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Full text of "Occasional papers of Bernice P. Bishop Museum"

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HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 






JYcnj^^xivLqj'^o'i- liofcrLiliSjci 



01, 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS 



OF thp: 



BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM OF 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY. 



VOLUME I. 



" honolulu, h. i. 
Bishop Museum Press. 
1898-1902. 



iioari) of (Trustees. 



Sanford B. Dole, lyL.D. 

William O. Smith .... 

*Rev. Charles M. Hyde, D.D. | 
Alfred W. Carter i 

Henry Holmes . . . ... 

Joseph O. Carter. vSamuel M. Damon. 



President. 
Vice-President. 

Secretary. 

Treasurer. 
William F. Allen. 



ftluseum §>taff. 



William T. Brigham 
tAcLAND Wansey 
William H. Dall 
William A. Bryan 
John F. G. Stokes 
Allen M. Walcott 
John W. Thompson 
Alvin Seale 
John J. Greene 



Dire(5lor. 

Curator. 

Honorary Curator of Mollusca. 

Curator of Ornithology. 

Assistant and A(5ling Librarian. 

Assistant. 

Artist and Modeller. 

Colleaor. 

Printer. 



J. Kealohakui Malao, Janitor. 



*Dr. Hyde died October 13, 1899, and the appointment of Mr. A. W. Carter was made. 
fResigned October 6, 1898. 



CONTKNTPS. 



Number i. 

Director's report of visit to foreign museums. 

Ntimber 2. 

Director's report for 1899. 

Mat sails of the Pacific, by John F. G. Stokes. 

Ray-skill rasps, by Allen M. Walcott. 

Field notes on the birds of Oahu, by Alviii Seale. 

Acquisitions in 1899. 

Number 3. 

Director's report for 1900. 

Report of J. F. G. Stokes' visit to American museums. 
Report of a mission to Guam. — Birds and fishes, by Alvin Seale. 
Notes on the birds of Kauai, by Wm. A. Bryan and Alvin Seale. 
Acquisitions in 1900. 

Ntinaber 4. 

New Hawaiian fishes, b}- Alviii Seale. 

Nuu:iber 5. 

Director's report for 1901. 
Acquisitions in 1901. 
List of publication exchanges. 
Index to volume I. 



INDEX TO VOLUME I 



OF 



Occasional Papers of the Bernice Paualii 
Bishop Museum. 



ILLUSTKATIONS. — r AJ'KK NO. 1. 



Bishop Museum in iSgy. froHtispiccr. 

1 Australian Museum, p. 3. 

Hawaiian helmet in Australian Museum, 

pi. i, p. 4. 
Tahitian gorget, pi. ii, p. 5. 

2 Vienna Museum, p. 7. 

3-5 Hawaiian helmets at Vienna, pi. iii, p. S. 

6 Feather war god (Kukailimoku) at Vien- 

na, pi. iv, p. 9. 

7 "Oracle House" of feathers, at Vienna, 

pi. iv, p. 9. 
S Wooden ladle. Hawaiian, at Vienna, pi. 

V, p, 10. 
9 Shark tooth tool, Hawaiian, at Vienna, 

pi. V, p. 10. 

10 Shark tooth knife, Hawaiian, at Vienna, 

pi. V, p. 10. 

11 Shark tooth weapon, Hawaiian, at Vien- 

na, p. S. 

12 Shark tooth tool, Hawaiian, at Vienna. 

pi. V, p. 10. 

13 Tahitian poi-pounders, at Vienna, p. 9. 

14 Tongan pan pipe, at Vienna, p. 9. 

15 New Caledonian disk club, at Vienna, 

p. II. 

16 New Caledonian bent club, at Vienna, 

p. II. 

17 Greenstone implement. New Caledonia. 

at Vienna, p. 11. 

18 Greenstone adz. New Caledonia, at Vien- 

na, p. II. 

19 Hermit Island adz, at Dresden, p. 14. 
Fijian clubs, in the Bishop Museum, pi. 

vii, p. 14. 

20 Berlin Ethnological Museum, p. 15. 
Hawaiian idol, Arniug collection, at Ber- 
lin, pi. viii, p. 15. 

Stone idol, Hawaiian, at Berlin, pi. ix, 

p. 16. 
Stone image, Hawaiian, at Berlin, pi. x, 

p. 17. 

21 Hawaiian finger Ijowl, at Berlin, p. 17. 



22 Hawaiian wood carving tool, at Berlin, 

p. 17. 

23 Hawaiian stone lamps, at Berlin, p. iS. 

24 Easter Island talking-stick, at Berlin, 

p. 19. 

25 Samoan awa bowl, at Berlin, p. 19. 

25 Hermit Island shell adz, at Berlin, p. 21. 
27 New Ireland shark float, at Berlin, pi. 

vi, p. II. 
2S Wooden fiddle. New Britain, at Berlin, 

P- 23. 

29 Kapa board cleaner, Hawaiian, at Copen- 

hagen, p. 24. 

30 Pattern on kapa marker, Hawaiian, at 

Copenhagen, p. 25. 

31 Kapa pattern, Hawaiian, at Copenhagen, 

p. 25. 

32 Carving tool, Hawaiian, at Copenhagen, 

P- 2,5. 
3^ Short handled adz from New Caledonia, 

at Copenhagen, p. 26. 
34 Jade and wood adz from New Caledonia, 

at Copenhagen, p. 26. 
3,s Cylindrical gong, Caroline Islands, at 

Hamburg, p. 29. 

36 Gilbert Island armor, at Hamburg, p. 29. 

37 Adz from Marshall Ids. , at Hamburg, p. 30. 
3,S Hawaiian fish-hook, at Amsterdam, p. 31. 

39 Car\'ed eye of tiki, New Zealand, at Lei- 

den, p. 32. 
Hawaiian dish at Leiden, pi. xi, p. 32. 

40 Berne Municipal Museum, p. 34. 

41 Hawaiian weapon, — tortoise-shell ring 

with shark tooth inserted, at Berne, 

P- 35- 

42 .Sunshade, Tahiti, at Berne, p. 35. 

43 Adz, Tahiti, at Berne, p. 35. 

44 Tongan pillow, in the Bishop Museum, 

pi. x\'ii, p. 50. 

45 Tongan mats, at Berne, p. 36. 

46 Canoe breaker. New Zealand, at Berne^ 

p. 36. 



11 



Index . 



FIG. 

47 Hawaiian helmet, at Paris, p. 37. 

48 Hawaiian coconut and wood hula drum, 

in the British Museum, p. 43. 

49 Hawaiian idol with helmet, in the British 

Museum, pi. xii, p. 33. 

50 Hawaiian idol with crest (akua mahiole), 

in the British Museum, pi. xii, p. 33. 

51 Hawaiian bowl, supported by fig^ures, in 

the British Museum, pi. xii, p. 33. 
31* Hawaiian bowl supported by figures (cor- 
ner view), in the British Museum, pi. 
xiii, p. 46. 

52 Hawaiian idol, in the British Museum, 

pi. xii, p. 33. 

53 Hawaiian mirror, in the British Museum, 

p. 44. 

54 Hawaiian bowl supported by three fig- 

ures, in British Museum, pi. xiii, p. 46. 

55 Two bowls connected by a figure, Hawaii- 

an, in the British Museum, pi. xiii, p. 46. 

56 Wooden seat carved like human figure. 

in the British Museum, pi. xiii, p. 46. 

57 Wooden bowl between two figures, in the 

British Museum, pi. xiii, p. 46. 

58 Hawaiian implements of shark teeth, in 

the British Museum, p. 45. 



59 Hawaiian image made of "ohia" wood, in 

the British Museum, pi. xiv. p. 47. 

60 Sorcery lamp, Tahiti, in the British Mu- 

seum, pi. vi, p. II. 

61 Hawaiian fans, in the British Museum, 

pi. XV, p. 48. 

62 Sacrificial knives. New Zealand, in the 

British Museum, pi. xv, p. 48. 

63 Hawaiian idol, in British Museum, p. 47. 

64 Marquesan club, in the British Museum, 

pi. xvi, p. 49. 

65 Mangaian gong, in the British Museum, 

pi. xvi, p. 49- 

66 Tongan basket, in the British Museum, 

pi. xvi, p. 49. 

67 Tongan bone apron, in the British Mu- 

seum, pi. xvii, p. 50. 

68 Nine spear, in the Bishop Museum, pi. 

xvii, p. 50. 

69 Banks Islands kite, in the British Mu- 

seum, p. 49. 
Lotus club, Fiji, in the British Museum, 
pi. xviii, p. 51. 

70 Lotus clubs from Fiji, at Oxford, p. 52. 
Hawaiian image, at Salem, pi. xix, p. 54. 

71 Hawaiian idols, at Salt Lake City, p. 62. 



PAPER NO. 3. 

Objects in the Bishop Museum. 



Sacred tree drum, New Hebrides, p. 15. 
Tree fern idols, New Hebrides, p. 16. 
Funeral images, New Hebrides, p. 17. 
Hairpin and band, Caroline Islands, p. iS. 
Shell adzes, Gilbert Islands, p. 19. 
Stone dish, Hawaiian Islands, p. 20. 



Wound twine, Micronesia, p. 22. 
Wound twine. United States, p. 23. 
Board for mat sail weaving, Marshall 

Islands, facing p. 26. 
Ray-skin rasps, Gilbert Islands, facing 

p. 32. 

PAPER NO. 3. 



Eggs of Excalfactoria sinensis and Aplo- 

nis kittlitzi, p. 38. 
Nest and egg of Ptilinopus roseicapillus, 

p. 40. 
Nest of Rhipidura uranice, p. 50. 



4 Nest and eggs of Myiagra freycineti, p. 52. 

5 Nest of Myzomela rubrata, p. 56. 

6 Nest and eggs of Zosterops conspicillata, 

P-59- 

7 Nest of Chlorodrepanis parva, p. 135. 



PAPER NO. 4. 



F^pinephelus quernus, p. 2. 
Novaculichthys tattoo, p. 4. 
Serranus brighami, p. 6. 
Balistes fuscolincatus, p. S. 

PAPER 

Physeter macrocephalus, skeleton, lower 
jaw partly covered, facing p. 3. 

Physeter macrocephalus, showing pa- 
pier mach6 skin, facing p. 3. 

Physeter macrocephalus, face view, fac- 
ing p. 3- 

Mesoplodon grayi, length view of skele- 
ton, lacing p. 4. 

Mesoplodon grayi, skull, side view, fac- 
ing p. 4. 



5 Scorptenopsis cacopsis, p. 10. 

6 Monocanthus albopunctatus, p. 12. 

7 Thalassoma berendti, p. 14. 

NO. 5. 

6 Mesoplodon grayi, skull, view from be- 

low, facing p. 4. 

7 Mesoplodon graj'i, skull, view from 

above, facing p. 4. 

8 Mesoplodon grayi, ear bones, facing 

p. 4. 

9 Group of tropic birds ( Phaethon lep- 

turus), facing p. 6. 
10 Group of Chlorodrepanis chloris on koa 
branch, p. 7. 



IN DKX. 

Ro»ia>i )iii)iiiiali hulirah- tlir )iii»ib(>- of /lir /\tf>rr : Aiahic. iiHiiihrr a/' llir />atri>. 



Ababang-, iii, 102. 

Abudefduf amboinetisis, iii, S). 

antjerius, iii, .S3. 

brownriggfii, iii, S3. 

dickii, iii, S4. 

lacrymatus, iii, S3. 

septemfasciatu.s, iii, 82. 
Academj- of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, i, 55; iii, 

7, 10. 
Accessions, ii, 52: iii, 13S; v, 10. 
Accipiter, iii, 43, 44. 

nisoides, iii, 44. 
Acridotheres tristis, iii, 133. 
Acrocephalus, iii, 47, 52. 
luscinia, iii, 52, 53. 
syrinx, iii, 52, 53. 
Additions to the Librarj-, ii, 46; 

iii, 146; V, 21. 
Adelaide, i, 4. 
Museum, i, 4. 
Botanical Garden, i, 5. 
Admiralty Islands, i, 3, 12, 21, 

27, 30, 33. 39- 42. 62. 
Aga, iii, 55. 
Agoas, iii, 66. 
Akeke, ii, 39. 
Akialoa, iii, 136. 
Akikihi, iii, 136. 
Alae, ii, 37 ; iii, 131. 

keokeo, iii, 131. 
Alcedinidse, iii, 44. 
Amakihi, ii, 45 ; iii, 134. 
Amanses sandwichensis, iii, 

116. 
Ambras collection, i, 10. 
American Museum of Natural 
History, i, 56, 68 ; iii, 7, 14. 
Amphiprion bicinctus, iii, S2. 

ephippiuni. iii, 81. 
Amsterdam, i, 30. 
Anampses cseruleopunctatus, 

iii, 85. 
Anas oustaleti, iii, 25. 

wyvilliana, ii, 36; iii, 130. 
Anatidie, ii, 36. 
Anchorite (Hermit) Islands, 

i, 14, 21, 30. 
Annual report for 1899, ii, 5. 

1900, iii, 3. 

1901, V, 3. 
Anous, iii, 20. 

hawaiiensis, ii, 35. 
leucocapillus, iii, 20. 
stolidus, ii, 34, 35 ; iii, 20, 21 
Anseres, ii, 36 ; iii, 18, 25. 



Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain and Ireland, 
i, ,S3- 
Ao, iii, 129. 

Apapane, ii, 43 ; iii, 134. 
Apekepeke, iii, 132. 
AphrizidEe, ii, 39; iii, 32, 37. 
Aplonis, iii, 47, 54. 

kittlitzi, iii, 54. 
Apogon auritus, iii, 76. 
fasciatus. iii, 75. 
savayensis, iii, 76. 
Ardeidae, ii, 36 ; iii, 26. 
Ardetta, iii, 26' 27. 

bryani, iii, 27. 
Arenaria interpres, ii, 39; iii, 37. 
Army Medical Museum, iii, 7, 

10. 
Arning, Dr. Ed., i, 15, 16, 65. 
Asio accipitrinus, iii, 44. 

sandvicensis, iii, 132. 
Astur, iii, 43, 44. 
sharpi, iii, 44. 
Attendance of visitors, ii, 8, 9; 

iii, 6; v, 9. 
Auckland, i, 2. 
Auku, ii, 36. 

kohili, iii, 131. 
Australia, Objects from, i, 14, 

39, 53. 56, 57, 60, 63. 
Australian Museum, i, 2, 3. 
spear heads made from in- 
sulators, 1, 4*. 
tree carvings, i, 3. 
Avifauna of Guam, iii, 17. 
Bagag, iii, 64. 
Balaos, iii, 64. 
Balfour, H., i, 52. 
Balistapus aculeatus, iii, 115. 

rectangulus, iii, 116. 
Balistes fuscolineatus, iv, 9. 

undulatus, iii, 115. 
Banks Island, i, 49. 

Sir Joseph, i, 55. 
Bastian, Ur. A., i, 14, 17!- 
Belfast, i, 52. 
Bennett, Rev. Geo., i, 51. 
Berlin, i, 14. 
Anthropological Societj-, i, 
15- 
Berne, i, 33. 

Municipal Museum, i, 34. 
Bingbing, iii, 37. 
Bishop Aquarium, i, 72. 
Charles Reed, i, iii. 
Mrs., i, iii. 



Bismarck Archipelago, i, 12, 
14, 23, 30, 31. 

Bittern, iii, 27. 

Black-cheeked noddy, iii, 20. 

Black-footed albatross, iii, 22, 
129. 

Blatscha models, i, 5S. 

Blennies, iii, 126. 

Boatswain bird, iii, 23. 

Boaz, Dr. Franz, i, 56. 

Bocadulce, iii, 67. 

Booby, iii, 24. 

Booser, Dr. P. A. A., i, 31. 

Boston, i, 57. 
Public Library, iii, 7. 
Society of Natural History, 
i, 58, 68; iii, 7, 15. 

Brisbane, i, 4. 

British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, i, 
54 ; ii. 6. 
Museum, i, 42, 65, 70. 

Bronx Park, iii, 13. 

Brussels, i, 33. 

Bryan, Wm. Alanson, ii, 10; 
iii, 5, 129; V, 4. 

Buah, iii, 79. 

Bubonic plague, iii, 6. 

Bubonidse, ii, 39 ; iii, 43, 44- 

Biichner, Dr. Max, i, 12. 

Building, ii, 7. 

Butterfly fish, iii, 102. 

Calidris, iii, 32, 33. 
arenaria, ii, 37 ; iii, 33- 

California Academj' of Sci- 
ences, i, 62 ; iii, 7, 8. 

Cambridge, Eng., i, 50. 
Mass., i, 58. 
Archseological Museum, i, 

5°- 
Cannibals, i, 64. 
Canterbury Museum, i, 2. 
Caranx ascensionis, iii, 73. 

sexfasciatus, iii, 74. 
Card catalogue, ii, 3. 
Caroline Islands, i, 29, 39, 49; 

ii. 20. 
Carpodacus mexicanus ob- 

scurus, iii, 133. 
Carter, Henry C, v, 8. 
Casts from life, i, 66. 
Ceratodus, i, 3. 
Chaetodon citrinellus, iii, 98. 

coUaris, iii, 99. 

ephippiuni, iii, 97. 

fulcula, iii, loi. 



IV 



Index 



Chaetodon lunula, Hi, loo. 

ornatissinius, iii, loo. 

setifer, iii, gS. 

strigangulu.s, iii, loi. 

trifasciatus, iii, 102. 
Chalak, iii, 6g. 
Chamacocos del Chico, i, 6. 
Charadriidae, ii, 38 ; iii, 32, 35. 
Charadrius fulvus, ii, 38 ; iii, 
35. 36. 132- 

mongolicus, iii, 35, 36. 

squatarola, iii, 35. 
Chasiempis gayi, ii, 33, 40. 

sclateri, iii. 132. 
Chatham Islands, ii, 19. 
Cheesenian, Thos. F.. i. 2. 
Cheilinus fasciatus, iii, 86. 

nigropinnatus, iii, 86. 

trilobatus, iii, 85. 
Cheilio inerniis, iii, 94. 
Chevy Chase, iii, 10. 
Chicago, i, 61 ; iii, 16. 
Chigunguan, iii, 50. 
Chinese sparrow, iii, 133. 
Chirita, iii, 4S. 

Chlorodrepanis chloris, ii, 33, 
45- 

parva, iii, 134. 

stejnegeri, iii, 134. 
Cholog, iii, 68. 
Christchurch, i, 2. 
Chuchuku, iii, 29. 
Chung, iii, 21. 
Cirencester, i, 52. 
Cleptornis, iii, 47, 60. 

niarchi, iii, 60. 
Coccyges, iii, 19, 44. 
Codrington, Rev. W.H., i,49, 65. 
Collocalia fuciphaga, iii, 46. 
Colombo, i, 5. 
Columbte, iii, 18, 39. 
Columbia, 1, 57. 

University Library, iii, 7. 
Columbian Kxhibition, i, 61. 
Cook, Capt. James, i, 3. 

relics, i, 3, 7, 42. 
Cook's Voyages, drawings, 

i, 49- 
Copenhagen, i, 24. 
Corals, ii, 66. 
Coral fishes, iii, 97. 
Coris aygula, iii, 87. 

pulcherrima, iii, 87 
Corvus iii, 47, 55. 

kubaryi, iii, 55. 
Coot, iii, 131. 
Cotinga cincta or coerulea, 

i, 10. 
Ctenochtetus strigosus, iii, 109. 
Culin, Stewart, iii, 11. 



Cura5oa, Voyage of, i, 48. 

Cypselidfe, iii, 46. 

Dafila acuta, ii, 36. 

Dall, Dr. W. H., ii, 10; iii, 9. 

Report of, ii, 10. 
Dalton, O. M., i, 49. 
DangUim, iii, iiS. 
Darnley Island, i, 23!. 
Darwin, i, 55. 
Deed of trust, ii, 5. 
Demiegrelta, iii, 26, 29. 

sacra, iii, 29. 
Deverill, W. E. H., iii, 5. 
Dinornis, i, 2, 11. 

maximus, i, 57. 
Diodon hystrix, iii, 120. 
Diomedea chinensis, ii, 34. 

nigripes, iii, 22, 129. 
Dioniedeidse, iii, 22. 
Director's report, 189S, i, i. 

annual reports, ii, i ; iii, i; 
v, I. 
Dohrn, Dr. Anton, i, 5. 
Dorsey, G. A., i, 61. 
Drepanidse, ii, 33, 45. 
Dublin, i, 52. 
Dululi, iii, 36. 
Dupetor flavicoUis, iii, 26. 
Easter Island (Rapaniii), i, 9, 

19, 26, 28, 38, 47, 51 ; iii, 9. 
Echidna uniformis, iii, 62. 
Edge-Partington, J., i, 42, 53. 
Egigi, iii, 55- 
Egniont Island, i, 47. 
Egyptian Museum, i, 31. 
Eleotris fusca, iii. 124. 

miniatus, iii, 125. 
Elepaio, ii, 40. 
Ellis, Rev. Wm., i, 42. 
Eltham, i, 53. 
Epinephelus dtemelii, iii, 76. 

hexagonatus, iii, 77. 

quernus, iv, 3. 
Etheridge, Robert, Jr., i, 2. 
Ethnological department, ii, 

14, 52 ; iii, 143 ; v, 10. 
European coot, iii, 32. 
Ewaewa, ii, 34. 

Excalfactoria sinensis, iii, 37. 
Exchanges, i, 67; ii, 14; v, 29. 
Exhibition Building fire. Syd- 
ney, i, 4. 
Exploration, ii, 23. 
Fahan, iii, 21. 
Fairmount Park, iii, 7, 11. 
Falconidse, iii, 43. 
Feather productions from 

Mexico, i, 6, 10. 
Feather work from Brazil, 
i, 10. 



von Fellenberg, Dr. Ed., i, 37. 
Field Columbian Museum, 

i, 61 ; iii, 7, 16. 
Field notes on the birds of 

Oahu, ii, 33. 
Fiji, 1, I, 6, 13, 20, 26, 28, 31, 33, 
36, 38, 40, 42, 48, 50, 53, 56, 
60, 61, 63. 
Fijian clubs, i, 13*. 
File fishes, iii, 116. 
Fishes of Guam, iii, 61. 
Fistiilaria depressa, iii, 64. 
Florence, i, 6. 
F'lorida, i, 48. 
Flounders, iii, 128. 
Flower, Sir Wni. H., i, 53; v, 3. 
Fly catchers, ii, 40. 
Fomho, iii, 84. 
Franz Ferdinand, Museum of 

Archduke, i, 11. 
P'ree Museum of Science and 

Art, iii, 7, 11. 
Fregata aquila, ii, 34; iii, 24. 

ariel, iii, 25. 
Fregatidse, iii, 23, 24. 
Freiburg Museum, i, 13. 
Frigate bird, iii, 24. 
Fulica, iii, 29, 32. 
alai, iii, 131. 
atra, iii, 32. 
Fuligula fuligula, iii. 26. 
Gadu, iii, 85. 
Gadua, iii, 76. 
Gadudog, iii, 81. 
Ga-kaliso, iii, 53. 
GallinEE, iii, 18, 37. 
Gallinago, iii, 32, 33. 

megala, iii, ZZ- 
GalUnula, iii, 29, 31. 
chloropus, iii, 31. 
sandvicensis, ii, 37 ; iii, 131. 
Gallus, iii, 37, 38. 
bankiva, iii, 38. 
Ganibier Islands, i, 38, 48. 60. 
Gannet, iii, 24. 
Garres argyeus, iii, 80. 
Garrett, Andrew, ii, 10. 

collection, iii 8. 
Garfishes, iii, 64. 
Gay, P'rancis, iii, 129. 
GiglioH, Dr. E- H., i, 6. 
Gilbert Islands, i, 13, 29, 42, 49, 

60 ; ii, 20. 
Gill, Rev., i, 65. 
Gobies, iii, 124. 
Gobius deltoides, iii, 125. 
Godeffroy Museum, i, 27. 
Godwit, iii, 132. 

Golden plover, ii, 38; iii, 36, 
132. 



Index, 



V 



Goinphosus pacificiis, iii, 94. 

pectoralis, iii, 9,^. 

tricolor, iii, 9,^ 
Goode, Dr. J. lirown. i, 55. 
Grass house, iii, 5 ; v, 4. 
Greene, J. J., iii, s. 
Guam, iii, ,v 

avifauna, iii, 17. 

fishes, iii, 61. 
Gygis, iii, 20, 21. 

allja kittlitzi, iii, 21. 
Haakoae, ii, 36. 
Hagen, i, 27, 
Halcyon albicilla, iii, 44, 45. 

ciiinauiomius, iii, 44, 45. 
Hale pili, iii, 5 ; v, 4. 
Halichoeres hortulanus.iii.SS. 

leparensis, iii, 89. 

nebulosus, iii, 88, 

nigropunctatus, iii, 89. 

opercularis, iii, 89. 
Hamoktau, iii, no. 
Hamburg, i, 27. 
Hamy, M., i, 37. 
Harpe axillaris, iii, 85. 
Hawaiian Feather Work.ii, 14. 

Hall, iii, 3. 

Islands, objects from, i, 6, 7, 
12, 16, 24, 28, 30, 32, 34, 37, 
39, 41, 42, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 
57, 58, 60, 61, 63. 

tern, ii, 35. 

Vestibule, iii, 3. 
Heger, Custos, i, 10, 11. 

Dr. Franz, i, 6. 
Heilpron, Prof., i, 55. 
Heniignathus procerus, iii, 

136. 
Hemirhauiphus limbatus, iii, 

64. 
Hendrick, Capt. John, i, 57*. 
Heniochus chrysostoma, iii. 

102. 
Henshaw, H. W., ii, 8. 
Hermit Islands, i, 14, 21, 30. 
Herodiones, ii, 36 ; iii, 18, 26. 
Herons, ii, 36; iii, 26. 
Hervey Islands, i, 10, 13, 20, 
25, 28, 31, 33, 47, 51, 59, 61, 
62, 63. 
Heteractitis iii, 33, 35. 

brevipes, iii, 35. 

incanus, ii, 37; iii, 132. 
Higum, iii, S5. 
Hijug, iii, loS. 
Hilprecht, Dr., iii, 11. 
Himantopus knudseni, iii, 131. 
Himatione sanguinea, ii, 33, 

43 : iii, 134. 
Hitchcock, D. H., ii, 8. 



von Hochstetter, Baron, i. 10. 
Holmes, W, II., i, 61, 
Holocanthus bishopi, iii, 106. 

cyanotus, iii, 103. 

imperator, iii, 104. 

marianas, iii, 104. 

nicobariensis, iii, 105. 
Holocentrus binotatum, iii, 6S. 

diadema, iii, 68. 

fuscostriatus, iii, 69. 

microstoma, iii, 70. 

operculare, iii, 68, 

unipunctatiim, iii, 69. 
Holtze, Matirice, i, 5. 
Hornaday, W. T., iii, 13. 
von Hiigel, Baron, i, 2, 50. 
Hunakai, ii, 37. 
Hutchinson, Allen, ii, 8. 
Hyde, Rev. C. M., ii, 7, 21 ; iii, 

155- 
Hydrochelidon leucoptera, iii, 

20. 
Hj'poteenidia, iii, 29, 30. 

oustini, iii, 30. 
liwi, ii, 42 ; iii, 133. 
Index to the Islands of the 

Pacific, iii, 5. 
Information, ii, 21. 
Installation, i, 67. 
Jajaguag, iii, 46. 
Jardin des Plantes, i, 37, 39. 
Jordan, Dr. D. S., iii, S. 
Julis anertensis, iii, 90. 

punctatus, iii, 91. 

purpurea, iii, 91. 
Jungle fowl, iii, 38. 
K. K. Naturhistorische Hof- 

museum in Wien, i, 7. 
Kaiser Wilhelm Land, i, 23. 
Kakak, iii, 27. 
Kakaka, iii, 78. 
Kalakaua, King, i, i6t. 
Kalaniopuu, i, ///, 3. 
Kamau, iii, 137. 
Kamehameha Schools, i, iv. 

the Great, i, iii. 
Kapas from Bolivia and the 

Rio Napo, i, 6. 
Kauai, iii, 4, 129. 
Kew Garden Museums, i. 41. 
Key to the Hawaiian Birds, 

iii, 5- 
Kilauea, ii, 24. 
Koae, iii, 130. 
Koko, iii, 30. 
Kolea, ii, 38; iii, 132. 
Koloa maoli, iii, 130. 
Konigliche Kthnographische 
Museum, Munchen, i, 12. 
Knudsen, August, iii, 129. 



Knudsen, Kric, iii, 5. 
Kuhlia rupestris, iii, 75. 
Kukuluaeo, iii, 131. 
Kusaie, i, 21 . 
Ivabelling, i, 6S. 
Lactojihrys nasus, iii, 117. 
Ladrone duck, iii, 25, 

Islands, iii, 17. 
La Foga, i, 20. 

La Fresnaye collection, i, 58. 
Lansi, iii, 73. 
Laridas, ii, 34 ; iii, 20. 
Larus barrovianus, iii, 129. 

vegte, iii, 20. 
Leiden, i, 31. 

I^eiognathus obscura, iii, 74. 
Lesiog, iii, 69. 
Letter to the Trustees, ii, 3; 

iii, 2 ; v, 2. 
Leverian Museum, i, 43. 
Library, Additions to, ii, 46; 

iii, 146 ; V, 21. 
Limicolse, ii, 37 ; iii, iS. 
Limosa, iii, 33, 34. 

lapponica baueri, iii, 34, 132. 
List of accessions, ii, 52; iii, 

138 ; V, 10. 
Lizard-fishes, iii, 63. 
London, i, 40, 53. 

Missionary Society, i, 42. 
I,ongipennes, ii, 34 ; iii, iS, 20. 
Loro, iii, 93. 

Loxops cseruleirostris, iii, 136. 
Luau, iii, 24. 
Luders, C. W., i, 27. 
vonLuschan, Dr. Felix, i, 14, 

64, 66. 
Lutianus bengalensis, iii 7S. 

bonhamensis, iii, 79. 

erythropterus, iii, 78. 

falvus, iii, 78. 

mouostigma, iii, 79. 
Maching, iii, 126. 
Macrochires, iii, 19, 46. 
Mafuti, iii, 79. 

Magenta, Voyage of the, i, 5. 
Malekula, ii, 14. 
Mallicolo, i, 63. 
Mangaia, i, 13, 20, 25, 28, 40. 
Manihiki, i, 20, 28, 48. 
Mann, Horace, i, 58. 
Mantegazza, Dr. 1 aolo, i, 6. 
Maori house, i, 2. 

war canoe, i, 2. 
Marianas, iii, 17. 
Marine Zoological Station, i. 5, 

70 ; ii, 7. 
Marquesas Islands, i, 9, 13, 20, 
25, 28, 31, 33, 38, 40, 42. 47, 
.5i>53. 59. 61, 62, 63. 



VI 



Index. 



Marshall Islands, i, 13, 29; ii, 

21, 26. 
Mason, Prof. Otis T., i. 55. 
Mat sails of the Pacific, ii 25. 
Matty Island, i, 12. 
Max, Gabriel, i, 12. 
Medicine, i, 65. 

Meg'alops cyprinoides, iii, 63. 
Megapodius, iii, 37, 39. 

laperousi. iii, 39. 
Melbourne, i, 4. 
Meliphagidse, iii, 47. 
Methods of fishing in Guam, 

iii, 61. 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 

New York, iii, 7. 
Mexican feather productions, 

i, 6, 10. 
Meyer, Dr. A. B., i, 13. 
Meyrick collection, i, 43. 
Micronesia i, 6, 13, 21, 24, 49, 

60, 62. 
Mina, iii, 133. 
Missouri Botanical Garden, 

iii, 7, S. 
Mojarras, iii, 80. 
Monocanthus albopunctatus, 

iv, 13. 
Monoceros annulatus, iii, 113. 
garretti, iii, 112. 
lituratus, iii, 113. 
marginatus, iii, 114. 
Moray s, iii, 62. 
Moriori implements, ii, 54. 
Mormon Museum, i, 61. 
Morning Star, ii, 19. 
Morse, Prof. B. S., i, 60. 
Mud hen, ii, 37. 
Mugil axillaris, iii, 66. 
planiceps, iii, 66. 
waigiensis, iii, 65. 
Mulloides flavolineatus, iii, 71. 

samoensis, iii, 71. 
Munia nisoria, iii. 133. 
Munich, i, 12. 
Municipal Museum, Brussels, 

i, 33- 
Muraena nigra, iii, 62. 

tile, iii, 62. 
Muscicapidje, ii, 33 : iii. 47. 
Musee d'Artillerie, Paris, i, 39. 
de Botanique, Paris, i, 39. 
de Marine, Paris, i, 37. 
Museo Kircheriano, Rome, 1,5. 
Nazionale di Antropologia e 

di IJtnologia, Florence, i, 6. 
Museum of Comparative Zo- 
ology, i, 58, 70; iii, 7, 16. 
of Fine Arts, Boston, i, 57; 

iii, 7. 



Museum fiir Volkerkunde, 

Berlin, i, 14. 

Myiagra, iii, 47, 50. 

freycineti, iii, .so. 

Myripristis murdjan, iii, 67. 

Myzomela iii, 47, 35. 

rubrata, iii, 55. 
Naples, i, 5. 
National Zoological Gardens, 

iii, 7, 10 
Nationalmuseet den Ethno- 

graphiscke Samling Kjo- 

benhavn. i, 23. 
Natural Historj- Museum. 

South Kensington, i, 53, 54. 
Nawodo, i, 13, 42. 
Necker Island, i, 43. 
New Britain, i, 14, 23, 27, 30, 

49, 60. 
New Caledonia, i, 11, 13, 18, 26, 

29. 33- 36, 38. 39. 40. 49. 31. 

59. 61. 
New Guinea, i, 3, 6, 10, 11, 12, 

14, 23, 30, 31, 42, 51, 53, 56, 

61, 63. 
New Hanover, i, 23. 
New Hawaiian Fishes, iv, i. 
New Hebrides, i, 22, 27, 30, 38, 

49, 63 ; ii, 14. 
New Ireland, i, 3, 14, 23, 27, 31, 

33, 49- 
Newton, Prof. Alfred, i, 54. 
New York, i, 56. 

Aquarium, iii, 7, 12. 

Botanical Museum, iii, 7, 14. 

Zoological Garden, iii, 7, 13 

New Zealand, i, 2, 9, 12, 13, 18, 

26, 30, 32, 36, 38, 39, 41, 44, 

51, 53, 56, 57. 59- 61, 63; iii, 10. 

flax, ii, 25, 26. 
Ngang, iii, 25. 
Niue, i, 28, 42, 46, 60. 
Noddy, ii, 34, 35; iii, 21. 
Nolo, ii, 35. 
Normal School, ii, 9. 
Nossac, iii, 58. 

Notes on Birds of Kauai, iii, 
129. 

on Birds of Oahu, ii, 33. 
Novaculichthys tattoo, iv, 5. 
Nukulaelae, i, 49. 
Numenius iii, 33, 34. 

cyanopus, iii, 34, 35. 

phaeopus variegatus, iii, 34. 
Nycticorax giisius, ii, 56. 

nycticorax njevius, iii, 131. 
Oceanodroma castro, iii, 130. 
Oeoe, iii, 130. 

Ophichthus colubrinus, iii, 62. 
Oreoniyza bairdi, iii, 136. 



Oreomyza maculata, ii, 33. 

Oriental whimbrel, iii, 34. 

Osborn, Prof. Hy. F., i, 57. 

Ostracion cornutus, iii, nS. 
cubicus, iii, 118. 
punctatus, iii, 118. 

Ou, iii, 137. 
holowai, iii, 136. 

Owl, ii, 39; iii, 44, 132 

Oxford, i, 52. 

Oxymonacanthus longirostris, 
iii, 117. 

Pacific godwit, iii, 34. 

PaUeozoic corals, ii, 21. 

Pallas' gull, iii, 20. 

Paloman, iii, 116. 

PaludicoUe, ii, 37; iii, 18, 29. 

Paracirrhites arcatus, iii, 79. 

Paris, i, 37. 

Parkinson, Sydney, i, 7. 

Parrot fishes, iii, 95. 

Passeres, ii, 33 ; iii, 19, 47- 

Pauahi, Princess, i, iii. 

Paumotu archipelago, i, 10, 
20, 48. 

Peabody Academy of Sci- 
ences, Salem, i, 60. 
Museum of American Eth- 
nology and Archaeology, 
i, 58; ii, 20; iii, 7, 15. 

Peale, Rembrandt, i, 55. 

Pempheris otaitensis, iii, 74. 

Percis cephalopunctatvis, iii, 
124. 

Periophthalmus koelreuteri, 
iii, 126. 

Peristeridte, iii, 39. 

Perkins, R. C. L., i, .S4, 69 ; ii, 6. 

Petrels, iii, 22. 

Phseornis myadestina, iii, 137. 
palmeri, iii, 137. 

Phaethon candidus, iii, 23. 
lepturus, ii, 36; iii, 130. 

Phasianidte, iii, 37. 

Phasianus torquatus, iii, 132. 

Philadelphia, i, 55. 
Commercial Museums, iii, 
7, II. 

Phlogcenas, iii, 39, 42. 
xanthonura, iii, 42. 

Photography, i, 66. 

Picture Gallery, ii, 8. 

Pilsbrj', Dr., i, 55; ii, 13; iii, 10. 

Pintail, ii, 36. 

Pipupu, iii, 124. 

Pitt-Rivers collections, i, 52. 

Platophrys pavo, iii, 128. 

Platycephalus punctatus, iii, 
123. 

Plover, ii, 38; iii, 36, 132. 



Index 



roint Rarrow gull, iii, 129. 
Polioliinmas, iii, 29, 30. 

cinereus, iii, ,;o. 
I'olonian liahini-taTK). iii. 43. 

kanau, iii. 42. 
rolydactylu.s sexfilis, iii. 67, 
Polynesian Hall. ii. 7. 
Poniacentru.-i bankantii.sis, iii. 
Si. 

litoralis, iii. Si. 

punctatus, iii. So. 

triniaculatus, iii, 80. 
Porcupine fish, iii, 120. 
ProcellariidEe, iii, 22. 
Pseudoscarus bataviensis, iii, 
96. 

platodoni, iii, 96. 

sumbawensis, iii, 97. 
Psittacirostra psittacea.iii, 137 
Pterois zebra, iii, 122. 
Ptilinopus roseicapillus.iii, 39. 
Publications, ii, 14 ; iii, 5 ; v, 6. 
Pueo, ii. 39 ; iii, 132. 
Puffers, iii, iiS. 
Puffinus newelli, iii, 129. 

obscurus, iii, 22, 23. 

tenebrosus, iii, 22, 23. 
Pulatel, iii, 31. 
Putnam, Prof. F. W., i, 58. 
RallidK. ii, 37; iii, 29. 
Rapanui. i. g, 19, 26, 28, 38, 47, 

51 ; iii, 9. 
Raptores, ii, 39 ; iii, 18, 43. 
Rarotonga, i, 36. 
Rathbun, Dr., i, 56. 
Ray-skin rasps, ii, 32. 
Read, C. H., i, 50. 
Real Museo di Fisica e Storia 

Naturale, i, 6. 
Red-billed tropic bird, ii, 36. 
Reef heron, iii, 29. 
Reiny, Jules, i, 39. 
Report of Dr. W. H. Dall, ii, 10. 

of Director's journey, i, i. 

on library, v, 6. 

of J. F. G. Stokes' vi.sit, iii, 7. 

for 1899, ii, 5. 

for 1900, iii, 3. 

for 1901, V, 3. 
Rhipidura, iii, 47, 48. 

saipanensis, iii, 48. 

uranise, iii, 48. 
Rice bird, iii, 133. 
Rijks Ethnographische Mu- 
seum, Leiden, i, 32. 
Ring-necked pheasant, iii, 132. 
Roblej-, Gen., i, 53. 
Rock fish, iii, 120. 
Rome, i, ,s. 



Royal College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, i, 53. 

Society of London, i, 54 ; ii, 6. 

United Service Museum, 
i. 41- 
Rubiaiia, i, 49. 
Safford, Lieut. -Governor W. 

E., iii, 17. 
Saffron Walden, i, 51. 
Sagamolang, iii, 67. 
Saganas hexagonata, iii, iii. 

mamorata, iii, iii. 

rostrata, iii, iii. 
Salarias uigripes. iii, 127. 

nitidus, iii. 127. 

periophthalmus, iii, 126. 
Sali, iii, 54. 
Salmoneti, iii, 71, 72. 
Salt Lake City, i. 61. 
Samoa, i, 19, 25, 2S, 32, 36, 46, 

51. 56- 61. 
San Cristobal, i, 48. 
Sanderling, ii, 37 ; iii, 33. 
Sandwich Lslands — misuse of 

name, i, 53. 
San Francisco, i, 62 ; iii, 8. 
Santo, i, 22. 
Sapisapi, iii, 74. 
Savage Island, i, 28. 
Scarus celebricus, iii, 95. 

cypho, iii, 95. 
Schmeltz, Dr. J. D. E., i, 32. 
.Schomburgh, Dr., i. ,s. 
Scolopacidte, ii. 37; iii, 32. 
Scolopsis lineatus, iii, 65. 
Scorpjena bakeri, iii, 120. 
Scorpsenopsis cacopsis, iv, 11. 

guamensis, iii. 121. 
Sea butterfly, iii, 101. 
Scale, Alvin, ii, 10, 33 : iii, 3, 

17, 129; iv, I ; V, 6. 
Sea poachers, iii, 124. 
Seemann, Dr. Berthold, i, 41. 
Seliig, iii, 45. 

Serranus brighami, iv. 7. 
•Sharp, Dr., i, 55. 
Sharp-tailed sandpiper, iii, 33. 
.Shearwater, iii, 23. 
Shell money, making of, i, 12. 
Sihig, iii, 65. 
Smith, Mr., South Keusin,gton 

Museum, i, 53. 
Smithsonian Institution, iii, 7, S. 
Snake eels, iii, 62. 
Snipe, iii, 2,?}- 
Society Islands, i, 6, 9, 20, 2,s, 

35,38,42,46, 51,55. 
Solomon Islands, i, 12, 22, 27, 
30> 33. 36, 39. 40. 42. 4S, 51. 
53, 60, 62, 63. 



Sooty tern, ii, ,,4. 

South Kensington Industrial 

Museum, i, 41. 
Sperm whale, v, 3. 
Sphynena obtusata, iii. (ir,. 
Sciuirrel fishes, Iii. 67. 
Stanford University Museum. 

iii, 8. 
St. Augustine's College, Can- 

terburj', i, 52. 
Steganopodes, ii, 36; iii, 18, 23. 
Sterna fuligino.sa, ii, 34. 
Stethojulis fulvovenlris, iii, 92. 

renardi, iii, 92. 
Stilt, iii, 131. 
Stirling, Dr. E- C, i, 4. 
St. Louis, iii, 8. 
Stokes, J. F. G., ii, 9, 23, 25 ; iii, 

4. 5. 7 ; V, 5-- 
Sturnidse, iii, 47. 
Sula piscator, iii, 23, 24. 

sula, iii, 23, 24. 
Suva, i, I. 

Swanzy. F. M., v, 4. 
Sydney, i, 2. 
Sykes, ii, 13. 

Synanceia thersites, iii, 121. 
Synodus variegatus, iii, 63. 
Table of attendance, ii, 9; iii, 

6; V, 10. 
Tahiti, i, 3. 6, 3S. 
Tahitian gorget of feathers, 

i. 3- 
Taloga, iii, 114. 
Tampat, iii, 128. 
Tarakita, iii, 73. 
Tarpons, iii, 63. 
Tasmania, i, 53. 
Tatalum, iii, 85, 
Tatanung, iii, 87. 
Tatuing. i. 64. 
Tetradrachiiium aruauum. iii. 

S4. 
Tetrodon immaculatus, iii, 119. 

papua, iii, 118. 

reticularis, iii, 119. 

stellatus. iii, 119. 
Teuthis aliala, iii, 109. 

lineatus. iii, loS. 

mata. iii, 107. 

olivaceus, iii, 107. 

triostegus, iii, 108. 
Thalassoma berendti, iv, 15. 
Thompson, John W., v, 5. 
Thurston, Sir John, i, i. 
Timeliidte, iii, 47. 
Tonga, i, 3, 6, 9, 20, 27, 28, 33, 

35, 38, 41, 47, 51, 55. 59- 
Torres Straits Islands, i, 23, 30. 



Vlll 



Index. 



Totanus, iii, 33, 34. 

glareola, iii, 34. 

hypoleucus, iii, 34. 
Totot, iii, 39. 
TreionidEe, iii, 39. 
Trigger fishes, iii, ii.s. 
Tringa acuminata, iii, ^iZ- 
Trocadero, i, 37, 3S. 
Tropic bird, ii, 36; iii, 23, 130. 
Trumpet fish, iii, 64. 
Trunk fishes, iii, 117. 
Tubinares, iii, iS, 22. 
Turner, Rev. G., i, 65. 
Turnstone, ii, 39. 
Turtur, iii, 39, 43. 

chinensis, iii, 132. 

dussumieri, iii, 43. 
Tylor, Dr. E. B., i, 53. 
Tylosurus annulatus, iii, 64. 
Uau, iii, 130. 
Ugupa anirilla, iii, 103. 
Uhle, Dr. M., i, 13. 
Ulili, ii, 37 ; iii, 132. 
Umlauff, i, 27. 
U. S. Botanical Gardens, iii, 7. 

IJxploring Expedition, i, 55; 
iii, 9. 



U. S. Fish Commission, iii, 7, 
10. 
National Museum, i, 53 ; iii, 
7,8. 

Upeneus multifasciatus, iii, 71. 
saffordi, iii, 72. 
trifasciatus, iii, 72. 

Vancouver collection, i, 43, 44. 

Vanikoro, i, 3S. 

Vestiaria coccinea, ii, 33, 42; 
iii, ^ZZ- 

Vienna, i, 6. 

Virchow, Dr. Hans, i, 5. 

Volkerkunde Museum, i, 27. 

Voy collection, i, 62. 

Waber, i, 33. 

Wahiula, ii, 23. 

Walcott, Allen M., ii, 9, 32 ; iii, 
4 : V, 5. 

Waldron, F.. ii, 24. 

Wandering tattler, ii, 37 ; iii, 
35. 132. 

Wansey, Acland, ii, 9. 

Ward's Natural Science Es- 
tablishment, iii, 7, 16. 

Ware collection, i, 3S. 

Warren Medical Museum, i, 64. 



Washington, i, 55. 

Weber's collection, i, 10. 

Wellington, i, 2. 

White tern, iii, 21. 

White-winged black tern, iii, 
20. 

Wilhelm II, Kaiser, i, 15. 

Wilkes' Expedition, i, 55; iii, 9. 

Willoughby, C. C, ii, 20. 
Frank, i, 60. 

Wil.son, Dr. W. P., iii, 12. 

Worship, i, 65. 

Yap, i, 60. 

Zabrasoma agaiia, iii, no. 
guttatus, iii. no. 

Zanclus cancscens, iii, 102. 

Zoological Park, Philadel- 
phia, iii, 7, II. 
Society of London, iii, 13. 

Zoologische und Anthropolo- 
gisch - Ethnographische 
Museums zu Dresden, 
i, 13. 

Zosterops, iii, 47, 58. 
conspicillata, iii, 58. 
semperi, iii, 58. 




OCCASIONAL PAPERS 

NOV 9 1888 °' ™^ 

BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM 

OF 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 
NATURAL HISTORY. 



Vol. I. — No. I 



DIRECTOR'S 
REPORT 



HONOLULU: 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

1898. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS 



OF THE 



BERNICE PAUAHl BISHOP MUSEUM 



OF 



POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 
NATURAL HISTORY. 



Vol. I. — No. i. 



DIRECTOR'S 
REPORT 



HONOLULU: 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

1898. 



PREFACE. 

Ix THIS initial luiinber of the publications of the Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural His- 
tory it seems proper to state that the Trustees have decided to issue 
such papers as seem to them worthy of publication on subjedls ger- 
main to the objedls and work of this Museum in one or the other of 
two series, one in quarto the other in oclavo form. For the former the 
title of Memoirs, for the latter that of Occasional Papers has been 
seleclied. A small edition of each will be printed in the office attached 
to the Museum, mainly for exchange with other Museums or Societies 
issuing publications in similar lines. The date of publication will 
be irregular, and as papers are ready the}- will be issued: applica- 
tions for copies or exchanges should be made to the Diredlor. 



The Princess Pauahi was descended from a long line of Kings 
and Alii. She was great-granddaughter both of Kalaniopuu, the 
King of Hawaii at the time of Cook's visit, and of Kamehameha 
the Great the remarkable Hawaiian who succeeded that King and 
after gaining undisputed authority over his island of Hawaii car- 
ried his victorious arms to Maui and Oahu, and on the last island 
receiving the capitulation of Kaumualii the King of Kauai thus 
completing the conquest and unification of the entire Group. 

Pauahi was educated with the other Alii at the Royal School 
and early gave evidence of her capabilities and sterling chara(5ler. 
At an early age she was married to Charles Reed Bishop who had 
come to the Islands from the State of New York, and during a long 
and happy life was regarded both by her own people and by all 
foreigners who knew her the beloved Chief Lady of the land. Her 
accomplishments were many but they yielded to the beauty of her 
characfter. Oc1:ober i6, 1884, Mrs. Bishop died leaving her entire 
estate to found schools for the youth of her race. Plve years later, 



iv Preface. 

when her bequest was adlively accomplishing her desires, her hus- 
band founded this Museum in the midst of the school at Kalihi, a 
western suburb of Honolulu. Although the founder of Kamehameha 
Schools needed no other monument than these schools it was pecul- 
iarly fitting that a memorial to her should be placed in their midst 
to preser^-e and exhibit to all who care to look relics of her people 
and the kindred races of the Pacific Ocean. 

This Museum, founded in 1889 and growing slowly for 
several years, has now attained an honorable position among Eth- 
nological Museums, nor has it wholly neglecfted the other obje(5l of 
its foundation but has done much for the Entomology and Orni- 
thology of the Hawaiian Islands as will be seen by subsequent 
publications. 

Twice during its first decade has it outgrown its buildings, 

twice have generous additions been made to its exhibition and work 

rooms. Foundations have been laid for a fine hall to contain 

Hawaiian exhibits. Both Museum and Schools try to illustrate 

the truth of the memorial inscription in the entrance hall of the 

former: 

''BERNICE PA U A HI BISHOP: 

A bright light among her people, her usefulness S2irvives 
her mortal life.'' 



The Board of Trustees consists of: 

Sanford B. Dole, L.L.D. President. 

William O. Smith Vice President. 

Rev. Charles M. Hyde, D.D. Secretary. 

Henry Holmes Treasurer. 

Samuel M. Damon, Joseph O. Carter, William F. Allen. 

The Museum Staff consists at present of: 

William T. Brigham, A.M., A.A.S., etc. DireHor. 

Acland Wansey Curator. 

John J. Greene Printer. 

Taxidermist. 

September, 1898. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Bishop iNIusevun from a photograph by the Dire(5tor in 1897 . . F'rontispiece^ 

Australian Museum from a photograph given by Sir Geo. Dibbs . p. 3. 

Hawaiian Helmet from the Cook relics in the Australian Museum . PI. i, p. 4. 

Tahitian Gorget " " " " " " " . PI. 2, p. 5. 

Vienna Museum ... p. 7. 

3- 5. Hawaiian feather Helmets, Cook coll. at Vienna .... PI. Ill, p. 8. 

6- 7. Kukailimoku and "Oracle House" [Cook] " PI. IV, p. 9. 

S-12. Hawaiian implements PI. V, p. 10. 

II. Leiomano, Cook coll. at Vienna p. 8. 

Pan pipe p. 9- 

14. Tahitian poi-pounders P- 9- 

15. New Caledonian Disk club p. 11. 

16. " " Bent club p. 11. 

Greenstone implement p. 11. 

Greenstone adz p. 11. 

Fijian Clubs photographed by Acland Wansey PI. VII, p. 14. 

Club braced with cord P- i4- 

Berlin Museum p. i5- 

Hawaiian Idol [Arningl PI. VIII, p. 15. 

Stone Idol photographed by Acland Wansey PI. IX, p. 16. 

Stone image " .... Pl x, p. 17. 

21. Finger bowl P- i7- 

22. Wood carving tool P- I7- 

23. Hawaiian stone lamps p. 18. 

24. Easter Island Talking-stick P- i9- 

25. Awa bowl P- 19- 

26. Shell adz p. 21. 

27. Shark float PI- VI, p. 11. 

28. Wooden fiddle. New Britain P- 23. 

29. Kapa board cleaner p. 24. 

30. Stamp pattern p. 25. 

31. Kapa pattern p. 25. 

32. Car\'ing tool P- 25. 

33. Short handled adz from New Caledonia p. 26. 

34. Jade and wood adz •' ■• " p. 26. 

35. Cylindrical gong P- 29. 

36. Coconut armor from the Gilbert Islands P- 29. 

37. Adz with knob p. 3°. 

38. Hawaiian fish-hook P- 3i- 



VI 



List of IlhLstrations . 



Carved eye of tiki P- 32- 

Hawaiian dish at Leiden PI. XI, p. 32. 

Berne Municipal Museum P- 34- 

Shark tooth weapon P- 35- 

Sunshade, Tahiti P- 35- 

Adz, Tahiti P- 35- 

Tongan pillow PI. XVII, p 49. 

Tongan Mats P- 36. 

Stone beater p. 36. 

Haw.iiian helmet P- 37- 

Coconut and wood hula drum p. 43. 

Akua with helmet PI. XII, p. 33 

Akua mahiole PI. XII, p. 33 

Bowl on car\'ed svipporters PI. XII, p. 33 

Bowl •• " " PI. XIII, p.46, 

Akua PI. XII, p. 33 

Hawaiian mirror P- 44. 

Bowl .supported by three figures PI. XIII, p. 46 

Two bowls connedted by a figure PI. XIII, p.46 

Human figure for seat PI. XIII, p.46 

Bowl between two figures Pi. XIII, p.46 

Hawaiian implements of shark's teeth p. 45- 

Ohia god PI. XIV, p.47 

Sorcery lamp, Tahiti PI. VI, p. 11 

Hawaiian fans PI. XV, p. 48 

Maori sacrificial knives PI. XV, p. 48 

Hawaiian god P- 47. 

Marquesan club PI. XVI, p.49 

Mangaia gong PI. XVI, p.49, 

Tongan basket PI. XVI, p.49 

Tongan bone apron PI. XVII, p50 

Nine spear Pl.XVII,p.5o, 

Club, Fiji PI. XVIII P5I 

Banks Islands kite P- 49- 

Lotus clubs, at Oxford P- 52- 

Akua at Salem PI. XIX, p.54. 

71. Gods at Salt Lake City p. 62. 

The pen and ink sketches are from the Diredtor's note book: the photographs of objetSls 
in the British Museum are by Mr. Heni->' Oldland of that museum: the objedts in the Vienna 
Museum and the half-tones prepared by Lowy: the other half-tones and zincographs l?y the 
Sunset Photo-Engraving Co. of San Francisco. 



40. 

41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45- 
46. 

47- 
48. 

49- 
50. 
SI- 
SI.' 
52. 
S3. 
54. 
55- 
56. 
57- 
S8. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63- 
64. 
65- 
66. 
67. 
68. 

69. 

70. 



Report oj a Journey around the world undertaken to 
examine vaiious EthnoloQical Co//ee?io?is. 



In view of the fa(5t that many implements and objecfts of 
ethnological Interest have been deposited in American and Euro- 
pean museums by early colledtors or their heirs, — obje(5ts no longer 
made or used by the natives of the islands of the Pacific Ocean 
(the region recognized as the field of operations of this Museum), 
— the Trustees of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum decided 
to authorize the Direcftor to visit and examine the principal Ethno- 
logical museums of the world, hoping that besides studying the rare 
and now unattainable ethnological obje(5ts in those museums, he 
might arrange exchanges of duplicates or publications, obtain pho- 
tographs of interesting specimens, and learn what might be new or 
of value in the arrangement or management of such institutions, 
and in the preserv^ation of their contents. 

The Director left Honolulu January 28, 1896, on the Steamer 
'Warrimoo' for Sydney, N.S.W. Touching at Suva, Fiji, for a few 
hours, a glimpse was obtained of the very interesting Vitians, and 
their fine forms, dignified bearing, and lack of idle curiosity were at 
once noticeable. In the Government House was an ornamental 
colledlion of implements, mostly warlike, and it was matter of deep 
regret that the late Sir John Thurston, then Governor of the group, 
was absent and so his great knowledge unavailable. There were 



O.P.— B.P.B.M. 



2 Colonial Museums. 

several private colle<5lions of little scientific value. In Oxford, later, 
the colledlion from this group made by Baron von Hiigel, probably 
the choicest in any museum, was examined with the kind as- 
sistance of the accomplished collector who is now Curator of the 
University Museum. Before leaving Suva some kapas (white ma- 
si and figured sulas), and a few implements were purchased which 
are now in the Museum. 

The route of the ' Warrimoo' was diredl from Suva to Sydney, 
leaving Ncav Zealand far to the southward, but on several previous 
vo^'ages the museums of that progressive Colony were visited, and 
it may be stated that the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch is, as a 
general museum, one of the most attra(5live in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, and in the remains of the Moa {DinoTuis) unquestionably 
the richest in the world: in Maori remains it is not remarkable: it 
publishes a Gviide-book. At Wellington, the Capital of New Zea- 
land, and the centre of scientific energ}' in that Colony, the museum 
is smaller, but contains a fine carved Maori house. As a scientific 
museum that at Auckland, of which Mr Thomas F. Checseman is 
Dire(5lor, ranks high; and here is the fine Maori war-canoe more 
than eight}' feet long and of remarkable model, besides many carv- 
ed prows and stern-posts of canoes that have perished. The Mao- 
ri implements are well represented but a depraved taste has led to 
the mutilation of the native carved figures, hence ethnologically all 
such specimens are bad for they lead to a false estimate of indige- 
nous art. The blame for this silly proceeding may or may not rest 
with the Government, certainly not with the accomplished Curator. 
On the other hand it should be said that all the Colonial Govern- 
ments have fostered museums of which Australia and New Zea- 
land may well be proud, for as educators of the people, these mu- 
seums, although so recent, are close followers of Vienna, Berlin, 
Hamburg, London, Washington, New York and Boston. 

At Sydney the Australian Museum in charge of Mr Robert 
Etheridge, Jr., had been rearranged and greatly improved since a 
visit two years before. In the Department of Natural History is a 



Colon ial J//fS(W/ )n s . 




Australian Museum. 



nearly complete series of Australian marsupials well mounted, also 
preparations illustrating marsupial embryology; life-like casts of 
serpents; remarkable skeletons of fish — among them Ceratodus, bet- 
ter than were seen elsewhere; a series of Australian birds, not com- 
plete, but excellent so far as it goes; and a very extensive mineral- 
ogical colle(5tion. In the ethnological hall are many New Ireland 
car\dngs, both in wood and in chalk; the best series of large round 
wooden food bowls, from the Admiralt}' Islands, seen in any mus- 
eum; NewGuinean masks, nets, shields and spears; the largest ser- 
ies in existence ( some forty ) of Australian tree carvings, of which 
the Bishop Museum has a set of photographs; some interesting art- 
icles from the Solomon Islands; and a curious lot of relics purchas- 
ed from the family of Captain James Cook, among these a feather 
cloak (which will be figured and described elsewhere) and helmet 
[PI. I.] both given to the great Navigator by Kalaniopuu. A fine 
Tahitian gorget of feathers, pearl-shell and shark teeth [Pl.II.], not 
a few good kapas, and some Tongan matting are noteworthy in this 



4 Colonial Musetuns. 

purchase. The colle(5lion of Australian implements formerly here 
was destroyed by fire while in the Exhibition Building some j-ears 
ago. Even this lamentable occurrence has not put an end to the 
unwise course of loaning valuable specimens from secure museums 
to flimsy and temporary exhibition booths for popular amusement. 
As in New Zealand museums there are but four dried Maori heads 
showing the moko or tatuing, so in Australian museums there are 
few native crania and skeletons, — more are to be found in London. 

The Brisbane museum was not visited, owing to the floods 
that had rendered the roads impassible. Although it is the centre 
from which articles from British New Guinea should be distributed 
to other museums, it is said on good authority, that little progress is 
made in the utilization of these and other rich treasures stored here 
and useless for all purposes of exhibition or study. 

In Melbourne the Ethnological collecSlions are in the Public 
Eibrary, and although large and including many choice specimens, 
are not well arranged for stud}. The Natural History colle(5tion 
is in another and distant building even less suited to the purpose, 
and so disagreeably crowded that arrangement is almost impossi- 
ble, and specimens are often mounted in a way unworth}' of modern 
scientific taxidermy. 

In Adelaide the museum is in a new and well-planned build- 
ing of brick and iron, and Dr. E. C. Stirling has on exhibition the 
largest and most complete colledtion in the world illustrating Aus- 
tralian life and works. The food produdls, manufactures* with the 
raw material in all stages, matters of personal adornment seldom 
colle(5led, stone implements, are admirably displa3^ed and afford am- 
ple instru(5tion — not only to the casual visitor — but to the scientific 
student as well. This may indeed be taken as a model for all like 
institutions, and no student of native Australian manners can neg- 
lect this encyclopaedic series. In the Natural History division the 
same good system and results prevail. The palaeontology of South 

* Note should be made in passing of the capital spear-points, some of large size and ad- 
mirable workmanship, made from telegraph insulators and soda-water bottles, by the natives 
of West Australia at the present day. Many examples are shown in this museum. 



Adelaide — Naples — Rome. 5 

Australia is well represented. It was a matter of deep regret that 
weeks could not have been spent here in studying the contents of 
this museum under the guidance of Dr. Stirling. The Botanical 
Garden, although suffering from the prevailing drought, well repaid 
a visit. There are not only in the houses many rare plants colledl- 
ed by the late Dr. Schomburgh, but also a capital museum of botan- 
ical producls. The present Director IVIr Maurice Holtze has every 
thing in perfect order. The ' ' Claw vine ' ' ( Bignonia gj-acilis ) , which 
covers the walls of the Bishop Museum, here bears fruit although it 
has not fruited on the Hawaiian Islands. 

After a journey of some twelve hundred miles by rail from 
Sydney to Adelaide, the S. S. 'Orotava' of the Orient Line was board- 
ed in Largs Bay, February 19, 1896. Albany was the last port in 
Australia and from that the course lay direct to Colombo which was 
reached March 3rd. Here the museum is a large two-.storied build- 
ing, surrounded b}' colonnades, near the cinnamon gardens, so enjoy- 
ing plenty of light and space. The contents, although of great 
interest, are almost entirely from other regions than the Pacific. 

Passing through the Red Sea and the Suez Canal the 'Oro- 
tava" arrived at Naples March i8th, late in the afternoon. Here at- 
tention was particularly directed to the famous Marine Zoological 
Station established and conducted by Prof. Dr. Anton Dohrn. As 
at some future time it may be possible for the Trustees of the Bishop 
Museum to establish a similar institution, it was very desirable 
to see this the first and greatest. Prof. Dr. Dohrn was nio.st oblig- 
ing and exhibited and explained the establishment. Here was first 
seen the admirable result of formaldehyde as a preservative for ac- 
alephs, polyps, and similar animal strudlures: later its effects on hu- 
man bodies were seen in the laboratory of Prof. Dr. Hans Virchow 
in Berlin. 

Rome was next visited. Here the greatly enlarged Museo 
Kircheriano in the Collegio Romano has a verj- large collecflion of 
ethnic articles brought together by Government exploring expedi- 
tions (voyage of the 'Magenta' , etc. ) and by the Italian missionaries. 



6 Florence — Vienna. 

Brazil and the region of the Orinoco are especially well represented 
and generallj' America, both North and South, takes the lead. The 
Pacific Region contributes little of note. From the Hawaiian Is- 
lands onh' a lei palaoa, koi, ie kuku, and some kapa. The coarse ka- 
pas from Bolivia and the Rio Napo were interesting, and the Mex- 
ican feather mosaics and the plumes and feather head-bands from 
the Chamacocos del Chico boreale were very beautiful. There was 
a fair New Guinea series, also specimens from Micronesia and Fiji, 
but nothing not common in other museums. In Florence, owing to 
the absence of the Curator, during the Easter holidays, none of the 
local colledlions were seen. Since this was written Prof. Dr. Gigli- 
oli has kindly sent the two valuable papers he has published* de- 
scribing a number of articles from the Pacific that have been in the 
Real Museo di Fisica e Storia Naturale at Florence since the end 
of the last century; many, if not all of them, from Cook's third V03'- 
age. When the famous Paolo Mantegazza founded the Museo Naz- 
ionale di Antropologia e di Etnologia, the first of its kind in Italy, 
this negledled and almost forgotten collection became the nucleus 
of the new museum. In this are the following: — 

2 Feather capes. 2 Helmets without feathers. A number of ka- 
pas. (Dr. Giglioli quotes full}' from the Preliminar}' Catalogue of 
the Bishop Museum.) 2 Lei palaoa. 2 Tortoise-shell bracelets. 
Hula drum of coconut wood. 2 Kiipee hoakalakala. 2 Kupee 
niho ilio. 2 Stone adzes. 6 Fish-hooks. Kou dish with figure 
for handle; resembles Fig 8. 2 Umeke. Ihe or javelins. Dag- 
ger, />«//c«. 2 Leiomano. Some good Tongan clubs, baskets, 
and nets. The remains of one of the rare Tahitian robes of 
ceremony; and other objects of less importance. 

In Vienna was found one of the great museums of Europe. 
Two palaces separated by an extensive square, in which is the stat- 
ue of Maria Theresa, contain the public museums; on one side the 
Art colledlions, on the other the Ethnology and Natural History. 
The Ethnological colle(5tion, in charge of Dr. Franz Heger, is nobly 

* Apunti intorno ad una Collezione Etnografica fatta durante il terzo viaggio di Cook e 
conservata sin dalla fine del secolo scorso nel R. Museo di Fisica e Storia Naturale di Firenze. 
Studio del Prof. Dott. Enrico Hillyer Giglioli. Firenze 1S93-95. 



HofmuscuDi , Vicuna . 




Austrian Hofmuseum. 

housed and. well arranged, and is especially interesting to us as the 
depositary of many of the things brought from the Pacific b}' Cook's 
officers. These Cook relics were bought in London in 1806, by the 
order of the Emperor Francis II., from the Parkinson and Leverian 
colledlions. Sydney Parkinson was artist to Sir Joseph Banks dur- 
ing Cook's first voyage. The original inventories of this purchase 
were examined but no information of especial interest was obtained. 
The purchase was only of curiosities for the imperial cabinet. 

The principal things in the kaiserlich-koniglich naturhist- 
orische Hofmuseum belonging to this region are: — 
Haivaiian Islands. 
Feather helmet, red and yellow, a few feathers left. Pi. Ill, Fig. 3. 
Another with green body and red and yellow crest, ibid. Fig. 4. 
Helmet of wicker-work now without feathers, ibid. V\<g.^. Feather 
god, Kukailimoku, red with yellow trimmings, dog teeth and 
shell eyes. Pi. IV, Fig. 6. Pyramidal structure of wicker-work 
on an oblong base, "a model of a temple oracle", covered with red 
feathers, the corners ridged wnth yellow; a door on one of the wide 
sides cased with tortoise-shell: height 23^^ inches, ibid. Fig. 7. 
Hat of European form once covered with feathers, now greatly di- 



Vienna Hofnmsciim. 

lapidated. Feather cape, 35 inches in extreme width, of ihvi 
with a pattern in j-ellow 00. Feather cape, 40 in. wide, of koae 
ula, the upper border black, sides and bottom of cock's feathers, 
while above all was an open net of olond nearly one third of the 
depth of the cape. Feather cape of similar shape and size, of mix- 
ed feathers, among them a few 00. A car^^ed wooden ladle with 
anthropomorphic handle. Fig. 8. Implement with a single shark 
tooth fixed in the end of an L-shaped handle, a form not in the 
Bishop Museum nor known outside a few of the oldest European 
museums; apparently common at the time of Cook's visit ( 1778), 
and used for wood-candng.* Fig. 9. Shark teeth knife. Fig. 10. 




Fig. II. 

Crescent-shaped weapon with eight teeth fastened in with two 
pegs each, an unusual way. Fig. 11. Tool of kauila wood semi- 
circular in form and armed with a single tooth at each end ; it 
could be u.sed as a disk -cutter. In several specimens of this tool 
seen elsewheret the teeth are attached at right angles to the posi- 
tion in the present case which is unique, so far as known. Fig. 12. 
All the preceding implements are from Cook. Human hair neck- 
lace, niho palaoa, with small niho and few strands. Decorated 
water-bottle, Ipii wai pawchc, 12 inches in diameter. Umeke of 
wood, flat form. A deep umeke. Umeke with cover. Hula 
drum 8 in. diameter. Boar tusk armlet, Kiipee )it/io puaaAviW 
size, 5 in. Similar armlet with small teeth 1^4^ in. Two armlets 
of wood and bone; one of dog teeth, another of SfroDilms shells. 
Anklet, 8 in. square, of dogteeth; one of white shells, another of 
black and white shells. 5 Uhuiiaika, good. 4 vStone mirrors, all 

* In older times instead of wood a pig's jaw served for handle. 
t See especially the illustration of that in the British Museum. 



/ 'ionia //ofiN NSi'iiii/ . 



but one with holes drilled near the rim. Adz of indurated coral; 
one of phonolite, and a second one of the same material with the 
original handle. Paddle of common form. 2 Mat bags, square. 
Niihau mat of good quality and several other mats. 4 Daggers 
with wood handles, sting-ray points, and skin sheaths, are not 
Hawaiian, but from Micronesia. 

7\^)iga)i Isla)ids. 
A number of kapas of most excellent quality and beautiful design. 
(Cook.) Pan-pipe of unusual form. Fig. 14. 

Society /s/a?ids. 
4 Stone pounders, the handles differing in 
each one. Fig. 13. 

iVciL' Zealand. 




r 

i 


(5 


E 




L 


1 

i 




1 


i 


1 






) 




3; 






ts. 




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1 
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Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 

Ancient coffin; a hollow log with the end carved in form of a hu- 
man head: filled with cleaned bones. Pump-drill, the fly of two 
wooden arms bound b}- a bark rim. 12 Heitikis, some fine, others 
of unusual form. 

Marquesas Islands. 
Stone idol about the size and form of one in the Bishop Museum. 
Pestle of stone. 2 Clubs of the flat, carved head pattern found 
now only in museums. See below under British Museum. 

Rapanui (Easter Island ). 
Carved wood polyp or cuttle-fish. Two wood blocks covered 
with hieroglyphs. Wooden images; 4 lean male, 3 fat male, and 
6 female. Talking-stick, old, with very large head: 8 others 
with human heads, fine. Carved bird of strange form. 3 Obsidian 
spear or dagger points. 2 Black feather head-bands: 3 of cock's 
feathers. 2 fish-hooks of bone in two pieces bound together at 
the base. 



lO I ^i Clin a Hofmiiscum . 

Manihiki ( Paiimotu Group). 
Paddles of coconut wood inlaid with small pearl-shell disks: this 
ornamentation being chara(5teristic of this island. 

He7vey Islands. 
Delicate, lace-like mat, the braids rCvSembling human figures. A 
similar mat was afterwards found in Weber's colle(5tion at Berne 
undoubtedly Tongan. The}- were used in barter. 

N'eiv Giiinea. 
Cuirass of Calamus rotang . 6 Pan-pipes; one of them with 24, 
the rest with 13 reeds. 2 Coffins of canoe form with covers. 
2 Gourd whistles like the Hawaiian Ipu hokiokio, with 3 holes. 
Spears tipped with cassowary bone were labelled "lyauka". 

The feather work from Brazil was chiefly yellow, black, and 
red, strings of feathers, not on net-work, and greatly resembling the 
Hawaiian lei. Feather sceptres from the Mandurucu were beauti- 
ful, but the so-called cloak of Montezuma surpassed them all. This 
was formerly in the Ambras colle(5tion and was figured, *described, 
and repaired by the late Baron von Hochstetter formerly Dire(5tor 
of this museum; and it has since been the subject of much discus- 
sion as to its original intention, whether head-dress, ensign, or cloakt; 
but its form indicates the first. A broad fringe of Quetzal feathers 
( Pharomacrus niocinno ) shows its royal characfter: with these are the 
wonderful turquoise-blue feathers of the Xiuhtototl ( Colinga cinda 
or ccci'ulea). A feather fan of the same origin described and fig- 
ured+ by Herr Custos Heger is 26^ inches in diameter and hardly 
less beautiful. A shield of feather mosaic is also here. 

The staff of this museum is large, and the ground-floor con- 
tains a village of work and store rooms opening into interior courts. 
Visitors on public holidays crowd the vast halls to the great dis- 
comfort of those who wish to see anything, the throng being so great 
that the police have to move it in one direction only. Much kind 

"* Ueber mexikanische Reliquien aus der Zeit Montezuma's in der k.k.Ambraser Samni- 
lung in den Denkschriften der philosophisch-historischen Classe der kaiserlich Akadeniie 
der Wissenschaften in Wien, Bd. xxxv (1SS4). 

t Zelia Nuttall. Standard or Head-dress ? Archseological and ethnological Papers of 
the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Vol. i. No. i. 

% Altmexikanische Reliquien aus dem Schloss Ambras in Tirol. [Annalen des k.k.nat- 
urhistorischen Hofmuseums, Band vii, Heft 4. Wien 1S92.] 



J 'ii-iiiia — Mioiii/i . 



II 



assistance was received from the distinguished Direcftor both in ex- 
amining" specimens and in procuring photographs and plates. 

In the museum of Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand, at the time in 
process of arrangement by Herr Heger for public exhibition in one 
of the ducal palaces, are many fine things from New Caledonia ob- 
tained by H. R. H. the Archduke during a recent cruise in the Pa- 
cific Ocean. Among the objects were many spears, arrows, and clubs 
in piles and not accessible, and the following: — 

N'ew Ca/cdoii ia . 
2 Death-masks and several car^^ed wood faces 
for the same. Used at the funeral of a Chief. 
Many fiat disk greenstone clubs with wooden 
handles and in some a rattle at the hand end. 
The disks often 8 to lo inches in diameter and 
well polished. Fig. 15. Club of common form, 
but with a curved handle not seen elsewhere, see 
Fig. 16. A conical implement of greenstone 
bound with a cord handle. Fig. 17. Jade beads 
both spherical and cylindrical. Many spears and 
arrows. 2 Adzes of jade set in a solid head in 
one piece with the handle. Fig. 18. Many ord- 
Fig. 15. inary adzes from 

New Guinea and the Solomon Is- 
lands. Many fine things from 
eastern Asia. 






Fig. 18. Fig. 17. Fig. 16. 

In the Natural History Department of the Vienna Mu- 
seum is a fine series of Dinornis bones. 



12 Munich. 

Munich was next visited. Here the konigliche ethnologis- 
che Museum is in the charge of the well-known scientist and trav- 
eler Dr. Max Biichner. The Bavarian capital is famous for its pub- 
lic buildings but many of them are only archite(5tural displays with 
little capacity or convenience between the walls, and in one of these 
is housed the Bavarian Ethnological Museum. This is especiall}^ 
rich in Chinese and Japanese material, but there are also not a few 
good things from the Pacific Region, as follows: — 
Haivaiian Islands. 
Feather helmet, rather small, of the usual red and yellow feathers 
with a narrow, v-shaped black stripe on the sides. Feather cape 
of red with a narrow band of yellow fOoJ; apparently a fragment. 
Idol of wood with a crest or niahiole: another about 24 in. high 
but probably of modern make. These figures were given by Dr. 
Behrends, formerly a resident on Maui. 5 Ulumaika. 2 Poi 
pounders. 2 Leiomano of ordinary 4-tooth form; 2 with one 
tooth each. Kukui nut candle 15 inches long. Ipu wai paiuehe. 
Lei palaoa, small, of bone with a few unbraided strands. I^ei of 
dog teeth. 3 Pa' u hula, modern. Anklet of dog teeth, small. 

The New Guinea colledtion is good: in it are several fine 
long wooden dishes. There are many carved masks from New 
Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago; inlaid bowls, etc., from the 
Solomon Islands; and a Maori mokocd head and several carvings. 
From Matty Island in the Admiralty Group were wood dishes, 
hatchets, and weapons of peculiar and good workmanship. 

The method of making shell-money is clearly shown . The 
white disks are chipped from Conns, the purple from Cyprcra shells, 
both by means of an oblong pebble rounded at both ends. Each 
disk is bored separately by the ordinary pump-drill armed with a 
quartz splint. Some 200 of these perforated disks are strung on a 
palm leaf midrib and rolled between fiat stones until circular. The 
arm-rings of Tridacna shell are said to be cut with large bambu 
secftions armed with sand. Many articles from New Guinea have, 
since 1890, been made for export, Dr. Biichner saj's. The private 
colledtion of the painter Gabriel Max is rich in spears, clubs, and 



Dresden . 1 7 

stone adzes. There are also five mokoed Maori heads. In the 
owner's absence, Dr. Biichner showed me this extensive nniseuni. 
Zoologische und anthropologisch-ethnologische Museums zu 
Dresden. This museum is poorlj- housed in the upper storey of a 
long colonnade. To get at it at present one has to go through the 
Natural History Gallery, upstairs and then down stairs, to cross an 
archway, and then up stairs again. Under the direcflorship of Drs. 
A. B. Meyer and M. Uhle the publications have been many and very 
valuable, but the arrangement of the museum did not seem conven- 
ient for study. In one ca.se were jade articles — Maori heitikis and 
meres beside Mandarins' balls and New Caledonian beads. 
Micronesia. 
Model of a Marshall Islands Mede or chart. Armor suit of coco- 
nut fibre with the rare form from the Gilbert Islands; 3 suits of 
common form. Shark tooth implement from Nawodo quite sim- 
ilar in form to the Hawaiian but distinguishable by a single trans- 
verse ridge on the handle. See Fig. 58; upper right hand. 

Fiji. 
12 Throwing clubs; 12 Musket clubs; 4 Knobbed; i Pine-apple; 
I Cylindrical*. Model of temple in sennit. 2 War-paddles. 

New Caledonia. 
Greenstone disk club. 2 Death masks. 3 Nephrite clubs. 

Nezv Zealand. 
3 Jade heitikis. 3 Jade nieies, a very fine one given by Dr. Julius 
Haast. Kiwi feather cloak. 2 Paddles, common form. 4 Patu 
of carv^ed wood, new. Bone patu. Greenstone patu. Carv^ed 
slab with three men and two dragons. Ca.st of an heitiki in the 
Freiburg museum . 

Marquesas Isla^ids. 
Club of choice old form: see illustration under British Museum. 

Hervey Islands. 
5 Canned paddles from Mangaia. Ceremonial adz, inferior. 

*The Vitian clubs have been classified, for convenience in cataloguing:, into these divisions: 
Throwing, short, slim handles with heavy lobed knobs; native Via. D PI. vii. 

Knobbed, straight bodj- with knobs of the wood or human teeth or bone. A " 
Pine-apple, tuberculated top bent at an angle to the stout shaft. B " 

Musket, the head flattened and bent like the butt of a gun. F " 

I/Otus, like the preceding but without the shoulder. C " 

Cylindrical, often carved or bound with sennit; sometimes verj' large. E " 

These illustrations are taken from specimens in the Bishop Museum. 



1 4 Dirsdoi — Berlin . 

Aiistralia. 
7 Zauberholz or bewitching sticks. 22 Nulla null as and zcaddies. 
5 W^(7w;;;rr« or spear-throwing sticks. 13 Shields. 8 Hammers. 
Small bark canoe. 2 Pump-drills. 6 Breast shells, decorated. 
Stone knife for Mika operation. Boomerangs in great number. 

New Guinea and Bismarck Archipelago . 
Dancing masks, a fine series. Strings of shell money. Money 
chains. 8 Rattan nooses used by head hunters ( Fl}' River ?). 
2 Carved figures. Can-ed drum (S.New Guinea); another with 
shell rattlers; 3 of common form. Star club with eleven points 
to the stone star; another with four points. Many and good 
chalk images from New Ireland. Large series 
of charms from Hermit Ids., usually a lower hu- 
man jaw corded, and decorated with feather and 
stick pendants. 2 Adzes with jade blades. Fig. 
19. From New Britain, carved wood images; 2 
pump-drills with stick for fly; carved wood fig- 
ure, life size (8096); 8 Masks of the frontal por- 
tion of human crania dressed with gum; 3 lower 
jaws; Bailer with handle joined to back and bot- 
tom. From the Samoan and Solomon Ids. not 
much of interest: from the Hawaiian Ids. noth- 
ing was seen. 
Fig. 19. 

Of the Berlin Museum f iir Volkerkunde Prof. Dr. A. Bastian 
(who visited these islands some years ago) is the learned Dire(5lor, 
and Dr. Felix von lyuschan the Curator of the Department of Africa 
and Polynesia. This, if not the only purely ethnological museum 
in the world, is certainly the largest, best housed, and organized. 
The new building is convenientl}' situated, large, and well-lighted, 
yet so vigorous is the administration, that it has already become too 
small for the vast colledtions within its walls and there are already 
plans for a considerable extension. The admirable organization 
of a Direcftor with five Curators of Departments, a fiscal commission 
to attend to all money matters, artists, volunteer assistants and at- 
tendants making a roll of some fifty persons, permits the Director to 
go on expeditions sometimes lasting two years while the machinery 




BcrU)i Mil scion fi'ir J'd/kcrkuiidc. 



15 




Fig. 20. Berlin Ethnological Museum. 

runs on without disturbance. Besides the necessary Curators' ap- 
partnients there is a good leclure room where the Berlin Anthro- 
pological Society and other scientific bodies hold meetings, several 
of which it was my privilege to attend. Kaiser Wilhelm II. is per- 
sonally interested in the museum and, as Berlin is now the scientific 
centre of Europe, the future growlh seems assured. The cases are 
of iron and glass (many of the .shelves also of glass), and although 
very secure have not an attracftive appearance; the mechanism re- 
quires two keys to unlock. For detached cases they are suitable, 
and estimates of their cost were obtained from the makers. 

In such an immense collection it will be impossible to notice 
here matters beyond the Pacific Region, but within that limit toler- 
ably full lists will be given. The Hawaiian, enriched by the col- 
ledlion of Dr. Edward Arning of Hamburg (who is well remember- 
ed in Honolulu), has been most carefully catalogued, and the con- 



1 6 Berlin Museu7n fur Vblkei'kiaide. 

stant kindness of Dr. von Luschan permitted the examination of 

ever}' article. 

Hazvaiiaji Islands. 
Feather cloak 51 in. long mostly red with yellow crescents. This 
is displa3'ed on a figure supposed to represent an Hawaiian but 
this is not a success. Feather cape 16 in. long in middle, 9 in. at 
the front edge; red ground with 3'ellow border, triangles, and cres- 
cents*. Cape 14 in. long, yellow ground and red semicrescents 
and triangles. Helmet with traces of feathers. Helmet with 
yellow crest and traces of red and- black feathers. Helmet red 
with black stripe at the base of crest, which is capped with yel- 
low; two stripes on left side. Helmet without feathers but with 
a crest of five pedunculated disks. Kukailimoku with reddish 
human hair. 2 Hula drums of gourd. Drum of coconut wood; 
another with head and more elaborate carving. Ukcke, a poor 
specimen. 3 Bambu time-beaters ( Ohc hula puili ) . Gourd ipic 
hokiokio; another of coconut. 4 Rattles of gourd with feathers; 
one without. 2 Nose flutes. Coconut drum. 3 Stone cups. 
12 Sling stones rw««^, good. Kua olona. Club of rude form 
with cord attached. Stone weapon of double conical form. 2 
Hala pillows. 5 pair of sandals of various material. Hat block 
of coconut wood. Polishing stones. Kua kuku for beating ka- 
pa. 23 le kuku or kapa beaters. 53 Ohe kapapala or bambu 
stamps for printing kapa. 3 Hohoa or round kapa beaters. 4 
Bambu ruling pens. 2 Koa surf -boards about eight feet long. 
4 Paddles without ihu . Canoe god with four heads and shell 
eyes. 3 Squid hooks complete, one with wooden, two with metal 
points. 5 Hala fi.sh-baskets. 2 Laau melomclo or bait sticks. 
Fish-hook of two pieces of bone bound together at the base; [see 
I^ig- 39-] 2 of ivory, single barb; 3 of pearl-.shell; 7 of tortoise- 
shell. Fi.shing whip. 2 Shrimp (^/>ad') traps. Netting appara- 
tus complete. Wood shark hook with bone point. Idol of wood 
with hair carved in form of a wig. Image kneeling ( Dr. Arning) , 
the only one known from Hawaii in this odd positiont. PI. VIII. 
Idol, small, unfinished. 2 Idols of rough tree stems. Image of 

* Hawaiian feather work is briefly noticed in this Report as full descriptions and illus- 
trations will be published in another form. 

t The late king Kalakaua considered this figure a representation of Papa the first wom- 
an of Hawaiian mythology, but was at a loss to explain the posture; it must be remembered 
that, like Eve, Papa did not behave with perfedt propriety and this may record her repent- 
ance, although we are not assured that Adam's disobedient wife ever repented. 



Bc)li)i J//(sc'n/// fur I'dlkcrkioidc. 



17 




bread-fruit, without arms or legs, the long and slim body stuck 
full of pegs of coconut wood. 4 Idols of carved wood, small. 
3 Rude stone idols. Idol of lava melted over coral rock*. Idol 
of lava rudely carved. Large stone nicmbniDi virile. 2 Stone 
figures! formerly at Kahuku, Oahu: one represents a European, 
(Spanish?) and was anciently in Manoa Valley ; the other is an 
ordinary idol. Pis. IX.& X. Curious wooden figure with white 
pig bristles arranged like a shoe-brush on the head. Sample of 
olona netting for feather- work. 3 Wooden dishes for roast pig. 
Fish dish 15 inches long, handles at the ends. Umeke, round; 
one hexagonal, well made; one large, fiat; another long, flat. Ipu 
holoi lima of unusual shape. Fig. 21 . 2 Ipu 
aina. 4 ^/^ /v^/;a (spit-boxes) . 7 Decorat- 
ed water-bottles, fine. Umeke paivehc. 
Hucwai puco pau'ehe,sr):va.\\. [Same form is 
found in Cambodia.] Huew^ai pueo small, 
plain. 5 Koko niu, of commoners. 6 Koko Fig- 21. 

puupuic, mostl)' of olona or waoke and niu. 3 Auamo or 
bearing-sticks. Ipu hanohano gourd syringe. Ihe pake 42 in. 
long. Ihe pahe short and thick, with cord. Slender stick label- 
led 'Ihe pahe'? Bow 6 ft. long with ends cut for string: not Ha- 
waiian although a similar bow^ in the British Museum is so at- 
tributed. Leiomano with six shark teeth fastened in with pegs. 
Implement with one shark tooth fastened with three cords; one 
fastened with two cords. 5 Pandanus fans, common form. 

3 Kauila wood implements for carv- 
ing. Fig. 22. 2 Boards for mak- 
ing pa'u and malo. Cleaner for 
pa'u boards, fine, but broken at the 
ends. 22 Koi pahoa and 21 frag- 
ments of stone adzes. 9 Koi pahoa 
Fig. 22. of small size. 4 Koi pahoa with 

handles. Stone chisel, fine. Iron adz with handle. 2 Grind- 
stones, small. 12 Stone lamps. Fig. 23. Stone club. Stone 
pestle. 6 Long strings of kukui nuts for candles. 8 Niho pala- 
oa; one with coarse braid; another with twisted hair and small 
niho. 3 Lei of bone beads, some spiral. Kupee niho ilio. Lei 
viokihana. l^&i oi Abjitilon capsules; ■t^ oi Coix lachry77ia; i of 

* The Hawaiians delighted in making auniakuas of unusual forms or combinations, 
t By the kindness of Dr. Bastian this Museum has received good casts of both figures. 
O.P.— B.P.B.M. B 




Berlin Museum fur Vblkerkundc. 




Abrus precatorius; i of kuktii nuts cut polyhedral; i of dog's 
teeth; i of red and white Pedlen valves; i of Niihau shells; i of 
these shells and Erythrina seeds. 9 Bone bosses for armlets. 
Tatauing instruments and stone cup for ink. 4 Stone mirrors, 
some with holes drilled. Bone comb. 2 Cup and Ball, one with 
kapa, the other with coconut ball. 15 Ulumaika, ordinary. 

8 Ulumaika, rough. 6 Rounded 
stones for cooking. 6 Models of 
grass houses. Bow and Arrows 
for mice, newly made. 2 Poha- 
kii puka kill poi. 8 Poi pound- 
ers, common form; another of 
coral rock. Pohaku kiii noni. 
2 Laaii lomilomi. 3 Holua run- 
Fig. 23' ners. Pololu of usual form; an- 
other with barbs. L,arge stone Canoe-breaker bound with cord. 
Kauila wedge with cord for canoe building. Koa canoe about 
15 ± ft. long, with wilizvili outrigger strengthened by wood cleats 
on each side: ama sewed on and its ends sewed with stitches alike 
on both sides. 2 Teetotums of kukui nut. Many specimens 
of modern straw braid. Awa root. Kapas of common kinds. 

New Caledonia. 
17 Clubs of the usual forms. 6 Stone clubs; i of jade; another 
of great size. 21 Clubs bird-head shape. 11 Star clubs of wood. 
29 Spears. 30 Arrows. 6 Slings with pouches and stones. 
3 Arrows for fish, 3-4 prongs. 2 Bows of wood; 14 of bambu dec- 
orated. 2 Bird arrows with blunt heads. 5 Adzes mounted. 
7 Cord dresses, common; 6 white; 4 of leaf. 6 Death masks. 
lyadder pole with projedling bosses. 6 Large figures carved on 
flat slabs. 3 Paddles, heart-shaped blades. 3 House models. 
6 Pandanus fans like Hawaiian but with rounded corners. Pot 
for suspension; i 26 ± in. high; 2 smaller ones. 3 House mod- 
els. 3 Poles strung with Triton shells. 4 Carved human fig- 
ures. 3 Canoe models. 3 Carved slabs [shields?]. 2 Bailers. 
3 Double strings of round jade beads. 2 Pump-drills. 4 Bam- 
bu combs quarter segment. 5 Braid-covered calabashes. 6 Bas- 
kets. 5 Basket bags. 3 Beaters of round wood. 2 Hatchets of 
wood with large white blades. 

Nciv Zealand. 
2 Dried human heads with moko. Canoe prow of ancient form. 



Berlin Muscuvi fur ]"dlkcrkundc . 



19 



Stern post of canoe very narrow. Modeled figure with cloak of 
flax, heitiki, staff and mere. 3 Pare or door-caps, large and fairlj-^ 
car\'ed. 2 Carved kumete for feathers, etc. Side po.st of door. 
4 Tikis, one a female with lizard. Carved funnel for feeding a 
Chief while undergoing nioko. Portion of carv^ed canoe prow. 
Grindstone, large. 2 Jade heitikis. Jade earring. 2 Hammer 
stones. 9 Jade adzes. 33 Greenstone adzes. 2 Greenstone 
meres. 2 Meres of wood, plain; 7 carved. 
3 Jade meres ; i of carv^ed bone ; 6 
of plain bone. 2 Clubs, carved. 2 Flax 
pounders of stone. 4 Carved wood 
walking sticks. Tata of medium size. 
Model of canoe. 3 Paddles, plain; 3 
carved. 12 Taiaha or Chief's .staff. 
6 Tewhatewha or Battle axes. 
Rapanui (Easter Island ). 
3 Human figures, one remarkably fine. 
9 Images of inferior quality. 4 Lizards. 
2 Moi. 2 'Talking-sticks' of ordinary 
form and size; another very old, showing 
the human head. Fig. 24, A-B. 
Stone head. 6 Head-rings of feathers. 7 Obsidian lance- 
heads; another mounted on a long staff. 3 Large stone adzes. 
3 Curiously carved paddles with groove at small end for attach- 
ing the awkward handle. 2 Crescent-shaped gorgets. 

Samoan Islands. 
7 Canoe models. 2 Gongs of wood, trough-form, 60 in. long, 61 





Fig- 25. 
in. girth. 2 Grindstones. Fans galore. Awa bowl of peculiar 
tripod form. Fig. 25. 7 Small awa bowls. 3 Combs. 5 Kapa 
beaters. 3 fy/!>^/^ for printing kapa. 6 Stone adzes with handles; 
55 without. 26 War clubs of various but not unusual forms. 



20 Berlin Museum fur Volkerkioide. 

2 Throwing clubs. 4 Carved spears. 2 Shell bands. 7 Awa 
cups of coconut shell. 3 Pandanus mats fine texture; several 
coarser. 2 All or bambu pillows. 2 Bed mats of white Hibiscus 
fibre. Upete of wood. Round basket, good workmanship. 
Mat long and narrow for the game of Lafoga which is played by 
casting tupc or circular pieces of coconut shell. The mat is 
from 15 to 20 feet long and less than a foot wide. 

Society Islands. 
6 Fish-hooks of wood and bone; 2 of bone with tortoise-shell barb 
and back. 2 Poi pounders. 3 Stone adzes mounted; 4 without 
handles. 5 Adzes of shell mounted. 2 Gorgets like that shown 
on Plate II. Ornament of pearl-shell plates. Drum 7 in. diam- 
eter, tall, with braids of sennit to tighten the head. 2 Drums of 
wood similar to the Hawaiian. Bailer. Fan (See PI. XIII). 

Tongan Islands. 
18 Combs of tisual form. Pillow of wood. 2 Pan pipes. Belt 
of human hair ( Samoan?). 5 Stone adzes and another mounted. 

2 Baskets of dark material, one long the other round. Upete for 
printing kapa. 2 Spears barbed. Club carved; 4 plain clubs. 

Marquesas Islands. 
4 Clubs finely carved. 2 Stilt-rests. 2 Triton shell trumpets. 
Pearl shell with tortoise-shell ornament. 

Hervey Islajids. 

3 Paddles carved, rosette handles; 3 with square, flat, handles; 
all from Mangaia. 

Paunwtit Islands. 
2 Canoe models, double, inlaid with pearl-shell: Manihiki. Curi- 
ous wooden pillow. Kapa beater 2 in. square, 2 ft. long; an- 
other 3 in. square, 15 in. long. 

Fiji. 
27 Common forms of potter3\ 21 Clubs musket form, 3 decorat- 
ed with shells; 18 throwing; 10 round; 14 knobbed; 6 pine-apple, 
one very small. 11 Spears finely carved. 2 War - paddles, 
Paddle with shovel blade: 4 others carved. 2 Carved lances, 

.short and barbed. 3 Kapa beaters, one handle carved. 3 Wood 
shark hooks. Head covering of netted rushes tipped with feath- 
ers. 5 Ornaments of whale teeth; 2 more with the teeth halved. 

4 Necklaces of cachelot teeth; 3 with filed teeth. Man)^ fringe 
dresses. 4 Yaqona bowls. Oval yaqona bowl on four legs. 

5 Fans mostly of whole palm leaves. Oil dish with carved sup- 



Berlin Museum fur Volkcrkundc. 21 

port; another semicircular. 3 Cannibal forks. Carved wooden 
spoon. Turtle bone scoop. 2 Food hooks of odd forms. Many 
kapa sulas. Human figure 30 in. high, carved wood, round face. 
4 Wooden pillows. 

Micronesia. 
Chisels of Mitra shell. Daggers of bambu. Stool of wood in- 
laid with bone. Helmet of coconut braid conical in form 15 in. 
high. 3 Round, car\^ed, wood boxes. 6 Carved wood figures. 
Fire plow quite like the Hawaiian. 2 Rasps of wood covered 
with sunfish skin. House model from Kusaie (Finsch 1883). 
Shell tripod dish. Bundles of preserved food and man}' of the 
common shell ornaments, belts, earrings, etc. 

Hermit Islands. 
2 Wooden food troughs; one 8)^ ft., the other 6 ± ft. long, with 
well carved internal handles. Large flat dish of dark wood. 
2 Bailers with handle attached to the bottom. 6 Carved canoe 
prows, one quite large. 15 Human lower jaw amulets. 4 Canoe 
models. 12 Wood pins beautifully carved. 2 Carved wood 
fishes. 2 Wooden dishes with handles and obtuse ends; 6 similar 
ones but with car\'ed, pointed, ends. 4 Wooden bowls, two of 

them small and like those from the Admiralty Group. 5 Shell 




Fig. 26. 

adzes. Fig. 26. 2 Wooden ladles with human figures. Carved 
adz-handle (Maori form). Kapas coarse and slightly beaten. 

7 Combs; three of them with bearded human heads. Fish hooks 
of single piece of shell, decorated, but of rough finish and with- 
out barbs. 

Admiralty Islands. 
45 Obsidian head lances. 10 Gourd decorated lime boxes, hour- 
glass shape. 3 Wooden bowls carved in form of birds; 2 smaller 
ones of same form but light wood. Globular bowls red pottery. 
Wooden bowl on four legs; a smaller one with car\'ed handles. 



22 Berlin Museum fiir I 'dlkerkunde. 

3 Bailers the ends of handles phallic*. C^'lindrical wood gong 
3 ft. long, slit lengthwise, projedling handles at the ends, carved 
decorations over the handles: Fig. 37 shows the form. 4 Oval 
wooden bowls; 2 similar with finely carved handles. Bead belt 
wdth 14 strands. Canoe model outriggered. 5 L,ances carved. 

8 Obsidian daggers. 8 Daggers carved, sting-ray points. Adz 
of obsidian. lyarge wooden food bowl. 5 lyadles with carved 
handles. 3 Obsidian axes, one with carved handle. 

Nezv Hebrides. 
2 Large human figures of rushes (?) with skulls or frontal bones, 
painted. 6 Knobbed (star) clubs of dark wood. 4 Spears with 
single point and carved head; 4 with many barbs carv^ed; 3 with 
many points of sting-ray. 13 Bows. 6 Clubs spindle pattern. 
Arrows with bluish points. Net pig-catcher. 3 Pan pipes with 
6,7, and 17 reeds. Car^^ed oval wooden bowl 20 inches long. 

2 lyong basket-work cones with seed capsule rattles at the apex. 
Small rush figure with extended arms and fingers. 2 Decorated 
caps for festivals. 4 Earthen pots; 2 of them from Santo. 

Solomon Islands. 

9 Clubs covered with fern stem braid. 11 Paddle-clubs of dark 
wood; 15 of light wood. 5 Longiels. 4 Dance longiels. 5 Arm 
guards of coiled vine. 35 Stone axes. 2 Shields of wood, 2 of 
reeds, and i braided, plain. 12 Carved canoe figures. 20 Carved 
dance figures. 18 Dance paddles, common; 12 with carved 
tops. Pump-drill with cylindrical fly. 2 War belts. Arrows 
galore. Canoe model inlaid. 2 Women's dresses of white cord. 
2 Car\'ed wood human images with turban-like head ornaments. 
Club of flat, rhomboidal form. 2 Masks inlaid. 4 Earthen pots. 
18 Bows. 7 Canoe-heads inlaid with pearl-shell. Food bowl in- 
laid, family size; another smaller. Human figure on frame. 2 
Human heads car\-ed on a base. Double-headed human figure 
inlaid. Braided comb. 3 Large wooden mortars from Shortland 
Island, the largest 30 in. high exclusive of ground peg. 3 Bunches 
of white Helix shells used as rattles. 7 Decorated coconut 
and bambu water-bottles. 9 Woven baskets or bags. 18 Stone 
adzes. 9 Baskets of rattan, 2 with handles. 8 Hair-pins with 
human figure carv'ed on the top. 13 Lime boxes of bambu dec- 
orated. 19 Lime-boxes of gourd engraved. Large pan-pipe — 

* The handles of old Maori tatai, or bailers are often phallic. 



Berlin — Copcnhaocn. 23 

less than 30 in. — with 12 reeds. More than fifty red and yellow 
woven armlets of artistic patterns. 

N^czv Guinea & Bismarck Archipelago. 
An immense colledtion impossible to enumerate here. It is 
perhaps the best in any museum, as one would expecT: from the very 
extensive interests of the German Government in this region. Of 
the more remarkable objecfts are the following: — 

II Shields, heavy, can-ed wood. 10 Shields similar but rec5tan- 
gular. 8 Decorated shields of wood curved horizontally; 14 sim- 
ilar but curved vertically. 2 Wooden shields from Friedrich 
Wilhelm's L,and. 7 Carved wood shields with arm notch at top. 
3 Hour-glass shields covered with braided rattan. 10 Stone disk 
clubs. Stone star club. Club with triangular stone head. 
6 Knobbed clubs. 2 Pump-drills. 6 Carv-ed wood pillows. 11 
Stone adzes mounted. 14 Drums with lizard skin heads and fiat 
bases; 2 similar with mitre-shaped bases. 2 Pan-pipes with 24 
reeds from New Hanover; 2 similar pipes from the same locality 
with 20 and 21 reeds each. From New Ireland, 12 Masks of hu- 
man frontal bones; 25 Stone 
ball clubs; War gong, a hol- 
low c^dinder 49 in. long and 
69 in. in circumference, with a 
longitudinal slit two inches 
wide; 27 Chisel-like adzes of 
greenstone; 21 Chalk images, 
some of great size*. 2 Wood 

floats for shark fishing. Fig. Fig. 28. 

27, PL VI. Wooden fiddle from New Britain. Fig. 28. 6 Shell 
collars flat on the fibre, same locality. 2 Mummies of children! 
from Torres Strait. 7 Tortoise-shell masks, same localit}-. Tri- 
ton trumpet. Dukduk costume. 7 Matrimonial nut signals. 8 
Wooden clubs, cones at both ends. 26 Small greenstone adzes. 
Bags decorated with Coix seeds. Slings like Hawaiian, Kaiser 
Wilhelm Land. Pan-pipes with 9 reeds, lower ends fibre bound. 
Lime boxes of gourd and coconut shell. Shell crescents. Etc. 
Nationalmuseet den Ethnografiske Samling Kjobenhavn. 

* In these images the abiiorinal developement of a certain part is not entirely native, but 
arises from a desire to secure a market with foreign sailors and traders. 

t This seems a favorite disposal of the dead on Darnley Island and elsewhere in this reg- 
ion. They are not very well mummyfied and without additional preparation will not keep. 




24 Copenhagen. 

From Berlin the route was via Warnemunde and Gjedser to Cop- 
enhagen. During the winter the museum is opened only one day 
each week and, unfortunately, this day was selecfted by H.R.H.the 
Duke of York and party, as w^ell as by your Diredlor, to visit the 
colledlions: hence it happened that the accomplished Curator was 
not available, and, although he said he would send an attendant to 
open the cases, the contents had to be examined through glass, — 
the only time this occured after leaving Rome. This was the first 
museum where a printed catalogue was found and, although this 
was in Danish, it was not difficult to interpret with the numbered 
objecfts before one. In the Hawaiian case were several things not 
belonging to this Group, among them a poi pounder ( of gypsum ) 
from Micronesia: while a fine ring pounder (pohaku puka) of un- 
doubted Hawaiian origin was found in the Mexican division label- 
led "Corn grinder". It should be said that there is a very similar 
Mexican stone implement used for that purpose. The following 
were noteworthy: — 

Hawaiian Islands. 
Feather cloak 57^ in. long, red with yellow border at base and 
yellow triangles at edges, but so hung that the back is invisible. 
Feather cape of yellow with dark green crescents and red spots 
on neck and edges; fine specimen. Cape red with yellow ornam- 
ents; slightly smaller than the last but both were too far behind 
the glass to be measured. Helmet in fair condition. Pair Ku- 
pee ilio. 2 Kahilis with bone and tortoise-shell handles 6 ft. long 

2 Ulumaika. Stone mir- 
ror Yz in. thick labelled 
"Maika". 7 Stone adzes, 
one of largest size : 2 more 
with handles. 3 Lei niho 
Fig. 29 palaoa. 2 Pohaku kui 

poi common form, i Pohaku puka. 2 Pa'u boards. Cleaner for 
these boards. Fig. 29. 5 Kapa beaters. 6 Ohe kapalapala, 
one with ca stamp. Another had a very unusual pattern, see 

Fig. 30. on next page about double size. 3 Huewai pa- 

wehe. Umeke, small. String of kukui nuts for candle. 3 Kii- 
pce of bone or whale tooth and one of pipipi shells ( Nerita polita). 




CopniliagcH. 



25 



4 Fish hooks of pearl-shell and ea. 2 Triton shell trnmpets. 

Implement of h'ani/a wood with a shark tooth at each end for 
engraving or carving-. Fig. 32. [Compare Fig. 22. page 17.] 
Idol, rnde carving, about 3 ft. high and 3 in. diameter. Koko 



Fig. 30. 

puupuu. 6 Kapas of good quality. 3 Kapas of very modern 
pattern, one with bunches of red and black leaves, another with 
"palms". Fig. 31. 
Jl/arqiu'sas Islands. 

3 Stilt rests, poor canning. 2 Clubs, good. Group of two figures 
12 inches high carved in wood united by the back of their heads, 
the middle wrapped in white kapa. 2 Paddles. 

Hcrvcy Islands. 
6 Carved paddles. 7 Ceremonial adzes, 2 quite small; Mangaia. 
Society Islands. 

4 Wooden bowls, long and pointed, the longest 40 in., carved on 





Fig- 31 



Fig. 32. 



the rim. Wooden pillow 40 in. long, with 4 legs. 5 Stone 
adzes, one of them mounted. I^arge kapa beater. Stone chisel. 
Kapas stamped with fern leaves in red. Tatuing comb and rod 
beater. Wooden box or gong 43 in. long. Wooden seat disli- 
form. Human hair girdle (Samoan?). 

Samoan Islarids. 
Kava bowl. 14 Siapo (kapa), ordinary patterns. Upete, small. 
10 Stone adzes, one mounted. White hibiscus fibre mat. Red 
mat. 2 Nautilus shell frontlets. 3 Combs. 3 Fans. 2 Spears. 
4 Fish hooks with braided lines. 2 Clubs, narrow. 



26 Copenhagen. 

Rapanni. 
7 Obsidian lance heads. Figure can-ed in wood. 2 Clubs with 
uman heads. Feather head-rings. 

New Caledonia. 
3 Bird-bill clubs. 14 Knob clubs. 4 Adzes with short handles. 
Fig. 33. Death mask in fragments. 2 Sling pouches. 15 Sling 
stones. I Sling cord. Jade and wood club or axe. Fig. 34. 





