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OCCASIONAL SPEECHES 
AND WRITINGS 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES 
AND WRITINGS 

October 1952 January 1956 



By 
S. RADHAKRISHNAN 

Vice-President of India 



THE PUBLICATIONS DIVISION 

MINISTRY OF INFORMATION & BROADCASTING 

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 



MAT 1956 



PRINTED IN INDIA 

BY 8. N. CUBA RAY AT SREE SARASWATY PRESS LTD., CALCUTTA AND 
PUBLISHED BY THE DIRECTOR, THE PUBLICATIONS DIVISION, DELHI 



CONTENTS 



INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS 

Page 

The United Nations Day, 24 October, 1953 . . 3 

Visit to the United States' Senate, 17 November, 1954 . . 12 

India and Yugoslavia : Speeches on the occasion of 
President Tito's Address to the Members of Parliament, 
21 December, 1954 21 

India and the Commonwealth : Speech on the occasion 
of Sir Anthony Eden's Address to the Members of 
Parliament, 3 March, 1955 . . 26 

India and Egypt : Speech on the occasion of the Address 
of Col. Nasser and Sardar Mahomed Nairn Khan to 
the Members of Parliament, 14 April, 1955 . . 28 

India and Indonesia : Speech proposing the Toast to 
Dr Hatta, Vice-President of Indonesia, 15 November, 
1955 . . 32 

India and the Soviet Union : Speeches when Messrs. 
Bulganin and Khruschev addressed the Members of 
Parliament, 21 November, 1955 . . 35 

India and China : Speech proposing the Toast to 

Madame Soong Ching-ling, 17 December, 1955 . . 40 

EDUCATION AND CULTURE 

UNESCO General Conference, Seventh Session, Paris : 

Presidential Address, October 1952 . . 47 

Karnatak University : Convocation Address, 26 October, 

1953 . . 51 

Delhi University : Convocation Address, 5 December, 

1953 . . 56 



[VI] 

Page 

Punjab University : Convocation Address, 19 December, 

1953 . . 67 
Meerut College Diamond Jubilee : Inaugural Address, 

20 December, 1953 . . 74 

Indian History Congress, Waltair: Inaugural Address, 

29 December, 1953 . . 77 

Indian Historical Research Society, Bombay: Silver 

Jubilee Celebrations, 12 January, 1954 . . 82 

Saugar University : Convocation Address, 1 1 February, 

1954 . . 87 
Teaching of Social Sciences in South Asia : Inaugural 

Address at the UNESCO Round Table Conference, 15 
February, 1954 . . 93 

Delhi University, Special Convocation: Address as 
Chancellor conferring Honorary Degree on the Rt. 
Hon. Louis St. Laurent, 24 February, 1954 . . 101 

Sahitya Akademi: Inaugural Address, 12 March, 1954 104 

Exhibition of Nandalal Bose's Paintings, Calcutta: 
Inaugural Address, 27 March, 1954 ..111 

The Writer and the Present Crisis : Speech at the Indian 
P.E.N. Congress, 16 April, 1954 . . 118 

UNESCO General Conference, Eighth Session, Monte- 
video: Presidential Address, October 1954 . . 133 

Columbia University : Charter Day Dinner, 30 October, 
1954 . . 144 

Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 150th 
Anniversary Celebrations : Presidential Address, 
4 December, 1954 .. 146 

Exhibition of Canadian Paintings, Delhi: Inaugural 
Address, 13 January, 1955 .. 152 

Delhi University, Special Convocation : Address as 
Chancellor conferring Honorary Degree on Sir Cecil 
Wakeley, 22 March, 1955 . . 155 



Delhi University, Special Convocation : Address as 
Chancellor conferring Honorary Degree on Miss Helen 
Keller, 16 April, 1955 . . 156 

The Indian School of International Studies, New Delhi : 

Inaugural Address, 1 October, 1955 . . 157 

Gujarat University : Convocation Address, 8 October, 
1955 . . 164 

The Delhi School of Economics : Inaugural Address, 18 
January, 1956 ..175 

World University Service Health Centre : Inaugural 
Address, 30 January, 1956 . . 178 



PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION 

Mahabodhi Society, Sanchi : Diamond Jubilee Celebra- 
tions, November 1952 . . 183 

92nd Birthday Celebrations of Swami Vivekananda, New 
Delhi : Presidential Address, 21 February, 1954 . . 191 

Religion and Its Place in Human Life, Rishikesh, 12 
August, 1954 . . 197 

The Ancient Asian View of Man : Broadcast Address for 
the Columbia University Bi-Centennial Celebrations, 
October 1954 . . 201 

The Social Message of Religion : Address at the Marian 
Congress, Bombay, 4 December, 1954 . . 212 

All-India Shia Conference : Inaugural Address, 25 
December, 1954 . . 217 

Mahavira Jayanti Celebrations, New Delhi, 5 April, 1955 220 

Union for the Study of the Great Religions (India 
Branch) : Inaugural Address, 29 May, 1955 . . 226 

Shri Krishna Janmashtami Celebrations, Calcutta, 10 
August, 1955 . . 242 



[VIII] 

Page 

Gandhi and the United Nations : Inaugural Address, 4 
October, 1955 . . 247 

Indian Religious Thought and Modern Civilization: 
Presidential Address, All-India Oriental Conference, 
Annamalai University, 26 December, 1955 . . 253 

GENERAL 

Indian Railways Centenary Celebrations: Presidential 

Address, 16 April, 1953 . . 289 

Devanagari Script Reform, Lucknow, 28 November, 

1953 . . 295 
United Nations Seminar on Housing and Community 

Improvement: Inaugural Address, 21 January, 1954 301 
Balkan-Ji-Bari, Patna : Inaugural Address, 3 February, 

1954 . . 306 
Indian Council of Agricultural Research : Convocation 

Address, 12 February, 1954 ..311 

Opening of Hospital in Ahmedabad, 24 April, 1954 . . 315 
Laying of the Foundation Stone of the Office of the 

Accountant-General, Madras, 2 June, 1954 . . 320 

International Hotel Conference, Delhi: Inaugural 

Address, 18 February, 1955 . . 327 

The Indian Rifle Association, Delhi : Inaugural Address, 

2 March, 1955 . . 330 

Burmah-Shell Refinery, Trombay: Inaugural Address, 

17 March, 1955 .. 333 

Indian Agricultural Research Institute: Inaugural 

Address, 1 April, 1955 . . 338 

The Accountant-Generals' Conference, New Delhi : 

Inaugural Address, 1 May, 1955 . . 343 

The Delhi Provincial Sarvodaya Sammelan : Inaugural 

Address, 11 September, 1955 .. 349 



[ IX ] 

Page 

Opening of Durgapur Barrage, 9 August, 1955 . . 353 

Seminar on Casteism and the Removal of Untouchabi- 

lity : Inaugural Address, 26 September, 1955 . . 357 

Indian Industries Fair, Delhi : Prize Distribution, 2 

January, 1956 . . 363 

Hitakarini Sabha, Jabalpur, Diamond Jubilee Celebra- 
tions : Inaugural Address, 22 January, 1956 . . 366 

PREFATORY INTRODUCTIONS 

Great Women of India, 1953 . . 371 
Shankar's Weekly, Children's Number, 31 December, 

1953 . . 379 

Democracy and Education, 3 March, 1954 . . 381 

Manjari, 10 April, 1954 . . 383 

The Upanisads, 28 April, 1954 . . 384 

Women of India, 1954 . . 386 

Education for World Understanding, 5 May, 1954 . . 388 

China Phoenix, 16 April, 1955 . . 390 

Indian Nationhood and National Culture, 20 April, 1955 392 

V. Subrahmanya Aiyar, 3 May, 1955 . . 395 

Sarhjna-Vyakaranam, 17 July, 1955 .. 398 

Radhakamal Mukerjee, 22 September, 1955 . . 400 

Hinduism, 14 December, 1955 . . 403 

Bhoodan, 1955 . . 405 

Shri Ramana Maharshi, 1955 . . 408 

INDEX .. 411 



INTERNATIONAL 
AFFAIRS 



THE UNITED NATIONS DAY* 

24 October, 1953 

ON this, the United Nations Day, it is the 
privilege of the member Governments of this 
organization to inform the peoples of the World of 
the aims and achievements of the United Nations 
and to gain their support for it. The aims are stated 
in the Preamble of the Charter signed at San 
Francisco on the 26th day of June, 1945. It reads : 

We, the peoples of the United Nations, determined to save 
succeeding generations from the scourge of War, which 
twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to man- 
kind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, 
....and to establish conditions under which justice and 
respect for the obligations arising from treaties and of other 
sources of international law can be maintained.... have 
resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims. 

The United Nations was established for the pro- 
motion of these objectives. 

We rejoice that there is an institution like the 
United Nations, for it is the symbol and hope of the 
new world, of the light dawning beyond the clouds, 
clouds piled up by our past patterns of behaviour, 
past ways of speaking, judging and acting, which do 
not answer to the deep desire of the peoples of the 
world for peace and progress. We owe it to ourselves 

* Broadcast from All India Radio 



4 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

to find out why the light does not spread and dis- 
perse the darkness, why the sky is still clouded by 
fear and suspicion, hate and bitterness. 

If we look at the international scene where the 
major Powers seem to be engaged in the initial skir- 
mishes that can grow into a full war, where they 
are striving for strategic bases, bidding for allies, 
encouraging subversive movements in the ranks of 
their opponents, we feel greatly depressed and dis- 
turbed. Individuals can debase individuals but 
Governments which base their policies on power and 
opportunism can brutalize whole peoples. We can- 
not go on piling armaments indefinitely and condi- 
tioning men's minds for war without exposing our- 
selves to the risk of war. Either there will be an 
explosion of a devastating character or we have to 
settle down, join hands and prepare for an age of 
peace and prosperity for all. The latter can happen 
only if the signatories to the Charter earnestly and 
honestly apply the principles of the United Nations 
in their internal and external policies. 

The services rendered by the United Nations in 
regard to the problems of Palestine, Indonesia, 
Kashmir and Korea are well known. The high qua- 
lity of work of the specialized agencies, especially in 
the matter of raising the standards of health and 
education in the world, cannot be underestimated. 
In spite of these valuable achievements, the United 
Nations is losing moral authority. There is a general 
impression that its history since its inception has 



THE UNITED NATIONS DAY 5 

been one of failure ajnd feebleness, of distortion of its 
original purpose, of violation of solemn resolutions. 

The State Governments in spite of their member- 
ship of the United Nations are more nationalistic 
than international-minded. The growing nationa- 
lism of the free nations of the world comes from fear 
and insecurity. If internationalism brings security, 
it will remove fear, but little is done to remove the 
sense of insecurity and fear. 

As for the unfree nations of Asia and Africa, their 
movements for political liberation cannot be by- 
passed. These resurgent peoples have traditions 
which are old though their political ambitions are 
new. They are sensitive and proud though they are 
weak and subject, poor and hungry. Their passion 
for freedom from foreign domination increases with 
resistance to it. The advantages of internationalism 
cannot be realized by those who suffer from the 
bitterness of bondage. By refusing to sympathize 
and assist the movements for freedom, we build up 
a legacy of resentment in the minds of the colonial 
peoples towards those whom they rightly or wrongly 
identify with their oppressors. The leading nations 
of the United Nations should use their influence not 
to maintain the status quo in colonial countries, but 
to make the United Nations an instrument for 
peaceful change. If we support colonial systems, 
corrupt, unrepresentative administrations which 
violate human rights and practise out of date feudal 
economies, and if this support takes the form of 



6 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

military assistance, the danger to world peace be- 
comes extremely grave. 

If the Declaration of Human Rights is not to lose 
its meaning, if it is not to be dismissed as a mere 
scrap of paper, the United Nations should not com- 
promise with its own ideals. The bitterness of people 
who are victims of racial segregation is mounting. 
Though the racially oppressed may not engage in 
an open war with their oppressors who have supe- 
rior scientific armoury, we cannot expect them to 
love their oppressors. Recent investigations by the 
UNESCO indicate that there is no innate racial superi- 
ority, or inborn antagonism between races. There 
are no magic solutions to race problems, but apar- 
theid is no answer. We must promote respect and 
friendship among the people of all races and 
exploitation of none. 

There is an impression that the United Nations is 
no longer an international body which acts inde- 
pendently. The conflict of power groups dominates 
its activities. Under its auspices a campaign of abuse 
and vilification which breeds fear, hatred and 
enmity, goes on. Diplomacy by threats of reprisals 
is seldom an efficacious means of conducting nego- 
tiations between sovereign States. We need not 
assume that other people who profess other ideas 
are quite different from or are more wicked than 
ourselves. Fundamentally we are all very much 
alike. In Soviet Russia the State is highly organized 
and opposition to it is ruthlessly suppressed. We may 



THE UNITED NATIONS DAY 7 

not agree with the materialist basis of communism 
or the missionary zeal with which it is enforced. But 
in countries where communism is accepted, it has 
meant education, opportunity and living condi- 
tions, which, if hard, are not harsher than those 
which prevailed previously. The communists recog- 
nize the necessity for radical social reorganization in 
countries where abject poverty and selfish luxury 
exist side by side. To talk to the starving peasant or 
the oppressed worker about personal freedom and 
civil liberties does not make much sense. He cannot 
be expected to prefer the democrat who, having 
apparently ignored his distress or exploited his 
labour in the past, now tells him to wait for an un- 
dated future before his lot is improved. Fear of 
communism has led us to a distorted view of the 
world situation and the forces at work in modern 
society. The valuable allies of communism are the 
conservative States and reactionary individuals who 
struggle against political freedom, social equality 
and economic progress of the oppressed millions of 
the world. The attraction of communism to the 
starving and subject peoples will greatly diminish if 
democracy takes itself seriously and sacrificially. 

There is a Scandinavian saying that the Supreme 
Court is always right even when it is wrong. Self- 
righteousness is our deepest spiritual malady, the 
belief that we have the whole truth and those who 
differ from us are not only wrong but wicked. In a 
moving world we must not cling to frozen attitudes. 



8 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

We should not become prisoners of our own in- 
flexible policies. Orthodoxy is not necessarily a test 
of integrity. 'Judge not, that ye be not judged. 5 

The democratic method appeals to the Indian 
mind with its long traditions of religion, non- 
violence and individual freedom. We believe that it 
will be possible for us to work amicably with those 
from whom we may differ fundamentally in outlook 
and method. The United Nations is intended to 
help us to live in harmony with nations whose reli- 
gion, politics and ways of thought are quite different 
from our own. This is possible because we have a 
common humanity and common interests. To build 
up institutions of peace and substitute them for 
those of war is a difficult job; it requires patience. 
The need for understanding and tolerance is funda- 
mental. Only by the persistent practice of these 
qualities can we hope to substitute for the clumsy, 
uncertain, cruel weapons of war, the methods of 
reason and co-operation. We must meet abuse by 
courtesy, obstruction by reasonableness, suspicion 
and hatred by trust and goodwill. This is the only 
way to change the heart of our opponents. This 
attitude assumes that there is an element of good, a 
spark of the Divine in every man, to which an appeal 
may be made. If our aim is to devise ways to relax 
tensions and not intensify the present Gold War, if 
our policy is to live and let live and not exterminate 
this or that way of life, we must ourselves show the 
democratic spirit which we expect from others. 



THE UNITED NATIONS DAY 9 

Sir Winston Churchill, on June 5 5 1946 said : 'It 
is better to have a world united than a world 
divided; but it is also better to have a world divided 
than a world destroyed.' For some time past he has 
been pleading for a conference at the highest level 
among the Great Powers. The door to the con- 
ference room may well be the door to peace. Even 
if we are sceptical about the intentions of our oppo- 
nents, we owe it to the United Nations, of which we 
are members, to understand them and change their 
attitudes. The Soviet system is not immune to the 
laws of change to which the rest of this troubled 
world is subject. It is not impossible that the com- 
munists will realize that while there are certain 
material things without which we cannot live, there 
are other moral and spiritual values without which 
we do not care to live. When this happens, the 
Communist system may democratize itself. 

Righteous behaviour is the only sensible practical 
politics. In this period of crisis and apprehension we 
should not forget the basic principle of all religions 
that the way to overcome evil is by doing good. 

India by not aligning herself with either of the 
Power groups, by not committing herself in advance 
except to the interests of peace, democracy and 
world society, hopes to make a small contribution 
to the peaceful solution of the outstanding prob- 
lems that divide the Powers today. India does not 
believe that every nation should choose one side 
or the other in the present Cold War. The United 



10 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

States of America should sympathize with this atti- 
tude of many Asian nations, for she herself had a 
long record of neutrality and non-involvement. 
India's effort to serve as a bridge-builder has been 
misunderstood and criticized by both sides, as 
for instance, in Korea. A bridge, as Benes said on a 
historic occasion, is likely to be trampled upon 
by both sides alike. 

We realize that the foundations of peace must be 
laid with patient persistence and goodwill to all. It 
is because we feel that the admission of the People's 
Government of China will strengthen the interests 
of peace and make the United Nations more repre- 
sentative than it is today, that we press for her ad- 
mission. It will make for the universal membership 
of the United Nations, reduce tension, restore hope 
among the Chinese people. 

Mankind is now in one of its rare moods of shift- 
ing its outlook. The compulsion of tradition has lost 
its force. Revolution is not only in the air; it is in the 
hearts of men. We must recreate and re-enact a 
vision of the world based on the elements of rever- 
ence, order and human dignity, without which no 
society can be held together. The new world of 
which the United Nations is a symbol may seem to 
be a dream but it is better than the nightmare world 
in which we live. To make this dream a reality, we 
should do our utmost, without being deterred by 
disappointments. We do not always ^undertake 
things in the hope of succeeding. It is better 'to fail 



THE UNITED NATIONS DAY 11 

in a right cause that will ultimately triumph than 
succeed in a wrong cause that will ultimately fail*. 
Truth alone triumphs, not untruth, satyam evajqyate, 
ndnrtam. 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES' SENATE 

17 November, 1954 

DR Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Vice-President 
of India, presented the U.S. Senate on 
November 1 7 with an ivory gavel on behalf of the 
Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of India's Parlia- 
ment. 

The Vice- President : The Chair has learned that a 
distinguished visitor, Vice-President of India, is in 
the Capitol. If the majority leader would like to 
make a motion that the Senate take a recess, such a 
motion will be entertained at this point. 

Mr Knowland : Mr President, I move that the 
Senate now stand in recess, subject to the call of the 
Chair, so that it may receive a message from the 
Vice-President of India. 

The Vice-President : Before the motion is put, the 
Chair will appoint the majority leader and the 
minority leader to escort the Vice-President of India 
from the office of the Vice-President to the rostrum 
of the Senate. 

The question now is on agreeing to the motion of 
the Senator from California. 

The motion was agreed to; and (at 2 o'clock and 
14 minutes P.M.) the Senate took a recess, subject to 
the call of the Chair. 

The Senate being in recess, the Honourable 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES' SENATE 13 

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Vice-President of India, 
escorted by the Committee appointed by the Vice- 
President, consisting of Mr KNOWLAND and Mr 
JOHNSON of Texas, entered the Chamber and took 
the place assigned him on the rostrum in front of the 
Vice-President's desk. 

The Vice-President : It is my pleasure to present to 
the Members of the Senate and to our guests in the 
galleries one of the world's great scholars, the Pre- 
siding Officer of our sister parliamentary body, the 
Council of States of India, the Vice-President of 
India. (Applause, Senators rising.) 

Vice-President Radhakrishnan \ Mr Vice-President 
and Members of the Senate, it is a great honour to 
have an opportunity to speak to the Members of 
this world-famous Assembly. I appreciate it very 
much, and I am grateful to you for giving me this 
privilege. 

As your Vice-President just remarked, we have 
taken quite a number of things from your Constitu- 
tion; and one of these is the obligation of the Vice- 
President of India to preside over the Rajya Sabha 
or the Council of States, corresponding to your 
Senate. In fact, not only this one thing was taken by 
us from your Constitution, but quite a number of 
other things were taken by us from it. Among them 
is our statement of objectives justice, freedom, 
equality and fraternity. This statement echoes the 
ringing words of Jefferson in the Declaration of 
Independence : 



14 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

That all men are created equal, that they are endowed by 
their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among 
these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 

These are not mere phrases of propaganda, but 
they are products of a deep-felt faith which have 
inspired millions, both inside and outside the United 
States of America. 

We, in India, became free in August 1947. We 
remember with gratitude the sympathy and the 
support we had from your Government and people 
during the years of our struggle for independence. 

When power was handed over to us, many per- 
sons felt, and so stated, that we would not be able to 
hold together; that our Civil Service would break 
down; that with disorganization of the country, 
there would be no law and order, and no security of 
life and property. But these doubts have now been 
dispelled. We have been able to hold the country 
together. The Civil Service is working as efficiently 
as it could. Law and order prevail. There is not a 
part of the country in which the writ of the Govern- 
ment does not run; and travellers from other coun- 
tries visit our country and travel from one place 
to another without any insecurity of life and pro- 
perty. 

But those doubts merely indicate the colossal 
character of the task which faces our country. We 
have 360 million people, and on our voters 5 list we 
have 170 million and in the last general election 
nearly 106 million went to the polls. That will give 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES* SENATE 15 

you a measure of the immensity of the task which is 
facing our country. We know that those who are 
interested in this experiment of democracy will give 
us their utmost sympathy and goodwill in our 
attempts to develop a great democracy in India. 

We realize that political freedom is not an end in 
itself. It is a means to social equality and economic 
justice. In the last letter which Jefferson ever wrote, 
he said : 

The mass of mankind was not born with saddles on their 
backs, nor a favoured few booted and spurred, ready to 
ride them legitimately by the grace of God. 

The end of all governments is to give a status of 
social equality and provide economic opportunity 
for the common people. We, in our country, are now 
engaged in the enterprise of effecting a social and 
economic revolution. The word 'revolution' need 
not scare us. It does not mean barricades and blood- 
shed. It means only speedy and drastic changes. We 
are interested not only in our objectives, but in our 
methods; not only in what we achieve, but in how 
we achieve. Through peaceful, constitutional pro- 
cesses we won our independence and integrated our 
country; and now we are striving to raise the 
material standards of our people. Even if these 
methods are slow and cumbrous we hope they will 
be speedy and effective even if we meet defeat in 
our attempt to replace force by persuasion, the poli- 
tics of power by the politics of brotherhood, we are 
convinced that the defeat will be only temporary, 



16 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

for goodness is rooted in the nature of things; kind- 
ness and love are as contagious as unkindness and 
hate. 

Our past traditions and our recent history de- 
monstrate that lasting results are achieved by peace- 
ful methods. We must not cut the knots with the 
sword, but we must have the patience to untie them. 
In this atomic age we feel that it is foolish, if not 
dangerous, to fall short of patience and a sense of 
proportion. 

No society is static; no law is unchanging; and no 
constitution is permanent. Given time and patience, 
radical changes may happen both in human nature 
and in systems of society which reflect human 
nature. 

When my Government asked me to present this 
gavel to you, Mr Vice-President, I looked up some 
references on the subject. The Freemason's Monitor of 
1812 contains the following passage : 

The common gavel is an instrument made use of by opera- 
tive masons to break off the corners of rough stones, the 
better to fit them for the builder's use; but we, as Free and 
Accepted Masons, are taught to make use of it for the 
more noble and glorious purpose of divesting our minds 
and consciences of all the vices. 

The gavel is used by masons to chisel off round 
corners. To build a statue out of rough stone was the 
work of the gavel. Human nature is the raw mate- 
rial. It is as yet unfinished and incomplete. To inte- 
grate human nature, this gavel is being used. It is 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES' SENATE 17 

for the purpose of breeding and training good, disci- 
plined men. That is the purpose of the gavel. 

On behalf of the young democracy of India and of 
the Rajya Sabha, I have the honour and the plea- 
sure to present to you, Mr Vice-President, this 
gavel, in the earnest hope that the legislators of the 
Senate will discuss all problems, national and inter- 
national, with calmness and composure, with free- 
dom from passion and prejudice, with the one 
supreme object of serving your great people and the 
hitman race. May this gavel serve as a symbol to 
strengthen the bonds between our two countries and 
to promote co-operation, understanding, and friend- 
ship between our two peoples. (Applause, Senators 
rising.} 

The Vice- President : Mr Vice-President of India, 
Members of the Senate, and guests of the Senate, 
the Chair believes that our guests in the galleries, as 
well as Members of the Senate, will be interested in 
a little history concerning the two gavels which the 
occupant of the Chair now holds in his hands. The 
one on the right is the gavel which, according to 
tradition, has been used in the Senate since 1789. It 
is 165 years old. It is made of ivory capped with 
silver. The Chair does not know whether it was be- 
cause the gavel was used more frequently than usual 
during the previous session of the Senate, or because 
the previous session of the Senate was perhaps a 
somewhat longer one. However, it began to come 
apart toward the close of the session. 



18 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

As a result, the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate set 
about to find a new gavel. The problem was to find 
a piece of ivory large enough from which to carve a 
gavel similar to the one which the Senate had tradi- 
tionally used. He was unable to find the proper sized 
piece of ivory through the usual commercial sources, 
and consequently he contacted the Commercial 
Attache of the Embassy of the Government of India. 
From there on, however, the matter was out of his 
hands. They not only furnished the piece of ivory, 
but they furnished the gavel, which the Vice-Presi- 
dent of India has presented to the Senate today. 

For the benefit of those who have been in the gal- 
leries in the past, and those who will be there in the 
future, we shall place the old gavel, which no longer 
can be used because it is coming apart, in a box 
which will be kept on the Senate rostrum while the 
Senate is in session. We shall use in its place the 
gavel of solid ivory which has been presented to us, 
it seems to me quite significantly and appropriately, 
by the largest democracy in the world, through the 
Vice-President, the Presiding Officer of our sister 
parliamentary body in India. 

The Chair is sure that Senators would like to hear 
responses from the majority leader and the minority 
leader to the remarks of the Vice-President of India. 
(Applause) 

Mr Knowland : Mr President, Mr Vice-President, 
I know that I speak for Members of the United 
States' Senate when we extend to you a warm 



VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES' SENATE 19 

greeting. You come to us from one of the newest 
free governments in the world, and also the largest 
free government in the world, to this Republic of 
the United States of America. I know that you 
will extend to your colleagues over whom you 
preside in your country our appreciation of their 
thoughtfulness in sending us this gavel, which our 
Presiding Officers will use in the sessions of the 
Senate of the United States. 

The people and the Government of the United 
States have an earnest desire to live in cordial 
friendship with the great nation of India. We have 
different problems. Our history has been somewhat 
different from that of India; yet we, too, sprang from 
a colonial period. We knew what it was to win our 
freedom, and we are proud of that freedom as we 
know your own great country is proud of its free- 
dom. We have recognized our responsibilities in 
helping to maintain a free world of free men. We 
know that your great country is no less interested 
in furthering the effort to maintain a free world of 
free men. 

This is not your first visit to our country. You are 
no stranger here. When you go back to India you 
will carry with you the friendship and affection of 
the people of our country for yourself as well as for 
your country. This affection is expressed in the 
unanimous voice of the Senate of the United States. 

The Vice-President : The Senator from Texas (Mr 
Johnson) will respond for the minority. 



20 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Mr Johnson of Texas : Mr President, Mr Vice- 
President, and my colleagues in the Senate, it is a 
great pleasure to have you, Mr Radhakrishnan, 
with us today. Your nation is rich in history, and has 
made numerous contributions to the culture of the 
world which are real and enduring. As we go down 
the road in this critical hour, searching for the peace 
and prosperity so necessary to free civilization, we 
trust that we can march together in a spirit of 
friendship and mutual trust and confidence. It is 
good to have you come among us. (Applause) 

The Vice- President : The Chair is sure that Mem- 
bers of the Senate would like to greet the Vice- 
President of India personally. Therefore the recess 
will continue until Members of the Senate have had 
that opportunity. 

Thereupon Vice-President Radhakrishnan took 
his place on the floor of the Senate, in front of the 
rostrum, and was greeted by Members of the 
Senate, after which he retired from the Chamber. 



INDIA AND YUGOSLAVIA* 

I SHOULD like to express to you at the outset our 
deep gratitude for your kindness in coming here 
and consenting to address the Members of Parlia- 
ment. I should also like to take this opportunity to 
express to you, on behalf of the Members of Parlia- 
ment who represent the people of India, and, on 
my own behalf, our most cordial greetings and good 
wishes to you, your colleagues of the Government 
and to the people of Yugoslavia. 

Histories generally describe wrongly I think a 
series of dull, barren, listless troop movements or a se- 
ries of diplomatic shufflings, suggesting, so to say, that 
man is all savage, greedy, cunning and always fighting 
one with another. There is another* side to human 
nature, expressing itself in song and dance, art and 
architecture, philosophy and culture, in manners and 
customs. They also determine the course of history. 
The spirit of the age and the genius that focuses these 
are the two elemental facts of the progress of all history. 

Our age is characterized by three things, if I may 
say so : craving for political freedom, socialist re- 
construction of society and international peace. 

You, Sir, voiced the dream of your country for 
these three great ideals which are agitating, not only 
Europe and America, but the whole East from 

* Speeches on the occasion of President Tito's Address to 
the Members of Parliament, 21 December, 1954 



22 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Egypt to Japan. Your country attained liberation 
from imperial domination in 1918 after the First 
World War. Again it suffered in the Second World 
War and now it attained independence under your 
distinguished leadership. You have saved the inte- 
grity of the country and protected its independence 
from dangers, internal and external. 

We prize our liberty which we recently won. We 
also seek unity of our country. We are trying to 
resist all the forces that weaken the sense of unity 
and are attempting to weld this vast mass of huma- 
nity into a corporate nation. 

The second point is the socialist reconstruction 
of society. You, Sir, have paid very generous tributes 
to our multi-purpose projects and to our river valley 
schemes by which we are striving to bring more 
water to more land to feed more people. Please do 
not imagine that we are satisfied with the progress 
that we have made. We are chastened by the con- 
sciousness of so many things that remain yet to be 
done the little done, the vast undone. 

Though we aim at socialism if I may call it 
ours is an ethical socialism based on consent, not on 
coercion. We try to base our social structure, our 
social and economic revolution, on the fundamental 
human values. We believe that civilization is not 
merely advance in technology or increase in wealth. 
It is a state of mind, a form of society, a condition of 
human relationships. It is that order of society 
which we are trying to build up. We aim at not 



INDIA AND YUGOSLAVIA 23 

merely material rehabilitation, but social and cul- 
tural rehabilitation. We are aware that we are vic- 
tims of age-old prejudices and allegiances which we 
are struggling to break down so as to build a more 
decent society in this country. 

The third thing is international peace. It is today 
democracy that is on trial. We cannot build inter- 
national peace so long as countries are under-deve- 
loped, or fighting one with another for the develop- 
ment of their own systems of society, political and 
economic. If democracy is prepared to assist politi- 
cally young, economically backward countries, the 
reasons for mutual strife will diminish considerably. 
We are happy that you, Sir, are advocating the 
same ideals which we hold political freedom for 
all nations, economic development for all peoples 
and friendship for all nations, whatever their ideo- 
logies may be. You happen to live in a very impor- 
tant age and your country occupies a very vital 
position. Compulsions of geography and history, 
leave alone the economic system, the racial composi- 
tion of your people all these provide you with 
great opportunities of leadership in this world for 
building up peace. We in our country are delighted 
that you are with us here. This is because you are 
adopting the same three ideals of political freedom, 
economic justice and international peace. 

We are waiting with keen anticipation to listen to 
your address, my dear President.* 

* Then followed the Address by President Tito 



24 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Dr Radhakrishnan : Friends, we are indebted to 
President Tito for the excellent exposition which he 
has given us of the recent past of Yugoslavia and her 
present position and policies. He has referred to a 
number of different considerations. 

On one thing, we are all united. Our objectives 
are the economic betterment of the people. The 
methods are determined by each country depending 
upon its own history. The methods are optional 
whereas the objectives are obligatory. Whether our 
methods have succeeded or failed will be judged not 
by our professions but by our achievements. There- 
fore, we must be careful to see to it that we speed up 
the pace of progress towards achievement of social 
and economic justice among our people. 

You, Sir, referred to the lack of universality so far 
as the United Nations is concerned. Actually we 
have recognized China. The Chinese Ministers met 
the American Ministers at the Geneva Conference. 
Now, the Secretary-General of the United Nations 
is going to China. We weaken the position of the 
United Nations by having these negotiations carried 
on outside the United Nations, and not within its 
auspices. We are completely at one with you when 
you deplore the lack of universality so far as the 
United Nations is concerned. 

We again agree with your general stand in regard 
to co-existence. Co-existence is not to be regarded 
as some kind of a final settlement among the differ- 
ent systems without any kind of change. Co-exist- 



INDIA AND YUGOSLAVIA 25 

ence means co-understanding, co-education, and 
thereby we will be able to bring about changes 
in the different systems. In other words, Yugoslavia 
itself may alter its system; nothing is final in this 
world. We are in a dynamic world and in this dyna- 
mic world changes may take place by mutual 
adjustment and accommodation. 
I do not wish to give another lecture now. I wish 
only to say that many problems are common to us 
both and many of our ideals are also common. 
Therefore, there is a large field for us two nations 
coming from two distinct parts of the world to 
co-operate and I assure you that in all these matters 
we will give you our co-operation. 

Dr Radhakrishnan : He wants to give you an idea 
of how his own language is spoken. Now, we will 
hear him speak. 

President Tito (as interpreted) : Friends, I am very 
thankful for the opportunity given to me to meet 
you all and especially to meet the Chairman, Mr 
Krishnan [Dr Radhakrishnan] and to speak about 
problems of our development and about the prob- 
lems of our foreign policies. 

President Tito (as interpreted) : I should like to tell 
you that we, the whole delegation, met here in your 
country a welcome we could not have expected. I 
should like from this place to extend through you to 
the whole nation of India our heart-felt thanks for 
the extraordinary warm welcome we have received 
from you. 



INDIA AND THE COMMONWEALTH* 

MAY I extend to you on behalf of the Members 
of Parliament a most cordial welcome ? As 
a leading representative of a nation which has had 
an intimate connection with us for nearly two 
centuries you are specially welcome. 

History is not a bare record of the past. It is not 
what we remember, but what we choose to remem- 
ber. We remember the political concepts of demo- 
cracy, love of liberty, the spirit of compromise, 
politics as the art of making the best of the inevi- 
table, the impetus given to the study of our past 
and the general awakening intellectual, social 
and cultural and such other positive contri- 
butions. Others we have elected to forget. So the 
relations between our two countries are cordial 
and friendly. 

For centuries our relations with the outside world 
were interrupted; now we have re-entered the 
stream of world history. Our Prime Minister 
recently returned from the Commonwealth Prime 
Ministers' Conference. Commonwealth means for us 
complete independence and informal association, 
sharing of ideals, though not of allegiance, of pur- 
poses though not of loyalties, common discussions 
which lead to better understanding of our pro- 

* Speech on the occasion of Sir Anthony Eden's Address to 
the Members of Parliament, 3 March, 1955 



INDIA AND THE COMMONWEALTH 27 

blems and not binding decisions which restrict the 
independence of the member States. 

You have grown up with the chief events of our 
generation the First World War, the rise of Com- 
munism, Fascism, Nazism, the Second World War 
and now the Cold War. History does not seem to 
give us any moments of relaxation. Look at the 
problems in this morning's papers : Korea, Indo- 
China, Formosa, Gaza. In this age of nuclear 
weapons our supreme need is peace. To preserve it, 
perpetual vigilance is essential, for any mad act of 
any one nation may throw the world into confusion 
and set it aflame. Man in the grip of fear is the most 
dangerous enemy of man. To remove fear, to dissi- 
pate misunderstanding, to shed off prejudice, to 
make us feel that we are members one of another, 
that is the call to our generation. I wish to assure 
you that our Government and our people will give 
whole-hearted and unstinted support to you in all 
your attempts to allay tensions, to build bridges, to 
search for peace and work for a future which is 
beyond the present dreams of mankind if we are 
wise enough to use the recent advances of science 
for peaceful purposes. 

This large and eager audience is waiting to hear 
you. 



INDIA AND EGYPT* 

WE are delighted to have with us today, the 
Prime Minister of Egypt, Colonel Nasser 
and the Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign 
Minister of Afghanistan, His Royal Highness Sardar 
Mahomed Nairn Khan. We would like to express 
to them and through them to their Governments 
and peoples our best wishes for their peaceful 
progress and prosperity. 

When we think of these countries we have to 
measure their life not by centuries but by millennia. 
When we stand in the shadow of the great Pyramids 
where Thucydides, Caesar, Napoleon and many 
others stood, fifty centuries look down. Egypt 
situated in Africa, lies on the threshold of Asia and 
Europe, at the cross-roads of the world. The Pha- 
raohs, the Persians, the Greeks, and the Macedo- 
nians and the Romans ruled over her. In the 
Christian era, Egypt was a Roman colony, then a 
Christian settlement and after the Muslim conquest 
and Arab migrations that followed, an Arab strong- 
hold. Though Egypt suffered from external pres- 
sures, her spirit was unbroken and she had her 
freedom struggle along with ours and the names of 
Makram, Arabi and Zaghlul are well known. She 

* Speech on the occasion of the Addresses of Col. Nasser 
and Sardar Mahomed Nairn Khan to the Members of Parlia- 
ment, 14 April, 1955 



INDIA AND EGYPT 29 

has now emerged independent. It is one thing to 
break down the old regime, it is another to build 
the new. Political independence is only the clearing 
of the decks. As in other countries of the East we 
have on the one side monuments, tombs and ruins 
and on the other poverty, filth, disease and destitu- 
tion. The leaders of the revolution in Egypt are 
addressing themselves to the task of lifting these 
oppressive burdens from the shoulders of the people. 
They are engaged in a social and human revolution 
by which equitable distribution of land, industrial 
progress, religious freedom and democratic liberties 
are established. We are also engaged in the same 
exciting adventure and so Egypt has our sympathy 
and support as the recent treaty of friendship be- 
tween India and Egypt illustrates. 

Our relations with Afghanistan have been close 
and intimate for centuries. There was a time when 
India and Afghanistan formed parts of the same 
cultural region. For a while Indian and Greek 
sculpture fused in ancient Gandhara, the modern 
Kandahar. Even today we find in Afghanistan many 
relics of Indian culture and influence. Though she 
has a different system of government, a constitu- 
tional monarchy with two houses of parliament, she 
is tackling the same problems of social reform and 
economic progress. A revolution is not merely 
liberation from external pressures; it is also a libera- 
tion from inward obstacles and unholy prejudices. 
It is a revolution in the minds and hearts of men. 



30 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

No nation can be built out of an agglomeration of 
private rights and cynical egoisms where each man 
is concerned only to do himself justice. An unclean 
Government, economic discontent, and national 
incoherence do not make for political stability. We 
therefore need leaders who, without illwill or 
hatred, without any love of power or personal ambi- 
tion, strive to remove the scandalous conditions 
which prevail. Moral strength and scientific progress 
are the only answer to the present challenge. 

To ensure the success of the revolution in Egypt, 
in Afghanistan, in India and elsewhere in the East, 
we need peace. We have similar urges, similar inter- 
nal problems and similar external interests. That is 
why there is so much fellow-feeling among us, that 
is why we welcome you with such warmth and 
fervently wish that the countries which made such 
great contributions at the very dawn of history may 
attain that unity and solidarity, may develop that 
disciplined energy and sustained power which will 
help to make Asia and the world rich. A rose which 
adorns itself adorns the garden also. 

A hard struggle awaits us. We want leaders who 
will give the people fire and enthusiasm without 
which ideas and ideals cannot be realized. We feel 
that peace is the essential condition of economic 
development and social progress in Asia and Africa. 
Civilization is not something inborn or imperish- 
able. It is a precarious thing, a delicate complex of 
order and progress, culture and creation which has 



INDIA AND EGYPT 31 

to be acquired anew by each generation. It may be 
overthrown at any time by barbarians from within 
or without. Human survival in this atomic age 
depends on peace, on active international co- 
operation. There is no alternative to it. That is why 
we are alarmed at the language of anger, threats 
and war preparations. It is time we control our 
passions. 

The Sphinx which we see by the side of the great 
Pyramid near Cairo with a human head and a 
lion's body poses the problem which civilization has 
yet to solve. It warns us against the brute in us, the 
spirit of violence, the will for power, the instinct to 
dominate, the spirit of secret pride, of collective 
selfishness. There is a strain of irritability infecting 
human nature, corrupting even the noblest souls. 
Nietzsche tells us that deep down there is in us rapa- 
city, 'the splendid blond beast that stalks its prey 
and prowls in search of victory'. 1 From time to time, 
the latent urge reappears, the animal emerges and 
returns to the jungle. We are betrayed by what is 
false in us. There is no point in liberating the intel- 
lect if we do not liberate the heart and the con- 
science. We need to tame the beast. Civilization is 
the conquest of the animal nature by the spirit in 
us. I do hope that in the discussions of international 
relations at Bandung you will adopt peaceful 
methods which will make for understanding. 

1 The Genealogy of Morals, Vol. I, No. 1 1 



INDIA AND INDONESIA* 

MAY I express to you our great joy that you are 
able to come here and spend a few days with 
us ? We hope that you had a pleasant and useful 
time in our country and saw something of our 
struggles and aspirations. 

For centuries our two countries have had similar 
aims and ideals. Your very names remind us of those 
times. Your music and dance, your village festivals 
illustrate themes and stories which are familiar to 
us. The very name of your airlines 'Garuda 5 is an 
example of our long association. 

Our recent history has been strikingly similar. 
After years of struggle we emerged into indepen- 
dence. That is only a step in our onward march, an 
opportunity to shape our future and recreate a new 
society. Gandhiji said that we wanted freedom for 
the sake of the millions of India, to give them food, 
clothes, homes and more than all, a sense of human 
dignity and self-respect. Like us Indonesia is rich in 
natural resources : oil, gold, rubber, tin, spices and 
sugar. Our peoples, however, are poor and back- 
ward. This backwardness is due to our lag in scienti- 
fic and technological progress and we are trying to 
make up for it. 

In the creation of a new society, we are governed 

* Speech proposing the toast to Dr Hatta, Vice- President 
of Indonesia, 15 November, 1955 



With Sir Anthony 
3 1955 




Col 13 1955 





N. A, and N. S, 

to 21 November, 1955 



Banquet to Chi rig-ling at 

17 December, 1955 




INDIA AND INDONESIA 33 

by the same ideals. Your PanchaSila emphasizes 
national solidarity, interdependence of nations, 
government by consent, social justice and belief in 
the Supreme, along with freedom of religious wor- 
ship. The declaration of objectives or a change in 
law does not mean a change in the social structure. 
This requires determined will and disciplined effort. 

We can achieve our goal only if the world is safe 
from the scourge of war. Our effort on the interna- 
tional front is aimed at preserving peace and attain- 
ing those conditions which are essential for peace, 
viz. freedom from colonial rule, from race discrimi- 
nation, from economic exploitation. Whether at 
Colombo or Bogor, Bandung or New York we are 
co-operating for the achievement of these ends, 
firmly convinced of the principle of unity in diversity 
which is the motto of your State. It is the basis of 
co-existence, a call to us all to dwell together in 
peace. If we refuse to align ourselves with this or 
that side in this troubled world, it is because we are 
profoundly convinced that power politics at any 
time means misery to mankind and at the present 
time, in a shrinking world, with the development of 
nuclear power, it will be a disaster. 

Your country served as host to the most important 
conference of free peoples from Asia and Africa. In 
the past they all suffered stagnation and servitude 
and for the future they demand dignity and self- 
respect, freedom and peace. That Conference did 
not turn out to be a bear-garden or a tea party, but 

3 



34 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

became the expression of the solidarity of the Asian 
and African peoples in their common love for free- 
dom, equality, justice and peace. All those who 
visited Bandung are grateful not only for your 
generous hospitality but also for your direction and 
guidance. 

If we want our voice to be heard in the outside 
world, we must achieve peace within our borders. 
We must create a new richness of life not only in 
material things but in the things of the mind. We 
must inspire our people to join together to make 
something better of their existence. The eyes of the 
world are on us watching whether we have the 
strength and the courage to challenge, defy and 
overcome the obstacles of superstition, regionalism, 
narrowness of mind and intolerance which bar 
our path to progress. We cannot advance as a 
nation if we succumb to them or even compromise 
with them. 

The success of our enterprise depends on leader- 
ship. A great leader kindles in his people the fire 
that burns within him, and interprets the growing 
spirit of a nation to itself. It is fortunate that Indone- 
sia has competent, determined and selfless leader- 
ship. You have won the affection of the Indonesian 
people and the respect of us all. Expressing the hope 
that your country may have the benefit of your great 
leadership for many decades, I propose your health. 



INDIA AND THE SOVIET UNION* 

MAY I express to you and the members of your 
Party, on behalf of the Parliament, the 
people and the Government of India, our most 
cordial welcome and say how delighted we are that, 
for the first time after the October Revolution in 
1917, we have the honour of having the leaders of 
the Soviet Union with us though only for a short 
time ? We were all deeply touched by the very 
warm and cordial way in which our Prime Minister 
was received in your country this June, and I wish to 
assure though my assurance is unnecessary, for you 
have seen with your own eyes that our welcome 
to you is sincere, warm and friendly. Informal 
contacts from such visits make for understanding 
and understanding casts out fear and suspicion. 

Men of my generation have watched with pro- 
found interest your steady growth in power and 
influence. In the conditions of 1917, with an ineffi- 
cient and absolutist Government, a corrupt Church, 
with the flower of Russia's manhood scattered in 
innumerable war fronts, with unspeakably difficult 
economic conditions of famine and chaos, with the 
memory of successive defeats by the Mongol Khans, 
by the Turkish Beys, etc. until 1917, you felt that the 

* Speeches when Messrs. Bulganin and Khruschev addressed 
an informal meeting of the Members of Parliament on 
21 November, 1955 



36 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

revolution such as the one you had was essential for 
removing the sense of despair and creating a world 
of hope. You have succeeded in transforming a 
State, centuries behind advanced nations of Europe, 
into a powerful modern nation with vast industrial 
and economic development. The Civil War and 
foreign intervention which occurred in the early 
years led to the adoption of certain attitudes of 
strict control within and suspicion of foreign nations. 
Such causes have such effects. The conditions today 
are, however, different. Foreigners are visiting 
Russia in large numbers and Russians are visiting 
other countries also. Visitors to Russia are per- 
maded that you and your people are eager to get 
on with others and live with them in peace and 
friendship. It is irrelevant to quote Marxist doctrine 
or Lenin's theory, for the logic of facts is more 
powerful than the logic of doctrine or of theory. 

As you are doubtless aware, we are attempting to 
do in ten or twenty years, work which will ordinarily 
take as many generations. We are recasting our 
society on a socialistic pattern in ways which are 
consistent with our history and agreeable to our 
tradition. Lenin's observation is to the point : C A11 
nations will reach socialism; this is inevitable. But 
all nations will not reach socialism in the same way.' 
You offer to share your scientific and industrial 
experience with us. We are grateful to you for it. We 
are willing to accept it so long as it does not impair 
our independence in any manner or involve pressure 



INDIA AND THE SOVIET UNION 37 

or interference. You trod the hard way and raised 
yourselves. Our progress depends on our inherent 
strength, moral fibre, willingness to work in a 
spontaneously co-operative spirit. We have faith in 
our people, so confidence in the future. Though our 
ways are different, our goal is the same and there 
are many fields in which we can co-operate to bring 
about a safer and saner world. 

History is being made at greater speed than ever 
before and if we are wise and willing, we can help 
it forward and establish a world community. We 
have to live together and work together. The United 
Nations is the symbol of what we all desire, a world 
community. But unfortunately it is not today repre- 
sentative of all the great nations of the world. China, 
for example, has no place in it, with the result that 
conferences are held outside the United Nations 
Organization which itself diminishes the effective- 
ness of the United Nations Organization. 

In your recent speeches you rightly spoke about 
Dur age of science and technology as containing the 
possibility of an earthly paradise or of a break-down 
of civilization. Given modern methods of war and 
technology, what another war means is terribly 
clear. If by accident or design we plunge the world 
into it, we will go down in history not as responsible 
leaders but as lunatics. The verdict on civilization 
will be : suicide while in a state of unsound mind. 
What we are suffering from is a sickness of mind 
and heart. You and our Prime Minister have sub- 



38 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

scribed to the Pancha&la. The five principles are not 
empty phrases. If we take them seriously, we must 
turn back on our past, forget our bitter feuds and 
irrational passions, abandon our fixed ideas and 
sterile negations, temper our minds with a new 
vision, a new spirit, a new humanity, a new for- 
bearance. Unfortunately, however, there is still too 
much of egoism in the world, too much of organized 
selfishness. Nations eager to augment their political 
power are sometimes rigid, exclusive, suspicious and 
aggressive. The conditions in the Far East, in West 
Asia where a dangerous arms race is developing, the 
disappointing results of the recent Geneva Con- 
ference are illustrations. At a time like this we 
should not higgle about details. Pettiness is irrespon- 
sible. Our minds must become large and our hearts 
big. We have to work for peace, with tenacity and 
patience, lift the pressure under which we live and 
let the world breathe a sigh of relief. In this endea- 
vour of civilization, all peace-loving countries can 
count on our unstinted co-operation. Not by might, 
not by power, but by understanding and co-opera- 
tion among nations can we reach our goal. 

Concluding Speech : 

We are grateful to you for the speeches you have 
made explaining to us your domestic and foreign 
policies. 

We are greatly touched by your observations that 
the writings of Tulasidas, Gandhi, Prem Chand and 



INDIA AND THE SOVIET UNION 39 

Jawaharlal Nehru are available in Russian transla- 
tions and are widely read. I may inform you that we 
read and profit from the writings of Pushkin, Tols- 
toy, Dostoevsky, Chekov, Turgenev and Gorki. We 
hope that we may have greater co-operation in the 
fields of art and literature. 

Mr Khruschev told us about intellectual freedom 
and religious liberty in the Soviet Union. Of course, 
they are the best authorities on the subject and we 
are delighted to hear about these freedoms in Rus- 
sia, for they are the essential components of demo- 
cracy. Now that the Soviet Union has consolidated 
its base and provided its people with the vital things 
of life without which they cannot live, we hope they 
will give them opportunities to develop the graces 
of mind and the virtues of spirit without which life 
is not worth living. We now look forward to the 
production of great works of literature and art 
which will delight and illumine the world. 

It is our hope and desire to work as friends and 
partners in building up a great new world of peace 
and prosperity, freedom and justice, of real demo- 
cracy. 

sarvas taratu durgdni sarvo bhadrdni pasyatu 

sarvas sadbuddhim apnotu, sarvas sarvatra nandatu. 



INDIA AND CHINA* 

WE are delighted to have with us, though only 
for a very short time, Her Excellency Madame 
Soong Ching-ling, a great leader of the Chinese 
revolution and an old friend of our country. 

One of the most remarkable things in the world's 
history is the relationship between our two coun- 
tries, of peaceful co-operation across the centuries. 
We have traces of the influences we have exerted on 
each other in the literature and art of our two peo- 
ples. Our cultures intermixed, our trade flourished, 
mutual appreciation grew and there has not been a 
single instance of military conflict. Something pre- 
cious and unique has been built up over a long past. 

Though intercourse between our two peoples was 
interrupted for some centuries it has now been re- 
vived. We passed through trials and tribulations 
and have now achieved the power to shape our 
future and are facing similar problems. 

Our distinguished guest was associated for many 
years of her life with the work of one whose name is 
honoured in recent Chinese history. Sun Yat-sen 
helped to free China from the Manchu rule in 1911 
and formulated the three objectives of nationalism, 
democracy and livelihood or socialism. He worked 

* Speech proposing the toast to Madame Soong Ching-ling, 
Vice-Chairman of the People's Republic of China, 1 7 Decem- 
ber, 1955 



INDIA AND CHINA 41 

for national solidarity, government by the people 
and employment and opportunity for all. Soon after 
his death, reactionary forces came into power and 
revolutionary purposes, principles and policies 
were compromised. Twenty-four years after his 
death, on October 1, 1949, came the New China, 
a realization of his dream of a free, independent, 
socialist China. We have also the same ideals of a 
welfare state which we are striving to establish 
through the forms and processes of parliamentary 
democracy. 

We should like our generation to go down in 
history not as one which split the atom and made 
the hydrogen bomb, but as the generation which 
brought together the peoples of the world and trans- 
formed them into a world community. The tragic 
experience of history teaches us that understanding 
among the peoples of the world is essential if civili- 
zation is to survive. If we do not stir up the latent 
good sense and goodwill of the people now drugged 
with debilitating hatred, it will only mean that 
though we teach history, history does not teach us. 

To the end of fostering peace and relaxing interr 
national tensions, China and India last year, on the 
29th of April, signed an agreement regarding trade 
and intercourse between the Tibetan region of 
China and India, incorporating in the Preamble the 
now famous five principles, the Pancha&la. Two 
months later they were reaffirmed in the general 
statements made by the Prime Ministers of India 



42 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

and China, and of China and Burma. In October 
1954, the Soviet Union and China accepted them ; 
and after that many other countries, including 
Yugoslavia, Poland, etc. It is our earnest hope and 
desire that all the countries of the world may be 
persuaded to follow these principles of mutual 
respect, mutual concern and international morality. 
For we believe in friendship with all nations, what- 
ever their political, economic and social systems may 
be. We will without haste and without rest explore 
every avenue that will lead to better understanding 
among the peoples of the world. In this endeavour 
of civilization, we two peoples can work together. 

It is a matter of deep sorrow to us that your pro- 
per position in the United Nations Organization has 
not yet been recognized. But the day is not far off 
when you will be able to contribute more effectively 
to world peace through the United Nations Organi- 
zation than now. 

The ideals of peace and friendship among nations 
are not merely the concern of Governments and 
diplomacy. They must well from the impulses and 
emotions in the hearts of men and women. It is in 
this context that the original Buddhist Panchaila 
becomes relevant that we should not hurt life, 
should not take what does not belong to us, lead a 
life of chastity of body and mind, not tell lies which 
we often do in the name of diplomacy, and take no 
intoxicants, and demagogy is a great intoxicant. 
These principles of piety, purity and compassion 



INDIA AND CHINA 43 

were accepted centuries ago in all Buddhist lands, 
China, India, some parts of West Asia, Japan, etc. 
The spirit of PafichaSila is the spirit of restraint, of 
humaneness, of brotherly co-operation, 'with malice 
towards none and charity for all'. 

These qualities have sustained for centuries the 
Chinese civilization. She has survived all the vicissi- 
tudes of history and is today a powerful nation be- 
cause she has preserved them in spite of what the 
world did against her and what she did against 
herself. 

In the maintenance of cultural traditions the 
place of women has been very significant. This 
country in every generation has produced millions 
of women who have not found fame, but whose daily 
existence helped to civilize the human race. Their 
warmth of heart, their self-effacement, their unas- 
suming loyalty, their strength in suffering even when 
subjected to severe trials have been among the glo- 
ries of this ancient land. In the few days you are 
here, you will see for yourself how the women of our 
country have been striving with success to obtain 
equal rights with men which is their due, in political, 
economic, cultural and social life. They are work- 
ing, I hope they will concede, with our full support 
and co-operation, for a higher form of family life 
where men and women regard themselves as equal 
partners in the pursuit of the ends of dharma, artha, 
kdma and mok&a^ where the wife is said to be grhinl % 
the head of the household, sacivah, a wise counsellor, 



44 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



i) a good friend. I have no doubt they will have 
an increasing share in the development of a new 
style of life in the country and friendship among 
nations. 

I would like you to convey to your people and 
your Government our best wishes in your stupendous 
adventure of building a New China, where you will 
be able to save not only the bodies but the souls 
of your many millions. Your unremitting service 
to your nation, your friendship for our people, 
your faith in co-operation between India and 
China, and your passion for peace have brought you 
near our hearts. I have now great pleasure in pro- 
posing the health of Her Excellency Madame Soong 
Ching-ling. 



EDUCATION AND CULTURE 



UNESCO GENERAL CONFERENCE: 
SEVENTH SESSION, PARIS 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

October 1952 

LOW delegates and friends, I am deeply 
Ji touched by the great honour which this Con- 
ference has conferred on me, on my delegation and 
on my country. I refer especially to the very warm 
and generous words with which the Chairman of 
the Executive Board put my name forward. I also 
refer to the way in which the Head of the French 
delegation, the Minister of Education of France, 
stepped aside, waived his right and enabled this 
Conference to propose a representative of an 
Eastern country. For the first time in this General 
Conference you have a President from this geo- 
graphical area. I am, therefore, thankful to each 
delegation to the French delegation in particular 
and to the Executive Board which put forward 
my name unanimously for this exalted position. 

I have been connected with UNESCO for a number 
of years, ever since it was established in this beauti- 
ful and intellectual city, and I have seen the work of 
our Director-General. I believe very firmly that the 
work of UNESCO is of much greater importance than 
other types of work calculated to foster peace, free- 
dom and progress. Under the inspiring and coura- 



48 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

geous leadership of our Director-General, we have 
now emphasized the central objectives of this Orga- 
nization : freedom and progress. Freedom is easy to 
talk about. This morning the Leader of the American 
delegation, the distinguished President of last year, 
who had conducted the business of this Conference 
with such great care and consideration, said that a 
'third war can be avoided 5 . I echo his sentiments. If 
we believe that a third war cannot be avoided, it 
only means that civilization has failed, education 
and culture have failed, UNESCO itself has failed. It is 
essential, therefore, that we should will not merely 
peace, but the conditions that are essential for secur- 
ing peace. Mrs Jouhaux, representing i L o, ex- 
pressed the hope that Human Rights would become 
'functioning, living realities 5 . It is a great statement. 
Let them become functioning, living realities. There 
are millions who are the victims of political power, 
of economic greed, of racial pride. It is not possible 
for them, when they are slaves to other men, to 
lead happy, contented lives. 

No man can attain happiness in this world if he 
feels hungry or cold, if he is a slave to other men, if 
he is surrounded by filth and disease, and if he does 
not have the elementary necessities for ordinary life. 
It is essential for him to have some leisure for recrea- 
tion, for reflection. How many people in this 
world have these facilities, which are formulated 
in the Declaration of Human Rights ? And is it 
not our purpose here to work for the realization 



UNESCO GENERAL CONFERENCE 49 

of those Human Rights ? We know, as a matter 
of fact, that the inventions of science and 
technology have removed the greatest obstacles 
to human well-being and happiness. If only we 
use them for proper purposes, it will be possi- 
ble for us to lead the world to a happy, safe and 
generous state. What is it that prevents this ? It is 
human stupidity, it is human cussedness. How can 
we remove these obstacles which are in the minds 
of men, which prevent us from using the great ins- 
truments of science and technology for making this 
world a better and happier place ? That is the ques- 
tion we all ask. We talk about penicillin, we talk 
about chloroform, aeroplanes and the telephone. 
On the other side, we have terrible weapons : atom 
bombs, poison gas, germs, etc. Men must use the* 
instruments of science for the improvement of the 
conditions of life, for the fault is not in science and 
technology. What is demoniac is in the nature of 
man. If we wish to cure this element of vileness, 
wildness, cussedness, in the nature of man, it is 
essential for us to mobilize the great spiritual re- 
sources of mankind. The cure for that is to restore 
the truths of the spirit to the central place in the 
minds of men. Let those truths of the spirit sway the 
minds of men, transform the lives of men. The truths 
of the spirit are liberality, understanding, freedom. 
Those who deny freedom in the name of freedom 
are no less dangerous than those who deny freedom 
in the name of discipline and authority.) Let us, 

4 



50 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

therefore, send out from this Conference a message 
to this groping, uncertain, discontented world : that 
love and not hatred, that freedom and not fear, 
that faith and not doubt, have in them the healing 
of the nations. If we carry out these principles in our 
daily life and in our international relations, out of 
the anguish of this world will be born a new unity 
of mankind, a unity in which the ideals of the spirit 
will find safety and security. I thank you once again 
for the honour you have done me by electing me to 
this exalted position, and my thanks are real and 
warm. 



KARNATAK UNIVERSITY 

CONVOCATION ADDRESS 
26 October, 1953 

MY first duty is to congratulate those who by 
hard work and disciplined effort obtained 
their degrees today. I should like to tell them that 
the very same qualities which they exhibited during 
their University careers must continue in future and 
I hope that they will continue. 

I will be unfair to myself and to you if I should 
promise you glittering prizes or comfortable posi- 
tions. The times ahead of us are of a very difficult 
character. The movements which took place in 
other countries during a span of centuries have all 
occurred here more or less simultaneously. What 
answer to the Renaissance, the Reformation, the 
Industrial Revolution or the political Revolution 
all these things have been telescoped so to say 
in these few years in our country. We have won 
political independence. But it is not to be re- 
garded as giving us complete freedom. There are 
ever so many other things which require to be ful- 
filled if this first step is to be regarded as a prepara- 
tion for the liberation of this great land. If we wish 
to follow up political revolution by a social and eco- 
nomic one, our universities must send out batches of 
scientists, technicians, engineers, agriculturists, etc. 



52 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

These are essential for changing the face of our 
country, the economic character of our society. But 
we should not believe that science and technology 
alone are enough. There are other countries, much 
advanced countries in the world, which have 
achieved marvellous progress in scientific and tech- 
nological side, but yet they are torn by strife and 
they are unable to bring about peace, safety and 
security of their own people. It only shows that 
other qualities are also necessary besides those deve- 
loped by science and technology. 

Just now a student was introduced for his Degree 
and he was called Doctor of Philosophy in Science. 
In other words science is also regarded as a branch 
of philosophy. The function of the universities is not 
merely to send out technically skilled and profes- 
sionally competent men, but it is their duty to pro- 
duce in them the quality of compassion, the quality 
which enables the individuals to treat one another 
in a truly democratic spirit. Our religions have pro- 
claimed from the very beginning that each human 
individual is to be regarded as a spark of the Divine. 
Tat tvam asi, that art thou, is the teaching of the 
Upanisads. The Buddhists declare that each indi- 
vidual has in him a spark of the Divine and could 
become a Bodhisattva. These proclamations by 
themselves are not enough. So long as these princi- 
ples are merely clauses in the Constitution, and not 
functioning realities, in the daily life of the people, 
we are far from the ideals which we have set 



KARNATAK UNIVERSITY 53 

before ourselves. Minds and hearts of the people 
require to be altered. We must strive to become 
democratic not merely in the political sense of the 
term but also in the social and economic sense. It is 
essential to bring about this democratic change, this 
democratic temper, this kind of outlook by a proper 
study of the humanities including philosophy and 
religion. There is a great verse which says that in this 
poison tree of samsara are two fruits of incomparable 
value. They are the enjoyment of great books and 
the company of good souls. If you want to absorb 
the fruits of great literature, well, you must read 
them, read them not as we do cricket stories but 
read them with concentration. Our generation in its 
rapid travel has not achieved the habit of reading 
the great books and has lost the habit of being in- 
fluenced by the great classics of our country. If these 
principles of democracy in our Constitution are to 
become habits of mind and patterns of behaviour, 
principles which change the very character of the 
individual and the nature of the society, it can be 
done only by the study of great literature, of philo- 
sophy and religion. That is why even though our 
country needs great scientists, great technologists, 
great engineers, we should not neglect to make them 
humanists. While we retain science and technology 
we must remember that science and technology are 
not all. We must note the famous statement that 
merely by becoming literate without the develop- 
ment of compassion we become demoniac. So no 



54 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

university can regard itself as a true university unless 
it sends out young men and women who are not only 
learned but whose hearts are full of compassion for 
suffering humanity. Unless that is there, the univer- 
sity education must be regarded as incomplete. 

I have been a teacher for nearly all my adult life, 
for over forty years. I have lived with students and 
it hurts me very deeply when I find that the precious 
years during which a student has to live in the Uni- 
versity are wasted by some of them. I do not say by 
all of them. Teachers and students form a family 
and in a family you cannot have the spirit of the 
trade union. Such a thing should be inconceivable 
in a university. University life is a co-operative en- 
terprise between teachers and students and I do 
hope that the students will not do a disservice to 
themselves by resorting to activities which are anti- 
social in character. 

Character is destiny. Character is that on which 
the destiny of a nation is built. One cannot have a 
great nation with men of small character. If we want 
to build a great nation, we must try to train a 
large number of young men and women who have 
character. We must have young men and women who 
look upon others as the living images of themselves as 
our Sastras have so often declared. But whether in 
public life or in student life, we cannot reach great 
heights if we are lacking in character. We cannot 
climb the mountain when the very ground at our 
feet is crumbling. When the very basis of our struc- 



KARNATAK UNIVERSITY 55 

ture is shaky, how can we reach the heights which 
we have set before ourselves ? We must all have 
humility. Here is a country which we are interested 
in building up. For whatever service we take up, we 
should not care for what we receive. We should 
know how much we can put into that service. That 
should be the principle which should animate our 
young men and women. Ours is a great country. We 
have had for centuries a great history. The whole 
of the East reflects our culture. We have to 
represent what India taught right from the time of 
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Whether in domestic 
affairs or in international affairs we must adhere to 
certain standards. My advice to the young men 
and women who are graduating today through this 
University is : Mother India expects of you that your 
lives should be clean, noble and dedicated to selfless 
work. 



DELHI UNIVERSITY 

CONVOCATION ADDRESS 
5 December, 1953 

MAY I at the outset express with deep sir^cerity 
my sense of obligation to the members of the 
Court for electing me to the high office of the 
Chancellor of the University ? I appreciate the 
distinction of being your first elected Chancellor, 
under the provisions of the new Delhi University Act. 
It gives me very great pleasure to find that the first 
degree which I confer as Chancellor is on my dear 
friend Shri C. Rajagopalachari. We are all proud to 
admit him into our fellowship. He is one of our most 
illustrious administrators and statesmen, well known 
for his commonsense and courage, balance and 
judgment, qualities greatly needed in this confused 
age of conflicting standards. The young men and 
women who are taking their degrees today have in 
him an example to guide them. 

It is the privilege of the Convocation speaker to 
congratulate those who by dint of hard work and 
disciplined effort have attained degrees and distinc- 
tions. My good wishes are with you and I hope very 
much that the qualities of mind and character 
which have helped you in your University courses 
may continue to be with you in the larger life you are 
entering. 



DELHI UNIVERSITY 57 

We cannot offer you prospects of glittering prizes 
or even comfortable positions but opportunities for 
silent unobtrusive work and constructive service 
are there in plenty. It is a matter for great sorrow 
that there is not among our youth that sense of exhi- 
laration, that release of energy, that buoyancy of 
spirit that characterize great liberation movements* 
Since the attainment of independence we seem to 
have lost the inspiration of a great purpose. Many 
of us do not realize how radically our position in the 
world has altered. At the time of the transfer of 
power, there were critics who felt that we would not 
survive the effects of partition, that our country 
would be broken to bits, that our administration 
would be disorganized, that there would be no rule 
of law, no security of life and property. All these 
critics have been confounded by the actual results. 
In the international world where our standing is 
only of six or seven years' duration our reputation 
for integrity, independence and love of peace is 
high. I may remind you of a statement made by a 
distinguished visitor to this country that India 
would rather die or commit suicide than submit to 
pressure or intimidation from any quarter. That 
may be so or may not be so. At least we have won the 
esteem of other nations. But what we have done is 
very little compared to the vast undone. Political 
freedom has given us the great opportunity and the 
sacred responsibility of building up a new India free 
from want and disease, rid of the curse of the caste 



58 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

and the outcaste, where women will enjoy the same 
rights as men and where we shall live at peace with 
the rest of the world. The inspiration of such an 
India should sustain you in your work ahead. 

We are living through one of the great revolu- 
tionary periods in human history. The revolutionary 
efforts spread over several centuries in other parts 
of the world are concentrated in a short span of time 
in our country. We are facing a many-sided chal- 
lenge, political and economic, social and cultural. 
Education is the means by which the youth is 
trained to serve the cause of drastic social and econo- 
mic changes. Nations become back numbers if they 
do not reckon with the developments of the age. 

The industrial growth of our country requires a 
large number of scientists, technicians and engi- 
neers. The rush in our universities for courses in 
science and technology is natural. Men trained in 
these practical courses help to increase productivity, 
agricultural and industrial. They also hope to find 
employment easily. To help the students to earn a 
living is one of the functions of education, arthakari 
ca vidyd. 

