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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Library of the 

Museum of 

Comparative Zoology 



Occasional Papers on MoUusks 



Published by 
The Department of Mollusks 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

VOLUME 5 30 August 1989 NUMBER 67* 



MOLLUSCAN TAXA OF 
ADDISON EMERY VERRILL M CZ 

AND KATHARINE JEANNETTE BUSH,3RARy 
INCLUDING THOSE INTRODUCED BY 

SANDERSON SMITH AND .rp ^- 
ALPHEUS HYATT VERRILL ^^^ ^^ '^89 

Richard I. Johnson HARVARD 

Abstract. All of the some 550 moUuscan taxa introdu^cedFby ' 
Addison Emery Verrill, Katharine Jeannette Bush, Sander- 
son Smith, and Alpheus Hyatt Verrill are listed alphabeti- 
cally. Most of the species occur in the north western Atlantic 
Ocean, but a few are from the Bermuda and Caribbean 
Islands and Lower California. Illustrations are provided of 
almost all of the previously unfigured types. Bibliographies 
of papers on mollusks by the several authors are included. 

Historical Section 3 

Relevant Literature 13 

MoUuscan Taxa 

Remarks 14 

Acknowledgments 16 

Abbreviations 17 

List of Types 18 

Literature Cited 74 

Dredging Station Locations 77 

*Volume 5 starts with Number 67 

1 



2 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Bibliographies 

A. E. Verrill 84 

K. J. Bush 94 

S. Smith 95 

A. H. Verrill 96 

Index 99 

Plates 108 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 3 

HISTORICAL SECTION 

Addison Emery Verrill, first professor of zoology at Yale 
University, was one of the leading figures in the third era of 
American conchology, which William H. Dall called the 
Stimpsonian Period after WilHam Stimpson (1832-1872). 
"This period can hardly be said to have been introduced by 
an epoch-making work, but gradually the old methods were 
discarded for the new. This meant adopting radical changes 
in classification and welcoming the theory of evolution with 
all the light it shed in dark places" (Dall, 1888: 97). Stimpson 
was preparing a manual of the marine invertebrates from 
Maine to Georgia for the Smithsonian Institution based on 
the most extensive collection of eastern American inverte- 
brates ever brought together, but it, along with the manu- 
script, was destroyed in the great Chicago fire of October 1871. 
Stimpson died the following year, only forty years old. It was 
Verrill who with the aid of his brother-in-law, Sidney Irving 
Smith, prepared a more geographically limited, but com- 
prehensive manual, Report upon the Invertebrate Animals 
of Vineyard Sound and adjacent waters (1873). Verrill was to 
write extensively on the marine invertebrates of eastern 
North America based on subsequent collections made by the 
United States Fish Commission. Many of these works were 
exclusively on mollusks. Some, like those of Dall, were based 
on the spoils of Alexander Agassiz' expeditions on the 
government ships Blake and Albatross which Agassiz under- 
took at his own expense. When Dall wrote his paper, Some 
American Conchologists (1888), Stimpson, who was thirteen 
years his senior, was long dead "cut off early in his career 
showing more promise than accomplishment," but Dall 
could hardly have called the period after himself or Verrill, 
who were very much alive, and among its most accomplished 
members. 

Verrill was born on his father's farm on Furlong Mountain 
in Greenwood, Maine on February 9, 1839, and was named 
for a close friend of his parents, Nathan Addison Emery, who 
died from a fall shortly thereafter. Verrill's parents, George 



4 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Washington Verrill and Lucy Hillborn, were both descended 
from Colonial families; the Verrill line from an ancestor who 
settled in Gloucester, Massachusetts about 1720 and the Hill- 
borns from a Quaker who settled in Pennsylvania before 
1688. As in many other old American families, some became 
entranced with their ancestors, especially as they correctly 
perceived that they were being outnumbered by newer arriv- 
als as the nineteenth century advanced. Writing in this 
century, Verrill's son, George Elliot Verrill (1958) traced the 
Verrill name, and its variations, and concluded that the var- 
ious branches of the family had a common progenitor, a 
Norman who came to England with William the Conqueror 
in 1066 and settled in Sussex County. 

Interestingly, Verrill's sister, Lucy Ellen, married Henry 
Rust Mighels of Norway, Maine in 1866. He was the son of Dr. 
Jesse Wedgwood Mighels (1795-1861), the pioneer concholo- 
gist of Maine, whose collection of shells and books at the 
Portland Society of Natural History was destroyed in the 
Portland fire of 1854. During the 1840s he published several 
illustrated articles in the Boston Journal of Natural History 
describing new native shells (Johnson, 1949). Mighels re- 
turned from Cincinnati, Ohio to Norway, Maine in 1857 
where he remained until his death. He must have been 
known to young Verrill. 

Addison's interest in marine zoology is said to have been 
awakened by his grandfather Hillborn who took him for a 
walk along the sea shore at Cape Elizabeth, near Portland, 
Maine when he was ten years old and told him the vernacu- 
lar names of the invertebrates which they found. His real 
passion at this age became minerals and he secured copies of 
C. T. Jackson's reports on the geology of Maine. Writing 
many years later he said, "About a dozen years later [age 
twenty-two] I was associated with Dr. Jackson as an officer of 
the Boston Society of Natural History [curator of Radiates, 
1864-1870] and I had the pleasure of telling him how much his 
reports had helped me in my early efforts to study geology by 
myself. When I was about twelve years old my father 
obtained for me Dana's small Manual of Mineralogy, but I 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 5 

little thought that I would eventually be the colleague of that 
eminent scientific man in Yale University. Later I also 
obtained Professor Asa Gray's Manual of Botany, little 
thinking that subsequently I would be a student under him at 
Harvard" (Verrill, 1958: 92). 

In 1844 when Verrill was fourteen years old, his father was 
seriously injured, and the family moved to Norway, Maine 
where his father ran a successful general store until his 
death in 1862. Young Verrill prepared for college at the Nor- 
way Liberal Institute, which later became the public high 
school, between 1853-1859. 

In addition to a passion for botany and an interest in 
photography, Verrill began to collect birds and mammals. 
Before he entered Harvard, he had already amassed a suite 
of specimens numbering two hundred birds and mammals. 
Although not particularly interested in insects, he aided a 
younger friend, Sidney Irving Smith (1843-1926) who became 
an authority on marine and freshwater Crustacea as well as 
the insects of Maine. Smith followed Verrill to Yale where he 
earned his Ph.D. in 1867 and became a professor of zoology. 

Early in May 1859, when he was little more than twenty 
years old, Verrill entered the Lawrence Scientific School of 
Harvard University with advanced standing. He must have 
been present at the ground breaking ceremony on June 14 of 
Louis Agassiz' Museum of Comparative Zoology, which was 
ready for occupancy the following May. By this time Agassiz 
had hired Edward Sylvester Morse (1838-1925), another 
Maine boy and friend of Verrill, who later was to publish the 
first work on the terrestrial shells of Maine in the then new 
Journal of the Portland Society of Natural History. Subse- 
quently, Morse became director of the Peabody Museum of 
Salem. Between 1877-1879 he visited Japan to teach zoology 
and became the father of zoological study there. He studied 
Japanese culture and made a distinguished collection of 
Japanese pottery. Among the mollusks he collected there 
were two new species of cephalopoda from Tokyo Bay which 
he sent to Verrill for description. 

Among the other student assistants during the years of 



6 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

1859-1864, most of whom became distinguished researchers, 
were Alexander Agassiz, Frederic Ward Putnam, Alpheus S. 
Packard, Jr., Nathaniel Southgate Shaler, Samuel Scudder, 
Alpheus Hyatt, Albert Ordway, Caleb Cooke, William H. 
Dall, and Albert Smith Bickmore. In his first annual report 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology for 1859, Louis 
Agassiz wrote, "Mr. Verrill has arranged the corals, and has 
made a special study of the embryology of the class of Birds. 
To aid in the latter purpose, he passed the summer on the 
island of Grand Manan." When he returned at the end of the 
summer, Verrill had some 1200 bird embryos as well as 
numerous bird and fish skeletons. 

Early in 1861 Agassiz sent Verrill, Ordway, and Putnam to 
obtain specimens from the Smithsonian Institution to "get 
as many corals, birds, birds' eggs, and mammals of all kinds 
as you can and gain the confidence of Prof. [Joseph] Henry 
(1797-1878) by talking with him." William Stimpson, then 
established as a marine invertebrate zoologist, who had been 
an Agassiz student about a decade before, and whom Verrill 
had previously met in Cambridge, was the first person to call 
on the young men as soon as they arrived in Washington. 
While there, Verrill met Spencer Fullerton Baird (1825-1887), 
who was to become an important contact, as Baird was 
appointed United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisher- 
ies, and eventually succeeded Joseph Henry as Secretary of 
the Smithsonian. He also met Count Louis F. de Pourtales, a 
former pupil of Agassiz in Switzerland, who had joined the 
United States Coast Survey in 1848 and was first in this 
country to attempt deep sea dredging. 

During the summer of 1861, Alpheus Hyatt (1838-1902) and 
Nathaniel Southgate Shaler (1841-1906) visited Anticosti 
Island, in the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, to collect geological, 
paleontological, and zoological specimens. It was here that 
Verrill had a serious introduction to those marine inverte- 
brates to which he was to devote most of his professional 
career. 

Verrill's friendship with Hyatt continued through life, and 
he named his second son after him. Hyatt became curator at 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 7 

the Boston Society of Natural History as well as being in 
charge of the fossil cephalopod collection at the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. He also served as professor of zoology 
and paleontology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy and professor of biology at Boston University. He pub- 
lished on the systematics and evolution of ammonoids and 
on fossil gastropods of the freshwater family Planorbidae, 
and was working on the Hawaiian tree snails at the time of 
his death. Hyatt was essentially a philosopher, lost in specu- 
lation concerning the significance of the adaptations of the 
animals he discovered. Like most of Agassiz' students he 
early embraced evolutionary theory, not as a Darwinian, but 
rather as a neo-Lamarckian and developed a theory of 
"racial senescence" which gained some popularity until the 
formulation of the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory 
in the 1930s. 

Shaler was appointed assistant in paleontology in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology in 1864, and the following 
year began teaching zoology and geology in the Lawrence 
Scientific School eventually becoming its dean. He was 
gifted in generalization and in the popularization of science. 
While Shaler may have considered himself an early Darwin- 
ian, he became more of a neo-Lamarckian as time went on, 
a term coined by Alpheus S. Packard, Jr. 

Verrill in contrast to Hyatt and Shaler was a painstaking, 
hardworking investigator who devoted himself to discover- 
ing the most minute morphological characteristics that 
would distinguish two closely allied species, as well as tack- 
ling tangles of synonymy that might have discouraged 
anyone else. While the vogue in zoology changed from tax- 
onomy to comparative anatomy, then to the study of adapta- 
tions and the evidences for evolution, and finally to experi- 
mental genetics at the beginning of the century, Verrill 
maintained to the end of his life the importance of taxonomy 
as a necessary preliminary to more specialized biological 
work. 

The Anticosti Island trip did not lead to any extensive pub- 
lications, and nothing appears to have been announced in 



8 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

regard to the original purpose of the trip which was to test the 
anti-Darwinian teachings of Agassiz. On the contrary, this 
field experience helped to instill the belief of organic evolu- 
tion in one form or another in the young men. In later years 
Hyatt, who commanded his own yacht, said it had been an 
extremely dangerous trip and that they should not have 
come back at all. 

In 1863 Agassiz published in the annual report of the 
museum, a new set of regulations for museum assistants 
which caused nearly all of them, with the obvious exception 
of Alexander Agassiz, to leave the museum. E. S. Morse was 
the first to depart, followed by F. W. Putnam, A. S. Packard, 
Jr., A. Hyatt, and A. E. Verrill. A. S. Bickmore wrote the first 
annual report on Mollusca that year and then was dismissed 
by Agassiz for soliciting funds for an expedition to Amboina 
to re-collect the shells described by Rumphius in the sixteenth 
century. He later became scientific "father" of the American 
Museum of Natural History. 

When George Peabody endowed the Peabody Museum in 
Salem, Massachusetts, Putnam became director and invited 
the others to help reorganize the museum of the East India 
Marine Society and to incorporate the natural history collec- 
tions of the Essex Institute. Verrill was looked upon as the 
spokesman of the "Salem Secession," (Dexter, 1965: 1) but he 
was in Salem for only a short time before he took an 
appointment as a full professor in zoology in the Sheffield 
Scientific School of Yale University. He was made a member 
of the governing board, and became curator of all the zoolog- 
ical collections at the age of twenty-five. 

In 1866 George Peabody also gave Yale University the 
funds to "found and maintain a museum of natural history, 
especially in the departments of zoology, geology, and min- 
eralogy." Verrill moved into the original Yale Peabody 
Museum in 1876, and finally had the opportunity to put on 
display the collections he had been accumulating since he 
arrived in New Haven a dozen years before. He had already 
written extensively on cephalopods, especially giant ones, 
an interest that would persist at least until 1897 when he 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 9 

wrote on a "Supposed giant Cephalopod on the Florida 
coast," Octopus giganteus Verrill, which only recently was 
proven to be an Octopus based on fragments of it that had 
been sent to the Smithsonian Institution. Therefore, not sur- 
prisingly among the exhibits were a life size model squid over 
forty feet long counting the two thirty foot tentacles and a 
giant octopus. These were designed by Verrill but con- 
structed by James H. Emerton of Salem, Massachusetts, who 
became Verrill's assistant and illustrator in 1880. They were 
made of papier-m^ch6, rubber, and any other materials at 
hand. Three copies of the squid were made and two of the 
octopus. Only one model remains on exhibit, that of a huge 
reddish octopus suspended from the ceiling of the Coral 
Room at the Museum of Comparative Zoology. The room is a 
memorial to his lifelong friend from college days, Alexander 
Agassiz (Hall and Hall, 1985: 46). 

During his first year at Yale, Verrill roomed with Daniel C. 
Eaton, Professor of Botany. They formed a friendship which 
lasted as long as they lived and in which their families 
participated after they both married. Verrill married Flora 
Louisa Smith in Norway, Maine on June 15, 1865. She was 
the sister of Sidney Irving Smith, whom Verrill had be- 
friended in Maine and who became a distinguished Yale 
professor himself. The Verrills had six children, including 
Major George E. Verrill, an engineer who constructed 
breakwaters, and became his father's biographer and 
Alpheus Hyatt Verrill, who described a few shells in his 
latter years. 

During his early years at Yale, Verrill did much of his 
marine collecting along the shore by dredging from a small 
craft in Long Island Sound, mainly in the vicinity of New 
Haven. In 1870 when the United States Commission of Fish 
and Fisheries was created with Spencer F. Baird as commis- 
sioner, he appointed Verrill as his assistant in charge of all of 
the invertebrate collections. The first investigations were 
made in 1871 with Woods Hole, Massachusetts as the base. In 
1872 the dredging was conducted out of Eastport, Maine by 
the United States Revenue cutter Moss wood under the 



10 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

instructions that operations were to be suspended if a suspi- 
cious vessel were sighted; however, since smuggling was 
done at night, the order does not appear to have upset any 
dredging schedule. From 1873 until 1881 when Woods Hole 
became the permanent base of operations, work was carried 
out by the vessels Bache, Speedwell, and Blake from various 
ports between Salem, Massachusetts and Newport, Rhode 
Island. It was not until the arrival of the vessel Fish Hawk in 
1880 that there was sleeping space on board for the scientific 
staff, but the Fish Hawk was of light draft and could make 
offshore cruises of only a few days' duration. Finally in 1883 
the Commission received a specially built research steam- 
ship, the Albatross, of about 1,000 tons, which had good 
accommodations and facilities for the scientists and was 
able to dredge in much deeper water than previously possi- 
ble. When Baird died in 1887 coastal dredging off New Eng- 
land was discontinued and not resumed until 1954 (Galtsoff, 
1962: 48). 

Verrill's studies provided a basis of knowledge of the ma- 
rine benthic invertebrates of the Woods Hole region extend- 
ing at least to the 100 fathom line. Published in 1871 , it is still 
a major source of information about benthic communities of 
this area. In "Notice of a remarkable marine fauna occupy- 
ing the outer banks off the southern coast of New England, 
and some additions to the fauna of Vineyard Sound" (1884), 
he describes the rich fauna along the 100 fathom line between 
latitudes 35°40' and 40°22' N and longitudes 69°15' and 
71°32' W. He concludes that the number of species and abun- 
dance of individuals in this area "is due very largely to the 
annual uniformity of the temperature enjoyed at all seasons 
of the year, at all those depths that are below the immediate 
effects of the atmospheric changes. The region ... is subject 
to the combined effects of the Gulf Stream on one side and the 
cold northern current on them, together with the gradual 
decrease in temperature in proportion to the depth." He also 
describes the effects of the Gulf Stream in bringing "vast 
quantities of free-swimming animals which furnish an inex- 
haustible supply of food for many bottom animals." 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 11 

" Verrill's conclusion about the condition responsible for the 
abundance of life along the 100 fathom line in an area south of 
Woods Hole shows a highly developed power of observation 
and the ability of the author to visualize a general ecological 
picture from the multitude of detached observations. Verrill 
never lost sight of the forest because of the trees" (Galtsoff, 
1962: 48). 

"For more than thirty years [Verrill] had the faithful assis- 
tance of Dr. Katharine J. Bush (1855-1937), co-author of sev- 
eral of his papers on mollusks and annelids, whose accuracy 
and ability are reflected in nearly all of Professor Verrill's 
publications during that period," wrote her brother-in-law, 
Wesley R. Coe (1929). Katharine Bush was educated in public 
and private schools in New Haven, but had not attended 
college, when in 1879 at the age of twenty-three, she was hired 
by Verrill. He noted in the 1880 annual report of the Peabody 
Museum she, "has been employed in completing the cata- 
logues and writing labels," and in the next year's report, she 
had been promoted to arranging and cataloguing collections 
made by the United States Fish Commission at the commis- 
sion's expense. 

By 1885 she was taking courses at the Sheffield Scientific 
School and by 1901 became the first woman to earn a doctor- 
ate in zoology at Yale. Bush's research was on the taxonomy 
and systematic classification of marine invertebrates, espe- 
cially mollusks, annelids, and echinoderms, based primarily 
on the material collected by Alexander Agassiz and the Unit- 
ed States Fish Commission. Her papers appeared under her 
own name or as junior author with Verrill. Among her last 
works on mollusks was "Notes on the family Pyramidellidae" 
(1909); this was in response to a paper on the same subject 
written earlier the same year by Paul Bartsch (1871-1960), in 
which she complained about his purloining of her unpub- 
lished work. Dr. Bush left the Museum about 1913 or 1914 to 
become a patient at the Hartford Retreat (now called The 
Institute for Living) where she died in 1937. Wesley Coe, her 
brother-in-law and bibliographer of Verrill, sent a short para- 
graph to Yale Alumni Weekly, which on May 7, 1937 gave the 



12 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

barest facts of her life. She never married and Katharine 
Bush's admiring biographer, Jeanne E . Remington, adds that 
"a series of rented rooms was home to Katharine Bush;" then 
hsts the various addresses and even suppHes a photograph of 
the entrance to one of them (Remington, 1977: 4, 6). 

In addition to Bush, Verrill was long associated with San- 
derson Smith (1832-1915) during the investigations of the 
marine fauna made by the United States Fish Commission 
from 1875 to 1887. Working without compensation Smith was 
a careful and enthusiastic collector who rendered valuable 
services in connection with the dredging during those years. 
Verrill mentioned that, "although unfortunate circumstances 
prevented his participating largely in the final working up of 
the collections as planned, his name appears jointly with that 
of the writer, in connection with a large number of new species 
of deep sea shells discovered by us." 

During the spring of 1898 Verrill visited the Bermuda 
Islands, accompanied by, among others, C. Montague Cooke, 
Jr. (1874-1948) who was one of his students both as an under- 
graduate and as a Ph.D. candidate. In 1901 Verrill again 
visited the Bermuda Islands, this time accompanied by his 
wife and one of his sons, Alpheus Hyatt Verrill (1871-1954) 
who helped collect and make colored drawings, as well as 
photographs, of many of the specimens. He invented the 
autochrome photographic process in 1902. Verrill senior wrote 
extensively on all aspects of Bermuda, his last related paper 
appearing in 1923. A. H. Verrill became a naturaHst and 
explorer and spent much of his life in Central and South 
America. He wrote many popular books on archaeological 
subjects and two on shells (1936 and 1950). In his seventy- 
third year he established a shell business in Lake Worth, 
Florida and began describing shells from the Caribbean that 
he believed to be new species. 

The elder Verrill wrote his last paper on mollusks in 1906 
and though he retired in 1910, he remained active and con- 
tinued to publish numerous works on invertebrates. He died in 
1926 while visiting his son and biographer, George, in Santa 
Barbara, California. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 13 

RELEVANT LITERATURE 

Agassiz, L. 186L Report of the trustees of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, 186L pp. 1-50. 

1863. Annual report of the trustees of the Museum of Comparative 

Zoology together with the report of the director, 1862. pp. 1-41. 

1864. Annual report of the trustees of the Museum of Comparative 

Zoology together with the report of the director, 1863. pp. 1-56. 

1865. Annual report of the trustees of the Museum of Comparative 



Zoology at Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts together 
with the report of the director, 1864. pp. 1-51. 

Coe, W. R. 1929. Biographical Memoir of Addison Emery Verrill (1839-1926). 
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Bio- 
graphical Memoirs 14: 19-66. 

Dall, W. H. 1888. Some American Conchologists. Proceedings of the Biologi- 
cal Society of Washington 4: 95-134. 

Dexter, R. W. 1954. Three young naturalists afield: the first expedition of 
Hyatt, Shaler, and Verrill. The Scientific Monthly 79 (1): 45-51. 

1965. The "Salem secession" of Agassiz zoologists. Essex Institute 

Historical Collections 101 (1): 1-13. 

1979. The impact of evolutionary theories on the Salem group of Agas- 



siz zoologists (Morse, Hyatt, Packard, Putnam). Essex Institute Histor- 
ical Collections 115 (3): 144-171. 

Galtsoff, P. S. 1962. The story of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries biolog- 
ical laboratory. Woods Hole, Massachusetts. United States Department 
of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisher- 
ies. Circular 145: 1-121. 

Hall, E. and M. 1985. About the exhibits. Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 1-56. 

Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a 
catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on MoUusks, Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1 (14): 213-231, pi. 27. 

Linton, E. 1915. Reminiscences of the Woods Hole Laboratory of the Bureau 
of Fisheries, 1882-89. Science, n.s. 41: 737-753. 

Remington, J. E. 1977. Katharine Jeannette Bush: Peabody's Mysterious 
Zoologist. Discovery 12 (3): 2-8. 

1977. Curatorial staff of Yale's Museum of Natural History and its 

antecedent collections, 1802-1977. Discovery 12 (3): 32-42, fold out. 

Verrill, A. E. 1883. Description of some of the apparatus used by the United 
States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Annual report of the United 
States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1880, pp. 65-74, pis. 1-4. 



14 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



1884. Physical characters of the portion of the Continental Border 



beneath the Gulf Stream, explored by the "Fish Hawk," 1880 to 1882. 
Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisher- 
ies for 1882, pp. 1045-1057, pis. 1-5. 

_ 1910. Alexander Agassiz. American Journal of Science 39 (4): 685-686. 

_ 1926. Sidney Irving Smith. Science, n.s. 54: 57-58. 



Verrill, G. E. 1958. The ancestry, life and work of Addison E. Verrill of Yale 
University. Pacific Coast Publishing Company, Santa Barbara, Cali- 
fornia, pp. vii, 1-99. 

Wayman, D. G. 1942. Edward Sylvester Morse. A biography. Harvard Uni- 
versity Press, pp. ix, 1-457 

MOLLUSCAN TAXA DESCRIBED BY 

A. E. VERRILL, K. J. BUSH, AND S. SMITH 

AND LATER BY A. H. VERRILL, WITH 

THEIR ORIGINAL REFERENCES, TYPE LOCALITIES 

AND THE LOCATION OF THE TYPE SPECIMENS. 

REMARKS 

For convenience of reference the following list of taxa 
introduced by the above authors is arranged alphabetically 
by species. In addition to the original reference, subsequent 
ones are also cited if they include the first figure of a type or 
other relevant information. References to later collections 
are usually not included. Since many of the dredging sta- 
tions are mentioned many times over, their longitude and 
latitude are listed beginning on page 77. There were very few 
Bache stations so they are included in the original refer- 
ences. Complete lists of the dredging stations in North Amer- 
ican waters between 1867 and 1887 which include other data 
such as water temperature and types of bottoms were com- 
piled by Smith (1888). 

Most of the available types which were previously not 
illustrated are figured here. The figures on the plates are 
arranged by genera insofar as possible, though the several 
species described from Lower California are arranged geo- 
graphically. The actual measurements are given on the plate 
captions. All data in brackets have been found on original 
labels, are additions or corrections from recent maps, or are 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 15 

comments by this author. No attempt has been made to 
discuss the present status of any of the taxa. This is a task for 
individual revisers. 

As a partial compensation for his work, the Fish Commis- 
sion allowed Verrill to keep the first set of duplicates as his 
personal property, after sending the types and unique speci- 
mens to the National Museum of Natural History. Other 
duplicates were to be sent to other institutions. However, he 
did not finish working on the material until 1908, and except 
for his own set of duplicates which he sold to Yale's Peabody 
Museum, all of the material was returned to Washington, 
save for six holotypes which appear to have been overlooked. 
The types in the Division of Mollusks are segregated, and 
there is a file of the types which made the task of locating and 
determining holotypes, either figured or unfigured, easier 
than originally expected. When this could not be done, and 
when the original description was not based on a single 
specimen, lectotypes have sometimes been selected from 
among the syntypes. In all such cases the specimens are 
figured. Lectotypes have been selected from specimens in the 
National Museum when possible, otherwise from those in the 
Peabody Museum, where the types are also separated from 
the main collection. With the exception of two cephalopods 
sent to Verrill by E. S. Morse, and one he deposited in Can- 
ada, all of his extant types in this class are in Washington 
and were studied by Roper and Sweeney (1978), and no 
attempt has been made to do more than include their 
findings. 

The types of the species described by Bush for Alexander 
Agassiz are in the general collection of mollusks at the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. The collections made in 
Bermuda should be in the Peabody Museum, but only one lot 
described in Verrill's 1900 paper on nudibranchia was 
located and none from the 1901 paper, nor could the several 
subspecies of Poecilozonites, a fossil land snail from Ber- 
muda, be found. 

Many of the species which bear Bush's name do so jointly 
with Verrill; they are included in papers authored by him and 



16 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

those that were co-authored. In addition are those which 
were described solely by Bush. Almost all of the species 
which bear Smith's name do so jointly with Verrill, who with 
Smith, recognized them as new when they were first sorted, 
"for such species, 'Verrill and Smith' are usually given as 
authorities," but Verrill makes it clear that he, alone, is 
responsible for the descriptions of all the species (Verrill, 
1884: 140). 

Since J. H. Emerton, Verrill's artist, did not publish on 
mollusks himself, but was included as an authority with 
Verrill in a few instances, he is mentioned here in this con- 
nection for the first time. In addition to the species in which 
Verrill included Sanderson Smith as an authority are listed 
the few which Smith described by himself or with Temple 
Prime. 

Verrill described some 402 species of mollusks among 
these are 97 with Bush as joint author, 39 with Smith, and 2 
with Emerton. No type material was located for 75 of these. 
Bush described 73 species, and type material was found for 
all but 4 of them. Together or separately Verrill and Bush 
introduced over 60 genera or other higher categories. 

As mentioned previously, the molluscan taxa introduced 
by Alpheus Hyatt Verrill are included here so as to avoid 
confusion with those of his father. Most of his taxa were 
published in mimeographed form, but their validity was con- 
firmed by Coan (1976). Unfortunately, most of these types 
were in his private collection, the deposition of which is 
unknown. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
It gives me pleasure to thank those people whose willing 
cooperation eased the task of accumulating data. Dr. M. G. 
Harasewych gave me access to the types in the National 
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution and 
Mrs. Raye N. Germon prepared the loan of those which were 
previously unfigured. Dr. Willard D. Hartman allowed me to 
examine all of the types in the Peabody Museum of Natural 
History, Yale University, and to borrow those requested. Dr. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



17 



Arthur E. Bogan of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia studied the Turbonilla in that institution des- 
cribed by K. J. Bush and made available the unfigured types. 
Drs. Anders War^n, James McLean, Robert G. Moolen- 
beek, Clyde F. E. Roper, Ruth D. Turner, and others who 
kindly supplied photographs, drawings, and information are 
acknowledged in the text. Unless otherwise mentioned, the 
photographs were taken by Mr. David H. Backus. Dr. Ken- 
neth J. Boss and Mr. Alan Rabat made many helpful sugges- 
tions and frank criticisms. The latter also called attention to 
the recent study confirming Verrill's Octopus giganteus to be 
a Cephalopod. Mrs. Marion D. Britz patiently aided in pre- 
paring the work for the press. 

ABBREVIATIONS 



AJS 
ALYNH 

ANSP 

ARUSCFF 

BMCZ 
MCCSC 

MCZ 

PANSP 

PUSNM 

TCAAS 

USNM 

YPM 



American Journal of Science and Arts 
Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of 
New York 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania 

Annual report of the United States Commis- 
sioner of Fish and Fisheries 
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
Minutes of the Conchological Club of Southern 
California 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences of Philadelphia 

Proceedings of the United States National 
Museum 

Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of 
Arts and Sciences 

National Museum of Natural History, Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington, District of 
Columbia 

Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale Uni- 
versity, New Haven, Connecticut 



18 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

LIST OF TYPES 

Aaronia A. H. Verrill, Subgenus 

1950, MCCSC no. 103: 4. Type species: Murex (Aaronia) strausi A. H. 
Verrill 1950, by monotypy. 

abrupta Bush, Turbonilla 

1899, PANSP 52: 168, pi. 8, fig. 4 (St. Thomas, West Indies). Holotype 
ANSP 79012, only specimen. 

abyssicola Verrill and Bush, Cardiomya 

1898, PUSNM 20: 806, pi. 73, fig. 4; pi. 74, fig. 1; pi. 77, fig. 9 (1885-86, 
Albatross, three stations between 40°29'N, 66°14'W and 36°47'N, 
73°9'30"W, 1685-1813 fms.). Lectotype, here selected, USNM 78935 sta. 
2723, fig. 1; paralectotypes USNM 78896 sta. 2723, fig. 4; and USNM 
52396 sta. 2461, fig. 9; paralectotype YPM 8826 sta. 2723. 

abyssicola Bush, Lissospira (Ganesa) 

1897, TCAAS 10: 134 [not figured] (1880, Blake 307, east of Georges Bank, 
980 fms.). Holotype, only specimen [not located in USNM or YPM type 
collections]. 

abyssicola Bush, Molleriopsis 

1897, TCAAS 10: 138, figs. 6, 7 (1885, Albatross 2572, 1769 fms.). Holotype 
USNM 52496, only specimen. 

abyssicola Verrill, Puncuturella 

1885, TCAAS 6: 425 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2222 [south of Martha's 
Vineyard, Massachusetts], 1537 fms.). Holotype USNM 44837, figured by 
Farfante (1947: 142, pi. 62, figs. 1-5). 

abyssicola Verrill and Bush, Turbonilla bushiana 

1909, in Bush, AJS (4) 27: 479 [not figured, no locality; not located in 
USNM or YPM type collections]. 

abyssorum Verrill and Bush, Bathyarca 

1898, PUSNM 20: 843, pi. 76, fig. 9 (1885, Albatross 2713, 2714, off Dela- 
ware Bay, 1825-1859 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 78793 sta. 2714; 
paratype YPM 6737 sta. 2713. 

abyssorum Verrill and Smith, Benthodolium 

1884, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 111, pi. 31, figs. 12, 12a, 12b, 12c (1883, Albatross 
2098, 2221 fms., 2105, 1395 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 35273 sta. 2098; 
paratype USNM 35364 sta. 2105. 

abyssorum Verrill and Smith, Buccinum Plate 14, fig. 2 

1884, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 167, pi. 31, figs. 11, 11a, lib (1883, Albatross 
2051 [off North Carolina], 1106 fms., 2052, 1098 fms., 2074, 1309 fms., 2076, 
906 fms., 2077, 1255 fms., 2094, 1022 fms., 2102, 1209 fms., 2103, 1091 fms., 
2111, 938 fms.). Lectotype, here selected, USNM 35644 sta. 2111, paralec- 
totypes USNM 38319 sta. 2074, USNM 35008 sta. 2077, and USNM 34691 
sta. 2094 with the note "used for figures." 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 19 

abyssorum Verrill and Bush, Malletia 

1898, PUSNM 20: 875, pi. 97, fig. 7 (1875, Albatross 2566, off Chesapeake 
Bay, 2620 fms.). Holotype USNM 52159, only specimen. Lateral internal 
view [sketch] of the left valve figured by Sanders and Allen ( 1985: 199, fig. 
4). 

abyssorum Verrill, Periploma 

in Bush, 1893, BMCZ23: 227, pi. 2, figs. 12, 13 (1885, [Albatross] 2484, east 
of Banquereau [Bank, off Nova Scotia], 204 fms.]). Figured holotype 
USNM 52597. 

abyssorum Verrill, Trophon 

1885, TCAAS 6: 421 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2115, off Cape Hatteras 
[North CaroHna], 843 fms., 2076, 906 fms.); 1893 in Bush, BMCZ 23: 240, 
pi. 1, fig. 14. Figured holotype USNM 35583 sta. 2115; paratypes USNM 
38041 and YPM 38041 both sta. 2076. 

acuta Verrill, Bela concinnula 

1882, TCAAS 5: 470, pi. 57, fig. 10 (1873, Casco Bay, Maine; 1873-74, 1877 
Gulf of Maine, 88-118 fms.; USFC, Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay, 
16-20 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 77327 sta. 24B is 42°56'N, 70°09'W. 

Adranella Verrill and Bush, Subgenus of Yoldia 

1898, USNM 20: 858. Type species: Adranella casta Verrill and Bush 1898, 
original designation. 

aeglees Bush, Niso 

1885, ARUSCFF for 1883, p. 585 [83] ([1883] Albatross [2112], off Cape 
Hatteras [North CaroHna], 14-15 fms.); 1885, TCAAS 6: 465, pi. 45, figs. 
10, 10a. Figured holotype USNM 35862. 

affine Verrill, Cyclostrema 

1884, TCAAS 6: 199, pi. 32, fig. 15 (1883, Albatross 2115 off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 843 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 38443; paratype 
YPM 15772. 

affinis Verrill, Limopsis 

1885, TCAAS 6:442 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2092, 197 fms.); 1898, in 
Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 846, pi. 75, fig. 5. Holotype USNM 44829; 
paratype YPM 5774, only specimens. 

affinis Verrill and Bush, Periploma 

1898, PUSNM 20: 822, pi. 87, fig. 4 (1880-81, Fis/i Hawk, three stations off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 100-115 fms.). Figured holotype, in 
USNM 159791, right valve, sta. 873; paratype YPM 8832 sta. 949. 

agassizii Verrill, Mastigoteuthis 

1881, BMCZ 8: 100, pi. 1, fig. 1; pi. 2, figs. 2, 3a-3g (1880, Blake 325, 328, 
south of Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 647, 1632 fms.). Figured holo- 
type MCZ 3508, sta. 328 [lost]. Syntypes USNM 574642 sta. 325; USNM 
729733 sta. 328, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 3). 



20 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

agassizii Verrill, Opisthoteuthis 

1883, BMCZ 11: 113, pi. 1, fig. 1; pi. 2, fig. 2 (1879, Blake 260, off Grenada 
[Windward Islands], 291 fms.). Holotype, only specimen, presumed lost, 
not mentioned by Roper and Sweeney (1978). 

agassizii Verrill and Smith, Pleurotoma 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 394 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 856-888, off 
Newport, Rhode Island, 891, 892, 894, 895; 65-500 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 
454, pi. 57, figs. 3, 3a, genus changed to: Pleurotomella. Holotype USNM 
37828 sta. 880, teste Bouchet and War6n (1980: 50); paratype YPM 15712 
sta. 877. 

agilis Verrill, Teleoteuthis (Oncychia) 

1885, TCAAS 6: 400, pi. 42, figs. 2, 2a (1884, Albatross 2225, off Chesa- 
peake Bay [Maryland], at surface). Holotype USNM 40129, only speci- 
men, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 3). 

alba A. H. Verrill, Voluta musica 

1953, MCCSC no. 132: 9 (Grenada [Island, Lesser Antilles]). Type [pre- 
sumed to be] in author's collection. 

alfordi A. H. Verrill, Voluta musica 

1953, MCCSC no. 134: 4, fig. (Tobago [Island]). Six types [presumed to be] 
in author's collection. 

Alloposidae Verrill, Family 

1881, TCAAS 5: 365. TVpe genus mentioned: Alloposus Verrill 1880. 

Alloposus Verrill, Genus 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 393. Type species: Alloposus mollis Verrill 1880, by 
monotypy. 

alius Verrill and Bush, Cryptodon croulinensis 

1898, PUSNM 20: 787, pi. 88, figs. 1, 2 (1870, Eastport, Maine; 1870, 
Speedwell 292, mouth of Cape Cod Bay [Massachusetts], 29 fms.). Figured 
holotype YPM 8764, Eastport, Maine; paratypes YPM 8765 sta. 292. 

amabilis Verrill, Philine 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 398 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 876, about 100 miles 
south of Newport, Rhode Island, 120 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 444, pi. 58, figs. 
23, 24. Figured holotype USNM 45645; paratype YPM 15711. 

amblia Verrill and Bush, Yoldiella lenticula 

1898, PUSNM 20: 866, pi. 80, fig. 9; pi. 81, fig. 4 (1878-79, Speedwell, two 
stations, north of Cape Cod [Massachusetts], 110-122 fms.). Figured syn- 
types USNM 159726 st. 186, separate valves. 

amblytera Verrill and Bush, Eulima 

1900, TCAAS 10: 526, pi. 64, fig. 8 (Bermuda). Figured holotype YPM 
15685; paratypes YPM 15684 and YPM 15686. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 21 

amblytera Bush, Pleurotoma (Drillia) 

1893, BMCZ 23: 203, pi. 1, figs. 5, 5a (1880, Blake 313, off Charleston [South 
CaroHna], 75 fms.; 1883, USFC, off Cape Hatteras, North CaroUna, 142 
fms.). Figured holotype MCZ 119070 sta. 313. 

americana Verrill and Bush, Abra longicallis 

1898, PUSNM 20: 778, pi. 83, figs. 6, 7 (1883-86, Albatross, six stations 
between 39°49'N, 68°28'30W" and 36°16'30"N, 68° 21'W, 924-2620 fms.). 
Figured holotype USNM 52170 sta. 2566; paratypes YPM 8835 sta. 2566 
and YPM 8834 sta. 2714. 

americanus Verrill, Pleurobranchus 

1885, TCAAS 6: 429, pi. 44, fig. 13 (1884, Albatross 2262, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 250 fms.). Holotype USNM 40503, only 
specimen. 

ampla Verrill, Marsenina 

1880, PUSNM 3: 374 [not figured] (Eastport, Maine, 1868); 1882, TCAAS 5: 
518, pi. 42, figs. 3, 3a. Figured holotype YPM 15703, probably only speci- 
men, label also bearing USNM number 12270 [not located in USNM type 
collection]. 

andrewsii Verrill, Scalaria (Opalia) 

1882, TCAAS 5: 526, pi. 57, fig. 35 (1880, Fish Hawk 873, off Newport, 
Rhode Island, 100 fms.). Holotype USNM 44807, only specimen, refigured 
by Clench and Turner (1952: 335, pi. 162, fig. 2). 

anomala Verrill and Bush, Bathyarca 

1898, PUSNM 20: 844, pi. 77, fig. 8 (1874, Bache 52 is 42°51'N, 68°52.5'W, 
off Cashes Ledge [Maine], 27 fms.). Holotype USNM 74081 , only specimen. 

antiqua Verrill, Venus mercenaria 

1875, AJS (3) 10: 371 (Sankoty Head, Nantucket [Island, Massachusetts] 
post-Pliocene). Syntypes YPM [not located]. 

antiquus Verrill, Poecilozonites reinianus 

1906, TCAAS 12: 165 [121], pi. 26, fig. 3 (from a quarry near Castle Harbor 
[Bermuda]). Holotype YPM [not located; this taxon not mentioned by 
Gould (1969)], only specimen. 

apicina Verrill, Cingula 

1884, TCAAS 6: 183, pi. 32, fig. 8 (1883, Albatross 2041, 1608 fms.). Holo- 
type USNM 38070, only specimen. 

arata Verrill, Neptunea (Sipho) Plate 12, fig. 1 

1880, PUSNM 3: 370 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 869-880, 893-895, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 85-372 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 499, 
500, changed to: Sipho stimpsonii liratulus, non Neptunea arata Gould 
1860. Lectotype, here selected, USNM 158833, marked "type", off New- 
port, Rhode Island; paralectotypes YPM 15548 sta. 871, YPM 15537 sta. 
872 and YPM 15541 sta. 878. 



22 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

arata Verrill and Smith, Pholadomya 

1881, AJS (3) 22: 301 [not figured] (1881, Fish Hawk 940, 949, 950, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 69-130 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 567, pi. 
58, fig. 37. Figured holotype USNM 46140 stas. 949-950. 

areolata Verrill, Turbonilla Plate 17, fig. 3 

1873, ARUSCFF, p. 658 [364, not figured] (Long Island Sound, near New 
Haven [Connecticut]); 1884, TCAAS 6, pi. 32, fig. 13. Figured holotype 
YPM 12848. 

asperula Bush, Turbonilla Plate 17, fig. 1 

1899, PANSP 52: 151 [not figured] (Bermuda); 1900 in Verrill and Bush, 
TCAAS 10: 530, pi. 65, fig. 23 as Pyrgostelis {Mumiola) asperula (Bush). 
Figured holotype and three paratypes [not located in YPM]; lectotype, 
here selected, ANSP 78253. 

atlantica Verrill and Smith, Placophora (Euplacophora) 

1882, in Verrill, AJS (3) 24: 365 [footnote, not figured, no locality]; 1884, 
TCAAS 6: 206, pi. 30, figs. 1, la, lb (1882, Fish Hawk 1124, off Nantucket 
Island [Massachusetts], 640 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 106921. 

atypha Verrill and Bush, Cetoconcha Plate 8, fig. 2 

1898, PUSNM 20: 814 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2229, 1423 fms.). 
Lectotype, here selected, USNM 48703; paralectotype YPM 8762 [each a 
single broken valve]. 

atypha Verrill and Bush, Eulima Plate 16, fig. 3 

1900, TCAAS 10: 528, pi. 64, fig. 10 (Bermuda). Figured holotype YPM 
[lost, teste original label], the remaining paratype YPM 15886 labeled as 
lectotype by War6n, 1977. This selection has not yet been published 
(War6n pers. comm.) It is, here selected, lectotype. 

atypha Bush, Pleurotomella 

1883, BMCZ 23: 205, pi. 2, fig. 3 (1880, Blake 325, 326, both off Cape Fear 
[North Carolina], 647, 464 fms.). Figured holotype MCZ 187276 sta. 326. 

atypha Bush, Turbonilla Plate 16, fig. 10 

1899, PANSP 52: 170 [not figured] (Maldonado Bay Uruguay). Lectotype, 
here selected, ANSP 70537, only the smaller of the two mentioned speci- 
mens remains. 

aurantiaca Verrill, Pleurobranchopsis 

1900, TCAAS 10: 547, pi. 66, fig. 5 (Coney Island [Bermuda], at low tide, 
among algae). Holotype YPM [not located], only specimen. 

aureopuncta Verrill, Lamellidoris 

1901, TCAAS /7: 31, pi. 4, fig. 9 (Harrington Sound [Bermuda], in shallow 
water, under corals). Holotype YPM [not located]. 

Axinodon Verrill and Bush, Genus 

1898, PUSNM 20: 795. Type species: Axinodon ellipticus Verrill and Bush 
1898, original designation. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 23 

Axinulus Verrill and Bush, Genus or Subgenus [sic] 

1898, PUSNM 20: 790. TVpe species: Axinulus brevis Verrill and Bush 
1898, original designation. 

bairdii Verrill and Smith, Calliostoma 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 396 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 865-880, off 
southern New England, 65-252 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 530, pi. 57, fig. 26. 
Lectotype USNM 44722 sta. 874, selected by Clench and Turner (1960: 38, 
pi. 24, fig. 1); paralectotype MCZ 224685 sta. 874. 

bairdii Verrill and Smith, Dolium 

1881 , in Verrill, AJS (3) 22: 299 [not figured] (1881 , Fish Hawk 945, 1036, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 202, 94 fms.); 1884, TCAAS 6: 253, pi. 
29, figs. 2, 2a, 2b. Holotype USNM 51385 sta. 945. 

bairdii Verrill, Octopus 

1872 [1873], AJS (3) 5: 5 [footnote] (off Head Harbor, Campobello Island, 
78 and 80 fms.; off Herring Cove, 60 fms.; off Grand Manan Island, 106 
fins.; [all Charlotte Co., New Brunswick]). Six syntypes USNM 575315; 
syntype USNM 574638, collected at four Mosswood stations, teste Roper 
and Sweeney (1978: 5). Subsequently discovered specimen MCZ 3488, 

1880, Blake 303, 306 fms., figured by Verrill, 1881, BMCZ 8: 107, pi. 2, figs. 
4,4a; pi. 4, figs. 1, la. 

bairdii Verrill and Smith, Pleurotomella 

1884, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 147, pi. 31, fig. 1 (1883, Albatross 2037, 1721 
fms.; 2038, 2033 fms.; 2041, 1608 fms.; 2097, 1917 fms.; 2098, 2221 fms.). 
[None of the five type lots with the published catalogue numbers menti- 
oned as being in the USNM were located]. Figured holotype YPM 15716 
[label also bearing USNM number 37824] sta. 2037, female; allotype in the 
same lot; paratypes YPM 15717 sta. 2038 and YPM 15718 sta. 2097. 

barbadensis A. H. Verrill, Cypraea carneola 

1948, MoUusca 2 (3): 70 (Barbardos, [West Indies]). Syntypes [presumed to 
be] in author's collection. 

beanii Verrill, Brachioteuthis 

1881, TCAAS 5: 406, pi. 55, figs. 3-3b, pi. 56, figs. 2-2a (1881, Fish Hawk 
1031, 1033, off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 255, 183 fms., from 
fish stomachs). Syntypes USNM 574640 sta. 1031 and USNM 729736 sta. 
1033, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 4). 

benedicti Verrill and Bush, Chlamys Plate 8, fig. 4 

1897, in Verrill, TCAAS 10: 74 (off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 
1356 fms., dead; West Indies, 25 to 72 fms., Uving); 1898, in Verrill and 
Bush, PUSNM 20: 834, pi. 84, figs. 1-2 (1885, Albatross 2369-2374, 25-27 
fms.; 2571, 1356 fms.). Figured holotype USNM [not located]; lectotype, 
here selected, YPM 8833, single valve, stations not separated; also para- 
lectotype YPM 8865 [in alcohol]. 



24 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

benedicti Verrill and Smith, Pleurotomella 

1884, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 148, pi. 31, figs. 2, 2a (1883, Albatross 2084, 1290 
fms.). Figured holotype USNM 38087. 

Benthodolium Verrill, Genus 

1884, TCAAS 6: 111. Type species: Benthodolium abyssorum Verrill and 
Smith 1884, by monotypy. 

Benthoteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1885, TCAAS 6: 401. Type species: Benthoteuthis megalopsis Verrill 1885, 
by monotypy. 

bermudae Verrill and Bush, Bulla 

1900, TCAAS 10: 523, pi. 64, fig. 4 (Bermuda). Syntypes YPM 
[not located]. 

bermudensis Verrill and Bush, Cerithiopsis 

1900, TCAAS 10: 536, pi. 65, fig. 20 ([Ship Channel] Bermuda, 10-12 ft.). 
Figured holotype YPM 15676 [paratypes separated]. 

bermudensis Bush, Lasaea Plate 5, fig. 2 

1899, Science 10: 251 [not figured] (Bermuda); 1900, in Verrill and Bush, 
TCAAS 10: 518, pi. 63, figs. 4, 5. Lectotype, here selected, YPM 8885. 

biamaculatus Verrill, Octopus 

1883, BMCZ 11: 121, pi. 5, figs. 1, la; pi. 6 (San Diego [San Diego Co.], 
California, D. S. Jordan, USNM; Panama and San Salvador, F. H. Brad- 
ley, YPM). Syntype USNM 575560, Jordan's handwritten label reads, 
"Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., California"; syntype YPM 17712 
from the same locality; both teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 5). 

bifida Verrill, Doris 

1870, AJS (2) 50: 406 [not figured] (Eastport, Maine, at low-water mark, 
under stones); 1873, ARUSCFF, p. 664 [370], pi. 25, fig. 176. Syntype YPM 
[lost]. 

bistellata Verrill, Doris "?" 

1900, TCAAS 10: 548, pi. 66, fig. 2 (Castle Harbor [Bermuda], 2-4 feet, on 
reefs or dead corals). Figured holotype YPM [lost]. 

blakeana Bush, Lucina 

1893, BMCZ 23: 231, pi. 2, figs. 16, 17 (1880, Blake 326, off Cape Fear [North 
Carolina], 464 fms.). Holotype MCZ 119129, single valve. 

blakei Verrill, Bela Plate 11, fig. 5 

1885, TCAAS 6: 417 [not figured, additions and corrections p. 452] (1884, 
Albatross 2226, 2021 fms.). Holotype USNM 44655, only specimen. 

blaneyi Bush, Bela 

1909, Nautilus 23: 61, fig. 1 (south of Egg Rock buoy, in about 30 fms., mud 
and gravel. Frenchman's Bay, Maine). Figured holotype and paratype 
both YPM 15808, only specimens. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 25 

boreale Verrill and Smith, Solarium 

1880, in Verrill, PUSNM 3: 376 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 871, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 1 15 fms.); 1882, TC AAS 5: 529, pi. 57, 
figs. 29, 30. Two figured syntypes, only specimens, lectotype, here 
selected, USNM 45298, fig. 30. 

borealis Verrill, Loligo pealei 

1880, AJS (3) 19: 292 [not figured] (Annisquam [Essex Co.] Massachu- 
setts); 1881, TCAAS 5: 316, pi. 37, fig. 2; pi. 41, fig. 1. Four syntypes YPM 
[presumed lost]. 

borealis Verrill, Marginella Plate 13, fig. 5 

1882, TCAAS 5: 489 as Marginella carnea (Verrill), non Storer 1837; 1884, 
Ibid. 6: 165, pi. 29, fig. 4 (1883, Albatross 2011, 2012, off Norfolk, Virginia, 
81, 66.5 fms.; 1880-81, Fish Hawk, off Martha's Vineyard [Massachu- 
setts], 64.5, 100 fms.). Probable measured syntype, here selected lectotype 
USNM 35375 sta. 2011; paralectotypes YPM 15701 sta. 2011 and YPM 
15702 sta. 2012. 

Brachioteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1881, TCAAS 5: 405. Type species: Brachioteuthis beanii Verrill 1881, 
original designation. 

brachyura Verrill, Rossia 

1883, BMCZ 11: 110, pi. 3, fig. 2 (1879, Blake 148, off St. Kitts Island 
[Leeward Islands], 208 fms.). Holotype, only specimen, presumed lost, not 
mentioned by Roper and Sweeney (1978). 

brandii A. H. Verrill, Mitra 

1950, MCCSC no. 104: 4, fig. (off Dominica [Lesser Antilles], 75-100 fms.). 
Type in author's collection. 

brevis Verrill and Bush, Cryptodon (Axinulus) 

1898, PUSNM 20: 790, pi. 89, figs. 7, 8 (1883, Albatross 2208, 92 fms.). 
Figured holotype USNM 159873, single valve, refigured by Scott (1986: 
150, fig. lb). 

brevis Verrill, Gymnobella 

1885, TCAAS 6: 417, pi. 44, fig. 8 (1884, Albatross 2041, 1608 fms., 2084, 
1290 fms., 2229, 1423 fms.). Holotype USNM 34838 sta. 2041. 

brevis Verrill and Bush, Kennerlia 

1898, PUSNM 20: 821, pi. 88, figs. 7, a, b (1880-86, Fish Hawk, Albatross, 
ten stations between 40°15'30"N, 70°27'W and 35°10'40"N, 75°6'10"W, 
58-100 fms.). Holotype USNM 40232, fig. 7a, refigured by Boss (1965: 205, 
pi. 124, fig. 3) sta. 2248, south of Nantucket Island [Massachusetts], 67 
fms., non Sowerby 1829, changed to: Pandora (Pandorella) inflate; para- 
type USNM 45884, fig. 7b. 

brevis Verrill, Sipho stimpsonii 

1882, TCAAS 5: 500 [footnote, not figured] (1881, Speedwell 978, off Chat- 
ham, Cape Cod [Massachusetts], 17 fms.). "If it is thought desirable to 



26 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

designate this species [Sipho stimpsonii Verrill 1882] by a special varietal 
name it may be called S. stimpsonii breuis. All of the intermediate forms 
occur, however." [not located in USNM or YPM type collections]. 

briskasi A. H. Verrill, Murex 

1953, MCCSC no. 128: 2, fig. (Dominica [Lesser Antilles], 75-100 fms.). 
Type [presumed to be] in author's collection. 

bruneri Verrill, Menestho 

1882, TCAAS 5: 539 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 892, off Newport, 
Rhode Island, 487 fms.). Holotype [lost], only specimen, teste Bush, 1909, 
AJS (4) 27: 482. 

bruneri Verrill and Smith, Pleurotomella 

1884, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 155, pi. 31 , fig. 7, 7a (1883, Albatross 2038, 2041 , 
2033, 1608 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 34846 sta. 2038; paratype 
USNM 34834 sta. 2041. 

brychia Rush, Choristella 

1897, TCAAS 10: 140, fig. 10 (1884, Albatross 2234, off Martha's Vineyard 
[Massachusetts], 810 fms.). Holotype USNM 77622, only specimen. 

brychia Verrill, Cingula 

1884, TCAAS 6: 179, pi. 32, fig. 9 (1880-82 Fish Hawk 892, 487 fms., 1093, 
349 fms.; 1883, Albatross 2072, 2076, 2078, 2084, 499-1290 fms.). Figured 
holotype USNM 38086 sta. 1 093; paratypes USNM 3802 1 sta. 892; USNM 
38089; YPM 16596 sta. 2072; USNM 38073; YPM 16600 sta. 2076; USNM 
38074; YPM 16599 sta. 2078 and YPM 38099 sta. 2084. 

brychia Verrill and Smith, Jumala 

1885, in Verrill, 1885, TCAAS 6: 422, pi. 44, figs. 10, 10a (1884, Albatross 
2224, 2574 fms.). Holotype USNM 44647, only specimen. 

bushae War^n, Ledella 

See under: messanensis Verrill and Bush, Ledella. 

bushae E. H. Vokes, Pterynotus {Pterynotus) 

See under: pygmaeus Bush, Murex (Pteronotus) [sic]. 

bushiana Verrill, Leda 

1884, TCAAS 6: 229 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2110, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 516 fms.); 1898 in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 854, pi. 
79, fig. 8; pi. 92, fig. 9. Holotype USNM 35729. 

bushiana Verrill, Turbonilla 

1882, TCAAS 5: 537. New name for Turbonilla formosa Verrill and Smith 
1880, non [Odostomia formosa] Jeffreys [1848]. See under: formosa Verrill 
and Smith, Turbonilla. 

caelata Bush, Cylichna 

1885, TCAAS 6: 468, pi. 45, fig. \5{1884 Albatross [2292], off Cape Hatteras 
[North CaroUna], 15-43 fms.). Holotype USNM 44668. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 27 

caelata Verrill and Smith, Neptunea (Sipho) 

1880, in Verrill, PUSNM 3: 369 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 891-895, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 238 to 500 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 506, 
pi. 57, figs. 19, 19a, changed to: Sipho caelatus Verrill and Smith. Mea- 
sured and figured holotype USNM 38026 sta. 894 [includes four smaller 
paratypes]; paratypes YPM 15269 sta. 891; YPM 15266 sta. 892 and YPM 
15259 sta. 894. 

caelata Verrill, Verticordia 

1882, TCAAS 5: 566 [not figured] (1881, Fish Hawk 949, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 100 fms.); 1884, Ibid. 6: pi. 30, figs. 9, 9a. 
Figured holotype USNM 159807, only specimen. 

caelatulus Verrill, Sipho (Mohnia) 

1884, TCAAS 6: 1 72 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2048, 2051, 2052, 2072, 
2076, 2077, 2084, 547-1290 fms.). Lectotype USNM 35226 sta. 2076 selected 
by Bouchet and War^n (1985: 212) [not figured, not located]; paralecto- 
types YPM 15278 sta. 2052. 

calceola Verrill, Cymbulia 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 392, 394 (1880, Fish Hawk 865-872, about 30 miles south 
of Block Island, Rhode Island, near surface); 1882, TCAAS 5: 553, pi. 58, 
fig. 33 [not in USNM type collection]. Syntype YPM 15681 sta. 872 [dried 
up]. 

californica Verrill, Papyridea bullata Plate 3, fig. 1 

1870, AJS (2) 49: 225 [not figured] (La Paz [Baja California]). Lectotype, 
here selected, YPM 4072; paralectotypes YPM 2807 and YPM 4071. 

callista Bush, Yoldia 

1893, BMCZ 23: 233, pi. 1, figs. 9, 10 (1880, Blake 321, off Charleston [South 
Carolina], 233 fms.). Holotype MCZ 6866, only specimen. 

callistiformis Verrill and Bush, Tindaria 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 59 [footnote], figs. 10, 20, 21 (1885, Albatross 2566, off 
Chesapeake Bay, 2566 fms.); 1898, PUSNM 20: 881, pi. 78, fig. 1; pi. 80, 
figs. 6, 7. Figured holotype USNM 52536. 

Calliteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 393. Type species: Calliteuthis reuersa Verrill 1880, by 
monotypy. 

canadensis 'Verrill and Bush' Whiteaves, Bela cancellata Plate 11, fig. 6 
1901, Catalogue of the Marine Invertebrata of Eastern Canada, p. 197 
(between Pictou Island and Cape Bear [Nova Scotia], Whiteaves; Little 
Metis and Murray Bay [Quebec], J. W. Dawson). Lectotype, here selected, 
YPM 16623, Murray Bay; paralectotype National Museum of Natural 
History, Ottawa, Canada 90, Murray Bay. 



28 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

cancellatus Verrill, Choristodon "?" 

1885, TCAAS 6: 435 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2265, off Chesapeake 
Bay [Maryland], 70 fms.); 1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 788, pi. 
96, figs. 2, 3. Holotype USNM 44839, single valve [poor condition]. 

carinata Verrill, Machaeroplax obscura Plate 15, fig. 2 

1882, TCAAS 5: 532 [not figured] (1881, Fish Hawk 997, 1032, 1038, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 146-335 fms.). Lectotype, here select- 
ed, USNM 44748 sta. 997; paralectotype YPM 15700 [from USNM 44749] 
sta. 1032. 

carnea Verrill, Marginella 

1882, TCAAS 5: 489, non Storer 1837. See under: borealis Verrill, 
Marginella. 

carolinensis Bush, Cadulus 

1885, ARUSCFF for 1883, p. 587 85 ([1883] Albatross [2214], off Cape 
Hatteras [North CaroUna], 14 fms., 15-48 fms.); 1885, TCAAS 6: 471, pi. 
45, fig. 19. Figured holotype USNM 35811; paratypes YPM 15864 and 
MCZ 186818. 

carolinensis Verrill, Octopus 

1884, TCAAS 6: 235 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2109, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 142 fms.). Holotype USNM 35673, only specimen, teste 
Roper and Sweeney (1978: 5). 

carolinensis Bush, Pandora 

1885, TCAAS 6: 475 ([1883] Albatross [2112], off Cape Hatteras [North 
Carolina], 15 fms.). Holotype USNM 35701, figured by Boss and Merrill 
(1965: 200, pi. 122, figs. 1,2). 

carolinensis Verrill, Urosalpinx 

1884, TCAAS 6: 237 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2109, 2110, 2111, off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 142-938 fms.). Syntypes USNM 35735 sta. 2109. 
One separated out and figured as the "holotype" by Radwin (1972, fig. le). 
The catalogue number of the syntypes is given by Bouchet and War6n 
(1985: 213) and the "holotype" is refigured (figs. 555, 556). The figured 
specimen USNM 35735 is, here selected, lectotype. The paralectotypes 
have been recatalogued. 

carpenteri Verrill and Smith, Pleurotoma 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 395 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 870-873, off 
southern New England, 86-155 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 452, pi. 57, fig. 2, 
genus changed to: Pleurotomella. Figured holotype USNM 38421; para- 
type YPM 15715; [both] sta. 871. 

casta Verrill and Bush, Montacuta 

1898, PUSNM 20: 781, pi. 94, fig. 5 (1884, Albatross 2283, off Cape Hatte- 
ras, North Carolina, 14-17 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 77632. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 29 

casta Verrill and Bush, Yoldia (Adranella) 

1898, PUSNM 20: 858, pi. 20, fig. 4 (1884, Albatross 2150, 382 fms.). 
Holotype USNM 202933, single valve. 

catharinae Verrill and Smith, Pleurotomella 

1884, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 155, pi. 31, figs. 9, 9a (1885, Albatross 2038, 2033 
fms., 2041, 1608 fms., 2084, 1290 fms., 2115, 843 fms.). Figured holotype 
USNM 37871 sta. 2041; paraty pes YPM 15719 sta. 2038; USNM 34845 sta. 
2038; USNM 37846 sta. 2084; USNM 35597 and YPM 15720 both sta. 2215. 

Cerithiella Verrill, Genus 

1882, TCAAS 5: 522. New name for Lovenella Sars 1878, non Hincks 1869. 

ceroplasta Bush, Mangilia Plate 13, fig. 3 

1885, TCAAS 6: 458 [not figured] ([1884] Albatross [2290], off Cape Hatte- 
ras [North Carolina], 9.75 fms.). Measured holotype USNM 44757. 

chariessa Verrill, Eulimella 

1884, TCAAS 6: 193, pi. 32, figs. 4, 4a, 4, Ibid. p. 290 errata, "for charissa 
read chariessa." (1883, Albatross 2038, 2033 fms.). Figured holotype 
USNM 35164; paratype YPM 15691, four specimens only. 

Cheloteuthis Verrill, Genus 
See under: Chiloteuthis. 

Chiloteuthis [sic] Verrill, Genus 

1881, TCAAS 5: 293. Type species: Chiloteuthis rapax Verrill 1881, by 
monotypy, Ibid. p. 446 errata, "read Cheloteuthis-(Lestoteuthis)." 

Choristella Bush, Genus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 138, fig. 8. TVpe species: Choristella leptalea Bush 1897, 
original designation. Bouchet and War6n (1979: 225) say, "An examina- 
tion of the types of Choristella leptalea Bush, 1897 (type species of Choris- 
tella) and C. tenera Bush, 1897 [nude name of Bouchet and War6n] has 
proved that they are synonyms of Choristes elegans var. tenera Verrill 

1882. Verrill's name has to be used for the type species." Type species of 
genera are not subject to arbitrary change. 

Choristidae Verrill, Family 

1882, TCAAS, 5: 540. Type genus: Choristes Carpenter 1872. "Choristidae 
has to be changed to Choristellidae" (Bouchet and War6n (1979: 225). See 
under: Choristella Bush, Genus. 

cingulata Verrill, Cithna 

1884, TCAAS 6: 184, pi. 32, fig. 7 (1883, Albatross 2076, 906 fins., 2084, 1290 
fms., 2043, 1467 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 38101 sta. 2076; paratypes 
USNM 38105 sta. 2084 and USNM 38104 sta. 2043 (one at each station). 

cingulatum Verrill, Cyclostrema 

1884, TCAAS 6: 198, pi. 32, fig. 14 (1883, Albatross 2048, 547 fms.); non 
Philippi 1853, changed to: Cyclostrema verrilli Tryon 1888, Manual of 
Conchology 10: 90. Holotype USNM 38100, only specimen. 



30 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

citrina Verrill, Acanthodoris 

1879, AJS (3) 17: 313 [not figured] (Eastport, Maine); 1882, TCAAS 5: 549 
[not figured]. Syntypes [not located in USNM or YPM]. 

collinsii Verrill, Histioteuthis 

1879, AJS (3) 17: 241 (from the stomach of Alepidosaurus, 42°49'N, 
62°57'W, off Nova Scotia); 1879, TCAAS 5: 234, pi. 22. Holotype USNM 
730893 only specimen, teste Roper pers. comm. 

complanata Verrill, Doris 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 399 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 872, about 70 miles 
south of Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 85 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 
549, pi. 58, figs. 34, 34a, 34b. Syntypes USNM [presumed lost]. 

composa Verrill and Bush, Eulima 

1900, TCAAS 10: 527, pi. 64, fig. 16 (Bermuda). Holotype YPM 15687, only 
specimen. 

composa Bush, Turbonilla Plate 17, fig. 2 

1899, PANSP 52: 168 [not figured; no locality given]. Holotype ANSP 
79015, only specimen. 

concinnula Verrill, Bela 

1882, TCAAS 5: 468, pi. 48, fig. 15; pi. 57, fig. 11 (from the region south of 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], in deep water, to Labrador, 1877-81 , 
USFC [many stations]). Described holotype USNM 77344 sta. 245; para- 
type YPM 15640, Labrador. 

conica Verrill, Cocculina 

1884, TCAAS 6: 204 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2078, 499 fms.). Holo- 
type USNM 38441 [not located in 1972, teste F. Ruhoffl. 

conoides Verrill, Poecilozonites nelsoni 

1906, TCAAS 12: 163 [119], fig. 45; pi. 25, pi. 26, fig. 4 (western shore of 
Castle Harbor [Bermuda], in a mass of red-clay and stalagmite; near 
Paynter's Vale; shore opposite Coney Island). Holotype YPM [not located; 
type not mentioned by Gould (1969: 508)], pi. 26, fig. 4, first locality. 

conradi Bush, Turbonilla 

1899, PANSP 52: 159, pi. 8, fig. 10 (Tampa Bay, Florida). Holotype ANSP 
72052, only specimen. 

constricta Bush, Turbonilla incisa Plate 16, fig. 9 

1899, PANSP 52: 157 [not figured] (West Florida). Lectotype, here selected, 
ANSP 79023; paralectotype ANSP 372504. 

consuela A. H. Verrill, Murex pulcher 

1950, MCCSC no. 101: 7, fig. (off Soufriere, Dominica [Lesser Antilles], 
40-50 fms.). Type in author's collection. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 31 

convexa Bush, Lissospira "?" 

1897, TCAAS 10: 132 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2233, off Delaware 
Bay, 630 fms.). Holotype, only specimen [not located in USNM or YPM 
type collections]. 

cooperi S. I. Smith, Caecum 

1860, ALNHNY 7: 154 [not figured] (northern part of Gardiner's Bay 
[Long Island, Suffolk Co., New York]); 1870, in Smith and Prime, 
ALNHNY 9: 393, fig. 3. Changed to: Caecum costatum Verrill, 1872, AJS 
(3): 283, pi. 6, fig. 6, non Carpenter 1864. Two syntypes [not located]. 

cordata Verrill and Bush, Axinopsis 

1898, PUSNM 20: 795, pi. 97, figs. 5, 6 (1880-84, Fish Hawk, Albatross, six 
stations between 40°N,14'30W" and 35°42'N, 74°54'30"W, 43-202 fms.). 
Figured syntypes USNM 159837, fig. 5, left valve, sta. 2307; fig. 6, right 
valve, sta. 1092; syntypes YPM 8793 sta. 2307. 

cordata Verrill and Bush, Lyonsiella 

1898, PUSNM 20: 818, pi. 95, figs. 7, 8 (1884-86, Albatross, three stations 
between 39°15'N, 68°8'W and 37°38'40"N, 73° 16'30"W, 1423-1825 fms.). 
Figured holotype USNM 52540 sta. 2568. 

costata Bush, Neaera 

1885, ARUSCFF for 1883, p. 587 [85] (1883, Albatross 2108, off Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 48 fms.); 1885, TCAAS 6: 472, pi. 45, fig. 21. Figured 
holotype USNM 35362. 

costatum Verrill, Caecum 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 210, 283. New name for Caecum cooperi Smith 1860, non 
Carpenter 1864. See under: cooperi Smith, Caecum. 

costellata Verrill and Bush, Chlamys 

1897, in Verrill, TCAAS 10: 75 (off the coast of Newfoundland, 67 to 72 
fms.); 1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 835, pi. 86, fig. 6. Figured 
holotype USNM 52471 sta. 2465. 

costulata Verrill, Turbonilla 

1873, ARUSCFF, p. 658 [364, not figured] (Long Island Sound, near New 
Haven [Connecticut]); 1884, TCAAS 6, pi. 32, fig. 2. Figured holotype YPM 
15886. Non Risso 1826, changed to: Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) mighelsi 
Bartsch (1909: 88, pi. 14, figs. 52, 54, Woods Hole [Barnstable Co., Massa- 
chusetts]), non T. (P.) mighelsi, changed to: T. interrupta obesa Bush 
(1909: 483, 484, fig. 3 [after Verrill]), with the note, "It [mighelsi] is a very 
stout form of Turbonilla interrupta and may be designated as variety 
obesa." Figured holotype USNM 203770. 

crenulata Verrill, Area pectunculoides Plate 6, fig. 2 

1882, TCAAS 5: 575 [not figured] (1880-81, Fish Hawk 871, 873, 874, 876, 
949, off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 85-120 fms.). Lectotype, here 



32 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

selected, USNM 74134 sta. 874; paralectotypes YPM 6687 sta. 871; YPM 
6729 sta. 873; YPM 6731 sta. 874; YPM 6688 sta. 876 and YPM 6668 sta. 
949. 

crispum Verrill and Bush, Caecum 

1900, TCAAS 10: 539, pi. 65, fig. 3 (Bermuda). Figured holotype YPM 
15666. 

cryptospira Verrill, Rotella Plate 10, fig. 8 

1884, TCAAS 6: 241 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2109, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 142 fms.). Lectotype, here selected, USNM 35731. 

cuneata Verrill and Bush, Montacuta 

1898, PUSNM 20: 782, pi. 91, fig. 4; pi. 93, fig. 5 (1883-84, Albatross 2278, 
off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, 15-16 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 
77630; paratype YPM 8849. 

curta Verrill, Gymnobela 

1884, TCAAS 6: 158, pi. 31, fig. 10 (1883, Albatross 2043, 1467 fms., 2076, 
906 fms., 2077, 1255 fms., 2084, 1290 fms. largest number at this station, 
2097, 1917 fms., 2115, 843 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 37795 sta. 2084; 
paratypes USNM 34854 sta. 2043; YPM 15694 sta. 2043; USNM 37812 sta. 
2076; YPM 15692 sta. 2076; USNM 37798 sta. 2077; YPM 15693 sta. 2077; 
USNM 37795 sta. 2084; YPM 15696 sta. 2084; USNM 35227 sta. 2097 and 
USNM 37794 sta. 2115. 

curta Verrill and Bush, Yoldiella 

1898, PUSNM 20: 868, pi. 97, fig. 8 (1883-86, Albatross, three stations 
between 41°11'30"N, 66°12'20"W and 39°38"N, 70°22'W, 499-1290 fms.). 
Figured holotype USNM 38457 sta. 2084. 

curtus Verrill, Stilifer 

1882, TCAAS 5: 535 [not figured] (1881, Fish Hawk 1028, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 410 fms.) [not in USNM or YPM type 
collections]. 

Cyclopecten Verrill, Genus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 70. Type species listed: Pecten pustulosus Verrill 1873, 
Pecten imbrifer Loven 1846. 

Cyclostremella Bush, Genus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 140. Type species: Cyclostremella humilis Bush 1897, 
original designation. 

dalli Bush, Circulus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 126, pi. 23, figs. 3, 3a, 6 (1886, Albatross 2655, 338 fms., 
YPM; 1884, Albatross 2307, off Cape Hatteras [North CaroHna], 43 fms., 
USNM). Figured holotype YPM 15802; paratype USNM 44983. 

dalli Verrill, Cocculina Plate 10, fig. 10 

1884, TCAAS 6: 203 [not figured] (1883, Fish Hawk 1096, 317 fms.). Holo- 
type USNM 38081, only specimen. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 33 

dalli Verrill, Cyclostrema 

1882, TCAAS 5: 532, pi. 57, fig. 39 (1880, Fish Hawk 892, 894, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 487, 365 fms.). New name for Cyclostrema 
trochoides Verrill 1880, non Friele, Sars 1876. Figured holotype USNM 
38406, with smaller paratypes. 

dalli Verrill, Cylichna (Provisional Genus) 

1882, TCAAS 5: 542 [not figured] (1881, Fish Hawk 997, 999 off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 335, 266 fms.); 1884, Ibid. 6: pi. 29, fig. 15. 
Figured holotype USNM 76279 sta. 999. 

dalli Verrill and Smith, Pleurotoma 

1882, in Verrill, TCAAS 5: 451, pi. 57, figs. 1, la (1881, Fish Hawk 1035, 
1036, 1039, off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 94-146 fms.; 1046, off 
Delaware Bay, 104 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 37860 sta. 1035. 

dalli Bush, Pleurotomella 

1893, BMCZ 23: 208, pi. 2, figs. 2, 2a ( 1880, Blake 325, off Cape Fear [North 
Carolina], 647 fms.). Holotype MCZ 119126, only specimen. 

dalli Bush, Turbonilla late 16, fig. 7 

1899, PANSP 52: 169, pi. 8, fig. 8 (Sarasota Bay [Florida], ANSP; Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], USNM; Egmont Keys, [Florida], YPM). Fig- 
ured holotype ANSP [lost]. Lectotype, here selected, ANSP 72049; para- 
lectotypes ANSP 372506, USNM 94804 and YPM 10310. 

dalliana Verrill and Smith, Scalaria 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 395 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 869-871, 
873, off Delaware Bay, 105-192 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 527, fig. 33. Lecto- 
type USNM 44792 sta. 869 selected by Clench and Turner (1951: 278, pi. 
126, fig. 3); paralectotypes USNM 44749 sta. 1032; YPM 15734 sta. 1032 
and MCZ 196608 ex. YPM. 

debile Verrill and Bush, Caecum Plate 17, fig. 7 

1900, TCAAS 10: 538 [not figured] (Bermuda). Holotype YPM 15667. 

decurrens Verrill and Bush, Tornatina 

1900, TCAAS 10: 523, pi. 64, fig. 1 (Bermuda). Figured holotype YPM 
15775, with two paratypes. 

delicatulum Verrill and Bush, Caecum 

1900, TCAAS 10: 538, pi. 65, fig. 4 (Bermuda). Probable figured holotype 
YPM 15668 [was originally glued down, and is now only a half shell 
(longitudinal) without septum, R. G. Moolenbeek, pers. comm.] and 10 
paratypes. 

Desmoteuthidae Verrill, Family 

1881, TCAAS 5: 300. Genera mentioned: Desmoteuthis Verrill 1881 and 
Taonius Steenstrup 1861. 

Desmoteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1881, TCAAS 5: 300. Type species: Lechia hyperborea Steenstrup 1856, by 
monotypy. 



34 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

diaphana Verrill, Astyris 

1882, TCAAS 5: 513, pi. 58, fig. 2 (1880-81, Fish Hawk [869], 870, 876, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 65-487 fms.; off Chesapeake Bay, 
300 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 45302 sta. 869; paratypes YPM 18694 
sta. 870 and YPM 15760 sta. 876. 

diaphana Verrill, Leptoteuthis 

1884, TCAAS 6: 141, pi. 32, fig. 1 (1883, Albatross 2037, 1731 fms.); 1885, 
ARUSCFF for 1883, pi. 22, fig. 62. Figured holotype USNM 38242, teste 
Roper and Sweeney (1978: 6). 

diaphanum Verrill, Cyclostrema 

1884, TCAAS 6: 199, pi. 32, fig. 16 (1883, Albatross 2004, 98 fms.). Figured 
holotype USNM 38409. 

didyma Verrill and Bush, Odostomia (Cyclodostomia) 

1900, TCAAS 10: 333, pi. 65, fig. 14 (Bermuda). Holotype YPM 15706, only 
specimen. 

dilectus Verrill and Bush, Hyalopecten 

1897, in Verrill, TCAAS 10: 80 (1885, Albatross 2570, off Martha's Vine- 
yard [Massachusetts] 1813 fms.); 1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 
836, pi. 97, fig. 9. Holotype USNM 52539, only specimen. 

diomedeae Verrill, Margarita (Solariella) infundibulum 

In Bush, 1893, BMCZ23: 218, pi. 2, figs. 10, 11 (1884, Albatross 2221, south 
of Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 1525 fms.). Figured holotype 
USNM 203083. 

diomedeae Verrill and Smith, Pleurotomella 

1884, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 152, pi. 31 , figs. 5, 5a (1883, Albatross 2037, 2038, 
2041, 2042, 2043, 2048, 2096, 1290-2033 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 
34828 sta. 2041; paratypes USNM 34827 sta. 2038; YPM 15721 sta. 2038; 
YPM 15722 sta. 2041 and YPM 15723 sta. 2096. Is Pleurotomella bandella 
(Dall 1881), teste Verrill, Ibid. p. 250. 

dispar Verrill, Sipho profundicola Plate 12, fig. 5 

1884, TCAAS 6: 171 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2042, 1555 fms.). Holo- 
type [measured specimen] USNM 37955, teste Bouchet and War6n (1985: 
211). 

disparilis Verrill, Odostomia Plate 15, fig. 6 

1884, TCAAS 6: 196 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2109, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 142 fms.). Holotype USNM 38042, only specimen. 

dissimilis Verrill and Bush, Yoldiella 

1898, PUSNM 20: 872, pi. 78, fig. 8; pi. 82, fig. 7 (1883-86, Albatross, four 
stations between 39°49'N, 68°28'30"W and 36°47'N, 73°9'30"W, 1451-1685 
fms.). Figured holotype USNM 38416 sta. 2043. 

dominicana A. H. Verrill, Astraea tuber 

1950, MCCSC no. 101: 7, fig. (St. Thomas, Tortola [Virgin Islands]; 
Dominica [Lesser Antilles]). Type in author's collection. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 35 

Doridella Verrill, Genus 

1870, AJS (2) 50: 408. TVpe species: Doridella obscure Verrill 1870, by 
monotypy. 

eburnea Verrill, Cylichna 

1885, TCAAS 6: 428, pi. 44, fig. 14 (1884, Albatross 2265, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 70 fms.). Holotype USNM 44757, only specimen. 

edentuloides Verrill, Loripes Plate 3, fig. 2 

1870, AJS (2) 49: 226 [not figured] (La Paz [Baja California]). Holotype 
YPM 8884, single valve. 

edw^ardsii Verrill, Scyllaea 

1878, AJS (3) 16: 211 (Woods Hole, Massachusetts on eel-grass (Zostera) in 
the harbor, and in Vineyard Sound on floating Sargassum); 1882, TCAAS 
5: 550, pi. 42, fig. 10; 1885, ARUSCFF for 1883, pi. 28, fig. 109. Syntypes 
YPM [presumed lost]. 

electa Verrill and Bush, Scala 

1900, TCAAS 10: 536, pi. 64, fig. 11 (Bermuda). Figured holotype YPM 
15777. 

Eledonella Verrill, Genus 

1884, TCAAS 6: 144. Type species: Eledonella pygmaea Verrill 1884, by 
monotypy. 

elegans Verrill, Dendronotus 

1880, PUSNM 5: 385 [not figured] (1879, Speedwell 330, off Cape Cod 
[Massachusetts], 26 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 551 [not figured] [not in USNM 
or YPM type collections]. 

elegans Verrill and Smith, Fossarus 

1882, in Verrill, TCAAS 5: 522, pi. 57, fig. 28 [Fossarus latericeus on plate 
caption] (1881, Fish Hawk 949, off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 
100 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 45297. 

elegans Verrill, Propilidium 

1884, TCAAS 6: 205 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2105, 1395 fms.). Two 
syntypes USNM 38072, only specimens [only one now extant]. 

elegans Verrill, Tivela Plate 4, fig. 3 

1870, AJS (2) 49: 220 [not figured] (La Paz [Baja California]; Acajutla 
[Salvador]; Realejo [Nicaragua]). Lectotype, here selected, YPM 1843, 
single valve, Acajutla. 

elegans Verrill, Turbonilla 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 210, 282, pi. 6, fig. 4 (USFC, Vineyard Sound [Massachu- 
setts], 8-10 fms., shelly bottom). Syntypes YPM [not located]. 

ellipticus Verrill and Bush, Axinodon 

1898, PUSNM 20: 796, pi. 90, figs. 5, 6; pi. 92, fig. 1 (1883, Albatross 2096, 
1451 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 35175; paratype YPM 8792, only two 
specimens. 



36 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Elysiella Verrill, Genus 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 283. Type species: Placobranchus catulus Gould 1870, by 
monotypy. 

emertoni Verrill and Smith, Pleurotomella 

1884, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 154, pi. 31, fig. 6 (1883, Albatross 2097, 1917 
fms.). Figured holotype USNM 35232. 

emertoni Verrill, Polycerella 

1880, PUSNM 3: 387 [not figured] (Woods Hole, Massachusetts, at the 
surface, among eel-grass; on hydroids from the piles at Long Wharf, New 
Haven, Connecticut; Newport, Rhode Island on filamentous algae); 1882, 
TCAAS 5: 548 [not figured]. Syntypes YPM [not located]. 

emertoni Verrill, Turbonilla 

1882, TCAAS 5: 536, pi. 58, figs. 14, 14a (1880, Fish Hawk 895, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 238 fms.) Figured holotype USNM 153543; 
paratype YPM 15746. 

engonia Verrill and Bush, Eulima Plate 16, fig. 1 

1900, TCAAS 10: 527, pi. 64, fig. 7 ([Ship Channel] Bermuda, 30-40 it.). 
Lectotype, here selected, YPM 15688. 

engonia Verrill, Gymnobela Plate 14, fig. 5 

1884, TCAAS 6: 157 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2041, 1608 fms., 2084, 
1290 fms.). Holotype [so labeled] USNM 34835 sta. 2041; paratype USNM 
37818 sta. 2084. 

engonia Bush, Odostomia Plate 15, fig. 3 

1885, TCAAS 6: 466 [not figured] ( [ 1884] Albatross [2276], off Cape Hatte- 
ras [North Carolina], 15-16 fms.). Measured holotype USNM 44762; para- 
type YPM 16148. 

ephamilla Bush, M angilia 

1885, ARUSCFF for 1883, p. 580 [78] (1883, Albatross 2108, off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 48 fms.); 1885, TCAAS 6: 457, pi. 45, figs. 4, 4a. 
Figured holotype USNM 35404. 

ephamilla Verrill, Spirotropis Plate 14, fig. 3 

1884, TCAAS 6: 162 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2097, 1917 fms., 2098, 
2221 fms.). Measured holotype USNM 35237 sta. 2098, only living speci- 
men; paratype YPM 15739 sta. 2097, dead and much eroded. 

equalis Verrill and Bush, Cryptodon 

1898, PUSNM 20: 788, pi. 91, figs. 5, 6 (1873, Bache 18 is 13°15.5'N, 
69°06'W, SW from Jeffreys Bank, 100 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 
74302; paratype USNM 149867. 

eritima Bush, Mangilia Plate 13, fig. 4 

1885, TCAAS 6: 456[not figured] ([1884] Albatross [2280], off Cape Hatte- 
ras [North Carolina], 14-17 fms.). Holotype USNM 44758. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 37 

eritima Verrill, Seguenzia 

1884, TCAAS 6: 189, pi. 31, fig. 15 (1883, Albatross 2038, off Nantucket 
Shoals, 2033 fms., 2084, 1290 fms., 2043, 1467 fms.). Holotype USNM 
38092 sta. 2038; paratypes USNM 38249 sta. 2084 and USNM 38269 sta. 
2043. 

eritmeta Bush, Leptogyra Plate 10, fig. 4 

1897, TCAAS 10: 137 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2174, off Delaware 
Bay, 1594 fms.). Holotype USNM 77625, only specimen. 

eritmeta Verrill, Puncturella (Fissurisepta) 

1884, TCAAS 6: 204, pi. 32, figs. 19, 19a (1883, Albatross 2096, 1451 fms.). 
Holotype USNM 35174, only specimen. 

fimbriata Verrill and Smith, Torellia 

1882, TCAAS 5: 520, pi. 57, figs. 27, 27a (1880-81, Fish Hawk 869, 878, 939, 
1025, 1026, 1033, 1038, off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 142-258 
fms; 1873, Bache 21 B, is 42°49'N, 68°50W' near Cashes Ledge, off the 
coast of Maine, 52-90 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 45415 sta. 878. 

flava Verrill, Elysia 

1901 , TCAAS i i : 30, pi. 4, fig. 1 (Castle Harbor, Waterloo [Bermuda], under 
stones at low tide). Holotype YPM [not located]. 

flexuosa Verrill and Smith, Mytilimeria 

1881, in Verrill, AJS (3) 22: 302 (1881, Fish Hawk 947, off Martha's Vine- 
yard [Massachusetts], 312 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 567, pi. 58, fig. 38. Holo- 
type USNM 46129, only specimen. 

formosa Verrill and Bush, Cuspidaria 

1898, PUSNM 20: 803, pi. 74, fig. 6; pi. 79, fig. 9 (1886, Albatross 2706, 1 188 
fms.). Holotype USNM 78313, only specimen. 

formosa Verrill, Doto 

1875, AJS (3) 10: 41, pi. 3, fig. 4 (1874, off Point Judith [Rhode Island] 10-14 
fms.). Figured holotype YPM [presumed lost]. 

formosa Verrill and Smith, Turbonilla 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 398 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 891, 892, 
about 100 miles south of Newport, Rhode Island, 487, 500 fms.); 1882, 
TCAAS 5: 537, pi. 58, fig. 16, non [Odostomia formosa] Jeffreys [1848], 
changed to: T. bushiana Verrill 1882. Syntypes USNM 45470 and YPM 
15747 sta. 891; syntypes USNM 45471 and YPM 154748 sta. 892. 

fragilis Verrill and Bush, Martesia (Martesiella) 

1898, PUSNM 20: 111, pi. 79, fig. 10 (1885, Albatross near 2566, in floating 
wood). Figured holotype USNM 52543 selected as lectotype by Turner 
(1955: 111, pi. 65, fig. 1); paralectotype YPM 8844. 



38 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

fragilis Verrill, Crenella 

1885, TCAAS 6: 444 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2265, off Chesapeake 
Bay, 70 fms.); 1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 847, pi. 83, figs. 1, 2. 
Holotype USNM 41543, fig. 1; paratype YPM 8761 [formerly USNM 
40676], fig. 2, with note, "hinge figured." 

fragilis Verrill and Bush, Montacuta bidentata 

1898, PUSNM 20: 780, pi. 92, fig. 8 (1880, Fish Hawk 816, 817 near Bretons 
Reef Lightship, Narragansett Bay, [Rhode Island], 8.5-10 fms.). Holotype 
USNM 46134, only specimen. 

fraterna Verrill and Bush, Cuspidaria 

1898, PUSNM 20: 803, pi. 71, figs. 7, 8; pi. 75, fig. 6 (1880, Fish Hawk 894, 
off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts and 29 other stations], 365 fms.). 
Figured holotype USNM 48962. 

fraterna Verrill and Bush, Yoldiella 

1898, PUSNM 20: 867, pi. 80, fig. 5; pi. 82, fig. 8 (1873-86, Bache, Fish 
Hawk, Albatross, twenty stations between 47='40'N, 47°35'30"W and 
37°8'N, 74°33'W, 90-1608 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 159714 sta. 947. 

frielei Verrill, Pleurotomella 

1885, TCAAS 6: 4 13, pi. 44, fig. 5 ( 1884, Albatross 2208, 1 178 fms.). Figured 
holotype USNM 44653; paratype YPM 15724, only specimens. 

Gastranella Verrill, Genus 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 210, 286. Type species: Gastranella tumida Verrill 1872, by 
monotypy. 

gemma Verrill and Bush, Cardiomya 

1898, PUSNM 20: 809, pi. 71, figs. 3, 4; pi. 74, fig. 11 (1884, [Albatross] off 
Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 16, 17 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 
41456 sta. 2292; paratypes YPM 8794 sta. 2275 and YPM 8795 sta. 2276. 

gemma Verrill, Diaphana (Utriculus) 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 399 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 871, 873, south of 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 90 to 105 miles south of Newport, 
Rhode Island, 115, 100 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 543, pi. 58, fig. 22. Figured 
holotype USNM 76242 sta. 873; paratype YPM 15682 sta. 871. 

gemma Verrill, Lyonsiella 

1880, PUSNM 3: 396 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 893, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 487 fms.); 1884, TCAAS 6: 258, pi. 30, figs. 7, 8, 
genus changed to: Pecchiolia. Holotype USNM 48552, only specimen. 

georgiense Henderson, Dentalium (Antalis) occidentale 
See under: sulcatum Verrill, Dentalium occidentale. 

gibbosa Bush, Odostomia 

1909, AJS (4) 27: 482. New name for Odostomia modesta Bartsch (1909: 
108, pi. 13, fig. 50, Woods Hole [Barnstable Co., Massachusetts]) non 
Verrill 1875. Figured holotype USNM 203812. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 39 

gigantea Verrill, Neaera 

1884, TCAAS 6: 223 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2097, off Chesapeake 
Bay [Maryland], 1971 fms.); 1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM20: 811, pi. 
76, figs. 4, 5, genus changed to: Myonera. Holotype USNM 35255, only 
specimen, damaged. 

giganteus Verrill, Octopus 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 163 [not figured] ([beach, some miles south of] St. Augus- 
tine, Florida); 1897, The American Naturalist 31: 364, pis. 7, 8. Fragment 
in USNM [lost] testeGenna.ro (1971) who along with Mackel (1986) deter- 
mined from a sample that it was an Octopus. 

glabra Verrill, Anomia 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 211, 288 [not figured]. Based on A. ephippium Gould (1841: 
136; 1870: 204), non Linnaeus 1758, and A. electrica Gould (1870: 205), non 
Linnaeus 1758. Verrill 1873, ARUSCFF, p. 696 [402], pi. 32, figs. 241, 242, 
242a from Gould 1870. 

Glomidae Verrill and Bush, Family 

1898, PUSNM 20: 847. Type genus: Glomus Jeffreys 1876. 

Glominae Verrill and Bush, Subfamily 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 53, 59. Type genus: Glomus Jeffreys 1979. 

glypta Bush, Cardiomya 

1898 in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 810, pi. 71, fig. 1; pi. 76, figs. 3, 7. New 
name for Neaera costata Bush 1885, non Sowerby 1834, Hinds, 1843, 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11:11. Figured holotype 
USNM 35362 sta. 2108. 

glypta Bush, Mangilia "?" 

1885, ARUSCFF for 1883, p. 582 [80] (1883, Albatross 2108, off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 48 fms.); 1885, TCAAS 6: 461, pi. 45, figs. 5, 5a. 
Figured holotype USNM 35363 [labeled as lectotype]. 

glyptus Verrill, Pecten 

1882, TCAAS 5: 580 [not figured] (1880-81 Fish Hawk 871, 873, 874, 876, 
949, off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 85-120 fms.); 1897, Ibid. 10: 
76, pi. 16, figs. 7-11. Syntype USNM 48742 sta. 949, figured by Clench and 
Pulley (1952: 59, pi. A, fig. 2). 

glyptus Verrill, Sipho 

1882, TCAAS 5: 505, pi. 57, fig. 22; pi. 58, figs. 1,1a (1880-81, Fish Hawk 
894, 895, 925, 928, 951, 1028, 1029, 1032, off Martha's Vineyard [Massa- 
chusetts], 219-458 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 38005 sta. 895; para- 
types YPM 15300 sta. 894, YPM 15303 sta. 895, YPM 15302 sta. 951 and 
YPM 15229 sta. 1029. 

goslingii Verrill, Facelina 

1901 , TCAAS / i : 34, pi. 4, fig. 6 (Hungry Bay [Bermuda], in the mangrove 
swamp, on a filamentous green algae). Holotype YPM [not located]. 



40 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

gouldii Verrill, Bela 

1882, TCAAS 5: 465, pi. 57, figs. 6, 6a (1879, Speedwell 304, off Cape Cod 
[Massachusetts], 122 fms.; 1873, USFC, Casco Bay, Maine, 17-30 fms.; 
1877 USFC, Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia and Bedford Basin, 16-41 fms.). 
Figured holotypeUSNM 77435, off Nova Scotia; paratype YPM 15654 sta. 
304. 

gouldii Verrill, Buccinum 

1882, TCAAS 5: 497. New name for Buccinum humphreysianum Bennett 
1825, non Stimpson 1865. Based on Gould (1841, fig. 209) non Buccinum 
ciliatum Gould, Fabricius 1780. 

gouldii Verrill, Lamellaria pellucida 

1882, PUSNM 5: 329 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 925, 938, 939, 946, 
1029, off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 224-458 fms.; 1047, off 
Delaware Bay, 156 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 518, pi. 58, fig. 3. Figured 
holotype USNM 203248 sta. 946. 

gouldii Verrill, Montagua 

1873, ARUSCFF, p. 667 [373] [not figured] (off Thimble Island, Long 
Island Sound [Connecticut], 4-5 fms.). Syntypes YPM [not located]. 

gouldii Bush, Odostomia (Odostomia) 

1909, AJS (4) 27: 482. New name for Odostomia dealbata Gould (1870: 327, 
fig. 595, Boston Harbor [Massachusetts], 3 fms.) non Stimpson 1851. 
Figured holotype Boston Society of Natural History [lost]. 

gracilis Verrill, Acirsa 

1880, PUSNM 3: 377 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 873, 894, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 100-365 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 528, pi. 57, fig. 
31. Holotype USNM 44813 sta. 894, refigured by Clench and Turner (1952: 
326, pi. 157, fig. 2), non Scalaria gracilis Sowerby 1844, changed by them 
to: Epitonium (Boreoscala) pandion; paratype YPM 15778 sta. 894. 

gracilis Verrill, Octopus 

1884, TCAAS 6: 236 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2084, 1290 fms.). Holo- 
type USNM 38431, only specimen, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 7). 

grandis Verrill, Cadulus 

1884, TCAAS 6: 219 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2052, 1098 fms.; 2076, 
906 fms.; 2084, 1290 fms.; 2103, 1091 fms.; 2111, 938 fms.; 2115, 843 fms.; 
2043, 1467 fms.); 1885, Ibid. pi. 44, fig. 20. Figured holotype USNM 34735 
sta. 2076, teste Henderson (1920: 105, pi. 17, fig. 12); paratypes MCZ 
186804 sta. 2076 and USNM 35184 sta. 2084. 

grandis Verrill and Smith, Cryptodon 

1885, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 436, pi. 44, fig. 22 (1883, Albatross 2111, off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 938 fms.; 1884, Albatross 2228, 1582 fms., 2231, 
965 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 44824 sta. 2231; paratype USNM 
35757 sta. 2111. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 41 

grandis Verrill and Bush, Solemya 

1898, PUSNM 20: 885, pi. 86, figs. 1-2 (1880-84 Fish Hawk, Albatross, four 
stations between 39°58'30"N, 70°30'W and 37°24'N, 74°17'W, 300-1600 
fms.). Figured holotype USNM 51345, fig. 1, sta. 988; paratype USNM 
40103, fig. 2, sta. 2072 and paratype YPM 5360 sta. 2137. 

grandis Verrill, Turbonilla Plate 17, fig. 4 

1885, TCAAS 6: 427 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2228, 1582 fms.). Holo- 
type USNM 44791, only specimen. 

granulifera Verrill and Bush, Lyonsia 

1898, PUSNM 20: 818, pi. 95, fig. 1 (1885, Albatross 2492, 75 fms.). Holo- 
type USNM 52561, single valve. 

granulifera Verrill, Pecchiola 

1885, TCAAS 6: 434 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2229, off Chesapeake 
Bay [Maryland], 1423 fms.); 1898 in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 816, pi. 
87, fig. 2; pi. 95, figs. 2, 3, 4. Genus changed to: Verticordia. Holotype 
USNM 44838, only specimen. 

granulosa Verrill, Nucula 

1884, TCAAS 6: 280 [footnote, not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 892, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 478 fms.; 1883, Albatross 2072, 858 
fms.); 1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 853, pi. 81, fig. 2; pi. 88, fig. 8. 
Figured holotype USNM 38451 sta. 892. 