Fig. ZZ. Fig. 34. 

Jade disk club. Human figure in wood life size; another, small 
( membriun virile longnm). Wooden baby in box. Carved male 
figure well done. Car^-ed demon (?) 24 in. high. 

Fiji. 
15 vStone adzes." 3 Adzes with handles. Shell adze (Micrones- 
ian or Samoan). 2 Yaqona bowls. 6 Pots of common form. 
Pottery bowl. 2 Pottery jars of unusual form. Wooden bowl 
15 ± in. diameter. Oil dish on stand. Cannibal fork. 2 Fans. 
Food-hook. Tatuing tools. 2 Whale tooth ornaments. Neck- 
lace of cachelot teeth; another of filed teeth. Common pillow. 
2 Carved wood pillows. 13 Clubs musket form; 4 pine-apple; 7 
knobbed; 10 round; 14 throwing. 6 War-paddles. 5 Spears 
carved. House model. 3 Kapa beaters. Upete of wood 60 in. 
long, 12 wide. Canoe model. Fish spear. 3 Human figures 
(fern stem ?) with whale teeth ornaments. 4 Shell necklaces; 
another of human teeth (cannibal trophy ? ). Satchel, long. 

New Zealand . 
Dried human head mokoed ( Et tatoveret Mandshoved ). Tiki 
50 in. high, usual three fingers. 2 Carved house slabs. Carv^ed 
covered kumete 26 in. long. 4 Mere of bone; 5 of greenstone; 
2 of wood, plain; i of carved wood. 29 Greenstone adzes; 12 
of jade. 3 Trumpets, carved wood, 15 in. long. 2 bone flutes, 



Copenhaoen — Hamburg . 27 

modern. Tiki of two men one above the other. Taiaha. Flax 
pounder of stone. Canoe model ( Krigskano ). Tewhatewha 
Cape of flax ( Phormiuni ). 6 Heitikis of jade. 5 Jade earrings 
and fragments. 2 Cloaks of flax. Small old kumete. 3 Fish- 
hooks bone and shell. 2 Shark hooks. War-canoe prow. 

Tongan Isla7ids. 
Awa bowl 31 in. in diameter. 11 Carved clubs. 2 Bambu fi.sh 
spears. Wood pillow, usual form. Sling, well made. 

New Hebrides. 

6 Spindle-form clubs. 5 Knobbed clubs. Carved figure, paint- 
ed. Other common things. 

Solomon Islands. 
Bows and arrows galore. Carved figure. 2 Human figures in 
wood. Arm coil. Plaited shield. 4 lyongiels. 2 Paddles. 6 
Dance clubs. Spears many, some with cassowary bone tips. 5 
Combs. 3 Carved bowls, fine. Tindalo or ring god. 3 Adzes. 
2 Canoe ends decked with Ovuhim shells. Pan pipe. 3 Belts 
of shell beads. 2 Shell disk frontlets with tortoise-shell carvings. 
2 Plain shell disks. 

N^ew Ireland. 
5 Male human figures in chalk. 

New Britain. 

7 Ma.sks. 2 Slings. 3 Paddles and the common carved figures. 

Admiralty Islands. 
2 Human figures. 7 Obsidian head lances. Obsidian dagger 
with well-carved human figure for handle; a fine specimen. 2 
Lime boxes of gourd. Bailer for canoe. Penis cover, engraved 
shell of Ovid Kill ovum. 

From Copenhagen via Korsor and Kiel to Hamburg. The 
Volkerkunde Museum is on the upper floor of the Natural History 
Museum, a large building well fitted and arranged. Herren C. W. 
lenders and Hagen have charge of the Ethnological colle(5lions. 

Eastern Asia claims the larger portion: the arrangement of 
the Polynesian portion is rather incomplete and confusing, and al- 
though there is insufficient room several loan colledlions are crowd- 
ed in. A part of the Godeffro}- Museum has here found a home, 
another part was found in the shop of the dealer Umlauff. Herr 
lyUders was very obliging in pointing out what was of most interest 



28 Hamburg . 

to his visitor, and his residence in the Pacific has made him famil- 
iar with many matters concerning that region, so there were fewer 
mistakes in identification than usual in European museums. 

Haicaiian Islands. 
2 Huewai pawehe. 4 Adzes in fragmentary condition. Model 
of a double cdnoe. The figure called Hawaiian in the printed 
catalogue has brass earrings and was perhaps made by a sailor. 

Hervey Islands. 
4 Ceremonial adzes; and 4 Paddles, all from Mangaia. 

Rapanui . 

4 Human figures. Bird well carved. Talking stick or paddle. 
Club. 2 Rude stone human heads. 4 Obsidian lance-heads. 
Wooden crescent-shaped gorget. 

Marquesas Islands. 
Crown of carved bone, tortoise-shell and feathers. 3 Stilt-rests. 
Beards of old men. 3 Spears. Fan. Club. 

Nine or Savage Island. 
lyongiel. 3 Paddles. 

S a moan Islands. 
Small fishing canoe. Hibiscus fibre white mat. 2 Hook clubs. 
15 Siapos, ordinary patterns. 13 Fans. 5 Spears. 2 Baskets. 
2 File or fly-flaps. 3 Shell frontlets. Tatuing implements. 4 
Serrate clubs. Other clubs of doubtful origin. House model. 

5 AH, common form. 2 Wooden bowls, one 80 in. long, 27 wide, 
of doubtful origin. 

Tongan Islands. 
Gypsum poi pounder. 2 Wood pillows. 3 Squid bait, fragments 
of Cyprcea tigris fastened to a stone sinker ( Tahitian ? ) . 

Manihiki . 
Paddle inlaid with circles of pearl shell. Club, 2 Bowls and a 
box inlaid in the same characleristic manner. 

Fiji. 

6 Human skeletons male; 2 female. 6 Crania. These in the 
Natural History Mu.seum. 24 Throwing clubs; 6 pine-apple; 

7 knobbed; 10 round; 10 musket form. Tree stem with human 
bones imbedded; — a cannibal trophy. 3 Cannibal dishes. Oil 
dishes (2). Roll for marking kapa. 3 Kapa beaters. 3 Wood 
pillows. 7 Yaqona bowls. Long, round pillow. 2 Pillows flat- 
topped. 16 Pots, common forms. 3 Heads of hair or wool. 2 



Chiefs' staves, 
temple in sennit. 

New Caledonia. 
Death mask in poor condition, 
bill clubs. 2 Clubs, round, 
an figure. 3 Water bottles, 
cap. Dresses galore. 

Caroline Islands. 
6 Oblong wooden bowls 
model. 2 Shark floats. 



Hamburg . 
4 Satchels, flat. 14 Carved spears. 



Model of 



2 Adzes with handles. 2 Bird- 
2 Bambu combs. Small hum- 
C^-lindrical woven head-dress or 



2 Wooden boxes with covers. Canoe 
7 Decorated canoe .sticks. 3 Decorated 



house beams (used to hang clothes upon). 3 Coral rock pound- 
ers. Wooden gong with handles at the ends. Fig. 35. 7 Belts. 




Tols in great number. Nuk- 
uor figure in wood 66 inches 
high. 4 Smaller figures from 
the same locality. Ponapean 
flat kapa beater. Tortoise- 
shell dishes and spoons. Ta- 
tuing implements. Hat used 
in reef-fishing. Sling stones. 
Common mats. Large boat- 
shaped idol, curious. Tor- 
toise bone hoe. 20 Packag- 
es of Tike. Comb with 
feathers. 

Gilbert Islands. 
3 Suits of coconut fibre armor, 
lar like the one at Berlin. Fij 
shirt attached. Sun-fish belt 
Cord dre.s.ses 




Fig. 36. 

Another suit with an erect col- 

36. 3 Trousers of fibre with 

Glove armed with shark teeth. 

12 Shark teeth swords. Models of canoes. Mats of 



hau and pandanus. 3 Stalactite fish-hooks; 4 Common fish-hooks. 

Marshall Islands. 
2 Drums. 3 Canoe models. Stone adze with an unusual knob 




30 Hamburg — Amsterdam . 

on the handle. Fig. 37. 

Bismarck Archipelago. 
Many masks. 11 Human frontal bone masks. Large chalk 
figure and 19 smaller ones. 11 Stone ball clubs. Many swords 
and flat clubs. 5 Good carvings from New Britain. Group of 
Buceros ( Horn-bill ) delivering a woman — this bird being the 
Lucina of New Ireland. 

Nezv Gici)iea. 
Curved wooden shield. Heavy 
round shield. 5 Dukduk hats. 

Solomon Islands. 
Shield finely inlaid with squares 
of pearl-shell. 7 Carved canoe- 
figures. Canoe model. Small 
food bowl. 7 Dance-paddles, of 
common form, and 3 with carved 
Fig. 37. handles. 2 Clubs covered with 

plaited Gleichenia . Shell disk frontlet with tortoise-shell "thun- 
derbolt". 

Nezv Hebrides. 
Human figures and a large lot of clubs of ordinary forms. 

Hermit or Anachorite Isla7ids. 
3 Long, pointed w^ooden bowls. 2 Shell adzes. 4 Frontal bone 
masks. Wooden fiddle ( New Britain ). 

Torj^es Straits Islands. 
Tortoise-shell masks, good. 3 Carv^ed pillows. 2 Disk clubs. 
Star club. 3 Drums. 

Admiralty Islands. 9 Obsidian head lances. 

The printed catalogue of this museum is simply a list of num- 
bers, names, and localities without farther information. 

The next city visited was Amsterdam. Here the museum 

is on the upper floor of a large building in the Zoologische Garten. 

India and the Dutch East Indies are very well represented while 

there is but little from the Pacific Ocean. 

Haivaiian Islands. 

Lei palaoa. Huewai pawehe. Bone fish-hook. Fig. 38, PI. VI. 

New Zealand. 
Greenstone mere and adze with handle. 2 Jade heitikis. Hum- 
an face from an old Maori carving. 



31 




Amsterdam — Leiden. 

Marquesas Isla7ids. 
A pair of stilt-rests and a fine club. 

Fiji. 
Human figure in wood. 17 Spears well carved. 
5 Clubs, musket form; 5 knobbed; 5 throwing; 2 
pine-apple; 2 round. 

Hervey Islatids. 
5 Ceremonial adzes and a carved paddle. 

N^ezc Guinea & Bisma^xk Archipelago. 
An assortment of bags and 10 Korowaarixam-Wv^ 
former and 3 carv^ed figures from New Ireland. 

In the same Zoological Garden, which is con- Fig. 38. 

veniently situated in the midst of the cit)', and one of the best kept 
in Europe, is the Aquarium. This is very well planned both for 
exhibition and for the care of the tanks. The contents were not of 
great rarity but in perfecft condition. The obliging keeper showed 
all the inner arrangements . There are large underground cisterns 
for the sea-water which was brought from the Atlantic some years 
ago. In the hall over the tank room is a colletlion of marine ani- 
mals and produdls neither well lighted nor installed. 

In the attic of another building there is a large series of ver- 
tebrate skeletons including many Cetaceans. This is not open to 
the public as it is not 3^et encased. In the Aviary was a Dacelo gi- 
gas ( Laughing Jackass ) from Australia. Pastor tristis from Java 
proved to be the same bird as the so-called "Mina" introduced by 
the late Dr. Hillebrand: Eidabes javanica the true Mina in the same 
house was a capital talker. 

Leiden on May 5th. At the Egyptian Museum the distin- 
guished Curator Dr. P. A. A. Booser showed and explained many 
most interesting matters, his colledlion being one of the oldest and 
most extensive in Europe and prized by all Egyptologists. Leiden 
seems a very small place — almost a town of one street — but be- 
sides being a university town, it is emphatically a city of museums. 
These are all quite too large for the buildings that try to contain 
them. In one place was a good series of casts from the excava- 



32 Leiden. 

tions at Olympia; near the University a Japanese Museum and an- 
other devoted to Natural History which contains an astonishing 
number of animals. Although the Curators were most obliging, 
there was not time to examine farther, but among the birds was a 
very old specimen of Drepanis pacifica much faded. At quite the 
other end of the town is the Ethnological Museum of which Herr 
J. D. E. Schmeltz, the well-known ethnologist, is Curator.* This 
is in a sadly crowded condition, the rich collecftions in constant dan- 
ger from fire, and a large part quite inaccessible to the public. It 
is naturally strongest in articles from the Dutch colonies and there 
it is most instruc5tive. From the Pacific Region the following art- 
icles were noticed: — 

Hazvaiian Islands. 
Feather cloak of ihvi with triangles of oo.\ Feather cape with a 
narrow border of iiwi and oo feathers in alternate triangles on the 
sides and neck, the feathers much worn " des Zahn der Zeit "or 
of something else, the body of the cape covered with the long 
green-black feathers of the Frigate-bird. Also figured loc. cit. 

Taf. VII. Oval dish of carved wood with two kneeling figures 
as supports; the head of one of the figures is hollowed as for salt, 
and both have shell inlaid eyes. Plate X. 2 Swords of kauila 
wood set with shark teeth. Huewai pawelie. Netting-needle. 

Samoan Islands. 
2 White fibre mats. Aica shells for cleaning bark. Baskets, 
Fans, etc. 2 Upete. 2 Kapa beaters. Kapas, common forms. 
New Zealand. 

Dried head with moko. Canoe 

model. Tiki with engraved pearl- 
shell eyes. Fig. 39. Tata figured 
in the Archiv Bd. I., Taf. vii. 2 
Mere of greenstone. 3 Kumete, 

Fig. 39. carved, common form; i well carved 

with male and female figures: loc.eit. Taf. viii.,4. 2 Taiaha. 
2 Patu of carved wood. 2 Stone adzes with handles. 2 Tewha- 
tewha without feathers. Kauri gum head ^i life size. 

* September 16, 1S97, by royal decree, Herr Schmeltz was appointed Director of this National 

Museum. 
fJThis has been figured in the Intei-tiatiouales Archiv fur F.thnographie Bd. I. Taf. viii., but 

the plate gives perhaps its original, certainly not its present condition, for it is much torn. 




Leiden. 3-^ 

Hervey Islands. 
2 Carved paddles more than six feet long; 2 of common size. 8 
Ceremonial adzes. 

Marquesas Islands. 
6 Stilt-rests of fine quality. 2 Stilt-rests with double figures at- 
tached back to back, uniciue. 2 Paddles. Paddle with twist at 
the end. Fine club of large size. 

Fiji. 
Club inlaid with five human molar teeth. Club curiously car\'- 
ed. 30 Clubs usual forms and quality. 7 Carved spears. Lali 
or gong of good size and finish. Cannibal fork. Human figure 
carved in wood. 2 Wigs. 

Admiralty Islands. 
Wooden dish or box. 2 Obsidian lance-heads. 

Nezv Ireland. 
Can-ed figures and masks in great number. 7 Masks of human 
frontal bones. 12 ± Chalk images. 

Nezv Guinea. 
Fine human figure. 2 Shields, hour-glass form. 2 Shields of 
heavy wood, round; another curved. Many elaborately carv^ed 
Koroicaars. Pillows, Drums, — and in short a very large colledl- 
ion impossible to catalogue in the few hours available owing to 
its very crowded condition. 

New Caledonia. 
Death mask. 3 Disk clubs and many of bird-bill and knob form. 

Solomon Islands. 
Small car\"ed and inlaid food bowl. 2 Clubs Gleichenia covered. 
Shield inlaid with pearl-shell .squares but much dilapidated. 

At the last moment attention was called to a fine carved Ton- 
gan club (figured in the Archiv Bd. I. Taf. vii.); Tongan car\^ed 
rest; large drums and a wood fiddle from New Ireland. No doubt 
many other things escaped notice in this great collecftion. 

At Brussels vain search was made for a feather cape said to 
be in the Municipal Museum. 

Berne was the home of Waber ( augliee Webber ), the artist 
of Cook's third voyage, and to the museum of his native town were 
bequeathed the many articles he brought home from the Pacific 

O.P.— B.P.B.M. c 



34 



Berne. 




Fig. 40. Berne Museum. 



Region. These have been better preserved than the spolia brought 
by other members of the expedition and are now in the fine build- 
ing of the Berne Municipal Museum. With these relics are exhib- 
ited a miniature and an oil painting of the artist. Like all speci- 
mens from the "South Seas" in early days Waber's have either 
originally or in the course of time been sadly mislabelled. 
Haii'aiian Islands. 
Feather cloak about 60 inches long of iiici ornamented with tri- 
angular figures of 00 feathers. It was in fair condition sealed in 
a glass case within the exhibition case. It was impossible to ex- 
amine it. Feather helmet of ordinary form red with yellow crest. 
2 Feather leis, red, black, and yellow. Ulumaika of white stone. 
5 Shark hooks with bone tips. 2 Niho palaoa much decayed; 
the smaller of bone (?). Kupee of bone and tortoise-shell; an- 
other of boar tusks (fragment). 2 Anklets of network covered 
with white shells. Dagger of kauila slim and flattish. L,ei of 



Berne. 



35 



30 fine Carelia shells ( labelled "Society Islands"). Knife of 

kauila with one shark tooth. 

Niihau mat figured but much 

faded. Knife of kauila with 

6 teeth: through the handle a 

square braid of olond cord. 

Tortoise-shell rings with one 

shark tooth neath' rivetted to 

the junction of the flat bands; a 

murderous weapon used as a 

leiomano. Not known elsewhere. Fig. 41. 

Maa or sling of braided fibre cords and a closely plaited cap. 3 

Kapas fine white; another chocolate and brown. Coconut cup. 

Society Islands. 
Cylindrical corded drum, probably Tongan. Wooden spatula. 
Tatuing implements. Sunshades of fibre. Fig. 42. Gorget of 







Fig. 42. Fig. 43. 

the usual Tahitian form (See the fine example shown in Pl.II.). 
Adz attached to handle by braid of hau fibre. Fig. 43. Adz han- 
dle without stone. Adz of much smaller size, but complete. 
Bambu flute ringed with braid, decorated with hviman figures. 
(Tongan ?) Network about 44 X 8 inches, fine with red and 
green figures. Mat woven black and red with fringed edges. 
Fly-flap with bone handle. Breast ornament of strips of pearl- 
shell: six rows of varying wddth. Necklace of black seeds alter- 
nating with white shell disks. Satchel with flap cover. Pearl- 
shell ornaments probabl}- the remains of a breast-plate. 

Tongan Islands. 
Curious basket wnth white shell disks ( a few are black ) at all 
junctions of the brown and black triangles forming the pattern 
of the plaiting as shown in Fig. 66, Pi. XVI. Carv^ed club of fine 
workmanship, human figures. 2 Plaited satchels. Pan-pipe 



36 



Berne. 




with lo irregular reeds. Braided cloak with fringe. Plaited 
cape with border resembling Maori work. Two mat capes with 

braided fringe. 2 Kapas with brown 
figures and white border resembling the 
Samoan. Long strings of bird bones. 
Fine pandanus mat from W aber. Neck- 
lace of the rims of Patella shells on twist- 
ed cord. Wooden pillow of a form in- 
tended to keep the sleeper to his proper 
place on the common mat. Fig. 44, PI. 
XVII. Oblong basket, black plaiting 
^ with brown decorations. 3 Long strings 
of dark brown shells. Square basket of 
unusual weaving. Openwork mats of 
curious pattern. Fig. 45. 
Fig. 45. Neiv Zealand. 

Greenstone mere. 2 Greenstone adzes. 3 Ear pendants of the 
same material. 3 Bone needles. Stone used for breaking an 
enemy's canoe. Fig. 46. Fish-hook. 

Fiji. 
Three carved spears. 3 Clubs; musket form; 
3 knobbed; i throwing. Whale tooth orna- 
ment. 2 Necklaces, one with 9, the other with 
29 cachelot teeth. War paddle. 4 Stone adzes. 
2 Adzes short and with handles. Bambu 
pillow [Samoan ?]. 2 Spoons of turtle bone. 
Net with stone sinkers and wood floats. 2 Pil- 
lows of wood, common form. 

Solomon Islands. 
Canoe figures. Club covered with braid and 
labelled "Chief's club, Samoa". 

Neiv Caledonia. 
Club of wood with stellate head. 2 Clubs, bird-bill form, small. 
2 Clubs common knobbed form. 2 Fringe dresses. Braid cov- 
ered calabashes. Fan. Sling and 5 sling-stones. 

Raroto7igan show adz. Samoan canoe model. 

So many specimens were incorrectly labelled that it was 
impossible to include everything in this list, but all of importance 
have, it is believed, been noticed. The landscape beauties of this 




Fig. 46. 



Bcrnc — Paris 



37 



region, the river fed by glaciers, the apple orchard in full blossom, 
and the snowy peaks of the Jungfrau range rendered competition 
hard even in the case of so interesting a museum. Dr. Ed. von 
Fellenberg, the Curator was absent, but he has since kindly sent 
to me a biographical sketch of Waber. 

Next in order came Paris the home of Broca and once the 
chief dwelling place of Anthropology and Ethnology. Paris is 
still rich in the material with which these two sciences are illus- 
trated and studied, but unfortunately for your direcflor the time 
was not propitious for his visit. At the Jardin des Plantes the 
collections were being removed to a new building and at the Tro- 
cadero the division of Oceanic was not yet in order for public in- 
specftion in spite of the efforts of the distinguished Director M. 
Hamy. The first collection visited was that installed in an 
attic of the Palace of the Louvre, — the Musee de Marine. Here 
everything is utterly without scientific arrangement, and the 
rich treasures are scattered here 
and there, sometimes arranged in 
rosettes on the ceiling where they 
cannot be studied, or as trophies 
on the walls where military, domes- 
tic and musical instruments are 
grouped together for effedl, and 

equallv useless to the student. ^. 

Fig. 47. 
Without an opera glass one could 

not examine those on the ceilng, so they are left out of the follow- 
ing enumeration If all the choice articles from the Pacific scat- 
tered simpl}- as curiosities through the Parisian museums could be 
brought together in one properly arranged building it would indeed 
be a rare collection demanding the repedlful attention of every 
ethnologist. 

Hazi'aiian Islands. 

Helmet with five knobs on the partly detached crest (Guimard). 

Fig. 47. 2 Common helmets, featherless. 2 Helmets with elab- 




28 Paris. 

orate crests, cup with red feathers, top of crest yellow (lyegoar- 
and.) Bambu ruling pen for kapa marking. 

Marquesas Islands. 
Carved wooden bar lo ft. 2 in. long, used to hang clothes on in 
the house. 2 Fans with carved handles. Helmet of black hair. 
Crown of bone, tortoise-shell and pearl-shell well car\'ed or en- 
graved, the bone apparently human. [Similar ones are in the 
Bishop Museum.] Pair of good stilt-rests attached to poles for 
use. Box in red and black. Idol about 12 inches high and i 
inch wide. Figure tatued and dressed. 4 rude stilt-rests. 

Tonga 11 Islands. 
Wooden pillow of usual form. 3 Kava bowls. Gong like Vitian 
lalo. Models of houses. Carved food dish with a long handle 
at one end. 

Society Islands. 
Fine drum. Yellow kapa with red imprints of acftual fern leaves, 
a common Tahitian form. 

Gam bier Islands. 
A long cylindrical gong (Astrolabe). 

Easter Island ( Rapanui ) . 
2 Small male figures, one with the head turned to one side, an 
unusual treatment. 

New Zealand. 
Canoe prow. Bailer. Canoe model, good. 2 Wooden whistles. 
Cloak of Kiwi feathers. Greenstone adze about 15 inches long 
of fine workmanship (the largest seen in any mUvSeum). Model 
of house. 3 Heitikis. Jade earring. 

Nezv Caledonia. 
2 Short adzes with handles. [lyike Fig. 33.] 

Fiji. 
Magnificent spear about 15 feet long carved and banded with 
sennit: a series of barbs the lowest 6 inches in diameter. Many 
clubs of pineapple and other forms. 

New Hebrides. 
Fine tree-drum with human (?) head. The only one seen in 
any museum, and this rare specimen was in a dark corner. 
Relief maps of Tahiti and Vanikoro. Models of many canoes 
made by Europeans mostly and of little ethnological value. 

In the Trocadero the room devoted to Oceanic was not open 
to the public, but from Dr. Hamy it was ascertained that there was 



/\iris. -jq 

little or nothing from the Hawaiian Islands, but a good collecT;iou 
from the Marquesas. From Alaska were stone pounders closely 
resembling the common Hawaiian and also the Tahitian poi 
pounders: while from Mexico were corn crushers quite like the 
ring pounders (pohakii puka) of Kauai. 

At the Jardin des Plantes there were indications of waning 
interest or appropriations, or perhaps both. A great point has 
been made of casts or models of various races, but most of these 
had been removed from the ancient galleries, — the Hottentot Venus 
being left almost alone in her glory. Replicas of most of these 
were seen in the next museum visited. There w^ere many crania 
and skeletons, indeed a choice collection if the labels can be 
trusted. From the Hawaiian Islands there remained a Lei palaoa 
and other specimens of human hair. From Ne\v Zealand w^ere 5 
dried heads with moko. In the Musee de Botanique w^as a poor 
specimen of Argyroziphimn (Silver-sword). Paintings and models 
of tropical fruits were of great interest and value. In the immense 
Herbarium are the choice colledlions of Jules Remj' from Hawaii, 
and many specimens from other parts of the Pacific, but there was 
no time to enter this rich field. 

At the Hotel des Invalides in rather a dark apartment was 
the Galerie Ethnographique of the Musee d'Artillerie. Here were 
replicas of the models of the Jardin des Plantes, the following being 
the more noticeable ones: 

20, 21 New Caledonian colored and dressed. 

22, 23 Australian. 

25 Admiralty Islander. 

27 Solomon Islander. 

32 Caroline Islander with coconut armor of the Gilbert Islands 
and a Vitian spear. The catalogue notes the figure as the 
gift of M. Ballieu, FVench Consul at Honolulu, and it will 
be remembered that it was this gentleman who sent to 
France the interesting idol discovered in a cave on Hawaii. 
This idol I could not find. [Probably in the Trocadero.] 

37 Hawaiian with feather helmet of common form in black and 
vellow feathers, leis and cloak the feathers of the last too far 



40 Pa lis — London . 

gone to clearly demark the pattern in red and yellow. The 
figure is tatued in checks and in one hand holds a Tahitian 
spear, in the other a ceremonial carved adze from Mangaia, 
Herve}' Islands. A mat malo from some other locality 
covers his loins. The following is a translation of the cata- 
logue description: "When the Hawaiian Islands were dis- 
covered there was found there a sovereign enjoying all the 
prerogatives and surrounded by the etiquette which belongs 
to roj^alt}'. He had a guard clothed with sumptuous man- 
tles of feathers of great value . Our figure wears one of these 
mantles of which the foundation made of cord has a feather 
at each knot. These feathers are taken from a little bird 
colored red, yellow and black belonging to the Souimanga 
[Honey-suckers] famil}-, and it can be seen how manj- of 
these birds were required to make the mantle. Another 
.strange thing is that the king's guards wear a helmet recall- 
ing the Greek casques. The Musee du lyouvre contains 
some very curious ones: ours is covered, as we learn from 
our explorers, with a feather stuff like that of tne mantles. 
These warriors had the body tatued in checks of .square, 
triangular or lozenge form. The Hawaiians are now civil- 
ized, but in memory of ancient times the king still has 
four heralds dressed in the traditional feather helmet and 
mantle." 

These are all of the models from the Pacific Region worth 
notice and if the others are as inaccurate as the representative of 
Hawaii* the collection is ver\' misleading. Many unclassified 
arms are on the walls and in cases, among them a fine ceremonial 
adze from Mangaia; a Marquesan paddle; 2 fine Solomon Islands 
longiels; Fijian Pineapple club and war paddle; a New Caledonian 
Jade disk club and 2 short adzes, and one with a large stem that 
seems not to belong to it. 

Crossing the Channel we find the same condition of things 
as in Paris, in that the colle6lions are scattered and in so far of 
diminished value, instead of being united in one grand Museum of 
Ethnology. It is unfortunate for ethnology that so rich a nation 

*The Hawaiian figure is e\'idently copied from the figure in one of the French Voyages. 



London. II 

as England shoukl not fnul the means to build a palace worthy of 
the treasures her explorers ha^'e brought home, which are now 
laid aside for want of room in a museum where ethnology is of very 
secondary importance, or exhibited in dark rooms with insufficient 
labels and no catalogue for the visitor, or scattered through museum 
buildings intended for other puposes and often grandly fulfilling 
those purposes. 

In the South Kensington Industrial Museum are two fine 

Maori carved canoe prows deposited by H. R. H. the Duke of 

Edinburgh to whom they were given while he was in New Zealand. 

In the Kew Garden Museums are the following from Hawaii: — 

A Lagcnaria gourd of the largest size with cover and net. Many 

kapas wrongly attributed; seeds of Gardenia brighaniii. From 

Fiji a fine coconut fibre model of a temple given by Dr. Berthold 

Seemann the distinguished botanist: The Royal United Sennce 

Museum in Whitehall Palace has a very interesting ethnological 

colleclion of which the Secretary of the Club kindly permitted 

photographs to be taken. Arranged on the walls of the entrance 

are many fine spears and clubs. 

Haicaiian Islands. 

Helmet of good form with broad crest, of plaited rush, with no 

signs of feathers. Hula drum of admirably carved coconut wood 

and with shark-skin head. Kjipee ilia or anklet of dog-teeth of 

large size but discolored and dilapidated. 2 Boar tusk bracelets, 

one of entire teeth the other of cut ones. Newa of kauila wood. 

Stem of a coconut tree "pierced by two musket balls" during the 

Cook episode (Capt. H. W. Bruce). Knife of Shark-teeth of 

unusual form, open in the middle, with 9 teeth on each side and 

one at the end. Another of common form with 8 teeth. 

N'ew Zealand. 
Mere of greenstone 19 inches long; another almost as large; 5 of 
common form; 2 of jade. 4 Patu of carved wood, 3 patu of 
whale rib. 3 Jade adzes. Canoe stern, rather small. 4 Taiaha, 
labelled paddles. 2 Tewhatewha or battle axes. 

Tonga7i Isla7ids. 
Drum of wood the lower half of the cylinder elaborate!}- can-ed, 
as are the knobs for attaching the cords which tighten the drum- 



42 London, British Museum. 

head. Clubs fineh' carved; a small one in the case of relics of 
Captain Cook is labelled "given by the king of Owhyhee to Capt. 
Cook." Paddles, large and well carved. 

Society Islands. 
Stone adze with handle. Several spears. 

Marqjicsas Islands. 
2 clubs of the finest quality. 2 Paddles, long and good. 

Gilbert Islands. 
Suit of coconut fibre armor with the curious shark -teeth weapons 
for the fore-arm with nine longitudinal rows of teeth. A suit of 
similar armor from Nawodo has a hemisherical cap and an up- 
right cape like those in Berlin and Hamburg. 

Solomon Islands. 
2 reed shields, one rectangular, the other with rounded corners. 
Several bows. Clubs with the fern plaited covering almost gone. 

Fiji . 
6 War paddles. Club, musket pattern, of immense size; 5 com- 
mon ditto; II Knobbed; 3 Pinapple; 11 Throwing; a round one 
3^ inches in diameter.* 

From Niue several paddles: from New Guinea a bow of bambu: 
and from the Admiralty Islands spears with obsidian points. 
Mr.J. Edge-Partington was corre(5ling the mistakes in the labels. 

The massive building in Great Russell street which con- 
tains the sculptures, library, ethnological and art collecflions of the 
British Museum has in its very entrance porch two of the Easter 
Island stone figures, of one of which the Bishop Museum has 
photographs. Within the gloomy building with long galleries 
lighted only from above, and in a London atmosphere of course 
badly lighted, are crow^ded most astonishing collecftions from the 
Pacific Region. A very important part is the loan b}' the London 
Missionary Society of the many rarities brought to England by the 
late Rev. William Ellis and other missionaries; This is perhaps 
the cream of the collecftion from Polynesia. 

Hazi'aiian Islands. 
Feather cloak, red with yellow rhombs; another red with 3'ellow 

*The Bishop Museum has a round Vitian club ii in. in circumference, 44 1-2 in. long and 
weighing 12 1-2 pounds. (No. 1033.) 



Loudon, British Muse ion. 



43 



circles with red centres*. 2 Helmets, once feathered (Meyrick 
Collecl:ion). 4 Helmets with feathers in good condition; 2 Hel- 
mets from \'ancouver's colledtion, in fair condition with feathers. 
Helmet of wicker work and detached crest. Kukailimoku 
(Leverian Mnsennl). 4 Knkailimoku, one of them figured by- 
Cook. Many feather leis. 2 Rectangular feather mats possibly 
used by the kahuna or priest as a mat for the idol or aumakua . 
2 large idols of wood (Black ohia?). Curious wooden idol with 
helmet: there are no legs and it was apparently carried on a pole 
as was the god Kukailimoku. It is covered neatly with kapa 
like some idols from the Marquesas. Fig. 49, PI. XII. An- 
other wooden idol with the peculiar form of trimmed hair called 
mahiolc. Fig. 50, PI. XII. Wooden idol with wide mouth w^ell 
armed with teeth and with head slightly reverted. Fig. 51, PI. 
XII. Wooden idol somewhat larger with human hair. 2 Wooden 
heads of images, probably idols. Idol of stone and fragments of 
another from Necker Island, taken thence by ofhcers of H. M. S. 
Champion. Aumakua. 5 Kahili, small with bone and tortoise- 
shell handles; 8 Stone mirrors, good. 5 Kupee or bracelets of boar 
teeth, large (Vancouver). 6 Ditto, with tortoise-shell. Niho 
palaoa (W. Ellis); 7 Common Niho palaoa; one with 4 small 
bone or shell nihos, and a similar one with 6 
little nihos. 2 Nihos small and broad. Leis of 
small red, white and black shells [tV]. Leis 
of Strongylodon luciduni and shells of Patella stri- 
ata [V]; Leis of Cyprcra moneta [V]; Leis of 
Conus [V]. Hula drum of coconut wood with 
shark-skin head; another without head. Hula 
drum of coconut wood well car\-ed. Large 
feathered hula rattle ( Uliuli hula). 2 Kupee 
hula with rows of brown and white Melawpus 
shells; 2 of black beans (Strongylodon lucidum); 
2 of dog-teeth ( niho ilio ) ; another of dog-teeth 
[V]. Drum of coconut wood on which is bound a coconut drum 
(Puni hula). Fig. 48. 2 Ipuhokiokio. 6 le kuku or Kapa 
beaters; 3 le kuku [V]. 2 Pa'u boards, the larger one said to 
have been given to Captain Beechey by Queen Pomare (Tahiti). 

* Colored drawings were obtained of seventeen feather cloaks and capes, which will be 
described in another publication. 

t V stands for Vancouver CoUecflion. 




Fig. 48. 



44 



London, British Musenni. 



Cleaner for Pa'u board. 5 Ohe kapalapala, common; another 
with die of tortoise shell. 14 Ulumaika, all but one white. Ipu 
aina with human teeth. Ipu kuha or spitton, square. Umeke of 
wood with cover. 5 Huewai pawehe; 2 ditto [V]. Board for 
scraping olona. 2 Poi pounders, common; one of ring form 
(Pohaku puka). Stone lamp, common form. Coil of waoke 
rope, square braid. 2 Gourds, long. Man}' stone adzes, 4 with 
handles. 2 Umeke covered with plaited roots of i^i^fFreycinctia 
arnottii). Inamona dish of wood, crescent-shaped. Carved 

female figure for seat. Fig. 56, Pi. XIII. 
Kukui nut candle. Carved bowl with 
two human figures for support. Fig. 51 , 
Pi. 12. 3 Tobacco pipes. Kilu or top 
of ipu pawehe. Small mirror in wood 

^_^ frame on top of which are carved two min- 

^/^tL ~ — ^->-^ iature tobacco pipes. Fig. 53. Double 

^ canoe model; model of single canoe, no 

outrigger. 2 Car\'ed figures for fishpole 
Carved canoe rest [V]. Common paddle. 




Fig- 53- 



rests m a canoe. 
Newa or hand club of basalt; one of kauila wood; one of kauila 
[V]; ditto with stone head [V]. 2 Ihe pahee, large and good. 
3 Swords of kauila wood with cord lashes. 6 Pahu, long and 
fiat with distinct handles. 15 Throwing spears (Ihe). Maa or 
sling-stone. 5 Barbed spears, the barbs carv^ed from the thick- 
ness of the wood. Small ipu le'i to contain fish-hooks. Many 
fish-hooks. 10 Wicker disks covered with feathers and with 
shell and wood knobs: use unknown. 5 lyciomano; 2 Leiomano 
[V]; 7 Leiomano or shark-teeth cutters. Fig. 58. 2 Rude 
knives of shark -teeth, one open. Shark hooks. Sinker for 
squid hook. 2 Short knives of shark-teeth. Fans of ancient 
form. Fig. 61, PI. XIV. 

Ncio Zealand. 
6 Kumara (C. batatas) spades, common form but some with well 
carved rests; several detached rests. 12 Tikis or images of large 
size. 4 Carved slabs. 2 Carved slabs for Pataka or food-.store. 
3 Door caps finely car\'ed; 2 carved door posts. 2 Canoe stern- 
posts, carved. 4 Canoe models. 2 Paddles, common. 2 "Bull 
roarers". 13 Tatuing implements. 6 carv^ed funnels for feeding 
chiefs during the moku or face tatuing. Carved genealogical 



London, Ihitisli Miiscm 



45 




li'i MiniiiiiilMffir^ 11 ^ 



Fig. 58. Hawaiian Shark-tooth Implements. 

stick. 2 Balls for the game of Poi . 4 Dried and mokued hvi- 
man heads. 8 Tikis, small. Mussel Dredge. 24 Taiaha and 
many duplicates. 8 Tewhatewha or battle-axes. 13 Mere of 
jade. 28 Jade adzes. 7 Jade chisels. 28 Jade Heitikis. 2 He- 
itikis of human skull. Many earrings both of jade and of bone. 
3 Carved adze handles. 29 Carved Kumetes (Boxes for orna- 
ments), one of choice work ( Cook's Voy. ) . 14 Carved wood and 
bone short whistles; 17 Carved wood whistles; 2 Whistles of 
plain wood. 2 Knives of jade for trimming priest's hair. 2 Dong 
trumpets and another much shorter. 2 Trumpets of Triton shell 
with carved mouth -pieces. Kete of common kind. 4 Carved 
sacrificial knives with shark-teeth on one edge, the teeth very 
serrate and of a kind not seen elsewhere. Fig. 62, PI. XIV. 
2 Cloaks of Kiwi feathers. Many common cloaks and capes of 



46 London, British H/nseion. 

Pho7'miiim flax. 4 Heru or combs of bone, common form. Green- 
stone adzes in great number. Wooden shark hook carved all 
over. Whale-tooth ornament for the brea.st, engraved with hu- 
man face. 

Society Islands. 
Warrior's belt of small bones strung lengthwise. Pearl-shell 
breast ornament. 4 Sacrificial or temple lamps, attributed in- 
correctly to the Hawaiian Islands. Fig. 60, PI. VI. I^arge 
wooden god; another, hollow, with man)' small figures all over 
it (See Ellis, Poly. Res.). Wooden shrine for Tii va/iinc. Dress 
cap of feathers and Ovulian shells. lyOng C3-lindrical wooden gong 
with longitudinal slit, well carved. 3 Wooden drums like the 
Hawaiian. Full dress for mourner ( Figured in Cook's Voyage. ) 
3 Gorgets of feathers and shark-teeth on a fibre net. See Pi. II. 
Man}- bambu flutes. Breast ornament of feathers and square bits of 
white shell. 2 Pillows of bi-colored Pandanns leaves. 10 Basalt 
poi pounders, very well made. 5 Wooden images, various treat- 
ment. 5 Kapa beaters. 2 Sunshades (See Fig. 48, p. 34). 4 
Wooden stools, well cut. 2 Wooden boxes for chief's orna- 
ments: 2 smaller similar boxes. I^arge wickerwork head-dress 
from Ulietea (See Cook's). 14 Mounted stone adzes, common 
form. 3 Wooden pillows like the stools but lighter. 2 Gods of 
open car\'ed wood from Mitiara. Bambu quivers with arrows 
(origin uncertain). Bailer for canoe. 2 Large wooden shark 
hooks. Netting needle 24 inches long. 4 Wooden adzes for 
cutting Breadfruit.' Large weapon edged with shark-teeth car- 
ried by mourner. Pa'u board exadlly like the Hawaiian one 
"given by Queen Pomare to Capt Belcher". 

Samoan /stands. 
Pump Drill, fine. Many fans without variety. Assortment of 
Tatuing implements. Baskets of common work. 3 Frontlets of 
Double rows of Nautilus shell. Upete. Human hair belts. 2 
Stone adzes with handles. 13 Stone adzes in the rough. Wooden 
thatching needle. 

A/^itie. 
6 Paddle clubs. 5 Projedliles of stalactite, .several too large to be 
held in the hand. Many spears with two prongs; many common 
spears. Spear with "stag horn" head. Fig. 68, PI. XVII. 



I.oiuioii, Biitisli Muse Kill. 



47 



Staff or pole. 2 Fish nets of conical form. Canoe model. Kapa 
figured and with long fringe. 2 Kapa beaters. 

Marquesas Isla^ids. 
2 Pair fine .stilts, complete. Sticks 6 ft. long, 2)2 in. in diame- 
ter, chafers of kapa. 8 Carved stilt rests, 2 of them dLstindlly 
male figures. 6 Clubs of the finest kind. 
Fig. 64, PI. XYI. 6 Long paddles. Net 
for gourd container. Several slings. 
Kapas from Egmont Island. 2 Gorgets 
of wood covered with beans of Abriis 
precatorius. 

Easter Island ( Rapanui ). 
2 Immense stone figures. 9 Male and two 
female figures well car\'ed from drift- 
wood ; Large and small figure both 
roughh' carv'ed. 2 Carved birds and 
several grotesques. Carded human hand. 
5 Small dance paddles. Obsidian lance 
heads. Rope of human hair. 5 Gorgets 
of wood, the usual crescent form, one in- 
scribed with hieroglyphs. 

Ton g an Islands. 
Drum 52 inches high, car\-ed. Cylindri- 
cal horizontal gong. 5 Adzes. 14 Combs. 
7 Heavy paddle-head clubs. Food hook 
with disk. Mats of open work. Club 
with tobacco pipe worked through the 
head. 2 Aprons of bird bones and shells. 
2 Baskets of fine sennit. Fig. 66, PI. XVI, 
and boxes covered with basket work. 
Large kapa beater. Many pillows of 
carved wood, and others of bambu like 
the Samoan. Canoe model. Bows. Many 
fish-hooks of the usual heavy pattern. 

Hetvey Islands. 
5 Car^^ed food-scoops. 6 Gods of carved wood. Finely car^-ed 
cylindrical drum. Fig. 65, PI. XVI. 22 Carv^ed paddles, one 
with double end, 4 with flat heads, the rest with rosettes; about 
a dozen duplicate paddles, smaller, 4 Car\'ed "District gods". 
Feather caps. 10 Ceremonial adzes, .short; 10 long ones, and 




Fig. 63. 



48 London, British Museum. 

one five feet long. Kapas with black figures. 2 Stalacflite 
pounders. 

Gambicr Islands. L,arge paddle. 

Paumotu A?'chipelago, Manihiki . 
Paddle, club and bowl inlaid with pearl shell disks. 3 Carved 
wooden bowls. Soul trap of large size. 

Fiji. 
Cap of spider-web, good specimen. 62 Pots of various shapes. 
5 Wigs of human wool. 13 Clubs, pine-apple form; 31 Musket 
and lotus forms*; 13 Knobbed; 12 Throwing; 6 Round; Many 
duplicates. 14 War paddles and many duplicates. Several or- 
namental paddles. 6 Yaqona bowls. Yaqona bowl given by 
Cakabau, 44/2 in. in diameter! ; the largest I have seen. Model 
of temple in sennit. 2 Kapa roll markers of bambu. 3 Carved 
food hooks. Ivali or gong, good size; 2 smaller. Oil dishes in 
great variety. 2 Rolls of sennit. Tatuing implements. 2 Kapa 
beaters. Girdle of C>//'t'« shells. 4 Cannibal forks. Stem of Shad- 
dock tree in which are imbedded some of the bones of a chief and 
his son, relics of a cannibal feast. 

Solomon Islands. 
2 Food dishes of large size. 4 Clubs covered with plaited fern; 
many common clubs. Package of Canarium nut food. 4 Pan- 
dean pipes, one of irregular fnrm. 8 Fish floats. 6 Small hu- 
man figures in wood. Many longiels both war and dance. 4 
Clubs, San Cristobal. 3 Clubs of unusual form. 15 Adzes with 
handles. Ear-plugs of wood with inlaid faces. Sunshade like 
Tahitian. 2 Jew's harps of bambu. Pump drill with fly of un- 
common form; another with the spindle of palm wood bulging, 
fly of bone, circular, handle of bambu. Inlaid handle of club, 
stone head gone + . 4 Pieces of yellow kapa; also some red; others 
blue. Model of canoe. 2 Canoes fineh' decorated. Chief's 
shield, Florida. {S&q B)rncliley, ]\y. of the Cura^oa.) Curved 
shield inlaid with a fret of pearl-shell squares. Wooden shield. 
5 Shields with round ends, 4 with square ends, plain. 9 Paddles, 
pointed. 10 Paddles ornamented, some oval. 6 Canoe figures. 
16 Carved bowls, various shapes. Reed-woven burial hut con- 

* Among these the beautiful form shown in Plate XVIII. 

tThat in the Bishop Museum, which also belonged to the Vitian king, is of better form 
but only 32 3-4 inches in diameter. 

\ Like No. 1373 in Bishop Museum. 



/ AVI do II , Ih itisli Museum . 



49 



taiuiug- the skull of a cliiei of Rubiaua; around the skull are 
rings of Tridacna shell. i6 Choice spears. 

A tTi ' Ca Icdon ia . 
5 Disk clubs of greenstone or jade. 4 Jade adzes. 5 Short- 
handled adzes. 2 Long-head adzes. Death Mask, in poor con- 
dition. 2 Kapa mallets. 2 Corded calabashes. vSlings, pouches 
and sling-stones galore. Fish net with shell sinkers. Many 
clubs. Club of great diameter. Club of the bird-bill form but 
double like a pickaxe. 

y\V?i' Hebrides. 
3 Santa Cruz fishing floats. 4 Looms. Large human figure. 
Clubs of common form. Banks Island kite made of palm leaf. 
Fig. 6g. From same group long wooden bowls 
and 2 obsolete dresses described by Codrington.* 

Micronesia . 
2 Suits Gilbert Islands armor. 2 G.I. Cuirasses. 
2 Gauntlets armed with shark teeth. Human 
figure in wood about 15 inches high, Pleasant 
Island. Ualan loom of rude form. Swords 
and knives of shark teeth in great number. 
Kusaien sword in bone and shark teeth. Nuku- 
laelae club or axe with blade of turtle bone. 
Rope of plaited human hair. Caroline Islands 
mat bed. 3 Coconut fibre and 3 fish skin caps 
from Gilbert Islands. 

New Ireland. 
7 Chalk figures, not remarkable. Wooden fiddle (New Britain). 

From Australia and New Guinea there are many specimens, 
but none uncommon or not to be found in most good colle(5lions, 
were seen. Among other most interesting things examined in this 
great museum by the kindness of Mr. O. M. Dalton, were the vol- 
umes of original drawings of the Cook Voyages, among them sev- 
eral pen and ink sketches by the great Captain himself. Good 
copies of the most important drawings relating to the Hawaiian 
Islands are in the Bishop Museum. Another capital thing noticed 
here is the very skilfull way in which Mr. Dalton keeps his book 




Fig. 69. 



The Melanesians, p. loS, '\Walo-saru" . 



O.P.— B.P.B.M. 



50 Cambridge, England. 

of accessions, making a pen sketch of the article entered. Where 
Curators are able to do this no better system has been devised. 
The accomplished Director C. H. Read, Esq. gave me every facility 
for examination and study. 

From London a short excursion was made to Cambridge. 
Back of the Fitzwilliam Museum, reached by a narrow lane squeezed 
out of the edge of a churchyard, is the Archaeological Museum, 
and in a side room of this is the finest colledtion of Fijian articles 
in anj' museum. This was made by Baron von Hiigel who was 
most kind in explaining the specimens and offering the hospitality 
of his pleasant home. The hope may properly be expressed here 
that Baron von Hiigel will soon publish the results 'of his careful 
investigations in Vitian ethnology. The following list includes the 
most noteworthy contents of this museum: 
Fiji. 
52 Clubs knobbed, 3 of them inlaid, 10 bound with sennit; 23 
Pine-apple; 8 Lotus, a variety of musket; 58 Musket; 47 Round; 
28 Throwing. 28 Paddles, one bound with net, 17 carved. 65 
Spears finely carved, some bound with sennit. 84 Pots, i tripod, 
3 tortoise-shaped, 2 cooking pots. 16 Carv^ed wood pillows; an- 
other carved with a human leg. 13 Kapa beaters, all ribbed. 
Many decorated bambus. 18 Cannibal forks, one the original of 
the figure on the cover of Miss Gordon Cumings' "Fiji". 9 Nose 
flutes. 3 Bambu marking rolls. 4 Shark hooks. Netting 
needles. 13 Collars of whale teeth. 49 Dishes of carved wood. 
5 Yaqona bowls. 8 Fish hooks. 3 Trumpets of Triton shell. 
8 Sets of tatuing implements. 3 Upete of leaves; i of wood. 2 
Girdles of Oliva shells. Necklace of ivory human figures 
(Alaska?). 41 Oil dishes. 9 Combs of carved wood. 5 Shell 
gorgets. 33 Wooden dishes on stand. 3 Yaqona strainers. 
Yaqona cups in great number. 3 Coconut cups with coir wipers 
attached. 2 Canoe models. 12 Fans, common forms. 5 Wigs 
of human wool, 2 of them bleached. Model of "Devil House". 
Baskets and satchels of many forms. 6 Fringe dresses and many 
others of less size. Kapa sulas, not remarkable. Many stone 
adzes . 

Hawaiian Islands. 
Ring Poi pounder; several of common form. A number of stone 



Ca»ibridoi\ /{uo/a//d. 51 

adzes. Kupee hula ilio. Rupee of boar tusks. Huewai pawehe, 
small but good. 

Marquesas Islands. Club and 2 stilt rests. 

Society Islands. 
A stone Sorcery Lamp with Rev. Geo. Bennett's label on it, and 
precisely like the four in the British Museum wrongly attributed 
to the Hawaiian Islands. See Fig. 60, PI. VI. 

Tongan Islands. 3 Paddles and man}^ good clubs. 

Sainoan Isla)ids. 

2 Nautilus shell frontlets and several clubs. 

Hcrvey Islands. 6 Ceremonial carved paddles. 

Rapanni ( Easter Island). 
Double paddle. Gorget of wood, usual crescent shape. Image 
and a carved lizard. 

Nezv Zealand. 
Canoe model. Tata or bailer, broken. 5 Taiaha. 4 Car\'ed Ku- 
mete. Dried and mokoed head of good quality. Carved funnel 
for feeding a chief while being mokoed. Flax pounder with 
head car\-ed on the handle of the stone. 3 Mere of bone; i of 
jade; 3 of car^-ed wood. Patu of bone and a small one of wood. 

3 Tewhatewha. Carved whistle or fife. 2 Carved whistles. 3, 
Paddles. Prow and stern of war canoe. Jade adze in carved 
handle. 9 Heitikis of jade. 2 Jade ornaments. Bone heru or 
comb. 5 Earrings of jade; 2 of -carved bone. Large bowl. 
Chief's staff. 

New Guinea. 
II Shields of wood; 4 of hour-glass form; 2 plaited. 

Solomon Islands. 
Paddle and club, both plaited with fern. Large canoe model. 

4 Shields. 4 Longiels. Large food bowl and 3 smaller ones. 
3 Bows and man}- arrows. 2 Canoe figures. 

New Caledonia . 
Death ma.sk in poor order. Man}- clubs of the usual patterns. 

Only the Vitian portion of this colledtion is fulh' arranged 
owing to the lack of room. A feather cape w^as attributed to the.se 
Islands but is undoubted!}- of Chinese origin, the feathers African. 

At Saffron Walden, Audley End, .some fourteen miles from 
Cambridge, in the Museum at the east end of the church is said to 



.52 



Oxford. 




Fig. 70. 

Tae a feather cape from the Hawaiian Islands. Another was re- 
ported at St. Augustine's College, Canterbury. It was also learned 
here that at Cirencester, Belfast and Dublin are Hawaiian imple- 
ments in the museums, but time was too limited to explore these 
localities. 

Another excursion was made to Oxford where the hospi- 
tality of H. Balfonr, Esq., the well-known Curator of the ethno- 
logical colle(5lions made that attra(5tive town still more interesting. 
The Pitt-Rivers collecl:ion forms a large part of the Ethnological 
Museum which is of great extent and value, but the arrangement, 
while admirable for the study of comparative ethnology, renders an 
■enumeration of specimens from a given locality almost impossible 
in a limited time. Thus the different methods of dressing the hair 
all over the world might be grouped together; the musical instru- 
ments, the projectile weapons, the means of generating fire would 
form other groups and this would be possible onh' in a ver}^ exten- 
sive colle(ftion. It is exceedingly fortunate that all museums are 
not arranged on identical lines, for to one geographical contiguity, 
to another racial characfteristics, while to a third the comparative 



Oxford — South K'nisim^foii. c^ 

solution of problems which must present themselves to the uncivil- 
ized human beings, is the objecftive point of study. If then the 
Oxford Museum occupies but a meagre space in this report it is not 
from its po\-erty but from its richness which defies comprehension 
in a passing visit. Among the treasures seen were: 

Hawaiian feather helmet, the feathers gone; a small idol of 
wood and some fine kapas. A bowl of large size from the vSolo- 
mon Islands. Fijian and Marquesan clubs, and a series of fine 
Pump-drills. The Fijian lotus clubs (Fig. 70) were very inter- 
esting. 

It was a matter of deep regret that illness prevented my 
seeing Dr. E. B. Tylor to whom I had letters. 

Ax Eltham the private collecflion of J. Edge Partington, 
Esq., was examined, and among his choice things were: 

Vitian Yaqona bowd 33 inches in diameter. 3 Marquesan clubs. 
Maori trumpet, better carved than any seen. New Guinea small 
car\-ed wood head in which to put pubic hairs. 

To return to London. In the Royal College of Physicians 
and Surgeons are: 

3 Maori mokoed heads. 5 Australian skeletons. 5 Tasmanian 
skeletons. Several Maori and other Polynesian crania. 

In the library of the Anthropological Institute is a very fine 
Tasmanian skeleton, and at the meeting of that society on June 
9th to which I was invited, Gen. Robley exhibited 14 Maori heads 
that had been subjected to moko*. 

At the Natural Hi.stor}- Museum at South Kensington Sir 
William Flower the Director and several of his Curators did all 
that was needed to explain the collecl;ion and their arrangement. 
Both visits to this institution were made on dull days and hence 
perhaps the place seemed not quite well lighted in some depart- 
ments. Mr. Smith the Curator of Conchology exhibited, among 
other treasures, the type specimen of Helix sandzvicensis. Here as 
elsewhere in England they stick to the antiquated term "Sandwich 
Islands" apparently in ignorance that for nearly half a century the 

*See H. G. Robley, Moko nr Mami Talooiiig: London, 1S96. 



54 South Kensington. 

Hawaiian Islands have formed an independent nation and compe- 
tent by the law of nations to seledt its own name. The names of 
the separate Islands are often miss-spelled, following Cook's very 
blundering method. Indeed at Oxford it was insisted that the 
Hawaiian Group was not only "Sandwich Islands" but was in the 
South Pacific, and there were large printed labels to that effedt. 
On the continent the orthography is in advance of that of the very 
conservative scientific men of England : It maj' be noted here that 
the committee in charge of the exploration of the zoology of these 
islands by Mr. R. C. ly. Perkins, whose expenses were borne 
equally by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
the Royal Society and the Bishop Museum, is styled (as it might 
properly have been in the days of Cook and Vancouver) "Sandwich 
Islands Committee", and the chairman Sir Alfred Newton declared 
that under the term Hawaiian Islands they could not have secured 
an appropriation! 

To return to the Natural History Colle(5lions at South Ken- 
sington: the following are the notes made in what was certainly a 
very hurried and superficial examination. There is no criticism of 
the immense scientific value of the colledlion, nor of the vast work 
and learning that Sir William Flower and his able assistants have 
expended on the museum; it is simply as the place appeared to a 
visitor who had seen the principal similar collections in the world. 

"The colle(ftion of corals (especially the Madreporarian) is 
very fine, usually illustrated with colored diagrams of the polyp. 
The Reptilia are generally well mounted, and the Saurians es- 
pecially so. Gigantic L,and Tortoises abound. Fish are by no 
means attracftively arranged, but the Birds are intended to be capi- 
tal, and in many cases they certainl}^ are as near perfe(ft as the 
taxidermist is likely to make them; in some, however, there is a 
verj^ "artificial flower" atmosphere about them. In the Botanical 
Hall at the top of the building large specimens of Raoulia exiniia, 
Hooker, the "Vegetable Sheep" of New Zealand were very inter- 
esting: the drawings of Fungi excellent. On a huge section of 



Ph i/a dclp h ia — \Va sli ///o- ton . 55 

tree a man was painting memoranda of historical events of the cen- 
turies the tree had lived and formed its rings. The Palseontologi- 
cal Rooms are wonderful, but the collecflion of Moa bones does 
not equal that at Christchurch, New Zealand. The Hall of Min- 
erals above it is rather dismal (I remember that was its characfler 
when thirty-three years ago I visited it in Great Russell Street 
with all the euthusia.sm of a young mineralogist), as nothing 
breaks the fiat uniformity of the cases. Vienna and Paris present 
a much more attractive exhibition. The Cetaceans in the base- 
ment were well worth a visit* . The British colledlion is capital and 
very accessible to students and amateurs. The statue of Darwin 
at the head of the stairway and that of Sir Joseph Banks higher up 
at the other end of the hall seemed where and what they should be. 
The former looks down upon cases filled with illustrations of the 
special studies to which the elaboration of the Darwinian theory 
gave rise." 

Leaving England June 13 on the "St. I^ouis" from South- 
ampton for New York, the first museum visited in America was 
that of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. Here Dr. 
Sharp, Prof. Heilpron, and Mr. Pilsbry did all in their power to 
make the collecftions accessible. While this museum is strongest in 
mollusks and birds, there were in the ethnological department some 
good kapas brought b}- Rembrandt Peale of the United States Ex- 
ploring Expedition from the Hawaiian, Society and Tougan Islands. 
This department was not yet arranged in the new wing recently 
completed. Washington was reached June 24th and the National 
Museum was the chief attracftion. The late Dr. J. Brown Goode, 
who was at the head of the museum, and Professor Otis T. Mason, 
the Curator of Ethnology, were exceedingl}' obliging, the former 
promising to send to the Bishop Museum a complete set of the pub- 
lications of the U. S. P'ish Commission of which he was also 
Direcftor. With Prof. Mason the Pacific collections, largely from 

* Since then a very admirable system of exhibition has been adopted; the skeleton is 
enclosed on one half by a covered framework representing the outer surface of the whale. 



56 Washington — Nezv Yoi'k. 

the Wilkes Expedition, were examined and fine specimens of kapa 
obtained. Among the Hawaiian matters were: 

5 Lei paloa of good quality. Feather cloak. 2 Feather capes 
(the best one on deposit). Feather lei of Oo. le kuku, the 
largest seen in any colle(5lion, and several good ones of ordinary 
size . 

The casts of Australian, Papuan, Maori and Samoan are 
good in the order named. The Samoan is a most unfortunate 
selection for type as he is emaciated and shows not a particle of 
the embonpoint so charadleristic of his race. There were fine Vitian 
spears and clubs but everything was terribly crowded in a wholly 
unsuitable building. It is to be hoped that the American people 
will some day demand that Congress shall appropriate several mil- 
lions for a proper edifice for this great National colledlion. An 
agreeable interview was had with Dr. Rathburn at the Fish Com- 
mission Building. 

In New York was found the American Museum, perhaps the 
best all round Natural History museum yet vSeen. In the first 
place the building wastes nothing in mere archite(5lure but is 
strong, fire-proof, well lighted, capable of extension through the 
large open space in which it stands, and is accessible and well 
adapted for its purpo.se. The best building in the world will not 
make a great or useful museum, and unless the contents are well 
selec5led, sufficiently numerous and well preserved and arranged 
both for exhibition and study the house is naught. Here the taxi- 
dermy was the best seen in any museum, and the labelling was by 
far the best seen anywhere. Dr. Franz Boaz was rearranging the 
ethnological portion in a hall on the lower floor, hence the speci- 
mens were not yet corredlly labelled, so no attempt was made to 
catalogue those from the Pacific. The collection was rich however 
in good examples of Polynesian and Papuan work, although per- 
haps the strongest series is the Alaskan. Groups are frequent 
illustrating native work, as has been provided for with the Hawaii- 
ans in the Bishop Museum. As an example of the instru(5lion to 



New llOtk /yOSfoil . ^y 

be obtained I'roiii the labels, the Halil)iit hook, f/a'caua, of the 
Haida Indians, a hook used 1>\- the Kamehaniehas, is said to be 
made of the wood of the Thuja gigantea , the line is of red cedar 
bark and the whole is bound together by the split roots of the 
spruce tree; all of this information on the neatly printed label. 
In Prof. Henry F. Osborn's department the labels almost make the 
dry bones of the fossils live again, for there is not merely the name, 
locality and history of the specimen, but also a diagram of the 
outer form ouce covering the skeleton, and perhaps a picture of the 
nearest living relatives. Then the fossils are excavated from the 
bedrock and brought into high relief seen nowhere else. The col- 
le(5lion of fossils is, by the way, one of the most complete in the 
world. The officers' rooms, workrooms and store rooms are capital. 

There were three Au.stralian skeletons, two male and one 
female. A fine skeleton of Dinornis niaxiimis and seven other 
moas. From New Zealand was a vie re 19.3 inches long and 5^ 
wide of light colored jade, and several Heitikis of which it was 
noticed that the flounder-like head of one turned to the left while 
four turned to the right. A model of a w^ar canoe. Clubs from 
Fiji, Samoa and elsewhere were still piled on the floor and could 
not be examined, but the general conclusion was that the museum 
was not strong in articles from the Pacific Region. 

In Boston the first colleclion visited was the Art Museum 
where are deposited two Hawaiian feather cloaks. One was 
brought to Boston by the Columbia* and is of red, ornamented with 
yellow disks, and triangles on the borders. The measurements 
given on the label card (which was in most other respe(5ts quite 
wrong) were, 5 feet 6 inches long; 2 feet, 10 inches on neck line; 
13 feet on the bottom line. The smaller cloak was of red ground 
with yellow border and triangles, and with .se(5lions of long feathers 
in spherical triangles in the midst of the cloak. It was 34^ inches 
long, and 89^4 inches wide. These are deposited for exhibition 

*The ship Columbia. Capt. John Hendrick, sailed from Boston September 30, 1787, vis- 
ited the Hawaiian Islands and returned to Boston August 10. 1790, ha\'ing carried the United 
States flag for the first time around the world. 



58 Boston — Cambridge. 

and are both lined with a woolen fabric which renders it difficult to 
examine the nae or net. The smaller one has been used for a 
sleigh-robe. 

The Boston Society of Natural History was visited because 
it once had a fine collecftion of Hawaiian lavas, corals and botani- 
cal specimens given by the present writer, and a skeleton of a 
Hawaiian woman given by the late Horace Mann. The building 
was found in an untidy condition, the colledtions crowded, in poor 
condition, and often incorre(5ll3^ named. The La Fresnaye col- 
ledlion of birds has suffered much from negledt during the past 
twenty years and the labels are often surprising as in the series of 
the Australian Gyvinorhina which are absurdly confused. This 
museum possessed a dried Maori head. 

In refreshing contrast to this was the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology in Cambridge. Certainly there was not a great deal 
from the Pacific except in corals and mollusks, but there was an 
Australian skeleton, and a small number of Hawaiian birds from 
Wilson. The Ware colle(5lion of Blatscha glass models of flowers 
is ver}' attradlive, although some of the tropical flowers and fruits 
did not seem to have full size or color. Perhaps in Jamaica where 
the material for these was mo-stlj' colle(5led fruits do not color so 
brightly as on the Hawaiian Islands. In this museum everything 
was clean, well preserv'Cd and in order. 

The Peabody Museum of American Ethnology and Archae- 
ology certainh' gives its first attention to American matters, and 
under its distinguished Diredlor Prof. F. W. Putnam (who is also 
Dire(5lor of the American Museum in New York), it has attained 
an important place among the mu.seums of the world. Still it con- 
tains, probably by the force of gravitation a number of articles 
from the Pacific of which the following is a tolerably complete list 
at least of the Hawaiian specimens on exhibition: 

Hawaiian Islands. 
Auamo or Bearing-stick, common form. Broom of coconut leaf 
ribs. Laau melomelo, large. 5 Huewai pawehi; one of com- 
mon kind. Umeke of wood 20^ inches in diameter, flat. Umeke 



Cambridge. eg 

of wood, small. Ipii kuha, round with hook handle. 2 Kahuna 
awa cup.s of coconut. 2 Knives of kauila wood set with shark 
teeth, one with 14 the other with 15 teeth. 5 Pohaku kui poi. 

3 Polulu kauila, smooth; 12 Pololu (spears), barbed. L,aau 
lomilomi kua. 2 Koko puupuu. 13 Koi pohaku (stone adze 
heads). Niihau mat. Niihau moena pawehe s^iven b}- W. T. B. 
Olona fibre prepared for spinning. Square fish basket of pau- 
danus leaves. Umeke pawehe ipu with plain cover, broken and 
in net, large. Rattle of ipu and one of coconut. Ipu hahano or 
syringe. Ipu pueo, not finished. Hula drum, ipu pawahe; 
another plain. Ipu pawehe for keeping kapas. Ipu pawehe. 
Lei of Niihau shells. Lei of Coix lachryma. 2 Lei of (9f feathers 
(perhaps dyed). 3 Lei niho palaoa. Lei niho and hook. Kukui 
nut lei. Lei of white Petlcn shells. Several bone bosses for 
kupee. Kupee of boar tusks, good. 3 Kapa moe with pink 
kilohana. Kapa pa'u hula and man)^ kapa specimens, including 
some of the Cook series. 2 Umeke kou, Helmet of red and yel- 
low feathers, common form. Helmet of wicker without feathers. 

4 Paddles, 3 of them with ihu. Model of double canoe. Model 
of single canoe with sail but no outrigger. Model of single 
canoe, small. Large le kuku, 3 inches on a side; 7 common 
ones. 4 Koi pohaku with handles. Stone bowl. 3 Ulumaika. 
2 Squid hooks and 2 sinkers for squid hooks. 4 Polishing stones. 
Sling stone from Nuuanu pali. Netting and needles. Niihau 
mat fine old fragment. Pillow of coarse pandanus, also model of 
pillow. Lei of dried Solamim aculeatissimiini. Assortment of 
cordage and braid. Fans of pandanus and of coconut leaf. 
Pounder of curious form. 8 Bone fish hooks. Tobacco pipe of 
orange wood. Ukeke with two strings. 

Tonga Islands. 

4 Clubs. 3 Wooden pillows, two of them broken. 

Marquesas Isla?ids. 

5 Clubs, good. 3 Paddles. 3 Gorgets of wood once covered 
with seeds of Abrus pi^ecatorius. 

Hervey Islands. 
Car\-ed wood seat like those from the Society Islands. 8 Carved 
ceremonial paddles. Carved paddle with central opening. 7 Cere- 
monial adzes, one small and one well car\-ed. 

Neiv Zealajid. 
4 Mere of greenstone; another thick and coarse. Human head 



6o Ca m bridge — Sa lem . 

canned in kauri gum. Taiaha. 3 Tewhatewha without feathers 
or ornaments. Small canoe prow, well carved. Dress of Phor- 
w/?^;;/ flax. Carved stick ( genealogical? ) . 

Fiji. 
6 Clubs, pineapple; 8 Clubs, musket; i Lotus; 11 Throwing; 4 
Knobbed. Yaquona bowl 27 in. in diameter, good. 7 Pots, 
common forms. Oil dish, small. 8 spears of fine quality; many 
ordinary ones. 3 Fish spears, 4 pronged, sennit bound. Canni- 
bal fork. Stone adze. Woven leaf satchel. Pandanusfan. Wood 
pillow, broken, 

Australia . 
5 Boomerangs. Quartz knife. Stone club. Nulla nulla. Dress 
of cords. Net. 

Neiv Guinea. 
2 Drums, one wdth rattles. Many bags, spears, spatulas, adzes. 
Dance paddle. Fringe dress. 

Neiv Caledonia. 
Short adze and greenstone disk club. 

New Britain. 
14 Stone disk clubs; 2 Star clubs.. 

Micronesia. 
Kalo hoe of turtle bone. Large mat made for Kamehameha V., 
given by W. T. B. ^Snratl mat. Spear with two guards bound 
with pandanus. Many shark teeth swords. Shell sticks for 
dances. Shell money, Gilbert Islands. Shell adze. Yap. Coco- 
nut fibre cord covered with pandanus braid. Nine club, Solomon 
Islands bows and arrows. Gambler Islands paddle. 

Professor Putnam's Assistant Mr. Frank Willoughby was at 
the time rearranging these specimens in a new hall. 

The Peabody Institute and Marine Museum at Salem was 
visited with Prof. Edward S. Morse who was familiar with the 
whole establishment. It was impossible in the limited time to do 
more than look at the specimens from the Pacific Region, but those 
brought home by the old Salem shipmasters for the most part, are 
of good quality and great interest. 

Haivaiian Islands. 
Niho palaoa. 2 Kupee puaa. 5 Huewai pawehe. 5 le kuku. 



Sa 1 1 -III — Ch f'aro-o . 6 1 

Many good kapas. Large idol of ohia wood from Hawaii*. 
PI. XIX. Cups and drinking vessels of Alaskan basket work, 
said to have belonged to Kamehameha III. 

24 Clubs, throwing; 10 clubs, pineapple; 13 musket; 2 lotus; 10 
knobbed. 5 War paddles aiid several fine spears. 2 Temple 
models . 

A^ezi' Zealand. 
Carved sword with shark teeth. 3 Mere of whale rib. 7 Mere 
of greenstone. 4 Patu of can-ed wood. 3 Tewhatewha. 3 Carved 
fifes. I Trumpet. Bailer. Door cap. 

Mai'qtiesas Islands. 

6 Clubs. II Paddles. Stilt-rest. 3 Gorgets covered with .4 ^rwj- 
beans. 

Hervey Islands. 
Carved food scoop. 3 Paddles, usual form. 

Samoan Islands. Human figure of carved wood. 

In Chicago the Field Columbian Museum w^as visited. While 
the colle(5tion is rich in many departments, it has little of import- 
ance to illustrate the Pacific Region. 
New Caledo)iia . 
2 Death masks. Club of greenstone. 5 Bird-bill clubs. 2 Adzes. 
A Samoan Upete of wood cylindrical surface, 40 inches long, was 
interesting. A Fijian Yaqona bowl; New Guinea clubs of usual 
form, a few Australian implements are about all. 

Mr. W. H. Holmes, the Curator and Mr. G. A. Dorsey his 
Assistant were both ver}- courteous in showing the museum. The 
Anthropological arrangements in charge of the latter, were well 
planned and thoroughh* carried out. It is to be hoped that such 
valuable collecftions may soon have a building more substantial 
than the one left b}^ the late Columbian Exhibition. 

In the Mormon Mu.seum in Salt Lake City are two small 
Hawaiian idols given by Kalakaua, and of which the Bishop 
Museum has photographs. Fig. 71. 

*Only three of these images are known to exist, the one in the British Museum 
(PI. XIV): this at Salem, and one in the Bishop Museum (7654). 



62 



San Francisco. 



The Hall of the California Academy of Sciences in San 
Francisco contains: 

Marquesas Islands. 
Double idol of stone, small size. 2 Casts of similar idols. 4 Casts 
of stone idols, present locality of originals not stated. ( Voy Col- 

lecftioii. Carved wood 
images. 3 Human 
hair armlets with 
bone cylinders. Carv- 
ed coconut cup. 
Wooden bowl with 
two carved human 
figures for handles at 
each side, 35.8 in. in 
diameter, 8 in. deep, 
2 in. thick, of heavy 
u n k n o w n wood . 3 
Old men's white 
beards used for orna- 
ments. Coconut water 
bottle in net. Stilt 
rest. 2 Stilt rests of 
white wood ( models ) . 
Large drum 22 in. 
high, 16 in. in diame- 
ter at the base. 

Fiji. 
2 Pots of good work- 
manship. 5 Throwing 
clubs and a pineapple 
club. Stone adze. 

Hervcy Islands. Paddle and 2 carved adzes. 

Solomon Islands. Spears and bows and arrows. 

Admiralty Islands. 
Food bowl, round, 48 inches in diameter, damaged. 

Micronesia. 

Coconut fibre armor swords and knives of shark teeth from the 
Gilbert Islands. 




Sa>/ Francisco . 63 

Ausitalia and iVca' Guinea. 
Stuffed specimens of Cassowary and Emu. 

Ah-iC Hebrides. 
Pseudo mummy with human skiill from Mallicolo*. 

These lists will roughly represent the colle(5lions of material 
accessible to students. The number of specimens remaining in 
private hands as curiosities is very limited if exception be made of 
showy clubs, canoe models and the like. It will be seen that in all 
museums weapons predominate. Spears are very numerous for 
they are from their length inconvenient in private houses. There 
are perhaps weapons enough preserved in museums to arm every 
able bodied native in the Pacific region at the present day. The 
following is an approximate estimate of the number of certain 
prominent articles to be found in museums: 

BISHOP ELSE- 
MUSEUM. WHERE. 

Dried Maori heads with Moko (Gen'l Robley) - - 50 

Hei-vey Islands Ceremonial Adzes ------- 2 40 

" " " Paddles ------ 4 c;o 

Heitikis, New Zealand ------------ 3 71 

Pump Drills ---------------- 6 27 

Hawaiian Feather and wicker Helmets ----- 2 30 

Cloaks ----------- 6 27 

Capes ----------- 6 55 

Gods ----------- 2 9 

Vitian Clubs, Musket and Lotus -------- 8 247 

Pine-apple ----------- 2 92 

Knobbed ------------ 4 159 

" " Throwing ----------- 15 210 

" " Round ------------- 4 103 

" Pots ---------- 7 — • 

Solomon Islands Arrows ----------- 150 6000 

New Caledonian Disk Clubs --------- 40 

" " Death masks -------- 2 25 

Marquesan Clubs -------------- 34 

Hawaiian wooden idols ----------- 25 40 

stone idols ------------ 20 18 

It may be of little use to estimate the number of specimens 
representing the island groups of the central Pacific, but it may 
show to some extent the material available for stud}^ from each 
group. It should be remembered that the Melanesian or Papuan 
races are more extensive manufacturers than their Polynesian 

* These figures are covered with seaweed, and moulded with a mixture of red cane 
ashes kneaded with unripe coconut water. When this is dry- a priming coat of the juice of 
the Artocarpus and then painted with ochres, etc. 



64 General Conclusions. 

neighbors. Of the latter the Hawaiians made the greatest variety 
of articles, the Maoris the best car^dngs, although the Hervey 
Islanders pressed the Maoris close in quality of work, but b}^ no 
means in variety. 

A curious observation was made that the cannibals did better 
work than those who did not lo^'e their fellow men in that way. The 
cannibal tlieors' is one of absorption of the qualities and faculties of 
the eaten b}- the eater: hence the natural desire to eat the bravest 
of one's enemies even if the musculature be very tough, and a gen- 
uine cannibal will not eat a woman or child unless pressed by 
hunger. The Maoris, Fijians, Solomon Islanders, New Hebri- 
deans and Marquesans were the most thorough-going cannibals, 
and the}' were the best workmen in the Pacific, and their produ(5ls 
are the most sought as curiosities. 

With the exception of the Maori heads there is no colle(flion 
of tatued skins shown in any museum, although in a German medi- 
cal museum was seen an album of tatued patterns found on the white 
subje(5ls in the dissecfting room, and in the Warren Medical Museum 
in Boston was a fine specimen of a complete Marquesan(?) tatued 
skin. Yet the art is d3-ing out with the compulsor}- adoption of 
clothes and the significance of the elaborate patterns used by the 
Marquesans, Hervey Islanders, Samoans* and others will soon be 
lost. When the unfortunate Samoan governed by a very "mixed" 
commission is fined 7/6 every time he is caught bathing without a 
lavalava or waist cloth, he must abandon the elaborate skin deco- 
ration he can no longer exhibit. 

Again what do the museums show of the cooker}- of the 
Pacific Islanders? It was not the simple matter often supposed, 
and a cannibal feast was a most elaborate affair. The imii or 
earth oven of the Hawaiians and others was a most capital thing, 
and the ovens for baking "long pig" were both ingenious and 

* F. von I^uschan. Beitiag zui- Kenntniss der Tatowiiung in Samoa. Berlin, 1S97. This 
verj- interesting treatise on Samoan tatumg should be followed by a similar investigation of 
the more elaborate work of the Marquesan and Aitutakian tatuer. The Samoan men that I 
have observed in four visits to Samoa were quite as well decorated as in Dr. von Lushan's 
plates, but the contrast of colors is not so harsh as when reduced to black and white. 



General Conclusions. 65 

suitable. The preparation of "made dishes" was an art practised 
by all Polynesians, and the artificial preservation of food was well 
understood in Micronesia and elsewhere. 

Then the medicine of the.se peoples does not exist in any 
museum, with the exception of one or two surgical appliances from 
the Hawaiian Islands in the Dr. Arning colle(5tion at Berlin. It is 
war. war, war all the time: clubs, swords, spears, arrows, slings 
and shields form the vast majorit}- of specimens in all museums, 
and yet these war-like people did not fight all the time. Certainly 
the Poh-nesians were a race fond of sports and had man}- games, 
but with the exception of the dancing appliances there is hardly a 
hint of these in mu.seums, except at Berlin. In no museum was 
any attempt made to illustrate the manufadlure of kapa or bark- 
cloth the universal Poh-nesian clothing, so far as any was necessary. 
It is true that in most of them kapa beaters and stamps as well as 
the finished material are found, but they are never brought together, 
and a visitor or even a student would be puzzled to make out the 
connedlion between the disjefla membra of the complicated process. 

Idols abound, but they are not distinguished from mere im- 
ages like those from Rapanui (Easter Island) which are not objects 
of worship, or those from New Guinea which are Penates. Every- 
where the}- are simple curiosities. The missionaries to the Pacific 
did not, like those w^ho invaded Mexico, destroy ever>i:hing that 
had what they considered the Devil's mark, but they sent home to 
Eondon and to Boston specimens with more or less explanation, 
and it is not on them but on the museums that the blame must 
rest if this information is often lost with the labels. The Eondon 
collection has greatly enriched the British Museum, and the one 
gathered in the Boston Cabinet has come to the Bishop Museum. 
In the latter place it is intended soon to show the modes of worship 
and the place of .some of the "forty thousand and four hundred 
thousand gods". Much is known of the Pacific theogony but no 
museum has imparted this knowledge; it has come from Turner, 
Gill, Codrington and other missionaries. 

O.P.— B.P.B.M. E 



66 General Conclusions. 

The method adopted in Paris, Washington and New York 
as well as in the Bishop Museum* of making casts from life of 
natives in their peculiar occupations cannot be too much praised, 
only it will never do to make the casts from poor wretches travel- 
ing with some show, or d}'ing of disease in some hospital. It would 
be desirable for several museums to combine and send to the Pacific 
a sculptor competent to select and cast and color good specimens of 
the races fast disappearing from their island homes. The Bishop 
Museum is doing this for the Hawaiian Islands, who will under- 
take the other groups? 

It was found that very few museums had a system of pho- 
tography; indeed the Museum fiir Volkerkunde at Berlin where 
the accomplished Dr. von Luschan is a skilled photographer was 
the only one prepared to exchange photographs of its contents. 
And 3'et this seems a very important adjunct to museum work. If 
all important articles were photographed and the negatives kept 
and classified as a card catalogue might be, Curators would be saved 
all farther trouble or risk in disturbing large specimens when ap- 
plication is made to photograph them. By a system of exchange of 
prints students in any one museum could easily see what in the lines 
of their studies was to be found in other museums far better than any 
catalogue, however explicit, could inform them. Then as ver}' few 
ethnological museums have printed catalogues that are more than 
mere lists, the need of good photographs becomes more imperative. 

The question has often been asked what sizes of plates should 
be used, and it may be answered that for all useful purposes the 
sizes in use at the Bishop Museum seem most convenient. The 
largest plate 8X lo inches is suitable for illu.stration full page size 
of ordinary quarto publications and for maps; the next size 5X8 is 
the bCvSt for landscapes, views, groups, full-length figures or por- 
traits front and profile on one plate, or for three views of any objedl 
(as crania) on the same plate, or for full-page illu.stration, octavo 

*The casts already made for the Bishop Museum include a Kahutia or native priest in 
he solemn act of "praying to death"; a powerful man in the prime of life scraping olond- 
a young boy and a full grown man pounding poi: a girl of eleven years and an old woman 
beating kapa. All these are well colored and wear the dress of ancient times. 



Gonral Conchisioiis. 67 

size; in facl it is the plate most generally useful. The smallest, 
4X5 is of great convenience for single objedls. One good 8X10 
camera can be utilized for all these sizes in museum work, but for 
the field two cameras 5X8 and 4X5 should be used; the smaller is 
much the best for catching groups, peculiar postures or occupa- 
tions. An experience of thirty-five years in pra(5tical photography, 
photographic journeys in Central America and across the American 
continent, camera work in the tropics and on mountain tops nearly 
14,000 feet high, leads to the belief that 5X8 is the largest size to 
be taken into the field, and that only for stereoscopic work or sev- 
eral pictures one plate. For views the 4X5 size is ample, as with 
a good enlarging camera all reasonable sizes can be obtained from 
that. The slowest plates that the subjecft admits of are best. 

Prints for museum exchanges should be on bromide paper 
unless needed for reproducftion in which case a smooth surface 
silver print is more desirable. Bromide prints need no mounting 
but can be bound dire(5tly as book plates or illustrations. 

In regard to exchanges we are unfortunately situated since 
there are no European or American museums that have duplicates 
from our region that we do not already possess. Exchanges of 
photographs and of publications are however readily arranged, and 
as soon as the Bishop Museum can issue the first part of its 
Memoirs, exchanges will commence with nearly a hundred scientific 
societies and museums whose publications are needed in our library . 

As to the installation of exhibits, no halls were found so 
well lighted as ours or more accessible for visitors; no cases better 
suited to the needs of this climate than those now in Polynesian 
Hall. The iron cases in the Berlin Museum are excellent, but 
although more expensive are certainly not ornamental. The sys- 
tem of plate glass shelves there in use has been discontinued owing 
to the great expense and liability to breakage in readjusting ex- 
hibits, disadvantages found to more than counterbalance economy of 

For a studio camera I have found the American Optical Co. No. 22 Imperial camera, 
8x10 size with Waterbury curtain slide holder the most convenient. It is sold by the Scovill 
and Adams Co., New York. 



68 General Conclusions. 

space and additional lighting facilities the glass certainl}- affords. 
With plenty of light about the case wooden shelves do very well. 

In labels the greatest deficiency is shown in almost all Euro- 
pean museums, even the great one at Berlin cannot be entirely 
excepted. The expense of properly printing labels is certainly 
considerable, but the information that a comprehensive label legi- 
bly printed can afford is worth all it costs. Man^^ of the large 
museums have their own presses worked by one of the regular as- 
sistants. One museum in the colonies which had well-printed 
labels on many, but by no means all, of its large exhibits, had 
spent several hundred pounds on the work which was done outside . 
By the u.se of a Golding Pearl Press any of the labels can be printed 
as needed and much time saved in correcfting printer's mistakes in 
the technical words generally in use. This will require a large 
variety of type but only small fonts of each kind: Book plates, 
notices and lists of duplicates or exchanges can easil}' be printed on 
such a press and a very complete outfit would cost less than $400. 

T^-pe-written labels and those made with rubber stamps are 
unadvisable as the aniline inks used with these will certainly fade 
in sunlight, even if not direct, at least in the tropics. 

The American museum in New York was b}- far the best 
equipped with labels of any museum visited, and the Boston Society 
of Natural History has also good labels. In the former institution 
the printing is done outside, in the latter a printer has been for 
3-ears employed not onl}- to do the printing of labels but also to 
attend to the composition of the many publications of the Society, 
the presswork and binding being done outside. With good labels 
an expensive catalogue which in a growing museum is soon out of 
date may be dispensed with. 

How to increase the museum exhibits and obtain desiderata 
is a most important question and needs great consideration. Cer- 
tair articles that can now only be found in large museums ma}^ be 

since this report was written the Bishop Museum has been provided with such a press 
(Golding & Co., Boston, Pearl No. 3) and type not only for the labels (many of which have 
already been printed) but also for the publications of the museum. The label printing has 
proved a great success. This report and other publications are composed in the museum 
office; the presswork is done outside. 



General Conclusions. 69 

represented by casts or photographs, but the many things not in 
this museum but still obtainable may be purchased in some ca.ses 
of the dealers but generally must be collecfted either by our own or 
the explorers for the other museums who have duplicates. In the 
latter case we take the leavings at the cost of the best; with our 
own collecftors we reverse the situation. The purchase of special 
colleiflions is often best in economy, but the best of all, and if wisely 
done not the most expensive wa}', is to do one's own colle(5ting, 
for then every specimen has attached to it a surprising fund of in- 
formation and is not simply a curiosity. Your trained colledlor 
sees for himself how each thing is used and generally can obtain 
its name in the vernacular. If Ethnology is to progress in the 
Pacific Region this course must be taken, and this Museum which 
is the largest in this region should undertake at least its share of 
this work. As the English Scientific Societies sent a trained col- 
lector to gather the Hawaiian Birds and Insedts, so the Bishop 
Museum must send one or more men to the groups where vernacu- 
lar implements are fast disappearing. The Marquesas, Fiji, Her- 
ve}', Tonga and Society Islands will have little to show the Ethnol- 
ogist ten years from now. 

This journey has shown how little is to be obtained from 
other museums, and it has as clear!}- demon.strated that the needs 
of this and other museums must be supplied from the islands them- 
selves if at all. And although there are many things in attics and 
private cabinets that will b}' gift or purchase come to this museum, 
the}- will be dead things no longer able to tell their name, use or 
origin, and the money spent for such things, yes every dollar, 
should be appropriated to the expenses of a collecftor. 

As to the Natural History of our region Mr. Perkins' admir- 
able work here has shown what treasures there are even in a region 
so long known and so accessible as the Hawaiian Islands. Groups 
like Fiji and the Society Islands would probably be nearly as rich. 
If all the birds and insedts of the chief groups in the Pacific, even 
omitting Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea, were repre- 
sented in our cases we should have room for them and do no more 



yo • General Conclusions. 

than the position of the Bishop Museum demands. It was impos- 
sible to examine the Natural History collections thoroughly for 
specimens from the Pacific: that would be a work of many months. 
London and Paris have the largest lot of Polynesian plants, although 
Cambridge (Massachusetts) has a large number of species. Berlin 
and other museums probably lead in Ornithology, while the marine 
species are tolerably distributed among the principal museums of 
America. Corals abound in the British Museum and in the Museum 
of Comparative Anatomy (Agassiz) at Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Another important objecT: of this journey w^as an examina- 
tion into the feasibility of establishing a Marine Zoological Station 
here as a branch of the work of this Museum. Of the advantages 
of such an institution to science and to this country nothing need 
be said. Of the desirability of such a Station to the Museum it 
may be said that without it the latter institution would require a 
very large outlay for colledting the Hawaiian Marine Fauna, with- 
out considering the expense of preserving and exhibiting, and the 
salaries of experts to determine the species colle(5ted. Another 
large building would be required as well as considerable accommo- 
dation near the shore. The proposed Station or lyaborator}- would 
do all this besides relieving the museum of some of its present col- 
lections, thus giving additional shelf space. The possibility of its 
establishment depends wholly on the amount of money that is avail- 
able for the purpose. This country is remarkably rich in marine 
life, the climate is admirable, the site accessible to the world. 
Lines of steamships could bring to our tanks marine life from the 
East Indies, China, Japan, Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico 
and Central America, without passing through a cold climate. 
Instead of exciting jealousy on the part of older establishments, 
the projedt meets warm encouragement and approbation from all 
whose encouragement and approval are most worth. 

Plans have been prepared, which will in due time be sub- 
mitted to the Trustees, for a large and imposing building of stone 
to contain a tank -room with fourteen tanks for the public exhibi- 
tion of marine life, the growth of corals, etc.: a museum room to 
contain the preparations to illustrate marine life in the Tropics: a 
spacious hall between these wings for smaller, fresh water tanks, 
ferns and plants, and to be used as a general resting room. These 
will occup}' the ground floor and alone be accessible to the public. 
On the first floor will be the library, microscope rooms and a num- 
ber of laboratorv tables and tanks. One or more detached build- 



General Coiic!i(sioiis. 71 

ings will contain pump rooms, sorting chambers, food tanks, and 
above stairs laboratories. A light railway will extend from the 
wharf through the sorting and food rooms td the tank room or 
Aquarium. These subsidiary buildings whose plan will depend on 
the location of the institution will contain Preparator's store and 
work room, store rooms for glass, dredging and diving apparatus. 

The first work to be done will be a very thorough explora- 
tion of the shores and reefs of this Group, although this will not of 
course be continuous work. The tanks in the Aquarium will re- 
quire some time for the specimens to become established and fit for 
exhibition. This is especially the case with Aclinias, Corals and 
man>- of the lower forms of marine life. There will be discovered 
many new species which should be published as speedily as possi- 
ble in the Memoirs of the Museum, and be fully illustrated. The 
Aquarium will require a complete photographic outfit distincT; from 
that of the Museum, as all new forms brought in by the collecftors 
should be photographed while alive or at least while fresh, and an 
artist who is a good colorist should be permanently employed for 
this work. \"ery likely the artist in colors and the photographer 
can be the same person. The Diredlor has already devised simple 
apparatus for the convenient photographing of fish, etc., in tanks 
either by sunlight or the eledlric light. 

Another employee of constant importance is the Tank- 
keeper. It is his business to feed the animals, keep the tanks in 
order and look after the supply of water and air to the study as 
well as the exhibition tanks: the position requires knowledge as 
well as industry-, and he will need an apprentice. The Preparator 
will be a man skilled in the preparation of specimens for exhibition, 
and it will not only be his dut}' to prepare specimens for the museum, 
but to pack and forward all specimens and material to be sent to other 
museums, and in this department there will be many exchanges. 

A competent engineer to look after the pumps, filters, valves, 
etc., will be required, as well as one for the steam launch. It will 
be best to use for the pumps an electric motor, and if the building 
is within reach of the town water supply no pumping of fresh water 
will be required. With an electric motor and other modern appli- 
ances the engineer of the boat will serve in the other capacity also, 
and he will have an apprentice. A steam launch of such characfler 
as is used by the United States Fish Commission at Wood's Hole* 

* I am adWsed by Prof. A. Agassiz that a larger boat, 80 feet on the water line and 20 
feet beam, will be better for Hawaiian waters. 



7? General Conchisions. 

and elsewhere, built b}- the Herreshoffs, and one or two small 
naptha launches, to ser\'e as tenders and plankton gatherers, will 
be needed, but the latter can be run by members of the staff of 
students. 

The lyibrar}' will be an expensive and very important part 
of the establishment. While current publications will flow in with 
the exchanges, a large number of very expensive books will have 
to be purchased, and at least $20,000 will be required at the start. 
This should be in charge of a permanent Librarian and arrange- 
ments should be made to extend its use to anj- scientific students 
not diredlly connected with the Station so far as possible. 

Then for the staff. A man used to marine biological studies, 
preferabh' one at the head of a similar institution, should be ap- 
pointed Dean with at least three scientific assistants, the number to 
be determined as the work progresses, or as desirable persons offer. 
It may be admitted here that many applications have already been 
received so eager are scientific men to take advantage of the facili- 
ties for the study of tropical marine life that the proposed station 
would offer. 

There must be a general Janitor or caretaker of the build- 
ings and as the public rooms will alwa^'S be open to the public, 
there must be a principal attendant to sell catalogues or guide 
books, look after dogs, sticks and umbrellas, with an assistant for 
the Tank room and Museum. A man to keep the grounds in order, 
and several hands for the steamer while dredging. 

This is of course but the skeleton, and a disjointed one at 
that, of the possible Hawaiian Marine Biological Station, or as this 
is a very long name like that of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 
it might be well to call it the Bishop Aquarium, but it will simply 
show the Trustees that this part of his mission was not entirely 
negledled by the undersigned who presents this report. 



WILLIAM T. BRIGHAM. 



December 14, 1896. 
H0N01.U1.U. 



Director's* Kepcjrt 







2r.i^T/v;^t 






[&?»-*''■" 



Hawaiian Helmet (Cook Col. 



Director's Report 




Tahitian GoRCxET. 



Director's Report 



Plate III. 





Fie?- 3- 



Fig- 5- 




Fig. 4. 



Hawaiian Helmets. 



id; renter's Report 



PlHte IV 




Fig. 6. 



t'ig- 7- 



Hawaiian Feather-Work. 



r5ii-ectt>r'« Report 




Fig. 9. 





Fig:. 12. 



Fig. 8. 




Fig. 10. 



Hawaiian Implements. 



IDlrector's Report i 



Plate VI. 




Fig. 6o. Tahitian Sorcery IvAmp. 




Fig. 27. Shark Float. 



Director's Keport 



F>lfite VII. 




C E 

Fijian Clubs. 



Director's Report 



Plate VIII. 




Idoi. (Arning Col.). 



Director's Keport 



F»lHte IX. 




Idol: FormerIvY at Kahuku, Oahu 



Director's Report 



F»late X. 





Hawaiian Image: From Manoa, Oahu. 



Director's Report 



JPlate XI. 




Hawaiian Dish at I^eiden. 



X>irector's Report 



Plate XII. 







51 




Hawaiian Images. 



Director'^ Wepoi-t 



F'Uite XIII. 




Hawaiian Carved ImacxEs: British Museum. 



Director's Report 



F»late >:iV 




Fig. 59. Hawaiian iMAciK: British Mi'SEI'm. 



i:)irect<:)r's lieport 



F»lnte XV. 




Fig. 6i. Hawaiian Fans. 




Fig. 62. Maori vSacrificial Knives. 



Director's Report 



Plate X:VI. 




'rMtm^f^ '* - ■ 



■^sfJ. »r>' >^ |;;5|«B*^' 





Objects in British Museum. 



director's I'ieport 



P»l€«te XVII. 




Fig. 67. ToNGAN Bone Apron. 





Fig. 68. NiuE Spear. 



Fig. 44. ToNGAN Pillow 



Director's Fieport 



Folate XVIII. 




Lotus Club , Fiji. 



Oirector's Report 



PUite XIX. 




Hawaiian Idol: Salem, Mass. 



'J 



1801 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS 



OP THE 



BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM OP 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY. 



Vol. I. — No. 2. 



Director's Report for 1899. 



honolulu, h. i.: 
Bishop Museum Press. 
'1900. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS 



oi' Till-: 



BERXICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM OF 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY. 



Vol. L — No. 2. 



Director's Report for 1899. 



HOXOLl'LT, II. I.: 

Bishop Museum Press. 
I coo . 



To tlic Trustees of the Berniee Paualii Bishop MiiseiDu . 

Sirs: — I hereicitli submit luv Report ou the icork and eo7idition 
of the Museum for the year i8gg in aceordanee icitli the vote of the 
Trustees at the meeting- of January /j, igoo. 

WILLIAM T. BRIGHAAI, 

Director of the Museum. 
Honolulu, fanuary ^o, igoo. 



FEB 16 1901 



REPORT. 



TN inaugurating' a .s\steni of Annual Reports of a more formal 
character than has hitherto obtained during the few years 
since the opening of the Museum, it ma}' not be out of place 
to state the nature and objedis of this institution. In the Deed 
of Trust under which the Museum was established by Charles 
Reed Bishop the Trustees are directed to apply '"tlic }ict incoDic ( a) 
in and toward tlic maintenance, conduct and (to sue// extent as tJicy 
sliall in their absolute discretion t/iink fit ) furtJier equipment and 
developDioit of tlie said Bernice P. Bisliop Museum as a scientijic i}i- 
stitutiou for coIlecti)ig , preservings storing and ex/iibiti)io- specimens 
of Polynesian and fcindred Antiquities, Et/inotogv and Natural His- 
tory, and books treating of, and pictures illustrating tfie same, and 
for tfie e.vaniiiiation , iweestigation , treatment and study of said speci- 
mois and the publication of pictures thereof, and of the results of such 
in-eestigation and stud]', and ( b) if the said If-ustees or their succes- 
sors in the trust, shall in their absolute discretion thi)ik fit, i)i the pur- 
chase or lease of suitable site or suitable sites for, and in the erection , 
furnishing , equipping and condutling also as a scientific institution , 
on the /stand of (h^hu, I\epublic of Hazcaii , a Marine Aquarium and 
Biological Laboratory , but the trust in favor of tfie licrnice P. Bishop 
Museum shall alicays and in all things have precedence and be para- 
mount over the trust in favor of the said Marine Aquariuni and 
Biological I.aboratorv .' ' 

Working in these lines the Museum has "preserved, stored 
and exhibited" such specimens as have come to it by gift or pur- 
chase, and as will be seen by the lists of accessions during the past 
year many specimens have been added in this way, but in the first 

(5) 



6 Director' s Animal Report. 

work "colledling" in its true sense little has been done except in 
the Departments of Entomology, Ornithology and Radiata since 
the establishment of the Museum. It is true that the collections 
have grown, but it has been mainly by purchase, to a small extent 
by gift, and as yet no collecftors have been sent to the other groups 
of this Pacific region. This omission it is hoped may be remedied 
in the near future. A beginning was made in 1896 by sending the 
Director around the world to examine the ethnological collecftions 
in the principal museums, and to study especially the objects from 
the Pacific Region, many of which can no longer be obtained in 
the place of their original use. If of no other material advantage 
to this Museum, the extensive although havSty journe}- showed 
plainh- what had been done in other museums, and by inference 
what remained vxndone in the Bishop Museum. It strengthened 
the hope that one day, before the changes of civilization make it 
too late, the Natural History at least of the Pacific Region may be 
properly explored. In the Ethnology much has irrevocably passed 
away, much is pa.ssing, but it is not too late to gather material for 
comparison and study in many of the islands of this great ocean. 
In many of the groups of the south-eastern Pacific kapa making is 
still pracftised, tatuing is not a lost art, and at the other extreme 
geographically cannibalism is as rife as ever. 

Although not feeling prepared to begin the work of collecting 
independently, the Trustees welcomed the opportunity offered by 
the Committee of the London Royal Society and the British Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, and by furnishing one- 
third of the funds needed for the exploration of these Haw^aiian 
Islands, became a third partner in this important undertaking. 
Mr. R. C. L. Perkins has for several years collecfted and studied 
the Hawaiian insect fauna for this Committee, and has incidentally 
collected a number of Hawaiian birds. The results of Mr. Perkins' 
explorations are now being published and distributed to the corre- 
spondents of this Museum. It is hoped that our future explora- 



Afan'nc Zoolooical Station. 7 

tions may be extended to other groups, but in such way that the 
collections may come to the Museum in their entirety instead of 
being shared with two other partners. 

In furtherance of the plan for a Marine Zoological Station the 
Legislature set apart a tract of some twelve acres of land at the mouth 
of the harbor, at that time admirably adapted for the purposes of 
such a station and the only place suitable within many miles of 
Honolulu. Unfortunately an iron foundry and boiler shop has 
been erected on adjoining land, cjuite unfitting the place for stud>- 
or any of the serious purpo.ses of .such an institution. The Ignited 
States Government has since taken possession of the whole tract. 
In consequence the second branch of work indicated in the Deed 
of Trust has fallen into abeyance. 

In turning to the record of this year's work I must pause to 
express the sorrow of the entire Museum Staff at the loss of the 
Reverend Charles M. Hyde, D.D., who as trustee has early and 
late taken a mo.st liveh' interest in the work of the Museum. His 
help, advice and sympathy have always been with us and he was 
one of the earliest among our citizens to appreciate the ad\-antages 
of a large public museum. His knowledge of Hawaiian characfter 
and customs was wide and deep. Much of this he has bequeathed 
to the Museum in his papers and annotated dictionary, but no 
material beque.st can replace the constant interest with which he 
encouraged all workers at the Museum. 

Buildings. vSince the completion of Polynesian Hall, the 
first addition to the original Museum building, it has been felt that 
better accommodation should be provided for the Hawaiian por- 
tion of our collection, and through the generosit>' of Mr. Bishop at 
the end of the last year the contractors began the erection of a 
wing larger than the entire existing building. Work has con- 
tinued on this during the year, and alterations con.sequent on this 
large addition have compelled the withdrawal of much of the Ha- 



8 Director' s Animal Report. 

waiiaii Department from public view, and the disturbance incident 
to any large building operations has in various ways interfered 
with the regular work, and in the attendance of visitors which is 
less than in 1898. A large workroom with skylight has been built 
for photographic purposes as well as for the arrangement of large 
groups of Hawaiians cast from life by Allen Hutchinson, and for 
the construdlion of models of Kilauea and of an ancient heiau or 
temple. This is a most convenient addition to our workrooms. 
Cases have been placed in the basement of Polynesian Hall for the 
temporary storage of books. The Picfture Gallery has been im- 
proved by the closure of unused windows and the removal of a 
wall-case thus giving more wall space. Four brackets for bu.sts 
have been placed in the corners. To the pi(5tures in this room 
have been added four of D. Howard Hitchcock's capital paint- 
ings of Kilauea and Mokuaweoweo, a number of Mr. H. W. Hen- 
shaw's platinot^'pe photographs of Hawaiian scenes, and some 
good photographs of Maoris. During alterations a portion of the 
Hawaiian colledlion has been exhibited in table cases in the Pi(fture 
Gallery. 

The attendance is checked off each public day and an enumera- 
tion of nationalities made, and in a town of such mixed races this 
is both interesting and instructive. In giving the table below it 
.should be .stated (what the figures do not show) that many of the 
schools both public aud private have availed themselves of the in- 
strucftion the colledtions afford, and man\- hours have been spent 
in the Mu.seum supplementary to the regular school exercises. By 
means of an abundance of plain printed labels information has 
been placed within the reach of all visitors except perhaps a few 
of the orientals. The hours have been from 10 to 5 during the 
summer months and from 10 to 4:30 during the winter, on Friday 
and vSaturday; and also to accommodate passengers on the through 
steamers the Museum has been open on the days these steamers 
are in port. 



l7s//ors to tlw Mi/sc'Kii/ . 
TABLE OF ATTENDANCE. 



ISil'.l. ^ 5 


1 ' .1 1 

J- •? * 


£ 


1 i- 

" 1 C 5 


Totals. 


.laiuiar.v i 372 So 

Felmiarv 5],s 7;i 

ilanli 472 7!) 

\|ii-il (i4l) (U 


2:J 7'.l 3l> 

.-! IM 47 

7 7.") c; 

7 !l.". ."1 

("7 4;i :n 

-7 142 7.-! 

!) 7-. ^s 

4!l !IH 74 

:i7 117 711 

1!) E8 ■ 20 

14 .:;) 7:; 
2;) .".") 


21 
:! 

4 


s 1 17 

S i!l 
lil C, 

1 1 2;) 

12 IN 

1 2 :'.4 

17 .s4 
V, 21 
1.-! 4() 
11 24 
!l 24 


.'561) 
Si!) 
699 
S.-,4 


May :57S G.S 

.Tunc :i()i« l."ii 


.579 
7.">9 


.Inlv ."i:n c) 


7S4 


AusiisT 47;) (51 

SepteuibHr :^4S I8lt 

Octohpi- S.-)!! 113 

Xovpinbpi- :1X0 107 

December ;>9(i 111 


7.50 
7.")2 
.-)64 
629 
fi41 


Totals .->224 1111 


272 11'K;) C.Ul 

1 


41 141 :!.■)() 

1 1 


S39SI 



It has been custoniar\- to close the Museum on Public Holi- 
days, but the Trustees voted .shorth- before the end of the year to 
keep the Museum open on all holidays except Thanksgiving and 
Christmas. On two holidays thus open a solitar\- visitor came in 
for a few minutes. 

Classes from the Go\-ernment Normal School have spent some 
time at the Museum making drawings of native implements. The 
attendance of visitors has been most satisfactory considering the dis- 
tance from town, the bad road, and unsatisfacliory tram car system. 

At the lieginning of the year the I)irecl:or was without assist- 
ance in the Museum work owing to the resignation of the Curator 
Mr. Acland Wansey. February 15 Mr. John F. G. Stokes, who 
had been appointed Assistant some time before, arrived from the 
Colonies and at once took hold of hi-^ work with \igor and interest. 
During the year in addition to his duties as acling general Curator 
he has filled the post of Librarian. Mr. Allen M. Walcott had 
been appointed A.ssistant while as a member of the P'irst Colorado 
regiment in service in Manila, and he arrived August 14 and he 
has since been bus>' in the general care of specimens. The Museum 
had long been without a Taxidermist and much material in this 
department had accumulated. The delay in filling the vacancy 



lO Dii'c'ctor' s AiJiiiial Report. • 

was due to the difficulty of getting someone who was more than a 
mere "stuffer" of birds. Modern taxidermy demands an under- 
standing mind as well as deft fingers, and a knowledge of and 
sympathy with Nature. The Museum has profited by the delay, 
for in the selection of Mr. \Vm. Alanson Bryan of the University 
of Chicago (who arrived September 27) we have chosen a taxider- 
mist fully able to meet all the needs of the Museum. Soon after 
his arrival, on the recommendation of Mr. Bishop, Mr. Alvin Seale 
was appointed collecftor of birds, a work in which he had already 
acquired an enviable reputation. He arrived November S. It is 
expelled that when the shore and sea birds of this group have been 
obtained, he will go to other groups and add to our collections. 
It is especially desired that the sea birds of the Pacific should 
muster in full force in our cases, and for this end an expedition to 
the Farallones of the Marianas and to the Chatham Islands would 
be most desirable. In the meantime Nihoa should be visited for 
the many species that breed there undisturbed. 