I do not believe that scientific and technological 
studies are devoid of moral values. Science is both 
knowledge and power. It has interest as well as uti- 
lity. It is illuminating as well as fruitful. It demands 
disciplined devotion to the pursuit of truth. It deve- 
lops in its votaries an attitude of tolerance, open- 
mindedness, freedom from prejudice and hospitality 



DELHI UNIVERSITY 59 

to new ideas. Science reveals to us the inexhaustible 
richness of the world, its unexpectedness, its wonder. 
Nevertheless, these qualities are developed by 
science incidentally and not immediately. It does 
not directly deal with the non-intellectual aspects of 
human nature. Economic man who produces and 
consumes, the intellectual man, the scientific man 
is not the whole man. The disproportionate em- 
phasis on science and technology has been causing 
concern to thinking men all over the world. The 
great crimes against civilization are committed not 
by the primitive and the uneducated but by the 
highly educated and the so-called civilized. One 
recalls the saying that the most civilized State is no 
further from barbarism than the most polished steel 
isTfrom rust. Scientists have now found means by 
which human life can be wiped off the surface of this 
planet. Of the many problems that now face the 
leaders of the world, none is of graver consequence 
than the problem of saving the human race from 
extinction. Struggling as we are with the fateful 
horizons of an atomic age, the achievements of 
science have induced in our minds a mood of despair 
making us feel homeless exiles caught in a blind 
machine. We are standing on the edge of an abyss 
or perhaps even sliding towards it. The Prime 
Minister of England ,in a recent speech contem- 
plated : 'We and all nations stand at this hour in 
human history before the portals of supreme catas- 
trophe and measureless reward. Our faith is that in 



60 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

God's mercy we shall choose aright, in which case 
the annihilating character of these agencies may 
bring unutterable security to the human mind. 3 To 
choose aright requires the cultivation of the heart 
and the intelligence. Escape from decline and catas- 
trophe depends not on scientific ideas and material 
forces but on the perceptions and ideas of men and 
women, on the moral judgments of the community. 
If we choose rightly, the achievements of science 
may lead to such a degree of material wealth and 
abundance of leisure as has never before been pos- 
sible in human history. All this will be possible only 
if we achieve a revolution in the inner compulsions 
that control us. 

Any satisfactory system of education should aim 
at a balanced growth of the individual and insist on 
both knowledge and wisdom, jndnam vijnana-sahitam. 
It should not only train the intellect but bring grace 
into the heart of man. Wisdom is more easily gained 
through the study of literature, philosophy, religion. 
They interpret the higher laws of the universe. If 
we do not have a general philosophy or attitude of 
life, our minds will be confused, and we will suffer 
from greed, pusillanimity, anxiety and defeatism. 
Mental slums are more dangerous to mankind than 
material slums. 

Independent thinking is not encouraged in our 
world today. When we see a cinema, we think very 
fast to keep up with rapid changes of scene and 
action. This rapidity which the cinema gives its 



DELHI UNIVERSITY 61 

audiences and demands from them has its own effect 
on the mental development. If we are to be freed 
from the debilitating effects and the nervous strain 
of modern life, if we are to be saved from the assaults 
which beat so insistently on us from the screen and 
the radio, from the yellow press and demagogy, 
defences are to be built in the minds of men, endur- 
ing interests are to be implanted in them. We must 
learn to read great classics which deal with really 
important questions affecting the life and destiny 
of the human race. We must think for ourselves 
about these great matters but thinking for oneself 
does not mean thinking in a vacuum, unaided, all 
alone. We need help from others, living or dead. 
We need help from the great of all ages, the 
poets, 'the unacknowledged legislators of the world' r 
the philosophers, the creative thinkers, the artists. 
Whereas in sciences we can be helped only by the 
contemporaries, in the humanities, help comes from 
the very great, to whatever age and race they may 
belong. At the deepest levels of existence, in the inti- 
mations of the nature of the Supreme, and the eco- 
nomy of the universe, in the insights into the power 
and powerlessness of man, the changing scene of 
history has its focus. The events of history reflect 
the events in the souls of men. 

If this country has survived all the changes and 
chances it has passed through, it is because of certain 
habits of mind and conviction which our people, 
whatever their race or religion may be, share and 



62 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

would not surrender. The central truth is that there 
is an intimate connection between the mind of man 
and the moving spirit of the universe. We can realize 
it through the practice of self-control and the exer- 
cise of compassion. These principles have remained 
the framework into which were fitted lessons from 
the different religions that have found place in this 
country. Our history is not modern. It is like a great 
river with its source back in silence. Many ages, 
many races, many religions have worked at it. It is 
all in our blood stream. The more Indian culture 
changes, the more it remains the same. The power 
of the Indian spirit has sustained us through difficult 
times. It will sustain us in the future if we believe in 
ourselves. It is the intangibles that give a nation its 
character and its vitality. They may seem unimpor- 
tant or even irrelevant under the pressure of daily 
life. Our capacity for survival in spite of perils from 
outside matched only by our own internal feuds and 
dissensions is due to our persistent adherence to this 
spirit. If our young men are to live more abun- 
dantly, they should enter more fully into the expe- 
rience and ideals of the race, they should be inspired 
in their minds and hearts by the great ideas en- 
shrined in our culture. 

Inattention to our culture in our universities is to 
no small extent responsible for the increasing unrest 
among students. In recent weeks the lawless activi- 
ties of some students in some parts of the country 
filled us with shame and sorrow and I have had 



DELHI UNIVERSITY 63 

occasion to refer to them and tell the students that 
by these acts of defiance of authority, they do a 
national disservice and imperil the future of the 
country, that they are traitors to the past and ene- 
mies of the future. Today I propose to point out 
what we should do to improve the atmosphere in 
the universities. Students are not trained to ap- 
proach life's problems with the fortitude, self-control 
and sense of balance which our new conditions de- 
mand. Without this disciplined enthusiasm for great 
causes, students become a danger to themselves and 
to society as a whole. This approach is encouraged 
by a study of our classics. I hope that the uni- 
versities will pay greater attention to this side of 
education. 

<^' A university is essentially a corporation of 
teachers and students. The relations between the 
two have been of a sacred character. The kind of 
education that we provide for our youth is deter- 
mined overwhelmingly by the kind of men and 
women we secure as teachers. Magnificent buildings 
and equipment are no substitute for the great 
teacher. Every attempt should be made to draw a 
good proportion of the best ability in the country 
into the teaching profession. If this country is to 
participate in the march of mind in science and 
scholarship, universities must recruit for their staff 
some of the best minds of the country. The univer- 
sity teacher should be helped to live in comfort, if 
he is to devote himself to learning, teaching and 



64 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

research. As the young recruits to the universities 
are paid low salaries, they fail to appreciate intellec- 
tual values and get interested in writing textbooks 
or obtaining examinerships. I hope the University 
Service will become as attractive as the all-India 
Services, for that is the only way to recruit and re- 
tain some of the ablest persons for the universities. 
As the example of the teacher has great influence 
on the pupils, we cannot evade our responsibility 
to the teaching profession. A more enlightened 
public attitude is essential. 

Besides, our colleges have increased their numbers 
regardless of the fact that competent teachers are 
not employed to deal with these increased numbers. 
It is impossible for the students to get adequate 
academic tuition or moral guidance. Some of the 
educational institutions have become commercia- 
lized and adopt the shift system as in the factories. 
If the results are unfortunate we have ourselves to 
blame. There is nothing wrong with our students. 
What is wrong is the system. 

Living conditions in universities leave much to be 
desired. True education needs conversation and 
debate, exchange of opinions and thoughts with 
friends with whom we can speak and listen easily, 
sympathetically and without fear. But are the 
opportunities for these adequate ? Again, there is 
no adequate provision for games and other corpo- 
rate activities. There is no reason why students who 
are physically fit should not be encouraged to join 



DELHI UNIVERSITY 65 

the National Cadet Corps in larger numbers. Mem- 
bership of the Corps fosters habits of discipline, team 
work and dignity of labour. 

I regret to say that the schemes of development 
adopted by the Centre and the States do not pay 
adequate attention to this most important of all 
problems, the education of the youth of the country. 
Our whole experiment in democracy will suffer if 
education is not given top priority. The future 
leadership of the country will be imperilled if uni- 
versity education is allowed to deteriorate for lack 
of financial support. 

Character is destiny. This maxim applies to indi- 
viduals as well as to nations. We cannot build rightly 
with wrong materials. More than your intellectual 
ability or technical skill, what makes you valuable 
to society is your devotion to a great cause. We have 
great natural resources, intelligent men and women 
and if in addition we learn to work together with 
pride and spirit of dedication in the sacred cause of 
rebuilding our country, no one can prevent us from 
achieving our goal. Our future destiny as a nation 
depends on our spiritual strength rather than upon 
our material wealth : ndyam dtmd balahlnena labhyah. 
The goal of perfection cannot be achieved by the 
weak, not the weak in body, but the weak in spirit, 
atma-nisthd-janita-viryahinena. The greatest asset of a 
nation is the spirit of its people. If we break the 
spirit of a people, we imperil their future; if we deve- 
lop the power of spirit, our future will be bright. 

5 



66 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

prasaraya dharmadhvajam 
prapuraya dharmaSankham 
pratddqya dharmadundubhim 
dharmam kuru, dharmam kuru y 

dhaimam kuru* 



PUNJAB UNIVERSITY 

CONVOCATION ADDRESS 
19 December, 1953 

I AM happy to be here and speak to you a few words 
on this important occasion of the sixth Annual 
Convocation of the Punjab University. I offer my 
congratulations to the graduates of the year who, 
by strenuous work and disciplined effort have 
attained their degrees, and some of them have 
achieved distinctions also. 

Your University has had to face many difficulties 
of an unexpected character. After partition you had 
to improvise practically a new University, shifting 
your teaching departments to different centres and 
starting new professional institutions. Naturally, 
your colleges have suffered from over-crowding, bad 
housing, ill-equipped and inadequate staff. These 
difficulties affect the maintenance of high standards. 
Yet the work which you have done in very difficult 
circumstances must be to you a matter of pride and 
satisfaction. 

I hope that in the new capital, whose building 
has attracted attention far and wide, the University 
will have its permanent headquarters with enough 
accommodation for its growing needs. Your Chan- 
cellor has had great interest in University education 
and his experience will be of considerable help to 



68 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

you in your attempts to develop the teaching side 
and exercise adequate supervision over the affiliated 
colleges. Buildings and equipment are not all. Good 
teachers who are interested in the welfare of the 
students, who have enthusiasm for their subjects 
and are able to impart it to the pupils they form 
the central framework of a university. Our com- 
mercial-minded generation reserves its respect for 
those who make money and so the best ability 
is drawn into administration, business and the 
learned professions. We have to realize that the kind 
of education we provide for our children is deter- 
mined overwhelmingly by the kind of men and 
women we secure as teachers. The low esteem in 
which teachers are held is the most eloquent evi- 
dence of the malady from which our society suffers. 
We must get the right type of men for the teaching 
profession, and not the incompetent and the un- 
ambitious. Respect for the teachers cannot be 
ordered. It must be earned. 

The next few years will be a testing time, more 
severe and more exacting than we have known for 
many years. Political freedom which we won at 
much cost and sacrifice is only an opportunity. It is 
not a fulfilment. If we are to develop a strong demo- 
cracy, political, social and economic, it is necessary 
for us to work hard and work unitedly. The ideal 
imposes on us a sacred responsibility. Men are not 
made democratic by the mere formulation of ideals 
in the Constitution. They are not made good by 



PUNJAB UNIVERSITY 69 

mere exhortation. Great ideals of justice, equality, 
fraternity and freedom which we have inscribed in 
our Constitution must be woven into the social 
fabric. We must apply them to the myriad situations 
of our daily life. Unfortunately, the state of mind in 
which we found ourselves at the time of political 
liberation is not marked by revolutionary fervour. 
The spirit of enjoyment has prevailed over the spirit 
of sacrifice. We seem to demand more than what 
we give. There is much evidence of low morale, 
dissatisfaction and discontent among people, all 
leading to serious slackness. We must overcome the 
spiritual sickness which seems to be enfeebling our 
community. If we do not change our minds, we 
cannot change anything. 

A nation is built in its educational institutions. We 
have to train our youth in them. We have to impart 
to them the tradition of the future. Through all the 
complexities and diversities of race and religion, 
language and geography, the forces which have 
made our people into a nation and which alone can 
keep them one are being shaped. These do not be- 
long to the material sphere. The unity is not one of 
physical geography, it belongs to the realm of ideas. 
It is a matter for men's minds and hearts. Our 
country has suffered when internal dissensions pre- 
dominated and central unity declined. We used to 
complain that those who ruled us for centuries 
adopted the principle of divide and rule. At any 
rate it is true that our subjection was due to our 



70 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

divisions. We must therefore guard ourselves against 
separatist tendencies of language, religion and 
province. It is in the universities that we should 
develop a corporate feeling and a feeling of social 
purpose. Our universities must give inspiration to 
a generation which stands in sore need of it. 

In the different branches of our planning effort 
we require trained men and it is for the universities 
to supply them. Naturally young people wish to get 
trained in scientific, technological and professional 
courses. Many of the changes that have transformed 
our daily lives, our hopes and ideals for the future 
are the results of the dominating role which science 
has come to play in our lives. No such radical 
changes have ever before occurred in so brief a period 
of our history. But an exclusive or one-sided em- 
phasis on scientific studies results in grave disad- 
vantages. Power and wealth begin to exercise a kind 
of intoxication on the minds of men. We wish to 
get on and succeed. Other ends are subordinated to 
this one end of achieving greater wealth and higher 
social status. The desire to get on is a laudable ambi- 
tion provided it does not exclude other more laud- 
able ambitions. Our future welfare and destiny as a 
nation will depend more on our spiritual strength 
than on our material wealth. 

Scientific progress is precarious and conditional. 
If we are only learned without being truly cultured, 
we become a danger to society, sa aksaro vipantatve 
raksaso bhavati dhruvam he who is literate, when 



PUNJAB UNIVERSITY 71 

inverted becomes a demon. There is an observation 
of Aristotle which is akin to this saying : 

Man when perfected is the best of animals, but, when 
separated from law and justice, he is the worst of all; since 
armed injustice is the more dangerous, and he is equipped 
at birth with arms meant to be used by intelligence and 
virtue which he may use for the worst ends. Wherefore if 
he have not virtue, he is the most unholy and the most 
savage of animals. 

In the international scene, the crisis which con- 
fronts us is the gravest in the whole of recorded 
history. We are armed with the weapons of modern 
science and the techniques of modern psychology, 
without ourselves being redeemed from greed, 
selfishness and love of power. We have increased our/ 
power over nature, but not over ourselves. Science 
and technology are not a cure for selfishness nor a 
key to the mystery of the universe. Our progress can 
be secure only in an atmosphere of confidence, hope 
and security.| President Eisenhower in his recent 
speech to the United Nations General Assembly on 
the eighth of this month called for means, c to hasten 
the day when fear of the atom will begin to disappear 
from the minds of the people and the Governments 
of the East and the West'. Before making his appeal 
to the peoples of the world to co-operate in this 
great venture and pledging the United States 'to 
devote its entire heart and mind to find the way by 
which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not 
be dedicated to his death but consecrated to his life', 



72 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

he spent a few minutes in the meditation room of the 
U.N. building. To make a new start, we need a new 
approach. Respect for the basic values of spirit is 
the only antidote to the distempers of our society, 
social, economic and political. We must recognize 
that there is something in man that hungers and 
thirsts after righteousness. If sheer confusion domi- 
nates the scene and we live in an age of anxiety and 
greed, it is because our training has been one-sided. 
It is wrong to assume that the only means required 
for the betterment of mankind are more and more of 
scientific discovery and technological improvement. 

It is through the study of the great classics of the 
world that we grow in our spirit. The basis of demo- 
cracy is the central principle of all religions, that 
there is an intimate connection between the mind of 
man and the moving spirit of the universe. This 
principle of democracy must become an effective 
faith. In our educational institutions, we can train 
our young men and women in the spirit of demo- 
cracy. We must increase wealth, reduce inequalities 
and raise the standards of the common man. Let the 
bright image of a new India where we will be free 
socially and economically break through the fogs of 
fear and ignorance, self-interest and superstition. 

The importance of education is not only in know- 
ledge and skill, but it is to help us to live with others. 
Co-operative and mutually helpful living is what 
we should be trained for. Moral qualities are of 
greater value than intellectual accomplishments. 



PUNJAB UNIVERSITY 73 

We have in our country great natural resources, 
intelligent men and women and if in addition, we 
learn to work together with pleasure, with pride, 
with a sense of duty in the sacred task of rebuilding 
our country no one can prevent us from reaching 
our goal. The Buddha says : 'None else compels, ye 
suffer from yourselves/ If our institutions give our 
young men character and democratic discipline, the 
future of our country is safe. Dharma is what holds 
society together. 

dharma eva hato hanti, dharmo raksati raksitah. 



MEERUT COLLEGE DIAMOND JUBILEE 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
20 December, 1953 

IT is appropriate that we remember all those who 
worked for the last sixty years to make this College 
what it is today. I am happy to find here Dr Sita 
Ram, Principal Chatterjee, and others who must feel 
proud of their work for the College. It has been 
steadily growing and it has today over 4,000 students, 
a number of departments, teaching and research. 
Naturally you have an ambition to make it into a 
university. It is true that in our Report we said that 
if finances were adequate and if academic respon- 
sibility was undertaken, this College may be enabled 
to grow into a university. But these two conditions 
are essential financial solvency and academic 
adequacy or soundness. Mere change of name will 
not make a college into a university. Universities 
which have developed without sound financial back- 
ing have acquiesced in academically unsatisfactory 
practices. With ill-equipped and inadequate staff, 
the students do not get proper academic tuition or 
moral guidance. For over 4,000 students you have 
now 135 teachers and this cannot be regarded as 
adequate. You must lay stress on quality rather than 
on quantity. You must be able to get on your staff 
men noted for their learning and scholarship, men 



MEERUT COLLEGE DIAMOND JUBILEE 75 

who do not merely teach but are eager to make 
additions to knowledge. The profession of the 
teacher should not be reduced to a trade. It is a call- 
ing, a vocation, a mission. It is the duty of teachers 
to make pupils good citizens of the new democracy. 
They must impart to the students zest for new expe- 
rience, love for adventure in knowledge. 

A University should give a universal outlook. 
When students pursue different courses, meet to- 
gether in a common fellowship, when they enter 
into the society of good and great men, they en- 
large their lives and characters. If we are not in- 
terested in the high matters of the fundamentals of 
science and philosophy, we are not truly educated. 
We must preserve the basic values of our own cul- 
tural heritage without losing the momentum which 
science and technology give to human progress. 

If a man does not come to terms with his own self, 
if he has not an integrated view of life, he will be- 
come ruthless, destructive, even insane. He will be 
a lost spirit. In our conceit, we are losing faith in the 
ultimate values and attempting to live outside the 
dimension of spirit, to close the frontiers of the an- 
cient hidden mysteries. We are uprooted, homeless, 
half-mad with fear and pride. The magic of life is 
fading and we find it more and more difficult to 
find the real value and the flavour of life. 

Today we must struggle not so much against 
death and disease as against man's oppression of 
man, against the injustice and tyranny that make 



76 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

life so tragic and liberty so hard to preserve. In our 
philosophy of life we have the fundamentals on 
which a new world society can be built. 

When it is said that we are a secular State, it does 
not mean that we have an indifference to tradition 
or irreverence for religion. I hope that in this Col- 
lege, whether it is a College or a University, these 
fundamental values of spirit will be preserved. 



INDIAN HISTORY CONGRESS, WALTAIR 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
29 December, 1953 

THOUGH the subject of my special study is not 
history, you have been good enough to ask me 
to inaugurate this Congress. Just as memory is the 
principal factor in the sense of personal identity an 
individual possesses, even so history is the memory 
which a nation possesses. In spite of continual 
changes in our bodily cells and mental processes, 
each one is aware of himself as the same person from 
birth to death. This is so largely because of the per- 
sistence of memory. History is the cause of the 
nation's persistent identity. It is that which links 
the past, the present and the future. By connecting 
the past with the present, we perceive the continuity 
and solidarity of the ages. 

It is our duty therefore to undertake a systematic 
account of our history, an account which is objec- 
tive and dispassionate. I know that this Historical 
Congress has undertaken such an account. Writers 
of history should remember what Mallinatha, the 
renowned commentator, has said : 
i na amulam likhyate klncit 

na anapeksitam ucyate. 

Nothing is written here without authority; nothing 
is said here which is irrelevant. 



78 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

There are some historians who wish to be show- 
men, anxious to make an appeal to the public. To 
make an effect they sometimes distort facts or adorn 
tales; there are others who are concerned with accu- 
racy. There is no incompatibility between accuracy 
and appeal. To secure both requires learning, intel- 
ligence and imagination. The late Lord Balfour 
described Sir Winston Churchill's World Crisis as 
'Winston's brilliant autobiography disguised as a 
history of the universe'. 

It is generally said that the only lesson of history 
is that we learn nothing from it. This is a warning. 
By a proper study of history, we can learn a great 
deal from it. Our steady and endless struggle for 
truth stretches back to the fountain springs of 
human thought. The passage of several thousand 
years sees not much change in our general character, 
its strength as well as its weakness. Centuries of 
foreign rule and endless oppression leave us still 
an active force in the world though quarrelling 
among ourselves with insatiable vivacity. 

We must instruct our boys and girls in schools 
and colleges in the historical sequence of events in 
the past. We must treat with scientific detachment 
and accuracy the circumstances which marked the 
decline and fall of governments in India. Never 
were we in greater need of objective and scholarly 
study of our past history and present condition. We 
must strive to determine the great fundamentals 
which govern a peaceful progression towards a 



INDIAN HISTORY CONGRESS 79 

constantly higher level of civilization and the forces 
that impede it. Your President-elect, Dr Kane, has 
given us in his monumental work Dharma Sdstra, a 
historical account of our social life. He enjoins on 
us a cordial but critical devotion to the ideals 
which inspired our minds and hearts across the 
centuries. 

A fundamental lack of national coherence has 
been our grave defect. We complained against the 
British rule that it attempted to divide us and 
rule us. But what are we doing today to heal the 
divisions ? 

It is no use acquiescing in the evils of society on 
the assumption that historical processes dictate the 
pattern of society, that men are not in control of 
events, that events are in control of men and the 
course of history. When Germany plunged into 
Nazism, the classic excuse of the German was : 'What 
could I do, I am only a little man. 5 This is a retreat 
from responsibility. There is no doubt that man's 
freedom of action is limited. He does not work in a 
vacuum. Social conditions, environmental pres- 
sures, what are called historic forces, influence him. 
But he can set his face in the right direction or the 
wrong. 

There are some philosophers of history who argue 
that there is a sense of inevitability about the histo- 
rical sequence. The late Mr H. A. L. Fisher did not 
agree with the determinist view of history. In the 
Preface to his History of Europe, he writes : 



80 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

One intellectual excitement has, however, been denied 
me. Men wiser and more learned than I have discerned in 
history, a plot, a rhythm, a predetermined pattern. These 
harmonies are concealed from me. I can see only one emer- 
gency following upon another as wave follows upon wave, 
only one great fact with respect to which, since it is unique, 
there can be no generalizations, only one safe rule for the 
historian, that he should recognize in the development of 
human destinies the play of the contingent and the 
unforeseen. 

There are many historical developments which 
justify Fisher's observation. In the last war the Allies 
swore lasting friendship for Soviet Russia and hosti- 
lity to Germany. They vowed a Punic peace. 
Germany like Carthage should be ploughed up, 
cursed and sown with salt. Now Russia and the 
Allies are in opposite camps and Germany is a 
friend of the Allies. One can only feel something 
like awe at the waywardness of history, with her 
fantastic turns and twists. This waywardness, this 
contingency, is the result of the free will of man. 

The age we live in threatens world-wide catas- 
trophe. It also holds out unexpected hope and pro- 
mise. Man must take charge of events on a world- 
wide scale. He should cease to be a helpless, mecha- 
nical puppet and become a wakeful, responsible, 
truly creative being. Where freedom is absent, his- 
tory is fate. As people who possess faith in human 
dignity, we must not passively wait for a world 
order of peace but we must strive actively to bring 
the nations into the ways of peace. It is easy to drift 



INDIAN HISTORY CONGRESS 81 

into a fatalistic attitude that nothing can be done 
and we must await helplessly the catastrophe which 
will destroy civilization. We must not only envisage 
the horrors of war but work with all our might to 
raise barriers against it. We must work for peace not 
merely because of the fear of the consequences of 
war but from the conviction that war and all that 
leads to it are a defiance of justice and humanity. ' 

History can serve as a strong force for international 
co-operation. It must bring into proper focus the 
great heroes who have stressed the dignity and the 
brotherhood of man. History is not merely the story 
of squabbles long since dead. It is also an account 
of the struggles of man to achieve higher standards 
of living, justice, peace and security. The victories of 
peace should be described and not merely the 
horrors of war. History must be used to develop an 
understanding of the cultures of the other nations of 
the world. 

The New Year must be both a challenge and a 
message of hope to the millions whose lives are over- 
shadowed by the threat of another war. It should 
summon us to further the cause of peace by being 
men of peace ourselves. The best plans are destroyed 
by ambition, hate and greed. Let us rid ourselves of 
these passions and realize that the Will which con- 
trols the universe is not power and majesty but 
love and peace. 

I have pleasure in inaugurating your meetings 
and I wish you success in your deliberations. 

6 



INDIAN HISTORICAL RESEARCH 
SOCIETY, BOMBAY 

SILVER JUBILEE CELEBRATIONS 
12 January, 1954 

T AM delighted to be here and be associated with the 
JL Silver Jubilee Celebrations of the Indian Histori- 
cal Research Society, which was founded by Father 
Heras in 1926. Though it started as the Post- 
Graduate Department of St. Xavier's College, 
under the inspiring leadership of Father Heras, it 
has functioned as more than a mere College Society 
and served the needs of the country in historical 
research and scholarship. The Institute has been 
planned with great care and attention to detail. 
You have a Library, a Museum, a Numismatic 
Collection, Manuscripts, Photographs and Sculp- 
tures. The list of theses prepared in the Institute is 
an impressive one. The Commemoration Volume 
pays a well-deserved tribute to the excellent work 
done by Fr. Heras as a historian and guide and 
friend of other history workers. He has himself 
written a number of works of great value on a 
variety of subjects, Asoka, Akbar, the Pallavas, 
and has been for the last twenty years working 
on a matter of considerable importance to the 
world Proto-Indo- Mediterranean Culture. We are 
indeed greatly indebted to him for his scholarly 



INDIAN HISTORICAL RESEARCH SOCIETY 83 

contributions and the way in which he has helped 
workers in this field. 

History is not a mere series of intrigues and 
aggressions, furies and devastations, pillages and 
conquests organized by kings and rulers, despots 
and dictators. This is not the whole story. We should 
not be satisfied with the deeds and misdeeds of our 
emperors and statesmen, the dates of their births 
and deaths, their triumphs and defeats. There is the 
cultural history, the social history, and the history 
of the sciences. In a true sense history is a struggle of 
man to reach beyond himself, to approximate to the 
ideal of freedom and of human concord. Rightly 
studied it should not breed hatred among nations. It 
must look upon nations, great and small, as partici- 
pants in a common enterprise, some fortunate in 
their undertakings, others restricted in their efforts, 
unequal in their contributions but equal in their 
desire and will for peace and progress. History 
should teach us how nations gave to each other and 
took from each other. In that way it must prepare 
us for the future order. 

Man, as he is, is not to be regarded as the crown- 
ing glory of evolution. The story of life on earth 
goes back to a thousand million years. In each geo- 
logical period there have appeared creatures which 
might have been represented as the highest types of 
creation. Yet those forms of life have been super- 
seded by others. When we look at the steady climb 
of life in the path of evolution, it is presumptuous to 



84 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

assume that man, the latest product, is the last word 
or the final crowning glory, and with his arrival the 
steps of evolution have come to a sudden end. If the 
past is any clue to the future, we cannot regard man- 
kind as anything more than a stage in life's progress, 
and a mile-stone on the path of evolution toward a 
greater future. The next stage is not in his physique 
but in his psyche, in his mind and spirit, in the emer- 
gence of a larger understanding and awareness, in 
the development of a new integration of character 
adequate to the new age. When he gains a philoso- 
phic consciousness and an intensity of understand- 
ing, a profound apprehension of the meaning of the 
whole, there will result a more adequate social order 
which will influence not only individuals but peoples 
and nations. We have to fight for this order first in 
our own souls, then in the world outside. This means 
that man must purge himself of his intolerance, his 
love of power. 

Progress is not a law of nature. To say that his- 
tory is the product of the automatic operation of 
impersonal forces, mechanical nature or economic 
production is wrong. Human effort is the method by 
which our needs are realized. Hegel, Marx, Speng- 
ler suggest a kind of inevitability of history. Spengler, 
for example, traces an analogy between the life-cycle 
of a living organism and that of a culture. They are 
born, have a youth, mature, grow old and die. 
History is a creative process, a meaningful pattern. 
It is brought about by the spirit in man. While 



INDIAN HISTORICAL RESEARCH SOCIETY 85 

external conditions determine our progress to a 
large extent, they are not completely coercive. 
Mechanistic fatalism is drawing mankind near to 
the abyss of self-destruction. We must realize that 
the human individual is capable of transcending 
conditions and controlling them. Human beings are 
not mechanical entities. If they were so, their future 
would be* completely predictable. But they are 
creative human spirits. 

History advances by jumps, not always by gra- 
dual changes. It was a characteristic error of the 
past to count on gradual evolution, to presume that 
the advances in history, as in the biological world, 
spontaneous realities emerge suddenly and in a 
sense without preparation. History proceeds very 
often by jumps which we call revolutions. 

There is a well-known saying that the only thing 
we learn from history is that we learn nothing from 
it. This is a comment not on history but on human 
stupidity. If we are careful we can learn a great deal 
from history. Our past history demonstrates that we 
failed whenever our centre weakened, when internal 
dissensions became prominent, when famine and 
disease were allowed to spread, when administration 
became unclean and corrupt. These indicate the 
great need for warding off the forces that are subver- 
sive of stable order. Contemporary history also re- 
inforces this truth. Russia before the October Revo- 
lution, Germany in the period of economic depression 
which brought Hitler to power after the practical 



86 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

wiping out of the middle classes, China in the forties 
and more recently Egypt they demonstrate that 
when selfish leaders develop vested interests in the 
administration, national discords arise, economic 
development is checked and revolutions occur. We 
find today in our country, in spite of the attain- 
ment of independence and the many impressive 
achievements, a wide-spread sense of dissatisfaction 
and frustration. If these things are to be removed 
and if the young men and women are to be per- 
suaded to enlist themselves in the work of internal 
consolidation and development, it is essential to em- 
phasize national unity, rapid economic development 
and a pure, clean, and honest administration. We 
must put down the forces that impair our national 
unity, retard our economic progress, whether these 
forces come from the rich or the poor, the capitalist or 
the labourer, and endeavour to raise standards of effi- 
ciency and honesty in our administration. National 
unity, economic reconstruction and good govern- 
ment are the needs of the hour. I hope that these 
ends will be kept in view by our leaders and people. 
We are living in days of destiny. What happens 
in our country in the next few years will determine 
not only the future of our land but of a large part of 
the world. This is not a time for faint-heartedness. 
We must avoid the deadly sin of cynicism, of des- 
pair. However rugged the obstacles that confront us 
may be, we must face them with honesty and serious- 
ness and push on. That is the warning of history. 



SAUGAR UNIVERSITY 

CONVOCATION ADDRESS 
// February, 1954 

y OFFER my congratulations and good wishes to the 
JL candidates who have taken their degrees and won 
distinctions. It is my fervent hope that the equip- 
ment of mind and the habits of discipline which 
these degrees and distinctions symbolize may con- 
tinue to be with them in their future lives. 

You are fortunate in living today in a Free India 
which requires for its full development every able- 
bodied citizen who can serve the country without 
thinking of his own personal reward or suitable 
status. I know that it is easy to say that work is its 
own reward, but workers should also live, and if 
their work is to be satisfactory, they must be enabled 
to live in comfortable conditions. Our Governments, 
Central and Provincial, should devise rapidly me- 
thods of employing all available talent. If we are 
unable to give employment even to our educated 
youth they become neurotic and dissatisfied with the 
existing economic order. Full employment and 
social security are treated today as the true tests of 
real democracy. This view is not unknown to us. In 
a Kalinga Edict, Ak>ka writes : 

All men are my children. Just as I desire on behalf of my 
own children that they should be provided with all manner 



88 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

of comfort in this as well as in the other world, similarly, 
I desire the same for all people. 

In this University you have conditions which 
make it possible to develop true university life. You 
do not suffer from over-crowding. I am glad that 
you pay attention to research work. No teacher can 
inspire his students or win their respect if he is not 
himself interested in extending the frontiers of know* 
ledge. The ability to teach pupils to teach them- 
selves, to inspire students to new lines of enquiry is a 
rare gift. The work and reputation of a university 
depend on the presence of such teachers. 

The Government of India are considering ways 
and means by which conditions in universities can 
improve. They wish to assist you in building hostels, 
providing playgrounds and more than all, in raising 
the status and salary conditions of the teachers. But 
no teacher deserves consideration if he does not love 
his subject and care for the intellectual and moral 
development of the students. It is teachers who have 
no academic interests but are ambitious for power 
and position in the university administration that 
start intrigues and party spirit. Factionalism has 
been the curse of our public life and I fervently hope 
that this University is free from it. Teachers in 
colleges and universities require to be selected with 
great care, and when once they are recruited, they 
should be treated with consideration. 

When I last visited this University with my col- 
leagues of the University Education Commission, 



SAUGAR UNIVERSITY 89 

Dr Hari Singh Gour was the Vice-Chancellor. This 
University owes its existence to his inspiration and 
munificence. In these days when we are money mad, 
his example that wealth is to be used for public good 
and not for private advantage cannot be over- 
estimated. Dr Gour believed in the rights of reason. 
He was anxious that we should develop a scientific 
frame of mind, a rational outlook on life. He was 
deeply distressed by a good deal of superstition and 
obscurantism that pass for religion in our country. 
He felt that the social prejudices and religious 
superstitions which our people adopted in blind 
unthinking trust were mainly responsible for our 
degradation, political and economic. Even our 
ancient writers protested against the abuse of reli- 
gion. Look at the following verse : 
^ vrksdn chitvd, pasun hatvd 

krtvd rudhirakardamam 

yady evam gamyate svargam 

narakam kena gamyate. 

If one can go to heaven by cutting trees, killing 
animals and making blood to flow, how, pray, can 
one go to hell ? This verse is a condemnation of 
practices repugnant to one's conscience but assumed 
to be permitted by religion. India was never con- 
quered from without; she was defeated from within. 
It is the unexamined life that led to our suffering. 

Dr Gour believed in education which is the 
means for the spread of scientific habits of mind, 
social reform and spiritual outlook. It would please 



90 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

his soul if those who are trained in this University 
acquire sane outlook and democratic behaviour. 

Dr Gour felt that the inspiration for the renewed 
life should be spiritual, as his respect for Buddhism 
on which he wrote an important work indicates. 
The crisis of our time lies in our acquisition of vast 
new powers over the world of nature without ac- 
quiring any more power over ourselves. The prob- 
lem facing us is : why has not man grown in moral 
character as well as in intellectual power ? Why is 
he obsessed by unrelenting hatreds and unceasing 
fears ? Flight from spiritual life accounts partly for 
the frenzy of our time. We suffer today not so much 
from the split atom as from the split mind. Intoxi- 
cated by the achievements of science we seem to 
believe in the supremacy of man. 

isvaroham aham bhogi siddhoham balavdn sukhi. 

There is a lack of humility, a lack of reverence 
Tor the ideals, grace of mind and charity of heart. 
There is only the will to power which assumes many 
forms. We exalt our views into ideologies and think 
that the world could be saved only by the accep- 
tance of this or that way of life. The spirit of reason 
will tell us that we should avoid extremes of ideology 
and of action and return from excess to moderation. 
The Buddha showed us the middle path which 
^avoids the extremes of self-assertion and self-denial. 
To induce the right attitude of life we must refine 
the minds, the tastes and the manners of our youth. 
We must make them adopt the principle of all great 



SAUGAR UNIVERSITY 91 

religions : 'Be not overcome of evil but overcome evil 
with good.' 

While we expect the Governments to tackle with 
the problems of illiteracy, unemployment, etc., we 
expect the universities to fight the evils which matter 
most hatred, malice, idleness, mutual distrust and 
love of domination. These sap our national strength 
and are oft en not assu aged but inflamed by some of our 
leaders. That is why we wish to protect the universi- 
ties from encroachments by outside political agencies. 

We must train the young to the best possible all- 
round living, individual and social. We must make 
them intelligent and good. They must learn to 
observe spontaneously those unwritten laws of 
decency and honour felt by good men but not en- 
forced by any statute. 

I am happy to note that courses in science and the 
humanities are prescribed for all in this University 
to promote a balanced education and avoid the evils 
of narrow specialization. It is by the study of the 
great classics that we can improve our taste and 
civilize our behaviour. We must all strive to make 
this country a true democracy, a vast family where 
every member retains his personality, but all hearts 
beat in unison. The Rg Veda concludes with a 
prayer asking us to develop unity of purpose, of 
heart and of understanding : 

samdno va dkutih, samdnd hrdaydni vah 
samdnam astu vo mano yathd vah susahdsati. 1 

*X, 162 



92 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

It is this spirit which should sustain us. Calamities 
may be inflicted by others, but no nation can 
be degraded but by itself. Outsiders may inflict 
injury on us but they cannot bring us shame. 
Dishonour comes only from ceasing to remain faith- 
ful to oneself. There is no material suffering from 
which one cannot rise if only one maintains one's 
spirit of self-reliance which is the source of all real 
greatness. 

You are a young University and you have yet to 
build up sound traditions. May it be given to you to 
contribute a little to this task by your own qualities 
of intellectual integrity and active sympathy, prajnd 
and karund. 



TEACHING OF SOCIAL SCIENCES IN 
SOUTH ASIA* 

15 February, 1954 

I HAVE great pleasure in inaugurating the Round 
Table Conference on the Teaching of Social 
Sciences in South Asia. May I offer to the represen- 
tatives of the seven participating countries and other 
delegates to the Conference a cordial welcome on 
behalf of the Government and the people of this 
country and also of the UNESCO, of which I happen 
now to be the General President ? 

This Conference is called in pursuance of the 
resolution 3.141 of the Seventh Session of the 
General Conference, which reads : 'The Director- 
General is authorized to encourage social science 
teaching in Universities and Secondary Schools 
emphasizing the contribution that such teaching 
can make to human progress and to education for 
living in a world community. 5 

The first two topics proposed for discussion are, to 
my mind, of great importance. What are the disci- 
plines which belong to the group of the Social 
Sciences and what is the unity binding them ? So- 
cial Sciences include Economics, Political Science, 
Sociology, Social Anthropology, and Social Psycho- 
logy. There is adequate justification for giving 

* Inaugural Address at the UNESCO Round Table Conference 



94 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

greater attention to Social Sciences than we used to 
do till now. For, Social Sciences help us to under- 
stand the society in which we live, the basic needs 
of human beings, the economic arrangements and 
the political forms. Even as every educated citizen 
should have some knowledge of the material world 
in which he lives, it is equally important that he 
should have some knowledge of the society in which 
he lives. 

Certain basic needs are essential factors of human 
behaviour at all times, the need for security, for 
tradition, for religion. But the forms in which these 
needs are expressed are capable of great variation 
from time to time, from place to place. Again, poli- 
tical theories are based on views about the psycho- 
logy of man. Hobbes, for example, began his 
political theory with a psychological doctrine of 
the nature of man. His despotic State was devised 
for a fear-driven humanity. Locke and his followers 
advocated political freedom and non-intervention 
by Government on the assumption that man was 
naturally good and self-improving and his economic 
activities generally tended to help society. The 
conflicting ideologies today are also based on con- 
flicting views of the nature of man. 

There is a danger that a scientific view of social 
phenomena may incline us to a determinist view of 
history which looks upon social growth as obedience 
to certain laws. Vico proclaims that history is a 
regular alternation between progress and regression. 



TEACHING OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 95 

St. Simon looks upon history as a series of oscillations 
between organic and creative periods. Marx holds 
that history is a succession of economic systems, 
each violently replacing its predecessor. These views 
raise the age-old problem whether man makes his- 
tory or history makes man. Great historical figures 
may be products of their time, but by their indi- 
vidual genius they alter the climate of thought, 
incite revolutions, change the structure of society 
and start new epochs. The way in which Marx and 
Rousseau influenced the course of history is an 
illustration of it. 

Man is not body and mind alone. He has, in 
addition, the spiritual dimension. As long as the 
nature of man is interpreted by sciences, natural 
and social, and his life and world are shaped accord- 
ing to these concepts, the essentially free spirit of 
man is overlooked, and yet it is this free spirit that 
accounts for the waywardness and the unpredicta- 
bility of history. When the late H. A. L. Fisher re- 
marked that he saw no plot, rhythm, or pre-deter- 
mined pattern in history, but only the play of the 
contingent and the unseen, he was referring to the 
free activity of human beings. Man is a moral agent 
who can determine his behaviour. He can grow by 
the exercise of his will. If a human being loses his 
creativity and becomes an item in an anonymous 
crowd, the knowledge which he now possesses 
through science and technology may choke him and 
the power he now commands may wipe him out. 



96 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

But he can control the knowledge and use the power 
he now has if he has a sense of values and does not 
betray his own creativity in his love for routine. 
This brings us to the question of human values. 

The study of Social Sciences will bring us nearer 
the goal of human progress to some extent, as every 
increase of knowledge will do. But the main objec- 
tive of human progress and living in a world com- 
munity which the General Conference resolution 
states, requires something more than science, na- 
tural or social. Disciplines which deal with values 
like Ethics, Philosophy and Religion are essential 
for promoting the ideals of good life and world 
community. 

Agricultural sciences and industrial arts can in- 
crease our productivity. But they do not tell us what 
we should do with increased wealth and leisure. 
Economics, Politics and Jurisprudence can frame 
good laws and define fundamental rights, but they 
do not by themselves bring about a good society. 
The knowledge of Social Sciences in the hands of 
men whose values are chaotic is not a help. The 
marvellous achievements of natural sciences in 
recent years gave rise to the impression that human 
progress would be automatically secured with the 
rapid advance of science and technology. This view 
was shattered after the experiences of the two World 
Wars. Never before has scientific progress been so 
general and intensive and never before has intol- 
erance been so savage and civilization so fragile. 



TEACHING OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 97 

It is argued that the balance between the increase 
of power over nature and the lack of control over 
oneself may be restored by the study of Social 
Sciences. Our malady is traced to our one-sided 
concentration on the study of non-human nature, 
and the neglect of the study of man, especially man 
in society. In an article in the Universities Quarterly, 
Lord Beveridge wrote : c lf mankind is to make 
worthy use of this growing mastery over nature, 
he must learn how to master himself. To win that 
mastery he must take the same road as has led to 
his mastery over nature, the hard, long road of 
science, applied not to nature but to man in society/ 
The Social Sciences, he argues, must be based on a 
study of facts and not on deduction from concepts. 
* Without them civilization is in danger. Without 
better understanding of themselves and society, 
there can be no assured happiness for mankind.' It 
would be wrong to think that the betterment of 
mankind can be secured merely by the knowledge 
derived from natural and social sciences. While 
natural sciences give us mastery over nature, social 
sciences do not give mastery over ourselves. They 
give us basic information and knowledge about man 
in society. But progress depends not merely on 
knowledge but on will. Both natural and social 
sciences give us instruments and no norms for the 
right use of those instruments. Social Sciences tell us 
how we can control human beings in society even 
as natural sciences tell us how we can control 



98 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

nature. By equipping man with this additional 
knowledge, the need for guidance has become 
greater. We have seen in our own time how the 
weapons of modern science and the techniques of 
modern psychology have been used for different 
schemes of social regeneration. Some advocates of 
social Utopias have organized the cupidities of men 
into terrifying systems of power. Some have used the 
newly acquired knowledge for sowing distrust, 
starting fissures among peoples who are already dis- 
rupted by their own dissensions. Leaders of States 
take hold of virgin minds, plastic, enthusiastic, im- 
pressionable, generous, and make them victims of 
racial, class, religious, or national pride. 

If we are to use the knowledge of Social Sciences 
for helping human progress and world community, 
we must obtain the discipline of human nature from 
Aesthetics and Ethics, from Philosophy and Religion, 
though they are not in the strict sense of the term 
Social Sciences. Sciences, natural or social, give us 
knowledge not judgment, power not vision, strength 
not sanction. 

The aims which the resolution puts before us can 
be secured only if we look upon ourselves as mem- 
bers of humanity as a whole. The world conscious- 
ness should be aroused. The environment is suitable, 
only re-education is necessary. If the cave man had 
been asked to think nationally, he would not have 
understood. His ancestors thought in terms of 
family. Slowly the family clan yielded to the village* 



TEACHING OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 99 

Then we had the City State and after that the idea 
of a nation grew up. It is still dominating us and will 
continue to do so, so long as there are peoples suffer- 
ing from foreign control. Today the world has be- 
come small and our vision is enlarged. To make the 
world safe for peace, our conscience must grow and 
our comprehension of human dignity must increase. 
Civilization is constituted mainly by a series of 
human relationships which provide for the best 
possible development of the potentialities of human 
beings. We must, if we are to prepare ourselves for 
the new world which is on the horizon, rid ourselves 
of racial pride and religious intolerance and of that 
deep-seated lust for power which Isocrates says, 
'is the wicked harlot who makes city after city in 
love with her, to betray them one after another to 
their ruin 5 . (8.103) If Social Sciences testify to any 
truth, it is this, that nations, great in their intellec- 
tual, industrial and political achievements, fail to 
survive if they do not possess vision, charity and 
friendship for others. If the world is to be saved, the 
great nations of the world should look to one ano- 
ther as friendly competitors in the onward march 
of civilization and worthy rivals in the arts of peace. 
Education in Social Sciences should help us c to 
grow mature and free, to flower in love and good- 
ness, 5 to increase wisdom and virtue. We should 
work for a general renewal of humanity. If the know- 
ledge derived from sciences gets into wrong hands, 
the world will be in peril. If enough men and 



100 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

women arise in each community who are free from 
the fanaticisms of race, religion and ideologies, who 
will oppose strenuously every kind of mental and 
moral tyranny, who will develop in place of an 
angular national spirit a rounded world view, we 
will get near the concept of 'on earth one family 5 , 

I hope that your deliberations will help to ad- 
vance the study of Social Sciences in the South Asia 
region and help their peoples to an understanding 
of the basic needs and the ultimate ideals of human 
society. 



DELHI UNIVERSITY 

SPECIAL CONVOCATION* 
24 February, 1954 

MAY I welcome you most cordially dnto our 
fellowship and express our sense of deep pride 
that we have in you, our latest graduate, one who 
has faith in the new international society and world 
peace. We have watched with admiration the great 
part that Canada under your leadership has been 
playing in the United Nations and her endeavours 
to mediate between the United States and the 
Commonwealth, whenever such occasions arose, 
and I hope that such occasions were few. 

It is the first time that the Prime Minister of 
Canada visits our country and other parts of Asia. 
It indicates the increasing recognition that the prob- 
lems of the world cannot be disposed of without 
reference to the wishes of the Asian people. East 
and West have come together never again to part, 
It is no more a question of closer contact or asso- 
ciation, but one of intimate union, union for a com- 
mon creative destiny. 'We are members one of 
another,' said St. Paul, and if we courageously im- 
plement this truth in our daily life, in national and 

* Address as Chancellor admitting the Rt. Hon. Louis St. 
Laurent, Prime Minister of Canada, to an Honorary Degree 
of Delhi University 



102 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

international affairs, we will make history 'rich in 
quality and majestic in scale 9 . 

If there is unrest today in Asia and Africa, and if 
there are disruptive forces social, economic and 
political at work, we are convinced that these 
troublous conditions can be improved only by the 
extension of democratic liberties to them. We do 
not love freedom if we do not give freedom to others. 
We must show that we are zealous for social right- 
eousness and we will not tolerate mass misery 
whether in the East or in the West. The free deve- 
lopment of each nation is the condition for the free 
development of all. So long as people suffer in any 
part of the world from the evils of political, econo- 
mic and racial exploitation, the world will be 
marred by cleavages and threatened by discords 
and peace will be precarious. 

In working for the new society, the Universities 
have a great part to play. The silent under-currents 
of human feeling, the general anxiety for peace and 
co-operative living are far nobler and more impor- 
tant than the much publicized conflicts of racial, 
national and ideological ambitions. It is for the 
Universities to prepare for the world community by 
taming the savageness of man, overcoming wildness, 
anarchical ambition, spiritual blindness, recalci- 
trance which are grave internal obstacles and the 
verve to settle problems by the arbitrament of force, 
forgetting that justice is more important than arma- 
ments and the maintenance of peace by threats of 



DELHI UNIVERSITY 103 

horror is repugnant to the moral sense of mankind. 
Political and economic arrangements are matters 
for contract and they can succeed only if there is 
unity of purpose, of heart and mind, springing from 
devotion to great ideals. It is the main function of 
Universities to foster world loyalties, a sense of 
moral values and faith in the human spirit, ideals 
which are shared by the Universities of the East and 
the West. 

The problems are vast and the stakes are high and 
many of us seem to feel utterly helpless and inconse- 
quential. We shrink within ourselves and gaze in 
dazed condition at the spectacle of society rushing 
towards its ruin with the seeming fatality of the 
Greek tragedy. But we are not prisoners of destiny. 
The human individual is a free agent, svatantrah 
kartd ; 'he is a cause, not an effect/ in the words of 
St. Thomas Aquinas. When, therefore, we find a 
person of your serene and commanding qualities, 
steadfastly working for peace, without being dis- 
couraged by difficulties, with faith in the ultimate 
destiny of mankind the waves on the shore may be 
broken, but the ocean conquers nevertheless we 
feel proud to honour you. May you live long to 
lead your nation, and through it the world, to an 
era of positive peace and general prosperity. 



SAHITYA AKADEMI 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 

12 March, 1954 

IN the regrettable absence of our Chairman who is 
essentially a man of letters, who has strayed into 
politics owing to the conditions of our time, I have 
been asked to inaugurate the Sahitya Akademi or the 
National Academy of Letters. As the Maulana Sahib 
has just explained, we have now an Academy for 
drama and music; we hope to set up one for the visual 
arts and today we are starting an Academy for Letters. 
Sahitya Akademi, the phrase combines two 
words, one Sanskrit and the other Greek, suggesting 
the universal aspiration of our enterprise. Sahitya 
is literary composition, Akademi is a society of 
learned people. It is an academy of literary men, 
those who do creative work in literature in the 
different languages of our country. Maulana Sahib 
has rightly emphasized the importance of standards. 
Association with the Academy either as Fellows or 
as Members is regarded as a great distinction in all 
civilized countries. It is the means of recognizing 
men of achievement, encouraging men of promise 
in letters, educating public taste, and improving 
standards. The Sahitya Akademi of our country 
should take note of the important creative work 
done in the different languages of the country. 



SAHITYA AKADEMI 105 

I agree with you, Maulana Sahib, in thinking that 
the intellectual renaissance through which we are 
passing is, to no small extent, due to the impact of 
Western culture on our society. This impact came to 
us through the English language. Your references to 
the writings of men like Tagore and Gandhi, 
Aurobindo Ghosh and Nehru fully justify the inclu- 
sion of English among the languages to be noted by 
the Akademi. 

It is the aim of the Government to take the initial 
steps and encourage by adequate financial grants 
the work of the Akademi. It is not the responsibility 
of the Government to produce creative work. We 
are reminded of Napoleon's remark : 'I hear we 
have no poets in France, what is the Minister for 
the Interior doing about it ?' No Government can 
make poets to order; it may subsidize versifiers. The 
Akademi should remain completely autonomous, if 
we are to have a creative and not a managed litera- 
ture. 

When we aim at a Welfare State and expect the 
State to provide all things, we must see to it, in the 
interests of our social health and vitality, that the 
individual does not lose the freedom to live his own 
life by his own standards, according to the dictates 
of his own conscience, that he has the liberty to con- 
form or not conform, to do, undo, or misdo so long 
as he does not interfere with the equal freedom of 
others, and does not cross the limits of decency. 
Soceity is becoming more and more regimented. 



106 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

The scope for free activity is becoming increasingly 
restricted. We are all numbered and docketed. We 
are becoming anonymous units in a crowd, not free 
subjects in a society. The individual seeks the shelter 
of the crowd for safety, for comfort, for relief from 
loneliness, from responsibility. We have a fear of 
freedom. When our activities are regulated, imagi- 
nation which rests in solitude cannot thrive. Unless 
the individual has the courage to be lonely in his 
mind, free in his thought, he is not capable of great 
writing. Great literature, like true religion, is what 
a man does with his solitariness, to use Whitehead's 
phrase. W. B. Yeats says : 

We make out of the quarrel with others, rhetoric but out 
of the quarrel with ourselves, poetry. 

The aim of literature is the good of the world 
visvafreyah kavyam. Its purpose is not to reflect the 
world but to redeem the world. It is not to mirror 
the glinting surfaces of the given but to recreate the 
experience. The literary artist must enter into soli- 
tude, glimpse the vision, bring it down to earth, 
shape it with emotion, and carve it into words. 
Literature is the channel between spiritual vision 
and human beings. The poet is a priest of the invi- 
sible world, a divine creator, a kavi. He is not a 
mere entertainer but is a prophet who inspires and 
expresses in varied ways the entire aspirations of 
the society to which he belongs. All this means 
concentration and integrity which become difficult, 
if not impossible, if our minds are filled with slick- 



SAHITYA AKADEMI 107 

ness and violence or if we become puppets with 
stereo- typed opinions. 

An academy, as used and understood by the 
Greeks, meant a body of students gathered round a 
leading philosopher for the study of philosophical 
problems. The first Academy was the philosophical 
society founded by Plato about 387 B.C. where he 
taught his pupils among whom was Aristotle. These 
academies were like the forest hermitages of the 
Upanisads. In Renaissance Italy, groups interested 
in humanistic studies formed academies. Modern 
academies are the continuation and development of 
these mediaeval academies. The French Academy 
is one of the five academies which together consti- 
tute the Institute of France. The French Academy 
includes not only men of letters but philosophers 
and historians whose works rank as literature. 
Bergson, Gilson and Grousset were elected Members 
of the French Academy. Our National Academy of 
Letters may include creative writers in history, 
philosophy, oriental studies also as the French 
Academy does. 

Whatever gives the shock of intellectual and ima- 
ginative pleasure and says something fresh and 
stimulating is literature or sahitya. The Rg Veda, 
the first literary document in the world, is not 
merely religion and symbolism but poetry and 
literature. The Bible, the Avesta, and the Quran 
are not merely classics of religion but are works of 
literature. The seers of the Rg Veda clothe exalted 



108 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS, 

thought in words of force and feeling. The first verse 
reads : 

agnim He purohitam yajnasya devam 
rtvijam hotdram ratnadhdtamam. 

The seer piles up five adjectives to suggest Agni's 
competence to confer material and spiritual bles- 
sings. In the Upanisads, we find noble ideals and 
artistic expression. Many literary devices are em- 
ployed to increase the effect and impress the reader, 
e.g. in the Brhaddranyaka Upanisad, the writer points 
out, in a series of passages, how all objects of the 
world, earthly possessions, romantic delights provide 
opportunities for the realization of the self. 

na vd are patyuh kdmdya patihpriyo bhavati, dtmanas 
tu kdmdya patih priyo bhavati, no vd are jdydyai 
kdmdya jdyd priyd bhavati, dtmanas tu kdmdya jdyd 
priyd bhavati; na vd are putrdndm kdmdya putrdh 
priyd bhavanti, dtmanas tu kdmdya putrdh, priyd 
bhavanti; na vd are vittasya kdmdya vittam priyam 
bhavati, dtmanas tu kdmdya vittam priyam bhavati; 
and so on. 

In the Chdndogya Upanisad, it is said : 
yathd, saumya, ekena mrtpindena sarvam mrnmayam 
vijndtam sydt, vdcdrambhanam vikdro ndmadheyam 
mrttikety eva satyam. 

To illustrate the same point, other images of a 
nugget of gold, a pair of scissors are used. 

Another Upanisad, after pointing out that we live 
in a three storeyed house of waking, dream and 
sleep, refers to the state of freedom or illumination 



SAHITYA AKADEMI 109 

in words of intellectual rigour and aesthetic sensi- 
bility : 

ndntah prajnam, na bahis prajnam, nobhayatah 
prajnam, na prajnanaghanam, na pregnant, na 
prajnam, adrstam, avyavaharyam, agrahyam> alak- 
sanam, acintyam, avyapadeyam y ekatma-pratyaya- 
saram, prapancopasamam, santam, sivam, advaitam, 
caturtham manyante, sa dtma, sa vijneyah. 
It is not necessary to refer to the beauty and grace 
of the Bhagavadgita. 

It is a delight to read the stately and sonorous 
prose of Samkara. Look at this : 

sa ca bhagavan jnanaisvarya-sakti-bala-vlrya-tejobhih 
sadd sampannah, trigundtmikdm vaisnavim svdm mdydm 
mula-prakrtim vasikrtya, ajo, avyayo, bhutdndm 
isvaro, nitya-fuddha-buddha-mukta svabhdvopi san, 
svamdyayd dehavdn iva jdta iva lokanugraham 
kurvan iva laksyate. 1 

Gandhi includes in his prayers the famous verse 
from Guru Govind Singh's writings : 
isvara alia tere ndma 
mandir masjida tere dhdma 
sabako sanmati de bhagavan. 

Indian writers, whatever subjects they handle, 
aim at literary grace and distinction. Our term 
sahitya should include the classics of religion and 
philosophy even as Greek literature includes Plato's 
Dialogues and Thucydides' History. 

Literature has been one of our major contribu- 
1 Commentary on the Bhagavadgita 



110 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

tions to the world. Our epics and plays, our tales 
and folk-lore transmit to us the great ideals of har- 
mony with nature and integrity of mind. They have 
influenced the literature of the different languages 
of the country. In the millennium between the Greek 
drama and the Elizabethan, the only drama of 
quality in the world is, according to Berriedale 
Keith, the Indian drama. An Indian drama is not 
merely a play. It is poetry, music, symbolism and 
religion. Images chase one another beyond the 
speed of thought in the writings of Kalidasa who is 
known outside our frontiers. He represents the spirit 
of India, even as Shakespeare England, Goethe 
Germany and Pushkin Russia. 

It is by its art and literature that a society is 
judged at the bar of history. They are the reflection 
of the vitality of a race. They decline when people 
suffer from spiritual exhaustion. 

We live today in an age of change, adventure, 
opportunity and expanding horizons. New influ- 
ences are penetrating our thought. Our minds are 
in conflict and confusion. If some of us suffer from 
boredom and triviality, it is because we are neglect- 
ing the spirit in man and making him a subject of 
economic greeds or a bundle of conditioned reflexes. 
It is for the men of letters, the artists and the 
thinkers to recapture the dignity, the mission and 
the destiny of this ancient race and produce a new 
climate of ideas which will prepare for the univer- 
sal republic of letters and a world society. 



EXHIBITION OF NANDALAL BOSE'S 
PAINTINGS, CALCUTTA 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
27 March, 1954 

I AM happy to be here and inaugurate the exhibi- 
tion of paintings of Acharya Nandalal Bose who, 
for two generations, has enriched the art of the world, 
established the fame of Indian painting and contri- 
buted to human welfare. It is fitting that this exhibi- 
tion of paintings should be held in this College of 
Art and Craft, where Nandalal Bose received his 
early training. After leaving the College, he joined 
Abanmdranath Tagore's School of Painting and his 
influence on Nandalal Bose's work has been lasting. 
Rabindranath Tagore invited him to join the art 
section of Vicitra, a society of artists and literateurs. 
When Tagore founded the Visvabharati, Nandalal 
Bose became the head of its Kald-bhavan. There he 
trained bands of young men and women for whom 
his life and work have been a source of constant 
inspiration. 

Genius in this country in the past was anonymous 
and Nandalal Bose comes nearest to that ideal. 
Utter simplicity, unostentatious manners, a child- 
like heart conceal a rare blend of creative vision 
and fine craftsmanship. While his paintings are 
examples of great inspiration and technical skill, few 



112 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

men have endeared themselves by simple good 
nature to their pupils, colleagues and friends as 
Nandalal Bose. 

India has had a long tradition in fine arts and 
even in painting the tradition goes back to the pre- 
Christian era. From the drawings in red pigment of 
animals and hunting scenes in the pre-historic caves 
of Singhanpur and Mirzapur, it is evident that 
painting has had a long history in this country. 1 The 
Rdmdyana, the Vinaya Pitaka refer to citrasdlds which 
answer to our picture galleries. The Buddhist fres- 
coes found on the walls of a cave in Sirguya in the 
Madhya Pradesh belong to the first century before 
Christ. Fa Hien and Yuan Chuang describe many 
buildings as famous for the excellence of their 
murals. The art of fresco painting in the Ajanta 
caves reached a perfection never surpassed any- 
where else. The nobility of the theme, the majestic 
scope of the design, the unity of the composition, 
the clearness, the simplicity and the firmness of the 
line give us an impression of the astonishing perfec- 
tion of the whole. Religious piety fused architecture, 
sculpture and painting into a happy harmony. 
These artists with their deeply religious spirit 
worked in anonymity. They brought their faith, 
their sincerity as well as their skill to serve their 

1 'There are primitive records of hunting scenes crudely 
drawn on the walls of a group of caves in the Kaimur range of 
Central India, while examples of painting of the later Stone 
Age have been found in excavations in the Vindhya hills.' 
Percy Brown : Indian Painting, p. 15 



HIBITION OF NANDALAL BOSE'S PAINTINGS 113 

religion. After this period we had the Moghul and 
the Rajput Schools as well as independent develop- 
ments in the South, in the Courts of Tanjore, 
Pudukkota and Mysore. 2 In the British period, 
occidental influences became prominent. As a part 
of the general cultural reawakening to which Bengal 
contributed a great deal, we became conscious of 
our own artistic heritage. E. B. Havell, Ananda 
Coomaraswamy, and Abanindranath Tagore call- 
ed upon Indian artists not to be mere slavish 
copyists of crude Western models but to realize the 
spirit of India's great artistic past and develop free 
creative expression. 

The new School of Painting, inspired by the 
master artists of Ajanta, produced a series of sponta- 
neous masterpieces which revealed the soul of India 
to the world. They became famous for their spiritual 
quality, aesthetic appeal and inward truthfulness 
or integrity. The history of Indian painting presents 
the cultural and spiritual history of the Indian 
people. 

Not only was the art practised from ancient times 
without any gap though our knowledge of the 
history of the art may have many gaps the theory 
of it has also been formulated. In a pre-Buddhist 
work called Sad-anga or the six limbs of paint- 

2 Abul Fazl, writing of contemporary Hindu painting, says : 
'Their pictures surpass our conception of things. Few indeed in 
the whole world are found equal to them.' Aini Akbari, Block- 
mann's E.T. Vol. I, p. 107 

8 



114 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

ing, six principles were set forth : i. Rupa-bheda or 
knowledge of appearances. We must study the 
forms, the objects, animate and inanimate, human 
figures, nature and landscape, ii. Pramdnam or cor- 
rect perception, measure, structure, proportion, 
perspective. Hi. Bhdva, or the action of feelings on 
forms, iv. Ldvanya-yojanam or the infusion of grace or 
beauty in the artistic representation, v. Sddrsyam or 
similitude, truth, vi. Varnika-bhanga or the skilful use 
of brush and colours, control over technique. 

The purpose of all art is sacramental. In ancient 
times, art was used not as a means for public enjoy- 
ment, but as an accessory of worship. The great 
displays of sculpture and painting took place in 
India as in ancient Greece in temples and were 
made in honour of the gods. In temples and cathe- 
drals men became conscious of the power of works 
of art, to quicken their spirits and give dignity and 
order to their lives. 

dtmasarhskrtir vdva silpdni : The arts, mechanical or 
fine, are for the refinement of the soul, dtmasarhskrti. 
They help fuller understanding of the human spirit 
and greatly enlarge our capacity for life. He 
who attains to the vision of beauty is from himself 
set free. In the disinterestedness of aesthetic 
contemplation, the human spirit is momentarily 
freed from the inconsistencies and confusions of 
temporal life. 

moksdyate hi sarhsdrah Music and literature, dance 
and drama, sculpture and painting are intended to 



EXHIBITION OF NANDALAL BOSE'S PAINTINGS 115 

purge the soul of its defects and lead it to a vision 
of the Eternal. These arts cannot refine the soul 
unless they spring from the soul, unless the spirit 
of man raises itself above its usual routine level. 
The artist is a priest. The aim of art is to capture 
the inner and informing spirit and not merely the 
outward semblance. It is by integral insight or spiri- 
tual intuition rather than by observation and ana- 
lysis of given objects that the sculptor or the painter 
attains to the highest power of artistic expression. 
Our arts are not concerned with the appearances of 
the actual. They are directed towards the realization 
of ideas, of the truth in the objects. Arts do not so 
much represent as suggest. They do not so much 
reproduce reality as create aesthetic emotion. They 
are interested in the spirit of men and things rather 
than in their material forms. In all arts we have 
imaginative creation. It is related of a famous 
modern painter that when he had painted a sunset, 
someone said to him : C I never saw a sunset like 
that,' and the painter replied : 'Don't you wish you 
could ?' The artist's primary aspiration is for a re- 
deemed world. His mind is not a mirror which re- 
flects the glinting surfaces of the given. It is on fire, 
close to contemplation. Croce is correct when he 
speaks x>f c the artist, who never makes a stroke with 
his brush without having previously seen it with his 
imagination'. 3 When the king Agnimitra found the 
portrait of Malavika lacking in fidelity to the 
Aesthetic, p. 162 



116 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

original, he traced it to iithilasamadhi^ impaired 
concentration. 4 

An agnostic and culturally uprooted age cannot 
hope to regain that faith and singleness of soul which 
gave to mediaeval Christian art its peculiar self- 
confidence and innocent intensity or to acquire that 
meditative calm which imparted such immanent 
sublimity to the Ajanta frescoes. But only work 
flushed by the past and pointing to the future has 
lasting significance. 

When we come across a great genius who has 
abiding faith in the spirit of this ancient land, who 
has that rarest of all qualities, unhampered, un- 
clouded vision, who has a highly developed artistic 
sense restrained by a sense of discipline and sound 
workmanship always conscious of its true purpose, 
we feel that our country has come into its own in 
the world of art. Nandalal Bose takes his material 
from the classical myths and legends of India and 
gives new form to ancient ideals. His pictures of 
iva and Parvati, his scenes from the life of the 
Buddha, and of Caitanya are of abiding quality. He 
has also given us exquisite pictures of ordinary 
themes, a dog curling on the ground, a goat suckling 
its kids, a child playing with a kitten, etc. etc. 

The abundance and versatility of his work are 
impressive. Though his outstanding work is in paint- 
ing, he has tried other ways such as the fresco, clay- 
modelling, wood-cut, etching, leather work, textile 

4 II, 2 



EXHIBITION OF NANDALAL BOSE'S PAINTINGS 117 

design, stage decoration, etc. Whatever be the 
means, Nandalal Bose's work achieves lasting great- 
ness because of his conscious sense of dedication. 

The appeal of great art is not to an esoteric clique. 
The poorest and the most illiterate respond to it. It 
has been in our country the great exponent of our 
national faith and tradition. Nandalal Bose's work 
should be known to millions and exhibitions like 
this and albums of reproductions deserve to be 
encouraged. It is my earnest hope that he may live 
long and inspire our people with his own faith in 
the destiny and mission of this ancient race. 



THE WRITER AND THE PRESENT 
CRISIS* 

16 April (Easter Friday), 1954 

FRIENDS, Shri C, P. Ramaswamy Aiyar spoke to us 
of the valuable work done by the Annamalai 
University in fostering Tamil studies. Tamil is the 
language which is the symbol of the soul of the 
Tamil people. It has had a long history and is still 
vigorous and dynamic. Shri Jawaharlal Nehru spoke 
of the basic unity of India despite the diversity 
of languages and exhorted us to study each other's 
literatures and understand the kinship of thought 
and ideals binding the different literatures. The 
P.E.N. takes us a little farther into the world arena. 

The P.E.N. India Centre is now in its twenty-first 
year. It was founded in 1933 by Madame Sophia 
Wadia with her great faith in its possibilities for the 
cause of world unity and human brotherhood. 

The India Centre of the P.E.N. has functioned all 
these years, promoting unity within and under- 
standing without. It^has served as a link between 
the different linguistic regions of India and as a 
bridge between India and the other nations of the 
world. Its one essential objective has been to create 
a community of mind which is the essential basis 
for a stable world order. 

* Speech at the Indian P.E.N. Congress 



THE WRITER AND THE PRESENT CRISIS 119 

While Governments use power and sanctions to 
mould events, we use persuasion, we appeal to 
reason and emotion and use words spoken or written 
to shape the future. We do not serve any nation, 
faith, or ideology. Our cause is humanity and our 
interest is peace. 

