of that dynasty and of their epochs, with their dates, will be found in their 
respective columns. For example : Required the 3rd year of the Epoch Woo Fung, of 
the Emperor Seuen Te, of the Western Han dynasty. On reference it will be found 
that Seuen Te was the eighth emperor of that dynasty ; that he reigned 25 years, from 
B.C. 7349 ; that Woo Fung was his 5th epoch, extending from B.C. 57-54 : conse- 
quently its 3rd year was B.C. 55. Again, Tang dynasty : Required the 2nd year of the 
Epoch Han Hang, of the Emperor Kaou Tsung. On reference it will be found that 
Kaou Tsung was the third emperor of that dynasty, who reigned 34 years, from A.D. 
650-683, and that Han Hang was his 7th epoch, from A.D. 670-673. The 2nd year of 
the Epoch Han Hang was, therefore, 671. It will be seen fro'm these examples, that 
these Tables give all the information required for ascertaining the date of any year, 
according to our reckoning, that may occur in Chinese history. 

Having thus ascertained the year, we have next to find the moon, or month, and the 
day of the year, on which a comet appeared, or any other remarkable circumstance 
occurred. For understanding the method of computing these, some acquaintance with 
the Chinese Calendar is required. 

The Chinese year is luni-solar, and is reckoned by lunations, or moons as they term 
them ; which may be considered as answering to our months, and of which 1 2 make up 
the ordinary year. These moons are of 29 or 30 days, regulated by certain fixed rules. 
They, however, are not alternate, and the common year consists of but 354 or 355 days. 
Hence the necessity of frequent intercalary moons at short intervals, there being seven 
of these moons in the cycle of 19 years, and consequently they fall generally between every 
second and third year. The year thus increased consists of 384 or 385 days ; and in this 
manner the deficiencies of former years are made up, and the seasons kept in their 
proper places. This mode of intercalation appears to have been practised from extremely 
remote antiquity, as it is mentioned, as I have before shown, in the instructions of Yaou 
to his astronomers, more than 2000 years before the Christian era. 

The succession of the moons in any one year js regulated by the first day of that 
year, which is not a fixed day, as with us, but, like our Easter Sunday, is not the same 
for two consecutive years. The first day of the Chinese year is the first day of the 
lunation in which the Sun enters our sign Pisces : it may, therefore, be any day between 
January 22 and February 20 inclusive. Hence it follows that this first day of the year 
must, of necessity, be ascertained before the moons can be properly appropriated. For 
this purpose the lunar cycle of 19 years must be employed ; and a Table of the first year 
of each of these cycles, from B.C. 609 to A.D. 1995, has been constructed : as also another 
Table, showing the first day of each lunation in every year of the ig-year cycle. These 
Tables are formed from those in ' L'Art de Verifier les Dates.' In order to use them, 
we must find in the first of these Tables the number of the given year in the ig-year 
cycle in which it occurs, and against that number in the second Table will be found 
approximately the first day of each lunation in that year. For example : Let it be 



Introductory Remarks. 



XVll 



required to find the ist day of the 6th moon in the year A.D. 678. In the Table of the 
first years of cycles, 684 is the nearest below that number, consequently 698 is the i5th 
year of that cycle ; and in the second Table it will be found that the i st day of the i st 
moon in the i5th year of the cycle is February 17, and the ist day of the 6th moon 
July 15, the day required. Again : Required the ist day of the loth moon, A.D. 1448. 
Here 1444 is the ist year of the cycle in which 1448 occurs, of which it is the 5th year, 
the ist moon of which commences February 7; and the ist day of the 10th moon is 
September 2. It must, however, be observed, that these Tables must be considered as 
approximate only: they are, however, sufficiently accurate for the purpose required. 
It must also be remarked, that the earliest date on which the first day of the Chinese 
year can fall is January 22 ; and whenever the second lunation in the Table commences 
in February, after the 2Oth, the lunation commencing in January is to be taken as the 
first of that year, and the succeeding moons reckoned accordingly. Thus, in the I4th 
year of the cycle of 19 years the lunations commence with January 30, February 28, 
&c. : in this case January 30 is the first day of the Chinese year. In the nth year the 
moons are January 3, February 2, &c. Here the first day is February 2. 

The mode of reducing Chinese days to our reckoning is the next point to be con- 
sidered. In order to comprehend this it is necessary, first, to explain the principles of 
the system by which the Chinese arrange their chronology. They reckon by means of 
periods, or cycles, of 60 years ; the years in these cycles being regulated by means of 
the combinations of two series of characters, the one of 10 the other of 12. 

The following Table shows these characters in the order in which they occur : 



FIRST SERIES, 10. 

EpI Kea 

, Yih 

j^J Ping 

T Ting 

jj^ Woo 

a Ke 

ife Kang 

^ Sin 

~i ^' n 

^ Kwei 



SECOND SERIES, 12. 

-Jr Tsze 

# Chow 

jlf Yin 

Jj|j Maou 

J^ Shin 

g, Sze 

^f- Woo 

% W. 

^ Shin 

tjjj Yew 

jet Seuh 

tt Hae 



xvm 



Introductory Remarks. 



This system is called Kea Tsze, from the names of the first characters in each series 
It is said to have been first introduced by the Emperor Hwang Te, the first year of the 
first cycle being reckoned as the 6ist of that emperor's reign, answering to B.C. 2637. 
Whether this statement be correct or not this is certain, the system has been in use from 
extremely remote antiquity, and is employed in all their historical works, however early, 
to express the various dates that occur in them.* 

They are employed thus : The characters in the first series are combined with 
those in the second, from the first to the tenth, in this manner, Kea Tsze, Yih Chow, 
&c. to Kwei Yew. The first character in the first series is now combined with the 
eleventh of the second, Kea Seuh ; and the second of the first with the twelfth of the 
second, Yih Hae ; and the other combinations follow in due order. Proceeding thus, 
after sixty combinations, the last being Kwei Hae, the first characters in both series 
come together again, and a fresh cycle commences, the combinations of the characters 
following in the same order as before. This system is employed not only to express 
the years of the cycle, but also months, days, and hours. It is also applied to the 
points of the compass, and any other expression of numbers in a series of ten or 
twelve. 

The Chinese days of the year are not reckoned, as among iis, by weeks of seven days, 
each day having a definite name, but by cycles of 60 days, the characters of which are 
the same as those of the cycle of 60 years. The names of the days also are the same as 
those of the combinations of the Kea Tsze. 

The ordinary year consists of six of these cycles of 60 days, making 360 days ; con- 
sequently they fall short of the true number of days in the year in common years 
by S an< l i n l ea P years by 6 days. Hence there is a continual shifting of the characters 
for any particular day. If, however, the characters for a certain day in any one of our 
years say January i, 1860 are known, the characters for any other day in that year 
are easily ascertained. The characters for the ist of January in any year are to be 
found by means of a Table, whose construction I will now explain. I have just re- 
marked, that the reckoning of the days of the year by periods of 60 days, according to 
the Chinese method, falls short of the true year by 5 days in common and by 6 days in 
leap years. Hence it follows, that in the cycles of 60 days the characters for the ist of 
January in any year being known, those for the same day in the succeeding year will 
be five in advance ; unless it should be leap year, when they will be six in advance. Let 
us assume the characters for the ist of January, 1860, to be those of the first of the 
cycle, Kea Tsze ; those for 1861 will be Ke Sze, the sixth combination ; those for the 
same day in 1862 will be Kea Seuh, the eleventh combination; those for 1863, Ke 
Maou, the sixteenth; and those for 1864, a leap year, Yih Yew, the twenty-second: 
the first three being five in advance and the last six. Proceeding thus, taking every 
fifth combination for common years and every sixth for leap years, we shall find, after 
eighty combinations, on the eighty-first the first combination, Kea Tsze, will recur, 
followed by the succeeding ones in precisely the same order as before ; and thus a 

* The whole of the Tables referred to in this and the succeeding pages will be found in the 
Appendix. 



Introductory Remarks. xix 

general Table will be formed, showing the characters for the ist of January for 80 
years. In the Table the combinations are numbered from i to 80, for the convenience 
of reckoning. . It must also be observed, that the Julian reckoning is that to be em- 
ployed in reducing Chinese time. 

In order to find by this Table the characters for the 1st of January in any given 
year, a second or auxiliary Table is required. In this the year of the commencement 
of each period of 80 years, from B.C. 2561-1920, is given. They are arranged under 
the letters B.C. and A.D. For years A.D. subtract from the given year the next lower 
number in this second Table, and against the number thus ascertained the characters 
for the ist of January in that year will be found. A few examples will render this 
clear : 

Required the characters for January i, A.D. 943. 

943 880 (the next lower number in the second Table) = 63. Against No. 63 
in the 8o-year Table are Jin Yin, the characters required. 

Required the characters for January i, A.D. 1396. 

1396 1360 (the next lower number) = 36 ; against which are Kang Shin, the 

characters required. 
Required the characters for January i, A.D. 1868. 

1868 1840 = 28 ; against which are Woo Seuh, those required. 

To exemplify the correctness of these results, I may observe that Gaubil informs us 
that the characters for January r, A.D. 1267, were Kwei Hae. 
1267 12 oo = 67 ; against which are Kwei Hae. 

And again, that those for January i, A.D. 638, were Sin Yew. 
638 560 = 78 ; against which are Sin Yew. 

For years B.C. the process differs slightly. Here we have to subtract the given year 
from the next higher number, and proceed as before. 

Required the characters for January i, B.C. 643. 

721 (the next higher number) 643 = 78 ; against which are Sin Yew, the 
characters required. 

Required the characters for January I, B.C. 279. 

321 279 = 42 ; against which are Jin Sze, those required. 

To exemplify this, Idler informs us that the characters for January i, B.C. 198, were 
Ting Sze. 

241 198 = 43 ; against which are Ting Sze. 

Such is the extremely simple method to be pursued to find the characters for our ist 
of January in any given year, B.C. or A.D. To find the days mentioned in the account 
of any occurrence or phenomenon, such as the appearance of a comet, &c., we must 
return to the Table of 60 days. 

It has already been shown, that the first combination in that Table recurs on the 
6 ist, and commences a new cycle, either of years or days, as the case may be. Hence it 
is evident, that the characters for January i in any year must recur on the first day of 



xx Introductory Remarks. 

each subsequent period of 60 days ; and, therefore, that in common years the characters 
for March 2, May I, June 30, August 29, October 28, and December 27, being the first 
days of each period, must be the same as those for January I. In leap years they recur 
on March i, April 30, June 29, August 28, October 27, and December 26. It follows, 
then, that the characters for January i in any year being known, those for any other 
day in the same year can be easily ascertained. For this we must proceed in the fol- 
lowing manner: Having by the methods before mentioned found the month according 
to our reckoning, answering to the Chinese moon in which the given day occurs, we 
must then ascertain within which of the dates just mentioned as those of the recurrence 
of the characters for January I it is to be found. Let us suppose the day required to be 
one in the moon answering to our month of July : it will then fall between June 30 and 
August 29. In this case June 30 assumes the characters for January i ; and now, by 
counting on from that combination in the Table of 60 days, commencing with its date, 
June 30, until we arrive at the characters of the day required, we obtain the date of 
that day. For example : 

Required the day Sin Chow, in the 7th moon, A.D. 365. We have first to find 
January I, thus, 365 320 = 45 ; against which we shall find in the 8o-year Table 
Woo Shin w , the characters for January i . 365 is the 5th year of the lunar cycle, in 
which year the 7th moon commences August i. The 6o-day cycle, in which this date 
occurs, commences June 30, which is consequently Woo Shin W. Call this June 30, 
and count on to Sin Chow ( 3 8 ) in the 6o-day Table, and the date will answer to 
August 2, which is that required. The small figures in brackets refer to those after the 
Chinese combinations of characters in the 8o-year Table, and are their numbers in -the 
6o-day Table. Thus, Woo Shin is the 5th and Sin Chow the 38th in that Table. These 
numbers greatly facilitate the finding the required characters in the 6o-year Table. 

The following example will, I trust, fully exemplify the nature of the computations 
requisite in reducing Chinese time to European reckoning. It is a copy of one of the 
observations of comets recorded in the subsequent part of this volume. 

It is stated that during the Sung dynasty, in the reign of the Emperor Le Tsung, in 
the 5th year of the epoch King Ting, the 7th moon, on the day Kea Seuh, a comet ap- 
peared. It was also observed on the days Ke Maou, Sin Sze, Woo Woo, Kea Tsze, and 
Sin Wei, when it disappeared. 

On reference to the Chronological Tables it will be found, that the Sung dynasty 
ruled China from A.D. 960-1279. Le Tsung was the fourteenth emperor of that dynasty, 
and reigned from 1225-1264. King Ting was his eighth epoch, 1260-1264, the fifth 
year of which was 1264, the year required. To find the characters for January I in 
that year : 1264 1200 = 64, against which, in the 8o-year Table, will be found Ting 
Wei (44> , which are, consequently, the characters for January i : 1264 is the nth year 
of a cycle of 19 years. The 7th moon in that year of the cycle commences towards 
the end of July, in which case the nearest preceding date on which the characters for 
January i recur is June 29, 1264 being a leap year. Now count on from Ting Wei (>, 
June 29, to Kea Seuh <">, which will be found to be July 31 ; thence to Sin Sze <' 8) , 
August 2 ; thence to Ke Maou (l6 ', September 8 ; to Kea Tsze w, September 14 ; and to 
Sin Wei W, September 21, on which day the comet disappeared. 



Introductory Remarks. xxi 

Having tlnis explained the mode of reducing the various dates occurring in these 
observations to European reckoning, I pass on to the second, or Astronomical division 
of the subject ; in which we have to consider the manner in which the place of the 
comet and its course among the stars are to be ascertained. For understanding this, 
it will be necessary to give a brief summary of some of the principles of Chinese 
astronomy. 

The Chinese divide the visible heavens into 31 portions ; 28 of these may be termed 
the stellar divisions, and receive their names from, or are determined by, an asterism, 
generally forming the central or principal one of the division. The determination by 
an asterism having the same name has been preferred by me to that by any particular 
star in that asterism, as being, to the best of my judgment, more in accordance with the 
Chinese mode of proceeding ; in which, as far as my experience goes, the asterism alone 
is mentioned, and not a determining star in that asterism. Various other asterisms 
make up the remainder of the divisions. These divisions are very irregular in their 
extent, both from north to south and from east to west, no two being alike in these 
particulars ; the largest extending north and south from Perseus to Argo, and east 
and west 32 49', while the smallest consists only of the few small stars in the head of 
Orion and of some other small stars in the immediate neighbourhood, extending from 
east to west but 24'. 

In the Appendix will be found a Table of the 28 stellar divisions, their determining 
asterisms, and their extent north and south, and east and west. 

In addition to these divisions there are three large spaces, denominated Yuen ; a 
word signifying a wall, or enclosure. These are, Tsze Wei Yuen, which may be con- 
sidered as comprising stars within the circle of perpetual apparition ; Teen She Yuen, 
consisting of stars contained within a line drawn through the constellation Serpens and 
continued to the circle of perpetual apparition : thus comprising the upper part of 
Ophiuchus, Hercules, Corona Eorealis, and some stars in Bootes, Aquila, and Taurus 
Poniatowski. The third space is called Tae Wei Yuen : this is contained within a line 
drawn through ft, j, 8, and others in Virgo, and ft, a, i, 9 and S Leonis, and continued, 
as in the preceding instance, to the circle of perpetual apparition ; thus comprising stars 
in Virgo and Leo, Coma Berenices, and others in Canes Venatici, Ursa Major, and Leo 
Minor. It must, however, be observed, that in the cometary observations the 28 stellar 
divisions are frequently alluded to as extending to the Pole, without reference to these 
three spaces. Thus, in several instances, the comet is described as having passed through 
1 2 or even 1 5 of these stellar divisions before ii disappeared, all its early places having 
been within the circle of perpetual apparition ; where such a circumstance might 
easily happen, on the assumption that the stellar divisions were continued to the Pole, 
without its course being in any way extraordinary, on account of its high northern 
latitude. 

As these divisions are continually referred to in the astronomical observations of the 
Chinese, an acquaintance with them is essential in investigations such as form the object 
of this work. Tracings have, therefore, been made from original charts in a Chinese 
treatise on astronomy, so as to form a complete Celestial Atlas, fully elucidating their 
method of representing the heavens. This Atlas comprises the greater number of the 



xxii Introductory Remarks. 

asterisms referred to in these observations. A few names, however, occur in them that 
are not to be found in any of the charts or lists I have hitherto met with, and are, con- 
sequently, mentioned as unascertained. The Atlas consists of maps of the 28 stellar 
divisions just referred to, with the names of the asterisms as they occur in the original 
map, and their pronunciation in English, with an account of the stars composing them 
according to our nomenclature. This Atlas will be found in the Appendix to this 
work. 

In compiling the explanatory part relating to this Atlas, great assistance has been 
derived from a tract entitled ' Chinese Names of Stars and Constellations,' which 
forms an appendix to Morrison's Chinese Dictionary, and which was contributed to that 
work by the late John Reeves, Esq., formerly a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical 
Society. Another Catalogue, by Father Franciscus Noel, contained in his ' Observationes 
Mathematicae et Physicae in India et China facta ' (4to. Prague, 1710), has also been 
found of great service, as corroborating Reeves or throwing light on doubtful cases. 
Nothing, however, has been taken for granted ; the stars depicted in these maps having 
been carefully verified by reference to, and comparison with, other star-charts, both 
European and Chinese. To these is added an Index, by which, the name of the asterism 
being known, the chart in which it occurs can be readily found ; and in order to render 
this Atlas still more intelligible, reduced drawings of the figures in Flamstead's Atlas 
have been made, and the principal Chinese asterisms laid down upon the corresponding 
stars in them. 

The Chinese arrange these 28 stellar divisions under four general heads, answering 
to our east, west, north, and south. These divisions are of very remote antiquity, and 
have received the names of Tsing Lung, ' the Azure Dragon ;' Ileung Woo, ' the Black 
Warrior ;' Choo Neaou, ' the Red Bird ;' and Pih Hoo, ' the White Tiger.' Each of 
these comprises three of the divisions called Kung, answering to, although not identical 
with, our zodiacal signs. The nature of these Kung will shortly be explained. Under 
the first of the four above-mentioned divisions, the Azure Dragon, considered by the 
Chinese as the autumnal quarter, we have three of the Kung, answering to our signs, 
Libra, Scorpio, and Sagittarius ; and seven of the stellar divisions, those from Keo to Ke 
(see Table of the 28 Stellar Divisions), comprising stars from Virgo to Sagittarius. 
Under the second of these, the Black Warrior, we have three Kung, answering to Capri- 
cornus, Aquarius, and Pisces ; and seven stellar divisions, those from Tow to Peih, 
extending from stars in Sagittarius to others in Pegasus and Pisces. Under the White 
Tiger we have three Kung, answering to Aries, Taurus, and Gemini ; and seven stellar 
divisions, from Kwei to Tsan, i. e. from stars in Andromeda and Pisces to those in Orion. 
Under the Red Bird three Kung, answering to Cancer, Leo, and Virgo ; and seven 
stellar divisions, being those from Tsing to Chin, viz. from stars in Gemini to Corvus. 

The Chinese divide their year into 24 portions, of 15 days each, thus making up the 
number of 360 days : these 24 portions are termed Tsze Ke, the particulars relating to 
which will be found in a Table in the Appendix. 

Of these 24 divisions, twelve, called Kung Ke, or Kung only, require more particular 
notice, inasmuch as they mark the twelve places in which the Sun and Moon come into 
conjunction ; and are thus, in some degree, analogous to our twelve signs of the Zodiac. 



Introductory Remarks. 



XXlll 



They are distinguished in the Table by an asterisk. But it must not be supposed that 
the ancient names of these are in any way identical with our names of the signs ; neither 
must they be confounded with the appellations introduced by the Jesuit Missionaries 
when they reformed the astronomy of the Chinese. They then adopted a set of names 
closely agreeing with our nomenclature, such as the White Rani for Aries, the Golden 
Bull for Taurus, and so on. It has been supposed by some, that as these names, agreeing 
so closely with those employed by us, are in use among the Chinese, they afford a con- 
vincing proof of the immense antiquity of our designations of the zodiacal signs. But 
no traces of these recent names are to be found in Chinese astronomy as it existed before 
the accession of the present dynasty, and, consequently, all inferences as to their anti- 
quity, deduced from the correspondence of the Chinese names of the zodiacal signs and 
those employed in European astronomy, are wholly untenable, as no such affinity 
between the two sets of names actually exists. 

In the Appendix is a Table, showing the names of the ancient Chinese Kung Ke, 
placed side by side with the modern names, commencing with our sign Aries. These 
ancient names are extracted from the Astronomy of the Ming Dynasty, published at 
the commencement of the present dynasty, where they mark the divisions of a catalogue 
of stars ; and the total want of correspondence between these and the names introduced 
by the Jesuit Missionaries is clearly demonstrated by this Table. These last names are 
taken from a modern Chinese work on astronomy published in 1819, in which the two 
sets of nams occur side by side, and are thus distinguished : the ancient denominations 
are termed ' Chung Kwo Ming,' Middle Nation, or Chinese names ; and the modern 
ones, ' Sze Kwo Ming,' "Western Nation, or European names. 

The 1 2 Kung are not only used by the Chinese in regulating the equinoxes, solstices, 
and lunations, but they are also employed in the computation of their Calendar, to 
ascertain the intercalary moons. It has already been stated, that these Kung Ke mark 
the places of the conjunctions of the Sun and Moon, and, consequently, those of the new 
moons,- or lunations. Now as each Kung Ke indicates a period of 30 days, and a luna- 
tion is of but 29 days and a fraction, it follows that, sooner or later, two new moons 
must occur in one of these Kung, or periods of 30 days. Whenever this happens, that 
moon is an intercalary moon. In order to illustrate this, let us consider the upper line 
in the following diagram as representing a series of Kung periods of 30 days, and the 
lower one a series of new moons of 29 days and a fraction. 



From this it is evident that after a time a lunation occurs as at A, that falls entirely 
within a Kung period which, consequently, has two new moons in it. This is the inter- 
calary moon ; and hence the Chinese rule, ' The intercalary moon is without a Kung.' 
Of these intercalary moons there are seven in the lunar cycle of 19 years. 

The intercalary moon immediately follows the moon from which it receives its 



xxlv Introductory Remarks. 

designation. Thus, on reference to a Chinese Almanac for the yth year of Heen Fung, 
1857, I find the intercalary fth moon immediately following the regular 5 th moon of 
the Calendar of that year. 

The character j|fj, Jun, hy which the Chinese designate the intercalary moon, affords 
a striking instance of the figurative nature of many of the Chinese characters. It is a 
compound one, formed of P^, Mun, a gate, or entrance, and ], "Wang, an emperor. 
In each of the seasons it is the duty of the Emperor to officiate monthly in certain re- 
ligious ceremonies, in halls provided for that purpose, which are arranged in a square, 
the sides facing the cardinal points. They call the building in which these halls are 
contained ' Ming Tang.' These ceremonies are fully particularised in the ' Le Ke,' the 
Book of Ceremonies, or Rites ; and are to be found in that work in the sixth book, called 
' Yue Ling.' From this we learn that the Emperor, in the spring, performs the rites 
proper for that season in that part of the building facing the east ; that his dress and 
other appointments are of a certain colour (green) ; with many other particulars not 
necessary to be mentioned here. In the summer season the ceremonies are performed in 
the halls facing the south, the dress, &c. being of another colour ; and so on for the 
remaining seasons. But there is no hall provided for the ceremonies required in the 
intercalary moon ; they are consequently performed in the gateway, or entrance to the 
building : and hence the character Jun, representing the Emperor in the gateway, as 
that for the intercalary moon, is a very appropriate and significant symbol of this pecu- 
liarity in the performance of the rites for that moon. The institution of these cere- 
monies dates from extremely remote antiquity, and I may add that there is every ap- 
pearance of their being still in use; for as late as 1787 the Emperor Keen Lung was, 
by a decree of the Tribunal of Rites and Ceremonies, allowed to perform these rites by 
deputy, his great age and consequent infirmities rendering it impossible for him to 
support the fatigue of going through them in person. 

The 28 stellar divisions are evidently of very great antiquity, as the names of many 
of them occur in their most ancient works. They are to be found, together with the 
principal asterisms and stars composing them, in the Astronomical section of the Early 
Han Dynasty, in the ' She Ke,' which was first published in the first century of our era. 
This section also contains rules for forming the Calendar and computing the ordinary 
and intercalary moons, together with observations of the Sun, Moon, and Planets, and 
of extraordinary appearances in the heavens, among which those of comets occupy a 
prominent position. 

In the Astronomical section of the Annals of the Tang Dynasty, A.D. 618-906, is an 
enumeration of the 28 stellar divisions, and the asterisms composing them ; with notices 
of Eclipses and of the 12 Kung; and also observations of the Sun, Moon, Planets, 
Comets, &c. 

The Astronomy of the Ming Dynasty, A.D. 1368-1644, is, as might be expected, 
much more expanded ; embracing not only the whole of the before- mentioned parti- 
culars, but also comprising Tables of the Sun, Moon, and Planets, together with a Cata- 
logue of Stars, with their latitudes and longitudes, both on the equator and the ecliptic. 
We are probably indebted to the Jesuit Missionaries for the greater part of this addi- 



Introductory Remarks. 

tional matter, as the Tables in particular bear evident marks of being 
sources. \& 

A brief summary of the subjects treated upon in the 'Teen Wan,' or Alwfafo^nioaf ty'ft* 
section of the history of the Ming dynasty, and contained, according to my copj^x^|ha.. J 
7th vol. of the History of that dynasty, will serve to give a more definite idea of the geiresijLr ** 
nature of Chinese astronomy. It is divided into three chapters, the first of which has 
nine subdivisions, or sections. The first of these sections treats of the Leang E ; that 
is, of the two great divisions of the universe, Heaven and Earth. In the second are 
notices of the Tseih, or seven Ching, which are enumerated as the Sun, Moon, and five 
Planets. The third section, Hang Sing, ' Perpetual Stars,' relates to the fixed stars. In 
this section is the Catalogue of Stars before referred to, consisting of 109 stars, with 
their degrees reckoned upon the equator and the ecliptic. In the fifth section the places 
of 1 6 of the stellar divisions, in degrees of the 12 Kung, or zodiacal signs, are enumerated 
in like manner. The sixth section relates apparently to the application of instruments 
to the observation of the heavenly bodies, with their mode of construction : the Tseuen 
Ke, or armillary sphere, and Yuh Hang, the Jewelled Tube, being particularly referred 
to. The seventh section is devoted to observations of the length of the shadow of the 
gnomon in various places, and in different seasons. The eighth relates to the method 
of reckoning the longitude ; and the ninth to Chung Sing, ' Middle Stars,' by which 
term they appear to designate certain stars seen on the meridian at different seasons of 
the year. 

The second chapter consists of four sections. The first of these is devoted to observ- 
ations of Occultations of Planets by the Moon, and the following examples, showing 
their general style, may be of some interest. They commence thus : 

In the ist year of the epoch Hung Woo, the 5th moon, on the day Kea Shin, Saturn 
was occulted (by the Moon) : that is, on May 31, 1368. 

In the 1 2th year of the same epoch, 3rd moon, day Woo Shin, Mercury was oc- 
culted : that is, March 13, 1380. 

The second section relates to Occultations of Planets by each other. The observa- 
tions run thus : 

Hung Woo, 6th year, 3rd moon, day Woo Shin, Mars occulted Saturn : that is, 
1373, April 19. 

In the 6th moon of the same year, day Jin Shin, Venus occulted Jupiter : that is, 
1373, June 22. 

The third section is entitled ' The Five Planets in one place,' by which con- 
junctions of several of the planets are evidently meant. The following are ex- 
amples : 

Hung Woo, 1 4th year, 6th moon, day Kwei Wei, Mercury, Mars, and Venus were 
together in the stellar division Tsing : that is, 1381, May 22. These planets were in 
conjunction in Gemini. 

In the iyth year, 6th moon, day Ping Seuh, Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus were to- 
gether in the stellar division Tsan : that is, 1384, July 8. The stellar division Tsan is 
determined by the bright stars in Orion. The conjunction was most likely in Taurus 
or Gemini. 



xxvi Introductory Remarks. 

The fourth section treats of Stars Occulted by the Planets. The observations run 
thus : 

Hung Woo, 7th year, 8th moon, day Yih Sze, Jupiter occulted the great star in 
Heen Yuen (Regulus) : that is, on August 18, 1374. 

The observations in this section are exceedingly numerous ; they occupy about 70 
pages : but it is evident they are merely eye-observations, nothing like instrumental 
accuracy having been attempted ; and they are also to the nearest day only. Whether 
they are ever likely to be of any value to modern astronomers must be left to others to 
determine. They are exceedingly simple, and could be translated without the least 
difficulty. I may also observe that the word (Fan) which I have rendered ' occulted/ 
signifies ' to screen,' ' to shade,' ' to put under shelter ;' obviously implying our term, 
'to occult.' 

The next chapter contains nine sections. The first of these consists chiefly of stars 
seen in the daytime, being principally Venus, Jupiter, and Mars. 

The next two sections are of much greater importance. They contain observations 
of what they term Kih Sing, or ' Temporary Stars/ many of which are undoubtedly 
comets ; and of Suy Sing, ' Broom Stars/ or comets. It is from these two sections most 
of the observations of comets recorded in the following pages as having been seen during; 
this dynasty have been taken. 

The next section records 'Changes in the Heavens;' and the succeeding one, 
' Changes in the Sun and Moon/ of which the following may be given as examples : 

Hung Woo, 2nd year, 1 2th moon, day Kea Tsze, a black spot was seen in the middle 
of the Sun: that is, January I, 1370. 

The same was observed in the 3rd year, gth moon, day Woo Seuh ; loth moon, day 
Ting Sze ; and nth moon, day Kea Shin: that is, 1370, Oct. 2, Oct. 21, and Nov. 7. 

The sixth section contains accounts of Haloes round the Sun and Moon ; the seventh, 
Changes in the Stars ; the eighth, Observations of Falling Stars ; and the ninth, 
accounts of extraordinary Clouds and Vapours. 

The volumes which immediately follow the seventh contain, under another title, 
chiefly what we should perhaps call Meteorological Notices ; and those from the ninth 
to the twelfth inclusive are devoted to a collection of Tables of the Sun, Moon, and 
Planets, evidently from European sources. 

I have already mentioned that I have preferred determining the stellar divisions by 
the asterisms which supply their names, instead of a particular star, as being more in 
accordance with the principles of the ancient astronomy of the Chinese. I may also 
observe, that in every instance, in the following Observations of Comets, where the 
stellar division is mentioned, the determining asterism alone is given. But as the re- 
jection of particular determining stars takes away the points from which the computers 
of cometary orbits must start, it becomes desirable that the first degree of each stellar 
division, as given in original Chinese Charts, or Lists of Stars, should be ascertained 
as nearly as possible. Many of these have been carefully examined and collated, but I 
must express my regret that I have not hitherto met with any chart published before 
the introduction of the modern system ; all I have seen being comparatively of modern 
date, and commencing their degrees at the vernal equinox : whereas it appears to me 



Introductory Remarks. 



xxvn 



most likely that the early Chinese astronomers, when their system of astronomy was first 
established, by placing the stellar division Keo (determined by a, &c, Virginis) first, in 
all probability commenced their reckoning with the autumnal divisions. 

In order to supply the needful information as to the commencing degrees of the 
stellar divisions, I have been induced to form the following Table, which I trust will 
be found of service .for that purpose. 



No. 


Name. 


Degrees ac- 
cording to 
Chart. 


Degrees ac- 
cording to 
Compass. 


Determining Aslerism. 


Determining Star 
according to 
Biot. 


First Degree of 
each S. D. ac- 
cording to Chart. 


I 


Keo 


1 1 


1 1 


a Virginis and another 


a Virginis 


203 


2 


Kang 


1 1 


II 


i, K, \, 6 Virginis 


K Virginis 


213 


3 


Te 


18 


18 


a > fit fi v Librse 


ft Librae 


224 


4 


Fang 


5 


5 


ft, , IT, p in Scorpio 


ir in Scorpio 


242 


5 


Sin 


7 


8 


a, a, r in Scorpio 


<r in Scorpio 


247 


6 


Wei 


16 


IS 


c, fi, v, &c. in Scorpio 


fj x 9 in Scorpio 


254 


7 


Ke 


9 


9 


v, J, e, &c. Sagittarii 


y Sagittarii 


270 


8 


Tow 


2 4 


24 


, T, tr, <(>, \, p Sagittarii 


<j> Sagittarii 


279 


9 


New 


8 


8 


a, ft, &c. Capricorn! 


ft Capricorni 


33 


10 


Neu 


12 


ii 


e, /i, v, &c. Aquarii 


e Aqtiarii 


3'l 


ii 


Heu 


IO 


10 


ft Aquarii and another 


ft Aquarii 


323 


12 


Wei 


20 


20 


a Aquarii, 0, e Pegasi 


a Aquarii 


333 


13 


Shih 


is 


16 


a, ft Pegasi, &c. 


a Pegasi 


353 


H 


Peih 


12 


13 


y Pegasi, a Andromedee 


y Pegasi 


8 


l s 


Kwei 


12 


ii 


ft, S, e Andromedee, &c. 


ft Andromeda? 


22 


16 


Lew 


13 


13 


a, ft, y Arietis 


ft Arietis 


33 


17 


Wei 


13 


12 


The three stars in Musca 


a Muscse 


4 6 


18 


Maou 


8 


9 


The Pleiades 


r) Pleiadum 


59 


'9 


Peih 


'5 


IS 


a, y, S, c, &c. Tauri 


e Tauri 


67 


20 


Tsuy 


i 


i 


X and others in head of Orion 


X Orionis 


82 


21 


Tsan 


ii 


ii 


o, ft, y, S, &c. Orionis 


S Orionis 


83 


22 


Tsing 


3i 


3i 


y, f, X, fi, &c. Geminorum 


fi Geminorum 


94 


23 


Kwei 


4 


5 


y, S, -I], 6 Cancri 


Cancri 


125 


24 


Lew 


>7 


7 


S, e, 0, &c. Hydra 


S Hydra; 


129 


25 


Sing 


9 


8 


a, T, &c. Hydra 


a Hydrse 


146 


26 


Chang 


18 


18 


K, X, p., &c. Hydree 


j/39 Hydrae 


'55 


27 


Yen 


17 


17 


a, &c. Crateris 


a Crateris 


173 


28 


Chin 


'3 


13 


ft, &c. Corvi 


y Corvi 


190 


360 


360 



xxviii Introductory Remarks. 

The degrees in the preceding Table are taken chiefly from a Chart which appeared 
to me to be the most trustworthy of several which are in the possession of the Royal 
Astronomical Society. It consists of a planisphere bounded by a circle, on which the 
degrees are marked as on the equator. Lines meeting in the centre and cutting this 
circle indicate the extent of each stellar division to the nearest degree without fractions, 
the first degree marking the vernal equinox. The numbers are from i to 360, the first 
being the 8th degree of S. D. Shih, determined by a Pegasi and a Andromedse. There 
are two dates on this chart : the earliest, possibly that of its construction, is the 25th 
year of Keen Lung, 1760; and the second, indicating its subsequent reproduction, the 
I3th year of Kea King, 1808. 

Many other charts and authorities have been consulted. I may mention an ex- 
ceedingly fine compass, formerly in the possession of the late Admiral Smyth, and pre- 
sented to me by his widow, Mrs. Smyth. On it are twenty-four concentric circles, 
relating to the different purposes to which the compass is applied by the Chinese. Of 
these, two are devoted to the stellar divisions and their respective degrees ; the one 
being of 360 the other of 365. As there is a slight difference in the numbers of the 
chart and the compass I have in the preceding Table copied both. 

It may also be necessary to observe that this Table contains the names of the 28 
stellar divisions, with the degrees of each according to the before-mentioned chart and 
the compass circle of 360 ; together with the stars composing their determining asterisms 
and the first degree of each stellar division. I have also introduced the determining 
stars of the stellar divisions according to Biot. And it may also be mentioned, that a 
line drawn from the centre through a Andromedse cuts the fourth degree of the outer 
circle of the Chart. The other particulars that may be required to be known will be 
found in the Table of Stellar Divisions, and in the maps of those divisions in the Celestial 
Atlas, both of which form part of the Appendix. 

The plan I have adopted in the translation of these Observations of Comets, in the 
MS. copy now in the library of the Royal Astronomical Society, is in every case to give 
the Chinese text in the original character, taken chiefly from the ' Encyclopaedia ' of Ma 
Twan Lin and the ' She Ke.' The reason of this is founded on the experience not only 
of its utility in a philological point of view, but also from its absolute necessity in any 
critical examination of the results ; as without it no definite opinion can be formed as to 
the real import of the Chinese words employed : and it is much to be regretted that it 
was found impracticable to reproduce it in the present publication, on account of the 
extreme difficulty in procuring the necessary means of so doing. It may also be ob- 
served that as, in every instance, not only are the Chinese characters given, but also the 
corresponding sounds in English, according to Morrison's Dictionary, any character 
can without difficulty be found in that portion of the said Dictionary which is arranged 
according to the syllables ; and thus any one so inclined can, with a very little appli- 
cation, verify for himself : and although he may have scarcely any, or even no know- 
ledge whatever of the language, he can readily ascertain whether the ideas expressed in 
the translation are in accordance with the meanings of the characters as given in that 
Dictionary. 

I may also remark, that in the translation the word ' Chih,' which is that by which 



Introductory Remarks. xxix 

the measure of the length of the tail of a comet is expressed, is everywhere rendered by 
' cubit,' instead of ' degree,' the word used by Biot and others. As I had resolved to 
make my version as literal as possible, I could not consistently express that word by any 
other term. It is evidently used by the Chinese to express the length of the tail of a 
comet in an indefinite sense, just as we should employ foot or yard for that purpose ; 
and the estimated length is consequently of about the same value. Readers may, how- 
ever, if they think it advisable, substitute the word ' degree ' for ' cubit ;' but it must 
be borne in mind that that word does not express the Chinese idea, and, consequently, 
cannot be depended upon any more than the other, as giving the exact length of the 
tail of a comet. The word in Chinese for degree is ' Too ;' this is a definite measure, 
but I do not find it anywhere employed in these observations to express the length of 
the tail of a comet, the word Chih, ' cubit,' being invariably used. I may also observe, 
that I have found no instance of the word Chih being used to express a ' degree.' 

The ' Tsun,' or tenth part of the cubit, appears to be its unit. The original Tsun, 
or that of the ancients, is said to have been formed by placing ten grains of a certain 
cereal resembling our millet side by side, these seeds being of an oval form and 
pointed. The modern Tsun is estimated by placing ten of these seeds end to end, and 
thus there is a considerable difference between the ancient and modern Chih. The esti- 
mating the length of the Tsun by seeds is remarkable, as closely resembling our ' three 
barleycorns out of the middle of the ear' to make one inch. The relation of the measures 
of length that occur in the text is as follows : 

10 Tsun make I Chih, 
10 Chih make I Chang. 

From what I can ascertain the Chih is rather more than an English foot, the Tsun 
being about an inch and a fraction. 

From the preceding remarks it must be evident, that the production of this work has 
been attended with no ordinary amount of labour. Many thousands of Chinese cha- 
racters required to be carefully copied and accurately translated, the whole of the dates 
ascertained by computation, and numerous works, both Chinese and European, had to 
be examined or collated. In addition to these, the construction of the Tables for com- 
puting the dates of their chronology, and of the Atlas, both of which have been found 
not merely useful but indispensable to the carrying on of the work, required a great 
amount of research and attention. How far the results may be worthy of the time and 
labour bestowed upon them, must be left for those who are better qualified than myself 
to form an opinion on such subjects, to determine. Errors may doubtless be ftrand to 
exist, although every care has been taken to avoid them ; and it is hoped that none 
seriously affecting the character of any part of the work will be found. It must, how- 
ever, be remembered, that this is strictly a work of reference, and as such may, at 
some future period, be of service in investigations respecting the former appearance of 
any particular comet that may then pay us a visit. 

I have already mentioned various Chinese works employed in this computation. In 





xxx Introductory Remarks. 

addition to these I must observe, that I have received much valuable information from 
works by European authors whose attention has been directed to Chinese astronomy and 
chronology. Among these I may mention Gaubil, whose ' Traitd de la Chronologic 
Chinoise ' has been of great assistance. A paper by Ideler, in the ' Abhandlungen ' of 
the Berlin Academy for 1837, entitled 'Tiber die Zeitrichnung der Chinesen,' has af- 
forded much valuable information. Pingre^s ' Cometographie,' and J. B. Biot's ' Precis 
de 1'Astronomie Chinoise,' have also been consulted with advantage ; and Ed. Biot's 
' Catalogue des Cometes observees en Chine,' published in the ' Connaissance des Temps ' 
for 1 846, has been carefully examined and collated ; and I have much pleasure in testi- 
fying to the general accuracy of that work. Morrison's ' View of China,' for philo- 
logical purposes, has been found of great service, as affording much miscellaneous 
information. 

I must also express my acknowledgments to the Rev. Professor Summers, for his 
kindness in supplying me with Ma Twan Lin's ' Observations of Comets,' which have 
been found of the greatest value, as affording information not to be met with readily, if 
at all, elsewhere. And also for his valuable assistance in looking out and supplying me 
with such Chinese type as was required in the subsequent part of this work, which has 
enabled me to present it in a more efficient form than I could have adopted otherwise. 