In the spring the Trustees requested Dr. William H. Dall of 
the United States National Museum to visit the Museum and ex- 
amine critically the collecftion of shells made by Andrew Garrett 
and increased by various purchases and exchanges. August 16 he 
arrived and for two months made a most careful study of the col- 
le(5lion and his notes and corrections are in hand with a view to the' 
rearrangement of the shells in the most approved modern manner, 
and also to the publication of the catalogue. His report to the 

Director is as follows : 

Bishop Museum, 

Honolulu, Sept. 1899. 
Dr. Wm. T. Brigh.vm, 

Dirp:ctor Blshop Museum. 
Dp;ar Sir: — I have the honor to make the following report 
on the Garrett collection of shells belonging to the Museum, its 
condition, the work which I have done upon it, and the work 
which still remains to be done. 

I may say by way of preliminary that I had originally intended 



Dr. H. //. J\Urs Lctti-y. ii 

to pass about three months at Honolulu, at work upon the col- 
lection, but, other engagements having left me only about two 
months for my visit to the Islands, this time was cut short. How- 
ever, in the sequel this has proved not to be disadvantageous be- 
cause, during the time at my disposal, I have done all that I could 
do here in the way of revision, and found that , to complete the 
work, I should require the greater facilities for access to literature 
and investigations not 3-et in print, which are afforded me in 
Washington. I have copied that portion of the catalogue which 
relates to the groups for which such reference is necessary, and 
will take this catalogue with me and make the revision upon it 
and, when completed, return it to you from Washington. By a 
rough calculation from averaging the entries on the pages of the 
Vpe-written catalogue I find the collection contains between 8000 
and 9000 species and about 25,000 specimens. Of these about 
one-fourth are pulmonate landshells. All are neatly mounted on 
card tablets with printed labels and very few are without complete 
identification and locality. 

As might be expected from Mr. Garrett's residence and con- 
nections the colledlion is particularly rich in Pacific Ocean material 
and leaving out of consideration a few great national collections 
like those of London, Berlin, Washington and Geneva the Garrett 
is among the most complete if not actually the best supplietl with 
the shells of the Pacific Islands. The series of landshells of the 
Solomon and Hervey groups is the finest I have seen anywhere, 
and those of the Society Islands are probably very complete. 

In the marine shells the Cones and Pleurotomoids are especially 
rich and include many ver^-. rare forms. Scattered through the 
collection here and there, I have found a number of extremely 
rare forms which are common to only a ver}- few fortunate 
museums. Several of these had been identified erroneously by Mr. 
Garrett or his correspondents, with more common species and the 
revision just made has corrected the error. A certain proportion 
of the species were wrongly named, which is not surprising when 
we con.sider that Garrett had no access to a large library or 
mu.seum, and was obliged in great part to rely on the identifica- 
tions made by more or less competent collectors with whom he ex- 
changed specimens. A very valuable portion of the collection 
consists in the series of type specimens of the species de,scribed as 



12 Director s Ainiual Report. 

new by Garrett and author's specimens of many of those named by 
the late Mr. Wm. Harper Pease. These are of course unique and 
essential to any thorough study of the Poh-nesian mollusk-fauna. 

The work done h\ me was much facilitated by a type-written 
catalogue of the collection prepared by yourself, without which it 
is probable double the amount of time would have been required 
for revision. In the first place I went critically over the colle(5lion 
species by species to discover ( i ) whether the specific identifica- 
tions are correct, (2) whether the species are referred to the proper 
groups, (3) whether any typographical errors occurred on the reg- 
ister or labels, and (4) whether the group names are those now 
adopted by naturalists. In general the species appear to be very 
corre(5lly named, ever3'thiug considered, though the names are not 
always those in use at present. A small number of typographical 
errors were detected, but probably no more than would be found 
in most collecflions thus labelled. 

The most important part of the revision consisted in the sub- 
stitution of names in current use for others now obsolete but which 
had been used by Garrett and his correspondents, and the cor- 
rection of cases where one species had been received from different 
places and correspondents under more than one name. A good 
many such cases were found. All these correcflions have been 
entered in red ink on the regi.ster of the collection except in cases 
where some more lengthy explanation seemed necessary, in which 
case notes were made on separate sheets of paper with cross refer- 
ences to the regi.ster. Similar corrections will be made by me on 
the copy of the portions of the register which I shall carry to 
Washington and a skeleton of the classification at present adopted, 
including families and genera in their natural order, will be re- 
turned to you as soon as completed. 

With this schedule of groups and the corrections noted to the 
individual species in the register, the relabelling and rearrange- 
ment in modern form of the entire collection will be mereh* a mat- 
ter requiring intelligent clerical work which may be done by au}^ 
careful person whether acquainted with mollusks or not. I .shall 
be glad, however, should it facilitate your work, to examine at 
any time type-written copy intended for the printer so as to elimi- 
nate any inaccuracies which might creep in. 

I would recommend for the library the purchase of a copy of 



CoUccfio)! of .Ifol/iisca . . 13 

Dr. Paul Fischer's Manual de Conchyliologie, Paris, V. vSavy, 1888, 
for reference. Though like all manuals it is behind the times in 
some parts of its classification, yet it contains an enormous volume 
of facts and man>- illustrations. It is almost indispensable as a 
book of reference and costs onl}- some thirty francs. 

To supplement Tryon's Manvial, which does not cover the 
bivalves or the fresh water and terrestrial pedlinibranch gastro- 
pods, probably the be.st iconography is the new edition of Chem- 
nitz" Conchylien Cabinet, edited by Dr. W. Kobelt. 

As a work giving the latest information on the anatomical 
side the best is the new edition of Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen 
der Thierreichs, Molluska, edited by Dr. H. Simroth. The pos- 
session of these three works will put the library in a position to 
meet any demands from students which are likely to be made on it 
for some years to come. 

\"ery respecflfully, 

\VM. H. DAI.I., 
Palaeontologist U. S. Geol. Survey: Cur. Dept. Mollusks, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Dall, who at the conclusion of his ^•isit met the Trustees 
and accepted the title of Honorary Curator of Mollusca, prepared 
a completely corrected list, in which all changes of name to suit 
modern views are noted, and the material so arranged that it will 
be possible to print the catalogue of what, in the opinion of Dr. 
Dall, is a remarkably good collecT:ion, especially in the shells of 
the Pacific Region. When these changes can be adopted and new 
labels printed we shall have nearly 10,000 species arranged in the 
most modern way. The duplicates are being arranged to facilitate 
exchanges, but the native Achatinellidae, Avhich are most in de- 
mand, we have not enough of for exchanges, nor can the\- be prop- 
erlv determined until Messrs. Sykes in London and Pilsbry in 
Philadelphia, who are now stud3'ing the family, shall have given 
us the result of their labors which will doubtless relegate many of 
the present species to the rank of varieties. The list of acce.s.sions 
in this Department will appear later on . 



14 Di?rctors Annual Report. 

Publications. During the year the Trustees authorized the 
publication of the first part of the Memoirs of the Museum con- 
taining an illustrated account of Hawaiian Feather Work by the 
Direc5lor. The edition of this work was limited to 300 copies. 

The exchanges established by means of our publications have 
already brought good returns : in no case has an exchange been 
declined, and it will be seen by the li.st of exchanges appended 
that man}' of the most important institutions pursuing the same 
lines as this Museum are there represented: some of their most 
valuable publications are already on our shelves. 

During the year nearly 12,000 labels were printed for the 
Conchological Department and many hundred for other depart- 
ments. Large general labels, notices, receipts, tables, letterheads, 
book plates, etc., have kept our printing office busy, and it has 
been a very necessary assivStance to the work of the Museum. The 
outfit has proved sufficient, and well suited to our needs. The 
work of this office has called forth very gratifying approval from 
some of the best judges abroad. 

Ethnological Department. Early in the year we received 
from a gentleman on the island of Malekula, New Hebrides, a 
collec5lion of remarkable interest. The sacred tree drums of the 
New Hebrideans have long been known to ethnologists, but I have 
seen only one in any of the museums of Europe or America, — that 
in the Musee de Marine in the Louvre. We have now two fine 
specimens. What the wood is I am unable to say, but it is of re- 
markable hardness and high specific gravity. The labor of exca- 
vating the interior through the long longitudinal slit which is only 
two inches wide must have been excessive. The drums are placed 
in Polynesian Hall and one is shown in Fig. i. The total height 
is 9 ft. 8 in.; circumference at base, 43 in.; length of slit, 47 in. 
The drum not figured is smaller, the dimensions being 8 ft. 3 in. 
high, 31 in. in circumference, slit 39 in. long, 2 in. wide. Photo- 



fi-oiii Malckula . 



15 



Sped tin }i 

graphs are in the Museum collediou showing groups of these tree 
drums, and the manner of beating upon them by stones wrapped 
in kapa or other vegetable fibre. The sculpture of the head is 

broad and rude but evi- , ^^^ Hebrides ^ 

dently follows some can- . __ __,^ 

on as there is a strong- 
family likeness. Idols 
are made in similar 
fashion but without the 
void within. Two large 
idols car\-ed from tree 
ferns accompany these 
( Fig. 2 ) . They are wor- 
shipped by the sacrifice 
of pigs, and in some of 
the photographs the por- 
cine bones of the offer- 
ings mount to the chins 
of the figures. The face 
is decorated with color 
of a chalky nature broad- 
ly laid on. As the im- 
ages stand the fern is 
inverted, the root mass 
serving for head. One 
image is 7 ft. 10 in., the 
other 7 ft. 4 in. 

Four figures of a processional nature, made of bambu and 
twigs, with caricatures of human heads. Two of the.se (Fig. 3) 
have human crania with the facial region covered with some plas- 
tic material, and the nose is inordinately prolonged as if in protest 
against the niggardly allotment of Nature. The third has no hu- 
man bone but cotton wool simulates it. The fourth is of a phallic 




Fic;. I 



i6 



Director s Annual Report. 




Fio. 2. 



Sp(U'i»i('>is fioiii Ma Irk Ilia . 



17 



nature not unlike those used l)y the Japanese in certain festivals. 
These Malekulan images were, when exhibited in public, adorned 
with fern fronds and hibiscus flowers, the frames lasting for several 
occasions. With these came some very neatly woven mats used 




FIG. 3. 

for women's dresses, scant but sufficient. Very important were 
a complete skeleton of a Malekulan man and the skull of a woman. 
The former has been admirably mounted and will be a most inter- 
esting member of the collection it i ; hoped to have of all the diverse 
tribes and races in this region. The female skull shows a curious 

O. p.: B. p. B. M.— Vol. I., No. 2. 



Director's Annual Report. 




FIG. 4. 



Moriori Iiiiplciiioits 



19 



feature : we are assured that it is customary to extract the four upper 
incisors as an ante-nuptial precaution, and our skull is then that of a 
married woman. We have been promised a complete female skeleton. 
From the Chatham Islands we were fortunate enough to pro- 
cure a colledlion of implements made nearly forty years ago by an 
old resident. Since then an agent of an English museum has 
swept the group bare. Moriori implements are very rare in col- 




FIG. 5. 

le(5lions and the people are nearly extinct. In many of the speci- 
mens the Maori resemblances are plain, but the collecftion seems 
worthy of a more complete exposition and illustration than can be 
given in the limits of this report. 

Usually we have been dependent on the "Morning Star" for 
Micronesian specimens, but this year we have obtained from an- 
other source several good things that were not in the Museum. 
A curious hairpin (Fig. 4) with a Tercbra shell truncated and 
cemented with a resin to a polished Mcleagriiia shell for a top, and 
a band of beads of coconut shell and the red Spondylus so prized 



20 



Dircdoj^'s Annual Report. 



in the Carolines. A good series of rasps { Fig. lo ) and two shell adzes 
(Fig. 5) from the Gilbert Islands, and several good shell necklaces 
were also added. In the Hawaiian matters we have received by 
the kindness of Mr. C. C. Willoughby a cast of a most interesting 




FIG. 6. 



and peculiar stoue poi - pounder which I saw in the Peabody 
Museum at Cambridge, Mass. A large flat stone dish (Fig. 6), 
once in a heiau on Molokai, is the largest worked stone dish of 
Hawaiian origin I have yet seen. 

Natural History Department. From Mr. Koebele we 
obtained some fine bird skins, and from Ward's Esta]:)lishnient at 



hijormation Fiiniishcd . 21- 

Rochester, New York, a laro^e colleclion of pakeozoic corals from 
the Niagara region. From the same source we have obtained an 
excellent series of n>ounted skeletons or vertebrates found in the 
Pacific region. Among the mounted mammals furnished by 
Ward's mention should be made of a fine Pacific walrus, a pair of 
fur seals and a sea lion. Other accessions will be noticed in the 
lists appended. 

As a Bureau of Information. So far as has been possi- 
ble the Museum staff have endeavored to answer questions as to 
matters within the province of their work. Hitherto mOvSt of this 
information has been sought by persons abroad, and of this two 
illustrations may be given. We have in the colle(5lion one of those 
most interesting stick charts {Mede) formerly used by the Marshall 
Islanders. These have become ver}- rare as the}- have not been 
made or used for many years, and those in the museums of the 
world could be counted on the fingers of one hand. An ofhcer of 
the Italian government sought some time ago for information con- 
cerning this, and lately a distinguished geographer of Hamburg 
has requested and obtained photographs and such information as 
was available. So far as I am aware our specimen is the best 
known, and we have also in necessary complement a model of the 
stick compass used with the mede. This compass has not been 
noticed by most of those who have studied the mede, and we owe 
it to Dr. Hyde's painstaking that this was obtained and its use 
learned from Marshall Islanders who had not forgotten the arts of 
their ancestors. 

In the United States several machines have been invented for 
winding thread and cord in fancy patterns, and one form was 
found desirable because it was most stable and kept its form until 
nearly unwound. In litigation over the patent it was suggested 
that this was a method of winding well known to this region, and 
on appeal to this Museum photographs were sent which determined 
the matter. The peculiar wind is interesting and as it is wide 



22 



Director' s Annual Report, 




FIG. 7. 



spread through Polyne.'^ia and Micronesia I give ilhistrations 
(Figs. 7 and S) both of the coconut cord and of the imitation of the 
inventive American. Many can remember in the early days of the 
Micronesian mission Honolulu was well supplied with the trim 
rolls of coconut cord and sennit brought b}' the "Morning Star." 



F.x pi oration. 



23 



Much less success has attended the efforts of the Diredlor to 
obtain for the information of visitors products of these islands. 
The collection of samples is growing slowly but not by the help of 
the producers who should be most interested. No plantation has 
ever sent a specimen of sugar, rice, tea, fibres or fruit. I have by 
purchase in the market or by the kindness of individuals collected 
a number of typical producfts which will be on exhibition when 




FIG. 8. 

cases are provided for Hawaiian Hall, and it is hoped that then 
colored casts of the many tropical fruits raised in private gardens 
ma}' be added to the exhibition. Moulds of a number of rare 
fruits have been made by the Director. 

Exploration. In October, with Mr. J. F. G. Stokes, the 
Direcftor at the instance of the Trustees visited Hawaii to measure 
and critically examine the heiau of Wahiula, a temple originally 
built by Paao when he made land in Puna and twice rebuilt. It 
was the last to vield to the advance of Christianitv, and as it is in 



24 Director' s Annual Report. 

a remote and unfrequented place the remains are in comparatively 
good condition and have been used neither for goat pen nor cattle 
corral. The measurements and observations there obtained are 
now being embodied in a model of the restored ruins. A more de- 
tailed record of the survey will be reserved until an illustration of 
the restored heiau can be prepared. 

From the extreme of Puna we next went to Kilauea where 
during ten days of perfect weather we photographed the w^alls of 
the crater from nearly fifty different positions on all sides of the 
circuit, and also made barometric observations to check levels. 
This material will be utilized later in preparing a relief model of 
Kilauea on a scale of xTolT- I^^ eighteen previous visits extend- 
ing over thirty-six years I have never seen the volcsno so dormant : 
It shows signs of entering into a solfataric condition which would 
be most unfortunate for Hawaii. Many specimens of lava were 
collecfted and by the kindness of Mr. F. Waldron of the Volcano 
House some large and splendid specimens were added to our col- 
le(5tion. Plants were not negleifted and photographs of both Waoke 
and Mamaki, the two principal plants used in kapa-making, were 
secured. Specimens of these and other plants were added to the 
Herbarium. It was interesting to note how completely the Jap- 
anese raspberry has become naturalized along the roads nearly 
to the crater of Kilauea. It grows and bears in great luxuriance 
and although its large fruit is not of first quality it is pleasant to 
the taste and might, it would seem, be improved by judicious cross- 
ing. The extension of plantations to within a few miles of the 
volcano has destroyed the wild and beautiful scenery in great part, 
and where sugar-cane is driving out coffee tlie broad coarse features 
of the former are an unpleasant change frorii the fern and ohia of 
the old and narrow trail. 

I have asked ni}- assistants to notice for this Report some of 
the specimens that seem notable. Mr. Stokes has also prepared a 
complete list of the Corals, both palaeozoic and recent, in our col- 
lection, and of the librarv accessions as well. 



TH1-: MAT SAILS 01- THP. I'ACI1"IC. 

By John 1-". G. Stokes, Assistant in the Musenni. 

Of the useful arts in the Pacific Ocean mat-making was, in 
former da^'S, one of the most universally pracfticed, the materials 
used being the leaves of the Pandaniis odoratissiDuis, Hibiscus and 
banana fibre, the fibre from the Phormium tenax , commonly known 
as the New Zealand flax, and the sedges Cypcrus Icrvigatiis and 
Scirpiis lacustris. Of these the Pandauus was in greatest request, 
growing as it did most spontaneously throughout the tropics, and 
existing in barren parts where most other plants would die. Being 
an evergreen with abundant foliage the supply of material never 
ran short. When prepared the leaves were very soft and pliable, 
yet having sufficient stiffness to retain the strips in position when 
weaving. The Hibiscus (that mainly used being the Paritium 
tiliaceiim) was also plentiful, but more work being required to pre- 
pare it and the mat woven therefrom not being equal to the Pan- 
danus mat, less use of it was made. Only two or three species of 
banana were grown for their fibre and these were limited to the 
Caroline and Gilbert Islands, and while making a wonderfully fine 
mat — one that appeared quite as fine as our coarser linen — it was 
not as strong as Hibiscus or Pandanus and was manufa(5lured 
mainl)' as an article of dress. The New Zealand flax was the best 
known fibre in that country, but its use was confined to New 
Zealand. As a durable article it has attracfted the attention of 
European and American manufa(5lurers. The sedges, Cypcrus 
liEvigatiis and Scirpus lacustris, while no doubt growing elsewhere, 
were not used except on one of the Hawaiian Islands ; and there, 
on account of the extreme softness of the material the mats were 
very largely manufactured for the clothing of the chiefly families ; 
but on account of the natural conditions surrounding its growth it 
could never compete with the Pandanus in general usefulness. 

It will thus be obsen^ed that of the plants known to the inhab- 
itants of the Pacific Islands that most in demand, and which proved 
itself most suitable to the wants of the multitude for the purpose of 
making mats, was the Pandanus, and the mats made from it being 
so .strong and pliable were always used (apart from New Zealand) 
to supply the sails of their canoes. When visiting Samoa, La 
Perouse described a kind of linen, .stating: "This is made of real 

thread obtained, no doubt, from some fibrous plants, like the nettle 

(25) 



26 Director'' s Annual Report. 

or flax, and is manufactured without a shuttle, the threads being 
passed between each other as in making mats. This cloth, pos- 
sessing the strength and pliability of ours, is well calculated for 

the sails of their canoes " There can be little doubt that 

this material was made from the bark of the Hibiscus, which on 
being bleached and pounded by a process known to the Samoans, 
somewhat resembled coarse flax fibre. However, there has been 
nothing to prove that this cloth was ever used for sails, and 
L,a Perouse is the only authorit}', ancient or modern, who sug- 
gested the possibility of its being so utilized. The Maoris, of New 
Zealand, used a sail of thick cloth or mat made in a frame from 
New Zealand flax. This was the only fibre known to them. 

The mode of preparing the Pandanus leaves was similar in all 
the islands and the following description will suffice : The prickly 
edges were plucked off with a shell, and the leaves then rolled up 
and baked in a native oven. After baking the}^ were strung 
together and placed in the sea to bleach for five to seven days, and 
then rinsed in fresh water and placed in the sun for dr3'ing and 
further bleaching. When thoroughly dry they were slit into thin 
strips with another shell, which made them ready for the weaver. 

When not weaving mats for sails the custom was for the 
weaver to commence on the square base of the mat and after weav- 
ing a strip of the proposed breadth, to continue to weave forward 
until the required measurements were reached. This necessitated 
the spreading out of the entire work over a level space on the 
ground, and the weaver was obliged to move along as the mat 
grew. Of course these mats, made for sleeping or wearing, it was 
necessary to weave in one piece, but with the matting for sails the 
process was simplified for the weaver, the mats being woven in 
pieces of many shapes, which being of small size could be easier 
handled by the maker. The sails throughout Micronesia were 
always made in strips varying in width from four inches to three feet, 
the Micronesians being particularly apt in this form of mat-making. 
The Marshall Islanders, who are among the most expert canoe 
builders and sailors in the Pacific, use a lapboard cut from bread- 
fruit wood i^Artocarpus incisa) on which the mat is woven. The 
board is arched and sets very comfortably in the lap of a person sit- 
ting on the ground . The strips of matting as woven are passed from 
the board and neatly rolled up. The accompanying illustration 
(P"ig. 9) shows one of these boards and a sail strip, both being ex- 



\H! HISHOH MURIUM 




FIG. 9. BOARD FOR MAT WEAVING. 



Mat Sails of the Pacific. 27 

liibits in the Bishop Museum . The strip of mat has four dark strands 
of dyed Hibiscus fibre woven in on top of the usual strands of Pan- 
danus ; this is a favorite method of ornamentation among the Mar- 
shall Islanders. The weaving commenced on the left side, and 
the strands were cut to about twenty inches in length, being long 
enough to pass round the three strands of Pandanus used to form 
the border at the right and reach the left edge again, where after 
being wo\-en in about half an inch the}' were trimmed off. It 
might be noticed that at regular intervals along the left-hand 
border some strands were allowed to protrude; at this edge, as 
stated, the fresh strands were applied, and when secured four ends 
out of every seven were trimmed off ; the three remaining butts 
being left to guide the weaver in inserting the black ornamental 
strands. This strip is 4^ inches wide, while the breadth of the 
strands varies from -32 to yk inch. 

Having woven a great length of sail the strips were placed 
together with edges overlapping and sewed with a thread made 
from coconut fibre or twisted Pandanus, the ends of the strips, on 
the edges of the sail being turned under and doubly sewed with 
the coconut fibre, which material is also used to bend the sail to 
the spars. A sail made in this fashion is very strong and will 
stand a great strain. It is about twice as heavy as an ordinary 
mat, and little heavier than canvas, and if wet becomes danger- 
ous to use when suspended from the mast. The Micronesians in a 
rain storm prefer to lower the sail and roll it up in an envelope of 
Pandanus or banana leaves which they generally carry for that 
purpose. 

The Hawaiian sail was made in strips, but that of Tahiti seems 
to have been composed of several large square mats sewn together, 
and could not have been a very strong combination. The New 
Zealand sails were made of strips of the "flax" matting or cloth 
and sewn together, and a handsome pattern of ornamentation fre- 
quently introduced, i.e., that of the "bent knee." In all cases the 
work of weaving devolved on the women, while the men attended 
to the sewing and shaping of the sail. 

The question may arise, "Why was it necessary to use mats of 
any kind for sails? Was there no other material?" The only 
other material within reach of the Pacific Islanders was the paper 
cloth beaten out from the bark of various trees and called Kapa in 



28 Diredo)-' s Annual Report. 

the Hawaiian Islands, and Tapa or Siapo by other Polynesians. 
This cloth was not tough or durable, and could stand little wear 
even when dr}', while were it wet the fibre would soon become dis- 
joined and the kapa be dispersed. 

Who taught these people the use of the sail and whence they 
procured their patterns is as much conjedture as is the origin of the 
Polynesian race at the present day, but it might be interesting here 
since it is generally conceded by competent authorities that the 
Polynesians emigrated from some part of Asia, to give short de- 
scriptions of the sails of the east coast of this continent, with those 
of the Islands, made principall}' long before the time when the 
influence of European civilization began to dominate the races 
which are considered inferior. The authorities here quoted are the 
voyages of the earliest Kuropean navigators, but great difficulty 
has been experienced in gleaning information concerning the sails 
from even these ; for, while the canoes in nearly every instance 
took the fancy of the voyagers by their novelty, the sails were 
passed by with but a word. 

The Chinese sail has retained its shape since the first visit of 
the Western civilizer, until very modern times, that .seen today 
being practically the same which Anson saw on his visit : it was a 
large trapezoidal sail, the breadth being less than the length, made 
of mats woven from rattan {Calaniiis rotang) into long strips the 
length of the sail — .stretched across the sail parallel to the top yard 
and deck were bambu poles about three feet apart ; the reason for 
this being to .strengthen the matting, and also no doubt to prevent 
the sail bagging and carrying dead wind. The sail of the Japan- 
ese was of a shape known as a square sail, attached to a large yard 
at the top of a tall mast, its length being perhaps half as long again 
as its breadth. This sail was composed of long narrow strips of 
cloth running the length of the sail and laced together. It was 
admirably suited for moving before the wind, but for tacking was 
useless. In Formosa and the L^iu Kiu Islands the sails are after 
the fashion of the Chinese, but the Liu Kiu people have also 
been known to u.se sails of cloth. In the Philippine Islands, when 
at Manila, La Perouse portrayed "A Parao or Passage Boat of 
Manila" having two sails almost identical with those of the Chi- 
nese, and being undoubtedly of Chinese origin. Throughout the 
Malayan Archipelago mat sails were used, there being one general 



Mat Sails of tlw Pacific. 29 

form for all — a rectangular or rhoniboidal sail bent to a yard and a 
boom, and construclied of strips of mat fastened together. It had, 
with few exceptions, the breadth greater than the length, and was 
generally slung from the mast at a considerable height from the 
deck, with the after part of the sail raised above the fore part. 
This pattern was found to the eastward as far as New Guinea, but 
at various localities the rig was modified. At Amboina in place 
of one mast two were erecled and bound together at the top, 
resembling closely sheers used for raising the mast out of a vessel. 
At Port Dorey and other settlements on Northern New Guinea 
three masts were fixed, in a straight line, with the upper ends 
fastened together. This sail w^as not seen east of New Guinea. 
Making another commencement on the south coast of New Guinea 
a sail entirely different was seen. The shape of this may be said 
to have resembled an attenuated arrow head with the haft removed 
and the tips of the thin barbs contradled. The sail was provided 
with a sprit and a boom of equal length, the sprit being about twice 
the height of the mast and having the lower end stepped in a chock 
on the deck near the foot of the mast. The sailing canoes w^ere 
double and sometimes treble, and carried tw'O or more sails. The 
shape of this sail held with little variation among the islands to the 
eastward almost as far as Fiji, and then became merged into the 
triangular sail of the Fijians. The people of New Hebrides had a 
sail shaped just as on the south of New Guinea, but the mast, 
stepped on top of a house built on the deck inclined forward to lie 
almost horizontal, and served more as a support for the sprit than 
an appliance from which to fly the sail. The New Caledonian 
sails were simply described as triangvilar. The sails of Fiji and 
Tonga resembled those just described as regards the spars, but the 
ends of the sprit and boom were wide apart and the sails extended 
flush with the extremes. 

To the north and north-west of Fiji, among the Gilbert Isl- 
ands, Micronesia and the Marianas, the sails were more of the 
latteen type than any others in the Pacific, but differed from the 
latteen in having, besides a sprit or yard, a boom of almost equal 
length. These sails were suspended from a mast which was set on 
a platform built on the beams of the outrigger and standing direclly 
over the gunwale next the outrigger. Of course there were minor 
differences in the proportions peculiar to the many islands, but the 



3© Director's Annual Report. 

distiiicftion was more marked in the rigging and build of the canoe 
than in the sail. These vessels sailed close to the wind, and were 
shaped bow and stern alike. When tacking the helm was put up 
instead of down, and the sail being shortened by rolling up partly 
the heel was lifted from the notch it had been set in and carried to 
the other end where it was again fixed — the sail being kept to lee- 
ward of the mast. For the purpose of shortening sail two ropes 
were passed through the masthead and fastened to the boom, one 
on each side of the sail. It might be well to mention that the out- 
rigger was always kept to windward of the hull when sailing, for 
if to leeward the weight of the wind might easily force it under 
water and a capsize would promptly ensue. The mast in some 
places, the Caroline Islands notably, was inclined forward with the 
sail, and with each tack the stays were loosed and the mast moved, 
the masthead always leaning in the direction of the boat's course. 

The Gilbert Islanders, besides the sail here described, which 
was used for the larger craft, possessed a small sail bent to a mast 
and a boom, the boom being fastened to hang at an angle of 50° to 
the mast. This sail was used on a small canoe for a single indi- 
vidual and was a simple sail for one man to work. 

The Tongans had been noted sailors for many years, but they 
admitted having acquired their proficiency through the Fijians, 
whose methods and pattern they had adopted, and were considered 
by some to have surpassed their preceptors. The Fijians early 
made trading voyages to Tonga and Samoa, and while the Samoans 
were reputed to have built wonderful vessels in ancient times and 
to have led expeditions to far distant lands, our earl}- explorers 
seemed to have little opinion of the Samoan vessels. Cook named 
Samoa the Navigator's Islands, not from what he saw, but from 
what the natives told him. Two kinds of sails have been found at 
Samoa ; one was large and shaped like that of the Fijians, through 
whom no doubt the pattern originated, and the other was like that 
used on the Gilbert Island small canoe, and might properly be 
considered as the type of the older Samoan sail. There are old 
legends inferring that the Maoris of New Zealand set out from 
Samoa, and it .should be here remarked that the sails described in 
"Cook's Third Voyage" and by d'Urville in the Astrolabe, and fig- 
ured in the voyage of the Coqnille, are of the same shape as the 
Samoan lastly described. 



/\av-ski)i Rasps. 31 

The sail of the Society Islander was in the shape of a half moon. 
A sprit or boom was fastened to the mast near the foot and curved 
upwards to a height a third more than that of the mast, which was 
vertical, the upper end of the sprit being dire(5lly over the mast- 
head. The sail thus being enclosed in a case, and pracflically a 
fixture when set, was awkward to work and when a squall came it 
was necessary to keep the head of the vessel to the wind, for which 
purpose several of the crew jumped into the water and swam at 
the bow. The only means of reefing was to unloose the sprit 
at foot and roll the sail around it. During squalls capsizes were 
not uncommon and the means employed to right the vessel were 
thus : After making everything fast the head of the sail was 
brought to windward, and a line being taken from it and passed 
over the outrigger (which was kept to leeward) several hands, by 
their weight on the outrigger and pulling at the line, lifted the sail 
out of the water some little way ; then, the wind getting under the 
sail righted the canoe. Some men remained in the water to keep 
the head to the wind, and when bailed the canoe continued her 
voyage. Many of these canoes had two sails. 

The Hawaiian sail was shaped somewhat like that of the 
Society Islands, but the top of the sprit was on a level with the 
masthead, near which it was held by a cord. The leech of the 
sail dropped gracefully between these two points, like that of 
Southern New Guinea. This sail, while no doubt having an 
artistic appearance, was not the most effeClive, and as early as 
1823, the Rev. Wm. Ellis in his "Tour Through Hawaii" wrote: 
"The sails they now use are made of mats, cut in imitation of the 
sprit sails of foreign boats, which they say they find much better 
than the kind of sail they had when first visited by foreigners." 

There are two other important groups of islands to be dealt 
with — the Marquesas Islands and the Paumotu Archipelago. The 
sail of the Marquesas Islands as seen by Cook in his second voy- 
age and James Wilson in the Duff, 1796-8, was not of much value 
to its owner, as at best it was a clumsy contrivance built after the 
shape of the New Zealand sail but of indifferent materials, the 
mast, boom and matting showing great want of care. These peo- 
ple in Cook's time w^ere not such expert sailors as the other Pol)-- 
nesians, though Alex. Dalrymple states in his "Voyages and Dis- 
coveries in the South Pacific Ocean," Ivondon, 1770, that w^hen 



32 Dhrdoj^'s An mm I Report. 

Mendana visited the group (1595) they had much better canoes 
and sails than two hundred 3'ears later. 

As regards the Paumotu Archipelago — these islands were little 
visited in former times on account of the difficulty of the naviga- 
tion. The gentlemen of the Wilkes exploring expedition were the 
first to describe these parts, and there was no information given 
concerning the sails. The Paumotuans had large double canoes 
which traded between the innumerable small islands, and from a 
model of a canoe in the Bishop Museum from Manihi Island it was 
ascertained that the sails were similar to those of the Caroline Isl- 
ands. The canoe model was made within the last twent}- years, 
and there is little to show that the style of sail was not of modern 
introduction. There are two sails on the model, suspended from 
two vertical masts. 



RAY-SKIN RASPS. 

By Allen M. Walcott, Assistant in the Museum. 

Among the specimens in the Gilbert Islands section of Poly- 
nesian Hall are the four rasps shown in Fig. 10. These implements 
are more or less common throughout the islands of the Pacific. 
The outside or rasping portion is the skin from the back of a spe- 
cies of Trygon or sting-ray not uncommon in the waters about the 
islands. Any convenient piece of wood makes the handle and core, 
No. 3 having for a center a portion of the leg of a foreign chair. 
As this skin wdien dry cannot be bent readih' it is, while wet and 
pliable, sewed firmly around the wood with coconut fibre thread. 
It will be seen from the illustration that the tubercles on the differ- 
ent rasps vary much in size, and this is due to the age of the fish 
from which the skin is taken. 

The various grades were adapted to the work to be done. 
Almost their sole use was to enable the Gilbert Islanders to so 
shape the edges of the boards of their canoes that when sewed 
together they were water-tight. As the Gilbert Islands are low 
coral atolls the trees are generally not large enough to be used for 
dug-out canoes ; hence the necessity for using planks. These were 
obtained from the breadfruit tree {Artocarpiis incisa). For the 
making of the great proas, with a length of seventy feet and a 



I 
i 



BERNICE PM/vHI BISHOP MUSEUM. 




Kiia: :,iiv_ft.j-3.'^'' 



FIG. lO. RAY-SKIN RASFS. 



Field Notes on the Birds of Oaliu. 3-5 

depth of seven or eight, the nuinl)er of pieces and the work were 
considerable. During the building each board, before it was per- 
manently fastened, was placed upon its lower neighbor edge to 
edge, between the two being a strip of pandanus leaf well covered 
with charcoal. In this manner the points needing to be reduced 
were blackened as a guide to the rasp. Such fine work was not 
suitalde for the shell adzes of the islanders. 

For many years the natives have generally used steel rasps, 
when obtainable, in place of their less durable ones of ray-skin. 
The effedtiveness of the latter while it is new is quite as great as 
of those brought by the white man. However, the tubercles ordi- 
narily could be used but a week at most, being often rendered 
useless by but one day's hard work. The native name is Tapaugu. 
In other island groups there were also in use, for reducing pur- 
poses, shark-skin rasps, pumice and mushroom coral (Fungia), 
some employing all methods while others knew of but one or two. 



FIELD NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF OAHU, H. I. 

By Alvin Seale, Collecftor for the Museum. November 12, 1899 to March 20, 1900. 

Owing to the bubonic plague quarantine these observations, 
since January 3, have been restri(5ted to the immediate vicinity of 
Honolulu. The difficulty of collecling in these islands, with their 
dense tropical jungles and knife-like mountain ridges, has been 
mentioned by all former collecftors, and I can oul}- add, that while I 
have collecfted in difficult places before, including the boggy tundra 
of Siberia, the high mountains of Alaska, the Tamerack swamps of 
Michigan, and the Everglades of Florida, I have found nothing that 
could discourage an Ornithologist so much as one of these islands. 
The different species of land birds found on Oahu are few in number. 
Mr. Wilson, in "Aves Hawaiienses," gives but five existing forms, 
as follows: 

Order PASSERES. Family Drepanidae. 

Vestiaria coccinea. Oreomyza maculata. 

Himatione sanguinea. Chlorodrepanis chloris. 

Order PASSERES. Family Muscicapidae. 

Chasiempis gayi. 

O. p.: B. p. B. M.— Vol. I., No. 3. 



34 Directo7'' s Antuial Report. 

Order LONGIPP:nnES. Famii^y I^aridae. 

75. Sterna fuliginosa, Gmel. Ewaewa. 

Sooty Tern. 

Off the east coast of Oahu two large volcanic rocks, covering 
perhaps 300 square feet, arise abrviptly from the water to the height 
of 200 feet ; these rocks are about a half-mile distant from the 
shore, diredlly off Mokapu point. Owing to the coral reef, Heeia, 
six miles distant, is the nearest accessible point by boat. These 
rocks are called Moku Manu (Bird Island). I resolved at once to 
visit them. On January 3, taking two expert native boatmen from 
Heeia, I started down the coast. lyong before the rocks were 
reached I could see multitudes of birds hovering in the air above 
the rocks and looking exadlly like a swarm of bees. When about 
a quarter of a mile away I began to hear the noise and gabble. 
As we got nearer the big Frigate Bird {F. aquila) could be seen 
sailing about and soaring up to wonderful heights, surrounding 
these birds like clouds, but not arising to such great heights, were 
Sooty Terns {Sterna fuliginosa), which by thousands were the 
most abundant bird on the rocks. Flying among these birds were 
many Noddy ( A nous stolidus) , very conspicuous by their dark color. 

One big Albatross (probably Diomedea chinetisis) took flight 
as we were quite near the rocks; unfortunately our shot (No. 8) 
proved too small and the distance a little too great, as this very 
desirable bird merely shook his feathers to rid them of the shot 
and swept sereneh' past us, turning his head to give the boat a 
very sagacious look as he took his leave. Sooty Terns by the 
thousands were sitting about all over the rocks and flj'ing around 
our boat in swarms, so near one could hit them with an oar. The 
din raised by their cry and the noise of their wings was so great 
one had to shout at the top of the voice to be heard two or three 
feet distant. The rocks were honey-combed with burrows and 
must be an ideal nesting place. I looked in vain for a landing; 
owing to the direction of the waves there seemed to be no lee shore ; 
on the south side one could land on a calm day, but the sea was 
too high, and so the attempt to land was given up, to my great 
disappointment . 

A good series of Soot}- Terns and Noddy was obtained. One 
of the specimens, a male Stcnia fuliginosa, was in full breeding 
plumage, the delicate bluish flush covering the entire under sur- 



Field Notes 0)1 the Birds of Oahu. 35. 

face excepting the neck, which with the forehead is pure white; 
top of head and lores, jet black ; wings, mandible, top of neck, all 
sooty black. This specimen's measurements* were as follows: 
Length, 18.25; wing, 11.87; t^^^- 5- 19; the two outer feathers^ 
8.25; culmen, 1.81; its depth at nostril, .37; tarsus, .93; mid-toe 
and claw, 1.19. Palmer found this tern nesting on lyaysan and 
French Frigates Shoals. 

79. Anous Stolidus, Linn. Noddy. 

All the birds of this species shot at Moku Manu on January 4 
were in dull winter plumage of uniform sooty brown ; top of head 
hoary gray merging gradually into sooty brown on the hind neck ; 
lores, bill, feet, wings and tail black. The reproduc1:ive organs 
were ver}' minute, in strong contrast to the organs of the Sooty 
Terns taken on the same day. Length, 17.5; wing, 10.5; tail,, 
6.19; culmen, 1.64; its depth at nostrils, .37; mid-toe and claw, 1.60.. 

One specimen, an immature male taken at Moku Manu 
January 4, gives the following measurements: Length, 17.5; 
wing, 1 1.6; tail, 5.63; tarsus, r; culmen, 1.39; its depth at nos- 
trils, .43 ; mid-toe and claw, 1.46. This specimen, while exceeding 
the largest measurements of the adult shows unmistakable signs of 
immaturity in the dark line along the upper wing-coverts, a gen- 
eral lighter color to the plumage and a soft bill. This specimen 
has the gray coloring of the head confined to the forehead ; super- 
ciliary stripe almost pure white ; lores, black ; abdomen with a 
decided grayish ca.st ; faint fieckings of gray appear on the under 
wing-coverts ; bill, black, shorter and stouter than in mature birds, 
with a prominent keel ; wings, black ; feet and tarsus a blackish 
brown. The mantle has less plumbous, and the wing-coverts are 
much lighter than in the mature bird. 

Anous hawaiiensis, Rothsch. Noio. 
Hawaiian Tern. 
December 23, while shooting near a shallow pond on the east 
coast of the island, four of these graceful terns came flying past 
and I secured three. These have the upper part of the head, top 
and sides of neck, lavender gray, much lighter on the head and 
merging into sooty black on the upper mantle. Lores, throat, 

*The measurements in the foHowing paper are all in inches, and tog^ether with the color 
markings were taken from specimens in the flesh. 



36 Director' s Annual Report. 

under neck, under surface of body, mantle and wings, sooty black ; 
ieet and tarsus yellowish brown ; webbs, yellow ; iris, dark brown. 

The "light ashy green" on the hind neck and upper part of 
the interscapular region, which Mr. Rothschild speaks of in "Avi- 
fauna of lyaysan," is presumably chara(5leristic of summer plumage, 
as these winter specimens fail to show such coloring. 

lycngth, 13; wing, 9; tarsus, .88; its depth at nostrils, .25; 
culmen, 1.53 ; mid-toe and claw, 1.34. 

Order STEGANOPODES. Family Phaethontidse. 

113. Phaethon lepturus, Lacep. & Daud. Haakoae. 
Red-billed Tropic Bird. 

Three times I have observ^ed these birds sailing about the 
ridges of Waiolani mountain above Honolulu, at about 1000 feet 
elevation. Few birds can excel the grace and ease of this bird's 
flight among the cliffs of the mountains. This species occurs on 
all the islands. 

Order ANSERES. Family Anatidse. 

143. Dafila acuta, Einn. Pintail. 
December 23, I accepted the courteous invitation of the Hono- 
lulu Gun Club to accompany them on a shoot over their preserv^es 
in the vicinity of Waimanalo. Decoys were spread in the early 
dawn and twenty ducks were secured. I am told this was an un- 
usuall}' small bag for the club, being but three ducks to the man. 
A large number of plover were taken, however, to make up the 
deficiency. Sixteen of these ducks were of the above species. 
The remaining four were the native Hawaiian duck. 

Anas wyvilliana, Sclater. 

This duck is fairly common on the island among the tule 
swamps and ponds near the coast. Length, 18.50; wing, 9.67; 
tail, 2.37; tarsus, 1.46; culmen, 2.12; its depth at nostrils, .61; 
mid-toe and claw, 1.81. 

Order HERODIONES. Family Ardeidse. 

Nycticorax griseus, Wiggl. Auku. 

Black-crowned Night Heron. 

These are common about the marshes in the vicinity of Ka- 

huku. During the day they usually hide in dense clumps of trees 



Field Notes 0)1 the /h'rds of Oaliii . 37 

near the coast or up the narrow canons. One was taken at Ka- 
hiiku December 31, and two were shot in the vicinity of Waima- 
nalo December 23. Length, 25; wing, 12.57; ^^i^^- 3-i9; tarsus, 3; 
mid-toe and claw, 3.57. This bird is found on all the islands. 

Order PALUDICOL.^. Family Rallid^. 

Gallinula sandvicensis, Street. Alae. 
Mud Hen. 
These birds are common in the tule swamps, kalo patches and 
fish ponds all over the island. The specimens taken show a de- 
cidedly red tarsvis. 

Order LIMICOL^-E. Family Scolopacidae. 

248. Calidris arenaria, Linn. Hunakai. 
Sanderling. 
The Sanderling is by no means an uncommon bird here dur- 
ing the winter months. On December 21 six were observed during 
one afternoon along the sandy northern shore of the island, in the 
vicinit}- of Kahuku. It is interesting to watch these little birds 
following the retreating wave down the sandy beach, and their 
a(ftive scramble for the freshly uncovered Crustacea. I have fre- 
quently seen them running along the beach with the end of the 
bill held firmly in the sand, literally plowing out their food. The 
specimens taken were all in very light winter plumage. No doubt 
this bird occurs on all the islands of the group, although it has 
only been reported from Kauai and Niihau. 

259. Heteractitis incanus, vStejn. Ulili. 
Wandering Tatler. 
This bird could teach an "Ancient Mariner" many things of 
the sea. Its knowledge and judgment of the waves is nothing 
short of wonderful. They know perfectly well the rhythm of the 
sea, and just how many big heavy waves will come pounding over 
their rocks before there is a lull ; this they show by running far 
down on the rocks after the third wave, knowing that the fourth 
will be smaller and not large enough to knock them from their 
new feeding ground. They also know perfe(5tly well if the in- 
coming wave is going to break or merely swell past them, their 
judgment in this matter being better than my own, although I 



38 Director" s Annual Report. 

have spent much time by the sea. When heavy seas were run- 
ning I have been perfectly astonished at the rapidity with which 
they followed up the retreating waves, gathering up the dainty 
bits of food cast up, and judging with perfect accuracy how far 
they could follow down the rocks in safety before the next wave 
came on. They are a wary bird and difficult to approach. One 
has to advance when they are busy feeding, and "freeze" — i.e., 
be perfedlly motionless — when the}' are looking until they fancy 
■one is a rock, their power to discriminate their enemies being less 
than that of the native land birds. When alarmed they fly up with 
a cry like U-1-i-l-i, uttered in a voice clear as a bell. 

During the winter months these birds can usually be found 
singly or in pairs along any rocky portion of this coast, being about 
as common here as they are on the west coast of the United States 
or AlavSka. Three specimens were taken in the vicinity of Wai- 
manalo December 23, and one at Heeia January 3. These were 
all in winter plumage and showed no signs of the barred breast 
markings. The nasal groove w^as two-thirds as long as the culmen. 
Length, 12; wing, 7.56; tail, 2.87; tarsus, 1.50; mid-toe and claw, 
1.33; culmen, 1.63; nasal groove, i.io. 

Order LIMICOL^. Famii.v Charadriidse. 

272a. Charadrius fulvus, Gmel. Kolea. 

Pacific Golden Plover. 

During the past four months, November-March, the Pacific 
Golden Plover has been very abundant, especially in the rocky 
pastures, along the seashore, and in the inland valleys, to an ele- 
vation of 200 feet. On December 21a walk of three miles, in the 
vicinity of Kaliuku, resulted in seeing 205 of these birds by aclual 
count ; they were scattered about singly or in groups of three or 
four. These birds have a clear whistled note which changes to an 
entirely different and rapid alarm cry as they take to their wings. 
I have frequently decoyed them by throwing my hat in the air. 
About nightfall the plovers come in bands to feed by the shallow 
ponds and sloughs near the shore, a habit that results in the de- 
struction of hundreds of birds by Still Hunters. 

December 21 eleven specimens were shot along the northern 
shore of the island in the vicinity of Kahuku. Nine of these were 
males in characteristic winter plumage, showing no black on the 



Field Notes on the Birds of Oalin. 30 

ventral surface ; the slight dark streakings on the neck merge into 
indistinct light brownish niottlings on the breast. It is remark- 
able, in contrast to this, how bright the plumage on the dorsal 
surface remains during the entire year. The average measure- 
ment of the nine male specimens was as follows: I^ength, 9.98; 
bill, .91 ; wing, 6.48; tail, 2.34; tarsus. 1.72; mid-toe and claw, 
1.25 ; culmeu, .85. The plover is found on all the islands durincr 
the winter months. I am told it leaves the islands about Ma}- i, 
and returns sometime in August. 

Order LIMICOL.^. FAMri.v Aphrmd^e. 

283. Arenaria interpres, Linn. Akeke. 

Turnstone. 

In regard to the Turnstone, I have the following entry in my 
notebook: "Nov. 22. — Two Arenaria interpres were shot near a 
small pond in the vicinity of Kahuku : these were males in winter 
plumage." "December 21. — Turnstones are common in the rocky 
pastures near the northern shore of the island. They are usually 
seen in small flocks of three or four, frequently consorting with the 
Golden Plover {C . fulvus) .' ^ 

These birds are quite wary and usually fly before one is within 
range. Twenty of these birds w^ere counted during one hour spent 
in the field. All the specimens taken on this island fall short on 
the wing measurements. Of six specimens the longest wing was 
5.61, while the average was 5.50. L,ength, 9; wing, 5.50; tail, 
2.31; tarsus, i; culmen, .86; mid-toe and claw, 1.19. Found on 
all the islands. 

Order RAPTOREvS. Famiev Bubonidse. 

367. Asio accipitrinus, Pall. Pueo. 

vShort-eared Owl. 

In the vicinity of Honolulu this owl is quite abundant. My 

first specimen was shot November 23 at an elevation of 1000 feet. 

This was a male in characteristic plumage, with a very dusk}- 

frontal patch. Another specimen was taken in Kalihi valley, 

elevation of 200 feet. This was an adult male in the most 

beautiful plumage ; the upper surface is much lighter than 

in the November specimen ; the under tail-coverts are pure 

white merging into a very pale buffy white on upper abdomen; 



40 Director's Aniuml Report. 

dusky frontal patch conspicuous. Another, a female in very dark 
plumage, was taken March 15. The ovary of this bird contained 
twenty-one small eggs, ranging from the size of No. 6 shot up to 
the size of a large pea. 

These owls come out about sunset and fly around near the 
ground, uttering every little while their cry of P-we-o from which 
they get their native name. I have frequently watched three or four 
hawking about in Kalihi valley at sunset ; they sail quietly along, 
just skimming the tops of the low guava bushes and grass, alight- 
ing occavSionally to pick up a stray insect. The stomachs of the 
three taken, however, were entirely destitute of food, perhaps 
owing to their being taken early in the evening. I have decoyed 
these birds within range by sailing my hat in the air. The Pueo 
is found on all the islands. Length, 14; wing, 12.5; tail, 5.75; 
tarsus, 1.62; culmen, .68; its depth at nostril, .62; mid-toe and 
claw, 2. 

Chasiempis gayi, Wilson. Elepaio. 
Oahu Fly-catcher. 

This is the most common native land bird to be found on the 
island. One will usually see at least three or four during a day's 
hunt in the mountains. On March 14, a particularly favorable 
day, I observed eighteen by a(5tual count. This Fly-catcher, un- 
like all the other birds of the island, does not regard man as its 
greatest enemy; a condition resulting, no doubt, from years of 
worship by the natives, for this bird was the god of the canoemen 
and gave judgment on all the timber used in boat-building. Its 
usual haunt is the densely wooded cations at an elevation of from 
800 to 1300 feet. It is a most adlive and interesting little bird and 
can easih' be called quite near by a slight kissing sound made with 
the lips to the back of one's hand — a ver^^ good imitation of one of 
their calls. Their usual call, however, is a loud, clear whistled 
El'-ep-aio, from which it gets its native name. Another common 
note is a slight variation of the above, sounding like a whistled 
T6o-wee-oo ; still another frequently heard is a sharp Wheet', whto. 
When approaching one it scolds in words sounding like Chrr, chrr. 
In all I have counted seven different calls or notes from this bird. 
They have a habit, when excited, of spreading their tail and flipping 
it up to almost right angles with their body. The}' are not at all 
afraid, as I have had them approach within twenty inches of mv face. 



Field Notes 0)1 the Birds of Oa/iii. 41 

The Klepaio is always keenly alert for insecfls, and occasion- 
ally takes them on the win"^ with an audible snap of the bill. In 
the large series of these birds taken all had their stomachs perfectly 
gorged with insects and larvce. I have frequently timed them to 
see how many insects they really would destroy in five minutes. 
One feeding almost within reach of me in that length of time caught 
first, a leaf-hopper; second, a small moth; third, another leaf- 
hopper; and fourth, a caterpillar that required three or four gulps 
to swallow, it was so large. The strange thing is they seem to be 
always feeding, so the rapidity of their digestive power is remark- 
able. To birds other than their own tribe the Elepaio is a pugna- 
cious little body, and I have seen them chase the larger Apapane 
(//. sa?iguiuea) away from a particularly good feeding ground. 
By February i the mating season had arrived for these birds, and 
I observed them sporting with their mates. As yet I have been 
unable to find their nests. On March 14, however, I shot a female 
with an Q^g, now in the Bishop Museum, that was almost ready 
for exclusion. 

This bird shows the most remarkable range of variations in its 
plumage, so that a very large series is required to gain any ade- 
quate idea of the age and seasonal variations. Not wishing to 
kill more than was absolutely necessary, the number of these 
birds taken was confined to six to ten each month, nothing near 
a duplicate has yet been found. For example, I have before 
me a male taken January 3 : bill, entirely black ; feet and tarsus, 
dark with bluish cast; eye, dark hazel; general color above, tawny 
ochraceous, brightest on upper tail-coverts and sides of neck ; 
top of head very little brighter than mantle ; the feathers of the 
mantle are broadly tipped with brighter ochraceous which gives 
the mantle an indistinctly mottled appearance ; the rufous of the 
upper tail-coverts extends as a band entirely around the anal re- 
gion of the body, although not so bright on the under tail-coverts; 
wing-coverts tipped with bright rufous and without any trace of 
white ; throat, breast and flanks, tawny ochraceous ; belly and tips 
of tail feathers, except the two middle ones, white ; testes enlarged, 
.29 X.I 9. This was a bird that would evidently breed the coming 
season. Length, 5.16 ; wing, 2.63; tail, 2.25; tarsus, .93; cul- 
men, .50; depth at no.strils, .19; mid-toe and claw, .62. A male 
taken March 15, with plumage exaclly the same shade of color, 
with possibly a shade less of rufous on flanks and breast, has 



42 Director's Anmial Report. 

the immature yellowish under mandible with only the under part 
at tip dark. Length, 5.50; wing, 2.56; tail, 2.25; tarsus, .87; 
mid-toe and claw, .56 ; testes, minute. 

The approach to maturity in these birds, as shown by our 
large series, is as follows: First, the ear-coverts become dusky; 
next, the under mandible becomes black with only a narrow line of 
yellowish along the cutting edge. At this period the buff}- 
white of the mid-breast has changed to pure white, and a 
buffy white patch about one and one-half the length of the culmen 
appears under the chin. The dusk}^ area about the ear-coverts 
has increased in size so they extend from a line with the pupil 
of the eye to half-way down the neck. Fleckiugs of dusky ap- 
pear in the rufous on each side of under neck. The tips of the 
greater and middle wing-coverts .show white in the centre sur- 
rounded with the bright rufous. Buffy white appears on the lores, 
the coloring on the head becomes less ochraceous. Thus the 
changes go on until we have the well known adult plumage, with 
the pure white tail-coverts ; white tips to the wing-coverts ; black 
on throat, preceded by the restridted white area about as long as 
the culmen. The pattern of this white patch varies in each indi- 
vidual, but in fully mature specimens a narrow band of white 
extends entirely around the forehead at the base of the upper man- 
dible, widening out over the lores — which are entirely white, but 
with black bases to the feathers — and joins broadly with the white 
of the throat. At the ba.se of the lower mandible is a small patch 
of black ; on the lower neck the white gradually disappears as tips 
to the feathers of the neck and fore breast ; the mantle is brownish 
with rufous cast and has indistinct white tips to the feathers of the 
lower part. Our series shows no difference between the male and 
female. Confined to Oahu island. Length, 5.50; wing spread, 
7.75; wing, 2.51; tail, 2.18; tarsus, .83; culmen, .54; mid-toe 
and claw, .56. 

Vestiaria coccinea, Forster. liwi. 

This beautiful bird, once so common on the island, is now very 
scarce. During the entire four months I have been colle(5ting only 
two have been secured. Another has recently been presented to 
the Museum through the courtesy of Dr. Huddy of Honolulu. 
However, these birds are probably more abundant in the Waianae 
mountains, which I have not been able to explore because of the 



Field Notes o>i the /y/rds of Oaliit . 43 

quarantine. On February 27, while colle(5ling in the large bhia for- 
est of Waiolani mountain, at an elevation of 1300 feet, I saw an liwi 
enter a fresh-built nest in an ohia tree {Metrosidcros polymorplia) . 
I secured the old bird and the nest ; unfortunately, however, there 
w^ere no eggs, the nest not being quite complete. The bird 
is a female in beautiful summer plumage. General color, a 
bright vermilion ; wings and tail, black ; inner two feathers of 
secondaries, white; feet, light vermilion ; bill, vermilion, darker at 
tip; eye, hazel. The stomach contained the remains of inse(5ls 
and ohia stamens. I^ength, 6; wing, 2.87; tail, 2; tarsus, 1.12; 
culmen, .97. The nest was placed about 40 feet from the ground, 
and was well secured in the crotch of three small branches, at the 
end of a big limb standing straight up for 1 2 feet without any lower 
branches. The nest was completely hidden by leaves and the yel- 
low ohia blooms ; the exterior was composed of club moss and 
small twigs ; the inside was of moss, fern pulu, and hair-like fibres 
from leaves ; outside it was 5-7 in diameter ; inside, 3.5-2 ; depth, 2. 

Himatione sangiiinea, Gmel. Apapane. 

While the Apapane is by no means abundant it is still not 
uncommon in the mountains of Oahu. They are found in the ohia 
forests at an elevation of 1000 feet. These birds begin to pair 
about the middle of February, and I frequently saw them sporting 
as they flew acrcss the cafion. They may be easily decoyed by 
giving their call of Cheep in a soft whistle. On February 27 
three of these birds alighted on an ohia tree quite near me, and 
one which proved to be a male spread out his wings like a strut- 
ting turkey cock and danced gracefully to the great satisfaction of 
the spectators. These birds when flying make a drumming noise 
with their wings w^hich sounds like the tapping of a woodpecker 
in the distance. 

On March 3, at an elevation of 1200 feet on Waiolani moun- 
tain, I heard an Apapane singing from an ohia tree. There were 
two, a male and female ; I gave the call, a faint cheep, cheep, 
and the female flew into the tree under which I was standing and 
was taken. The male continued to sing, his notes being a sweet 
whistled Hop-o-lee, ch-ch-ch, lee-lee, cha-lee, cha-lee, cha-lee. 
liquid and beautiful, with frequent changes in the arrangement 
and abreviations of the above sounds. They usually, as in this 
case, continue moving rapidly about from one branch to another, 



44 Director's Annual Report. 

taking good care to keep themselves well screened behind thick 
bunches of leaves, for they are a suspicious and wary bird. After 
watching this bird for some time I hardened my heart and added 
him to the collecftion in the Museum. I have found five nests of 
this species, but as yet no eggs. The nests are visually in the ohia 
trees. A fresh nest taken February 23 measures 5X5 in diameter 
on the outside, and 2.25X2 on the inside ; depth, i.io. This nest 
was found in an ohia tree about 20 feet from the ground; elevation, 
1300 feet. The outside of the nest was of moss interwoven with 
small leie roots, with a foundation of small twigs ; the inside was 
of fine hair-like dried fibres of leaves which looked almost like horse- 
hair. With a good microscope I carefully examined the stomach 
contents of ten Apapane ; remains of insecfts and larvae together 
with bits of stamens and pollen from the ohia were found in all. 

The Apapane is a bright crimson in color, brighter on the 
head ; slightly gray shading into white on lower belly, and under 
tail-coverts white ; tails and wings, black. Our series of twenty 
specimens will not corroborate Mr. Wilson's statement in the "Aves 
Hawaiienses" that "the females differ from the males in having the 
general crimson of the plumage of a distincftly lighter shade, while 
the crimson on the outer edge of the secondaries is of the same 
.shade as the rest of the plumage, whereas in the males it is of much 
lighter tint." In the birds before me all the fully adult specimens, 
both male and female, have the edging of the secondaries the same 
color as the mantle; while in the immature of both sexes the edging 
of the secondaries has a yellowish color ; they probabh- do not lose 
this sign of immaturity until the second year, as I have taken birds 
that were nesting which still showed a faint trace of orange-yellow- 
ish on their secondaries. In general color the difference in the 
sexes is so slight as to often be unappreciable. 

A young female just beginning to assume the first indica- 
tion of red was taken February 27. The general color of this 
bird was grayish tinged with dirty ochraceous ; belly and un- 
der tail-coverts, white ; a slight trace of crimson appearing on 
head and mantle ; edgings on the outer webs of the secondaries and 
wing-coverts, reddish buff ; base of lower mandible, yellowish ; a 
slight white marking near the end of the outer webs of the second, 
third and fourth primaries as in adult birds. This specimen meas- 
ured as follows : L,ength, 5; spread of wing, 7; wing, 2.53; tail, 



Field Notes on the Birds of Oahii. 45 

1.77: tarsus, .83; cuhneii, .61; its depth at base, .19. This bird 
is found on all the islands. 

Okiii'K PASSKRIvS. . Family Drepanidse. 

Chlorodrepanis chloris, Cab. Amakihi. 

Although these birds are not rare I have only secured three. 
They are so small and their color matches so well the green of the 
foliage as to make it almost impossible to distinguish them. Their 
faint little note, sounding like ss ss hissed in a subdued tone, 
seems to come from almost anywhere and is a poor guide to their 
location. They are found on the wooded mountain ridges and in 
the caiions at an elevation of about iioo feet. An immature male 
(No. 1335) was taken January 30 on Waiolani mountain at an ele- 
vation of 1087 feet. This bird was busily engaged in looking for 
small insects among the branches of a koa tree. Its stomach con- 
tained five small larvae and the remains of two adult flies. On 
February 21 I shot another (No. 1343) while feeding on small in- 
secls which I saw it picking from the leaves and branches of an 
ohia bush at an elevation of 1049 feet. This bird was accom- 
panied by another which I thought to be its mate, for it soon re- 
turned to the same bush and was taken (No. 1344). These two 
specimens, a male and female, were in ver}' immature plumage 
and their organs showed no signs of development ; so instead of 
being mated they may have been merely members of the same brood. 

All of these specimens have the well curved horn- colored bill, 
with light yellowish on the base of the lower mandible. The feet 
and tarsus are dark with a raw umber tint. All have the greater 
and middle wing-coverts tipped with whitish, surrounded with a 
faint trace of olive green ; primaries and secondaries dark with 
greenish edge to outer webs, which merges into light gray towards 
the tips ; secondaries with more or less white on upper part of inner 
web ; tail, dark with greenish outer edge to all the feathers except 
the two outer feathers, which show a faint edging of grayish; 
lores, grayish ; back, tinged with olive green. In No. 1335, evi- 
dently an older bird, the coloring is brighter on the sides of head 
above the ear-coverts ; there is also a bright yellow superciliary 
stripe ; under parts, buffy white streaked with yellowish on throat 
and breast; lower abdomen and under tail-coverts, white. Following 
are the measurements of the three specimens: No. 1335.^ Length, 
4.5; spread of wing, 7.75; wing, 2.56; culmen, .62; its depth at nos- 



46 Director's An7iual Rep07't. 

tril, .19; tarsiivS, .75; mid-toe and claw, .68. No. 1343.^ Length, 
4.5; spread of wing, 6.5; wing, 2.50; tail, 1.50; culmen, .56; its 
depth at nostril, .19; mid-toe and claw, .63. No. 1344.9 Length, 
4.75; spread of wing, 6.5; wing, 2.43; tail, 1.50; culmen, .56; its 
depth at nostril, .19; mid-toe and claw, .75. Confined to Oahu 
island. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY DURING uSgg. 

[Those marked with an asterisk were ol)tained by exchange.] 

Adler, Herman. — Oak galls and gall flies. 8vo. Oxford, 1894. 
Allen, Harrison. — Study of Hawaiian skulls. 8vo. Washington, 

1895- 

Anthropologie, Revue d". 8vo. Paris, 1872-1889, 18 vols. 

Anthropologic de Paris, Societe d'. 8vo. Paris, 1860-1893. 

Archivio per Antropologia e la Etnologia. 8vo. Firenzi, 1871- 
1897, 27 vols. 

*Asiatic Society' of Bengal. Proceedings for 1899, Nos. 1-8; Jour- 
nal, Vol. Ixviii., Part ii, No. i ; Journal, Vol. Ixviii., Part iii, 
No. I. 

Atkinson, Geo. E. — Biology of Ferns. 8vo. New York, 1894. 

*Au.stralian Museum. Catalogues: No. 4, Australian birds, parts 
i-iv.; No. 8, x\ustralian hydroid zoophytes; No. 12, Nests 
and eggs of birds found breeding in Australia and Tasmania: 
No. 13, Sponges; No. 14, Fishes, Part i.; No. 15, Marine 
.shells, Parts i., ii. and iii.; No. 16, Australian mammals; 
No. 17, Tunicata, Records, Vol. ii., Vol. iii., 6 parts. Memoirs: 
No. I, History and description of the skeleton of a new sperm 
whale; No. 2, Lord Howe Island; No. 3, Atoll of Funafuti, 
Ellice group, 1896-99; No. 4, Scientific results of the trawl- 
ing expedition of the "Thetis" off the coast of New South 
Wales, Part i., 1899. 

Bains, Thos. — Greenhouse and stove plants. 8vo. London, 1894. 

Baker, J. G. — Summary of new ferns since 1874. 8vo. Oxford, 1892. 

Bateman and Bennett. — Book of Aquaria. London, i2mo. 

Berenger-Feraud. — Les peuplades de la Senegambie. 8vo. Paris, 
1879. 

Bevan, Theo. F. — Toil, travel and discovery in New Guinea. 
8vo. London, 1890. 



.Iddifions fo tlw Library. ^.y 

Bicknell, Arthur C. — Travel and adventure in Northern Queens- 
land. 8vo. London, iiSgs. 

Blackman, W. F. — The making of Hawaii. 8vo. New York, 1H99. 

Boulenger G. A. — Catalogue of perciforni fi.shes in the British 
Museum. Vol. i., 8vo. London, 1895. 

Bourne, Gilbert C. — On stru(ftures and affinities of Heliopora 
coerulea. London, 1895. 

Bramer, John C. — Notes on the Botocudos and their ornaments. 
1888. 

British Admiralty : Sailing Dire(5lions. Pacific islands, western 
groups, Vol. i. Part i., 1890. Supplement, 1894. Part ii., 
1891 . Pacific islands, central and eastern groups, Vol. ii., 1891 . 

British Museum. Catalogue of Lepidoptera Phalsense with plates, 
Vol. i., London, 1898; Catalogue of Perciforni Fishes, Vol.i., 
London, 1895 ; Catalogue of Mammalia, Part i., Cetacea, 
i2mo., 1850; Antiquities from the city of Benin, fol. 1899. 

Broca, Paul. — See Revue d'Anthropologie. 

Buchanan, John. — The indigenous grasses of New Zealand. Well- 
ington, 1880. 

*California Academy of Sciences, Proceedings: Botany, Vol. ix., 
Nos. 1-9; Zoology, Vol. i., Nos. 1-12; Geology, Vol. i., Nos. 
1-6; Physics, Vol. i., Nos. 1-6. 

Carpenter, E. J. — America in Hawaii. Boston, 1899. 

Conklin, E. G. — Embryology of Crepidula. 8vo. Boston, 1897. 

*Conne(fticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, Transacftions, Vol. x. 
Part I. New Haven, 1899. 

*Cope, E. D. — Syllabus of le(5lures on the vertebrata. Svo. Phila- 
delphia, 1898. 

*Cory, Chas. B. — Birds of eastern North America, Part i., Water 
birds. Chicago, 1899. 

Cowrie, A. — English-Sulu-Malay dicftionary. London, 1893. 

Cox, J. C. — Notes on two wax figures from an aboriginal camp 
near Rockhampton, Queensland. 

Crookshank, E. M. — Bacteriology. 8vo. London, 1896. 

Danielli, Jacopo. — Contributo alio studio del tatuaggio negli antichi 
Peruviani. Firenze, 1894. 

Darwin, Charles. — Origin of Species. 8vo. London, 1898. 

Duffield, A. J. — Notes on the inhabitants of New Ireland. Lon- 
don, 1884. 



48 Director' s Annual Report. 

Edge-Partington, J., and Heape, Chas. — Ethnographical Album 
of the Pacific Islands, Vol. iii. Manchester, 1898. 

*Ethnologischen Abtheilung der Koniglichen Museum zu Berlin. 
Heft, i., 1895; ii. and iii., 1896; iv., 1897. 

Evans, A. H. — Birds. Cambridge Natural History. London, 1899. 

Ethnographischen Reijksmuseums in Leiden. Internationales 
Archiv fiir Ethnographic, Vol. xi. 4to. Leiden, 1898. 

*Fish Commission (U. S.) Report for 1896. Washington, 1898. 

Flower, W. H. — Recent Memoirs on Cetacea. 4to. London, 1866. 

Franklin, S. R. — Memoirs of a Rear-Admiral. 8vo. New York, 
1898. 

Fritsch, Gustav. — Die Eingeborenen Siid-Afrika's Ethnographisch 
und anatomisch. 4to. Breslau, 1872. 

*Geological Survey of the ITnited States. x\nnual reports, 2, 3, 4, 
6, 7, 8, II, 12, 13, 14, 16, (only two parts) 17, 18, 19, parts 
I, 4, 6. Monographs 29, 30 and 35. 

Giglioli, H. H. — Studi sulla razza Negrita. Firenze. 

Gos.se, L. A. — Essai sur les deformations artificielles du crane. 
8vo. Paris, 1855. 

Griffith and Henfre}-. — The Micrographic Dictionary. London. 

Hackel, Edward. — The true grasses. 8vo. Westminster, 1898. 

Hamilton, A. — Maori Art, Part iii. 4to. London, 1898. 

Hamy, E. T. — Etude sur un squelette d'Aeta des environs de 
Binangonan, nord-est de Lugon, Paris, 1879. 

Hawaiian Ministerial Reports, 1898. 

Hawaii nei. Hawaiian Gazette Company. Honolulu, 1899. 

Helms, Richard. — x-Vnthropologie. (Australian Aborigines. ) Syd- 
ney, 1895. 

*Herdman, W. A. — Catalogue of Tunicata in the Australian 
Museum. Liverpool, 1899. 

Heurck, Henri van. — Treatise on the Diatomacea. 4to. London, 
1896. 

Hill, Alexander. — The Hippocampus. 4to. London, 1893. 

Hillebrand, W. — Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. 8vo. Heidel- 
berg, 1888. 

*Hilprecht and Clay. — The Babylonian expedition. 4to. Phila- 
delphia, 1898. 

Hooker, J. D. — Flora of British India, 7 vols. 8vo. London, 
1875-90. 

Houge, E. — Les Samoans de Leone (Tutuila). Bruxelles, 1890. 



Additions to the Library. 49 

Hudson, G. V. — Manual of New Zealand Entomology. 8vo. 

London, 1892. 
Hyades and Deniker. — Mission scientifique du Cap Home, 1882-3. 

Vol. vii. Anthropologic, Ethnographic. 4to. Paris, 1891. 
Iscnthal and Ward. — Pra(5lical Radiography. 8vo. Eondon, 1898. 

* Jackson, Sheldon. — Report on the introducflion of domestic rein- 

deer into Alaska. Washington, 1898. 

Joost, Wilhelm. — Tatowiren narbenzeichncn und Korperbemalen. 
4to. Berlin, 1887. 

*Johns Hopkins University: Maryland Geological Survey. 8vo, 
Baltimore, 1898. Memoirs, Vol. iv., 4to.: No. i. The Cubo- 
medusae, by F. S. Conant, 1898; No. 2, Synapta vivipara, by 
H. E- Clark, 1898; No. 3, Yoldia limatula, by Gilnian A. 
Drew, 1899. 

* Jordan and Evermann. — Fishes of North and Middle America. 

8vo. Washington, 1898. 
Jordana y Morera, Ramon. — Bosquejo geografico e historico- 

natural del archipielago Filipino. 4to. Madrid, 1885. 
Kanda, T. — Notes on ancient stone implements of Japan. 8vo. 

Tokio. 1884. 
Keferstein, Wilhelm. — Bemerkungen, iiber das Skelett eines Aus- 

traliers von Stamme Warnambool. Dresden, 1865. 
Koganei. — Beitrage zur physischen Anthropologic der Aino. 8vo. 

Tokio, 1893-94. 
*Koniglich Kaiscrlich Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums Annalen. 

Wien, 1898. Vol. xiii., Nos. i, 2, 3. 
*Eabor, Department of. — Bulletin No. 20. Washington, 1899. 
Lacassagne, A. — Tatouages. 8vo. Paris, 1881. 
Lalage et Herouard. — La Zoologie concrete. Paris. 
Lennier, G. — Museum de Histoire naturelle et d' Ethnographic au 

Havre. Description de la colledlion ethnographique Oceani- 

enne. 4to. Havre, 1896. 
Letourneau, Chas. — Biolog}". 8vo. London. 
Linnsean Society. Zoology, Vol. xxvi., 1898. Botany, Vol. xxxiii., 

1897-98. London. 
Lombroso, Cesare. — L'Uomo bianca e I'uomo di colore. i2mo. 

Torino, 1892. 
Macdonald, D. — Asiatic origin of Oceanic languages. London, 

1894. 

O. p.: B. P. B. M.— Vol. I., No. 2. 



5© Director''' s Annual Report. 

Madras Government Museum. Bulletins, Vols, i., ii., 1894-99. 

*Malay States. Reports for 1897. London, 1898. 

Man, E. H. — The Andaman Islanders. 

Maxwell, Walter. — Soils and Lavas of the Hawaiian Islands. 

8vo. Honolulu, 1898. 
Meyer, A. B. — Ueber hundert fiinf und dreissig Papua Schadel 

von Neu Guinea und der Insel Mysorei. Dresden. 
Meyer und Schadenberg. — Album von Philippinen-Typen. Nord 

Luzon. 4to. Dresden, 1891. 
Michelsen, Oscar. — Cannibals won for Christ. i2mo. London. 
Montano, J. — Report on a journey to the Philippine Islands. 8vo. 

Paris, 1885. 
Montero y Vidal. — El Archipielago Filipino y las Islas Marianas, 

Carolinas y Palaos. 8vo. Madrid, 1886. 
Moore, W. — Constitutional requirements for tropical climates. 

i2mo. London, 1890. 
Mueller, Ferd. von. — Myoporinous plants of Australia. 4to. Part 
ii. Melbourne, 1886. 
Museo nacional de Buenos Aires. Anales. Tomo vi. Buenos 
Aires, 1899. 8vo. 
*Museum of Comparative Zoology. Bulletin, Vol. xxiv. Cam- 
bridge, 1899. Report of Albatross Expedition, 1891. Cam- 
bridge, 1899. 4to. 
*Museum, United States National. Reports for 1895 and 1896. 

Proceedings, Vols, xviii., xx. and xxi. 
Musick, J. R. — Hawaii, our new possession. 8vo. New York, 1898. 
Packard, A. vS. — Textbook on Entomolog}'. 8vo. New York, 1898. 
Parker, T. J. — Observations on anatomy and development of the 

Apteryx. 4to. London, 1891. 
Pereiro, A. Cabeza. — La isla de Ponape. 8vo. Manila, 1895. 
*Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. Journal, Vol. xi., 

Parts I and 2. Proceedings for 1899, Parts i and 2. 
Reed and Dalton. — Antiquities from the city of Benin. Fol. Lon- 
don, 1899. 
Richet, Chas. — Bibliographia physiologica, Paris, 1895-6. 
*Rijks Ethnographisch Museum. Verslag van den Diredleur over 
het tijdvak van i Jan. 1897 tot 30 Sept. 1898. 8vo. Leiden, 
1899. Tentoonstellung van Japansche Kunst. Leiden, 1899. 
Roscoe and Schorlemmer. — Treatise on Chemistry, 2 vols. Lon- 
don, 1894. 



Additions to the Library. 51 

Roth, H. Liug. — The aborigines of Tasmania. 8vo. Halifax, 

Eug., 1899. 
Royal Geographical Society. Geographical Journal, 1898-99. 

London. 
Royal Natural History. Vols. v. and vi. London. 
*Royal Society of New South Wales. Journal and Proceedings 

for 1898. Sydney. 
Riidinger, H. — Ueber kunstlich deformirte Schadel und Gehirne 

von Siidseeinsulanern (Neu Hebriden). 8vo. Miinchen, 1887. 
Sachs, Julius von. — History of Botany (1530-1860). 8vo. Oxford, 

1890. 
Semon, Richard. — In the Australian Bush. London, 1899. 
* Smith, Erwin F. — The black rot of the cabbage. Washington, 

1898. 
Snow, H. G. — Notes on Kuril Islanders. 8vo. London, 1897. 
Societa Romana de Antropologia. Atti, 1893-97, 4 vols. Roma. 
Stair, John B. — Old Samoa. 8vo. London, 1897. 
Stebbing, Thos. R. R. — Crustacea. London, 1893. 
Sundowner. — Rambles in Polynesia. 8vo. London, 1897. 
Thomson, J. J. — The discharge of elecflricity through gases. 

Westminster, 1898. 
Thomson, J. G. — British New Guinea. 8vo. London, 1892. 
*Thurston, Edgar. — Bulletin of Madras Government Museum, 

Vols. i. and ii. 
Trinchese, Salvatore. — ^olididae e famiglie af^ine del Porto di 

Genova. 4to. Bologna, 1897-99. 
Tubeuf, Karl von. — Diseases of plants induced by cr3'ptogamic 

parasites. London, 1897. 
*University of Pennsylvania Publications, Vols, i.-vii. Bulletins, 

Vols, i.-iii. Annual Report of Provost, 1897-98. Catalogue, 

1898-99. 
\'irchow, R. — Ueber mikronesische Schadel. Berlin, 1881. 
Watt, Agnes C. P. — Twenty-five 3'ears mission life on Tanna, 

New Hebrides. Paisley, 1896. 
Walker, G. T. — On Boomerangs. 4to. London, 1897. 
Wilson, S. B. — Aves Hawaiienses. 4to. London, 1890-99. 
Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic, 25 vols. Berlin, 1869 — date. 
Zoological Society of London. Proceedings for 1898. 8vo. Lon- 
don — complete set. 



52 Director'' s Anyiual Report. 

LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 

Department of Ethnoi.ogy. 

6800 Bowl cut from compact basalt ; from J. C. Searle. Hawaiian. 

6820 Poi pounder of peculiar form (cast); Peabody Museum ex- 
change. Hawaiian. 

6733 Paddle. Samoan Ids. 

6734 Baskets made of pandanus leaf (2). Samoan Ids. 

6736 Coconut cup for paint or taik ; from Rev. C. M. Hyde. 

Gilbert Ids. 

6737 String of dog teeth; from Rev. C. M. Hyde. Gilbert Ids. 

6738 Stone adze. Hawaiian. 

6739 Ostrich &^^ laid at ChrivStchurch, New Zealand. 

6743 Longiel or curved club. Solomon Ids. 

6744 Carved boomerang. Queensland. 

6745 Portion of ear ring inlaid with tortoise-.shell. Solomon Ids. 

6746 Seed rattles for dances (2). Solomon Ids. 

6748 Stone axe. Australia. 

6749 Kauri gum, a series of five specimens polished. New 

Zealand. 

6755 Seal cut from kauri gum. New Zealand. 

6756 Kauri gum with inse<5ls inclosed (2). New Zealand. 
6758 Turbo shells etched by prisoners (2). New Caledonia. 
6760 Pearl shells polished ( 3 ) . Queensland. 

6763 Partitions of shell of Nautilus pompilius, ornament. Torres 

Strait. 

6766 Bracelets of Nassa arcularis (2). Solomon Ids. 

6769 String of shell money. Solomon Ids. 

6770 Necklace of shells. Solomon Ids. 

6771 Leguminous beans ( 2). Queensland. 

6772 Quondongs (5). Australia. 

6773 Seeds (14). Australia. 

6774 Shell armlet. Gilbert Ids. 

6775 Tortoise-shell armlet. New Guinea. 

6776 Boar tusk. Solomon Ids. 

6777 Armlets braided from Gleichenia fibre. Solomon Ids. 

6778 Finger ring of tortoise-shell. Samoan Ids. 

6779 Forehead ornament, disk of shell. Solomon Ids. 

6780 Fish hooks (4). Solomon Ids. 



List of Accessions. 53 

6785 Armlet of carved shell. New Guinea. 

6786 Rings of Conus shell (2). New Guinea. 

6795 Fisherman's idol in rough lava, Molokai. Hawaiian. 

6796 Stone dish for offerings to an idol. Hawaiian. 

6797 Stone kapa presser. Hawaiian. 

6798 Grass hula dress ( 2 ) . Hawaiian. 

7530 Poi pounder of common form. Hawaiian. 

8129 Tree carved and hollowed for a drum (Fig. i). Malekula, 

New Hebrides. 

8130 Similar sacred drum, but smaller. Malekula, New Hebrides. 

8131 Idol carved from the lower stem of a tree fern (Fig. 2). 

Malekula, New Hebrides. 

8132 Similar idol, both painted red and white (Fig. 2). Male- 

kula, New Hebrides. 

8133 Image composed of sticks and human crania (Fig. 3). 

Malekula, New Hebrides. 

8134 Image composed of sticks and human crania (Fig. 3). 

Malekula, New Hebrides. 

8135 Image similar to last but with cotton head piece. Malekula, 

New Hebrides. 

8136 Phallic image of .sticks and gum. Malekula, New Hebrides. 

8137 Masks of light wood painted red (3). Malekula, New 

Hebrides. 
8140 Fine woven mat dress of a woman. Malekula, New Hebrides. 
8143 Mat dresses for women (2). Malekula, New Hebrides. 

8186 Wooden awa bowl with twelve legs. Given by Lieut. W. E. 

Safford. Samoa. 

8187 Awa cup of coconut beautifully tinted. Given by Lieut. 

W. E. Safford. Samoa. 

8188 Carv^ed wood upete for siapo. Given by Lieut. W. E. 

Safford. Samoa. 

8189 Portion of shell for scraping siapo. Given by Lieut. W. E. 

Safford. Samoa. 

8190 Pandanus baskets (4). Given by Lieut. W. E. Safford. 

Samoa. 
8193 Fan of open strudture. Given by Lieut. W. E. Safford. 
Samoa. 

8571 Poi umeke of large size, partly hollowed out. Given b}' H. 

G. K. Lyman. Hawaiian. 

8572 Pandanus leaf prepared for mat making. Hawaiian. 



54 Director' s Annual Report. 

8573 Pandanus leaf prepared for mat making, finer kind. 

Hawaiian. 

8574 Pandanus mat parti}' made, to show procedure. Hawaiian. 

8579 Cloak made from the feathers of Apteryx mantelli. New 

Zealand. 

8580 Stone dish of large size found in an heiau (Fig. 5). 

Hawaiian. 

8581 *Patu of schist 13^ inches long. Chatham Ids. 

8582 Patu similar to last, 12^ in. long. Chatham Ids. 

8583 Patu similar to last, 12)^ in. long. Chatham Ids. 

8584 Patu similar to last, 12 in. long. Chatham Ids. 

8585 Adz head of fine basalt, 8}^ in. long. Chatham Ids. 

8586 Adz head of fine basalt, i3)^> in. long. Chatham Ids. 

8587 Nine basalt adz heads from 2^ in. to 8^ in. long. Chatham Ids. 

8597 Flint adz head unfinished. Chatham Ids. 

8598 Flint adz heads (2). Chatham Ids. 

8600 Adz, complete. Chatham Ids. 

8601 Flint chisels (2), 4 in. and 2^ in. long. Chatham Ids. 

8603 Basalt chisel, 4^ in long. Chatham Ids. 

8604 Basalt chisel, 11 in. long. Chatham Ids. 

8605 Adz head of basalt, 7 in. long. Chatham Ids. 

8606 Sandstone grindstones (2). Chatham Ids. 
8608 Blubber knives of slate (2). Chatham Ids. 
8610 Blubber knives of stone ( 2 ) . Chatham Ids. 
8613 Blubber knives of chert ( 2 ) . Chatham Ids. 

8615 Mereor double-edged club of schist, 14 in. long. Chathamlds. 

8616 Mere of similar material, 10^ in. long. Chatham Ids. 

861 7 Musical instrument of the bone of an albatross. Chatham Ids. 

8618 Bone eel-threaders (2). Chatham Ids. 

8620 Heitiki or amulet of bone. Chatham Ids. 

8621 Breast and ear ornaments of cachelot teeth ( 2) . Chatham Ids. 
8623 Bone heads of bird spears (2). Chatham Ids. 

8625 Bone needles, straight and curved (2). Chatham Ids. 

.8627 Fish hooks of bone, carv^ed (7). Chatham Ids. 

8792 Shell axe mounted, Tridacna shell (Fig. 8). Gilbert Ids. 

8793 Shell adze mounted, Tridacna shell (Fig. 8). Gilbert Ids. 

8794 Rasps made of sunfish skin bound to wood handles (4, 

Fig. 9). Gilbert Ids. 

♦This colle<5\ion of Moriori implements will be explained at greater length with illustra- 
tions in the Memoirs of this Museum. It is of great value and interest. 



Mounted Skeletons and Skins. 



55 



8798 Scraper of tortoise shell with a wood handle. Micronesia. 

8799 Combs carved from wood (2). Gilbert Ids. 

8801 Head and neck ornament. Ruk, Caroline Ids. 

8802 Wooden spear with blunt barbs. Ruk, Caroline Ids. 

8803 Necklace of red Chania shell disks, very choice. Ruk, 

Caroline Ids. 

8804 Necklaces of Engina shells (2). Marshall Ids. 

8806 Necklace of Neritina shells. Marshall Ids. 

8807 Necklace of Cardium shells. Marshall Ids. 

8808 Necklaces of Melampus shells (3). Marshall Ids. 
8812 Hawaiian kapa, 3 specimens. Hawaii. 



MOUNTED SKELETONS. 

6801 Ar(5locephalus lobatus. Gray. Australia. 

6802 Halicore australis, Cuvier. (Dugong.) Australia. 

6803 Macropus giganteus, Zimmermann. Australia. 

6804 Ornithorhynchus anatiuus, Shaw. Australia. 

6805 Dacelo gigas, Bodd. New South Wales. 

6806 Menura superba, Davis. (Lyre Bird.) New South Wales. 

6807 Nestor notabilis, Gould. (Kea.) New Zealand. 

6808 Dromaeus novae-hollandiae, lyatham. (Emu.) Australia. 

6809 Eudyptila minor, Gray. (Penguin.) New South Wales. 

6810 Hydrosaurus varius, Gray. ( lyace- lizard.) New South 

Wales. 

681 1 Cistudo clausa, Owen. Indiana, U. S. A. 

8200 Diomedia brachj'ura, Temminck. Northern Pacific. 

6719 Apteryx mantelli, Bartl. New Zealand. 

8 141 Male. New Hebrides. 

8634 Eardrums of Physeter macrocephalus (2). Chatham Ids. 



MOUNTED SKINS. 

8199 Trichecus obesus, Illiger. (Pacific Walrus.) Alaska. 

8201 Petaurus breviceps papuanus, Thomas. New Britain. 

8202 Myrmecobius fasciatus, Waterhouse. Western Australia. 

8203 Pteropus melanopogon, Schleg. New Britain. 



56 Director's Annual Report. 

8204 Pteropus poliocephahis, Temminck. New South Wales. 

8205 Pteropus griseus, E. Geof. Duke of York Id. 

8206 Pteropus capistriatus, Peters. New Britain. 

8207 Harpy ia major, Dobs. Duke of York Id. 

8208 Callorhinus ursinus (Fur Seal), Gray. ^ Pribilov Ids. 

8209 Callorhinus ursinus (Fur Seal), Gray. 9 Pribilov Ids. 



BIRD SKINS. 

(Those marked * have been mounted by Mr. Bryan.) 

8705 Aluda arvensis. <? * Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8706 Aluda arvensis. 9 * Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8707 Acridotheres tristis (Mina). ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8708 Fulica alae (Albino). $ Maui. Given by G. P. Wilder. 

8709 Gallinula sandwicensis. (? * Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8710 Calidris arenaria. ^ * Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

871 1 Charadrius fulvus.^* Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8712 Charadrius fulvus. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8713 Charadrius fulvus. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8714 Charadrius fulvus. (? Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8715 Chasiempis gayi. (? * Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8716 Chasiempis gayi. ^ * Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8717 Charadrius fulvus. (? Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8718 Charadrius fulvus. (? Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8719 Charadrius fulvus. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8720 Charadrius fulvus. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8721 Asio accipitrinus. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8722 Charadrius fulvus. ^ (Fall plum.) Hawaii. Given by H, 

W. Henshaw. 

8723 L,arus occidentalis. 9 Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8724 L,arus occidentalis. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8725 Sterna maxima. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8726 Arenaria interpres. (? Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8727 Arenaria interpres. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8728 Turtur chinensis. Oahu. Coll. A. Seale. 

8729 Telespiza cantans. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8730 Telespiza cantans. 9 Laysau Id. By Exchange. 

8731 Telespiza cantans. 9 I^aysan Id. By Exchange. 

8732 Telespiza cantans. 9 I^aysan Id. By Exchange. 



Bird Skills. 5y 

8733 Acrocephalus familiaris. ^ Lay.san Id. By Exchange. 

8734 Acrocephahis familiaris. 9 Laysaii Id. By Exchange. 

8735 Acrocephalus familiaris. 9 Ivaysan Id. By Exchange. 

8736 Himatione freethi. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8737 Himatione freethi. $ Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8738 Porzanula pahneri. $ Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8739 Porzanula palmeri. 9 Ivaysan Id. By Exchange. 

8740 Porzanula palmeri. $ Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8741 Porzanula palmeri. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8742 Diomedia nigripes. 9 Midway Id. By Exchange. 

8743 Diomedia immutabilis. Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8744 Anas laysanensis. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8745 Anas laysanensis. $ Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8746 Diomedia immutabilis. $ Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8747 Sula cyanops. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8748 Sula C3'anops. $ Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8749 Sula piscator. $ French Frigates Id. By Exchange. 

8750 Sula piscator. $ Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8751 Sula sula. 9 Midway Id. By Exchange. 

8752 Sula sula. $ Lisianski Id. By Exchange. 

8753 Phaethon rubricauda. $ Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8754 Phaethon rubricauda. $ Kermadec Ids. By Exchange. 

8755 Phaethon rubricauda. $ Kermadec Ids. By Exchange. 

8756 P'regata aquila. Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8757 Fregata aquila. Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8758 Haliplana fuliginosa. 9 F'rench P'rigates Id. By Exchange. 

8759 Haliplana fuliginosa. 9 French Frigates Id. By Exchange. 

8760 Gygis alba kittlitzi. Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8761 Sterna lunata. Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8762 CEstrelata hypoleuca. $ Laysan Id. By P^xchange. 

8763 CEstrelata hypoleuca. $ Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8764 CEstrelata hypoleuca. $ Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8765 Puffinus cuneatus. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8766 Puffinus cuneatus. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8767 Bulweria bulweri. (? French Frigates Id. By Exchange. 

8768 Bulweria bulweri. (? French Frigates Id. By Exchange. 

8769 Pufhnus nativitatis. 9 PVench Frigates Id. By Exchange. 

8770 Puffinus nativitatis. $ French Frigates Id. By Exchange. 

8771 Anous stolidus. 9 French Frigates Id. By Exchange. 

8772 Micranous hawaiiensis. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 



58 Director's A?iii7ial Report. 

8773 Charadrius fulvus. ? Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8774 Charadrius fulvus. 9 Laysan Id. By exchange. 

8775 Strepsilas interpres. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8776 Strepsilas interpres. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8777 Totanus incanus. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

8778 Numenius tahitiensis. 9 Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

9008 Gygis alba kittlitzi. $ Laysan Id. By Exchange. 

9009 Chrysoenas luteovirens. $ Fiji. By Purchase. 

9010 Chrysoenas luteovirens. $ * Fiji. By Purchase. 

901 1 Chrysoenas luteovirens. 9 Fiji. By Purchase. 

9012 Chrysoenas luteovirens. 9 Fiji. By Purchase. 

9013 Chrysoenas luteovirens. 9 Fiji. By Purchase. 

9014 Chrysoenas luteovirens. 9 Fiji. By Purchase. 

9015 Chrysoenas luteovirens. 9 * Fiji. By Purchase. 

9016 Chalcophaps chrysochlora. $ * Queensland. By Purchase. 

9017 Chalcophaps chrysochlora. ^ Queensland. By Purchase. 

9018 Macropygia phasianella. ^ By Purchase. 

9019 Macropygia phasianella. 9 * By Purchase. 

9020 Macropygia phasianella S * By Purchase. 

9021 Megaloprepia magnifica. 9 * By Purchase. 

9022 Megaloprepia magnifica. $ By Purchase. 

9023 Megaloprepia magnifica. 9 By Purchase. 

9024 Megaloprepia magnifica. 9 By Purchase. 

9025 Ptilopus perousei.* Fiji. By Purchase. 

9026 Ptilopus perousei. Fiji. By Purchase. 

9027 Ptilopus ponapensis. Fiji. By Purchase. 

9028 Ptilopus ponapensis.* Fiji. By Purchase. 

9029 Ptilopus rarotongensis.* Fiji. By Purchase. 

9030 Psitteuteles chlorolepidotus.* Queensland. By Purchase. 

9031 Psitteuteles chlorolepidotus.* Queensland. By Purchase- 

9032 Cacatua galerita.* Queensland. By Purchase. 

9033 Trichoglossus novae-hollandiae.* Queensland. By Purchase. 

9034 Trichoglossus novae-hollandiae ( 7 ) . Queensland. By Pur- 

chase. 

9041 Aprosmidlus cyanopygius (4).** Queensland. By Purchase. 

9045 Glossopsittacus porphyrocephalus. Queensland. By Pur- 

chase. 

9046 Seven unidentified species.* By Purchase. 

9053 ^gintha temporalis (4).** Queensland. By Purchase. 

9057 Two unidentified species. Queensland. By Purchase. 



Bird Skins. 59 

9059 Erythrura pealii.* Queensland. By Purchase. 

9060 Dicaeum hiruudiuaceum ( 2).** Queensland. By Purchase. 

9062 Machsrorhynchus flaviventer. 9 * Queensland. By Pur- 

chase. 

9063 Machaerorhynchus flaviventer (8). ^ * Queensland. By Pur- 

chase. 

9071 Machaerorhynchus flaviventer (5). 9 Queensland. By Pur- 
chase. 

9076 Four unidentified specimens.** By Purchase. 

9081 Malurus elegans. (? * Queensland. By Purchase. 

9082 Malurus elegans (2). 9 Queensland. By Purchase. 

9084 Malurus melanocephalus (6). ^ * New South Wales. By 
Purchase. 

9090 Malurus melanocephalus. 9 * New South Wales. By Pur- 

chase. 

9091 F'our unidentified specimens.** By Purchase. 

9095 Ptilotis polygramma.* Queensland. By Purchase. 

9096 Ptilotis limbata (3).** Queensland. By Purchase. 
9999 Dacelo gigas. $ Queensland. By Purchase. 

9100 Dacelo gigas. 9 Queensland. By Purchase. 

9101 Alcyone azurea. 9 * Queensland. By Purchase. 

9102 Tanysiptera sylvia.* Queensland. By Purchase. 

9103 Halcyon macleayi (6).* Queensland. By Purchase. 
9109 Two unidentified specimens.* By Purchase. 

91 1 1 Chalcococcyx plagosus. ^ * Queensland. By Purchase. 

91 1 2 Chalcococcyx plagosus. 9 * Queensland. By Purchase. 

91 13 Rhipidura rufifrons.* Queensland. By Purchase. 

91 14 Rhipidura tricolor.* Queensland. By Purchase. 

91 15 Malurus sp.* Queensland. By Purchase. 

91 16 Two unidentified specimens.* By Purchase. 

91 18 Ptilorhis paradisea ( 9 ) . ^ * Queensland. By Purchase. 

9127 Ptilorhis paradisea ( 2 ) . 9 * Queensland. By Purchase. 

9129 Ptilotis auricomis. New South Wales. By Purchase. 

9130 Caprimulgus macrurus. <? Queensland. By Purchase. 

9131 Cracticus quoyi (3).* Queensland. B}" Purchase. 

9134 Merops ornatus.* Queensland. By Purchase. 

9135 Mj^zomela obscura.* Queensland. By Purchase. 

9136 Myzomela sanguinolenta. ^ * By Purchase. 

9137 Myzomela jugularis. J' * By Purchase. 

9138 Myiagra azureicapilla. (? * By Purchase. 



6o Director'' s A^imial Report. 

9139 Cinnyris zeylanica. <? * Ceylon. By Purchase. 

9140 Cinnyris comorensis. $ * Ceylon. By Purchase. 

9141 ^luroedis viridis (2). 9 * Queensland. By Purchase. 
9143 Six unidentified specimens.*** By Purchase. 

9149 Haliplana fuliginosa (6). J' Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9155 Haliplana fuliginosa. 9 Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9156 Anous stolidus (3). ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9159 Totanus incanus. 9 Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9160 Phasianus colchicus 9 * Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9161 Charadrius fulvus. 9 * Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9162 Totanus incanus. $ * Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9163 Totanus incanus. 9 * Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9164 Anous hawaiicnsis (2). ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9166 Dafila acuta. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9167 Dafila acuta. 9 Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9168 Anas wyvillianus. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9169 Porphyrio melanotus. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9170 Nydlicorax ny(5licorax. ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

91 7 1 Arenaria intcrpres. 9 Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 

9172 Charadrius fulvus (2). ^ Oahu. Coll. A. Scale. 
6740 Emu eggs (2). Queensland. Purchased. 



MOLLUSCA. 

(The numbers are not given as they will be altered somewhat for the Catalogue of the entire 
colledlion of Mollusca, now in preparation.) 

Octopus punctatus, Gabb. Cast en papier mache. North Pacific. 

cuvieri, D'Orb. Torres Strait. 
Argonauta argo, Linn. $ 3 stages in alcohol. Mediterranean. 
Scpiola rondeleti, D'Orb.; in alcohol. Mediterranean. 
Nautilus pompilius, Linn., bisecfled ; in alcohol. Torres Strait. 
Pncumodcrmon mediterrancum, Ben.; in alcohol. Mediterranean. 
Clionopsis krohnii ; in alcohol. Mediterranean. 
Murcx blainvillci, Payr. Naples. 

carboneri, Jouss. 

cornutus, Linn. W. Africa. 

foliatus, Martyn. Japan. 

malabaricus, Mel. Persian Gulf. 



Mollusca. 6 1 

Murex mitrseformis, Sowerby. Natal. 

scolopax, Dillwyn.- Persian Gulf, 
seuegalensis (var. calcar), Gmel. Japau. 
Muricidea hexagouus, Lamarck. Peuaug. 
Phyllouotus endivia, Lam. Philippines. 
Chicoreus saxatilis, Linn. Indo-Pacific. 
Urosalpynx contracta, Reeve. Aden. 
Trophon flindersi, A. & A. Vidloria, Australia. 
Purpura situla, Reeve. Aden. 

cingulata, Linn. Cape Town, 
lapilloides, Conrad. California. 
Sistrum adelaidensis, Crosse. Victoria, Australia. 

meyendorffi, Cab. Durban, Natal. 
Triton concinnus, Reeve. Hawaiian Ids. 

eburneus, Crosse. Vicfloria, Australia, 
maculosus, Gmel. Mauritius, 
nodiferus. Lam. Indo-Pacific. 
sinensis, Rve. China, 
verrucosus, Rve. Australia. 
Ranella concinna, Dunker. Kurachi. 
Fusus australis, Quoy. Australia, 
distans, Lam. Pacific, 
proboscidiferus, Lam. N. Australia. 
Peristernia maculata, Rve. Australia. 

na.ssatula, Lam. Mauritius. 
Siphonalia dilatata, Quoy. New Zealand. 

maxima. Try on. Tasmania. 
Fulgur perversa, Linn. Florida. 

perversa, &%% cases. Florida. 
Cominella maculata, Martyn. Poverty Bay, New Zealand. 
Latrunculus mollianus, Chem. Kurachi. 

valentinianus, Swainson. Red Sea. 
Bullia kurachiensis, Angus. Kurachi. 
persica, Smith. Kurachi. 
vittata, Linn. Ceylon, 
diluta, Krauss. Natal. 
Nassa nodifera, Paris. Aden. 

obookensis, Jouss. Aden. 
persica, Martyn. Aden, 
pullus, Linn. Aden. 



62 Director's Anyuial Report. 

Turbinella rapa, lyam. Ceylon. 

scolymus, Lam. West Indies. 
Lyria deliciosa, Mont. New Caledonia. 
Turricula costellaris, Lam. Singapore. 
Oliva araneosa, Lam. Panama. 

araneosa (var. polpastra), Duclos. Straits of Magellan. 
Columbella dalli, E. A. Smith. Vancouver. 
Bela brachystomoides, Cpr. California. 

trevelyana, Turton. Norway. 
Conus acuminatus, Hwass. Red Sea. 
anemone, Lam. Australia, 
araneosus, Hwass. Philippines, 
archiepiscopus, Hwass. East Indies, 
betulinus, Linn. Singapore, 
characteristicus, Gmel. 
genuanus, Hwa.ss. West Africa, 
interruptus, Brod. Panama, 
janus, Hwass. Cochin China, 
lithoglyphus, Mensch. East Indies, 
maldivus, Hwass. Mauritius, 
mercator, Linn. West Indies, 
rattus, Hwass. Indo-Pacific. 
stercus-muscarum, Linn. Pelew Ids. 
vautieri, Kiener. Marquesas Ids. 
Strombus accipitrinus, Lam. West Indies, 
gigas, Linn. Bahamas, 
melanostoma, Swainson. Philippines, 
peruvianus, Swainson. Panama. 
Dolium maculatum, Lam. Singapore. 
Maleo ringens, Swainson. Pacific. 
Struthiolaria papulosa, Martyn. Australia. 
Cassis coronulata, Lam. Philippines. 
Cyprgea childreni. Gray. Borneo. 

cribellum, Gaskoin. Mauritius, 
cumingi, Gray. Paumotu Arch, 
cylindrica. Born. Australia, 
indica, Gmelin. S. Pacific, 
picta. Gray. Cape de Verde Ids. 
piperita, Solander. Australia, 
polita, Roberts. Japan. 



Mollusca . 63 



Cypraea pustulata, Lam. Panama, 
stercoraria, Linn. Africa. 
Trivia sphserula, Mighels. Paumotu Arch. 
Natica cancrena, Linn. West Indies. 
Vivipara glauca, Linn. 
Nerita atropurpura, Reel. Singapore. 
Phasianella bulimoides, Lam. Australia. 
Astralium sulcatum, Martyn. New Zealand. 
Turbo marmoratus, Linn. China. 
Haliotis pulcherrima, Martyn. 
FivSSurella crassa, Lam. Valparaiso. 
Acmsea mitra, Esch. California, 
pelta, Esch. California. 
Cryptochiton stelleri, Midd. California. 
Haminea rotundata, A. Adams. Australia, 
virescens, Sowerby. Pitcairn Id. 
Hydatina physis, Linn. Mauritius. 
Dollabella scapula, Martyn. Port Dennison. 
Rh3-tida lampra, Pfr. Tasmania. 
Zonites algira, Linn. Spain. 
F'lammulina fordei. Brazier. Tasmania. 
Alexia meridionalis. Brazier. Tasmania. 
Gundlachia beddomei, Pett. Tasmania. 
Gastrochsena mumia, Spengler. Singapore. 
Pisidium tasmanicum, Ten-Woods. Tasmania. 
Unio aesopus. Green. MivSsissippi River. 

camptodon, Say. New Orleans. 

clavus. Lam. Ohio River. 

coccineus, Lea. Ohio River. 

foliatus, Hild. Ohio River. 

fragosus, Conrad. Ohio River. 

gracilis, Barnes. Ohio River. 

graniferus, (var.) Lea. Cumberland River. 

iris. Lea. Ohio River. 

jejunus. Lea. Virginia. 

lachrymosus. Lea. Miami Canal. 

obliquus. Lam. Ohio. 

phaseolus, Hild. Ohio. 

plicatus, Lesueur. Ohio River. 

rugosa, Barnes. Ohio River. 



64 Director'' s Ajiiiual Report. 

Unio schoolcraftia, Lea. Michigan, 
shepardianus, Lea. Georgia, 
spatulata, Lea. Ohio, 
subovatus, Barnes. Ohio, 
trigonus, Lea. Ohio River, 
ventricosus, Barnes. Illinois, 
verrucosus, Barnes. Miami River, 
zigzag, Lea. Ohio River. 
Margaritana calceola, Lea. Genesee River. 

deltoidea. Lea. Ohio River. 
Anodonta edentula, Say. New York. 
Leda minuta, Fabr. Norway. 
Yoldia lenticula, Moller. Spitzbergen. 
Area modiola, Linn. Mediterranean, 
navicularis, Brod. China, 
tetragona, Poli. Mediterranean. 
Glycymeris striatularis. Lam. Australia. 
Pecten asperimus, Lam. Tasmania. 

aspersus. Lam. Mediterranean, 
clavatus. Mediterranean, 
corallinoides, Poli. Mediterranean, 
crassicostatus, Sowerby. Moluccas, 
danicus, Chemnitz. Scotland, 
gibbus, Linn. Senegal, 
layardi, Rve. Ceylon, 
lemniscatus, Rve. Mauritius, 
magellanicus. Lam. Massachusetts, 
senatorius, Gmel. Zanzibar, 
serratus, Sby. Mauritius, 
splendidus, Sby. Torres Strait, 
squamosus, Gmel. Moluccas, 
subnodosus, Sby. Galapagos Ids. 
tranquebaricus, Gmel. Tranquebar. 
ventricosus, Sby. Lower California, 
zelandiae. Gray. New Zealand. 
Vola dentata, Sby. California, 
fumata, Rve. Australia. 
Amussium balloti, Bernhardi. New Caledonia. 

japonicum, Gmel. Japan. 
Ostrea borealis. Lam. Massachusetts. 



RADIATA. 

[50 Ophiocoiiia iethiops, Lutkeii : in alcohol. Panama. 

51 Ophionereis annulata, Lyman; in alcohol. vSamoau Ids. 

52 Ophiomastrix annnlosa, M. >S: T. Pelew Ids. 

53 Astropeclen bispinosus, M. <S: T. Australia. 

54 Archaster agassizii, \'err.; in alcohol. Martha's Vineyard. 
;35 Asterias ochracea, Brand. California. 
[56 Heliaster kubingii, Xanthus. Chili. 