Gymnobela Verrill, Genus 

1884, TCAAS 6: 157. Species listed: Gymnobela engonia Verrill 1884 and 
G. carta Verrill 1884. Type species: G. engonia Verrill subsequent designa- 
tion, Cossmann (1896: 63). 

Halopsyche Verrill, Genus 

1880, PUSNM 3: 393. New name for Psyche Rang 1825, non Schrank 1801. 
Type species: Psyche globulosa Rang, by monotypy. 

hargeri Verrill, Pleuropus 

1882, TCAAS 5: 555 [not figured] (1872, Bache 84B is 41 °25'N, 65°50'3"W; 
85B is 41°25'N, 65°42'3"W east of Georges Bank, 65, 430 fms.) [not in 
USNM or YPM type collections]. 

harpa Verrill, Rissoa (Cingula) 

1880, PUSNM 3: 374 [not figured] (1877, Speedwell 34, off Massachusetts 
Bay, 160 fms.); 1880, Fish Hawk 892, 894 off Newport [Rhode Island], 487, 
365 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 523, pi. 58, fig. 6, as Cingula harpa (Verrill). 
Figured holotype USNM 43693 sta. 34. 

hebes Verrill, Actaeon 

1885, TCAAS 6: 428, pi. 44, fig. 15 (1884, Albatross 2224, 2574 fms.). 
Holotype USNM 44656; paratype YPM 15637. 

hebes Verrill, Bela 

1880, PUSNM 3: 367 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 891, 892, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 500, 487 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 459, pi. 57, fig. 



42 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

7. Figured holotype USNM 37847 sta. 891, mentioned by Bouchet and 
War6n (1980: 56); paratype YPM 15655. 

hebes Verrill, Sipho caelatus 

1884, TCAAS 6: 172 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2003, 640 fms., 2077, 
1255 fms., 2103, 1091 fms.). Lectotype USNM 35425 sta. 2103, selected by 
Bouchet and War6n (1985: 212) [not figured, not seen]; paralectotypes 
YPM 15271 sta. 2003; USNM 38015 sta. 2077 and USNM 35424 sta. 2103. 

heilprini Bush, Turbonilla 

1899, FANS? 52: 167, pi. 8, fig. 13 (Bermuda). Figured holotype ANSP 
79009. 

helenae A. H. Verrill, Murex 

1953, MCCSC no. 132: 10, 2 figs, (off Montserrat [Island], Lesser Antilles). 
Type and paratype [presumed to be in author's collection]. 

hemphilli Bush, Turbonilla 

1899, PANLP 52: 169, pi. 8, fig. 3 (Sarasota Bay [Florida], ANSP; West 
Florida, YPM). Figured holotype ANSP 79013; three paratypes YPM 
10302. 

henica Verrill and Bush, Siphonaria 

1900, TCAAS 10: 524, pi. 55, fig. 6; pi. 56, fig. 8 (Bailey Bay, Bermuda; 
shore). Holotype YPM 15738, only specimen. 

Heterodoridae Verrill, Family 

1882, TCAAS 5: 549. Type genus: Heterodoris Verrill and Emerton 1882, 
with the statement, "This genus will probably have to be made a new 
family, Heterodoridae." 

Heterodoris Verrill and Emerton, Genus 

1882, in Verrill, TCAAS 5: 548. Type species: Heterodoris robusta Verrill 
and Emerton 1882, by monotypy. 

hispidulus Verrill, Sipho Plate 13, fig. 1 

1884, TCAAS 6: 239 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2033, 379 fms.). Holo- 
type USNM 34840, only specimen. 

Histioteuthidae Verrill, Family 

1881, TCAAS 5: 431. Type genus: Histioteuthis Orbigny. 

humilis Bush, Cyclostremella 

1897, TCAAS 10: 141, pi. 22, figs. 8, 8b (1883-84, Albatross 2112, 2274, 2277, 
2278, off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, 15.5-16 fms.). Figured holotype 
USNM 41634 sta. 2278; paratype YPM 15807 sta. 2078. 

hyalina Verrill and Bush, Limatula Plate 9, fig. 2 

1898, PUSNM 20: 825 [not figured] (1885, Albatross 2367- 2374, 25-124 
fms.). Holotype USNM 202850, figured by Stuatdo (1968, pi. 8, fig. 18); 
paratypes YPM 8647; both stas. 2369-2374. 

Hyalopecten Verrill, Genus 

1897, TCAAS 70: 71. Type species: Hyalopecten undatus Verrill 1897, 
original designation. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 43 

hyatti Verrill, Rossia 

1878, AJS (3) 16: 209 (Massachusetts Bay, 50 fms.; off Cape Sable, 88-92 
fms., off Halifax, 57-100 fms., both [Nova Scotia]); 1880, AJS (3) 19: 291, pi. 
15, figs. 1, 2. Not mentioned as in USNM by Roper and Sweeney (1978). 
Specimen labeled "paratype" YPM 16078, Speedwell stas. 85-86. 

hypsela Verrill and Bush, Eulima Plate 16, fig. 2 

1900, TCAAS 10: 526, pi. 64, fig. 9 (Bermuda). Figured holotype ANSP 
103471; paratypes YPM 15689 with the note, "specimen depicted sent to 
Pilsbry [i.e. ANSP]." 

incisa Bush, Turbonilla Plate 16, fig. 8 

1899, PANSP 52: 156, pi. 8, fig. 12 (West Florida). Figured holotype ANSP 
[lost]; lectotype, here selected, ANSP 62800; paralectotype ANSP 372503. 

incisula Verrill, Bela Plate 11, fig. 1 

1882, TCAAS 5: 461, pi. 43, fig. 12; pi. 57, fig. 14 (Labrador; Eastport 
Harbor, Maine; Bay of Fundy, 5-10 fms.; Georges Bank, Casco Bay and 
Gulf of Maine, seven stations [subsequently numerous USFC stations, 
not individually listed here]). Figured holotype USNM 77165 Fish Hawk 
899; paratypes YPM 15656, Labrador; YPM 15657 Speedwell stas. 98-99 
and YPM 15658 Fish Hawk 987. 

incisus Bush, Cadulus 

1885, TCAAS 6: 471, pi. 45, fig. 20 ([1884] Albatross [2272], off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 15 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 44860; two 
paratypes YPM 15865. 

inclinata Bush, Turbonilla Plate 16, fig. 4 

1899, PANSP 52: 167 [not figured] (St. Thomas, West Indies). Holotype 
ANSP 72044, only specimen. 

inconspicua Bush, Leptogyra Plate 18, figs. 1-3 

1897, TCAAS 10: 137 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2174, off Delaware 
Bay, 1594 fms.). Holotype USNM 77624. 

inconspicua Verrill, Runcina 

1901, TCAAS 11: 28, pi. 3, fig. 6 (Castle Harbor [Bermuda], at low tide 
under stones). Holotype and paratypes YPM [not located]. 

inconspicua Verrill and Bush, Yoldiella 

1898, PUSNM 20: 869, pi. 79, figs. 3, 5 (1878-86, Speedwell, Fish Hawk, 
Atlantis, fifteen stations between 42°33'N, 69°58.5'W and 35°12'10"N, 
74°57'15"W, 100-705 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 48867 sta. 947. 

inequalis Verrill and Bush, Axinopsis orbiculata 

1898, PUSNM 20: 795, pi. 92, figs. 5, 6 (Eastport, Maine, 1872; Bay of 
Fundy). Figured holotype USNM 159850, from Eastport, Maine. 

inequalis Verrill and Bush, Cryptodon (Axinulus) 

1898, PUSNM 20: 791, pi. 90, figs. 1, 2 (1877, Speedwell 98, 99 [and nine 
other stations, not listed] midway between Sandwich Point and McNabs 
Island Light, Halifax Harbor [Nova Scotia], 18 fms.). Figured holotype 



44 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

USNM 159850; paratypes YPM 8775 sta. 293. 

inflata Boss, Pandora (Pandorella) 

See under: brevis Verrill and Bush, Kennerlia. 

inflata Verrill and Bush, Yoldiella 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 56, figs. 3, 4, 11 (1883-86, USFC, about 20 stations from 
south of Georges Bank to Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 516-1608 fms.); 

1898, PUSNM 20: 864, pi. 80, fig. 8. Figured holotype USNM 38417, fig. 8, 
sta. 2041. 

Inioteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1881, TCAAS 5: 417 [footnote]. Species listed: Inioteuthis japonica and /. 
morsei, both 1881. Type species: I. japonica Sasaki (1929: 140), subsequent 
designation. 

inornata Verrill and Bush, Clidiophora 

1898, PUSNM 20: 819, pi. 95, figs. 5, 6 (1872-81, USFC, twenty-three 
stations, north of Cape Cod, off Stellwagen Bank, and off Chatham 
[Massachusetts], 10-43 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 49760, refigured by 
Boss (1965: 197, pi. 120, figs. 1,2); paratype YPM 8837; both Speedwell 327, 
off south end of Stellwagen Bank, 17 fms. 

insculpta Verrill, Chlamys islandica 

1897, TCAAS 10: 73, pi. 16, fig. 4-5b (Bay of Fundy and northward to 
Greenland and Iceland, down to 179 fms.; as far south as Cape Cod, 20-100 
fms.; off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], dead; 69-194 fms.) [not in 
USNM or YPM type collections]. 

insignis Verrill and Bush, Cryptodon 

1898, PUSNM 20: 785, pi. 91, figs. 1-2 (1885, Albatross [off Nova Scotia] 
2499, 130 fms.). Figured syntypes USNM 52596, two left valves [not 52733 
as published]. 

iris Verrill and Bush, Yoldiella 

1898, PUSNM 20: 863, pi. 80, fig. 2; pi. 82, fig. 11 (1872-86, Bache, Fish 
Hawk, Albatross, 45 stations between 47°40'N, 47°35'30"W and 
35°12'10"N, 74°57'15"W, 20.5-781 fms.). Figured syntypes USNM 159722 
sta. 895. 

ischna Bush, Turbonilla pupoides 

1899, PANSP 52: 153, pi. 8, fig. 5 (Bermuda). Figured holotype ANSP 
79014; three paratypes ANSP 372507. 

isocardia Verrill, Venus Plate 4, fig. 1 

1870, AJS (2) 49: 221 [not figured] (near La Paz [Baja California]). Lecto- 
type, here selected, YPM 4941. 

japonica Verrill, Inioteuthis 

1881, TCAAS 5: 417 [footnote] (Bay of Yeddo, Japan, E. S. Morse) [not in 
YPM type collection]. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 45 

jeffreysii Verrill, Pleurotomella 

1885, TCAAS 6: 411, pi. 44, fig. 3 (1884, Albatross 2222, 1537 fms., 2230, 
1168 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 44649 sta. 2222; paratype USNM 
44650 sta. 2230, only specimens. 

jonesii Verrill and Bush, Odostomia 

1900, TCAAS 10: 531, pi. 64, fig. 13 (Bermuda). Figured holotype YPM 
15707; paratype YPM 15708. 

junonia Verrill, Semele Plate 5, fig. 1 

1870, AJS (2) 49: 217 [not figured] (near La Paz [Baja California]). Lecto- 
type selected by Coan (1988: 28, fig. 49) YPM 4080. 

Kelliposis Verrill and Bush, Genus 

1898, PUSNM 20: 783. Type species: Montacuta elevata Simpson 1851, 
original designation. 

Koonsia Verrill, Genus 

1882, TCAAS 5: 545. Type species: Koonsia obesa Verrill 1882, by 
monotypy. 

lacertosa Verrill, Chiroteuthis 

1881, TCAAS 5: 408, pi. 56, figs. 1-lf (1881, Browns Bank, off Nova Scotia, 
codfish stomach, W. Demsey to USFC; 1881, Fish Hawk 1048, off the 
Capes of Delaware, 435 fms.). Holotype USNM 574637, former locality; 
paratype [not found], latter locality, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 8). 

lactea Verrill, Lamellidoris 

1900, TCAAS 10: 548 [not figured] (Bailey Bay Island [Bermuda], at low 
water mark among corallines); 1901, Ibid. 11: 32, pi. 4, figs. 8, 8a, 8b. 
Holotype YPM [not located], only specimen. 

lamellosa Verrill and Smith, Margarita 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 397 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 871 , south of 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 115 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 530, pi. 57, 
fig. 38. Figured holotype USNM 44738. 

lamellosus Verrill, Idas argenteus 

1882, TCAAS 5: 579 [not figured] (1881, Fish Hawk 997, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 335 fms.); 1884 Ibid. 6: pi. 30, fig. 16. Figured 
holotype USNM 38210; paratype YPM 8831 sta. 997. 

laqueatum Verrill, Dentalium 

1885, TCAAS 6: 431, pi. 44, fig. 18 (1884, Albatross 2268, off Chesapeake 
Bay [Maryland], 68 fms.). Holotype USNM 44671, only specimen. 

lata Verrill and Bush, Tindaria Plate 7, fig. 1 

1898, PUSNM 20: 882 [not figured] (1885, Albatross 2385, [Gulf of Mexico], 
730 fms.). Measured holotype USNM 203000. 

latericeus Verrill [?], Fossarus 

1882, TCAAS 5: 586, pi. 57 fig. 28. See under: elegans Verrill and Smith, 
Fossarus. 



46 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Ledella Verrill and Bush, Genus 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 54. New name for Junonia Seguenza 1877, non Hubner 
1818. Type species: Leda messanensis Seguenza M. S., Jeffreys 1872, 
original designation. Changed to: Ledella bushae Warfen 1978 in 1985, 
Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 42 (2): 146, Opinion 1306, Ledella 
name no. 2249, L. bushae name no. 2944. 

leeana Verrill, Scalaria (Cirsotrema) 

1882, TCAAS 5: 526, pi. 57, fig. 34 (1881, Fish Hawk 1038, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 146 fms.). Holotype USNM 44806, refigured 
by Clench and Turner (1952: 349, pi. 172. 

lens 'Stimpson' Verrill, Astarte 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 213, 287 [not figured]. Based on Astarte crebricostata 
Gould (1870: 126, fig. 440), non Forbes 1847. 

lens Verrill and Smith, Loripes Plate 5, fig. 3 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 400 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 865-879 off 
the coast of southern New England, 65-142 fms.; 1879, off Cape Cod 
[Massachusetts], many places, 40-120 fms.). Probable measured syntype, 
here selected lectotype, USNM 64270 sta. 874; paralectotypes YPM 9104 
sta. 870. 

lentus Verrill, Octopus 

1880, AJS (3) 19: 138 [not figured] (near La Have Bank, off Nova Scotia, 
120 fms.); 1881, TCAAS 5: 375, pi. 35. Figured holotype USNM 34223, teste 
Roper and Sweeney (1978: 8). Subsequently figured specimen MCZ 3495, 
1880, Blake 329, 603 fms.; Verrill, 1881, BMCZ 8: 108, pi. 4, fig. 2. 

Lepetella Verrill, Genus 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 396. Type species: Lepetella tubicola Verrill and Smith 
1880, by monotypy. 

leptalea Bush, Choristella 

1897, TCAAS 10: 139, figs. 8, 9; pi. 23, figs. 16, a (1885, Albatross 2547, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 390 fms.). Holotype USNM 52504, 
only specimen. 

leptalea Verrill, Cingula 

1884, TCAAS 6: 182, pi. 32, fig. 10 (1883, Albatross 2072, 858 fms.). Holo- 
type USNM 38060, only specimen. 

leptalea Verrill, Cocculina 

1884, TCAAS 6: 202, pi. 32, figs. 20, 20a, 20b (1883, Albatross 2036, 1735 
fms., 2038, off Nantucket Shoals, 2033 fms., 2105, 1395 fms.). Holotype 
USNM 38079 sta. 2038; paratypes USNM 35128 sta. 2036 and USNM 
35371 sta. 2105. 

leptalea Bush, Pleurotomella 

1893, BMCZ 23: 208, pi. 2, figs. 5, 5a (1880, Blake 325, off Cape Fear [North 
Carolina], 647 fms.). Holotype MCZ 119127, only specimen. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 47 

leptalea Bush, Scalaria 

1885, TCAAS 6: 465 [not figured] ([1884] Albatross [2277], off Cape Hatte- 
ras [North Carolina], 14-16 fms.); 1893, BMCZ 23: 240, pi. 1, fig. 17, genus 
changed to: Scala. Holotype USNM 44854 sta. 2277, refigured by Clench 
and Turner (1952: 293, pi. 133, fig. 1). 

leptaleus Verrill, Pecten 

1884, TCAAS 6: 232 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2109 off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 142 fms.); 1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 839, pi. 
85, fig. 1. Holotype USNM 38413. 

leptaleus Verrill, Sipho 

1884, TCAAS 6: 175, pi. 31, fig. 14 (1882, Fish Hawk 1143, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 452 fms.). Holotype USNM 202879, only 
specimen. 

Leptaxinus Verrill and Bush, Genus 

1898, PUSNM 20: 796. Type species: Leptaxinus minutus Verrill and Bush 

1898, original designation. 

Leptogyra Bush, Genus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 135. Type species: Leptogyra uerrilli Bush 1897, original 
designation. 

Leptopecten Verrill, Subgenus of Chlamys Bolton 1798 

1897, TCAAS 10: 69. Type species: Pecten monotimeris Conrad 1837, 
original designation. 

Leptoteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1884, TCAAS 6: 140. Type species: Leptoteuthis diaphana Verrill 1884, by 
monotypy. 

leptum Bush, Dentalium 

1885, ARUSCFF for 1883, p. 586 [84] ([1884] Albatross [2276], off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 14-15 fms.); 1885, TCAAS 6: 470, pi. 45, figs. 18, 
18a. Figured holotype USNM 41562, refigured by Henderson (1920: 66, pi. 
10, fig. 4). 

Lestoteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1880, TCAAS 5: 251. Type species: [Onychoteuthis] kamtschitica Mid- 
dendorff 1849, original designation. 

leuca Bush, Mangilia 

1893, BMCZ 23: 209, pi. 1, fig. 2 (1880, Blake 329, off Cape Lookout [North 
Carolina], 603 fms.). Holotype MCZ 119075, only specimen. 

leuca Bush, Turbonilla 

1899, PANSP 52: 167 [not figured] (Bermuda); 1900, in Verrill and Bush, 
TCAAS 10: 529, pi. 64, fig. 18. Figured holotype YPM 15801. 

leucoptera Verrill, Sepiola 

1878, AJS (3) 1 6: 378 (Gulf of Maine, 30 miles east from Cape Ann [Massa- 
chusetts] 1 10 fms.); 1880, AJS (3) 19: 291, pi. 15, figs. 4, 5. Syntype USNM 



48 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

729735, 1878, Speedwell 194, 110 fms. The disposition of the other two 
syntypes is unknown, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 8). 

leucozonia A. H. Verrill, Engina 

1950, MCCSC no. 104: 3, fig. (Nevis [Island, Lesser Antilles]). Type in 
author's collection. 

levicula Verrill, Lunatia Plate 10, fig. 7 

1880, PUSNM 3: 371 [not figured] (near Eastport, Maine, 1870; Casco Bay, 
Maine, USFC; 1880, Fish Hawk 812-814, off Block Island [Rhode Island], 
26-28 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5:516 [not figured]; 1884, TCAAS 6: pi. 29, fig. 3. 
Lectotype, here selected, USNM 75840, Casco Bay, Maine. 

limicola Verrill, Trophon abyssorum 

1885, TCAAS 6: 421 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2038, 2033 fms., 2084, 
1290 fms.; 1884, Albatross 2221, 1525 fms.); 1893, in Bush, BMCZ 23: 240,~ 
pi. 1, fig. 15. Figured holotype USNM 38039 sta. 2084; paratypes USNM 
34847 sta. 2038 and YPM 15745 sta. 2084. 

lintoni Verrill and Smith, Trophon 

1882, in Verrill, AJS (3) 24: 365 [footnote, not figured] (1882, Fish Hawk 
1118, off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 70 fms.); 1884, TCAAS 6: 
176, pi. 29, fig. 1. Holotype USNM 77269, only specimen. 

lirata Verrill, Omalaxis "? " 

1882, TCAAS 5: 529 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 770, off Newport, 
Rhode Island, 874 fms.); 1885, TCAAS 6: 452, Additions and Corrections: 
Skenea "(?)" lirata V. = Omalaxis "(?)" V. "This species is common in 10 to 
43 fathoms off Cape Hatteras, but has not been preserved with the 
animal, so that the genus is still uncertain." 1893 in Bush, BMCZ 23: 240, 
pi. 1, fig. 11, 1884, off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina sta. 2278, figured 
specimen 44664. Holotype USNM 406741. 

liratulus Verrill, Sipho stimpsonii 

1882, TCAAS 5: 500. New name for Neptunea (Sipho) arata Verrill 1880, 
non Gould 1860. 

lissa Verrill, Eulimella (or Menestho) 

1884, TCAAS 6: 195, pi. 32, fig. 6 (1883, Albatross 2109, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 142 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 35433; paratypes 
YPM 15090. 

Lissopecten Verrill, Subgenus of Chlamys Bolton 1798 

1897, TCAAS 10: 68. Type species: Ostrea hyalina PoH 1795, original 
designation. 

Lissospira Bush, Genus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 129. Type Species: Cyclostrema proxima Tryon 1888, 
original desig^nation. 

lottae Bush, Diaphana "?" 

1893, BMCZ 23: 222, pi. 2, figs. 8, 9 (1880, Blake 329, off Cape Lookout 
[North Carolina], 603 fms.; 1882, Fish Hawk 1142, off Martha's Vineyard 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 49 

[Massachusetts], 322 fms.). Figured holotype MCZ [not located]; syntype 
USNM 45604 sta. 1142. 

lottae Verrill, Pleurotomella 

1885, TCAAS 6: 415, pi. 44, fig. 7 (1884, Albatross 2221, 1525 fms.). Figured 
holotype USNM 40498; paratype YPM 15724, only specimens. 

lubrica Verrill and Bush, Odostomia 

1900, TCAAS 10: 532, pi. 64, fig. 15 (Bermuda). Figured holotype YPM 
15709 [specimen missing]. 

lucida Verrill, Eulimella 

1884, TCAAS 6: 192, pi. 32, figs. 3, 3a (1883, Albatross 2038, off Nantucket 
Shoals, 2033 fms.). Holotype USNM 38218, only specimen. 

macra Verrill, Urosalpinx Plate 10, fig. 9 

1884, TCAAS 6: 239 [not figured] (1883, AZ6aiross 2109, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 142 fms.). Holotype USNM 35772, only specimen. 

maculatus A. H. Verrill, Murex 

1950, Nautilus 65: 126, pi. 9, fig. 3 (off Dominica, Lesser Antilles, 40-50 
fms.). Type and paratype in author's collection. 

margaritana A. H. Verrill, Voluta 

See under: ornata A. H. Verrill, Voluta. 

Martesiella Verrill and Bush, Subgenus 

1898, PUSNM 20: 111. Type species: Martesia {Martesiella) fragdis Verrill 
and Bush 1898, by monotypy. 

Mastigotheuthidae Verrill, Family 

1881, TCAAS 5: 430. Type genus: Mastigoteuthis Verrill 1881. 

Mastigoteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1881, BMCZ 8: 100. Type species: Mastigoteuthis agassizii Verrill 1881, by 
monotypy. 

media Verrill and Bush, Cuspidaria 

1898, PUSNM 20: 800, pi. 71, figs. 5, 6; pi. 75, fig. 6 (1880-84, Fish Hawk, 
Albatross, about fifteen stations off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 
63-155 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 49018, pi. 71, fig. 6, sta. 849; figured 
paratype USNM 49020, pi. 71, fig. 5, sta. 949. 

megalops Verrill, Abralia 

1882, AJS (3) 24: 364 [not figured] (1882, Fish Hawk 1137, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 173 fms.); 1883, BMCZ 11: 105, pi. 3, fig. 4; 

1884, TCAAS 6: 143, pi. 28, fig. 2. Holotype USNM 38022, only specimen, 
teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 9). 

megalopsis Verrill, Benthoteuthis 

1885, TCAAS 6: 402, pi. 44, fig. 1 (1884, Albatross 2189, 600 fms., 2205, 1073 
fms.). Syntypes USNM 39967 sta. 2189; USNM 39968 sta. 2205, teste 
Roper and Sweeney (1978: 9). 



50 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

megaptera Verrill, Ancistrocheirus 

1885, TCAAS 6: 399, pi. 42, figs. 1, la (1884, Albatross 2235, 707 fms.). 
Holotype USNM 40128, only specimen and no longer extant, teste Roper 
and Sweeney (1978: 9). 

megaptera Verrill, Aplysia 

1900, TCAAS 10: 545, pi. 66, fig. 6 (Bailey Bay [Bermuda], on reefs). 
Syntypes YPM [not found]. 

megaptera Verrill, Architeuthis 

1878, AJS (3) 16: 207 [not figured] (Cape Sable, Nova Scotia); 1880, 
TCAAS 5: 223, pi. 21, figs. 1-9, changed to: Sthenoteuthis megaptera 
(Verrill). Holotype now in National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, 
Canada, 92651. 

megaptera Verrill, Cirrhoteuthis 

1885, TCAAS 6: 405, pi. 43, figs. 1, 2 (1884, Albatross 2225, 2512 fms.; 2224, 
2574 fms.). Figured syntype USNM 39963, no longer extant; USNM 40131, 
macerated, both sta. 2225; USNM 40127, poor condition, USNM 39916, no 
longer extant, both sta. 2224, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 9). 

megaptera Verrill, Rossia 

1881, TCAAS 5: 349, pi. 38, fig. 1; pi. 46, fig. 6 (1880, off the southern coast 
of Newfoundland, 150 fms., Capt. K. Markuson). Figured holotype YPM 
17713, consists of "12th sucker of tentacular arm," only. 

Megayoldia Verrill and Bush, Genus 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 55. Type species: Nucula thraciaeformis Storer 1838, 
original designation. 

messanensis Verrill and Bush, Ledella 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 54, figs. 13, 18. Holotype USNM 52156 sta. 2566, refigured 
by War6n (1978: figs. 8, 9). Non L. messanensis Seguenza M. S., Jeffreys 
1870, changed to: Ledella bushae War6n (1978: 213). 

Microyoldia Verrill and Bush, Genus 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 56. Type species: Yoldia regularis Verrill 1884, original 
designation. 

mighelsi Bartsch, Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) 
See under: costulata Verrill, Turbonilla. 

miniata Verrill, Lamiellidoris 

1901 , TCAAS i i : 32, pi. 3, fig. 1 (Castle Harbor [Bermuda], under stones at 
low tide). Holotype YPM [not located]. 

minuscula Bush, Pseudorotella 

1897, TCAAS 10: 118, figs. 3a-c (1884, Albatross 2283, off Cape Hatteras, 
North Carolina, 14 fms.). Holotype USNM 41623, only specimen. 

miniscula Verrill and Bush, Rissoa (Manzonia) 

1900, TCAAS 10: 540, pi. 65, fig. 16 (Bermuda). Holotype YPM 15732, only 
specimen. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 51 

minuscula Verrill and Bush, Yoldiella 

1898, PUSNM 20: 870, pi. 79, figs. 2, 7 (1883-85, Fish Hawk, Albatross, four 
stations between 41°53'N, 65°35'W and 38°27'N, 73°2'W, 705-1290 fms.). 
Figured holotype USNM 38415 sta. 2084. 

minuta Bush, Volvula 

1885, TCAAS 6: 469, pi. 45, fig. 11 ([1883] Albatross [2113], off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 14-16 fms.). Holotype USNM 44773. 

minutus Verrill and Bush, Leptaxinus 

1898, PUSNM 20: 797, pi. 89, figs. 3-5 (1881, Fish Hawk 949, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 100 fms.). Holotype USNM 45686, only speci- 
men, refigured by Scott (1986: 150, fig. Ic). 

modesta Verrill, Idalia 

1875, AJS (3) 10: 41, pi. 3, fig. 3 (1874, off west end of Fishers Island [no 
depth]; Block Island Sound, 17-24 fms.; north of Little Gull Island, 40 fms.; 
[all New York]). Figured holotype and paratypes YPM [presumed lost]. 

modestus Verrill, Angulus Plate 7, fig. 2 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 210, 285, pis. 2, 2a (Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay 
[Massachusetts]), 6-10 fms.; Long Island Sound, off New Haven [Connec- 
ticut]; 1873, ARUSCFF, p. 667, [383], pi. 30, fig. 224, changed to: A. tenellus 
Verrill, non Carpenter 1864. Syntype, now paralectotype, YPM 76973, 
Vineyard Sound, figured by Boss (1968: 323, pi. 158, figs. 3, 4); lectotype, 
here selected, YPM 8758. "Type lot" in the USNM 76972 was not collected 
until 1875. 

mohorteri A. H. Verrill, Cymatium (Ranularia) 

1952, MCCSC no. 119:2,2 figs. (Soufriere Bay, Dominica [Lesser Antilles], 
75-100 fms.) Type and paratype in author's collection. 

Molleriopsis Bush, Genus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 137. Type species: Molleriopsis abyssicola Bush 1897, 
original designation. 

mollis Verrill, Allopusus 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 394 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 880, 892, 893, 895 
225-487 fms., about 100 to 115 miles south of Newport, Rhode Island) 

1881, BMCZ 8: 113, pi. 4, fig. 4; pi. 8, figs. l-2a; 1881, TCAAS 5: 366, pi. 50 
figs. 1, la, 2, 2a; pi. 51, fig. 4. Syntypes USNM 382470; USNM 574848 
USNM 729164 and USNM 729737, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 9) 
"syntype" YPM 17711, though labeled sta. 881. 

morio Verrill, Tethys (Aplysia) 

1901 , TCAAS i 7 : 25, pi. 3, figs. 5, 5a (Castle Harbor [Bermuda]). Holotype 
YPM [not located], only specimen. 

Moroteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1881 [October], AJS (3) 22: 298 [footnote]. Type species: Ommastrephes 
robustus 'Dair Verrill 1876 original designation. Also 1881 [October], 



52 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

TCAAS 5: 393 as: Onychoteuthis (or Lestoteuthis "?") robusta 'Dall' 
Verrill 1876. 

morsei Verrill, Inioteuthis 

1881, TCAAS 5: 417 [footnote] (Bay of Yeddo, Japan, E. S. Morse). Holo- 
type YPM 9638A; paratype YPM 9638B. 

multicostata Verrill and Smith, Neaera 

1880, in Verrill, PUSNM 3: 398 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 871, 873, 
874, south of Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 85-120 fms.); 1882, 
TCAAS 5: 559, pi. 58, fig. 4. Figured holotype USNM 48940 sta. 871; 
paratypes YPM 8800 sta. 871 and YPM 8801 sta. 874. 

multistriata Verrill, Ethalia Plate 15, fig. 1 

1884, TCAAS 6: 242 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2109, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 142 fms.). Lectotype, here selected, USNM 35733. 

nanus Verrill and Bush, Cyclopecten 

1897, in Verrill, TCAAS 10: 85, pi. 16, figs. 12, 12a-c as parvus [sic] (off the 
eastern coast of the United States, opposite Chesapeake Bay and Cape 
Hatteras [North Carohna], 43 to 132 fms.); 1898, in Verrill and Bush, 
PUSNM 20: 837, pi. 85, figs. 2-4. Figured holotype USNM 107789 sta. 2265 
[paratypes in same lot]. 

Nectoteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1883, BMCZ 11: 108. Type species: Nectoteuthis pourtalesii Verrill 1883, 
by monotypy. 

neglecta A. H. Verrill, Cypraecassis testiculus 

1949, Mollusca 2 (5): 9, pi. 2, fig. 5 (Dominica, also Barbados and Virgin 
Islands [West Indies]). Type and paratypes [presumed to be] in author's 
collection. 

nigrolabra Verrill, Nassa 

1880, PUSNM 3: 371 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 870, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 155 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 512, pi. 58, fig. 12. 
Holotype USNM 43846, only specimen. 

nitida Verrill, Avicula hirundo "?" 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 392[nude name]; 1881, PUSNM 3: 402 [not figured] (1880, 
Fish Hawk 856-867, 869-873, south of Martha's Vineyard [Massachu- 
setts], 65-192 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 582, pi. 58, fig. 43. USNM type card 
with the note, "cotype could not be located, lectotype in H. Hayes thesis, 
3/72." Since no syntype is available, this selection would be invalid even 
if the thesis had been published. 

nitida Verrill and Smith, Delphinula 

1885, TCAAS 6: 424, pi. 44, fig. 11 (1884, Albatross 2229, 1423 fms.). 
Holotype USNM 44648, only specimen. 

nitida Verrill, Eulimella 

884, TCAAS 6: 194, pi. 32, fig. 5 (1883, Albatross 2038, off Nantucket 
Shoals, 2033 fms.). Holotype 38182, only specimen. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 53 

nitida Verrill, Kelliella 

1885, TCAAS 6: 438 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2221, 1525 fms., 2038, 
2033 fms.); 1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 778, pi. 91, fig. 8; pi. 93, 
fig. 10. Figured holotype USNM 37921 sta. 2221; paratypes USNM 40498 
sta. 2221 and USNM 35217 sta. 2038. 

nitida Verrill, Ringicula Plate 10, fig. 5 

1872 [1873], AJS (3) 5: 16 [not figured] (1872, Bache (O), 42°5'N, 67°49'W, 
(S) is 42°11'N, 67°15'W off northeast and northwest border of Georges 
Bank, 1 10, 150 fms.); 1874, in Smith and Harger, TCAAS 3: 48, pi. 1, fig. 2. 
Figured holotype USNM 43766 [not located in USNM type collection], 
now YPM 15776 [stations not separated]. 

nitida Verrill, Seguenzia formosa Plate 15, fig. 4 

1884, TCAAS 6: 188 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2038, off Nantucket 
Shoals, 2033 fms.). Measured holotype USNM 38078 [with note "figured" 
on USNM type card]. 

nitida Verrill, Thracia 

1884, TCAAS 6: 221, pi. 32, fig. 22 (1883, Albatross 2097, off Chesapeake 
Bay, 1917 fms.). Holotype USNM 35267, only specimen. 

nitida Verrill, Turtonia 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 213, 286, pi. 7, figs. 4, 4a. Based on Turtonia minuta Gould 
(1870: 85, fig. 395), not of European authors. 

nitidus Verrill, Actaeon 

1882, TCAAS 5: 540, pi. 58, fig. 21 (1880-81, Fish Hawk, 892, 947, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 487, 312 fms.). Figured holotype 
USNM 45669 sta. 947; paratype YPM 15638 sta. 892. 

niveus Verrill, Placobranchopsis 

1901, TCAAS 11: 27, pi. 4, fig. 10 (Harrington Sound, in shallow water on 
the under side of a coral {Isophyllia dipsacea); also in Castle Harbor [6oi/i 
Bermuda]). Holotype YPM [not located]. 

nobilis Verrill, Coryphella 

1880, PUSNM 3: 388 [not figured] (1879, Speedwell 326, off Cape Cod 
[Massachusetts], 75 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 552, pi. 42, fig. 15. Holotype 
YPM 15678, only specimen. 

nobilis Verrill, Omalaxis 

1885, TCAAS 5: 423, pi. 44, fig. 12 (1884, Albatross 2265, 70 fms.). Holotype 
USNM 41481. 

nobilis Verrill, Scaphander 

1884, TCAAS 6: 209, pi. 32, figs. 18, 18a-d (1883, Albatross 2052, 1098 fms., 
2074, 1309 fms., 2076, 906 fms., 2077, 1255 fms., off Martha's Vineyard 
[Massachusetts]; 1883, Albatross 2102, 1209 fms., 2103, 1091 fms. off 
Delaware Bay). Figured holotype USNM 35641 sta. 2102; paratypes 
USNM 35374 sta. 2103 and YPM 15737 sta. 2101. 



54 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

nodosa Verrill and Smith, Admete 

1885, in Verrill, TC AAS 6: 41 9, pi. 44, fig. 9 (1884, Albatross 2234, 816 fms., 
2217, 924 fms.). Holotype USNM 44646 sta. 2234. 

nodulosa Verrill and Bush, Limatula Plate 9, fig. 1 

1898, PUSNM 20: 824 [not figured] (1885, Albatross 2385 [Gulf of Mexico], 
730 fms.). Holotype USNM 1 10618, single valve, figured by Stuardo (1968, 
pi. 15, fig. 75). 

nux Verrill and Bush, Lucina 

1900, TCAAS 10: 518, pi. 63, figs. 12, 13 (Bermuda). Holotype YPM 8760, 
single valve. 

obesa Verrill, Koonsia 

1882, TCAAS 5: 545 (1880-81 Fish Hawk 895, 939, 946, 1025, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 216-258 fms.; 1881, Fish Hawk 1045, off Dela- 
ware Bay, 312 fms.); 1884, Ibid. 6: pi. 28, fig. 7. Holotype USNM 784665 
figured by Gosliner (1985, figs. 4-8). 

obesa Bush, Turbonilla costulata 

See under: costulata Verrill, Turbonilla. 

obesum Verrill and Bush, Caecum 

1900, TCAAS 10: 538, pi. 65, fig. 2 (Bermuda). Figured holotype YPM 
15669 and a paratype. 

obesus Verrill, Cryptodon 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 211, 287, pi. 7, fig. 2 (off Nomans Land [south of Martha's 
Vineyard, Massachusetts], 19 fms.; Labrador). Figured holotype USNM 
74299 stas. 860-863 [not separated]. 

obesus Verrill, Octopus 

1880, AJS (3) 19: 137 (from stomach of halibut, taken 36 miles east from 
the N.E. Light of Sable Island [off Nova Scotia], 160-300 fms.); 1881, 
TCAAS 5: 379, pi. 36, figs. 3, 3a. Holotype USNM 382469, teste Roper and 
Sweeney (1978: 10. 

obesus Verrill, Sipho Plate 12, fig. 3 

1884, TCAAS 6: 168[not figured] (1883, ^/6a^ross 21 15, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 843 fms.). The lot containing the holotype and several 
syntypes [sic] USNM 35600 mentioned by Bouchet and War6n (1985: 212) 
consists of a single specimen, smaller than the measured holotype and is, 
here selected, lectotype. 

obliqua Bush, Venericardia Plate 5, fig. 4 

1885, TCAAS 6: 478 [not figured] {Albatross [no station given], off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 7-10 fms.). Lectotype, here selected, YPM 
10781 sta. 2289, single valve; paralectotype YPM 10782 sta. 2290. 

obscura Verrill, Doridella 

1870, AJS (2) 50: 408, text figs. 2a, b, 3 (Savin Rock, New Haven [Connecti- 
cut]); 1873, ARUSCFF, p. 664 [370], pi. 25, figs. 173a, b. Holotype YPM 
15683, so marked. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 55 

obsoletus Verrill and Bush, Cryptodon 

1898, PUSNM 20: 789, pi. 89, figs. 1, 2 (1881, Fis/i //aM;;fe 949, [and two other 
stations, not listed] (off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 100 fms.). 
Figured holotype USNM 159886, labeled "selected as lectotype by Ockel- 
mann"; paratype YPM 8781 sta. 894. 

olivacea Verrill, Cithna "?" 

1884, TCAAS 6: 185, pi. 29, fig. 5 (1882, Fish Hawk 1154, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 193 fms.; 1883, Albatross 2084, 1290 fms.). 
Figured holotype USNM 38237 sta. 1154. 

olivacea Verrill, Doris "?" 

1900, TCAAS 10: 548 [not figured] (Bailey Bay [Bermuda], among coral- 
lines); 1901, Ibid. 11: 38, pi. 4, fig. 7 [subsequently discovered specimen]. 
Syntypes YPM [not located]. 

Opisthoteuthidae Verrill, New Family 

1896, AJS (4) 2: 74. Type genus: Opisthoteuthis Verrill 1883, original 
designation. 

Opisthoteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1883, BMCZ 11: 113. Type species: Opisthoteuthis agassizii Verrill 1882, 
by monotypy. 

ornata Verrill, Acanthodoris 

1879, AJS (3) 17: 313 [not figured] (1872, USFC, Eastport, Maine, at low 
water); 1882, TCAAS 5: 549, pi. 42, fig. 12. Figured holotype [not located in 
USNM or YPM]. 

ornata A. H. Verrill, Voluta 

1953, MCCSC no. 132: 9, fig. (Margarita [Island, Venezuela]; Curacao 
[Netherlands Antilles]). Type [presumed to be] in author's collection. Non 
Voluta ornata Link 1807, non Voluta musica ornata A. H. Verrill 1950, 
changed to: Voluta margaritana A. H. Verrill, 1954, MCCSC no. 104: 4. 

ornata A. H. Verrill, Voluta musica 

1950 MCCSC no. 102: 5 (Bequia Island, Grenadines). Three types [pre- 
sumed to be] in author's collection. Non Voluta ornata Link 1807. 

ornatum Verrill, Cyclostrema dalli 

1884, TCAAS 6: 255, pi. 32, fig. 17 (1883, Albatross 21 15, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 843 fms.). Holotype USNM 35610, only specimen. 

Orthoyoldia Verrill and Bush, Genus 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 55. Type species: Yoldia scapina [error for scapania] Dall 
1890, original designation. 

ovata Verrill and Bush, Nucula proxima 

1898, PUSNM 20: 852, pi. 81, fig. 6; pi. 88, fig. 5 (1880, Fish Hawk 863, off 
Cuttyhunk Light in Vineyard Sound [Massachusetts] 18 fms.). Holotype 
USNM 73467, only specimen. 



56 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

ovatus Verrill and Bush, Cryptodon (Axinulus) 

1898, PUSNM 20: 793, pi. 91, fig. 7; pi. 93, fig. 1 (1881, Fish Hawk 949, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 100 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 
159887; also three specimens, not types, USNM 35531 (1883, Albatross 
2113, 15 fms.), "of considerably larger size which agree closely with this 
species and are probably identical." 

oxia Bush, Mangilia melanitica 

1885, ARUSCFF for 1883, p. 580 [78] ([1883] Albatross [2113], off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 7-48 fms.); 1885, TCAAS 6: 459, pi. 45, figs. 3, 
3a. Figured holotype USNM 35360 [segregated from paratypes in the 
same lot]. 

oxytata Bush, Mangilia 

1885, ARUSCFF for 1883, p. 582 [80] (1883, Albatross 2108, off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 48 fms.); 1885, TCAAS 6: 400, pi. 45, fig. 1. 
Holotype USNM 35395, only specimen. 

oxytata Bush, Volvula 

1885, TCAAS 6: 468, pi. 45, fig. 12 ([1883] Albatross [2112], off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 7-17 fms.). Holotype USNM 35871. 

pachia Verrill and Bush, Yoldiella Plate 6, fig. 1 

1898, PUSNM 20: 868 [not figured] (1885, Albatross 2385, 730 fms.). Lecto- 
type, here selected, USNM 203001, single valve. 

packardii Verrill, Pleurotomella 

1872 [1873], AJS (3) 5: 15 [footnote, not figured] (1872, Bache (O) [off 
northwest border of Georges Bank] 110 fms.); is 42°5'N, 67°49'W; 1882, 
TCAAS 5 453, pi. 43, fig. 9; pi. 57, fig. 5. Holotype USNM 37874, only 
specimen. 

pallida Verrill, Coryphella "?" 

1900, TCAAS 10: 547 [not figured] (Bailey Bay [Bermuda], in corallines). 
Holotype YPM [not located], only specimen. 

pallida Verrill, Loligo 

1873, ARUSCFF, p. 441 [147], 635 [341], pi. 20, figs. 101, 101a (Long Island 
Sound [Connecticut]). Holotype YPM [not located]. 

pandion Clench and Turner, Epitonium (Boreoscala) 
See under: gracilis Verrill, Acirsa. 

pandionis Verrill and Smith, Cadulus 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 392, 399 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 869- 
871, 873, 874, 876, 877, 891, off coast of southern New England, 85-192 
fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 558, pi. 38, figs. 30, 30a. Figured holotype USNM 
38644 sta. 876; paratypes MCZ 186814 sta. 870. 

pandionis Verrill, Pleurotoma (Pleurotomella) 

1880, PUSNM 3: 368 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 895, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 238 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 456, pi. 57, figs. 4, 
4a. Holotype USNM 37873, only specimen. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 57 

papillosa Verrill, Elysia 

1901, TCAAS 7 7: 31, pi. 4, fig. 3 (Hungry Bay [Bermuda], under stones at a 
very low tide). Holotype YPM [not located]. 

Paramusmm Verrill, Genus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 72. Type species: Amusium dalli Smith [Amussium] 
1886, original designation. 

parva Verrill and Bush, Cuspidaria 

1898, PUSNM 20: 801, pi. 74, fig. 9; pi. 77, fig. 7 (1884, Albatross 2203 [and 
six other stations, not hsted], 705 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 159742; 
paratype YPM 8827 sta. 2115. 

parva Verrill and Bush, Ledella 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 54 [footnote], fig. 18 (1886, Albatross 2689, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 525 fms.); 1898, PUSNM 20: 857, pi. 8, fig. 1. 
Holotype USNM 78365, single valve. 

parvus Verrill and Smith, Sipho 

1882, in Verrill, TCAAS 5: 504, pi. 57, figs. 20, 20a, 20b (1881, Fish Hawk 
937, 947, 994, 997, 1029, off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 312-506 
fms.). Figured holotype USNM 38013 sta. 997; paratypes YPM 15329 sta. 
947 and YPM 15327 sta. 997. 

paucistriata 'Dall' Bush, Neacera 

1885, TCAAS 6: 473. Nude name. 

Pectinella Verrill, Genus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 68. Type species: Pecten (Pseudamusium) sigsbeei Dall 

1886, original designation. 

pedersenii Verrill, Enaeta Plate 4, fig. 2 

1870, AJS (2) 49: 226 [not figured] (La Paz [Baja California]). Lectotype, 
here selected, YPM 8842. 

pellucida Verrill, Lamellaira 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 395 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 870-872, off Delaware 
Bay, 100-208 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 518, pi. 58, figs. 4, 5, 5a. Figured 
holotype USNM 202846 sta. 871. 

penistoni Bush, Turbonilla 

1899, PANSP 52: 165, pi. 8, fig. 14 (Bermuda). Figured holotype ANSP 
70024; paratype YPM 15800. 

perlepida Verrill, Turbonilla Plate 17, fig. 5 

1885, TCAAS 6: 427 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2265, off Chesapeake 
Bay [Maryland], 70 fms.). Holotype USNM 44790, only specimen [not in 
USNM type collection]. 

perversa Bush, Eulima 

1909, AJS (4) 27: 479 [footnote]. New name for Eulima distorta Verrill 

1881, non Deshayes 1835. 



58 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

picta Verrill, Elysia 

1901, TCAAS 11: 30, pi. 4, fig. 2 (Hungry Bay [Bermuda], under stones at 
low tide). Holotype and paratype YPM [not located], only specimens. 

pictus Verrill, Octopus 

1883, BMCZ 11: 112, pi. 3, fig. 2 (1878-79, Blake 142, 278, Flannegan 
Passage, and off Barbados [Windward Islands], 27, 69 fms.); 1885, 
ARUSCFF for 1883, pi. 22, fig. 65. Two syntypes, presumed lost, not 
mentioned by Roper and Sweeney (1978). 

pilsbryi Bush, Turbonilla 

1899, PANS? 52: 151, pi. 8, fig. 9 (St. Thomas, West Indies). Holotype 
ANSP 72045, only specimen. 

piscatorum Verrill, Octopus 

1879, AJS (3) 18: 470 [not figured] (western part of La Have Bank, off Nova 
Scotia, 120 fms.); 1881, TCAAS 5: 377, pi. 36, figs. 1, 2. Holotype USNM 
574641, tes e Roper and Sweeney (1978: 11). 

Placopecten Verrill, Subgenus of Chlamys Bolton 1798 

1897, TCAAS 10: 69. Type species: Pecten clintonius Say 1824, original 
designation. 

plana Verrill, Limopsis 

1885, TCAAS 6: 441 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2098, 2221 fms.); 1893, 
in Bush, 23: 240, pi. 2, fig. 19; 1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 846, pi. 
75, fig. 5. Holotype USNM 35238; paratype YPM 5771, only specimens. 

planula Verrill, Machaeroplax obscura Plate 17, fig. 6 

1882, TCAAS 5: 531 [not figured] (south of Cape Cod [Massachusetts], 
15-30 fms.). Holotype USNM 76067, off Block Island [Rhode Island]; 
paratype YPM 15955. 

planulus Verrill, Sipho pygmaeus 

1882, TCAAS 5: 505 [footnote] (off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 
20-350 fms.) [not in USNM type collection]. 

planus Verrill and Bush, Cryptodon 

1898, PUSNM 20: 788, pi. 88, figs. 3, 4 (1879, Speedwell 254, Cape Cod Bay, 
21 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 159893. 

plena Verrill, Cirrhoteuthis 

1885, TCAAS 6: 404, pi. 42, fig. 3 (1884, Albatross 2025, 1073 fms.). Holo- 
type USNM 39908, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 11). 

Pleurobranchopsis Verrill, Genus 

1900, TCAAS 10: 547. Type species: Pleurobranchopsis aurantiaca Verrill 
1900, by monotypy. 

Pleurotomella Verrill, Genus 

1872 [1873], AJS (3) 5: 15 [footnote]. Type species: Pleurotomella packardii 
Verrill 1872, by monotypy. 



1 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 59 

plicatus Verrill, Cryptodon 

1885, TCAAS 6: 437[notfigured](1884,/l/^a^'-oss 2205, 2193, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 1073, 1122 fms.); 1898, in Verrill and Bush, 
PUSNM 20: 786, pi. 89, fig. 6. Figured holotype USNM 44825 sta. 2193. 

polita Verrill, Ac) is 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 210, 282, pi. 6, fig. 5 (Eastport Harbor [Maine], 20 fms., 
shelly bottom); 1882, TCAAS 5: 538, fig. 4. Holotype YPM [not located], 
only specimen. 

polita Verrill and Bush, Malletia 

1898, PUSNM 20: 876, pi. 82, fig. 10 (1886, Albatross 2718, 1569 fms.). 
Holotype USNM 78792, single valve. 

polita Verrill and Smith, Modiola Plate 8, fig. 1 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 400 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 895, south 
off Newport, Rhode Island, 238 fms.). Lectotype, here selected, USNM 
51361 [with note selected by B. R. Wilson, Sept. 26, 1983, not published]; 
paralectotype USNM 64328. 

Polycerella Verrill, Genus 

1880, PUSNM 3: 386. Type species: Polycerella emertoni Verrill 1880, by 
monotypy. 

pourtalesii Verrill, Nectoteuthis 

1883, BMCZ 11: 108, pi. 3, figs. 1, lab (1879, Blake 295, off Barbados 
[Windward Islands], 295 fms.). Holotype USNM 729734, only specimen, 
teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 11). 

pourtalesii Verrill and Smith, Scalaria 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 395 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 873, 874, off 
southern New England, 85-100 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 527, pi. 57, fig. 32. 
Holotype USNM 44801 sta. 874, refigured by Clench and Turner (1952: pi. 
149, figs. 1, 2); paratype YPM 15736 sta. 873. 

pretiosa Verrill and Bush, Myonera "?" 

1898, PUSNM 20: 812, pi. 77, fig. 5 (1886, Albatross 2655, 338 fms.). 
Holotype USNM 110619, single valve. 

princeps Verrill, Architeuthis 

1875, AJS (3) 9: 181, pi. 5, figs. 14-16 (sperm whale stomach taken in the 
north Atlantic; banks of Newfoundland). Two syntypes, probably YPM 
[not located]. 

profundicola Verrill and Smith, Area 

1885, TCAAS 6: 439, pi. 44, figs. 23, 23a (1884, Albatross 2226, 2121 fms.). 
Holotype USNM 37999; paratype USNM 44501. 

profundicola Verrill and Bush, Limopsis 

1898, PUSNM 20: 847 [no description] pi. 75, fig. 4; pi. 83, fig. 4. Described 
in Verrill, 1885, TCAAS 6: 440 as Limopsis aurita "?" Jeffreys (1884-86, 
Albatross, ten stations between 41°7'N, 65°26'30"W and 36°47'N, 



60 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

73°9'30"W, 1525-1859 fms.). Figured syntypes USNM 52410, pi. 75, fig. 4; 
USNM 38143, pi. 83, fig. 4, sta. 2221. 

profundicola Verrill and Smith, Sipho 

1884, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 170, pi. 31, fig. 13 (1883, Albatross 2037, 1731 
fms., 2038, 2033 fms., 2097, 1917 fms., 2106, 1497 fms.). Holotype USNM 
37999 sta. 2037, teste Bouchet and War^n (1985: 211); paratypes YPM 
15313 sta. 2037 and YPM 15309 sta. 2097. 

Protamusium Verrill, Genus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 71. Type species: Pecten demissum Philippi [is demissus 
Phillips 1839] original designation. 

pseudointerrupta Bush, Turbonilla 

1909, AJS (4) 27: 481. New name for Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) interrupta 
Bartsch (1909: 87, pi. 12, figs. 18, 23, Narragansett Bay [Rhode Island]) 
non Totten 1835. Holotype USNM 202889, only specimen. 

psila Bush, Mangilia 

1885, TCAAS 6: 455, pi. 45, fig. 2 (1884, Albatross 2269, off Cape Hatteras 
[North CaroUna], 48 fms.). Holotype USNM 44756, only specimen. 

pubescens Verrill, Sipho Plate 12, fig. 2 

1882, TCAAS 5: 501, pi. 43, fig. 6; pi. 57, fig. 25 (1877, Speedwell [no station 
number], off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, 88-91 fms. and off Halifax [Nova 
Scotia], 42 fms.; 1880-81, [Fish Hawk] 48 stations, 86-410 fms.; 1880, Fish 
Hawk 898 off Chesapeake Bay, 56-300 fms.; 1881, off Delaware Bay, 156, 
435 fms.). Lectotype, here selected, USNM 37767 sta. 893; paralectotype 
YPM 15366 sta. 898. 

pulchella Verrill, Atlanta Plate 19, figs. 1-3 

1884, TCAAS 6: 211 [not figured] (1883, Atlantis 2100, off Delaware Bay, 
surface; 2038, surface). Two syntypes USNM 38397 sta. 2100; syntypes 
YPM 15768 sta. 2100 and USNM 38410 sta. 2038. 

pulchella Verrill, Taranis 

1880, PUSNM 3: 368 [not figured] 1880, {Fish Hawk 892, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 487 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 487, pi. 57, fig. 17. 
Holotype USNM 37841, only specimen. 

pura Verrill, Astyris 

1882, TCAAS 5: 515 [not figured] (1880-81 Fish Hawk 892, 894, off Mar- 
tha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 100-487 fms; off Chesapeake Bay, 300 
fms.); 1893 in Bush, BMCZ 23: 240, pi. 1, fig. 13. Holotype USNM 45260 
sta. 894; paratype YPM 15764 sta. 892. 

pusilla Verrill, Bela decussata Plate 11, fig. 4 

1882, TCAAS 5: 481 [not figured] (Casco Bay, Maine, 12-15 fms.; Halifax 
Harbor, [Nova Scotia], 18 fms.). Lectotype, here selected, USNM 77203, 
label with note "figured"; paralectotypes YPM 15652 [from USNM 77218 
also with note "figured"] and YPM 15653; all from Halifax Harbor, para- 
lectotype YPM 15657, Casco Bay. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 61 

pustulosus Verrill, Pecten 

1872 [1873], AJS (3) 5: 14 [footnote, not figured] (Gulf of Maine, near 
Georges Bank, 150 fms.; east of Georges Bank, 430 fms.); 1874, in Smith 
and Harger, TCAAS 3: 50 [description]; 1882, TCAAS 5: 581, pi. 42, figs. 
22, 22a, changed to: Pecten hoskynsi pustulosus Verrill; 1884, Ibid. 6: 261, 
non P. hoskynsi Forbes 1843, changed to: Pecten pustulosus Verrill 1872; 
1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 389, pi. 35, figs. 5, 6, 10, 1 1, changed 
to: Cyclopecten pustulosus (Verrill). Holotype USNM 48764, fig. 10, stas. 
96B, 97B, off northeast border of Georges Bank, 150 fms. 

pygmaea Verrill, Bela 

1882, TCAAS 5: 460, pi. 57, fig. 8 (1880-81, Fish Hawk 892, 894, 947, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 487, 386, 312 fms.). Holotype USNM 
37858 sta. 892, [includes smaller paratype] mentioned by Bouchet and 
War6n (1980: 68); paratype YPM 15694 sta. 894 label, also bearing USNM 
number 37854 with note, "best sent to Dall [i.e. USNM]." 

pygmaea Verrill, Eledonella 

1884, TCAAS 6: 145, pi. 32, fig. 2 (1883, Albatross 2099, 2949 fms.); 1885, 
ARUSCFF for 1883, pi. 22, fig. 64. Figured holotype USNM 35268, teste 
Roper and Sweeney (1978: 12). 

pygmaeus Verrill and Bush, Cryptodon (Axinulus) 

1898, PUSNM 20: 792, pi. 86, figs. 3, 4 (1886, Albatross 2697 [and two other 
stations, not listed] 206 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 78368; paratype 
YPM 8774 sta. 2547. 

pygmaeus Bush, Murex (Pteronotus) [sic] 

1893, BMCZ 23: 213, pi. 1, figs. 3, 4 (1880, Blake 319, off Charleston [South 
Carolina], 262 fms.). Holotype MCZ 6918, only specimen, refigured by 
Clench and Farfante (1945: 36, pi. 20, figs. 7, 8). Non Muricites pygmaeus 
Schlotheim 1820, changed to: Pterynotus (Pterynotus) bushae Vokes 
(1970: 13). 

pyrrha Bush, Turbonilla Plate 16, fig. 6 

1899, PANSP 52: 160, pi. 8, fig. 1 (St. Thomas [Virgin Islands]). Figured 
holotype ANSP [lost]; lectotype, here selected, ANSP 72050; paralecto- 
types ANSP 72054 and 372505. 

quadrimaculata Verrill, Lamellidoris "?" 

1900, TCAAS 10: 549, pi. 66, fig. 3 (Castle Harbor [Bermuda], on dead 
corals). Holotype and paratype YPM [not located], only specimens. 

ramosa Verrill and Emerton, Issa 

1881, in Verrill, AJS (3) 22: 301 [not figured] (1881, Fis/i Hawk 940, 949, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 130, 100 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 547, 
pi. 58, figs. 36, 36a. Figured type [not located in USNM or YPM type 
collections]. 

rapax Verrill, Cheloteuthis 

1881, BMCZ 8: 110, pi. 2, figs. 1, la-f (1880, Fish Hawk 893 100 miles 
south of Newport, Rhode Island, 893 fms.). Holotype USNM 574639, only 
specimen, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 12). 



62 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLI.USKS 

rapax Verrill, Chiloteuthis [sic] Cheloteuthis 

1881, TCAAS 5: 293, pi. 49, figs. 1-lf (1880, Fish Hawk 893, about 100 miles 
south of Newport, Rhode Island, 372 fms., stomach of a fish). Ibid. p. 446 
errata, genus changed to: Cheloteuthis {=Lestoteuthis). Holotype USNM 
574639, only specimen, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 12). 

rarinota Bush, Lissospira (Ganesa "?") Plate 10, fig. 2 

1897, TCAAS 10: 134 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2150, 382 fms.). 
Holotype YPM 15804, only specimen. 

rathbuni Verrill, Bela 

1884, TCAAS 6: 236 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2105, off Chesapeake 
Bay, 1395 fms.). Holotype USNM 35704, only specimen. 

rathbuni Verrill and Smith, Turbonilla 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 398 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 869, 894, 
895, off southern New England, 192-365 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 536, pi. 58, 
fig. 15. Figured holotype USNM 45459 sta. 895; paratypes YPM 15750 sta. 
895. 

regalis Verrill and Smith, Margarita 

1880, in Verrill, AJS (3) 20: 397 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 865, 870, 
871, 873, 880, 891-895, off southern New England, 65-500 fms.); 1882, 
TCAAS 5: 530, pi. 57, fig. 37. Figured holotype USNM 44681 sta. 895. 

regularis Verrill and Bush, Limatula Plate 9, fig. 3 

1898, PUSNM 20: 823 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2265, 70 fms.). Lecto- 
type USNM 40862, single valve selected by Stuardo (1968: 227, pi. 14, fig. 
62). 

regularis Verrill, Yoldia 

1884, TCAAS 6: 228 [not figured] (1882, Fish Hawk 1093, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 349 fms.); 1897, in Verrill and Bush, AJS (4) 3: 
56, figs. 5, 6; 1898, PUSNM 20: 860, pi. 78, figs. 5, 6. Holotype USNM 38420. 

rehderi A. H. Verrill, Cymatium 

1950, Nautilus 63: 126, pi. 9, figs. 1, la (25-40 fms., off Dominica, Lesser 
Antilles). Holotype USNM 594095. 

reticulata Verrill, Cocculina 

1885, TCAAS 6: 426 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2265, off Chesapeake 
Bay [Maryland], 70 fms.); 1893, in Bush, BMCZ 23: 240, pi. 2, fig. 6. 
Figured holotype USNM 44832. 

reversa Verrill, Calliteuthis 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 393 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 894, about 100 miles 
south of Newport, Rhode Island, 365 fms.); 1880, TCAAS 5: 295, pi. 46, figs. 
1-lb. Holotype USNM 574849, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 12). 

robusta Verrill and Emerton, Heterodoris 

1882, in Verrill, TCAAS 5: 549, pi. 58, figs. 35, 35a, 35b (1881, Fish Hawk 
1029, off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 458 ftns.). Holotype, only 
specimen [not in USNM type collection]. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 63 

robusta Verrill, Xenophora 

1870, AJS (2) 49: 226 [not figured] (near La Paz [Baja California]). Holo- 
type YPM 8882, figured by Strong, Hanna, and Hertlein (1933: 124, pi. 5, 
figs. 8, 9). 

robustus Verrill, Dendronotus 

1870, AJS (2) 50: 405, fig. 1 (Whale Cove, Grand Manan [Island, New 
Brunswick, Canada], on sea-weeds in a pool near low-water mark). Holo- 
type YPM [lost], only specimen. 

robustus 'Dair Verrill, Ommastrephes 

1876, AJS (3) 12: 237 [not figured] (coast of Alaska); 1880, TC AAS 5: 246, 
pis. 23, 24 (west shore of Amaknak Island, Captains Harbor; near Iliuliuk; 
both Unalashka Island, off the coast of Alaska), changed to: Onychoteu- 
this robusta (Dall) Verrill. Holotype USNM 576952, "species description 
based on three specimens. Portions of specimen two only saved by Dall," 
teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 12). 

roseopicta Verrill, Chromodoris "?" 

1900, TCAAS 10: 549, pi. 66, fig. 1 (Bailey Bay [Bermuda], just below tide 
mark on rocks); 1901, Ibid. 11: 33, figs. 2, 2a [subsequently discovered 
specimen]. Holotype YPM 15677, only specimen. 

rubida A. H. Verrill, Hemitona 

1950, Nautilus 63: 126, pi. 9, figs. 2, 2a (reefs at Canefield Point, Dominica, 
Lesser Antilles). Five types in author's collection. 

rushii Bush, TurboniUa 

1899, PANSP 52: 160, pi. 8, fig. 11 (Maldonado Bay, Uruguay, 3-6 fms.). 
Holotype ANSP 70535, only specimen. 

ruthi A. H. Verrill, Astraea 

1948, Mollusca 2 (3): 70, pi. (Barbardos [West Indies]). Holotype and 
paratype [presumed to be] in author's collection. 

rutila Verrill, Coryphella 

1879, AJS (3) i 7: 314 [not figured] (Eastport, Maine, at low water); 1882, 
TCAAS 5: 552 [not figured]. Syntypes [not located in USNM or YPM]. 

saffordi Verrill and Smith, Pleurotomella 

1884, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 151, pi. 31, figs. 4, 4a (1883, Albatross 2041, 
2043, 2076, 2084, 2115, 906-1608 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 38308 sta. 
2084. 

sandersoni Verrill, Buccinum Plate 14, fig. 1 

1882, TCAAS 5: 490, pi. 58, fig. 9 (1881, Fis/i Hawk 939, 1032, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 258, 264 fms.). Lectotype, here selected, USNM 
202823 sta. 939 [soft parts in alcohol]. 

sandersoni Verrill, Cingula 

1884, TCAAS 6: 241 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2109, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 142 fms.); 1893, in Bush, BMCZ 23: 240, pi. 1, fig. 19. 
Figured holotype USNM 35447 [at YPM]; paratypes YPM 15770 [in the 
same USNM lot]. 



64 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

sandersoni Venill, Pleurotomella 

1884, TCAAS 6: 149, pi. 31, figs. 3, 3a (1883, Albatross 2038, 2033 fms; 2043, 
1467 fms.; 2084, 1290 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 34841 sta. 2038; 
paratypes USNM 34851 sta. 2043 and USNM 38315 sta. 2084. 

sanguinea A. H. Verrill, Voluta musica 

1950, MCCSC no. 102: 5 (Bequia Island and Carriacou [Islands], Grena- 
dines). Type [presumed to be] in author's collection. 

sarsi Bush, Eulima 

1909, AJS (4) 27: 479 [footnote]. New name for Eulima intermedia Verrill 
1881, non Cantraine 1835. 

sarsii Verrill, Bela 

1880, PUSNM 3: 364. New name for Bela cancellata Sars 1858, non Bela 
cancellata (Mighels and Adams 1842). 

Seguenzidae Verrill, Family 

1884, TCAAS 6: 186. Type genus: Seguenzia Jeffreys 1876. 

Sepidea Verrill, Division 

1881, TCAAS 5: 432, 433. Family mentioned: Loliginidae H. and A. 
Adams 1853. 

Sepiolidea Verrill, Division 

1881, TCAAS 5: 432, 434. Family mentioned: SepioHdae Kefferstein 1866. 

simplex Verrill and Bush, Cryptodon (Axinulus) 

1898, PUSNM 20: 791, pi. 92, figs. 3, 4 (1882, Fish Hawk 1093, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 349 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 159888. 

simplex Verrill, Cyclopecten Plate 8, fig. 3 

1897, TCAAS 10: 87, pi. 16, fig. 1; pi. 19, figs. 1-2 (West Indies, USFC). 
Lectotype, here selected, YPM 8763, with note "isolated left valve is poten- 
tial lectotype, T. J. Waller 9/23/80"; 1884, Albatross 2150; 382 fms. [not in 
USNM type collection]. 

simplex Verrill, Sipho (Mohnia) Plate 12, fig. 4 

1884, TCAAS 6: 11 A [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2115, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 843 fms., 2055, 9915 fms.). The "holotype" USNM 35573 
sta. 2115 mentioned by Bouchet and War^n (1985: 206) is much smaller 
than the original measured holotype and is here selected lectotype. 

smithi Bush, Circulus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 126. New name for Cyclostrema tricarinatus Smith 
1871, non Wood 1848. 

smithii Verrill, Marginalia 

See under: virginiana Verrill, Marginella. 

smithii Verrill, Turbonilla 

1880, PUSNM 3: 380 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 871, 873, 876 off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 100-120 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 538, 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 65 

pi. 58, fig. 10, genus changed to: Eulimella. Figured holotype USNM 45482 
sta. 871; paratypes YPM 15752 sta. 871 and YPM 15753 sta. 876. 

solidum Verrill, Dentalium 

1884, TCAAS 6: 215 [not figured] (1883, Albatross numerous stations 
between 2050 and 2115, 843-2084 fms.); non Hutton 1873, changed to: 
Dentalium (Fissidentalium) meridionale uerrilli Henderson (1920: 2). Lec- 
totype USNM 34687 sta. 2083, off Georges Bank, 956 fms., selected by 
Henderson, Ibid. pi. 9, fig. 3. 

somersensis Verrill, Phacoides pennsylvanicus 

1906, TCAAS 12: 185 [141], fig. 63 (Devonshire formation [Cenozoic], near 
Hungry Bay [Bermuda]). Holotype YPM 15740, left valve [not located]. 

somersensis Verrill, Succinea 

1906, TCAAS 12: 171 [127] [not figured] (beach rock, Devonshire forma- 
tion [Cenozoic], near Hungry Bay [Bermuda]). Holotype YPM 15740, only 
specimen. [The apex is missing, the aperture is broken and lodged in the 
matrix]. 

somersi Verrill and Bush, Odostomia (Evalea) 

1900, TCAAS 10: 533, pi. 65, fig. 7 (Bermuda). Four specimens YPM 15710, 
labeled "syntypes" are not this species. [They appear to be Eulima]. 

spectabilis Verrill, Cadulus 

1885, TCAAS 6: 432, pi. 44, fig. 19 (1883, Albatross 2043, 1467 fms.; 1884, 
Albatross 2174, 2221, 2222, 2228, 1525-1594 fms.). Holotype USNM 78626 
sta. 271 1, teste Henderson (1920: 107, pi. 17, fig. 9); station 2711 was made 
in 1886. The holotype is USNM 40498 sta. 2221, teste (Turner, 1955: 320); 
paratype USNM 38116 sta. 2043. 

spectabilis A. H. Verrill, Strombus costatus 

1950, Nautilus 63: 127, pi. 9, fig. 4 (off Dominica, Lesser Antilles, 30-40 
fms.). Type in author's collection. 

spinulosa Bush, Granigyra Plate 10, fig. 1 

1897, TCAAS 10: 135 [not figured] (1886, Albatross 2655, 338 fms.). 
Holotype YPM 15805, only specimen. 

Stauroteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1879, AJS (3) 18: 468. Type species: Stauroteuthis syrtensis Verrill 1879, 
by monotypy. 

Sthenoteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1880, TCAAS 5: 222. Type species: Architeuthis megaptera Verrill 1878, 
original designation. 

stimpsoni Verrill, Cuthona 

1879, AJS (3) 17: 314 [not figured] (Eastport, Maine); 1882, TCAAS 5: 552, 
pi. 42, fig. 14, genus changed to: Coryphella. Two syntypes YPM 15679; 
syntype YPM 15680 [dried up]. 

stimpsoni Bush, Turbonilla 

1899, PANSP 52: 156, pi. 8, fig. 7 (Carolina Coast). Holotype ANSP 72042, 
only specimen. 



66 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

stimpsoniana S. I. Smith, Gundlachia 

1870, in Smith and Prime, ALNHNY 9: 399, fig. 6 (three ponds at Green- 
port, Long Island; and one on Shelter Island both Suffolk Co., New York) 
Syntypes [not located]. 

stimpsonii Verrill, Stylifera 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 210, 283 (off the coast of New Jersey, on a bank in 32 
fms., parasitic on Euryechinus drobachiensis V.); 1874, in Smith and 
Harger, TCAAS 3: 49, pi. 1, fig. 1. Syntypes YPM [not located]. 

Stoloteuthis Verrill, Genus 

1881, TCAAS 5: 417. Type species: Sepiola leucoptera Verrill 1878, orig- 
inal designation. 

strausi A. H. Verrill, Murex (Aaronia) 

1950, MCCSC no. 103: 4, 2 text figs. (Soufriere Bay, Dominica [Lesser 
Antilles, 75-100 fms.]). Five types [presumed to be] in author's collection. 

striata Verrill, Aclis Plate 1 1 , fig. 7 

1880, PUSNM 3: 377 [not figured] (Bay of Fundy, near Eastport, Maine; 
1880, Fish Hawk 873, off Newport, Rhode Island, 100 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 
5: 528, pi. 58, fig. 13. Lectotype, here selected, YPM 15757 from the former 
locality; paralectotype YPM 15704 from the latter locality, only 
specimens. 

striata Bush, Lissospirata 

1897, TCAAS 10: 132, figs. 5, a (1884, Albatross 2213, off Martha's Vine- 
yard [Massachusetts], 384 fms.). Holotype USNM 77626, only specimen. 

striatella Verrill and Bush, Halonympha 

1898, PUSNM 20: 810, pi. 72, figs. 2, 3; pi. 77, fig. 10 (1886, Albatross 2655, 
338 fms.). Holotype USNM 203003, single valve. 

striatula Verrill and Bush, Montacuta 

1898, PUSNM 20: 780, pi. 93, fig. 9 (1883-84, Albatross 2273, 2276, off Cape 
Hatteras, North Carolina, 15-48 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 77634 sta. 
2273 [not 41486 as published. This reserved USFC number was inadvert- 
ently used for another species]. 

stricta Verrill, Turbonilla Plate 16, fig. 5 

1873, ARUSCFF, p. 658 [365] [not figured] (Long Island Sound, off New 
Haven [Connecticut]). Lectotype, here selected, YPM 12849. 

stricta Verrill and Bush, Yoldiella iris 

1898, PUSNM 20: 864, pi. 80, fig. 1 (1877, Speedwell 43, off Cape Sable 
[Nova Scotia], 90 fms.). Holotype USNM 74325, only specimen. 

subangulata Verrill, Gymnobela curta Plate 14, fig. 4 

1884, TCAAS 6: 159 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2043, 1467 fms., 2084, 
1290 fms., 2038, 2033 fms., 2096, 1451 fms.). [None of the four type lots with 
the published catalogue numbers mentioned as being in the USNM were 
located by Bouchet and War6n (1980: 56) or the present author]. Lectotype, 
here selected, YPM 15696 sta. 2043. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 67 

subangulata Verrill and Bush, Yoldiella 

1898, PUSNM 20: 865, pi. 77, fig. 3; pi. 79, fig. 6 (1874, Bache 46, off 
Agamenticus Mountain [York Co., Maine], 51 fms.). Holotype USNM 
159728, only specimen. 

subimbrifer Verrill and Bush, Cyclopecten 

1897, in Verrill, TCAAS 10: 84 (off the eastern coast of the United States, 
121-312 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 581, pi. 44, fig. 11 as Pecten hoskynsi 
Verrill, non Forbes; 1898 in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 840, pi. 85, figs. 
8, 9. Figured syntypes USNM 48762, fig. 8; USNM 48766, fig. 9. 

sublaevis Verrill, Rossia 

1878, AJS (3) 16: 209 (Massachusetts Bay); 1880, AJS (3) 19: 291, pi. 15, fig. 
3. Syntypes USNM 576701, 1877, Speedwell, 85, 86, 57-100 fms., teste 
Roper and Sweeney (1978: 13). 

sublevis Verrill and Bush, Ledella messanensis 

1898, PUSNM 20: 856, pi. 81, fig. 7 (1883-86, Albatross, thirteen stations 
between 42°47'N, 61°4'W and 38°20'N, 70°8'30"W, 1188-2033 fms.). Fig- 
ured holotype USNM 35212 sta. 2038. 

sublevis Verrill, Poromya 

1884, TCAAS 6: 221, pi. 32, fig. 21 (1883, Albatross 2097, off Chesapeake 
Bay, 1917 fms.). Holotype USNM 35263, only specimen. 

subornata Verrill, Elysia 

1901, TCAAS 11:29, pi. 4, fig. 4 (Castle Harbor [Bermuda], under stones, 
rare). Holotype YPM [not located]. 

subovata Verrill and Bush, Neilonella 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 57 [footnote] figs. 7, 8, 22 (1883-87, Albatross, many 
stations from off Georges Bank to Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 125- 
1731 fms.); 1898, PUSNM 20: 878, pi. 80, fig. 10; pi. 82, figs. 3, 4. Figured 
holotype 34826 or 34326 [sic] [not in USNM type collection]. 

subovata Verrill and Bush, Nucula 

1898, PUSNM 20: 852, pi. 81, fig. 8; pi. 83, fig. 5 (1880-85, Fish Hawk, 
Albatross, four stations between 40°N, 71°14'30"W and 37°8'N, 74°33'W, 
157-444 fms.). Holotype USNM 40474, fig. 5, sta. 2171. 

subturgida Verrill, Bela Plate 11, fig. 2 

1884, TCAAS 6: 161 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2115, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 843 fms.). Measured holotype USNM 35602 [with note 
"figured" on USNM type card], two specimens only. 

subvitrea Verrill, Bela Plate 11, fig. 3 

1884, TCAAS 6: 160 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2115, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 843 fms.). Measured syntype, here selected lectotype, 
USNM 37811 [pubHshed no. 35601, both numbers on USNM type card 
with note "figured"]; paralectotype YPM 16660 from USNM 37811. 



68 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

sulcata Verrill and Bush, Limopsis 

1898, PUSNM 20: 845, pi. 92, fig. 2; pi. 95, fig. 9; pi. 96, fig. 1 (1880-84, 
Fish Hawk, Albatross, ten stations between 40°8'N, 68°45'W and 
37°7'4"N, 74°35'40"W, 64-349 fms.). Figured syntypes USNM 44829 sta. 
2029 and USNM 159785 sta. 2199; syntypes YPM 5765 sta. 865 and YPM 
5766 sta. 871. 

sulcata Verrill, Odostomia (Menestho) 

1880, PUSNM 3: 380[not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 871, 894, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 115, 365 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 539, pi. 58, fig. 
17, genus changed to: Menestho [not in USNM or YPM type collections]. 

sulcatum Verrill, Dentalium occidentale 

1884, TCAAS: 6: 217 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2076, 906 fms., 2077, 
1255 fms., 2079, 75 fms.); non Lamarck 1818, changed to: Dentalium 
(Antalis) occidentale georgiense, Henderson (1920: 43). Type lot USNM 
35098 sta. 2077 [specimen lost], was not located by Henderson who figured 
a specimen from USNM 52742 sta. 2582, off Martha's Vineyard [Massa- 
chusetts], 137 fms., pi. 5, fig. 5. 

sulcifera Bush, Pleurotomella 

1893, BMCZ 23: 207, pi. 2, fig. 4 (1880, Blake 325, off Cape Fear [North 
Carolina], 647 fms.). Holotype MCZ 119050, only specimen. 

swiftil Bush, Turbonilla 

1899, PANSP 52: 166 [not figured] (St. Thomas, West Indies); 1900, in 
Verrill and Bush, TCAAS 10: 529, pi. 64, figs. 21, 21a. Figured holotype 
ANSP 72055. 

syngenes Verrill, Cingula 

1884, TCAAS 6: 180, pi. 32, fig. 1 1 (1883, Albatross 2109, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 142 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 35453; paratype 
YPM 15771. 

syrtensis Verrill, Stauroteuthis 

1879, AJS (3) 18: 469 (43°54'N, 58°44'W, on Banquereau Bank about 30 
miles E. of Sable Island [off Nova Scotia] 250 fms.); 1880, AJS 19: 294, pi. 
16, figs. 1-5. Holotype USNM 382471 , teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 13). 

tanneri Verrill, Fissurella 

1882, PUSNM 5: 333 [not figured] (1881, Fish Hawk 1046, off Delaware 
Bay, 104 fms.); 1884, TCAAS 6: 255, pi. 29, figs. 13, 13a. Holotype USNM 
43765, only specimen. 

tanneri Verrill and Smith, Typhlomangelia 

1884, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 163, pi. 31, fig. 8 (1883, Albatross 2084, 1290 
fms.). Holotype USNM 38067, only specimen. 

Taonidea Verrill, Division 

1881, TCAAS 5: 427, 431. Family mentioned: Desmoteuthidae Verrill 
1881. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 69 

tarda Verrill, Pleurobranchaea 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 398 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 814, 865-888, 895; 
28-350 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 546, pi. 58, fig. 26. Figured type [not located 
in USNM or YPM type collections]. 

tarda Verrill, Tethys (Aplysia) 

1901, TCAAS 11: 26, pi. 3, figs. 4, 4a, 4b (Coney Island [Bermuda]). 
Holotype YPM [not located]. 

tenellus Verrill, Angulus 

1873, ARUSCFF, p. 667 [383]. New name for Angulus modestus Verrill 
1872, non Carpenter 1864, see under: modestus Verrill, Angulus. 

tenera Verrill, Choristes elegans 

1882, TCAAS 5: 541, pi. 58, figs. 27, 27a (1881, Fish Hawk 1031, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 225 fms.); 1884, Ibid. 6: pi. 29, figs. 9, 
a-b (juvenile). Figured holotype USNM 45251; paratype YPM 15769. 

tenera Verrill, Desmoteuthis 

1881, TCAAS 5: 412, pi. 55, figs. 2-2d; pi. 56, fig. 3 {Fish Hawk 952, off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 396 fms.). Syntypes USNM 574850, 
location of only other syntype unknown, teste Roper and Sweeney (1978: 
13). 

tenera Verrill, Heteroteuthis 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 392 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 865-880, off southern 
New England 65-500 fms.); 1881, TCAAS 5: 357, pi. 46, figs. 2-2d, 3-3b; pi. 
47, figs. 5, 5a; 1881, BMCZ 8: 103, pi. 3, figs. 5-5b; pi. 8, figs. 2-2d, 3-3b. 
About 200 syntypes [not located in USNM or YPM]. Subsequently col- 
lected specimen mentioned by Verrill YPM 16116, Blake sta. 321. 

tenue Verrill and Bush, Caecum 

1900, TCAAS 10: 537, pi. 65, fig. 5 (Bermuda). Figured holotype YPM 
15670. 

tenuis Verrill, Aclis 

1882, TCAAS 5: 528, pi. 58, fig. 19 (1880, Fish Hawk 873, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 100 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 44821. 

tenuis Verrill and Bush, Montacuta bidentata 

1898, PUSNM 20: 779, pi. 92, fig. 7 (1884, Albatross 2277, off Cape Hatte- 
ras. North Carolina, 16-17 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 77635. 

teres Bush, Odostomia engonia 

1885, TCAAS 6: 467, pi. 45, fig. 9 ([1884] Albatross [2276], off Cape Hatte- 
ras [North CaroHna], 15-16 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 44951; para- 
type YPM 16149. 

teres Bush, Scalaria 

1885, TCAAS 6: 465, pi. 45, fig. 8 (1884, Albatross 2275, 2276, off Cape 
Hatteras [North Carolina], 16 fms.). Holotype USNM 44842 sta. 2276. 

Teuthidea Verrill, Division 

1880, TCAAS 5: 427. Family mentioned: Teuthidae Owen 1838. 



70 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Tharsiella Bush, Genus 

1897, TCAAS 10: 113. New name for Tharsis Jeffreys 1883, non Giebel 
1847. Type species: Oxystele romettensis Seguenza (1877 in Grillo, p. 7), 
original designation by Jeffreys. 

tiarella Verrill, Torellia fimbriata Plate 10, fig. 3 

1882, PUSNM 5: 331 [not figured] (1880-81, Fish Hawk 869, 878, 939, 1025, 
1026, 1033, 1038; 142-258 fms.; 1873, Bache 21B, 42°49'N, 68°50'W, near 
Cashes Ledge, off the coast of Maine, 52-90 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 521 [not 
figured]. Lectotype, here selected, USNM 45431 sta. 1026. 

tincta Verrill, Philine Plate 10, fig. 6 

1882, TCAAS 5: 544 [not figured] (1881, Fish Hawk 921, off Martha's 
Vineyard [Massachusetts], 67 fms.). Lectotype, here selected, USNM 
45648, two specimens only. 

tincta Verrill, Pleurotomella 

1885, TCAAS 6: 412, pi. 44, fig. 4 (1884, Albatross 2224, 2574 fms., 2225, 
2512 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 44652 sta. 2225; paratype USNM 
44651 sta. 2224, only specimens. 

Tindarinae Verrill and Bush, Subfamily 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 58, 59. Type genus: Tindaria Bellardi 1875. 

Tindariopsis Verrill and Bush, Subgenus of Tindaria 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 59. Type species: Malletia (Tindaria) agathida Dall 1890, 
original designation. 

tobagoansis A. H. Verrill, Voluta musica 

1953, MCCSC no. 134: 5 (fig.) (Tobago [West Indies]). Type and paratype 
[presumed to be] in author's collection. 

tornata Verrill, Odostomia Plate 15, fig. 5 

1884, TCAAS 6: 196 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2109, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carohna], 142 fms.). Holotype USNM 38033, only specimen [with 
note "pi. 85, fig. 3" on USNM type card]. 

tornatum Verrill and Bush, Caecum 

1900, TCAAS 10: 537, pi. 65, fig. 1 (Bermuda). Figured holotype YPM 
15671 and 10 paratypes. 

tornatus Verrill, Taranis morchii Plate 13, fig. 2 

1884, TCAAS 6: 251 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2077, 1255 fms.). Holo- 
type USNM 37807; paratype YPM 15741, only specimens. 

trigona Verrill, Nucula 

1885, TCAAS 6: 438 [not figured] (1884, Albatross 2194, 1140 fms., 2228, 
1582 fms., 2229, 1423 fms. [off Maryland]); non Bronn 1849, non Seguenza 
1877 changed to: Nucula uerrilli Dall 1886, BMCZ 12: 284; 1893, in Bush, 
BMCZ 23: 240, pi. 1, fig. 6; 1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 853, pi. 
95, fig. 10. Figured holotype USNM 45752 sta. 2229. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 71 

trilix Bush, Skenea 

1885, ARUSCFF for 1883, p. 584 [not figured] ([1883] Albatross [2113], off 
Cape Hatteras, [North CaroUna], 7-17 [15] fms.); 1885, TCAAS 6: 464, pi. 
45, figs. 7, 7a; 1897, Ibid. 10: 127, pi. 22, figs. 6, 10, 10a, 12; pi. 23, figs. 10, 15, 
genus changed to: Circulus. Figured holotype USNM 35365. 

triquetra Verrill and Bush, Montacuta 

1898, PUSNM 20: 782, pi. 91, fig. 3 (1884, Albatross 2307, off Cape Hatte- 
ras, North Carolina, 43 fms.). Figured holotype USNM 77627, right valve. 

trochoides Verrill, Cyclostrema 

See under: dalli Verrill, Cyclostrema. 

tryoni Bush, Vitrinella 

1897, TCAAS 10: 123, pi. 22, figs. 11, 11a (1884, Albatross 2278, off Cape 
Hatteras, North CaroUna, 16 fms.). Holotype USNM 41561, only 
specimen. 

tubicola Verrill and Smith, Lepetella 

1880, in Verrill, AJS(3) 20: 396 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 869, 894; off 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 192, 365 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 534, 
pi. 58, figs. 29 and 29a. Numerous syntypes USNM 43723 sta. 869 and 
USNM 43726 sta. 894; radula of USNM 153171 figured by Hickman (1983: 
78, figs. 11,12b). 

tumens Verrill, Chione Plate 3, fig. 3 

1870, AJS (2) 49: 222 [not figured] (La Paz [Baja California]). Lectotype, 
here selected, YPM 3021b. 

tumida Verrill, Gastranella 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 210, 286, pi. 6, figs. 3, 3a (Long Island Sound near New 
Haven [Connecticut]). Figured syntypes YPM 8845. 

turgida Verrill and Bush, Cuspidaria 

1898, PUSNM 20: 799, pi. 72, fig. 7; pi. 77, fig. 4 (1886, Albatross 2714, 1825 
fms.). Holotype USNM 78789, only specimen. 

turgida Verrill and Smith, Diplodonta 

1881, in Verrill, AJS (3) 22: 303 [not figured] (1881, Fish Hawk 950, 75 
miles south of Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 69 fms.); 1882, 
TCAAS 5: 569, pi. 58, fig. 42. Holotype USNM 46143, single valve. 

undata Verrill, Neaera 

1884, TCAAS 6: 223 [not figured] (1883, Albatross 2098, off Chesapeake 
Bay [Maryland], 2221 fms.); 1898, in Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 798, pi. 
72, fig. 1; pi. 78, figs. 3, 4 [subsequently discovered specimen]. Holotype 
USNM 35256, fig. 1, single valve. 

undatus Verrill and Smith, Pecten 

1885, in Verrill, TCAAS 6: 444, pi. 44, fig. 21 (1884, Albatross 2229, 1423 
fms., 2221, 1525 fms.). Holotype USNM 44827 sta. 2229; paratype USNM 
44828 sta. 2221, single preserved specimen and a fragment. 



72 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

undulata Verrill, Periploma 

1885, TCAAS 6: 433 [not figured] (1885, Albatross 2234, 816 fms.); 1898, in 
Verrill and Bush, PUSNM 20: 823, pi. 79, fig. 1; pi. 87, fig. 5. Holotype 
USNM 44840, only specimen. 

unilirata Bush, Turbonilla 

1899, PANSP 52: 165, pi. 8, fig. 6 (St. Thomas [Virgin Islands]). Figured 
holotype ANSP 79010. 

valida Verrill and Bush, Turbonilla 

1900, TCAAS 10: 528, pi. 64, fig. 20 (Bermuda). Holotype YPM 15754, only 
specimen. 

ventricosa Verrill and Bush, Cuspidaria 

1898, PUSNM 20: 802, pi. 72, fig. 5; pi. 76, fig. 6 (1882-86, Fish Hawk, 
Albatross, three stations between 40°29'N, 66°4'W and 38°27'30"N, 
70°54'30"W, 349-1769 fms.). Figured syntypes USNM 52548 fig. 5, right 
valve, sta. 2752; USNM 78783 fig. 6, left valve, sta. 2715; syntype YPM 
8825 sta. 1093. Only four valves collected. 

veriformis S. I. Smith, Aeolis 

1860, ALNHNY 7: 160 [not figured] ([Gardiner's Bay, Long Island, Suf- 
folk Co., New York]). Holotype [not located], only specimen. 

veronicae Verrill, Cratena 

1880, PUSNM 3: 389 [not figured] (1879, Speedwell 328, off Cape Cod 
[Massachusetts], 23 fms.); 1882, TCAAS 5: 553 [not figured] [not in USNM 
or YPM type collections]. 

verrilli Tryon, Cyclostrema 

See under: cingulatum Verrill, Cyclostrema. 

verrilli Henderson, Dentalium (Fissidentalium) meridionale 
See under: solldum Verrill, Dentalium. 

verrilli Bush, Leptogyra 

1897, TCAAS 10: 136, pi. 23, figs. 13, 13a (1884, Albatross 2174, off Dela- 
ware Bay, 1594 fms.). Lectotype USNM 859033 selected by Marshall 
(1988: 959, figs. 2a-c); paralectotype, figured by Bush, USNM 77623; 
paralectotype YPM 15806. 

verrilli Dall, Nucula 

See under: trigona Verrill, Nucula. 

verrillii Bush, Trophon 

1893, BMCZ 23: 214, pi. 1, fig. 16 (1880, Blake 325, off Cape Fear [North 
Carohna], 647 fms.). Figured holotype MCZ 119157. 

verrilliana Bush, Eulima 

1909, AJS (4) 27: 479. New name for Eulimella nitida Verrill 1884, non 
Melania nitida Philippi 1840 nor Eulima nitida A. Adams 1866. 

verrucosa Verrill, Eledone 

1881, BMCZ 8: 105, pis. 5, 6 (1880, Blake 305, 312, off northeastern extrem- 
ity of Georges Bank, 810, 466 fms.); 1917, Berry, PSNSP 69: 5, fig. 1 distal 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 73 

portion of right third arm of type. Figured holotype MCZ 3489 sta. 305 
[lost]; syntypes USNM 729732 sta. 305 and USNM 577583 sta. 312, teste 
Roper and Sweeney (1978: 14). 

virens Verrill, Dolabrifera 

1901, TCAAS 11: 2A, fig. 1; pi. 2, figs. 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b; pi. 4, fig. 11 (Hungry 
Bay [Bermuda], under stones at low tide). Figured holotype; five para- 
types YPM [not located]. 

Virginians Verrill, Marginella 

1885, TCAAS 6: 420[not figured] (1884, Albatross 2272, off Cape Hatteras 
[North Carolina], 15 fms., 2265, off Chesapeake Bay [Maryland], 70 fms.). 
Non Prunum virginiana Conrad 1868, changed to: Marginella smithii 
Verrill 1885, Ibid. p. 452; 1893, in Bush, BMCZ 23: 240, pi. 1, fig. 18. Figured 
holotype USNM 44834 sta. 2272 [also paratypes under same number]. 

vitrea Verrill, Pleurotomella 

1885, TCAAS 6: 414, pi. 44, fig. 6 (1884, Albatross 2212, 428 fms., 2213, 384 
fms.). Figured holotype USNM 44654 sta. 2212; paratypes USNM 40472 
sta. 2213, three specimens only. 

vitrea Verrill, Styliola 

1872, AJS (3) 3: 210, 284, pi. 6, fig. 7 (among Salpae, off Gay Head, 
Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts]). Syntypes YPM [not located]. 

Avhiteavesii Verrill, Lovenella 

1880, AJS (3) 20: 396 [not figured] (1880, Fish Hawk 891, 894, off southern 
New England, 500, 365 fms.; Gulf of St. Lawrence, Whiteaves); 1882, 
TCAAS 5: 522, pi. 42, fig. 7, genus changed to: Cerithiella, new name for 
Lovenella Sars 1878, non Hincks 1869. Syntypes National Museum of 
Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada, 161, from the latter locality, teste 
Smith (1981: 4). 

Yoldiella Verrill and Bush, Genus 

1897, AJS (4) 3: 55. Type species: Yoldia lucida Loven 1846, original 
designation. Confirmed, 1985, Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 42 (2): 
146, Opinion 1306, Yoldiella name no. 2250, Y. lucida name no. 2945. 

zonatus Verrill, Poecilozonites bermudensis 

1902, TCAAS i i: 728 [316] footnote [as zonata]; 1906, Ibid. 13:164 [120], pi. 
26, figs. 1, 2; pi. 27, figs. 2a-l, types (Walsingham limestones at the 
quarries near the west and southwest shores of Castle Harbor; near 
Bailey Bay; near Coney Island; Devonshire and Paget formations, exam- 
ples figured are all of the latter period). Syntypes YPM [not located by 
Gould (1969: 506)]. 