"Our first President, Rabmdranath Tagore, though 
his inspiration was derived from the spirit of India, 
spoke of the universal man. In his Visva-Bharati 
he sought the co-operation of all countries, all 
creeds and all cultures. His life was spent in the 
persistent effort to build a new world of human fel- 
lowship. For our second President, Sarojini Naidu, 
Indian culture was not a monotonous one but a 
rich, full diversity. India is one in spirit, however 
diverse in race and creed. Differences of language 
have not been an impediment to the growth of a 
common cultural outlook. Both our Presidents were 
inspired by the vision of human unity. With such 
examples to guide us, we literary men, poets and 
play-wrights, editors and novelists, should use our 
gifts to clear the mists of misunderstanding and give 
to our world which is shrill and sharp a friendly 
countenance and character.^ 

If we wish to bring about radical changes in our 
patterns of behaviour, we should bring about 
changes in our modes of thought. We must start 
revolutions in the minds and hearts of the people. 

We live today on the edge of a precipice. The 
perils of atomic and hydrogen developments domi- 



120 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

nate our thoughts and trouble our conscience. A 
great atomic scientist of the United States, when he 
saw the first atomic blast where the flame and the 
smoke rose from the earth and touched the fringe 
of the atmosphere of the New Mexican city, said that 
he was reminded of the Bhagavadgita. He quoted : 
'If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at 
once into the sky, that would be like the splendour 
of the Mighty One. ...I am become death, the shat- 
terer of the worlds. 51 The effects of the hydrogen 
bomb are vastly more devastating. Their incalcu- 
lable destructive power, we feel, will act as a great 
deterrent to war. But by these threats of limitless 
horror we are appealing to the baser instincts of 
human nature fear, greed and hate. 

It is a familiar conception of Indian thought that 
the human heart is the scene of the age-old conflict 
between good and evil. It is assailed by weakness 
and imperfection but is capable also of high endea- 
vour and creative effort. Man is a composite of life- 
giving and death-dealing impulses, yasya chdyd 
amrtam, yasya mrtyuh> whose shadow is immortality 
and death, as the Rg Veda 2 puts it. The Maha- 
bhdrata says : 

amrtam caiva mrtyus ca dvayarh dehe pratisthitam 
mrtyur dpadyate mohdt satyendpadyate amrtam. 
Immortality and death are both lodged in the 
nature of man. By the pursuit of moha or delusion 

1 XI, 12, 32 

2 X, 10, 121 



THE WRITER AND THE PRESENT CRISIS 121 

he reaches death; by the pursuit of truth he attains 
immortality. We are all familiar with the verse in 
the Hitopadesa that hunger, sleep, fear and sex are 
common to men and animals. What distinguishes 
men from animals is the sense of right and wrong. 3 
Life and death, love and violence are warring in 
every struggling man. 

Modern psychology repeats this truth in technical 
terms. There are two sets of instincts in each human 
being, those which conserve and unify, called erotic 
instincts from the sense which Plato gives to Eros in 
the Symposium, and those which destroy and kill, 
which are called the aggressive or the destructive 
instincts. The death instinct functions in every 
living being, striving to work its ruin in contrast to 
the erotic instinct which makes for the continuance 
of life. These two sets of instincts do not work in 
isolation. They get mixed up like the waters of the 
river Jamuna, the dark daughter of Yama, and 
those of the river Ganga issuing forth from the 
tangled locks of Siva. Destructive instincts are some- 
times stimulated by an appeal to idealism. Ordinary 
people are kindly and generous, friendly and co- 
operative but by propaganda and indoctrination 
we can drain their vital springs, call the destructive 
instincts into play and raise them to the power of a 
collective neurosis. The cruelties of history are 
perpetrated in the name of noble causes. The 

3 dhdra nidrd bhaya maithunamcasdmdnyametat pasubhir nardndm 
dharmo hi tesdm adhiko vise$o dharmena hindhpatubhihsamdndh. 



122 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

atrocities of the Inquisition, for example, drew their 
strength from the destructive instincts which were 
released in the name of religion. In the past, men 
were infected with the war fever by an appeal to 
the great causes of freedom and democracy, honour 
and justice, which often served as a camouflage for 
the lust for power, religious fanaticism and race 
prejudice. So all wars were regarded as just and 
holy wars. 

Civilization consists in the gradual subordination 
of the instinctive life to the sway of reason. It is the 
duty of independent thinkers who do not yield to 
pressure or intimidation, who are fervent in their 
quest of truth, to foster the feeling of community 
and diminish the force of aggressive instincts. When 
we feel persuaded that the enormous power which 
nations now possess will act as a deterrent to war, 
we are having in view the little savage, the 'old 
Adam 5 that lies at the bottom of every human 
breast. Of all emotions the least compatible with 
freedom and the most degrading to man is fear. By 
planting appalling fear in men's hearts, we corrupt 
their morals and destroy their minds. A London 
schoolmaster writes : 

In the bus on the way to school I asked one of our small 
boys (age 11) what he intended to be when he grew up. 
He replied : "Sir, I need not worry, as by that time there 
will be nowhere to grow up on."* 

4 Mr R.R. Willis of Bow Brook School, Peopleton, Worces- 
tershire, in the London Times, April 5, 1954 



THE WRITER AND THE PRESENT CRISIS 123 

Principal Jacks suggested that the only way to 
avert war was for both sides to proclaim that they 
would use all the bombs they had, the moment the 
war started. Field Marshall Lord Montgomery, 
Deputy Supreme Allied Commander in Europe, 
said in a broadcast from London on Tuesday, the 
sixth of this month, that if a war broke out, both 
sides would use atomic weapons 'from the outset 3 . 

President Eisenhower said : As long as men in the 
Kremlin know we are in a position to act strongly 
and retaliate, war is not a decision they would take 
lightly, but they might do this in a fit of madness or 
miscalculation/ So we have the fear that some neuro- 
tics may seize control of the frightful machinery of 
war and shatter to bits in an hour all that has been 
built up in the course of centuries. The power to 
retaliate does not give us any security. We seem to 
live in a state of morbid fear, suspicion and hatred. 
President Eisenhower at a Press Conference on 
March 17, 1954 said: 'The world is suffering from 
a multiplicity of fears. We fear the men in the 
Kremlin; we fear what they will do to our friends 
around them; we are fearing what unwise investiga- 
tions will do to us here at home as they try to combat 
subversion or bribery or deceit within. We fear 
depression; we fear the loss of jobs. All of these with 
their impact on the human mind makes us act 
almost hysterically, and you find hysterical reaction.' 5 

To cure the fears that he has listed, President 

*New York Times, March 18, 1954, p. 4 



124 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Eisenhower wishes to summon up faith in the des- 
tiny of America. The failure of nerve, the hysterical 
reaction are due to lack of faith in the spirit and the 
institutions of America, in the democratic way of 
life which we value above life itself. What is the 
democratic way of life ? It includes good faith, 
tolerance, respect for opinions which we do not 
share, equal justice for all, the power to speak one's 
own thoughts, to act according to one's conscience, 
do one's duty as one sees it, to live under a Govern- 
ment which he has a voice in making and unmak- 
ing, to promote the causes and advance the reforms 
which command his devotion, however repugnant 
they may be to the rulers. 

Many of our difficulties are due to this fact that 
the suppressed peoples are demanding the very 
liberties which we hold so dear. The unrest in Asia 
and Africa is proof that democracy is growing and 
not dying. If we sincerely believe in our professions 
that all men are created equal, that all persons, 
irrespective of caste and creed, race and nation are 
entitled to the rights of life, liberty and the pursuit 
of happiness, if we accept seriously the principles of 
religion that we are members one of another, that 
in God there is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither 
Greek nor Barbarian, if we are eager to implement 
the principles of the U.N. Charter, if our faith in 
democracy is not skin-deep but from the heart's core, 
then our whole approach to the problems that now 
divide the world will be very different. We will then 



THE WRITER AND THE PRESENT CRISIS 125 

stand by the people who are suffering from colonial 
domination, economic oppression and racial discri- 
mination and strive to bring them relief by remov- 
ing the hardships which now fetter their lives. 
These are problems which are independent of com- 
munism. They are natural, indigenous and legiti- 
mate. We must face without fear the revolts and 
revolutions of the oppressed peoples of Asia and 
Africa. Jf, on the other hand, we defend the ex- 
ploiters and condemn the exploited, if we persist 
in ruling the mass of mankind by force and fear, 
if we compete with one another in depriving the 
unhappy peoples of the world of hope and faith, we 
have ourselves to blame for the world situation. If 
the whole world is living under pressure it is because 
of our hesitations and compromises. 

Peace cannot be had without our paying the price 
for it. The price can be paid only by those who have 
something to offer, those who have power and 
wealth. They should decide not to use their power 
for the domination of people, not to use their wealth 
for their corruption. Power and wealth depart from 
nations as they depart from men. The instances of 
Assyria, Babylon, Crete, Egypt, Greece, Rome and 
Spain leap to our eyes. What endures for any nation 
is what it contributes to the common heritage of 
all nations, to literature and arts, to science and 
government, to freedom and democracy. 

In cases of national or ideological conflicts, we 
should seek not a precarious military solution but a 



126 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

permanent human one. We cannot divide the peo- 
ples of the world into blacks and whites. These sharp 
distinctions which develop feelings of hatred for 
large sections of humanity are not adequate to 
human relations. The common people in every 
country are like ourselves, ordinary human beings, 
who wish to go about their daily work, do their best 
for their children, cultivate their own garden and 
live at peace with their neighbours. If some of them 
are willing tools of their Governments, many are 
their unwilling victims. Instead of threatening those 
who are opposed to us with frightful disaster, we 
should appeal to their higher nature. We may not 
love each other or like each other; we may at 
least talk to each other, try to understand each 
other. We must learn to put ourselves in the place 
of other people and realize how they feel. 

On this Easter Friday, it may not be inappro- 
priate to remember that the Cross is the symbol of 
ultimate victory, the swallowing up of death by life. 
It proclaims that understanding and compassion 
are more powerful than fire and sword. 'Blessed are 
the meek/ those who have patience, humility, 
understanding and love. 

'In my Father's house there are many mansions/ 
said Jesus. No nation need assume that it has been 
cast by heaven for the role of the lords of creation. If 
there are people who differ from us, our duty is not 
1o fight them but to help to remake them, to open 
their eyes, to demonstrate to them the sterility of 



THE WRITER AND THE PRESENT CRISIS 127 

their programmes, to make them aware of the rich 
horizons of the human spirit. We may have to put 
up with a good deal of malice and misrepresentation 
but the democratic way of life requires of us charity 
and understanding. The glory is not in war but in 
reconciliation. Since no Government in the world 
desires us all to go down in a common disaster we 
must try to negotiate. If agreement is impossible 
then peace is impossible, but peace does not mean 
submission to the enemy. Negotiation is not ap- 
peasement nor is bomb-rattling diplomacy. Diffi- 
culties are there to be faced and overcome. We may 
not be able to solve them forthwith. We must learn 
to live with difficulties. The world cannot be sud- 
denly or magically transformed. Human progress 
embraces vast stretches of time. There is no need for 
impatience or discouragement. Failure should not 
bring forth anger. Error is not crime; it is only 
youth, immaturity. 'When a tree grows up to 
heaven,' says Nietzsche, c its roots reach down to hell. 3 
There is no duality between heaven and hell. The 
opposition is between higher and lower stages of 
development. When our vision penetrates beyond 
the stuffy horizons of good and evil, we will be gentle 
with the frailties of the weak and be stern only with 
ourselves. 

Faith without works is empty. We are not pre- 
pared to extend democratic liberties to those who 
do not possess them. We are not prepared to adopt 
the democratic spirit in dealing with our adver- 



128 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

saries. Infidelity to our own ideals has to be cured 
if the process of rebarbarization of the world is to be 
checked. 

If, as the French saying has it, war is too impor- 
tant to be entrusted to the generals, we may say that 
peace is much too fragile to be entrusted to politi- 
cians. Our Prime Minister who has given us a stir- 
ring and stimulating address is not a mere politi- 
cian. The intellectuals must become aware of their 
mission to build a universal society, which is truly 
free and democratic, based on the preciousness of 
the human soul. The P.E.N. strives to promote 
'good understanding and mutual respect between 
nations, to dispel race, class and national hatreds 
and to champion the ideal of one humanity living 
in peace in one world'. Out of the anguish of our 
times is being born a new unity of all mankind in 
which the free spirit of man can find peace and 
safety. It is in our power to end the fears which 
afflict humanity, and save the world from the 
disaster that impends. Only we should be men of a 
universal cast of mind, capable of interpreting 
peoples to one another and developing a faith that 
is the only antidote to fear. The threat to our civili- 
zation can be met only on the deeper levels of 
consciousness. If we fail to overcome the discord 
between power and spirit, we will be destroyed 
by the forces which we had the knowledge to create 
but not the wisdom to control. For the new effort we 
need the sense of religious purpose. 



THE WRITER AND THE PRESENT CRISIS 129 

In the Rg Veda, which is our earliest literary 
document, we see the face of early India, while it 
was yet dawn from which the bright day has grown. 
For those early writers, literature was the outcome 
of spiritual discipline, a purging of the emotions, a 
setting aside of all selfish considerations. That 
experience is a fever in which the mind is on fire and 
the spirit in exaltation. Literary artists, who are 
emancipated in their minds and hearts, are the 
spokesmen of the unborn world unity, based not on 
fear, greed and hate, but on that which is eternal in 
man, the spirit that hungers and thirsts after righte- 
ousness, the spirit that will not be denied. 

We are meeting in this sacred place Chidam- 
baram which has been famous for centuries in South 
Indian history. From the sixth century onwards, 
great Saiva saints like Appar, Jnanasambandar, 
Sundarar, Manikkavacagar visited the temple 
and sang the praises of Nataraja. The Chola 
Kings for four centuries from the ninth onwards 
worshipped Nataraja as their tutelary deity. 

The temple is dedicated to one of the five symbols 
(pancalingd) : i. the symbol of earth (prthivi) at 
Kanchipuram; ii. the symbol of water (ap) at 
Jambukesvaram; Hi. symbol of light (tejas] at 
Tiruvannamalai; w. the symbol of air (vayu) at 
Kalahasti; and v. the symbol of space (dkdsa), 
ether, having no material representation, at Chi- 
dambaram. The Indian spirit does not encourage 
the proud assertion of human personality but leads 



130 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

our thoughts out from ourselves into the universal 
life. These five elements are hints of the Infinite, 
whispers from secret sources, which speak to us of a 
Presence mightier than ourselves. 

The universal Reality transcends the cosmic 
process and exceeds the categories of the empirical 
world. It is therefore treated as indefinable by lin- 
guistic symbols or mental concepts. It is without 
form and yet is the source of all forms. From the 
cosmic end the Supreme Reality becomes the cosmic 
lord, Nataraja, the Lord of Dance. 

The image of Nataraja is the representation of the 
pure, undifferenced Being which stands behind the 
image with a curtain and a string of bilva leaves 
suspended in front of it. Nataraja is the manifesta- 
tion of the Lord of the cosmos. He is the perfect 
image of becoming as distinct from pure being. He 
symbolizes rhythm, action, movement. God is a 
creator-artist. 

In regard to these manifestations, different aspects 
are brought out in different symbols. This makes for 
the appreciation of other forms of worship. A 
mediaeval Indian mystic wrote : 'There may be 
different kinds of oil in different lamps, the wicks 
may also be of different kinds but when they burn, we 
have the same flame and illumination.' Whatever 
may be our view of the Divine, whatever may be our 
mode of approach, if our effort is sincere, we reach 
the goal. 

True religion is not what we get from outside> 



THE WRITER AND THE PRESENT CRISIS 131 

from books and teachers. It is not the religion of 
routine which we adopt as a matter of habit. It is 
the aspiration of every human soul, that which un- 
folds within oneself, that which is built by one's life- 
blood. It is the fulfilment of our nature in which 
there is joy which overflows into world's service. 

Nanda, one of the sixty-three famous Saiva de- 
votees, though born an outcaste, by his intense 
devotion to the Supreme, became a nayanar and 
is adored as a saint. The earth is made radiant by 
the greatness of such people who have risen from 
small beginnings to great heights of devotion. The 
story of Nandanar illustrates that the distinctions of 
caste and outcaste are untenable for the authenti- 
cally religious being. 

Here in Chidambaram we find a repudiation of 
cosmic purposelessness, acceptance of various forms 
of worship which are accepted as valid, insistence on 
human equality and participation in the world's 
upward evolution. Those are the beliefs and aspira- 
tions of our people, however disloyal some of us may 
have been to them. It is this disloyalty, false com- 
placency, facile religion and pharisaism that are 
responsible for the weakness of our social fabric. 
We should raise our voice against the unbridled 
might of social, economic and religious reaction. 
Only when we shake off our internal insufficiencies 
will it be possible for us to make significant contri- 
bution to human welfare. 

The events of the last few weeks portend either the 



132 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

end of human history or a turning point in it. This 
warning is given to us in letters of fire. We recover 
moral control and return to spiritual life or we pass 
out as so many other species. Survival demands a 
change in the spirit of our lives. Let us labour to 
bring it about while yet there is light. Krnvanto 
visvam dryam* Let us make the whole world happy. 



6 Rg Veda, IX, 63.5. visvam bhadram kurvantah 



UNESCO GENERAL CONFERENCE : 
EIGHTH SESSION, MONTEVIDEO 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 
October 1954 

MAY I extend to you all a very hearty welcome to 
this Eighth Session of the General Conference 
meeting in this beautiful city, pleasing to the eye 
and soothing to the mind. It is the capital of Uru- 
guay, reputed to be a model democracy in this part 
of the world. We are now witnessing democracy in 
action the country is in the throes of a general 
election. It is said that democracies can function 
properly only in small States here is an example. 
Hitherto, in history, when we wished to alter or 
abolish Governments we had either dynastic succes- 
sions or violent revolutions; a more human, a more 
civilized, a more dignified method of altering consti- 
tutions, of changing Governments is the method of 
free elections, and in this country today we are 
having free elections. 

I am informed that they do not look upon political 
freedom as an end in itself. Everything is being done 
to raise the material standards of the people of 
Uruguay. You have here free education education 
free in both the schools and the universities; you 
have free medical services, you have pensions for 
old-aged people or people suffering from sickness, 



134 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

or who have contributed to Government service. I 
believe that the State of Uruguay can be regarded 
therefore as a model democracy. We wish them well 
in the future. I have no doubt that their security is 
sure because they have neither uranium nor oil. 

Since we last met our membership has increased. 
We are very glad to welcome the delegates from 
Soviet Russia, which has, for the first time, joined 
this Organization. I venture to hope that their 
presence here will contribute to the dissipation of 
the mists of misunderstanding, the dissolution, so to 
say, of frozen attitudes, of rigid postures, of fear, 
suspicion and distrust, and contribute to the deve- 
lopment of world understanding which is one of the 
main objectives of this great Organization. Not only 
Soviet Russia, but other countries have also joined, 
Byelo-Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, 
Poland, who were with us for some time, then left 
us, now, like prodigals, have come back to us. I do 
hope that their presence here will also help to pro- 
mote world understanding. I am informed that 
there are certain technical difficulties in the way of 
their immediate admission and recognition. Without 
prejudging the issue, without anticipating the Ad- 
ministrative Commission's decisions as a very 
strictly temporary measure I am just throwing out 
a suggestion to you, that they may be allowed the 
full voting rights. As a matter of fact, I am going to 
make a statement on that question as soon as time 
permits. 



UNESCO GENERAL CONFERENCE 135 

The world, once divided by oceans and conti- 
nents, today is united physically, but there are still 
suspicions and misunderstandings. It is essential for 
us not to live apart but to live together, under- 
standing one another, knowing one another's fears 
and anxieties, aspirations and thoughts ; that is what 
we are expected to do. We have all subscribed to 
the United Nations Charter that Charter which 
affirms faith in the fundamental human rights and in 
the dignity and worth of the human person. Political 
freedom and economic justice are two sides of 
democracy; both are essential. We should lay stress 
on the improvement of the economic conditions of 
the people as well as on liberty and freedom. No 
society can claim to be democratic if it does not 
permit political liberty, freedom of conscience, free- 
dom of choice between parties, and opportunities 
of peaceful and orderly changes of Government. No 
true democracy can remain satisfied merely with 
conditions which safeguard political liberty and 
freedom of the individual. It must secure the econo- 
mic conditions which will validate this faith in the 
dignity of the human person. If our professions 
about the dignity of the individual are to be taken 
seriously, we must do away with all sorts of discri- 
minatory practices; we must admit the indepen- 
dence movements in colonial territories, recognize 
that poverty in any part of the world constitutes 
a danger to prosperity in any other part. We must 
not acclaim racial extermination, enslavement or 



136 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

segregation, but work for racial harmony. In large 
parts of the world there are millions of people who, 
on account of their race, have no share in the civi- 
lizations surrounding them. In this Organization 
we must try to look within ourselves, to find out our 
insufficiencies, remedy them and get together in a 
spirit of humility and understanding. 

The international situation is somewhat better. 
The difficulties are many, the hazards are great but 
there is hope in the air. We find that the situation 
has improved to some extent. In Korea the war has 
stopped. Anxiety, however, is felt that there is no 
unification of Korea yet. It must be brought about 
on the basis of free elections. The Indo- China war 
has ceased and it is the general hope that the three 
States of Laos, Cambodia and Viet-Nam may be- 
come independent and answerable to themselves. 
Any outside interference with these States may spoil 
the chances of a democratic settlement. The Anglo- 
Egyptian agreement about Suez is a considerable 
step towards peace in West Asia. In regard to 
the colonial problems many are still unsolved, 
though marked advance is noticeable in regard to 
the future of the Gold Coast, Nigeria, Tunisia and 
Greenland. I may be pardoned here for referring 
to a small colonial problem, the matter of the 
French possessions in India. It has been solved in a 
peaceful, democratic, civilized way. I should like 
to congratulate the Government and the people of 
France and their great Prime Minister, who has 



UNESCO GENERAL CONFERENCE 137 

been acting with rare courage, vision and foresight 
on international questions. France, that gave the 
world the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity 
can do no other. 

The ticklish problem of Trieste has also been 
settled with the goodwill of the Powers concerned. 
The other one of the Saar is, I hope, nearing solu- 
tion. Even in regard to the problem of disarmament, 
we see some signs of revived hope. While we are 
glad that the outstanding questions are being 
tackled, it is unfortunate that in many of these 
matters the United Nations Organization has been 
by-passed. In the Geneva Conferences about Indo- 
China, we had discussions with the People's Govern- 
ment of China, and their attitude was co-operative 
and helpful and yet that Government is still un- 
represented in the United Nations, so the Indo- 
China Conference had to be held outside the 
auspices of the United Nations, thereby weakening 
the strength of the United Nations itself. 

In spite of all its defects, the United Nations is a 
symbol of the human hope for unity which we have 
been seeking for centuries. The spark of the spirit 
of man has compelled its creation. Science and 
mechanical ingenuity have been busy for more than 
four centuries in knitting together the whole habit- 
able surface of the planet by a system of communi- 
cations. ,Every form of human intercourse is rendered 
possible. The political unification of society is 
inevitable. The present system of a world broken up 



138 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

into sixty or seventy national States is an anachro- 
nism in an age which has discovered the technique 
of flying and the making of the atom bomb. Will 
unification be brought about by force, which, in 
this atomic age, will mean not only material but 
moral devastation, or will it be by the alternative 
method to war, voluntary co-operation without the 
use of violence and coercion ? The United Nations 
asks us to learn to live in a world community and 
not die of the disease of chauvinistic nationalism. 
We may be French, we may be German, we may be 
American, we may be Russian, but we are essen- 
tially human beings. Let us not overlook that 
fundamental fact. 

The weakness of the United Nations is the human 
weakness. If it is not able to function better it is not 
because there is anything wrong about the Organi- 
zation, but we members working this Organization 
are deficient in our moral capacity. We still believe 
in nationalism, though we aspire to be members of 
the international community. Powerful nations in 
the world are attempting to use the United Nations 
and its Agencies as instruments of their national 
policies. If we are to develop an international 
outlook, it is essential that member nations should, 
at any rate in their relations with international 
organizations, subordinate national considerations 
to international obligations, which they do not 
always do. 

I am afraid that in our attempts to defend demo- 



UNESCO GENERAL CONFERENCE 139 

cracy, we are throwing away the content of demo- 
cracy. Governments are becoming more centralized, 
more thorough in their administration, more coer- 
cive on their citizens, more effective in their control 
of thought and opinion, even in democratic States. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, the great liberal, who was 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, once wrote that 'freedom of speech 
is freedom for the thought we hate'. There is no 
freedom in allowing freedom to express whatever 
we desire. If we allow freedom to the people who 
express undesirable, even poisonous thoughts, it is 
then that we are the advocates of freedom. To 
attempt to compel persons to believe and live as we 
do is not a feature of democracy and has been a 
perpetual source of strife in the world. Evangelism 
in politics, in business, in religion, will have to be 
restrained if we are to live together in this world. 
We should not punish people for holding opinions 
which are unpopular or distasteful, we can punish 
them only if they commit offences or violate the 
laws of the land. We must assume people to be 
innocent unless they are proved to be guilty, and 
not hold them to be guilty until they prove them- 
selves to be innocent. If the drift to totalitarianism 
in democracies continues, there will be nothing left 
for democracies to defend. 

The Programme and the Budget of UNESCO will 
come up for detailed consideration in these three or 
four weeks. I do not wish to anticipate or prejudge 



140 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

your discussions and decisions. In considering the 
different items on the agenda, the main objective 
of the UNESCO, education for living in a world 
community with all that it means by way of funda- 
mental education, international understanding and 
co-operation, economic development, improvement 
of health and community development, will have to 
be borne in mind. 

The gross result of the Second World War was 
not the defeat of the Axis Powers they have all been 
regaining their former positions, and we welcome 
that but the real result of the Second World War 
was the rise of Asia and Africa. A large number of 
countries in the East have gained their indepen- 
dence China, Pakistan, India, Burma, Indonesia, 
Ceylon, etc. The outstanding fact of these countries 
is their mass misery, and the redeeming feature is 
their anxiety to rescue themselves from the back- 
ward conditions in which they found themselves. 
What they are attempting to do is to raise their 
standards, standards of literacy, standards of health 
and sanitation; it is here that UNESCO is helpful. If 
we help to remove destitution and despair, we 
safeguard better the interests of peace. It is the one 
way of demonstrating that we are members one of 
another. 

This Organization has been concerned with the 
spread of fundamental education. It regards illi- 
teracy as the main disease from which millions of 
people in the world suffer . We are using all the mass 



UNESCO GENERAL CONFERENCE 141 

media for the spread of literacy. But fundamental 
education is not to be confused merely with the 
acquisition of information and skill. We have to 
impart scientific habits of mind. The immense im- 
pact of mass media in our lives encourages passivity, 
acquiescence and conformity. Young minds are 
exposed to surface objectivity, to slogans and catch- 
words, to the acceptance and elaboration of the 
obvious. We all eat, think, hear and read substantial- 
ly the same things. We are developing stereotyped 
attitudes of mind. We are resisting independent 
thought, individual creativeness or contemplation. 
But these are the ways by which we can best contri- 
bute to human welfare. The greatest works of scienti- 
fic genius, metaphysical insight, these are all done in 
those few moments when individuals sink into 
themselves and try to contemplate and meditate. 
These great achievements have all been made by 
individuals who have been able to resist the current 
of the crowd and have been able to sit alone and 
still and reflect for themselves. If these mass media 
are going to make our minds automata, if they are 
going to kill our spirit, then they are the gravest 
danger. Essential as they are, educators must be on 
their guard so far as the disadvantages of these 
things are concerned. For a moment, please do not 
imagine that I am trying to discourage the use of 
mass media, I am merely warning you against the 
abuse of mass media, which reduces human indivi- 
duals into robots. That has to be prevented. 



142 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

The most essential need of our age is the spirit of 
religion religion not in the small sense of the term 
but in its largest sense. Think true, live love they 
constitute the essence of religion. The pursuit of 
money and pleasure, the technological civilization, 
is killing the power of mind and spirit. T. S. Eliot 
said, when we pass away, the wind will blow over the 
ruins of our homes saying : 

Here were decent godless people; 
Their only moment the asphalt road 
And a thousand lost golf balls. 

That would be the comment on this civilization 
if it becomes merely technological and ceases to 
be moral. 

In UNESCO we should make fundamental edu- 
cation, to youth and adults, to all of us, base itself 
on the twin principles of truth and love. Reverence 
for all life should be created in the minds and hearts 
of the young. Education, to be complete, must be 
humane, it must include not only the training of the 
intellect but the refinement of the heart and the 
discipline of the spirit. No education can be re- 
garded as complete if it neglects the heart and the 
spirit. 

We live today in a state of cold war, that is, armed 
fear. It is not peace that we are having, but a pre- 
carious equilibrium in which dissension does not 
declare itself because of mutual fear. It is not a state 
of order ; there is no inward tranquillity. We have 
to build up loyalty to the world community in men's 



UNESCO GENERAL CONFERENCE 143 

hearts and minds. Only then shall we have a human 
society bound by love of one and the same end; 
then the outer order will be the spontaneous ex- 
pression of the inward peace. To build that peace 
in the minds of men is our task. 

No nation in this world can hold its place of 
primacy in perpetuity. What counts is the moral 
contribution we make to human welfare. Let us, 
therefore, try and develop the qualities of charity 
in judgment and compassion for people who are 
suffering. If we adopt such an approach, the tensions 
of the world will diminish rapidly. There are many 
misunderstandings. We can build peace even on 
the basis of misunderstandings. When once peace is 
built, misunderstandings will diminish. In the words 
of St. Paul : "If it be possible, so far as it depends on 
you, live in peace with everyone.' 

I have great pleasure in declaring open the 
Eighth General Conference of UNESCO. 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

CHARTER DAY DINNER 
30 October, 1954 

MAY I, on behalf of the Universities of India, 
express to you on this auspicious occasion our 
deep gratitude for the outstanding services to science 
and scholarship which this great University has ren- 
dered in the last 200 years ? 

V The contemporary world situation brings to my 
mind a significant short story. Christ came from a 
white plain to a purple city and as He passed 
through the first street, He heard voices overhead, 
and saw a young man lying drunk on a window- 
sill. "Why do you waste your time in drunkenness?" 
He said. "Lord, I was a leper and you healed me, 
what else can I do ?" A little further through the 
town He saw a young man following a harlot, and 
said : "Why do you dissolve your soul in debau- 
chery ?" and the young man answered : "Lord, I 
was blind and you healed me, what else can I do ?" 
At last in the middle of the city He saw an old man 
crouching weeping upon the ground, and when He 
asked why he wept, the old man answered : "Lord, 
I was dead, and You raised me unto life, what else 
can I do but weep ?" * ^ 

Health, wealth, leisure and life itself which 
science can further are the opportunities for a higher 



With Mr Louis St. Laurent, 
22 1954 




f 

Inaugurating the Round 

Conference on Teaching of Social Sciences in South Asia, Delhi, 15 February, 





With 22 1955 



the 
New Delhi, 12 




COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 145 

life. Our distressed generation is obscurely aware 
that the present crisis is a spiritual one and what we 
need is a healing of the discord between the outward 
resources of power which are assuming frightful 
proportions and the inward resources of spirit which 
seem to be steadily declining. j 

To redeem and re-create our civilization we need 
a recovery of spiritual awareness, a new and trans- 
forming contact with the inner springs of life, a 
sense of value. It is my earnest hope and prayer that 
this great University may send forth in the years to 
come men and women of skill and ability, of vision 
and courage, of wisdom and virtue, who are incap- 
able of fear and impatient of injustice. 



BOMBAY BRANCH OF THE ROYAL 

ASIATIC SOCIETY: 
150TH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATIONS 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 
4 December, 1954 

I AM grateful to the management of the Bombay 
Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for their kind- 
ness in asking me to preside over this meeting which 
concludes your 150th anniversary celebrations. It 
was on November 26, 1 804, that a few enlightened 
Englishmen started the small Society which has 
developed into this great organization. I am glad 
you had on this November 26th a public meeting 
to celebrate the event, which was presided over by 
the great jurist, scholar and educationist, Dr 
Jayakar. Twenty years previous to 1804, in 1784, the 
Bengal Asiatic Society was founded; and 20 years 
after 1804, in 1825, the Asiatic Society of London 
was established. The initiative in all these three 
movements was taken by a few Englishmen who, for 
different reasons, took to Asian studies. 

Whether it is the consciousness of the responsibi- 
lity of government or the urge for evangelism or 
the spirit of exploration, enquiry, widening one's 
horizon by bursting the bonds of one's own limited 
culture or the pure joy of contemplating the wond- 
rous works of man under distant skies, whatever be 



ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, BOMBAY 147 

the motive, we owe to these English pioneers an 
immense debt of gratitude not only for their impres- 
sive achievements, but for the impulse they gave to 
the study of our past. Warren Hastings defended in 
his Council Charles Wilkins' rendering of the 
Mahdbhdratd a work which I have not come across 
as a work that 'may open a new and most exten- 
sive range for the human mind beyond the present 
limited and beaten field of its operations'. He wrote 
an introduction to Wilkins' version of the Bhagavad- 
gitd, noting privately that it was 'part of a system 
which I long since laid down and supported for 
reconciling the people of England to the natives. of 
Hindustan'. When he took some steps for the pro- 
tection of the pilgrims to Banaras, he said that he 
did so for 'conciliating a great people to a dominion 
which they see with envy and bear with reluctance'. 
Though his interest in Indian classics grew out of a 
political purpose, he eventually developed an 
admiration for the classics of India like the Bhaga- 
vadgitd which, he declared, would live "when the 
British dominion in India has long ceased to exist 
and when the sources which it once yielded of 
wealth and power are lost to remembrance'. 

The universality of interest which this Society has 
acquired is obvious from the fact that it counts 
among its precious possessions not only several 
Sanskrit, Persian and Urdu manuscripts but also 
European classics such as an early edition of Dante's 
Divine Comedy and the first folio of Shakespeare. Des- 



148 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

pite all differences of colour, race, religion, climate, 
there is a deep affinity of mind and spirit between the 
East and the West which transcends all variations. 
Terence's statement is well known : 'I am a man; 
I reckon nothing that is human alien to me. 5 If we 
are to shape a community of spirit among the peo- 
ples of the world which is essential for a truly human 
society and lasting peace, we must forge bonds of 
international understanding. This can be achieved 
by an acquaintance with the masterpieces of 
literature, art and science produced in different 
countries. When we are in contact with them, we 
are lifted from the present and the immediate pas- 
sions and interests and move on the mountain tops 
where we breathe a larger air. 

sarhsara-visa-vrksasya dve phale amrtopame 
kdvydmrta-rasdsvddah salldpah sajjanais saha. 

An affectionate regard for the past and an ima- 
ginative interest in the life of other times give us a 
sense of perspective, an equipoise which is so essen- 
tial in times of tension. Whatever our immediate 
exigencies may be, we should not abandon moral 
values. 

Though the Society was started by a few British 
members, its gates were thrown open to Indians in 
1840, the first Indian to be elected being Mr 
Maneckji Cursetji. The Society has enjoyed the 
patronage of the progressive and prosperous com- 
munity of the Parsees. A large number of distin- 
guished Indian scholars have made notable contri- 



ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, BOMBAY 149 

butions to our knowledge of the past. The names of 
Bhau Daji, Mandlik, Yajnik, Bhandarkar, Bhaga- 
wanlal Indraji, Telang, Ranade, J. J. Modi, 
Sukhtankar, Belvalkar and Kane spring to our 
mind* They have built bridges from the past to the 
present and served as cultural intermediaries be- 
tween India and the rest of the world. I hope the 
present generation of students will be stimulated by 
the examples of these great scholars and keep the 
torch of learning alight to continue the supremacy 
in scholarship which has been so well established by 
this Society for over a century. 

The activities of your Society illustrate Indo- 
British co-operation in the field of Asian studies, 
more specially Indian culture. Your membership 
includes men of all races, cultures and nations. 
Even the honours you bestow commemorate British 
and Indian names, Campbell and Kane. Recipients 
of these honours also belong to different nations. 

The world is my country, 

All mankind are my brethren, 

To do good is my religion, 

I believe in one God and no more. Thomas Paine 

The intellectual renaissance which we see in our 
country today is due to no small extent to the 
activities of the members of the Society. Many cul- 
tural movements of this part of India were stimu- 
lated by them. Historic events are not always shaped 
by the acts of statesmen. They are moulded by the 
hidden currents flowing beneath the surface of poli- 



150 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

tical history of which we cannot predict the out- 
come. We influence these hidden currents only by 
changing opinion. We change opinion by affirming 
truth, unveiling error, dissipating hate and enlarg- 
ing men's minds and hearts. This essential work is 
the special function of this Society. 

One of the most significant political facts of our 
time is the rise of Asian countries China, India, 
Pakistan, Indonesia, Burma, Ceylon and their in- 
creasing influence in world affairs. The need to 
understand the Asian mind has become important 
and the work of societies like this will be of great 
importance in promoting understanding between 
Asia and Europe. 

It is sad that the excellent work of the Society is 
hampered by lack of funds. You are unable to have 
printed catalogues of books and manuscripts, which 
are essential for any research work. In a prosperous 
city like Bombay, with influential persons on your 
management, with a sympathetic Government in 
power, and above all with solid work to your credit, 
I have no doubt that financial difficulties will be 
soon overcome. We cannot pride ourselves on our 
love of learning and allow such institutions to 
languish. 

There is a story in Greek mythology. The Greek 
Eos, answering to the Vedic Usas, the immortal 
Goddess of the Dawn, fell in love with the mortal 
king of the Ethiopians. She besought her fellow 
Olympians to confer on her human lover the im- 



ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, BOMBAY 151 

mortality which she and her colleagues enjoyed. 
Though they were jealous of their divine privileges, 
they yielded to her importunity. She forgot, how- 
ever, that the immortality of the Olympians was 
matched with perpetual youth. Eos and her aging 
human mate were cursing their fate, for the merciful 
hand of Death could not come to their rescue by 
putting an end to his growing senility and affliction. 
Unless we preserve the spirit of youth, keep an open 
mind and change our beliefs and practices we can- 
not endure. India has endured for centuries; it is 
because she has kept her spirit of youth. She can 
keep alive only if she does not idolize her institutions, 
does not turn them into ends in themselves. To 
preserve the thought, spirit and inspiration of this 
ancient land and let them inform our customs and 
institutions are the tasks assigned to this generation 
of scholars. May this Society continue to do its 
useful work for many years to come. 



EXHIBITION OF CANADIAN PAINTINGS, 

DELHI 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
13 January, 1955 

IT is very kind of you to refer to my recent visits to 
Canada where I found a good deal of sympathy 
and understanding of our efforts, national and inter- 
national. Your great Prime Minister by his visit to 
our country, by his courage and forthrightness, 
strengthened the close bonds of goodwill and friend- 
ship between our two countries. We appreciate the 
assistance which we have received from Canada 
through the Colombo Plan, and we are now co- 
operating in the difficult and delicate task of the 
Supervisory Commissions in Indo-China. All these, 
however, belong to the political and economic plane 
and history is not all politics and economics. There- 
fore, we are specially glad to welcome this exhibition 
of Canadian paintings. 

Canadian art, like Canadian thought and life, 
was for a long time derivative in character, reflecting 
the influences of the United Kingdom, France and 
the United States of America. Today, she has 
attained cultural maturity and this exhibition of 
paintings manifests the artistic development of a 
resourceful and gifted people. 

If art is national in its roots, it is universal in its 



EXHIBITION OF CANADIAN PAINTINGS 153 

significance. Great art has in it the suggestion of a 
good life, not merely for the members of its nation 
but for all men. It is a search for a deeper and more 
complete understanding of man. It enlarges our 
sensibility, purifies our instincts and lifts us above 
the harsh realities of everyday life and gives us a 
sense of mental and spiritual refreshment. 

It is generally said that art is an expression of a 
higher order which supervenes on the natural 
activities of man. If happiness is like the bloom on 
the cheeks of youth, if grace is the perfection of 
nature, art manifests the deeper impulses, the 
poetry residing in the hearts of men. An ancient 
Vedic saying points out that art is born of excess, that 
creative activity arises whenever physical and vital 
needs are satisfied. It is born out of our superfluity. 
Whereas it is the function of the State to provide 
clothing and shelter, it should not socialize intellec- 
tual and artistic endeavour. The highest work of 
genius is individual, free, unregimented and un- 
controlled. The artist walks where the breath of spirit 
takes him. He cannot be told his direction. He does 
not perhaps know it himself. The State can give 
art courage, confidence and opportunity. It is to 
be a patron, not a mentor. The mechanics of living 
must be organized but the art of living should be 
entirely free. 

The individual today is beaten by organization. 
He is dwarfed, imposed upon, brushed aside by his 
group or party, business or propaganda. Govern- 



154 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

ments are becoming more and more centralized and 
more effective in moulding the minds of people. 
Freedom of the human spirit is difficult and fragile 
and unless we preserve it no great art is possible. It 
is the result of the disciplined intelligence of free 
men and I hope that while our democracies will do 
everything for feeding, clothing and housing our 
people, they will leave the spirit of man free. 

We had an exhibition of Indian paintings in 
Canada and this exhibition of Canadian paintings 
here which I have the honour to inaugurate will 
help the growth of mutual understanding and 
friendship between our two countries. 



DELHI UNIVERSITY 

SPECIAL CONVOCATION* 
22 March, 1955 

IT gives me great pleasure to take part in this func- 
tion and confer the Honorary Degree of Doctor of 
Science on Sir Cecil Wakeley, formerly President of 
the Royal College of Surgeons of England. In his 
life and work we see a combination of profession 
with passion; and his forceful personality has played 
a great role in inspiring our young men and women 
to achieve the high standards of surgery which now 
obtain in this country. 

In India we have been aiming at the improve- 
ment of our standards of health because we believe 
that without physical fitness the well being of mind 
and spirit are not possible. 

dharmdrtha-kdma-moksdndm 
arogyam mulam uttamam 

I hope, Sir Cecil, this country will have the 
guidance of your genius for many years to come. 



* Address as Chancellor admitting Sir Cecil Wakeley to 
an Honorary Degree of Delhi University 



DELHI UNIVERSITY 

SPECIAL CONVOCATION* 
16 April, 1955 

IT is a great happiness for us to count you, Miss 
Helen Keller, among our graduates. If the quality 
of greatness consists in the triumph of the human 
spirit over apparently insuperable obstacles, we 
have a notable example of greatness in our new 
Graduate. Physical handicaps generally result in 
an impoverishment of life; but they have been used 
in this instance for the enrichment of life with an 
implacable faith and a concentrated purpose. When 
two of her senses were cut off others became more 
powerful. Physical blindness opened her inward 
eyes to the light within : pratyagatmanam aiksad 
avrttacaksuh. 

The message of her life has been a message of 
hope. Her tour in the country has moved us to 
expand the facilities for the relief of the sightless and 
the hard of hearing. We know how great a force for 
good a single human being can be. May she con- 
tinue to dispense hope and happiness to the physi- 
cally handicapped for many years to come. 



* Address as Chancellor admitting Miss Helen Keller to an 
Honorary Degree of Delhi University 



THE INDIAN SCHOOL OF 
INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, NEW DELHI 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
1 October, 1955 

I AM happy to be here and inaugurate the Indian 
School of International Studies. I should like to 
congratulate the Chairman, Dr Hridaya Nath 
Kunzru, and the Governing Body of the School on 
their enterprise in establishing this School which 
will fulfil a real need of the University. 

The programme of a university is expected to 
keep pace with the development of life and the 
progress of society. Our students should be trained 
to live in a world where international relations 
dominate all human concerns. 

All religions have proclaimed the oneness of the 
human community. Though it was the implication 
of all religions, the conditions and forces for reali- 
zing this dream of ages have not been available till 
our time. Today , mankind in all parts of the world 
are being steadily and inevitably moulded by the 
forces of history and geography, science and techno- 
logy, into a single human community. There is a 
growing sense of international interdependence ; 
the Hague Court, the Workers' International, the 
close industrial and financial ties that bind the 
different countries, the League of Nations, the United 



158 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Nations Organization itself, they all demonstrate 
that the order of social life based on the concept of 
an international society is being slowly established. 

This growing international society involves us in 
international relations which are tackled by states- 
men and diplomats. In a university, however, we 
treat these problems from an academic or scientific 
point of view, study relations of nations, the laws, 
principles, tendencies, forces which come into play 
when nations get into close and intimate relations 
with one another. Social and political sciences 
which were hitherto viewed from a strictly national 
point of view are to be studied from a broader angle. 
The field of International Studies covers several 
subjects from natural sciences to moral philosophy, 
from geography to metaphysics. While the different 
international organizations deal with problems as 
they arise from time to time, university students 
must consider the play of ideas, the variety, the dis- 
cursiveness, the simultaneity of the world, the 
different national traditions and their interactions. 
We should become aware not only of facts, needs 
and peoples but of goals, norms and values. While 
we should study the actual relations of Governments 
and peoples, we should also know how we should 
behave towards people who live outside our national 
boundaries. 

What we see in the world today is the struggle 
between the still powerful tradition of national sov- 
ereignty and the emerging international order based 



INDIAN SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES 159 

on the concept, not only of the unity of mankind 
but of the community of mankind. The many acts 
of aggression, of violations of the rule of law among 
nations such as it is, of over-emphasis on national 
sovereignty are the main obstacles to international 
co-operation. But if we look at the direction of the 
evolution of mankind, the present agitations, con- 
flicting interests, divergent ambitions of peoples 
must be solved by peaceful methods. Nations of the 
world are profoundly convinced that another war 
would mean the collapse of present-day civilization. 
The development of nuclear power and its concen- 
tration in two groups have brought us to the end of 
the military road for the settlement of international 
disputes. It is clear that the alternatives are mutual 
survival or mutual destruction. Crush or conciliate 
your enemy, said Machiavelli. The perception of 
this obvious truth has resulted in an improvement in 
the international situation. While we combat for 
peace in this period of vacillation, we should re- 
affirm the concepts of international community, 
co-operation and the reign of law. Diplomacy has 
had till now a somewhat dubious reputation. What 
was said of logic by a well-known master of Balliol 
may be said of Diplomacy. 'Is it a science ? no; is it 
an art ? no. What is it then, a dodge ?' It has 
not thus far been linked to moral principles which 
regulate dealings between individuals, 

If we are to help the present society to grow 
organically into a world order, we must make it 



160 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

depend on the universal and enduring values which 
are implanted in the human heart, that each indi- 
vidual is sacred, that we are born for love and not 
hate. We must recognize the worth and inalienable 
rights of the individual as supreme and proclaim 
that sovereignty resides not in the State but in man. 
This is the meaning of the Declaration of Human 
Rights. The State is the servant of the people. If 
these principles are to guide us, we must try to 
settle disputes peacefully, protect nations against 
the use of lawless force, and develop modes of com- 
munication which will permit various civilizations 
to enrich and not destroy one another. We have 
learned to live peacefully in larger and larger units. 
The concept of a community has grown from a 
narrow tribal basis to the Nation State. There is no 
stopping short of a world community. We must 
replace anarchy by order in the international 
community. 

Our PanchaSila focuses attention on the main 
objectives of the U.N. Charter : 

/. Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity 
and sovereignty 

Cf. Article 2, Clause 4 : 'All Members 
shall refrain in their international relations 
from the threat or use of force against the 
territorial integrity or political indepen- 
dence of any state, or in any other manner 
inconsistent with the purposes of the United 
Nations.' 



INDIAN SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES 161 

2. Non-aggression 

Cf. Article 2, Clause 3: 'All Members 
shall settle their international disputes by 
peaceful means in such a manner that 
international peace and security, and jus- 
tice, are not endangered/ 

3. Non-interference in each other's affairs 

Cf. Article 2, Clause 7 : "Nothing con- 
tained in the present Charter shall authorize 
the United Nations to intervene in matters 
which are essentially within the domestic 
jurisdiction of any state or shall require the 
Members to submit such matters to settle- 
ment under the present Charter; but this 
principle shall not prejudice the applica- 
tion of enforcement measures under 
Chapter VII.' 

4. Equality and mutual benefit 

Cf. Article 2, Clauses 1 & 2 : 'The Orga- 
nization is based on the principle of the 
sovereign equality of all its Members.' 

C A11 Members, in order to ensure to all 
of them the rights and benefits resulting 
from Membership, shall fulfil in good faith 
the obligations assumed by them in accor- 
dance with the present Charter.' 

5. Peaceful co-existence 

This is covered by the Clause in the 
Preamble : 'To practise tolerance and live 
11 



162 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

together in peace with one another as good 
neighbours/ 

As war is the climax of international misunder- 
standing, so is peace the outcome of proper under- 
standing among nations. We must achieve inter- 
national accord by co-operating in solving problems 
of an economic, social, cultural and humanitarian 
character, by promoting and encouraging respect 
for the human rights of all, irrespective of race, sex, 
language, or religion. 

Naturally this School will lay stress on the study 
of the political, economic and cultural organizations 
of our close neighbours. A new Asia, which is eager 
to throw off foreign domination, anxious to catch 
up with the twentieth century, determined to achieve 
tolerable conditions of life for their oppressed, 
ill-nourished, ignorant, illiterate fellow beings, the 
right to be themselves and to be answerable to 
themselves is the principal feature of our age. Our 
great neighbour China after centuries of unrest, 
chaos, strife and oppression has now emerged as a 
strong Power, eager to develop her resources and 
raise her standards. We ourselves gained our political 
independence eight years ago and are engaged in 
the task of economic and social reconstruction. The 
backwardness of Asian and African nations has 
been a perpetual source of economic rivalry and 
strife among the advanced nations of the world. If 
they become economically and socially advanced, 
one great source of conflict will be removed. 



INDIAN SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES 163 

Historians tell us that there is no visible pattern 
in human society. It only means that there is 
nothing inevitable in human affairs. Our future 
depends on the way in which human beings will 
act and I hope that those who are working in this 
Institution will develop a world-mindedness. Whe- 
ther we like it or not we live in one world. We require 
to be educated to a common conception of human 
purpose and destiny. The different nations should 
live together as members of the human race, not as 
hostile powers but as friendly partners in the endea- 
vour of civilization. The strong shall help the weak 
and all shall belong to the one world of free nations, 
a community, catholic, comprehensive and co- 
operative. May this School and its workers help to 
bring this day nearer. 



GUJARAT UNIVERSITY 

CONVOCATION ADDRESS 
8 October, 1955 

T THANK you all for giving me this opportunity to 
JL come here and speak to you. A Convocation 
Speaker is expected to give advice to the students. 
I don't suppose students generally relish advice. 
Apart from students even elders do not relish advice. 
Graduation marks the end of one stage and the 
beginning of another and the graduates of this year 
have my very best wishes for a useful, happy, pros- 
perous career. They are entering life at a very 
significant juncture in the history of our country. 
Eight years ago, we won independence. That in- 
dependence has been only political. We are not 
constrained by any external authority to behave 
in this way or that way, the entire initiative rests 
with us. Before independence, whenever anything 
went wrong, we had the excuse 'it is all due to 
foreign domination'. That excuse has disappeared. 
As the Buddha has said, we suffer from ourselves. 
None else compels. Today we have freedom to 
shape the future of our country in any manner we 
choose. If we are able to shape that future with 
knowledge, with vision, with courage, we may have 
a great future. I should like to tell the students that 
what they have learnt here, intellectual habits, 



GUJARAT UNIVERSITY 165 

moral character, these things will stand them in 
good stead and they will be able to make effective 
contributions to the upbuilding of our country 
when they enter life. 

I wish to congratulate this University on the 
progress that it has made, I am informed that 
last year the University started two Departments : 
of Gujarati Language and Literature, and Social 
Sciences. There is a wrong feeling about Social 
Sciences, which I should like to dispel. There 
are many people who think that just as Physical 
Sciences give us control over material nature, 
Social Sciences give us control over man's nature. 
A very distinguished educationist, Lord Beveridge 
said : 'Just as we control through natural sciences 
the physical world, hereafter we will be able to 
control human nature by a study of social sciences.' 
This is not quite correct. You will find also Lord 
Adrian addressing last year the British Association 
of Science at Oxford say : we have come to a 
time when by pressing a button it will be possible 
for us to obliterate two-thirds of the world and if we 
understand the nature of human behaviour, we may 
be able to avert that catastrophe. Mere understand- 
ing of human behaviour, of the manner in which 
man acts in society, is not enough. There have been 
people in this world who took hold of the weapons 
of science and the techniques of psychology, orga- 
nized the cupidities of men into gigantic and terri- 
fying systems of material power. 



166 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Today, the forces of geography, history, science 
and technology are making the world interdepen- 
dent. They are welding us into one world and the 
concentration of nuclear power in two great centres 
constitutes a challenge. Either we may enter life or 
death. We have either to live together or to die 
together. That is what Social Sciences tell us. It 
depends on our behaviour. But Social Sciences do 
not educate the human mind with regard to the 
norms, the goals, the purposes. If we want to use our 
knowledge, physical and social, for the regeneration 
of humanity, Social Sciences by themselves are not 
enough. They supply us with instruments, but those 
instruments may be used or abused by man. So the 
transformation of man is more essential than mere 
acquisition of knowledge. Statistics, economics, 
politics, psychology they are all empirical sciences. 
They give us facts, they give us principles, they tell 
us how men will behave when confronted with 
certain circumstances. But how men should behave, 
what attitude they should adopt, what behaviour 
they should impose upon themselves, what self- 
control they have to insist on these things are not 
given by Social Sciences. When we have a Depart- 
ment of Social Sciences, let it be understood that 
Social Sciences will have to be supplemented by 
Social Philosophy, Social Ethics. These are the 
disciplines that we require. 

There is another danger with regard to Social 
Sciences. The moment we use the word 'science', 



GUJARAT UNIVERSITY 167 

we at once think that society acts in obedience to 
certain laws, that there are certain predictable 
features, that it is possible for us to make society 
conform to certain principles. The Marxist view of 
history holds that there is such a thing as dialectical 
march of events. Spengler, for example, tells us that 
cultures are organisms and that world culture is a 
collective biography; birth, growth, age, decline, 
decay and death are all phenomena which apply to 
social institutions. Then again we are making the 
mistake which raises the age-old problem whether 
history makes man or man makes history. Our an- 
swer has been : raja kdlasya kdranam. We have always 
said that the individuals of genius incite revolutions, 
change the course of history. They start new epochs. 
It is the individuals who mould society. A great 
historian of Europe, H. A. L. Fisher, said a few years 
ago : C I see no predetermined plan, no pattern, no 
rhythm in history.' There is the play of the contin- 
gent, the play of the unseen, the play of the incal- 
culable, of the unpredictable, that's how he put it. 
He meant that the human factors determined the 
course of history. We should not think that the 
events are overwhelming and man is just a petty, 
puny creature unable to cope with the forces of the 
world. That has not been our view of life. We have 
always believed that it is possible for individuals of 
genius to mould the course of history. We can re- 
mould the pattern of society. We can refashion our 
social structures and organizations. In this city with 



168 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

which Gandhiji has been associated, it is unneces- 
sary for me to dilate upon the importance of the 
individuals so far as the historical progress is con- 
cerned. People may remain outside history, but 
they make history in a very real sense by the very 
attitude of withdrawing, so to say, from the work 
of society. So there is no point in our saying : what 
can we do, the circumstances are too much for us, 
therefore we have to succumb. There is no such 
thing as inevitability in history. There is such a 
thing as the play of the human factor in the recast- 
ing of society. Our students must go out with faith 
in the free spirit of man; they must go out with the 
faith that it is open to them to remake themselves 
every day. Every day we are recasting our own 
nature; for the worse or for the better, we are 
recreating ourselves perpetually. If we want to 
transform possibilities into actualities, what is 
necessary is the exercise of this freedom, of the sub- 
jectivity which the human individuals have. As I 
said in the beginning, it is our hope to convert the 
political freedom into true freedom in the social, 
cultural and the economic sense. We cannot bring 
about this conversion by merely sitting down with 
folded hands. We can do it with our brains, with 
our hands, with our sacrifice, with our sufferings. 
These are the means vouchsafed to us for trans- 
forming our aspirations into actualities, possibili- 
ties into realities. Universities are expected to 
prepare young men and women with not only infor- 



GUJARAT UNIVERSITY 169 

mation, knowledge and skill but also spirit of dedi- 
cation and detachment. These qualities are essential 
for the stupendous task of remaking the history of 
this great country. 

I do hope, Mr Chancellor, that your University is 
turning out boys and girls not merely possessed 
of learning but also endowed with purpose and 
vision. Universities are not mere places of learning. 
They are homes of culture. They are centres for 
the making of men and women. Man-making is 
the task that has been assigned to the universities 
in our country today. Are we making men, are we 
merely turning out people who can repeat parrot- 
like certain passages, or are we giving them a refine- 
ment of feeling, a civilizing of their purposes, a 
ripening of their understanding, both of nature and 
of society ? That is the supreme test of the functioning 
of any university. And if we are not able to fulfil 
this purpose we are responsible for the failure. 

You, Mr Chancellor, referred to the distemper 
which prevails in certain places in our country. I 
have been a teacher for over forty years of my life. 
I want to tell you there is nothing radically wrong 
about our students. I want to say that we are not 
giving them the opportunities which they should 
have. Look at our teachers : no man is a true 
teacher, if he has not love for his subject arid en- 
thusiasm for transmitting his zeal to the pupils. 
They should, of course, be placed above the verge 
of want. But we cannot have teachers who feel that 



170 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

they are first and foremost members of a party, or 
a clan, or a caste, or a community; who are not 
able to rise above all these considerations and serve 
the interests of the society as a whole. We should 
strive to make our boys and girls citizens of this 
great country. It is essential that the teachers of a 
university or a college should be selected with the 
utmost care. They must be selected not merely for 
their intellectual competence, but for their love of 
the subjects, their enthusiasm for making the 
students grow in their hands. These are very 
essential. 

Again, we have got unwieldy classes. A class room 
which can accommodate about 150 people is sup- 
posed to contain 500. What are we encouraging in 
such a class, if it is not indiscipline ? It is impossible 
for us to make a class room of 150 contain 500 by 
any amount of congestion which we can bring 
about. Then again, are there any extra-curricular 
activities ? In most of the colleges, which arc over- 
crowded, the teachers are few, the boys are many 
and there are no opportunities for them to express 
themselves in free, artistic, emotional, or intellectual 
activities. In other words, unless we have scope for 
the expression of the individual's full personality, 
our college or our university will be a failure. I 
know that there have been some cases of boys laps- 
ing into moral and spiritual dissolution. If we are 
not to imperil the future of our country, priority 
number one must be given to education. There 



GUJARAT UNIVERSITY 171 

is no point in our bringing about material rehabili- 
tation, having large dams, etc., if the men we 
turn out are small and petty-minded. Unless the 
men themselves become large-hearted, vigorous in 
their intellect and refined in their minds, they 
will not be able to utilize all the conveniences 
and comforts which we are placing at their disposal. 
What's the good of bringing about a change in the 
environment if we do not bring about a change in 
mind ? We must change ourselves and if we have to 
change ourselves, we have to start this process in 
the institutions which cater to the needs of students. 
Therefore, greater attention requires to be paid 
both by the State and the Central Governments 
to see to it that colleges have restricted admissions, 
have adequate staff, and there is a living communi- 
cation between the teacher and the students. 
A conversation across the table with a * wise 
teacher is much better than a long course of study. 
Have we opportunities in the present ill-equipped 
and ill-staffed colleges for that kind of personal 
intercourse between the students and the teachers ? 
So long as we do not have it, what's the good of our 
saying that students are suffering from a distemper 
or the university standards are falling ? I want 
the youth to be given a fair and square deal. It 
is essential for us, for the Government, to bring 
about an altogether different orientation, so far as 
the educational reconstruction of our country is 
concerned. And I do hope that those in power, 



172 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

those who are governing the country will take 
these things into account. 

The States Reorganization Committee Report is 
to be published the day after tomorrow formally, 
though it has been substantially released already. 
That again shows the lack of discipline in high 
places. Anyway, there is going to be a redrawing of 
the boundaries of our States. In all this we have to 
remember that this country has been for centuries 
a single country. When the Chinese pilgrims came 
here, they went to all parts in this country, to the 
North, to the South. When our people went out as 
representatives of our culture to China, they did 
not go from any one part. They went from different 
parts of India to spread the message of the Buddha 
or of Shaivism. So from those early centuries, when 
our Mahdbhdratd talks about Anga, Banga, Kalinga, 
Kashmira, etc., and when Samkaracharya esta- 
blished his four Mathas in the four corners of India, 
the one thing that they wanted to impress on us 
was the unity of this great land. Whatever may be 
the minor differences or adjustments that may take 
place, they must not militate against this sense of 
the oneness of our great country. Whenever we 
suffered in our history, it was because provincial, 
caste, communal differences came to be exag- 
gerated; whenever we succeeded, it was because 
such differences were ignored and we stood up 
united to win our goal. Unity means strength and 
progress. Linguism, provincialism, caste conscious- 



GUJARAT UNIVERSITY 173 

ness, etc. will mean dispersal of our energies and 
the downfall of our country. 

It is essential, therefore, that we should take into 
account this one great fact that whatever our pro- 
vinces may be, whatever differences may take place 
in them, we belong to this great land, which was 
responsible for much of the art and culture of the 
whole of the East. It is Shaivism, it is Buddhism, 
that went out there. Shiva, the Mahd Togi, the 
Buddha, the great Compassionate One they 
constitute, they symbolize for us the essence of 
religion. 

Deepen your awareness, extend your love. Ab- 
hqya y freedom from fear, ahimsa, freedom from hate : 
one is the inward, the other is the outward aspect 
of true religion. All other things are embroidery, 
paraphernalia. They do not touch the essentials of 
religion. If we harbour in our thoughts evil, greed, 
malice, violence, spirit of superiority, pride, we are 
not religious men. If, on the other hand, we are 
able to rid our mind and our thought of these 
impulses and if we always behave with generosity 
and with love, we have the spirit of true religion. 

Our people say, the one important purpose of all 
universities is integration of the individual and the 
society. The question was raised in the Upanisad : 
'What is tapasT Different answers were given. 
Ultimately someone said svddhyaya pravacana, that 
is tapas. svadhyaya, study, reflection, research, ad- 
vance of knowledge and pravacana, communication 



174 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

of it, transmission of it to others. We must advance 
knowledge and communicate it. Love of learning 
has been our precious possession all these centuries. 
Let us cling to it. 



THE DELHI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
18 January, 1956 

FROM the previous speeches it is clear that this 
School interprets the concept of a Welfare State 
in a broad and human way. Welfare is not to be 
confused with merely physical or material welfare. 
One of the great economists, Alfred Marshall, in the 
opening chapter of his work, Principles of Economics, 
said : 'The two great forming agencies of the 
world's history have been the religious and the econo- 
mic. Here and there the ardour of the military or 
the artistic spirit has been for a while predominant, 
but religious and economic influences have nowhere 
been displaced from the front rank even for a time 
and they have nearly always been more important 
than all others put together.' The divorce between 
the two has done great harm to society. The sickness 
of our society, its unease, lies deep in our soul. Con- 
flicts in the world are conflicts in the human heart 
writ large. The outer conflicts between men will 
cease if men are at peace within themselves. This 
School is the outcome not of a bright idea, but of a 
deep faith that study and research in economic 
thought should be controlled by wisdom. Those 
who work in it are expected to be imbued with a 
social vision, a social awareness, a social purpose. ' 



176 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

We should work for the improvement of the 
material conditions of our fellow-beings. The face 
of our society is scarred by the extremes of wealth 
and poverty, of affluence and want. Power cor- 
rupts a few, but poverty corrupts millions. If the 
latter challenge the existent order, it is not due to 
malice, greed, or resentment, but to a sense of utter 
inadequacy and helplessness, the realization that 
these conditions are not inevitable but are preven- 
table. Society is a single whole. If one part of it 
exploits another, the whole suffers. If we hurt one 
hand with the other, it is the individual who suffers. 
That is why our democracy should become socia- 
listic if it is to save itself. If it does not in a few years 
effect improvements in the material standards of 
our ordinary people, the future of our democracy 
will be in peril. 

There are no statutory methods for the achieve- 
ment of socialism. We are not prisoners of any 
ideologies. We are not inhibited by any doctrinaire 
considerations. Take this School. It is due to the 
initiative, energy, enterprise, public spirit, strength 
of emotion and power of mind of Dr Rao. Though 
it gets Government aid, it is not under Government 
control. It is, therefore, in a position to undertake 
independent investigations and offer competent 
advice and criticism to the Government. We do not 
claim that our Government can do no wrong. It 
may not do so consciously or deliberately, but as 
human institutions Governments are also fallible, 



THE DELHI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS 177 

and we require free, honest, dispassionate, con- 
structive criticism to help Governments. 

This day's ceremony marks another stage in the 
progress of this School. The reputation of a school 
depends not on its buildings and equipment, neces- 
sary as they are, but on the solid work which its 
members do. We should judge our work by the 
highest academic standards. I hope that members of 
this School started under such high auspices will 
work hard, will work honestly, will work with plea- 
sure and pride in their work and help the economic 
thinking, planning and progress of our country. 

This School has had from the beginning the in- 
spiring guidance of our Prime Minister who is the 
President of the fraternity. His presence here today 
is another indication of his deep interest in the 
School. We are grateful to him for finding some 
time for this function. I propose a very hearty vote 
of thanks to him. 



12 



WORLD UNIVERSITY SERVICE HEALTH 
CENTRE 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
30 January, 1956 

I AM happy to be here and declare open this health 
centre built by the World University Service with 
the help of the Government and the University 
Grants Commission. It is one of a number of activi- 
ties promoted by the World University Service in 
this University as well as in others. 

The World University Service is one expression, 
small but significant, of the growing unity of man- 
kind. A University by its very definition has a 
universal outlook. For it nothing human is alien. 
Its function is to develop a world community. This 
service helps people in different parts of the world 
to understand one another. 

In this country with its variety of regions and 
languages, the integrating factors of a national 
society are shared respect and affection for common 
ideals. Society is a partnership between the past, 
the present and the future. In a vast geographical 
region like India, diversity is only to be expected, 
but this diversity has to be subdued to national 
unity if we are to make any progress in the world. 
Here in Delhi University teachers and students 
from different parts of the country are brought 



WORLD UNIVERSITY SERVICE HEALTH CENTRE 179 

together and get to know each other and develop 
a broad national outlook. 

Those who work in the University should aim at 
acquiring not only learning but culture, that refine- 
ment of the soul which we define as dtmasariiskrti. 
This refinement helps us to conquer the forces of 
greed and arrogance and develop a way of living, 
a standard of behaviour which requires us to take 
the interest of other members of society. 

Today, which is the eighth anniversary of the 
martyrdom of Mahatma Gandhi, it is essential for 
us to undertake an inward searching of hearts. With 
many of us our culture is thin and superficial and 
at the first crisis it falls away and exposes our callous- 
ness, cruelty and lack of feelingfor others. We justify 
what we do on account of some alleged injustice 
and make our reason the servant or the instru- 
ment of our passion. Violence is a cowardly escape 
from patient negotiations and peaceful settlement of 
differences. When we urge the world to adjust the 
differences among nations by peaceful methods, if 
we resort to violent methods for vindicating what 
we regard as our rights we should not be surprised 
if the world puts us down for hypocrites, mithya- 
carinSy talking one thing and practising another, 

It is essential therefore that we must search our 
hearts, and discover the narrowness of mind which 
threatens our unity, diminishes our horizons and 
hampers our progress. Each one of us in the privacy 
of his own heart and soul must find out what is 



180 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

wrong with him. We must work at tasks wider than 
our scope and range. We must commend our 
hurrying years to the care of a great cause, the 
welfare of this country and the world. With strength 
and faith we must work for building up a nation 
which will be invulnerable to the schemings of 
small men. I do hope that those who .study in this 
University and who are members of this World 
University Service will develop a largeness of out- 
look and generosity of heart and view the problems 
which face us with courage, strength and patience. 



PHILOSOPHY 
AND RELIGION 



MAHABODHI SOCIETY, SANGHI 

DIAMOND JUBILEE CELEBRATIONS 
November 1952 

I AM happy to be here on this auspicious occasion 
when the Mahabodhi Society is celebrating its 
diamond jubilee and the sacred relics of Sariputta 
and Mogallana arhats are being installed in this 
ancient Buddhist site. 

The Mahabodhi Society owes its origin to the 
enterprise, zeal and devotion of Anagarika Dharma- 
pala whom I had the honour of meeting in Calcutta 
in the last years of his life. Today when we celebrate 
the Diamond Jubilee of the Mahabodhi Society, we 
should think of him in grateful memory. The Society 
is fortunate in having for its Secretary such a 
devoted and ardent worker as Devapriya Valisimha, 
to whose energetic enterprise we largely owe the 
return of these sacred relics to India. 

