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Full text of "The ocean highway: New Brunswick, New Jersey to Jacksonville, Florida"

AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES 

THE 

Ocean Highway 

NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY 
TO JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA 

Compiled and written by the Federal Writers' Project 
of the Works Progress Administration 

WITH 32 PHOTOGRAPHS 




SPONSORED BY CHARLES L. TERRY, JR., Secretary of State of Delaware 

and published by 
MODERN AGE BOOKS, INC. NEW YORK 



COPYRIGHT 1938 BY CHARLES L. TERRY, JR., SECRETARY OF STATE, 
DOVER, DELAWARE. 

PUBLISHED BY MODERN AGE BOOKS, INC. 

[BMG.UOPWA, 18] 

All rights in this book are reserved, and it may not be 
reproduced in whole or in part without written permis- 
sion from the holder of these rights. For information 
address the publishers. 

Composed and printed in the United States of America by Union Labor 

AT THE RUMFORD PRESS, CONCORD, NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Typography by Robert Josephy 



FOREWORD 



THE OCEAN HIGHWAY is a publication of the Federal Writers' 
Project of the Works Progress Administration. Under this project, 
organized to give useful work to unemployed writers, an ambitious 
and pioneering task has been undertaken a written description of 
the most important sections of the United States. The Federal Writ- 
ers' publications are of many types. This volume is part of the Ameri- 
can Guide Series of regional, State and local guidebooks, and third in 
a series of interstate route guides. The entire series of guides, when 
completed, will highlight the history, resources and points of interest 
in an area of more than three million square miles. 

Although collated, rechecked and edited in the central office in 
Washington, the materials for the book were collected in the States 
and the book was written by the State workers on the Federal Writers' 
Project. To insure its accuracy authorities have checked statements 
of fact, and to give it all possible scope many public-spirited persons 
have given their services freely. They share with us the hope that 
those who use this volume will through it gain a better knowledge 
and greater understanding of America and American life. 

The Federal Writers' Project, directed by Henry G. Alsberg, is in 
the Division of Women and Professional Projects under Ellen S. 
Woodward, WPA Assistant Administrator. 





Administrator 
iii 



CONTENTS 

Foreword iii 

Notes on Use of Book ix 

Introduction xi 

Characteristic Coastal Dishes xxiii 

MAIN ROUTE 

NEW JERSEY 

Section 1. New Brunswick to Delaware Line, 88 miles, US 130 1 

DELAWARE 

Section 2. New Castle to Hare's Corner, 2.5 miles, US 40 11 

Section 3. Hare's Corner to Maryland Line, 90.5 miles, US 13 13 

MARYLAND 

Section 4. Delaware Line to Virginia Line, 40.8 miles, US 13 47 

VIRGINIA 

Section 5. Maryland Line to Norfolk, 60.6 miles, US 13 59 

Section 6. Norfolk to North Carolina Line, 21.6 miles, US 17 86 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Section 7. Virginia Line to Williamston, 87 miles, US 17 90 

Section 8. Williamston to South Carolina Line, 198 miles, US 17 105 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Section 9. North Carolina Line to Charleston, 119.3 miles, 

US 17 121 

Section 10. Charleston to Georgia Line, 115.3 miles, US 17 134 

GEORGIA 

Section 11. South Carolina Line to Florida Line, 136.7 miles, 

US 17 143 



CONTENTS 

FLORIDA 

Section 12. Georgia Line to Jacksonville, 32 miles, US 17 160 

SIDE ROUTES 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Side Route A. Elizabeth City to Hatteras Inlet, 125 miles, State 

30, 34, 345 167 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Side Route B. Mount Pleasant to Isle of Palms, 9.6 miles, State 

703 191 

Side Route C. Junction with US 17 to Folly Beach, 8.8 miles, 

Folly Beach Rd. 193 

Side Route D. Junction with US 17 Magnolia Gardens 
Middleton Gardens Summerville,22.9 miles, 
State 61 196 

Side Route E. Adams Run to Edisto Beach, 20.3 miles, Edisto 

Beach Rd. 201 

Side Route F. Walterboro to Combahee River, 19.5 miles, State 

303, 32 205 

GEORGIA 

Side Route G. Junction US 17 St. Simon Island Sea 
Island, 11.5 miles, St. Simon Causeway, Sea 
Island Rd., Frederica Rd. 209 



Barlow's Description of the North Carolina Coast (1584) 215 

Annual Events 226 

Index 229 
Map 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Frontispiece Following page 

At the Jersey Homesteads near Hights- 

town, New Jersey 12 

Old Drawyers Presbyterian Church, Dela- 
ware 12 

Castle William (1773), Odessa, Delaware 28 

Belmont Hall, near Smyrna, Delaware 

The State House, Dover, Delaware 44 

Near Dover, Delaware 44 

Saw Mill, near Salisbury, Maryland 44 

Teackle Mansion, Princess Ann, Maryland 44 

Typical Early Eastern Shore Home 60 

Mount Custis, Virginia Eastern Shore 60 

Entrance of Bowman's Folly, Virginia 76 

A Tangier Island Scooter "76 

Hungar's Church, Virginia 76 

Vauclose, Virginia 

Beach at Kiptopeke, Virginia 

A Libelous British Cartoon 

Near Charleston, South Carolina 

St. Michael's, Charleston, South Carolina 124 

Tenant Cabin, South Carolina 

Spanish Moss in Georgia 

Wetter House (1840), Savannah, Georgia 140 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Following page 

Christ's Church, St. Simon Island, Georgia 140 

Wormsloe Gardens, Savannah, Georgia 157 

Bonaventure Cemetery, South of Savan- 
nah, Georgia 157 

A Florida Catch R. H. LeSesne 172 

Show Boat Moored in Canal, Coinjock, 

North Carolina 172 

From Jockey's Ridge, Nags Head, North 

Carolina 172 

Where the Colonists Came Ashore in 

North Carolina 172 

Trees in Avon, North Carolina 188 

Wreck of the Kohler off Hatteras 188 



NOTES ON USE OF BOOK 

THIS is a mile-by-mile description of the Ocean Highway and some of the 
short routes branching from it. Descriptions of the more important side and 
cross routes and large cities have been omitted owing to lack of space; readers 
are referred to the State guide books of the American Guide Series for this ma- 
terial. The description of the main route, written north to south, is of course 
valid in the reverse direction. For the convenience of those entering the route at 
midway points the description of the Ocean Highway has been broken into 
short sections, cumulative mileage being started afresh at the beginning of each. 
Mileages on the side routes are also cumulative, being counted from the junc- 
tions with the main route. Those using this guide book on the road are reminded 
that cumulative mileages depend on the manner in which a car is driven; if 
curves are rounded on the inside, if many other cars are passed, if the road is ' 
left even briefly for stops at filling stations, if an alternate to the indicated route 
is used in going through a city or town, total mileages will differ from those 
given here. 

Travelers are advised to read in advance the descriptions of sections they ex- 
pect to travel and to mark the points of interest they particularly wish to view. 

Great effort has been expended to make this book as accurate as possible, but 
it is realized that no volume covering such a wide range of material, some of it 
inadequately documented, can be free of mistakes; if those who find errors will 
report them to the Federal Writers' Project in Washington, corrections will 
gladly be made in future editions. 

NOTE : In the late Spring some sections of this road south of Norfolk may 
be temporarily closed because of high water. Travelers should make inquirv 
along the route. 

KATHARINE A. KELLOGK 
Tour Editor, American Guide Series 



INTRODUCTION 

THE 1000-MILE OCEAN HIGHWAY, bra- ;hing south from US 1 
in the industrial area of New Jersey and providing the shortest route 
between the New York City region and Florida, crosses swamps and 
tidal estuaries and inlets; it traverses flat country never far above sea- 
level. Thanks to the Gulf Stream most of it is ice-free when roads 
further inland are coated with a dangerous glaze. 

Except for the 88-mile section in New Jersey the route runs through 
the Old South; the Eastern Shore, the narrow peninsula it traverses 
between the Atlantic Ocean and Chesapeake Bay, was never a cot- 
ton-growing area and was occupied by Union troops early in the 
Civil War, but it was southern in customs, traditions, and sympa- 
thies. 

The Ocean Highway country, in spite of modern agricultural and 
industrial developments, lives much in the past. It cherishes the 
speech and habits of its ancestors, and speaks of long-ago happenings 
as though they had occurred last year. Everybody knows the kin of 
his great-aunt's second husband's grandmother, servants work all 
their lives in one family, sharing their folks' prosperity and hard 
times, and The War is still the Civil War. 

In many places the modern road follows the Colonial route con- 
necting the first settlements made on this part of the Atlantic Coast; 
in North Carolina a side route runs to Roanoke Island, where in 
1585 Ralegh planted the first English colony on American soil; on 
the Eastern Shore the route runs close to a settlement made by 
Jamestown colonists, sent into supposed exile to make salt but re- 
maining to enjoy the abundance of the land. The Ocean Highway 
goes through New Castle, the capital of the Province of Delaware, 
through New Bern, for a time the capital of the Province of North 
Carolina, through Charleston, the capital of the Province of South 
Carolina, and through Savannah, capital of the Colony of Georgia. 

The early inhabitants of these regions brought old cultural tradi- 
tions with them and the fecundity of the country soon enabled the 
new Americans to build churches and homes of architectural ele- 
gance and grace that would have merited respectful attention in 
western Europe. Travelers who linger here have many opportunities 
to wonder at the imagination and craftsmanship displayed in the 
early structures on these shores. 

xi 



xii THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

In some sections the countryside is monotonous in its flatness, but 
along side routes south of the Delaware there is an astonishing lush- 
ness of vegetation, increasing toward the South, that provides delight- 
ful variety. 

Fanny Kemble, the English actress who spent a winter on the 
islands off the Georgia Coast, after her marriage to Pierce Butler, 
wrote in her journal: 

"... Every shade of green, every variety of form, every degree of 
varnish, and all in full leaf and beauty in the very depth of winter. 
The stunted dark-colored oak; the magnolia bay . . ., which grows 
to a very great size; the wild myrtle a beautiful and profuse shrub, 
rising to a height of six, eight, and ten feet, and branching on all 
sides in luxuriant tufted fullness; most beautiful of all, that pride of 
the South, the magnolia grandiflora, whose lustrous dark green per- 
fect foliage would alone render it an object of admiration, without 
the queenly blossom whose color, size, and perfume are unrivaled in 
the whole vegetable kingdom. . . . Under all these the spiked 
palmetto forms an impenetrable covert, and from glittering graceful 
branch to branch hang garlands of evergreen creepers, on which the 
mocking-birds are swinging and singing even now; while I, bethink- 
ing me of the pinching cold that is at this hour tyrannizing over your 
region, look round on this strange scene on these green woods, this 
unfettered river, and sunny sky and feel very much like one in 
another planet from yourself." 

And again: "Here I saw growing in the open air the most beautiful 
gardinias I have ever beheld. . . . We saw quantities of wild plum- 
trees all silvery with blossoms . . . and a beautiful shrub covered 
with delicate pink bloom like flowering peach trees. . . . 

"But then the sky . . . the unspeakable glories of these southern 
heavens, the saffron brightness of morning, the blue intense brilliancy 
of noon, the golden splendor and the rosy softness of sunset. Italy and 
Claude Lorraine may go hang themselves together !" 

It is not surprising that such a country should hold formal gardens 
that connoisseurs rank among the most beautiful in the world. The 
earliest European inhabitants were fascinated by the botanical 
wonders of a country that later attracted such distinguished natural- 
ists as Bartram, and they lavished as much time and money on their 
gardens as they did on their houses, vying with one another in a race 
to acquire and acclimate large numbers of exotic plants. Brookgreen, 



INTRODUCTION 



Xlll 



Magnolia Gardens, Runnymede, and Middleton are merely nota- 
ble survivors of the many former landscaped estates. 

A list of those who had plantations and estates in the area along the 
highway south of Norfolk would include almost every name of im- 
portance in the early history of the Carolinas and of Georgia. 

Even though the old King's Highway, which the route closely fol- 
lows, was notoriously difficult south of Chesapeake Bay, it was the 
shortest route between the Colonial centers of government, culture, 
and trade, and at one time or another its mud was spattered over 
practically every southern colonizer, soldier, and statesman, and 
over every peddler, missionary, and distinguished foreigner visiting 
the South. The diaries and letters of these early travelers make lively 
reading, though arousing wonder and envy at the energy of the 
people of the past. 

The journal of George Fox, the founder of the Religious Society of 
Friends who visited America in 1672, gives almost as much space to 
comments on the hardships of travel as it does to rejoicings over the 
success of the meetings he held. 

"Having visited the north part of Carolina and made a little en- 
trance for Truth upon the people there, we began to return towards 
Virginia. . . . We lay one night at the house of the secretary, to get 
to which gave us much trouble; for the water being shallow, we could 
not bring our boat to shore; but the secretary's wife, seeing our 
straight, came herself in a canoe (her husband being from home) and 
brought us to land. 

"Next morning our boat was sunk; but we got her up, mended her, 
and went away in her that day about twenty-four miles, the water 
being rough, and the winds high; but the great power of God was 
seen in carrying us safe in that rotten boat. . . . 

"Next day we had a tedious journey through bogs and swamps, 
and were exceedingly wet and dirty but dried ourselves at night by a 
fire. . . ."At this point he describes a woman's amazement when her 
large dogs make no attempt to bite him. "... for both in Virginia 
and Carolina (living alone in the woods) they generally kept great 
dogs to guard their houses. ..." 

Francis Asbury, who established Methodism in America and who 
covered an almost incredible number of miles in his ceaseless jour- 
neys, made many complaints on the difficulty of the road. On Aug. 
9, 1780, when he was in North Carolina, he wrote: 



xiv THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

"I have had little time or place for prayer till I came here. The 
roads are so bad that I have my carriage to refit almost every week. 

"Aug. 10. I rode for the State of Virginia; we were lost, stopped 
at Dickinson's and took dinner; there rode on to Sylvester Adam's, 
several creeks to cross and bad roads to travel. Edward Bailey led my 
horse down a steep hill, and the carriage overset; the horse struggled 
but kept his feet; one shaft broke which we strapped up and rode on 
near thirty miles." 

In 1787 while near the present town of South Mills in North Car- 
olina, he recorded: "I am now surrounded by hideous swamps near 
the head of the Pasquotank River." 

In March of 1796 he noted: 

"Rode twenty-five miles to Chester's. Here I learned Edisto was 
impassable. If we had not hastened along as we did, we should not 
have passed it in proper time and I should have been prevented from 
visiting Georgia this year also. There are so many water-courses and 
so few ferries that going through this country in any certain time is 
like a lottery." 

But the streams that were impediments on the King's Highway 
were themselves travel routes. Nearly all the most desirable planta- 
tions bordered some navigable river and many plantation families 
traveled to the cities in their own barges and ships, making the 
journeys frequently because the Colonial ports were gay places, with 
balls, concerts, theatrical performances, and parties. They were sur- 
prisingly cosmopolitan, European newspapers, pamphlets and gossip 
reaching them quickly. A Charleston visitor from abroad was some- 
times startled by hearing discussion of a Sir Roger de Coverley paper 
he had not yet read, the latest copy of the Spectator having arrived on 
a swifter boat than the one on which he had sailed. When popular 
merchants were expecting cargoes from abroad, men and women 
alike flocked in from the country to buy the latest Paris and London 
fripperies, and to parade them as soon as bought. If frocks had nine 
rows of ruffles in London at Christmas time, the women of the coastal 
plantations were wearing nine rows in February. 

Many changes have taken place in the Ocean Highway country 
since those gay days of the past. Old plantations on the Eastern Shore, 
some owned by corporations, are operated as fruit and truck farms. 
Further south some of the old estates, occasionally in the hands of the 
families that formerly owned them, still produce cotton, but many 



INTRODUCTION xv 

more are weed-grown or covered with scrub pine, gaunt chimneys 
rising above piles of brick to indicate the sites of the former mansions. 
Nonetheless, the country does not give an impression of decadence 
and ruin, because the Old South is entering a new cycle in its long 
history. 

An outline of that history is a necessary adjunct to a description of 
the towns and points of interest along the route; but much of the 
story of the Ocean Highway country is necessarily the story of the 
whole South. The cultural and economic patterns set on the Atlantic 
coast dominated the country later settled behind it. 

The English and Scottish immigrants who first made homes along 
the Atlantic seaboard, from Maine to Florida, were nearly alike in 
their aspirations and ideals; all had left the lands in which they were 
born, and had faced the dreadful discomforts of three-month sea 
voyages and the dangers of pioneering among savages, in the hope of 
bettering their conditions of life; all wanted security social, eco- 
nomic, religious. The differences of opinion later developing between 
those who settled along the northern shores and those who settled 
further south were largely the result of climate and topography. 

The Virginia colonists, first to arrive, went through a disillusioning 
period before they realized that the only gold America had for them 
must come from the cultivation of the land; fortunately the country 
in which they had settled was ideal for the culture of tobacco, a 
world demand for which had been created in an astonishingly short 
time, after the Spanish introduced the use of the plant into the Old 
World. Settlers to the south of Virginia also turned to the cultivation 
of crops for European markets rice, indigo, and cotton. 

The Massachusetts settlers, after almost starving to death on the 
barren coast, found that they could make livings by sending to Eng- 
land the Maine furs acquired from the Indians and the fish taken 
from the coastal waters. They practiced agriculture but their farms 
were chiefly of the subsistence variety. Fishing led them to boat and 
ship building, eventually turning them to the carrying trade. 

All the early settlers had serious trouble in finding laborers. In a 
land with millions of unclaimed acres it was exceedingly difficult to 
persuade men to till the soil for others; poor immigrants were, how- 
ever, willing to bind or hire themselves out to shippers and tradesmen 
to acquire skills that would later make them independent. Such as 
were willing to do agricultural chores shunned the South because of 



xvi THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

the heat that was so deadly to those reared in the cool British Isles. 

The first slave trader in the lands of English settlement, a Dutch- 
man, appeared in 1619. The hard-pressed planters of Jamestown 
bought his goods with reluctance . Before long other slavers arrived 
in ports all along the Atlantic coast and disposed of their cargoes 
without much difficulty. The northerners, however, soon found their 
investments in human chattels unsatisfactory. Because of the rigorous 
climate in the North, Africans there proved to be highly perishable 
property; they lacked, moreover, the slight skills demanded by 
tradesmen and craftsmen. The southern farmers had less difficulty in 
acclimating the Negro and could use workers lacking skills and 
trained intelligence. So the slave traders eventually found poor 
markets in the North, good ones in the South. 

Nonetheless, the southern settlers did not accept slavery gladly. 
They had both moral and practical objections to the importation of 
the Africans. They early recognized the disadvantages of slave labor, 
its productive inefficiency, and the responsibilities it entailed. Within 
a few decades they were acutely aware of the problems inherent in 
settlement by mixed races. 

Long before the Revolution some of the colonies, southern as well 
as northern, attempted to stop further importations of slaves, but all 
legislative bans were immediately annulled by the British Crown, 
which was heavily involved in the lucrative slave trade; good Queen 
Anne, scattering communion cups and religious vestments among 
the Anglican congregations of America, was the leading stockholder 
in the English company holding a monopoly on the African trade. 

The northerners, finding slaves unprofitable for themselves, early 
turned to supplying them to others. The Massachusetts ship Desire 
brought in Negroes in 1637. By 1680 the trade was in full swing; 
molasses bought in the West Indies was turned into rum by New 
Englanders who shipped it to Africa; there they traded it for Africans, 
who were carried to the West Indies for "seasoning" before shipment 
to the southern colonies. The ships that had carried the slaves from 
Africa were loaded with more molasses for processing in New Eng- 
land. 

It was the planter Thomas Jefferson, a slave owner, who, when 
drafting the Declaration of Independence, wrote: 

". . . he (George III) has waged cruel war against human nature 
itself, violating it's most sacred rights of life & liberty in the persons 



INTRODUCTION 



XVll 



of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying 
them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable 
death in their transportation thither. This piratical warfare, the 
opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of the Christian king of 
Great Britain: determined to open a market where MEN should be 
bought & sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every 
legislative attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execrable com- 
merce. . . ." 

That this paragraph did not appear in the final draft of the Decla- 
ration was owing to the censorship exerted by northern as well as 
southern delegates. John Adams, sitting on the drafting committee, 
was mindful of the interests of New England shippers and well aware 
that many of the finest homes on the New England coast had been 
built with the profits of the trade in human beings. 

Jefferson was far from being alone in his dislike of slavery. Wash- 
ington, writing to Lafayette, said: 

"... your late purchase of an estate in the colony of Cayenne, 
with a view of emancipating the slaves on it, is a generous and noble 
proof of your humanity. Would to God a like spirit would difuse it- 
self generally into the minds of the people of this country. But I de- 
spair of seeing it. Some petitions were presented to the Assembly at 
its last session, for the abolition of slavery, but they could scarcely 
obtain a reading. To set them afloat at once would, I really believe, 
be productive of much mischief, but by degrees it certainly might and 
assuredly ought to be effected; and that too by legislative authori- 
ty " 

Washington was praising a humanitarian plan but he was fully 
convinced of the practical disadvantages of slavery and more than 
once spoke of his own dilemma; his slaves were breeding too fast for 
his needs and he could not face separating families by sale. 

As the slaves began to multiply in numbers there was less need to 
import them from abroad and the market price dropped to the dis- 
may of the traders; while in drafting the Constitution the Founding 
Fathers had incorporated a clause prohibiting any ban for 20 years 
on slave importations, the act was accomplished in 1807 without 
great opposition from the North or the South. 

Had the question come up but a short time later it is possible that 
importation would not have been banned so easily. The North, push- 
ing industrial development, was installing power looms in the new 



xviii THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

textile mills and the cotton gin was coming into use, making cotton 
goods cheaper and greatly increasing the demand. Within a few 
years after the importation of slaves was prohibited the South was 
experiencing an enormous boom. Planters borrowed frantically to 
buy plantations and slaves and used their profits to obtain yet more 
plantations and more slaves. They ignored all possibilities of indus- 
trial development and crop diversification, becoming entirely de- 
pendent on the price of cotton. When the price of this commodity 
dropped alarmingly, as it did at intervals, the planters had to resort 
to northern money-lenders to pay the annual bills and to enable 
them to plant the next crop. 

This dependency on northern cash, which helped to increase the 
antagonism between the two sections of the country, was in large 
part the result of the credit-economy that had prevailed in the planta- 
tion area from earliest times. The southerner had money in his 
pockets at only one period of the year after his crop was sold; 
Parson Weems, the indefatigable book-seller, wrote to his pub- 
lisher in 1804: 

"... And as also in the long run of things, my life may be worth 
a Jew's eye to you, I wd, by all means, advise that I be directed, 
like a Bird of passage, to spend the Winter in the South, and the 
Summer & Autumn in the North. In the seasons last mention'd the 
Gentry of this Country are scatter'd abroad like sheep without a 
shepherd, wandering in quest of Health and healthy situations. And 
besides were you to light upon them at that time you wd find them 
as lean as so many rabbits in the Dog days, without a dollar to lay 
down even for the 'The life of Washington.' But in Winter they are 
all in their towns thick as Bees, and merry as Crickets, with every 
man his pocket full of dollars from the sale of his cotton bags & rice 
barrels. . . ." 

Because the planter had cash only once a year he had to pay high 
prices for everything, storekeepers and other retailers having to make 
him bear the cost of deferred payments for goods. It was easy to blame 
the high prices on the North, the money-lender, particularly because 
the new industrialists of that section were constantly pressing for 
higher tariffs to protect their markets. A purely agricultural area 
producing crops chiefly for a foreign market, the South demanded 
free trade, protesting against having to pay nearly double price for 
manufactures, in part for the benefit of northern producers. Her 



INTRODUCTION 



XIX 



protests were especially bitter because of the poor quality of many 
American products, particularly textiles. 

Meanwhile, the soil of the area through which the Ocean High- 
way runs was becoming exhausted; Fanny Kemble in 1834 com- 
mented on the shabbiness and dilapidation of many of the formerly 
prosperous homes. Describing a visit to the daughter of an ex- 
governor, she wrote: ". . . as for the residence of this princess it was 
like all the planters' residences that I have seen and, such as a well- 
to-do English farmer would certainly not inhabit. Occasional marks 
of former elegance or splendor survive, sometimes in the size of the 
rooms, sometimes in a little carved woodwork about the mantle- 
pieces or wainsco tings of these mansions; but all things have a Castle 
Rackrent air of neglect, . . . with which the dirty barefooted negro 
servants are in excellent keeping." 

The antagonism between the North and the South between 
sections primarily industrial and primarily agricultural increased 
steadily in strength and bitterness because of their opposing economic 
interests. Some northern politicians were not averse to fanning the 
growing anti-slavery sentiment of the humanitarians and the north- 
ern farmers' fear of competition from slave labor in order to aid their 
own political battles for dominance in Congress, but the northern 
industrialists actively opposed these tactics, foreseeing the dangers in 
a social upheaval and appreciating the advantages to themselves of 
having cotton produced with slave labor. As the North approached 
the point where her population and wealth doubled that of the 
South, southern leaders realized that their long dominance in Con- 
gress would soon be lost; the people, particularly in the far South, 
saw this as a dreadful threat to their somewhat precarious prosperity. 
Talk of secession from the Union increased an act that some 
northerners had advocated for their own States at times when na- 
tional affairs were going in directions that did not suit their interests. 

When in 1860 the new party, openly committed to high protective 
tariffs, won the national election, the southern fear became intense. 
South Carolina immediately called a popular convention and voted 
to leave the Union, calling on other States to follow her. Northern 
leaders, eager to heal the break, hastily put through Congress an 
amendment to the Constitution denying the Federal Government the 
power to abolish or interfere with slavery, and three States had al- 
ready ratified the amendment when a series of unfortunate incidents, 



xx THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

minor in themselves, brought on the armed conflict. When the Eman- 
cipation Proclamation was issued on January 1, 1863, it came largely 
as a military measure to prevent Great Britain, which had abolished 
slavery, from recognizing and aiding the Confederacy the pro- 
ducer of the raw material for her cotton mills. 

The results of the war were staggering for the South; 250,000 men, 
many of the most active and intelligent in the area, had been killed, 
and even a greater number had been permanently crippled or in- 
valided. The people had given all possible public and private wealth 
to the support of their armies; the emancipation of the slaves without 
compensation to the owners early offers of compensation in return 
for peace had been refused resulted in the wiping out of four bil- 
lion dollars' worth of southern property; plantations, homes and 
public buildings had been destroyed. The humiliation of a people 
who had long dominated the national scene, the loss of their economic 
security, the fear engendered by the wreckage of their whole eco- 
nomic system, and the despair over the terrific task ahead, had 
shattering results. While the war generation made some progress in 
re-establishing order, it was half a century before the States that had 
entered the Confederacy began to recover their vitality. 

These fallow years were not lost; by the beginning of the 20th 
century, the exhausted fields had begun to recover some of their 
fertility, pine forests were springing up, planters were beginning to 
study methods of soil conservation and crop diversification, and the 
new generation was seriously studying the economic and social prob- 
lems before it. Industrial development had begun, changing the 
former southern attitude on tariff protection for domestic industry 
and bringing a realization of the needs of balancing the Nation's 
industrial and agricultural interests. 

The World War, increasing the demand for cotton and stimulating 
industrial development, gave at least a temporary return of some of 
the old prosperity and opened the eyes of many southerners to the 
new agricultural and industrial possibilities of their land. The war 
also stimulated the production of naval stores, particularly in the 
Ocean Highway country. A Georgia chemist, Dr. Charles Herty, 
passionately convinced of the possibility of using the pines of the 
large southern forests for paper-making, has devoted his energies 
over a long period to the project. His faith has been justified and the 
Ocean Highway country is already beginning to benefit from his 



INTRODUCTION xxi 

work. Within the last two years an enormous amount of money has 
been spent in building lumber and paper mills along the coast; most 
of the paper mills will produce kraft brown wrapping paper 
but one, at least, will produce white paper of many grades, including 
that for newspapers. The signs of the prosperity created by the new 
mills are already visible in wide areas around them. 



CHARACTERISTIC COASTAL DISHES 

The Ocean Highway country is famous as the land of good food; 
nature has supplied a wide variety of fine ingredients and the in- 
habitants know well how to use them. Recipes are handed down 
from generation to generation, along with the family plate and por- 
traits. Mention of special dishes provides a useful conversational 
wedge everywhere along the route and has been known to create firm 
friendships. Only a word of praise for a good meal is needed in a 
hotel to bring service that money can not buy. 

Of all the pleasures offered by the coastal country, food stands at 
the head of the list. 



XXlll 



NEW JERSEY 

CLAM FRITTERS: the juice of a dozen clams, an equal quantity of 
milk, salt, four slightly beaten eggs for each pint of liquid, and 
enough flour so that the batter drops from a spoon. To this is added 
chopped raw clams, and the mixture is stirred thoroughly, dropped a 
tablespoonful at a time in a hot pan, and fried until it becomes a 
golden brown. 

CLAM PIE: one pint of clams, two medium-sized potatoes, and two 
medium-sized onions, are ground, salted, and boiled in clam juice for 
ten minutes, then placed in a pudding dish (in the middle of which a 
small cup has been inverted), covered with pastry, and baked for 
half an hour in a hot oven. 

SMOKED STRAWBERRY BASS: bass boiled for ten or fifteen minutes in 
a saucepan with an inch or less of water, and served with toast using 
the water in which the fish was steamed as a sauce. 

PARSNIP STEW: parsnips, potatoes, and pieces of browned salt pork 
stewed until tender in enough water to cover the mixture. 

NEW JERSEY CLAM CHOWDER: chopped clams, onions, carrots, 
potatoes, seasoned with thyme and a small amount of salt pork. 

SNAPPER SOUP: ground snapper, boiled slowly in salt water; crab 
meat, green peppers, thyme, parsley, small cubes of Jersey red-skin 
potatoes, garlic, salt, and red pepper. 

SNAPPER STEW: snapper cut in small cubes and cooked slowly; 
hard-boiled egg yolk, butter, cream, salt, nutmeg, and paprika are 
added. Served on toast. 

Lowlands of south Jersey abound with snapping turtles, popularly 
known as snappers. It is a difficult job to get at the meat. The snapper 
is tickled on the nose with a stout stick. When he grabs it, the stick is 
pulled until he has fully unfolded his long neck. Then his head is 
chopped off behind the ears, after which he relaxes. A sharp knife is 
then inserted between the interstices in the side bridges that tie the 
lower and upper shells. 

DELAWARE 

CRAB SANDWICH: soft-shelled crab used as a sandwich filling. This 
is served at roadstands. 

POTATO ROLL: very light dinner or luncheon roll made with a 
maximum quantity of boiled potato. 

xxiv 



CHARACTERISTIC COASTAL DISHES xxv 

DELAWARE BISCUIT: a cousin to the Maryland beaten biscuit, 
made with milk and shortening consisting partly of butter. 

TERRAPIN: served with sherry in soup plates is considered a 
company dish. 

Hoc-JowL-AND-TuRNiP GREENS: young turnip tops cooked with 
salt pork, is a popular dish in the spring. 

PENINSULA SUCCOTASH (south of Dover): fresh corn, lima beans 
and tomatoes, cooked with a piece of fat salt pork. 

BRANDYWINE PUNCH: three parts of sauterne, one part of brandy, 
mixed with sparkling water; also Brandy wine liqueur made of Bur- 
gundy and apricot brandy in the same proportions. 

PEACH CORDIAL (company dessert or five o'clock treat) : a quarter 
of a peck of large Delaware tree-ripened white peaches crushed with 
the juice of a lemon and several tablespoons of granulated sugar in 
the bottom of a punch bowl; to this is added a cup of old port wine, 
enough cracked ice to half fill the bowl, half a pint of chilled orange 
juice, and half a pint of chilled water. After being thoroughly stirred, 
this is served in wide-mouthed tumblers or in deep dessert dishes with 
dessert spoons. 

WINTER SUPPER DISH: alternate layers of boned boiled chicken 
(or ham), boiled Spanish chestnuts (or boiled sweet potatoes 
especially with ham), raw oysters, chopped celery hearts, parsley, 
and filling as for roast turkey; seasoned and moistened with chicken 
or ham liquor, baked in a slow oven; this is served from the baking 
dish to plates containing endive with French dressing. 

MARYLAND 

MARYLAND BISCUIT: stiff biscuit dough beaten with a hatchet for 
30 minutes baked in small hard biscuits, pricked with a fork. 

MARYLAND FRIED CHICKEN: young chicken cut in pieces, dipped 
in light batter, floured, fried in deep fat; served with cream gravy 
and waffles or corn fritters and bacon. 

TIPSY PARSON: loaf of sponge cake stuck full of blanched almonds, 
saturated with sherry; served with boiled custard, topped with 
whipped cream. 

EGG-NOG: yolks and whites of eggs beaten separately, with sugar, 
brandy, milk and plenty of rich cream; served during the holidays, 
especially on New Year's Day. 



xxvi THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

SOFT, CRABS: cleaned by removing sand bag, "dead man", and 
eyes dipped in batter and cracker crumbs fried in deep fat. 

CREAMED HOMINY: soaked overnight simmered for six hours 
creamed with butter, salt, and milk. 

PLANKED SHAD: boned, baked on hickory or other hardwood 
plank, served on plank with trimmings of lemon and potato chips. 

SALLY LUNN: unsweetened cake dough, raised with yeast, baked 
brown in deep dish. 

BRAISED MUSKRAT: boiled until tender cut small and baked with 
thick brown crust known as "marsh rabbit." 

VIRGINIA 

The Ocean Highway in Virginia passes through a land that 
abounds with birds and fish of exceptional quality. Housewives of 
the Eastern Shore cater to Epicurean tastes. It can hardly be said 
that they cook seafood rather, they work magic upon all that the 
water yields. 

CHINGOTEAGUE OYSTERS make wands and witchery quite unneces- 
sary. Their color is different from that of ordinary oysters not 
gray but pure silver. The oysters are puffy fat, large, tender, and so 
delicious with the tang of the sea that the use of seasoning is con- 
sidered a sacrilege. But if visitors prefer them cooked, they will be 
served oysters fried, scalloped, broiled, or baked. 

CLAM FRITTERS: chopped clams, seasoned, mixed with a stiff 
batter and fried. 

CHOWDER is rich with clams and has just enough celery, pota- 
toes, and cream to give spice and stew-like consistency to the con- 
coction. 

SOFT-SHELL CRABS (April-Oct.) : after the "dead man" has been 
pulled away from the squirming little creature, the crab, still kicking, 
is lightly rolled in corn meal and dropped into just enough hot fat to 
cause a brown crust to form quickly. When soft-shell crabs are not 
available, clever cooks on the Shore have a way of preparing hard 
shells after a manner all their own. The legs and claws are cut away; 
the top shell is taken off; the bony structure is mashed so that the meat 
is easily extracted; and then the body of the crab is fried in hot butter. 

BIRD POT-PIE: layers of birds and layers of short pastry, more 
layers of birds and more layers of pastry are its only ingredients. 



CHARACTERISTIC COASTAL DISHES xxvii 

DIAMOND BACK TERRAPIN: boiled alive in salt water; the black 
meat is then picked out, covered with a wine sauce, and served. 

MINT JULEP (served in a silver goblet covered with thick frost; it is 
not desecrated with cherries, chunks of pineapple, or slices of orange): 
two jiggers of very old whiskey into which a teaspoonful of sugar 
has been melted are poured into a silver goblet prepared by 
moistening the rim, dipping it in a quarter of an inch of powdered 
sugar, and filling the goblet with ice crushed in a clean towel and 
never washed after crushing; two or three sprigs of mint, whose lower 
leaves have been bruised, are thrust into the ice and the goblet is 
placed in the refrigerator for at least ten minutes before serving. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

BEATEN BISCUITS: made from white flour, lard, salt, and sweet 
milk, beaten for half an hour preferably on a marble slab; baked in a 
hot oven and served cold. 

SALLY LUNN: soft, muffin-like white flour batter baked in a deep 
cake ring and served piping hot from the oven, with melted butter. 

JOHNNY BREAD: pastry of white flour, lard, and sweet milk, spread 
an inch thick in a biscuit pan and baked in a quick oven, split and 
buttered while hot, and cut into squares when served. Because this 
keeps fresh for days, it was originally called "journey bread." It is 
especially popular for oyster roasts. 

CORN PONE: corn meal, water, with or without salt, shaped by 
hand and grooved by fingerprints, baked in a spider on top of the 
stove or in the oven. 

OYSTER ROASTS: oysters roasted in the shell a bushel at a time on 
a grill over a hot brushwood fire, or, covered with jute sacks and 
steamed in an oven. They are served with drawn butter sauce, 
johnny bread or corn bread, and cole slaw. Many houses in eastern 
North Carolina, close to coast or river, have grills or ovens either 
outdoors or in the basement and a specially made table with a center 
groove for disposing of the shells. 

BARBECUED MEAT: pig, lamb, or chicken roasted in or outdoors 
and basted with a highly seasoned sauce of butter, lemon juice, 
tomato catsup, ginger, vinegar, mustard, salt, and red and black 
pepper. Sweet potatoes and apples are often roasted with a barbe- 
cued pig. 



xxviii THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

BROILED HAM: from country-cured, peanut-fed hogs, smoked over 
green hickory chips, and broiled in a skillet either on top of the stove 
or in the oven. 

FRESH SHAD ROE: broiled in .butter. 

DEVILLED CRABS: hard-shelled crabs scalloped with butter, lemon 
juice, hard-cooked egg, bread crumbs, highly seasoned, and served 
in a baking dish or stuffed in shells. 

SALT ROE HERRING OR HICKORY SMOKED HERRING: broiled, and 
seldom served without hominy grits. 

SWEET POTATO CUSTARD: boiled mashed sweet potato mixed with 
milk and egg and flavored with nutmeg; baked in a crust-lined pie 
pan with no top crust; served with or without whipped cream. 

SYLLABUB: heavy cream slightly sweetened and Scuppernong wine 
beaten together with an egg-beater (or syllabub churn) until stiff. 

SALLY WHITE CAKE: pound cake batter, sherry wine, citron, coco- 
nut, blanched almonds, rose water, and mace, sometimes moistened 
with peach brandy. 

FRUIT SHORTCAKE: made with a short unsweetened biscuit dough. 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

SELENA LA BRUCE'S RICE BREAD: cold hominy or rice cooked with 
rice-flour, eggs, and yeast. 

BAKED SHAD: fish stuffed with dressing made from potatoes, eggs, 
celery, and onion, then baked slowly. 