74 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bartsch, P. 1909. Pyramidellidae of New England and the adjacent region. 
Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 34 (4): 67-113, pis. 
11-14, February. 

Berry, S. S. 1917. On Moschites verrucosa (Verrill) and its allies. Proceed- 
ings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 69 (1): 2-6, 
figs. 1-2 January. 

Boss, K. J. 1968. The subfamily Tellininae in the Western Atlantic the 
genera Tellina (Part II) and Tellidora. Johnsonia 4 (46): 273-344. 

Boss, K. J. and A. S. Merrill. 1965. The family Pandoridae in the Western 
Atlantic. Johnsonia 4 (44): 181-215. 

Bouchet, P. and A. War6n 1979. The abyssal molluscan fauna of the Norwe- 
gian Sea and its relation to other faunas. Sarsia 64: 211-243. 

1980. Revision of the Northeast Atlantic Bathyal and Abyssal Turri- 

dae iMollusca, Gastropoda) [1]. The Journal of Molluscan Studies, 
Supplements: 1-119. 

1985. Revision of the Northeast Bathyal and Abyssal Neogastropoda 



excluding Turridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) [2]. Bollettino Malacolo- 
gico, Supplemento 1: 123-296. 

Clench, W. J. and I. P. Farfante 1945. The genus Murex in the Western 
Atlantic. Johnsonia 1 (17): 1-58. 

Clench, W. J. and T. E. Pulley 1952. Notes on some marine shells from the 
Gulf of Mexico, with a description of a new species of Conus. The Texas 
Journal of Science 4: 59-61, pi. A. 

Clench, W. J. and R. D. Turner. 1951. The genus Epitonium in the Western 
Atlantic. Part I. Johnsonia 2 (30): 249-288. 

1952. The genera Epitonium (Part II), Depressiscala, Cylindriscala, 

Nystiella and Solutiscala in the Western Atlantic. Johnsonia 2 (31): 
289-356. 

1960. The genus Calliostoma in the Western Atlantic. Johnsonia 4 



(40): 1-80. 

Coan, E. V. 1976. The availability of the taxa proposed in the Minutes of the 
Conchological Club of Southern CaUfornia. The Veliger 18 (3): 326-331. 

1988. Recent Eastern Pacific species of the bivalve genus Semele. The 



Veliger 31 (1/2): 1-42. 

Cossmann, M. 1896. Essais de Pal6oconchologie comparee. Paris, deuxi^me 
livraison, pp. 1-179, pis. 1-8. 

Farfante, I. P. 1947. The genera Zeidora, Nesta, Emarginula, Rimula and 
Puncturella in the Western Atlantic. Johnsonia 2 (24): 93-148. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 75 

Gennaro, Jr., J. F. 1971. The creature revealed. Natural History. The Jour- 
nal of the American Museum of Natural History. 80 (3): 24, 84. 

Gosliner, T. M. 1985. Redescription and systematic position of Pleuro- 
branchaea obesa (Verrill, 1882) (Opisthobranchia: Pleurobranchaei- 
dae). The VeUger 28 (1): 109-114. 

Gould, A. A. 1841. Report on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts, comprising 
the Mollusca, Annelida, and Radiata. Cambridge, Ma., pp. i-vi, 1-373, 
15 plates comprising figs. 1-213. 

1870. Report on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts. Second edition, 

comprising the Mollusca. Edited by W. G. Binney. Boston, Ma., pp. i-v 
[3] 1-524, text figs. 350-754, colored plates 16-27 comprising figs. 
214-349. 

Gould, S. J. 1969. An evolutionary microcosm: Pleistocene and Recent his- 
tory of the land snail P. (Poecilozonites) in Bermuda. Bulletin of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology 138 (7): 107-523, pis. 1-5. 

Grillo, J. G. 1877. Descriptions de quelques especes nouvelles ou peu 
connues. Naples. 8vo. pp. 1-16. 

Hayes, H. 1972. The recent Pteriidae (Mollusca) of the Western Atlantic and 
Eastern Pacific Oceans [Unpublished Ph.D. thesis]. Georgetown Uni- 
versity, Washington, D.C. Dissertation Abstract International 33 B 
(8): 4039. 

Henderson, J. B. 1920. A monograph of the east American Scaphopod 
moUusks. United States National Museum, Bulletin 111, pp. vi, 177, 
pis. 1-20. 

Hickman, C. E. 1983. Radula patterns, systematics, diversity and ecology of 
deep-sea limpets. The Veliger 26 (2): 73-92. 

Marshall, B. A. 1988. Skeneidae, Vitrinellidae and Orbitestellidae (Mol- 
lusca: Gastropoda) associated with biogenic substrata from bathyal 
depths off New Zealand and New South Wales. Journal of Natural 
History 22: 949-1004. 

Mackel, R. P. 1986. Biochemical analysis of preserved Octopus giganteus 
tissue. Cryptozoology 5: 55-62. 

Radwin, G. E. 1972. The systematic position of Urosalpinx carolinensis 
Verrill, 1884 with comments on the genus Mohnia Friele, 1878. Tran- 
sactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 16 (16): 339-342. 

Richards, M. C. and W. E. Old, Jr. 1969. A catalogue of molluscan type 
specimens in the Department of Living Invertebrates. The Ainerican 
Museum of Natural History, New York, New York. Issued by the 
Department of Living Invertebrates, 147 pp. [mimeographed]. 



76 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Roper, C. F. E. and M. J. Sweeney. 1978. A catalog of the type-specimens of 
recent Cephalopoda in the National Museum of Natural History. 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, no. 278, pp. 19. 

Sanders, H. L. and J. A. Allen. 1985. Studies on deep-sea Protobranchia 
(Bivalvia); the family Malletiidae. Bulletin of the British Museum of 
Natural History (Zoology) 49 (2): 195-238. 

Sasaki, M. 1929. A monograph of the Dibranchiate Cephalopods of the 
Japanese and adjacent waters. Journal of the Faculty [College] of Agri- 
culture, Hokkaido Imperial University, Sapporo 20 Supplementary 
number, pp. i-v, 1-357, pis. 1-30. 

Scott, P. H. 1986. New species oi Adontorhina (Bivalvia: Thyasiridae) from 
the Northeast Pacific, with notes on Adontohrina cyclia Berry, 1947. 
The Veliger 29 (2): 150-156. 

Smith, M. F. 1. 1981. Type specimens of molluscs in the National Museum of 
Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. Publications 
in Zoology, National Museum of Natural Sciences, Canada, no. 15, pp. 
i-iv, 1-36. 

Smith, S. I. and O. Harger. 1874. Report on the dredging in the region of St. 
Georges Bank in 1872. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of 
Arts and Sciences 3 (1): 1-57, pi. 1-7 (1-32, July; 33-57, August). 

Strong, A. M., G. D. Hanna and L. G. Hertlein 1933. The Templeton 
Crocker expedition of the California Academy of Sciences, 1932, no. 10. 
Marine mollusks from Acapulco, Mexico with notes on other species. 
Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Ser. 4) 21 (10): 
117-130, pis. 5-6. 

Stuardo, J. R. 1968. On the phylogeny, taxonomy and distribution of the 
Limidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) pp. 327, 26 pis, 44 figs., 24 maps. [Unpub- 
lished Ph.D. thesis]. Harvard University, Cambridge, Ma. 

Turner, R. D. 1955. The family Pholadidae in the Western Atlantic and 
Eastern Pacific. (Part IT) Martesiinae, Jouannetiinae and Xylopha- 
ginae. Johnsonia 3 (34): 65-160. 

1955. Scaphopods of the Atlantis dredgings in the Western Atlantic 

with a catalogue of the Scaphopod types in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. Papers in Marine Biology and Oceanography, Pergamon 
Press Ltd., London, pp. 309-320. 

Yokes, E. H. 1970. Cenozoic Muricidae of the Western Atlantic region. Part 
5. Pterynotus and Poirieria. Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontol- 
ogy 8 (1): 1-50, 8 pis. 

War6n, A. 1978. The taxonomy of some north Atlantic species referred to 
Ledella and Yoldiella (Bivalvia). Sarsia 63 (4): 213-219. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



77 



DREDGING STATIONS MADE BY VESSELS OF THE 
UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION AND UNITED 
STATES COAST SURVEY BETWEEN 1877-1886 WHICH 
ARE TYPE LOCALITIES OF SPECIES MENTIONED IN 
THE PRECEDING LIST. 

DREDGINGS BY SPEEDWELL, 1877-79 









DEPTH IN 


STATION NO. 


LONGITUDE 


LATITUDE 


FATHOMS 


18 


42°29' 


70°38' 


45 


34 


42°37' 


09°39' 


160 


43 


43°05.5' 


65°02' 


90 


46 


43°05.5' 


65°09' 


90 


52 


43°26.5' 


65°14' 


47 


56-58 


not given 


not given 


16 




[Halifax Harbor] 




70 


42°45.5' 


62°43' 


190 


85 


44°04' 


63°27' 


101 


86 


44°04' 


63°27' 


101 


98 


not given 


not given 


18 




[Halifax Harbor] 




99 


not given 


not given 


18 




[Halifax Harbor] 




142 


42°34' 


70°32' 


8.5 


148 


42°33' 


70°41.5' 


16 


186 


42°33' 


69°55' 


110 


194 


42°33.5' 


69°58.5' 


110 


254 


41°57' 


70°17.5' 


21 


292 


42°03.5' 


70°18.5' 


29 


293 


42°03.5' 


70°19.5' 


27 


304 


42°10' 


69°45' 


122 


313 


41°58' 


70°09' 


15 


321 


42°03' 


70°15' 


29.5 


325 


42°14.5' 


70°00.5' 


83 


326 


42°14.5' 


70°02' 


75 


327 


42°11' 


70°12.5' 


17 


328 


42°10' 


70°13' 


23 


329 


42°00' 


70°12' 


26 


330 


42°09.5' 


70° 13' 


26 


340 


41°51' 


70°27.5' 


14 



78 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



DREDGINGS BY BLAKE, 1878-80 



STATION NO. 
142 Ag. 
148 Ag. 
245 Ag. 
260 Ag. 
278 Ag. 
295 Ag. 
303 Ag. 
305 Ag. 
307 Ag. 

312 Ag. 

313 Ag. 
319 Ag. 

325 Ag. 

326 Ag. 

328 Ag. 

329 Ag. 



LONGITUDE 

18°21'45" 
17°17'12" 
12°07'55" 
12°03'30" 
13°04'50" 
13°14'18" 
41°34'30" 
41°33'15" 
41°29'45" 
39°50'30" 
32°31'50" 
32°25'00" 
33°35'20" 
33^42'15" 
34°28'45" 
34°49'40" 



LATITUDE 

64°37'50" 
62°46'43" 
61°50'45" 
61°47'10" 
59°37'40" 
59°41'12" 
65°54'30" 
65°51'25" 
65°47'10" 
70° 11 '00" 
78°45'00" 
77°42'30" 
76°00'00" 
76°00'50" 
75°22'50" 
75°14'40" 



STATION NO. 
770 

812 

813 

814 

816 

817 

856 

857 

858 

859 

860 



DREDGINGS BY FISH HAWK, 1880-82 

LONGITUDE LATITUDE 

not given not given 

[Narragansett Bay] 
not given not given 

[Off Block Island] 
not given not given 

[Off Block Island] 
not given not given 

[Off Block Island] 
not given not given 

[Narragansett Bay] 
not given not given 

[Narragansett Bay] 
not given not given 

[Narragansett Bay] 
not given not given 

[Narragansett Bay] 
not given not given 

[Narragansett Bay] 
not given not given 

[Vineyard Sound] 
not given not given 

[Vineyard Sound] 



DEPTH IN 

FATHOMS 

27 

208 

1010 

291 

69 

180 

306 

810 

980 

466 

75 

262 

647 

464 

1632 

603 



DEPTH IN 

FATHOMS 

8.25 

28.5 

28.5 

27.5 

8.5 

10 

11 

19 

14 

17.5 

17.5 



1 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 79 

Fish Hawk (continued) 

861 not given not given 17 

[Vineyard Sound] 

862 not given not given 17 

[Vineyard Sound] 



863 


not given 


not given 


18 




[Vineyard Sound] 




864 


not given 


not given 


13 




[Vineyard Sound] 




865 


40°05' 


70°23' 


65 


866 


40°05'18" 


70°22'18" 


65 


867 


40°05'42" 


70°22'06" 


64 


868 


40°01'42" 


70°22'30" 


162 


869 


40°02'18" 


70°23'06" 


192 


870 


40°02'36" 


70°22'58" 


155 


871 


40°02'54" 


70°23'40" 


115 


872 


40°05'39" 


70°23'52" 


86 


873 


40°02' 


70°57' 


100 


874 


40°00'00" 


70°57'00" 


85 


875 


39°57'00" 


70°57'30" 


126 


876 


39°57'00" 


70°56'00" 


120 


877 


39°56'00" 


70°54'18" 


126 


878 


39°55'00" 


70°54'15" 


142.5 


879 


39°49'30" 


70°54'00" 


225 


880 


39°48'30" 


70°54'00" 


252.5 


881 


39°46'30" 


70°54'00" 


325 


882 


not given 


not given 


12.5 




[Narragansett Bay] 




883 


not given 


not given 


13 




[Narragansett Bay] 




884 


not given 


not given 


5 




[Narragansett Bay] 




885 


not given 


not given 


16 




[Narragansett Bay] 




886 


not given 


not given 


19 




[Off Block Island] 




887 


not given 


not given 


19 




[Off Block Island] 




888 


not given 


not given 


19 




[Off Block Island] 




889 


not given 


not given 


11 




[Off Block Island] 




890 


not given 


not given 


11 




[Off Block Island] 




891 


39°46'00" 


71°10'00" 


480"?" 


892 


39°46'00" 


71°05'00" 


487 



80 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Fish Hawk (continued) 



893 


39°52'20" 


70°58'00" 


372 


894 


39°53'00" 


70°58'30" 


365 


895 


39°56'30" 


70°59'45" 


238 


896 


37°26'00" 


74°19'00" 


56 


897 


37°25'00" 


74°18'00" 


157.5 


898 


37°24'00" 


74°17'00" 


300 


899 


37°22'00" 


74°29'00" 


57.5 


921 


40°07'48" 


70°43'54" 


67 


925 


39°55'00" 


70°47'00" 


229 


928 


not given 


not given 


10 




[Vineyard Sound] 




937 


39°49'25" 


69°49'00" 


616 


938 


39°51'00" 


69°49'15" 


317 


939 


39°53'00" 


69°50'30" 


264 


940 


39°54'00" 


69°51'30" 


134 


945 


39°58'00" 


71°13'00" 


207 


946 


39°55'30" 


71°14'00" 


247 


947 


39°53'30" 


71°13'30" 


319 


948 


not given 


not given 


7 




[Buzzard's 


5 Bay] 




949 


40°03'00" 


70°31'00" 


100 


950 


40°07'00" 


70°32'00" 


71 


951 


39°57'00" 


70°31'30" 


225 


952 


39°55'00" 


70°28'00" 


396 


978 


not given 


not given 


17 




[Off Chatham, Cape Cod] 




987 


40°54' 


70°48'30" 


28 


994 


39°40' 


71°30' 


368 


997 


39°42' 


71°32' 


335 


999 


39°45'13" 


71°30' 


266 


1025 


39°49' 


71°25' 


216 


1026 


39°50'30" 


71°23' 


182 


1028 


39°57' 


69° 17' 


410 


1029 


39°57'06" 


69° 16' 


458 


1031 


39°57' 


69°19' 


255 


1032 


39°56' 


69°22' 


208 


1033 


39°56' 


69°24' 


183 


1035 


39°57' 


69°28' 


120 


1036 


39°58' 


69°30' 


94 


1038 


39°58' 


70°06' 


146 


1039 


39°59' 


70°06' 


130 


1046 


38°33' 


73°18' 


104 


1048 


38°29' 


73°21' 


435 


1092 


39°58' 


69°42' 


202 


1093 


39°56' 


69°42' 


349 


1096 


39°53' 


69°47' 


317 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 81 

Fish Hawk (continued) 

158 
70 
640 
173 
322 
452 
193 

DREDGINGS BY U. S. FISH COMMISSION STEAMER 
ALBATROSS, 1883-1986 



1097 


39°54' 


69°44' 


1118 


40°03' 


70°45' 


1124 


40°01' 


68°54' 


1137 


39°40' 


71°52' 


1142 


39°32' 


72°00' 


1143 


39°29' 


72°01' 


1154 


39°55'31" 


70°39' 









DEPTH IN 


STATION NO. 


LONGITUDE 


LATITUDE 


FATHOMS 


2003 


37°16'30" 


74°20'36" 


641 


2004 


37°19'45" 


74°26'06" 


102 


2011 


36°38'30" 


74°40'10" 


81 


2012 


36°41'15" 


74°39'50" 


66.5 


2025 


40°02'00" 


70°27'00" 


239 


2033 


39°32'30" 


72°18'35" 


379 


2036 


38°52'40" 


69°24'40" 


1735 


2037 


38°53'00" 


69°23'30" 


1731 


2038 


38°30'30" 


69°08'25" 


2033 


2041 


39°22'50" 


68°25'00" 


1608 


2042 


39°33'00" 


68°26'45" 


1555 


2043 


39°49'00" 


68°28'30" 


1467 


2048 


40°02'00" 


68°50'30" 


547 


2050 


39°42'59" 


69°21'20" 


1050 


2051 


39°41'00" 


69°20'20" 


1106 


2052 


39°40'05" 


69°21'25" 


1098 


2055 


42°32'00" 


68°17'00" 


99.5 


2072 


41°53'00" 


65°35'00" 


858 


2074 


41°43'00" 


65°21'50" 


1309 


2076 


41°13'00" 


66°00'50" 


906 


2077 


41°09'40" 


66°02'20" 


1255 


2078 


41°11'30" 


66°12'20" 


499 


2079 


41°13'00" 


66°19'50" 


75 


2083 


40°26'40" 


67°05'15" 


959 


2084 


40°16'50" 


67°05'15" 


1290 


2092 


39°58'35" 


71°00'30" 


197 


2094 


39°44'30" 


71°04'00" 


1022 


2096 


39°22'20" 


70°52'20" 


1451 


2097 


37°56'20" 


70°57'30" 


1917 


2098 


37°40'30" 


70°37'30" 


2221 


2099 


37°12'20" 


69°30'00" 


2949 


2100 


39°22'60" 


68°34'30" 


1628 



82 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Albatross (cont'd.) 



2102 


38°44'00" 


72°38'00" 


1209 


2103 


38°47'20" 


72°37'00" 


1091 


2105 


37°50'00" 


73°03'50" 


1395 


2106 


37°41'20" 


73°03'20" 


1497 


2108 


35°16'00" 


75°02'30" 


48 


2109 


35°14'20" 


74°59'10" 


142 


2110 


35°12'10" 


74°57'15" 


516 


2111 


35°09'50" 


74°57'40" 


938 


2113 


35°20'30" 


75°19'00" 


15 


2114 


35°20'00" 


75°20'00" 


14 


2115 


35°49'30" 


74°34'45" 


843 


2132 


19°55'39" 


75°49'16" 


478 


2137 


17°44'50" 


75°39'20" 


47 


2150 


13°34'45" 


81°21'10" 


382 


2171 


37°59'30" 


73°48'40" 


444 


2174 


38°15'00" 


72°03'00" 


1594 


2189 


39°49'30" 


70°26'00" 


600 


2193 


39°44'30" 


70°10'30" 


1122 


2194 


39°43'45" 


70°07'00" 


1140 


2199 


39°57'30" 


69°41'10" 


78 


2203 


39°34'15" 


71°41'15" 


705 


2205 


39°35'00" 


71°18'45" 


1073 


2208 


39°33'00" 


71°16'15" 


1178 


2209 


39°34'45" 


71°31'30" 


1080 


2212 


39°59'30" 


70°30'45" 


428 


2213 


39°58'30" 


70°30'00" 


384 


2215 


39°49'15" 


70°31'45" 


578 


2217 


39°47'20" 


69°34'15" 


924 


2221 


39°05'30" 


70°44'30" 


1525 


2222 


39°03'15" 


70°50'45" 


1537 


2224 


36°16'30" 


68°21'00" 


2574 


2225 


36°05'30" 


69°51'45" 


2512 


2226 


37°00'00" 


71°54'00" 


2045 


2227 


36°55'23" 


71°55'00" 


2109 


2228 


37°25'00" 


73°06'00" 


1582 


2229 


37°38'40" 


73°16'30" 


1423 


2230 


38°27'00" 


73°02'00" 


1168 


2231 


38°29'00" 


73°09'00" 


965 


2233 


38°36'30" 


73°06'00" 


630 


2234 


39°09'00" 


72°03'15" 


810 


2235 


39°12'00" 


72°03'30" 


707 


2249 


40° 11 '00" 


69°52'00" 


53 



I 
I 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 83 

Albatross (cont'd.) 



2262 


39°54'45" 


69°29'45" 


250 


2265 


37°07'40" 


74°35'40" 


70 


2268 


35°10'40" 


75°06'10" 


68 


2269 


35°12'30" 


75°05'00" 


48 


2272 


35°20'10" 


75°14'00" 


15 


2273 


35°20'30" 


75°17'30" 


17 


2274 


35°20'35" 


75°18'05" 


16 


2276 


35°20'45" 


75°19'15" 


16 


2277 


35°20'50" 


75°19'50" 


16 


2278 


35°20'55" 


75°20'20" 


16 


2283 


35°21'15" 


75°23'15" 


14 


2307 


35°42'00" 


74°54'30" 


43 


2367 


22°38'00" 


87°00'00" 


124 


2368 


29°15'00" 


85°32'00" 


28 


2369 


29°16'30" 


85°32'00" 


26 


2370 


29°18'15" 


85°32'00" 


25 


2371 


29°17'00" 


85°30'45" 


26 


2372 


29°15'30" 


85°29'30" 


27 


2373 


29°14'00" 


85°29'15" 


25 


2374 


29°11'30" 


85°29'00" 


26 


2375 


29°10'00" 


85°31'00" 


30 


2384 


28°45'00" 


88°15'30" 


940 


2385 


28°51'00" 


88°18'00" 


730 


2484 


44°20'00" 


57°11'15" 


204 


2492 


45°22'00" 


58°43'45" 


75 


2499 


44°46'30" 


59°55'45" 


130 


2547 


39°54'30" 


70°20'00" 


390 


2566 


37°23'00" 


68°08'00" 


2620 


2568 


39°15'00" 


68°08'00" 


1781 


2570 


39°54'00" 


67°05'30" 


1813 


2571 


40°09'30" 


67°09'00" 


1356 


2572 


40°29'00" 


66°04'00" 


1769 


2574 


41°02'30" 


65°08'15" 


1791 


2582 


39°50'00" 


71°43'00" 


137 


2655 


27°22'00" 


78°07'30" 


338 


2689 


39°42'00" 


71°15'30" 


525 


2697 


47°40'00" 


47°35'30" 


206 


2706 


41°28'30" 


65°35'30" 


1188 


2713 


38°20'00" 


70°08'30" 


1859 


2714 


38°22'00" 


70°17'30" 


1825 


2718 


38°24'00" 


71°52'00" 


1569 


2723 


36°47'00" 


73°09'30" 


1685 



84 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 
BY ADDISON EMERY VERRILL (1839-1926) 

This bibliography is extracted from the very complete one 
by Coe (1930: See under Relevant Literature, p. 13) and his 
reference numbers are included. Mentioned here are only 
works which in some way relate to mollusks. Coe did not 
include book reviews in his work, but those that were located 
are mentioned below. Only one significant molluscan work 
was overlooked, "The Cephalopods of the northeastern coast 
of America" (1882), which seems strange since I have Coe's 
copy of this work. 

1862 Notes on the natural history of Anticosti. Proceedings 
of the Boston Society of Natural History 9: 132-135. Coe 2. 

1870 Recent explorations of the deep-sea faunae. American 
Journal of Science and Arts (2) 49: 129-134 (January). Coe 
25. 

1870 Descriptions of shells from the Gulf of California. 
American Journal of Science and Arts (2) 49: 217-227 
(March). Coe 246. 

1870 [Review] Molln can fauna of New Haven, A critical 
review of all of th narine, fresh water, and land mollusca 
of the region, wi^ ' descriptions of many of the living 
animals and of ti • new species; by George H. Perkins. 
1869, Proceedings i f the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory. American Journal of Science and Arts (2) 49: 276-277 
(March). Not in Coe. 

1870 [Review] Report on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts, 
second edition, comprising the Mollusca; by Augustus A. 
Gould, edited by W. G. Binney. Boston, 1870. American 
Journal of Science and Arts (2) 49: 423-426 (May). Not in 
Coe. 

1870 Descriptions of some New England Nudibranchiata. 
American Journal of Science and Arts (2) 50: 405-408, 
figs. 1-3 (November). Coe 247. 

1871 On the distribution of marine animals on the southern 
coast of New England. American Journal of Science and 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 85 

Arts (3) 2: 357-362 (November). Reprinted: Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History 9: 92-97, 1872. Coe 29. 

1871 Smith, S. I. and A. E. Verrill. Notice of the Invertebrata 
dredged in Lake Superior in 1871, by the United States 
Lake Survey, under the direction of General C. B. Com- 
stock, S. L Smith, naturalist. American Journal of Science 
and Arts (3) 2: 448-454 [Mollusca, pp. 448-449; also rep- 
aged: 1-7] (December). Not in Coe. 

1871 Marine fauna of Eastport, Maine. Bulletin of The Essex 
Institute 3: 2-6. Coe 30. 

1872 Recent additions to the molluscan fauna of New Eng- 
land and the adjacent waters, with notes on other species. 
American Journal of Science and Arts (3) 3: 209-213 
(March); pp. 281-290, pis. 6-8 (April). Coe 248. 

1873 Report upon the invertebrate animals of Vineyard 
Sound and the adjacent waters, with an account of the 
physical characters of the region. First Annual Report of 
the United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, pp. 
295-778, pis. 1-38; author's edition, 1874, with altered title 
page, pp. i-vi, 1-478. Coe 36. 

1873 Verrill, A. E., S. I. Smith and Oscar Harger. Catalogue 
of the marine invertebrate animals of the southern coast 
of New England, and adjacent waters. In the preceding: 
pp. 537-746; author's edition, pp. 243-453. 

1873-1874 Results of recent dredging expeditions on the 
coast of New England. American Journal of Science and 
Arts (3) 5: 1-16 (January). (1873) Separate copies distrib- 
uted December 13, 1872; 98-106 (February); 6: 435-441 
(December). Coe 34. 1873, 7: 38-46 (January); 131-138 
(February); 1874, 405-414, pis. 4-5 (April); 498-505, pis. 6-8 
(May). Coe 38. 

1873 Remarks on certain errors in Mr. Jeffreys' article on The 
Mollusca of Europe compared with those of Eastern North 
America. American Journal of Science and Arts (3) 5: 465- 
472 (June). Reprinted: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History 11: 206-213. Coe 249. 



86 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

1873 Discovery of an Octopus inhabiting the coast of New 
England. American Naturahst 7: 394-397 (July). Coe 250. 

1874 Occurrence of gigantic cuttle-fishes on the coast of 
Newfoundland. American Journal of Science and Arts (3) 
7: 158- 161 (February). Coe 252. 

1874 The giant cuttle-fishes of Newfoundland and the com- 
mon squids of the New England coast. American Natural- 
ist 8: 167-174 (March). Coe 253. 

1874 Explorations of Casco Bay, Maine, by the United States 
Fish Commission, in 1873. Proceedings of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Portland 
Meeting, August 1873, 22B, 340-395, pis. 1-6 (June). Coe 
40. 

1874 Notice of some dredgings made near Salem [Massachu- 
setts] by Dr. A. S. Packard, Jr. and C. Cooke in 1873. Sixth 
Annual Report of the Peabody Academy of Science, 
Salem, pp. 58-60 (July). Coe 39. 

1875 The colossal Cephalopods of the North Atlantic. Ameri- 
can Naturahst 9: 21-86, text figs. 1-28 (February). Coe 254. 

1875 The gigantic Cephalopods of the North Atlantic. Amer- 
ican Journal of Science and Arts (3) 9: 123-130, pis. 2-4 
(February); pp. 177-185, pi. 5 (March). Coe 255. 

1875 Results of dredging expeditions off the New England 
coast in 1874. American Journal of Science and Arts (3) 9: 
411-415, pi. 7 (June); 10: 36-43, pis. 3, 4 (July); 196-202 
(September). Coe 41. 

1875 Notice of the occurrence of another gigantic Cepha- 
lopod (Architeuthis) on the coast of Newfoundland, in 
December, 1874. American Journal of Science and Arts (3) 
10: 213-214 (September). Reprinted: Annals and Maga- 
zine of Natural History 16: 266. Coe 256. 

1875 On the Post-Pliocene fossils of Sankoty Head, Nan- 
tucket Island; with a note on the geology; by S. H. Scudder. 
American Journal of Science and Arts (3) 10: 364-375 
(November). Coe 42. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 87 

1876 Note on gigantic Cephalopods, — a correction. Ameri- 
can Journal of Science and Arts (3) 12: 236-237 (Sep- 
tember). Coe 257. 

1877 Occurrence of another gigantic Cephalopod on the 
coast of Newfoundland. American Journal of Science and 
Arts (3) 14: 425-426 (November). Coe 258. 

1878 Notice of recent additions to the marine fauna of the 
eastern coast of North America. American Journal of 
Science and Arts (3) 16: 207-215 (September); 371-378 
(November). Coe 44. 

1878 Occurrence of fossiliferous Tertiary rocks on the Grand 
Bank and Georges Bank. American Journal of Science 
and Arts (3) 16: 323-324 (October). [Mollusks mentioned]. 
Coe 45. 

1879 Notice of recent additions to the marine fauna of the 
eastern coast of North America. American Journal of 
Science and Arts (3) 17: 239-243 (March); 309-315 (April); 
18: 468-470 (December). Coe 47. 

1879 Preliminary check-list of the marine Invertebrata of 
the Atlantic Coast, from Cape Cod to Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
pp. 1-32 (June) Special edition only; first supplement pp. 
1-2, 1881; second supplement, pp. 1-2, 1882. Coe 48. 

1879 Notice of recent additions to the marine Invertebrata, of 
the northeastern coast of America, with descriptions of 
new genera and species and critical remarks on others. 
Part 1 -Annelida, Gephyraea, Nemertina, Polyzoa, Tuni- 
cata, Mollusca, Anthozoa, Echinodermata, Porifera. Pro- 
ceedings of the United States National Museum 2: 165-205 
[Mollusca, pp. 197-198] (November). Coe 52. 

1879-1880 The Cephalopods of the northeastern coast of 
America. Part 1— The gigantic squids (Architeuthis) and 
their allies, with observations on similar large species 
from foreign localities. Transactions of the Connecticut 
Academy of Arts and Sciences 5: 177-257, pis. 13-25, 16a 
(1879, December- 1880, February). Coe 260. 



88 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

1880 List of marine Invertebrata from the New England 
coast, distributed by the United States Commission of 
Fish and Fisheries. Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum 2: 227-232 (January). Coe 51. 

1880 Notice of recent additions to the marine fauna of the 
eastern coast of North America. American Journal of 
Science (3) 19: 137-140 (February). Coe 49. 

1880 Synopsis of the Cephalopoda of the northeastern coast 
of America. American Journal of Science (3) 19: 284-295, 
pis. 12-16 (April). Coe 261. 

1880-1881 The Cephalopods of the northeastern coast of 
America. Part 2 — The smaller Cephalopods, including the 
"squids" and the Octopi, with other allied forms. Transac- 
tions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 5: 
259-466, pis. 26-56 (1880, June-1881, December). Coe 266. 

1880 Occurrence at Newport, Rhode Island of two littoral 
species of European shells not before recorded as Ameri- 
can. American Journal of Science (3) 20: 250 (September). 
Coe 263. 

1880 Rapid diffusion of Littorina littorea on the New Eng- 
land coast. American Journal of Science (3) 20: 251 (Sep- 
tember). Coe 264. 

1880 Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the 
outer banks off the southern coast of New England, [no. 1]. 
American Journal of Science (3) 20: 390-403 (November). 
Coe 54. 

1880 Notice of recent additions to the marine Invertebrata, of 
the northeastern coast of America, with descriptions of 
new genera and species and critical remarks on others. 
Part 2 — Mollusca, with notes on Annelida, Echinoder- 
mata, etc., collected by the United States Fish Commis- 
sion. Part 3 — Catalogue of Mollusca recently added to the 
fauna of southern New England. Proceedings of the Uni- 
ted States National Museum 3: 356-409 (December). Coe 
53 and 262. 






OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 89 

1881 Reports on the results of dredging, under the supervi- 
sion of Alexander Agassiz, on the east coast of the United 
States, during the summer of 1880, by the United States 
coast survey steamer "Blake," . . . Report on the Cepha- 
lopods, and some additional species dredged by the United 
States Fish Commission steamer "Fish Hawk" during the 
season 1880. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy 8: 99-116, pis. 1-8 (March). Coe 265. 

1881 Giant Squid (Architeuthis) abundant in 1875, at the 
Grand Banks. American Journal of Science (3) 21: 251-252 
(March). Coe 267. 

1881 Regeneration of lost parts in the squid, Loligo peali. 
American Journal of Science (3) 21: 333-334 (April). Coe 
268. 

1881 Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the 
outer banks off the southern coast of New England, no. 2. 
American Journal of Science (3) 22: 292-303 (October). 
Coe 58. 

1881 Recent papers on the marine Invertebrata of the Atlan- 
tic coast of North America. American Journal of Science 
(3) 22: 411-414 (November). Coe 55. 

1882 Occurrence of an additional specimen of Architeuthis at 
Newfoundland. American Journal of Science (3) 23: 71-72 
(January). Coe 271. 

1882 [Review] Descriptions of some new and rare Cephalop- 
oda, Pt. 2, by Richard Owen. (Additional notes on giant 
Cephalopods). American Journal of Science (3) 23: 72-75 
(January). Coe 270. 

1882 Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the 
outer banks off the southern coast of New England, no. 3. 
American Journal of Science (3) 23: 135-142 (February). 
[Echinoderms and additional dredging stations occupied 
by the "Fish Hawk," in 1881]. Coe 59. 

1882 Catalogue of marine Mollusca added to the fauna of the 
New England region, during the past ten years. Transac- 
tions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 5: 



90 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

447-588 (Index, pp. 589-599), pis. 42-44, 57-58 (May-July). 
Coe 272. 

1882 Notice of recent additions to the marine Invertebrata of 
the northeastern coast of America, with descriptions of 
new genera and species and critical remarks on others. 
Part 4 — Additions to the deep-water Mollusca, taken off 
Martha's Vineyard, in 1880 and 1881. Proceedings of the 
United States National Museum 5: 315-343 (September). 
Coe 269. 

1882 Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the 
outer banks off the southern coast of New England, no. 7, 
and of some additions to the fauna of Vineyard Sound. 
Amerca.i Journal of Science (3) 24: 360-371 (November), 
no. 8, pp. 447-451 (December). [Additional stations occu- 
pied in 1882]. Coe 63. 

1882 [Review] Description of new Cephalopoda; by T. W. 
Kirk. Notes on two gigantic Cephalopods from New Zea- 
land. American Journal of Science (3) 24: 477 (December). 
Coe 273. 

1882 The Cephalopods of the northeastern coast of America. 
Part 1 — The gigantic squids (Architeuthis) and their 
allies, with observations on similar large species from 
foreign localities. [A revision of paper with the same title, 
1879-80]. Part 2— Monographic revision of the Cephalop- 
ods of the Atlantic coast from Cape Hatteras to Newfound- 
land. Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of 
Fish and Fisheries for 1879, pp. 211-455, pis. 1-46; also 
repaged: 1-244. Not in Coe. 

1883 [Review] Structural and systematic conchology; by 
George W. Tryon, Jr. American Journal of Science (3) 25: 
397 (May). Not in Coe. 

1883 Reports on the results of dredging, under the supervi- 
sion of Alexander Agassiz, in the Gulf of Mexico, and in 
the Caribbean Sea (1878-79), by the United States coast 
survey steamer "Blake," . . . Supplementary Report on the 
"Blake" Cephalopods. Bulletin of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology 11: 105-115, pis. 1-3 (October). Coe 274. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 91 

1883 Descriptions of two species of Octopus from California. 
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 11: 
117-124, pis. 4-6 (October). Coe 275. 

1884 Second catalogue of Mollusca recently added to the 
fauna of the New England coast and the adjacent parts of 
the Atlantic, consisting mostly of deep-sea species, v/ith 
notes on others previously recorded. Transactions of the 
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 6: 139-294, pis. 
28-32 (Index, pp. 507-517) (April-July). Coe 276. 

1884 List of deep-water and surface Mollusca taken off the 
east coast of the United States by the United States Fish 
Commission steamers, "Fish Hawk" and "Albatross," 
1880-1883. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of 
Arts and Sciences 6: 263-289 (July). Coe 277, part of 
preceding item, Coe 276. 

1884 Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the 
outer banks off the southern coast of New England, and 
some additions to the fauna of Vineyard Sound. Annual 
Report of the United States Commissioner of Fish and 
Fisheries for 1882, 10: 641-669; also repaged: 1-29 [Mol- 
lusca, pp. 644-649; 4-9]. Coe 71. 

1884 Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the 
outer banks off the southern coast of New England, no. 9. 
American Journal of Science (3) 28: 213-220 (September) 
[Partial list of stations occupied by the "Albatross" in 
1883]. Coe 73. no. 10, pp. 378-384 (November). [Work of the 
steamer "Albatross" in 1884]. Coe 74. 

1885 Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the 
outer banks off the southern coast of New England, no. 11. 
American Journal of Science (3) 29: 149-157 (February). 
[Work of the steamer "Albatross" in 1884, continued; list 
of stations occupied in 1884]. Coe 75. 

1885 Results of the explorations made by the steamer "Alba- 
tross" off the northern coast of the United States, in 1883. 
Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Fish 
and Fisheries for 1883, pp. 503- 699, pis. 1-44; also rep- 
aged: 1-197. Coe 76. 



92 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

1885 Third catalogue of Mollusca recently added to the fauna 
of the New England coast and the adjacent parts of the 
Atlantic, consisting mostly of deep-sea species, with notes 
on others previously recorded. Transactions of the Con- 
necticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 6: 395-452, pis. 
42-44 (Index, pp. 507-517) (April-June). Coe 278. 

1885 How long will oysters live out of water? Bulletin of the 
United States Fish Commission 5: 161. Coe 279. 

1896 The Opisthoteuthidae. A remarkable new family of 
deep sea Cephalopoda, with remarks on some points in 
molluscan morphology. American Journal of Science (4) 
2: 74-80, text figs. 1-8 (July). Coe 280. 

1896 The Molluscan archetype considered as a veliger-like 
form, with discussions of certain points in molluscan 
morphology. American Journal of Science (4) 2: 91-98, 
text figs. 1-15 (August). Coe 281. 

1897 and K. J. Bush. Revision of the genera of Ledidae and 
Nuculidae of the Atlantic coast of the United States. 
American Journal of Science (4) 3: 51-63, text. figs. 1-22 
(January). Coe 284. 

1897 A gigantic Cephalopod on the Florida Coast. American 
Journal of Science (4) 3: 79 (January); Additional informa- 
tion concerning the giant Cephalopod of Florida, Ibid. 
162-163 (February); The supposed great Octopus of Flor- 
ida; certainly not a Cephalopod, Ibid. 335-356 (April). All 
Coe 283. 

1897 Nocturnal and diurnal changes in the colors of certain 
fishes and of the squid (Loligo), with notes on their sleep- 
ing habits. American Journal of Science (4) 3: 135-136 
(February). Coe 80. 

1897 The Florida monster. Science, n.s. 5: 392; The Florida 
sea-monster. Ibid. 476 (both March). Not in Coe. 

1897 The Florida sea-monster. The American Naturalist 31: 
304-307, pis. 7-8 (April). Coe 81. 

1897 A study of the family Pectinidae, with a revision of the 
genera and subgenera. Transactions of the Connecticut 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 93 

Academy of Arts and Sciences 10: 41-96, pis. 16-21 (June- 
July). Coe 282. 

1898 and K. J. Bush. Revision of the deep-water Mollusca of 
the Atlantic coast of North America, with descriptions of 
new genera and species. Part 1— Bivalvia. Proceedings of 
the United States National Museum 20: 775-901, pis. 
71-97 (June). Coe 285. 

1900 and K. J. Bush. Additions to the marine Mollusca of the 
Bermudas. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of 
Arts and Sciences 10: 513-544, pis. 63-65 (September). Coe 
286. 

1900 The Nudibranchs and naked Tectibranchs of the Ber- 
mudas. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts 
and Sciences 10: 545-550, pi. 66 (September). Coe 287. 

1901 Additions to the fauna of the Bermudas from the Yale 
expedition of 1901, with notes on other species. Transac- 
tions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 11: 
15-62, pis. 1-9 (December). [Mollusca, pp. 23-35, pis. 2-5]. 
Coe 85. 

1902 The Bermuda Islands: Their scenery, climate, produc- 
tions, physiography, natural history and geology, with 
sketches of their early history and changes due to man. 
Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences 11: 413-911, pis. 65-104, 245 text figs.; author's 
edition, 1903, pp. i-x, 1-548 [Introduction of land snails 
and slugs], pp. 727-735 [315-323], text figs. 67a-79e (Sep- 
tember). Coe 89. 

1905-1906 The Bermuda Islands: Part 4. Geology and pal- 
eontology. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of 
Arts and Sciences 12: 45-204, 345, pis. 16-27, 60 text figs.; 
author's edition, 1907, 1-160, 301 [Mollusca, pp. 158-172 
1 14-128], pis. 25-27, text figs. 45-55b; pp. 179-187 [135-143] 
text figs. 59-63, 1906 (February); pp. 189-198 [145-154] text 
figs. 60, 66-70, 1906 (March). Coe 94. 



94 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 
BY KATHERINE JEANNETTE BUSH (1885-1937) 

This bibliography is extracted from the complete one by 
Remington (1977: See under Relevant Literature, p. 13) with 
minor additions. 

1883 Catalogue of Mollusca and Echinodermata dredged on 
the coast of Labrador by the expedition under the direction 
of Mr. W. A. Stearns, in 1882. Proceedings of the United 
States National Museum 6: 236-247, pi. 9; also in Stearns, 
W. A. [no date or printer]. Notes on the natural history of 
Labrador, pp. 60-74, figs. 1-12. 

1885 Additions to the shallow-water Mollusca of Cape Hat- 
teras, N[orth] C[arolina] by the United States Fish Com- 
mission steamer "Albatross" in 1883 and 1884. Trans- 
actions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 
6: 453-480, pi. 45 (June). 

1885 List of the shallow-water Mollusca dredged off Cape 
Hatteras by the "Albatross" in 1883. Annual Report of the 
United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 
1883, part 2, pp. 579-590; also repaged: 77-88. 

1885 List of deep-water Mollusca dredged by the United 
States Fish Commission steamer "Fish Hawk" in 1880, 
1881, 1882, with their range in depth. Annual Report of the 
United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 
1883, part 2, pp. 701-727; also repaged: 1-27. 

1893 Reports on the results of dredging, under the supervi- 
sion of Alexander Agassiz, in the Gulf of Mexico (1877-78), 
and the Caribbean Sea (1879-80), and along the Atlantic 
coast of the United States (1880) by the United States 
coast survey steamer "Blake" .... Report on the Mollusca 
dredged by the "Blake" in 1880, including descriptions of 
several new species. Bulletin of the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology 23: 197-244, pis. 1-2 (January). 

1897 Verrill, A. E. and K. J. Bush. Revision of the genera of 
Ledidae and Nuculidae of the Atlantic coast of the United 
States. American Journal of Science (4) 3: 51-63, text figs. 
1-22 (January). 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 95 

1897 Revision of the marine gastropods referred to Cyclos- 
trema, Adeorbis, Vitrinella, and related genera; with des- 
criptions of some new genera and species belonging to the 
Atlantic fauna of America. Transactions of the Connecti- 
cut Academy of Arts and Sciences 10: 97-144, pis. 22, 23 
(June and July). 

1898 Verrill, A. E. and K. J. Bush. Revision of the deep-water 
Mollusca of the Atlantic coast of North America, with 
descriptions of new genera and species. Part 1 — Bivalvia. 
Proceedings of the United States National Museum 20: 
775-901, pis. 71-97 (June). 

1899 Descriptions of new species of Turhonilla of the western 
Atlantic fauna, with notes on those previously known. 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia 52: 145-177, pi. 8 (April). 

1899 [Reviews] (1) Synopsis of the Recent and Tertiary Lep- 
tonacea of North America and the West Indies, by William 
H. Dall. (2) The Mollusca of Funafuti, Part 1, Gastropoda, 
by Charles Hedley. Science n.s. 10: 249-251 (August). 

1900 Verrill, A. E. and K. J. Bush. Additions to the marine 
Mollusca of the Bermudas. Transactions of the Connecti- 
cut Academy of Arts and Sciences 10: 513-544, pis. 63-65 
(September). 

1909 Notes on the family Pyramidellidae. American Journal 
of Science (4) 27: 475-484 (June). 

1909 A new Bela from Frenchman's Bay, Maine. The Nauti- 
lus 23: 61-62, fig. 1 (October). 

1910 On the variation of Aplustrum amplustre Linn6. The 
Nautilus 24: 1-2 (May). 

PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS AND LISTS OF DREDGING 
STATIONS BY SANDERSON SMITH (1832-1915) 

1859 Depth of Molluscs of Peconic and Gardiner's Bays, 
Long Island, New York. American Journal of Science and 
Arts (2) 27: 281-283 (March). 



96 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

1860 On the Mollusca of Peconic and Gardiner's Bays, Long 
Island, New York. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural His- 
tory of New York 7: 147-168, folding table (April). 

1865 Notice of a Post-Pliocene deposit of Gardiner's Island, 
Suffolk County, New York. Annals of the Lyceum of Natu- 
ral History of New York 8: 149-151 (May). 

1865 Hubbard, J. W. and S. Smith. Catalogue of the Mollusca 
of Staten Island, New York. Annals of the Lyceum of 
Natural History of New York 8: 151-154 (May). 

1865 Catalogue of the Mollusca of Little Gull Island, Suffolk 
County, New York. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural His- 
tory of New York 8: 184-195 (November). 

1870 and Temple Prime. Report on the Mollusca of Long 
Island, New York, and its dependencies. Annals of the 
Lyceum of Natural History of New York 9: 377-407 (377- 
392, June; 393-407, July). 

1882 and R. Rathbun. Lists of the dredging stations of the 
United States Fish Commission from 1871 to 1879 inclu- 
sive, with temperature and other observations. Annual 
Report of the United States Commissioner of Fish and 
Fisheries for 1879, pp. 559-601. 

1888 [1889]. Lists of dredging stations in North American 
waters from 1867 to 1887. Annual Report of the Commissi- 
soner of Fish and Fisheries for 1886, app. E, pp. 871-1017, 9 
folding charts; also repaged: 1-145. 

1892 Notes on the shells of the John J. Crooke collection. 
Proceedings of the Natural Science Association of Staten 
Island [New York] 3: 13-14. 

BOOKS AND PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 
BY ALPHEUS HYATT VERRILL (1871-1954) 

1936 Strange sea shells and their stories. L. C. Page and 
Company, Boston, pp. xvi, 211, col. frontispiece, pis. 1-5, 
8vo. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 97 

1947 Strombus samba Clench in Florida. The Nautilus 60: 
102 (January). 

1947 Additional Strombus samba Clench from Florida. The 
Nautilus 61: 32 (July). 

1947 Additions to the Mollusca of Lake Worth, Florida. The 
Nautilus 61: 47-48 (October). 

1947 Ensis directus in Lake Worth, Florida. The Nautilus 61: 
72 (October). 

1947 Unrecorded habit of Cymatium cynocephalum. The 
Nautilus 61: 72 (October). 

1948 Some new West Indian shells. A new Astraea from 
Barbados. Cypraea carneola in the West Indies. Cypraea 
carneola barbadensis. Mollusca, Paul H. Reed, Tavares, 
Florida 2 (3): 70, pi. (June) [August]. 

1948 The status of Strombus samba Clench. The Nautilus 
62: 1-3 (July). 

1949 Murex argo Clench and Farfante. The Nautilus 63: 36 
(July). 

1949 Our collecting trip to the Caribbees including a list of 
shells collected. Mollusca, Paul H. Reed, Tavares, Florida 
2 (5): 1-14, pis. 1-2 (August). 

1949 Some additional notes. Mollusca, Paul H. Reed, Tav- 
ares, Florida 2 (6): 8 (August). 

1950 Shell collector's handbook. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New 
York. pp. XV, 228, pis. 1-16, text figs. 8vo. 

1950 New subspecies from the West Indies. Minutes of the 
Conchological Club of Southern California, no. 101: 5-7; 7 
text figs. (June). 

1950 Voluta musica, its forms, distribution and operculum. 
Minutes of the Conchological Club of Southern California, 
no. 102: 3-7, text figs. (July). 

1950 A new Murex from the West Indies. Minutes of the 
Conchological Club of Southern California, no. 103: 4-5, 
text figs. (August). 



98 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

1950 Two new West Indian shells. Minutes of the Concholog- 
ical Club of Southern California, no. 104: 3, 2 text figs. 
(September). 

1952 A new Cymatium from the West Indies. Minutes of the 
Conchological Club of Southern California, no. 119: 2, 2 
text figs. (April). 

1953 A new Murex from West Indies. Minutes of the Concho- 
logical Club of Southern California, no. 128: 2, 1 text fig. 
(June). 

1953 New Volutes from the West Indies. Minutes of the Con- 
chological Club of Southern California, no. 132: 9, 1 text 
fig. (October). 

1953 A new West Indian Murex. Minutes of the Conchologi- 
cal Club of Southern California, no. 132: 10, text fig. 
(October). 

1953 Two new subspecies of Valuta musica from Tobago. 
Minutes of the Conchological Club of Southern California, 
no. 134: 4-5, 2 text figs. (December). 

1954 Pleurotomaria (Pterotrochus) adansoniana. Minutes of 
the Conchological Club of Southern California, no. 137: 
34, text figs. (March- April). 

1954 [Communication from Mr. A. Hyatt Verrill] Minutes of 
the Conchological Club of Southern California, no. 140: 4 
(July). 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



99 



INDEX 

The index is for users of this catalogue who may want to 
see the species originally described, by the several authors, 
under the genus. Since the species are listed alphabetically in 
the catalogue, no page numbers are given. 



Abra 

americana V & B 
Abralia 

megalops V 
Acanthodoris 

citrina V 

ornata V 
Acirsa 

gracilis V 
Aclis 

polita V 

striata V 

tenuis V 
Actaeon 

hebes V 

nitidus V 
Admete 

nodosa V & S 
Aeolis 

veriformis S 
Alloposus 

mollis V 
Ancistrocheirus 

megaptera V 
Angulus 

modestus V 

tenellus V 
Anemia 

glabra V 
Aplysia 

megaptera V 
Area 

crenulata V 

profundicola V & S 
Architeuthis 

megaptera V 

princeps V 
Astarte 

lens V 
Astraea 

dominicana A H V 

ruthi A H V 
Astyris 

diapbana V 

pura V 
Atlanta 

pulchella V 



Avicula 

nitida V 
Axinodon 

ellipticus V & B 
Axinopsis 

cordata V & B 

inequalis V & B 
Bathyarca 

abyssorum V & B 

anomala V & B 
Bela 

acuta V 

blakei V 

blanejd B 

canadensis V & B 

concinnula V 

gouldii V 

hebes V 

incisula V 

pusilla V 

pygmaea V 

rathbuni V 

sarsii V 

subturgida V 

subvitrea V 
Benthodolium 

abyssorum V & S 
Benthoteuthis 

megalopsis V 
Brachioteuthis 

beanii V 
Buccinum 

abyssorum V & S 

gouldii V 

sandersoni V 
Bulla 

bermudae V & B 
Cadulus 

carolinensis B 

grandis V 

incisus B 

pandionis V & S 

spectabilis V 
Caecum 

cooperi S 

costatum V 

crispum V & B 



100 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



debile V & B 

delicatulum V & B 

obesum V & B 

tenue V & B 

tornatum V & B 
Calliostoma 

bairdii V & S 
Calliteuthis 

reversa V 
Cardiomya 

abyssicola V & B 

gemma V & B 

glypta B 
Cerithiella 

whiteavesii V 
Cerithiopsis 

bermudensis V & B 
Cetoconcha 

atypha V & B 
Cheloteuthis 

rapax V 
Chione 

tumens V 
Chiroteuthis 

lacertosa V 
Chlamys 

benedicti V 

costellata V & B 

insculpta V 
Choristella 

brychia V 

leptalea B 
Choristes 

tenera V 
Choristodon 

cancellatus V 
Chromodoris 

roseopicta V 
Cingula 

apicina V 

brychia V 

leptalea V 

sandersoni V 

syngenes V 
Circulus 

dalli B 
Cirrhoteuthis 

megaptera V 

plena V 
Cithna 

cingulata V 

olivacea V 
Clidiophora 

inornata V & B 
Cocculina 

conica V 



dalli V 

leptalea V 

reticulata V 
Coryphella 

nobilis V 

pallida V 

rutila V 

stimpsoni V 
Cratena 

veronicae V 
Crenella 

fragilis V 
Cryptodon 

altus V & B 

brevis V & B 

equalis V & B 

grandis V & S 

inequalis V & B 

insignis V & B 

obesus V 

obsoletus V & B 

ovatus V & B 

planus V & B 

plicatus V 

pygmaeus V & B 

simplex V & B 
Cuspidaria 

formosa V & B 

fraterna V & B 

media V & B 

parva V & B 

turgida V & B 

ventricosa V & B 
Cuthona 

stimpsoni V 
Cyclopecten 

nanus V & B 

simplex V 

subimbrifer V «& B 
Cyclostrema 

affine V 

cingulatum V 

dalli V 

diaphanum V 

ornatum V 
Cyclostremella 

humilis B 
Cylichna 

caelata B 

dalli V 

eburnea V 
Cymatium 

mohorteri A H V 

rehderi A H V 
Cymbulia 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



101 



calceola V 
Cypraea 

barbadensis A H V 
Cypraeacassis 

neglecta A H V 
Delphinula 

nitida V & S 
Dendronotus 

elegans V 

robustus V 
Dentalium 

laqueatum V 

leptum B 

solidum V 

sulcatum V 
Desmoteuthis 

tenera V 
Diaphana 

gemma V 

lottae B 
Diplodonta 

turgida V & S 
Dolabrifera 

virens V 
Dolium 

bairdii V & S 
Doridella 

obscura V 
Doris 

bifida V 

bistellata V 

complanta V 

olivacea V 
Doto 

formosa V 
Eledone 

verrucosa V 
Eledonella 

pygmaea V 
Elysia 

flavaV 

papillosa V 

picta V 

subornata V 
Enaeta 

pedersenii V 
Engina 

leucozonia A H V 
Ethalia 

multistriata V 
Eulimella 

chariessa V 

lissa V 

lucida V 

nitida V 

smithii V 



Eumila 

amblytera V & B 

atypha V & B 

composa V & B 

engonia V & B 

hypsela V & B 

perversa B 

sarsi B 
Facelina 

goslingii V 
Fissurella 

tanneri V 
Fossarus 

elegans V & S 
Gastranella 

tumida V 
Granigyra 

spinulosa B 
Gundlachia 

stimpsoniana S 
Gymnobela 

brevis V 

curta V 

engonia V 

subangulata V 
Halonympha 

striatella V & B 
Hemitoma 

rubida A H V 
Heterodoris 

robusta V & E 
Heteroteuthis 

tenera V 
Histioteuthis 

collinsii V 
Hyalopecten 

dilectus V & B 
Idalia 

modesta V 
Idas 

lamellosus V 
Inioteuthis 

japonica V 

morsei V 
Issa 

ramosa V & E 
Jumala 

brychia V & S 
Kelliella 

nitida V 
Kennerlia 

brevis V & B 
Koonsia 

obesa V 
Lamellaria 

gouldii V 



102 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



pellucida V 
Lamellidoris 

aureopuncata V 

lactea V 

miniata V 

quadrimaculata V 
Lasaea 

bermudensis B 
Leda 

bushiana V 
Ledella 

messanensis V & B 

parva V & B 

sublevis V & B 
Lepetella 

tubicola V & S 
Leptaxinus 

minutus V & B 
Leptogyra 

eritmeta B 

inconspicua B 

verrilli B 
Leptoteuthis 

diaphana V 
Limatula 

hyalina V & B 

nodulosa V & B 

regularis V & B 
Limopsis 

affinis V 

plana V 

profundicola V & B 

sulcata V & B 
Lissospira 

abyssicola B 

convexa B 

rarinota B 

striata B 
Loligo 

borealis V 

pallida V 
Loripes 

edentuloides V 
Cylichna 

caelata B 

dalli V 

eburnea V 
Cymatium 

mohorteri A H V 

rehderi A H V 
Cymbulia 

calceola V 
Cypraea 

barbadensis A H V 
Cypraeacassis 

neglecta A H V 



Delphinula 

nitida V & S 
Dendronotus 

elegans V 

robustus V 
Dentalium 

lens V & S 
Lovenella 

whiteavesii V 
Lucina 

blakeana B 

nux V & B 
Lunatia 

levicula V 
Lyonsia 

granulifera V & B 
Lyonsiella 

cordata V & B 

gemma V 
Machaeroplax 

carinata V 

planula V 
Malletia 

abyssorum V & B 

polita V & B 
Mangilia 

ceroplasta B 

ephamilla B 

eritima B 

glypta B 

leuca B 

oxia B 

oxytata B 

psila B 
Margarita 

diomedeae V 

lamellosa V & S 

regalis V & S 
Marginella 

borealis V 

carnea V 

virginiana V 
Marsenina 

ampla V 
Martesia 

fragilis V & B 
Mastigoteuthis 

agassizii V 
Menestho 

bruneri V 
Mitra 

brandii A H V 
Modiola 

polita V & S 
Molleriopsis 

abyssicola B 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



103 



Montacuta 

casta V & B 

cuneata V & B 

fragilis V & B 

striatula V & B 

tenuis V & B 

triquetra V & B 
Montagua 

gouldii V 
Murex 

briskasi A H V 

consuela A H V 

helenae A H V 

maculatus A H V 

pygmaeus B 

strausi A H V 
Myonera 

pretiosa V & B 
Mytilimeria 

flexuosa V & S 
Nassa 

nigrolabra V 
Neaera 

costata V 

gigantea V 

multicostata V & S 

undata V 
Nectoteuthis 

pourtalesii V 
Neilonella 

subovata V & B 
Neptunea 

arata V 

caelata V & S 
Niso 

aeglees B 
Nucula 

granulosa V 

ovata V & B 

subovata V & B 

trigona V 
Octopus 

bairdii V 

bimaculatus V 

carolinensis V 

gracilis V 

lentus V 

obesus V 

pictus V 

piscatorum V 
Odostomia 

bruneri V 

didyma V & B 

disparilis V 

engonia B 

gibbosa B 



gouldii B 

jonesii V & B 

lubrica V & B 

somersi V & B 

sulcata V 

teres B 

tornata V 
Omalaxis 

lirata V 

nobilis V 
Ommastrephes 

robustus V 
Opisthoteuthis 

agassizii V 
Pandora 

carolinensis B 
Papyridea 

californica V 
Pecchiolia 

granulifera V 
Pecten 

glyptus V 

leptaleus V 

pustulosus V 

undatus V & S 
Periploma 

abyssorum V 

affinis V & B 

undulata V 
Phacoides 

somersensis V 
Philine 

amabilis V 

tin eta V 
Pholadomya 

arata V & S 
Placobranchopsis 

niveus V 
Placophora 

atlantica V & S 
Pleurobranchaea 

tarda V 
Pleurobranchopsis 

aurantiaca V 
Pleurobranchus 

americanus V 
Pleuropus 

hageri V 
Pleurotoma 

agassizii V & S 

amblytera B 

carpenteri V & S 

dalli V & S 

pandionis V 
Pleurotomella 

atypha B 



104 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



bairdii V & S 

benediciti V & S 

bruneri V & S 

catharinae V & S 

dalli B 

diomedeae V & S 

emertoni V & S 

frielei V 

jeffreysii V 

leptalea B 

lottae V 

packardii V 

saffordi V & S 

sandersoni V 

sulcifera B 

tin eta V 

vitrea V 
Poecilozonites 

antiquus V 

conoides V 

zonatus V 
Polycerella 

emertoni V 
Poromya 

sublevis V 
Propilidium 

elegans V 
Pseudorotella 

minuscula B 
Puncturella 

abyssicola V 

eritmeta V 
Ringicula 

nitida V 
Rissoa 

harpa V 

miniscula V & B 
Rossia 

brachyura V 

hyatti V 

megaptera V 

sublaevis V 
Rotella 

cryptospira V 
Runcina 

inconspicua V 
Scala 

electa V & B 
Scalaria 

andrewsii V 

dalliana V & S 

leeana V 

leptalea B 

pourtalesii V & S 

teres B 
Scaphander 



nobilis V 
Scyllaea 

edwardsvii V 
Sequenzia 

eritima V 

nitida V 
Semele 

junonia V 
Sepiola 

leucoptera V 
Sipho 

brevis V 

caelatulus V 

dispar V 

glyptus V 

hebes V 

hispidulus V 

leptaleus V 

obesus V 

parvus V & S 

planulus V 

profundicola V & S 

pubescens V 

simplex V 
Siphonaria 

henica V & B 
Skena 

trilix B 
Solarium 

boreale V & S 
Solemya 

grandis V & B 
Spirotropis 

ephamilla V 
Stauroteuthis 

syrtensis V 
Stilifer 

curtus V 
Strombus 

spectabilis A H V 
Stylifera 

stimpsonii V 
Styliola 

vitrea V 
Succinea 

somersensis V 
Taranis 

pulchella V 

tornatus V 
Teleoteuthis 

agilis V 
Tethys 

morio V 

tarda V 
Thracia 

nitida V 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



105 



Tindaria 

callistiformis V & B 

lata V & B 
Tivela 

elegans V 
Torellia 

fimbriata V & S 

tiarella V 
Tornatina 

decurrens V & B 
Trophon 

abyssorum V 

limicola V 

lintoni V & S 

verrillii B 
Turbonilla 

abrupta B 

abyssicola V & B 

areolata V 

asperula B 

atypha B 

bushiana V 

composa B 

conradi B 

constricta B 

costulata V 

dalli B 

elegans V 

emertoni V 

formosa V & S 

grandis V 

heilprini B 

hemphilli B 

incisa B 

inclinata B 

ischna B 

leuca B 

obesa B 

penistoni B 

perlepida V 

pilsbryi B 

pseudointerrupta B 

pyrrha B 

rathbuni V & S 

rushii B 

smithii V 

stimpsoni B 



stricta V 

swiftii B 

unilirata B 

valida V & B 
Turtonia 

nitida V 
Typhlomangelia 

tanneri V & S 
Urosalpinx 

carolinensis V 

macra V 
Venericardia 

obliqua B 
Venus 

antiqua V 

isocardia V 
Verticordia 

caelata V 
Vitrinella 

tyroni B 
Voluta 

alba A H V 

alfordi A H V 

ornata A H V 

sanguinea A H V 

tobagoensis A H V 
Volvula 

minuta B 

oxytata B 
Xenophora 

robusta V 
Yoldia 

callista B 

casta V & B 

regularis V 
Yoldiella 

ambilia V & B 

curta V & B 

dissimilis V & B 

fraterna V & B 

inconspicua V & B 

inflata V & B 

iris V & B 

minuscula V & B 

pachia V & B 

stricta V & B 

subangulata V & B 



106 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 1 

Addison Emery Verrill 

1839-1926 

(From Verrill, 1958) 



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i<^^ 




108 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 2 

Katharine Jeannette Bush 
1855-1937 

Katharine J. Bush (back row, left) in a photograph taken in the 1880s at the 
Woods Hole Laboratory of the Bureau of Fisheries. Her sister, Charlotte 
Bush, who married Wesley R. Coe, Yale Professor and Peabody Curator, is 
seated next to her. In the front row are M. J. Rathbun (left), known for her 
work on Crustacea at the United States National Museum, and Eloise 
Edwards (right) about whom there is no other information. This only known 
likeness of K. J. Bush appeared in Discovery (1978: 13{2), p. 43) and was 
kindly supplied for publication here by Dr. Deborah Jean Warner, Curator, 
History of Physical Sciences, National Museum of American History, who 
originally found it in the Baird-Fish Commission Papers in the Smithson- 
ian Archives. 



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1 10 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 3 

Fig. 1. Papyridea bullata californica Verrill. La Paz [Baja California]. Lec- 
totype YPM 4072. Length 38, height 30, width 12 mm. 

Fig. 2. Loripes edentuloides Verrill. La Paz [Baja California]. Holotype YPM 
8884 [single valve]. Length 42, height 39, width 26 [estimated] mm. 

Fig. 3. Chione tumens Verrill. La Paz [Baja California]. Lectotype YPM 
3021b. Length 39, height 37, width 28 mm. 



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112 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 4 

Fig. 1. Venus isocardia Verrill. La Paz [Baja California]. Lectotype YPM 
4941. Length 60, height 77, width 64 mm. 

Fig. 2. Enaeta pederseniiVerriW. La Paz [Baja California]. Lectotype YPM 
8842. Length 33, width 18 mm. 

Fig. 3. Tivela elegans Verrill. Acajutla [Salvador]. Lectotype YPM 1843 
[single valve]. Length 25, height 19, width 14 [estimated] mm. 



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114 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 5 

Fig. 1. Semele junonia Verrill. Near La Paz [Baja California]. Lectotype 
YPM 4080. Length 65, height 56, width 28 mm. 

Fig. 2. Lasaea bermudensis Bush. Bermuda. Lectotype YPM 8885. Length 3, 
height 2.9, width 2 mm. 

Fig. 3. Loripes lens Verrill and Smith. 1880, Fish Hawk sta. 874, 40°N, 
70°57'W [off Newport, Rhode Island], 85 fms. Lectotype USNM 64270. 
Length 14, height 12.5, width 5.5 mm. 

Fig. 4. Venericardia obliqua Bush. 1884, Albatross sta. 2289, 35°22'50"N, 
75°22'W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 7 fms. Lectotype YPM 10781 
[single valve]. Length 5.6, width 2.6 [estimated] mm. 



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1 16 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 6 

Fig. 1. YoldiellapachiaVerriW and Bush. 1885, Albatross sta. 2385, 28°51'N, 
88°18'W, 730 fms. Lectotype USNM 203001 [single valve]. Length 4.6, 
height 4.8 [after Verrill and Bush]. Photograph courtesy of Dr. Anders 
War6n. 

Fig. 2. Area pectunculoides crenulata Verrill. 1880, Fish Hawk sta. 874, 
40°N, 70°57'W off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 85 fms. Lectotype 
USNM 74134. Length 4.2, height 4, width 2.2 mm. 



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1 18 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 7 

Fig. 1. Tindaria lata Verrill and Bush. 1885, Albatross sta. 2385, 28°51'N, 
88°18'W [Gulf of Mexico], 730 fms. Holotype USNM 203000. Length 7, 
height 5.5, width 4 mm. 

Fig. 2. Angulus modestus Verrill. Vineyard Sound [Massachusetts], 10 fms. 
Lectotype YPM 8758. Length 9.8, height 5.6 width 3 mm. 



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120 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 8 

Fig. 1. Modiola polita Verrill and Smith. 1880, Fish Hawk sta. 895, 
39°56'30"N, 70°59'45"W off Newport, Rhode Island, 238 fms. Lectotype 
USNM 51361. Length 32, height 12, width 9 mm. 

Fig. 2. Cetoconcha atypha Verrill and Bush. 1884, Albatross sta. 2229, 
37°38'40"N, 73° 16'30"W, 1423 fms. Lectotype USNM 48703 [single broken 
valve]. Length 15 [estimated], height 12, width 4 [of valve] mm. 

Fig. 3. Cyclopecten simplex Verrill. 1884, Albatross sta. 2150, 13°34'45"N, 
81°21'10"W [West Indies], 382 fms. Lectotype YPM 8763 [single valve]. 
Length 4.5, height 5, width 6 [of valve] mm. 

Fig. 4. Chlamys benedicti Verrill and Bush. 1885, Albatross stas. 2369-2374, 
29° 1 1 ' 15"N, 85°29'32"W south of Panama City, Florida, 25-27 fms. Lecto- 
type YPM 8833 [single valve]. Length 5.5, height 6.2, width 1 [of valve] 
mm. 



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122 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 9 

Fig. 1. Limatula nodulosa Verrill and Bush. 1885, Albatross sta. 2385, 
28°51'N, 88°18'W [Gulf of Mexico], 730 fms. Holotype USNM 110618 
[single valve]. Length 7, height 4.5, width 4 [estimated] mm. 

Fig. 2. Limatula hyalina Verrill and Bush. 1885, Albatross stas. 2367-2374, 
29°N, 85°W, 25-124 fms. Holotype USNM 202850. Length 7.5, height 4.5, 
width 3 mm. 

Fig. 3. Limatula regularis Verrill and Bush. 1884, Albatross sta. 2265, 
37°7'40"N, 74°35'40"W [Chesapeake Bay], 70 fms. Lectotype USNM 
40862 [single valve]. Length 7.7, height 5, width 3 [estimated] mm. 



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124 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 10 

Fig. 1. Granigyra spinulosa Bush. 1886, Albatross sta. 2655, 27°22'N, 
78°07'30"W off Grand Bahama Island [West Indies], 338 fms. Holotype 
YPM 15805. Length 2.5, width 2.5 mm. 

Fig. 2. Lissospira {Ganesa "?") rarinota Bush. 1884, Albatross sta. 2150, 
13°34'45"N, 81°21'10"W [off Nicaragua], 382 fms. Holotype YPM 15804. 
Length 1.9, width 1.9 mm. 

Fig. 3. Torellia fimbriata tiarella Verrill. 1881, Fish Hawk sta. 1026, 
39°50'30"N, 71°23'W off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 182 fms. 
Lectotype USNM 45431. Length 9.5, width 9 mm. 

Fig. 4. Leptogyra eritmeta Bush. 1884, Albatross sta. 2174, 38°15'N, 73°03'W 
[off Delaware Bay], 1594 fms. Holotype USNM 77625. Length 1, width 2 
mm. 

Fig. 5. Ringicula nitida Verrill. 1872, Bache stas. O, S, 42°5'N, 67°49'W; 
42°11'N, 67°15'W [off northwest and northeast border of Georges Bank], 
110, 150 fms. Holotype YPM 15776. Length 4.2, width 2.7 mm. 

Fig. 6. Philine tincta Verrill. 1881, Fish Hawk sta. 921, 40°07'48"N, 
70°43'54"W off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 67 fms. Lectotype 
USNM 45648. Length 10.7, width 8 mm. 

Fig. 7. Lunatia leuicula Verrill. Casco Bay, Maine. Lectotype USNM 75840. 
Length 13, width 12 mm. 

Fig. 8. Rotella cryptospira Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2109, 35°14'20"N, 
74°59'10"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 142 fms. Lectotype 
USNM 35731. Length 1.5, width 2.5 mm. 

Fig. 9. Urosalpinx macra Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2109, 35°14'20"N, 
74°59'10"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 142 fms. Holotype 
USNM 35772. Length 13, width 5.5 mm. 

Fig. 10. Cocculina dalli Werrill IS82, Fish Hawk sta. 1096,39°53'N,69°47'W, 
317 fms. Holotype USNM 38081. "Length of aperture 6, breadth 4.3, 
height 3, length of anterior slope 6 mm." Actual measurements: length 
5.8, width 4, height 2.4 mm. Photograph courtesy of Dr. James H. McLean. 



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126 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 11 

Fig. 1. Bela incisula Verrill. 1880, Fish Hawk sta. 899, 37°22'N, 74°29'W off 
Chesapeake Bay, 57.5 fms. Holotype USNM 77165. Length 6.5, width 3.5 
mm. 

Fig. 2. Bela suhturgida Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2115, 35°49'30"N, 
74°34'45"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 843 fms. Holotype 
USNM 35602. Length 9, width 5 mm. 

Fig. 3. Bela subuitrea Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2115, 35°49'30"N, 
74°34'45"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 843 fms. Lectotype 37811. 
Length 13.5, width 6 mm. 

Fig. 4. Bela decussata pusilla Verrill. 1877, Speedwell stas. 56-58, Halifax 
Harbor, off Herring Cove, between Mars Rock and Neverf ail Shoal [Nova 
Scotia], 18 fms. Lectotype USNM 77203. Length 7.8, width 3.9 mm. 

Fig. 5. Bela blakei Verrill. 1884, Albatross sta. 2226, 37°N, 71°54'W, 2021 
fms. Holotype USNM 44655. Length 16, width 8 mm. 

Fig. 6. Bela cancellata canadensis 'Verrill and Bush' Whiteaves. Murray 
Bay, Quebec. Lectotype YPM 16623. Length 15.3, width 6.2 mm. 

Fig. 7. Aclis striata Verrill. Bay of Fundy, Eastport, Maine. Lectotype YPM 
15757. Length 2.9, width 1.4 mm. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



127 




128 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 12 

Fig. l.Neptunea (Sipho) arata Verrill, non Gould. Changed to: Sipho stimp- 
sonii liratulus Verrill. Off Newport, Rhode Island. Lectotype USNM 
158833. Length 80, width 31 mm. 

Fig. 2. Sipho pubescens Verrill. 1880, Fish Hawk sta. 893, 39°52'20"N, 
70°58'W, 372 fms. Lectotype USNM 37767. Length 67, width 26 mm. 

Fig. 3. Sipho obesus Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2115, 35°49'30"N, 
74°34'45"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 843 fms. Lectotype 
USNM 35600. Length 17, width 10 mm. 

Fig. 4. Sipho (Mohnia) simplex Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2115 35°49'30"N, 
74°34'45"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 843 fms. Lectotype 
USNM 35573. Length 6, width 3.5 mm. 

Fig. 5. Sipho prof undicola dispar Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2042, 39°33'N, 
68°26'45"W, 1555 fms. Holotype USNM 37955. Length 30, width 17 mm. 



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130 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 13 

Fig. 1. Sipho hispidulus Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2033, 39°32'30"N, 
72°18'35"W [Nantucket Shoals, Massachusetts], 379 fms. Holotype 
USNM 34840. Length 7.5, width 4 mm. 

Fig. 2. Taranis morchii tornatus Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2077, 
41°09'40"N, 6°02'20"W [off Georges Bank], 1255 fms. Holotype USNM 
37807. Length 5, width 3 mm. 

Fig. 3. Mangilia ceroplasta Bush. [1884], Albatross [sta. 2290, 35°23'N, 
75°24'30"W] off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 9.75 fms. Holotype 
USNM 44757. Length 5.5, width 3 mm. 

Fig. 4. Mangilia eritima Bush. 1884, Albatross sta. 2280, 35°21'N, 
75°21'30"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 16 fms. Holotype USNM 
44758. Length 8, width 3 mm. 

Fig. 5. Marginella borealis Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2011, 36°38'30"N, 
74°40'10"W off Norfolk, Virginia, 81 fms. Lectotype USNM 35375. Length 
14, width 7.5 mm. 



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132 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 14 

Fig. 1. Buccinum sandersoni Verrill. 1881, Fish Hawk sta. 939, 39°53'N, 
69°50'30"W off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 264 fms. Lectotype 
USNM 202823. Length 24, width 14 mm. 

Fig. 2. Buccinum ahyssorum Verrill and Smith. 1883, Albatross sta. 2111, 
35°09'50"N, 74°57'40"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 938 fms. 
Lectotype USNM 35644. Length 32, width 20.5 mm. 

Fig. 3. Spirotropis ephamilla Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2097, 37°56'20"N, 
70°57'30"W off Chesapeake Bay, 2221 fms. Holotype USNM 35237. 
Length 25, width 10 mm. 

Fig. 4. Gymnobela curta subangulata Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2043, 
39°49'N, 68°28'30"W, 1467 fms. Lectotype YPM 15696. Length 4.2, width 
2.7 mm. 

Fig. 5. Gymnobela engonia Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2041, 39°22'50"N, 
68°25'W, 1608 fms. Holotype [so labeled] USNM 34835. Length 12.9, width 
[not supplied] mm. Photographed at the USNM, courtesy of Dr. Anders 
War^n. 



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134 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 15 

Fig. 1. Ethalia multistriata Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2109, 35°14'20"N, 
74°59'10"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 142 fms. Lectotype 
USNM 35733. Length 2.5, width 4.5 mm. 

Fig. 2. Machaeroplax obscura carinata Verrill. 1881, Fish Hawk sta. 997, 
39°42'N, 71°32'W off Martha's Vineyard [Massachusetts], 335 fms. Lecto- 
type USNM 44748. Length 4, width 6 mm. 

Fig. 3. Odostomia engonia Bush. 1884, Albatross sta. 2276, 35°20'45"N, 
75°19'15"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 16 fms. Holotype USNM 
44762. Length 5, width 2 mm. 

Fig. 4. Seguenzia formosa nitida Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2038, 
38°30'30"N, 69°08'25"W off Nantucket Shoals [Massachusetts], 2033 fms. 
Holotype USNM 38078. Length 5, width 4 mm. 

Fig. 5. Odostomia tornata Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2109, 35°14'20"N, 
74°59'10"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 142 fms. Holotype 
USNM 38033. Length 3, width 1.5 mm. 

Fig. 6. Odostomia disparilis Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2109 35°14'20"N, 
74°59'10"W off Cape Hatteras [North Carolina], 142 fms. Holotype 
USNM 38042. Length 3.2, width 1 mm. 



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136 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 16 

Fig. 1. Eulima engonia Verrill and Bush. Ship Channel, Bermuda. Lecto- 
type YPM 15688. Length 7.5, width 2 mm. 

Fig. 2. Eulima hypsela Verrill and Bush. Bermuda. Paratype YPM 15689. 
Length 7.6, width 1.8 mm. 

Fig. 3. Eulima atypha Verrill and Bush. Bermuda. Lectotype YPM 15886. 
Length 2, width .74 mm. 

Fig. 4. Turbonilla inclinata Bush. St. Thomas [Virgin Islands]. Holotype 
ANSP 72044. Length 3.5, width .45 mm. 

Fig. 5. Turbonilla stricta Verrill. Long Island Sound [off Connecticut]. Lec- 
totype YPM 12849. Length 4.2, width 1.1 mm. 

Fig. 6. Turbonilla pyrrha Bush. St. Thomas [Virgin Islands]. Lectotype 
ANSP 72050. Length 5.8, width 1.3 mm. 

Fig. 7. Turbonilla dalli Bush. Sarasota Bay, Florida. Lectotype ANSP 72049. 
Length 8, width 2.3 mm. 

Fig. 8. Turbonilla incisa Bush. West Florida. Lectotype ANSP 62800. Length 
6.2, width 1.6 mm. 

Fig. 9. Turbonilla incisa constricta Bush. West Florida. Lectotype ANSP 
79023. Length 6.6, width 1.5 mm. 

Fig. 10. Turbonilla atypha Bush. Maldonado Bay, Uruguay, 3-6 fms. Lecto- 
type ANSP 70537. Length 7.4, width 1.8 mm. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



137 




138 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 17 

Fig. 1. Turbonillaasperula Bush. Bermuda. Lectotype ANSP 78253. Length 
2.5, width 1 mm. 

Fig. 2. Turbonilla composa Bush, [no locahty given], R. Swift. Since Swift 
spent much of his life as a resident of St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands, it 
is probably the locality. Holotype ANSP 79015. Length 3.4, width 1 mm. 

Fig. 3. Turbonilla areolata Verrill. Long Island Sound, near New Haven 
[Connecticut]. Holotype YPM 12848. Length 3.4, width 1.3 mm. 

Fig* 4. Turbonilla grandis Verrill. 1884, Albatross sta. 2228, 37°25'N, 
73°06'W, 1582 fms. Holotype USNM 44791. Length 18, width 6 mm. 

Fig. 5. Turbonilla perlepida Verrill. 1884, Albatross sta. 2265, 37°07'40"N, 
74°35'40"W off Chesapeake Bay [Maryland], 70 fms. Holotype USNM 
44790. Length 7, width 1.5 mm. 

Fig. 6. Machaeroplax obscura planula Verrill. Off Block Island [Rhode 
Island] 13-15 fms. Holotype USNM 76067. Length 6, width 7 mm. 

Fig. 7. Caecum debile Verrill and Bush. Bermuda. Holotype YPM 15667. 
Length 2.3, width 0.6 mm. Photograph courtesy of Dr. Robert G. 
Moolenbeek. 



I 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 139 




140 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 18 

Figs. 1-3. Leptogyra inconspicua Bush. 1884, Albatross sta. 2174, 38°15'N, 
72°03'W off Delaware Bay, 1594 fms. Holotype USNM 77642. Length 0.8, 
width 1.3 mm. Delineated by Dr. Ruth D. Turner who noted, "specimen 
decalcified and in poor condition." 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 141 




142 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 19 

Figs. 1-3. Atlanta pulchella Verrill. 1883, Albatross sta. 2100, 39°22'60" N, 
68°34'30" W off Delaware Bay, surface. Diameter about 0.25 mm. Two 
syntypes USNM 38397, in alcohol. Delineated by Dr. Ruth D. Turner who 
noted, "shells decalcified, grapeskin-like, only fragment of keel remain- 
ing. Without the soft parts it would probably have been impossible to 
define the shells at all; particularly the one in fig. 2 which was soft and 
deformed." 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 143 




MC2 



LJRyH.\ y 



Occasional Papers on Mollusks 

^EP Oo 1989 

Published by 
The Department of Mollusks f-|yQ^f:^\/ a on 



Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University { J~^ 3 i 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

VOLUME 5 30 August 1989 NUMBER 68 



I J 



SEARLES V. WOOD'S 
"MONOGRAPH OF THE CRAG MOLLUSCA" 

(1848-1882), 

WITH NOTES ON THE GENERIC NAME 

ASTARTELLA 

Richard E. Petit 

806 St. Charles Road 

North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina 29582 

and 

Kenneth J. Boss 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 

Harvard University 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 

Abstract. Searles V. Wood's "Monograph of the Crag Mol- 
lusca" was issued in parts and the exact publication dates 
have not been generally known. As a result, some taxa have 
been misdated in the subsequent literature. We give the dates 
of publication for the individual parts, note the various titles 
used for this work, and establish the status of Astartella 
Wood 1853. 

INTRODUCTION 

Wood's "Monograph of the Crag Mollusca" constitutes an 
early, important, and comprehensive monograph of the 
Neogene mollusks of the northeastern Atlantic. It synthe- 
sized much of the then available knowledge and provided 

145 



146 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

extensive descriptions and figures of numerous taxa, many 
of them new. Additionally, this work serves as a valuable 
basis for comparison with other fossil and Recent faunas. 
Researchers, however, might encounter difficulties in accu- 
rately citing and dating the various portions of this work for 
which reason we present the following discussion. 

Copies of Wood's complete work in the libraries of the first 
author and the Museum of Comparative Zoology contain 
bound-in printed instructions for binding, which were pro- 
duced in 1874 and 1879 and which give the pubhcation dates 
of each part. All parts were issued by the Palaeontographical 
Society whose publications were, at that time, designated as 
"annual volumes". The actual publication dates are seldom 
shown on the covers. Wood designated the various parts of 
his monograph as "volumes" and these should not be con- 
fused with the differently numbered Society "volumes". 

The following data on publication dates are taken from the 
aforementioned printed "directions to the binder" except in 
the case of the final part (1882). The title of Wood's work, 
which will be discussed later, is listed here simply as a "A 
Monograph of the Crag Mollusca". 

Wood, Searles V., 1848-82. A Monograph of the Crag Mol- 
lusca. Palaeontographical Society, London. 

Volume L Univalves. Pp. v-xii, 1-209, pis. LXXI [March, 
1848]. 

Volume IL Bivalves. Pp. 1-150, pis. LXII [June, 1851]. Pp. 
151-216, pis. Xin-XX [December, 1853]. Pp. 217-342, pis. 
XXI-XXXI [February, 1857]. [note]. Pp. 1-2 [March, 1861]. 

Volume in. Supplement, Univalves. With the Geology of the 
Crag District. Pp. i-xxxi, 1-99, Map of Crag District, pis. 
I-VII (Pp. ii-xxxi and map authored by S. V. Wood, junior 
and F. W. Harmer). [June, 1872]. 

Supplement, Bivalves. Pp. 99-231, pis. VIII-XI and Ad- 
dendum Plate. [February, 1874]. 

Volume IV. Second Supplement. Title page; preface; Pp. 
1- 58, pis. I-VI. [May, 1879]. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 147 

Third Supplement (edited by his son, Searles V. Wood 
[junior]). Title Page; Preface; Pp. 1-24, pi. I. [June 1882]. 

The apparent duplication of page 99 in Volume III is not an 
error. Publication of pages 1-99 resulted in the verso of page 
99 as being blank. When the next part was published, page 99 
was reprinted as the recto of page 100, and the instructions to 
binders point out that the original page 99 is to be removed 
and destroyed. The instructions also call for removal of the 
title page for Volume II issued in the Society volume for 1855 
and substitution of a replacement title page provided in the 
volume for 1873. 

The title varied with different issues. The original title of 
Volume I was "A Monograph of the Crag Mollusca, or, de- 
scriptions of shells from the Middle and Upper Tertiaries of 
the East of England". A revised title page was issued at an 
unknown later date with the title rendered as "A Monograph 
of the Crag Mollusca, with descriptions of shells from the 
Upper Tertiaries of the British Isles". 

The original title page for Volume II is "A Monograph of 
the Crag Mollusca, with descriptions of shells from the 
Upper Tertiaries of the British Isles"; it bears the dating 
1850-1856. A second or replacement title page, issued in 1874, 
carries the same title but has the dating 1851-1861. 

The title of Volume III is "Supplement to the Monograph of 
the Crag Mollusca, with descriptions of shells from the 
Upper Tertiaries of the East of England". The title of Volume 
IV is identical to that of Volume III except for being the 
"Second Supplement to ...". The posthumous Third Supple- 
ment is entitled "Third Supplement to the Crag Mollusca, 
comprising Testacea from the Upper Tertiaries of the East of 
England." 

The change of title is explained by Wood (1857:302) who 
stated: "When the present work was begun, I had proposed to 
call it simply 'A Monograph of the Crag Mollusca;' but this 
title had to be submitted to the Council of the Palaeontogra- 



148 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

phical Society for their approval, when the term 'Crag' was 
thought by some of the members of that body to be of too local 
or technical significance, and would not be fully understood 
by foreign geologists; and the explanatory addition of 'De- 
scriptions of Shells from the Middle and Upper Tertiaries of 
England' was then suggested, and acceded to by myself. A 
more complete examination of these Deposits, during the 
progress of the work, has induced me to believe the term 
'Middle' to have been incorrectly introduced, there being no 
remains of a Formation in Great Britain referable to that 
Period . . . ; it is therefore requested to erase the words Middle 
and Miocene from the title-pages and other parts of the work 
formerly given, as I believe the Formations I have been 
attempting to illustrate belong with more propriety to the 
Upper Tertiaries." Another note about the title (Wood, 1857: 
326) seems to explain the change from the "East of England" 
to "the British Isles". 

It appears that due to the varied titles used that it would be 
advantageous to cite the work simply by Wood's original 
title, "A Monograph of the Crag Mollusca", as this is how it 
has been referred to orally and in print by succeeding genera- 
tions of paleontologists. 

Volume II, stated to be on bivalves, also contains an 
appendix (pp. 303-328) in which Cephalopoda and Gastrop- 
oda are treated. The two page "note", which is part of Volume 
II, appeared in the Society Volume for the year 1858 and 
bears a printed date of May, 1860 (probably the date written) 
and was actually published, fide the "instructions to bind- 
ers", in March, 1861. This note concerns Wood's misidentifi- 
cation of an Anomia valve as an Aplysia, an error he wished 
to correct immediately. 

Various references have been consulted to determine if the 
correct publication dates have usually been cited for this 
work. Only one (Anderson, 1964:365) has been located, 
although a few authors seem to have arrived at the correct 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 149 

dates for some taxa. Radwin & Coan (1976) referred to Wenz 
(1941[sic]:1594) and the "Cat. Lib. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
4:1502" for dating. Both of these references give the date of 
Volume II as "1850-56" and Volume III as "1872-74", and the 
dates for the various parts of these volumes are not given. 
Ruhoff (1980:118) cited only "Part 11" {i.e., Volume II) with 
the composite date of 1850-1856, this volume being the only 
portion of the work within the 1850-1870 time frame dealt 
with by her. However, this resulted in misdating of numerous 
taxa by Ruhoff, and she also omitted many others. Some of 
these omissions are attributable to the fact that Wood earlier 
published a series of papers (Wood, 1840-42) listing Crag 
species in which he described some new species and also 
introduced a number of manuscript names. These manu- 
script names were cited in synonymy when the species were 
actually described and Ruhoff evidently assumed that the 
names had been validly proposed earlier. 

The nude names published in 1840-42 present nomen- 
clatural problems since many were used and illustrated by 
other authors between their first appearance as nomina nude 
and their much later validation by Wood. Although the nude 
names are listed as such by Sherborn (1922-33), he does not 
list many of the later validations. 

Note on the generic name Astartella 

Three independent usages of the nomen Astartella occur in 
the literature. These homonyms are: 

Astartella Wood, 1853:170 (introduced as a junior syn- 
onym, see text), non Hall and Whitney, 1858 (Mollusca) 
nee Filatova, 1957 (Mollusca). 

Astartella Hall in Hall and Whitney, 1858:715 (type spe- 
cies, by monotypy, Astartella vera Hall in Hall and Whit- 
ney, 1858), non Wood, 1853 (Mollusca) nee Filatova, 1858 
(Mollusca). 



150 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Astartella Filatova, 1957:298 (type species, by mono- 
typy, Astarte ioani Filatova, 1957), replaced by Filato- 
uaella Merklin, 1959:4671, new name for Astartella Fila- 
tova, 1957 non Wood, 1853 (Mollusca)nec Hall in Hall and 
Whitney, 1858 (Mollusca). 

The introduction by Wood (1853:170) of the name Astar- 
tella has been completely overlooked and consists of the 
earliest usage of this nomen. To obviate any future difficul- 
ties involving this name and to preserve Astartella Hall in 
Hall and Whitney, 1858, which is widely used in the paleonto- 
logical literature (Chavan, 1969; Shimer and Shrock, 1944), 
we adopt the view that Wood introduced Astartella as a 
junior synonym. 

Wood's (1853:170) introduction of the name is made in a 
discussion oi Erycinella Conrad, 1845 and is ambiguous in 
the extreme. He resurrected his own manuscript name by 
which a shell was known to him in his private collection; the 
text is so garbled with the mention of several different 
generic names, some accompanied by question marks, that 
one cannot be certain to what Astartella pertains. He stated 
that he "would now lay claim [to the name Astartella], pro- 
vided no regular diagnosis has previously been given to the 
one Mr. Conrad has employed [i.e., for Erycinella Conrad]". 
Further, no type-species is designated. 

Arguments could be made for Wood's usage being either a 
conditional proposal of the name (see I. C.Z.N. Articles 
ll(d)(i) and 15) or an introduction as a junior synonym 
(I. C.Z.N. Article 11(e)). The former interpretation would 
make the nomen available and in the latter interpretation it 
would be unavailable. 

In accordance with I. C.Z.N. Article 24, the Principle of the 
First Reviser, we take the position that Wood introduced the 
name Astartella as a junior synonym oi Erycinella Conrad. 
Under I. C.Z.N. Article 11(e) it is therefore not an available 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 151 

name and does not compete in homonymy with any later 
usage of Astartella. 

We appreciate critical readings of the manuscript by Mr. 
Alan R. Rabat and Mr. Richard I. Johnson, who also allowed 
us to examine his personal copy of Wood. 



152 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

References Cited 

Anderson, H. -J. 1964. Die miocane Reinbek-Stufe in Nord- und 
Westdeutschland und ihre Mollusken-Fauna. Fortschritte in 
der Geologie von Rheinland und Westfalen, 14:31-368, 52 pis. 

Catalogue of the Books, Manuscripts, Maps and Drawings of the 
British Museum (Natural History). London, Hazell, Watson 
and Viney, Ld., Vol. I. A-D (1903), pp. viii, 1-500; Vol. II. E-K 
(1904), pp. [vi], 501-1038; Vol. III. L-0 (1910), pp. [vi], 1039-1494; 
Vol. IV. P-Sn (1913), pp. [vi], 1495-1956; Vol. V. So-Z (1915), pp. 
[vi], 1957-2403; London, William Clowes and Sons, Vol. VI. 
Supplement A-I (1922), pp. [vi], 1-512; Addenda and Corri- 
genda to Vols. I and II. A-Hooker, pp. 1-48; Oxford, University 
Press, Vol. VII. Supplement J-O (1933), pp. [vi], 513-968; Vol. 
VIII. Supplement P-Z (1940), pp. [vi], 969-1480. 

Chavan, A. 1969. Superfamily Crassatellacea F6russac, 1822, pp. 
N562-N583 [in] Moore, R., (ed.). Treatise on Invertebrate Pale- 
ontology, (N) Mollusca 6. Geological Society of America, Inc. 
and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. 3 vols. 

Conrad, T. A. 1845. Fossils of the Miocene formations of the United 
States. No. 3. Judah Dobson, Philadelphia, pp. 57-80, pis. 
30-45. 

Filatova, Z. A. 1957. Nekotorye novye predstaviteli semeistva 
Astartidae (Bivalvia) dal 'nevostochnykh morei [Some new 
representatives of the family Astartidae (Bivalvia) from the 
Far Eastern Seas]. Trudy Instituta Okeanologii [Proceedings of 
the Institute of Oceanology], Akademiya Nauk SSSR [Academy 
of Sciences USSR], Moskva [Moscow], 23:296-302. [The date 
1957 occurs on the title page of the Russian original and has 
been accepted by Skarlato (1980:292); MerkHn (1959:4671) dated 
Filatova's article as of 1957, but incorrectly dated the name as 
1958, the same as given by Vokes (1967:268; 1980:121). 

Hall, J. and J. D. Whitney. 1858. Report on the Geological Survey of 
the State of Iowa: Embracing the results of investigations 
made during portions of the years 1855, 56 & 57. Volume I, Part 
II: Paleontology. Published by authority of the Legislature of 
Iowa [Albany, New York], pp. 473-724, 3, 30, pis. 1-29. 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1985. In- 
ternational Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Third Edition. 
Adopted by the XX General Assembly of the International 
Union of Biological Sciences. International Trust for Zoologi- 
cal Nomenclature, London, pp. xx + 338. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 153 

Merklin, R. L. 1959. Referativnyi Zhurnal [Synopsis Journal]. Geo- 
logiya [Geology]. Akademiya Nauk SSSR [Academy of Sci- 
ences USSR]. Institut Nauchnoi Informatsii [Institute of Scien- 
tific Information], Moskva [Moscow] No. 3. Referaty [Synopses] 
Nos. 4485-6671, p. 4671, No. 4665. 