Gautama the Buddha is the voice of Asia, he is 
the conscience of the world. His message spread to 
Tibet, Burma and Ceylon, Cambodia, Annam, 
China and Japan. Buddhist religion and philoso- 
phy, literature and art have civilized a large part of 
humanity. Its spirit of reason and its ethics of love 
make it attractive to the modern mind. I may give 
one or two instances. Schopenhauer kept a golden 
Buddha in his modest bedroom. Anatole France 



184 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

observes that 'Buddhism has a singular attraction 
for free minds' and that 'the charm of Sakyamuni 
works readily on an unprejudiced heart. And it is, 
if one thinks of it, wonderful that this spring of 
morality, which gushed from the foot of the Hima- 
layas before the blooming of the Hellenic genius, 
should have preserved its fruitful purity, its delicious 
freshness; and that the sage of Kapilavastu should 
be still the best of counsellors and the sweetest of 
consolers of our old suffering humanity/ c On the 
first of May 1890, chance directed me into the 
peaceful halls of Musee Guimet, and there alone, 
among the gods of Asia, in the shadow and silence 
of meditation, but still aware of the things of our 
own day, from which it is not permitted to any one 
to detach himself, I reflected on the harsh neces- 
sities of life, the law of toil, and the sufferings of 
existence; halting before a statue of the antique 
sage whose voice is still heard today by more than 
400 millions of human beings, I admit that I felt 
tempted to pray to him as to a god, and to demand 
the secret of the proper conduct of life for which 
governments and peoples search in vain. It seemed 
as though the kindly ascetic, eternally young, seated 
crosslegged on the lotus of purity, with his right 
hand raised in admonition, answered in these two 
words, wisdom and compassion (prajna and karuna) .' 
Like all great religions in their purity, if we set 
aside the gross superstitions and the mean practices 
that disfigure them, Buddhism is compact of wisdom 



MAHABODHI SOCIETY 185 

and love. Its philosophy of life and its code of con- 
duct appeal to the modern mind steeped in the 
spirit of science, for the Buddha's approach is 
rational and empirical. 

The Buddha does not ask us to accept anything 
on authority. He does not say, 'Thus is it said* but 
'thus have I felt or experienced'. 

pariksya bhiksavo grahyam madvaco na tu gauravat. 

He asks us to accept his words, after testing 
them. We are not to rely on any external support 
but we should make our own self our support, 
the Eternal Law our refuge. The Buddha says : 'I 
leave you, I depart, having made the self my 
refuge.' 1 The voice of Spirit in us must be satis- 
fied. The Buddhas do but tell the way, it is for each 
one of us to swelter at the task. 2 The Buddha's 
authority, mahapadeia rests on his own personal 
experience. 

When, according to the legend, he saw a decrepit 
old man, a dead man, a diseased man, and a reli- 
gious mendicant, he discovered poverty and pain, 
sickness, old age and death. The shock of this 
discovery led him to renounce his luxurious home 
and become an ascetic. The affliction of the world 
roused the Buddha's compassion. The fallen and 
stricken state of the world at the deepest level of its 
being became a problem for him. He studied con- 
temporary systems, consulted the great teachers of 

1 Digha N&aya, II, 120 
* Dhammapada, 276 



186 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

the time and after disciplined meditation, dis- 
covered the truth of things. 

The Buddha is he whose name is truth, saccandma. 
What is real, sat is the truth, satya. Whatever is 
impermanent is asat or unreal. For those who have 
eyes to see and the spirit to respond, the world in 
which we live is a world of birth and death, growth 
and decay, in which nothing remains and nothing 
is ever repeated. There is nothing stable, nothing 
permanent in this world, marandntam hijivitam. The 
theme of impermanence, of flux, of change is pre- 
sented in different ways. The image of the turning 
wheel is used as a symbol of the world of becoming 
or existence. 

What is the remedy for the mortality which is 
inherent in all composite things ? The Buddha 
resolved to discover the secret of life eternal. So long 
as we cling to the contingent, caused existence, 
samskrta, we are in bondage to time but there is an 
uncomposite, asamskrta, 'an unborn, qjdta, an un- 
caused, an immutable 5 . If we know and realize it, 
we pass from death and rebirth to nirvana and 
peace. The law of karma governs the world of 
objects, of existence in the world of time, of cause 
and effect, and nirvana relates to the world of 
freedom, of the subject which transcends the object, 
of the centre of being. Man's existence includes the 
power, the determination to stand out of existence 
and on the truth of being. If man fails to transcend 
his existential limits, he is condemned to death, to 



MAHABODHI SOCIETY 187 

nothingness. He must first experience the void, the 
nothingness, to get beyond it. 

To stand out of objective existence, there must 
come upon the individual a sense of crucifixion, a 
sense of agonizing annihilation, a sense of the utter 
nothingness of all this empirical existence which is 
subject to the law of change, death. We cry with 
St. Paul : 'Who shall save me from the body of this 
death ?' c Lead me from death to immortality. 5 
mrtyor ma amrtam gamaya. 

If this world were all, suffering would be the 
permanent condition of human life. Our life would 
be reduced to a nullity, negation, death. Jf existence 
were all, if the objective time series were all, if 
samsdra were all, there would be no escape from 
fear and suffering. When the Buddha asks us to seek 
for liberation and strive for it, he affirms the reality 
of another world. He tells us that it is possible for 
us to circumvent the time process and attain en- 
lightenment. 

There is being by itself, which transcends the 
time order. Existence is in being : samsdra is in 
nirvana. Eternity is centred in time. That art thou. 
In all of us there dwells a secret power of freeing 
ourselves from the changes of time, of withdrawing 
our secret self away from external things, of dis- 
covering to ourselves the Eternal in us. At that 
moment we annihilate time; we are no longer in 
time but the timeless is in us. This awareness of 
the timeless in time is nirvana. It is that ultimate 



188 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

primordial mystery which all religions have sought 
for and tried to express by means of faltering, imper- 
fect symbols and images. It is not absolute void. It 
is positive being paradoxically affirmed. Paradox is 
the only way by which we can express in human 
terms the apprehension of ultimate reality. It is the 
way to signify both human insight and human weak- 
ness. Look at St. Augustine's confession : 'What 
art Thou then, my god, what, I ask, save the Lord 
God. . . most far and yet most near. . . ever busy, 
yet ever at rest; gathering, yet never needing. . . 
seeking, though Thou hast no lack. . .What can 
any one say when he speaks of Thee?' 3 Bodhi, en- 
lightenment, is a gnosis that cannot be communi- 
cated. Paradox does not preclude enquiry as 
premature definition does. All vital religions are 
open religions and not closed systems. 

Nirvana which is freedom from subjection to 
time can be achieved in this life. Time and eternity 
are not incompatible and this life is a point of 
intersection between time and eternity, samsdra 
and nirvana. When we live from moment to 
moment like plants and animals, we live in bondage 
to time. Our existence becomes time-conditioned. 
Even in such a mode of existence there may be 
moments which are hints and suggestions of the 
eternal. These moments, intense and isolated, with 
no before and no after, in which we are lost in 
timeless contemplation, are the closest most of us 
8 Confessions, Bk. I, Ch. IV, E.T. by C. Bigg 



MAHABODHI SOCIETY 189 

ever get to freedom from the flux of events, from 
bondage to time. This deliverance from death and 
rebirth is the crown and completion of a life of 
discipline and meditation. It is to be achieved by 
the ethical path suggested by the Buddha. It con- 
tains the oldest and the most permanent truth of the 
human race. The Brhaddranyaka Upanisad asks us 
to give, be compassionate and practise self-control : 
datta, dayadhvam, damyata. What is demanded is a 
wise and compassionate heart. The Buddha asks 
us to avoid the extremes of self-indulgence and 
self-mortification. As Matrceta puts it : 'What harm 
has your hair done ? Perform the tonsure on your 
sins. What earthly good is a monk's robe to a mind 
besmirched ?' 

kejdh him aparddhyanti klesdndm mundanam kuru 
sakasdyasya cittasya kdsdyaih kirn prayojanam. 
The Buddha was more aware of human unhappiness 
than of human sin. By affirming that every human 
being contains the possibility of arhatship or 
Buddhahood, Buddhism gives abiding value to the 
individual soul. The preciousness of the human soul 
is the basis of all civilization and the|hope of our 
troubled world. ^, 

The fear of war remains today the one obsession 
that dominates our lives. We seem to live in an 
atmosphere of impending catastrophe which may 
result in a renewal of barbarism, a new age of dark- 
ness, of spiritual blindness in which the gains of 
science and the glories of culture will be lost. We 



190 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

need today a great manifestation of the spirit of love, 
of understanding and compassion to break through 
the encircling gloom. It alone can give to those 
whose life is void of purpose, a motive for existence, 
a reason for courage and a guide for action. 



92nd BIRTHDAY CELEBRATIONS OF 

SWAMI VIVEKANANDA, 

NEW DELHI 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 
21 February, 1954 

I AM happy to be here and distribute prizes for 
recitation and speech competitions. I congratu- 
late those who have won these rewards on their 
achievements. The students who won the prizes and 
the many others who competed for them had the 
great opportunity of reading some of the writings 
of Swami Vivekananda. I have no doubt they have 
been impressed and inspired by what they have 
read. Vivekananda's life and teachings have pre- 
pared us for the new age of freedom in which we 
live. They tell us how best we can consolidate the 
freedom we have recently won. He was one of the 
great leaders of the Indian Renaissance. 

Like all the great teachers of India, Vivekananda 
did not profess to be the formulator of a new system 
of thought. He interpreted for us and the world 
India's religious consciousness, the treasures of her 
past. His writings and speeches are all fortified by 
quotations from the Indian scriptures and the life 
and sayings of his great Master, that transcendent 
religious genius, Shri Ramakrishna. 

In the short time at my disposal it will not be 



192 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

possible for me to speak on more than one or two 
aspects of Vivekananda's teachings. 

The two dominant features of our age are science 
and democracy. They have come to stay. We can- 
not ask educated people to accept the deliverances 
of faith without rational evidence. Whatever we are 
called upon to accept must be justified and sup- 
ported by reason. Otherwise our religious beliefs 
will be reduced to wishful thinking. Modern man 
must learn to live with a religion which commends 
itself to his intellectual conscience, to the spirit of 
science. Besides, religion should be the sustaining 
faith of democracy which insists on the intellectual 
and spiritual development of every human being 
irrespective of his caste, creed, community, or race. 
Any -religion which divides man from man or 
supports privileges, exploitation, wars, cannot com- 
mend itself to us today. 

If we are passing through a period of the eclipse 
of religion, of the light of heaven, it is because 
religions as they are practised seem to be both 
unscientific and undemocratic. 

Vivekananda showed that the Hindu religion was 
both scientific and democratic, not the religion as 
we practise it, which is full of blemishes, but the re- 
ligion which our great exponents intended it to be. 

The most obvious fact of life is its transience. 
Everything in this world passes away, the written 
word, the painted picture, the carved stone, the 
heroic act. Great civilizations are subject to the 



SWAMI VIVEKANANDA BIRTHDAY CELEBRATIONS 193 

law of time. The earth on which we live may one 
day become unfit for human habitation as the sun 
ages and alters. Our acts and thoughts, our deeds 
of heroism, our political structures are a part of 
history, of becoming, of process. They all belong to 
the world of time. Time is symbolized in India's 
tradition by birth and death. Is this all-devouring 
time, lokaksayakrt, this void, this siinya, this mayd> 
this sarhsara, is it all, or is there anything else ? 
Is this world which is a perpetual procession of 
events, self-sustaining, self-maintaining, self-esta- 
blished, or is there a Beyond underlying it, unifying 
it and inspiring it, standing behind it and yet 
immanent in it ? Is becoming all or is there being 
behind it ? 

Will man annihilate nothingness or will nothing- 
ness annihilate him ? This very problem, this dread, 
this anxiety that we have, this feeling of the preca- 
riousness of the world bears witness to the world 
beyond. It is a longing for life eternal in the midst 
of time. Because of the implicit awareness of the 
ultimate reality we have the sense of godforsakenness. 

By logical investigations and by personal ex- 
perience, our great thinkers came to the conclusion 
that there is a Beyond of which all this world is the 
expression. The Upanisads give us an explanation 
of this fundamental problem. They mention logical 
arguments and also experiences of men who bear 
witness to the reality of the Supreme. What we call 
the Vedas are merely the registers of the spiritual 

13 



194 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

experiences of the great seers. Says Vivekananda : 
'By the Vedas no books are meant. They mean the 
accumulated treasure of spiritual laws discovered 
by different persons in different times/ They are 
therefore ever-expanding. What is built for ever is 
for ever building. For Vivekananda religion is Yoga. 
It is personal change, adjustment, integration. It is 
not profession of a doctrine. It is the reconditioning 
of one's nature. It is not intellectual orthodoxy. It 
is awakening of the life of spirit in man. He wrote 
books on Jnana Yoga, Raja Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, 
Karma Yoga and urged that the goal of spiritual 
realization can be reached by any one of these 
different methods. 

When we express the truths of spiritual life in 
intellectual forms, these latter are abstractions from 
live experience. They do not deal justly with 
the immensity and mystery of spiritual life. If we 
exalt the particular creeds over the universal truths, 
we tend to become intolerant. The famous words of 
S. T. Coleridge are very much to the point : 'He 
who begins by loving Christianity better than truth 
will proceed by loving his own sect or church better 
than Christianity and end by loving himself better 
than all.' Intolerance is an expression of religious 
conceit and not humility. 

We today speak of our secular attitude. We are 
not secular in the sense that we are indifferent to 
religion. We are secular because we regard all reli- 
gions as sacred. We believe in freedom of conscience. 



SWAM! VIVEKANANDA BIRTHDAY CELEBRATIONS 195 

Each soul has the right to choose its own path and 
seek God in its own way. Secularism requires us not 
merely to tolerate, but to understand and love other 
religions. Bearing in mind Shri Ramakrishna's 
experience, Vivekananda said : 'We Hindus do not 
merely tolerate. We unite ourselves with every 
religion, praying in the mosque of the Mohammed- 
an, worshipping before the fire of the Zoroastrian 
and kneeling to the Cross of the Christian.' 

In his travels abroad, Vivekananda felt miserable 
about the backwardness of India in several matters, 
the way in which religion is confused with so much 
obscurantism and superstition. He protested vehe- 
mently against the abuse of religion, about our 
insistence on touchability and untouchability. All 
this was inconsistent with the great principles of 
our religion that the Divine is in us, in all of us, 
operative and alive, ready to come to the surface at 
the first suitable opportunity. The light which 
lighteth every man that cometh into the world, 
this antar-jyoti cannot be put out. Whether we like it 
or not, whether we know it or not, the Divine is in 
us, and the end of man consists in attaining union 
with the Divine. 

The ultimate tests of true religions are recognition 
of truth and reconciliation with human beings. To 
overcome enemies we must possess that which far 
surpasses enmity, ahimsa, or renunciation of hatred. 

Vivekananda raises work to the level of worship 
and exhorted us to seek salvation through the service 



196 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

of God in man. If we in our country are to profit by 
the teachings of Vivekananda, it is essential that we 
should all be interested in not only constructive 
work, but become dedicated spirits, spirits dedicated 
to the task of establishing a spiritual religion which 
transcends ecclesiastical organizations and doctrinal 
sophistries and subtleties, a religion which leads to 
the transformation of human society and brings it 
nearer to the Ramrajya or the Kingdom of God, 
which our prophets have set before us. 



RELIGION AND ITS PLACE IN 
HUMAN LIFE 

RlSHIKESH 

12 August, 1954 

MAY I thank you for this opportunity to be here 
and speak to you a few words on religion 
and its place in human life ? In our country, as in 
many others, the end of religion is experience of ulti- 
mate reality Brahmdnubhava or personal encounter 
with God, Krsnarjuna-samvada. The goal of religion 
is the opening of a new realm of consciousness. 
When this consciousness arises, we see that the 
individual parts of the universe derive their signi- 
ficance from the central unity of spirit. This renewal 
of consciousness is the second birth. To have this 
second birth, to be reborn, to be renewed, is the 
goal of the religious quest. 

All seers, whatever be their sects or the religions 
to which they belong, ask us to rise to the concep- 
tion of a God above gods, who is beyond image and 
concept, who can be experienced but not known, 
who is the vitality of the human spirit and the ulti- 
macy of all that exists. This is the highest kind of 
religion, the practice of the presence of God. 

We attain to this through meditation, contem- 
plative prayer. To aid the concentration of mind, 
as a support for contemplation, we have image 



198 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

worship. By the visible aspect our thoughts are 
drawn up in a spiritual flight and rise to the invisible 
majesty of God. We adore the Divine through the 
symbol or the image. 

Temples, like churches and mosques, are witnesses 
to man's search for God. We have in our country 
many temples, some in ruins, some deserted, and 
there does not seem to be any justification for 
another unless we, through it, are able to capture 
the true spirit of religion. It is in these sacred 
precincts that we have to fix our minds for some 
brief intervals in the routine of life on what is per- 
manent. In the modern age when we depend a 
great deal on the mechanical devices whose smooth 
functioning enables us to live a life of comfort at 
the material level, we tend to become estranged 
from an awareness of the inner reality. When the 
centre of life shifts to the objects, we overlook our 
own free subjectivity. 

In our country we have suffered a great deal on 
account of the abuse of religion. We affirm in loud 
tones that the service of man is the worship of God. 
But we have tolerated beliefs and practices which 
are anti-social. If paropakdra and bhutadayd are to be 
regarded as the central features of religion, no one 
who claims to be religious should tolerate practices 
which disintegrate society. No temples should be 
raised in the country which permit social discrimi- 
nation. Temples should foster social discipline and 
solidarity. 



RELIGION AND ITS PLACE IN HUMAN LIFE 199 

This is a place where we have many sadhus and 
samnyasins. They are treated with respect by the 
community as the representatives of our religion. 
While laymen have their responsibility, sadhus and 
samnyasins have a higher responsibility. It cannot 
be said that they are all today men without selfish 
longings and personal ambitions. The Buddha 
remarked : 'What harm has your hair (keid) done ? 
Remove defects (klefa) from your hearts. 5 The 
sadhus and samnyasins inherit a great tradition from 
Yajfiavalkya, Buddha, Sarhkara, and Ramanuja 
and they must endeavour to live up to this great 
tradition. May I, in all humility, appeal to them 
that the robes they wear will be sullied if they do 
not act in conformity with the ideals their robes 
proclaim ? 

We are today facing many problems of an un- 
precedented character. If we have to solve them, 
we must have men and women who have the spirit 
of religion. What is needed is not textual learning, 
vakydrtha-jfiana but atma-jnana or self-knowledge. 

When India is said to be a Secular State, it does 
not mean that we as a people reject the reality of an 
Unseen Spirit or the relevance of religion to life 
or that we exalt irreligion. It does not mean that 
secularism itself becomes a positive religion or that 
the State assumes divine prerogatives. Though 
faith in the Supreme Spirit is the basic principle of 
the Indian tradition, our State will not identify 
itself with or be controlled by any particular 



200 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

religion. This view of religious impartiality has a 
prophetic role to play within our national life. No 
group of citizens shall arrogate to itself rights and 
privileges which it denies to others. No person shall 
suffer any form of disability or discrimination be- 
cause of his religion. All alike will be free to share to 
the fullest degree in the common life. This is the 
meaning of secularism. 



THE ANCIENT ASIAN VIEW OF MAN* 

IN Columbia University, students of different 
cultures, from different parts of the world, are 
brought together, and this provides an opportunity 
for redefining man's cultural destiny and rediscover- 
ing his larger heritage. Those who are organizing 
this series of broadcasts are persuaded that our great 
need today is a deeper understanding and appre- 
ciation of other peoples and their civilizations, 
especially their ethical and spiritual achievements. 
The Asian view of man is not very much different 
from the ancient European view of man. I do not 
believe in the pseudo-science of national or conti- 
nental psychology which affirms that all Asians 
are this and all Europeans are that. The history of 
any people is slightly more complicated than these 
sweeping statements would suggest. As a matter of 
fact, the Asian and the European peoples had com- 
mon beginnings and developed from them relatively 
independent views and acquired certain features 
which marked them from each other. 

In spite of varying developments, the different 
peoples of Asia possess a number of features in 
common, which will justify our speaking of an Asian 
view of man. This view is essentially a religious one. 
All the living faiths of mankind had their origin in 

* Broadcast Address for the Columbia University Bi-centen- 
nial Celebrations, October 1954 



202 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Asia : Confucianism and Taoism in China; Hin- 
duism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism in India; 
Zoroastrianism in Iran; Judaism and Christianity 
in Palestine; and Islam in Arabia. The religions 
adopted by the Western people are all derived from 
Asia. In a short discourse it will not be possible to 
deal in detail with the different religious develop- 
ments. I shall content myself with a statement of 
the Indian point of view, with which I happen to be 
somewhat familiar. Besides, Indian culture has 
influenced a large part of Asia's thought and art 
and affected other parts of the world also. Peoples 
of different races, languages, and cultures met on 
the soil of India; and, though we read of occasional 
clashes, they have settled down as members of a 
common civilization whose primary characteristics 
are faith in an unseen reality, of which all life is a 
manifestation, the primacy of spiritual experience, 
a rigid adherence to intellectual norms, and an 
anxiety for harmonizing apparent opposites. 

The one doctrine by which Indian culture is best 
known to the outside world is that of tat tvam asi. The 
eternal is in one's self. The Real which is the inmost 
of all things is the essence of one's own soul. The 
sage whose passions are at rest sees within himself 
the majesty of the great Real. Because there is the 
reflection of the Divine in man, the individual 
becomes sacred. If we try to possess man as flesh or 
as mind to be moulded, we fail to recognize that he 
is essentially the unseizable who bears the image 



ANCIENT ASIAN VIEW OF MAN 203 

and likeness of God and is not the product of natural 
necessity* Man is not something thrown off, as it 
were, in a cosmic whirl. As a spiritual being, he is 
lifted above the level of the natural and the social 
world. He is essentially subject, not object. Modern 
existentialism points out that a type of thought 
which dominates the treatment of objects is inade- 
quate to the thinker, the existing individual. His 
inward reality is not to be equated with the qualities 
by which he is defined or the external relations by 
which he is bound. We know the self not in the sense 
we know the object. When we look inwards we find 
a limit to our knowledge of the inner life. The self 
is deeper than the perceptions, thoughts, and feel- 
ings. We cannot see it or define it, for it is that which 
does the seeing and the defining. It is the eye which 
is not the object but the subject of our knowing. It 
can be grasped, not by thought, but by our whole 
being. Then we realize the existential presence of 
the ultimate reality in each individual. 

The Indian classic, the Bhagavadgita, speaks of 
the spirit of man as immortal. Weapons do not 
cleave the Self, fire does not burn him, waters do 
not make him wet, nor does the wind make him 
dry. He is uncleavable, he cannot be burnt, he can 
be neither wetted nor dried; he is eternal, all- 
pervading, unchanging, immovable; he is the same 
forever. 

The term 'personality* is derived from the Latin 
persona, which means literally the mask that is 



204 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

worn over the face by the actor on the stage, the 
mask through which he sounds his part. The actor 
is an unknown, anonymous being who remains 
intrinsically aloof from the play. He is unconcerned 
with the enacted sufferings and passions. The real 
being is concealed, shrouded, veiled in the costumes 
of the play. To break from the confines of persona- 
lity into the unfathomed reaches of his true being 
requires disciplined effort. By penetrating through 
the layers of the manifest personality, the individual 
arrives at the unconcerned actor of life. Man is 
more than the sum of his appearances. When Crito 
asks : c ln what way shall we bury you, Socrates ?' 
Socrates answers : 'In any way you like, but first 
catch me, the real me. Be of good cheer, my dear 
Crito, and say that you are burying my body only, 
and do with that whatever is usual and what you 
think best.' 

The Indian thinkers do not oppose nature to 
spirit. When the natural life of man comes to itself, 
his spiritual being becomes manifest. Man's final 
growth rests with himself. His future is not solely 
determined, like that of other animals, by his bio- 
logical past. It is controlled by his own plans for the 
universe. Man is not an insignificant speck in a 
depersonalized universe. When we overlook the 
inward subjectivity of man, lose ourselves in the 
world, we confuse being with having; we flounder 
in possessions as in a dark, suffocating bog, wasting 
our energies, not on life, but on things. Instead of 



ANCIENT ASIAN VIEW OF MAN 205 

using our houses, our wealth, and our other posses- 
sions, we let them possess and use us; we thus 
become lost to the life *of spirit and are soulless. It is 
attachment to nature that is inconsistent with spiri- 
tual dignity. It is not necessary for us to throw off 
the limitations of nature. Our bodies are the temples 
of the Divine. They are the means for the realiza- 
tion of value, dharma-sadhana. When human beings 
are most clearly aware, most awake, they feel that 
in some sense which cannot be clearly articulated, 
they are the instruments for the expression of the 
spirit, vessels of the spirit. When we realize this, 
we outgrow individualism, we see that we and our 
fellow-men are the expressions of the same spirit; 
the distinctions of race and colour, religion and 
nation become relative contingencies. We are re- 
minded of Socrates' death-bed statement : C I am not 
an Athenian or a Greek but a citizen of the world.' 
To the large-hearted, all men are brothers in blood, 
says a well-known Sanskrit verse. The Bhagavadgitd 
tells us that a truly religious man sees with equality 
everything in the image of his own self, whether in 
pleasure or in pain. 

From the emphasis on the immanence of the 
Divine in man, it follows that there is not one single 
individual, however criminal he may be, who is 
beyond redemption. There is no place at whose 
gates it is written : Abandon all hope, ye who enter 
here. There are no individuals who are utterly evil. 
Their characters have to be understood from within 



206 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

the context of their lives. Perhaps the criminals are 
diseased fellow-men whose love has lost its proper 
aim. All men are the children of the Immortal, 
amrtasya putrdh. The spirit is in everyone as a part of 
one's self, as a part of the very substratum of one's 
being. It may be buried in some like a hidden trea- 
sure beneath a barren debris of brutality and 
violence but it is there all the same, operative and 
alive, ready to come to the surface at the first suit- 
able opportunity. The light which lighteth every 
man that cometh into the world cannot be put out. 
Whether we like it or not, whether we know it or 
not, the Divine is in us and the end of man consists 
in attaining conscious union with the Divine. A 
Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher observes : 'There 
is no hamlet so forlorn that the rays of the silver 
moon fail to reach it. Nor is there any man who by 
opening wide the windows of his thought cannot 
perceive divine truth and take it into his heart/ 

The distinction between the kingdoms of light 
and of darkness, between heaven and hell becomes 
untenable. The cosmic power of the Eternal, His 
universal love will not suffer defeat. Hindu and 
Buddhist systems aim at universal salvation. Ac- 
cording to Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha deli- 
berately refrained from coming to the final term of 
enlightenment in order to help others on the way. 
He has taken a vow that He will not enter into 
nirvana until everything that exists, every particle 
of corruptible dust, has reached the goal. 



ANCIENT ASIAN VIEW OF MAN 207 

This does not mean that the Hindu and the 
Buddhist religions cancel the distinction between 
good and evil. It only means that even the evil have 
other chances. The Divine provides the soul with a 
succession of spiritual opportunities. If there is only 
one chance given to human beings, they have at 
the end of this one life to be redeemed if good or 
condemned if evil. Such a doctrine is not consistent 
with the view that God is infinite love, infinite 
compassion. India has stood for an ideal that does 
not make man merely a creature of time, dependent 
solely on his material conditions and possessions, 
and confined to them. We have proclaimed that the 
world is under moral law, that the life is the scene 
of man's moral choice. It is dharma-ksetra. It is never 
too late for man to strive and attain his full stature. 
For the Hindu and the Buddhist, religion is a 
transforming experience. It is not a theory of God; 
it is spiritual consciousness, insight into Reality. 
Belief and conduct, rites and ceremonies, dogmas 
and authorities are subordinate to the art of con- 
scious self-discovery and contact with the Divine. 
When the individual withdraws his soul from all 
outward events, gathers himself together inwardly, 
strives with concentration, there breaks upon him 
an experience sacred, strange, wondrous, which 
quickens within him, lays hold on him, becomes 
his very being. The possibility of this experience 
constitutes the most conclusive proof of the reality 
of God. Even those who are the children of science 



208 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

and reason must submit to the fact of spiritual 
experience which is primary and positive. We may 
dispute theologies, but we cannot deny facts. The 
fire of life in its visible burning compels assent, 
though not the fumbling speculations of smokers 
sitting around the fire. 

While realization is a fact, the theory of reality 
is an inference. There is a difference between con- 
tact with reality and opinion about it, between the 
mystery of godliness and belief in God. 

Rationalistic self-sufficiency is dangerous. The 
human mind is sadly crippled in its religious think- 
ing by the belief that truth has been found, embo- 
died, standardized, and nothing remains for man 
but to reproduce in his feebleness some treasured 
feature of an immutable perfection which is distant 
from him. Claims to infallible truth, based on 
alleged revelations, are not compatible with religion 
as spiritual adventure. The fulfilment of man's 
life is spiritual experience in which every aspect of 
man's being is raised to its highest point; all the 
senses gather, the whole mind leaps forward and 
realizes in one quivering instant such things as 
cannot be expressed. Though it is beyond the word 
of tongue or concept of mind, the longing and love 
of the soul, its desire and anxiety, its seeking and 
thinking are filled with the highest spirit. This is 
religion. It is not mere argument about it. 

When we frame theories of religion, we turn the 
being of the soul into the having of a thing. We 



ANCIENT ASIAN VIEW OF MAN 209 

transform what originally comprehended our being 
into some object which we ourselves comprehend. 
Thus the total experience becomes an item of 
knowledge. Our disputes about dogmas are in re- 
gard to these partial items of knowledge. At its 
depth, religion in its silences and expressions is the 
same. There is a common ground on which the 
different religious traditions rest. This common 
ground belongs of right to all of us, as it has its 
source in the non-historical, the eternal; the uni- 
versality of fundamental ideas which historical 
studies demonstrate is the hope of the future. It will 
make for religious unity and cultural understanding. 
The essential points of the Asian outlook on life, 
which are also to be found in the great tradition of 
spiritual life in the West, give us the basic certain- 
ties for the new world which is on the horizon. These 
are the divine possibilities of the soul, faith in 
democracy, unity of all life and existence, insistence 
on the active reconciliation of different faiths and 
cultures so as to promote the unity of mankind. 

Modern civilization, which is becoming increa- 
singly technological, tends to concentrate on a 
limited order of truth. It accepts the scientifically 
verifiable as the only basis for action. Some scientists 
and technicians who have emerged as the leaders 
of our age speak of man as a purely mechanical, 
material being, a creature made up of automatic 
reflexes. They emphasize the more earthly propen- 
sities of men and women. They seem to be blind to 

14 



210 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

the higher sanctity which lives in man. Those who 
are born in this age feel the loss of faith; they are 
the spiritually displaced; they are the culturally 
uprooted; they are the traditionless. The only 
hope for man is a spiritual recovery, the realization 
that he is an unfinished animal and his goal is the 
Kingdom of God which is latent in him/ 'All epochs 
dominated by belief, in whatever shape, have a 
radiance and bliss of their own and bear fruit for 
their people as well as for posterity. All epochs over 
which unbelief, in whatever form, maintains its 
miserable victory are ignored by posterity, because 
nobody likes to tug his life out over sterile things. 5 
Few people would deny the truth of this statement 
of Goethe or that this is an age of unbelief. It is an 
age not so much unlit by belief as lacking the very 
capacity to believe. The modern community, as a 
community, has lost its sense of the relatedness of 
things. There is a void today in men's minds which 
dogmatic religions are unable to fill. When the old 
gods, the old verities, the old values are fading, 
when life itself has become dim and its very forms 
are stiffening, there ^are always some intense natures 
to whom it is intolerable that there should not 
already be new and greater faiths in sight. We are 
too profoundly religious to be able to endure this 
precarious predicament. 

When Graeco-Roman civilization was triumphant, 
it failed to supply its conquered peoples with a 
religion and, instead, was itself conquered by a 



ANCIENT ASIAN VIEW OF MAN 211 

religion supplied by them. May it not be that today 
the peoples of Asia may supply a spiritual orienta- 
tion to the new world based on science and techno- 
logy ? By its material and political devices, the West 
is able to provide a secure framework of order 
within which different civilizations could mingle, 
and fruitful intercourse between them can take 
place by which the spiritual poverty of the world 
can be overcome. Without a spiritual recovery, the 
scientific achievements threaten to destroy us. We 
are living in days of destiny. Either the world will 
blow up in flames or settle down in peace. It depends 
on the seriousness with which we face the tasks of 
our age. A human society worthy of our science 
and the mobilized wisdom of the world can be built 
if those in power and position are willing to submit 
to severities which are not so drastic as a war will 
demand. 

Let me end with an ancient prayer : Let all here 
be happy, let all be healthy, let all see the face of 
happiness, let no one be unhappy. Peace ! Peace ! 
Peace ! 

sarve bhavantu sukhinah, 

sarve santu nirdmaydh^ 

sarve bhadrdni pasyantu, 

md kascit duhkhabhdg bhavet. 

fdntih ! sdntih ! sdntih ! 



THE SOCIAL MESSAGE OF RELIGION* 

MAY I, at the outset, offer you, Cardinal Gracias, 
our warm congratulations on your appoint- 
ment as Papal Legate ? 

I am happy to be here and take part in this 
ceremony, convinced as I am, that the great need of 
our age is revival of spiritual values. The two wars 
in our generation and the alarming advances in 
nuclear weapons, the social strains and upheavals 
that have become chronic, the lack of any clear 
vision of the future have had vastly disintegrating 
effects on our minds and morals. 

Many observations are made on the place of reli- 
gion in modern life and it is said that it imposes 
shackles on the human mind, that it blinds reason, 
that it deadens sensibility, that it asks us to sur- 
render our integrity and submit unthinkingly to 
authority in belief and practice. Socially it is argued 
that it disdains the world, that, if it takes interest 
in it, it is only to defend the status quo and justify 
existing wrongs and evils. The leaders of religions 
are doing little to check the process of decivilizing 
men in the name of vast organizations, of destroying 
the springs of tenderness, of compassion, of fellow- 
feeling in the human heart. The need of the world 
today is human unity and religions are proving to 

* Address at the Marian Congress, Bombay, 4 December, 
1954 



THE SOCIAL MESSAGE OF RELIGION 213 

be great obstacles in its way. They have departed 
from their original purity, lost their dynamic vigour 
and degenerated into arrogant sects. The spiritual 
inspiration is buried under irrational habits and 
mechanical practices. 

It is therefore most appropriate that you should 
have selected for the motto of this Congress the 
seventh verse of the first chapter of the second epistle 
of Paul the Apostle to Timothy : 'The spirit he has 
bestowed on us is not one that shrinks from danger; 
it is a spirit of action, of love and of discipline.' 

Freedom from fear, abhaya, which does not shrink 
from danger, a state of peace and power this 
is the inward grace of a religious mind; its social 
expression is action and love. Love of God and love 
of neighbour are the two sides, inward and outward, 
of a truly religious soul. 

Love of God is not a mere phrase, not an intel- 
lectual proposition to which we consent with our 
minds. It is a transforming experience, a burning 
conviction. Life eternal cannot be had from mere 
knowledge of the meaning of texts. It is the worship 
of God in spirit and in truth. It is what is called 
dvitiyarhjanmci) a second birth. We are born into the 
world of nature and necessity, of darkness and 
death; we must be reborn into the world of spirit 
and freedom, of light and life. The destiny of man is 
not natural perfection, but it is life in God. Human 
nature finds its fulfilment in God. 

Religion, in all its forms, declares that the human 



214 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

being should be made into a new man. Man, as 
he is, is the raw material for an inward growth, an 
inner evolution. As he is, he is incomplete, un- 
finished, imperfect. He has to reach inner comple- 
tion through meta-noia which is not adequately 
translated as repentance. Unless, in Jesus' words, we 
repent, unless we are reborn, unless we are renewed 
in our consciousness, unless we become like a little 
child, responsive to the magic and mystery of 
the world, we cannot enter the kingdom of God. 
When a man is reborn in the world of spirit, gains 
insight into reality, his lostness is no more, his 
loneliness disappears and he has communion with 
the Divine. 

Discipline of human nature is essential for the 
attainment of the goal. Purity of mind and body is 
the means for perfection. Models of purity as the 
one you are celebrating this year help us to purify 
ourselves. Peace of mind can be attained only by 
self-control, the control of our emotions and desires 

Such a redeemed soul participates in the work 
of the world : 

sva-dharma-karma-vimukhdh krsna krsneti vadinah 
te harer dvesino mudhdh dharmdrtharh janma yadd 
hareh. 

Those who merely say, Krishna, Krishna, and are 
indifferent to their respective duties are enemies of 
God, foolish, for the very Lord takes birth for the 
sake of righteousness. God is not merely justice and 
power; He is love and understanding. If we are to 



THE SOCIAL MESSAGE OF RELIGION 215 

imitate the Divine, we must work for the better- 
ment of the world. In spite of pettiness and defeat, 
treachery and disappointment, despite death itself, 
the authentic religious soul feels that it is better to 
live in accord with the ideals of truth and love than 
retreat into cynicism, denial and despair. Even 
when misfortunes befall us, we should not shrink 
from danger but be 'steady like a lamp in a windless 
place 5 , 1 (Bhagavadgita) or as Dante puts it, 'stand like 
a tower whose summit never shakes 5 . Jackals may 
howl in the fields but up above the stars shine. 
Goodness is more deeply rooted in the nature of 
things than its opposite. Life has a destiny which 
justifies any sacrifices to which it is called. 

All our activities whether they relate to our 
society or the world should be permeated by the 
spirit of religion. 2 When we know what a frightful 
evil war would be in this atomic age, it is our reli- 
gious duty to do everything in our power to avert 
it. The world is not for hate and malice, for revenge 
and destruction. We must stand up for the spirit of 
just and merciful dealing and work for love and 
charity on earth. If the brotherhood of peoples is to 
be realized, all nations must go through a process 
of inner renewal. 

On the 23rd of November I had the honour of a 
private audience with Pope Pius XII whose purity 
of life and penetration of mind are well known, 

1 VI, 19 

2 See Bhagavadgita IX, 17 



216 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

He has issued a prayer for the year which asks us 
to strive for peace and fellowship. 

Convert the wicked, dry the tears of the afflicted and op- 
pressed, comfort the poor and humble, quench hatreds, 
sweeten harshness, safeguard the flower of purity in youth, 
make all men feel the attraction of goodness. May they 
recognize that they are brothers, and that the nations are 
members of one family, upon which may there shine 
forth the sun of a universal and sincere peace. 

Religion is the force which can bring about this 
inward renewal. The different religions are the 
windows through which God's light shines into 
man's soul. There can be differences about the rays 
they transmit or the intensity of their splendour, but 
these differences do not justify discords and rival- 
ries. We must distinguish between the eternal light 
and its temporal reflections. The followers of dif- 
ferent religions are partners in one spiritual quest, 
pursuing alternative approaches to the goal of 
spiritual life, the vision of God. It is this view that 
has been adopted by this country from ancient 
times. We have here Jews, Christians, Catholics 
and Protestants, Parsees, Hindus, Muslims, who are 
exhorted by the spirit of this country which is 
incorporated in our Constitution, to learn from one 
another. May this Congress contribute to the 
process of co-operation among the different reli- 
gions and further the spirit of spiritual understand- 
ing and religious enlightenment and fellowship ! 



ALL-INDIA SHIA CONFERENCE 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 

25 December, 1954 

I AM glad to be here today and inaugurate the 
thirty-ninth session of the All-India Shia Con- 
ference. We are meeting on Christmas Day, known 
throughout the world for its spirit of goodwill and 
fellowship. It is that spirit which is India's supreme 
need today. We are living at a time when we should 
subordinate all considerations to the great cause of 
building up India. The people inhabiting this vast 
land may differ in a number of ways, but they are 
bound together by an essential unity. The history 
of India, even as that of the city of Delhi where 
this Conference is being held, is ample proof that 
whatever worth-while the present generation has in- 
herited from the past is not exclusive but composite. 
Contributions to it have been made at different 
points of history by people belonging to different 
religions and races. Many Shia religious teachers 
and men of letters brought the refinement and 
culture of West Asia to the heritage of India; and 
it is this universal nature of our heritage that we 
must seek to keep alive. 

Ours is a Secular State. This does not mean that 
we believe only in material values and have scant 
regard for the spiritual. Happiness should not be 



218 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

confused with material comfort or sense of satisfac- 
tion. It is really intellectual refinement and spiritual 
joy. The ideal of secularism means that we abandon 
the inhumanity of fanaticism and give up the futile 
hatred of others/ In a secular State there will be the 
spirit of true religion, and the environment neces- 
sary for the development of a gentle and considerate 
way of life. The saints of the world, belonging to 
all religions, including Shia saints, were leaders of 
redemptive work, of voluntary sacrifice and of stead- 
fastness against tremendous odds. 

The existence of various religions, communities 
and languages in India should not come in the way 
of its solidarity. The problems facing the Shia 
community social, economic, spiritual are by no 
means peculiar to them. Everybody in this country, 
irrespective of his caste or creed, stands in some 
need of spiritual or material rehabilitation. Let the 
Shias therefore not look upon themselves as being 
in competition with others for this or that facility. 
While it is your aim to work for the social better- 
ment and the cultural advance of the members of 
the Shia community, you must guard against the 
danger, which all community consciousness has, of 
militating against national solidarity. Whether we 
are Shia or Sunni, Hindu or Moslem, we all face 
the same problems and I hope you will work as 
devoted citizens of this country, which is now 
engaged in the noble enterprise of building a great 
and prosperous nation. We are all partnefs in the 



ALL-INDIA SHIA CONFERENCE 219 

task of national reconstruction. We here could look 
with profit to the example of Yugoslavia, whose 
President, Marshal Tito, was in Delhi recently. 
With a population of less than twenty million, 
Yugoslavia has two scripts, three religions, four 
languages, five nationalities and six republics 
and yet it is One nation. It is to achieve national 
solidarity in the truest sense of the term that all 
efforts in this country should be canalized. 

If religions are to continue to have their original 
appeal, they must adapt themselves to the needs of 
the times. For religion as for many other things 
there is no such thing as standing still. Stagnation 
is bound to overtake a religion unless it is alive to 
the changes taking place around it. In the Middle 
Ages, the days of its vigour, Islam produced great 
thinkers and humanitarians who profoundly affect- 
ed contemporary human thought. But if a religion 
aspires to immortality it has to be constantly young, 
which is only another way of saying that it must 
be alive to the demands of the times. I have said it 
at Al-Azar in Egypt and elsewhere and I say it 
here, that Moslems would do well to examine the 
need of making some changes in customs and 
manners while adhering to the two fundamental 
precepts of Islam faith in God and the welfare 
of humanity. 



MAHAVlRA JAYANTI CELEBRATIONS 
NEW DELHI 

5 April, 1955 

^-pHE period between 800 to 200 B.C. has been 
JL characterized as an axial period of history. In 
other words, the axis of world's thought shifted from 
a study of nature to a study of the life of man. In 
China, Lao Tse and Confucius; in India, the seers of 
the Upanisads, Mahavira and Gautama the Buddha; 
in Iran, Zoroaster; in Judea, the great prophets; and 
in Greece, the philosophers Pythagoras, Socrates 
and Plato; all of them turned their attention from 
outward nature to the study of the human self. 

Today, we are celebrating ihejayanti of one of 
those great figures of humanity, Mahavira. He is 
called the Jina, the conqueror. He did not conquer 
kingdoms; but he conquered his own self. He is 
called Mahavira, the great hero, not of the battles 
of the world but of the battles of the inward life. By 
a steady process of austerity, discipline, self-purifi- 
cation and understanding he raised himself to the 
position of a man who had attained divine status. 
We are therefore celebrating hisjayanti because his 
example is an incentive to others to pursue the 
same ideal of self-conquest. 

This country has from the beginning of its history 
down till today stood for this great ideal. When you 



MAHAVlRA JAYANTI CELEBRATIONS 221 

look at the symbols, the statues, and other relics 
which have come down to us from the time of 
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa down to our own 
day, we are reminded of the tradition that he who 
establishes the supremacy of spirit and its superiority 
to matter is the ideal man. This ideal has haunted 
the religious landscape of our country for four or 
five millennia. 

The great statement by which the Upanisads 
are known to the world is tat tvam asi that art thou. 
The potential divinity of the human soul is asserted 
thereby. We are called upon to understand that the 
soul is not to be confused with the body which can 
be broken, or the mind which can be moulded, but it 
is something which is superior to the relics of the 
body or the fluctuations of the mind something 
which each individual has, which is unseizable, so 
to say, which cannot be merely objectified. The 
human being is not something thrown off, as it were, 
in a cosmic whirl. As a spirit he is lifted above the 
natural and the social world. Unless we are able to 
realize the inwardness of the human self, the prin- 
ciple of subjectivity, we lose ourselves. Most of us 
are always lost in the pursuits of the world. We 
lose ourselves in the things of the world health, 
wealth, possessions, houses, property we let them 
possess us, we do not possess them. Such people are 
those who kill their own selves. They are called 
atma-hano jandh, so it is that in our country we have 
been asked to possess the soul. 



222 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Of all sciences the science of the self is the greatest. 
adhydtmavidyd vidydndm. The Upanisad tells us : 
dtmdnam viddhi, know thyself. Samkara lays down as 
an essential condition of spiritual life, atma-anatma- 
vastu viveka: the knowledge of the distinction be- 
tween the soul and the non-soul. There is nothing 
higher in this world than the possession of one's 
soul. So it has been said to us by different writers 
that the true man is he who uses all the possessions 
of the world for the purpose of realizing the innate 
dignity of the soul. The Upanisad in a series of pas- 
sages tells us that husband or wife or property these 
are opportunities for the realization of one's own 
self: dtmanastu kdmaya. He who achieves through 
discipline, through a blameless life his highest 
status is a paramdtman. He who achieves complete 
freedom is an arhat, free from all chances of rebirth 
or subjection to time. 

In Mahavlra we have an example of a man who 
renounced the things of the world, who was not 
entangled in the bonds of matter but who was able 
to realize the inward dignity of his own self. How 
can we pursue this ideal ? What are the ways by 
which we can attain this self-realization, this self- 
possession ? Our scriptures tell us, if we wish to 
know the self, sravana, manana, nididhydsana are to be 
practised. The Bhagavadgitd says : tad viddhi prani- 
pdtena pariprasnena sevqyd. The same three great 
principles were asserted by Mahavira when he men- 
tioned darsana, jndna, caritra. We must have visvdsa, 



MAHAVlRA JAYANTI CELEBRATIONS 223 

faith, sraddha, that there is something superior to the 
things of this world. Mere faith, blind unthinking 
faith, will not do. We must have knowledge, manana. 
By reflection we convert the product of faith into 
a product of enlightenment. But mere theoretical 
knowledge is not enough, vdkydrtha jndnamdtrena na 
amrtam We cannot get life eternal by mere textual 
learning. We must embody these great principles in 
our own life, caritra, conduct is equally essential. 
We start with darsana, pranipdta, or sravana. We 
come tojndna, manana, or pariprasna\ then we come 
to nididhydsana., sevd, or caritra. As the Jain thinkers 
put it, these are essential. 

What are the principles of caritra, or good con- 
duct, saddcarana ? The Jain teachers ask us to under- 
take different vows. Every Jain has to take five 
vows : not to kill anything, not to lie, not to take 
what is not given, to preserve chastity and to 
renounce pleasure in external things. But the most 
important of them all is the vow of ahimsa, the vow 
of non-violence, of non-injury to living beings. 
Some even renounce agriculture for it tears up 
the soil and crushes insects. In this world it is not 
possible for us to abstain from violence altogether. 
As the Mahdbhdrata has it jwo jivasya jwanam 
'Life is the food of life.' 

What we are called upon to do is to increase the 
scope, so to say, of non-violence -yatnat alpatard 
bhavet. By our self-effort we must reduce the scope 
of force and increase the scope of persuasion. 



So ahimsa is the ideal which we have set before 
ourselves. 

If we adopt that ideal we will get another conse- 
quence of it which is framed in the Jain doctrine of 
anekdntavdda. The Jains tell us that the absolute 
truth or kevala-jnana is our ideal. But so far as we are 
concerned we know only part of the truth. Vastu is 
anekadharmatmakam 9 , it has got many sides to it; it is 
complex; it has many qualities. People begin to 
realize this side of it or that side of it, but their 
views are partial, tentative, hypothetical. The 
complete truth is not to be found in these views. 
It is only realizable by the souls who have over- 
come their own passions. This fosters the spirit 
which makes us believe that what we think right 
may not after all be right. It makes us aware of the 
uncertainties of human hypotheses. It makes us 
believe that our deepest convictions may be change- 
able and passing. The Jains use the fable of the six 
blind men dealing with the elephant. One takes 
hold of the ears and says it is a winnowing fan. 
Another embraces it and says it is a pillar. But each 
of them gives us only one partial aspect of the ulti- 
mate truth. The aspects are not to be regarded as 
opposed to each other. They are not related to each 
other as light is related to darkness; they are related 
to each other as the different colours of the spectrum 
are related to one another. They are not to be regard- 
ed as contradictories, they are to be taken merely as 
contraries. They are alternative readings of reality. 



MAHAVlRA JAYANTI CELEBRATIONS 225 

The world today is in the throes of a new birth. 
While we aim at one world, division rather than 
unity characterizes our age. In a two-world pattern 
there is a temptation for many of us to think that 
this is right and that is wrong and we must therefore 
repudiate the other. Well, these are to be regarded 
as alternatives, so to say, as varying aspects of one 
fundamental reality. Over-emphasis on any one 
aspect of reality is analogous to the attitude of the 
blind men in the fable each of whom described the 
shape of the elephant according to the part of the 
animal he touched. 

Individual freedom and social justice are both 
essential for human welfare. We may exaggerate 
the one or underestimate the other. But he who 
follows the Jain concept of anekantavada, saptabhangi 
naya, or syadvdda, will not adopt that kind of cul- 
tural regimentation. He will have the spirit to dis- 
criminate between the right and the wrong in his 
own and in the opposite views, and try to work 
for a greater synthesis. That should be the attitude 
which we should adopt. So the necessity for self- 
control, the practice of ahimsa and also tolerance 
and appreciation of others' point of view these 
are some of the lessons which we can acquire from 
the great life of Mahavira. We would have paid a 
small part of the debt which we owe him if we 
remember these things and go away from here 
with these principles implanted in our hearts. 



UNION FOR THE STUDY OF THE GREAT 
RELIGIONS (INDIA BRANCH) 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
29 May, 1955 

THE world has been shrinking at an increasing 
pace, with the advance of communications and 
technology. We have now the physical basis for 
a unified world community. We do not any more 
live in separate worlds. Asia and Africa cannot raise 
the living standards of their peoples without technical 
aid from Europe and America. These latter cannot 
subsist without the commodities and raw materials 
of other parts of the world. Besides, science and 
technology have put great powers in the hands of 
men, which rightly used can give strength, freedom 
and better life to millions of human beings, or 
abused will bring chaos and destruction. Professor 
Adrian, President of the Royal Society of England, 
in his inaugural address on 'Science and Human 
Nature' at the 116th annual meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, said 
that the control achieved over the forces of nature 
was so complete 'that we might soon become able 
to destroy two-thirds of the world by pressing a 
button. 3 The destructive power now in the hands of 
men has reached such terrifying proportions that 
we cannot afford to take any risks. World solidarity, 



THE STUDY OF THE GREAT RELIGIONS 227 

lokasamgraha, is no more a pious dream. It is an 
urgent practical necessity. The unity of the world 
is being shaped through the logic of events, material, 
economic and political. If it is to endure, it must 
find psychological unity, spiritual coherence. The 
world, unified as a body, is groping for its soul. If 
mankind is to save itself, it must change the axis 
of its thought and life. There is throughout the 
world an increasing spread of materialism, mecha- 
nical or Marxist. A few of us who happened to be 
in Oxford some years ago felt that the contemporary 
religious situation was like a house divided against 
itself and so long as sectarian jealousies and religious 
rivalries continued, it would be difficult to ward 
off the growing evil of materialism. Convinced of 
the need for religion and the equal need for co- 
operation among religions, this Union for the study 
of the Great Religions of the World was started. It 
has no partisan or propagandist objectives. It calls 
for a sympathetic study and understanding of the 
great faiths which count millions of adherents and 
which possess, in spite of obvious defects, elements 
of strength and vitality. There are several centres of 
this Union in different parts of the world and I am 
happy to be here today and inaugurate the Indian 
Centre. 

The need for religion, for a system of thought, for 
devotion to a cause which will give our fragile and 
fugitive existence significance and value does not 
require much elaborate argument. It is an intrinsic 



228 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

element of human nature. The question is, what 
kind of religion? Is it a religion of love and brother- 
hood or of power and hate? Secular ideologies ask us 
to worship wealth and comfort, class or nation. The 
question is therefore not, religion or no religion, but 
what kind of religion. 

So long as any religious system is capable of 
responding creatively to every fresh challenge, 
whether it comes by the way of outer events or of 
ideas, it is healthy and progressive. When it fails to 
do so it is on the decline. The break-down of a 
society is generally due to a failure to devise ade- 
quate responses to new challenges, to a failure to 
retain the voluntary allegiance of the common 
people who, exposed to new winds of thought and 
criticism, are destitute of faith, though afraid of 
scepticism. Unless religions reckon with the forces 
at work and deal with them creatively, they are 
likely to fade away. 

We live in an age of science and we cannot be 
called upon to accept incredible dogmas or exclusive 
revelations. It is again an age of humanism. Religions 
which are insensitive to human ills and social crimes 
do not appeal to the modern man. Religions which 
make for division, discord and disintegration and 
do not foster unity, understanding and coherence, 
play into the hands of the opponents of religion. 

The general impression that the spirit of science 
is opposed to that of religion is unfortunate and 
untrue. One of the main arguments for the religious 



THE STUDY OF THE GREAT RELIGIONS 229 

thesis is the objective consideration of the cosmos. 
What is called natural theology is based on the 
study of the empirically observable facts and not 
from authoritative sources such as revelations or 
traditions. Those who attempt to construct by 
reasoned argument a theory of ultimate being from 
a survey of the facts of nature are adopting the 
scientific method. The Brahma Sutra which opens 
with the sutra, athato brahmajijnasa, now therefore the 
desire to know Brahman, is followed by the other, 
janmadyasya yatah. Brahman is that from which the 
origin of this world (along with subsistence and 
dissolution) proceeds. The sutra refers to the account 
in the third chapter of the Taittiriya Upanisad. 
There has been a steady ascent from the inorganic 
to the organic, from the organic to the sentient, 
from the sentient to the rational life. The rational 
has to grow into the spiritual which is as far above 
the purely rational as the rational is above the 
purely sentient. A spiritual fellowship is the mean- 
ing of history. The purpose of the cosmic process is 
the city of God in and out of time. Earth is the seed 
ground of the new life of spirit. Earth and heaven 
are intermingled. 1 

1 The vision of a renewed creation finds poignant expres- 
sion in the Apocalypse of St. John : 'Behold the tabernacle of 
God with men; and He will dwell with them and they shall be 
his people ; and God Himself with them shall be their God. 

And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes and death 
shall be no more. Nor shall mourning nor crying nor sorrow be 
any more, for the former things are passed away. And He that 
sat on the throne said : "Behold, I make all things new." ' 



230 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

The spirit of science does not suggest that the 
ultimate beginning is matter. We may split the 
atom. The mind of man which splits it is superior 
to the atom. The achievements of science stand as 
witnesses to the spirit in man. The nature of the 
cosmic evolution, with its order and progress, sug- 
gests the reality of underlying spirit. I need not refer 
to the metaphysicians trained in science like Lloyd 
Morgan, Alexander, Whitehead, and others. Albert 
Einstein in his book, The World As I see It, observes 
that the scientist's 'religious feeling takes the form of 
a rapturous amazement at the harmony of natural 
law, which reveals an intelligence of such superiority 
that, compared with it, all the systematic thinking 
and acting of human beings is an utterly insignifi- 
cant reflection. This feeling is the guiding principle 
of his life and work, in so far as he succeeds in 
keeping himself from the shackles of selfish desire. 
It is beyond question closely akin to that which has 
possessed the religious geniuses of all ages. 5 Scientists 
are men dedicated, set apart. They have renounced 
the life of action. Their life as the pursuit of truth is 
service of God, who is Truth : satya svarupa, satya- 
ndrqyana. Erasmus delivered the great dictum : 
'Wherever you encounter truth, look upon it as 

Christianity.' 

The spirit of science leads to the refinement of 
religion. Religion is not magic or witchcraft, quack- 
ery or superstition. It is not to be confused with 
outdated dogmas, incredible superstitions, which 



THE STUDY OF THE GREAT RELIGIONS 231 

are hindrances and barriers, which spoil the simpli- 
city of spiritual life. Intellectual authority should be 
treated with respect and not merely inherited 
authority. Besides, science requires us to adopt an 
empirical attitude. Experience is not limited to the 
data of perception or introspection. It embraces 
para-normal phenomena and spiritual states. All 
religions are rooted in experience. 

Among the relics of the Indus civilization are 
found figures which are the prototype of Siva, 
suggesting that he who explores his inward nature 
and integrates it is the ideal man. This image has 
haunted the spiritual landscape of this country 
from those early times till today. The Upanisads 
require us to acquire brahma-vidya or dtma-vidyd. 2 
The Katha Upanisad says that man is turned out- 
ward by his senses and so loses contact with himself. 
He has lost his way. His soul has become immersed 
in outer things, in power and possessions. It must 
turn round, dvrtta-caksuh, to find its right direction 
and discover the meaning and reality it has lost. 
The Jina is one who conquers his self. He is the 
mahdvira, one who has battled with his inward 
nature and triumphed over it. The Buddha asks 
us to seek enlightenment, bodhi. These different 

2 Some aspects of Greek religion emphasize self-knowledge. 
Heraclitus said : 'I sought myself.' The injunction to know the 
self was written over the porch at Delphi. Socrates started his 
quest by becoming aware that he does not know himself and 
indeed, that he does not know anything. When we know that 
we do not know, we begin to know ourselves. 



232 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

religions ask us to change our unregenerate nature, 
to replace avidyd, ignorance by vidya or wisdom. 

Of course, they do not mean by vidya textual 
learning. The man who knows all about the texts is 
mantravit, not dtmavit. ndyamdtmd pravacanena labhyo 
na medhayd, na bahund srutena? 'This self cannot be 
attained by instruction nor by intellectual power nor 
through much hearing. 5 Religion is not mere intel- 
lectual conformity or ceremonial piety; it is spiritual 
adventure. It is not theology but practice. To assume 
that we have discovered final truth is the fatal error. 
The human mind is sadly crippled in its religious 
thinking by the belief that truth has been found, 
embodied, standardized and nothing remains for 
us to do except to reproduce feebly some precious 
features of an immutable perfection. Religion is 
fulfilment of man's life, an experience in which every 
aspect of his being is raised to its highest extent. 
What is needed is a change of consciousness, a 
rebornness, an inner evolution, a change in under- 
standing. 

The distinction between time and eternity is quali- 
tative. No quantity of time can produce eternity 
nasty akrtah krtena. Our thought must be lifted to 
another order of reality above time. 4 The change 
from reason to spirit is a qualitative one. 

There is no such thing as an automatic evolution 

8 Katha Upanisad, I, 2.33 

4 Cf. Spinoza : 'Eternity cannot be defined by time or have 
any relation to it.* 



THE STUDY OF THE GREAT RELIGIONS 233 

of man, something that happens according to the 
laws of heredity and natural selection. Man's evolu- 
tion is bound up with his conscious effort. As he is, 
man is an unfinished being. He has to grow into a 
regenerate being and permit the currents of uni- 
versal life to flow through him. Those who have evolv- 
ed, who have realized their latent possibilities, who 
are reborn, serve as examples and guides to others. 

This is the teaching of Christianity. Jesus asks us 
to bring about this rebirth, the second birth, to 
become a new man. The change takes place by 
inner contemplation, not outer life. When Jesus 
rebukes the Pharisees, he is condemning the man of 
pretences, who keeps up appearances, who con- 
forms to the letter of the law. 'Except your righte- 
ousness shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes 
and the Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the 
Kingdom of Heaven.' 5 We must act not from the 
idea of reward but for the sake of what is good in itself. 
To attain heaven which is the higher level of under- 
standing, of being, one has to undergo inner growth, 
growth in wisdom and stature through prayer and 
fasting, through meditation and self-control. Jesus 
says of John the Baptist that he is the best of those 
born of women but the least in the Kingdom of 
Heaven was greater than he. 6 John speaks to us of sal- 
vation through moral life. He tells us what to do, not 
what to be. Jesus insists on inner transformation. John 

6 Matthew, V, 20 

Ibid, III, 2; Luke, III, 10-14 



234 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

symbolizes the man of external piety, Jesus, the man 
of inner understanding. 7 John asks us to become 
better, Jesus asks us to become different, new. John 
the Baptist was puzzled when he heard that Jesus 
and his disciples ate and drank and did not fast. 
They plucked the ears of corn on the Sabbath day. 
Jesus healed on the Sabbath day. John is still a man 
born of woman; he has not experienced rebirth. 
'Except a man be born again, he cannot see the 
Kingdom of God.' 8 The writer to the Ephesians 
says : 'Awake thou that sleepest and arise from the 
dead.' 9 We are like dead people; we should wake up. 
Christian teaching in its origin, before it became 
externalized and organized, was about awakening 
from sleep through the light shed by the inner 
wisdom. Jesus was one who had awakened and taught 
others the way of awakening. In this way, says the 
writer to the Ephesians, 'you will redeem the time. 310 
The Kingdom of Heaven is the highest state, 
attainable by man. It is within us. 11 c He hath set 

7 Luke, XVII, 20 

8 John, III, 3 

9 IV, 14 

10 V, 1 6. William Law following Boehme writes : 'Do but 
suppose a man to know himself, that he comes into this world 
on no other errand but to arise out of the vanity of time. Do 
but suppose him to govern his inward thought and outward 
action by this view of himself and then to him every day has lost 
all its evil; prosperity and adversity have no difference, because 
he receives them and uses them in the same spirit. 5 The Works 
of William Law (1749), reprinted in 1893, Vol. VII, p. 1. 

" John, III, 3 



THE STUDY OF THE GREAT RELIGIONS 235 

eternity in the heart of man. 512 Man stands between 
the visible and the invisible worlds. Our ordinary 
level of consciousness is not the highest form or the 
sole mode of experience possible to man. To get at 
the inner experience we must abstract from the 
outer. We must get away from the tumult of sense 
impressions, the riot of thoughts, the surgings of 
emotions, the throbs of desires. Boehme says that 
we come into the reality of our being and perceive 
everything in a new relation, c if we can stand still 
from self-thinking and self-willing and stop the 
wheel of imagination and the senses.' Karl Earth 
observes : 'Men suffer, because bearing within them 
an invisible, they find this unobservable inner world 
met by the tangible, foreign, other outer world, des- 
perately visible, dislocated, its fragments jostling 
one another, yet mightily powerful and strangely 
menacing and hostile.' 13 

The great scriptures are the records of the sayings 
of the prophets, dpta-vacana. We do not prove the 
truth of an idea by demonstrating that its author 
lived or that he was a respectable man. The evi- 
dence of truth lies in man's experience of it when 
it enters into him. The Buddha asks us to accept his 
words after examining them and not merely out of 
regard for him. 14 

All religions require us to look upon life as an 

la Ecclesiastes, III, II 

13 Commentary on Romans, p. 306 

14 parikjya bhik$avo grdhyam madvaco na tu gauravdt. 



236 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

opportunity for self-realization atmanastu kdmaya. 
They call upon us to strive incessantly and wrest 
the immortal from the mortal. God is the universal 
reality, wisdom and love and we are His children, 
irrespective of race or religious belief. Within each 
incarnate soul dwells the god-consciousness which 
we must seek out and awaken. When mankind 
awakes to the truth, universal brotherhood will 
follow, the at-one-ment with the great fountain- 
head of all creation. One whose life is rooted in the 
experience of the Supreme spontaneously develops 
love for all creation. He will be free from hatred for 
any man. He will not look upon human beings as 
though they were irresponsible things, means to 
other peoples 5 interests. He will boldly work for a 
society in which man can be free and fearless, a 
subject, not an object. He will oppose terror and 
cruelty and stand by the outcast and the refugee. 
He will give voice to those who have no voice. What 
gives Marxism its immense vitality is the vision of 
injustice made good, of the poor raised to power 
and the proud brought low. 

Religion in this sense will be the binding force 
which will deepen the solidarity of human society. 
The encounter of the different religions has brought 
up the question whether they could live side by side 
or whether one of them would supersede the others. 
Mankind at each period of its history cherishes the 
illusion of the finality of its existing modes of know- 
ledge. This illusion breeds intolerance and fanati- 



THE STUDY OF THE GREAT RELIGIONS 237 

cism. The world has bled and suffered from the 
disease of dogmatism, of conformity. Those who are 
conscious of a mission to bring the rest of humanity 
to their own way of life have been aggressive to- 
wards other ways of life. This ambition to make 
disciples of all nations is not the invention of the 
Communists. If we look upon our dogmatic formu- 
lations as approximations to the truth and not truth 
itself, then we must be prepared to modify them 
if we find other propositions which enter deeper 
into reality. On such a view it will be illogical for 
us to hold that any system of theology is an official, 
orthodox, obligatory and final presentation of 
truth. 15 Reality is larger than any system of theo- 
logy, however large. 

All great religions preach respect for other ways 
of life, whatever their practices may be. It is well 
known that in the East religious feuds have been 
relatively unknown. Early Christianity was not 
authoritarian. It was humanistic and tolerant so 
long as it was the religion of the poor and humble 
peasants, artisans and slaves, but when it became 
the religion of the Roman Empire, authoritarianism 
became more prominent. The tension between the 
two never ceased. It is illustrated by the conflict 

15 Gf. Charles E. Raven : 'It is precisely this claim to an 
absolute finality whether in the Church or the Scriptures or in 
Jesus Christ or in anything else, this claim that revelation 
belongs to a totally different order of reality from discovery or 
that a creed is something more than a working hypothesis, that 
perplexes and affronts those of us who have a proper sense of 
our own limitations.' 



238 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

between Augustine and Pelagius, between the 
Catholic civilization and the many heretical groups 
and between the various sects within Protestantism. 
So long as this attitude persists, intolerance is in- 
evitable. Faith without wisdom, without tolerance 
and respect for others' ways of life is a dangerous 
thing. The Crusaders who marched their armies 
eastward could not conceive it to be possible that the 
God of Islam might be the same God on whom they 
themselves relied. The historian of the Crusades, 
Mr Steven Runciman, concludes his account with 
very significant words which have a bearing on the 
contemporary world situation. 

In the long sequence of interaction and fusion between 
Orient and Occident out of which our civilization has 
grown, the Crusades were a tragic and destructive episode. 
The historian, as he gazes back across the centuries, must 
find his admiration overcast by sorrow at the witness that 
it bears to the limitations of human nature. There was so 
much courage and so little honour, so much devotion and 
so little understanding. High ideals were besmirched by 
cruelty and greed, enterprise and endurance by a blind 
and narrow self-righteousness; and the Holy War itself was 
nothing more than a long act of intolerance in the name 
of God, which is the sin against the Holy Ghost. 16 

The Quran asks us c not to revile those whom others 
worship besides Allah lest they, out of spite, revile 
Allah in their ignorance.' 17 The Quran says : 'We 
believe in God and the revelation given to us and to 

18 A History of the Crusades, Vol. Ill (1954), p. 480 
17 VI, 108 



THE STUDY OF THE GREAT RELIGIONS 239 

Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, and 
that given to Moses and Jesus and that given to 
other Apostles from their Lord. We make no 
difference between one and another of them, for 
we bow to Allah/ 18 Muhammad thought of himself 
as one who purified the ancient faith and rid it of 
the extravagances that had crept into it. The Quran 
says : c The same religion has He established for you 
as that which He enjoined on Noah, which we have 
sent by inspiration to thee. And that which we 
enjoined on Abraham, Moses and Jesus, namely, 
that you should remain steadfast in religion and 
make no divisions therein.' 19 

A religion which brings together the divine reve- 
lation in nature and history with the inner revela- 
tion in the life of the spirit can serve as the basis of 
the world order, as the religion of the future. What- 
ever point of view we start from, Hindu or Muslim, 
Buddhist or Christian, if we are sincere in our 
intention and earnest in our effort, we get to the 
Supreme. We are members of the one Invisible 
Church of God or one Fellowship of the Spirit, 
though we may belong to this or that visible Church. 

In all countries and in all religions, there are 
creative minorities who are working for a religion 
of spirit. We feel the first tremors of the rebirth of 
the world. There are several organizations working 
in the world today World Congress of Faiths 

18 II, 136 
19 XLII, 13 



240 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

(1936), World Alliance for Friendship through 
Religion and Church Peace Union (1914), World 
Brotherhood (1950), World Spiritual Council 
(1946), Society for the Study of Religions (1924). 
Inter-religious understanding which is the aim of 
this Organization, is native to this country. ASoka 
in his twelfth edict proclaimed : 

He who does reverence to his own sect, while disparag- 
ing the sects of others, wholly from attachment to his 
own, with intent to enhance the glory of his own sect, in 
reality, by such conduct, inflicts the severest injury on his 
own sect. Concord, therefore, is meritorious, to wit, 
hearkening and hearkening willingly to the law of piety 
as accepted by other people. 