TERRAPIN SOUP: fresh- water terrapin boiled with bacon, cloves, 
allspice, and other seasonings; to this, just before serving, one glass 
of wine, containing a grated nutmeg, is added. 

HOP-IN-JOHN: cow peas, rice, and bacon boiled together. 

CAROLINA PILAU: broiled chicken cooked with rice which has 
been browned in bacon drippings. 

VENISON PIE: venison and brown gravy seasoned with wine, mace, 
nutmeg, and hard-boiled eggs; cooked in a deep dish lined and cov- 
ered with pastry made of butter and flour. 

OYSTER STEW WITH MACE: oysters cooked in cream seasoned with 
mace. 

GEORGIA 

SOUSE MEAT: hog's head, ears, and feet stewed, mashed, seasoned, 
pressed, and sliced when cold. 



CHARACTERISTIC COASTAL DISHES xxix 

TURNIP GREENS: fresh and tender turnip tops, boiled with salt 
pork or smoked bacon. 

LEATHER BREECHES: dried green snap beans, soaked overnight, 
and boiled with salt bacon. 

BRUNSWICK STEW: chopped beef, pork, tomatoes, corn, onion, 
peppers, and high seasonings. 

FRIED PIES: pastry filled with dried or fresh fruit and fried in hot 
fat. 

ALLIGATOR PEAR SALAD: stuffed with crab meat. 
SHERRY CONSOMME: served with beaten biscuits. 
DEEP POT CHICKEN: swimming in yellow gravy and served with 
wild rice. 

BOILED CHITTERLINGS: served hot with barbecue dressing, or cold 
with vinegar and red pepper sauce. 

"Good hot fried chittlin's, crisp and brown, 
Ripe hard cider to wash it down; 
Cold slaw, cold pickle, sweet tater pie, 
And hot corn pone to slap your eye." 

FLORIDA 

FRIED SHRIMP: shrimp cleaned in the usual way, except that the 
tails are left on, are seasoned with salt and pepper, dipped in a 
batter made of beaten egg, rolled in cracker meal, and fried quickly 
in fat. The shrimp are eaten by holding the tail between the thumb 
and finger and dipping them in catsup, chilli sauce, or relish. 

ROASTED OYSTERS: oysters covered with wet sacks (to prevent 
charring and make them open more easily) are roasted over an open 
furnace, or charcoal pot covered by a strip of tin or a wire grill. After 
roasting, the shells are removed and the oysters dipped in melted 
butter. 

MULLET BAKED IN CLAY: cleaned mullet wrapped in leaves, rolled 
in soft clay, and baked in the glowing coals of a charcoal pot. When 
the clay has been baked hard, it is broken with a hammer and 
opened carefully. The mullet skin adheres to the leaves, and the flesh 
is removed intact. 

SMOKED MULLET: mullet that has been cleaned, salted, and seas- 
oned overnight is washed, hung up to dry, and then smoked over 
hickory wood for ten or twelve hours. 



MAIN ROUTE 

NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY TO JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA 

Ferries across the Delaware River, 
the Chesapeake Bay and the Elizabeth River 

US 130, US 40, US 13, and US 17 
992.3 miles 



NEW JERSEY 



New Brunswick Hightstown Camden Delaware River Ferry 
at Pennsville, 88 m. US 130. 

Pennsylvania R.R. roughly parallels route. 

All types of accommodations throughout. 

Two- and four-lane concrete or macadam roadbed. Heavy freighUraffic at night. 

Section 7. New Brunswick to Delaware River, 88 m. US 130 

US 1 30 avoids the congestion of traffic around Trenton and Phila- 
delphia, and passes through more varied and attractive country than 
does the heavily traveled US 1, from which it branches. Small com- 
munities in the northern section retain much of the flavor of the days 
when the Dutch and the English made the first settlements in the 
area. Farms and woodlands line the highway throughout but in the 
flatter country between Camden and Pennsville, corn shocks and 
trees alike are scarcer, and broad creeks and marshes are numerous. 
Between Bordentown and Pennsville, US 130 follows the course of 
the Delaware River, which is about two miles away (R), and the tall 
chimneys of factories along the riverbanks are seen at intervals. 
Beyond the river rise the towers and skyscrapers of Philadelphia. 

US 130 branches S. from US 1 at a traffic circle, m., on the 
southern edge of New Brunswick, 38 m. W. of New York City. Sev- 
eral hundred feet R. stands the red and white steel tower of an 
airway beacon. 

DEANS, 5.3 m. (85 alt., 200 pop.), in the center of farming coun- 
try, still has, on one of its four corners, pasture land, with an old- 
fashioned red barn not far beyond. 

DAYTON, 7.5 m. (117 alt., 390 pop.), was named for Jonathan 
Dayton who served in the Revolutionary Army and was later a 
brigadier general in the United States Army; he was a delegate to 
the Federal Constitutional Convention and served the State in both 
houses of Congress. Dayton, Ohio, was named for him. The little vil- 
lage is an important shipping point for potato growers. A blacksmith 
shop and, in season, crowded corncribs and haystacks accent the 
peaceful rusticity of the neighborhood. 

Many old houses are still standing along the road in this region. 
One, built in 1710, is some distance from the highway at 10 m. (R). 

It is recognizable more by the roadside sign advertising its age 
than by characteristics of Colonial architecture. 



2 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Windmills, having water tanks midway in their towers, as is cus- 
tomary in South Jersey, move their fans languidly in the gentle, 
fairly constant winds. The extensive FORSGATE FARMS (L), plainly 
marked by a large sign, has good herds and fine buildings; it is one of 
the leading producers of Grade A milk in New Jersey. 

At 11.1 m. is the junction with a concrete road. 

Right on this road to CRANBURY, 1.4 m. (110 alt., 1,278 pop.), one of the 
centers of a potato-growing district; it retains much of the charm of early 
America. The streets are lined with old frame houses, some of them converted into 
stores, others the homes of retired farmers. The village post office is almost con- 
cealed within the bulky MASONIC HALL (L). 

Cranbury was settled in 1682 and here, fifty years later, David Brainerd, the 
young follower of George Whitefield, often preached to the Indians under one of 
the spreading village elms. After his death from tuberculosis in 1747 at the age 
of 29, Brainerd's diary was an inspiration to many other "witnesses to the spirit." 

On the north edge of the town (R) is the L. P. CURTIN HOUSE, recognized 
by its white frame walls and the iron grillwork on the porch. Aaron Burr slept 
here in 1804 while fleeing from New York to Philadelphia after wounding Alex- 
ander Hamilton in the fatal duel. In summer the blossoms of the giant lotus on 
BRAINERD LAKE (L) form one of the area's most beautiful sights. Near the lake is 
CRANBURY INN, which in 1780 began to supply meat and drink to travelers on 
what was then the old York Road. Two of these wayfarers were Washington and 
Hamilton. The well-proportioned FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (R), built in 
1734, is painted an immaculate white; it has two fluted columns on the fagade and 
a graceful lantern. In the well-kept cemetery behind the church, names and dates 
from 1758 are legible on the gravestones. 

The highway cutting through fields and across the eastern end of 
Brainerd Lake (R) by-passes Granbury (R). 

At 13.7 m., at a traffic circle, is the junction (R) with Cranbury's 
main street (see side tour above), and a concrete road (L). 

Left on this road is HIGHTSTOWN, 1.5 m. (100 alt., 3,012 pop.), a busy 
market place, for the surrounding farm country; it also has some manufacturing 
plants. The entrance to the town from the N. is attractive, with grand old willow 
trees grouped on the shore of PEDDIE LAKE (L), and an ornate stone firehouse (R). 
Houses erected before 1800 are scattered about the village among buildings of 
later construction. Elaborate iron grillwork ornaments the porches of some of the 
old homes. The SARAH B. SMITH HOUSE, 137 Stockton St., just behind the rail- 
road station, was built in 1770 and in 1819 became the community's first post 
office. A modern touch is given Hightstown by the concrete street markers, de- 
signed in the shape of the Washington Monument. 

Founded in 1721, the town was named for John Hight, an early landowner. 
In 1 854 it became a station on the Camden and Amboy, the first railroad built in 
New Jersey. 



NEW JERSEY 3 

The PEDDIE SCHOOL, established in 1864, is a private preparatory institution 
for boys. Its eighteen buildings serve the needs of approximately 260 students; 
the fine campus of 148 acres includes a private golf course. 

Left from N. Main St. on Extra Rd. to JERSEY HOMESTEADS, 6.5 m., a 
project started by the Interior Department. Two hundred houses, built of cinder- 
concrete blocks, with flat, overhanging roofs are in horseshoe shaped groups. 
This combined agricultural and industrial community, covering 1,260 acres in 
rolling, partly-wooded country, was planned to remove about 200 families whose 
heads are union needle-trades workers from the crowded districts of Philadelphia 
and New York. The community is organized on a cooperative basis. Each family 
contributes $500 to a general fund for financing the equipment and operation of 
a women's clothing factory. A 414-acre farm is part of the cooperative experi- 
ment. Net profits will be divided equally among all residents factory workers, 
farm workers, and clerks of the cooperative stores. The residents will make pay- 
ments on their houses over a period of 40 years, with interest at three percent on 
the unpaid balances. One purpose of the project is to show that an industry, 
hitherto heavily concentrated in the slum and sweatshop areas of large cities, 
can be decentralized with its workers improving their own living conditions by 
cooperative methods. 

South of the traffic circle, the highway by-passes Hightstown (L). 

At 17 m. is the junction with a concrete road leading into Hights- 
town (see side tour above). 

WINDSOR, 18.9 m. (100 alt., 250 pop.), was named by the 
English who settled here about 1714. A row of old-fashioned frame 
houses (L) lines the main street, but more conspicuous than these is 
the weathered brick GENERAL STORE which for more than a 
hundred years has been the trading place of the large surrounding 
farm district. Behind the iron posts and worn wooden steps of the 
porch is an interior typical of hundreds of stores of a century ago. 
One display cabinet is filled with all kinds and colors of threads; 
another is stocked with spices. Both the cabinets and the wooden 
counters are even older than the pot-bellied stove in the center of the 
store. 

Vineyards and nurseries, thriving on the rich loam of the region, 
and prosperous farms showing modern improvements and equip- 
ment, make this an unusually attractive area. Occasionally a snake 
fence encloses one of the fields. The village being within commuting 
distance of Trenton, many residents daily drive or ride on busses to 
work in the factories there. 

ROBBINSVILLE, 22.4 m., a hamlet off the highway (R), was at 
one time known as Hungry Hill because wayfarers found it hard to 
obtain food there. English Quakers settled the land in 1750, and the 



4 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

community took its name from George Robbins, an early resident. 

The business district of YARDVILLE, 25.4 m. (60 alt., 920 pop.), 
is a few hundred yards from the highway (R). A rubber mill and a 
floor-covering factory are the principal industrial establishments. 
The village, formerly called Sand Hill, was the point where passen- 
gers on the pioneer Camden and Amboy R.R. left the train to be 
shuttled by stagecoach to Trenton; in 1850 the name was changed to 
honor the first postmaster. Many inhabitants are employed in Tren- 
ton. 

On the southern edge of Yardville US 130 crosses CROSSWICKS 
CREEK, remembered for a Revolutionary skirmish that took place 
2 miles upstream at Crosswicks village, when the British Army 
was marching from Philadelphia to Monmouth in June 1778. Bog- 
iron was mined in this area in Colonial times, and sailing vessels used 
the creek regularly in collecting and discharging cargoes. 

At 28.3 m. is the junction with a marked, paved road. 

Right on this road to the CLARA BARTON SCHOOL, 0.2 m., a diminutive red- 
brick building resembling a doll's house, which stands in a triangular plot at the 
road fork. The key to the house may be borrowed from a nearby resident, but 
all of the plain interior can be seen through the windows. The school, built in 
1839, was used from 1852 to 1854 by Miss Barton, later founder of what is now 
the American National Red Cross, as an experiment in free public-school educa- 
tion. Her resignation in 1854 was a protest against the townspeople's action in 
naming a male principal to supervise her work. 

BORDENTOWN, 0.5 m. (65 alt., 4,400 pop.) (see JV. J. GUIDE}. 

Railroad Station. Pennsylvania R.R., Camden Branch, by Delaware River. 

Accommodations. Two small hotels. 

Points of Interest. Bordentown Military Institute, Bonaparte Park, John Bull 
Locomotive Monument. 

The NEW JERSEY MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL, 29.3 m. (R), is a 
State institution giving agricultural and industrial training to about 
three hundred Negro boys and girls. There is a small tuition fee. 
Part of the responsibility of the large teaching staff is to find employ- 
ment for graduates of the school. 

The Delaware River is visible (R) at 29.8 m. The land here is a 
low-lying plateau, slightly undulating, with ravines and shallow val- 
leys cut by creeks on their way to the river. 

At 32.7 m. is the junction with a concrete road. 

Right on this road is ROEBLING, 1 m., a company town established by 
John A. Roebling, founder of the large steel-cable factory that supplied cables for 



NEW JERSEY 5 

the Brooklyn, the Niagara Falls, and other big suspension bridges. Workers of 
Hungarian and other central European nationalities have long been employed 
here. Viewed from US 1 30, the outlying fringe of company houses of the town 
seems in keeping with the worst slum traditions. Closer examination disproves 
this, however, for some of the dwellings are of modern construction, all are of 
substantial brick, and the streets have been carefully planted with trees. Old- 
fashioned, solid-row construction has made windows impossible except at front 
and back, and there is an atmosphere of somber monotony about the town that 
is in no wise lessened by the inherent ugliness of the mill buildings and the waste 
land around them. 

South of the junction with the road to Roebling the highway is 
almost a straight line, avoiding the curves of the Delaware River, 2 
to 3 miles R. 

At 36.9 m., where US 130 turns (L) to by-pass the city of Bur- 
lington, is the junction with the concrete road. 

Right (straight ahead) on this road is BURLINGTON, 1m. (10 alt., 10,844 
pop.) (see JV. J. GUIDE). 

Railroad Station. Pennsylvania R.R., Broad St. in center of town. 

Accommodations. Several small hotels and inns; tourist homes. 

Points of Interest. Birthplace of James Fenimore Cooper, Old Quaker Burial 
Ground, St. Mary's Church (1702) and St. Mary's Cemetery, the Witches' 
Tree, Thomas Revel (William Penn) House, Green Bank. 

At 41.1 m. is the junction (R) with the road detouring through 
Burlington. South of this point US 130 traverses the peach orchard 
section of Burlington County, where the spring blossoms attract 
thousands of visitors each year. 

At 43.2 in . is Rancocas Creek, largest tributary of the Delaware 
River in this region. US 130 crosses the creek on a drawbridge that 
is a reminder of the busy traffic in lumber and charcoal that once 
passed along the stream. William Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin 
and last Royal Governor of New Jersey, had an estate on the banks of 
the creek. Appointed in 1763 as a compliment to his father, he did 
not share his parent's democratic viewpoint and remained ardently 
loyal to the Crown. At the outbreak of the Revolution, his arrest and 
imprisonment were ordered by the New Jersey Legislature because 
of his autocratic handling of State affairs. In 1778 he was freed 
through an exchange of prisoners; later he went to England and was 
reconciled with his father, but never returned to America. 

BRIDGEBORO, 43.5 m. (20 alt., 500 pop.), lies (L) on the 
south bank of Rancocas Creek, with a cluster of stores and frame 
houses. 



6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

CINNAMINSON, 47.2 m. (80 alt., 100 pop.), once had its 
provocative name on postmarks, but mail is now handled through 
the post office at nearby River ton. To nurserymen and entomologists 
Cinnaminson is known as the primary port of entry of the Japanese 
beetle. In 1916 the first of these brightly colored beetles appeared in 
the community, unrecognized as the parent of future billions of 
pests. The insect was probably imported as a grub, concealed in soil 
packed around the roots of Japanese iris. Only a year later the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture established the Japanese Beetle Labora- 
tory, and ever since then Federal and State experts have waged con- 
tinuous war on the destructive insect by quarantine rules, poison 
sprays, and the importation of parasitic enemies. Although the area 
of heavy infestation has a radius of scarcely 100 miles from Cinnamin- 
son, stowaway beetles have traveled by automobile and train as far 
north as Maine and as far west as Missouri, settling new colonies 
there and at scores of way stations. Motorists should beware of hitch- 
hiking beetles, especially during July and August when they are 
most numerous. 

At the junction with a macadam road (L) is the FRIENDS' MEETING 
HOUSE, a charming little red brick building erected in 1859. It stands 
on a shaded knoll, back from the road. 

At 48.6 m. is the junction with State 41. 

Right on this highway is the TACONY-PALMYRA BRIDGE (toll, 35 for car and 
passengers), 2.5 m., a steel arch span over the Delaware River; its western end 
is in the city of Philadelphia. 

South of this junction the highway passes through the Camden 
suburbs. Though the section is not very attractive, Camden's back 
yard is better than the average outlying district of a manufacturing 
center. 

At 51.6 m. is the junction with Cove Rd., a concrete-paved high- 
way. 

Right on this road to ARLINGTON CEMETERY, 0.6 m., which holds the GRAVE 
OF PETER J. McGuiRE, known as the "Father of Labor Day." The grave, marked 
by a 6-foot polished granite tombstone, is 225 yards N. of the cemetery entrance. 
On Labor Day of each year it is visited by scores of workingmen and leaders of 
organized labor. During the 1870's McGuire carried on a one-man campaign for 
the 8-hour day and a national holiday for the workingman. In 1875 he made his 
home in Camden and later he organized several unions. With Samuel Gompers, 
he helped form the American Federation of Labor in 1881. Because of his success 
in settling strikes he gained considerable reputation as an arbitrator. In 1894 Con- 



NEW JERSEY 7 

gress finally declared Labor Day a national holiday and in succeeding years the 
Nation moved nearer to McGuire's goal of "8 hours for work, 8 hours for play 
and 8 hours for rest, and $1 an hour for skilled labor." McGuire died in 1906. 

At 54.1 m., at a traffic circle, is the junction with State 40. 

Right on this road to the business district of CAMDEN, 2 m. (20 alt., 118 700 
pop.) (see JV. J. GUIDE). 

Railroad Station. Pennsylvania R.R. and Pennsylvania Reading Seashore Line, 
Delaware River and Federal St. 

Rapid Transit line to Philadelphia, stations at City Hall Plaza and at Broadway 
and Carman Sts. 

Delaware River Suspension Bridge. Toll: 25^. 

Ferries to Philadelphia. Constant service to Chestnut, Market and South Sts. 250. 

Points of Interest. Walt Whitman House Museum, Joseph Cooper House Mu- 
seum, Pomona Hall, shipyards, RCA- Victor and Campbell's Soup factories, 
PWA Westfield Acres Project, and others. 

Left of the traffic circle is CAMDEN AIRPORT, mail and passenger 
terminal for both Camden and Philadelphia. It is a station on all 
principal air lines of the East for service to Newark and New Eng- 
land, to Washington and the southern States, and to Chicago and the 
Pacific coast. 

South of the airport, US 130 by-passes the business centers of 
suburban communities and twists through a succession of traffic 
circles and bridges, taxing the motorist's ability to keep a steady eye 
on the route number signs. It finally branches (R) at 59.4 m. from 
the broad lanes of concrete to become a two-lane highway not 
very straight and in some places not very smooth. There are frequent 
views of the Philadelphia skyline (R) along this section of the road. 
The countryside loses its suburban appearance and once more offers 
views of fields that in autumn are stubbled, brown, and spotted with 
piles of bright pumpkins and yellow corn. 

A strange collection of concrete end-walls, sole remains of one- 
story buildings that formerly covered several acres, is standing on 
the pasture land (R), at 60 m. This was the SITE OF THE WOODBURY 
BAG-LOADING PLANT, where gunpowder was packed for shipment 
overseas during the World War. Directly across the channel of the 
Delaware River are the tall cranes of the PHILADELPHIA NAVY YARD. 
When motors are being tested there, the wind carries their roaring to 
the Jersey shore. 

At 62.2 m. is the junction with a concrete road. 

Right on this road is RED BANK BATTLEFIELD NATIONAL PARK, 
2 m. Here, on the high bank at the edge of Delaware River, stood Fort Mercer, 



8 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

hastily built in the fall of 1777 to prevent the British fleet from joining the land 
forces that occupied Philadelphia. Before the earthworks had been completed 
by 400 Rhode Island volunteers, a surprise attack was made from the rear by 
2,000 Hessian troops. The Americans held their fire until the Hessian battalions 
swept up to the base of the ramparts; th'ey then unleashed a hail of musketballs 
and grapeshot at close range. With 400 dead and wounded, the Hessians fell 
back, reformed their lines and charged again. They were again repulsed and their 
commander, Count Donop, was captured and mortally wounded. As the 
"rented" soldier lay dying he said, "I die a victim of my ambition and the avarice 
of my sovereign." Meanwhile, American guns mounted on barges were hurling 
shots into the British fleet. Although the battle at Fort Mercer lasted barely half 
an hour, the naval engagement was continued the next day, October 23. Two 
British vessels, the 64-gun Augusta and the 1 8-gun Merlin, took fire and blew up. 
Fort Mifflin on the Pennsylvania side held out against the British fleet until 
November 1 1 but it was finally pounded to pieces. Washington, unable to spare 
enough men for its defense, later abandoned Fort Mercer. Some of the old 
trenches are still clearly defined; around a STATE MONUMENT are three cannon, 
long buried but finally discovered with a radio detector. 

The only building nearby is the old stone and brick WHITALL HOUSE (adm. 25), 
maintained by the Daughters of the American Revolution in honor of a Quaker 
dame whose nonchalance during the battle set an all-time record even for the 
calm folk of Gloucester County. Ann Whitall was busy with her spinning in an 
upstairs chamber when^the battle began. Balls whistled past the gables; finally, 
one shot blasted its way through the wall and hurtled across the room into. the 
opposite wall. The old lady picked up her spinning wheel and went to the cellar, 
continuing her work until the battle ended and wounded men were brought to 
her house. While she bound up the wounds of Hessian soldiers, she scolded them 
for coming to America to butcher the colonists. The house is excellently preserved 
and Mrs. Whitall's spinning wheel is in one of the two rooms containing Colonial 
furnishings. Near the Whitall house is a PICNIC GROVE with the usual facilities, 

The highway passes through level valley lands, utilized to a large 
extent for asparagus growing. Rows of cedar trees mark farm lanes 
and boundaries. Several tidal creeks are crossed. 

PAULSBORO, 66.2 m. (15 alt., 7,121 pop.), lies W. of Mantua 
Creek. A large oil refinery, a fertilizer works, a paint factory, and 
some smaller plants made it a manufacturing community of some 
importance. The highway follows Broad St., along which are the 
stores and other business houses. Paulsboro has operated a MUNICIPAL 
GAS PLANT since 1909, apparently to the satisfaction of its voters 
since they have rejected a proposal to sell it. The plant is one of a 
scant dozen publicly-owned utilities in the State. In 1935 its receipts 
were $40,209, which was more than enough to cover all expenses, 
including operating costs and $13,205 paid for interest and the retire- 
ment of bonds. 



NEW JERSEY 9 

The town dates back to 1681, when John Fen wick and Edward 
Byllynge brought 250 colonists to the section. Philip Paul, for whom 
the settlement was named, arrived in 1685. His family Bible is kept 
at BOROUGH HALL (L). In LINCOLN PARK (R) on the waterfront are 
the ruins of an old cellar; shortly after the Revolution the house 
that stood here was occupied by a gang of counterfeiters, producing 
bonds and money worth even less than the Continentals then in cir- 
culation. When officers raided the house, the ringleader stood at the 
top of the stairs and, hoping to gain time while his wife burned the 
counterfeits in an adjoining room, threatened to shoot the first man 
to come up. The Federal men saw through the ruse; there was no 
shooting. 

GIBBSTOWN, 69.4 m. (10 alt., 208 pop.), is mostly a double 
row of frame houses. Here live many of the workmen employed in 
one of the largest of the du Pont high-explosive plants. 

Du Pont pay envelopes carry most of the income of those who live 
in the entire section between Paulsboro and Pennsville. Although 
Wilmington is the capital of this huge industrial dynasty, operations 
have been extended across the Delaware River until they affect the 
life of every town and hamlet in the river section. Many Pennsyl- 
vanians come by boat to work in the New Jersey factories making 
war materials, explosives, paints, dyes, and other du Pont products. 

BRIDGEPORT, 73.5 m. (20 alt., 850 pop.), has cornfields ex- 
tending almost to the back doors of a line of comfortable old houses 
(R) on the main thoroughfare. The community is sufficiently large, 
however, to support an automobile sales agency and other business 
houses. 

At 73.8 m. is the junction with a macadam road, US 322. 

Right on this road to the CHESTER (PA.) FERRY, 1.5m. (24-hour service May 30 
to Oct. 1; 50Jor car and driver, 5^ for each passenger.) 

Making few curves, the highway runs through a rather dreary sec- 
tion of lowlands. Farms and farmhouses are not numerous. The late 
afternoon sun glints more brightly on the shining aluminum paint of 
oil storage tanks across the river at Chester than on the still waters of 
the tidal marshes. 

South of Oldman's Greek, US 130 passes the DELAWARE ORD- 
NANCE DEPOT of the United States Army (R), a typical Army reserva- 
tion in neatness and landscaping. Established during the World War, 



io THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

the depot is still used for storing shells of both large and small caliber. 
One ordnance company, numbering about 50 men, is stationed here, 
and there are many civilian employees. 

PENNSGROVE, 81.2 m. (12 alt., 5,895 pop.), is the southern- 
most town of consequence along the New Jersey shore of the Dela- 
ware. The community has a motion picture house, a bustling shop- 
ping district, and a large residential section. By common industrial 
interests Pennsgrove is closely linked with Wilmington, Del., across 
the river. (Ferry service all year, leaving Pennsgrove 6 a.m. to midnight; 
car and driver 75ff, passengers 10^ each. Messages received for patrons.) 

CARNEY'S POINT, 82.6 m. (10 alt., 3,050 pop.), is a southern 
extension of Pennsgrove. The handsome REGIONAL HIGH SCHOOL is 
by the highway (L) . A large group of uniformly painted green and 
white frame houses (R) gives a key to the village's means of liveli- 
hood. These are du Pont-owned dwellings, built as emergency shel- 
ters during the World War and since then improved for rental to em- 
ployees. A du Pont POWDER PLANT is situated nearby. 

DEEPWATER, 85.1 m. (10 alt., 537 pop.), has two important 
industries, a du Pont DYE WORKS and a POWER PLANT of the Atlantic 
City Electric Co. 

PENNSVILLE, 87.8 m. (12 alt., 412 pop.), was once known as a 
center for sturgeon and shad fishermen, but pollution of the Delaware 
by waste from upstream factories has driven the fish away. Today the 
little village is chiefly a ferry terminal and another residential section 
inhabited by du Pont workers. An amusement park, RIVER VIEW 
BEACH, has a roller coaster and a swimming pool. The region around 
Pennsville was settled by Swedes shortly after 1636. 

Right from the center of Pennsville to the PENNSVILLE FERRY, 
87.9 m., which runs to New Castle, Del. (24-hour service; car and 
driver 75, passengers 70; messages received and delivered for patrons.) 

As the ferry moves from its Jersey landing, the low shore line of 
Delaware is seen ahead, scarcely broken by the roofs and spires of 
old New Castle. Wilmington, up the river (R), is indicated by a 
smudge of smoke from its many factories. 



DELAWARE 

Delaware River at New Castle Hare's Corner Dover Mary- 
land Line. 93 m. US 40, US 13. 

Pennsylvania R.R. closely parallels route between New Castle and Md. Line. 
Excellent paved roadbed; 45-mile speed limit. State Highway Police Stations at 
State Road, Dover, and Bridgeville render first aid and other assistance. Numer- 
ous filling stations, at many of which certified drinking water is available. Hotels 
in most towns of more than 2,000 pop.; tourist homes in towns; few tourist 
camps. 

Section 2. New Castle to Hare's Corner, 2.5 m. US 40 

The ferry slip on the Delaware shore is at the foot of Chestnut St. 
in New Castle. 

NEW CASTLE, m. (10 alt., 4,131 pop.) (see DEL. GUIDE, also 
NEW CASTLE ON THE DELAWARE). 

Railroad Station. Pennsylvania R.R., South St. near 8th. 

New Castle-Pennsville Ferry. Foot of Chestnut St.; 24-hour service; basic summer 
schedule, service every 20 min.; car and driver 75^, passengers 10$ each. 

Annual "Day in Old New Castle." Usually 3rd Saturday in May. Fee of $2 covers 
admission to all old houses and buildings. 

New Castle was founded by the Dutch under Peter Stuyvesant in 
1651 as Fort Casimir, became Fort Trinity under the Swedes in 1654, 
and New Amstel under the Dutch in 1656. The name New Castle 
was given after the overthrow of the Dutch by the English in 1664. 

The fine old COURTHOUSE on the Green was the seat of the Colo- 
nial assembly in the period between 1704 and 1776 when the Three 
Lower Counties, as the region was called, were a semi-autonomous 
part of the Province of Pennsylvania. In 1776-1777 New Castle was 
the capital of the new State of Delaware. The county courts sat here 
for two centuries prior to their removal to Wilmington in 1881. 

Though the outskirts are bordered by industrial plants, including 
steel and iron mills, and a rayon and an aircraft factory; the plants 
might be miles away for all the effect they have on the old section 
about the Green. In the heart of New Castle, beginning at the river 
bank, stand a score of Colonial and post-Revolutionary public build- 
ings, churches, and private houses, in their original form or only 
slightly changed; together with the later buildings scattered among 
them they provide a museum collection illustrating architectural 
development in the region. The most important structures belong to 

ii 



12 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

the era when New Castle was a busy port and a governmental and 
judicial center when horses and coaches bore George Washington, 
Thomas Jefferson, and other distinguished persons to the town, to 
board the sailing packets for Philadelphia. 

For a century and a half the little city was an important point on 
the main route connecting the seaboard colonies. As early as 1671 
a cartroad ran from here across the neck of the Chesapeake and Dela- 
ware Peninsula; later a well-traveled road to the head of Chesapeake 
Bay became the New Castle and Frenchtown Turnpike. In 1833 one 
of the first steam locomotives used in the country began pulling trains 
over the New Castle and Frenchtown R.R. to meet vessels running 
from Maryland and Virginia ports. By 1845, however, the Chesa- 
peake and Delaware Canal and the new railroad around the head of 
the bay were carrying most of the passengers and freight, and the 
day of New Castle as an important trade center was passing. 

Among the noteworthy buildings are IMMANUEL CHURCH, on the 
Green; AMSTEL HOUSE, a museum, 4th and Delaware Sts.; the OLD 
DUTCH HOUSE, 3rd St. between Delaware and Harmony Sts. ; and the 
READ HOUSE on the Strand, near Harmony. (See NEW CASTLE 
ON THE DELAWARE.) 

At 1.1 m., at the junction with State 41, is (L) BELLANCA FIELD 
(open to visitors 8-5 by permission), adjoining the factory of the Bellanca 
Aircraft Corporation, makers of cabin monoplanes and other types 
of planes, and contractors to the United States and foreign govern- 
ments. Bellanca airplanes have made nine non-stop flights across 
the Atlantic Ocean, one non-stop flight across the Pacific, and two 
round-the-world flights. 

NEW CASTLE COMMON, 1.2 in. (R), is a tract of 1,068 acres divided 
into farms from which the revenue, for more than two and one half 
centuries, has gone to the town of New Castle. 

From earliest days of settlement the Dutch and the Swedes set 
aside certain areas for the public to use for pasturage, for the pro- 
duction of public revenue and so on. When the English took over the 
Delaware Colony in 1664 community ownership of the tracts was 
confirmed. William Penn, becoming the Proprietary in 1682, recon- 
firmed the reservation, but there were so many complaints of abuses 
that in 1701 he ordered that the land "hitherto reputed and called 
New Castle Common" be established in one convenient tract of 
1,000 acres. Still the abuses and encroachments kept on, and in 1764 




AT THE JERSEY HOMESTEADS NEAR HIGHTSTOWN, NEW JERSEY 




OLD DRAWYERS PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, DELAWARE 



DELAWARE I3 

a charter was secured from Thomas and Richard Penn, sons of Wil- 
liam, setting up a board of trustees with power to protect the prop- 
erty. 

But this charter did not empower the trustees to lease the land to 
farmers who would till it on shares. To this end in 1791 two Penns, 
both named John, heirs of the Proprietary, signed away all claim to 
the land to permit the incorporation of the Trustees of the Common 
under the laws of the State of Delaware; in the deed they provided 
against the selling of the land or the diversion of any of its income. 
The next year (1792) the charter from the State established the sys- 
tem under which the Common farms have since been leased. Gross 
income averages $7,500 annually. After deducting the cost of repairs, 
and insurance and the county taxes, New Castle obtains enough in- 
come for town expenses to benefit its taxpayers materially. In 1885 
the Trustees of the Common procured an act of the legislature abro- 
gating that part of the Penns' deed forbidding the sale of any Com- 
mon land; however, except for some small parts sold for rights-of- 
way and other public or semipublic uses, none has been sold and the 
Common has remained to protect the west side of New Castle from 
unsightly developments. 

At the junction with US 13 is HARE'S CORNER, 2.5 m., once 
a stagestop and a cattle market to which large herds were driven by 
farm boys and farmers. The Green Tree Inn, razed in 1931 to make 
way for the dual road (US 13), stood at the NE. corner. Here trav- 
elers alighted for refreshment while their horses were watered or 
changed. 

Section 3. Hare's Corner to Maryland Line, '90.5 m. US 13 

South of this junction, US 13 the Du Pont Blvd. between 
Hare's Corner and Dover spans nearly the whole length of the 
little State of Delaware, passing through two distinct regions, the 
gently rolling farmland of middle Delaware and the flat, sandy, 
pine-wooded southern end of the State. The Delaware section of the 
route traverses about one-half the length of the so-called Delmarva 
Peninsula, the water-bound region east of Chesapeake Bay that 
comprises the State of Delaware and the Eastern Shore of Maryland 
and Virginia. Most of the peninsula rises only a few feet above sea 
level. 



I 4 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Bordered by few notable buildings, battlefields, or natural won- 
ders, the route's attractions lie in the succession of comfortable farm- 
steads, peach and apple orchards, and vistas of quiet charm. It pre- 
sents marked variations in the physical aspect of the land and in the 
life of the people. Within a distance of 25 miles there are in some 
places wide differences in terrain, forestation, crops, farming cus- 
toms, architectural style and building materials, political color, 
tempo of life, and even in accent and expressions of speech. A farmer 
who lives in the southern part of the State and drives a truckload of 
vegetables to Wilmington every Saturday, may say "okie-doke" and 
then speak of "housen" for houses, or of a chicken that has been 
dead too long as "dainty." North and South, the 20th and 18th cen- 
turies, the rocky Piedmont and the broad salt marshes, meet along 
the road. Though the upper tenth of the State has a modern northern 
tone, the lower nine-tenths is akin in many ways to the old South. 
Delaware was a border slave State, and the proportion of Negroes 
(13.7 per cent) is higher than that in Kentucky. The bald cypress 
and the turkey-buzzard, both found in Delaware, are native to the 
South. 

HARE'S CORNER, m., is at the junction with US 40. 

Roses planted and tended by the State Highway Department 
bloom throughout the summer along the many bridges and cause- 
ways of US 13 in Delaware. 

BUENA VISTA (open annual "Day in Old New Castle"), 2.7 m. (R), 
is a plain brick house erected in 1846 by John M. Clayton, who 
served as Chief Justice of Delaware, United States Senator, and 
Secretary of State under President Zachary Taylor. The house, to 
which a large wing has been recently added, stands at the end of a 
long avenue of trees. Clayton named the place in honor of Taylor's 
victory at Buena Vista, Mexico, in 1 847, in the Mexican War 
which Clayton had vigorously opposed in the Senate. Paintings at 
Buena Vista include a Portrait of Queen Elizabeth, painted about 1580 
by Nicholas Hilliard, and a number of portraits by Gilbert Stuart. 
The present owner (1937) of Buena Vista is Clayton Douglass Buck, 
a great-nephew of John M. Clayton and the only Governor of Dela- 
ware to succeed himself (1929-1937). Governor Buck was largely 
instrumental in developing the excellent system of roads covering the 
State. The Claytons, a family important in State history for genera- 
tions, came to Delaware with William Penn in 1682. 



DELAWARE 15 

At 4.9 m. the road crosses RED LION GREEK, named for a nearby 
tavern. The creek is the boundary between New Castle Hundred and 
Red Lion Hundred. In Delaware the term "hundred" has been used 
for a political division of a county since the late 17th century; Dela- 
ware is the only State still using the term though it was formerly used 
in parts of Maryland and Virginia. A hundred is a tax and repre- 
sentation district in New Castle County. In Kent and Sussex Coun- 
ties, some representation districts cross the hundred boundaries. The 
English hundreds established in Anglo-Saxon times by King Alfred 
were geographical and governmental units containing ten families, 
ten estates, or 100 fighting men. Each hundred had its feudal courts. 
By Penn's time the hundred meant little more than it does now in 
Delaware, though he at first planned to divide his territory into 
tracts of 10,000 acres to be settled with one family on each 1,000 
acres. 

Red Lion Hundred, a wheat-growing and dairying section of de- 
clining fertility, extending east to the wide marshes of the Delaware 
River, is the smallest in the State 22 square miles. In 1850 its 
farms and orchards were the most productive and profitable in the 
State. In the 1830's the once-famous Delaware peach-growing had 
its beginning here, spreading through the peninsula until about 
1870, when the blight called the "yellows" destroyed the orchards. 
Around 1845 one landowner, Maj. Philip Reybold, with 80,000 
bearing peach trees on his estate, had such large crops that he shipped 
them to Philadelphia and Baltimore on his own steamers. Such high 
productivity was no accident; it resulted from a pioneer adoption of 
scientific methods in the use of exhausted and apparently worthless 
land. 

By 1800 successive crops of grain and tobacco, raised by slave 
labor, had completely worn out the soil; old tobacco barns along the 
roads were falling down. Then in 1823-29 the digging of the Chesa- 
peake and Delaware Canal revealed beds of marl, a substance con- 
taining decayed seashells of an early geologic period. A canal con- 
tractor spread some of the material on his land and found that its 
carbonate of lime produced amazing results in his crops. In the fol- 
lowing years thousands of cartloads of marl were dug by Negroes and 
spread on the farms until the appearance of commercial lime ended 
the herculean job of moving eight tons of the stuff to get one ton of 
lime. 