In conclusion I have only to express my confident expectation, that in placing the 
MS. of this work in the library of the Royal Astronomical Society, it will be in the 
most likely position to be of service to future inquirers into the subject of Chinese 
Astronomy, and more particularly of that portion of it which relates to their Cometary 
observations. 

JOHN WILLIAMS. 

April, 1871. 



NOTE. It may be necessary to offer some explanation of the departure from strict chronological 
order in the following Index to the Cometary Observations. Thus, in p. xxxii. after No. 269, A.D. 1264, 
No.". 270, A.D. 941, to 277, A.D. 1237, follow. These are observations made in another part of China 
by other Astronomers during two contemporaneous minor dynasties the Leaou, A.D. 916-1125, and 
the Kin, 1118-1236; and as I have strictly followed the arrangement of Ma Twan Lin, the above is the 
place in which they occur in his work. Some of these observations refer to comets noticed in the pre- 
ceding accounts. Again, in the last column a number of observations, commencing in 1376, follow those 
ending in 1640. These are observations of the Kih Sing, or extraordinary stars, which form a separate 
section in the Astronomy of the Ming dynasty. It may also be noticed, that in A.D. 837 many comets 
are recorded as having appeared. Two undoubtedly, and possibly a third of these observations, refer 
to comets previously observed in the same year. They are given as they occur in ' M. T. L.' 



INDEX TO THE SUCCEEDING COMETARY OBSERVATIONS. 



No. 


Yuar B c. 


Month & Day. 


No. 


Year A . D. 


Month It Day. 


No. 


Year A D. 


Month ife Day. 




fill 


July 


61 


66 


February 20 


122 


304 May 





S3" 





62 


71 


March 6 


123 


305 


September 


3 


516 


July 


63 


75 


July 14 


124 


35 


November 2 1 


4 


502 


December 


64 


76 


August 9 


125 


329 


August 


5 


467 





65 


77 


January 23 


126 


336 


February 16 


6 


433 





66 


84 


May 25 


127 


34 


March 5 


7 


305 





67 


102 


January 7 


128 


343 


December 8 


8 


303 





68 


no 


January 


129 


349 


November 23 


9 


296 





69 


131 





I 3 


35 


July i 


10 


240 





7 


141 


March 27 


I 3 I 


363 


August 


I ! 


238 


April 


7' 


'49 


October 19 


132 


369 


March 


12 


234 


January 


72 


161 


June 14 


'33 


373 


March 9 


'3 


*'4 





73 


178 


September 


'34 


386 


April 


H 


2 33 





74 


180 


Winter 


"35 


39 


August 22 


'5 


204 


August 


75 


182 


August 


,36 


393 


March 


l6 


172 





76 


185 


December 7 


'37 


400 


March 19 


'7 


57 


October 


77 


1 88 


March 


138 


401 


January 2 


18 


'54 


January 


7 


188 


July 29 


'39 


402 


November 12 


'9 


'55 


July 


79 


192 


October 


140 


4'5 


June 24 


20 


"54 


February 


80 


193 


November 


141 


418 


September 15 


21 


148 


May 


81 


200 


November 7 


142 


4'9 


February 7 


22 


"47 


March 14 


82 


204 


December 


'43 


422 


March 21 


23 


'47 


August 6 


83 


206 


February 


144 


422 


December 17 


Z 4 


'47 


October 


84 


207 


November 10 


'45 


423 


February 13 


2 5 


138 


March 


5 


213 


January 


146 


423 


October 15 


26 


138 


May 


86 


218 


April 


'47 


442 


November i 


27 


138 


August 


87 


236 


November 


148 


449 


November 1 1 


28 


'37 


October 


88 


222 


November 4 


'49 


45' 


May 17 


29 


'35 


July 


89 


225 


December 9 


150 


501 


February 13 


30 


'35 


September 


90 


232 


December 4 


'5' 


501 


April 14 


3 1 


'34 


June 


9' 


236 


November 30 


152 


532 


January 6 (?) 


3* 


120 





9* 


238 


September 


'53 


539 


November 17 


33 


119 


May 


93 


2 3 8 


November 29 


'54 


560 


October 4 


34 


110 





94 


240 


November 5 


'55 


565 


July 23 


35 


108 or 9 





95 


*45 


September 18 


156 


568 


August 3 


36 


87 


August 


96 


247 


January 16 


'57 


575 


April 27 


37 


84 


March 


97 


248 


April 


158 


416 


January 26 


38 


77 


September 


98 


251 


December 2 1 


'59 


416 


June 27 


39 


76 


May 


99 


252 


March 25 


1 60 


565 


April 21 


4 


74 


March 


100 


253 


December 


161 


565 


July 24 


4' 


73 


May 10 


1' 


2 55 


February 


162 


568 


July 


42 


72 


August 20 


102 


257 


December 


163 


568 


August 


43 


70 


August 4 


I0 3 


259 


November 23 


164 


561 


September 26 


44 


69 


February 


104 


262 


December 2 


165 


565 


July 22 


45 


61 


July 


i5 


265 


June 


1 66 


568 


July 21 


46 


49 


April 


106 


268 


February 18 


167 


574 , A P ril 4 


47 


48 


April 


107 


*75 


January 


168 


574 May 3 1 


48 


47 


June 


108 


276 


June 24 


,69 


588 


November 22 


49 


44 





109 


277 


February 


170 


594 


November 10 


5 


32 


February 


iio 


279 


April 


'7.' 


607 


March 13 


51 


12 


August 26 


in 


281 


September 


172 


607 


April 4 


5 2 


5 


March 5 


112 


281 


December 


'73 


6,5 


July 


53 


4 


April 


113 


283 


April 22 


'74 


616 


July 




A. D. 




114 


287 


September 


'75 


616 


October 


54 


'3 


December 


"5 


290 


May 


176 


626 


March 26 


55 


22 


November 


III 


296 


May 


"77 


634 


September 22 


56 


39 


March 13 


117 


300 


April 


178 


639 





57 


55 


June 4 


118 


301 


January 


'79 


64. 


August i 


58 


60 


August 9 


9 


301 


May 


180 


663 


September 29 


59 


61 


September 27 


120 


302 


May 


181 


667 


May 24 


60 


65 


June 4 


121 


33 


April 


182 


676 


January 3 



XXX11 



Index to succeeding Cometary Observations. 



No. 


Year A. D. 


Month & Day. 


No. 


Year A. j>. 


Month & Day. 


No. 


Year A. . 


Month it Day. 


183 


676 


July 7 


246 


1036 


January 15 


310 


1452 


March 21 


184 


68 I 


October 17 


247 


1049 


March 10 


311 


1456 


May 27 


185 


683 


April 20 


248 


1056 


August 


312 


'457 


January 14 


186 


684 


July 8 


249 


1066 


April 2 


3'3 


'457 


June 15 


I 7 


684 


September 13 


250 


1075 


November 17 


3 '4 


'457 


October 26 


188 


707 


November 16 


251 


080 


August jo 


3'5 


1461 


August 5 


189 


708 


March 30 


252 


097 


October 6 


316 


1465 


March 


190 


708 


September 2 1 


253 


106 


February 10 


3'7 


1468 


September 18 


191 


710-713 





*54 


I IO 


May 29 


318 


1472 


January 16 


192 


73 


June 30 


*55 


126 


May 20 


319 


1490 


December 3 1 


193 


739 


March 27 


256 


126 


December 


320 


1500 


May 8 


194 


760 


May 1 6 


257 


1131 


September 


321 


1506 


July 31 


195 


760 


May 20 


258 


1132 


January 5 


322 


1506 


August 10 


196 


767 


January 12 


259 


1132 


August 14 


323 


1520 


February 


'97 


770 


June 15 


260 


"45 


April 26 


324 


1523 


July 


'97* 


773 


January 17 


261 


"45 


June 4 


3*5 


1531 


August 5 


.98 


815 


April 


262 


"47 


January 6 


326 


1532 


September 2 


199 


817 


February 17 


263 


"47 


February 12 


327 


'533 


July i 


200 


821 


February 27 


264 


1151 


August 21 


328 


'539 


April 30 


201 


821 


March 7 


265 


1222 


September 15 


329 


'554 


June 23 


202 


828 


July 5 


266 


1232 


October 18 


330 


1556 


March i 


20 3 


829 


December 


267 


I24O 


January 31 


33' 


'557 


October 10 


204 


834 


October 9 


268 


1240 


February 23 


332 


1569 


November 9 


20 5 


837 


March 22 


269 


1264 


July 26 


333 


'577 


November 14 


206 


837 


April 29 


270 


941 


August 9 


334 


1580 


October i 


2O7 


837 


May 3 


171 


1014 


February 10 


335 


1582 


May 20 


208 


837 


Mcy 21 


272 


IO66 


April 


336 


.585 


October 3 


209 


37 


June 17 


273 


1080 


January 6 


337 


1191 


April 3 


210 


837 


June 26 


274 


1097 


December 6 


338 


'593 


July 20 


211 


837 


September 9 


2 75 


"33 


September 29 


339 


1596 


July 26 


212 


838 


November 1 1 


276 


1226 


September 1 3 


340 


1607 


September 1 1 


213 


838 


November 21 


277 


1237 


September 2 1 


34' 


1618 


November 16 


2I 4 


839 


February 7 


278 


1264 July 26 


342 


1619 


February 


215 


839 


March 12 


279 


1277 


March 9 


343 


1639 


Autumn 


216 


840 


March 20 


280 


1293 


November 7 


344 


1640 


December 12 


217 


840 


December 3 


281 


1299 


June 24 


345 


1376 


June 22 


218 


841 


July 


282 


1301 


Sept'mber 16 


346 


1378 


September 26 


219 


8 4I 


December 22 


*3 


1304 


February 3 


347 


1385 


October 23 


22O 


851 


April 


284 


1313 


April 13 


348 


1388 


March 29 


221 


856 


September 27 


285 


1315 


November 28 


349 


'43 


September 9 


222 


864 


June 21 


86 


'337 


May 4 


35 


1430 


November 14 


22 3 


868 


February 


287 


'337 


June 26 


35' 


1431 


January 3 


224 


869 


September 


288 


1340 


March 24 


352 


'453 


January 4 


225 


877 


June 


289 


1351 


November 24 


353 


H58 


December 24 


226 


885 





290 


1356 


September 1 1 


354 


1461 


June 29 


22 7 


886 


June 13 


29! 


1360 


March 12 


355 


1462 


June 29 


228 


891 


May 12 


2 9 2 


1362 


March 5 


356 


'49' 


January 19 


229 


892 


December 


293 


.362 


June 29 


357 


'495 


January 7 


230 


893 


May 6 


294 


'363 


March 16 


358 


'499 


August 1 6 


231 


894 


February 


2 95 


1366 


October 25 


359 


1502 


November 28 


232 


905 


May 22 


296 


1368 


February 7 


360 


1521 


February 7 


33 


912 


May 13 


297 


1368 


April g 


361 


1529 


February 5 


234 


928 


October 14 


298 


'373 


May- 


362 


'53* 


March 9 


235 


936 


October 28 


299 


1391 


May 23 


363 


'534 


June 12 


236 


94 1 


September 18 


300 


1407 December 14 


364 


1536 March 24 


237 


943 


November 5 


301 


1431 May 15 


365 


'545 


December 26 


2 3 8 


956 


March 13 


302 


1432 ! February 3 


366 


1578 


February 22 


239 


975 


April 


303 


1432 


Feb.29orOct 26 


367 


1584 


July i 


240 


975 


August 3 


304 


'433 


September 5 


368 


1604 


September 30 


241 


989 


August 13 


35 


'439 


March 25 


369 


1609 





242 


998 


February 23 


3 c6 


"439 


July 12 


370 


1618 


November 24 


243 


1003 


December 23 


307 


1444 


August 6 


371 


1618 


December 5 


244 


1018 


August 4 


308 


'449 


December 20 


372 


1621 


May 12 


245 


1035 


September 15 


309 


1450 


January 19 


No. 197* makes up the full number, 373. 



COMETS OBSERVED IN CHINA. 



i B.C. 6 1 1. July. 

DURING the period of the Chun Tsew, in the I4th year of the reign of Wan Kung, 
Prince of Loo, in the autumn, in the yth moon, a comet entered into Pih Tow. 

The ' Chun Tsew ' is a celebrated historical work, said to have been written 
by Confucius. It embraces the period between B.C. 722 and 481, and records the 
history of the princes of Loo, one of the minor states into which China was divided 
during the Chow dynasty. It was the native place of Confucius, and that in which 
he passed the greater portion of his life. In that work we are informed that the 
1 4th year of Wan Kung corresponded with the and year of the Emperor Kwang 
Wang, of the Chow dynasty, whose reign commenced B.C. 612. Hence the i4th 
year of Wan Kung was B.C. 611 : yth moon, July. 

Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major. M. T. L. 

1 B.C. 531. 

In the winter of the loth year of Chaou Kung, Prince of Loo, there was a comet to 
the left of Ta Shin. It extended to Han. 

Chaou Kung, B.C. 531 : loth year. 

Ta Shin. According to the Commentary this appears to be a star in one of 
the stellar divisions, Fang Sin or Wei, all of which are determined by stars in 
Scorpio. The conclusion seems to be, that Ta Shin is Antares. 

' Han, possibly Teen Han, the Milky Way. M. T. L. 

3 B.C. 516. July. 

In the 26th year of the same Prince, in the 6th moon, there was a comet near the 
star Tsze. 

Chaou Kung, B.C. 516 : 26th year, 6th moon, July. 

Star Tsze, H Herculis. M. T. L. 

4 B.C. 502. December. 

In the 1 3th year of Grae Kung, in the winter, the nth moon, there was a comet in 
the east. 

Gae Kung, B.C. 502 : i3th year, nth moon, December. M. T. L. 

B 



2 Comets observed in China. 

CHOW DYNASTY, B.C. 1122-314. 

5 B.C. 467. 

In the 2nd year of the Emperor Ching Ting Wang a comet was seen. 

Emperor Ching Ting Wang, B.C. 468-441 : 2nd year, 467. M. T. L. 

6 B.C. 433. 

In the 8th year of the Emperor Kaou Wang a comet was seen. 

Emperor Kaou Wang, B.C. 440-424 : 8th year, 433. M. T. L. 

1 B.C. 305. 

In the loth year of the Emperor Nan Wang a comet was seen. 

Emperor Nan Wang, B.C. 314-254 : roth year, 305. M. T. L. 

8 B.C. 303. 

In the 1 2th year of the same Emperor a comet was seen. 

Emperor Nan Wang, B.C. 303 : 1 2th year. M. T. L. 

9 B.C. 296. 
In his igth year a comet was seen. 

Nan Wang, B.C. 296 : igth year. M. T. L. 

TSIN DYNASTY, B.C. 220-203. 

i o B. c. 240. 

In the 7th year of the reign of Che Hwang a comet first appeared in the east. It 
was afterwards seen in the north. In the 5th moon it was seen for 16 days in the 
west. 

Che Hwang was the Emperor who is said to have caused all the books to be 
burned and the literati to be destroyed. This was done in order that he might be 
considered by posterity as the founder of the Chinese Empire. His reign over the 
Tsin, one of the minor states, commenced B.C. 246. It was not until the 26th 
year he obtained the supreme power, and thus founded the Tsin dynasty. His 
reign is reckoned from 246 ; hence his 7th year is B.C. 240 : 5th moon, May. 

M. T. L. 
ii B.c. 238. April. 

In the gth year of the same Emperor a doubtful star was seen in the horizon. In 
the 4th moon it was seen in the west. It was also seen in the north, to the south of 
Tow, for 80 days. 

Che Hwang, B.C. 238 : gth year, 4th moon, April. 

Tow, most likely Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major. M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 3 

12 B.C. 234. January. 

In the 1 3th year of the same Emperor, in the ist moon, a comet was seen in the 
east. 

Che Hwang, B.C. 234: i3th year, ist moon, January. M. T. L. 

13 B.C. 214. 

In his 33rd year a bright star appeared in the east. 

Che Hwang, B.C. 214: 33rd year. M. T. L. 

14 B.C. 233. 

In the Astronomy of the Han dynasty it is recorded, that in the time of Che 
Hwang, of the Tsin dynasty, in his I5th year, four comets were seen during 80 days. 
They extended to the horizon. 

Che Hwang, B.C. 233 : I5th year. 31. T. L. 

HAN DYNASTY, B.C. 206 to A.D. 264. 

15 B.C. 204. August. 

In the 3rd year of the Han Emperor, the 7th moon, there was a comet near Ta 
Keo. She Ke. 

In addition, ' Ma Twan Lin ' gives the name of the Emperor, Kaon Te. 
Kaou Te, B.C. 206195 : 3rd year, jth moon, August, 204. 
Ta Keo, Arcturus. 

1 6 B.C. 172. 

In the 8th year of the Emperor Wan Te a tailed star appeared in the east. 

Emperor WanTe, B.C. 179-157 : 8th year, 172. She Ke. 

17 B.C. 157. October. 

In the reign of the same Emperor, the 7th year of the epoch How Yuen, the gth 
moon, a comet appeared in the west. From first to last it was in Stellar Divisions Wei 
and Ke. It pointed towards S. D. Heu and Wei. It was about 10 cubits in length, 
and extended to Teen Han. After 16 days it was no longer seen. 

WanTe, epoch How Yuen (the first of the epochs), B.C. 163-157: 7th year, 
157, gth moon, October. 

Stellar Division Wei determined by t, fi, v, &c. in Scorpio. 

Ke determined by -y, 8, e, &c. Sagittarii. 

Heu determined by fB Aquarii and another. 

Wei determined by a Aquarii and 0, Pegasi. 

Teen Han, the Milky Way. 



4 Comets observed in China. 

It must be observed here, that in the list of the S. D. there are no fewer than 
four whose names are expressed in English characters by Wei : of these, two 
occur in the description of this comet. The original characters of the whole of 
these are totally unlike. M. T. L. 

1 8 B.C. 154. January. 

In the 2nd year of the Emperor King Te there was a comet in the south-west. 

Emperor King Te, B.C. 156-141 : and year, 155, 12th moon, 154, January. 
There was no epoch for the first seven years of King Te. 

19 B.C. 155. July. 

In the 6th moon of the same year a comet appeared in the north-east. 

6th moon, 155, July. She Ke. 

20 B.C. 154. February. 

In the 3rd year, ist moon, a tailed star was seen in the west. 

King Te, B.C. 154: 3rd year, ist moon, February. She Ke. 

21 B.C. 148. May. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Chung Yuen, the 4th moon, there was a comet in the 
north-west. 

Epoch Chung Yuen, B.C. 149-144 : 2nd year, 148, 4th moon, May. 

Chung Yuen was the first epoch of King Te. She Ke. 

22 B.C. 147. March 14. 

In the 3rd year of the epoch Chung Yuen, the 3rd moon, on the day Ting Yew, a 
comet was seen at night in the north-west : its colour was white. It was 10 cubits in 
length. Its place was in Tsuy He. As it passed on it increased but little in size. 
After 15 days it was no longer seen. 

Chung Yuen, B.C. 147 : 3rd year, 3rd moon, day Ting Yew, March 14. 
Tsuy He, possibly S. D. Tsuy, X and others in head of Orion. 

She Ke, M. T. L. 

23 B.C. 147. August 6. 

In the 3rd year of the epoch Chung Yuen, the 6th moon, on the day Jin Seuh, 
there was a comet in the south-west : it was in the southern part of S. D. Fang. When 
it left Fang it was 20 cubits in length. It was as large as a two-tow vessel. Its colour 
was white. On the day Kwei Hae its place was to the north-east of S. D. Sin. Its 
length was then 10 cubits. On the day Kea Tsze it was in S. D. Wei. On the day 
Ting Maou it entered S. D. Ke, to the north, near the star Han. It gradually lessened, 



Comets observed in China. 5 

until it resembled a peach. On the day Tin Shin it disappeared, having been visible 
altogether for 10 days. 

Epoch Chung Yuen, B.C. 147 : ist year, 6th moon, day Jin Seuh, August 6th ; 
day Kwei Hae, August 7th; Kea Tsze, August 8th; Ting Maou, August nth; 
Tin Shin, August i6th. 

S. D. Sin, determined by Antares and others in Scorpio. 

Wei determined by e, fi, v, and others, in Scorpio. 

Ke determined by -y, S, Sagittarii and others. 

Star Han, Ophiuchi. She Ke. 

24 B.C. 147. October. 

In the gth moon of the same year there was a comet in the north-west. 
Chung Yuen, B.C. 147 : gth moon, October. 

25 B.C. 138. March. 

In the reign of the Emperor Woo Te, the 3rd year of the epoch Keen Yuen, the 
and moon, there was a comet in S. D. Chang. It passed through Tae Wei into Tsze 
Kung. It went into Teen Han. The ' Chun Tsew ' says the comet was in Pih Tow. 

Emperor Woo Te, B.C. 140-87 ; epoch Keen Yuen, 140-135 : B.C. 138, 3rd 
year, 2nd moon, March. 

S. D. Chang determined by K, X, ft, v, <j> Hydra). 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Sze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Teen Han, the Milky Way. 

Pih Tow, bright stars in Ursa Major. M. T. L. 

16 B.C. 138. May. 

In the 4th moon of the same year there was a comet in Teen Ke : it passed into 
Chih Neu. 

Epoch Keen Yuen, B.C. 138 : 3rd year, 4th moon, May. 

Teen Ke, 9 and others in Hercules. 

Chih Neu, a and two other stars in Lyra. M. T. L. 

27 B.C. 138. August. 

In the 7th moon of the same year there was a comet in the north-east. 

B.C. 138 : 7th moon, August. M. T. L. 

28 B.C. 137. October. 

In the 4th year of the same epoch, gth moon, there was a comet in the north-east. 

Keen Yuen, B.C. 137 : 4th year, gth moon, October. M. T. L. 

c 



6 Comets observed in China. 

29 B.C. 135. July. 

In the 6th year of the same epoch, the 6th moon, there was a comet in the west. 
Keen Yuen, B.C. 135 : 6th year, 6th moon, July. M. T. L. 

30 B.C. 135. September. 

In the 8th moon of the same year there was a comet in the east : its tail extended 
across the heavens. It was visible for 30 days. 

Keen Yuen, B.C. 135 : 6th year, 8th moon, September. M. T. L. 

31 B.C. 134. June. 

In the ist year of the epoch Yuen Kwang, the 6th moon, a strange star was seen 
in S. D. Fang. 

Epoch Yuen Kwang, B.C. 134-129 : ist year, 6th moon, 134, June. 

S. D. Fang determined by j3, S, TT, and others, in Scorpio. She Ke. 

32 B.C. 1 2O. 

In the 3rd year of the epoch Yuen Show, in the spring, there was a comet in 
the East. 

Epoch Yuen Show, B.C. 112-117 : 3 r( i J ear > 12 - She Ke. 

33 B.C. 119. May. 

In the 4th year of the same epoch, in the 4th moon, a comet appeared in the 
north-west. 

Yuen Show, 4th year, B.C. 119: 4th moon, May. M. T. L. 

34 B.c. no. 

In the ist year of the epoch Yuen Fung, the 5th moon, there was a comet in the 
eastern part of the S. D. Tsing. It was in San Tae. 

Epoch Yuen Fung, B.C. 110-105 : ist year, 5th moon, no. 

S. D. Tsing, j, t, fjt, v, and others, in Gemini. 

San Tae, the feet of Ursa Major. M. T. L. Tung Keen. 

35 B.C. 109 or 108. 

In the middle of the epoch Yuen Fung there was a comet in Hoo Shoo. 
Yuen Fung, middle B.C. 109 or 108. 
Ho Shoo, unascertained. M. T. L. Tung Keen. 



Comets observed in China. 7 

36 B.C. 87. August. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch How Yuen, the 7th moon, there was a comet in 
the east. 

How Yuen, B.C. 88-87 : 2n ^ J ear > 7^h moon, 87, August. Tung Keen. 

37 B.C. 84. March. 

In the reign of the Emperor Chaou Te, the 3rd year of the epoch Che Yuen, the 
2nd moon, there was a comet in the north-west. 

Emperor Chaou Te, B.C. 86-74; epoch Che Yuen, 86-8 1 : 3rd year, 2nd 
moon, 84, March. Tung Keen. 

38 B.C. 77. September. 

In the 4th year of the epoch Yuen Fung, the gth moon, there was a strange star 
in the middle of Tsze Kung. It was between the stars Choo in Tow and Keih. 
Epoch Yuen Fung, 80-75 : 4th year, gth moon, 77, September. 
Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. 
Tow, the seven stars in Ursa Major. 
Choo, a Ursse Majoris. 
Keih, Polaris. She Ke. 

39 B.C. 76. May. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch, the 4th moon, a bright star was seen between 
the S. D. Kwei and Low. 

Yuen Fung, B.C. 76 : 5th year, 4th moon, May. 

S. D. Kwei determined by j3, S, e, and others in Andromeda, and stars in Pisces. 

Low determined by a, /3, j Arietis. She Ke. 

40 B.C. 74. March. 

In the ist year of the epoch Yuen Ping, the 2nd moon, there was a large falling 
star like the moon. Many stars followed, all going to the west. 
Epoch Yuen Ping, B.C. 74 : 2nd moon, March. 
This appears to have been a large meteor. Tung Keen. 

41 B.C. 73. May 10. 

In the reign of Seuen Te, the ist year of the epoch Pun Che, the 4th moon, on the 
day Jin Seuh, early in the evening, a tailed star appeared to the west of the S. D. Tsan. 

Emperor Seuen Te, B.C. 73-49 ; epoch Pun Che, 73-70 : ist year, 4th moon, 
day Jin Seuh, 73, May 10. 

S. D. Tsan, determined by a, (3, j, S, &c. Orionis- She Ke. 



8 Comets observed in China. 

42 B.C. 72. August 10. 

In the 2nd year of the same epoch, the 7th moon, on the day Sin Hae, a comet 
appeared in S. D. Yih. 

Pun Che, B.C. 72 : 2nd year, yth moon, day Sin Hae, August 20. 

S. D. Yih, determined by a and other stars in Crater. She Ke. 

43 B.C. 70. August 4. 

In the 4th year of the same epoch, the 7th moon, day Kea Shin, a comet appeared 
in S. D. Yih : it passed near the moon. 

Pun Che, B.C. 70 : 4th year, 7th moon, day Kea Shin, August 4. 

S. D. Yih, determined by a and others in Crater. She Ke. 

44 B.C. 69. Febmai^y. 

In the ist year of the epoch Te Tsae, the ist moon, there was a comet in the west. 
Epoch Te Tsae, B.C. 69-66 : ist year, ist moon, 69, January. M. T. L. 

45 B.C. 61. July. 

In the ist year of the epoch Shin Tseo, the 6th moon, there was a comet in the 
east. 

Epoch Shin Tseo, B.C. 61-58 : ist year, 6th moon, 61, July. She Ke. 

46 B.C. 49. April. 

In the ist year of the epoch Han Lung, the 3rd moon, a strange star appeared to 
the north-east of Wang Leang : it was about 9 cubits in length. Its direction was to 
the west. It appeared between Ko Taou and Tsze Kung, into which it entered. 

Epoch Han Lung, B.C. 49 : ist year, 3rd moon, 49, April. 

Wang Leang, /3 Cassiopeise. 

Ko Taou, v, 5, and others, in Cassiopeia. 

Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke. 

47 B.C. 48. April. 

In the reign of Yuen Te, the ist year of the epoch Choo Yuen, the 3rd moon, a 
strange star, resembling a large melon, was seen. Its colour was a bluish white. Its 
place was in Nan Tow, near the second star. It was about 4 cubits in length. 

Emperor Yuen Te, B.C. 48-33 ; epoch Choo Yuen, 48-44: ist year, 3rd moon, 
48, April. 

Nan Tow, same as S. D. Tow, determined by , T, a, and others, in Sagittarius. 

She Ke. 



Comets observed in China. g 

48 B.C. 47. June. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Choo Yuen, the fth moon, a comet was seen in the 
degrees of S. D. Maou. It was about 5 cubits to the east of Keuen She. Its colour was 
a bluish white. It was bright, and about ^ths of a cubit in length^ 

Epoch Choo Yuen, B.C. 47 : and year, 5th moon, 

S. D. Maou, determined by the Pleiades. 

Keuen She, , v, and others in Perseus. fftf' - <et "^i^*^ 5 ^ . II She Ke. 




49 B.C. 44. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch a comet appearedTS IhlTnorth-east : its colour 
was a reddish yellow. It was 8 cubits in length. A few days after, its length was 
about 10 cubits. It was then in the north-east, pointing towards the S. T). Tsan. After 
about two months (?) it turned again to the west. 

Epoch Choo Yuen, 5th year. B.C. 44. 

S. D. Tsan, determined by a, /3, and others in Orion. She Ke, M. T. L. 

The duration of this comet is doubtful. 

50 B.C. 32. February. 

In the reign of Ching Te, the ist year of the epoch Keen Che, the ist moon, there 
was a comet in Ying Shih : its colour was a bluish white. It was from 60 to 70 cubits 
in length, and about i cubit in width. 

Emperor Ching Te, B.C. 32-47 ; epoch Keen Che, 32-29 : ist year, ist moon, 
32, February. 

Ying Shih, same as S. D. Shih, determined by a Pegasi and others. M. T. L. 

51 B.C. 12. August 26. 

In the ist year of the epoch Yuen Yen, the 7th moon, day Sin "Wei, there was a 
comet in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing. Its course was towards Woo Choo How. It 
appeared to the north of Ho Shoo, and advanced towards Heen Yuen and Tae Wei. It 
afterwards progressed at the rate of about 6 degrees in a day. In the morning it was 
seen in the east. On the 1 3th day, in the evening, it appeared in the west. It passed 
over the Tsze Fe and other neighbouring stars. It afterwards went into Ta Ho Tang, 
in the middle of Tsze Kuiig. It then passed round Teen Ho, and having left the bound- 
aries of How it went to the south, and passed over Ta Keo and Che Te. It entered 

Teen She, and remained there during that lunation. It advanced slowly to the middle 
of Teen She, and afterwards left it to the west. On the 5 6th day it set with Tsang 
Lung. 

It is greatly to be regretted, that in the original work from which this account 
is taken many parts of the text are so indistinct, on account of injury to the block, 
that not only are some of the characters entirely obliterated, but others are so im- 
perfect as to render their translation very uncertain, as they are almost illegible. 

D 



io Comets observed in China. 

I have done the best I could under these circumstances, and believe the translation 
to be substantially correct. The notice of this comet in the 'SheKe' is exceedingly 
brief. 

Epoch Yuen Yen, B.C. 12-9 : 1st year, B.C. 12, yth moon : August. Day Sin 
Wei, August 26. 

S. D. Tsin determined by y, s, \, fj., &c. Geminorum. 

Woo Choo How, 0, v, T, &c. Geminorum. 

Ho Choo appears to be the same as Pih Ho, a, j3, &c. Geminorum. 

Heen Yuen, a, 7, r\, and others in Leo and Leo Minor. 

Tsze Fe, , ju, e Leonis. 

Other characters, possibly names of stars, occur here which are not to be found 
in any of the lists I have seen : they, therefore, have not been identified. 

Ho Tang not identified. 

Tze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. 

How not identified, the preceding characters being illegible. 

Ta Keo, Arcturus. She Te, stars in the feet of Bootes. 
Teen Ho, the Milky Way. 
Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 
Teen She, space within the stars in Serpens. 

Tsang Lung, the Azure Dragon ; one of the four divisions of the heavens, 
comprising our signs Libra, Scorpio, and Sagittarius. M. T. L. 

52 B.C. 5. March 5. 

In the reign of the Emperor Gae Te, the 2nd year of the epoch Keen Ping, the 2nd 
moon, a comet appeared in Keen New for about 70 days. 

Emperor Gae Te, B.C. 6-1 ; epoch Keen Ping, 6-3 : 2nd year, 2nd moon, 
B.C. 5, March. 

Keen New, same as S. D. New, determined by a, j3, &c. Capricorni. M. T. L. 

53 B.C. 4. April. 

In the 3rd year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, there was a comet in Ho Koo. 

3rd year of epoch Keen Ping, B.C. 4 : 3rd moon, April. 

Ho Koo, a, /3, y, &c. Aquilae. Tung Keen. 

54 A. D. 13. December. 

In the reign of Wang Mang, the fth year of the epoch Keen Kwo, the i ith moon, 
a comet appeared. 

Wang Mang, a chieftain who usurped the Imperial dignity A.D. 9-22. 
Epoch Keen Kwo, A.D. 9-13 : 5th year, nth moon, A.D. 13, December. 

She Ke. 



Comets observed in China. ri 

55 A.D. 22. November. 

In the 3rd year of the epoch Te Hwang, the nth moon, there was a comet in S. D. 
Chang. It went to the south-east. After 5 days it was no longer seen. 

Epoch Te Hwang, A.D. 20-22 : 3rd year, A.D. 22 : nth moon, November. 
S. D. Chang determined by K, X, fj. Hydras. She Ke, M. T. L. 

56 A.D. 39. March 13. 

In the reign of the Emperor Kwang Woo, the i5th year of the epoch Keen Woo, 
the ist moon, on the day Ting Wei, a comet was seen in S. D. Maou. It was bright, 
30 cubits in length, broad, and spreading like a tree. It went gradually to the north- 
west. It entered Ying Shih and passed into Le Kung. In the 2nd moon, on the day 
Yih Wei, it passed into the eastern part of S. D. Peih and disappeared. It was visible 
for 49 days. 

Emperor Kwang Woo, A.D. 25-57 ! epoch Keen Woo, 25-55, 15th year, 
A.D. 39 : ist moon, day Ting Wei, March 13 ; 2nd moon, day Yih Wei, April 30. 
S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. 
S. D. Peih determined by 7 Pegasi and a Andromedae. 
S. D. Shih determined by a, /3 Pegasi, &c. Ying Shih, a Pegasi. 
Le Kung, three groups of stars, of two each, in Pegasus, being A fi, j o, and 
v, T, and forming part of S. D. Shih. She Ke, M. T. L. 

57 A.D. 55. June 4. 

In the 30th year of the same epoch, in the intercalary moon, on the day Ke Woo, 
the planet Mercury being about 20 degrees in the eastern part of the S. D. Tsing, a 
white vapour appeared, pointing to the south-east. It was bright, and 10 cubits in 
length. It proved to be a comet. It went to the north-east. It passed above the 
western boundary of Tsze Kung. In the 5th moon, day Kea Tsze, it was no longer 
visible. It was seen altogether for 3 1 days. 

Epoch Keen Woo, A.D. 55 : 3oth year, intercalary moon. ' M. T. L.' informs 
us that this was the intercalary 4th moon, consequently the day Ke Woo is 
June 4. 

5th moon, day Kea Tsze, July 4. 

Tsze Kung, same as Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

She Ke, M. T. L. 

58 A.D. 60. August 9. 

In the reign of Ming Te, the 3rd year of the epoch Yung Ping, the 6th moon, on 
the day Ting Maou, a comet appeared to the north of Teen Chuen. It was 2 cubits in 
length. It gradually went to the north, and entered the S. D. Kang to the south. It 
was visible 185 days. 



12 Comets observed in China. 

Emperor Ming Te and epoch Yung Ping, A.D. 58-75 : 3rd year, A.D. 60, 6th 
moon, day Ting Maou, August 9. 

S. D. Kang determined by i, K, \, 6 Virginia. 

Teen Chuen, a, y Persei, &c. She Ke, M. T. L. 

59 A.D. 61. September 27. 

In the 4th year of the epoch Yung Ping, the 8th moon, day Sin Yew, a strange 
star appeared to the north-west of Kang Ho. It pointed towards Kwan Soo. It was 
visible for 70 days. 

Epoch Yung Ping, A.D. 61 : 4th year, 8th moon, day Sin Yew, September 27. 
Kang Ho, 8 Bootis. Kwan Soo, Corona Borealis. She Ke. 

60 A.D. 65. June 4. 

In the 8th year of the same epoch, the 6th moon, on the day Jin Woo, a comet 
appeared in the 37th degree of the S. D. Lew and Chang. It entered Heen Yuen and 
passed through Teen Chuen. It passed into Tae Wei. The vapour (tail) extended to 
Shang Keae. It was seen altogether for 56 days. 

Yung Ping, 8th year, A.D. 65 : 6th moon, day Sin Woo, June 4. 

S. D. Lew determined by 8, e, and others in Hydra. 

S. D. Chang determined by K, X, /u, and others in Hydra. 

Heen Yuen, a, y, e, rj, and others in Leo and Leo Minor. 

Teen Chuen, a, y, S, and others in Perseus. 

Shang Keae, possibly stars in Virgo. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. She Ke, M, T. L. 

6 1 A.D. 66. February 20. 

In the gth year of the same epoch, the 1st moon, day Woo Shin, a strange star ap- 
peared in S. D. New. It was 8 cubits in length. It passed through Keen Sing. It 
arrived at the south of S. D. Fang and then disappeared. It was visible 50 days. 

Epoch Yung Ping, A.D. 66 : gth year, ist moon, day Woo Shin, Feb. 20. 

S. D. New determined by a, /3, &c. Capricorni. 

S. D. Fang determined by /3, 8, IT, and others in Scorpio. 

Keen Sing, v, , o, and others in Sagittarius. She Ke. 

62 A.D. 71. March 6. 

In the 1 4th year of the same epoch, the ist moon, day Woo Tsze, a strange star 
was seen for 60 days. It appeared first in S. D. Maou. It went into Heen Yuen and 
disappeared to the right of S. D. Keo. 

Yung Ping, i4th year, A.D. 71 : ist moon, day Woo Tsze, March 6. 

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. 

S. D. Keo determined by a and Virginis. 

Heen Yuen, a, y, t, i), and others in Leo and Leo Minor. She Ke. 



Comets observed in China. 13 

63 A.D. 75. July 14. 

In the 1 8th year of the epoch Yung Ping, the 6th moon, day Ke Wei, a comet 
appeared in S. D. Chang. It was 3 cubits in length. It turned and entered Lang 
Tseang. It passed into the south of Tae Wei. 

Yung Ping, A.D. 75 : i8th year, 6th moon, day Ke Wei, July 14. 

S. D. Chang determined by a, X, \i, and others in Hydra. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Lang Tseang, Coma Berenices. She Ke, M. T. L. 

64 A.D. 76. August 9. 

In the reign of Chang Te, the i st year of the epoch Keen Choo, the 8th moon, day 
Kang Yin, a comet appeared in Teen She. It was 3 cubits in length. It passed on 
slowly into 3 degrees of Keen New. After 40 days it gradually disappeared. 

Emperor Chang Te, A.D. 76-88 ; epoch Keen Choo, 76-83, ist year, 76 : 8th 
moon, day Kang Yin, August 9. 

Keen New for S. D. New, determined by a, j3, and others in Capricornus. 
Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. She Re, M. T. L. 

65 A.D. 77. January 23. 

In the same year, the iath moon, day Woo Yin, a comet appeared in 3 degrees of 
the S. D. Lew. Its length was -from 8 to 9 cubits. It slowly entered Tsze Kung as 
far as the middle. After 106 days it gradually disappeared. 

Keen Choo, ist year, A.D. 76 : i2th moon, day Woo Yin, A.D. 77, January 23. 

S. D. Lew determined by a, fl, y Arietis. 

Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke, M. T. L. 

The ' She Ke ' has the nth moon of the 2nd year. 

66 A.D. 84. May 25. 

In the i st year of the epoch Yuen Ho, the 4th moon, day Ting Sze, an extraordi- 
nary star appeared in the morning to the east. Its place was in the i8th degree of the 
S. D. Wei. It was 3 cubits in length. It passed over Ko Taou and entered Tsze 
Kung. On the 40th day it disappeared. 

Epoch Yuen Ho, A.D. 84-86 : ist year, 84, 4th moon, day Ting Sze, May 25. 

S. D. Wei determined by the three stars in Musca. 

Ko Taou, v, ?, o, TT Cassiopeiae. 

Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke. 

6j A.D. 102. January 7. 

In the reign of the Emperor Ho Te, the I2th year of the epoch Yung Yuen, the 
nth moon, on the day Kwei Yew, in the evening, a greenish-white vapour was seen, 

E 



14 Comets observed in China. 

about 30 cubits in length, commencing in Teen Yuen, to the north-east. It pointed to 
Keun She. It was seen altogether for 10 days. 

Emperor Ho Te, A.D. 59-105; epoch Yung Yuen, 89-101: I2th year, 101, 
nth moon, day Kwei Yew, 102, January 7. 

Teen Yuen, i, K, x> <j> Eridani. 

Keun She, /3 Canis Majoris. She Ke. 

68 A.D. 110. January. 

In the reign of the Emperor Gan Te, the 3rd year of the epoch Yung Choo, the 
1 2th moon, a comet was seen to the south of Teen Yuen. It pointed towards the 
north-east. It was 6 or 7 cubits in length, and was of a greenish- white colour. 

Emperor Gan Te, A.D. 107125 ; epoch Yung Choo, 107-113 : 3rd year, 109, 
1 2th moon, January. 

Teen Yuen, y, 8, e, and others in Eridanus. 