Gandhi said : C I hold that it is the duty of every 
cultured man or woman to read sympathetically 
the Scriptures of the world. A friendly study of the 
world's religions is a sacred duty. 5 We must have 
the richness of the various traditions. We are the 
heirs of the heritage of the whole of humanity and 
not merely of our nation or religion. This view is 
being increasingly stressed in western religious 
circles. Archbishop William Temple puts it in a 
different way : 

All that is noble in the non-Christian systems of thought 
or conduct or worship is the work of Christ upon them and 
within them. By the Word of God that is to say, by 
Jesus Christ Isaiah and Plato and Zoroaster and [the] 
Buddha and Confucius conceived and uttered such truth 
as they declared. There is only one divine light, and every 
man in his measure is enlightened by it. Yet, each has 
only a few rays of that light, which needs all the wisdom 



THE STUDY OF THE GREAT RELIGIONS 241 

of all the human traditions to manifest the entire compass 
of its spectrum. 20 

Dr Albert Schweitzer observes : c Western and 
Indian philosophers must not contend, in the spirit 
that aims at the one proving itself right in opposition 
to the other. Both must be moving towards a way of 
thinking which shall eventually be shared in com- 
mon by all mankind.' 21 Professor Arnold Toynbee 
writes that he would 'express his personal belief that 
the four higher religions that were alive in the age in 
which he was living were four variations on a single 
theme and that, if all the four components of this 
heavenly music of the spheres could be audible on 
each simultaneously, and with equal clarity to one 
pair of human ears, the happy hearer would find 
himself listening, not to a discord, but to a har- 
mony. 522 In an article in The Observer, October 24th, 
1954, he writes that 'this Catholic-minded Indian 
religious spirit is the way of salvation for human be- 
ings of all religions in an age in which we have to 
learn to live as a single family if we are not to destroy 
ourselves.' This Union does not wish any religion 
to compromise or capitulate. It wishes to treat all 
religions as friendly partners in the supreme task 
of nourishing the spiritual life of mankind. When 
they begin to fertilize one another, they will supply 
the soul for which this world is seeking. 

20 Readings in Saint John's Gospel, First Series (1939) 

21 George Seaver : Albert Schweitzer (1947), p. 276 

22 A Study of History, Vol. VII (1954), p. 428 
16 



SHRI KRISHNA JANMASHTAMI 
CELEBRATIONS, CALCUTTA 

10 August, 1955 

IT is always a pleasure for me to come to Calcutta 
and I am specially happy to be here on this sacred 
occasion. Yesterday I had the pleasure of opening 
the Durgapur barrage which will help to increase 
the food production of West Bengal. Many of our 
schemes of the Second Five Year Plan are calculated 
to effect our economic prosperity. But we must 
improve not only the circumstances of man but 
man himself. If we look at what man has done to 
man, we will find that the task of his regeneration 
is a vital necessity. 

We are impressed by the great achievements of the 
modern world, the achievements of Welfare States 
justice, equality before law, universal educa- 
tion, telephones and radio, trains that run in time, 
etc. etc., but we cannot forget that these great 
advances in scientific progress have not prevented 
our descending into depths of horror submarine 
warfare, napalm and atom bombs, obliteration air 
attacks, liquidation of millions in camps of death. 
All this shows that we seem to be concerned more 
about the mastery of the environment than the 
mastery of our desires. We seem to be aiming at 
power and more power, mechanical, nuclear. In 



SHRI KRISHNA JANMASHTAMI CELEBRATIONS 243 

spite of many centuries of progress and enlighten- 
ment, we find great nations, leaders of civilization, 
practise cruelty, persecution and superstition. But 
this does not mean that human nature cannot be 
changed. The power of Governments over men's 
beliefs has increased of late. We can inspire men 
with an ardent desire to kill one another or we can 
help to make them sane and reasonable people. 
Governments can turn large masses of men this way 
or that as they choose. We can generate collective 
enthusiasm for good or bad. 

This country from its early beginnings has looked 
upon the human being as a spark of spirit, an amsa 
or fragment of God. To realize the divine destiny in 
him is his task. It has therefore worshipped the 
monk meditating in the cave and preferred him to 
the prince living in luxury in a palace or a military 
hero or an industrial magnate. A Sanskrit verse 
says : 'Holy is the family and blessed the mother, 
nay, the earth itself becomes sanctified by him 
whose mind is absorbed in the Supreme Brahman, 
the ocean of infinite knowledge and bliss. 5 The aim 
of every human being is to attain this unity, this 
communion with the Supreme Spiritual Reality. 

Shri Krishna in the Bhagavadgitd tells us how best 
we can attain to this final end of man. We are not 
asked to accept anything on trust, take anything on 
authority but discover for ourselves the truth of 
things. The cosmic process which takes us from 
matter to life, life to mind, mind to intelligence, 



244 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITTINGS 

and intelligence to spirit, requires an underlying 
Reality to support and sustain it. As it is something 
which transcends the intellectual level, we cannot 
describe it by words. We indulge in contradictory 
descriptions to indicate the immensity of the 
mystery. 

The avatara, the incarnation, is not an event 
which happened once upon a time. Shri Krishna is 
not a long forgotten figure of a distant past, but a 
living presence. The birth of God, the manifesta- 
tion of God takes place, when we are able to break 
down the obstacles which shut in the divine splen- 
dour. The Bhagavata says : Devaki is a devarupinL 
Each of us has a divine nature which is covered 
over by the undivine. If we are able to break down 
the shell, the outer walls, the imprisoned splendour 
reveals itself. There is the birth of God, the God who 
is with us, who is our friend, suhrt. 

How are we to realize the God in us ? Different 
methods suited to different temperaments are sug- 
gested but devotion to the Supreme Lord is the 
easiest. The Ndrada Bhakti Sutra says that among the 
devotees there are no distinctions of caste, learning, 
external appearance, birth, possessions, occupa- 
tions, etc. No religion can justify or accept with 
equanimity these tragic distortions of human 
dignity. 

India's centuries span some five millennia. The 
message India holds for mankind that this world is 
not all and that it is sustained by a supreme spirit 



SHRI KRISHNA JANMASHTAMI CELEBRATIONS 245 

which can be defined and approached in various 
ways has still meaning for us. India did not believe 
in exclusive nationalism or chosen people. These 
are romantic myths. Above all nations is humanity, 
civilization, vdranasi medinL The whole world is our 
sacred home. We are asked to work for world 
solidarity, lokasamgraha. 

A culture is never static when alive. It is always 
seeking a stable equilibrium, a harmony, a stillness 
where all tensions social, spiritual and personal 
are resolved, a state of balancing where men are at 
peace with themselves, with their fellow-men and 
with forces of nature. 

Our minds today are greatly confused, aneka-citta- 
vibhrdnta. There is an irrationality, an impulsiveness 
among people, a moral and a spiritual vacuum. 
Strange voices are heard. If we are not to be seduced 
by false notes, if we are to preserve our national 
chastity, the message which has come down to us 
from ancient times will have to be revitalized. We 
must remind ourselves of the teaching of our pro- 
phet souls, Rama, Krishna, Buddha, Ghaitanya. All 
of us may not be called to be saints, but whatever 
work we undertake, trade, business, or industry, 
teaching or healing, we should undertake it in a 
spirit of worship. Our whole life, all our activity 
must become a vocation. 

Plato once remarked that when the modes of 
music change, the walls of the city are shaken. A 
change in the modes of our thought and beliefs is 



246 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

the first symptom of growing uneasiness and will 
soon manifest itself in political and economic 
arrangements leading to the shaking of walls. While 
we should respond to the changing conditions of 
the world, we should do so within the framework of 
our cultural heritage. 



GANDHI AND THE UNITED NATIONS 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
4 October, 1955 

I AM glad to be here today and inaugurate a sym- 
posium on Gandhiji's teachings and the United 
Nations. Gandhiji is essentially a religious man. He 
has faith in the essential unity of mankind. We are 
the children of the One Supreme whatever be our 
caste or sex, creed or country. Every religious man 
believes that he has kinship with the whole of 
humanity. Socrates, for example, declared on his 
death-bed that he was not an Athenian or a Greek 
but a citizen of the world. Every authentically reli- 
gious man looks upon the whole world as his home. 
The central features of religion are abhaya and 
ahimsa, freedom from fear and freedom from vio- 
lence or hate. Ahimsa is vaira-tydga. These are the 
teachings of all religions. Buddha calls them prajna 
and karund. 'Let a man overcome anger by non- 
anger; let him overcome evil by good; let him over- 
come the miser by liberality; let him overcome the 
liar by truth/ 1 Jesus names them truth and freedom* 
Truth will make us free. Our conduct to be right 

1 Dhammapada, XVII, 3. Cf. Mahdbhdrata : 

akrodhena jayet krodham asddhum sddhuna jayet 
jayet kadaryam ddnena satyendlika-vddinam. 



248 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

should be based on non-violence* Love overcomes 
and endures and hatred destroys. 

ahimsd-laksano dharmah, 

hirhsd ca adharmalaksanah. 

dayd dharmakd mula hat. 

If we are all children of the One Supreme, it fol- 
lows that all wars are civil strife and all misunder- 
standings require to be cleared up not by violence 
but by peaceful methods. * Ye have heard that it has 
been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour and hate 
thine enemy. But I say unto you "love your 
enemies.'" 2 Gandhi asks us to recognize evil and 
combat it but he recognizes no enemy, for all men 
are brethren. So Gandhi advocated the method of 
peaceful persuasion. He held up to us the power of 
non-violence, of gentleness : 

mrduna ddrunam hanti mrduna hanti addrunam y 
ndsddhyam mrduna kincit tasmdt tiksnataram hi mrduh. 
Though we have been relying on force all these 
years, gradually we are tending to displace force by 
persuasion, coercion by consent. In the relations of 
parent and child, teacher and pupil, warden and 
ward, employer and employee we are revising our 
notions and using sympathetic understanding in 
place of enforced obedience. In the field of inter- 
national relations, violence has been the usual 
method of settling disputes. Reliance on military 
power has been an integral feature of the inter- 
national policies of powerful nations. Recent 
2 Matthew, V, 43-44 



GANDHI AND THE UNITED NATIONS 249 

developments in the weapons of war are making us 
rethink our traditional opinions. We stand today 
on the edge of a razor which divides the past from 
the future. 3 We have reached a dead end on the 
military road. If we adopt the military methods, 
we will effect the death of civilization. There is 
heavy concentration of military power including 
the atom and hydrogen bombs in two centres and 
there is a perception that a war in this context will 
not serve any national, ideological, or human 
interests or values. If we hang on to old methods of 
security in the new world we will die. 

It is clear that peace is not for the strong but for 
the just, yato dharmah tato jayah. There will not be 
peace until men learn to be just and they will not 
learn to be just until they learn to renounce reliance 
on force. 

The United Nations Organization requires us to 
adopt peaceful methods of negotiation, adjust- 
ment, and agreement. The United Nations Orga- 
nization and its specialized agencies are trying 
to remove the causes which breed wars. When 
science has enabled us to provide the benefits of 
civilization for the whole human race, why is it 
that we have the great contrasts of poverty and 
wealth, hunger and food, insecurity and great 
power, bondage and freedom ? Our hope remains 
in removing these paradoxes by radical changes. 
The conquest of physical poverty, the removal of 

8 kfurasya dhdra nUitd duratyayd. Kafka Upanifad, I, 3 



250 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

misunderstandings and the liberation of the human 
spirit are the aims of the United Nations. 

If the United Nations is unable to achieve its 
objectives, it is because nations who have sub- 
scribed to the Charter are unwilling, unready, or 
unable to carry out their obligations. They are 
still obsessed by their national interests and security 
by military power. Instead of using the United 
Nations as an instrument for mediation and peace- 
making, we use it for the implementation of cold 
war strategy. When aggression takes place, in some 
cases collective action is encouraged, and in others 
it is discouraged. Military assistance through pacts 
to some countries is accepted as reasonable while 
even sale of arms to others is deplored as unreason- 
able. It is unfortunate that strategic considerations 
supersede adherence to principles. This weakens the 
moral authority of the United Nations. Again, the 
United Nations loses much of its value because 
many countries who should be its members are 
refused admission. Millions of men still under colo- 
nial rule are not represented in it. The universality 
of the United Nations is impaired by discriminating 
treatment. Policies of race discrimination, colonial 
domination are practised by many countries and 
though they are gross violations of human rights, 
the United Nations is unable to enforce the provi- 
sions of the Charter. The trouble in United Nations 
Assembly today about the Algerian issue is one 
evidence of it. All this is possible because powerful 



GANDHI AND THE UNITED NATIONS 251 

nations of the West set the course of debate and 
influence decisions and the largest Asian nation has 
no place in it. 

In human history it is often the days of great 
tribulation and deepest despair that are the prelude 
to a time of enlightenment. The scale of our distress 
is sufficient to prompt the question whether we have 
not, on the presumption of nationalism and pride 
of material achievements brought the world towards 
the verge of annihilation. We have followed false 
roads in blind confidence. 

What the world n^eds today is not political or 
military unification but re-education. The indivi- 
dual should be trained to think in terms of humanity 
as a whole instead of in terms of this or that parti- 
cular clan or country. Modern means of communi- 
cation have widened inter-cultural and inter-racial 
contacts and sympathies. The time when different 
races and nations lived in comparative isolation, 
under their own distinctive laws and institutions is 
over. We have to adjust ourselves to the new world. 
The differences are not to be fought out of existence. 

The United Nations, in spite of all its defects, 
represents a unique and valuable contribution to 
the cause of peace. It is a bridge between the two 
groups into which the world is divided. It is a 
platform for the debate of issues which divide men 
and a rallying point for co-operation concerning 
issues on which there is unity. It is an agency 
dedicated to the purpose of developing mutual 



252 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

understanding. It should be our endeavour to 
make it approximate to a world organization with 
faith in democratic and social progress. True demo- 
cracy and peace are organically related. Gandhi 
who pleaded for the adoption of non-violence in 
international relations was the greatest servant 
of the cause of man which the world has had in 
recent times. 



INDIAN RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND 
MODERN CIVILIZATION* 

I 

I AM greatly honoured by the invitation to preside 
over this session of the Oriental Conference. I 
received it with a certain surprise for I have not 
taken an active part in the deliberations of the 
Oriental Conference. I attended the Oriental Con- 
ference which was held in Calcutta in 1922 and had 
the honour of welcoming the Conference at Banaras 
in 1943. So it is extremely kind of you to have 
thought of me for this exalted position. 

You will be disappointed if you expect from me 
any broad survey of the work done in Oriental studies 
since the Conference last met. I have neither the 
knowledge nor the competence to undertake such 
a survey. My remarks will be limited to the subject 
of Indian philosophy and religion and even there to 
one or two points of contemporary interest. 

The constructive ideas on which civilization is 
built are conventionally traced to this or that 
country, Greece or Rome, China or India. There is 
an old Talmudic saying The Rabbis ask, why was 
the Law given in the wilderness, and the answer is 
given : In order that no one country could claim 

* Presidential Address at All-India Oriental Conference, 
Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, 26 December, 1955 



254 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

proprietary rights over it. This is true of all ideas. 
They are by nature universal. They may arise in 
individuals and may develop their power through 
communities. But we cannot speak of them as be- 
longing to this person or that community. This 
would be to violate their character as ideas. Ideas 
are not dead things. They have hands and feet. 
They are alive and challenging. They are charged 
with power. Their action is unpredictable. 

II 

Perhaps in this great religious centre, I may be 
forgiven if I refer to the fundamental spiritual values 
of the Indian tradition which may be helpful for 
fostering world unity. I must, however, caution 
that this brief and general discussion should not be 
taken as a complete or even an adequate account 
of the different religious traditions. 

The problem of religion arises from the realiza- 
tion of the imperfect condition of man. Life is not 
merely a physical phenomenon or a biological 
process. Who shall save me from the body of this 
death, from the snares and dangers of this world ? 
The need for redemption implies the presence of 
conditions and circumstances from which we seek 
escape or liberation. 

The fundamental concepts of Indian religious 
life may be briefly indicated. The goal of life is 
communion with the Supreme. It is a life of reali- 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 255 

zation, a gnosis, an inner intuitive vision of God, 
when man achieves absolute freedom and escapes 
from the blind servitude to ordinary experience. It 
is a subtle interwovenness with the realities of the 
spiritual world. It is not knowledge or the recogni- 
tion of universal ideas through a dialectical process 
or analysis of empirical data. It is analogous to 
Plato's vision of an irresistible harmony with the 
deepest reality of the world inspired and sustained 
by the spiritual in us. 

asti brahmeti ced veda paroksam jndnam eva tat ; 
asmi (aham) brahmeti ced veda aparoksam tat tu kathyate. 

This brings out the distinction between intellec- 
tual recognition and spiritual realization. We can 
free ourselves from the shackles of the body and in a 
split second we can see the truth and be overcome 
by it. We see God so intensely that the soul is more 
certain and more possessed by the sight of God 
than the bodily eye by the light of day. 
tad visnoh paramam padam 
sadd pasyanti surayah, diviva caksur dtatam. 

The Brhaddranyaka Upanisad tells us that through 
fravana, manana and nididhydsana, we have to attain 
dtma-darfana 1 , dtma-darsanam uddisya veddnta sravana 
manana nididhydsanam kartavyam ity arthah. The 
Mundaka Upanisad says : 

pranavo dhanuh sow hy dtmd brahma tal laksjam ucyate ; 
apramattena vedhayam taravat tanmayo bhavet* 

1 IV, 4-5 
* II, 2.4 



256 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

veddham etam purusam mahdntam ddityavarnam tamasah 
parastdt? anubhutim vind mudho vrthd brahmani, modate.* 

Intuition is not emotion but the claim to certain 
knowledge. It gives us a sense of divine reality as a 
thing immediately certain and directly known. 
The sense of God penetrates the seer's consciousness, 
but it does not come like the light of day, something 
external, something out there in space. The barrier 
that separates the seer from the divine life is broken 
down. It is the aim of the seer to live in the light and 
inspiration of this experience, to be one with God in 
an abiding union. 

The records of these experiences are the Vedas, 
'ever the same yet changing ever 5 . The Vedas which 
constitute the essential foundation of the entire 
spiritual tradition of India are based on integral 
experience. The term Veda, derived from the root 
vid refers to a doctrine based not on faith or revela- 
tion but on a higher knowledge attained through 
a process of intuition or seeing. The Vedas are seen 
by the rsis, the seers of the earliest times. The Vedas 
do not give us theories or theologies. The hymns 
contain reflections of a consciousness that is in 
communion with metaphysical reality. The gods 
themselves are not mere images but projections of 
the experience of significance, of forces directly 
perceived in man, in nature or beyond. The Vedas 
are neither infallible nor all-inclusive. Spiritual 

8 See Svetasvatara Upani$ad, III. 8; see also III. 21 
4 Maitreyopanijad, 2 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 257 

truth is a far greater thing than the scriptures. We 
recognize the truth and value of much that has 
been proclaimed by non-Vedic prophets and we 
are led equally to perceive the insight of many 
religious teachers in later centuries. The Veda is a 
record of inspired wisdom and deep inner ex- 
perience. 5 

The second factor is the emphasis on the divine 
possibilities of man. The great text, tat tvam asi 
stresses this truth. The Supreme is in the soul of 
man. For the Upanisads, as for Plato 6 and Philo, 7 
man is a celestial plant. 

Godhead can be described and approached in 
various ways. The Hindu thinkers were conscious of 
the immensity, the infinity, the inexhaustibility and 
the mysteriousness of the Supreme Spirit. A negative 
theology develops. Brahman is a reality which 
transcends space and time and so is greater than 
human understanding can grasp, fantofyam dtmd. 
Brahman is silence. Yet Brahman is the continuing 
power which pervades and upholds the world. He 
is the real of the real, the foundation on which the 
world rests. He is essential freedom. His different 
functions of creation, preservation and perfection 
are personalized in the forms of Brahma, Visnu 
and Siva. The individual deities are affiliated to 

6 tad vacandd dmndyasya prdmdnyam. Vaise$ika Sutra 
8 Timaeus, 90 

7 De plantatione, sec, 17; cf. Seneca : 'The place which God 
occupies in this world is filled by the spirit in man.' 

17 



258 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

one or the other. When approaching the different 
conceptions and representations of the Supreme, 
the Hindu has a sense of humility, a deep awareness 
of human frailty. Even if religions claim to be the 
results of divine revelation, the forms and contents 
are necessarily the products of the human mind. 

{a devo visvakarmd mahdtmd sadd jandndm hrdaye 

sannivistah 

hrdd manisd manasdbhiklpto ya etad vidur amrtds 

te bhavanti* 

Religion reflects both God and man. As religion 
is a life to be lived, not a theory to be accepted or a 
belief to be adhered to, it allows scope and validity 
to varied approaches to the Divine. There may be 
different revelations of the Divine but they are all 
forms of the Supreme. If we surround our souls with 
a shell, national pride, racial superiority, frozen 
articles of faith and empty presumption of castes 
and classes, we stifle and suppress the breath of the 
spirit. The Upanisads are clear that the flame is the 
same even though the types of fuel used may vary. 
Though cows are of many colours, their milk is of 
one colour; the truth is one like the milk while the 
forms used are majny like the cows. 9 Again, the 
Bhdgavata says even as the several senses discern 
the different qualities of one object, so also the 

8 Svetahatara Upani$ad, IV, 17 

9 gav&m aneka-varndndm kfirasydsty eKa^wnotil 
k$iravat pafyate jMnam liAginas tu gavdm yathd. 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 259 

different scriptures indicate the many aspects of the 
one Supreme. 10 

In the Upanisads we find a four-fold status of the 
Supreme Reality dtmd catuspdt, Brahman, Isvara, 
Hiranyagarbha and Viraj. While the world is the 
form of the divine, visvariipa, the cause is three-fold. 
pddo'sya sarvd bhutdni tripddasydmrtam divi. 11 

The problem facing man is the conflict between 
the divine and the undivine in him. Toga-sutra- 
bhdsya says that the stream of mind flows in two 
directions, the one leading to virtue, the other to 
vice : citta-nddi ndma ubhayato vdhim, vahati kalydndya, 
vahati ca papaya. 1 * To overcome the conflict and inte- 
grate the personality is the aim of religion. This 
problem has no meaning for beasts and gods as 
Aristotle says. It concerns the human predicament. 13 

There are different recognized pathways by 
which the duality is overcome and perfection 
reached. In order to see in the world of spiritual 
reality, we must close our eyes to the world of 
nature. The Katha Upanisad says that man is 
turned outward by his senses and so loses contact 

10 yathendriyaih prthag dvaraih artho bahu-gundsrayah 
eko ndnd iyate tadvat bhagavdn fdstra-vartmabhih. 

11 Rg Veda 

12 I, 12 

13 dvau eva cintayd muktau paramdnande dplutau 
yo vimudho jado bdlo yo gunebhyah par am gatah. 

Two are free from care and steeped in bliss : the child inert and 
ignorant and he who goes beyond the (three-fold) attributes. 
Cf. Samkara : nistraigunye pathi vicaratam ko vidhih ko nifedhah* 



260 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

with his own deepest self. His soul has become 
immersed in outer things, in power and possessions. 
It must turn round to find its right direction and 
find the meanings and realities it has missed. 14 To 
hear the melodies of spirit, we must shut off the noise 
of the world. This is not to renounce the powers of 
sight, hearing and speech. It is to open the inner 
eye to spiritual realities, capture the sounds that 
come from the world of spirit, sing in silence the 
hymn of praise to the Supreme Being. 

True religious life must express itself in love and 
aim at the unity of mankind. Bead necklaces, rosa- 
ries, triple paint on forehead, or putting on ashes, 
pilgrimages, baths in holy rivers, meditation, or 
image worship do not purify a man as service of 
fellow-creatures does. 15 The Hindu dreamed of 
universal peace and clothed his dreams in imperi- 
shable language. 

mdtd ca pdrvati devi pita devo maheSvarah 
bdndhavdh sivabhaktds ca svadeso bhuvana-trayam. 
uddra-caritdndm tu vasudfiaiva kutumbakam 
vdrdnasi mtidini. 

The goal of world unity is to be achieved by 
ahimsa which is insisted on by Hinduism, Buddhism 
and Jainism. 

The fact that the Tamil classic Tirukkural is 

"II 1.1 

15 rudrdkjarriy lulasi-kdstham^ tripundram y bhasma-dhdranam 
ydlrdh sndndni homds ca japd vd deva-darsanam 
na ete punanti manujam yathd bhuta-hite ratih. 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 261 

claimed by different religious sects indicates its 
catholicity. Its emphasis on ahimsa or non-violence 
in its varied applications, ethical, economic and 
social, shows the importance which ancient Tamil 
culture gave to it. Tirukkural is used by the 
Buddhists and the Jains, the Saivites and the 
Vaisnavites. It is called podumurai or common 
scripture. 

The other two works of Tamil literature Silappa- 
thikdram and Manimekhalai, exalt the virtues of chas- 
tity and renunciation. 

Even Manu intended the message of India to be 
of universal application. 

etad desa-prasutasya sakdsdd agrajanmanah 

svam svam caritram sikseran prthivydm sarva- 

mdnavdh. 

All the people of the world would learn from the 
leaders of this country the lessons for their beha- 
viour. 

There is a persistent misunderstanding that we 
look upon the world as an illusion and this view is 
attributed to Samkara. The Brahma Sutra clearly 
makes out that the world is not non-existent, 
ndbhdva upalabdheh, that it is not a mental aberration, 
na svapnddivat. Of course Samkara affirms that the 
world is not Brahman. As the manifestation of 
Brahman it is real only in a secondary sense; it has 
what is called vydvahdrika satta. By no means is it to 
be dismissed as utterly unreal. It is different from 



262 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

prdtibhdsika sattd or illusory existence. Sarhkara makes 
out that the world is a progressive manifestation of 
the Supreme : 

ekasydpi kutasthasya citta-tdratamydt jndnativaryd- 
ndm abhivyaktih parena parena bhuyasi bhavati. 
In this sacred centre, I may mention the following 
verse : 

jagat trayam fdmbhava-nartana sthali 
natddhirdjo'tra par ah tivah svayam 
sabhd nato ranga iti vyavasthitih 
svarupatah fakti-yutdt prapancitd. 
The three worlds are but the dancing hall of God 
Siva. The King of dancers is the Supreme God 
himself. The audience, actors and the stage are 
evolved and ordered by the Lord from his own self 
in association with his Sakti. 1 * 

Though there was no missionary motive, no 
attempt to convert others to the Hindu faith, its 
influence extended to other regions like Java, Bali, 
where we still have a Hindu colony, and other parts 
of the East. Greek leaders like Heliodorus became 
devotees of the Hindu faith. While missionary reli- 
gions carry out propaganda and are interested in 
the increase of the number of their followers, Hindu 
religion was not what we call a proselytizing reli- 
gion, though in its great days it had no objection to 
foreigners accepting the Hindu faith. 

16 Soma-stava-rdja, verse 40. Gf. also Sriharsa : tad eva rupam 
ramaniyat&ydb k$am k$ane yan navatdm vidhalte : That beautiful 
form appears fresh and different every moment. Nai$adha 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 263 

III 

Buddhism which arose in India was an attempt to 
achieve a purer Hinduism. It may be called a heresy 
of Hinduism or a reform within Hinduism. The 
formative years of Buddhism were spent in the 
Hindu religious environment. It shares in a large 
measure the basic presuppositions of Hinduism. It 
is a product of the Hindu religious ethos. But soon 
it established itself as a distinctive religious tradi- 
tion. It split early into two branches, though the 
nature of its thought and teaching is common to its 
different expressions. The Hinayana is the southern, 
Pali or Theravada Buddhism; the Mahayana is 
the northern, mainly Sanskrit Buddhism. Both 
groups claim that they are loyal to the teachings of 
the Buddha. The former is more monastic than the 
latter. Mahayana has been more sensitive to the 
religious yearnings of the people. While Hinayana 
places its emphasis on individual attainment of 
salvation, the Mahayana emphasizes the grace of 
the Divine. It is sometimes contended that the 
Mahayana Buddhism reveals a stage of truth greater 
than that which the Buddha gave to his followers 
in the Pali scriptures as they were not spiritually 
mature to receive the higher stage of truth. 

The name Buddha means the Awakened One, 
from the root budh to awaken. The Buddha is one 
who attained spiritual realization. He gives us a 
way based on clear knowledge, on awakening. 



264 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Buddhism is a system of spiritual realization. So in 
Buddhism personal realization is the starting point. 
The religious experience of the Buddha is the funda- 
mental source of the religious knowledge of the 
Buddhists. Uddna says that he who attains final 
knowledge fulfils the vow of celibacy, he is the Brah- 
mana who has the right to declare the truth. 17 

From his experience of enlightenment, bodhi, the 
Buddha derived his doctrines. The four-fold truth, 
the nature of man and the character of the world, 
the cause of this predicament, the way by which 
man may rise above it and the state of enlighten- 
ment or release from subjection to time are the 
results of his own experience of truth. The Buddha 
shared with men those aspects of his experience 
which can be expressed in words. The state of en- 
lightenment is beyond definition or description. 
The Buddha refused to speculate on the nature of 
transcendent reality. Each of us has to follow in 
the footsteps of the Buddha who blazed the path. 
Each individual has to attain the experience by his 
own individual effort. Only when the individual 
himself experiences enlightenment, he is said to 
know the truth or be enlightened. He is then freed 
from the shackles of earth-bound existence and 
becomes divine. The scriptures, the Pali Tripitakas y 
are the sources for the knowledge of truth, since 
they record the Buddha's teachings. They are 

17 veddnta-gu vusita-brahma-cariyo, dharmena sa brahmavddam 
vadeyya. 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 265 

Buddha-vacana. The seekers of the past and the 
masters of the present attained salvation by devo- 
tion to the path revealed by the Buddha and placing 
their trust in him. 

The Buddha stresses the possibility and need for 
each individual attaining the truth. Hinayana 
holds that the experience of enlightenment which 
was realized by the Buddha is attainable by other 
human individuals if they follow the path in his 
footsteps. Every individual has in him the possibi- 
lity of becoming an arhat, who is superior to time 
and has conquered the world. The Mahayana 
adopts the ideal of Bodhisattva who, though he has 
attained release, out of concern and love for man- 
kind lived in the world where he may serve men by 
bestowing hope and guiding their steps. It preaches 
universal salvation. In Hinayana the founder of 
Buddhism is worshipped as the Divine. The other 
deities worshipped by men pay homage to the 
Buddha. He is said to be the instructor not only of 
men but of gods. He is to be adored as the saviour 
of men through the truth which he exemplified in 
his life. In the Mahayana, the earthly Buddha is 
the eternal Buddha who reveals himself in all 
worlds. Gautama Sakyamuni is an earthly incar- 
nation of the Eternal Buddha who exists in countless 
worlds. All things are subject to him. All existences 
are the results of his creation. The nature of God- 
head which has developed in the Mahayana is 
analogous to the Hindu conception. According to 



266 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

the doctrine of the Trikaya, the Dharmakaya or the 
body of Dharma is the ultimate first principle, the 
Divine from which all things proceed and to which 
they all return. It is the ultimate Godhead com- 
pletely transcendent to the world. The next category 
of the Divine is the Sambhogakaya, the body of bliss 
or enlightenment. This answers to the personal 
God, who is the creator and preserver of the universe. 
He is the deity worshipped by man. Nirmanakaya 
is the manifestation of the Divine on earth. It is 
the Divine incarnate in human life and history for 
the purpose of making the Divine known to man. 
Mahayana Buddhism has scope for the gracious 
saving power of the Divine. It is not merely by 
human effort but by divine grace that man attains 
salvation. 

The Buddha recognizes diverse ways to reach the 
truth. But when the truth is attained, the way falls 
away. One need not insist that it is the only way to 
reach the truth. The Buddha gives us the parable 
of the raft. Any person who wishes to cross a danger- 
ous river having built a raft for this purpose would 
indeed be a fool if, when he had crossed, he were 
to put the raft on his shoulders and take it with 
him on his journey. 18 In China when the followers 

18 Majjhima Nikaya, XXII. Gf. the Upanisad. 
fastrany abhyasya medhavi jHdna-vijftdna tat parah 
paldlam iva dhdnydrthi tyajet granthdn ase$atah. 
The wise one studies the scriptures intent on understanding 
their significance and (having found it) throws away the books 
as he who seeks the grain throws away the chaff. 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 267 

of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism meet and 
exalt their own religion, they conclude with the 
chorus : 'Religions are many, reason is one; we are 
all brothers/ 19 Prince Shotuko of Japan (seventh 
century A.D.) reconciled Shintoism, Confucianism 
and Buddhism : 

Shinto is the source and root of the Way, and shot up with 
the sky and the earth, teaches man the Primal Way; Con- 
fucianism is the branch and foliage of the Way, and 
bursting forth with man, it teaches him the Middle 
Way; Buddhism is the flower and fruit of the Way, and 
appearing after man's mental powers matured, teaches 
him the Final Way. Hence to love one in preference to 
another, only shows man's selfish passion. . . indeed each 
new creed enlightens the old. 20 

According to the Buddha's Four-fold Truth, the 
nature of human existence is said to be of a fugitive 
and fragile character. This did not mean for the 
Buddha a world-negating creed with no concern for 
temporal affairs. The Buddha is not only the dis- 
coverer of truth but also its revealer to mankind. He 
shares with men the truth which he has attained. 
He shows men the way by which truth may be 
found. The middle path of religious realization is 
not only the end of religion but also the means by 
which truth is attained. The means of attaining the 
goal participates in the nature of the goal itself. The 
ethical means and the spiritual end cannot be 

19 J. Estlin Carpenter : The Place of Christianity in the Religions 
of the World, p. 60 

20 Inazo Nitobe: Japan (1931), p. 370 



268 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

separated. The end of enlightenment enters into 
the means. It is impossible for a people who despise 
the world to produce the art and culture which en- 
riches our world. Buddhism does not cause men to 
turn from the pursuits and endeavours of human life. 

Buddhism purports to be a universal religion 
applicable to all mankind. In the Mahayana, not 
only one's personal salvation but that of all crea- 
tures is stressed. Through their infinite love for 
struggling humanity, the Bodhisattvas elect to post- 
pone the final bliss of nirvana to which they are 
entitled so that they may continue the unending 
labour of saving the souls of all since all are destined 
for Buddhahood. 

The Buddha entrusted to his followers the propa- 
gation of his doctrine. Under the patronage of 
Asoka who became a convert to Buddhism, repent- 
ing bitterly the carnage involved in the conquest of 
Kalinga, Buddhism became widespread in India. 
Asoka ordered to be carved in stone columns and 
rocks the precepts of Buddhism. He enjoined his 
'children', i.e. his people, to love one another, to 
be kind to animals, to respect all religions. This 
zealous Emperor 'beloved of the gods', devdndmpriya, 
had relations with the countries of the Mediter- 
ranean and West Asia. He sent abroad missionaries 
to spread the Buddhist gospel. Tradition has it that 
his own son carried the doctrine to Ceylon. It has 
spread to many other lands from Afghanistan to 
Japan. It is a supra-regional religion. In the process 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 269 

of its expansion Buddhism absorbed into itself the 
traditions and cultures of the different areas which 
have accepted its message. While accepting the 
beliefs and practices of the native peoples, it has 
helped to refine them. 



IV 



According to Jainism, a Tirthankara is one who 
provides the ship to cross the world of samsara. The 
ship is the dharma. The Tirthankara is the arhat, the 
object of worship. Such a person revitalizes the 
dharma of the world. By destroying the four karmas, 
he attains the four eminent qualities of ananta- 
jnana, infinite knowledge, ananta-darsana or infinite 
perception, ananta-virya or infinite power, ananta- 
sukha or infinite bliss. Endowed with these qualities 
he becomes an omniscient being who spends the 
rest of his life in the world for the good of mankind. 
When the self realizes its true nature it is freed from 
subjection to time or as it is said, it is released from 
rebirth. He becomes siddha paramesti, the perfect 
being. The siddha is worshipped because he repre- 
sents the final spiritual perfection. The arhat, the 
siddha, the sangha and the dharma are the four 
objects of supreme value worthy of adoration. 
Jainism emphasizes the potential divine stature 
of man and its teaching claims to be of universal 
application. 



270 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

V 

In Zoroastrianism there is a dualism, an open 
struggle between two forces. Ahura Mazda and 
Angra Mainyu are the two warring principles and 
in their struggle is grounded the drama of cosmic 
life and human history. The one is the principle of 
light, justice and the good; the other is the principle 
of darkness, injustice and evil. The battle between 
these two is decided by the victory of the good. 
Before the triumph of light over darkness is com- 
plete, the universe and mankind must pass through 
endless cycles of exhausting torment and untiring 
strife. Man in the world is confronted by the choice 
between the two principles. Since the conflict 
between the two principles is universal as to space 
and time 3 the choice which man must make is not 
differentiated and delimited by empirical boundary 
stones. As a matter of course, those who are called 
to be followers of Ahura Mazda form among them- 
selves bonds of spiritual solidarity, having nothing 
to do with empirical relations between them, 
relations derived from considerations of race, poli- 
tical allegiance and racial groups. The doctrine is 
a universalist one. The Avesta says : 

The souls of the faithful of both sexes in the Aryan coun- 
tries, the Turanian countries, the Sarnatian countries, the 
Syrian countries, the Dacian countries, in all cc-untries 
all these do we venerate. 21 

Toft XIII, 143, 144 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 271 

Here we have an explicit definition of a univer- 
sal religious community which supersedes all dis- 
tinctions of race, caste and nationality. A believer 
wheresoever he be found, is an object of veneration. 
In the Zoroastrian sense, a believer is one who, 
irrespective of his political allegiance and earthly 
origin, becomes a follower of Ahura Mazda in the 
pursuit of justice and peace. 

Zarathustra teaches : 'And we worship the former 
religions of the world devoted to righteousness.' 22 

VI 

Persia, though defeated at Marathon and Sala- 
mis, exerted a powerful influence on the post-exilic 
Hebrew prophets and the Hellenic world. Imme- 
diately after the two great Athenian victories over 
the army and the navy of the Persians, a vast trans- 
formation is apparent in Hellenic religious life, due 
to the penetration of Indian and Zoroastrian ideas. 
Professor Flinders Petrie, the great Egyptologist, 
in his excavation of Memphis, the capital of ancient 
Egypt, discovered in the Persian strata of the city, 
pottery beads and figures of Indian type. Comment- 
ing on it, he writes : 'The importance of the Indian 
colony in Memphis under the Persian empire lies 
in its bearing on its importation of Indian thought 
and the rise of the ascetic movement before 
Christ which culminated in western monachism\ 

22 Tasna XVI, 3 



272 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Reverend Frank Knight writes: 'Monasteries or 
groups of ascetic devotees living together in a 
communal form and ordering their lives on rules 
laid down by Indians were established in Egypt by 
340 B.C. It is in many ways probable that Greek 
Stoicism was not an indigenous Hellenic product, 
but merely infiltration via Egypt of beliefs derived 
from the Buddhist priests of India.' 23 According 
to Plato, Socrates says : 

When the soul returning into itself reflects, it goes straight 
to what is pure, everlasting and impartial and like unto 
itself and being related to this cleaves unto it when the 
soul is alone and is not hindered. And then the soul rests 
from its mistakes and is like unto itself even as the Eternal 
is with whom the soul is now in touch. 

This state of the soul is called 'wisdom', what we 
call jndna. Dionysius who plays a relatively minor 
role in the epics of Homer now appears among the 
Olympian gods on the friezes of the Parthenon. 
Between the two dates the incursion of the Dionysius 
mysteries and the transformation of Greek religious 
life must be placed. This introduces a new mystical 
element into the traditional religion of the Hellenic 
world. 

The dualism of the Zoroastrian philosophy under- 
lies the Orphic attitude. The empirical world, the 
world of sense, of existence, is confused and tor- 
mented. Through music, contemplation, love, man 
can liberate himself from the sphere of sensory 

23 Quoted in G. S. Ghurye : Indian Sddhus (1953), p. 1 1 




, to the of the 

of Lord their at Sattchi,' 29 



the 

16 





the 011 Removal 

>f 26 1955 



Inauguration of the 

9 August, 1955 





the of 

New I May, 1955 



Addressing tlie 39 th Session of All India 
Conference, Delhi f 25 November, 1954 





Pri/e Distribution, Indian Industries .Fair, 2 January. 1956 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 273 

experience and earn spiritual immortality even now. 
Thus the religious world of the Greeks became fami- 
liar with the concept of spiritual community. The 
ecdesia spiritualis has been a historical reality 
throughout the centuries. Communities of men who 
recognize a solidarity unrelated to race, nation, 
blood, politics, class, or caste, who are bound by a 
common belief in transcendental values and parti- 
cipation in divine grace sprang up. Heraclitus calls 
every man a barbarian who heeds only the testi- 
mony of his senses to the exclusion of the spiritual 
harmonies which remain inaccessible to the corpo- 
real ear. The Stoic thinkers declare that all men are 
brothers by an inescapable law of nature. 



VII 



The Jewish Bible does not begin with the Jews. 
It starts with the story of Adam which in Hebrew 
means man, admi. Genesis (V. I.) says : 'This is the 
book of the generations of man.' It does not speak 
of the Levite, the priest, or the Jew but of men. The 
children of earth are viewed as one family. They 
have one ancestor who is the father of all. Distinc- 
tions of caste and class differentiation by blood or 
descent do not supersede the primary fact of human 
equality. 'Why was man created one?* asktheRabbis 
and answer : 'In order that no man should say to 
another, "My father was greater than thine." ' 

Though the Jews are said to lay great stress on 

18 



274 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

ceremonial piety, there is also stress on a different 
attitude to life. Man is made in the image of God. 
In his ultimate nature man partakes of the divine 
essence. The Proverbs describe the spirit of man as 
the candle of the Lord, a candle which has to be lit 
with a divine flame. 

Though man is made in the 'image of God 5 , c the 
Fall of man' represents the lapse from the state of 
dose relationship with God. Now, man possesses the 
image of God only potentially and not actually. To 
conform to the will of the Supreme, personal sancti- 
fication is essential. The flame of spirit must be 
kindled in each human soul. 'Thus saith the Lord 
God. I will put a new spirit within you; and I will 
take the stony heart out of their flesh and give them 
an heart of flesh.' 24 'Create in me a clean heart, O 
God, and renew a right spirit within me/ It is the 
aim of the Jews to create a broken and a contrite 
heart for God will not despise it. 

For creating a new man and a new world, a 
'turning of the soul' is essential. The soul of man is 
seen as 'the lamp of God, searching out all the 
recesses of the inward parts.' God said to Moses 
according to Exodus : 'Thou canst not see my face, 
for there shall no man see me and live.' When the 
Covenant of God is written in the heart of man, the 
transcendent will become completely immanent. 
'I have said, ye are gods and all of you are children 
of the Most High/ (Psalms) 

11 Ezekiel, II, 16, 19 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 275 

The Hebrew Bible will not compromise with ido- 
latry. 'Thou shalt have no other gods but me. 5 Tacitus 
says : 'The Jews condemn as impious all who, with 
perishable materials wrought into the human shape, 
form representations of the deity. That Being, they 
say, is above all and eternal, given neither to change 
or decay.' 25 Philo quotes a letter written to Caligula 
by king Agrippa of Judaea in which it is said : 

"O my Lord and master, Gaius, this temple has never, 
from the time of its original foundation till now, admitted 
any form made by hands, because it has been the abode of 
God. Now pictures and images are only imitations of those 
gods who are perceptible to the outward senses; but it was 
not considered by our ancestors to be consistent with the 
reverence due to God to make any image or representation 
of the Invisible God." 2ft 

The Jews do not admit into their temple any 
image or representation made by hands, no visible 
likeness of him who is Invisible Spirit. They stress 
the transcendence of God. 

The great Commandment of the Jews is to 'love 
thy neighbour as thyself.' In Leviticus XIX, where 
we find a commentary on this principle, it is said : 

Let there be no hate in your heart for your brother; but 
you may make a protest to your neighbour so that he may 
be stopped from doing evil. Do not make attempts to get 
equal with one who has done you wrong, or keep hard 
feelings against the children of your people, but have love 
for your neighbour as for yourself. I am the Lord. 

26 Hist., V, 5 

29 Quoted by Leon Roth : Jewish Thought as a Factor in Civili- 
zation, (1955), p. 25 



276 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

This principle applies not only to one's brothers 
or kinsmen or neighbours but to all. 'And if a man 
from another country is living in your land with 
you, do not make life hard for him; let him be to 
you as one of your countrymen and have love for 
him as for yourself; for you were living in a strange 
land, in the land of Egypt. I am the Lord your God/ 
Micahasks : 'What doth the Lord require of thee,but 
to act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly 
with thy God. 5 Moses uttered the prayer : 'Would 
that all God's people were prophets.' Isaiah says : 
'He shall judge between the nations and they shall 
beat their swords to ploughshares. . . Neither shall 
they learn war any more,' The weapons of war 
should be turned to the service of peace. The nations 
form one family and they are inter-responsible. 

VIII 

Christianity is the religion based on the life and 
experience of Jesus. The Cross becomes significant 
only when we make it our own, when we undergo 
crucifixion. Jesus bids us to walk the path which he 
trod, that we may share the union with God 
which he attained. 'Seek and ye shall find.' Each 
one must seek for himself if he is to find. The truth 
latent in every soul must become manifest in the 
awakened spiritual consciousness. It is Jesus 'risen 
in the hearts of men.' Then shall we be able to 'work 
in the newness of life'. All things are then made new. 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 277 

Those who raise themselves above their unregene- 
rate condition are the god-men who are the manifes- 
tations of the new creation, the promise and pledge 
of the destiny in store for humanity. There is no one 
way by which spiritual rebornness is attained. 
4 Marvel not that I have said unto thee, ye must be 
born again* . . The wind bloweth where it listeth 
and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not 
tell whence it cometh and whither it goeth; so is 
every one that is born of the Spirit.' 27 In the same 
spirit it is said : 'All Scripture is inspired by God and 
profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction and 
for training in righteousness, that the man of God 
may be complete, equipped for every good work.* 28 
St. Paul says : 'Your body is the temple of the 
Holy Ghost which is in you/ 29 'Know ye not that 
ye are the temple of God and that the Spirit of God 
dwelleth in you.' 30 'Ye are the temple of the living 
God.' 31 For Origen, there is a blood-relationship 
between God and man. Though God is the source 
of our being, everlasting, transcendent, he is also 
close to our hearts, the universal Father in whom 
we live, move and have our being. 'Be ye therefore 
perfect even as your heavenly Father is perfect.' 32 

27 John, III 

28 II Timothy, III. 16-17 

29 I Corinthians, VI. 19 

80 Ibid, III, 16 

81 II Corinthians, VI, 16 

82 Matthew, V, 48 



278 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Paul, in his Epistle to the Philippians, says: 'Work 
out your own salvation with fear and trembling; for 
it is God who works in you, both to will and to do 
his good pleasure. 533 'Be assured of this as a certain 
truth, that, corrupt and earthly as human nature 
is, there is nevertheless in the soul of every man the 
fire, light, and love of God. 5 (William Law). 'He 
who inwardly enters and intimately penetrates 
into himself gets above and beyond himself and 
truly mounts up to God.' The vital thing for us is 
not to hold the creed but to enter into the experience 
out of which it was developed. Man is an unfinished 
creation. He is left to seek and achieve completion. 
Tor this purpose the Son of God appeared that he 
might destroy the works of the devil.' 34 It is a war 
that shakes the whole cosmos; it is waged in the 
innermost soul of man. Love of God is the easiest 
way to reach salvation. John says : c lf a man say, I 
love God, and hateth his brother, he is a liar. 5 This 
love is a new birth, being begotten of God. 'Who- 
soever is begotten of God doeth no sin because His 
seed abideth in him and he cannot sin because he 
is begotten of God, 5 says John. Love conquers the 
world, all its fears and anxieties. The practice of 
love is the natural result of awareness of God. Jesus 
looks upon the least of God's children as oneself. 
'And all ye are brethren. 5 

'If any man love the world, the love of the Father 

83 II, 12-13 

84 I. John, III, 8 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 279 

is not in him. For all that is in the world, the lust of 
the flesh, and the lust of the eyes and the vain glory 
of life, is not of the Father, but of the world.' We 
must love even our enemies. 'He that is without sin 
among you, let him first cast a stone.' 35 

The Gross means physical suffering, earthly defeat 
but spiritual victory. Through suffering lies the way 
to liberation. Pascal says that Jesus struggles with 
death until the end of the world. In this boundless 
Gethsemane which is the life of the universe, we 
have to struggle on unto death wherever a tear 
falls, wherever a heart is seized with despair, where- 
ever an injustice or an act of violence is committed. 
'Hast thou seen thy brother ? Then thou hast seen 
God. 5 This was the motto which the early Christians 
had, as reported by Clement of Alexandria and 
Tertullian. The message is of universal applicabi- 
lity. 'God that made the world and all things there- 
in. . .hath made of one blood all nations of men for 
to dwell on all the face of the earth. For in Him we 
live, we move and have our being; as certain also 
of your own poets have said, for we are all His 
offspring.' (St. Paul) 

Existentialism first used by Kirkegaard in the 
technical sense is the doctrine which stresses subjec- 
tivity. He holds that subjectivity is truth. It is a 
protest against Hegelianism which holds that we 
can reason our way to truth. The riddles of existence 
cannot be solved by speculative means. For Kirke- 

35 John, VIII, 7 



280 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

gaard, truth can be found only by passionate search, 
by the existential commitment of the whole perso- 
nality. Truth is inwardness. Kirkegaard says in his 
Journals : c The purpose of this life is. . .to be 
brought to the highest pitch of world-weariness/ 
Heidegger asks us to pass from unauthentic exis- 
tence to authentic existence, from samsdra to moksa 
or nirvana. For Marcel the goal is self-knowledge. 
It is not a problem to be solved but a mystery to be 
entered upon reverently. 

IX 

Islam affirms that the spread of materialism 
brings about the downfall of great nations. The 
decline of the Greeks and of the Persians is ascribed 
to the spread of godless materialism. Theological 
controversies divided Christendom, and problems of 
social justice and brotherhood were neglected. 
Muhammad affirms the unity of God and the 
brotherhood of man. The Muslim feels deeply man's 
insignificance, the uncertainty of his fate, and the 
supremacy of God. Their poets, prophets and 
preachers enlarged on the abyss between the Creator 
and the creature. Though Allah is a being without 
form and without parts, without beginning or end 
and without equal, He must be described partially 
at least if He is to be apprehended by man. He is 
viewed as a personal being, omnipotent, omniscient, 
omnipresent and compassionate. 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 281 

If one has to live a truly human life, i.e. a religious 
life he must surrender his thoughts and actions to 
God. 

O man, Thou must strive to attain to thy Lord a hard 

striving until thou meet Him. 

They are losers indeed who reject the meeting of Allah. 
They will perish indeed who call the meeting of Allah to 

be a lie. 
He regulates the affairs, making clear the sign that you 

may be certain of meeting your Lord. 
The Quran says : 'Whomsoever He willeth, Allah 
sendeth astray, and whomsoever he willeth He 
setteth on a straight path/ His transforming 'grace 
is essential for our effort to draw near to God. 

The domestication of foreign elements has been 
in process throughout the history of Islam. While 
the barbarians relegated Greek thought to a few 
monasteries, Muslim scholars translated Greek 
classics, absorbed Greek thought and transmitted 
it later to the West where, in the twelfth century, 
it produced a great intellectual revival. We generally 
say that the European mind is made by three ele- 
ments: Greek culture with its contribution of 
science, art and literature; Roman civilization with 
its code of political conduct, law and institutions; 
and Christianity. The first two are common to 
Islam and Christianity and Islam believes that it 
has perfected and completed Christianity. 

Muhammad recognized the fact that each reli- 
gious teacher has faith in his own mission, and his 
vision and experience fulfil the needs of his people. 



282 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS] 

There is not a people but a warner has gone among them 

And every nation had a messenger. 

And every nation had a guide. 

And certainly We raised in every nation a messenger, 

saying Serve Allah and shun the devil. 
To every nation We appointed acts of devotion which they 

observe. 
For every one of you did We appoint a Law and a way. 86 



X 

If there are similarities in the religious experience 
of mankind, it only means that a common humanity 
reacts in more or less similar ways to man's en- 
counter with the Divine. The common points to be 
found in the different manifestations of religion 
should not lead us to think that they are organized 
in each religion in the same way. The manner in 
which these beliefs are correlated varies from one 
religion to another. Each religion is a living orga- 
nization of doctrine, worship and practice, has an 
uniqueness and individuality of its own and changes 
as a whole in response to the needs of the age. While 
therefore we indicate the area of agreement, the 
distinctive arrangement of the basic presuppositions 
gives the quality to different religions. For our 
present purpose, it is not necessary to stress the 
differences which are important and fundamental 
in some points. Even though each sect of a religion 
claims to be the true representative of its specific 

3 Quran, XXXV, 25; XVI, 37 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 283 

religious message, yet all the followers of all the sects 
feel that they are bound together in a unity. As 
we are trying to overcome the conflict within each 
religion where every organized group claims to 
possess the truth by the recognition of the unity of 
religion, even so conflicts among religions require to 
be reconciled, if religion itself is not to be defeated. 

The world has bled and suffered from the disease 
of dogmatism, of conformity, of intolerance. People 
conscious of a mission to bring humanity to their 
own way of life, whether in religion or politics, have 
been aggressive towards other ways of life. The 
crusading spirit has spoiled the records of religions. 

In future there can be only one civilization in the 
world for it is no more possible for different civiliza- 
tions to live in ignorance of one another. The scientific 
discoveries which have penetrated all parts of the 
earth are making the world one though the different 
civilizations live by and cherish their distinctive 
principles of life. If the world is to be united on a 
religious basis, it will be not on the basis of this or 
that religion but by a co-operation among the 
different religions of the world. If the different 
religions strive to achieve their common ideals and 
seek to understand the differences in a sympathetic 
spirit, the world will be relieved of the misery and 
fear which now engulf it. The tradition of opposition 
to one another should yield to co-operation. The 
conviction of superiority which is natural should 
not prevent appreciation of other faiths and fruitful 



284 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

interchange among them. Erasmus delivered the 
great dictum: 'Wherever you encounter truth, 
look upon it as Christianity.' We must remember 
the spirit of this advice when we are wandering in 
the obscurity of the future. If the message of reli- 
gions is to be articulated in relation to the problems 
of our age, we must give up the view that any one 
religion contains the final, absolute and whole 
truth, and adopt the Eastern attitude that the faith is 
realized in historical patterns, though no one of these 
patterns should regard itself as the sole and exclusive 
truth for all. We must be on our guard against the 
enemies of truth, men of fixed ideas and fanaticisms. 

Between the believers in the different historical 
patterns,Jthere exists a hidden common substratum. 
If we overlook this, we will not be able to overcome 
nihilism, lack of faith and irreligion. 

If we seek for a joyous reconciliation of the mem- 
bers of the human family, we will discern that even 
heretics have divined some aspect of Godhead. 
Just as God lets his sun shine on good and evil, He 
pours forth His loving kindness on all the children 
of mankind. The witness of the different major 
religions strengthens the view that religion is the 
hope of man and can sustain the new world. 

bahu-dvdrasya dharmasya nehdsti viphald kriya?^ 

Religion has many doors; the observance of its 
duties can never be useless. This view makes for the 
appreciation of religious knowledge, of the beliefs 

37 Mahabharata, Sdntiparva, 174, 2 



RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND MODERN CIVILIZATION 285 

and practices of other peoples. This understanding 
makes for spiritual fellowship. Within this fellow- 
ship, each religion will have scope for full expres- 
sion. Religious reflection will be stimulated by the 
knowledge and friendship of others of different 
religions. We will also have universal ethical 
standards. Even as the interplay of Jewish, Christian 
and Muslim in the West has enriched the experience 
of the West, that of Hindu, Buddhist and Con- 
fucian has enriched the experience in the East, so 
the cross fertilization of ideas among the living faiths 
of the world will tend to foster and enrich spiritual 
life. The sign of hope is the perpetual youth of 
religions, the way in which they renew themselves 
as the world changes. 
Arnold Toynbee says : 

As I have gone on, Religion has come to take a more 
and more prominent place, till in the end it stands in the 
centre of the picture. . . I have come back to a belief that 
Religion holds the key to the mystery of existence; but I 
have not come back to the belief that this key is in the 
hands of my ancestral Religion exclusively. . . The 
Indian religions are not exclusive-minded. They are ready 
to allow that there may be alternative approaches to the 
mystery. I feel sure that in this they are right, and that 
this catholic-minded Indian religious spirit is the way of 
salvation for all religions in an age in which we have to 
learn to live as a single family if we are not to destroy 
ourselves. 88 

88 When the controversy was raised about Professor Arnold 
Toynbee's aversion to the exclusiveness of Christianity, 
he affirmed that he sided 'with Synmachus as against 



286 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

The choice before humanity is either co-operation 
in a spirit of freedom and understanding or conflict 
in an atmosphere of fear, suspicion and jealousy. 
The future of religion and mankind will depend on 
the choice we make. Concord, not discord, will 
contribute to the establishment of spiritual values 
in the life of mankind. Concord alone is meritorious, 
said Asoka : samavaya eva sadhuh. 



St. Ambrose, with Manglic (who said that "Even as God has 
given several fingers to the hand, so has he given Man several 
ways") as against William of Rubruck and with Radhakrishnan 
asagainst Karl Adam, Jean DanieJou and Hendrik Kraemer.* 
A Study of History, Vol. X, p. 238 



GENERAL 



INDIAN RAILWAYS CENTENARY 
CELEBRATIONS 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 
16 April, 1953 

THE origin, growth and expansion of the railway 
system are all epitomized in this Centenary 
Exhibition. You see there an engine which drew one 
of the first trains, and I travelled from New Delhi to 
here in a train drawn by an engine which was made 
at the Chittaranjan Locomotive Works. 

On this occasion of prospect and retrospect, as 
Shri Vasist said, we have to remember the adminis- 
tration of Lord Dalhousie who was the Governor- 
General from 1848 to 1856. In those years, as a 
liberal imperialist, he tried to do his best for intro- 
ducing great improvements in communications and 
other things in this country. He was responsible for 
introducing the telegraph. Again, he made the 
postal system cheap and effective by the use of the 
railways. Till then mails were being carried by 
couriers and runners, by horses and camels or by 
carriages and boats. After the introduction of the 
railway mail service, the postal system increased 
manifold and we are able to reap the benefits of all 
the changes that Lord Dalhousie introduced. 

That the railway system affected the social life 
and habits of our people need not be reiterated. It 

19 



290 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

broke down distances, physical and psychological. 
It brought together people from different parts of 
our country and gave them a sense of responsibility 
and political unity. It reduced the incidence of 
famine by facilitating the transport of food grains 
from surplus to deficit areas. 

It used to be said of a great country that it was 
hell for the poor, paradise for the rich and purga- 
tory for the middle classes. I do not think such a 
characterization is likely to be made of our country. 
We have pledged ourselves to the building of a 
Welfare State. Our Minister for Railways just now 
described to us the things that have been done 
during the recent five or six years after the attain- 
ment of independence. He has linked up parts of the 
country with one another which were not hitherto 
connected by railways. He has paid great attention 
to the amenities of third class passengers and the 
comforts of workers are also being taken into ac- 
count. On the whole, every attempt is being made 
to increase the welfare of the railway worker, of the 
railway passenger and indirectly of the people at 
large also. But, as the Minister has said, there are 
also ever so many things which require to be done. 
In a vast country like this, there are still undeve- 
loped regions which are inaccessible to communi- 
cations. The success of our Five Year Plan in its 
different sectors of Agriculture, Industry, and 
Multi-purpose Projects will depend on the capacity 
of the Railways to provide transport facilities. 



INDIAN RAILWAYS CENTENARY CELEBRATIONS 291 

The Minister referred to the primary need of rehabi- 
litation of railway track, of rolling stock and other 
equipment and he has also told us about the need 
for development. But he ended up by saying that 
all these things are conditioned by the state of our 
finances. In other words, finance is the greatest 
bottleneck. We have the will, we have the purpose, 
we have the ambition and we are anxious to build 
as rapidly as possible a Welfare State in this 
country. But there is this financial trouble. Per- 
haps if the international tension is somewhat re- 
laxed, more funds may be made available for 
constructive purposes. 

Recent developments in the international situa- 
tion seem to be a little more promising. The deep 
darkness which enveloped the world since the end 
of the war has dispersed a little and a few bright 
rays of light are visible. In the last few weeks we 
have had several indications from the Communist 
world of a wish for co-operation with the Western 
democracies. Faith in the peaceful co-existence of 
different systems requires us to avoid not only 
mutual interference but even the appearance of it. 
Perhaps the world will be greatly reassured if the 
Cominform is abolished even as the Comintern was 
abolished during the Second World War when 
nations like Russia and America fought and suffered 
together. Democracy is based on diversity, tolerance 
and mutual respect. If the great Powers show mutual 
respect and consideration, the nightmare-world 



292 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

in which we live may pass into one of light and 
sanity. The great funds which are being spent 
for destructive purposes, for increasing the weapons 
which inflict death, may then be utilized for the 
purpose of promoting the interests of life. Then our 
Railway Minister may come forward to say : 'Here 
there is some relief, here I am getting some more 
funds and it may be possible for me to build the 
railways and to expand the whole system and make 
it possible for people in distant villages also to have 
more frequent contacts with the rest of the country/ 

The Centenary Exhibition has given a sense to 
us that a truly democratic spirit prevails among the 
workers. Democracy is recognizing the value of the 
service done by the smallest and the biggest. We 
may worship God in our own way. The spirit of 
worship is one though the flowers we offer may be 
varied and may be of different qualities. So also, 
from that old gentleman who came up here, who 
served the railway for 53 years, up to or down to 
our Railway Minister, they are all working for one 
common cause. They have a sense of their respon- 
sibility; they have a sense of the contribution which 
they are making to the railway system of our 
country. It is essential, therefore, that this spirit of 
democracy, that feeling of family sense, that sense 
of comradeship should prevail among the workers 
in all the fields and factories of our country. 

It is a commonplace to say that today a social and 
economic revolution is in our midst. That revolution 



INDIAN RAILWAYS CENTENARY CELEBRATIONS 293 

must be ensured success. If we succeed in bring- 
ing about that revolution by democratic processes, 
it will be a greater victory for democracy than 
any number of military victories in the battlefields. 
If we are able to build up a Welfare State by peace- 
ful, parliamentary, non-violent processes, the whole 
Cold War will disappear and we will be able to 
establish that the objectives of a Welfare State 
could be realized by methods which are non- 
violent in their character. This railway system 
of our country whose purpose and administration 
are evident to any one who goes round this Exhibi- 
tion has been worked with the full co-operation 
of all people. 

I should like to take this opportunity to congra- 
tulate the Railway Minister, Members of the 
Railway Board and all the ordinary workers who 
are also contributing to that on the success that they 
have attained. The other day a foreign expert said 
that India is one of the twelve best administered 
countries of the world. Well, if India is well admi- 
nistered, the Railway Administration has also 
contributed to the good name which our country 
has acquired and I do hope that the Railway 
Administration will go on working with honesty, 
with efficiency and increase the reputation which 
our country has for good administration. 

We are in a critical time. We have ideas, we have 
purpose and all that is necessary is we must dream 
and think together, aspire together and achieve 



294 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

our objective. But the first attention must be paid to 
our domestic problems. That depends on national 
solidarity and I do hope that the railway system of 
our country will continue to progress and will 
continue to assist in building a community mate- 
rially and culturally high and give us a satisfied 
India which will be able to make an effective 
contribution to the world itself. 



DEVANAGARI SCRIPT REFORM 

LUCKNOW 

28 November, 1953 

I HAVE not paid much attention to this question 
though I know it is a very important one. 

Our Constitution lays down that 'the official 
language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari 
Script. The form of numerals to be used for the 
official purpose of the Union shall be the inter- 
national form of Indian numerals.' ( 3431 ) We 
are required to get Hindi adopted as the official 
language, if possible, within 15 years. The Govern- 
ments of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Madhya 
Pradesh and Rajasthan have already adopted Hindi 
in Nagari script for official purposes. The use of 
Hindi will spread in other areas also. So it is essen- 
tial that the script should lend itself easily to the 
requirements of printing, typewriting, etc. With 
about 16 vowel sounds, 35 simple consonants and a 
large number of complex conjunct consonants, the 
number of distinct types necessary for printing and 
typing exceeds 500. This number of graphic symbols 
does not make for easy or speedy communication. 
Different Committees have been set up for the 
purpose of effecting improvements in the script and 
their recommendations are to be considered by us. 

The Nagari script is now used for Sanskrit, Hindi, 



296 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Marathi, Nepali. It is best that we have a uniform 
script in the whole country. Our aim should be 
simplicity and speed. We should not, of course, 
make changes simply to suit typing and printing. 
We have typewriters designed to suit the Chinese 
script which contain over 500 symbols. Mechanical 
needs should not control changes of script. Our 
attitude in the matter should be neither resistance 
to all changes nor acceptance of wholesale changes. 
Shapes of letters change in course of centuries and 
even decades. The printing press has given some 
fixity to our script. Even today there are slight varia- 
tions in the Nagari script between North India and 
South India. Whatever changes are absolutely 
necessary for the popularization of the script and for 
its use in printing and typewriting, may be made 
so long as these changes do not injure the integrity 
of the script. 

A telegraphic code for Nagari script has been 
introduced in some provinces, but I understand 
that the response to it has been poor, possibly be- 
cause the international Morse code is simpler than 
the Nagari Morse code. 

We all know the difference between the alphabet 
and the script, between the order of the arrange- 
ments of sounds and the order of the shapes of the 
letters. Simply because our alphabet is scientifically 
arranged, it does not follow that our script is also 
scientifically fixed. A perfect language will have for 
its principle one sound, one symbol. In the present 



DEVANAGARI SCRIPT REFORM 297 

Nagari script, we do not have short vowels e and o as 
we have in some other alphabets. In Marathi,Telugu 
and Tamil the sound of & I is used. But it is not found 
in the Nagari script. In Tamil we have a sound 
zha as in Dravida Kazhagam. We have also the hard 
T r. These do not find a place in the Nagari alphabet. 
We have the same alphabet in many Indian 
languages but different scripts. We may also arrange 
the Roman letters in the Sanskrit order. This will 
help to popularize Hindi in non-Hindi speaking 
areas and spread the knowledge of Indian literature, 
philosophy and religion outside India more easily 
and effectively. During the last war the Indian 
Army, recruited from all the Provinces of India, was 
successfully instructed in Hindi through the Roman 
script. It is sometimes suggested that both the 
Nagari and the Roman scripts may be used for the 
expression of Sanskrit. Such a co-operative usage 
will bring us into intimate relations with our 
Sanskrit heritage from which almost all the lan- 
guages of India are derived, and European culture. 
The Roman script adapts itself to expansion by the 
use of diacritical marks. The Roman script, it is 
contended, is not European in its origin but is 
really derived from Asia and is well suited for the 
expression of Sanskrit. I realize that this suggestion 
is beyond the scope of the Conference which is 
convened for the specific purpose of effecting the 
necessary improvements in the Nagari script to suit 
the needs of the modern printing press, typewriting 



298 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

and those of the growing politically-conscious 
population. 

The suggestion that one uniform Nagari script 
should be employed for all the languages of India 
will have to be considered with great care and cau- 
tion. The use of the Nagari script for Sanskrit in 
many parts of the country is not very old. We owe 
it to the work of the European Sanskritists and the 
unifying tendencies of the different universities from 
1857 onwards. The first volume of Max Muller's 
edition of Rg Veda Samhita was published from 
Oxford in 1854 and the Universities of Calcutta, 
Bombay and Madras which were founded in 1857 
started prescribing Sanskrit texts in Nagari script. 
Till then Sanskrit works were written in Bengali, 
Assamese, Oriya, Maithili, Mewari in Nepal, 
Sarada in Kashmir, Telugu, Kannada, Grantha in 
the Tamil country and Malayalam. The Nagari 
script was used for Sanskirt works in the Hindi 
area, Rajasthan, Punjab, Gujarat and Maharash- 
tra. To suggest the displacement of native scripts 
by Nagari is not at the present time a practicable 
proposition. All these local scripts as well as Nagari 
are derived from the old Brahmi script. When Hindi 
in Nagari script is more generally accepted in non- 
Hindi areas, the people who speak other languages 
will also become familiar with the Nagari script and 
perhaps may adopt it as an alternative to their own. 
In these matters, natural growth should be the 
method and not official imposition. 



DEVANAGARl SCRIPT REFORM 299 

The punctuation marks which are in use in 
English may be adopted. 

As for the international numerals or the Deva- 
nagari numerals, there are arguments for each. The 
Nagari script and the Nagari numerals, it is said, 
should go together. They form an organic whole. 
When it is decided to use the Nagari script, consis- 
tency demands that the Nagari numerals should 
also be used. On the other side it is said that inter- 
national numerals are used the world over. Even 
countries like the Soviet Union which insists on 
the general use of the Russian language by all its 
people, use the international numerals and not their 
national ones. These numerals, it is argued, were 
originally Indian and spread to Europe through the 
Arabs. If the international numerals are used, 
accounting, book-keeping, etc. are greatly facilitated 
when trade and commerce are becoming interna- 
tional. It is suggested that in Hindi correspondence, 
the Hindi numerals may be used and in all other 
cases international numerals. 