16 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Meanwhile, some of the more prosperous farmers were sending 
sons to college to learn, among other things, methods of crop rotation 
and fertilization. The topsoil was restored to still greater fertility. As 
a result of prosperity many substantial brick houses, surrounded by 
numerous tenant houses for Negroes, were built along this and other 
roads in the hundred. Social life became, on a small scale, that of a 
landed aristocracy and included dancing, fox hunting, and much 
drinking in spite of the prevailing Presbyterianism of the Scottish- 
Irish gentry. Slaveholding persisted, but many slaves were held as 
such only until attaining the age of 25 or 30, when they were given 
their freedom. They were able to earn $15 or $20 a month and the 
landowners grew rich on the crops they tended. When the Civil War 
came prices went sky high, and profits were huge. 

After the war there were no more slaves, and laborers were de- 
manding higher wages for their work. Prices of farm products fell. 
The Negroes began migrating to the cities of the North, and white 
labor was "scarce and common at that." As the tobacco barns had 
been falling down by 1 800, so the frame tenant houses around the big 
brick houses were falling down by 1900. The mansions themselves 
contained tenants. 

The rains are again carrying the thin topsoil into the gullies on 
many farms in Red Lion Hundred and a second cycle in their agri- 
cultural history is nearing completion. 

At 6.3 m. (L) is a rectangular grove of trees, the SITE OF BROOK- 
FIELD, built in 1860 and later burned; it was the home of Capt. 
Charles Corbit (1838-1887). Corbit's wild charge at Westminster, 
Md., on June 29, 1863, with only 70 men against a large force of 
Confederates, helped defer the arrival of Gen. J. E. B. Stuart's cav- 
alry at the Battle of Gettysburg until the afternoon of July 2. General 
Lee placed part of the blame for the loss of the battle on this 
delay. 

WRANGLE HILL, 6.9 m., a crossroads with an old brick house 
on a slight elevation, is still so called because of a feud between two 
early families who lived here. 

At 7.6 m. is DAMASCUS (R) a plain brick house built about 1790; 
it was the home of Jesse Higgins, gristmiller and enemy of the legal 
profession. Believing that "an honest man cannot be a lawyer," he 
wrote a pamphlet called Samson Against the Philistines in which he 
held that arbitration could be cheaply and effectively substituted for 



DELAWARE 17 

lawsuits. (This is the thesis of the recently-formed American Arbitra- 
tion Association.) When the booklet was published in 1804, Delaware 
lawyers bought up the edition. Higgins did not, however, need to 
re-issue the pamphlet, for William Duane, editor of the Washington 
Aurora, published it with wide resultant publicity. 

South of Damascus the road crosses Dragon Run, which flows 
eastward through the large Dragon Swamp to the Delaware River; 
this swamp harbors snapping turtles of great size. 

ST. GEORGES, 8.8 m. (265 pop.), incorporated 1825, was laid 
out before 1730 at what was then the head of navigation on St. 
Georges Creek. A tavern stood here in 1735 and a King's Highway 
was officially laid out through the village in 1762; travelers stopping 
overnight often complained of the noise made by the wild ducks in 
the marshes along the creek. 

The brick SUTTON HOUSE (private), corner of the Delaware City 
road and US 13 (L), built about 1800, was the home of Dr. James M. 
Sutton, who, seeing the results of spreading marl on barren land, 
imported the first commercial lime to the region and built a kiln on 
the southern side of the canal. The house, with a typical low kitchen 
wing at right angles, and a brick-floored kitchen shed, is still owned 
and occupied by the Sutton family. 

The CHESAPEAKE AND DELAWARE CANAL is crossed in 
the village on a towering steel lift bridge visible within a five-mile 
radius. This sea-level canal is an important link in the Intracoastal 
Waterway, cutting 14 miles across the isthmus of the Delmarva 
Peninsula from the Delaware River on the E. to Back Creek, an arm 
of Chesapeake Bay, on the W. Owned and operated by the Federal 
Government, it is toll-free. Eventually all but the largest ships will be 
able to use this waterway, which shortens the route between Phila- 
delphia and Baltimore from 420 miles around Cape Charles 
to 104. Goods valued at $50,000,000 passed through the canal in 
1935, in spite of the shallow 12-foot channel, many curves, frequent 
slides in the Deep Cut, and the swift currents caused by the tidal 
variance between the two bays. Yacht traffic has become very heavy 
since the removal of the locks, especially in fall and spring, when 
travel is at its height to and from Florida through the intracoastal 
route. 

The history of the canal goes back to early Colonial times. "The 
creation of this waterway was predicted as early as 1661 by Augustine 



18 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Herman, proprietor of Bohemia Manor, in a letter to Vice Director 
Beekman: 

"For the Minquaskil and the aforesaid Bohemia River run there 
within a league from each other, from where we shall in time have 
communication with each other by water, which may serve as en- 
couragement to the inhabitants of New-Netherland." 

In 1679-80 Bankers and Sluyter, Dutch Labadist missionaries 
touring the colonies, suggested the value of a waterway across this 
narrow isthmus. Thereafter from time to time numerous plans were 
made and various courses suggested. In 1786 a group of men includ- 
ing James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, and Benjamin Rush met in 
Wilmington to consider canal plans, but little was done until 1799, 
when Maryland chartered the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Co., 
with capital stock of $500,000, and appointed a board of commis- 
sioners to work with Delaware and Pennsylvania authorities. Work 
was started in 1804 but ceased because of financial troubles. Promo- 
tion became active in 1823, and that year digging commenced in 
earnest. 

From the time the C. and D. Canal was completed (1829) until 
the Government bought it in 1919, and turned it into a sea-level 
channel (1927), three locks maintained two different water levels 
above tidewater. One set of locks, built of stone, was at St. Georges, 
whence the lower level went E. four miles to Delaware City, and the 
upper, eight miles W. to Chesapeake City, Md., two towns that 
developed with the canal. Delaware City hoped to rival Philadelphia 
as a port, but its grandiose dreams did not consider the possibilities 
of railroads, and what they might do to inland water traffic. 

For some distance E. of St. Georges the canal route followed the 
bed of St. Georges Creek which has broad marshes beside it; accord- 
ingly it was necessary to build a high bank along the north side of the 
channel to hold in the water and to serve as a towpath on which 
mules could plod, dragging barges and sailing vessels through the 
water. In the excavation of the canal many Irishmen as well as 
Negroes were employed, all working with picks and shovels and 
similar hand equipment. Many of them died of malaria, and of 
communicable diseases that spread from them to the nearby coun- 
tryside. 

In 1829 the new canal, which had cost $2,200,000, was formally 
opened with a great celebration. At first its prosperity seemed as- 



DELAWARE 19 

sured. Revenues in 1831 were as high as $2,600 a week. Many parts 
of the East got their first cheap coal by barges that came down the 
Susquehanna River and canals to Chesapeake Bay and thence 
through the C. and D. Canal to Delaware City, where steam tugs 
would take them in tow to Philadelphia and other ports. Log rafts 
of great length passed through constantly; at a lock it was necessary 
to divide such a raft into small sections, which were passed through 
one at a time. 

The old canal had a life of its own. Barge captains saluted each 
other with musical blasts from horns, while their wives hanging out 
the wash on clothes-lines rigged abaft the deck house called greetings 
to passing friends; barge householding included the keeping of 
chickens and even pigs. Showboats from the Chesapeake Bay circuit 
sometimes tied up at canal towns, and many floating emporiums 
traveled leisurely from place to place selling tinware, dress goods, 
steel traps, and other odds and ends. 

Competition from the railroads started almost as soon as the 
canal was opened, and when in 1832 the New Castle and French- 
town R.R. substituted steam engines for horses on the passenger haul 
across the neck of the Peninsula, a line of passenger barges undertook 
the same job through the canal. The little railroad was soon ruined 
by competition from the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore 
R.R. Passenger boat, and later overnight steamer, service between 
Philadelphia and Baltimore was maintained until the 1920's. 

FIDDLER'S BRIDGE, 10.1 m., now a double structure of solid con- 
crete spanning Scott's Run, was once a narrow plank affair with 
swamp trees meeting densely overhead, making a dark and gloomy 
place. According to tradition, a demented Negro fiddler, who used to 
sit on the bridge rail and play doleful tunes, one night fell off and was 
drowned. For generations it has been believed that if a person stands 
on the bridge precisely at midnight and drops a coin into the water, 
slow, wistful notes of a violin will come from the shadows. Occasional 
pranks, with a real fiddler hidden in the swamp, have kept the tradi- 
tion alive. 

LISTON RANGE, 10.8 m., is a tall black lighthouse (L). Standing 
four miles from the Delaware River, it is a range light by which 
pilots lay their courses. 

MACDONOUGH, 13.2 m. (20 pop.), formerly The Trap, is the 
birthplace of Commodore Thomas Macdonough (1783-1825), 



20 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

called the Hero of Lake Champlain because of his victory during the 
Battle of Plattsburg, Sept. 11, 1814. 

The MACDONOUGH HOUSE (private), where he was born is a plain 
two-and-one-half story structure (R), part brick and part frame, 
painted white and in good condition; the porch does not belong to the 
early years. Nearby is a family graveyard enclosed by a brick wall. 

Thomas Macdonough entered the Navy as a midshipman at the 
age of 17, serving under Stephen Decatur on the Mediterranean and 
being promoted for bravery and ability. In Liverpool in 1810, while 
in the merchant service, he was seized by a British gang in one of the 
impressment outrages that helped to bring on the War of 1812. That 
night he escaped under fire to his own ship, vowing to make Eng- 
land remember her treatment of an American sailor. He reentered 
the Navy in 1812 and was given command of a small fleet on Lake 
Champlain. His opportunity for revenge came when, aboard his 
flagship, the Saratoga, he managed by clever planning to defeat the 
British, who outnumbered him in ships and men. This victory follow- 
ing Perry's on Lake Erie in 1812, stopped the enemy invasion from 
Canada. Congress presented him with a gold medal and the thanks 
of the country, and promoted him to the rank of captain, then the 
highest rank in the Navy. In 1815 the General Assembly of Delaware 
provided that a portrait of him be painted by Thomas Sully; it hangs 
in the Governor's office in the Legislative Hall at Dover (see below). 

At 14.6 m. the dual roadways spread apart to swing in a wide 
curve across the marshes and channel of DRAWYERS CREEK, which is 
typical of the twisting tidal creeks that flow into the Delaware River 
and Bay. At points on such streams where fastlands came down to 
navigable water there were formerly many landings for the loading 
and unloading of farm products and supplies, but they have disap- 
peared owing to the development of railroads and paved roads, and 
the progressive filling up of the streams with silt washed from fields 
where forests once stood. The marshes have also been drying up, and 
it is now only on storm tides that the boats of the fall railbird hunters 
can be punted through the thickening sedge. Until recent years this 
marsh and the Appoquinimink marsh (see below) were famous among 
these sportsmen. 

The name Drawyers probably came from the "drayers" hauling 
produce to the creek in the late 17th century. 

OLD DRAWYERS PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (R), 14.9m. (grounds and 



DELAWARE 21 

cemetery always open; church usually closed except for Sun. services at 3 E.S. T. 
in June, July, and Aug.), on a rise overlooking the creek valley, is one 
of the finest in Delaware. 

This brick structure, built in 1773 on the site of a wooden church 
(1711) called Appoquinimy, is noted for its simple and dignified 
Georgian beauty. The architects and builders were Robert May and 
Co. of London, who built several notable houses in nearby Odessa as 
well as in Philadelphia and elsewhere. The building has beautiful 
lines and proportions; the fenestration and the simple lines of the 
cornice exhibit the architects' fine sense of scale and the delicate 
paneling of the doors and shutters, the skill of the craftsmen. The 
bricks, now covered with ivy, were burned on the farm of Robert 
Meldrum, an early member of the congregation. Altered only slightly 
inside, the building is kept in repair by the Friends of Old Drawyers, 
a society composed largely of descendants of Colonial members. 

It is entered through a pedimented doorway with engaged fluted 
columns. The interior is painted white, as are the pew stalls, whose 
tops are mahogany-stained; each pew has a number cut in the wood. 
Above the pulpit is a golden dove and an ornamental canopy. Pews 
and pulpit were remodeled in 1833. There are no choir stalls but 
immediately in front of the pulpit is a box in which sat the precentor 
with his tuning fork to give the pitch for hymns sung without instru- 
mental accompaniment. The slave gallery runs around three sides of 
the room. There is no chimney; when stoves were used the stovepipes 
passed through the ceiling and loft to the roof. 

Weekly services were discontinued in 1861, but have recently been 
revived during the summer beginning with the first Sunday in June 
(Clover Sunday), the important annual occasion at the church. 
Then the rolling farmland and soft green marsh is at its best and the 
clover fields are in full bloom. Also in bloom then is nearly a mile 
of pink rambler-roses stretching along the whitewashed highway 
fences from the church northward along the dual highway. Between 
the morning and afternoon services many visitors spread picnic 
dinners on the lawn under the ancient cedars. 

The Presbyterian influence, emanating from both the first and the 
present church, was felt for miles around. Congregations in St. 
Georges, Middletown, Port Penn, and Odessa are all offshoots of 
Old Drawyers. 

When in 1777 the British were advancing toward Washington's 



22 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

camp near Stanton, Dr. Thomas Read, first pastor of the new church, 
drew maps that enabled the Americans to evacuate the section and 
avoid fighting until the Battle of Brandywine. 

ODESSA, 16.2 m. (52 alt., 385 pop.), important enough in the 
past to have several of the finest old brick houses in the State, now 
has almost no activity except a cannery, a bank, and the office of a 
small fire insurance company. Travel no longer uses broad Main St., 
the former King's Highway where grass now grows between rows 
of mutilated trees but cuts straight across farmland. 

From 1721 a toll bridge over the Appoquinimink Creek was op- 
erated here by a son of Capt. Edmund Cantwell, to whom in 1664 
the English had granted the confiscated lands of Alexander d'Hinoy- 
ossa, director of the Dutch settlement of New Amstel (New Castle). 
For 134 years the place, steadily rising in importance, was called 
CantwelPs Bridge. From all the country around, even from Maryland 
over Augustine Hermann's "Old Man's Road" came more 
and more wheat, corn, tobacco, and other produce to be shipped on 
vessels down the creek to Delaware Bay and thence to distant ports. 
Tanneries produced large quantities of leather and made their own- 
ers rich. Fine houses were built from fortunes that shrewd Quakers 
managed to preserve throughout revolution and bad times. 

By 1825 Cantwell's Bridge was a bustling market center. Large 
granaries along the wharves were constantly being filled, imme- 
diately to be emptied into vessels whose masts bristled along the 
waterfront. From 1820 to 1840 the shipments of grain amounted to 
400,000 bushels annually. Agricultural fairs drew crowds from three 
States. Teamsters roistered at the hotel while balls and soirees were 
held in paneled drawing rooms, and young gentlemen raced their 
carriages and sleighs up and down the street. The value of town lots 
boomed, and the south side of Main St. showed more and more 
comfortable houses as contrasted with the vacant north side, the 
property of a Scot named Osborne who had unaccountably left town 
and disappeared. In 1817 the State hungrily seized this land and 
sold it off to hungrier buyers. 

In 1855 came the collapse of the grain trade. The line of the 
Delaware R.R. was moving down the State, and it was proposed to 
carry it through Cantwell's Bridge. Fearing for the shipping in the 
creek, the merchants and vessel owners told the railroad company to 
keep out. The line was built through Middletown, three miles west- 



DELAWARE 23 

ward, and in spite of the efforts of the local leaders, shipping was 
ruined. Even the hurried changing of the town's name to Odessa, 
after the Russian grain port on the Black Sea, could not bring back 
the sloops and schooners to the wharves at the foot of the hill. About 
the same time the supply of good oak tanbark ran out and the Corbit 
tanneries shut down. The town was not yet dead, however, for the 
Civil War temporarily boomed all the little agricultural centers. 
Today Main St., broad and grass-grown with the fine old houses at 
the lower end, is usually deserted. 

The DAVID WILSON HOUSE (open Tues. and Sat., 9-72, 1:30-4:30), 
S. side of Main St. near 2nd, is a two-story dwelling built about 1769 
by Robert May and Co. of London. It contains the Mary Corbit 
Warner Museum and the Corbit Library; the house and museum 
were incorporated in 1923. 

The engaged columns of the classic doorway are characteristic 
of May-built houses. The Corbit Library of 9,000 volumes fills the 
beautiful drawing room and overflows into a rear room added in 
1936. Established in 1856 at the Odessa Public School by Dr. James 
F. Corbit, the library has been endowed by members of the family; 
as a public library it receives support from the State as well. It was 
moved to this house in 1924. 

The structure is finely paneled throughout. From the hall a hand- 
some stairway rises to the second floor where the two front rooms 
contain many family heirlooms and objects collected in foreign 
countries. Among these are several old chairs of odd design and 
decoration and a sugar-and-tea box of mahogany, shaped like a 
coffin and dating from 1800 or earlier. 

CASTLE WILLIAM (private), corner Main and 2nd Sts. has since 
1773 been the "great house" of CantwelPs Bridge and Odessa, and 
is a fine example of Georgian architecture. When it was built by 
Robert May and Co. for William Corbit, grandson of a Quaker 
settler, it commanded a clear view down the hill to the Appoquini- 
mink and beyond. 

Though the original two-and-a-half story structure with low 
two-story wings remains, the lines of the mass have been marred by 
the addition of a Victorian bay window on the north end, and 
enclosed back porch and some frame excrescences on the roof of the 
south wing. The house is large and solid, and the decoration inside 
and out illustrates the best English and American craftsmanship of 



2 4 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

the day. For 1 50 years a succession of Corbits, Quakers all, lived here 
and amassed fortunes and married into the first families of the coun- 
tryside. The kitchens and quarters were always full of Negroes who 
were as proud of the family's position as was the family itself. 

The entrance is elaborate, with engaged columns, pediment, and 
delicate fanlight. The cornices and dormer windows carry extensive 
detail work and carving, and on the fa$ade above the first floor 
windows is a belt-course of stone. The roof is hipped and has a 
captain's walk with a balustrade reminiscent of the Chinese 
Chippendale in design. 

The well-preserved interior is spacious, the rooms well-propor- 
tioned. The doorways have dog-eared corners and broken pediments. 
The reception room on the second floor, marred by the bay window 
added on one end, has a ceiling 10% feet high and walls paneled 
from floor to ceiling. Fluted pilasters rise on both sides of the mantel 
to a beautifully carved cornice. 

The FRIENDS MEETING HOUSE, S. side of Main St., well back from 
the street, next to a field, is a plain brick structure about 20 feet 
square, with a pitched roof and pent eaves across the gable end. The 
windows have white shutters in which the boards run diagonally. 

The little meeting house was built in 1783 when the Duck Creek 
Meeting (see SMTRNA, below) came to this place as a more con- 
venient place of worship. In 1828 there was a division in the sect, the 
followers of Elias Hicks separating themselves from the conservative 
members, who became known as Orthodox Friends. The insurgent 
Hicksites gained control of this meeting, whereupon the conservative 
members quit it in disgust. The meeting never prospered again and 
attendance was small; for years one lone old Hicksite, John Alston, 
would walk stiffly up the street every First Day, enter the meeting 
house, sit for a time in silent meditation, come out, and walk stiffly 
down the street again. After his death about 1880 the doors were 
permanently closed. 

In Delaware the Hicksites early caught the abolition fever of the 
Pennsylvania Quakers, and the meeting house here was a station of 
the Underground Railroad. Braving the rage of the slaveholding 
countryside and even the disfavor of some of the Orthodox Friends, 
they hid runaway slaves from Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia in 
the loft of the little building, bringing them food until it seemed safe 
to send them on their way north. 



DELAWARE 25 

Left from the traffic light in Odessa, down Main St. and across the causeway, 
to FAIRVIEW, 1 m. (L), also known as the Elias Moore house, built in 1773 by 
Robert May and Go. The Georgian style is similar to that of the other brick houses 
built by that firm in the vicinity. 

The DUNCAN BEARD HOUSE, 1.7m. (R), a small ramshackle frame building, 
was built soon after 1767 by Duncan Beard, a Scottish clockmaker, who before his 
death in 1797 made some of the finest grandfather clocks produced in America. 
He also made metal articles, including gun locks for the convention that met in 
New Castle on Aug. 27, 1776, to adopt a constitution for the new State of Dela- 
ware. 

Fifteen of Beard's grandfather clocks are known to be in existence, graceful in 
proportion, most of them still good timekeepers, and each bearing Beard's name 
at the top, with the additional word "Appoquinimink," an early name for Odessa. 
The brass faces are unusually elaborate. Beard was a member of the first Masonic 
organization in Delaware, which was established at CantwelFs Bridge in 1765, 
and a member of Drawyers Church (see above). 

For nearly 3 miles S. of Odessa the boulevard swings away from 
old King's Highway, which went through the village and curved 
to the eastward. Various other bends in the old road between Odessa 
and Dover were eliminated when the paved highway was built in 
accordance with Coleman du Font's maxim: "A straight road is 
the shortest distance between two places." 

At 16.4 m. is a marker, recalling the treaty of peace made near 
the creek in 1661 between Philip Gal vert, Lord Baltimore, the Gov- 
ernor of Maryland, and a local chief named Pinna. About that time 
started the long struggle between Pennsylvania and Maryland for 
possession of the lands along the Delaware. After the coming of Wil- 
liam Penn in 1682 the controversies grew more bitter. An English 
court of arbitration decided in Penn's favor, taking into considera- 
tion the Dutch settlement at Cape Henlopen in 1631, which in- 
validated Lord Baltimore's claim to the territory; Gal vert's charter 
had given him rights to lands "hitherto uncultivated." It was not 
until 1765 that the western Maryland-Delaware Line was surveyed 
by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon. 

At 16.7 m. the road crosses APPOQUINIMINK CREEK near its 
headwaters. Though Delaware Bay is only four miles east as the 
crow flies, the creek meanders about eight miles before reaching 
it. The Appoquinimink (Ind., place whence the village is seen) marshes 
here are noted places for black duck and railbird shooting. 

BLACKBIRD, 22 m. (45 pop.), a hamlet that was a stagecoach 
stop on the King's Highway, grew up around a mill at the head 



26 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

of Blackbird Creek. The name is believed to have been originally 
Blackbeard, for Edward Teach, a notorious pirate of the early 18th 
century, who, according to tradition, used the lower creek as a harbor 
and its banks as a cache for booty. There is no record of any having 
been found, despite much digging. 

At 27.2 tii. the road crosses DUCK CREEK, the boundary between 
New Castle and Kent Counties, which is a tidal stream flowing 
crookedly seven miles east to Delaware Bay. Prior to 1820 its waters 
entered the bay by wandering 1 3 miles to the south and flowing into 
Little Duck Creek. 

SMYRNA, 27.8 m. (1,958 pop.), formerly Duck Creek Cross 
Roads, was named in 1806 for a leading seaport of Asiatic Turkey. 
Except for its name, the town is thoroughly American, from the 
clutter of filling stations and truckmen's lunchrooms bordering US 
13 which by-passes the center of the town to the charming old 
center lying W. of the boulevard. 

Here as at Odessa the King's Highway, later the State Road, was 
the thoroughfare along which the village grew up. Smyrna, like 
Odessa, suffered from the collapse of shipping in the 1850's, but held 
its place as an agricultural center; the population increased to 2,455 
in 1890. The decline was gradual from then until 1920, after which 
there was a slight increase. 

When Smyrna reached its peak of shipping activity it was the 
most important port between Wilmington and Lewes. From the 
wharves at Smyrna Landing, a mile down Duck Creek, vessels set 
off for northern ports with grain, lumber, tanbark, and other produce 
of a region extending westward into Maryland. Tanneries, ship- 
yards, limekilns, and fruit-drying plants flourished, and merchants 
prospered on the returns from their peach orchards as well as from 
their trade. Like Odessa, Smyrna feared the railroad and forbade its 
coming through the town, with like result. 

The brick ENOCH SPRUANCE HOUSE (private), S. side of Commerce 
St. between US 13 and Main St., is still owned and occupied by the 
descendants of the original owners. The west section, built before 
1791, held what was for a time the only State bank between Wil- 
mington and Dover; on Thursdays, when the directors met, cus- 
tomers would come from distant points to do business. The two-story 
extension with dormers, and the two porches were added later. The 
caps and keystone of the first floor windows are of wood, after the 



DELAWARE 27 

Delaware custom of the time. The house contains much of the original 
woodwork and hardware and many family heirlooms. Among other 
treasured articles are candle molds, a flax carder, a long-handled 
waffle iron, and a number of samplers. 

The former bank-room is now the parlor many down-State 
houses still have parlors. Hung on hand-made hinges, the door to 
this room is very heavy and has a huge lock. In the sitting room 
still called that in Delaware is a Duncan Beard grandfather clock 
(see ODESSA above) with an attachment for discovering the hour in 
the dark; when a string inside is pulled, the clock repeats the last 
hour struck. The Franklin stove in the hall was skeptically bought 
in Philadelphia by Pressley and Enoch Spruance, merchants of 
Smyrna, who doubted that those black stones called coal would 
really burnjn it, as guaranteed. 

The ABRAHAM PIERCE HOUSE, opposite the Spruance house, is a 
small brick structure of unknown age, though its brickwork and 
gambrel roof place the date of its construction around the middle 
of the 18th century. To the right of the doorway and porch is a 
large window with 1 5 lights in each sash. 

The LOCKWOOD HOUSE, W. side of Main St., S. of Commerce, is 
a long two-story brick building said to have been used as a barracks 
for militia during the War of 1812. 

The CUMMINS HOUSE (private), E. side of Main St., N. of Mt. 
Vernon St., is a massive but plain brick house that is suggestive of 
the size of the fortunes made here in the grain and mercantile busi- 
ness of the early 19th century. It was built by John Cummins 
(1777-1833), who at 21 became a partner in the leading store, soon 
bought out the owner, and also went into the grain trade. Within 
20 years he had become the leading grain merchant in Delaware and 
had made Smyrna second only to Wilmington as a grain port. From 
Delaware, and a large part of the Eastern Shore of Maryland, came 
many wagonloads of grain to be carried in his vessels to Wilmington, 
Philadelphia, New York, and Boston; returning, his schooners 
brought manufactured goods and supplies, which were placed in his 
warehouses, whence his wagons set out for towns and crossroads 
stores of two States. 

A few feet from the south end of the house is a small square brick 
building covered with gray flaking paint; this was the office of the 
merchant, and is a survivor of days when nearly every prosperous 



2 8 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

merchant, lawyer, and doctor in the State had his sanctum in a 
separate little building near his home, where many pipe-smoking or 
tobacco-chewing afternoons were spent with congenial callers. 

The yellow-painted PRESLEY SPRUANGE HOUSE, on Main St. just 
N. of the Cummins house, is another substantial brick dwelling; it 
was erected about the same time as the Cummins house. 

The JOHN BASSETT MOORE HIGH SCHOOL, S. side of South St. 
between US 13 and Delaware St., completed 1936, is typical of the 
modern consolidated schools in Delaware; it was named in honor of 
a native of Smyrna, John Bassett Moore (1860- ), member of the 
Hague Tribunal and first American judge on the Permanent Court 
of International Justice. In the study hall are four murals painted 
in 1936 by members of the Federal Art Project of the Works Progress 
Administration for Delaware. 

Right from Commerce St. on Main St., an asphalt road, to the hamlet of 
DUCK CREEK, 1m., formerly Salisbury, which was the first settlement on 
upper Duck Creek. The group of small frame and brick houses, mostly in a 
picturesque state of dilapidation, is all that remains of the village laid out before 
1718. Except for a few gravestones nothing remains to mark the sites of the 
Quaker meeting house and of the Church of England chapel established here by 
the early planters. 

LAKE COMO, 28.2 m., (R) is a mill pond named, no one knows 
why, for the beautiful lake in the Italian Alps. Boats can be hired for 
bass and pike fishing. 

The STATE WELFARE HOME (R), 28.5 m. (visiting hours, 1-4, Sun. 
and Wed.), a prominent group of brick buildings in Colonial style, 
was opened in 1933 to take the place of the almshouses in the three 
counties of Delaware. 

Planned to permit the addition of more buildings as need arises, 
the plant cost $590,000 as developed up to 1937. Late in 1936 there 
were 372 "guests" averaging 61 years of age, though the home was 
equipped to care for only 263. Thirty-eight percent were Negroes, 
for whom certain floors are reserved; maintenance per capita 
averages $1 a day. The Welfare Home, supported by the three 
counties, is administered by the State Old Age Welfare Commission, 
set up by the legislature in 1931. The Commission also administers 
the Old Age Pension Fund authorized at the same time. 

In 1929 Alfred I. du Pont, powder maker and financier, after 
seeing a pension bill defeated in the legislature, set up a fund from 



Jim - Ilii 






CASTLE WILLIAM (1773), ODESSA, DELAWARE 




I 



BELMONT HALL, NEAR SMYRNA, DELAWARE 



DELAWARE 29 

which pensions were paid to 1,100 persons more than 63 years old 
who had no means of livelihood. He studied European pension sys- 
tems and in 1931 presented to the legislature the bill that was passed 
to provide for pensions and the welfare home. In 1937 the Delaware 
system was approved under the Federal Social Security Act, and 
an equal Federal appropriation now doubles the funds and the num- 
ber of persons benefitted. Instead of about 1,500 who previously 
received the pension, the total is now about 3,000. Monthly pensions 
paid to persons with homes to live in average $10 each. 

At an early time the paupers of Delaware were forced to wear red 
flannel letters on their right arms; "PN," "PK" or "PS" denoting 
paupers of New Castle, Kent or Sussex Counties. They were bound 
out to persons who would take them. After the Revolution the county 
almshouses were established. 

The interiors of the main structure, the Medical Center, and of 
other buildings, are so decorated as to suggest an institution as little 
as possible. Walls are in warm colors, bright curtains hang at the 
windows; fireplaces and furniture give an air of pleasant comfort. 
In the MEDICAL CENTER are the administrative offices, hospital 
facilities, living quarters for some white and Negro guests, and rooms 
for special purposes. To the rear of this building is the GUEST PAVIL- 
ION, housing 140 white men and containing a living room where 
church services and motion picture shows are held. In summer the 
shows are held outdoors. Other buildings hold various maintenance 
units. The grounds stretching along Lake Como comprise 56 acres. 
Masse na and du Pont of Wilmington were the architects. 

An activity of the management is the administration of "outside 
relief" with funds from the State and the counties. No cash is dis- 
pensed but orders are issued for such necessities as food, fuel, and 
rent, on the recommendation of local public or private agencies. 
Obstetrical facilities at the home serve destitute women. 

BELMONT HALL (private), 28.6 m. (L), set well back from the road 
on a large lawn densely shaded by trees, stands on a large grant of 
land that was known as Pearman's Choice. In summer the heavy 
foliage almost hides from view the broad front of the brick house and 
its handsome doorway surmounted by a pediment whose cornice 
extends across the facade. The roof, not pitched to the front and 
rear as usual but sloping to the narrow ends, is topped by a flat 
deck or captain's walk, with a white balustrade. In a Victorian 



3 o THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

day the brick walls and frame trim were painted brown, and a front 
porch and bay window were added. After a fire in 1920 damaged the 
upper part of the structure, the home was restored to an appearance 
approximating that of its early years. The house contains many 
family heirlooms. The woodwork, most of it old, shows fine crafts- 
manship and much of the hardware bears the stamp of British 
manufacturers . 

The two parallel wings are said to have been built about 1684. 
The main section with gabled front was built in 1773 by Thomas 
Collins, high sheriff of Kent County in 1767 and President of Dela- 
ware State 1786-1789, who, when the Revolution broke out, organ- 
ized and fitted out at his own expense a brigade of militia that gave 
him almost as much trouble as the Tories he wished to subdue. A 
battalion of these rustics sent in 1777 to support Washington at 
Morristown, N. J., no sooner arrived there, after having spent four 
weeks on the way, than they asked to be allowed to go home. General 
Washington wrote a bitter letter to Colonel Collins, who was able 
to make them remain for active service. Collins fortified his grounds 
with a stockade and kept a sentry on the roof. In the drawing-room 
fireplace, bullets were molded by women of the neighborhood. 

The farm has attained note in recent years for the culture of very 
early asparagus of high quality. 

The large front section of WOODLAWN, 28.9 m. (L), with a hand- 
some portico having fluted columns, was added about 1859 to the 
Colonial brick house that became the rear of the mansion. The 
house is in poor condition. 

GARRISON'S LAKE, 32.5 m. (R), contains bass and pike. In the 
fishing season boats are usually available at farms bordering the 
shore. Though most Delaware mill ponds present a clear expanse 
of water, some, like this one, contain many snags just below the sur- 
face, making hazardous the use of canoes or other light boats. 

At 33.6 m. is the junction with State 42. 

Right on this road is CHESWOLD, 0.5 m. (211 pop.), a village that has 
grown up since the building of the railroad in 1856; until 1888 it was called Moor- 
ton for a landowner, James S. Moore. A distillery for making apple and pear 
brandy is in this center of a fruit-growing section. Apple orchards cover thousands 
of acres and pear and peach orchards are also extensive. 

A group of people locally called Moors has lived in the vicinity of Cheswold 
since Colonial days. Of unknown origin, they have skins varying from nearly 
white to dark yellow. Most of them are farmers, owning land. Generally quiet 



DELAWARE 31 

and industrious, they live by themselves, associating little with the whites and 
considering themselves superior to the Negroes. The public school attended by 
their children is classed as a Negro school but black children go elsewhere. The 
clan has its own church. 

The STATE COLLEGE FOR COLORED STUDENTS, 37 m. (R), a group 
of large brick buildings at the end of a long paved lane, was opened 
in 1892 after passage of the Morrill Act, which provided land-grant 
endowments for colleges throughout the country. By allotment on the 
basis of population, the Negro college receives one-fifth of the annual 
appropriation for the State, and the University of Delaware, at 
Newark, the rest. Funds are appropriated by the State for main- 
tenance. The State erected the college buildings, aided by gifts of 
Pierre S. du Pont through the Delaware School Auxiliary. 

The college is divided into two departments: a college, the only 
one for Negroes in the State, and a high school. Degrees conferred 
by the college include B.A. and B.S. in the School of Arts and Science, 
and B.S. degrees in education, home economics, agriculture and the 
industrial arts. In 1936-1937 the enrollment (coeducational) was 244, 
with 85 in the college and 159 in the high school. 

The buildings stand on a 200-acre tract, 1 60 acres of which are 
used in the teaching of agriculture, 20 acres are woodland, and 1 5 
acres are used for the campus. There is a large dairy farm with a 
herd of cattle and modern equipment. SOLDIERS' FIELD, for athletics, 
covers five acres. 

Buildings include LOOGKERMAN HALL, the brick homestead built 
by Nicholas Loockerman about 1740, which has been remodeled 
and enlarged as a women's dormitory; the LIBRARY, containing 
4,000 volumes; the TRADES BUILDING, containing class rooms and 
laboratories; DELAWARE HALL, the academic and administration 
building, auditorium and gymnasium, erected in 1928 at a cost of 
$125,000; the PRACTICE SCHOOL of the Department of Teacher 
Training; and CONRAD HALL, containing the Home Economics 
Department with a model apartment as a laboratory. 

SILVER LAKE, 38.2 m., is a State sanctuary for waterfowl and 
Other wildlife. 

DOVER, 39 m. (20 alt., 4,800 pop.) (see DEL. GUIDE). 

Railroad Station. Pennsylvania R.R., W. end of Loockerman St. 
Accommodations. Hotels, tourist homes. 

Annual Dover Day, usually a Saturday in May; fee, $1, covers tour of historic 
structures. 



3 2 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

US 13 passes through Dover on Governor's Ave., on which there 
is little of interest. State St., paralleling US 13 to the E., goes through 
the heart of the town. 

Dover is the capital of Delaware, the seat of Kent County, the 
trading center of a fertile farming region, and the second largest 
town in the State. Pleasant tree-shaded streets are bordered by many 
comfortable Victorian dwellings and a few scattered ones of Colonial 
age and charm. Architectural eyesores are fewer than in most Penin- 
sula towns of similar size. The evident prosperity of Dover results 
from the presence of the State Government, the legal activity of a 
county seat, the rural trade that jams Loockerman St. on Saturday 
nights, and the large chicken-and-plum-pudding packing plant, 
which began to operate in the 1850's. 

Projected by William Penn as a county seat in 1683, Dover was 
laid out in 1717; in 1722 a brick courthouse was erected on the east 
side of the Green. The town became the State capital in 1777, when 
the Three Lower Counties, formerly a part of Pennsylvania, became 
independent of the parent colony and assumed statehood. 

As in other State capitals, but more notably here because of 
the town's small size, there is always a buzzing of political gossip and 
strategy in every law office and on every street corner. In election 
year the hum of this beehive rises in a high-pitched crescendo height- 
ened by the traditional warfare between Wilmington leaders and 
"the down-state crowd" the Kent and Sussex inhabitants being 
by nature antagonistic toward almost anything coming from the 
city. When the legislature meets in biennial session this warfare is 
intensified, with party lines often breaking down, and the session 
prolonged by weeks of debate and maneuvering. All this is enjoyed 
more or less by the lawmakers and the constituency, though there 
are occasional protests. 

One of the most important activities of Dover is the granting of 
corporation charters and the collection of fees and franchise taxes. 
The corporation laws of Delaware include the following provisions: 
"The stockholders and directors may, however, hold their meetings 
and have an office or offices outside of this State. ... As to corpora- 
tions incorporated on or after April 1, 1929, shares of capital stock 
without par value . . . may be issued by the corporation from time 
to time for such considerations as may be fixed ... by the Board of 
Directors thereof, unless in the Certificate of Incorporation the 



DELAWARE 33 

power to fix such consideration shall be reserved to the stockhold- 
ers ...;... and a majority of them (Directors) shall constitute 
a quorum . . . unless the by-laws shall provide that a different 
number shall constitute a quorum, which in no case shall be less 
than one third of the total number . . . nor less than two directors." 

About one fifth of all the active United States corporations listed 
in Moody^ s Manual were chartered in Dover. In 1936 the revenue 
from corporation taxes and fees amounted to $369,000, supplemented 
by the sum of $2,715,000 in franchise taxes. The latter go entirely 
to maintain the public schools of the State; that year it supplied 
more than 70 percent of the total school fund. From time to time 
attempts are made to raise the corporation revenue and make 
national industry pay the whole cost of Delaware's schools; but these 
attempts are usually vigorously resisted by Delaware industry. 