The Teen Yuen here mentioned must not be confounded with that in the pre- 
ceding account, the characters being quite different, although of the same sound. 

M. T t L. 

69 A.D. IJI. 

In the reign of the Emperor Shun Te, the 6th year of the epoch Yung Keen, a 
comet appeared in S. D. Tow and Keen New. It disappeared in S. D. Heu and Wei. 

Emperor Shun Te, A.D. 126-144; epoch Yung Keen, 126-131 : 6th year, 131. 
S. D. Tow determined by , T, cr, and others in Sagittarius. 
Keen New same as S. D. New, determined by a and others in Capricornus. 
Wei determined by a Aquarii and y Pegasi. M. T. L. 

Biot's date is 132. 

70 A.D. 141. March 27. 

In the 6th year of the epoch Yung Ho, the 2nd moon, day Ting Sze, a comet was 
seen in the east. It was 6 or 7 cubits in length. Its colour was a bluish white. It 
pointed south-west to Ying Shih, and extended to the stars Fun Moo. On the day 
Ting Chow the comet was about i degree in the S. D. Kwei. Its length was 6 cubits. 
On the day Kwei Hae it was seen in the morning to the north-west. It passed through 
the S. D. Maou and Peih. On the day Kea Shin it entered the eastern part of S. D. 
Tsing. It went on and passed through S. D. Kwei and Lew, and the seven stars in 
Chang. It was very bright, and extended to San Tae. It passed into the middle of 
Heen Yuen and then disappeared. She Ke, M. T. L. 

Epoch Yung Ho, A.D. 136-141 : 6th year, 141, 2nd moon, day Ting Sze, 
March 27. Other days : Ting Chow, April 16; Kwei Wei, April 22 ; Kea Shin, 
April 23. 

S. D. Ying Shih. or Shih, determined by a, /3 Pegasi, &c. 

Maou determined by the Pleiades. 



Comets obswved in China. 15 

S. D. Peih determined by a, j, S, &c. in Taurus. 

S. D. Kwei determined by /3, S, 6, &c. in Andromeda and Pisces. 

S. D. Lew determined by S, E, &c. Hydrae. 

S. D. Chang determined by a, X, ju, &c. Hydrse. 

Fun Moo, j, T), TT Aquarii. 

Heen Yuen, a and others in Leo and Leo Minor. 

According to ' M. T. L.' this comet appeared in the epoch Yung Keen ; the 
account being in other respects precisely the same. This would make the date 
10 years earlier, viz. 131; and the days would be, Ting Sze, March 20; Ting 
Chow, April 9 ; Kwei Wei, April 15 ; and Kea Shin, April 16. 

71 A.D. 149. October 19. 

In the reign of the Emperor Hwan Te, the 3rd year of the epoch Keen Ho, the 8th 
moon, day Yih Chow, a bright comet, 5 cubits in length, was seen in the middle of 
Teen She, to the south-east. Its colour was a yellowish white. In the gth moon, on 
the day Woo Shin, it was no longer seen. 

Emperor Hwan Te, A.D. 147-167 ; epoch Keen Ho, 147-149 : 3rd year, 149, 
8th moon, day Yih Chow, October 19 ; day Woo Shin, October 22. 

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. She Ke. 

' M. T. L.' has the ist instead of the 3rd year. In the ' She Ke,' observations 
of Venus and other planets are recorded as having been made in the ist and 2nd 
years of this epoch, and also in the 8th moon of the 3rd year. These are fol- 
lowed by the account of the comet as above. As the text in ' M. T. L.' is in other 
respects precisely similar, there is therefore no doubt as to the correctness of the 
year as given in the ' She Ke.' 

72 A.D. 161. June 14. 

In the 4th year of the epoch Yen He, the jth moon, on the day Sin Yew, a strange 
star was seen in Ying Shih. It progressed slowly. The tail became 5 cubits in length. 
It passed into the ist degree of S. D. Sin. It turned and appeared as a comet. 

Epoch Yen He, A.D. 158-166: 4th year, 161, 5th moon, day Sin Yew, June 14. 

S. D. Ying Shih, or Shih, determined by a Pegasi, &c. 

S. D. Sin, determined by a, a, T in Scorpio. She Ke, Jl/. T. L. 

73 A.D. 178. September. 

In the reign of the Emperor Ling Te, the ist year of the epoch Kwang Ho, the 
8th moon, a comet appeared in the north of S. D. Kang. It passed into the middle of 
Teen She. It measured a cubit in length. It gradually increased in length until it 
measured from 50 to 60 cubits. Its colour was reddish. It passed through about 10 
stellar divisions in about 80 days, and then disappeared in the middle of Teen Yuen. 



1 6 Comets observed in China. 

Emperor Ling Te, A.D. 168-189; epoch Kwang Ho, 178-183: ist year, 178, 
8th moon, September. 

S. D. Kang determined by v, K, X, Virginis. 

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. 

Teen Yuen, y, 8, s, and others in Eridanus. She Ke, M. T. L. 

74 A.D. 1 80. 

In the 3rd year of the same epoch a comet appeared to the east of Lang Hoo. It 
entered into S. D. Chang and then disappeared. 

Epoch Kwang Ho, 3rd year, A.D. 180. 

S. D. Chang determined by K, X, ft, &c. Hydrae. 

Lang Hoo, Sirius and other stars in Canis Major. She Ke, M. T. L. 

75 A.D. 182. August. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch, the 7th moon, a comet appeared beneath San 
Tae. It went to the east. It entered Tae Wei. It passed Tae Tsze and Hing Chin. 
In about 20 days it disappeared. 

Kwang Ho, jth year, A.D. 182 : yth moon, August. 

San Tae, the stars in the feet of Ursa Major. 

Tae Wei, space between Virgo and Leo. 

Tae Tsze, E Leonis. 

Hing Chin, a star in Coma Berenices, near E Leonis. She Ke. 

' M. T. L.' has the 4th year of this epoch, A.D. 181. 

76 A.D. 185. December 7. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Chung Ping, the i oth moon, on the day Kwei Hae, a 
strange star appeared in the middle of Nan Mun. It was like a large bamboo mat. It 
displayed the five colours, both pleasing and otherwise. It gradually lessened. In the 
6th moon of the succeeding year it disappeared. 

Epoch Chung Ping, A.D. 184-189 : 2nd year, 185, loth moon, day Kwei Hae, 
December 7, A.D. 186 : 6th moon, July. 

Nan Mun, a Centauri and stars near. She Ke. 

Biot's date is December 10, 173, and his epoch is Che Ping. In the ' She Ke ' 
the epoch is precisely as here given, and no epoch Che Ping is to be found about 
this time in the Tables. The epoch in which the year 173 occurs is He Ping, 
but no comet or extraordinary star is recorded in the ' She Ke ' as having appeared 
at that time. Biot's day would be quite correct for A.D. 173, but is not so for 185. 
No comet is to be found in ' M. T. L.' or the ' Tung Keen ' under either of these 
dates. 



Comets observed in China. 17 

77 A.D. 1 88. March. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch, the 2nd moon, a comet appeared in S. D. Kwei. 
It went the contrary way and entered Tsze Kung. After having been seen for about 
60 days it disappeared. 

Chung Ping, 5th year, A.D. 1 88 : 2nd moon, March. 

S. D. Kwei determined by j3, 8, E Andromedse and stars in Pisces. 

Tsze Kung, the circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke. 

In ' M. T. L.' the account of this comet is placed under the epoch Kwang Ho, 
and Chung Ping does not appear as an epoch ; but Kwang Ho occurs twice as 
an epoch, which is unusual. It appears, therefore, that there is a typographical 
error in ' M. T. L.,' and that Chung Ping should here be substituted for Kwang 
Ho. This would make the ' She Ke ' and ' M. T. L.' consistent with each other. 

78 A.D. 188. July 29. 

In the 6th moon of the same year, day Ting Maou, a strange star, like a 3-shing 
measure, appeared in Kwan Soo. It went to the south-west. It entered Teen She, 
passed on to S. D. Wei, and disappeared. 

A.D. 1 88 : 6th moon, day Ting Maou, July 29. 

S. D. Wei determined by t, fi, v, and others in Scorpio. 

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. 

Kwan Soo (also called Shih Soo), Corona Borealis. She Ke. 

A shing is described as a certain measure, containing 1 20,000 grains of millet. 

Biot dates this comet, Kwang Ho, 5th year, 6th moon, 182, June 30. As in 
the former instance, the date I have given is that of the ' She Ke.' Three comets 
are recorded in the ' She Ke,' under the epoch Kwang Ho, which are not in Biot : 
they occur in the ist (B.C. 178), the 3rd (B.C. 180), and 5th (B.C. 182) years of that 
epoch. In the ' Tung Keen Kang Muh ' they are also given under the epoch 
Kwang Ho, as well as that of the 5th year of Chung Ping (B.C. 188, July) ; also 
not in Biot. That of the 2nd year, and the present one, do not occur in the ' Tung 
Keen ' under the epoch Chung Ping. They are not in ' M. T. L.' 

79 A.D. 192. October. 

In the reign of the Emperor Heen Te, the 3rd year of the epoch Choo Ping, the 
9th moon, a comet was seen. It was about 100 cubits in length. Its colour was white. 
It appeared to the south of the S. D. Keo and Kang. 

Emperor Heen Te, A.D. 190-220 ; epoch Choo Ping, 190-193 : gth moon, 
October. 

S. D. Keo determined by a Virginis and another. 

S. D. Kang determined by i, K, X, jit, p Virginis. M. T. L. 



1 8 Comets observed in China. 

80 A.D. 193. November, 

In the 4th year of the same epoch, the loth moon, a comet appeared between the 
two Keos. It went to the north-east. It entered Teen She as far as the middle, and 
disappeared. 

Choo Ping, 4th year, 193 : loth moon, November. 

The two Keos. S. D. Keo determined by a Virginis and another. Ta Keo, 
Arcturus. 

Teen She, the space bounded by Serpens. She Ke, M. T. L. 

8 1 A.D. 200. November 7. 

In the 5th year of the epoch Keen Gan, the loth moon, day Sin Hae, there was a 
comet in Ta Leang. 

Epoch Keen Gan, A.D. 196-220: 5th year, 200, roth moon, day Sin Hae, 
November yth. 

Ta Leang, unascertained. M. T. L. 

82 A.D. 204. December. 

In the gth year of the same epoch, the nth moon, a comet appeared in the eastern 
part of S. D. Tsing, near to S. D. Kwei. It entered Heen Yuen and Tae Wei. 
Epoch Keen Gan, gth year, A.D. 204 : nth moon, December. 
S. D. Tsing determined by S, e, X, &c. Geminorum. 
S. D. Kwei determined by y, S, ?j, Cancri. 
Heen Yuen, a and others in Leo and Leo Minor. 
Tae Wei, space in Leo and Virgo. She Ke, M. T. L. 

83 A.D. 206. February. 

In the nth year, 1st moon, there was a comet in Pih Tow. The head was in the 
middle of that asterism. It was also seen in S. D. Wei, in Kwan, and in Tsze Kung, 
and in the morning it extended towards the north. 

* Keen Gan, nth year, A.D. 206 : ist moon, February. 
S. D. Wei determined by e, ju, v, and others in Scorpio. 
Kwan, possibly Corona Borealis. 
Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. 
Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major. She Ke, M. T. L. 

84 A.D. 207. November 10. 

In the 1 2th year, loth moon, day Sin Maou, there was a comet in Shun Wei. 
Keen Gan, I2th year, A.D. 207 : roth moon, day Sin Maou, November 10. 
Shun Wei, one of the twelve kung, or signs, answering to Virgo. 

She Ke, M, T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 19 

85 A.D. 213. January. 

In the i ytli year, I2th moon, there was a comet in Woo Choo How. 
Keen Gan, iyth year, A.D. 213 : I2th moon, January. 
Woo Choo How, 0, t, v, T, <j> Geminorum. She Kc, J/. T. L. 

86 A.D. 2 1 8. April. 

In the 23rd year of the same epoch, in the 3rd moon, a comet was seen in the 
morning, in the east, for about 20 days. In the evening it appeared in the west. It 
entered and passed through Woo Chay, Tung Tsing, Woo Choo How, Wan Chang, 
Heen Yuen, How Fe, and Tae Wei. It was pointed and bright. Its course was towards 
Te Tso. 

Keen Gan, 23rd year, A.D. 218 : 3rd moon, April. 

Woo Chay, a, /3, o, K Auriga?, and /3 Tauri. 

Tung Tsing, the eastern part of S. D. Tsing, determined by , t, X, &c. 
Geminorum. 

Woo Choo How, 0, i, v, T, $ Geminorum. 

Wan Chang, 0, <j>, v Ursa3 Majoris. 

Heen Yuen, a and others in Leo and Leo Minor. 

How Fe, unascertained. 

Te Tso, a Herculis. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. She Ke, M. T. L. 

87 A.D. 236. November. 

In the reign of How Choo, the I4th year of the epoch Keen Hing, there was a 
comet in the east. 

How Choo, 223-264; epoch Keen Hing, 223-237: i4th year, 236, loth 
moon, November. 

For further particulars respecting this comet see No. 91. 



At the close of the Han dynasty China was divided into three principal states, 
Wei, Woo, and Shuh. This was the celebrated period of the San Kwo, or 
Three Nations. The Shuh was a branch of the Han, and under the name of the 
How, or later Han, has a place among the regular dynasties. It maintained the 
supreme power until A.D. 264, when the Wei, until then a minor state, obtained 
the superiority, and founded a new dynasty, under the name of the Tsin. The 
comets which immediately follow are those observed during the Wei, A.D. 220-264, 
and the Tsin, 265-419. These are succeeded by the comets observed during the 
Sung, Tze, Leang, Chin, and Suy dynasties, embracing the period between A.D. 420 
and 617, when the Tang dynasty obtained the superiority. 



20 Comets observed in China. 



WEI, A MINOR STATE, A.D. 220-264. 

88 A.D. 222. November 4. 

In the reign of Wan Te, the jrd year of the epoch Hwang Choo, the gth moon, day 
Kea Shin, a strange star was seen in Tae "Wei, to the left, within Yih Mun. 

Wan Te, A.D. 220-226 ; epoch, Hwang Choo, 220-226 : 3rd year, 222, gth 
moon, day Kea Shin, November 4th. 

Tae Wei, space bounded by stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Yih Mun, space between tj and /3 Virginia. She Ke. 

89 A.D. 225. December 9. 

In the 6th year of the same epoch, the roth moon, on the day Yih Wei, there was 
a comet in Shaou Wei. It passed through Heen Yuen. 

Epoch Hwang Choo, 6th year, A.D. 225 : loth moon, day Yih Wei, Dec. 9. 

Shaou Wei, same as Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Heen Yuen, a and others in Leo and Leo Minor. M. T. L. 

90 A.D. 232. December 4. 

In the reign of Ming Te, the 6th year of the epoch Tae Ho, the nth moon, day 
Ping Yin, there was a comet in S. D. Yih, near the star Shang Tseang in Tae Wei. 

Ming Te, A.D. 227-239 ; epoch Tae Ho, 227-232 : 6th year, 232, i ith moon, 
day Ping Yin, December 4th. 

S. D. Yih determined by a and others in Crater. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Shang Tseang, y Virginis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

91 A. D. 236. November 30. 

]ji the 4th year of the epoch Tsing Lung, the i oth moon, on the day Kea Shin, 
there was a comet in Ta Shin. It was 3 cubits in length. On the day Yih Yew the 
comet was in the east. In the nth moon, day Yih Hae, the comet was seen passing 
near the stars Hwan Chay and Teen Ke. 

Epoch Tsing Lung, A.D. 233-236 : 4th year, 236, loth moon, day Kea Shin, 
November 30th; days Yih Yew, December ist; Yih Hae, 237, January 20th. 

Ta Shin. The Commentary intimates that Ta Shin is the same as Teen 
Wang Polaris. 

Hwan Chay, small stars in head of Ophiuchus. She Ke, M. T. L. 

Teen Ke, small stars near 6 Herculis. 

The ' She Ke ' has Ke Hae for Yih Hae, which would be 236, December 15. 

This appears to be the same comet as No. 87. 



Comets observed in China. 21 

92 A.D. 238. September. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch King Choo, the 8th moon, a comet was seen in S. D. 
Chang. It was 3 cubits in length. It went backwards towards the west. On the 4ist 
day it disappeared. 

Epoch King Choo, A.D. 237-239 : 2nd year, 238, 8th moon, September. 

S. D. Chang determined by K, \, p, &c. Hydrae. She Ke, M. T. L. 

93 A.D. 238. November 29. 

In the loth moon of the same year, on the day Kwei Sze, a strange star was seen 
in S. D. Wei. It went the contrary way. Its place was to the north of Le Kung, and 
to the south of Tang Shay. On the day Kea Shin it was near the star Tsung ; on the 
day Ke Yew it disappeared. 

King Choo, 2nd year, A.D. 238 : roth moon, days, Kwei Sze, November 2gth : 
Kea Shin, December loth; Ke Yew, December i5th. 
S. D. "Wei determined by a Aquarii and 9, e. Pegasi. 

Le Kung, three groups of two stars, each in Pegasus, with a and /3 Pegasi 
they form S. D. Shih. 

Tang Shay, stars in Cygnus, Lacerta, and Andromeda. 

Tsung Ting, small stars in head of Taurus Poniatowski. She Ke. 

94 A.D. 240. November 5. 

In the reign of Fei Te, in the ist year of the epoch Ching Che, day Yih Yew, a 
comet was seen in the west. Its place was in S. D. Wei. It was 20 cubits in length. 
It passed through S. D. New, near to Tae Pih. In the nth moon, day Kea Tsze, it 
entered Yu Lin. 

Emperor Fei Te, A.D. 240-253 ; epoch Ching Che, 240-248, ist year, A.D. 240, 
loth moon, day Yih Yew, Nov. 5th ; nth moon, day Kea Tsze, Dec. i4th. 

S. D. Wei determined by e, fn, v, &c. in Scorpio. 

S. D. New determined by , T, ?, &c. in Sagittarius. 

Tae Pih, the planet Venus. 

Yu Lin, 8, T, x> and others in Aquarius and Pisces. She Ke, M. T. L. 

95 A.D. 245. September 18. 

In the 6th year of the same epoch, the 8th moon, day Woo Woo, a comet was seen 
among the seven stars of S. D. Sing. It was 2 cubits in length. Its colour was white. 
It passed into the S. D. Chang. After 23 days it disappeared. 

Ching Che, 6th year, A.D. 245 : 8th moon, day Woo Woo, September i8th. 

S. D. Sing determined by the seven stars in a Hydrse and others near. 

S. D. Chang determined by K, X, p, &c. in Hydra. She Ke, M. T. L. 

G 



22 Comets observed in China. 

96 A.D. 247. January 16. 

In the 7 tli year of the same epoch, the nth moon, on the day Kwei Hae, a comet 
was seen in S. D. Chin. It was i cubit in length. It was visible for 156 days, and 
then disappeared. 

Ching Che, 7th year, A.D. 246 : i ith moon, day Kwei Hae, 247, Jan. i6th. 

S. D. Chin determined by /3 and others in Corvus. She Ke, M. T. L. 

' M. T. L.' has 56 instead of 156 days, during which the comet was seen ; in 
which he is followed by Biot, and which appears to be the more probable number. 
The ' She Ke ' is as above. 

97 A.D. 248. April. 

In the gth year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, there was (a comet) seen in S. D. 
Maou. It was 6 cubits in length : its colour was a bluish white. The tail pointed to 
the south-west. In the 7th moon it was seen in S. D. Yih, and was 2 cubits in length. 
It passed into S. D. Chin : after 42 days it disappeared. 

Ching Che, gth year, A.D. 248 : 3rd moon, April ; yth moon, August. 
S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. 
Yih determined by a, &c. Crateris. 
Chin determined by /3, &c. Corvi. She Ke, M. T. L. 

98 A.D. 251. December 21. 

In the 3rd year of the epoch Kea Ping, the nth moon, day Kwei Hae, there 
was a comet in Ying Shih. It went to the west, and was visible for 90 days, when it 
disappeared. 

Epoch Kea Ping, A.D. 249-253: 3rd year, 251, nth moon, day Kwei Hae, 
December 2ist. 

S. D. Ying Shih, same as Shih, determined by a, j3 Pegasi, &c. 

She 'Ke, M. T. L. 

99 A.D. 252. March 25. 

In the 4th year of the same epoch, the 2nd moon, day Ting Yew, a comet was seen 
in the west. Its place was in S. D. Wei. It was from 50 to 60 cubits in length : its 
colour white. The tail pointed to the south, passing through S. D. Tsan. It was visible 
for 20 days, and then disappeared. 

Epoch Kea Ping, 4th year, 252 : 2nd moon, day Ting Yew, March 25th. 

S. D. Wei determined by the three stars in Musca. 

S. D. Tsan determined by a, /3, &c. Orionis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

100 A.D. 253. December. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch, the nth moon, a comet was seen in S. D. Chin. 
It was 50 cubits in length. Its place was in Tae Wei, to the left of Tso Che Fa. It 
pointed towards the south-east. It was visible for 190 days, when it disappeared. 



Comets observed in China. 23 

Kea Ping, 253 : 5th year, i ith moon, December. 

S. D. Chin determined by /3, &c. Corvi. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Tso Che Fa, r, Virginis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

101 A.D. 255. February. 

In the reign of Shaou Te, the and year of the epoch Ching Yuen, the ist moon, 
there was a comet in Woo Yue, to the north-west, in the horizon. 

Emperor Shaou Te, A.D. 254-259 ; epoch Ching Yuen, 254-255 : 2nd year, 
ist moon, 255, February. 

Woo Yue, e, K Aquilse. She Ke, M. T. L. 

1 02 A.D. 257. December. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Kan Loo, the nth moon, a comet was seen in S. I). 
Keo. Its colour was white. 

Epoch Kan Loo, A.D. 256-259 : 2nd year, nth moon, December. 

S. D. Keo determined by a and another in Virgo. She Ke, M. T. L. 

103 A.D. 259. November 23. 

In the 4th year of the same epoch, roth moon, day Ting Chow, a strange star was 
seen in the middle of Tae Wei. It turned and went to the south-east. It passed 
through S. D. Chin. It was altogether visible for 7 days, and then disappeared. 

Kan Loo, 4th year, A.D. 259 : loth moon, day Ting Chow, November 23rd. 

Tae Wei, space in Leo and Virgo. 

S. D. Chin determined by ]3 and others in Corvus. She Ke. 

104 A.D. 262. December 2. 

In the reign of Yuen Te, the 3rd year of the epoch King Yuen, nth moon, day 
Jin Yin, a comet was seen in S. D. Kang. Its colour was white. It was -^ths of a 
cubit in length. It went to the north. After 45 days it disappeared. 

Emperor Yuen Te, A.D. 260-265 ; epoch King Yuen, 260-263 : 3 r( l 7 ear > 262, 
I ith moon, day Jin Yin, December 2nd. 

S. D. Kang determined by i, K, X, 6 Virginis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

105 A.D. 265. June. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Han He, the 5th moon, a comet was seen in Wang 
Leang. Its length was about 10 cubits. Its colour was white. It pointed towards the 
south-east. After 12 days it disappeared. 

Epoch Han He, A.D. 264-265 : 2nd year, 5th moon, 265, June. 

Wang Leang, o, /3, T), K Cassiopeise. She Ke, M. T. L. 



24 Comets observed in China. 

The WEI having obtained the superiority adopted the name of TSIN, and founded the 
TSIN DYNASTY, A.D. 265-419. 

1 06 A.D. 268. February 18. 

In the reign of the Emperor "Woo Te, the 4th year of the epoch Tae Che, the ist 
moon, day Ping Seuh, a comet was seen in S. D. Chin. Its colour was a bluish white. 
It went to the north-west, but afterwards turned and went to the east. 

Emperor Woo Te, A.D. 265-289 ; epoch Tae Che, 265-274 : 4th year, 268, 
ist moon, day Ping Seuh, February i8th. 

S. D. Chin determined by /3 and others in Corvus. She Ke, M. T. L. 

107 A.D. 275. January. 

In the loth year of the same epoch, the i2th moon, there was a comet in S. D. Chin. 
Epoch Tae Che, roth year, 274 : i2th moon, 275, January. 
S. D. Chin determined by ]3 and others in Corvus. 

1 08 A.D. 276. June 24. 

In the and year of the epoch Han Ning, the 6th moon, on the day Kea Seuh, there 
was a comet in S. D. Te. In the 7th moon the comet was near Ta Keo. In the 8th 
moon the comet was in Tae Wei. It passed into S. D. Yih, and also into Pih Tow and 

San Tae. 

Epoch Han Ning, A.D. 275-279 : and year, 276, 6th moon, day Kea Seuh, 
June 24 ; 7th moon, July ; 8th moon, August. 
S. D. Te determined by a, /3, j, &c. Librae. 
S. D. Yih determined by o and others in Crater. 
Ta Keo, Arcturus. Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major. 
San Tae, the stars in the feet of Ursa Major. She Ke, M. T. L. 

In the original this account is divided into three parts, separated by astro- 
logical inferences. There is no doubt but that they relate to one comet. The 
S. D. also are here considered as extending to the Pole. The same remarks apply 
to the next two comets. 

109 A.D. 277. February. 

In the 3rd year of the same epoch, the ist moon, there was a comet in the west. 
In the 3rd moon it was in S. D. Wei. In the 4th moon the comet was in Neu Yu. 
In the 5th moon it was in the east. In the 7th moon it was in Tsze Kung. 

Epoch Han Ning, 3rd year, A.D. 277 : ist moon, February ; 3rd moon, April ; 
4th moon, May ; 5th moon, June ; 7th moon, August. 
S. D. Wei determined by the three stars in Musca. 
Neu Yu, TT Leonis. 
Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke, M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 25 

no A.D. 279. April. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, there was a comet in S. D. Lew. 
In the 4th moon the comet was in New Yu. In the 7th moon the comet was in Tsze 
Rung. 

Han Ning, 5th year, A.D. 279 : 3rd moon, April ; 4th moon, May ; 7th moon, 
August. 

S. D. Lew determined by 8, e, &c. Hydros. New Yu, TT Leonis. 

Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke, N. T. L. 

There is evidently here some confusion in the original text, as the observations 
of the 4th and 7th moons are precisely the same as the observations of the 
ceding comet in the 4th and 7th moons of its appearance. It is, however, the, 
both in the ' She Ke ' and ' M. T. L.' 



in A.D. 281. September. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Tae Kung, the 8th moon, there was a comet 
S. D. Chang. 

Epoch Tae Kung, A.D. 280-289 : 2n( i y ear > 2 ^ I > 8th moon, September. 

S. D. Chang determined by K, X, fi, &c. Hydrae. She Ke, M. T. L. 

112 A. D. 281. December. 

In the nth moon of the same year there was a comet in Heen Yuen. 

A.D. 281, nth moon, December. 

Heen Yuen, a and other stars in Leo and Leo Minor. She Ke, M. T. L. 

113 A.D. 283. April 22. 

In the 4th year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, day Woo Shin, there was a comet 
in the south-west. 

Tae Kung, 4th year, A.D. 283 : 3rd moon, day "Woo Shin, April 22. 

She Ke, M, T. L. 

114 A.D. 287. September. 

In the 8th year of the same epoch, the gth moon, there was a comet in Nan Tow. 
Its length was reckoned at 100 cubits. In about 10 days it disappeared. 

Tae Kung, 8th year, A.D. 287 : gth moon, September. 

Nan Tow, same as S. D. Tow, determined by , T, a, &c. Sagittarii. 

She Ke, M. T. L. 

H 




26 Comets observed in China. 

115 A.D. 290. May. 

In the 1st year of the epoch Tae He, the 4th moon, there was a strange star in 
Tsze Kung. 

Epoch Tae He, A.D. 290. In the Tables this epoch is written Yung He, and is 
made the 1st of the Emperor Hwuy Te : 4th moon, May. 

Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke, M. T. L. 

116 A.D. 296. May. 

In the reign ef Hwuy Te, the 5th year of the epoch Yuen Kang, the 4th moon, 
there was a comet in S. D. Kwei. It passed into Heen Yuen and Tae Wei. It crossed 
San Tae and Ta Ling. 

Emperor Hwuy Te, A.D. 290-306; epoch Yuen Kang, 291-299: 5th year, 
296 : 4th moon, May. 

S. D. Kwei determined by /3, S, s, &c. Andromedse and stars in Pisces. 

Heen Yuen, a and others in Leo and Leo Minor. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

San Tae, stars in feet of Ursa Major. Ta Ling, y and others in Perseus. 

She Ke, M. T. L. 

11 7 A.D. 300. April. 

In the 1st year of the epoch Yung Kang, 3rd moon, a strange star was seen in the 
south. 

Epoch Yung Kang, A.D. 300 : 3rd moon, April. She Ke. 

Possibly a meteor. 

118 A.D. 301. January. 

In the 1 2th moon of the same year a comet appeared in S. D. New, to the west. 
It pointed to Tien She. 

A.D. 300, 1 2th moon, 301, January. 

S. D. New determined by a, j3, &c. Capricorni. She Ke, M. T. L. 

119 A.D. 301. May. 

In the 2nd year of the same epoch, 4th moon, a comet was seen near the star Tse. 
Yung Kang, 2nd year, 301 : 4th moon, May. 
Star Tse, H Herculis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

1 20 A.D. 302. May. 

In the ist year of the epoch Tae Gan, the 4th moon, a comet was seen in the 
daytime. 

Tae Gan, 302-303, ist year, 4th moon, 302, May. She Ke, M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 27 

121 A.D. 303. April. 

In the and year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, a comet was seen in the east. It 
pointed towards San Tae. 

Tae Gan, and year, A.D. 303 : 3rd moon, April. 

San Tae, the stars in feet of Ursa Major. She Ke, M. T. L. 

122 A. D. 304. May. 

In the ist year of the epoch Yung Hing, the 5th moon, there was a strange star in 
S. D. Peih. 

Epoch Yung Hing, A.D. 304-305 : ist year, 304 : 5th moon, May. 

S. D. Peih determined by a, j, S, &c. Tauri. She Ke. 

123 A.D. 305. September. 

In the and year of the same epoch, the 8th moon, there was a comet in S. D. Maou 
and Peih. 

Yung Hing, and year, 8th moon, A.D. 305, September. 

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. 

S. D. Peih determined by a, j, 8, E, &c. Tauri. She Ke, M. T. L. 

124 A.D. 305. November 21. 

In the loth moon of the same year, on the day Ting Chow, there was a comet in 
Pih Tow, near the star Seuen Ke. 

A.D. 305, loth moon, day Ting Chow, November aist. 

Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major. 

Seuen Ke, same as Teen Ke, y Ursae Majoris. She Ke, M. T. L. 

125 A.r>. 329. August. 

In the reign of Ching Te, the 4th year of the epoch Han Ho, the 7th moon, there 
was a comet in the north-west. It entered into S. D. Tow. After 33 days it disappeared. 
.Emperor Ching Te, A.D. 336-343 ; epoch Han Ho, 326-334 : 4th year, 339 : 
7th moon, August. 

S. D. Tow determined by , T, a, <j>, &c. Sagittarii. She Ke, M. T. L. 

126 A.D. 336. February 16. 

In the and year of the epoch Han Kang, ist moon, day Sin Sze, a comet was seen 
in the evening, in the west. Its place was in S. D. Kwei. 

Epoch Han Kang, A.D. 335-343 : and year, 336 : ist moon, day Sin Sze, Feb. 16. 
S. D. Kwei determined by /3, S, e, &c. Andromedse and others in Pisces. 

She Ke, M. T. L. 

' M. T. L.' has the 2nd moon, March ; but no day Sin Sze occurs in March in 
that year. 



28 Comets observed in China. 

127 A.D. 340. Marcli 5. 

In the 2nd moon of the 6th year of the same epoch, day Kang Shin, there was a 
comet in Tae "Wei. 

Epoch Han Kang, 6th year, 340 : 2nd moon, day Kang Shin, March 5th. 
Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. She Ke, M. T. L. 

128 A.D. 343. December 8. 

In the reign of the Emperor Kang Te, the ist year of the epoch Keen Yuen, the 
nth moon, 6th day, a comet was seen in S. D. Kang. Its length was 7 cubits. Its 
colour was white. 

Emperor Kang Te and epoch Keen Yuen, A.D. 343-344: ist year, 343 : nth 
moon, 6th day, December 8th. 

S. D. Kang determined by i, K, X, 9 Virginis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

129 A.D. 349. November 23. 

In the reign of Muh Te, the 5th year of the epoch Yung Ho, the nth moon, day 
Yih Maou, a comet was seen in S. D. Kang. It was bright, and directed towards the 
west. Its colour was white. It was 10 cubits in length. In the 1st moon of the 6th 
year, on the day Ting Chow, the comet was still visible in S. D. Kang. 

Emperor Muh Te, A.D. 345-361 ; epoch Yung Ho, 345-356: 5th year, 349, 
nth moon, day Yih Maou, 349, November 23rd; 6th year, 350: ist moon, day 
Ting Chow, February 13th. 

S. D. Kang determined by i, K, X, Virginis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

130 A.D. 358. July i. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Shing Ping, the 5th moon, day Ting Hae> a comet 
was seen in Teen Chuen, in S. D. Wei. 

Epoch Shing Ping, A.D. 357-361: 2nd year, 358: 5th moon, day Ting Hae, 
July i. 

Teen Chuen, j, ij Persei. 

S. D. Wei determined by the three stars in Musca. She Ke, M. T. L. 

131 A.D. 363. August. 

In the reign of Gae Te, the ist year of the epoch Hing Ning, the 8th moon, there 
was a comet in S. D. Keo and Kang. It entered the boundary of Teen She. 

Emperor Gae Te, A.D. 362-365 ; epoch Hing Ning, 363-365 : ist year, 363 : 
8th moon, August. 

S. D. Keo determined by a Virginis and another. 

S. D. Kang determined by t, K, X, Virginis. 

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. She Ke, M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 29 

132 A.D. 369. March. 

In the reign of Te Yih, the 4th year of the epoch Tae Ho, the 2nd moon, a 
strange star was seen in Tsze Kung, near its western boundary. In the yth moon it 
disappeared. 

Emperor Te Yih and epoch Tae Ho, A.D. 366-370 : 4th year, 369 : 2nd moon, 
March. 

Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke. 

133 A.D. 373. March 9. 

In the reign of the Emperor Haou Woo, the ist year of the epoch Ning Kang, the 
i st moon, day Ting Sze, there was a comet in S. D. Neu, Heu, Te, Kang, Keo, Chin, 
Yih, and Chang. In the 2nd moon, day Ping Seuh, the comet was seen in S. D. Te. 
In the gth moon, day Ting Chow, the comet was in Teen She. 

Emperor Haou Woo, A.D. 373-396 ; epoch Ning Kang, 373375 : ist year, 
373, ist moon, day Ting Sze, March gth ; 2nd moon, day Ping Seuh, April 7th ; 
9th moon, day Ting Chow, September 25th. 
S. D. Neu determined by e, /*, &c. Aquarii. 

Heu determined by /3 Aquarii and others. 
Te determined by a, /3, &c. Librae. 
Keo determined by a and Virginis. 
Kang determined by i, K, X, 9 Virginis. 
Chin determined by J3, &c. Corvi. 
Yih determined by a and others in Crater. 
Chang determined by K, X, ju Hydrae. 
Teen She, the space bounded by Serpens. M. T. L. 

The 'She Ke' has this comet under the 2nd year, ist and 3rd moons. This 
would make it A.D. 374, February and March. 

134 A.D. 386. April. 

In the i ith year of the epoch Tae Yuen, the 3rd moon, there was a comet in Nan 
Tow. It was visible until the 6th moon, when it disappeared. 

Epoch Tae Yuen, A.D. 376-396 : nth year, 386, 3rd moon, April : 6th moon, 
July. 

Nan Tow, same as S. D. Tow, determined by X, /m, <j>, <r, &c. Sagittarii. 

SheKe. 

135 A.D. 390. August 22. 

In the 1 5th year of the same epoch, the 7th moon, day Jin Shin, there was a comet 
in Pih Ho. It crossed Tae Wei, San Tae, and Wan Chung. It entered Pih Tow. Its 
colour was white. It was about 100 cubits in length. In the 8th moon, on the day 
Woo Seuh, it entered Tsze Wei and disappeared. 

i 



3<D Comets observed in China. 

Tae Yuen, I5th year, A.D. 390 : 7th moon, day Jin Shin, August 22nd ; day 
Woo Seuh, September xyth. 

Pih Ho, a, /3, &c. Geminorum. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

San Tae, stars in feet of Ursa Major. 

Wan Chang, 0, v, <j> Ursse Majoris. 

Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major. 

Tsze Wei, circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke, M. T. L. 

136 A.D. 393. March. 

In the 1 8th year of the same epoch, the 2nd moon, a strange star appeared in the 
middle of S. D. Sing. In the gth moon it disappeared. 

Tae Yuen, i8th year, A.D. 393 : and moon, March ; gth moon, October. 

S. D. Sing determined by a, T, &c. Hydrse. She Ke. 

137 A.D. 400. March 19. 

In the reign of Gan Te, the 4th year of the epoch Lung Gan, the 2nd moon, day 
Ke Chow, there was a comet in S. D. Kwei. It was more than 30 cubits in length. It 
was above Ko Taou, in the western part of Tsze Kung. It entered Pih Tow Kwei. 
It passed on to San Tae. In the 3rd moon it entered Tae Wei, Te Tso, and Twan 
Mun. 

Emperor Gan Te, A.D. 397-418 ; epoch Lung Gan, 397-400 : 4th year, 400 : 
2nd moon, day Ke Chow, March 19 ; 3rd moon, April. 

S. D. Kwei determined by /3, 8, t Andromedse and stars in Pisces. 

Ko Taou, S, E, and others in Cassiopeia. 

Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major. 

San Tae, stars in the feet of Ursa Major. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Te Tso, or Woo Te Tso, j3 Leonis and stars near. 

Twan Mun, possibly Teen Mun, between /3 and ?j Virginis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

138 A.D. 401. January 2. 

In the 1 2th moon of the same year, on the day Woo Yin, there was a comet in 
Shih Soo, Teen She, and Teen Tsin. 

A.D. 400 : 1 2th moon, day Woo Yin, 401, January 2nd. 

Shih Soo, Corona Borealis. 

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. 

Teen Tsin, a, /3, t, &c. Cygni. 



Comets observed in China. 31 

139 A.D. 402. November 12. 

In the ist year of the epoch Yuen Hing, the loth moon, a strange star appeared. 
Its colour was white. It resembled a handful of meal. Its place was to the west of 
Tae Wei. In the 1 2th moon it entered Tae Wei. 

Epoch Yuen Hing, A.D. 402-4.04, ist year, 402 : loth moon, November ; I2th 
moon, January, 403. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. She Ke. 

140 A.D. 415. June 24. 

In the i ith year of the epoch E He, the 5th moon, day Kea Shin, two comets ap- 
peared in Teen She. They swept Te Tso. They were in the north of S. D. Fang 
and Sin. 

Epoch E He, A.D. 405-418 : i ith year, 415 : 5th moon, day Kea Shin, June 24. 

S. D. Fang determined by /3, <5, &c. in Scorpio. 

Sin determined by a, <r, T in Scorpio. 

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. 

Te Tso, a Herculis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

141 A.D. 418. September 15. 

In the i4th year of the same epoch, 5th moon, day Kang Tsze, there was a comet 
in Pih Tow Kwei, towards the middle. In the yth moon, day Kwei Hae, the comet 
appeared in the western part of Tae Wei, above Juy Ke, and below the star Leang. It 
was bright, and gradually lengthened until it was about 100 cubits in length. In 
its course it swept Pih Tow, Tsze Wei, and Chung Tae. 

E He, I4th year, A.D. 418 : 7th moon, day Kwei Hae, September i5th. 
Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 
Juy Ke unascertained. 

Seang. Several stars having this name occur in Tae Wei : one of these, to 
the west, is possibly that here referred to. 

Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major. Kwei in Pih Tow is referred 
to the square in the same. 

Chung Tae, X, /u Ursae Majoris. 

Tsze Wei, circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke, M. T. L. 

142 A.D. 419. February 7. 

In the reign of KungTe, the ist year, ist moon, day Woo Seuh, there was a comet 
in the western boundary of Tae Wei. 

Emperor Kung Te and ist year, 419 : 1st moon, day Woo Seuh, Feb. 17. 
Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. She Ke, M. T. L. 

Kung Te was the last Emperor of the Tsin dynasty : he reigned but one year, 
and was succeeded by the Sung. 



32 Comets observed in China. 

THE EARLY SUNG DYNASTY, A.D. 420-478. 

143 A.D. 422. March 21. 

In the reign of Woo Te, the 3rd year of the epoch Yung Choo, the 2nd moon, day 
Ping Seuh, a comet was seen in S. D. Heu and Wei. 

Emperor Woo Te and epoch Yung Choo, A.D. 420-422 : 3rd year, 422. 
S. D. Heu determined by |3 Aquarii and another. 
S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and 6, e Pegasi. 

144 A.D. 422. December 17. 

In the i ith moon of the same year, on the day Woo Woo, there was a comet in 
Ying Shih. 

422, nth moon, day Woo Woo, December iyth. 

Yung Shih, same as S. D. Shih, determined by a and others in Pegasus. 