In considering the different problems about the 
Nagari script we should not forget that we are 
living in an age of vast material and intellectual 
changes and that almost a new world is coming into 
existence. In this new world some of the inveterate 
prejudices and peculiarities now dividing nation 
from nation will diminish. Distance is no more 
an obstacle to the interchange of thought. As we 
envisage a co-operative world commonwealth, 



300 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

every attempt should be made to make the different 
peoples of the world recognize their kinship and 
solidarity. We should build bridges of communi- 
cation and understanding and not barriers. 



UNITED NATIONS SEMINAR ON 
HOUSING AND COMMUNITY 
IMPROVEMENT 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
21 January, 1954 

I AM honoured by your invitation to inaugurate 
the regional Seminar on Low Cost Housing and 
Community Development. From the speeches now 
made it is clear that the Seminar is not a general 
conference and that the Working Group is not a 
talking shop, and that the Seminar is limited to 
technical specialists. I, therefore, appreciate the 
distinction of being asked to inaugurate it as I am in 
no sense of the term a specialist in these matters. 

It is significant that this Seminar is organized 
under the auspices of the United Nations by the 
Technical Assistance Administration and the Eco- 
nomic Commission for Asia and the Far East. This 
shows that the problem of housing shortage is of a 
world-wide character, and its rapid solution will 
further considerably the prospects of peace and 
security in the world which are the main objectives 
of the United Nations. 

While there is no country in the world today 
which is not faced in some degree by this problem, 
it is very acute and urgent in Asian countries where 



302 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

millions live in insanitary slums or filthy hovels, and 
many are literally homeless. 

The United Nations Charter places before the 
peoples of the world the ideal of a democratic 
society. This ideal is not altogether unfamiliar to 
the Asian people. In the third century B.C., Asoka 
said in Kalinga Edict II : C A11 people are my 
children (sarve manusya mama prajati) . Just as I desire 
on behalf of my own children; that they should be 
fully provided with all kinds of comfort and happi- 
ness, (sarvena hitasukhena) in this world as well as in 
the other, similarly I desire the same (comfort and 
happiness in this world and in the next) on behalf of 
all people, evam eva me icchd sarvamanusyesu.' 

Disrespect for the common man is the essence of 
fascism and a great source of danger to the peace of 
the world. We have in Asia millions of people who 
are tattered, dusty, abject, feeble and forsaken by 
the future. Their poverty and prostration are not 
accepted as inevitable. The hungry and homeless 
people are not concerned with the intricacies of 
economics or the complexities of politics, but they 
ask for food, clothing and shelter. If we are to 
further the interests of peace and democracy, we as 
a Welfare State have to put ourselves on the side of 
the poor of the world. Wise policy consists not in 
opposing the social revolution which is inevitable 
but in being of use to it and in making use of it. 

In our country the problem of housing has as- 
sumed special importance and urgency in recent 



HOUSING AND COMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT 303 

years. Increase in population in the last three 
censuses since 1921 has been 11 per cent, 14*3 per 
cent and 13-4 per cent, while the urban population 
alone has gone up by 21 per cent, 32 per cent and 
54-1 per cent. The influx of refugees in recent years 
has aggravated the magnitude and the intensity 
of the problem. Our Government is doing its best 
by building houses for Government servants and for 
displaced persons, by helping private building 
corporations and in other ways. If the housing needs 
are to be met adequately, it is essential to reduce 
the costs of construction. It is here that the deli- 
berations of this Seminar may be of use to us. They 
may tell us how we can produce locally building 
materials on a large scale, adopt better techniques 
than we do now, and lower the costs of construction 
in other ways. Only then will it be possible for us to 
provide adequate housing arrangements for persons 
of low income groups. Even these houses should 
provide minimum standards of health and privacy 
and have essential services like lighting and water- 
borne sanitation. Our greatest need therefore is 
low-cost housing. 

In dealing with the problem there are two aspects 
to be considered. There is, first, the narrow one of 
providing housing for workers engaged in urban 
and industrial areas so as to ensure for them satis- 
factory living conditions and thereby improve the 
per capita outturn. But the more vital aspect relates 
to the provision of housing as a part of community 



304 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

building in rural as well as in urban areas. One 
of the main causes of the growing need for housing 
is the movement of people from the villages to the 
towns, and there can, surely, be no long-range 
solution unless conditions are created in the 
countryside which will induce people to continue 
to live there in reasonable comfort. In a sense this 
is a part- of the larger problem of providing more 
avenues for gainful employment in the non-urban 
areas, but better housing and greater attention to 
communal needs in our villages will secure a better 
balance, mitigate the acuteness of housing scarcity 
in the towns, and make altogether for a fuller and 
healthier life. 

Housing is not merely satisfaction of a material 
need for shelter. It has a special purpose also. Our 
physical needs can be treated in two ways. We can 
treat them as material problems which we must 
solve in material terms or we can treat them as 
opportunities for the expression of social values. 
There is the need to eat. We develop out of it the 
art of cooking and the domestic occasion. Out of the 
instinct of sex we develop the art of love and 
marriage. So also out of the need for shelter, we 
develop hearth and home. Housing is not merely 
the business of providing people with material 
accommodation. A house is not the physical satisfac- 
tion of a physical need. It is not simply a house but 
it is a home, a centre of family life. The way in which 
we build houses should express our social thinking. 



HOUSING AND COMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT 305 

I hope that your deliberations in regard to 
building materials, techniques, and achieving a 
balance between urban and rural development will 
be of benefit not only to the world but to us in India. 



20 



BALKAN-JI-BARI, PATNA 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
3 February, 1954 

I AM happy to be here and inaugurate the annual 
session of the Balkan-ji-bari and pay my tribute 
to the work which this institution has done for 
nearly thirty years. This is a conference of workers 
and a gathering of children. Children constitute the 
wealth of the country and by directing their ener- 
gies in proper channels we improve the physical 
and mental health of the whole community. 

We have had in our country great respect for 
children. The Brhad-dranyaka Upanisad asks us to be 
done with learning and desire to live as a child : 
tasmdd brdhmanah pdndityam nirvidya bdlyena tisthdsei 1 . 
What are the characteristics of a bdla ? Another 
Upanisad (Subdla) gives the answer: bdla-svabhdvo 
asango niravadyah the characteristics of a child are 
non-attachment and blamelessness or innocence. 
Nietzsche says : 'The child is innocence and obli- 
vion, a new beginning, a play, a self-rolling wheel, a 
primal motion, an holy yea-saying.' 2 We have 
worshipped the divine child Krishna. One of the 
most famous symbols of the Christian religion is the 
picture of the Madonna and the Child. 

1 III, 5. 1 

2 Thus Spake Zarathustra, 1 .2 



BALKAN-JI-BARI 307 

c Except ye become like little children ye shall not 
see the Kingdom of God.' For Heraclitus, 'the 
Kingdom is of the child. 3 To become like a little 
child is not easy. It costs us a great deal to acquire 
the grace and meekness of the childlike. The 
Chinese thinker Mencius observes : 'A great man is 
one who has not lost the child's heart.' 

There are things which are hidden from the 
learned and revealed to the babes. Narada, who 
gives the knowledge of the Supreme Self according 
to Sabda-Kalpadruma, (Dictionary of words) ap- 
proaches Sanatkumara who is represented in Indian 
tradition as an eternal child. The learned Narada 
goes to the unlearned Sanatkumara for instruction. 3 

The child symbolizes open-mindedness, recepti- 
vity. Children are sentimental, warm-hearted and 
eager to make friends, A child's personality is sensi- 
tive and responds rapidly to the surrounding in- 
fluences. Physical care of children is not enough, 
emotional care is also needed. It is far easier to 
mould the next generation nearer to the goal of a 
social democracy than to change the present. By 
helping the children to love their fellows whatever 
be their caste or community, we will develop a 
sense of brotherhood. By bringing all the children 
into one fold today we foster tomorrow a sense of 
community among all Indians. 

It is by false doctrine that the children are 
seduced from their natural springs of life. The social 

* Chdndogya Upanifad, VII, 1 



308 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

nature of the child is distorted into queer shapes by 
the poison of indoctrination. In our country we 
train them to feel that they are members of this caste 
or that community 5 of this province or that language 
group, and thus give a wrong twist to their minds. 
When it is our desire to train our people to feel that 
they are first and foremost citizens of this great 
land, this direction of the mind will have to start 
when they are little children. Every child is an 
experiment, an adventure into nobler life, an 
opportunity to change the old pattern and make it 
new. Every child is a distinct individual. A child's 
capacity for personal and social relationships should 
not be unchanelled or misdirected; if it is rightly 
guided, it will contribute to the enrichment and 
stability of the child's life. 

We have to give our children a sense of the great 
spiritual heritage and make them feel proud of their 
Indianness. durlabham bhdrate janma. It is difficult to 
be born in Bharat. To be born here provides a great 
opportunity to change the social structure of India 
and through it the nature of humanity. We should 
give children an idea of our culture that all religions 
lead to God and they are only different pathways. 
To quarrel about the ways to God is both irrelevant 
and irreligious. Religious intolerance is against the 
spirit for which this country has stood for centuries. 
Our culture tells us that God dwells in the heart of 
every being, even if he be wicked or degenerate. 
This faith is the basis of democracy. It asks us to 



BALKAN-JI-BARI 309 

practise charity (ddna), self-control (damd) and com- 
passion (daya) . It impresses on us the importance of 
our action, that every act has its consequences. The 
world is a moral order. Transgression of the moral 
law is followed by punishment. We cannot be un- 
just with impunity. We must therefore love justice. 
These lessons are to be conveyed to the children by 
means of songs and stories, play and work. By 
celebrating national festivals and anniversaries of 
great leaders, children grasp the spirit of our heri- 
tage. The lives of the great characters of the world 
give the children what Whitehead calls a habitual 
vision of greatness. Excursions may reveal to them 
the vastness of our country and the greatness of its 
art and architecture. Children get their first picture 
of the past from historical tales, and prejudices 
inculcated at an early age are difficult to eradicate 
later. We should not grow up thinking that our 
country has always been right. History books should 
be carefully written and should promote friendship 
among nations. We must help our children to 
think of India as a whole, as a nation with its part 
to play in the world. We must give them a sense of 
historical perspective and check the events of the 
day against those of the past. Books for children, 
films for children should be carefully prepared. 
There should be special radio programmes for chil- 
dren into which great care, vitality and imaginative 
experience are put. Radio and cinema must enlarge 
the horizons of children and send them back to 



310 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

books. Great books are the basis of our culture 
and civilization. We must keep children aware 
of the value of good reading, give them the opportu- 
nity to see and handle neatly produced books. 

This organization fosters international contacts 
by means of pen friendships. The dangers of a 
narrow nationalism are avoided. 

Care of children is not only a science but an art. 
We need people who have a genuine love and 
respect for children. It is essential that ideas of 
children's welfare should spread in the villages. An 
organization like this should not complain of lack 
of workers. Many ladies of middle class families may 
be in a position to spare a few hours a week and be 
trained for this purpose. Municipalities and Town 
Committees should consider it their duty to provide 
parks and playgrounds, libraries and nurseries, 
bdlbhavans for children, for sometimes neither homes 
nor schools offer adequate opportunities for the 
talents and energies of children. This organization 
aims at supplying the gap. It should also strive to 
improve the tone and character of children's 
schools. I hope that by the activities of this organiza- 
tion the children's cause will be given high priority 
in our plans for social reconstruction. 



INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL 
RESEARCH 

CONVOCATION ADDRESS 
12 February, 1954 

MAY I, at the outset, offer my good wishes and 
congratulations to those who have been 
awarded today Diplomas, Certificates and Prizes. 
Their hard work and disciplined effort have had 
their reward. 

A very distinguished scientist, whose name may 
remain unmentioned, said it was all agriculture and 
not culture. His remark, I dare say, was only a play 
on words. There is an essential connection between 
Agriculture and Culture. We are all familiar with 
Aristotle's oft-quoted saying that we must live 
before we can live well. Before we build a civiliza- 
tion, a social order which will foster cultural crea- 
tion, we must secure continuity of food supply. So 
long as a people remain in the hunting stage and 
depend for their existence on the precarious fortunes 
of the chase, they cannot develop a settled life. 
Their energies will be spent on the perils and 
chances of the hunt. If the nomads who gather food 
become the tillers who grow food, we have the basis 
of culture. When people settle down to till the soil 
and provide for the uncertain future, they find 
time and inclination to develop the arts and the 



312 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

traditions of civilization. They build huts, temples, 
schools, domesticate animals, breed cattle and 
transmit more effectively than before their mental 
and moral heritage. 

As culture has its roots in agriculture, great 
civilizations developed round large rivers which 
made the surrounding soil fertile and offered easy 
communications. These civilizations centered round 
the Yangtse, the Ganges, the Nile, the Tigris and 
the Euphrates. 

The disappearance of favourable conditions may 
destroy civilization. Vast climatic changes, exhaus- 
tion of the soil, earthquakes and floods may threaten 
the life of any civilization. There is hardly an ancient 
culture which does not have the story of the Flood. 
It lingers in the memory of peoples. But the reason- 
ing man led by the instinct for survival devises ways 
and means to overcome these threats and obstacles. 
When the stick was made into a plough, it was a 
modest invention, but its importance was great. 
In the Rg Veda 1 , Sita is invoked as presiding 
over agriculture or the fruits of the earth. In the 
Rdmayana we read that Janaka himself held the 
plough and tilled the earth when at the touch of 
his plough Sita sprang up from the furrow of the 
soil. To avoid entire dependence on rain and 
destruction by flood, dams were constructed. The 
dams raised by Chandra Gupta functioned till 
A.D. 150. Remains of ancient canals are to be found 

1 IV, 57. 6 



COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 313 

in all parts of the country. Till the other day we 
were not behind many of the progressive nations of 
the world. Owing to circumstances which I need 
not pause to consider here, we fell behind. Our 
scientific development was arrested and our society 
became stationary. We still adopt old methods with 
the result that, though a very large majority of our 
population is engaged in agriculture, we suffer 
periodically from famines and food shortage. 

Today we are passing through an all-round 
renaissance. The Council of Agricultural Research 
which has attained its Silver Jubilee is one expression 
of it. It has served as a clearing house and co-ordi- 
nating agency for all advanced agricultural re- 
search. The status of the Institute has grown with 
the years and it is a matter of gratification that 
scholars from countries of South-East Asia are also 
being trained here in Agricultural Research and 
Statistical Investigations. The popularity of the 
Institute is evident from the fact that you are unable 
to select more than a fraction of the total number 
of qualified candidates, who seek admission. 

When I visited a few Agricultural Colleges some 
time ago as a member of the University Education 
Commission, it struck me as somewhat strange that 
the actual tillers were not touched much by the 
agricultural education imparted in the Colleges. 
Our farmers may be ignorant, but they are not 
lacking in intelligence. Dr Voelcker of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of Great Britain who visited 



314 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

India in 1890 reported : c Certain it is that I, at 
least, have never seen a more perfect picture of care- 
ful cultivation, combined with hard labour, perse- 
verance and fertility of resource than I have seen at 
many of the halting places in my tour/ I have no 
doubt that if we make the results of scientific research 
available to the farmers, they will utilize them in 
their farm practices. The results must be publicized 
by visual education, radio, bulletins in our principal 
languages, microfilm services and by other means. 
Agriculture is a major national issue. Our Five 
Year Plan recognizes its great importance* We have 
large projects intended to increase our food produc- 
tion, and we have succeeded in increasing it. And 
yet our practices are of a primitive type and our 
farms are uneconomic. Land legislation has not 
been sufficiently courageous and imaginative in 
all parts of the country. Even where the cultivator 
is willing to improve his technique, debt and lack 
of resources stand in his way. While some of these 
problems are for the Government, Central and 
Provincial, you, gentlemen, who have taken your 
Diplomas and Certificates and Prizes today can 
do a great deal in educating our peasantry who 
form 70 per cent of our population. While you carry 
out your own researches, it is your duty to spread 
knowledge of advanced agricultural technique 
among the people. I hope that in years to come you 
will succeed in modernizing our agricultural prac- 
tices. I wish you well. 



OPENING OF HOSPITAL IN AHMEDABAD 

24 April, 1954 

~T AM happy to be here and participate in the 
J. proceedings of this morning, declare the Hospital 
open and transfer its management to the Ahmeda- 
bad Municipal Corporation. 

Ahmedabad has been famous for its industrial 
magnates. Two of the hardest things in life are to 
acquire wealth by honest effort, and when one has 
acquired it, to use it properly. Many of the mill- 
owners here have acquired wealth and a few of 
them have learnt to use it properly. This Medical 
Trust is an example of the latter. As Shri Morarji 
Desai just explained to you, this Medical Trust has 
grown from small beginnings in 1936 to its present 
position due to the generosity of the family of Shri 
Vadilal Lallubhai. This whole Trust is the product 
of private enterprise encouraged by our national 
leaders. The foundation stone of the original dis- 
pensary as also of the present Hospital was laid 
by the late Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, whose name 
is permanently associated with our struggle for 
freedom and after the attainment of freedom with 
the consolidation of the country, with the integra- 
tion of the States. If we have faith in our own 
destiny, we feel the need for unity within the 
country. Sardar PateFs remarkable services to our 



316 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

country make for national unity which is the essen- 
tial pre-requisite of our freedom. The hospital in 
Ellis Bridge was declared open by Shri Morarji 
Desai. Gujarat is rightly proud of its contributions 
to our political and cultural Renaissance; the great 
work of the Father of the Nation ably assisted by 
Sardar Patel and Shri Morarji Desai will be re- 
membered for long. 

You rightly take pride in the fact that the facili- 
ties of the Medical Trust were thrown open to all 
people irrespective of caste and creed, sex and age, 
high and low, rich and poor. It is the lack of this 
spirit that exposed us to the invaders and the 
spoilers, and the cultivation of this spirit in all walks 
of life will foster national solidarity. 

There is a queer view that the outlook of this 
nation is other-worldly, not this-worldly, it is world- 
negating and not world-affirming, that we despise 
the world as an illusion and concentrate on things 
above. There cannot be a graver or more erroneous 
misconception. While we look upon this world as 
unreal, if detached from its basis in reality, when 
looked at as rooted in reality, it acquires great 
significance. Samsdra is a perpetual succession of 
events, one superseding the other but is this succes- 
sion mere change without any order, without any 
intelligibility, without any purpose? If we look at it 
we find that it is a progressive unfoldment of reality. 
It is an increasing manifestation of the values 
implicit in reality, matter, life, mind, intelligence 



OPENING OF HOSPITAL IN AHMEDABAD 317 

and spirit. The fulfilment of man consists in his 
acquiring spiritual freedom. Sarhsdra is to help 
us to attain moksa. This moksa does not mean a 
repudiation of body and mind or of the world. - 

Life eternal or amrta means the play of the vital 
organism, the satisfaction of mind and the abun- 
dance of spiritual peace. One is a step to the other. 
Without the proper development of bodily life 
eternity cannot be gained. That is why the Toga 
Sutra insists on the development of kdyd-sampat or 
physical prowess, rupa Idvanya bala, vajrassamhananat- 
vdni kdyd-sampat. We call our medical science 
dyurveda, the science of life. It is drogya sdstra. It is 
the science of health. Health is not the mere absence 
of disease; it is positive well-being, making for 
efficiency and joy in life, in all works, intellectual 
and spiritual. The unhealthy people are those who 
are bored, who seem dead to the glamour of life, 
to the challenge of life. Healthy people have 
faith in action, in life. The science of life, the 
science of health stress the preventive aspects more 
than the curative. They try to make us health- 
conscious. 

In our country today we do not have enough 
medical facilities for our population and its inci- 
dence of disease. Our rate of infant mortality is still 
very high. Though the average expectation of life 
has increased by four or five years, the waste of 
human potential, of things worth while in people 
is still large. 



318 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

According to the so-called oath of Hippocrates, 
the father of Greek medicine, the doctor must swear 
'to make no pretence of magic, never to take ad- 
vantage of a patient's sufferings or fears but to 
remember always that he enters a sick man's house 
as a friend to all who dwell there.' We have had 
hospitals of two kinds from early times. Asoka's 
inscriptions speak of purusa-cikitsd and pafa-cikitsa, . 
treatment for men and for animals. 

I am delighted to know that this Hospital which 
has been doing excellent work all these years is now 
equipped with up-to-date apparatus and instruments 
and has provision for a hundred beds which may 
be increased to 250. 

The medical staff is whole-time and it is a plea- 
sure to know that they are not only able but 
devoted. Treatment of suffering patients requires 
not merely skill but devotion. Faith in the doctor 
goes a long way in effecting recovery. He must have 
the healing touch. Dr Desai's example will be fol- 
lowed by others, I hope. Medical science is rapidly 
advancing. There are many specialized branches in 
it. Workers here may be able from their own know- 
ledgej[and experience to contribute to growth in it. 

It is" unfortunate that lawyers and doctors have 
not been'able to make substantial contributions to 
jurisprudence and medical research as our physi- 
cists and; chemists have done. Perhaps opportunities 
have not been available. In such institutions they 
may be forthcoming. 



OPENING OF HOSPITAL IN AHMEDABAD 319 

Blessed is he who has found his work. There is no 
other way to happiness. In taking charge of this 
Hospital the Municipal Corporation is discharging 
its obligations to the people of the city. I only hope 
that the spirit of devotion to suffering humanity 
will animate the Corporation authorities in dealing 
with the problems of this Hospital. 



LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION STONE 

OF THE OFFICE OF THE 
ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL, MADRAS 

2 June, 1954 

I AM happy to be here in response to the kind 
invitation of my friend Shri Narahari Rao to lay 
the foundation stone of the Office of the Accountant- 
General, Madras. Shri Narahari Rao has given 
you an account of the way in which the different 
branches of this office were scattered in the city of 
Madras and how he has been endeavouring to 
bring all of them together into one central building 
and how thanks to the interest taken by the 
Government of India he has succeeded in his 
efforts in finding suitable places for the offices of the 
Accountants-General in the different centres of this 
country. He has enumerated Chandigarh, Bhuba- 
neswar, Bangalore, etc. In other words, whatever 
may have been the difficulties in the past, today we 
are happy to note that there is a site here, a building 
will soon come up and the officers of the depart- 
ment will be able to work here in healthy condi- 
tions the Auditor-General says that in healthy 
conditions they will work better than they used to 
do hitherto. We reciprocate his wish. 

Shri Narahari Rao has also pointed out how the 
Accountant-General's office in Madras arose out of 



OFFICE OF THE ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL, MADRAS 321 

the beginnings of the East India Company. As 
businessmen, they were interested in the mainte- 
nance of proper accounts and audit and the very 
office of the Comptroller and Auditor-General is 
based on the British model. It is something which is 
above all party and political considerations. The 
Comptroller and Auditor-General is not appointed 
because he has rendered any political services to the 
country; he is appointed because of his indepen- 
dence and expert knowledge. His responsibilities 
are not to the party in power, not to the Govern- 
ment of the day but to the tax-payers, to the Parlia- 
ment which includes the representatives of the 
tax-payers. The analogy in the British Administra- 
tion is to Her Majesty's Judges. Their office is of a 
judicial character. Being an academic man, I may 
claim that the qualities needed in the academic 
world are also the qualities needed for the officers 
of the Audit and Accounts Department. An objec- 
tive and intensive study, a disinterested desire 
to find out the truth and a willingness to face the 
truth even if it is inconvenient and unpalatable 
these are the qualities which are necessary in the 
academic world and I take it that they are the 
qualities expected of the officers of the Audit and 
Accounts Department. 

This State has contributed many able and devoted 
servants to the Audit and Accounts Service. They 
have earned for themselves a very high reputation 
and it is my hope and earnest prayer that that 

21 



322 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

record will be kept up and the best people, irrespec- 
tive of other considerations, will be recruited to the 
Audit and Accounts Service and that they will be 
able to do their duty so far as the country's interests 
are concerned. Shri Narahari Rao spoke with a 
natural and legitimate pride in the work of the 
Audit and Accounts Department. By and large the 
officers of the Department have done their work well. 
I am not a technical man, I know nothing about 
auditing and accounting, but I do hope that the 
advice tendered by the Comptroller and Auditor- 
General for the separation of audit and accounts will 
be accepted and implemented in due course I hope 
it will not be a long course by the Government 
of India [Shri V. Narahari Rao : c and the States 
also 5 ] and the States also my friend corrects me. 

Recent reports have revealed to us serious irre- 
gularities in the working of the administrations 
themselves. They have referred to the great losses 
sustained by the Government by errors of judgment, 
negligence, incompetence, inefficiency. It was all 
right during the war period when we wanted 
to speed up business and therefore we relaxed 
standards. There is no justification today for re- 
laxing standards. Ours is a poor country, its re- 
sources are limited and we cannot afford to risk 
any kind of waste and the Audit and Accounts 
Department will have to look upon their functions 
as functions of the greatest public utility by pointing 
out errors and by showing where and how we can 



OFFICE OF THE ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL, MADRAS 323 

remove abuses, effect economies, increase efficiency 
and reduce waste of expenditure. These things are 
very essential. Shri Narahari Rao spoke to us about 
the way in which the Accounts Department some- 
times find fault with the States. There is a popular 
feeling that, if the Accounts people are well thought 
of by the States, there is something wrong about 
them [laughter] and if they are not well thought of, 
they are doing their duty properly ! That may be 
so or may not be so. I do not believe that the 
different departments of the State are working at 
cross purposes. All that I mean is that the Accounts 
Department must not be afraid of courting un- 
popularity. They must not go about always saying 
things which will please their superiors. There is 
an increasing tendency in our country today to say 
things which our superiors wish to hear and it is 
that tendency that has to be resisted. I do hope that 
these people who are the watch-dogs, so to say, 
of the public funds or the tax-payers' money will 
exercise great vigilance and control and see to it 
that we get a proper return for every rupee we spend 
and there is a proper utilization of public funds. 

My friend Narahari Rao is retiring shortly. I have 
known him for over thirty years. I have observed 
his steady rise to the present exalted position. When 
he looks back on his long record of work in different 
capacities, he can have the satisfaction of having 
done his work with fearlessness, with independence, 
with impartiality and with a single-minded devotion 



324 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

to duty. These are the qualities which have marked 
his career. He has said things which are unpalat- 
able to the powers that be. He has not made a 
secret of the failings of the Government wherever 
he had noticed failings. But wherever he found 
there was enough to justify praise, he was the first 
man to offer praise. Praise where praise is due, cri- 
ticism where criticism is justified that has been the 
policy which he adopted, and we are proud that our 
first Indian Comptroller and Auditor-General has 
set an example which can be followed by others. All 
those who are in the lower hierarchy, in the lower 
rungs of the ladder, also require to be competent 
and they must realize that they are doing work 
which is of fundamental importance to the State. 

I go round the world; I see countries which are 
making progress and countries which are subject 
to upheavals. When I look back on the conditions 
which bring about great social upheavals, I notice 
that three conditions always prevail before revolu- 
tions occur whether it was Russia in 1917 or 
Germany in 1932 or China in 1949 or Egypt in 
1950. The three preliminary conditions for great 
upheavals are lack of national cohesion, economic 
depression, and corrupt and unclean Governments. 
Lack of national solidarity has always been a pre- 
cedent to social upheaval. If we want to ward offa re- 
volution in our country today, we should try to sub- 
ordinate linguistic, provincial, communal and religi- 
ous considerations to the supreme duty of building 



OFFICE OF THE ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL, MADRAS 325 

up a great State. So far as the Audit and Accounts 
Service is concerned, it is an All-India Service. The 
members of that Service have nothing to do with 
considerations of province, etc. They should develop 
what I may call an all-India patriotism. 
" Secondly, we should fight economic depression. 
If people starve and suffer from poverty and un- 
employment, we have a condition precedent to 
social upheavals. We are trying to build up a wel- 
fare State. Building up a Welfare State is not to be 
regarded as merely a motive for promoting one's 
own welfare ! It is the welfare of the country which 
we have to set before ourselves, and there the work 
which the Audit and Accounts Department can do 
is great. By exposing failings, by revealing defects, 
you set before the country a great standard and see 
to it that our Schemes are carried out with economy 
and efficiency. 

-\ The third condition which brings about up- 
heavals is a corrupt and unclean Government. As 
Shri Narahari Rao himself said, the Audit Depart- 
ment is obliged to say things which are embarrassing 
to the Government but it is the duty of its officers, 
on account of their loyalty to the country, to 
act as a check even on the Government of the 
country. The Comptroller and Auditor-General 
is responsible, as I said, not to the Government of 
the country. He must serve as a check even on the 
Government. He must have control over even the 
Exchequer. Government may make mistakes. It is 



326 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

wrong to assume that the Government can do no 
wrong. The Auditor-General is independent of the 
Executive. But if Administrations, operating de- 
partments, spending departments and the Accounts 
Department work together in close collaboration, the 
Accountant-General will give financial advice before 
schemes are formulated and exercise financial 
control later. It is the duty of the Audit and Ac- 
counts Department to carry out the financial poli- 
cies of the Government and maintain the authority 
of Parliament. If I have one advice to give, if I 
am presumptuous enough to give any advice to the 
officers of the Audit and Accounts Department, it 
is this : Do not shrink from truth for fear of offending men 
in high places. 



INTERNATIONAL HOTEL CONFERENCE, 
DELHI 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
18 February, 1955 

IT is a great pleasure for me to be here on the 
occasion of the first meeting in India of the 
Administrative Council of the International Hotel 
Association. I am happy to know that so soon after 
the formation of the Federation of the Indian Hotel 
Association, the Federation had been able to invite 
the Council to meet in this country. 

I am afraid that my own acquaintance with the 
problems you will consider is very meagre. My only 
claim to be here is that I happen to be a much 
travelled man and I have stopped in hotels of 
different lands in different lands. 

At a time when our attention was limited to our 
country we tried to promote an understanding of 
the different peoples and institutions of our country 
by means of pilgrimages : Banaras and Rameshwar, 
Puri and Dwarka have been important pilgrim 
centres. As we travel from one place to another we 
acquire an idea of the different peoples, their insti- 
tutions and temperaments. Even when communi- 
cations were difficult people travelled from one 
part of the world to another to visit holy places. 
The scenes of the life and work of the Buddha in 



328 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

India, the holy places in Jerusalem and Mecca in 
Arabia are visited by Buddhists, Christians and 
Muslims. 

In former ages the world consisted of a number of 
societies slowly evolving on their own lines. Out of 
their varied experiences came the treasures of wis- 
dom, art and science which we have inherited. Now 
the world is converging into one society. Modern 
transport has reduced the boundaries of the world 
to the dimensions of a small country; physical 
proximity has led to a mingling of races and cul- 
tures. The need to understand other peoples and 
their ways has become imperative. For any great 
people to declare for isolation is to betray itself. We 
have to understand other nations and get on with 
them. There should be no quarantine nations. On 
account of the development of the new weapons of 
warfare humanity is facing a supreme crisis. If we 
are to escape atomic annihilation we must renounce 
war as an instrument of national policy and get near 
one another. Patriotism is not enough. Nationalism 
is a local interest. The happiness of the human race 
is of greater importance than the triumph of this or 
that nation. International friendship and co-opera- 
tion are our great needs. We must understand one 
another and learn to live together. Nothing helps 
this process of mutual understanding as travel. 

In promoting tourism, hotels play an important 
role, and as far as possible we should try to see that 
our hotels are well run, equipped with modern 



INTERNATIONAL HOTEL CONFERENCE 329 

fittings where visitors get all the comforts necessary. 
Travel must be both pleasant and useful. 

It is also essential to have trained guides who 
can explain with authority, with charm and with 
contagious enthusiasm. I hope that this new field 
which is opening out before our country will contri- 
bute to large tourist traffic and more than that to 
international understanding. 



THE INDIAN RIFLE ASSOCIATION, 
DELHI 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
2 March, 1955 

I AM the last man to be called upon to inaugurate 
this Conference, for I have never in my life 
handled a rifle. There is a verse in the Mahdbhdrata 
which says : 

I/ agratah caturo veddh 
prsthatah safaram dhanuh 
idam brdhmyam idam ksdtram 
Sdpdd api farad api. 

It suggests that we must resist evil by moral force 
if possible, by physical force if necessary. We should 
not submit to injustice or acquiesce in evil. Even if 
we resist evil by physical force it must be done in a 
spirit of ahimsa, out of a sense of duty, without 
bitterness or hatred. The Toga Sutra makes out that 
ahimsa is vaira-tydga or renunciation of hatred. It is 
not possible all of a sudden to attain a stage where 
love will be the law, though we must steadily work 
towards this goal. Even our great saints put forth 
supreme efforts to reduce the scope of force and 
replace it by persuasion (te yatndt alpatard bhavet). 
We should constantly endeavour to reduce the 
number of occasions when we have to use force. 



THE INDIAN RIFLE ASSOCIATION 331 

We have come to a stage in the development of 
the weapons of war when we cannot settle any 
questions by resort to war. We should ask ourselves 
not what we should do to gain a victory in war but 
what we should do to prevent war. A military 
contest will be destructive of both the victors and 
the vanquished. The alternatives are : Shall we 
renounce war or shall we put an end to human 
civilization ? We must give up the military ap- 
proach to international disputes. We must work for 
changes in the social situation which will make for 
a more adequate realization of the ideals. Non- 
violence is the only remedy in the present situation 
ksama hi fastram khalu brdhmandndm. ' 

Within nations we have come to replace the 
lawless use offeree, himsa, by the legal application of 
force danda. But in international relations we are 
still anarchical, and are ready to resort to a naked 
assertion of power. We do not yet have an inter- 
national authority to which the nations submit. 
It should be our endeavour to establish the rule of 
law among nations. Even now we should do our 
best to resort to legal processes, peaceful settlements. 

So long as this stage is not reached, nations will 
continue to have armies as we are having, however 
much we may regret it. So long as we have armies, 
we must train people in the use of arms though our 
ideal should not be abandoned simply because it 
has not yet been attained. 

These Rifle Associations, National Cadet Corps 



332 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

and such other organizations are intended to give 
us training in accuracy, marksmanship, physical 
courage, disciplined behaviour, team work, and I do 
hope that these organizations will function without 
making men trigger-happy, military-minded, ag- 
gressive, or violent in spirit. 



BURMAH-SHELL REFINERY, TROMBAY 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
17 March, 1955 

MAY I express to you my grateful thanks for the 
opportunity you have given me to come here, 
see this great installation and formally declare it 
open? I congratulate all those connected with this 
enterprise, the designers, the engineers, and the 
builders and all other workers whose willing co- 
operation and determined effort have transformed, 
practically a year in advance of the original time- 
table, this island site into an active refinery. 

This refinery is an expression of the great task in 
which this country, vast, poor and industrially 
backward, is now engaged. Since the attainment of 
independence, our problems have become more 
economic than political. Freedom was won with the 
hope of making fuller and richer the lives of the 
humble and ordinary people who make the Indian 
nation. It is said that power corrupts; it is forgotten 
that poverty corrupts to a larger extent. If power 
may corrupt a few men at the top, poverty corrupts 
the lives of millions. The presence of large numbers 
of people who are hungry and homeless, miserable 
and lonely is a challenge to us all. Poverty is not 
inevitable. The experience of other countries shows 
that it is preventible. Our awakened masses are 



334 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

moved by a sense of resentment, born not of malice, 
greed, or envy but of a feeling of utter inadequacy 
and helplessness. It is the duty of every civilized 
Government to alleviate the misery and degradation 
of the poor and remove the contrasts between 
irresponsible wealth and abysmal poverty. Demo- 
cracy must get rid of these, if it is to save itself. 
It is only natural that our Government is interes- 
ted in increasing national wealth and well-being, 
and providing larger employment opportunities 
for our people by industrial construction. Your 
refinery, apart from marking a significant stage 
in the industrialization of our country, helps 
to solve in some measure our chief problem of 
unemployment. 

With the awakened social conscience of the 
people, Governments in all countries are compelled 
to take more active interest in the organization of 
the economic life. Wealth is a social product and 
should therefore be equitably controlled and distri- 
buted. The directive principles of our Constitution 
impose certain responsibilities on the State and its 
control and influence in the industrial sphere will 
increase in the future. We are not in these matters 
prisoners of any ideology. We are empiricists. Our 
chief objective which is to raise the living standards 
of our people is obligatory but the way to achieve 
it is optional. So long as private enterprise functions 
with honesty of purpose and a sense of social justice 
and contributes to a rapid improvement of the 



BURMAH-SHELL REFINERY 335 

living conditions of the common man and larger 
employment, it will have full scope. 

When we speak of a socialistic pattern of society, 
we do not wish to uproot every enterprise that 
exists and recreate the industrial world anew. We 
wish to lay stress on the social vision, the social 
purpose, the social approach. The different ways of 
organizing economic life may be symbolized by a 
forest, a garden and a park. Unfettered free enter- 
prise is comparable to a wild growth of a forest 
where wheat and tares are mixed together. In spite 
of its great achievements free enterprise has pro- 
duced power-hungry and money-mad people who for 
the sake of gain adopted doubtful methods of child 
labour, slave trade, burning of coffee and sinking of 
wheat. We must gather the tares and burn them in 
the fire. Its opposite is cleaning up the whole ground, 
breaking even the sods, recreating a new society 
where private enterprise is stifled and public control 
is all-comprehensive. Where a forest symbolizes the 
first, a garden laid out on a set pattern represents the 
second. There is a third way of organizing economic 
life, which we have adopted, where the traditions of 
the past are adjusted to the rights of the future. 
History does not permit us the luxury of escaping 
from our inheritance. We have not a clean sheet of 
paper to write upon. Our future economic organi- 
zation will grow out of our past. A park where we 
have natural growth and planned growth both 
governed by an overall purpose and design 



336 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

represents the mixed economy which we have 
adopted. The vitalities of economic life require to 
be brought under social and moral control. In these 
large industries we create wealth not for self- 
aggrandizement but for national welfare. You 
rightly observe that your refinery is an outstanding 
example of what private enterprise backed and 
encouraged by an enlightened democratic Govern- 
ment can achieve. 

In an increasingly interdependent world no 
nation can remain isolated. In the early years of her 
development Soviet Russia welcomed economic and 
technical aid from the United Kingdom and the 
United States among others. It is interesting to 
know that several outstanding American engineers 
were decorated by the Soviet Government for their 
services to the development of Soviet agriculture 
and industry. The oil industry is a co-operative 
venture in which the Americans, the British and the 
Indians participate. If these work together in a 
spirit of harmony and in the interests of the Indian 
people, they will strengthen the present policy of 
the Indian Government. They must serve the 
interests of our people, not only the interests of the 
millions of consumers of petroleum products but also 
of the many thousands who work in the country at 
large for the promotion of the business. All those 
connected with the oil industry in its production as 
well as distribution form one great fellowship. This 
is the meaning of democracy in industry. The 



BURMAH-SHELL REFINERY 337 

British are well known for their art of making the 
best of what is inevitable. I do hope that here also 
they will co-operate with the spirit of the times. 

You refer to Dr Bhabha's Atomic Energy Depart- 
ment. We are living perhaps at the close of an 
industrial epoch and the rise of another. The 
peaceful use of atomic energy will bring about in a 
decade or two a new industrial revolution. I very 
much hope that this city which has already played 
a notable part in the industrial life of the country 
will help to promote use of atomic energy, not for 
blasting the fertility of the soil or twisting the 
biological forms of life but for ushering in a new era 
of plenty for mankind. 

I have great pleasure in formally declaring open 
this Refinery. For all those connected with the 
planning and development of this Refinery, it is a 
day of triumph and rejoicing. May it also be a day 
of dedication to the welfare of the Indian people. 



22 



INDIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 
INSTITUTE 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
/ April, 1955 

T AM happy to be here and inaugurate the Golden 
JL Jubilee Celebrations of this Institute. This Ins- 
titute, popularly known as the Pusa Institute, has 
grown from small beginnings to its present position 
of importance in agricultural research. I need not 
repeat what your Director has just mentioned, 
the different branches in which research work is 
being done and the high quality of the work 
done. As one example, you rightly mention the 
way in which the sugar industry has been revolu- 
tionized by the researches of Barber, Venkataraman 
and others. This Institute is recognized today as 
an important centre for agricultural research in the 
world. 

On an occasion like this it is only appropriate 
that we should remember all those who helped to 
build this Institute and raise it to its present posi- 
tion. The Institute owes its origin to the vision of 
British administrators and the generosity of an 
American friend, Mr Phipps. Pioneer workers in 
the different branches studied here have established 
high traditions which it should be your endeavour 
to maintain if not enhance. 'Experiment,' wrote 



INDIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 339 

Leonardo, is the true interpreter between nature 
and man/ 'Thou, O God, dost sell us all things at 
the price of labour.' 

We are celebrating this Jubilee at a time when 
the output of foodgrains is showing a steady increase, 
thanks to the 'Grow More Food' campaign, rural 
development projects and good monsoons. In this 
connection we have to remember the services of the 
late Rafi Ahmed Kidwai who had unusual courage, 
determination and drive. Our present problem is 
not one of food shortage but of surplus and a 
decline in agricultural prices and I am glad that our 
Government is aware of this situation. 

Though we are embarking on a bold plan of 
industrialization in the Second Five Year Plan, 
designed to draw men away from land and find 
gainful employment for them in industries, the base 
of our national prosperity will continue to be agri- 
culture. The history of advanced nations shows that 
land will remain the main source of their prosperity 
and no highly industrialized nation can sustain 
itself if its agricultural economy becomes narrow or 
weak. The Industrial Revolution of England was 
largely the consequence of cheap food and fodder 
which she imported from America. America's pri- 
macy in world markets stems from her food sur- 
pluses. The impressive rise of the Soviet Union is 
again due to the wide agricultural basis of her 
economy. Recent happenings in the Soviet Union, 
however, indicate the need for reconditioning the 



340 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

methods of agricultural production and farm- 
management. 

Though there will be a shift to industrial produc- 
tion in the Second Five Year Plan, attention to 
agriculture new techniques, soil conservation, soil 
fertility, reclamation of land should not diminish 
to any extent. We must increase food production 
if we are to remain secure from the fluctuations of 
nature like uncertain monsoons. Besides, the nutri- 
tional value of our diet is not high. If the quality of 
our diet is to be raised, we must produce more 
fruits and vegetables, more milk and milk products. 
This means that we should improve the quality of 
our cattle and increase the production of fodder 
crops. Again, even industry cannot flourish without 
a prosperous agriculture. We need raw materials 
not only for industries but for export also. 

To stimulate the increase of agricultural produc- 
tion we must speed up agrarian reforms aiming at 
an equitable distribution of land to peasant culti- 
vators. Our land reforms are still slow and halting; 
they require to be speeded up. This will raise the 
purchasing power in rural areas and provide a 
large market for the products of industries and 
handicrafts. 

In this vast enterprise, the work of Research 
Institutes is vital and urgent. We must carry the 
results of scientific research to the workers in the 
fields. Our peasants may be illiterate but they are not 
ignorant. In spite of their caution and conservatism 



INDIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 341 

they are open to new ideas and generally behave as 
reasonable and responsible citizens. Their tradi- 
tional wisdom is well known. 

A balanced development of the countryside is the 
foundation of ordered national growth. Economic 
well-being sustains national life. Adequate living 
standards bring us the opportunity for sustained 
intellectual and spiritual endeavour. 

The very term vyavasaya means effort, exertion, 
purpose and resolve. Vyavasayin is one who acts 
energetically and resolutely. From the beginning 
agriculture has been a symbol of human effort. When 
man ceased to wait passively on nature and started to 
control it, civilization began. When he changed 
from food-gathering to food-producing, he settled 
down to communal life. We can control not only 
material environment but also our human environ- 
ment. We can cultivate not only land but our 
inward life. 

Our cultural traditions were based on natural 
phenomena. Early man saw nature in terms of the 
great orderly repetitive processes of nature. Man 
and nature both pass through the cycle of birth and 
death. The Katha Upanisad 1 says : sasyam iva martyah 
pacyate, sasyam iva jay ate punah. 'A mortal ripens 
like corn, like corn is born again. 5 We come across 
in the tradition of the Chinese, Babylonians, Egyp- 
tians, Greeks, Romans and other people the con- 
ception of the sky and the earth as the two great 

U. 1.6 



J42 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

principles of the universe : dydvd prthivi. The sky- 
god controls the seasons and the earth-goddess 
nourishes men and animals. Social scientists are 
agreed that religion grew originally out of agricul- 
ture. Our harvest songs, our folk dances, our festi- 
vals centre round agricultural events. 

Man is not absorbed by the objective happen- 
ings. Reason and conscience guide his judgments 
and actions. He need not submit to the pressure of 
the material environment. He can mould the 
natural forces. Even as he checked drought by in- 
venting the irrigation systems, controlled floods by 
dams, studied scientifically soil deficiencies, insect 
infestations, plant diseases, to overcome them and 
increased agricultural production, he can yet reach 
new heights of creative achievement. In this exciting 
enterprise your Institute will have a great part to 
play. I have much pleasure in inaugurating the 
Jubilee Celebrations of the Indian Agricultural 
Research Institute. 



THE ACCOUNTANT-GENERALS' 
CONFERENCE, NEW DELHI 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
1 May, 1955 

I AM happy to be here today to inaugurate this 
first Conference of the Accountant-Generals. 
Though the beginnings of the Department go back 
to 1753 and we have had one or two conferences at 
the technical level previously, this is the first con- 
ference convened for the purpose of considering 
current principles, methods and practices and 
examining the basic concepts of accounting and 
auditing. Rules of business and procedure framed to 
suit a Government interested mainly in tax collec- 
tion and preservation of law and order require to 
be reconsidered in view of our objective of a Welfare 
State and a socialist pattern of society. 

In the Preamble to our Constitution we lay stress 
on fraternity 'assuring the dignity of the individual 
and the unity of the nation.' This concept of 
national solidarity and brotherhood is the meaning 
of the Welfare State. Our political theorists maintain 
that the interests of the rulers and the ruled are iden- 
tical in an ideal State. In a Kalinga Edict Agoka 
said : 'All men are my children. Just as I desire 
on behalf of my own children that they should be 
provided with all manner of comfort in this as well 



344 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

as in the other world, similarly I desire the same 
for all people.' In the new context it is increasingly 
realized that all wealth is in some measure a trust, 
all material well-being owes so much to the com- 
munity which protects it and to the fellow-workers 
who helped to create it. We owe our wealth to our 
society and to our neighbours. Property does not 
confer an absolute right and in the complex and 
inter-connected world of modern industry no man 
can claim that his wealth is entirely earned by his 
own efforts and he has an absolute say in its disposal. 
The concept of fraternity in this increasingly 
inter-dependent world has to be extended beyond 
the frontiers of the nation State. All religions pro- 
claim the infinite value of each human soul and 
the infinite respect each man owes to his neighbour's 
liberty and well-being. If there are some nations 
which have higher standards of living it may be 
argued that their wealth is created by the material 
resources of other countries and the labour of men 
and women who live in the world's slums or are 
removed from there to work in other continents like 
the African and the Asian labourers. The relation- 
ship between the developed nations and the under- 
developed ones of the world is somewhat analogous 
to the conditions which prevail in regard to the 
haves and have-nots in a nation State. Even as the 
old concepts of property are revised, so national 
economic policies require to be altered in the 
direction of fraternity and social responsibility. Aid 



ACCOUNTANT-GENERALS 1 CONFERENCE 345 

to under-privileged countries represents not so 
much charity as justice. Mankind must learn to 
consider itself a single family inhabiting a small 
corner in the vast spaces of the world. We must 
work for a free and just society in which imperialism 
and exploitation will become things of the past. 
One of the greatest disruptive forces in the world 
today is economic instability, and the desperate 
conditions of many African and Asian countries 
and this should trouble the spirit and stir the con- 
science of the advanced nations. World peace can 
be secured only by a rapid improvement of the 
conditions of people who now suffer from hunger,, 
fear and hate. The Colombo Plan, the Technical 
Assistance schemes, the programmes of the econo- 
mic and social advancement of the United Nations, 
are the first feeble attempts to establish new eco- 
nomic relationships between nations. 

Our country has vast natural resources, and yet 
we are poor. Nature has been bountiful but we have 
not been making proper use of her gifts. By the 
development of multi-purpose projects, the appli- 
cation of science to agriculture and industry, by 
graduated taxation, we are attempting to implement 
the ideal of the Welfare State. The Public Sector of 
our country is gradually increasing and govern- 
mental obligations in the development of industry 
are also widening. We are also receiving te some 
extent aid from foreign nations. It is our obligation 
to see to it that our resources are not wasted, that 



346 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

the undertakings are carried out with economy and 
efficiency. In this matter, your Department will 
have to make valuable contributions. To speed up 
this great enterprise of effecting progressive all- 
round development, the procedures and practices 
hitherto adopted may require revision so as to 
avoid unnecessary delays and fruitless discussions. 

Your Department has had a long and proud 
record of public service spread over a period of 
years and has built up a great tradition of indepen- 
dence and integrity, qualities which are needed 
today more than ever before. Our Constitution 
embodies and defines the duties and powers of the 
Comptroller and Auditor-General and enjoins on 
him and his officers certain obligations. They 
should be independent of the Executive if they are 
to serve as an effective safeguard of democratic 
government. 

Sound management of a nation's finances is an 
essential condition of political stability and social 
welfare. History shows that Governments come to 
grief if they overlook sound economic canons. In 
a democratic State the Legislatures vote the grants 
and the Executive are charged with the spending of 
it. The Comptroller and Auditor-General and his 
officers are expected to see to it that these grants are 
spent for the purposes for which they are voted by 
the Legislature and in conformity with the various 
laws, rules and regulations in force. In a democra- 
tic constitution where we have rule by the majority 



ACCOUNTANT-GENERALS' CONFERENCE 347 

party, it is essential to ensure that Governments are 
responsible and obey the mandate of the Legisla- 
tures. They must govern themselves if they wish to 
govern others. It is your function to secure the 
compliance of the spending departments to the will 
of the Legislatures. In addition to high technical 
competence a certain detachment from party poli- 
tics, fidelity to the interests of the people and fear- 
lessness are expected from the Audit and Accounts 
Officers. We look to them to expose incompetence 
and maladministration and wastage. Our resources 
are limited and we have to make them go far. We 
cannot afford waste of any kind and there can be 
no room for culpable incompetence. 

Of course, administration and audit should work 
together in a co-operative spirit. They are not 
working at cross-purposes. As you say, conflict if 
any between the two is due to historical conditions. 
The rooted habits of mind die hard and perhaps the 
conflict may be reduced by a freer interchange 
between the officers of Audit and the Administrative 
departments. 

You have referred to the separation of Accounts 
from Audit. You wish to relieve the Accountant- 
General of the responsibility of maintaining ac- 
counts and entrust this task to the spending depart- 
ments themselves. This will mean the training of 
executive officers in the technique of accounting. 
Perhaps when this is achieved and when we have 
accounts officers distinct from audit officers, who 



348 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

will look after internal finance and accounting, a 
freer interchange between the two may become 
possible to mutual advantage. We will watch with 
interest the working of the scheme in the three 
departments at the Centre. 

It is a matter of great satisfaction that the recruit- 
ment to the Service is made on an all-India basis. 
Some of the ablest men of our country are selected 
for this Service. Petty considerations of caste, 
community, province, language do not count. The 
responsibilities which the members of your Service 
will have in the future will be much greater and 
greater things will be expected of them. The honour, 
the safety and the welfare of our nation will be 
involved in your labours and it is my earnest hope 
that you and your officers will discharge your duties 
without fear or favour, without malice or ill will, 
in the sole interests of the nation. 



THE DELHI PROVINCIAL SARVODAYA 
SAMMELAN 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
11 September, 1955 

I am delighted to be here and inaugurate the 
Delhi Provincial Sarvodaya Sammelan. Sarvo- 
daya is a comprehensive concept. When it applies 
to the individual it means that there should be an 
all-round awakening or reaching forth of the indi- 
vidual. When it applies to society it means that all 
individuals should have equal opportunities for 
their development material, mental and spiritual. 
It applies not merely to our society but to the world 
society. Sarvodaya aims at the progress of all people. 
Technological and economic developments are 
bringing the peoples of the world together as mem- 
bers of one human family, living on a shrinking 
globe. To serve this world community is the pri- 
vilege and obligation of the men of this generation. 
For the first time in history man's dream of a world 
of freedom, security and peace has become a 
practical possibility. Man has succeeded in chang- 
ing things. If he succeeds in changing himself we 
will have disciplined leaders who can wield spiri- 
tual, mental and physical tools by which the new 
world can be built. By organizing our inward 
resources we can order our relationships with our 



350 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

fellows and build up a society which is non-violent 
and non-exploiting in character. 

When we attained political independence we 
associated with it a national awakening, a national 
rebirth. We expected an all-round betterment. We 
are striving to raise the material standards of our 
people through our Five YearMans. Mere improve- 
ment of environment is not enough. What we call 
progress is nothing if it is not accompanied by inner 
change. In the last analysis, the resources of 
character decide the destiny of nations. The conflicts 
we come across in the social world are the external 
symptoms of inward strife. Each one of us has an 
impulse to violence, has love for domination. We 
hate what opposes our aims. We are maddened by 
what obstructs our wishes. We all wish to become 
bosses. We wish to have no equals/no colleagues, but 
only slaves and subordinates. This internal strife 
which is the inner condition of men in high stations 
becomes war when it breaks out on the world 
arena. The only thing more wicked than the will to 
dominate is the temptation to submit. The recent 
disturbances in Patna, Bombay, Calcutta and Delhi 
show how near to violence our spirits are. If many 
of us avoid violent action it is due to the fear of 
consequences. Our lives are more legal than moral. 
We have not been persuaded in our hearts that 
non-violence is the one sure way of abhyudaya and 
nihsreyasa. This is the human, the ethical attitude. 
This condition of inward strife is not incurable. 



SARVODAYA SAMMELAN 351 

Each one has to resolve it within himself. We should 
respect our opponents and listen to their arguments. 
We should not attribute to them unworthy motives. 
To do great work and remain modest, to have 
authority and remain gentle, to have office and 
remain sensitive, to have power and not be coar- 
sened by it are major virtues even in India. Even 
God has aversion for conceit and love for humility 
isvarasyapy abhimdna-dvesitvad dainyapriyatvdc ca. x 

The Bhoodan Yajfia fosters the right attitude to 
life. Land, labour, life itself are a trust and we have 
to use them for the good of the people and the 
glory of God : jagad-hitdya krsndya. Acharya Vinoba 
Bhave wishes to bring about a redistribution of land, 
but more than that he wishes to spread the spirit of 
love and co-operation. He wants us to use our 
possessions as a sacred trust and make our life a 
spontaneous self-giving. For him each word is a 
prayer and each deed a sacrifice. He teaches us to 
live largely on little. 

We are often asked whether it is great persona- 
lities or great ideas that move the world and deter- 
mine the character of an age. An age gets its ideas 
from its personalities. Development depends on 
leadership. While Governments deal with outer 
symptoms, the moral and spiritual leaders deal with 
causes. By governmental action alone we cannot 
change the nature of mankind. Acharya Vinoba 
Bhave is trying to bring about a moral regeneration 

1 Jiarada Bhakti Sutra, 27 



352 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

of our country. He reminds us of the ultimates of 
human thinking, of the fundamentals of ethics, that 
love is better than hate, peace is better than war, 
that co-operation is better than conflict, persuasion 
better than force, gentleness better than violence.*- 
We wish him god-speed in his work and many 
happy returns of this day. 



OPENING OF THE DURGAPUR BARRAGE 

9 August, 1955 

I AM happy to be associated with this important 
phase of the progress of the Damodar Valley 
Corporation. This Corporation was set up formally 
on 7th July, 1948. It has many objectives the 
production of electric power, flood control and 
irrigation and navigation. It has a large number of 
self-sufficient items which have begun to yield 
returns. When the different objectives of this project 
are realized, this vast area which frequently became 
a scene of desolation and sorrow will become one of 
progress and prosperity. 

When we won our independence, our most 
urgent task was the rehabilitation of refugees. Next 
only to it in importance was the stepping up of 
agricultural production. This project by which 
nearly one lakh acres will be brought under irriga- 
tion is one of the means by which agricultural 
production can be raised. All those connected with 
this Organization should feel proud that they have 
completed this part of their great project. 

Even as we are attempting to reduce troubles in 
this area, other parts of the country, north Bengal, 
Bihar, Assam, U.P., are suffering from ravages 
by floods and people are standing up to these 
disasters with rare courage and determination. Our 

23 



354 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

sympathies are with them. We hope in the Second 
Five Year Plan to take steps to check these damages 
by controlling floods. A plan is necessary because we 
cannot afford to waste our substance haphazardly, 
spending much and achieving little. The Plan is 
not a Government Plan but a National Plan in 
which we all should take interest and pride. Take 
these works here. They help both Bengal and Bihar. 
They help to reduce the distress of people of both 
these States and to that extent they are a sacred 
achievement. Those who work here should do so 
not merely for the sake of the employment which 
this project gives but for the opportunity of service 
which it offers. Here you are, from all parts of 
India, working together in a spirit of fellowship for 
a common objective. All work is sacred. What 
makes it sacred is the dedication and integrity of 
the men who undertake it. The poverty, the unem- 
ployment are a challenge to democracy. We must 
work for a country with equal opportunities for all, 
a country in which comradeship, not caste, will be 
the spirit of the nation, a country in which the 
people refuse to rest content while poverty is the lot 
of the large majority. Work of this kind is worship. 
It is a secular form of sanctity. - 

There is a natural tendency to get used to evils 
that have been long with us, the spirit of caste, of 
provincial jealousies and communal rivalries. If 
they are allowed to perpetuate themselves, if we 
do not fight them, our future will not be bright. 



DURGAPUR BARRAGE 355 

You, men of the superior or subordinate staff here, 
have an opportunity to develop an all-India 
patriotism and subordinate your differences to the 
good of the nation. 

We are fervent believers in democracy. It would 
be foolish to ignore the stupendous achievements 
realized under other forms of government. Their 
methods may not be ours, but we cannot fail to 
note the passionate fervour and sincerity with which 
their objectives are being pursued. If we are to 
uphold our ideals, our conception of life, both 
national and international, if we are to see them 
prevail, then considerable effort must be made 
by us and a spirit of passionate enthusiasm and 
dedicated service must be roused among our people. 
Are we doing it today in our country ? These 
projects show that our country is on the move and 
if we are patriotic and persistent, we will soon 
emerge as a nation of dignified citizens, whose lives 
will be simple and austere. 

Welfare is not material comfort or economic 
prosperity. It is wholeness of being. The good life 
is not a matter of the goods we consume. If the world 
is passing through a neurosis, it is because men are 
becoming fragmented and have lost their dignity as 
human beings. There is a neurosis of doubt, fear and 
insecurity. We have to avoid economic exploitation 
and mass manipulation if we are to preserve in- 
violate our dignity as human beings. To preserve 
wholeness of being, we shall have to remember the 



356 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

tradition which has sustained us all these centuries, 
which requires us to depend not on outer diversions 
but inward resources for true happiness. The 
country expects from each one of us, not feebleness 
but efficiency, not grudging work but dedicated 
service. 



SEMINAR ON CASTEISM AND THE 
REMOVAL OF UNTOUGHABILITY 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
26 September, 1955 

IN inaugurating the Seminar on these vital ques- 
tions, I do not propose to enter into the details 
which it is for you to work out. I shall be content to 
indicate what seems to me to be the broad principles 
which should govern your discussions and decisions. 
I note that you plan to consider these questions 
from 'the social, economic, educational, psycholo- 
gical, legal, political and welfare angles 5 . 

It is a good augury that this Seminar is being 
held in a University atmosphere where it is easy to 
avoid vague generalizations, impatient criticisms, 
or angry abuse. I expect from you solid sociological 
thinking and sound advice which will enable us 'to 
counteract and eradicate the twin evils within a 
given period of time 5 , to use your own words. 

The first thing one should remember is not to 
confuse religious principles with social institutions. 
Religious principles are fundamental and enduring, 
while social institutions change from time to time. 
Whenever a change is demanded in social institu- 
tions, the cry is raised that religion is in danger. 
This is a false cry. Social institutions are functions 
of a local social context. The rules relating to eating, 



358 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

drinking and marriage are social regulations which 
have changed from time to time. When Robert de 
Nobili of the Society of Jesus allowed Indian 
Christians to follow their social conventions and 
permitted Hindus after conversion to retain their 
yajnopamta and the tikha he demonstrated the 
distinction between the universal religious truths 
and the temporary social forms. He appeared in 
Madura clad in the saffron robe of the sadhu with 
sandal paste on his forehead and the sacred thread 
on his body from which hung a cross. De Nobili 
gave out that he was a Brahmin from Rome. That 
there is a distinction between religion and social 
regulations is also evident from the way the Syrian 
Christians adopted many of the usages of the 
Hindus, including caste and untouchability* Con- 
versions were discouraged and the low class converts 
remained outcast for all practical purposes. The 
Jains, the Sikhs, the ViraSaivas, the Brahmos, the 
Aryas do not recognize caste divisions but they 
themselves have become castes like the Jews and the 
Parsees. 

Our social habits give social expression to reli- 
gious principles, and as we understand their impli- 
cations better, the religious leaders themselves effect 
social changes. From the seers of the Upanisads and 
the Buddha to Tagore and Gandhi, leaders of reli- 
gion have been advocates of radical social changes. 
In their own age these were regarded as heretics, 
protestants and not as champions of reaction, 



CASTEISM AND UNTOUGHABILITY 359 

privilege and vested interests. Truly religious men are 
preachers of righteousness, heralds of social justice. 

Religion is not bound to any particular social 
order. It has to judge every social order on its 
merits. The use of the word dharma in relation to 
the rules of caste and untouchability suggests that 
there is something sacred about them. In the 
Mahdbharata, dharma is defined as that which holds 
society together. 1 It is evident that the practice 
of untouchability is anti-social and a violation of 
the principles of dharma. The State has decided to 
remove the discriminations resulting from the prac- 
tice of untouchability by making them criminal. It 
is not consistent with the modern trends of politics 
or the principles of religion. It is a social crime and 
the sooner we get rid of it the better for the good 
name of our country and for our national solidarity. 
Only by giving special opportunities can we help 
the weaker sections of the society to forge ahead. 
It is not merely the material rehabilitation of the 
submerged people; we must give them a sense of 
human status and dignity. The future generations 
should not be compelled to bear the burdens of the 
past. The test of a civilization is the way it treats its 
weak members. 

In the early centuries of the Christian era our 

thought and practice in regard to caste were far 

more fluid, less rigid, less closely defined than they 

afterwards became. The references to anuloma and 

1 dhdrayad dharmam ity dhufi dharme$a vidhrtdh prajdh. 



360 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

pratiloma marriages are a clear evidence of the 
prevalence of inter-caste marriages in the dynamic 
periods of our history. When religion lost much of 
its spiritual power and ethical idealism, caste 
prejudices became pronounced. The stiffening of 
caste restrictions and the subjection of the country 
occurred together. It is regrettable and unfortunate 
that in many parts of the country public life is 
corrupted by the caste spirit. There is such a thing 
as the logic of history. Everything has its cause; 
possibly the subjection of the past is the result of our 
social divisions. We can shape our future better if 
we avoid the wrong causes. An ancient verse tells 
us that the Brahmin and the outcast are blood 
brothers. 2 We have always held up as the ideal the 
individual who is above considerations of caste, 
varndtita. The Bhdgavata says : 'He is dear to Hari, 
in whom there is no pride of birth or of activity or 
of his status in society/ 8 Samnyasins are emanci- 
pated from caste. In modern society there does not 
seem to be any economic, ethnic, or ethical justi- 
fication for caste distinctions. Candidates are re- 
cruited for all-India services on grounds of character 
and capacity, guna and karma. They are not the 
monopoly of any one caste or community. 

Superiority in the social hierarchy is determined 

2 antyajo viprajdtis ca eka eva sahodarah 
eka-yoni prasutas ca ekasdkhena jdyate. 

3 na yasya janmakarmdbhydm na varndsrama-jdtibhih 
sanjate 9 sminn ahambhdvo dehe vai sa hareh priyah. 11. XI. 2.51. 



CASTEISM AND UNTOUCHABILITY 361 

by the graciousness of living, by austerity. In India 
the price of power is renunciation. If Gandhi is 
treated as the Father of the Nation, if Vinoba 
Bhave is adored by millions, it is not on account of 
their birth in the Vaisya or the Brahmin caste but 
because of the holiness of their life, aparigraha is the 
vrata of the highest. The Ndrada Bhakti Sutra tells ;us 
that among devotees there is no distinction of caste, 
learning, appearance, birth, possessions, occupa- 
tion, etc. 4 

We today live in a society which is giving way to 
the inexorable claims of a new order. We cannot 
stay the advance of time. If we clasp to our heart 
something that is past, if we cling to something that 
is defunct, we will be left behind. Forgetting is as 
essential as remembering. Much needs to be for- 
gotten if the essential is to be remembered and 
preserved. Societies stagnate if they resist change; 
they prosper if they are ready to change. The 
neurotic fear of change which we often come across 
is opposed to our tradition. The principle of life is^ 
change, caran vai madhu vindati. Only by moving, 
advancing can we achieve sweetness in life. The 
creative minds transform the tradition which they 
inherit. This tradition is never finished and closed. 
It ever remains open and continues to be built. 
Loyalty to the fundamentals of our faith provides 
sanctions for radical changes. We must bridge the 
gulf between what we profess and what we practise. 

4 ndsti teftt jdti-vidyd-rupa-kula-dhana-kriyddi bhedah. 72 



362 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

There should be a sustained nation-wide drive for 
the removal of all social disabilities from which 
people suffer. We must purge our society of man- 
made inequalities and injustices and provide for all 
equality of opportunity for personal well-being and 
social development. The awakening of our people 
from listless fatalism to self-awareness and self- 
assertion is a ground for hope. Our humanity must 
assert itself against all that destroys humanity. Let 
us hope, fight and suffer for the cause of men. The 
State is the servant of every citizen. Let us establish 
a society in which economic justice and provision of 
opportunity are available for all the members of 
society. 



INDIAN INDUSTRIES FAIR 

PRIZE DISTRIBUTION 
2 January, 1956 

ALL good things come to an end : so also the 
Industries Fair ! It has been the greatest draw 
in Delhi for some weeks. Almost every one interested 
in industrial enterprise in our country has visited 
the Fair, and thousands of students have come to see 
it. I have no doubt this has given our people an idea 
of the urgent need for industrial development and 
also a sense of our backwardness in this matter. 

Our Five Year Plan aims at speeding up the 
development of heavy and machine-making indus- 
tries. Our aim should be to produce all the require- 
ments of our life ourselves. We must be able to feed 
the hungry, clothe the naked, nurse the sick, train 
the minds and civilize the emotions of our people. 

In this matter we believe in co-operation with 
other countries. We have no favourites, no foes. 
We wish to be friends with all. We wish to learn 
from all countries though we have to depend on 
ourselves. This Fair will increase our foreign trade 
and help us to build new industrial concerns. We 
should try to remove the economic deficiencies and 
work our industries with due regard for the rights 
of workers. In an economic democracy there must 
be a large participation and partnership of workers 



364 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

in industrial enterprise, a greater comradeship 
between the management and the workers. 

At the beginning of the year we turn back and 
look forward. We have tried to do our best to help 
nations to understand one another. Our achieve- 
ments may not measure up to our hopes. Yet, we 
have to persist. Ten years after the establishment 
of the United Nations it has now become a little 
more representative of the world with seventy-six 
members, but it is not yet fully representative. It is 
our ambition to make the United Nations an inter- 
national authority reflecting the conscience of the 
world. It has to become a world parliament though 
its decisions today are not enforceable. All this can 
happen not by military methods, pacts and al- 
liances, but by co-operation in other matters. Here 
in this Fair where we have many nations of the 
world working together, cutting across national, 
racial and ideological barriers, we have an indica- 
tion of the emerging of world solidarity. We should 
live as compatriots in this world which has become 
one unit of co-operation. Almost all the advariced 
nations of the world have sent their exhibits to us 
and are making gifts of some of the important ones 
to our country. 

We are grateful to them all for their presence 
here and their expression of goodwill for us. 

I am delighted to present the awards to all those 
who have been judged to be worthy of them. I hope 
our friends from outside will remember this visit to 



INDIAN INDUSTRIES FAIR 365 

our country and we ourselves will profit from their 
presence. We are thankful to the Federation of the 
Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries for 
organizing this Fair. Mr Bansal worked day and 
night for months before the Fair was organized and 
during its continuance he has worked very hard. 
We are grateful to him. 

While we have to pay adequate attention to the 
industrial growth of our country, we should not 
forget that security is not enough; social justice is 
not enough. We have to aim at the refinement of 
human relationships, at the development of the 
virtues of mind and the graces of life. 