The GREEN is the heart of the old town. Flanked by public build- 
ings and by solid, self-assured private houses of various styles and 
periods, this small elm-shaded area has an atmosphere compounded 
of many elements old brickwork in mellow texture, legends of 
ghosts; memories of governors, judges, legislators, court-day crowds, 
soldiers assembling for the wars, mass meetings, torchlight proces- 
sions, delegates of the Confederacy coming to plead for Delaware's 
support as a slave State, the disarming of a group of hot-blooded 
young Secessionists; wistaria in bloom; fish peddlers from bay vil- 
lages; Negro butlers, janitors and washerwomen gossiping in the 
shade; farmers from St. Jones Neck speaking a dialect as different 
in idiom and intonation from Wilmington speech as can possibly be 
heard in the same language all part of the Green, past and present. 

The OLD STATE HOUSE, E. side of the Green, built in 1792 on the 
site of the early courthouse, remodeled to suit Victorian taste in 
1874, restored in 1910 and enlarged by a south wing in 1921, was 
the seat of the legislature until 1933 when the new Legislative Hall 
was completed. Until 1873 it was also the County Building. 

The restoration of 1910 gave the old building what was presumably 
its original aspect of post-Colonial beauty, which in 1802 led the 
author of a guidebook to remark: "On the east side of the parade in 
Dover is an elegant State House built of brick. It gives an air of 
grandeur to the town." This two-and-a-half story section has a classic 
doorway under a Palladian window, and a gambrel roof with a 
three-part octagonal cupola. The south wing, which may be torn 



34 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

down in the near future, is in the Greek Revival style, with tall 
columns in front. 

In this old building, Delaware in 1787 ratified the Federal Constitu- 
tion, becoming the first State to enter the Union, and here took place 
many other dramatic episodes in the history of the State. 

The building is now used mainly for the offices of the Motor 
Vehicle Dept. On the first floor are portraits of many Governors 
of Delaware, Chief Justices and U. S. Senators. In the basement 
is the office of the Public Archives Commission, with a display of 
documents important in the State's history, including those of the 
original patent from King Charles II to his brother James, Duke of 
York, in 1682, and of subsequent grants from York to William Penn. 
On the second floor are three murals of historic scenes painted by 
Stanley M. Arthurs, a pupil of Howard Pyle. 

The brick KENT COUNTY COURTHOUSE, S. side of the Green, was 
built in 1874 and remodeled in Colonial style in 1918. 

The RIDGELY HOUSE (open on Dover Day), N. side of the Green, 
built 1728 of brick laid in Flemish bond and since altered and 
restored, was erected by Thomas Parke. Since 1764 it has been 
owned by the Ridgely family, long prominent in the State. The 
house contains many heirlooms, much fine woodwork, and has a 
very fine garden. 

The LEGISLATIVE HALL, E. of the Green on a new plaza, a large 
structure of Colonial design, was completed in 1933 to hold the two 
houses of the legislature, the Governor's offices, and the office of the 
Secretary of State. 

WOODBURN (open on Dover Day), King's Highway and Pennsylvania 
Ave., a notable example of late 18th century architecture, is sur- 
rounded by old trees, one of them a tulip poplar 16 feet in girth. 
Woodwork and paneling throughout the house are very fine. The 
great hall is 41 feet long. The house has a ghost, a little man in wig 
and knee-breeches, said to have appeared at various times. 

In the yard of the COUNTY JAIL, Water and New Sts., stands 
one of the three whipping posts in Delaware. Each county has one. 
Whippings take place at unannounced times, usually on Saturday 
mornings, and are public by law. The yard is separated from the 
street only by a wire fence. 

CAMDEN, 42.4 m. (464 pop.), formerly Mifflin's Cross Roads, a 
Quaker settlement founded in 1783 when Daniel Mifflin laid out 



DELAWARE 35 

building lots on a tract called Piccadilly, is a quiet little village in a 
fruit-growing countryside. It has a number of old, plain, dignified 
brick houses. 

Before the coming of the railroad, the town attained some com- 
mercial importance through the use of the wharves at nearby Forest 
Landing and Lebanon, on St. James Creek. Regular boat service 
was maintained with Philadelphia and New York and quantities of 
cordwood, staves, grain, and Spanish-oak bark were shipped by local 
merchants to the cities. The railroad, coming through nearby 
Wyoming, brought prosperity to Camden by expanding the market 
for the farm products of the region. 

The COOPER HOUSE, a gray-painted brick dwelling (L), near the 
northern entrance to Camden, dates from 1782. It contains hand- 
carved paneling of pine, including one completely-paneled wall, 
and semi-circular cupboards, placed on both sides of the fireplaces; 
the doors have hand- wrought hinges and large locks. 

This house was a station on the Underground Railroad, a hiding 
place for Negroes going north; they were sheltered in a small, bunk- 
lined room above the kitchen. This room was reached by means of a 
ladder and entered through a small opening in a ceiling; a round 
window near the peak of the roof provided light and air. Later own- 
ers sealed the opening and bricked in the window. There is a story 
that a tunnel led to the adjoining house, which dated from about 
the same period. 

Almost opposite the Cooper House is the DANIEL MIFFLIN HOUSE 
(R), with tan-painted brick and yellow trim, which was built about 
1796. Warner Mifflin, a brother of Daniel, was one of the first men in 
America to free his slaves unconditionally. There is a fanlight over 
the front door, and the interior contains much hand-carved paneling. 
The old white-oak joists of the house have the bark still on them and 
are clamped with wooden pins. 

On Commerce St. (L) is the FRIENDS' MEETING HOUSE (meeting 
every First Day, 10:30 a.m.), a plain little two-story, gambrel-roofed 
brick structure with two dormers on each side. A marker near the 
peak in front bears the date 1805. The Camden Meeting is the only 
one in lower Delaware, and one of five in the State. 

Only the front wall of the building is laid in Flemish-bond. The 
fine recessed double doors are framed by an architrave that extends 
beyond the wall, an unusual feature in Delaware buildings of the 



3 6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

time in which it was erected. Just under the peak is a little fanlight. 
The dormer windows belong to the original structure, as part of the 
interior finish. On the second floor are old desks and equipment left 
there in 1882 when the room was abandoned by the school long 
maintained by the Friends. 

Some of the grave markers in the adjoining cemetery are taller 
than the usual very low stones of Quaker burial grounds. Upkeep 
of both meeting house and cemetery is guaranteed by a trust fund. 

At 45.9 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Right on this road is WOODSIDE, 0.7 m. (140 pop.), which became a fruit 
and grain shipping center coincident with the building of the railroad. 

At 48.1 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

1. Right on this road is VIOLA, 0.7 m. (104 pop.), laid out in 1856 when 
the railroad opened a station. It is situated on a grant known as Golden Thicket, 
taken up by William Shores in 1681. 

2. Left on this road is CANTERBURY, 0.2 m. (30 pop.), once an important 
horse-changing station on the stage line down the Peninsula. The place was pre- 
sumably named for Canterbury in England. 

At 50.6 m. (L) is a marker indicating the farm formerly known 
as BURBERRY'S BERRY where lived Capt. Jonathan Caldwell, of Col. 
John Haslet's regiment in the Revolution. Caldwell 's men carried 
with them gamecocks from a celebrated "blue hen" strain developed 
in the county and noted for fighting ability. The Delaware soldiers 
were known far and wide as the "Blue Hen's Chickens." 

At 56.5 m. is the junction with State 14. 

Right on this road is HARRINGTON, 0.5 m. (1,812 pop.), a sprawling town 
that started as a railroad junction for the Delaware, Maryland and Virginia 
branch of the Delaware R.R. Railroad traffic has decreased in recent years, but 
the town has nevertheless managed to survive as a rural trading center. In the 
town are two of the numerous shirt factories that since 1930 moved from New 
York to lower-Peninsula towns to take advantage of the section's low wages 
and freedom from hour-regulation and labor agitation. Harrington is the center 
of 14 school districts and has a city manager. 

At 57.4 m. (R) is the entrance to the KENT AND SUSSEX FAIR- 
GROUNDS (fair last week in July and early days of Aug.). At the fair are 
the usual produce and livestock exhibits and sideshows, and displays 
by manufacturers of farm implements and machinery. The half-mile 
track is known throughout the East and nearby South for its harness 
racing. Thursday of fair week is Governor's Day, when the Governor 



DELAWARE 37 

and his staff and hundreds of big and little politicians watch the races 
and hobnob with each other. Automobile racing is the customary 
feature of the last day of the fair, always a Saturday. 

The THARP HOUSE, 60.2 m. (R), built about 1830 by William 
Tharp, later (1847-1851) Governor of Delaware, is part brick and 
part frame, ivied and mellow beneath old trees. Here in one house 
in southern Kent County is seen the blending of the brick construc- 
tion of middle Delaware with the wooden construction typical of 
Sussex County to the south. 

At 60.3 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Right on this road is FARMINGTON, 0.3 m. (117 pop.), first called Flatiron 
when in 1855 the railroad built a station at a crossroads. Three years later a post 
office was established here. In the 1 880's the hamlet had a population of 300 and 
prosperous canning and fruit-evaporating plants. 

In this flat and unprepossessing region, near no large town or navigable water, 
there flourished for 10 years (1868-1878) a school called Farmington Academy 
that turned out many boys who later had high reputations. 

At 62.8 m. a stone marker (R) indicates the boundary between 
Kent and Sussex Counties, a division of some significance. 

This is the transitional region between the gently rolling land and 
hardwood groves of middle Delaware and the flat, sandy terrain 
stretching southward to Cape Charles. South of this point the woods 
are predominantly of loblolly pine. Freshwater swamps contain not 
so much swamp maple as black and sweet gum, white cedar and bald 
cypress; mistletoe in gray-green bunches attaches itself to the tops of 
the gums. Holly grows everywhere beneath the tall pines, sometimes 
reaching a height of 50 feet. 

Groundhogs called woodchucks in the northern States 
which are plentiful in the upper part of Delaware, do not exist south 
of this point; skunks, however, have lately been extending their 
range southward a few miles every year. Turkey-buzzards are very 
numerous; when the sun comes out after a heavy rain, they are often 
seen drying themselves, perched on fence posts with wingsVout- 
stretched and motionless. 

Gray foxes are almost as numerous as red ones, and annoy fox 
hounds by diving like rabbits into brush piles instead of running in 
the open. All Sussex was formerly a gunners' paradise, but a tradi- 
tional disregard of game laws and the increase of predators have 
greatly reduced the numbers of bobwhite here called both 



3 8 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

"pa'tridges" and "quail," but usually just "birds" and of rabbits, 
squirrels, and woodcock. Coon hunting and fox hunting by night 
are twin sports to which Sussex countians are passionately devoted. 

Nearly all the white inhabitants of Sussex are of old English 
stock. Names such as Burton, Warrington or Ellingsworth are met 
everywhere. Whether residents of towns or not, all have the agri- 
cultural viewpoint. Except when near illicit whiskey stills in swamps, 
they are friendly and excessively hospitable to strangers. In one meal 
farm hospitality may proffer fried chicken, fried pork, white potatoes, 
sweet potatoes, cole slaw, a thick damp cornpone, milk, coffee, 
preserves, pickles, turnip greens, pie, cake, and toothpicks. If there 
are several men in the family the women wait on them before sitting 
down themselves. 

Surviving such a meal, the stranger sits back and tries to under- 
stand the conversation, which in rhythm, intonation and phrasing is 
apt to be so different from any he has ever heard as to be incompre- 
hensible. Words, some of them relics of Anglo-Saxon days, are run 
together. When, after dinner, the man of the house takes his shoes 
off, lights his pipe and turns to give his sons directions on the eve- 
ning's work, he is apt to say, "Mung-ya go to the pound and fodder 
them mules"; "mung-ya" means somebody. In southwestern Sussex, 
it may also mean two or more persons, as in "Mung-ya comin' to 
church tonight?", meaning "Are you and your family coming to 
church?" (In eastern Sussex it would be "you folks.") The expres- 
sion "you all" is heard more often in the conversation of persons 
living in towns than among the farming people. 

A shock of fodder is a "stock," a pimple a "pipjinny." Narrow is 
pronounced "norry", and sparrow "sporry." Yet the same speaker, 
who may have gone to school only three winters in his life, may say, 
"Hit was so dark I couldn't quite discern you." 

In his own house on his own land there is no one more at ease in 
the presence of a stranger than the Sussex countian. Behind his 
composure, as behind his independence of mind, his stubbornness 
and his love of fun and laughter, is his evident feeling of equality 
with any white man under the sun. He may politely defer to someone 
he thinks knows more about something than he does, and above all 
he respects a smart lawyer; but he feels easy and comfortable in 
knowing more about farming than the lawyer does. 

The architecture of old houses in Sussex County is very different 



DELAWARE 39 

from that found in middle and upper Delaware. The sandy soil did 
not provide much material for brickmaking, and most of the surviving 
Colonial houses are frame, generally of small or medium size, the 
main section having two-and-a-half stories; there is usually a wing, 
in this part of the county placed on the rear but in eastern Sussex 
placed on the end. Small houses, such as Negro cabins, often have two 
front doors, one to the kitchen and the other to the "sittin 5 room." 
Most of the new houses both in town and country are without 
distinction, having been copied from pictures discovered in the 
ubiquitous lumberyard catalogs. 

Contrasting with New Castle County's wheat-growing and dairy- 
ing, Sussex agriculture produces truck a term having nothing to 
do with the motortruck that now carries most of the farm produce 
to northern markets over this and connecting highways. In Delaware, 
garden truck has always meant the vegetables and small fruits that 
were grown in the truck patch. Long noted for its sweet potatoes, the 
county also produces great quantities of tomatoes, asparagus, straw- 
berries, cucumbers, cantaloups, and watermelons; broccoli is being 
grown increasingly. Orchards cover thousands of acres. Another 
commercial activity of the region is egg production and the raising 
of broiler chickens. From early spring, when asparagus is harvested, 
to the frosty fall, when "Delaware sweets" are dug up, the loaded 
trucks rumble north to Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and 
even to Boston. The progress of the spring up the Peninsula is ac- 
curately charted by the passage first of Virginia trucks, then trucks 
from the lower Eastern Shore of Maryland, then the Delaware trucks. 
Sussex County's climate is tempered by the near-by ocean and 
Chesapeake Bay. 

BRIDGEVILLE, 69.3 m. (987 pop.), is an important canning 
and shipping center, booming along without pause from April as- 
paragus to November pumpkins. Large apple and peach orchards 
nearby bear fruit sold at premium prices in the cities. The town is 
one of the largest cantaloup-shipping points of the Peninsula; straw- 
berries are exported in huge quantities. 

Right on Market St., across the railroad tracks, is the AUCTION 
YARD (R), an open field where all summer auctions of produce are 
held; bidders walk about between the loaded trucks, wagons, and old 
sedans, making offers to the owners. 

In the METHODIST CHURCHYARD, N. end of Williams St., is the 



40 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

GRAVE OF WILLIAM CANNON (1809-1865), Governor of Delaware 
(1863-1865). Governor Cannon served in a period when feeling ran 
high, especially in lower Delaware, between the Union and Con- 
federate sympathizers. He was threatened with impeachment be- 
cause of his sending troops to the polls allegedly to intimidate voters 
during the election of 1862. 

At 70.4 m. is the junction with a side road. 

Left on this road to a large APPLE ORCHARD, 3.6 m., a mile and a half long 
and a quarter mile wide; it contains 60,000 trees (in bloom in late April or early May). 
At the height of the picking season (late Aug. and early Sept.), there are scores of 
black and white pickers on the plantation men, women and children some 
of whom live in barracks on the property. Apples are of several varieties and sub- 
jected to inspection for size and quality. A day's picking may run to 3,500 bushels. 
A normal year's crop is about 200,000 bushels, valued at $100,000 in recent years. 

HEARN'S POND, 74 m., contains bass and pike. Boats are available 
in the fishing season. 

LAWRENCE (R), 74.4 m., a large white two-story house with a 
pedimented portico having square columns, and with small wings 
on the sides, was built about 1840 by Charles Wright. It has extensive 
grounds. 

At 76.7 m. is the northern junction with State 20. 

Right on this road is RELIANCE, 5.5 m., a hamlet on the Maryland- 
Delaware Line. A few feet W. of the line, in Maryland, is what was formerly 
PATTY CANNON'S TAVERN, in the early 19th century the headquarters of Patty 
Cannon, kidnaper of free Negroes. Until her death in 1829 in jail while awaiting 
trial for murder of a slave dealer and two Negro children, Patty Cannon and her 
ruffian son-in-law, Joe Johnson, made a business of seizing free Negroes and 
holding them in her attic dungeon for sale to dealers. The captives were taken 
down the nearby Nanticoke River to Chesapeake Bay and thence usually to 
Gulf ports, whence they were sold to planters in the new cotton country of the 
Southwest. Patty prided herself on her strength, and it is said she would wrestle 
any man who cared to challenge her, and throw him. Though in 1793 kidnaping 
was made a crime punishable by whipping and the cropping of the ears, Patty 
operated without fear because the free Negro had no friends and juries balked at 
imposing the penalties. Another protection to her was the ease with which she 
could evade arrest by stepping across the State Line or the line between two 
Maryland counties that met there. Both States were her hunting grounds. The 
name of the boundary hamlet at the time was Johnson's Cross Roads, later 
changed to Reliance for respectability's sake. 

SEAFORD, 76.8 m. (25 alt., 2,469 pop.), is at the head of 
navigation on the deep Nanticoke River, 40 miles from its mouth 



DELAWARE 41 

in lower Chesapeake Bay. It is a busy town of varied industries 
including the manufacture of baskets and other containers for fruits 
and vegetables; fertilizers are produced and fruit and vegetables 
canned on a large scale. 

As one of the two Delaware towns on navigable Chesapeake Bay 
estuaries, Seaford is similar to the many towns on the Eastern Shore 
of Maryland that have largely depended upon shipping and on the 
seafood of the bay for food and income. Though now a declining 
activity, the shucking and packing of oysters is still carried on here 
from September to May. In the 1870's dozens of little rake-masted 
schooners of 500 bushels capacity made weekly trips down to the 
oyster beds of the lower Chesapeake. These vessels have all disap- 
peared from the river, and oysters are now hauled overland by truck 
from wharves on Delaware Bay. Seaford also shipped large quan- 
tities of shad in the days when thousands of these fine food fish swam 
up the river to spawn in fresh water. Although in recent years the 
decreased numbers of shad in the bay have met an increased barri- 
cade of pound nets at the mouth of the river, small numbers of shad 
and rockfish make their way up to this point and are taken below 
the town. 

Boatbuilding was another industry of early Seaford, as it was at 
one time or another in every town on a navigable stream of the 
Peninsula; today there is one small yard building pleasure boats. 
Until long after the coming of the railroad there was regular steamer 
service for passengers and freight between Seaford and Baltimore. 
Though Baltimore is only 80 miles NW. of Seaford as the crow flies, 
the voyage of 40 miles down the river and 100 miles up the bay took 
from 16 to 19 hours. From 1825 to 1855 a line of vessels between 
Norfolk, Va., and Seaford (120 m.) connected with stages to Dona 
Landing near Dover (42 m.); whence another line of boats ran to 
Philadelphia (80 m.). This water-and-land route between North and 
South was no longer used after the railroad was built. 

Laid out in 1799 as Hooper's Landing, the town was soon called 
Seaford, presumably after Seaford in Sussex Co., England, whence 
came many of the early settlers. 

Seaford preserves the memory of Patty Cannon more than do other 
towns that came within that outlaw's domain. It is said that when 
she was finally captured she was brought here and arraigned before 
a magistrate who committed her to Georgetown jail. The town crier, 



4 2 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

calling the hours, bellowed "Three o'clock and Pat Cannon's taken !" 

Another memorable event in Seaford's history occurred the day 
after the election of 1831, when a rumor spread that the Negroes 
were rising to massacre the whites. Terrorized women gathered up 
children and possessions and whipped up their teams on roads 
leading north while their husbands armed themselves for the battle. 
Not until many hours had passed did the scare subside. The slaves 
of Delaware and Maryland, unarmed, unorganized, and peaceful, 
had never thought of such a wild project. 

The Civil War caused a sharp division between the Union sym- 
pathizers and the ruling class, the slaveholders. The Union people 
were more numerous, however, and it was dangerous to express 
adherence to the South. When a minister one Sunday refused to 
offer prayers for the United States, he was evicted from his pulpit by 
force. 

With other Sussex communities, Seaford clings to some of the old 
customs. Rug-weaving and quilting parties are frequent during the 
winter months. Older men still make their own ax, hoe and shovel 
handles. Most small boats and skiffs are made by local craftsmen, 
some of whom are old shipwrights. For a month before Christmas 
many of the poorer families of the town keep pace with their country 
relatives in the making of holly wreaths for sale to northern markets; 
in the evenings the whole family gathers round the kitchen stove and 
chats as holly twigs and berries are wired to hand-made wooden 
hoops. The making of holly wreaths is a big business throughout the 
county, as it is in the Maryland and Virginia counties to the south. 

The brick HOOPER HOUSE, behind a dwelling at Arch and High 
Sts., was built by one of the Hoopers who laid out the village in 1799. 
The remaining part of the structure is used as a garage and for 
storage purposes. 

At 77.2 m. is the southern junction with State 20. 

Left on this road is CONCORD, 3 m. (150 pop.), a hamlet in a state of pic- 
turesque decay by a mill pond at the headwaters of the Nanticoke River. During 
the late 18th and early 19th centuries, when there were several bog-iron furnaces 
nearby, the place saw high prosperity. 

For years the smelting of bog ore was widespread in Sussex County and in 
Worcester County, Md. Hundreds of thousands of dollars were invested in the 
business. Pine Grove, Lightfoot's and Douglass' furnaces, near here were pros- 
perous producers until the use of richer ores elsewhere brought ruin to the local 
industry. 



DELAWARE 43 

DELMARVA CAMP, 81.1 in. (L), is the scene of the largest white 
camp meeting held in Delaware. (First two weeks in Aug.; hotel and 
"tent" accommodations.) 

Delmarva Camp is an example of the modernization, externally, 
of the old-time camp meetings popular on the Peninsula since the 
time of Asbury and other fervent dissenters of the 18th century. 
Formerly the meetings were held in a pine and hardwood grove, 
illuminated at night by pine knots on six foot stands; today they are 
held in a tabernacle a shed holding rows of benches and a rostrum 

and the grounds are lighted by electric lights. The earlier "tent" 

small frame cabins with open fronts have mostly been replaced 
by newer and more comfortable ones, about 60 in all. Services, held 
every evening, are amplified and broadcast to remote corners of the 
grounds. There are no services during the day. 

Religious fervor during the evening services is likely to burst out 
in "Amen, brother," "Praise the Lord!" and other shouts no less 
heartfelt than in past times, though criticism is voiced concerning 
the way the young folks go off and drink beer while the preaching is 
going on. After service there is promenading and visiting until one 
by one the lights in the tents go out and the camp slumbers. 

Before the day of the automobile, farm families would come to 
stay the full two weeks. It was their annual opportunity to enjoy 
religion and sociability, to relax, and to make love. Nowadays 
everybody comes in a car, and many come only in the evening for 
the services, which are attended by larger numbers than in the past. 

The entrance is beneath the arch displaying the name of the camp. 
A fee is charged for "protected" parking to prevent young people 
from using dark back seats for love making. Each "tent" has a front 
room without a front wall, another room behind it, and a kitchen 
shed in the rear. Above are dressing and sleeping rooms. Many 
families still cook their meals in their tents, but both in the tents and 
at the hotel the cooks have had vast experience in preparing corn and 
beans, fried cymlin's (squash), chicken potpie and other dishes 
native to the Peninsula, which are topped off with huckleberry pie, 
cantaloups, watermelons, or peaches and cream. 

LAUREL, 83.3 m. (2,277 pop.), laid out in 1802 on the banks of 
Broad Creek, was named for the laurel bushes growing thick along 
the stream. Thousands of crates of cucumbers and cantaloups are 
shipped annually from here by truck and rail, as well as by water, the 



44 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

town being at the head of navigation. Canning and the manufacture 
of fertilizer, and of boxes, crates and baskets, made largely from 
gum wood, are the chief activities. 

The town is built on a tract known as Bachelor's Delight, part of 
3,000 acres set aside in 1711 by the assembly at Annapolis this 
part of Delaware was then claimed by Maryland for the use of 
the Nanticoke Indians living on the lower Eastern Shore. Within 
50 years, however, nearly all had left the reservation and gone up 
the bay into western Pennsylvania; afterwards from time to time 
members of the tribe would return in war canoes to dig up their 
dead, and then leave as silently as they had come. 

The AUCTION BLOCK (9-4 daily), 8th St. near Central Ave., starts 
its sales season about May 15 with strawberries and continues opera- 
tions into the fall. 

The block itself is a large frame structure with two driveways 
into which farmers guide their produce-laden vehicles. In the long 
lines are trucks of all sizes, carts, buggies, wagons, many motor cars 
filled to the roofs, sometimes a privately-owned school bus, and 
even what was once a hearse. Drivers range from bright young white 
farmers to bent old Negroes. 

Little time is wasted in the selling process, especially if the line is 
a mile or so long. A truck or wagon halts under the shed just long 
enough for the bidders to lift a lid and nod to the auctioneer who is 
crying the sale. When a deal is made the seller is given a voucher 
negotiable at Laurel banks. In 1936 shipments of cucumbers alone 
sold through the block exceeded 90,000 bushels. The sales of canta- 
loup in one day amounted to $7,000. 

The COLLINS HOUSE, at the northern end of town on Delaware 
Ave., with a white columned portico and gallery, was the home of 
Nathaniel Mitchell, Governor of Delaware 1805-1808. The house 
was built after his retirement. The erection of other houses has 
marred the vista to the creek at the foot of the slope. 

RECORDS POND (boats available), also in the northern end of town, 
contains bass and pike. Lover's Lane, part of the pond, is a nearly 
straight stretch of water two miles long, where young couples like 
to drift among the waterlilies between the wooded shores. 

At the traffic light is the junction with State 24. 

Left from Laurel on this street to the junction with a dirt road, 2.1 m.; L. 
here to OLD CHRIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, BROAD CREEK HUNDRED, 2.6 m. (R), 



THE STATE HOUSE, DOVER, DELAWARE 




NEAR DOVER, DELAWARE 










SAWMILL NEAR SALISBURY, MARYLAND 






TEACKLE MANSION, PRINCESS ANN, MARYLAND 



DELAWARE 45 

on the pine-wooded shore of CHIPMAN'S POND. (Open twice yearly: all-day meeting 
on a Sun. in May with sermon at 2:30, and a rogation service on the 3rd Sunday in Sept., 
2:30.) 

Christ Church was erected in 1771 upon ground that until 1765 had been 
claimed by Maryland. For some years after the settlement of the boundary the 
church was, however, a chapel of ease in Stepney Parish of Somerset County, 
Md. The plain building has never been altered and, except for the window sashes, 
has never been painted. Because of the lasting qualities of the fine-grained, resi- 
nous heartpine of which it was constructed, inside and out, it remains today in 
almost perfect condition, a notable example of Colonial church architecture. 
The roof has been renewed from time to time, and the two front doors replace 
those of earlier times. 

Inside, the light from the many-paned, arched windows falls upon the rich 
brown patina of the ancient woodwork, box pews, and paneling, beneath an 
arched ceiling. There is no formal altar, merely a plain table within a railing and 
a wooden cross above. High on one side of the room is the pulpit with a canopy 
above it. A slave gallery extends above the entrance. 

The church possesses two pewter alms basins and a pewter paten bearing the 
name of the maker, Gleason; it also has two old silver chalices with ebony bases. 
A Bible said to have been presented by George Ill's queen in 1777 has disap- 
peared. Parish records of 1792 list a membership of 476 adults, white and black, 
including 109 communicants. The rise of Methodism in the 19th century made 
such inroads on the congregation that regular services ceased in 1850. The church 
is in the care of the rector of St. Philip's Church, Laurel. 

DELMAR, 90.5 m. (2,018 pop.; 838 in Del.), on the Maryland 
Line has two mayors, two town councils and two school systems. 
State St., the principal business thoroughfare, follows the Delaware- 
Maryland boundary. Formerly almost wholly dependent upon the 
railroad shops for its existence, Delmar has become a trading center 
and shipping point of some importance. 

When the Delaware R.R. reached here in 1859, the spot was a 
wilderness of pine forest. Later the road was carried down to Cape 
Charles by the New York, Philadelphia and Norfolk R.R., and a 
village grew up around the junction. In 1918 the whole line between 
Wilmington and Cape Charles was taken over by the Pennsylvania 
R.R. which called it the Delmarva Division. 

The Delaware-Maryland boundary here was surveyed in 1750- 
1751 by John Watson and William Parsons for Pennsylvania and by 
John Emory and Thomas Jones for Maryland, who ran it from the 
Atlantic Ocean 35 miles westward to the center of the Peninsula. In 
1764 Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon started from this western 
point and ran the other Delaware-Maryland boundary northward 
100 miles to Pennsylvania, and thence westward across the moun- 



4 6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

tains toward the Ohio River. This boundary between Pennsylvania 
and Maryland symbolically divided the free from the slave States 
just before the Civil War. Delaware was a slave State. 

Left on State St., which becomes the LINE ROAD, to the junction with an im- 
proved road, 0.8 m.; L. here to the BARN OF E. GUY HASTINGS, 1 m., in the loft 
of which old-time square dances are often held on Friday nights during the fall 
and winter months. (Visitors welcome either as dancers or spectators; many offer con- 
tributions for music.) The place is in no sense a roadhouse, and nothing is sold. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hastings hold the dances as community affairs because of their 
interest in keeping up the old customs, and often call the figures themselves. 



MARYLAND 

Delaware Line Salisbury Pocomoke City Virginia Line, 
40.8 m. US 13. 

Delmarva Division of Pennsylvania R.R. roughly parallels route. 

Greyhound and Great Eastern busses follow the route. 

Paved roadbed. Hotels in larger towns, tourist homes and camps along route. 

Section 4. Delaware Line to Virginia Line, 40.8 m. US 13 

In Maryland US 13 crosses an area where the flora and fauna be- 
long to both the North and the South. Like the rest of the Eastern 
Shore, this region is low, level, and very fertile; farms are for the most 
part small but intensively cultivated. Strawberries, cantaloups, 
sweet potatoes, small fruits, and other vegetables and berries are the 
chief products. Each December the woodlands yield quantities of 
holly and laurel for shipment to the large cities. Loblolly pines and 
cedar also grow in abundance. 

Many early Marylanders, belonging to the strain that sprinkled 
the map of the United States with such place names as Tombstone, 
Santa Glaus, and Bowlegs, gave names to their grants that were more 
descriptive than orthodox. Among these names, some of which be- 
long to the Eastern Shore, were Want Weather, Penny Come Quick, 
Hard Bargain, Aha the Cow Pasture, and Bachelor's Delight. On 
these grants are still standing a number of fine old houses, most of 
whose owners admit visitors interested in history or architecture pro- 
vided they call at convenient hours. 

US 13 crosses the Maryland Line in DELMAR, m., at State St. 

LEONARD'S MILL (R), 2.5m., operated by water power for more 
than a hundred years, is still grinding grain for flour as well as feed 
for livestock. 

At 5.5 m. is a junction with a macadamized road. 

Left on this road is SALISBURY AIRPORT, 0.3 m., where licensed mechanics, 
pilots, and planes are avilable at all times. This well-drained flying field has ade- 
quate runways. 

SALISBURY, 7 m. (10,997 pop.) (see MD. GUIDE). 

Although Salisbury, seat of Wicomico County, was founded in 
1732, it has very few old buildings because fires in 1860 and 1886 
destroyed almost every building in town. Its streets, however, have 
never been straightened and widened; they still wander crookeuly 

47 



48 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

about in the four sections of town created by the two branches of the 
Wicomico River, giving the place an old-fashioned air that belies its 
importance as one of the leading ports and market towns of the East- 
ern Shore. It ranks second in the list of Maryland ports; each year 
the river bears cargoes worth approximately a total of $10,000,000 
to and from this point. While always a center of some importance its 
major growth has come since 1900, the population more than 
doubling in forty years. Though many of the homes are compara- 
tively new they have an old-fashioned air of comfort, created in part 
by broad lawns and carefully tended gardens. 

On October 10th, 1707, a large tract of land in this county was 
granted to Thomas Pemberton of lower Delaware, and to William 
Whittington of Maryland. Pemberton later acquired another tract 
to the north of it that was called Pemberton's Good Will (see below). 
Col. Isaac Handy, son of Samuel Handy who had arrived from Eng- 
land about 1664, acquired land in the Pemberton grant and built a 
wharf at the forks, where a little settlement known as Handy's Land- 
ing grew up. This was included in the tract laid out by the Assembly 
as the town of Salisbury in 1732. 

The newly created town was named for a city in Wiltshire, Eng- 
land, a county from which many of the settlers came. Because of the 
isolation of this part of the Eastern Shore from main traffic lanes, 
English customs persisted here long after they had disappeared from 
other places settled by the English. It is only a few decades since the 
annual street fair at Whitsuntide was abandoned and since the 
town crier ceased to walk the streets. 

At the beginning of the Revolutionary War the allegiance of 
Salisburians was divided. After the local militia had joined the Con- 
tinental Army, Tory activity became so pronounced that an appeal 
for troops was made to the State Assembly to keep them in control, 
and then to the Continental Congress. In response to the latter peti- 
tion, Gen. William Smallwood arrived on February 19, 1777, with 
a company and broke up the groups of active Royalists, imprisoning 
some and enlisting others in the service of the Colonies. 

Union troops were stationed here for most of the Civil War period, 
and from this place detachments were sent into Delaware and Vir- 
ginia to disarm and disband embryonic secessionist organizations. 
These troops were also used to guard the telegraph line down the 
peninsula, which for some time was the only means of communica- 



MARYLAND 49 

tion between Washington and Union forces in Virginia; messages 
had to be relayed by boat across the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. It is 
said that this line carried to Washington the first news of Lee's sur- 
render. In a cemetery on Commerce St. are graves of 53 unidentified 
soldiers who were victims of the so-called "black measles" epidemic 
that swept the camp. 

POPLAR HILL, 119 Elizabeth St., having survived two fires, is the 
oldest structure today on Pemberton's Good Will tract. The two- 
and-a-half story frame building, erected in 1795 for Maj. Levin 
Handy, a relative of Col. Isaac Handy, contains much fine hand- 
carved woodwork. There is a Palladian window over the entrance 
portico. 

The WIGOMICO PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 100 block, Broad St., has 
the records of its first congregation, which dated from 1753; about 
1830 its congregation merged with that of the Rock-A-Walkin or- 
ganized by Francis Makemie in 1684 at Upper Ferry (see below). 

JOHN B. PARSONS HOME FOR THE AGED, NW. corner of Bush and 
High Sts., was founded by the late Philadelphia traction magnate, 
a native of this county, in tribute to his mother. He also created a 
$600,000 endowment fund. 

The WICOMICO STATE GAME FARM (R), on Lake St. at the edge of 
town, propagates quail and pheasants for restocking Maryland 
woodlands. The MUNICIPAL PARK, E. Main St., is* a 63-acre tract of 
reclaimed and developed swampland, serving both as a recreational 
center and as a low-level reservoir for the city's water supply. On 
Camden Ave. (US 13) at the southern end of the town is (L) the 
STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE, opened in 1925 and completed in 1933 
as one of the four teacher-training institutions. 

At 9.4 m. the highway crosses TONYTANK CREEK in TONY- 
TANK, which bears the name of one of the original land grants in 
this region. (The road here has three successive right-angle turns and should 
bejollowed with caution.) Many years ago when this mile-long tribu- 
tary of the Wicomico was navigable, the village site was the thriving 
headquarters of a large trade carried on with the West Indies and 
elsewhere. The commercial value of the creek passed with the deep- 
ening of the river to Salisbury, 

A dam was built in the little stream to provide power for the old 
GRIST MILL that is still standing and, until recently, was used to 
grind flour for man and feed for livestock. 



5 o THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Palatial TONYTANK MANOR (R), with its huge Doric portico, was 
erected in the early part of the 19th century; it has an attractive 
setting and beautiful gardens. 

At 10.3 m. is a junction with a concrete road. 

1 . Left on this road is FRUITLAND, 0.8 m. (600 est. pop.), formerly a cross- 
roads settlement called Forktown. After it began to grow with the arrival of the 
railroad in 1867, its present name was selected by majority vote, and following a 
recommendation by the postmaster; the minority had wanted to call it Phoenix. 
The village has a vegetable cannery, two shirt factories, and a large lumber mill. 

2. Right on this paved road is SHAD POINT, 1.3 m. (125 pop.), on the south 
bank of the Wicomico; here shad fishing was an important activity for many 
years. CHERRY HILL, a handsome residence built before 1757, belonged to the 
Somers and Gunby families for more than a century. Though the structure has 
been much remodeled and enlarged, it contains the broad fireplaces, the winding 
staircase, the handhewn interior trim and the heart-pine flooring of the old house. 
The grounds are now landscaped and include a private golf course. 

At 10.9 m. are tourists' cabins (R) at the junction with a paved 
road that is a 6-mile alternate to US 13. 

Right on this alternate at a junction with a macadamized road is ALLEN, 
3.8 m. (110 pop.), a hamlet where farmers sell their products to shippers at a 
cooperative auction block. 

Right from Allen on the macadamized road 2.6 m. to an entrance lane (L) 
leading to the PAUL JONES HOUSE, visible from the road. The small brick struc- 
ture, erected on the bank of the Wicomico Creek in 1733, has a gambrel roof, 
dormer windows, and excellent interior paneling and carved woodwork. The 
interlocking diamond pattern on the north wall is noteworthy. James Jones, a 
native of Monmouthshire, Wales, patented his plantation as Jones' Hole. He had 
first settled in Northampton, Virginia, where, being a Quaker, he was placed in 
sheriff's custody for "moveing in ye court in an irrevent manner with his hatt on 
his head" and refusing to pay church levies. The year after he settled here he was 
appointed one of the commissioners and a justice of the newly established Somer- 
set County. In 1672, when George Fox was making a tour of the Eastern Shore, 
the great Quaker organizer held at least one meeting at the Jones' home a 
meeting Fox described in his journal as a "large and glorious" gathering. 

On the macadamized road at 3.5 m. is the junction with a dirt road (L) lead- 
ing 1 in. to READING FERRY across Wicomico Creek. The flat-bottomed raft-like 
boat, with room for two automobiles, is similar to two others on nearby Wicomico 
River. At 3.6 m. the macadamized road ends; straight ahead on the dirt road 
at 4.3 m. from Allen is the entrance to CHASE HOUSE. The Reverend Thomas 
Chase was residing here in 1741 when his son, Samuel, later a signer of the Decla- 
ration of Independence and noted jurist, was born. Upon this fact was based the 
assertion, later refuted, that the signer was born here (see below). An elongated 
frame structure with dormer windows, the house contains much of the original 
paneling and woodwork. 