145 A.D. 423. February 13. 

In the reign of Shaou Te, the ist year of the epoch King Ping, the ist moon, day 
Yih Maou, there was a comet in the eastern part of S. D. Peih. 

Emperor Shaou Te and epoch King Ping, A.D. 423 : ist moon, day Yih Maou, 
February I3th. 

S. D. Peih determined by j Pegasi and a Andromedse. She Ke, M. T. L. 

146 A.D. 423. October 15. 

In the 10th moon of the same year, on the day Ke Wei, there was a comet in 

S. D. Te. 

423, loth moon, day Ke Wei, October ifth. 

S. D. Te determined by a, /3, j, v Librae. She Ke, M. T. L. 

147 A.D. 442. November i. 

In the reign of Wan Te, the igth year of the epoch Yuen Kea, the gth moon, day 
Ping Shin, there was a strange star in Pih Tow. It became a comet, and entered Wan 
Chang, Kwan and Woo Chay. It swept S. D. Peih. It passed near Teen Tsze. It 
crossed Teen Yuen. In the winter it disappeared. 

Emperor Wan Te and epoch Yuen Kea, A.D. 424-453 : igth year, A.D. 442 : 
gth moon, day Ping Shin, November ist. 

S. D. Peih determined by a, j, and others in Taurus. 
Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major. 
Kwan or Shih, Corona Borealis. AVan Chang, 9, $, v Ursse Majoris. 
. Woo Chay, a, /3, 9, K Aurigse and Tauri. 

Teen Tsze, IT, p and others in Taurus, near the Hyades. 

Teen Yuen, 7, 8, E and others in Eridanus. She Ke, M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 33 

148 A.D. 449. November n. 

In the 26th year of the same epoch, i oth moon, day Kwei Maou, a comet was seen 
in Tae Wei. 

Yuen Kea, 26th year, 449 : loth moon, day Kwei Maou, November nth. 
Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. She Ke, M. T. L. 

149 A.D. 451. May 17. 

In the 28th year of the same epoch, the 4th moon, day Yih Maou, a comet was seen 
in S. D. Maou. In the 6th moon, day Jin Tsze, it was seen in the middle of Tae Wei, 
over against Te Tso. 

Yuen Kea, 28th year, A.D. 451 : 4th moon, day Yih Maou, May I7th: 6th 
moon, day Jin Tsze, July I3th. 

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Te Tso, /3 Leonis and small stars near. She Ke, M. T. L. 

The ' She Ke ' has the day Ke Maou, June roth. 

TSE DYNASTY, A.D. 479-501. 

150 A.D. 501. February 13. 

In the reign of Tung Hwan How, in the 3rd year of the epoch Yung Yuen, 
ist moon, day Yih Sze, a tailed star was seen in the horizon. 

Emperor Tung Hwan How and epoch Yung Yuen, 499-500 : 3rd year, 501 : 
ist moon, day Yih Sze, February I3th. 

In the Tables, 501 is in the next epoch, Chung Hing. 

151 A.D. 501. April 14. 

In the reign of Ho Te, the ist year of the epoch Chung Hing, 3rd moon, day Yih 
Sze, there was a comet in the horizon. 

Ho Te and epoch Chung Hing, A.D. 501 : 3rd moon, day Yih Sze, April i4th. 

This and the preceding are possibly the same comet : they are both from 
' M. T. L.' 

LEAN a DYNASTY, A.D. 502-556. 

152 A.D. 532. January 6. (?) 

In the reign of Woo Te, the 5th year of the epoch Chung Ta Tung, ist moon, day 
Ke Yew, a tailed star was seen. 

Emperor Woo Te, A.D. 502-549 ; epoch Chung Ta Tung, 528-534 : 5th year, 
532 ; ist moon, day Ke Yew, January i6th. This date is doubtful. 

K 



34 Comets observed in China. 

153 A.D. 539. November 17. 

In the 5th year of the epoch Ta Tung, loth moon, day Sin Chow, a comet appeared 
in Nan Tow. It was about one cubit in length, pointing to the south-east. It gradu- 
ally increased to about 10 cubits in length. In the nth moon, day Yih Maou, it 
entered S. D. Lew and disappeared. 

Epoch Ta Tung, 535-545, 5th year, 539 : roth moon, day Sin Chow, No- 
vember 1 7th ; nth moon, day Yih Maou, December rst. 

S. D. Nan Tow, or Tow, determined by , r, a, &c. Sagittarii. 

S. D. Lew determined by a, /3, y Arietis. She Ke, M. T. L. 



CHIN DYNASTY, A.D. 557-588. 

154 A.D. 560. October 4. 

In the reign of Wan Te, the ist year of the epoch Teen Kea, the gth moon, on the 
day Kwei Chow, a comet was seen. It was 4 cubits in length. The tail pointed to the 
south-west. 

Emperor "Wan Te, A.D. 560-566 ; epoch Teen Kea, 560-565, ist year, 560 : 

gth moon, day Kwei Chow, October 4th. She Ke, M. T. L. 

155 A.D. 565. July 23. 

In the 6th year of the same epoch, the 6th moon, day Sin Yew, there was a comet 
about 10 cubits in length. It was seen in Shang Tae. 

Teen Kea, 6th year, A.D. 565 : 6th moon, day Sin Yew, July 23rd. 

Shang Tae, t, K Ursa? Majoris. She Ke, M. T. L. 

156 A.D. 568. August 3. 

In the reign of Fei Te, the and year of the epoch Kwang Ta, the 6th moon, day 
Ting Hae, a comet was seen. 

Emperor Fei Te, A.D. 567-568 ; epoch Kwang Ta, the same; 2nd year, 568 : 
6th moon, day Ting Hae, August 3rd. M. T. L. 

157 A.D. 575. April 27. 

In the reign of Seuen Te, in the jth year of the epoch Ta Keen, 4th moon, day 
Ping Seuh, there was a comet near Ta Keo. 

Emperor Seuen Te, A.D. 569-582 ; epoch Ta Keen the same; 7th year, 575 : 
4th moon, day Ping Seuh, April 2jih. 

Ta Keo, Arcturus. 



Comets observed in China. 35 

158 A. D. 416. January 26. 

In the 1 2th year of the same epoch, the I2th moon, day Sin Sze, a comet was seen 
in the south-west. 

Ta Keen, I2th year, 580 : I2th moon, day Sin Sze, January 26th. 

She Ke, M. T. L. 

How WEI, A MINOR DYNASTY, A.D. 386-534. 

159 A. D. 416. June 27. 

In the reign of Ming Yuen Te, in the ist year of the epoch Tae Chang, 5th inoon, 
day Kea Shin, two comets were seen. 

Ming Yuen Te, A.D. 409-423; epoch Tae Chang, 416-423; ist year, 416: 
5th moon, day Kea Shin, June 27th. M. T. L. 

PIH TSE, A MINOR DYNASTY, A.D. 570-577. 

1 60 A.D. 565. (?) April 21. 

In the reign of Woo Ching Te, the 4th year of the epoch Ho Tsing, 3rd moon, a 
comet was seen. 

Emperor "Woo Ching Te, A.D. 561-564; epoch Ho Tsing, 562-564; 4th year, 
565 (?) : 3rd moon, April. She Kc, M. T.*L. 

The ' She Ke ' adds the day, Woo Tsze, April 21. 

The Tables give but 3 years to this epoch: the date is consequently doubtful. 

161 A.D. 565. July 24. 

In the reign of How Choo, the ist year of the epoch Teen Tung, the 6th moon, 
day Jin Seuh, a comet was seen in Wan Chang. Its length was reckoned at -j^th of a 
cubit. It entered Wan Chang. It passed over Shang Tseang, and afterwards crossed 
Tsze Wei Kung to its western boundary. It gradually lengthened to about 10 cubits. 
It pointed to S. D. Shih and Peih. After about 100 days it entered S. D. Heu and 
Wei, and then disappeared. 

Emperor How Choo, A.D. 565-576; epoch Teen Tung, 565-569; ist year, 
565 : 6th moon, day Jin Seuh, July 24th. 

S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and 0, t Pegasi. 
Shih determined by a Pegasi and others near. 
Peih determined by j Pegasi and a Andromedao. 
Heu determined by /3 Aquarii and others. 
Wan Chang, 8, v, (j>, &c. Ursae Majoris. 
Shang Tseang, stars in Coma Berenices. 
Tsze Wei Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke, M. T. L. 



36 Comets observed in China. 

162 A.D. 568. July. 

In the 4th year of the same epoch, the 6th moon, a comet was seen in S. D. Tsing. 
Teen Tung, 4th year, A.D. 568 : 6th moon, July. 
S. D. Tsing, -y, s, X, ju, &c. Qeminorum. She Ke, M. T, L. 

163 A.D. 568. August. 

In the 7th moon of the same year a comet was seen in S. D. Fang and Sin. It 
was white like meal, or the refuse of silk, and was as large as a tow measure. It went 
to the east. In the 8th moon it entered Teen She. It gradually increased in length to 
40 cubits. In shape it resembled a melon. It passed through S. D. Heu and Wei. It 
entered S. D. Shih. It passed over the Le Kung. In the gth moon it entered S. D. 
Kwei. It passed on to S. D. Lew, and then disappeared. 

Teen Tung, 4th year : 7th moon, 568, August ; 8th moon, September ; gth 
moon, October. 

S. D. Fang determined by /3, S, IT, p in Scorpio. 
Sin determined by a, a, T in Scorpio. 
Heu determined by /3 Aquarii and another. 
Wei determined by a Aquarii and 0, t Pegasi. 
Shih determined by a, /3 Pegasi and others near. 
Kwei determined by J3, 8, t Andromedaj and stars in Pisces. 
Lew determined by , /3, j Arietis, &c. 
Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. 

Le Kung, three groups of two stars each in Pegasus : they are \ p, r\ o, v r, 
and form part of S. D. Shih. She Ke, M. T. L. 

How CHOW, A MINOR DYNASTY, A.D. 557-581. 

164 A.D. 561. September 26. 

In the reign of Woo Te, the 1st year of the epoch Paou Ting, the gth moon, day 
Yih Sze, an extraordinary star was seen in S. D. Yih. 

Emperor Woo Te, 561-578 ; epoch Paou Ting, 561-565 ; ist year, 561 : gth 
moon, day Yih Sze, September 2 6th. 

S. D. Yih determined by a and others in Crater. She Ke. 

165 A.D. 565. July 22. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch, the 6th moon, day Kang Shin, a comet appeared 
in San Tae. It entered .Wan Chang and Shang Tseang. It afterwards crossed the 
western boundary of Tsze Kung. It entered S. D. Wei, and gradually increased to 
about 10 cubits in length. It pointed towards S. D. Shih and Peih. After about 100 
days it gradually diminished to about 2| cubits in length. It arrived at S. D. Heu and 
Wei, and then disappeared. 



Comets observed in China. 37 

Paou Ting, 5th year, A.D. 565 : 6th moon, day Kang Shin, July 22. 
S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and 6, E Pegasi. 

Shih determined by a, /3 Pegasi and stars near. 

Peih determined by a Tauri and others near. 

Heu determined by j3 Pegasi and another. 
San Tae, feet of Ursa Major. 
Wan Chang, 6, v, <j>, &c. Ursae Majoris. 
Shang Tseang, v, &c. in Coma Berenices. 
Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. M. T. L. 

This appears to be the same as No. 161 by a different observer, and on another 
day. 

1 66 A.D. 568. July 21. 

In the 3rd year of the epoch Teen Ho, 6th moon, day Kea Seuh, a comet was seen 
in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing. It was 10 cubits in length. Its colour was white 
in the upper part and reddish below. It ended in a point. It gradually went to the 
east. In the yth moon, day Kwei Maou, it passed to the north of S. D. Kwei. It was 
then 7 8 oths of a cubit in length. It afterwards disappeared. 

Epoch Teen Ho, A.D. 566-571, 3rd year, 568 : 6th moon, day Kea Seuh, July 
2 ist ; 7th moon, day Kwei Maou, August igth. 

S. D. Tsing determined by -y, S, X, ft, &c. Geminorum. 

S. D. Kwei determined by 7, S, r\, 6 Cancri. She Ke, M. T. L. 

167 A.D. 574. April 4. 

In the 3rd year of the epoch Keen Tih, the 2nd moon, day Woo Woo, a strange 
star, resembling a large peach, of a bluish-white colour, appeared in Woo Chay, to the 
south-east. It was 3 cubits in length. It went slowly to the east, and whilst there 
increased to 2 cubits in length. In the 4th moon, day Jin Shin, it entered Wan Chang. 
On the day Ting Wei it entered Kwei in Pih Tow, to about the middle. It afterwards 
left Kwei, and gradually became smaller. It was visible altogether for 93 days. 

She Ke. 

Epoch Keen Tih, A.D. 572-577, 3rd year, 574 : 2nd moon, day Woo Woo, 
April 4th ; 4th moon, day Jin Shin, May 8th ; Ting Wei, May 23rd. 
Kwei in Pih Tow, the middle of the square in Ursa Major. 
Wan Chang, 9, v, <(> Ursse Majoris. 

1 68 A.D. 574. May 31. 

In the same year, the 4th moon, day Yih Maou, there was a comet just without the 
boundary of Tsze Kung. It was large, like a man's fist : colour, reddish white. It 
pointed to 'Woo Te Tso. It went slowly to the south-east. Its length was 15 cubits. 
In the 5th moon, day Kea Tsze, it went to the north of Shang Tae and disappeared. 

L 



38 Comets observed in China. 

Keen Tib, 3rd year, 574: 4th moon, day Yih Maou, May 3ist; 5th moon, 
day Kea Tsze, June gth. 

Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Woo Te Tso, /3 Leonis and small stars near. 

Shang Tae, i, K Ursse Majoris. M. T. L. 

In the ' She Ke ' this is placed in the loth moon. 

SUY DYNASTY, A.D. 589-617. 

169 A.D. 588. November 22. 

In the reign of the Emperor Wan Te, the 8th year of the epoch Kae Hwang, the 
loth moon, day Kea Tsze, there was a comet in Keen New. 

Wan Te, one of the minor Princes, assumed the Imperial title, and thus be- 
came the founder of the Suy dynasty, A.D. 589, which was the gth year of his epoch 
Kae Hwang, 581-600: consequently the 8th year was 588. His reign closed 
in 604. 

loth moon, day Kea Tsze, November 22nd. 

Keen Neu, same as S. D. Neu, determined by a, /3, &c. Capricorni. 

She Ke, M. T. L. 

170 A.D. 594. November 10. 

In the 1 4th year of the same epoch, the nth moon, day Kwei Wei, there was a 
comet in S. D. Heu and Wei. It extended to S. D. Kwei and Lew. 

Kae Hwang, I4th year, 594 : nth moon, day Kwei Wei, November loth. 
S. D. Heu determined by /3 Aquarii and another. 

Wei determined by a Aquarii and 6, e Pegasi. 

Kwei determined by /3, S, e, &c. Andromedse and stars in Pisces. 

Lew determined by a, j3, 7 Arietis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

171 A.D. 607. March 13. 

In the reign of Yang Te, the 3rd year of the epoch Ta Nae, 2nd moon, day Ke 
Chow, a comet was seen in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing and Wan Chang. It passed 
through Ta Ling, Woo Chay, and Pih Ho. It entered Tae Wei and swept Te Tso. It 
passed on, and after about 100 days it disappeared. 

Emperor Yang Te and epoch Ta Nae, A.D. 605-616, 3rd year, 607 : 2nd moon, 
day Ke Chow, March i3th. 

S. D. Tsing determined by j, s, X, fj. Geminorum. 

Wan Chang, 9, v, $, &c. Ursa? Majoris. Ta Ling, T and others in Perseus. 

Woo Chay, a, J3, 9, % Aurigas and /3 Tauri. Pih Ho, a, j3, <c. Geminorum. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Te Tso, /3 Leonis and stars near. M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 39 

172 A.D. 607. April 4. 

In the 3rd moon of the same year, day Sin Hae, a tailed star was seen in the 
horizon to the west. It passed through S. D. Kwei, Lew, Keo, and Kang, and then was 
no longer seen. In the gth moon, on the day Sin Wei, it returned, and was seen in the 
south. It was of a reddish colour, and was in the horizon in S. D. Keo and Kang, near 
their boundaries. It swept Tae Wei near Te Tso. It entered most of the S. D., but 
did not extend to Tsan and Tsing. In the beginning of the next year it disappeared. 

Ta Nae, 3rd year, A.D. 607 : 3rd moon, day Sin Hae, April 4th ; gth moon, 
day Sin Wei, October aist. 

S. D. Kwei determined by a, S, E, &c. Andromedse and stars in Pisces. 
Lew determined by a, /3, y Arietis. 
Keo determined by a and Virginis. 
Kang determined by i, K, A, n Virginis. 
Tsan determined by o, /3, &c. Orionis. 
Tsing determined by j, f, yu, &c. Geminorum. 
Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 
Te Tso, /3 Leonis and other stars near. She Ke, M. T. L. 

This may relate to two comets, as the account is not very clear. 

173 A.D. 615. July. 

In the nth year of the same epoch, the 6th moon, there was a comet in Wan 
Chang, to the south-east. Its length was from 5 to 6 tenths of a cubit. Its colour was 
dusky, and its extremity pointed. In the evening it had a waving motion. It went to 
the north-west. For several days it was in Wan Chang. It went within 4 or 5 tenths 
of a cubit of Kung, but did not enter that space, and disappeared. 

Ta Nae, nth year, 615 : 6th moon, July. 

Wan Chang, 9, (j>, v Ursac Majoris. 

Kung, or Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. M. T. L. 

174 A.D. 6 1 6. July. 

In the 1 3th year of the same epoch, the 6th moon, there was a comet in Tae Wei, 
near Woo Te Tso. Its colour was a yellowish red. It was from 3 to 4 cubits in length. 
After several days it disappeared. 

Ta Nae, i3th year, A.D. 616 : 6th moon, July. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Woo Te Tso, /3 Leonis and small stars near. M. T. L. 

175 A.D. 6 1 6. October. 

In the gth moon of the same year a comet was seen in Yung Shih. 
616: gth moon, October. 

Yung Shih, same as S. D. Shih, determined by a Pegasi and other stars near. 

M. T. L. 



4O Comets observed in China. 

TANG DYNASTY, A.D. 618-906. 

176 A.D. 626. March 16. 

In the reign of Kaou Tsoo, the gth year of the epoch "Woo Tih, the and moon, day 
Jin Woo, there was a comet in the S. D. Wei and Maou. On the day Ting Hae the 
comet was in Keuen She. 

Emperor Kaou Tsoo, A.D. 618-626 ; epoch Woo Tih the same: gth year, 626 : 
2nd moon, day Jin Woo, March 26th ; Ting Hae, March 3ist. 
S. D. Wei determined by the three stars in Musca. 
S. D. Maou, determined by the Pleiades. 
Keuen She, v Persei. She Ke, M. T. L. 

177 A.D. 634. September 22. 

In the reign of Tae Tsung, the 8th year of the epoch Ching Kwan, the 8th moon, 
day Kea Tsze, there was a comet in S. D. Heu and Wei. It passed through Heuen 
Heaou. On the day Yih Hae it was no longer visible. 

Emperor Tae Tsung and epoch Ching Kwan, A.D. 627-649, 8th year, 634 : 8th 
moon, day Kea Tsze, September 22nd ; Yih Hae, October 3rd. 
S. D. Heu determined by ]3 Aquarii and another. 
S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and 6, i Pegasi. 

Heuen Heaou, one of the 1 2 kung, answering to our sign Aquarius, and com- 
prising S. D. Neu, Heu, and Wei. M. T. L. 

178 A.D. 639. 

In the 1 3th year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, day Yih Chow, there was a 
comet in S. D. Peih and Maou. 

1 3th year of Ching Kwan, 639 : 3rd moon, day Yih Chow, April 3Oth. 

S. D. Peih determined by a, j, 8, &c. Tauri. 

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. She Ke, M. T. L. 

The ' She Ke ' makes the year 638. 

179 A.D. 641. August i. 

In the 1 5th year of the same epoch, 6th moon, day Ke Yew, there was a comet in 
Tae Wei. It passed over Lang Wei. In the 7th moon, day Kea Seuh, it was no 
longer visible. 

Ching Kwan, i5th year, A.D. 641 : 6th moon, day Ke Yew, August ist ; 7th 
moon, day Kea Scuh, August 26th. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Lang Wei, Coma Berenices. She Ke, M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 41 

1 80 A.D. 663. September 29. 

In the reign of Kaou Tsung, the 3rd year of the epoch Lung So, 8th moon, day 
Kwei Maou, there was a comet in Tso She Te. It was about 2 cubits in length. On 
the day Yih Sze it was no longer visible. 

Emperor Kaou Tsung, A.D. 650-683 ; epoch Lung So, 661-663, 3 r ^ year, 
663 : 8th moon, day Kwei Maou, September 2gth ; day Yih Sze, October ist. 

Tso She Te, , o, w Bootis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

181 A.D. 667. May 24. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Keen Fung, 4th moon, day Ping Shin, there was a 
comet in the north-east. Its place was in Woo Chay, between S. D. Peih and Maou. 
On the day Yih Hae it was no longer visible. 

Epoch Keen Fung, 666-667 : 2n( i year, 667 : 4th moon, day Ping Shin, May 
24th ; day Yih Hae, June I2th. 

S. D. Peih determined by a, y, S, &c. Tauri. 

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. 

Woo Chay, a, /3, 9, K Aurigse and /3 Tauri. She Ke, M. T. L. 

182 A.D. 676. January 3. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Shang Yuen, the i2th moon, day Jin Woo, there was 
a comet to the south of S. D. Keo and Kang. It was 5 cubits in length. 

Epoch Shang Yuen, 674-675 : 2nd year, 675 : I2th moon, day Jin Woo, 676, 
January 3rd. 

S. D. Keo determined by a and Virginis. 

S. D. Kang determined by t, K, \, 6 Virginis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

183 A.D. 676. July 7. 

In the 3rd year of the same epoch, the 7th moon, day Ting Hae, there was a comet 
in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing, pointing towards Pih Ho. It was about 3 cubits in 
length. Its luminous envelope increased greatly until it became 30 cubits in length. 
It pointed towards Chung Tae and Wan Chang. In the gth moon, day Yih Yew, it 
disappeared. 

Epoch Shang Yuen, 3rd year, 676 : yth moon, day Ting Hae, July 7th ; gth 
moon, day Yih Yew, September 3rd. 

S. D. Tsing determined by S, f, \, ft, &c. Geminorum. 

Pih Ho, a, /3, p, rr Geminorum. 

Chung Tae, X, fi Ursao Majoris. 

Wan Chang, 6, v, $ Ursse Majoris. She Ke, M. T. L. 

The ' She Ke ' has ' swept Chung Tae and Wan Chang,' which appears to be 
the preferable reading, 

M 



42 Comets observed in China. 

184 A.D. 68 1. October 17. 

In the i st year of the epoch Kae Tih, the gth moon, day Ping Shin, there was a 
comet in the middle of Teen She. It was 50 cubits in length. It gradually lessened 
and went to the east. It passed on to Ho Koo. On the day Kwei Chow it was no 
longer visible. 

Epoch Kae Tih, 1st year, A.D. 68 1 : gth moon, day Ping Shin, October xyth : 
day Kwei Chow, November 3rd. 

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. 

Ho Koo, a, ft, j Aquilse. She Ke, M. T. L. 

185 A.D. 683. April 20. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Yung Shun, the 3rd moon, day Ping Woo, there was 
a comet to the north of Woo Chay. In the 4th moon, day Sin Wei, it disappeared. 

Epoch Yung Shun, A.D. 682-683 : 2nd year, 683 : 3rd moon, day Ping Woo, 
April 2Oth ; day Sin Wei, May ifth. 

Woo Chay, a, ]3, &c. Aurigee and j3 Tauri. She Ke, M. T. L. 

1 86 A. D. 684. July 8. 

In the epoch Wan Ming, ist year, yth moon, day Sin Wei, there was a comet in 
the west. It was about 10 cubits in length. In the 8th moon, day Kea Shin, it 
disappeared. 

The epoch Wan Ming does not occur as one of those of this dynasty. In the 
' TuHg Keen Kang Muh,' vol. lv., it is mentioned as that of one of the princes who 
assumed sovereignty about this time, and the 1st year coincides with the ist year 
of the Emperor Chung Tsung : hence it is A.D. 684. 

7th moon, day Sin Wei, July 8th; 8th moon, day Kea Shin, August loth. 

She Ke, M. T. L. 

Biot makes this September 6th and October gth ; by computation it comes out 
as I have rendered it. 

187 A.D. 684. September 12. 

In the reign of Chung Tsung, the 1st year of the epoch KwangTsih, the gth moon, 
day Ting Chow, there was a star resembling a half moon in the west. 

Emperor Chung Tsung, A.D. 684~7og. The epoch Kwang Tsih is not in the 
regular list. In ' M. T. L.' it is the 1st epoch of Chung Tsung, and this is, there- 
fore, his ist year, 684: gth moon, day Ting Chow, September I2th. Biot makes 
it October nth. 

This was most likely a meteor. 



Comets observed in China. 43 

1 88 A.D. 707. November 16. 

In the ist year of the epoch King Luiig, the loth moon, day Jin Woo, there was a 
comet in the west. In the nth moon, day Kea Yin, it disappeared. 

King Lung, A.D. 707-709: ist year, A.D. 707: 10th moon, day Jin Woo, 
November i6th ; nth moon, day Kea Yin, December i7th. She Ke, M. T. L. 

189 A.D. 708. March 30. 

In the 2nd year of the same epoch, 2nd moon, day Ting Yew, there was a comet 
between S. D. Wei and Maou. 

King Lung, 2nd year, 708 : 2nd moon, day Ting Yew, March 3Oth. 

S. D. Wei determined by three stars in Musca. 

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. She Ke, M. T. L. 

190 A.D. 708. September 21. 

In the 8th moon of the same year, day Jin Shin, there was a comet in Tsze Kung. 

8th moon, day Jin Shin, September 2 ist. 
Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. 

191 Between A.D. 710 and A.D. 713. 

In the ist year of the epoch Yen Ho, the 6th moon, there was a comet. From 
Heen Yuen it entered Tae Wei. It passed on to Ta Keo and disappeared. 

The epoch Yen Ho is not one of the regular epochs of this dynasty. It 
appears to have been somewhere between 710 and 713. 

Heen Yuen, Regulus and other stars in Leo and Leo Minor. 

Ta Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Ta Keo, Arcturus. 

192 A.D. 730. June 30. 

In the reign of Yuen Tsung, the i8th year of the epoch Kae Yuen, the 6th moon, 
day Kea Tsze, there was a comet in Woo Chay. On the day Kwei Yew the comet was 
in S. D. Peih and Maou. 

Emperor Yuen Tsung, called also Heuen Tsung, A.D. 713-755; epoch Kae 
Yuen, 713-741 : i8th year, 730: 6th moon, day Kea Tsze, June 3Oth ; day Kwei 
Yew, July gth. 

S. D. Peih determined by a, j, 8, s TaurL 
S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. 
Woo Chay, a, ]3, y Aurigae and /3 Tauri. 

The latter portion of this, from Kwei Yew, is separate in the original, both in 
the ' She Ke ' and ' M. T. L.' It is, however, evident that both relate to the same 
comet. 



44 



Comets observed in China. 



193 A.D. 739. 

In the a6th year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, day Ping Tsze, there was a 
comet in Tsze Kung. It was bright. It passed through Pih Tow Kwei. After 10 
days, being obscured by clouds, it was no more seen. 

Kae Yuen, 26th year, 739. 

Pih Tow Kwei, the square in Ursa Major. She Ke, M. T. L. 

194 A.D. 760. May 1 6. 

In the reign of Suh Tsung, the 3rd year of the epoch Keen Yuen, the 4th moon, 
day Ting Sze, there was a comet in the east. Its place was between S. D. Lew and 
Wei. Its colour was white. It was 4 cubits in length. It went rapidly to the east. 
It passed through S. D. Maou, Peih, Tsuy He, Tsan, and Tung Tsin, to Kwei, Lew, and 
Heen Yuen. It passed to the west of Yew Chih Fa. It was seen altogether for about 
50 days. 

Emperor Suh Tsung, A.D. 756-762 ; epoch Keen Yuen, 758-759 : 3rd year, 
day Ting Sze, 760, May i6th. 

The Tables give but two years to the epoch Keen Yuen. 
K. D. Lew determined by a, /3, j Arietis. 

Wei determined by the three stars in Musca. 
Maou determined by the Pleiades. 
Peih determined by a, -y, S, , &c. Tauri. 

Tsuy He, or Tsuy, determined by X and stars in head of Orion. 
Tsan determined by a, /3, 7, 8 Orionis. 
Kwei determined by y, S, r\, 9 Cancri. 
Lew determined by 8, &c. Hydrse. 
Tsing determined by y, t, X, /u Geminorum. 
Heen Yuen, a Lconis and others in Leo and Leo Minor. 
Yew Chih Fa, ft Virginis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

195 A.D. 760. May 15. 

In the intercalary moon of the same year, on the day Sin Yew, the 1st day of the 
moon, a comet was seen in the west. It was 10 cubits in length. When the 5th moon 
commenced it had disappeared. 

The intercalary moon appears to have been that which preceded the 5th moon. 
The day Sin Yew will, therefore, be May 15, and the 5th moon June or July. 

She Ke, M. T. L. 

196 A.D. 767. January 12. 

In the reign of Tae Tsung, the 1st year of the epoch Ta Leih, the I2th moon, day 
Ke Hae, there was a comet in Kwa Chaou. It was about a cubit in length. After 20 
days it disappeared. It passed over Hwan Chay. 




Comets observed in China. 45 

Emperor Tae Tsung, A.D. 763-769 ; epoch Ta Leih, 766-779 : ist year, 766 : 
1 2th moon, day Ke Hae, January 12, 767. 
Kwa Chaou, a, /3, y, &c. Delphini. 
Hwan Chay, t, t, &c. Ophiuchi. She Ke, M. T. L. 

197 A.D. 770. June 15. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch, the 4th moon, day Ke Wei, there 
in Woo Chay. Its luminous envelope appeared much disordered. It was 
cubits in length. In the 5th moon, day Ke Maou, the comet was seen in 1 
Its colour was white. On the day Kwei Wei it went to the east, and approach 
middle star of Pa Kuh. In the 6th moon, day Kwei Maou, it came near San Kung. 
On the day Ke Wei it disappeared. 

Epoch Ta Leih, 5th year, 770: 5th moon, day Ke Maou, June i5th: days, 
Kwei Wei, June igth ; Kwei Maou, July gth ; Ke Wei, July 25th. 
San Kung, three stars near head of Asterion. 
Pa Kuh, 8, I Auriga?. She Ke, M. T. L. 

197"" A.D. 773. January 17. 

In the 7th year of the same epoch, the i2th moon, day Ping Yin, there was a tailed 
star in the lower part of S. D. Tsan. The tail of this comet extended across the heavens 
from the star Tang in S. D. Tsan. 

7th year of epoch Ta Leih, 772 : I2th moon, day Ping Yin, 773, January 17. 

S. D. Tsan determined by a and other stars in Orion. 

Tang, a star in Orion not identified. She Ke, M. T. L. 

198 A. D. 815. April. 

In the reign of Heen Tsung, the xoth year of the epoch Yuen Ho, there was a 
tailed star in Tae Wei. The tail extended to Heen Yuen. 

Emperor Heen Tsung, A.U. 806-820; epoch Yuen Ho, the same; loth year, 
A.D. 815 : 3rd moon, April. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Heen Yuen, a, j, i, X and others in Leo and Leo Minor. She Ke, M. T. L. 

199 A.D. 817. February 17. 

In the 1 2th year of the same epoch, the ist moon, day Woo Tsze, there was a 
comet in S. D. Peih. 

Yuen Ho, I2th year, 817 : ist moon, day Woo Tsze, February i7th. 

S. D. Peih determined by a and others in Taiirus. She Ke, M. T. L. 

N 



46 Comets observed in China. 

200 A.D. 821. February 27. 

In the reign of Muh Tsung, the ist year of the epoch Chang King, ist moon, day 
Ke Wei, there was a comet in S. D. Yih. 

Emperor Muh Tsung and epoch Chang King, 821-824, Ist year: 1st moon, 
day Ke Wei, 821, February ajth. 

S. D. Yih determined by a and others in Crater. She Ke, M. T. L. 

201 A.D. 821. March 7. 

In the 2nd moon of the same year, day Ting Maou, there was a comet in Tae Wei, 
to the west of the star Shang Tseang. In the 6th moon the comet was in S. D. Maou. 
Its length was 10 cubits. It was visible altogether for 10 days, after which it 
disappeared. 

2nd moon, day Ting Maou, 821, March 7 : 6th moon, July. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Shang Tseang, <r Leonis. 

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. She Ke, M. T. L. 

202 A.D. 828. July 5. 

In the reign of Wan Tsung, the 2nd year of epoch Tae Ho, the yth moon, day Kea 
Shin, there was a comet in Yew She Te, to the south. Its length was 2 cubits. 

Emperor Wan Tsung, A.D. 827-840 ; epoch Tae Ho, 827-835 : 2nd year, 828 : 
7th moon, day Kea Shin, July 5. 

Yew She Te, TJ, v, T in Bootes. She Ke, M. T. L. 

203 A. D. 829. December. 

In the 3rd year of the same epoch, the loth moon, a strange star Avas seen in 
Shwuy Wei. 

Tae Ho, 3rd year, 829 : loth moon, November. 

Shwuy Wei, Z,, 6, o Canis Minoris. She Ke. 

204 A.D. 834. October 9. 

In the 8th year of the same epoch, the gth moon, day Sin Hae, there was a comet 
in Tae Wei. It was about 10 cubits in length. Its course was to the north-west. It 
passed over Lang Wei. On the day Kang Shin it was no longer visible. 

Tae Ho, 8th year, 834 : gth moon, day Sin Hae, October gth ; Kang Shin, 
October i8th. 

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Lacg Wei, Coma Berenices. SJie Ke, M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 47 

205 A.D. 837. March 22. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Kae Ching, the 2nd moon, day Ping Woo, there was 
comet in S. D. Wei. It was about 7 cubits in length. It pointed towards Nan Tow. 
On the day Woo Shin it was to the south-west of S. D . Wei. It was bright, and moved 
rapidly. On the day Kwei Chow its place was in S. D. Heu. On the day Sin Yew its 
length was about 10 cubits. It went to the west, gradually pointing to the south. On 
the day Jin Seuh its place was in Woo Neu : its length was about 20 cubits, and was 
3 cubits in breadth. On the day Kwei Hae the tail was still broad. In the 3rd moon, 
day Kea Tsze, its place was in Nan Tow. On the day Yih Chow its length was 50 
cubits, the end (of the tail) being divided into two branches, the one pointing to S. I). 
Te, the other covering S. D. Fang. On the day Ping Yin its length was 6 cubits, and 
was no longer branched. It pointed to the north. Its place was in the Jih degree of 
S. D. Kang. On the day Ting Maou it went to the north-west, pointing to the east. 
On the day Ke Sze its length was about 80 cubits : its place was then in S. D. Chaiig. 
On the day Kwei Wei it was but 3 cubits in length : its place was to the right of Heeii 
Yuen. After this it was no longer visible. 

Epoch Kae Ching, A.D. 836-840 : 2nd year, 837 : 2nd moon, day Ping Woo, 
March 22: days, Woo Shin, March 24; Kwei Chow, March 29; Sin Yew, April 6 ; 
Jin Seuh, April 7 ; Kwei Hae, April 8 : 3rd moon, day Kea Tsze, April 9 ; Yih 
Chow, April 10 ; Ping Yin, April n ; Ting Maou, April 12 ; Ke Sze, April 14 ; 
Kwei Wei, April 28. 

S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and 6, Pegasi. 

Heu determined by ft Aquarii and another. 

Te determined by a, ft, j, i Librae. 

Fang determined by ft, S, TT in Scorpio. 

Kang determined by (, K, X, Virginis. 

Chang determined by K, X, ju, &c. Hydrse. 

Tow, or Nan Tow, determined by S, /j., &c. Sagittarii. 

Woo Neu, or Neu, determined by i, /u, v, &c. Aquarii. 
Heen Yuen, a and others in Leo and Leo Minor. 

' M. T. L.' adds, in a kind of note, a sentence implying that, generally speaking, 
it may be looked upon as a constant rule, that when a comet appears in the morning 
its direction is to the west, and to the east when it appears in the evening. 



206 A.D. 837. April 29. 

In the same moon, day Kea Shin, a strange star was seen in the lower part of 
S. D. Tsing, to the east. 

Day Kea Shin, 837, April 2gth. 

S. D. Tsing determined by y, E, X, ju, &c. Geminorum. She Ke. 



48 Comets observed in China. 

207 A.D. 837. May 3. 

On the day Woo Tsze a strange star was seen within Twan Mun, near the star 
Ping. 

Day Woo Tsze, May 3rd. 

Twan Mun, between /3 and j Virginia. 

Star Ping, v and others in Virgo. She Ke. 

208 A.r>. 837. May 21. 

In the 4th moon of the same year, day Ping Woo, the strange star seen in the 
lower part of S. D. Tsing, to the east, disappeared. 
837 : 4th moon, day Ping Woo, May 2 1st. 
S. D. Tsing, as above. This relates to No. 206. She Ke. 

209 A.D. 837. June 17. 

In the 5th moon, day Kwei Yew, the strange star seen in Twan Mun disappeared. 
5th moon, day Kwei Yew, June I7th. 
Twan Mun. See No. 207, to which this relates. She Ke. 

210 A.D. 837. June 26. 

In the same moon, day Jin Woo, a strange star, like a comet, was seen in Nan 
Tow, near Teen Yo. 

Day Jin Woo, June 26th. 

Nan Tow, same as S. D. Tow, determined by S, ju, &c. Sagittarii. 

Teen Yo, not identified. She Ke. 

211 A.D. 837. September 9. 

In the 8th moon of the same year, day Ting Yew, there was a comet in the S. D. 
Heii and Wei. 

837 : 8th moon, day Ting Yew, September gth. 

S. D. Heu determined by /3 Aquarii and another. 

S. D. Wei determined by o Aquarii and 0, E Pegasi. She Ke, M. T. L. 

212 A.D. 838. November n. 

In the 3rd year of the same epoch, the loth moon, da}' Yih Sze, there was a comet 
in S. D. Chin and Kwei. It was about 20 cubits in length. The tail gradually pointed 
to the west. 

Kae Ching, 3rd year, 838 : loth moon, day Yih Sze, November nth. 

S. D. Chin determined by |3, &c. Corvi. 

S. D. Kwei determined by j, 8, &c. Cancri. She Ke, M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 49 

213 A.D. 838. November 21. 

In the nth. moon, day Yih Maou, there was a comet in the east. Its place was in 
8. D. "Wei and Ke, from east to west. It extended across the heavens. In the I2th 
moon, day Jin Shin, it was no longer seen. 

nth moon, day Yih Maou, November 21 ; Jin Shin, December 8. 

S. D. "Wei determined by 6, fi, v, &c. in Scorpio. 

S. D. Ke determined by y, 8, t, &c. Sagittarii. She Ke, M. T. L. 

This may possibly be a continuation of the preceding account. 

214 A. D. 839. February 7. 

In the 4th year, ist moon, day Kwei "Yew, there was a comet in Yu Lin. 
Kae Ching, 4th year, 839 : ist moon, day Kwei Yew, February yth. 
Yu Lin, 8, T, x and others in Aquarius. She Ke, M. T. L. 

215 A.D. 839. March 12. 

In the intercalary moon of the same year, day Ping "Woo, there was a comet in 
Keuen Che, to the north-west. In the 2nd moon, day Ke Mau, it disappeared. 

The intercalary moon appears to have been that immediately preceding the 
2nd moon. Hence the day Ping "Woo will be March 12, and the 2nd moon, Kc 
Maou, April 14. 

Keuen Che, e, v and others in Perseus. She Ke, M. T. L. 

216 A.D. 840. March 20. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch, 2nd moon, day Kang Shin, there was a comet 
in Ying Shih, to the east, between that and S. D. Peih. On the 20th day it disappeared. 
Epoch Kae Ching, 5th year, 840 : 2nd moon, day Kang Shin, March 20. 
Ying Shih, same as S. D. Shih, determined by a Pegasi and others. 
S. D. Peih, determined by j Pegasi, &c. She Ke, M. T. L. 

217 A.D. 840. December 3. 

In the nth moon of the same year, day "Woo Shin, there was a comet in the east. 
840 : I ith moon, day Woo Shin, December 3rd. She Ke, M. T. L. 

21 8 A.D. 841. July. 

In the reign of Woo Tsung, the ist year of the epoch Hwuy Chang, the 7th moon, 
there was a comet in Yu Lin, between Ying Shih and the east of the S. D. Peih. 

Emperor Woo Tsung and epoch Hwuy Chang, A.D. 841-846 : ist year, 841 : 
yth moon, July. 

o 



50 Comets observed in China. 

S. D. Shih determined by a Pegasi and others. 

Ying Shih, same as a Pegasi. 

S. D. Peih determined by y Pegasi and a Andromedse. 

Yu Liu, 8, T and others in Aquarius. She Ke, M. T. L. 