Radwin, G. E. and E. V. Coan. 1976. A catalogue of collations of 
works of malacological importance. The Western Society of 
Malacologists Occasional Paper, 2:1-34. 

Ruhoff, F. A. 1980. Index to the species of Mollusca introduced from 
1850 to 1870. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 294:1-640. 

Sherborn, C. D. 1922-33. Index Animalium. Section 2. Trustees of 
the British Museum, London, pp. i-cxlvii + 1-7056 + 1-1098. 

Shimer, H. W. and R. R. Shrock. 1944. Index fossils of North Amer- 
ica. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, pp. ix + 837, 303 pis. 

Skarlato, O. A. 1981. Dvustvorchatyemollyuski umerennykh shirot 
zapadnoi chasti Tikhogo Okeana [Bivalved mollusks of the 
temperate latitude of the western part of the Pacific Ocean]. 
Opredeliteli po faune SSSR [Keys to the fauna of the USSR], 
Leningrad, 126:1-479, text-figs. 1-208, 487 photographs. 

Yokes, H. E. 1967. Genera of the Bivalvia: a systematic and biblio- 
graphic catalogue. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 51(232): 
103-394. 

Yokes, H. E. 1980. Genera of the Bivalvia: a systematic and biblio- 
graphic catalogue (revised and updated). Paleontological Re- 
search Institution, Ithaca, New York, pp. i-xxvii + 1-307. 

Wenz, W. 1944. Gastropoda: Allgemeiner Teil und Prosobranchia. 
Pp. 1507-1639 [in] Schindewolf, O. H. (ed.), Handbuch der 
Palaozoologie. Band 6(1). Yerlag von Gebriider Borntraeger, 
Berlin. 

Wood, S. Y 1840-42. A catalogue of shells from the Crag. Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History, 6(37):243-253 (1840); 9(60): 
455-462, pi. 5 (1842); 9(61):527-544 (1842). 

Wood, S. Y 1848-82. A monograph of the Crag Mollusca. [see colla- 
tion herein]. 



154 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

BOOK REVIEW 

Carol M. Lalli and Ronald W. Gilmer. 1989. Pelagic 
Snails. The Biology of Holoplanktonic Gastropod Mollusks. 
Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, pp. i-xiv, 
1-259, 25 tables, 76 text-figures, 16 color figures. ISBN 0- 
8047-1490-8. $45.00. 

The study of pelagic animals, organisms living in the 
oceanic water column, has been revolutionized by their 
examination and collection in situ. Initially, this was largely 
accomplished by open ocean SCUBA diving in surface 
waters, but more recently it has been extended to include 
depths accessible only to deep-sea submersibles equipped 
with special collecting apparatus. 

Pelagic snails, of which there are about 140 species, com- 
prise one of the more important moieties of the oceanic fauna 
and except to a few knowledgeable marine scientists, these 
wonderful creatures are virtually unknown. One can imagine 
the excitement experienced by the early naturalists who first 
observed and described these animals. As early as 1705, 
Breyn figured the violet-snail, Janthina, and its bubble-filled 
float in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 
and in his posthumous 1775 work, ForskSl, who travelled on 
the ill-fated Danish expedition to "Arabia Felix", illustrated 
several oceanic forms including the pseudothecosomatous 
pteropod Gleba. The glassy nautilus, Carinaria cristata, a 
representative of these oceanic animals, was once considered 
so rare and unusual by eighteenth and nineteenth century 
collectors that it fetched at auction a price twice that of the 
famous Conus gloriamaris. This heteropod attains the larg- 
est size of all pelgagic snails, reaching about a half meter in 
length. 

Lalli and Gilmer have rendered an important service in 
providing a stimulating review of the biology of holoplank- 
tonic gastropods. Simultaneously they have significantly 
contributed new and previously unrecorded observations on 
these relatively poorly known groups. Their approach has 
been to stress the living animal in its natural environment. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 155 

To live a life entirely in the open ocean without access to solid 
substrates has required the evolution of unique adaptations 
in form, color, and behavior. The authors discuss such modi- 
fications in regard to swimming, floating, and attaching to 
objects adrift in the water column. Transformations of the 
typical gastropod foot have led to unusual structures which 
may facilitate swimming or feeding. 

Both prosobranch and opisthobranch lineages in the gas- 
tropods have given rise to pelagic snails, of which the 
authors consider five separate groups in as many individual 
chapters. Each of these is a unit unto itself with specific 
sections on such topics as external anatomy, adaptations for 
swimming or floating, methods of obtaining nutrition, re- 
production and development, parasites, and evolution; a list 
of taxa recognized in each group is given as is a list of 
references. 

After a short introduction, they first treat the unique neus- 
tonic janthinids, Janthina and Recluzia, which are pteno- 
glossate prosobranchs living suspended from the surface 
film of the ocean by a self-created bubble-filled raft. Vora- 
cious predators, these so-called violet sea-snails feed on the 
by-the-wind sailor Velella velella and the Portuguese man-of- 
war Physalia physalis. The second group to be considered 
consists of the prosobranch Heteropoda embracing three 
families of carnivores that utilize vision to capture their prey. 

The shelled pteropods, an opisthobranch lineage, consti- 
tute the third group of some 50 species; one portion of these, 
the so-called more advanced pseudothecosomatous ptero- 
pods have a secondarily derived gelatinous pseudoconch or 
false shell. Only recently have some of the unique feeding 
adaptations of these animals been described: an enormous 
mucoid feeding web up to two meters in diameter is produced 
by the animal, which is about 60 mm wide; it entraps minute 
plankters and is pulled in to be digested. 

The shell-less pteropods, or Gymnosomata with seven 
families and fewer than 50 species is the fourth group dis- 
cussed. These opisthobranchs are all carnivores and show 
unique adaptations for the capture of prey, some having 



156 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

developed prehensile appendages remarkably like the tenta- 
cles of cephalopods to grasp and hold their food. 

Last to be discussed are the few but nevertheless fascinat- 
ing nudibranchs which have assumed an almost entirely 
holoplanktonic existence. These include the dendronota- 
ceans Phylliroe and Cephalopyge, small fish-like predators 
of cnidarians as well as Glaucus, Glaucilla and Fiona which 
also prey on pleustonic cnidarians such as Velella, Porpita 
and Physalia as well as floating stalked barnacles. The blind 
Glaucus with its beautifully oceanic blue camouflage can, as 
an additional defense mechanism, stuff its cerata with the 
stinging cells or nematocysts of the Portuguese man-of-war 
and become one of the very rare animals, a killer mollusk. 

The work is strengthened by its excellent illustrations and 
color plates as well as by the glossary which defines the 
rather specialized vocabulary applied to the pelagic realm. 
Both systematic and subject indices are provided. 

— K. J. Boss 



MCZ 
LIBRARY 

Occasional Papers on Mollusks 

JUL 1 5 1992 

Published by 

The Department of Mollusks HARVARD 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Univet§it!^^£p^31Ty 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

VOLUME 5 15 July 1992 NUMBER 69 

AN INDEXED CATALOGUE OF 

PUBLICATIONS ON 
MOLLUSCAN TYPE SPECIMENS 

Alan R. Kabat^ 

and 
Kenneth J. Boss^ 



ABSTRACT 

This paper provides a bibliographical compilation of 
over 1,150 type catalogues (and related papers) of Recent 
and fossil mollusks. These publications on type specimens 
are cross-referenced in separate author, museum, and 
systematic indices. Several recommendations for the ar- 
rangement and content of type lists are proposed; only 
name-bearing types, along with paratypes and paralectotypes, 
warrant inclusion in published type catalogues. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Introduction 158 

Author Index 1 64 

Museums Index 188 

Systematic Index 233 

Bibliography 244 



'Division of Mollusks NHB-llS, National Museum of Natural History, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. 20560 U.S.A. 

^Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts 02138 U.S.A. 



157 



158 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

INTRODUCTION 

Type specimens, or the original material used by an 
author in describing a new species, are of fundamental 
importance to subsequent researchers in determining the 
identity of a species. As systematists are well aware, one of 
the more time consuming components of taxonomic re- 
search is ascertaining the location and status of type 
specimens, especially those described in the older literature. 
All too often, original descriptions do not indicate the 
repository of the type(s); and type material may be 
distributed after publication to various museums not men- 
tioned in the description. In some cases, lack of knowledge 
of the existence of a type specimen has led to the 
unnecessary designation of neotypes while the original 
material was still extant, albeit not where it might have been 
expected. Some museums or universities have transferred 
their type and other collections, often following political or 
administrative changes. Type collections in private hands 
may be dispersed or broken up and rarely remain intact. 
War-related damages may partially or wholly destroy type 
collections. 

Given these vicissitudes, it is easy to see why some 
systematists tend to lose heart at trying to track down all 
the relevant type specimens for the taxa they study. Several 
previous publications have attempted to address these 
problems. The first was "Where is the — collection?" 
(Sherbom, 1940) which listed several hundred collectors 
and the present locations of their collections. However, 
Sherbom gave few references, and he did not differentiate 
between type specimens and general collections. 

Banfield (1968) listed 183 published type catalogues, 
with emphasis on insects and vertebrates (see also Rydzewski, 
1979). Taylor (1975: 7) listed almost 50 malacological type 
catalogues with emphasis on those treating freshwater 
mollusks. Bassett (1975) provided a valuable work on the 
paleontological type catalogues of British collections, with 
three indices (taxonomic, stratigraphic, and museum); this 
paper provides an excellent model for subsequent works 
such as ours. Cleevely's (1983) herculean compilation of 
biographical and bibliographical data on paleontologists and 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 159 

their collections also includes (in his museums index) some 
references to type catalogues published on the various 
paleontological collections. The compilations of data on 
paleontological collections by Glenister, et al (1977), Prieur 
(1980), and Webby (1989, 1992) supplement Cleevely's 
work, although the latter is far more comprehensive. The 
histories of shell collecting by Dean (1936) and Dance 
(1966, 1986) provide biographical information on early 
malacologists and give the known repositories of many of 
their collections. 

In a work published after the completion of our 
manuscript, Wiktor and Rydzewski (1991) listed some 
1,800 type catalogues covering the field of zoology (includ- 
ing paleontology). However, their systematic index is only 
to the level of phylum and class, and the authors of the 
species are not indexed. In contrast, our paper has the 
systematic index to the class or family level, and the authors 
of species are indexed. We also provide complete museum 
addresses and the correct museum acronyms (many of the 
acronyms listed by Wiktor & Rydzewski have never been 
used before by anyone else). Of the nearly 400 relevant 
malacological titles which they listed, we already had all but 
four of them; we list over 750 additional malacological 
titles. Furthermore, many of the publications listed by 
Wiktor and Rydzewski are actually general monographs or 
even articles on the type species of a genus. Despite these 
aspects, their work represents a useful start for phyla other 
than the Mollusca. 

The purpose of our paper is to bring together the 
entire corpus of type catalogues on fossil and Recent 
Mollusca, together with indices and cross-references. We 
focus primarily on those papers which specifically make 
reference to author or museum type collections. Generally 
we do not include critical revisions or systematic mono- 
graphs. Rather, we have striven to include those publica- 
tions dealing exclusively with type specimens, in particular, 
those of institutions and of species described by particular 
individuals. Obviously it is difficult to draw the line as some 
"type catalogues" also include remarks on the current 
systematic status or even revisionary comments; we have 



160 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

erred on the side of including such papers regardless. 
Essentially, this is a compilation of the secondary literature, 
and not the primary taxonomic literature which is usually 
more widely known. Also, in the nineteenth century, there 
were numerous publications which were titled as catalogues 
of given collections; these papers are only incidentally (if at 
all) about type specimens and we do not include them 
[Tomlin (1944-1948) and Kabat (1989) discussed some of 
these publications]. Nor do we include references to the 
"pre-Linnaean" collections which were used for various 
iconographies of the sixteeenth to eighteenth centuries; 
those "types" have seldom survived to the present [for 
extensive discussion of these collections, see the symposium 
volume edited by Impey and MacGregor (1985)]. 

We would like to emphasize that our paper is not 
intended as a replacement for the aforementioned publica- 
tions of Sherbom, Bassett, Cleevely, Dance, and Webby. 
Rather, this is a complementary work that attempts to fill 
in the lacunae of those works and to provide several 
alternative approaches for accessing this diverse literature 
of type catalogues. In particular, we hope that the full 
references and comprehensive indices will be of great value 
to malacological systematists. The observant reader will 
notice that certain taxa, authors, or museums are much 
better documented than are others; we hope that our paper 
will stimulate further research to fill in these gaps in our 
knowledge of malacological type specimens. 

This paper comprises four components: (1) An author 
index, arranged alphabetically. (2) A museums index, 
arranged alphabetically by continent and country. (3) A 
systematic index, arranged by molluscan class and family. 
(4) An alphabetical bibliography of all the malacological 
type catalogues that have come to our attention; the article 
and journal titles are given in full. The references in the 
three indices are merely author-date and lead the reader to 
the bibliography. Most of the papers are fully catalogued in 
all three categories except for a few comprehensive items 
covering numerous {e.g. , more than 20) families of gastro- 
pods and bivalves, and for some museum type catalogues 
with numerous authors, often of non name-bearing types. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 161 

Thus, researchers interested in a specific family or author 
should also check the other indices to obtain all possible 
relevant references. 

In compiling our list, we became aware of a variety of 
approaches taken by authors in formulating their type lists. 
Some are obviously easy to use, while others are vexatious 
in their difficult arrangement, hindering the search for a 
given species. We make some proposals about what a type 
catalogue should include and how it can best be arranged. 

First, the data to be given for each species should 
include the following: 

specific name, generic name (the original binomen) 
Author, year: publication, page(s), plate (s)/figure(s) 
type locality (geographical; stratigraphical) 
size (especially for lectotype or neotype designation) 
status of type(s) (holotype, lectotype, etc.) 
subsequent references of note (z.e., lectotype 

or neotype designations) 
Museum, registration number (if used) 
additional remarks (as needed) 

The exact ordering of these data is not as important 
as is the consistent usage of a logical, straightforward 
system. 

Secondly, it is our opinion that within the catalogue, 
the species are best arranged by their original binomen: 
alphabetically by specific name. All too often, one sees 
catalogues in which the taxa are either arranged by generic 
name {i.e., the species listed alphabetically under each 
genus), or by their current generic combination, or by 
family, or by other museum collection arrangement. The 
problems with those approaches are that generic combina- 
tions and familial placements tend to change because of 
systematic revisions, and type catalogues that are not 
arranged by the original binomina are most difficult to use 
as one often has to search under a number of generic names 
in order to find the particular specific name of interest. 

In addition to the taxa listed in a type catalogue, 
several other components are of considerable importance. 
These include an historical introduction to the material 
(authors, museums, taxa) covered in the catalogue; full 



162 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

bibliographical references to the original descriptions and 
subsequent references of note {i.e., lectotype and neotype 
designations); and perhaps one or more indices. If the type 
catalogue is arranged alphabetically by the specific name, 
then a generic index would be helpful; conversely, cata- 
logues arranged by genus should have a species index. 
Catalogues covering numerous authors could include a 
species index for each author. Geographical indices are of 
lesser importance. 

Thirdly, we emphasize that type catalogues are best 
restricted to name-bearing types: holotypes, lectotypes, neo- 
types, and syntypes (Frizzell, 1933; International Code of 
Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN], 1985, Articles 71-75). 
These types are of fundamental systematic importance and 
deserve the highest curatorial standards. The aforemen- 
tioned Articles of the ICZN contain excellent advice and 
regulations regarding the treatment and selection of types 
which should be carefully consulted. The ICZN recom- 
mends that institutions "publish lists of name-bearing types 
in its possession or custody..." [Recommendation 72G(4)]. 
Further discussion of the curation of types and related 
problems is provided by Berry (1985), Brunton, et al. 
(1985), Crowther (1990), Owen (1964), Swinton (1955), 
S. Tillier (1984), Torrens (1974), and in the symposium 
volume edited by Bassett (1979). Simpson (1940) gave a 
more general review of types and their roles in systematics. 
An alternative viewpoint was advocated by Fricke (1985) 
who needlessly proposed two additional categories of types 
and concluded that paratypes should not have any nomen- 
clatural status. However, we would like to emphasize the 
evolutionary and nomenclatural importance of paratypes 
(and paralectotypes): not only may they show morphologi- 
cal variation, but also they may be important in resolving 
problems of mixed species identities. Inclusion of paratypes 
and paralectotypes in type catalogues can be justified 
depending upon individual circumstances. We have avoided 
using the terms "primary types" and "secondary types" 
which have been inconsistently used in the literature. 

In contrast to these name-bearing types, one some- 
times sees type catalogues (especially paleontological) con- 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 163 

taining various other categories of types, including to- 
potypes ("a specimen from the original locality from which 
a species was described") and hypotypes ("a described or 
figured specimen, used in publication in extending or 
correcting the knowledge of a previously defined species") 
(definitions from Frizzell, 1933: 653, 665). While these 
latter types may be of some importance in a systematic 
context, they do not warrant inclusion in a type catalogue, 
as they often needlessly increase the length of such works. 
Instead it is better to mention briefly in the introduction 
that the voucher specimens (including topotypes or hy- 
potypes) of particular systematic revisions are housed in the 
given museum collection. By definition, a type catalogue 
cannot contain icotypes (specimens about which nothing 
has been published), inasmuch as that is no longer true 
once the catalogue gets published. We certainly hope that 
onomatypes (cited or figured specimens that do not add to 
our knowledge of the species) will not be included in type 
catalogues! 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank the numerous colleagues who have sent us 
their publications on types and type catalogues. Dwight W 
Taylor originally suggested a compilation of this nature to 
the junior author and kindly provided a nucleus of 
references which has been greatly expanded over the past 
20 years. The following colleagues provided helpful discus- 
sion on several points and informed us of certain overlooked 
titles: Alan Beu, Riidiger Bieler, Philippe Bouchet, Eugene 
V. Coan, John Cooper, Yves Finet, Ronald Janssen, 
Richard I. Johnson, Richard N. Kilburn, Alan J. Kohn, Ian 
Loch, Bruce A. Marshall, James H. McLean, Robert G. 
Moolenbeek, Fred Naggs, Takashi Okutani, Richard E. 
Petit, Gary Rosenberg, Tom Schiotte, Michael F. Sweeney, 
Thomas R. Waller, Anders Waren, and Kathie Way. 
Carolyn Hahn (Smithsonian Institution Libraries) and 
Walter E. Sage (American Museum of Natural History) 
obtained copies of several papers otherwise unavailable to 
us. 



164 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

AUTHORS INDEX 

The following index is arranged alphabetically by the 
author of the new taxa for which type specimens have been 
catalogued or mentioned. We do not include mere bio- 
graphical (or obituary) notes which do not discuss the 
whereabouts of type material; see Cleevely (1983) and 
Dance (1986) for such references. Some historical reviews 
of various collections have listed authors whose types are 
present (without further data); we have usually indexed 
these (except for Mienis [1976] who listed 92 such 
authors!). 

There are a number of type catalogues including 
numerous {e.g.^, 50-100 or more) authors of type material, 
often not of name-bearing types. It was impractical to 
attempt to index all such authors. In a few cases where such 
catalogues were dominated by a few authors, we have 
mentioned those; otherwise those broad catalogues are not 
indexed in this list. Also not fully indexed are the type 
catalogues of the Academy of Natural Sciences by Baker 
(1962-1964) on land gastropods and the subsequent "Try- 
onia" catalogues (Davis, et al., 1979; Richardson, et ai, 
1991; Robertson, et ai, 1981-1987) as over 100 authors are 
entailed, and those publications include lists or indexes of 
the authors. The extensive series of type catalogues of the 
Senckenberg Museum by Zilch (in 60 parts, 195 1-1 987b) 
are also not indexed herein; their phylogenetic arrangement 
facilitates access to authors of taxa in the various families. 

We note that there are alternative approaches in 
alphabetizing certain European names containing prefixes: 
while Europeans themselves generally do not use de, van, 
or von in alphabetical precedence, the latest edition of the 
(American) CBE Style Manual [Fifth Edition, 1983], states 
that the particle or definite article must precede the family 
name. This latter usage is contrary to that of the Europeans 
and we have not followed it for articles which are separate 
ft"om the family name. However, we have used it for those 
cases where the article is an integral part of the family 
name: d' and Mac / Mc. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 165 

Abbott, R.T. — Olazarri, et al, 1972; Wells, 1977. 

Adam, W. —Slack-Smith, 1983. 

Adams, A. —Boyd & Phillips, 1985; Cemohorsky, 1969c; 

Finet & Houart, 1989; Fleming, 1951; Habe, 1961, 

1977c, 1985; Kuroda & Habe, 1954; Makiyama, 

1929; Tomlin, 1932a; Trew, 1992; Yen, 1942. 
Adams, C.B. —Baker, 1964; Clench & Turner, 1950a; 

Ferreira, 1978; Jacobson & Boss, 1973; R.I. Johnson 

& Boss, 1972, 1973; Michelson, 1953; Pilsbry, 1946; 

Richards & Old, 1969; R.D. Turner, 1956a, 1956b. 
Adams, H. —Trew, 1992; Verdcourt, 1983b. 
Adanson, M. — Fischer-Piette, 1942; Lamy, 1929a. 
Agassiz, L. — Berset & Decrouez, 1989; Jeannet, 1932; 

Ledermann, 1967. 
Aguayo, C.G. — Baker, 1964; Olazarri, et ai, 1972. 
Albers, J.C. — Kilias, 1969, 1974b. 
Alencaster, G. — Perrilliat, 1981. 
Allan, J. — Rudman, 1983; Whitley, 1968. 
Allan, R.S. —Allan, 1938. 
Altena, CO. van Regteren. — Benthem Jutting & Bruggen, 

1972; Bruggen, 1977; Olazarri, et al, 1972. 
Ancey, C.-F. —Cooke, 1918; Geret, 1909; Kilias, 1969, 

1971; Schouteden, 1936; Wells, 1977. 
Anderson, R. — Murphy & Rodda, 1977. 
Angas, G.F. —Cemohorsky, 1969c; Hedley, 1913; Iredale, 

1959. 
Annandale, T.N. —Baker, 1964. 
Anthony, J.G. —R.D. Turner, 1946. 
Arango, R. — ^Jacobson, 1975; Mount, 1973a. 
Arkell, W.J. — Pyrah, 1977. 
Ashby, E. —Boyd & Phillips, 1985; Gowlett-Hohnes & 

McHenry, 1988; Iredale & Hull, 1927; Macphail & 

Zeidler, 1978; B.J. Smith & Robertson, 1970; Wells, 

1977. 
Audouin, V. — Bouchet & Danrigal, 1982. 

Bacci, G. — Mienis, 1976c. 

Baker, F.C. —Baker, 1964; Franzen, 1956-1958; Leonard, 

1957; Wu & Brandauer, 1982 
Baker, H.B. —Kilias, 1961; Olazarri, et al, 1972; Robertson, 



166 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

etal, 1986, 1986; Thome, 1988c. 
Barnard, K.H. —Giles & Gosliner, 1983; Kilbum, 1973. 
Barrande, J. — Eng & d'Escrivan [in prep.]; Ruzicka & 

Prantl, 1960. 
Bartha, F. — Krolopp, 1980. 
Bartsch, P. — Robertson, et al., 1987; Rosewater, 1984b; 

Ruhoff, 1973. 
Bavay, A. — Fischer-Piette, 1950; Mienis, 1976a; Robertson, 

et al., 1987; Roth & Clover, 1973; Thomson [in prep.]. 
Beck, H.H. — Kilias, 1971. 
Beddome, C.E. — Loch, ms. 1. 
Beecher, C.E. —Baker, 1964. 
Beets, C. — Pouwer, 1991. 
Bell, A. —Bell, 1917; Pyrah, 1977, 1978. 
Bellardi, L. — Ferrero-Mortara, et al., 1982, 1984; Gatto, 

1984. 
Benett, E. — Spamer, et al., 1989. 
Benoit, L. —Baker, 1964. 
Benson, W.H. —Yen, 1942. 
Benthem Jutting, W.S.S. van. — Altena, 1964; Coomans, 

1991; Kilias, 1969; Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Somadikarta, 

et al., 1964. 
Bequaert, J. —Richards & Old, 1969; Schouteden, 1936. 
Bergh, R. —Kilias, 1967b; Sparck, 1951. 
Bergenhayn, J.R.M. — Wallin, 1991a. 
Bernard, F. — Peden & Green, 1982. 
Bemardi, A.C. —Fischer-Piette, 1950; Richard, 1980. 
Berry, E. — Roscoe, 1963. 
Berry, S.S. —Hertz, 1984; Mount, 1973a; Natsukari & 

Okutani, 1975; Roper & Sweeney, 1978; Rudman, 

1983; Scott, et al., 1990; A.G. Smith, 1974; Sweeney 

& Roper, 1984; Sweeney, et al., 1988; Wilson & Bing, 

1970; Wu & Brandauer, 1982. 
Beu, A. —Dawson, 1979. 
Bielz, E.A. — Corocleanu, 1968; Kilias, 1974b. 
Biese, W.A. — Cekalovic & Artigas, 1981b. 
Biggs, H.E.J. —Mienis, 1975a. 
Binney, A. —Richards & Old, 1969. 
Binney, W.G. —Binney, 1885; Gratacap, 1901; Richards 

& Old, 1969. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 167 

Bird, J. — Buckman, 1909-1930; Howarth, 1962. 

Bittner, A. — Tichy, 1970. 

Blainville, H.-M.D. de — Ashby, 1922; Kohn, 1986; Lamy, 

1923; Thome, 1979. 
Blake, J.F. —Crick, 1922. 
Bland, T. — Gratacap, 1901. 

Blume, W. — Verdcourt, 1970; Zilch, 1965c, 1971b. 
Boettger, C.R. — Kilias, 1969; Mienis, 1975a; Zilch, 1977b. 
Boettger, O. — Habe, 1982; Kilias, 1971, 1974b, 1974c; 

Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Kinkelin, 1903; Knipper, 1954; 

Zilch, 1934, 1935. 
Bonarelli, G. —Roman, 1937. 
Bonetto, A.A. — Olazarri, et al., 1972. 
Bom, I. von — Brauer, 1878; Finet & Houart, 1989; Kohn, 

1964. 
Borson, S. —Kohn, 1986, 1988; Pavia, 1976. 
Bory de Saint-Vincent, J.B.G.M. —Kohn, 1988. 
Bosc, L.A.G. —Kohn, 1981. 
Bose, E. — Perrilliat, 1981. 
Boshoff, P.H. — Kilbum, 1973. 
Bourguignat, J.R. —Baker, 1964; Chevalier & Pothier, 

1972; Couffon & Surrault, 1909; Favre, 1943; Mer- 

mod, 1950a; Schouteden, 1936; Tillier & Mordan, 

1983; Verdcourt, 1986. 
Brandt, R.A.M. —Wells, 1977. 
Bratcher, T. — Cemohorsky, 1969c; Wells, 1977. 
Brazier, J.W —Baker, 1964; Cotton, 1945; Green, 1974; 

Hedley, 1901; Iredale, 1958a; Ponder & Stanbury, 

1972; Zeidler, 1985. 
Brocchi, G. —Jeffreys, 1884; Kohn, 1986; Lamy, 1931; 

Rossi-Ronchetti, 1952, 1955; Pinna & Spezia, 1978. 
Broderip, WJ. —Kilias, 1969; Kohn, 1988. 
Brongniart, A. — Kohn, 1988. 
Bronn, H.G. —Kohn, 1988. 
Brooks, S.T. —R.I. Johnson, 1981. 
Brot, A. —Baker, 1964; Mermod, 1950a. 
Brown, T. — Smaldon, et al., 1976. 
Brugnone, G. — Mienis, 1975a. 
Bruguiere, J.-G. — BCilias, 1969; Kohn, 1968; Mermod, 

1947. 



168 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Brusina, S. — Milan, et ai, 1974; Zagar-Sakac, 1981. 

Buckman, J. —Crick, 1902. 

Buckman, S.S. — Eng & d'Escrivan [in prep.]; Stubblefield, 

1936. 
Burch, R.D. — Cemohorsky, 1969c; Wells, 1977. 
Burgess, CM. —Wells, 1977. 
Bum, R. —Boyd & Phillips, 1985; Green, 1974; Wells, 

1977. 
Bumup, H.C. — Anonymous, 1962. 
Busch, G. von dem — Kjoipper, 1958. 
Bush, K.J. —R.I. Johnson, 1989. 
Butot, L.J.M. — Somadikarta, et al, 1964. 

Cailliaud, F. — Tillier & Mordan, 1983. 

Call, R.E. —Baker, 1964; R.I. Johnson, 1975a. 

Campbell, K.S.W —Philip, 1971. 

Campiche, G. — Bechon, et al., 1984, 1985a, 1985b; 

Decrouez, 1985. 
Cantraine, F. — Leloup, 1950. 
Carcelles, A. — Olazarri, et al., 1972. 
Carpenter, H.F. — Baker, 1964. 
Carpenter, P.P. — Brann, 1966; Cemohorsky, 1969c; Coan 

& Rosewater, 1985; Keen, 1968; Palmer, 1945a, 1951, 

1958, 1963; Van Winkle, 1921. 
Gate, C.N. —Wells, 1977. 
Gate, J. —Wells, 1977. 
Caziot, E. — Mienis, 1976b. 
Cemohorsky, WO. —Wells, 1977. 
Chamberlain, R.V. — Roscoe, 1963. 
Charpentier, J. — Kilias, 1974c. 
Chavan, A. — Serret, 1986a. 

Chemnitz, J.H. — Bmun, 1945; Kohn, 1964; Sparck, 1951. 
Chenu, J.C. — Mermod, 1947, 1950a. 
Chitty, E. —Clench & Turner, 1950b. 
Clapp, G.H. —Mount, 1973a; Wu & Brandauer, 1982. 
Clark, B.L. — Addicott, et al., 1971. 
Clark, W. —Waren, 1983. 

Clench, W.J. —Kilias, 1974a; Olazarri, et al., 1972. 
Clessin, S. —Kilias, 1961, 1963, 1967a, 1967b, 1974b; 

Kuiper, 1967. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 169 

Cockerell, T.D.A. — Wu & Brandauer, 1982. 

Coen, G.S. — Mienis, 1972, 1973, 1975a, 1975b, 1981; 

Piani, 1983; F.A. Schilder, 1964. 
Colosi, G. —Thome, 1970b. 
Connolly, M. —Adam, 1971; Anonymous, 1958, 1962; 

Bruggen, 1963; Kilias, 1967b, 1969; Kilias & Kilias, 

1982; Schouteden, 1936. 
Conrad, T.A. —Abbott, 1955; Beecher, 1900; J.M. Clarke, 

1905c; Davis, 1964; C.W. Johnson, 1905; R.I. Johnson 

& Baker, 1973; Keen, 1966a; Moore, 1962; R.D. 

Turner, 1962. 
Cooke, CM., Jr. —Baker, 1962-1964; Cooke, 1918; 

Kondo& Clench, 1952. 
Cooper, J.G. — Coan 1982, 1986a. 
Cossmann, M. — ^J.-C. Fischer & Vadet, 1985; Fouray, 

1979; Magne, 1950a, 1966-1967; Peck, 1957. 
Costa, E.M. da — Waren, 1989. 
Costa, O.G. — Barbera Lamagna, 1968. 
Cotton, B.C. — Gowlett-Holmes & McHenry, 1988; Hew- 

ish & Gowlett-Holmes, 1991; Laws & Mincham, 

1968, 1973; Macphail & Zeidler, 1978; Zeidler, 1983, 

1985; Zeidler & Macphail, 1978. 
Couper, J.H. —Baker, 1964. 
Coutagne, G. — Mienis, 1976b. 
Couthouy, J.P. — R.I. Johnson, 1946. 
Cowan, I. — Peden & Green, 1982. 
Cox, J.C. —Richardson, 1971; Wells, 1977. 
Crabb, E.D. —Baker, 1964. 
Cragin, F.W. — Pritchett, 1905. 
Craven, A.E. — Verdcourt, 1979a, 1979b. 
Creswell, A.W. —Singleton, 1945. 
Cristofori, G. de —Pinna, 1971; Pinna & Spezia, 1978. 
Croneis, C. — Eng & d'Escrivan [in prep.]. 
Crosse, H. — Breure, 1976a; Chevallier, 1964-1966; Fischer- 

Piette, 1950; Kilias, 1967b; E.A. Smith, 1897; Thome, 

1972; R.D. Turner, 1962. 
Currier, A.O. —Baker, 1964. 
Cuvier, J.L.C.F.D. —Thome, 1988a. 



170 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

d'Ailly, A. — Kilias, 1971; Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Schout- 

eden, 1936; Wallin, 1991a. 
d'Archiac, A. —Roger, 1950. 
d'Orbigny, A. — Breure, 1976a; Conte, 1989; Cottreau, 

1925-32, 1934-37; Gray, 1854b, 1855a; R.I. Johnson, 

1971; Keen, 1966d; Meco, 1975; Moulet, 1989; Pons 

da Silva & Davis, 1983; Roger, 1950; Thevenin, 

1906-23; Watson, 1876; Wilkins, 1953c. 
Dall, W.H. —Baker, 1964; Boss, et al, 1968; Coan, 1966a; 

Dall, 1925; Drake, 1957; Habe, 1978b; Kilias, 1971; 

Kosuge, 1972; Mount, 1973a; Robertson, et al, 1981; 

Rosewater, 1984b; Scott, et ai, 1990; Spamer & 

Forster, 1988; Thome & Pitoni, 1976. 
Dautzenberg, P. — Belloc, 1962; Breure, 1976a; Fischer, 

1962b; Fischer-Piette, 1950; Leloup, 1950; Mienis, 

1975a; Robertson, et aL, 1987; Schilder & Schilder, 

1952; Schouteden, 1936. 
Davis, C.A. —Baker, 1964. 
Defrance, J.L.M. —Bigot, 1906-1945; Bigot & Matte, 

1903, 1904; Kohn, 1986. 
Degner, E. — Kaiser, 1980. 
Delessert, J.P.B. — Mermod, 1947, 1950a. 
Dell, R.K. — Boreham, 1959; Dawson, 1979; Keyes, 1971. 
Delle Chiaje, S. —Kohn, 1988. 
Deshayes, G.P. — Bratcher, 1977; Cemohorsky, 1969c; 

Dell, 1963; P.-H. Fischer, 1970; Fleming, 1951; R.I. 

Johnson, 1959a; Kohn, 1988; Tillier, 1979. 
Dillwyn, L.W. —Cemohorsky, 1974; Kohn, 1986; Wilkins, 

1955. 
Djajasasmita, M. — Somadikarta, et aL, 1964. 
Doherty, W —Baker, 1964. 

Dohm, H. —Kilias, 1967a, 1969, 1971; Verdcourt, 1984b. 
Donald, J. — Pyrah, 1978. 
Donovan, E. —Kohn, 1988. 
Doring, A. —Zilch, 1971a. 
Drapamaud, J.P.R. — Locard, 1895. 

Dunker, W. — Kabat & Kilias, 1991; —Kilias, 1971, 1974c. 
Dybowski, B. — Zdun, 1969. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 171 

Edmondson, C.H. — Eldredge, 1965. 

Edwards, F.E. — Pyrah, 1978. 

Ehrenberg, C.G. — Kilias, 1963, 1967a, 1971, 1974c. 

Ehrmann, P. —Zilch, 1972b. 

Eichwald, K.R.I. — Kohn, 1988. 

Engel, H. — Coomans, 1981. 

Emi, A. — Ledermann, 1967. 

Etallon, A. — Wannier & Panchaud, 1977. 

Etheridge, R. — Anonymous, 1962; Rozefelds, et al, 1990. 

Eydoux, F. — Gray, 1855b. 



Fabricius, O. — Sparck, 1951. 

Favre, E. — Gerber, 1936. 

Favre, J. — Decrouez & Kunz, 1985. 

Ferriss, J.H. —Baker, 1962-1964; Wu & Brandauer, 1982. 

Ferussac, A.E.J.P.J.F.d'A. — Chevallier, 1965-1966; Ferus- 

sac, 1837; Thome, 1971, 1990; Tillier & Mordan, 

1983. 
Finlay, H.J. —Allan, 1938; Cemohorsky, 1972; Powell, 

1941. 
Fischer, G. — Ivanov & Kantor, 1990; Kohn, 1981. 
Fischer, H. — Belloc, 1962; Fischer, 1962b. 
Fischer, P. —Chevallier, 1964-1966; Forcart, 1952; Kilias, 

1967b; Thome, 1971. 
Fischer-Piette, E. — Backhuys, 1990. 
Fleming, C.A. — Boreham, 1959; Dawson, 1979; Keyes, 

1972. 
Flower, R.H. — Eng & d'Escrivan [in prep.]; Wolberg, 

1990a-1991c. 
Foerste, A.F. — R.A. Davis & Troike, 1990; Eng & 

d'Escrivan [in prep.]. 
Folin, L. de — Boury, 1911; Folin, 1890; Kisch, 1959a- 

1960. 
Forbes, E. — Smaldon, et al., 1976. 
Forcart, L. — Thome, 1984. 
Forsskal, P. — Yaron, et al, 1986. 
Frauenfeld, G. von — ^Verdcourt, 1984b. 
Frierson, L.S. —R.I. Johnson, 1972, 1979. 
Fuchs, A. —Kilias, 1971, 1974c. 



172 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Fulton, H. —Crowley & Pain, 1961; Mienis, 1977; 
Robertson, et al, 1987; Wells, 1977. 



Gabb, W.M. — Coan & Bogan, 1988; C.W. Johnson, 1905; 

Merriam, 1895; Murphy & Rodda, 1977; Rodda & 

Murphy, 1991; R.B. Stewart, 1927, 1930; R.D. 

Turner, 1962; Voss, 1962. 
Gabriel, C.J. —Boyd & Phillips, 1985; B.J. Smith & Black, 

1969. 
Gale, H.R. —Wilson & Bing, 1970. 
Gambetta, L. — Thome, 1970b. 
Garrard, TA. —Loch, ms. 2; Wells, 1977. 
Garrett, A. — Cemohorsky, 1987; Clench, 1979; Kawamoto 

[in prep.]; Kilias, 1969; Robertson, et al.^, 1986; H.H. 

Smith, 1902. 
Gaskoin, J.S. — Lingwood & McMillan, 1981. 
Gassies, J.B. — Couffon & Surrault, 1905; Magne, 1950b; 

Stelfox, 1922; Thielens, 1874. 
Gatliff, J.H. —Boyd & Phillips, 1985; B.J. Smith & Black, 

1969. 
Gebauer, J.J. — Kohn, 1981. 

Gebhardt, A. — Fiikoh & Krolopp, 1989; Varga, 1989. 
Geinitz, H.B. — Eng & d'Escrivan [in prep.]; Presch, 1970. 
Germain, L. — Chevalier & Pothier, 1972; Fischer-Piette, 

1947; Schouteden, 1936. 
Gibbons, J.S. —Fulton, 1917; Verdcourt, 1981. 
Gil, A.V. — Wolberg, 199 Id. 
Glaessner, M. — Singleton, 1945. 
Gmelin, J.F. — Cemohorsky, 1974; Coomans & de Visser, 

1987; Habe, 1983; Kohn, 1966. 
Godfrey, F.K. — Gowlett-Holmes & McHenry, 1988; Zeidier 

& Macphail, 1978. 
Godwin- Austin, H.H. — Mount, 1973a. 
Goldfuss, G.A. — Anderson, 1962. 
Gooch, L. van. — Green, 1974. 

Goodrich, C. —R.I. Johnson, 1979; Rosewater, 1959. 
Goodrich, E.S. — Thomson [in prep.]. 
Gouin, H. — Llabrador, 1959. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 173 

Gould, A.A. — Dall, 1892; Habe, 1978d; R.I. Johnson, 
1964; Kosuge, 1969; Marshall, 1892; Palmer, 1950; 
Yen, 1944. 

Grabau, A. — Cushman, 1907. 

Grandidier, A. — Verdcourt, 1986. 

Grant, U.S., IV —Wilson & Bing, 1970. 

Grateloup, J.P. — Fulton, 1908; Magne, 1950a, 1950b. 

Gray, J.E. —Crick, 1903; Dell, 1963; Cemohorsky, 1969c; 
Fleming, 1951; Kohn, 1988; Natsukari & Okutani, 
1975; Wilkins, 1952, 1953b, 1953c, 1957. 

Gredler, V. — Kilias, 1974b; Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Knipper, 
1954; Zilch, 1974. 

Greeff, R. —Kilias & ICilias, 1982. 

Green, J. —Kohn, 1988. 

Gregorio, A. de — Palmer, 1945b. 

Grier, N.M. —R.I. Johnson, 1977a. 

Gude, G.K. —Wells, 1977. 

Guestier, D. — Magne, 1950b. 

Guex, J. — Serret, 1986b. 

Guilding, R.L. —Thome, 1985. 

Gulick, J.T. —Clench, 1959; Cooke, 1918. 

Guppy, R.J.L. —Baker, 1964. 

Gurley, W.F.E. — Weller, 1929. 



Haas, F. —Kilias, 1967a, 1971; Schouteden, 1936; Solem, 

1967; Wells, 1977. 
Habe, T. — Inaba & Oyama, 1977. 
Hagenmiiller, P. — Couturier, 1903. 
Halavats, G. — Krolopp, 1980. 
Haldeman, S.S. —Baker, 1964; R.I. Johnson & Baker, 

1973. 
Hall, J. —Peck & McFarland, 1954; Schuchert, 1905. 
Hanley, S. —Wilkins, 1953c. 
Hannibal, H. —Taylor & Smith, 1971. 
Harmer, F.W —Bell, 1917; Kennard, 1944; Pyrah, 1978. 
Ham, E.H. —Baker, 1964. 
Hartman, W.T. — H.H. Smith, 1902. 
Hartmann, J.D.W —Fulton, 1917. 
Hayami, I. — Hayami & Kase, 1977. 



174 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Hayden, F.V. — Schuchert, 1905. 

Heath, H. — Stasek, 1966b. 

Hedley, C. —Boyd & Phillips, 1985; Cemohorsky, 1969c; 

Iredale, 1958b; Trew, 1991; Wells, 1977. 
Heilprin, A. — Spamer & Forster, 1988; Voss, 1962. 
Hemphill, H. — Coan & Roth, 1987; Wu & Brandauer, 

1982. 
Henderson, J.H. — Kilias, 1961; McCoy, 1964; Mount, 

1973a; Wu & Brandauer, 1982. 
Hertlein, L.G. —Roth, 1970. 
Hervier, J. — Cemohorsky, 1981; Fischer-Piette, 1950; 

Trew, 1991. 
Hesse, P. —Kilias, 1971. 
Heude, R.P. —Counts, 1991; R.I. Johnson, 1959a, 1973b; 

Knipper, 1954, 1958; Yen, 1939; Zilch, 1967b. 
Heynemann, D.F. —Thome, 1969b, 1972, 1979. 
Hidalgo, J.G. — Breure, 1976a. 
Hind, W — Pyrah, 1977. 

Hinds, R.B. —Cemohorsky, 1969c; Keen, 1966b. 
Hirase, Y. —Baker, 1962-1964; Clench, 1948; Maeda, et 

al., 1983, 1987; Robertson, et al., 1987. 
Hoare, R.D. — Hoare, 1991. 
Hoffman, H. —Thome, 1984. 
Holten, H.S. — Kohn, 1981. 

Hoepen, E.C.N, van. — Anonymous, 1962; Bmggen, 1963. 
Homes, M. — Tichy, 1970. 
Howell, S.B. —Voss, 1962. 
Hudleston, WH. —Pyrah, 1977, 1978. 
Hull, A.F.B. — Iredale & Hull, 1927; Loch, ms. 3; B.J. 

Smith & Robertson, 1970; Wells, 1977. 
Humphrey, G. — Wilkins, 1955. 
Hutton, F.W —Allan, 1938; Boreham, 1965; Keyes, 1972; 

Speight, 1913. 
Hwass, C.H. —Dodge, 1946; Kohn, 1968; Mermod, 1947. 
Hyatt, A. — Cushman, 1907; Eng & d'Escrivan [in prep.]; 

Kummel, 1963; Pritchett, 1905. 
Hylton Scott, M.I. — Breure, 1973b. 



Ichikawa, K. — Hayami & Kase, 1977. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 175 

Ingersoll, E. — Baker, 1964. 

Iredale, T. — Boreham, 1959; Macphail & Zeidler, 1978; 

McMichael & Whitley, 1956; Rudman, 1983; BJ. 

Smith & Robertson, 1970; Wells, 1977; Whitley, 1972. 
Issel, A. — Bouchet & Danrigal, 1982. 



Jaeckel, S.H. —Boss, 1970; Kilias, 1969, 1971, 1972, 
1974b, 1974c; Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Zilch, 1971c. 

Jan, G. — Conci, 1966; Pinna, 1971; Pinna & Spezia, 1978. 

Janssen, A.W. — Pouwer, 1991. 

Jay, J.C. — Habe, 1977a, 1977b; Richards & Old, 1969. 

Jeffreys, J.G. — Waren, 1980. 

Jickeli, C.F. —Kilias, 1963, 1967a, 1969, 1974b; Kilias & 
Kilias, 1982. 

Johnston, R.M. — Loch, ms. 4; Ludbrook, 1967. 

Joubin, L. — Belloc, 1950; Kristensen & Knudsen, 1983. 

Jousseaume, F. — Breure, 1976a; Fischer-Piette, 1952; 
Habe, 1953; Richard, 1980; Schouteden, 1936. 



Kaltenbach, H. —Zilch, 1972c. 

Kanakoff, G.P. —Wilson & Bing, 1970. 

Kaufel, F. —Kilias, 1974c. 

Kawamura, R. — Habe, 1975; Matsukuma & Okutani, 

1986; Okutani, 1983. 
Keen, A.M. — Coan, 1986b; Wells, 1977. 
Keep, J. — Coan, 1985. 
Kenyon, A.F. — Loch, ms. 5. 
Kesteven, H.L. — Loch, ms. 6. 

Kiener, L.C. — Mermod, 1947, 1950a; Richard, 1980. 
King, W. — Pattison, 1977. 
Kittl, E. —A.W Janssen, 1984; Tichy, 1970. 
Klappenbach, M.A. — Olazarri, et al., 1972. 
Klemm, W — Boeters, 1987; Kilias, 1974c. 
Knudsen, J. — Villiers, 1956. 
Kobayashi, I. — Hayami & Kase, 1977. 
Kobelt, W —Habe, 1982; Kilias, 1971; Kilias & Kilias, 

1982; Kobelt, 1904; Schouteden, 1936. 
Kormos, T. — Krolopp, 1980. 



176 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Kraus, O. —Thome, 1969b. 

Krauss, F. — ^Janus, 1961. 

Krolopp, E. — Krolopp, 1980. 

Kuiper, J.G.J. — Olazarri, et al., 1972. 

Kummel, B. — Eng & d'Escrivan [in prep.]. 

Kuroda, T. — Hanshin Shell Club, 1986; Matsukuma & 

Okutani, 1986. 
Kursalova, V.I. —Counts, 1989. 
Kutassy, A. — Tichy, 1970. 



Laborde, L. de. — Lamy, 1927. 

Lamarck, J.B.P. — Ashby, 1922; Bigot, 1906-1945; Bigot 
& Matte, 1903, 1904; Brot, 1872; Cemohorsky, 
1969b; Christiaens, 1968; Dautzenberg & Fischer, 
1914; Delessert, 1841; Favre, 1918; Finet & Houart, 
1989; Fischer-Piette & Lamy, 1943a; R.I. Johnson, 
1952, 1953, 1969b; Lamy, 1904-1942 [partim]; Lamy 
& Fischer-Piette, 1937a-1939f; Kohn, 1981, 1988; 
Mermod, 1950a- 1953; Mermod & Binder, 1963; 
Richard, 1980; Sowerby, 1909; Wheeler, 1963. 

Lamy, E. — Fischer & Fischer, 1945. 

Laseron, C.F. — Hewish & Gowlett-Holmes, 1991; 
McMichael & Whitley, 1961; Wells, 1977. 

Laube, G.C. —Tichy, 1970. 

Laws, C.R. —Allan, 1938; Boreham, 1959; Keyes, 1972; 
Powell, 1941. 

Lea, I. —Abbott, 1955; Campbell & Campbell, 1986; R.I. 
Johnson, 1974a; R.I. Johnson & Baker, 1973; Richards 
& Old, 1969; Verdcourt, 1984b. 

Leach, WE. — Wilkins, 1952, 1953b, 1957. 

Leloup, E. — Belloc, 1959. 

Leme, J. — Olazarri, et al., 1972. 

Letoumeux, A. — Couffon & Surrault, 1905. 

Leymerie, A. — Astre, 1950. 

Lightfoot, J. —Kohn, 1964; Rehder, 1967. 

Lindholm, WA. —Counts, 1989. 

Lindstrom, G. — Kilias, 1961. 

Link, H.F. —Kohn, 1981. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 177 

Linnaeus, C. — Cemohorsky, 1969a; Dance, 1967; Dodge, 
1952- 1959b; Gage & Steam, 1988; Hanley, 1855; 
Holm, 1957; Jackson, 1913; Kabat, 1990; Kennard & 
Woodward, 1920; Kohn, 1963, 1991; Nelson & Pain, 
1986; Odhner, 1953; Olsson & Dance, 1966; Salisbury 
& Woodward, 1926; Schenck, 1935; F.A. Schilder, 
1966; Talmadge, 1977; Wallin, 1991b. 

Lipps, J.H. —Wilson & Bing, 1970. 

Lister, M. — Wilkins, 1952, 1953b. 

Locard, A. — Boury, 1909, 1917; Germain, 1905; Joubin, 
1905. 

Loosjes, F.E. — Knipper, 1954. 

Loriol, P. de — Berset, 1985, 1986; Berset & Benier, 1989; 
Berset & Decrouez, 1989; Decrouez & Kunz, 1985; 
Wannier & Panchaud, 1977. 

Lowe, H.N. —Hertz, 1986. 

Lowe, R.T. —Watson, 1876. 

Lozek, V. — Okali, 1984. 

Lubomirski, P.L. — Kilias, 1974b. 

Ludbrook, N.H. — Zeidler & Macphail, 1978. 

Lycett, J. — Pyrah, 1978. 

Lyonet, P. — Seters, 1962. 



Mabille, J. — Hanna & Smith, 1968. 

Macpherson, J.H. —Boyd & Phillips, 1985; Wells, 1977. 

Maltzan, H. von —Adam, 1976; Kilias & Kilias, 1982. 

Mandahl-Barth, G. — Anonymous, 1958. 

Marcus, E. & E. du B.-R. — Breure, 1973a. 

Marrat, P.P. —Adam, 1976; Ford, 1953; McMillan, 1985; 
Tomlin, 1913. 

Marsh, WA. —R.I. Johnson, 1975b, 1979. 

Marshall, B.A. —Dawson, 1979. 

Marshall, P. — Keyes, 1972. 

Marshall, WB. — R.L Johnson, 1974b. 

Martens, E. von — Habe, 1982; Kabat & Kilias, 1991; 
Kilias, 196 1-1 974c; Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Schouteden, 
1936; Thome, 1972; Verdcourt, 1984a, 1988a-1990a. 

Martin, K. — Shuto, 1974, 1978. 

Marwick, J. —Allan, 1938; Boreham, 1959; Fleming, 1966; 



178 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Keyes, 1971, 1972; Powell, 1941. 
Massy, A.L. — Thomson [in prep.]. 
Mat±ieron, P. — Bulot, 1991; Bulot & Autran, 1990; Conte, 

1989; Delanoy & Bulot, 1991; Fabre, 1942; Moulet, 

1989; Paulus, et al, 1951. 
Matsumuto, T. — Hayami & Kase, 1977. 
Matthew, G.F. —Miller, 1988. 
May, W.L. —Green, 1974; Hewish & Gowlett-Hohnes, 

1991; Loch, ms. 7; Ludbrook, 1967; Macphail & 

Zeidler, 1977-1978; Mienis, 1976a; E. Turner & 

Dartnall, 1971. 
Mayer-Eymar, K. — Gerber, 1937; Jung, 1972; Kleemann, 

1981. 
Maynard, C.J. — R.D. Turner, 1957. 
Mazyck, W.G. —Clench, 1967. 
McCoy, F. —Baldwin-Spencer, 1901; Kenyon, 1899, 1902; 

Lu, 1983. 
McLean, J.H. — Sphon, 1971. 
McMichael, D.F. — Loch, ms. 8. 
Meek, F.B. — Eng & d'Escrivan [in prep.]; Hansman & 

Scott, 1967; Leary, 1972; Schuchert, 1905; Wilson, 

1967. 
Melvill, J.C. — Anonymous, 1962; Cemohorsky, 1969c; 

Kilias, 1961, 1971; McMillan, 1957; Mienis, 1976a, 

1976d; Trew, 1987b, 1991; Trew & Oliver, 1980; 

Smaldon, et al, 1976; Thomson [in prep.]. 
Menke, K.T. — Kohn, 1988. 
Meyer, W.T. —Slack-Smith, 1983; Wells, 1977. 
Michaud, G. — Locard, 1890. 
Mighels, J.W — R.L Johnson, 1949; Kilias, 1969. 
Miller, S.A. — Eng & d'Escrivan [in prep.]. 
Mojsisovics, E. von. — Tatzreiter, 1982; 1986. 
Mol, J.J. van. —Richard, 1980. 
Mollendorff, O.F. von — Habe, 1982; Kilias, 1971-1974c; 

Knipper, 1954. 
Moller, H.P.C. — Schiotte & Waren, 1992. 
Montagu, G. — Brind, 1979; Dean, 1936; Jeffreys, 1879. 
Monterosato, T.A. di —Mienis, 1976a; 1981; Piani, 1983; 

Wagner, 1985. 
Montrouzier, R.P. — Magne, 1950b. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 179 

Moore, C. — Winwood and Wilson, 1892. 

Morch, O.A.L. —Keen, 1966c-d; Sparck, 1951. 

Morelet, A. — Chevalier & Pothier, 1972; Fischer-Piette, 

1950; Fulton, 1920; R.I. Johnson, 1971; Schouteden, 

1936. 
Morlet, L. —Peck, 1957; Roger, 1950. 
Morris, J. — Pyrah, 1978. 

Morrison, J.P.E. — Baker, 1964; Rosewater, 1984a. 
Morse, E.S. — Champion, 1947. 
Morton, S.G. — C.W. Johnson, 1905. 
Mount, J.D. —Wilson & Bing, 1970. 
Mousson, A. — Breure, 1976b; Couffon & Surrault, 1905; 

Kilias, 1963, 1969, 1971, 1974c. 
Miihlfeld, M. von — Kohn, 1986. 
Miiller, O.F. — Kennard & Woodward, 1926; Sparck, 

1951. 
Miinster, G. — Anderson, 1962. 
Murdoch, R. —Hamilton, 1906; Keyes, 1972; Speight, 

1913. 



Nagele, G. —Kilias, 1971, 1974b; Zilch, 1964b. 

Nevill, G. —Kilias, 1967a, 1971, 1974a; Rajagopal & 

Mitra, 1978; Thomson [in prep.]. 
Newcomb, W. —Clarke, 1960; Kilias, 1969; Roth, 1988. 
Newell, F.H. — Cushman, 1907; Eng & d'Escrivan [in 

prep.]. 
Nicholson, H.A. —Benton, 1979. 
Niebuhr, C. — Yaron, et al., 1986. 
Nordsieck, F. — R. Janssen, 1988. 
Nordsieck, H. —Pinter, 1982. 
Nowell-Usticke, G.W — Faber, 1988. 
Nyst, H. — Leloup, 1950. 



Oberling, J.-J. — Moolenbeek, et al^ 1991. 

Odhner, N.H. — Sandberg & Waren [in prep.]; Thome, 

1984. 
O'Gorman, G. — Magne, 1950a. 
Old, WE. —Wells, 1977. 



180 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Oldroyd, I.S. — Coan & Kellogg, 1990. 

Oldroyd, T.S. —Coan & Kellogg, 1990; Wilson & Bing, 

1970. 
Oliver, W.R.B. —Allan, 1938. 
Olivi, G. — Kohn, 1968. 
Olivier, A.G. — Tillier & Mordan, 1983. 
Orcutt, C.R. —Coan, 1966b; Mount, 1973a. 
Ortmann, A.E. — R.I. Johnson, 1977b. 
Orton, J.H. — R.D. Turner, 1962. 



Pace, S. — Thomson [in prep.]. 

Pallary, P. — Fischer & Fischer, 1946. 

Palmer, K.V.W. — Shaak, 1980. 

Park, J. —Allan, 1938. 

Parona, C.F. — Roman, 1937. 

Pease, W.H. — Cemohorsky, 1987; Hartman, 1881; Johnson 

[in prep.]; Kawamoto [in prep.]; Kay, 1965; Kay & 

Clench, 1975; Kilias, 1969; Robertson, et al, 1986; 

H.H. Smith, 1902. 
Peile, A.J. —Kilias, 1969. 

Pelseneer, P. —Adam & Leloup, 1947; Leloup, 1950. 
Pennant, T. — E.A. Smith, 1913. 
Peron, F. —Kohn, 1981; Lamy, 1923; Roger, 1950. 
Perry, G. —Kohn, 1986; Petit & Le Renard, 1990; Wilkins, 

1957. 
Petit de la Saussaye, S. — Breure, 1976a; Fischer-Piette, 

1950; Benthem Jutting, 1939a. 
Petiver, J. —Wilkins, 1952, 1953b. 
Petterd, WF. —Green, 1974; Loch, ms. 9; E. Turner & 

Dartnall, 1971. 
Peyrot, A. — Magne, 1950a, 1966, 1967. 
Pfeiffer, L. —Crowley & Pain, 1961; Jacobson, 1975; 

Kilias, 1961, 1974a, 1974c; Kilias & Kilias, 1982; 

Kuiper, 1967; Richards & Old, 1969; Roth, 1982; 

Benthem Jutting, 1939a; Zilch, 1972a. 
Philippi, R.A. — Frassinetti, 1974; Kabat & Kilias, 1991; 

Kilias, 1974c; Perez & Reyes, 1989. 
Philipps, J. — Howarth, 1962; Pyrah, 1977, 1978; Stubble- 
field, 1938. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 181 

Pictet, F.-J. — Bechon, et al., 1984, 1985a, 1985b; Berset, 
1985; Berset & Benier, 1989; Decrouez, 1985-1987. 

Piette, E. — J.C. Fischer, 1957; P.-H. Fischer, 1967. 

Pilsbry, H.A. — Anonymous, 1962; Clench & Turner, 
1962; Cooke, 1918; Davis, et al., 1979; Baker, 
1962-1964; Kilias, 1974b; Kilias & Kilias, 1982; 
Mount, 1973a; Richards & Old, 1969; Richardson, et 
al, 1991; Robertson, et al, 1981-1987; Schouteden, 
1936; Thome, 1988c; Wu & Brandauer, 1982. 

Pinter, L. —Pinter, 1982. 

Pirajno, E. — Giannuzzi-Savelli, et al, 1986. 

Plate, L. —Kilias, 1974a. 

Poey, F. — Boss & Jacobson, 1975; Jacobson, 1975. 

Pohl, E.R. — Munthe, 1980. 

Poli, G. — Kohn, 1988. 

Ponder, W.F. —Dawson, 1979; Loch, ms. 10; Wells, 1977. 

Ponsonby, J.H. —Anonymous, 1962; Kilias, 1961, 1969, 
1971. 

Popova, S.M. —Counts, 1989. 

Portlock, J.E. — Tunnicliff, 1980. 

Powell, A.W.B. —Allan, 1938; Boreham, 1959; Cer- 
nohorsky, 1988; Dawson, 1979; Powell, 1941, 1949. 

Prashad, B. — Thomson [in prep.]. 

Preston, H.B. — Adam, 1971; Anonymous, 1958; Cer- 
nohorsky, 1969b; Kilias, 1961, 1963, 1967a, 1967b, 
1969, 1971, 1974a; Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Kuiper, 
1967; Mienis, 1972, 1974, 1976d, 1977; Schouteden, 
1936, 1943; Verdcourt, 1982, 1990b. 

Prime, T. —Counts, 1991; R.I. Johnson, 1959a. 

Pritchard, G.B. —Boyd & Phillips, 1985; Singleton, 1945. 



Quenstedt, F.A. — Hardetert & Riegraf, 1990; Nitsch, 
1990. 



Radoman, P. — ^Jovanovic, 1991. 

Rafinesque, C.S. — R.I. Johnson, 1973a; R.I. Johnson & 

Baker, 1973; Vanatta, 1915. 
Raincourt, J.B.P. — Boury, 1884. 



182 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Rang, P.C.A.L. —Gray, 1855b. 

Rao, P. —James, 1969. 

Raymond, WJ. — A.G. Smith and Emerson, 1955. 

Recluz, C. — Fischer-Piette, 1950; Kabat & Finet, 1992; 

Mermod, 1950a. 
Reeve, L.A. —Baker, 1964; Bishop & Way, 1976; Cer- 

nohorsky, 1969c; Deli, 1963; Fleming, 1951; R.I. 

Johnson, 1971; Kay, 1969; Tomlin, 1932b. 1934; 

Trew, 1991; Wagner, 1982, 1985; Wilkins, 1953c. 
Rehder, H.A. —Wells, 1977. 
Reinhardt, O. — Kilias, 1969, 1974a. 
Rensch, B. —Kilias, 1963, 1967a, 1969, 1971, 1974c; 

Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Somadikarta, et ai, 1964. 
Rensch, I. —Kilias, 1967a, 1969; Kilias & Kilias, 1982. 
Requien, E. — Conte, 1989; Moulet, 1989. 
Reuss, A.E. — A.W. Janssen, 1984. 

Reynes, P. — Delanoy & Bulot, 1991; Paulus, et al., 1951. 
Rhoads, S.N. —Baker, 1964. 
Richards, H.G. — Shaak, 1980. 
Rigaux, E. — J.-C. Fischer & Vadet, 1985. 
Risso, A. — Amaud, 1978; Caziot, 1919; Chevallier, 1976; 

Kohn, 1988. 
Rochebrune, A.T. de — Ashby, 1922; Schouteden, 1936. 
Roding, P.F. — Cemohorsky, 1974; Kohn, 1975. 
Rogers, J. — Cushman, 1907. 
Rolle, F. —A.W. Janssen, 1984; Kilias, 1974b. 
Rosen, H.O. —Kilias, 1971. 

Rossmassler, E.A. —Kilias, 1969, 1971, 1974b, 1974c. 
Roth, J.R. —Kilias, 1974b; Kilias «& Kilias, 1982. 
Rowell, J. — Coan, 1989a; Hanna & Smith, 1932. 
Rudman, WB. — Loch, ms. 11. 
Ruppell, E. — Schafer, 1938. 
Russell, H.D. —Boss, 1987. 



Sacco, F. — Ferrero-Mortara, et aL, 1982; 1984. 
Saemann, L. — Eng &. d'Escrivan [in prep.]. 
Salis Marschlins, C.U. von — Kohn, 1975. 
Salter, J.W. — Bassett, 1972; North, 1928; Stubblefield, 
1938. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 183 

Sandberger, F. & G. — Schondorf, 1907, 1908. 

Sarasin, P. & F. — Gerber, 1937; Kilias, 1963. 

Sasaki, M. — Roper & Sweeney, 1978. 

Sauvage, H.E. — J.-C. Fischer & Vadet, 1985. 

Say, T. —Abbott, 1955; R.I. Johnson & Baker, 1973; 
Newton, 1902; Ward & Germon, 1988. 

Scarabino, V. — Olazarri, et ai, 1972. 

Schepman, M.M. — Nieuwenhuis, 1990; Shuto, 1970a- 
1971. 

Schilder, F.A. — Kilias, 1973; F.A. Schilder, 1958; M. 
Schilder, 1971. 

SchHckum, R. —Zilch, 1981a. 

Schlotheim, E.F. von — Kohn, 1986. 

Schmacker, B. —Kilias, 1974b; Knipper, 1954. 

Schmidt, A. —Kilias, 1974b, 1974c. 

Schreter, Z. — Krolopp, 1980. 

Schroter, J.S. — FrieB, 1978; Kohn, 1981. 

Schubert, G.H. —Kohn, 1988. 

Schumacher, C.F. — Cemohorsky, 1974. 

Schiitt, H. —Pinter, 1982. 

Schwengel, J.S. —Baker, 1964. 

Semper, C. —Thome, 1969a, 1972, 1973, 1988b. 

Semper, O. —Kilias, 1969. 

Shikama, T. — Matsukuma & Okutani, 1986. 

Shumard, B.F. —Trumbull, 1958. 

Simpson, C.T. —Bayer, 1948; R.I. Johnson, 1975c. 

Simpson, M. — Buckman, 1909-1930; Howarth, 1962. 

Simroth, H. —Kilias, 1974a; Thome, 1969b, 1970a, 1972, 
1979; Verdcourt, 1988a-1989. 

Singleton, F.A. — Singleton, 1945. 

Smith, A.G. —Kellogg, 1986; Peden & Green, 1982. 

Smith, E.A. — Anonymous, 1962; Cemohorsky, 1969c; 
Dell, 1963; Fleming, 1951; Kilbum, 1973; Kilias, 
1961, 1967a, 1969; Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Mienis, 
1976a; Okutani, 1976; Pain, 1951; Schouteden, 1936; 
Thomson [in prep.]; Trew, 1991; Verdcourt, 1983a, 
1983c, 1984b; Wells, 1977; Wilkins, 1953c. 

Smith, M. — Franz & Thompson, 1974. 

Smith, S. —R.I. Johnson, 1989. 



184 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Solander, D.C. — Kohn, 1964; Rehder, 1967; Wilkins, 

1955. 
Soos, L. — Kilias, 1975; Krolopp, 1980. 
Souleyet, L.F.A. —Gray, 1855b. 
Souverbie, St.-M. — Fischer-Piette, 1950; Magne, 1950b; 

Moolenbeek, 1991; Strack, 1986. 
Sowerby, G.B. —Baker, 1964; Bishop & Way, 1976; 

Cemohorsky, 1969c; Giles & Gosliner, 1983; R.I. 

Johnson, 1971; Kay, 1969; Kilbum, 1973; Kohn, 

1988; Pain, 1949; Thomson [in prep.]; Wagner, 

1982-1983; Wilkins, 1953c. [Note: there were three 

authors of this name] . 
Sowerby, J. — Cleevely, 1974; Kohn, 1988; Powell & 

Edmonds, 1976; Pyrah, 1977; Woodward, 1908. 
Sowerby, J. de C. —Cleevely, 1974; Crick, 1917. 
Spaink, G. — Pouwer, 1991. 
Spath, L.-F. — Paulus, et al, 1951. 

Spengler, L. —Haas, 1913; Morch, 1870; Sparck, 1951. 
Spix, J.B.v. — Fechter, 1983a, 1983b. 
Standen, R. — Smaldon, et al.^ 1976. 
Stabile, J. — Kilias, 1974c. 
Starobogatov, Ya.I. — Counts, 1989. 
Steams, R.E.C. —Baker, 1964; Thome & Pitoni, 1976. 
Steenstrup, J. — ICristensen & Knudsen, 1983. 
Stefani, C. de — Kilias, 1967a. 

Sterki, V. —R.I. Johnson, 1959a; Wu & Brandauer, 1982. 
Stimpson, W —Baker, 1964. 
Strebel, H. —Thome, 1969b. 
Streng, L.H. —Baker, 1964. 
Stuardo, J. — Cekalovic & Artigas, 1981a. 
Studer, S. — Forcart, 1957. 
Sturany, R. —Kilias, 1969. 
Suter, H. —Allan, 1938; Boreham, 1959; Hamilton, 1906; 

Keyes, 1972; Kilias, 1967b; Speight, 1913. 
Sutherland, J.A. —Wilson & Bing, 1970. 
Swainson, W. —Kohn, 1988; McMillan, 1980; Wilkins, 

1951, 1957. 
Sykes, E.R. —Cemohorsky, 1969c; Cooke, 1918; Habe, 

1984a; Kilias, 1969, 1974b; Rees, 1954; B.J. Smith & 

Robertson, 1970. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 185 

Taki, I. — Harada, 1991. 

Tapparone Canefri, C. — Benthem Jutting, 1962. 

Targioni Tozzetti, A. — Borri, et al., 1985, 1989. 

Tate, R. —Boyd & Phillips, 1985; Green, 1974; Hewish & 

Gowlett-Holmes, 1991; Loch, ms. 12; Ludbrook, 

1959, 1961, 1965, 1967; Macphail & Zeidler, 1978; 

E. Turner & Dartnall, 1971. 
Taylor, J.W. —Fulton, 1917; Verdcourt, 1981. 
Teichert, C. — Singleton, 1945. 
Tenison- Woods, J.E. — Boyd & Phillips, 1985; Cemohorsky, 

1969c; Green, 1974; Hardy, 1915; Loch, ms. 13; 

Ludbrook, 1967; Macphail & Zeidler, 1978; May, 

1903; E. Turner & Dartnall, 1971. 
Thiele, J. —Boss, 1970; Cemohorsky, 1969c; Kabat & 

Kilias, 1991; Kilias, 1961, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1974a; 

Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Ponder, 1978; Thome, 1969b, 

1972; Verdcourt, 1984a, 1988a-1989; Wells, 1977; 

Zilch, 1971c. 
Thompson, E.G. — Eranz & Thompson, 1974. 
Thomson, J. A. — Speight, 1913. 
Thurmann, J. — Wannier & Panchaud, 1977. 
Till, A. — Decrouez, 1986a. 
Tomlin, J.R. le B. — Anonymous, 1962; Bruggen, 1963; 

Giles & Gosliner, 1983; Trew, 1990b; Trew & Oliver, 

1980; Wells, 1977. 
Torr, WC. —Gowlett-Holmes & McHenry, 1988; Wells, 

1977. 
Torre, D.C. de la — Aguayo & Jaume, 1950. 
Toula, E. — Tichy, 1970. 
Toumefort, J.P. de — Lamy, 1928. 
Tristram, H.B. — Peile, 1936. 
Troschel, E.H. —Kilias, 1961. 
Trovao, H.E.M. —Richard, 1980. 
Tryon, G.W. —Baker, 1962-1964. 
Turner, R.D. —Baker, 1964. 
Turton, W. —Davis, 1965; Waren, 1983. 



186 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Ulrich, E.O. — Munthe, 1980. 
Usticke: see Nowell-Usticke. 
Utterback, W.I. —R.I. Johnson, 1969a. 



Valenciennes, A. — Lamy, 1915c, 1921a. 

Vanatta, E.G. —Baker, 1962-1964; Olazarri, et al, 1972. 

Vanderschalie, H. — R.I. Johnson, 1979. 

Varga, A. —Pinter, 1982. 

Vayssiere, A. — Amaud, 1977. 

Verco, J.C. —Boyd & Phillips, 1985; Zeidler, 1983; Zeidler 

& Macphail, 1978. 
Verdcourt, B. — Anonymous, 1958, 1962. 
Verrill, A.E. —R.I. Johnson, 1989; Roper & Sweeney, 

1978. 
Verrill, A.H. —R.I. Johnson, 1989. 
Vibraye, P. de —Roger, 1950. 
Vignard, M. — Kohn, 1988. 
Villa, A. & G. — Kilias, 1967b, 1969. 
Villarroel, M. — Cekalovic & Artigas, 1981a. 
Vokes, E. —Wells, 1977. 
Voorthuysen, J.H. van — Pouwer, 1991. 
Voss, G.L. — Roper & Sweeney, 1978. 



Waagen, L. — Tichy, 1970. 

Wagner, A.J. —Kilias, 1974c. 

Wagner, J.A. —Kohn, 1988. 

Wahlenberg, G. — Reyment, 1974, 1976. 

Walker, B. —Anonymous, 1962; R.I. Johnson, 1979. 

Wallenberg, C. von —Kilias, 1969. 

Watson, R.B. — Anonymous, 1962; Cemohorsky, 1969c; 

Dell, 1963; Fleming, 1951; Mienis, 1976a; Trew, 

1991. 
Weaver, C.E. —Mount, 1973b. 
Weaver, C.S. —Wells, 1977. 
Webb, P.B. —Watson, 1876. 
Webster, WH. —Hamilton, 1906. 
Wenz, W. —Zilch, 1987c. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 187 

Westerlund, C.A. — Habe, 1984a; Kilias, 1967a-1974c; 

Thome, 1984. 
Weyrauch, W.K. — Kilias, 1974b. 
Whidbome, G.F. —Jukes-Browne & Else, 1907. 
Whitfield, R.P. —Chubb, 1955; Peck & McFarland, 1954; 

Whitfield, 1899. 
Willett, G. —Wilson & Bing, 1970; Sphon, 1971. 
Williamson, M.B.W — Coan, 1989b. 
Wilson, B.R. —Wells, 1977. 
Winslow, M. — Burch, 1983. 

Wood, S.V. —Bell, 1917; Leney, 1902; Pyrah, 1977, 1978. 
Wood, W — Kohn, 1988. 
Woodward, F.R. —Woodward, 1979. 
Woodward, S.P. —Leney, 1902; Verdcourt, 1983d. 
Wbolacott, L. — Iredale & Whitley, 1958. 
Worthen, A.H. — Hansman & Scott, 1967; Kent, 1982; 

Leary, 1972; Schuchert, 1905. 
Wright, B.H. & S.H. —R.I. Johnson, 1967. 



Yates, L.G. —Coan & Scott, 1990. 

Yokoyama, M. — Oyama, 1973. 

Young, G. — Buckman, 1909-1930; Howarth, 1962. 

Young, J.A., Jr. — Eng & d'Escrivan [in prep.]. 



Zapfe, H. — Tichy, 1970. 

Zilch, A. —Irish, 1985; Kilias, 1974b. 

Zittel, K.A. — Flugel, 1959. 



188 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

MUSEUMS INDEX 

The following index provides a guide to those papers 
referring specifically to the collections of various natural 
history museums. It is arranged by continent, with the 
countries listed alphabetically under each continent. The 
museums are arranged alphabetically by city. For several 
larger museums, we have divided the citations by Recent 
vs. paleontological departments. 

For the reader's convenience, we have provided the 
address and standardized museums abbreviation (after 
Leviton, et al., 1985; with some modifications and addi- 
tions) for the museums included. 

Directory: 

1. Europe and Near East 188 

2. Africa 213 

3. Asia and Oceania 214 

4. North America 220 

5. South America 231 

1. Europe and Near East. 

AUSTRIA 

Geologische Bundesanstalt 
Rasumofskygasse 23 
Postfach 154 
A- 1031 Wien Austria 

Sieber, 1961, 1963, 1973; Stojaspal, 1975, 1976; 
Tatzreiter, 1982, 1986. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 189 

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien [NMW] 
Burgring 7, Postfach 417 
A-1014 Wien Austria 

Boeters, 1987; Brauer, 1878; Finet & Houart, 1989; 
Fliigel, 1959; A.W. Janssen, 1984; Kohn, 1964, 1986; 
Locard, 1895; Marston, 1968; Tichy, 1970; Verdcourt, 
1985; Zilch, 1974. 



BELGIUM 

Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique [IRSNB] 

Rue Vautier 29 

B-1040 Bruxelles Belgium 

(= Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurweten- 
schappen) 

Adam, 1971; Adam & Leloup, 1947; Cemohorsky, 
1981; Leloup, 1950; Schilder & Schilder, 1952. 

Musee Royal de TAMque Centrale [MRAC] 
B-3080 Tervuren Belgium 

(= Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika) 

[formeriy Musee du Congo Beige] 

Darteville, 1951; Lepersonne, 1975; Schouteden, 1936, 
1943. 



CROATIA 

Geologsko-paleontoloski Musej 
Hrvatski prirodoslovni Musej 
Demetrova 1 
41000 Zagreb Croatia 

(= Croatian Natural History Museum) 

Milan, et al, 1974; Zagar-Sakac, 1981. 



190 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

Slovenske Narodne Museu [SNMB] 

Prirodoveny listav 

Vajanskeho 2 

814 36 Bratislava Czechoslovakia 

Okali, 1984. 

Narodniho Museo [MNHP] 
Vaclavske namesti 1700 
Praha 1 Czechoslovakia 

Kroupa, 1989; Ruzicka & Prand, 1960. 

DENMARK 

Zoologisk Museum [ZMUC] 

Universitetsparken 15 

DK 2100 Kobenhavn Denmark 

Bruun, 1945; Cemohorsky, 1974; Haas, 1913; Habe, 
1983; Keen, 1966c, 1966d; Kennard & Woodward, 
1926; Kohn, 1964, 1976; Kristensen & Knudsen, 
1983; Morch, 1870; Schiotte & Waren, 1992; Sparck, 
1951; Thome, 1973, 1988b; Yaron, et al, 1986. 



FRANCE 

General paleontological: see Prieur, 1980. 

Musee d'Histoire Naturelle 
Logis Barrault 
rue du Musee 
48000 Angers France 

Couffon and Surrault, 1909. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 191 

Museum Requien 
67 rue Joseph- Vemet 
84000 Avignon France 

Conte, 1989; Moulet, 1989. 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle 

Hotel de Ville 

64100 Bayonne France 

Kisch, 1960. 

Musee de la Mer [MMB] 
Esplanade du Rocher-de-la-Vierge 
64200 Biarritz France 

Kisch, 1960. 

Musee d'Histoire Naturelle 
2, place Bardineau 
33000 Bordeaux France 

Magne, 1950a, 1950b; Moolenbeek, 1991; Stelfox, 
1922; Strack, 1986. 

Departement de Geologic 
Faculte des Sciences 
Universite de Bordeaux 
33000 Bordeaux France 

Magne, 1966-67. 

Musee d'Histoire Naturelle 

34 bis Grande Rue 

62200 Boulogne-sur-mer France 

Dupuy, et al., 1989; J.-C. Fischer & Vadet, 1985. 

Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, Caen 

Bigot, 1906-1945; Bigot & Matte, 1902-1905; Lamy, 
1906 [destroyed in World War II]. 



192 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Musee d'Histoire Naturelle 
2 Avenue de Lyon 
73000 Chambery France 

Locard, 1890^ Roman, 1937. 

Institut de Geologie 

Departement des Sciences de la Terre 

Universite de Lyon 1 

43 Boulevard du 1 1 Novembre 

69622 Villeurbanne Lyon France 

Chevalier, 1971; David, 1963; J.-C. Fischer, 1957; 
P.-H. Fischer, 1951-1970; Mangold & Mongerau, 
1966; Mongerau, 1965; Roman, 1935, 1937. 

Musee Guimet d'Histoire Naturelle [MG] 
28 Boulevard des Beiges 
69006 Lyon France 

Roman, 1937. 

Musee d'Histoire Naturelle [MMNH] 
Palais de Longchamp 
13004 Marseille France 

Amaud, 1977; Bulot, 1991; Bulot & Autran, 1990; 
Couturier, 1903; Delanoy & Bulot, 1991; Fabre, 1942; 
Paulus, er a/., 1951. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 193 

Laboratoire Biologic Invertebres Marins et Malacologie 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle [MNHN] 
55, rue de Buffon 
75005 Paris France 

Amaud, 1977, 1978; Ashby, 1922; Backhuys, 1990 
Bouchet & Danrigal, 1982; Boury, 1909-1917; Bratcher 
1977; Breure, 1976a; Caziot, 1919; Cemohorsky 
1981; Chevallier, 1964-1976; Chevalier & Pothier 
1972; Cottreau, 1925-32, 1934-37; Counts, 1991 
Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1914; Ferussac, 1837; Fischer 
& Fischer, 1945, 1946; Fischer-Piette, 1942-1952 
Fischer-Piette & Beigbeder, 1943-1945; Fischer-Piette 
& Lamy, 1943a-1943b; Folin, 1890; Germain, 1905 
Forcart, 1952; Habe, 1953, 1978a, 1978c; Hanna & 
Smith, 1968; Hoagland, 1983; Johnson, 1952-1953 
1969b, 1973a; Joubin, 1905; Kabat & Finet, 1992 
Kisch, 1959a, 1959b, 1960; Kohn, 1981; Lamy, 1904 
1911-1942; Lamy & Fischer-Piette, 1937a-1939f; Loch 
mss. 10, 11; Metivier, 1982; Oliveira & Oliveira, 1984 
Pallary, 1932; Petit & Le Renard, 1990; Richard 
1980; Roger, 1950; Roth & Clover, 1973; F.A 
Schilder, 1930; Sowerby, 1909; Strack, 1986; Thevenin; 
1906-23; Thome, 1971; A. Tillier, 1979; S. Tillier & 
Mordan, 1983; Verdcourt, 1986; Villiers, 1956; Wag- 
ner, 1985; Wheeler, 1963. 



Ecole des Mines: now housed in the Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [Recent moUusks (Bratcher, 
1977)] and in the Institut de Geologic, Departement 
des Sciences de la Terre, Univcrsite de Lyon [fossil 
mollusks Q.-C. Fischer, 1957; P.-H. Fischer, 1951- 
1970)]. 



Museum de Rouen 
198, rue Beauvoisine 
76000 Rouen France 

Fouray, 1979. 



194 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle [MHNT] 
Jardin des Plantes 
35, allee Jules Guerde 
31000 Toulouse France 

Astre, 1921, 1950. 



GERMANY 

Zoologisches Museum [ZMB] 

Museum fiiir Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universitat 

InvalidenstraBe 43 

D-O-1040 Berlin Germany 

Adam, 1976; Boss, 1970; Counts, 1991; Dietrich, 
1960; Kabat & Kilias, 1991; Kilias, 1961-1974c; Kilias 
& Kilias, 1982; Kohn, 1986; Ponder, 1978; F.A. 
Schilder, 1958; M. Schilder, 1971; Solem, 1967; 
Thome, 1972; Verdcourt, 1984a, 1988a- 1990a; Knorre 
& Kilias, 1986; Zilch, 1971c. 

Geologische-Palaontologisches Institut der Universitat 
Palaontologisches Museum und Institut 
Regina-Pacis-Weg 3 
D-W-5300 Bonn Germany 

H.-J. Anderson, 1962. 

Ubersee Museum [UMB] 
Bahnhofsplatz 13 
D-W-2800 Bremen Germany 

Knipper, 1954, 1958. 

Naturwissenschaftliches Museum 

Park 6 

D-W-8630 Coburg Germany 

Kom, 1983. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 195 

Staatliches Museum ftir Mineralogie und Geologic 

Augustusstrafie 2 

D-O-8010 Dresden Germany 

Prescher, 1970. 

Lobbecke Museum & Aquarium [LMA] 

Speldorfer StraBe 9 

D-W-4000 Diisseldorf Germany 

Kobelt, 1904. 

Natur-Museum Senckenberg [SMF] 
Senckenberganlage 25 
D-W-6000 Frankfurt 1 Germany 

Counts, 1991; Habe, 1982; R. Janssen, 1988; Kaiser, 
1980; Kinkelin, 1903; Kuiper, 1967; Oliveira & 
Oliveira, 1984; Schafer, 1938; Solem, 1967; Thome, 
1969b; Yen, 1939; Zilch, 1934-1987c. 

Bergakademie Freiberg 
Sektion Geowissenschaften 
Gustav-Zeuner-StraBe 12 
D-O-9200 Freiberg Germany 

Jordan, et al.j, 1976. 

Museum der Natur [MNG] 

Parkallee 15 

D-O-5800 Gotha Germany 

Kohn, 1975, 1981. 

Zoologisches Museum der Universitat [ZMUG] 

Berliner StraCe 28 

D-W-3400 Gottingen Germany 

Thome, 1970a. 



196 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Zoologischen Staatsinstituts und Zoologisches Museum 

Bomplatz 5 

D-W-2000 Hamburg Germany 

Kaiser, 1980j Panning, 1955-1958. 

Zoologisches Museum der Universitat [ZMUK] 
HegewischstraBe 3 
D-W-2300 Kiel Germany 

Thome, 19769a. 

Kulturhistorisches Museum [KHMM] 
Otto-von-Guericke-Stral5e 68-73 
D-O-3010 Magdeburg Germany 

Weyer, 1984. 

Bayerisches Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Historis- 

che Geologie 
Richard- Wagner-StraBe 10/11 
D-W-8000 Munchen 2 Germany 

H.-J. Anderson, 1962; Falkner, 1982. 

Zoologische Staatssammlung [ZSM] 
MiinchhausenstraBe 21 
D-W-8000 Munchen 60 Germany 

Fechter, 1982, 1983a, 1983b; Verdcourt, 1970; Zilch, 
1965c, 1971b. 

Geologisch-Palaontologisch Institut 
Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat 
Gluenbecker Weg 61 
D-W-4400 Munster Germany 

Meiburg, et al, 1969. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 197 

Naturkundemuseum Reutlingen 
Spendhaus-StraBe-8 
D-W-7410 Reutlingen Germany 

Nitsch, 1990. 

Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde [AINS] 

SchloBpIatz 2 

D-W-7000 Stuttgart 1 Germany 

Janus, 1961. 

Institut und Museum fur Geologie und Palaontologie 

Universitat Tubingen 

SigwartstraBe 10 

D-W-7400 Tubingen 1 Germany 

Hardetert & Riegraf, 1990. 

Naturhistorischen Museum 

RheinstraBe 10 

D-W-6200 Wiesbaden Germany 

Schondorf, 1907-1908. 



GREAT BRITAIN 

Geology Museum 
18 Queen Square 
Bath BAl 2HP England 

Winwood & Wilson, 1892. 

Booth Museum of Natural History 

194 Dyke Road 

Brighton BNl 5AA England 

Cooper, in prep.; Crane, 1892-1893; Willett, 1871, 



198 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

City of Bristol Museum and Art Gallery 

Queen's Road 

Bristol BS8 IRL England 

Copp, 1985; Wilson, 1890. 

Buxton Museum & Art Gallery 

Terrace Road 

Buxton, Derbyshire SKI 7 6DY England 

Trew, 1987b. 

University Museum of Zoology [UMZC] 
Downing Street 
Cambridge University 
Cambridge CB2 3EQ England 

Bishop & Way, 1976; Kay, 1969; Trew, 1987b. 

Sedgwick Museum 
Downing Street 
Cambridge University 
Cambridge CB2 3EQ England 

Curtis, 1956; Salter, 1873; Woods, 1891, 1893. 

National Museum of Wales 

Cathays Park 

Cardiff CFl 3NP Wales 

(= Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Cymru) 

Department of Geology: Bassett, 1972; North, 1928. 

Department of Zoology [NMWZ]: Blake & Oliver, 
1981-1 982b; Lingwood & McMillan, 1982; Loch, ms. 
10; Meecham, 1987a- 1989; Oliver, 198 la- 1987b; 
Thomas & Oliver, 1982; Trew, 1982-1991; Trew & 
Oliver, 1980-1981b; Verdcourt, 1990b. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 199 

Institute of Geological Sciences 
Murchison House, 
West Mains Road, 
Edinburgh EH9 Scotland 

E.M. Anderson, 1936 [formerly in Royal Scottish 
Museum] . 

Royal Scottish Museum [RSM] 

Chambers Street 

Edinburgh EHl IJF Scotland 

Benton, 1979; Heppell & Smith, 1983; Smaldon, et al, 
1976; Trew, 1987b. 

Royal Albert Memorial Museum and Art Gallery [RAMM] 

Queen Street 

Exeter, Devon EX4 3RX England 

Brind, 1979; Dean, 1936; Jeffreys, 1879. 

Hunterian Museum 
University of Glasgow 
Department of Geology 
Glasgow G12 8QQ Scotland 

Currie & George, 1963; Rolfe, et ai, 1981. 

Glasgow Art Gallery and Museum 

Natural History 

Kelvingrove 

Glasgow G3 8AG Scotland 

Rolfe, et al., 1981. 

Ipswich Museum 

High Street 

Ipswich IPl 3QH England 

Bell, 1917. 



200 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

British Geological Survey 

Keyworth, Nottinghamshire NG12 56Q England 

[Institute of Geological Sciencesj = Geological Survey 
Museum] 

Allen, 1900-1916; Blake, 1902; Clark, 1982; Curtis, 
1965; Kennard, 1944; Moore, et al, 1991; Stubble- 
field, 1936, 1938. 

Department of Geology 

Leicester Museum and Art Gallery 

New Walk 

Leicester LEI 6TD England 

Sizer, 1962. 

Merseyside County Museum [LIVCM] 

William Brown Street 

Liverpool, Merseyside L3 8EN England 

[formerly Liverpool Museum] 

Adam, 1976; Cemohorsky, 1975; Ford, 1953, 1954; 
Greenwood, 1980; McMillan, 1957, 1985; P.W Phil- 
lips, 1976; Tomlin, 1913, 1940; Trew, 1987b; 
Verdcourt, 1982. 



Geological Survey Museum; Institute of Geological Science: 
see under Edinburgh & Keyworth [Moore, et al., 
1991]. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 201 

The Natural History Museum [BMNH] 

Cromwell Road 

London SW7 5BD England 

[formerly British Museum (Natural History)] 

A. MoUusca Section: Baird, 1850; Brann, 1966; 
Carpenter, 1857; Cemohorsky, 1969c, 1975, 1977, 
1987; Counts, 1991; Crowley & Pain, 1961; Dell, 
1963; Deshayes, 1853-1855; Finet & Houart, 1989; 
Fleming, 1951; Fulton, 1908, 1917, 1920; Gray, 
1849-1865; Habe, 1961, 1977c, 1984a, 1985; Hedley, 
1913; Jacobson & Boss, 1973; Johnson, 1971; Kay, 
1965; Kay & Clench, 1975; Keen, 1966a, 1966b, 
1966d, 1968; Kisch, 1959a, 1960; Kohn, 1964, 1988; 
Lingwood & McMillan, 1981; Loch, mss. 10, 11; 
Makiyama, 1929; Meco, 1975; Naggs, in press; 
Natsukari & Okutani, 1975; Newton, 1902; Okutani, 
1976; Oliveira & Oliveira, 1984; Pain, 1949, 1951; 
Palmer, 1958, 1963; Peile, 1936; Pfeiffer, 1853-1857; 
Pons da Silva & Davis, 1983; Rees, 1954; Roth, 1982; 
F.A. Schilder, 1930; Shuto, 1975; E.A. Smith, 1897, 
1906, 1913; Solem, 1967; Stevenson, 1972; Thome, 
1979, 1985, 1988a; Thomson [in prep.]; A. Tillier, 
1979; Tomlin, 1932a, 1932b, 1934; Trew, 1987b, 
1992; Verdcourt, 1979a-1981, 1983a- 1984b; Wagner, 
1982-1985; Waren, 1980; Watson, 1876; Wilkins, 
1951-1957; Yen, 1942. 

B. Palaeontology: Cleevely, 1974; Cooper [in prep.]; 
Cox, 1956; Crick, 1898-1922; Curtis, 1956; Newton, 
1891; Palmer & Brann, 1965-1966; Petit & Le 
Renard, 1990; D. Phillips, 1977-1987; Tozer, 1990; 
Woodward, 1908. 



202 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Linnean Society of London [LS] 

Burlington House 

Piccadilly 

London WIV OLQ England 

Cemohorsky, 1969a; Dance, 1967; Dodge, 1952- 
1959b; Gage & Steam, 1988; Hanley, 1855; B.D. 
Jackson, 1913; Kabat, 1990; Kennard & Woodward, 
1920; Kohn, 1963; Nelson & Pain, 1986; Olsson & 
Dance, 1967; Salisbury & Woodward, 1926; Schenck, 
1935; F.A. Schilder, 1966; Talmadge, 1977. 

Manchester Museum [MM] 

The University 

Oxford Road 

Manchester Ml 3 9PL England 

Bolton, 1892, 1894; Eagar & Preece, 1977; J.W. 
Jackson, 1952; McMillan, 1980; Trew, 1987b. 

Hancock Museum 

University of Newcastle Upon Tyne 

Barras Bridge 

Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, NE2 4PT England 

Hedley, 1913; Woodward, 1979. 

Norwich Castle Museum 
Norwich NRl 3JU England 

Leney, 1902. 

Oxford University Museum [OUM] 

Parks Road 

Oxford OXl 3PW England 

Palmer & Brann, 1965-1966; H.P. Powell & Ed- 
monds, 1976. 

Sheffield City Museum 

Weston Park 

Sheffield SIO 2TP England 

Riley, 1974. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 203 

Shrewsbury Museum 

Clive House 

College Hill 

Shrewsbury SYl ILZ England 

Trew, 1987b. 

Torquay Natural History Society Museum 
529 Babbacombe Road 
Torquay TQl IHG England 

Jukes-Browne & Else, 1907. 

Whitby Museum 

Pannett Park 

Whitby Y021 IRE England 

Buckman, 1909-1930; Howarth, 1962. 

Yorkshire Museum 
Museum Gardens 
York YOl 20R England 

Melmore, 1945, 1946; Howarth, 1962; Mancenido & 
Damborenea, 1978; Platnauer, 1891, 1894; Pyrah, 
1977, 1978. 



HUNGARY 

Magyar Allami Foldtani Intezet 

Nepstadion-ut 14 

H-1 143 Budapest Hungary 

(= Hungarian Geological Institute) 

Boda, 1964; Krolopp, 1980. 

Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum [TMB] 

Baross utca 13 

H-1 088 Budapest Hungary 

(= Hungarian Museum of Natural History) 

Boda, 1964; Kilias, 1975; Pinter, 1982. 



204 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Matra Muzeum 
Kossuth Lajos utca 40 
H-3200 Gyongyos Hungary 

Varga, 1983. 

Janus Pannonius Muzeum 
Termeszettudomanyi Kiallitas 
Rakoszi utca 64 
H-7622 Pecs Hungary 

Fiikoh & Krolopp, 1989; Varga, 1989. 



IRELAND 

Geological Survey of Ireland 
Beggars Bush, 
Haddington Road 
Dublin 4 Ireland 

[Collections now mostly in the Institute of Geological 
Sciences (Great Britain) and the National Museum of 
Ireland] . 

Cocks, 1976; Davies, 1975; McHenry & Watts, 1895; 
Sleeman, 1992; Tunnicliff, 1976. 

Geological Section 
National Museum of Ireland 
7-9 Merion Row 
Dublin 2 Ireland 

Monaghan, 1992. 

Geology Museum 
Department of Geology 
Trinity College 
Dublin 2 Ireland 

Jackson, 1992; Nudds, 1982; 1988. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 205 

University College 

James Mitchell Geology Museum 

Galway Ireland 

Harper, 1992; Pattison, 1977. 



ISRAEL 

Museum [HUJ] 

Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

Mount Scopus 

Jerusalem Israel 

Ferber, 1985; Mienis, 1972-1985; F.A. Schilder, 
1964; Trew, 1987b. 



ITALY 

General: see Soika, 1950. 

Franziskaner-Gymnasium 
Bolzano [= Bozen] Italy 

Zilch, 1974. 