57 Acanthaster sp. Samoan Ids. 

58 Stichaster aurantiacus, I\I. Chili. 
159 Culcita grex.; in formaldehyde. 
[60 Anthenea granulifera, Gray. Australia. 
[61 Oreaster turritus, M. & T. Pelew Ids. 
[62 Xidorella armata, Gray. Panama. 
[63 Linckia hevigata, Lam. Australia. 
[64 Asterina australis, M. & T. Australia. 
[65 Asterina calcar, Lam. Tasmania. 
[66 Dorocidaris papillata, Ag. Bay of Naples. 
[67 Goniocidaris tubaria, Lutk. S. Australia. 
[68 Phyllacanthus annulifera, Ag. Australia. 
:69 Stephanocidaris bispinosa, Ag. Philippines. 

70 Diadema mexicanum, A. Ag. Mexico. 

71 Arbacia spatuligera, A. Ag. Peru. 

72 Salmacis alexandri, Bell. Australia. 

73 Amblypneustes ovum, Lam. Australia. 

74 vStrongylocentrotus erythrogrammus, Ag. Australia. 

75 vStrongylocentrotus tuberculatus, Lam. Lord Howe Id. 

76 Euechinus chloroticus, Verr. New Zealand. 
6792 Echinus miliaris, Australia. 

r93 Echinus sp. Australia. 

77 Hipponoe depressa, Ag. Lower California. 

78 Clypeaster speciosus. California. 

79 Laganum bonani, Kl. Tasmania. 

80 Echmarachnius parma. Lam. Maine. 
:8i Arachnoides placenta, Ag. Port Mackay. 
;82 Echinocardium australe, Norman; in alcohol. Shetland. 

83 Metalia pectoralis, Ag. Bahamas. 

84 Lovenia cordiformis, Lutk. California. 

O. p.; B. p. B. M.— Vol. I., No. 2. (65"" 



LIST OP RECENT CORALS. 

[In the Museum before the year 1899.] 

It has seemed best to give a complete list of the corals in the 
Museum, and from [time to time, in these Annual Reports, it is 
hoped that more or less complete lists of the contents of the collec- 
tions may be given. 

8825 Euphyllia fimbriata, E. & H. Micronesia. 

8826 plicata, E. & H. Micronesia. 

8827 turgida, Dana. Torres Straits. 

8828 sp. Samoa. 

8829 Mussa multilobata, Dana. Micronesia. 

8830 sinensis, E. & H. Torres Straits. 

8831 tenuidentata, E. & H. Torres Straits. 

8832 Trachyphyllia amarantum, E. & H. Micronesia. 

8833 Tridacophyllia laciniata. 

8834 lactuca, Dana. Micronesia. 

8835 Dichocoenia sp. Bahamas. 

8836 ? Torres Straits. 

8837 ? Torres Straits. 

8838 Aphrastraea deformis, E. & H. Torres Straits. 

8839 Cyphastraea chalcidium, Forskal. do. 

8840 Goniastrsea eximia, E. & H. do. 
.1 Prionastrsea robusta, do. do. 
[2 sp. Torres Straits. 

8843 sp. do. 

8844 sp. do. 

8845 sp. do. 

8846 Rhodarsea gracilis, E. & H. Torres Straits. 

8847 Coeloria arabica, Klz. Torres Straits. 

8848 Diploria cerebriforniis, E. & H. Bahamas. 
8930 cerebriforniis, do. do. 
2705 Eeptoria tenuis, do. 

8849 Merulina ampliata. Lam. Micronesia. 

8850 ampliata, Lam. Torres Straits. 

8851 regalis, Dana. Fiji. 

8852 regalis, Dana. Fiji. 

(66) 



E. & H. 


Fiji. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


r' Ijl . 

Fiji. 





List of Rcccnf Corals. 67 

8853 F'ungia diversideus, 

8854 patella, 

8855 patella, 

8856 patella, 

8857 patella, do. do. [var.] 

8858 repanda, Dana. 

8859 repanda, Dana. 
8S60 Pleuractis scutaria, \'errill. Fiji. 

8861 scutaria, \"errill. Fiji. 

8862 scutaria, Verrill. Fiji. 

8863 Dendrogyra cylindrica, Ehr. Bahamas . 

8864 cylindrica, Ehr. Bahamas. 

8865 Ctenactis sp. Fiji. 

8866 sp. Fiji. 

8867 sp. Fiji. 

7630 sp. Gilbert Ids. 

7631 sp. Gilbert Ids. 

8868 Herpetolitha limax, Esch. Torres Straits. 

271 1 crassa, Dana. Fiji. 

2712 crassa, Dana. Fiji. 

8869 Cryptabacia talpina, E. & H. Torres Straits. 

8870 Halomitra clypeus, Verrill. Samoa. 

8871 clypeus, Verrill. Samoa. 

2713 clypeus, Verrill. Micronesia. 

8872 Lithactinia pileiformis, E. & H. Fiji. 

8873 Pavonia divaricata, Dana. Samoa. 

8874 divaricata, Dana. Samoa. 

8875 decussata, Dana. Samoa. (2 specimens. ) 

8876 decussata, Dana. Samoa. 
2727 decussata, Dana. Micronesia. 

8877 .sp. Micronesia. 

8878 Podabacia Crustacea, E. & H. Micronesia. 

8879 Hydnophora demidoffi, Fischer. Torres Straits. 

8880 rigida, Dana. Micronesia. 

8881 Pachyseris fluctuosa, Verrill. Micronesia. 

2733 Dendrophyllia nigrescens, Dana. Fiji. 

2734 nigrescens, Dana. Gilbert Ids. 

8882 Galaxea bougainvillei, Blain. Torres Straits. 

8883 Turbinaria frondens, Verrill. Torres Straits. 

8884 peltata, E. «& H. Torres Straits. 



58 Director's Annual Report. 

8885 Turbinaria peltata, E. & H. 

8886 Astraeopora echiuata, Verrill. Torres Straits. 

8887 Madrepora abrotauoides, Lam. Fiji. 

8888 abrotauoides, Lam. 

8889 abrotauoides, Lam. 

8890 alliomorpha. Brook. Fiji. 

1 alliomorpha, Brook. Fiji. 

2 calamaria, Brook. Fiji. 

8893 cervicornis. Lam. Micronesia. 

8894 coiiciiina, Brook. Fiji. 

8895 coiicinna. Brook. Fiji. 

8896 conferta, Quelch. Fiji. 

8897 conferta, Quelch. Fiji. 

8898 cymbicyathus. Brook. Fiji. 

8899 cymbicyathus. Brook. Fiji. 
2703 cytherea, Dana. Tahiti. 

8900 dilatata, Brook. Fiji. 

2716 echiuata, Dana. Samoa. 

8901 gravida, Dana. Fiji. 

8902 leptocyathus. Brook. Samoa. 

8903 millipora, Ehr. Fiji. 

8904 nobilis, Dana. Micronesia. 

8905 pacifica. Brook. Fiji. 
8905 pacifica, Brook. Fiji. 

8907 palifera, Lam. Torres Straits. 

8908 palifera. Lam. Torres vStraits. 

8909 pvilchra (var. stricta), Brook. Fiji. (3 specimens. 

8910 pulchra (var. stricta). Brook. 

2714 reticulata, Brook. 

2700 rosaria, Dana. Fiji. 

2701 rosaria, Dana. Fiji. 

8911 rosaria (var. dumo.sa), Dana. Fiji. 

8912 studeri, Brook. 

2702 spicifera, Dana. Fiji. 

2715 specif era, Dana. Samoa. ( 2 specimens. ) 

2717 samoensis. 

8913 valenciennesi, E. & H. Fiji. 

8914 sp. Torres vStraits. 
2724 sp. 

2726 sp. 



Palccozoic Corals. 69 



8915 Moiitipora scabricula, Dana. Torres vStraits. 

S916 Alveopora excelsa, Verrill. 

8917 Seriatopora hystrix, Dana. Fiji. 

8gi8 hystrix, Dana. Fiji. 

8919 liy.strix, Dana. Fiji. 

8920 Stylophora danae, E. & H. Micronesia. 

8921 Pocillopora acuta, Lam. Micronesia. 

2708 aspera (var. lata) \'errill. Oahu, H. I. 

2706 cespitosa, Dana. Hawaii. 

2707 cespitosa, Dana. Oahu. 

8922 danae, \'errill. Fiji. 

2709 ligulata, Oahu. 

8923 nobilis, Verrill. Samoa. 

2710 nobilis, \"errill. Oahu. 

8924 Heliopora ccerulea, Dana. Torres vStraits. 

8925 coerulea do. do. 

8926 Porites arenosa. E. & H. do. 

8927 lutea, do. do. 

8148 Stylaster sp. Samoa. (?) 

2735 Disticopora coccinea. Gilbert Ids. 

8928 Millepora platyphylla, Dana. Tahiti. 

8929 platyphylla, Dana. Samoa. 
2729 platyphylla, Dana. .Samoa. 
2732 ramosa, Dana. 

2718 tortuosa, Dana. Samoa. 
2737 Allopora sanguinea. Micronesia. 
2704 Tubipora syringa, Dana. Fiji. 

2719 syringa, Dana. Fiji. 

8147 Rhipidogorgia flabellum, \'al. Bahamas. 

8149 Mellitea ochracea, Lam. Tonga. 



AL.EOZOIC CORALS. 



821 1 Acervularia davidsoni, E. & H. Hamilton. Iowa City. 

8212 david-soni, E. & H. Hamilton. Iowa City. 

8213 davidsoni, E. & H. Devonian. Near Dubuque, Iowa. 

8214 Acrophyllum oneidaense, Billings. Corniferous. Falls of 

the Ohio. 

8215 rugosum, G. K. Greene. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 



yo Director's Annual Report. 

8216 Alveolites constans, Davis. Coniiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8217 fibrosus, Davis. Niagara. lyouisville, Ky. 

8218 goldfussi, Billings. Hamilton. Cuylersville, N. Y. 

8219 goldfussi, Billings. Hamilton. Charle.stown, Ind. 

8220 minimus, Davis. Corniferous. P'alls of the Ohio. 

8221 mordax, Davis. Middle Devonian. Falls of the Ohio. 

8222 niagarensis, Nicholson. Niagara. Bear Grass Creek, Ky. 

8223 scandularis, Davis. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8224 squamosus, Billings. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 
5225 undosus, S. A. Miller. Niagara. Douisville, K3'. 
■8226 Aniplexus coralloides, Sowerby. Warsaw. Danesville, Ind. 
■8227 shumardi, E. & H. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8228 Aulacophyllum convergens, Hall. Hamilton. Charlestown, 

Ind. 

8229 sulcatum, d'OrbigU}-. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8230 Aulopora conferta, Winchell. Hamilton. Near Charles- 

town, Ind. 

8231 erecta, Rominger. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8232 serpens, Goldfuss. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8233 Blothrophyllum bucculeutum, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. 

Near Charlestown, Ind. 

8234 cingulatum, G. K. Greene. Corniferous. Fallsof the Ohio. 

8235 conigerum, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charle.stown, Ind. 

8236 decorticatum, Billings. Corniferous. F'alls of the Ohio. 

8237 flexuosum, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Near Charlestown, 

Ind. 

8238 promissum. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8239 sinuosum. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8240 zaphrentiforme, Davis. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8261 Calapoecia crebriformis, Nicholson. Hudson River. Jeffer- 

son Co., Ind. 

8262 Calceola tenneseensis, Roemer. Niagara. Wayne Co., Tenn. 

8241 Campophyllum torquium, Owen. Carboniferous. Bird Creek, 

Ind. 

8263 Canuapora junciformis. Hall. Niagara. Rochester, N. Y, 

8242 Chonophyllum magnificum, Billings. Corniferous. Falls of 

the Ohio. 

8243 nanum, Davis. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8244 Chonostegites clappi, E. & H. Corniferous. Le Roy, N. Y. 



J\^l(Cozoic Corals. ji 

8245 Clatlopora alcicornis, Davis. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8246 aspera, Romiuger. Coniiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8247 cryptodens, Romiuger. Coniiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8248 expatiata, Romiuger. Coruiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8249 iisheri, Billiugs. Coruiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8250 gurleyi, G. K. Greeue. Coruiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8251 iutermedia, G. K. Greeue. Coruiferous. Fallsof the Ohio. 

8252 labiosa, Billiugs. Coruiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8253 laqueata, Romiuger. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8254 piuguis, Romiuger. Coruiferous. Le Roy. N. Y. 

8255 reticulata, Hall. Niagara. Illiuois. 

8256 rimosa, Romiuger. Coruiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8257 robusta, Romiuger. Coruiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8258 roemeri, Romiuger. Coruiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8259 turgida. Romiuger. Coruiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8260 wiuchellaua, S. A. Miller. Coruiferous. Fallsof the Ohio. 

8269 Clisiophyllum couigerum, Romiuger. Coruiferous. Falls 

of the Ohio. 

8266 CcElophjdlum pyriiorme, Hall. Coruiferous. Falls of the 

Ohio. 

8264 Coeuites lamiuata, Hall. Niagara. Louisville. Ky. 

8265 verticillata, Wiuchell. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8267 Columuaria alveolata, Goldfuss. Hudson River. Madison, 

Ind. 

826S Coustellaria antheloidea, Hall. Hudson River. Cincinnati, O. 
8532 antheloidea, do. do. do. 

8270 Cyathaxonia profunda, F. & H. 

8271 wisconsinensis, Whitfield. Niagara. Chicago, 111. 

8272 compressa, G. K. Greene. Warsaw. Lauesville, Ind. 

8273 Cyathophyllum arctifossa, Hall. Coruiferous. Falls of the 

Ohio. 

8274 brevicorne, Davis. Coruiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8275 galerum, Hall. Hamilton. Western New York. 

8276 geuiculatum, Romiuger. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8277 houghtoni, do. do. Western New Yoirk. 

8278 juveuis, Romiuger. Coruiferous. Charlestown, Ind. 

8279 radicula, Romiuger. Niagara. Louisville, K}'. 

8280 robustum. Hall. Hamilton. Western New York. 

8281 rugosum, Hall. Coruiferous. Charlestown, Ind. 

8282 rugosum. Hall. Coruiferous. Jefferson Co., Ind. 



72 Director s Annual Report. 

8283 Cyathophyllum tomatum, Davis. Hamilton. Charlestown, 

Ind. 

8284 validum, Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8285 zenkeri, Billings. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8286 Cystiphylliim americannm, E. & H. Hamilton. Clark Co., 

Ind. 

8287 americannm, K. & H. Hamilton. Western New York. 

8288 americannm, do. do. do. 

8289 americannm, do. do. do. 

8290 conifollis. Hall. do. Charlestown, Ind. 

8291 crateriformis. Hall. Corniferons. Falls of the Ohio. 

8292 crassatum, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8293 decurrens, G. K. Greene. Corniferons. Fallsof the Ohio. 

8294 gemmatum, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Near Charles- 

town, Ind. 

8295 grande, Billings. Hamilton. Near Charlestown, Ind. 

8296 granilineatum, Hall. Niagara. Lonisville, Ky. 

8297 lacineatnm, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Near Charles- 

town, Ind. 

8298 latiradius. Hall. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8299 nanum. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8300 niagarensis. Hall. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8301 osculum, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8302 ossiculum, do. do. do. 

8303 plicatum, Davis. Corniferons. Falls of the Ohio. 

8304 pustulatum. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8305 seuecaense, Billings. Hamilton. Clark Co., Ind. 

8306 squamosum, Nicholson. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8307 varians. Hall. Hamilton. Moscow, N. Y. 

8308 vesiculosum, Goldfuss. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 
8533 Cytelasma lane.svillense, S. A. Miller. St. Louis. Lanes- 

ville, Ind. 

8328 Dendropora ornata, Rominger. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8309 Diphyphvllum adnatum. Hall. Corniferous. Charle.stown, 

Ind. 

8310 apertum. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

831 1 archiaci, Billings. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8312 caespitosum, Hall. Niagara. Bridgeport, 111. 

8313 coagulatum, Davis. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8314 colletti, G. K. Greene. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 



Palieorjoic Corals. 73 

S315 Diphypliylluin cylitidraceuni, Hall. Coruiferous. Charles- 
town, Iiid. 

^"^316 gigas, Rominger. Corniferous. Michigan{?). 

S317 laxiim, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Near Cliarlestown, lud. 

8319 multicaule, Hall. Niagara. Monticello, Jones Co., Iowa. 

8320 panicum, Winchell. Corniferous. Jefferson Co., Ind. 

8321 prolatuni, (x. K. Crreene. Hamilton. Near Charle.stown, 

Ind. 

8322 rngosum, K. & H. Niagara. Workhouse Quarry, I^ouis- 

ville, Ky. 

8323 simcoense, Billings. Corniferous. L,e Roy, N. Y. 

8324 stramineum, Billings. Corniferous. Le Roy, N. V. 

8325 unicum, Cj. K. Greene. Hamilton. Cliarlestown, Ind. 

8326 verneuilianus, E. & H. Corniferous. Clark Co.. Ind. 

8327 wadsworthi, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Cliarlestown, Ind. 

8329 Duncanella borealis, Nicholson. Niagara. Waldron, Ind. 

8330 Favistella stellata, Hall. Hudson River. Indiana. 

8534 stellata, do. do. Jefferson Co., Ind. 

8331 Favosites amplissimus, Davis. Cornifrous. Fallsof the Ohio. 

8332 argus. Hall. Hamilton. Pavilion, N. Y. 

8333 arbuscula. Hall. Hamilton. Pavilion, N. Y. 

8334 canadensis, Billings. Corniferous. Le Roy, N. Y. 
'"^335 cariosus, Davis. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 
8336 clausus, Rominger. Hamilton. Cliarlestown, Ind. 

8535 clausus, do. do. do. 
'^337^'' clelandi, Davis. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8338 constrictus, Hall. Niagara. Rochester, N. Y. 

8339 couvexus, Davis. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8340 cymosus, Davis. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 
834i<^r digitatus, Rominger. Corniferous. L,e Roy, N. Y. 
8342 dumosus, Winchell. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 
S343 emnionsi, Rominger. Hamilton. Iowa City. 

8536 emnionsi, Rominger. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8344 emnionsi, Rominger. Corniferous. Clark Co., Ind. 

8345 epidermatus, Rominger. Corniferous. Charlestown, Ind. 
^537 epidermatus, Rominger. Corniferous. L,inie Rock, N. Y. 

8346 epidermatus (var. corticosa). Hall. Corniferous. Le Roy, 

N. Y. 

8347 eximius, Davis. Hamilton. Crab Orchard, Ky. 

8348 explanatus, Hall. Hamilton. Western New York. 



74 Dirccto)'' s Annual Report. 

8349 Favosites explanatus, Hall. Hamilton. E. Bethany, N. Y. 

8350 favosus, Goldfuss. Niagara. Indiana. 

8351 forbesi (var. occidentalis), Hall. Niagara. Warren Co., 

Ohio. 

8352 fustifo'rmis, Davis. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8253 globosus, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8254 hamiltoniae. Hall. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8355 hemisphericus, Y. & S. Corniferous. Louisville, Ky. 

8356 hemisphericus (var. distorta), Y. & S. Corniferous. Ind. 

8357 hemisphericus (var. recta, Hall), Y. & S. Corniferous. 

Indiana ( ?) . 

8358 hemisphericus (var. turbinatus, Billings), Y. & S. Cor- 

niferous. Charlestown, Ind. 

8359 hispidus, Rominger. Niagara. Hawthorne, 111. 

8360 limitaris, Rominger. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8361 maximus, Troost. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8362 mundus (var. placentoides), Davis. Devonian. Falls of 

the Ohio. 

8363 niagarensis. Hall. Niagara. Indiana(?). 

8364 nitellus, Winchell. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8365 occidens, Winchell. Niagara. Hawthorne, 111. 

8366 pirum, Davis. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8367 placenta, Rominger. Corniferus. York, Divingston Co., 

N. Y. 

8368 radiatus, Rominger. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8369 radiciformis. Rominger. Corniferous. Charlestown, Ind. 

8370 spiculatus, Davis. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8371 spinigerus, Hall. Niagara. Waldron, Ind. 

8372 tuberosus, Rominger. Corniferous. Indiana(?). 

8373 troosti, Fv. & H. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8374 venustus. Hall. Niagara. Wayne Co., Tenn. 
^375 venustus, do. do. Rochester, N. Y. 

8376 winchelli, Rominger. Devonian. Michigan. 

8377 winchelli, Rominger. Corniferous. Indiana. 

8378 Fistulipora acervulosa, Rominger. Hamilton. Watson, Ind. 

8379 minuta, do. do. do. 

8380 unilinea. Hall. Hamilton. York, N. Y. 

8381 sp. Cisco. Graham, Texas. 

8382 Hadrophyllum d'orbignyi, E. & H. Upper Devonian. 

Charlestown, Ind. 



/\iIc('ozoif Cora/s. 75 

5353 Hal\sites catenulalus, Liiiiutus. Niagara. Indiaua(?). 

5354 Heliolites interstinctus, Linnaeus. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

5355 interstinctus, Linnaeus. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 
83S6 niacrostylus, Hall. Niagara. Illinois. 

S3S7 niegastoma, McCoy. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

838S pyriformis, Guettard. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8389 subtubulatus, McCoy. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8390 Heliopliyllum acuminatum. Hall. Corniferous. Charles- 

town, Ind. 

8391 annulatum, Hall. Corniferous. Charlestown, Ind. 
8538 annulatum, do. do. do. 

8392 arachne, Hall. Hamilton. Western New York. 

8393 beecheri, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Near Charlestown, 

Ind. 

8394 bordeni, G. K. Greene. Corniferous. Charlestown, Ind. 

8395 canadense, Billings. Corniferous. 

8396 confluens, Hall. Hamilton. Western New York. 
'^397 corniculum, Lesueur. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8398 degener. Hall. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8399 denticulatum, Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8400 eriense, Billings. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8401 exiguum, Billings. Corniferous. Louisville, Ky. 

8402 fecundum. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8403 gemmatum, do. do. do. 

8404 geniculatum, Rominger. Hamilton. Charlestown. 

8405 gurleyi, G. K. Greene. do. Near Charlestown, Ind. 

8406 halli, E. & H. do. Genesee Co., N. Y. 

8407 halli, do. do. Clark Co., N. Y. 

8408 halli, do. do. Moscow, N. Y. 

8409 halli, do. (var. reflexum. Hall). Hamilton. East 

Bethany, N. Y. 

8410 invaginatum. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

841 1 irregulare. Hall. Hamilton. Western New York. 

8412 jacksoni, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8413 juvensis, Rominger. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8414 laticrescens, Hall. Corniferous. Charlestown, Ind. 

8415 multigemmatum, Davis. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8416 nanum, Cr. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8417 nettlerothi. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 



76 Director's Annual Report . 

8418 Heliophylluiii obconicum, Hall. Hamilton. W. New York. 

8419 obesum, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8420 osculatuni, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, IncL 

8421 pocillatum, Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8422 proliferum, Hall. Hamilton. Western New York. 

8423 scyphulus, do. do. Charlestown, Ind. 

8424 scyphus, Rominger. do. do. 

8425 tenuimurale. Hall. Coniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8426 tumidulum, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8427 turgidum, do. do. do. 

8428 Houghtonia huronica, Rominger. Hvidson River. Marion 

Co., Ky. 

8429 Lithostrotion canadense, Castlenau. Carboniferous. St. 

IvOuis. 

8430 proliferum, Hall. Subcarboniferous. Colesburg, Ky. 

8431 Lophophyllum proliferum, McChesney. Carboniferous. 

Graham, Texas. 

8432 Michelinia clappi, E. & H. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8433 convexa, d'Orbigny. Corniferous. Indiana(?). 

8434 dividua. Hall. Hamilton. East Bethany, N. Y. 

8435 dividua, Hall. Upper Devonian. Crab Orchard, Ky. 

8436 iavositojdea, Billings. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 
^539 favositoidea, Billings. Corniferous. Ontario, Canada. 

8437 insignis, Rominger. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8438 insignis, do. do. vSellersburg, Ind. 

8439 insignis, do. do. Falls of the Ohio. 

8440 maxima, Troost. Corniferous. 

8441 maxima, Troost. Corniferous. Louisville, Ky. 

8442 stylopora, Eaton. Hamilton. Pavilion, N. Y. 

8443 Monticulipora dalii, E. & H. Hudson River. Richmond, Ind. 

8444 delicatula, Nicholson. do. Warren Co., O. 
S445 frondosa, d'Orbigny. Trenton. Decorah, Iowa. 

8446 lycoperdon, vSay. Trenton. 

8447 mammulata, d'Orbigny. Hudson River. Cincinnati, O. 

8448 mammulata, d'Orbigny. do Madison, Ind. 

8449 nieeki, James. Hudson River. Warren Co., O. 

8450 ramosa, d'Orbigny. do. Jefferson Co., Ind. 

8451 rugosa, Hall. Trenton. Tyrone, Ky. 

8452 ulrichi, Nicholson. Hudson River. Covington, Ky. 

8453 varians, James. Hudson River. Lebanon, O. 



J\ila-ozoic Corals. -- 

>^454 Oni])hynia stokesi, Iv 6c H. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 
S455 stokesi, K. tS: H. Niagara. Bridgeport, 111. 

-8456 \erriicosa, Rafinesque. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 
8457 verrucosa, Rafinesque. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

S458 Pachyphyllum woodniani, White. Chemung. Iowa. 

8459 Pachypora fi.scheri, Billings. Corniferous. Fallsof the Ohio. 

8460 Phillipsastraea gigas, Owen. Upper Devonian. Crab Or- 

chard, K>-. 

8461 verneuili, E. & H. Corniferous. Ontario, Canada. 

8462 Plasmopora elegans, Hall. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8463 follis, E. ^: H. Niagara, Louisville, Ky. 

8464 follis, do. do Hillsboro, O. 

8465 Ptychophyllum expansum, E. & H. Corniferous. Fallsof 

the Ohio. 

8466 ipomoea, Davis. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8467 knappi, Hall. Hamilton. Crab Orchard, Ky. 

8468 versiforme, Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8469 Romingeria cornuta, Billings. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8470 dispensa, Davis. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 
<S47i fasciculata, Davis. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8472 vStreptelasma corniculum, Hall. Hud.son R. Richmond, Ind. 

8473 rectum, Hall. Hamilton. We.stern New York. 

8474 Striatopora alba, Davis. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8475 cavernosa, Rominger. Corniferous. Le Roy, N. Y. 

8476 limbata, Eaton. Hamilton. York, N. Y. 

8477 vStrombodes pentagonus, Goldfuss. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8478 separatus, Ulrich. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8479 striatus, d'Orbigny. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8480 unicus, Davis. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8481 Syringopora annulata, Rominger. Niagara. Michigan(?), 

8482 hisingeri, Billings. Corniferous. Le Roy, N. Y. 

8483 maclurii, Billings. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8484 multattenuata, McChesney. St. Louis. Harrison Co., Ind. 

8485 nobilis, Billings. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8486 perelegans, Billings. Corniferous. Le Roy, N. Y. 

8487 tabulata, Billings. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 
8337/' tubiporoides, Y. & S. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8488 Thecia major, Rominger. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8489 minor, Rominger. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 



78 Director' s Annual Report. 

8490 Thecia raiuosa, Rominger. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8491 swiiiderniana, Goldfuss. Niagara. Louisville, Ky. 

8492 Thecostegites hemisphericus, Roemer. Niagara. Wayne 

Co., Tenn. 

8493 Trachypora elegantula, Billings. Hamilton. Clark Co., Ind. 

8494 Zaphrentis acuticornis, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charles- 

town, Ind. 

8495 ampliatus, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8496 calcariformis. Hall. St. Louis. Lanesville, Ind. 

8497 campanulatus, G. K. Greene. 

8498 centralis, E. & H. Kaskaskia. Hardin Co., Ky. 

8499 chcsterensis, Worthen. do. do. 

8500 comis, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8501 concava. Hall. Corniferous. Charlestown, Ind. 

8502 cornalba, Davis. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 
8341^ cornicula, E. & H. Corniferous. Le Roy, N. Y. 

8503 dalei, do. Keokuk. Edwardsville, Ind. 

8504 davisana, S. A. Miller. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8505 deformis. Hall. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8506 duplicata, do. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8507 elegans, do. do. do. 

8508 frequentata, do. do. do. 

8509 gallicalar, Davis, Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8510 gigantea, Lesueur. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

851 1 humilis, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8512 insolens, do. do. do. 

8513 ischypus, do. do. do. 

8514 lanceolata, Worthen. St. Louis. Lanesville, Ind. 

8515 limatus, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Charlestown, Ind. 

8516 nitida. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8517 obliquatus, G. K. Greene. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8518 ovalis. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8519 profunda. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8520 prolifica, Billings. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8521 racienensis, Whitfield. Niagara. Bridgeport, 111. 

8522 roemeri, E. & H. Lower Helderburg. "The Tyke", 

Catskill. 

8523 simplex. Hall. Hamilton. Western New York. 

8524 spinulosa, E. & H. Kaskaskia. Hardin Co., Ky. 

8525 spissa. Hall. Corniferous. Falls of the Ohio. 



Bofa)iicaI and (ico/ooica/ Speciiiiciis. 79 

8526 terebrata. Hall. Corniferoiis. Falls of the Ohio, 

8527 torta, Hall. Coniiferous. Falls of the Ohio. 

8528 undata, Hall. Coniiferous. Le Roy, N. Y. 

8529 ungula, Roniinger. Coniiferous. lyouisville, Ky. 

8530 varians, G. K. Greene. Hamilton. Cliarlestown, 

8531 yandelli, Hall. Corniferoiis. Falls of the Ohio. 



BOTAXICAI. AXl) (iHOLOGICAL SPHCIMENS. 

6788 Opals, from New South Wales. 

6794 Awa root, from Samoa. Given by Dr. Kramer. 

8545 Nine specimens of lava, from Kilauea. Given by Mr. F« 
Waldron. 

8554 Lava mould of tree stem. Given by Mr. F. Waldron. 

8555 \'olcanic bomb. Given by Mr. F. Waldron. 

8556 Rope lava crust, from Kilauea. Given by Mr. F. Waldron. 

8557 Lava pushes, from Kilauea. 

8558 Edge of lava stream. 

8559 Lava push, from Kilauea. 

8560 Inner crust of lava from near sulphur cracks, Kilauea. 

8561 Inner roof of cave, Kilauea. 

8562 Lava, from Kilauea. 

8563 F'resh aa. 

8565 Lava, from Kilauea. 

8570 Block of Naio {Myoponoii sand'a'icense) . Given by Mrs. F. 
Waldron. 

Many specimens of plants gathered near Kilauea have not yet 
been mounted in the Herbarium. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS 



OF THE 



BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM OF 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY. 



Vol. I. — No. 3. 



Director's Report for 1900. 



^honolui^u, h. i. 
Bishop Museum Press. 
1 901. 




BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

Sanpord B. Dole, LIv.D President. 

William O. Smith Vice-President. 

Alfred W. Carter . . . . . . Secretary. 

Henry Holmes Treasurer. 

Joseph O. Carter. Samuel M. Damon. William F. Allen. 

c . — 

museum" STAFF. 

William T. Brigham Diredlor. 

William H. Dall . . Honorary Curator of Mollusca. 

William A. Bryan Curator of Birds. 

John F. G. Stokes . . Assistant and A(5ling Librarian. 

Allen M. Walcott Assistant. 

John W. Thompsoi^" .... Artist and Modeller. 

Alvin Seale Colledtor. 

John J. Greene Printer. 




OCCASIONAL PAPERS 



OF THE 



BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM OF 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY. 



Vol. I. — No. .S. ' 



Director's Report for 1900. 



honolulu, h. i. . 
Bishop Museum Press. 
igoi. 



7<> the Tritsfccs of the Bcrnicc Paiialii Bishop Miisriiiii. 

Sirs: — /;/ luroniiDicc icitJi the vote of the 'JViistees at the stated 

))ieeting' of faiiuary /j, f<-joo, I submit my Report on tlte eonditiou 

of tJie MnseiiDi and tlie 7i'orl' in its various departuieuts during tlie 

year igoo. 

WILL/AM T. BRICrHAM 

Direeior of the Museum. 
Honolulu: Mareh S, igoi . 



JAN 16 1902 



REPORT. 



THE hope expressed in the previous Report that this Museum 
might soon make independent collec5lions on the islands of the 
Pacific has been agreeably fulfilled during the past year by the 
expedition of Mr. Alvin Scale to Guam of the Marianas. By the 
courtesy of the United States War Department passage was allowed 
on a transport and for several months Mr. Scale industriously col- 
lected in various departments. The result will be seen farther on 
in this Report. With this exception the additions to the collec1;ions 
in the Museum have not been large, as until the Hawaiian Hall is 
ready for occupancy there is no room available for storage. 

The room formerly devoted to the principal Hawaiian collec- 
tion has been entirely remodeled. The cases removed and the floor 
replaced by concrete and mosaic tiling have left the hall ready for 
new cases, which are sadly needed, and have provided an effecflual 
safeguard against the inroads of the termites. The fine Hawaiian 
Hall which has been long in construcflion is now completed and 
seems admirably adapted to its purpose, but as no cases have yet 
been provided it stands empty and unused. In the meantime the 
Hawaiian colledlions have for the most part been stored, some are 
on exhibition in the Hawaiian Vestibule in temporary cases, but 
all are suffering for want of proper cases. In a tropical climate a 
tight and insect-proof case is one of the most important desiderata 
of a Museum, and it is useless to accumulate specimens without 
first providing proper cases for their preservation if not for their 
exhibition. 

While no especial attempt, except in the Guam expedition, has 
been made to increase the colleclions, much work has been done 
in revising the catalogues, especiallv the card catalogue which is 

(3) 



4 Dircclor' s Annual Report. 

locally arranged and of which each card contains as much informa- 
tion about the specimen that it represents as is available. In ad- 
dition many of the cards bear a photograph or in some cases a 
drawing of the specimen, so that in consulting this catalogue one 
can see at a glance the nature of the specimen. As almost every- 
thing of importance has been photographed this plan has been 
easily carried out, and in any case it is ver}- easy to make a group 
photograph of which the print can be cut to furnish the small pic- 
tures needed for the cards. By using the platinotype or bromide 
processes the print is as durable as the card. In some cases, as for 
example with poi pounders of which there are dozens much alike, 
the photograph .shows a differentiation that no concise description 
could. Wherever the. Museum publications furnish illustrations of 
objecfts in the collec5lions these can be imprinted on the card as well. 
The card catalogue is thus in a way to become a fully illu.strated 
record of the contents of the Museum. A new s^'stem of recording 
accessions has also been adopted, which it is thought will simplify 
the work. Hitherto the shells and plants have had a separate 
series of numbers in order to keep the label numbers as small as 
possible, the species of shells alone approaching 10,000, and now 
the birds and fishes have also been separated and the one in charge 
of each of these departments has an independent accession book for 
which he is responsible. Mr. Stokes has done much work on the 
manuscript of the catalogue of the collecftion of shells, which it is 
hoped may soon be ready for printing. 

Mr. Walcott and myself made a hurried visit to Kauai, at the 
request of the Trustees to examine some private colleclions of 
Hawaiian antiquities, which had been offered to the Museum, but 
while the specimens were often desirable, there were very many 
duplicates and the prices a.sked were too high for duplicates. We 
found in the valley of Hanalei where sugar was largely cultivated, 
rice had taken its place, but elsewhere the canefields .seemed to have 
taken all available land on that part of Kauai, even the grand grove 
of kukui trees near Kilauea, a grove of such antiquity that tradition 



Direflor' s .\)iiiual Report. 5 

does not recognize the \ontli ol the jncftnresque old trees, is in dan- 
ger of destruction that a few acres may be added to the canefields. 

Having occasion during my vacation to visit the cities of the 
Atlantic seaboard I thought it desirable that Mr. Stokes should at 
the same time visit the American museums, and the Trustees ac- 
ceded to my wishes and granted him a leave of absence and an 
appropriation for his expenses. His impressions of these museums 
I have requested him to add to this Report. I felt that his eye 
might notice improvements and desirable methods that might 
escape my examination, and we are so remote from all such insti- 
tutions that it is very needful to .study their work, methods and 
exhibits as thoroughly and as often as possible. 

Soon after the publication of the first Memoir the Trustees 
decided that the edition of three hundred copies was not sufficient 
to meet the demand and ordered the issue of an additional number. 
This reprint has been commenced but has been delayed by the 
nonarrival of the colored plates made in Vienna. The printing 
office has been otherwi.se fully occupied in the preparation of the 
second Memoir which was issued at the close of the year. This 
was an Index of the Islands of the Pacific Ocean prepared by the 
Dire(5lor, and the printing required great care and taste happily met 
by Mr. Greene. This and the Annual Report for 1899, which w^as 
issued about the same time, fully taxed the resources of the office. 
The next publication in quarto form will be Mr. Bryan's Key to 
the Hawaiian Birds, and this is well advanced. Much work has 
alvSo been done in photographing the illu.strations for the fourth 
Memoir which will be ready for printing during the current year. 
This will be a description of ancient Hawaiian Stone Implements. 

By the kindness of Eric Knudsen Esq. the frame of an ancient 
grass house was obtained from a remote valley on the northwest 
coast of Kauai and Mr. W. E. H. Deverill attended to the difficult 
transportation of the heavy .stonecut logs composing this frame. 
In due time this will be reerecled in the new hall and properly 
thatched, thus preserving a genuine old Hawaiian house — Hale pili. 



6 DircHor's Annual Report. 

A number of books and .specimens purchased in Europe dur- 
ing the year have not yet arrived owing to their detention in San 
Francisco by the Customs officials of that port. One case of books 
from Ivondon which was sent via Panama and San Francisco was 
opened at the latter port in accordance with the United States reg- 
ulations and without resoldering sent on a voyage of two thousand 
miles. These annoyances it is hoped will now cease, for it is un- 
derstood that orders making more suitable regulations have been 
issued. 

TABLE OF ATTENDANCE. 





'i- 

3 


a 


be 




aj 

0) 

a 

s 




0) 

C3 
OS 

eg 


1 



c 



03 
Q 


1 
Q 

TS 




II 


Dally 
Average. 











Totals. 


■Tannar.v 

February 

March 


"2.35 
363 
4S,S 
434 
272 
23S 
334 
33.-) 
342 
396 


38 
.337 
204 
11.5 
58 
70 
114 
127 
104 
152 


" 4 

14 
40 
59 
19 
38 
30 
8 
8 
31 


' 84 
l.M 
226 
132 
1.33 
148 
81 
95 
63 
102 


"44 

.'')8 
95 
79 
107 
76 
90 
37 
33 
86 


2 
3 
5 

2 

1 


7 
9 
S 
10 
8 
9 
9 
8 
9 
9 


"i 
5 

10 

4 
4 

6 
4 

3 


'"s 

66 
72 
44 
15 
90 
74 
37 
15 


'08 ' 
115 
124 

75.4 

68 

61.3 

62.2 

66 

57 

84 


8 
13 

7.2 
11 

3.7 
15 
18.2 

7.4 

5 

9.8 


407 

928 




1056 




824 


July 


589 


Aus'iiKt 

.Sei)teml)er 

October 

November 

December 


567 
660 
602 
5!50 
767 


Totals 


3437 


1319 


251 


1213 


705 


15 


86 


42 


421 


77.1 


6940 



Owdng to the prevalence of the Bubonic Plague among the 
Orientals of this city at the beginning of the year this Museum was 
closed for two months and the Assistants were fully occupied as 
sanitary inspecflors. During the rest of the year the single road 
between towni and the Museum has been in a most disgraceful con- 
dition, at times even dangerous, and has doubtless had an effect 
upon the attendance at the Museum. The attendance of whites 
has slightly diminished, that of Japanese increased from the previ- 
ous year. Schools have made use of both the colleclions and the 
publications in their courses, and it has been found necessary to 
regulate this attendance to prevent anno^-ance to other visitors. 



Dircdor' s .\)niiial l\rpo)t. 



Report of J. F. G. Stokes' Visit to the 
American Museums. 

Thp: Trustees of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, deem- 
ing it desirable that I should become familiar with the arrangement 
of the larger American museums, decided to send me under the 
guidance of the Director, Mr. Brigham, on a short tour of inspec- 
tion for this purpose through the United vStates. The time allowed 
did not permit of the most thorough examination, but the informa- 
tion gained and the many hints and suggestions taken advantage 
of, will no doubt be of value to our Museum in Honolulu. Atten- 
tion was paid most particularly to the collections of Polynesian 
material, and when time did not permit the examination of speci- 
mens from places outside the Pacific region, these departments 
I was unfortunately compelled to pass unnoticed. 

Much kind attention and great cordiality were shown by the 
gentlemen in the departments visited, and the willing help afforded 
was of the utmost value. Ver}- many thanks are due these gentlemen 
for the assistance so readily given, and an opportunity is souo-ht 
to show our Museum's appreciation for the kindnesses rendered. 

The institutions visited were : The California Academy of 
Sciences in San Francisco; the Missouri Botanical Garden in 
St. Louis; the Smithsonian Institution, V. S. National Museum, 
Army Medical Museum, U. S. Botanical Gardens, National Zoo- 
logical Gardens, and the U. S. P'ish Commission buildino- in 
Washington; in Philadelphia, the Academy of Natural vSciences 
the Zoological Park, the Free Museum of vScience and Art, the 
Philadelphia Commercial Museums and Memorial Hall at Fair- 
mount Park ; in New York, the Aquarium in Battery- Park^ 
Columbia University Library, the New York Zoological Garden 
and Botanical Museum at Bronx Park, the American Museum of 
Natural History and the Metropolitan Museum of Art ; in Boston 
and Cambridge, the Boston Society of Natural History, Peabodv 
Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, the Museum of Fine Arts and the Boston Public Librarv 
While in Rochester, N. Y., Ward's Natural History Establishment 
was looked through, and in Chicago the Field Columbian Museum 
was visited. 



8 DircRor' s Annual Report. 

The California Academy of vSciences has done valuable work 
in increasing the knowledge of the natural history of the Pacific 
region, more particularly in the ornithological and conchological 
sedlions, in the latter branch having been assisted by the contribu- 
tions of Messrs. Pease and Garrett in earlier days. I might men- 
tion here that the Garrett colle(5lion of shells is in the cases of the 
Bishop Museum. The bird collecl;ion was being well developed by 
the Curator, and the series of Pacific coast marine birds was very 
fine. The ethnological department had been much neglected 
through the want of individual attention, but the recent acquisition 
of an ethnologist from New^ York will no doubt result in the col- 
leClion being placed in satisfacflory order. Much time in future is 
to be given to the study of aboriginal life in California. The Poly- 
nesian collecftion was poor, which is very strange when the trade 
from San Francisco to the Pacific islands is taken into consideration. 

Opportunity was taken to visit the Stanford University at Palo 
Alto, Cal., whence the benefit of Dr. Jordan's work in training 
young scientists is already widely felt. The study of fish is closely 
followed in this university, the laboratory of which was found to be 
as complete as modqrn improvements could make it. The University 
Museum has been carefully arranged and would rank mainly as a 
family museum, having no doubt been established to be of most 
interest to the Stanford students. 

In St. lyouis the beautiful and arti.stically arranged gardens of 
the Missouri Botanical Park were seen. This park originally be- 
longed to a philanthropic botanist who bequeathed it to the state to 
be used as a public garden. That the responsibility of caring for 
the place was appreciated, w^as shown by the splendid order kept 
and the very complete naming of the plants. Adjoining the gar- 
dens was a large enclosure in which grew the larger American 
trees labelled with botanical and general names. 

On arriving in Washington the Smithsonian Institution was 
visited. It was observed that one vast colle(5lion was preserved in 
the two buildings, the vSmithsonian Institution containing the greater 
portion of the natural history collection, represented by the inverte- 
TDrates, birds and fish ( casts ) ; the botanical portion was not seen. In 
this building was also a room given up to the stone and copper im- 
plements of the American aborigines. The National Museum was 
devoted to ethnology and anthropology, and the balance of the nat- 
ural history collecftion comprising geological specimens, mammals 



/. /•. (i . S/o/ccs' I isif to .liiicncaii Mksckiiis. 9 

and a great luiniber of fish casts. The mode of iiiouiiting birds and 
nianinials in groups is to be ver}' highly recommended, as such a 
procedure calls for the keen observation which only the true nat- 
uralist can exercise. Of the fine groups of mammals in the National 
Museum, the most noteworthy was that of the bisons, where the 
imitation of nature was very good. There were other pleasing 
groups, musk-ox, antelope, caribou and moose. The collecftion of 
shells was a very valuable one, including as it did many specimens 
not duplicated in other institutions. Ho\vever they were rather 
poorly exhibited on account of the lack of space, and only the 
kindness of the Curator, Dr. Dall, permitted the writer to obtain an 
adequate idea of the collection. The corals might well be increased 
in number, and no doubt the recent expedition of the Albatross 
(1899) will contribute to this department. The ethnological col- 
le(5lions from the Pacific region were scant, although ver}' valuable, 
being composed largely of specimens gathered b}' the Wilkes 
Expedition in 1 84 1-3. There were two large stone images from 
Rapanui, which the museum was fortunate in possessing, and other 
objects from this island were fairly plentiful. The Australian and 
Papuan colle(5lions needed increasing, and satisfactory exchanges 
could be effected with the Australian museums. Of American ab- 
original pottery and basket work there was great abundance, as also 
other specimens pertaining to American ethnology. The groups 
of aborigines performing home duties are worthy of especial notice. 
Series showing the evolution of the axe, hammer and other tools 
from their most primitive forms to the modern types, were admir- 
ably illustrated. There was one room which contained a large 
series of boats, showing every form from the dugout canoe to the 
modern steamboat and sailing vessel. The canoes and small boats 
were represented by originals, and models took the place of larger 
vessels. The geological collections were large and comprehensive, 
and the specimens displayed in a way which thoroughly showed 
the character of each. 

■ It seemed strange after visiting the Capitol and Congressional 
Library in Washington and noting the undoubted architectural 
and artistic skill of Americans, that the magnificent collecftion in 
the Smithsonian Institution and National Museum should not be 
housed in a building more befitting the dignity of the United 
States' capital. Against the arrangement of the specimens in the 
National Museum nothing could be said, although in the Smith- 



lo Dircclor' s Annual Report. 

sonian Institution many specimens would be invisible without the 
aid of electric light, but the buildings should be of far grander and 
more magnificent style so as to be worthy of the capital of the great 
United States of America. 

The U. S. Army Medical Museum contained many anatomical 
preparations of great value to the medical student. This museum 
also contained two tatooed and dried Maori heads from New Zealand, 
and it would seem more fitting if these specimens were placed with 
some museum for anthropology, where they would be highly valued. 

It was rather an unfortunate time of the year (September) to 
visit the U.S. Fish Commission, as the breeding season had not 
commenced and the collecftions were not fully represented. The 
conveniences for taking care of the fish in all stages of growth were 
noted with much interest. 

The National Zoological Gardens are situated near Chevy 
Chase, and the site chosen for this park showed that there had 
been great forethought in the seledlion of a place not only suitable 
for its purpose, but containing the great advantage of natural 
scener^^ There was a fine herd of bison roaming in their exten- 
sive run. The aviary was large and kept in good order, and the 
reptile house well stocked. A neatly arranged aquarium was seen 
on the grounds, constru(5led on modern plans, and the mammal 
house contained a very representative collecftion. The confined 
inmates of the park were looking very healthy, with rare excep- 
tions, and the care apparent on every side did great credit to the 
gentlemen in charge. 

Reaching Philadelphia, a visit was first paid to the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, where Dr. Pilsbry had the kindness to ac- 
company me when looking through the magnificent collection of 
molluscs in his charge. This colledtion, it is generally admitted, is 
the finest in the United States, although the Smithsonian Institution 
has many rare specimens not represented in this Academy . The con- 
venient method of keeping the duplicate species in drawers below 
the exhibition cases would assist the work of the conchological 
student very much. In other branches of natural history also 
there were excellent opportunities for study, the working collec- 
tions being well supplied and conveniently stored. In ethnology, 
the colle(5tion from the Pacific was not large, nor in fact was any 
pertaining to countries outside America. The Academy held a 
colle(?tion of very fine Hawaiian Kapa, which probably, on account 



/. F. (i. Stoku's' I 7s// to Anuricaii Mitsciiiiis . n 

of the space required, will never be exhibited in a sati.s(a(5lory 
way. It was interesting to notice the similarity between some of 
the discoidal stones from Georgia and Alabama, and the ulumaika 
or bowling stones of the Hawaiians. The arrangement of the 
exhibits was good, as far as the specimens themselves w^ere con- 
cerned, but great trouble was experienced in viewing them clearly 
owing to the darkness of the rooms — darkness due partly no dovibt 
to the dull weather then prevailing, but in a greater degree to the 
building itself. 

The Zoological Park has been placed in a spot possessing 
many natural advantages. It has been well arranged, and the 
comfort of the installation and the convenience of the visitors 
have been equally well attended to. The tank for the sea-lions 
with its hollowed rock in the middle, was an example of the 
careful planning of the place, and it was interesting to learn that 
the waterfowl on the small circular lake had been domesticated 
enough to begin to breed. Many rare animals and birds were 
seen here — among the birds the Cereopsis novce-hollandce being rep- 
resented by two specimens alive. Considerable time was spent in 
the reptile house, where the Superintendent had been passing his 
spare time in casting and coloring different American snakes, and, 
for preserving the form, the advantage of snake casts over mounted 
skins is undoubted. The coloring of casts requires much patience 
and care in using the sombre shades. 

A very brief visit was paid to the Philadelphia Museum at the 
Memorial Hall, Fairmount Park, containing many exhibits collecfted 
during the Centennial Exposition, 1876, but, although many beau- 
tiful things were seen, time was too limited for a close examination. 

I was much pleased with the artistic arrangement of the Free 
Museum of Science and Art, and very interested in the theories of 
the Curator, Mr. Stewart Culin. The museum was rich in archae- 
olog}', containing many steles and altars from Central America, and 
was also the depository for the collections made by the Babylonian 
expeditions under Dr. Hilprecht. In the ethnological sed:ion Mr. 
Culin's principles w^ere rigidly adhered to, and it contained speci- 
mens which form, metaphorically, links of a chain connecting many 
widely separated countries. 

The opportunity was taken to visit the Philadelphia Commer- 
cial Museum, an institution fovmded for the purpose of aiding the 
American merchant when extending his business to foreign coun- 



12 Director s .liiinial Report. 

tries. It had correspondents in every large cit_v in the world and 
I was personally able to verify the information received from a 
town in Australia in which I had lived many years. In the 
museum, articles of ordinary use were shown in every stage of 
manufa(5lure, and the young business man could, without leaving 
the building, learn how everything manufadlured which he con- 
sumed, was made. In addition to this, the products of different 
countries were grouped together, so that a man could see enough 
to judge the opportunity of trade with any countr}- previously un- 
known to him. An inclination was at one time apparent to include 
in this institution's publications papers concerning the study of 
zoolog}', but the management finally decided to confine itself to 
matters commercial. A suggestion was tendered by Mr. Brigham, 
that the institution enlarge its work a little and gather names of 
dealers in museum material, which suggestion was received favor- 
ably. The establishment of the museum is due entirely to the 
great energy expended by Dr. W. P. Wilson, to whom the mer- 
chants of the United States should feel very greatly indebted. 

In New York, some time was spent in the New York Aqua- 
rium at Battery Park. The aquarium building as is generally 
known, was a fort called Castle Clinton, which has been modified 
sufficiently to make a very neat and suitably construcfted aquarium. 
There were several large tanks built in the floor for large fish and 
seals, while the glass-faced tanks for the smaller fish were arranged 
in two tiers around the circular building. Originally Castle Clinton 
stood on an island some distance from the shore, but the land at 
this part of the harbor has been reclaimed and extended so as to 
bring the building within the beach line. In the reclaimed land 
wells have been sunk, and from these the salt water supply was 
obtained, the wells being repleted by the filtration into them of sea 
water. Apparatus was provided for heating and cooling the water 
supply, so that the temperature could be adjusted to meet the 
needs of tropical fish as well as those requiring cool water, at any 
season. The vegetable growth in some of the tanks looked healthy 
and some pretty views of submarine life were available by means 
of this addition. The aquarium was not as rich as expecfted in the 
varie.ty of its colle(5f;ion ; it had a good supply of the American 
fishes, more particular!}' those used for food, but a larger repre- 
sentation of tropical fish would add to its attra(5liveness and the 
public interest generally. 



/. /•'. a. Sfokrs' ]'isif fo .1 iiivriraii Miisciiiiis. 13 

At Bronx Park, New York, the first institution examined was 
the New York Zoological Park. This park was in process of con- 
struction. One of the permanent buildings completed was the 
reptile house, in the construdtion of which much consideration 
had been given to the accommodation of the inmates and con- 
venience of the working staff. The first compartment entered con- 
tained the cages for reptiles from the temperate zones lining the 
walls. This appartment led into one four times the size in which 
the collection of tropical reptiles was found ; two sides and an end 
of this room were reserved for cases, while at the other end was a 
large tank for the saurians. In the middle of the hall were two 
large tanks for turtles, the smaller containing salt water for marine 
turtles, and the larger divided into several compartments for 
terrapin and supplied by a stream of fresh water. Arrangements 
were made for heating the appartment with hot water. Behind the 
crocodile tank was a small conservatory in which the tropical 
plants cultivated throve luxuriantly. Outside the reptile house 
and convenient to it was a large basin intended as the summer res- 
idence of the Crocodilia. It was understood that the reptile house 
of the Zoological Society of London was taken as a model for the 
Bronx Park establishment, and the internal arrangement of the 
latter was certainly most admirable. The ranges for the hoofed 
animals, stretching along the western and southwestern borders of 
the park, had already been partitioned off with a high fencing of 
wire, and temporary shelters had been provided for the animals 
already in the collecftion. The American Ungulata were represented 
very fully. Among the Carnivora, the wolves, foxes and bears were 
provided with dens, the bears' den having been blasted out of the 
rock and built up with cement, and the others generally constructed 
of wood : strong iron railings with the upper ends turned inwards 
as usual, insured the safet}- of the visitors. The sea-lions had 
their pools, and looked as comfortable as on the rocks outside San 
PVancisco. vSeveral of the aviaries were completed, the finest of 
which was the flying cage, 150 feet long and 50 feet high ; it con- 
tained herons, storks and ibises. The house for the smaller mam- 
mals was read}- and filled, while permanent structures had not yet 
been erecfted for members of the cat family. Very great credit is 
due to Mr. William T. Hornaday, the dire(5tor, for the way in which 
the work has been carried on, and under his care the park bids 



14 Dircoflr' s Annual Report. 

fair to surpass anj-thing of a like construcftiou in the United States. 
The plans were on a scale which should make it the beau-ideal of 
a zoological park. 

Remaining within the confines of Bronx Park, a short visit 
was paid to the New York Botanical Museum, Gardens and Con- 
servatory. The interior of the museum had lately been completed, 
and some of the space for exhibition still waited to be filled. The 
botanical specimens were arranged for the convenience of students 
of botain' and commercial people, in the latter connecSlion most 
vegetable produ(5ls used in manufacftures being shown in the raw 
state with, near-by, the sketches and names of the plants producing 
them . A very nice arrangement was made for the young student — 
about a dozen good microscopes were placed in a room, showing 
portions of various plants, the slides being changed from time to 
time. B}- this arrangement, any one interested in botany, unable 
to afford the cost of a good microscope, could glean a pracftical 
knowledge difficult to obtain in other ways. The system of pro- 
viding microscopes for the public in this way might advantageousl)^ 
be adopted by other institutions. In the portion laid out as the 
garden, a classification of the beds was made according to the 
families and genera of the plants, thus giving a student the text- 
book illustrated by Nature. The conservatories, just completed, 
were being prepared for the reception of the plants allotted to them . 
This institution has alread}' commenced to publish botanical in- 
formation, six bulletins having left the printer's hands. 

The next institution to be visited was the American Museum 
of Natural Histor}-, in Central Park. This museum will, when 
completed, be the largest in the United States, and though but 
one-third of its plan has been carried out, it now approaches in 
size the National Museum in Washington, the collections however 
not being as valuable as in the latter institution, excepting those 
of vertebrate, paleontology, mammals and birds. These last three 
collecftions in the Museum of Natural History deserve particular 
notice, not only on account of their value scientifically, but also of 
the skilled and artistic methods adopted in their mountings. The 
expeditions which the Department of Paleontology has been en- 
abled to send out for dinosaurs and fossil mammals, have been 
doing excellent work, and the number of new species thus obtained 
was verv considerable. The needs of the working student have 



J . F. (i . Stokes^ I isif to .liiirricaii Museum . 15 

not been overlooked, and several skeletons have been mounted so 
that individual bones could be removed for stud}' without disturb- 
ing the others. \'ery fine bird groups were exhibited, among 
others, the Duck Hawk Ciroup being very remarkable. In mount- 
ing groups, more attention has been paid to those of North America; 
each group was composed of the male and female, with the nest 
and eggs, their home surroundings being imitated in a way which 
showed how near Art was to Nature. The same could be said of 
the mounting of the mammals ; two large groups in particular, of 
moose and bison, were reputed to be the best in the world. The 
Archaeological Department has been well arranged, and was very 
rich in collecftions from Central America and Mexico. Much at- 
tention has been paid to these localities, and where an important 
specimen has been unobtainable for the museum, it was repre- 
sented by a well executed cast. In ethnology, some very fine col- 
lections from the Pacific region were viewed. A collecftion had 
lately been purchased, and an experiment w'as being made of 
carding the specimens on dark buff boards — the specimens thus 
mounted looked very well but required such a large space that it 
has yet to be ascertained if the extra expense and additional room 
needed will justify this method. A very neat and effe(5live way of 
mounting the butterflies has been adopted : plaster tablets faced 
with glass enclosed the insects, and in order to show the back and 
underpart, two tablets were used for each species. This method, 
too, requires very much room, although making a pleasing exhibit 
for the public. The museum has spent much time in order to 
please the people of New York, and many special collecftions were 
exhibited to show forms of life found within a radius of fifty miles 
from New York City. 

In Boston, the Society of Natural History was visited, and the 
museum had an appearance of long standing. The material seen 
in it must be of great value, although overcrowded. This society 
has i.ssued many very valuable publications. 

The Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Eth- 
nology held in its halls among other fine collections, very good 
ones of ethnological material from the Pacific region, including 
rare specimens from the Hawaiian, Fijian and Marquesan Islands. 
Its collection of archaeological specimens was very rich. The cases 
for exhibition were well planned, and each specimen could be seen 
with ease if the background of the cases were of a lighter color. 



i6 DircHor s Annual Report. 

The Museum of Co^lpa^ati^•e Zoology was undoubtedly the 
most admirable institution for the study of zoology seen on the trip. 
The classification and arrangement approached perfecftion, and the 
amount of information placed in the cases was very great. Series 
were made illustrating the morphology of many different species, 
and in other cases types of genera and species had been selecfted 
and carded dissecfted. An excellent series of radiates were shown 
by the glass models made by the Blatscha Bros., and the alcoholic 
specimens were on view in another department. The museum 
possessed a giant spider crab from Japan {Kccnipfcria kcrn^pfcri) , 
nearly as large as that in the Bishop Museum. 

At Rochester, N. Y., Ward's Natural History Establishment 
was visited for the purpose of obtaining an insight to the most 
modern methods of mounting specimens. The workshops were 
examined, and the work appeared to be carried on in a very sys- 
tematic and thorough manner. Several useful suggestions were 
kindly given by the Messrs. Ward. 

In Chicago a little time was spent in the Field CoUimbian 
Museum, and while the collecliions were large, comprehensive and 
valuable, the arrangement of some left much to be desired. It 
would seem that little attention had been paid to the correct identi- 
fication of the ethnological specimens, for many common things 
were found incorrecT;ly labelled, and those which were labelled 
aright were not classified in anything like a satisfactory manner. 
The birds were nicely classified, and several very good groups were 
seen — some of the collection however was in such darkness, that 
the specimens were hardly visible. One section contained speci- 
mens illustrating all the modes of locomotion on land, including 
models or originals of the different types of railway engines — this 
department was very interesting. The museum was in one of the 
buildings remaining from the Columbian Exposition in 1893, and 
contained many of the exhibits from that fair — these latter con- 
stituted the greater part of the collection. 

The journey has been very interesting and instructive, and 
many things were learned which will no doubt be of value in the 
future arrangement of the Museum. 



Report of a Mission to Guam. 

BY ALVIN SEALE. 

Part L— AVIFAUNA. 



The Marianas or Ladrone Islands consist of twenty-one small 
volcanic islands which extend on a north and south line for a space 
of about 400 miles. They were discovered by Magalhaes, March 6, 
1521. For the most part they present a bold rocky coast line with 
high hills or low mountains rising in the interior. They are 
densely wooded, except on top of the mountains, where it is 
usually barren, or covered with tall grass. 

My actual field work was confined to the island of Guam, 
which is the largest and southernmost of the group, being thirty- 
two miles long by twelve broad. This island is densely wooded, 
except in the northwest, where there is a small range of low 
mountains reaching to an elevation of 1800 feet. The general 
height of the island is from fifty to seventy-five feet, with a few 
small fresh water ponds and marshes, and perhaps eight or ten 
small streams. 

In this paper I have followed as near as possible the A. O. U. 
code of nomenclature. The key, inserted for the convenience of 
fellow-workers in Polynesian ornitholog}^ is chiefly compiled from 
various works of worth bearing on the subject. The measurements 
are all in inches, and like the color notes were taken from speci- 
mens in the flesh. /. c., in all the Guam specimens. Unless a speci- 
men is marked '' Immahirc^' an adult bird is to be understood. 
The local names given in Vol. V., Nov. Zool., all have a curious 
Japanese twist to them, and with one exception are all incorrecftly 
spelled. The native names as herein given were all revised by 
Lieutenant-Governor Safford of Guam, who is the best living 
authorit}' on the Chamorro language. 

o. p. B. p. B. M.— Vol. I., No. 3. (17) 



KEY TO ORDERS. 



a'. Toes four, all fully connected b_v web. Order SteganopodeS. 
a-. Toes four, hind toe not conne<fted with front ones; bill with 

cutting edge fringed or dentate Order Anseres. 

a^. Toes four, all on the same level; bill short, strongly hooked, 
and with a cere at the base of the upper mandible. 

Order Raptores. 
a*. Toes three, or if four the hind one not connected b}^ web with 
the inner toe. 

b'. Nostrils tube-shaped, feet webbed Order Tubinares. 

b'. Nostrils not tubular, anterior toes webbed, tarsus shorter 

than the tail Order I/Ongipennes. 

bv Nostrils not tubular, anterior toes not broadly united by 

web, the lower portion of the thighs naked, or else the 

bill is lengthened and grooved along each side, outer 

and middle toes separate. 

C'. Hind toe long and on the same level as the front 

toes, loral or orbital regions naked. 

Order Herodioties. 

C-. Hind toe short and on same level as front toes, or but 

slightly elevated ; if long as lower mandible there 

is a frontal shield present Order Paludicolse. 

C\ Hind toe short and below the level of the front toes. 

Order lyimicolse. 

b-*. Nostrils not tubular, the lower portion of the thighs 

feathered, or else the middle and outer toes are united 

for at least half their length. 

C^. Hind toe small and elevated, or else bill is without 

a soft cere, bill not hooked, short and stout. 

Order Gallinse. 
C^. Hind toe well developed and on a level with the an- 
terior toes, bill with a soft swollen cere at the base 

of the upper mandible Order Columbse. 

C''. Bill without soft swollen cere. 

(IS) 



Key to Orders. I9> 

d'. Wing very long, about equal to the total length 
of the bird, which does not exceed 4.50, pri- 
maries ten, secondaries six. 

Order Macrochires. 

d'. Wing shorter, equal to about one-half the total 
length of the bird, bill large, primaries nine. 

Order Coccyges. 

d^. Wings not very long, toes three in front and one 
behind, the middle and outer toes not united 
for half their length, lower part of thighs 
feathered, the tarsus equal to or longer than 
the lateral toes Order Passeres. 



20 Direclor' s Anmial Report. 

Order LONGIPENNES.— Long-winged Swimmers. 

a'. Bill without cere, lower mandible not longer than upper, 
tail feathers twelve, claws feeble or moderate. Family Larida", 
Gulls and Terns. 

b'. Tail even, hind toe perfectly developed but small, cul- 
•nien more than two-thirds as long as tarsus. Genus Lams. 
b". Tail graduated. 

C'. Outer tail feathers broad and rounded at tip. 

d'. Wing le.ss than 9.5, general color black, 
wings lighter. Genus Hydrochclidon . 

d'. Wings more than 9.5, general color, includ- 
ing wings, a sooty black. Genus Anous. 

Or . Outer tail feathers sharp, pointed, the next to the 
outer pair the longest, general color pure white. Genus Gygis, 
Wagler. 

Genus ICARUS Lixn.^u.s. 

I. I/arus vegae (Palmen). Pallas' Gull. 

Mantle light gray or pearl gray ; no black spot on the bill of 
the adult. lyCngth 26, wing 15. 15-18.30, culnien 1.90-2.20, tarsus 
2.15-2.20. Hab. Pacific Ocean, probably accidental on the Mari- 
anas, only one specimen having been taken there, which is now in 
the Paris Museum. 

Gems HYDROCHELIDON Boie 

2. Hydrochelidon leucoptera (Temm.). White - winged 

Black Tern. 

General color black, silvery and white on wings ; young and 
winter specimens with tail and under parts white. lyength 9.3, 
culmen i.i, wing 8.2, tail 3.1, tarsus .75, mid-toe and claw i. 
Hab. (Doubtful) Parts of the Australian and American coasts. 

Genus ANOUS Le.\ch. 

a'. Forehead alone is distinctly wdiitish. Anous stolidus.l^niw. 
a,-. Entire top of head whitish, the white changing graduallx' 
into a.shy on the hind neck. Anous Icucocapillus, Gould. 

3. Anous leucocapillus Gould. Black - cheeked Noddj^ 

Lores jet black, cheeks dusky, upper and under parts nearl\- 
black, tarsus and toes dark brown. Length 13, culmen 2, wing 9, 
tail 5, tarsus .9, mid-toe and claw 1.4. Hab. Inter-tropical Atlantic, 



Report of a M/ss/oii to (rua)ii. 21 

Australia, and Pacific islands. Probabh- resident on the island ot 
J^ai]x\n, Marianas. 

4. Anous stolidus (I^inn.). Fahan. Noddy. 

The Noddy, Cateshy, Nat. Hi.st. Carolina, 1737, I-' P- 81S. 

Slciiui sMida, I.iiiii., Syst. Nat., 175S, ed. XI., p. 173; Kittl. Kupfcrtaf. III., p. 27. 

.Annus iMiiiits. Gray, Gen. B., p. 100; Saunder.s, Cat. Brit. Mus. B., XX\'., p. 136; Wiglesw. Av.' 

Polv. Ber. abh.'u. Mus. Dresden, iSgo-91, p. 76; Rothschild, Av. I.,ay.san, iSg^, I., p. 41; 

Haftert. Nov. Zool., 1S9S, V., p. 6.S. 
I lions s/o/i'iiits pilt'atiis (Scop.), Hartert, Nov. Zool.. VI.. p. g. 

The natives tell me this bird is very abundant on the island of 
Saipan. In Guam it is not very conimou ; a few were seen on the 
cliffs near the entrance of the harbor of San Luis de Apra. The 
five specimens secured were shot on the northeast end of the island, 
where a small number were seen flying along the beach. These 
specimens are much darker in color than those from L,aysan and 
Oahu, H.I. The measurements were as follows: — 



Mnsriini 














Mid-lv,- 




.\o. 


IJaU: 


Length . 


Wing. 


Tail. 


V'arsns. 


Culmrn. 


and c. 


.Sex 


!)5.S!t 


.luue 14 


11.15 


()..50 


2.75 


1.06 


I.IS 


1.62 


iiu-d" 


!tS90 


.June 15 


17.00 


11.25 


6.02 


.95 


1..53 


1 ..55 


? 


9591 


June 1(5 


17.05 


10.87 


7.00 


.90 


1.59 


1.64 


d 


9592 


.Tune 23 


17.05 


11.16 


6.00 


1.00 


1 .59 


1.63 


d 


9o9X 


June 23 


17.00 


11.00 


6.45 


1.00 


1.63 


1 ..55 


9 



One specimen, No. 9589, was a young male, the color of which 
was not so dark as in the adults ; the gray coloring is restricted to 
the forehead ; there is a white superciliary band extending from 
posterior of the eye to the upper mandible. The chin has not yet 
acquired the brown feathers of the adult, but is still covered with 
a gray down. There is a dark wing bar on top of wings, //aly. 
Tropical and juxta-tropical seas. 

Genus GYGIS Wagler. 
5. Gygis alba kittlit^i Hartert. Chung. White Tern. 

Ovgis aiha kittliizi. Hart., Vogels. Mus. Senckenb., p. 237; Id. Nov. Zool., V., p. 67. 

.Sti'iiia nii'ca. F. Bennett, Whaling Voy., 1840, I., p. 37. 

Gygis Candida. Wagl., Isis, 1S32, p. 1223; Finsch, Ibis, 1880, pp. 330, 434: Tristr. Ibi.s, iSSi, p. 

251 ; Saunders, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., XXV., p. 149. 
Gygis alba. Licht., Noniencl. Av., 1854, p. 97 ; Finsch. Journ. Mus. Godef., 1S75, VIII., p. 43; 

Roth. Avif. Laysan, I., p. 35 (pi. and eggs). 

Chung, the White Tern, is an abundant bird on Guam and 
undoubtedly nests on the island, although I did not succeed in 
finding the eggs. The}' congregate in the breadfruit trees in the 
midst of the jungle, and the beauty of their pure w^hite plumage 
among the green leaves is very striking: — 



'iisi'u >n 
















Mid-toe 




.\o. 


Dale. 


Length . 


]Ving. 


Tail. 


Ta 


ISKS. 


Culmen. 


and c. 


.Sex 


9578 


June 10 


12.75 


9..-)0 


4.68 




..56 


1.60 


1.15 


d 


9.5S0 


June 16 


12..50 


9.50 


4.68 




..53 


1.54 


1.12 


d 


9.5.S1 


June 16 


12.25 


9.50 


4.. 50 




..53 


1..50 


1.12 


d 


9.583 


.June 16 


12.75 


9.50 


4..50 




.56 


1..50 


1.16 


9 


95N4 


July 11 


13.00 


9.75 


4.80 




..50 


1.60 


1.15 


,-f 


9579 


June 15 


13.0U 


9.75 


4.75 




..56 


1.63 


1,16 


"j; 



The spread of the wings is about 26, and the depth of the bill 
at the nostrils is .31-. 33. The entire plumage of the adult is ivor^- 



22 Dircnor' s Annual Rcporf. 

white with the exception of a ver}^ narrow dusky ring around the 
e5^e. The shafts of the primaries are gray ; the feet and tarsus are 
blue with white webs, which are deeply incised ; the bill is blue, 
darker at tip ; eyes brown. In the dry skins the color of the bill 
becomes much darker, and the webs fade into a pale 3'ellowish, 
but the toes retain their blue color and are never dark brown as 
given by Saunders (Brit. Mus. Cat. B., XXV., p. 150), or black 
as given by Rothschild (Avif. Laysan, I., p. 36). In this last 
citation the length of the bill is given as 0.4-0.5! — doubtless a 
printer's error. Two specimens of this tern, taken by H. C. Palmer 
on Laysan Island June, 1891, give the following measurements: 
Length (skins) 12.75, wing 9.75 and 9.60, tail 4.62 and 4.35, tar- 
sus .50 and .52, mid-toe and claw 1.15 and i.ii, culmen 1.40 and 
1.55, its depth at nostrils .30 and .31. Hah. Polynesia. 



Order TUBINARES— Tube-nosed Swimmers. 



a'. Wings large, over 19, upper mandible hooked, nostrils of 
two di.stinct tubes. Family Diomedeida . 

a^ Wings smaller, less than 19, nostrils united in one tube 
with two barrels. Family Procellariidce. 

Family DIOMBDBID^.— Albatrosses. 

Genus DIOMBDBA Linn^us. 

6. Diomedea nigripes, And. Black-footed Albatross. 

General color uniformly dusky ; tail coverts, base of tail, and 
forehead white ; bill dark brown ; feet black. Length 28-36, 
wing 18.50-20, culmen 4-4.50, tarsus 3.50-3.70, mid-toe and claw 
4.05-4.40. Hab. Pacific Ocean generally, south to the Line ; ac- 
cidental in the Marianas. "One specimen in the Paris Mu.seum." 

Family PROCBLI/ARIID^.— Petrels. 

Genus PUFFINUS Brisson. 

a'. Tarsus less than 1.65. 

b'. Sides of neck and breast slaty, bill .90-1. Puffinus 
tencbrosus. 

b". Sides of neck mottled, breast and under neck white, 
bill 1.50. Puffinus obscurus. 



Report of a I\ fission to Guam. 23 

7. Puffinus tenebrosus Pelz. Pel^eln's Shearwater. 

Upper color sooty black, sides of ueck and breast slaty with 
whitish margins to the feathers. Length 12, wing 7.20-7.80, tail 
2.95-3.25, culmen 1-1.05, tarsus i. 40-1 .45, mid-toe and claw 1.50- 
1.60. Hab. Coast of Australia. 

8. Puffinus obscurus Gm. Dusky Petrel. 

Probabl}' same as above. Length 12, wing 7.8, tail 3.2, bill 
1.5, tarsus 1.5, mid-toe and claw 1.6 (Samoan Islands). Hab. 
Tropical and sub-tropical seas. 



Order STEGANOPODHS.— Totipalmated Swimmers. 

a". Nostrils distinct, bill sharp-pointed without hook, chin 
feathered, tail short, graduated, in the adults the two middle 
feathers are greatly elongated. Famil}- Phaithontidcr. 

a,-. Nostrils not distinct, head partly naked, bill stout but not 
hooked, tail about half as long as wing. Famil}' Sulidir. 

a^. Nostrils distinct, bill hooked at tip, lores feathered, upper 
plumage black, tail forked, wing long. Family Fregatida:. 

Family PHABTHONTID^.— Tropic Birds. 
Genus PHABTHON Linn^us. 

9. Phaethon candidus Temm. Boatswain Bird. Tropic 

Bird. 

General color pure white ; a black band bordering both sides 
of the head, passes through the eye, and terminates in a crescent- 
shaped mark at gap ; a black band on the wings. Length 30, cul- 
men 1.8-2, wing 10-10.6, tail 1 7.3-21, tarsus .8-. 9. The young 
are barred with black. Hab. Inter-tropical seas, except coast of 
North America. "Resident on Agrigan, of the Marianas." 

Family SUI/ID^.— Gannets. 
Genus SITI/A Brisson. 

a". Feet greenish or yellowish ; head, breast, neck and upper 
]')arts brown. Sida sula. 

a-. Feet always reddish, head and neck white, tinged with 
buff : general color white. Sula piscator. 



24 Dircflor' s Annual Rep07-t. 

lo. Sula sula \^\m\. I^uau. Booby. Gannet. 

PelecaiiHs si4la, I^iiiii., S. N., 1766, I., p. 218. 

Sula fusca, Vieill., Gal. Ois., 1S25, II., p. 194, pi. 277; Swinh. Ibis, 1869, p. 347 (Formosa); Tris- 
tram, Ibis, 1882, p. 144, Solomon I.slands. 

Sula fiber, Cassin (aft. L.) U. S. Ex. Kxp. 1858, p. 363. 

Stila leucogastra, Sclat. & Salv. P. Z. .S., 1873"; p. 651 ; Seebohm, B. of Jap., p. 12. 

Sula Sula, Verr. & Des Murs. Rev. Mag. Zool., 1S60, p. 442 ; Ridg. Man. N. A. B.. p. 75 ; Roth. 
Avif. Laj'.san, I., p. 29: Hartert. Nov. Zool., V., p. 69; Oust. II., p. 6^ ; Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
XXVI., p. 436. 

Only one specimen of the Booby was secured, although they 
were not at all rare. This bird was taken July 23 and proved to 
be an adult male. They were usually to be seen flying about the 
cliffs near the entrance to the harbor of San L,uis de Apra. Ivength 
30, spread of wing 4 ft. 10 in., wing 16, tail 7.75, tarsus 1.62, cul- 
men 3.56, its depth at nostrils 1.36, mid-toe and claw 3.59. The 
general upper coloring, including head, neck, and fore breast is a 
fine uniform seal brown ; hind breast, belly, under tail coverts, 
sides, flanks, thighs, axillaries, and under wing coverts of the sec- 
ondaries, pure white ; shafts of the primaries black on the upper 
surface, gray below ; bill flesh color, with grayish tint, bluish at 
tip; feet and tarsus a livid light-green; iris a silvery grayish. 
This specimen is much darker than the summer specimens from 
Laysan Island. The posterior half of the primaries are especially 
dark brown as compared with the Laysan birds, as is also the 
head, neck and breast. Hab. Tropical and sub-tropical seas 
throughout the world, except the Pacific coa.st of America. 

II. Sula piscator Linn. Red-footed Booby. 

The general plumage of this species is white ; feet always red ; 
gular sac blackish ; bare skin in front of eye red ; tail white. 
Total length 27-30, wing 15-16, culmen 3.50. Hab. Inter-tropical 
seas, north to Florida and Lower California. 

Family FRBGATID^.— Man-of-war Birds. 
Genus FREGATA Cuvier. 

a'. Wing more than 21.5, culmen not less than 4.15. Frcgata 
aqnila, eill. 

a^. Wing less than 21, culmen le.ss than 4.15. Frcgata arid,, 
Gould. 

13. Fregata aquila (Vieill.). Frigate Bird. 

Man-of-war Bird, Edwards, Glean., i860, II., p. 209. 
Pelrcanus aqiiilns, Linn., S. N., 1766, I., p. 216. 

Tachypctes aquila, Vieill., N. Diet d'Hist. Nat , 1S17, XII., p. 146. 

J-ye^ala aquila, d'Orb., Sagras Hist Cuba, 1839, p. 309; Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, 1893, I., p. 21; 
Cat. Brit. Mus. B., XXVI., p. 443. 

An adult male specimen of this bird was shot by a native 
November, 1899, and brought in to Lieutenant-Governor Safford, 
by whom it was identified. The skin was not saved, but the skele- 
ton was presented to the Bi.shop Museum by Lieutenant Safford 



Report of a Mission to CiKaiii. 25 

(No. 9608). This is the first record of this species from Guam. 
Hab. Tropical and sub-tropical seas. 

13. Fregata ariel Gould. Australian Tropic Bird. 

General color greenish black, a white patch on each flank. 
Wing 19. 2-21, tail 15-17. culmen 2.8-3.3. The female is a little 
larger, with breast and sides white, and a w^hite collar at the rear 
of the neck. The young have the head and neck white ; a general 
coloring of brown ; the middle of the abdomen and the flanks 
white. Hab. Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean. 



Order ANSERES.— Lamellirostral Swimmers. 



a'. Hind toe without membranous lobe or flap. Svib-family 
Anatino' . 

a". Hind toe with a broad membranous flap or lobe. Sub- 
family Fiiligulincr . 

Sub-family ANATIN^. — Fresh Water Ducks. 

Genus ANAS L,inn^us. 
14. Anas oustaleti Salvad. Ngang. I/adrone Duck. 

Anas mistaleti, Salvad., Bui. Brit. Orn. Club, XX., p. i ; Id., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., XXVII., p. 189; 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., V., p. 66; Oust., II., p. 49. 

This duck nests among the reedy swamps and streams of the 
island, and is not uncommon all the year round. The specimens 
secured were taken during the month of June. The general color 
of the upper surface is dark browai, the feathers margined with 
buff ; top of head dark brown wnth a slight greenish tint ; in some 
specimens the crowm is slight!}' sprinkled with a few small buffy 
feathers ; a pale hvAy stripe extending from base of upper man- 
dible over the eye to back of head ; below this there is a dark 
stripe extending from the base of the upper mandible through the 
eye to the back of the head ; sides of the head, and neck, buffy 
with streakings of brown ; the throat buff, not streaked ; under 
parts not .so dark as the upper, the buffy tips of the feathers being 
longer and wider, but not so bright ; wings a soft dark brown, the 
secondaries more or less edged with buff ; .speculum blui.sh-purple, 
green in some lights ; it is bordered by black, follow^ed front and 
back by an indistinct white or buffy line, as in A. wyvilliana of 
Hawaii ; the white markings, however, are not so prominent as in 
the latter ; bill dusky above, with small black splotches ; the lower 
mandible lighter (No. 9534 has bill entirely black); feet and tarsus 
flesh color with a tint of pink ; eye light hazel. Length 19.50-20, 



26 Dij^effor's Annual Report. 

spread of wiugs 32, wing 10-10.50, tail 2.25-2.50, tarsus i. 63-1. 85, 
culmeii 1. 75-1. 80, its depth at nostrils .68, mid-toe and claw 2.45- 
2.50. Hab. Guam and Saipan, also probably others of the Mari- 
anas. Two of the downy young were secured, the general upper 
coloring of which is brown ; there is a buffy spot on each side of 
the rump ; the throat, neck and general under coloring is buffy ; 
a wide and distinct superciliary line of buff ; a black line from the 
upper mandible through the eye ; there is a splotch of brown at the 
nape and another on the sides of the head below the ear ; upper 
mandible black, lower yellowish ; feet brownish. 

Sub-family FUI/IGUI/IN^.— Sea Ducks. 

Ge;nus FUI/IGUI/A Stephens. 

15. Fuligula fuligula Linn. Tufted Duck. 

General color black, abdomen white ; tail feathers normal, not 
particularly stiff ; head with crest; speculum white. Wing 8, tail 
2.5, culmen 1.75, tarsus 1.12. General color of young and females 
brown. Hab. Palaearcftic regions from the Atlantic to the Pacific ; 
winters in China, Japan and India ; accidental in Polynesia. 



Order HERODIONES.-Herons, Storks, Bitterns, Etc. 



a'. Bill sharp-pointed and nearly straight, inner side of middle 
toe-nail pecftinate, loral space bare, powder-down tracts present. 
Family Ardcida-, Herons. 

b'. Tail feathers 10, bill with serrations, slightly notched. 
C". Length about 21, yellowi.sh band down sides of 
neck, culmen longer than tarsus. Genus Dupctor. 

C-. Length about 14. tibio-tarsus feathered to heel. 
Genus Ardctta. 

b". Tail feathers 12 or more, bill without serrations, and 
usually with a distinct notch, culmen longer than tarsus, length 
about 22. Genus Demiegrctta . 

Genus DUPBTOR Heine & Reichenbach. 
16. Dupetor flavicollis Lath. Yellow-necked Bittern. 

Aidra flaTHollis, I.ath., Ind. Orn., 1790, II., p. 701. 

Ardi-a pini/ci. Kaffl., Trans. Linn. Soc, XIII., p. 326. 

Ardca biliiirala, Ciiv., Mus. Paris. 

Aidciralla Jiavicollis, Salva., Ucc. Born., 1S74, p. 353; Oates, Journ. Straits Branch As. Soc. B. 

iggo. III., p. 231. 
Dupetor JiavicoUis, Hein. &Reicheii., Nomencl. Mus. Hein., :8go (Sumatra), p. 30S ; Sharp, B. 

B. O., Club, XXXI., p. 31 ; Id., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., XXVI., p. 247. 

Only one specimen of this large bittern was seen. This was 
shot near the Agafia river June ii, 1900, and proved to l^e a full 



Report of a Mission to Guam. 27 

grown female (Bishop Museum No. 8986). Length 22.25, •'^prcad 
of wings 28, wing 8.15, tail 2.92, tarsus 2.43, culmen 3.00, its depth 
at nostrils .57, mid-toe and claw 2.86. General color of the upper 
surface olive brown with a slight rufous tint, the under coloring 
of feathers slate ; wings and tail slate ; sides of face and cheeks 
black, mottled with rufous ; sides of neck with bands of bright 
golden straw color ; chin and under throat yellowish, with a line 
of dusky brown feathers extending down the center and broaden- 
ing out to form the prettily variegated coloring of the under neck 
and fore breast, which have a general coloring of rufous brown 
with feathers edged with whitish black and buffy, giving the fore 
breast a streaked appearance ; feathers of bell}" with under color- 
ing of slate, but the outer half is brownish broadly edged with 
yellowish, which gives to the under surface a dirt}" yellowish and 
brownish appearance ; sides and rump slaty ; thighs and tibio- 
tarsus rufous : bill dusky above, lighter below ; feet a dirty brown- 
ish ; eyes yellowish. Hab. Philippine Islands, China, Burmah, 
Java, Borneo, Celebes, Sumatra, Malay peninsula, India and 
Ceylon. This is the first record of this species from Guam. 

Genus ARDBTTA Gray. 

17. Ardetta bryani,* spec. nov. Kakak. Bittern. 

This little bittern is found in abundance along the streams and 
in the reed}- marshes ; taro patches and rice paddies are also its 
favorite feeding grounds. The native name of Kakak is a very 
good imitation of the cr}- it makes as it fiys up when disturbed. 
The coloring of this bird blends so well with its surroundings that 
it takes very careful observation to see them, of which fact the birds 
seem well aware and I'emain perfectly still until they are almost 
stepped upon, when they fly up, calling out a loud "kaka-kakak". 
Their food is chiefly insects and their larvae. Some of the speci- 
mens examined had their stomachs filled wdth black crickets. 
Eight specimens were secured, two adult males, two adult females, 
and four immature: — 

Museum Mid-toe 

.Xo. Dali'. Length. Win,!;. Tail. Tarsus. Culmen. and c. Sex. 

9600 .June ."> l:!..")0 5.25 l.GS 1.86 2.00 2.12 9 

9601 ,]inie 7 U.l'."> 5.46 1.56 1.86 2.00 1.92 juv.cf 

9602 .June 12 14.75 5.00 1.65 1.86 2.00 2.60 jliv.cf 

9603 .rune 12 14.00 5..50 2.00 1.92 2.00 2.17 cf 

9604 .June 11 14.00 5..50 2.00 1.92 2.00 2.17 juv. ? 

9605 .Tune 11 14.00 5.12 1.80 1.88 2.00 2.25 cf 

9606 .June 1:{ 14..50 .5.25 1.75 1.75 2.12 1.96 juv. ? 

9607 .Jul.v :! 14.25 5.60 1.60 1.89 2.10 2.17 $ 

The spread of the wings from tip to tip is about 1 9 ; the depth 
of the bill at nostril is .40. No. 9603 is type of species. The adult 

*This is probably the Petit Heron. Quov & Gaim., Voy. Uranie, 1824, p. 35 (Guam). Also 
the bird called Ardetta sinensis. Oust., Le."Nat., 1889. p. 261 (lies Mariannes); Hartert, Nov. 
Z06I., v., p. 63 ; Sharp. Cat. B. Brit. Mus., XXVI., p. 227. 



28 DireHor's Anjiiial Report. 

males have the mantle, scapulars, lesser wing coverts and tertials 
a uniform reddish brown ; anterior of mantle slightly darker, with 
a few feathers having dusky centers and rufous margins ; forehead 
dusky with a slight mingling of rufous ; crown and occiput black, 
the feathers forming a crest abovit three-quarters of an inch long ; 
sides of head and neck rufous, the long frill-like feathers on the 
sides of the lower neck with a slight vinous tint ; greater and 
middle wing coverts a light buff ; primaries and secondaries slaty 
black, their under surface grayish, lighter at tips, the outer web 
of outer primary margined with buff ; axillaries and under wing 
coverts pure white ; bastard primary black with huiiy outer web ; 
primary coverts black ; edge of wing white ; tail feathers black, 
the upper coverts grayish with a slight rufous tint, under tail 
coverts buffy white ; throat, under part of neck, and pendant 
feathers on under part of lower neck white with slight inter- 
mingling of buff ; a buffy streak extending mesially down the chin 
and throat ; sides of fore-breast with long dusky feathers having 
reddish buff margins ; sides and belly white with a ver^- slight tint 
of buff ; thighs a buffy white ; eyes golden yellow ; feet and tarsus 
a yellowish green ; bill dusky above, light below. 

The adult female has more red mixed with the black of the 
crown and occiput, the lower feathers of the crest being entirely 
rufous with vinous tint ; the feathers of the back with lighter 
margins ; general upper surface a dark cinnamon color ; the wing 
coverts are slightly darker than in the adult male, the median 
streak on the chin is more pronounced, and there seems to be more 
buffy coloring on the throat and under side of neck, the thighs 
show more buffy. Otherwise the sexes are identical. 

The immature birds are chara(5terized by the streaked appear- 
ance of the crown, caused by the black feathers being margined 
with red. The feathers of the mantle and rump are also a darker 
reddish brown than in the adult bird ; the feathers of the wing- 
coverts are brownish margined with buff, the inner webs being- 
more or less gray, the outer web of the tertials showing a coloring 
of vinous red ; the sides are a darker buff than in the adult and 
the feathers of the under surface are colored in the centre with 
reddish brown which gives the under neck, breast and bell}" a 
more streaked appearance ; ej-e yellow ; bill dusk}' above, and 
light below. 

This species is closely allied to Ardctta sinensis (Gmel.), but 
is easily distinguished by the uniform reddish brown coloring 
of the upper surface, the yellowish green of the tarsus, the 
rufous tint of the upper tail coverts, and the smaller size, the 
shorter tarsus, and slightly longer culmen, as shown in the table 
given above. Hab. Marianas. Named in honor of my esteemed 
co-worker in the ornithology of Polynesia, W. A. Bryan, of the 
Bishop Museum. 



Report of a Mission to Gnaw. 29 

Genus DEMIEGRETTA Blvtii. 
18. Demiegretta sacra (Gm.). Chuchuku. Reef Heron. 

Aidtit sacia. Gm.. S\st. Xat., I., p. 640: Finsch., Jour. Mus. Godef , VIII., p. 3^ ; Scl., Chal- 

lenf^er Exp., II., B., p. 31 ; Tri.str., Ibis, 1882, p. 144 (Solomon Ids.). 
Ardca jiigulaiis. Korst., Icon. ined. tab. 114; Hartl., J. f. O., 1853, p. 167 (Mariaiiiuv Id.s.); 

Sharp, P. Z. S.. 1SS7, p. 516 (Chri.stma.s Id.). 
Hr-iodiiii .i.Taiv, Gray, List. Grail. Brit. Mus., p. 80 (Aust.). 
J)<'>/ii(X>f//a ffitivi. Gould. Hand. B. B. Aust., II., p. 309. 
/)i>ni,xii'//a sacra. Wald., Ibis. 1S73, p. 318; Grant, P. Z. S., 188S, p. 333; Sharp, Ibis, 1S94, p. 

245; Hart., Nov. Zool., V., p. 64; Cat. B. Brit. Mus.. XXVI., p. 137. 

The Reef Herons are not verj- abundant on the island, and 
they are extremely wild and difficult to approach. Three speci- 
mens were secured, one adult male and two adult females: — 

AfHseiim Mid-toe 

No. Dati\ /.t'lii;///. Wing. Tail. Tarsus. Ciilnirii. and c. Sc.v. 

9585 .Iniit- 10 2.").0(l n..oO 4.00 H.25 3.37 2.90 ^ 

9587 .June 11 • 24.0(1 11.00 3.35 3.50 3.12 2.60 ? 

9588 Jul.v 14 24.00 11.00 3.68 3.0(t 3.30 2.86 ^ 

The spread of the wings is about 37.50, and the depth of the 
bill at the nostrils is .56. Sexes colored similarly. The general 
color of the adult is blackish slate ; feathers of the crest and short 
back plumes tinged with gray in the fully adults ; a white streak 
down the centre of throat, this streak in some specimens beginning 
between the gonys and extending three inches or more down the 
neck ; in others the white streak begins on a line with the anterior 
of e3'e and is only about one inch in length. Specimens almost 
adult have scattered feathers of a dirty buffy white among the slaty 
plumage of the mantle, neck, and wing coverts ; bill dark above 
and at the tip, under mandible dusky yellowish ; feet and tarsus 
dusk}' 3-ellowish green with dark splotches on the front of the tar- 
sus ; eye golden yellow. I/ad. Australia, Pacific islands, Burmah, 
Malay peninsula, Korea, Bay of Bengal, Japan and China. 



Order P.ALUDICOL.€.-Rails, Coots, Etc. 



Hind toe above the level of the others, toes long and slender, 
wings less than 10. Famil)' Rallidcr, Rails. 
a'. Without frontal .shield. 

b'. Length about 11, barred with black and white on the 
under surface, wing more than 3.9. Genus Hypotccnidia . 

b-. Length about 7, under surface gray, not barred, wing 
3.39 or less. Genus Poliolimnws. 
a". With a frontal shield. 

b'. Middle toe longer than the tarsus, no webs or lobes on 
the toes, wing 6.92 or less. Genus Gallinula . 

b". Toes with lobes on the sides, wing 7.70- S. 30. 
Genus Fnlica . 



30 Direclor' s A)i)iual Report. 

Genus HYPOT^NID^ RkichExNbach. 

19. Hypotsenidia oustini Oustalet. Koko. Oustalet's 

Rail. 

Hvpii/tDiidia marchri, K. Ovistalet, Arch. Mus. Paris (3), 1896, VIII., pp. 32-34. 

General color above olivaceous brown ; no white spots on 
mantle or back. In No. 9540 the ends of the feathers on the back 
of the neck are so worn that they give the appearance of yellowish 
markings to this region ; rump brown ; greater wing coverts uniform 
with the coloring of the mantle ; lesser and median wing coverts 
barred with black and white ; primaries, secondaries and tail 
feathers barred with black and white. This marking on the tail 
feathers, however, varies considerably. In No. 9536 the tail 
feathers are almost uniform ochraceous brown with but a few white 
dots on the webs ; top and sides of head uniform with coloring of 
the mantle ; bvit in No. 9531, however, the}- are a shade darker 
than the mantle. A sharply defined superciliary stripe of ashy 
gray extending from near the base of bill to the sides of nape, the 
anterior part of this stripe narrow and white. With the exception 
of this stripe the coloring of the sides of head and neck are uniform 
with mantle. Beginning sharply on a line with the gape and ex- 
tending to the shoulders is the plumbous gray of the under neck 
and breast, merging into white on the chin. Two of the specimens, 
Nos. 9537 and 9540, show a slight trace of rufous in this plumbous 
gra}'- of the fore breast. Beginning at the fore breast and extend- 
ing over the entire under surface of the bod3^ including flanks and 
under tail coverts, the bird is barred with black and white, these 
bars especially large and distinct on the flanks, while on the belly 
they are narrow and not so marked ; bill dusky ; feet grayish with 
brownish cast ; iris an Indian red. I find no diflerence in the color- 
ing of the se;xes. No. 9538, a fledgling three inches in length, is 
covered with a uniform sooty black down ; bill and feet dusk}' ; 
eyes dark brown. This bird is closely allied, if not identical with 
R. philippinas. It seems, however, to be a little larger, and with- 
out the rufous coloring on the flanks. Hab. Marianas. 



'11. scum 














.\rid-toc 




.\o. 


Date. 


Length. 


Wiiijy. 


Tail. 


Taisus. 


Cidnwii . 


and r. 


.Se.r 


o.^ye 


.Tune 24 


11.. -)0 


4.4.S 


L'.Ofi 


2.N4 


\.-xi 


1.S4 


? 


9537 


.Iiine L'8 


1:100 


.5. IS 


2.19 


2.Sii 


l.(i2 


2.12 


d 


953U 


.Inl.v 9 


11.00 




1.6S 


1.95 


1 .50 


l..-)5 


¥ 


9540 


.July 15 


11.50 


4..50 


2.00 


2.00 


1..50 


2.10 


? 



Genus POI^IOLIMMAS Sharp. 
20. Poliolitnmas cinereus Veill. Gray Rail. 

Pi/rphyrio cinereus, Veill., Nouv. Diet., 1819, XXVIII., p. 29. 
Poliulimmas cinetea, Sharp, Bui. Brit. Orn. Club, 1S93, V., p. 2S. 

The natives call this bird the Koko, the same name they give 
to the big Oustins Rail, and they regard it as the young of the 



Report of a Mission to (i it a in. 31 

latter, which is not at all the case, as the specimen I secured of 
P. cine fills was a fully adult female, with eggs almost ready for 
laying. These birds are ([uite rare, and the only specimen I secured 
was a female which had been snared by some native boys in a sweet 
potatti patch near the Agaila river. General color above olive 
brown ; on top of head the middle of feathers black, with the edges 
olive brown ; a slight intermingling of ash gray showing on the 
sides of the crown ; back of neck olivaceous green ; feathers of 
back with broad black centres and edges of light buffy brown ; 
lores and a small spot at base of gonys black ; cheeks, sides of neck, 
and under neck ash gray merging into white on the chin ; a narrow 
white superciliary stripe which broadens to the base of the U])per 
mandible ; a white stripe on the upper edge of cheek extending 
from chin to ear coverts ; cheeks, ear coverts, sides of throat, fore 
neck, breast, and sides of body ash gray; flanks a buffy brown ; 
belly white ; under tail coverts buff ; upper tail coverts dusky ; 
under wing coverts and under side of quills ash ; axillaries dusky ; 
bastard wing, primary coverts, and quills a light brown ; ash 
below ; first primary wnth outer web whitish ; feet yellowish with 
tint of greenish ; eye carmine ; bill dusky above, lighter below, 
wnth a tint of greenish yellow on the tip of both mandibles. L,ength 
6.50, wing 3.60, extent of wing 11, tarsus 1.30, culmen .75, its 
depth at nostrils .25, mid-toe and claw 1.83. Hab. Guam. 

Genus GALI/INULA Brisson. 
21. Gallinula chloropus Lath. Pulatel. Gallinule. 

The Water Hen or Moor Hen, Albiii, Xat. Hist. B., 1738, II., p. 66, pi. 72. 
Fiilica r///nropiis. Linn., Sy.st. Nar., 1766, I., p. 258. 

GallhiuUi clilonipm. Lath'., Ind. Orn., II., p. 773; Steere, Li.st of :\Ianini. and B. I'hilip., i ^9*^, 
p. 258; Hartert, Nov. Zool., V., p. 62. 

This bird is abundant in the marshy grounds and taro patches 
all over the island ; it is highly prized by the natives for food. 
General color a bluish slate, with mantle, rump, wdng coverts and 
upper tail coverts a beautiful olive brown ; scapulars like the 
mantle ; primar}' and secondary quills blackish brown ; outer pri- 
mary and ba,stard wing feathers externally edged with white ; tail 
feathers blackish ; crown and face blackish with a slight blueish 
tint, which fades into a lighter slaty blue on the neck and fore 
brea.st, and extends over the entire under surface of the body; pos- 
terior part of belly with a still lighter grayish tint, while in some 
specimens this part is almost pure white (immaturity). A few 
white feathers on the sides and flanks ; under tail coverts white, 
with the feathers of the vent and the long median tail coverts black ; 
frontal shield and two-thirds of the bill a deep lake red, anterior 
third a bright greenish yellow ; tarsus lemon ^-ellow ; garter of rich 
lake red followed by a band of lemon yellow just above the knee ; 
joint of the tarsus greenish ; toes du-sk}- with a slight tint of yel- 
lowish ; iris reddish. No. 9595, an immature male, has the feathers 



32 DireRor's Annual Report. 

of the back of a decided brownish cast ; wings and tail dusky ; top 
of head and back of neck brown, more or less mixed with gray on 
sides of head, face, and neck ; chin, throat, lower third of cheeks, 
and the bell}' white ; the remaining under parts a mingling of white 
and pale slaty blue ; shield much restricfted and dusky in color ; 
iipper mandible dusk}^ ; lower mandible, and tip of upper, with a 
slight shade of 3'ellowish ; legs and feet without the red coloring, 
but the front scales colored a bright lemon yellow. Quite a lot of 
grass and remains of inserts and larvae were found in the stomachs 
of these specimens. Hab. Europe, Africa, Asia, and man}- Pacific 
islands. Guam. 



Musemn 














Mid-toe 




No. 


Dale. 


Length. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tarsus. 


Ciilmen. 


and c. 


.S'^.i- 


959.5 


.June 7 


11.31 


5.55 


2.12 


1.K6 


1.18 


2.75 


juv.cT 


9594 


.Tune 5 


12.25 


(i.31 


2.50 


2.00 


1.62 


2.50 


9 


9596 


June 9 


11.75 


(>..")0 


2.77 


l.SO 


l..-)0 


2.6.S 


? 


9597 


June 11 


12 50 


(;.37 


2.26 


2.00 


1.6S 


2.75 


9 


959S 


June 13 


12.50 


6.92 


3.00 


1 ..S6 


1.6K 


:!.00 


? 


9599 


June 13 


12.50 


6.92 


3.00 


].S6 


1.6S 


3.00 


d 



The spread of the wings from tip to tip is about 18.50, and the 
depth of the bill at the base is about .37. 

Genus FUIylCA Lixx.-eus. 

22. Fulica atra Linn. Buropean Coot. 

General color slaty, bill and frontal shield whitish, edge of 
wing and edge of first quill whitish. Length 16, wing 7.70-8.80, 
culmen 1.70-2, tarsus 2.25-2.35, mid-toe and claw 2.85-3.15. //ad. 
Europe and Asia, ranging south to the Philippines and Pacific 
islands ; accidental on Guam. 



Order LIMICOL.€.- Shore Birds. 



a'. Tarsus transversely scutellate, culmen longer than middle 
toe without claw. Family Scolopacidcc, Snipes, Sandpipers. 

a-. Tarsus with small hexagonal or irregular scales in front, 
bill shorter than tarsus, nasal openings reaching beyond the basal 
fourth of the bill. Family C]iaradriida\ Plovers. 

a^. Tarsus slightly longer than culmen, lower back and rump 
white with a black band. Family ApJinzidcr, Surf Birds and Turn- 
stones. 

F.\MiLv SCOLOPACID^.— Snipes 

a'. No hind toe. Genus Ca/idris. 
a-. Hind toe present. 

b'. Culmen thickened at tip, thighs naked, tarsus not so 
long as mid-toe and claw. Genus (la/iinago. 



Report of a Missio)i to Ciitaiii. 33 

b'. Culmeu longer than mid -toe and claw, tip of bill not 
decurved, under primary coverts white, toes cleft to the base. 
Genus Trhiga. 

b\ Culmen longer than tarsus, lower parts white, chest 
streaked or spotted with dusky, tail barred with grayish or dusky. 
Genus Tot an us. 

b^. Wing 6.5 or more. 

C'. Wing about 8, bill decidedly arched or decurved. 
Genus Xiimcnius. 

C". Wing about 6, tarsus equal to the hind toe and 
claw, axillars grayish, no web between inner and middle toes at base, 
bill grooved for at least half its length. Genus Hetcraditis. 

Q=. Wing 7 or more, terminal part of bill smooth and 
hard, culmen 3 or more, no white on wings. Genus Limosa. 

Genus GAI,I,INAG0 Leach. 

23. Gallinago megala Swinh. Snipe. 

General color above blackish striped with sand)^ isabelline, 
breast and abdomen white, a red subterminal band on the tail, tail 
feathers 20. Length 9.5, culmen 2.3, wing 5.4, tail 2.15, tarsus 
1.35. Hab. Eastern Siberia, wintering in the Philippines, Borneo 
and the Moluccas ; in the Marianas during migrations. 

Genus TRINGA Linn^us. 

24. Tringa acuminata (Horsf.). Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. 

Legs and feet pale, wings from the carpal joint more than 4.76, 
the shafts of the quills for a portion of their length are white ; top 
of head is rust}', with streakings and fleckings of dusk)' ; fore neck 
and chest buff broadly streaked and splotched with dusky ; rest of 
the lower parts white. Length 7.50-8. wing 4.90-5.50, culmen 
.95-1.05, tarsus 1.10-1.25. Hab. West coa.st of America, islands 
of the Pacific from Australia to Alaska ; Guam during migrations. 

Genus CAIylDRIS Cuvier. 

25. Calidris arenaria Linn. Sanderling. 

General under color white, above light rusty (to ash gray in 
winter), greater wing coverts broadly tipped with white. Length 
7-8.50, wing 4.70-5, culmen .95-1, tarsus .95-1.05, mid-toe and 
claw .55-. 60. Hab. Circumpolar ; breeds on all coasts of the Ar(ftic 
ocean, south in winter to Malay archipelago, and Pacific islands ; 
Guam during migrations. 

(). p. B. p. B. M.— Vol. I., No. .-v 



34 Dircclor's Animal Report. 

Genus I^IMOSA Brissox. 

26. I/imosa lapponica baueri (Xaum). Pacific Godwit. 

General color of the hind neck and the lower parts plain cin- 
namon, back and scapulars varied with blackish, whitish and 
rusty ; in winter head, neck and lower parts whitish ; the head and 
neck streaked, the breast and sides slightly barred with grayish 
browMi. Length 14.60-16, wing 8.25-9.15, culmen 3.15-4.70, tarsus 
2-2.45, mid-toe and claw i.io-i. 33 Hab. Coa.sts of western A.sia 
and Alaska, south in winter to Australia ; Guam during migrations. 

Genus TOTANUS Bechstein. 

a'. Wing under 6, central ui)per tail coverts white. Totauus 
glarcola . 

a". Wing under 6, no white on rump or upper tail coverts. 
Tot anus liypolcucus. 

27. Totanus hypoleucus Linn. Common Sandpiper. 

General color a bronzy brown, the feathers with arrow-shaped 
markings of black : under parts white, with dusky streaks on the 
throat. Length 8, culmen i.i, wing 4.1, tail 2, tarsus .89-. 96. 
Female smaller and not quite so well marked. Hab. Europe and 
Asia ; Guam during migrations. 

28. Totanus glareola Temm. Wood Sandpiper. 

General color above bronze brown, with light ash bronze mar- 
gins to the feathers ; belly white. Length 8.5, culmen 1.15, wing 
4.6, tail 1.85, tarsus i. Hab. Europe, Africa, China, Burmah, 
Malay archipelago ; Guam in migrations. 

Genus NUMBNIUS Brisson. 

a'. Length about 15, bill less than 4, lower back and rump 
mottled with bars and spots of brown. Nunioiiiis pluropus varic- 
Qat?(s. 

a.-. Length about 22, l)ill more than 4, tarsus more than 3. 
Xninrnins cranopns. 

29. Numenius phaeopus variegatus vScop. Oriental 

WhimbreL 

Adult bird has a pure white lower back, but the immature 
birds are streaked with dusky ; the crown is a plain brown with a 
pale mesial streak ; lower back much paler than the mantle. 
Length 15, culmen 3, wing 8, tarsus 2.15. Hab. Asia. In migra- 
tions it is common in China, Japan, Burmah, Ceylon and Pacific 
islands ; Guam during migrations. 