219 A.D. 841. December 22. 

In the nth moon of the same year, day Jin Yin, there was a comet near Pih Lo 
Sze Mun. Its place was in Ying Shih. It entered Tsze Kung. In the i2th moon, 
day Sin Maou, it was no longer visible. 

841 : nth moon, day Jin Yin, December 22; i2th moon, day Sin Maou, 
February 9, 842. 

S. D. Shih determined by o Pegasi and others. 

Pih Lo Sze Mun, Fomalhaut. 

Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. She Ke, M. T. L. 

This date is unsatisfactory, the day Sin Maou not falling in the i2th moon. 

2 20 A.D. 851. April. 

In the reign of Seuen Tsung, the 6th year of the epoch Ta Chung, the 3rd moon, 
there was a comet in S. D. Tsuy and Tsan, near the star Tang. 

Emperor Seuen Tsung and epoch Ta Chung, A.D. 846-859 : 6th year, 85 1 ; 
3rd moon, April. 

S. D. Tsuy determined by X and small stars in head of Orion. 

S. D. Tsan determined by a, /3, y, S Orionis. 

Tang, unascertained star in Orion. She Ke, M. T. L. 

221 A.D. 856. September 27. 

In the nth year of the same epoch, the gth moon, day Yih Wei, there was a comet 
in S. D. Fang. It was 3 cubits in length. 

Ta Chung, nth year, 856 : gth moon, day Yih Wei, September 27. 

S. D. Fang determined by /3, 8, TT, &c. in Scorpio. She Ke, M. T. L. 

222 A.D. 864. June 21. 

In the reign of the Emperor E Te Tsung, the 5th year of the epoch Han Tung, the 
5th moon, day Ke Hae, in the evening, a comet was seen in the north-east, through an 
opening in the clouds, for not more than 15 minutes. Its colour was yellowish white. 
It was 3 cubits in length, and was in S. D. Lew. 

Emperor E Te Tsung and epoch Han Tung, A.D. 860-873 : 5^ J e a r 864 ; 
5th moon, day Ke Hae, June 21. 

S. D. Lew determined by a, /3, j Arietis. She Ke, M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 51 

223 A.D. 868. February. 

In the gth year of the same epoch, the ist moon, there was a comet in S. D. Lew 
and Wei. 

Han Tung, gth year, 868 : 1st moon, Fehruary. 

S. D. Lew determined by a, /3, y Arietis. 

S. D. Wei determined by the three stars in Musca. She Ke, M. T. L. 

224 A. D. 869. September. 

In the loth year of the epoch Han Tung, 8th moon, there was a comet to the 
north-east of Ta Ling. 

Han Tung, loth year, 869 : 8th moon, September. 

Ta Ling, T and others in Perseus. *S'A Ke, M. T. L. 

225 A.D. 877. June. 

In the reign of He Tsung, the 4th year of the epoch Keen Foo, the 5th moon, a 
comet was seen. 

Emperor He Tsung, A.D. 874-888 ; epoch Keen Foo, 874-879 : 4th year, 877 : 
5th moon, June. She Ke, M. T. L. 

226 A.D. 885. 

In the ist year of the epoch Kwang Ke a comet was seen in Tseih Shwuy, between 
that and Tseih Sin. 

Epoch Kwang Ke, 885-887 : ist year, 885. 

Tseih Shwuy, X, /i Persei. 

Tseih Sin, x Geminorum and fj. Cancri. She Ke, M. T. L. 

227 A.D. 886. June 13. 

In the 2nd year of the same epoch, 5th moon, day Ping Seuh, there was a comet in 
S. D. Wei and Ke. It passed through Pih Tow and She Te. 

Kwang Ke, 2nd year, 886 : 5th moon, day Ping Seuh, June 13. 
S. D. Wei determined by t, p., v, &c. in Scorpio. 
S. D. Ke determined by y, S, e Sagittarii. 
Pih Tow, a, /3, y, &c. Ursee Majoris. 
She Te, stars in feet of Bootis. 

228 A.D. 891. May 12. 

In the reign of Chaou Tsung, the 2nd year of the epoch Ta Shun, the 4th moon, 
day Kang Shin, there was a comet in San Tae. It went to the east. It entered Tae 
Wei. It swept Ta Keo and Teen She. It was about 100 cubits in length. In the 5th 
moon, day Kea Seuh, it was no longer visible. 



52 Comets observed in China. 

Emperor Chaou Tsung, A.D. 889-904; epoch Ta Shun, 890-891 : and year, 
891 : 4th moon, day Kang Shin, May 12 : 5th moon, day Kea Seuh, July 5. 
San Tae, feet of Ursa Major. 
Tae Wei, space within stars in Leo and Virgo. 
Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. 
Ta Keo, Arcturus. She Ke, M. T. L. 

229 A.D. 892. December. 

In the 1st year of the epoch King Fuh, the nth moon, there was a comet in S. D. 
Tow and New. 

Epoch King Fuh, A.D. 892-893 : ist year, 892 : nth moon, December. 

S. D. Tow determined by 2, T, <r, (j>, &c. in Sagittarius. 

S. D. New determined by a, j3, &c. Capricorni. She Ke, M. T. L. 

230 A.D. 893. May 6. 

In the 2nd year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, the heavens were for a long time 
covered with clouds. In the 4th moon, on the day Yih Yew, the clouds gradually 
opened, and a comet was seen in the evening in Shang Tae. It was about 100 cubits in 
length. It went to the east. It entered Tae "Wei and swept Ta Keo. It entered Teen 
She. After 37 days it increased in length to about 200 cubits (sic), when the weather 
becoming cloudy it could no longer be seen. 

Epoch King Fuh, 2nd year, 893 : 3rd moon, April : 4th moon, day Yih Yew, 
May 6th. 

Shang Tae, , K Ursse Majoris. Ta Keo, Arcturus. 

Tae Wei, space within stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. She Ke, M. T. L. 

Pingre" has 895 for the year and June 25 for the day ; the Tables give the 
year 893, &c. as above. 

231 A.D. 894. February. 

In the 1st year of the epoch Keen Ning, the ist moon, there was a comet in Shun 
Show. 

Epoch Keen Ning, A.D. 894-897 : ist year, ist moon, 894, February. 

Shun Show, one of the 12 kung, answering to our zodiacal sign Gemini or 
Cancer. It comprises the S. D. Tsing and Kwei, the stars composing which are in 
Gemini and Cancer. M. T. L. 

232 A.D. 905. May 22. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Teen Yew, the 4th moon, day Kea Shin, there was a 
comet in Ho Pih, Kwan, and Wan Chang. It was about 30 cubits in length. It 



Comets observed in China. 53 

entered Chung Tae and Hea Tae. In the 5th moon, on the day Yih Chow, in the 
evening, it was in the left angle of Heen Yuen, extending towards the west of Teen 
She. In the morning the luminous envelope had an exceedingly angry appearance. 
It extended across the heavens. On the day Ping Yin it was cloudy, and when, on the 
day Sin Wei, it ceased a little from raining, the comet was no longer visible. 

Epoch Teen Yew, A.D. 904-905 : 2nd year, 905 : day Kea Shin, May 22 : 5th 
moon, day Yih Chow, June 12 ; Ping Yin, June 13 ; Sin Wei, June 18. 
Ho Pih, or Pih Ho, a, /3, p, <r Geminorum. 
Kwan, Corona Borealis. 
Wan Chang, 9, (j>, v Ursae Majoris. 
Chung Tae, Hea Tae, stars in the feet of Ursa Major. 
Heen Yuen, a and other stars in Leo and Leo Minor. 
Teen She, space bounded by Serpens. She Ke, M. T. L. 



Woo TAE, THE FIVE SHORT DYNASTIES, A.D. 907-960. 



HOW, OR LATER L.EANG, A.D. 907-922. 

233 A.D. 912. May 13. 

Iii the reign of Tae Tsoo, the 2nd year of the epoch Keen Hwa, the 4th moon, day 
Jin Shin, a comet appeared in S. D. Chang. On the day Kea Seuh the comet was in 
Ling Tae. 

Emperor Tae Tsoo, A.D. 907-912 ; epoch Kan Hwa, 911-912 : 2nd year, 912 : 
4th moon, day Jin Shin, May 13 ; day Kea Seuh, May 15. 
S. D. Chang determined by K, X, fi, &c. Hydrao. 
Ling Tae, ^ Leonis and small stars near. She Ke, M. T. L. 



HOW, OR LATER TANG, A.D. 923-935. 

234 A.D. 928. October 14. 

In the reign of Ming Tsung, the 3rd year of the epoch Teen Ching, the loth moon, 
day Kang Woo, a comet appeared in the south-west. It was about 10 cubits in length. 
It pointed to the south-east. Its place was in the 5th degree of S. D. New. After 
three evenings it was no longer visible. 

Emperor Ming Tsung and epoch Teen Chiug, 926-929 : 3rd year, 928 : 10th 
moon, day Kang Woo, October 14. 

S. D. New determined by a, /3, &c. Capricorni. She Ke, M. T. L. 

p 



54 Comets observed in China. 

235 A.D. 936. October 28. 

In the reign of Fei Te, the 3rd year of the epoch Tsching Tae, the gth moon, day 
Ke Chow, a comet appeared in S. D. Heu and Wei. It was about i cubit in length. 
It was very small. It passed the stars Teen Luy and Kuh. 

Emperor Fei Te, A.D. 934-935 ; epoch Tsching Tae, 3rd year, 936 : gth moon, 
day Yih Chow, October 28. 

S. D. Heu determined by j3 Aquarii and another. 

S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and 6, t Pegasi. 

Teen Luy, Aquarii, X Capricorni, and others. 

Kuh, /* Capricorni. She Ke, M. T. L. 

' M. T. L.' has Mo Te for Fei Te. 

HOW TSIN, A.D. 936-946. 

236 A.D. 941. September 18. 

In the reign of Kaou Tsoo, the 6th year of the epoch Teen Fuh, the gth moon, day 
Jin Tsze, a comet appeared in the west. It swept Teen She Yuen. It was about 10 
cubits in length. 

Emperor Kaou Tsoo and epoch Teen Fuh, 936-944 : 6th year, 941 : gth moon, 
day Jin Tsze, September 18. 

Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. M. T. L. 

237 A.D. 943. November 5. 

In the 8th year of the same epoch, loth moon, day Kang Seuh, in the evening, a 
comet was seen in the east. It pointed to the west. The tail was 10 cubits in length. 
Its place was in the gth degree of S. D. Keo. 

Teen Fuh, 8th year, 943 : zoth moon, day Kang Seuh, November 5. 

S. D. Keo determined by a and Virginis. She Ke, M. T. L. 

' M. T. L.' has i cubit in length. 

How CHOW, A.D. 951-960. 

238 A.D. 956. March 13. 

In the reign of She Tsung, the 3rd year of the epoch Heen Tih, the 1st moon, day 
Jin Seuh, in the evening, there was a comet in S. D. Tsan. The tail pointed to the 
south-east. 

She Tsung, A.D. 954-959 ; epoch Heen Tih the same : 3rd year, 956 : ist 
moon, day Jin Seuh, March 13. 

S. D. Tsan determined by a, )3, j, &c. Orionis. She Ke, M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 55 

THE LATER, SUNG DYNASTY, A.D. 960-1279. 

239 A.D. 975. April. 

In the reigii of Tae Tsoo, the 8th year of the epoch Kae Paou, the 3rd moon, a 
comet was seen in the east. 

Emperor Tae Tsoo, 960975 ; epoch Kae Paou, 968-975 : 8th year, 975 : 3rd 
moon, ApriL 

240 A.D. 975. August 3. 

In the 6th moon of the same year, day Kea Tsze, a comet appeared in S. D. Lew. 
It was 40 cubits in length. In the morning it was seen in the east. It pointed to the 
south-west. It passed over Yu Kwei. It went on to the eastern part of S. D. Peih. 
Altogether it passed through 1 1 S. D. in 83 days, and then disappeared. 

Kae Yuen, 8th year, 975 : 6th moon, day Kea Tsze, August 3. 

S. D. Lew determined by S, t, , 6 Hydrae. 

S. D. Peih determined by a Andromedse and j Pegasi. 

Yu Kwei, same as S. D. Kwei, determined by y, B, rj, 9 Cancri. M. T. L. 

241 A.D. 989. August 13. 

In the reign of Tae Tsung, the 2nd year of the epoch Twan Kung, 6th moon, day 
Woo Tsze, there was a comet in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing, to the west of Tseih 
Shuwy. Its colour was a bluish white. Its luminous envelope gradually increased in 
length. In the morning it was seen for 10 days in the north-east, and to the north- 
west in the evening. It passed over Yew She Te. It was visible altogether for 30 
days, after which it disappeared. 

Emperor Tae Tsung, A.D. 976-997 ; epoch Twan Kung, 988-989 : and year, 
989 : ist moon, day "Woo Tsze, August 13. 

S. D. Tsing determined by j, t, X, fj., &c. Geminorum. 

S. D. Kang determined by t, K, X, <j> Virginis. 

Yew She Te, TJ, T, v Boiitis. 

Tseih Shwuy, X, ju Persei. M, T. L. 

242 A.D. 998. February 23. 

In the reign of Ching Tsung, the ist year of the epoch Han Ping, the ist moon, 
day Kea Shin, there was a comet to the north of Ying Shih. Its luminous envelope 
was about i cubit in length. It passed on until the day Ting Yew, when it disappeared. 
It was altogether seen for 14 days. 

Emperor Ching Tsung, A.D. 998-1022 ; epoch Han Ping, 998-1003 : ist year, 
998 : ist moon, day Kea Shin, February 23 ; day Ting Yew, March 8. 

Ying Shih, same as S. D. Shih, determined by a, /3 Pegasi, &c. M. T. L. 



56 Comets observed in China. 

243 A. D. 1003. December 23. 

In the 6tli year of the same epoch, the nth moon, day Kea Yin, there was a comet 
in S. D. Tsing and Kwei. It was like a large cup. Its colour was a bluish white. Its 
luminous envelope was about 4 cubits in length. It entered Woo Choo Shih. It passed 
over Woo Chay and entered S. D. Tsan. It was visible altogether for about 30 days, 
after which it disappeared. 

Epoch Han Ping, 6th year, 1003 : nth moon, day Kea Yin, December 23. 
S. D. Tsing determined by j, s, X, fi, &c- Geminorum. 
Kwei determined by -y, S, i\, Cancri. 
Tsan determined by a, ft, y, S, &c. Orionis. 

Woo Choo Shih, 9, v, T, &c. Geminorum. Woo Chay, a, /3, &c. Aurigse, &c. 

M. T. L. 

244 A. D. 1018. August 4. 

In the 2nd year of the epoch Teen He, the 6th moon, day Sin Hae, a comet ap- 
peared in Pih Tow Kwei, to the north-east of the 2nd star. It was more than 3 cubits 
in length. It went to the north of the 1st star in Pih Tow. It passed near Teen Laou 
and over Wan Chang. Its length was then about 30 cubits. It passed through Tsze 
Wei, Sun Tae, and Ileen Yuen. Its course was to the west until it arrived at Tseih 
Sing. It was visible altogether for 37 days, and then disappeared. 

Epoch Teen Hae, A.D. 1017-1021 : 2nd year, 1018 : 6th moon, day Sin Hao, 
August 4th. 

Pih Tow Kwei, the square in Ursa Major. 

Teen Laou, w, &c. Ursse Majoris. Wan Chang, 0, v, <j>, &c. Ursse Majoris. 
San Tae, the stars in the feet of Ursa Major. 
Heeii Yuen, Regulus and other stars in Leo and Leo Minor. 
Tseih Sing, the seven stars in S. D. Sing, determined by a, a, T, &c. Hydrao. 

M. T. L. 

245 A.D. 1035. September 15. 

In the reign of Jin Tsung, the 2nd year of the epoch King Yew, the 8th moon, 
day Jin Seuh, in the evening, there was a comet in S. D. Chang and Yih. It was 7 
cubits in length and -f^ths of a cubit in breadth. After 12 days it disappeared. 

Emperor Jin Tsung, A.D. 1023-1063 ; epoch King Yew, 1034-1037 : 2nd 
year, 1035 : day Jin Seuh, September 15. 

S. D. Chang determined by K, X, /u, &c. Hydras. 

S. D. Yih determined by a, &c. Crateris. M. T. L. 

246 A.D. 1036. January 15. 

In the 1 2th month of the same year, day Ke Wei, in the evening, a comet appeared 
in Wae Ping. It had a luminous envelope. 

1 2th moon, day Ke Wei, 1036, January 15th. 

Wae Ping, a, J3, i and others in the band of Pisces. M. T. L. 



Comets observed in China. 57 

247 A.D. 1049. March 10. 

In the i at year of the epoch Hwang Yeu, the 2nd moon, day Ting Maou, a comet 
appeared in S. D. Heu. In the morning it was seen in the east. It pointed to the 
south-west. It passed through Tsze Wei and arrived at the S. D. Lew. It was visible 
for 114 days, and then disappeared. 

Epoch Hwang Yeu, A.D. 1049-1053: ist year, 1049: and moon, day Ting 
Maou, March 10. 

S. D. Heu determined by ft Aquarii and another. 

S. D. Lew determined by a, ft, y Arietis. 

Tsze Wei, circle of perpetual apparition. M. T. L. 

248 A.D. 1056. August. 

In the ist year of the epoch Kea Yew, the 7th moon, a comet appeared in Tsze 
Wei. It passed through Tseih Sing. Its colour was white. It was about 10 cubits in 
length. It passed on until the 8th moon, day Kwei Hae, when it disappeared. 

Epoch Kea Yew, A.D. 1056-1063 : ist year, 1056 : 7th moon, August. 
Tsze Wei, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Tseih Sing, the seven stars. These appear to be the seven bright stars in 
Ursa Major. 

249 A.D. 1066. April 2. 

In the reign of Ying Tsung, the 3rd year of the epoch Che Ping, the 3rd moon, 
day Ke Wei, a comet appeared in Ying Shih. It was seen in the east in the morning, 
and was more than 7 cubits in length. It pointed to the south-west and to the S. D. 
Wei, extending to the stars Fun Moo. It gradually went afar off to the east. It ap- 
proached the sun, and consequently could then not be seen. On the day Sin Sze it was 
again seen in the evening, to the north-west. It appeared like a star, without a bright 
envelope. It went to the east, increasing in size, and resembled a white vapour more 
than 3 cubits in breadth. It connected together Tsze Wei, Keih Sing, and S. D. Fang. 
The head and (the end of) the tail were obscured by clouds. It still went to the east. 
It passed Wan Chang and Pih Tow and crossed the S. D. Wei. On the day Jin Woo 
the star had regained its luminous envelope. The comet was then about 10 cubits in 
length and about 3 in breadth. It pointed to the north-east. It passed over Woo Chay, 
at which time the white vapour was divided into two branches. It crossed the heavens, 
passing through Pih Ho, Woo Choo How, Heen Yuen, Tae Wei, and Woo Te Tso, into 
Woo Choo How. It extended towards S. D. Keo, Kang, Te, and Fang. On the day 
Kwei Wei the comet was 1 5 cubits in length, and had round it a vapour resembling in 
form a Shing Ke (a kind of measure). Its course was thus from Ying Shih to S. D. 
Chang. In the north it altogether passed through 14 S. D. It was visible for 67 
days, after which the star, the vapour, and the comet, all disappeared. 

Q 



58 Comets observed in China. 

Emperor Ying Tsung and epoch Che Ping, 1064-1067 : 3rd year, 1066 : 3rd 
moon, day Ke Wei, April 2 : days, Sin Sze, April 24 ; Jin Woo, April 25 ; Kwei 
Wei, April 26. 

S. D. Ying Shih, or Shih, determined by a Pegasi and stars near. 

Wei determined by t, fi, v, &c. in Scorpio. 

Keo determined by a Virginis and another. 

Fang determined by a, S, IT, p in Scorpio. 

Kang determined by , K, X, Virginis. 

Te determined by a, |3, y, v Librae. 

Chang determined by K, X, ju, &c. Hydras. 
Tsze Wei, circle of perpetual apparition. 
Keih Sing, stars near the Pole. 
Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 
Fun Moo, a, T), TT and others in Aquarius. 
Wan Chang, 6, v, (j> and others in Ursa Major. 
Pih Tow, a, /3, y, S, &c. in Ursa Major. 
Woo Chay, a, )3, &c. Aurigae and /3 Tauri. 
Pih Ho, a, /3, &c. Geminorum. 

Woo Choo How, 0, i Geminorum, and also two groups of small stars between 
the head of Virgo and Coma Berenices. These must not be confounded together ; 
the second Woo Choo How referred to in the text appearing to be the last-mentioned 
stars. 

Heen Yuen, Regulus and stars in Leo and Leo Minor. 

Woo Te Tso, /3 Leonis and other stars near. M. T. L. 

It is singular that this very remarkable comet is not noticed in the 'She Ke.' 
In the ' Tung Keen Kang Moo ' the account is as follows : 'In the reign of Yung 
Tsung, the 3rd year of the epoch Che Ping, a comet was seen in the west during 
the 3rd moon.' The ' Commentary ' remarks, ' It resembled the planet Venus, and 
was 15 cubits in length. When it was in S. D. Peih it was like the moon.' 

S. D. Peih determined by a, y, S, &c. Tauri. 

This comet appears to have attracted much attention, and to have excited no 
little alarm in Europe, as we learn from contemporary writers that it was looked 
upon as a forerunner of various calamities : among others, the death of Harold and 
the subsequent conquest of England by William the Norman, is attributed by them 
to the influence of this comet. Zonares, the Greek historian, in his account of the 
reign of the Emperor Constantinus Ducas, describes it as having been as large as 
the full moon, and at first without a tail, on the appearance of which it diminished 
in size : thus corroborating the Chinese accounts, as given in ' M. T. L.' and the 
'Tung Keen Kang Huh.' 



Comets observed in China. 59 

250 A.D. 1095. November 17. 

In the reign of Shin Tsung, the 8th year of the epoch He Ning, the loth moon, 
day Yih Wei, a star appeared in the south-east, in the middle of the degrees of S. D. 
Chin. It was like the planet Saturn, of a bluish white. On the day Ping Shin it pro- 
duced towards the north-west a luminous envelope, 3 cubits in length, pointing in a 
slanting direction to S. D. Chin. It thus resembled a comet. On the day Ting Yew 
the luminous envelope was 5 cubits in length. On the day Woo Seuh it was 7 cubits 
in length, pointing in a slanting direction towards Tso Hea. It went on until the day 
Ting Wei, when it entered the clouds and was no more seen. 

Emperor Shin Tsung, 1068-1085 ; epoch He Ning, 1068-1077 : 8th year, 
1075 : loth moon, day Yih Wei, November 17 ; Ping Shin, November 18 ; Ting 
Yew, November 19 ; Woo Seuh, November 20 ; Ting Wei, November 29. 
S. D. Chin determined by /3 and others in Corvus. 
Tso Hea, j Corvi. 

251 A.D. 1080. August 10. 

In the 3rd year of the epoch Yuen Fung, the 7th moon, day Kwei Wei, a comet 
appeared in the north-west part of Tae Wei Yuen, to the south of Lang Wei. It re- 
sembled a white vapour, 10 cubits in length. It pointed in a slanting direction to the 
south-east. Its place was in the middle degrees of S. D. Chin. On the day Ping Seuh 
it went in a north-westerly direction. Its place was then in the middle degrees of S. D. 
Yih. On the day Woo Tsze it was 3 cubits in length, and went in a sloping direction 
across Lang Wei. On the day Kwei Maou (Kwei Sze) it entered Heen Yuen. On the 
day Ting Yew, the weather being thick, it could not be seen. On the day Kang Tsze 
it again appeared in the morning, in the middle degrees of S. D. Chang, until the day 
Woo Woo, when, having been visible altogether for 36 days, it disappeared, and was 
no more seen. 

Epoch Yuen Fung, A.D. 1078-1085: 3rd year, 1080: 7th moon, day Kwei 
Wei, August 10 ; Ping Seuh, August 13 ; Woo Tsze, August 15 ; Kwei Sze (for 
Kwei Maou, see below), August 20 ; Ting Yew, August 24; Kang Sze, Aug\ist 27 ; 
Woo Woo, September 14. 

There is an obvious error in the original, the day Kwei Maou having been put 
for Kwei Sze. This is proved by summing up the days during which the comet 
was seen, which are said to have been 36. Reckoning Kwei Maou as one, they 
will amount to 96 ; whereas with Kwei Sze their number will be 36, as recorded 
above. 

S. D. Chin determined by j3 and others in Corvus. 
Yih determined by a and others in Crater. 
Chang determined by K, X, ft. and others in Hydra. 
Tae Wei Yuen, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 
Lang Wei, stars in Coma Berenices. 
Heen Yuen, Regulus and others in Leo and Leo Minor. 



60 Comets observed in China, 

252 A.D. 1097. October 6. 

In the reign of Che Tsung, the 4th year of the epoch Shaou Shing, the 8th moon, 
day Ke Yew, a comet appeared in the middle degrees of S. D. Te. It resembled the 
planet Saturn. It was like a bright white vapour, 3 cubits in length. It pointed in a 
slanting direction to the star Pa in Teen She Yuen. In the gth moon, day Jin Tsze, 
the luminous envelope was 5 cubits in length. It entered Teen She Yuen. On the 
day Ke "Wei it invaded Teen She Hwan. On the day Kang Shin it was near Te Tso in 
Teen She Yuen. On the day Woo Shin it disappeared, and was no more seen. 

Emperor Che Tsung, A.D. 1086-1100; epoch Shaou Shing, 1094-1097: 4th 
year, 1097: 8th moon, day Ke Yew, October 6; days, Jin Tsze, October 9 ; Ke 
Wei, October 10 ; Kang Shin, November 6 ; Woo Shin, November 14. 
S. D. Te determined by a, /3, y, i Librae. 
Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 
Teen She Hwan, unascertained. 
Pa, e Serpentis. Te Tso, a Herculis. M. T. L. 

253 A.D. 1106. February 10. 

In the reign of Hwuy Tsung, the 5th year of the epoch Tsung Ning, the ist moon, 
day Woo Seuh, a comet appeared in the west. It was like a great Pei Kow. The lumi- 
nous envelope was scattered. It appeared like a broken-up star. It was 60 cubits in 
length and was 3 cubits in breadth. Its direction was to the north-east. It passed 
S. D. Kwei. It passed through S. D. Lew, Wei, Maou, and Peih. It then entered into 
the clouds and was no more seen. 

Emperor Hwuy Tsung, A.D. 1101-1125 5 epoch Tsung Ning, 1102-1106: 5th 
year, 1106: ist moon, day Woo Seuh, February 10. 

S. D. Kwei determined by /3, S, e AndromedsD and stars in Pisces. 

Lew determined by a, /3, y Arietis. 

Wei determined by the three stars in Musca. 

Maou determined by the Pleiades. 

Peih determined by a, y, S, t, &c. Tauri. 
Pei Kow is a kind of vessel or measure. M. T. L. 

This appears to have been a large meteor, as it seems to hare been seen for a 
short time only. 

254 A.D. i no. May 29. 

In the 4th year of the epoch Ta Kwan, the 5th moon, day Ting Wei, a comet ap- 
peared in S. D. Kwei and Lew. Its luminous envelope was 6 cubits in length. It 
went to the north and entered Tsze Wei Yuen. When in the north-west it entered the 
clouds and was no more seen. 

Epoch Te Kwan, A.D. 1107-1110: 4th year, mo: 5th moon, day Ting Wei. 
May 2gth. 



Comets observed in China. 61 

S. D. Kwei determined by /3, , , &c. Andromedae and stars in Pisces. 

S. D. Lew determined by a, /3, 7 Arietis. 

Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. M. T. L. 

255 A.D. 1126. May 20. 

In the reign of Kin Tsung, the ist year of the epoch Tsing Kang, the 6th moon, 
day Jin Seuh, a comet appeared in Tsze Wei Yuen. 

The Commentary in the ' Tung Keen Keang Muh ' adds, ' Its length was 
reckoned at 10 cubits. Its direction was to the north. It passed over Te Tso and 
swept Wan Chang.' 

Emperor Kin Tsung and epoch Tsing Kang, A.D. 1126 : ist year, 1126: 6th 
moon, day Jin Seuh, May 20. 

Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Te Tso, possibly Polaris, which is named Te. a Herculis has also the same 
appellation. 

Wan Chang, $, n, v Ursae Majoris. M. T. L., Tung Keen. 

256 A.D. 1126. December. 

In the intercalary nth moon of the same year a comet was seen in the horizon. 
A.D. 1126: intercalary nth moon, December. M. T. L. 

257 A.D. 1131. September. 

In the reign of Kaou Tsung, the ist year of the epoch Shaou Hing, the gth moon, 
a comet was seen. 

Emperor Kaou Tsung, A.D. 1127-1162; epoch Shaou Hing, 1131-1162: ist 
year, 1131: gth moon, September. M. T. L. 

258 A.D. 1132. January 5. 

In the 1 2th moon of the same year a comet was seen on the day Woo Yin. 

1 2th moon, 1132, day Woo Yin, January 5. M. T. L. 

259 A.D. 1132. August 14. 

In the 2nd year of the same epoch, the 8th moon, day Kea Yin, a comet was seen 
in S. D. Wei. In the gth moon, day Kea Seuh, it disappeared. 

Epoch Shaou Hing, 2nd year, 1132: 8th moon, day Kea Yin, August 14; 
day Kea Seuh, September 3. 

S. D. Wei determined by the three stars in Musca. M. T. L. 



62 Comets observed in China. 

260 A.D. 1145. April 26. 

In the 1 5th year of the same epoch, the 4th moon, day Woo Yin, a comet appeared 
in the degrees of the southern S. D. In about 50 days it disappeared. On the day 
Ping Shin it was seen in the degrees of S. D. Tsan. 

i5th year of epoch Shaou Hing, A.D. 1145: 4th moon, day "Woo Yin, April 26 ; 
day Ping Shin, May 14. 

S. D. Tsan determined by a, /3, &c. Orionis. M. T. L. 

261 A.D. 1145. June 4. 

In the 5th moon of the same year, day Ting Sze, a comet was seen 

Its colour was a bluish white. 

1 145 : 5th moon, day Ting Sze, June 4. M. T. L. 

262 A.D. 1147. January 6. 

In the 1 6th year of the same epoch, I2th moon, day Woo Seuh, a comet appeared 
in the south-west of S. D. Wei. 

1 6th year, 1146 : i2th moon, day Woo Seuh, 1147, January 6. 

S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and 6, e Pegasi. M. T. L. 

263 A.D. 1147. February 12. 

In the 1 7th year of the same epoch, the 1st moon, day Yih Hae, a comet appeared 
in the north-east, in the S. D. Neu. On the 2nd day of the 2nd moon it was no longer 
visible. 

1 7th year, A.D. 1147 : ist moon, day Yih Hae, February 12 ; 2nd moon, 2nd 
day, March 7. 

S. D. Neu determined by c, fi, v, &c. Aquarii. M. T. L. 

264 A.D. 1151. August 21. 

In the 22nd year of the same epoch, 7th moon, day Ping Woo, a comet was seen 
in the north-east, in S. D. Tsing. On the day Ting Wei the star was like the planet 
Jupiter. Its luminous envelope was i cubit in length. 

2nd year, A.D. 1151 : 7th moon, day Ping Woo, August 21 ; day Ting Wei, 
August 22. 

S. D. Tsing determined by y, e, X, &c. Geminorum. M. T. L. 

265 A. D. 1222. September 15. 

In the reign of Ning Tsung, the I5th year of the epoch Kea Ting, the 8th moon, 
day Kea Woo, a comet appeared in Yew She Te. Its luminous envelope was 30 cubits 



Comets observed in China. 63 

in length. Its body was small, like the planet Jupiter. It was seen for 2 months. It 
passed through S. D. Te, Fang, and Sing, and then disappeared. 

Emperor Ning Tsung, A.D. 1195-1224; epoch Kea Ting, 1208-1224: isth 
year, 1222 : 8th moon, day Kea Woo, September 15. 
S. D. Te determined by a, j3, j, v Librae. 

Fang determined by /3, S, TT, &c. in Scorpio. 
Sin determined by Antares and others in Scorpio. 
Yew She Te, q, T, v Bootis. 

This is the last of the comets recorded in the ' Encyclopaedia of Ma Twan Lin.' 
Those which follow are taken chiefly from the Supplement to that work and the 
' She Ke.' 

266 A. D. 1232. October 18. 

In the reign of Le Tsung, the 5th year of the epoch Shaou Ting, the intercalary 
gth moon, day Kang Seuh, a comet appeared in S. D. Keo. 

Emperor Le Tsung, A.D. 1225-1264; epoch Shaou Ting, 1228-1233: 5th 
year, 1232 : intercalary gth moon, day Kang Seuh, October 18. 

S. D. Keo determined by a and Virginis. 

267 A.D. 1240. January 31. 

In the 4th year of the epoch Kea He, the ist moon, day Sin Wei, a comet appeared 
in Ying Shih. 

Epoch Kea He, 1237-1240 : 4th year, 1240 : ist moon, day Sin Wei, Jan. 31. 
S. D. Shih determined by a, /3 Pegasi, &c. 
Ying Shih, a Pegasi. 

268 A.D. 1240. February 23. 

In the ist moon of the same year, day Kea Woo, a comet passed over Yuh Lang, 
to the north-west of the second star. 

1240 : ist moon, day Kea Woo, February 23. 

Yuh Lang, a, )3, &c. Cassiopeiae. 

This may possibly be a continuation of the account of the preceding comet. 

269 A.D. 1264. July 26. 

In the 5th year of the epoch King Ting, yth moon, day Kea Seuh, at night, a 
comet appeared in S. D. Lew. Its tail extended across the heavens. On the day Ke 
Maou it passed into S. D. Kwei. In the 8th moon, day Sin Sze, it entered S. D. Tsing. 
On the day Woo Woo it could not be seen. On the day Kea Tsze it returned, and was 
seen in S. D. Tsan. On the day Sin Wei it was resolved into a reddish vapour. 



64 Comets observed in China. 

Epoch King Ting, 1260-1264: 7th moon, day Kea Seuh, July 26; day Ke 
Maou, July 31 : 8th moon, day Sin Sze, August 2 ; Woo Woo, September 8 ; Kea 
Tsze, September 14 ; Sin Wei, September 21. 
S. D. Lew determined by S, s, &c. Hydrae. 
Kwei determined by y, S, i\, Cancri. 
Tsing determined by y, t, X, p, &c. Geminorum. 
Tsan determined by a, j3, j, &c. Orionis. 

LEAOU, A MINOR DYNASTY, A.D. 916-1125. 

270 A.D. 941. August 7. 

In the reign of Tae Tsung, the 4th year of the epoch Hwuy Tung, the 8th moon, 
day Jin Shin, there was a comet near the star Tsin. 

Emperor Tae Tsung, 927-947 ; epoch Hwuy Tung, 938-946, 4th year : 8th 
moon, day Jin Shin, 941, August 9. 
Star Tsin, K Herculis. 

271 A.D. 1014. February 10. 

In the reign of Shing Tsung, the 3rd year of the epoch Kae Tae, the ist moon, 
day Yih Wei, a comet was seen in the west. 

Emperor Shing Tsung, 983-1031; epoch Kae Tae, 1012-1021: 3rd year, 
1014 : ist moon, day Yih Wei, February 10. 

272 A.D. 1066. April 24. 

In the reign of Taou Tsung, the 2nd year of the epoch Han Yung, the 3rd moon, 
day Jin Woo, a comet was seen in the east. 

Emperor Taou Tsung, 1055-1100 ; epoch Han Yung, or Han Xing, 1065-1074: 
2nd year, 1066 : 3rd moon, day Jin Woo, April 24, 

273 A. D. 1080. January 6. 

In the 5th year of the epoch Tae Kang, the i2th moon, day Ping Woo, a comet 
passed over S. D. Wei. 

Epoch Tae Kang, 1075-1084: 5th year, 1079: i2th moon, day Ping Woo, 
1080, January 6. 

S. D. Wei determined by E, fa, v, &c. in Scorpio. 

274 A. D. 1097. December 6. 

In the 3rd year of the epoch Show Lung, the loth moon, day Ke Sze, a comet was 
seen in the west. 

Epoch Show Lung, 1095-1110: 3rd year, 1097: loth moon, day Ke Sze, 
December 6th. 



Comets observed in China. 65 

KIN, A MINOR DYNASTY, A.D. 1118-1236. 

275 A.D. 1133. September 29. 

In the reign of Tae Tsung, loth year of the epoch Teen Hwuy, 8th moon, day Sin 
Hae, a comet appeared in Wan Chang. 

Emperor Tae Tsung and epoch Teen Hwuy, 1124-1135: roth year, 1133: 
8th moon, day Sin Hae, September 29. 

Wan Chang, 0, v, <}>, &c. Ursse Majoris. 

276 A.D. 1226. September 13. 

In the reign of Seuen Tsung, the 6th year of the epoch Hing Ting, the 8th moon, 
day Ke Maou, a comet appeared in S. D. Keo and Kang, between Yew Che Te and 
Chow Ting. It pointed towards Ta Keo. In the ist year of the epoch Yuen Kwang, 
gth moon, day Ting Wei, it disappeared. 

Emperor Seuen Tsung, 1217-1228 ; epoch Heen Ting, 1221-1226 : 6th year, 
1226: 8th moon, day Ke Maou, September 13: epoch Yuen Kwang, ^227-1228; 
gth moon, day Ting Wei, September 12. 

S. D. Keo determined by a and Virginis. 
S. D. Kang determined by t, K, X, 9 Virginis. 
Yew Che Te, r\, T, v 13ootis. 
Chow Ting, small stars in Coma Berenices. 
Ta Keo, Arcturus. 

277 A.D. 1237. September 21. 

In the reign of the Emperor Gae Tsung, the 1st year of the epoch Teen Hing, the 
gth moon, day Ke Yew, a comet was seen in the east. It was about 10 cubits in length, 
twisted and bent like an elephant's tusk. It appeared in S. D. Keo and Chin. It went 
to the south. On the I2th day it was 20 cubits in length. On the i6th day it could 
not be seen, on account of the brightness of the moon. On the 2/th day, in the 5th 
watch of the night, it reappeared, and was seen in the south-east. It was then about 
40 cubits in length. On the ist day of the loth moon it began to fade. It was visible 
altogether for 48 days. 

Emperor Gae Tsung, 1229-1237 ; epoch Teen Hing, ist year, 1237 : gth moon, 
day Ke Yew, September 21. 5th watch of night, i to 3 A.M. 

S. D. Keo determined by a and 2; Virginis. 

S. D. Chin determined by /3, &c. Corvi. 

Biot places this comet under 1232, October 17. According to the Tables, 1232 
was the 4th year of the epoch Ching Ta. Biot's day is right for 1232, but not for 
1237. No comet is mentioned in the ' She Ke ' as having been seen in 1232. The 
' Tung Keen ' says a comet was seen in that year in Keo, but gives no particulars. 

The above is from the Supplement to ' Ma Twan Lin.' 

s 



66 Comets observed in China. 



YUEN DYNASTY, A.D. 1280-1367. 

The whole of the descriptions which follow are from the Supplement to 
< M. T. L: and the ' She Ke? 

278 A.D. 1264. July 26. 

In the reign of She Tsoo, the ist year of the epoch Che Yuen, 7th moon, a comet 
appeared in S. D. Kwei. In the evening it was seen to the north-west. It passed 
through Shang Tae and swept Wan Chang in Tsze Wei, as well as Pih Tow. In 
the morning it was seen in the north-east. It was visible altogether for about 
40 days. 

Emperor She Tsoo, 1264-1294 ; epoch Che Yuen the same : ist year, 1264. 

According to the Chinese Chronological Tables, the Tartar Emperor She Tsoo 
commenced his reign over China A.D. 1280, which was the iyth year of his epoch, 
Che Yuen. Hence the ist year was 1264. His Tartar name was Hwuh Peih 
Lee: hence the Kublai of European writers. 

S. D. Kwei determined by y, 8, r;, Cancri. 

Tsze Wei, the circle of perpetual apparition. 

Shang Tae, (, K in fore-foot of Ursa Major. 

Pih Tow, a, /3, &c. Ursse Majoris. 

The account in the ' She Ke ' differs considerably, having some additional par- 
ticulars. It is as follows : 

In the reign of She Tsoo, the ist year of the epoch Che Yuen, in the autumn, 
day Kea Seuh, a comet appeared in S. D. Kwei and Lew. In the evening it was 
seen in the north-west. Its brightness illuminated the heavens. It measured 100 
cubits in length. It passed through Shang Tae. It swept Tsze Wei, Wan Chang, 
and Pih Tow. In the morning it was seen in the north-east. It was visible alto- 
gether for about 40 days. 

Emperor She Tsoo, as above ; Che Yuen, ist year, 1264: 7th moon, day Kea 
Seu, July 26. 

S. D. Kwei determined by y, 8, ij, 6 Cancri. 

S. D. Lew determined by 8, and others in Hydra. 

For the remaining asterisms see above. 

279 A.D. 1277. March 9. 

In the 1 4th year of the same epoch, 2nd moon, day Kwei Hae, a comet appeared 
in the north-east. It was about 4 cubits in length. 

Che Yuen, i4th year, 1277 : 2nd moon, day Kwei Hae, March 9. 