HITAKARINI SABHA, JABALPUR 

DIAMOND JUBILEE CELEBRATIONS 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 

22 January, 1956 

THE Sabha has done its work for a stretch of 
nearly eighty-five years for the intellectual and 
moral development of the people of Jabalpur and 
its neighbourhood. It is good to remember all those 
who helped the Sabha to expand its activities. The 
aim of education is not merely to liberate the intel- 
lect but also to free the heart and the conscience. 
Mental slums are more dangerous than material 
slums. It is through educational institutions that we 
have to develop the spirit of democracy, the spirit 
of compassion. 

I have spent many years of my life in the study of 
India's thought and history. This country has had 
long periods of noble deeds, of great things con- 
ceived and executed, of elevating influence exerted 
on countries both East and West. But there have 
also been periods of pain and ignominy, of cruel 
vicissitudes and misfortunes, of maladies and disas- 
ters. We should recall the ideas of validity and 
vitality which made for progress and give up those 
petrified prejudices, cynical egoisms, inward distor- 
tions, unholy prejudices which reigned in our hearts 
and checked our progress. We have to fight today 



SABHA 367 

not so much against death and disease as against 
man's inhumanity to man, oppression and injustice. 
In the years before Independence we complained 
about the policy of divide and rule. But today we 
seem to be dividing ourselves and in danger of 
losing the significance of freedom. Tragic happen- 
ings in some parts of our country resulting from the 
publication of the Government's decisions on the 
reorganization of States have distressed us all. 
There are anti-social elements in all societies which 
are ready to exploit grievances, real or imaginary, 
and it is the duty of the leaders to control such 
elements. In a democratic set-up when we wish to 
get decisions which are unacceptable to large sec- 
tions of the community altered or modified, we do 
not resort to direct action or indulge in acts of vio- 
lence. We do not attribute unworthy motives to 
those from whom we happen to differ honestly and 
legitimately. Like every other human institution 
our Government is not infallible. It has taken a 
good deal of time, had numerous consultations, 
spent long hours deliberating and reached its deci- 
sions. And if we do not agree with some of them, 
there are peaceful, constitutional methods open to 
us to get them changed. But the incidents that have 
happened in different parts of the country have 
caused us all great sorrow. No people can be de- 
graded except by themselves. Others may inflict 
injury but they cannot bring us shame. Dishonour 
comes only from ceasing to be faithful to ourselves. 



368 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

In the last analysis the resources of character deter- 
mine the destiny of nations. I hope that our leaders 
will realize their responsibilities and strive to restore 
peace and calm in the country and not do anything 
which will injure our interests at home and damage 
our influence abroad. 

If we are to fulfil the hopes and aspirations of our 
millions in all parts of the country, we should 
stand together and not allow considerations of caste 
and community, race and religion, language and 
province, to retard our onward march. India is 
one and if one part injures another, it is the whole 
that suffers. If with one hand we hurt the other, it 
is the individual who suffers. We have been working 
together all these years as limbs of one body 
Marathas and Gujaratis, Bengalis, Biharis and 
Oriyas and there is no reason why we should give 
up our traditional attitude of real friendship and 
genuine co-operation. 

We have many problems facing us and with faith 
in ourselves and confidence in our future, we have to 
tackle them. When hardship leaves man, when 
smugness creeps in, our energies decay, our spirits 
droop, we will get near our fall. Therefore today we 
must wake up, search our hearts, set aside selfish 
impulses and base passions, bring to our country 
selfless and dedicated spirits and make great strides 
in the promotion of public welfare. 



PREFATORY 
INTRODUCTIONS 



24 



GREAT WOMEN OF INDIA* 



TNDIAN tradition has generally respected woman- 
JL hood, as the essays in this book indicate, though 
occasionally we find derogatory references to wo- 
men. Even God is regarded as half man, half woman, 
ardhanarisvara. Manu declares that where women 
are honoured, there the gods are pleased; where 
they are not honoured, all works become fruitless. 1 

Women are human beings and have as much 
right to full development as men have. In regard 
to opportunities for intellectual and spiritual deve- 
lopment, we should not emphasize the sex of women 
even as we do not emphasize the sex of men. The 
fact that we are human beings is infinitely more 
important than the physiological peculiarities which 
distinguish us from one another. In all human 
beings, irrespective of their sex, the same drama of 
the flesh and the spirit, of finitude and transcen- 
dence takes place. 

Women cannot do some things that men can. 
Their physiology prevents this. That, however, does 
not prove any inferiority on their part. We must 
do the things for which we are made and do them 
well. 

* Shri Sarada Devi Commemoration Volume, 1953 
1 3.56 



372 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

In early times education of women was en- 
couraged. The goddess of learning is Sarasvatl. 
The Mahdnirvana Tantra says : 'A girl also should be 
brought up and educated with great effort and care/ 2 

The Devi-Mahatmya declares : 'All forms of know- 
ledge are aspects of Thee; and all women through- 
out the world are Thy forms.' 3 We hear of great 
women like Maitreyi, Gargi, Arundhati, Lilavati, 
and others. 

In the Vedic age women enjoyed equal opportu- 
nities for education and work. They were eligible 
for upanayana or initiation and brahmacarya or study 
of Brahma-knowledge. 

In certain periods of our history, education of 
women was sadly neglected, and women lapsed 
into illiteracy and superstition. Writing to Margaret 
Noble (Sister Nivedita) on 29 July, 1897, Swami 
Vivekananda said : 

Let me tell you frankly that I am now convinced that you 
have a great future in the work of India. What is wanted 
is not a man but a woman, a real lioness to work for 
Indians, women especially. India cannot yet produce 
great women, she must borrow them from other nations. 
Your education, sincerity, purity, immense love, deter- 
mination, and above all, your Celtic blood, make you 
just the woman wanted. 

If Swami Vivekananda complained, 'India cannot 
yet produce great women 5 , it is because of the degra- 

2 VIII, 47 

3 ii f 6 



GREAT WOMEN OF INDIA 373 

dation to which they were subjected in recent times. 
We have wasted, in our recent past, women's gifts 
by failing to recognize them as human beings, able 
to act, to achieve and to engage in projects, given 
the right conditions. 

Thanks to the Ramakrishna movement and 
Gandhi's work, women are slowly coming into their 
own. It is true that Ramakrishna advised renun- 
ciation of women and of wealth for his male 
devotees; but that was only in view of man's possible 
weakness with regard to the opposite sex, for he also 
advised his women devotees to renounce men and 
wealth. Ramakrishna's respect for womanhood 
comes out in his dealings with his wife Shri Sarada 
Devi and other women. He accepted a lady, 
Bhairavi Brahmam, for his teacher. Woman is not 
innately wicked, any more than man is. Gandhi 
engaged many women in his struggle for the political 
liberation of the country. This has helped in the 
emancipation of Indian women. 



II 



While spiritual life and social service are open to 
women, marriage and motherhood are treated as 
the normal vocation for them. Modern anthropology 
brings out clearly that marriage and family are 
found in one form or another as fundamental 
institutions in every human society, primitive or 



374 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

civilized. It is difficult to imagine a social organiza- 
tion in which these institutions are not found. The 
relation of man and woman is the expression of an 
urge for duality. Each is a self which requires the 
other as its complement. The division of the sexes is 
a biological phenomenon, not a historical event like 
the division of races and classes. Male and female 
constitute ordinarily a fundamental unity. 

The institution of marriage was exalted in the 
Indian tradition. Women were free to choose their 
husbands. The freedom of women is evident from 
the account of the popular festival called samana y 
where men and women met and mixed freely. 
There is an interesting passage in the Saptatati, 
where Durga, who is Kumdri, virgin, tells the Asuras 
who aspired to marry her : 'He who conquers me in 
battle, he who humbles my pride, he who is my 
equal in this world, he shall be my husband/ 
Women were not the bond slaves of pleasure. The 
end of marriage is spiritual comradeship. The 
Mahdbhdrata says : 'Let this heart of yours be mine, 
and let this heart of mine be yours/ 4 Yet sex life 
was not despised. Its importance for human deve- 
lopment was recognized. 

It has been the tendency of man to use woman as 
an object of amusement and pleasure. Woman is 
asked to look upon man as the meaning and justifi- 
cation of her existence. This is in line with the 
well-known saying, 'He for God only, she for God 

4 1,3,9 



GREAT WOMEN OF INDIA 375 

in him.' It is often said that the Oriental woman is 
a slave. It only means that self-assertion is not her 
quality. The Oriental woman is not very different 
from other women in her innermost nature. She 
remains essentially feminine on account of her 
social and religious culture. She gives and not takes. 
The world over, women are devoted and obedient. 
They dare to suffer where men would shrink. 

In both men and women, especially in women, 
there is a deep desire to reproduce their kind. 
This is not a product of social conditioning. The 
satisfactions and creative opportunities of mother- 
hood are well known. A woman bears the suffer- 
ing caused by the pains of labour, but she forgets 
them in the joy of creation. She is essentially not 
the object of man's lust, but is the mother, the 
maker, the leader. It is the privilege of a mother 
to bring up her children, to help them to develop 
their distinctive gifts, physical and mental, ethical 
and spiritual. Matr-devo bhava treat your mother 
as a Goddess is the advice given to the young. 
Again, Manu says : 'One dcarya excels ten upadhydyas 
in glory; a father excels a hundred deary as in 
glory; but a mother excels even a thousand 
fathers in glory.' 5 Marriage without motherhood is 
incomplete. 

The weakeningjof the union of marriage and so of 
the family is causing widespread concern. It is no 
use congratulating ourselves that things are not so 

5 2.145 



376 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

bad here as in some other countries. For the deterio- 
ration is increasing gradually in our country. To 
check it we have to adopt higher standards of 
education and moral instruction, not merely for 
women but also for men. A successful marriage 
requires personal adjustments, which are not easy 
to make. They are possible only when we accept 
certain ethical and religious standards. 



Ill 



The spirit of Indian culture does not deny to 
individual women the opportunity for spiritual deve- 
lopment or intellectual eminence. Those who are 
inclined towards saintliness or scholarship become 
Samnyasinls in spirit though not always in form. 
Undivided allegiance to their aims is demanded of 
them. Shri Sarada Devi is a noble example of this 
type. She impressed all those who had the privilege 
of meeting her as an embodiment of grace, purity 
and simplicity. 

Sister Nivedita said of her : 

To me it has always appeared that she (Shri Saradamani 
Devi, the Holy Mother) is Shri Ramakrishna's final 
word as to the ideal of Indian womanhood. But is she the 
last of an old order or the beginning of a new ? In her, 
one seer realized that wisdom and sweetness to which the 
simplest of women may attain. And yet to myself the 
stateliness of her courtesy and her great open mind are 
almost as wonderful as her sainthood. I have never known 



GREAT WOMEN OF INDIA 377 

her hesitate, in giving utterance to large and generous 
judgment, however new or complex might be the ques- 
tion put before her. Her life is one long stillness of prayer. 
Her whole experience is of a theocratic civilization. Yet 
she rises to the height of every situation. Is she tortured by 
the perversity of any about her ? The only sign is a 
strange quiet and intensity that comes upon her. Does 
one carry to her some perplexity or mortification born of 
social developments beyond her ken ? With unerring 
intuition she goes straight to the heart of the matter, and 
sets the questioner in the true attitude to the difficulty. 
Or is there need for severity ? No foolish sentimentality 
causes her to waver. The novice whom she may condemn 
for so many years to beg his bread, will leave the place 
within the hour. He who has transgressed her code 
of delicacy and honour, will never enter her presence 
again. 

And yet is she, as one of her spiritual children said of her, 

speaking literally of her gift of song, Tull of music', all 

gentleness, all playfulness. And the room wherein she 

worships, withal, is filled with sweetness. 

The large majority of women, as men, however, 

prefer marriage and motherhood to the life of 

saintliness, science, or scholarship. They are the 

great conservators of our culture. Even in families 

where they have received modern education, they 

adhere to the household ritual, cradle song and 

popular poetry. A definite philosophy of life is 

bound up with these. By the very quality of their 

being, women are the missionaries of civilization. 

With their immense capacity for self-sacrifice they 

are the unquestioned leaders in ahimsa. They will 

yet teach the arts of peace to the warring world. 



378 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

IV 

This volume, which commemorates the Birth 
Centenary of a Great Woman of our time, is an 
attempt, the first of its kind, to survey the position 
and prospect of women in Indian society during the 
last five thousand years, and to present a kaleido- 
scopic picture of their dreams and visions, hopes 
and aspirations through an illustrative study of the 
lives and achievements of the more outstanding 
among them. The position of women in any society 
is a true index of its cultural and spiritual level. 
Men, who are responsible for many of the views 
about women, have woven fantastic stories about 
the latter's glamour and instability, and their 
inferiority to men as well as their mystery and 
sanctity. Quite a fascinating picture unfolds itself 
in the pages of this book. It is a long procession, 
through the ages, of Indian women who attained 
greatness in various spheres of life and culture 
political and aesthetic, moral and spiritual. And this 
greatness they attained with the encouragement 
and good wishes of men in some cases and in spite of 
their discouragement and prejudices in others. 
Hence this book is a worthy memorial to Shri Sarada 
Devi, the Holy Mother, in whom Indian woman- 
hood fulfils, nay transcends, its purely Indian 
character and assumes a world significance. And it 
is but fitting that this survey of the great women of 
India should close with a study of her life and work. 



SHANKAR'S WEEKLY CHILDREN'S 
NUMBER 

31 December, 1953 

As I write this on the last day of the Year 1953, 
the one thought in my mind is how best we can 
prevent the catastrophe of War and preserve Peace. 
In the present atomic context, wars are mankind's 
greatest scourge, worse than any devastations of 
Nature, floods, droughts, epidemics and eruptions. 
Wars are man-made and so peace also can be made 
by man. This is possible only if we secure co-opera- 
tion among the nations of the world, if we are able 
to replace the present neurotic atmosphere by 
understanding and friendship among nations. 

Shankar tries to work for this objective of peace 
among nations by helping the children of our 
country to appreciate the habits and ideals, the 
gifts and tastes of other children. Children of other 
nations will also acquire some respect for those of 
our country. 

In planning for peace different lines may be 
adopted. Shankar adopts the line of shaping the 
minds of the young in their most impressionable, 
plastic stages. Hatred and prejudice are not born 
in us but are built into us. They are mental attitudes 
cultivated and not instinctive. They are the results 
of training and instruction. If we can use huge 



380 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

engines of propaganda and spend long years to 
train the young to hate one another, can't we spend 
a little time to foster love and friendship ? 

This Number which brings together some of the 
best contributions of children of many countries, 
encourages in us the international way of thinking. 
It helps to remove prejudices and dissipate mis- 
understanding. It shows that children of all coun- 
tries are more or less alike. They have the same 
hopes and aspirations, the same ideals and ambi- 
tions. 

If we bring up a new generation of children into 
acceptance, not merely with their minds but with 
their whole being, of the central truth that we are 
members one of another, we will help to build a 
world community. In a small but vital way this 
Children's Annual is a contribution to the great 
ideal 'On earth one family'. 



DEMOCRACY AND EDUCATION 

3 March, 1954 

THE new India is born of a revolution, essentially 
peaceful and non-violent, and is pledged to 
democracy. Intellectual, political, economic and 
industrial movements which in Europe made their 
way in successive periods are in India in simultane- 
ous ferment. The future progress of the country 
depends on accomplishing in a few decades the work 
of centuries. The essential means of bringing about 
a new society is education. Apart from the attempts 
of the Government to reorient education to new 
ideals, private agencies also are attempting to 
reconstruct education in a generous, humane and 
liberal spirit. One such private enterprise is the 
Birla Education Trust. The Chairman of the Trust 
is Shri G. D. Birla, well known as an enlightened 
businessman. Naturally he is interested in the 
development of technical education. The details 
of the different institutions maintained by the Trust 
are described in this book written by Mr Jossleyn 
Hennessy with the assistance of his wife. 

About 6,200 boys and girls are being educated in 
schools and colleges maintained by the Trust and the 
education that is imparted to them aims at making 
them useful citizens of our new democracy. In a 
Welfare State, our aim should be not only to provide 



382 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

the elementary necessities of food, clothing and 
shelter to all our citizens but to make them live as 
brothers even though they may belong to different 
races, creeds and provinces. Education for demo- 
cracy, for the creation of a unitary State to which 
local particularisms and centrifugal ambitions are 
subordinated, has been the aim of the different 
institutions. 

The cause of democracy is the cause of the human 
individual, of the free spirit of man with its sponta- 
neous inspiration and endeavour. Every man 
whose thoughts and feelings are not silted up has 
his own inner possession, which belongs to him 
alone, his holy shrine, which he has won for himself. 
When an individual is trained to appreciate his 
own holy being, he will develop a chastity of mind 
and spirit and approach with inner trembling 
another's sanctuary. Intolerance is basically un- 
chastity. If we do not give this spiritual direction to 
our education, it fails of its purpose. 

sdksaro viparitatve rdksaso bhavati dhruvam. 

Those who are learned but do not possess love, 
they really become demoniac. They will be charac- 
terized by intellectual arrogance, spiritual crassness 
and coldness of heart. It is a great satisfaction to 
know that the educational institutions of the Birla 
Education Trust under the effective leadership of 
Shri G, D, Birla are working for the saving of the 
soul, the relief of man's state and for the glory of God. 



MA155JARI 

10 April, 1954 

THE political emancipation of women is one of 
the most significant changes of our time. We 
recognize today that women are human beings, in- 
dividuals and not mere adjuncts of men. They have 
a right to intellectual life and spiritual development. 
The Buddhist nun asks : *How should the woman's 
nature hinder us ?' Every woman must be free 
to be herself. 

Though all women are not to be pressed into a 
single mould, the normal life for women is marriage 
and motherhood. The motive of marriage is not 
individual pleasure but co-operation in the fulfil- 
ment of duties. A wife is sahadharmacdrim. 

Because Oriental women do not generally resort 
to self-assertive bluster, we need not argue that they 
are slaves. There is nothing more attractive than 
modesty, nothing more shining than shyness in a 
woman. The femininity of women is not a matter 
of race or nationality. It belongs to their inmost 
nature. It is my hope that our women, while 
participating in public work, will retain their essen- 
tial qualities which have helped to civilize this race. 



THE UPANISADS 

28 April, 1954 

HUMAN progress is built on acts of faith. The 
acts of faith on which our civilization is based 
are to be found in the principal Upanisads. When 
we are now setting out on a new era in the life of 
our country, we must go to the Upanisads for our 
inspiration. They contain the principles which have 
moulded our history from its earliest dawn. Where 
we have failed, our defeat is due to our infidelity to 
the teachings of the Upanisads. It is therefore 
essential for our generation to grasp the significance 
of the Upanisads and understand their relevance to 
our problems. 

The texts of the Upanisads are not to be read 
simply. They are meant for meditation. Take, for 
example, the very first verse with which this book 
opens : 

lidvdsyam idam sarvam 

yat kin ca jagatydm, jagat 

tena tyaktena bhunjithd, ma grdhah 

kasyasvid dhanam. 

(Know that) all this, whatever moves in this moving 
world, is enveloped by God. Therefore find your 
enjoyment in renunciation; do not covet what 
belongs to others. 



THE UPANI$ADS 385 

It makes out that this world is a perpetual proces- 
sion of events where everything supersedes another. 
But this passing show is not all. It is informed by 
the Supreme Spirit, enveloped by God. We should 
not look at the world merely from the outside as a 
succession of events but perceive beneath it the 
burning intensity of significance which penetrates 
the succession. Every occasion of the world is a 
means for transfiguring insight. By renouncing 
everything we become the lords of everything. 
When we feel that the whole universe is inhabitated 
by God, we become one with the universe. In the 
words of Traherne, 'the sea flows in our veins. . . 
and the stars are our jewels. 5 When all things are 
perceived as sacred, there is no room for covetous- 
ness or self-assertion. 

I am pleased to find that Professor Satyavrata 
who was for some years the Vice- Chancellor of the 
Gurukul University, Hardwar, and is well known as 
the author of many important works in Hindi on 
Ancient Indian Culture, Education, etc., has now 
written an exhaustive account in Hindi of the 
Upanisads. He gives the text and a commentary. I 
have no doubt that this book will be widely read by 
students of Hindi for their own profit and pleasure. 



WOMEN OF INDIA 

1954 

MANY books are written at the present time by 
women, about women and for women. This 
book by Mrs Padmini Sen Gupta The Portrait of 
an Indian Woman though written by a woman, 
about a woman, is not written only for women. It 
is the outcome of filial piety and is written with 
great discrimination and detachment. It gives us the 
picture not of an angel or a saint but a simple good 
woman, who treated domestic obligations as of 
higher importance than public service. If each 
woman strives to tame the savageness of the mem- 
bers of her own family, she will have helped to make 
gentle the life of this world. The refinement of man 
by woman is said to be the essence of civilization. 
By cultivating one's own garden, to use Voltaire's 
phrase, we will help to make the city healthy and 
beautiful. 

In an Indian home the mother is not merely 
ancillary and decorative but central and vital. The 
way in which Mrs Kamala Sathianathan carried 
on her duties which devolved on her when eight 
years of married life ended, shows the strong hold 
which the ideal of Indian womanhood had on her. 

It would be a mistake to think that her activities 
were limited to her own family. In a quiet way, by 



WOMEN OF INDIA 387 

running an ideal home and editing a Ladies' Maga- 
zine, she prepared for the emancipation of women, 
which is the most significant feature of our time. 

Though the aim of the author is to give us a 
picture of her mother, she incidentally tells us about 
the other members of the family and gives an 
insight into the character and influence of a leading 
Christian family of South India. 

I had the pleasure of meeting Mrs Kamala 
Sathianathan once or twice when I visited the 
Andhra University before I became its Vice- 
Chancellor. But I did not have the pleasure of 
knowing her well. After Dr Samuel Sathianathan's 
death in 1906 an endowment was created by her in 
the Madras University in his name and the income 
from that was utilized for the award of a Gold Medal 
to the candidate who would obtain the highest 
number of marks in Ethics in the B.A. Degree 
Examination. I was the first recipient of that medal. 

When I finished reading this interesting book 
written in a lucid and fluent style, I was tempted to 
quote what I said in 1942 in Calcutta : 'India in 
every generation has produced millions of women 
who have never found fame, but whose daily exis- 
tence has helped to civilize the race, and whose 
warmth of heart, self-sacrificing zeal, unassuming 
loyalty and strength in suffering, when subjected 
to trials of extreme severity, are among the glories 
of this ancient race. 1 

1 Religion and Society ; Second Edition, pp. 197-198 



EDUCATION FOR WORLD 
UNDERSTANDING 

5 May, 1954 

To every lover of humanity the United Nations 
Organization represents a great hope and 
promise of lasting peace. It cannot become an 
effective instrument of peace merely by political 
arrangements or economic regulations. To create 
a world community, we must foster world under- 
standing. Education for world understanding is 
our greatest need. In this book, Mr R. P. Masani 
provides the teachers with material which they can 
use for fostering world loyalties, a sense of moral 
values, the dignity and freedom of the human spirit. 

If there are difficulties that seem to block the way 
to a better world, we have to recognize that for 
some problems there is no immediate solution. In 
an atomic age it is dangerous to be short of patience 
or lack a sense of proportion. We must not become 
crusaders for this or that way of life. Whatever 
may be the differences that divide us today, people 
of other and even hostile groups are very much 
like ourselves. 

There are certain vital forces which have played 
a notable part in the history of mankind. Adventure 
in the world of spirit, the tradition of tolerance, 
the instinct of live and let live, these are deeply 



EDUCATION FOR WORLD UNDERSTANDING 389 

ingrained in us. Education for peace should 
encourage the exercise of these qualities. Men are 
born for love and friendship and not hatred and 
war. We have in us, not only the higher impulses but 
also the lower ones. We have the brute in us, we 
are moved by fear and greed. We should try to work 
for the unification of the world by an appeal to 
hope and reason and not fear and greed. 

The principle of allegiance to the good of the 
world as a whole in preference to nationalism by 
which men think only of their own country is now 
accepted both in the Charter of the United Nations 
and sometimes in the practice of the more en- 
lightened Governments. But this love of humanity 
as such has not become a habit of mind or a pattern 
of behaviour. Man's evolution is not automatic. It 
is bound up with his conscious effort. It is the task 
of education to create in us a love for the new 
world of peace and fellowship. 

Mr Masani, who has confidence in the future, has 
helped us, by this book, to bring the ideal of human 
unity a little nearer. Those who use it will catch a 
little of his deep faith and enthusiasm. 



CHINA PHOENIX 

16 April, 1955 

IT is said that the slowness of evolution is the 
cause of revolution. Any State must be flexible 
enough to adapt itself at any given moment to the 
ever-changing demands of the nation in its conti- 
nual growth. Any State which stands for the status 
quo, which is the enemy of all progress, cannot 
survive in modern conditions. What happened in 
China in the post- War years is an illustration of this 
truth. When we find a corrupt and inefficient 
Government with vast economic distress and no 
hope of improvement, then upheaval becomes 
inevitable. This book traces the social, economic 
and political conditions of post- War China and the 
establishment of the People's Republic. The author 
says : 'Conditions in China were such that revolution 
was preferable to no revolution.' 

China has been sustained through difficult times 
by the strength of her humanity, good sense, tole- 
rance and respect for the individual. She will 
flourish in the future in proportion to her faith in 
these qualities. It is these intangibles that give a 
nation not only its essential character but its vitality 
as well. Under the pressure of modern life they may 
seem unimportant or even irrelevant ; yet they are 
the things which endure and give the community 



CHINA PHOENIX 391 

its power to survive. China has survived in spite of 
all that the world did against her and she did 
against herself because she has preserved some of 
these qualities. 

The leaders of the new China are known for their 
spirit of service and sacrifice. One of our political 
theorists Canakya said that the root of government 
was the control of our desires. 

rajyasya mulam indriya-nigrahah 

Governments must govern themselves before they 
attempt to govern others. Exercise of power is al- 
ways a trust. If we care for long-term results, power 
should be used with justice and charity. 

After much trial and error humanity has come to 
realize that the most civilized way of effecting 
changes of Government is by free elections. This 
method is superior to dynastic successions or violent 
upheavals and may be adopted in new China. 

The author of this book, Mr Townsend, served 
with the Friends Ambulance Unit in China and 
stayed on to work with the Co-operatives. His 
experience extends over a period of years and 
his account is based on personal knowledge and 
reflection. This book, which is a vivid, able and 
sympathetic presentation of the problems and 
developments of modern China, will help to make us 
understand the recent struggles and achievements of 
a large section of the human race. 



INDIAN NATIONHOOD AND 
NATIONAL CULTURE 

20 April, 1955 

IN this book, Dr S. Abid Husain indicates the 
central characteristics of Indian culture as it has 
grown from its beginnings to its present position. 
His presentation of the subject is marked by ability, 
vision and purpose. He argues that there has been 
a common spiritual outlook on life, to which 
various races and religions have made contributions. 
'India's cultural history of several thousand years 
shows that the subtle but strong thread of unity 
which runs through the infinite multiplicity of her 
life, was not woven by stress or pressure of power 
groups but the vision of seers, the vigil of saints, the 
speculation of philosophers, and the imagination 
of poets and artists and that these are the only 
means which can be used to make this national 
unity wider, stronger and more lasting.' 

It may appear somewhat strange that our 
Government should be a secular one while our 
culture is rooted in spiritual values. Secularism here 
does not mean irreligion or atheism or even stress on 
material comforts. It proclaims that it lays stress on 
the universality of spiritual values which may be 
attained by a variety of ways. 

Religion is a transforming experience. It is not 



NATIONHOOD AND NATIONAL CULTURE 393 

a theory of God. It is spiritual consciousness. Belief 
and conduct, rites and ceremonies, dogmas and 
authorities are subordinate to the art of self- 
discovery and contact with the Divine. When the 
individual withdraws his soul from all outward 
events, gathers himself together inwardly, strives 
with concentration, there breaks upon him an ex- 
perience, sacred, strange, wondrous, which quickens 
within him, lays hold on him, becomes his very 
being. Even those who are the children of science 
and reason must submit to the fact of spiritual 
experience which is primary and positive. We may 
dispute theologies but we cannot deny facts. The 
fire of life in its visible burning compels assent, 
though not the fumbling speculations of smokers 
sitting around the fire. While realization is a fact, 
the theory of reality is an inference. There is a 
difference between contact with reality and opinion 
about it, between the mystery of godliness and 
belief in God. This is the meaning of a secular 
conception of the State though it is not generally 
understood. 

This view is in consonance with the Indian 
tradition. The seer of the Rg Veda affirms that the 
Real is one while the learned speak of it variously. 
Asoka in his Rock Edict XII proclaims : 'One who 
reverences one's own religion and disparages that 
of another from devotion to one's own religion and 
to glorify it over all other religions does injure one's 
own religion most certainly. It is verily concord 



394 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

of religions that is meritorious. 5 samavaya eva sddhuh. 
Centuries later Akbar affirms : 'The various reli- 
gious communities are divine treasures entrusted to 
us by God. We must love them as such. It should 
be our firm faith that every religion is blessed by 
Him. The Eternal King showers his favours on all 
men without distinction/ This very principle is 
incorporated in our Constitution which gives full 
freedom to all to profess and practise their religious 
beliefs and rites so long as they are not repugnant to 
our ethical sense. We recognize the common ground 
on which different religious traditions rest. This 
common ground belongs of right to all of us as it 
has its source in the Eternal. The universality of 
fundamental ideas which historical studies and com- 
parative religion demonstrate is the hope of the 
future. It makes for religious unity and under- 
standing. It makes out that we are all members of 
the one Invisible Church of God though historically 
we may belong to this or that particular religious 
community. 

Dr Abid Husain has made certain suggestions for 
strengthening national unity and whether we 
accept them or not, they deserve the serious con- 
sideration of all thoughtful Indians. 



V. SUBRAHMANYA AIYAR 

3 May, 1955 

I knew the late Mr V. Subrahmanya Aiyar for 
over thirty years and counted him as one of my 
dear friends. Though I left the University of Mysore 
in 1920, Mr V. S. Aiyar had continued his interest 
in my writings till his death in December 1949. 

His supreme interest was in philosophy, especially 
that of Advaita Vedanta, as taught to him by the 
then Head of the Srngeri Math, Shri Chandra- 
sekhara Bharati. Mr Aiyar was a believer in reason. 
He had legitimate doubts about intuition. The 
latter gave rise to varieties of theological doctrine 
which divided men from one another. Reason 
unfettered by dogma reveals to us the nature of 
reality; this rational experience or anubhava brings 
people together. The nature of reality is one; doc- 
trines about it are many. We cannot have tattva 
bheda, though we have mata bheda. If the world 
which is now passing through an age of science is to 
emerge as a unity, it is possible only on the basis of 
the one transcendent truth in the light of which the 
empirical variety of religious creeds falls into its 
place. Faith in reason and the non-duality of ulti- 
mate reality are for Mr Aiyar the great contribu- 
tions of Advaita Vedanta as expounded by its 
masters, Gaudapada and Sarhkara. 



396 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Science is not to be limited to the knowledge 
of the material world, for that would be natural 
science. Whatever yields knowledge as distinct 
from opinions, conjectures, guesses, is science. We 
can study scientifically, i.e. in a knowledge-yielding 
manner, subjects other than the material world, 
pure mathematics, mental states, para-normal 
phenomena and spiritual experiences. Beliefs that 
are based on factual evidence are true. Ultimate 
reality can be experienced, atma-tattva is not a 
hypothesis but a datum, a fact. 

After centuries of struggle we have not yet 
reached a stable harmony of the different elements 
of thought, emotion and action. Though the 
struggle to reach a harmony has not led to any 
definite results, the attempt has been of immense 
importance since it helped the upward soaring of 
the human spirit. Religion in a dogmatic form 
is something foreign to the spirit of reason, intellec- 
tual freedom and tolerance. Reason again leads us 
to barren inanities, if it overlooks the greatest of all 
facts, the reality of Ultimate Spirit. In this age of 
tremendous scientific development, it is not easy to 
accept religion, if it is set forth in a dogmatic form. 
We live in an age of intellectual confusion. In the 
past there were thinkers who repudiated religion 
but the difference is that today scepticism has 
penetrated the people. We find a general seculari- 
zation of thought, a naturalist atmosphere, a con- 
centration on a strictly intellectual explanation of 



V. SUBRAHMANYA AIYAR 397 

experience, abandonment of traditional beliefs. 
In his different essays, in his correspondence with 
thinkers in India and abroad, Mr Subrahmanya 
Aiyar has been insisting on the essential rationality 
of true religion. Science repudiates religion as magic 
and superstition but it confirms religion as appre- 
hension of reality, brahmdnubhava. 



SAMJNA-VYAKARANAM 

17 July, 1955 

I AM delighted to write these few words com- 
mending this Journal Samjna-Vyakaranam, Studia 
Indologica Internationalia to the attention and support 
of all those who are interested in the study of Indian 
classics, literary, religious and philosophical. Dr 
Maryla Falk has been able to enlist the services of 
a large number of distinguished scholars in India, 
Europe and elsewhere. 

When the inherited patterns of our thought go 
sterile, we look outward for inspiration. The two 
wars have brought the East and the West closer. 
The East is awake and is attempting to cut itself 
away from the past and acquire the secrets of 
Western technology to raise its material standards. 
The West, in spite of its intellectual brilliance, is 
suffering from a fear that it may destroy itself and 
so is willing to learn the spiritual techniques of the 
East. The opposites are passing into each other for 
the sake of completeness. Strictly speaking, however, 
there is neither East nor West. If it is said that the 
East is introverted and the West extroverted, that 
the East is religious and the West rational-minded, 
let us remember that these are not to be read dis- 
junctively but as two sides of the same mould. 
Each one of us has the two tendencies, Eastern 



SAKfrNA-VYAKARAlSTAM 399 

and Western faith in the Unseen and longing for 
union with it; faith in reason and criticism of all 
beliefs we live by. The world is tending to become 
one society where reason and faith, science and 
religion will be reconciled and provide the members 
of society with poise and assurance. To further this 
purpose, the essential condition is an accurate 
knowledge of what has been achieved in the past. 
This Journal will serve as a forum for the investiga- 
tions on Indian subjects by scholars who are known 
for their pure and passionless curiosity. One of the 
ways by which knowledge is attained is samkhya 
investigation. Amara Kosa says cared sarhkfyd, 
vicar anal 

Professor F. W. Thomas of Oxford, who is the 
doyen of Indologists, has suggested a motto for this 
Journal samjnd prajndm apeksate the end of all 
learning and scholarship is prajnd or wisdom 
which results in virtue. May all connected with this 
Journal cherish the great ideal set forth in this 
verse : 

ddndya laksmi, sukrtdya vidyd, 

cintd para-brahma-vinifcaydya 

paropakdrdya vacdmsi yasya, 

vandyah trilokitilakah sa eva. 



1 1.5.2 



RADHAKAMAL MUKERJEE 

22 September, 1955 

I HAVE known Shri Radhakamal Mukerjee, who is 
now the Vice-Chancellor of the University of 
Lucknow, for over thirty years, have read some of 
his works and have learnt to admire his prodigious 
learning, acute sociological thinking and deep 
devotion to the fundamentals of Indian culture. His 
poignant sympathy for the suffering humanity of 
India set the tone of his life work, which includes 
teaching in the night schools in the early years, 
study of economics, work for the co-operative 
movement, adult education. 

I am not competent to speak of his vast work on 
sociology. What interests me is his attempt to base 
his sociological thinking on Indian mysticism, his 
perception that human life is a whole and cannot be 
studied in fragments. Sociology or the science of 
man in society cannot ignore the question of values. 
Social sciences give us knowledge and if this know- 
ledge is to be employed for the good of man, we 
must develop a sense of values. Radha Kamal 
Mukerjee is aware of this great truth. 

Spiritual values and social behaviour are not 
antithetical. The individual expresses and develops 
his personality only through relations with others. 
Society is the network of relations among indivi- 



RADHAKAMAL MUKERJEE 401 

duals. There is a fundamental harmony between 
our relations with the Unseen Reality which inspires 
nature and history, and our relations with our 
fellowmen. manava seva is mddhava seva. 1 If we 
are to become more God-like, we have to undertake 
redemptive work for the world. 

The basic element in religion is not the intellectual 
acceptance of dogmatic principles or historical 
events. These are but the preparation for the 
experience which affects our entire being, which 
ends our disquiet, our anguish, which removes the 
sense of the aimlessness of our fragile and fugitive 
existence and which confers dignity on our life, 
individual and social. 

The true aim of man is to integrate his nature 
which results in an integration with society. Self- 
integration is possible only by self-control, which is 
the basic principle of morality. The Mahdbhdrata 
says that the rules of dharma prescribed by great 
seers, each depending on his wisdom, are many. The 
highest among them all is self-control. 2 Those who 
have disciplined their natures are the enfranchised 
souls who are responsible for the great discoveries 
of science and art. 3 



1 See also Matthew, XXII, 37-40 

2 dharmasya vidhayo naiko ye vai proktd mahar$ibhih 

svam svam vijndnam diritya damas tefdm pardyanam. Bhifma> 
Sdntipawa, CLX, 6 

3 See Sorokin's paper on The Supraconscious in Man's Mental 

Structure, pp. 381 ff. 
26 



402 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

Mukerjee's great ambition is to work for a better 
social order. The world has fought its way through 
centuries and by methods of violence and one 
civilization after another has been dashed to the 
ground. Thanks to the development of new and 
devastating atomic weapons, we have come to 
realize that war in the new context will not pay and 
may involve even the extinction of civilization. 
Compelled by necessity we are eager to get on with 
our neighbours and settle our problems by peaceful 
methods of negotiation, arbitration and agreement. 
There is nothing inevitable where human beings 
are concerned. We are not the unconscious tools of 
an unkind fate. We can, by a determined effort, 
change the course of history, stop the process of 
decay and lead our civilization to new greatness. 
God helps those who help themselves by using fully 
and freely the minds and hearts He gave us. We all 
know that in future there can be only one civiliza- 
tion. The saints of the past who looked upon the 
whole world as their sacred place, varanasi medinl y 
are a pledge to the future of spiritual recovery and 
human solidarity. 

An accomplished writer with wide intellectual 
interests, Radhakamal Mukerjee has devoted his 
life to reading and learning. He has written over 
thirty books and has plans for a few more. It is the 
earnest wish of his many friends and admirers here 
and abroad that he may continue to do the great 
work to which he has dedicated his life. 



HINDUISM 

14 December, 1955 

irvROFESSOR T. M. P. Mahadevan has written a 
Jt very valuable introduction to the study of 
Hinduism in its religious, philosophical and ethical 
aspects. For the Hindu, the aim of religion is the 
integration of personality which reconciles the 
individual to his own nature, his fellow men and the 
Supreme Spirit. To realize this goal there are no set 
paths. Each individual may adopt the method 
which most appeals to him and in the atmosphere 
of Hinduism, even inferior modes of approach get 
refined. A mediaeval Indian mystic wrote : 'There 
may be different kinds of oil in different lamps, the 
wicks also be of different kinds, but when they 
burn, we have the same flame and illumination. 3 

Those who are anchored in spirit suffer for man- 
kind as a whole, regardless of the distinctions of 
caste, class, creed, or community. Whereas the 
truths of religion are eternal, the social forms and 
institutions are temporary. They have to be judged 
by each generation as to their capacity to imple- 
ment the permanent values. Some of our institutions 
have become out of date and require to be modified 
if not scrapped. In the past religious emotion 
attached itself to ugly customs. It prompted and 
sanctioned animal sacrifices, obscure rites and 



404 OCGASE ONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

oppressive caste regulations. Our sacred literature 
repudiates discriminations based on birth or jdti 
and emphasizes guna and karma. Look at the follow- 
ing verses : 

nartako garbha sambhuto vasistho-ndma mahd-rsih 
tapasd brdhmano jdtah, tasmdtjdtir na kdranam. 
canddlo garbha sambhutah faktir-ndma mahd-munih 
tapasd brdhmano jdtah, tasmdtjdtir na kdranam. 
fvapdko garbha sambhutah pardsaro mahd-munih 
tapasd brdhmano jdtah, tasmdt jdtir na kdranam. 
matsya-gandhyds tu tanayo vidvdn vydso mahd-munih 
tapasd brdhmano jdtah , tasmdtjdtir na kdranam. 

Tirukkural says : 'All men are born equal. The 
differences among them are entirely due to occupa- 
tions/ (1972) 

We live in an age when creeds are shaken, dogmas 
are questioned and traditions are dissolving. The 
Hindu religion with its emphasis on the experience 
of Reality in diverse ways and the practice of love 
has an appeal to the modern mind. I hope that 
Professor Mahadevan's book will have a large 
number of readers both in India and outside. 



BHOODAN 

1955 

IT is seven years since we won our political inde- 
pendence. It is a short span in a nation's life, but 
it is perhaps not less important than any other equal 
period. In the case of a human being, the period of 
the first seven years determines his character and 
so to a large extent his future. The same is perhaps 
true of a nation. There were many observers who 
forecast, at the time of the transfer of power, that 
the Indian State would not be able to survive the 
effects of partition, that the country would get 
disorganized, that the administration would break 
down, that there would be no rule of law and no 
security of life and property. Many people feared 
and quite a few hoped for a sudden collapse. But 
these friends and foes have been confounded by the 
results. The country is held together. Instead of 
disintegration there has been integration. There 
is no part of the country where the writ of the 
Government does not run. The administration is 
still intact. A foreigner can travel from one end of 
the country to the other without the least insecurity 
of life and property. Even in international affairs 
our stand may not be generally accepted, but it is 
widely respected. We have earned a reputation for 
honesty and independence. Our achievements in 



406 OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 

the economic and social spheres have not been 
spectacular, but they are not unsound. 

It is not, however, for running things in the old 
routine ways that we struggled for and achieved 
political independence. Our aim is to bring about 
as speedily as possible a social and economic revolu- 
tion. We wish to build a society free from caste and 
class, from exploitation of every kind, social and 
economic, racial and religious. We must admit 
that our society still suffers from grave economic 
injustices, social oppressions, caste prejudices, com- 
munal jealousies, provincial antagonisms and 
linguistic animosities. These are a challenge to our 
competence, our courage, our wisdom. If we are to 
survive as a civilized society, we have to get rid of 
these abuses as soon as possible and by civilized 
methods. 

In the progress of societies three stages are 
marked : the first where the law of the jungle pre- 
vails, where we have the operation of selfishness and 
violence ; the second, where we have the rule of law, 
impartial justice with courts, police and prisons; 
the third, where we have non-violence and unselfish- 
ness, where love and law are one. The rule of the 
jungle, the rule of law, the rule of love these 
mark the three stages of social progress. The last is 
the goal of civilized humanity, and it can be brought 
nearer by the increase in the numbers of men and 
women who have renounced selfish ambition, sur- 
rendered personal interest, who die daily that others 



BHOODAN 407 

may live in peace and comfort. The good people 
sustain the world by their austere life : santo 
bhumim tapasd dhdrayanti. In Acharya Vinoba Bhave 
we have one such tapasvin who is striving to intro- 
duce the law of love in our social and economic life. 

It is because we cannot make all the people 
prophets that we have to depend on legislation to 
bring about changes in our social order. The 
Bhoodan movement acquires great significance in 
this context of urgent change. It underlines tradi- 
tions that are implicit in the Indian way of life. It 
recaptures the idea of the social order as the family 
writ large. It appeals to our religious instinct that 
spiritual freedom can be attained only by those 
who are not attached to material possessions. The 
movement started by Acharya Vinoba Bhave is 
potentially revolutionary in character. The response 
to his appeal which has come from all levels of the 
social order shows that the moral reserves of our 
country are large. The movement is based on an 
act of faith. Even if it does not by itself bring about 
an agrarian revolution, it prepares for it by produc- 
ing a climate of opinion in which courageous 
methods of land reform can be put through. 

Shri Suresh Ramabhai has written a moving 
account of the way in which Acharya Vinoba 
Bhave was led to this movement and the progress 
it has made. It should be read by all who are 
interested in this unique campaign, its objects and 
its philosophy. 



SHRI RAMANA MAHARSHI 

7955 

I AM glad to write this short Foreword to Mr 
Osborne's account of the life and teaching of 
Shri Ramana Maharshi. It has a special relevance to 
our age with its dominant mood of wistful, reluctant 
scepticism. We are given here a religion of the 
spirit which enables us to liberate ourselves from 
dogmas and superstitions, rituals and ceremonies 
and live as free spirits. The essence of all religion is 
an inner personal experience, an individual rela- 
tionship with the Divine. It is not worship so much 
as a quest. It is a way of becoming, of liberation. 

The well-known Greek aphorism 'Know thyself ' 
is akin to the Upanisad precept dtmdnam viddhi, 
know the self. By a process of abstraction we get 
behind the layers of body, mind and intellect and 
reach the Universal Self, 'the true light which 
lighteth every man that cometh into the world'. 
'To attain the Good, we must ascend to the highest 
state and fixing our gaze thereon, lay aside the 
garments we donned when descending here below; 
just as, in the Mysteries, those who are admitted to 
penetrate into the inner recesses of the sanctuary, 
after having purified themselves, lay aside every 
garment and advance stark naked/ 1 We sink into 
1 Plotinus : Eyineads I, VI, 6 



SHRI RAMAI^A MAHARSHI 409 

the measureless being that is without limitation or 
determination. It is pure being in which one thing is 
not opposed to another. There is no being to which 
the subject opposes himself. He identifies himself 
with all things and events as they happen. Reality 
fills the self as it is no longer barred by preferences 
or aversions, likes or dislikes. These can no more 
act as distorting media. 

The child is much nearer the vision of the self. 
We must become as little children before we can 
enter into the realm of truth. This is why we are 
required to put aside the sophistication of the 
learned. The need for being born again is insisted 
on. It is said that the wisdom of babes is greater 
than that of scholars. 

Shri Ramana Maharshi gives us the outlines of a 
religion based on the Indian Scriptures which is 
essentially spiritual, without ceasing to be rational 
and ethical. 



INDEX 



Abanlndranath Tagore, 111, 113 
Abhaya, 173, 213, 247 
Abhyudaya, 350 
Abid Husain, Dr S., 392 
Abraham & Other Prophets, 

239 

Absolute Freedom, 255 
Abstractions, 194, 408 
Abul Fazl, 113 f.n. 
Abul Kalam Azad Maulana, 

104-5 

Abuse of Religion, 198 
Academic world, the, 32 1 
Acarya, 375 

Accountants-General, 320 
Accountant-Generals' Confer- 
ence : Inaugural Address, 
343 ff. 

Accounting & Auditing, 343 
Accounts & Audit Service, 348 
Acharya Vinoba tthave, 351, 361, 

407 
Achievements of Science, 96, 211, 

230 

Acqumas, St. Thomas, 103 
Actor, the, 204 
Adhydtmavidya, 222 
Administrative Commission of the 

UNESCO, 134 
Adrian, Lord, 165, 226 
Advaita Vedanta, 395 
Aesthetic Emotion, 115 
Aesthetics, 98 

Affinity of Mind & Spirit, 148 
Afghanistan, 29, 268 
Afghanistan, Foreign Minister of, 
28 



Afghanistan, India's Relations 

with, 29 

Africa, 5, 28, 30, 33, 102, 124 
African & Asian, 162, 226 344, 345 
African Peoples, 34, 125 
Age of Science, 37, 228, 395 
Agencies of UNO, 4, 138 
Aggression, 250 
Agni, 108 

Agnimitra, King, 115 
Agrarian Reforms, 340 
Agrarian Revolution, 407 
Agriculture, 313-14, 339 ff. 
Agricultural Production, 353 
Agricultural Research, 313, 338 
Agricultural Sciences, 96 
Agriculture & Culture, 311 
Agrippa, King of Judaea, 275 
Ahimsa, 173, 195, 223, 225, 247, 

261, 330, 377 
Ahmedabad, 315 
Ahura Mazda, 270 
Aim Akbari, 113 f.n. 
Aiyar, C. P. Ramaswamy, 118 
Aiyar, V. Subrahmanya, 395 ff. 
Ajanta, 113 

Ajanta Frescoes, 112, 116 
Ajdta, 186 
Maia, 129 
Akbar, 82, 394 
Al-Azar, 219 
Alexander (A.S.), 230 
Algeria, 250 

All-India Patriotism, 355 
All-India Services, 360 
All-India Shia Conference : 

Inaugural Address, 217 ff. 



412 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Allah, 238-9, 280 ff. 

Allies, the, 80 

Alphabet, the, 296 

Alternative to War Voluntary 

Co-operation, 138 
Amara JTo/n, 399 
America, 124, 226, 291, 339 
American Delegation (to the 

UNESCO), 48 

American Ministers, 24 
Amftasya putrdh, 206 
Anagarika Dharmapala, 183 
Ananda CoomaraswSmy, 113 
Ananta-jfidna, A.-dar&ana, A.-virya, 

A.-sukha, 269 
Anarchy, 160 
Anatole France, 183 ff. 
Ancient canals, 312 
Ancient Egypt, 270 
Ancient Indian Culture, 385 
Ancient Indian View of Man, 201 
Andhra University, 387 
Aneka-citta-vibhrdnta> 245 
Anekantavada, 224, 225 
Anga, Banga, Kalinga, 1 72 
Anglo-Egyptian Agreement, 136 
Angra Mainyu, 270 
Annam, 183 

Annamalai University, 118 
Annihilation, Sense of (spiritual), 

187 

Antar-jyoti, 195 
Anthropology, 373 
Anti-social activities of students, 

54 

Anti-social elements, 367 
Anti-social practices, 198 
Anubhava, 395 
Anuloma, 359 
Ap, 129 
Ap<m$raha y 361 
Apocalypse of St. John, 229 f.n. 



Appar, 129 

Appeasement, 127 

Apta-vacana, 235 

Arab migrations, 28 

Arabia, 28, 202, 328 

Archbishop William Temple, 240 

Architecture, 21, 112 

ArdhanariJvara, 371 

Arhats, 183, 222, 265, 269 

Arhatship, 189 

Aristotle, 71, 107,259,311 

Armaments, 4, 6, 102 

Armed Fear, 142 

Armies, 331 

Arms Race, 38 

Arms, Use of, 331 

Art, 21, 148, 152 flT. 

Art born out of superfluity, 153 

Art, Canadian, 152 

Art, Christian, 116 

Art is Universal, 152 

Art, Purpose of, 114 

Art, Works of, 39 

Artha, 43 

Artists, 61 

Arts, Fine, 114 ff. 

Arts, Industrial, 96 

Arts, Mechanical , 114 

ArundhatI, 372 

Arya Samajists, the, 358 

Asamskfta, 186 

Asango niravadyah, 306 

Asia, 5, 28, 30, 33, 101, 102, 136, 

183, 184,211,297,302 
Asia & Africa, 226 
Asia & Africa, Rise of, 140 
Asia, West, 38 

Asian & African Nations, 162 
Asian & African Peoples, Solidarity 

of, 34 

Asian Art & Culture, 173 
Asian Countries, 150, 301 



INDEX 



413 



Asian Mind, the, 150 

Asian Nations, 10 

Asian Outlook on Life, 209 

Asian Peoples, 33, 125 

Asian Studies, 146, 149 

Asian Unrest, 124 

Asian View of Man, 201 

Asian vs. European, 201 

Asians, 201 

Asiatic Society of London, 146 

A^oka, 82, 87, 240, 268, 286, 302, 

318, 343, 393 
Afokan Edicts, 268 
Assyria, 125 
Asuras, 374 

Athato Brahmajijflasa, 229 
Atheism, 392 
Athenian, 205 
Atma, 65 

Atma-andtma-vastu viveka, 222 
Atma-hano jandh, 221 
Alma-jftdna, 199 
Atma-tattva, 396 
Atma-mdya, 231 
Atmanam viddhi, 222, 408 
Atmanastu kdmdya, 222, 236 
Atmasamskrti, 114, 179 
Atom, splitting the, 41 
Atom, the, 230 
Atomic (Hydrogen) Bombs, 41, 

49, 71, 120, 123, 138, 242 

249 
Atomic Age, 16, 31, 59, 138, 215, 

388 

Atomic annihilation, 328 
Atomic blast, 120 
Atomic context, 379 
Atomic developments, 119 
Atomic Energy Department, 337 
Atomic Scientist, of USA, 120 
Atomic weapons, 123, 402 
At-one-ment, 236 



Auditor-General, 320 

Aurobindo Ghosh, 105 

Authoritarian, 237 

Authority, 212 

Authority, Moral of UNO, 4 

Automatic evolution, 232 

Avatdra (Incarnation), 244 

Avesta, the, 107, 270 

Aridya, 232 

Avrtta-cakfuh, 156, 231 

Awakened One, (the Buddha), 

263 
Awakening E nlightenment 

(Bodhi), 263 ff. 
Awareness, 173 
Axis Powers, 140 
Aywrveda, 317 



Babylon, 125 

Babylonian tradition, 341 

Bala, 306 

Balbhavans, 310 

Bali, 262 

Balkan-ji-bari : Inaugural Ad- 
dress, 306 ff. 

Balfour, Lord, 78 

Banaras, 147, 253, 327 

Bandung, 31, 33 ff. 

Bangalore, 320 

Bansal, Mr 365 

Barbarian, 59, 189 

Barber (Prof.), 338 

Basic Principles of Religion, 9 

Being & Becoming, 130, 187, 193, 
233 

Belief, 207 

Belvalkar, 149 

Bengal Asiatic Society, 146 

Bergson, 107 

Beveridge, Lord, 97, 165 

Bhabha, Dr, 337 



414 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Bhagavadgita, The, 109, 120, 203, 
205,215,222, 243 

Bhagavadgitd, The, English Version 
by Wilkins, 147 

Bhdgavata, the, 244, 258, 360 

Bhagwanlal Indraji, 149 

Bhairavi Br5hmani, 373 

Bhakti Yoga, 194 

Bhandarkar, 149 

Bharat, 308 

Bhau Daji, 149 

Bhava, 114 

Bhave, AchSrya Vinoba, 351, 
361 

Bhoodan, 351,405,407 

Bhubaneswar, 320 

Bhutadayd, 198 

Bible, The, 107 

Birla, G.D., 381 

Birla Education Trust, 381-2 

Blacks & Whites, 126 

Bodhi (Enlightenment), 188, 231 

Bodhisattva, 52, 265, 268 

Boehme, 234 f.n., 235 

Bogor, 33 

Bomb-rattling Diplomacy, 127 

Bombay Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society: 150th Anni- 
versary Presidential 
Address, 146 ff 

Books, Great, 53 

Bose, Acharya Nandalal, 1 1 1 ff. 

Brahma, 257 

Brahma-knowledge, 372 

Brahma-vidyd, 231 

Brahma Sutra, the, 229, 261 

Brahmacarya, 372 

Brahman, 229, 257, 261 

BrShmana, 264 

Brahmdnubhava, 197, 397 

Brahmi Script, 298 

Brahmin, the, and the outcast, 360 



Brahmos, the, 358 

Brhaddranyaka Upanifad, 108, 189, 
255, 306 

Britain, 26 

British Association for the Ad- 
vance of Science, 165, 226 

British Rule in India, 79, 147 

Brown, Percy, 112 

Buddha, The, 73, 116, 164, 172, 
183, 185-7, 199, 206, 220, 231, 
235, 240, 245, 247, 263 ff., 327 

Buddha, Ethical Path of The, 189 

Buddha, the Great Compassionate 
One, 173 

Buddha-vacana, 265 

Buddha's four-fold path, 264 

Buddha's Renunciation, 185 

Buddhahood, 189, 268 

Buddhism, 90, 173, 184, 189, 202, 
206-7, 260, 263 ff. 

Buddhist Art & Culture, 268 

Buddhist frescoes, 112 

Buddhist literature & art, 183 

Buddhist missionaries, 268 

Buddhist nun, 383 

Buddhist philosophy, 183 

Buddhist priests, 271 

Buddhist Scriptures, 264 

Buddhists, the, 52, 239, 261, 328 

Building up India, 217, 325 

Bulganin, Marshal, 35 f.n. 

Burma, 42, 140, 150, 183 

Barman-Shell Refinery : In- 
augural Address, 333 ff. 

Burning Fire and Smokers, 208, 
393 

By-passing of the UNO, 1 37 

Byelo-Russia, 134 



Caesar, 28 
Cairo, 31 



INDEX 



415 



Caitanya, 116, 245 

Caligula, 275 

Cambodia, 136, 183 

Campbell, 149 

Canada, 101, 152 

Canada, Prime Minister of, 101 

Canadian Art, 152 

Canadian Paintings, Exhibition 

of, 152 ff. 
Canakya, 391 
Capitalist, the, 86 
Capitol, the, (U.S.A.), 12 
Car an vai madhu vindati, 361 
Cared samkhyd vicdrand, 399 
Carpenter, J. Estlin, 267 f.n. 
Carthage, 80 
Casteism, 172-3, 192, 273, 308, 354, 

358-60, 368, 404 
Casting the first stone, 279 
Catholic civilization, 238 
Cause & Effect, 186 
Cave Man, 98 
Celtic blood, 372 
Central Government (Indian), see 

INDIAN (CENTRAL) GOVERNMENT 
Ceremonial piety, 232, 274 
Certain knowledge, 256 
Ceylon, 140, 150, 183, 268 
Chandigarh, 320 

ChSndogya Upanifad, the, 108, 307 
Chandra Gupta, 312 
Chandrasekhara Bharati, Shri , 

395 

Change, 361 
Character, 54, 65, 73, 84, 165, 

350, 368 

Charity, 99, 143, 215 
Charity (Dana), 309 
Charity & Justice, 345 
Charles Wilkins, 147 
Charter of the UNO, 34, 124, 135, 

250, 302, 389 



Signatories to, 4 
Chastity, 223, 261 
Chastity of mind, 382 
Chatterjee, Principal, 74 
Chidambaram, 129, 131 
Child labour, 335 
Children, 306 ff., 379, 380 
Children of Science, 207, 393 
Children's Annual of Shankar's 

Weekly, 380 

Children's welfare, 310 
China, 10, 24, 37, 43, 86, 140, 150, 

162, 183, 202, 220, 251, 253, 

266, 324, 390 
China, the New , 44 
China, Tibetan Region of, 41 
China Phoenix, 390 
China's Membership of UNO, 42 
Chinese Civilization, 43 
Chinese Culture, 40 
Chinese Ministers, 24 
Chinese Pilgrims to India, 172 
Chinese Script, 296 
Chinese Tradition, 341 
Chittaranian Locomotive Works, 

289 

Chola Kings, 129 
'Chosen People', 245 
Christ, (see JESUS CHRIST) 
Christendom, 280 
Christian, the, 195, 239, 328 
Christian Art, 116 
Christian Settlement, 78 
Christian teaching, 234 
Christianity, 194, 202, 230, 233, 

276 ff., 281, 284, 306 
Christianity, early ,237 
Church, the Russian , 35 
Church Peace Union, 240 
Churchill, Sir Winston, 9, 59, 78 
Citizen of the world, 205 
Cinema, 60 



416 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Citratalas, 112 
Citta-n&fa 259 
City State, 99 
Civil liberties, 7 

Civil Service (Indian), 1, 14, 15 
Civil War (in Russia), 36 
Civilization, 20, 22, 30, 31, 37, 
38, 42, 48, 59, 79, 81, 96, 97, 99, 
122, 128, 145, 159, 160, 163, 
189, 192, 201, 202, 209-11, 
238, 243, 245, 249, 253, 311-2, 
341, 359, 377, 384, 402 
Civilization, Chinese, 43 
Civilization, Survival of, 41 
Civilization, Technological , 142 
Classes in Indian Colleges, 170 
Classics, European, 147 
Classics, Indian, 61, 91, 147 
Classics of the world, 72 
Clement of Alexandria, 279 
Co-existence, 24, 33, 161, 291 
Co-operatives (Chinese), 391 
Cold War, 8, 9, 27, 142, 250, 293 
Coleridge, S. T., 194 
Collective action, 250 
Collective enthusiasm, 243 
College classes, Overcrowding in, 

170 
College of Arts & Crafts, Calcutta, 

111 

Colleges (Indian), 64, 67-8, 78 
Colombo, 33 

Colombo Plan, the 152, 345 
Colonial Peoples, 5 
Colonial Problems, 136 
Colonial Territories, 135 
Colonialism, 5, 19, 33, 125, 250 
Columbia University, 201 
Columbia University Hi-cente- 
nary Broadcast Address, 201 
Columbia University, Charter 
Day Dinner Speech, 144 



Cominform & Comintern, 291 
Commandment, 275 
Commemoration Volume, (Fr Heras), 

82 

Common heritage, 125 
Commonwealth, the, 26 ff. 
Commonwealth, India and the , 

1,26 
Commonwealth Prime Ministers' 

Conference, 26 
Communal life, 341 
Communalism, 324, 354 
Communists & Communism, 7, 

9, 27, 125, 237, 291 
Community consciousness, 218 
Community of mankind, 159 
Community of spirit, 148 
Comparative religion, 394 
Compassion, 143, 190, 207, 366 
Compassion (Daya)> 309 
Composite things, 186 
Comradeship, 354 
Concentration of mind, 97 
Concentration, 207 
Conduct (Contra), 223 
Conference, All-India Shia , (s& 

ALL-INDIA SHIA ) 

Conference, Commonwealth Prime 

Ministers , 26 
Conference, Geneva , 24 
Conference, High Level , 9 
Conference, Bandung , 33 
Conferences, 37 
Conflicts among religions, 283 
Conformity, 141, 232, 237, 283 
Confucius, 220, 240 
Confucianism, 202, 267 
Conscience, 342 
Conscience of the world, The 

Buddha, 183 
Conscience of the world (UNO), 

364 



INDEX 



417 



Conscious effort, 233 
Consciousness, 197, 232, 235 
Constitution, India's, see INDIA'S 

CONSTITUTION 

Constitution of the U.S.A., 13 
Constitutional methods, 367 
Construction, 16 
Constructive criticism, 177 
Constructive work, 196 
Contingencies, 205 
Contingent, the, 186 
Contradictions vs. Contraries, 

224 
Contributions to India's history, 

217 
Controller and Auditor-General, 

346 

Conversions & Converts, 358 
Convocation Address t Delhi 

University, 155, 156 
Gujarat University, 164 
Indian Council of Agricultural 

Research, 311 ff. 
Karnatak University, 51 ff. 
Punjab University, 67 ff. 
Saugar University, 87 
Coomaraswamy, Ananda , 113 
Corrupt Governments, 325 
Cosmic Evolution, 230 
Cosmic Process, the, 229, 243 
Cosmic world, 203 
Cosmos, the, 229, 278 
Council of States, 12 ff. 
Countries of the East, 29 
Countryside (India's), 341 
Covenant of God, 274 
Cows and their milk, 258 
C. P. Ramaswamy Aiyar, 118 
Creation, Preservation, Perfection, 

257 

Creative achievement, 342 
Creative minds, 361 
27 



Creator vs. the creature, 280 

Creeds, 404 

Crete, 125 

Criminals, the, 206 

Crito, 204 

Crocc, 115 

Cross, the, 126, 195, 276, 279 

Cross fertilization of ideas, 285 

Crucifixion, 276 

Crucifixion, sense of, 187 

Crusaders, the, 238, 388 

Crusading spirit, 283 

Cultural history, 83 

Cultural intermediaries, 149 

Cultural Renaissance, 316 

Cultural traditions, 43 

Culture, 20, 21, 48, 84, 105, 146, 

173, 179, 189, 202, 209, 245, 311, 

312 

Culture, Chinese, 40 
Culture, Indian, set INDIAN 

CULTURE 

Cultures, 167,217,269 
Cynicism, 215 
Czechoslovakia, 134 



Dalhousie, Lord, 289 

Damodar Valley Corporation, 

353 

Dance, 114 

Dance, Lord of, 130 
Danielou, 286 f.n. 
Dante, 147, 215 
DarSana, Jfidna, Contra, 222 ff. 
Datta, dayadkvam, damyata, 189 
Datum, 396 

Death instinct, the, 121 
Declaration of Human Rights, see 

HUMAN RIGHTS 

Declaration of Independence (of 
the U.S.A.), 13 



418 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Dedication, Spirit of, 65 

Degradation, India's, 131 

Degradation of women, 372-3 

Delhi, 217 

Delhi Provincial Sarvodaya 
Sammelan : Inaugural 
Address, 349 IT. 

Delhi School of Economics : 
Inaugural Address, 175 

Delhi University Convocation 
Address, 56 ff. 

Delhi University: Special Con- 
vocations, 101, 155, 156 

Deliverance, 189 

Delphi, 231 f.n. 

Demagogy, 42, 61 

Democracies, the, 153, 291 

Democracy, 7, 9, 15, 23, 26, 33, 
39, 40, 53, 65, 68, 72, 75, 87, 91, 
122, 124, 127, 135, 138-9, 192, 
209, 252, 291, 292, 302, 308, 
334, 346, 354, 355, 366, 382 

Democracy, Parliamentary , 41 

Democracy, Two Sides of, 135 

Democracy and Education, 381 

Democracy in action, 133 

Democracy in industry, 336 

Democratic Government, 346 

Democratic liberties, 102 

Democratic method, 8 

Democratic processes, 291 

Democratic set-up, 367 

Democratic spirit, 52, 53, 127 

Democratic way of life, 124, 127 

Depression, 123 

Desai, Dr, 318 

Despotic State, 94 

Destiny, 65, 70, 86, 2 11, 243 

Destiny of Nations, 54, 350, 368 

DcvakI, 244 

Dcvdn&npriya, 268 

Devanagari Script Reform, 295 



Devapriya Valisimha, 183 
Deuf-Mdhatnya, 372 
Devotees, 361 
Dhammapada, The, 247 f.n. 
Dharma, 43, 73, 266, 269, 284, 

359, 401 

Dharma-k$etra t 207 
Dharma-sddhana, 205 
Dharma Sastra, 79 
Dharmadhvaja, 66 
Dharmakdya, 266 
Dialectical march of events, 

167 

Dialogues (Plato's), 109 
Diet (in India), 340 
Dignity of the individual, 1 35 
Dionysius, 272 
Diplomacy, 6, 158, 159 
Diplomats, 158 
Directive Principles of India's 

Constitution, 334 
Director-General (of the UNESCO), 

47-8 

Disarmament, 137 
Discipline, 65, 220 
Discipline (Religious), ' 189 
Discipline (Spiritual), 204, 214 
Discrimination, 198, 200, 359 
Dishonour, 92, 367 
Disintegration & integration, 405 
Distemper among students, 1 7 1 
Distribution of land, 340 
Distribution of wealth, 334 
Disturbances in India, 350 
Diversity, 291 
Diversity, India's, 178 
Divide and rule policy, 367 
Divine, The, 52, 130, 195, 198, 

202, 205, 207, 214, 215, 258, 

263, 265, 282, 393, 408 
Divine, The, in Man, 8 
Divine, Union with The, 206 



INDEX 



419 



Diviru Comtcfy, 147 

Divine nature, 244 

Divine revelations, 239 

Divine Truth, 206 

Doctor, the, 318 

Dogmas, 207, 209, 230, 393, 395, 

404,408 

Dogmatic religions, 210 
Dogmatism, 237, 283 
Domestic obligations, 386 
Dostoievsky, 39 
Drama, 114 
Drauida Kazhagam, 297 
Duality, 374 
Durga, 374 

Durgapur Barrage, 242 
Durlabham bhdrate janma, 308 
Duty, 330 
Dvitiyam janma, 213 
Dwarka, 327 
Dydva prthivi, 342 
Dynamic world, 25 
Dynastic succession, 391 



Earthly Paradise, 37 

East, the, 21, 29, 47, 55, 71, 102, 

148, 237, 262 
East, Countries of the, 29 
East, Far, 38 

East, Revolution in the , 30 
East & West, 103, 366, 398 
East India Company, 321 
Easter Friday, 126 
Ecclesia spirituals, the , 273 
Eclipse of Religion, 192 
Economic Democracy, 53, 363 
Economic Depression, 325 
Economic Exploitation, 33 
Economic Instability, 345 
Economic Justice, 23, 24 
Economic Life, the 334 



Economic Life, different ways of 

organizing , 335 
Economic Planning, 177 
Economic Policies, 344 
Economic Progress, 7 
Economic Systems, 23 
Economics, 96, 175 
Eden, Sir Anthony, 26 f .n. 
Edict (As*okan), Kalinga , 87 
Education, 7, 58, 60, 63, 64, 65, 

68, 72, 78, 89, 91, 93, 99, 133, 

141, 170, 366, 376, 381, 388, 389 
Education for Peace, 388-9 
Education, Fundamental , 140> 

141-2 

Education, Technical, 381 
Education and Culture, 47 ff. 
Education of Women, 372 
Educational Reconstruction in 

India, 171 

Educational Standards, 4 
Egypt, 22, 29, 86, 125, 219, 276, 

324 

Egyptian Tradition, 341 
Einstein, Albert, 230 
Eisenhower, President, 71, 123-4 
Elementary Necessities, 382 
Eliot, T. S., 142 
Elizabethan Drama, 110 
Emancipation of Women, 373, 

383, 387 

Empirical Existence, 187 
Empirical Sciences, 166 
Empirical World, 272 
Employment, Gainful , 304 
English Language, 105 
Englishmen, 146-7 
Enlightenment, 187, 206 
Enlightenment (bodhi), 264 
Environment, 341, 342, 350 
E6s> the Greek, 150-1 
Ephesians, the, 234 



420 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Epistle to the Philip pians, 278 

Equality, 13, 69 

Equality and Mutual Benefit, 161 

Equality of Opportunity, 362 

Era of Plenty, 337 

Erasmus, 230, 284 

Eros, 121 

Essence of Civilization, 386 

Essential Freedom, 257 

Eternal, the, 115, 188, 206, 272, 
394 

Eternal Buddha, the, 265 

Eternal King, the 394 

Eternal Law, 185 

Eternity, 187, 317 

Eternity vs. Time, 232 

Ethical Idealism, 360 

Ethical Path of the Buddha, 189 

Ethical Socialism, 22 

Ethics, 96, 98 

Ethiopians, King of the, 150 

Euphrates, 312 

Europe, 21, 28, 36, 123, 150, 226 

European Classics, 147 

European Culture, 297 

European Mind, the 281 

European view of man, Ancient , 
201 

Europeans, 201 

Evangelism, 139, 146 

Evolution, 83-4, 85, 131 

Evolution of Mankind, 159 

Evolution (spiritual), 214 

Evolution & Revolution, 390 

Excursions, 309 

Executive, the, 346 

Exhibition of Canadian Paint- 
ings : Inaugural Address, 
152 ff. 