Ncf^orf of a Mission to (iuaiii. 35 

30. Nuttienius cyanopus \ieill. Australian Curlew. 

General color brown, much streaked and blotched; coloring of 
the rump uniform with the back. Length 21-24, bill 6.8-7.2, wing 
II. 9-12. 5, tail 4-4.6, tarsus 3.2-3.5. Hab. Breeds in Siberia; 
winters in Australia, Borneo, Tasmania, and Malay peninsula. 

Gknus HETBRACTITIS vStkjxegkk. 

31. Heteractitis brevipes \'ieill. Asiatic Wandering 

Tattler. 

Hetciactitis birviprs, Vieill., N. Diet. d'Hist. Xat., iSi6, VI.. p. 410. 

Tofauiii polyiii'sia'. Peale, Zool. U. S. Kxp. F.xped., 1S3S, B. p. 237. 

To/iD/iis iiuaiiiis />ir7'i/>rs, Seeb. Geog. Uist. of Charad., p. 361. 

Tolaiiiis iiirai/iis. Wilson, Aves Hawaiienses, p. i.si : Hartert, Nov. Zool.. V., p. 65; Oust.. II., 

p. 41. 
IMeiactitis bicviprs. Grant, Cat. B. 15rit. Mus,, XXIV., p. 449. 

Specimens of the Wandering Tattler were shot during the 
months of June and July. They were ver}- scarce and wild, and 
consequently hard to take. Their notes and habits seemed identi- 
cal with the American form. The upper coloring of the male is a 
uniform ashy gray ; the rump and tail coverts a shade lighter gray, 
the latter with indications of cross markings near the tips ; pri- 
mary quills dusk}', secondaries gray ; tail feathers uniform gray;, 
crown brown, with whitish superciliary stripe which extends to; 
and around the ba.se of the upper mandible ; lores dusky ; cheeks 
grayish ; throat white. In specimen No. 9524 the sides, under 
neck and breast are grayish, without cross markings of any kind ; 
the belty, under tail coverts, and flanks are pure white ; sides 
grayish. In No. 9525 the under neck, breast, sides, flanks and 
lower belly is profusely spotted and barred with dusky gray. 
Length 10-10.50, wing 6-6.20, tail 2.73-2.75, tarsus 1.16-1.17, 
culmen i. 43-1. 45, mid-toe and claw 1.16. Hab. From eastern^ 
vSiberia and Kamchatka, through Japan and China to Malayan, 
archipelago, Papuan Islands, Marianas and Australia. 

Family CHARADRIID^.— Plovers. 

a'. Wings less than 8, plumage without metallic tint, head 
without crest. Genus Charadrius. 

b'. Axillars black. Charadrius sqiiataro/a . 

b". Axillars smoky gray, or ash gra 3'. Charadrius fiilvus. 

b\ Axillars white, length 7. Charadrius iinniooliciis. 

Ghxus charadrius Linn 

32. Charadrius squatarola (Linn. ). Black-bellied Plover. 

General color black, upper parts irregularly spotted witli dusky 
and whitish, except on the forehead and a line which is pure white 
to the sides of the breast ; in winter the lower parts are white. 



36 Direclor s Annual Report. 

Length 10.50-12, bill i.io, wing 7.50, tarsus 1.95, mid -toe and 
claw 1. 1 5. Hab. Northern parts of the northern hemisphere, south 
in winter to the Pacific islands. 

33. Charadrius fulvus Gm. Dululi. Asiatic Golden Plover. 

Charadiins fiil-cin. Gnielin, Svst. Nat., 17SS, I., p. 6S7 ; Seebohm, Geog. Dist. of Charad., p. 99 ; 

Roth.schild, Avifauna Lav'san, I., p. 11 ; Hartert, Nov. Zool., V., 66; Ou.st. II., p. 46. 
Ckamdr/its dowhu'riis/iih'Hs, RafH., Trans. Linn. Soc, XIII., p. 328 ; Ridge. Pro. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 18S0, p. 19S. 
Charadrius domirihus. Sharp, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., XXIV., p. 191. 

The Asiatic Golden Plover was common, both in the inland 
vallej-s and along the sea shore, all during the summer months. 
Man}^ of the specimens were fine adults, with organs in erotic state ; 
the greater number, however, were immature birds. I was in- 
formed b}' a resident sportsman that these birds arrived in great 
flocks during the fall and spring months. A fine series w^as secured. 
Seven specimens with plumage graduating from adult to immature, 
but apparentlv full grown birds, give the following measurements : 



Museum 














Mid-toe 




.\o. 


Dale. 


Length . 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tarsus. 


Cuiiiien. 


and c. 


.S>.i- 


9517 


.June 9 


9..")0 


6.25 


2.42 


1.75 


.91) 


1.26 


d" 


951.S 


.Tul.v 2 


9.50 


6.60 


2.35 


1.60 


1.00 


1.25 


cf 


95111 


July 2 


9..J0 


6.31 


2..S7 


1.57 


.9S 


1.21 


d" 


9520 


July 2 


9.p() 


6.11 


2.31 


1.59 


.95 


1.27 


cf 


9521 


July 2 


9.40 


6.85 


2.31 


1.70 


.95 


1.27 


d 


9522 


July 2 


9.50 


6.27 


2.35 


1.63 


.95 


1.25 


d 


952S 


July 15 


10.25 


6.:« 


2.56 


1.75 


.92 


1.26 


<S 



General color above (adult males) mottled with black, golden 
buff and whitish ; primaries and secondaries dusky, the shafts of 
the primaries brown followed b}^ white near the end and tipped 
with dusk}' ; a frontal band and a distinct eyebrow of w^hite, this 
white line extending down the sides of the neck to the white on the 
sides of the body ; general under color black, with a few feathers 
showing buffy or white ; axillaries smok}- brown ; bill and feet 
dark; tarsus a dusky gray ; eye dark brown. Hab. (Seebohm) 
"Breeds on the tundras of eastern Siberia, from the valley of the 
Yenisei to the Pacific. It passes through Japan, South Siberia, 
and Mongolia on migrations, and winters in India, Burmah, China, 
islands of the Mala}- archipelago, Au.stralia, and the islands of the 
Pacific, east to New Zealand, west to Heligoland." 

34. Charadrius mongolicus Pall. Mongolian Sand 

Dotterel. 

Charadrius mongolicus, Palla.s, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 1826, II., p. 136; Seebohm, Geog. Dist. of 

charad., p. 147 ; Hartert, Nov. Zool., V,, p, 66; Ou.st., II., p. 48. 
..-Egiatitis mongolicus (Pall.). Swinhoe, Ibis, 1S70, p. 360. 
Ochthodromns mongolus, Sharp, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., XXIV., p. 223 ; Hall, Key to B. Aust., 1S99, 

p. 82. 

This bird w^as ver}^ scarce on Guam during the months of my 
stay (Ma)' and August). Only one specimen was seen, which 
proved to be an adult female. No. 9526. The general color above 



Report of a I\ fission to Ciiiam . 37 

is a worn light brown with a slight trace of olive green ; there is 
but a slight trace of the rufous color on the fore breast ; under 
parts white ; lores dusky ; tarsus dark grayish ; bill dark ; eye 
dark hazel. Length 7, spread of wings 15, wing 5.06, tail 2.C0, 
tarsus 1.25, mid-toe and claw .95, culnien .63, the terminal vault .33. 
Hab. (Seeb.) "The Mongolian vSand Plover breeds in Asia from 
eastern Turkestan to the valley of the Anioor, and winters on the 
coasts from the mouth of the Red Sea to the islands of the Malay 
archipelago and Australia. Guam. 

Family APHRI^ID^.— Surf Birds and Turn- 
stones. 

Genus ARENARIA Brisson. 

35. Arenaria interpres (Linn.). Black Turnstone. 

General color dusky, upper parts varied with rufous or white, 
throat white, head chiefly white, chest black. Length 9-9.90, 
wing 6, culmen .80-. 90. Hab. Cosmopolitan, Pacific islands in 
winter: accidental on Guam. 



Order GALLIN.4:— Gallinaceous Birds. 



a'. Hind toe elevated, nostrils never hidden by feathers, tarsi 
partially or entirely naked. Family Phasianidcr. 

b'. Tail feathers 8, tarsi without spurs. Genus Excal- 
facioria . 

b". Tail feathers 14-16, a comb and spurs present. Genus 
Ga///(s. 

a'. Hind toe on a level with the others, oil glands nude, upper 
tail coverts not reaching to the end of the tail feathers. Famil}- 
Mcgapodiidcc . 

C'. No white on the basal part of the primaries, head 
French gra}'. Genus Megapodiiis. 

Genus BXCAI^FACTORIA Bonaparte. 

36. Bxcalfactoria sinensis (Gm.). Bing-bing. Pigmy 

Quail. 

These little birds were introduced from Manila in 1894 by 
Captain Pedro Duarty, of the Spanish Army, and .are now very 



-^8 Dircclors Aim /ml Report. 

generally distributed over the island. Their favorite feeding 
grounds' seem to be the dry rice paddies and the grassy places on 
the hill sides. Two specimens, a male and a female, and one set 
of seven eggs were secured. The size of this little quail is as fol- 
lows : Totlt length 5, wing 2.75, tail i.oo, tarsus .80. culmen .43, 
mid-toe and claw .78. The eggs (Fig. i, ^.) are of an enormous 
size for so small a bird, measuring i X .80 ; they are shaped like the 



BERNICF ^ ' "■ ^""OP r^USEUM. 



i ' I 

5 6 




v^m 





t^ 




FIG. I. 
(7. Kxcalfactoria sinensis (Gni.). /'. Aplonis kittlitzi, F. P. H. 

eggs of the common quail of the eastern United States, and are of 
a brownish color deeply sprinkled over the entire surface b)' fine 
deeper brown dots. Hab. Philippines, Palawan, Borneo, Java, 
Sumatra, Australia and Guam. 

Genus GAI,I,US Linn. 
37. Gallus bankiva (Temm.). Jungle Fowl. 

General under color black glossed wnth green ; mantle orange ; 
scapulars, median wing coverts and lower back a dark maroon red ; 
■comb emarginate ; a wattle on each side of the throat. Length 29, 
wing 9.5, tail 14, tarsus 3.1. Hab. Marianas, Philippines, Palawan, 
Celebes Lslands ; also in India, China, vSiam, Java, and Malay 
peninsula. 



Kcj'^oii of a Mission to (iiiain. 39 

CxKxrs MEGAPODIUS Qi-ov ^\: (^aimard. 

38. Megapodius laperousi Ouoy ^: (raim. Megapode. 

Head French g'ra>", mantle and under parts grayish l)lack 
shading into a dark olive brown on the wings, bill and legs yellow, 
naked skin on head red. Length 9.5, wing 7, tail 2.3, tarsus 2. 
Hub. Marianas and Pelew Islands. 



Order COLIMIIH-Piireons. 



a'. Tarsus feathered for more than half its length, general color 
green, wings less than 5.19. F'amily Trcroiiidcc, Fruit Pigeons. 

b'. Forehead and a spot at the base of the lower mandible 
purple-red. Genus Ptiliiiopiis. 

a-. Tarsus not feathered more than half its length, wing more 
than 5.19, general color brown or gray. Family Pcristcrida\ 
Ground Pigeons. 

C'. General color brown or olive bronze, length of tail 
4 or less. Genus Phlogiviias. 

Or . General color gray, length of the tail more than 5. 

Genus Turtttr. 

Genus PTII^INOPUS Elliot. 

39. Ptilinopus roseicapillus (Less.). Totot. Rose- 
crowned Fruit Pigeon. 

Coluiiibu I iiicicapilia. Less.. Tr. d'Orn., iS^i, p. 472. 

Colntiiba pnrpnratu Kittl. (nee. Gm.), Kiipfertaf, 1833, Haft. III., p. 25, t. XXXIII., f. 2. 

Ftiloftits losricapillns. Ost., Le Natural, iSSg, p. 261; Wiglesw., Ibis, 1SS9, p. 5S4 ; Id. Aves 

I'olvnes., 1891, p. 4S. 
PfiliiKi'pKS rosricapilli'i. Hartert, Nov. Zool.. 1S98, V., p. 60; Salvadori, Cat. B. Urit. Mus., XII.. 

p. loSi. 

The Totot, as the natives call this beautifully colored fruit 
pigeon, is common on the island, and its loud peculiar notes can 
be heard at almost an}' time of day from the tall trees along the 
roadside or in the forest, beginning in a low tone and slow, 
gradually increasing in volume and rapidity-, and then dying away 
again, like tot — tot—-tot--tot-tot-tot-tot-tot—tot—-tot — tot, and like 
most of the birds probably gets its nati^'e name from the sound it 
makes. In making this sound they bend the head down so that 
the bill touches the lower breast, and the top of the neck has the 
appearance of being puffed up. One kept in a cage .some time fre- 



40 



Dircclors Ainuial Report. 




Report of a Mission to Citiam. 41 

queiitly made this sound at night. These l)irds are much hunted 
by the natives for food, and one would think that they would be 
very easily seen because of their bright coloring. Such, however, 
is not the case, for when among the green leaves of the breadfruit 
trees, which seem to be their favorite haunts, their coloring har- 
monizes so well with the leaves that they are ver}' difficult to see. 
Their food consists of wild berries and fruits, all the stomachs con- 
taining seeds of the Linovia trifoliata. The general color above is 
a bright green ; crown, forehead, and spot at the base of the lower 
mandible purple-red, margined behind with 3-ellowish ; primaries 
and secondaries green with a glossy reflection, the inner webs 
purplish, the secondaries margined with a slight line of yellowish ; 
wing coverts green, the greater coverts margined with yellowish ; 
scapulars purplish, margined with yellowish green ; chin and 
throat a yellowish white ; sides of head and neck grayish green ; 
breast greenish, with the feathers tipped with pearly gray ; a bright 
purple patch on the middle of lower breast, surrounded by a zone 
of greenish and orange ; bell}' orange, greenish along the sides ; 
vent and tip of feathers on thigh j^ellowish ; under tail coverts yel- 
lowish orange ; upper tail feathers green, wnth a broad yellowish 
gray distal band margined narrowly with yellow ; under coloring 
of wings and tail gray, the tail feathers showing white markings 
on the inner webs near the end ; under wing coverts gra}' with a 
slight mingling of green ; bill a pea green ; feet and tarsus a dark 
gray with a tint of purplish ; iris gold yellow. I find no difference 
in the coloring of the sexes. Six .specimens selected at random 
give the following measurements: — 



Museum 














Mid-toe 




No. 


Date. 


Length . 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tarsus. 


Culmeti. 


and c. 


Sex. 


948S 


May 29 


9.00 


.-).00 


2.94 


1.00 


..55 


1.19 


d 


94S9 


.Tune 1 


9.00 


.■).14 


:i.00 


.96 


.m 


1.14 


? 


9495 


.hil.v 11 


9.O.") 


4.92 


H.OO 


1.03 


.50 


1.06 


d" 


9496 


.Tiilv 11 


9.00 


4.90 


:!.00 


1.00 


.50 


1.15 


d 


9497 


.July 20 


.S.9.") 


.5.00 


.•{.00 


1.03 


.50 


1.16 


9 


949s 


.Inly 20 


4.00 


2.90 


1.00 


.T.") 


.57 


1.16 


fledg-l. 



The spread of the wdngs from tip to tip is about 15.25, and the 
depth of the bill at the nostrils is about .17. The immature, No. 
9498, has no red on the head or crown ; general upper coloring 
green with the feathers edged with yellowish ; no dark spot on the 
breast ; feathers of the belly yellowish ; bill grayish ; feet fle.sh color 
with a tint of pink ; eye light hazel. 

Two nests, each containing one egg, were found. These 
were crude flat .strucflures, construdled of twigs about the size of 
a knitting needle, very loosely put together and placed on the top 
of a small branch of the Triphasia aiirantiola, eight or ten feet 
from the ground, and how the egg is kept from rolling out when 
the wind blows is more than I can understand. (See Fig. 2.) The 
eggs are pure white and look like the eggs of the domestic pigeon. 
Their size was i .31 X .85 and i .12X .80. Hab. Guam, Saipan, Rota. 



,2 Dircclor s Annual Report. 

This bird is somewhat similar to P. ponapcnsis, from Pouape, 
but the latter has more lilac on the crown and no red at the base of 
the lower mandible ; it is also lighter gray on the neck, and the 
band on the tail is yellowish in Ponape specimens. 

Genus PHI/OGOENAS Reichenbach. 

40. Phlogoenas xanthonura (Temm). Poloman kanau. 
White-headed Pigeon. 

Cvluinba pumpnsaii. Ouov 6t Gaim., Voy. Uraii. Zool., 1S24, p. 121, pi. 30. 

Coliuiiba XiUitliiDiura. Teniin., PI. Col. 190 (liv. 32, 1S23). 

Peiiitera iTvlliroptcrci (part), Cass., U. S. Exp. Ex. Birds, 1853, p. 277. 

Phli'fcoenas'panipusa)i . Cat. Brit. Mus., 1893, XX., p. 602; Wiglesw., Aves. Polynes., p. 53. 

Plilegooias xauthovHia, Hartert, Nov. Zool., 189S, V., p. 60. 

These pigeons are common all over the island. Sixteen speci- 
mens were secured, — 6 adult males, i immature male, 8 females, 
and I fledgling. The adult males have the forehead, cheeks, 
superciliary region, throat and brea.st pure white ; crown, back of 
neck and ear coverts a ru.sty rufous. In fully adult breeding birds 
there is a slight wash of buff on the nape, as in No. 951 1 ; remain- 
der of upper parts olive bronze ; anterior part of mantle and the 
wing coverts with a rich lUvStre of purple-violet ; primaries brown ; 
quills dark ; mid-tail feathers brown, the lateral one grayish black 
with a broad sub-terminal band of black ; belly and under tail 
coverts brown, with some of the feathers slightly tipped with rufous ; 
feet brown, wdth a slight pinkish tint ; bill dark ; eye dark hazel. 
The adult female (type of Coliunba pampiisan) has no white color- 
ing at all, the entire body being a uniform rufous brown with a 
distinct olive lustre on the back ; forehead, crown and nape cin- 
namon ; feathers of wing coverts and belly edged with rufous ; tail 
rufous, with a broad sub-apical black band which is not so dis- 
tinct on the two central feathers ; feet brown ; eye dark hazel ; bill 
a brownish flesh color. The immature males have a number of 
dirty white feathers appearing on the breast and throat ; sides, top 
of head and neck deep brown, with an intermingling of a few 
rufous feathers ; the lesser and middle wing coverts with the splen- 
did purple- violet coloring of the adult male. No. 9505 ; the feathers 
of the middle wing coverts are tipped with rufous ; bill dusky, 
with a slight greenish cast ; feet brown, with a pinkish tint ; eyes 
dark hazel. 

These pigeons seem to prefer the deep jungle, from whence 
their deep low moan, like the sound of a man dying in great dis- 
tress, comes with a wierd uncanny effect, heightened bv the gloom 
and darkness of the unknown forest. This sound, which always 
seems to come from a long distance, is very misleading, and one is 
considerably surprised to find he is perhaps within a few feet of the 
bird. Their food consists chiefly of the fruit of the lyemonceti 
{Triphasia ati7'antiola) and a small berry, called by the natives 



Report of a Missio)i to (i/(aiii. 43 

Tintan-china, one of the Ink-berries, a species of Privet. Both 
of these are found in abundance all over the island. vSix typical 
specimens give the following measurements: — 



A/iii,inii 














Mnl-/o,- 


.\i>. 


7^,ih: 


J.rii,Kili. 


irni,-:. 


■/'ail. 


7'cirs/is. 


( ii/iiirii . 


amir. .SVm 


!t50H 


.luiic 4 


11.110 


(>.00 


4.00 


1 .•-'."> 


.".'> 


1.«-' d 


;)50.-) 


.luiie 11 


KI.Md 


:■>.■);") 


■>.7."> 


1 .:i(> 


.IIS 


1..5U juv.cf 


!)50«; 


Jiliio 1:! 


11.1)0 


:").!».') 


:!.so 


l..">0 


.7.") 


1.2.-. V 


Sola 


.luiic l:! 


10.0.") 


r>.(i2 


.■'..'.Mi 


1 .2."i 


.71 


1.23 r< 


!I50S 


.Tune 1:! 


!».".") 


.■).:«) 


:!..")0 


1 .4:! 


.li:.' 


1.2.-. in v.? 


ICIO 


.Turn' 1.") 


'.t.7."> 


.-i.T.l 


:',..")0 


1 .iTi 


.ti.") 


1.:;7 V 



It will be seen by this that the female is slightly smaller than 
the male. Hab. Marianas. 

Genus TURTUR Selby. 

41. Turtur dussumieri (Temm.). Paloman halum-tano. 

Pigeon. 

Oiliiniha dusiinii/t'ii. Temin., PI. Col. iSS (liv. 32, 1^23), Manila. 
Ciilombe i/iissuiiiit'i; Quoy & Gaiiii., Voy. Uran. Zool., 1S24, I., p. 35. 

Turtxiv diisiumifii. Salvadori, Cat. Brit. Mus. B., XXI.. p. 423: Wiglcsw.. Aves Pol., p. 34; 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., V., p. 60. 

These birds were probably introduced at an earl)- date from 
Manila, and they are now (June, 1900) the most abundant Cohunbcr 
on the island. They are esteemed b^' the natives as an article 
of food, and are consequently hunted a great deal. Hab. N. E. 
Borneo, Philippines, Marianas. Three specimens were secured, — 
one male and two females. Their measurements were as follows: 

Mid-toe 

ihiicii. and c. Sex. 

.70 1.4.S cf 

.70 1..S7 ? 

.K\-l 1.80 cf 



Order RAPTOKES.- Birds of Prey. 

a' . Without facial disk of radiating feathers, toes not feathered, 
plumage compact. Family Falcouido'. 

a-. With a facial disk of radiating feathers surrounding the 
eye, toes feathered, cere more or less hidden by bristles, plumage 
soft and fluffy. Family Bubonidcc . 

Family FALCONID.i^.— Hawks, Falcons, Etc. 

a'. Culmen greater than half the length of the middle toe 
without claw. Genus Astiir. 

a.-. Culmen measured from margin of cere le.ss than half the 
length of the middle toe without claw. Genus Accipiter. 



Miisni III 














No. 


Dale. 


Length . 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tl 


Mill 


9499 


June .s 


12.00 


6. HO 


.->.(;o 


] 


1.00 


9.500 


.lune .s 


11.2.-. 


fi.OO 


(i.OO 


] 


1.00 


9.".01 


.Jnne 14 


12.00 


().:w 


.-..12 


] 


1.00 



44 Dircclor s Annual Report. 

Genus ASTUR Lacep. 

42. Astur sharpi Oust. Sharp's Hawk. 

One specimen of this species was brought back by the Astro- 
labe expedition, but it may not have been from the Marianas. I 
made special efforts to find this hawk, but without success. It prob- 
ably is not found on Guam. Hab. Marianas(?). 

Genus ACCIPITBR Brisson. 

43. Accipiter nisoides Blyth. Variegated Hawk. 

One specimen of this species was taken on Guam by Mr. Ous- 
ton's Japanese colle(ftors. No rufous collar, ear coverts gra}', no 
white spot on the central tail feathers, breast rufous. Length 1 1 , 
culmen .75, wing 6.6, tail 5.1, tarsus 1.9. Female is slightly larger. 
Hab. Eastern Asia, Indo-Malayan sub-region, Northern China, 
Papuan Islands ; incidentally on Guam. 

Family BUBONID^.— Horned Owls. 

Wings more than 10, cere equal to the chord of the culmen, 
ear openings very large. Genus Asio. 

Genus ASIO Brisson. 

44. Asio accipitrinus (Pall.). Short-eared Owl. 

It is very doubtful if there has ever been an owl taken on the 
Marianas. It is not found on Guam. (See Nov. ZooL, V., p. 51.) 



Order COCCYGES.— Kingfishers, Etc. 

a'. Bill with rounded or slightly flattened culmen, third toe 
united with the fourth for more than half its length, the second 
united to the third for its basal third, bill not .serrated, caeca none. 
Family Alccdinidcr. 

b'. Tail longer than bill, with a more or less distinct 
groove along the sides of the culmen, bill compressed. Genus 
Halcyon . 

C'. Head white, flanks pure white, a band of green 
behind the eye and around nape. Halcyon albicilla. 

C-. Head cinnamon, the colorings of the under surface 
also cinnamon, except in the female, which has white on the under 
parts. Halcyon cinnamominus. 



Report of a Mission to (iiiam. 45 

Genus HALCYON Swains. 

45. Halcyon albicilla Dumont. 

General color above a bright blue ; under surface, whole of 
head and neck white ; from behind the eye above the ear coverts 
runs a streak of blue. Length 11, culmen 2.3, wing 4.9, tail 3.1, 
tarsus .07. Female similar in color. Hab. New Guinea, vSolomon 
Islands, Louisiades, Saipan ; not on Guam. 

46. Halcyon cinnamominus vSwains. Sehig. 

Dacelo nificeps, Cuv., Gal. du Mus., Less. d'Orn., 1831, p. 247. 

Alcedo nijiceps, Cuv., Pucher, kev. & Mag. Zool., 1853, p. 387. (Mariana.s ; gli'idi china »:i,})iniu 

Swains.) 
Halcyon cinnamomiiius, Kitisch., Jour. Mus. Godff., 1S76, XII., p. 20; Sharp, Brit. Mus. Cat. B., 

XVII., p. 259. 
Halcyjn rnfigularis. Sharp, Brit. Mus. Cat., XVII., p. 260. 

These birds are very common near the native ranch houses 
and the villages. Thej^ are especially noticeable becau.se of the 
loud and disagreeable noise which they are constantly making, 
both night and da}'. Thej- are especially abundant near the city of 
Agaiia, and their noisy kaa-kaa-kaa-kaa frequenth' aroused me 
from sleep at the unconventional hours of two and three o'clock in 
the morning. I was informed that Governor L,eary was so ex- 
asperated by these disturbers of the night that he ordered a squad 
of native soldiers out to kill off all near the palace, but judging 
from the noise still to be heard the attempt was not an entire suc- 
cess. The birds make this noise ju-st as they fly up, seeming 
to think it an essential part of the proceedings. Even if the dis- 
tance to fly is only two feet it must be proclaimed by this jangling 
kaa-kaa, w^hich is almost as unpleasant a sound as the braying of 
an a.ss. Sehig, as the natives call this bird, has a bad reputation 
as a chicken thief. I rather doubted his ability' in this line until 
one da}' I acftualh' saw him attack a brood of small chicks quite 
near me, and he would have undoubtedly secured one had not the 
mother hen rushed to the rescue. The chief food of this species 
seems to be, however, lizards and grasshoppers. I have seen them 
catch a lizard and then, fl3'ing into a tree, by a dexterous shake of 
their big bill hammer the victim against the limb of the tree until 
its life was extinct, after which they would proceed very leisurely 
to devour it, and then go to sleep. After eating, these birds are 
very loath to fly, and will allow one to approach within a step or 
two of them. The breadfruit tree is their favorite resting place. 
Six specimens were secured, three adult males and three adult 
females. The adult males have the mantle greenish blue ; rump 
and upper tail coverts a slight degree lighter than the mantle ; 
wings bluer than mantle, the quills blackish, more or less blue on 
the outer webs, the first primary with only a faint trace of bluish ; 



46 DircHor' s Annual Rcpori . 

tail feathers blue ; head, hind neck and entire tinder surface of 
bod}- a uniform cinnamon ; ear coverts are long tufts of dusky 
feathers with a tint of greenish blue ; a dusky band extending from 
ear coverts entirely around the back of the head, forming a nuchal 
band ; eye dark hazel ; bill a dark horn, except posterior third of 
lower mandible which is light. The adult female (type of Halcyon 
rufi^iilaris. Sharp) is similarly colored, but has only the throat, 
head, chest and thighs, cinnamon ; the breast, belly, sides of body, 
under wing coverts and under tail coverts white. In some speci- 
mens there is a slight mixture of cinnamon on the upper tail coverts, 
and also a faint buffy tint on the sides. The cinnamon color of the 
females is not quite so bright as on the males. The measurements 
of the specimens taken were as follows: — 



Afiisr2i»i 
















M id -toe 




A'o. 


Pal. 




L,-ngt/i . 


Wmg. 


Tail. 


Tarsn^. 


Cidnifii . 


iuidc. 


Sex 


'.m5 


M a.v 


:iO 


it. 00 


4.:!0 


:!.00 


.75 


1.07 


1.00 


d 


!l.54(; 


May 


:!U 


10.00 


4.00 


■a:i\ 


.75 


1.07 


1.00 


d 


;i.-.47 


Mnv 


30 


9.75 


.■).00 


■IMW 


.07 


1.."lS 


1.70 


d 


'.t.-|4.s 


Mav 


.■!(l 


10.00 


r..i.s 


.'i.L'.") 


.00 


l.M 


l.HO 


9 


'.li-,4!l 


May 


:{0 


10.."iO 


4.00 


:!.L's 


.0:.' 


l.()7 


1.60 


2 


'.l.-..",(J 


.llllic 


4 


10.00 


4.00 


:!.oo 


.07 


1 . .")7 


1.00 


9 



The extent of the wing is about 14.50 ; the depth of the bill at 
the no.strils is about .57. //ad. I.sland of Guam. 



Order MACK0CHIR1:S.-Swifts, Goatsuckers, Etc. 



a'. Tarsi and toes naked, tail slightly forked, color dusky. 
Family Cypsdidcc . 

b". vShafts of the rec5lrices ordinary and without spinous 
points. Genus Collocalia , Gray. 

47. Collocalia fuciphaga (Thunb.). Jajaguag. Swift. 

HniDidd Tciiiii-oivi/iis, yuoy & Gaiin., Voy. A.strolabe, Zool.. 1S30, I., p. 206. 

Collocalia funphaira. Cat. B. Brit. M\i.s.,' XVI., p. 499; Ou.st.,' I., p. 187; Hartt-rt, Nov. Zool. 

v., p. .53. 

The.se birds are quite common, especially over the grassy hills, 
where they could be coiLstantly seen hawking about for insedls. 
I never have seen them alight. Many caves on the island were 
searched in the hope of finding the nests and eggs, but I was un- 
successful, although the birds doubtless ne.st on the island in large 
numbers. The upper surface is a sooty brown with a slight glo.ss ; 
the head is uniform with the coloring of the mantle, with a little 
deeper gloss ; the wings and tail are darker ; the under surface is 



Rtpoit of a Mission fo (iiiaiii. ^7 

brownish gray ; there is a small spot of grayish in front of the eye ; 
bill and feet dusky ; eyes dark hazel. The four specimens secured 
measured as follows: — 



Mi,.s.i, 


;// 


















Ml, !-/«,■ 




.\,K 




Dalr. 


/., 


niMt/i 


ll'iiiK- 


Tail. 


r. 


Ill s Hi. 


Ciihiiiii. 


and r. 


.Vm- 


!t52!) 




.June 1 




4.17 


4. is 


•-'.Oil 




.4:! 


.17 


.:ll 


-r 


!tr):HI 




.hi no (i 




4.00 


4.1'.-> 


I'.Od 




.:!l 


.17 


.-S 


9 


Slf):!! 




.liilv 10 




l.lL' 


4.:!(; 


L'.OO 




.41' 


.IS 






iinri'J 




.Inly 17 




1,(1(1 


4.:i:! 


L'.Oil 




.41' 


.IS 







The spread of the wing is about lo, and the depth of the bill 
at nostrils is .06. Hab. The islands of the Malay Archipelago, 
north to the Philippines, Western Himalayas to the Nilgherries, 
Ceylon and the Seychelles in the west, islands of Santa Cruz and 
Duke of York, vSumatra, Borneo and Marianas. 



Order P.ASSERES.-Perchina Birds. 



a'. Bill broadened, fiat, with reclal bristles at ba.se. Family 
Mtiscicapidcc , Fly-catchers . 

b'. Tail longer than wings. Genus Rhipidura . 
b'. Wings longer than tail, bill equal to hind toe without 
claw. Genus Myiagra. 

a'. Bill like that of a thrush, wings rounded and short — not 
more than 3.30, general color an olive brown. Family Timeliidce, 
Babbling Thrushes. 

C'. Tail of 12 feathers, the outside one le.ss than .25 
shorter than the longest, a minute bastard primarw Genus Acro- 
irphalus. 

a\ Bill moderate, or very slightly hooked at tip. 

d". Nasal feathers erect or inclined backward, 
bill conical and elongate, hind claw stronger than claw of middle 
toe. Family Sturiiidcc, Starlings. 

e'. Color black, length about 9.50, immature 
streaked with yellowish. Genus Aplonis. 

d". Nasal feathers directed forward, bill .strong 
and curved, wing more than 4. Family Corvidcr, Crows. 

e-. Black, length about 15. Genus Corviis. 
d^. Nasal openings in long soft grooves, tongue 
brush tipped. Family Meliphagido', Honey-eaters. 

e\ General color red. Q,&\\\\.'A MyzoDula . 
e^. General color yellow. 

f '. Eye with white ring. Genus Zosiorops. 
f-. Eye without ring. Genus ClcpfoDiis _ 



^8 DireHof s Annual Report. 

Genus RHIPIDURA Vigors & Horsford. 

a'. "Bases of all the tail feathers, rump and upper tail coverts 
rufous, length 4.94." Rhipidura saipanensis. 

a^ Bases of the tail feathers, rump and upper tail coverts a 
bright rufous, length 5.50-6.25. Rhipidura uranicc. 

48. Rhipidura saipanensis Hart. 

Mr. Hartert, in Nov. Zool., 1898, V., p. 54, describes the 
Rhipidura from the island of Saipan as a new species. I have no 
specimens from Saipan, but in description they are charadterized 
as having the base of recftrices rufous ; rump and upper tail coverts 
rufous ; sides of abdomen rufous; ear coverts, line under eye, and 
lores black ; all of which is most certainly true of the R. uranice, 
which I now have before me. These were taken on the island 
of Guam during the months of June, July and August, 1900. 
The measurement of R. saipane7isis is given as (male): "Length 
151mm., wing 69mm., tail 80mm., bill 8mm., tarsus 19mm. 
Hab. Island of vSaipan, Marianas." 

49. Rhipidura uranise Oust. Chirita. Fan-tailed Fly- 
catcher. 

Rhipidura uianicr, Oustalet, Bui. Soc. Philoin de Paris, V., p. 75 : Wiglesw., Aves Polynes., 
1891, p. 20. 

This is one of the most interesting little birds on the island, 
and they were so abundant that it was quite unusual to walk half 
a mile along the road without seeing at least a pair of them, or 
hearing their sweet little song which consists of about six low 
musical notes. It also makes a peculiar charring sound to warn 
people away from its nest. The following account was written in 
the field as I watched the bird and is copied from my field notes 
of June 28 : 

"vSeated in the brush waiting to hear the warble of Ga-kalison, 
'The Dweller among the Reeds' {A. lucinia)^ I have a good oppor- 
tunity to watch and compare the notes and habits of the two Guam 
fiy-catchers, R. tiranice and M. freycineti, which are now feeding 
within six feet of me. Ur-anicE is extremely adtive, and as com- 
pared to it the movements of Firycineti are very slow and clums}'. 
I'ranicc has the most astonishing way of whirling around and 
alighting just the other end on from what one expects. In this 
instance it was as polite as a Spaniard, and always faced towards 
me, spreading its beautiful fan-like tail and making a low chirping 
note. Not so the Freycincti , who looked me over critically, elevated 
his head crest, and giving his tail an odd little twerk, proceeded to 
hop deliberately up the limb like a sap-sucker, bus}- at work look- 



Report of a Mission to (iitaiii. 49 

int;- tor breakfast. However, I saw him catch a few inse(5ls 011 the 
wiiii;-, his wide curious looking bill closing with a loud snap. 
I'rauiir caught most of his breakfast on the wing, darting about 
the ])u.shes in a way that made me suspect he was showing off, and 
putting the more clumsv Freycincti in as bad a light as possible. 
I was not fooled, however, for with such a fine rudder as his tail 
makes it is but natural that he should be able to change his course 
rapidly. Sometimes he .seemed to whirl about merely for the fun 
of whirling." 

Three adult males, three adult females, a young bird about 
readv to flv, and a nest were taken. The adults mea.sured as follows: 



M lis,- mil 
















Mid-toe 




\,>. 


l\itc. 


Lenath . 


/r/;/s,'. 


Tail. 


Tars/ts. 


C/i/ii/rii. 


and c. 


Se.x 


1147(1 


.\Iav :!0 


%:lh 


:.'.(>s 


:i.si 




.NT 


.4:1 


..")0 


d 


!t471 


May 30 


(i.OO 


L'.Sl 


3.00 




..s:! 


.4:1 


. ■">•> 


d 


•.)4-2 


.Tune 1 


X^M 


:3..")0 


2.75 




..su 


.41 


..511 


? 


!I47:^ 


.Tune « 


.'i.HO 


•.'.»;■-' 


2..S2 




.84 


.41' 


.50 


d 


9474 


•Tnl.v (! 


5..50 


L'.(!5 


2.75 




.80 


.8>.l 


.5(i 




f»47.") 


.Tuly il 


5.50 


•i..m 


2.75 




.SO 


.45 


..">() 


? 



The spread of the wings is about 7.75, the depth of the bill at 
no.strils is about .12. The adult birds on the upper surface are an 
ochraceous brown, becoming a bright rufous on the rump ; upper 
tail coverts and bases of redlrices are a bright rufous ; the tail 
feathers, which are exceptional!}' wide and long for such a small 
bird, are a shining du.sky brown, almost black ; primaries and 
secondaries are a soft brown, slightly darker than the mantle — the 
outer webs are slightly fringed with red ; under surface of wing a 
lighter brown. No. 9472 has the greater and middle wing coverts 
tipped with rufous, thus forming two rufous bands on the wings ; 
but in the other specimens these bands are very indistinct, or en- 
tirely worn off ; forehead a bright rufous, slightly dusky around 
base of upper mandible ; the bright rufous of the forehead merging 
into the ochraceous brown on the crown ; the feathers of the crown 
with dusky centres. In my series the females do not .show the 
dusky centres to these crown feathers, although the bases of the 
feathers are dusk}- as in the male. I doubt, however, if this differ- 
ence would hold good in a large series, and apart from this slight 
point I find the sexes identical. Throat and under neck black, the 
feathers assuming white tips on the breast ; hind brea,st and belly 
white, with rufous tint ; sides, flanks, thighs and under tail coverts 
rufous ; chin grayish white, with a whitish irregular line extend- 
ing from the base of the gonys down the sides of the throat ; other- 
wise, cheeks, lores and ear coverts dusky ; eye dark hazel ; feet 
dark brown ; bill dusky, except on the gonys, which are grayish. 
The nestliTig secured has the upper surface thickly covered with 
filmy feathers of a soft rufous brown ; under parts grayish with 
rufous tint. Hab. Island of Guam. 

The ne.st is very interesting, neatly and very compactly woven 
in and out with fine vegetable fibre ; the outside is covered with 

O. p. B. p. B. M.— Vol. I., No. ?,. 



50 



Dircclor s Annual RcpOTt . 



a fine padding of material resembling the paper fibre made by 
wasps. The nest has a very curious projection of fibres extend- 
ing from the bottom. This pretty little structure is usually built 
in'^the Mapuna tree, where a number of branches converge some 
ten or twenty feet from the ground. Inside the nest measures 
1. 53X1.50, while its depth is .85 ; outside it measures i. 83X1.85, 
with a depth of 2.50. ( Fig. 3. ) 




FIG. 



KHII'IDURA URANIA, OU.ST. 



Genus MYIAGRA \'ig()RS <S: Horsfield. 

50. Myiagra freycineti Oust. Chigunguan. De Frey- 
cinet's Fly-catcher. 

Mxiiiiiia ft eye i net i. Oust.. lUil. Soc. I'hilom., iS8i (7), V., p. 73; Id.. Naturaliste, 1889. p. 260; 
Wigle.sw.. Aves Polvnts.. ]j. 24 ; Harttrt. On the Bird.s of the Mariana I.slaiids, Nov. Zool., 
v., p. 54. 

The little De Freycinet's Fly-catcher is connnon in all parts of 
the island. Upon first hearing the notes of this bird I thought 
surelv a Bush-tit, l>y some strange accident, had arrived on the 



Report of a Mission to (.in a in. 51 

island, the clear- whistled call of Peter-Peter-Peter seemed so un- 
mistakable. Sometimes he varies this call by whistling three 
Here- Here- Here, followed l)y the first call. They have a habit of 
erecting the beautiful metallic-blue feathers of the head as a crest 
when they are alarmed. The general color above is a blue-purple, 
with a bluish sheen, head with a deeper, more metallic reflection of 
bluish, this color extending over cheeks, ear coverts, nape and 
sides of neck, meeting the white under coloring of the chin and 
throat in a sharp line from gape to shoulders ; a slight tint of buffy 
on the lower throat and fore breast ; remainder of under parts 
white ; primaries, secondaries, and tail feathers gra>', with a bluish 
tint, lighter below ; upper wing coverts and upper tail coverts 
uniform with coloring of the mantle ; all the tail feathers minutely 
tipped with white (this marking is worn off in some of the speci- 
mens before me); bill dark blue; feet and tarsus dark, with a 
bluish cast ; eyes dark hazel ; thighs bluish gray ; flanks and sides 
of body bluish gra}', with the feathers tipped with white. So far 
as shown by my series of ten specimens the adult males and females 
are exac?th' alike, with a possible exception of a little more of the 
rufous coloring on the throat and fore breast of the female. In 
No. 9484, an adult male, this coloring is confined to a faint trace of 
buffy on the lower throat and fore breast, while in No. 9486, a breed- 
ing female, the coloring of the fore breast and throat is a bright 
rufous as in the immature of both sexes. No. 9485, a male with 
the testes fully developed and erotic, has the usual purple-blue 
upper coloring of the adult males, while the entire throat, sides of 
neck and breast are a bright rufous ; there is also a slight mixture 
of rufous among the white feathers of the abdomen. Thus the 
specimen is a typical adult above, and immature below. Six speci- 
mens, selected at random, give the following measurements: — 



Museum 














.Mid-toe 




Xo. 


Date. 


Length 


11 his. 


Tail. 


Taisui. 


Culiiieii. 


and c. 


Ser. 


947S 


May 29 


.-..50 


2.49 


2.31 


.81 


.55 


.51 


im.ff 


9482 


.June 9 


.^.25 


2.7.5 


2.25 


.75 


.56 


.55 


? 


948.3 


.June 26 


.5.50 


2.68 


2..31 


.75 


.55 


.60 


9 


94S4 


June 26 


h.oO 


2.81 


2.37 


J4 


..52 


.(i2 


_f 


948.0 


.Tune 26 


.-).65 


2.68 


2.37 


.75 


..56 


.60 


d-(Note 


9480 


.July 20 


.■>.70 


2.75 


2.36 


.75 


..56 


..55 


? 



The spread of the wings is about 8.50, while the depth of the 
bill at the nostrils is .15. 

The immature are easily di.stingv.ished by the ochraceous 
brown coloring of the mantle, and by the greater extent of the 
bright rufous of the under parts, which with the exception of a 
small white space on the middle of the belly and the white under tail 
coverts is entirely rufous, brightest on the sides of the fore breast, 
paler on the chin and sides ; there is a slight rufous coloring on the 
forehead and on the upper tail coverts. The color of the crown is 
not such a bright metallic blue as in the adult ; the wing and tail 
feathers are a brown on the upper surface, lighter below ; the 



52 



Direclor s Annual Report. 



edges of the webs are more or less rufous or buffy, according to the 
age of the specimen ; wing coverts brown, more or less edged with 
rufous ; bill and feet dark, with bluish cast. 

The nest and ^%% of this species were secured for me by a 
Chamorro lad. This particular nest is quite interesting from the 
fact it has a ring of wax, from the breadfruit tree, around the top, 
by which means the boy had endeavored to take the old bird. The 




FIG. 4. MVIACxRA FRP:YCIXETI, OUST. 

inside measurements are 1.35X 1.75 and .75 in depth ; outside 2X2 
and depth 1.75. (Fig. 4.) It contained two eggs, brownish cream 
in color, zoned near the larger end with cinereous spots and small 
irregular blotches ; size.70X.50. Hab. Guam. 



Genus ACROCEPHAI^US Naumann. 

a'. Tail feathers without dusky cross bars, upper surface uni- 
'form brown. Acrocepha/us svr/n.v. 

Br. Tail feathers with diisky cross bars, upper coloring olive 
■brown. Acroccplialus lucinia. 



Report of a Mission to Guam. 53 

51. Acrocephalus syrinx KittI, 

Mr. March found this species 011 Pagan Island, where it was" 
probably accidental. General color above uniform ruddy brown, 
under surface }ellowisli white. Length 6.8, wing 3, tail 2.50, 
cuhnen .95-1, tarsus 1.05. I/ab. Isle of Ponape, Carolines. 

52. Acrocephalus luscinia (Quoy & Gaim.). Ga-kaliso. 

Reed Warbler. 

'J'/nyot/ioi IIS iiisrimis. Qiioy 6t Gaim., Voy. A.strolabe, 1830, I., p. 202. 
AcniCi'phaliis »iaiian>iir, Tri.st., Ibis, 1S83, p. 45. 

7'aliiiY /iisiiiiu!, Ou.st., Nouv. Arch. Mus. Ili.st. Nat., Ser. III.. Vol. VIII., p. 209. 
.ti lorr/i/m/iis luscinia, Hartert, Nov. Zool., V.. p. 57. 

This bird is now quite scarce, and I predict will soon become 
extinct on the island of Guam. It lives exclusively among the 
reedy swamps, and these swamps are now being drained to make 
room for the Chinamen's rice paddies. Ga-kaliso, "The Dweller 
Among the Reeds," as this name signifies, is the most beautiful 
singer in all the islands. Pearly in the morning usually, from 
among the tall reeds his liquid sweet song can be heard, the notes 
rising and falling in happy cadence, reminding one very much of 
the Mocking Bird of the .southern United States. These birds are 
very hard to distinguish in the field as they are so nearly the color 
of the reeds, the only way to locate them being by their melodious 
voices. This made the shooting of them a hard task, for to kill a 
bird w'ith so sweet a voice made one feel as if he were committing a 
great crime. Four specimens were taken. Their stomachs con- 
tained the remains of a great many insecfts and larvae. I frequently 
watched them feeding among the reeds. Three of these birds were 
males, and one female. Their measurements are as follows: — 



''iiseum 




















]\ruUor 




Ao. 


Date. 


L 


ength . 


Wing. 


Tail. 


r 


aisHS. 


L 


11 line II. 


and c. 


Sex 


9.541 


June 1 




8.50 


:j.2:5 


3.00 




1.19 




1.2.5 


1 .00 


d 


9.542 


June 2t> 




8.12 


:i.:57 


3.00 




1.20 




1.25 


1.(15 


cf 


9o4:! 


July 9 




8.. 50 


:i.:w 


2.62 




1.1.5 




l.ls 


i.ot; 


9 


9.544 


July 9 




X.20 


:J.1N 


2.tjS 




l.is 




I.IN 


1.U3 





The spread of the wings is about 10.25, the depth of the bill at 
the nostrils is about .18. The general coloring above is a uniform 
olive brown, with a slight rufous tint ; the primaries are a darker 
brown than the mantle. In No. 9542, an adult male in fine breed- 
ing plumage, the tail being darker than the mantle ; wdiile in the 
other specimens it is not. The tail and wing feathers, if held in a 
certain light, show slight cross bands ; rump more or less yellowish, 
much brighter in the females and young males ; a yellow super- 
ciliary line and lores ; the entire under surface is yellowish ; thighs 
rufous ; sides of body and flanks rufous and gra}' ; bill brown above, 
yellowish below ; feet and tarsus brownish gra}' ; eye dark hazel. 
The females and the young are colored almost alike and are char- 
acterized by the more rufous coloring in general ; the rufous outer 
webs to the primaries and the very dark color of the inner second- 



54 Dhrclors Annual Report. 

ary ; this latter charadler much more distinct in the female than in 
the young males ; the feathers of the thighs are also much brighter 
rufous in the females. The general under coloring of the feathers 
in this species is a dark gray, so that the outer coloring of the 
feathers depends largely upon how much of the brownish or yellow- 
ish tip is worn off. This is well illustrated by No. 9541, an old 
male with the plumage so worn as to give the bird the appearance 
of being gray, with rufous tint. Hah. Guam, Saipan. 

53. Aplonis kittlitzi F. & Har. Sali. Starling. 

Cah)i iiii kittUIzi, Fiuscli. & Hartl., Fauna Central I'olvn., 1S67, p. 109. 
Aploiiii, kiltlilzi. Cat. B. Brit. Mus., XIII., p. 1.^6. 

This bird is common on the island of Guam. In color and 
actions they very much resemble the blackbird of the eastern 
United States. They are noisy and quarrelsome, especially when 
there are any of the young birds about. Their food seems to con- 
sist chiefly of the fruit of the wild papaya. They build their nests 
in the hollow of a tree, usually choosing the dead trunk of a coco- 
nut for this purpose, and laying four, sometimes three eggs. 
Fourteen specimens of this species were taken. The immature 
bird, with its streaked breast, might be easily mistaken for a dis- 
tinct species. The adult bird, both the male and female, is a 
uniform black all over the body, with a slight greenish sheen to 
the feathers ; bill, feet and tarsus black ; the shafts of the wing 
feathers and the recftrices are black on the upper surface, white on 
the sides, and brownish below ; this is especially noticeable on the 
tail feathers and the secondary wing feathers ; under surface of 
wings and tail dusky, but not quite so dark as the body; eyes golden 
3'ellow. Length 9.25-9.75, wing 4.56-5.00, tail 3.17-3.60, tarsus 
1. 25-1. 37, culnien .93-. 87, mid-toe and claw 1.19-1.20 Hab. Guam. 



Jiaruni 














A fid-toe 




.\o. 


Date. 


Loigt/i . 


u;„.s-. 


Tail. 


Tanm. 


CiiiDieii. 


and c. 


Sex 


•■Mn 


May 24 


9.. 50 


5.00 


8.:!7 


1.H7 


.9H 


1.25 


d 


!»r)53 


May 24 


9.00 


4..5fi 


H.60 


1.25 


.9H 


1.19 


? 


9554 


May .-W 


9.7.5 


5.00 


H.HI 


1.27 


.SI 


1.19 


d" 


0555 


May HO 


9.50 


4.67 


H.17 


l.HO 


.S7 


1.20 


? 


5)5.56 


May HO 


9.25 


4.62 


H.25 


1.25 


,Wi 


1.14 


? 


9557 


May .-SO 


9.50 


4.50 


2..S5 


1.17 


.!S7 


1.17 


juv.? 


955.S 


Julv :; 


S..50 


4.60 


2.. 50 


1.17 


.85 


1.26 


juv. cf 


9559 


.July n 


9.50 


4.75 


H.25 


1.25 


.86 


l.HO 


juv.cT 


95(i(» 


.Inly 11 


9.00 


4.62 


2.6H 


1.12 


.86 


1.30 


juv. 9 


9.5(11 


.Inly 11 


9.00 


4..50 


H.OO 


1.25 


.S6 


1.10 


juv. 9 



The immature of this bird has the upper surface dusky, but 
not so dark as in the adult ; there is also a greenish sheen to the 
feathers on the upper surface ; the upper sides of the rump have 
more or less of a mingling of bright buffy ; the entire under surface 
has a streaked appearance, caused by the feathers having dusky 
greenish centres, with margins of buffy white ; this streaking is 
very fine on the chin and throat, broader on the breast and belly. 
Still younger specimens have le.ss of buffy on the breast and throat ; 
bill and feet dusky ; eye yellow. No. 9562, a big nestling, almost 



Report of a J//ss/oj/ to (it(aiii. 55 

ready for flight, has the u]iper surface black without the greeuish 
sheen ; the leathers of the throat are dusky without the buff color- 
ing ; the breast is a dirt.\- buff and dusky ; the belly is chiefly a 
dirty buff; bill dark, with a little lighter shade on the lower man- 
dible ; feet, wings and tail dark ; eyes brownish. No. 9563, w^hicli 
is just assuming the first plumage, has fine black feathers emerg- 
ing from their sheaths, the back has acquired a fair degree of 
plumage, but the brea.st and belly are still bare, with a fringe of 
dirty buffy feathers along the sides. When first hatched the young 
are entirely naked. The eggs (Fig. i,/'.) are pale green, with 
brown irregular spots about .15 in diameter scattered sparsely over 
the entire egg, being most abundant on the larger end. These eggs 
measured 1 .27-r.i5X .95-. <S5. Hab. Marianas. 

54. Corvus kubaryi Rchw. Aga. Kubary's Crow. 

CoiTits solilaints, Kittl., Reise. 1.S5S, II., p. [43. 

Coroiw philippiua, Wiglesw., Aves Polynes., p. 46. 

Corvus kiibarvi, Rchw., Journ. f. Orn.,"i885, p. no; Hartert, Nov. Zool., V., p. .sg. 

This species is common in the jungles, where they soon attract 
attention by their noise. They are not at all wild, so I was able to 
approach quite near, and ob.serve them carefully. I did not discover 
any new tricks — they pulled up the newly planted corn of the native 
in the same old way and with apparent satisfaction. They have the 
reputation of plundering the ne.sts of the smaller birds in order to eat 
the eggs and young, and they do not seem to sound the .same 
straightforward Caw, Caw of our American crow, for they have a 
sort of Polynesian twist to their tongue which makes them very 
hard to understand, and sounds like Qu a a Ou a a. Five specimens 
were .secured, but owing to an accident four of them were destroyed. 
The remaining specimen, No. 9487, an adult female, is a deep 
black all over, including bill, feet and tarsus. There is a fine 
bluish black .sheen or gloss to the feathers of the mantle, wings and 
tail : head a .shiny black without a noticeable blue gloss ; under 
parts a dead black color ; the under color of the feathers all over 
the body is white or light gray ; so if the outer half or two-thirds 
of the feathers were worn off we would have a white crow. Length 
15.00, .spread of wings 26.00, wing 9.50, tail 6.12, tarsus 2.00, cul- 
men 1.80, mid-toe and claw 2. Eye dark hazel. Hab. Guam. 

GENU.S MY^OMEI/A FiNSCH. 
55, My^omela rubratra (Less.). Egigi. Red Honey-eater. 

Ciuiivrts rubratr)-. Less., Vov. Coq. Zool., 1S26, p. 67S. 

Myz'omela rubratra. Finsch.'jourti. Godeffrov Mus., XII., p. 26: Oust., I., p. 197; Hartert. Nov. 
Zool., v., p. 55; Id.. VI., p. 2; Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., IX.. p. 129. 

The beautiful little red and black Egigi, as the natives call 
this Honey-eater, is probably the most abundant bird on Guam. 
They are quite fearless and are frequently to be seen in the gardens 
of the villages, the tall coconut palms being, however, their favor- 



56 



DircHof s Annual Report. 




Report of a Mission to liuani. 57 

ite resorts, where they can always be seen feeding among the 
blossoms, doubtless attracted by the insedls as well as by the honey 
and pollen. Their .stomachs were filled with insects, many also 
containing traces of the coconut honey and pollen. Their size, 
color and adtions remind one ver\' much of the Apapane ( Himationc 
sanguinea) of Hawaii. They have a sweet little song of some 
eight or ten notes, usually to be heard about sunrise. A series of 
twenty-one specimens was secured, also a number of nests and eggs. 
The adult female of this bird is well described by Mr. Hartert in 
Nov. Zool., v., p. 55, but in Id., VI., he makes the statement, 
"The adult female differs from the male only in the smaller size," 
which is probably an error, as No. 9551 (Bishop Museum), a sex- 
ually adult female, as shown by the organs (See carcass No. 1502), 
is much lighter in color, as well as smaller in size. However, they 
may breed before they are fully adult. The juvenile males are 
usually darker than the adult females. Six specimens selected at 
random give the following measurements: — 



J\/llSl'U III 














Mid-toe 




Xo. 


Date. 


Length. 


JVing. 


Tail. 


Tarsus. 


Ciihnrn. 


and c. 


Sex 


94.51 


May 24 


0.00 


2.50 


l.fix 


.70 


.04 


.62 


9 


94.i9 


May 28 


h.m 


2.75 


2.00 


.NO 


.04 


.70 


im.cf 


i>45(> 


.lune .5 


5.7.5 


2.90 


2.12 


.S4 


.OS 


.70 


d" 


'.t4.57 


.June 7 


5..50 


2..SS 


2.0« 


.Nt! 


.OS 


.75 


J 


9461 


June 27 


5.50 


2.75 


2.00 


.Si 


.OS 


.70 


im.cT 


9467 


July 19 


5.00 


2.75 


l.NO 


.7s 


.02 


.70 


? 



The adult male has the head, neck, breast, back, rump, upper 
tail coverts, sides and the anterior part of the belly scarlet ; wings, 
wing coverts, tail, under tail coverts, lower belly, flanks, thighs, 
.shoulders and under wing coverts blackish brown ; lores dusky. 
The under coloring of the feathers is dark gray, almost black where 
it meets the scarlet outer tip of the feather ; feet and tarsus dark ; 
ej-e dark hazel. The sexually adult female has the shoulders, wings, 
tail, belly, sides and thighs olive brown. The scarlet coloring on the 
remainder of the body, head and neck is not so bright or so thick 
as in the adult male. They are smaller in size than the adult 
males. The immature males are very much like the females, but 
are usually a little darker in color and larger in size. The young, 
Nos. 9466 and 9467, are olive brown above, yellowi.sh on under 
parts, washed with red on the sides of the fore breast and back ; bill 
dark, yellowish on the base of lower mandible ; feet and iris dark. 

The nests were neat little cup-like structures of small rootlets, 
fibre of plants, and wild cotton. ( Fig. 5. ) The internal size, 2 X i .95 
and 1.25 deep; external, 2X3 and 2 deep. They were usually 
placed among the outer branches of the wild orange, or Kaman- 
cheti trees, eight to fifteen feet from the ground. There are usu- 
ally two eggs in each ne.st. These eggs are white, marked with 
brownish dots and splotches which are especially thick on the 
larger end of the &^^. Size .75X.57. Hah. Caroline Islands, 
Pelew and Marianas Islands. 



\ 

58 Direclor's Annual Report. 

Gexus ^OSTEROPS \'igors & Horsfield. 

a'. General color abo\e a dull >ello\vish olive, length 3.8. 
Zostcrops scmpcri . 

a.-. General color above olive green, length 4.25. Zostciops 
conspicillata . 

56. ^osterops semperi Hartl. & Finsch. ^osterops. 

General color above dull yellowish olive, scarcely brighter on 
the rump and upper tail coverts ; crown like the back ; in front of 
eye a du.sky spot, and below the eye a line of dusky. Length 3.8, 
wing 2.2, culmen .45, tail 1.33, tarsus .7. Hab. Pelew Islands, 
ea.st and central Carolines. Rota, according to Oustalet. 

57. ^osterops conspicillata Gray. Nossac. 

Dicffuni roHipHillalio}!. Kittl., Kupf. Vov.. 1S32, PI. 19, Fig i. 

Zostnops co)iipicillu/a. Gray. Gen. B. I.', 1848, p. 198: Gray, Cat. B. Trop. I.sl. Pacific O.. 1S59. 
p. 16: Gadow. Cat. B. Brit. JIus., 1SS4. IX.. p. iS.^. 

The little Nossacs are one of the common species of birds on 
Guam. They seem to be of a social nature and are usually seen in 
flocks of from ten to twenty. Their favorite feeding grounds seem 
to be the small Lemonceti bu.shes {Linovia trifoliata) that grow by 
the roadside, and in fact in the wa.ste places all over the island. 
They hop about on the branches, fir.st on one side and then on the 
other, keenly on the lookout for insecfts, which form the principal 
part of their food. In habits and flight they remind one very much 
of the goldfinch, but their note, .sounded iisuall}^ as they fly, is 
something like that of the English sparrow, bitt not so loud or un- 
pleasant. Twelve specimens were taken, all but one of which were 
females. One nestling and three nests and eggs were .secured. 
The measurements of half the specimens, selected at random, are 
given below: — 



Mmi'iim 
















Mid-toe 




Nu. 


Date. 


Length . 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Ta. 


isn.^. 


Cut men. 


and c. 


Sex. 


!).56(i 


Ma.v 24 


4..50 


2.19 


1..52 




.si 


.44 


.62 


5 


9.571 


June 7 


4.2.5 


2.1K 


1.5(> 




.Ml 


.47 


..5s 


5 


!).-)70 


June 1 


4.25 


2.:!0 


1 ..5(1 




.'.IN 


.47 


.5s 


d" 


SI574 


June 28 


4.21 


2.12 


1..5(l 




.78 


.4N 


..59 


? 


9.57.5 


June 19 


4.25 


2.1.5 


1..5(i 




.SO 


.44 


.62 


? 


9.57fi 


July 21 


n.dO 


1..51) 


..5(; 




.SI) 


.S5 


.<i2 


juv.- 



The spread of wing is about 6.75, and the depth of the bill at 
nostrils is about .13. The general color above is olive green vary- 
ing to dull grayi.sh olive, as in No. 9567 ; eyes with a ring of white, 
bordered below b}- a narrow dusky line which merges into the 
brownish gray of the hind cheeks and ear coverts ; there is ahso a 
line of white extending from this eye ring to the base and around 
the upper mandible ; throat and fore neck yellowish white, becom- 
ing a brighter yellowi.sh on the breast and bellj- ; hind cheeks, ear 
coverts and sides of neck grayish, with a slight shade of olive 



Report of a Mission to (iiiaiii. 



59 




6o Direclor s Animal Report. 

green ; sides of body yellowish, with a tint of olive green ; under 
tail coverts ranging from bright yellow to buffy ; wing coverts 
uniform with the coloring of the mantle ; under w'mg coverts and 
edge of inner webs of secondaries white ; primaries brown, with 
the edge of outer webs olive green, except in the first primary, 
which is a dark brown; tail feathers olive green above, grayish 
below ; upper tail coverts a shade brighter olive green than the 
mantle. The under color of the feathers all over the body is gray, 
so the shade of coloring on the bird depends largely upon how 
much of the outer tips of the feathers is worn off ; bill is dusky 
above, light below ; eye a light hazel ; feet are grayish with a very 
slight tint of greenish. Length 4.21-4.50, wing 2.12-2.30, tail 
1. 50-1. 56, tarsus .78-. 81, culmen .44-. 48, mid-toe and claw .58-. 62, 
the depth of the bill at nostrils is about .12, and the spread of wings 
is about 6.50. The immature, No. 9576, just able to fly, with beak 
still soft, and total length of body but three inches, has the coloring 
uniform with the adult. The bill, however, is yellownsh, and the 
feet and tarsi are a raw umber tint, the eyes are light hazel. The 
coloring of the belly is even a shade brighter yellow than in the 
adult. The nestlings, not yet able to fly, show the olive green 
coloring on the back, and buffy on the under parts ; quills bluish ; 
bill and feet yellowish. 

The nests are beautiful little strucftures, usually built in the 
Ingadulus tree and well hidden among the leaves. Its size inter- 
nally is 1.90X 1.65 and i in depth, while externally it is 2.95X2.19 
and 1.75 in depth. It is constrvufted of fine fibres and grass, the 
outside being covered with green moss, which renders it almOvSt 
indistinguishable from below. The nest is usually placed far out 
where several branches come together some distance from the 
ground. The eggs (Fig. 6), of which there are usually two in 
each nest, are white with a slight tint of blue, and shaped like the 
eggs of a robin, measuring about .63X.50. Hab. Guam. 

Genus CLEPTORNIS Oustalet. 
58. Cleptornis marchei Oust. Yellow Honey-eater. 

General color a deep golden yellow ; back, rump, wings and 
tail olive yellow. Length of wing, as given by Hartert ( Nov. Zool., 
v., p. 56), 76-80 mm.; bill ochraceous ; iris burnt umber ; feet and 
legs orange ochraceous. Hab. Island of Saipan, Marianas. 



Report of a Mission to Giiavi. 6 1 



Part II.— FISHES. 



P'lSii forms a very important part of the food of the people of 
Guam. There are no fish markets, however, the entire catch being 
divided up among those who take part in the fishing. The natives 
have quite a large number of pens, traps and nets. Several large 
seines of moderate mesh were .seen in use. But the favorite way 
of fishing seemed to be with the small circular net, which is thrown 
by the fisherman as he walks along the beach. 

It is recorded' that in former times "the natives caught and 
dried great quantities of fish," a grand fishing fiesta being held at 
certain seasons of the year. The method employed on these occa- 
sions being the poisoning of the fishes by using the juice of a native 
tree {Barringtonia speciosa) . The Spanish authorities, however, 
finding that this was depleting the waters, by killing young as well 
as old, abolished this method in 1894. When the Americans took 
possession the law was considered obsolete. By chance I was pres- 
ent at the first of these fishing fiestas that had taken place for seven 
years. Fully seven hundred people took part in the fishing. An 
immense deep pool, several hundred feet across, a short distance 
inside the reef, was surrounded by a line of seines. At low tide 
about one barrel of this poisonous juice was poured into the pool. 
The effect was almost instantaneous ; hundreds of fishes came 
gasping and .struggling to the top of the water where they were 
captured and killed by the natives. No ill effect seemed to follow 
the eating of these poisoned fi.sh. Thousands of small fishes were 
killed, and it is to be hoped our Government will put a stop to this 
wholesale destruction of fishes. 

In the arrangement and measurement of species in the follow- 
ing paper I have followed Jordan & Evermann, in their work on 
"The Fishes of North and Middle America." I wish to express 
my obligations to Prof. Wm. T. Brigham, Direcftor of the Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum, for many valuable suggestions and kindly 
assistance. Many thanks are also due Dr. David Starr Jordan for 
looking over and supplying corrections to ni}' MS. 

' Government Archives. Guam. 



62 Direclor s Aiinual Report. 

Family OPHICHTHYDID^.— Snake Eels. 

Genus OPKICTHUS Thunbekg & Ahl. 

43. Ophicthus colubrinus (Ahl). 

Head 9 into distance ironi snout to vent ; cleft of mouth of 
median width ; lips fringed. Teeth in jaws and on vomer obtuse, 
with rounded crowns, in 2 rows ; dorsal fin commencing in front of 
gill openings; pectorals rudimentary. Color in spirits : Grayish, 
with about 35 brownish rings over back and sides ; the older speci- 
mens have round spots in the interspaces between the rings, or the 
rings mav become more or less broken up into roundish spots. 
Two specimens 6-13 inches. Guam, June 2, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, 
Andaman to Malay Archipelago, Marianas. 

Family MUR^NID^.— ^Iorays. 

Genus MTJR.^NA (Aktedi) Linn.^jus. 

44. Mursena nigra Day. 

Head about 4.50 into the distance from tip of snout to anal 
opening. Body elongate ; the trunk and tail of about equal length ; 
Teeth biserial ; mandible with about 20 teeth on each side ; dorsal 
and anal moderately developed. Color in spirits: Uniform black, no 
light edge to fins. One specimen in poor condition. Length 8.50 
inches. Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. Andamans, Western Pacific, 
Marianas. 

45. Mursena tile Ham. 

Young: Hefid about 6 times from tip of snout to anal opening; 
the tail and trunk of about equal length. Body elongate. Teeth 
pointed ; eye 2 into snout. Color in spirits : Brownish yellow, 
slightl\' lighter below. Two specimens. Length about 4 inches. 
Guam, June 2, 1900. Hab. Seas of Bengal to Malay Archipelago, 
Marianas. 

Genus ECHIDNA Forstek. 

46-48. Bchidna uniformis sp. nov. 

Head, from gill openings to tip of snout, 3.20 into length an- 
terior of vent ; snout 5.20 into head. Body elongate, cylindrical; 
branchial openings small ; tail much longer than trunk ; nostrils 
lateral. Teeth blunt, in double rows in jaws and on the palate ; 
dorsal beginning about the length of head posterior of the gill 
openings ; the anal beginning just posterior of vent. Color in life: 
A uniform yellowish white, with a slight tint of pea green. Speci- 



Report of a Mission to (iiiai)i. 63 

mens fade but little in sinrits. Three sjieciniens. Length 6-S 
inches. (Uiani, June 2, 1900. //oIk (iuani. No. 47, B.P.B.M., 
is the type of species. 

Family BI/OPID^.— T.\rpons. 

GexLS MEGAIyOPS I.ACEPEDK. 

49. Megalops cyprinoides (Brouss). 

Head 3.66; depth 4.50: eye 3; interorbital 5; maxillary 
1.66, equal in length to mandibles; D. 11 18; A. 11 22; P. 15; 
scales 5-35-5, maxillary extending to posterior of eye ; branchi- 
ostegals 25 ; tubes of lateral line branched. Body oblong and com- 
pressed ; mouth oblique, lower jaw prominent ; a thin plate of bone 
attached to symphysis of the mandible of lower jaw and extending 
back between rami. Teeth villiform in jaws, on tongue, vomer, 
palatine and pterygoid bones. Fins : One dorsal fin with the pos- 
terior ray greatly elongate — greater than length of head ; the dorsal 
situated above the ventrals, which are abdominal ; base of dorsal 
1.50 into base of anal; caudal well forked; peclorals very low, 
their length 1.33 into head. Color in spirits: Silvery, darker 
above, with slight wash of bluish green ; margins of fins more or 
less dusky. One specimen. Length 8 inches. Guam, July 14, 
1900. Hab. China, Polynesia, vSeas of India, Ceylon, Marianas. 

Family SYNODONTID^.— Lizard-fishes. 

Genus SYNODUS (Gronow) Block & Schneider. 

50. Synodus variegatus (Ouoy&Gaim.) 

Head 3.50; depth 5.50; eye 7; interorbital about equal to 
eye; mandible 1.33 into head; snout 4; D. 12; A. 9; scales about 
65 in lateral line. A small adipose fin without rays. Body sub- 
cylindrical, slightly elongate ; interorbital space concave; gill open- 
ings very wide. Teeth sharp, direcfted back, numerous in jaws, 
tongue, palatine — those on palatine in a single row. Fins: Caudal, 
forked ; dorsal fin slightly longer than high ; tip of ventrals on a 
line with posterior base of dorsal ; pecflorals very short, 2.50 into 
head ; the series of scales on the tail are not keeled. Color in 
spirits: Grayish above, white below ; about 10 wide greenish bands 
over the back down on sides to below the axis ; vertical fins with 
brown dots forming streaks ; head more or less mottled with green- 
ish, with 3 or 4 greenish splotches along sides of jaws, and 3 spots 
on under rami of jaws. One specimen. Length 5 inches. Guam, 
July 13, 1900. Hah. Indian and Pacific oceans, Marianas. 



64 Director's Annual Report. 

Family BSOCID^.— Needle-fishes. 

Genus TYI^OSURUS Cocco. 

51. Tylosurus annulatus Cuv. & Val. Gar-fishes. 

Head 2.50; D. 23; A. 21; V. 6; eye 2 into postorbital length 
of head. Teeth rather strong, none on the vomer ; scales thin and 
small ; lateral line forming a keel along the free portion of tail. 
Color in spirits: Back and upper part of head green, with slight 
wash of steel blue ; sides and belly silvery white ; dorsal dusky; 
caudal with a dusky centre; remaining fins whitish; pedlorals with 
an indistinct blotch at base. One specimen. Length 14 inches. 
Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, Seas of India, Malay Archi- 
pelago, China, Marianas, North Australia. 

Family HBMIRAMPHID^.— Balaos. 

Genus HEMIRAMPHUS Cuvier. 

52. Hemiramphus limbatus Cuv. & Val. 

Head 3 or a little less ; depth 3.50 into head ; eye 4.50 ; snout 
3.50; D. 14; A. 12; scales 54. Teeth minute and in several rows 
in both jaws ; upper jaw short, wider than long. Fins: Caudal, 
lobed ; the lower lobe the longest ; dorsal beginning slightly in 
advance of anal ; ventrals equal to orbit ; pectorals 3 into head. 
Color in spirits : Silvery, bluish above ; a distinct silvery band 
which posteriorh' is equal to one scale ; tip of dorsal and anal dusky. 
Five specimens. Length 7-10 inches. Guam, June 14, igoo. 
Hah. Seas of India, China, Western Pacific, Marianas. 

Family FISTUI/ARIID^.— Cornet-fishes. 

Genus FISTUI/ARIA Linn^us. 

53-55- Fistularia depressa Linn. Trumpet-fish. Bagag. 

Head 2.66; depth 3.20; eye 11; interorbital 14.5; D. 15; A. 14; 
no scales, body nearly smooth ; the upper lateral edges of snout 
sharply serrated ; the 2 middle ridges on upper surface of snout 
well separated, being nearest together mesiall}'. Color in spirits : 
Dirty brownish, lighter below ; the young with a few scattered blue 
spots. Four specimens. Length 8-29 inches. Guam, June 14, 
1900. Hab. East Indies, Au.stralia, China, Panama, Lower Cali- 
fornia, Hawaiian Islands, Marianas. 



Report of a Mission to Guam. 65 

Family PRISTOPOMATID^. 

Genus SCOI^OPSIS Cuvikk & Valenciennes. 

56-59. Scolopsis lineatus' Quoy & Gaim. Sihig-. 

Head 3.20; depth 3; eye 3; snout 3.20; mandible equal to eye; 
iuterorbital 3; D.xg; A. iii 7; P. 16; V. i 5. Scales 3-44-12. Teeth 
minute, no canines. Inferior orbital with a spine direcfled back- 
wards under the pupil — usually 2 or 3 smaller spines below it. 
Posterior margins of the opercles toothed. Bod}^ oblong, slightly 
compressed. Branchiostegals 5. Pseudobranchiae developed. Gill- 
rakers short and blunt, 8 on lower limb. Fins : Caudal forked, the 
upper lobe the longest. Ventrals and pedlorals of about equal 
length, 1 .20 into head. Base of anal 3.50 into base of dorsal. About 
14 rows of scales in front of dorsal fin. Color in spirits : Grayish 
above ( in life the upper coloring is greenish ) , whitish below the axis. 
A more or less indistinct white line from snout to first dorsal spine. 
Two distinct white lines from above the orbit to sixth and seventh 
rays of soft dorsal. A third white line wider anteriorly, and more 
or less broken, extends from upper third of eye to just posterior of 
the hind margin of the dorsal fin. A fourth line forms the low'er 
boundary to the gray coloring along the median line from eye to 
caudal. The upper half of pedlorals has a duskj- blotch, and there 
ma}' be a dusky blotch, in some specimens, on the sides half way 
between the axis of body and the belly. Fins: All yellowish white, 
the spines with a bluish wash ; no dark spot between first and third 
dorsal .spines. Four specimens. Length 6-7.50 inches. Guam, 
June 14, 1900. Hab. Andamans, Malay Archipelago, Marianas. 

Family MUGII,ID^.— Mullets. 

Genus MUGII/ (Artedi) Linn^us. 

60. Mugil waigiensis Quoy & Gaim. 

Head 4; depth 4.50; eye 4.20; i into snout; interorbital 1.66; 
D. IV, 7; A. HI 8; P. 14; V. i 5. Scales 28. No adipose eyelid. 
Width of mouth is 2.66 Lips rather narrow^ the upper lip one- 
half width of pupil. Body oblong, compressed, and covered with 
large scales. There are 16 series of scales between tip of snout and 
fir.st dorsal spine. No lateral line. No true teeth in jaws. Fins: 
Caudal slightly emarginate. Pecft orals equal to distance from pos- 
terior of head to anterior nostril. In the specimen before me the 
pecftorals do not reach quite to the vertical of the origin of dorsal, 
but to the vertical of the next anterior row of scales. Ventrals and 
soft dorsal about equal in length, i .50 into head. Spinous dorsal 

2 I have carefully compared this fish with Quoy & Gaiiuard's description and figure (Quoy 
& Gaim. Voy. Freyc! Poiss., p. 322, pi. 60. fig. 3) and am convinced the species should stand as 
5'. liiieatus, Quoy & Gaim. 

O. P. B. P. B. M.— Vo:.. I., No. 3- 



66 DireHor' s Annual Report. 

1.66 into head. Color iu spirits: Silvery, with slight yellowish 
wash, slightly darker above. Pe(5torals dusky, with their lower 
margin yellowish. Anterior of anal dusky. Caudal, dorsals and 
ventrals yellowish white ; iris yellow. One specimen. Length 13 
inches. Guam, June 14, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Poly- 
nesia, Marianas. 

61. Mugil axillaris Bleek. 

Head 3.50; depth 3.66; eye 3.50; interorbital 2.50; D. iv, 8; 
A. Ill 9. Scales 44. No adipose eyelid. No teeth in jaws. Pec- 
torals reach to vertical base of dorsal, the tip of pecftorals being on 
the 13 series of scales from the back of the head. The preorbital 
is indistinctly denticulate. Maxillary hidden. Snout shorter than 
orbit. Twenty-one series of scales between tip of snout and origin 
of dorsal. Caudal is slightly emarginate. Dorsal fins are of 
about equal length, the first dorsal spine is eqvtal distance between 
tip of snout and base of caudal. Pectorals are equal in length 
to the distance from posterior edge of opercle to anterior nostril. 
An elongated scale in axis of pedtorals. The origin of soft dorsal 
is very little behind origin of anal. Color in spirits : Silvery, with 
bluish wash, deeper blue on back. Ventrals white. Pecftorals, dor- 
sals, anal and caudal fins slightly dusky. One specimen. I^ength 
3 inches. Guam, July 12, 1900. Hab. East Indian Archipelago, 
Marianas, Samoa. 

(i2,-^\, Mugil planiceps Cuv. & Val. Agoas. 

Head 4; depth 4; eye with adipose lid developed on fore and 
back of eye, but not extending on pupil. The clear part of eye 4.66 
into head ; interorbital 2.20. Scales 36 ; 19 series of scales from 
snout to first dorsal spine; D. iv, 18; A. iii 9. There are 20 series 
of scales between origin of dorsal and tip of .snout. The anterior 
margin of vSpinous dorsal is exacftly midway between tip of snout 
and base of caudal fin. A lance-like scale above axes of pecftorals. 
Lips thin. The ped-toral fin barely reaches the vertical of base of 
dorsal, ending on the eighth scale of a lateral series. The soft dorsal 
has its origin above the third soft anal ray. Caudal rather deeply 
emarginate. Color in spirits : Silver}^ with wash of 3'ellowish, 
slightly darker above ; more or less golden reflecftion behind eye. 
Peiftorals white, the former with an indistinct dusky blotch at ba.se. 
Caudal, dorsals and anal with more or less indistinct dusky wash. 
Three specimens. Length 3-6 inches. Guam, May 26, 1900. Hab. 
Coasts of Ceylon, Bengal, Hindostan, China, Marianas. 

Genus SPHYR^NA (Artedi) Block & Schneider. 

65. Sphyrsena obtusata Cuv. & Val. 

Head 3; depth 8.50; eye 5.33: maxillae 2.30; mandible 1.50; 
interorbital equal to eye ; snout 2.20 into head ; D. v, 19; A. 18. 
Scales 92, extending over opercles and cheeks. Body rather elon- 



Kcpoii of a Missicvi to Guam. 67 

gate, sub-cylindrical. Gape of mouth deep, the lower jaw the long- 
est. Teeth sharp-pointed in jaws and palatines, none on vomer. 
Fins : Interspaces between the two dorsal fins equal to one-half 
length of head. Caudal forked. Ventrals equal to distance from 
hind margin of opercle to eye. Color in spirits : Grayish green 
above, yellowish white below. The gray descends in a festooned 
edge along the lateral line, giving the appearance of about 12 dusky 
splotches along the sides — this is more distinct in young. The 
young also show indistinct dusky bands over the back. Three 
specimens. Length 3-5.50 inches. Guam, July, igoo. Hab. 
Seas of India to Malay Archipelago, Marianas. 

Family POLYNBMBD^.— Thread-fishes. 

Genus P0I,YDACTYLUS Lacepedk. 

66. Polydactylus sexfilis Cuv. & Val. Bocadulce. 

Head 3.5; depth 3.45; eye 4.50, more or less covered by adi- 
pose membrane ; interorbital 3.66 ; premaxillary 2.20 ; mandible 
2.20; D. VIII, I 2; A. Ill 12; P. 14 ; V. I 5. Scales 46; lateral line 
continuous; 5 free articulated appendages below each pe(5toral fin; 
two separate dorsal fins. Body oblong, compressed. Muciferous 
system of head well developed. End of snout projecfting beyond 
the mouth. Teeth setiform, several bands on premaxillary, vomer 
and palatines. Vertical margin of the preopercle strongly denticu- 
late. Fins : Caudal deeply forked, the longest ra^^ one-third longer 
than head. Short middle ray 2.50 into head. Pedtoral 1.20 into 
head. Longest ray of soft dorsal equal to head. Color in spirits: 
vSihery white, slightly darker above, a dusky splotch at base of 
caudal. Pectorals and anals dusky. Tips of dorsals dusky. One 
specimen. Length 13.5 inches. Guam, June 28, 1900. Hab. 
Seas of India, Polynesia, Marianas. 

Family HOLOCBNTRID^.— Squirrel-fishes. 

Gknus MYRIPRISTIS Cuvier. 
67-68. Myripristis murdjan (Forsk). Sagamolang. 

Head 3 ; depth 2.50 ; eye 2.20 ; snout 2 into eye ; interorbital 
equal to snout; D. x, i 14; A. iv 12; P. 15; V. i 7. Scales 3-34-6. 
Body oblong, slightly elevated and compressed. Teeth villiform. 
Mouth oblique, lower jaw projecting, with a rough nipple-like pro- 
jection on each side of symphysis. Maxillary reaches to beneath 
last third of orbit. Preopercle serrated its whole extent. Opercle 
with moderately strong spine, all the posterior margin below the 
spine and a little way above it finely serrated. Upper surface of 
head roughened by about four raised lines which branch posteriorly 
and end in small spines. Color in life : Roseate, gill openings and 



68 Dircflor' s Anmial Report. 

axillae of peclorals black. Fins whitish, except a dusky blotch on 
tip of soft dorsal. Three specimens. Length 2-7 inches. Agana, 
Guam, June 14, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, east coast of Africa, Seas 
of India to Malay Archipelago, Marianas, Hawaiian Islands. 

Genus HOI/OCENTRUS (Gronow) Scopou. 

69. Holocentrus diadema Lacep. 

Head 3.20; depth 3; eye 2.50; interorbital equal to snout, 4.20 
into head. Maxillary 3 into head and reaching to a line beneath 
the anterior margin of pupil. The upper processes of intermax- 
illaries end scarcely posterior of anterior margin of eye. D. xi 13; 
A. IV 9; P. 15; V. I 7. Scales 3-48-8; a single vertical row of 9 scales 
on the opercle. Orbital, opercular and preopercular bones serrated. 
The preorbitals have a large spine anteriorly; two opercular spines, 
the upper of which is much the stronger. The preopercular spine is 
2.66 into vertical margin of preopercle and 2 into e} e. Fins: Caudal 
well forked ; the third, fourth and fifth dorsal spines the longest, 
about equal to longest ray of soft dorsal; third spine of anal much 
the longest, 1.20 into head, about equal in length to ventral fin. 
The scales on the sides of anal fin are much elongated and serrated. 
Color in life: Red, with lighter longitudinal lines. Color in spirits: 
Silver}' grayish, darker above, with about 10 lighter longitudinal 
lines. Dorsal fin black, with a white longitudinal line through the 
middle, also an indication of light coloring on margin of fin. The 
web between third and fourth anal spine is black, otherwise all 
the fins are uniform j-ellowish white. Three specimens. Length 
2.50-5.50 inches. Guam, July 28, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, Ceylon, 
Chinese vSea, Indian Archipelago, Marianas. 

70. Holocentrus operculare Cuv. & \ al. 

"I'oHiig-: Head 3.20; depth 3; eye 2.50; maxillary equal to eye; 
interorbital 3.50 into head; D. xi 13; A. iv 10. Scales 37. Opercles 
and preopercles serrated, the preopercle spine equal to diameter of 
eye, and much smaller than the two spines of the opercles. Color, 
red; in spirits, a silvery grayish, slightly darker above. All the fins 
yellowish white, except the spinous dorsal which is black with 
white lines between the spines. One specimen, very young. 
Length 2 inches. Guam, July 23, 1900. Hab. Sea of New Ireland, 
Banda, Marianas. 

71. Holocentrus binolatum Quoy & Gaim. Cholog. 

Head 3 ; depth 2.66 ; eye 2.50 ; snout about equal to inter- 
orbital; D. XI 14; A. IV 9; P. 14; V. I 7. Scales 4-46-8. Opercles, 
preopercles, and orbitals with posterior and lower margins serrated. 
Maxillary reaching the posterior margin of pupil 2.20 into head. 
Mandible i .66 into head. Preopercular spine long and strong, about 



Report of a Mission lo Guam . 69 

twice as long as the two opercular spines. Preor])ital with a strong 
spine anteriorly, and another not quite so strong under the anterior 
third of pupil. Fins : The third, fourth and fifth dorsal spines are 
longest, but are only two-thirds as long as third anal spine, and are 
rather shorter than the soft dorsal. Caudal well forked, the lobes 
equal. Pe(5lorals slightly longer than ventrals, 1.25 into head. 
Color in spirits : Silvery whitish, with wash of yellowish. About 
1 2 indistin(5lly darker stripes on body. Fins 3'ellowish white, with a 
slightly darker splotch between the two anterior spines at base. 
The original description of this fish gives the dorsal fin as xi 14, 
and the figure in Voy. Astrol. Poiss., Pi. 14, Fig. 4, gives the 
stripes on the body, especially on lower half, as darker red than 
the ground color, which is very true of the specimen before me. 
One specimen. Length 5.50 inches. Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. 
New Guinea, Guam, Marianas. 

72. Holocentrus unipunctatum Gunth. I^esiog. 

Head 2.66 ; depth 2.50 ; eye 3 ; interorbital 2 into eye ; snout 
3.20; maxillary 2.50; D. xl 15; A. iv 10; P. 14; V. i 7. Scales 
3-45-8. Opercles, preopercles and orbitals serrated. The preopercle 
spine, measured from scales, 1.66 into vertical limb of the pre- 
opercle, and about equal to eye ; the two opercular spines of equal 
size and less than one-half the length of preopercular spine. Fins: 
The third, fourth and fifth dorsal spines the longest. Ventrals and 
pectorals of about equal length. Caudal well forked, lobes equal, 
the third anal spine the longest — 2.66 into head. Color in life: 
Red, with about 12 slightly darker red lines. In spirits the fi.sh 
becomes a dull grayish white, with very indistinct darker lines, the 
fins being a uniform 3'ellowish white, except a small blotch of black 
between the first and second dorsal spines, near the base. One 
specimen. Length 5 inches. Guam, June 14, 1900. Hab. Poly- 
nesia, Marianas. 

73-74. Holocentrus fuscostriatus sp. nov. Chalak. 

Head 3; depth 3.50; eye 2.66; interorbital 4; snout 3.50; max- 
illary equal to distance from posterior of orbit to posterior edge of 
opercle; mandible 1.66; low^er jaw projecting; D. x, i 12; A. iv 8; 
V. I 7; P. 14; C. 18, with 6 spines on each side. Scales 3-40-8; about 
27 scales on preopercle, each scale with a brown spot at base. Pos- 
terior margins of opercles and preopercles denticulate, except the 
oblique lower half of sub-opercle. The opercle has a single vertical 
row of 8 scales on its anterior margin. Opercle with two spines from 
posterior margin, their exposed length 2 into pupil, a minute spine 
just above these two ; lower margin of interopercle finely toothed; 
lower angle of preopercle with flat spine, its exposed length from 
scales 2 into orbit, 2.50 into horizontal length of preopercle. Pre- 
orbitals and sub-orbitals strongly denticulate. Mouth protracted. 



yo DireHor' s Annual Report. 

Groove for the posterior processes of the intermaxillaries reaches to 
a Hue with the anterior margin of the pupil. No spine on snout. 
Teeth: Bands of villiform teeth on jaws, vomer and palatines. On 
top of head just posterior of eyes about 8 raised lines form a fan- 
shaped area on each side. Fins: The second dorsal spine is the 
longest, equal to distance from base of anterior dorsal spine to base 
of sixth dorsal spine. The first dorsal spine 2 into head, the last 
2.50 into orbit. Third anal spine the longest, 1.33 into head. Soft 
dorsal and pectorals of about equal length, i .66 into head. Ventrals 
1 .50 into head. Color in life: General color silvery, slightly darker 
above, with a wash of purplish red and gold, the scales with a 
splendid opalescent refledlion, each side with 10 very distinct dusky 
lines which have a wash of purple madder. The lateral line, which 
is slightly the widest, is a brighter red with less of dvisky. Top of 
head deep red. Spinous dorsal reddish with a big black splotch 
between the 4 anterior spines. A row of triangular white spots be- 
tween the spines near base, and a marginal line of white. Soft dorsal 
yellow, with the two anterior rays red. Four outer rays on each 
margin of caudal red, the inner part yellow. Anal yellow, the fourth 
spine and first ray red. Pectorals pinkish. Belly and ventral fin 
white. Twenty-five specimens. Length 2-7 inches. Guam, July, 
1900. The young are similar in color, with the lines not quite so 
distinct, and with two dusky blotches over each eye. Type speci- 
men No. 73, B. P. B. M. Hab. Marianas. 

75-76. Holocentrus microstoma^ Gunth. 

Head 3.20 ; depth 3.50 ; eye 2.66; snout one-third less than 
eye; maxillary equal to eye ; mandible 2 into head ; D. xi i 10; 
A. IV 9; P. 16; V.I 8. Scales 3-54-8; 8 series of scales in front of 
dorsal. Preopercles scaled. Opercle with a single vertical row of 8 
scales which are deeply toothed pOvSteriorly. Gill-rakers moderate, 
12 including rudiments on lower limb. Hind margins of all the 
opercles, preopercles, the post, sub and preorbitals strongly ser- 
rated on their posterior or lower margins. Lower edge of pre- 
opercle with a prominent spine, the free portion from the scales 
measuring 2.20 into vertical limb of the preopercle, from lower 
margin of spine. Two prominent opercular spines, the upper much 
the largest. A prominent spine at the anterior end of preorbitals. 
Mouth projedtile, lower mandible slightly the longest. Grooves 
for the posterior processes of the intermaxillaries ends anterior of a 
line with front of pupil. The turbinal bones end in prominent pro- 
cesses. Teeth villiform. Fins: Caudal well forked, with six small 
spines at base of each margin. Third anal spine the longest, equal 
to depth of the fish. Fourth and fifth dorsal spines the longest, 155 
into head ; the first dorsal spine is about equal to eye, and the last 
is equal to pupil. PecStorals 1.50 into head. Anterior rays of the 

^Specimens from Guam show that //. biiinlulitiii and H. niicidiloiiia are distinct species. 



Report of a Mission to Guam. 71 

soft dorsal are the longest, being equal in length to the fourth 
dorsal spine ; the anterior rays of soft anal are also the longest, 
being ecjual to length of pe(5lorals. Color in life: Red, with about 
12 Avhitish longitudinal lines, most distinct on upper surface. 
Color in spirits: Silvery gray, with lighter longitudinal lines ; fins 
all uniform yellowish white, except spinous dorsal, which has a 
rather narrow white margin and an intermarginal line of black, 
below which is another line of white. Two specimens. Guam, 
July 14, 1900. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas. 

Family MUI/I/ID^. — Surmullets. 

Genus MUI,I,0IDES Bleeker. 

77. Mulloides flavolineatus Lacep. Salmoneti. 

Head 3.50; depth 4; eye 4; interorbital 3.50; width of max- 
illary at end 1.66 into eye; D. vii, 9; A. 11 6. Scales 2-37-6 Body 
oblong, slightly compressed. Villiform teeth in both jaws, no teeth 
on vomer or palatines. Interorbital space flat. Barbules thick, 
reaching to angle of preopercle. Opercular spine small. Fins: 
Pectorals 1.50 into head. The longest dorsal spine r.30 into head; 
the longest dorsal ray 2.20, equal in length to longest anal ray; 
5 rows of scales between the two dorsal fins. Color in spirits: 
Back dusky, with slight wash of reddish ; sides and belly with 
wash of yellowish, and indication of a yellowish line along sides. 
One specimen, length 11. 5 inches; 14 young, length 3 inches. In 
some of these young the yellow baud from head to caudal shows 
very distincftly. Guam, June 2, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, through 
India to Malay Archipelago and beyond, Marianas. 

78. Mulloides samoensis Gunth. 

Head 3.50; depth 3.50; eye 3; interorbital 3.66; mandible 3.50 
into head; D. vii, 9; A. 11 6. Scales 2-40-7. Villiform teeth in jaws 
in several series, no teeth on vomer or palatines. Fins: Pedlorals 
1 .50 into head, equal in length to the longest dorsal spine. lyongest 
dorsal ray 2 into head. Ventrals 1.30 into head. Barbules reach- 
ing to angle of preopercle. Color in spirits: Silvery white, a bluish 
wash above, a small dusky splotch on sides just below the ninth 
and tenth scale of the lateral line — the tips of the pe(5toral fins 
reach to the centre of this spot. An indistinct dusky blotch on inter- 
orbital region. One specimen. Length 4.50 inches (color much, 
faded). Guam, June 2, 1900. Hab. Samoa, Marianas. 

Genus UPBNEUS Cuvier. 
79. Upeneus multifasciatus Quoy & Gaim. 

Head 3.20; depth 3.20; eye 5.50; interorbital 3.50; maxillary 
2.20, its width at end greater than eye; D. ix, 9; A. 7. Scales 2-30-6. 
Barbules long, reaching within two rows of scales from base of ven- 



72 DireHor' s Annual Report, 

trals; two rows of scales between the two dorsal fins. Body oblong, 
compressed, the upper profile quite convex. Teeth in a single row 
in jaws, no teeth on vomer or palatines. A small opercular spine. 
Fins: Posterior rays of soft dorsal prolonged, i .66 into head. Third 
dorsal spine the longest, i .50 into head. The pedlorals and ventrals 
are about equal in length. Color in spirits: Upper color brownish, 
with indication of purple. A brown line down snout through eye. 
A broad saddle of black on the caudal peduncle ; another broad 
black band descends from the anterior half of soft dorsal. There 
are also indications of two or three more or less amalgamated broad 
black bands in front of this. Under surface yellowish white. Spin- 
ous dorsal dusky. Inner half of soft dorsal black, outer half marked 
with two or three longitudinal pale bluish lines. Pe(5torals cadmium 
yellow. Ventrals with external rays bluish, inner ones yellow. Anal 
bluish with 4 or 5 lighter longitudinal lines. Caudal dusky. One 
specimen. Length 8 inches. Guam, July 19, igoo. Hab. Seas 
of India, Malay Archipelago, Polynesia, Marianas. 

80. Upeneus saffordi^ sp. nov. Salmoneti. 

Head 3; depth 3.25; ej'e 5.66; interorbital 4; maxillar}' 2.50, 
its width at end equal to eye. Scales 2-30-7; D. viii, i 8; V. i 5. 
Barbules long, reaching to base of ventral fins. Body oblong, 
compressed, the upper profile quite concave. Snout rather sharp- 
pointed. The distance from the anterior margin of orbit to tip of 
snout 1.86 into head. Teeth in a single row in each jaw, no teeth 
on vomer or palatine. Three series of scales between the two dor- 
sal fins. A small preopercular spine. Fins: Spinous dorsal and 
ventrals of about equal length, 1.25 into head. Second ray of soft 
dorsal 2 into head, equal in length to base of fin. Base of anal 2.50. 
Pecftorals 1.60 into head, their base equal to shortest ray, their tip 
reaching to a line with the tenth scale of lateral line. Caudal well 
forked, the longest ray 1.25 into head. The posterior rays of the 
anal or dorsal are not prolonged. Color in life: Uniform cadmium 
3'ellow, with a saddle of bright yellow extending over the upper 
part of caudal peduncle and down to the lateral line, with two dis- 
tinct bluish lines from eye, two-thirds of the distance down sides 
of snout. Color in spirits: Uniform yellowish white, a whitish 
saddle over top of caudal peduncle down to lateral line, a dusky 
reddish splotch covering sides of snout. Fins all uniform light 
chrome; iris bright yellow. The young are similarly colored, but 
without the yellow marking on caudal peduncle so distinct. Two 
specimens. Length 6.50-3.00 Agaiia, Guam, July 14, 1900. 

81. Upeneus trifasciatus Lacep. 

Head 3.20; depth 3.20; eye 4.50; maxillary 3.66 into head. 
Scales 2-30-6; D. viii, 9; A. 7; snout blunt. Teeth in a single row 

4Nained in honor of Ijeutenant-Goveriior W. E. Safford, V. S. N., of Guam, in recognition 
of his interest and work in Polynesian natural history. 



Report oj a Mission to iinaiu. 73 

ill jaws, none on vomer or palatines. Barbiiles reaching about to 
angle of preopercle. Fins: Spinous dorsal i .50 into head. Longest 
ray of soft dorsal 2 into head. Two rows of scales l)etweeii soft and 
spinous dorsal. Color in spirits: Scales of upper surface more or 
less edged with brownish, below yellowish white. A brown line from 
end of snout through eye to below soft dorsal fin; back of the head 
this brown line is accompanied on each side by a yellow line of 
almo.st equal width. A dusky saddle over free portion of tail, with 
a yellowish spot between it and the soft dorsal. A more or less 
dusky line down po,sterior margin of preopercle. Base of opercular 
spine dusk}-. One specimen. Length 8 inches. Guam, May 26, 
1900. Hah. Indian Ocean, Polynesia, Marianas. 

Family CARANGID^.— Pompanos. 

Genus CARANX LacepEde. 

82. Caranx ascensionis (Forst.). Tarakita. 

Head 3.33; depth 2.66; eye 5.33, 2 into snout; interorbital 4; 
D. IX, I, 22; A. II, I 19; V. I 5. Scales about 58 to the beginning 
of the plate-like scales which arm the posterior half of the lateral 
line; there are 48 of the plate-like scales which begin on a line of 
the fifth dorsal ray. Body oblong, compressed. Mouth protradtile, 
the lower jaw slightly the longer. Maxillar}- broad, almost as 
wide as eye. Preopercle not serrate. Branchiostegals 7. Pseudo- 
branchiae present. Teeth: The teeth in the upper jaw in villiform 
band, with an outer series of stronger ones; those of the lower in a 
single series; minute teeth also on palate and tongue. Fins: The 
dorsal consists of a recumbent spine followed by seven rather weak 
spines, all connedled, the longest being 2.75 into head; following 
these and scarcely connecfted with them is a short strong spine about 
midway between the spinous dorsal proper and soft dorsal. The soft 
dorsal is about equal in length to anal and similar in form; the 
longest ray is contained 1.33 into head, being a little longer than 
the first ra}^ of anal; there are no detached rays. The pecftorals are 
long and falcate, their length greater than head, 3 into total length. 
Ventrals short, 2.50 into head. Caudal well forked, lobes equal, 
4 into total length. The bod}- is finely scaled, there being no bare 
area in front of ventrals. Lateral line strongly cur\-ed, the curved 
portion 1.50 into straight. Color in spirits: Silvery with a slight 
wash of 3-ellowish. Pectorals yellow. Dorsal and anal bluish. The 
outer raj'S of caudal seem to have more or less yellowish wa.sh. 
One specimen — length 13 inches — and 13 young 2.50-4.50 inches, 
were taken near the reef. Guam, July 9, 1900. The 3'oung are 
uiLstriped and have more bluish on the back, and the fins with less 
color. Hah. Gilbert Islands, Marianas. 



74 DireHor' s Aruiual Report. 

83. Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaim. 

Head 3.33; depth 2.50; eye 3.50, i intosuout; interorbital 3.66; 
D. VIII, I, I 21; A. II, I 19. Scales numerous, plates 33. L,ateral 
line strongly curved, the curve 1.66 into .straight portion. lyower 
jaw slightly longer than upper. Breast scaly. Teeth of upper jaw 
form a villiform band, an outer series of larger ones also present, 
a single row in lower jaw, small teeth on palate. Color: Silvery, 
bluish above, with about seven dusky vertical bands about equal to 
width of eye and narrower than interspace. An indistinct opercular 
spot. P'ins yellow. Two specimens, length 4.50 inches, were taken 
at Agafia, Guam, Jul}- 9, 1900. Hab. Western Pacific, Marianas. 

Genus I^EIOGNATHUS I^AciCPiSDE. 
84-86. I/eiognathus obscura sp. nov. 

Head 3.33; depth 1.66; eye 2.80, i into snout; interorbital 3; 
D. VIII, 17; A. Ill 15; V. I 5. Scales small, deciduous, cycloid, 
no scales on chest. I^ateral line unarmed and but slightly curved. 
Body elevated and strongly compressed. Mouth protra(5lile, upper 
jaw rather overhanging. Teeth minute, of equal size in jaws. Pre- 
opercle and supraorbital serrate. Two short spines on upper anterior 
part of orbit, the distance between two outer spines 2.50 into head. 
Branchiostegals 5. Pseudobranchiae present. Gill-rakers short but 
wide, with many small teeth. Fins: Second dorsal spine 3.80 into 
length, the third dorsal spine equal in length to .second anal spine, 
1 .50 into head. Pecftorals and second dorsal spine of equal length. 
Ventrals small, 2 into head. Caudal well forked, lobes of equal 
length; caudal peduncle 4 into head. The pores of lateral line are 
slightly enlarged anteriorly. Color: Silvery white, bluish above. 
An irregular dusky splotch about the size of eye a little below the 
axis, above anterior anal spine. The inner bases of pecftorals are 
black. A dusk}' splotch at upper edge of opercle, another at upper 
margin of orbit — this invades the upper part of iris, which other- 
wise is yellow. Snout more or less dusky with a short black line 
down each side from nostrils to upper lip. A dusky splotch on 
upper part of caudal peduncle. Fins white, a wash of yellow on 
caudal. Three specimens, length 3-5.50 inches, taken at Agaiia, 
Guam, May 26, igoo. No. of type 84*6. P. B. M. Hab. Marianas. 

Family PBMPHBRID^. 

Genus PBMPHERIS Cuvier & Vaeenciennes. 
87-90. Pempheris otaitensis (Cuv. & Val.). Sapi sapi. 

Head (from bony margin of opercle to tip of snout) 4; depth 
2.50; eye 2.25; maxillary 1.60; mandibles 1.50; interorbital 1.50 
into eye; from anterior margin of orbit to tip of snout is one-half 
the diameter of eye; D. vi, 9; A. iii 41; V. i 5; P. 19. Scales about 



Report of a MissioJi to (lUani. 75 

68-70 in lateral line. Mouth oblique. Setiform teeth on jaws, 
vomer and palatines. Snout blunt, liranchiostegals 7. Fins : Anal 
long, its base twice into length of fish. It is placed at an angle of 
about 40° to the axis. The rays are short, the longest being eciual 
to the diameter of eye. The base of dorsal is 1.66 into head, its 
longest XQ.y being about equal to head. Caudal emarginate. Pec- 
torals about equal to length of head. Color in spirits: Silvery, 
with a wash of reddish, each scale having a silvery margin with a 
sub-marginal brownish red area of about equal extent; darker 
above. Axis and base of pe(5torals black, a darker area along base 
of anal. Dorsal spines and tip of anterior dorsal rays black. Caudal 
dusk}- on edges, lighter in centre. Anal, pectorals and ventrals yel- 
lowish white. A more or less distinct splotch of gold just posterior 
of ej-e on opercle. Iris yellow. Five specimens. I^ength 3-7 inches. 
Guam, July 14, igoo. Hab. Western Pacific, Marianas. 

Family KUHI^IID^. 

Genus KUHI^IA Gill. 

91-93. Kuhlia rupestris (Lacep.). 

Head 3; depth 2.66; eye 4; maxillary 2.33, no supplemental 
bone; mandible 1.66; interorbital 3.50; D. x 11; A. iii 10; V. i 5; 
P. 13. Scales large, 5-44-9, lateral line complete. Body oblong, 
slightly compressed. Mouth large, protradlile. Teeth: Bands of 
villiform teeth on jaws, vomer, palatines, entopterygoid and ecto- 
pterygoid bones. Tongue smooth. Gill-rakers about 16, rather 
short on lower limb. Branchiostegals 6. Pseudobranchiae well 
developed. Opercle with two spines. Preorbital and preopercle 
finely denticulate, gill membranes separate. Fins: The caudal is 
emarginate, the lobes rounded. Fifth dorsal spine is 2.50 into head; 
tenth dorsal spine is much longer than ninth, its length 3 into head. 
Ventrals and pe(ftorals of about equal length. Anal longer than its 
distance from caudal. Color in spirits: Dark silvery, blui.sh above, 
most of the .scales with a blackish spot at tip or base. Caudal, anal 
and dorsal dusk}^ with a wide whitish space at tip. Ventrals white. 
Pecftorals whitish, upper ray black. Three fine specimens, length 
6-g inches, were presented to the Museum by Lieutenant-Governor 
W. E. Safford, U. S. N. These were taken in fresh water at the 
head of the Agafia river, Guam, 1900. This is a valued food fi.sh. 
Hab. Fre-sh water streams and lakes of Polynesia, Marianas. 

Family CHBlIyODIPTBRID^.— Cardinal-fishes. 

Gkxus APOGON Lacepede. 

94. Apogon fasciatus Quoy & Gaim. I^ansi. 

Head 2.86; depth 3; eye 2.50; snout 50 into eye; interorbital 
about equal to snout ; maxillary reaching beyond pupil 1.23 into 



^6 Dircclor' s Annual Report. 

head; D. vi, i 9; A. 11 8. Scales 1-28-4. Teeth villiform in jaws, 
vomer and palate. Body oblong, slightly compressed and elevated. 
Branchiostegals 7. The preopercle has a double edge, the outer 
one of which is serrated. Gill-rakers rather long and slender, 12 
on lower limb. Fins: Caudal emarginate. Pe(5lorals and ventrals 
of about equal length, i .50 into head. The spinous and .soft dor- 
sals separate, the soft dorsal the longest. Base of anal slightly less 
than base of soft dorsal. Color in spirits: Yellowish white with 
wash of red. Four lateral longitudinal black bands on each side 
from head to caudal, the second and fovirth lines form an arch on 
the base of caudal fin. A black band on base of anal, also a black 
band on base of soft dorsal. Other fins yellowish. Lower jaw 
more or less dusky. Twenty specimens. Length 1-3 inches. 
Guam, June 14, 1900. Hah. Seas of India, Malay Archipelago, 
Marianas. 