MARYLAND 51 

On the southern edge of Allen, at 4.2 m., the alternate route to US 13 
crosses Passerdyke Greek. Near the bridge (R) are the remains of bridge abut- 
ments constructed in 1835 for what was to have been one of Maryland's first 
railroads. On June 3, 1835, the Maryland Assembly enacted the so-called Eight- 
Million-Dollar Bill providing funds for the construction of six connecting rail- 
roads, including the Eastern Shore Railroad from Elkton to the site of Crisfield. 
Rejoicing over passage of the bill found expression in public meetings, the ringing 
of church bells, salutes with cannon and fireworks, and a generous display of 
flags. Much of the right-of-way for this road was graded and bridge abutments 
were constructed before it was realized that the program was too ambitious 
for the State's resources. During the financial panic of 1837 the projects were 
abandoned, never to be revived. 

At 5.2 m. is the entrance (R) to BRENTWOOD, visible from the highway. 
The brick part of this imposing structure was built in 1738. The hand-carved 
mantels, built-in corner cupboards, paneling, hand wrought nails, and the H- 
hinges have been preserved. The original builders of the house constructed a 
cave for some unknown purpose, it is entered from the house by a stairway, has a 
15-foot ceiling and is 10 feet in width. In 1806 the estate was known as Adam's 
Adventure, and later as End of Strife. 

At 7.1 m. is the junction with US 13. 

At 14 m. on US 13 is EDEN, a hamlet near which was conducted 
the Eden School, which until 1796 gave instruction to sons of prom- 
inent families in Maryland and Virginia. 

At 16.7 m. is LORETTO, a busy farm-produce shipping point 
until the development of motortruck transportation. Here is the junc- 
tion (R) with the short alternate route (see above}. 

At 19.7 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Right on this road at 3.5 m. is WAGGAMAN GUT FARM (R), now the county 
poor farm, with a structure whose glazed brick walls date from the 17th century. 
The interior woodwork stairs, doors, windows, and floors were all hand 
hewn from native oak. The house at one time contained much paneling, but nearly 
all has been removed. Three Waggaman brothers fled from England during the 
Cromwell Protectorate, two of them becoming citizens of Jamestown, and the 
third the owner of this property. The brothers held annual family reunions here, 
talking over old times and comparing notes on agriculture and political news 
while their daughters, on vacations from school in England, displayed the latest 
in English and Continental styles. 

Diagonally across the highway from the Waggaman house is HACKLAND (open), 
now a tenanted farm. This tract was granted to Levin Denwood in 1670. His resi- 
dence here on Monie Creek was designated by the court as a Quaker meeting 
house and to it were attracted many leaders of the Religious Society of Friends, 
including its founder, George Fox in 1672, Thomas Chalkley in 1698, and 
Thomas Story three years later. Denwood was one of a committee of ten Quakers 
appointed in 1682 to select a site for the Third Haven Friends' Meeting House in 
Talbot County, a structure still standing in Easton. In 1711 he donated an acre 



5 2 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

of land, about a mile north of Hackland, as a site for one of the first Friends' 
meeting houses in this region. The only present-day reminder of Denwood's 
tenancy is a small brick outbuilding said to have been erected before his death in 
1725. 

At 5.4 m. the paved road ends at a junction with a shell road; R. on this and 
L. at 7.1 m. on the Reading Ferry (dirt) Rd. to the entrance lane, at 7.3 m. , to 
the probable SITE OF THE BIRTHPLACE OF SAMUEL CHASE (1741-1811), a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence and later a Justice (1796-1811) of the United 
States Supreme Court. The house, now destroyed, was on the south bank of the 
Wicomico River near the mouth of DashielPs Creek and belonged to Chase's 
maternal grandfather. The question of where Chase was born was a matter of 
dispute for many decades but recent research seems to establish the assertion that 
his mother was staying in her father's home at the time of her confinement. Two 
years later Samuel's father became rector of St. Paul's P. E. Church in Balti- 
more; young Samuel read law in Annapolis before establishing an office for him- 
self in Baltimore. He died in Baltimore on June 19, 1811. 

PRINCESS ANNE, 20.5 m. (975 pop.), the seat of Somerset 
County, is the market town for a rich agricultural area and has a few 
industrial plants nearly all of which serve farming needs; these in- 
clude a large gristmill, a lumber mill, a box and basket factory, and 
two vegetable canneries. When the town was laid out in 1733, the 
surveyor received 400 pounds of tobacco for his labors. Some struc- 
tures erected soon after the town's establishment stand along the 
wide, tree-shaded streets, side by side with those of more recent con- 
struction. 

Along US 13 at the northern end of town is (R) the MANOKIN 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, erected in 1765 by one of the six congrega- 
tions in this region organized prior to 1708 by Francis Makemie. 
The ancient walls are now ivy-covered and shadowed by spreading 
trees. 

Near the center of town, on the main street (US 13), is (R) the 
WASHINGTON HOTEL, a three-story frame structure that has served 
travelers for nearly two centuries. The inn has dormers and outside 
double chimneys; though it was modernized in 1906 its early ap- 
pearance has been fairly well retained. Like other hostelries of East- 
ern Shore county seats, this old place was a social center and fre- 
quently slaves and other property changed hands over its gaming 
tables. 

TEAGKLE MANSION, at the western end of Prince William St., is 
an austere brick structure. The two-and-a-half story central part, 
narrow and standing on a high foundation, is approached by a 
broad stoop; unusually long two-story pavilions having much lower 



MARYLAND 



53 



floor levels and a parapet connect it with gabled wings. The gable 
pediment of the central section is notable for its unusually steep 
pitch; the generous proportions of this pediment somewhat minimize 
the scale of the structure as a whole. The house provided the setting 
for George Alfred Townsend's novel, The Entailed Hat, a story of 
antebellum days. 

EAST GLEN, at the eastern end of Prince William St., erected in 
Colonial times, has carved mantels and woodwork exhibiting fine 
craftsmanship. 

At the corner of US 1 3 and Washington Ave. is a BOXWOOD GAR- 
DEN laid out in 1 844 and providing a charming example of small- 
scale landscaping of the period. 

Opposite the garden, on Washington Ave., is CRISFIELD HOUSE, 
so large that it has been divided into two dwellings. This was the 
home of John W. Crisfield (1806-1897), a lawyer long influential in 
Eastern Shore affairs. He served in Congress as a Whig (1847-1849) 
and (1861-1863) as a Union Republican; he was a member of the 
peace conference hastily called in 1861 to attempt to stave off the 
Civil War. A leading spirit in the building of the Eastern Shore R.R., 
he became its president. 

Part of the walls and gallery of ST. ANDREW'S P. E. CHURCH, built 
in 1770 on the corner of Washington Ave. and Church St., formed 
part of the chapel built the same year as a chapel of ease of Somerset 
Parish organized in 1692. The communion silver acquired in 1719 
is still used. 

At 22.5 111. is (R) the CHASE HOUSE so called because it is one of 
the three places claimed to be the birthplace of Samuel Chase. When 
it was erected in 1713 it was a small frame structure with brick ends; 
it has been extensively enlarged and remodeled. A likeness of the 
early house is engraved on the silver service of the battleship Mary- 
land. 

KING'S CREEK, 23.3 m. (15 pop.), is at the junction of a branch 
railroad. 

Just S. of the hamlet, at 23.5 m., is the junction with a dirt road 
laid out in 1708 by order of the County Court, but now a private 
road. 

Right on this road 100 yards is (R) a short, evergreen-lined lane leading to 
BEVERLY FARM; the house burned in November 1937. Its construction was begun 
in 1786 but ten years were required for its completion; all the materials for it were 



54 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

laboriously prepared on the estate, bricks were made, oyster shells were burned 
for lime, and the timbers were felled and hewn by hand. It was a two-and-a-half 
story hip-roof structure with dormers, and the pedimented entrance was set in a 
two-story bay window in the center of the fagade. 

This house entered into one of the many schemes to rescue Napoleon Bonaparte 
from St. Helena Island. In 1803, while waiting an opportunity to return to the 
scene of Bonaparte triumphs, Jerome Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, had mar- 
ried Elizabeth Patterson of Baltimore; when he was able to return to Europe two 
years later he had the marriage annulled to further his dynastic ambitions. In 
spite of this act he retained the admiring friendship of many Americans, among 
them Nehemiah King, master of Beverly Farm. When Napoleon was finally 
confined to St. Helena various American admirers of the family, including the 
mayor of New Orleans, hatched a plot to rescue him. Funds were collected for 
the building of a fast sloop, plans of the island and its fortifications were studied, 
and the details of the attempt were carefully rehearsed. The plan was to hide 
Napoleon in a secret room at remote Beverly until the chase for him should sub- 
side and it should be safe to carry him to New Orleans. Before the sloop could set 
sail word came of Napoleon's death. 

At 24.1 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Right on this road at 2.5 m. is the SITE OF WASHINGTON ACADEMY (R), a 
boarding school founded in 1767 and attended by the sons of well-to-do planters. 
A report of the trustees in 1784 showed an enrollment of 80 students and a cur- 
riculum that included oratory, moral and natural philosophy, mathematics, 
geography, history, Latin, and Greek. 

An early resident tutor of the academy was Luther Martin, who was the first 
Attorney General of Maryland, serving from 1778 to 1805. A member of the Fed- 
eral Constitutional Convention of 1787, he opposed the Constitution as written and 
refused to sign it. His alliance with Federalists brought him into frequent clashes 
with Thomas Jefferson, who in 1807 referred to him as the "Federal bulldog." 
Martin's ability was best demonstrated by his part in the successful defense of 
U. S. Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase during the impeachment trial before 
the U. S. Senate in 1804-1805, and in the trial of Aaron Burr in 1807 for 
treason. Improvident throughout his brilliant career, Martin in later years be- 
came penniless. He served again as Attorney General of Maryland from 1818 to 
1822, when he resigned. In that year the Maryland Legislature passed a resolu- 
tion requiring every lawyer in the State to pay an annual license of five dollars 
to be handed over to trustees appointed "for the appropriation of the proceeds 
raised by virtue of this resolution to the use of Luther Martin." He was born in 
New Brunswick, N. J., on February 9, 1748, and died at Burr's home in New 
York on July 10, 1826. 

The house of CLIFTON, 4 m., on one of the few slight elevations in the county, 
commands an excellent view of Manokin River, and its lawn slopes down to the 
water's edge. The house is of moderate size and was built by Randolph Re veil 
in 1700. The estate of 1,500 acres was granted by Lord Baltimore in 1665. On 
RevelPs tract was laid out, in 1668, the county seat and port of entry, to be known 
as Somerset Town. At low tide foundation stones of the first courthouse can be 
seen at the edge of the river. 



MARYLAND 55 

Both Maryland and Virginia made extensive grants to the settlers 
who began to arrive in this section of the Eastern Shore in 1658. 
Each claimed the territory; the point at issue, involving an area of 
some 1,500 square miles, was whether Watkins Point (one of the ex- 
tremities of the Maryland Province defined in Lord Baltimore's 
charter) was at the mouth of the Pocomoke River or of the Wicomico 
River. To enforce Virginia's claim, Col. Edmund Scarburgh, Sur- 
veyor General and Treasurer of Virginia, accompanied by 40 horse- 
men, left Accomac County on a mission to exact from the settlers an 
oath of allegiance to Virginia. Arriving in Somerset County October 
11, 1663, he met with passive resistance from leaders of the settle- 
ments, on whose doors he "placed the broad arrow of confiscation" 
and returned to Virginia to report to the Assembly. After long con- 
ferences between representatives of Maryland and Virginia, Lord 
Baltimore's claim was accepted, and the boundary was fixed ap- 
proximately as it exists today. Scar burgh's report, replete with sar- 
casm, throws some light upon the early inhabitants of the area. 

, At 27.4 m. (R) is the GREEN HILL PICNIC AREA, a shaded wood- 
land with rustic tables. Here also stands a forest fire-lookout tower. 

COSTEN STATION, 31 m. (L), is an active shipping point for 
loblolly pine timbers used as mine props. 

At 31.5 m. is the junction with a shell road. 

Left on this road to a junction with a dirt road; R. on the first cross-road 
to IVY HILL, 4 in., the second house R. This two-and-a-half story, L-shaped, 
brick structure with dormers was built in 1720 by Thomas Hay ward. Much of 
the paneling of its twelve rooms has been removed. The house, its patterned 
brick walls partly covered with old ivy, is set among trees, some of which antedate 
the building. Thomas Hayward was a member of a committee sent to England 
to buy materials for Coventry Parish Church; for 70 consecutive years (1723- 
1793) he and his son, Thomas, Jr., held the office of Somerset County clerk. 

At 33 m. is the junction with the dirt road marked Rehobeth. 

Right on this road, which bears constantly L., to the lane at 4.3 m. leading 
to the SITE OF COL. WILLIAM STEVENS' HOME. Stevens was one of the most prom- 
inent men in Maryland Eastern Shore history, serving as the first representative 
from Somerset County in the Provincial Assembly, later as a member of the Gov- 
ernor's council, and then as Deputy Colonial Governor. Although he was a mem- 
ber of the Church of England his home was used freely as a gathering place by 
members of various religious sects, including the Quakers; in 1680 he forwarded 
to the Presbytery of Leggan, Ireland, a request for a minister; in response the 
Reverend Francis Makemie arrived here in 1683, residing for a time in the 



5 6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Stevens home. From here he made trips up and down the Eastern Shore and 
established six congregations, among them the Rehoboth Church, regarded as 
the mother-church of American Presbyterianism. Stevens' house disappeared 
long ago but a cellar excavation marks the site; near it is the walled family burial 
lot, containing Stevens' grave. 

REHOBOTH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 5.8 m., is in REHOBETH VILLAGE 
on the Pocomoke River. The word Rehoboth (Heb., there is room), was applied 
by Colonel Stevens to his plantation of 1,000 acres, surveyed in 1665. The name 
of the village has been corrupted to Rehobeth by the Post Office Department. 

The present edifice, erected in 1706, is the oldest Presbyterian Church still in 
religious use in the United States and as such is being restored and protected by 
the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States. It is a 
simple, rectangular, brick structure without a steeple or belfry but has a gallery. 
Left of the graveyard surrounding three sides of the church is a small building of 
somewhat similar design erected in recent years as a recreational center. 

Diagonally across the village road from the church are the RUINS OF COVENTRY 
PARISH P. E. CHURCH, erected in 1786 and closed in 1900, though services are 
still held there periodically. The outline of the first structure in this spot, built in 
1695 and smaller than its successor, is indicated by stones alongside the later 
building. In the churchyard are graves of many of the earliest settlers in the 
country. 

At 34.4 m. is the junction with the marked, concrete-paved Di- 
viding Creek Rd. 

Left on this road to a junction, at 5 m., with a dirt lane; R. a short distance on 
this to CELLAR HOUSE, a two-and-a-half story house built shortly before 1700 on 
the north shore of Pocomoke River. It was so named because an underground 
passage runs from its cellar to the river. There are no mantels above the fire- 
places, some of which are built in the corners of the large wainscoted rooms. An- 
other striking feature is the off-plumb spacing of the windows; one, smaller than 
the others, is placed in the south gable end at the very peak of the roof, affording 
a view down the river from the highest part of the house. It is said to have been a 
station on the Underground Railroad by which slaves were smuggled from 
southern to northern States. The original tract contained 2,300 acres, but now 
has only 700. 

On Dividing Creek Rd. at 5.4 m. (L) is the BETSY TOWNSEND HOUSE, ap- 
proached by a short lane. This is another oddly designed Colonial home, be- 
lieved to date from the earliest settlement of this region. The story-and-a-half 
brick structure was formerly surrounded by large boxwood gardens. In two of the 
high-ceiled rooms are ovate corner fireplaces. In one room an inside hall was 
built. On the opposite side of the same room is a secret chamber the same width 
as the hall, and built flush with the fireplace, so that its existence would not be 
suspected. Until 1818 the place was owned by the Cottingham family, whose 
progenitor was one of the first settlers. 

At 7.2 m. a short lane (R) leads to CHUCK ATUCK, an old frame structure visi- 
ble from the road. This stands on a thousand-acre tract patented in 1665 by Rob- 
ert Pitt. The building is badly in need of repair; the paneling was sold to Samuel 



MARYLAND 57 

D. Riddle for his Long Island home. Everything that went into the construction 
of the house was made by hand nails, laths, weatherboarding, hinges, and in- 
terior wood finishing. Huge wooden pegs were fashioned to hold the heavier 
timbers. William Bacon, of Baconthorpe, Suffolk, England, and his half-brother, 
Anthony Bacon, of Cyfartha County, Wales, acquired Chuckatuck in the middle 
of the 18th century. For many years thereafter the place was noted for its hos- 
pitality. A granddaughter of Anthony married Griffith Jones, who constructed 
the old iron-smelting furnace now in ruins a few miles north. 

South of Dividing Creek Rd. US 13 passes between extensive 
fields devoted chiefly to the raising of Irish potatoes; the first crop is 
harvested in summer, the second in early fall. 

The highway crosses the Pocomoke (Ind., black water) River. 

POCOMOKE CITY, 35 m. (2,609 pop.), usually called merely 
Pocomoke, is the largest town in Worcester County; it has been an 
agricultural shipping point since the beginning, first being called 
Meeting House Landing, then, about 1700, Warehouse Landing. 
It became New Town in 1780 and so remained until 1878. In spite 
of its age it has almost no old structures, fires in 1888, 1892, and 1922 
having destroyed them. Streets, except Main St. which US 13 fol- 
lows, are narrow but trim, and the houses have the comfortable air 
that goes with the steady prosperity of a market town. 

Right from Pocomoke City on Second St., which at 2 m. becomes a dirt road 
that leads to BEVERLY, 2.5 m., by the Pocomoke River. Previous to 1937 this 
property had been in the possession of the Dennis family since 1 669 but construc- 
tion of the present somewhat elaborate house began in 1774. It has beautifully 
carved paneling and mantels and, on the river front, a stoop with unusual 
wrought-iron handrails and arch. 

At 40.3 m. (R) is the PITTS CREEK PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, stand- 
ing in the small woodland clearing since the first quarter of the 19th 
century. It is a simple frame structure with a slave gallery; it suc- 
ceeded two others on the site. When the congregation was organized 
is unknown but there was a church here in 1735; it is believed that 
the group was one of the six founded between 1683 and 1707 by 
Francis Makemie, Makemie himself having referred to a "Pocomoke 
congregation." Madame Anne Holden, a daughter of the Scottish 
divine, was a member and gave two communion cups and one hun- 
dred pounds sterling to the society. As the area near the landing on 
the Pocomoke became more thickly settled a branch congregation 
was organized in what is now Pocomoke City and attendance here 
gradually dwindled. The church was saved from abandonment by 



58 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

the interest of the daughter-congregation; the two are now served 
by the same pastor and board of trustees. 

US 13 crosses the Virginia Line at 40.8 m. A few feet L. of this 
point on a side road is a MARRIAGE TREE. In early days many youths 
of the lower end of the peninsula crossed the State Line to be married 
in Maryland, thus avoiding the more rigid age requirements of their 
own State. Obliging clergymen would perform the ceremony under 
one of the large trees near the border. 

In the woods 10 feet from this tree is a MARYLAND-VIRGINIA 
BOUNDARY MARKER, grooved in the center to define the line to the 
fraction of an inch. 



VIRGINIA 

Maryland Line Cape Charles Norfolk North Carolina Line, 
82.2 m. US 13, US 17. 

Pennsylvania R.R. parallels route between Maryland Line and Cape Charles. 
Inter-State and local bus lines use route; two ferries operate between Cape 
Charles and Norfolk. 

Concrete and macadam surfaced roadbed. 
Accommodations of various kinds available at short intervals. 
Admission to old homes: Owners of few, if any, homes in this area have established 
formal conditions of admission for strangers; the ancient standards of hospitality 
are still operative and any visitor is welcomed. Those desiring to visit the old 
places should be careful not to abuse this courtesy; calls should be made at rea- 
sonable hours, preferably in mid-afternoon, and should not be prolonged. 
Grounds should not be used for picnicking and should not be invaded without 
the permission of the owners. 

Section 5. Maryland Line to Norfolk, 60.6 m. US 13 

Between the Maryland Line and Cape Charles US 13 traverses the 
Eastern Shore of Virginia, the southern end of the narrow peninsula 
lying between the Atlantic Ocean and Chesapeake Bay. 

The terrain is level but abundantly wooded and broken with 
streams and inlets creating scenes of quiet charm. A chain of islands, 
including Chincoteague, Assateague, Wallops, Metomkin, Cedar, 
Parramore, Hog, Cobb, Ship Shoal, Mockhorn, Smith and Fisher- 
mans, forms a protective barrier against the violence of the ocean. 
The bays and inlets behind these islands provide safe anchorage for 
small vessels, a factor that early drew settlers to the area. These 
sheltered waters hold the fish that are one of the principal sources of 
Eastern Shore income today. 

The Eastern Shore is a highly cultivated region used chiefly for 
truck farming. The principal industries are closely related to the 
agriculture; among them are the manufacture of fruit and vegetable 
containers and of fertilizers, the canning of fruits and vegetables, and 
the production of lumber. 

The lower peninsula was called Accawmacke (other-side-place) 
by the Indians and in the early years of settlement the Crown ad- 
dressed messages: "To our faithful subjects of ye Colonie of Virginia 
and ye Kingdom of Accawmacke." The area was settled in 1614 
thus becoming the third territory permanently occupied by Euro- 
peans in what is now the United States when a small group was 

59 



6o THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

sent from Jamestown to obtain salt by boiling sea water. The Eastern 
Shore of Virginia was made into Northampton County in 1634, but 
the old name was revived as Accomac for the northern county 
in 1662 when the first county was subdivided. Throughout the 17th 
century inhabitants of the Eastern Shore were strongly in favor of 
having it established as an independent colony and the General 
Assembly often recognized the strength of the movement by adding 
a phrase to acts emphasizing that laws passed applied to the Eastern 
Shore as well as to the mainland. 

Several types of houses peculiar to the region are seen along the 
route. 

In the early period of settlement the homes were story-and-a-half 
frame structures with dormers and with brick ends in which the 
chimneys were incorporated. A little later many of the more prosper- 
ous planters and traders built large brick houses of a very formal 
type, though others adhered to the earlier one with the addition of 
another story and porches. Much later the "big house, little house, 
colonnade and kitchen" style of structure was evolved, growing with 
the prosperity and size of the family. Usually the first unit was what 
was later called the "little house"; the next unit was usually larger 
and became the "big house"; the final unit, if it had not been built 
at the same time as the first, was a kitchen, which was connected 
with the "big house" by a passageway known as the colonnade. In 
general, such houses are found on the farms back from the water. A 
building common in the fishing communities is the two-story, gable- 
roofed structure, forming a T. In the center of the cross bar is a 
dormer; the main entrance is below it, and there are commonly two 
lesser entrances, one in the angle of the T, the other in the gable end 
of the stem. 

The Maryland- Virginia Line, Om., though the subject of several 
disputes and near-conflicts with arms, was not as well marked a few 
years ago as it is today. About 1908 a candidate for Virginia's House 
of Delegates, while canvassing voters, treated the customers in a small 
Maryland eating house five miles above the boundary before he 
learned he was out of the State. 

At 1.6 m. is NEW CHURCH (50 pop.), named for a Colonial 
church that once stood here. 

Left from New Church on Co. 709 is HORNTOWN, 3.9 m., a small village 
established in Colonial times and so named because its fish peddlers blew horns 





BBHBBBBBBBur 

TYPICAL EARLY EASTERN SHORE HOME 




IB 



MOUNT CUSTIS, VIRGINIA EASTERN SHORE 



VIRGINIA 61 

to advertise their wares. Although it is one of the old communities of the East- 
ern Shore, it has only two old houses. In the center of the village is one of these, 
SHEPHERDS' INN (open), a former coaching tavern that was built prior to 1731. 
The wide boards of the floor, the H- and L-hinges, the cedar woodwork, and the 
original shingles under the eaves of the modern porch attest the age of the build- 
ing. Colonial Horntown was a trading place for the people of Chincoteague 
Island (see below), before the island was connected with the mainland by bridge 
and roads. Then the journey from the island to Horntown was such that even 
shoes were purchased by a proxy and fitted by means of sticks cut to the measure 
of the purchaser's feet. According to a local story, a Chincoteague islander once 
asked to see a pair of shoes for himself, then cancelled his order because he had 
forgotten his "measuring sticks." 

WELBOURNE, built by Drummond Welbourne in 1811, is now in ruins. The 
house has no roof, the rotted woodwork fills the inside of the shell of brick walls. 
The arched brick arcade on the northeast corner of the building and the graceful 
slope of the roof, as indicated by the walls' outline, give hint of the former beauty 
of the home. 

Left from the village on Co. 679; at 5 m. is a junction with a dirt road; R. 
here 0.7 m. to CORBIN HALL, or Chincoteague Farm, with a Georgian mansion 
built by Samuel Welbourne in 1725 of locally burned brick and remodeled about 
1787 by George Corbin. The sandy loam of the farm slopes down in front of the 
house to Chincoteague Bay, on the other side of which, about 4 miles away, are 
the white-painted houses of Chincoteague Island, forming a dotted line along 
the shore. 

North of the house are the graves of the Corbin family. Those of Col. Coventon 
Corbin and Barbary, his wife, are marked with upright slabs; the death date of 
the former is 1778 and of the latter, 1756. Corbin, the first owner of the estate, 
raised a troop of cavalry for the Revolution. 

The house is remarkably well preserved, with fine white painted interior 
paneling still intact. The hall is L-shaped, with the stairway in the toe of the L. 
The archway at the angle of the L is flanked with fluted columns. Each of the 
rooms opening from the hall is paneled on the side containing the fireplace. In 
the basement of the house is a slave prison; there is a complete brick drainage 
system constructed with the house. The structure was renovated in 1895, a slate 
roof and west vestibule being added. This is one of the formal homes built by 
planters whose fortunes outgrew the primitive story-and-a-half cottage. 

At 2.8 m. are (R) the tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which 
runs almost without a curve for 65 miles between this point and the 
one where a slight curve carries the line into the town of Cape 
Charles. In 1887 the railroad was built down the peninsula as the 
New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk Railroad, meeting ferries from 
Norfolk across the bay. The initials of the railroad, NYP&N, gave rise 
to the local name of "Nip and N." In the years before the establish- 
ment of the railroad, mail was carried from town to town by stage, 
usually a horse-drawn cart. 

At 4 m. is CHINCOTEAGUE CROSSROADS. 



62 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Left from the Chincoteague Crossroads on State 175, which crosses marshes 
and inlets on a series of bridges and causeways to CHINCOTEAGUE ISLAND, 
9.8 m. (2,130 pop.). The inhabitants here gain livelihoods by fishing commer- 
cially and by catering to tourists chiefly sportsmen who come to fish (guides 
and equipment available). Until the bridges and causeways were built in recent 
years, some of the islanders had never visited a mainland town. 

The commercial wharves are near the highway along the Chincoteague Bay 
side of the island; the frame houses set on brick pillars are scattered along the 
shore and the road running down the island. The local importance of fishing is 
evident in the fences made of discarded fishnets, in the boats being built or re- 
paired in the house yards, and in the figures of speech used by everyone. The 
weekday dress of the men consists of blue overalls and pea-jackets, with hipboots 
when needed an outfit that identifies the man who lives on the water as much 
as does his mahogany-colored skin. Fishing goes on the year round, clams, crabs 
and oysters being the most important catches. Chincoteague oysters are notable 
for their size and flavor. 

Various devices are used in this area for commercial fishing; of first importance 
is the pound-net, or weir locally called "ware". This is placed for the season 
in water 25 to 40 feet deep. Large power boats go to the nets daily to empty them, 
sometimes collecting several hundred bushels from a net at one time; the catch is 
usually placed in small boats that are towed. (Visitors can travel with the men to 
the grounds by arrangement.) Gill nets were formerly used widely for commercial 
fishing; because these could be operated by one man in his own boat, each man 
was in business for himself. The fish running against the nets push their heads 
through and become entangled behind the gills. Gill-net fishing is less used today 
because the introduction of the large pound-net, the depletion of the fish in the 
shallow waters, and the competition from places farther south have made their 
use unprofitable. 

Haul-net fishing in which many hundred yards of seine are dragged in an 
arc, encircling fish on the inshore feeding grounds is also practiced here, 
though seldom by the natives, who realize that the feeding places are destroyed 
when the aquatic grasses are scraped away by the nets. 

The laws of Virginia prohibit fishing with a purse net pulled behind a power 
boat. Though punishable by a fine of several hundred dollars and a jail sentence, 
this illegal trawling nevertheless persists. Because the nets are pulled at night by 
boats without lights, it is difficult to discover the offenders, though occasionally 
a trawler is caught and the owner convicted. Public opinion regards this practice 
very much as it regarded bootlegging during prohibition years. 

Seed or small oysters are brought here from natural beds and put down on bot- 
toms rented from the State. These seed oysters, separated and uncrowded in 
favorable waters, grow to market size in a year; in two years they are of prime 
size. 

The hazards of having nets torn by early spring ice and storms, boats damaged 
in easterly blows, and of oysters being covered with silt and debris carried by 
storm-driven waters, are unimportant to sportsmen but to the fishermen they 
are disasters. The freshly caught sea food is sold at the commercial fish wharves 
to buyers for northern markets, the prices being fixed by the wholesale markets, 
generally in Philadelphia. 



VIRGINIA 63 

Sport fishing for channel bass in the surf along the seacoast of the Eastern Shore 
is increasingly popular. 

There are wild ponies on this island and the neighboring Assateague; these 
animals, which are stunted horses rather than ponies, have hips like those of 
cows but are taller and more graceful than Shetlands. Annual Penning Day 
(usually July 30th) is an important local event drawing a large number of visitors, 
who enjoy watching the corralling, the branding of foals, and the sales; many of 
the visitors buy colts, which are the size of large dogs, and carry them off in the 
rear of their automobiles. Commercial amusement devices are set up for the day 
and the island has a carnival air. 

The origin of these animals is obscure but all stories agree that they are the 
descendants of strays or of horses abandoned in Colonial times; the peculiarities 
they have developed are probably the result of their diet of marsh grass. A more 
romantic story of their origin is that they were left here by Spanish pirates who 
maintained headquarters for a time along the inlets. The most plausible explana- 
tion of the presence of the animals is that the early planters, to avoid the expense 
of fencing pastures, turned their horses loose to graze. A law passed in 1670 an- 
nounced that: "Whereas the act for fences doth not sufficiently provide remedy 
for damages done by unrully horses breaking into corne fields," it was enacted 
"that the owner shall be, and hereby is required and enjoyned to take some effec- 
tual courses for restrayning them from trespassing their neighbors, from the 20th 
of July till the last of October in every yeare, it being much fitter rich men who 
have the benefit of such horses should provide for their restraint than the poore 
enjoyned to the impossibility of every (very) high fences; and if any horse or 
horses shall at any tyme breake into any corne field, the ffence being ffowre foote 
and halfe high, then the owner of such horse or horses, upon proof of the damage, 
shall pay for the first tresspasse single damages and for every trespasse after dou- 
ble damages to the party greived." 

The stunting of domestic horses by the fare of marsh grass seems to have been 
noted early, for a law designed to improve the breed was passed in 1686. 

The first known sale of a horse from the mainland to anyone on the Eastern 
Shore was made on January 30, 1643, when George Ludlow of the mainland con- 
veyed a horse to Col. Argall Yeardley. In 1649 there were only about 300 horses 
in the entire Colony of Virginia. 

On October 25, 1662, Chincoteague Island was granted to Capt. William Whit- 
tington by Wachawampe, Emperor of the Gingo Teagues (Chincoteagues); 
subsequently it was granted to Daniel Jennifer, on May 27, 1677, and to Thomas 
Clayton on April 26, 1684. Each of these Indian grants was declared faulty in 
title. Finally, on April 29, 1692, the island was patented by William Kendall and 
John Robins during the reign of William and Mary. Wachawampe's will, 
dated January 26, 1656, leaving his kingdom to his daughters, is on file in East- 
ville. About 1700 some Quakers made an unsuccessful attempt to set up a colony 
on the island. 

ASSATEAGUE ISLAND, separated by a narrow inlet from Chincoteague, 
is a long thin strip of uninhabited land bordering on the ocean; it has one of the 
finest sand beaches on the coast of the peninsula. Plans are being made to bridge 
the inlet and develop the island as a summer resort. Wild ponies roam this island 
just as they do Chincoteague (See above). 



64 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

TEMPERANCEVILLE, 7.6 m. (140 pop.), is a small town that 
was settled by the Quakers. Most of them, however, moved to Mary- 
land or Pennsylvania about 1657 to avoid the stringent laws passed 
against them. 

They were accused of defying the laws, of uttering blasphemy, and, 
among other things, of calling God "a foolish old man." The pre- 
amble of an Act of the Virginia General Assembly of 1660 describes the 
Quakers as "an unreasonable and turbulent sort of people, . . . who 
contrary to the law do dayly gather . . . unlawfull Assemblies and 
congregations of people, teaching and publishing lies, miracles, false 
visions, prophecies and doctrines, which have influence upon the 
communities of men both eccleseasticall and civil, endeavouring 
. . . thereby to destroy religion, laws, communities, and all bonds of 
civil societie, leaving it arbitrarie to everie vaine and vitious person 
whether men shall be safe, laws eatablished, offenders punished, and 
Governours rule." The law enacted then provided that "no master or 
commander of any shipp or other vessell do bring into this collonie 
any person or persons called Quakers under the penalty of one hun- 
dred pounds sterling, . . . that noe person shall entertain any of the 
Quakers, . . . nor permit in or near his house any Assemblies of 
Quakers in like penalty of one hundred pounds sterling, that commis- 
sioners and officers are hereby required ... as they will answer the 
contrary at their perill, to take notice of this act to see it fully effected 
and executed." 

On September 12, 1663, the sheriff of Lower Norfolk County re- 
ported to the House of Burgess that John Porter, a member of the 
House from that county, "was loving to the Quakers and stood well 
affected towards them, and had been at their meetings, and was so 
far an anabaptist as to be against the baptising of children." Porter, 
when questioned regarding the charges, "confessed himself to ... 
be well affected to the Quakers, but conceived his being at their 
meetings could not be proved." The "oaths of allegiance and suprem- 
acy" were then tendered him, and, when he refused to take them he 
was expelled from the House. 

The town is modern in appearance; the adjoining railroad station, 
MAKEMIE PARK, was named for Francis Makemie. (See below and 
SECTION 4.) It is said that Temperanceville was named for a Mr. 
Temperance, who owned a plantation nearby; despite its name, it 
had during prohibition more than the usual number of bootleggers. 



VIRGINIA 65 

Right from Temperanceville on State 288, which becomes Co. 695, to a junc- 
tion with a little- used lane marked by a sign, 5.5 m.; R. here 100 yards to the 
MAKEMIE MONUMENT, a pedestal surmounted with a stone figure of Francis 
Makemie. The monument, enclosed by an iron fence, was unveiled by the 
American Historical Society of Philadelphia on May 14, 1908. 

The monument stands in a reserved area of about an acre that includes the 
Makemie family graveyard marked by a brick pyramid. 

Makemie, born near Ramelton, Ireland, came to this country in 1683, going 
first to William Stevens' home in Rehobeth, Md. (see SECTION 4), and later 
moving to Onancock, Virginia, where he married Naomi Anderson, the daughter 
of a wealthy merchant, and acquired much property. He made a fortune in his 
own right in the West India trade. Arrested for preaching without a license and 
taken to Williamsburg, he pleaded his cause in such a manner that later he 
was granted a license to preach, and his home was officially recognized as a place 
of worship. Makemie died in 1708. The inscription on the monument credits him 
with founding organized Presbyterianism in 1706. 

West of the Makemie Monument, Co. 695 is on a causeway crossing large 
marshes and small inlets. At 10.8 m. are windmills scattered over the grassy 
marshland to pump fresh water for the beef cattle pastured here. * 

At 12 in. the road passes from the causeway onto the firm land of low-lying 
SAXIS ISLAND with a settlement of about 100 houses near the little wharves on 
the bay front. Saxis Island, in Chesapeake Bay, is like the other fishing communi- 
ties of the Eastern Shore. The people are employed in the sea-food industry. 

At 11.1 m. on US 13 is MAPPSVILLE (105 pop.). 

Left from Mappsville on Co. 689 to a three-way fork, 1.3 m.; extreme L. 
here on Co. 679 to a junction with Co. 689 at 1.6 m.; R. on Co. 689 to the en- 
trance (L) of WHARTON PLACE 2.7 m., which has a square brick house with a 
hip roof surmounted by a widow's walk without a railing. 

One of the Colonial owners of the estate was John Wharton, who acquired it 
from Daniel Wharton in exchange for 150 acres of land and 4,000 pounds of to- 
bacco. John Wharton, according to tradition, was one of those who evaded the 
payment of high import taxes on goods from Holland and other foreign countries 
by smuggling. It is believed that he had tunnels connecting the house with the 
river and stable, and depressions in the lawn, such as might have been created by 
the collapse of tunnels, seem to give backing to the story. The house walls, at the 
points where the depressions near them, have also sunk slightly, creating fis- 
sures. The downstairs rooms of the house are all wooden paneled except the 
drawing-room, which was possibly silk-hung in the past. The marble mantels 
are carved with Biblical and patriotic subjects, including the Landing of the Pil- 
grims and the Sacrifice of Isaac. 

Smuggling was common throughout the Colonies, and the man who was able 
to do it successfully did not suffer in his neighbors' esteem. On the whole the 
Eastern Shore temper was much more conservative than that of the mainland, 
and the stories of piracy and smuggling provide the few lawless notes in its his- 
tory. 

South of Mappsville are large well-cultivated farms on which 



66 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

sweet and Irish potatoes, strawberries, tomatoes, corn, peas, lima 
beans, string beans, and turnips are grown. In former years many 
farmers raised only potatoes as their money crop. But the decline in 
potato prices that accompanied the depression has subsequently 
stimulated the cultivation of other crops. During the marketing sea- 
son of 1936, farmers in this area picketed the highways in an effort to 
enforce organized selling of crops to maintain prices. 

Tenant houses, in groups of two to five, are along the highway and 
the edges of the fields. Whole families of tenants work during harvest 
time, the women and children "graveling" potatoes or picking 
fruit or beans, while the men load and carry the produce from the 
fields, using two-wheeled carts, locally called "tumble carts." Bal- 
anced by a wooden saddle attached to the shafts, the carts are easily 
unloaded; the high wheels are well adapted to use on uneven ground. 