Museo Zoologica "La Specola" [MZUF] 
Universita di Firenze 
Via Romana 17 
50125 Firenze Italy 

Borri, et al, 1985, 1989; Thielens, 1874. 

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria" [MSNG] 
Via Brigata Ligura 9 
16121 Genoa Italy 

Benthem Jutting, 1962; Capocaccia & Arbocco, 1963; 
Gestro, 1926a, 1926b; Mienis, 1976c. 



206 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale [MSNM] 
Istituto di Paleontologia 
Corso Venezia 55 
20121 Milano Italy 

Conci, 1966; Jeffreys, 1884; Kohn, 1986; Pinna, 1971; 
Pinna & Spezia, 1975, 1978; Rinetti Schiroli, 1984; 
Rossi-Ronchetti, 1952, 1955. 

Museo Geologico R. Universita 
Via Universita 4 
41100 Modena Italy 

Stefanini, et al.j, 1930. 

Museo di Paleontologia 
Universita di Napoli 
Largo S. Marcellino 
Naples Italy 

Barbera Lamagna, 1968. 

Museo Mandralisca 
Via Mandralisca 15 
Cafalu, Palermo Italy 

Giannuzzi-Savelli, et al, 1986. 

Museo di Paleontologia G.G. Gemellaro 
Corso Tukory 131 
90134 Palermo Italy 

Gatto, 1984. 



Univ. of Palermo: some collections now in Paleontological 
Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. [see 
Palmer, 1945b]. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 207 

Museo e Istituto di Zoologia Sistematica 
Via Giolitti 34 
Torino Italy 

Thome, 1970b. 

Museo di Geologia e Paleontologia 

Universita di Torino 

Palazzo Carignanao 

Via Accademia delle Scienze 5 

10123 Torino Italy 

Ferrero Mortara, el al, 1982, 1984; Kohn, 1986; 
Pavia, 1976. 



MONACO 

Musee Oceanographique [MOM] 

Avenue Saint-Martin 

Monaco-Ville 

MC 98000 Monaco 

Amaud, 1977; Belloc, 1950-1962. 



THE NETHERLANDS 

General: see Engel, 1939, 1986. 

Zoologisch Museum [ZMA] 

Universiteit van Amsterdam 

P.O. Box 4766 

1009 AT Amsterdam The Netherlands 

Altena, 1964; Benthem Jutting, 1939a, 1939b, 1950; 
Breure, 1973a; Bruggen, 1977b; Coomans, 1981, 
1991; Coomans & de Visser, 1987; Shuto, 1970a- 
1971. 



208 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Rijks Geologische Dienst Haarlem 

P.O. Box 157 

2000 AD Haarlem The Netherlands 

Pouwer, 1991; Spaink, 1959. 

Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum [RMNH] 
Raamsteeg 2 / Postbus 9517 
2300 RA Leiden The Netherlands 

[formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Histoire] 

C. Bayer, 1950; Benthem Jutting & Bruggen, 1972; 
Bruggen, 1977a, 1977b; Trew, 1987b; Yamaguchi, et 
al, 1987. 

Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie 

Hooglandse Kerkgracht 17 

2312 RS Leiden The Netherlands 

Shuto, 1974, 1978. 

Natuurmuseum Rotterdam 

P.O. Box 23452 

3001 KL Rotterdam The Netherlands 

Nieuwenhuis, 1990. 



PORTUGAL 

Centro de Zoologia 

Instituto de Investiga^ao Cientifica Tropical 

Rua da Junqueira, 14 

1300 Lisboa Portugal 

Bumay, 1989. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 209 

ROMANIA 



Sectiei de Istoria Naturala 
Muzeului Brukenthal 
Bulevardul Republicii 4-5 
Sibiu Romania 

Corocleanu, 1968. 



RUSSIA 



Zoological Museum [MMSU] 
Moscow State University 
ul. Gensena 6 
Moscow Russia 

Ivanov & Kantor, 1991; Kohn, 1981, 

Central Siberian Geological Museum 
Institute of Geology and Geophysics 
Novosibirsk Russia 

Besprozvannykh, 1987, 1989. 

Zoological Insitute [ZIN] 
Academy of Sciences 
Universtetskaya Nab. 1 
199164 St. Petersburg Russia 

Counts, 1989. 



210 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

CNIGR Museum 

Ministry of Geology 

pr. Sredni 72B 

Vasilevskij Ostrov 

199026 St. Petersburg Russia 

(= Central Geological and Prospecting Museum) 

Kohn, 1988; Malchevskaya, 1985; Malchevskaya & 
Romanovskaya, 1966; Romanovskaya & Malchevskaya, 
1971; Romanovskaya, et al., 1979. 



SERBIA 

Prirodnjacki Muzeja 
Ulica Njegoseva 51 
11000 Beograd Serbia 

(= Museum of Natural History) 

Jovanovic, 1991; Mihajlovic-Pavlovic, 1985; Milosevic, 
1962. 



SWEDEN 

Zoologiska Museet [ZMUL] 
Lund Universitet 
S-221 01 Lund Sweden 

Breure, 1973a. 

Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet [SMNH or NRM] 

Box 50007 

S-104 05 Stockholm Sweden 

Habe, 1984a; Loch, ms. 10; Odhner, 1950; Sandberg 
& Waren, in prep; Thome, 1984. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 211 

Paleontologiska Museet 
Uppsala Universitet 
Box 558 
S-751 22 Uppsala Sweden 

Reyment, 1973-1976. 

Zoologiska Museet [ZMUU] 
Uppsala Universitet 
Villavagen 9 
S-751 22 Uppsala Sweden 

Dodge, 1952-1959b; Kabat, 1990; Kohn, 1963, 1991; 

Odhner, 1953; WalUn, 1991a-1991b. 



SWITZERLAND 

Naturhistorisches Museum [NMB] 
Augustinergasse 2 
CH-4001 Basel Switzerland 

Forcart, 1950; Greppin, 1903; Jung, 1972; Kleemann, 

1981; Rutsch, 1937. 

Naturhistorisches Museum [NMBE] 

BemastraBe 15 

CH-3005 Bern Switzerland 

Gerber, 1936, 1937; Forcart, 1957; Moolenbeek, et 

ai, 1991. 

Progymnase 

CH-2800 Delemont Switzerland 

Wannier & Panchaud, 1977. 



212 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle [MHNG] 

Case postale 434 

CH-1211 Geneve 6 Switzerland 

A. Departement des invertebres: Binder, 1970; Brot, 
1872; Cailliez, 1983; Cemohorsky, 1969b; Chris- 
tiaensj 1968; Delessert, 1841; Dodge, 1946; Favre, 
1943; Finer & Houart, 1989; Johnson, 1952-1953; 
Rabat & Finet, 1992; Kohn, 1968, 1981, 1988; Lamy, 
1915a; Mermod, 1947-1953; Mermod & Binder, 
1963; Oliveira & Oliveira, 1984; Solem, 1967; Sow- 
erby, 1909. 

B. Departement des Paleontologie: Bechon, et al., 
1984- 1985b; Benier & Berset, 1989; Berset, 1986; 
Berset & Benier, 1989; Berset & Decrouez, 1989- 
1991b; Decrouez, 1985-1987; Decrouez & Kunz, 
1985; Favre, 1918; Serret, 1986a- 1986b. 

Institut de Geologic 
Universite de Neuchatel 
CH-2000 Neuchatel Switzerland 

Jeannet, 1932. 

Ecole Cantonale 

CH-2900 Porrentruy Switzerland 

Wannier & Panchaud, 1977. 

Naturhistorisches Museum 

WerkhofstraBe 30 

CH-4500 Solothum Switzerland 

Ledermann, 1967. 

Zoologisches Museum [ZMZ] 
Universitat Zurich 
Winterthurerstrafie 190 
CH-8057 Zurich Switzerland 

Breure, 1976a. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 213 

UKRAINE 



Zoological Museum 
University of Lviv [= Lvov] 
Lviv Ukraine 

Zdun, 1969. 



2. Africa. 

General: see Anonymous, 1958, 1962. 

KENYA 

National Museum [NMK] 
P.O. Box 40658 
Nairobi Kenya 

[formerly Coryndon Museum] 

Anonymous, 1958, 1962. 

NAMIBIA 

Staatsmuseum [SMWN] 
Leutwein Street 
P.O. Box 1203 
Windhoek 9100 Namibia 

Irish, 1985. 



REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA 



National Museum [NMBO] 

P.O. Box 266 

Bloemfontein 9300 South Africa 

Anonymous, 1962. 



214 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

South African Museum [SAFM] 

Government Avenue 

P.O. Box 61 

Cape Town 8000 South Africa 

Giles & Gosliner, 1983. 

Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum [MMK] 
P.O. Box 316 
Kimberley South Africa 

Anonymous, 1958. 

Natal Museum [NM] 
Private Bag 9070 
Pietermaritzburg 3200 South Africa 

Anonymous, 1962; Kilbum, 1973; Loch, ms. 10. 

Port Elizabeth Museum [PEM] 

Beach Road, Humewood 

Port Elizabeth 6013 South Africa 

Anonymous, 1962; Bruggen, 1963. 



3. Asia and Oceania. 



AUSTRALIA 

South Australian Museum [SAM] 

North Terrace 

Adelaide, South Australia 5000 Australia 

Cotton, 1945; Gowlett-Holmes, 1989; Gowlett- 
Holmes & McHenry, 1988; Hewish & Gowlett- 
Holmes, 1991; Laws & Mincham, 1968, 1973; Loch, 
mss. 3-5, 7, 9, 12, 13; Ludbrook, 1959, 1961, 1965; 
Macphail & Zeidler, 1977-1978; Sweeney, et al, 1988; 
Zeidler, 1983, 1985; Zeidler & Gowlett, 1986; Zeidler 
& Macphail, 1978. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 215 

Department of Geology 

University of New England 

Armidale, New South Wales 2351 Australia 

Philip, 1971. 

Queensland Museum [QM] 

P.O. Box 300 

South Brisbane, Queensland 4101 Australia 

Iredale, 1958b; Loch, mss. 3, 8; Rozefelds, et ai, 
1990. 

Commonwealth Palaeontological Collection 

Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics 

P.O. Box 378 

Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 Australia 

Crespin, 1960, 1974; Loch, ms. 8. 

Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery [TMH] 

G.P.O. Box 1166M 

5 Argyle Street 

Hobart, Tasmania 7001 Australia 

Crespin, 1964a; Hardy, 1916; Loch, mss. 1, 4, 7, 9, 
12, 13; Ludbrook, 1965, 1967; May, 1903; E. Turner 
&Dartnall, 1971. 

Queen Victoria Museum & Art Gallery [QVMT] 

Wellington Street 

Launceston, Tasmania 7250 Australia 

Crespin, 1964a; Green, 1974; Loch, mss. 7, 9, 12, 13. 

Geological Collection 

University of Melbourne 

Parkville 

Melbourne, Victoria 3052 Australia 

Singleton, 1945. 



216 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Museum of Victoria [MV] 
285-321 Russell Street 
Melbourne, Victoria 3000 Australia 

[formerly National Museum of Victoria] 

Baldwin-Knight, 1901; Boyd & Phillips, 1985; Gill, 
1953; Gill & Davies, 1968; Kenyon, 1899, 1902; 
Loch, mss. 2-4, 10-13; Lu, 1983; Ludbrook, 1965; 
BJ. Smith, 1968; B.J. Smith & Black, 1969; B.J. Smith 
& Robertson, 1970; Trew, 1987b. 

Western Australian Museum [WAM] 

Francis Street 

Perth, Western Australia 6000 Australia 

Crespin, 1964b; Loch, mss. 2, 3, 10; Slack-Smith, 
1983; Wells, 1977. 

Department of Geology and Geophysics 

University of Sydney 

Sydney, New South Wales 2006 Australia 

Foldvary, 1981; Foldvary & Sanderson, 1972 [collec- 
tions are being transferred to the Australian Museum 
Sydney] . 

Macleay Museum [MAMU] 

University of Sydney 

Sydney, New South Wales 2006 Australia 

Hedley, 1901; Ponder & Stanbury, 1972. 

Australian Museum [AMS] 

P.O. Box A 285 

Sydney South, New South Wales 2000 Australia 

Fletcher, 1971; Iredale, 1958a-1959; Iredale & Whitley, 
1958; Loch, mss. 1-3, 7-13; Ludbrook, 1961; 
McMichael & Whidey, 1956, 1961; Natsukari & 
Okutani, 1975; Richardson, 1971; Rudman, 1983; 
Sweeney, et ai, 1988; Whitley, 1968, 1972. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 217 

INDIA 

Zoological Museum Calcutta 
Indian Museum 
27 Jawaharal Nehru Road 
Calcutta 700013 India 

Nevill, 1878, 1885. 

Zoological Survey of India [ZSI] 
"M" Block, New Alipore 
Calcutta 700053 India 

Rajagopal & Mitra, 1978; Thomson, [in press]. 

Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute 
Marine Fisheries P.O. 
Mandapam Camp India 

James, 1969. 

INDONESIA 

Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense [MZB] 
Juanda 3, Kebun Raya 
Bogor, Java Indonesia 

Somadikarta, et ai, 1964. 



218 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

JAPAN 

General: Hanzawa, et al., 1961. 

Seto Marine Biological Laboratory [SMBL] 

Kyoto University 

Sirahama 649-22 

Wakayama 

Japan 

Harada, 1991. 

University Museum [UMT] 
University of Tokyo 
Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku 
Tokyo 113 Japan 

Ichikawa, 1983, 1988; Ichikawa & Hayami, 1978; 
Oyama, 1973. 

National Science Museum [NSMT] 
3-23-1 Hyakunin-cho 
Shinjuku-ku 
Tokyo 169 Japan 

Hayami & Kase, 1977; Matsukuma & Okutani, 1986. 

Yokosuka City Museum 
95 Fukadadai 
Yokosuka 238 Japan 

Maeda, et al., 1983, 1987. 



NEW ZEALAND 

Auckland Institute and Museum [AIM] 

Private Bag 

Auckland 1 New Zealand 

Cemohorsky, 1972, 1988; Fleming, 1966; Loch, mss. 
10, 11; A.W.B. Powell, 1941, 1949. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 219 

Canterbury Museum [CMC] 
RoUeston Avenue 
Christchurch 1 New Zealand 

Allan, 1938, 1941; Speight, 1913. 

New Zealand Geological Survey [NZGS] 

P.O. Box 30368 

Lower Hutt New Zealand 

Boreham, 1959, 1965; Fleming, 1966; Keyes, 1972; 

Loch, mss. 8, 10, 11. 

National Museum of New Zealand [NMNZ] 
P.O. Box 467 
Wellington New Zealand 

[formerly Colonial Museum (1865-1907); Dominion 
Museum (1907-1973)] 

Hamilton, 1906; Keyes, 1971; Loch, mss. 3, 10, 11. 

New Zealand Oceanographic Institute [NZOI] 

P.O. Box 12 346 

Wellington North New Zealand 

Dawson, 1979; Loch, ms. 10. 



PAKISTAN 

Zoological Survey of Pakistan [ZSP] 
Hotel Nazli 
Nishtar Road 
Karachi 3 Pakistan 

Siddiqi, 1973. 



220 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

THAILAND 

Phuket Marine Biological Center 

P.O. Box 60 

Phuket 83000 Thailand 

Nateewathana, 1990. 

4. North America. 

CANADA 

Redpath Museum [RAIMGU] 

McGill University 

85, rue Sherbrooke 

Montreal 110, Quebec H3A 2K6 Canada 

Alison & Carroll, 1972; Ardley, 1916; Kuroda & 
Habe, 1952; Palmer, 1945a, 1950, 1958, 1963. 

Geological Survey [CGS] 

601 Booth Street 

Ottawa, Ontario KIA 0E8 Canada 

Bolton, 1965-1982; Ingram, 1942. 

National Museum of Natural Science [NMC] 
National Museums of Canada 
P.O. Box 3443, Station D 
Ottawa, Ontario KIP 6P4 Canada 

M.F.I. Smith, 1981. 

New Brunswick Museum [NBM] 

277 Douglas Avenue 

Saint John, New Brunswick E2K 1E5 Canada 

R.F. Miller, 1988. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 221 

Royal Ontario Museum [ROM] 

100 Queen's Park 

Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C6 Canada 

Fritz, 1944; Waddington, et aL, 1978. 

British Columbia Provincial Museum [BCPM] 
Victoria, British Columbia V8V 1X4 Canada 

Peden& Green, 1982. 

CUBA 

Museo Felipe Poey 
Capitolio Nacional 
Habana Cuba 

Aguayo & Jaume, 1950; Boss & Jacobson, 1975. 



MEXICO 

Instituto de Geologia [UNAM] 

Museo de Paleontologia 

Universidade Nacional Autonoma de Mexico 

Ciudad Universitaria 

04510 Mexico City, D.F. Mexico 

Carreno, et aL, 1989; Perrilliat, 1981. 



222 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

UNITED STATES 

New York State Museum [NYSM] 
Empire State Plaza 
Albany, New York 12230 

J.M. Clarke, 1893-1907; Kilfoyle, 1954-1971; Mar- 
shall, 1892; Palmer, 1951; R.D. Turner, 1962; Whit- 
field, 1899. [The A. A. Gould types were transferred 
to the Museum of Comparative Zoology Qohnson, 
1964); the P.P. Carpenter types were transferred to the 
Smithsonian Institution (Coan & Rosewater, 1985)]. 

Museum of Zoology [MZUM] 
University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 

Breure, 1973a; Burch, 1980, 1983; Coan, 1989a; 
Johnson, 1967, 1972, 1979; Rosewater, 1959. 

Texas Memorial Museum [TNHC] 
University of Texas 
2400 Trinity 
Austin, Texas 78705 

Pritchett, 1905. 

Museum of Paleontology [UCB] 
University of California 
Berkeley, California 94720 

Addicott, et al, 1971; Coan, 1982, 1989a; Coan & 
Bogan, 1988; Hanna & Smith, 1932; Ingram, 1942; 
Keen & Bentson, 1944; Merriam, 1895; Murphy & 
Rodda, 1977; Palmer, 1958; Peck, 1957; Peck & 
McFarland, 1954; Roth, 1988; R.B. Stewart, 1927, 
1930; A.G. Smith & Emerson, 1955. 

Boston Society of Natural History: collections now in 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, [see 
also Cushman, 1907]. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 223 

University of Colorado Museum [UCM] 
Campus Box 218 
Boulder, Colorado 80309 

Coan & Roth, 1987; McCoy, 1964; Rodeck, 1938; 
Wu & Brandauer, 1982. 

Bowling Green State University (Ohio): collections trans- 
ferred to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington 
D.C.; Ohio State University, Columbus; and Univer- 
sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor [Hoare, 1991]. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology [MCZ] 

Harvard University 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 

A. Mollusk Department: Boss, 1987; Boss, et ai, 
1968; Cemohorsky, 1975, 1987; Champion, 1947; 
Clench, 1936, 1946, 1959; Clench & Turner, 1950a, 
1950b; Coan, 1982; Counts, 1991; Ferreira, 1978; 
Hartman, 1881; Hertz, 1984; Jacobson & Boss, 1973; 
Johnson, 1946, 1949, 1956-1967, 1973b, 1975a, 
1975b, 1981, 1989, in prep.; Johnson & Boss, 1972; 
Kabat & Finet, 1992; Kay & Clench, 1975; Michelson, 
1953; Pilsbry, 1946; Rosewater, 1959; R.D. Turner, 
1946-1962. 

B. Invertebrate Paleontology: Cushman, 1907; Eng & 
d'Escrivan, in prep.; Keen & Bentson, 1944; Kummel, 
1963; Palmer & Brann, 1965-1966; Raymond, 1936; 
R.B. Stewart, 1927, 1930; Wilson, 1967. 

Charleston Museum [CHM] 

360 Meeting Street 

Charleston, South Carolina 29403 

Blackwelder, 1967; Clench, 1967. 



224 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Chicago Academy of Sciences [CA] 
2001 N. Clark Street 
Chicago, Illinois 60614 

Ball & Greacen, 1946; Franzen, 1958. 

Field Museum of Natural History [FMNH] 
Roosevelt Road & Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496 

[formerly Chicago Museum of Natural History] 

Geology Department: Forney & Nitecki, 1976; Palmer 
& Brann, 1965-1966; Weller, 1929. 

Zoology Department (Invertebrates): Roscoe, 1963; 
Solem, 1967; Trew, 1987b. 

Cincinnati Museum of Natural History [CMNH] 
1720 Gilbert Avenue 
Cinciimati, Ohio 45202 

R.A. Davis & Troike, 1990. 

University of Cincirmati Museum [UCC] 
2624 Clifton Avenue 
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 

Chappars, 1936; Hansman, et al., 1962. 

Orton Museum-Geological Museum 
Ohio State University 
Columbus, Ohio 43120 

Hoare, 1991; Marple, et al., 1964; Momingstar, 1924; 
G.A. Stewart, 1930. 

Biological Museum [UMRC] 

University of Miami 

Coral Gables, Florida 33124 

F.M. Bayer, 1948. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 225 

Florida State Museum [UF] 
University of Florida 
Gainesville, Florida 32611 

Franz & Thompson, 1974, 

Zoology Department (Malacology) 
Bemice Pauahi Bishop Museum [BPBM] 
P.O. Box 19000A 
Honolulu, Hawai'i 96817 

Cemohorsky, 1987; Clench, 1979; Cooke, 1918; 
Eldredge, 1965; Kawamoto, in prep.; Kondo & Clench, 
1952; Loch, ms. 8. 

Cornell University [CU] 

Ithaca, New York 14850 

A.H. Clarke, 1960; Jacobson, 1975; Van Winkle, 1921 
[transferred to Paleontological Research Institution; 
see next entry]. 

Paleontological Research Institute [PRI] 
1259 Trumansburg Road 
Ithaca, New York 14850 

Brann & Kent, 1960; Fast, 1978; Ingram, 1942; 

Palmer, 1945b; Palmer & Brann, 1965-1966. 

Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History [LACM] 

900 Exposition Boulevard 

Los Angeles, CaHfomia 90007 

Coan, 1989b; Hertz, 1984; Saul, 1991; Sphon, 1971, 
1973; Wilson, 1986; Wilson & Bing, 1970; Wilson & 
Saul, 1986. 

University of California [UCLA] 

Los Angeles, California 90024 

Keen & Bentson, 1944 [collections transferred to Los 
Angeles County Museum (Saul, 1991; Wilson & Saul, 
1986)]. 



226 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Zoological Museum [UWZM] 
University of Wisconsin 
Lowell Noland Boulevard 
Madison, Wisconsin 53706 

Franzen, 1957; Teller, 1911. 

University of Miami: see under Coral Gables [there is also 
a separate collection at the Rosenstiel School of 
Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Miami] . 

Milwaukee Public Museum [MPM] 
800 West Wells Street 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 

Munthe, 1980; Sumpter, et aL, 1990; Teller, 1911. 

Peabody Museum of Natural History [YPM] 

P.O. Box 6666 

Yale University 

New Haven, Connecticut 06511 

Beecher, 1900; Johnson, 1989. 

Department of Invertebrates 

American Museum of Natural History [AMNH] 

Central Park West at 79th Street 

New York, New York 10024 

Breure, 1973a; Chubb, 1955; Coan & Roth, 1987; 
Faber, 1988; Gratacap, 1901; Habe, 1977a, 1977b; 
Hertz, 1984; Horenstein, 1983; Palmer & Brann, 
1965-1966; Richards & Old, 1969; Roth, 1982; 
Solem, 1967; Whitfield, 1899; Whitfield & Hovey, 
1898-1901. 

California Institute of Technology 
Pasadena, California 91125 

Keen & Bentson, 1944 [collections transferred to Los 
Angeles County Museum (Wilson & Saul, 1986)]. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 227 

The Academy of Natural Sciences [ANSP] 
19th & The Parkway 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103 

A. Malacology Department: Abbott, 1965; Baker, 
1962, 1963, 1964; Cemohorsky, 1987; Clench, 1946; 
Clench & Turner, 1962; Coan, 1989a; Coan & Bogan, 
1988; Coan & Roth, 1987; Coan & Scott, 1990; 
Counts, 1991; G.M. Davis, et al., 1979; J.D. Davis, 
1964; Hertz, 1986; Ingram, 1942; Jacobson & Boss, 
1973; Johnson, 1967, 1975b, 1980; Johnson & Baker, 
1973; Kay & Clench, 1975; Kondo & Clench, 1952; 
Loch, mss. 3, 10; Mol, 1971, 1972; Palmer, 1958; 
Richardson, et al., 1991; Robertson, et al., 1981-1987; 
A.G. Smith & Emerson, 1955; Spamer & Bogan, 
1992; Thome, 1988c; Trew, 1987b; R.D. Turner, 
1962; Vanatta, 1915; Voss, 1962. 

B. Invertebrate Paleontology: Campbell & Campbell, 
1986; C.W. Johnson, 1905; Keen & Bentson, 1944; 
Moore, 1962; Murphy & Rodda, 1977; Palmer & 
Brann, 1965-1966; Richards, 1968; Rodda & Murphy, 
1991; Spamer, et al., 1989; R.B. Stewart, 1927, 1930; 
Ward& Germon, 1988. 

Wagner Free Institute of Science [WFIS] 
Montgomery Avenue & 17th Street 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19121 

Spamer & Forster, 1988. 

Carnegie Museum of Natural History [CM] 
4400 Forbes Avenue 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 

Brooks & Brooks, 1931a, 1931b; Johnson, 1977a, 
1977b, 1981; Parodiz, 1967; Parodiz & Tripp, 1988; 
H.H. Smith, 1902. 



228 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Department of Geological Sciences 
University of California 
Riverside, California 92502 

Mount, 1973a, 1973b. 

Utah Museum of Natural History [UU] 

University of Utah 

Salt Lake City, Utah 841 12 

Roscoe, 1963 [collections transferred to Field Museum 
(Chicago) in 1974]. 

San Diego Natural History Museum [SDSNH] 

Balboa Park 

P.O. Box 1390 

San Diego, California 92112 

Drake, 1957; Hertz, 1984, 1986; Keen & Bentson, 
1944; Wilson, 1966; Wilson & Kennedy, 1967. 

California Academy of Sciences [CAS] 

Golden Gate Park 

San Francisco, California 94118 

Coan, 1966a, 1982, 1986a, 1986b, 1989a; Coan & 
Kellogg, 1990; Coan & Roth, 1987; Hertz, 1984; 
Ingram, 1942; Keen & Bentson, 1944; Kellogg, 1986; 
Murphy & Rodda, 1977; Roth, 1970; A.G. Smith, 
1974; A.G. Smith & Emerson, 1955; J.T. Smith, 1978; 
Stasek, 1966a, 1966b; Sweeney, et al., 1988; Taylor 
& Smith, 1971; Trew, 1987b; Zullo & Hertlein, 1970. 

Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History [SBMNH] 
2559 Puesta del Sol Road 
Santa Barbara, California 93105 

Coan, 1989a; Coan & Scott, 1990; Hertz, 1984; Keen 
& Bentson, 1944; Scott, et ai, 1990; Scott, Hochberg 
& Moe, in prep.; Sphon, 1962, 1966. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 229 

Department of Geology 
University of California 
Santa Barbara, California 93106 

Coan& Scott, 1990. 

New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources 
(Soccorro): fossil cephalopod collections transferred 
to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. 
[Wolberg, 1990a- 199 Id]. 

Illinois State Museum 
Spring and Edwards Streets 
Springfield, Illinois, 62706 

Leary, 1972. 

Stanford University Museum: see California Academy of 
Sciences, San Francisco. 



Florida Bureau of Geology 
Tallahassee, Florida 32304 

Shaak, 1980. 



University of Alabama Museum of Natural History 
Smith Hall, P.O. Box 5897 
University of Alabama 
University, Alabama 35846 

Ingram, 1942; Rosewater, 1959. 

Museum of Natural History [UIMNH] 
1301 W. Green Street 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Franzen, 1956. 



230 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Illinois State Geological Survey [ISGS] 
Natural Resources Building 
615 East Peabody Drive 
Urbana, Illinois 61820 

Hansman & Scott, 1967; Kent, 1982; Leonard, 1957. 

National Museum of Natural History [USNM] 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.C. 20560 

[formerly United States National Museum] 

A. Division of Mollusks: Binney, 1885; Boss, et al., 
1968; Breure, 1973a; Cemohorsky, 1975; Clench, 
1946; Coan, 1966b, 1982, 1985; Coan & Rosewater, 
1985; Coan & Roth, 1987; Counts, 1991; Dall, 1892, 
1925; J.D. Davis, 1965; Drake, 1957; Habe, 1978b, 
1978d; Johnson, 1964, 1967, 1973b, 1974a-1975c, 
1989; Kosuge, 1969, 1972; Loch, ms. 10; Mol, 1971; 
Palmer, 1951, 1958, 1963; Roper & Sweeney, 1978; 
Rosewater, 1984a, 1984b; Ruhoff, 1973; Sweeney, et 
al, 1988; Thome & Pitoni, 1976; Trew, 1987b; 
Waren, 1980, 1983; Yen, 1944. 

B. Department of Paleobiology: Hoare, 1991; Keen & 
Bentson, 1944; Marcou, 1885, 1886; Palmer & Brann, 
1965-1966; Pumell, 1968; Schuchert, 1905; R.B. 
Stewart, 1927, 1930; Trumbull, 1958; Wolberg, 1990a- 
1991d. 

Delaware Museum of Natural History 

P.O. Box 3937 

Wilmington, Delaware 19807-0937 

Bieler & Bradford, 1991. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 231 

5. South America. 

ARGENTINA 

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Ri- 

vadavia" [MACN] 

Av. Angel Gallardo 470 

1405 Buenos Aires Argentina 

Breure, 1973b. 

Museo de La Plata [MLP] 
Paseo del Bosque 
Universidade Nacional 
1900 La Plata Argentina 

Breure, 1973b. 



BRASIL 

Museu de Historia Natural-Malacologia 
CDDC-Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora 
Rua Benjamin Constant 79 
36100 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais Brasil 

Oliveira, et al, 1981. 

Museu Oceanografico [FURG] 

Fundagao Universidade do Rio Grande 

Caixa Postal 474 

96200 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul Brasil 

Rios, 1979. 

Museu de Zoologia [MZUSP] 
Universidade de Sao Paulo 
Caixa Postal 7172 
04263 Sao Paulo Brasil 

Breure, 1973b; Perez & Haimovici, 1991 



232 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

CHILE 

Museo de Zoologia 
Universidad de Concepcion 
Barrio Universitario 
Concepcion Chile 

Cekalovic & Artigas, 1981a, 1981b. 

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural [MNHNC] 
Quinta Normal, Interior 
Casilla 787 
Santiago Chile 

Frassinetti, 1974; Perez & Reyes, 1989. 

URUGUAY 

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural [MHNM] 
Buenos Aires 652 
Montevideo Uruguay 

Olazarri, et al., 1972. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 233 

SYSTEMATIC INDEX 

The following index is arranged by molluscan class. 
For the four "minor" classes, the papers are listed 
alphabetically by author. For the Bivalvia, Gastropoda 
Prosobranchia & Opisthobranchia, and Gastropoda Pul- 
monata, the references are arranged by family, with the 
families in alphabetical order. The only exceptions to this 
family-level analysis are the Unionacea and Mutelacea 
(Bivalvia) for which the type catalogues often did not 
differentiate between these two superfamilies, let alone 
families. For that reason, all the references to those two 
groups are listed under Unionacea. 

We would like to emphasize that many but not all of 
the references are listed in this index. Not included are 
papers listing more than ten families of gastropods or 
bivalves: in particular, single item papers which cover all the 
types in a given collection, often covering fifty or more 
families. 



1. APLACOPHORA [Caudofoveata & Solenogastres] . 

Belloc, 1959; Stasek, 1966b. 

2. BIVALVIA. 

Anomiidae: Gray, 1850b; Lamy, 1941. 

Arcidae: Lamy, 1904, 1906; Ludbrook, 1965; Oliver, 

1981a; Stevenson, 1972. 
Arcticidae: Deshayes, 1853; Lamy, 1916a. 
Astartidae: Oliver, 1982a. 
Bemardinidae: Meecham, 1987a. 
Cardiidae: Lamy, 1942; Meecham, 1987b. 
Carditidae: Lamy, 1915c, 1916b; Oliver, 1982a. 
Chamidae: Lamy, 1917a. 
Condylocardiidae: Oliver, 1982a. 
Conocardiidae: Branson, 1942. 



234 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Corbiculidae: Counts, 1989, 1991; Deshayes, 1855; Johnson, 

1959a; Kennard & Woodward, 1926; Meecham, 1989; 

Salisbury & Woodward, 1926. 
Corbulidae: Lamy, 1926. 
Crassatellidae: Oliver, 1982a. 
CucuUaeidae: Ludbrook, 1965. 
Cuspidariidae: Oliver, 1981b. 

Donacidae: Fischer-Piette & Lamy, 1943a; Lamy, 1914c. 
Dreissenidae: Meecham, 1987a. 
Gastrochaenidae: Lamy, 1922d. 
Gaimardiidae: Meecham, 1987a. 
Glauconomidae: Deshayes, 1853. 
Glossidae: Lamy, 1916a. 
Glycymeridae: Lamy, 1912a; Ludbrook, 1965; Oliver, 

1984c. 
Hiatellidae: Lamy, 1916a, 1921b. 
Limidae: Lamy, 1919b; Oliver, 1987b. 
Limopsidae: Ludbrook, 1965; Oliver, 1984c. 
Lucinidae: Lamy, 1915b. 
Mactridae: Lamy, 1913, 1914b, 1925b. 
Malleidae: Lamy, 1935a. 
Malletiidae: Okutani, 1976. 

Mesodematidae: J.D. Davis, 1964, 1965; Lamy, 1912b. 
[Mutelidae: see Unionacea] 
Myidae: Lamy, 1925a. 
Mytilidae: Kleemann, 1981, 1983; Lamy, 1920a, 1920b, 

1933; Oliver, 1984d. 
Nucinellidae: Oliver, 1984a. 
Nuculanidae: Ludbrook, 1961; Okutani, 1976; Oliver, 

1984a. 
Nuculidae: Ludbrook, 1961; Oliver, 1984a; Schenck, 1935. 
Ostreidae: Habe, 1983; Lamy, 1924. 
Pandoridae: Boss, 1965; Oliver, 1981b. 
Parilimyidae: Oliver, 1981b. 
Pectinidae: Allan, 1941; Anderson, 1962; Fleming, 1951; 

Oliver, 1982b; Wagner, 1982-1985. 
Periplomatidae: Oliver, 1981b. 
Petricolidae: Deshayes, 1855; Lamy, 1921c. 
Philobryidae: Oliver, 1984c. 
Pholadidae: Lamy, 1921a, 1922c. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 235 

Pinnidae: Lamy, 1932c; Wilkins, 1953c. 

Pisidiidae: Binder, 1970; Deshayes, 1855; Favre, 1943; 
Kuiper, 1967; Meecham, 1989; Stelfox, 1922. 

Placunidae: Gray, 1850b. 

Plicatulidae: Lamy, 1919a. 

Poromyidae: Oliver, 1981b. 

Pristiglomidae: Okutani, 1976. 

Psammobiidae: Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1914; Lamy, 1914a. 

Pteriidae: Lamy, 1935b. 

Rudistidae: Chubb, 1955. 

Solenidae: Lamy, 1932b. 

Sphaeridae: Anonymous, 1958; Deshayes, 1855; Johnson, 
1959a. 

Spondylidae: Lamy, 1917b. 

Teredinidae: Eldredge, 1965; Lamy, 1922b. 

Thraciidae: Oliver, 1981b. 

Trapeziidae: Lamy, 1916a. 

Tridacnidae: Lamy, 1932a. 

Trigoniidae: Anonymous, 1962; Jeannet, 1932; Perez & 
Reyes, 1989. 

Unionacea: Binder, 1970; Fechter, 1983b; Haas, 1913; 
Johnson, 1952-53, 1956, 1967-1 973a, 1974a, 1974b, 
1975b- 1980; Johnson & Baker, 1973; Parodiz, 1967; 
Trew, 1987c; Vanatta, 1915; Wheeler, 1963; Wood- 
ward, 1979; Zagar-Sakac, 1981; Zilch, 1967c, 1983d. 

Veneridae: Deshayes, 1853; Fischer-Piette & Lamy, 1943b; 
Lamy, 1922a, 1937; Lamy & Fischer-Piette, 1937a- 
1939f. 

Vesicomyidae: Boss, 1970; Oliver, 1987a. 

Yoldiidae: Okutani, 1976; Oliver, 1984c. 



236 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

3. CEPHALOPODA. 

A. Recent [Coleoidea: Sepiodea, Teuthoidea & 
Octopoda] 

Belloc, 1950; Borri, et al, 1985, 1989; Gray, 1849; 
Heppell & Smith, 1983; Hertz, 1984; Kristensen & Knudsen, 
1983; Lu, 1983; Lu & Philipps, 1985; Natsukari & Okutani, 
1975; Perez & Haimovici, 1991; Roper & Sweeney, 1978; 
Rudman, 1983; Schafer, 1938; Scott, et al., 1990; Slack- 
Smith, 1983; A.G. Smith, 1974; Spamer & Bogan, 1992; 
Sweeney & Roper, 1984 & in press; Sweeney, et ai, 1988; 
Voss, 1962; Zeidler, 1983; Zeidler & Macphail, 1978. 

B. Fossil [Nautiloidea; Ammonoidea] 

Anonymous, 1962; Barbera Lamagna, 1968; Bassett, 
1972; Benier & Berset, 1989; Berset, 1985; Boda, 1964; 
Buckman, 1909-1930; Bulot, 1991; Bulot & Autran, 1990; 
Clark, 1982; J.M. Clarke, 1893, 1903-1907; Crick, 1898- 
1922; Cushman, 1907; R.A. Davis & Troike, 1990; 
Decrouez, 1986a, 1986b, 1987; Delanoy & Bulot, 1991; 
Eng & d'Escrivan, [in prep.]; Fletcher, 1971; Foldvary & 
Sanderson, 1972; Gill & Davies, 1968; Gray, 1849; 
Hanzawa, et al, 1961; Hardetert & Riegraf, 1990; Howardi, 
1962; Jackson, 1952; C.W. Johnson, 1905; Kilfoyle, 1954- 
1969; Kummel, 1963; Meiburg, et ai, 1969; Mihajlovic- 
Pavlovic, 1985; A.K. Miller, 1936; Mongerau, 1965; 
Munthe, 1980; Murphy & Rodda, 1977; Nitsch, 1990; 
Nudds, 1988; Palmer & Brann, 1965; Peck & McFarland, 
1954; D. Phillips, 1977, 1982, 1987; Pinna & Spezia, 1975; 
Pritchett, 1905; Pumell, 1968; Pyrah, 1978; Rodda & 
Murphy, 1991; Serret, 1986b; Singleton, 1945; A.G. Smith, 
1974; J.T. Smith, 1978; Stenzel, 1942; Stubblefield, 1936; 
Tatzreiter, 1982, 1986; Tozer, 1990; Waddington, et aL, 
1978; Wilson, 1986; Wolberg, 1990a-1991d; Woodward, 
1908; ZuUo & Hertlein, 1970. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 237 

4. GASTROPODA: PROSOBRANCHIA & 
OPISTHOBRANCHIA. 

Aciculidae: Pfeiffer, 1853. 

Acmaeidae: Robertson, et al, 1981; Trew, 1983d. 

Acteonidae: Mermod & Binder, 1963. 

Adeorbidae: Richardson, et al., 1991. 

Amnicolidae: Richardson, era/., 1991. 

Ampullaridae: Binder, 1970; Mermod, 1952; Mol, 1972; 
Pain, 1949, 1951; Richardson, et al, 1991; Sowerby, 
1909. 

Anabathridae: Richardson, et al.^ 1991. 

Aporrhaidae: Blake & Oliver, 1981; P.-H. Fischer, 1967. 

Architectonicidae: Trew, 1986b. 

Assimineidae: Richardson, et al, 1991; Zilch, 1967a. 

Barleeidae: Richardson, et al.^, 1991. 

Bellerophontidae: Weller, 1929. 

Bithynidae: Richardson, et ai, 1991. 

Buccinidae: Dodge, 1956; Fischer-Piette & Beigbeder, 
1944b; Nelson & Pain, 1986; Talmadge, 1977; Trew, 
1990a; Zilch, 1969a. 

Bursidae: Trew & Oliver, 1981a. 

Caecidae: Folin, 1890; Kisch, 1959a; Richardson, et al., 
1991. 

Calyptraeidae: P.-H. Fischer, 1970; Hoagland, 1983; Mer- 
mod, 1950b; Trew, 1985a. 

Cancellariidae: Cemohorsky, 1969b; Trew, 1990d. 

Capulidae: Harada, 1991. 

Cassidae: Trew & Oliver, 1981a. 

Cerithiidae: Shuto, 1978. 

Cingulopsidae: Richardson, et ai, 1991. 

Columbellidae: Cemohorsky, 1969b; Fischer-Piette & Beigbe- 
der, 1945b; Pace, 1902. 

Conidae: Bumay, 1989; Bruun, 1945; Coomans & de 
Visser, 1987; Coomans, et al., 1979-1986; Cotton, 
1945; Dodge, 1946, 1953; Fischer-Piette & Beigbeder, 
1945b; Kohn, 1963-1992; Kohn & Riggs, 1979; Kohn, 
et al., 1988; Kom, 1983; Mermod, 1947; Rajagopal & 
Mitra, 1978; Richard, 1980; Trew, 1982; Zeidler, 
1985. 



238 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Coralliophilidae: Tomlin, 1935; Trew & Oliver, 1981b. 
Costellariidae: Cemohorsky, 1981; Trew, 1985b. 
Cyclophoridae: Baird, 1850; P.-H. Fischer, 1964; Mol, 

1972; Pfeiffer, 1853; Robertson, et al., 1986; Zilch, 

1953a, 1954b, 1955b-1959. 
[Cyclostrematidae: see Skeneidae] 
[Cymatiidae: see Ranellidae] 
Cypraeidae: Dodge, 1953; Ingram, 1942; Kilias, 1973; 

McMillan, 1957; Mienis, 1981; F. Schilder, 1930- 

1966; F. Schilder & M. Schilder, 1952; M. Schilder, 

1971; Trew, 1987a. 
Diplommatinidae: Robertson, et ai, 1987. 
Elachisinidae: Richardson, et ai, 1991. 
Epitoniidae: Blake & Oliver, 1982a; Boury, 1891-1909, 

1917; Mermod & Binder, 1963. 
Eratoidae: Trew, 1987a. 
Eubranchidae: James, 1969. 
Eulimidae: Waren, 1989. 
Falsicingulidae: Richardson, et al., 1991. 
Fasciolariidae: Fischer-Piette & Beigbeder, 1944b; Trew, 

1990a; Trew & Oliver, 1981a. 
Fissurellidae: Cernohorsky, 1972; Mermod, 1950b; 

Robertson, et al., 1981; Trew, 1983d. 
Fossaridae: Trew, 1985a. 
Galeodidae: Trew, 1990a. 
Haliotidae: Coan, 1966b; Habe, 1983; Mermod & Binder, 

1963; Robertston, et al., 1981; Talmadge, 1977; Trew, 

1983d. 
Harpidae: Gray, 1865. 
Helicinidae: Jacobson, 1975; Mermod, 1951; Pfeiffer, 

1853, 1857; Robertson, et al., 1986; Zilch, 1979a. 
Hipponicidae: Trew, 1985a. 
Hydrobiidae: Anonymous, 1958; Binder, 1970; Jovanovic, 

1991; Mol, 1972; Okali, 1984; Pinter, 1982; Pons da 

Silva & Davis, 1983; Zilch, 1970; Zdun, 1969. 
Hydrocenidae: Robertson, et al., 1986; Zilch, 1973b. 
Janthinidae: Mermod, 1953. 
Lamellariidae: Hamada, 1991; Trew, 1987a. 
Lepetidae: Robertson, et al., 1981. 
Liotiidae: Robertson, et al., 1986. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 239 

Littorinidae: Binder, 1970; Mienis, 1975a; Richardson, et 
al., 1991. 

Marginellidae: Fischer-Piette & Beigbeder, 1945b; Hewish 
& Gowlett-Holmes, 1991; Mienis, 1976a; Roth & 
Clover, 1973;Tomlin, 1913-1919; Trew, 1990d. 

Mathildidae: Boury, 1911; Shuto, 1974. 

[Melaniidae: see Thiaridae] 

Micromelaniidae: Zilch, 1983e. 

Mitridae: Cemohorsky, 1969a, 1969b, 1981; Fischer-Piette 
& Beigbeder, 1945b; Trew, 1985b. 

Muricidae: Dodge, 1957; Finet & Houart, 1989; Fischer- 
Piette & Beigbeder, 1943a, 1943b, 1944a; Lamy, 
1918; Trew & Oliver, 1981b; Zilch, 1983a. 

Nassariidae: Adam, 1976; Cemohorsky, 1975; Fischer- 
Piette & Beigbeder, 1945a; McMillan, 1985; Tomlin, 
1932a, 1932b, 1940; Trew, 1990a. 

Naticidae: Blake & Oliver, 1982b; P.-H. Fischer, 1964; 
Kabat, 1990; Kabat & Kilias, 1991; Mermod, 1953; 
Mermod & Binder, 1963. 

Neritidae: Binder, 1970; Kabat & Finet, 1992; Knipper, 
1958; Lamy, 1931; Mermod, 1953; Robertson, et al, 
1986. 

Olividae: Fischer-Piette & Beigbeder, 1945b; Ford, 1953; 
Gray, 1865; McMillan, 1985; Olsson & Dance, 1966; 
Trew, 1990c. 

Ovulidae: Hamada, 1991; Kilias, 1973; Mienis, 1981; F. 
Schilder, 1966. 

Patellidae: Christiaens, 1968; Lamy, 1931; Mermod, 1950b; 
Robertson, et ai, 1981; Trew, 1983d. 

Pediculariidae: Kilias, 1973; Trew, 1987a. 

Phasianellidae: Robertson, et ai, 1986. 

Pleurotomariidae: Nieuwenhuis, 1990; Robertson, et al, 
1981. 

Pomatiasidae: Mermod, 1952. 

Potamididae: Shuto, 1978. 

Poteriidae: Robertson, et ai, 1987. 

Pteropoda: A.W. Janssen, 1984. 

Pupinidae: Robertson, et ai, 1987. 

Pyramidellidae: Boury, 1911; Kisch, 1959b; Mermod & 
Binder, 1963; Mienis, 1975b, 1976d. 



240 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Pyrenidae: Trew, 1990a. 

Ranellidae: Fischer-Piette & Beigbeder, 1944a; Trew & 

Oliver, 1981a. 
Rissoidae: Boury, 1911; Moolenbeek, et al.^ 1991. 
Scissurellidae: Cemohorsky, 1972; Trew, 1983d, 
Skeneidae: Robertson, et al.^ 1986; Trew, 1984. 
Stenothyridae: Zilch, 1981c. 
Stomatellidae: Mermod & Binder, 1963; Robertson, et al., 

1983; Trew, 1984. 
Strombidae: Blake & Oliver, 1981; Dodge, 1956; Wilkins, 

1951. 
Terebridae: Bratcher, 1977; Cemohorsky, 1969c; A. Tillier, 

1979; Trew, 1989. 
[Thecosomata] : Gray, 1850a. 
Thiaridae: Binder, 1970; Brot, 1872; Knipper, 1958; 

Mermod, 1952; Mol, 1971, 1972. 
Tonnidae: Trew & Oliver, 1981a. 
Trichotropidae: Trew, 1985a. 
Tricoliidae: Trew, 1984. 
Triviidae: Kilias, 1973; Mienis, 1981; F. Schilder, 1966; 

Trew, 1987a. 
Trochidae: Dodge, 1958; Cemohorsky, 1972; Robertson, 

etai, 1983; Trew, 1984. 
Truncatellidae: Pfeiffer, 1857; Zilch, 1973c. 
Turbinellidae: Fischer-Piette & Beigbeder, 1945a. 
Turbinidae: Cemohorsky, 1972; Dodge, 1959b; Mermod 

& Binder, 1963; Robertson, et al, 1987; Trew, 1984. 
Turridae: Gatto, 1984; Shuto, 1970a- 1971, 1975; Tomlin, 

1934; Trew, 1991. 
Turritellidae: Shuto, 1974. 
Valvatidae: Richardson, et aU 1991. 
Vasidae: Trew, 1990c. 
Vitrinellidae: Pilsbry, 1946. 

Viviparidae: Richardson, et al.^, 1991; Zilch, 1955a, 1981d. 
Volutidae: Baldwin-Spencer, 1901; Dodge, 1955; Fischer- 
Piette & Beigbeder, 1945a; Gray, 1855c; Kenyon, 

1899, 1902; B.J. Smith, 1968; Thomas & Oliver, 

1982. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 241 

5. GASTROPODA: PULMONATA. 

Acavidae: Mol, 1972. 

Achatinellidae: Clarke, 1960; Clench, 1959; Kilias, 1969; 

Zilch, 1962a. 
Achatinidae: Mermod, 1951; Mol, 1971, 1972; Oliver, 

1983; Zilch, 1951. 
Aciculidae: Zilch, 1976b. 
Amastridae: Cooke, 1918; Zilch, 1962b. 
Amphibolidae: Kilias, 1967a. 

Ancylidae: Anonymous, 1962; Kilias, 1961; Mol, 1971. 
[Aperidae: see Chlamydephoridae] 
Ariophantidae: Anonymous, 1962. 
Athoracophoridae: Kilias, 1974a. 
Bradybaenidae: Habe, 1982; Maeda, et al., 1983; Trew, 

1986a; Zilch, 1968, 1982. 
Bulimulidae: Breure, 1973c-1976b; Mienis, 1977; Zilch, 

1972d. 
Bulinidae: Chevalier & Pothier, 1972. 
Camaenidae: Habe, 1982; Trew, 1986c; Zilch, 1953b, 

1960, 1964a, 1966b, 1966c. 
Carychiidae: Pfeiffer, 1857. 
Chilinidae: Kilias, 1961. 

Chlamydephoridae: Anonymous, 1962; Mol, 1972. 
Chondrinidae: Kilias, 1969; Zilch, 1984. 
Clausiliidae: Corocleanu, 1968; Habe, 1982, 1984a; Kilias, 

1974b, 1974c; Knipper, 1954; Pinter, 1982; Zilch, 

1954a, 1972e, 1976a, 1977a, 1977c, 1978a, 1981b. 
Cochlicopidae: Zilch, 1962b. 
Corallidae: Irish, 1985. 

Ellobiidae: Kalias, 1967a; Mermod, 1951; Pfeiffer, 1857. 
Endodontidae: Anonymous, 1962. 
Enidae: Anonymous, 1962; Kilias, 1971; Mol, 1971, 1972; 

Zilch, 1986. 
Ferrissiidae: Kilias, 1961. 

Ferrussaciidae: Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Zilch, 1973a. 
Haplotrematidae: Zilch, 1983c. 



242 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Helicidae: Couturier, 1903; Giannuzzi-Savelli, et al, 1986; 

Mermod, 1950b, 1951; Trew, 1983a; Zilch, 1952a, 

1952b, 1965b, 1987a, 1987b. 
Helminthoglyptidae: Roth, 1982, 1988; Trew, 1985c. 
[Liguus: see Orthalicidae] 
Lymnaeidae: Kilias, 1961; Mermod, 1951. 
Megalobulimidae: Mermod, 1951. 
Oleacinidae: Zilch, 1980b. 
Orculidae: ICilias, 1969. 
Oreohelicidae: Trew, 1986c. 
Orthalicidae: F.M. Bayer, 1948; Clench, 1946. 
Otinidae: Pfeiffer, 1857. 
Partulidae: Fulton, 1917; Hartman, 1881; Kilias, 1969; 

H.H. Smith, 1902. 
Paryphantidae: Marston, 1968. 
Physidae: Kilias, 1961; Mermod, 1951. 
Planorbidae: Anonymous, 1958; Binder, 1970; Burch, 

1983; Chevalier & Pothier, 1972; Cushman, 1907; 

Kilias, 1963, 1967a; Mermod, 1951; Michelson, 1953; 

Mol, 1972. 
Pleurodiscidae: Zilch, 1969b. 
[Pleurodontidae: see Camaenidae] 
Pupillidae: Kilias, 1969; Zilch, 1985. 
Pyramidulidae: Kilias, 1969; Zilch, 1962b. 
Rhytididae: Zilch, 1983c. 
Siphonariidae: Trew, 1983b. 
Sphincterochilidae: Zilch, 1966a. 
Stenogyridae: Anonymous, 1958. 
Streptaxidae: Anonymous, 1958, 1962; Kaiser, 1980; Mol, 

1971, 1972; Verdcourt, 1985, 1990b; Zilch, 1961; 

1983c. 
Strophocheilidae: Crowley & Pain, 1961. 
Subulinidae: Anonymous, 1962; Kilias & Kilias, 1982; Mol, 

1972; Naggs [in press]; Zilch, 1973a. 
Succineidae: Kilias, 1974a; Mol, 1971; Zilch, 1978b. 
Systrophidae: Zilch, 1983c. 
Testacellidae: Zilch, 1980b. 

Tornatellinidae: Cooke, 1918; Kilias, 1969; Zilch, 1962a. 
Triptychiidae: Zilch, 1978a. 
Urocoptidae: Drake, 1957. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 243 

Valloniidae: Kilias, 1969; Zilch, 1969b. 

Veronicellidae: Forcart, 1952; Thome, 1969-1990; Thome 

& Pitoni, 1976. 
Vertiginidae: Anonymous, 1962; Kilias, 1969; Mol, 1972; 

Zilch, 1983b. 
Vitrinidae: Zilch, 1979b. 
Zonitidae: Pinter, 1982; Zilch, 1965a, 1980a. 

6. POLYPLACOPHORA. 

Ashby, 1922; Boreham, 1959; Bumay, 1989; G.M. 
Davis, et al, 1979; Dodge, 1952; Ferreira, 1978; P.-H. 
Fischer, 1959; Forney & Nitecki, 1976; Giles & Gosliner, 
1983; Gowlett-Holmes, 1989; Gowlett-Holmes & Mc- 
Henry, 1988; Lamy, 1923; Loch, ms. 3; Macphail & 
Zeidler, 1977-1978; Mermod, 1950b; Palmer, 1945a, 
1958, 1963; Palmer & Brann, 1965; Peden & Green, 1982; 
Scott, et al, 1990; B.J. Smith & Robertson, 1970; J.T. 
Smith, 1978; Trew, 1983c; E. Turner & Dartnall, 1971; 
Wallin, 1991; Wilson & Kennedy, 1967; Zeidler & Gowlett, 
1986. 

7. SCAPHOPODA 

Berset & Benier, 1989; Boreham, 1959; Giles & 
Gosliner, 1983; Forney & Nitecki, 1976; Hanzawa, et al., 
1961; Keyes, 1972; Kilias, 1972; Ludbrook, 1959; Oliver, 
1984b; Palmer, 1958; Palmer & Brann, 1965; Peck & 
McFarland, 1954; Richards & Old, 1969; Riley, 1974; 
Scott, et ai, 1990; J.T. Smith, 1978; Spamer & Bogan, 
1992; Speight, 1913; Tichy, 1970; E. Turner & Dartnall, 
1971; R.D. Turner, 1955; Wilson, 1986; Zeidler & Macphail, 
1978. 



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Free Institute of Science, Philadephia, 30 pp. 

Bratcher, T. 1977. Deshayes' terebrid types in Ecole des Mines, Paris. 
The Nautilus, 91(2): 39-42. 

Brauer, F. 1878. Bemerkungen liber die im kaiserlich zoologischen 
Museum aufgefandenen Original-Exemplare zu Ign. v. Bom's 
Testaceis Musei Caesarei Vindobonensis. Sitzungsberichte der 
Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch- 
Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 77(1) [2]: 117-192. 

Breure, A.S.H. 1973a. Over de historic der neotropische malacologie, II. 
Ernst Marcus (1893-1968) en Eveline Du Bois-Raymond Marcus. 
De Kreukel, 9(4): 40-62, pi. 5. 

Breure, A.S.H. 1973b. Over de historic der neotropische malacologie, 
IV. Maria Isabel Hylton Scott. De Kreukel, 9(9): 113-122. 

Breure, A.S.H. 1973c. Catalogue of Bulimuhdae (Gastropoda, Euthy- 
neura), I. Amphibuliminae. Basteria, 37: 51-56. 

Breure, A.S.H. 1974. Catalogue of Bulimuhdae (Gastropoda, Euthy- 
neura), II. Odontostominae. Basteria, 38: 109-127. 

Breure, A.S.H. "1975" [1976a]. Types of Bulimuhdae (Mollusca, 
Gastropoda) in the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 3), 
Zoologie, 233: 1 137-1187, pis. 1-10. 

Breure, A.S.H. 1976b. Types of Bulimuhdae (Gastropoda, Euthyneura) 
in the Zoologisches Museum, Universitat Zurich, pp. 1-4, pis. 1-3, 
[in] W. Backhuys, (ed.), Malacologische Opstellen, Feestbundel 
Malacologische Contactgroep Amsterdam [a supplement to De 
Kreukel] . 

Brind, R. 1979. The Montagu collection of Mollusca at the Royal Albert 
Memorial Museum, Exeter. Biology Curators Group Newsletter, 
2(4): 135-137. 



254 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Brooks, S.T. and B.W. Brooks. 1931a. List of the types of Pelecypoda 
in the collection of the Carnegie Museum on January 1, 1931. 
Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 20(2): 171-177 [101-107]. 

Brooks, S.T. and B.W. Brooks. 1931b. List of types of Amphineura and 
Gastropoda in the collection of the Carnegie Museum on January 
1, 1931. Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 20(2): 179-253 
[109-181]. 

Brot, A. 1872. Materiaux pour servir a I'etude de la famille des 
melaniens. Notice sur les melanies de Lamarck conservees dans le 
Musee Delessert et sur quelques especes nouvelles ou peu 
connues. Chez Georg, Geneve, 55 pp., pis. 1-4. 

Bruggen, A.C. van. 1963. A re-examination of the types of Recent 
Mollusca of the Port Elizabeth Museum. Annals of the Cape 
Provincial Museums, 3: 75-81, 6 figs. 

Bruggen, A.C. van. 1977a. In memorian Dr. CO. van Regteren Altena 
1907-1976. Basteria, 41(1): 1-6. 

Bruggen, A.C. van. 1977b. Malacology in the Netherlands: Systematic 
and descriptive malacology, pp. 7-31, [in] A.C. van Bruggen (ed.). 
Malacology in the Netherlands. Nederlandse Malacologische Ver- 
eniging, Leiden, 53 pp. 

Brunton, C.H.C., T.B. Besterman, and J.A. Cooper (eds.). 1985. 
Guidelines for the curation of geological materials. Geological 
Society of London, Miscellaneous Paper, 17: c. 150 pp. (various 
paginations) . 

Bruun, A.Fr. 1945. On the type specimen of Conus gloria maris. 
Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i 
Kjobenhavn, 108: 95-101, pi. 1. 

Buckman, S.S. (ed.). 1909-1930. Yorkshire type ammonites. The 
original descriptions reprinted, and illustrated by figures of the 
types. Wheldon and Wesley, London, 7 volumes (72 parts), 1046 
pis. [Volumes 3-7 tided as "Type ammonites"; series reprinted 
1972 (J. Cramer, Lehre, Germany) with appendix by H.S. 
Torrens, et al.]. 

Bulot, L. "1990" [1991]. Revision des types et figures de la collection 
Matheron. 2. Olcostephanus (Olcostephanus) perinflatus (Matheron, 
1878) et Olcostephanus {Olcostephanus) ? mittreanus (Matheron non 
d'Orb., 1850). Mesogee, Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle 
de Marseille, 50: 3-8, pis. 1-2. 

Bulot, L. and G. Autran. "1989" [1990]. Revision des types et figures 
de la collection Matheron. 1. Olcostephanus stephanophorus (Math- 
eron, 1878). Mesogee, Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle 
de Marseille, 49: 15-19, pi. 1. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 255 

Burch, J.B. 1980. The mollusk collection and malacology at the 
University of Michigan. Walkerana, Transactions of the Physi- 
ological, Oecological, Experimental Taxonomic and Systematics 
Society, 1(1): 1-18, 4 figs. 

Burch, J.B. 1983. Mina L. Winslow 1890-1982. Malacological Review, 
16(1-2): 133-134. 

Bumay, L.P. "1987" [1989]. Lista anotado dos especimes-tipos, 
depositados nas colecgoes do Centro de Zoologia do Instituto de 
Investigagao Cientifica Tropical. I-Moluscos (Gastropoda e Polip- 
lacophora). Garcia de Orta, Serie de Zoologia, 14(1): 13-16. 

Cailliez, J.C. 1983. Petite histoire et grandes coquilles. Bulletin de la 
Societe International de Conchyliologie, 5(4): 1-22. 

Campbell, L.D. and S.C. Campbell. 1986. Isaac Lea's Virginia Neogene 
species. American Malacological Bulletin, 4(1): 39-42. 

Capocaccia, L. and G. Arbocca. 1963. Collezioni e studi malacologici 
nel Museo di Storia Naturale di Geneva. Doriana, Supplemento 
agli Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", 
3(132): 1-7. 

Carpenter, P. P. 1857. Catalogue of the Collection of Mazatlan Shells, 
in the British Museum: Collected by Frederick Reigen. Oberlin 
Press, Warrington, xii + 552 pp. [Also tided as the "Catalogue of 
the Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Mollusca, in the British 
Museum", viii + xii + 552 pp.]. 

Carreho, A.L., M. del C. Perrilliat, C. Gonzalez- Arreola, S.P. Applegate, 
O. Carranza-Castaneda, and E. Martinez-Hernandez. 1989. Fosi- 
les Tipo Mexicanos. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 
Instituto de Geologia, Mexico City, ii + 531 pp., 207 figs. 

Caziot, E. [transl. by W.H. Dall]. 1919. Synonymic study on the 
mollusks of the Departement des Alpes-Maritimes mentioned by 
Antoine Risso, with notes on their classification. Proceedings of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 71: 156-170. 

Cekalovic, T. and J.N. Artigas. 1981a. Catalogo de los tipos depositados 
en la coleccion del Departamento de Zoologia de la Universidad 
de Concepcion, Chile. (Parte III). Boletin del Sociedad Biologia 
de Concepcion, 51: 75-107. 

Cekalovic, T. and J.N. Artigas. 1981b. Catalogo de los tipos depositados 
en la colecciones del Departamento de Zoologia de la Universidad 
de Concepcion, Chile. (Parte IV; incluye fosiles). Boletin del 
Sociedad Biologia de Concepcion, 52: 203-224. 

Cernohorsky, W.O. 1969a. Type specimens of Mitridae (Mollusca: 
Gastropoda) described by Linnaeus in the genera Voluta, Buccinum 
and Bulla between 1758 and 1771. Zoological Journal of the 
Lirmean Society, 48: 351-362, 2 pis. 



256 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Cernohorsky, W.O. 1969b. The types of the Lamarck collection in the 
Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Geneva. Recent Mollusca of the 
genera Mitra, Columbella (part) and Cancellaria (part). Revue 
Suisse de Zoologie, 76(49): 953-994, pis. 1-7. 

Cernohorsky, W.O. 1969c. List of type specimens of Terebridae in the 
British Museum (Natural History). The Veliger, 11(3): 210-222. 

Cernohorsky, W.O. 1972. Type specimens of Recent and fossil Mollusca 
described by H. J. Finlay. Part 1 (Scissurellidae -Turbinidae) . 
Records of the Auckland Museum, 9: 213-247. 

Cernohorsky, W.O. 1974. Type specimens of Mollusca in the University 
Zoological Museum, Copenhagen. Records of the Auckland 
Museum, 11: 143-192, 67 figs. [Only a small number of the 
ZMUC types are recorded in this paper] . 

Cernohorsky, W.O. 1975. The taxonomy of some west American and 
Atlantic Nassariidae based on their type-specimens. Records of the 
Auckland Museum, 12: 121-173, 38 pis. 

Cernohorsky, W.O. 1977. The taxonomy of some molluscan species 
reported from New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum, 
14: 87-104, 22 figs. 

Cernohorsky, W.O. 1981. Revision of J. Hervier's type-specimens of 
Mitracea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Loyalty Islands. Bulle- 
tin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, (ser. 4) 3 
(A): 93-109, pis. 1-3. 

Cernohorsky, W.O. 1987. Type specimens of Pacific Mollusca described 
mainly by A. Garrett and W. Pease with description of a new 
Morula species (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Records of the Auckland 
Institute and Museum, 24: 93-105, 31 figs. 

Cernohorsky, W.O. 1988. Arthur William Baden Powell (1901-1987). 
A brief biography and bibliography with a list of molluscan taxa. 
Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum, 25: 1-38, 
frontispiece. 

Champion, M.E. 1947. Edward Sylvester Morse with a bibhography and 
a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on MoUusks, 1(11): 
129-144, pi. 18. 

Chappars, M.S. 1936. Catalog of the type specimens of fossils in the 
University of Cincinnati Museum. The Ohio Journal of Science, 
36(1): 1-45. 

Chevalier, C. 1971. Catalogue des "types" et "figures" conserves a la 
Faculte des Sciences de Lyon. Gastropodes (suite). Documents 
des Laboratoires de Geologie de la Faculte des Sciences de Lyon, 
44: 1-126. 

Chevallier, H. 1964. Catalogue des exemplaires de Crosse et Fischer 
correspondant aux planches des moUusques de Madagascar. 
Journal de Conchyliologie, 104(1): 29-34. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 257 

Chevallier, H. 1965a. Catalogue des collections du Museum correspon- 
dant a I'Histoire Naturelle des MoUusques de Ferussac. Ire partie. 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2) 37(1): 
162-172. 

Chevallier, H. 1965b. Les mollusques de I'Expedition du Mexique. 
Journal de Conchyliologie, 105(1): 4-39. 

Chevallier, H. 1965c. Catalogue des collections du Museum correspon- 
dant a I'Histoire Naturelle des Mollusques de Ferussac. 2e partie. 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2) 37(3): 
476-489. 

Chevallier, H. "1965" [1966a]. Catalogue des collections du Museum 
correspondant a I'Histoire Naturelle des Mollusques de Ferussac. 
3e partie. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 
2) 37(4): 678-689. 

Chevallier, H. "1965" [1966b]. Catalogue des collections du Museum 
correspondant a I'Histoire Naturelle des Mollusques de Ferussac. 
4e partie. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 
2) 37(6): 1001-1012. 

Chevallier, H. 1966c. Catalogue des collections du Museum correspon- 
dant a I'Histoire Naturelle des Mollusques de Ferussac. 5e partie. 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2) 38(5): 
669-682. 

Chevallier, H. 1966d. Addendum pour les mollusques de I'Expedition 
du Mexique. Jovimal de ConchyUologie, 105(2): 62-65. 

Chevallier, H. 1976. Types des especes continentales de la collection 
Risso du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle (Departement de 
Malacologie). Elona, 3: 38-40. 

Chevallier, H. and R. Pothier. 1972. Biomphalaria et Bulinus afiricains. 
Types d'especes conserves au Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle 
de Paris. Achatina, 3: 50-52. 

Christiaens, J. "1967" [1968]. Quelques considerations sur les Patellidae 
de la collection Lamarck. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, (ser. 2) 39(5): 970-978. 

Chubb, L.J. 1955. A Revision of Whitfield's Type Specimens of the 
Rudist Mollusks from the Cretaceous of Jamaica, British West 
Indies. American Museum of Natural History, Novitates, 1713: 
1-15. 

Clark, R.D. 1982. Type, figured and cited Jurassic Cephalopoda in the 
collection of the Institute of Geological Sciences. Report, Institute 
of Geological Sciences, 82(9): ii + 1-104, pis. 1-2. 

Clarke, A.H., Jr. 1960. Catalogue and illustrations of mollusks described 
by Wesley Newcomb, with a biographical resume. Bulletins of 
American Paleontology, 41(188): 131-160, pi. 17. 



258 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Clarke, J.M. 1893. List of the original and illustrated specimens in the 
Palaeontological Collections. Part IL Annelida and Cephalopoda. 
46th Annual Report of the New York State Museum, pp. 201-250. 

Clarke, J.M. 1903. Catalogue of type specimens of Paleozoic fossils in 
New York State Museum. New York State Museum, Bulletin, 65: 
1-847. 

Clarke, J.M. 1905a. Appendix 3. Catalogue of type specimens of 
Paleozoic fossils. Supplement 1. New York State Museum, 
Bulletin, 80: 43-133. 

Clarke, J.M. 1905b. Appendix 3. [Catalogue of type specimens of 
Paleozoic fossils]. Supplement 2. 58th Annual Report of the New 
York State Museum, pp. 58-130. 

Clarke, J.M. 1905c. List of type specimens of Tertiary fossils from the 
Pebas on the Maranhao River, Brazil. Described by T. A. Conrad 
in the American Journal of Conchology 1871. 58th Annual Report 
of the New York State Museum, pp. 131-133. 

Clarke, J.M. 1907. Appendix B. Catalogue of type specimens of 
Paleozoic fossils. Supplement 3. 60th Annual Report of the New 
York State Museum, pp. 125-178. 

Cleevely, R.J. 1974. The Sowerbys, the Mineral Conchology, and their 
fossil collection. Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of 
Natural History, 6(6): 418-481. 

Cleevely, R.J. 1983. World Palaeontological Collections. British Museum 
(Natural History), London, 365 pp. 

Clench, W.J. 1936. The collection of mollusks. pp. 69-72, [in] T. 
Barbour (ed.). Notes concerning the history and contents of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. Harvard University, Cambr- 
idge, 89 pp. 

Clench, W.J. 1946. A catalogue of the genus Liguus with a description 
of a new subgenus. Occasional Papers on Mollusks, 1(10): 
117-128. [Supplement, 1954, ibid., 1(18); 442-444]. 

Clench, W.J. 1948. The Hirase collection of mollusks. The Nautilus, 
62(1): 34-35. 

Clench, W.J. 1959. John T. Gulick's Hawaiian land shells. The Nautilus, 
72(3): 95-98. 

Clench, W.J. 1967. William Gaillard Mazyck (1846-1942) with a 
bibliography and catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on 
Mollusks, 3(36): 37-43. 

Clench, W.J. 1979. A biography of Andrew Garrett, early naturalist of 
Polynesia: Part 2. Catalogue of molluscan species and bibliogra- 
phy. The Nautilus, 93(2/3): 96-102. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 259 

Clench, W.J. and R.D. Turner. 1950a. The western Atlantic marine 
mollusks described by C. B. Adams. Occasional Papers on 
MoUusks, 1(15): 233-403, pis. 28-49. [Supplement, 1954, ibid., 
1(18): 447]. 

Clench, W.J. and R.D. Turner. 1950b. Edward Chitty, with a bibliogra- 
phy and a catalogue of his species of Jamaica land mollusks. 
Occasional Papers of the Museum of the Institute of Jamaica, 1: 
1-12, 1 pi. 

Clench, W.J. and R.D. Turner. 1962. New names introduced by H.A. 
Pilsbry in the MoUusca and Crustacea. Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadephia, Special Publication, 4: 1-218. 

Coan, E.V. 1966a. Concerning the Stanford University set of MoUusca 
from the Brarmer-Agassiz Expedition to Brazil. The Veliger, 8(4): 
313-314. 

Coan, E.V. 1966b. Charles Russell Orcutt, pioneer Califomian ma- 
lacologist, and The West American Scientist. Transactions of the San 
Diego Society of Natural History, 14(8): 85-96. 

Coan, E.V. 1982. James Graham Cooper. Pioneer western naturalist. 
University Press of Idaho, Moscow, 255 pp., 31 figs. 

Coan, E.V. 1985. A bibliography and list of moUuscan names of Josiah 
Keep. The Veliger, 28(2): 211-215. 

Coan, E.V. 1986a. Some additional taxonomic units that first appear in 
publications by J. G. Cooper. The Nautilus, 100(1): 30-32. 

Coan, E.V. 1986b. A. Myra Keen (1905-1986): hst of molluscan taxa; 
malacological bibliography. Malacologia, 27(2): 383-387; 388-397. 

Coan, E.V. 1989a. The publications and taxa of the Reverend Joseph 
Rowell (1820-1918). The Veliger, 32(1): 43-46. 

Coan, E.V. 1989b. The malacological papers and taxa of Martha Burton 
Woodhead Williamson, 1843-1922, and the Isaac Lea Chapter of 
the Agassiz Association. The Veliger, 32(3): 296-301. 

Coan, E.V. and A.E. Bogan. 1988. The Recent invertebrate taxa 
described by William More Gabb 1839-1878. Proceedings of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 140(1): 273-284. 

Coan, E.V. and M.G. Kellogg. 1990. The malacological contributions 
of Ida Shepard Oldroyd and Tom Shaw Oldroyd. The Veliger, 
33(2): 174-184. 

Coan, E.V. and J. Rosewater. 1985. Concerning Carpenter's "First 
Duplicate Series" of Mazatlan shells. The Veliger, 28(2): 216. 

Coan, E.V. and B. Roth. 1987. The malacological taxa of Henry 
Hemphill. The Veliger, 29(3): 322-339. 

Coan, E.V. and P.H. Scott. 1990. The molluscan publications and taxa 
of Lorenzo Gordin Yates (1837-1909). The Veliger, 33(4): 
402-407. 



260 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Cocks, L.R.M. 1976. Irish type specimens and Davidson's monograph. 
Newsletter of the Geological Curator's Group, 1(6): 310. 

Conci, C. 1966. II centenario di Giorgio Jan, la sua attivita malacologica 
e le collezioni di Molluschi del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 
di Milano. Lavori della Societa Malacologica Italiana, 3: 1-8. 

Conte, G. "1988" [1989]. Les invertebres fossiles dedies a Espirit 
Requien par A. d'Orbigny et Ph. Matheron. Bulletin de la Societe 
d'etude des Sciences Naturelles de Vaucluse, Numero Special, 
"Melanges Requien", pp. 27-32. 

Cooke, CM., Jr. 1918. Leptachatinae and Tomatellinidae in the B. P. 
Bishop Museum. Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop 
Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History, 6(5): 
285-300 [39-54]. 

Coomans, H.E. 1981. Prof. Dr. Hendrik Engel (1898-1981) als 
malacoloog. Basteria, 45(4-5): 91-96. 

Coomans, H.E. 1991. In memoriam W.S.S. van der Feen-van Benthem 
Jutting, 1899-1991. Basteria, 55(1-3): 55-59. 

Coomans, H.E. and J.S. de Visser. 1987. Studies on Conidae (Mollusca: 
Gastropoda). 10. The holotype and identity of Conus coffeae 
Gmelin. The Veliger, 29(4): 437-441, figs. 1-7. 

Coomans, H.E., R.G. Moolenbeek, and E. Wils. 1979a. Alphabetical 
revision of the (sub)species in Recent Conidae. 1. abbas to 
adansonii. Basteria, 43(1-4): 9-26, figs. 1-25. 

Coomans, H.E., R.G. Moolenbeek, and E. Wils. 1979b. Alphabetical 
revision of the (sub) species in Recent Conidae. 2. adansoni to 
albuquerquei. Basteria, 43(5-6): 81-105, figs. 26-50. 

Coomans, H.E., R.G. Moolenbeek, and E. Wils. 1980. Alphabetical 
revision of the (sub)species in Recent Conidae. 3. albus to 
antillarum with the description of Conus algoensis agulhasi, nov. 
subspecies. Basteria, 44(1-4): 17-49, figs. 51-93. 

Coomans, H.E., R.G. Moolenbeek, and E. Wils. 1981. Alphabetical 
revision of the (sub) species in Recent Conidae. 4. aphrodite to 
azona with the description of Conus arenatus bizona, nov. subspe- 
cies. Basteria, 45(1-3): 3-55, figs. 94-171. 

Coomans, H.E., R.G. Moolenbeek, and E. Wils. 1982. Alphabetical 
revision of the (sub)species in Recent Conidae. 5. baccatus to 
byssinus, including Conus bretlinghami tiomen novum. Basteria, 
46(1-4): 3-67, figs. 172-292. 

Coomans, H.E., R.G. Moolenbeek, and E. Wils. 1983. Alphabetical 
revision of the (sub)species in Recent Conidae. 6. cabritii to 
cinereus. Basteria, 47(5-6): 67-143, figs. 293-430. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 261 

Coomans, H.E., R.G. Moolenbeek, and E. Wils. 1985a. Alphabetical 
revision of the (sub)species in Recent Conidae. 7. cingulatus to 
cylindraceus, including Conus shikamai nomen novum. Basteria, 
48(6): 223-311, figs. 431-581. 

Coomans, H.E., R.G. Moolenbeek, and E. Wils. 1985b. Alphabetical 
revision of the (sub)species in Recent Conidae. 8. dactylosus to 
dux. Basteria, 49(4-6): 145-195, figs. 582-666. 

Coomans, H.E., R.G. Moolenbeek, and E. Wils. 1986. Alphabetical 
revision of the (sub)species in Recent Conidae. 9. ebraeus to 
extraordmarus with the description of Conus elegans ramalhoi, nov. 
subspecies. Basteria, 50(4-6): 93-150, figs. 667-760. 

Cooper, J. [in prep.]. Catalogue of type and figured Cainozoic Mollusca 
(excluding Cephalopoda) of the world, contained in the British 
Museum (Natural History). The Natural History Museum, Lon- 
don. [This work is complete on cards and is available for 
consultation] . 

Cooper, J. A. [in prep.]. A catalogue of the published specimens firom the 
geological collections of the Booth Museum of Natural History, 
Brighton U.K. [For publication in the Geological Curator; not the 
same author as the previous entry] . 

Copp, C.J.T. 1985. The growth and significance of the nineteenth 
century shell collections in the City of Bristol Museum and Art 
Gallery. Newsletter, South West Natural Science Collections 
Research Unit, 1(3): 4-19. [Also published in Biology Curators 
Group Newsletter, 4(1): 10-25. Appendix 1, "List of Shell 
Donations" was not pubUshed.]. 

Corocleanu, I. 1968. Tipurile Citorva specii si varietati ale genului ^/opm 
H. et A. Adams, 1855 pastrate in Colectia de Moluste a Muzeului 
Brukenthal. Revista Muzeelor, 5(5): 422-424. 

Cotton, B.C. 1945. A catalogue of the cone shells (Conidae) in the 
South AustraUan Museum. Records of the South Australian 
Museum, 8(2): 229-280, 5 pis. 

Cottreau, J. 1925-1932. Types du Prodrome de Paleontologie Stratigra- 
phique Universelle d'Alcide d'Orbigny. Tome IL Callovien- 
Pordandien. Paris: Masson et Cie. 222 pp., pis. 1-68. [Originally 
pubUshed in Annales de Paleontologie, volumes 14-21; for Tome 
I see Thevenin (1906-1923)]. 

Cottreau, J. 1934-1937. Types du Prodrome de Paleontologie Stratigra- 
phique Universelle d'Alcide d'Orbigny. Tome IIL Neocomien. 
Paris: Masson et Cie. 84 pp., pis. 69-81. [Originally pubUshed in 
Annales de Paleontologie, volumes 23-26]. 

Couffon, O. and T. Surrault. 1909. Collection malacologique T. 
Letoumeux offerte au Musee d'Histoire Naturelle de la ville 
d'Angers par M. le Commandant E. Letoumeux. Bulletin de la 
Societe d'Etudes Scientifiques d'Angers, (n.s.) 38: xiv + 202 pp. 



262 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Counts, C.L., III. 1989. Bivalves in the genus Corhicula (Bivalvia: 
Corbiculidae) in the Soviet Union with a catalogue of type 
materials in the Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences of the 
U.S.S.R., Leningrad. American Malacological Bulletin, 7(1): 81- 
86. 

Counts, C.L., III. 1991. Corbicula (Bivalvia: CorbicuUdae). Part 1. 
Catalogue of fossil and Recent nominal species. Part 2. Compen- 
dium of zoogeographic records of North America and Hawaii, 
1924-1984. Tryonia, Miscellaneous Publications of the Depart- 
ment of Malacology, The Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, 21: ii + 1-134. 

Couturier, M. 1903. Catalogue des coquilles palearctiques de la 
collection Hagenmiiller. Annales du Musee d'Histoire Naturelle 
de Marseille, Zoologie, 8(2): 21-67. 

Cox, L.R. 1956. Fossil invertebrate collections from India and Pakistan 
in the British Museum (Natural History). Journal of the Paleon- 
tological Society of India, 1(1): 94-98. 

Crane, E. 1892. Catalogue of types and figured specimens now in the 
Brighton Museum. Brighton Public Museum, Royal Pavilion, 
Report for the years 1891-92, Appendix B: 9-20. 

Crane, E. 1893. Museum Sub-committee. Report for 1892-3. Brighton 
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Crespin, I. 1960. Catalogue of type and figured specimens in the 
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Crespin, I. 1964a. Catalogue of fossil types and figured specimens in 
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Crespin, I. 1964b. Catalogue of fossil types and figured specimens in 
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Crespin, I. 1974. Catalogue of additional type and figured specimens 
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Crick, G.C. 1898. List of the types and figured specimens of fossil 
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Crick, G.C. 1902. Note on the type-specimen oi Belemnoteuthis monte- 
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OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 263 

Crick, G.C. 1903. Note on Dr. J.E. Gray's type-specimens of Jurassic 
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Crick, G.C. 1917. Note on the type-specimen of Crioceratites bowerbankii, 
J. de C. Sowerby. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of 
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Crick, G.C. 1922. Notes on specimens of Cephalopoda figured in Tate 
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Crowley, TE. and T Pain. 1961. Pfeiffer's unfigured species of 
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Crowther, P.R. 1990. Collection care and status material, pp. 515-519, 
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Currie, E.D. and T.N. George. 1963. Catalogue of described and 
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Curtis, M.L.K. 1956. Type and figured specimens from the Tortworth 
Inlier, Gloucestershire. Proceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' 
Society, 29(2): 147-154. 

Cushman, J. A. 1907. Types in the paleontological collections of the 
Boston Society of Natural History. Proceedings of the Boston 
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Dall, W.H. 1892. Gould's "North Pacific Exploring Expedition" types. 
The Nautilus, 6(7): 84. 

Dall, W.H. 1925. Illustrations of unfigured types of shells in the 
collection of the United States National Museum. Proceedings of 
the United States National Museum, 66(17): 1-41, pis. 1-36. 

Dance, S.P. 1966. Shell Collecting: an illustrated history. Faber and 
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Dance, S.P. 1967. Report on the Linnaean shell collection. Proceedings 
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Dance, S.P. 1986. A History of Shell Collecting. E.J. Brill, Leiden, xvi 
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Darteville, E. 1951. Les collections malacologiques du Musee du Congo 
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Dautzenberg, P. and H. Fischer. 1914. Sur quelques types de Garides 
de la collection de Lamarck existant au Museum de Paris. Journal 
de Conchyliologie, 61(2): 215-228, pis. 6-7. 



264 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

David, L. 1963. Catalogue des "types" et "figures" conserves a la 
Faculte des Sciences de Lyon, le Liste: Gasteropodes Secondaires. 
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Davies, G.L. 1975. A national collection put into hospital. Newsletter 
of the Geological Curators Group, 1(5): 236-237. 

Davis, G.M., R. Robertson, and M. Miller. 1979. Catalog of the chiton 
types of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Tryonia, 
Miscellaneous Publications of the Department of Malacology of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1: 1-60. 

Davis, J.D. 1964. Lectotype designation for Mesodesma arctatum. The 
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Davis, J.D. 1965. Mesodesma deauratum: synonymy, holotype and type 
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Davis, R.A. and D.E. Troike. 1990. Repository for the Welch collection 
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Dawson, E.W. 1979. Catalogue of type and figured specimens in the 
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Dean, J.D. 1936. Conchological cabinets of the last century. Journal of 
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Decrouez, D. 1985. Les collections du Departement de Geologic et de 
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Decrouez, D. 1986a. Les collections du Departement de Geologie et de 
Paleontologie des Invertebres du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de 
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169-174. 

Decrouez, D. 1986b. Les collections du Departement de Geologie et de 
Paleontologie des Invertebres du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de 
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Decrouez, D. 1987. Les collections du Departement de Geologie et de 
Paleontologie des Invertebres du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de 
Geneve. 24. La collection F.J. Pictet (Cephalopoda, 2eme partie). 
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Decrouez, D. and P. Kunz. 1985. Les collections du Departement de 
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toire Naturelle de Geneve. 9. La collection du Saleve (Fossiles 
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4(1): 163-166. 



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Delanoy, G. and L. Bulot. "1990" [1991]. Revision des types et figures 
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Heteroceras, Kutatissites, et Pseudocrioceras (Ancyloceratina, Cepha- 
lopoda). Mesogee, Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de 
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Delessert, B. 1841. Recueil de coquilles decrites par Lamarck dans son 
Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres et non encore 
figurees. Fortin, Masson et Cie, Paris, 40 pis. + captions. 

Dell, R.K. 1963. Notes on some New Zealand Mollusca in the British 
Museum. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 
Zoology, 3(17): 171-177, pis. 1-2. 

Deshayes, G. P. 1853. Catalogue of the Conchifera or Bivalve Shells in 
the Collection of the British Museum. Part L Veneridae, Cyp- 
rinidae and Glauconomidae. Taylor and Francis, London, [ii] + 
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Deshayes, G. P. 1855. Catalogue of the Conchifera or Bivalve Shells in 
the Collection of the British Museum. Part IL Petricoladae 
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Dietrich, W.O. 1960. Geschichte der Sammlungen des Geologisch- 
Palaontologischen Instituts und Museums der Humboldt- 
Universitat zu Berlin. Ein Beitrag zur Palaontologie-Geschichte. 
Berichte der Geologischen Gesellschaft in der Deutschen Demok- 
ratischen Republik, 5(4): 247-289, pis. 1-2. 

Dodge, H. 1946. A letter concerning the cones of Hwass and other 
collections in Switzerland. The Nautilus, 59(3): 97-101. 

Dodge, H. 1952. A historical review of the mollusks of Linnaeus. Part 

1. The classes Loricata and Pelecypoda. Bulletin of the American 
Museum of Natural History, 100(1): 1-264. 

Dodge, H. 1953. A historical review of the mollusks of Linnaeus. Part 

2. The class Cephalopoda and the genera Conus and Cypraea of 
the class Gastropoda. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural 
History, 103(1): 1-134. 

Dodge, H. 1955. A historical review of the mollusks of Linnaeus. Part 

3. The genera Bulla and Valuta of the class Gastropoda. Bulletin 
of the American Museum of Natural History, 107(1): 1-158. 

Dodge, H. 1956. A historical review of the mollusks of Linnaeus. Part 

4. The genera Buccinum and Strombus of the class Gastropoda. 
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Dodge, H. 1957. A historical review of the mollusks of Linnaeus. Part 

5. The genus Murex of the class Gastropoda. Bulletin of the 
American Museum of Natural History, 113(2): 73-224. 



266 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Dodge, H. 1958. A historical review of the mollusks of Linnaeus. Part 

6. The genus Trochus of the class Gastropoda. Bulletin of the 
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Dodge, H. 1959a. Evidential factors in the identification of the Linnaean 
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Dodge, H. 1959b. A historical review of the mollusks of Linnaeus. Part 

7. Certain species of the genus Turbo of the class Gastropoda. 
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 118(5): 
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Drake, R.J. 1957. Type material of Eucalodium orcutti Dall (Gastropoda: 
Pulmonata) from Oaxaca, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego 
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Dupuy, J.P., D. Slovick, and A. Vadet. 1989. Catalogue des types et 
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Eagar, M. & R. Preece. 1977. Collections and collectors of note. 14. 
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Eldredge, L.G. 1965. Catalog of Invertebrate Type Specimens, Division 
of Invertebrates, Department of Zoology, Bernice P. Bishop 
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the teredinid bivalves] . 

Eng, R.C. & F.C. d'Escrivan. [in prep.] Catalogue of type specimens of 
fossil cephalopods in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Engel, H. 1939. Alphabetical list of Dutch zoological cabinets and 
menageries. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 27: 247-346. 

Engel, H. 1986. Hendrik Engel's alphabetical list of Dutch zoological 
cabinets and menageries [Second, enlarged edition prepared by P. 
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Geneeskunde en der Natuurwetenschappen, 19: x + 340 pp., 21 
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Faber, M.J. 1988. Studies on West Indian marine mollusks. 13. The 
malacological taxa of Gordon W. Nowell-Usticke. De Kreukel, 
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Fabre, S. 1942. Catalogue des types de la collection Philippe Matheron. 
Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle Marseille, 2(2): 121-140. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 267 

Falkner, G. 1982. Die tertiaren Land- und SuBwasser-Gastropoden in 
der Bayerischen Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und historische 
Geologic in Miinchen (Direktor: Prof. Dr. Dietrich Herm). 
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Fast, S.J. 1978. First supplement to the catalogue of the type and figured 
specimens in the Paleontological Research Institution. Bulletins of 
American Paleontology, 74(302): 1-251. 

Favre, J. 1918. Catalogue illustre de la collection Lamarck appartenant 
au Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Geneve. Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Geneve, 10 + 12 + 20 pp., 117 pis. [issued in six parts]. 

Favre, J. 1943. Revision des especes de Pisidium de la Collection 
Bourguignat du Museum d'Histoire naturelle de Geneve. Revue 
Suisse de Zoologie, 50(Supplementaire): 1-64, 24 figs. 

Fechter, R. 1982. Die Sektion Mollusca in der Zoologischen 
Staatssammlung Miinchen. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Malakozo- 
ologischen Gesellschaft, 3 (Supplement): 11-14. 

Fechter, R. 1983a. Liste des Typenmaterials der von J. B. v. Spix in 
Brasilien gesammelten Gastropoda. Spixiana, Supplement 9: 221- 
223. 

Fechter, R. 1983b. Das Typermiaterial der von J. B. Spix in Brasilien 
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Ferber, L, ed. 1985. Israel national collections of natural history. Israel 
Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem, ii + 78 + viii pp. 
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Ferreira, A.J. 1978. The chiton species described by C. B. Adams, 1845, 
firom Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science, 28(1): 81-91. 

Ferrero Mortara, E., L. Montefameglio, G. Pavia, and R. Tampieri. 
"1981" [1982]. Cataloghi VI. Catalogo dei tipi e degli esemplari 
figurati della collezione Bellardi e Sacco. Parte I. Museo Regionale 
di Scienze Naturali, Turin (Torino), 327 pp., 58 pis. 

Ferrero Mortara, E., L. Montefamiglio, M. Novelli, M. G. Opesso, G. 
Pavia, and R. Tampieri. 1984. Cataloghi VII. Catalogo dei tipi e 
degli esemplari figurati della collezione Bellardi e Sacco. Parte II. 
Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Turin (Torino), 484 pp., 
56 pis. 

Ferussac, [A.E.J.P.J.F.] d'A. 1837. Catalogue de la collection de 
coquilles formee par feu le Baron d'Audebard de Ferussac. 
Bourgogne et Martinet, Paris, 23 pp. 

Finet, Y. and R. Houart. 1989. On the taxonomic status of Murex 
trigonulus Lamarck, 1816, Murex trigonulus Lamarck, 1822 and 
related taxa (Gastropoda: Muricidae). Apex, 4(1-2): 1-18, 15 figs. 



268 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Fischer, J.-C. 1957. La collection de moUusques Jurassiques d'Edouard 
Piette. Journal de Conchyliologique, 97(1): 33-38. 

Fischer, J.-C. & A. Vadet. 1985. Catalogxie critique des types et figures 
de mollusques bathoniens du Musee de Boulogne sur Mer. 
Annales de la Societe Histoire Naturelle Boulonnais (ser. A), 1(1): 
1-18, pis. 1-3. 

Fischer, P.-H. 1951. La collection conchyliologique de I'Ecole Nationale 
Superieure des Alines de Paris. Journal de Conchyliologie, 90(4): 
296-297. 

Fischer, P.-H. 1959. Catalogue des types et exemplaires figures, 
conserves dans la collection de I'Ecole des Mines de Paris, 
Polyplacophores et Bellerophontacea. Journal de Conchyliologie, 
99(2): 77-80. 

Fischer, P.-H. 1962a. Les Trybhdaces de la Collection de Ecole des 
Alines de Paris. Journal de Conchyliologie, 102(3): 92-94. 

Fischer, P.-H. 1962b. Catalogue des types et exemplaires figures, 
conserves dans la collection de I'Ecole des Alines de Paris 
(Gasteropodes Prosobranches). Premiere partie: Archaeogastro- 
poda. Journal de Conchyliologie, 102(3): 98.113. 

Fischer, P.-H. 1962c. Mollusques fluviatiles de I'lndo-Chine et du 
Yunnan conserves dans la collection de I'Ecole des Mines de Paris. 
Journal de Conchyliologie, 102(4): 169-172. 

Fischer, P.-H. 1963. Mollusques terrestres de I'lndo-Chine et du 
Yunnan conserves dans la collection de I'Ecole des Alines de Paris. 
Journal de Conchyliologie, 103(1): 32-37. 

Fischer, P.-H. 1964. Catalogue des types et exemplaires figures 
conserves dans la collection de I'Ecole des Mines de Paris 
(Gasteropodes Prosobranches). Seconde partie: Mesogastropoda, 
1. Cyclophoridae et Naticidae. Journal de Conchyliologie, 104(1): 
35-40. 

Fischer, P.-H. 1967. Sur quelques "types" Bathoniens d'Aporrhaidae 
conserves dans la Collection de I'Ecole des Alines de Paris. Journal 
de Conchyliologie, 106(3): 100-110. 

Fischer, P.-H. 1970. Sur quelques types de Calyptraea conserves dans la 
Collection de I'Ecole des Alines de Paris. Journal de Conchyliolo- 
gie, 108: 16-17. 

Fischer, P.-H. and E. Fischer. 1945. Necrologie. Edouard Lamy 
1866-1942. Journal de Conchyliologie, 86(1): 6-28. 

Fischer, P.-H. and E. Fischer. 1946. Necrologie. Paul Pallary 9 Mars 
1869-9 Janvier 1942. Journal de Conchyliologie, 87(1): 5-27. 

Fischer-Piette, E. [avec la collaboration de P.-H. Fischer, L. Germain 
et P. Pallary]. 1942. Les mollusques d'Adanson. Journal de 
Conchyliologie, 85(2, 3, 4): 101-366, pis. 1-16. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 269 

Fischer-Piette, E. 1947. Necrologie. Louis Germain 1878-1942. Journal 
de Conchyliologie, 87(3): 85-95. 

Fischer- Piette, E. 1950. Liste des types decrits dans le Journal de 
Conchyliologie et conserves dans la collection de ce journal. 
Journal de Conchyliologie, 90(1): 8-23; 90(2): 65-82; 90(3): 
149-180, pis. 1-5. 

Fischer-Piette, E. 1951. Les collections de mollusques actuels du 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Journal de Conchyliologie, 
90(4): 282-292; 91(1): 12-22. 