95. Apogon auritus Cuv. & Val. 

Head 2.50; depth 2.86; eye 3.50; D. vii, 9; A. 11 7; inter- 
orbital 2 into eye; maxillar\' 2 into head. Scales 23. Teeth villi- 
form in jaws, vomer and palatines. No canines. Bones of the 
head not serrated. Caudal rounded. Color in spirits: Yellowish 
brown, with darker spots over bod}-. A black spot half as large as 
eye and margined with white on the opercle. One specimen. 
Length 2.25 inches. Guam, July 12, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, Seas 
of India to Malay Peninsula, Marianas. 

96-98. Apogon savayensis Gunth. 

Head 2.66 (without flap); depth 2.66; eye 2.55; snout 1.66 
into ej^e ; maxillar}- 1.66; mandible 1.50; D. vii, 19; A. i 8. 
Scales 2-27-5. Body oblong, compressed. Preopercle w4th a double 
edge. Teeth villiform in jaws, vomer and palatines. Fins: Caudal 
slightly emarginate. Length of spinous dorsal 1.66 into head. 
Base of anal equal to eye. Pectorals slightly longer than the ven- 
trals. Color in spirits: Olive, a dusky saddle over free portion of 
caudal peduncle. A dusk}- oblique line from lower posterior edge 
of orbit to lower posterior edge of opercle. There are slight indis- 
tinct indications of four other dusky bands descending from the 
dorsal fins to belly. Ventrals white. All the remaining fins more 
or less dusk3^ Seven specimens. Length 2-4.50 inches. Guam, 
June 14, 1900. Hab. Coasts of Africa, Seas of India, Marianas. 

Family SBRRANID^.— Sea Basses. 

Genus BPINEPHBI/US Block. 

99. Bpinephelus dsemetii Gunth. 

Head 2.66; depth 3.66; eye 4.66; width of maxillary at distal 
end 2.50 into eye; mandible 1.50 into head; interorbital 2 intoe3'e; 
D. XI, 16; A. Ill, 8; V. I 5; P. 17. Scales small, about 85 in lat- 



Report of a Mission to duani. 77 

eral line. Teeth in narrow ])an(ls in 2 series on the sides of the 
niantlibles. Canines strong. \'illilorni teeth also on palatine bones 
and vomer. Branchiostegals 7. Pseudobranchite present. Max- 
illary reaching pa.st vertical of posterior of eye, lower jaw project- 
ing. Border of preopercle ronnded and serrate, the serrse slightly 
larger at angle. Gill-rakers short, 13 on lower arm, with villiform 
teeth. Fins: Candal rounded, its length about 2 into head. Soft 
anal slightly longer than soft dorsal. Third anal spine the longest, 
2.50 into head. Fifth dorsal spine Lhe longest, 2.66 into head. 
Pectorals rounded, 1.50 into head, their base about equal to orbit. 
Ventrals not reaching to anus. Color in spirits: Brownish, with 
mottlings and narrow lighter more or less hexagonal lines, white 
below, the body with about six indistinct slightly oblique bands 
about as wide as interspaces. The dorsal parts of these bands are 
very black and distinct, less distinct on sides; the fir.st is on the 
shoulders, second from 2-5 dorsal spine, third from 7-10 dorsal 
spine, fourth from 2-6 dorsal ray, fifth from 12-14 dorsal, and the 
sixth forms a black saddle ou caudal peduncle. All of these bands 
extend a little obliquely down to the ventral surface of body. The 
thorax has 9 round brown spots half as large as eye. The caudal 
is brown with small white spots and a narrow white margin. The 
pectorals a 3'ellowish without distinct markings. Anterior of ven- 
trals dusky, remainder of fin white with about 9 browm spots. Tip 
of anal black. The general coloring of both the anal and dorsal is 
brown with lighter lines reticulating through them. One specimen. 
Length 6.5 inches. Guam, July 12, 1900. This species is well 
figured in Boul. Cat. Fishes, 2 ed., p. 223, PI. VII. Hab. West- 
ern Pacific, Marianas. 

100-103. Bpinephelus hexagonatus (Bl.). Gadua. 

Head 2.66; depth 3.20; eye 5; distal width of maxillary reaches 
to below hind edge of orbit 2.50 into eye; mandible 1.50 into head; 
interorbital 1.33 into eye; D. xi 16; A. iii 8; V. i 5; P. 16. Scales 
small ctenoid, about 108 in lateral line. Upper tw'O-thirds of hind 
margin of preopercle finely serrated, lower third coarsely so. Hind 
margin of opercle with three spines equidistant apart, the middle 
one the largest, its length about 2 into orbit. F'ins: The caudal is 
rounded, its length about 2 into head. Pecftorals rounded, their 
length 1.66 into head, their base about equal to orbit. The soft 
dorsal and soft anal are about equal in length, 2.50 into head. 
Color in spirits: Brown, with light reticulations covering the body, 
giving the appearance of hexagonal, sometimes rounded, or more 
or less confluent spots. These spots not only cover the entire body 
but all the fins also. On the pe(5lorals, however, the spots are 
smaller and more nearly in rows. Four specimens. Length 4-8 
inches. Agaiia, Guam, July 12, 1900. Hab. Western Pacific, 
Poh'nesia, Marianas. 



yS Dircflor' s Annual Report. 

Family LUTIANID^.— Snappers. 
Genus I^UTIANUS Block. 
104-106. lyUtianus fulvus (Bl.). Kakaka. 
Head with flap 2.60; depth 3; eye 3.66; interorbital less than 
eye; snout 3; D. x 14; A. in, 8. Scales 52, which are oblique 
above lateral line, horizontal below. Maxillary equal to length of 
snout. Interopercular knob well developed. The vertical limb of 
the preopercle with a deep emarginatiou and a produced rounded 
angle; above the notch the limb is serrated. Branchiostegals 7. 
Pseudobranchiae developed. Body oblong, compressed. Fins: 
Caudal fin emarginate. Length of peclorals equal to di.stance from 
posterior margin of opercle to anterior nostril. Base of anal about 
4 into base of dorsal. Ventrals 1.66 into head. Color in spirits: 
Uniform yellowish, with slight wash of reddish. A dusky splotch 
in axis and on base of pe(5f;orals. The upper third of dorsal black, 
with a narrow white margin. Caudal more or less dusky, with a 
narrow white margin. An indistinct dusky mark near middle of 
anal. Pecflorals and ventrals yellow. Three specimens. L,ength 
6-8 inches. Guam, June, 1900. Hab. Andamans, Polynesia, 
Marianas. 

107. I/Utianus bengalensis (Block.). 

Head 2.50, including opercle flap; depth 3; eye 4; interorbital 
2.33 into snout; D. x 15; A. in 9; V. i 5; P. 15. Scales 64. Max- 
illary 2.66 into head. Vertical limb of the preopercle with a notch 
above its rounded angle. Interopercular knob distinct. Teeth 
villiform on vomer and palatines, small-sized canines in premax- 
illary with a row of small curved conical teeth in each jaw. Gill- 
rakers of moderate size, 13 on lower limb. Fins: Caudal forked. 
Pecftorals equal to distance from tip of opercular flap to hind nostril. 
Ventrals about 2 into head. Base of anal 3.86 into base of dorsal. 
Color in spirits: Yellowish white, a slight wash of bluish above. 
Four blue, brown-edged stripes, one-half as wide as pupil, along 
sides of body; first from interorbital to eighth dorsal spine, second 
from upper posterior margin of orbit to 4-6 dorsal ray, third from 
upper anterior margin of opercle on a line wdth middle of orbit to 
behind the last dorsal ray, fourth from sides of snout below orbit 
across opercles to middle of caudal fin. Fins: Yellowish white. 
Dorsal with dusky tip. One specimen. I^ength 7 inches. Guam, 
June 14, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, seas of India, Malay Archipelago, 
Marianas. 

108. I/Utianus erythropterus Bl. 

Young-.- Head 2.50; depth 2.66; eye 3.20; interorbital 6 into 
head; snout equal to eye; maxillary reaches to below the pupil; 
D. X, 13 ; A. Ill 8. Scales 55. Body oblong, compressed, and 
slightly elevated. Color in spirits: Yellowish white, with a slight 



Report of a Mission to Guam. 79 

Avash of reddish brown. Fins: Yellowish white, the dorsal with 
a fine black margin. Twenty-seven small specimens. Length 
about I inch. Guam, June i, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, coast of 
Africa, seas of India to Malay Archipelago, Marianas. 

109-110. I/Utianus bonhamensis Gunth. Mafuti. 

Head 3; depth 3; eye 3.66; interorbital 3.18; snout 2; max- 
illary 2.50 into head, not reaching to orbit; mandible 2.20; D. x 9; 
A. Ill 8; P. 14; V. I 5. Scales 6-48-15. Body oblong, compressed. 
Brachiostegals 6. Teeth villiform in anterior portion of jaws, with 
4 canines in front of them; the teeth in hind part of jaws rounded 
molars, 8 on each side behind the canines, the 4 anterior of these 
rather sharply pointed. Fins: Caudal emarginate. Pedlorals about 
the length of head. Ventrals reaching to anal opening, 1.50 into 
head. Base of anal 2.66 into base of dorsal, the third, fourth and 
fifth dorsal spines the longest — about one-third the depth of body. 
Color in spirits: Grayish, wdtli a wa.sh of olive; more or less indis- 
tinct dusky mottlings on back and sides; sometimes a large black 
splotch on middle of sides. Axis of peAorals bluish. Fins yellow- 
ish white. Two specimens. Length 8-10 inches. Guam, June 
14, 1900. Hab. Marshall Islands, Marianas. 

III. I^utianus monostigtna (Cuv. &Val.). Buah. 

Head 2.50; depth 2.50; eye 4; interorbital 5; snout about equal 
to eye; maxillary 2.33; D. x 13; A. iii 8. Scales 50. Body oblong, 
somewhat compressed. Maxillary reaching to below hind third 
of eye. Color in spirits: Whitish, with a slight wash of reddish 
brown. A distinct black spot on the lateral line under the anterior 
soft dorsal ray. Fins yellowish white. Tw^o specimens. Length 
2 inches. Guam, May 26, 1900. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas. 

Family CIRRHITID^.— Cirrhitoid-fishes. 

Genus PARACIRRHITES Steindachner. 

113. Paracirrhites arcatus (Perkins). 

Head 3; depth 2.50; eye 4; interorbital 2 into snout; D. x 11; 
A. Ill 6. Scales 5-42-10. Maxillary 2.30. Body oblong and com- 
pressed. Branchiostegals 6. Preopercle denticulate. Teeth villi- 
form in both jaws, with a few small canines; villiform teeth on 
vomer. Fins: Seven simple rays in the pecftorals. Caudal square. 
Anterior rays of soft dorsal elongate. Base of anal 3.25 into base 
of dorsal. Color in spirits: Reddish brown, a wide white line above 
the lateral line from below fifth dorsal spine to the upper half of 
caudal. A white, brown-edged semicircular ring obliquely behind 
eye. Three narrow oblique whitish lines on sub-opercle. One 
specimen. Length 4.5 inches. Guam, June 2, 1900. Hab. From 
Mauritius to Pacific, Marianas. 



8o Dii'cclor's Amuial Report. 

Family GARRID^.— Mojarras. 

Genus GARRES Cuvier. 

113. Garres argyeus Cuv. & Val. 

Head 3.33; depth 3; eye 3.50; mandible 2.20; interorbital 3; 
D. IX 10; A. Ill, 8; P. 16; V. I 5. Scales 45. Body slightly ele- 
vated, oblong and compressed. Snout very protracftile. Branchi- 
ostegals 6. Psendobranchiae well developed. The groove for the 
processes of the intermaxillary bones does not extend to the vertical 
from the centre of the eye. Teeth setiform, lower pharyngeal 
bones firmly united by a suture. Fins: Caudal well forked, scaled. 
Pecftorals longer than head. The first dorsal spine is contained 
1.50 into head. The dorsal fin has a scaly sheath into which the 
fin is received. Color in spirits: Uniform silvery, tip of dorsal 
dusky, a dusky line from dorsal to forehead, and an indistinct dusk}' 
blotch on tip of snout. One specimen. L,ength 15 inches. Guam, 
July 12, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, Australia, Marianas. 

Family POMACBNTRID^.— Demoiselles. 

Genus POMACENTRUS Lacepede. 

114. Pottiacentrus punctatus Quoy & Gaim. 

Head 3; depth 1.66; eye 2.50; snout equal to eye; D. xii 15; 
A. II 13. Scales 24 in the lateral line, which terminates under 
posterior half of soft dorsal. Body short and compressed. Branchi- 
ostegals 5. Gill-rakers small, length less than pupil of eye. Teeth 
small setiform. Preopercle serrated. Fins: Caudal emarginate. 
Ventral fins somewhat produced, the longest ray greater than length 
of head. L,ength of pectorals slightly less than head. The soft 
anal slightly longer than soft dorsal. Color in spirits: White, with 
a slight wash of grayish brown. Each scale with a small blue dot, 
larger dots on sides of head, and a lighter wash on preorbitals. 
A black spot on base of posterior. Three soft dorsal rays and a 
black spot in axil of pedloral fins. All the fins yellowish white, a 
slight wash of dusk 5^ on ventrals and anal. Two specimens. Length 
2 inches. Guam, July i, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, Andamans, Malay 
Archipelago, Marianas. 

115. Pomacentrus trimaculatus Cuv. & Val. 

Head 3; depth 2; eye 3; snout slightly longer than diameter 
of eye, 2.66 into head; D. xii 15; A. 11, 16; interorbital equal to 
eye. Scales 20 (with tubules). Body short and compressed. Sub- 
orbital arid posterior edge of preopercle serrated. Teeth small. 
Fins: Ventrals with first rays rather elongate, equal to length of 
head. Pedlorals 1.20 into head. Caudal emarginate. Color in 
spirits: Almost uniform greenish, a dusky splotch on posterior part 



Rcporf oj a J//ss/o// to Ciiiain. 8i 

of dorsal fin, some bluish spots on opercles and cheeks. Two nar- 
row blue lines go from one orbit to the other. A row of bluish dots 
more or less connected direclly below the eye. A narrow blue line 
from front of orbit to snout. One specimen. Length 2.5 inches. 
Guam. June i, 1900. Hab. Andanians to Malay Archipelago, 
Marianas. 

116. Pomacentrus littoralis Knhl. 

Head 3.20; depth 2; eye 3.50: snout and interorbital equal to 
eye; I), xiii 14; A. 11 14. vScales 19 in lateral line proper, which 
ends under middle of soft dorsal. Teeth in single row in both jaw\s. 
Sub-orbital and vertical limb of preopercle serrated. Body short 
and compressed, the chin and forehead equally convex. Greatest 
depth of preorbital about one-half diameter of eye. Fins: Caudal 
emarginate. Ventrals longer than head. Pecftorals equal to head. 
Base of anal 2.20 times into base of dorsal, the longest soft dorsal 
rays about equal to longest soft anal rays. Color in spirits: Brown- 
ish olive, either uniform or with some indistinct darker spots. A 
black spot at base of pe(5lorals. An indication of bluish markings 
oil sides of head, i.e., on sub-orbital. Five specimens. Length 
2-4 inches. Guam, June i. 1900. Hab. Andamans, Malay Archi- 
pelago, Australia, Marianas. 

117. Pomacentrus bankanensis Bleek. 

Head 3.50; depth 2; eye 3: snout and interorbital equal, and 
each slightly less than the eye; D. xiii 14; A. 11 15. Scales 17 to 
where line terminates. Sub-orbital and preopercle serrated. Body 
short and compressed. Branchiostegals 5. Fins: \'entrals slightly 
longer than head. Pectorals equal to head. Base of anal 2 into 
base of dorsal. Caudal emarginate. Color in spirits: Brownish, 
each scale with a blue dot. Two narrow blue lines on forehead, 
converging on snout and extending on to back. A deep blue, almost 
black spot on upper opercle; another margined with bluish white 
on bases of the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth soft dorsal rays. 
Pectorals and caudal yellowish white. \'entrals, anal and dorsal 
more or less dusky. Three specimens. Length 1.50-3.50 inches. 
Guam, June 2, 1900. Hab. Andamans, Malay Archipelago, Mari- 
anas. 

Genus AMPHIPRION Block 

118. Amphiprion ephippium Bl. Gadudog. 

Head 3.25; depth .75; eye 4 into head; profile rounded and 
blunt; D. x, 16; A. 11, 14. Scales 7-40-18. Color: Brownish blacky 
lighter anteriorly with a white band. Blue in life. One and one- 
half times as wide as eye, extending from the neck to eye, and 
down along the opercle and preopercle, ending in an acute angle 

O. p. B. p. B. M.— Vol.. I., No. -V 



82 Direclor' s Annual Repoii. 

on the sub-opercle. Fius: \"eutrals and anal black. Pedlorals, 
caudal peduncle and fin yellow. The spinous dorsal is dusky, the 
soft dorsal is light yellow. The posterior of caudal and anal is 
rounded; the posterior of dorsal forms an acute angle. The inter- 
orbital space is about twice as wide as eye. The opercles are all 
distincflly toothed and ridged on their posterior parts. Fovir speci- 
mens, 3-4.50 inches in length, were secured inside the reef, Agafia, 
Guam, June 14, 1900. Hob. vSea of Amboyna, Polynesia, Mari- 
anas. 

119. Amphyprion bicinctus Riipp. 

Head 3.50; depth 2; eye 3 into length of head and less than 
length of snout; D. x, 16; A. 11, 14. Scales about 7-44-20. Color: 
Blackish brown, with two china-white cross bands — blue in life; 
the first is of equal width with ej-e and extends over the neck verti- 
cally down to lower edge of opercle, the other extends vertically 
down from the eighth -ninth dorsal spine to the anal opening. 
Anterior part of head, thorax and fins orange. Fins: Posterior of 
anal and dorsal fins form acute angles. The caudal is emarginate, 
the upper lobe produced. Pectorals long, reaching to second white 
band. Teeth: In single series, small, conical. Opercle and pre- 
orbital armed with teeth, those on the opercle and sub-opercle being 
almost as long as width of pupil. One specimen secured at Agaiia, 
Guam, July 14, 1900. Length 3 inches. Hah. Red Sea, Poly- 
nesia. Marianas. 

Genus ABUDEFDUF Forskal. 
120. Abudefduf septemfasciatus Cuv. & Val. 

Head 3.20; depth 1.86; eye 3.86; interorbital 2.50; D. xiii 12; 
A. II 11; V.I 5. Scales 3-22-11. Body oblong, compres.sed and 
elevated. Snout 2.50 into head. A small e3^elid on upper anterior 
part of eye. Preoperculum not denticulate. Teeth fixed, com- 
pressed, in a single series. Fins: Vertical fins scaled. The cau- 
dal well forked, the upper lobe the longest. Length of longest 
dorsal ra}' 1.20 into head, length of longest dorsal spine 1.66 into 
head. Pedlorals equal to length of ventrals, slightly longer than 
head. Anal rounded, the longest ray equal to longest ray of dorsal; 
the base is 2.66 times into base of dorsal. A small flat spine from 
posterior margin of opercle. Color in spirits: Ground color of 
silvery gra3'ish , with seven brownish cross bands which are broader 
than the interspaces; first, rather indistinct from occiput to pre- 
operculum; second, from nape and anterior base of dorsal to pec- 
toral; third, fourth, fifth and sixth extend from the dorsal fin; the 
seventh from a band on the caudal peduncle direcftly behind the 
dorsal and anal fins. Fins dusky, except the pecftorals which are 
whiti.sh with a black spot on upper base. Upper part and sides of 



Report of a MissioJi to Guam. 83 

snout blackish. One specinie'n. lyength 6.50 inches. Guam, 
June I, 1900. Hub. Mauritius to Philippine Islands, coast of 
China, Marianas. 

121. Abudefduf brownriggii Benn. 

Head 3.68; depth 3; eye 2.66; snout and interorbital space 
equal and less than e3'e; D. xiii 13; A. 11, 13. Scales 26. Inferior 
orbital and preopercles not serrated. Bod}' compressed and rather 
.short, the snout and chin quite short and rounded. Color in spirits: 
Bluish to yellowish brown, some with small blue dots, some speci- 
mens with one or two black spots on base of soft dorsal fin. One 
specimen has a lighter yellowish band around caudal peduncle, and 
a large yellow splotch on opercles. Some specimens have two blu- 
ish lines on forehead. Four specimens. Length 1-3.25 inches. 
Guam, June i, 1900. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas. 

122. Abudefduf antjerius Kuhl. 

Head 3; depth 2.20; eye 3; snout and interorbital space equal, 
and less than ej-e; D. xiii 13; A. 11 13. Scales 26. The scales 
on top of head are continued forward to anterior margin of eye. 
Bod}- short, compressed. Branchiostegals 5. Pseudobranchige 
present. The anterior profile is rather more short and stubby than 
in most species of this genus. Fins: Caudal slightly forked. Pec- 
torals about equal to length of head. Base of anal 2.55 into base of 
dorsal. Color in spirits: Brownish, almost without markings, to 
bluish with two or three minute lighter dots on each scale. A black 
spot at the base of dorsal. One specimen is lighter on belly and 
thorax. A blue line along sub-orbital. A black spot in upper 
axis of pecTiorals. Caudal yellow. Peclorals )-ellowish white, re- 
maining fins dusky. Two specimens. Length 2 inches. Guam, 
July 14, 1900. Hab. From Red Sea to India and Malay Archi- 
pelago, Marianas. 

123. Abudefduf lacrymatus Quoy & Gaim. 

Head 2.66; depth 2.05; eye 2.86; snout equal to interorbital 
and less than orbit; orbitals and preopercles not serrated; D. xii 14; 
A. II 13. Scales 27. The tubules of lateral line ending under 
middle of soft dorsal, the line being continued by small circular 
pores. The preorbital above angle of mouth one-half diameter of 
eye. Body .short and compressed. Branchiostigals 5. Pseudo- 
branchiae present. Teeth small, compressed, and in a single row. 
Fins: Ventrals equal to length of head. Caudal emarginate. Base 
of anal 3 into base of dorsal. Color in spirits: Brown, with small 
scattered blue spots, some specimens almost plain. Hind portion 
of soft dorsal and caudal yellowish white. Pedtorals white with 
black at base. Anal and ventrals dusky. Seven specimens (young) . 
Length 1-2 inches. Guam, July 23, 1900. Hab. Coast of Java, 
Ternate, Marianas. 



84 Dircflor s Annual Report. 

124. Abudefduf dickii Lienard. Fomho. 

Head 3.20; depth 1.66: eye 3; snout equal to eye; interorbital 
2.66 into head; D. xii 15; A. 11 14. Scales 30. Body short and 
compressed. Opercles entire. Teeth compressed and iu a single 
row. The tubular portion of the lateral line stops below posterior 
end of soft dorsal fin. Fins: Caudal well forked. The anterior 
rays of dorsal and anal somewhat prolonged. Rays of ventral equal 
to or slightly longer than head. \'ertical fins scaled. Color in 
spirits: Grayi.sh brown, with a black band on posterior third of 
bod}', descending from third-seventh dorsal ra3-s to middle of soft 
anal. Caudal and pectorals yellowish white, slightly du-sk}- at tip, 
the remaining fins dusky. One specimen. Length 4 inches. Guam, 
June 14, iQOO. Hab. Samoa, Caroline Islands, Marianas. 

125. Abudefduf amboinensis (Bleeker). 

Head 2.30; depth 2.33; eye 2.66; interorbital equal to orbit; 
maxillary 2.66; scales 2-27-7; D. xiii 9; A. 11 10. Body oblong, 
compressed. Snout shorter than diameter of eye, each jaw with 
about 40 small teeth. Fins: Dorsal and anal fiins with their mid- 
dle raj'S longest. Caudal deeply forked with the lobes much pro- 
duced. Pecftorals and ventrals of about equal length, i into head. 
Color in spirits: Brownish violet, slightly lighter below. A deep 
brown spot at base and in axil of pe(5lorals. All the fins more or 
less washed with bluish, except pectorals which are white. Six 
specimens. Length 3.50 inches. Guam, June 14, 1900. Hab. 
Amboyna, Marianas. 

Gknus TETRADRACHMUM Cantor. 

126. Tetradrachttium aruanum Linn. 

Head 3.50; depth 1.75; eye 2.75 into length of head; snout 
slightly shorter than width of eye; D. xii 13; A. 11 11. Scales 
3-26-1 1. Color: Whitish with three broad black cross bands, the 
fir.st ascending obliquely upwards and back from the chin through 
ej-e to base of spinous dor.sal; the second covers the ventral fins 
and extends in a slightly curved course to the fifth -ninth dorsal 
spines ; the third embraces the .soft anal, extends ventrally up- 
wards on to the soft dorsal. Caudal fin white. The interorbital 
space is white. This is a very abundant little fi.sh about the coral 
reefs, and were easily caught by lifting the chunks of dead coral 
out of the water and holding it over a net, the fishes, which were 
hidden in the holes of the coral, dropping out into the net. One 
hundred and twenty-five .specimens were secured. Length .50-2.50 
inches. Guam, June, 1900. Hab. Ea.stern coa.st of Africa, seas 
of India, Polynesia and New Zealand, Marianas. Numerous at 
the Andamans, Nicobars and Burmah. Much rarer in western 
than in ea.stern India. 



Report of a Mission to (iuaiii. 85 

Family LABRID^. — Urkssh-fishes. 

Okxis HARPE Lacepedk.. 

127-128. Harpe axillaris (Benn). Higum. 

Head 3: depth 3; eye 4.66; interorbital 3.50; D. xii 10; A.iir 12. 
Scales 4-32-12. Body oblong and compressed. Branchiostigals 6. 
Pseudobrancliise present. Teeth: The four anterior canines conical 
and free, teeth on sides of jaws in single row, a posterior canine at 
angle of jaws. Fins: Caudal square. Pe(5lorals and ventrals of 
about ecjual length, 1.50 into head. Base of anal 2.25 into base of 
dorsal. Color in spirits: Head and anterior third of body brown, 
posterior two-thirds yellowish white (salmon color in life). Caudal 
yellow. Spinous dorsal brown. Posterior half of soft dorsal and 
anal fins yellowish white. Ventrals more or less spotted with brown. 
A deep black spot on first three dorsal spines, another on upper 
part of first three dorsal rays. A bright black spot on base and in 
axil of pecloral fins. A big black spot on outer half of first fiv^e 
anal rays. Two specimens. lycngth 4-6.50 inches. Guam, June, 
1900. Hab. Seas of India to New Hebrides, Marianas. 

Genus ANAMPSES Cuvier. 

129. Anampses coeruleopunctatus (Rupp.). Tatalum. 

Head, from end of opercle flap to tip of snout, 3; depth 3; eye 
6.50; interorbital 3.66; D. ix 12; A. iii 12; P. 13; V. i 5. Scales 
5-2S-10. No .scales on head. Body oblong, compressed. Branchi- 
ostegals 6. Teeth in jaws in one row, the two front ones being 
prominent, diredled forward with compressed cutting edges. Lateral 
line continuous, bending down for three rows of scales under seventh 
dorsal ray. Fins: Caudal slightly rounded. Pecftorals 1.50 into 
head. \"entrals 2. Base of anal about equal to head, 2 into base 
of dorsal. Color in spirits: Brownish, each scale with a round blue 
spot margined with black. Head unspotted, but with 8-10 blue 
lines, most of which radiate from the eje, three extend almost 
vertically down from the orbit. Base of pedlorals black, pedlorals 
yellow. Ventrals dusk}-, the first rays blue. Caudal dusky, with 
numerous blue spots. Dorsal and anal with two or three rows of 
spots or lines. One specimen. Length 8 inches. Agaiia, Guam, 
June 14, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, east coast of Africa, Mauritius, seas 
of India, Polynesia, Marianas. 

Genus CHEILINUS Lacepede. 
130. Cheilinus trilobatus Lacep. Gadu. 

Head 2.50; depth 2.66; eye 6.50; interorbital 4.50; D. ix 10; 
A. Ill 8; P. 11; V. I 5. Scales 2-22-5. Lateral line interrupted. 
Head scaled, two rows of scales on the cheeks, three scales in lower 



86 Dircfior' s Anmial Report. 

row which overlap the lower limb of preopercle. Teeth in a single 
row, the two anterior teeth in each jaw enlarged canines; no canine 
tooth at angle of jaws. Lower pharyngeals J_shaped, the teeth 
of the lower limb rounded and in two rows, the middle one the 
largest. Color in spirits: Greenish, head with whitish (red in life) 
red stripes and dots, three very distinct oblique lines running from 
eye down sides of snout. Each scale of body with whitish vertical 
lines (red in life). The body is indistin(5tly banded with about 
five very wide dusky bands, the most distinct ones covering about 
half of the caudal peduncle. Vertical fins green with whitish mar- 
gins. Pedlorals yellow, ventrals green. One specimen. Length 
8 inches. Guam, June 2, 1900. Hab. East coast of Africa, China, 
New Hebrides, Marianas. 

131. Cheilinus fasciatus (Bl.). 

Young: Head 2.60; depth 2.50; eye 4.20; D. ix, 10; A. iii 8; 
P. 11; V. I 5. Scales 23. Lateral line interrupted. Tw^o rows of 
.scales on the cheeks, the lower row with three scales. Two anterior 
teeth enlarged, canines; no canine tooth at angle of jaws. Color 
in spirits: Green, with seven and one-half narrow yellowish cross 
bands, two incomplete ones on the nape. The third is from the 
3-4 dorsal spines to posterior of ventrals; the fourth is from the 
sixth dorsal spine to mid-way between ventrals and anal; the fifth 
is from 8-9 dorsal spine to 1-3 anal spine; the sixth is from 3-4 
dorsal ray to anal; the sixth and seventh are on the caudal peduncle, 
the seventh occupying the base of the caudal fin. The thorax and 
lower half of head and tip of snout are yellowish white (probably 
red in life). A short black line crosses the opercular flap and base 
of pectorals. One specimen. Length 3 inches. Agaiia, Guam, 
June 2, 1900. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas. 

133-134. Cheilinus nigropinnatus sp. nov. 

Head 2.50; depth 2.55; e3^e 3.75; snout 3.50, about equal to 
interorbital; D. ix 10; A. iii 8. the third anal spine the longest; 
V. I 5; P. II. Scales 2-22-6. Lateral line interrupted. Teeth in 
a single row in each jaw, the six anterior ones the largest, curved 
and proje(5ling. Snout sharp-pointed, mouth protradtile. Cheeks 
with 2 rows of very large scales which entirely cover the whole of 
preopercle. The scales all over the body are distinctly striated. 
The tubes of the lateral line are unbranched. Body oblong, slightly 
compressed. The upper profile from anterior base of dorsal to tip 
of the pointed snout almost straight and on an angle of 20° with 
axis of body, its length 2.50 into length of fish exclusive of caudal. 
Eight rows of scales in front of dorsal. Pharyngeal teeth J_ shaped 
with 2 rows of teeth on po.sterior limb. Fins: Origin of dorsal 
slightly posterior to origin of ventrals. Base of anal 2 into base of 
dorsal. Pectorals 2 into head. Ventrals 1.75 into head. Color in 



Report of a Mission to (iiiain. 87 

spirits: Very light brown (dull red in life), the free portion of tail 
with a distinct band of yellowish half as wide as eye and margined 
with dusky around anterior part. Another yellowish band bordered 
more or less distinctly with dusky just back of eye over the nuchial 
region to lower edge of opercles. Ventral fins jet black and cover- 
ing a dusk}' spot on bell}'. The three anterior dorsal and anal rays 
each have a large black spot margined with yellowish. More or 
less dusky on tip of spinous dorsal; otherwise fins yellowish white. 
Three specimens. Length 3 inches. Guam, May 25, 1900. Hab. 
Marianas. This species seems to be a conne<5ling form between 
C/iei/inns and Pseiidocheilinus. It is doubtful if the latter genus is 
well founded. Type of species No. 134 B. P. B. M. 

Genus CORIS Lacepede. 

135-136. Coris pulcherrima Gunth. 

Head 3.55; depth 3.55; eye 6.50; interorbital 5.66; D. ix 12; 
A. Ill 12. Scales small, 84 in lateral line Body oblong, com- 
pressed. Branchiostegals 6. Teeth in a single row, no posterior 
canine teeth. Lateral line continuous. Fins: Caudal rounded. 
Peclorals 1.50 into head. The first dorsal ray elongate. Base of 
anal much longer than head, 1.50 into base of dorsal. Color in 
spirits: Dark brown with wash of bluish, blue dots the size of pupil 
scattered over the body, becoming more numerous on posterior part 
of fish. A series of blue dots run from eve along the base of dorsal 
fin. Two broad reddish violet stripes (rather indistinct in speci- 
mens before me ) on the sides of heacl, one from tip of snout through 
eye to flap of opercle, the other just below the orbit from gape to 
po.sterior edge of opercle on a line with base of pectorals. There 
is a dark violet line on the isthmus. The general color of head is 
a shade lighter with a 3'ellowish wash. Lips yellow. Caudal and 
pecftorals bright yellow. Dorsal and anal yellowish with 2 rows of 
blue dots and margined with blue. Ventrals yellowish with wash 
of blui.sh, the first rays of deep blue. Two specimens. Length 
6-8 inches. Agaiia, Guam, July 12, igoo. The material at hand 
will not warrant the writing of C. pulchcrrinia with C. formosa. 
Hab. Western Pacific, Polynesia, Hawaiian Islands, Marianas. 

137. Coris aygula Lacep. Tatanung. 

Head 3.20; depth 3.20; eye 8.25; interorbital 5; D. ix 12; A. iir 
12; P. 14; V.I 5. Scales 19-65-5. Lateral line continuous. No 
scales on the head. Nape of neck with rather prominent hump. 
Body oblong, compressed. The upper lip is very broad, with folds. 
Teeth: The two anterior teeth are large, curved canines; no canine 
tooth at angle of jaws; pharyngeal teeth J_shaped, with blunt 
round teeth in more than 2 rows on lower limb. Fins: Caudal 
sub-truncate. Pectorals 1.66 into head. Outer rav of ventrals 



88 Dircfloj-^s Annual Report. 

elougate, 1.30 into head. Base of anal 1.66 into base of dorsal. 
The 2 anterior dorsal spines somewhat elongate. Color in spirits: 
Blackish, fins seem to be almost uniform with color of body, ex- 
cept there is a wash of bluish green on the pe(5lorals which are 
margined wnth yellow. The opercular flap is a very deep blue. 
One specimen. Length 13 inches. Guam, June 28, 1900. Hab. 
Mauritius, Red Sea, Australia, Marianas. 

Genus HAIylCHOERES Ruppell. 

138. Halichoeres hortulanus Lacep. 

Head 3; depth 3; eye 6.50; interorbital 4.66; D. ix 11; A. 11 10; 
P. 14. Scales 3-24-10. Lateral line continuous, but bent abruptly 
down on posterior part of bod}'. No scales on head, the scales 
on thorax smaller than those on sides. Teeth: A single row in 
each jaw, the four anterior ones in each jaw curved canines; the 
two anterior ones the longest; a single canine at angle of jaws. 
The pharyngeal teeth are _L shaped, with one or two big teeth in 
middle of lower limb slightly convex, 1.50 into head, same length 
as pe(5torals. Base of anal is contained 2.66 into base of dorsal. 
The first ventral rays prolonged 1.66 into head. Color in spirits: 
Posterior two-thirds of body a light brown slightly washed with 
)^ellowish. Each scale has a square black spot in centre; belly 
without spots. Head wdth bluish longitudinal bands, two on the 
forehead; another extends from shoulder to snout through the 
upper part of eye; the next is a short line from posterior edge of 
orbit to shoulder, two short lines on opercle, and the other extends 
from anterior edge of opercle to the under jaw. The anterior part 
of back has a series of round bluish spots. Two 3'ellowi:sh spots on 
the back, the first below 4-5 dorsal spine, the second below the 4-5 
dorsal rays; the anterior of these spots is followed by a black splotch 
larger than the spot. Caudal, anal, ventral and pectoral white, 
with wash of yellowish. Dorsal fin with brown oblique lines enclos- 
ing round spots. Two specimens. Length 1-6 inches. Agafia, 
Guam, July 14, igoo. Hab. Africa to Pol5mesia, Marianas. 

139. Halichoeres nebulosus (Cuv. & Val.). 

Yo2ing: Head 3; depth 3.50; eye 4.20; interorbital 5; D. ix 11; 
A. Ill 11; P. 13; V. 15, the outer raj'S prolonged. Scales 2-29-9, 
no scales on head. Lateral line continuous. Scales on thorax 
smaller than on sides. Body oblong, compressed. Pharyngeal 
teeth J_ shaped, the two middle ones on lower limb the largest. 
Teeth of jaws in single row, the two anterior ones in each jaw the 
largest, sharp, conical, and projecting forward. A canine tooth at 
angle of jaws. Fins: Caudal square. Petlorals 1.66 into head, 
its base 5, its shortest ray 3 into head. Base of anal r.83 into base 
of dorsal. Color in spirits: ITpper part of body with light and dark 



Report of a A fission /<> (iiia»i. 89 

blotches and spots. Three or four indistinct short silver\- bands 
on sides of belly covered by the pectorals. A bluish black spot 
just back of orbit. Opercular lobe dark violet preceded by a silvery 
spot. About 7 yellowish white spots on the bach, along the base 
of the dorsal. Head with several reddish violet bands, the outer 
one extending from gape to the middle of opercle; the one just 
above it extends from raaxillar\- through lower part of orbit, where 
it branches, one branch curving down along the posterior margin 
of the opercle but not forming a complete ring. There are about 
three yellowish cro.ss bands on top of the head. Dorsal fin with a 
small black spot between its 1-2 spines and a larger black ocelus 
between the 2-3 soft rays, and blue-tipped with a yellowish white 
dark-edged band through the middle. Caudal yellowish. Ventrals 
and pectorals yellowish white. Three specimens. Length 3 inches. 
Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, East Indies, Marianas. 

140. Halichoeres opercularis Gunth. 

Voioig: Head 3; depth 3.50; eye 4; interorbital 5; D. ix 11; 
A. Ill 10. Scales 2-29-9. Body oblong, compressed. Color in 
spirits: Scales of upper half of bod\- have dark brown margins with 
lighter centres. A series of five or six whitish spots along base of 
dorsal. A silver}- dark -edged band from gape to opercles. A violet 
spot behind orbit; another larger one edged with dark brown on 
the extremity of operculum. Lower half of body whitish, with two 
silvery lines on the sides of abdomen descending obliquely fonvard. 
A black spot on dorsal between 1-2 spines; a larger vellow-edged 
spot between 1-3 dorsal soft rays. Anal white with grayish spots 
at base. Caudal yellow, tipped with dusky. Two specimens. 
Length 2 inches. Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. Fiji Islands, Am- 
boyna, ^^larianas. 

141. Halichoeres leparensis (Bleek.). 

Youn^: Head 3.30; depth 4.20; eye 4; interorbital 4. Scales 26. 
Lateral line continuous, no scales on head. Bodj- oblong, com- 
pressed. Color in spirits: Faded into almost uniform light olive 
^ray. Dorsal fin with large black spot between 1-2 spines and 1-2 
soft rays; also indication of 8-9 minute dark dots along base of 
dorsal and a small black spot at base of caudal; otherwise fins 
white. An indication of narrow vertical bands — a brownish white 
line from behind margin of orbit continued in lighter shade of color 
to caudal. One specimen, badl}' faded. Length 1.50 inches. 
Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. East Indian Archipelago, Marianas. 

142. Halichoeres nigropunctatus sp. nov. 

Head Z-Zl'- depth 3.33; eye 5; interorbital 4, equal to snout; 
D. IX 11; A. iir 11; P 12; V. I 5. Scales 2-30-9. Lateral line 
continuous. No .scales on head; scales on the thorax smaller than 



go Director s Annual Report. 

those on the sides. Teeth: A single row, with the four anterior 
teeth in each jaw enlarged; projedling canines; a canine tooth at 
the angle of the jaws. The pharyngeal teeth J_ shaped, with one 
very large tooth in the middle of the cross, flanked on each side 
hy two smaller ones, the anterior limb of the J_ with about 12 
saw-tooth-like teeth. Body oblong, compressed. Fins: The cau- 
dal is square; length of its exposed rays on median line equal to 
longest ra}' of ventrals, 1.66 into head. Height of caudal peduncle 
2 into head. Longest ray of pe(5lorals 1.33 into head, the shortest 
rav 2.50, the base 4. Base of anal 1.66 into ba.se of dorsal. The 
last ra}' of dorsal equal in length to last ray of anal, 2.50 into head. 
The spinous portion of dorsal fin not so high as soft portion. Color 
in .spirits: Ground color pearl white with a slight wash of pinkish 
and yellow. The entire body and opercles covered with black spots, 
larger than the interspaces; in fact, the ground color, except on the 
back and belly appears as narrow 3'ellowish white reticvilations all 
over the body. These colors, being very sharply defined, give the 
fish a most striking calico-like appearance. On the back, for a 
space about two-thirds the width of eye on each side of the dorsal 
fin the ground color appears without black markings, which gives 
the appearance of a yellowish band from the snout along the back 
to caudal fin. This yellowish white of the back is marked by about 
9 small indistinct silvery splotches on each side of the dorsal; the 
last three form short narrow silvery bands over the caudal peduncle; 
a small silvery line extends down on the snout from the forehead 
to lips; a pinkish dark-margined stripe half as wide as eye from 
anterior of orbit to maxillary; a .silvery stripe of equal width below 
it from orbit to gape; below this is another pinkish dark-edged .stripe 
from lower margin of orbit, forming a complete band under chin; a 
branch of this line encircling a silver}' spot on the posterior part of 
each lower mandible. The remaining markings on sides of head 
are uniform with markings of the body. Caudal fin yellowi-sh with 
five dark cross bands. Dorsal with short oblique line alternating 
with dark lines which fade out on upper part of fin. Anal with 12 
round black spots edged with .silvery white on its inner half; outer 
half whiti.sh with faded darker spots; margin of fin blackish. 
Ventrals with a black spot at base, and two dark cross bands on 
the ray, the inner one wider and mo.st distinct; outer third of fin 
yellow. Pectorals yellow. One specimen. Length 4.50 inches. 
Agafia, Guam, Julv 2, 1900. Hab. Marianas. Type is No. 142, 
B. P. B. M. 

Genus JUI/IS Cuvier & Valenciennes. 
143-146. Julis anertensis (Gunth.). 

Head 3.50; depth 3.50; eye 5.50; interorbital 4; D. viii 13; 
A. II 13. Scales 28. Body oblong, compressed. Snout not pro- 
duced. Anterior teeth conical. Inferior pharyngeal teeth not con- 



Report of a Mission to (iuaiii. 91 

fluent or pavement-like. Branchiostegals 6. Fins: Caudal deeply 
lunate. Length, longest ray etjual to head; the shortest ray 2.20 
into head. Pecftorals 1.25 into head. Ventrals 1.50. Base of anal 
about I into head, 2 into base of dorsal. Color: Head violet with 
about five oblique or longitudinal lines of greenish with darker 
edges; three of these lines centre in the orbit. Body greenish, the 
vertical streak on each scale very indistinct. Pecflorals with a broad 
obliqvie black band across its posterior half, and with a black spot 
at the axis. A black spot between second and third dorsal spines; 
two fine brown lines run the entire lenth of the dorsal, one near the 
base, the other just above the middle of its height; they are the 
margins of a broad band of greenish along the middle of the fin. 
Anal with a similar line running a little above its middle, sepa- 
rating the bluish basal portion from the outer yellowish white. 
Caudal yellowish white with a yellowish band having fine brown 
edges along the upper and lower margins of the fin. Six speci- 
mens. Length 2.50-7 inches. Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. North 
coast of Australia, New Hebrides, Norfolk Island, Marianas. 

147. Julis purpurea (Forsk.). 

Head 3.33; depth 3.33; eye 7.50; interorbital 4.33; D. viir 13; 
A. II 11; V. I 5. Scales 27. Head entirely naked. Body oblong, 
slightly compressed. Snout not produced. Branchiostegals 6. 
Teeth in a single row, two anterior canines in each jaw, no posterior 
canine. Fins: The caudal is slightly emarginate, the upper and 
lower rays being slightly produced. Pectorals 1.50. Ventrals 
about 2. Base of anal equal to length of head, 1.66 into base of 
dorsal. Color in spirits: Grayish with a wash of green, two broad 
red bands (faded into whitish) from head to caudal fin; another 
brownish violet band along the back to the caudal fin, the red lines 
along the sides send up vertical processes joining each other. 
A broad red line extends from posterior part of orbit obliquely back, 
branching into two on the opercle. An orange line on lips and 
another across snout just above the lips. Top of head purplish. 
A yellowish line across upper boundary of interorbital. Dorsal fin 
with upper half pea-green, lower half whitish separated by a dusky 
line. A black spot between 1-3 spines. Anal with upper half 
}ellowish white, the lower half greenish separated by a dusky line. 
Pecliorals yellow with black tips. Caudal greenish. One speci- 
men — length 8 inches, and 8 young, 2-5 inches. Agaiia, Guam, 
July 14, 1900. Hab. Seas of India, Africa, Poh'iiesia, Marianas. 

148. Julis punctatus sp. nov. 

Head 3.25 ; depth 4 ; eye 6 ; interorbital 4.25 ; D. viii 13 ; 
A. Ill 10; P. 15; V. I 5. Scales 8-27-2. Head entirely naked. 
Scales on thorax smaller than on sides. Body oblong, slightly 
compressed. Teeth in single row, tw^o large canines in each jaw, 



92 Di'jrclors Annual Report. 

no canine at angle of jaws. Fins: Caudal is slightly convex with 
the angles scarcely prolonged. Pedlorals 1.50 into head, its base 
4.50; the shortest ray is equal to base. Ventrals short, their long- 
est ray 2.25 into head. Base of anal is contained 1.86 into base of 
dorsal. The last soft rays of anal and dorsal of equal length, 4 into 
head. Anterior dorsal spine 5.75. Color in spirits: Ground color 
whitish with wash of grayish olive. The scales of the back and 
down to lateral line on sides have dark brown centres. A black 
spot about size of eye forms a saddle on the caudal peduncle just 
back of the dorsal fin. The scales of the lateral line are without 
dark centres. On the sides of the body below the lateral line are 
two longitudinal rows of alternating dark and white (probably red 
in life) blotches of about equal size, there being six pairs of dark 
blotches on each side; these blotches are separated vertically b}' a 
row of scales without brown centres. Belly, thorax and chin with- 
out markings. Sides of head without definite lines, a yellow dark- 
edged band over snout. Top of head and upper part of snout with 
narrow bluish reticulations. Caudal clear yellow (base probably 
red in life ) . Dorsal yellow with a dusky blotch between 2-3 dorsal 
spine. Pedlorals j^ellow with axil dusky. Ventrals yellow. The 
upper parts of opercles are brownish. One specimen. Length 
7 inches. Agaiia, Guam, Jul}' 14, 1900. Hab. Marianas. 

Genus STETHOJULIS Gunther. 

149. Stethojulis renardi (Bleek.). 

Head 2.83 ; depth 3.75 ; eye 6 ; interorbital 4.25 ; D. ix 11; 
A. II II ; P. 14. Scales 10-29-2; no scales on the head; the scales 
on the thorax as large or larger than those on the sides. Lateral 
line continuous. Body oblong, compressed. Fins: Ba.se of pec- 
torals slightly above the axis of bod}', their length 1.50 into head. 
A^entrals 2.60 into head. Base of anal 2.20 into base of dorsal. 
Caudal rounded. Color in spirits: Bluish above, white with slight 
wash of blue below. Body with four longitudinal stripes; the upper, 
very narrow and indistinct, extends from occiput along base of dorsal 
fin; the others are j-ellowish white — the second is from in front of 
nostrils through upper part of eye to caudal; there is a small black 
dot above its termination; the third extends from the maxillary, 
below the eye to a line with posterior edge of base of peclorals; the 
fourth, so far as can be distinguished, extends up from the isthmus 
along the gill openings to a little below base of pedlorals, whence 
it curves backwards and ends on a line front of anal. One speci- 
men. Length 4 inches. Agaiia, Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. 
East Indiaii Archipelago, Marianas. 

150. Stethojulis fulvoventris sp. nov. 

Head 3; depth 3.20; eye 4.75; interorbital 4.20; D. ix 11; 
A. Ill 11; P. 15; V. I 5. Scales 2-29-9. Lateral line continuous. 



Repoii oj a Mission to (iiiani. P3 

No scales on the head, the scales on the thorax larger than on 
the sides. Upper lip broad, lower lip double. The pharyngeal 
teeth _Lshaped, not pavement-like. Teeth in jaws in single series, 
the anterior ones (in young) not especially long, a canine tooth 
at angle of jaws. Body oblong, compressed. Branchiostegals 6. 
Fins: Caudal is rounded. Pec^lorals 1.50 into head, base 4.50, 
.shortest ray equal to base. Base of anal 1.86 into base of dorsal. 
\'entrals 2.33 into head. Color in spirits: Above brownish with 
purplish wash, each scale with three or four small dots of blui.sh 
green, dots thicker and more minute on top of head and upper half 
of opercle. Sides of body below axis, belly, thorax and chin yel- 
lowish white with slight bluish wash; the centre of the scales a 
shade darker, which gives an indistinct streaked appearance. 
A 3-ellowish white line, broadest anteriorly, extends from lips acrcss 
cheeks, just touching lower margin of orbit, and back to caudal, 
becoming indistinct posteriorly. Just above this line, extending 
from head to caudal fin, is a narrow dusky line. Two small black 
dots on each side of caudal peduncle; these dots are margined with 
blue. Base and axes of pectorals blackish. A curved white line, 
wide as the pupil, extends from edge of opercle above and around 
the inside axis of the pecftorals. Fins: All whitish, an indistinct 
indication of bluish dots on dorsal; no black spot on last dorsal ray. 
Four specimens. Length about 3.50 inches. Agaiia, Guam, June 
14, 1900. This species is near S. strigivcntcr (Benn.). Hab. 
Marianas. Type specimen 150 B. P. B. M. 

Genus GOMPHOSUS Lacepede. 

151-154. Gomphosus pectoralis Quoy & Gaim. 

Head 2.66; depth 4; e>e 7.5; interorbital 6.50; D. viii 13; 
A. II II. Scales 2-29-1 1 Snout much produced. Body oblong, 
compressed. Teeth conical, no po.sterior canines. Fins: Caudal 
truncate, the outer rays not produced. Pectoral 2 into head, its 
base equal to length of its shortest ray. Base of anal i .86 into base 
of dorsal. Color in spirits: Reddish brown on top of head and body, 
becoming lighter on belly and whitish on thorax and lower half of 
head. The scales of body darker at their ba.ses. A dark band 
from snout through eye — in some specimens two bands maj' be dis- 
tinguished behind the eye. A black spot at upper axis of pectorals. 
Caudal yellow for its posterior half. Dorsal and anal dusky, with 
a narrow margin of yellow, the anal with a row of transparent spots 
on its inner half. Pectorals and ventrals yellow. Five specimens. 
Length 3-5.50 inches. Guam, June 19, 1900. Hab. Mauritius to 
Malay Archipelago, Marianas. 

155-156. Gomphosus tricolor Quoy & Gaim. I/Oro. 

Head 2.50; depth 4.20; eye 10.5; interorbitals 7; distance from 
anterior of orbit to tip of snout i .86 into head: D. viii 13: A. 11 11. 



94 Direflor's Anmial Report. 

Scales 2-26-8. Bod}- obloug, elevated, compressed. Snout ver}' 
much produced. Anterior teeth conical, no posterior canines. 
Branchiostegals 6. Fins: Caudal with its outer rays rather pro- 
duced. Pe(5torals 2 into head. Base of anal 2 into base of dorsal. 
Color in spirits: Deep bluish, a yellow splotch extending from lower 
part of pecloral axis to a little above a lateral line on the shoulders; 
this splotch is as wide as the orbit. Pedlorals dusky with a deep 
blue band across posterior third. Dorsal and anal fins yellowish, 
without markings of any kind. The caudal is yellow, with the 
three outer rays on each margin bluish green. Ventrals greenish. 
Two specimens. lycngth 10 inches. Guam, June 14, 1900. Hab. 
East Indian seas, west part of Pacific, Marianas, Hawaiian Islands. 

157. Gottiphosus pacificus sp. nov. 

Head 2.50; depth 4; e3^e7.5; interorbital 6; D. viii 13; A. iii 11. 
Scales 2-27-9, the tubes of the lateral line much branched. Body 
oblong, compressed, the snout much produced. Teeth small, coni- 
cal; no po.sterior canine teeth. Branchiostegals 6. Height of cau- 
dal peduncle 3 into head. Pins: Caudal truncate. Pedlorals are 
half as long as head, their base 6 into head, and their shortest fin 
ray is one-half the length of the longest ray. The ba.se of anal is 
contained 2.55 times into base of dorsal. Ventrals short, about 3 
into head. Color in spirits: Head, including lower part, back, 
caudal peduncle and sides a sepia brown, the scales with a black 
spot at base. The thorax and belly is lighter, being a bistre, with- 
out the dark spot at base of scales. A narrow, indistinct whitish 
line half as wide as eye in axis of peAorals and extending two rows 
of scales above the base of the fin. The pectorals are brown, with 
a broad indistinct white band across their outer half, the base of 
the fin black. Ventrals yellowish white, with outer ra}^? reddish 
brown. Posterior half of caudal yellowish. The inner half of dorsal 
and anal is dark greenish, while the outer half is 3'ellowish white. 
One specimen. I^ength 6.20 inches. Guam, June 14, 1900. This 
species is probably more nearl}- related to G. pedoralis than any 
other described form, but it differs markedly in having the under 
chin sepia brown instead of white, in having a whitish band on the 
pectorals, in the different length of the base of anal fin into base of 
dorsal, and in having a whitish line behind the pedlorals; also in 
the different markings of the dorsal and anal fins. Hab. Marianas. 
Type is No. 157 B. P. B. M. 

Genus CHEILIO Lacepede. 

158. Cheilio inermis Bl. 

Head 3; depth 7; eye 5.66; maxillary 4.20; mandible 2.59; 
interorbital 4 into length of snout; D. ix 14; A. iii 12. Scales 50. 
Body elongated and nearly cylindrical, mouth more or less pro- 
tractile. Teeth in a single row, the two anterior teeth in each jaw 



Report of a Mission to Guam. 95 

the largest, 110 posterior canines. Fins: Caudal slightly rounded. 
Pectorals 2.20 into head. Base of anal 1.40 into base of dorsal. 
Ventrals small, 1.50 into snout. Color in spirits: Brown, with a 
slight wash of reddish; lower parts white, a dark line along sides 
from caudal to eye. Caudal brownish. Dorsal, pectorals and ven- 
trals whitish. Anal whitish, with short oblique lines and dots of 
pale bluish. The margin of the fin is dusk}-. One specimen. 
Length 8 inches. Guam, June 2, 1900. Hab. Red Sea, .seas of 
India, Polynesia, Marianas. 

Family SCARID^. — Parrot-fishes. 

Genus SCARTJS Forskal. 

466. Scarus celebricus (BL). 

Head 2.66; depth 3; eye 8.50; interorbital about 3; D. ix 11; 
A. II 8; V. I 5; P. 15. Scales 2-23-6. Body oblong, oval. Jaws 
large, very convex, the upper slightly projecting. Anterior teeth 
soldered together; a conical tooth at the angle of the upper jaw. 
Upper lip narrow, not covering half the upper jaw. Scales very 
large, c^-cloid ; lateral line interrupted ; two row^s of scales on 
cheeks, no scales on lower limb of preopercle. Fins: The first dor- 
sal spine is the shortest, its length about equal to diameter of eye. 
Caudal is almost square. Pectorals 1.50 into head. Ventrals 
smaller, about 2 into head. Base of anal equal to length of pec- 
torals, about 2 into base of dorsal. Color in spirits: The teeth are 
a faded bluish green, with cutting edges white. The general color 
of the fish is a du.sk}' greenish. A line, probably red in life, passes 
longitudinally through or behind the eye; these lines, and indeed 
all the distinctive colorings, are badly faded. The caudal peduncle 
seems to be lighter in color. The fins have faded so the markings 
are not distinguishable, although evidenth- made up of two colors, 
probably red and green. One specimen. Length 8 inches. Agaiia, 
Guam, July, 1900. Hab. China Seas, Western Pacific, Marianas. 

160. Scarus cypho sp. nov. 

Head 3; depth 3.20; eye 6; interorbitals 3.50; D. ix 10; A. iii 9; 
P. 14. Scales 2-24-6, lateral line interrupted, the tubes branched. 
Two rows of scales on the cheeks, \\\\\\ five scales in lower row; the 
opercular limb is entirely bare. Pharyngeal teeth pavement-like, 
about twice as long as wide, the anterior ones the longest. Teeth 
in jaws quite projeAing, their length equal to orbit; two canine 
teeth at angles of upper jaw. Body oblong, compre.s.sed; the upper 
profile of back quite convex. The snout is much produced. The 
lips are rather narrow^ scarcely covering one-half the jaws. Fins: 
The caudal is lunate. The pectorals 1.33 into head, their base 5, 
their shortest ray 4. Ventrals 1.50. Base of anal 1.50 into head, 
2.83 into base of dorsal. The dorsal has 4 .series of scales in front 



96 Dircilors Annual Report. 

of it and four behind it, its base is convex, its posterior rays are the 
longest, being about 3 into head. Color in spirits: A uniform light 
green, a darker blotch extending over top of. head and upper part 
of opercles. Teeth greenish at base with white margins. Lips a 
brighter green with wash of yellowish, a narrow black line near 
their margins. Fins greenish, dorsal with narrow intermarginal 
line of black. Anal with broad edge of brighter green, a narrow 
black line through its outer third, inner two-thirds white with wash 
of green. \"entrals white with slight greenish wash. Caudal green, 
lighter in centre, with dusk}- intermarginal line. One specimen. 
Length 9.5 inches. Agaiia, Guam, July 12, 1900. This species 
is characterized by the five scales in lower row^ on cheeks, its con- 
vex back, projecting snout, elongated dorsal fins, and rather narrow 
lips. Its coloring is similar, in spirits, X.o P. batavicnsis, Bl. Hab. 
Marianas. Type is No. 160, B. P. B. M. 

Genus PSEUDOSCARUS Bleeker. 

161. Pseudoscarus bataviensis (Bl.). 

Plead 3.25; depth 3.25; eye 6.25; interorbital 3.20; D. ix 10; 
A. Ill 9; P. 14. Scales 2-23-5. Two rows of scales on the cheeks, 
the lowest with six scales. The lips are broad, almost covering 
.the upper teeth. A conical tooth at angle of jaws. The preoper- 
cular limb is entirely bare. Body oblong, compressed. The upper 
profile of back, from shoulders to middle of soft dorsal, straight. 
Snout short, blunt: length from anterior edge of orbit to tip of teeth 
2.66 into head. Fins: Caudal is lunate, the outer rays being about 
one-third longer than middle ray. Pectoral ray 1.20 into head. 
Ventrals i .50. Base of anal i .50 into head, 2.50 into base of dorsal. 
Color in spirits: Greenish, more or less dusky on upper opercles 
and shovilders. Teeth whitish. Fins greenish, the caudal yellow 
in the middle, the tip black. Dorsal with dusky margin. Outer 
third of anal green, a black line through the middle, the inner two- 
thirds being greenish white. \'entrals with a wash of yellow. One 
specimen. Length 9 inches. Agafia, Guam, July 12, 1900. Hab. 
Batavia, Marianas. 

162. Pseudoscarus platodoni sp. nov. 

Head 2.66: depth 3.25; eye 6.50: interorbital 3.25; D. ix 10; 
A. II 9; \\ I 5; P. 14. Scales 2-23-5, the lateral line interrupted. 
Two rows of scales on cheek, no scales on lower limb of opercle. 
Lips rather narrow, scarcely covering half the jaws. Body oblong, 
slightly compressed. Snout very blunt; from the interorbital to 
the posterior edge of upper teeth the profile is straight; the length 
of the upper front teeth being slightly greater than e^'e; no pos- 
terior canine tooth. There are 4 rows of scales in front of dorsal. 
The distance from anterior edge of orbit to tip of teeth is 2.50 into 



Repoi't of a Mission to Guam. 97 

head. Fins: The caudal is slig^htly rouuded, its length 1.66 into 
head. The longe.st ray of pe(5loral is 1.50 into head, its base 4.50. 
Ba.se of anal is 1.50 into head, 2.25 into base of dorsal. The ven- 
trals are short, about 2 into head — about equal to longe.st dorsal 
spine. Color in spirits: Olive brown, the scales covered with 
slightly darker centres. All the fins, with the exception of the 
pectorals, are black. Pecftorals yellowish white, teeth yellowish 
white, chin whitish, iris yellowish. The young are similarly 
colored. Two specimens. Length 3-6 inches. Agaiia, Guam, 
July 14, 1900. This species is chiefly characfterized by the very 
broad yellowish teeth, which give the snout a very blunt — almost 
square — tip; by the narrow lip, and the uniform coloring of the 
body. Hab. Marianas. Type No. 162 B. P. B. M. 

163. Pseudoscarus sumbawensis Bl. 

Head 3; depth 3; eye 5.50; interorbital 3.25; D. ix 10; A. 11 9; 
V. I 5; P. 14. Scales 2-24-5. Body oblong, compressed. Upper 
jaw slightl}' the longer. A .sharp canine tooth at angle of upper 
jaws. Two rows of scales on cheek. The lower preopercular limb 
is naked. Upper lip very broad, almost covering the upper teeth. 
The pharyngeal teeth pavement-like, their width 2 into their 
length. Lateral line is interrupted. Fins: Caudal is emarginate, 
with angles produced. Pectorals 1.25 into head. Ventrals 1.25. 
Base of anal 1.50 into head, 2.50 into base of dorsal. Color in 
spirits: Violet-olive. Dorsal, anal and caudal fins darker. Ven- 
trals and pedtorals yellowish. Two specimens. Length 3-7 inches. 
Guam, July, 1900. Hab. Marianas. 

Family CH^TODONTID^.— Coral-flshes. 

Genus CH^TODON (Artedi) Linn^us. 

164-168. Chsetodon ephippium Cuv. & Val. 

Head 3.88; depth 1.66; eye 3.50; interorbital 4; D. xiii 23; 
A. Ill 22; V. I 5. Scales 9-37-14. Bod}' elevated and .strongly 
compres.sed. The snout rather produced, the lower jaw longer. 
Lower edge of the preopercle slightl}' serrated. Branchiostegals 6. 
Teeth setiform. Fins: Dorsal spines are of moderate strength, the 
longest spine 2 into head. Posterior part of dorsal and anal rounded, 
the soft dorsal has a short projedling filament. Caudal square, the 
longest ray 1.50 into head. Color in spirits: Yellowish white with 
about 9 indistinct browni.sh longitudinal lines, half as wide as iris, 
below the axis. A big black patch broadly edged with white an- 
teriorly occupies all the upper posterior part of the fish, including 
most of the dorsal fin. Posterior edge of the dorsal yellow, fol- 
lowed by a narrow black line and terminally tipped with white. 

O. p. B. p. B. M.— Vol. I., No. .^. 



gS Direflor's Annual Report. 

A short and narrow but perfecliy distinct ocular band of black 
extends through the eye and to about the width of the eye above 
and below the orbit. A short vertical line extends up from the 
base of the pectorals just behind the posterior edge of the opercles. 
Another narrow black line beginning at the base of the fourth 
dorsal spine extends obliquely downward and forward to near the 
base of the pe(51:orals. \>ntrals, pecftorals, anal and caudal fins 
white. Tip of snout yellow. Iris yellow, invaded by the black 
ocular band. Four specimens, 3-4 inches in length, were secured 
inside the coral reef, Agaiia, Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. Western 
Pacific, Polynesia, Marianas. 

169-171. Chaetodon satifer Bl. 

Head 3; depth 1.50; eye 3.50 into head; D. xiii 24; A. in 20. 
Scales rather large, about 35 in lateral line. Teeth setiform, the 
jaws rather projecfling, the under one slightl>- the longer. A black 
ocular band, indistinct and narrow above the eyes; below it is dis- 
tinct, slightly wider than eye and edged anteriorly with white. 
Color: Whitish; the posterior part, including caudal peduncle and 
fin, all of soft dorsal, and a broad edge to anal, a bright yellow. 
Body with about five darkish hypo-dermal bands passing back- 
wards and upwards on the upper anterior third of body, and about 
ten passing downward and backward on posterior two-thirds of 
body. Top of dorsal behind the fifth ray with a round black 
white-edged spot. The .soft dorsal is narrowh' edged with black, 
and has a fine filament from upper posterior part. vSoft anal and 
the caudal with a narrow submarginal line of black, the margin 
white. On the upper posterior third of the body two or three of the 
spaces between the black lines are colored yellow, which gives the 
appearance of there being three yellow lines angularly bent with 
the angle pointing forward on that part of the body. There are 
about five bright yellow lines on the forehead, between and above 
the eyes. The young specimen before me has the upper posterior 
third of body dusky; descending from the posterior part of this 
dusky patch is a rather indistinct blackish line extending into the 
soft anal fin where it forms an acute angle and extends forward. 
There is a very slight indication of this marking in the larger 
specimens. Three specimens, length 4-5 inches, were caught inside 
the reef. Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. From the Red Sea through 
all the Indian Seas to Polynesia, Marianas. 

172. Chaetodon citrinellus (Brouss.). 

Head 3.50; depth 1.75; eye 3.13 into head; D. xiV2i; A. in 17. 
vScales 6-40-14. Color: Yellowish with round bluish spots in the 
skin under the translucent scales, the.se spots forming more or less 
distinct, slightly oblique lines from head to tail, less distinct pos- 
teriorly. A black ocular band edged with yellow from base of 



Report of a Missjo)i to (iitaiit. 99 

spinous dorsal through eye to isthmus. Tip of snout black. Fins: 
Anal tipped \vith a black band, almost as wide as ocular band. 
This black band on anal is edged inwardly with a bright yellow 
band of about equal width. Pecftorals, ventrals, caudal and dorsal 
white, the dorsal narrowly edged with dusky. The dorsal and anal 
forming an acute angle posteriorly. A series of four specimens 
were secured inside the coral reef, Agaiia, Guam, July 9, 1900. 
These range in length from 3-3.75 inches. Hab. Polynesia, Mo- 
lucca Sea, Marianas. 

173. Chaetodon collaris Bl. 

Head 3.50; depth 1.20; eye 2.75 into head; snout obtuse, about 
equal in length to diameter of eye; preopercle slightly serrated; 
D. XII 26; A. Ill 21. Scales 5-45-22. Fins: The peClorals and 
spinous dorsal are white; the ventrals and anal are black; the cau- 
dal is white with two black lines and one yellow line near the end: 
the dorsal is grayish with a bright yellow line near edge of soft 
dorsal — this fin also has a minute subterminal line of black. The 
posterior part of dorsal and anal are sharply rounded, the general 
outline forming an acute angle. The caudal peduncle is black. 
Color in spirits: The general color is a blackish olive with irreg- 
ular rows of longitudinal or oblique lines of yellowish round dots 
showing through each scale. This coloring extends from the black 
belly and anal fin up to the lateral line. In the specimen before 
me the lateral line is made very conspicuous by having five or six, 
rows of the round yellow dots running parallel with it. It is \i«3nr 
noticeable that these color dots are not so bright a yellow^ on' 
the upper half as on the lower part of the body; the fading, how- 
ever, is gradual. There is a broad black ocular band wider than 
the e3'e and edged with bright yellow, except on upper third; this 
black band extends to and embraces the ventrals. All the front 
part of head is black or dark brown, with a bright yellow line which 
forms the anterior border of ocular band, extending vertically down 
from the front edge of one orbit, under chin, to the other orbit. 
The interorbital space is slightly lighter brown and is indistinctly 
surrounded by pale yellowish lines, the upper one of which forms 
the upper anterior border of the black ocular band. From base of 
pectorals to base of ventrals and forward to ocular band there is a 
bright yellow area; above this and just back of ocular band there 
is a grayish area or band wider than the ocular band. This gray- 
i.sh color embraces all the dorsal fin and extends down to the lateral 
line. Variations: In the "Fische d. Sudsee" this species is figured 
as having the grayish coloring extending more than half-way down 
the sides wdth an abrupt whitish line (gray area in my specimen) 
between this color and the ocular band. In "Fishes of India" this 
species is figured with a narrow "bluish white" band just posterior 
of ocular band, and all the color dots run in a marked oblique 



lOO Dire n or' s Annual Report. 

direction, and apparently there is no difference in the coloring on 
the sides of the fish. Da3''s figure also shows an additional yellow 
ring around the snout. Four specimens were secured. lycngth 
about 2-4 inches. Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. Seas of India to 
the Malay Archipelago, Marianas. 

174. Chsetodon ornatissimus (Solander). 

Young: Head 3; depth 1.36; eye 2.50 into head; D. xii 24; 
A. Ill 23. Scales in lateral line 55. The snout is but slightly 
pointed and shorter than diameter of the eye. Fins: Ventrals and 
caudal yellow, the latter with black cross band in middle. Pedforals 
white, about equal in length to ventrals. Posterior edge of soft 
dorsal and anal yellow with black tips. Color: Yellowish white 
with seven dusky j^ellow oblique bands, about half as wide as orbit, 
extending backward and upward along sides of the body. A black 
band along the division of opercle and preopercle. A black ocular 
band, equal in wddth to iris, extends through the eye and around 
head; it is widest on forehead. Interorbital space black. A black 
line around snout and chin. L<ower jaw black. Two specimens were 
secured inside the coral reef of Guam, June 9, 1900. Length 1.75 
inches. Hab. From the Molucca Sea to Polynesia, Marianas. 

175. Chaetodon lunula Lacep. 

Head about 3; depth 1.50; eye 3.50 into head, 1.20 into snout; 
D. XII 24; A. Ill 18. Snout slightly produced. Teeth setiform. 
Fins: Yellowish, white in spirits. Scales in lateral line 42. Color: 
A black ocular band, broader than eye, crossing the interorbital 
space and extending to branchiostegals. Head behind this band 
is white. Snout and throat yellowish white, white in spirits. Bor- 
dering on the w^iite band on back of head is a triangular black area 
extending back to base of fifth dorsal spine; three oblique yellow 
lines extend across this black area up and backwards towards the 
dorsal, the lower one forming the lower border of the black area. 
About the seventh dorsal spine a black line begins, which widens 
and extends along the base of soft dorsal, forming a band on caudal 
peduncle. This black band on caudal peduncle is bordered front 
and rear with yellow. The remaining surface of fish is yellowish, 
slightly dusky above, with about fourteen indistinct dusk}-, oblique, 
epidermal lines on the sides extending upward and back. Caudal 
fin almost square, broadly wdiite -tipped, with a fine sub-terminal 
curved line of black. In specimens preserved in spirits the yellow 
coloring all fades into white. Variations: The young have a black 
spot with white rim on the soft dorsal. In "Fishes d. Sudsee" this 
species is figured as having the ocular band extending dow^n to the 
margin of the preopercle. It is so described by Day in "Fishes 
of India". Thus differing from the Guam specimens which have 
the ocular band extending to the branchiostegfals. The Guam 



Report of a Jl/issioii to (luaiii. loi 

form also has more dusky on the upper part of body. Two speci- 
mens, length about 2.50 inches, were secured inside the coral reef 
near Agaiia, Guam, July, 1900. Hab. Seas of India, Andaman 
Island to Malay x\rchipelago, Polynesia, Marianas. 

176. Chsetodon fulcula Bloch. 

Head 3; depth about 1.50; eye 3.75 into length of head; D. xii 26; 
A. Ill 23. Snout rather produced, longer than diameter of eye. 
Scales 6-29-16. The black ocular band beginning at a distance 
equal to the length of the first dorsal spine anterior of the base of 
dorsal fin, and extending through the eye to isthmus, the lower 
part broadest. Teeth setiform. Fins: Posterior of dorsal and anal 
rounded. Dorsal spines stout and slightly curved; the median 
ones are longest. Caudal square, pedlorals and ventrals are about 
equal length. Color whitish with two du.sky bands about as wide 
as the length of caudal fin. These black bands extend from the 
dorsal to half-way down the sides of the fish, where they end indis- 
tinctly; the first from 1-5 spinous dorsal, the second from 8-12 
spinous dorsal. Posterior of this last black line the color is a bright 
yellow, including all the soft dorsal, caudal and anal. The caudal 
peduncle has a round black spot near the middle. The caudal has 
a narrow black intermarginal band of white; the soft anal has two. 
There are about 19 subcutaneous, narrow, blackish, oblique lines 
passing down the body. Variations: This species is undoubtedly 
subject to a large amount of variation. In Garrett's "P'isches d. 
vSudsee" the two dark vertical bands from the dorsal are conjoined 
superiorly and extend so far as the fourth dorsal spine, and end 
sharply on about the middle of the sides, /. e., on a line with snout 
and middle of caudal peduncle. And the body bands sometimes 
have white edges. In Da3''s "Fi.shes of India" these black bands 
are less wide and extend only to about the lateral line, while the 
caudal peduncle has a complete black band. Only one specimen 
was secured. lycngth 4.50 inches. Coral reef, Guam, May 29, 
1900. Hab. Sea of Batoe, Seas of India to Malay Archipelago, 
Marianas. 

177. Chsetodon strigangulus (Solander). Sea Butterfly. 

Head 3.20; depth 1.75; eye 3 into length of head; D. xiv 15; 
A. Ill 18. Scales 26 in the lateral line. Fins: Pe(5lorals, ventrals, 
anal and dorsal white; the latter two tinged with yellowish and 
tipped wath black. Caudal black, tipped with white, through which 
runs a fine black line. Mouth small, teeth minute. Color: Body 
whitish with about twenty-five black stripes angularly bent, with 
the angle pointing forward. A black ocular band, edged with 
white, not quite so broad as eye. One specimen, 4.50 inches in 
length, was secured inside the reef. Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. 
From the Red Sea to Polynesia, Marianas. 



I02 Dircnor s Anmial Report. 

178. Chsetodon trifasciatis Quoy & Gaim. 

Head 3; depth 1.75; eN'e 3.50, i into snout; interorbital 2.75; 
D. XIV 17; A. IV 16; \ . I 5. Scales 9-37-14. Bod}- moderately 
elevated and strongly compressed. The snout rather sharp-pointed. 
Lower edge of pre.opercle serrated. Branchiostegals 6. Teeth 
setiform. The dorsal spines are of moderate strength, the longest 
spine 1 .75 into head. Pedlorals and ventrals of about equal length, 
1.60 into head. Color in spirits: Yellowish white, wdth about 15 
rather indistinct oblique dusky lines, angularly bent, with the 
angle directed forward. The black ocular band edged wdth white 
of about the same width as eye, extends from the neck to chest, 
forming a complete ring. A black band, slightly wider than eye, 
covers all the soft dorsal and extends down to posterior part of soft 
anal; this band is anteriorly margined with white. The fins are 
white, the caudal with a wash of yellow, a narrow black line near 
the middle. Only one specimen, 2 inches in length, was taken. 
Guam, July 14, 1900. This species is well figured in Freycinet, 
"Voy. Uranie." Zool., PL 62, Fig. 6. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas. 

Genus HBNIOCHUS Cuvikr & Valenciennes. 

179-180. Heniochus chrysostoma (Solander). 

Head 3; depth 1.40; D. xii 23; A. 11 18; eye 2.75. Scales 
small, about 67 in the curved lateral line. Fins: Dorsal with fourth 
spine elongated into a filament almost as long as depth of fish. 
Pe(5torals white, reaching to middle of black band on bod}'. Ven- 
trals black, reaching to base of anal. Caudal square, white with 
dusky spot at base. Soft dorsal white, soft anal mostly black. The 
snout is short and sharp-pointed, mouth small, teeth villiform in 
jaws. Color: Yellowish wdiite, with three broad oblique bands of 
black. The first black band extends from the front of orbit and 
near first dorsal spine, obliquely down to base of ventral fins and 
near to anus; the second black band extends from the 3-7 dorsal 
spines to third and the last soft ra3'S of anal; the third black band 
extends from about the ninth dorsal spine along the base of soft 
dorsal to the base of caudal. Snout dusky. Length 3.50 inches. 
Several specimens were taken inside the coral reef, near Agana, 
Guam, July, 1900. Hab. Indian Archipelago, Polynesia, Marianas. 

Family ^ANCLID^.— Moorish Idols. 

Genus ^ANClvUS Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

181-188. ^anclus canescens (Linn.). Ababang. 
Butterfly-fish. 

Head 2.45; depth about the same as length; eye 2.50 into snout; 
D. VII 37; A. Ill 35. A frontal horn above each orbit in adult 
specimens. Snout produced, teeth slender and brush-like, much 



Report of a Missio)! to (iuavi. 103 

projecled. The anterior rays of dorsal and anal elon<^ated. First 
and second dorsal spines very short; the third greatl>- produced, 
ending in a filament about as long as the fish. Pecflorals about 
equal in length to the ventrals. Caudal peduncle unarmed. Fins: 
Caudal lunate. Pe(5lorals about equal to length of snout. Ventrals 
(including filament) about the same length as anal. Colors: Yel- 
lowish white with three broad, dark, vertical bands, the anterior 
one forming a somewhat oblique line with anterior of orbit to sec- 
ond dorsal spine, and extending to midway between pecflorals and 
anal: the second extends from the bases of 5-25 anal rays to about 
8-23 dorsal rays; this dark band broadens out on the anal fin, while 
on the dorsal it contracts to a point; there is also a narrow line of 
white in the posterior part of this dark band; the third dark band 
includes the base of caudal peduncle and abovit all of caudal fin. 
The anterior one of these broad black bands is traversed b}- two 
more or less distinct narrow blue lines; in larger specimens these 
are almost obsolete, excepting the line which extends from anterior 
ba.se of peclorals to the gill openings. A dusky stripe extends from 
the Ashaped narrow blue line above and on a line with the middle 
of orbit to the tip of the snout; half-way between orbit and tip of 
snout a black line branches off on each side from this dusky frontal 
band, and unites with two other dark lines given off near the pre- 
maxillar}', to form a right-angle triangle on each side of the snout. 
Lower jaw mostly black. Eight specimens, from 2.75-5.25 inches 
in length, were secured inside the coral reef. Agaiia, Guam, July 
15, 1900. Hab. This is a common and wide-ranging form extend- 
ing from East Indies and Polynesian islands to Revillagigedo Archi- 
pelago on the ea.st to western Pacific, Marianas. 

190. Holacanthus cyanotis Giinth. Ugtipa Amrilla. 

Head, exclusive of flap, 4; depth 1.86; eye 3.50; the preopercle 
spine smooth, slightly curved, reaching to base of pedtorals, 2 into 
head ; interorbital equal to eye ; snout 2 into head; D. xiv 15; 
A. Ill 16; V. I 5. Scales 48. Preopercle serrated, the strong .spine 
at its lower angle directed back. Teeth setiform. Branchioste- 
gals 6. Scales small, and mixed with these are many minute ones. 
Body elevated and strongly compressed. Fins: Caudal rounded. 
The spinous dorsal commences above the opercles. The pectorals 
and ventrals each equal to length of head. Soft dorsal and anal 
sub-angular posteriorly. Color in life: Yellow; a fine blue ring 
around the ej^e and across interorbital; a blue line, as wide as 
pupil, down the posterior edge of opercle. Fins vellow; dorsal, 
caudal and anal with a fine marginal line of deep bluish black. 
In spirits the color fades into a uniform 3'ellowish white with a blue 
line around eye and down posterior margin of opercle; caudal, soft 
dorsal and anal with a fine marginal line of black. Two specimens. 
Length 5 inches. Guam, June 14 ,1900. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas. 



I04 DireHors Annual Report. 

Genus HOI^ACANTHUS I^acepede. 

191. Holacanthus imperator (Block.). 

Head 4; depth 1.75; e3'e 3.36, about equal to width of inter- 
orbital space; D. xiv 20; A. iii 19. Preopercle serrated and armed 
with a spine which in adults is almost a third longer than width of 
opercle. Teeth setiform in closely set rows. Fins: The dorsal 
spines short, the longest about equal in length to the base of pec- 
torals. Posterior of anal, dorsal and caudal rounded. All the fins 
black, except the caudal which is yellowish. The vertical edge of 
dorsal is also tipped with yellowish. The anal is edged with a 
narrow line of blue, and a blue line runs out on the spine of the ven- 
trals. Color dusky blue, with about 14 yellowish lines passing 
obliquely upward to the dorsal, or horizontally to the caudal, or the 
anal; the.se stripes are about one-fourth as wide as the interorbital 
space, and the ones passing to the dorsal are most oblique. 
A large black descending band, with a blue anterior edge, on the 
shoulder. Another black band of almost equal width, and edged 
all around with blue, occupies the interorbital space, passes over 
eyes and comes to a sharp point on the preopercle just above the 
spine. The opercle is yellowish brown with the above mentioned 
blue lines bordering it fore and aft. Length about 6 inches. Speci- 
mens were secured inside the coral reef near Agana, Guam, June 14, 
1900. Hab. East coast of Africa, through seas of India to Malay 
Archipelago, Marianas. 

192. Holacanthus marianas sp. nov. 

Head 3.50; depth 1.50; eye 2.75; maxillary 3.50; interorbital 
3.20; D. XIV 20; A. Ill 19; V. I 5. Scales very small, feeling 
velvety to the touch. Body elevated and compressed. Head with 
moderately rounded profile, the snout but slightly projedling. 
Teeth .setiform. Branchio.stegals 6. P.seudobranchiae well de- 
veloped. Preopercle serrated, with a .spine on lower part equal in 
length to the width of the opercle; this spine contained 3.50 times 
into head. Fins: Dorsal spines of moderate strength, the longest 
spine 2 into head. Po.sterior of dorsal and anal rounded. Caudal 
1. 16 into head, its posterior margin rounded. Pe(5torals the same 
length as head, the width of base 3. Ventrals with second ra}' pro- 
duced into a .short filament. Color in spirits: Bluish black, with 
about 13 more or less complete yellowish lines; the anterior of these 
lines, beginning at the base of the eighth dorsal spine, curves for- 
ward forming a margin of the jet black area of shoulders and then 
curves back to the anal opening; the remaining yellow lines above 
the axis are almost horizontal; the lines below the axis are verv 
oblique, extending downward and back. Three of the lines on 
the axis are incomplete, being shorter than the head. There is a 
black area, the width of the eye, on the shoulders forming a line 



Report of a Mission to Guam. 105 

slightly above the eye to the pe(5loral fins; this area is bounded 
anteriorly by a blue line which extends down the middle and lower 
edge of the opercle. A black area, margined with blue lines across 
the forehead and over eyes like a mask; this black area, however, 
does not extend down on preopercles, as in H. imperator, but the 
blue borders unite direcflly behind the eye and send a vertical blue 
line down to the base of the opercular spine. Four narrow oblique 
blue lines on the thorax, and also a short blue cross line just back 
of isthmus. Anterior of these are blue lines running from near the 
base of opercular spine to the tip of the first ventral ray. A blue 
line over the nape midway between first dorsal spine and black area 
of forehead. Spinous dorsal and anal yellowish white; soft dorsal 
blackish, the yellowish body lines forming a few reticulations in the 
posterior part of the fin. Pe<ft;orals, ventrals and anal blackish, the 
anal narrowly margined with blue, and with about three blue lines 
running through it, forming reticulations in posterior part. This 
species is closely related to H. impcrator (Bloch.), but differs 
markedly from specimens of that species before me in the shorter 
head and shorter preopercular spine, and the almost entirely differ- 
ent markings of the body. One specimen. Length 4.50 inches. 
This species was taken inside the coral reef, Agana, Guam, July 
14, 1900. Type specimen is No. 193 in the B. P. B. M. Hab. 
Marianas. 

193. Holacanthus nicobariensis Bl. 

Head 3.50; depth 1.50; D. xiv 20; A. in 19; eye 3.5 into 
head, same as width of interorbital space. Preopercle serrated and 
armed with a spine which is equal in length to the width of the 
opercuhim. Teeth brush-like, much produced. Snout concave. 
Fins: The posterior part of dorsal, anal and the caudal rounded; 
dorsal continuous. Pectorals 1.16 into length of head, their bases 
black crossed by one crooked blue line. Ventrals i 5, the first ray 
produced into a short filament. Color: Black with curved, con- 
centric alternating white and blue lines; four of these white lines 
are especially wide and distinct, /. e., one running obliquely for- 
ward just posterior to the eye — this touches the base of the pre- 
opercle spine and runs out on the spines of the ventrals. The 
second crosses the vent, curves up along sides of body, runs along 
the base of the dorsal and ends in reticulations on the posterior part 
of this fin. The third strongly marked white line extends in a deep 
crescent from posterior base of dorsal to posterior base of anal fin. 
The fourth and broadest line forms a complete circle around a short 
straight white line just anterior of caudal peduncle. In addition 
to these heavy white lines there is a lighter w^hite line midway 
between each of them, and on each side of these narrow white 
lines and midw^ay between them and the heavy w-hite lines, are 
narrow concentric lines of blue. So, for example, beginning wdth 
the heavv white line which crosses the vent, we have first the 



io6 DireRor s Annual Report. 

heavy white line; second, a narrow blue line; third, the light white 
line; fourth, a narrow blue line; and fifth, the heav}' white line 
again. This is the uniform pattern of the fish; however, the blue 
lines may be more or less irregular, and between the two posterior 
heavy white lines they are incomplete, the last one being repre- 
rented merely by three blue dots. There is a white cross band on 
the forehead with a narrow bkie line above it. A white spot be- 
tween nostrils. A bluish line running vertically down the cheeks 
makes an acute angle in front of e3-e and extends down the snout. 
A short blue line from gape to branchiostegals. Reticulations of 
bluish white on posterior part of dorsal and anal. Caudal dusky, 
with two white bands at base, and two irregular white bands on cau- 
dal peduncle. Length 4.50 inches. Specimens taken agree perfecftl}- 
with Garrett's figure, "Fisches d. Sud.see," p. 41. Hab. Seas of 
India to Malay Archipelago and beyond. Red Sea, east coast of 
Africa, Marianas. My specimens were secured among the coral 
reefs of Guam, May 25, 1900. 

194. Holacanthus bishopi' sp. nov. 

Head 3.66 ; depth 1.66 ; eye 2.50, i into snout ; interorbital 3 
into head; D. xiv 19; A. iii 21; V. i 5. Scales minute and feel 
like velvet to the hand. Bod}- elevated, strongly compressed; the 
snout not produced. Hind margin of preopercle finel}' serrated, 
the spine equal in length to diameter of eye. Branchiostegals 6. 
Pseudobranchise present, teeth setiform. Fins: Dorsal spines rather 
short, the first spine 3.66 into head, the second about as long again. 
The peclorals are the same length as head, their bases 2.50 into head 
and equal to preopercular spine; the first ray of pecloral prolonged 
into a small filament, length 3 into total length of fish. The hind 
margin of dorsal, caudal and anal rounded. Color in spirits: Black 
with about 8 concentric bluish white lines, alternatel}' rather wide 
and very narrow as follows: First, as wide as pupil, forms a circle 
around snout and anterior edge of preopercle; second, encircles 
nape, passes just in front of preopercle spine, extends oblique!}' 
back on thorax and out on the first ray of ventrals ; third, a 
narrow stripe forms a circle just in front of dorsal spine, crosses 
base of pedlorals and around the belly just back of the ventrals; 
fourth, a wide line forms reticulations on soft dorsal, cur^^es forward 
to almost a line with pecftorals and then encircles belly at the vent; 
fifth, a narrow line extends from soft dorsal, forms a half-circle and 
ends in reticulations on posterior of anal fin; sixth, a wide line ex- 
tends as a circle from posterior edge of dorsal to posterior edge of 
anal ; seventh, a narrow incomplete half -circle ; eighth, a wide 
line forms a complete circle just in front of caudal peduncle. In 
addition to these markings there is a narrow blue line extending 
perpendicularly down from front of eye to edge of opercle; another 

5 Named in honor of Charles R. Bishop, founder of the Bernice Paiiahi Bishop Museum. 



Report of a Mission to Cuani. 107 

across the interorbital space, and another between the nostrils. 
A simple reticulation of blue lines on the base of caudal fin. The 
fins are all dark, the caudal with a slight wash of yellowish. This 
species differs from the H. nicobarcnsis, Bl., before me in its shorter 
head, longer spine, larger eye, and additional .soft dorsal ray, one 
less anal ray, and the markedly different arrangement and number 
of the body markings. Length of specimen 3.50 inches. Agaiia, 
Guam, July 14, 1900. Type specimen is No. 194, B., P. B. M. 
Hab. Marianas. 

Family TBUTHIDID^.— Surgeon-fishes. 

Gknus TBUTHIS Linx^us. 

195. Teuthis olivaceus Bl. 

Head 3.50, the profile rounded — the snout, however, is straight; 
depth 2; eye 3.20 into head; D. ix 24; A. iii 22; V. i 5. Scales 
minute, ctenoid, about 20 between lateral line and dorsal. Teeth: 
Sixteen broad flat teeth in the upper jaw, dentate at extremity; 
about 14 in lower. Color: Dark brown; extending longitudinally 
backwards from the upper articulation of the opercle is a bright 
cadmium orange line ( bluish in spirits ) , about equal in length to the 
snout, and half as wide as the interorbital space. This blue line is 
surrounded by a black zone of about the same width. There is a blue 
splotch just posterior to base of peroral fins; this splotch is com- 
pletely hidden by the pectorals when they are pressed again.st the 
sides of the body. The general color of fins is brown. The pectorals 
are broadly edged posteriorly with bluish white. The ventrals 
have a trace of blue. The caudal fin is deeply lunate, the upper 
lobe the longer; color entirely black, except the soft rays of the 
middle, which have a broad subterminal band of white, with a nar- 
row terminal line of black. Caudal peduncle entirely brown, with 
one movable spine which is equal in length to the width of the CA-e. 
The pectoral fin is equal in length to the head. The ventrals are 
considerably shorter. The posterior edge of dorsal and anal form 
acute angles. One specimen, length 6 inches, was secured inside the 
coral reef, Agaiia, Guam, July 15, 1900. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas. 

196. Teuthis mata Cuv. & Val. 

Head 3.50; depth 1.88; ej'e 3.50, 2 into snout; interorbital 3 
into head; D. ix 26; A. iii 25; V. i 5; P. 16. Scales minute. The 
spine on side of caudal peduncle short, about equal to one-half the 
width of orbit; it is less than one-half the depth of the caudal 
peduncle. Body compressed, elevated. The snout is straight; the 
mouth is small, with about 9-10 elobate teeth on each side of 
either jaw. Fins: The caudal is emarginate — the upper lobe the 
longer — the outer rays somewhat prolonged, 2.50 in length. The 



io8 DireHor' s Annual Report. 

pectorals are equal to length of head. The ventrals are shorter, 
1.33 into head. Posterior margins of anal and dorsal form acute 
angles. Color in spirits: Uniform dark brown; fins all black, ex- 
cept posterior two-thirds of pecfloral which is yellowish white. 
Iris yellow with inner ring of black. In the young the pedlorals 
are colorless. Five specimens, 2-7 inches in length, were taken in- 
side the reef at Agafia, Guam, June 9, 1900. Hab. Western Pacific, 
Polynesia, Marianas. 

197. Teuthis triosteg^us (Ivinn.). 

Head 3.66; depth 2; eye 3.66; interorbital 3; D. ix 22 ; 
A. Ill 19; V. I 5; P. 15. Scales minute. Body ovate, compressed. 
Anterior profile curved, most convex over eye. Mouth small with 
about seven wide lobate incisors on each side. Fins: Dorsal with 
anterior spines more or less concealed in the skin. Caudal eniar- 
ginate, the upper lobe slightly the longer. Color in spirits: Yel- 
lowish white with a wash of green, under surface white. Vertical 
fins dusky, pe(5torals white with yellow wash. Anal has a narrow 
margin of white. Body with five black vertical bands about as 
wide as pupil ; first, from top of head through eye to branchioste- 
gals; second, from base of first dorsal spine to base of pecftorals 
where it branches, one branch going obliquely forward and down 
towards the isthmus, the other branch obliquely back and down to 
about ventrals; third, band from sixth dorsal spine to belly between 
anus and anal fin; fourth, from first dorsal ray to first anal ray; 
fifth, from seventh dorsal ray to fifth anal ray. A short black line 
over top of caudal peduncle, and a black dot on each side below. 
There is also a black line down the middle of snout. Eight speci- 
mens. Length 2-6 inches. Guam, May 26, 1900. Hab. Poly- 
nesia, Marianas. 

198-204. Teuthis lineatus Bl. Hijug. 

Head 4; depth 2; eye 3-3.50 into head; profile rounded, the 
snout, however, below the nostrils, is almost straight; D. ix 28; 
A. Ill 27; P. 17. Scales: About 8 rows between the lateral line 
and the base of the dorsal. Ground color of the sides and back 
canary yellow, with seven slightly oblique lines, blue in middle 
with dark on each side; these lines extend back to root of caudal 
fin. lyower part of body and belly grayish. A blue line passes 
down the middle of the forehead to the maxillar}- where it divides 
and forms a ring around the mouth; two other blue lines extend 
down on each side of this mid-line of the forehead; two or more 
blue lines begin on each side, just in front of the orbit, and curve 
down the sides of the snout to opercles. Other blue lines pass up 
and back from the hind edge of orbit to the lines of the body . 
Teeth flat, with dentate edges, 12 in each jaw. Fins: Ventrals with 
the longer outer ra}' blue, inner ones yellowish. Pectorals bluish. 



Report of a Mission to Guam. 109 

Dorsal, anal and caudal dark, the dorsal with three or more blue 
lines running through it and terminating at the acute posterior 
angle of the fin. The anal has a narrow subterminal line of black, 
while tip of fin is bluish — the posterior part forms an acute angle. 
Caudal fin deeply lunate, the upper lobe the longer. There is a 
.semi-lunar blue band about the middle of the caudal. Caudal 
peduncle strong, and armed with one white movable spine, con- 
siderably longer than the width of the eye. Variations: In spirits 
the bright canar}' yellow ground color fades into a dirty white. 
Guam specimens show a considerable variation in the arrangement 
of the blue lines about the base of caudal fin. They also fail to 
show the concentric arrangement of the blue lines in the dorsal fins 
as figured in "Fisches d. Sudsee," Vol. I., Haft IV. Seven speci- 
mens, length 4-1 1 inches, were taken inside the reef, Agaiia, Guam, 
July 9, 1900. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas. 

205. Teuthis aliala Linn. 

Head 3.66; depth 1.50; eye 3.50; interorbital 3; D. ix 29; 
A. Ill 27; V. I 5; P. 16. Scales minute. Bod}' elevated and com- 
pressed. Snout slightly concave ; jaws with 5 elobate teeth on 
each side. Caudal peduncle about equal in height to length of its 
spine. Branchiostegals5. Pseudobrauchiae developed. Fins: Cau- 
dal lunate, its longest ray 3.50 into length of fish. Pectorals equal 
to length of head; the ventrals are about one-third shorter. The 
posterior margins of the dorsal and anal are rounded. Color in 
spirits: Blue-black, a sub-crescentic area of Indian red just below 
the eye. A white ring around mouth. A line of yellowish white 
along the bases of anal and dorsal; posteriori}' these lines broaden 
out and occupy about a third of the fins. Caudal is yellowish white 
with a white band and a black posterior margin. Spine on free 
portion of tail yellow. Pecftorals and ventrals black. Dorsal and 
anal black, excepting the yellowish white marking mentioned 
above. Twelve specimens, one 7 inches in length, the others (very 
young) 1-2 inches in length. Agaiia, Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. 
Western Pacific, Polynesia, Marianas. 

Genus CTKNOCH^TUS Swainson. 

306. Ctenochsetus strigosus Bennett. 

Head 4 ; depth 2 ; eye 3.50 into head ; D. viii 30; A. in 27; 
V. I 5. Scales small, about 19 between lateral line and the base of 
the last dorsal spine. Teeth setiform, movable with their outer 
end dilated and bent in and notched; 42 in upper row, 46 in lower. 
Color in spirits: Brown, faint traces of slight blue lines under the 
pecloral fins. Fins all black, except pecflorals which are slightl}^ 
yellowish blue. Caudal deeply lunate. The posterior parts of 
dorsal and anal not rounded, but forming very acute angles. Caudal 
peduncle stout and armed with movable black spine 1.30 times as 



no Dircclor's Annual Report. 

long as width of eye. Probably A. denodon, Cuv. & Val., should 
stand for this fish, as such a marked increase in the number of 
teeth and scales, if fixed characfters, would give it specific rank. 
Two specimens were taken. IvCngth 1.50-6 inches. Guam, July, 
1900. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas. 

Genus :^ABRAS0MA Swainson. 

207-310. ^abrasotna guttatus Forst. Hamoktan. 

Head 3.50: depth 1.50; eye 3.50, 3 into snout; interorbital 2 
into snout; D. ix 28; A. iii 23; V. i 5; P. 15. Scales very small, 
about 120 in lateral line. Body elevated and compressed. vSnout 
slightly concave, each jaw with six deeply lobate incisors on each 
side. Branchiostegals 5. Pseudobranchise present. F'ins: Caudal 
sub-truncate, the longest ray equal to length of pedlorals, 3.33 into 
length of fish. Caudal peduncle high, about 2 into head, the spines 
about equal to one-half the height of the peduncle. Color in spirits: 
Brownish with two bluish white cross bands on the body and one 
on the shoulders extending down on opercles. These bands are 
slightly oblique, the first and second (measured on the median line) 
are about half as wide as eye; the third is narrow. The posterior 
two-thirds of the fish, including .dorsal and anal fins are covered 
with numerous round whitish dots about the size of the pupil; these 
dots are blue in life. The thorax and ventrals are bluish white. 
The anterior half of caudal is yellowish white shading into dusky 
on posterior edge. Pecftorals yellow. Four specimens, length 6-8 
inches, were taken at Agaiia, Guam, June 28, 1900. Hab. Western 
Pacific, Marianas. 

211. :^abrasoina agana sp. nov. 

Head 3; depth 1.66; ej-e 3, 2 into snout ; interorbital 3.33, 
equal to e^e in specimens 4 inches long; D. v, 25; A. iii 20; V. i 5. 
Scales minute, rough. Body very much compres.sed and elevated. 
Snout concave and somewhat produced. The caudal peduncle is 
equal in height to width of eye, and is one-third longer than the 
.spine, which is white. The mouth is small; there are about 9 lobate 
teeth on each side of upper jaw. Branchiostegals 5. Pseudo- 
branchiae present. P'ins: Caudal almo,st square, but the upper 
edge is a little the longer; the longest ray 4 into length of fish 
without caudal. The pectorals are equal in length to head, and 
about one-third longer than the ventrals. The posterior angles of 
dorsal and anal are rounded. Color in spirits: Yellowish; fins all 
similar in color; in some specimens the fins are a little brighter 
yellow^ A white streak, one-half as wide as eye, extends back on 
the median line from near posterior edge of opercle to about on a 
line with base of tenth soft dorsal ray. Seven specimens, 2-4.50 
inches in length, taken at Agaila, Guam, June 14, 1900. Hab. 
Marianas. Type is No. 211, B. P. B. M. 



Report of a J/iss/o/i to Cuam. iii 

Genus SIGANAS Forskal. 

212. Siganas tnarmorata (Quoy & Gaim.). 

Head 4.33; depth 2.33; eye 3.33, equal to maxillary; inter- 
orbital 3.66; D. XIV 10; A. VII 9; V. 131. Scales minute. Branchi- 
ostegals 5. Pseudobranchise well developed. Body oval, strongly 
compressed. Snout rather blunt and rounded; upper jaw some- 
what overhanging. Teeth: A single row of cutting incisors in each 
jaw. Fins: Dorsal spines strong, the fourth the longest, its length 
equal to distance from the first vertical spine. Caudal only slightly 
forked, its longest ray equal to head; first ventral spine 1.33 into 
head, reaching more than half-way to anal. Color in spirits: Brown 
with wash of bluish; head and back covered all over with blue 
vermiculated lines which are wavy and longitudinal on the sides. 
Caudal, dorsal and anal with brownish lines. Peclorals yellow. 
Two specimens. Length 3-7 inches. Agana, Guam, May, 1900, 
Hab. Western Pacific, Marianas. 

213. Siganas hexagonata Giinth. 

Head 4; depth 2.20; eye 3.50; interorbital 3; D. xiv 10; 
A. VII 9; V. I 3 I. Scales distinct but small. Body oval and com- 
pressed; profile slightly convex. Maxillary equal to diameter of 
orbit, 3.50 into head, its distance from orbit equal to its length. 
Teeth: A single row of cutting incisors in each jaw. Branchi- 
o.stegals 5. Pseudobranchiae well developed. Caudal peduncle 
much compressed, its height 3 into head. Fins: Caudal deeply 
forked, its upper lobe slightly the longest, 3.20 into length of body; 
the depth of fork 1.50 into head. Soft dorsal and soft anal about 
equal in height and length; the longest ray of dorsal is 1.66 into 
head. PeCloral 1.25 into head, its base a little greater than diam- 
eter of orbit. Color in spirits: Blue with yellowish spots about 
one-half the diameter of pupil in size all over the body and head. 
These golden spots have narrow margins of black, outside of which 
the blue ground color show^s in more or less hexagonal form. 
Dorsal, caudal, anal and ventral dusk}- bluish. Pecftorals yel- 
lowish. Length of above specimen 13 inches. Four small Tciithis 
length 4-5 inches, which I take to be the young of this species, 
were captured at the same time. These show very indistinct hex- 
agonal markings, and the general color is a much lighter l)lue with 
from 8-12 round black dots, one-half the size of pupil, scattered 
over the sides of the body. There is also a black opercular splotch 
on the upper posterior margin of opercle. The caudal is deeply 
forked. Head 4; depth 2.50; eye 3; interorbital 3. Agaiia, Guam, 
July 12, 1900. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas. 

214-215. Siganas rostrata Cuv. & \'al. 

Head 4.50; depth 3; eye 3.25; interorbital 3.20; D. xiv 10; 
A. VII 9; V. I 3 I. Body oval and compressed. The dorsal and 



112 Direnor' s Annual Report. 

abdominal profiles are equally convex. Mouth is rather small; 
the maxillary is contained about 4 into head, its distance from the 
anterior edge of orbit is one-half its length. Teeth: A single row 
of cutting incisors in each jaw, about 18 on each side of upper. 
Branchiostegals 5. Pseudobranchise well developed. Fins: The 
caudal is deeply forked, its upper lobe a little the longest, 3.66 
into length; the depth of the fork is 1.20 into head. Caudal 
peduncle unarmed, its height is 4.50 into head. Soft dorsal and 
soft anal of about equal length, but the dorsal is a little the high- 
est; its longest ray is contained 2 into length of pe(5lorals. The 
base of peAorals equal the diameter of eye. Color in spirits: Bluish, 
the body covered with indistinct mottlings of yellowish spots and 
lines, wider than the interspaces of blue ground color; lighter blue 
on belly and thorax. The caudal in one specimen seems to be a 
uniform dusky bluish; in the other there are indistinct blotches of 
yellowish. PeAorals are yellowish, ventrals bluish ; dorsal and 
anal dusky, the webs more or less yellowish white. Two specimens, 
length I o-i I inches. Guam, July 12, 1900. i/<a;<^. Western Pacific, 
Polynesia, Marianas. 

Genus MONOCBROS Bi^ock. 

216-221. Monoceros garretti'^ sp. nov. 

Head 3.50; depth 2; eye 3.50, 2 into snout; D. vi 28; A. 11 29; 
V. I 3; P 16. Scales minute, rough. Body elevated and com- 
pressed. Two bony plates on the caudal peduncle with short, sharp 
keels. The yellow covering of the base sharply defined and sepa- 
rated by a black line. The snout is concave, but the profile is 
more rounded than in M. lituratus. The distance from base of first 
dorsal to the upper nostril is 1.33 into head. Mouth is perfectly 
horizontal on the median line. Teeth: A single series of sharp, 
compressed incisors, not serrated, abovit 10 on each side of upper 
jaw. Branchiostegals 4. Pseudobranchiae developed. Fins: The 
height of the fourth dorsal spine equal to length from its base to 
anterior base of first dorsal spine. The first dorsal spine 2 into 
head. The caudal fin is emarginate, the upper lobe slightly the 
longest, its length 4.20 into height. lyongest ray of pe(5toral 1.50 
into head, its base 4.88. Longest ray of ventrals about equal to 
pe(5torals. The posterior margins of dorsal and anal forming acute 
angles. Color in spirits is a uniform lamp-black with a slight wash 
of neutral. There is a narrow yellowish green line extending down 
each side the snout from anterior of orbit to form a more or less 
complete circle on the lips. Two round yellow spots on caudal 
peduncle forming the bases of the keels. The caudal is black with 
a sub-terminal band of yellow, and a marginal band of white. The 
dorsal is black with a sub-marginal line of white which begins very 
narrow and gradually widens posteriorly to half the width of the 

^Nanied after Andrew Garrett. 



Report 0/ a J//ss/o?/ to Guam. 113 

fin; there is a narrow margin of lilack a])ove this. There is no 
cok:)recl lin*^ at base of dorsal, as in M. lituratus. The anal fin is 
greenish, with a narrow black margin and the inner third with a 
wash of brown. Pedlorals and ventrals brownish. This species is 
closely related to M. lituratus ( Forst. ) , but differs in having a more 
rounded profile, a decreased number of dorsal and anal rays, a 
much darker general coloring, without a yellow line at base of 
dorsal, and with two distinct yellow spots on caudal peduncle .sep- 
arated by a sharply defined black area. These color markings are 
fixed and distinct in the entire series. This is undoubtedh' the fish 
figured by Mr. Garrett in "Fisches d. Sudsee,"" Tafel 28, but it is 
not the fi.sh described in the text, Vol. I., p. 124, which is a good 
description of Moiioccros lituratus now before me. I have carefully 
compared a series of these two species of the same size and age, 
and as the differences stated above hold good, even in the details 
of the markings, I cannot put them under one species. Qiio}- & 
Gaimard, description and figure, will not fit either of these species, 
and I think their species should stand M. carolinarum , Ouoy & 
Gaim., until the fi.shes of the Caroline Islands are better known. 
Their type specimen was eaten, and the figure may be approxi- 
mately correct. Six specimens, length 3-6 inches. Agafia, Guam, 
Julv, 1900. Hab. Polvnesia, Marianas. Tvpe of species is No. 
216, B. P. B. M. 