The pine.woods bordering the highway have a park-like trimness 
because, in order to add organic matter to the sandy soil, the farmers 
of the area spread pine needles at the bottoms of the trenches before 
planting potatoes; these needles are raked from the ground in the 
groves. 

PASTORIA, 18.3 m. (50 pop.), is a small scattered collection of 
houses. MOUNT WHARTON (R), an old frame structure with a 
brick gable, is opposite a gasoline station. It was owned by John 
Wharton, the reputed smuggler. The house is a good example of the 
story-and-a-half type popular throughout Virginia in early times. 
The smallness of the dormer windows and the steep pitch of the roof, 
not duplicated in modern construction, make it easy to identify these 
older houses; the peculiar features are the result of a not too subtle 
effort to avoid a tax levied on houses of two stories, and to avoid or 
reduce the tax on window areas. 

Col. John Donelson, the father of Rachel, who became Mrs. 
Andrew Jackson, lived in this neighborhood before 1766. Although 
Rachel was born in Pittsylvania County, Virginia and her parents 
moved to Tennessee when she was about twelve years old, she was 
familiar with Accomac County through the stories told by her 
mother. 

Right from Pastoria on State 176 is PARKSLEY, 2.2 m. (800 pop.), a mod- 
ern railroad shipping point for Eastern Shore produce. Four factories here can 
fruits and vegetables raised in the section. The modern homes are evidence of the 
prosperity of the district. The first residents of the town, which was settled when 
the railroad was laid here, were people from other States. 



VIRGINIA 67 

At 20.8 m. is a junction with Co. 662. 

Left on this road to MOUNT CUSTIS, 3.6 m. The first house on the site was 
built by John Michael, who came from Holland about 1 640. His daughter mar- 
ried John Custis III, for whom the present house is named. From time to time 
additions have been made, the last in comparatively recent years, when the place 
became a club. 

The building is of unusual design there are actually three separate frame 
houses; two of them have two-and-a-half stories; the third is a story-and-a-half 
cottage with dormers. These are placed one behind the other and connected by 
two-story wings. The story-and-a-half unit was probably built early in the 18th 
century. Furniture, silver, glass, and portraits from this home were left to the 
University of Virginia by Mrs. Evelyn Bayley Tiffany. Legend has it that the 
ghost of a harmless little old lady lingers about the home, terrifying servants and 
making the hair stand up on dogs' backs. 

At 21.4 m. is a junction with Co. 652. 

Left on this road to a private lane at 2.5 m.; R. here 0.5 m. to BOWMAN'S 
FOLLY, one of the more elaborate homes on the Eastern Shore. The two-and-a- 
half story frame structure with brick gable ends has a wing and attached serv- 
ants' quarters. The corbelled cornice is unusually fine in scale and detail; the 
motif is repeated on a more delicate scale on the cornice of the one-story gabled 
porch. The columns and balustrade of this deep porch, which is on a high brick 
foundation arched at the sides, are crude replacements. The Palladian windows 
and the dormers also show fine craftsmanship. 

The clumps of towering pines that formerly shaded this entrance lane were for 
many years landmarks used by ships along the coast; they were the single re- 
maining stand of first-growth timber in the region and were cut down only when 
their owner was in serious financial difficulties. As fate would have it, the very 
year of their sale oysters harvested from beds on this estate soared in price and 
yielded the proprietor a small fortune that came just too late to save his trees. 

The present house, the second on the site, was built for the Revolutionary 
general, John Cropper, whose ancestor, also named John Cropper, had married 
Edmund Bowman's daughter. The general's grave is on the estate. Edmund 
Bowman considered his migration to Virginia a folly when his only son died here 
of "slow fever" in 1660 while he was building the first house on this site; and, 
therefore, he gave to the house the name still borne by its successor. 

General Cropper, while at home on leave, was surprised on February 12, 1779, 
by a raiding party from the British-Bermudian sloop Thistle Tender, which had 
come up Folly Creek, a deep inlet of the sea that reaches the foot of the lawn. The 
raiders surrounded Bowman's Folly, broke into the general's bedroom, smashed 
the furniture, and treated his wife roughly. Cropper, in his underclothes, sur- 
prised two drunken guards, escaped, and went for aid. With a companion and 
only three rifles, he returned. Near the house his comrade deserted. Cropper held 
his ground, fired his weapons in quick succession, and shouted, "Come on, my 
braves." The British fled, thinking he had brought many defenders. Cropper 
found his wife and daughter locked in an outhouse and the main house planted 



68 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

with gunpowder. While he saved his family and home, the invaders stole his plate, 
jewelry, and 30 slaves. 

An excerpt from General Cropper's will throws light upon his character: "I, 
John Cropper of Accomack County, being impressed with the belief that all men 
are by nature free and independent and that the holding of man in a state of 
slavery is unjust and oppressive, have manumitted, set free and discharged all 
the people of colour in my possession whom I have heretofore held in bondage 
whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my name this 31st day of De- 
cember, 1794." 

Portraits of General Cropper and his wife, painted by Charles Willson Peale, 
are in the National Gallery in Washington, D. C. 

ACCOMAC, 21.6 m. (41 alt., 700 pop.), is the seat of Accomac 
County. Until the Colony was reorganized in 1634 (see above), repre- 
sentatives in the General Assembly were elected from such political 
units as the "necks of land", "the other side of the water", "Archer's 
Hope", "Hogg Island", and "Martin's Hundreds" (see SECTION 
3). Although in 1655 the General Assembly divided the Eastern 
Shore into two counties, these were not formally named or the 
boundary officially defined till 1662. Then a commission composed 
of Col. Edmund Scar burgh and Colonel Waters fixed the present 
dividing line along Occahannoc Creek. 

Scarburgh, who had been speaker of the House of Burgesses and 
was one of the notables of his day in Virginia, was a bold, aggressive 
and unscrupulous man, feared alike by Indians and white men. Charged 
with piracy and debt, he had fled from the Eastern Shore sometime 
before 1653; in that year he had been disabled from holding office by 
the Governor and council and there had been a warrant issued for his 
arrest. In 1654 he had returned, and in March 1655 had been 
pardoned by the General Assembly. He played an important part 
in Virginia history till his death during a smallpox epidemic in 1671. 

That the line drawn in 1 662 was not satisfactory to all the inhabit- 
ants of the Eastern Shore is made evident by the following protest: 

"Whereas our country som yeares since was, contrary to our expec- 
tation, divided into two counties to our great detriment and Loss, 
notwithstanding ye great advantage of Coll. Scarborough (whom) 
you made and procured to ye county of Accomack agnt (with) 
Leutnt Coll. Waters, his ffellow Burgess; ye premises dewly consid- 
ered, desire (as we humbly conceive) but Reasonable, that our 
County may be answerably Inlarges (enlarged) as theirs." 

This was one of 17 "grievances" set forth in a paper, signed by 



VIRGINIA 69 

eight persons, and sent to the General Assembly in 1676. Among the 
others were: 

"That ye act concerning paying for killing of Wolves, Bears, Wilde 
Cats & Crows, or ye Like, may be Repealed, since no man but will, 
for his own good & security, Indeavour to ye utmost to destroy all 
possably he can. 

"That any housekeepers may have a coppy at any time of ye clerk 
of ye Lists of Tithables, and by ye s'd clerk attested, paying Reason- 
ably for same. 

"That no person may be sett Tax ffree but by a full board, and not 
by any magistrate's particular favor to ye great oppression of other 
poore persons. 

"That no Drink may be sold within a mile of ye Courthouse at any 
of ye court sitting days, Considering ye Detaction of time and ye 
Rudeness of people where Drink is sold at courts, neglecting theire 
business, spending and wasting theire Estates, abusing themselves 
and Authority, Quarrelling, and fighting with all Imagenary Ill- 
conveniences, and evill concequences thereby accruing. 

"That no ordinary, or petty Tipling house, may be allowed in our 
county; a means to keep young freeman and others from Running 
into Maryland. 

"That ye Indians of ye Eastern Shore in Virginia may be obliged 
to kill a certaine Number of wolves yearly, having a dayly opportun- 
ity by Ranging ye woods; for such Satisfaction as may be though fitt 
without ye profit of particular men. 

"That no Sheriff may officiate two yeares together. 

"That courts may be kept more duly according to Act of Assembly, 
without often Ressuringment at pleasure, without apparent just 
cause of ye great charge & detriment of ye People, as allso sitting at 
ye apoynted hours; ye contrary forcing people, Especially in Winter, 
to Return home, to committ their business unto others Loss and Dis- 
satisfaction, or else expose themselves to trouble and be Bourthen- 
some to their Neighbour's house, which possable may be prevented 
by early sitting. 

"That we may have Liberty to appeale, in any Dubious case, 
though depending upon a far smaller value than Three Thousand 
pounds of Tobacco, which would not heretofore be permitted." 

The court of the newly separated county was held first at Occa- 
hannock House, Scarburgh's home, and subsequently at Cole's 



7 o THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Tavern in Pungoteague, at Wise's Plantation, and at Onancock. 
In 1786 the present site was selected as being nearest the center of 
population. At first the settlement was known as Drummondtown, 
being property of the Drummond family. 

The COURTHOUSE, in the center of town facing a small open square, 
is a modern structure built about 1900; around it is a rambling line of 
picturesque old frame law offices. 

The CLERK'S OFFICE, adjoining the courthouse, was built in 1 887, 
and has an addition constructed in 1935 as an unemployment relief 
project. 

The JAIL, across the street to the N., was built in 1909, replacing 
the old jail erected in 1787. The first jail, or bridewell, had a high 
wall around it and in the corner of its yard was the DEBTOR'S PRISON; 
this little structure, still standing and entirely covered with Virginia 
creeper, is now used as a library. 

In 1778 Elijah Baker, early Baptist evangelist, was imprisoned in 
this county for preaching without a license. Not satisfied with having 
him arrested, a body of men kidnaped and set him aboard a vessel 
bound for Europe, instructing and probably bribing the captain to 
set him down at some place "from which he could not return to the 
Eastern Shore." Such was Baker's eloquence that he persuaded his 
keepers aboard the ship to set him ashore again, and he continued his 
evangelical work. A memorial to him is in the yard of the BAPTIST 
CHURCH. 

Southwest of the courthouse square stands ALLEN HOUSE, a 
Colonial brick-end home. 

At the end of the street, facing the courthouse, is the DRUMMOND 
HOUSE, a massive brick structure with the usual connected service- 
wing. The house was built about 1750 by George Drummond, who 
deeded it at once to his son. 

A block S. on the same street is the EPISCOPAL RECTORY, another 
Colonial home, almost a duplicate of the Drummond House, but 
built a few years later. 

At the dead end of this street is a junction with Co. 609; L. two 
blocks is the entrance lane, running through a grove of trees im- 
ported from South America, to ROSELAND, a rambling, early 19th- 
century structure in three sections, with separate staircases, but linked 
by low connecting pavilions. 

At the junction of Co. 609 and US 13, facing the State highway, 



VIRGINIA 71 

stands (L) RURAL HILL, a clapboarded mansion of the 18th cen- 
tury. 

Right from the courthouse, on the Greenbush Rd., to GREENBUSH, 2 m. 
At 3 m. is a fork; L. here to DRUMMOND'S MILL, 3.5 in., built in the 17th cen- 
tury by Richard Drummond. 

By the mill is the junction with a dirt road. 

1. Left here 1 m. to HILL FARM, the country home of Richard Drummond; 
the house was built about 1685. 

2. Right at the mill fork 2 m. to CLAYTON PLACE, an early Colonial home. 
JUSTICEVILLE, 2.5 m., is on one of the numerous farms owned by Col. Edmund 
Scarburgh. 

TASLEY, 24.3 m. (250 pop.), is the railroad station for both 
Accomac and Onancock. 

Right from Tasley on State 178 is ONANCOCK (Ind., the Joggy place), 1.4"m. 
(1,240 pop.), one of the largest storage points on the Virginia Eastern Shore for 
oil and gasoline, which are brought in by boat and distributed in tank trucks. 

Onancock was an Indian village when, in 1621, John Pory was a guest of 
Ekeeks, King of the Onancocks. At the feast the visitors were introduced to 
oysters and "batata" or potatoes. After burning his mouth on hot potatoes, 
Master Pory said, "I would not give a farthing for a shipload." In 1680, in 
accordance with the Act of Cohabitation passed in that year, the people of the 
county were requested to buy this site for a "port of entry" through which all 
taxable commodities should pass. Onancock became the county seat in the year 
it was created, though court did not meet there until 1683 or 1684. It remained 
the county seat until 1786. During the Revolution it was the headquarters of 
General Cropper's troops. The Onancock home of Francis Makemie {see above) 
was licensed by law about 1699 as a place of worship, one of the earliest recognized 
homes of Presbyterianism in America. 

The KERR (pronounced car) PLACE (R) is a dignified two-story brick man- 
sion built in 1779 by John Shepard of Scotland. The central section, which is 
gabled, extends forward. The pedimented, fanlighted entrance is attractive. The 
walls of the drawing room were originally papered with life-size pictures of one of 
the Caesars. From the ceiling still hangs a chandelier, a duplicate of that in the 
Governor's Palace at Williamsburg. 

In the town square is a small granite OBELISK TO CAPT. JOHN BAGWELL, noted 
Indian fighter. 

On a side street facing the square stands (R) SCOTT HALL, moved a few years 
ago from its original site, half a block W. According to a tradition that has little 
support, in the chimney of this house Sir William Berkeley, Royal Governor of 
Virginia, hid the treasures he had taken with him when he fled from Jamestown 
after his second defeat during Bacon's Rebellion. Scott Hall, like other Colonial 
homes, is said to be haunted; some ghostly power under certain conditions causes 
three doors of a room in the house to open at once. 

At Scott Hall is a monument commemorating Captain Whaley and the Battle 
of the Barges, which took place November 30, 1782; in this battle Whaley lost 
his life. 



72 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

During the Revolution the Eastern Shore suffered much from the raids of 
British privateers, who were in reality pirates taking advantage of the war to 
plunder. Col. John Cropper, commander on the Eastern Shore, assembled the 
"Virginia naval forces" in Chesapeake Bay to attack these marauders; the 
engagement was called the Battle of the Barges because of the crude craft used 
by the Virginians. 

Opposite the town, on the other side of the Onancock River, is COKESBURY, 
the early 19th-century home of the Poulsons. In the yard is a cork tree brought 
from Spain in 1848. 

TANGIER ISLAND (1,225 pop.) is in Chesapeake Bay, 12 m. from the 
Mainland. (Reached by private boats from Onancock, by limited Jerry service from Crisfald, 
Md.) The inhabitants of this island have in the past had little communication 
with the mainland and there is a 17th-century flavor to their speech and customs. 
The two-and-a-half story frame houses stand behind neat picket-fences on up- 
paved streets 10 feet wide; formerly the front yards were the family grave- 
yards but a public cemetery is now used. Transportation needs are met by 
pushcarts, wheel-barrows and bicycles. 

Many of the youngsters of Tangier paddle about in rowboats and operate 
primitive sailboats with as much ease as children of the mainland display in 
riding skooters. 

When he explored Chesapeake Bay, in 1608, Capt. John Smith found Tangier 
Island inhabited by Indians of the Pocomoke tribe. He named it and nearby 
Watt Island for Dr. Walter Russell, the physician who accompanied him on the 
exploration. On Smith's map of 1612 both are clearly marked "Russels lies." 
Griffith's map (1794) shows them as the Tangier Islands. In 1670 during the 
reign of Charles II, Tangier was granted to Ambrose White. In 1686 John Crock- 
ett, his eight sons, and their families settled on the island; one-third of the island's 
present population bears this name. Many other families are named Park or 
Lewis. 

The islanders are principally Methodists; the churches hold several services 
each Sunday, few members missing any of them. Crime is rare. Tangier legal 
proceedings are brought to court on the mainland. Some years ago a portable 
jail was brought to the island to be used when weather would not permit the 
transportation of a prisoner by boat, but the islanders considered the jail an 
insult and threw it into the bay. 

A doctor is retained through subscriptions paid annually by each family. 
During unusually cold weather in the winters of 1934-35 and 1935-36 the bay 
froze and transportation to the mainland was suspended; medical supplies were 
soon exhausted. During these periods Army airplanes from Langley Field near 
Hampton, Virginia, dropped supplies to the Tangier people. 

During the War of 1812 the British used Tangier as a base for operation in the 
bay. The inhabitants were placed under martial law, though allowed the freedom 
of the island. Once, the night before an attack was to be made, the island men 
scuttled their own boats to prevent their being used by the British. From this 
base Washington was burned, Alexandria was captured, and Baltimore and Fort 
McHenry were bombarded. The failure of the British attack on Baltimore, the 
islanders believed, was brought about by the prayers of their Methodist minister, 
the Reverend Joshua Thomas. The British admiral, Cockburn, it is said, asked 



VIRGINIA 73 

the minister to bless the men about to depart for battle. Mr. Thomas, complying 
with the request, comforted the British soldiers by declaring that God had di- 
rected him to say that they would meet with defeat in shelling Baltimore, for 
they were enlisted in an unjust and unrighteous cause. He added that until the 
conclusion of the battle he would not cease to pray for their defeat. 

George Alfred Townsend in his book, The Entailed Hat, says that on Tangier 
Island, the British trained regiments of Negroes who were, with few exceptions, 
Maryland runaways; because of their proximity to Quaker settlements, Maryland 
slaves were in a constant state of unrest. 

ONLEY, 25.6 (476 pop.), is the headquarters of the Eastern 
Shore Produce Exchange, one of the oldest cooperative marketing 
agencies in the State. The town takes its name from the former home 
of Henry A. Wise, the only Governor of Virginia to come from the 
Eastern Shore. 

KELLER, 31.3 in. (300 pop.), is a railroad shipping point. 

1. Left from Keller on State 180 to a lane at 1 m., leading into the KELLER 
FAIRGROUNDS, where the Keller Agricultural Show has been held annually for 
more than 55 years. The annual Potato Blossom Festival (near end of May), held 
here to publicize the principal crop of the area, centers about the crowning of a 
young girl as queen of the white blossoms. 

Along State 1 80 are scattered a number of the typical story-and-a-half houses 
with dormers. At a turn of the road, 1.9 m., is (L) a small one that is believed 
to be the oldest in the area; it is in poor condition. 

WACHAPRAGUE, 5 m. (675 pop.), is on the site of the Indian town of the 
Machipungoes, where rawrenoke (roanoke) or an inferior wampum used as money 
by the Indians was made from oyster shells. According to Capt. John Smith, 
these Indians lived like kings. The modern town, where fishing is carried on com- 
mercially, is also a well known base for sport fishing. The comparatively large 
hotel here also provides accommodations on CEDAR ISLAND, several miles away 
by boat. Fishing is done both in the inlet and in the ocean surf. 

2. Right from Keller on State 180 is PUNGOTEAGUE, 3 m. (150 pop.), the 
seat of Accomac County for 15 years after the county's formation in 1662-63. 
The court met at the tavern of John Cole, which was torn down in the last decade. 
In 1665 the first theatrical performance in America was presented in this town; 
the play was Ye Bare and Ye Cubb. Self-appointed censors had the players brought 
before the court, which was sitting in the tavern, and they were told to repeat their 
performance. The company was acquitted of the charge of immorality and the 
complainants were fined. Court days in Virginia, until very recent years, were 
social occasions with people arriving from all over the country. Farmers traded 
horses and livestock, and there were all manner of things for sale, including 
books and the wares of the inevitable patent medicine men. 

Cole, in order to keep the court-day trade, offered to furnish bricks and wood- 
work for a new courthouse, but the county seat was moved to Onancock. Berkeley 
used the tavern as headquarters when he attempted to raise troops to suppress 



74 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Bacon's Rebellion. The home of Henry Reade nearby was a hospital for Berkeley's 
defeated forces. 

On May 30, 1814, the British admiral, Cockburn, landed on Pungoteague 
Creek with 500 marines and fought the Eastern Shore militia under Major 
Finney. Cockburn, fearing capture, retired to Tangier Island. 

Right from Pungoteague 0.3 m. on State 178 to ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH (open 
10 to 5), a simple rectangular brick building that is the remnant of an elaborate 
structure erected in the 18th century. It had three wings rounded on the inside, 
suggesting the local name "Ace of Clubs Church." During the Civil War it was 
used by Union forces as a stable. The two transepts were so badly damaged that 
when the church was restored they were taken down and the bricks used to re- 
store the part that remains. 

Although the church records have been destroyed, the church preserves an 
early Bible and prayer book and possesses and uses on special occasions the com- 
munion service presented to Accomac Parish by Queen Anne of England. 

The Reverend Thomas Teackle, sometimes facetiously referred to as "King 
Scarburgh's Archbishop", was the first rector of Accomac Parish and served all 
the churches within the parish from 1652 to 1694. Scarburgh accused his Anglican 
friend of trying to poison him and steal his wife; but the evidence was insufficient 
to be heard in court. 

PAINTER, 33.8 m. (200 pop.), is a modern railroad shipping 
town and supply center for truck farmers. 

Left from Painter on State 182 is QUINBY, 4.6 m. (199 pop.). Right from 
Quinby 0.5m., passing the post office, to WARWICK, the home of Arthur Upshur 
who named it for his wife's native shire in England. The original brick unit, now 
incorporated in a story-and-a-half house, was built in 1672 as the seat of 2,000 
acres of land granted to Lt. William Kendall by "Pyony, King of the Machi- 
pungoes", for "four good coats." Kendall's wife, Rachel, was bitten by a fox near 
the well and developed hydrophobia. She is supposed, according to one story, to 
have been smothered between two feather beds to save her from the agonizing 
death of rabies, for which there was then no prophylactic. In all probability, as 
one version of the story admits, she was not purposely smothered. It was a custom 
in early times to place violent patients between two feather beds to hold them 
without injury. The blood from her wound, according to a superstition, reappears 
annually on the well stone, now used as a doorstep. The house is at present (1936) 
the home of Mrs. Martensen, daughter of Anna Held, the French actress. 

At 36.8 m. is a junction with State 181. 

Right on State 181 to the junction with State 178, 0.7 m.; R. on State 178 
to an intersection with Co. 613, 2.7 m.; L. on Co. 613 to a junction with Co. 611, 
5.3 m.; L. on Co. 61 1 to HEDRA COTTAGE, 6.1 m . , a double house on the north 
bank of Occahannock Creek. This was the seat, successively, of three Col. 
Edmund Scarburghs father, son, and grandson. Hedra Cottage may have been 
the "Occahannock House" from which the second Col. Edmund Scarburgh fled 
about 1653 when charges of piracy and debt had been lodged against him. ' 



VIRGINIA 75 

EXMORE, 38.1 m. (37 alt., 700 pop.), is an important shipping 
point on the peninsula. 

Left from Exmore on State 183 is WILLIS WHARF (467 pop.), 1.5m. (boats 
to Hog Island), one of the largest sea-food packing and shipping points on the East- 
ern Shore. Cargoes of iced sea food are sent by water from here to Philadelphia, 
New York, and Boston, while other shipments are made by rail from Exmore. 
Fertilizer is manufactured here from fish unsuitcd for market. Oyster shells from 
the shucking plants are used in making lime, and are also ground for road surfac- 
ing and agricultural uses. Willis Wharf is typical of the fishing communities on the 
peninsula but has had greater commercial development. Just off the main' street, 
in the center of the village, is (R) the white-painted story-and-a-half farmhouse 
of the Willis homestead, upon whose acres the village was built. 

Southeast of Willis Wharf 8m., across Hog Island Bay, is HOG ISLAND, a 
narrow strip of land, the east side of which has a 9-mile beach on the Atlantic 
Ocean. The island has a fishing community of about 300 people. Isolated, except 
for boat connections with Willis Wharf, the island people, like those on Chinco- 
teague, Saxis, and Tangier Islands, have retained many of the customs of their 
forefathers. Hog Island is one of the few places in Virginia and the country where 
gasoline is sold legally without a State tax. Because the beaches are used as roads, 
nature has eliminated the expense of road building, for which the tax is collected 
elsewhere. 

NASSAWADOX, 42.4 m. (1,000 pop.), is believed to have been 
settled by Quakers in 1657. William Robinson, a Quaker, entered 
the Colony about 1656 and was promptly arrested on the complaint 
of the Anglican churchmen. He was eventually released and was able 
to aid fellow Quakers to escape the vengeance of the Established 
Church, pretending to help them leave the Colony. Actually he 
landed the dissenters on Nassawadox Creek, west of the present 
Nassawadox, where Levin Denwood provided them with a log-cabin 
meeting house. Quakers were ruthlessly prosecuted until 1699 when 
the Virginia Assembly passed an act of toleration in keeping with the 
British Act of 1688-9. About that time George Brickhouse willed the 
Friends an acre of land around the meeting house, and Mrs. Judith 
Patrick bequeathed them 30 shillings for repairing the building. The 
Quakers were never very cordially treated; most of those who at- 
tempted to settle there later moved to Maryland or Pennsylvania. 

Left from Nassawadox on Co. 608 is BROWNSVILLE, 1.4 m., a stately brick 
home built on the site of an Indian village. The present structure, built in 1806, 
is the third on the site. The second house, moved to make way for the new one, is 
used by tenants. The land was granted in 1635 to John Brown, a friend of William 
Penn, for the establishment of a Quaker meeting house, an undertaking in which 
he does not seem to have been successful. Though Quakers, the family was well 



76 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

received and eventually intermarried with established families, notably the 
Upshurs. 

At 45.6 m. is the small settlement of BIRDSNEST. 

Right from Birdsnest on Co. 620 to Co. 618, 0.7 m.; R. to Co. 619, 1.6 m.; 
L. on Co. 619 to HUNGAR'S CHURCH (R), 3 in., in the fork at the junction With 
Co. 622. The ivy-covered bricks of the walls of this rectangular structure, which 
was built in 1751 to replace an earlier frame church, are laid in Flemish bond and 
have weathered to soft pink and dull blue. The lines of the building are so simple 
that the effect would be severe had the architect been less skillful. Twin entrances 
and a long central window, placed above and between the doors, are similar in 
form and detail, creating a striking motif; the arched doorways with raised panel 
doors and traceried semi-circular transoms are sharply accented by white key 
and impost blocks. There are four long, small-paned windows along each side 
with louvred shutters divided into upper and lower leaves. The roof, with its 
wide overhang at the gable ends and notched barge boards, is, no doubt, a 
replacement. 

After the Revolution, which caused many of the clergy of the Church of Eng- 
land to leave the country and resulted in the disestablishment of the Church, 
public indifference and hostility were such that this church, like many others, 
suffered heavily from depredations. The organ, it is said, was dismantled, the 
pipes being melted down for the manufacture of weights for fishing nets. When the 
building was restored in 1850, the wall at one end, which had been demolished, 
was re-erected some distance behind the former one, shortening the church. The 
vestments presented to the parish by Queen Anne are preserved in the clerk's 
office at Eastville. 

The two parishes of Northampton County were combined on April 21, 1691, 
because this county, "one of the smallest in the colony, doth consist of a small 
number of tithables, and is divided into two parishes, by reason whereof the in- 
habitants . . . are soe burdened that they are not able to maintain a minister in 
each . . ." Reverend William Cotton, a relative of Cotton Mather of New Eng- 
land, was the second rector of Hungar's parish. 

At 4.3 m. on Co. 619 is a triangular junction; R. here 0.7 m. on a marked 
road to CHATHAM (R), built by Maj. Scarborough Pitts about 1820. The brick 
mansion is of simple Georgian design, with a small colonnaded porch. 

On Co. 619 is GLEBE, 5.7m. (R), a steep-roofed, story-and-a-half brick cottage 
with oddly irregular gable windows, built in 1745 on property given to Hungar's 
Parish through the will of Stephen Charlton, a vestry-man of Hungar's Parish, 
who had been a Massachusetts Puritan. He helped to protect the peninsula 
against the Indian uprising of 1 644, which resulted in a ghastly massacre on the 
mainland. When Charlton died, he left one-third of his large farm to his widow, 
one-third to his daughter Bridget, and one-third to his daughter Elizabeth, 
with the provision that if the daughters died without issue the estate should go to 
Hungar's Parish. Elizabeth Charlton, at the age of 12 married a man named 
Getterings, and died soon afterward. The widower attempted to break the will, 
claiming the estate for himself, but without success, the interests of the parish 
being defended by Edmund Scarburgh. The older daughter, Bridget, married 





ENTRANCE OF BOWMAN'S FOLLY, VIRGINIA 







A TANGIER ISLAND SCOOTER 



HUNGAR'S CHURCH, VIRGINIA 




VAUCLOSE, VIRGINIA 



VIRGINIA 77 

Captain Foxcroft and lived to an old age. When she died without heirs the entire 
estate went to the parish and remained church property till 1840. 

In 1745 the vestry asked the General Assembly for permission to sell 87 acres 
of land in order to invest the money from the sale in slaves to work the 1,600-acre 
Charlton plantation. The General Assembly granted the authority and also en- 
acted: "That the vestry of the said parish of Hungars, for the time being, shall be, 
and are hereby impowered and required, to build, upon the said sixteen hundred 
acres of land, such glebe house, and other necessary houses and conveniences, 
upon the same, for the use of the minister or incumbent of the said parish, as are 
and ought by law to be built and made upon glebe lands, any law, custom, or 
usage, to the contrary, notwithstanding." 

VAUCLUSE, 3.3 m., is a long white clapboarded structure with brick gabled 
ends, a long ell, and two pedimented entrance porches; it was built about 1784 
by Littleton Upshur, son of Arthur Upshur IV of Warwick, and father of Abel P. 
Upshur. On the lawn are unusually large pecan trees. Vaucluse was for many 
years the home of Abel Parker Upshur, judge of the General Court of Virginia, 
Secretary of the Navy from 1841 to 1843, and U. S. Secretary of State in 1843-4, 
having been appointed to complete Daniel Webster's unexpired term. Upshur 
and two others were killed when a gun exploded aboard the Princeton while they 
and others were inspecting the vessels with President Tyler. Tyler narrowly 
escaped death. 

At 51.3 m. is a junction with Co. 630. 

Left on this road is KENDALL GROVE, 1.5 m., home of the Kendalls; it was 
built in 1796 on the site of an earlier house built by Col. William Kendall, who 
participated in Bacon's Rebellion, but was punished only with a fine. 

Disgusted with Berkeley's slaughter of the participants in the rebellion, the 
King had sent three commissioners to Virginia with a proclamation authorizing 
pardoning of all rebels who would take the oath of obedience and give security 
for their good behavior. Colonel Kendall appeared before the court held at 
Berkeley's home, Green Spring, March 3, 1677, and took the prescribed oath. 
According to the records he himself suggested the fine. "Itt being evident that 
Coll. Wm. Kandall hath uttered divers scandalous and mutinous words tending 
to the dishonor of the right honourable the governor; but that said Coll. Kendall 
submitting himselfe, and offering fifty pounds sterling as a fine for his soe great 
crime; and the right honourable governour desiring the court to pass the same 
into order, they have therefore thought fit and doe order that he pay the said 
somme upon demand to the right honourable the governour, which he willingly 
submits to, and hath accordingly performed the same." 

The curving collonade, 60 feet long, which links the main body of the huge 
white frame house to the service wing, is notable. Also of interest is the cornice, 
the carving of which required a year's work. The stars on it are symbolic of the 
new Republic. 

At 51.8 m. is a junction with Co. 630. 

Right on this road 2.8 m. to HUNGAR'S WHARF at the mouth of MATTA- 
WOMAN CREEK. This creek provided a harbor for the ships of John Kendall, a 



78 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

trader with the West Indies. On one of these ships, Stephen Girard, who was to 
become the Philadelphia financier and philanthropist, came to this country as a 
cabin boy. Kendall's home, called Wilsonia, was in the neighborhood; the house 
has been destroyed. Tradition has it that Girard worked on the Kendall boats 
for a number of years. When his boat was at this end of the trip, Girard played 
cards with his employer so successfully that his winnings became the basis of his 
fortune. Kendall lost all his holdings, including his home. Girard did not dis- 
possess his former employer but sold the property. The new owner instituted 
proceedings to force the Kendalls to leave. Two of Kendall's daughters confronted 
the sheriff with a goose gun every time he came to serve the papers. Possession 
of the home was finally gained while the family was visiting a neighbor's home. 
Girard was born in France on May 24, 1750, and died in Philadelphia on De- 
cember 26, 1831. He founded Girard College; by his direction "no ecclesiastic, 
missionary, or minister of any sect whatever" is allowed to "hold or exercise any 
station or duty" in the college, or is permitted on the premises as a visitor. 

EASTVILLE, 52.8 m. (37 alt., 387 pop.), a prosperous village 
that is the trade center for many farmers, is the seat of Northampton 
County. CHRIST CHURCH (R) was built about 1826 to replace the 
Magathy Bay Church. The communion service was given to the 
congregation in 1741 by John Custis IV. 

Adjoining the church grounds S. is COVINGTON (or Coventon), a 
home occupied by Federal troops during the Civil War. The soldiers' 
names, carved on the bedroom doors, are still legible. 

In the center of the village on a square is the delightful little NOR- 
THAMPTON COUNTY COURTHOUSE, erected in 1799 and containing con- 
tinuous court records from 1632 to the present, the longest series in 
the country. The small brick story-and-a-half structure with steep- 
pitched roof, stands on a high brick foundation; the slightly recessed, 
arched entrance, framed with brickwork, occupies a third of the 
facade, quite dwarfing the three windows that flank and top it. The 
eight-paneled door is surmounted by a fanlight and flanked by 
slender columns and sidelights. The first county courthouse was 
built in 1664 at Town's Field; the seat was transferred to this town 
in 1680. When the present courthouse the fifth was built, the 
FOURTH COURTHOUSE (R), erected in 1731, was leased to a Mr. 
Nottingham for $1 a year, the lease to run as long as the new roof, 
which he put on, should last. Mr. Nottingham soaked his shingles in 
linseed oil, causing the lease to run well into the present century, to 
the benefit of his heirs. 

In 1632 the citizens of Accawmacke, as well as those of the other 
"remote parts" who had previously been inconvenienced by the ir- 



VIRGINIA 79 

regularity of the commissioner's courts, were allowed to have county 
courts monthly to try civil cases not involving more than one hundred 
pounds of tobacco and criminal cases not involving jeopardy of life 
and limb. They were no longer to send all court records to Jamestown 
but were to make, retain, and preserve their own records. The power 
of the court was invested in a command and commissioners, who 
were also "to doe and execute whatever a Justice of the Peace . . . 
may doe." Later the jurisdiction of the local courts was expanded to 
include cases involving larger amounts and in 1661 the number of 
commissioners was set at eight. Records of an examination by a jury 
of inquest in 1656 reveal a verdict based on the "ordeal of touch", a 
medieval test in which the accused was made to touch the body of 
the murdered person. The dead man's wounds were supposed to 
bleed afresh if touched by his murderer. William Custis, suspected of 
murdering Paul Rynners, was cleared when the jury announced: 
"We have viewed the body of Paul Rynnuse . . . and have caused 
Wm. Custis to touch the face and stroke the body of the said Paul 
Rynnuse which he willingly did. But no sign did appear unto us of 
question in the law." 

TAYLOR TAVERN, now called Eastville Inn, (R) S. of the court- 
house, has been a public house since pre-Revolutionary times. It has 
been remodeled and enlarged. 

Left from the courthouse square in Eastville on State 185 to INGLESIDE, 0.5 m. 
(R), a brick house painted cream-yellow with frame wings of the same color, the 
birthplace of Francis Hopkinson Smith, author, artist, and engineer. The wall- 
paper of the lower hall, showing Egyptian scenes, was hung when the house was 
built about 1810. 

At 0.8 m. State 185 becomes Co. 631; on Co. 631 is POCAHONTAS FARM, 1.2 
m., site of the main village of the Gingaskin Indians, one of the largest tribes on 
the Eastern Shore. Survivors of the tribe were found in the neighborhood as late 
as 1860. 

The house now standing on"the farm is said to have been built in 1816 by one 
John Segar. During the Civil War Federal General Lockwood, having estab- 
lished his headquarters here, shipped the library of some 20,000 volumes to Old 
Point Comfort for safekeeping. At the^close of the war General Butler made an 
inventory of the books and returned the collection to its owner. Not a volume, it 
is said, was lost or injured. 

At 2.5 m. on Co. 631 is LINDEN, a plain story-and-a-half brick house that is 
probably 250 years old. 

CESSFORD (R), at the southern edge of Eastville, is an imposing 
brick mansion, two and a half stories high, with a service wing. It 



8o THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

was built in 1815 by Dr. John Kerr and named for the seat of the 
Scottish clan of Kerr. During the Civil War it was occupied by 
General Lockwood, in charge of the army of occupation. An order, 
now hanging on a wall of the house, and signed by Abraham Lin- 
coln, instructs the soldiers to leave the house in the condition in 
which they found it. 

At 53.2 m. is a junction with Co. 634. 

Right on this road 1.5 m. to a private dirt road leading (L) to OLD CASTLE, 
built reputedly by John Stratton, who gave aid to Berkeley during Bacon's 
Rebellion, and turned over to the Governor one of his vessels, which was later 
wrecked. 

Directly opposite is ELKINGTON, built about 1800 by a member of the Savage 
family. It is named for Ann Elkington, first wife of Capt. John Savage, Burgess for 
Northampton 1666-67. The home has fine early furnishings. The old wallpaper, 
depicting a stag hunt, has been retouched with water colors. The house is a 
curiosity because of its many additions and penthouses on various levels. 

WHITE CLIFF, 2.5 m. on Co. 634, was built shortly after the Revolution by 
the Wilkins family. The white frame house, with its massive central unit and ram- 
bling wings, is remarkably well preserved; large windows, unusual at the time of 
construction, hand-carved mantels, and woodwork are notable features. 

On a promontory W. of this point stood the home of Thomas Savage, one of 
the first white settlers on the Eastern Shore. In 1608, when only thirteen, Savage 
came to Virginia with the Christopher Newport expedition. The same year he 
was given to Powhatan by Captain Newport in exchange for Namotacke, an 
Indian youth. 

Powhatan became so fond of young Savage whom he called "Newport" 
that Powhatan's brother, Opechancanough, became jealous; so Powhatan sent 
Savage to live with Debedeavon, the chief of the Eastern Shore Indians. In 1633 
"King" Debedeavon said that he "had given that neck of land from Wissaponson 
Creek to Hungar's Creek" to Gov. George Yeardley, and the "south side of 
Wissaponson to his son, Thomas Newport". This was the seat of the Savage 
family through many generations. John Savage, who married Ann Elkington, 
was the son of Thomas Savage. Savage having learned the Indian language, was 
able to render the Colony much service as an interpreter. On one occasion, after 
he became a resident of the Eastern Shore, he was sent to Opechancanough's 
village, now West Point, to effect the release of a captive, and, when some 
difficulty arose, he and three others offered to fight 13 of the Indians at once; the 
Indians declined the invitation. 