Comets observed in China. 67 

280 A.D. 1293. November 7. 

In the 30th year of the same epoch, loth moon, day Kang Yin, a comet entered 
Tsze Wei Yuen. Its course was towards Tow Kwei. Its luminous envelope was more 
than i cubit in length. It was visible for i moon and then disappeared. 

Che Yuen, joth year, 1293 : roth moon, day Kang Yin, November 7. 
Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Tow Kwei, the square in the seven stars of Ursa Major. The Pole-star is 
sometimes called Tow Kwei. 

Biot has Pih Tow for Tow Kwei. 

281 A.D. 1299. June 24. 

In the reign of Ching Tsung, the 2nd year of epoch Ta Tih, the I2th moon, day 
Kea Seuh, a comet appeared beneath the stars Tsze and Sun. 

Emperor Ching Tsung, 1295-1307; epoch Ta Tih, 1297-1307: and year, 
1 298 : 1 2th moon, day Kea Seuh, 1 299, January 24. 
Tsze, X Columbae. Sun, 0, K Columbae. 

282 A.D. 1301. September 16. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch, gth moon, day Yih Chow, from the 8th moon, 
day Kang Shin, a comet appeared in 24 40' of the S. D. Tsing. It was like the great 
star in Nan Ho. Its colour was white. Its length was 5 cubits. Its direction was to- 
wards the north-west. It afterwards passed to the south of Wan Chang and Tow Kwei. 
It swept Tae Yang. It also swept Teen Ke of Pih Tow, Tsze Wei Yuen, San Kung, and 
the stars in Kwan So. Its length was about 10 cubits. It passed into Teen She Yuen, 
to the east of the stars Pa and Shuh, and to the south of the stars Leang and Tsow, and 
above the star Sung. It was then a full cubit in length. It was altogether visible for 
46 days, and then (on the day first mentioned) disappeared. 

It is to be remarked, that the description of this comet commences with the 
day Yih Chow, being that of its disappearance. A few words have been added to 
make the description more intelligible. It is only slightly mentioned in the 
'She Ke.' 

Epoch Ta Tih, 3rd year, 1301 : 5th moon, day Kang Shin, September 16 ; 
moon, day Yih Chow, October 31. 
S. D. Tsing determined by j, e, X, &c. Geminorum. 
Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 
Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 
Nan Ho, a, |3, &c. Canis Minoris. The great star, Procyon. 
Wan Chang, 0, v, fy, &c. Ursse Majoris. 
Tow Kwei, the square in the seven stars of Ursa Major. 
Tae Yang, ^ Ursse Majoris. 



68 Comets observed in China. 

Pih Tow, a, /3, y, &c. Ursse Majoris. 

Kwan So, Corona Borealis. 

Pa, f Serpentis. Shuh, a, X Serpentis. 

Leang, 8 Ophiuchi. Tsoo, t Ophiuchi. 

Sung, rj Ophiuchi. Teen Ke, j Ursse Majoris. 

283 A.D. 1304. February 3. 

In the 8th year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, day Yih Chow, from the day 
Kang Seuh of the preceding 1 2th moon a comet was seen. It was nearly a full cubit 
in length. It pointed towards the south-east. Its colour was white. Its place was in 
the nth degree of S. D. Shih. It gradually increased to about a cubit in length, and 
then it pointed towards the north-west. It swept Tang Shay and entered Tsze Wei 
Yuen, and (on the day first mentioned) disappeared. It was visible altogether for 
74 days. 

As in the account of the preceding comet the day of disappearance is placed 
first. The following extract from the annals of the Yuen dynasty in the ' She 
Ke,' may be of service in explaining this rather ambiguous mode of expression. 
It relates to the same comet, and is to be found in the division Yuen She, 
section 4. 

Ta Tih, jth year, 12th moon, day Kang Seuh, a comet about a cubit in length 
was seen in the nth degree of S. D. Shih. It entered Tsze Wei Yuen. In the 
8th year, 3rd moon, day Yih Chow, the comet began to disappear. It was visible 
altogether for 74 days. 

Epoch Ta Tih, 7th year, 1303 : I2th moon, day Kwig Seuh, 1304, Feb. 3 ; 
8th year, 3rd moon, day Yih Chow, April 18, 1304. 
S. D. Shih determined by a, /3, &c. Pegasi. 
Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 
Tang Shay, TT Cygni and stars in Andromeda and Lacerta, 22 in number. 

284 A.D. 1313. April 13. 

In the reign of Jin Tsung, the 2nd year of the epoch Hwang King, 3rd moon, day 
Ting Wei, a comet appeared in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing. 

Emperor Jin Tsung and epoch Hwang King, A.D. 1312-1320 : 2nd year, 1313 : 
3rd moon, day Ting Wei, April 13. 

S. D. Tsing determined by y, e, X, ft, &c. Geminorum. 

285 A.D. 1315. November 28. 

In the and year of the epoch Yen Yew, the nth moon, day Ping Woo, a strange 
star appeared, which afterwards became a comet. It entered Tsze Wei Yuen. It 
passed through the S. D. from Chin to Peih, being 15 of those divisions. The next 
year, 2nd moon, day Kang Yin, it disappeared. 



Comets observed in China. 69 

Epoch Yen Yew, 1314-1320: and year, 1315: nth moon, day Ping "Woo, 
November 28 : 3rd year, 2nd moon, day Kang Yin, 1316, March 12. 
S. D. Peih determined by j Pegasi and a Andromedse. 
S. D. Chin determined by /3 and others in Corvus. 

286 A.D. 1337. May 4. 

In the reign of Shun Te, the 3rd year of the epoch Che Yuen, in the summer, 4th 
moon, day Kea Seuh, there was a comet in Yuh Lang. It remained until the 7th moon, 
day Sin Yin, when it finished its course in Kwan So. 

Shun Te, 1333-1367; epoch Che Yuen, 1335-1340: 3rd year, 1337 
moon, day Kea Seuh, May 4 ; 7th moon, day Sin Yin, July 31. 
Yuh Lang, a, /3, rj and others in Cassiopeia. 
Kwan So, Corona Borealis. 

Biot considers this comet as the same as the next. It is, however, tr 
separate one both in ' Ma Twan Lin ' and in the ' She Ke,' in which 
intimation that the comet which follows, although on the same page, is in any v 
connected with it. It is, therefore, treated as a separate comet here. 

287 A.D. 1337. June 26. 

In the reign of Shun Te, the 3rd year of the epoch Che Yuen, the 5th moon, a 
comet was seen to the north-east. It resembled the great star in Teen Chuen. Its 
colour was white. It was about i cubit in length. The tail pointed to the south-west. 
Its place was estimated to be in the 5th degree of S. D. Maou. On the day Woo Shin 
its course was to the south-west. On the succeeding days it gradually increased in 
velocity. On the day Sin Wei, of the 6th moon, the luminous envelope had lengthened 
to about 2 cubits. On the day Ting Chow it swept Shang Ching. On the day Ke 
Maou the luminous envelope had increased still more in length, being then about 3 cubits. 
It entered Yuen Wei. On the day Jin Woo it swept Hwa Kae and the star Keang. 
On the day Yih Yew it swept the great star Kow Ching, and extended to Teen 
Hwang Ta Te. On the day Ping Seuh it passed through Sze Foo and crossed Keu Sin. 
On the day Kea Woo it left Yuen Wei. On the day Ting Yew it passed out of Tsze 
Wei Yuen. On the day Woo Seuh it entered Kwan So and swept Teen Ke. In the 
7th moon, day Kang Tsze, it swept Ho Keen. On the day Kwei Maou it passed the 
stars Ching and Tsin and entered Teen She Yuen. On the day Ping Woo it swept Lee 
Sze. On the day Ke Yew the moon was so bright that the luminous envelope could 
scarcely be distinguished. The comet left Teen She Yuen and swept the star Leang. 
On the day Sin Yew the luminous envelope had greatly diminished in length. It was 
then in S. D. Fang, above the star Keen Pe, and directly west of the middle star of the 
asterism Fa. It was not easy to ascertain exactly the place of the comet after it had 
gradually gone to the south. It was visible altogether for 63 days. Its course was from 
S. D. Maou to S. D. Fang, making altogether 15 S. D. through which it passed, and 
afterwards disappeared. 




70 Comets observed in China. 

The preceding account is from the Supplement to ' Ma Twan Lin,' and it must 
be observed that in the original, as I have it, an error occurs, the epoch there given 
being Che Ching instead of Che Yuen. That this is really an error is proved by 
the following account of the same comet, as it is given in the ' She Ke :' 

' In the 3rd year of the epoch Che Yuen, the fth moon, day Ting Maou, a 
comet was seen in the north-east. It was like the great star in Teen Chuen. Its 
colour was white. It was about i cubit in length. The tail pointed to the south- 
west. It was altogether visible for 63 days. (Its course was) from S. D. Maou to 
S. D. Fang. It passed through 15 S. D. and then disappeared.' 

The error is accordingly corrected in the text given, and does not occur in 
Biot. The day of the comet's first appearance (Ting Maou), which does not appear 
in ' M. T. L.,' is also given in this extract from the ' She Ke.' The comet appears 
to have been very carefully observed, and its course registered, almost day by day, 
until it went so far to the south as to render the observations difficult, and, conse- 
quently, uncertain. It must also be noticed, that the comet is described as passing 
through 15 S. D. ; viz. from Maou (the Pleiades) to Fang (stars in Scorpio). Now 
as the greater number of the observations were made while the comet was 
within the circle of perpetual apparition, where the degrees are greatly contracted, 
such a circumstance could easily occur. 

Epoch Che Yuen, 3rd year, 1337 : 5th moon, day Ting Maou, June 26 : 6th 
moon, day Sin Wei, June 30 ; Ting Chow, July 6 ; Ke Maou, July 8 ; Jin Woo, 
July ii ; Yih Yew, July 14; Ping Seuh, July 15; Kea Woo, July 23 ; Ting 
Yew, July 26 ; Woo Seuh, July 27- : 7th moon, Kang Tsze, July 29 ; Kwei Maou, 
August i ; Ping Woo, August 4 ; Ke Yew, August 7 ; Sin Yew, August 19. 

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. 

S. D. Fang determined by /3, S, IT, &c. in Scorpio. 

Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 

Teen Chuen, a, /3, S, &c. Persei. The great star, a Persei. 

Shang Ching, A 579 Camelopardalis (Reeves). 

Yuen Wei, stars in Draco. 

Hwa Kae, stars in Camelopardalis. Keang, unascertained. 

Kow Ching, a Ursse Majoris. 

Teen Hwang Ta Te, Polaris. 

Sze Foo, four small stars near the Pole. 

Keu Sin, unascertained. 

Kwan So, Corona Borealis. 

Teen Ke, 6 and other small stars in Hercules. 

Ho Keen, -y Herculis. Ching, -y Serpentis. Tsin, \ Herculis. 

Lee Sze, X Ophiuchi and other stars near. 

Leang, 8 Ophiuchi. 

Keen Pe, v in Scorpio. 

Fa, , !/>, o Librae (Reeves). Stars in Scorpio (Noel). 



Comets observed in China. 71 

288 A. D. 1340. March 24. 

In the 6th year of the same epoch, 2nd moon, day Ke Yew, a comet appeared re- 
sembling the great star in S. D. Fang. Its colour was white. In appearance it resem- 
bled a mass of the refuse of silk. Its length was about half a cubit. The tail pointed 
to the south-west. Its place was in the seventh degree of S. D. Fang. It went slowly 
to the north-west until the 3rd moon, day Kang Shin. It was altogether visible for 
32 days. 

Che Yuen, 6th year, 1340 : 2nd moon, day Ke Yew, March 24; 3rd moon, 
day Kang Shin, April 24. 

S. D. Fang determined by /3, S, IT in Scorpio. 

The great star in Fang, /3 in Scorpio. Possibly Antares is really the star 
meant. 

289 A.D. 1351. November 24. 

In the i ith year of the epoch Che Ching, on the day Sin Hae, a comet was seen in 
S. D. Kwei. On the day Kwei Chow it was seen in S. D. Lew. On the day Kea Yin 
it was in S. D. "Wei. On the day Yih Maou it was still in that division. On the day 
Ping Shin it was seen in S. D. Maou. On the day Ting Sze it was seen in S. D. Peih. 

Epoch Che Ching, 1341-1367 : nth year, 1351 : nth moon, day Sin Hae, 
November 24 ; Kwei Chow, November 26 ; Kea Yin, November 27 ; Yih Maou, 
November 28 ; Ping Shin, November 29 ; Ting Sze, November 30. 

S. D. Kwei determined by a and others in Andromeda and Pisces. 
Lew determined by a, /3, j Arietis. 
Wei determined by the three stars in Musca. 
Maou determined by the Pleiades. 
Peih determined by a, j, 8, &c. Tauri. 

290 A. D. 1356. September 21. 

In the i6th year of the same epoch, the 8th moon, day Kea Seuh, a comet was seen 
precisely in the east. It appeared in Heen Yuen, in the angle to the left of the great 
star in that asterism. Its colour was a bluish white ; the tail pointed to the south-west. 
Its length was about r cubit. It -was in i7 T V of the S. D. Chang. In the loth moon, 
day Woo Woo, it disappeared. It was traced to the north-west for about 40 days. 

Epoch Che Ching, i6th year, 1356 : 8th moon, day Kea Seuh, September i. 

Heen Yuen, Regulus and j, e, rj, X and others in Leo and Leo Minor. 

The great star in Heen Yuen, Regulus. 



291 A.D. 1360. March 12. 

the 2oth year of the same epoch, 3rd moon, day 
orth-east. 

Che Ching, aoth year, 1360 : 3rd moon, day Woo Tsze, March 12. 



In the 2oth year of the same epoch, 3rd moon, day Woo Tsze, there was a comet 
in the north-east. 



72 Comets observed in China. 

292 A.D. 1362. March 5. 

In the 22nd year of the same epoch, 2nd moon, day Yih Yew, a comet was seen. 
Its luminous envelope was about a cubit in length. Its colour was a bluish white. Its 
place was in 7 20' of S. D. Wei. On the day Ting Yew the comet passed near the 
Western star of Le Kung. At the end of the 2nd moon the luminous envelope was 
about 20 cubits in length. In the 3rd moon, day Woo Shin, the comet could not be 
seen as a star, but only as a white vapour of a curved form, extending across the 
heavens and pointing to the west. It swept Ta Keo. On the day Jin Sze the comet 
passed before Tae Yang ; it had then the appearance of a star without a tail. In form 
it resembled a great wine-cup. The colour was white, like the obscure twilight. Its 
place was in the 6th degree of S. D. Maou. On the day Woo Woo it began to 
disappear. 

The account of this comet in the ' She Ke ' commences thus : ' On the day 
Yih Yew a comet was seen in S. D. Wei. Its luminous envelope was about ten 
cubits in length.' The remainder is nearly the same as in ' M. T. L.,' the dif- 
ference being merely verbal. 

Che Ching, 22nd year, 1 362 : 2nd moon, day Yih Yew, March 5 ; Ting Yew, 
March 1 7 ; Woo Shin, March 28 ; Sin Tsze, April i ; Woo Woo, April 7. 
S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and 0, t Pegasi. 
S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. 

Le Kung, three groups of two stars each in Pegasus : they are X /u, q o, v r. 
Ta Keo, Arcturus. Tae Yang, ^ Ursse Majoris. 

293 A.D. 1362. June 29. 

In the same year, the 6th moon, day Sin Sze, a comet was seen in Tsze Wei Yuen. 
Its place was in 2 T % 5 of S. D. New. Its colour was white. Its luminous envelope was 
about a cubit in length, pointing to the south-east. Its course was to the south-west. 
( >n the day Woo Tsze the luminous envelope of the comet swept Shang Tsae. In the 
7th moon, day Yih Maou, it began to disappear. 

Che Ching, 22nd year, 1362: 6th moon, day Sin Sze, June 29; day Woo Tsze, 
July 6 : 7th moon, day Yih Maou, August 1. 

S. D. New determined by a, /3, &c. Capricorni. 
Tsze AVei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 
Shang Tsae, Draconis. 

294 A.D. 1363. March 16. 

In the 23rd year of the same epoch, 3rd moon, day Sin Chow, the 1st day of the 
moon, a comet was seen in the east. It was visible during that moon, and then 
disappeared. 

Che Ching, 23rd year, 1363 : 3rd moon, day Sin Chow, March 16. 



Comets observed in China. 73 

295 A.D. 1366. October 25. 

In the 26th year of the same epoch, gth moon, day Kang Sze, a comet was seen in 
Tsze Wei Yuen, near the star Kwan in Pih Tow. Its colour resembled that of a handful 
of meal. It appeared nearly as large as a Tow measure. Its course was to the south- 
east, and it passed near to the star Teen Keae. On the day Sin Chow the place of the 
comet was in 18^ of S. D. Wei. On the day Sin Yin it was in 2-^ of S. D. New. 
On the day Kwei Maou the comet was in g -^ of S. D. New. On the day Kea Shin it 
was in O -!^ of S. D. Heu. On the day Yih Sze the comet appeared in Tsze Wei Yuen, 
between the stars Kwan and Yuh Kang in Pih Tow. It was then in S. D. Chin. It 
went to the south-east and passed over Teen Kae. It traversed Tsan Tae, Leen Taou, 
and S. D. Heu, to the western star of Luy Peih Chin, when it began to disappear. 

Such is a nearly literal translation of the account of this comet in the Supple- 
ment to ' Ma Twan Lin,' and it is not at all surprising that Biot should make the 
following remark, ' La marche indiquee pour cette comete est tres singuliere,' as 
nothing can be more inconsistent than that a comet, after a long course from Ursa 
Major to Aquarius, where it was observed on Oct. 29, should on the very next day, 
Oct. 30, be found once more in TJrsa Major, in the same place whence it started, and 
again take its course southward, in the same direction as at first. But if the narrative 
in the original be carefully examined, it will be found to divide readily into two 
distinct portions ; the one giving the course of the comet through the S. D., and 
the other that through some of the asterisms in that course. All that is required 
is to read the account according to this view, and a consistent narrative will be the 
result. Let, then, the concluding observations be read thus, 'On the day Yih Sze 
(October 30) the comet (after having been first seen in Tsze Wei Yuen, between 
the stars Kwan and Yuh Kang in Pih Tow, at which time it was in S. D. Chin, 
then going to the east, passing near Teen Kae, and traversing Tsan Tae, Leen 
Taou, and S. D. Heu), arrived at the western star of Luy Peih Chin, where it dis- 
appeared.' In corroboration of this view it may also be remarked, that the asterisms 
mentioned in this second portion will all be found in the path of the comet through 
the S. D. mentioned, supposing them to be carried to the Pole ; and thus the whole 
account becomes perfectly consistent. It must also be remarked, that in these 
Chinese accounts of comets there are several examples of the latest observation 
being that first mentioned. Thus, in the comets of 1301, September 16, and 1315, 
November 28, the day of the disappearance is placed first, as in the second portion 
of the preceding narrative. 

Che Ching, 26th year, 1366 : gth moon, day Kang Sze, October 25 ; Sin Chow, 
October 26 ; Jin Yin, October 27 ; Kwei Maou, October 28 ; Kea Shin, October 29; 
Yih Sze, October 30. 

S. D. Wei determined by i, fj., v, &c. Aquarii. 
New determined by e, /j., v, &c. in Scorpio. 
Heu determined by /3 Aquarii, &c. 
Chin determined by /3 Corvi and others. 
Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 



74 Comets observed in China. 

Kwan, <5 Ursae Majoris. 

Yuh Kang, E Ursae Majoris. 

Pih Tow, a, /3, &c. Ursae Majoris. 

Teen Kae, /3, j Draconis. 

Tsan Tae, ft, 8, &c. Lyras. 

Leen Taou, rj, Lyrae. 

Luy Peih Chin, small stars in Aquarius and Pisces. 

MING DYNASTY, A.D. 1368-1644. 

296 A.D. 1368. February 7. 

In the reign of Tae Tsoo, the ist year of the epoch Hung Woo, ist moon, day 
Kang Yin, a comet was seen in S. D. Maou and Peih. 

Emperor Tae Tsoo and epoch Hung "Woo, 1368-1398: ist year, 1368: ist 
moon, day Kang Yin, February 7. 

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. 

S. D. Peih determined by a, y, S, e, &c. Tauri. 

297 A.D. 1368. April 8. 

In the 3rd moon of the same year, day Sin Maou, a comet appeared in S. D. Maou, 
to the north, between Ta Ling and Teen Chuen. It was about 8 cubits in length, and 
pointed towards Wan Chang. It came near Woo Chay. In the 4th moon, day Ke 
Yew, it disappeared to the north of Woo Chay. 

1 368 : 3rd moon, day Sin Maou, April 8 ; Ke Yew, April 26. 

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades. 

Ta Ling, /3, &c. Persei. 

Woo Chay, a, /3, &c. Aurigae and j3 Tauri. 

Wan Chang, 0, v, <f> Ursaa Majoris. 

Teen Chuen, a, j, S, &c. Persei. 

This was possibly the same as the preceding comet. 

298 A.D. 1373. May. 

In the 6th year of the same epoch, 4th moon, three comets entered Tsze Wei Yuen. 
Hung Woo, 6th year, 1370 : 4th moon, May. 
Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

299 A.D. 1391. May 23. 

In the 24th year of the same epoch, 4th moon, day Ping Tsze, there were two 
comets. One entered Tsze Wei Yuen by the Chung Ho gate. It passed near Teen 
Chwang. The other passed near Luh Kea, and swept Woo Te Nuy Tso. 



Comets observed in China. 75 

Hung "Woo, 24th year, 1391 : 4th moon, day Ping Tsze, May 13. 

Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Chung Ho Mun, space between a and i Draconis. 

Teen Chwang, small stars near 9 Draconis. 

Luh Kea, small stars in Camelopardalis. 

Woo Te Nuy Tsoo, small stars near Polaris. 

300 A.D. 1407. December 14. 

In the reign of Ching Tsoo, 5th year of epoch Yung Lo, i ith moon, day Ping Yin, 
a comet was seen. 

Emperor Ching Tsoo and epoch Yung Lo, 1403-1424 : 5th year, 1407 : day 
Ping Yin, December 14. 

301 A.D. 1431. May 15. 

In the reign of Seuen Tsung, the 6th year of the epoch Seuen Tih, 4th moon, day 
Woo Seuh, there was a comet in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing. It was about 5 cubits 
in length. 

Emperor Seuen Tsung and epoch Seuen Tih, 1426-1435 : 6th year, 1431 : 
4th moon, day Woo Seuh, May 15. 

S. D. Tsing determined by j, e, X, &c. Geminorum. 

Biot makes the date of this Kang Seuh May 27, which is also correct as to the 
day, it being a subsequent date. 

302 A.D. 1432. February 3. 

In the 7th year of the same epoch, the rst moon, day Jin Seuh, a comet appeared 
in the east. It was about 10 cubits in length : the tail swept TeenTsin. It went to 
the south-east. In the loth moon it began to disappear. 

Biot has, 'After 10 days it began to disappear,' which is the most probable 
reading. It is not in ' M. T. L.' 

Seuen Tih, 7th year, 1432 : ist moon, day Jin Seuh, February 3 ; loth moou ; 
November. 

Teen Tsin, a, 7, S, and others in Cygnus. 

303 A.D. 1432. February 29 or October 26. 

In the same moon, on the day Woo Tsze, another comet appeared in the west. 
After 17 days it disappeared. 

It is not clear whether this refers to the ist or to the roth moon. If the 
rst, then Woo Tsze will be February 29 ; if the loth, October 26. 



76 Comets observed in China. 

304 A.D. 1433. September 15. 

In the 8th year of the same epoch, the intercalary 8th moon, day Jin Sze, a comet 
appeared in Teen Tsang. It was more than 10 cubits in length. On the day Ke Sze 
it entered Kwan So and swept Tseih Kimg. On the day Ke Maou it again entered 
Teen She Yuen and swept the star Tsin. It was visible for 24 days, and then dis- 
appeared. 

Seuen Tih, 8th year, 1433: intercalary 8th moon, day Jin Tsze, September 15 ; 
Ke Sze, October 2 ; Ke Maou, October 1 2. 

Teen Tsang, 6, t, K Bootis. 

Kwan So, Corona Borealis. Tsin, a Herculis. 

Tseih Kung, 8, fj. and others in hand of Bootes. 

Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 

305 A.D. 1439. March 25. 

In the reign of Ying Tsung, the 4th year of epoch Ching Tung, the intercalary 
2nd moon, day Ke Chow, a comet was seen in S. D. Chang. It was large, and like a 
ball. On the day Ting Yew it was about 50 cubits in length. It went to the west. It 
swept Tsew Ke. It then went to the north and passed into S. D. Kwei. 

Emperor Ying Tsung and epoch Ching Tung, 1436-1439 : Ching Tung, 4th 
year, 1439 > intercalary 2nd moon, day Ke Chow, March 25 : Ting Yew, April 2. 
S. D. Chang determined by S, K, X, m Hydra. 
S. D. Kwei determined by -y, S, ), 8 Cancri. 
Tsew Ke, , i//, w Leonis and K, Cancri. 

306 A.D. 1439. July ii. 

In the 6th moon of the same year, day "Woo Yin, a comet was seen in S. D. Peih, 
near the asterism so called. It was about 10 cubits in length. It pointed towards the 
south-west. It was visible altogether for 55 days, and then disappeared. 
1439 : 6th moon, day Woo Yin, July 12. 
S. D. Peih determined by j Pegasi and a Andromedae. 

307 A.D. 1444. August 6. 

In the gth year of the same epoch, the jth moon, day Kang Woo, a comet was 
seen in Tae Wei Yuen, to the east. It was more than 10 cubits in length. It gradu- 
ally increased in length until the intercalary yth moon, day Ke Maou, when it entered 
S. D. Keo and disappeared. 

Ching Tung, gth year, 1444 : 7th moon, day Kang Woo, August 6 ; Ke Maou, 
August 15. 

S. D. Keo determined by a and Virginia. 

Tae Wei Yuen, space within stars in Leo and Virgo. 



Comets observed in China. 77 

308 A.D. 1449. December 20. 

In the I4th year of the same epoch, i2th moon, day Jin Tsze, a comet was seen in 
Teen She Yuen, near to She Low. It passed through the degrees of S. D. Wei. It 
was 2 cubits in length. It was seen until the day Yih Hae, when it disappeared. 

ChingTing, I4th year, 1449 : 1 2th moon, day Jin Tsze, December 20 ; day 
Yih Hae, 1450, January 12. 

S. D. Wei determined by t, ft, v, &c. in Scorpio. 

She Low, fj. Ophiuchi. 

Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 

309 A.D. 1450. January 19. 

In the reign of King Te, the 1st year of the epoch King Tae, the ist moon, day 
Jin Woo, a comet appeared just without the boundary of Teen She Yuen. It swept 
Teen Ke. 

Emperor King Te and epoch King Tae, 1450-1456 : ist year, 1450 : ist 
moon, day Jin Woo, January 19. 

Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 
Teen Ke, small stars near Herculis. 

This is most likely the same comet as the preceding one. 

310 A.D. 1452. March 21. 

In the 3rd year of the same epoch, 3rd moon, day Kea Woo, the ist day of the 
moon, there was a comet in S. D. Peih. 

King Tae, 3rd year, 1452 : 3rd moon, day Kea Woo, March 21. 
S. D. Peih determined by a, j, S, e, &c. Tauri. 

Biot makes this 2nd moon March 5. March 21 is correct for the day Kea 
Woo. March 5, in 1452, was Woo Yin. 

311 A.D. 1456. May 27. 

In the yth year of the same epoch, the 4th moon, day Jin Seuh, a comet was seen 
to the north-east, in S. D. Wei. It was 2 cubits in length, and pointed towards the 
south-west. In the 5th moon, day Kwei Yew, it gradually lengthened to about 10 
cubits. On the day Woo Tsze it was seen to the north-west, in S. D. Lew. It was 
then about 9 cubits in length. It swept over the stars Heen Yuen. On the day Kea 
Woo it was seen in S. D. Chang. It was then about 7 cubits in length. It swept the 
north of Tae Wei. It went to the south-west. In the 6th moon, day Jin Yin, it entered 
Tae Wei Yuen. It was then about i cubit in length. 

King Tae, 7th year, 1456 : 4th moon, day Jin Seuh, May 27 ; 5th moon, day 
Kwei Yew, June 7 ; 6th moon, day Jin Yin, July 6. 
S. D. Wei determined by the three stars in Musca. 

x 



78 Comets observed in China. 

S. D. Lew determined by 8, t, , Hydrae. 

Chang determined by K, \, fi, &c. Hydrse. 
Heen Yuen, Regulus and stars in Leo and Leo Minor. 
Tae Wei Yuen, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

312 A. D. 1457. January 14. 

In the 1 2th moon of the same year, day Kea Yin, another comet was seen in S. D. 
Peih. It was half a cubit in length. It went to the south-east. It gradually lengthened 
until the day Kwei Wei, when it disappeared. 

King Tae, yth year, 1456 : I2th moon, day Kea Yin, 1457, January 14; Kwei 
Hae, January 23. 

S. D. Peih determined by a, j, 8, , &c. Tauri. 

313 A.D. 1457. June 15. 

In the reign of Ying Tsung, the 1st year of the epoch Teen Shun, the 5th moon, 
day Ping Seuh, a comet was seen in S. D. Wei. It was like the star Chaou Yaou. It 
went to the east. Its luminous envelope was half a cubit in length, pointing to the 
south-west. In the 6th moon, day Kwei Sze, the ist day of the moon, it was seen in 
S. D. Shih. It was then about 10 cubits in length: the tail extended to the east of 
S. D. Peih, and was near Teen Ta Tseang Keun, the 3rd star in Keuen She, S. D. Tsing, 
and the 2nd southern star in Schwuy Wei. 

Emperor Ying Tsung, 1436-1464. This Emperor was taken prisoner by the 
Tartars in 1450 and restored in 1457, when he adopted the epoch Teen Shun, 
1457-1464 : ist year, 1457 : 5*- a moon, day Ping Seuh, June 15 ; day Kwei Sze, 
June 22. 

S. D. Wei determined by o Aquarii and 6, t Pegasi. 
Shih determined by a, j3 Pegasi and others. 
Peih determined by j Pegasi and a Andromedae. 
Tsing determined by 8, e, \, //, &c. Geminorum. 
Chaou Yaou, ft Bootis. Keuen She, v Persei. 
Teen Ta Tseang Keun, j and others in Andromeda and Triangulum. 
Shwuy Wei, , 6, o, TT Canis Minoris. 

314 A.D. 1457. October 26. 

In the loth moon of the same year, day Ke Hae, a comet was seen in S. D. Keo. 
It was about half a cubit in length, pointing to the north. It passed near the northern 
star of Keo and the eastern star of Ping Taou. 

1457 : loth moon, day Ke Hae, October 26. 

S. D. Keo determined by Spica and another in Virgo. 

Northern star, Virginis. 

Ping Taou, 6 and another in Virgo. 



Comets observed in China. 79 

315 A.D. 1461. August 5. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch, 6th moon, day Woo Seuh, a comet was seen in 
the east. It pointed to the south-west. It entered S. D. Tsing. In the 7th moon, 
day Ping Yin, it began to disappear. 

Teen Shun, 5th year, 14.61 : 6th moon, day Woo Seuh, August 5 ; day Ping 
Yin, September 2. 

S. D. Tsing determined by y, e, X, &c. Geminorum. 

316 A.D. 1465. March. 

In the reign of Heen Tsung, ist year of the epoch Ching Hwa, 2nd moon, a comet 
was seen. In the 3rd moon it was again seen, in the north-west. It was about 30 
cubits in length. It was visible during the 3rd moon, and then disappeared. 

Emperor Heen Tsung and epoch Ching Hwa, 1465-1467 : ist year, 1465 : 

2nd moon, March ; 3rd moon, April. 

317 A.D. 1468. September 18. 

In the 4th year of the same epoch, the gth moon, day Ke Wei, there was a star 
seen in the 5th degree of S. D. Sing. For 5 days it went to the north-east. Its lu- 
minous envelope was about 30 cubits in length : the tail pointed to the south-west. It 
changed into a comet. It was afterwards seen in the morning, in the east. In the 
evening it was seen in the south of S. D. Shih. It passed through San Kang, Pih Tow, 
Yaou Kwang, and Tseih Kung. It turned and entered Teen She Yuen. It left Yuen 
and gradually decreased. It passed over the first star to the west of Teen Ping. In 
the nth moon, day Kang Shin, it disappeared. 

Ching Hwa, 4th year, 1468: gth moon, day Ke Wei, September 18 ; Kang 
Shin, December 8. 

S. D. Sing determined by a and others in Hydra. 

S. D. Shih determined by a, /3 Pegasi, &c. 

Yaou Kwang, rj Ursae Major is. 

Tseih Kung, 8, /u and others in Bootes. 

Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 

Teen Ping, unascertained. 

318 A.D. 1472. January 16. 

In the 7th year of the same epoch, i2th moon, on the day Kea Seuh, a comet was 
seen in Teen Teen. It pointed towards the west. It suddenly went to the north. It 
passed through Yew She Te. It swept Shang Tseang in Tae Wei Yuen, and also Hing 
Chin, Tae Tsze, and Tsung Kwan. The tail pointed directly to the west. It swept 
across Tae Wei Yuen and Lang Wei. On the day Ke Maou the luminous envelope had 
lengthened greatly. It extended from east to west across the heavens. It went north- 
wards about 28 degrees. It passed near Teen Tsaug and swept Pih Tow, San Kung, 



8o Comets observed in China. 

and Tae Yang. It entered Tsze Wei Yuen, and is said to have been seen in full day- 
light. It passed near to the stars Te Hwang, Kwei in Pih Tow, Shoo Tsze, How Kung, 
Kow Shin, Teen Choo, San Sze, Leen Taou, Chung Tae, Teen Hwang, Ta Te, Shang 
Wei, Ko Taou, Wan Chang, and Shang Tae. On the day Yih Yew it went to the 
south, and passed through Teen Ho, Teen Yen, Wae Ping, and Teen Yuen. In the ist 
moon of the 8th year, on the day Ping Woo, it went towards the group Wae Ping, in 
S. D. Kwei. It gradually faded, and it was some time before it finally disappeared. 

Ching Hwa, 7th year, 1471 : I2th moon, day Kea Seuh, 1472, January 16; 
Ke Maou, January 21 ; Yih Yew, January 27 : 8th year, ist moon, day Ping Woo, 
1472, February 17. 

S. D. Lew determined by a, j3, j Arietis. 

S. D. Kwei determined by /3, 8, t, &c. Andromedse, and stars in Pisces. 

Tae Wei Yuen, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Tsae Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Yew She Te, ij, v, T Bootis. Teen Teen, a, T Virginis. Tae Tsze, s Leonis. 

Hing Chin, star in Coma Berenices. Tung Kwan, 2567 Leonis. 

Teen Tseang, v, 0, K Bootis. 

Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in TJrsa Major. 

San Kung, the three stars in the head of Asterion. 

Tae Yang, ^ Ursse Majoris. 

Teen Hwang Ta Te, Polaris. Star Te Hwang, j3 Ursse Minoris. 

Kwei in Pih Tow, the square in Ursa Major. 

Shoo Tsze, A 3233 Ursac Minoris. How Kung, b 3162 Ursao Miuoris. 

Kow Chin, Ursas Minoris. Teen Choo, a Ursao Majoris. 

San Tsze, $, a, &c. Ursse Majoris. 

Teen Laou, w and small stars in Ursa Major. 

Chung Tae, X, ft, Shang Tae, t, * Ursaj Majoris. 

Wan Chang, 6, v, <j> Ursse Majoris. 

Shang Wei, star in Camelopardalis ; also one in Cepheus. 

Ko Taou, v, , o, TT Cassiopeise. 

Teen Ho, c, b, o, z Arietis. Tsin Yin, 8, Arietis. 

Wae Ping, a, 8, e, &c. in Pisces. Teen Yuen, stars in Coetus. 

319 A.D. 1490. December 31. 

In the reign of Heaou Tsung, the 3rd year of the epoch Hung Che, the nth moon, 
day Woo Seuh, a comet was seen in the south of Teen Tsin. Its tail pointed to the 
north-east. It passed over the star Jin. It passed through Choo Kew. In the I2th 
moon, day Woo Shin, being the ist day of the moon, it entered Ying Shih. On the 
day Kang Shin it passed into Teen Tsang. 

Emperor Heaou Tsung and epoch Hung Che, 1488-1505 ; 3rd year, 1490 : 
1 2th moon, day Woo Seuh, December 31: days, Woo Shin, 1491, January 10 : 
Kang Shin, January 22. 



Comets observed in China. 81 

There appears to be an error in the original in the moon. The Supplement 
to 'M. T. L.' has the I2th moon instead of the nth, which seems to be correct. 
Pingre, after Gaubil, has the 1 2th moon ; and Biot's computations agree with that 
moon, but are not consistent with the nth moon. The iath moon has, therefore, 
been employed instead of the nth in the preceding computations of the dates. 

Teen Tsin, a, /3, j, 8 and others in Cygnus. 

Jin Sing, e, f, g Pegasi. 

Ying Shih, or S. D. Shih, determined by a Pegasi and others. 

Teen Tsang, i, ?, 0, T Ceti. 

320 A.D. 1500. May 8. 

In the 1 3th year of the same epoch, 4th moon, day Kea Woo, a comet was seen in 
Luy Peih Chin. It entered the space between S. D. Shih and Peih. It gradually 
lengthened, until it was about 3 cubits in length. It pointed towards Le Kung and 
swept Tsaou Foo. It passed Tae Wei Yuen. It gradually lessened, and entering Tsze 
Wei Yuen it approached near to New She. It passed through Shang Shoo. In the 
6th moon, day Ting Yew, it disappeared. 

Hung Che, I3th year, 1500 : 4th moon, day Kea Woo, May 8 ; 6th moon, 
day Ting Yew, July 10. 

S. D. Shih determined by a, /3 Pegasi, &c. 

S. D. Peih determined by j Pegasi and a Andromedae. 

Tae Wei Yuen, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Luy Peih Chin, small stars in Aquarius and Pisces. 

Le Kung, three groups of two stars each in S. D. Shih (Pegasus). 

Tsaou Foo, 8, t, Cephei. 

Neu She, \f/ Draconis. 

Shang Shoo, A 3687 Draconis. 

321 A.D. 1506. July 31. 

In the reign of the Emperor Woo Tsung, the ist year of the epoch Ching Tih, 
yth moon, day Ke Chow, a star was seen to the west, without the boundary of Tsze Wei. 
It resembled a great ball. Its colour was a bluish white. After some days it had a 
small tail. It was seen between S. D. Tsan and Tsing. It gradually lengthened, and 
appeared like a broom, extending in a north-westerly direction towards Wan Chang. 

Emperor Woo Tsung and epoch Ching Tih,' 1506-1521 : ist year, 1506 ; yth 
moon, day Ke Chow, July 31. 

Tsze Wei, circle of perpetual apparition. 

S. D. Tsan determined by a, /3 and others in Orion. 

S. D. Tsing determined by j, s, X, fi and others in Gemini, 

Wan Chang, 9, v, <{> Ursse Majoris. 

Y 



82 Comets observed in China. 

322 A.D. 1506. August 10. 

On the day Kang Tsze a comet was seen. It was bright, and went to the south- 
east. It was 3 cubits in length. After 3 days it lengthened to 5 cubits. It swept the 
upper star of Hea Tae, and entered Tae Wei Yuen. 

1506 : 7th moon, day Kang Tsze, August 10. 

Tae Wei Yuen, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Hea Tae, v, Ursae Majoris. 

Possibly the same as the preceding. 

323 A.D. 1520. February. 

In the i fth year of the same epoch, ist moon, a comet was seen. 
Ching Tih, i5th year, 1520 : ist moon, February. 

324 A.D. 1523. July. 

In the reign of She Tsung, 2nd year of the epoch Kea Tsing, the 6th moon, there 
was a comet in Teen She. 

Emperor She Tsung and epoch Kea Tsing, 1522-1566 : 2nd year, 1523 : 6th 
moon, July. 

Teen She, space within Serpens. 

325 A. D. 1531. August 5. 

In the loth year of the same epoch, the intercalary 6th moon, day Yih Sze, a 
comet was seen in the east of S. D. Tsing. Its length was about i cubit. It swept the 
first star in Heen Yuen. The tail gradually increased in length. It went on to S. D. 
Yih. It was then about 7 cubits in length. It swept Teen Tsan to the north-east. 
It entered Tae Wei Yuen and swept Lang Wei. It passed through the degrees of S. D. 
Keo, going to the south-east. It swept the second star to the north of S. D. Kang. It 
gradually lessened, and after 34 days it disappeared. 

Kea Tsing, loth year, 1531 : intercalary 6th moon, day Yih Sze, August 5. 
S. D. Tsing determined by y, , X, &c. Geminorum. 
Yih determined by a and others in Crater. 
Kang determined by i, K, x> Virginis. 
Heen Yuen, a and other stars in Leo and Leo Minor. 
Teen Tsan, 1/1 Ursae Majoris. Lang Wei, Coma Berenices. 
Tae Wei Yuen, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

326 A.D. 1532. September 2. 

In the nth year of the same epoch, the 8th moon, day Ke Maou, a comet was seen 
in the east of S. D. Tsing. It was about a cubit in length. It afterwards went to the 
north-east. It passed through Teen Tsin. It gradually increased to about 10 cubits 



Comets observed in China. 83 

in length. It swept the star Choo in Tae Wei Yuen, and Teen Hun in S. D. Keo. In 
the 1 2th moon, day Kea Seuh, after having been visible for 115 days, it disappeared. 