Fischer-Piette, E. 1952. Liste d'especes decrites par le Dr. Jousseaume 
d'apres un manuscript de feu A. Jousseatime. Journal de Con- 
chyliologie, 92(2): 80-86. 

Fischer-Piette, E. and J. Beigbeder. 1943a. Catalogue des types de 
gasteropodes marins conserves au Laboratoire de Malacologie. 
L-Genre Murex. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
(ser. 2), 15(4): 203-209. 

Fischer-Piette, E. and J. Beigbeder. 1943b. Catalogue des types de 
gasteropodes marins conserves au Laboratoire de Malacologie. 
H.-Tritonalia, Typhis, Trophon. Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 15(5): 324-328. 

Fischer-Piette, E. and J. Beigbeder. "1943" [1944a]. Catalogue des 
types de gasteropodes marins conserves au Laboratoire de Ma- 
lacologie. lll.-Purpura et genres voisins; Tritonidae. Bulletin du 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 15(6): 429-436. 

Fischer-Piette, E. and J. Beigbeder. 1944b. Catalogue des types de 
gasteropodes marins conserves au Laboratoire de Malacologie. 
rV.-Fusidae, Buccinidae. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, (ser. 2), 16(1): 70-77. 

Fischer-Piette, E. and J. Beigbeder. "1944" [1945a]. Catalogue des 
types de gasteropodes marins conserves au Laboratoire de Ma- 
lacologie. V.-Nassidae, Vasidae, Volutidae. Bulletin du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 16(5): 321-330. 

Fischer-Piette, E. and J. Beigbeder. "1944" [1945b]. Catalogue des 
types de gasteropodes marins conserves au Laboratoire de Ma- 
lacologie. VI.-Mitridae, Marginellidae, Olividae, Columbellidae, 
et Conidae. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
(ser. 2), 16(6): 448-462. 

Fischer-Piette, E. and E. Lamy. "1942" [1943a]. Note sur trois especes 
de Veneridae rangees par Lamarck dans le genre Donax Linne. 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 14(1): 
69-73. 

Fischer-Piette, E. and E. Lamy. "1942" [1943b]. Notes sur les 
Veneridae (Moll. Lamellibr.) de Quoy et Gaimard. Bulletin du 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 14(2): 130-137. 



270 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Fleming, C.A. 1951. Some Australasian Mollusca in the British Museum 
(Natural History). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal 
Society of New Zealand, 79(1): 126-139, pis. 15-20. 

Fleming, C.A. 1965. The description of the New Zealand Cenozoic 
Mollusca: a historical survey. New Zealand Journal of Geology and 
Geophysics, 8(6): 1149-1174, figs. 1-16. 

Fleming, C.A. 1966. Marwick's illustrations of New Zealand shells, with 
a checklist of New Zealand Cenozoic Mollusca. New Zealand 
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research [New Zealand 
Geological Survey Handbook], Bulletin, 173: 465 pp., 145 pis. 

Fletcher, H.O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the 
Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoirs, 13: 
1-167. 

Fliigel, E. [transl. by J.T. Kingma]. 1959. Statement concerning the 
types and figured originals firom the collections of the Novara 
Expedition in the custody of the Geological-Paleontological section 
of the Museum of Natural History, Vienna, Austria. New Zealand 
Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 2(5): 826-840. 

Foldvary, G.Z. 1981. Supplement to Report 149. Bureau of Mineral 
Resources, Geology, and Geophysics, Report, 224 [on microfiche] . 

Foldvary, G.Z. and J.L. Sanderson. 1972. Catalogue of paleontological 
type specimens located in the Department of Geology and 
Geophysics, University of Sydney. Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology, and Geophysics, Report, 149: 1-74. 

Folin, L. de. 1890. Catalogue de la collection de CsecidEe de M. de 
Folin. A. Lamaignere, Biarritz, 4 pp. [undated; Smithsonian copy 
received by W.H. Dall June 3, 1890]. 

Forcart, L. 1950. Les collections malacologiques du Musee d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Bale et de quelques autres musees Suisses. Journal 
de Conchyliologie, 90(3): 222-224. 

Forcart, L. 1952. Revision des types de Vaginula maillardi Fischer et 
Vaginula gayi Fischer. Journal de Conchyliologie, 92(4): 176-179. 

Forcart, L. 1957. Ipsa Studeri Conchylia. Professor Samuel Studer 
(1757-1834), seine Bedeutung als Naturforscher und die von ihm 
hinterlassene Molluskensammlung. Mitteilungen der Naturforsch- 
enden Gesellschaft in Bern, (n.f.), 15: 157-210, 7 pis. 

Ford, W.K. 1953. Notes by J. R. le B. Tomlin, M. A. on Marrat's 
species of Oliva. The North Western Naturalist, (n.s.) 1(3): 
442-449. 

Ford, W.K. 1954. Notes on the collections in the Department of 
Invertebrate Zoology at the City of Liverpool Public Museums. 
The North Western Naturalist, (n.s.) 2(2): 191-203. 



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Forney, G.G. and M.H. Nitecki. 1976. Type fossil Mollusca (Hyolitha, 
Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda, Monoplacophora, and Gastropoda) 
in Field Museum. Fieldiana, Geology, "35" [36]: ii, 1-240. 

Fouray, M. 1979. Liste des types et figures de la collection Fortin: 
Section paleontologie des Invertebres. Actes du Museum de 
Rouen, 5: 51-59, pis. 1-3. 

Franz, R. and F.G. Thompson. 1974. Recent molluscs (Class Gastro- 
poda), [in] C.R. Gilbert (ed.). Catalogue of type specimens in the 
Department of Natural Sciences, Florida State Museum. Florida 
State Museum, Bulletin 18(2): 107-110. 

Franzen, D.S. 1956. Types of mollusks described by F. C. Baker. Part 

I, University of Illinois. The Nautilus, 70(1): 21-27. 

Franzen, D.S. 1957. Types of mollusks described by F. C. Baker, Part 

II, University of Wisconsin. The Nautilus, 71(1): 30-35. 

Franzen, D.S. 1958. Types of mollusks described by F. C. Baker, Part 

III, Chicago Academy of Sciences. The Nautilus, 72(1): 30-34. 

Frassinetti, D. 1974. El genero Venus en la Coleccion de Fosiles 
Terciarios y Cuartarios de R. A. Philippi (1887). Museo Nacional 
de Historia Nacional, Boletin, 33: 43-51, 1 pi. 

Fricke, R. 1985. Types of species-group taxa, and their nomenclatural 
status. Zeitschrift fiir Zoologische Systematik und Evolutions- 
forschung, 23(2): 81-89. 

FrieC, H. 1978. Die Sammlungen des gelehrten Superintendenten 
Johann Samuel Schroter (1735-1808). Ihre Entstehung unter dem 
Gesichtspunkt seiner wirtschaftlichen Verhaltnisse und ihr Schick- 
sal. Medizinhistorisches Journal, 13: 78-92. 

Fritz, M.A. 1944. Catalogue of types in the Royal Ontario Museum of 
Palaeontology. Part IV. Contributions of the Royal Ontario 
Museum of Paleontology, 8: 1-46. 

Frizzell, D.L. 1933. Terminology of types. The American Midland 
Naturahst, 14(6): 637-668. 

Fiikoh, L. and E. Krolopp. "1988" [1989]. Gebhardt Antal Pleisztocen 
malakologiai anyaganak revizioja es ertekelese. [Revision and 
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Fulton, H.C. 1908. A hst of species of shells described by Dr. Grateloup, 
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Fulton, H.C. 1917. MoUuscan Notes. III. No. 11. On the type-specimen 
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238-240. 



272 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Fulton, H.C. 1920. Molluscan Notes IV. No. 23. On type-specimens of 
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Gerber, E. 1937. Verzeichnis der palaeontologischen Originalien und 
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Geret, P. 1909. Liste des genres, sections et especes decrits par C.-F. 
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Germain, L. 1905. Amould Locard, sa vie, ses travaux. Annales de la 
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Gestro, R. 1926a. La Collezione Malacologica del Museo Civico di 
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Gestro, R. 1926b. La Collezione Sulliotti. (Appendice alle note sulla 
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Giles, E. and T. Gosliner. 1983. Primary type specimens of marine 
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Gill, E.D. 1953. Catalogue of Quaternary types and figured specimens 
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Gill, E.D. and E.M. Davies. 1968. Catalogue of Middle Palaeozoic types 
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i 



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Glenister, B.F., T.E. Bolton, T.W. Broadhead, N. Eldredge, NJ. 
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Gowlett-Holmes, K.L. 1989. Fossil mollusc type specimens in the South 
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Gowlett-Holmes, K.L. and B.J. McHenry. 1988. Fossil mollusc type 
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Gratacap, L.P. 1901. Catalogue of the Binney and Bland collection of 
the terrestrial air-breathing mollusks of the United States and 
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Gray, J. E. 1849. Catalogue of the Mollusca in the Collection of the 
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Gray, J. E. 1850a. Catalogue of the Mollusca in the Collection of the 
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Gray, J. E. 1850b. Catalogue of the Bivalve Mollusca in the Collection 
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Gray, J. E. 1854a. List of the Shells of the Canaries in the Collection of 
the British Museum. Collected by MM. Webb and Berthelot. 
Described and Figured by Prof. Alcide d'Orbigny in the "Histoire 
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Gray, J. E. 1854b. List of the Shells of Cuba in the Collection of the 
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Taylor and Francis, London, [ii] + 48 pp. 

Gray, J. E. 1855a. List of the Shells of South America in the Collection 
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Gray, J. E. 1855b. List of Mollusca and Shells in the Collection of the 
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annees 1836 et 1837, sur la Corvette 'La Bonite', and in the 
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274 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Gray, J. E. 1855c. List of the Mollusca in the Collection of the British 
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Gray, J. E. 1865. List of the Mollusca in the Collection of the British 
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Green, R.H. 1974. A catalogue of the type material in the Queen 
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Greenwood, E.F. 1980. A history of Liverpool natural history collec- 
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Greppin, E. 1903. Uber Originalien der geologischen Sammlungen des 
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forschenden Gesellschaft in Basel, 15(1): 25-134. 

Haas, F. 1913. Bemerkungen uber Spenglers Unionen. Videnskabelige 
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Habe, T. 1953. Notes on the type specimens of three species of Japanese 
molluscs described by F. Jousseaume. Publications of the Seto 
Marine Biological Laboratory, 3(2): 169-172, pi. 9. 

Habe, T. 1961. Notes on some Japanese Mollusca described by A. 
Adams, whose specimens are deposited in the British Museum 
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Makiyama Memorial Volume. Amagusa Biological Station, Kyushu 
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Habe, T, ed. 1975. PubUcation for commemorate [sic] 77th anniversary 
of the birth of Mr. Ryosuke Kawamura. Illustration of shells 
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Habe, T. 1977a. Deposition of Japanese shells collected by the Admiral 
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Habe, T. 1977b. Type specimens of four Japanese shells described by J. 
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Habe, T. 1977c. Six species of Japanese shells described by A. Adams. 
Venus, The Japanese Journal of Malacology, 36(3): 157-159, figs. 
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Habe, T. 1978a. Two Japanese bivalves housed in the Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Venus, The Japanese Journal of 
Malacology, 36(4): 194-196, figs. 1-6. 



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Habe, T. 1978b. Notes on the type specimens of three Japanese shells 
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Habe, T. 1978c. Comments on the type specimens of four Japanese 
MoUusca in the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 
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Habe, T. 1978d. Notes on seven species of shells described by A.A. 
Gould. Venus, The Japanese Journal of Malacology, 37(4): 
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Habe, T. 1982. On the eleven species of Japanese land snails housed in 
the Natur-Museums Senckenberg, Frankfurt. Venus, The Japanese 
Journal of Malacology, 41(1): 20-25, figs. 1-17. 

Habe, T 1983. Type specimens of Haliotis gigantea Gmelin and Ostrea 
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Habe, T. 1984a. Type specimens of three Japanese clausilid species 
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Habe, T 1984b. Type specimens of the Japanese land and freshwater 
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Habe, T 1985. Illustrations of type specimens of the Japanese molluscan 
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Hamilton, A. "1905" [1906]. The marine Mollusca of New Zealand. 
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Hanley, S. 1855. Ipsa Linnaei Conchylia. The shells of Linnaeus, 
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Harma, G.D. and A.G. Smith. 1932. Location of the collection of shells 
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Hanna, G.D. and A.G. Smith. 1968. The Diguet-Mabille land and 
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Hanshin Shell Club [compiled by the members]. 1986. Bibliography of 
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Hansman, R.H. and H.W. Scott. 1967. Catalog of Worthen type and 
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Hansman, R.H., F.C. Shaw, and W.A. Pettyjohn. 1962. Supplement to 
the catalog of the type specimens of fossils in the University of 
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Hanzawa, S., K. Asano, and F. Takai. 1961. Catalogue of the 
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Harada, E. 1991. Inventory of zoological type specimens in the Museum 
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Hardetert, P. and W. Riegraf. 1990. The Tubingen fossil collections of 
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Hardy, G.H. 1916. List of the Tenison Woods types of Recent Mollusca 
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Harper, D.A.T. 1992. The James Mitchell Museum. A museum of a 
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Hayami, I. and T. Kase. 1977. A systematic survey of the Paleozoic and 
Mesozoic Gastropoda and Paleozoic Bivalvia from Japan. Univer- 
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Hedley, C. 1901. A revision of the types of the marine shells of the 
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Hedley, C. 1913. Studies on Austrahan Mollusca. Part XI. The 
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Heppell, D. and S.M. Smith. 1983. Recent Cephalopoda in the 

collections of the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. Royal 

Scottish Museum, Information Series, Natural History, 10: vi, 
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Hertz, CM. 1984. Illustrations of the types named by S. Stillman Berry 
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Hertz, CM. 1986. Herbert Nelson Lowe 1880-1936. A gifted amateur 
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Hewish, D.R. and K.L. Gowlett-Holmes. 1991. Mollusc type specimens 
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Hoagland, K.E. 1983. Notes on type specimens of Crepidula (Prosobran- 
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Hoare, R.D. 1991. Relocation of type specimens firom the Department 
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Holm, A. 1957. Specimina Linnaeana i Uppsala bevarade Zoologiska 
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Horenstein, S. 1983. [Announcement] American Museum of Natural 
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Howarth, M.K. 1962. The Yorkshire type ammonites and nautiloids of 
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Ichikawa, T 1983. Catalogue of type and illustrated specimens in the 
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Ichikawa, T. 1988. Catalogue of type and illustrated specimens in the 
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Ichikawa, T. and I. Hayami. 1978. Catalogue of type and illustrated 
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Impey, O. and A. MacGregor, eds. 1985. The origins of museums: the 
cabinet of curiosities in sixteenth and seventeenth century Europe. 
Clarendon Press, Oxford, xiv + 335 pp., 108 figs. 

Inaba, T. and K. Oyama. 1977. Catalogue of molluscan taxa described 
by Tadashige Habe during 1939-1975, with illustrations of 
hitherto unfigured species. Okinaebisu-no-kai, Kashiva, 185 pp., 7 
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Ingram, W.M. 1942. Type fossil Cypraeidae of North America. Bulletins 
of American Paleontology, 27(104): 95-123 [1-33], pis. 8-11 [1-4]. 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN]. 1985. 
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Third Edition. 
University of California Press, Berkeley, xx + 338 pp. 

Iredale, T. 1958a. John (William) Brazier. Proceedings of the Royal 
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Iredale, T. 1958b. Charles Hedley's papers indexed. Proceedings of the 
Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, 1956-57: 118-139. 

Iredale, T. 1959. George French Angas: the father of Australian 
conchology. The Australian Zoologist, 12(4): 362-371. 

Iredale, T. and A.F.B. Hull. 1927. A monograph of the Australian 
Loricates. (Phylum Mollusca-Order Loricata). IX. Appendix C. 
Biography and Bibliography. The Australian Zoologist, 4(6): 
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Iredale, T. and G.P. Whitley. 1958. A bibliography of Lee Woolacott 
with an index to her new scientific names. Proceedings of the 
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Irish, J. 1985. Zoological types in the State Museum. Cimbebasia, 
Staatsmuseum Windhoek, (ser. A) 7(8): 107-132. 

Ivanov, D.L. and Yu.I. Kantor. 1991. Malakologicheskaya KoUektsya 
P.G. Demidova v Zoologicheskom Muzee MGU. Paul Demidoffs 
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Jackson, B.D. 1913. Catalogue of the Linnean specimens of Amphibia, 
Insecta, and Testacea, noted by Carl von Linne. Proceedings of 
the Linnean Society of London, supplement to the Proceedings of 
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Jackson, J.W. 1952. Catalogue of types and figured specimens in the 
Geological Department of the Manchester Museum. Manchester 
Museum, Publication, 6: i-viii + 1-170. 

Jackson, P.N.W. 1992. The geological collections of Trinity College, 
Dublin. Geological Curator, 5(7): 263-274. 

Jacobson, M.K. 1975. Type material of some Cuban helicinids. The 
Nautilus, 89(2): 54-55. 



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Jacobson, M.K. and K.J. Boss. 1973. The Jamaican land shells described 
by C. B. Adams. Occasional Papers on Mollusks, 3(47): 305-519, 
pis. 54-91. 

James, P.S.B.R. 1969. Catalogue of types in the collections of the 
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of the 
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Mandapam Camp, 
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Janssen, A.W. 1984. Type specimens of pteropod species (Mollusca, 
Gastropoda) described by Rolle (1861), Reuss (1867) and Kittl 
(1886) kept in the collection of the Naturhistorisches Museum at 
Vienna. Mededelingen van de Werkgroep voor Tertiaire en 
Kwartaire Geologie, 21(2): 61-91, 6 pis., 1 table. 

Janssen, R. "1987" [1988]. Fritz Nordsieck (1906-1984). Archiv fiir 
MoUuskenkunde, 118(4-6): 105-128. 

Janus, H. 1961. Die Typen und Typoide siidafirikanischer Meeresmollus- 
ken im Staatlichen Museum fur Naturkunde. 1. Gastropoda. 
Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde, 70: 1-19, pis 1-4. 

Jeannet, A. 1932. Les Trigonies fossiles originales conservees a I'lnstitut 
de Geologie de I'Universite de Neuchatel. Bulletin du Societe 
Neuchateloise des Sciences Naturelles, 56: 369-374. 

Jeffreys, J.G. 1879. Notes on Colonel Montagu's collection of British 
shells. The Journal of Conchology, 2(1): 1-4. 

Jeffreys, J.G. 1884. Notes on Brocchi's collection of Subapennine shells. 
Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 40: 28-34. 

Johnson, C.W. 1905. Annotated list of the types of invertebrate 
Cretaceous fossils in the collection of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, 57: 4-28. 

Johnson, R.I. 1946. Joseph Pitty Couthouy-a bibliography and catalogue 
of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks, 1(5): 33-40, pi. 3. 
[Supplement, 1954, ibid., 1(18): 441-442]. 

Johnson, R.I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a 
catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks, 1(14): 
213-231, pis. 26-27. [Supplement, 1954, ibid., 1(18): 447, pi. 58, 
fig. 1]. 

Johnson, R.I. 1952-1953. A study of Lamarck's types of Unionidae and 
Mutelidae. The Nautilus, 66(2): 63-67; 66(3): 90-95. 

Johnson, R.I. 1956. The types of naiades (Mollusca: Unionidae) in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. Bulletin of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, 115(4): 101-142, pis. 1-2. 



280 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Johnson, R.I. 1959a. The types of Corbicuhdae and Sphaeriidae 
(MoUusca: Pelecypoda) in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
and a bio-bibliographic sketch of Temple Prime, an early specialist 
of the group. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
120(4): 429-479, pis. 1-8. 

Johnson, R.I. 1959b. The Charies M. Wheatley collections. The 

Nautilus, 73(2): 72-74. 

Johnson, R.I. 1964. The Recent MoUusca of Augustus Addison Gould. 
Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 239: i-vi, 1-182, 
pis. 1-45. 

Johnson, R.I. 1967. Illustrations of all the mollusks described by Beriin 
Hart and Samuel Hart Wright. Occasional Papers on Mollusks, 
3(35): 1-35, pis. 1-13. 

Johnson, R.I. 1969a. The Unionacea of William Irvin Utterback. The 
Nautilus, 82(4): 132-135. 

Johnson, R.I. 1969b. Illustrations of Lamarck's types of North American 
Unionidae mostly in the Paris Museum. The Nautilus, 83(2): 
52-61, figs. 1-14. 

Johnson, R.I. 1971. The types and figured specimens of Unionacea 
(MoUusca: Bivalvia) in the British Museum (Natural History). 
Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 20(3): 
73-108, pis. 1-2. 

Johnson, R.I. 1972. Illustrations of all the mollusks described by 
Lorraine Screven Frierson. Occasional Papers on Mollusks, 3(41): 
137-173, pis. 22-32. 

Johnson, R.I. 1973a. The types of Unionidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) 
described by C. S. Rafinesque in the Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. Journal de Conchyliologie, 110(2): 35-37, pi. 1. 

Johnson, R.I. 1973b. Heude's moUuscan types or Asian land and 
fireshwater mollusks, mostly from the People's Republic of China, 
described by P. M. Heude. Special Occasional Publication, 
Department of Mollusks, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1: 1-111. 

Johnson, R.I. 1974a. Lea's unionid types or Recent and fossil taxa of 
Unionacea and Mutelacea introduced by Isaac Lea, including the 
location of all the extant types. Special Occasional Publication, 
Department of Mollusks, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2: 1-159. 

Johnson, R.I. 1974b. Marshall's unionid types or types of Recent and 
fossil Unionacea and Mutelacea introduced by William B. Mar- 
shall, including a bibliography of all his writings on mollusks. 
Special Occasional Publication, Department of Mollusks, Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, 3: 1-14. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 281 

Johnson, R.I. 1975a. R. Ellsworth Call with a bibliography of his works 
on mollusks and a catalogue of his taxa. Occasional Papers on 
Mollusks, 4(54): 134-144, pi. 15. 

Johnson, R.I. 1975b. William A. Marsh, his introduced taxa of 
Unionidae or fresh water mussels. Occasional Papers on Mollusks, 
4(54): 144-147. 

Johnson, R.I. 1975c. Simpson's unionid types and miscellaneous unionid 
types in the National Museum of Natural History. Special 
Occasional Publication, Department of Mollusks, Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, 4: 1-56, pis. 1-3. 

Johnson, R.I. 1977a. Norman Macdowell Grier, a bibliography of his 
work on mollusks, with a catalogue of his unionid taxa. Occasional 
Papers on Mollusks, 4(57): 226-227. 

Johnson, R.I. 1977b. Arnold Edward Ortmann, a bibliography of his 
work on mollusks, with a catalogue of his Recent molluscan taxa. 
Occasional Papers on Mollusks, 4(58): 229-241, pis. 26-27. 

Johnson, R.I. 1979. The types of Unionacea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the 
Museum of Zoology, the University of Michigan. Malacological 
Review, 12: 29-36. 

Johnson, R.I. 1980. The types of Unionacea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the 
Academy of Nattiral Sciences of Philadelphia: additions and 
corrections. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, 132: 277-278. 

Johnson, R.I. 1981. Stanley Truman Brooks, a bibliography of his work 
on mollusks with a catalogue of his molluscan taxa. Occasional 
Papers on Mollusks, 4(59): 266-268. 

Johnson, R.I. 1989. Molluscan taxa of Addison Emery Verrill and 
Katharine Jeannette Bush, including those introduced by Sander- 
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Keen, A.M. 1966b. West American moUusk types in the British Museum 
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Kilias, R. 1967a. Die Typen und Typoide der Mollusken-Sammlung des 
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Kilias, R. 1967b. Die Typen und Typoide der Mollusken-Sammlung des 
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Kilias, R. 1969. Die Typen und Typoide der Mollusken-Sammlung des 
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aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 45(2): 245-258, 2 figs. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 285 

KiliaSj R. 1971. Die Typen und Typoide der Mollusken-Sammlung des 
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Kilias, R. 1972. Originalmaterial im Zoologischen Museum Berlin zu 
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Kilias, R. 1973. Die Mollusken-Sammlung Schilder (Porzellanschnecken 
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Kilias, R. "1973" [1974a]. Die Typen und Typoide der Mollusken- 
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Kilias, R. "1973" [1974b]. Die Typen und Typoide der Mollusken- 
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Kilias, R. 1974c. Die Typen und Typoide der Mollusken-Sammlung des 
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phora, Sigmurethra, Clausiliacea (Clausiliidae 2: Clausiliinae und 
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Kilias, R. 1975. Lajos Soos und die von ihm eingefiihrten Malakologis- 
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Kilias, R. and I. Kilias. 1982. Die Typen und Typoide der Mollusken- 
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Kinkelin, F. 1903. Die Originale der palaontologischen Sammlung im 
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286 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Kisch, B.S. 1959b. La collection de Chemnitzidae du Marquis de Folin 
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Kisch, B.S. 1960. Les Mollusques decrits par de Folin-a part les 
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Kleemann, K.H. 1981. Typusexemplare der Gattungen Lithophaga und 
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Kobelt, W. 1904. Museum Loebbeckeanum. Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen 
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Kohn, A. J. 1964. Type specimens and identity of the described species 
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Kohn, A.J. 1966. Type specimens and identity of the described species 
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Kohn, A.J. 1968. Type specimens and identity of the described species 
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Kohn, AJ. 1975. Type specimens and identity of tJie described species 
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Kohn, A.J. 1976. Chronological analysis of the species of Conus 
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Kohn, A.J. 1981. Type specimens and identity of the described species 
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Kohn, A.J. 1986. Type specimens and identity of the described species 
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Kohn, A.J. 1988. Type specimens and identity of the described species 
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Kohn, A.J. 1991. Paintings of paralectotypes?: Conus of the Museum 
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Kohn, A.J. 1992. A chronology of Conus, 1758-1840. Smithsonian 
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Kohn, A.J. and A.C. Riggs. 1979. Catalogue of Recent and fossil Conus, 
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Kohn, A.J., P.E. Pointer, A.C. Riggs, and H.T. Dang. 1988. Catalogue 

of Recent and fossil Conus, 1937-1988. Privately pubhshed, 

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Jahrbuch der Coburger Landesstiftimg, 28: 203-242, 20 pis. 

Kosuge, S. 1969. On some remarks on "The Recent MoUusca of A.A. 

Gould" by Johnson. Venus, The Japanese Journal of Malacology, 

29(2): 112-114. 
Kosuge, S. 1972. Illustrations of type specimens of mollusks described 

by William Healey Dall (North-western Pacific Gastropods). 

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Kristensen, T.K. and J. Knudsen. 1983. A catalogue of the type 

specimens of Cephalopoda (Mollusca) in the Zoological Museum, 

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Krolopp, E. "1978" [1980]. A Foldtani Intezet Pleisztocen Malakogiai 
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288 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Kroupa, O. "1988" [1989]. Kritische Revision der Weichtiertypen- 
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Kuiper, J.G.J. 1967. Zur senckenbergischen Sammlung von SiiBwasser- 
Kleinmuscheln und einige Probleme ihrer Erforschung. Archiv fur 
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Kummel, B. 1963. Miscellaneous nautilid type species of Alpheus Hyatt. 
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 128(6): 325-368, 
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Kuroda, T. and T. Habe. 1954. On some Japanese Mollusca described 
by A. Adams, whose specimens are deposited in the Redpath 
Museum of Canada (No. 1). Venus, The Japanese Journal of 
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Lamy, E. 1904. Liste des arches conservees avec etiquettes de Lamarck 
dans les collections du Museum de Paris. Journal de Conchyliolo- 
gie, 52(2): 132-167, pi. 5. 

Lamy, E. 1906. Sur quelques arches actuelles nommees par Lamarck 
dans la collection Defrance (Musee de Caen). Journal de Con- 
chyliologie, 53(3): 302-309, figs. 1-2. 

Lamy, E. "1911" [1912a]. Liste des Petunculus conserves avec etiquettes 
de Lamarck dans les collections du Museum de Paris. Bulletin du 
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Lamy, E. 1912b. Sur les especes de Lamarck appartenant au genre 
Mesodesma Deshayes. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, 18(4): 245-254. 

Lamy, E. 1913. Note sur les especes rangees par Lamarck dans son 
genre Lutraria. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
19(6): 343-349. 

Lamy, E. 1914a. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes de Garidae. 
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Lamy, E. 1914b. Notes sur les especes du genre Mactra decrites par 
Lamarck. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
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Lamy, E. 1914c. Notes sur les especes rangees par Lamarck dans ses 
genres Do?iax et Capsa (1818). Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, 20(5): 286-292; 20(6): 338-345. 

Lamy, E. 1915a. Note sur une collection conchyliologique du com- 
mencement du XIXe siecle. Bulletin du Museum National 
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Lamy, E. 1915b. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes appartenant au 
genre Lucina Bruguiere, 1797. Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, 21(4): 130-136; 21(5): 154-160. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 289 

Lamy, E. 1915c. Sur quelques especes de Cardita figurees par Valencien- 
nes. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 21(6): 
195-200. 

Lamy, E. "1915" [1916a]. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes des 
genres Cyprina, Cypricardia, Hiatella et Isocardia. Bulletin du 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 21(7): 243-252. 

Lamy, E. 1916b. Notes sur les especes rangees par Lamarck dans les 
genres Venericardia et Cardita. Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, 22(1): 50-58; 22(2): 114-121. 

Lamy, E. 1917a. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes du genre Chama. 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 23(3): 201- 
207; 23(4): 264-271. 

Lamy, E. 1917b. Notes sur les especes du genre Spondylus decrites par 
Lamarck. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
23(5): 318-324; 23(6): 402-409. 

Lamy, E. 1918. Notes sur quelques especes de Purpura determinees par 
Blainville dans la collection du Museum de Paris. Bulletin du 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 24(5): 352-357; 24(6): 
424-429. 

Lamy, E. "1918" [1919a]. Notes sur les especes du genre Plicatula 
decrites par Lamarck. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, 24(7): 510-513. 

Lamy, E. 1919b. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes du genre Lima 
Bruguiere, 1792. Bulletin du Museum National d'EQstoire Naturelle, 
25(6): 480-486. 

Lamy, E. 1920a. Notes sur les especes rangees par Lamarck dans son 
genre Modiola. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
26(1): 61-67; 26(2): 148-154; 26(3): 231-238. 

Lamy, E. 1920b. Notes sur les especes de Mytilus decrites par Lamarck. 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Natvirelle, 26(4): 330- 
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Lamy, E. 1921a. Sur quelques Pholades figurees par Valenciennes. 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 27(2): 178- 
183. 

Lamy, E. 1921b. Notes sur les especes de Saxicava decrites par 
Lamarck. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
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Lamy, E. 1921c. Notes sur les especes rangees par Lamarck dans son 
genre Petricola, 1801. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, 27(6): 432-436. 

Lamy, E. 1922a. Notes sur les especes rangees par Lamarck dans son 
genre Venerupis, 1818. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, 28(1): 82-86. 



290 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Lamy, E. 1922b. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes de Teredo (Taret). 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 28(2): 177- 
181. 

Lamy, E. 1922c. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes de Pholas. Bulletin 
du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 28(3): 243-246. 

Lamy, E. 1922d. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes appartenant a la 
famille des Gastrochaenidae. Bulletin du Museum National d'His- 
toire Naturelle, 28(4): 307-311. 

Lamy, E. 1923. Notes sur les chitons rapportes au Museum national de 
Paris par Peron et Lesueur (1803). Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, 29(3): 260-265. 

Lamy, E. 1924. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiermes d'Ostrea. Bulletin 
du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 30(1): 92-99; 30(2): 
151-158; 30(3): 231-238; 30(4): 316-320. 

Lamy, E. "1924" [1925a]. Notes sur les especes rangees par Lamarck 
dans le genre Mya Linne. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, 30(6): 494-496. 

Lamy, E. 1925b. Notes sur les especes rangees par Lamarck dans son 
genre Anatina. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
31(5): 372-378. 

Lamy, E. 1926. Notes sur les especes rangees par Lamarck dans le genre 
Corbula Bruguiere. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, 32(1): 81-85. 

Lamy, E. "1926" [1927]. Sur diverses coquilles de la Mer Rouge 
figurees en 1830 par Leon de Laborde. Bulletin du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, 32(6): 378-383. 

Lamy, E. 1928. Note sur la collection conchyliologique de Toumefort. 
Journal de Conchyliologie, 72(3): 228-232. 

Lamy, E. "1928" [1929a]. Note sur la collection conchyliologique 
d'Adanson. Journal de Conchyliologie, 72(4): 314-316. 

Lamy, E. 1929b. Note sur une collection conchyliologique du XVIIIe 
siecle. Journal de Conchyliologie, 73(1): 68-70. 

Lamy, E. 1931. Sur trois especes de Brocchi: Patella sinuosa, Nerita 
costata et Nerita sulcosa (Moll. Gasteropodes). Bulletin du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 3(2): 239-243. 

Lamy, E. 1932a. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes de Tridacnidae. 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 4(3): 
307-312. 

Lamy, E. 1932b. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes de Solenidae. 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 4(4): 
427-437. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 291 

Lamy, E. 1932c. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes du genre Pinna 
Linne, 1758. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
(ser. 2), 4(7): 895-902. 

Lamy, E. 1933. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes du genre Pema 
Bruguiere, 1792. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
(ser. 2), 5(5): 393-399. 

Lamy, E. 1935a. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes des genres 
Crenatula, Malleus et Vulsella. Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 7(1): 64-70. 

Lamy, E. 1935b. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes des genres 
Avicula et Meleagrina. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, (ser. 2), 7(2): 127-134. 

Lamy, E. 1937. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes de Katelysia (Moll. 
Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
(ser. 2), 9(1): 73-77. 

Lamy, E. "1940" [1941]. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes 
d'Anomia (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 12(5-7): 344-347. 

Lamy, E. "1941" [1942]. Notes sur les especes Lamarckiennes de 
Cardium (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum National d'His- 
toire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 13(5): 458-463; 13(6): 561-566; 14(1): 
63-68; 14(2): 126-129; 14(3): 228-232; 14(4): 346-348. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1937a. Notes sur les especes Lamarck- 
iennes de Tivela (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 9(1): 77-81. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1937b. Notes stir les especes Lamarck- 
iennes de Meretrix (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 9(2): 156-158. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1937c. Notes sur les especes Lamarck- 
iennes de Callista (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum Na- 
tional d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 9(3): 212-216. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1937d. Notes stir les especes Lamarck- 
iennes d'Amiantis, d'Hysteroconcha et de Lioconcha. Bulletin du 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 9(4): 270-274. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. "1937" [1938a]. Notes sur les especes 
Lamarckiennes de Pitar (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 9(5): 326-329. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. "1937" [1938b]. Notes sur les especes 
Lamarckiennes de Circe (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 9(6): 384-386. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1938c. Notes sur les especes Lamarck- 
iennes de Crista (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 10(1): 82-85. 



292 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1938d. Notes sur les especes Lamarck- 
iennes d'Anomalocardia (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 10(2): 173-175. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1938e. Notes sur les especes Lamarck- 
iermes d'Antigona (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum Na- 
tional d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 10(3): 292-297. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1938f. Notes sur les especes Lamarck- 
iermes de Venus s. str. et de Chione. Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 10(4): 401-405. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1938g. Notes sur les especes Lamarck- 
iennes de Timoclea (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 10(5): 509-511. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. "1938" [1939a]. Notes sur les especes 
Lamarckiennes de Clausinella, de Salacia, de Protothaca et de 
Samarangia (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 10(6): 611-614. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1939b. Notes sur diverses especes 
Lamarckiermes de Venus (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 11(1): 140-141. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1939c. Notes sur les especes Lamarck- 
iennes de Marcia et d'Hemitapes (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 11(2): 258-262. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1939d. Notes sur les especes Lamarck- 
iennes de Paratapes et de Tapes s. str. (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin 
du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 11(3): 314- 
317. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1939e. Notes sur les especes Lamarck- 
iennes de Polititapes (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 11(4): 405-408. 

Lamy, E. and E. Fischer-Piette. 1939f. Notes sur les especes Lamarck- 
iennes d' Amygdala et de Pullastra (Moll. Lamellibr.). Bulletin du 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, (ser. 2), 11(5): 461-466. 

Laws, H.M. and H. Mincham. 1968; 1973. Bernard Charles Cotton 
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Leary, R.L. "1971" [1972]. Catalog of Paleozoic paleozoological type 
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of the Illinois State Academy bf Science, 64(3): 254-259. 

Ledermann, H. 1967. Verzeichnis der im Naturhistorischen Museum 
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Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 60(2): 707-713. 



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Leloup, E. 1950. L'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 
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Leney, F. 1902. A list of the "Type", figured, and described fossils in 
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Leonard, A.B. 1957. Types of late Cenozoic gastropods in the Frank 
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Lepersonne, J. 1974. La collection paleontologique du Musee Royal de 
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Leviton, A.E., R.H. Gibbs, Jr., E. Heal, and C.E. Dawson. 1985. 
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Lingwood, P.F. and N.F. McMillan. 1981. The conchologist John 
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Llabrador, F. 1959. Henri Gouin et les malacologistes de I'Afrique 
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Locard, A. 1890. Les coquilles marines vivantes de la faune Fran?aise 
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Locard, A. 1895. Ipsa Drapamaudi conchylia. Etude sur la collection 
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Loch. I. [ms. 1]. C.E. Beddome-malacological bibliography and taxa. 
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Loch, I. [ms. 2]. T.A. Garrard-publications; new taxa. Australian 

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Loch, I. [ms. 3]. A.F.B. HuU-malacological bibliography and described 

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Loch, I. [ms. 4]. R.M. Johnston-malacological bibliography and taxa. 

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Loch, I. [ms. 5]. Kenyon, Agnes F. (Mrs.). Publications; taxa. Australian 

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294 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Loch, L [ms. 6]. H.L. Kesteven-malacological bibliography and taxa. 
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Loch, L [ms. 7]. W.L. May-bibhography and taxa. Australian Museum, 
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Loch, L [ms. 8]. D.F. McMichael-bibliography and described taxa. 
Australian Museum, Sydney, 12 pp. 

Loch, L [ms. 9]. W.F. Petterd-malacological bibliography and taxa. 
Australian Museum, Sydney, 7 pp. 

Loch, L [ms. 10]. W.F. Ponder-malacological bibliography and de- 
scribed taxa. Australian Museum, Sydney, 16 pp. 

Loch, L [ms. 11]. W.B. Rudman-malacological bibliography and 
described taxa. Australian Museum, Sydney, 8 pp. 

Loch, L [ms. 12]. R. Tate-malacological bibliography and taxa. 
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Loch, L [ms. 13]. J.E. Tenison-Woods-malacological bibliography and 
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Lu, C.C. 1983. The Recent Cephalopoda in the collection of the 
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Lu, C.C. and J.U. Phillips. 1985. An armotated checklist of the 
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Ludbrook, N.H. 1959. Revision of the Tate molluscan types. Scaphopoda. 
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Ludbrook, N.H. 1961. Revision of the Tate molluscan types: Pelecypoda- 
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Ludbrook, N.H. 1965. Revision of the Tate molluscan types, Pt. 3, 
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Ludbrook, N.H. 1967. Tertiary molluscan types from Table Cape in the 
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Macphail, M.K. and W. Zeidler. 1977. Type shells from die May 
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Macphail, M.K. and W. Zeidler. 1978. Additional type shells from 
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Maeda, K., S. Ohta, A. Osato, Y. Shikano, and R. Ueshima. 1983. 
Catalogxie of t±ie Hirase shell collection deposited in the Yokosuka 
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Maeda, K., S. Ohta, Y. Shikano, and R. Ueshima. 1987. Catalogue of 
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the Yokosuka City Museum, 11: 1-71, pis. 1-20. 

Magne, A. 1950a. Les collections des mollusques fossiles tertiaires 
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Magne, A. 1950b. Les collections de mollusques actuels conservees au 
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Magne, A. 1966-1967. Catalogue des types de la Conchologie Neogenique 
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Makiyama, J. 1929. Notes on some Japanese shells described by A. 
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Malchevskaya, T.M. 1985. Katalog, golotipov vidov fauny i flory 
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holotypes of fauna and flora species stored in CNIGR Museum. 
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Malchevskaya, T.M. and L.V. Romanovskaya. 1966. Katalog 
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Mancefiido, M.O. and S.E. Damborenea. 1978. Comments on some 
type and figured brachiopods and bivalves in the Yorkshire 
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Mangold, C. and N. Mongereau. 1966. Catalogue des "types" et 
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Marcou, J.B. 1885. A Ust of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic types in the 
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United States National Museum, 8: 290-344. 



296 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Marcou, J.B. 1886. Supplement to the list of Mesozoic and Cenozoic 
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Marple, M.F., W.P. Leutze, and T.J.M. Schopf. 1964. Second supple- 
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Marshall, W.B. 1892. Gould's types of Nassa and Columbella. The 
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Marston, J. 1968. Notes on New Zealand Paryphantidae in the 
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Matsukuma, A. and T. Okutani. 1986. Studies on the Kawamura 
collection (Mollusca) in the National Science Museum, Tokyo-II. 
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May, W.L. 1903. On Tenison-Woods types in the Tasmanian Museum, 
Hobart. Papers & Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 
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McCoy, C.J., Jr. 1964. Type specimens of Recent Gastropoda in the 
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McHenry, A. and W.W. Watts. 1895. Guide to the collections of rocks 
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McMichael, D.F. and G.P. Whitley. 1956. The published writings of 
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McMichael, D.F. and G.P. Whitley. 1961. A bibliography of Charles 
Francis Laseron with an index to his new genera and species. 
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McMillan, N.F. 1957. Types of Cypraea lynx var. williamsi Melvill. 
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McMillan, N.F. 1980. William Swainson (1789-1855) and his shell 
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McMillan, N.F. 1985. Frederick Price Marrat, 'Conchologist etc' with 
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\ 



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Meco, J. "1972-1973" [1975]. Los moluscos marinos de las Islas 
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Meecham, C. 1987a. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Parts 37, 38, and 
39, Dreissenacea, Gaimardiacea and Arcticacea. Handlists of the 
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Meecham, C. 1987b. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Part 41, Cardi- 
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Meecham, C. 1989. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Part 49, Corbicu- 
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Meiburg, P., K. Oekentorp, and P. Siegfried. 1969. Katalog der Typen 
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Melmore, S. 1945-1946. Catalogue of types and figured specimens in 
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Mermod, G. 1947. Catalogue des types et des exemplaires de cones, 
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Mermod, G. 1950a. Les collections malacologiques du Musee d'Histoire 
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Mermod, G. 1950b. Les types de la collection Lamarck au Museum de 
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Mermod, G. 1951. Les types de la collection Lamarck au Museum de 
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Mermod, G. 1952. Les types de la collection Lamarck au Museum de 
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Mermod, G. 1953. Les types de la collection Lamarck au Museum de 
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Mermod, G. and E. Binder. 1963. Les types de la collection Lamarck 
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298 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Merriam, J.C. 1895. A list of type specimens in the Geological Museum 
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Metivier, B. 1982. Cours historique du Laboratoire de Biologie des 
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Michelson, E.H. 1953. Some remarks concerning the types of C. B. 
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Mienis, H.K. 1972. List of holotypes and paratypes of non-marine 
Mollusca from Africa (exclusive of North Africa) preserved in the 
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Mienis, H.K. 1973. Names of non-marine Mollusca from Africa 
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Mienis, H.K. 1974. Type specimens of molluscs in the collection of the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem. 1. Types of taxa described by H. 
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Mienis, H.K. 1975a. Type specimens of Littorinidae in the Zoological 
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Mienis, H.K. 1975b. Type specimens of Opisthobranchia (including 
Pyramidellidae) in the Zoological Museum of the Hebrew Univer- 
sity of Jerusalem. 1 . Type specimens of taxa described by Giorgio 
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Mienis, H.K. 1976a. Type specimens of Mollusca in the collection of 
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Marginellidae. Basteria, 40(1): 7-9. 

Mienis, H.K. 1976b. Types de quelques mollusques terrestres et 
fluviatiles de France dans la collection Coen de I'Hebrew Univer- 
sity of Jerusalem. Elona, 3: 40-41. 

Mienis, H.K. 1976c. Publications on non-marine Mollusca from East 
Africa by G. Bacci with a list of new taxa. Achatina, 6: 125-126. 

Mienis, H.K. 1976d. Type specimens of Opisthobranchia (including 
Pyramidellidae) in the Zoological Museum of the Hebrew Univer- 
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Melvill and H. B. Preston. Opisthobranch Newsletter, 8(3-4): 
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Alienis, H.K. 1977. Type specimens of Mollusca in the collection of the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem. 3. Type specimens of Recent 
Bulimulidae. Journal de Conchyliologie, 114(1-2): 57-58. 

Mienis, H.K. 1981. Preliminary list of taxa belong to the Cypraeidae, 
Ovulidae and Triviidae, represented by type material in the 
mollusc collection of the Hebrew University. Levantina, 33: 
409-412. 

Mienis, H.K. 1984. Een kort historisch overzicht betreffende de 
Molluskenverzameling van de Hebreeuwse Universiteit in Jeruzalem. 
Correspondentieblad van de Nederlandse Malacologische Ver- 
eniging, 221: 1608-1612. 

Mienis, H.K. 1985. Enkele aanvullingen betreffende de aanwezigheid 
van typemateriaal in de MoUuskenverzameUng van de Hebreeuwse 
Universiteit in Jeruzalem. Correspondentieblad van de Neder- 
landse Malacologische Vereniging, 226: 97-98. 

Mihajlovic-Pavlovic, M. 1985. Katalog Zbirke Jurskih Amonita u 
Prirodnjackom Muzeju [Catalogue of the collection of Jurassic 
ammonites in the Natural History Museum]. Posebna Izdanja, 
Prirodnjacki Museja u Beogradu, 34: 1-69, pis. 1-33. [In Serbian]. 

Milan, A., K. Sakac, and A. Zagar-Sakac. 1974. Katalog originala tipova 
vrsta pohranjenih u Geolosko-Paleontoloskom Muzeju u Zagrebu. 
[Katalog der im Geologisch-palaontologischen Museum in Zagreb 
aufbewahrten Originale von Artentypen] . Geolosko-Paleontoloskom 
Muzeju, Zagreb, 186 pp. [In Croatian; German summary]. 

Miller, A.K. 1936. Type invertebrate fossils of North America (De- 
vonian). Division VII. Cephalopoda. B. Ammonidea. Wagner Free 
Institute of Science, Philadelphia, 50 pp. 

Miller, R.F. 1988. Catalogue of type fossils in the New Brunswick 
Museum. New Brunswick Museum, Publications in Natural 
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Milosevic, V. 1962. Sistematski Pregled Primeraka-Originala iz Paleon- 
toloske Zbirke Prirodnjackog Muzeja u Beogradu [Liste systematique 
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Robertson, R., L. Richardson, G.M. Davis, and A.E. Bogan. 1983. 
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Robertson, R., L. Richardson, G.M. Davis, and A.E. Bogan. 1986. 
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312 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

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314 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

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Smith, B.J. 1968. A list of the types of the family Volutidae held by the 
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Smith, H.H. 1902. An annotated catalogue of shells of the genus Partula 
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Sphon, G.G. 1971. Type specimens of Recent mollusks in the Los 
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Stubblefield, C.J. 1938. The types and figured specimens in Phillips and 
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OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 319 

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Thome, J.W. 1973. Emeute Beschreibung neotropischer Veronicellidae- 
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320 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

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Tillier, S. and P. Mordan. 1983. The conchological collections of 
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322 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

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Trew, A. 1983d. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Parts 19, 20 and 21, 
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Trew, A. 1984. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Part 30, Trochacea. 
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Trew, A. 1985c. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Part 32, Helicacea 
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Trew, A. 1986a. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Part 33, Helicacea 
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Trew, A. 1986b. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Part 34, Architectoni- 
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Trew, A. 1986c. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Parts 35 and 36, 
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Trew, A. 1987a. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Parts 42 and 43, 
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Trew, A. 1990b. John R. Le B. Tomlin's new molluscan names. 
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Trew, A. 1990c. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Parts 55 and 56, 
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Trew, A. 1990d. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Parts 57 and 58, 
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Trew, A. 1991. The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Part 59, Conacea 
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Whitley, G.P. 1972. The life and work of Tom Iredale (1880-1972). 
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Wilkins, G.L. 1951. Strombus thersites Swainson: designation of lectotype. 
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Wilkins, G.L. 1952. The shell collections of Sir Hans Sloane, Bart. 
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Wilkins, G.L. 1953a. Notes on some recently recognized types in the 
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Wilkins, G.L. 1953b. A catalogue and historical account of the Sloane 
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Wilkins, G.L. 1953c. Notes from the British Museum, L Pinna. 
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Wilkins, G.L. 1955. A catalogue and historical account of the Banks 
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Wilkins, G.L. 1957. The Cracherode shell collection. Bulletin of the 
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Willett, H. 1871. Catalogue of the Cretaceous fossils in the Brighton 
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Wilson, E. 1890. Fossil types in the Bristol Museum. Geological 
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Wilson, E.C. 1966. Type specimens of fossil invertebrates in the San 
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Wilson, E.C. 1967. Primary type material of the Early Permian 
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of Paleontology, 41(5): 1 1 13-1 115, pi. 142. 



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Wilson, E.G. 1986. Type specimens of fossil Invertebrata in the Natural 
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Wilson, E.C. and D.E. Bing. 1970. Type specimens of fossil Invertebrata 
in the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, exclusive 
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to Science, 181: 1-20. 

Wilson, E.C. and G.L. Kennedy. 1967. Type specimens of Recent 
invertebrates (except Arachnida and Insecta) in the San Diego 
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Wilson, E.C. and L.R. Saul. 1986. [Announcement]. Collection transfer. 
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Winwood, H.H. and E. Wilson. 1892. Charles Moore, F.G.S., and his 
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Antiquarian Field Club, 7(3): 232-292, 1 pi. 

Wolberg, D.L. 1990a. Notice of transfer of specimens figured by 
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Wolberg, D.L. 1990b. Second notice of transfer of specimens figured 
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Wolberg, D.L. 1990c. Third notice of transfer of cephalopods described 
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Wolberg, D.L. 1991a. Fourth notice of transfer of specimens figured by 
Rousseau H. Flower. Journal of Paleontology, 65(2): 337. 

Wolberg, D.L. 1991b. Fifth notice of transfer of specimens figured by 
Rousseau H. Flower. Journal of Paleontology, 65(2): 338-339. 

Wolberg, D.L. 1991c. Sixth notice of transfer of specimens figured by 
Rousseau H. Flower. Journal of Paleontology, 65(2): 339-340. 

Wolberg, D.L. 199 Id. Notice of transfer of fossils from the New Mexico 
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Woods, H. 1891. Catalogue of the type fossils in the Woodwardian 
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Woods, H. 1893. Additions to the type fossils in the Woodwardian 
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Woodward, A.S. 1908. Illustrations of type specimens of Inferior Oolite 
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Woodward, F. 1979. The F. R. Woodward collection of freshwater 
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tors Group Newsletter, 2(5): 225-226. 



330 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Wu, S.-K. and N.E. Brandauer. 1982. Type specimens of Recent 
MoUusca in t±ie University of Colorado Museum. Natural History 
Inventory of Colorado, 7: 1-47. 

Yamagxichi, T., T. Habe, and T. Kikuchi. 1987. Studies on Von 
Siebold's collections of mollusks still preserved in the Rijksmuseum 
van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden, The Netherlands. Von Siebold 
and Natural History of Japan, 1: 43-78, pis C1-C28, Dl. 

Yaron, I., T Schiotte, and G. Wium- Andersen. 1986. A review of 
molluscan taxa described by P. Forsskal and C. Niebuhr with 
citation of original descriptions, discussion of type-material avail- 
able and selection of some lectotypes. Steenstrupia, 12(10): 
157-203, figs. 1-50. 

Yen, T.-C. 1939. Die chinesischen Land- und SiiBwasser-Gastropoden 
des Natur-Museums Senckenberg. Abhandlungen der Senckenberg- 
ischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 444: 1-234, pis. 1-16. [see 
also Zilch, 1942]. 

Yen, T.-C. 1942. A review of Chinese gastropods in the British 
Museum. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 
24(5-6): 170-289, pis. 11-28. 

Yen, T.-C. 1944. Notes on some unfigured type-specimens of Chinese 
mollusks from the North Pacific Expedition. Proceedings of the 
California Academy of Sciences (ser. 4) 23(38): 561-586, pis. 
50-51. 

Zagar-Sakac, A. 1981. tJber die Neogenen Unionazeen-Arten S. Brusina's 
[O Neogenskim Vrstama Unionaceja S. Brusine]. Palaeontologia 
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Zdun, V.I. 1969. Kollektsiya Baikal'skikh Molliuskov B. Dybovskogo v 
Zoologicheskom Muzee L'vovskogo Universiteta. [The collection 
of Baikal mollusks of B. Dybowski in the Zoological Museum of 
the University of Lvov], pp. 68-70, in (B.G. loganzen, ed.), 
Voprosy Malakologii Sibiri. [Malacological Problems in Siberia]. 
Materialy Mezhvuzovskoy Nauchno-Metodicheskoy Konferentsii 
po Izucheniyu Presnovodnikh Molliuskov Sibiri, 26-28 lyonya 
1969. Tomsk, Izdatel'stvo Tomskogo Universiteta, 202 pp. [In 
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Zeidler, W. 1983. The cephalopod collection in the South Australian 
Museum. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria, 44: 
77-79. 

Zeidler, W. 1985. Mollusc type-specimens in the South Australian 
Museum. 2. Gastropoda: Conidae. Records of the South Austra- 
lian Museum, 19(5): 69-75, figs. 1-3. 

Zeidler, W. and K. L. Gowlett. 1986. Mollusc type-specimens in the 
South Australian Museum. 3. Polyplacophora. Records of the 
South Australian Museum, 19(8): 97-115, fig. 1. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 331 

Zeidler, W. and M.K. Macphail. 1978. Mollusc type-specimens in the 
South Australian Museum. 1. Cephalopoda and Scaphopoda. 
Records of the South Australian Museum, 17(26): 381-385. 

Zilch, A. 1934. Zur Fauna des Mittel-Miocans von Kostej (Banat). 
Typus-Bestimmung und Tafeln zu O. Boettger's Bearbeitvmgen. 
Senckenbergiana, 16(4-6): 193-302, pis. 1- 22. 

Zilch, A. 1935. Nachtrag zur Typus-Bestimmung der Fauna des Mittel 
Miocans von Kostej (Banat). Senckenbergiana, 17(5-6): 226-228, 
figs. 1-7. 

Zilch, A. 1942. Nachtrag zu "Die Chinesischen Land- und Siisswasser- 
Gastropoden des Natur-Museums Senckenberg". Archiv fur Mol- 
luskenkunde, 74(1): 28-36. [see Yen, 1939]. 

Zilch, A. 1951. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 4: Mollusca, Achatinidae. Senckenbergiana, 32(1-4): 39-47. 

Zilch, A. 1952a. Die Typen und Tj^^oide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 6: Mollusca, Helicinae (1). Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 
81(1-3): 63-83. 

Zilch, A. 1952b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 8: Mollusca, Helicinae (2). Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 
81(4-6): 135-173, pis. 5-6. 

Zilch, A. 1953a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 9: Mollusca, Cyclophoridae, Diplommatininae. Archiv fur 
Molluskenkunde, 82(1-3): 1-47, pis. 1-13. 

Zilch, A. 1953b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 10: Mollusca, Pleurodontidae (1). Archiv fiir Mollus- 
kenkunde, 82(4-6): 131-140, pis. 22-25. 

Zilch, A. 1954a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 12: Mollusca, Clausiliidae (1): Phaedusinae, Neniinae. 
Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 83(1-3): 1-63, pis. 1-4. 

Zilch, A. 1954b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 13: Mollusca, Cyclophoridae, Cyclophorinae-Cyclophoreae 
(1). Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 83(4-6): 141-157, pis. 13-16. 

Zilch, A. 1955a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 14: Mollusca, Viviparidae. Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 
84(1-3): 45-85, pis. 3-7. 

Zilch, A. 1955b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 15: Mollusca, Cyclophoridae, Cyclophorinae-Cyclophoreae 
(2). Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 84(4-6): 183-209, pis. 13-15. 

Zilch, A. 1956a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 17: Mollusca, Cyclophoridae, Cyclophorinae-Cyclophoreae 
(3). Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 85(1-3): 33-53, pis. 2-3. 

Zilch, A. 1956b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 18: Mollusca, Cyclophoridae, Cyclophorinae (4). Archiv fur 
Molluskenkunde, 85(4-6): 171-195, pis. 12-15. 



332 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Zilchj A. 1957a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 19: Mollusca, Cyclophoridae, Pupininae. Archiv fur Mollus- 
kenkunde, 86(1-3): 41-56, pis. 2-4. 

Zilch, A. 1957b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 20: Mollusca, Cyclophoridae, Alycaeinae. Archiv fur Mollus- 
kenkunde, 86(4-6): 141-150, pis. 5-6. 

Zilch, A. 1958-1959. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 21: Mollusca, Cyclophoridae, Craspedopominae- 
Cochlostominae. Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 87(1-3): 53-76, pis. 
4-5; 88(1-3): 76 [errata]. 

Zilch, A. 1960. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 22: Mollusca, Camaenidae (2). Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 
89(4-6): 193-202, pis. 16-17. 

Zilch, A. 1961. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 24: Mollusca, Streptaxidae. Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 
90(1-3): 79-120, pis. 5-9. 

Zilch, A. 1962a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 26: Mollusca, Achatinellacea. Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 
91(1-3): 77-94, pis. 2-3. 

Zilch, A. 1962b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 27: Mollusca, Pupillacea 1 (Amastridae, Cochlicopidae, 
Pyramidulidae). Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 91(4-6): 219-236, pi. 
7. 

Zilch, A. 1964a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 29: Mollusca, Camaenidae (3). Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 
93(5-6): 243-262, pi. 6. 

Zilch, A. 1964b. Gottfried Nagele (1841-1914). Archiv fur Mollus- 
kenkunde, 93(5-6): 263-266, 1 fig. 

Zilch, A. 1965a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 30: Mollusca, Zonitidae, Zonitinae (1). Archiv fiir Mollus- 
kenkunde, 94(1-2): 75-97, pis. 1-5. 

Zilch, A. 1965b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 32: Mollusca, Helicinae (3). Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 
94(3-4): 169-181, pis. 8-10. 

Zilch, A. 1965c. Werner Blume (1887-1965). Mitteilungen der Deutschen 
Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 1(7): 107-108. 

Zilch, A. 1966a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 33: Mollusca, Sphincterochilidae. Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 
95(1-2): 89-105, pis. 1-2. 

Zilch, A. 1966b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natvir-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 34: Mollusca, Camaenidae (4). Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 
95(3-4): 197-223, pis. 3-6. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 333 

Zilch, A. 1966c. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 35: MoUusca, Camaenidae (5). Archiv fiir MoUuskenkunde, 
95(5-6): 293-319, pis. 7-11. 

Zilch, A. 1967a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 36: Mollusca, Assimineidae. Archiv fiir MoUuskenkunde, 
96(1-2): 67-100, pis. 1-6. 

Zilch, A. 1967b. Aus der Geschichte des Senckenberg-Museums, Nr. 
13. Geschichte der malakologischen Sektion. Archiv fiiir MoUus- 
kenkunde, 97(1-6): 7-43, figs. 1-23. 

Zilch, A. 1967c. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 39: Mollusca, Unionacea. Archiv fur MoUuskenkunde, 
97(1-6): 45-154. 

Zilch, A. 1968. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 41: Mollusca, Bradybaenidae, Bradybaeninae. Archiv fiiir 
MoUuskenkunde, 98(3-4): 155-212, pis. 6-7. 

Zilch, A. 1969a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 42: Mollusca, Buccinacea 1. Archiv fiir MoUuskenkunde, 
99(3-4): 213-220, pis. 1, la. 

Zilch, A. 1969b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 43: Mollusca, Pupillacea 2 (Valloniidae, Pleurodiscidae). 
Archiv fur MoUuskenkunde, 99(3-4): 221-245, pis. 2-5. 

Zilch, A. 1970. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 45: Mollusca, Hydrobiidae (1): Bythiospeum Bourguignat. 
Archiv fiir MoUuskenkunde, 100(5-6): 319-346, pis. 16-19. 

Zilch, A. 1971a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 47: Mollusca-Euthyneura von A. Doring aus Argentinien. 
Archiv fiir MoUuskenkunde, 101(1-4): 195-213, pis. 11-13. 

Zilch, A. 1971b. Nachtrage zu den malakologischen Veroffentlichungen 
von W. Blume; Verzeichnis der von Blume neu beschriebenen 
taxa. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 
2(20): 293-294. 

Zilch, A. 1971c. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Malakozoologie, VIII. 
Die Conchylien-Sammlung von Siegfried H. Jaeckel. Mitteilungen 
der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 2(21): 308-312. 

Zilch, A. 1972a. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Malakozoologie, IX. Zur 
Konchylien-Sammlung von K. L. Pfeiffer. Mitteilungen der 
Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 2(22): 325-326. 

Zilch, A. 1972b. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Malakozoologie, X. Zur 
Konchylien-Sammlung von P. Ehrmann. Mitteilungen der Deutschen 
Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 2(22): 327-329. 

Zilch, A. 1972c. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Malakozoologie, XI. Zur 
Konchyhen-Sammlung von H. Kaltenbach. Mitteilungen der 
Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 2(22): 330-331. 



334 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Zilch, A. 1972d. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 48: Mollusca: Bulimulidae (1). Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 
102(1-3): 133-145. 

Zilch, A. 1972e. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 50: Mollusca: Clausiliidae (2): Alopiinae: Delimini (1). 
Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 102(4-6): 247-259, pi. 11. 

Zilch, A. 1973a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 51: Mollusca: Achatinacea (2): Ferrussaciidae, Subulinidae. 
Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 103(1-3): 99-148, pis. 4-5. 

Zilch, A. 1973b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 52: Mollusca: Hydrocenidae. Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 
103(4-6): 263-272, pis. 12-13. 

Zilch, A. 1973c. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 53: Mollusca: Truncatellidae. Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 
103(4-6): 273-282, pis. 14-15. 

Zilch, A. 1974. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Malakozoologie, XTV. 
Vinzenz Gredler und die Erforschung der Weichtiere Chinas durch 
Franziskaner aus Tirol. Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 104(4-6): 
171-228, pis. 7-9, 9a. 

Zilch, A. 1976a. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 55: Mollusca: Clausiliidae (3): Mentissoideinae. Archiv fiir 
Molluskenkunde, 106(4-6): 203-242, pis. 14-20. 

Zilch, A. 1976b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 56: Mollusca: Aciculidae. Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 
107(1-3): 123-136, pis. 11-12, 12a. 

Zilch, A. "1976" [1977a]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 57: Mollusca: Clausiliidae (4): Alopiinae (2): Alopiini 
(1). Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 107(4-6): 309-363, pis. 25-28. 

Zilch, A. 1977b. Caesar Rudolf Boettger (1888-1976). Archiv fiir 
Molluskenktmde, 108(1-3): 1-16. 

Zilch, A. 1977c. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 58: Mollusca: Clausiliidae (5): Alopiinae (3): Alopiini (2). 
Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 108(1-3): 109-161, pis. 6-10. 

Zilch, A. "1977" [1978a]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 59: Mollusca: Triptychiidae und Clausiliidae 
(Nachtrage zu Teil 12). Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 108(4-6): 
267-298. 

Zilch, A. 1978b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 60: Mollusca: Succinacea. Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 
109(1-3): 109-136, pis. 7-8. 

Zilch, A. "1978" [1979a]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 61: Mollusca: Neritacea: Helicinidae. Archiv fiir 
Molluskenkunde, 109(4-6): 377-406, pis. 19-22. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 335 

Zilch, A. 1979b. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 62: MoUusca: Zonitacea: Vitrinidae. Archiv fur Mollus- 
kenkunde, 110(1-3): 81-101, pis. 6-8. 

Zilch, A. "1979" [1980a]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museiuns 
Senckenberg, 63: Mollusca: Zonitacea: Zonitidae: Vitreinae. Ar- 
chiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 110(4-6): 261-279, pis. 17-19. 

Zilch, A. "1979" [1980b]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 64: Mollusca: Oleacinacea. Archiv fur Mollus- 
kenkunde, 110(4-6): 281-300, pis. 20-21. 

Zilch, A. "1980" [1981a]. Richard Schlickum (1906-1979). Archiv fur 
Molluskenkunde, 111(1-3): 1-14. 

Zilch, A. "1980" [1981b]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 65: Mollusca: Clausiliidae (6): Alopiinae (4): Mon- 
tenegrinini. Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 111(1-3): 123-145, pis. 
11-15. 

Zilch, A. "1980" [1981c]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 66: Mollusca: Stenothyridae. Archiv fiir Mollus- 
kenkunde, 111(1-3): 147-163, pis. 16-17. 

Zilch, A. "1980" [1981d]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 67: Mollusca: Viviparidae (Nachtrage zu Teil 24). 
Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 111(4-6): 257-273, pi. 24. 

Zilch, A. "1981" [1982]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 68: Mollusca: Helicacea: Bradybaenidae (2): Heli- 
costylinae. Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 112(1-6): 49-156, pis. 1-4. 

Zilch, A. "1982" [1983a]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 69: Mollusca: Muricidae: Rapaninae: Stenomphalus. 
Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 113(1-6): 93-101, pi. 10. 

Zilch, A. "1982" [1983b]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 70: Mollusca: Pupillacea (3): Vertiginidae: Nesopu- 
pinae. Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 113(1-6): 103-116, 229-230. 

Zilch, A. "1982" [1983c]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 71: Mollusca: Streptaxacea (2): Haplotrematidae, 
Systrophidae, Rhytididae, Streptaxidae (Nachtrage zu Teil 24). 
Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 113(1- 6): 117-149, 231-233, pis. 
11-13. 

Zilch, A. 1983d. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 72: Mollusca: Unionacea (Nachtrage zu Teil 39). Archiv fiir 
Molluskenkunde, 114(1-3): 77-92. 

Zilch, A. 1983e. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 73: Mollusca: Micromelaniidae: Emmericiinae. Archiv fur 
Molluskenkunde, 114(1-3): 93-107, pi. 4. 



336 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Zilch, A. 1984. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 74: MoUusca: Pupillacea (4): Chondrinidae: Gastrocoptinae, 
Hypselostomatiiiae, Aulacospirinae. Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 
115(1-3): 151-177, pis. 1-2. 

Zilch, A. 1985. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Sencken- 
berg, 75: Mollusca: Pupillacea (5): Pupillidae: Lauriinae, Argninae. 
Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 116(1-3): 119-136, pis. 1-2. 

Zilch, A. "1985" [1986]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 76: Mollusca: Pupillacea (6): Enidae: Spelaeoconchi- 
nae, Cerastuinae, Drapamaudiinae. Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 
116(4-6): 233-250, pis. 1-2. 

Zilch, A. "1986" [1987a]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 77: Mollusca: Helicinae (4): Cepaea. Archiv fiir 
Molluskenkunde, 117(4-6): 223-239, pi. 1. 

Zilch, A. "1986" [1987b]. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 78: Mollusca: Helicinae (Nachtrage zu Teil 6 und 
8). Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 117(4-6): 241-255. 

Zilch, A. 1987c. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Malakozoologie, XVI. 
Wilhelm Wenz, seine Veroffendichungen und neuen Mollusken- 
Taxa. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 
41: 1-30. 

Zullo, V.A. and L.G. Hertlein. 1970. Catalog of specimens in the type 
collection of the Department of Geology, California Academy of 
Sciences. Cephalopoda. Occasional Papers of the California 
Academy of Sciences, 82: 1-130. 



Occasional Papers on Mollusks 

Published by 

The Department of Mollusks 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Volume 5 1 August 1997 Number 70 



ADDENDUM TO 

"AN INDEXED CATALOGUE OF PUBLICATIONS 

ON MOLLUSC AN TYPE SPECIMENS" (1992) 

Alan R. Kabat^ 

and 
Kenneth J. Boss^ 

Abstract. Our 1992 paper on malacological type publications 
(Occasional Papers on Mollusks, 5(69): 157-336) catalogued over 1,150 
papers on this subject. Inevitably, several overlooked publications have 
come to light, along with numerous subsequently published papers of 
relevance. This Addendum catalogues almost 125 publications. The 
format of our 1992 publication is followed. A supplement at the end 
contains various emendations to that work, primarily for certain museum 
addresses. 



Division of Mollusks NHB-1 18, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 U.S.A. 

2 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

02138 U.S.A. 



337 



338 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

ELECTRONIC TYPE CATALOGUES 

Commencing in 1993, several natural history museums 
have placed catalogues of their type specimens online as an 
electronic computer database accessible through "GOPHER" 
or the World Wide Web ("WWW") on the Internet. Such 
catalogues can be searched by taxonomic group, author, 
locality, geological age or formation (for fossils) and various 
other categories. They have the advantage (over printed 
versions) of being cheaper to issue, and can be readily 
updated. However, they are only available to researchers with 
electronic access, and should be supplemented by an archival 
printed copy at the host institution. 

Online catalogues containing molluscan types, with their 
WWW and GOPHER addresses, are listed below. Please note 
that these addresses are subject to change. 

ANSP. Invertebrate Paleontology and Malacology Departments, 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

gopher: erato.acnatsci.org 

http://www.acnatsci.org/ 

CAS. Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology, California 
Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 

gopher: cas.calacademy.org 

http://www.calacademy.org/ 

FMNH. Department of Zoology, Field Museum of Natural History, 
Chicago. 

gopher: fmppr.fmnh.org 

http://www.bvis.uic.edu: 80/museum/ 

FM. Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, 
Gainesville. 

http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/ 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 339 



UCMP. Invertebrate Paleontology, Museum of Paleontology, University 
of California, Berkeley. 

gopher: ucmpl.berkeley.edu 

http://ucmp 1 .berkeley.edu/ 

USNM. Division of Mollusks, National Museum of Natural History, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. 

gopher: nmnhgoph.si.edu 

http://www.nmnh.si.edu/gopher-menus/TypeCatalogueofRecentMoUusks.html 

YPM. Invertebrate Zoology and Invertebrate Paleontology, Peabody 
Museum, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 

gopher: peabody.yale.edu 

http://www.peabody.yale.edu/ 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The following colleagues kindly informed us of various 
overlooked publications: George L. Kennedy, Hermann L. 
Strack, Anders Waren and the late Walter E. Sage. Dai 
Herbert, Paula Mikkelsen and M.G. Harasewych informed us 
of their forthcoming publications. Horst Ewert (Botschaft der 
Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Washington D.C.) supplied us 
with the new five-digit postal codes for the German museums. 



340 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

AUTHORS INDEX 

Abbott, R.T. --Harasewych, 1997 

Adams, A. -Bijl and Moolenbeek, 1995. 

Adams, C.B. --Aguirre, 1993; Johnson, 1996. 

Ancey, C.-F. --Johnson, 1996; Verdcourt, 1993a. 

Anton, H.E. -Schniebs, 1995-1996. 

Baird, W. -Chatfield, 1994. 

Baker, F. -Hertz, 1994. 

Baker, F.C. -Yokes, 1994. 

Baldwin, D.D. -Johnson, 1996. 

Barnard, K.H. -Sysoev, 1996. 

Bartsch, P. -Habe, 1992. 

Beddome, C.E. -Cram, 1989; Griffiths, 1962. 

Beets, C. -Winkler Prins, 1996. 

Bellardi,L. -Gatto, 1993. 

Bianconi, G.G. -Bonfitto, et ai, 1994. 

Biggs, H.E.J. -Mienis, 1994a. 

Blainville, H.-M.D. de -Lu, et ai, 1995. 

Bourguignat, J.R. -Verdcourt, 1993a. 

Brandt, R.A.M. -Amone and Orlando, 1992, 1993; Schutt 

and Zilch, 1993. 
Brocchi, G. -Garassino, 1995. 
Brongniart, A. —Kennedy, 1993. 
Calcara, P. -Palazzi and Sara, 1995. 
Campiche, G. -Benier, 1993b. 
Christiaens, J. -Sasaki and Okutani, 1994. 
Cockerell, T.D.A. -Johnson, 1996. 
Coen,G.S. -Mienis, 1994b- 1994c. 
Connolly, M. -Verdcourt, 1994b. 
Cooke, A.H. -Turner, 1993. 
Cooke, CM. -Johnson, 1996. 
Cossmann, M. — Marcomini, 1994. 
Cotton, B.C. -Gowlett-Holmes and Zeidler, 1993. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 34 1 

Dall, W.H. --Geiger, 1994; Kabat, 1996. 

Darragh, T.A. --McNamara, et al, 1991. 

d'Orbigny, A. --Aguirre, 1993-1994; Lu, gf a/., 1995. 

Dunker,W. --Janssen, 1993; Kilias, 1995b. 

Femssac, A.E.J.P.J.F.d'A. -Lu, etai, 1995. 

Fischer, P. --Herbert, 1997 

Fischer von Waldheim, G. -Ivanov, et al, 1993. 

Forcart, L. -Wuthrich, et al, 1993. 

Forsskal, P. ~Schi(t)tte, 1992. 

Gaimard, P. ~Lu, era/., 1995. 

Gould, A. A. -Johnson, 1996. 

Gregorio, A. de -Amone and Orlando, 1991-1993; Mellini, 

1986. 
Gulick,J.T. -Johnson, 1996. 
Habe, T. -Hasegawaand Saito, 1995. 
Hartman,W.D. -Johnson, 1996. 
Hertlein, L.G. -Boyko and Sage, 1996. 
Hoeven, J. van der. -Bijl and Voskuil, 1993. 
Homung, A. -Buzzurro and Greppi, 1995. 
Houbrick, R.S. -Harasewych and Kabat, 1995. 
Hyatt, A. -Johnson, 1996. 
Hylton Scott, M.I. -Cazzaniga, 1992. 
Iredale, T. -Gowlett-Holmes and Zeidler, 1993. 
Jay, J.C. -Boyko and Sage, 1996; Johnson, 1996. 
Jaeckel, S. -Kilias, 1995b. 
Jickeli, C.F. -Turner, 1993. 
Kaas,P. -S track, 1996 
Kendrick, G. -McNamara, era/., 1991. 
Kenyon, A.F. -Gowlett-Holmes and Zeidler, 1993. 
Kobelt,W. -Kilias, 1992. 
Kondo, Y. -Cowie, 1993; Johnson, 1996. 
Kosuge, S. -Kosuge, 1992. 
Krauss, F. — Bruggen, 1992. 
Kuroda, T. -Kikuchi, 1996, 1997. 



342 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Lamarck, J.B.P. --Aguirre, 1993-1994; Decrouez, 1993; 

Dijkstra, 1994. 
Lasswitz, R. --Klinger, 1994. 
Lea, I. --Boyko and Sage, 1996; Johnson, 1996. 
Lee, G.W. -Berset and Decrouez, 1992. 
Lesueur, C.A. -Lu, etai, \995. 
Linnaeus, C. -Wallin, 1992. \ 

Loriol, P. de --Benier, 1993a. 

Lowe, R.T. --Mienis, 1993a. i 

Ludbrook, N.H. --McNamara, era/., 1991. | 

Mandahl-Barth, G. --Brown, 1995. 

Mantell, G. -Cleevely and Chapman, 1992. | 

Marcus, E. and Ev. -Boyko and Sage, 1996. 
Martens, E. von -Bijl and Moolenbeek, 1994; Kabat and 

Boss, 1997; Kilias, 1992, 1995b; Verdcourt, 1992a, 

1992c. 
Mayer, C. -Gatto, 1993. 
Mermod, G. --Buzzurro and Greppi, 1995. 
Mighels, J.W. -Johnson, 1996. 
Monterosato, T.A. di -Mienis, 1993a. 
Montrouzier, R.P. -Herbert, 1997 

Moore, J.E.S. -Verdcourt, 1994a. j 

Neal, M.C. -Johnson, 1996. ' 

Newcomb, W. —Johnson, 1996. 
Niebuhr, C. -Schi(t)tte, 1992. 
Nierstrasz, H.F. -Kilias, 1995a; Strack, 1987. 
Nordsieck, F. -Van Aartsen and Menkhorst, 1 996. 
Odhner,N.H. -Sandberg and Waren, 1993. 
Paladilhe, A. -Mienis, 1993b. 
Pallary, P. -Trew and Seddon, 1996. 
Pearce, J.C. -Donovan and Crane, 1992. 
Pease, W.H. -Johnson, 1994-1996. 
Peile, A.J. -Mienis, 1993b. 
Peyrot, A. -Marcomini, 1994. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 343 

Pfeffer, G. --Kilias, 1995a. 

Pfeiffer, K.L. --Verdcourt, 1995b. 

Pfeiffer, L. --Johnson, 1996; Moolenbeek and Bijl, 1992; 

Verdcourt, 1995 a. 
Pictet, F.-J. -Benier, 1993b. 
Pilsbry, H.A. -Aguirre, 1993; Boyko and Sage, 1996; 

Johnson, 1996. 
Plate, L. -Kilias, 1995a- 1995b. 
Preston, H.B. -Kilias, 1992. 
Prime, T. -Boyko and Sage, 1996. 
Quoy, J.R.C. -Lu,etaL,\995 
Recluz, C.A. -Kabat et al., 1997 
Reeve, L.A. —Johnson, 1996. 
Rochebrune, A.T. de — Lu, et al, 1995. 
Sakurai, K. — Hasegawa and Saito, 1995. 
Salvini-Plawen, L. von —Boyko and Sage, 1996. 
Say,T. -Aguirre, 1993-1994. 
Schlesch, H. -Mienis, 1993b. 

Seguenza, G. — Geronimo, 1991; Micali and Villari, 1991. 
Simroth, H. -Verdcourt, 1992c. 
Smith, E.A. -Johnson, 1996; Trew, 1993a; Verdcourt, 

1992a-b, 1993a-b. 
Souleyet, L.F.A. —Lu, et al, 1995. 
Souverbie, St.-M. -Herbert, 1997 
Sowerby, G.B. [I]. -Aguirre, 1993. 
Sowerby, J. -Cleevely and Chapman, 1992. 
Spengler, L. -Kaas and Knudsen, 1992. 
Starobogatov, Ya.I. -Sysoev and Kantor, 1992. 
Steadman, W.R. -Gowlett-Holmes and Zeidler, 1993. 
Stoppani, A. -Garassino, 1994. 
Sykes, E.R. -Johnson, 1996. 
Thiele, J. -Kilias, 1992, 1995a. 
Tiba, R. -Kosuge, 1993. 
Trenberth, W.N. -Gowlett-Holmes and Zeidler, 1993. 



344 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Usticke, G.W.N. --Boyko and Sage, 1996. 

Verco, J.C. --Loch, 1992. 

Viader, R. -Loch, 1996. 

Voss, G.L. —Sweeney and Roper, 1991. 

Watson, R.B. -Aguirre, 1993. 

Welch, D.A. -Johnson, 1996. 

Wiktor, A. -Wiktor, 1992. 

MUSEUMS INDEX 

The sequence and format follows that of Kabat and Boss 
(1992: 188-232); the full address is given only for those 
museums not previously listed. When there is more than one 
museum listed per country, they are arranged alphabetically 
by city. See also the supplement at the end of this paper for 
emendations to addresses of several museums. 

1. Europe and Near East. 

AUSTRL\ 

Geologisches Bundesanstalt, Wien 
Stojaspal, 1994. 

BELGIUM 

Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles 
[IRSNB] 

Strack, 1987. 

DENMARK 

Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory [DBL] 

Jaegersborg Alle Id 

DK-2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 345 

Brown, 1995. 

Zoologisk Museum, K(j)benhavn [ZMUC] 
Kaas and Knudsen, 1992; Schi(t)tte, 1992. 

FRANCE 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Bordeaux 
Herbert, 1996. 

Institut de Geologic, Lyon 
?neuT,etaL, 1983. 

Universite de Montpellier 11 
Place Eugenc-Bastaillon 
F-34095 Montpellier, France 
Marandat, 1994 

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [MNHN] 
Aguirre, 1993-1994; Lu, etai, 1995; Marcomini, 1994. 

Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 
Collection de Paleontologie, 
Tour 24 - 3' Etage, 
4 Place Jussieu, 
F-75230 Paris France 
Kennedy, 1993. 

GERMANY 

Zoologisches Museum Berlin [ZMB] 

Kabat and Boss, 1996; Kilias, 1992-1995b; Verdcourt, 
1992a, 1992c. 



346 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Staatlichen Museums fur Tierkunde Dresden [MTK] 
AugustusstraBe 2 
D-01067 Dresden Germany 
Schniebs, 1995-1996. 

Natur-Museum Senckenberg, Frankfurt [SMF] 

Janssen, 1993; Kabat and Boss, 1996; Schiitt and Zilch, 
1993; Turner, 1993; Van Aartsen and Menkhorst, 1996; 
Verdcourt, 1995b. 

GREAT BRITAIN 

City of Bristol Museum and Art Gallery 
Donovan and Crane, 1992. 

University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge [UMZC] 
Turner, 1993. 

National Museum of Wales (Cardiff) 

Department of Zoology [NMWZ]: Trew, 1993b-1994b. 
Department of Geology: Owens and Bassett, 1995. 

The Natural History Museum, London [BMNH] 

Aguirre, 1993-1994; Chatfield, 1994; Cleevely and 
Chapman, 1992; Cram, 1989; Griffiths, 1962; Johnson, 
1994-1996; Kabat et ai, 1997; Mienis, 1994a; Sasaki 
and Okutani, 1994; Trew, 1993a; Verdcourt, 1992a-b, 
1993a- 1995a; Wheeler, 1995. 

Maidstone Museum and Art Gallery 
St. Faith's Street 

Maidstone, Kent, ME 14 ILH United Kingdom 
Chatfield, 1994. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 347 

ISRAEL 

Museum, Hebrew University of Jerusalem [HUJ] 
Mienis, 1993a-b; 1994b- 1994c. 



ITALY 

Museo di Zoologia [MZB] 
via S. Giacomo No. 9 
1-40126 Bologna Italy 
Bonfitto, era/., 1994. 

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova [MSNG] 
Buzzurro and Greppi, 1995. 

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milano [MSNM] 
Garassino, 1994, 1995. 

Museo di Zoologia della Universita di Palermo 
Via Archirafi 1 8 
1-90123 Palermo Italy 
Orlando era/., 1994 

Museo Regionale di Storia Naturale 
Via Gala Rossa, 4 
1-90049 Terrasini Italy 

Amone and Orlando, 1991-1993; Orlando, 1995. 

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 
Lungadige Porta Vittoria, 9 
1-37129 Verona Italy 
Mellini, 1986. 



348 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

THE NETHERLANDS 

Zoologisch Museum, Amsterdam [ZMA] 

Bijl and Moolenbeek, 1995; Moolenbeek and Bijl, 1992, 
1994; Saito, 1994; Strack, 1987. 

Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden [RMNH] 
Bijl and Moolenbeek, 1994; Bijl and Voskuil, 1993; 
Bruggen, 1992; Strack, 1987; Winkler Prins, 1996. 

Natuurmuseum Rotterdam 
Slieker, 1995. 



POLAND 

Muzeum Przyrodniczm im. Wladyslawa Rydzewskiego, 
Uniwersytetu Wroclawiu, 
Sienkiewicza21, 
50-335 Wroclaw Poland 
Wiktor, 1992. 

Henryk Teisseyre Geological Museum 
Institute of Geological Sciences 
Uniwersytetu Wroclawiu, 
ul. Cybulskiego 
50-205 Wroclaw Poland 
Klinger, 1994. 

RUSSIA 

Zoological Museum, Moscow State University [ZMMU or 
ZMUM] 

Ivanov, et ai, 1993. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 349 

Central Siberian Geological Museum, Novosibirsk 
Nalniaeva and Besprozvannykh, 1990. 

Zoological Insitute, St. Petersburg [ZIN] 
Sysoev and Kantor, 1992. 



SPAIN 

Museo de Geologico del Seminario de Barcelona, 

Diputacio 23 1 , 

E-08007 Barcelona Spain 

Calzada and Urquiola, 1992. 

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales 
Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2 
E-28006 Madrid Spain 
Templado, etal, 1993. 

SWEDEN 

Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm [SMNH] 
Sandberg and Waren, 1993 

Zoologiska Museet, Uppsala Universitet [ZMUU] 
Wallin, 1992. 

SWITZERLAND 

Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel [NMB] 
Gatto, 1993; Wiithrich, etal., 1993. 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneve [MHNG] 

Benier, 1993a, 1993b; Berset and Decrouez, 1992; 



350 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Cailliez, 1996; Decrouez, 1993; Dijkstra, 1994; Kabat, et 
al., 1997. 

2. Africa. 

SOUTH AFRICA 

South African Museum, Cape Town [SAFM] 
Sysoev, 1996. 

3. Asia and Oceania. 

AUSTRALIA 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide [SAM] 

Gowlett-Holmes andZeidler, 1993; Loch, 1992. 

Museum of Victoria, Melbourne [MV] 
Loch, 1992. 

Western Austrahan Museum, Perth [WAM] 
McNamara, ^ra/., 1991. 

Australian Museum, Sydney [AMS] 
Jones, 1992; Loch, 1992, 1996. 

JAPAN 

General: 

Hatai and Nisiyama, 1952; Hayami, 1975; Masuda and 
Noda, 1976. 

National Science Museum, Tokyo [NSMT] 

Hasegawa and Saito, 1995; Kubodera and Tsuchiya, 
1993;Saito, 1994. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 35 1 

4. North America. 

CANADA 

Geological Survey, Ottawa [GSC] 
Bolton, 1992. 

British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria [BCPM] 
Green and Peden, 1992. 

MEXICO 

Museo de Paleontologia, Universidade Nacional Autonoma 
de Mexico [UNAM] 
Perrilliat, 1992. 

UNITED STATES 

American Museum of Natural History, New York [AMNH] 
Boyko and Sage, 1996. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge [MCZ] 
Aguiire, 1993; Johnson, 1994-1996; Kabat, 1996. 

Chicago Academy of Sciences [CA] 
Yokes, 1994. 

Bemice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu [BPBM] 
Cowie, 1993; Johnson, 1994. 

Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca [PRI] 
Johnson, 1996. 

Namral History Museum of Los Angeles County [LACM] 
Saul, 1993. 



352 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Milwaukee Public Museum [MPM] 
Sumpter and Meyer, 1 99 1 . 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [ANSP] 
Aguirre, 1993-1994; Harasewych, 1997; Hertz, 1994; 
Johnson, 1994; Yokes, 1994. 

San Diego Natural History Museum [SDSNH] 
Hertz, 1994. 

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco [CAS] 
Hertz, 1994; Kabat, 1996. 

Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History [SBMNH] 
Kabat, 1996. 

National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C. 

[USNM] 

Aguirre, 1994; Geiger, 1994; Habe, 1992; Harasewych, 
1996; Harasewych and Kabat, 1995; Hertz, 1994; 
Johnson, 1994; Kabat, 1996. 

Delaware Museum of Natural History, Wilmington 
[DMNH] 

Harasewych, 1997; Mikkelsen and Bradford, 1997. 

5. South America. 

CHILE 

Museo de Zoologia, Concepcion 
Cekalovic, etai, 1993. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 353 

SYSTEMATIC INDEX 

1. APLACOPHORA. 

Boyko and Sage, 1996; Strack, 1987. 

2. BIVALVIA. 

Pectinidae: Dijkstra, 1994; Saito, 1994. 
Unionoidea: Boyko and Sage, 1996. 

3. CEPHALOPODA 

(fossil): Berset and Decrouez, 1992; Donovan and Crane, 
1992; Kennedy, 1993; Klinger, 1994; Nalniaeva and 
Besprozvannykh, 1990; Prieur, et al, 1983; Saul, 1993; 
Stojaspal, 1994. 

(Recent): Kubodera and Tsuchiya, 1993; Lu, et al, 1995; 
Sweeney and Roper, 1991. 

4. GASTROPODA. 

Achatinellidae: Cowie, 1993; Johnson, 1996. 

Achatinidae: Kilias, 1992. 

Bithyniidae: Brown, 1995. 

Buccinidae: Kosuge, 1993. 

Cerithioidea (5./.): Harasewych and Kabat, 1995; Trew, 

1994a-b. 
Coralliophilidae: Kosuge, 1992. 
Cypraeidae: Cram, 1989; Gowlett-Holmes and Zeidler, 1993; 

Griffiths, 1962. 
Endodontidae: Mienis, 1994b. 
Eulimidae: Trew, 1993c. 
Haliotidae: Geiger, 1994. 
Helicidae: Bijl and Moolenbeek, 1994; Mienis, 1993a; 

Moolenbeek and Bijl, 1992. 
Hydatinidae: Bijl and Voskuil, 1993. 



354 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Janthinidae: Trew, 1993b. 

Littorinidae: Schniebs, 1995. 

Lottidae: Sasaki and Okutani, 1994. 

Mitridae: Turner, 1993. 

Muricidae: Yokes, 1994. 

Naticidae: Kabat, et ai, 1997; Schniebs, 1995. 

Neritidae: Schniebs, 1995. 

Ovulidae: Gowlett-Holmes and Zeidler, 1993. 

Partulidae: Cowie, 1993. 

Planorbidae: Brown, 1995. 

Pupillidae: Mienis, 1993b. 

Pyramidellidae: Buzzurro and Greppi, 1995; Van Aartsen 

and Nordsieck, 1996. 
Ranellidae: Mienis, 1994c. 
Triviidae: Gowlett-Holmes and Zeidler, 1993. 
Trochidae: Herbert, 1997; Schniebs, 1996. 
Turbinellidae: Schniebs, 1995. 
Turbinidae: Herbert, 1997; Schniebs, 1996. 
Turridae: Gatto, 1993; Sysoev, 1996. 
Vasidae: see under Turbinellidae. 

5. POLYPLACOPHORA. 

Boyko and Sage, 1996; Kaas and Knudsen, 1992; Kilias, 
1995a; Mikkelsen and Bradford, 1997; Strack, 1987, 
1996. 

6. SCAPHOPODA. 

Boyko and Sage, 1996; Kilias, 1995b; Mikkelsen and 
Bradford, 1997. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Aguirre, M.L. 1993. Type specimens of Quaternary marine gastropods 
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OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 355 

Paleontologica Argentina, 30(1): 23-38. 

Aguirre, M.L. 1994. Type specimens of Quaternary marine bivalves 
from Argentina. Ameghiniana, Revista de la Asociacion 
Paleontologica Argentina, 31(4): 347-374. 

Arnone, M. and V.E. Orlando. 1991. I tipi delle raccolte del Museo 
Regionale di Terrasini. Ill Contributo: Mollusca (Gastropoda, 
Archaeogastropoda). Naturalista Siciliana, (ser. 4) 15(3-4): 195-198. 

Arnone, M. and V.E. Orlando. 1992. I tipi delle raccolte del Museo 
Regionale di Terrasini. IV Contributo: Mollusca Gastropoda: 
Mesogastropoda. Naturalista Siciliana, (ser. 4) 16(3-4): 145-154. 

Arnone, M. and V.E. Orlando. 1993. I tipi delle raccolte del Museo 
Regionale di Terrasini. V Contributo: Mollusca (Gastropoda: 
Neotaenioglossa, Ptenoglossa, Neogastropoda, Sacoglossa, 
Stylommatophora). Naturalista Siciliana, (ser. 4) 17(3-4): 255-263. 

Benier, C. 1993a. Les collections du Departement de geologie et de 
paleontologie des invertebres du Museum d'Histoire naturelle de 
Geneve. 49. La collection Arzier de P. de Loriol. Revue de 
Paleobiologie, 12(2): 513-516. 

Benier, C. 1993b. Les collections du Departement de geologie et de 
paleontologie des invertebres du Museum d'Histoire naturelle de 
Geneve. 50. La collection Arzier de F.J. Pictet. Revue de 
Paleobiologie, 12(2): 517-518. 

Berset, S. and D. Decrouez. 1992. Les collections du Departement de 
geologie et de paleontologie des invertebres du Museum d'Histoire 
naturelle de Geneve. 44. Les collections Ronchadze et Lee. Revue 
de Paleobiologie, 11(1): 307-312. 

Bijl, A.N. van der and R.G. Moolenbeek. 1994. Notes on the holotype 
of Helix herklotsi von Martens, 1860, in the Nationaal 
Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, The Netherlands. The Chiribotan, 
Newsletter of the Malacological Society of Japan, 25(1): 13-17. 

Bijl, A.N. van der and R.G. Moolenbeek. 1995. Discovering the 



356 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

holotype of Panopea japonica (A. Adams, 1850) (Bivalvia: 
Hiatellidae). (Notes on the history of the Malacological Collection 
of the Zoologisch Museum Amsterdam, No. 8). The Chiribotan, 
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Bijl, A.N. van der and R.P.A. Voskuil. 1993. Notes on the history of the 
malacological collection of the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, 
Leiden, The Netherlands, 1 . The rediscovery of type-material of 
Bulla albocincta Van der Hoeven, 1839 (MoUusca: Gastropoda: 
Opisthobranchia: Hydatinidae). Basteria, 57(4-6): 111-114. 

Bolton, T.E. 1992. Catalogue of type invertebrate fossils of the 
Geological Survey of Canada, volume 8. Ottawa, Geological Survey 
of Canada. 

Bonfitto, A., B. Sabelli, S. Tommasini and D. Herbert. 1994. Marine 
moUuscan taxa from Mozambique described by G.G. Bianconi and 
preserved in the Zoological Museum of the University of Bologna. 
Annals of the Natal Museum, 35: 133-138. 

Boyk:o,C.B. and W.E. Sage. 1996. Catalog of Recent type specimens in 
the Department of Invertebrates, American Museum of Natural 
History. 11. MoUusca Part 1 (Classes Aplacophora, Polyplacophora, 
Gastropoda [Subclass Opisthobranchia], Bivalvia, and Scaphopoda). 
American Museum Novitates, 3170: 1-50. 

Brown, D.S. 1995. Georg Mandahl-Barth (1910-1994): His life, 
publications, and described taxa. Journal of Conchology, 35(4): 303- 
312. 

Bruggen, A.C. van. 1992. Ferdinand Krauss and the Leiden Museum, 
with notes on his South African mollusc types. Pages 77-96, [in] E. 
Gittenberger and J. Goud (eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth 
International Malacological Congress Edinburgh, 31 August - 6 
September 1986. Leiden, UNITAS Malacologica and Nationaal 
Natuurhistorisch Museum, 414 pages. 

Buzzurro, G. and E. Greppi. 1995. Note sul materiale tipico di origine 
Lessepsiana della coUezione Hornung & Mermod. Notiziario 
C.I.S.Ma., Bollettino del Centro Italiano di Studi Malacologici, 17; 



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5-16. 

Cailliez, J.C. 1996. Notice sur les collections malacologiques du 
Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Geneve. Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Geneve, 50 pages. 

Calzada, S. and M.M. Urquiola. 1992. Catalogo de los holotipos 
conservados en el Museo Geologico del Seminario de Barcelona. 
Trabajos del Museo Geologico del Seminario, Barcelona, 223: 127 
pages + errata. 