"King" Debedeavon resided near this place and thus was described by Captain 
John Smith on the occasion of the latter's exploration of the Eastern Shore in 
1608: "this King was the comliest, most proper, civill Salvage we incountered." 

Hannah Tyng, who became Thomas Savage's wife, was given a grant of 50 
acres by the Colony for having defrayed her own expenses from England. 

At 54.5 m. is a junction with an unmarked side road. 

Right on this road is EYREVILLE, 1.5 in., a country manor house, originally 



VIRGINIA 81 

named Newport for Sir Christopher Newport. The construction of the large brick 
house required 10 years; the place was lost and won three times in gambling by 
Severn Eyre, one of its owners. The dates 1798, 1800, and 1803 are on the 
chimney bricks. 

At 55.9 m. is Cobb's Station crossroads. 

Right on a dirt road is EYRE HALL, 1.5 in., another home of the gambling 
Severn Eyre. The large clapboarded structure, with numerous wings and a Dutch 
roof, was built in 1804. This was the center of the Eyre estate, which extended 
across the peninsula between the bay and the ocean. The old wallpaper, depicting 
scenes from Lai la Rookh, is well preserved. 

At 57.6 m. is a junction with Co. 639. Near the junction is one 
of the largest canneries on the Delmarva Peninsula. 

Right on Co. 639 to a junction with Co. 640, 0.9 m.; L. on Co. 640 to SECRE- 
TARY'S PLANTATION, 1.8 m., so called because it was part of public lands under 
the jurisdiction of the office of Secretary of the Colony, and because the central 
government at Jamestown, in 1620, under a special plan, sponsored a settlement 
on the public lands here; they called it Accawmacke Plantation. Their purpose 
was to have this peninsula furnish commodities, particularly salt, that could not 
be procured at Jamestown or in that vicinity. 

The Governor and Council directed that "Mr. Pory, the Secretary, and his 
successors in that place (office) should have five hundred acres of land belonging 
to that Office," that "twenty Tenants" should be "planted thereupon, whereof 
Tenn" should be sent then and "Tenn the next yeare"; and that "the Secretary 
then, from henceforward, should receive no fees for himself," because he was to 
have the quitrents and the purchase price from any land sold. 

The persistent notion of the central government, from the beginning, was that 
settlements should be in towns, and they were satisfied to have only one town in a 
large area; but the Virginia colonists wanted to be independent, each on his own 
acres and having his own waterfront. 

Later, in order to encourage the residents to live in the settlement of Accaw- 
macke Plantation and not spread out, the "tenants" were actually paid to con- 
tinue to live here. "Certain fees were allowed for the employment and mainte- 
nance of tenants at Accawmack," say the records. 

At 58.2 m. is a junction with State 186. 

Left on this road to STRATTON MANOR, 0.5m. (R), set back in a grove of trees. 
This excellent example of an early story-and-a-half brick-end house, built in 
1694 by Benjamin Stratton, has unusually broad outside chimneys. The house 
was restored in 1764. 

At 4.4 m. on State 186 is a junction with Co. 645; R. on this road 0.9 m. to 
junction with Co. 644; R. at the fork on Co. 644, a dirt road,to the CUSTIS TOMB, 
2.5m. The tomb (R) is in a small enclosure that was once part of Arlington; 
a house was built here by John Custis II prior to 1660. No part of the house re- 
mains, and the site is in question. Arlington estate near Washington, D. C., was 
built by George Washington Parke Custis, who named it for his ancestor's home 



82 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

here. Berkeley sought refuge during Bacon's Rebellion at the original Arlington. 
From this house the governor launched his surprise attack on Bland and Carver, 
two of Bacon's adherents sent to capture Berkeley. Col. Philip Ludwell, a loyal- 
ist, with the aid of Captain Larramore, who betrayed Bland, seized the two rebels 
and their boats. Berkeley promptly hanged Carver and later, when he was again 
in power, executed the popular and powerful Bland. 

The Eastern Shore played a negative part in Bacon's Rebellion. Although in 
June 1676 the people of the peninsula had prepared the Northampton Griev- 
ances, which, with the exception of one clause, were ignored by the Jamestown 
government, the majority remained passively loyal to Sir William Berkeley, the 
Royal Governor, throughout the rebellion that followed. Most of the people, 
having had no trouble with the Indians for many years, were not interested in 
Bacon's cause and could not appreciate the feelings of the settlers on the western 
mainland, who were constantly in fear of the Indians and wanted better govern- 
mental protection. Moreover, by virtue of their position on the peninsula they 
were able to evade the navigation laws that bore so heavily on the rest of Virginia. 

The tombs of John Custis II and John Custis IV are in the enclosure. That of 
John Custis IV bears this inscription: 

"Under this Marble Tomb lies ye Body 

of the Honorable John Custis Efqr. 

of the City of Williamsburg and Parifh of Bruton 

Formerly of Hungars Parifh and the Eaftern Shore of 

Virginia and County of Northampton the 

Place of his Nativity 

Aged 71 years and Yet liv'd but Seven Years which 
was the fpace of time He kept a Batchelers 
houfe at Arlington on the Eaftern Shore 

of Virginia." 

This epitaph, written by Custis, was the result of a bitter quarrel with his wife, 
Frances, the daughter of Daniel Parke, Governor of the Leeward Islands. Young 
John had been the gay blade of Virginia, and his lady the reigning belle. After 
their marriage these self-willed people found it impossible to get along together; 
since an open break was impossible they chose to address each other only through 
a slave, Pompey, who would stand before them repeating each sentence they ut- 
tered. Then, one day, Colonel John sent an invitation through the servant for his 
wife to take the air in his carriage. She accepted the invitation. Her husband 
helped her to her seat without speaking and then silently turned the carriage and 
drove straight ahead into the bay. Mrs. Custis restrained her desires to question and 
protest until the water was above the floorboards; then, no intermediary being 
present, she addressed him directly: "Where are you going, Colonel Custis?" "To 
hell, madam," he replied. "Then drive on," she answered. "Any place is prefer- 
able to Arlington." 

He then turned his carriage around and drove home. Glancing at his wife, he 
remarked, "Madam, I don't think you'd be afraid of the devil himself." "No, 
John, I've lived with you too long," murmured his lady. 

This incident apparently cleared the air because after signing an agreement in 
court settling property differences, the two came to a better understanding and 



VIRGINIA 83 

had several children. But Colonel John had the last word; he ordered it inscribed 
on his tombstone. 

On Co. 644 near the Custis tombs is the SITE OF MAGOTHY (pronounced 
Magotty) BAY CHURCH, the second built on the Eastern Shore. The Reverend 
William Cotton was the rector in 1637, a date established by a court record made 
when three men testified that they "heard Henry Charlton saye that if he had 
Wm. Cotton (the minister) without the church yeard, he would have kickt him 
over the pallysadoes, calling of him, black catted (coated) raskall." Cotton, 
though in charge of an Anglican church, was puritanical in his ideas, and not 
popular among these Cavalier settlers. 

South of the junction with Co. 645, at 11.2 m. on State 186, is KIPTOPEKE, 
with a large modern clapboarded house. Kiptopeke is the former Hallet Planta- 
tion, owned by Commander Hallet, who brought mahogany trees from Central 
America, planting them here and distributing them among his friends. These 
trees are still seen on various grounds throughout the lower part of the peninsula. 

East of the tip of the peninsula is SMITH ISLAND. Capt. John Smith in 
June 1 608 left the Jamestown settlement to explore Chesapeake Bay. He touched 
this island, which was "called Smith Island after our Captaines name", and at 
Cape Charles met two Indians who directed him to "Accahawacke," home of their 
chief. He was hospitably received and then cruised along the bay shore to the 
Pocomoke River. This was not the first recorded visit to the Eastern Shore by 
white men. The Italian navigator, Giovanni da Verrazzano, sent by Francis I of 
France to seek a passage to the Pacific, landed in 1 524 on the coast of North 
Carolina, then proceeded northward, passed the Virginia Capes without noticing 
them, landed on the Eastern Shore peninsula, sailed northward, and entered 
the Hudson and later the Penobscot in a futile search for the passage. 

The second known visitor to the Eastern Shore, Bartholomew Gilbert, son of 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, landed here in July 1602 after visiting New England. 
Gilbert was killed, but his company reached England. Another visitor of about 
the same year seems to have been Bartholomew Gosnold. 

Capt. Samuel Argall visited the Eastern Shore in 1613; and the next year 
Governor Dale sent 20 men, under Lieutenant Craddock, to this peninsula to 
make salt by boiling down the sea water, and to catch fish for the people on the 
mainland. They settled along what is now called Old Plantation Creek, and at 
a place they called "Dale's Gift." They established the salt works on Smith 
Island. 

The task assigned to the first salt makers was not envied, their residence, on the 
far-away peninsula, being looked on as the equivalent of exile. But they found that 
in the sandy soil corn, vegetables, and many varieties of fruit would grow in 
abundance; that fish and shell-fish of every sort abounded in the ocean, bay, and 
inlets; that wild fowl, of many kinds from wild geese to the tiny teal 
swarmed in the marshes along the coast; that game, furred and feathered, could 
be had for the shooting; that the climate, made residence here delightful; and 
that the Indians, unlike those on the mainland, were friendly. The exiles, pitied 
at first, were soon envied by the James River settlers. 

CAPE CHARLES, 60.6 m. (8 alt., 2,527 pop.) is the railroad 
terminal and the largest town on the Virginia part of the peninsula 



84 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

(Chesapeake Co. ferries to Norfolk via Old Point Comfort, cars $3-$4; 
passengers 7 5i; Virginia Co. ferries to Little Creek, cars $2.50-$3, passengers 
75^). Although north of the cape, the town is named for Cape Charles. 

When Federal troops were landed here during the Civil War the 
men of Northampton, thinking there was to be a battle, armed them- 
selves with axes, hatchets, fowling pieces, and pitchforks, only to find 
that no fighting was contemplated. This false alarm has been called 
the Battle of Three Ponds. Early in the war the area was occupied by 
Federal forces, President Lincoln and his Cabinet fearing that the 
Confederacy might use the peninsula for a base as the British, during 
the War of 1812, had used Tangier Island in capturing Alexandria 
and Washington. Though Brig. Gen. H. H. Lockwood, who com- 
manded the Federal forces on the Eastern Shore, established friendly 
relations with the civilian population, the people of Accomac and 
Northampton Counties were Confederate sympathizers; those men 
who enlisted joined the Confederate forces. 

Leaving Cape Charles, the Chesapeake Company ferry swings 
into the Chesapeake Bay and heads SW. The Cape Charles City 
Harbor is revealed as a small indentation in the shoreline protected 
on the N. by a riprap breakwater; the shore of the lower tip of the 
peninsula (L) appears as an unbroken line of white sand beach 
backed by blue-green pines. 

Always present in the harbor are tugs that haul barges loaded with 
railroad cars between the railroad terminals here and those at Nor- 
folk. 

The Jamestown colonists, who sailed into the Chesapeake in three 
small boats under Capt. Christopher Newport, on April 26, 1607, 
named the lower tip of the Eastern Shore (L) Cape Charles, and the 
point of land (R) on the other side of the bay, where they went 
ashore, Cape Henry, for the two princes of the House of Stuart. 

The northern channel into the bay is close to Cape Charles. Sep- 
arating this entrance from the southern channel is a bar normally 
under the surface of the water. At times, according to the tide and 
wind, the waves break in surf over the shallow area. 

The Norfolk ferry makes a short stop (visitors may alight and continue 
to Norfolk on the next ferry) at OLD POINT COMFORT (see VA. 
GUIDE). Here is FORT MONROE, constructed between 1819 and 
1841. During the Civil War it was used as a prison by the Federal 
forces. Here, after the war, Jefferson Davis was imprisoned. 



VIRGINIA 85 

Behind the fort are barracks of a U. S. Army coast artillery post. 

After leaving Old Point Comfort, the ferry continues across Hamp- 
ton Roads, one of the world's finest harbors. Up the shore from Old 
Point Comfort is (R) an unbroken line of houses comprising the 
towns of PHOEBUS and HAMPTON and the city of NEWPORT 
NEWS (see VA. GUIDE), which merge into an almost continuous 
city. 

In Hampton Roads on March 9, 1862, was fought the first battle 
between two iron-clads the Monitor and the Menimac. The latter 
a former Federal vessel that the Confederates had raised, con- 
verted into an iron-clad, and renamed Virginia had sunk the 
Federal vessels Congress and Cumberland on the preceding day at the 
mouth of the James River. On March 9th the Merrimac-Virginia, 
commanded by Catesby ap R. Jones approached the Federal's 
Minnesota beside which the Monitor, commanded by Lieut. John L. 
Worden, had anchored during the night. In the ensuing battle the 
Minnesota was set on fire; but after three hours of heavy bombard- 
ment, during which neither of the iron-clads could gain a victory, the 
Menimac left Norfolk and the Monitor returned to Fort Monroe. 

FORT WOOL is on an island constructed of rock in the center of the 
harbor (L). This site was once the dumping place for ships' ballast. 
The first fort was originally called Ripraps (a name still often used), 
and later Fort Calhoun. During the Civil War prisoners were con- 
fined in the fort. Robert E. Lee, as a second lieutenant and an as- 
sistant to Capt. Andres Talcott, aided in building the fort in 1834. 
After the Civil War it was named Fort Wool for the Union general, 
John Ellis Wool, who captured Norfolk in the early part of the war. 
During the World War submarine nets were stretched across the har- 
bor from this point. 

Across Hampton Roads the point of land (L) is WILLOUGHBY 
SPIT, where ferries running between Old Point Comfort and Nor- 
folk land. At Willoughby is a cottage settlement of waterfront homes. 
The UNITED STATES NAVAL OPERATING BASE, just beyond Wil- 
loughby Spit, is one of the principal defense units on the Atlantic 
coast; it covers 821 acres of land. The GRAIN ELEVATOR and DEEP 
WATER TERMINAL, built by the city of Norfolk and leased to the Nor- 
folk & Western Railroad, are next to the Navy station; nearby is a 
STANDARD OIL COMPANY STORAGE BASE. 

The large piers beyond are the NORFOLK TIDEWATER TERMINALS, 



86 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

a part of the plant built during the World War as an Army supply 
base at a cost of $40,000,000. The terminal is used by large vessels. 
On CRANEY ISLAND (R) is a fortification that played an impor- 
tant part in the defense of Norfolk during the War of 1812. After the 
Civil War ammunition was stored there; later it became a quarantine 
station. In 1919 the island was enlarged from 17 to 320 acres with 
material pumped from the harbor channel. The quarantine station 
was maintained, and a part of the island was leased to the U. S. 
Shipping Board as a site for oil storage tanks. The tanks, 20 of 55,000- 
gallon capacity each, are leased for bulk storage of liquids, princi- 
pally molasses. 

The COAL PIERS (L) of the Norfolk & Western R.R. are also ex- 
port merchandise piers. The DEEP WATER TERMINALS (R) are used 
by the Southern and Atlantic Coast Line R.Rs. FORT NORFOLK 
(L) dates from the Revolutionary War, but is now obsolete. The 
Cape Charles ferry berths between the NORFOLK & WASHINGTON 
STEAMBOAT Co. PIERS and the NORFOLK WAREHOUSE CORPORATION 
PIERS, the latter used for storing cotton. 

The ferries of the Virginia Ferry Corporation operate between 
Cape Charles and LITTLE CREEK, landing at a ferry slip adjoining 
railroad freight tracks. 

Section 6. Norfolk to North Carolina Line, 21.6 ?n. US 17 
NORFOLK, m. (11-12 alt., 129,710 pop.) (see VA. GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. Southern Ry., foot of Jackson St.; Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. 
and Pennsylvania R.R., ferry at foot of Brooke Ave.; Seaboard Air Line Ry., 
ferry at foot of Commercial Place; Norfolk & Western Ry., Virginian Ry., and 
Norfolk & Southern R.R., Union Station, 1200 E. Main St. 

Accommodations. All types. 

Points of Interest. St. Paul's Church, Milhado House, Sams House, Museum of 
Arts and Science, Myers House, and others. 

Straight ahead from the ferry landing on Brooke Ave. to Granby 
St.; R. on Granby to Main St.; L. on Main to Commercial PL; R. to 
NORFOLK-PORTSMOUTH FERRY, 0.6 m. 

An alternate route avoiding the ferry to Portsmouth is on Brooke Ave.; R. 
on Boush St.; L. on City Hall Ave.; L. on Church to Brambleton Ave.; R. on 
Brambleton which becomes US 460; straight ahead on US 460 to its junction 
with US 17. 



VIRGINIA 87 

PORTSMOUTH, 1 m. (11-12 alt., 45,704 pop.) (see VA. 
GUIDE). 

Points of Interest. Navy Yard, Marine Barracks, Naval Hospital, and others. 

From the Portsmouth side of the Norfolk-Portsmouth ferry straight 
ahead on High St. to Elm St., 2 m.; L. on this street to the junction 
with US 17 (L). 

From the urban district of Portsmouth US 17 goes through a 
truck-farm region. 

DEEP CREEK, 7.4 m., is a small settlement on the edge of the 
DISMAL SWAMP area. The town flourished when it was a stage- 
coach stop on the road between Norfolk and Elizabeth City, N. C., 
and the principal shipping point for the vast Dismal Swamp lumber- 
ing enterprises. 

The Dismal Swamp is a 750-square-mile wilderness of swampland 
covered with trees and other vegetation. Through the centuries trees 
have fallen and, with other plants, have formed a tangled layer in a 
mass of organic material. The wood of these trees, though not easily 
obtained, makes unusually fine shingles. The mass in which the logs 
are buried is reaching the peat stage. Forest fires, in the swamp, 
burning the soil to the depth of several feet, frequently continue for 
weeks. This mass has raised the surface of the swamp to a higher point 
near the center. 

The Dismal Swamp was described by Col. William Byrd of Vir- 
ginia, a member of the expedition that in 1728 surveyed the boun- 
dary line between Virginia and North Carolina. In his History of the 
Dividing Line Byrd wrote; "Since the surveyors had enter 'd the Dis- 
mal, they had laid eyes on no living creature; neither bird nor beast, 
insect nor reptile came in view. Doubtless, the eternal shade that 
broods over this mighty bog, and hinders the sunbeams from blessing 
the ground, makes it an uncomfortable habitation for anything that 
has life. Not so much as a Zealand frog cou'd endure so aguish a 
situation. It had one beauty, however, that delighted the eye, tho' 
at the expense of all other senses: the moisture of the soil preserves a 
continual verdure, and makes every plant an evergreen, but at the 
same time the foul damps ascend without ceasing, corrupt the air, 
and render it unfit for respiration. Not even a turkey-buzzard will 
venture to fly over it." 

In the village of Deep Creek, the DISMAL SWAMP CANAL is 



88 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

crossed. This canal, extending from the southern branch of the 
Elizabeth River to the sounds of eastern North Carolina, was built to 
afford transportation between Norfolk and Elizabeth City, N. C.,and 
also as a shipping route for lumber from the swamp. A company to cut 
the canal was chartered by Virginia and North Carolina; the U. S. 
Government was a stockholder, and George Washington and Patrick 
Henry subscribed to the enterprise. The canal was eventually con- 
structed by private subscription. Although the first boat passed 
through the canal in 1822, the canal was not completed until 1828. 

Between Deep Creek, a tidal branch of the Elizabeth River, and 
the waters of the canal are locks, necessary because of the difference 
between the levels of the swamp area and the sea. The canal water is 
amber-colored; it is impregnated with organic matter from the mul- 
titude of juniper logs buried in the swamp for centuries. In years 
past, before the development of refrigeration on boats, the water of 
the swamp was highly valued for drinking purposes on ships, because 
it remained fresh for a long time. 

South of Deep Creek the highway parallels the canal (L), which 
skirts the eastern edge of the swamp. At intervals are farms on re- 
claimed ground. 

The OLD STONE HOUSE, now a tea-room, at 18 m., was built 
about a century ago as the home of the superintendent of the locks of 
the canal. The post office here, called WALLACETOWN, was 
named for William Wallace, who was a superintendent of the locks. 
During two generations the house served as commissary for the lum- 
ber trade of the swamp. 

At ARBUCKLE'S LANDING, 19.8 m. (boats equipped with out- 
board motors and guides to Lake Drummond available here and in i/.j neigh- 
borhood; $1 per person, $3 minimum), the FEEDER DITCH (R) enters the 
canal. Across the canal, near the feeder ditch mouth, is the U. S. 
ENGINEERS STATION for the administration of the Government-con- 
trolled sections of the swamp. 

Right along the ditch, which is about 15 feet wide and at right angles to the 
canal, in the heart of Dismal Swamp, to the locks of LAKE DRUMMOND, 
3m., named for William Drummond, first Governor of North Carolina, who 
was hanged in 1677 by Berkeley for his share in Bacon's Rebellion; Drummond 
was said to have discovered the lake while'on a hunting trip. 

The forest growth of juniper, cypress, gum, maple, poplar, ash, and oak is 
dense and continuous along the ditch; the undergrowth is filled with flowering 
water plants. The lake is on top of this elevation, much like the bottom of an 



VIRGINIA 89 

inverted saucer. It has an altitude of 22 feet, while the outer edges of the swamp 
are but a few feet above sea level. On an exploration trip in the swamp George 
Washington noticed that water ran continually from the lake, despite the fact 
that it had no inlets. Water is thought to enter the lake from the bottom and to 
rise because of the downward pressure of the matted swamp deposit. 

The lake is five miles long, rimmed with stumps of giant trees, and surrounded 
by a thick forest. Its clear waters resemble brown ink. 

Many kinds of game including bear, wildcat, and smaller animals are 
available in season to hunters. Fresh-water fish in fair quantities are in the lake 
and other waters of the swamp. Both hunting and fishing are subject to regula- 
tions of the Federal Government, which controls the greater part of the area. 

The swamp, a place of mystery, has inspired many legends. Thomas Moore, 
the Irish poet, visited the area in 1 803 and wrote The Lake of the Dismal Swamp, 
a poem based on the local legend of a young man who became mentally deranged 
when his sweetheart died, and who imagined she was not dead but in the swamp. 
The poem describes his wanderings in search of the sweetheart who had 

"... gone to the Lake of the Dismal Swamp, 

Where all night long, by a fire-fly lamp, 

She paddles her white canoe." 

The highway runs beside the canal with a continuous view of the 
jungle-like growth of the swamp (R). US 17 crosses the North Caro- 
lina Line at 21.6 m. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

Virginia Line Elizabeth City Edenton Williamston 
Washington New Bern Wilmington South Carolina Line, 
285 m. US 17. 

Norfolk Southern R.R. roughly parallels route between Virginia Line and Eden- 
ton, and closely between Washington and New Bern; Atlantic Coast Line R.R. 
parallels route between New Bern and Wilmington. 

Paved roadbed; hotels in cities and larger towns; tourist accommodations between 
towns, infrequent. 

Section 7. Virginia Line to Williamstown, 87 m. US 17 

Running through the ancient Albemarle region, US 17 winds be- 
tween level stretches of truck farms, penetrates dense swamps, and 
skirts the great indentations of coastal sounds and broad estuaries. 
The country is a favorite resort of hunters. 

It was developed under the Lords Proprietors (1663-1729) and 
the English Crown (1729-76). One of the terrors of Colonial days 
was the raids by pirates who found the remote lands along the sounds 
and rivers afforded them many refuges. 

For a long period the counties north of Albemarle Sound were 
referred to as the Lost Provinces because of the difficulty of com- 
municating with them. Members of the Legislature from the extreme 
eastern county of Dare had to take a long and tedious journey in or- 
der to reach the State capital, crossing no less than three toll bridges. 
There were no hard-surfaced highways in the entire section until 
1920; the first was a nine-foot brick pavement between Elizabeth 
City and the farm community of Weeksville. To open up the isolated 
sections, the State has purchased the toll bridges, abolishing the 
charges, and has built a network of modern highways tied together 
across the numerous inland waters by bridges, causeways, and ferries. 

Most of the people of Albemarle take pride in their descent from 
the early settlers, many tracing their American ancestry back to the 
17th century. Some of the towns give the impression that their people 
live largely in the past; other communities are frankly new and mod- 
ern, concerned with little more than the busy and absorbing present. 

Where there are no incorporated towns, local affairs are under 
control of the county officials, and the county seats are the centers of 
trade and culture. 

90 



NORTH CAROLINA 91 

In North Carolina, as in Virginia, US 17 runs through the Great 
Dismal Swamp, which covers parts of Currituck, Camden, Pasquo- 
tank, and Gates Counties. Game is still plentiful in the swamp, espe- 
cially in the almost inaccessible Coldwater Ditch section, where bear, 
deer, opossum, and raccoon are found. The swamp is also a haven for 
many kinds of birds, among them the rare ivory-billed woodpecker. 
In summer, the canal bank by the highway is a mass of honey- 
suckle, reeds, and myrtle, with scarlet trumpet flowers here and 
there. 

Fire and ax have made ruthless attacks on the Great Dismal 
Swamp without materially altering it, and, though many of its acres 
have been claimed for farm lands, what remains is still for the most 
part a wilderness. Lumber companies own most of the present swamp 
area, maintaining a number of sawmills along the borders. 

It has immense areas of inferior hardwood that are as worthless as 
the acres of scorched standing timber. In scattered clearings are beds 
of peat that have in some places burned down to a depth of eight or 
ten feet. After a fire in 1923 had destroyed 150 square miles of timber 
in the swamp, peat land continued to burn until 1926. Lightning, 
the spark from a log train, or the carelessness of a smoker, can start a 
fire that will burn for months. 

Despite the stories of the unhealthfulness of the area, early travelers 
reported that slaves, cutting shingles and living in the swamp, had 
good health. Runaways often took refuge here, earning food by 
working in the lumber camps, whose owners were willing to ignore 
the illegal status of the Negroes. Stories of ghosts, savages, moon- 
shiners, and desperate fugitives, poisonous plants, and stealthy ser- 
pents, formerly kept all but the most intrepid from penetrating the 
swamp. Treacherous quicksands are, however, the most serious dan- 
ger to the unwary explorer. 

On the Virginia-North Carolina Line, m., is the SITE OF HALF- 
WAY HOUSE, about which many stories are still told. Built about 
1800, half in North Carolina and half in Virginia, the house was a 
stagecoach stop on the route between Edenton, N. C., and Washing- 
ton, D. C., where passengers took refreshments or broke their jour- 
neys and the stage secured fresh horses. It is said that there was a bar 
around which much gambling went on, and that the place was 
notorious as a dueling ground and a refuge. Fugitives from Virginia 
rested as contentedly on the North Carolina side as did North Caro- 



9 2 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

lina fugitives on the Virginia side. An unsupported legend is that 
Edgar Allen Poe wrote the Raven while staying here. 

SOUTH MILLS, 8 m. (8 alt., 404 pop.), derived its name from 
an old mill at the southern end of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal; 
it was formerly called Old Lebanon. A 120-foot drawbridge crosses 
the canal near the locks. South Mills is known as the Gretna Green 
of this section, because of the encouragement given to eloping couples 
by local justices of the peace. In the yard of one of these magistrates 
is an electrically-lighted sign which at night guides couples to the 
"marrying squire." 

Left from South Mills on State 343 to SAWYERS' LANE BATTLEFIELD, 
3 in., the scene of a skirmish fought on April 19, 1862. A body of Federals had 
landed at Elizabeth City and part of them, under Colonel Hawkins, had pushed 
forward to surprise and intercept Confederate troops who were about to leave for 
Norfolk, Va. The Federals' plans were betrayed by a guide and the Confederates 
assailed them at this point, but were flanked, and hastily withdrew. After a gun- 
boat drove the Southerners out of the woods along the riverbank, Hawkins made 
a charge; although this was repulsed, the Confederates were defeated. 

At 19 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on the dirt road to the OLD BRICK HOUSE (open), 0.7 m., somewhat mis- 
named because only the end walls are brick. The bricks in the chimney at one end 
of the house bear the date 1700. There is a persistent tradition that this old struc- 
ture on the banks of the Pasquotank River was a haunt of the pirate Black- 
beard. At the foot of the steps formerly rested a circular slab of stone, probably 
an old mill wheel, bearing the initials "E.T." and the date 1709; the initials 
were supposed to stand for Edward Thatch, or Teach, both of which are given 
as the pirate's real name. It is probable, however, that he did not enter this region 
until about 1716. 

The interior formerly contained fine paneling and richly carved mantels. 
A wide entrance hall, paneled to the ceiling, opened into a drawing room. It is 
said that in this room were, formerly, closets on each side of the fireplace, leading 
to a mysterious passageway connecting the basement and the riverbank. Another 
legend about the Old Brick House declares that it was built by an Englishman of 
noble birth, who wished to hide his daughter from a lover whom the family 
considered unsuitable. The lover followed his lady, fought a duel for her, and was 
killed. It is asserted that there are everlasting bloodstains on the floor of the house. 

The probable truth is that the house was built by the eldest son of the English 
Lord Murden, who sent a colony under his son to settle in the New World. 
Young Murden brought with him the brick, stone, carved mantel, and paneling 
used in the structure. The secret closets were possibly hiding places for family 
valuables. The large basement was provided with stalls where the horses were 
kept when the plantation was in danger of attack. The property descended to 
Nancy Murden whose will is recorded in the courthouse in Elizabeth City. 



I 



BEACH AT KIPTOPEKE, VIRGINIA 



ii 








A LIBELOUS BRITISH CARTOON OF THE EDENTON TEA PARTY 



NORTH CAROLINA 93 

Today there is nothing about the interior of the Old Brick House to suggest a 
romantic past, but the exterior of the sturdy old building is much as it was 200 
years ago, and its setting on the banks of the Pasquotank is beautiful. 

ELIZABETH CITY, 22 m. (8 alt., 10,037 pop.). 
Accommodations. Modern hotels, tourist homes, and boarding houses. 

Elizabeth City, the largest community in the Albemarle section, 
is the only town built on the banks of the 40-mile-long Pasquotank 
River. Situated in a wide bend of the stream at the "narrows," it is a 
popular point from which to reach the duck-hunting country of 
Currituck, the big game in the recesses of the Great Dismal Swamp, 
vacation spots along the sounds and the sea, and the sport fishing 
areas off the banks. 

Concentrated in three blocks along Main Street between the 
river and the public square is the business district. The wholesale 
houses on Water Street, which runs close to the river, are large, this 
being the market town of a rich vegetable-growing area. In season 
heavily laden trucks roll day and night through the streets to the 
railroad sidings. The town also sends out large quantities of fish, 
being the main shipping point for northeastern fishing industry. 

The courthouse green and the Federal building's barberry-hedged 
lawn make a double square, separated by the slim column of the 
Confederate Monument. This broad park, shaded by great trees set 
informally, is flanked on three sides by residences with yards contain- 
ing elms, oaks, maples, silver beeches, and pecan trees, which add to 
the generous expanse of shade. 

Pasquotank Harbor, in the bend of Pasquotank River several miles 
above the point where it empties into Albemarle Sound, attracts, in 
winter, many Northern pleasure craft because of its fresh water, free 
from barnacles and shipworms. The harbor is the home port of 
freight boats, tugs, barges, "bugeyes," and catboats, also of powered 
pleasure cruisers and auxiliary sailing yachts. The original mothboat, 
Jumping Juniper, was built at the Elizabeth City Shipyard, and this 
type of craft is numerous in the harbor. 

A bridge arches high over the river, lifting its draw-span for trim 
yacht and sturdy tug alike. Opposite the foot of Main Street, at the 
narrowest point in the harbor, just below the bridge, are the gleam- 
ing storage tanks of an oil company across on Machelhe Island. Cot- 
ton, hosiery, and lumber mills are on the outer edges of the town 



94 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

near the railroad tracks, as are the mill sections where the cotton 
workers live. 

The first large vessel to visit the area, that of Captain Whittly, 
came in the winter of 1664, entering the inland waters through 
Roanoke Inlet, long since closed. As early as 1666 settlers from the 
Bermuda Islands established themselves along the Pasquotank River. 

The cutting of the Dismal Swamp Canal led to the settlement of 
the town. The present city is on what was the Narrows Plantation, 
owned by Adam and Elizabeth Tooley. Settlers attracted by the 
swamp timber, excellent for making staves, shingles, and ship parts, 
arrived in numbers. First called the Town of Narrows, the place was 
chartered in 1793 as the Town of Reading in honor of a prominent 
early settler, but in the following year the name was changed to 
Town of Elizabeth to honor Elizabeth Tooley, or Queen Elizabeth. 
As confusion resulted between this and the Elizabeth Town in Tyrell 
County, in 1801 these communities became respectively Elizabeth 
City and Columbia. 

The town has long been the port of entry for the Albemarle Cus- 
toms District but the foreign trade is now negligible. It has been the 
seat of Pasquotank County since 1799. The Federal occupation of 
Elizabeth City, in April 1863, was a "grand, gloomy, and peculiar 
time." The name of Elliott Street is a reminder of the period, it hav- 
ing been given to honor the young Confederate officer, Gilbert 
Elliott, who built the Confederate ram Albemarle. 

The JUDGE WALTER L. SMALL HOME (private), NW. corner of 
Colonial Ave. and Pool St., overlooks the courthouse green. The 
hand-carved woodwork, wainscoted rooms, heart-pine floors, the 
furnishings, the tall fluted columns, and double porches are charac- 
teristic of the period in which the structure was erected (1800). The 
NASH HOME (private) at the NW. corner of Colonial Ave. and Martin 
St., was built as the home of Benjamin Albertson, a Quaker in the 
Revolutionary period. Big outside chimneys and many-paned win- 
dows are evidences of its age. 

The old CHARLES HOUSE f (private), now divided into apartments, 710 
Colonial Ave., was built about 1800 and has an unusual staircase, a 
hand-carved mantel, and old brass hardware. 

The FEARING HOUSE (private), SE. corner of Road and Fearing Sts., 
the oldest house in town, was built in 1740 by Charles Grice and is 
still occupied by his descendants. A white-painted frame structure, 



NORTH CAROLINA 95 

with small wings on the sides and rear, it is in a good state of preser- 
vation. 

CHRIST CHURCH, SE. corner of Church and McMorine Sts., hous- 
ing the oldest congregation in the city, is of the Gothic style, with 
ivy-covered, buttressed brick walls. The original Christ Church, 
built in 1825, was replaced in 1856. 

The SHIPYARDS and the MARITIME SIGNAL TOWER, affording a fine 
view, are of unusual interest. 

The CLARK HOUSE (L), Riverside Dr. beyond the shipyards, is one 
of the town's show places and home of its leading yachtsman; the 
BEVERIDGE HOUSE (L), Riverside Dr., is a shingled structure built on 
brick pilings over the river, a type of construction common at Nags 
Head (see Side Route A) for years. 

ALBEMARLE HOSPITAL, on a point of land at the foot of Riverside 
Dr., commands a wide view of the river from its high-columned 
porches; it is owned and operated by the community. 

In Elizabeth City is the junction with State 30 (see Side Route A). 

At 37 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Left on this road, which is paved for 8 miles, then merely graded, to the pen- 
insula known as DURANT'S NECK, lying between Little River and Perquimans 
(per-quim'-ans) River. The peninsula was named for George Durant, whose 
land title is the oldest recorded in the State (see below). 

NEW HOPE, 10 m. (153 pop.), a farm settlement, adjoins HECKLEFIELD 
FARM, estate of Capt. John Hecklefield, who was prominent in the affairs of the 
Albemarle colony. The Albemarle Assembly and the county court met here fre- 
quently in the early 1700's. 

At 16 m. is the LEIGH HOME, a red brick three-story structure with a white 
columned portico and white marble steps, built in 1825 by Col. James Leigh it 
stands in a grove of trees commanding a view of Albemarle Sound, Perquimans 
River, and Little River. This includes the major portion of 1,000 acres acquired 
by George Durant; the tract has been reduced to about 850 acres by the encroach- 
ment of the rivers and the waters of the sound. 

The bricks of the house were made on the place by slaves. The separate two- 
story kitchen is connected with the main house by an elevated walk. On the second 
floor are spacious rooms opening into each other and into the hall; and on the 
top floor is a paneled ballroom. Unusual construction of the floors, which are 
three inches thick, made the use of supporting braces unnecessary. 

In the cellar, lighted through iron-barred windows, are three separate divisions 
in which wines and liquors were stored. Also, according to tradition, the gloomy 
depths were used to confine recalcitrant slaves. At the foot of the side steps to the 
house is a large stone slab, believed to be the gravestone of Seth Sothel, "the most 
despised Governor" of North Carolina, who was appointed Royal Governor in 
1683, and who was so arbitrary and corrupt in the conduct of his duties that the 



9 6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

colonists seized and banished him six years after his arrival. Under an old elm 
tree in the yard, buried in the mud, is a slab supposed to mark the grave of George 
Durant. A small bridge spanning a creek leads to the Leigh family graveyard. 

WINFALL, 38 m. (16 alt., 426 pop.), a little village in the bend 
of the highway, is shaded by ancient trees arching overhead, its calm 
little disturbed by the busy hum of its eight-stack sawmill. 

Right from Winfall on State 37 is BELVIDERE, 6 m., a village settled by 
Quakers in the early 18th century. Strong believers in education, they were the 
founders of Belvidere Academy, one of the earliest schools established in the State. 
Its records, still preserved, though the academy no longer exists, give an interest- 
ing picture of the life of the community in its early days. The town is to some ex- 
tent peopled by descendants of the Quaker settlers. 

South of Winfall US 17 crosses the broad Perquimans River, 
which has its source in the Great Dismal Swamp and flows SE. 
through Perquimans County to Albemarle Sound. So inviting are its 
shores that many early settlers built their homes here. US 17 runs on 
a causeway that replaced a corduroy road, having for its foundation 
a kind of causeway built by the Indians. This strip of roadbed, at an 
elevation little above that of the river on each side of it, leads to a 
modern drawbridge replacing the old Floating Bridge. As early as 
1784 such a floating bridge, built on whiskey barrels, and unstable 
during storms, spanned the Perquimans at Phelps Point; this bridge 
was destroyed during the Civil War. Another floating bridge was 
built and used continuously until 1896, when it was replaced by a 
drawbridge. This in turn gave way to the present beautiful structure 
that curves over the river into the main street of Hertford. 