Exhibition of Nandalal Rose's 
Paintings : Inaugural Ad- 
dress, 1 1 1 ff. 



Existential limits, 186 
Existentialism, 203, 279 
Exodus, 274 

Expectation of Life, 317 
Experience, 194, 207, 231, 235, 

264, 278, 393, 397 
Experience vs. Opinion, 208 
Exploitation, 6, 102, 125, 192, 

345, 355 

Exploration, Spirit of, 146 
External Piety, 234 
Extra-curricular Activities, 
Extremes, 189 



FaHien, 112 

Fable of the six blind men, 224 ff. 

Factionalism, 88 

Factual evidence, 396 

Faith, 127, 192, 202, 210 

Falk, Dr Maryla, 398 

'Family writ large', 407 

Famine (in Russia), 35 

Famines, 313 

Fanaticism, 100, 122, 218, 236-7, 

284 

Far East, 38 
Fascism, 27, 302 
Fatalism, 85, 362 
Father of the Nation, 310, 316, 

361. See also GANDHI 
Fear, 27, 71, 120, 122, 123, 125, 

128, 129, 134, 142, 145, 173, 

189, 283, 286, 355, 389, 398 
Fear and Suffering (spiritual), 187 
Fear & Suspicion, 35 
Fear of Change, 361 
Fear of Freedom, 106 
Fear of War, 189 
Federation of the Indian Chambers 

of Commerce, 365 
Fellowship of the Spirit, 239 



INDEX 



421 



Femininity of Women, 383 

Feudal Economies, 5 

Final Truth, 232 

Finality, 236 

Fisher, H.A.L., 79, 80, 95, 167 

Five Vows of the Jains, 223 

Five Year Plans, 290, 314, 339, 

340, 350, 354, 363 
Floods, 312, 342, 353 
Flood Control, 354 
Folk dances, 342 
Folk-lore, 110 
Food gathering vs. Food growing, 

341 
Food shortage & Food surplus, 

339 

Food grains, 339 
Force, 352 

Force, Arbitrament of, 102 
Force (Danda), 331 
Force vs. Persuasion, 330 
Forces of History and Geography, 

166 

Foreign aid, 345 
Foreign Control, 99 
Foreign Domination, 164 
Foreign intervention (in Russia), 

36 

Foreigners on India, 57 
Forest Hermitages, 107 
Formosa, 27 

Forms of Worship, 130-1 
Foundation Stone, Laying of, 

of Accountant- General's 

Office, 320 ff. 
Four-fold status of Supreme 

Reality, 259 
Four-fold Truth, the Buddha's , 

267 

Four Karmas in Jainism, 269 
France, 105, 136, 137 
France, Anatole , 183 ff. 



France, Influence of, on Canada, 

152 
France, Minister of Education of, 

47 

Fraternity, 13, 343-4 
Free Education, 133, 136, 391 
Free enterprise, 335 
Free spirit of man, 95 
Free World, 19 
Freedom, 8, 13, 19, 21, 23, 48, 51, 

80, 83, 102, 105, 122, 133, 135, 

139, 164, 191, 226 
Freedom (Absolute), 255 
Freedom, denial of, 49 
Freedom, India's, 32, 87 
Freedom, intellectual, 39 
Freedom, political, 7, 15, 21 
Freedom (spiritual), 186, 189, 213 
Freedom of Conscience, 194, 394 
Freedom of Women, 374 
Freemasons Monitor, 16 
French Academy, the, 107 
French Delegation (to the UNESCO) f 

47 

French Possessions in India, 136 
Friends Ambulance Unit, 391 
Frozen Attitudes, 134 
Full Employment, 87 
Fundamental concepts of Indian 

religious life, 254 ff. 
Fundamental Education, 140-1 
Fundamental Human rights, set 

HUMAN RIGHTS 

Fundamental Ideas, 394 
Fundamental Reality, 225 
Future of religion, 286 



Gaius, 275 
Gandhara, 29 

Gandhiji, 32, 38, 105, 109, 168, 
240, 358, 361, 373 



422 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Gandhi and the United 
Nations : Inaugural Address, 

247 ff. 

Gandhiji's Martyrdom, 179 
Ganga, the, 121, 191-2, 312 
'Gamda,' 32 
Gaudapada, 395 
Gautama the Buddha (SSkya- 

muni) 183, 220, 265 (also si* 

BUDDHA, THE) 
Gaza, 27 
General Conference of the UNESCO, 

47 ff., 93 

General Elections in India, 14 
Generalizations, 357 
Genesis, 273 

Geneva Conference, 24, 38, 137 
Gentile, 124 
Geography, 23, 69, 158 
Geography, Forces of, 157, 166 
Germ Warfare, 49 
Germany, 79, 80, 85, 324 
Gethesmane, 279 
Ghurye, G.S., 272 f.n. 
Gilson, 107 
Gnosis, 188, 255 
Goal of Civilization, 406 
God, 195, 198, 203, 207, 213, 216, 

229, 230, 236, 238, 244, 255, 

257, 262, 274, 277, 278, 292, 

308, 339, 351, 371, 374, 382, 

384, 385, 393, 394, 402 
God-Consciousness, 236 
God the Suhrt, 244 
God is Love, 214 
Goddess of the Dawn, 150 
Godhead, 257, 265, 266, 284 
Goethe, 110, 210 
Gold Coast, 136 
Good & Evil, 207 
Good Conduct (Sadficara ), 223 
Good Life, the, 355 



Goodness, 216 

Gorki, 39 

Gour, Dr Hari Singh, 89, 90 

Government (Indian), 18, 27, 35, 
88, 91, 105, 322 

Governments, 305 

Governments (in general), 5, 42, 
71, 119, 126,133, 154, 158, 243, 
305, 334, 346, 347, 351, 391 

Governments becoming more cen- 
tralized, 138 

Governments can brutalize, 4 

Govind Singh, Guru, 109 

Gargi, 372 

Gracias, Cardinal, 212 

Graeco-Roman Civilization, 210 

Great Ideals, 103 

Great Women of India, 371 ff. 

Greece, 114, 125,220,253 

Greek Classics, 281 

Greek Culture, 281, 341 

Greek Drama, 110 

Greek Mythology, 150 

Greek Religion, 272-3 

Greek Sculpture, 29 

Greek Stoicism, 271 

Greek Thought, 281 

Greeks, the, 28, 107, 280 

Greenland, 133 

Grhini, 43 

Grousset, 107 

'Grow More Food* Campaign, 
339 

Gujarat University! Convoca- 
tion Address, 164 ff. 

Gujarati language, 165 

Curia and Karma, 360, 404 

Gurukul University, 385 



Hague Courts, the, 157 
Handicrafts, 340 



INDEX 



423 



Harappa, 55, 221 

Harmony, 396 

Harvest songs, 342 

Hastings, Warren, 147 

Hatred and Prejudice, 379 

Hatta, Dr, 32 f.n. 

Havell, E. B., 113 

Haves and Have-nots, 244 

Health, 4, 31 7 

Heavy Industries, 363 

Hebrew Bible, 275 

Hebrew Prophets, 270 

Hegel, 84 

Hegelianism, 279 

Heidegger, 280 

Helen Keller, Miss, 156 

Heliodorus, 262 

Hellenic Genius, 184 

Hellenic World, 270, 272 

Hennessy, Jossleyn, 381 

Hcraclitus, 231 f.n., 273, 307 

Heras, Fr., 82 

Heredity, 233 

Heretics, 284, 358 

Himalayas, the, 184 

Hindi language, 295 ff. 

Hindu Paintings, 113 f.n. 

Hindu Thinkers, 257 

Hinduism, 192, 202, 206, 207, 

260, 262, 263, 265, 403 ff. 
Hindus, 195, 239, 258, 260, 285, 

358, 403 
Hindustan, 147 
Hippocrates, 318 
Hiranyagarbha, 259 
HinaySna Buddhism, 263 ff. 
Historians, 78, 163 
Historical Process, 79 
Historical Progress, 168 
History, 21, 23, 26, 27, 41, 58, 

59,60,61,71,77,78,79,81,83, 

84, 86, 94, 95, 102, 110, 121, 



132, 152, 201, 229, 236,270, 335, 

346 

History (by Thucydides), 109 
History, forces of, 157, 166 
History, India's , set INDIA'S 

PAJT 

History, Logic of, 360 
History, Marxist View of, 167 
History vs. Man, 167-8 
History of the Crusades, 238 f.n. 
History of Europe, 79 
History of Mankind, 388 
HitakSrini Sabbat Inaugural 

Address, 366 ff. 
Hitler, 85 
Hitopadeia, 121 
Hobbes, 94 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 139 
Holy Ghost, 238, 277 
Holy Mother, the, 376 ff. 
Holy Shrine, every man's , 382 
Holy War, 238 
Homer, 272 
Hotels, 328 ff. 
'House is a Horn* 1 , 304 
Human Beings, 207, 236 
Human Development, 374 
Human Dignity, 99 
Human Equality, 273 
Human Existence, 267 
Human Frailty, 258 
Human Family, 284 
Human Habitation, 193 
Human Heart, 175 
Human History, 132, 270 
Human Life, 187 
Human Mind, 166, 232 
Human Nature, 16, 21, 94, 213, 

227, 238, 278 
Human Person, 135 
Human Progress, 96, 98, 384 
Human Race, 328 



424 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Human Rights, 3, 5, 14, 48-9, 96, 

135, 160, 162, 250 
Human Rights, Declaration of, 6, 

160 

Human Self, 220 

Human Society, 143, 148, 163, 196 
Human Soul, 189, 221, 344 
Human Spirit, 103, 114, 127, 197, 

388 

Human Thought, 219 
Human Unhappiness, 189 
Human Unity, (Solidarity), 119, 

212,236,389,402 
Human Values, 96 
Human Welfare, 131, 141, 143, 

225 

Humanism, 228 
Humanists, 53 
Humanistic, 237 

Humanities, the, 53, 61, 91, 107 
Humanity, 219, 245, 391 
Humility, 90, 136, 194, 351 
Hungary, 134 
Hydrogen Bomb, 41, 120 
Hydrogen Developments, 119 
Hymns of the Vedas, 256 



Ideal Home, 387 

Ideal Man, 221,231 

Ideal of Indian Womanhood, 386 

Ideal State, 343 

Idealism, 121 

Ideals, 103, 355 

Ideologies, 90, 94, 100, 102, 125, 

176, 228, 334 
Illiteracy, 140, 372 
Illumination (spiritual), 109 
Illusion, 261 
I.L.O., the, 48 

Image Worship, 197-8, 260, 275 
Immanence of the Divine, 205 



Immutable, the 186 

Immutable Perfection, 232 

Immortal, the, 206, 236 

Immortality, 120, 187, 203, 273 

Imperialism, 345 

Importance of Standards, 104 

Inaugural Address t Accountant* 
Generals' Conference, 343 ff. 

Delhi School of Economics, 
175 ff. 

Exhibition of Canadian Paint- 
ings, 152 ff. 

Exhibition of Nandalal Rose's 
Paintings, 1 It ff. 

Gandhi and the United Nations, 
247 ff. 

Indian Agricultural Institute, 
338 ff. 

Indian School of International 
Studies, 157ff. 

Union for the Study of the Great 
Religions (India Branch), 226 ff. 

Sahirya Akademi, 104 ff. 

World University Service 
Health Centre, 178ff. 

Inazo Nitobe, 267 

Independence, American Declara- 
tion of, 13-14 

India, 9, 10, 14, 32, 43, 55, 113, 
116, 140, 150, 155, 199, 202, 
207, 217, 220, 253, 293, 294, 
372 

India, Foreigners on, 57 

India, French Possessions in, 136 

India, Industrial growth of, 58, 
334, 339, 345 

India, Invaders of, 316 

India, Low Morale in, 69 

India, Natural resources of, 345 

India, New Order in, 57 

India, Relations of with Afghani- 
stan, 29 ff. 



INDEX 



425 



India a Secular State, 76, 199, 217 

India, Spirit of, 110 

India, Unity of, see UNITY or INDIA 

India, Women of, 43 

India & Britain, Relations 
between, 26 

India & Canada, 152 ff. 

India & China, 40 ff. 

India & China, Trade Agreement 
between, 41 

India & Egypt 28 ff. 

India & Egypt, Treaty of Friend- 
ship between, 29 

India & Indonesia, 32 

India & the outside world, 26, 57, 
149 

India & the Soviet Union, 35 

India & Yugoslavia, 21 ff. 

India as Bridge-builder, 10 

India before Independence, 164, 
367 

India since Independence, 164, 333 

Indian Agricultural Research 
Institute : Inaugural 
Address, 338 ff. 

Indian Arts, 115 

Indian Christians, 358 

Indian Civil Service, 14 

Indian classics, 62, 147, 398 

Indian colleges, 64 ff. 

Indian colony in Memphis, 270 

Indian Council of Agricultu- 
ral Research : Convocation 
Address, 311 

Indian Culture, 29, 40, 55, 62, 75, 
119, 149, 202, 308, 376, 385, 
392 , 400 

Indian Drama, 110 

Indian Epics, the, 110 

Indian farmers, 313 

Indian (Central) Government, 14, 
27, 35,65,87,88,91, 105 171, 



176, 303, 314, 320, 322, 334, 
336, 367 

Indian Historical Research Society, 
Bombay, 82 

Indian History Congress, 77 

Indian Independence, 32, 36, 51, 
57,69, 87, 333,350, 405 

Indian Industries Fair: Prize 
Distribution, 363 ff. 

Indian influence over Greek reli- 
gion, 270 

Indian Literatures, 118 ff. 

Indian Literature, Philosophy, 
Religion, 297 

Indian Missionaries abroad, 1 72 

Indian Mother, the, 386 

Indian Mystics, 130, 403 

Indian Mysticism, 400 

Indian Nationhood & National 
Culture, 200, 392 

Indian Painting, 112, 114 

Indian Paintings, Exhibition of, in 
Canada, 153 

Indian Peasants, 340 

Indian philosophy, 253 ff, 297 

Indian Point of view in Religion, 202 

Indian Railways Centenary 

Celebrations : Presidential 

Address, 289 ft. 

Indian Railways, 52, 289 

Indian Religions, 285 

Indian religious spirit, 241 

Indian Religious Thought and 
Modern Civilization: Presi- 
dential Address, 253 ff. 

Indian Renaissance, 191, 313 

Indian Rifle Association : Inau- 
gural Address, 330 ff. 

Indian Sadhus, 272 f.n. 

Indian School, the, of Inter- 
national Studies, 157 ff. 

Indian Scriptures, 409 



426 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Indian Sculpture, 29, 1 14, 191 

Indian Spirit, the, 129 

Indian State, the, 199, 334, 359, 

362, 405 
Indian struggle for Independence, 

14 

Indian students, 54, 62 ff., 169 ff. 
Indian thinkers, 204 
Indian thought, 120 
Indian translations of Russian 

writers, 39 

Indian Union, the, 295 
Indian Universities, 62 ff, 
Indian Womanhood, 43, 372, 376, 

386 

Indian Writers, 109, 119 
Indian Writers, Russian Transla- 
tions of, 39 

India's backwardness, 195 
India's Civilization, 384 
India's Classics, 53, 91, 310 
India's Constitution, 13, 52, 53, 

58,59, 68, 69, 216, 295, 343, 

346, 394 

India's Degradation, 131 
India's Destiny, 315 
India's Heritage, (Traditions) , 1 1 3, 

116,217, 243, 245-6, 254,308, 

309,335, 341, 356,371,393 
India's human potential, 317 
India's Message, 244, 261 
India's Neighbours, 162 
India's New Democracy, 381 
India's New Era, 384 
India's Partition, 67 
India's Past, 26, 61-2, 70, 78-9, 85, 

129, 147, 151, 191, 217, 220 359, 

366, 372, 384, 392 
India's Political Freedom, 57, 68, 

69, 162, 350, 406 
India's Population, 303 
India's Recent History, 51 



India's Reputation Abroad, 57 

India's Subjection, 69-70, 360 

India's Social institutions, 403 

India's Spiritual Traditions, 116, 
256, 371 

India's Thinkers, 193 

India's Tradition in Fine Arts, 112 

India's Voters List, 14 

Individualism, 205 

Indo-British Co-operation, 149 

Indo-Ghina Conference, 137 

Indo-Ghina, Supervisory Commis- 
sions in, 152 

Indo-China War, 136 

Indoctrination, 121, 308 

Indologists, 399 

Indonesia, 4, 27, 32, 34, 140, 150 

Indus Civilization, 231 

Industrial Arts, 96 

Industrial Enterprise, 363, 364 

Industrial Epoch, 337 

Industrial Revolution, the, 51, 339 

Industrial Revolution, a new , 
337 

Industrialization of India, 58, 334, 
339 

Industrialized Nations, 339 

Infallible Truth, 208 

Infant Mortality, 317 

Infinite Bliss (in Jainism), 269 

Infinite, the, 130 

Injustice, 145, 236, 279, 330 

Inner Change, 350 

Inner Contemplation, 233 

Inner Evolution, 232 

Inner Transformation, 233 

Inner Understanding, 234 

Inner Wisdom, 234 

Inner World, 235 

Innocence, 306 

Inorganic, the, 229 

Instincts, 121 



INDEX 



427 



Integral Experience, 256 

Integration, 194 

Integration of the Indian States, 

315 

Integrity, 346 
Intellectual authority & Inherited 

authority, 231 
Intellectual Conscience, 192 
Intellectual Freedom, 39 
Intellectual Norms, 202 
Intellectual Recognition vs. Spiri- 
tual Realization, 255 
Intellectual Renaissance, 149 
Inter-caste marriage, 360 
Interdependent World, 166, 336 
Internal strife, 350 
International Accord, 162 
International Affair?, 3 ff. 
International Affairs, 55, 102, 405 
International Authority, 331 
International Community, 138, 

159, 160 
International Co-operation, 31, 

140, 159 

International Disputes, 159 
International Front, the, 33 
International Hotel Confer- 
ence : Inaugural Address, 327 
International Interdependence, 

157 

International Law, 3 
International Morality, 42 
International Numerals, 299 
International Obligations, 138, 

250 

International Organizations, 158 
International Outlook, 138 
International Peace, 21, 23 
International Questions, 137 
International Relations, 157, 248, 

252, 331 
International Scene, 71 



International Situation, 136, 159, 

291 

International Society, 158 
International Understanding, 148, 

329 

Internationalism, 5 
Intolerance, 34, 84, 96, 99, 194, 

236, 238, 283, 308, 382 
Introspection, 231 
Intuition, 256, 395 
Invaders of India, 316 
Invention of the Plough, 312 
Inventiveness of Man, 71 
Investigations, 123 
Invisible Church of God, 239, 394 
Invisible Spirit, 275 
Inward Dignity, 222 
Inward Life, the 220, 341 
Inward Nature, 231 
Inward Peace, 143 
Inward Reality, 203 
Inward Renewal, 216 
Inward Resources, 349, 356 
Inward Subjectivity of Man, 204 
Inward Tranquility, 142 
Iran, 202, 220 
Irregularities in Administration, 

322 

Irreligion, 199, 284, 353 
Irrigation System, 342 
Isaiah, 240, 276 
Islam, 202,219, 238, 280 ff. 
Isocrates, 99 
ISvara, 259 
Italy, 107 

Ivory Gavel presented to U.S. 
Senate, 12, 16 ff. 



Jacks, Principal, 123 
Jagad-hitaya JCrfndya t 351 
Jain Teachers, 221 ff. 



428 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Jains, 261, 358 

Jainism, 202, 260, 269 

Jambukdvaram, 129 

Jamuna, the, 121 

Janaka, 312 

Japan, 22, 43, 183, 267, 268 

Japan ( by Nitobc), 267 

Jail, 404 

Java, 262 

Jayakar, Dr, 146 

Jefferson, 13, 15 

Jerusalem, 328 

Jesus Christ, 126, 144, 214, 233, 

234, 240, 247, 270, 276, ff. 
Jews, 124, 273, 358 
Jewish Bible, 273 
Jewish Thought as a Factor in 

Civilization 275 f.n. 
Jina, the, 220, 231, see also 

MAHAVIRA 

Jivojivasyajfvanam, 223 
Jflana, 60, 272 
Jnana Yoga, 194 
Jnanasambandar, 129 
John the Baptist, 233-4 
Johnson, Senator, 13, 19-20 
Jouhaux (Mrs), 48 
Journals (Kirkegaard's), 280 
Judaism, 202 
Judea, 220 

Jurisprudence, 96, 318 
Justice, 13, 34, 69, 81, 102, 122, 

124, 135,214,242,309 
Justice & Charity, 391 
Justice, Economic, see ECONOMIC 

JUSTICE 
Justice, Social, see SOCIAL JUSTICE 



Kala-bhavan, 111 
Kalahasti, 129 
Kalidasa, 110 



Kalinga, Conquest of by As*oka, 
268 

Kalinga Edict, 87, 343 

Kama, 43 

Kanchipuram, 129 

Kandahar, 29 

KSne, Dr, 79, 149 

Kapilavastu, 184 

Karl Adam, 286 f.n. 

Karl Barth, 235 

Karma, Law of, 186 

Karma Yoga, 194 

Karnatak University: Convo- 
cation Address, 51 if. 

Karma, 92, 184, 247 

Kashmir, 4 

Katha Upanisad, 231, 259, 341 

Kavi, 106 

Kqya-Sampat, 317 

Kdyyam, 106 

Keller, Miss Helen, 156 

Keith, Berriedale, 110 

Kevala-jftdna, 224 

Khruschev, Mr, 35, 39 

Kidwai, Rafi Ahmed, 339 

Kingdom of God, 197, 210, 214, 
234, 307 

Kingdom of Heaven, 233, 234 

Kirkegaard, 279 ff. 

JTfcAi, 199 

Knight, Rev. Frank, 271 

Know Thyself, 408 

Knowland, Senator, 12, 18 

Korea, 4, 10, 27 

Korean War, 136 

Kracmcr, 286 

Kremlin, the, 123 

Krishna, 214, 245, 306 

Krnvanto vifuam dryam, 1 32 

Krsnarjuna-samvdda, 197 

fCsamd hi Jastram khalu brahmana'- 
nam, 331 



INDEX 



429 



Kumari, 374 

Kunzru, Dr Hridaya Nath, 157 



Labourer, the, 86 

Land, 339 

Land, Redistribution of, 351 

Land Legislation, 314 

Land Reforms, 340, 407 

Language, 69, 70, 162, 202 

Lao Tse, 220 

Laos, 136 

Lavanya-yojancun y 114 

Law, 16 

Law, International, 3 

Law & Juctice, 7 1 

Law & Order, 14, 343 

Law, Rule of, 57 

Law, William, 234 f.n., 278 

Law of Change, 187 

Law of the Jungle, 406 

Law of Karma, the, 186 

Law of Piety, 240 

Lawyers, 318 

Leaders, (Leadership), 30, 34, 59, 

65, 86, 91, 98, 189, 309, 349, 

351, 367, 368 
Leaders, Spiritual , 351 
Leaders of religion, 358 
League of Nations, the, 

157 

Legislature, the, 347 
Legislatures, 346 
Leisure, 96 
Lenin, 36 

Leon Roth, 275 f.n. 
Leonardo, 339 
Letter of the Law, 233 
Levite, the, 273 
Leviticus, 275 

Liberation, 187, 254, 279 
Liberation Movements, 57 



Liberty, 14, 22, 76, 105, 124, 127, 

135, 344 

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, 137 
Liberty, Religious ,39 
Life and Teachings of Ramana 

Maharshi, 408 

Life Eternal, 186, 193, 213, 223 
Life Eternal (4mrto), 317 
Life of Action, the, 230 
Life of Spirit, 205, 229 
Lllavatl, 372 

Linguism, 172, 308, 324, 368, 406 
Literary Artist, the, 106, 129 
Literature, 53, 60, 104 ff., 1 1 1, 129, 

148 

Literature, 'Managed 1 , 105 
Literature, Works of, 39 
Literature and Art of India and 

China, 40 

Live and Let Live, 388 
Living Faiths of Mankind, 201, 

285 

Lloyd Morgan, 230 
Locke, 94 
Logic, 159 
Logic of Events, 227 
Logic of Facts, 36 
Logic of History, 360 
Logical Investigation, 193 
Lokcuamgraha, 227, 245 
London Schoolmaster, a , 122 
Love, 160, 173, 185, 206, 207, 213 

215,248,278 

Love for All Creation, 236 
Low-cost Housing, 301, 303 
Lucknow University, 400 



Macedonians, the, 28 

Machiavelli, 159 

Madame Soong Chung-ling, 40, 

44 



430 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Madame Sophia Wadia, 118 

Madonna & the Child, 306 

Madras University, 387 

Madura, 358 

Maha Togf, Shiva the, 173 

Mahabhdrata, the, 120, 172, 330, 
359, 374, 401 

Mahdbhdraia, English Transla- 
tion of, 147 

Mahabodhi Society, 183 

Mahadevan, Prof. T. M. P., 403 

Mahanirvana Tantra, 372 

Mahapadeia, 185 

Mahavira, 220 ff., 231 

Mahavira Jayanti Celebra- 
tions, 220 ff. 

Mahayana Buddhism, 206, 263 ff. 

Mahomed Nairn Khan, H.R.H. 
Sardar , 28 

Maitreyi, 372 

Majjhima Jfikdya, 226 f.n. 

Makram, 28 

Malavika, 115 

Mallinatha, 77 

Materialism, 280 

Man, the Cave , 98 

Man & Woman, relation of, 373-4 

Man in Society, 97 

Man in the image of God, 274 

Man-made inequalities, 362 

Man-making, 169 

Man's Cultural Destiny, 201 

Man's Evolution, 233, 389 

Man's Existence, 186 

Man's inhumanity to man, 367 

Man's progress, 84 

Man's spiritual Dimension, 95 

'Managed' Literature, 105 

Management and workers, 364 

Mdnava seva, 401 

Manchu, 40 

Man '., 149 



Maneckji Cursetji, 148 
Manglic, 286 f.n. 
Manikkavacagar, 129 
Manimtkhalai, 261 
Manjari, 383 
Mankind, Unity of, 50 
Mantravit, 232 
Manu, 261, 371, 375 
Manuscripts, 147, 150 
Marandntam hijivitam, 186 
Marathas, 368 
Marathi, 296, 297 
Marathon, 270 
Marcel, 280 
Marian Congress, 212 ff. 
Marriage, 373-4, 376, 383 
Marriage & Motherhood, 383 
Marshal, Alfred, 175 
Martyrdom of Mahatma Gandhi, 

178 

Marx, 84, 95 
Marxism, 236 
Marxist doctrine, 36 
Marxist materialism,227 
Marxist view of History, 167 
Masani, R. P., 388-9 
Mass Media, 141 
Masterpieces, 148 
Material resources, 344 
Materialism, 227 
MathaSy Four founded by 

Samkara, 172 
Matr-deuo bhaoa, 375 
Matraceta, 189 
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, see 

ABUL KALAM AZAO 

Max Muller, 298 
Maya, 193 
Mecca, 328 
Mechanical Arts, 1 14 
Meditation, 197, 237, 384 
Mediterranean, the, 268 



INDEX 



431 



Meerut College Diamond Jubilee, 

74 
Member Nations of the UNO, 

5, 138, 364 
'Members of One Another', 140, 

380 

Membership of the UNESCO, 134 
Memphis, 270 
Men & Women, 373 ff. 
Mencius, 307 
Mental slums, 60, 366 
Metaphysical Reality, 256 
Metaphysicians, 230 
Metaphysics, 158 
Micah, 276 
Middle Path, 267 
Middle Way, the Buddha's, 90 
Migrations, Arab , 28 
Military approach, 159, 249, 331 
Military assistance, 6 
Military conflict, 40 
Military contest, 331 
Military methods 364 
Military power, 248 
Military solutions, 125 
Millowners, 315 
Mirzapur, 112 
Missionary religions, 262 
Mithyacdrins, 179 
Mixed Economy, 336 
Model Democracy, 133 
Moderation, 90 
Modern Mind, the, 185 
Modern Warfare, 59, 71 
Modern weapons of war, 242, 328 
Modesty, 383 
Modi, J.J., 149 
Mogallana, 183 

Moghul School of Painting, 113 
Moha (Delusion), 120 
Mohammedans, see MUSLIMS 
Mohenjo-DSro, 55, 221 



a, 43, 280, 317 
Monachism, 270 
Monasteries, 271 
Mongol Khans, 35 
Monsoons, the, 340 
Montgomery, Lord, 123 
Moral & Spiritual Vacuum, 245 
Moral authority of the UNO, 4 
Moral capacity, 138 
Moral character, 90 
Moral contribution, 143 
Moral force, 330 
Moral heritage, 312 
Moral judgements, 60 
Moral law, 207 
Moral order, 309 
Moral philosophy, 158 
Moral regeneration, 351 
Moral values, 9, 58, 103 
Morale, Low , in India, 69 
Morality, 186 

Morality, International , 42 
Morality, spring of , (the 

Buddha), 184 
Morarji Desai, 315-6 
Morse Code, 296 
Moses, 274, 276 
Mother India, 55 
Motherhood, 373, 375 
Movements, Liberation, 57 
Mrtyorma-amfiam gamaya, 187 
Muhammad, 239, 280-1 
Mukerjee, Radhakamal, 400 
Multi-purpose projects, 22, 290, 

345 

Mundaka Upani$ad, the, 255 
Murals, 112 
Muse'e Guimet, 184 
Music, 1 14 
Music and dance, 32 
Muslimrs), 195,219, 239, 280 ft, 

328 



432 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Muslim Conquest of Egypt, 28 
Mutual survival or Mutual des- 
truction, 159 
Mysore, 113 
Mysore University, 395 



Nagari numerals, 299 

Naidu, Sarojini, 1 19 

Nai$adha, 262 f.n. 

Nanda, Nandanar, 131 

Nandalal Bose, Acharya, 1 1 1 ff. 

Napoleon, 28, 105 

Narada, 307 

Jfdrada Bhakti Sutra, 244, 351, f.n., 

361 

Narahari Rao, 320, 323 ff. 
Norms, 97 
Nasser, Col. , Prime Minister of 

Egypt, 28 ff. 
Mstyakrtab kfUna, 232 
Nataraja, 129, 130 
Nation, the Indian, 54 
Nation-State, the, 344 
Nation's Finances, 346 
National Academy of Letters, 

104 ff. 

National Awakening, 350 
National Cadet Corps, 65, 331 
National Chastity, 245 
National Economic Policies, 344 
National Prosperity, 339 
National Pride, 98, 258 
National Reconstruction, 219 
National Solidarity, 219, 294, 316, 

324, 343, 359 

National State(s), the, 138, 160 
National Tradition, 158 
National Unity, 86, 316, 394 
National Welfare, 336 
Nationalism, 40, 99, 100, 138, 158, 

159,245,251,328,389 



Nations (in general), 3, 58, 69, 80, 

83, 99, 125, 137-8, 158, 159, 160, 

162, 179, 245, 291, 331 
Natural Law, 230 
Natural Resources, 32, 345 
Natural Sciences, 96-7, 158 
Natural Sciences vs. Social 

Sciences, 165 
Natural Selection, 233 
Natural Theology, 229 
Nayanar, 131 
Nazism, 27, 79 
Negotiations, 6 
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 26, 35, 37, 39, 

105, 118, 128, 177 
Nehru's visit to Russia, 35 
Neighbour, duty to, 344 
Neurosis, 355 

Neurotic atmosphere, 379 
Neutrality, 10 
New Challenge?, 228 
New China, the, 44, 391 
New Era in India, 57, 72, 381, 

384 
New Social Order (in the World), 

84 

New Society, 32 ff., 102, 335 
New World, 76, 99, 249, 251, 299 
New York, 33 
Next generation, the, 307 
Next War, 27, 37, 48, 81, 123, 159, 

165,189,211,215,226,242,402 
Nictzche, 31, 127, 306 
Nigeria, 136 
Nihilism, 284 
Nfyireyasa, 350 
Nile, the 312 
Mrmanakdya, 226 
Nirvana, 186, 187, 188, 268, 280 
Nivedita, Sister, 372, 376 
Noah, 239 
Nobili, Robert dc, 358 



INDEX 



433 



Noble, Margaret, see NIVEDCTA 
Non- Aggression, 161 
Non-attachment, 306 
Non-injury, 223 
Non-interference, 161 
Non-intervention, 94 
Non-Involvement, 10 
Non-violence, 8, 223,248, 252, 261, 

293, 331, 350, 381 
Non-violent society, 350 
Non-Vedic prophets, 257 
Nomads, 311 
Norms, 158 

Norms, intellectual, 202 
Nothingness, void, 187, 193 
Nuclear power, 33, 166, 242 
Nuclear weapons, 27, 159, 212 
Numerals, 295 



Objective Existence, 187 
Objective Time Series, 187 
Objects of India's Struggle for 

Independence, 406 
Obscurantism, 89, 195 
Observer, The, 241 
Occidental Influence on Indian 

Painting, 113 
October Revolution, the, 35, 85, 

324 

Oil, 134 

Oil Industry in India, 336 
Old-age Pensions, 133 
Old Methods ( of Agriculture ), 

313 

Olympian Gods, 150-1, 272 
'On Earth, One Family', 100, 380 
One Civilization, 283 
One Supreme, 247, 248 
One World, 163, 166, 225, 283, 

328, 349, 399 

Oneness of Humanity, 157 
28 



Opening of the Durgapur 

Barrage, 353 ff. 
Opening of Hospital at 

Ahmedabad, 315 ff. 

Opposites, 202 

Organic, the, 229 

Orient & Occident, 238 

Oriental Conference: Presiden- 
tial Address, 253 ff. 

Oriental Studies, 253 

Oriental Woman, 375, 383 

Origen, 277 

Oriyas, 368 

Orphic Attitude, 272 

Orthodoxy, 194 

Osborne, Mr, 408 

Overcrowding in Indian Colleges, 
170 

Oxford, 227 



Pacts, 250 

Pacts & Alliances, 364 

Paine, Thomas, 149 

Painter, the, 115 

Painting, Indian , 112 

Pakistan, 140, 150 

Palestine, 4, 202 

Pali Buddhism, 263 ff. 

Pallavas, the, 82 

Paflcalwga, 129 

Panchslla, 33, 38, 41, 43, 160 ff. 

PanchasTla, Original Buddhist , 

42 

Papal Legate, 212 
Parable of the Raft, 266 
Paradox, 188 
Paramdtman, 222 
Para-normal phenomena, 231, 

396 

Parasara Muni, 404 
Paris, 47 



434 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Parliament, (Indian), 21, 26, 28 
f.n., 35, 321, 326 

Paropakara, 198 

Parsees, the, 148 

Parthenon, the, 272 

Partition (of India), 57, 67, 405 

Party Politics, 347 

Pascal, 279 

Patriotism, 328 

Peace, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 20, 21, 23, 27, 
30, 31, 33, 34, 38, 39, 42, 47, 
48, 52, 80, 81, 83, 99, 102, 119, 
125, 127, 128, 142, 143, 148, 159, 
162, 211, 216, 249, 251, 252, 
276, 302, 345, 352, 377, 379 

Peace (spiritual), 186, 213 

Peace & Calm, 368 

Peaceful Methods, 15, 16, 159, 248, 
249, 402 

Peaceful settlement of Differences, 
179, 331 

Peasants, Artisans, Slaves, 237 

Pelagius, 238 

P.E.N., 128 

P.E.N. Congress, 118 ff. 

Pen Friendships, 310 

Penicillin, 49 

People's Government of China, 
137, 390 (also see CHINA) 

Perceptions, 203 

Perfection (spiritual), 214 

Persecution, 243 

Persia, 270 

Persians, the, 28, 270, 280 

Personal God, 266 

Personalities vs. Ideas, 351 

Personality, 203 

Persuasion, 223, 248, 352 

Petrie, Prof. Flinders, 270 

Pharisaism, 131 

Pharisees, the, 233, 358 

Pharaohs, the, 28 



Philo, 257, 275 

Philosophers, 61 

Philosophy, 21, 52, 53, 60, 75, 96, 

98, 107 

Philosophy & Religion, 181 if. 
Phipps, Mr, 338 
Physical Courage, 332 
Physical Force vs. Moral Force, 

330 

Physical Handicaps, 156 
Physical Sciences vs. Social 

Sciences, 165 
Picture Galleries, 112 
Pilgrim Centres, 327 
Planning in India, 70 
Plato, 107, 121, 220, 240, 245, 255, 

257, 271 
Plotinus, 408 
Podumurai, 261 
Poets, 105 
Poison Gas, 49 
Poland, 42, 134 
Political Freedom, 7, 15, 21, 29 
Political Freedom of India, 57 see 

INDIA'S 

Political Power, 38 
Political Sciences, 158 
Political Stability, 30, 346 
Political Structures, 193 
Political Systems, 23 
Political Theories, 94 
Political Unification of Society, 137 
Political Unity of India, 290 
Politics, 8, 9, 26, 96 
Politics of Power, 15 
Pope Pius XII, 215 
Portrait of an Indian Woman, 386 
Post-Independence India, 51 
Post-War China, 390 
Poverty, 176, 325 
* Poverty corrupts', 333 
Power, 162 



INDEX 



435 



Power Groups, 9, 33 (also see 

POWERS) 

Power Politics, 33 
Powers, see NATIONS 
Powers, Axis , 140 
Powers, Great, 9 
Prajnd, 92, 109, 399 
Prafftd & Karuna, 184, 247 
Pramdpam, 114 
Prdtibhdsika sattd, 262 
Pratiloma, 360 
Pravacana, 173 
Prem Ghand, 38 
Premature Definition, 188 
President Tito, 21, 25 
Presidential Address: Bombay 
Branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 146 ff. 
: Indian Railway Centenary, 

289 ff. 
Prime Minister Nehru, 26, 35, 37, 

128, 177 
Prime Minister of Ganada, 101, 

152 

Prime Minister of Egypt, 28 ff. 
Prime Minister of France, 136 
Prime Ministers of India, China 
& Burma, 41-2 

Principal feature of our Age, 162 

Principle of Subjectivity, 221 

Principles of Fconomics, 175 

Printing, 295 ff. 

Private Enterprise, 334, 336 

Private Rights, 30 ^ 

Privileges, 192, 200 

Progress, 84-5, 94, 97 

Progress, Scientific , 30 

Progress, Scientific & Technologi- 
cal, 32 

Projects, Multi-purpose , 22 

Proof of God, 207 

Property, 344 



'Property is a Trust*, 351 

Prophets, 220, 235 

Protestantism, 238 

Proto-Indo-Mediterrancan Cul- 
ture, 82 

Proverbs, the, 274 

Provincial Governments (see STATES, 
INDIAN), 87 

Provincialism, 70, 172, 308, 324, 
354, 368, 406 

Prthivi, 129 

Psalms, the, 274 

Psyche, Man's, 84 

Psychological Unity, 227 

Psychology, 71, 98, 121, 165 

Public Control, 335 

Public Sector, 345 

Pudukotta, 113 

Punctuation marks, 299 

Punjab University : Convocation 
Address, 67 ff. 

Pure Being, 409 

Puri, 327 

Purusa-cikitsa & Pafu-cikitsa, 318 

Pusa Institute, 338 

Pushkin, 39, 110 

Pyramid, the Great, 31 

Pyramids, 28 

Pythagoras, 220 



Quackery, 230 

Quest of Truth, 122 

Quran, the, 107, 238, 239, 281 ff. 



Rabbis, 253,273 

Rabindranath Tagore (set 
TAGORE, R.) 

Race, Races, 69, 136, 162, 192, 202 
Race, Glass and National Hatreds, 
128 



436 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Race and Colour, 205 

Race Prejudice, 122 

Race Problems, 6 

Racial Composition, 23 

Racial Discrimination, 33, 250 

Racial Extermination, 1 35 

Racial Harmony, 136 

Racial Pride, 48, 98, 99 

Racial Segregation, 6 

Racial Superiority, 6, 258 

Radhakamal Mukerjec, 400 

Radhakrishnan, Dr Sarvepalli, 12, 
13, 20, 24, 25, 286 f.n. 

a much- travelled man, 327 

Elected Chancellor of Delhi 
University, 56 

General President of UNESCO, 
93 

* Vice-Chancellor of Andhra Uni- 
versity, 387 

Rajagopalachari, C, 56 

Rdjd Kalasya Kdranam, 167 

Raja Yoga, 193 

RajyaSabha, 12 ff. 

Rdjyasya mulam, 391 

Rama, 245 

Ramakrishna, Shri, 191, 195, 373, 
376 

Ramakrishna, the Movement, 
373 

Ramana Maharshi, 408-9 

Ramanuja, 199 

Rdmdyana, the, 112, 312 

Rameshwar, 327 

Ramrajya, 196 

Ranade, 149 

Rao, (Dr V.K.R.V.), 176 

Rational Life, the, 229 

Reality, 207 

Raven, Charles E, 237, f.n. 

Raw materials, 340 

Real, The, 202, 393 



Redemption, 205, 254 

Reality, 207, 232, 235, 244, 316, 

395, 409 

Realization, 194, 207, 254-5, 393 
Reason, 89, 122, 192, 232, 342, 395, 

396 

Rebarbarization, 128 
Rebuilding of New India, 69, 72-3 
Rebirth, 186 (see SECOND BIRTH, 

DVinYAMJANMA) 

Reconstruction of Indian Society, 
57-8, 65, 68, 72-3, 86, 87, 162, 
165, 168, 406 

Redemption, 205, 254 

Redemptive work, 401 

Redistribution of Land, 351 

Reformation, the, 51 

Refugees, 303 

Regimentation 105-6, 153, 225 

Regionalism, 34 

Regression, 94 

Rehabilitation, 23, 171, 218, 359 

Rehabilitation of Refugee*, 353 

Relation of Men and Women, 
373-4 

Religion, 8, 9, 53, 60, 69-70, 76, 
89, 94, 96, 98, 106, 110, 113, 
122, 124, 130-1, 139, 162, 173, 
192, 196, 199, 207, 208, 209, 
212 ff., 218, 230, 232, 236, 239, 
308, 342, 359, 392, 396, 401, 403, 
408 

Religion, Abuse of, 198 

Religion* Basic Principles of, 9 

Rellgon and Its Place In 
Human Life, 197 ff. 

Religion and Society, 387 f.n. 

Religion as Spiritual Adventure, 
208 

'Religion in danger', 357 

Religion of Love, 228 

Religion of Spirit, 239 



INDEX 



437 



Religion, Spirit of, 142 
Religion of the future, 239 
Religion, Uniqueness of each , 

282 
Religions, 62, 72, 91, 157, 178, 

184, 188, 194, 209, 227, 235, 

236, 237, 241, 258, 267, 282, 

344, 394 

Religious Classics, 107, 109 
Religions, Conflicts among , 283 
Religious feeling, the Scientist's , 

230 

Religious geniuses, 191, 230 
Religious Impartiality, 200 
Religious Leaders, 358 
Religious Principles vs. Social 

Institutions, 357 
Religious Quest, the 197 
Religious Rivalries, 227 
Religious Situation, Contemporary 

,227 

Religious Soul, the, 215 
Religious thesis, 228-9 
Religious unity, 209 
Renaissance, the, 51 
Renaissance, Indian , 104, 191, 

313 
Renunciation, 223, 261, 361, 373, 

384 

Reorganization of States, 367 
Research, 64 
Resolution of the UNESCO General 

Conference, 93, 96, 98 
Revelations, 208, 228, 229, 238, 

258, 

Reverence, 90 
Revolution, Revolutions, 10, 15, 

22, 29, 51, 58, 69, 85, 86, 95, 

119, 125, 133, 167, 292, 324, 381 
Revolution, Chinese, 40 
Revolution, Inner, 60 
Revolution in Afghanistan, 30 



Revolution in Egypt, 29-30 

Revolution in India, 30 

g Veda, the, 107, 120, 129, 312, 

393 

Rg Veda Samhitd, 298 
Righteousness, 129, 233 
Rights, see HUMAN RIGHTS 
Rights, Private, 30 
Rights, Unalienable, 14 
Rights of the individual, 160 
River- Valley Schemes, 22 
Robert de Nobili, 358 
Robots, 141 
Rock Edict, 393 
Roman Civilization, 281 
Roman Empire, the, 237 
Roman Script, 297 
Roman Tradition, 341 
Romans, the, 28 
Rome, 125, 253 
Rome, Brahmin from, 358 
Root of Government, 391 
Rousseau, 95 
Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay 

Branch, 146 ff. 
Royal Society of England, 226 



Rule by Majority Party, 346-7 
Rule of Law, 406 
Rule of Love, 406 
Runciman, Steven, 238 
Rupa-bheda, 114 
Rural Development, 339 
Russia, 35, 36,85, 110,291 
Russians, 36 
Russian Language, 299 
Russain Translations of Indian 
Writers, 39 



Saar, 137 
Sabda-Kalpadruma, 307 



438 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Saceanama, 186 

Sacred Relics, 183 

Sacred Thread, 358 

Sad-anga, 113 

Sadhus & Samnyasins, 199, 360, 

376 

SadrSyam, 114 
Sahadharmacarini, 383 
Sahitya Akademi : Inaugural 

Address, 104 
Saiva Saints, 129, 131 
Saivites, 261 
St. Ambrose, 186 f.n. 
St. Augustine, 188, 238 
St. John, 278 

St. Laurent, Rt. Hon. Louis ,101 
St. Paul, 101, 143, 187, 213, 277-9 
St. Thomas Acquinas, 103 
St. Xavier's College, 82 
Sainthood, 376-7 
Saints, 129,218,330,402 
Saiva Saints, 129 
Sakjaraft & Rakfasah, 70, 382 
Sakti, 262 
Sakti, Muni, 404 
Sakyamuni, 184 
Salamis, 270 
Sale of Arms, 250 
Salvation, 195, 263, 278 
Samana, 374 
Samavdya, 286, 394 
Sambhogakaya, 266 
Samjnd prqjfldm apekfate, 399 
Samjfld yydkaranam, 398 
Samkara 109, 172, 199, 222, 259, 

261, 262, 395, 
Samnyasins, 360, 376 
Samsdra, 53, 114, 187, 188, 193, 

269, 280, 316-7 
Samskrta, 186 
Sanatkumara, 307 
Sanctity, 354 



Sanctity of women, 371 ff. 

San Francisco, 3 

Sanskrit, 296 ff. 

Sanskrit Buddhism, 263 

Sanskritists, 298 

Santo bhumim tapasa dharayanti, 407 

Sdnto'yam dtmd, 257 

Saptabhangi nydya, 225 

SaptaSati, The, 374 

Sarada Devi, Shri, 373, 376 ff. 

Saraswati, Goddess of Learning, 

372 

Sariputta, 183 
Sarojini Naidu, 1 19 
Sarvodaya, 349 ff. 
Sastras, 54 

Sathianathan, Dr Samuel, 387 
Sathianathan, Mrs Kamala, 

386 ff. 

Satya-narayana, 230 
Satyam eva jay ate, \ 1 
Satyavrata, Prof., 385 
Saugor University Convocation 

address, 87 ff. 
Scandinavia, 7 
Scepticism 228, 396, 408 
Schemes, River Valley , 22 
Schopenhauer, 183 
Schweitzer, Dr Albert, 241 
Science, Advances of , 27, 211, 

230 
Science, 49, 58-9, 60, 61, 63, 70, 

75, 90, 95, 97, 99, 144, 148, 158, 

166 ff, 189, 192, 209, 222, 231, 

249, 396, 397 
Science and Scholarship, 63, 144, 

149 
Science & Technology, 49, 52, 53, 

58, 59, 70-1, 72, 75, 95, 96, 137, 

166,209, 211, 226 
Science & Human Nature, 226 
Scientific Armoury, 6 



INDEX 



439 



Scientific Discoveries, 283 
Scientific Frame of Mind, the, 89, 

141-2, 158 

Scientific Method, the, 229 
Scientific Progress, 30, 32, 70, 242 
Scientific Research, 340 
Scientists, 230 

Scribes and the Pharisees, 233 
Scriptures, 112, 222, 235, 240, 257, 

277 (also see SASTRAS) 
Second Birth, 197, 213, 214, 232, 

233, 234, 277, 278, 409, (also 

see DVITIYAMJANMA) 
Second Five Year Plan, 242, 339, 

340, 354 
Secret Self, 187 
Secular State, India is a , 76, 

199,217 
Secularism 194-5, 199-200, 217-8 

392, 393 

Segregation, 6, 136 
Self, the, 203 
Self-assertion, 362 
Self-awareness, 362 
Self-conquest, 220, 222 
Self-control, 214, 225, 233, 401 
Self-control (damd), 309 
Self-discovery, 207 
Self-giving, 351 
Self-indulgence, 189 
Self-knowledge, 199, 280 
Self-Mortification vs. Self-indul- 
gence, 189 
Self-purification, 220 
Self-realization, 222, 236 
Self-righteousness, 7, 238 
Seneca, 257 f.n. 
Sengupta, Mrs Padmini, 386 
Sense of Insecurity and Fear, 5 
Sense of value, 145 
Sentient, the 229 
Separate Worlds, 226 



Separation of Accounts and Audit, 
347 

Service of fellow-creatures, 198, 
260 

Severity, 377 

Sex life, 374 

Shakespeare, 110, 147 

Shaivism, 172-3 

Shankar's Weekly, Children's Num- 
ber, 379 

Shift System in Colleges, 64 

Shintoism, 267 

Shiva, the Maha Togi, 173 

Shotuko, Prince, 267 

Shri Krishna, 242 ff. 

Shri Sarada Devi Commemoration 
Volume, 371 

Shrinking world, the, 99 

Sikhd, 358 

Sikhs, the, 358 

Sikhism, 202 

Silpani, 114 

Simon, St., 95 

Sin, 189, 278 

Singhanpur, 112 

Sinking of wheat, 335 

Sirguya, 112 

Sita, 312 

Sita Ram, Dr, 74 

Siva, 121,231,257,262 

Siva & Parvati, 116 

Sky-god & Earth-goddess, 341-2 

Slave trade, 335 

Smugness, 368 

Social & Economic Revolution 
(in India), 51 

Social behaviour, 400 

Social conventions, 358 

Social crimes, 228 

Social disabilities, 362 

Social division, 360 
Social ethics, 166 



440 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Social forms, 356 

Social history, 83 

Social institutions, 357 

Social justice, 24, 33, 225, 280, 

334 

Social order, A better, 402 
Social organization, 7 
Social Philosophy, 166 
Social reconstruction, 310 
Social reform, 89 
Social responsibility, 344 
Social revolution, 302, 406 
Social Sciences, 93 ff., 158, 165, 

166, 342, 400 

Social upheavals, 324, 325 
Social welfare, 346 
Social world, 350 
Socialism, 22, 36, 40, 176 
Socialist reconstruction, 21, 22 
Socialistic Democracy, 176 
Socialistic pattern of society, 36, 

335, 343 

Socialization of the Intellect, 153 
Societies, 16, 361 
Societies, Three stages of the 

progress of, 406 
Society for the Study of Religions, 

240 

Society, Structure of, 95 
Sociology, 400 
Socrates, 204, 205, 220, 231, f.n., 

247, 271 

Soil conservation, 340 
Solitariness, 105 
Son of God, 278 
Soong, Chung-ling, Madame, 40, 

44 

Sophistries, 196 
Soul, 207, 209, 222 
Soul, Socrates on the, 272 
Soul vs. the non-soul, 222 
South Asia, 100, 313 



South India, 113, 129 

Sovereign States (see POWERS) 

Sovereignty resides in Man, 160 

Soviet Agriculture, 336 

Soviet Russia, 6, 39, 42, 80, 133, 
299, 336, 339 

Soviet System, 9 

Soviet Union, India and the , 35 

Space & Time, 257 

Spain, 125 

Special Convocation, Delhi Uni- 
versity, 155, 156 

Specialization, 91 

Specialized agencies of the UNO, 
249 

Species, 132 

Spengler, 84, 167 

Sphinx, the, 31 

Spinoza, 232 f.n. 

Spirit, 39, 75, 142, 145, 185, 
204-5, 230, 232, 277 

Spirit of Dedication, 65 
Spirit of God, 277 

Spirit of Love, 190 
Spirit of Man, 153,203 
Spirit of Religion, 198, 215 
Spirit of Science, 185, 228, 230 
Spirit of the Nation, 354 
Spirit of the Universe, 72 
Spirit, Ideals of, 50 
Spirit, Truths of the, 49 
Spirit of Youth, 151 
Spiritual, the, 229 
Spiritual adventure, 232 
Spiritual awareness, 145 
Spiritual being, 202 
Spiritual coherence, 227 
Spiritual community, 273 
Spiritual comradeship, 3H 
Spiritual consciousness, 207, 276 
Spiritual crisis, 145 
Spiritual dignity, 205 



INDEX 



441 



Spiritual endeavour, 341 
Spiritual experience, 202, 208 
Spiritual freedom, 317, 407 
Spiritual harmonies, 273 
Spiritual Intuition, 115 
Spiritual Laws, 194 
Spiritual leaders, 351 
Spiritual life, the, 90, 194, 216, 231, 

241, 373 

Spiritual opportunities, 207 
Spiritual outlook on life, 392 
Spiritual peace, 317 
Spiritual reality, 243, 259, 260 
Spiritual realization, 194, 263 
Spiritual recovery, 210 
Spiritual religion, 196 
Spiritual resources, 49 
Spiritual sickness, 69 
Spiritual strength, 70 
Spiritual techniques, 398 
Spiritual truth, 256-7 
Spiritual values, 9, 212, 286, 

400 
Spiritual values, Universality of, 

392 

Spiritual victory, 279 
Spiritual vision, 106 
Spiritual world, 255 
Split Atom, the, 90 
'Spring of Morality 1 the Buddha, 

184 

Sraddha, 223 
Sravana, manana, nididhyasana, 222, 

255 

Sriharsa, 262 f.n. 
Srngeri Math, 395 
State, the, 7, 94, 160, 390 
State, function of, 153 
State, the City, 99 
Statement of Objects (of the Indian 

Constitution), 13 
States (Indian), 65, 87, 105, 171 



States Reorganization Committee 

Report, 172 
Statesmen, 149, 158 
Stagnation, 219 

Standards, High, 4, 177, 322 
Standards, Importance of, 104 
Statistics, 166 
Status quo t 5, 390 
Stoicism, 271 
Stoics, the, 273 
Stream of mind, 259 
Struggle of Indian Women, 43 
Students, 54, 62 ff., 74, 75 
Students & Teachers, 54, 63, 88, 

169 ff., 171 
Studia Indologica Inter nationalia, 398 

ff. 

Study of History, (Toynbee), 285-6 
Study of the past, 148 
Subala Upanifad, the, 306 
Subject Peoples, 7 
Subject vs. Objects, 203 
Subjection, India's , (set INDIA'S 

SUBJECTION) 
Subjectivity, 198, 279 
Substratum, 206 
Subversion, 123 
Suez, 136 

Sugar industry, 338 
Sukhtankar, 149 
Sun Yat-sen, Dr, 40 
Symbols & Images, 188 
Sundarar, 129 
Silnya, 193 

Superstition, 34, 89, 195, 230 
Supervisory Commissions in Indo- 

China, 152 

Supremacy of Spirit, 22 1 
Supreme, The, 33, 61, 131, 193, 

236, 239, 254, 257, 258, 259, 

262, 274 
Supreme Being, 260 



442 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Supreme Brahman, 243 

Supreme Court (Scandinavian), 7 

Supreme Reality, The, 130 

Supreme Reality, Four-fold status 
of the, 259 

Supreme Self, 307 

Supreme Spirit, the, 199, 244, 257, 
385, 403 

Suresh Ramabhai, 407 

Survival, 132 

Svadhyqya, 173 

SvetaSvatara Upanifad, 258 

Swami Vivekananda Birthday 
Celebrations: Presidential Ad- 
dress, 191 

Syddvada, 225 

Symposium, the, (Plato's), 121 

Synthesis, 225 

Syrian Christians, 258 



Tacitus, 275 

Tagore, Abanindranath, 111, 113 

Tagore, Rabindranath, 105, 111, 

H9, 358 

Taitliriya Upanifad, 229 
Talmud, the, 253 
Tamil, 297 
Tamil Culture, 261 
Tamil Language, 1 18 
Tamil Literature, 261 
Tanjore, 113 
Taoism, 202, 267 
Tapas, 173 

Tattva bheda & mala bheda, 395 
Tattvam asi, 52, 187,202, 221, 257 
Tax-collection, 343 
Taxation, 345 
Teachers, 63, 68, 75 
Teachers & Students, 54, 63, 68, 

75, 88, 169-170, 171, 178 
Teachers of India, 191 



Teaching of Social Science* in 
South Aria, 93 ft 

Team-work, 332 

Technical Assistance Schemes, 345 

Technical Education, 381 

Technological Civilization, 142 

Technological Developments, 349 

Technological Progress, 32 

Technology, 22, 37, 49, 226, 398 

Tejas, 129 

Telang, 149 

Telegraphic Code, 296 

Telugu, 297 

Temple, Archbishop William , 

240 

Temple in Jerusalem, 275 
Temples, churches, mosques, 198 
Terrence, 148 
Territorial Integrity, 160 
Tertullian, 279 
That art Thou', (see TAT TVAM 

ASI) 

Theological Controversies, 280 
Theologies, 207, 232, 237, 256 
Theory of Reality, 208, 393 
Theravada Buddhism, 263 If. 
Things of the Mind, 34 
Third class passengers, 290 
Thomas, Prof. F. W., 399 
Three stages of progress of societies, 

406 

Thucydides, 28, 109 
Tibet, 183 

Tibetan Region of China, 41 
Tigris, the 312 
Time, 186, 193, 222, 264 (also see 

SPACE & TIME) 
Time Order, 187 
Time vs. Eternity, 188, 232 
Timeless, the 187 
Timts, London, 122 f.n. 
Timothy, 213 



INDEX 



443 



Tirthankara, 269 
Tirukkural, 260, 404 
Tiruvannamalai, 129 
Tito, President ,21, 219 
Tolerance, 8, 124, 195, 225, 238, 

291, 351, 388, 
Tolstoy, 39 
Totalitarianism, 153 
Totalitarianism, drift to in 

Democracies, 139 
Tourism, 328 
Townsend, Mr, 391 
Toynbec, Arnold, 241, 285-6 
Traditions, 404 
Traherne, 385 

Tranquillity, Inward , 142 
Transcendence of God, 275 
Transcendent Reality, 264 
Transcendent Truth, 395 
Transcendental values, 273 
Transfer of Power (to India), 57, 

405 

Transience of life, 192 
Travel, 328-9 
Trained guides, 329 
Treaties, 3 
Treaty of Friendship between 

India & Egypt, 29 
Trieste, 137 

Trtkqya, Doctrine of the , 266 
Tripitakas, 264 
Truth, 7, 121, 150, 186, 189, 195, 

208, 209, 213, 224, 230, 235, 

237, 243, 247, 255, 264, 266, 

279 

Truth & Love, 142 
Truth of Being, 186 
Truth of Things, the, 186 
Truths, Universal Religious , 358 
Tulsidas, 38 
Tunisia, 136 
Turgenev, 39 



Turkish Beys, 35 

Turning wheel, Image of the , 

186 
Two Power Groxips, 159, 166, 249, 

251 
Two Principles in Zoroastrianism, 

270 
Tyranny, 100 



Uddna, 264 

Ukraine, 134 

Ultimacy, 197 

Ultimate Primordial Mystery, 

188 
Ultimate Reality, 188, 193, 203, 

395, 396 

Ultimate Spirit, 396 
Ultimate Truth, 224 
Ultimate Values, 75 
Ultimates, the, 352 
Unbelief, 210 
Uncaused, the, 186 
Uncomposite, the, 186 
Under-developed Nations, 344 
Under-privileged Countries, 345 
Unemployment, 87, 91, 325, 335, 

354 

UNESCO, 6, 47 ff., 93, 133 ff., 139 
Unesco General Conference, 

Montevideo : Presidential 

Address, 133ff. 
Uniform Script, 296, 298 
Union for the Study of Great 

Religions (Indian Branch) : 

Inaugural Address, 226 ff. 
Union with God, 276 
Uniqueness of each Religion, 282 
Unitary State, 382 
United Kingdom, 26, 336 
United Kingdom, Influence of, on 

Canada, 152 



444 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



United Nations (Organization) 5, 
6, 8, 10, 24, 37, 42, 71-2, 101, 
135, 137-8, 157-8, 249 if., 301, 
364, 388 

Aims, Day, 3 

Not independent, 6 

-Secretary-General, 24 

Programmes, 345 

United Nations Seminar on 
Housing and Community 
Improvement i Inaugural Ad- 
dress, 301 ff. 

U.S.A., 10, 14, 19,71,101,336 

Dr Radhakrishnan's Visit to, 
12 

Influence of, on Canada, 152 

United States Supreme Court, 
139 

Unity in Diversity, 33 

Unity of India, 69, 118, 172-3, 
178, 198, 217, 218, 219, 294, 
309, 316, 324, 343, 359 368, 
392 

Unity of Mankind, 50, 128, 178, 
209, 247 

Unity of Spirit, 197 

Unity of the World, 22 7 

Universal Brotherhood, 236 

Universal Education, 242 

Universal Ethical Standards, 285 

Universal Father, 277 

Universal Life, 130,233 

Universal Peace, 260 

Universal Reality, the, 130, 236 

Universal Religion, 268 

Universal religious truths, 358 

Universal Salvation, 206, 265 

Universal Self, 408 

Universal Society, 128 

Universal Truths, 194 

Universal Values, 160 

Universe, the, 197, 204 



Universities, 52, 54, 63, 74, 75, 

91, 102, 103, 157, 158, 169-170, 

173, 178 
Universities, Indian , 51, 68, 70, 

144 

Universities Quarterly, 97 
University atmosphere, 357 
University Education, 54 
University Education Commission, 

88, 313 
Report, 74 
University Life, 54 
University Teachers, 63, 68, 74, 

88, 169-170 

Unregenerate Condition, 277 
Unseen, the, 399 
Unseen Reality, 202, 400 
Unseen Spirit, 199 
Umeizable, the (Man as ), 202 
Untouchability, 195, 359 
Upadhyayas, 375 
Upanayana, 372 
Upanisad*, the, 52, 107, 108, 173, 

193, 220, 221, 222, 231, 257, 

258, 259, 266 ff., 384, 385 
Upanisads, Seers of the, 358 
Uranium, 134 
Uruguay, 133 
Usas, the Vedic , 150 
Use of Force, 160 
Utopias, 98 



Vadilal Lallubhai, Shrl, 315 
Vaira-tyaga, 247, 330 
Vai&fika Sutra, 257 f.n. 
Vakyartha-jnana, 199 
Vallabhbhai Patel, Sardar, 315-6 
Values of Spirit, 72, 76 
Vdranasi Medinf, 402 
Varnalita, 360 
Varnika-bhaAga, 114 



INDEX 



445 



Vasist, Shri, 289 

Vasi$tha muni, 404 

Vastu, 224 

Vaiwavitts, 261 

Vayu, 129 

Vedas, the, 193-4, 256 

Vedic Age, 372 

Vedic Usas, 150 

Vcnkataraman, 338 

Vessels of the Spirit, 205 

Vice-President, 12 

Vice-President (of the U.S.A.), 
13 ff. 

Vicitra, 111 

Vico, 94 

Vidya, 58, 232 

Viet-Nam, 136 

Village Festivals, 32 

Vinaya Pitaka, 112 

Vinoba, A chary a Bhave, 351, 
361, 407 

Violence, 107, 179, 206, 247, 279, 
350, 352, 367, 402 

Violence, Spirit of, 31 

Viraj, 259 

ViraSaivas, the, 358 

Virgin Mary, 214 

Visnu, 257 

Vtfva-Bharati, 111, 119 

VUvarupa, 259 

Vttudsa, 222 

Vivekananda, Swami, 191 ff., 372 

Voelcker, Dr, 313 

Void, Nothingness, 187, 188, 193, 
210 

Voltaire, 386 

Voluntary Co-operation, Alter- 
native to War, 138 

Vrata, 361 

VySsa muni, 404 
Vydvahaiika satta, 261 
Vyavasdya, 341 



Wadia, Madame Sophia, 1 18 

Wakeley, Sir Cecil, 155 

War, 3, 8, 33, 81, 122, 123, 127, 

128, 162, 215, 328, 350, 352, 379 

see also NEXT WAR and THIRD 

WORLD WAR 
War, fear of, 189 
War, Modern Methods of, 37 
War Preparations, 31 
Warren Hastings, 147 
Wars, 248 

Wars, the Two, 398 
Waste (in Government), 347 
Watch Dogs of Public Funds, 323 
Wealth, 334 
'Wealth is a Trust', 344 
Weapons, Atomic, 123 
Weapons of Science, 165 
Weapons of War, 249, 292, 331 
Welfare, 355 
Welfare of India, 180 
Welfare State, 105, 175, 242, 290, 

291, 292, 302, 325, 343, 345, 381 
West, the, 71, 101, 102, 148, 209 
West Asia, 38, 43, 136,268 
West Bengal, 242 
Western Culture, 104 
Western People, the, 202 
Western & Indian Philosophers, 

241 
Wheel, Image of the Turning , 

186 

Whitehead, 106, 230, 309 
Wholeness of Being, 355 
Wilkins, Charles, 147 
William of Rubruck, 285 f.n. 
Wisdom, 175 

Women, Education of, 372 
Women, Emancipation of, 43, 383 
Women in Indian Society, 378 
'Work is Sacred', 354 
'Work is Worship', 195, 319, 354 



446 



OCCASIONAL SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 



Workers, 363 

Workers' International, the, 157 

Works of Art, 39 

Works of Literature, 39 

World Affairs, 150 

World Alliance for Friendship, 240 

The World As I Set // (Einstein), 

230 

World Brotherhood, 240 
World Commonwealth, 299 
World Community, 37, 41, 93, 96, 
98, 102, 138, 140, 142, 160, 178, 
349 380 388 

World* Congress of Faiths, 239 
World Crisis, 78 
World Culture, 167 
World History, 26, 40, 175 
World Loyalty, 103, 388 
World Markets, 339 
World-mindedness, 163 
World-negating Attitude, 316 
World of Spirit, 213, 214 
World Order, 118, 159 
World Parliament, 364 
World Significance of Holy 
Mother** ( Shri Saradadevi's ) 
Life, 378 

World Situation, 144, 238 
World Society, 110 
World Spiritual Council, 240 
World Unity (Solidarity), 118, 

129, 226, 245, 260, 364 
World University Service 
Health Centre s Inaugural 
Address, 178 ff. 



World War, First, 22, 27 
World War I & II, 96, 212 
World War, Second, 22, 27, 140, 

291, 297 

World War, Third, 48, 81, 
World-Weariness, 280 
Writ of the Indian Government, 

405 
Writer, the, and the Present Crisis, 

118ff. 
Writers, Indian, 109, 119 



Yajnavalkya, 199 
Yajnik, 149 
Tajnopavita, 358 
Yama, 121 
Yangtse, the, 312 
Tato dharmas tatojayab> 249 
Yeats, W. B., 106 
Yoga, 194 

Toga Sutra, the, 317, 330 
Toga-sutra-bhayya, 259 
Yuan Chuang, 112 
Yugoslavia, 21 ff., 25, 42, 
219 



Zaghlul Pasha, 28 

Zen Buddhist Teacher, 206 

Zoroaster, 220, 240 

Zoroastrian, the, 195 

Zoroastrian Influence over Greek 

Religion, 270 
Zoroastrianism, 202, 270 ff.