Cazzaniga, N.J. 1992. Dr. Maria Isabel Hylton Scott (1889-1990). A 
brief biography and bibliography. Walkerana, 6(16): 295-313. 

Cekalovic, T., J.N. Artigas and L. Biro. 1993. Catalogo de los tipos 
depositados en las colecciones del Departamento de Zoologia de la 
Universidad de Concepcion (MZUC) Parte V: Junio 1981 - 
Diciembre 1992. Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepcion, 
64: 47-84. 

Chatfield, J.E. 1994. Shell collections in the Maidstone Museum: 1. 
The collection of Julius Brenchley. Journal of Conchology, 35(2): 
91-101. 

Cleevely, R.J. and S.D. Chapman. 1992. The accumulation and disposal 
of Gideon Mantell's fossil collections and their role in the history of 
British palaeontology. Archives of Natural History, 19(3): 307-364. 

Cowie, R.H. 1993. Yoshio Kondo: bibliography and list of taxa. Bishop 
Museum Occasional Papers, 32: 1-10. 

Cram, D. 1989. The A^or<3c>'/?raea types of C.E. Beddome. Victorian 
Branch Bulletin [Malacological Society of Australia], 143: 4-5 
[Reprinted (1992), Australian Shell News, 78: 4-5]. 

Decrouez, D. 1993. Les collections du Departement de geologie et de 
paleontologie des invertebres du Museum d'Histoire naturelle de 
Geneve. 47. La collection Lamarck. Revue dePaleobiologie, 12(1): 
311-323. 



358 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Dijkstra, H.H. 1994. Type specimens of Recent species of Pectinidae 
described by Lamarck (1819), preserved in the Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle of Geneva and the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle 
of Paris. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 101(2): 465-532, 30 plates. 

Donovan, D.T. and M.D. Crane. 1992. The type material of the Jurassic 
cephalopod Belemnotheutis. Palaeontology, 35(2): 273-296, 5 plates. 

Garassino, A. 1994 ["1992"]. Catalog© dei tipi del Museo Civico di 
Storia Naturale di Milano XI. I moUuschi fossili del Calcare di Esino 
della Collezione Stoppani. Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze 
Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 133(18): 
245-260. 

Garassino, A. 1995 ["1993"]. Catalogo dei tipi del Museo Civico di 
Storia Naturale di Milano XII. I lamellibranchi della Collezione 
Brocchi. Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo 
Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 134: 233-264. 

Gatto, R. 1993. Rediscovered types of Turridae (Gastropoda) in the 
Mayer-Eymar collection of the Naturhistorisches Museum Basel. 
Revue de Paleobiologie, 11(2): 483-489. 

Geiger, D. 1994. Broken type specimen of H. pourtalesi. Abalone 
News, 6(2): 22. 

Geronimo, L di. 1991 ["1989"]. Mollusca: specie nuove plio-quatemaire 
di G. Seguenza (1858-1881). Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei 
Pericolanti, Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, 67, 
Supplemento, 1: 137-254 [types lost in 1908 earthquake in Messina]. 

Gowlett-Holmes, K.L. and W. Zeidler. 1993. Mollusc type specimens in 
the South Australian Museum. 5. Gastropoda: Cypraeoidea. 
Records of the South Australian Museum, 26(2): 87-103. 

Green, G.D. and A.E. Peden. 1992. Type specimens of animals and 
plants in the Royal British Columbia Museum. Victoria, Royal 
British Columbia Museum Technical Manual, 25 pages [supplement 
to Peden and Green, 1982]. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 359 

Griffiths, R.J. 1962. The types of C. albata and C. subcarnea Beddome. 
The Cowry, 1(4): 60-61, plate 7, figures J-M. 

Habe, T. 1992. Illustrations of the Philippine marine gastropods 
described by Paul Bartsch in 1918. Venus, The Japanese Journal of 
Malacology, 50(4): 296-302. 

Harasewych, M.G. 1997 The life and malacological contributions of R. 
Tucker Abbott (1919-1995). The Nautilus, 110 [in press]. 

Harasewych, M.G. and A.R. Kabat. 1995. Richard S. Houbrick (1937- 
1993): biographical sketch and malacological contributions. The 
Nautilus, 108(3): 61-66. 

Hasegawa, K. and H. Saito. 1995. Illustrations and annotated checklist 
of the molluscan type specimens contained in the Sakurai Collection 
in the National Science Museum, Tokyo. Tokyo, National Science 
Museum, 56 pages. 

Hatai, K. and S. Nisiyama. 1952. Check list of Japanese Tertiary marine 
Mollusca. The Science Reports of the Tohoku University, Sendai 
(series 2, Geology), Special Volume, 3: 1-464 [see also Masuda and 
Noda, 1976]. 

Hay ami, I. 1975. A systematic survey of the Mesozoic Bivalvia from 
Japan. The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Bulletin, 
10: iv + 249 pages, 10 plates [Appendix, pages 177-188, "Registered 
specimens preserved in the University Museum, University of 
Tokyo"]. [A companion volume to Hayami and Kase (1977), cited 
in our first catalogue.] 

Herbert, D.G. 1997 ["1996"] A critical review of the trochoidean types 
in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Bordeaux (Mollusca: 
Gastropoda). Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Section A, Zoologie (4*= serie), 18(3-4): 409-445. 

Hertz, CM. 1994. Dr. Fred Baker, San Diego conchologist: a most 
remarkable man. The Festivus, 26(1): 3-14. 

Ivanov, D.L., Yu.I. Kantor, A.V. Sysoev, and R.V. Egorov. 1993. Type 



360 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

specimens of molluscs described by G. Fischer von Waldheim in 
1807. Apex, 8(3): 71-94, plates 1-9. 

Janssen, R. 1993. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums 
Senckenberg, 81. Die Typen der von Dunker 1860/1861 
beschriebenen japanischen MeeresmoUusken. Archiv fiir 
Molluskenkunde, 122: 403-435. 

Johnson, R.I. 1994. Types of shelled Indo-Pacific mollusks described by 
William Harper Pease (1824-71). Bulletin of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, 154(1): 1-61. 

Johnson, R.I. 1996. Types of land and freshwater mollusks from the 
Hawaiian Islands in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Bulletin 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 155(4): 159-214. 

Jones, R. 1992. The type and figured collection (excluding plant fossils) 
in the Palaeontology Section of the Australian Museum, with special 
reference to vertebrates. The Beagle, Records of the Northern 
Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences, 9(1): 249-254. 

Kaas, P. and J. Knudsen. 1992. Lorentz Spengler's descriptions of 
chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Zoologische Mededelingen, 
66(3): 49-90. 

Kabat, A.R. 1996. Molluscan types of the Albatross expeditions to the 
Eastern Pacific described by W.H. Dall (1908). Bulletin of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, 155(1): 1-30. 

Kabat, A.R. and K.J. Boss. 1997 Karl Eduard von Martens (1831-1904): 
His Life and Works. Department of Mollusks, Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge MA. vii + 417 pp. 

Kabat, A.R., Y. Finet and K. Way. 1997. Catalogue of the Naticidae 
(Mollusca: Gastropoda) described by C.A. Recluz, including the 
location of type specimens. Apex, 12(1): 15-26. 

Kennedy, W.J. 1993. A note on the lectotype of Ammonir^^ ^eau^ann 
Brongniart, 1822 (Cretaceous, Albian). Cretaceous Research, 14(2): 
235-238. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 361 

Kikuchi, N. 1996. Catalogue of the shellfish type specimens described 
by the late Dr. Tokubei Kuroda in the possession of Nishinomiya 
City. Nishinomiya City [and the Kikushi Institute of Malacology]. 
152 pp., 44 pis. 

Kilias, R. 1992. Die Typen und Typoide der Mollusken-Sammlung des 
Zoologischen Museums in Beriin (11). 11. Euthyneura, 
Stylommatophora, Sigmurethra: Achatinoidea 2, Achatinidae. 
Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 68(1): 167- 
180. 

Kilias, R. 1995a. Polyplacophora-Typen und -Typoide (MoUusca) im 
Zoologischen Museum in Berlin. Mitteilungen aus dem 
Zoologischen Museum in Berhn, 71(1): 155-170. 

Kilias, R. 1995b. Scaphopoda-Typen und -Typoide (Mollusca) im 
Zoologischen Museum in Berlin. Mitteilungen aus dem 
Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 71(1): 171-177. 

Klinger, H.C. 1994. Cretaceous ammonite collection from Texas: R. 
Lasswit2, Die Kreide-Ammoniten von Texas. Journal of 
Paleontology, 68(6): 1409. 

Kosuge, S. 1992. Transfer of the holotypes (No. 1). Bulletin of the 
Institute of Malacology Tokyo, 2(10): 158, 171. 

Kosuge, S. 1993. The memories of the late Mr. Ranja Tiba (28 April 
1909 - 28 May 1993). Occasional Publication of the Institute of 
Malacology of Tokyo, North Pacific Shells, 19: 1-28, 5 plates [type 
repository not specified]. 

Kubodera, T. and K. Tsuchiya. 1993. Catalogue of specimens of the 
Class Cephalopoda (Phylum Mollusca) in The National Science 
Museum, Tokyo. Tokyo, National Science Museum [unpaginated]. 

Loch, I. 1992. J. C. Verco - Malacological bibliography and taxa. 
Australian Museum, Sydney (manuscript), 9 pages. 

Loch, I. 1996. Notice: R. Viader collection. Molluscan Research, 17: 
110. 



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Lu, C.C, R. Boucher-Rodoni and A. Tillier. 1995. Catalogue of types of 
Recent Cephalopoda in the Museum national d'Histoire naturelle 
(France). Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Section 
A, Zoologie (4= serie), 17(3-4): 307-343. 

Marandat, B. 1994. Premier catalogue des specimens-types 
paleontologiques deposes dans les collections de I'Universite de 
Montpellier II (Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc). 
Paleovertebrata (Memoire extraordinaire), 1 13 pages. 

Marcomini, J.-L. 1994. La collection Leon Silvestre de Sacy (1867- 
1928). Cossmanniana, Bulletin du Groupe d'Etude et de Recherche 
Macrofaune Cenozoique, 3(1): 13-29. 

Masuda, K. and H. Noda. 1976. Check list and bibliography of the 
Tertiary and Quaternary Mollusca of Japan, 1950-1974. Sendai, 
Saito Ho-on Kai, 494 pages. 

McNamara, K.J., J.A. Long and K. Brimmell. 1991. Catalogue of type 
fossils in the Western Australian Museum. Records of the Western 
Australian Museum, Supplement, 39: 106 pages. 

Mellini, A. 1986 ["1985"]. Revisione di alcuni tipi di molluschi fossili 
eocenici di A. De Gregorio. Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia 
Naturale di Verona, 12: 381-403. 

Micali, P. and A. Villari. 1991 ["1989"]. Le specie malacologiche di 
Salice (Messina) istituite da Giuseppe Seguenza. Atti della 
Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti, Classe di Scienze Fisiche, 
Matematiche e Naturali, 67, Supplemento, 1: 345-363 [types not 
extant (see also paper by Geronimo herein)]. 

Mienis, H.K. 1993a. Type specimens of Mollusca in the collection of the 
Hebrew University of Jersualem, 4. The genus Theba Risso, 1826 
(Hehcidae). Levantina, 76: 13-14. 

Mienis, H.K. 1993b. Type specimens of Mollusca in the collection of the 
Hebrew University of Jersualem, 5. The genus Pupoides Pfeiffer, 
1854 (Pupillidae). Levantina, 76: 23-25. 



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Mienis, H.K. 1994a. Revd H.E.J. Biggs (1895-1973): an update of his 
malacological publications, with a list of the taxa introduced by him 
in the Mollusca. The Conchologists' Newsletter, 128: 293-295. 

Mienis, H.K. 1994b. A note on the type material of Chronos fultoni 
Coen, 1922, from Papua New Guinea (Pulmonata: Endodontidae 
Charopinae). Basteria, 58(5-6): 194. 

Mienis, H.K. 1994c. Type specimens of Mollusca in the collection of the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 6. The genus Ranella Lamarck, 
1816 (Ranellidae). Levantina, 81: 5-7. 

Mikkelsen, P.M. and A. Bradford. 1997. Annotated catalog of type 
specimens in the malacological collection of the Delaware Museum 
of Natural History. Part II. Additions and corrections to Part I 
(Prosobranchia, AUogastropoda, and Opisthobranchia), plus Bivalvia, 
Scaphopoda and Polyplacophora. Nemouria, Occasional Papers of 
the Delaware Museum of Natural History [in press]. 

Moolenbeek, R.G. and A.N. van der Bijl. 1992. The type specimen of 
Helix conospira Pfeiffer, 1851 (Notes on the history of the 
Malacological Collection [of] the Zoologisch Museum Amsterdam, 
No. 1). The Chiribotan, Newsletter of the Malacological Society of 
Japan, 23(1): 4-6. 

Moolenbeek, R.G. and A.N. van der Bijl. 1994. De malacologen bij 
Natura Artis Magistra en het Zoologisch Museum Amsterdam 1 838- 
1964. Pages 29-40, [in] M. Coomans-Eustatia, R. Moolenbeek, W. 
Los and P. Prins (eds.), De Horen en Zijn Echo. Verzameling essays 
opgedragen aan Dr Henny E. Coomans ter gelegenheid van zijn 
afscheid van de Universiteit van Amsterdam op 9 September 1994. 
Stichting Libri Antilliani [and] Zoologisch Museum Amsterdam, 280 
pages. 

Nalniaeva, T.I. and N.I. Besprozvannykh. 1990. Katalog originalov, 
khranyashchikhsya v paleontologicheskom otdele tsentrl'nogo 
sibirskogo geologicheskogo muzeya pri institute geologii i geofiziki. 
Molliuski {Nautilina, Belemnoidea, Gastropoda}. [Catalogue of 
originals, held in the paleontological department of the Central 
Siberian Geological Museum at the Institute of Geology and 



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Geophysics. Mollusks {Nautilina, Belemnoidea, Gastropoda}]. 
Akademiya Nauk SSSR. Sibirskoe Otdelenie Institut Geologii i 
Geofiziki [Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Siberian Department. 
Institute of Geology and Geophysics], Novosibirsk, 106 pages [with 
Latin name indices]. 

Orlando, V.E. 1995. Designazione di lectotypi della collezioni del 
Museo Regionale di Terrasini (Palermo), Mollusca. Naturalista 
Siciliano, (ser. 4) 19(1-2): 85-87. 

Orlando, V.E., S. Palazzi and M. Sara. 1994 I Tipi de Molluschi del 
Museo deirinstituto di Zoologia dell'Universita di Palermo. 
NaturaUsta Siciliano (ser. 4), 18(3-4): 231-238. 

Owens, R.M. and M.G. Bassett. 1995. Catalogue of the type, figured, 
and cited fossils in the National Museum of Wales. Supplement 
1971-1994. National Museum of Wales Geological Series, 12: 1- 
250. 

Perrilliat, M. del C. 1992. Catalogo de ejemplares tipo de invertebrados 
fosiles en la coleccion paleontologica del Instituto de Geologia, 
UNAM, Mexico, de los anos 1977 a 1988. Paleontologia Mexicana, 
58: 1-55. 

Prieur, A., N. Coudert, M. le Hegarat and M. Sirven. 1983. Catalogue 
des types et figures conserves a I'Universite C. Bernard - Lyon I - 
6eme liste: Ammonites. Lyon, Departement des Sciences de la 
Terre, Universite Claude-Bernard, 1,050 pages. 

Saito, H. 1994. Correction of registered number and transfer of 
depository of type materials of Chlamys (Hinnites) boninensis 
Dijkstra & Matsukuma, 1993. Venus, The Japanese Journal of 
Malacology, 53(3): 240. 

Sandberg, L. and A. Waren. 1993. Molluscan taxa introduced by Nils 
Hjahnar Odhner. Malakologische Abhandlungen, 16(15): 117-134. 

Sasaki, T. and T. Okutani. 1994. Type specimens of four lottiid limpets 
described by J. Christiaens (1980) from Hong Kong. Venus, The 
Japanese Journal of Malacology, 53(2): 129-132. 



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Saul, L.R. 1993. Type and referred specimens of fossil Invertebrata in 
the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Supplement 4: 
specimens formerly conserved at the University of California, Los 
Angeles. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 
Technical Report, 8: iv + 72 pages. 

Schi(|)tte, T. 1992. Forsskal and Niebuhr: their expeditions and 
collections. Pages 353-356, [in] E. Gittenberger and J. Goud (eds.), 
Proceedings of the Ninth International Malacological Congress 
Edinburgh, 31 August - 6 September 1986. Leiden, UNITAS 
Malacologica and Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, 414 pages. 

Schniebs, K. 1995. Die Typen und Typoide der Molluskensammlung des 
Staatlichen Museums fiir Tierkunde Dresden (I). Die Typen der von 
Anton (1838) beschriebenen rezenten Mollusken: 1. Neritidae, 
Littorinidae, Naticidae, Vasidae. Malakologisches Abhandlungen, 
17(12): 167-171. 

Schniebs, K. 1996. Die Typen und Typoide der Molluskensammlung des 
Staatlichen Museums fiir Tierkunde Dresden (I). Die Typen der von 
Anton (1838) beschriebenen rezenten Mollusken: 2. Trochidae, 
Turbinidae, Stomatellidae. Malakologisches Abhandlungen, 18(7): 
69-74. 

Schiitt, H. and A. Zilch. 1993 ["1990"]. Rolf Brandt (1917-1989). 
Archiv fiir Molluskenkunde, 121(1-6): 15-29. 

Slieker, F.J. A. 1995. Catalogue of molluscan type specimens in the 
Natuurmuseum Rotterdam (Mollusca: Gastropoda, Bivalvia). 
Deinsea, Jaarbericht van het Natuurmuseum Rotterdam, 2: 33-40. 

Stojaspal, F. 1994. Typen und Abbildungsoriginale von Makrofossilien 
aus Ungam in den Sammlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt in 
Wien. Pages 519-520, [in] H. Lobitzer, G. Csaszar and A. Daurer 
(eds.), Julilaumsschrift 20 Jahre Geologische Zusammenarbeit 
Osterreich - Ungarn, Teil 2. Wien, Geologische Bundesanstalt, 520 
pages. 

Strack, H.L. 1987. Nierstrasz als malacoloog. Correspondentieblad van 
de Nederlandse Malacologische Vereniging, 238: 316-323. 



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Strack, H.L. 1996. In memoriamPieterKaas (1915-1996). Basteria, 60: 
161-169. 

Sumpter, P.M. and J.J. Meyer. 1991. Catalog of fossil type and figured 
specimens in the Milwaukee Public Museum. Milwaukee Public 
Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology, 82: 1-46. 

Sweeney, M.J. and C.F.E. Roper. 1991. Gilbert L. Voss: a 
commemoration, bibliography and described taxa. Bulletin of 
Marine Science, 49(1-2): 5-19. 

Sysoev, A.V. 1996. Taxonomic notes on South African deep-sea 
conoidean gastropods (Gastropoda: Conoidea) described by K.H. 
Barnard, 1963. The Nautilus, 110(1): 22-29. 

Sysoev, A.V. and Yu.I. Kantor. 1992. Names of MoUusca introduced by 
Ya. I. Starobogatov in 1957-1992. Dedicated to [his] 60th 
anniversary [birthday]. Ruthenica, Russian Malacological Journal, 
2(2): 119-159. 

Templado, J., L. Baratech, M. Calvo, M. Villena and T. Aparicio. 1993. 
Los "Ejemplares Tipo" de las colecciones malacologicas del Museo 
Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Madrid, Museo Nacional de 
Ciencias Naturales, Monografias, 328 pages. 

Trew, A. 1993a. Edgar Albert Smith's new molluscan names. Cardiff, 
National Museum of Wales, 86 pages. 

Trew, A. [1993b] (undated). The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Part 60: 
Epitonioidea (Janthinidae). Handlists of the Molluscan Collections 
in the Department of Zoology, National Museum of Wales. Cardiff, 
V -I- 4 pages. 

Trew, A. [1993c] (undated). The Melvill-Tomhn Collection, Part 61: 
Eulimoidea. Handlists of the Molluscan Collections in the 
Department of Zoology, National Museum of Wales. Cardiff, 28 
pages. 

Trew, A. [1994a] (undated). The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Part 62: 
Cerithioidea (non marine) (Thiaridae, Melanopsidae and 



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Pleuroceridae). Handlists of the Molluscan Collections in the 
Department of Zoology, National Museum of Wales. Cardiff, vi + 
96 pages. 

Trew, A. [1994b] (undated). The Melvill-Tomlin Collection, Part 63: 
Cerithioidea (marine) (Planaxidae, Modulidae, Cerithiidae, Dialidae, 
Litiopidae, Campanilidae, Diastomatidae, Potamididae, Fossaridae, 
Symolopsidae, Turritellidae, Siliquaridae, Vermetidae). Handlists of 
the Molluscan Collections in the Department of Zoology, National 
Museum of Wales. Cardiff, v + 83 pages [note: the Symolopsidae 
are actually non-marine]. 

Trew, A. and M. Seddon. 1996. Paul Pallary's (1891-1939) new 
molluscan names. Cardiff, National Museum of Wales [in press]. 

Turner, H. 1993. Mitriform gastropods: confused and neglected taxa 
from the Red Sea. Revision of five taxa of Costellariidae introduced 
by Jickeh and Cooke. La Conchiglia, 25(268): 10-15. 

Van Aartsen, J.J. and H.P.M.G. Menkhorst. 1996. Nordsieck's 
Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda Prosobranchia): A revision of his types. 
Part 1: The genera Chrysallida, Ondina (s.n. Evalea) and Menestho. 
Basteria, 60: 45-56. 

Verdcourt, B. 1992a. Collectors in East Africa- 15: Emin Pasha. The 
Conchologists' Newsletter, 120: 439-448. 

Verdcourt, B. 1992b. Collectors in East Africa. No. 16: W. Doherty 
(1857-1901). The Conchologists' Newsletter, 122: 60-65. 

Verdcourt, B. 1992c. Collectors in East Africa. No. 17: G.A. Fischer 
(1848-1886). The Conchologists' Newsletter, 123: 93-97. 

Verdcourt, B. 1993a. Collectors in East Africa. No. 18: E.C. Hoare 
(1848-1912). The Conchologists' Newsletter, 124: 126-137. 

Verdcourt, B. 1993b. Collectors in East Africa. No. 19: Supplement to 
Parts 2, 3 and 4. The Conchologists' Newsletter, 126: 217-223. 

Verdcourt, B. 1994a. Collectors in East Africa. No. 20: J.E.S. Moore 



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(1870-1947). The Conchologists' Newsletter, 129: 327-332. 

Verdcourt,B. 1994b. Collectors in East Africa. No. 21: C.R.S. Pitman 
(1890-1975). The Conchologists' Newsletter, 131: 417-424. 

Verdcourt, B. 1995a. Collectors in East Africa. No. 22: J. Petherick 
(1813-1882). The Conchologists' Newsletter, 131: 453-458. 

Verdcourt, B. 1995b. Collectors in East Africa. No. 23: K.L. Pfeiffer 
(1874-1952). The Conchologists' Newsletter, 133: 490-494. 

Yokes, E.H. 1994. The muricid types of Frank Collins Baker. The 
Nautilus, 107(4): 118-123. 

Wallin, L. 1992. Linnaean specimens in the Zoological Museum of 
Uppsala University. Archives of Natural History, 19(2): 219-230. 

Wheeler, A. 1995. Zoological collections in the British Museum: the 
Linnean Society's Museum. Archives of Natural History, 22(2): 235- 
254. 

Wiktor, J. 1992. Type specimens of invertebrates (excluding insects) in 
the Wladyslaw Rydzewski Museum of Natural History Wroclaw 
University. Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis, 1124, Prace 
Zoologiczne, 23: 137-155. 

Winkler Prins, C.F. 1996. In memoriam Dr. C. Beets (1916-1995). 
Basteria, 59(4-6): 141-148. 

Wuthrich, M., A. Zilch and H. Turner. 1993 ["1990"]. Lothar Forcart 
(1902-1990). Archiv fur Molluskenkunde, 121(1-6): 1-13. 

Supplement to 1992 paper. 

Three papers which were "in press" at the time of our 
1992 catalogue were subsequently published. We list here 
further bibliographical data; please make the following 
emendations to the bibliography of Kabat and Boss (1992): 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 369 



Kabat and Finet (1992) -- pagination: 223-253. 

Kohn (1992) ~ actual title: "A chronological taxonomy of 

Conus, 1758-1840" ~ pagination: x -h 315 pages, 26 

plates. 
Schi({)tte and Waren (1992) - add: 35: 1-34. 

Several museums have had changes in addresses or 
institutional names which are listed below. In particular, new 
five-digit postal codes are now in effect for the museums in 
Germany. 

Zoologisches Museum, Berlin: D- 101 15 Berlin. 
Palaontologisches Museum und Institut, Bonn: 

D-53111Bonn. 
Ubersee Museum, Bremen: D-28195 Bremen. 
Naturwissenschaftliches Museum, Coburg: D-96450 Coburg 
Staatliches Museum, Dresden: D-01067 Dresden. 
Lobbecke Museum + Aquazoo, Diisseldorf: 

Lobbecke Museum + Aquazoo, Scheidt-Keim-Stiftung, 

Kaiserwerther StraBe 380, D-40200 Diisseldorf. 
Natur-Museum Senckenberg, Frankfurt: D-60325 Frankfurt. 
Bergakademie Freiberg: D-09599 Freiburg. 
Museum der Natur, Gotha: D-99867 Gotha. 
Zoologisches Museum, Gottingen: D-37073 Gottingen. 
Zoologisches Museum, Hamburg: D-20146 Hamburg. 
Zoologisches Museum der Universitat, Kiel: D-24105 Kiel. 
Kulturhistorisches Museum, Magdeburg: 

D-39 104 Magdeburg. 
Bayerische Staatssammlung, Munchen: D-80333 Miinchen. 
Zoologische Staatssammlung, Miinchen: D-81247 Munchen. 
Geologisch-Palaontologisch Institut, Munster: 

D-48149Munster. 
Naturkundemuseum Reutlingen: D-72764 Reutlingen. 



370 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Staatliches Museum fiir Naturkunde, Stuttgart: 

D-70191 Stuttgart. 
Institut und Museum fiir Geologie und Palaontologie, 

Tubingen: D-72076 Tubingen. 
Naturhistorischen Museum, Wiesbaden: 

D-65 185 Wiesbaden. 

The Zoologisch Museum Amsterdam has a revised maihng 
address: 

P.O. Box 94766, NL 1090 GT Amsterdam, The 
Netherlands. 

The Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneve (Switzerland) has 
a new postal address: P.O. Box 6434. 

The National Museum of New Zealand is now known as the 
"Museum of New Zealand" [= "Te Papa Tongarewa"] but 
the museum acronym (NMNZ) and the address remain 
unchanged. 

Canada: the Geological Survey acronym should be GSC. 



f^ 



Occasional Papers on Mollusks 



Published by 

The Department of Mollusks 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Volume 5 1 August 1997 Number 71 



COMMENTS ON "THE FINAL REPORT"OF A 

MASSIVE SEARCH FOR 

LASMIGONA DECORATA (LEA, 1852) AND 

ALASMIDONTA ROBUSTA CLARKE, 198 1 

(BIVALVIA: UNIONIDAE) FROM THE CAROLINAS 



Richard I. Johnson^ 



Abstract. An extensive search of the Cooper-Santee and Pee Dee River 
Systems by Keferl and Shelley (1988) in a quest for the nominal species 
Lasmigona decorata (Lea, 1852) and Alasmidonta robusta Clarke, 1981 
resulted in finding a few specimens that were identified as the former and 
none identified as the latter. I suggest that both these nominal species 
may be large examples of well known species. A number of unionid 
species previously unrecorded from the Pee Dee River System are listed. 



Department of Mollusks, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, MA 

02138. 

371 



372 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

In 1986 the North Carolina State Museum of Natural 
Science was contracted by the Office of Endangered Species, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to make a status survey of 
Alasmidonta robusta Clarke, 1981 and Lasmigona decorata 
(Lea, 1852), which Clarke (1985: 57) had removed from the 
Johnson (1970: 343) synonymy of Lasmigona subvirdis 
(Conrad, 1835). An astonishing number of localities were 
sampled during the survey by Keferi and Shelley (1988), 452 
on 237 different rivers, streams, and impoundments in the 
Catawaba River drainage of the Cooper-Santee River System 
and the Lynches and Pee Dee River drainages of the Pee Dee 
River System. Their efforts at five localities in the headwater 
streams of the two river systems resulted in the discovery of 
a few specimens identified by them as L. decorata; no 
examples of A. robusta were collected. 

Isaac Lea (1792-1886) described more than a score of 
nominal unionid species from the headwater streams of the 
Catawba River in Mecklenburg County, part of the Cooper- 
Santee River System, and from the upper part of the Pee Dee 
River System in Union County; both counties being in North 
Carolina. Many of these nomina are now recognized as 
synonyms of species of Elliptio or Uniomerus. It would 
appear that the streams in this area once abounded with 
unionids. Specimens of some described taxa such as 
Anodonta doliaris Lea, 1863 (Johnson, 1970, pi. 14, fig. 3) 
and Unio charlottensis L&d., 1863 (Johnson, 1970, pi. 12, fig. 
9) attained large size as, it appears, did Alasmidonta robusta 
Clarke, 1985 (p. 81, fig. 27. a-c). 

Keferi and Shelley (1988: 21) noted that in the nineteenth 
century many of these headwater streams were dammed to 
produce mill ponds (Bissels Pond, Elias Pond, Flanigans 
Pond, and Pfeiffers Pond may be examples) since "many 
remnants of small dams and walls made of native rock were 
discovered." The exact location of all of these ponds, some 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 373 

which are type localities, has not been determined. Johnson 
(1970: 345) assumed that the existence of ponds produced an 
environment favorable to growth which led to both Unio 
decoratus and charlotensis being placed in the synonymy of 
L. subviridis (Conrad, 1835). Clarke (1985: 57) stated that, 
"except for its much larger size and increased shell thickness, 
the shells of L. decorata do not differ significantly from those 
of L. subviridis.'''' 

Most of the nominal species described by Lea from the 
Abbeville District, South Carolina appeared to Johnson 
(1970) to belong to the Savannah River System. Clarke 
(1985: 60) correctly noted that the district was bordered on 
the east by the Saluda River and that since no Lasmigona 
have been positively reported from the Savannah River 
System there is no reason to think that L. decorata ever 
extended beyond the Cooper-Santee River System. Clarke 
concluded that L. decorata was probably restricted to the 
upper tributaries of the Catawba and Pee Dee drainages in the 
vicinity of Mecklenberg and Union Counties, North Carolina. 
Since then, however, Atheam (1992: 91) has reported the 
finding of Lasmigona decorata [not seen] from the Oconee 
River (a tributary of the Savannah River) about 0.4 mi. NW 
of Wallace Dam Site, Putnam County, Georgia. 

Specimens identified by Keferl and Shelley (1988: 24) as 
L. decorata were collected living at two sites in Waxahaw 
Creek of the Catawba River drainage and at three sites in 
Goose Creek and Lynches River of the Pee Dee River 
System. Three of the specimens from Waxahaw Creek 
measured from 100 to 118 mm in length and even smaller 
ones from Goose Creek and Lynches River are larger from 
those of L. subviridis found in more northern river systems. 
However, if there is sufficient genetic differences to 
distinguish that L. subviridis and decorata are distinct species 
it will be done by electrophoresis and not on the basis of shell 



374 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

characteristics. 

Clarke (1981: 81-84) based his description of 
Alasmidonta robusta on five examples from Long Creek [near 
Charlotte], Mecklenburg County, North Carolina collected by 
Charles M. Wheatley (1822-1882) who wrote "new" in the 
largest specimen. Four of these are in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and one is now in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Clarke, after a considerable discussion of the differences 
between robusta and Alasmidonta varicosa (Lamarck, 1819) 
conceded that it was a problem to decide if robusta was 
distinct from the latter. The largest specimen, mentioned 
above, measuring 65.65 mm in length, was selected as 
holotype ANSP 126755 and illustrated by line drawings. 
Since the reproduction of the photograph of the holotype, 
showing its tooth structure and another of a paratype in Keferl 
and Shelley (1988: figs. 19 and 17) are not especially clear, 
the holotype and two of the paratypes are here illustrated 
(Plate 20). Johnson (1970) illustrated the holotypes of the 
other nominal species discussed above, Unio decoratus, U. 
charlottensis, and Anodonta doliaris, and it is suggested that 
they are, as well as A. robusta, ecophenotpic variants of other 
species. 

Since it is not known if the "Final Report"(Keferl and 
Shelley, 1988) is actually considered a publication, it should 
in any case, be pointed out that while their incredibly 
extensive collecting did not add any additional species to the 
21 recorded from the Cooper-Santee River System by 
Johnson (1970: 274 [given as 20, Pleurobema masoni 
(Conrad, 1834) was inadvertently left off the chart]). Their 
collecting in the Pee Dee River System, of species previously 
unrecorded from it, listed below, indicates that this system 
contains about the same number of species as the Cooper- 
Santee River System to the south and the Cape Fear River 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 375 

System to the north. 

Elliptio sp. (A lanceolate species) 

Elliptio folliiculata (Lea, 1838) 

Elliptio spp. 

Alasmidonta varicosa (Lamarck, 1819) 

Lasmigona decorata (Lea, 1852)' 

Strophitus undulatus (Say, 1817) 

Toxolasma pullus (Conrad, 1834)^ 

Villosa constricta (Conrad, 1838) 

Villosa sp. 

Ligumia nasuta (Say, 1817)^ 

Lampsilis radiata conspicua (Lea, 1 872)** 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author is grateful to Mr. Richard G. Biggins of the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Asheville, North Carolina for 
a copy of "The Final Report" by Keferl and Shelley (1988) 
and to Dr. Kenneth J. Boss and Mr. Daniel L. Graf for reading 
the manuscript. 

REFERENCES CITED 

Athearn, H.D. 1992. New records for some species of Alasmidontini. 
Malacology Data Net 3(1-4): 90-91 (April). 



Lasmigona subviridis (Conrad, 1835) teste (Johnson, 1970: 344). 

2 
Carunculina pulla (Johnson, 1970: 370). 

3 

A species of the Northern Atlantic Slope. The single record from the 
Southern Atlantic slope from the James River given by Johnson (1970: 382) 
was based on Conrad (1836: 38, pi. 18, fig.l). 

Lampsilis radiata radiata (Gmelin, 1791) teste Johnson, 1970: 390). 



376 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Clarke, A.H. 1981. The Tribe Alasmidontini (Unionidae: Anodontinae), 
Part I: Pegias, Alasmidonta, and Arcidens. Smithsonian Contributions 
to Zoology 326: i-iv + 101 pp., 32 figs., 24 tables. 

Clarke, A.H. 1985. The Tribe Alasmidontini (Uniondae: Anodontinae), 
Part II: Lasmigona and Simpsonaias. Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology 399: i-iii + 75 pp., 22 figs., 14 tables. 

Conrad, T.A. 1836-40. Monography of the family Uniondae, or naiades 
of Lamarck, (freshwater bivalve shells) of North America. 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, i-iv + 1 18 pp. [pp. 13-16 never printed], 
pis. 1-65. 

Johnson, R.I. 1970. The systematics and zoogeography of the Unionidae 
(Mollusca: Bivalvia) of the Southern Atlantic Slope Region. Bulletin 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 140: 263- 
449, plates 1-22. 

Keferel, E.P. and R.M. Shelley 1988. The final report on a status survey 
of the Carolina Heelslpitter, Lasmigona decorata and the Carolina 
Elktoe, Lasmigona robusta. Prepared for U.S. Department of the 
Interior Fish and Wildlife Service and North Carolina State Museum of 
Natural Science, pp. 47, figs. 1-19 July. Appendix A. Localities 
examined in the Saluda, Catawba and Pee Dee River Systems in north 
Carolina and South Carolina [not seen]. Xeroxed report available from 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ashville Field Office, Ashville, North 
Carolina, 28801. 

Plate 20 
Alasmidonta robusta Clarke, 1981 

Fig. 1. Long Creek [of the Catawba River] Mecklenberg County, North Carolina. 
Holotype Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 126755. Length 66 
mm, height 33 mm, width 43 mm (slightly reduced). 

Fig. 2. Ibid. Paratype Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 126575. 
Length 57 mm, height 31mm, width 25 mm, (slightly reduced). 

Fig. 3. Ibid. Paratype Museum of Comparative Zoology 294959. Length 51 
mm, width 22 mm, height 31 mm (natural size). 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



377 





Plate 20 



378 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

An overlooked Northern European marine gastropod, Omalaxis 
SARSI Bush 1897. Dr. Alan R. Kabat kindly pointed out that I (1989) had 
overlooked the following taxon, which was introduced in a footnote; a 
syntype, of which, was located in the National Museum of Natural History, 
Washington, D.C. by Dr. Anders Waren. While he has not published on 
it [personal communication]. Ponder (1990: 532) regarded it as a probable 
species of Orbitestella. 

sarsi Bush, [Omalaxis] 

1897, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences 10: 128 [footnote]. 
Based on Sars. 1878, p. 214, pi. 22, fig. 20, a-c (Lofoten [Islands, 
Norway]), non Omalaxis supranitidus (Wood). Location of figured 
type unknown. Syntype United States National Museum [now National 
Museum of Natural History] 181789, under Wood's name in the J.G. 
Jeffreys collection from G.O. Sars. An additional lot USNM 181720 
was not located; probable syntype Zoological Museum, University of 
Oslo (uncataloged), teste Waren (personal communication). 

REFERENCES CITED 

Bush, K.J. 1897. Revision of the marine gastropods referred to Cydostrema, 
Adeorbis, Vitrinella, and related genera; with descriptions of some new genera 
and species belonging to the Atlantic fauna of America. Transactions of the 
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 10: 97-144, pis. 22, 23 (June and 
July). 

Johnson, R.I. 1989. Molluscan taxa of Addision Emery Verrill and Katherine 
Jeannette Bush, including those introduced by Sanderson Smith and Alphus 
HyaU Verrill. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 5(67): 1-143, pis. 1-19 (August). 

Ponder, W.F. 1990. The anatomy and relationships of the Orbitestellidae 
(Gastropoda: Heterobranchia). Journal of Molluscan Studies 56(4): 515-532. 

Sars, G.O. 1878. Mollusca regionis Arcticae Norvegiae. Christiania. 466 pp., pis. 
1-18, folding map. 

Richard I. Johnson 
Department of Mollusks 
Museum of Comparative Zoology 



Occasional Papers on Mollusks 

::.i-<Sii Y 



Published by 

The Department of Mollusks 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 



Volume 5 1 August 1997 Number 72 

CORRECT FAMILY NAMES FOR THE 

FRESHWATER "MUTELOID" BIVALVES 

(UNIONOIDA: ETHERIOIDEA) 

Alan R. Kabat^ 



Abstract. This paper discusses the family level nomenclature of the 
tropical freshwater unionoidan bivalves usually referred to as the 
"Muteloidea" (or Mutelacea). There are numerous errors and 
discrepancies in the literature concerning the attribution of the relevant 
family names, which has led to taxonomic instability. It is here shown 
that Etherioidea Deshayes 1 830 is the correct superfamily name for this 
group; the constituent families include Etheriidae Deshayes 1830, 
Iridinidae Swainson 1840 (+ "Mutelidae"), and Mycetopodidae Gray 
1840 (the last as a subfamily in some classifications). Taxonomic 
stability will be maximized by usage of the correct names for these 
bivalves. 



Division of Mollusks NHB-118, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Instinition, Washington, D.C. 20560 U.S.A. 

379 



380 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

INTRODUCTION 

The freshwater bivalves of the Order Unionoida are 
usually classified in two superfamilies (e.g., Boss, 1982: 
11 23-1 127). The Unionoidea [= Unionacea], with over 1,000 
Recent species, is best known for its glochidium larva, which 
has two valves during the dispersal and attachment stage. The 
Unionoidea includes several Recent families; most authors 
have recognized the Unionidae, Margaritiferiidae and 
Hyriidae. 

The other superfamily, usually called the "Muteloidea" [or 
Mutelacea], is significantly less speciose (with about 125 
tropical species) and is the subject of this paper. These 
bivalves have a lasidium (or haustorium) larva which is not 
truly bivalved, in contrast to the glochidium larva of the 
Unionoidea (Parodiz and Bonetto, 1963; Heard and Vail, 
1976). 

This smaller superfamily of the Unionoidea has had a 
significant variety of family-level names applied to its 
constituent taxa. A careful survey of the relevant literature 
has shown that no one author has made the correct 
determinations of the family names or the author-date thereof. 
The purpose of this paper is to delineate all relevant family 
names applied to "muteloid" bivalves and to determine their 
correct attributions. 

Indeed, almost every author who has provided a 
classification for this group has used a different combination 
of names, authors, and dates. Taxonomic stability, including 
the ease of information retrieval, is significantly hampered by 
the inconsistent usage of these names in the literature. The 
correct usage, as here determined, will actually maximize 
taxonomic stability by providing a single, common reference 
frame. 

Before reviewing the names and classifications which 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 381 

have been applied to "muteloid" bivalves, several 
fundamental principles (here paraphrased) of the International 
Code of Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN, 1985] should be 
taken into consideration. 

1. A family name established at any one rank is 
simultaneously established with the same author and date at 
all other family level ranks [Article 36(a)]. 

In other words, if Swainson in 1840 had established the 
"Iridininae," then the "Iridinidae" (if used), also dates to 
Swainson 1840. 

2. A family name, when described, must end in a latinized 
suffix (e.g. -idae, -inae), and not merely the plural noun or 
adjective referring to a genus [Article 1 l(f)(i)(2)]. However, 
a family group name published prior to 1900, but not fully 
latinized, can be made available with the original author-date, 
if it was latinized by a subsequent author, and if this was 
"generally accepted" by other authors [Article 1 l(f)(iii)]. 

These considerations are of direct relevance to the 
problem of the "muteloid" bivalves. 

The first author to discuss the family-level classification 
of "muteloid" bivalves was Deshayes in 1830 (also in 1831). 
Deshayes, in his tabular charts showing the higher 
classification of bivalves, explicitly referred to various taxa 
now placed in the "Muteloidea". However, Deshayes did not 
have formally latinized generic or family level names. 
Deshayes used two family names for this group: Etheries 
[for "Etherie", i.e. Etheria Lamarck 1807] and Mullerie [for 
"Mullerie", i.e. Mulleria Ferussac 1824]. Both generic and 
family names were given in the "vernacular" by Deshayes. 
According to ICZN Article 1 1(f), these two names could be 
accepted as validly described in Deshayes (1830) if they were 
subsequently latinized and if this has been accepted by other 
authors (the latter potentially a subjective criterion). 

Swainson (May 1840), in his "quinarian" classification of 



382 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

mollusks, appears to have been the first subsequent author to 
have formally latinized one of Deshayes' names: on pages 
257 and 390, Swainson used Etheridae, which has a latinized 
suffix. This was further emended to Etheriadae by Gray 
(Nov. 1840: 141) and is now spelled as Etheriidae. This 
family name has received frequent usage in the malacological 
and faunistic literature, although few authors have correctly 
dated it to "Deshayes 1830". 

Deshayes' other family name, "Mullerie," has been 
largely ignored by subsequent authors. As far as I can 
determine, the first source to use the form "Mulleriidae" was 
Starobogatov (1970: 73, 74). Herrmannsen (1846: 24; 1847: 
61) had used "MuUeriae" which is not a plural but should be 
regarded as a family name since he stated it to be "secunda 
familia Monomyariourum primi ordinis" [note the 
erroneously added umlaut in the name]. The Mulleriidae has 
been used (in this century) only by Russian authors (see also 
Nevesskaya, et ai, 1971a: 13, 1971b: 149; Scarlato & 
Starobogatov, 1979: 20; 1985 translation: 19; Starobogatov, 
1992: 20), thus the Mulleriidae has not been as widely 
accepted by other authors. 

In any case, most non-Russian authors have classified 
Etheria and Mulleria in the same family, Etheriidae. Hence 
the Mulleriidae and Etheriidae are synonyms, and it is here 
concluded that taxonomic stability will be maximized by the 
usage of Etheriidae Deshayes 1830 for these and related 
genera. 

There are two other groups of "muteloids" traditionally 
classified in the African Mutelidae and the neotropical 
Mycetopodidae. A careful consideration of the nomenclature 
of these two groups shows discrepancies and errors in the 
usage of the family level names for these two groups. 

Most authors have used "Mutelidae" for Mutela, Iridina, 
Aspatharia and certain other African genera. This family 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 383 

level name has usually been dated to "Gray 1847" {i.e., as 
"Muteladae", on page 197). However, Swainson in 1840 had 
already established the Iridininae as a subfamily of the 
Unionidae (pages 286, 380). This was subsequently elevated 
to a full family, Iridinidae, by Gray (1840: 142, 155). As 
subsequent authors have invariably classified Iridina and 
Mutela in the same family, then this means that the 
Iridinidae Swainson 1840 has seven years' priority over the 
Mutelidae Gray 1847. 

The remaining neotropical group, comprising Andontites, 
Mycetopoda, and other genera (see Vaught, 1989: 124) has 
traditionally been classified in the Mycetopodidae, which 
dates from Gray 1840 (pages 142, 155). Heard and Vail 
(1976), based upon anatomical research on Etheria, 
concluded that in fact Etheria was confamilial with the 
Mycetopodidae. They then stated that: 

"This action treats Etheriidae Swainson 1840 and Mycetopodidae 

Gray 1840 as synonyms. Acting as Tirst reviser' we select 

Mycetopodidae Gray as the senior synonym." (Heard and Vail, 

1976: 22). 

Their statement is doubly erroneous: (1) Swainson's 

publication actually appeared earlier in 1840 {i.e.. May) than 

did Gray's {i.e., November) and this clear priority should have 

led to the "selection" of Etheriidae as the senior synonym; (2) 

in any case, the Etheriidae actually dates to Deshayes 1830, 

as shown herein. 

Therefore, for those authors who desire to treat Etheria, 
Mycetopoda, and related genera as confamilial, then the 
Etheriidae Deshayes 1830 has priority as the family name. In 
such classifications, Mycetopodinae Gray 1840 could still be 
used as a subfamily name for certain South American genera 
within this family. Altematively, if these genera are classified 
in separate families, then of course both names are to be used 
at the family level. 



384 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Finally, to resolve the question of the proper superfamily 
name for "muteloid" bivalves. The oldest family level names 
available are the Etheriidae and Mulleriidae both of Deshayes 
1830; the next name is the Iridinidae Swainson 1840. 
Obviously, the name "Muteloidea" (or Mutelacea), dating 
from Gray 1847, must fall into synonymy. Based upon 
priority (and synonymy of Mulleriidae with Etheriidae), the 
correct superfamily name for the unionoidan bivalves with a 
lasidium larva is Etherioidea (or Etheriacea). As it happens, 
only the aforementioned Russian authors have arrived at this 
determination, albeit they also recognized the "Mulleroidea" 
as a separate superfamily (Starobogatov, 1992: 21). As Boss 
(1982: 1127) noted, "Soviet authorities are inclined to 
separate each genus into its own family..." and indeed other 

Table 1. Selected twentieth-century classifications of "mutelid" bivalves. 
An asterisk * indicates an incorrect author or date for a family-level 
taxon. 

PARODIZ & BONETTO, 1963 
MODELL, 1942: (pages 205-206): 

Mutelidae (Gray) Ihering 1 893 * Mutelacea 

Prisodontinae Modell 1942 Mutelidae Gray 1847 

Monocondylaeinae Modell 1942 Mycetopodidae Gray 1840 

Glabarinae Modell 1942 Mycetopodinae Adams & Adams 

Anodotitinae Modell 1942 1858 * 

Bartlettiinae Modell 1942 Monocondylaeinae Modell 1942 

Mycetopodinae Modell 1942 * Anodontitinae Modell 1942 

Pseudaviculinae Modell 1942 ? Leilinae Morretes 1949 

Spathopsinae Modell 1942 [The status of the Etheriidae was not 

Iridininae Modell 1942 * discussed by Parodiz & Bonetto] 

Aspathariinae Modell 1942 NEVESSKAYA, et al, 1971a (page 

Etheriinae Modell 1942 * 13); 1971b (page 149): 

Mutelinae Oitmann 1 9 1 1 * MuUerioidea Deshayes 1 830 

Diplasminae Modell 1942 Mulleriidae Deshayes 1830 

Velesunioninae Iredale 1934 Mycetopodidae Modell 1942 * 

Lortiellinae Iredale 1934 Etherioidea Deshayes 1 830 

[The last two taxa are now in Mutelidae Gray 1 847 

Unionoidea: Hyriidae] Etheriidae Deshayes 1830 

Pseudomulleriidae Starobogatov 1970 
? Desertellidae Dechaseaux 1946 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 385 

malacologists have consistently rejected the extensive 
splitting of these Russian publications. 

A review of the twentieth-century literature on "muteloid" 
bivalves has revealed a remarkable range of usage of family 
names, and often erroneous attributions of their author and 
dates (Table 1). In particular, the works of Modell (1942; 
1949; 1964) have internal inconsistencies and lack 
compliance with the ICZN principles concerning the 
attributions of family names. The two publications of Haas 
(1969a: 548-606; 1969b: N463-N467) are also inconsistent; 
in the second work, the Mutelidae was dated to "Swainson, 
1840" instead of Gray 1847 (see also Yokes, 1980: 92). 

In conclusion, it is documented that the correct superfamily 
name for unionoidan bivalves having a lasidium larval stage 
is Etherioidea Deshayes 1830, with constituent families 
Etheriidae Deshayes 1830, Iridinidae Swainson 1840 (-1- 
Mutelidae) and Mycetopodidae Gray 1840 (the last as a 
subfamily of Etheriidae in some classifications). 

CATALOGUE OF FAMILY-LEVEL NAMES 

Acostaeidae Morrison 1973: 45. As a family in the Mutelacea. For 
Acostaea d'Orbigny 1851 [South America]. 

Aetheridae Herrmannsen 1846: 24. Emendation for Edieriidae (and of 
"Aetheries" Deshayes). For "Aetheria Lamck. 1808" [= Etheria 
Lamarck] [Africa]. 

Anodontitinae Modell 1942: 175. As a subfamily of Mutelidae. For 
Anodontites Bruguiere 1792 [South America]. 

Aspathariinae Modell 1942: 177. As a subfamily of Mutelidae. For 
Asphatharia [sic] Bourguignat 1885; Leptospatha Rochebrune & 
Germain \90A; Arthropteron Rochebrune 1904 [Africa]. 

Bartlettiinae Modell 1942: 176. As a subfamily of Mutelidae. For 



386 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Bartlettia H. Adams 1870 and Acostaea d'Orbigny 1835 [South 
America]. 

Dentaspathariinae Model! 1964: 83. As a subfamily of Mutelidae. For 
Dentaspatharia Modell 1964 [fossil, Europe]; Prisodontopsis Tomlin 
1928 [= Pseudavicula Simpson 1900 non Etheridge 1892] [Afiica]. As 
the type genus of the Pseudaviculinae was a junior homonym, Modell 
thought that this necessitated a change in the family-level name. 

Desertellidae Dechaseaux 1947: 307-309. For Desertella Haug 1905 [ex 
Munier-Chalmas MS.] [fossil, North Africa]. 

Diplasminae Modell 1942: 177-178. As a subfamily of Mutelidae. For 
Diplasma Rafmesque 1831 [South Asia]. See Hemisolasminae 
Starobogatov 1970; new name for Diplasminae Modell 1942. 

Etheriae Owen 1837: 64. Printed in italics, but not properly latinized. 

Etheridae Swainson 1840 (May): 257, 390. For £r/2ena Lamarck 1807 
and Mulleria Ferussac 1824 [Africa and South America]. This 
represents the first latinization of "Etheries" Deshayes (^.v.). Emended 
to "Etheriadae" by Gray (Nov. 1840: 141); emended to "Aetheridae" by 
Herrmannsen (1846: 24). 

Etheries Deshayes 1830 (also in 1831): table, Famille 20. For "Etherie" 
[i.e., Etheria Lamarck 1807]. The family and genus are given in the 
vernacular French spelling; this was latinized by Swainson 1840. See 
also "Mullerie" herein. 

Etheriinae: Modell (1942: 176) stated that this was a "n. subfam." ~ in 
fact, the name dates to Deshayes 1 830. 

Fossulini Bonetto 1966: Ijf. As a tribe in the Monocondylaeinae. For 
Fossula Lea 1870 [South America]. 

Glabarinae Modell 1942: 175. As a subfamily of Mutelidae. For 
Glabaris Gray 1847 and Leila Gray 1840 [Central and South America]. 

Hemisolasminae Starobogatov 1970, pg. 73, 192. New name for 
Diplasminae Modell 1942. For Hemisolasma Rafinesque 1831. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 387 

However, Starobogatov transferred this taxon to the Hyriidae 
(Unionoidea). 

Iridininae Swainson 1840: 286, 380. As a subfamily of Unionidae. For 
Iridina Lamarck 1819; Calliscapha Swainson 1840; Mycetopus 
d'Orbigny 1847 [Africa and South America]. As a full family, 
Iridinindae, in Gray (1840: 142, 155). 

Iridininae: Modell (1942: 176) stated that this was a "n. subfam." ~ in 
fact, the name dates to Swainson 1840. 

Leilinae Morretes 1949: 28. As a subfamily of Monocondylaeidae [i.e., 
Mycetopodidae]. For Leila Gray 1840 [South America]. 

Monocondylaeinae Modell 1942: 175. As a subfamily of Mutelidae. For 
Monocondylaea d'Orbigny 1835; Iheringella Pilsbry 1893; 
Marshalliella Haas 1931; Diplodontites Marshall 1922; Tamsiella Haas 
1931 [South America]. 

Mullerie Deshayes 1830 (also 1831): table, Famille 23. For "Mullerie" 
[i.e., Mulleria Ferussac 1824]. The family and genus are given in the 
vernacular French spelling; this was latinized by Herrmannsen (1847: 
61), as "Miilleriae". Subsequently emended to "Mulleriidae" by 
Starobogatov (1970: 73, 74). However, note that Herrmannsen had 
previously (1846: 24) listed "Miilleriae Desh. olim" as a synonym of 
"Aetheriae Desh." (^.v.). See also "Etheries" herein. 

Muteladae Gray 1847: 197. For Mutela Scopoli 1771; Leila Gray 1840; 
Pleiodon Conrad 1834; Paxyodon Schumacher 1817; Prisodon 
Schumacher 1817 [Africa]. 

Mycetopodidae Gray 1840: 142, 155. For Mycetopus d'Orbigny 1840 [= 
Mycetopoda d'Orbigny 1835] [South America]. 

Mycetopodinae: Modell (1942: 176) stated that this was a "n. subfam." ~ 
in fact, the name dates to Gray 1 840. 

Pliodontidae Rochebrune 1904: 342. As a family. For "P/iWon Conrad 
1854" [= Pleiodon Conrad 1834]; Iridina Lamarck 1819; Cameronia 
Bourguignat 1879. 



388 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Pleiodoninae Pain & Woodward 1964: 5. As a subfamily of Mutelidae. 
For Pleiodon Conrad 1834 [Africa]. Pain & Woodward had overlooked 
Rochebrune's "Pliodontidae" (q.v.) which is a senior homonym. The 
authors stated, in a footnote, that: 

"It has been brought to our notice that the subfamily name Pleiodoninae is an 
example of incorrect latinisation and should be emended to Pleiodontinae, 
however, we consider it advisable to retain the name Pleiodoninae since the 
emended name Pleiodontinae infers [sic\ implies] that the type genus is 
Pleiodonta and not Pleiodon and thus may lead to unnecessary confusion." 

Prisodontinae Modeil: 1942: 174-175. As a subfamily of Mutelidae. For 
Prisodon Schumacher 1817 [South America]. 

Pseudaviculinae Modeil 1942: 176. As a subfamily of Mutelidae. For 
Pseudavicula Simpson 1900 [Africa]. 

Pseudomulleriidae Starobogatov 1970: 75, 288. For Pseudomulleria 
Anthony 1907 [India]. 

Spathopsinae Modeil 1942: 176. As a subfamily of Mutelidae. For 
Spathopsis Simpson 1900 [Africa]. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Philippe Bouchet, Richard I. Johnson and J.-P. Rocroi 
provided helpful discussion on various aspects of this 
manuscript. Paul Greenhall brought this problem to my 
attention. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Anthony, R. 1907 ["1906"]. Etude monographique des Aetheriidae 
(anatomic, morphogenie, systematique). Annales de la Societe Royale 
Zoologique et Malacologique de Belgique, 41: 322-430, plates 11-12. 



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Bonetto, A. A. 1966. Especies de la subfamilia Monocondylaeinae en las 
aguas del sistema del Rio de la Plata (Moll. Mutelacea). Archiv fiir 
Molluskenkunde, 95(1-2): 3-14. 

Boss, K.J. 1982. Mollusca [and] classification of MoUusca. [/n], S.P. 
Parker (ed.), Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. New 
York, McGraw Hill, 1: 945-1166; 2: 1092-1096. 

Dechaseaux, C. 1947 ["1946"]. Le genre Desertella Munier-Chalmas, 
type d'une nouvelle famille de Lamellibranches: les Desertellidae. 
Societe Geologique de France, Compte-Rendu Sonimaire des Seances, 
1946(15): 307-309. 

Deshayes, G.P. 1830 [in 1792-1832]. Mollusques. volume 2, Pages 471- 
553, [in] Encyclopedie methodique; histoire naturelle des vers. Paris, 
Panckoucke, 3 volumes. 

Deshayes, G.P. 1831. Considerations generales sur les mollusques. 
Extrait du Tome II de I'histoire naturelle des vers de I'Encydopedie 
Methodique. Paris, Agasse, 308 pages + 2 foldout tables. 

Deshayes, G.P. 1853 [in 1839-1853]. Traite Elementaire de 
Conchyliologie avec les applications de cette science a la Geologic. 3 
volumes. Paris, Victor Masson, 1(1): 1-368 [1839]; 1(2): 1-128 [1839]; 
1(2): 129-824 [1850]; 2: 1-384 [1853]; 132 plates (+ text, 80 pages). 

Gray, I.E. 1840 [4 November]. [Mollusca], pages 86-89; 106-151, [m], 
Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum, 42nd edition. 
London: G. Woodfall and Son, iv + 370 pages. 

Gray, J.E. 1847 [post November 9]. A list of the genera of recent 
Mollusca, their synonyma and types. Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, 15(179): 129-219. 

Haas, F. 1969a [January]. Superfamilia Unionacea. Das Tierreich, 
Lieferung 88: x + 663 pages. Berlin, Walter de Gruyter & Co. 

Haas, F. 1969b [November]. Superfamily Unionacea Fleming, 1828. 
Pages N411-N471, [in], R.C. Moore (ed.). Treatise on Invertebrate 
Paleontology, Part N, Mollusca 6 Bivalvia. Boulder and Lawrence, 



390 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, 2 
volumes, xxxviii + pages N1-N952. 

Heard, W.H. and V.A. Vail. 1976. Anatomical systematics of Etheria 
elliptica (Pelecypoda: Mycetopodidae). Malacological Review, 9(1-2): 
15-24. 

Herrmannsen, A.N. 1846-1852. Indicis Generum Malacozoorum. 
Cassell, Fischer. [2 volumes + supplement. Dates of publication, 1: 
1-232 (1846); 1: 233-637, 2: 1-352 (1847); 2: 353-492 (1848); 2: 
493-717 (1849); Supplement, vi + 1-140 (1852)]. 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN]. 1985. 
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Third Edition. 
University of California Press, Berkeley, xx -i- 338 pages. 

Modell, H. 1942. Das natiirliche System der Najaden. Archiv fiir 
Molluskenkunde, 74(5-6): 161-191. 

Modell, H. 1949. Das natiirliche System der Najaden. 2. Archiv fiir 
Molluskenkunde, 78(1-3): 29-46. 

Modell, H. 1964. Das natiirliche System der Najaden. 3. Archiv fiir 
Molluskenkunde, 93(3-4): 71-126. 

Morretes, F.L. de. 1949. Ensaio de Catalogo dos Moluscos do Brasil. 
Arquivos do Museu Parananense (Curitaba), 7(1): 5-216. 

Morrison, J.P.E. 1973. The families of the pearly freshwater mussels. 
Bulletin of the American Malacological Union, Inc., 38: 45-46. 

Nevesskaya, L.A., O.A. Scarlato, Ya.I. Starobogatov, and A.G. Eberzin. 
1971a [May]. Novyye predstavleniia o sisteme dvustvorchatykh 
molliuskov. Paleontologicheskii Zhumal, 1971(2): 3-20. 

Nevesskaya, L.A., O.A. Scarlato, Ya.I. Starobogatov, and A.G. Eberzin. 
1971b [December]. New ideas on bivalve systematics. Paleontological 
Journal, 5(2): 141-155 [English translation of the previous item]. 

Ortmann, A.E. 1921. South American Naiades; a contribution to the 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 39 1 

knowledge of the freshwater mussels of South America. Memoirs of 
the Carnegie Museum, 8(3): 451-670, plates 34-48. 

Owen, R. 1837 [20 Dec.]. On the structure of the shell of the water clam 
(Spondylus varius). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 
5(Iiv): 63-66. 

Pain, T. and F.R. Woodward. 1964. A monograph of the African 
bivalves of the genus Pleiodon Conrad (= Iridina authors) (MoUusca - 
Mutelidae). Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika, Annalen, 
Zoologische Wetenschappen / Musee Royal de I'Afrique Centrale, 
Annales, Sciences Zoologiques, 130: 1-33, plates 1-4 

Parodiz, J.J. and A. A. Bonetto. 1963. Taxonomy and zoogeographic 
relationships of the South American naiades (Pelecypoda: Unionacea 
and Mutelacea). Malacologia, 1(2): 179-213. 

Rochebrune, A.-T. de. 1904. Recherches sur quelques types de la famille 
des Mutelidae. Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 10(6): 

332-343. 

Scarlato, O.A. and Ya.I. Starobogatov. 1979. Osnovnye Cherty 
Evolyutsii i sistema Klassa Bivalvia. Pages 5-38, [in], O.A. Scarlato 
(ed.), Morfologiya, Sistematika i Filogeniya Molliuskov [Morphology, 
systematics and phylogeny of molluscs]. Trudy Zoologischeskogo 
Instimta,AkademiiaNaukSSSR, 80: 1-126 [In Russian]. [Translated 
by K.J. Boss and M.K. Jacobson (1985), Special Occasional Publication 
No. 5, Dept. of Mollusks, Harvard University, 77 pages]. 

Starobogatov, Ya.I. 1970. Fauna molliuskov i zoogeograficheskoe 
raionirovanie kontinental'nykh vodoemov zemnogo shara [Fauna of 
molluscs and zoogeographical separation into districts of the 
continental water reservoirs of the world]. Leningrad, Zoologicheskii 
Institut, Akademiia Nauk SSSR, 372 pages [In Russian]. 

Starobogatov, Ya.I. 1992. Morphological basis for phylogeny and 
classification of Bivalvia. Ruthenica, 2(1): 1-25. 

Swainson, W. 1840 [May 20]. A Treatise on Malacology; or the natural 
classification of shells and shell fish. London, Longman, vii + 419 



392 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

pages. 

Thiele, J. 1929-1935. Handbuch der systematischen Weichtierkunde. 
Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1(1): 1-376 [1929]; 1(2): 377-778 [1931]; 2(3): 
779-1022 [1934]; 2(4): iv + 1023-1154 + vi (for volume 1) [1935]. 
[Reprinted (1963), Amsterdam, A. Asher and Company.] 

Vaught, K.C. 1989. A Classification of the Living Mollusca. Melbourne 
(Rorida), American Malacologists, Inc., xiii -i- 189 (195) pages. 

Yokes, H.E. 1980. Genera of the Bivalvia. A systematic and 
bibliographic catalogue (revised and updated). Ithaca (New York), 
Palentological Research Institution, xxviii + 307 pages. 






Occasional Papers on Mollusks 



Published by /^rrir 

The Department of Mollusks 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 



Volume 5 1 August 1997 Number 73 

THE EFFECT OF BREEDING PERIOD ON THE 

BIOGEOGRAPHY OF FRESHWATER MUSSELS 

(BIVALVIA: UNIONOIDEA) 

IN THE MINNESOTA REGION OF NORTH AMERICA 



Daniel L. Graf 

Abstract. The freshwaters of Minnesota are biogeographically 
significant as they form the headwaters of the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, 
and Mississippi River basins. The 46 species of freshwater pearly 
mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoidea) that inhabit Minnesota can be divided 
into two general breeding types based on the length of their brooding 
period: tachyticiic, or short-term brooding, and bradytictic long-term 
brooders. During the late glacial northern re-expansion of the 
Unionoidea into Minnesota, the completion of the life-cycle of short- 
term breeding mussels was inhibited by the harsh meltwater conditions. 
This led to the preferential establishment of certain bradyticdc Missis- 
sippi species in ice-contact, meltwater environments. This tendency is 
reflected in the distribution of the Unionoidea of Minnesota; only nine 
species were able to freely disperse throughout the region until Recent 
climatic improvement. All other species invaded postglacially. 



Museum of Comparadve Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138. 
E-mail: dgraf@oeb.harvard.edu. 

393 



394 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

INTRODUCTION 

The effect of brooding period duration on the 
zoogeography of freshwater pearly mussels (Bivalvia: 
Unionoidea) in the Minnesota Region of North America is 
here reviewed. The generalized life cycle of freshwater 
mussels is well documented (for summaries, see Coker et al, 
1921; Kat, 1984). Equally well known is the variation that 
occurs at different stages in their life history {i.e., glochidial 
morphology, marsupial anatomy, length of larval brooding 
period, etc.). However, the implications of these different 
reproductive strategies on the biology of mussels have been 
paid little attention. 

As noted by Sterki (1895, 1898, 1903), freshwater 
mussels are divisible into two general breeding types; he 
referred to them as winter- and summer-breeders. However, 
as suggested by Lefevre and Curtis (1912), these breeding 
types are more accurately defined by the length of their 
brooding period rather than its seasonality. 

Tachytictic (short-term/summer breeding) mussels spawn 
{i.e., release their gametes) in the spring and expel their 
glochidia by the end of summer, brooding them in ctenidial 
marsupia only until mature. Mussels exhibiting bradytictia^ 



The terms tachytictic and bradytictic were coined by Ortmann (1911) to 
describe short- and long-term breeding mussels, respectively. Davis and Fuller 
(1981) suggested the suffix -ixis for the noun formation (.e.g., tachytixis). 
However, this formation is considered improper (Zeph Stewart, Andrew W. 
Mellon Professor, Emeritus, of the Humanities, Harvard University, letter to K.J. 
Boss, 18 March, 1996). Since this convention is not in wide use, the forms 
tachytictia and bradytictia are herein utilized as nouns, as suggested by Professor 
Stewart. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 395 

(long-term/winter breeders) spawn during the late summer 
and retain their mature glochidia until the following spring 
(Lefevre and Curtis, 1910, 1912; Ortmann, 1909, 1911). 
Bradytictia is the norm in the anodontine and lampsiline 
clades, and correlated with their mode of parentage is the 
modification of their marsupia to accommodate long-term 
brooding (Sterki, 1903; Ortmann, 1911; Lefevre and Curtis, 
1912). Tachytictic taxa of the Amblemini and Pleurobemini 
[sensu Davis and Fuller (1981) and Lydeard et al., 1996)] are 
generally tetragenous (with exceptions, e.g., Pleurobema) and 
without ctenidial specialization. 

The Minnesota Region of North America is 
biogeographically significant, being composed of the 
headwaters of the three major drainage basins east of the 
Rocky Mountains: Hudson Bay, Great Lakes, and Mississippi 
(Graf, 1997a). As a political entity rather than a faunal 
province, the arbitrary yet well-known state boundaries limit 
the scope of this study; concepts applied to a particular basin 
within the Region, however, apply outside as well. 

DISTRIBUTION OF BREEDING TYPES IN THE 
MINNESOTA REGION 

Table 1 lists the 46 species of freshwater pearly mussels 
that inhabit Minnesota, including their distributions and 
breeding types. The breeding periods of mussel species in the 
Region generally conform to those predicted by their 
taxonomic affinities (Sterki, 1895, 1898, 1903; Frierson, 
1904; Conner, 1907, 1909; Ortmann, 1909, 1911, 1919; 
Lefevre and Curtis, 1910, 1912;Surber, 1912, 1913; Howard, 
1914, 1915; Utterback, 1916; Coktvetal, 1921; Baker, 1928; 
Clarke and Berg, 1959; Yokley, 1972; Clarke, 1981, 1985; 
Gordon and Smith, 1990; Haggerty et al, 1992; Woody and 
Holland-Bartels, 1993; see additional references in Watters, 



396 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

1994). Five noteworthy exceptions are Cumberlandia 
monodonta, Megalonaias nervosa, Utterbackia imbecillis, 
Simpsonias ambigua, and Obliquaria reflexa. 

Cumberlandia monodonta {i.e., the Margaritiferidae, in 
general) has been described by some as being bradytictic {e.g.. 
Heard and Guckert, 1970) and tachytictic by others (Sterki, 
1903; Conner, 1909; Ortmann, 1911). The latter seems more 
correct based on the absence of marsupial adaptations for 
long-term glochidial brooding, such as those of the 
Anodontinae and Lampsilini (Davis and Fuller, 1981). 
However, the shoe-homing of margaritiferids into unionid 
categories may make this a moot point. Both Howard (1915) 
and Gordon and Smith (1990) suggested that C. 
monodonta may produce two broods per year. Thus, 
Cumberlandia may be neither in terms of unionid breeding 
types (or both!). 

The placement of Megalonaias nervosa among the 
Amblemini suggests that it is a short-term breeder; however, 
its period of gravidity led early taxonomists to hesitantly 
describe it as bradytictic (Surber, 1912; Utterback, 1916; 
Lydeard et al., 1996). Frierson (1904) reported that Louisiana 
specimens were gravid from October to January. Similar 
results were reported by Howard (1914, 1915) and Woody 
and Holland-Bartels (1993) further north; M. nervosa was 
found gravid from late August to early November. Lefevre 
and Curtis (1912) discovered gravid individuals in late May, 
but Howard (1914) confirmed that this condition occurred in 
only 2% of the Megalonaias he found. Thus, although the 
chronology of the breeding period of M. nervosa is 
anomalous, the length of its brooding period supports its 
position among the tachytictic (Lefevre and Curtis, 1910, 
1912; Howard, 1914, 1915). 

It has been demonstrated that Utterbackia imbecillis is 
bradytictic (like other Anodonta) and undergoes 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 397 



Table 1. The Distribution of the Unionoidea in the Minnesota Region and 
their Breeding Types. 

LMRS = Lower Mississippi River System (Mississippi River and tributaries below St. 
Anthony Falls); UMRS = Upper Mississippi River System (above St. Anthony Falls); RRS 
= Red River System; LWS = Lake of the Woods System; LSS = Lake Superior System. X = 
presence in a particular basin; B = bradyticitc; T = tachytictic; t = exception (see text). 

breeding 

Species type LMRS UMRS RRS LWS I^SS 

Upper Mississippi River Fauna: 

Anodontoides ferussacianus (Lea) B X X X X X 

Lampsilis cardium Rafmesque B X X X X X 

Lampsilis siliquoidea (Barnes) B X X X X X 

Lasmigona complanata (Barnes) B X X X X X 

Lasmigona compressa (Lea) B X X X X X 

Ligumia recta (Lamarck) B X X X X X 

Pyganodon grandis (Say) B X X X X X 

Stop fiitus undulatus (Say) B X X X X 

Utterbackia imbecillis (Say) B^ X X X 

Red River of the North Fauna: 

Lasmigona costata (Rafmesque) B X X 

Potamilus alatus (Say) B X X 

Amblema plicata (Say) T X X 

Fusconaia flava (Rafmesque) T X X 

Quadrula quadrula (Rafmesque) T X X 

Lake Superior Fauna: 

Elliptio complanata (Lightfoot) T X 

Lower Mississippi River Fauna^: 

Cumberlandia monodonta (Say) ?^ X 

Megalonaias nervosa (Rafmesque) T^ X 

Obliquaria reflexa Rafmesque T^ X 

Simpsonaias ambigua (Say) B^ X 



3 _ 

The remaining mussels of the Lower Mississippi River Fauna are similarly distributed and 

either bradytictic [Actinonaias ligamentina (Lamarck); Alasmidonta margnata Say; Anodonta 

suborbiculata Say; Arcidens confragosus (Say); Ellipsaria lineolata (Rafinesque); 

Epioblasma triquetra (Rafinesque); Lampsilis higginsi (Lea); Lampsilis teres (Rafmesque); 

Leptodea fragilis (Rafmesque); Obovaria olivaria (Rafinesque); Potamilus capax (Green); 

Potamilus ohiensLi (Rafinesque); Toxolasma parvus (Barnes); Truncilla donaciformis (Lea); 

Truncilla truncata (Rafinesque); Venustaconcha ellipsiformu; (Conrad)] or exhibit tachytictia 

[Cyclonaias tuberculata (Rafinesque); Elliptio crassidens (Lamarck); Elliptio dilatata 

(Rafinesque); Fusconaia ebena (Rafinesque); Plethobasus cyphyus (Rafinesque); Pleurobema 

coccineum (Conrad); Quadrula fragosa (Conrad); Quadrula metanevra (Rafinesque); 

Quadrula nodulata (Rafinesque); Quadrula pustulosa (Rafinesque); Tritogonia verrucosa 

(Rafinesque)]. 



398 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

metamorphosis on a fish host (like the rest of the Unionoidea) 
(Ortmann, 1909, 1919; Utterback, 1916; Clarke and Berg, 
1959). It has also been reported that metamorphosis without 
parasitism can occur within the marsupia of this species 
(Howard, 1915; Howard and Anson, 1923; Allen, 1924) and 
that the breeding period lasts only a few weeks and may occur 
repeatedly throughout the year (Allen, 1924). As far as 
northern populations are concerned, however. Heard (1975) 
reported that bradytictia is exclusively encountered. 

The data on Simpsonaias ambigua are so meager that 
direct evidence of its breeding times and brooding period are, 
for the most part, unavailable. Howard (1915; repeated in 
Clarke, 1985) collected Nectums (the mud puppy) infected 
with the glochidia of this species in October. These glochidia 
took the entire winter for metamorphosis in Howard's lab. 
The only observational data available suggests that S. 
ambigua releases its glochidia in the fall; its evolutionary 
relationships suggest bradytictia. 

The decidedly lampsiline modifications of the marsupium 
of Obliquaria reflexa suggest that it might be placed among 
the long-term brooders (Ortmann, 1911; Utterback, 1916; 
Lydeard et ai, 1996). However, it has only been reported 
gravid from May or June to August (Lefevre and Curtis, 1910; 
Surber, 1912; Utterback, 1916; Ortmann, 1919) and is thus 
considered tachytictic. 

DISCUSSION 

The Minnesota Region is composed of five drainage 
systems (Figure 1). The Red River and Lake of the Woods 
systems are confluent at Lake Winnipeg, but their differing 
mussel communities warrant their division (Graf, 1997a). 
The Upper and Lower Mississippi River systems are 
separated by the Falls of St. Anthony at Minneapolis, a barrier 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



399 



Red River 
System 



At; 










Upper 
Mississippi 
River 
System 



L^" 



y 



r 

\ 

/■ 

\ 
\ 



r\J 



C. 



Lower Mississippi River System 




Figure 1. The drainage systems of the Minnesota Region (redrawn from Graf, 1997a) 



400 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

to mussel distribution via their host fishes (Underhill, 1989; 
Graf, 1997b). All Unionoidea occurring in Minnesota except 
Elliptio complanata (see below) migrated into the Region 
from unglaciated refugia in the Mississippi below the 
maximum extent of Pleistocene glaciation (Johnson, 1980). 

As discussed by Graf (1997b), the earliest invading 
mussel community arrived in the Region sometime after 
14,000 years before present (bp) when central Minnesota 
became ice-free and before 11,000 bp, the latest date of 
formation for St. Anthony Falls. These unionoideans 
correspond to the Upper Mississippi River Fauna (UMRF) of 
Graf (1997a) (Table 1). The remaining mussel species 
migrated into the Region post-glacially; this includes those 
five species occurring in addition to the UMRF in the Red 
River system: they entered that basin after 9500 bp either via 
high water through Lakes Big Stone and Traverse or, more 
likely, stream capture in the Otter Tail River watershed (Graf, 
1997b). 

As Table 1 shows, the UMRF is completely bradytictic. 
Thus, all of the mussel species present in the Region for at 
least 1500 years (i.e., from before 1 1,000 to 9500 bp) were 
long-term breeders that brooded their glochidia over the frigid 
winter months. 

The observed dominance of bradytictic species in the 
earliest invading mussel fauna in the Minnesota Region has 
an analog in the northern Atlantic Slope drainage of eastern 
North America (Graf, 1996). Both there and in Minnesota, 
obliteration of the unionoidean community by Wisconsin 
glaciation was followed by repopulation from unglaciated 
refugia; subsequent development of a barrier then halted 
further mussel migration. In the case of the northem Atlantic 
Slope, it was the rise in sea level as continental ice melted 
(Johnson, 1970) and the creation of fall lines (D. Smith, pers. 
comm.) that curtailed further dispersal; in the Minnesota 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 40 1 

Region it was the formation of St. Anthony Falls and the drop 
in water level associated with glacial retreat from the Region 
(Graf, 1997b). The mussel fauna of the northern Atlantic 
Slope is mostly bradytictic (87%; Graf, 1996). 

With the retreat of glacial ice from the Minnesota 
Region, aquatic connections existed (Clayton and Moran, 
1982) that would have allowed the newly deglaciated area to 
be repopulated from unglaciated refugia (Underbill, 1989; 
Graf, 1997b). The conditions of these periglacial meltwater 
streams were probably more severe than in rivers of the 
Minnesota Region today, with near-freezing melt water and 
a greater silt load; newly deglaciated Minnesota was boreal 
spruce forest until perhaps 8000 bp (Barry, 1983). Such an 
environment is indicative of a cooler climate and a shortened 
growing season. 

A shortened growing season would have inhibited the 
ontogeny of tachytictic mussels. The period prior to 
completion of metamorphosis is the time of greatest mortality 
(McMahon, 1991), and cold temperatures can slow 
metamorphosis from a few to hundreds of days (Howard and 
Anson, 1923). With a later spring and earlier fall, the summer 
breeding season would be shortened; tachytictic glochidial 
encystment and metamorphosis would have to begin while 
temperatures were declining. Glochidia released in the 
following spring, however, would have the entire growing 
season for their development. 

Such conditions existed in the Minnesota Region and 
inhibited the establishment of tachytictic species. With the 
development of barriers to further dispersal, additional, 
possibly tachytictic mussel species, were no longer able to 
colonize the Region beyond the lower Mississippi drainage 
(the Mississippi River and its tributaries below St. Anthony 
Falls) subsequent to climatic improvement. This explanation 
is appropriate on the northern Atlantic Slope as well. 



402 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Relevant to this discussion is Hutchins' (1947) 
generalization regarding the breeding time of marine 
invertebrates. Animals that begin breeding in the fall do so 
because summer temperatures are too warm; those that begin 
in the spring do so because winter conditions are too harsh. 
The former, with regard to the Unionoidea, is bradytictia, the 
latter tachytictia. Coker et al (1921) noted that generally the 
long-term breeders begin their annual reproduction on the 
falling temperatures of late summer, while spawning in 
tachytictic forms is initiated by rising spring temperatures. 
According to Hutchins (1947), animals that spawn as 
temperatures drop have a tendency to move in a pole-ward 
direction, while summer breeders do the opposite. This 
supports the selective dispersal of bradytictic freshwater 
mussels to northern, cooler waters from warmer southern 
refugia. 

Both Sterki (1903) and Ortmann (1909) speculated about 
the phylogenetic significance of these differences in the larval 
brooding period. According to Ortmann (1919), who 
recognized the Pleurobemini and Amblemini (= "Unioninae") 
as the phylogenetically least derived unionid clade, tachytictia 
developed early in the Tertiary when the climate was more 
mild; long-term breeding evolved in response to the harsh 
glacial climate and shortened growing season of the late 
Tertiary and Quaternary. Conflicting with this interpretation 
is the opinion that bradytictia is ancestral in the Unionoidea 
(Heard and Guckert, 1970; Davis and Fuller, 1981). 
However, there can be little doubt of Sterki 's (1903) 
conclusion that differences in brood period among the taxa 
are a reflection of the climatic regime of their ancestors. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The length of the brooding period can not be the only 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 403 

factor that determined the chronology of northward range 
expansion of freshwater pearly mussels at the close of the 
Pleistocene. Regardless of a mussel's ability to survive and 
produce glochidia under periglacial conditions, its host must 
not only have been tolerant of the same environment (at least 
during the mussel's breeding period) but also have been 
present. The necessity of the combination of cold-tolerant 
mussel and host may explain the paucity of unionoideans that 
invaded Minnesota immediately following Wisconsin 
glaciation. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I would like to thank R.I. Johnson and K.J. Boss for their 
many suggestions and comments toward the improvment of 
this study. 

REFERENCES CITED 

Allen, E. 1924. The existence of a short reproductive cycle in Ancxionfa 
imbecillis. Biological Bulletin 46: 88-94. 

Baker, F.C. 1928. The fresh water Mollusca of Wisconsin. Wisconsin 
Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 70: 1-495, pis. 1-105. 

Barry, R.G. 1983. Late-Pleistocene climatology, pp. 390-407. [In] S.C. 
Porter (ed.). Volume I: The Late Pleistocene. [In] H.E. Wright, jr. 
(ed.). Late-Quaternary Environments of the United States. 

Clarke, A.H. 1981. The tribe Alasmidontini (Unionidae: Anodontinae), 
Part 1: Pegais, Alasmidonta, and Arcidens. Smithsonian Contributions 
to Zoology (326): 1-101. 

Clarke, A.H. 1985. The tribe Alasmidontini (Unionidae: Anodontinae), 
Part II: Lasmigona and Simpsonaias. Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology (399): 1-75. 



404 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Clarke, A.H., CO. Berg. 1959. The freshwater mussels of central New 
York. Cornell University, Agriculture Experimental Station, Memoir 
(367): 1-79. 

Clayton, L., S.R. Moran. 1982. Chronology of Late Wisconsin glaciation 
in Middle North America. Quaternary Science Reviews 1: 55-82. 

Coker, R.E., A.F. Shira, H.W. Clark, and A.D. Howard. 1921. Natural 
history and propagation of freshwater mussels. Bulletin of the Bureau 
of Fisheries 37: 77-1 8 1 . (Reprinted as Bureau of Fisheries Document 
No. 893.) 

Conner, C.H. 1907. The gravid period of unios. Nautilus 22: 87-89. 

Conner, C.H. 1909. Supplementary notes on the breeding seasons of the 
Unionidae. Nautilus 22: 111-112. 

Davis, G.M., S.L.H. Fuller. 1981. Genetic relationships among Recent 
Unionacea (Bivalvia) of North America. Malacologia 20: 217-253. 

Frierson, L.S. 1904. Observations on the genus Quadrula. Nautilus 17: 
111-112. 

Gordon, M.E., D.G. Smith. 1990. Autumnal reproduction in 
Cumberlandia monodonta (Unionoidea: Margaritifera). Transactions 
of the American Microscopical Society 109: 407-41 1. 

Graf, D.L. 1996. The Brady Bunch: A preliminary look at the bradytictic 
Unionoidea and their taxonomic and geographic distribution in the 
Atlantic Slope region of North America. NU-Biology, A Newsletter of 
Research Synopsis [sic] and Proposals at Northeastern University 2(2): 
1-3. 

Graf, D.L. 1997a. Distribution of unionoid (Bivalvia) faunas in 
Minnesota, USA. Nautilus 110: 45-54. 

Graf, D.L. 1997b. Northern redistribution of freshwater pearly mussels 
(Bivalvia: Unionoidea) during Wisconsin deglaciation in the southern 
Glacial Lake Agassiz region: a review. American Midland Naturalist 
138, in press. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 405 

Haggerty, T.M., G.P. Patterson, L.C. Jones. 1992. Aspects of the 
reproductive biology of Cyclonaias tuberculata (Unionidae: Bivalvia). 
Journal of Alabama Academy of Science 63: 56 [abstract]. 

Heard, W.H. 1975. Sexuality and other aspects of reproduction in 
Anodonta (Pelecypoda: Unionidae). Malacologia 15: 81-103. 

Heard, W.H., R.H. Guckert. 1970. A re-evaluation of the Recent 
Unionacea (Pelecypoda) of North America. Malacologia 10: 333-355. 

Howard, A.D. 1914. Experiments in propagation of fresh- water mussels 
of the Quadrula group. Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries for the 
Fiscal Year 1913, Appendix 4: 1-52, 6 pis. (Reprinted as Bureau of 
Fisheries Document No. 801.) 

Howard, A.D. 1915. Some exceptional cases of breeding among 
Unionidae. Nautilus 29: 4-11. 

Howard, A.D., B.J. Anson. 1923. Phases of parasitism of the Unionidae. 
Journal of Parasitology 9: 68-82, pis. 7-8. 

Hutchins, L.W. 1947. The bases for temperature zonation in 
geographical distribution. Ecological Monographs 17: 325-335. 

Johnson, R.I. 1970. The systematics and zoogeography of the Unionidae 
(MoUusca: Bivalvia) of the southern Atlantic Slope region. Bulletin of 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology 140: 263-449. 

Johnson, R.I. 1980. Zoogeography of North American Unionacea 
(Mollusca: Bivalvia) north of maximum Pleistocene glaciations. 
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 149: 77-189. 

Kat, P.W. 1984. Parasitism and the Unionacea (Bivalvia). Biological 
Reviews 59: 189-207. 

Lefevre, G., W.C Curtis. 1910. Experiments in the artificial propagation 
of fresh-water mussels. Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries 28: 
615-626. (Reprinted as Bureau of Fisheries Document No. 671.) 

Lefevre, G., W.C. Curtis. 1912. Studies on the reproduction and 
artificial propagation of fresh-water mussels. Bulletin of the U.S. 



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Bureau of Fisheries 30: 105-201, pis. 6-17. (Reprinted in parts in 
Sterkiana, 1972-1976.) 

Lydeard, C, M. Mulvey, G.M. Davis. 1996. Molecular systematics and 
evolution of reproductive traits of North American freshwater 
unionacean mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as inferred from 16S rRNA 
gene sequences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of 
London B 351: 1593-1603. 

McMahon, R.F. 1991. Mollusca: Bivalvia. pp. 315-399. [in] J.T. Thorp 
and A.P. Covich (eds.). Ecology and Classification of North American 
Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, New York. 

Ortmann, A.E. 1909. The breeding season of Unionidae in Pennsylvania. 
Nautilus 22: 91-95, 99-03. 

Ortmann, A.E. 1911. Monograph of the naiades of Pennsylvania. I. 
Anatomical investigations. Part H. The system of North American 
najades. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum 4: 279-347, pis. 86-89. 

Ortmann, A.E. 1919. Monograph of the naiades of Pennsylvania. IE. 
Systematic account of the genera and species. Memoirs of the Carnegie 
Museum 8: 1-385. 

Sterki, V. 1895. Some notes on the genital organs of Unionidae, with 
reference to systematics. Nautilus 9: 91-94. 

Sterki, V. 1898. Some observations on the genital organs of Unionidae, 
with reference to classification. Nautilus 12: 18-21,28-32. 

Sterki, V. 1903. Notes on the Unionidae and their classification. 
American Naturalist 37: 103-1 13. 

Surber, T. 1912. Identification of the glochidia of freshwater mussels. 
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries for the Fiscal Year 1912 and 
Special Papers: 1-10. (Reprinted as Bureau of Fisheries Document No. 

771.) 

Surber, T. 1913. Notes on the natural hosts of fresh- water mussels. 
Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries 32: 101-115, pis. 29-31. 
(Reprinted as Bureau of Fisheries Document No. 778.) 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 407 

Underbill, J. 1989. The distribution of Minnesota fishes and Late 
Pleistocene glaciation. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 
55: 32-37. 

Utterback, W.I. 1916. Breeding record of Missouri mussels. Nautilus 30: 
13-21. 

Walters, G.T. 1994. An Annotated Bibliography of the Reproduction and 
Propagation of the Unionoidea (Primarily of North America). Ohio 
Biological Survey Miscellaneous Contribution No. 1. 158 pp. 

Woody, C.A., L. Holland-B artels. 1993. Reproductive characteristics of 
a population of the washboard mussel Megalonaias nervosa 
(Rafmesque 1820) in the upper Mississippi River. Journal of 
Freshwater Ecology 8: 57-66. 

Yokley, P. 1972. Life history of Pleurobema cordatum (Rafmesque) 
(Bivalvia: Unionacea). Malacologia 11: 351-364. 



o 



Occasional Papers on Mollusks 



UN; 

Published by 

The Department of Mollusks 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Volume 5 1 August 1997 Number 74 

THE WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR 

FRESHWATER MUSSEL (BIVALVL\: UNIONIDAE) 

COMMUNITY AND ITS ORIGIN 



Daniel L. Graf^ and James C. UnderhilP 

Abstract. Nine species of freshwater pearly mussels (Bivalvia: 
Unionidae) occur in the western Lake Superior basin. All of 
these species, except Elliptio complanata (Lightfoot), entered the 
Superior drainage from the Interior Basin via Late Wisconsin 
high- water spillways; the chronology of availability of these 
channels is described. E. complanata invaded in the Recent from 
the eastern Great Lakes. A new record of Utterbackia imbecillis 
(Say) is reported, and the anomalous distributions of Amblema 
plicata (Say) and Strophitus undulatus (Say) are discussed. 



Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138. 

James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota, 1987 
Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108. 

409 



410 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 




Figure 1. Map of the western Lake Superior basin arul adjacent drairuige 
systems. Dotted lines indicate the shores of Late Wisconsin glacial lakes 
Cteste Hobbs, 1983); arrows indicate the present direction of flow. 



UPPER MISSISSIPPI RTVER FAUNA 

Anodontoides ferussacianus (Lea) 

Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque) 

Lampsilis siliquoidea (Bames) 

Lasmigona complanata (Bames) 

Lasmigona compressa (Lea) 

Ligumia recta (Lamarck) 

Pyganodon grandis (Say) 

Utterbackia imbecillis (Say) 

Strophitus undulatus (Say) 

LAKE SUPERIOR FAUNA 

Elliptio complanata (Lightfoot) 

RED RIVER FAUNA 

Amblema plicata (Say) 



u 

01 

o. 

9 



u 

V 

> 
06 

'a. 

a. 

I 



> 



e 
o 
JS 

z 



□ 







D 



D D 



Figure 2. The freshwater pearly mussel community of the western Lake 
Superior drairuige arui its distribution in that and neighboring watersheds. 
Shaded box = present; black box = new record; empty box = not reported; 
1 ~ a spurious record. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 4 1 1 

INTRODUCTION 

Nine species of freshwater pearly mussels (Bivalvia: 
Unionidae) have been previously recorded from the western 
Lake Superior basin. However, even such a depauperate 
assemblage is of zoogeographical significance. Our purpose 
is to describe the distribution and origin of this community. 

The western Lake Superior basin is defined as that portion 
of the Lake watershed extending west from the arbitrary 
boundary of 90° W (Figure 1). That area is relevant as a 
region of confluence between the Great Lakes, Nelson River 
and upper Mississippi River during the final stages of 
Wisconsin glaciation. 

METHODS AND MATERL\LS 

Unionid distributions were determined using deposited 
specimens and the available literature. The holdings of the 
James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History (JFB), 
University of Minnesota were searched using The Bell 
Museum of Natural History Collection Database (Graf et al, 
unpublished) for Lake Superior System mussels. Literature on 
the Unionidae of Lake Superior in general (Goodrich and van 
der Schalie, 1932; van der Schalie, 1961; Johnson, 1980), the 
western Lake drainage (Grant, 1887; Baker, 1928; Dawley, 
1944, 1947; Smith and Moyle, 1944; Moyle, 1947; Mathiak, 
1979), and others (Dall, 1905; Walker, 1913; Graf, 1997a) 
were reviewed. Taxonomy follows Williams etal. (1993) and 
these mollusks were figured by Clarke (1973) and Baker 
(1928). 

Short expeditions were undertaken in 1994 and 1996 to 
sample the St. Louis River drainage and its tributaries. Both 
live and dead unionids were collected by wading and 



412 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

snorkeling. Vouchers have been deposited in the JFB and the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

THE MUSSEL COMMUNITY OF THE WESTERN 
LAKE SUPERIOR BASIN AND ITS ORIGIN 

Nine species of freshwater pearly mussels have been 
previously noticed in the western Lake Superior drainage 
(Figure 2; see references above). In addition to these, we 
collected Utterbackia imbecillis in Embarrass Lake at 
Biwabik, Minnesota on separate occasions in 1994 and 1996. 
Until now, U. imbecillis has not been known in the Great 
Lakes basin west of Lake Michigan (Baker, 1928; Mathiak, 
1979; Goodrich and van der Schalie, 1932). 

During the Pleistocene, any unionid community that 
existed in Lake Superior and its tributaries was eliminated by 
glacial advance. As the last Wisconsin ice wasted north, the 
meltwater liberated was impounded into large glacial lakes 
that bridged present-day drainage divides. Such breeches 
between the Mississippi and Lake Superior drainages allowed 
mussels (via their host fish) to disperse into the latter from 
unglaciated southern refugia (Johnson, 1980). 

For the ten mussel species recorded from the Lake 
Superior basin, three basic pattems of distribution are evident 
(Figure 2). Nine of these species also occur in the adjacent 
Mississippi basin; of these, only A. plicata is not found in that 
watershed above St. Anthony Falls at Minneapolis, Minne- 
sota. Graf (1997a) considered the anomalous distribution of 
this unionid spurious, and since its presence in the Lake 
Superior basin is suggested by only a single valve, we concur. 

The remaining eight species have been united as the 
Upper Mississippi River Fauna (UMRF) by Graf (1997a) 
based on their common occurrence in the Mississippi above 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 4 1 3 

St. Anthony Falls. Strophitus undulatus was also included in 
this assemblage but has not been reported from the Lake 
Superior basin (see discussion below). 

A single species, Elliptio complanata, occurs only in Lake 
Superior and no other adjacent catchment; it is the lone 
member of the Lake Superior Fauna (LSF) (Figure 2). While 
mussels of the UMRF occur in Lake Superior and its western 
tributaries, the LSF is confined to the Lake proper. 

The earliest Unionidae to re-invade the western Lake 
Superior drainage were those of the UMRF. Beginning 
around 1 1 ,300 years before present (bp) (Clayton and Moran, 
1982), invasion of the Lake basin occurred via any of three 
late Pleistocene breeches in the Great Lakes-Mississippi 
divide. The first breech lasted until 11 ,000 bp (Hobbs, 1983) 
and was formed by a short-lived pair of glacial lakes known 
as Aitkin and Upham (Figure 1). Their confluence at the 
highest lake levels united the Mississippi and Lake Superior 
basins. 