Kea Tsing, nth year, 1532 : 8th moon, day Ke Maou, September 2 ; day Kea 
Seuh, December 26. 

S. D. Tsing determined by y, e, X, fi, &e. Geminorum. 

S. D. Keo determined by Spica and Virginis. 

Tae Wei Yuen, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 

Teen Tsin, a and other stars in Cygnus. 

Teen Mun, stars between Spica and y Hydra. 

327 A.D. 1533. July i. 

In the 1 2th year of the same epoch, 6th moon, day Sin Sze, a comet was seen in 
Woo Chay. Its length was 5 cubits. It swept Tse Ling and Teen Ta Tseang Keuen. 
It gradually increased to about 10 cubits. It swept Ko Taou and passed over Tang 
Shay. In the 8th moon, day Woo Seuh, it disappeared. 

Kea Tsing, I2th year, 1533 : 6th moon, day Jin Sze, July i ; 8th moon, day 
Woo Seuh, September 16. 

Woo Chay, a, ft, 9, K Aurigas and j3 Tauri. 

Teen Ta Tseang Keuen, j Andromedse, Triangulum, and stars near. 

Ko Taou, v, , o, TT Cassiopeiae. 

Tang Shay, w Cygni and stars near in Lacerta, &c. 

328 A.D. 1539. April 30. 

In the 1 8th year of the same epoch, 4th moon, day Kang Seuh, a comet was seen. 
It was about 3 cubits in length. It was bright, and pointed towards the south-west. 
It swept the 8th star of Heen Yuen. After 10 days it disappeared. 

Kea Tsing, i8th year, 1539 : 4th moon, day Kang Seuh, April 30. 

Heen Yuen, a and other stars in Leo and Leo Minor. 

329 A.D. 1554. June 23. 

In the 33rd year of the same epoch, the 5th moon, day Kwei Hae, a comet was 
seen near to Teen Keuen. It entered Wan Chang. It came near the star Shuh. It 
was visible for 27 days, and then disappeared. 

Kea Tsing, 33rd year, 1554: 5th moon, day Kwei Hae, June 23. 

Teen Keuen, 8 Ursae Majoris. 

Wan Chang, d, v, <j> Ursae Majoris. 

Shuh, a Serpentis. 

330 A.D. 1556. March i. 

In the 35th year of the same epoch, the ist moon, day Kang Shin, a comet was 
seen near Tsin Heen. It was more than a cubit in length. It pointed towards the 



84 Comets observed in China. 

south-west, and gradually increased in length to about 3 cubits. It swept Tae Wei 
Yuen, to the north-east of Tsze Seang. It entered Tsze Wei Yuen and came near to 
Teen Chwang. On the and day of the 4th moon it disappeared. 

Kea Tsing, 35th year, 1556: ist moon, day Kang Shin, March i. The 2nd 
day of the 4th moon, about May 27. 

Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Tae Wei Yuen, space between Leo and Virgo. 

Tsiii Heen, ^, ^ and others in Virgo. 

Tsze Seang, Virginis. 

Teen Chwang, stars near Draconis. 

331 A.D. 1557. October 10. 

In the 36th year pf the same epoch, gth moon, day Woo Shin, a comet was seen in 
Teen She Yuen, near Le Sze, to the north-west. It remained until the 23rd year of the 
loth moon, when it disappeared. 

Kea Tsing, 36th year, 1557 : gth moon, day Woo Shin, October 10. 

Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 

Le Sze, X Ophiuchi and small stars near. 

332 A. D. 1569. November 9. 

In the reign of Muh Tsung, the 3rd year of the epoch Lung King, the loth moon, 
day Sin Chow, the ist day of the moon, a comet was seen in Teen She Yuen. It pointed 
to the north-east. On the day Kang Shin it disappeared. 

Emperor Muh Tsung and epoch Lung King, 1567-1572: 3rd year, 1569: 
10th moon, day Sin Chow, November 9 ; Kang Shin, November 28. 
Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 

333 A.D. 1577. November 14. 

In the reign of Shin Tsung, 5th year of the epoch Wan Le, loth moon, day Woo 
Tsze, a comet was seen to the south-west. Its colour Was a bluish white. Its length 
was estimated at 10 cubits. Its vapour (tail) was perfectly white. From the S. D. 
A\ r ei and Ke it passed over S. I). Tow and New. It approached near to S. D. Neu. 
It was visible for I moon, and then disappeared. 

Emperor Shin Tsung and epoch Wan Le, 1573-1619 : 5th year, 1577 : loth 
moon, day Woo Tsze, November 14. 

S. D. Wei determined by y, 8, t in Scorpio. 

Ke determined by y, 8, e, &c. Sagittarii. 
Tow determined by , r, cr, &c. Sagittarii. 
New determined by a, /3, &c. Capricorni. 
Neu determined by i, fi, &c. Aquarii. 



Comets observed in China. 85 

334 A. D. 1580. October i. 

In the 8th year of the same epoch, 8th moon, day Kang Shin, a comet was seen in 
the south-east. It increased in size a little every night. It passed along Ho Han. It 
was seen altogether for 70 days, and then disappeared. 

Epoch Wan Le, 8th year, A.D. 1580 : 8th moon, day Kang Shin, October i. 

Ho Han, the Milky Way. 

335 A. D. 1582. May 20. 

In the loth year of the same epoch, the 4th moon, day Ping Shin, a comet was 
seen in the north-west. It resembled a folded piece of dyed silk. The tail pointed to 
Woo Chay. It was visible for about 20 days, and then disappeared. 

Epoch Wan Le, loth year, 1582 : 4th moon, day Ping Shin, May 20. 

Woo Chay, a, J3, 9, i Aurigae and /3 Tauri. 

336 A.D. 1585. October 3. 

In the 1 3th year of the same epoch, gth moon, day Woo Tsze, a comet appeared 
near Yu Lin. It was more than a cubit in length. Each night it went to the east. It 
gradually lessened, and in the loth moon, day Kwei Yin, it disappeared. 

Wan Le, I3th year, 1585: gth moon, day Woo Tsze, October 3; day Kwei 
Yew, November 17. 

Yu Lin, S, T, a Aquarii. 

337 A - D - I 59 I - April 3. 

In the igth year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, day Ping Shin, there was a star 
like a broom in the north-west, about a cubit in length. It passed over S. D. Wei, 
Shih, and Peih. Its length was then 2 cubits. In the intercalary 3rd moon, on the 
day Ping Yin, the 1st day of the moon, it entered S. D. Lew. 

Wan Le, igth year, 1591 : 3rd moon, day Ping Shin, April 3; intercalary 
3rd moon, day Ping Yin, April 13. 

S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii, &c. 

Shih determined by a, /3 Pegasi and others near. 
Peih determined by y Pegasi and a Andromeda?. 
Lew determined by a, )3, y Arietis. 

338 A.D. 1593. July 20. 

In the 2 ist year of the same epoch, 7th moon, day Yih Maou, a comet was seen in 
the eastern part of S. D. Tsing. On the day Yih Hae it went the contrary way, entered 
Tsze Wei Yuen, and approached closely to Hwa Kae. 



86 Comets observed in China. 

Wan Le, 2ist year, 1593 : yth moon, day Yih Maou, July 20 ; day Yih Hae, 
August 9. 

S. D. Tsing determined by j, e, X, ju, &c. Geminorum. 

Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Hwa Kae, small stars in Cassiopeia and Camelopardalis (uncertain). 

339 A.D. 1596. July 26. 

In the 24th year of the same epoch, yth moon, day Ting Chow, a comet was seen 
in the north-west. It resembled a round ball. It entered S. D. Yih. It was about a 
cubit in length. Its course was towards the north-west. 

Wan Le, 24th year, 1596 : yth moon, day Ting Chow, July 26. 

S. D. Yih determined by a and other stars in Crater. 

340 A.D. 1607. September n. 

In the 35th year of the same epoch, the 8th moon, day Sin Yew, the ist day of the 
moon, a comet was seen in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing. It pointed to the south- 
west. It went slowly to the north-west. On the day Jin Woo it passed from S. D. 
Fang into S. D. Sin and disappeared. 

Wan Le, 35th year, 1607: 8th moon, day Sin Yew, September n ; day Jin 
Woo, October 2. 

S. D. Tsing determined by j, s and other stars in Gemini. 
Fang determined by |3, 8 and others in Scorpio. 
Sin determined by Antares and others in Scorpio. 

341 A.D. 1618. November 16. 

In the 46th year of the same epoch, roth moon, day Yih Chow, a comet appeared 
in S. D. Te. Its length was about 10 cubits. It pointed to the south-east. It gradu- 
ally pointed to the north-west. It swept over the star Tae Yang Shoo. It entered 
S. D. Kang, about a degree to the north-west. It swept Pih Tow, the stars Seuen 
and Ke, Wan Chang, and Woo Chay. It passed off Tsze Wei Yuen. In the nth 
moon, day Kea Shin, it disappeared. 

Wan Le, 46th year, 1618: loth moon, day Yih Chow, November 16; day Kea 
Shin, December 25. 

S. D. Te determined by a, )3, y, &c. Librae. 

S. D. Kang determined by i, K, X, B Virginia. 

Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Tae Yang Shoo, ^ Ursse Majoris. 

Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major. 

Seuen, J3 Ursse Majoris. Ke, j Ursse Majoris. 

Wan Chang, 0, v, <j> Ursse Majoris. 

Woo Chay, a, j3, 0, &c. Aurigse, and |3 Tauri. 



Comets observed in China. 87 

342 A.D. 1619. February. 

In the 47th year of the same epoch, ist mooii, a comet was seen in the south-east. 
Its length was estimated at i oo cubits. Its luminous envelope pointed downwards : the 
end was curved and pointed. 

Wan Le, 47th year, 1619 : ist moon, February. 

343 A - D - l6 39- 

In the reign of Chwang Le, i2th year of the epoch Tsung Ching, a comet was seen 
in the degrees of S. D. Tsan. 

Emperor Chwang Le and epoch Tsung Ching, 1628-1644 : i2th year, 1639. 
S. D. Tsan determined by a, /3, j, 8, &c. Orionis. 

344 A.D. 1640. December 12. 

In the 1 3th year of the same epoch, roth moon, day Ping Seuh, a comet was seen. 
Tsung Ching, i3th year, 1640 : loth moon, day Ping Seuh, December 12. 



THE Observations that follow form a separate section in the ' She Ke,' in which they are 
termed those of Temporary or Strange Stars. Some of these are undoubtedly meteors, 
and have consequently been omitted here, where there was any reason to believe them 
comets, or where there was anything particularly interesting relating to them they have 
been retained. They are all of the Ming dynasty. 

345 A.D. 1376. June 22. 

In the reign of Tae Tsoo, gth year of the epoch Hung Woo, the 6th moon, day Woo 
Tsze, there was a great star resembling a round ball. Its colour was white. It was 
situated in Teen Tsang. It crossed Wae Ping and Keuen She. It entered Tae Wei 
Yuen. It swept Wan Chang and pointed towards Nuy Shoo. It entered into S. D. 
Chang. In the 7th moon, day Yih Hae, it disappeared. 

Emperor Tae Tsoo and epoch Hung Woo, 1368-1398: gth year, 1376: 6th 
moon, day Woo Tsze, June 22 ; 7th moon, day Yih Hae, August 8. 

S. D. Chang determined by K, X, fj., &c. Hydrse. 

Teen Tsang, i, 9, r\, in Ccetus. Keuen She, v Persei. 

Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Wan Chang, 6, (f>, v Ursse Majoris. 

Teen Shoo, or Nuy Shoo, 8 and other small stars in Draco. 

346 A.D. 1378. September 26. 

In the 1 1 th year of the same epoch, gth moon, day Kea Seuh, a star was seen to 
the north-east, in Woo Chay. It put forth a tail about i o cubits in length. It passed 



88 Comets observed in China. 

over Nuy Keae. It entered Tsze Wei Kung. It swept the five stars of Pin Keih. It 
passed over Shaou Tsae of Tung Yuen. It entered Teen She Yuen, and remained there 
until the loth moon, day Ke Wei ; when, on account of cloudy weather, it could no 
longer be seen. 

Hung Woo, nth year, 1378: gth moon, day Kea Seuh, September 26; Ke 
Wei, November 10. 

Woo Chay, a, /3, &c. Aurigae, and /3 Tauri. 

Nuy Keae, T and others in Ursa Major. 

Tsze Wei Kung, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Pih Keih, Polaris, and others near. 

Shaou Tsae, j Draconis. 

Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 

347 A.D. 1385. October 23. 

In the 1 8th year of the same epoch, gth moon, day Yin Yew, a comet was seen in 
Tae Wei Yuen. It came very near to Yew Chih Fa, and passed out by Twan Mun. 
On the day Yih Yew it entered S. D. Yih. Its length was then about 10 cubits. In 
the loth moon, day Kang Yin, it entered Keen Mun, and swept Teen Meaou. 

Hung Woo, 1 8th year, 1385 : gth moon, day Woo Yin, October 23 ; Yih Yew, 
October 30 : loth moon, day Kang Yin, November 4. 
S. D. Yih determined by a, /3 and others in Crater. 
Tae Wei Yuen, space between stars in Leo and Virgo. 
Yew Chih Fa, /3 Virginia. 
Twan Mun, space between /3 and r\ Virginis. 
Keen Mun, stars in Hydra, between Crater and Corvus. 
Teen Meaou, probably stars in Argo Navis. 

348 A.D. 1388. March 29. 

In the 2 ist year of the same epoch, 2nd moon, day Ping Seuh, a star appeared in 
the eastern part of S. D. Peih. 

Hung Woo, 1388 : 2nd moon, day Ping Yin, March 29. 
S. D. Peih determined by y Pegasi and a Andromedae. 

349 A.D. 1430. September 9. 

In the reign of Seuen Tsung, the 5th year of epoch Seuen Tih, the 8th moon, day 
Kang Yin, a star was seen near Nan Ho. It resembled a large round ball. Its colour 
was a dark blue. It was seen altogether for 26 days, and then disappeared. 

Emperor Seuen Tsung and epoch Seuen Tih, 1426-1435 : 5th year, 1430 : 8th 
moon, day Kang Yin, September 9. 
Nan Ho, a, /3, &c. Canis Minoris. 



Comets observed in China. 89 

350 A.D. 1430. November 14. 

In the loth moon of the same year, day Ping Shin, an extraordinary star was seen 
to the south of Wae Ping. Its course was to the south-east. It crossed Teen Tsang 
and Teen Yu. It was visible for 8 days, and then disappeared. 

Seuen Tih, 5th year, 1430 : loth moon, day Ping Shin, November 14. 

Wae Ping, 8, t, fi, v Piscium. 

Teen Tsang, v, 9, rj in Ccetus. 

Teen Yu, small stars below Ccetus in Fornax. 

351 A. D. 1431. January 3. 

In the 1 2th moon of the same year, day Ting Hae, a star like a round ball was seen 
near Kew Yew. Its colour was a yellowish white. It was not bright. After 15 days 
it disappeared. 

1430: 1 2th moon, day Ting Hae : 1431, January 3. 
Kew Yew, ft, o>, &c. Eridani. 

352 A.D. 1453. January 4. 

In the reign of King Te, the 3rd year of the epoch King Tae, the nth moon, day 
Kwei Wei, there was a star seen in S. D. Kwei, near Tseih She Ke. It went very 
slowly to the west. 

King Te appears to have been a regent during the captivity of the Emperor 
Ying Tsung. His rule and epoch King Tae, 1450-1454: 3rd year, 1452: nth 
moon, day Kwei Wei, 1453, January 3. 

S. D. Kwei determined by y, 8, TJ, Cancri. 

Tseih She Ke, Praesepe in Cancer. 

353 A. D. 1458. December 24. 

In the reign of Ying Tsung, 2nd year of the epoch Teen Shun, 1 1 th moon, day 
Kwei Maou, there was a star seen in S. D. Sing. Its colour was white. It went west- 
ward until the day Ping Woo, when its body faded away. Its appearance was like 
meal, or the refuse of silk. Its place was near Heen Yuen. On the day Kang Seuh it 
produced a tail -j^-ths of a cubit in length. It invaded the north-west star of Kwan 
Wei. In the I2th moon, day Jin Seuh, it disappeared in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing. 

Emperor Ying Tsung and epoch Teen Shun, 1457-1464: 2nd year, 1458: 
i ith moon, day Kwei Maou, December 24 ; day Ping Woo, December 27 ; day 
Kang Seuh, December 31 : i2th moon, day Jin Seuh, January 12, 1459. 

S. D. Sing determined by a, T, &c. Hydrse. 

S. D. Tsing determined by j, e, \, fi, &c. Geminorum. 

Heen Yuen, a, j and other stars in Leo and Leo Minor. 

Kwan Wei, \, fi and other stars in Cancer. 

A A 



go Comets observed in China. 

354 A. D. 1461. June 29. 

In the 5th year of the same epoch, 6th moon, day Jin Shin, a star resembling white 
meal was seen near Tsung Ching, in Teen She Yuen. On the day Yih Wei it changed 
into a white vapour and disappeared. 

Teen Shun, 5th year, 1461 : 6th moon, day Jin Shin, June 29 ; day Yih Wei, 
August 2. 

Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 
Tsung Ching, /3, j Ophiuchi. 

355 A.. D. 1462. June 29. 

In the 6th year of the same epoch, 6th moon, day Ping Yin, a star was seen near 
the star Tsih. Its colour was a bluish white. It entered Tsze Wei Yuen. It invaded 
Teen Laou. On the day Kwei Wei it was beneath Chung Tae. Its form gradually 
faded away. 

Teen Shun, 6th year, 1462 : 6th moon, day Ping Yin, June 29 ; Kwei Wei, 
July 1 6. 

Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 

Tsih, S Cassiopeiae. 

Teen Laou, w and others in Ursa Major. 

Chung Tae, X, fi Ursse Majoris. 

356 A. D. 1491. January 19. 

In the reign of Heaou Tsung, 3rd year of epoch Hung Che, 1 2th moon, day Ting 
Sze, a star was seen in Teen She Yuen. It went to the south-east. On the day Woo 
Shin it was seen beneath Teen Tsang. It gradually went towards S. D. Peih. 

Emperor Ileaou Tsung and epoch Hung Che, 1488-1505 : 3rd year, 1490: 
1 2th moon, day Ting Sze, January 19, 1491 ; Woo Shin, January 30. 
Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 
Teen Tsang, i, ij, 9, &c. CoDti. 
S. D. Peih determined by -y Pegasi and a Andromedae. 

357 A. D. 1495. January 7. 

In the 7th year of the same epoch, 1 2th moon, day Ping Yin, a star was seen near 
Teen Keang. It went slowly towards S. D. Tow until the 8th year, ist moon, day 
Kang Seuh, when it entered S. D. Wei. 

Hung Che, 7th year, 1494 : i2th moon, day Ping Yin, January 7, 1495 :- 8th 
year, ist moon, day Kang Seuh, 1495, February 20. 
S. D. Tow determined by , T, a, &c. Sagittarii. 
S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and 9, t Pegasi. 
Teen Keang, and others in Ophiuchus. 



Comets observed in China. 91 

358 A.D. 1499. August 16. 

In the 1 2th year of the same epoch, yth moon, day Woo Shin, a star was seen near 
the star Tsung in Teen She Yuen. It entered the eastern boundary of Tsze Wei Yuen. 
It passed Shaou Tsae and Shang Shoo. It touched Tae Tsze and How Kung. It 
passed out of the western boundary near Shaou Foo. It was visible until the 8th moon, 
day Ke Chow, when it disappeared. 

Hung Che, i2th year, 1499: 7th moon, day Woo Shin, August 16; 8th moon, 
day Ke Chow, September 6. 

Teen She Yuen, space bounded by Serpens. 
Tsze Wei Yuen, circle of perpetual apparition. 
Ta Tsze, j Ursae Minoris. 
How Kung, j3 Ursse Minoris. 
Shaou Foo, X Draconis. 

359 A. D. 1502. November 28. 

In the 1 5th year of the same epoch, loth moon, day Woo Shin, a star was seen 
near Teen Maou, in S. D. Chang. It arrived at S. D. Yih, and having returned again 
to Chang, on the day Woo Yin it disappeared. 

Hung Che, I5th year, 1502 : loth moon, day Woo Shin, November 28 ; day 
Woo Yin, December 8. 

S. D. Chang determined by K, X, fj., &c. Hydras. 
S. D. Yih determined by a and others in Crater. 
Teen Maou, stars in Argo Navis. 

360 A. D. 1521. February 7. 

In the reign of Woo Tsung, the i6th year of the epoch Ching Tih, the ist moon, 
day Kea Yin, the ist day of the moon, there was a star in the south-east. It resembled 
a changing flame of fire, of a white colour, and was from 6 to 7 cubits in length. It 
crossed the heavens from east to west, and was dissipated. 

Emperor Woo Tsung and epoch Ching Tih, 1506-1521 : i6th year, 1521 : ist 
moon, day Kea Yin, February 7. 

361 A.D. 1529. February 5. 

In the reign of She Tsung, 8th year of the epoch Kea Tsing, the ist moon, on the 
day of Leih Chun, a long star extended across the heavens. The same occurred in the 
7th moon. 

Emperor She Tsung and Kea Tsing, 1522-1566 : 8th year, 1529 : ist moon, 
day of Lei Chun. Leih Chun is the 3rd of the 24 divisions of the year, being that 
of the beginning of spring : it answers to our February 5. 7th moon, August. 



92 Comets observed in China. 

362 A. D. 1532. March 9. 

In the nth year of the same epoch, the 2nd moon, day Jin Woo, a star was seen 
in the south-east. Its colour was a bluish white. It had a tail. After 19 days it 
disappeared. 

Kea Tsing, nth year, 1532 : 2nd moon, day Jin Woo, March 9. 

363 A.D. 1534. June 12. 

In the 1 3th year of the same epoch, 5th moon, day Ting Maou, the ist day of the 
moon, a star was seen in Tang Shay. It passed through Teen Ke and entered Ko Taou. 
On the 24th day it disappeared. 

Kea Tsing, I3th year, 1534: 5th moon, day Ting Maou, June 12. 

Tang Shay, stars in Cygnus, Lacerta, and Andromeda. 

Teen Ke, 0, p, a and others in Andromeda. 

Ko Taou, v, , o and others in Cassiopeia. 

364 A.D. 1536. March 24. 

In the I5th year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, day Woo Woo, a star was seen 
near Teen Kae. It went to the east. It passed through Teen Choo to the west. It 
entered Teen Han, and in the 4th moon, day Jin Shin, it disappeared. 

Kea Tsing, I5th year, 1536 : 3rd moon, day Woo Woo, March 24 ; 4th moon, 
day Jin Shin, April 27. 

Teen Kae, /3, j and others in Draco. 
Teen Choo, 8 and others in Draco. 
Teen Han, the Milky Way. 

365 A.D. 1545. December 16. 

In the 24th year of the same epoch, the i ith moon, day Jin Woo, a star appeared 
in Teen Kae. It entered S. D. Ke. It turned and went to the north-east. At the end 
of the moon it disappeared. 

Kea Tsing, 24th year, 1545 : nth moon, day Jin Woo, December 26. 

S. D. Ke determined by j, , f Sagittarii. 

Teen Kae, /3, y, &c. in Draco. 

366 A.D. 1578. February 22. 

In the reign of Shin Tsung, 6th year of epoch Wan Le, ist moon, day Woo Shin, 
a great star resembling the Sun appeared in the west, surrounded by a number of stars, 
all in the west. 

Emperor Shin Tsung and epoch Wan Le, 1573-1617: 6th year, 1578 : ist 
moon, day Woo Shin, February 22. 



Comets observed in China. 93 

367 A.D. 1584. July i. 

In the 1 2th year of the same epoch, 6th moon, day Ke Yew, a star appeared in 
S. D. Fang. 

Wan Le, i2th year: 6th moon, day Ke Yew, July i, 1584. 
S. D. Fang determined by /3, S, TT, p in Scorpio. 

368 A.D. 1604. September 30. 

In the 32nd year of the same epoch, the gth moon, day Yih Chow, a star was seen 
in the degrees of S. D. Wei. It resembled a round ball. Its colour was a reddish 
yellow. It was seen in the south-west until the loth moon, when it was no longer 
visible. In the I2th moon, day Sin Yew, it again appeared in the south-east, in S. D. 
Wei. The next year, in the 2nd moon, it gradually faded away. In the 8th moon, day 
Ting Maou, it disappeared. 

Wan Le, 32nd year, 1 604 : gth moon, day Yih Chow, September 30 ; i oth 
moon, November; I2th moon, day Sin Yew, 1605, January 14 : 33rd year, 1605 : 
2nd moon, day Ting Maou, March 2 1 . 

S. D. Wei determined by e, fj., v and others in Scorpio. 

Biot has S. D. Fang instead of the second S. D. Wei. S. D. Fang is deter- 
mined by /3, 8, IT and others in Scorpio. It is, however, Wei in the 'She Ke.' 

369 A.D. 1609. 

In the 37th year of the same epoch a great star was seen in the south-west. The 
tail had four rays. 

Wan Le, 37th year, 1609. 

370 A.D. 1618. November 24. 

In the 46th year of the same epoch, the gth moon, day Yih Maou, a white vapour 
was seen in the south-east. It was about a cubit in width and 20 cubits in length. It 
extended from the east to the west of S. D. Chin. It entered S. D. Yih, and after 19 
days it disappeared. 

S. D. Chih determined by /3, &c. Corvi. 

Yih, a and others in Crater. 

371 A.D. 1618. December 5. 

In the nth moon of the same year, day Ping Yin, in the morning, a star like a 
white flower was seen. 

1618 : nth moon, day Ping Yin, December 5. 

6 B 



94 Comets observed in China, 

372 A.D. 1621. May 12. 

In the reign of He Tsung, the ist year of the epoch Teen Ke, the 4th moon, day 
Kwei Yew, a reddish star was seen in the east. 

Emperor He Tsung and epoch Teen Ke, 1621-1627: ist year, 1621 : 4th 
moon, day Kwei Yew, May 12. 



APPENDIX, 



CONSISTING OF 



TABLES 



FOB 



REDUCING CHINESE TIME TO EUROPEAN RECKONING, 



AND 



A CHINESE CELESTIAL ATLAS. 



SHOWING 



THE SUCCESSION OF THE DYNASTIES AND EMPEROES, 

FROM THE EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME, 



*.* These Tables are required for finding the Year of any occurrence. The method of using these 
and the subsequent Tables is fully explained in the Introductory Kemarks. 



SUCCESSION OF THE DYNASTIES, 

FROM THE ACCESSION OF THE HEA TO THAT OF THE PRESENT DYNASTY, 

THE TSIlfG. 



Dynasties. 


Date. 




Dynasties. 


Date. 


H 


Hea 


B. C. 
2205 




m 


Chin 


A.D. 

557 


m 


Shang 


1766 




Pf 


Suy 


589 


m 


Chow 


I 122 




n 


Tang 


618 


Mm 


Tung Chow 


696 




% M 


How Leang 


907 


^ 


Tsin 


2 55 




*& Jf 


How Tang 


9 2 3 


M 


Han 


2O6 




H la 


How Tsin 


936 






A. D. 










M M 


Tung Han 


2 5 




^ 1^ 


How Han 


947 


M n 


Shuh Han 


221 




^ JH 


How Chow 


95' 


w 


Tsin 


265 




ft 


Sung 


960 


M ^3 


Tung Tsin 


317 




7C 


Yuen 


1280 


5R 


Sung 


420 




93 


Ming 


1368 


if 


Tse 


479 




m 


Tsiug 


1644 


m 


Leang 


502 












c c 



9 8 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



Chinese Chronology may be arranged under Three Divisions the Fabulous Period, 
the Uncertain Period, and that which they consider as certain. 

THE FABULOUS PERIOD. 



Emperor's Name. 


Keigned Years. 


m-& 


Pwan Koo 


The First Man. 


^ M ^ 


Teen Hwang She 


18,000 


*tfj M * 


Te Hwang She 


1 8, coo 


Al^ 


Jin Hwang She 


45,000 



THE UNCERTAIN PERIOD. 
Ml SAN HWANG. THE THREE HWANGS. 



Emperor's Name. 


Date. 


Reigned 
Years. 


ft 


FuhHe 


B. C. 

3328 


11 5 


;1$ Jt 


Shin Nung 


3213 


140 


i*. PfS 
rp RIP 


Te Lin 


373 


80 


^ ;ft 


Te Ching 


2993 


60 


^ B^ 


Te Ming 


2933 


49 


^ 1C 


Te E 


2884 


45 


^ ^ 


Te Lae 


2839 


48 


^ Ig 


Te Le 


2791 


43 


*^* WJ 


Te Yu 


2748 


5 


Mf 4 


Hwang Te 


2698 


IOI 


The three Hwangs are Fuh He, Shin Nung, and Hwang Te. 



From the 1st year of the 1st epoch, 2637 B.C., being the 6oth year of Hwang Te, the Chronology 

is considered as certain. 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 
^ tffr Woo TE. THE FIVE TE'S. 

(THE WORDS HWANG AND TE ABE IMPERIAL TITLES.) 



99 



Emperor's Name. 


Date. 


Reigned 
Years. 


4>fl 


Shaou Haou 


B. C. 
2597 


84 


-61 


Chuen Kuh 


2513 


78 


& 


Te Kwuh 


2435 


79 


^ ^ 


Te Yaou 


2356 


101 


l|j yif 


Te Shun 


2255 


5 



HE A CHAOTJ. THE HE A DYNASTY, B.C. 2205-1765. 



* $ 


Ta Yu 


2205 


8 


^ %k 


Te Ke 


2197 


9 


fc fit 


Tae Kung 


2188 


29 


w a 


Chung Kang 


2159 


13 


1^, ^ H 


Wang Seang 


2146 


28 


& J^ 


Shaou Kang 


2118 


61 


^ 1 ' ^^ ~T* 


Wang Choo 


2057 


17 


i n 


Wang Hwae 


2040 


26 


i ^ 


Wang Mang 


2014 


18 


i ft* 


Wang See 


1996 


16 


*"-* "v" fMiC- 

*T* S\^ IcE" 


Wang Puh Keang 


1980 


59 


I Ji 


Wang Shang 


1921 


21 


- 1 j fcj^ 

^ j, / ^j 


Wang Kin 


iqoo 


21 


i ?i ^ 


Wang Kung Kea 


1879 


3> 


t-T7* , : n^ 


Wang Kaou 


1848 


I I 


I H 


Wang Fa 


1837 


'9 


X/'J ; \y^ 


Kee Kwei 


1818 


53 



100 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 

jU 1$ SHANG CHAOU. 
THE SHANG DYNASTY, B.C. 1766-1122. 



Emperor's Name. 


Date. 


Reignec 
Years. 


tf& 


Ching Tang 


B. C. 
1766 


13 


ft *F 


Tae Kea 


'753 


33 


"0k T 


Yuh Ting 


1720 


29 


ft fc 


Tae Kang 


1691 


2 5 


f I > 
V|\ r~ri 


Seaou Kea 


1666 


'7 


7^>T r^j 

-?| c 


Yung Ke 


1649 


12 


ft $ 


Tae Woo 


1637 


75 


i W r* 


Chung Ting 


1562 


'3 


#h i 


Wae Jin 


'549 


'5 


M g *F 


Ho Tan Kea 


'534 


9 


la z. 


Tsoo Yih 


1525 


'9 


ia ^ 


Tsoo Sin 


1506 


17 


^ ^ 


Yuh Kea 


1490 


29 


la T 


Tsoo Ting 


1465 


3 2 


!! ' 


Nan Kang 
Yang Kea 


'433 

1408 


h 


HJTU |-|^ 


Pwan Kang 


1401 


28 


^ ^ 


Seaou Sin 


'373 


21 


yj\ ZL 


Seaou Yih 


1352 


28 


s^ T 


Woo Ting 


'3H 


59 


ffl ^ 


Tsoo Kang 


1265 


7 


jta ^F 


Tsoo Kea 


1258 


33 


M ^ 


Lin Sin 


1225 


6 


J^T 


Kang Ting 


1219 


21 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



101 



Emperor's Name. 


Date. 


Keigned 
Years. 


5v 2^ 


Woo Yih 


11. C. 

1198 


4 


^C T 


Tae Ting 


1194 


3 


ft Z, 


Te Yih 


1 191 


37 


*^* 


Chow Sin 


1154 


32 



ffl ij$ CHOW CHAOU. 
THE CHOW DYNASTY, B.C. 1122-254. 868 YEARS. 



j 


Woo Wang 


I 122 


7 


$ 3E 


Ching Wang 


II, S 


37 


H 3E 


Kang Wang 


1078 


26 


B3 


Chaou Wang 


1052 


5' 


H I 


Mo Wang 


10OI 


55 


^ I 


Kung Wang 


946 


12 


i& 


E Wang 


934 


2 5 


^ i 


Heaou Wang 


909 


'5 


^ 3E 


E Wang 


894 


16 


H I 


Le Wang 


878 


5' 


^^^ |^ 


Seuen Wang 


827 


46 


1^1 I 


Yew Wang 


781 


1 1 


*F I 


Ping Wang 


770 


5' 


I 


Hwfin Wang 


719 


23 


^ ^ TUNG CHOW. 


^ 3E 


Chwang Wang 


696 


'5 


m* 


Le Wang 


681 


5 



D I) 



IO2 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



Emperor's Name. 


Date. 


Reigned 
Years. 


m i 


Hwuy Wang 


B.C. 

676 


2 5 


M =E 


Seang Wang 


651 


33 


*M 3E 


King Wang 


618 


6 


m =E 


Kwaug Wang 


612 


6 


& i 


Ting Wang 


606 


21 


H I 


Keen Wang 


585 


14 


^ i 


Ling Wang 


57i 


27 


i j > i 


King Wang 


544 


2 5 


$: i 


King Wang 


5>9 


44 


7C I 


Yuen Wang 


475 


7 


^ ^ T 

^\ At L 


Ching Ting Wang 


468 


28 


^ 3E 


Kaon Wang 


44 


15 


i^ ^il q- 

/5X in 1C 


Wei LeS Wang 


425 


24 


^c I 


Gan Wang 


401 


26 


SA 3E 


LeS Wang 


375 


7 


I 


Heen Wang 


368 


48 


tH II I 


Shin Tsing Wang 


320 


6 


0R I 


Nan Wang 


3'4 


59 


X-ff-X 


Tung Chow Wang 


255 


7 



TSIN CHAOU. THE Tsnsr DYNASTY, B.C. 225-205. 



m 

n 



Shaou Seang Wang 
Haou Wan Wang 
Chwang Seang Wang 
Che Hwang Te 
Urh She Hwang Te 



2 55 

250 

240 
236 
209 



5 
10 

4 

37 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



103 



HAN CHAOTJ. HAN DYNASTY, B.C. 206 to A.D. 264. 

g ) SE HAN. WESTERN HAN. 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 










B. C. 




B. C. 


1U 'rfj* 


Kaou Te 








12 


206 to 195 


&ft 


Hwuy Te 








7 


194 1 88 


|pfj /a 


Kaou How 








8 


187 i 80 


>c ^ 


Wan Te 




None for 16 yrs. 


179 to 164 










& 7C 


How Yuen, ) 
i st epoch j 


163 157 


23 


'79 '57 


H'rfj' 


King Te 




None for 7 yrs. 


156 150 










# 7C 


Chung Yuen 


'49 H4 










^ 7t 


How Yuen 


143 141 


16 


156 141 


pfc 'i* 


WooTe 


$i 7C 


Keen Yuen 


'4 '35 










7C 3fe 


Yuen Kwang 


134 129 










- k f* illri 

7u y-n 


Yuen So 


128 123 










7t ^ 


Yuen Show 


122 117 










7C ^ 


Yuen Ting 


I l6 III 










7t ^ 


Yuen Fung 


i 10 105 










^C i7 


Tae Choo 


104 101 










^ n 


Teen Han 


ioo 97 










^ 


Tae Che 


96 93 










f iE ^a 


Ching Ho 


92 89 










^ 7C 


How Yuen 


88 87 


54 


140 87 


us f- 


Chaou Te 


'ff{$ "Jl * 
y*Pl X W 


Che Yuen 


86 81 










7C Jl 


Yuen Fung 


80 75 










JC 


Yuen Ping 


74 


'3 


86 to 74 


*B* 15* 


Seuen Te 


* #6 


Pun Che 


73 to 70 







104 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 






Mb IS 


Te TseS 


B. C. 

69 to 66 




B. C. 






7u /JR 


Yuen Kang 


65 62 










JP* 1? 


Shin Tseo 


61 58 










i j| 


Woo Fung 


57 54 










-fr SI 


Kan Loo 


53 5 










^ tl 


Hwang Lung 


49 


2 5 


73 to 49 


7C 'rji' 


Yuen Te 


'wl TTj 


Choo Yuen 


48 44 










^ 3fe 


Yung Kwang 


43 39 










H $& 


Keen Chaou 


38 34 










n ^ 


King Ning 


33 


16 


48 33 


}fc ^ 


Clung Te 


^ ^ 


Keen Che 


32 29 










^pT 3S1 


Ho Ping 


28 25 










^ 39 


Yang So 


24 21 










wi ^ 


Hung Kea 


20 17 










^ ^ 


Yung Che 


16 13 










7t ji 


Yuen Yen 


12 9 










W. 3 


H\van Ho 


8 7 


26 


32 7 


I* ^ 


Gae Te 


^ ^ 


Keen Ping 


6 3 






T* 


Ping Te 


7t W 

7C Jfo 


Yuen Show 
Yuen Che 


2 I 

A. D. 

1 5 


6 

5 


6 i 

A. D. 

1 5 


n^n 


Joo Sze Ying 


JB ^ 


Keu Che 


6 7 










*7J ^ 


Choo Che 


8 


3 


6 8 


* 


Wang Mang 
(Usurper.) 

H\vae Yang 


it 


Keen Kwo 
Teen Fung 
Te Hwang 


9 '3 

14 19 

20 22 

23 to 24 


'4 

2 


9 22 
23 to 24 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 

;3i TUNG HANG. EASTERN HAN. 



105 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


leignetl 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 


ft *e 


Kwang Woo 


A-L; J*V 


Keen Woo 


A. D. 

2$ to ^ 




A. D. 






# 7C 


Chung Yuen 


rf S7 


33 


25 to 57 


BJJ ft 


Ming Te 


U< ^ 


Yung Ping 


S* 7S 


18 


58 75 


^ ft 


Chang Te 


H %J 


Keen Choo 


76 83 










7C 5ft 


Yuen Ho 


84 86 










H 5ft 


Chang Ho 


87 88 


'3 


76 88 


5ft f- 


HoTe 


^< 7U 


Yung Yuen 


89 104 










7C ^~ 


Yuen Hiug 


105 


'7 


89 105 


^ ^ 


Shang Te 


j^ 2p 


Yen Ping 


1 06 


i 


1 06 


^ 'i* 


Gan Te 


ft *JJ 


Yung Choo 


107 113 










7t 19 


Yuen Choo 


114 119 










^< '^ 


Yung Ning 


120 










^ 3t 


Keen Kwang 


121 










^ ^ 


Yen Kwang 


122 125 


'9 


107 125 


JH ^ 


Shun Te 


ft It 


Yung Keen 


126 131 










i; ^ 


Yang Kea 


'32 '35 










^ 5ft 


Yung Ho 


136 141 










n % 


Han Gan 


142 143 










& m 


Keen Kang 


144 


'9 


126 to 144 


W f- 


Cluing Te 


ft i& 


Yung Kea 


'45 


i 


'45 


M ^ 


Chih Te 


& w 


Pun Choo 


,46 


i 


146 


Jf ^ 


Hwan Te 


& 5ft 


Keen Ho 


'47 '49 










5ft ^ 


Ho Ping 


150 










7C ^ 


Yuen Kea 


'5' '5 2 










ft & 


Yung King 


'53 to '54 







E 



io6 



Chinese Chronological Tables, 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 






m m 


Yung Show 


A. D. 

'55 to "57 




A. D. 






M M 


Yen He 


158 166 










ft Hf 


Yung Kang 


167 


21 


147 to 167 


H ft 


Ling Te 


We ^ 


Keen Ning 


168 171 










Hk 


He Ping 


172 177 










3t ^a 


Kwang Ho 


178 183 










I j"! '^Tit 


Chung Ping 


184 189 


22 


168 189 


HiEC, ,tV. 

im w 


Keen Te 


rffjl ^TV. 


Choo Ping 


190 193 










J^ 2j 


Hing Ping 


194 195 










@ ^ 


Keen Gan 


196 220 


3' 


190 220 


^ g| HOW HAN. THE LATER HAN. 


flgHH 1 


Chaou Le Te 


^ ^ 


Chang Woo 


221 222 


2 


221 242 


It ^ 


How Te 


21 J& 


Keen Hing 


223 237 










M EE 

^"" ! 1 * * 


Yen He 


238 257 










^ ^ 


King Teih 


2j8 262 










J^^ 


Yen Hing 


263 264 


4 2 


223 264 


^ >jp} TSIN CHAOU. THE TSIN DYNASTY, A.D. 265-419. 