222-323. Monoceros annulatus (Quoy & Gaim.). 

Head 4; depth 2.33; eye 2.66; interorbital 3; D. vi 27; A. 11 28; 
V. I 3. Scales minute, rough. Body compressed and elevated. 
Forehead with a short projecting horn, situated below the level of 
the centre of orbits. In specimens 6.50 inches in length the tip 
end of this horn is equidistant from the orbit and teeth of upper 
jaw. Its length, measured from the orbit, 2.33 into head. Teeth 
small, finely serrate on inner side. The profile from first dorsal 
spine to tip of snout is slightly convex. Caudal plates absent in 
young; in specimens 6 inches in length are scarcely visible, and 
are entirely unkeeled. Color in spirits: Uniform light grayish 
brown, lighter on the caudal peduncle. Fins dusky, the caudal 
greenish yellow on the posterior half. Two specimens. Length 
4-6.50 inches. Agafia, Guam, July, igoo. Hab. Western Pacific, 
Marianas. 

224. Monoceros lituratus (Forst.). 

Head 3.50; depth 2; eye 3.25, 2 into snout: D. vi 30; A. 30; 
V. I 3; P. 16. Scales minute, rough. Body elevated and com- 
pressed. Two bony plates on caudal peduncle with short, sharp 
keels — the yellow coloring of the bases intermingling. The dis- 
ci, p. B. p. B. M.— Vol. I., No. ^. 



114 Director s A)nuial Report. 

tance from the base of first dorsal spine to upper nostril is 1.33 into 
head. The mouth is perfectly horizontal on the median line. 
Teeth: A single series of compressed incisors, 10 on each side of 
upper jaw. Branchiostegals 4. Pseudobranchise developed. Fins: 
The height of the fourth dorsal spine a little greater than the dis- 
tance from its base to anterior base of first dorsal, the first dorsal 
-spine about 2 into head. The caudal emarginate, the upper lobe 
slightly longer, its length 4.20 into length of fish. Longest ray of 
pectoral 1.33 into head, its base 4.25. Longest ray of ventrals 1.66 
into head. Color in spirits: Light brown with a wash of grayish; 
a greenish streak, beginning at anterior edge of orbit, descends in 
a curve along sides of snout to angles of the mouth. Back with a 
blue line along base of dorsal fin. The interorbital space is crossed 
b}- a green band about half as wide as eye; this band crosses fore- 
head and curves back over orbit to near top of opercles — in speci- 
mens long in spirits this green interorbital marking is apt to be faded 
out. The sides of caudal peduncle are yellow without a black area 
between the two spiny plates. Dorsal black with a white line begin- 
ning narrow in front, broadening posteriorly to half the height of 
the fin; above this is a narrow terminal line of black. Anal green- 
ish white margined with a narrow line of black, the inner third 
without the conspicuous wash of brown seen in M. garretti. Pect- 
orals and caudal brownish, the latter with a green and white mar- 
gin posteriorly. Three specimens, length 5 inches. Agaila, Guam, 
July, 1900. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas. 

225-227. Monoceros marginatus Cuv. & Val. Taloga. 

Head 3.66; depth 2.33; interorbital 3.50; eye 4.50, 3 into snout. 
Forehead with a short horn-like prominence projecfting forward 
diredtly in front of eye. In specimens 1 1 inches in length this horn 
is about three-quarters of an inch; measured from the orbit to tip 
it is 3 into head; in younger specimens it is shorter, and is entirely 
absent in specimens three inches in length. D. vi 29; A. ii 28; 
V. r, 3. Scales minute, rough. Mouth perfedlly horizontal; about 
15 small sharp teeth on each side of upper jaw, about 12 on each 
side below; these teeth are minutely serrated on their inner side. 
Branchiostegals 4. Pseudobranchise well developed. Caudal pe- 
duncle with two sharply keeled bou}' plates with blue bases, absent 
in young. Fins: The caudal is broad and emarginate, the upper 
ray the longest, being equal to length of head. The dorsal has its 
origin direcftly above the posterior line of the head; its spines and 
rays are markedly triangular in transverse secflion, the first spine 
the longe.st, 1.66 into head. Ventrals are .short, 2 into head. Pect- 
orals 1.33 into head, their bases equal to eye. Color in spirits: 
A dirty bistre olive, slightly lighter below, dorsal and anal slightl}- 
darker with a narrow black margin. Anal with from 1-3 longitud- 



Report of a Mission to (iuaiii. 115 

inal lines. The caudal and pectorals with a more decided wash 
of yellowish, and with lighter margins. Five specimens, length 
3-1 1 inches. Agaiia, Guam, Juh" 14, 1900. Hab. Western Pacific, 
Marianas. 

Family BAI^ISTID^.— Trigger-fishes. 

Gknus BAIvISTES (Artedi) Linn.^ius. 

228-229. Balistes undulatUS Mungo Park. 

Head 3; depth 2.25; eye 5.50; interorbital 4.50; D. in, 28; 
A. 24. Scales 31, in series from base of spinous dorsal to vent, 
about 48 in lateral line. Caudal peduncle with 6 strong spines on 
each side, arranged in a double row — sometimes with an extra 
spine on one side. Color in spirits: A lamp-black; head and bod}' 
with about 15 oblique or undulating lines of j^ellowish (reddish in 
life) about as wide as pupil; a broad line comes from each lip and, 
uniting about on a line with the eye, extends back to a little past 
and below the pectorals; another very distinct red line, just above 
this, extends from the upper lip to anus; a yellow line around lower 
lip; thorax black, without markings; spinous dorsal black; pec- 
torals, anal and soft dorsal yellowish, the rays dusky at base; rays 
of caudal dusky, the membrane 3'ellow, the fin white at tip. Two 
specimens. Length 7 inches. Guam, July 13, 1900. The mark- 
ings of this species are very well shown in Quo}' & Gaimard's 
figure (Voy. Uran. ZooL, p. 208, pi. 47, fig. i), but the caudal 
peduncle is drawn much too thin. In the specimens examined the 
caudal peduncle is very short and high, its height 2.50 into head. 
Hab. Western Pacific, Polynesia, Marianas. 

Genus BAI^ISTAPUS Tiles. 
230-233. Balistapus aculeatus (Linn.). 

Head 2.75 ; depth 2.50; eye 5.50; D. in, 25; A. 22. Scales 
23, in a series from dorsal fin to vent. The caudal peduncle is 
armed with two and a half rows of sharp, curved spines with, black 
bases. Fins: Caudal fin contained 6.5 times into length of the fish. 
Ventrals almost obsolete, represented by a single movable spine. 
Second dorsal and anal of moderate height. Pectorals short, about 
as broad as long, their bases black, the rays white. Scales rather 
large, some osseous scutes behind gill openings. Cheeks entirely 
scaled. Colors: Sides blackish, with two pairs of oblique whitish 
or yellowish bands descending from middle of sides to the anal fin. 
A broad black cross band between the eyes. Three blue vertical 
lines from the eye to the base of the pectorals. A yellowish band 
runs from the bases of the pectorals along the sides of the head to 



ii6 Dircfiors Annual Report. 

the snout; a brighter yellow line on premaxillary. Variations: One 
adult specimen has two extra spines on one side of caudal peduncle; 
these are just above the normal rows. The young are shorter and 
deeper, the head being 2.50 into total length, and the depth 2. 
A good series of specimens were secured, taken for the most part 
inside the reef, near Agaiia, Guam, June, 1900. Hab. Western 
Pacific, Marianas. 

234-237. Balistapus rectangulus Bl. 

Head 2.66; depth 2.33; eye 6; interorbital 4; D. iii 23; A. 21. 
Scales of medium size, entirely covering the cheeks; 4-5 osseous 
plates behind gill openings, three and one-half rows of recurved 
black spines on sides of the caudal peduncle; no groove in front of 
eye. Teeth tiotched and compressed, about 4 on each side of upper 
jaw. Fins: First dorsal spine very strong, 2.25 into head; caudal 
square; ventral spine movable. Color in spirits: Olive; belly, tho- 
rax and chin yellowish; a broad black band with lighter (bluish) 
edges over top of head through eyes, and widening as it extends 
obliquely back on sides of body to anas and anterior two-thirds of 
anal fin. Caudal peduncle encircled with black, which extends 
horizontalh" forward on the sides in the .shape of an acute angle; 
this black is edged with lighter colored lines (yellow in life); a 
light yellow line passes from posterior base of soft dorsal horizon- 
tally forward to the big black line mentioned fir.st; a narrow line 
extending down from anterior of orbit to a little in front of peclorals; 
the interorbital space is crossed by three narrow deeper black lines 
on the black field; webs of spinous dorsal and base of pectorals 
black; fins j-ellowi-sh white. Four specimens, 4-6 inches in length. 
Agaiia, Guam, June 28, 1900. Hab. Polynesia, Western Pacific, 
Marianas. 

Family MONACANTHID^.— File-fishes. 

Gexu.s AMANSES Gray. 

238-241. Amanses sandwichensis (^ray. Paloman. 

Head 3.25; depth 2; eye 5; interorbital 3.50; D. i 36; A. 31. 
vScales minute, the skin velvet}- to the touch. Two pair of .strong 
curved spines on each side the tail. Body elevated and compressed. 
Profile of .snout slightly concave. Dorsal spine without barbs. 
Caudal fin rounded. Ventral spine not movable. Dorsal spine 
situated above anterior half of orbit. Color in spirits: A dirt>- 
light brown; the soft fins yellowish white; the dorsal spine brown; 
the caudal du.sky with yellowish white on posterior part. Four 
specimens, length 4-12 inches. Guam, July, 1900. The young 



Report of a Mission to Guavi. 117 

specimens do not have spines on the sides of the tail, and have the 
dorsal spine much rougher, with indication of two or three rows of 
barbules. Hab. Western Pacific, Marianas. 

Gkxus OXYMONACANTHUS Bleekek. 

242. Oxymonacanthus longirostris Bleek. 

Head 2.66; depth 2.66; eye 5; interorbital 4; D. i 35; A. 29. 
The sides of the caudal peduncle with brush-like setiform spines. 
Body oblong, compressed. The upper and lower profile about 
equally oblique; the snout much prolonged, upper profile concave, 
turned up at tip. Skin velvety. Mouth tubular, lips very thin. Gill 
openings small, situated on a vertical line a little posterior of orbit. 
P'ins: The dorsal spine is of moderate strength, more or less 
rounded — not 4-edg,ed: the middle of its base is dire(5tly (in line) 
above the pupil of the eye; its length is 1.50 into head, and it is 
equal to the distance from anterior margin of eye to posterior mar- 
gin of lips. The barbs are .small and more or less irregularly ar- 
ranged, the most prominent being a row deflected downward on the 
back of the spine. The ventral spine is rather prominent, rough, 
fixed, with a thin abdominal membrane between it and bell}-. 
Caudal rounded, short, 2.25 into head. Ventrals 3.50 into head. 
Color in life: Blue, with 3'ellow dots. In spirits: Light gray, with 
a slight wash of bistre-brownish. Seven longitudinal rows of round 
white spots about the size of the pupil extending from the head to 
tail; tip of snout white, followed by a narrow black ring; a line of 
white extends from near gape to a little below the orbit: another 
white line extends from the middle of sides of the snout to orbit, 
more or less white dots below the eye and on sides of the thorax; 
just above the ventral spines is a black splotch with numerous very 
fine white dots. Caudal fin brownish, white at tip, with an incom- 
plete intermarginal black line half the width of eye. Dorsal, anal 
and pectorals white. Two specimens, length 4 inches. Agaiia, 
Guam. June 14, 1900. Hab. Marianas. 

Family OSTRACIID^.— Trunk-fishes. 
Genus I^ACTOPHRYS Swainsox. 
243. I/actophrys nasus (Bloch.). 

Carapace, 5 -ridged and spineless; P. 10; A 9; C. 10. Color 
in spirits: Greenish yellow, with numerous black spots along sides. 
One specimen of a very young, length three-quarters of an inch, 
was secured. Guam, July 14, 1900. Hab. Seas of India to Malay 
Archipelago and western Pacific, Marianas. 



ii8 OircHor's Annual Report. 

Genus OSTRACION Artedi. 

244. Ostracion ctibicus Artedi. 

Carapace, 4-ridged, without spines; D. 10; A. 9. The back 
slightly convex, no raised ridge on median line. Color in spirits: 
White with scattered round black dots all over the body. One 
specimen, length three-quarters of an inch. Guam, July 14, 1900. 
Hab. Red Sea, western Pacific, iVustralia, Marianas. 

358-361. Ostracion cornutus (Linn.). 

Head 3.50 ; depth (at hvimp) 2.50; eye about 2; interorbital 
very concave, 4 into length; frontal .spines 5.50 into length; pos- 
terior spines abovit the same: D.9; A. 9; P. II. Scales: About 10 
plates in a line between caudal and eye. Body shortened and angu- 
lar, the carapace 4-ridged, with a small ridge in the middle of back. 
The hind portion of tail covered by soft skin. Mouth small, max- 
illaries and premaxillaries coalescent. Teeth rather slender and 
in one row, about 10 in each jaw. Color in spirits: Carpace bistre- 
brown, with numerous irregular and indi.stinct darker blotches; 
below yellowish. Four specimens, length i .50-5.50 inches. Agana, 
Guam, July 12, 1900. Hab. Western Pacific, Malay Archipelago, 
Marianas. 

246-248. Ostracion punctatus Bl. Danglum. 

Head 3.50 ; depth 3 ; eye 3, about 2 into snout ; interorbital 
1. 12; D. 9; A. 9; C. 8; P. 10. Carapace 4-ridged without spines. 
Back somewhat rounded without any ridge in median line. Inter- 
orbital space almo.st fiat. Teeth: About 10 conical brown teeth in 
each jaw. Fins: Caudal 4.50 into length. Pecftorals 1.50 into 
head. Dorsal and anal slightly shorter. Color in spirits: Brown, 
with small blue dots all over the body; older specimens have few 
or no .spots on snout, and the spots are larger on sides and belly. 
Fins are du.sky, with black bases. Young specimens have bkiish 
spots on cavidal fin, while old specimens have the po.sterior third of 
fin white. Three specimens, length 3-6 inches. Guam, June 14, 
1900. Hab. Polynesia, western Pacific, Marianas. 

Family TBTRAODONTID^.— Puffers. 

Genus TETRODON Linn^us. 

249. Tetrodon papua Bl. 

Head 2.66; depth 2.1 ; eye 5, 3 into snout; interorbital con- 
cave, 3 into head; D. 9; A. 10; P. 16; C. 10. Spines minute, cover- 
ing the entire bod}-, except caudal peduncle. Nasal organs quite 



Report of a Missio)i to (iitaiii. 119 

inconspicuous. Back compressed into a ridge. Bones of the upper 
and lower jaw in the form of a beak, with cutting edge. A median 
suture present. Fins: Longest dorsal ray equal to longest anal ray, 

2 into head; longest ray of caudal 3 into length of fish; the space 
between the hind margin of dorsal and the base of caudal 4 into 
length. Color in spirits: Above, a sepia brown covered with blue 
spots with black edges ; these spots thicker and smaller than 
pupil, on the posterior half; on the sides of head the spots are 
as large or larger than the pupil ; several short radiating blue 
lines about eye; three or four across interorbital space. Older 
specimens have blue lines over the snout and on sides of the mouth. 
Under parts 3-ellowish white with a median bkie line on belh' to 
anal in larger specimens. A black spot, a little larger than eye, 
covering the base of dorsal. Petlorals, anal and dorsal fins yellow- 
ish white. Caudal dusky yellow with numerous blue lines and 
dots. Six specimens, 1.25-3 inches in length, were taken at Agaiia, 
Guam, inside the coral reef, July 12, 1900. These fish are usuall}' 
found in pairs swimming about the coral reef; it is even difficult to 
frighten them so the two will separate, and when this is accom- 
plished thev seem to invariably join the same partner again. Hab. 
Polynesia, Marianas. 

250. Tetrodon reticularis Bl. 

}'o/nig-: Head 2.50; eye 3.50; caudal rays 4 into length of fish 
and equal to distance from caudal to anterior base of dorsal; pec- 
torals 2 into head; small spicules all over except at base of caudal; 
interorbital 3.50 into head. Color: Back, head and cheeks brown, 
with scattered blue spots. Two blue concentric lines below eye. 
Base of pectorals black with one or two concentric bluish rings. 
Belly yellowish white with about 1 8 longitudinal brown lines about 
three times as wide as the interspaces. Caudal dusk}-. Pecftorals, 
dorsal and anal yellowish. One specimen, a voung, 1.50 inches in 
length, was the only representative of this species secured. Agana, 
Guam, July 12, 1900. //ad. Western Pacific, Marianas. 

251. Tetrodon immaculatus Bl. 

Yomig: Head 2.33; eye 3.50 into head; length of caudal ray 

3 into head; pedl orals 3; interorbital 3 into head. Color in spirits: 
Browniish above wdth about 8 oblique narrow black lines extending 
up and back from vicinity of pectorals to caudal and dorsal; below 
yellowish white, unstreaked. Caudal dusky, with black upper and 
lower margins. Peclorals, anal and dorsal white. One specimen, 
length 1.50 inches, taken at Agaiia, Guam, July 12, 1900. //ab, 
Polynesia, Marianas. 

252. Tetrodon stellatus Bl. 

Young: Head 2.50; eye 3; interorbital 4; caudal rays 3.50 
into length; pe(5lorals 3. Color: Almost a lamp-black above, un- 



I20 Direclof s Annual Report. 

spotted; white below, with i6 ver\' black longitudinal lines of about 
the same width as the interspaces. A brown ring around snout. 
A few small blue spots on caudal peduncle. A black splotch larger 
than eye at base of pe(5torals. One specimen, length 2.25 inches, 
from coral reef at Agaiia, Guam, June 12, 1900. Hab. Western 
Pacific, Polynesia, Marianas. 

Family DIODONTID^.— Porcupine-fishes. 

Genus DIODON Linn^us. 

353. Diodon hystrix Linn. Porcupine-fish. 

Heads; depth 3.33; D. 15; A. 14. vSpines strong; the spines 
behind the peAorals longest and strongest; frontal spines shorter, 
about as long as eye; spines about the dorsal and anal fins short, 
their bases free from spines. Caudal peduncle with two or three 
half rows of short spines above and below. Anal, dorsal and cau- 
dal of about equal length, 2 into head. Pectorals a little shorter, 
the upper lobe slightly longer. Color in spirits: Back and sides 
dusky, with numerous black spots. Belly w^hite. All the fins 
greenish, with numerous round black dots. One specimen, length 
15 inches. Agaiia, Guam, July 12, 1900. Hab. Seas of India, 
western Pacific, Marianas. 

Family SCORP^NID^.— Rock-fishes. 

Genus SCORP^NA Artedi. 

254. Scorpsena bakeri sp. nov. Baker's Rock-fish. 

Head 2.50; depth equal to head; eye 4; interorbital 5.50 into 
head; snout 3 into head; D. xii 10; A. iii 5; V. i 5. Maxillary 
1.80 into head. Scales about 34, breast scaly, head naked. Body 
oblong, somewhat compressed. Head large, naked above, with 
horny spines and dermal filaments. Teeth villiform on jaws, vomer 
and palatines. Supraocular tentacle more than twice diameter of 
eye. The dermal flaps along sides of body less than diameter of 
eye. Occiput with a very shallow depression. Interorbital groove 
deep and narrow; suborbital stay weak, a small spine in its middle 
and at its posterior end. Po.sterior edge of preopercle with four 
strong spines, the upper one the longest, equal to diameter of 
pupil and with a minute superimposed spine on its base. Pre- 
orbital with a strong spine directed forward and a strong one 
direcfted back and down. Nostrils with a distinct spine and dermal 
filament. Supraorbital bones each with four spines. Opercle with 
three or four spines; seven spines on each side of nape above 
opercles. Fins: The second anal spine longest and .strongest, its 



Report of a Mission to (in am. 121 

length 2 into head; fourth, fifth and sixth dorsal spines the long- 
est, 2.50 into head. Pecflorals equal to distance from posterior 
margin of opercle to no.stril. Base of anal 3.20 into base of dorsal. 
Caudal rounded, about equal in length to pecftorals. None of pec- 
toral rays branched. Color in spirits: Body mottled with dusky 
and grayish, with slight trace of Indian red; the under side of head 
is white with about 6 distinct brownish cross bands half as wide as 
interspaces. Fins grayish, mottled with black and white. Four 
specimens, length 1.50-2.50 inches. Guam, July 14 , 1900. Hab. 
Marianas. Named in honor of Capt. Jesse E. Baker, U. S. A., 
who.se assistance in the author's field work has been greatly appre- 
ciated. 

Gexus SCORP^NOPSIS Meckel. 

255. Scorpsenopsis guamensis Quoy & Gaim. 

Head 2.35: depth 3; eye 3; interorbital 2 into eye; length of 
•suout slightly less than eye; maxillary 2.50; D. xii 9; A. iii 5; 
V. I 5; P. 19. Scales 44; cheeks and opercles .scaled. Teeth villi- 
form in jaws and vomer. Interorbital space concave. No orbital 
tentacles, no groove beneath the eye. Maxillary reaches to below 
middle of orbit. Supraorbitals, occipitals, opercles and orbitals 
with acute spines. Color in spirits: Brownish, with marblings of 
dark brown. One specimen, length about 3 inches. Guam, July 
13, 1900. Hab. Malay x-Vrchipelago, Marianas. 

Genus SYNANCBIA Block. 

256-257. Synanceia thersites sp. nov. 

Head, exclusive of skinny flap, 2.50; depth 2.66; eye 8; pre- 
maxillary 3, very narrow and bearing the villiform teeth of upper 
jaw; the maxillary flat and wide, its width slightly greater than 
orbit ; interorbital space fossa-like, 3.50 into head ; D. xiii 7; 
A. Ill 6; p. 19; V. I 5. Numerous dermal flaps on head and body. 
Head monstrous and irregularly shaped; low^er jaw almost vertical; 
the upper margin is on the dorsal surface, its length i .50 into head. 
\'illiform teeth in both jaws, but none on vomer or palatines. Gill- 
rakers consisting of villiform teeth slightly longer at angle, and 
longer curved teeth on head of pharyngeals. Branchio-stegals 7. 
Pseudobranchise present. Fins: The dorsal is continuous, the soft 
part highest. Caudal more or less rounded, 2 into head. Ventrals 
1.20. Pectoral very wide, its base about equal to its longest ray. 
Color in spirits: The general ground color is almost a sepia brown, 
darker with a wash of greenish on posterior part. There is a more 
or less greenish white area near the middle of the body, under 6-8 
dorsal spines. There is a greenish white band about as wide as 
eve which forms a band about the middle of the soft dorsal, anal 



122 Direilor s Annual Report. 

and the posterior part of body. The caudal fin is narrowly tipped 
with yellowish white with a black subterminal band as wide as eye; 
anterior of this is a white band of about equal width; the remainder 
of the fin is blackish. The pe(5lorals are margined with white, 
their ground color is dusky with more or less mottling of greenish 
white. Ventrals are -similarly colored, except that the mottlings 
take more of the form of four or five incomplete cross lines. Pec- 
torals and anal dusky, with mottlings of greenish white. Two 
specimens, length about 9 inches. Guam, July 12, 1900. The 
dorsal spines of this fish are very poisonous, and the natives fear 
them more than scorpions. One of the above specimens was dam- 
aged by having its head crushed by a native who was intent on 
killing' the fish. Type No. 256, B. P. B. M. Hab. Marianas. 
Named for Thersites, "The ugliest of the Greeks." 

Genus PTEROIS Cuvier. 

258. Pterois ^ebra Cuv. & Val. 

Head 2.66; depth 2.66; eye 2.66 into head; interorbitals 4.50 
into head; D. xi i 13; A. iii 6; P. 17; V. i 5; C. 11 14 11. Scales 
10-59-13. Mandibles 1.16 into head. Maxillary 1.50 into head, 
reaching to a line with anterior margin of pupil. Gill-rakers short 
and blunt, about 9 on lower arm — armed with minute teeth. Body 
oblong, compressed. Teeth villiform in jaws and vomer. Inter- 
orbital space deeply concave, the upper margins each with a fleshy 
tentacle one-third as long as head, and alternating white and brown 
in color. There are four fle.shy tentacles on the snout, one just 
posterior of each anterior nostril, and two in the middle near tip of 
snout. There is also a short fleshy tentacle on lower anterior cor- 
ner of preorbitals, and two on each lower posterior margin of each 
preopercle. The upper margin of orbit is armed with one large 
and three small spines. Preorbital is armed with several spines 
and ridges, one ridge extending back near the lower margin of in- 
ferior orbital to the preopercle. Immediately beneath this ridge 
are several small spines. Posterior margin of preopercle armed 
with three spines. About eight spines on top of head just back of 
interorbital region. Continuing from the anterior end of lateral line 
is a row of five small spines extending to orbitals. Scales: lyateral 
line well developed; scales on nape, body and head, except on 
snout and interorbitals. Branchiostegals 7. Pseudobranchise well 
developed. Fins: Caudal is rounded, 1.15 into head. Pecftorals 
very elongate, reaching tip of caudal. Spinous dorsal long, the 
longest spine 2 into length. Ventrals slightly longer than head. 
Soft dorsal and anal reaching be^-ond the base of caudal, their 
longest rays about equal, 1.50 into head. Base of anal 3.08 into 
base of dorsal. Color in spirits: Ground color sepia brown; three 
siug^le vellowish white lines over back of neck between the orbitals 



Report of a Mission to (iuani. 123 

and first dorsal spine. Beginning with the third dorsal spine the 
body is banded with twelve narrow, double, white lines with a nar- 
row interspace of brown between each line; these lines seem to be 
in pairs, four of the narrow white lines with their interspaces mak- 
ing up a band, ot which there are seven on the body with interspaces 
about equal to diameter of eye. The last three pairs of bands ex- 
tend obliquely forward and down, on the caudal peduncle. Thorax 
is }ellowish white with one broad band of brown extending from 
the base of one dorsal fin to the other. Snout and under part of 
head yellow, the snout having two brown spots on each side; a 
broad brown band from lower anterior margin of eye to posterior 
end of maxillaries; another, edged with white extends from top of 
orbitals through eye to lower anterior margin of opercles. Axis of 
peclorals black, with a wide white line; a curved white line on the 
fin just posterior of axis. The base of pecloral is brown; a white 
area on base of rays surrounded bj^ a clouded black area, the black 
extending half the distance of the rays. Ventrals have yellow rays 
and black membranes. All the remaining fins are marked with alter- 
nating irregular lines of brown and white. The above description 
is of a male, length 4 inches. Guam, July 13, 1900. A young 
female, length about 3 inches, taken at the same time, while struc- 
turally similar is quite differently marked, and much more nearly 
resembles Ouoy & Gaimard's figure (Vov. Astrol. Poiss, Pi. XI., 
p. 6), except the upper portion of the white lines are not distinctly 
divided. Hab. Polynesia, Marianas, seas of India. 

Family PI,ATYC:ePHAI,ID^. 

Genus PLATYCBPHALUS Block & vSchxeider. 

259-60. Platycephalus punctatus Cuv. & Val. 

Head 2.66; depth 3.50 into head; eye 4.20 into head; snout 3; 
interorbital 4 into eye; D. viii, 11 ; A. 12. Head flat, spinate; 
lower jaw the longer. Body sub-cylindrical. The lateral line 
smooth. Teeth villiform; the maxilla reaches to anterior margin 
of eye. Supraorbital margin toothed posteriorly, and with a dis- 
tinct spine anteriorly. Lower margin of inferior orbital with a row 
of spines which end in the strong spine of preopercle; two small 
spines just below the preopercular spine. Two spines on snout. 
Occipital region with several spines. Opercle with two spines on 
upper posterior part ; just above opercle is an irregular row of 
about .six spines reaching to orbit. Fins: Caudal square. Ventrals 
1.20. The first dorsal and anal fins of about equal length, 2 into 
head. Base of soft dorsal slightly less than base of anal. Color in 
spirits: Grayish, with four or five wide brownish cross bands from 
the back to middle of sides. Under surface white. Pecftorals yel- 
lowish, with brown dots and lines. First dorsal yellow, with a 



124 Dircclof s Animal Report. 

broad black mark on posterior third. Veiitrals dark above and on 
posterior third. vSoft dorsal and caudal 3-ellowish, with brownish 
lines or dots. Anal yellow. Two specimens, length 4-6 inches. 
Guam, July 13, 1900. Hab. Seas of India to Malay Archipelago, 
Marianas. 

Family AGONID^.— Sea-poachers. 

Genus PBRCIS Scopoij. 

261-62. Percis cephalopunctatus sp. nov. Pipupu. 

Head 3.66 ; depth 6.30 ; eye 4.66 ; snout 2.66 ; interorbital 3 
into eye; D. iv 21 ; A. 17 ; W i 5. Scales 71. Mandible 2.15. 
The lower jaw the longer. Two opercular spines. Body some- 
what elongate and sub-cylindrical. Head somewhat depressed. 
Villiform teeth in jaws and vomer, none on palatines; outer row in 
jaws somewhat enlarged with three canines on each side in anterior 
part of lower jaw. Branchiostegals 6. Pseudobranchise present. 
Scales ctenoid. The spinous dorsal is scarcely conne(5led with .soft 
dorsal. Gill membranes connected at isthmus. The second dorsal 
spine the longest, equal to orbit. Fins: Caudal slightly rounded. 
Pedlorals 1.50 into head. Base of anal 1.50 into base of dorsal. 
Ventrals 1.15 into head. Color in spirits: Upper surface greenish, 
with 9 indistinct darker lines over the back. Below axis the color is 
yellowish white with 9 greenish bands; the upper parts of these bands 
are all united by a narrow greenish line on the axis extending from 
axis of pe(5lorals to lower part of caudal fin; just above this line and 
alternating with the green bands of the lower half are 9 greenish 
spots almost as large as eye, which have wide yellowish white mar- 
gins; these extend from pectoral fin to caudal. A large brown spot 
at base of pectoral fins. Two brown spots on lower part of opercle. 
Four large brown spots on cheeks, and two or more on jaws. About 
fourteen small brown dots, smaller than pupil, scattered over snout 
and top of head. Spinous dorsal white. Soft dorsal with three rows 
of brown spots. Caudal with a big dark brown blotch on its basal 
half, with scattered brown dots around it. Pedlorals, ventrals and 
anal white. Three specimens, length 4-5.50 inches. Guam, June 
14, 1900. Hab. Marianas. 

Family GOBIID^.— Gobies. 

Genus BI/BOTRIS (Gronow) Buoch & Schneider. 

263-66. Bleotris fusca (Bl.). 

Head 3; depth 4; eye 6.30; snout 3.66; D. vi 9; A. 9. Scales 
rather small, about 62 series behind pectoral fin. Preopercle with 
blunt spine bent down and forward. Body subcylindrical, head 
oblong. Teeth in setiform bands, none on vomer or palatines. 



Report of a Mission to Guam. 125 

Two dorsal fins. Anal papillae distinct. The back, in front of first 
dorsal somewhat concave. Fins: Caudal rounded. First dorsal fin 
small, its height a little more than one-half depth of body. Pect- 
orals equal to distance from hind margin of preopercle to anterior 
of orbit. Soft dorsal fin almost one-half higher than spinous dorsal, 
its base slightly greater than base of anal. Color in spirits: Leaden 
black, sometimes lighter below with slight wash of yellowish. Fins 
dusky with lighter fine yellowish lines or dots. Four specimens, 
length 5-6.50 inches. Guam, May 31, 1900. Hab. Polynesia, 
India, Malay Archipelago, Marianas. 

Genus GOBIUS (Artkdi) Linx.eus. 

267. Gobius deltoides sp. nov. 

Head 3.50 ; depth 5 ; eye 4 ; interorbital 2 into eye ; snout 3 
into head ; U. vi, i 11 ; A. i 11. Scales 28 from upper posterior 
margin of opercle to caudal ; no lateral line ; head fully scaled. 
Body slightly elongate, compressed posteriorly. Branchiostegals 5. 
Pseudobranchiae present. Teeth in two series in each jaw, the 
outer row with larger recurved canines. \'entral fins united, form- 
ing a disk which is attached only at its base. Caudal rounded. 
Base of anal about equal to base of soft dorsal. Color in spirits: 
Yellowish white with about seven reddish brown blotches along the 
sides above the axis, alternating with similar spots below the axis. 
A black line extends vertically down from the lower margin of orbit 
to a brown spot below the eye; here the line divides into two, which 
extends under the chin, one on a line with the eye, the other form- 
ing an angle directed forward, the two lines thus forming the Greek 
letter delta. These two lines are broken by the isthmus. Anal 
fins slaty blue. \'entrals with a wash of bluish. The remaining 
fins are grayish with numerous small brown spots and lines. 
Eighteen specimens, length 1-2 inches. Guam, June 2, 1900. 
Hab. Marianas. 

Gexus EI/EOTRIS (Gr?:xow) Block & Schneider. 

268. Eleotris miniatus sp. nov. 

Head 3.50; depth 3.25; eye 3; snout equal to diameter of eye; 
the interorbital equal to pupil; D. vi 7; A. 11 9. Scales 26. Body 
oblong, slightly elongated. Teeth in jaws villiform, with some 
outer enlarged canines ; no teeth on vomer or palatines. P'ins: 
The third dorsal spine terminates in an elongated filament reaching 
half of the distance to base of caudal. The longest soft rays of 
dorsal and anal are about equal in length, and eqvial to length of 
head. Caudal slightly rounded. Pedlorals slightly longer than 
head. Color in spirits: Olive brown with darker markings above 



126 DircHor's Annual Report. 

the axis which take ou more or less the form of half bands from 
the back to the axis of the body. Most of the scales of the body 
have a small central dot of pearly white. There is a black band 
vertically down from the lower margin of the eye to the isthmus. 
Fins are all dusky. Three .specimens, length 1.50 inches. Guam, 
Julv I, 1900. Hab. Marianas. 

Genus PERIOPHTHAI^MUS Block & Schneider. 
269. Periophthalmus koelreuteri (Pall.). Maching. 

Head 3.50; depth 2 into head; eye 4.20 into head; D. xv, 12; 
A. II. Scales 90. Eyes large and elevated. Anterior profile of 
head very abrupt. Body elongate, sub-cylindrical anteriorly, com- 
pressed behind. Teeth: About 23 conical pointed teeth in each 
jaw. Fins : lyOwer margin of caudal obliquely truncate. The 
spines of anterior dorsal iin very flexible. Pe<ftoral with its basal 
portion muscular and free. Ventrals short, connedled on their 
basal third. Color in spirits: Body olive brown; head may have 
numerous small dots of lighter color. Spinous dorsal dusky, tipped 
with white, and with a rather wide and distinct sub-terminal band 
of black. Soft dorsal broadly tipped with white, with a sub- 
terminal black band, below which is a narrow irregular line of 
white, the basal third of the fin being more or less white-dotted. 
Caudal and pedlorals dusky. Ventrals white below, dusky above. 
Anal white. Four specimens, length 4-5 inches. Guam, June 14, 
1900. Hab. Coasts of India, Andamans, Malay Archipelago, 
Marianas. These lung fishes are very abundant, and when fright- 
ened usually hop out of the water and take to land for safety. 

Family BIvBNNIID^.— Blennies. 

Genus SAI^ARIAS Cuvier. 

270. Salarias periophthalmus Cuv. & Val. 

Head 4.66; depth 5.33; eye 3.50; interorbital 2 into eye; 
D. XII, 20; A. 21; C. 15. No scales. Maxilla reaches to below 
hind margin of eye. Body elongate, cylindrical anteriorly. Snout 
blunt. , Gill openings wide. A simple tentacle about half the 
length of eye above the orbit, and a fringed one at the nostrils. 
A row of small movable teeth in each jaw. Fins: Dorsal fin not 
continuous on to the caudal. Caudal is almost square; the lower 
rays, however, are a little the longest. Color in spirits: Yellowish 
white with about six pairs of slightly darker cross bands down the 
sides. A short oblique blue line just back of and below the e)'e. 
A few small dusky spots on side of head. Two rows of dark- 
margined ovate blue spots down the sides of bod3\ Fins: Yellowish 



Report of a Mission to (luaw . 127 

white, the anal with a dark margin. Three specimens, length 
2-4.50 inches. Guam, June 2, 1900. Hab. Andamans to Malay 
Archipelago, Marianas. 

271. Salarias nigripes sp. nov. 

Head 3.66 ; depth 3.20 ; eye 3 ; interorbital 2 into eye; I). 25; 
A. 17; V. 3; P. 15. No scales, but an incomplete lateral line which 
seems to terminate on a line with the tip of the perioral fins. Max- 
illae reaching to below the posterior part of eye. Teeth small, 
movable; a single row in each jaw; no canines. A small tentacle 
over the eye, and another at nostril. A fringed row of these short 
fleshy tentacles over the posterior margin of the head, from the 
upper margin of one opercle to the other. Bod}' slightly elongate, 
compressed posteriorly. Branchiostegals 6. Pseudobranchise pres- 
ent. Fins: The caudal is square, and equal in length to pectorals. 
The dorsal commences on a line with tip of opercle and extends to 
base of caudal fin. The base of anal is contained twice into base 
of dorsal. Length of pectorals about equal to depth of body, their 
base 2 into head. Ventrals small, 1.50 into head. Color in spirits: 
A uniform warm sepia brown, with a few small white dots on snout 
and below the eye. Anal fin a uniform black. The remaining 
fins uniform with coloring of the body, except the upper anterior 
part of dorsal, and the upper third of caudal, which are white; the 
white on caudal beginning on the base of the upper two or three 
rays and broadening posteriorly. ^ Thirty specimens, length 1-2.75 
inches. Guam, July 12, 1900. Hab. Marianas. 

372. Salarias nitidus Gunth. 

Head 4.50; depth 5.66; eye 3 into head; interorbital 2 into 
eye ; maxillse reach to below posterior margin of eye ; no scales; 
D. 32; A. 21. Branchiostegals 6. Gill openings wide. Teeth: 
A single row of small movable teeth in each jaw; posterior canines 
not always present. Body somewhat elongate and compressed pos- 
teriorly. IMouth transverse, a tentacle about as long as width of 
eye, on upper part of orbit; also a small one at nostril. Dorsal fin 
scarcely notched, beginning above the opercle and terminating just 
in front of caudal. Color in spirits: Yellowish white, with indis- 
tinct indications of seven or eight brownish cross bands. A round 
black dot, slightly smaller than eye, on each side of body, below 
the notch of the dorsal fin. Head and body with numerous lighter 
yellowish dots. Dorsal fin with a row of brown dots along middle. 
Anal and caudal with dark margins. Six .specimens, length 1-3.50 
inches. Guam, June 14, 1900. Hab. Samoan Islands, Marshall 
Islands, Marianas. 

^Regardless of anj' other differences this white pattern of the caudal fin would seem suf- 
ficient to warrant this form to stand as a distinct species, for in the thirty specimens before 
me there is no variation from this type of caudal marking'. 



128 Dircclor^ s Annual Report. 

Family PI^BURONBCTID^.— Flounders. 

Genus PI^ATOPHRYS vSwainson. 
273-74. Platophrys pavo Quoy & Gaim. Tampat. 

Head 3.66; depth 2; eye 6.50; interorbital 3, concave ; D. 95; 
A. 73. Scales 94, the lateral line curved. Maxillary 2.66, the 
posterior end being on a line with anterior margin of eye. Mandi- 
ble 2 into head. The posterior two-thirds of the interorbital space 
is scaly. The cleft of the mouth is of moderate width. The teeth 
are small, in a single series in each jaw. The whole of the lower 
eye is anterior of the upper. Body elliptical, ovate, strongly com- 
pressed. Anterior profile slightly concave, the snout projedling 
(more noticeable in old than in young specimens) . Lower jaw with 
a well developed knob at symphysis. Anterior end of maxillary 
with a small blunt spine. The elevated orbital rims are smooth. 
Gill-rakers moderate, their length equal to diameter of pupil — 10 on 
lower limb, none on upper. Scales ctenoid. All the fins except 
pectorals more or less scaled. Fins: The caudal is rounded. The 
base of the ventral of the colored side is 3 into head, the base of 
the ventral on the white side being only one-half as long. The 
dorsal begins on the snout in front of the eye; the longest ra}- is 
2 into head. The upper ra\ s of the colored peclorals are elongated 
and filiform. The longest ray of anal is about 2 into head. 
Color in spirits: A mottled yellowish brown, covered everywhere 
with numerous ocelli of various sizes, those on middle of sides 
largest, being equal to longitudinal diameter of orbit; these ocelli 
usually have a minute brown dot in the middle on a small whitish 
zone, surrounding which is a blue ring with brown margins, the 
blue zone making up the largest part of the ocellus. There are 
three large dusky blotches on the lateral line. The dorsal and anal 
fins are slightl}' darker in color, the anal with six small dark 
blotches along its inner half; the dorsal with about eleven of these 
dusky splotches ; otherwise these fins are mottled with bluish, 
brown, and whitish spots. Colored peroral with a dusky blotch 
near its centre. Four specimens, length 1-9 inches. Guam, June 
2, 1900. Hab. China, Kokas Islands, New Hebrides, Marianas. 



Notes on the Birds of Kauai. 

BY WM. A. BRYAN AND ALVIN SEALE. 

The following observations are based on a collection made 
jointly by the authors for the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 
during a short sojourn on the island of Kauai, extending from 
April 12 to May 4, 1900. The two principal centres of field work 
were the Kaholuamano mountain house, and in the vicinity of Mr. 
August Knudsen's home near Waimea. 

Kaholuamano, which is the place where Messrs. Wilson, Palmer 
and Perkins carried ou much of their work, is the property of Mr. 
Francis Gay and is splendidly located in the midst of the forests on 
the western slopes of Mount Waialeale at an elevation of about 
3800 feet above the sea. To the Messrs. Gay and Knudsen we are 
indebted for much of the success of the trip. 

The collection numbers one hundred and forty skins and skele- 
tons, besides some nests and eggs and much valuable alcoholic 
material. In most cases a very full series w^as secured of the seven- 
teen species taken. The field jottings are for the most part taken 
from Mr. Scale's notes whose diary extended over the whole period. 

Larus barrovianus Ridgw. Point Barrow Gull. 

Attention has elsewhere (Memoirs B. P. B. Mus., Vol. I., 
pt. 3, p. 96) been called to the securing of two specimens of this 
gull on the island of Kauai by Mr. Francis Gay, whose hospitality 
we enjoyed, and who was so abundantly able to help us in our 
work. He kindly presented one of the specimens to the Museum. 
It was the opinion of that gentleman that they had wandered down 
to the island from the far north, having been lost at sea. Both speci- 
mens were in poor flesh when they were secured, one being unable 
to fly. One of the birds is still in Mr. Gay's private collection. 

Diomedea nigripes And. Black-footed Albatross. 

Our notes for the morning of April 12 take account of this 
.species flying about the ship as we were crossing the channel be- 
tween Oahu and Kauai. 

Puffinus newelli Henshaw. Ao. 

This species has long been knowai to the natives of Kauai, 
where it was called Ao. A single specimen in Mr. Gay's colle(5lion 

(). p. B. p. B. M.— Vol. I., No. r-,- ( 129 ) 



130 DircFtof s Annual Rcpori . 

was presenttd to the Museum and was the only example of the 
bird secured. Mr. Gay states that it is fairly common in certain 
cliffs in the mountains. It has been his observation that they 
live at lower elevations and closer to the sea than does the Uau 
{.-Estrelata phccopygia). Even when they are found in the same 
cliffs the Ao keep by themselves in the lower part, and the Uau 
to themselves higher up. The fact that the native name of this 
bird has come down to us through all these years, but that the 
species to which it had been applied by the kanaka naturalists 
should but so recently come to the light of science speaks much in 
the favor of those skilled old bird-catchers who had worked out the 
ornithology of their land with such exacftness. 

Oceanodroma castro (Harct.). Hawaiian Storm Petrel. 

Oeoe. 

No examples of this bird were seen except in the private col- 
led:ion of Mr. Gay. He has found them many times in suitable 
cliffs on the higher mountains. 

Phaethon lepturus Lacep. c\: Daun. White-tailed Tropic 

Bird. Koae. 

(3n April 14 our notes state that six tropic birds were seen at 
different times sailing about the cliffs above the Waimea river, 
along which stream the path leads for a considerable distance 
of the way to the mountain house. The splendid cliffs which 
are in many places hundreds of feet high seem to be ideal nesting- 
sites for this species which, so far as it has been possible to learn, 
chooses high cliffs in preference to flat rocks, etc., as is the habit of 
the Red-tailed Tropic Bird on Laysan and Necker Islands. While 
no specimens were taken during our stay they were seen in various 
places at intervals during our visit. The specimens in Mr. Gay's 
colleclion taken on Kauai, all of which were undoubtably the same 
as species seen, were the white-tailed form, as are also the skins in 
the Museum series. 

Anas wyvilliana vSclater. Hawaiian Duck. Koloa 

maoli. 

On the morning of April 23, while riding along the turbulent 
mountain stream Wailie, Mr. Scale saw a flock of fourteen of these 
ducks swimming about in a quiet eddy. Three were taken — two 
males and a female. Later on three more ducks were seen, but 
none taken. On May 4, while collecting at Mr. Knudsen's place, 
several flocks were seen in the low swamps. The pair (Museum 
No. 9424^ , 9423 9 ) are in full plumage. The freshly killed speci- 
mens have dark hazel eyes ; the bill dark sepia, darkest on the 
upper mandible, and with a greenish tinge on the sides of upper 



jVo/cs 0)1 flir Hiidx of Kauai. 131 

mandible in the male. The feet are white, with a \ellowi.sh cast 
in the female, and white with an orano^e yellow tint in the male. 

Nycticorax nycticorax nsevius (Bodd.). Black-crowned 
Night Heron. Auku kohili. 

One immature female (Mus. No. 9433) was taken from flocks 
near Waimea, where it was abundant in the low lands. 

Gallinula sandvicensis Streets. Hawaiian Gallinule. 

Alae. 

While collecting in the swamps about Waimea on May 4 this 
species was noted as especially abundant. 

Fulica alai Peale. Hawaiian Coot. Alae keokeo. 

A female (Mus. No. 9432) was taken in the ponds near Mr. 
Knudsen's home. The freshly killed bird has a cherry-red eye; 
the frontal shield is white with a light blui.sh tip to the upper man- 
dible; the feet are a bluish green. A number of nests of the white- 
shielded coot were seen among the rushes looking very much like 
a small platform of grasses with a siight hollow in the centre for 
the eggs. Usually, though not always, the grass was bent down 
over the nest so that it was partly concealed. The nests were in 
colonies of six or eight. One set of six eggs was taken. The nest 
was among the rushes about twenty feet back from the open water; 
the rushes were in water fourteen to eighteen inches deep. 

Himantopus knudseni vStejn. Hawaiian Stilt. 
Kukuluaeo. 

The eggs, nestlings, a half-grown bird and four adults were 
taken on May 4. The ponds near Mr. Knudsen's house cover an 
area of several acres, and at this time of year are so shallow that 
one can wade anywhere in them. Indeed rushes occupy a large 
part of them. From the great excitement our approach caUvSed it 
was plain that the birds were nesting. The stilts were wading 
about in the water or running about on the land. There were 
hundreds of these birds in sight. They uttered a sharp, rather 
harsh cry almost incessantl}- when on the wing. A nest was soon 
found which proved to be an old one with one bad ^'g'g in it. Shortly 
after Mr. Knudsen found a nest containing two eggs and two re- 
cently hatched young. The nest is usually little more than a slight 
depression in the ground — often an old cow track — with a few 
broken bits of coarse w^eeds scratched into it. The nest taken was 
among some weeds about fifty yards from the water. The old birds 
were quite fearless. Approaching to within a few feet of us, they 
would affect all sorts of ailments to decoy us from the nest. A favor- 
ite method of decoying was to lay flat on the ground with their 
wings spread out. They would often affect the broken wing trick 



132 



Dircllor's Annual Rcpoii. 



Avhich is so frequentl}' adopted by waders. They have a curious 
sort of dance, in which they bend their long legs at the tibio-tarsal 
joint and bob up and down in a most ridiculous fashion. Mr. 
Knudsen said that he had only noticed them performing in this 
manner during the nesting season. One specimen taken (Mus. 
No. 9427) was almost half-grown, but as a rule nesting was not so 
far advanced. A set of four eggs were taken which were too badly 
incubated to save. 

Heteractitis incanus (Gmel.). Wandering Tattler. Ulili. 

Occasional specimens were seen. On April 23 two birds were 
noted at an elevation of 3500 feet^ while on May 4 in the marshes 
and ponds they were fairly common. 

I/imosa lapponica baueri (Naum.). Pacific Godwit. 

Notice has been taken (Memoirs B. P. B. Mus., Vol. I., pt. 3, 
p. 27) of the specimen in Mr. Gay's collection which was secured 
by him. The specimen is in winter plumage and was secured in 
the late autumn. 

Charadrius dominicus fulvus (Gmel.). Pacific Golden 
Plover. Kolea. 

On x\pril 14 a flock of five were seen feeding at an elevation of 
1200 feet, and at 2000 feet another flock was sighted. They were 
noted again on Ma}- 4 as being quite plentiful at the Waimea ponds. 
On April 23 a male was taken (Mus. No. 9397) with the testes 
very much enlarged (.19X.60), going to .show that the mating 
season was well advanced. 

Phasianus torquatus Gmel. Ring-necked Pheasant. 

Pheasants were seen on a number of occasions, but no place 
were they as common as in the Waianae mountains on Oahu. 

Turtur chinensis (Scop.). 
Chinese Turtle Doves are quite common on Kauai. 

Asio accipitrinus sandvicensis (Blox.). Hawaiian Owl. 

Pueo. 

This bird was seen, toward nightfall especially, sailing about 
the cliffs and over the valleys. On one occasion one was seen to 
drop almost straight down for perhaps three hundred feet, and after 
a short time to rise from the bushes and wing off to a tree with what 
looked like a wild chicken a fourth grown. 

Chasiempis sclateri Ridgw. Apekepeke. 

vOf this interesting little fly-catcher a very complete series was 
sectrred. They are, like their cousins on Oahu and Hawaii, the 
most abundant and mo.st easily obtained of any of the native birds. 



A^o/(S oil tJic Birds of Kauai. 13-^ 

It is not uncoininon to have them approach to within a few feet of 
one, and after satisfying their curiosity to resume their feeding and 
calling, so that they are easily studied while alive. They are met 
with almost invariably in pairs. The ochreous-colored immature 
birds keeping together and the adult white-rumped ones keeping 
together, so that we have not yet seen au adult and an immature 
bird mated. No nests were taken. Everything indicated that it 
was past the nesting time. An adult was seen feeding a young 
which was just able to fiv. At another time, April iS, a pair of 
adults were seen feeding four young w^iich were quite able to fly- 
however, they were being cared for with as much solicitude as they 
would have been if the}^ were perfe(5lly helpless. One of the four,, 
a juvenile female (Mus. No. 9408), was taken, and since there is. 
no description of this interesting plumage it might be well to note 
that it more nearly resembles the mature bird than it does the im- 
mature plumage which intervenes. The plumage all over has a 
cottony appearance. The sides, top and back of the head are pale 
ochraceous mixed with brown, and with bluish gra}' bases to the 
feathers. The throat is white with some buffy markings. The 
breast whitish with faint smoky and ochraceous markings to most 
of the feathers. The abdomen is whitish. The back and rump mot- 
tled with sepia, pale ochraceous and whitish. The wing feathers 
and coverts are sepia-tipped and narrowly edged with pale ochra- 
ceous. The tail is dark sepia with whitish tips on the inner web 
of all but the centre pair of feathers, and with a faint indication of 
whitish on the outer edge of the outer pair. The bases of the 
feathers of the bod}- all over are mouse-gray which in life adds 
much to the adult appearance of the fledgling stage. The feet are 
bluish; the eye dark hazel, and the upper mandible dark while the 
lower is quite yellowish. Length 4.75, wing 2.50, tarsus i.oo, 
culmen .44. Aside from the fledgling just described the series 
taken is divided into ochraceous immature, and adults, indicating 
that it requires at least two years to reach the adult plumage. 

Acridotheres tristis (Linn.). False Mina. 
Common everywhere, ranging to the summit of Waialeale. 

Carpodacus mexicanus obscurus McCall. House Finch. 

''Rice Bird." 

Common on lowlands ; one specimen taken at Kaholuamano. 

Munia nisoria (Temm.). Chinese Sparrow. 

Common in flocks in the valleys. 

Vestiaria coccinea Forster. liwi. 

A fine series was taken in both immature and adult plumage. 
It seems to require at least two years for the liwi to assume the 
plumage of the adult. 



134- Dircflor s Annual Acj-orf. 

Himatione sanguinea (Gmel.). Apapane. 

The Apapane is fairly common on Kauai. Several flocks of 
from five to fifteen individuals were seen feeding on a single koa or 
oliia tree. The bird is far more abundant on Kauai than on Oahu. 

Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri (Wilson). Kauai Amakihi. 

Of this sturd}' species only four examples were taken. All the 
specimens seen were feeding among the flowers of the ohia growing 
at an elevation of not less than 4000 feet. None were noted about 
Kaholuamano. Doubtless they were more plentiful towards the 
summit of Waialeale, but the rainy season was on and as a result 
the whole forest was one all but impassable quagmire, in which it 
is perilous to even follow the rude trail, to say nothing of taking 
the chances ot losing it in the dense fogs and rains which envelope 
the summit almost continuously. 

Chlorodrepanis parva (Stejn.). 

Perhaps the most interesting series of skins secured during the 
trip was of this species. About Kaholuamano they were seen but 
rarely, but along the ridges towards the summit of Waialeale they 
were more and more abundant so far as our explorations extended. 
Afthis sea.son they are met with, feeding about in loose flocks of a 
dozen or more, picking at the flowering ohia. Many times they 
were secured from trees in which /,. ccrruleirostris (Wils.) and 
H. sanguinea (Gmel.) were feeding. Often they would alight on 
the low branches to sing or to preen, but they seemed to confine 
their feeding grounds to the flowers of the ohia which at this 
season were blooming profusel}'. On the morning of April 18, 
while coUecTiing in a little valley which sloped off from the main 
ridge two miles northeast of the mountain house, at an elevation of 
about 4000 feet, we noted a tall slender ohia that was growing down 
close beside the little mountain stream, in rather open ground, 
though well prote(5led from the wind. Attention was attracted to 
it by the rather unusual flight of what proved to be a fine adult 
male (Mus. No. 9365) of C. parva. By a careful search it was 
po.ssible to locate the ne.st of the bird in the topmost branch of the 
tree some fort}' feet from the ground. Shortly after the male was 
secured the female (Mus. No. 9366) flew straight to the nest and 
proceeded to feed the young. Climbing the slender swaj'ing tree 
was a difficult and somewhat dangerous task, but it was rewarded 
by the securing of the nest figured on the opposite page, and three 
young birds in the pin feather. A careful search was made on the 
ground and all about for fragments of the Q:'g% shells but nothing 
was found. 

The ne.st, which is believed to be the first one secured, is situ- 
ated in a vertical crotch and was virtually hidden from view by the 
leaves which surrounded it. It is composed externall}' of coarse 



A\i/cs o?i flic III ids o/ /\a/!ai. 



135 




FIG. 7. NEST OF CHLORODREPANIS PARVA (STEJN.)- 



136 DircFlor's Annual Repo?'t. 

moss and lichens, into which are loosely placed weed stems, skele- 
tons of leaves, and a few roots. The inside lining is made up almost 
entirel}^ of stiff black hair-like rootlets. The nest is 3.50 inches 
deep by 4.00 broad outside; inside it is 2.25 across the bowl by 
1.50 deep. In general appearance it more closely resembles nests 
of Chlorodrcpanis and Himatione than it does the nests of Oiromyza 
in the Museum. 

A close study of the material secured has resulted in placing 
parva in the genus Chlorodrcpanis (Memoirs B. P. B. Mus., Vol. I., 
pt. 3, p. 46). Orcomyza bairdi, which is given by Dr. Stejueger 
as the type of the genus Orcomyza ^ has the tongue but slightly 
rolled up on the edges, and the tip is bifurcated; while \\\ parva it 
is perfe(5tly tubular in form, with the brush-like ciliae at the tip, 
which is a characfter well marked in all the members of the Chloro- 
drcpanis genus. In adult parva the edges of the tongue meet and 
roll past each other to form the sucking tube. While in the very 
young, as exhibited by the nestlings just mentioned, the tongue 
shows no marked lateral rolling, nor does it meet to form a tube. 
This would seem to indicate most clearly that this form has been 
evolved from an ancestral type in which this organ was normal, 
and would remove the form farther from the parental stem than the 
more typical genus Orcomyza . 

Oreottiy^a bairdi Stejn. Akikihi. 

We secured a good series of this energetic little creeper-like 
bird. In its search for food it would often come down on the ferns 
and trunks of trees to within a couple of feet of the ground, but it 
was never seen to alight on the ground. On other occasions it was 
seen feeding high up among the ohia branches, but always keeping 
to the bark and limbs, where its antics remind one of the nut 
hatches of America. In habit it is totally different from either of 
the Chlorodrepanis of Kauai. 

lyoxops cseruleirostris (Wils.). Ou holowai. 

On the ridges two or three miles above Kaholuamano this 
species is quite plentiful, feeding about the blooming ohia. They 
are somewhat gregarious — eight to fifteen will sometimes alight in 
a clump of trees. Their graceful movements and beautiful olive 
and yellow plumage make them one of the one of the most charm- 
ing of the Kauai mountain birds. Young birds were secured which 
would indicate that the breeding season was as early as Februar3^ 

Hetnignathus procerus Cab. Kauai Akialoa. 

We colle(5led four specimens of this bird and saw a number of 
others. One young male (Mus. No. 9220) taken April 27 is in a 
plumage that would make February or March the probable nesting 



A^ofrs on the Birds of Kauai . 137 

season. The food seems to be largely inse(fts. The eye in the 
young bird is a dark hazel, the feet gra}', and the bill dusky gray- 
ish. The above specimen was taken while feeding about the trunks 
and limbs of an oliia tree much the same as a flicker would do. 
They use their long bills to feel under bits of bark and in cracks 
and holes. One was seen to reach under a bit of bark and pull out 
a big larva which it devoured greedily. Three others were seen 
near the same place. They are very war}' and hard to approach, 
generally keeping to the higher altitudes, none being .seen below 
,^500 feet. A fine male was taken on April 30 from a flowering 
ohia tree well on towards the summit of Waialeale. 

Psittacirostra psittacea (Gmel.). Ou. 

A single beautiful male specimen was taken on April 30 at 
upwards of 4000 feet elevation. Mr. Gay .states that the species is 
far more plentiful in the valleys, where it feeds ou the guava often 
coming down lower than 300 feet elevation after them; and it was 
his impression that in favorable localities they would come dowm 
almost to the sea level if food was more plentiful there. 

Phseornis myadestina Stejn. Kamau. 

On April 18, while sitting in ambush under some trees, two of 
these birds came and alighted quite near us. They were very 
quiet, but seeing us their curiosity was aroused, and coming nearer 
they dropped their wings so that they almost touched the branch 
they were sitting on, keeping them all the wdiile in a quiver. After 
satisfying themselves that we were not liable to molest them they 
flew very near to each other when one seemed to be taking food 
from the other's bill, or at least to rub his bill through the mouth 
of the other. These birds were quite similar in color and were 
billing probably preparatory to mating. The song of this species 
is remarkably sweet. While the birds are shy, their size together 
with their song, which is given at all times of day — and on one 
occasion was heard in the dead of the night — make them not a 
difficult bird to secure. No young were colle(5led, which taken 
in connection with the mating performance just detailed would 
indicate May as their probable nesting time. This species was 
fairly common, while Phcrornis palnicri was not met with during 
our staj'. 



List of Accessions. 



Department of Ornithology and Mammoeogy. 
Mamniah Pin chased. — Mounted. 

8780 Zalopluis calif orniauus, Less. San Francisco, Cal. 

8781 Macropus frsenatus, Gould. New South Wales. 

Mammals Colleffed. 

8782 Herpestes griseus, Geoff, c? Colle(5ted by A. vSeale. 

8968 Cervus philippinus, H. Smith. Skull and antlers. Guam, 
Marianas. Colle(5led by y\. Seale. 

Birds Pu 1 rh a sed. — Man n ted. 

9185 Macropteryx mystacea, Miiller. Duke of York Ids. 

9186 Hirundo neoxena, Gould. New South Wales. 

9187 Sauromarptis gaudichaudi, Q. & G. New Guinea. 

9188 Melidora macrorhina, Less. New Guinea. 

9189 Tanysiptera sah-adoriana, Ramesq. New Guinea. 

9190 danse, vSharpe. 

9 19 1 microrh^-ncha, Sharpe. New Guinea. 

9192 Alcyone azurse, Ewing. Tasmania. 

9193 Menura superba, Davis. J' Vi(5loria, Aust. 

9194 Chilonyx ochrocephala, Gmel. New Zealand. 

9195 Merula obscura, Gmel. Samoa. 

9196 Chibia laemosticta, Sclater. New Britain. 

9197 Pitta mackloti, Temm. New Guinea. 

9198 Lalage tricolor, Swains. New Guinea. 

9199 Eopsaltria australis, White. New South Wales. 

9200 Gymnorhina hyperleuca, Gould. Tasmania. 

9201 Gymnocorvus senex, Less. New Guinea. 

9202 Paradisea raggiana, Sclater. New Guinea. 

9203 Manucodia atra, Less. New Guinea. 

9204 chalybeata, Penn. New Guinea. 

9205 conirii, Sclater. New Guinea. 

9206 Msenatus religiosus. Less. Malay Peninsula. 

9207 Rhytidoceros subruficollis, Elyth. New Zealand(?). 

9208 plicatus, Forster. New Guinea. 

9209 Lorius hypoenochrous. Gray. Fiji. 

9210 Chalcopsittacus scintillatus, Temm. New Guinea. 

9211 Trichoglossus rubritorques, Vig. & Horsf. Queensland. 

9212 Nasiterna pusio, Sclater. Solomon Ids. 
( 13S ) 



List of Acccssio)is. 139 

9213 Clyptorhynclius xanthoiiotus, Gould. vSoutli Australia. 

9214 Microglossu.s aterrimus, Vieill. New Guinea. 

9215 Crlobicera oceanica, Less. Samoa. 

9216 Carpopliaga rufiventris, Salvad. New Guinea. 

9217 Melagoprepia assiniilis, Gould. Cape York, Aust. 

9218 Reinwardtoenas reinwardti, Heine & Rhno. New Guinea. 

9219 Otidipliaps cervicalis, Rams. New Guinea. 

9220 Goura albertisii, Salvad. New Guinea. 

9221 Didunculus strigirostris, Jard. Samoa. 

9222 Megapodius cumingi, Dillwj-n. Solomon Ids.(?) 

9223 Demiegretta sacra, Gmel. (vSum. plum.) Samoa. 

9224 sacra, Gmel. (\\'int. plum.) Samoa. 

9225 Carphibis spinicollis, Reich. New South Wales. 

9226 Himantopus leucocephalus, Gould. Australia. 

9227 Porphyrio melanotus, Newt. New Zealand. 

9228 Tribonyx mortieri, Dubos. Queensland. 

9229 Amaurornis moluccana, Wall. Duke of York Id. 

9230 Chenonetta jubata, Brandt. Tasmania. 

9231 Nettopus pulchellus, Gould. New Guinea. 

9232 Spatula rhj'ncholus, Gra}'. New Zealand. 

9233 Gabianus pacificus, Bruch. Australia. 

9234 Larus dominicanus, Licht. New Zealand. 

9235 Phalacrocorax carunculatus, Steph. New Zealand. 

9236 Pelicanus conspicillatus, Reich. New South Wales. 

9238 Mino dumonti, Less. Duke of York Id. 

9239 Phalacrocorax varius, Gmel. New Zealand. 

9240 Drepanornis albertisi, Sclater. New Guinea. 

9241 Parotia sexpennis, Bodd. New Guinea. 

9242 Lophorhina superba, Vieill. New Guinea. 

9243 Paradigalla carunculata, Eyd. & Souleyet. New Guinea. 

9244 Xipholena pompadora, Gould. New Guinea. 
9255 Megaloprepia magnilica, Temm. New Guinea. 

Birdskins Given. 

92S5 \'estiaria coccinea, Forster. 9 Oahu, H.I. Given by Dr. 
Huddy, Honolulu. 

9305 Larus glaucus, Brunn. Kauai, H. I. Given b}- Francis 

Gay Esq., Waimea, Kauai. 

9306 Puffinus newellii, Henshaw. Kauai, H. I. Given by Francis 

Gay Esq., Waimea, Kauai. 

Birdskins CoUeclcd. 

By A. Seale, on Oahu, H. I. 

9149-55 Haliplana fuliginosa, Gmel. 6 <? , i9. 
9156-58 Anous stolidus, Liun. 3 J' . 

9159 Totanus incanus (Gmel.).? 

9160 Phasianus torquatus, Gmel. 9 

9161 Charadrius dominicus fulvus (Gmelin).9 



140 DircHor s Annual Report. 

9162-3 Totaniis incanus (Ginelin). i^, i9. 
9164-5 Microanous hawaiiensis, Roths. 2$ . 
9166-7 Dafila acuta, lyiuii. \ $ , i 9 . 

9168 Anas wyvillianus, Sclater. $ 

9169 Porphyrio melanotus, Newt. $ 

9170 Nycticorax nycticorax naevius (Bodd.).(? 

91 7 1 Arenaria iuterpres (Linn.). 9 

9172-3 Charadrius dominicus fulvus (Gmel.).<? 

9 1 74 Arenaria interpres ( I^inn . ) . 9 

9175 Nycticorax nycticorax ncevius (Bodd.). 

9176 Acridotheres tristis, Linn. 
9180 Asio accipitrinns, Pall. 9 

9182-4 Turtur chinensis, Scop. 29, \$ . 
9246-70 Chasiempis gayi, Wilson. i6<? , 99 . 

9271 Turtur chinensis, Scop. ^ 

9272 Asio accipitrinns, Pall. $ 

9273 Acridotheres tristis, \Jn\\\.$ 

9274-84 Himatione sanguinea, Gmel. 6^, 59. 

9286 Himatione sanguinea, Gmel. $ 

9287-89 Chlorodrepanis chloris, Cab. 2$ , i9. 

By Wm. A. Br\'an and A. Scale, on Kauai, H. I. 

9307-25 Himatione sanguinea, Gmel. 12^, 79. 
9326-51 Vestiaria coccinea, Forster. 17^, S9, i juv 
9352-61 Loxops caeruleiro.stris, Wilson. 8c?, 29. 
9362-82 Chlorodrepanis parva, vStejn. lOt?, 11 9. 
9383-92 Phaeornis myiadestina, Stejn. 5^,49, i ?. 
9393-96 Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, Wilson. 3 c? , i9. 
9397 Charadrius dominicus fulvus, Gmel. 
9398-9403 Oreomyza bairdi, vStejn. 2^^,49. 
9404-17 Chasiempis sclateri, Ridgway. 7^,69, i ? 
9418-22 Hemignathus obscurus, Gmel. 3c?, 29. 
9423 Psittirostra psittacea, Gmel. <? 
9424-25 Anas wyvilliana, Sclater. $ 
9426-30 Himanotopus knud.seni, Stejn. 2 <? , 39. 

9431 Charadrius dominicus fulvus, Gmel. 9 

9432 Fulica alai, Peale, <? 

9433 Nycticorax nycticorax nsevius, Bodd. 9 

9434 Anas wyvilliana, Sclater. $ 

9435 Loxops caeruleirostris, Wilson. $ 

9436 Chlorodrepanis parva, Stejn. <? 

9437 Oreomyza bairdi, Stejn. $ 

9438 Chasiempis sclateri, Ridg. $ 

9439 Himatione sanguinea, Gmel. 9 

9440 Ve.stiaria coccinea, Forster. 9 
9441-44 Gallus gallus, Linn. J^ , 9 , and juv. 

By A. Seale, on Guam, Marianas, 

9449-69 Myzomela rubrata. Less. 15^ , 29,4 juv. 
9470-75 Rhipidura uraniae, Ou.st. 3,^,39. 



List of ^Icci'ssioiis. 141 

9476-86 Myiagra freycincti, Oust. 3 J' , 6 9 , i jiu'., i ?. 

9487 Corvus kubaryi, Rcliw. 9 

9488-98 Ptiliuopus roseicapillus, Less. 8^, 29, 1 juv. 

9499-9501 Turtur dussuinieri, Temm. i ^ , 29 . 

9502-15 Phlegoeuas xauthoiiura, Teniin. 8 J' , 69. 

9516 Sula piscatrix, Liim. (? 

9517-23 Charadrius fulvus, Ginel. ^ 

9524-5 Heteractitis incanus, Gmel. $ 

9526 Charadrius mongolus, Pall. 9 

9527-8 Excalfactoria sinensis, Gniel. i $ , i 9 . 

9529-32 CoUocalia fuciphaga, Thunb. 2 <? , 29. 

9533-35 Anas oustaleti, Salvad. 1$ , 29 . 

9536-40 Hj^potsenidia oustini, Roths, i <? , 3 9 , i juv. 

9541-44 Acrocephalus luscinia, Quoy & Gaini. 3 J" , i 9 . 

9545-50 Halcyon cinnanionea, Swains. 3 (? , 39. 

9551 Poliolinmas cinereus, Vieill. 9 

9552-65 Aplonis kittlitzi, F. & Hartl. 4^,69,4 juv. 

9566-77 Zosterops conspicillata, Kittl. i J" , 9 9 , 2 juv. 

9578-84 Gygis alba Kittlitzi, Hart. 5 <? , i9, i juv. 

9585-88 Demiegretta sacra, Gmel. i <? , 3 9 . 

9589-93 Anous stolidus, L,inn. 3^, 29. 

9594-99 Gallinula chloropus, Liun. 2 «? , 4 9 . 

9600-02 Ardetta sinensis, Gmel. 2$ , i9. 

9603 sinensis bryani, Scale. (Type.) 

9604-07 sinensis bryani. Scale, i <? , 39. 

9608 P'regata aquila, Pinn. ^ (Given by Lieut. W. E. Safford.) 

By A. Seale, in Monterey, Cal. 

9609 Archimophorus occidcntalis, Lawr. S 

9610 Gavia pacificus, Lawr. S 

9611-12 Colymbus nigricollis californicus, Heerm. i $ , i 9 . 

9613 Stercorarius pomarinus, Temm. 9 

9614 longicaudus, Vieill. 9 

9615 Sterna maxima, Bodd. $ 
9616-20 elegans, Gamb. 4 c? , i9. 
9621-24 Larus Philadelphia, Ord. 2$ . 29. 

9625 heermanii, Cass. $ 

9626 brachyrhynchus. Rich. 9 
9627-29 occidcntalis, And. 1$ , 29 . 
9630-34 Ceratorhyncha monocerata. Pall, i <? , 4 9 . 
9.635-36 Fulmarus glacialis glupischa, Stejn. i <? , i 9 . 
9637 PufBnus opisthomelas. Cones. 9 

9638-9 grisetis, Gmel. i <? , i 9 . 

9640 Cepphus columba, Pall. S 

9641 Brachyramphus marmoratus, Gmel. 9 

9642 Uria triole, Linn. $ 

9643 Munia nisoria, Temm. $ Oahu, H.I. 



142 Dircfior s Amiital Report. 

Department of ExXTomology. 

Received 27 boxes insedls, divided as below, being part of the col- 
lecftion made in the Hawaiian Islands by Mr. R. C. L. Perkins: 
7 boxes containing Lepidoptera ; 9 boxes containing Neiirop- 
tera ; 3 boxes containing Coleoptera ; 3 boxes containing Hy- 
menoptera ; 5 boxes containing Orthoptera. 

Collection of American Butterflies from Mrs. Sarah H. Mitchell. 
Kansas City, Mo. 

Department of Conchologv. 

Part of the collecftion made in the Hawaiian Islands b^' Mr. R. C. 

L. Perkins, consisting of the land shells of the xVchatinellidae, 

Succineidae and Tornatellidse. 
Collection of land and marine mollusca made in Guam by Mr. 

Scale. Not yet classified. 

Departments of Botany and Geology. 

Collection of botanical specimens made on Kauai b}^ Messrs. Bryan 
and Scale, and a collection made by Mr. Scale in Guam. 
These will be classified later. 

8575-8577 Argyroxiphium sandwicense, De Cand. Haleakala, 
Maui. Three specimens given by Miss Carrie Castle. 

Department of Geology. 

8,566 Zeolite, from Nuuanu \'alley, Oahu, H. I. Given by 

Mr. F. Rowald. 
10,010 Collecftion, 25 specimens from North America and the West 
Indies. Given by Mrs. S. M. Damon. 

Departmf:nt of Herpetology. 

7.960 Cast of Crotalus adamanteus. Arizona. 

7.961 Cast of Crotalus adamanteus (juv.). Arizona. Given by 
Mr. John \V. Thompson. 

Given by Prof. II. W. Ileiishaw. Hilo, H. I. 

10,042 Enioia cyanvira, Lesson. Keaukaha, Hawaii. 
10,043-4 Ablepharus boutonii pcccilopleurus, Wiegmann. Keau- 
kaha, Hawaii. 

10.045 Ablepharus boutonii pcccilopleurus, Wiegmann. Naolelo, 
Kau, Hawaii. 

10.046 lyciolopisma noctua, Lesson. Coconut Island, Hawaii. 
10,047-8 Peropus mutilatus, Wiegmann. Kau, Hawaii. 
10,049 Hemidactylus garnotii, Dumeril & Bibron. Hilo. Hawaii. 
10,050-4 Lepidoclactylus lugubris. Dum. «& Bib. Hilo, Hawaii. 

10.055 Lepidodactylus kigubris, Dum. & Bib. Kau, Hawaii. 

10.056 Lepidodactylus lugubris. Dum. & Bib. Keaukaha, Hawaii. 



/,/.sV of Accessions. 143 

Dkpartimkxt ()i- Iciithvoloc.v. 

Collection of fishes made by Mr. A. Seale on Giiani. Named and 
numbered on previous pages. 

Sponges, Corals, Asteroids and Miscellaneous. 

8,996-7 Knplectella aspergillum, Owen. Zamboanga. Philip- 
pine Islands. Given by Hon. Dean C. \\"orcester, Philippine 
Commission. 

10.011 Hyalonema sieboldii, Gray. Japan. 

8.935 Asterias sp. Koloa, Kauai. Given by A. F. Judd Esq. 

8.936 Ophidiaster sp. Koloa, Kauai. Given by Miss Georgiana 
Williams. 

10.012 Pocillopora granis, Dana. Society Islands. 
10,016 Renilla amethystina. California. 

Ethnoloc'tV and Anthropology. 

7.508 Pohaku liana ikaika. Kauai. Given by \V. H. Rice, Jr. 

7.509 Skull of young Hawaiian girl. Kauai. Given by J. K. 
Farley Esq. 

7,551 Canoe model. Marshall Ids. Given by A. F. Judd Esq. 
7,625 Stone dish, oval, knob on each end. Hawaiian Ids. 
7,628 Sling stone. Oahu. 
7,868-70 Umeke poi, kou {Cord/a siibcordata) . Wooden bowls. 

Hawaiian Ids. 
7,952-3 Poi boards of koa. Hawaiian Ids. 
7,954-5 Poi pounders, ring form. Kauai, H.I. 

7.956 Disk, thick, wooden. Hawaiian Ids. 

7.957 Polishing stone. Hawaiian Ids. 

7.958 Stone lamp. Hawaiian Ids. 

7.959 Stone mortar or lamp. Hawaiian Ids. 

8,090 Basket of fern stems ; modern Hawaiian manufacture. 

8.540 Strips of plaited Pandanus and fern steni prepared for hat 
making. Kauai. Coll. A. Seale. 

8.541 Fern stem. Kauai. Coll. A. Seale. 

8.542 Peelings from No. 8541 used in No. 8540. Coll. A. Seale. 

8.543 Leaves of loulu (Pritchardia sp.) palm. Coll. A. Seale. 

8.544 vStrips of loulu palm prepared for weaving. Coll. A. Seale. 
8,569 Body of very young baby (Hawaiian) dried and wrapped 

in kapa. Oahu. 
8,578 Hat of bambu, Samoan. Given by Mrs. Falke. 
8,636-64 Umeke poi (29) of kou {Cordia subcordata) and milo 

{Thcspcsia populnca), ranging in sizes from 7X2^2 inches 

to 19X7/2 inches. Purchased in Honolulu. 
8,665 Ipu kai. Fish dish, kou. Purchased in Honolulu. 
8,666-7 Tw^o wooden boxes containing outfits for members of 

Hale Nana, Honolulu. Bequeathed by deceased members. 



i_|.4 Direfioi''' s Annual Report. 

■j,g-j4 Filipino skull. Given by Col. Woodruff. 

Given by the Trustees of Oahu College, Honolulu. 

8,671 Helmet of ieie {Freycinctia arnottii). Hawaiian Ids. 
672-7 Kapa beaters. Hawaiian Ids. 

8.678 Ulu niaika. Hawaiian Ids. 

8.679 Adz head, unfinished. Hawaiian Ids. 

8.680 Adz head. Hawaiian Ids. 

8.681 Drum, sharkskin head. Marquesas Ids. 

8,682-5 Wooden legs, showing tatu pattern. Marquesas Ids. 

8.686 Carved wooden dish. Marquesas Ids. 

8.687 Neck ornament of human hair bound with sennit. Mar- 
quesas Ids. 

688-g Anklets of human hair. Marquesas Ids. 

6go Coronet, band of braided sennit supporting pearl shell. 

Marquesas Ids. 
691 Pair bone ornaments. Marquesas Ids. 
642-3 Staves of wood ornamented at one end with human hair. 

Marquesas Ids. 

694 Club. Marquesas Ids. 

695 Nose flute. (?) 

696 Club, pineapple type. Fiji. 
8,697 Club. Tonga. 
8,698-9 Club-shaped sword, coconut wood. Gilbert Ids. 

700-2 Spears edged with shark's teeth. Gilbert Ids. 

703 String of human teeth. Gilbert Ids. 

704 Large round ball of sennit, 3 feet 3 inches in circumference. 
Marshall Islands. 

785 Cinet covered with fine matting. Marshall Ids. 

786 Shell adz. Marshall Ids. 

787 Canoe bailer, breadfruit wood. Caroline Ids. 

788 Canoe bailer (model). Ruk, Caroline Ids. 

789 Tol, male dress of banana fibre. Caroline Ids. 

790 Dance paddle. Mortlock Ids. 

791 Walrus head {Ti'icheais obesus). Alaska. 

8.819 Bracelet of bear tusks. Hawaiian Ids. 

8.820 Kvipee niho ilio, in fragments. Hawaiian Ids. 

8.821 Bundle of kapa markers ( 10). Hawaiian Ids. 

8.822 Kapa ruler. Hawaiian Ids. 
8,823-4 Baskets of unknown locality. 

From other sources. 

8,811 Stone idol. Kailua, Hawaii. 
8,812-14 Kapa. Hawaiian Ids. 

815 Poi pounder, unfinished. Oahu. Given by Edw. Aikua. 
8,816-17 Kapa. Hawaiian Ids. 
8,818 Notification of the cession of the Hawaiian Islands to Great 

Britain in 1843 ; marked on copper. Given by Prof. 

F. A. Hosmer. 



List of Accessions. 145 

8,931 Stone adze head. Hawaiian Ids. 

8,932-3 Samoan paddles. Given by Lieut. W. E. Safford. 

8.934 Samoan club. Given by Lieut. W. E. Safford. 

Collected by Mr. A. Seale, in Guam, Marianas. 

8,937 Bambu water carrier. Agaiia. 

8,938-41 Mats, Pandanus. " 

8.942 Basket, Pandanus. " 

8.943 vSack, Pandanus. " 

8.944 Rope of Hibiscus fibre. " 

8.945 Basket, Pandanus. " 

8.946 Bag, Pandanus. " 

8.947 Basket, Pandanus. " 
8,948-9 Pandanus leaves, dried. " 
8,950-1 Hats of Pandanus. " 

8.952 Bambu fire sticks. " 

8.953 Fillet of grass and Pandanus. From the Caroline Island- 

ers' settlement at Guam. 
8,954-6 Dresses of Hibiscus. Caroline Islanders' settlement at 

Guam. 
8,957 Dress of Hibiscus. Ruk, Caroline Ids. Given by Lieut. 

W. E. Safford. 
8,958-59 Hats of Pandanus. Caroline Islanders' settlement at 

Guam. 

8.960 Necklace of flower stamens, plaited. Caroline Islanders' 

settlement at Guam. 

8.961 Iron ground cultivator. Agaiia. 
8,962-3 Iron lance heads. " 

8.964 Iron fish spear. " 

8.965 Machete and sheath. Given by Lieut. W. E. Safford. Agaiia. 

8.966 Sling stone. Given by Padre Paloma. Agaiia. 

8.967 Sling stone. Agaiia. 

8,998 Broom, made of midribs of coconut leaves. Agaiia. 
8,999-9,000 Brooms, made of grass. Lu^on, Philippine Ids. 

Received from the late C. M. Hyde, D.D. 

8.969 Spear. Samoa. 

8.970 Fly-flap. Samoa. 

8.971 Drill. Tapituea, Gilbert Ids. 

8.972 Club made from a whale rib. Gilbert Ids. 

8.973 Club made from coconut wood. Maiana, Gilbert Ids. 

8.974 Adze. Maiana, Gilbert Ids. 

8.975 Adze. 

8.976 Ladle of coconut. Gilbert Ids. 

8.977 Implement of unknown use. Micronesia. 

8.978 Dance wand, small. Marshall Ids. 

8.979 Dance paddle. Ponape, Caroline Ids. 
8,980-1 Dance wands. Ruk, Caroline Ids. 

O. p. B. p. B. M.— Vo-^. I., No. Tv 



146 Direflor's Annual Report. 

8.982 Poi pounder of coral rock. Caroline Ids. 

8.983 Canoe model. Caroline Ids. 

8.984 Club. Samoa. , 

8.985 Pillow, bambu. Samoa. 
8,986-90 Sandals. Hawaiian Ids. 

8.991 Basket for fish or shrimps. Hawaiian Ids. 

8.992 Coconut cup. (?) 

8,993-4 Strings of Conus disks. Gilbert Ids. 

10.033 Adz head, stone, small. Hawaiian Ids. 

10.034 Fragment of the stalagmite used in Bonabe, Gilbert Ids 
to make fish hooks for bonita. 

Silveriuare . — Given by the Hon. C. R. Bishop. 

10.001 Tea service, at one time property of Kanaina. 

10.002 Forks (8), at one time property of Kekuanaoa. 

10.003 Sugar tongs, at one time property of Kekuanaoa. 

10.004 Dessert spoon, at one time property of Paki. 

10.005 Soup ladle, at one time property of Kuakini. 

10.006 Tea spoons (7), at one time property of Kuakini. 

10.007 Tea spoons (10), at one time property of Keelikolani. 

10.008 Forks, small (12), at one time property of Kekauluohi. 

10.009 vSugar tongs, at one time property of Kuakini. 



10,013-14 Clubs from New Guinea. 
10,015 Club. New Britain. 



ADDITIONS T(3 THE LIBRARY. 

[Those marked with an asterisk were obtained liy exchange.] 

* Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia: Journal, Vol. XL, 

part 3. Proceedings 1899, part 3. Proceedings 1900, parts 1-2. 

American Anthropologist, new series. Vol. II., Nos. 1-3. 

American Museum of Natural History: Tenth and eleventh an- 
nual reports 1879 and 1880. Given by Wm. T. Brigham Esq. 
* Annual reports for 1896, 1897, 1898 and 1899. * Bulletin, 
Vol. XL, parts 1-3, Vol. XII. Jesup North Pacific Expe- 
detion — Ethnographical album of the North Pacific coasts of 
America and Asia, part i, 1900. 

*American Philosophical Society: Proceedings, Vol. XXXVIIL, 
Vol. XXXIX, Nos. 161, 162 and 163. Transactions, new 
series. Vol. XX., part i. 

Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, Vol. XXXIV. London, 
1 899- 1 900. 

* Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : Journal, 

Vols. I. and 11. London, 1898-1899. 
*Anthropologie de Paris, Societe d' — : Bulletins, tomes IX. -X., 
1898-1899. 



List of Acccssio)is. 147 

*Antliropolo^i.sclien Gesellscliaft in Wien, Mittheihingen der — : 
XXIX Band. VI. Heft, XXX Band, Heft I.-V. 

*Asiatic Society of Bengal: Proceedings for 1899, Nos. 9-1 1. 
Proceedings for 1900, Nos. 1-8. Journal, Vol. LXVIII., 
Part 2, Nos. 2-4. Journal, Vol. LXIX., Part 2, No. i. 

The Auk, Vol. XVII., No. 3, July 3, 1900. Given by Henry C. 
Carter Esq., New York. 

*Australian Museum: Memoir III., Part 10. Memoir IW, Trawl- 
ing results of "Thetis'", Part 2, Crustacea. Records, \'ol. 
III., Nos. 7-8. 

Bailey, L. H. — Cyclopedia of American horticulture, Vols. I., II.. 
New York, 1900. 

Banks, Sir Jos. and Solander, Dr. Daniel. — Illustrations of the 
botany of Captain Cook's voyage in the "Endeavour", 1768- 
1871. Part I, Australian plants. London, 1900. 

Bates, Henry Walter. — The naturalist on the River Amazon, 2 
vols. London, 1863. 

Beddard, F. E. — A book of Whales. London, 1900. 

Bentham, Geo. — P'lora Hongkongensis. London, 1861. 

Berkeley, M. J. — Outlines of British Fungology. London, i860.. 

Berlin Gesellschaft fiir Anthropologic, Ethnologic und Urges- 
chichte : Verhandlungen der — . Sitzung vom 17 Feb. und 17 
Marz 1900. Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic, 1900. Heften I-IV.. 

Bible, owned by Kaahumanu, wife of Kamehameha I. Given by 
Mrs. Irene li Brown. 

Biro, Ludwig ; Beschreibender Catalog der Ethnographischen 
Sammlung aus Deutsch-Neu-Guinea (Berlinhafen). Buda- 
pest, 1899. 

*Boston Public Library: Forty-eighth annual report, 1899-1900;: 
Monthly bulletins, 1900, Vol. V. 

Boulenger, G. A. — Reptiles and batrachians of the Solomon Islands. 

Brinton, D. G. — Catalogue of the Berendt Linguistic Collection. 
Philadelphia, 1900. Given by Stewart Culin, Esq. 

British Admiralty: Catalogue of charts, etc, London, 1900; A con- 
secutive list of charts, London, 1900. 

British Admiralty: Charts — 

No. 214. Solomon Islands. 

No. 440. Fiji, Eastern Archipelago, Northern portion. 
" " " Southern portion. 

Anchorages in New Hanover, New Ireland and 

New Britain. 
Admiralty and Hermit Islands. 
Caroline Islands. 
Marshall Lslands. 
Marquesas Islands. 
Papua; sheet 7 British New Guinea. 

"8 Louisiade Archipelago. 
No. 2421. Tonga. 



No. 


441. 


No. 


764. 


No. 


769. 


No. 


980. 


No. 


983- 


No. 


1640. 


No. 


2123. 


No. 


2124. 



148 Direflor's Annual Report. 

No. 2766. Northeast coast of New Guinea, with Bougainville, 
New Britain, New Ireland and Admiralty Ids. 

Briti h Museum: Catalogue of Lepidoptera Phalaenae,Vol. II., 1900. 
A monograph of Christmas Island, by C. W. Andrews, 1900. 

Bronn, H. G. — Die Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs: 
III Band — MoUusca, Leipzig, 1862-1866. Neu bearbeitet von 
Dr. H. Simroth: III Band — Mollusca, Leipzig, 1892-99 (com- 
pleted to p. 432). 

*California Academy of Sciences: Proceedings, third series. Bot- 
any, Vol. I., No. 10; Vol. II., Nos. I and 2. Zoology, Vol. II., 
Nos. 1-3. Geolog}-, Vol. I., Nos. 7 and 9. 

Canterbury College: Annual report for 1899. Christchurch, N. Z., 
900. Given by the College. 

*Canterbury Museum, Guide to the collections in the. Christ- 
church, N. Z., 1900. 

*Carnegie Museum: Publications, Nos. 6 and 7. Pittsburgh, Pa., 
I 899- I 900. 

Christian, F. W. — The Caroline Islands, London, 1899. 

Cincinnati Museum Association: Nineteenth annual report, 1899. 

Colorado Experiment Station: A preliminary list of the hemiptera 
of Colorado, by Gillette and Baker. Fort Collins, Colo., 1895. 

*Cory, Chas. B. — Birds of Eastern North America: Part 2, Land 
birds. New York, 1900. 

Cushing, F. H. — Exploration of ancient key-dweller remains on 
the Gulf coast of Florida. Philadelphia, 1897. Given by 
Stewart Culin, Esq. 

*Dorsey, Geo. A. — Review of the Department of Anthropology in 
the Field Columbian Museum. Chicago. 

Dublin Science and Art Museum : Collecftion of weapons, etc., 
chiefly from the South Sea Islands, deposited by the Board of 
Trinity College, Dublin, 1894. 

*L'Ecole d' Anthropologic, Revue de — . 1899 Decembre, 1900 
Janvier-Novembre. 

Eyton, Thos. C. — Osteologia avium. London, 1867-75. 

*Field Columbian Museum: Publications — Botanical series, Vol. 
I., Nos. 5, 6; Vol. II., Nos. i, 2. Zoological series, Vol. I., 
Nos. 11-18; Vol. III., Nos. I, 2. Geological series. Vol. I., 
Nos. 3-7. Anthropological series. Vol. II., Nos. 2, 3. Report 
series. Vol. I., No. 5. 

^Finsch, Otto. — Carolinen und Marianen, Hamburg, 1900. 

Fischer, Paul. — Manuel de conchyliogie et de paleontologie con- 
chyliogique. Paris, 1887. 

Flore des Serres et des Jardins de I'Evirope; Louis van Houtte, 
^diteur; Tomes I-XXIII. Gand ( Belgique), 1845-80. 

*Free Museum of Science and Art, University of Pennsylvania: 
Bulletins, Vol. I., II., Philadelphia, 1 897-1900. 

Gaussin, P. L. J. B. — Du dialedte de Tahiti. Paris, 1853. Given 
by Henry C. Carter Esq., New York. 



List of Accessions. 149. 

Hagen, B. — Anthropologischer Atlas Ostasiatisclier unci Mela- 
nischer Volker. Wiesbaden, 1898. 

Hagen, B. — Unter den Papua's. Wiesbaden, 1899. 

Hall, Robert. — Key to birds of Australia and Tasmania. Mel- 
bourne, 1899. 

Hamilton, A. — Maori Art, Part 4. Wellington, N. Z., 1899. 

Harris, Thaddeus Wm. ^Edited by Chas. ly. Flint; A treatise on 
some of the inse(5ls injurious to vegetation. Boston, 1862. 

*Har\^ard University: First and second reports of the librarian. 
1898-1899. 

Hawaiian Evangelical Association: Thirty-seventh annual report. 

Heeres, J. E. — Het Aandeel der Nederlanders in de Ontdekking 
van Australie 1606- 1765. Eeiden, 1899. 

Hitchcock, C. H. — Geology of Oahu. 1900. 

Hooker, J. D. — Himalayan Journals, 2 vols. Eondon, 1854. 

Huxley, Thomas Henry, The scientific memoirs of: Vol. W. Eon- 
don, 1899. 

*Indian Museum: Annual report, 1898-99, Calcutta, 1899. Guide 
to colleclions in the Fish Gallery, 1899. Guide to colle<5lions 
in the Bird Gallery, 1900. 

Collecftions by R. I. M. ft. "Investigator". 

Alcock, A. — Account of the deep-sea Madreporaria : Cal- 
cutta, 1898. Account of the deep-sea Brachyura : Calcutta, 
1899. Descriptive catalogue of Indian deep-sea fishes in the 
Indian Museum : Calcutta, 1899. 

Koehler, R. — Account of the deep-sea Ophiuroidea : Cal- 
cutta, 1899. Illustrations of the shallow-water Ophiuroidea: 
Calcutta, 1900. 

Internationales Archiv fiir Ethnographic; Band XI. -XII. Leiden, 
1898-1899. 

Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg: Annales, tome I.: Batavia, 1876. 
Annales, tome II. -XII.: Eeide, 1883-1895. Icones Bogori- 
enses, fascicule I. -III.: Eeide, 1897-1899. *Bulletin, No. i,. 
Buitenzorg, 1898. 

*Johns Hopkins University: Memoir IV., 4; The Cubomedysse, by 
E. W. Berger: Baltimore, 1900. Circular, Vol. XIX, No. 146. 

Johnstone, Wm. G., and Croall, Alex. — The Nature-printed Brit- 
ish Seaweeds, 4 vols.: Eondon, 1859-60. 

*Jordan, D. vS. and others. — Fur .seals, and fur seal islands of the 
North Pacific Ocean, 4 vols. Washington, 1898. 

Kolb, M. Peter. — Beschreilmng des Vorgebiirges der Gviten Hoff- 
nung und derer darauf wohnenden Hottentotten: Frankfurt, 

1 745 ■ 
*K. K. Naturhistorische Hofmuseum: Annalen, Band XIII. , Nr. 4; 

Band XIV.; Band XV., No. i: Wien, 1898-1900. 
Langlis, E., and Eamarck, J. B. — Voyages de C. P. Thunberg au 

Japon. Paris, 1796. 



150 Direflor' s Annual Report. 

Leuschner, Arniin Otto: Beitriige zur Kometenbahnbestimnniiig. 

Berlin, 1897. 
lyinuean Societ}^ of IvOndon : Proceediugs from November, 1897, 

to June, 1899. Journal: Zoology, Vol. XXVII., 1899-1900. 

Transadlions : Zoology, Vol. VII., 1896-1900. 
*Linnean Society of New South Wales: Proceedings, Vols. XIII. 

and XIV., and Vol. XV., Parts i, 2. Sydney, 1898-1900. 
Ludlow, Helen W. — Biography of Clarissa Chapman Armstrong. 

Given by Mrs. Bernard Whitman. 
*Madras Government Museum: Bulletin, Vol. III., No. I. 
*Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom: Journal, 

Vol. v., and Nos. i and 2 of Vol. VI. Plymouth, 1897-1900. 
Martini und Chemnitz. — Systematisches Conchylien - Cabinet. 

Niirnberg, 1837- 1900. 
*Maryland Geological Survey, Vol. III. Baltimore, 1899. 
■*Maryland Weather Service, Vol. I. Baltimore, 1899. 
Masters, Maxwell T. — Vegetable teratology. London, 1869. 
Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, Vols. 42, 43. London, 

1 899- 1 900. 
*Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires : Communicaciones, tomo I 

no. 1-7. 1898-1900. 
*Museu Paulista : Revista, Vols. I-IV. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1895- 

1900. 
*Museum of Comparative Zoolog}" Memoirs, Vol. XXIV, Reports 

of Albatross expedition, 1891 — The fishes, bv S. Garman: 

Cambridge, 1899. Bulletins. Vol. XXXV., Nos. 3-8; Vol. 

XXXVI., Nos. I, 2, 4 in duplicate, 5, 6; Vol. XXXVII., 

Nos. I, 2; Vol. XXXVIII, No. I. 1899-1900. 
*Museum of Fine Arts: Report for 1899. Boston, 1900. 
*New York Botanical Garden: Bulletins, Vol. I., Nos. 1-5. 1900. 
van Nooten, Mme. Berthe Hoola. — Fleurs, fruits et feuillages 

choisis de I'lle de Java, peints d'apres Nature. (?) 1880. 
Oahu College, Honolulu : Catalogues 1893- 1900 bound together. 

Given by Frank A. Hosmer Ksq. 
Oliver, Daniel, and Thistleton-Dyer, W. T. — Flora of Tropical 

Africa, Vols. I. -III., 1868-1877, and Vol. VII., 1898. London. 
Pepper, George H. — Hyde Expedition; Ceremonial deposits found 

in an ancient Pueblo estufa. New York, 1899. 
*Philadelphia Museums, The. — Scientific bulletins, Nos. i, 2: 

1899-1900. Pamphlets: — (Philadelphia, 1899-1900.) 

The conditioning of wool and other fibers. 

For trade expansion. 

Philadelphia as a seaport and manufa(5turing city. 

Mulhall-Harper comparative statistical tables and charts of 
the commerce of the world. 

Patent laws and trademarks ot the lead nig countries of the 
world . 



List of .\iccssio)is. i 5 i 

Directions for collecling herbarium specimens. 
American trade with India. 
Conversion tables of weights and measures. 
Paper and pulp. 

The world's commerce and the United States' share of it. 
Manufactures of cotton. 
^Polynesian Society: The Polynesian Journal, Vol. IV., No. i; 

Vol. VII., No. '4: Vol. Vlli., Nos. I, 4; Vol. IX., Nos. i, 2. 
*Rijks Ethnographisch Museum te Leiden : Verslag, 1898-1899. 
Ripley, William Z. — Selected bibliography of the anthropology 

and ethnology of Europe. Boston, 1899. Given by the Boston 

Public Libi-ary. 
von Rosenberg, C. B. H. — ReLstochten naar de Geelvinkbaai op 

Nieuw-Guinea in de Jaren 1869 en 1870. 'S Gravenhage, 1875. 
Rothschild, \V., Hartert, E.. and Jordan, K. — Novitates zoo- 
logies. Vols. I-VI, \o\. VII, Nos. I, 2. London, 1 894-1900. 
Roval Botanical Garden, Calcutta: Annals, Vol. 11., 18S9, and 

' VII., 1896. 
Royal Geographical Society : The Geographical Journal, \'ols. 

XIV. and XV. London, 1899-1900. 
*Royal Society of Edinburgh: Proceedings, Vol. XXII., 1897-99. 
*Royal Society of New South Wales: Journal and Proceedings for 

1899. Sydney. 
*Royal Society of Queensland : Proceedings, Vols. XIII. -XV. 

Brisbane, 1898- 1900. 
*Royal Society of South Australia: Memoirs, Vol. I., Parts i, 2; 

Transactions, Vols. XXIII. and XXIV., Part i. Adelaide, 

1899-1900. 
St. Louis Mercantile Library Association : Fifty-fourth annual 

report. 1899. 
vSalmon, Philippe. — L' Anthropologic au Congres de Boulogne-sur- 

mer (14-21 Septembre 1899). 
Schaaffhausen, Hermann. — Anthropologische Studien. Bonn, 1885. 
Schaeffer, Georg. — Ueber die Sandwichinseln. (An article written 

in 1842 for the St. Peterburg Gestifteten Russisch-Kaiserlichen 

Gesellschaft fur die gesammte Mineralogie. ) Given by Dr. 

Wm. H. Dall. 
Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft: Verhandlungen den 

I, 2, 3. August, 1898. Bern. 
Seebohm, Hy. — The geographical distribution of the Charadriidae. 

London. 
Smith, Harlan I. — Archaeology of Lytton, B. C. (Abstract from 

memoir Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.) New York, 1899. 
*Smithsonian Institution: Annual report for 1897. Washington, 

1898. 
*Societe Royale Malacologique de Belgique: Annales tome XXXI- 

XXXlil, Bruxelles, 1896-1898. Proces-verbeaux des seances, 

tome XXV, 1896. Bulletin des seances, 1899, pp. 33-12S. 



152 DireRo?-' s Annual Report. 

Soule, Richard. — Revised by Geo. H. Howison : Dicflioiiary of 

English syiiouymes. Boston, 1899. 
*South African Museum: Annals, Vol. I., and Vol. II., Parts 1-3; 
lyondon, 1899- 1900. Reports for years 1898- 1899. Capetown. 
South Australia in 1887-8; A handbook of the Centennial Inter- 
national Exhibition, Melbourne, 1888. Given by Wm. T. 
Brigham Esq. 
Streeter, Edwin W. — Pearls and pearling life. Eondon, 1886. 
Tenison- Woods, Rev. J. E. — Fish and Fisheries of New South 

Wales. Sydney, 1883. Given by Wm. T. Brigham Esq. 
Thrum, Thos. G. — The Hawaiian Annual, Honolulu, 1900. Given 

by the publisher. 
Trouessart, E.-E. — Catalogus mammalium. Berolini, 1897-1899. 
Udden, Johan August. — An old Indian village. Rock Island, 111. 

I goo. Given by Augustana College. 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. — Charts given by the Survey: 

No. 17. Gulf Coast from Tampa Bay to San Bias. 

No. 168. Florida Reefs from Long Key to Newfound Har- 
bor Key. 

No. 169. Florida Reefs from Newfound Harbor Key to 
Boca Ground Key. 

No. 194. Mississippi River, from The Passes to Grand 
Prairie, Louisiana. 

No. 195. Mississippi River, from Grand Prairie to New 
Orleans, Louisiana. 

No. 910. Puerto Rico. 

No. 911. Puerto Rico, Ponce Harbor. 

No. 3008. North Carolina and Tennessee. 

No. 3054. City of San Francisco. 

No. 3055. San Francisco Peninsula. 

No. 3056. Mount Desert Island, Maine. 

No. 3214. St. Paul Island, Pribilof Group, Alaska. 

No. 3215. Reef, Gorbatch and Ardigren Rookeries, St. Paul 
Island, Alaska. 

No. 3216. Lukanin and Kitovi Rookeries, St. Paul Island, 
Alaska. 

No. 3217. Tolstoi Rookery, St. Paul Island, Alaska. 

No. 3218. Zapadni Rookery, St. Paul Island, Alaska. 

No. 3219. Little Zapadni and Zapadni Reef Rookeries, 
St. Paul Island, Alaska. 

No. 3220. Polovina, Polovina Cliffs and Little Polovina 
Rookeries, St. Paul Island, Alaska. 

No. 3221. Morjovi Rookery, St. Paul Island, Alaska. 

No. 3222. Vostochni Rookery, St. Paul Island, Alaska. 

No. 3223. Lagoon Rookery, St. Paul Island, Alaska. 

No. 3224. St. George Island, Pribilof Group, Alaska. 

No. 3225. Zapadni Rookery, St. George Island, Alaska. 



IJst of Accessions. 153 

No. 3226. North Rookery, St. (ieorge Island, Alaska. 

No. 3227. Staraya Artil and Little East Rookeries, St. 
George Island, Alaska. 

No. 3228. East Rookery, St. George Island, Alaska. 

No. 3231. Guanica Harbor, Puerto Rico. 

No. 3232. Chart of part of the Bahama Islands, showing 
the tracks ascribed to Columbus on his discovery of the New 
World. 

No. 4100. Hawaiian Islands. 

No. 5200. Pacific Coast, from Santa Monica to Point Con- 
ception, including Santa Barbara Channel, California. 

No. 5600. Pacific Coast, from San Francisco to Point 
Arena, California. 

No. 8500. Northwest coast of America; Icy Cape to Simedi 
Islands. 
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Given by the Department: 

Reports of the Secretary for the years 1876, 1886, 1888, 1889^ 
1890, 1892, 1893, and 1899. 

Ofhce reports, Nos. 58, 59-62, 65. 1898-1899. 

Year books, for 1894- 1898. 

Division of agrostology. — Bulletins i, 2, 4, 6, 9-16: 1895-99. 
Circulars, 1-8, 10-20: 1895-99. 

Bureau of animal industry. — Bulletins 8-12, 14, 15, 17-23 
1895-99. Circulars 1-8, 17-19, 21-27. 1897-99. 

Biological survey. Bulletins i, 5-1 1 : 1889-98. Circular 17 
1896. North American Fauna, 1-5, 8, 10-13, 15, 16. 1889-99 

Division of botany. — Bulletins 6, 8, 16-18, 20, 21: 1888-98 
Circulars 1-3, 5, 10-21: 1894-99. Contributions from the U. S 
National Herbarium: Vol. I., Nos. 1-6, 8, 9 (1890-95); Vol 
II., No. I (1891); Vol. III. (1892-96). Inventories, 1-4. 

Division of chemistry. — Bulletin No. 13, pt. 9 (1898); Bul- 
letins No. 28, 39, 45-48, 50-53, 55, 56 (1891-99). Analysis of 
sugar beets grown in various states ( 1894-99). Circulars, 1,2,5. 

Division of entomology.— Bulletins (old series) 6, 17, 29, 31 
(1888-93): Bulletins (new series) 1-21 (1895-99). Circulars, 
2, 4-14, 16-29, 31-39 (1891-99). Insect Life, Vol. I., Nos. 1-4, 
6-12 (1888-89); Vol. II., Nos. 3, 6-8, 10-12 (1889-90); Vol. 
VII., Nos. 1-5 (1894-95). Howard, L. O.: Further Notes on 
the San Jose .scale (1895). Riley, C. V.: The ox bot in the 
United States (1892). Townsend, C. H. T.: Report of the 
Mexican cotton ball weevil in Texas (1895). Henshaw, 
Samuel: Bibliography of the more important contributions to 
American economic entomology, pt. 5 (1896). 

Office of experimental stations. — Bulletins i, 2, 4, 7, 11, 14- 
17, 20, 22-26, 28, 29, 31-33, 35-48, 51-60, 62-64, 66-69, 71. 72 
(1889-99). Circulars, iV, 25, 27-33,35,36,38-43(1891-99). 

Division of statistics. — Fibre reports, i, 3-11 (1890-98). 



154 Direflor s Annital Report. 

Division of foreign markets. — Bulletins i-8, 10-15 (1895-99); 
Circulars 10, 12, 15, 18, 19, 21, 22 {1896-99). 

Division of gardens and grounds. — Circular i (1897). 

Division of pomology. — Bulletins 2, 5-8 (1888-99). Circu- 
lars 2, 3 ( 1897). 

Division of publications. — Bulletins 1-4 (1896-98). 

Office of road enquiry. — Bulletins 4-8, 15, 16, 18-20 (1894- 
1897). Circulars 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 22-33 (1894-99). 

Division of agricultural soils. — Bulletins 1-15 (1895-99). 
Circular 3 (1899). 

Division of vegetable plij'siology and pathology. — Bulletins 
I, 2, 5, 8, 9, II, 15-18, 19, 21, 22 (1891-1900). Circulars 
15-17 (1888-99). 