The second and third breeches of the Mississippi-Lake 
Superior divide occurred while Lake Superior overflowed via 
two distinct channels to the St. Croix River, a tributary of the 
Mississippi River (Figure 1). The lake in the Superior basin, 
ice-dammed to a level higher than at present, spilled via the 
Portage River near Moose Lake, Minnesota and reversed the 
flow of the Bois Brule River at Solon Springs, Wisconsin. 
Thus, members of the UMRF migrated up the St. Croix- 
Portage or St. Croix-Brule spillways to the south shore, or 
they dispersed up the Mississippi through Glacial Lake 
Aitkin-Upham to the St. Louis River and other north shore 
streams to gain access to the western Lake Superior basin. 

Although there is some disagreement regarding the 
sequence of availability of the two overflow channels {e.g., 
Clayton, 1983; Farrand and Drexler, 1985), direct confluence 



4 1 4 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

between the Superior Basin and Mississippi below St. 
Anthony Falls was permanently arrested around 9500 bp 
(Clayton and Moran, 1982). By that time, the ice dam at its 
outlet to the eastern Great Lakes had wasted, and Lake 
Superior shrank to its present level. 

Besides these reasonably well-dated breeches, Martin 
(1911) suggested that the initial retreat of glacial waters in the 
western lake basin left the Cloquet and upper St. Louis rivers 
flowing southwest to the Mississippi rather than southeast to 
the lower St. Louis River. Eventually the upper St. Louis was 
captured by the headward migration of the lower St. Louis 
(Ojakangas and Matsch, 1982). The chronology of such a 
connection is unclear, but it was certainly a post-Aitkin- 
Upham event. Since it would have also succeeded the 
formation of St. Anthony Falls (Graf, 1997b), no unionids 
other than those UMRF could have used it. 

Within the last 80 years or so, E. complanata has moved 
into the western Lake Superior drainage from the eastern 
Great Lakes (Graf, 1997a). E. complanata will likely remain 
limited to only the Lake proper since the St. Louis River and 
other north shore tributaries are isolated by waterfalls which 
limit unionid dispersal. 

CONCLUSIONS AND COMMENTS 

The western Lake Superior basin (indeed, the Lake 
Superior basin in general), in terms of unionid species 
composition, is very similar to the upper Mississippi River 
drainage. Of the 10 species of freshwater pearly mussels that 
occur in the Upper Mississippi River and western Lake 
Superior drainages, eight are present in both (Figure 2). E. 
complanata is found only in Lake Superior; however, this 
mussel invaded in the Recent from the east, so its absence in 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 415 

the Mississippi River is expected. Strophitus undulatus 
occurs in the Mississippi River but has not been recorded in 
the Lake Superior basin. However, the mussel's absence may 
only be apparent; the widespread distribution of S. undulatus, 
its association with the UMRF, and the distributions of its 
known glochidial hosts (Hoggarth, 1992; Underhill, 1989) 
suggest its presence in the Lake. Strophitus may be revealed 
with further study. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We wish to thank R.I. Johnson and K.J. Boss whose 
comments and suggestions improved this paper. 

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Baker, F.C. 1928. The fresh water Mollusca of Wisconsin: Part II. 
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Clarke, A.H. 1973. The freshwater Molluscs of the Canadian Interior 
Basin. Malacologia 13: 1-509. 

Clayton, L., S.R. Moran. 1982. Chronology of Late Wisconsin glaciation 
in middle North America. Quaternary Science Reviews 1: 55-82. 

Dall, W.H. 1905. Land and freshwater mollusks of Alaska and adjoining 
regions. Harriman Alaska Expedition 13: 1-171. 

Dawley, C.W. 1944. Distribution and growth studies of the Unionidae 
and aquatic Gastropoda found in Minnesota. Ph.D. Thesis, University 
of Minnesota. 307 pp. 

Dawley, C.W. 1947. Distribution of aquatic mollusks in Minnesota. 
American Midland Naturalist 38: 671-697. 

Farrand, W.R., C.W. Drexler. 1985. Late Wisconsinan and Holocene 
history of the Lake Superior basin, [in] Quaternary Evolution of the 



4 1 6 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Great Lakes (P.P. Kanow, P.E. Calkins, eds.). Geological Association 
of Canada Special Paper 30. pp. 17-32. 

Goodrich, C.H., H. van der Schalie. 1932. I. On an increase in the 
Naiad fauna of Saginaw Bay, Michigan; II. The Naiad species of the 
Great Lakes. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, Univer- 
sity of Michigan (238): 1-14. 

Graf, D.L. 1997a. Distribution of unionoid (Bivalvia) faunas in Minne- 
sota, USA. Nautilus 110: 45-54. 

Graf, D.L. 1997b. Northern redistribution of freshwater pearly mussels 
(Bivalvia: Unionoidea) during Wisconsin deglaciation in the southern 
Glacial Lake Agassiz region: a review. American Midland Naturalist 
138, in press. 

Graf, D.L., R.C. Bright, J.C. Underbill, J.T. Hatch. Unpublished. The 
Bell Museum of Natural History Collection DataBase, Version 1.0 for 
Macintish. An application of FileMaker Pro 2. 1 by Claris. 

Grant, U.S. 1887. Notes on the Molluscan fauna of Minnesota. Minne- 
sota Geological and Natural History Survey Annual Report 16: 481- 
484. 

Hobbs, H.C. 1983. Drainage relationships of the Glacial Lakes Aitkin 
and Upham and early Lake Agassiz in northeastern Minnesota, [in] 
Glacial Lake Agassiz (J.T. Teller, L. Clayton, eds.). Geological 
Association of Canada Special Paper 26. pp. 245-260. 

Hoggarth, M.A. 1992. An examination of the glochidia - host relation- 
ships reported in the literature for North American species of 
Unionacea (MoUusca: Bivalvia). Malacology Data Net 3: 1-30. 

Johnson, R.I. 1980. Zoogeography of North American Unionacea 
(Mollusca: Bivalvia) north of maximum Pleistocene glaciations. 
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 149: 77-189. 

Martin, L. 1911. Physical geography of the Lake Superior Region, [in] 
The Geology of the Lake Superior Region (C.R. Van Hise and C.K. 
Leith, eds). Monographs of the United States Geological Survey 52. 
pp. 85-117. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 417 

Mathiak, H.A. 1979. A River Survey of the Unionid Mussels of 
Wisconsin, 1973-1977. Sand Shell Press, Horicon, WI. 75 pp. 

Moyle, J.B. 1947. A biological survey and fishery management plan 
for the streams of the Saint Louis River Basin. Fisheries Research 
Investigational Report No. 69. Minnesota Department of Conserva- 
tion, Division of Game and Fish. 1 1 2 pp. 

Ojakangas, R.W., C.L. Matsch. 1982. Minnesota's Geology. Univer- 
sity of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 255 pp. 

Smith, L.L., jr., J.B. Moyle. 1944. A biological survey and fishery 
management plan for the streams of the Lake Superior North Shore 
Watershed. Technological Bulletin No. 1, MN Department of Con- 
servation, Division of Game and Fish. 

Underbill, J. 1989. The distribution of Minnesota fishes and Late 
Pleistocene glaciation. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 
55: 32-37. 

van der Schalie, H. 1961. The naiad (fresh-water mussel) fauna of the 
Great Lakes. Great Lakes Research Division, Institute of Science and 
Technology, University of Michigan. Publication No. 7: 156-157. 

Walker, B. 1913. The unionid fauna of the Great Lakes. Nautilus 27: 
18-23,29-34,40-47,56-59. 

Williams, J., M. Warren, K. Cummings, J. Harris, R. Neves. 1993. 
Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and 
Canada. Fisheries: A Bulletin of the American Fisheries Society 
18(9): 6-22. 



t_ i I ' ivy k i \ : 

Occasional Papers on MoUusks 

r ^"^ O 

Published by .L-iAwifY 

The Department of Mollusks 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Volume 5 1 August 1997 Number 75 

A NEW MUSSEL, DISCONAIAS CONCHOS 

(BIVALVIA: UNIONIDAE) 

FROM RIO CONCHOS OF THE RIO GRANDE 

SYSTEM, MEXICO 

Dwight W. Taylor^ 

Abstract: Disconaias conchas, a new species of Unionidae, 
and first member of the genus Disconaias, from the Rio Grande 
System, Mexico, is described. 

INTRODUCTION 

A number of years ago. Dr. D. W. Taylor submitted a 
manuscript to Richard I. Johnson for his comments on some 
Unionidae from the Rio Grande System of Mexico and Texas. 
The latter disagreed with some of its conclusions, and Taylor 
suggested that Johnson present his own interpretation of the 
data. In the manuscript Taylor proposed the new species 
described here. Though the kindness of Dr. James H. 
McLean of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles 
County, Los Angeles, Califomia, the original specimens were 



^ P.O. Box 5532, Eugene, Oregon 97405. 

419 



420 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

made available with permission for one to be retained buy the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. Taylor's manuscript is 
presented here, essentially in its original form, but 
photographs have been substituted for the original line 
drawings of the holotype and an additional record, extending 
the distribution of the species, has been included. 

Abbreviations: 

MCZ: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 
LACM: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, 

California 

Family UNIONIDAE 

Subfamily LAMPSILINAE 

Genus Disconaias Crosse and Fischer, 1894 

Type species (by original designation): Unio discus Lea, 
1838, "India;" later corrected by Lea to Rio Panuco drainage, 
state of Vera Cruz. 

** Disconaias conchos new species ** 

Plate 21, figure 1 

Diagnosis.-- A species of Disconaias with elongate-oval 
outline, low beaks with shallow concavity, and relatively 
compressed form. 

Holotype.- LACM 2257 (body preserved separately) from 
the Rio Conchos, about .5 km. west of Julimes, Chihuahua 
[State], Mexico; collected by Dwight D. Taylor and Artie L. 
Metcalf, August 29, 1969. 
Paratypes.- From the same locality. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 421 







Measurements 


Length (mm) 


Height (mm) 


Width (mm) 




124 


70 


42 


Holotype LACM 2257 


119 


68 


42 


LACM 69-239.1 


117 


67 


44 


MCZ 316166 


112 


56 


42.5 


Unio aztecorum for ma major 
Martens(1900: 502, 672, pi. 37, figs. 
3, 3a, b) 



Etymology.-- Conchos, shells, in reference to the river. 
Description of the Holotype.- Shell elongate-oval, 
compressed, thick and solid. Anterior margin rounded 
asymmetrically, barely convex above, broadly convex below, 
passing smoothly into an almost straight ventral margin. 
Posterior margin with three weak angles: ventral, bordering 
the ventral margin; dorsal, the weakest angle, bordering the 
dorsal margin; and central, below the midline of the shell. 
Dorsal margin broadly curved, convex regularly except for 
the beak. Beak smooth, slightly projecting, at 68% of shell 
length. Beak sculpture removed by erosion. Ligament long 
and thick, 45 mm. long; sinus short, triangular, 
inconspicuous; sinulus lanceolate, impressed. Neither area 
nor areola distinct. Exterior surface with fine concentric 
raised threads and irregular coarser swellings, dark brown. 
Hinge plate solid, 60% of shell length. Right valve with two 
pseudocardinal teeth, a small anterior tooth, oblique, and a 
large, stout, trigonal posterior tooth, oblique, and a large, 
stout, trigonal posterior tooth, nearly vertical, with fine, 
jagged, oblique crenulations; a deep, broadly concave socket 
for posterior left pseudocardinal, with oblique crenulations; 
a small oblique tooth bordering the pseudocardinal socket; 
and a weakly curved, short, strong, lateral tooth. Left valve 
with two strong pseudocardinals, with oblique crenulations 
over their surfaces and on the socket between, and with two 



422 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

short, strong, slightly curved lateral teeth striate on their 
opposing faces. Both anterior and posterior adductor and 
retractor-pedis muscle scars fused; protractor-pedis scars 
distinct and large, about one-fifth the area of the combined 
adductor-retractor scars. Suspensor scars conspicuous, 
forming an oblique series of five or six adjacent strongly 
impressed scars, the dorsoposterior scars within the shallow 
cavity of the beaks. Pallial line strong. Nacre white, with 
faint salmon finish. 

Comparisons." The present species is much like that figured 
by Martens (1900: 502) as Unio aztecorum, forma major 
(plate 21, figure 2), from Playa de Misantla, Verz Cruz. It 
differs by the more nearly oval outline, less prominent beaks 
that are more posterior, straight ventral margin, and lack of 
posterior inflation of the shell. Some of these differences 
might be sexual; age difference seems excluded because the 
specimen illustrated by Martens is the largest he measured 
(112 mm.), compared to 124 mm. for the type of D. conchos. 

The interpretation of Unio aztecorum forma major 
Martens has varied with later authors. Frierson (1927: 83) 
thought it was based on a full-grown specimen of Lampsilis 
(Disconaias) fimbriata Frierson (1907: 86), originally 
described from immature material, of which Actinonaias 
walkeri H. B. Baker (1922: 20) and Unio salinaensis Simpson 
([in] Dall, 1908: 181) are synonyms. Pilsbry (1910: 533) held 
the opposite view and believed L. fimbriata and L. aztecorum 
(as illustrated by Martens) were distinct. H. B. Baker (1922: 
22) discussed L. fimbriata and distinguished it from his 
Actinonaias walkeri, but did not mention Unio aztectorum 
forma major. 

Actinonaias walkeri H. B. Baker, 1922 from the Rio San 
Juan, southern Vera Cruz, is similar in the male shells to 
Disconaias conchos. As illustrated, A. walkeri differs by a 
more strongly curved dorsal margin, with a concavity anteriad 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 423 

of the beak; a blunter, more regularly rounded anterior end; 
and slightly more posterior beak. 

Classification of species and details of synonymy in 
Disconaias cannot be resolved at this time. The 

interpretations by all of the authors cited are that Lampsilis 
fimbriata and Actinonaias walkeri are related to one another, 
or even synonyms, and that both are related to Unio discus 
Lea, 1838, type species of Disconaias. Those various nominal 
species all show a range of variation that includes shells with 
far more swollen shape and arcuate dorsal margin than in D. 
conchos. 

The occurrence of Disconaias in the Rio Conchos is 
significant because its relatives are all to the southeast, in the 
Rio Panuco drainage and others farther south that drain into 
the Gulf of Mexico. None of the fishes of the region shows 
a similar distribution (Smith and Miller, 1986). 

SPECIMENS EXAMINED 

Six adult specimens were collected at the type locality. 
The remaining records from the Rio Conchos are based on 
worn fragments. 

RIO GRANDE SYSTEM 

Rio Conchos Drainage. State of Chihuahua, Mexico: Rio Conchos, 15 
km NE Saucillo (LACM 69-240.2); 1 km N Rosetilla (LACM 69- 
242.1); 1.5 km NW Rosetilla (LACM 69-243.1); all worn valves, 
collected by Taylor and Metcalf; Rio Conchos, about 1.2 km W 
Julimes, collected by Taylor and Metcalf (LACM 69-239.1). 

Rio Salado Drainage. State of Coahuila, Mexico: Rio Sabinas, Villa 
Juarez (LACM 95117, Huffman collection, December 1937, 
identified by R. I. Johnson). 



424 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

LITERATURE CITED 

Baker, H. B. 1922. The MoUusca collected by the University of 

Michigan - Walker Expedition in southern Vera Cruz, Mexico. I - HI. 

Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of 

Michigan (106): 1-94, pis. 1-17 (February). 
Dall, W. H. 1908. Descriptions and figures of some land and freshwater 

shells from Mexico, believed to be new. Proceedings of the United 

States National Museum 35: 177-182, pis. 29, 30 (November). 
Frierson, L. S. 1907. A new Mexican mussel, Lampsilis fimbriata. The 

Nautilus 21: 86, 87, pi. 12 [two upper figures and lower left one] 

(December). 
Frierson, L. S. 1927. A Classified and Annotated Check List of the 

North American Naiades. Baylor University Press, Waco, Texas. 

1 1 1 pp., errata et corrigenda. 
Martens, E. von. 1890-1901. Land and freshwater MoUusca. pp. i-xxviii 

+ 706, pis. 1-44. [in] F.D. Godman and O. Salvin (eds.). Biologia 

Centrali-Americana, vol. 9. R.H. Porter, London. 
Pilsbry, H. A. 1910. Unionidae of the Panuco River System, Mexico. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 61: 

532-546, pis. 15-17 (November). 
Smith, M.L. and R.R. Miller. 1986. The evolution of the Rio Grande 

basin as inferred from its fish fauna, pp. 457-485. [in] C.H. Hocutt 

and E.O. Wiley (eds.). The Zoogeography of North American 

Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 

Plate 21 

Figure 1 . Disconaias conchos Taylor. Rio Conchos, about Vi km. West of 
Julimes, Chihuahua, Mexico. Holotype LACM 2257. Length 124 mm, 
height 70 mm, width 42 mm (reduced). 

Figure 2. IJnio aztecorum forma major Martens. Playa de Misantla, Vera Cruz, 
Mexico. (From Martens) Length 112 mm, height 56 mm, width 42.5 mm 
(reduced). 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



425 




Plate 21 



Occasional Papers on Mollusks 

Published by UBi\r\iiY 

The Department of Mollusks 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 



Volume 5 30 January 1998 Number 76 

A NEW MUSSEL, 

POTAMILIS METNECKTAYI (BIVALVIA: UNIONIDAE) 

FROM THE RIO GRANDE SYSTEM, 

MEXICO AND TEXAS 

WITH NOTES ON MEXICAN DISCONAIAS 

Richard I. Johnson' 

ABSTRACT: Potamilis metnecktayi, a new species of Unionidae from the 
Rio Grande system of Mexico and Texas, is described. It has been 
mistaken for Lampsilis (Proptera) salinasensis Simpson, 1908, which is 
a synonym of both Lampsilis fimbriata Frierson, 1907 and Disconaias 
disca (Lea, 1838) from the Rio Panuco System. Also discussed are 
Potamilis purpvrata (Lamarck. 1819), Cyrtonaias tanipicocnsis vLea. 
1838), Disconaias walktn (Baker, 1922), and Lampsilis explicata 
(Morelet, i»49). 

EnITRODUCTION 

The supposed correction of the non-existent type locality 
of Lampsilis (Proptera) salinasensis Simpson, 1908, from 
"Salinas River, Coahuila, Mexico" to "Rio Sabinas, at 
Sabinas, Coahuila" by Taylor (1966: 165) led Artie L. Metcalf 



Department of Mollusks. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138. 

427 



428 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

(1982: 48), Raymond W. Neck and Metcalf (1988: 262), and 
Dwight W. Taylor (unpublished ms.) to assume that the 
species described here, in their honor, was the one described 
by Simpson. It is here shown that Simpson's species is at a 
synonym of Lampsilis fimbriata Frierson, 1907, which itself 
is probably a young Disconaias disca (Lea, 1838), all from 
the Rio Panuco System, Mexico. In his synonymy of L. 
fimbriata, Frierson (1927: 83) included Unio aztecorum 
forma major Martens, 1900 and Actinoniaias walkeri H. B. 
Baker, 1922. Taylor (1997) discussed Marten' s fonna major 
but did not actually resolve its identity, and thought it is 
probably merely an old aztecorum. Frierson, subsequently 
seeing a large specimens of his L fimbriata sent to him by its 
original collector, A. A. Hinkley, was led by its superficial 
resemblance to the type of A. walkeri to place this distinct 
species, also discussed here, from the Rio San Juan in the 
synonymy of fimbriata. 

Much of the information on the plate captions is not 
repeated elsewhere. 



Abbreviations: 

ANSP: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 

Pennsylvania 
JANSP: Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 

Philadelphia 
MCZ: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 

Massachusetts 
PANSP: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 

Philadelphia 
TAPS: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 

UMMZ: Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann 

Arbor, Michigan 
USNM: National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 

Institution, Washington, District of Columbia 
UTEP: Department of Biological Sciences, The University of 

Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 429 



Family UNIONIDAE Rafinesque, 1820 

Subfamily LAMPSELINAE (Ihering, 1901) Ortmann, 1910 

Genus Potamilis Rafinesque, 1818 

Type species: Unio alatus Say, 1817, by subsequent 
designation (Morrison, 1969). Placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology (1992, Bulletin of Zoological 
Nomenclature 49 (1): 81), replacing the well-known taxon 
Proptera Rafinesque 1819. The case is closed, but for a 
historical discussion see Johnson (1980: 128). 

Potamilis metnecktayi new species 
(Plate 22, figures 1,2) 

Lampsilis salinasensis Metcalf 1982 non Simpson, [in] Davis, Proc. 

Symposium Recent Benthological Investigations in Texas and 

Adjacent States, p. 48, pi. 2, fig. 2. 
Potamilus salinasensis Neck and Metcalf 1988, non Simpson, Texas Jour. 

Sci. 40: 262; Howells, Neck, and Murray, 1996, non Simpson, 

Freshwater mussels of Texas, p. 103, figs., p. 212, col. figs. 
Potamilus (Disconaias) salinasensis Howells and Garrett 1995 non 

Simpson, Tnannual Unionid Report no. 8: [10]. 

Holotype. UMMZ 255018 from Rio Salado, 45 mi. S 
Nuevo Laredo, State of Tamaulipas, Mexico, male; allotype 
UMMZ 2550 1 9 from the same locality. 

Paratypes. UMMZ 66993 also from type locality; 
paratype UTEP 2519 from Rio Grande, 6 mi. W Del Rio, Val 
Verde Co., Texas. 



Width (mm) 

33 Holotype UMMZ 25501 8, Male 

31 Allotype UMMZ 255019 

24.5 Paratype UTEP 2519, Female 



Length (mm) 


Height (mm) 


109 


65 


83 


56 


69 


42 



430 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Description: Shell medium, probably reaching over 120 
mm in length. Outline somewhat obovate. Valves 
moderately inflated; shell solid. Anterior end regularly 
rounded, posterior end more broadly rounded, angled above 
and somewhat pointed in males; females more broadly round. 
Ventral margin straight or slightly curved. Dorsal margin 
broadly curved, somewhat convex, and winged at the meeting 
of the posterior margin. Posterior slope with double, 
sometimes triple, radiating ridges. Umbos slightly elevated 
above the hinge line, located in the anterior quarter of the 
shell, their sculpture not observed. Ligament long and 
prominent. Surface of the shell with fine concentric raised 
threads and irregular ridges, covered with a lightly shining 
brownish periostracum with hints of green, and with faint 
rays, especially in young specimens. Left valve with two 
pseudocardinal teeth, and two short, slightly curved lateral 
teeth. Right valve with two pseudocardinal teeth, the anterior 
one tiny, with a large, trigonal posterior tooth, and a single 
lateral one. Beak cavities rather shallow. Anterior adductor 
muscle scars well impressed, posterior ones faint. Pallial line 
distinct. Nacre white to bluish white, and iridescent. 
Howells, et al. (1996: 104) report a specimen with a nacre of 
a pale salmon tint. 

Breeding season: Not known. 

Anatomy: Studying a single male P. metnecktayi, Taylor 
(ms. ) observed that the mantle margin and gill structure which 
he compared to that of a specimen of P. purpurata (Lamarck), 
had a similar "preforate mantle between [the] anal and supra- 
anal openings, a structure previously unknown," and 
suggested that these two species should be placed in a new 
sub-genus. He may still be of this opinion, though the entire 
genus probably consists of fewer than half a dozen valid 
species. 

Remarks: Potamilis metnecktayi appears to be restricted 
to the Rio Grande System of Mexico and Texas. It is most 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 43 1 

similar to P. purpurata (Lamarck, 1819), which occurs in the 
Interior Basin on the west side of the Mississippi River from 
the White River Drainage, Missouri, south through the 
drainages of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas; it also occurs 
to the east in the Hatchie River Drainage, Tennessee. In the 
Gulf Coastal Region, it now appears to extend from the Rio 
Grande System, Texas, to the Mobile-Alabama-Coosa River 
System, Alabama and northern Georgia. 

The occurrence of P. purpurata (Plate 23, figure 1) in the 
Guadalupe River System is based on three records: Blanco 
River Drainage. Wimberly Lake, Hayes Co. (UMMZ 79411); 
Guadalupe River Drainage. Guadalupe River, Seguin, 
Guadalupe Co. (Wurtz, 1950: 2, ANSP); and Guadalupe 
River, Victoria Co. (Strecker, 1931: 45, Mitchell List). It was 
not formerly reported from the San Antonio or Nueces River 
Systems which intervene between the Rio Grande System. 
The two published records from the latter system are probably 
based on misidentifications. They are: Pecos River Drainage. 
Mouth of Pecos River [Val Verde Co.] (Steams, 1891: 104 
"single right valve of a half-grown individual [of Unio 
coloradoensis Lea] William Lloyd"), which was not located 
in the USNM by Taylor, 1986 {ms.); and Devils River 
Drainage, Blaines Lake, Val Verde Co. (Strecker, 1931: 45, 
R. C. Edgar). Neck and Metcalf (1988: 264) may not have 
found this lot in the Strecker Museum (Baylor University, 
Waco, Texas), but their examination of the collection led 
them to state, "that Strecker often confused P. purpuratus 
with Cyrtonaias tampicoensis berlandieri (Lea, 1857)." Both 
of these records were probably based on specimens of what is 
now known as Cyrtonaias tampicoensis (Lea, 1838) (pi. 23, 
fig. 2; pi. 24, figs. 1,2) a species of which Neck and Metcalf 
(1988: 259) found abundant in the lower Rio Grande, but 
where they did not locate P. purpurata. Recently however, 
Howells et al. (1996: 100) reported that P. purpuratus was 
found in the Nueces River System, Lake Corpus Christi, Live 



432 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Oak County, Texas in 1993 and that it was an introduction. 
They also reported specimens from the Rio Grande System, 
Amistad Reservoir and Devils River, Val Verde County, 
collected in 1994 and 1995, the identity of these specimens 
was confirmed with electrophoretic analysis and suggested 
that these too represent an introduced population. 

Both P. purpurata and metnecktayi have similar general 
outlines in both male and female shells, and like all species of 
Potamilis, and some other members of North American 
genera, they have a shallow dorsoposterior sulcus bordered by 
two weak ridges. The shell of purpurata is much more 
inflated, especially in the umbonal region, is heavier, grows 
much larger, and has a purple nacre whereas that of 
metnecktayi is white. 

The only other species in the Rio Grande with which 
metnecktayi might be confused is the abundant C 
tampicoensis which is more rotund, there being little sexual 
difference expressed in the shell; the umbos are more 
centrally located, the periostracum is often polished and 
yellowish with green rays, and the nacre is often pinkish. It 
has recently been discussed and figured by Howells (1996: 
24) and Howells et al. (1996: 48, figs., p. 205, col. figs.). 

Possibly because Simpson suggested Proptera as the 
subgenus of Lampsilis salinasensis as well as associating it 
with the Rio Grande System, Neck and Metcalf as well as 
Taylor {ms.) were led to think that the immature specimens 
described by Simpson were the species described here, but 
they are young examples of Disconaias disca (Lea, 1838) 
from the Panuco River System, Mexico. 

Distribution: Endemic to the lower Rio Grande System, 
Mexico and Texas. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 433 

RIO GRANDE SYSTEM 

Rio Grande Drainage. Texas: Rio Grande at San Francisco Creek, 
Brewster Co. (Howells et al. 1996: 103, figs.). 

Pecos River Drainage. New Mexico: Pecos River, below McMillan 
Dam, Eddy Co., Pleistocene, outside present range (Metcalf 1982, loc. 2, 
[not seen]). Texas: mouth of Pecos River, at former US 90 bridge (now 
flooded by Amistad Reservoir), Val Verde Co. (Taylor, et al., July 1968 
[not seen]). 

Rio Grande Drainage. Texas: Rio Grande, 6 mi. W Del Rio, Val 
Verde Co. (Metcalf, October 1972, UTEP 2519). Rio Grande, Chapengo 
gaging station (Metcalf, December 1975, UTEP 4660); Rio Grande, Roma 
(Metcalf, December 1975, UTEP 4639 [not seen]); both Star Co. 

Rio Salado Drainage. State of Coahuila, Mexico: sediments S bank, 
Rio Salado, Municipio Villa Juarez (Metcalf, 1982, loc. 10, p. 48, pi. 2, 
fig. 2 UTEP 4844 [not seen]). State of Tamaulipas : Rio Salado, 45 mi. S 
Nuevo Laredo (M. M. Ellis, July 1929, UMMZ 66993). State of Nuevo 
Leon ; Rio Salado, Lampozos (ANSP 44200 [not seen]). 

Genus Disconaias Crosse and Fischer, 1 894 
Type species, Unio discus Lea, 1838, original designation 
[introduced as a new section]; 1894 [in] Fischer and Crosse, 
Mission Scientifique au Mexique, part 7, 2: 556. 

Crosse and Fischer [in] Fischer and Crosse (1894: 555-57) 
divided the Mexican and Central American Unionidae into 
nineteen sections, most with a type species by original 
designation. Some of these were later given generic standing 
by both Martens and Simpson in 1900. Frierson (1917: 48) 
proposed that Actinonaias (type species, Unio sapotalensis 
Lea, 1841) be raised to generic level. It was so used by 
Ortmann and Walker (1922: 47) and Baker (1922: 20). 
Frierson later (1927) reduced A crmcna/a5 to a subgenus, but 
retained Baker's use of Disconaias (type species, Unio discus 
Lea, 1838) as a subgenus and raised Cyrtonaias (type species, 
Unio berlandieri Lea, 1857) to a subgenus. Haas (1969) 
essentially merely copied Frierson' s classification of the 
North American Unionacea. Heard and Guckert (1971: 340) 
and Fuller (1975) both use Cyrtonaias as a genus. Their 



434 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

usage and that of Disconaias as a genus by Taylor (1997) is 
followed here. It hardly seems necessary to indicate that the 
status of Mexican and Central American Unionid genera is 
not resolved. 



Disconaias disca (Lea, 1838) 
(Plate 25, figures 1, 2; Plate 26, figures 1, 2) 

Unio discus Lea, 1838, TAPS 6: 74, pi. 18, fig. 57 (Obs. Unio 2: 74); 
1843, TAPS 8: 243, (Obs. Unio 3: 72). Holotype USNM 85341 
[single valve] (Moctezuma [sic] River, a southern confluent of the 
Panuco [teste Martens 1900: 510]). 

Unio panacoensis Busch [in] Philippi, 1843, Abbild. und Beschr. .... 
Conch. 1: 75, pi. 2 Lectotype, have selected. MCZ 178882 (Flumen 
Pancao prope Tampico [Panuco River, near Tampico, Tamaulipas 
State, Mexico] (pi. 25, fig. 2) from Busch ex J.G. Anthony). 

Unio mexicanus Sowerby, 1867, [in] Reeve, Conch. Iconica 16, Unio, pi. 
55, species 281 Lectotype BMNH 79.2.26.281 (Mexico) 
inadvertently selected by Johnson (1971: 88) as "holotype." 

Unio lapidosus Villa [in] Kobelt, 1893, Nach. Bl. Deutsch. Malacoz. 
Gesellsch. 25: 151 (Fluvio Euphrates [erroneous, teste Martens 1900. 
pp. 51 1, 651]); 1893, Rossmiisslers Icon. (2) 6: 90, pi. 176, fig. 1 120 
(Figured type, Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt Universitat, Berlin). 

Unio discus connnectens Martens, 1900, Bio. Cent. Americana 9: 510 
(Rio Panuco, near Tampico [Tamaulipas State, Mexico]). Based on 
Unio panacoensis Busch (Kiister 1861, Conch. Cab. (2) 9, 2: 242, pi. 
18, fig. 1), and Unio mexicanus Sowerby, 1867. 

Lampsihs fimbriata Fnerson, 1907, The Nautilus 21: 86, pi. 12, two upper 
figs, (type) and lower left one (Valles River [near Valles, State of San 
Luis Potosi, Mexico], A. A. Hinkley; holotype UMMZ 87579 
refigured by Johnson (1972: 144, pi. 27, fig. 2); 2 paratypes USNM 
207440; 3 paratypes MCZ 167699; paratypes ANSP 99547-9). 
Pilsbry, 1910, PANSP61: 553. Simpson, 1914, Cat. naiades 1: 177. 

Paraptera {!) fimbriata (Frierson), Ortmann \9\2, Annals of the Carnegie 
Mus. 8: 332. 

Lampsilis( Disconaias) fimbriata Frierson 1927, Check List N. American 
naiades: 83; Haas 1969, 467. 

Actinonaias (Disconaias) fimbriata (Frierson) Taylor (1966, The Veliger 
9: 165. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 435 

Lampsilis (Proptera) salinasensis Simpson, 1908, [in] Dall, Proc. U.S. 
Nat'l. Mus. 35: 181, pi. 30, fig. 3 (Salinas River, Coahuila, Mexico, 
Nelson and Goldman; type locality, here restricted, to the second 
locality, Valles River, Valles, State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 
Lectotype USNM 163156 inadvertently selected by Johnson (1975: 
9) as the "figured holotype," paralectotype USNM 251834; also 2 
paralectotypes USNM 196262 and paralectotype USNM 207440, 
both labeled: Valles River, Valles, Mexico, A.A. Hinkley). 

In the introduction to his paper, Dall (1908: 177) stated 
that, "some species collected by Nelson and Goldman in 
1898, which though recognized as new Siud figured at that 
time [this author's italics], have not been hitherto published." 
Simpson mentioned that he had three specimens, all probably 
young and female, apparently exclusive of the three 
specimens from Hinkley. While Metcalf (1982: 48) refers to 
USNM 251834, as "a series of paratypes," this lot now 
consists of a single specimen with a label that reads the same 
as that of the figured holotype, but with "paratype =fimbriata 
fide Simpson" on the verso. Metcalf (1982: 49) called 
attention to an additional label with this paratype "older in 
appearance [which] reads, 'May 26, 1902, Sabinas R., 
Sabinas, Coahuila, Mexico, Nelson and Goldman.'" It also 
has ^'Lampsilis fimbriata Frierson" on the verso, not 
mentioned by Metcalf. 

Nelson and Goldman went to Mexico mainly to collect 
birds and mammals, but they did pick up other natural history 
objects. In the summary of their expedition, Goldman ( 1 95 1 : 
131) mentioned that they spent 10 days between May 20-31, 
1902 at Sabinas, a town on the railroad in eastern Coahuila, 
and that the Rio Sabinas is, "easily fordable except after rains 
which bring down flood water. Recent rains have brought out 
many wild flowers." Even if the river had receded 
sufficiently during the time Nelson and Goldman were at this 
station to make collecting in it feasible, the supposed date of 
doing so on May 26, halfway through their stay, hints that this 



436 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

is the newer label. It is suggested here that this label is an 
attempt to locate the imaginary Salinas River based on a 
subsequent interpretation of the field notes. 

As previously mentioned, Dall specifically stated that the 
material was collected in 1898. Taylor (1966: 165) pointed 
out that Nelson and Goldman were not in Coahuila at all 
during that year. Peradventure with this in mind, Metcalf 
(1982: 49) accepted what is regarded here as the "corrected" 
label as authentic. Taylor was correct: Nelson and Goldman 
were not at Coahuila during 1898; they were actually at 
Valles during April 27-29 and May 27-29 of that year, and in 
the State of San Luis Potosi even longer. 

The original locality does not exist and the corrected one 
appears to be a spurious interpolation, confirmed by the 
absence of any authentic published records of Lampsilis 
(Proptera) salinensis from the Rio Grande system since the 
mussel was described almost a century ago. It is almost 
certain that it does not occur there. It is most probable that all 
of Simpson's materials came from the Panuco River System. 
The type locality has therefore been restricted to the second 
locality, Valles River, Valles, State of San Luis Potosi, 
Mexico. 

Description: Shell usually medium, though reaching over 
130 mm in length. Outline somewhat obovate or elliptical. 
Valves quite compressed, shell solid. Anterior end broadly 
rounded, posterior end more broadly rounded, tending to be 
subtruncate. Ventral margin somewhat rounded. Dorsal 
margin broadly curved. Posterior ridge rounded, ending in a 
blunt point below the medial line. Unbos slightly elevated 
above the hinge line, located in the anterior quarter of the 
shell, without observed sculpture. Ligament long and 
prominent. Surface of the shell smooth when young, but 
sometimes with a feebly nodulously sculptured dorsal slope. 
Some specimens with numerous irregular pit-like 
impressions, concentric striae and shallow sulci. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 437 

Periostracum yellowish-green with wide or narrow greenish 
rays, or becoming yellowish and brownish in older specimens. 
Left valve with two subcompressed, ragged pseudocardinal 
teeth and two lateral ones. Right valve with one large tooth 
and a vestigial one before it; one lateral tooth. Umbonal 
cavities shallow. Anterior adductor muscle scars well 
impressed, posterior ones faint. Pallial line somewhat distinct 
anteriorly. Nacre white, bluish white or purple, with a wide 
prismatic border. 



Length (mm) 


Hei] 


2ht (mm) 


Width (mm) 


132 


87 




36 


U. discus Holotype, USNM 85341 


120 


85 




37 


U. panacoensis Lectotype, MCZ 
178882 


80 


47 




25 


L. fimbriata Holotype, UMMZ 
87579, Probably female 


80 


52 




22 


Lfimbriatia Paratype, MCZ 167699, 
Male 


70 


40 




20 


L. (P.) salinasensis Lectotype. USNM 
163156. Female 



Breeding season and anatomy: Ortmann (1912: 332), on 
the basis of a gravid paratype of L. fimbriata that was 
collected in December, 1906 or January, 1907, said that the 
breeding season in "winter should be noted." He suggested 
that the soft parts v/ere in every respect like that of P. gracilis 
[Leptodea fragilis (Rafinesque, 1820)], but so were those of 
other genera, and he tentatively plsiccd fimbriata in Proptera. 
He further noted thai fimbriata lacked the special structure on 
the edge of the mantle typical of Lampsilis. 

Remarks: Pilsbry (1910: 533) placed U. panacoensis 
[sic] Busch. lapidosus Villa and connectens Martens under 
the synonymy of D. disca, all of which Martens (1900: 509, 
510) regarded as varieties of it, remarking that "they occur 
together and fully integrate. The nacre may be white, salmon, 
or purple." Pilsbry further regarded salinasensis Simpson as 
a S}Tionym of fimbriata Frierson as did Ortmann (1912: 332) 



438 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

and Simpson himself (1914: 188). Pilsbry further suggested 
that fimbriata was related to Lampsilis strebeli (Lea) and 
discus (Lea). 

In his description of L. fimbriata, Frierson does not 
compare it with any other described species, but mentions that 
A. A. Hinkley had informed him that C. T. Simpson had an 
unnamed species so near to, if not identical, to fimbriata 
under the name Lampsilis salinasensis, that he did not intend 
to describe it. Both Frierson and Simpson had received 
Valles River specimens from Hinckley. 

Nevertheless, Simpson's description of L. (P.) 
salinasensis did appear during the following year, 1908. He 
compared it to Lampsilis explicata (Morelet, 1849)(Plate 27, 
figure 1) and suggested that the former was more obovate 
rather than true rhomboid, and had more compressed and 
sharper beaks. He further mentioned that the posterior slope 
of explicata was nearly or quite smooth, whereas that of 
salinasensis was corrugated, but that is true only in young 
specimens such as the few he had before him, all of which he 
regarded as females. 

Lampsilis explicata (Morelet, 1849) appears to be 
restricted to the Rio Usumacinta System of Guatemala and 
Mexico. The several specimens that Simpson had before him 
collected by Nelson and Goldman from the Rio Usumacinta, 
Monte Cristo, State of Tabasco, Mexico are all much larger 
than his specimens of salinasensis. They are much more 
inflated, yellowish or yellowish-brown, with only an 
occasional hint of rays. The hinges are quite different: the 
pseudocardinals of salinasensis (disca) are subcompressed 
and ragged and an interdentum is present, but in explicata the 
teeth are lamellar and almost parallel to the hinge line, and 
there is no interdentum. Baker (1922: 23) stated that he could 
not believe that Simpson would ever confuse a species, even 
a male specimen, of this group [D. disca] with A. explicata. 

Baker (1922: 21), in his description of Actinonaias 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 439 

(Disconaias) walkeri (Plate 27, figure 2) from the Rio San 
Juan system, called attention to the marked dimorphism in 
older specimens, suggested that older males somewhat 
resemble L.fimbriata Frierson (1907), while those taken from 
older females have the slightly hooked beaks and humped 
posterior dorsal margin of U. discus Lea, 1838. He then 
states, 

"I think it probably that Unio discus (more normal development 
U. panacoensis von d. Busch) is largely based on old female 
specimens which have reached, in the quieter water of the large 
river near Tampico, their completely distinctive form, while L. 
fimbriata Frierson, also from the Panuco River System, is a small 
stream form of the same thing, mainly described from males and 
from rather immature females that have not developed the 
characteristic shape of the older specimens. A youngish shell, 
approaching L. fimbriata, in the ANSP from near Tampico, 
perhaps represents the male of typical A. disca (Lea). Some of 
the young shells of disca in the ANSP are indistinguishable from 
specimens of L. fimbriata, which might be regarded as females 
that had not yet completely developed the adult dimorphism." 

Baker (1922: 22) thought that disca and fimbriata were 
the same species, but because of their ecophenotypic 
differences, he chose to regard them as subspecies. Naming 
ecophenotypic forms was a common practice before the 
biological species was defined. 

Distribution: Disconaias disca (Lea) appears to be restricted 
to the Rio Tamesi and Panuco Systems, Mexico. 

RIO TAMESI SYSTEM 

Rio Sabinas Drainage. State ofTamaulipas, Mexico: Rio Sabinas, 
18 km E Gomez Farias, H. D. Atheam (personal communication). 

Rio Guavalejo Drainage. State of Tamaulipas Mexico: Rio 
Guavalejo, 19 mi ENE Ciudad Mante, MCZ 288410. 



440 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



RIO PANUCO SYSTEM 

Rio Panuco Drainage. State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico: Casas 
Viejas [River], MCZ 69845; Valles [River] 2 mi. W Mecos, Pilsbry, 
ANSP; near Valles, USNM 207449. Panuco [River], near Tampico, 
Tamaulipas, MCZ 316163, ANSP 125585. 

Moctezuma [River] Drainage. State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico: 
Moctezuma River, just below ford, [S Tampamolin], ANSP 99546. 

ACKNOWLEDGIVIENTS 

Special thanks are extended to Dr. Dwight D. Taylor for the 
manuscript he submitted to me in 1986, in which he lost interest after I 
reviewed it. He kindly suggested that I do with it what I would. It 
inspired the present paper. Thanks are extended to Drs. James H. McLean 
of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, California; John 
B. Burch of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan; M. G. Harasewych of the National Museum of Natural History, 
Washington, D. C; and Artie L. Metcalf of the Department of Biological 
Sciences, the University of Texas at El Paso, Texas, for the loan of type 
specimens and other materials without which the present work could not 
have been completed. Thanks are also extended to Dr. Gary Rosenberg of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for access to that 
collection and Mr. Herbert D. Athearn for a record from his collection, 
Dr. Kenneth J. Boss and Mr. Daniel L. Graf kindly read the manuscript 

and made numerous suggestions. Mr. Graf and Mr. Adam J. Baldinger 

also prepared the manuscript, as well as the plates for publication. 

LITERATURE CUED 

Baker, H. B. 1922. The Mollusca collected by the University of Michigan 
- Walker expedition in southern Vera Cruz, Mexico I - III. 
Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of 
Michigan, 106: 1-95, pis. 1-17 (February). 

Busch, G. von dem 1843 [in] Philippi. R. A. 1842-44, Abildungen und 
Beschreibungen .... Conchylien 1: 1-204, [8] 47 pis., pt. 3: 47-76. 

Crosse, H. and P. Fischer. 1894 [in] Fischer, P. and H. Crosse. 1880-1902. 
Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans I'Amerique Centrale. Pt. 7 
(Mollusques), 2: 1-731, pis. 32-82. 1894, Pt. 15: 489-576, pis. 59-62. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 44 1 

Dall. W. H. 1908. Descriptions and figures of some land and fresh- water 

shells from Mexico, believed to be new. Proceedings of the United 

States National Museum 35: 177-182, pis. 29-30 (November). 
Frierson. L. S. 1907. A new Mexican mussel, Lampsilis fimbriata. The 

Nautilus 21 (8): 86, two upper figures and lower left one (December). 
. 1917. New genera and species of Central American Naiades. The 

Nautilus 31 (2): 47-48 (October). 
. 1927. A classified and annotated check list of the North American 

naiades. Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press: 111, and "errata and 

corrigenda" sheet. 
Fuller, S. L. H. 1975. The systematic position of Cyrtonaias. 

Malacological Review 8: 81-89 (June). 
Goldman, E. A. 1951. Biological investigations in Mexico. Smithsonian 

Miscellaneous Collections 115:i-xiii + 1-476, pis. 1-10, frontispiece. 
Haas, F. 1969. Superfamilia Unionacea. Das Tierreich, Berlin, Pt. 88: 1-x 

+ 1-663 (January). 
Heard, W. H. and R. H. Guckert. 1971. A re-evaluation of the recent 

Unionacea (Pelecypoda) of North America. Malcologica [1970] 10 

(2): 333-355 (July). 
Howells, R. G. 1996. The Tampico pearlymussel {Cyrtonaias 

tamplcoensis): shades of the old west. American Conchologists 24 

(2) 24-26. 
and G. P. Garrett. 1995. Freshwater mussel surveys of Rio Grande 

tributaries in Chihuahua, Mexico [in] Biggins, R. G. (Editor). 

Asheville, North Carolina, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Triannual 

Unionid Report 8: 50 pages [not numbered! (November). 
Howells, R. G., R. W. Neck and H. D. Murray 1996. Freshwater mussels 

of Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife Press, Austin Texas, pp. iv, 218, 

unnumbered plain colored figures. 
Johnson, R. I. 1971 The types and figured specimens of Unionacea 

(Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 20 (3): 73- 
108, 2 pis. 
— . 1972. Illustrations of all of the Mollusks described by L. S. Frierson. 

Occasional Papers on Mollusks 3 (41): 137-173, pis. 22-32. 

. 1974. Lea's unionid types or Recent fossil taxa of Unionacea and 

Mutelacea introduced by Isaac Lea, including the location of all the 
extant types. Special Occasional Publication No. 2 Department of 
Mollusks, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: 159. 

. 1975. Simpson's unionid types and miscellaneous unionid types in 

the National Museum of Natural History. Special Occasional 



442 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 

Publication No. 4, Department of Mollusks, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts: 56, 3 pis. 
. 1980. Zoogeography of North American Unionacea (Mollusca: 
Bivalvia) north of maximum Pleistocene glaciation. Bulletin of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology 149 (2): 77-189 (September). 

Kobelt, W. 1893. Diagnosen neuer palaertischer Arten. Nachrichtsblatt 
der deutschen malakozoologischen gesellschaft 25 (9, 10); 150-153 
(September - October). 

and E. A. Rossmassler. 1892-1893. Iconographie land & suss wasser- 

mollusken.... (2) 6: 1-102, pis. 151-180. Pts. 5, 6: 82-102. 

Kuster, H. C. 1839-1862 [in] Martini und Chemnitz. Systematisches 
Conchylien-Cabinet (2) 9, pt. 2, Unio et Hyria: 1-318, pis. 1- 100; 
1853. Pt. 127, pp. 65-88, pis. 18-22; 1861, Pt. 178, pp. 209-256, pis. 
86-88. 

Lea, I. 1834-74. Observations on the genus Unio. 1-13. Philadelphia: 
privately published. [A reprint of papers from the Transactions of the 
American Philosophical Society and the Journal of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. They are repaged, but the plate and 
figure numbers are the same as those in the original publications.] 
. 1838. Description of new freshwater and land shells. Transactions 
of the American Philosophical Society, 6: 1-152, pis. 1-24. 
. 1843. Description of new freshwater and land shells. Transactions 
of the American Philosophical Society, 8: 133-252, pis. 5-27. 
. 1856. Description of four new species of exotic Uniones. 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 8: 
103. 

. 1857. Description of six new species of freshwater and land shells 
from Texas and Tamaulipas, from the collection of the Smithsonian 
Institution. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, 9: 101-102. 

. 1858. New freshwater and land shells. Journal of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, (2) 3: 289-321, pis. 21-33. 
. 1860a. Descriptions of three new species of Uniones from Mexico. 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 12; 
305-306. 

. 1860b. New Unionidae of the United States and northern Mexico. 
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, (2) 4; 327- 
374, pis. 51-66. 

. 1861. Descriptions of eleven new species of the genus Unio from the 
United States. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, 13:391-393. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 443 

. 1862. New Unionidae of the U. States and Arctic America. Journal 

of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, (2) 5: 187-256, 

pis. 24-33. 
Martens, E. von. 1900 [in] 1890-1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana. 

Land and freshwater Moilusca 9:i-xxviii -i- 1-706, pis. 1-44. Part. 

155: 497-520, pis. 33-35 (April); Pt. 157: 529-536, pis. 36, 37 

(August). 
Metcalf, A. L. 1982. Fossil Unionacean bivalves from three tributaries of 

the Rio Grande, pp. 43-58, 2 pis. [in] J. R. Davis [editor]. 

Proceedings of the Symposium on Recent Benthological 

Investigations in Texas and Adjacent States. Austin, Texas: Texas 

Academy of Sciences, Aquatic Sciences Section, 278 pp. 
Morelet, A. L. 1849. Testacea novissima insulae Cubanae et Americae 

Centralis. Pt. 1: 1-31, Paris. 
Morrsion, J. P. E. 1969. The earliest names for North American naiades. 

Annual reports of the American Malacological Union for 1969: 22- 

24. 
Neck, R. W. and A. L. Metcalf. 1988. Freshwater bivalves of the lower 

Rio Grande, Texas. The Texas Journal of Sciences, 40 (3): 259-268 

(August). 
Ortmann, A. E. 1912. Notes upon the families and genera of naiades. 

Annals of the Carnegie Museum 8: 222-355, pis. 18-20. 
and B. Walker. 1922. On the nomenclature of certain North 

American naiades. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, 

University of Michigan, 112: 1-75 (July). 
Pilsbry, H. A. 1910. Unionidae of the Panuco River System, Mexico. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 61: 

532-539, pis. 25-25 (January). 
Simpson, C. T. 1900. Synopsis of the naiades, or pearly freshwater 

mussels. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 32: 501- 

1044. 

. 1908. See under: Dall, W.H. 

. 1914. A descriptive catalogue of the naiades or pearly freshwater 

mussels. Detroit, Michigan: privately published. Parts 1-3, pp. I-xi + 

1-1540. 
Sowerby, G. B. 1865, 67. [in] L. Reeve, 1864-67, Conchologia Iconica 

16, Unio: pis. 1-96 with letterpress; 1865, pi. 22 (April); 1867, pis. 55 

(April). 
Stearns, R. E. C. 1891. List of North American land and fresh-water 

shells received from the United States Department of Agriculture, 

with notes and comments thereon. Proceedings of the United States 

National Museum 14: 95-106. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 444 



Strecker, J. K. 1931. The distribution of the naiades or pearly freshwater 

mussels of Texas. Baylor University Museum Special Bulletin 2: 69, table. 
Taylor, D. W. 1966. A remarkable snail fauna from Coahuila, Mexico. 

The Veliger 9 (2): 152-228. pis. 8-19. 25 text figures (October). 

. 1977. A new mussel, Disconaias conchas (Bivalvia: Unionidae) 

from Rio Conchos of the Rio Grande System, Mexico. Occasional 

Papers on Mollusks 5 (75): 419-425 (August). 
Villa. A. 1893. See under: Kobelt, W. 
Wurtz, C. B. 1950. Quadrula (Quincuncina) guadalupensis sp. nov. 

(Unionidae: Pelecypoda). Notulae Naturae, 224: 1-3. 



Plate 22 

Potamilis metnecktayi Johnson. 

Fig. 1. Rio Salado, 45 mi. S Nuevo Laredo, State of Tamaulipas, 
Mexico. Holotype UxMMZ 255018. Length 109 mm, 
height 65 mm, width 33 mm Male (approx. 0.75X). 

Fig. 2. Rio Salado, 45 mi. S Nuevo Laredo, State of Tamaulipas, 
Mexico. Allotype UMMZ 255019. Length 83 mm, height 
56 mm, width 31m. (reduced). 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



445 





Plate 22 



446 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 23 

Potamilis purpurata (Lamarck, 1819) 

Fig. 1. Unio coloradoensis Lea 1856, PANSP 8: 103 (Rio 

Colorado, Texas); 1858, JANSP (2) 3: 314, pis. 31, fig. 29; 
1857, Obs. Unio, 6: 34. Lectotype USNM 84845 
inadvertently selected by Johnson (1975: 32) as the 
"figured holotype." Length 124 mm, height 77.5 mm, 
width 44 mm Male (approx. 0.75X). 

Cyrtonaias tampicoensis (Lea, 1838) 

Fig. 2. Unio saladoensis Lea 1860, PANSP 12: 305 (Rio Salado, 
New [Neuvo] Leon [State], Mexico); 1860, JANSP (2) 4: 
370, pi. 65, fig. 195; 1860, Obs. Unio 8: 52. Figured 
holotype only USNM [lost]. Length 30 mm, height 22 
mm, width 13.5 mm (approx. 2X). 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



447 






Wt 4{'i /,* 



mm 






Plate 23 



448 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 24 

Cyrtonaias tampicoensis (Lea, 1838) 

Fig. 1. Unio berlandierii Lea, 1857, PANS? 9: 101 ([Rio Grande] 
Matamoras State of Tamaulipas, Mexico; 1860, JANSP 
(2) 4: 369, pi. 64, fig. 195; 1860, Obs. Unio 8: 52. 
Lectotype USNM 84427 inadvertently selected by 
Johnson (1974: 20) as the 'Tigured holotype." Length 87 
mm, height 64 mm, width 41.5 mm (approx. nat. size). 

Fig. 2. Unio heermanii Lea, 1861, PANSP 13: 392 (Medina 

River [San Antonio River System], Texas); 1862, JANSP 
(2) 5: 194, pi. 26, fig. 263; 1863, Obs. Unio 9: 16. 
Lectotype USNM 83932 inadvertently selected by 
Johnson (1974) as the 'Tigured holotype." Length 62.5 
mm., height 40 mm., width 21 mm. (approx. 1.25X). 
Topotypes UMMZ 79392 ex J. A. Singley. 



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449 





Plate 24 



450 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 25 

Disconaias disca (Lea, 1838) 

Fig. 1. Unio discus Lea. River Moctezuma [Panuco River 

System, Mexico]. Holotype (single valve) USNM 85341. 
Length 123 mm, height 87 mm, width 36 mm (approx. 

0.75X). 

Fig. 2. Unio panacoensis Busch. [Panuco River, near Tampico, 
State of Tanaulipas, Mexico]. Lectotype MCZ 178882. 
Length 120 mm, height 85 mm, width 37 mm (approx. 

0.75X). 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



451 




Plate 25 



452 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 26 

Disconaias disca (Lea, 1838) 
Fig. 1. Lampsilis fimbriata Frierson. Valles River [near Valles, 
State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico]. Holotype UMZM 
87579 . Length 80 mm, height 47 mm, width 25 mm 
(slightly enlarged). 

Fig. 2. Lampsilis fimbriata Frierson. Valles River [near Valles, 
State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico]. Paratype USNM 
207440. Length 87.5 mm, height 54 mm, width 22 nun 
(reduced). 

Fig. 3. Lampsilis (Proptera) salinasensis Simpson. [Valles 

River, near Valles, State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico]. 
Lectotype USNM 163156 inadvertently selected by 
Johnson (1975: 19) as the "figured holotype." Length 69 
mm, height 38 mm, width 20 mm (slightly enlarged). 



Plate 27 

Lampsilis explicata (Morelet, 1849) 

Fig. 1. Lampsilis explicata (Morelet). [Rio Usumacincta]. Monte 
Cristo [now Emihano Zapata], State of Tabasco. Mexico. 
USNM 160741. Length 107 mm, height 59, width 32 mm 
(slightly reduced). 

Unio explicatus Morelet 1849. Testacea noviss. insulae Cubanae et Amer. Centralis, Pt, 1: 
28 (flumen Usumasinta, ad pagum Balanan Tabascensium). Lectotype BMNH 93.2.4.2027 
figured by Fischer and Crosse, 1894, Mission Scientifique au Mexique, pi. 7, 2: 594, pi. 
61, fig. l.inadvenently selected by Johnson (1971: 83) as the 'measured holotype." 

Unio (Mesonaias) explicatus (Morelet) Crosse and Fischer [in] Fischer and Crosse, 1 894, 
Mission Scientific au Mexique. pt. 7, 2: 556, 594. 

Lampsilis explicata (Morelet) Simpson 1914, Cat. naiades 1: 176. 

Lampsilis (Cyrtonaias [sic]) explicata (Morelet) Frierson, 1927, Check List N. American 
naiades, p. 85. 



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453 




Plate 26 



454 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Plate 27 (continued) 
Lampsilis explicate (Morelet, 1849) (continued) 

Lampsilis (Mesonaias) explicata (Morelet) Haas, 1969, Das Tierreich 88: 466. 

Unio testudineus Sowerby 1865 [in] Reeve, Conchologia Iconica 16, Unio: pi. 22, sp. 101 

(Rio Usumasinto, Portugal [sic], Cuming coll'n) non Morelet 1849. 
Lampsilis lividus Simpson 1900, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 32: 571. New name for Unio 
testudineus Sowerby 1865 non Morelet 1849. 
Lampsilis livida Simpson, 1914, Cat. naiades, 1: 174. 

Distribution 

Appears to be restricted to the Usmasinta River system of Guatemala and Mexico 
USUMACINTA RIVER SYSTEM 

Rio Salinas (Rio Chixoy) Drainage. [State of El Peten ]Guatemala: Rio Chixoy [at 
Arroyo] Rompido, Diering USNM 128995. 

Rio de la Pasion Drainage[SXdXe. of El P^ten]. Guatemala: Rio de la Pasion USNM 
783045. 

Rio Usumacinta Drainage. State of Tabasco Mexico: [Rio Usumacinta] Monte Cristo 
[now EmiUano Zapata], Nelson and Goldman, USZM 160741; 5.5 mi. SE Emillano Zapata, 
F. G. Thompson, MCZ 288408. 

Genus Actinonaias Crosse and Fischer, 1894 

Type species Unio sapotalensis Lea, 1841; original designation. 
Originally described [in] Fischer and Crosse, 1894, Mission Scientifique 
au Mexique, pt. 7, 2: 556 as a section of Unio, Actinonaias was raised to 
a genus by Frierson (1917: 48) as accepted as such by Ortmann and 
Walker (1922: 47). While reduced to a subgenus of Lampsilis by Fnerson 
(1927: 84), it has since been widely accepted as a genus. 

Actinonaias walkeri Baker, 1922 
Fig. 2. Actinonaias (Disconaias) walkeri Baker. Rio San Juan, 
near Hacienda de Cutotolapam, State of Vera Cruz, 
Mexico. Paratype UMMZ 31844 (single valve). Length 
101 mm, height 58 mm., width (estimated) 28 mm (slightly 
reduced). 
Actinonaias (Disconaias) walkeri H. B. Baker 1922, Occasional Papers Museum of Zoology, 
Umversity of Michigan, 106: 20, pi. 1, figs. 1, 2; pi. 9, fig. 49; pi. 10, figs. 48-50; pi. 11, 
figs. 48, 49 (Rio San Juan, near Hacienda de Cutotolapam, State of Vera Cmz, Mexico; 
holotype UMMZ 31844, figured on pi. 9, fig. 49); paratypes UMMZ 31844 and ANSP 
133694. 

Distribution 

Known only from the type lot consisting of "fifteen specimens, including odd valves," 
from the Rio San Juan System and further south fi-om the [Rio Coaszacoalcos], Coatzacoalcos, 
State of Vera Cruz , Mexico, LACM 11 1413. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



b:> 




Plate 27 



456 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



THE MYTH OF OCTOPUS GIGANTEUS VERRLLL, 1897; 
A WHALE OF A STORY 

Richard L Johnson 

The work of Gennaro (1971) and Mackel (1986) on 
samples of tissue from the Florida Sea Monster, Octopus 
giganteus Verrill, 1897 led them to the conclusion that is 
was indeed, an Octopus. Their identification was accepted 
by Johnson (1989:39), though Verrill (1897), himself, was 
sure that his identification was erroneous. Over the years 
among the other believers that the monster was an Octopus 
were Wood (1971), Mangiacopora (1975, 1977), and 
Mangiacopora et al. (1994, 1995). The last work was 
titled, "Final vindication for Octopus giganteus.'' 

However, very shortly thereafter. Pierce et al. (1995), 
on the basis of electron microscopy and amino acid 
analyses of tissue from specimens saved from the creature 
grounded so many years before on a Florida beach, 
concluded that the tissue was certainly part of an ordinary 
whale. A great blob washed into a lagoon in Bermuda 
during the summer of 1988 was also studied by them, and 
they concluded from its amino acid fingerprint that it was 
part of a cold-blooded fish, shark, or ray. Dr. Clyde Roper, 
curator of invertebrate zoology at the National Museum of 
Natural History was impressed with the rigor of the 
research by Pierce et al., and he was quoted by Weiss 
(1995), "This settles the question of the Florida Sea 
Monster and the Bermuda Blob." Alas, neither was an 
invertebrate. 

Many of the following references were kindly furnished 
by Dr. Alan R. Kabat. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 457 



LITERATURE CITED 

Gennaro, Jr., J.F. 1971. An Octopus Trilogy. Part 2 The Creature 
Revealed. Natural History. The Journal of the American Museum 
of Natural History. 80(3): 24,84,85 (March). 

Johnson, R.I. 1989. Molluscan taxa of Addision Emery Verrill and 

Katherine Jeannette Bush, including those introduced by Sanderson 
Smith and Alpheus Hyatt Verrill. Occasional Papers on MoUusks 
5(67): 1-143, pis. 1-19 (August). 

Mackel, R.P. 1986. Biochemical analysis of preserved Octopus 
giganteus tissue. Cryptozoology 5:55-62. 

Mangiacopra, G.S. 1975. Octopus giganteus Verrill: a new species of 
Cephalopod. Of Sea and Shore 6(1): 3-10, 51 (Spring). 

1977. More on Octopus giganteus. Of Sea and Shore 8(30): 174, 

178 (Fall). 

Mangiacopra, G.S., M.P.R. Raynal, D.G. Smith and D.F. Avery. 1994. 
Update on Octopus giganteus Verrill Part I: More forgotten 
fragments of its 19th century history. Of Sea and Shore 17(4): 
171-178, 9 figs. (Fall). 

1995. History repeating itself: Part II: Ignored-rediscovered- 

ignored again !-and final vindication for Octopus giganteus 1909- 
1994. Of Sea and Shore 17(4): 221-225 (Winter). 

Pierce, S.K., G.N. Smith, Jr., T.K. Maugel and E.Clark. 1995. On the 
giant octopus (Octopus giganteus) and the Bermuda Blob: Homage 
to A.E. Verrill. Biological Bulletin 188: 219-230 (April). 

Verrill, A.E. 1897. A gigantic Cephalopod on the Florida Coast. 
American Journal of Science (4)3:79 (January); Additional 
information concerning the giant Cephalopod of Florida, Ibid. 162- 
163 (February); The supposed great Octopus of Florida; certainly 
not a Cephalopod, Ibid. 355-356 (April) 

Weiss, R. 1995. Scientists sink a sea monster tale. Masses of flesh 
didn't come from a colossal Octopus, study concludes. The 
Washington Post, p. A18 (Sunday, April 2). 

Wood, E.G. 1971. An Octopus Triology. Part I Stupefying colossus of 
the deep. Natural History. The Journal of the American Museum 
of Natural History 80(3): 14-16, 18, 20-24. Part III In which 
Bahamian fisherman recount their adventures with the beast. Ibid 
84, 86, 87 (March). 



458 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



ON "THE CHAMBERED NAUTILUS" 
BY OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES 

Richard I. Johnson 

If Oliver Wendell Holmes is remembered by the present 
generation, it is because of Old Ironsides. This poem, 
written in 1830 whilst he was a student at the Harvard Law 
School, led directly to the preservation of the frigate 
Constitution, which had been slated to be dismantled at the 
Charlestown Navy- Yard. He changed from law to 
medicine and became a professor at the Harvard Medical 
School. He invented an improved stethoscope and wrote a 
medical classic on Puerperal Fever thereby helping to save 
the lives of many women during childbirth, but we only 
look for the influences that inspired him to write The 
Chambered Nautilus. 

In the introduction to a new edition of The Autocrat of 
the Breakfast Table, first published in 1858, Van Wyck 
Brooks (1960: v) pointed out that what kept the book alive 
was an ever-timely wit that sprang from the "code of 
finalities", a general agreement of "values" as they were 
later called. This, according to Holmes, was the "necessary 
condition of profitable talk between two persons," the sort 
said to have flourished at the Saturday Club founded in 
1855. Amongst the original members besides Holmes, one 
of the founders, were Emerson, Longfellow, Lowell, 
Motley, and Louis Agassiz, who was to receive the charter 
for the Museum of Comparative Zoology in 1859 from the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The extent to which the 
club was a mutual admiration society will not even be 
guessed at, but both it and the Museum are still extant. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS ^• 459 



- ' • --Brooks ( 1 936: 354X paraphrasing the doctor,, speaking 
of his inspiration says, "Well he recalled the moments when 
a iyric conception' had struck him like a bullet in the 
forehead, when the blood dropped from his cheek and he 
felt himself turning as white as death. Once or twice only 
had he had this feeling, ~ as when he wrote The 
Chambered Nautilus, ~ a creeping as of centipedes running 
down the spine, a gasp, a jump of the heart, then a sudden 
flush, a beating in the vessel of the head, then a long sigh ~ 
and the poem was written." 

Holmes' poem was considered to be fresh, intense in 
feeling, and American. In his introduction he says, "We 
need not trouble ourselves about the distinction between 
this [Pearly Nautilus] and Paper Nautilus, the Argonauta of 
the ancients. The name applied to both shows that each has 
long been compared to a ship, as you may see more fully in 
Webster's Dictionary (1846). or the 'Encyclopedia' to 
which he refers." Webster also calls attention to Roget 
(1836: 191, figs. 126, 127) where there are rather wretched 
figures of a Nautilus, one showing it sectioned. Of this 
figure Holmes says, "the last will show you the series of 
enlarging compartments successively dwelt in by the 
animal that inhabits the shell which is built in a widening 
spiral. Can you find no lesson in this?" This equiangular 
-spiral is discussed by Thompson (1942: 748). 

The poem opens with the line, "This is the ship of 
pearl," the following seven lines refer not to the Nautilus, 
but to the female oi Argonauta argo, an octopod. The 
Argonaut, or Paper Nautilus, has mistakenly been known 
for over 2,000 years as a navigator which sails the warm 
seas of the world, near the surface, in a boat of shell. While 
the first membranes, do look like miniature sails, both the 



460 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



ancients and Holmes were wrong as to their function. 
Actually, the skin glands of these arms secrete calcium 
carbonate which forms a delicate white "shell" or nest-case 
which does not resemble any other cephalopod shell and, 
unlike the .several species of Nautilus, is not chambered. 
Lane (1960: 9) described how the shell is formed, but that 
is not relevant to this discussion. The "Encyclopedia" 
mentioned by Webster as authored by Cuvier (see under: 
Griffith and Pidgeon, 1834: 9) claims incorrectly that the 
six tentacula are used as oars. Sex is not mentioned is these 
lines describing the anatomy of the female Argc, it might 
please feminists to know that while the female may reach 
over a foot in length, the dwarf male is seldom more than 
one half an inch in length. Yes, one half inch. 

Beginning with the ninth line, "Wrecked is the ship of 
pearl!" is a description of the shell of the Nautilus, probably 
Nautilus pompilius, one of six living species remaining of 
the some 3,000-odd species known from the fossil record. 
Living Nautilus are rarely seen at the surface, excep along 
the coast of the Nicobar Islands. As the animal moves 
forward into each enlarging chamber of its shell, it seals off 
all but a small hole with slender wall. A siphuncle runs 
back through the hole in each chamber to the original one. 
Gas in the chambers gives the animal, which lives in the 
last chamber, buoyancy. Thus, it is not quite true that he 
"knew the old [chamber] no more." 

The facts would have probably been of little interest to 
Holmes who says, "Thanks for the heavenly message 
brought by thee." He seems to have been quite impressed 
with the physico-theology which was especially popular in 
England during the first half of the nineteenth century, 
probably having studied Paley (1802) Natural Theology: Or 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUS KS 46 1 



Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Diety 
Collected from the Appearances of Nature, but especially 
by the Bridgewater Treatise authored by Roget (1836) of 
Thesaurus fame. Paley and the other authors of the 
Treatises (1833-36) used scientific subjects to demonstrate 
"the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, as manifested 
in the Creation" (see: Mayr, 1982: 367-375). Science and 
theology were not separate subjects in those days, and while 
Agassiz never accepted evolution, there is no evidence that 
Holmes did either, though the records of the Boston 
Athenaeum indicate that from January 31 to March 9, 1845 
he had out Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation 
(1844) published anonymously by Robert Chambers, which 
caused a sensation when "the author embraced the doctrine 
of Progressive Development as a hypothetic history of 
organic creation." In a lengthy review, glowing with praise, 
of Agassiz' s Contibutions to the Natural History of the 
United States of America^ Holmes (1858) concluded that, 
"Natural History must, in good time, become the analysis of 
the thoughts of the Creator of the Universe, as manifested 
in the animal and vegetable kingdoms." There is no 
evidence that the subsequent publication of Darwin's On 
the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 
1860, had any more effect on Holmes views that it did on 
those of Agassiz. Agassiz soon ceased to oppose evolution 
on a professional level, but continued his attack on the 
popular level where his prestige remained high, becoming 
increasingly more dogmatic. Morris (1997: 122), however, 
has pointed out that in the chapter added by Agassiz (1869) 
to the French translation of his Essay on Classification 
Agassiz explained what he believed to be a factual rejection 
of Darwinism, based on the data he thought Darwin was 



462 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



unable to explain, as well as to Ernst Haeckel's application 
of Darwinism to evolutionary classifications. Holmes and 
Agassiz were able to continue basking in each others 
admiration at the Saturday Club until the death of Agassiz 
in 1873. 

Quoting an early biographer of Holmes in his Early 
Years of the Saturday Club, Emerson 1918: 167) relates 
that when once asked if he had "derived more satisfaction 
from having written his 'Essay on Puerperal Fever,' which 
had saved so many lives, or from having written the lyric 
which had given pleasure to so many thousands. Dr. 
Holmes replied 'I think I will not answer the question you 
put to me. I think oftenest of The Chambered Nautilus, 
which is a favorite poem of mine, though I wrote it myself. 
The essay comes up at long intervals. The poem repeats 
itself in my memory, and its very often spoken of by 
correspondents in terms of more than ordinar}' praise." 

Bowen (1945: 321) mentioned that when Holmes died 
at home, in 1 894, seated in his chair that, "on a table by the 
fire the pearly nautilus shell sat, gleaming with iridescent 
color." This doubly sectioned shell is now in the Countway 
Library of the Harvard University Medical School. 

Unlike Thomas Steams Elliot writing, The Waste Land, 
some sixty-five years later, who subsequently admitted that 
his notes to the poem were bogus scholarship" and who 
gave no credit to Madison Cawein from whom he cribbed 
so much, Holmes introduced his poem by giving his 
sources and possibly his inspiration for The Pearly 
Nautilus. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 463 



ACKNOWLEGDEMENTS 

This examination of The Pearly Nautilus, from a non 
literary, non poetry appreciation view, was inspired by 
Professor Lynn Wardly of the Department of English and 
American Literature, Harvard University, following a 
discussion with her as to why she was in the Department of 
Mollusks consulting Owen (1832) On the Pearly Nautilus. 
Trevor Joy Johnson kindly supplied a list of the books 
checked out by Dr. Holmes from the Boston Athenaeum 
from 1844-1852. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Agassiz, L. 1869. De 1' espece et de la classification en zoologie. 
Trans. Felix Vogeli. Paris: Bailiere. pp. 
375-391. 

Bowen, CD. 1945. Yankee from Olympus: Justice Holmes and his 
family. Little Brown and Company: Boston. 

Brooks, Van Wyck. 1936. The Flowering of New England. The 
Modern Library. Random House, Inc.: New York. 

Brooks, Van Wyck. 1960. Introduction [to] Holmes, O.W., The 
Autocrat of the Breakfast Table. Everyman's library, Dutton, New 
York. Reprinted 1960 and 1970. 

Emerson, E.W. 1918. The Early Years of the Saturday Club 1855- 
1870. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston and New York. 

Griffith, E. And E. Pidgeon. 1834. The Mollusca and Radiata 

arranged by the Baron Cuvier with supplementary additions to each 
other, vol. 12, Whittaker and Co.: London. 



464 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Holmes, O.W. [1858]. The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table. 
Everyman's Library, Dutton: New York. Reprinted 1960 and 
1970. 

Lane, F.W. 1960. Kingdom of the Octopus. The Life History of the 
Cephalopoda. Sheridan House: New York. 

Mayr, E. 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought and Diversity, 
Evolution, and Inheritance. The Belknap Press of Harvard 
University Press Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. 

Morris, P.J. 1997. Louis Agassiz's argument against Darwinism in 
his additions to the French Translation of the Essay on 
Classification. Journal of the History of Biology 2il: 121-134. 

Owen, Richard. 1832. Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus (Nautilus 
Pompilius, Linn.) with illustrations of its external form amd 
internal structure. Council of the Royal College of surgeons in 
London. Richard Taylor: London. 

Roget, P.M. 1836. Animal and Vegetable Physiology considered with 
references to natural Theology. 2 vols. Carey. Lea & Blanchard: 
Philadelphia. This was the edition of the Bridgewaier Treatises 
most probably available to Holmes. 

Thompson, D'Arcy, W. 1942. On Growth and Form. University 
Press; Cambridge; England New Edition. 

Webster, N. 1846. Webster's Dictionary, unabriged in one volume. 
G.and C. Merriam: Springfield, Massachusetts. 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 465 

ADDITIONAL RECORDS AND NOTES ON THE 
UNIONID FAUNA OF THE GULF DRAINAGE OF 
ALABAMA, GEORGIA AND FLORIDA. 

Herbert D. Atheam^ 



Alasmidonta wrightiana (Walker) was reported 
by Johnson (1967) from the Ochlockonee River on the 
basis of a specimen he received from the Florida State 
Museum. I have examined the headwaters of that 
stream where the Forks come in (Confederate Bridge), 
and A. wrightiana appears to be extirpated here, 
perhaps, due to the extinction of its host fish. Walker's 
original locality, in the Apalachicola River System; 
"tributaries of the Flint River, Baker Co., Georgia," 
appears to be correct smce four living specimens (which 
perfectly match the type figure) were collected by me 
from a tributary of the Flint River: Potato Creek, 3.6 km 
NW Thomaston, Upson Co., Georgia. 

Lampsilis haddletoni Atheam was reported by 
Johnson (1967) only from the type locality in the 
Choctawhatchee River system. I have since identified 
specimens in my collection from the Mobile-Alabama- 
Coosa River System: West Fork, Sipsey River (Black 
Warrior River Drainage), 6.5 km W Grayson, Winston 
Co., Alabama (now inundated by a large reservoir) 
MCZ 3 16520 and from the Pascagoula River System: 



1 



Museum of Fluviatile Mollusk, 5819 Benton Pike NE, Cleveland, TN 



37323-5301 



466 OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



Okatibbee Creek, 2.4 km SE Hookston, Lauderdale Co., 
Mississippi. 

Obovaria rotulata (B.H. Wright) should be placed 
in Fusconaia and Lamp s His j one si Vander Schalie in 
Ptychobranchus (see Johnson 1967, pp. 9, 1 1 
respectively). 

LITERATURE CITED 

Johnson, R.I. 1967. Additions to the unionid fauna of the 

Drainage of Alabama, Georgia and Florida (MolIusca:BivaIvia). 
Breviora, Museum of Comparative Zoology, no. 270: 21,3 pis. 
(June). 

ON THE PROVENANCE OF CERTAIN BOOKS IN 
THE DEPARTMENT OF MOLLUSKS. 

Richard I. Johnson 

The recent sale by the John Crerar Library of 
Chicago of a duplicate of Galilei, Galileo. 1 632 
Dialogo...sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo 
Tolemico, e Copernicano... Flore^nce, Giovanni Batista 
Landini, 1832, turned out to be a remarkable copy 
inscribed by Galileo to Zaccaria Sagredo, brother of 
Galileo's patron Giovanni Francesco, as well as, a 
previously unrecognized uncorrected first issue, 
obviously to the delight of the London dealer who 
purchased it. 

This reminded me that a copy of Planci (1739) 
which I purchased many years ago was a sold by the 
British Museum even though it was inscribed and 
presented by the Museum's founder Hans Sloane 
(1660-1753), "Hansio Sloan Regiae Academeiae 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 467 



Praesidi." Catherine I. Wolfe presented the extensive 
shell collection and library amassed by her father, Dr. 
John C. Jay (1808-1891) to the American Museum of 
Natural History, yet they disposed of his own Catalogue 
(1850) which was interleaved and contained his 
annotations, even though the book plate indicated that it 
was the "Wolfe Memorial Gift: Jay Library." Among 
duplicates sold by the library of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology in 1964 was a copy of Seaside 
Studies by (1865) Elizabeth Cary Agassiz (1822-1907) 
and Alexander Agassiz (1835-1910). This was a 
popular book which Alexander helped his stepmother to 
write, and is inscribed. "A.Agassiz, Nahant, August 
1865," Nahant being the summer seat of the Agassiz 
family. While the bookplate indicates that it was 
deposited by Alex. Agassiz in the library of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, it suffered the same 
fate as the other items mentioned. All three of these 
works are now in the Departm.ent of Moliusks. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Agassiz, Elizabeth C. and Alexander Agassiz. 

1865. Sea Side Studie in Natural History. Marine 
Animals of Massachusetts Bay. Radiates, pp. vi 
[ii] 155. 186 text figs. Boston: Ticknor and Fields. 

Jay, John C. 1850. A Catalogue of the Shells, 

...Contained in the Collection of John C. Jay, M.D. 
Fourth Edition, pp. 460; 1852 Supplement, pp. 461- 
479. New York: R. Craighead. 

Planci, J. [Pseud., i.e. Simon Giovanni Bianchi] 1739. 
De Conchis minus notis liber cui accessit specimen 
aestus reciproci maris superi ad littus Portumque 
Arimini. pp. 88, 5 pis. Venetiis. 



468 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



INDEX 

The index which follows does not include all of the names 
covered in this volume. Omitted names are easily found in the 
various numbers which are alphabetically arranged and are thus 
self-indexed. These are: 

Johnson, Richard I. Molluscan Taxa of Addison Emery 
Verrill and Katharine Jeannette Bush, Including Those 
Introduced by Sanderson Smith and Alpheus Hyatt Verrill, 1- 
143. 

Kabat, Alan R. Correct Family Names for the Freshwater 
"Muteloid" Bivalves (Unionoida: Etherioidea), 379-392. 



**** 



Actinonaias, 433 

alatus, Potamilus, 397 

alatus, Unio, 429 

ambigua, Simpsonaias, 397 

Anomia, 148 

Aplysia, 148 

argo, Argonauta, 459 

Astartella, 149 

aztecorum forma major, Unio, 422 

berlandierii, Unio, 448 

cardium, Lampsilis, 397, 410 

charlottensis, Unio, 372 

coloradoensis, Unio, 431, 446 

complanata, Lasmigona, 397, 410 

complanta, Elliptio, 397, 410 

compressa, Lasmigona, 397, 410 

conchos, Disconaias, 420 

conneclens, Unio, 437 

costata, Lasmigona, 397 

Cyrtonaias, 433 

decorata, Lasmigona, 372, 375 

disca, Disconaias, 434, 450, 452 

Disconaias, 433 



discus, Unio, 433 
discus connectens, Unio, 434 
doliaris, Anodonta, 372 
exlicata, Lampsilis. 438, 452 
ferussacianus, Anodontoides, 

397, 410 
fimbriata, Lampsilis, 434, 452 
fimbriala, Lampsilis (Disco- 
naias), 422 
flava, Fusconaia, 397 
folliiculata, Elliptio, 375 
grandis, Pyganodon, 397,410 
haddletoni, Lampsilis, 465 
heermanii, Unio, 448 
imbecillis, Utterbackia, 397, 

410 
jonesi, Lampsilis, 466 
lapidosus, Unio, 434, 437 
lividus, Lampsilis, 454 
masoni, Pleurobema, 374 
metnecktayi, Potamilis, 429. 

444 
mexicanus, Unio, 434 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON MOLLUSKS 



469 



monodonta. Cumberlandia, 397 
nasuta. Ligumia, 375 
nervosa, Megalonaias, 397 
panacoensis, Unio, 434, 450 
panucoensis, Unio, 437 
plicata, Amblema, 397, 410 
ponripilius, Nautilus, 460 
Potamilis, 429 
Proptera, 429 
pullus, Toxolasma, 375 
purpurata, Potamilis, 431, 446 
quadrula, Quadrula, 397 
radiata radiata, Lampsilis, 375 
radiata conspicua, Lampsilis, 375 
recta, Ligumia, 397, 410 
reflexa, Obliquaria, 397 
robusta, Alasimidonta, 372, 376 
rotulata, Obovaria, 466 
saladoensis, Unio, 446 
salinasensis, Lampsilis, 429 



salinasensis, Lampsilis (Pro- 
ptera), 435, 452 
sapotalensis, Unio, 433 
siliquoidea, Lampsilis, 397,410 
subviridis, Lasmigona, 372 
tampicoensis, Cyrtonaias, 431, 

446, 447 
tampicoensis berlandieri, Cyr- 
tonaias, 431 
testudineus, Unio, 454 
undulatus, Strophitus, 375, 

397, 410 
varicosa, Alasmidonta, 374, 

375, 376 
vera, Astartella, 149 
Villosa, 375 

walkeri, Actinonaias, 422 
walkeri, Actinonaias (Disco- 

naias), 439, 454 
wrightiana, Alasmidonta, 465 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS 
ON MOLLUSKS 






Published by 

The Department of Mollusks 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 

Harvard University 



VOLUME 5 

Numbers 67 to 76 



Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 
1989-1998 



RICHARD IRWIN JOHNSON 

It is a great pleasure to be able to dedicate this 
volume of Occasional Papers on Mollusks to Mr. Richard 
Irwin Johnson who has, during almost six decades of 
association with the Department of Mollusks, made 
numerous contributions to both malacology and its history, 
a number of which have appeared in this series and the 
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, as well as 
Breviora and Miscellaneous Occasional Papers. He has 
generously supported the Department and added 
considerably to its library; such works as Kiener, the Kiister 
edition of Martini and Chemnitz; and the original pattern 
set to Reeve's, Conchologia Iconica, all duplicates from his 
library, which is the most extensive malacological 
collection in private hands. 

During 1939 when Richard was fourteen years old 
and showed an interest in biology, his science teacher, Mr. 
Albert Clish took him to meet Clish's old classmate from 
the Huntington School, Boston, William James Clench, 
Curator of Mollusks at the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. With his remarkable and infectious enthusiasm, 
Clench assured Clish that if Richard wished to volunteer in 
the Department he might become especially interested in 
mollusks. Richard was set to unpacking the extensive 
incoming collections of Unionoidea, including both those 
of the Grand Rapids, Michigan, Public Museum and of the 
duplicates from the Bryant Walker collection, which had 
recently been received from the University of Michigan. 
He was assured by Clench that this group was his special 
interest and it has been ever since. So much for 



imagmation. 



m 



Among those working in the Department at the time 
were Richard Winslow Foster, Henry Drummond Russell, 
and Robert Tucker Abbott, an undergraduate. The latter 
already appeared to be a distinguished malacologist to a 
fourteen year old. In August of 1941 most of the members 
of the Department attended the eleventh annual meeting of 
the American Malacological Union at Rockland and 
Thomaston, hosted by Norman W. Lermond, and it was 
here that Richard met Frank Collins Baker, Horace B. 
Baker, Paul Bartsch, Fritz Haas, Henry A. Pilsbry and many 
others. 




William J. Clench (left) and Richard I. Johnson comtemplating unios 
on the steps of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, May 1963. 



IV 



During October of 1940 to April 1941, Clench was 
at the B.B. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, on a grant to study 
Hawaiian land snails with Dr. C. Montague Cooke, and Dr. 
Russell was left in charge. During this time, Richaid 
became acquainted with James R. Miller, a professional 
collector of biological specimens, and through him, Herbert 
D. Atheam, who has also spent his life collecting and 
studying Unionoidea. Miller volunteered at the New 
England Museum of Natural History, and it was here, while 
helping him, that Richard discovered an old catalogue 
which led to his being able to reidentify many of the type 
specimens of mollusks described a century before by 
Joseph Pitty Couthouy. He also made the acquaintance of 
Ruth D. Turner, then Assistant Curator of Birds. Either he 
or Miller introduced her to Clench whose infectious 
enthusiasm for mollusks caused her to abandon ornithology 
for malacology. She became a leading specialist of the 
bivalve family Teredinidae. 

In early December of 1941, Johnson and Turner 
accompanied Miller to Tiverton for several days to help 
him prepare starfish which Miller was dredging for the 
Cambosco Scientific Company. Turner left a day early to 
assist at Audubon Society's annual bird count. Those who 
returned to port on the 7th of December learned that the 
Japanese had bombed Pearl Harbor. Johnson was drafted 
in June 1943, knowing only that he had an early acceptance 
to Harvard if he returned. The proofs of the Couthouy 
paper were corrected while he was on latrine duty at Camp 
Hood, Texas. When finally sent to Europe, he was 
occasionally able to sneak to Paris where he found the most 
important works on mollusks so cheaply priced that he 
purchased virtually everything he saw. Later, as a Harvard 



undergraduate, he financed his summers in Europe with the 
books he bought and sold. At college, he rowed on the 
freshman crew, successfully defeating Yale that year in 
1947. As an undergraduate he was a member of the Hasty 
Pudding Club and the Spee Club, known as a Final Club, 
which had Maximilian Agassiz and John F. Kennedy as 
members. After graduating in 1951, he attended what is 
now the American Graduate School of International 
Management near Phoenix, Arizona, but he never appeared 
at the National City Bank in New York which had hired 
him. He returned to Boston and the Museum, becoming 
involved in life insurance, and trading securities at White, 
Weld & Co. In 1954 he married Marjory Weld Austin. 
They had three children; Sally, married to David Lurie; 
Marjory; and Richard, married to Karen O'Leary who had 
given him a grandson. Mason. The marriage ended in 
divorce in 1982. Later at the opening of an event at the 
Boston Athenaeum, Richard met Marrian Geer Gleason, the 
widow of Edward Hollis Gleason, a Harvard Graduate 
whom he had come to know at graduate school, and 
married her in 198|. She also has two adult children, Julia 
and Edward. 3 

In 1960, at the insistence of Dr. Giles W. Mead, 
Curator of Fishes, Johnson accompanied Frank Mather on 
the Woods Hole vessel Crawford. Mather was studying the 
breeding habits of the tuna, and Johnson baited the 
Japanese long lines about which everyone has heard ever 
after. In 1952, Johnson led the Harvard Expedition to 
Peninsular Florida to collect Unionidae. He was 
accompanied by an undergraduate, Samuel Liberty Harvey 
Fuller. Fuller subsequently became a professional biologist 
associated with the Academy of Natural Sciences of 



VI 



Philadelphia, especially interested in Unionoidea. After 
trips to Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and Central 
Ohioin 1964 and 1965, Johnson had constructed an office 
in the room which contains the Unionoidea, retired from 
business, and has since then devoted most of his time to the 
Museum. 

From 1958 until 1970, under the directorship of 
Professors Alfred Sherwood Romer and later, Ernst Mayr, 
Johnson served on a Committee with Drs. Charles Pierson 
Lyman and Raymond Andrew Paynter planning exhibition 
work. The Committee was abolished by the then new 
Director, Dr. Alfred W. Crompton, who also, after more 
than 100 years ceased publishing the Annual Report of the 
Museum. 

In 1989 the Mollusk Department held a party at the 
Harvard Faculty Club to celebrate Johnson's fifty years at 
the Museum. A few months before James R. Miller 
appeared at the Department. Though close to ninety, he 
had hitch hiked from Florida. Johnson's original thank-you 
note to Clench, obviously written with his mother's 
prodding, was found in the Departmental files and read to a 
distinguished audience. 

Having served under all of the directors of the 

Museum save the two Agassiz's and Samuel Henshaw, 

Johnson realized that of those he had known, the most 

distinguished was Ernst Mayr, the world's foremost 

evolutionary biologist. He and the author, with the 

permission of Mr. Rudenstein, President of the University, 

established a fund for a portrait of Professor Mayr, by the 

distinguished artist Robert Douglas Hunter. The portrait 

hangs in the Museum's library, now known as the Ernst 

Mayr Library. 

VII 




Richard Irwin Johnson 



Seen here prepared for the annual meeting of The Club 
of Odd Volumes, the purpose of which is "to promote 
literary and artistic tastes." It was founded in Boston in 
1887 and limited to 87 resident members. Both Samuel 
Henshaw and Thomas Barbour, former directors of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, were members. 
(Though his beer glass is visible, conspicuously hidden in 
his right hand is Johnson's ubiquitous cigar) 

VIII 



As a boy Johnson quickly recognized the difference 
between Dr. Thomas Barbour, the museum director, and 
other rentiers who held positions of authority, as opposed to 
Mr. Clench, who had to support a family on a modest 
salary. He decided early that financial success was 
important, even if he had then been aware that Robert Louis 
Stevenson had said "it is perhaps a more fortunate destiny 
to have a taste for collecting shells than to be bom a 
millionaire." Alas, who would have known by the time 
Johnson was able to spend all of this time at the Museum, 
the rentiers were a dying race. He continues to come in 
daily while the author retreats to Maine from late May until 
early September after the end of the academic year. I am 
happy to say that Richard and I have remained friends 
throughout my nearly forty years at Harvard. 



Kenneth J. Boss 



DC 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Herbert D. Athearn 465 

Kenneth J. Boss 68; 69 (p. 154); 70 

Daniel L. Graf 73; 74 

Alan R. Kabat 69; 70; 72 

Richard I. Johnson.. ..67; 71 (p. 378); 76 (pp. 456, 458, 466) 

Richard E. Petit 68 

Dwight D. Taylor 75 

James C. Underhill 74 



STAFF 

Kennth J. Boss Ruth D. Turner 

Professor of Biology Professor of Biology, Emerita 

Curator in Malacology Curator in Malacology, Emerita 



Adam J. Baldinger 
Curatorial Associate in Malacology 

Richard I. Johnson Arthur S. Merrill 

Associate in Malacology Associate in Malacology 



Mary E. Jablokow 
Secretary 



Marion D. Britz 
Secretary and Business Manager, Emerita 



X 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Index 468 

No. 67. Molluscan Taxa of Addison Emery Verrill and 

Katharine Jeannette Bush, Including Those Introduced by 

Sanderson Smith and Alpheus Hyatt Verrill 

by Richard I. Johnson 1 

No. 68. Searles V. Wood's "Monograph of the Crag 

Mollusca" (1848-1882), With Notes on the Generic Name 

Astrartella 

by Richard E. Petit and Kenneth J. Boss 146 

No. 69. An Indexed Catalog of Publications on Molluscan 
Type Specimens 
by Alan R. Kabat and Kenneth J. Boss 157 

No. 70. Addendum to "An Indexed Catalogue of Publications 
on Molluscan Type Specimens 
by Alan R. Kabat and Kenneth J. Boss 337 

No. 71. Comments on "The Final Report" of a Massive 
Search for Lasmigona decorata (Lea, 1 852) and 
Alasmidonta robusta Clarke, 1981 (Bivalvia: Unionidae) 
from the Carolinas 
by Richard I. Johnson 371 

No. 72. Correct Family Names for the Freshwater "Muteloid" 
Bivalves (Unionoida: Etherioidea) 
by Alan R. Kabat ...379 

No. 73. The Effects of Breeding Period on the Biogeography 
of Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoidea) in the 
Minnesota Region of North America 
by Daniel L. Graf 393 



XI 



No. 74. The Western Lake Superior Freshwater Mussel 
(Bivalvia: Unionidae) Community and its Orgin 
by Daniel L. Graf and James C. Underbill 409 

No. 75. A New Mussel, Disconaias conchos (Bivalvia: 

Unionidae) From Rio Conchos of the Rio Grande System, 

Mexico 

by DwiGHT W. Taylor 419 

No. 76. A New Mussel, Potamilis metnecktayi (Bivalvia: 
Unionidae) from the Rio Grande System, Mexico and 
Texas With Notes on Mexican Disconaias 
by Richard I. Johnson 427 



NEW SPECffiS 

Disconaias conchos, 420 

Potamilis metnecktayi, 429 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Lain, Carol M. and Ronald W. Gilmer. 1989. Pelagic Snails. 
The Biology of Holoplanktonic Gastropod Mollusks, 154 

Wood, S.W. 1848-1882. Monograph of the Crag Mollusca, 
145 



xn 



SUBJECT INDEX 



Catalogues of Species by 



K.J. Bush, pp. 1, 378 A.E. Verrill, pp. 1, 456 

S. Smith, p. 1 A.H. Verrill, p. 1 



Faunistic and Zoogeographical 

Comments on "The Final Report" of a Massive Search for 
Lasmigona decorata (Lea, 1852) and Alasmidonta robusta 
Clarke, 1981 (Bivalvia: Unionidae) from the Carolinas, 
371 

The Effects of Breeding Period on the Biogeography of 
Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoidea) in the 
Minnesota Region of North America, 393 

The Western Lake Superior Freshwater Mussel (Bivalvia: 
Unionidae) Community and its Orgin, 409 

A New Mussel, Disconaias conchos (Bivalvia: Unionidae) 
From Rio Conchos of the Rio Grande System, Mexico, 
419 

A New Mussel, Potamilis metnecktayi (Bivalvia: Unionidae) 
from the Rio Grande System, Mexico and Texas With 
Notes on Mexican Disconaias, All 

Additional Records and Notes on the Unionid Fauna of the 
Gulf Drainage of Alabama, Georgia and Florida, 465 



Miscellaneous 

An Overlooked Northern European Marine Gastropod, 
Omalaxis sarsi^M^h, 1897, 378 

xin 1 ') '-) 

i .1 /. O 



The Myth of Octopus giganteus Verrill, 1897, A Whale of a 
Story, 456 

On "The Chambered Nautilus" by Oliver Wendell Holmes, 

458 

On the Provenance of Certain Books in the Department of 
Mollusks, 466 



Numbers 71-75 were distributed in limited numbers on the 
date of publication. 

Pages I -XTV published January 30, 1998. K.J. Boss 



XIV 



Harvard MCZ Llbrai 




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