B ^ SE TSIN. WESTERN TSIN. 


&ft 


Woo Te 


^^ 


Tae Che 


265 274 










*t ^ 


Han Ning 


275 279 










^ 


Tae Kang 


280 289 


2 5 


265 to 289 


fit '??. 
/L'. (P 


Hwuy Te 


^ !?S 


Yung He 


290 










7C ^ 


Yuen Kang 


291 to 299 










^C ^ 


Yung Kang 


30O 







Chinese Chronological Tables. 



107 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Keign. 






ft ^ 


Yung Ning 


A. D. 

301 




A. D. 






~K & 


Tae Can 


302 to 303 










ft $% 


Yung Hiug 


34 35 






'** 


Hwae Te 


it m 


Kwang He 
Yung Kea 


306 
307 312 


17 
6 


290 to 306 

307 3 I2 


m ^ 


MinTe 


m ft 


Keen King 313 316 


4 


313 3' 6 


Jjfc ^f- TUNG TSIN. EASTERN TSIN. 




Yuen Te 
Ming Te 


ii 


Keen Woo 
Ta Hing 
Yung Chang 
Tae Ning 


3'7 
318 321 
322 

323 325 


6 

3 


-j^^~~^ ~r^~ 

w* 

&ft 

323 ?*fes 


% 'rfr 


Ching Te 


M 3 


Han Ho 


326 334 










M Jt 


Han Kang 


335 342 


'7 


326 342 


r ! . i^j^t. 

m W 

Trl ."3*tL 


Kang Te 
Muh Te 


511 7C 


Keen Yuen 
Yung Ho 


343 344 
345 35 6 


2 


343 344. 






ft 


Sliing Ping 


357 361 


'7 


345 3 6 ' 


M ^ 


Gae Te 


Kft ^ 


Lung Ho 


362 










ft 


Hing Ning 


363 365 


4 


362 365 


^ ^ 


Te Yih 


i: ?Fn 


Tae Ho 


366 370 


5 


366 370 


fli 3:^ 


Keen Wan Te 


J^C ^ 


Han Gan 


37i 372 


2 


37i 372 


^ft'tfr 


Heaou Woo Te 


^ it 


Ning Kang 


373 375 










^C 7C 


Tae Yuen 


376 39 6 


24 


373 39 6 


^ ^ 


Can Te 


Rft ^ 


Lung Gan 


397 4 01 










7t ft 


Yuen Hing 


402 404 










^ BR 


E He 


405 to 418 


22 


397 to 41 8 


#ffr 


Kung Te 


nfir* Efi 
yu i> 


Yuen He 


419 


I 


419 




io8 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 
SUNG CHAOU. THE SUNG DYNASTY, A.D. 420-478. 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 


fie * 


WooTe 


ft %/ 


Yung Choo 


A. D. 

420 to 422 


3 


A. D. 

420 to 422 


^ ft 


Shaou Te 


m. as 

-?J> | 


King Ping 


423 


i 


423 


^ ft 


Wan Te 


JC 1? 


Yuen Kea 


424 4S3 


30 


424 453 


*r fit ft 


Heaou Woo Te 


^ 51 


Heaou Keen 


454 456 










A W 


Ta Ming 


457 464 


1 1 


454 464 


H ft 


Fei Te 


^ ft 


King Ho 


465 


Jyear 


465 


W ft 


Ming Te 


% 4& 


Tae Che 


465 471 










^ ^ 


Tae Yu 


472 


8 


465 472 


M Vn 3E 


Tsang Woo Wang 


7t ^ 


Yuen Hwuy 


473 476 


4 


473 476 


MIS {&L 

lip w 


Shun Te 


JL ffl 
?r W 


Shing Ming 


477 478 


2 


477 478 


^ ffl TSE CHAOU. THE TSE DYNASTY, A.D. 479-501. 


ffi H? 


Kaou Te 


m TC 


Keen Yuen 


479 482 


4 


479 482 


2fc ^ 


Woo Te 


^ BJI 


Yung Ming 


483 493 


1 1 


483 493 


W ft 


Ming Te 


& & 


Keen Woo 


494 497 


5 


494 






& & 


Yung Tae 


498 




498 


M&*& 


Tung Hwan How 


ft 7C 


Yung Yuen 


499 5 


2 


499 to 500 


ft ft 


HoTe 


* H 


Chung Hing 


501 


I 


501 


ZQ ^ LEANG CHAOU. THE LEANG DYNASTY, A.D. 502-556. 


fi ft 


Woo Te 


^ m. 


Teen Keen 


502 519 










^pp gj 


Tsin Tung 


520 526 










A M 


Ta Tung 


526 527 










*AM 


Chung Ta Tung 


528 to 534 







Chinese Chronological Tables. 



109 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Keign. 






* H 


Ta Tung 


A. 1). 

535 to 545 




A. D. 






ff * 1^1 


Chung Ta Tung 


546 










^SC M 


Tae Tsing 


547 549 


47 


502 (0549 


ffi ft 


Keen Wan Te 


^: ^ 


Ta Paou 


55 55 1 


2 


55 55' 


7C ft 


Yuen Te 


& M 


Ching Shing 


55 2 554 


3 


55 2 554 


4* ft 


King Te 


n % 


Shaou Tae 


555 













Tae Ping 


556 


2 


555 55 6 


$H 1$ CHIN CHAOU. THE CHIN DYNASTY, A.D. 557-588. 


& ft 


WooTe 


^ ^ 


Yung Ting 


557 559 


3 


557 559 


% ft 


WanTe 


^c H 


Teen Kea 


560 563 










^ J^ 


Teen Kang 


566 


7 


560 566 


re m 


Pih Tsung 


3fe ^ 


Kwang Ta 


567 568 






ii ft 


Seuen Te 


A ii 


Ta Keen 


569 582 


'4 


569 582 


^? ~Y* 


How Wang 


31 fi 


Che Tih 


583 586 










nil W 


Ching Ming 


587 588 


6 


583 588 


Pjf ij$ SUY CHAOU. THE SUY DYNASTY, A.D. 589-617. 


Zft 


Wan Te 


m m 


Kae Hwang 589 600 










t ^ 


Jin Show 


601 604 


Z 4 


589 604 


*i f- 


Yang Te ^c =p^ 


Ta Nee 


605 to 616 


'3 


605 to 616 


%ft 


Kung Te ^B jEt 


E Ning 617 


i 


617 



F F 



no 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 
TANG CHAOU. THE TANG DYNASTY, A.D. 618-906. 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 


jt5 IB. 


Kaou Tsoo 


*e m 


Woo Tih 


A.D. 

618 to 626 


9 


A. b. 

618 to 626 


-& ^ 


Tae Tsung 


& n 


Ching Kwan 


627 649 


23 


627 649 


M * 


Kaou Tsung 


n $t 


Yung Hwuy 


650 655 










M M 


Keen King 


656 660 










ft D 


Lung So 


66 i 663 










m n 


Lin Tih 


664 665 










& & 


Keen Fung 


666 667 










$& n 


Tsung Chung 


668 669 










& -f 


Han Hang 


670 673 










7C 


Shang Yuen 


674 675 










11 Ji 


EFung 


676 678 










n n 


Kae Teih 


679 










^ H: 


Yung Lung 


680 










Pi /^ 


Kae Teih 


681 










^ ^ 


Yung Shun 


682 










^ i: 


Hung Taou 


683 


34 


650 683 


ty 


Chung Tsung 


fii H 


Sze Shing 


684 704 










1* fl 


Shin Lung 


705 706 










^ ft 


King Lung 


707 709 


26 


684 709 


& 


Juy Tsung 


^ ^ 


King Yun 


710 711 










@ 


Tae Keih 


712 


3 


710 712 


7t 


Yuen Tsung 


H 7C 


Kae Yuen 


73 74 1 










^ w 


Teen Paou 


74 2 755 


43 


713 to 755 


m 


Suh Tsung 


-4> yp5 

- i/u*i 


Che Tih 


756 to 757 







* Where this mark | occurs, it must be considered as representing the preceding Chinese character. 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



in 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 








ft 7C 


Kan Yuen 


A.D. 

758 to 759 




A. 11. 








7G 


Shang Yuen 


760 761 












w n 


Paou Ying 


762 


7 


756 to 762 


ft 1 


t* 


Tae Tsung 


M fi 


Kwang Tih 


763 764 












M ^ 


Yung Tae 


765 












A M 


Ta Leih 


766 779 


17 


763 779 


fl 




Tih Tsung 


sift rh 


Keen Chung 


780 783 












& 7U 


Hing Yuen 


784 












^ Jt 


Ching Yuen 


785 804 


26 


780 804 


m 




Shun Tsxmg 


ft ^ 


Yung Ching 


805 


I 


805 


n 




Keen Tsung 


7C ^0 


Yuen Ho 


806 820 


'5 


806 820 


n 




Muh Tsung 


^ H 


Chang King 


821 824 


4 


821 824 


m 




King Tsung 


^ M 


Paou Leih 


825 826 


2 


825 826 


# 




Wan Tsung 


5Rl 


Tae Ho 


827 835 












Frfl ftw 

l73 /*X/ 


Kae Ching 


836 840 


'4 


827 840 


st 




Woo Tsung 


^ 


Hwuy Chang 


841 846 


6 j 841 846 


^ 




Seuen Tsung 


^: 4 1 


Ta Chung 


847 859 


'3 


847 859 


& 




E Tsung 


^6 M 


Han Tung 


860 873 


4 


860 873 


fi 




He Tsung 


^ ^P 


Kan Foo 


874 879 












M n/J 


Kwang Ming 


880 












4 1 3 


Chung Ho 


881 884 












3t ML 


Kwang Ke 


885 887 












Jr f 


Wan Tih 


888 


15 


874 to 888 


fl3 


I 


Chaou Tsung 


$3 IE 


Lung Ke 


889 












A Ji 


Ta Shun 


890 891 










^ls 


King Fuh 


892 to 893 







I 12 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 






^^ 


Kan Ning 


A. D. 

894 to 897 




A. I). 






ft ft 


Kwang Hwa 


898 900 










: & 


Teen Fuh 


901 903 










^ *fo 


Teen Yew 


904 


16 


889 to 904 


JHEIfr 


Chaou Seuen Te 


r*ia 


Teen Yew 


905 906 


2 


905 906 


3t. 'Hi 1$ Woo TAE CHAOU, OE THE FIVE SHORT DYNASTIES, A.D. 907-960. 


^ J^ HOW LEANG. THE LATER LEANG, A.D. 907-922. 


^C Jffi 


Tae Tsoo 


ffl ? 


Kae Ping 


907 910 










^ ^ 


Kan Hwa 


91 1 912 


6 


907 912 


3C ^ > 


MuhTe 


%L ft 


Kan Hwa 


913 914 










& m 


Ching Ming 


915 920 










mm 


Lung Tih 


921 922 


10 


9'3 9" 


^ Hf HOW TANG. THE LATER TANG, A.D. 923-935. 


*? 


Chwang Tsung 


ft 


Tung Kwang 


923 925 


3 


9 2 3 9 2 5 


^ ^ 


Ming Tsung 


% j& 


Teen Ching 


926 929 










& & 


Chang Hing 


93 933 


8 


926 933 


JU& fjj- 


Min Te 


m m 


Ying Shun 


934 


3 mths 




ft 


Fei Te 


fra S 


Tsing Tae 


934 935 


2 


934 935 


^ ^ HOW TSIN. THE LATER TSIN, A.D. 936-946. 


i^j ifr 


Kaou Tsoo 


/V Mint 

X V 'I'MI 


Teen Fuh 


936 942 


7 


936 942 


ffi ^ 


Chuh Te 


^ IS 


Teen Fuh 


943 944 










ffl m 


Kae Yun 


945 to 946 


4 


943 to 94 6 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



HOW HAN, 947-950. 



Emperor'8 Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 

Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 


fiy Jfin. 


Kaou Tsoo 


55 m 


Teen Fuh 


A. D. 

947 


I 


A. D. 

947 


1 * 


YenTe 


ftft 


Kan Yew 


948 to 950 


3 


948 to 950 


^ ^ HOW CHOW, 951-960. 


m. 


Tae Tsoo 


M If 


Kwang Shun 


95' 953 


3 


95' 953 


ill, *i 
iff ^ 


She Tsung 


m ji 


Heen Tih 


954 959 


6 


954 959 


^ 


Kung Te 











1 


960 


7JC 1$ SUNG CHAOU. (SECOND) STTNG DYNASTY, A.D. 960-1279. 


;fc jffl. 


Tae Tsoo 


m& 


Keen Lung 


960 962 










^ $& 


Kan Tih 


963 967 










$ n 


Kae Paou 


968 975 


16 


960 975 


% 


Tae Tsung 


^^m 


Tae Ping Hing 
Kwo 


976 983 










n m 


Yung He 


984 987 










c ^ 


Twan Kung 


988 989 










& & 


Shun Hwa 


99 994 










^ 5! 


Che Taou 


995 997 


22 


976 997 


n \ 


Ching Tsung 


js ^ 


Han Ping 


998 1003 










^ ^ 


King Tih 


1004 1007 










*^m& 


Ta Chung Tseang 
Foo 


1008 1016 










5c it 


Teen He 


IOI7 IO2I 










^ ^ 


Kan Hing 


IO22 


25 


99810 1022 


fc i 


Jin Tsung 


2c ^ 


Teen Shing 


IO23 IO3I 










mm 


Ming Taou 


,03210,033 







G G 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 









f* 16 


King Yew 


A. D. 

1034101037 




A. D. 








W 7C 


Paou Yuen 


1038 1039 












$t ^ 


Kang Ting 


1040 












H IS 


King Leih 


1041 1048 




- 








M *6 


Hwang Yew 


1049 1053 












M Tfo 


Che Ho 


1054 1055 












M fft 


Kea Yew 


1056 1063 


4' 


102310,063 


& 7. 


1? 


Ying Tsung 


VA 2J 


Che Ping 


1064 1067 


4 


1064 1067 


n 




Shin Tsung 


EE Si 
ftji HI 


He Ning 


1068 1077 












7C M 


Yuen Fung 


1078 1085 


18 


1068 1085 


e 




Che Tsung 


7C f& 


Yuen Yew 


1086 1093 












is m 


Shaou Shing 


1094 1097 












JC ^f 


Yuen Foo 


1098 i i oo 


'5 


1086 noo 


ff&ff 

w* 




Hwuy Tsung 


s**iH 


Keen Chung 
Tsing Kwo 


I IOI 












^ ^ 


Tsung Ning 


1 1 02 1 1 06 












^: ^ 


Ta Kwan 


1107 mo 












^ 3 


Ching Ho 


III I 1117 












M 5ffc 


Chung Ho 


1118 












it ?Ri 


EHo 


1119 1125 


25 


noi 1125 


BB* 




Kin Tsung 


^ tTt 


Tsing Kang 


1126 


i 


1126 


15 




Kaou Tsung 


^ J^ 


Keen Yen 


1127 1130 












18 ^ 


Shaou Hing 


1131 1162 


36 


1127 1162 


^ 




Heaou Tsung 


1^: jP^ 


Sung Hing 


1163 1164 












lg ^: 


Kan Taou 


1165 1173 












& ffit 


Shun He 


1174 1189 


27 


1163 1189 


* 




Kwang Tsung 


IS EB 

1 W * t k i 


Shaou He 


1 1 goto 1 194 


5 


1 190 to 1 194 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 





& 

& 


King Tsung 


B 7C 


King Yuen 


A. D. 

II95tOI20O 




A. D. 








5^ ^ 


Kea Tfte 


I2OI I2O7 












Pi II 


KaeHe 


I2O5 I2O7 












^ ^ 


Kea Ting 


I2O8 1224 


30 


1195101224 


& 




Le Tsung 


it n 


Paou King 


1225 1227 












43 ^ 
/ra /E 


Shaou Ting 


1228 1233 












i$ ^ 


Twan Ping 


1234 1236 












^ BR 


Kea He 


1237 I24O 












l ^ $6 


Shun Yew 


1241 1252 












W S6 


Paou Yew 


1253 1258 













Pi J^ 


Kae King 


1259 












^ ^ 


King Ting 


I26O 1264 


40 


1225 1264 


$ 




Too Tsung 


J^ ^ 


Han Shun 


1265 1274 


10 


1265 1274 


| 




Kung Tsung 


^ S6 


TihYew 


1275 


I 


1275 


J@ 




Twan Tsung 


^ ^v 


King Yen 


1276 1277 


2 


1276 1277 


^0j 


% 


Te Ping 


* J^ 


Tseang Hing 


1278 1279 


2 


1278 1279 


7C 19 YUEN CHAOU. THE YUEN DYNASTY, A.D. 1280-1367. 


n i 


a 


She Tsoo 


MTC 


Che Yuen 


I28O 1294 


'S 


1280 1294 


$c I 


% 


Ching Tsung 


7C ^ 


Yuen Ching 


1295 1296 













^: Hi 


TaTih 


I2 9 7 1307 


'3 


1295 1307 


^ 




Woo Tsung 


^ ^ 


CheTa 


I3O8 I3U 


4 


1308 1311 


fc 




Jin Tsung 


M ^ 


Hwang King 


1312 1313 












^ f6 


Yen Yew 


1314 1320 


9 


1312 1320 


& 




Ying Tsung 


M'^ 


Che Che 


,32,10,323 


3 


1321101323 



n6 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 


^^ 


* 


Tae Ting Te 


m 


Tae Ting 


A. D. 

1324101327 




A. D. 








^ ^ 


Che Ho 


1328 


5 


I324toI328 


W % 


t* 


Ming Tsung 


:%. M 


Teen Leih 


1328 


i 




%. 




Wan Tsung 


^ M 


Teen Leih 


1328 1329 












H HI 


Che Shun 


1330 1332 


5 


1328 1332 


^ 1 




Ning Tsung 








1332 


i mo. 


1332 


)i n 


? 


Shun Te 


7C $ 


Yuen Tung 


'333 '334 












31 7t 


Che Yuen 


'335 '34 












^ IE 


Che Ching 


'34' 1367 


35 


'333 '367 


t$j ^ MING CHAOU. THE MING DYNASTY, A.D. 1368-1644. 


~k i 


a 


Tae Tsoo 


m 


Hung Woo 


1368 1398 


3' 


1368 1398 


H ? 


I? 


Hwuy Te 


2! 3C 


Keen Wan 


1399 1402 


4 


'399 1402 


J$ M 


Ching Tsoo 


^ 1$ 


Yung Lo 


1403 1424 


22 


1403 1424 


fc % 


t* 


Jin Tsung 


yTT^ IPP 


Hung He 


1425 


I 


1425 


ji 




Seuen Tsung 


*.~^ yjftfr 


Seuen Tih 


1426 1435 


IO 


1426 1435 


* 




Ying Tsung 


TP $$ 

-"_a /|Vu 


Ching Tung 


1436 1449 


'4 


1436 1449 


E3 ,-iV. 

-5** '* 

IT* ni 


King Te 


^ ^ 


King Tae 


1450 1456 


7 


1450 1456 


& 1 


h* 

r? 


Ying Tsung 


55 m 


Teen Shun 


1457 1468 


8 


1457 1468 


3S 




Heen Tsung 


$ ft 


Ching Hwa 


1465 1487 


23 


1465 1487 


^ 




Heaou Tsung 


& '/& 


Hung Che 


1488 1505 


Ifl 


1488 1505 


it 




Woo Tsung 


JE n 


Ching Tih 


1506 1521 


16 


1506 1521 


fH: 




She Tsung 


H *ft 


Kea Tsing 


1522 1566 


45 


1522 1566 







Muh Tsung 


(1: M 


Lung King 


1567 1572 


6 


1567 1572 


i$ 




Shin Tsung 


is m 


Wan Leih 


1573^1619 


47 


1573101619 



" Ying Tsung was taken prisoner by the Tartars in 1450, and restored in 1457, when he changed 

the epoch to Teen Shun. 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



117 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 


>IL>. < 

7C sr 


Kwang Tsung 


m i 


Tae Chang 


A. D. 
l620 


I 


A. D. 

1620 


TwT *r> 


He Tsung 


^ $L 


Teen Ke 


1621 to 1627 


7 


1621 to 1627 


& ^ 


Chwang Lee 


SI 


Tsung Ching 


1628 1644 


'7 


1628 1644 


Tit $1 TSING CHAOU. THE TSING DYNASTY, A.D. 1644. 


lit ia 


She Tsoo 


Ji M 


Shun Che 


1644 l66l 


18 


1644 1661 


^ fi 


Shin Tsoo 


It EE 


Kang He 


l662 1722 


61 


1662 1722 


ffi ^ 


She Tsung 


m IE 


Yung Ching 


I7Z3 1735 


13 


I7 2 3 1735 


j5 


Kaou Tsung 


i $t 


Keen Lung 


>736 795 


60 


1736 1795 


: 


Jin Tsung 


^ M 


Kea King 


1796 l82O 


2 S 


1796 1820 


1i 


Seuen Tsung 


n % 


Taou Kwang 


1821 1850 


3 


1821 1850 








m & 


Heen Fung 
Tung Che 


1851 1862 
1863 


ii 


1851 1862 






THE MINOR DYNASTIES. 


^Ji| WEI, A.D. 220-265. 


% 


Wan Te 


m w 


Hwang Choo 


22O 226 


7 


220 226 


^ 'rfr 


Ming Te 


-& 3 


Tae Ho 


227 232 










W M 


Tsing Lung 


2J3 256 










^ %J 


King Choo 


237 239 


'3 


227 239 


^ ft 


Fei Te 


IE ^ 


Ching Che 


240 248 










^ ^ 


Kea Ping 


249 253 


'4 


240 253 


& ft 


Shaou Te 


IE 7C 


Ching Yuen 


2 S4 2 S5 










# m 


Kan Loo 


256(0259 


6 


254t 259 



II H 



n8 



Chinese Clironological Tables. 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 

Years. 


Duration of 
Eeign. 


3c * 


MoTe 


H: 7C 


King Yuen 


A. D. 

26010263 




A. D. 






* m 


Han He 


264 265 


6 


26010265 


^ WOO, A.D. 221-280. 


A % 


Ta Te 


ft 


Hwang Woo 


221 228 










^ ft 


Hwang Lung 


229 231 










wT /TV 


KeaHo 


232 237 










^ .^ 


Chih Neaou 


238 250 










^!C 7C 


Tae Yuen 


251 










19 H, 


Shin Fung 


252 


3 1 


221 252 


& ^ 


FeiTe 


^ ^ 


Keen Hing 


253 










S. & 


Woo Fung 


2 54 255 










-ft 2 ^ 


Tae Ping 


256 257 


5 


253 257 


M. .*. 
^T rfl 


King Te 


ft % 


Yung Gan 


258 263 


6 


258 263 


^ 'rjj* 


MoTe 


7t ^ 


Yuen Hing 


264 










-fr M 


Kan Loo 


265 










if B 


Paou Ting 


266 268 










^ i i 


Keen Hung 


269 271 










H M 


Fung Hwang 


272 274 










5c flfl- 


Teen Tsih 


275 










?c S 


Teen Se 


276 










?e#e 


Teen Ke 


277 280 


'7 


26410280 


^ |j| PIH, OB NORTHERN WEI. 


n& * 


Taou Woo Te 


^ a 


Tang Kwo ; 


386 395 










M^ 


Hwang Che 


39610397 







Chinese Chronological Tables. 



119 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


ileigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 






X ft 


Teen Hing 


A. U. 




A. I). 






^ H 


Teen Yang 


404 408 


2 3 


3 86to 4 o8 


$ JC'rjj' 


Ming Yuen Te 


ft ft 


Yung Hing 


409 413 










;1I *$ 


Shin Twau 


414 415 










^ ^ 


Tae Chang 


4 l6 423 


'5 


409 423 


^C & Ifr 


Tae Woo Te 


^ 3fe 


Che Kwang 


424 427 










P ^ 


Shin Kea 


428 431 










J^ 7fn 


Yen Ho 


432 434 










^: M 


Tae Yen 


435 439 










j; 


Tae Ping "] 
Chin Keun J 


440 451 










T|J ^fi. 


Ching Ping 


452 


27 


416 451 


J& ft 


Wan Chiug Te 


ft ^ 


Hing Can 


45 2 453 










ft -?fe 


Hing Kwang 


454 










^ 


Tae Can 


4S5 459 










xfa ^ 


Ho Ping 


460 465 


'4 


452 465 


~% ft 


Keen Wan Te 


^ ^ 


Teen Gan 


466 










E ft 


Hwang Hing 


467 470 


5 


466 470 


& %ft 


Heaou Wan Te 


B ft 


Yen Hing 


47 475 








... 


^ ^ 


Ching Ming 


476 










;fc 5fa 


Tae Ho 


477 499 


29 


471 499 


. j . j*ft .^"y. 


Seuen Woo Te 


f: ^ 


King Ming 


500- 503 










IE 1& 


Ching Che 


504 507 










ft 


Yung Ping 


508 511 










^ i 


Yen Chang 


51210515 


16 


47710515 


*fMfr 


Heaou Ming Te 


SR 


He Ping 


516 







I2O 



Cliinese Chronological Tables. 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigne< 
Years. 


1 Duration of 
Reign. 






mm 


Shin Kwei 


A.D. 

51710518 




A.D. 






IE ft 


Ching Kwang 


5'9 5 2 4 










^ i 


Heaou Chang 


525 527 


12 


51610527 


Frj vS -l- f 
>TV /Cf HI 


Heaou Chwang 
Te 
Tung Hae Wang 


mm 


Yung Can 
Keen Ming 


528 530 


3 


528 530 
i month 


IS 1 ff; 


Tsee Min Te 


SUe. ^fa 
B 3$ 


Tsin Tae 


53' 


i 


53' 


& fe 3. 


Can Ting Wang 


ty & 


Chung Hing 





... 


i month 


*** 


Heaou Woo Te 


Ht EE 


Yung He 


53* 534 


3 


532 534 


3ft |& TUNG, OB EASTERN WEI. 


^mift 


Heaou TsingTe 


^ 


Teen Ping 


534 537 










7C J& 


Yuen Seang 


538 










& m 


Hing Le 


539 542 










n& 


Woo Ting 


543 55 


7 


534 550 


% | PIH TSE, OB NORTHERN TSE. 


*# 


Wan Seuen Te 


xw 


Teen Paon 


55 559 


10 


55 559 


H ft 


FeiTe 


&* on 

pL TrJ 


Keen Ming 





... 


i month 


^ 33 ft- 


Heaou Chaou To 


M HI. 


Hwang Keen 


560 


i 


560 


-$ $ *& 


Woo Ching Te 


It ^ 


Ta Ning 


561 










M ^| 


Ho Tsing 


562 564 


4 


561 564 


H 


How Choo 


5c $& 


Teen Tung 


565 569 










^ ^ 


Woo Ping 


57010576 


12 


56510576 


r 1 


Yew Choo 


^3fe 


Ching Kwang 


577 


1 


577 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 
HOW CHOW, OR LATER CHOW. ALSO, PIH CHOW. 



121 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Reign. 


m ft 


Ming Te 


ft 


Woo Ching 


A. D. 

557 to 560 


4 


A. D. 

557 to 5 6 


$t ft 


Woo Te 


ffi & 


Paou Ting 


561 565 










^ #J 


Teen Ho 


566 571 










it n 


Keen Tih 


572 577 










M: >& 


Seuen Chang 


578 


18 


56. 578 


n: ft 


Seuen Te 


^ JA 


Ta Ching 


A few months 
only. 






Jyfa , - T^T I 

IW IP 


' Tsing Te 


A H 


Ta Seang 


579 580 










A 


Ta Ting 


581 


3 


579 58i 


j|f THE LEAOU, A TARTAR DYNASTY. 


^C fl 


Tae Tsoo 


No epoch for the 
first 9 years. 




907 915 










Sf M 


Shin Tsih 


916 921 










^ H? 


Teen Tsan 


922 925 










^ SI 


Teen Heen 


926 


20 


907 926 


i: ^ 


Tae Tsung 


3s M 


Teen Heen 


927 937 










^ 1^1 


Hwuy Tung 


938 946 










^ ft 


Ta Tung 


947 


21 


927 947 


ift 


She Tsung 


% & 


Teen Luh 


948 950 


3 


948 950 


H 


Muh Tsung 


j M 


Ying Leih 


951 968 


18 


951 968 


Ji 


King Tsung 


ffi ^ 


Paou Ning 


969 978 










^ ? 


Keen Hang 


979 982 


14 


969 982 





Shing Tsung 


%ft 3 


Tung Ho 


983 1011 










$1 il 


Kae Tae 


IOI2 IO2O 










^ 


Tae Ping 


I 02 I to 1031 


49 


983 to 1031 



I I 



1 22 



Chinese Chronological Tables. 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Eeign. 


* % 


King Tsung 


M is 


King Full 


A. D. 

1032 




A. D. 






H BR 


Chung He 


103310 1054 


23 


103210 1054 


5l ^ 


Taou Tsung 


iff 


Tsing Ning 


1055 1064 










^c $fc 


Han Yung 


1065 1074 










It 


Tae Kaug 


1075 1084 










A ^ 


TaGan 


1085 I94 










n $& 


Show Lung 


1095 i i oo 


46 


1055 i 100 


xA^ IT IP 


Teen Tso Te 


^L %& 


Keen Tung 


I 101 I I 10 










^ n 


Teen King 


1 I I I I 120 










/I~J y __ 

W XV 


Paou Ta 


II2I I 125 


25 


III 112; 


^ THE KIN, A TARTAR DYNASTY. 












i 


_ 1 - -r-I 1 

JC la 


Tae Tsoo 


^11 


Teen Foo 


1118 1123 


6 


1 1 18 1 123 


-Jr ^ 
y.v *F? 


Tae Tsung 


^ W 


Teen Hwuy 


1124 1135 


12 


1124 1135 


ISE ^ 

* -'J^ 


He Tsung 


^ W 


Teen Hwuy 


1 136 1 139 










JS ^ 


Teen Keuen 


1140 1142 










H. %fi 


Hwang Tung 


1 143 1151 


l6 


1 136 1151 


y$ n 


Hae Ling Wang 


x n 


Teen Till 


1152 1155 










& 7C 


Ching Yuen 


1 156 1 158 










IE & 


Chiug Lung 


1159 1163 


12 


1152 1 163 


ILL. *i> 
1iL 3TT 


She Tsung 


A 


Ta Ting 


1164 1192 


2 9 


1164 1192 


^ 


King Tsung 


W 1 


Ming Chang 


1193 1198 










& & 


Chiug Gan 


1199 1203 










% 3 


Tae Ho 


1204 I 21 I 


'9 


1 I93to 1 21 1 


ft-z 


Wei Shaou Wang 


*% 


Ta Gan 


1 2 I 2 to I 2 I 4 







Chinese Chronological Tables. 



123 



Emperor's Name. 


Epoch. 


Duration of 
Epoch. 


Reigned 
Years. 


Duration of 
Eeign. 






:*rr S2 


Tsung King 


A. 1). 

I2I 5 




A. I). 






m ^ 


Che Ning 


1216 


5 


I 2 1 2 to 1 2 1 6 


J=L *r\ 


Seuen Tsung 


j^ 16 


Ching Yew 


1217 1220 










fl. /t* 

!x> AC. 


King Ting 


1221 1226 










7C 3fe 


Yuen Kwang 


1227 1228 


12 


1217 1228 


M 


Gae Tsung 


IE A 


Ching Ta 


I229tO 1235 










^ ^ 


Kae Hiug 


1236 











-Jr-^ j8ir 

J/\t y ^\ 


Teen Hiug 


1237 


9 


122910 1237 



THE preceding Chronological Tables have been compiled from various historical works 
of repute. Among these it must be observed, that from the Tsin dynasty, B.C. 255, 
to the present time, the principal authorities which have been employed are the Japanese 
chronological work mentioned in the Introductory Remarks (p. xv.) and a series of 
eight Chinese rolls in the author's possession, which contain their chronology from the 
accession of the Tsin to the subversion of the Ming dynasty, A.D. 1644. As these rolls, 
in addition to the whole of the ' Neen Haou,' or epochs of the regular dynasties, record 
those of the principal minor dynasties, and as a collation with the ' She Ke ' and other 
esteemed historical annals has proved them to be perfectly trustworthy, they form the 
chief authority for these epochs, their text being adopted throughout. 

These Tables are to be employed for ascertaining the year of any historical or other 
event of which the date is required. In the early portion, the dates of the dynasty and 
emperor alone are mentioned, the ' Neen Haou,' or Epoch, not having been introduced 
until about 163 years before the Christian era. From that time, in addition to the 
above-mentioned dates, the year of the epoch is given ; and this latter mode is that 
employed in the major part of the observations of comets in the treatises from which 
the present translation has been made. In the Chinese historical works, the mode of 
reckoning by cycles of 60 years is that usually followed. 

In Table A. will be found the combinations of the Kea Tsze characters, by which 
the 60 years of these cycles are expressed ; and Table C. shows the first year of each 
of them, from the first, commencing B.C. 2637, to the seventy- sixth, which began 
A.D. 1864. Table A. is also employed to express the periods of 60 days into which the 
Chinese year is divided, and whose appellations are the same as those of the years of 
the cycle. As this cycle of 60 years, although in constant use in the historical works, 
is not employed in expressing the dates of most of the cometary observations contained 
in the present publication, no mention of it occurs among the preceding examples of the 



124 Chinese Chronological Tables. 

reduction of Chinese time to our reckoning. This opportunity is therefore taken of 
explaining its use. 

To find a given year of the cycle, and to express it in our manner, we must proceed 
as follows: The date of the dynasty and of the accession of the Emperor having been 
ascertained from the Chronological Tables, the date of the first year of the cycle in 
which that Emperor flourished will appear from Table C, that of the first years of 
cycles. All that is then needed is to find in the 6o-year Table A. the combination 
whose date is required, when the number above it will be that of the year of the cycle 
represented by that combination, and the corresponding year according to our reckoning 
can be easily ascertained. For example: in the ' Tung Keen Kang Muh' it is recorded, 
that during the reign of the Emperor Tae Tsung, of the Tang dynasty, in the year of 
the cycle ' Yih Maou,' an eclipse of the Sun occurred. On reference to the Chronological 
Tables, the date of the accession of this Emperor will be found to have been A.D. 763 ; 
which year Table C. shows to have fallen in the 57th cycle, whose first year was A.D. 724. 
In Table A. it will be seen that the combination ' Yih Maou' is the 52nd of the cycle, 
consequently the year required, according to our system, is A.D. 775. 

As respects the ordinary use of these Chronological Tables, the instructions given 
in p. xvi. of the Introductory Remarks will be found amply sufficient. 

Tables B. and D. are those required for finding the characters for the 1st of January 
in any year, B.C. or A.D. The first of these, B, contains the combinations of the Kea 
Tsze characters necessary to form the 8o-year Table, whose construction is explained in 
the Introductory Remarks, p. xviii. ; and D. is the auxiliary table, showing the first 
year of each period of 80 years, from B.C. 2561 to A.D. 2000, arranged under the letters 
B.C. and A.D. 

Table E. shows the days on which the characters for January i recur, both in 
common and leap years. In Table F. will be found the first year of each lunar cycle of 
19 years, from B.C. 609 to A.D. 1900 ; and Table G. gives the first day of each moon in 
every year of this cycle of 19 years. F. and G. must be considered as approximate only, 
but they are sufficiently accurate for the purpose required. 

The Tables A, B, D, E, F, and G, are those to be employed in finding the moons 
and days, and as their use is fully explained in the Introductory Remarks, pp. xv.-xx., 
they need no further notice here. 

In the Plate marked H will be found the Tables referred to in pp. xxii. and xxiii. 
of the Introductory Remarks, the first being that of the Tsze Ke, or twenty-four divi- 
sions of the year, and the second that of the twelve Kung ; and, it may be observed, it 
would appear that the names of these latter, not being anywhere described as referring 
to existing asterisms, as composing them, are to be considered as indicating divisions 
only, rather than individual groups of stars. It must also be remarked that the modern 
names, as far as at present has been ascertained, do not occur in any astronomical treatise 
whose compilation dates before the accession of the present dynasty. 



CHINESE CELE5TIAL ATLAS 




4UZZ+ 



&**^**~r~ 



**sn~p 



t, je. > 

<>t / 3 /' 
/3 J 1 TT 
4*. * T 
V 



cf /fr^ *U^w 



i 



y 



f 



ot. r 





124 Chinese Chronological Tables. 

reduction of Chinese time to our reckoning. This opportunity is therefore taken of 
explaining its use. 

To find a given year of the cycle, and to express it in our manner, we must proceed 
as follows: The date of the dynasty and of the accession of the Emperor having been 
ascertained from the Chronological Tables, the date of the first year of the cycle in 
which that Emperor flourished will appear from Table C, that of the first years of 
cycles. All that is then needed is to find in the 6o-year Table A. the combination 
whose date is required, when the number above it will be that of the year of the cycle 
represented by that combination, and the corresponding year according to our reckoning 
can be easily ascertained. For example: in the ' Tung Keen Kang Muh' it is recorded, 
that during the reign of the Emperor Tae Tsung, of the Tang dynasty, in the year of 
the cycle ' Yih Maou,' an eclipse of the Sun occurred. On reference to the Chronological 
Tables, the date of the accession of this Emperor will be found to have been A.D. 763 ; 
which year Table C. shows to have fallen in the 57th cycle, whose first year was A.D. 724. 
In Table A. it will be seen that the combination ' Yih Maou' is the 5 2nd of the cycle, 



By a misunderstanding of the Binder the Tables, marked 
A to H, have been placed at the end of the Chinese Atlas 
instead of immediately after the preceding Chronological 
Tables. 



i ill i in 1 



In the Plate marked H will be found the Tables referred to in pp. xxii. and xxiii. 
of the Introductory Remarks, the first being that of the Tsze Ke, or twenty-four divi- 
sions of the year, and the second that of the twelve Kung ; and, it may be observed, it 
would appear that the names of these latter, not being anywhere described as referring 
to existing asterisms, as composing them, are to be considered as indicating divisions 
only, rather than individual groups of stars. It must also be remarked that the modern 
names, as far as at present has been ascertained, do not occur in any astronomical treatise 
whose compilation dates before the accession of the present dynasty. 



Plate 1. 



CHINESE CELESTIAL ATLAS 




A* 



Ai*, 



. 

if 



TL 



t, ft. 



6 

7 
f- 

9 

/o 



/3 



/a. 



4 

# 



T 

-/ 



^ 



t /3 
y 



& 



,^> A- 



/r 



20 



ff 



Y 

/**- 



OL T 



zt, 



"T/ 



<- . 




/ y 

r.*r 

2/ (y 



'"7- 



'/-> 



xi 4, 



/I. 



*.o*zf 

/srso 



Plate 2. 




^ 

A- * t "s<. 
*^,*s w" ^ 



(n 



Plate 3. 






, * 

7*t p? 



^S^jKc 





Plate 4. 



* 




<ZL.&&4 



-<3 



Plate 5. 




r^ **" 
*t?~' </\'te-<~~ 



<3C<-, J~KZ* A. Cf^t^iSZ, 




r 
/_ 




~^y ~j^, 

~J 








7T 



f I 

g 





Bate 6. 





/* 




7JV 





Pkte 7. 




O 

**~z ^ 

i*A^ 




-fa*. 5l 
A. ?fc 



^ ^ 

*~ 7& 



i,. f . cy*t*(xs~ 

a 57 J"*x_ 

/'^"^u-l. 

rf. y piitS* ~ 





*-Ju\ 
^f * 




v 



\ 7 

V O o 

<r *t 



&$ 









T /S 



\ 




Plate 9.. 




'/ 



^X 



JWc^, . Au^WkXC 

C*^ , j_ 

^ &* 




al 




Hateffi. 




1 ? 



*L A 




V 



1J 



r~\ 






Plata JL 








33 



28- & 



V 



Jf 



33 ,- 

S. ^ 

flC <t~Z3 r~fa+~- 

ffft*., *L~ ^7<t^Z7" 





rt 




Hate 12. 








<c- 




e. 



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a * * 




/tf. 

JZ T &~ 






7 



fo 



f 



// 



SLO-. 



// 









30 






** 






41 



** 



,v 



f ^ 









6 



// 



s./ 

>tL 
i^ 



JO. 



7^ 
A 

77 



SOyear Ta&le far -finding tfte C7uxi^2szterGjfathe.2&of'JcmiLaryin,ciryyear. CdtAJ). 



c. 



ZZE 

JF 



TI 
T// 

r/// 

>r 
X/ 

x// 



**,?/. 



-?33_7 

"77 

-22// 

3/$y, 



20 3/ 



XV 



XVII 

xw// 



J<* 
xx/ 

xxu 

XX/// 



"77 



>cv/x 

xoc 

xxx/ 



yx^r/*' 

XXXV 



XXX V// 



^37 
777 



^77- 



X 

Xi-l 
Xi// 



xxv/y 



X/./X 



f> 



64 



MV 
LV 



\-Yll 



LX 



7 







764 



t-XV/H 



LXX 
O<XJ 



U*X7f/ 
LXXtV 




fb C 



^7/^ 

zao/ 



/Orf 
/zo/ 



tm 

trot 
>* 



4-a/ 



too 



8- to 



/12-O 



/ liro 






to 



/ 
Jo 




H. 



A 



f 



.9 



//t** 




2-2- 



a 



n* jm + 




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x 



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