Miscellaneous works. — Saunders, \Vm.: Papers on horti- 
cultural and kindred subjecfts (1891). Progress of the beet 
sugar industr}^ in the United States in 1898 (1899). Special 
report on the beet sugar industr}- in the United States (1898). 
Mulder, Emile: Cultivation of tobacco in Sumatra (1898). 
Loew, Oscar : The phvsiological role of mineral nutrients 
(1899). 
U. S. Geological Survey. — Nineteenth annual report, parts 2, 3, 5 
(1898). Twentieth annual report ( 1899). Monographs, Vols. 
32-34, 36-38 (1899). Bulletins 157-163 (1899). Given by the 
Survey-. 
*U. S. National Museum. — Annual report for 1897. Special bul- 
letin — American h^'droids: pt. i. The Plumularidge, by C. C. 
Nutting ( 1900). Bulletin No. 47: The fishes of North and 
Middle America, by D. S. Jordan and B. W. Evermann, 
pt. 4 (1900). 
U. S. Treasury- Department. — Bureau of statistics: Annual report 
on the foreign commerce of the United States for the 3'ear end- 
ing June 30, 1900. 
*University of California. — The University Chronicle, Vols. I., II., 
and Vol. III., Nos. 1-5 (1898-1900). Biennial report of the 
president (1894-96). Annual report of the secretar3% 1899. 
Bulletins (new series), Vol. I., Nos. i, 2 ( 1899). Library bul- 
letins, I, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9-13 (1882-99). Catalogue of books in the 
pedagogical sedtion of the University library (1895). Depart- 
ment of mechanical engineering: Bulletins 2, 3. Bulletin on 
the building stones of California (1888). Holden, Edward S.: 
Eist of recorded earthquakes in California, Oregon and Wash- 
ington Territory (1887). Bailey, Thos. P. Jr.: Ethnology; 
standpoint, methods and tentative results ( 1899). McGilvary, 
Evander B.: The principle and methods of the Hegelian Dia- 
lecflic; in two parts (1897). Harrison, G. F. E.: Report on 
physical training (1888). Waymire, J. A.: Utility of Univer- 
sity education. Greene, Chas. S.: University of California. 



I.isf of Aarssioiis. 155 

Rivers, J. J.: The oaks of Berkeley and some of their insect 
inhabitants (1887). Wright, J. W. A.: Cotton enhure. 

*University of Kansas. — Kansas University Qnarterly, Vol. VI.- 
VIII. (1897-99). Bulletins, Vol. I., Nos. 2,3 (1900). Cata- 
logue of the School of Pharmacy, 1898-99. University Geo- 
logical vSurve^■ of Kansas; Vol. IV., Paleontologv, part, i 
( 1^898 ) . " 

*University of Pennsylvania. — Bulletins, Vol. IV. (1899-1900.). 
Contributions from the zoological laboratory, Vol. I., No. i 
(1893). Annual report, 1898-99. Catalogue 1899- 1900. 

Valentine Museum. — Catalogue: Richmond, Va., 1898. Given by 
W. V. Allen Esq. Annual report for 1899. Given b}' the 
Museum. 

Ward, H . A. — The Ward-Cooney collection of meteorites. Chicago, 
1900. 

Wagner Free Institute of Science: Transactions, Vol. V. Phila- 
delphia, 1898. Given by Stewart Culin E.sq. 

Watt, George. — Memorandum of the organisation of Indian Mu- 
seums. Simla, 1900. 

Web,ster, W. D. — Catalogues 1-26 of ethnographical specimens. 
Bicester, 1895- 1900. 

Zoological Society of London: Proceedings for 1899. 

Books, Paiuplilcts and Papers received during i goo from the late 
Rev. C. M. Hyde, D.D. 

Ahahui Euanelio Hawaii ; Moolelo, Honolulu, 1863-1880. Hoike 
makahiki, Honolulu, 1882-1894, 1896, 1898. (Almost com- 
plete set of duplicates. ) 

Ahahui Euanelio o ka Mokupuni o Oahu ; Kumukanawai, Hono- 
lulu, 1892. 

Ahahui Kula Sabati; Ka Hoike, Honolulu, 1867 and 1868, 1880; 
1882, 1885, 1891, 1892. 

Ahahui Kula Sabati Nui o ka Paeaina Hawaii; Moolelo, Hono- 
lulu, 1879, 1882, 1883, 1885, 1886, 1892. 

Ahahui Imi Pono Karistiano; Kumukanawai, Honolulu, 1884. 

Ahahui Nui o na Opio Imi Pono Karistiano; Moolelo, Honolulu, 
1885 and 1886. 

Ai o ka La; Honolulu, 1833, 1841, 1843, 1847, 1849, 1850, 1856. 
New York, i860. 

Alakai mua kamalii, Honolulu, 1854. 

Alakai no ke kumukula, Honolulu, 1872, and 1875 (two editions). 

Ke Alaula; Buke 4, helu 9. 

Akeakamai no na kamalii, Eahainaluna, 1837. 

Alemanaka Hawaii; 1835. 

Alemanaka Hawaii; Honolulu, 1887. 

Alemanaka Keristiano; Honolulu, 1860-61. 



156 Dit'efioj'' s Afnutal Report. 

Alexander, W. D. — Synopsis of Hawaiian Grammar: Honolulu^ 
1S64. A review of a pastoral address b}' the R't Rev. T. N. 
Staley, D.D.: Honolulu, 1865. He buke ola kino no ka 
kamalii. New York, 1887. 

A. B. C. F. M. — The day breaking: Boston, 1870. Instrucftions 
to the Sandwich Islands Mission: Lahai:ialuna, 1838. Maps 
and illustrations of the missions: Boston, 1845. Letter to the 
brethren in the Sandwich Islands and Micronesia : Boston, 
1 86 1. Proceedings in relation to a recent interference with its 
work on the Sandwich Islands: 1864. 

American Journal of Science, Vol. XXXII., No. 190. 

American Oriental Society: Proceedings, 1865 and 1874. 

Anahonua, Lahainaluna, 1834. Oahu, 1854. 

Andrews, ly. — O ka hulepoepoe : L,ahainaluna, 1841. Grammar 
of the Hawaiian language: Honolulu, 1854. 

Anglican Church in Hawaii; Two letters re. 1898. 

Ano o ke Akua oiaio. 1840. 

Ao Kiko. Honolulu, 1844. 

Appropriation Bill for 1855. (Hawaiian Legislature.) 

Archives; Special report in reference to the preservation of the 
Hawaiian Government archives. Honolulu, 1892. 

Armstrong, Richard, Biograph}^ of. 1887. 

Armstrong, S. C. — Lessons from the Hawaiian Islands. 1884. 

Arning, Ed. — Copies of report of Dr. Ed. Arning to the Board of 
Health. Honolulu, 1886. 

Ayacucho ; Documentos de la Campafia de treinta dias sobre las 
fronteras del Sur de Colombia contra el ejercito Peruano 
invasor : terminada por la Batalla de Tarqui, bajo la direc- 
cion del Gran Marischal de Ayacucho. Cuenca, 1829. 

Ka Baibala Hemolele. New York, 1884 and 1886 (Two editions). 

Bailey, W. C. — A glimpse at the Indian Mission-field. London, 1888. 

Baker, Robert Hoapili. — A reply to the ministerial utterances. 
Honolulu, 1880. Translation into English. 

Ballantyne, R. M. — The Cannibal Islands. London, 1888. 

Bartimeus, the blind preacher of Maui. New York, 1866. 

Bible Didlionarv in Hawaiian, bv Rev. E. W. Clark. New York, 
1872. 

Biblical Catechism, by Hervey Wilbur. Exeter, 18 14. 

Bingham, Hiram, Jr. — Story of the Morning vStar. Bo.ston, 1866. 

Bishop, Sereno. — Two pamphlets published in Honolulu — The 
Equatorial smoke stream from Krakatoa, and Why are the 
Hawaiians dying out ? InMemoriam: Edward S. Bishop, 1875. 

Bond, E. — Sermon on home missions. Honolulu, 1866. 

Boston Society of Natural History: Memoir, Vol. I., pt. 4. 1869. 

Brigham, W. T. — Contributions of a venerable savage to the ancient 
history of the Hawaiian Islands. Translation from the French 
of Jules Remy. Boston, 1868. 



f.ist of Accessions. 157 

Bmiiana, loane (John Buiiyan). — Ka hele nialihiiii ana niai keia 
ao aku a hiki i kela ao. Honoluln, 1842. (Pilgrim's Pro- 
curess. ) 
Eurritt. E. H. — Geography of the heavens. New York, 1842. 
Calendar in Fijian. Ai vola ni vula. 1886. 

Caroline Islands. Memorial presented to the United States Com- 
missioners for the arrangement of terms of peace between the 
United States and Spain. (Deals only with the mission sta- 
tions of the Caroline Islands.) Honolulu, i8g8. 
Census of the Hawaiian Islands taken December 27, 1884. Report 

made in English and Hawaiian. Honolulu, 1885. 
Central Union Church. Reports i, 2, 6-1 1. 
Clarke, Samuel. — vSermons in Hawaiian. New York, 1858. 
Colombo Auxiliary Bible Society : Miracles extra(5led from the 
New Testament. In the English language and that of Mala- 
bar. Colombo, 181 7. 
Constitution granted by Kamehameha III. Honolulu, 1852. 
Constitution of the Republic of Hawaii. Honolulu, 1894. 
Coronation of the king and queen of the Hawaiian Islands, Feb- 
ruary 12, 1883. 
Commerce, Chamber of: Charter. Honolulu, 1871. 
Cust, Robt. N. — Language as illustrated by Bible translation. 

London, 1886. 
Damien, Father, and his work for the Hawaiian lepers, by C. M. 

Hyde. Honolulu, 1890. 
Damien, Life and letters of Father. Edited with introducftion by 

his brother, F'ather Pamphile. London, 1889. 
Damon, S. C. — Puritan missions in the Pacific: Honolulu, 1866. 

Morning Star papers: Honolulu, 1861. 
Davies, Theo. H. — Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury: 1886. 

Open letter upon the Hawaiian crisis; Southport, 1893. 
Dibble, Sheldon. — Voice from abroad: Lahainaluna, 1844. 

Thoughts on missions: New York. 
Drummond, Hy. — O ke aloha. Chicago, 1892. Translated into 

Hawaiian by Rev. W. D. Wester\'elt. 
Education, Board of: Historical sketch of education in the Ha- 
waiian Islands. Honolulu, 1888. 
Elele Euanelio; Honolulu, 1888. 
Elele, Ka ; Honolulu: Buke I., pepa 12-14, 1845; Buke II. -III., 

1 846- 1 848. 
Elele o ka La ; Jan. 20, 22, 28, 29, and Feb. 2, 1886. 
Elele Poakolu: Buke I., Helu 6; Buke V., Helu 44. 
Ellis, Rev. W. — The American mission in the Sandwich Islands. 

Honolulu, 1866. 
Emma Laleleonalani: In Memoriam. 1885. 

Evangelische Heidenmission. Der Stand der Evangelischen Hei- 
denmission in den Jahren 1845 und 1890. 



158 Diirflor s Annual Report. 

Fatuhiva, He hamani. (Primer in Fatuhivan dialect.) Honolulu. 

Foreign relations. — Biennial report of the Minister for: Honolulu, 

1862. Appendix to report of Minister for: Honolulu, 1855. 

Report of Minister for: Honolulu, 1848. 

Forster, Wni. — A salutation of gospel love : Philadelphia, 1859. 

Aloha kristiano: Honolulu, i860. 
Gilbert Islands. Works in Gilbert Island dialect: — 

Bible dictionary and concordance. Honolulu, 1895. 
Te boki n anene. Apaiang, 1863. (Hymn book.) 
Te boki n anene. Honolulu, 1881, 1883, 1887 and 1892. 
Te boki n anene ma b'ana. New York, 1897. (Hymns 
and tunes.) 

Te boki n reirei te ware-boki. Honolulu, 1876 and 1891. 
(Primer. ) 

Te boki n rei te ware-bai. San Francisco, 1884. (Arith- 
metic. ) 

Karaki aika Baibara. New York, 1885. (Bible stories.) 
Boki aika onoua mai nanon te o Tetemanti, aika lobi, 
Areru, Taeka n Rabakan, te minita, ana anene Toromon, 
Itaia, aika kaetaki man aia Taeka Kbera. Honolulu, 1886. 

Apaiang. Ane Taeka napankai ara uwea ao ara Tiakamain 
lesu Kristo ae kaetaki man taetae n'elene. Honolulu, i860. 
Greek arithmetic, in modern Greek. Meath, 1832. 
Greek reader, in modern Greek. Meath, 1831. 
Guide books, by various publishers, relating to the Hawaiian 

Islands. 
Gulick, ly. H. — Climate, diseases and materia medica of the Ha- 
waiian Islands. New York, 1855. 
Gulick, L,. L,. — Primer sent to Micronesian missionar}' teachers. 

1859. 
Gynberg ballads. Illustrated. Anonymous. 
Gynbergdrinkenstein, The Grand Duke of. Anon}-mous. 
Haawina Baibala. (Bible lessons. ) Honolulu, 1852. 
Haawina kamalii ma ke kula Sabati. Honolulu, 1838. 
Haawina kamalii no na keiki opiopio. Honolulu, 1866. 
He mau Haawina no ka olelo Beretania. Honolulu, 1844. 

(Primer of the English language.) 
He Haiao ola kekahi olelo a na misionari i hai aku ai i ka la 

Sabati. lyahainaluna, 1835. 
Na Haiao i kekauia e na misionari me Hawaii nei. Honolulu, 

1 84 1. 
Na buke o na Halelu i unuhiia mai ka olelo Hebera. (Book of 

Psalms translated from the Hebrew.) New York, 1869. 
Hassinger, John A. — Catalogue of Hawaiian exhibits at the Expo- 
sition Universelle, Paris, 1889. 
Hawaiian Kingdom, Penal code of the: Honolulu, 1869. Penal 
code of the Hawaiian Islands passed in 1859. 



IJst of jlcccssions. 159 

Hawaii Holomua; Buke II., lielu 21. Puka la; Buke I., helu 50. 
Hawaii Paeaina, Ke; Buke VI., helu 10; Buke VII., helu 10, 12, 

14, 22-27, 40- 
Hawaiian Missionaries' Children, Catalogue of books of the. 

• Honolulu, 1S35. 
Hawaiian Islands. Works in Hawaiian: — 

He luiinahelu. Honolulu, 1852. (Arithmetic.) 

Iheniua. Honolulu, 1837 and 1840. 
Hymn books in Hawaiian: 

Mau mele no na kamalii puali inuwai. Honolulu, 1849. 

No ke kula Sabati. New York, 1872, and 1874. 

Himeni Hawaii. Oahu, 1836. Honolulu, 1897. 

Himeni lioolea. Honolulu, 1837. 

Ka leo hoomana. 

Ha mele no ka holo ana o hoku ao iloko o June, 1873. 

Buke himeni Hawaii i hooponoponoia e L,. Laiana. New 
York, 1872. 

Ka hea nei lesu. 

Himeni euanelio. Honolulu, 1882, 1883, 1886 and 1892. 

Himeni kamalii. Honolulu, 1837 and 1842. 
Religious works: 

Ui no ke Akvia a me na kanaka. Honolulu, i860. 

Ui kamalii no na kula Sabati. Honolulu, 1S68. 

Ui Kula Sabati. Honolulu, 1869. 

Ui no ka olelo a ke Akua. Honolulu, 1831. 

Ui ma ka Ekalesia o lesu Kristo. Honolulu, 1841. 

Mane lani ka ai na ka uhane. Honolulu, 1841. 

Olelo o lesu ma ka mauna. 

O ka la hea kau e malama nei ? 

He vati katekimo. Honolulu, 1847. 

Manaoio a me ka berita a ka Ekalesia. Honolulu, 1843. 

New Testament in Hawaiian. New York, 1869 and 1871. 

Ui no ke Akua. (Bible questions. ) 1S65. 

He palapala no na mea ona. Honolulu, 1837. 

Ua hiki anei ia kakau ke hoomaopopo ? 

No ka aoao Moremona. Honolulu, 1856. 

Ka hiki hou ana mai o Karisto a he wehewehe pokole ana o 
Mataio XXIV. Oakland, 1894. 

Buke lawe lima a ke kahuekalesia. Honolulu, 1866 and 
1887. 

Four tracfts printed in 1836 by the High School Press at 
Lahainaluna, Maui. 
Hawaiian Association, Extracfts from records of; 1823-1836. Hono- 
lulu, 1837. 
Hawaiian PZvangelical Association : Minutes of meetings of vSand- 
wich Island Mission. Honolulu, 1830, 1832, 1834-1844, 1848, 
1851-1855- 



i6o Direflor's A?inual Report. 

Hawaiian Evangelical Association: Minutes; Honolulu, 1856-1863. 

Annual reports; Honolulu, 1878-1898. 
Hawaiian Missionary Society: Reports; Honolulu, 1852-1863. 
Hawaiian Historical Society: Papers No. i, 3, 5-7; Honolulu, 

1892-1894. Annual reports ; Honolulu, 1895, 189^ and 1898. 
Hawaiian Mission Children's Society: Annual reports; Honolulu, 

1853-1899. Jubilee celebration, 1887. 
Hawaiian Agriculturist and Chemist. Honolulu, 1888. 
Hawaiian Sugar Company: Charter and by-laws. Honolulu, 1891. 
Hawaiian treaty. 
Health, Board of: Report for nine months ending 1894; Honolulu. 

Biennial report of; 1888. 
Helu kamalii — ao mua o ke aritemetika. Honolulu, 1847. (Ele- 
mentary arithmetic.) 
Hill, Daniel. — The Crucifixion of Christ. Philadelphia, 1859. 
Ka Hoahana: Buke HI., helu, i, 2; Buke V., helu 2, 3. 
Hoikehonua. (Geography.) Oahu, 1845. 
Hoike Uhane: Buke I. Honolulu, 1839. 
Hoike moeuhane ao ka buke kilokilo. 
Hoonanea o na home Haw^aii. Honolulu, 1888. (Story book for 

the Hawaiian home.) 
Hope no ka helunaau. Oahu, 1835. 

Horner, J. M. — Hawaiian banking department. Honolulu, 1886. 
Hyde, C. M. — Father Damien and his work for the Hawaiian 

lepers : Honolulu. 1890. He wahi olelo ao no ka piliolelo 

Hawaii. ( Introdu(5tion to a Hawaiian Grammar.) 1896. 
I. O. O. F. — Constitution, by-laws and rules of Excelsior Lodge 

No. I. Honolulu, 1857. 
luglis, John. — Dicftionary of the Aneityumese language. London, 

1882. (Specimen, 32 pp. only.) 
Japanese hymn book. Osaka, 1882. 
Kakimototoakin taekan ana main ara uea are letu-Kirito. Paris, 

1894. 
Kamehameha V. — Speech at the opening of the convention. 
Kapiolani, the heroine of Hawaii. New York, 1866. 
Ke Karistiano: Buke I., helu 2-23. 
Kaimiloa, Expedition of ; Manuscript journal of the expedition, 

from Dec. 26, 1886 to May 24, 1887. 
Kaua kuloko 1895 Repubalika o Hawaii. Honolulu, 1895. (1895 

Rebellion.) 
Keopuolani, late queen of the Sandwich Islands. Boston, 1825. 
Kilauea after the eruption of 1886. By the Hawaiian Government 

Survey staff and James D. Dana. 
Kumu Hawaii, He: Buke IH., pepa 3-27. Honolulu, 1837. 
Kumu kahakaha. Lahainaluna, 1836. 

Kumu kamalii: Buke I., pepa 3, 4, 7, 8, 10-12. Honolulu, 1837. 
Kumu kanawai, a me ke kanawai hooponopono waiwai, no ko 

Hawaii nei pae aina na Kamehameha III. Honolulu, 1840. 



List of Accessions. i6i 

Kumumua. Honolulu, 1844, 1846 and 1848. 

Kuokoa, Nupepa: Buke XXII., helu i: Buke XXIII., helu 6, 10, 
24, 25, 27, 30-33, 36 and 40; Buke XXVII., helu 39; Buke 
XXXII., helu 2, II, 12, 17-19, 25 and 26; Buke XXXVII., 

helu 28. Nupepa puka la — ; Buke I., helu 66, 69 and 70. 
Kusaie : Hymn book in the Kusaiean dialect. Honolulu, 1894. 

San Francisco, 1897. 
Lahainaluna Seminary : Catalogue of the officers and students. 

Lahainaluna, 1843. 
Ka Lahui Hawaii; Buke I., complete except helu 10, 26 and 39; 

Buke II., except helu 5, 6, 42-44 and 49; Buke III., wanting 

helu 5. Honolulu, 1875-1877. 
Latterday Saints: Na buke o ka berita ame na kauoha o ka Ekalesia 

o lesu Karisto no na poe hoano o na la hope. Honolulu, 1893. 
Ka Lau Oliva; Buke I. -III. 
Laws of Kamehameha V. In English and Hawaiian. Honolulu, 

1870. 
Statute Laws of Kamehameha III., 1845 and 1846. English and 

Hawaiian. Honolulu, 1846. 
Legislature of the Hawaiian Islands, Rules of procedure of. 
Leonard, George. — Hawaiian arithmetic. Honolulu, 1852. 
Leprosy : Report of special committee to visit the leper settlement 

at Molokai; Honolulu, 1888. Report of special committee to 

visit Kakaako leper settlement; Honolulu, 1888. Hawaiian 

Government report and appendix. 1886. 
Lidgate, J. M. — Short synopsis of Hawaiian ferns. 1873. 
Lobscheid, Wm. — Chinese-English grammar, part 2. Hongkong, 

1864. 
Logan, Robert W. — The work of God in Micronesia, 1852-1883. 

Boston, 1884. 
Loio kuhina ; Hoike a ka Loio kuhina i ka Hale Ahaolelo o ka 

makahiki, 1886. 
Lord, E. — A compendious history of the principal Protestant mis- 
sions. Boston, 1 81 3. 
Lyons, C. J. (Translator.) — The song of Kualihi, of Hawaii. 
Maile, Quarterly, Vols. I. -III. Honolulu, 1865-186S. 
Ka Makaainana, Buke IV., helu 39. 
Mallery, Garrick. — The gesture speech of man. 1882. 
Malo, Davida. — Wahi kumu-manao no na mea nui maloko o ka 

ke Akua olelo. Honolulu, 1865. 
Marquesas Islands. Works in dialect of Marquesas Islands : Te 

evanelia i Patutia e loane ; Honolulu, 1858. Arithmetic; 

Honolulu, 1869. Geography; Honolulu, 1869. Primer; Ho- 
nolulu, 1858 and 1868. 
Marshall Islands. Works in dialect of Marshall Islands: Hymn 

book; Honolulu, 1873; Oakland, 1881 ; New York, 1891. 

Arithmetic; Honolulu, 1873. 

O. p. B. p. B. M.— Vol. I.. No. 3- 



i62 DiJ-eHor' s Annual Report. 

Martin, \Vm. — Catalogue d'oiivrages relatifs aux Isles Hawaii. 
Paris ,^ 1867. 

Missions E^vangeliques, Societe cles. Reports. 1896 and 1897. 

Moolelo Hawaii. I^ahainaluna, 1836. Honolulu, 1858. 

Moolelo no na hololiolona wavvae elia. I^ahainaluna, 1834. (Ele- 
mentary zoolog}'.) 

Moreno, Celso Caesar. — The position of men and affairs in Hawaii; 
Open letter to H. M. Kalakaua, 1886 and 1887. Washington. 

Morning Star, Missionary packet; Boston, 1857. Second sequel 
to the story of the; Boston, 1885. 

Mortlock Islands. Works in dialect of Mortlock Islands : New^ 
Testament; New York, 1883. Bible stories in Mortlock. 
Gospel of Mark ; Honolulu, 1880. Old testament history; 
Honolulu, 1880. Mark, Luke and The Ac5ls ; New York, 
1882. Hymn book; Cincinnati, 1881. Catechism; Honolulu, 
1888. First reader; Honolulu, 1881. Primer; Honolulu, 
1876; Ponape, 1879. 

Narrative of five youth from the Sandwich Islands. New York, 
1816. 

New Zealand, Grammar and vocabulary of the language of. Pub- 
lished by the Church Missionary Society. London, 1820. 

Ka Nonanona, Buke IV., pepa 1-24. Honolulu, 1844 and 1845. 

Oahu College: Catalogues 1861, 1866, 1869, 1880, 1881, 1883-1900. 
Numerous printed sermons and notices. 

Ka Oiaio, Jan. 16, 26-29. 1886. 

Oiaio, Nupepa ka: Buke VI., helu 7, 14-17, 19-21. 

Olelo ao liilii : Helu I. Honolulu, 1865. 

Oleson, W. B. — English sentences for Hawaiians. 1884. 

Opukahaia, Ka moolelo o Heneri Opukahaia. New York, 1867. 

Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Vol. XX. Honolulu, 1895-96. 

Palapala honua nie na ninau. 1840. 

Peabody, Andrew P. — The Hawaiian Islands as developed by mis- 
sionary labors. Boston, 1865. 

Phillips, S. H. — Address delivered; Honolulu, March 11, 1873. 

Pickering, John. — Essay on a uniform orthography of the Indian 
language of North America. Cambridge, Mass. 1820. 

He Piliolelo no ka olelo Beretania. 1837. 

The Polynesian, Vol. VII., No. 4; Vol. VIII. 

Ponape. Works in the dialect of Ponape : Story of the gospels; 
New York. Books of Genesis and Joshua; New York, 1875 
and 1882. Hymn book; Honolulu, 1891. Primer; Honolulu, 
1858. Grammar; Honolulu, 1858. New Testament; New 
York, 1887. Ponape-English primer; Mokil, Ponape, 1892. 

Poomaikelani : Report of the Board of Genealogy of Hawaiian 
chiefs. In English and Hawaiian. Honolulu, 1884. 

Postmaster's biennial report, 1892-94. Honoluki. 

Pratt, George. — Grammar and dicftionary of the Samoan language. 
London, 1878. 



Lisf of Accessions. 163 

Pritcliartl, Dr. — Kthnological extracts : On the extinttioii of the 

human races. Birniinghani, 1839. 
Queen's Hospital: Charter and by-laws. Honolulu, 1859. 
Rarotonga. Works in the dialect of Rarotonga : New Testament; 

London, 1836. Hymn book; Rarotonga, 1843. Books of 

Moses and Exodus. Te Puuavai Rarotonga, Vol. I., Nos. 

2 and 3 ; 1843. Te au Salamo te moata i Tataia e Davida ra 

kiritiia ei reo Rarotonga; Rarotonga, 1841. Te au Buka a 

Mose kiritiia ei tuatua Rarotonga; Rarotonga, 1838. Te 
. korero-motu ou a to tatou Atu e te ora a Jesu Mesia; L,one- 

dona, 1836. K tuatua enua, te mea ia e takai te to o te au 

enua katoa nei ; Rarotonga, 1840. Arithmetic; Rarotonga, 

1841. 
The Rebellion of 1895 : A complete history of the insurrecftion 

against the Republic of Hawaii. Honolulu, 1895. 
Rochefort. Henri. — De Noumea en Europe. Paris, 1881. 
Roman Catholics : A refutation of the charges brought by the 

Roman Catholics against the American missionaries at the 

Sandwich Islands. 1841. 
Rula hookeonimana. Honolulu, 1886. 
Ruk: Arithmetik ; Honolulu, 1887. 

Russian: Four tracts in Russian. London, 1856 and 1857. 
Samoa. Works in Samoan dialect : New Testament ; London, 

1849. O le Sulu Samoa; Samoa, 1842. Notes on the Epistle 

to the Hebrews; London. Catechism; Samoa, 1861. O le 

evangelia ia lesu ; Samoa, 1842. Primer; Upolu, 1839. 
Scott, Thos. — The power of truth. (Translation into Greek.) 

Meath, 1825. 
The Second Interregnum: Resume of events from the death to the 

burial of H. late M. Lunalilo. Honolulu, 1874. 
Shattuck, Harriette R. — The woman's manual of Parliamentary 

Law. Boston, 1892. 
Shepherd Saint of Lanai. Honolulu, 1882. 
Society Islands. Works in the diale(5ls of the Society Islanders: 

Huahine — The Book of Isaiah; Huahine, 1833. Tahaa — The 

Acts of the Apostles; Tahaa, 1823. Tahiti — Hymn book; 

Tahiti, 1827. Te mau haapii raa Kerisitiano; Tahiti, 1864. 

Grammar; Tahiti, 1823. Tahitian and English Dicftionary; 

Tahiti, 1851. 
Spencer, T. P. — Haku Nelekona. Honolulu, 1887. 
Stockdale, J. J. — The history of the inquisitions. London, 18 10. 
Stoddard, C. W. — The lepers of Molokai. 
Tahitian Mission: Annual circular to the Windward Division of 

the Tahitian Mission. 1819. 
Taylor, Isaac. — The origin of the Aryans. Part I. 
Tonga: History in the Tongan dialect. Tonga, 1886. 
Tracfls: Large bundle, published in 1837 and succeeding years. 



164 DireHor's Annual Report. 

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey : Determination of latitude and 
gravity for the Hawaiian Government; 1888. Bulletin 22; 
Observation.s made to determine gravity and the magnetic ele- 
ments on the West Coast of Africa, and some islands in the 
North and South Atlantic; 1899- 1900. 

Vance, Spencer. — Ka maikai kiu puowai hao kila o America, a o 
ka olali o na kapakai o Nu loka. 

Wailuku Female Seminary: Report; July, 1840. 

War: Report of the Secretary of War. Honolulu, 1856. 

Welinetona me kekahi mau moolelo kaulana. Honolulu, 1886. 

Whitmee, S. J. — Polynesia. London, 1880. 

Whitney, Henry M. — The Hawaiian guide book. Honolulu, 1875. 

Williams, John. — A narrative of missionary enterprise in the South 
Sea Islands. London, 66th edition. 

Williams, W. L- — First lessons in the Maori language. Auck- 
land, 1872. 

Wilson, Captain James, Memoirs of. Boston, 1822. 

Woman's Board of Missions for the Pacific Islands : Annual re- 
ports. Honolulu, 1874, 1877, 1878, 1880-1900. 

Wyllie, R. C. (Translator). — Instru(5lion on the cultivation, pre- 
paration and packing of tobacco. Honolulu, 1857. Trans- 
lated from Spanish. 

Zulu. The book of Luke in the Zulu language. New York, 1883. 

Manusa'ipt. 

Lists of Hawaiian words classified according to their arts, manu- 
faclures, worship, etc. 

Notes in preparation of a Hawaiian grammar. 

Papers on Hawaiian relationships. 

A chronological catalogue of publications in the Haw^aiian lan- 
guage, not including the sacred scriptures, nor laws, nor re- 
ports nor periodicals. 

vSeveral loose notes on Hawaiian literature, including "The story 
of Loe" in Hawaiian and translated into English. 

Mele kumuhonua. 

Mele olioli keia. 

List of birds, fish and plants in the Hawaiian language. 

Texts in Hawaiian. 

Biblical introdudlion in Hawaiian. 

Portion of dictionary in a dialect of Micronesia. 

Notes on Polynesian matters. 



n-^r ■ ;,o, 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS 



OF THE 



BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM OF 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY. 



Voi,. I. — No. 4. 



A. Seale: New Hawaiian Fislies. 



-'honoi.ui.u, h. i. 

Bishop Museum Press. 

1 901. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS 



OF THK 



BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM OF 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY. 



Vol.. I. — No. 4. 



A. Seale: New Hawaiian Fishes. 



honolulu, ii. i. 

Bishop Museum Press. 

1901. 



DEC 16 <Mt 



Seale: New Hawaiian Fishes. 



481. Bpinephelus quernus sp. nov. Fig. i. 

Head 2.50 into length, exclusive of caudal ; depth 2.50 ; D. 
XI 14; A. Ill 9; P. 19; V. 1-5. Scales ctenoid, very small, 130 
in the lateral line. Opercles and top of head scaled ; eye 5.75 into 
head, equal to interorbital space. Snout 3.85. Body compressed. 
Mouth protracftile. Teeth : Cardiform teeth on jaws, vomer and 
palatines ; those on jaws in two or more rows, the inner ones de- 
pressable ; two rather prominent anterior canines in each jaw. 
Tongue smooth. Maxillary reaches posterior of orbit and is with- 
out a supplemental bone, its length 2.79 into head. Preopercles 
serrated, the serri larger at angle. Opercle with three flat spines, 
the middle one nearer the lower than upper. Pseudobranchise 
developed. Gill-rakers rather fiat and triangular in shape, 15 on 
the lower limb, the longest equal to one -half the diameter of eye. 
Pins: Caudal rounded, about equal in length to pedloral.s — 1.75 
into head. Dorsal spines long and strong, the fourth spine the 
longest, 2.16 into head, and three times as long as first spine. 
Ventrals situated dire(5lly below the lower base of pediorals and 
about equal to ped: orals in length. Third anal spine the longest, 
equal in height to caudal peduncle; base of anal 3.20 into base of 
dorsal; posterior of soft dorsal and anal rounded. 

Color in life: Reddish brown, the lower third of belly bluish, 
with irregular splotches of brown ; there are a few indistinct white 
spots scattered over the body. Basal half of pedlorals, ventrals and 
anal bluish, their outer half black. Dorsal dusky, with a bluish 
wash on webs of spinous dorsal. Caudal dusk}-. Iris j'ellow. 

Color in spirits: Reddish brown, lower third of fi.sh with wash 
of bluish ; a few indistinct bluish white dots on body. These dots 
seem to be arranged in about five vertical rows, but are so indis- 
tinct as to be readih' passed over without being seen. Fins dusk}'. 

One specimen. Length 10 inches. Honolulu. August 9, 1901. 

Hab. Hawaiian Islands. Type No. 4S1, B. P. B. M. 

(3) 



m 



o 

m 

S 
>— t 

X 

< 
< 

w 
u 

l-H 

w 



- (D 



ID 



ro 



(\J 




Sea/c: iVnc Hawaiian Fishes. 5 

611. Novaculichthys tattoo sp. nov. Fig. 2. 

Head, from tip of opercle flap to base of caudal, 3.30; depth 
3.20; eye 5.12; interorbital equal to eye; snout 2.75 into head; 
D. IX 12; A. Ill 12; \'. 1-5; P. 12 Scales 2-27-8. Head naked. 
Lateral line interrupted. Body oblong, compressed. Teeth: 
A single row of small sharp-pointed teeth in each jaw, the two 
anterior ones enlarged canines ; the upper jaw has a few minute 
teeth just inside the outer row near tip ; no canine tooth at angle 
of jaw. Branchiostegals 7. Pseudobranchiae well developed. 
Fins : Dorsal spines rather short and weak, the longest spines 
equal to interorbital space. Caudal rounded. The first ventral 
spine is somewhat elongate, 1.50 into head. Base of anal 1.50 
into head. 

Color in life : \qx\ light yellowish brown, with a wash of 
pinkish. A large yellow splotch on the sides of the belly, from 
which five pairs of narrow but bright and distinct yellow lines ex- 
tend entireh' around the belly almost like ribs, or the tattoo marks 
used by the blacks of Australia. Fins all uniform yellowish white, 
except the spinous dorsal which has a round black dot between 
each spine along the middle of the fin. In spirits the general color 
becomes more pink. 

One specimen. Length 6 inches. Honolulu, August 9, 1901. 
Hab. Hawaiian Islands. Type No. 6ir, B. P. B. M. 



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lOM'-.-jk^^: AL^dfySSHL. 



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Scale: New Haicaiian Fishes. 7 

625. Serranus brighami* sp. nov. Fig. 3. 

fHead, with opercular flap, 3 into length to base of caudal; 
depth 3; D. X 11; A. in 8; V. 1-5; P. 15. Scales 8-70-17. I^ateral 
Hue continuous. Top of head, the snout and chin naked. Eye 
3.75 into head ; interorbital 4 ; snout 3.10. Bod}- oblong and com- 
pressed. Maxillary without a supplemental bone; the entire max- 
illary, except the distal end, hidden in the preorbital. Preopercle 
serrated. Opercle with two flat spines at posterior edge. Teeth: 
Patches of small teeth in jaws, vomer and palatines ; jaws with an 
enlarged outer row of canines ; no teeth on tongue. Gill-rakers 
rather long and flat, 12 on lower limb, the longest equal to diameter 
of pupil. Preorbital wide. Fins : Caudal deeply forked, the lobes 
equal ; middle ray of fin about equal to diameter of eye. The 
fourth dorsal spine the longest, 2.75 into head ; the last rays of the 
soft dorsal and anal slightly prolonged, 2 into head ; base of anal 
3 into base of dorsal. Pe(5lorals long and somewhat falcate, equal 
to length of head. Ventrals situated slightly posterior of line with 
pedlorals, long, reaching to anus. 

Color in life : Ground color pinkish white ; three distinct wide 
yellow bands, as wnde as interspaces, extending obliquely down 
and back on sides of the body ; the first from nauchal region to 
a little posterior of axis of pe(5lorals ; the second, from third to 
sixth dorsal spines, ending above and anterior of vent on a line 
with lower base of pedlorals ; the third, from eighth dorsal spine to 
third dorsal ray, ending above and on a line with fifth-eighth anal 
rays ; posterior of this last band, above the lateral line, there is a 
wash of yellowish reaching to base of caudal. Dorsal fin cadmium 
yellow ; caudal yellow, the upper lobe with tint of pink ; pe(5torals 
pinkish. Ventrals and anal white; iris whitish, the pupil deep 
blue. Sides of head and jaws with a few deeper splotches of pink- 
ish. In spirits the yellow bands fade so that the interspaces show 
more distinctly than the bands. The fish also becomes a deeper 
pinkish, the fins becoming whitish. 

One specimen. Length 15.50 inches. Honolulu, 0(5lober, 1901. 
Hab. Hawaiian Islands. Type No. 625, B. P. B. M. 

♦Named in honor of my esteemed friend Wm. T. Brigham, Diredlor of the Bernice 
Pauahi Bishop Museum. 




FIG. 4. BAI.ISTES FUSCOLINEATUS SP. NOV. 



Sea/e: New Ila^caiian /•'/s/ics. 9 

664. Balistes fuscolineatus sp. nov. Fig. 4. 

Head 3.50 into length, exclnsive of caudal ; depth 2 ; eye 4.50 
into head; interorbital 2.50; D. iii, 32; A.. 29. Scales: Body and 
head entirely covered with medium-sized scales, ctenoid and scute- 
like, about 57 on a line from orbit to caudal, 16 in a series from 
base of pedtorals to gape of mouth ; six or seven enlarged scute- 
like plates just back of gill openings. The centre of the scales ou 
the caudal peduncle is slightly raised, forming about five short, 
roughened lines. Teeth: A single series of white uneven cutting 
incisors in each jaw — eight in upper. A distinct groove in front of 
eye. Fins : The ventral spine is immovable, except at tip, the 
membranous portion of the ventral does not reach beyond the spine. 
The first dorsal spine is very strong with four lines of barbs point- 
ing down; the length of spine equal to snout; the second and third 
spines are very small, less than half the length of first. Caudal is 
slightly rounded, its middle ray 2 into head. Base of soft dorsal 
very little longer than base of anal. 

Color in life : Silvery, with more or less opalescent refle(5tions. 
Three narrow dusky lines extend from anterior margin of orbit 
horizontally forward over snout ; another dusky line over snout 
just above upper lip ; two dusky lines over interorbital space ; two 
rather indistinct dusky lines along base of dorsal fins, the lower of 
these lines beginning at orbit; also a narrow indistinct dusky line 
extends from posterior margin of orbit obliguely back and down to 
slightly above anal fin; another short dark line from upper pos- 
terior edge of orbit to axis of pe(5lorals; two narrow dusky lines 
extending along bases of ventrals and anal fins. Spinous dorsal 
black ; soft dorsal, pe(5torals, ventral spine, and anal fin white; 
caudal dusky. Color in spirits : Similar, excepting the dusky 
lines are less distinct. 

Two specimens. Length 3-5.50 inches. Honolulu, 0(ftober 
20, 1901. Hab. Hawaiian Islands. Type of species is No. 664, 
B. P. B. M. 



^^ 




Scale: N'cw Ha-waiian Fishes. ii 

666. Scorpaenopsis cocopsis Jenkins.* Fig. 5. 

Head 2.45, exclusive of caudal ; depth 2.75 ; eye 6.20 into 
head ; snout 3 ; interorbital 4; D. xii 10; A. iii 5; V. 1-5; P. 18. 
Scales of moderate size, 44 in lateral line. Head naked, but with 
many spines and dermal flaps; there are also many dermal flaps all 
over the body. Teeth villiform in jaws and vomer; no teeth on 
palatines. A deep fossa below anterior of orbit; interorbital and 
nauchal regions also deeph- concave. Conspicuous dermal flaps 
just posterior of and overhanging anterior nostril, with a cluster of 
three spines just above them. Premaxillaries reaching to below 
hind margin of eye, 1.85 into head. About 12 spines on each side 
of nauchal fossa, and about 12 on each side of the face, exclusive 
of the spines at posterior margin of opercle and preopercle. Fins: 
The caudal is rounded. The dorsal spines are strong, the fourth 
is the longest, being equal to length of snout ; the second anal 
spine is the longest, 2.88 into head. The base of the anal is con- 
tained 3.75 into base of dorsal. Pectorals very large, the upper 
six rays branched, the longest ray 1.50 into head; the base is 2 
into head. Ventrals 1.88 into head. 

Color in life : A mottled grayish and dusky, some specimens 
with reddish. A large dusky splotch covering the highest part of 
the back from nauchial region to .seventh dorsal spine, and down 
on sides to axis of body; the belly is covered with fine vermicu- 
lations of brownish ; there is a lighter area on sides of caudal 
peduncle. The fins are gray, specked and mottled with du,sky; a 
broad submarginal band on caudal somewhat darker; a dark 
splotch on anterior and posterior of soft dorsal; a black band at 
base of caudal. The simple rays of the pecftorals are yellow, 
banded with dusky; the branched rays have a dark area near their 
base. The under surface of the pe(5t orals are yellowish white, with 
a black band on the middle of the branched rays, and a black area 
in the axis. The upper surface of the ventrals is almost uniform 
brown tipped with white. Two specimens. Length 8-9 inches. 
Honolulu, OcT:ober 19, 1901. Hab. Hawaiian Islands. 

* Dr. Jenkins' description of this species was received just as this MS. was going to 
press. It was thought best to let the description go in, as there seems to be a few slight 
variations in coloring, etc. 



Scale: A^nv Ifaii.'aiia/i Fishes. 13 

667. Monocanthus albopunctatus sp. nov. Fig. 6. 

Head 3 into length, exclusive of caudal ; D. 11, 38 ; A. 33; 
P. 15; eye 5 into head; snout 1.20 into head, its profile concave. 
First dorsal spine long and strong, about equal in length to snout, 
and with four rows of small barbs directed down; the insertion of 
the spine is direclly over anterior half of eye. Teeth: Uneven 
cutting incisors in each jaw; a single row of three on each side of 
lower jaw; an additional row of small inner teeth in upper jaw. 
Caudal peduncle with four short round spines on each side. Skin 
without distinct scales, everywhere rough with a velvety feeling 
to the touch. Fins: Caudal rounded, its longest ray 1.75 into 
head. Ventral spine coalesced to the pelvic bone, the membrane 
rather well developed, extending slightly beyond the spine. Dor- 
sal and anal rays of about equal length; the base of the anal is 
contained 1.20 into base of dorsal; pedlorals short, 2.50 into head. 

Color : Light gray, with slight silvery gloss everywhere 
covered with scattered round white spots about size of pupil. On 
the lower half of fish there are also a small number of scattered 
black dots, smaller than the white dots. Dorsal and anal with the 
basal fourths black, the remaining yellowish white. Caudal dusky. 
Iris yellow. 

One specimen. Length 6 inches. Honolulu, 0(5lober, 1901. 
Hab. Hawaiian Lslands. Type No. 667, B. P. B. M. 



Sra/i\- New Ha^vaiian Fishes. 



15 



681. Thalassoma berendti sp. uov. Fig. 7. 

Head 2.80 into length, exclusive of caudal; depth 2.80; eye 9 
into head; snout 3 into head; interorbital 4. Scales : The scales 
are very large, cycloid, 3-27-9; head naked; lateral line continu- 
ous. D. VIII 13; A. Ill 12; V. 1-5; P. 14. Teeth: A single row 
of round canines in each jaw, the two anterior ones enlarged; no 
canines at angle of jaw. Fins: Dorsal low, the spines rather weak; 
ventral small, 2.50 into head, and situated below base of pedlorals; 
longest ray of pectorals 1.50 into head; caudal almost square, with 
its outer rays slightly produced. Base of anal 2 into base of dorsal. 

Color in life: Ground color pea green, bluish on belly and 
chin; three wide, bright red lines, as wide as ej^e, from head to 
caudal, the upper one more or less disconnecfted; the lower one 
beginning at lower axis of pedlorals, extends to lower third of 
caudal; the second extends from opercular flap to a little above 
middle of caudal; the upper line extends along base of dorsal. 
A broad wedge-shaped red line extends from lower posterior mag- 
gin of orbit obliquely back and down on sides of head, dividing 
into two on posterior edge of preopercle and extending to lower 
posterior edge of opercles. A red triangular spot on each side of 
snout. A row of six round red spots just below base of pecftoral 
fins. Dorsal red at base, a dark green line through middle and 
the outer half of fin bright green. Anal is similarl}- colored. Ven- 
trals green. Caudal green, the middle yellowish. Pe(5torals bluish 
green. In spirits the fish becomes greenish blue; the red mark- 
ings become whitish. 

One specimen. Length 14.50 inches. Honolulu, 0(ftober, 
1901. Hab. Hawaiian Islands. Type No. 681, B. P. B. M. 

Ordered printed October 11, igoi. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS 



OF THE 



BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM OF 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY. 



Vol. I. — No. 5. 



Director's Report for 1901. 



' honolulu, h. i. 

Bishop Museum Press. 

1902. 



#^ 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

Sanford B. Dole, hlc'D President. 

William O. Smith Vice-President. 

Alfred W. Carter Secretary. 

Henry Holmes ....... Treasurer. 

Joseph O. Carter. Samuel M. Damon. William F. Allen. 



MUSEUM STAFF. 

William T. Brigham Dire<5tor. 

William H. Dall . . Honorary Curator of Mollusca. 

William A. Bryan Curator of Birds. 

John F. G. Stokes . . Assistant and Adting Librarian. 

Allen M. Walcott Assistant. 

John W. Thompson .... Artist and Modeller. 

Alvin Seale Colledlor. 

John J. Greene Printer. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS 



OF THE 



BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM OF 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY. 



Vol. I. — No. 5. 



Director's Report for 1901. 



honolulu, h. i. 

Bishop Museum Press. 

1902. 



To the President and Trustees of the Bernice Panahi Bishop Museum. 

Sirs: — In accordance icith the vote of the Trustees at the stated 

meeting held Ja)iuarv /j, igoo, I present my report of the condition 

of the Museum and the icorl; done in the various departments during 

the year igoi . 

WILLIAM T. BRIGHAM, 

Direftor of the Museum. 
Honolulu, March ig, igo2. 



OCT 



190? 



REPORT. 



THE difficulty mentioned in ni}- last Annual Report, relating to 
the absence of sufficient case room, has continued through the 
year, but it is hoped that a few months more will put an end 
to a condition seriously impeding the progress of the Museum. No 
new collecftions of great importance have been received during the 
year, although single specimens have come in by gift and some 
important ones by purchase ; among the latter the fine specimen 
of Sperm Whale {Physeter macrocephahis) which was ordered by 
the Trustees some two years ago. It was then considered that 
as Honolulu owed much of its early prosperity to the whaling 
industry which at one time made this port the centre of its 
operations in the Pacific it would be desirable to have specimens 
of the seven or more species of whale formerly caught in these 
waters. As a beginning, the Wards Natural Science E-stab- 
lishment at Rochester, N. Y., was commissioned to procure as. 
fine a skeleton of a sperm whale as possible, and to not only 
mount this carefully as a skeleton, but following the sugges- 
tion of the late Sir William H. Flower of the South Kensington 
Museum, prepare a covering of suitable material to represent the 
actual appearance of the living whale so far as possible. As this 
covering extends over only a longitudinal half, inspedlion of the 
bony vStru(5lure is in no wise hindered ; and as the whale is now 
hung in Hawaiian Hall about on a level with the upper gallery it 
is in a very favorable position for examination. The specimen is 
a full grown male 55.7 feet long. The skull alone is 18 feet long, 
8 feet wide and 6 feet high, weighing 6000 pounds. The lower 
jaw, which contains 50 teeth, weighs onl}^ 900 pounds. The fram- 
ing of the skeleton is very skilfullv done, two strong steel rods. 

(3) 



4 Director' s Annual Report. 

piercing the body of the vertebrae and holding the spine in rigid 
curvature. It is believed that there is no better or more instruc- 
tive specimen in the United States. Illustrations both of the skele- 
ton and of its covering are herewith given. Figs, i, 2 and 3. It is 
hoped that soon a similar specimen of the Right Whale may be 
placed on the opposite side of the Hall. 

Also b}^ purchase a skeleton of a smaller whale, 17.6 feet long, 
from New Zealand {Mesoplodon gravi) has been obtained and well 
■cleaned and mounted b}- Mr. Bryan of the Museum staff. It is well 
shown in the accompanying illustrations, Figs. 4-8, and as it is not 
a common specimen, the skull has been photographed as well as the 
•ear bones. It presents features in common with the description of 
another species of Mesoplodon and in the absence of material for 
(Comparison the determination of its specific place is not certain. 

As far as possible in the absence of cases the work of preparing 
the bird groups has gone on, and a fair illustration of one of the 
larger grovips is given in Fig. 9, where Mr. Bryan has, as it were, 
taken a secliion of the rocky breeding place of the Tropic bird. 
Eggs, young and adults are all skilfully shown, and our thanks 
are due to Mr. F. M. Swanzy for permission to secure the needed 
specimens from the islet Mokolii. For the smaller birds a differ- 
ent but not less effeclive treatment is shown in Fig. 10. This is 
certainly much more attraclive and truer to Nature than the old 
method of mounting stiffly on .stands. Twenty-seven such groups 
are planned for the Hawaiian avifauna. 

The grass house mentioned in ni}- last report has been com- 
pleted and furni.shes a very satisfadtory illustration of an ancient 
grass house of the simpler sort. It will be fully described and 
illustrated in the account of Hawaiian house building which it is 
proposed to publish in the Museum Memoirs. It may be said here, 
however, that it is large enough to live in, and not a mere model, 
and it has been construdled in the ancient way, except that the 
human sacrifice was not deemed necessary, from the frame of an 
old house in a valley on Kauai, and this was given by the Knudsen 



Diirdor's Ainnial Report. 5 

Estate. This frame was cut by stone tools from the hardest and 
most durable of Hawaiian woods, as naio and kaiiila and u hi 11 hi, 
so that while the ends buried in the earth show signs of decay the 
part exposed to the air is fresh and complete as when made so 
many score of years ago. The frame has been bound together b}- 
braid of iikiit/ci leaves and the thatch of t>ili grass attached by the 
same means. 

Mr. Stokes has, during the year, nearly completed his admir- 
able model of the Wahaula heiau which is to be exhibited in 
Hawaiian Hall. As this ancient temple was the last one adlually 
used in the former worship, and is in a situation remote from the 
present population, and unsuited to the cultivation of sugar cane, 
it has been possible to secure most of the original constru(5tion, or 
rather (as it was rebuilt several times by chiefs of Hawaii) of the 
construction last used for worship. Mr. Stokes and the Director 
spent some time camping in the heiau making careful measure- 
ments and photographs, from which Mr. Stokes has built with the 
very stones of the temple, what I consider a ver}' accurate repre- 
sentation of an ancient heiau. Mr. Bryan has added with great 
skill a miniature grove of coconut trees. 

Mr. Walcott has completed the great task of rewriting the ac- 
cession book, comparing each specimen with the description and 
number in the most pain.staking manner. He has also arranged 
the very extensive card index of contemporar}- zoological literature 
of the Concilio Bibliographico of Zurich. 

Mr. Thompson has made many casts of the Hawaiian fishes, 
and already the collection stored in Hawaiian Hall is a most inter- 
esting and beautiful illustration of the Hawaiian fish fauna ; one 
that we should hope to complete. Mr. Thompson's work received 
the emphatic approval of the gentlemen of the United 'States Fish 
Commission, and I doubt if so good representations of fish can be 
found in an}' museum. Few persons can have a ju.st idea of the 
variety and beauty of the Hawaiian fish as shown in this work. 
The necessary removal and partial demolition by storm of Mr. 



6 Director s Annual Report. 

Thompson's workshop has caused considerable loss of casts and no 
little delay in his work. 

During the year the Museum Printing Office has been con- 
stantly employed, and the t^'pographical beauty of the publications 
attests the skill and industr}- of our one printer. Bryan's Key to 
the Hawaiian Birds has been issued as Memoir No. 3, and besides 
the Annual Report, a description of new Hawaiian Fishes by 
Mr. Scale as No. 4 of the Occasional Papers. Memoir No. 4, on 
Hawaiian Stone Implements, is more than half printed and will be 
issued in the first half of 1902. The demand for the publications 
has increased in a gratifying manner. 

Late in the 3-ear Mr. vSeale started on his second expedition, 
this time to the southeastern Pacific. He has already spent a 
month on Makatea, of the Paumotu archipelago, where he made 
photographs and notes of the process of kapa-making, as this island 
was once the centre of the kapa industry in the Paumotus, but now 
has quite given up the interCvSting manufadlure, although Mr. Scale 
found skilled old women who made kapa for him. Evidently it 
will not be long before, the old women gathered to their fathers, 
the art will be lost. A considerable collection of fish w^as made in 
Tahiti, and from that island our explorer will proceed to the 
Tubuai, Gambler, Hervey, Marquesas, Samoan groups, whence 
we are looking for abundant treasures on his return. 

In the Ethnological department the acquisitions are fully shown 
in the list appended. In the other departments of Natural History 
the gentlemen in charge have prepared similar lists. 

REPORT ON THE LIBRARY. 

To THE Director: — 

During the 3'ear igoi the library of the Museum has been in- 
creased by the addition of 299 volumes and 530 parts and pamphlets 
acquired principall}' by exchange of publications, also by gift and 
purchase. 

Since the foundation of this library efforts have been made to 
secure all the available material relating to the early voyages in 



Director's Annual R-^port. 




FIG. lO. BIRDS ON KOA BRAXCH. 



the Pacific ocean, and by closely watching the catalogues of the 
book dealers in Europe, which are promptly mailed to the Museum, 
and through the reports of our appointed book agents in London 
and Berlin, many old and rare volumes have been gathered. In the 
year under review but five books of voyages were picked up, and 
these are : Dampier's Vo3'ages, Burney's History of Discoveries in 
the Pacific, Fleurieu's Discoveries of the French, Flinder's Vo^-age 



8 Director'' s Anmial Report. 

in the Investigator, and Bligh's Mutiny of the Bounty. These 
volumes all but complete the long series in the Library referring to 
the subject. 

Considerable active study and investigation by the departments 
of Ornithology and Ichth3'ology called for a fuller representation 
of books pertaining to such studies, and complete sets of the Ibis 
and Auk being offered for sale in London they were purchased, as 
well as a set of the Journal fiir Ornithologie in Berlin. To aid the 
determination of the fishes Bleeker's Atlas Ichthyologique in nine 
folio volumes was purchased ; and from the United States Fish 
Commission and Dr. O. P. Jenkins, the Fishes of Puerto Rico by 
Evermann and Marsh, with several other pamphlets published b)^ 
the Commission have been gladly received. 

Few works relating to Ethnology and Anthropology were 
added during the ^-ear as compared with 1900, when files of publi- 
cations from several European societies were purchased. The 
Societa Italiana di Antropologia e Etnologia was among those 
whose early publications were bought, and has completed its set in 
the Museum by adding the four volumes of most recent date. 
Several institutions with whom exchange of publications has been 
condu(fted have very kindly contributed many of their early vol- 
umes not due the Museum by right of exchange, and a grateful 
acknowledgment is tendered the Cambridge Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Field 
Columbian Museum, Royal Societ}' of A^ictoria (Australia), and 
the Real Academia de Ciencias y Artes de Barcelona for these 
appreciated gifts. 

Books have also been received from Henr}' C. Carter, Esq., of 
New York, who has presented many books long out of print con- 
cerning this region; the Hon. Charles R. Bishop, the U. S. Treas- 
ury Department, U. S. Department of Agriculture, the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, and other individuals and institutions mentioned 
in the accompanying li.st of acquisitions. To the list of exchanges 
man}' new names were added, and it is pleasing to remark the in- 
crease of offers from other scientific bodies to exchange pviblica- 
tions. The exchange list is appended. 

The condition of the books is good although continually 
threatened by inroads of insects which breed uninterruptedly in 
our even climate, and considerable difficulty is experienced in 



Director's Annual Report. 9 

fighting these pests owing to the crowded state of the shelves and 
the want of suitable and permanent cases. While the library re- 
mains as it is, stored in the old cases in the basements, these dis- 
advantages will only be overcome by great expenditure of time 
and labor. The arrangement and classification of the Library also 
suffers through the same over-crowding, and it is to be hoped that 
the new cases to be placed in Hawaiian Hall will soon arrive and 
be erected. At present, to provide room it is found necessary to 
box those books for which there is less call, and store them in other 
parts of the Museum. 

The Library was established for assisting the Museum staff in 
researches, but free use has also been offered to and taken advan- 
tage of b}' scientific gentlemen in these islands who have come to 
the Museum for study. Respectfully, 

John F. G. Stokes, 

Acting Librarian. 

ATTENDANCE OF VISITORS. 

If it were possible to make a table of the apparent intelligence 
of the visitors the results would be most interesting. I do not think 
any visitors study the collections more carefully than the Chinese. 
The Hawaiian attendance is largeh^ of school children, and the 
Portuguese and Japanese is mosth' from the laboring classes. 
Some visitors not only stay all day but come repeatedly, while the 
average tourist perhaps spends half an hour or less in a glance at 
the rooms, for the colledlions seem to them to be merely furniture 
to these. It will be seen that the Museum was open to visitors 
150 days, or nearly half the time, omitting Sundays. No damage 
was done by any visitor, and all were orderly and observant of 
rules as in any communit}'. 

The attendance of school children perhaps needs some regula- 
tion that they ma^- get the greatest possible good from their visits 
to the Museum and cause the least possible annoyance to the other 
visitors. Not more than twenty in a class, and not more than two 
classes at once should be allowed ; and the teachers who come with 
them should be competent to give some instrucftion to the pupils. 



lo Director' s Annual Report. 

At present, I am sorry to say, a visit to the Museum is much in 
the nature of a half-holida}' to most of the children, and I have seen 
little instrudlion given by the teachers to the pupils : there are 
some marked exceptions. 

TABLE OF ATTENDANCE. 





3 


s. 


% 

S 


s 


1 
5" 


o 


Open on 




Average 
Attendance. 


t 

o 




.i o 

5 

•A 


3 




S 


1901. 




aj 
O 


> 

1 
o 

Eh 


January 

February 

March 


334 
460 
Wl 
349 
349 
3(59 
329 
684 
256 
244 
320 
321 


109 

78 

170 

.58 

159 

175 

60 

53 

114 

153 

130 

153 


29 
34 
16 
21 
28 
25 
26 
14 
21 
34 
47 
12 


73 

126 

111 

74 

75 

98 

114 

123 

91 

104 

94 

89 


70 
42 
88 
95 
42 
67 
42 
68 
44 
53 
109 
81 


■■"4 

3 
1 

"i 

" 8 


9 

8 

10 

8 

9 

9 

8 

10 

7 

8 

10 

8 


3 
2 
2 
7 
3 
3 
3 
7 
5 
5 
3 
3 


10 
51 
17 
45 
22 
49 
64 
152 
53 
15 
24 
32 


67.5 

86 

97 

69 

70.5 

76 

63 

79 

68 

70.4 

68.4 

78 


3.3 

25.5 
8.5 
6.5 
7.3 

16 

21 

22 

10 
3 
8 

n 


617 
740 
986 
597 




656 




735 


July 


571 


August 

September 

October 

November 

December 


942 

527 

588 
708 
656 


Totals 


4612 


1412 


307 


1172 801 


19 


104 


46 


534 


74.4 


11.8 


8323 



List of Accessions. 



DEPARTMENT OF ETHNOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Given . 
5621 Palm-leaf basket. Guam. Given by Lieut. -Commander 

Stoney. 
5872-7 Bas-reliefs of Maori heads, done by Mr. Allen Hutchinson. 

Given by Col. W. F. Allen:— 

5872 Old man, Te Arawa tribe. 

5873 Old woman, Te Arawa tribe. 

5874 Man, Waikato tribe. 

5875 Woman, Taupo tribe. 

5876 Boy, Taupo tribe. 

5877 Boy. (?) 

5880 Colle(5tion of implements from the Swiss Lake Dwellers, 
given by Paul Hofer, Esq., and comprising: 15 .stone axes, 
9 sockets of deer horn for axes, 8 stone knives, 2 grind.stones. 



List of Accessions. ii 

I stone hammer, 7 sinkers, 15 lance heads, 11 arrow heads, 
7 chisels (4 of bone, 2 oi stone and i made from a tooth), 13 
bone awls, 2 bone needles, quantity of cores and flakes of flint, 
and fragments of horn, bone and boar tusk. 

7534 Stone lamp. Hawaiian Ids. Given by Rev. Silas Perry. 

7585-7 Flax bags. New Zealand. Given by Mrs. W. F. Allen. 

7588 Palm-leaf basket. New Zealand. Given by Mrs. W. F. 
Allen. 

7589 Pair of balls for playing poipoi. New Zealand. Given by 
Mrs. W. F. Allen. 

7590 Lime box. Solomon Ids. Given by Mrs. W. F. Allen. 
7974 Stone chisel. Kauai, H. I. Given by Paul Hofer, Esq. 
7995 Stone sinker. Kauai, H. I. Given by Paul Hofer, Esq. 

CoUccicd. 
10,023-4 Grindstones for adzes. Oahu, H. I. 
10,025-8 Polishing stones. Oahu, H. I. 

10.029 Stone sinker. Oahu, H. I. 

10.030 Stone hammer. Oahu, H. I. 
10,031-2 Poi pounders. Oahu, H. I. 

Purchased. 
2792-4 Car^-ed human skulls. New Guinea. 

2795 Bambu drill for making shell rings. New Guinea. 

2796 Piece of shell parti}- cut. New Guinea. 

2797 Block of wood for holding shell. New Guinea. 
2799 Paddle. Trobriand Ids. 

3070-1 Koko puupuu. Hawaiian Ids. 
3568-9 Stone lamps. Hawaiian Ids. 
3848 Stone lamp. . Hawaiian Ids. 
6731-2 Dancing masks. New Ireland. 

6760 Spear. New Guinea. 

6761 Spear. South Au.stralia. 
6762-3 Nosepins. Solomon Ids. 
6816 Wooden idol. Oahu, H. I. 

7646 Stone dish. Hawaiian Ids. 

7647 Stone lamp. Hawaiian Ids. 
7905 Club. Marquesas Ids. 
10,035-8 Stone adzes. Hawaii, H. I. 
10,039 Stone pestle. Hawaii, H. I. 



12 Director's Animal Report. 

10.040 Stone lamp. Hawaii, H. I. 

10.041 Iron adze. Hawaii, H.I. 

10,057-61 Ornamented gourd water bottles. Niihau, H. I. 
10,062 Large mat made from "Makaloa" {Cyperiis Iccvigatus). 

Niihau, H. I. 
10,063-72 Small samples of mats made from "Makaloa." Niihau, 

H. I. 
10,073-4 Stone poi pounder. Hawaii, H. I. 
10,075-6 Iron fish barbs. Hawaii, H. I. 
10,077-9 Kapa beaters. Hawaii, H. I. 
10,080-1 Wooden dishes. Hawaii, H. I. 

10.082 Old pistol. Kealakekua bay, Hawaii, H.I. 

10.083 Poi bowl. Hawaii, H. I. 



DEPARTMENT OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY. 

Mammals Purchased. 

10.096 Mesoplodon grayi Haast. Chatham Ids. (Skeleton.) 
10,202 Physeter macrocephalus Linn. Pacific Ocean. (Skeleton.) 

Bi?'d skills Purchased. 

10.097 Glaucopis wilsoni Bonap. ^ Wellington, N. Z. 

10.098 " cinerea Gmel. ^ Nelson, N. Z. 

10.099 Creadion carunculatus (Gmel.). ^ Otago Sound, N. Z. 

10.100 " " " <?&9" " 

10.101 Turnagra crassirostris (Gmel.).^ Nelson, N. Z. 

10.102 Gerygone flaviveutris Gray. J' Nelson, N. Z. 

10.103 Chitonyx albicapilla Buller. 9 Wellington, N. Z. 

10.104 Sphenoeacus punctatus (Quoy & Gaim.).9 Welling- 
ton, N. Z. 

10.105 Acanthidositta chloris (Sparrm.).^ Otago, N. Z. 

10.106 Chrysococcyx lucidus (Gmel.). 9 New Zealand. 

10.107 Platycercus novse-zealandiae (Sparrm.). 9 Chatham Ids. 

10.108 Stringops habroptilus Gray. ^ Nelson, N. Z. 

10.109 Hieracidea ferox Peale. (? Wellington, N. Z. 

10.110 Thinornis novae-zealandiae (Gmel.). ^ Chatham Ids. 

10.111 Larus scopulinus Forst. New Zealand. 

10.112 Botaurus pceciloptilus (Wagl.).J' Wellington, N. Z. 
10,113-4 Phalacrocorax featherstoni Buller. (?& 9 Chatham Ids. 



List of Accessions. 13 

10,115-6 Apteryx australis Shaw & Nodd. ^ & 9 Otago, N. Z. 
10,117-8 " haastii Potts. ^&9 Nelson, N. Z. 

10,119-20 " maxima Hutt.^&9 Stewarts Id. 

10.121 Diomedea culminata Gould. New Zealand. 

10.122 " fuliginosa Gmel. 9 Campbell's Id. 

10.123 " regia Buller. 9 New Zealand. 

10,124-5 Thiuornis novse-zealandiae (Gmel.). 9 Chatham Ids. 
10,206 Sula cyanops Sund. Oahu, H. I. 

Bird skins by Exchange, 

10,090 .^strelata phseopygia Salv. Galapagos Ids. 
10,264 Buteo solitarius Peale. Olaa, Hawaii. 

Bird skin s Given . 

9892 Larus delawarensis Ord. Molokai, H. I. Given by Mr. 
G. P. Wilder. 

9893 Anous stolidus (Linn.). Molokai, H. I. Given by Mr. 
G. P. Wilder. 

10,062-3 Phaethon lepturus L,. & D. ^ &9 Hawaii, H. I. Given 
by Prof. H. W. Henshaw. 

Bird skins Collected. 

Colledled by Wm. Alanson Bryan, Alvin Scale and Allen :M. Walcott. 
On Waianae Mts., Oahu, H. I. 

9644-93 Oreomyza maculata (Cab.). 26 J' , 249. 
9694-9745 Chlorodrepanis chloris (Cab.). 24 c? , 28 9. 
9746-87 Chasiempis gayi Wilson. 17^, 259. 
9788-93 Vestiaria coccinea (Forster). 3 J' , 29, i? 
9794-9826 Himatione sanguinea (Gmel.). 19^, 139, i? 
9827-32 Acridotheres tristis (lyinn.). \$ , i 9 , i juv. 
9833-4 Charadrius dominicus fulvus (Gmel.). 29. 
9835 Asio accipitrinus (Pall.).(? 
9836-51 Carpodacus mexicauus obscurus McCall. \$ , 79. 

9894 Phasianus versicolor Vieill. 

9885 and 91 Himatione sanguinea (Gmel.).^&9 
9886-7 Chlorodrepanis chloris (Cab.). ^ & 9 
9888-9 Oreomyza maculata (Cab. ) . (? & 9 

On Hawaii, H. I. 

9922 Phaeornis obscura (Gmel.).^ 

9923-4 Chasiempis sandvicensis (Gmel.).^&9 



14 Director' s Annual Report. 

9925 Phaeoniis obscura (Gniel.).J' 

9926-47 Chasiempis sandvicensis (Gmel.). 7 J" , 15?. 

994S-62 Himatione sanguiuea (Gmel.). 7^, 89. 

9963-79 Vestiaria coccinea (Forster). 10^, 7?. 

9980-10,019 Chlorodrepanis virens (Gmel.). 24c?, 15?, i? 

10,020-33 Oreomyza maiia (Wilson). 7 (? , 4? , 3? 

10,034-9 Heterorh5'nchus wilsoni Roths. 2$ , 2?, 2? 

10,040 Chasiempis sandvicensis (Gmel.).J' 

10,041-4 Loxops coccinea (Gmel.). 3 c? , i9. 

10,045-53 Phaeornis obscura (Gmel.). 6 (? , 3 ? 

10,054-7 Viridonia sagittirostris Roths. 3 J' , i9. 

10,058-9 Carpodacus mexicanus obscurus McCall. $ 

10,060-1 Psittirostra psittacea Gmel. 

10,065-6 Buteo solitarius Peale. i 9 , i ? 

10,068-9 Chlorodrepanis virens (Cab.). 9 

10,070-1 Chasiempis sandvicensis (Gmel.). (? & ? 

10,072-7 Corvus hawaiiensis Peale. 2$ , 29, 2? 

10,078 Chasiempis sandvicensis (Gmel.). 9 

10,079-80 Nesochen sandvicensis (Vig. ).<?& 9 

On Oahu, H. I. 

10,085-6 Nycticorax njcticorax naevius (Bodd.). $ and juv. 

10.087 Heteractitis incanus (Gmel.). 

10,091-5 Phaethon lepturus Iv. & D. i <? , 3 9 and juv. 

10.203 Nycticorax nycticorax naevius (Bodd.). 9 

10.204 Spatula clypeata (Linn.). 9 

10.205 Charadrius dominicus fulvus (Gmel.).(? 

10.088 Acridotheres tristis I^inn.; 15 specimens for skin group. 
Honolulu. 

10.089 Acridotheres tristis Linn. $ Honolulu. 

Bird Skeletons. 

Collected by W. A. Bryan: On Waianae Mts., Oahu, H. I. 

9852 Carpodacus mexicanus obscurus McCall. $ 
9853-4 Oreomyza maculata (Cab.).<?&9 

9855 Chlorodrepanis chloris (Cab.). 

9856 Chasiempis gayi Wilson. $ 

9857 Vestiaria coccinea (Forster). <? 

Birds in Aleohol. 

Collected by W. A. Bryan: On Waianae Mts., Oahu, H. I. 

9878 Chasiempis gayi Wilson. 

9879-80 Oreom^'za maculata (Cab.). J" & 9 



List of Accrssio7is. 15 

9881 Vestiaria cocciuea (Forster). 

9882 Acridotheres tristis (Ivinu.). 

9883 Carpoclacus mexicanus obscurus McCall. 

9884 Munia uisoria (Temm.). 

Ak'sis and Eggs. 

Collected by W. A. Bryan and A. Seale : On Waianae Mts., Oahu, H. I. 

9858-63 Carpodacus raexicauus obscurus McCall. 
9864 Turtur chiuensis (Scop.)- 
9865-6 Oreomyza maculata (Cab..). 
9867-73 Chlorodrepauis chloris (Cab.). 
9874-7 Chasiempis gayi Wilson. 



DEPARTMENT OF ICHTHYOLOGY. 

Collected by Alvin Seale, John W. Thompson and Allen M. Walcott. 
In Hilo, Hawaii, H. I. 

275 Cheilio inermis (Forsk.). 

276 S3'nodus variegatus Quoy & Gaim. 

277 Polydactylus sexfilis (Cuv. & Val.). 

278 Parapercis schauinslandi. 
279-80 Teuthis annularis. 

281 Gomphosus tricolor Quoy & Gaim. 

282 Upeneus vilifex Smitb & Swain. 

283 Julis ( ? trilobata Lacep.). 

284 Malacauthus hoedtii Bleek. 

285 Abudefduf saxatilis (Linn.). 

286 Cheilinus zonurus Jenk. 

287 Iniistius tetrazonus Bleek. 

288 Cheilinus sp. 

289 Pomacentrus emarginatus Cuv. & Val. 

290 Albula vulpes (L,inn.). 

291 Upeneus porphyreus L,inn. 

292 Upeneoides vittatus (Forsk.). 

293 Hemirhaniphus pacificus Cuvier. 

294 Fistularia depre.ssa Giintli. 

295 Iniistius tetrazonus Bleek. 
296-7 Thalassonia verticale. 

In Honolulu, Oahu, H. I. 

298 Gymnothorax leucosticus. 

299 Novaculichthys vanicorensis Quoy & Gaim. 



1 6 Director s Annnal Report. 

300-1 Thalassoma duperryi Quoy & Gaini. 
302-3 Gomphosus tricolor Quoy & Gaim. 
304 " pectoralis Quoy & Gaim. 

305-6 Iniistius pavo Quoy & Gaim. 

307 Hemipteronotus umbrilatus Jenk. 

308 Thalassoma quadricolor (Less.). 
309-13 Pseudocheilinus octotaenia Jenk. 

314 Thalassoma sp. 

315 Coris schauinslandi. 
316-23 Chaetodon setifer Ren. 
324 " fremblii Benn. 

325-6 " quadrimaculatus Gray. 

327-8 " vittatus Ren. 

329 " unimaculatus Bloch. 

330-3 " lunula (Lacep.). 

334-42 " mantelliger Jenk. 

343-6 Zanclus canescens Giinth. 

347-8 Calotomus sandwichensis Cuv. & Val. 

349 Paracirrhites cinctus (Benn.). 

350 Upeneus trifasciatus L,acep. 

351 Abudefduf saxatilis (Linn.). 
352-4 Dascyllus trimaculatus (Riipp.). 
355-8 Synodus varius Lacep. 

359-60 Caranx speciosus (Forsk.). 

361-4 Teuthis triostegus (I^inn.). 

365-9 Cheilio inermis (Forsk.). 

370 Parapercis schauinslandi. 

371-2 Polydactylus sexfilis (Cuv. & Val.) 

373-83 Parachirrites arcatus (Parkins). 

384-9 Caranx sp. 

390 Cheiliuus bimaculatus Cuv. & Val. 

391 Apogon sp. 

392 Chaetodon ornatissimus (tSoland.). 
393-5 Aprion virescens Cuv. & Val. 

396 Teuthis olivaceus (BL). 

397 Ctenochsetus strigosus Benn. 
398-400 Teuthis sp. 

401 Caranx affinis Riipp. 

402 Trachurops crumenopthalmus (Bloch.). 
403-4 Caranx sp. 



List of Accessio7is. 17- 



405 Scomberoides toloo Russel. 

406 Anianses sandwicheusis Bleek. 
407-9 Cougrellus sp. 

410-12 Eleotris fusca (Schneid.). 

413-14 Holocentriis sp. 

415-16 " sp. 

417 " fuscostriatiis Seale. 

41 8-2 1 Parexocoetus mesogaster (Bloch). 

422 Malacanthus hoedtii Bleek. 

423-5 Platophr_vs pantherinus (Riipp.). 

426 Apogou meuesenus. 

427-30 Paracirrhites forsteri (Schneid.). 

431-3 Trachiuocephalus limbatus. 

434 Carassius auratus (Cuv. & ^"al.). 

435-6 Myripristis pralinus Cuv. & Val. 

437 " ( ? pralinus Cuv. & Val.). 

438-41 Cirrhites marmoratus Lacep. 

442 Paracirrhites arcatus (Parkins). 

443-44 Carangus ciliaris Bloch. 

445 Gobius genivittatus Cuv. & Val. 

446-48 Cossyphus bilunulatus (Lacep.). 

449-52 Gobius sp. 

453 Abudefduf saxatilis (Linn.). 

454 Balistes buniva (Will.). 
455"6 ", capriscus Gniel. 

457 Amiurus nebulosus (Le Sueur). 

458 Ophicephalus sp. 

459 Anampses cuvieri Quoy «& Gaim. 

460 Cymolutes leclusii (Quoy «& Gaim.). • 

461 Novaculichthys vanicorensis Quoy & Gaim. 
462-4 Iniistius niger. 

465 Hemicoris iridescens Jenk. 

466 " keleipionis Jenk. 

467 Acanthurus guttatus (Forst.). 
468-g Cheilinus zonurus Jenk. 

470-1 Thalassoma pj-rrhovinctum Jenk. 

472 Gomphosus pectoralis Quoy & Gaim. 

473 " tricolor Quoy & Gaim. 

O. p. B. p. B. M.— Vol. I., No. 5. 



i8 Director's Anmial Report. 

474-6 Thalassoma verticale. 

477-9 " SP- 

480 Cossyphus sp. 

481 Epinephelus quernus Seale, Type. 

482 Echidna nebulosa (Ahl). 

483 Cossyphus bihinulatus (Lacep.)- 

484 Priacanthus crueutatus Lacep. 

485 Cossyphus (Diastodon) modestus. 
.486 Scomberoides toloo Russel. 

.487 Cephalacauthus sp. 
.488-9 Balistes buniva (Will.). 
.490 " mitis Beuu. 

.491-5 " vidua Ren. 

496-7 " capriscus Gmel. 

498-9 " bursa Valent. 

500 Priacanthus cruentatus Lacep. 
501-3 Upeneus velifer Smith & Swain. 
J504-5 " cherserydros (Lacep. ). 

506-8 " pleurostigma Benn. 

^09 " cyclostoma (Lacep.). 

510 " punctatus Cuv. & Val. 

511-12 " multifasciatus Quoy & Gaim. 

.513 " sp. 

.514-16 Carangus sp. 
517-18 Myripristis pralinus Cuv. & Val. 
.519-21 Holotrach3-s lima (Cuv. & Val.). 
522-3 Holocentrus microstoma Giinth. 
^24 " sammara (Forsk.). 

525-7 " tiere Cuv. & Val. 

528 Iniistius pavo (Cuv. & Val.). 
529-30 Xj'richthys sp. 

531 Coris gaimardi Valent. 

532 " pulcherrima \"alent. 

533 " flavovittata Benn. 
,534 Thalassoma sp. 

535 Tylosurus annulatus (Cuv. & Val.). 
536-8 Albula vulpes (Linn.). 

539 Trachurops crumenopthalmus (Bloch). 

540 Scorpsenapus gibbosa (Schneid.). 
541-4 Aulostoma chinense (Linn.). 



f.ist of Accessions. 19 

545 Sph^-rsena vulgaris Cuv. & Val. 

546 Euleptorhaniphus macrorhyuchus (Cuv. & Val.). 

547 Hemirhamphus pacificus Cuvier. 

548 Chroniis velox. 

549 Aprion virescens Cuv. & Val. 
550-2 Fistularia depressa Giinth. 

553 Tj-losurus anuulatus (Cuv. & Val.). 

554 " sp. 

555-6 Euleptorhamphus macrorhynchu.s Cuv. & Val. 

557-9 Cliaetodou lunula (Lacep.). 
560-3 " meiitelliger Jenk. 

564 " unimaculatus Bloch. 

565 " ornatissimus (Solaud. ). 
566-8 " setifer Ren. 

569-71 Balistapus rectangulus (Bloch). 

572 Balistes vidua Ren. 

573 " buniva (Will.). 

574 Coris gaimardi Valent. 
575"7 " pulcherrima Valent. 

578 Heniicoris keleipionis Jenk. 

579 Paracirrhites forsteri (Schneid.). 

580 " cinctus (Benn. ). 

581 Pomacentrus sp. 

582 Cheilinus bimaculatus Cuv. & Val. 
583-4 Zanclus canescens Giinth. 

585-7 Abudefduf saxatilis (Linn.). 

588 " [? saxatilis (Linn.)]. 

589 Scolopsis sp. 

590 Kuhlia malo (Cuv. & Val.). 

591 Echidna nebulosa (Ahl). 

592 Cephalacanthus sp. 

593 Eleotris fusca (Schneid.). 

594 Balistes capriscus Gmel. 

595-8 Thalassoma duperryi Quoy & Gaim. 

599 Tetrodon hispidus Linn. 

600 Hemipteronotus umbrilatus Jenk. 
601-2 Holocentrus rubrum (Forsk.). 
603-4 " sp. 

605 Gomphosus tricolor Quoy & Gaim. 

606 Coris pulcherrima \"alent. 



20 Director' s Annual Report. 

607 Upeneus velifer Smith & Swain. 
608-10 Thalassoma qiiadricolor (Less.). 

611 Novaculiclithys tattoo Seale, Type. 

612 Cheilio inermis ( For.sk . ) . 

613 Thalassoma sp. 

614 Scolopsis sp. 

615 Synodus varius Lacep. 

616 Tylosurus sp. juv. 

617 Thalassoma quadricolor (Less.), 
618-19 " sp. 

620 Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen). 

621 Balistapus rectaugulus (Bloch). 

622 Teuthis nigrosus. 

623 Monoceros unicornis (Forsk.). 

624 Thala.ssoma sp. 

625 Serranus brighami Seale, Type. 

626 Holocentrus ( ? binotatum Quoy & Gaim.). 

627 Bali.stes buniva (Will.). 

628 Chsetodon lunula (Lacep.). 

629-31 Gomphosus tricolor Quoy & Gaim. 

632 Dascyllus triniaculatus (Riipp.). 

633 Pomacentrus emarginatus Cuv. & Val. 

634 Balistopus rectangulus (Bloch). 

635 Synodus varius Lacep. 

636-8 Gomphosus pectoralis Quo}' & Gaim. 

639 Eleotris fusca (Schneid.). 

640 Heniochus macrolepidotus Ren. 
641-2 Inii,stius tetrazonus. 

643 Antennarius commersoni (Lacep.). 

644 Coris sp. 

645 Holocentrus microstoma Giinth. 

646 Holotrachys lima (Cuv. & Val.). 

647 Calotomus sandwichensis Cuv. & Val. 

648 Teuthis triostegus (Linn.). 

649 Caranx speciosus (Forsk.). 

650 Scorpaena parvdpennis. 

551 Cheilinus bimaculatus Cuv. & Val. 

652 Platophrys pavo (Bleek.). 

653 Cheilio inermis (Forsk.). 



List of Accessions. 21 



654 Stethojulis albovittata Lacep. 

655 " axillaris (Quoy & Gaini.). 

656 Beloiie platura Riipp. 

657 Aulostoma chinense (Linn.). 
65S Caranx ferdau (Forsk.). 

659 Cheilio inermis (Forsk.). 

660 Monocanthus sp. 

661 Teuthis uigrosus. 

662 Scorpaeua cirrliosa (Thunb.). 

663 Aetobatus narinari (Euphraseu). 

664 Balistes fuscolineatus Seale, Type. 

665 Thalassoma quadricolor (Less.). 

666 vScorpaeuopsis cacopsis Jeiik. 

667 Monocanthus albopunctatus Seale, Type. 

668 Scarus gilberti Jenk. 

669 Echidna sp. 

670 " sp. 

671 Ophichthys colubrinus (Bodd.). 

672 Scorpaenopsis cacopsis Jenk. 
673-4 Teuthis achilles. 

675 Chaetodon unimaculatus Bloch. 

676 Brotula marginalis Jenk. 

677 Cephalacanthus sp. 

678 Ovoides latifrons Jenk. 

679 Chsetodon bleekeri. 

680 Teuthis sp. 

681 Thalassoma berendti Seale, Type. 

682 Zanclus canesceus Giintli. 

683 Tylosurus sp. 

684 Reniora albescens (Temm.). 



LIST OF ACQUISITIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 

Those received by exchange are denoted bv an asterisk. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia.— Journal, second 
series, Vols. VII. -X. Proceedings, 1871-1898; given by the 
Academy. *Proceedings, 1900, Part 3 ; 1901. Parts i and 2. 

Alfken, J. D. — Neue Orthopteren von Neu-Seeland und den Ha- 
waiischen Inseln. Bremen. Given by the author. 



22 Director's Annual Rcpoj't. 

American Anthropologist, A'ol. II., No. 4. 

* American Museum of Natural History. — Bulletin, Vol. XIII. 

New York, 1900. 

*American Philosophical Society. — Proceedings, Nos. 164-166. 
Memorial Volume I. Transadlions, Vol. XX., Part 2. Phila- 
delphia, 1 900- 1. 

Anatomy and Physiology, Journal of. — New series. Vol. XV.; 
Vol. XVI., Part i. L,ondon, 1900-1. 

Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. — Journal, 
Vol. XXIX., duplicate ; *Vol. XXX., XXXI. London, 1899- 
1901. 

* Anthropologic de Paris, Societe d'. — Table generale des publica- 

tions de la depuis sa fondation (i860- 1899); Bulletins 

et Memoirs de la V^ serie, tome I.; tome II. fasc. 1-3. 

Paris, 1899-1901. 
*Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, Mittheilungen der. — 
XXX Band, VI Heft; XXXI Band, I-IV Heften ; General- 
Register zu den Banden XXI-XXX. Wien, 1899-1901. 

* Asiatic Society of Bengal. — Journal, Vol. LIX., Part 2, Nos. 2-4; 

Part 3, No. I. Proceedings, 1900, Nos. 9-12; 1901, Nos. 1-8. 

Calcutta, 1 900- 1. 
Auk, The.— Vol. I. -XVI. (1884-1899.) Boston and New York. 
Australasia. — British Empire Series, No. 4. London, igoo. 
*Australian Museum. — Annual reports for 1899 and 1900. Memoir 

IV., Part 3. Records, Vol. III., Part 8; Vol. IV., Parts i, 3 

and 4. Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds, Part I. Sydney, 

1 900- 1. 
Banks and Solander. — Botany of Cook's Voyage in the Endeavour, 

1768-1771, Part 2. 
Bland, Thos. — Distribution of Land Shells in the West Indies. 

1 86 1. Given by Henry C. Carter, Esq. 
Bleeker, M. P. — Atlas Ichthyologique des Indies Orientales Neer- 

landaises. Amsterdam, 1862-1878. Nine volumes, all pub- 
lished. 
Bligh, William. — Narrative of the Mutiny on board H. M. S. 

Bounty. London, 1790. 
*Bo.ston Public Library. — Annual lists of books added, 1899-1900. 

Forty-ninth Annual report, 1900- 1 . Current monthly bulletins. 
British Museum. — Catalogue of Lepidoptera Phalsenae, Vol. III.; 

Catalogue of Birds' Eggs, Vol. I. London, 1901. 



List of Accessions. 25 

Bronn, H. G. — Thier-Reichs, Molhisca, Lieferungen 53-61. 
*Brooklyu Institute of Arts and Sciences. — Science Bulletin, Vol. 

I., No. I. 
Burney, James. — A Chronological History of the Discoveries in 

the South Sea or Pacific Ocean, 5 vols. London, 1803-17. 
*California Academy of Sciences. — Proceedings, Third Series: 

Geology, Vol. I., No. 8. Zoology, Vol. II., Nos. 4-1 1 ; Vol. 

III., No. I. Mathematics and Physics, Vol. I., No. 7. Botan}% 

Vol. II., Nos. 3-5, San Francisco, 1 900-1. 
Cambridge ^Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Straits, Re- 
ports of. — Vol. II., Part I. 
Campbell, A. J. — Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds. Sheffield, 

1900. 
*Carnegie Museum. — Publications, Nos. 8-10. Pittsburg, 1901. 
Carrick, R°. — New Zealand's Lone Lands. Wellington, 1892. 

Given by Alex. H. Turnbull, Esq. 
Central Union Church. — Thirteenth Year Book. Given by Allen 

M. Walcott. 
Cincinnati Museum Association. — Twentieth Annual Report. Cin- 
cinnati, 1900. Given by the Association. 
*Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. — Transactions, Vol. 

X., Part 2. New Haven, 1900. 
Cuba. — Report of the Census of Cuba, 1899. Washington, 1900. 

Given by the U.S. Treasury. 
*Cubas, A. G. — Mexico: Trade, Industries and Resources. Mexico, 

1893. From the Philadelphia Commercial Museums. 
Dampier's Voyages. — Four volumes. London, 1729. 
Delacroix, G. — Les Maladies et les Ennemis des Cafeiers. Paris, 

1900. 
Detroit Museum of Art. — Annual Report, 1900. Given by the 

Museum. 
*Ecole d' Anthropologic de Paris, Revue del'. — 1900, Decembre; 

1901, Fevrier-Novembre. 
Ethnographic, Internationales Archiv fiir. — Band XIII. Leiden, 

1900. 
Evermann and Marsh. — The Fishes of Porto Rico. Washington, 

1900. Two copies, given by the U. S. Fish Commission and 

S. M. Damon, Esq. 
*Field Columbian Museum. — Publications: Anthropological Series, 

Vol. I.; Vol. II., Nos. I, 4 and 5: Vol. 3, No. i. Geological 



24 Director's Annual Report. 

Series, Vol. I., No. 8., Ornithological Series, Vol. I., Nos. i 

and 2. Report Series, Vol. I., Nos. i and 6. Zoological 

Series, Vol. I., Nos. i-io; Vol. II.; Vol. III., Nos. 3-5. Pub- 
lication No. 2. Chicago, 1893-1901. Exchanged and given. 
Eleurieu. — Discoveries of the French in 1768 and 1769 to the 

South-east of New Guinea. Translated from the French by 

Archbishop Nares. London, 1791. 
Flinders, Matthew. — A Voyage to Terra Australis in the years 

1 80 1 -3 in H. M. S. Investigator. Two volumes and atlas. 

London, 18 14. 
*Free Museum of Science and Art. — Bulletins, Vol. III., Nos. 1-3. 

Philadelphia, 1 900-1. 
•Gadow, H. — Amphibia and Reptiles. London, 1901. 
*Gordon Technical College. — Annual Report, 1900. 
■Grave, Caswell. — The Oyster Reefs of North Carolina. 1901. 
Hartzer, Le Pere Fernaud. — Les lies Blanches des Mers du Sud. 

Paris, 1900. 
^Harvard University Library. — Third Report. 1900. 
Hawaii. — Report of the Governor of the Territory of Hawaii to the 

Secretary of the Interior. Washington, 1900. Given. 
Hawaiian Mission Children's vSociety. — Historical Missionary 

Atlas. Honolulu, 1901. Given by the Hon. Chas. R. Bishop. 
Henshaw, H. W. — Notes on the Habits and Haunts of the Noio. 

Given by the author. 
*Hrdlicka, Ales. — Ten scientific papers given by the author. 
*Hiibner, J. — Exotische Schmetterlinge, nebst Zutrage von C. 

Geyer. Bruxelles. New edition by W. F. Kirby and V . 

Wytsman. Plates 1-90. 
Hutton, F. W. — The Diptera brachycera of New Zealand. 1900. 

Given by the author. 
Hutton, Y . W. — Our Migratory Birds. 1900. Given by the author. 
Huxley, Thomas Henry, The Scientific Memoirs of. — Vol. III. 

London, 1901. 
Hyde, Charles McEwen. — Memorial by Henry Knight Hyde. 

Ware, 1901. 
Ibis, The. — F^irst to Seventh Series, 1859-1898. With indexes. 

London. 
■■*Jndian Museum. — Annual Report, 1899- 1900. Indian Deep Sea 

-Crustacea — Decapoda, Macrura and Anomala. List of Birds. 



List of Acccssiois. 25 

Part I. Catalogue of Indian Decapod Crustacea, Part I. 

Bracliyura fasc. i. Calcutta, 1900-1. 
*Instituto Geologico de Mexico. — Boletin, num. 14. 
Interstate Commerce Commission. — Fourteenth Annual Report. 

Washington, 1901. Given by the U. S. Treasury, 
lolani College Magazine. — \o\. I., Nos. 3 and 4. Honolulu, 1900. 
Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg. — Icones Bogoriensis, 4'"^ fascicule. 

Leide, 1901. 
*Johns Hopkins University. — Memoirs, Biological Laboratory, 

IV 5 Ophiura brevispina, by Caswell Grave. Baltimore, 1900. 
*Kongl. Vitterhets Hi.storie och Antiquitets Akademien. — Cata- 
logue of the Stockholm National Museum of Antiquities. 

Stockholm, 1899. 
*Konigliche Zoologische und Anthropologisch - Ethnographische 

Museum zu Dresden. — Abhandlungen und Berichte, No. 6 

Aves Polynesiae. 
*K. K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, Annaleu des. — Band XV 

Nr 2. Wien. 
Kramer, Augustin. — Der Steinnagel von Samoa. Sonder-Abdruck 

aus dem Globus. Baud LXXX Nr. i. 
Labor. — Thirteenth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 

1898, 2 vols. Fifteenth Annual Report, 1901. Bulletin No. 

35. Washington, 1899-1901. Given by the U. S. Treasury. 
*Leland Stanford Jr. University. — Contributions to the Hopkins 

Biological Laboratory, Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7-15, 17-26. 
Linnean Society of London. — Botany, Journal, Vol. XXXIV. 

Transactions, Vol. V. London, 1895- 1901. Proceedings, 

1899 - 1900. 
*Linnean Society of New South Wales. — Proceedings, Vol. XXV., 

Parts 3 and 4; Vol. XXVI., Parts i and 2. Sydney, 1900-1. 
Lyceum of Natural History of New York. — Annals, Vol. V., No. 2, 

1850. Given by Henry C. Carter, Esq. 
Madras Government Museum. — Bulletin, Vol. IV., Nos. i and 3. 

Catalogue of the Prehistoric Antiquities. Madras, 1901. 
*Societe Royale Malacologique de Belgique. — Annales, Aunees 

1899 et 1900. 
Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, The Fauna and Geography 

of the. — Edited by J. Stanley Gardiner. Vol. I., Part i. 
Man. — 1901, January, June and July. 
Martini und Chemnitz. — Conchvlien Cabinet. (Current issues.) 



26 Director' s Ayimial Report. 

*Maryland Geological Surve)^ — Alleghauy Count}' and Atlas. 

Eocene Report. Mar3'land and its Natural Resources. Balti- 
more, 1 900- 1. 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society. — Report of the Committee 

on School Gardens. Boston, 1901. Given by Mrs. H. L. T. 

Wolcott. 
Microscopical Science, Quarterly Journal of. — Vol. XLIV., Parts 

2-4; Vol. XL,V., Parts i and 2. London, 1901. 
Le Mouvement Geographique. — 18 Annee. 
*Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires. — Communicaciones, tomo I 

no. 8 and 9. Buenos Aires, 1901. 
*Museo Nacional de Mexico. — Apuntes para una Bibliografia 

Antropologica de Mexico. (Somatologia.) 1901. 
*Museu Paraense. — Boletim, Vol. I., Nos. 2-4 ; Vol. II., Nos. i, 3 

and 4 ; Vol. III., No. i. Para, 1895-1900. 
*Museu Paulista. — Revista, Vol. I. -III. Sao Paulo, 1895-98. 
*Museum of Comparative Zoology. — Annual Reports, 1859-1867, 

1869-1876, 1879-1901. Bulletins, Vol. I., Nos. 4-6, 8-11; Vol. 

II., Nos. 3-5; Vol. 3, Nos. I, 4-7, 9, 10, 14-16; Vol. V.,Noj. 

2, 3, 9, 1 1-13, 15 and 16 ; Vol. VI., Nos. 8 and 9 ; Vol. VII., 

No. 11; Vol. XI., No. 7; Vol. XIII., No. 7; Vol. XVII., 

Nos. 3 and 5; Vol. XIX., No. 4; Vol. XX., No. 2; Vol. 

Vol. XXIII., No. i; Vol. XXIV.; Vol. XXV., Nos. \-i\ 

Vol. XXVII., Nos. 4-7; Vols. XXVIII. -XXXII.; Vol. 

XXXV., Nos. I and 2; Vol. XXXVI., Nos. 3, 7 and 8 ; Vol. 

XXXVII., No. 3 ; Vol. XXXVIII., Nos. 2-4 ; Vol. XXXIX., 

No. I. Cambridge, Mass., 1859-1901. 
*Museum of Fine Arts. — Twenty-fifth Annual Report. Boston, 1901 . 
Nature. — London, 1900-1. 
Newcomb, W. — New Species of Achatinella, 1853. Given by 

Henry C. Carter, Esq. 
*New York Botanical Garden. — Bulletin, Vol. II. New York, 1901. 
Ornithologie, Journal fiir. — 1853-date, 49 volumes. Cassel and 

Leipzig. 
Ost-Asien. — No. 43, October, 1901. Berlin. 
*Peabody Museum. — Archaeological and Ethnological Papers, Vol. 

II. Memoirs, Vol. IX., Nos. 3 and 4. Cambridge, 1901. 
Perkins, R. C. L. — A New Genus of Hawaiian Geometridse. 
Petermann. — Dr. A. Petermann's Mittheilungen aus Justus 

Perthes' Geographischer Anstalt. 47 Band 1901, I-X. 



List of Accessions. 27 

Pilsbr}-, Yiy . — Manual of Conchology. 

*Polynesiau Society, Journal of. — Vol. IX., Nos. 3 aud 4 ; Vol. X., 

Nos. 1-3. Wellington, 1 900-1. 
Popular Science Monthly. — New York, 1900-1. 
Porto Rico. — Report on the Census of Porto Rico, 1899. Washing- 
ton, 1900. Given by the U. S. Treasury. 
*Public Museum, Wanganui, N. Z. — Annual Report, 1899-1900. 
*Real Academia de Ciencias y Artes de Barcelona. — Boletin, 

Vol. I nr 2-30. Nomina del Personal Academico. Historia 

dela.... Barcelona, 1892-1901. 
Reinecke, F. — Die Flora der Samoa-Inseln. 1896-98. 
*Rijks Ethnographisch Museum te Leiden. — Director's Report, 

I 899- I 900. 
Rothschild, Walter. — The Avifauna of Laysan, Part 3. London, 

1900. Given by the Hon. Chas. R. Bishop. 
Rothschild, Hartert and Jordan. — Novitates Zoologicse, Vol. VII., 

No. 4; Vol. VIII., Nos. 1-3. Tring, 1900-1. 
Royal Geographical Society. — The Geographical Journal, Vols. 

XVI. and XVII. London, 1900-1. 
*Royal Society of New South Wales. — Journal and Proceedings, 

Vol. XXXIV. Sydney, 1900. 
*Royal Societ}' of Queensland. — Proceedings, Vol. XVI. Brisbane, 

1900. 
*Royal Society of South Australia. — Transactions, Vol. XXIV., 

Part 2; Vol. XXV., Part i. Adelaide, 1900-1. 
*Royal Society of Victoria. — Proceedings, Vol. VI. -Vol. XIV., 

Part I. Melbourne, 1892-1901. 
Salvin, O. — On the Avifauna of the Galapagos Archipelago. 

London, 1876. 
Sawyer, Frederic H. — The Inhabitants of the Philippines. London, 

1900. 
Science. — New York, 1901. Given by Mrs. H. L. T. Wolcott. 
Sergi, G. — The Mediterranean Race. London, 1901. 
Smith, Jared G. — Commercial Plant Introduction. 1900. Given 

b}- the author. 
*Smithsonian Institution. — Annual Reports for 1898, 1899 and 

1900. Washington. Bureau of American Ethnology : Seven- 
teenth and Eighteenth Annual Reports. Washington, 1898-9. 
*South African Museum. — Annals, Vol. II., Nos. 4-8. Report for 

year 1900. Capetown, 1900-1. 



28 DiTcdor' s Annual Report. 

St. Louis Library Association. — Fiftj'-fifth Annual Report, 1900. 
Given by the Association. 

Steindachner, Franz. — Fische. Frankfurt uni Main, 1901. Given 
by the author. 

Stewart, C. S. — A Visit to the South Seas in U. S. Ship Vincennes, 
2 vols. New York, 1831. Given by the Hon. Chas. R. Bishop. 

*Universiteit van Amsterdam. — Catalogus der Handschriften I. 
Catalogus van de Paedagogische Bibliotheek van het Neder- 
landsch Ouderwijzers-Genootschap, 1891 ; Supplement, 1899. 
Aanwinsten. Amsterdam, 1891-1900. 

U. S. CommivSsion of Fish and Fisheries. — Pamphlets, Nos. 433, 
456, 459, 465-7, 472, 473 and 476. Given b}" Dr. O. P. Jenkins. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture. — Division of Vegetable Physi- 
ology and Pathology, Bulletin No. 26. Division of Botany, 
Bulletin No. 25. F'armers' Bulletins, Nos. 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 
31, 33-36, 38, 40, 42-45, 52-56, 58-67, 70, 73, 74, 77, 81, 82, 
84, 85, 87-90, 92, 93, 97, 99-109, III, 113-124, 126, 128-130. 
Given by the Department. 

U. S. Geological Survey. — Twentieth Annual Report, Parts 2-5 
and 7. Monograph, Vol. XXXIX. Bulletins, Nos. 163-176. 
Map of Alaska. Preliminary Report on the Cape Nome Gold- 
bearing Region. Washington, 1898-1901. Given b}- the Sur- 
vey Department. 

*U. S. National Museum. — Annual Reports for 1897, Part 2, 1898 
and 1899. Proceedings, Vol. XXII. Bulletin 50. Washington, 
1899-1900. 

*University of California. — The University Chronicle, Vol. III., 
No. 6; Vol. IV., Nos. 1-4. Bulletins, Vol. II., Nos. i and 3. 
Agricultural Experimental Station, Bulletins 127-30. Report 
on Work, 1897-8. Our New Interests. Topographical Studies 
of Islands of Southern California. San Francisco, 1900-1. 

University of Cambridge, Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. — 
Sixteenth Annual Report. Given by Baron von Hugel. 

*University of Kansas. — Bulletins, Vol. I., Nos. 4 and 8 ; Vol. II., 
Nos. I and 6. 

*University of Pennsylvania. — Bulletins, new series, Nos. i , 2 and 9. 
Contributions from the Zoological Laboratory, 1900. Phila- 
delphia, 1900. 

*Villafranca, Richard. — Costa Rica. New York, 1895. From the 
Philadelphia Commercial Museums. 



List of Exchano;€S. 29 

Wagner Free Institute of Science.— Transactions, Vol. III., Part 3. 

Philadelphia, 1895. 
Webster, W. D. — Illustrated Catalogues Nos. 28 and 29. Bicester 

and London, 1901. 
Whitney, Caspar.— Hawaiian America. New York, 1900. 
*Yale University. — Report of the Librarian, January 1899 to July, 

1900. New Haven, 1901. 
*Zeitsclirift fiir Ethnologic, Berlin. — 1900 Heften V <& VI, 1901 

Heften I-III. 
Zoological Society of London. — Proceedings for 1900. 



LIST OF EXCHANGES. 

Amherst College Library. Amherst, Mass. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta, India. 

Ecole d' Anthropologic de Paris. 

Societe de Anthropologic. Paris. 

Anthropologischer Gesellschaft. Berlin. 

Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Londoi: 

AnthropologLscher Gesellschaft in Wien. 

American Museum of Natiiral History. New York. 

American Philosophical Societ}'. Philadelphia. 

Australian Museum. Sydney. 

Auckland Institute. Auckland, N. Z. 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Anthropologische - Ethnographische Sammlung. Berne. 

Boston Public Library. 

Boston Society of Natural History. 

Brooklyn Institute of Fine Arts and Sciences. 

California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco. 

Carnegie Museum. Pittsburg, Penn. 

Canterbury Museum. Christchurch, N. Z. 

Columbia University Library. New York. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. New Haven. 

Colonial Museum. Wellington, N. Z. 

Field Columbian Museum. Chicago. 

Free Museum of Science and Art. Philadelphia. 

Gordon Technical College. Geelong, Vic. 

Harvard University Library. Cambridge, Mass. 



30 Director's Annual Report. 

Hilo Public Library. Hilo, Hawaii. 

Honolulu Librar}' Association. Honolulu. 

Indian Museum. Calcutta, India. 

Societa Italiana di Antropologia e Etnologia. Firenze. 

Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg. Buitenzorg, Java. 

Johns Hopkins University. Baltimore. 

Konigliche Ethnographische Museum. Miinchen. 

Kongl. Vitterhets Historie och Antiqvitets Akademien. Stockholm. 

Konigliche Museum fiir Volkerkunde. Berlin. 

Kgl. National Museet. Copenhagen. 

Konigliche Zoologische und Anthropologisch - Ethnographische 

Museum. Dresden. 
K. K. Naturhistorische Hof museum. Wien. 
Leland Stanford Jr. University. California. 
Linnean Society of Eondon. 

Einnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney. 
Madras Government Museum. Madras, India. 
Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Plymouth. 
Maryland Geological Survey. Baltimore. 
Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires. 
Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genoa. 

Museu Paraense de Historia Naturale e Ethnographia. Para, Brazil. 
Museu Goeldi. Para, Brazil. 
Museu Paulista. Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. Cambridge, Mass. 
Museum of Fine Arts. Boston. 

Museum fiir Natur-, Volker- und Haudelskunde, Bremen. 
New Zealand Institute. Wellington. 
Oahu College. Honolulu. 
Peabody Museum. Cambridge, Mass. 
Polynesian Society. Wellington, N. Z. 
Philadelphia Commercial Museums. 
Public Museum. Wanganui, N. Z. 
Royal Society of Edinburgh. 
Royal Geographical Society. London. 
Societe Royale Malacologique de Belgique. Bruxelles. 
Royal Society of New South Wales. Sydney. 
Royal Society of Queensland. Brisbane. 
Roval Societv of South Australia. Adelaide. 



List of Exchanges. 31 

Royal Society of Tasmania. Hobart. 

Royal Society of \'ictoria. Melbourne. 

Real Academia de Cieucias y Artes de Barcelona. 

Societe Royale des Antiquaires dii Nord. Copenhague. 

Rijks Ethnographisch Museum. Leiden. 

's Rijks Museum van Naturvlijke Historic. Leiden. 

Smithsonian Institution. Washington. 

" " Bureauof American Ethnology. Washington. 

" " U. S. National Museum. Washington. 

South African Mu-seimi. Capetown. 
South Australian Museum. Adelaide. 
U. S. Experiment Station. Honolulu. 
Universiteit van Amsterdam. 
University of California. Berkeley, Cal. 
University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. 
University of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas. 
Wytsman, P. Bruxelles. 
Yale University Library. New Haven. 







FIG. 3. END VIEW OF SPERM WHALE. 




FIG. 4. -^lESOpLODON GRAYI. 




FIG. 5. SKULL OF MESOPLODON (SIDE VIEW), 




FIG. 6, SKULL OF MESOPLCrCN (FROM BELOW ), 




FIG. 7. SKULI. OF MESOPLODON (FROM ABOVE), 







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FIG. 8. EAR BONES OF MKSOPEODON. 




FIG. 9, GROUP OF TROPIC BIRDS. 












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