HERTFORD, 40 m. (15 alt., 1,914 pop.), in the bend of the 
Perquimans River, is the seat of Perquimans County. This little 
community with sandy winding streets was first known as Phelps 
Point, taking its name from the original owner of the site. When 
incorporated in 1758 it was named for the Marquis of Hertford. 
Records show that it was a port of entry as early as 1701, and that 
there was a courthouse here in that year. 

The EDMUNDSON-FOX MEMORIAL (L), just S. of the bridge, is a 
granite marker with a bronze tablet, erected in 1929 by the North 
Carolina Yearly Meeting of Friends; it bears an inscription asserting 
that here was held the first religious service on record in Carolina. 
This claim ignores the baptisms of Manteo and Virginia Dare on 
Roanoke Island (see Side Route A), and services held in Charleston, 



NORTH CAROLINA 97 

which was founded in 1670. In 1672, William Edmundson, a follower 
of George Fox, founder of the Religious Society of Friends, preached 
a sermon to the settlers on The Work of God. In September of the same 
year, Fox himself spent 18 days "in the north of Carolina" and had 
many "meetings among the people." A description of the people and 
their customs contained in his journal, is one of the few records of 
these early settlers. 

PERQUIMANS COUNTY COURTHOUSE, on Main St., (L) is a large 
brick structure in the center of a wide tree-shaded lawn. The original 
courthouse was built in 1701 and burned the same year; the present 
courthouse was built in 1824. In 1930 the building was repaired and 
the worn red brick painted a deep ivory. The courthouse contains an 
unbroken record from the first deed book, dated 1685, up to that of 
the present day, including the oldest deed on record in North Caro- 
lina, a transfer of title to George Durant (see above). 

On March 1, 1661 (1662), George Durant acquired from Kil- 
cocanen, chief of the Yeopim Indians, a tract of land lying along the 
Perquimans River and Albemarle Sound and known as Weco- 
domicke. Because of the age of Durant's deed, and the fact that it 
mentions a still earlier purchase of adjoining lands by Samuel Prick- 
love, it has been generally maintained that the earliest permanent 
settlements in the State were on Durant's Neck. There is evidence, 
however, that there were earlier settlements between the Roanoke 
and Chowan Rivers. 

The SITE OF THE OLD EAGLE TAVERN, which was torn down in 
1920, covers six lots in the heart of town. It is known to have existed 
as early as 1754, and it was the center of bustling activity on court 
days. It is told that George Washington was a guest at the tavern 
while he was surveying for the Dismal Swamp Canal, and that Wil- 
liam Hooper, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, lived here 
for a time. 

The HARVEY HOME, Main St., built before 1800, is one of the old- 
est houses in Hertford. It has a two-story porch supported by col- 
umns. The hand-hewn heart-pine timbers, fastened together with 
wooden pegs in lieu of nails, have worn well. Two-hundred-year-old 
trees, gnarled with age and ivy-clad to their topmost branches, shade 
the house. The shaded sidewalk in front of the place crosses a spot 
that is believed to be KILGOGANEN'S GRAVE (see above). The river 
Yeopim forming part of the dividing line between Perquimans and 



9 8 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Chowan Counties, and a settlement by the same name, perpetuate 
the name of the aborigines of this section. 

The McCuixuM HOUSE, Front St., was built in 1820. Shell holes 
made during the Civil War have been preserved through all sub- 
sequent remodelings. 

Left from the center of Hertford, at the point where US 17 swings R; this 
branch road, hard-surfaced for half its length, runs into HARVEY'S NECK, a 
peninsula 12 miles long. Harvey's Neck was the Colonial seat of John Harvey, 
Governor of North Carolina in 1 679, whose grandson, John Harvey, was known 
as the Father of the Revolution in North Carolina. Two old plantations on the 
neck have been united into one farm of some 1,100 acres, entered through a gate 
at 9 m. (open). 

At 9.7 m. is the junction with a lane leading to ASHLAND, a beautiful old 
house built by John Skinner in 1775. Gracefully arched masonry supports the 
lower of the two columned verandas. Twin chimneys at the ends of the house 
furnish fireplaces for all the rooms on the first and second floors, and for the attic 
as well. There are four separate basements. 

At 10.5 m. are the RUINS OF BELGRADE MANSION, the home of the Harvey 
family until it was burned during the Civil War. Nearby, in the family graveyard, 
is the tomb (date 1729) of Thomas Harvey, father of the John Harvey of Revo- 
lutionary times. 

EDENTON, 53 m. (8 alt., 3,563 pop.) (see JV.C. GUIDE). 

Accommodations. Hotels and boarding houses. 

The seat of the ancient County of Chowan (cho-wan'), Eden ton 
has a Colonial flavor that persists in the street names King, 
Queen, Court, and Church. 

US 17 follows Broad St. which does not belie its name al- 
most to the shore of Edenton Bay. Except at the lower end of this 
avenue, which is the business district, the streets are lined with fine 
old trees, giving the place an air of gracious repose. The shores of 
lovely, curving Edenton Bay have had little commercial develop- 
ment and houses near the water still look across to distant shores 
covered with cypress. 

From the days of the Indians, Edenton's principal industry has 
been shad and herring fishing, and large fisheries and packing plants 
are operated today. Textile and lumber mills as well as cottonseed 
oil refineries are in operation. Waters of the nearby creeks and rivers 
provide good angling for the sportsman. Bass, pike, and perch, lo- 
cally called "chub," are caught in large quantities. The fine loam of 
the surrounding region, "the newe discovered summer countrye" of 



NORTH CAROLINA 99 

the early settlers, produces a superior grade of peanuts marketed 
through the town, which also ships, by water and by rail, large quan- 
tities of watermelons, cotton, corn, cantaloups and other pro- 
duce. 

Edenton, first called Port of Roanoke, was one of the first three 
towns established by European settlers in North Carolina. From 
1712, when the Assembly passed an act to build a courthouse "in the 
forks of Queen Anne's Creek," until 1722, the settlement retained the 
name of Queen Anne's Town. In the latter year it was incorporated 
under its present name, honoring Governor Charles Eden who had 
just died. 

For many years Edenton was virtually the Colonial capital, inas- 
much as the Governor resided here; sessions of the Assembly were 
held in the town from 1720 to 1738. It was a port of entry from 
Colonial times until the early 1900's and as such, in its early days, 
enjoyed a flourishing foreign trade. "Deep-sea ships, full-rigged 
ships, men-of-war, merchantmen, sneaking coasters, slavers, rum 
boats, and whalers" thronged the bay. 

In 1781, when the town crier brought the alarming news that 
Cornwallis was on his way to burn the town, almost the entire popu- 
lation embarked for Windsor in boats and skiffs. Cornwallis changed 
his plans and, about a week later, the Edenton citizenry returned to 
its homes. 

During the Civil War the Edenton Bell Battery, with guns cast 
from nearly all the bells of the town, figured in numerous engage- 
ments, finally surrendering to General Sherman at Greensboro. 

A CONFEDERATE MONUMENT stands in front of the courthouse on 
the green, which slopes down to the bay. On the western edge of the 
green is the EDENTON TEA PARTY MARKER, a large bronze teapot 
mounted on a Revolutionary cannon, marking the site of the house 
in which 51 women gathered, on October 25, 1774, to sign a resolu- 
tion to refrain from drinking tea until the tax acts should be repealed. 
The JOSEPH HEWES MONUMENT, at the lower edge of the green, is the 
only monument erected by a Congressional appropriation to a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. 

Facing the bay at the head of the green is CHOWAN COURTHOUSE, 
built in 1767, a pleasant Colonial survival. The nearly square build- 
ing supports a clock tower and domed cupola holding a double cross. 
The WASHINGTON CHAIR, in the Unanimity Lodge Room (open on 



ioo THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

application to Chowan Herald Office)., was used by George Washington, 
master of the Alexandria Lodge of Masons in Virginia. 

The frame CUPOLA HOUSE (open daily 3-5 p.m.; Mon. and Fri. 7-9 
p.m.; adm. 25f), 408 S. Broad St., near the bay, is the oldest house 
standing in Edenton; the date 1758 is visible on its gable end. Built 
by Francis Corbin, agent of Lord Granville, it has great outside 
chimneys, a Jacobean overhang, and a roof with an octagonal cupola 
and a central gable. In the beautiful interior, a Chippendale stair 
rises to the third story, whence a circular stair winding around an 
octagonal mahogany newel gives access to the cupola. The SHEPARD- 
PRUDEN MEMORIAL LIBRARY is housed in the drawing room. The 
house holds a collection of documents and relics. 

The SITE OF HEWES' STORE is at the NE. corner of E. King and 
Broad Sts.; this store was the business office of Hewes, whose ship- 
yard was off the point where Pembroke Creek enters Edenton 
Bay. 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, NW. corner Broad and Church Sts., erected 
in 1736, now stands half-hidden by century-old magnolia, elm, and 
crape-myrtle trees. Two earlier buildings successively housed its 
congregation; the first erected in 1702 on the present Hayes Planta- 
tion on the shore of the sound, was the first built in North Carolina; 
the second building occupied this site. A silver chalice and paten, 
presented to St. Paul's Church in 1725 by Sir Edward Moseley and 
still in use, are beautiful pieces of early American design and work- 
manship. The church records, dating from 1701 when this, the oldest 
parish in the State, was formed, have been preserved intact. In the 
churchyard are buried several royal governors and Revolutionary 
patriots, many of them under flat worn slabs. 

The IREDELL HOUSE (open), 107 E. Church St., was the home of 
James Iredell, who was appointed Associate Justice of the U. S. 
Supreme Court by George Washington. 

South of Edenton is the Norfolk Southern R.R. bridge crossing 
Albemarle Sound to connect HORNBLOWER'S POINT with 
MACKEY'S; this bridge, with a span of nearly 6 miles, was opened 
to traffic on Jan. 17, 1910, replacing a ferry. It is of the rolling draw 
type, spanning 1 60 feet with a 1 40-foot clearance. During the winter of 
1917 when ice formed to such depth during an unusual freeze that 
motorcars and trucks could be driven across the sound, it was neces- 
sary to dynamite the ice. 



NORTH CAROLINA 101 

1. Right from Edenton on hard-surfaced State 32, which follows the old 
stagecoach route known for years as the Virginia Rd. 

At WINGFIELD, 10 m., on the banks of the Chowan River, are the RUINS 
OF THE OLD UNION FORT captured and partly destroyed in 1863. Remnants of 
the old trenches remain. Wingfield plantation house, built in 1760 and burned 
during the same engagement, was the Colonial home of the Brownriggs. 

At BANDON, 15 m., was the home, built in 1757, of Daniel Earle, Revolu- 
tionary rector of old St. Paul's Church at Edenton. He established here the first 
classical school for boys in North Carolina. The clergyman and his daughter, 
Miss Nancy, taught Latin, Greek, English grammar and composition, and mathe- 
matics, exercising at the same time a strong religious influence. Bandon, named 
for the Earle estate in Ireland, was the site of a village of the Chowanoke Indians 
and valuable relics have been found in mounds nearby. 

2. Left from Edenton on Front St. and across Johnston's Bridge to HAYES, 
0.5 m. (private), the plantation of Samuel Johnston, Governor of North Carolina 
in 1787 and the first U. S. Senator from North Carolina. He built the spacious 
house in 1801, naming it for Sir Walter Ralegh's English estate. The main 
building is connected with wings by colonnades. In the house is a valuable col- 
lection of steel engravings and portraits by Reynolds, Sully and other artists 
fashionable in their day. The catalog of the 5,000 library volumes, written with a 
quill pen, looks as though it had been engraved. 

The unpaved Soundside Rd. E. of Hayes was used by early settlers, who were 
following an old Chowan Indian trail. Doubling and redoubling upon itself, the 
road passes several plantations created in Colonial times, and at the mouth of the 
Yeopim River reaches DRUMMOND'S POINT, 8m., named for Governor 
William Drummond. (Fishing boats for hire.) 

BATTS (BATZ) GRAVE or BATTS ISLAND, in the mouth of the Yeopim 
River, is not cultivated now, but early records refer to a suit arising there 
over the destruction of corn crops by pigs. In the early 18th century the land 
belonged to George Durant, Jr. In Colonial times it was part of the mainland 
and, not long since, was within wading distance of the shore; but tide erosion has 
widened the channel and reduced the island's many acres to one. 

The ghost of a man named Batts, who once lived on the island, is said to guard 
the spot where he buried his hoarded gold. Weird tales are told of treasure 
seekers who have been driven in terror from the haunted island by strange 
sounds, ghostly shapes and balls of fire. 

Indians have a part in another version of the Batts legend. On the mainland 
were the Chowanoke Indians, who called the island Kalola for the seagulls that 
alone disturbed its solitude until the coming of Jesse Batts, a hunter and trapper 
on the upper waters of Albemarle Sound. Batts fell in love with Kickowanna, 
daughter of the chief Kilcanoo. She favored his suit, rejecting that of Pamunkey, 
chief of the Chasamonpeakes who, thereupon, made war on the Chowanokes 
and tried to steal her. Batts, for his bravery in defense of the Chowanokes, was 
adopted into the tribe under the name of Secotan, meaning "great white eagle." 
Thereafter he lived with Kickowanna on the upper waters but made frequent 
trips to his island home, where Kickowanna would go in her canoe to visit him. 
One night in a raging storm she was drowned. Batts never left the island again and 
died there brokenhearted. 



102 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

South of Eden ton at PEMBROKE CREEK, 53.5 m., is a U.S. FISH 
HATCHERY, where large quantities of shad, herring, bass, and other 
fishes are propagated. Here also is the SITE OF THE HOME OF STEPHEN 
CABARRUS, a Frenchman who came to America during the Revolu- 
tion and was in the legislature for 20 years serving as speaker for 17 
years. He is buried in old St. Paul's Churchyard, Edenton. 

South of EMPEROR, 60 m., the highway crosses the Chowan 
River Bridge, 1.5 miles long. 

At the southern end of the bridge is EDENHOUSE POINT, 
61.5 m., so called because it is near the site of the residence of 
Charles Eden, Colonial Governor of North Carolina. He died in 
1722 and was buried in the grove of willows that still flourishes 
within a stone's throw of Chowan Bridge; the bones of the Governor 
have been removed to St. Paul's churchyard in Edenton. 

Left from Edenhouse Point on a dirt road to EDENHOUSE BEACH, 1m., 
a resort (bathing, boating, and fishing), built on the SITE OF THE HOME OF GOVERNOR 
EDEN. It is a quiet place on the banks of the broad Chowan, near its entrance 
to Albemarle Sound. 

At 63 m. US 17 crosses Salmon Creek. South of the bridge, on 
both sides of the highway, is MILL LANDING FARM, the estate of Lord 
Duckenfield, who held it by grant from the Crown of England. 
About 100 yards from the highway (L) is the OLD MILL, erected in 
1710, the only estate building still standing; for nearly 200 years it 
has ground corn for the neighborhood. The mill pond, formed by 
damming Ducken Run, is shaded by beautiful old cypress trees. 

At 64 m. is the junction with State 35. 

Left on State 35, an unpaved route locally called the Chapel Rd., for an early 
English church that once stood near here. At AVOCA, 6 m., on a point of land 
where the Chowan and Roanoke Rivers meet as they flow into Albemarle 
Sound, is the CAPEHART FISHERY, one of the principal shad fisheries of the coast. 
In season the catch includes great quantities of shad, sturgeon, and herring. 

WINDSOR, 74 m. (30 alt., 1,425 pop.), the seat of Bertie County 
on the Cashie (Cah-shy') River, is an old town with wide, elm-shaded 
streets. Before the Civil War it was a port of entry for shipping from 
the West Indies and northern seaports; from this point merchandise 
was carried inland by wagons over the old Halifax Rd. 

The site of Windsor belonged to John Gray, a wealthy planter, 
who gave it with the stipulation that the land should "forever be 



NORTH CAROLINA 103 

used as a town." It was first called Windshore, but Gray later 
changed the name to its present form. The plan for the town was 
made in England and provided that the three main streets be desig- 
nated King, Queen, and York, and that the cross streets be named 
for the various Lords Proprietors; the streets bear these names today. 

Windsor became the seat of Bertie County in 1750. In 1723 a log 
courthouse was built at St. John's, which is now included in Hertford 
County. In 1743 a second courthouse was built at Wolfenden, 2 
miles N. of Windsor. The first courthouse at Windsor was built in 
1767 and used until 1887, when the present building was erected. 
The town has sawmills, barrel mills, and peanut and tobacco ware- 
houses. Sportsmen come here to fish; game is abundant in the vicin- 
ity and coon hunting along the Cashie is a favorite pastime of local 
hunters. 

WINDSOR CASTLE, Belmont Ave., is on a hill overlooking the town; 
the original structure was an 8-room log house built by William 
Gray, an Englishman, who so named the site because it was sur- 
rounded by water as is Windsor Castle in England. The present 
house, built by Patrick Henry Winston in 1855 near the site of the 
earlier house, has the stately white columns and broad verandas 
characteristic of ante-bellum Southern architecture. 

ROSEFIELD, (L) at the southern limits of the town, on Windsor's 
other hill, overlooks the beautiful valley of the Cashie. The estate 
which took its name from a field of wild roses that once bloomed 
here, was the home of John Gray, who gave the site of Windsor. The 
present house, built in 1856, has not been changed since 1861, when 
repairs then under way were stopped by the Civil War. 

Right from Windsor, beyond Windsor Castle, on State 308 to HOPE HOUSE, 
3.5 m., the home of David Stone, Governor of North Carolina (1808-1810). 
The house was at one time considered the show place of the county. The solid- 
wooden gutters are unusual, as is also a structure on top of the house, that was 
formerly used as a fish pond. 

South of Windsor the highway continues through a region of green 
swampland, always spicy with the odor of pine and cedar; and, in 
spring and early summer, fragrant with the blooms of wild grape, 
sweetbrier roses, and honeysuckle. 

At 81.2 m. is the junction with a marked dirt road. 

Right on this road to the INDIAN WOODS, 5 m. After the Tuscarora massacres 
of 1711-13 the remnants of the tribe were confined within their own reservation, 



io 4 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

a small tract on the Roanoke in Bertie County granted to them by Governor 
Eden. When the Indians finally moved to New York State to join their kinsmen 
of the Six Nations, they entered into a 99-year lease with some of the settlers. 
At the expiration of the lease, about 1857, their descendants came down from New 
York for final settlement with the descendants of the lessees. 

The highway crosses Conine Swamp and the Roanoke River, entering 
Williamston over one of the longest highway bridges and viaducts in the South. 
The viaduct, framed by hedges of honeysuckle, rises well above the swamp with 
its tangle of gnarled cypresses and hanging gray moss. 

WILLIAMSTON, 87 m. (60 alt., 2,731 pop.), lies on the western' 
bank of the Roanoke River. The county seat was first chartered in 
1779 as Skewarky, but later in the same year it was incorporated, 
rechartered, and named in honor of William Williams, a prominent 
citizen who was a colonel of the Martin County militia. The land 
upon which the town was built was given by Samuel Johnston and 
Thomas Hunter. Williamston, while known as Skewarky, an incor- 
porated port of entry before the Revolutionary War, had an old 
courthouse, designed by Rubin Ross and built in 1774 on stilts over 
the river. To attend court, people climbed ladders from their boats. 
When court was declared in session the ladders were removed and no 
one was permitted to leave the courthouse. The chief amusements of 
the populace during court week were oyster roasts and fist fights; 
tradition has it that these were enjoyed with equal gusto. 

The history of Williamston, and of Martin County, which was 
named for Josiah Martin, last Royal Governor of North Carolina, is 
closely connected with that of the Primitive Baptist Church. The 
History of the Church of God, from Creation to 1885 was written by two 
elders of the church and sheds many illuminating side lights on the 
life of the section. 

Williamston is an important market in the bright-leaf tobacco belt 
of the State, and its peanut factory furnishes a good market for the 
growers of the section. Fertilizer plants, lumber mills, and the fishing 
business furnish employment for many people. 

The ASA BIGGS HOME (private), Church St., is one of the most in- 
teresting old structures of the town. A distinguishing feature of the 
square house is the balcony under each second-story window; these 
have iron balustrades from which rise long blinds. Judge Biggs was 
prominent in State politics during the middle years of the 19th cen- 
tury, and served both as Federal and Confederate district judge. 

The HASSELL HOME, Church St., was built about 1842. Mr. Hassell 



NORTH CAROLINA 105 

was president of Skewarkee Primitive Baptist Church, one of the 
first of these churches in the United States. C. B. Hassell and his son, 
Sylvester, in turn, were pastors of this church for more than 50 
years. 

Right from Williamston on State 125 to RAINBOW BANKS, 10 m., site of a fort 
that was the scene of spirited Civil War action during which Union gunboats 
were driven from Roanoke River. 

HAMILTON, 18 m. (598 pop.), was once the headquarters for transportation 
on the Roanoke and the center of a flourishing trade. Its broad shady streets are 
lined with fine old houses. On the waterfront are the foundations of the wooden 
and stone piers where ships from distant ports were once moored. 



Section 8. Williamston to South Carolina Line, 198 m.US 17 

US 1 7 in this section of North Carolina connects towns and villages 
that played important parts in the growth of the Colony. It runs 
through forests of longleaf and loblolly pine, traverses cypress swamps 
where black-water creeks meander, and crosses several broad rivers 
that flow into island-bound, brackish sounds a few miles to the east. 

Forests and fields abound with game; most of the streams teem 
with fish. Several State parks, game preserves, and resorts are close 
at hand. The rivers and sounds offer boating, fishing, and bathing; 
beaches where surf bathing is possible are, with a few exceptions, 
reached only by water. 

East of the highway in isolated spots on the sand banks of the 
coast, live fishermen who still use the speech and follow many of the 
customs of their English ancestors. Along these banks wild ponies 
still range. 

South of WILLIAMSTON, Q m., US 17 traverses broad farms 
planted in early summer with potatoes and later with tobacco, cot- 
ton, corn, peanuts, and garden produce. Bright-leaf tobacco is the 
principal crop. There are many small fruit orchards, whose crops are 
produced usually for family use. Between the farms are forests of tall 
pines. At 10 m. the route crosses GREAT SWAMP, low, wet land over- 
grown with brush, scrub-pine, and scattered gum and cypress. 

MINEOLA, 17 m., is a hamlet with a church, a school, and a few 
houses. 

WASHINGTON, 23 m. (8 alt., 7,025 pop.), seat of Beaufort 
County, is on the northern bank of Pamlico River called Tar 



io6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

River above Washington in the midst of a fertile farming section. 
The narrowness of the streets is a relic of the 1 8th century, though the 
town has few old houses, having been almost entirely destroyed by 
two fires in 1864. On April 30, 1864 Federal troops burned many 
buildings to destroy naval stores; a second fire occurred nine days 
later. 

Washington today has a low, nondescript sky line, softened by 
the abundant foliage of the trees bordering residential streets. The 
best view of the town is obtained from the wide concrete bridge 
carrying US 17 across the river at the lower end of town. In the 
spring the banks of the Pamlico opposite the city are a mass of wild 
wistaria, called "virgin's bower" by some of the older inhabitants. 
The river laps at foundations of mercantile buildings on Main St. A 
few yards with gardens, at the western end of Main St., extend to the 
water's edge; across Herring Run at the eastern end of the town is 
WASHINGTON PARK, a residential suburb almost surrounded by 
water, its streets shaded by moss-draped trees. 

The Scuppernong grape and all its varieties are indigenous to 
the region. The celebrated Meish grape, named in honor of Albert 
Meish of Westphalia, Germany, who developed it, originated in 
Beaufort County. Washington is a market for cotton, tobacco, 
and truck garden produce. 

This section of North Carolina was first known as Pampticoe, or 
Pampticough, the name of an Indian tribe found here by the first 
white settlers. In 1696 it became the County of Archdale but soon 
afterward was incorporated as the Great County of Bath; in 1738 
the County of Beaufort was formed from part of it, and named in 
honor of Henry, Duke of Beaufort, who had inherited the proprietary 
rights of the Duke of Albemarle. 

The history of the town of Washington began on November 30, 
1771, when the Assembly, in session at New Bern, authorized James 
Bonner to establish a town on a plantation owned jointly by Bonner 
and William Boyd, a minor. In 1776 Bonner sold 30 acres, either for 
the establishment or expansion of the town, known at that time as 
Forks of Tar River. The town was incorporated April 13, 1782, by 
the Assembly meeting at Hillsboro. 

Bonner was a friend of General Washington, under whom he held 
a commission as colonel, and he named the town for his commander 
in chief. The George Washington Bicentennial Commission, in 1932 



NORTH CAROLINA 107 

after investigation, established the fact that, of the 422 cities and 
towns in the Nation named for George Washington, this place has 
the distinction of being the "original Washington." First recorded 
mention of the town as Washington is made in an order of the Coun- 
cil of Safety of Halifax, dated Monday, October 1, 1776. 

JAMES BONNER'S GRAVE, formerly in the middle of what is now 
Bonner St., between Main and Water, has been moved to the NE. 
corner of St. Peter's Episcopal Churchyard. 

The present COURTHOUSE, at the SW. corner of Second and Market 
Sts., was built about 1800. Tradition is that the clock in the building 
was first sent to Bath but was not installed there, and was subse- 
quently brought here. It is probably older than the building. In the 
courthouse is a will, written in French and dated 1 820, that indicates 
that Col. Louis Taillade, an officer and close associate of Napoleon, 
lived in Washington at that time. The will begins: "Testament de 
Louis Taillade ancien Colonel des Marvines de la Garde de PEm- 
preur Napolion en favereur de M. Louis LeRoy habitant en cette ville 
et tenant 1'hotel Mansion Houye, ..." and is signed "... Wit- 
ness, L. Labarbe and John Leroche." Taillade accompanied 
Napoleon from Elba to France to regain his lost empire. 

According to legend, the witness, Labarbe, came to Washington, 
probably from Martinique, in a ship that had rescued him and two 
Negroes after the three had put to sea in an open boat to escape 
fighting and carnage on the French island. The two Negroes were 
sold into slavery. Young Labarbe was cared for by Lewis LeRoy, 
became a citizen, and married the daughter of his benefactor. 
His son, the second Labarbe, served in the Confederate Army. 

A more shadowy figure of town history was Cosimo de Medici, who 
lived in Beaufort and Hyde Counties before the Revolution and until 
1792. He was captain of a troop of cavalry, was a good soldier, but 
was so arrogant that his men complained against him to the govern- 
ment at New Bern. His origin is unknown, but he may have been 
related to the famous Italian family. A deed of 1790 in the Beaufort 
County courthouse bears his name as a witness and a deed of 1792 
records a transference of property by him in payment of a debt. He 
seems to have been absent from the county between the making of 
these two deeds; a record in the Hyde County courthouse at Swan- 
quarter says that he "had left the U. S. and gone to the Southern 
Continent of America in 1790 or 1791" but the local belief is that he 



io8 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

had a part in Count de Person's attempt to rescue Marie Antoinette 
in June, 1791. 

The JOHNSTON HOUSE (private), on Market St., notable for its 
Georgian doorway and exterior front stairway, was occupied in 
1810 by Thomas Harvey Myers, I, whose wife, Margaret, was the 
daughter of Dr. Gustavus Brown, a physician of George Washing- 
ton's. 

The SITE OF AN OLD GRAVEYARD is on Market St., near what is 
now the Mallison filling station. City authorities decided to have the 
bodies moved and reinterred. Coffins, pointed at each end, were 
taken up under the supervision of descendants of the families who 
were buried there, and were placed on the sidewalk. One of these 
descendants removed the upper outer covering of the coffin of a 
maternal ancestor who had been buried more than a hundred years, 
and seeing through the glass over the face that the body was in a 
remarkable state of preservation, he called his children and grand- 
children to see "grandmother," who lay with her hands crossed, 
and a little bouquet of flowers, tied with white ribbon, within 
them. 

ST. PETER'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, corner of Bonner and Main Sts., 
was built in 1868 adjacent to the site of the original St. Peter's, built 
in 1822 and destroyed by fire in 1864 when an old citizen, expecting 
Federal troops to seize the town, attempted to burn valuable papers. 
His fire, fanned by a breeze, grew beyond control, and many nearby 
buildings were consumed. As the church tower burned, heat caused 
the bell to toll until it fell from its supports. The story is that the 
melted alloy of the bell was recovered by an aged Negro, Abram 
Allen, who carried it in a wheelbarrow to his woodshed where it 
remained until the war was over. He then returned the metal to the 
congregation, which sold it and added the proceeds to the building 
fund. 

The MYERS and the TELFAIR HOUSES, on Water St., next to the 
NE. corner of Bonner St., have stoops built close to the street. The 
Myers house was built before 1814, and the Telfair house about four 
years later; both are still owned by descendants of the builders. 

WASHINGTON FIELD MUSEUM (open daily 2-5, 7-10 p.m.), Charlotte 
and 2nd Sts., was founded in 1923 by a group of young people, who 
referred to it as the "Bug House Laboratory." It contains a collec- 
tion of birds, insects, frogs, reptiles, fossils, and minerals of this re- 



NORTH CAROLINA 109 

gion. There are some historical relics. The building is constructed- 
of logs. 

The HAVENS HOUSE (private), on W. Main St., is an interesting 
copy of a Bermuda house, with tall columns rising from the yard 
level, bricked porch floor, and entrance steps with curved iron rail. 
Opposite the house is a giant swamp cypress, stranded when the river 
bed changed and narrowed, that has flourished without the usual 
water near its feet. 

On W. Main St. is the former HOME OF DR. SUSAN DIMOCK (b. 
1847), first North Carolina woman licensed as a physician. After 
having twice been refused admission to the Harvard University 
medical school she studied at Zurich, Switzerland, where she was 
graduated with honors. Later she studied in Vienna and, on return- 
ing to America, became a physician in the Hospital for Women and 
Children in Boston, Mass. A street in Boston was named in her 
honor. 

The DE MILLE HOUSE, an imposing, three-story brick structure on 
the corner of Bridge and Second Sts., now a tourist home, was built 
about 1830 by Thomas De Mille, one of the first vestrymen of St. 
Peter's Church. This was the birthplace of William De Mille, motion 
picture producer and brother of Cecil B. De Mille, both great- 
grandsons of Thomas De Mille. Additions made to the vine-em- 
bowered building have not obscured its first simple lines. 

ELMWOOD, S. side of W. Main St. near Washington St., was built 
in the early part of the 1 8th century by a Colonel Tayloe of a family 
prominent in Beaufort County. The house was moved from a low 
hillock at the head of Main St., where it formerly stood, facing E. 
The former grounds were the most beautiful in the county, with an 
arbor of cedars, surrounded by curving elm-bordered driveways. 

The BROWN HOUSE, NW. corner of Second and Washington Sts., 
was used as a hospital when Federal troops invaded the city during 
the Civil War; it has beautiful curving porch steps. Soldiers de- 
stroyed all but one of the several marble mantelpieces. 

At 219 Harvey St. is the BIRTHPLACE OF JOSEPHUS DANIELS, Secre- 
tary of the Navy (1913-1921), and Ambassador to Mexico (1933). 
It formerly stood at 242 E. Main St. 

A FLOATING THEATER that supplied technical material for Edna 
Ferber's novel, Show Boat, was built at Washington in 1914. It has 
been plying the waters of the seaboard from Delaware to the Caro- 



no THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

linas each year during the season from April to Christmas, having 
traveled some 65,000 miles up to 1936. Miss Ferber spent two weeks 
on the boat about three years before her book was published, con- 
sulting every one on it from cook to captain. 

South of Washington, US 1 7 crosses Pamlico River and passes a 
4-mile tract (L) extending from the highway to Chocowinity Bay. 
This extensive ante-bellum farm was bequeathed by John Gray 
Blount to his grandson, Judge W. B. Rodman, and became known 
as RODMAN QUARTERS. During the Civil War it was occupied at dif- 
ferent times by Federal and Confederate troops; from this point 
each army shelled the town of Washington. Judge Rodman visited 
the plantation after the war was over but finding it in ruins never 
went there again and later sold it to northern interests. 

CHOCOWINITY (MARSDEN), 26 m. (40 alt., 350 pop.), a 
village at a railroad junction, consists of several stores, filling stations, 
and a few residences. TRINITY CHURCH belongs to a congregation 
founded in 1775 by the Reverend Nathaniel Blount. 

WILMAR, 34 m., is a tiny scattered farm village with a forest 
observation tower. 

VANCEBORO, 41 m. (22 alt., 742 pop.), is strung along US 17, 
which here follows a curving course paralleling Swift Creek. The 
CRAVEN COUNTY FARM LIFE SCHOOL stands at the foot of a half-mile 
long street that runs E. from the State highway. 

BRIDGETON, 56 m. (15 alt., 761 pop.), is directly across the 
muddy mile-wide NEUSE RIVER from New Bern. Although really 
a part of the older town, Bridgeton has its own local government and 
the inhabitants earn their living in the lumber mills and a crate 
factory of their own town. The long streets, bordered with small 
houses, follow the river's course. There are several riverside beaches 
nearby. Scrubby burnt-over forests creep to the edge of the village. 

At Bridgeton US 17 makes a sharp turn (L) to cross the Neuse 
River on a bridge that presents a view of dignified houses and pointed 
spires rising through the oaks, poplars, elms, and pecan trees of New 
Bern; rows of slender black stacks of lumber mills are seen in the 
distance (R). 

NEW BERN, 58 m. (15 alt., 11,981 pop.) (see N. C. GUIDE). 

Accommodations. Hotels, tourist homes, boarding houses. 

New Bern, on a high wooded peninsula at the confluence of the 



NORTH CAROLINA in 

Trent and Neuse Rivers, is the seat of Craven County and is one of 
the oldest towns in the State. It was at one time the capital and the 
most important port of the Province, and the seat of the Royal 
Governors. Everywhere are evidences of this past importance in 
the scale and detail of the massive old homes with catwalks from 
which the owners scanned the river for returning ships. The formality 
and elegance of the remaining section of the former residence of the 
governors is no longer apparent. Many of the narrow brick-paved 
streets are lined with homes half covered by wistarias whose thick 
trunks show their age. 

Today New Bern is largely dependent on retail trade and on in- 
dustries connected with fishing and agriculture, the town being near 
the lower end of Pamlico Sound and in the center of a large farming 
area. Negroes, who constitute 52 percent of the population, provide 
labor for the mills; they live in the northwestern part of town and in 
the settlement across the Trent River to the S. 

The first settlers, German Protestants expelled from the Rhine 
valley, arrived with the help of Baron Christopher de Graffenried, a 
Swiss, who financed their journey with funds loaned by English capi- 
talists and 4,000 pounds given by Queen Anne of England. In Janu- 
ary 1710 two ships bearing 650 settlers sailed from Gravesend, 
England, less than half the number, survivors of disease, storm and 
pillage, reached the Chowan River. In September 1710, de Graffen- 
ried himself arrived with 100 Swiss, and purchased the site of a 
Tuscarora Indian village. Concerning this transaction he wrote: 
"I paid for the land or piece of ground three times, to the Lords 
Proprietors, to the Surveyor General, and to the Indian King Taylor. 
This Indian King lived with his family where my house now stands 
and the little city of New Bern (named for the Swiss capital) was 
begun." In 1723, after the settlers had experienced many hardships, 
the town was incorporated, and in 1731 it became the seat of the 
newly created county of Craven. From 1766 until 1794 it was the 
capital of North Carolina, flourishing as a social and cultural cen- 
ter. During the Civil War, New Bern was captured by Federal 
troops under Burnside, March 14, 1863. Confederate attempts to 
retake it were unsuccessful. 

The OAKSMITH HOUSE (private), a large three-story structure with a 
captain's walk, was built about 1810 by Samuel Simpson. In the late 
1860's it was acquired by Capt. Appleton Oaksmith, who remodeled 



ii2 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

it to look somewhat like Morro Castle in Havana, Cuba. Over the 
Pollock Street entrance he placed a stone panel carved with the head 
of a woman between two lions' heads. 

The SITE OF THE FIRST PRINTING PRESS IN NORTH CAROLINA is at 
the SW. corner of E. Front and Broad Sts.; it was operated by James 
Davis, who served as both private and public printer. He set up his 
press in 1749 and two years later published the Province's first news- 
paper, the North Carolina Gazette, and brought out the first book issued 
here, Swarm's Revisal, a digest of the current laws that was called the 
"Yellow Jacket" because of its binding. 

The LOUISIANA HOUSE (private), NW. corner E. Front and Change 
Sts., a frame structure erected in 1776, formerly had a double col- 
umned gallery across the rear elevation similar to that now on the 
front. 

The elegant SMALLWOOD-WARD HOUSE (private), 95 E. Front St., 
built between 1812 and 1816, has an entrance stoop close to the 
street and a broad rear lawn that slopes down to the river. Its red 
brick walls set in Flemish bond have weathered to unusual beauty. 
The main cornice, porch, and dormer pediments are lavishly hand- 
carved and the interior woodwork is remarkable for exquisite detail. 
The cable molding so freely used gives credence to the theory that 
James Coor, an English naval architect, is responsible for much of 
this work. 

The JARVIS-HAND HOUSE, SE. corner E. Front and Johnson Sts., 
is a Georgian-type structure of red brick with carved frame cornice 
and portico. The detail of its recessed doorway is particularly fine. 
Iron bars protect basement windows and the 46-inch-wide doors 
have seven-inch keys for double bolt locks. The interior woodwork is 
noteworthy. 

The SLOVER-GUION HOUSE, SW. corner E. Front and Johnson Sts., 
built about 1835, was headquarters for Federal Gen. Ambrose E. 
Burnside in 1862. This massive three-story brick structure is almost 
square and its large windows have shutters divided into three sec- 
tions. Outside the first floor windows are wrought-iron balconies. The 
brick kitchen and slave house in the rear have been modernized. 

The RICHARDSON HOUSE, SE. corner Johnson and Craven Sts., 
(1828) is one of several in New Bern having a captain's walk reached 
by a trap door in the roof. This house was used as a hospital in 1863 
by the Ninth New Jersey Infantry. 



NORTH CAROLINA 113 

The BAPTIST CHURCH, on Middle St. near Front St., was built in 
1848, replacing a structure built in 1812. When, in 1741, the Baptists 
asked permission to build a church they were publicly whipped and 
then jailed. The congregation was organized in 1809. 

CHRIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH (1873), NE. corner Pollock and Mid- 
dle Sts., is a weathered red brick edifice whose lofty gold -crowned 
spire rises above great trees shading the old graveyard. Its outer walls 
are those of a structure built in 1825. The parish was organized in 
1715 and still has the silver communion service, Bible, and Book of 
Common Prayer, gifts of George II, though the royal Gov. Josiah 
Martin attempted to take them with him when he fled the town in 
May 1775. The first church on the site (1750) was razed during the 
Revolution. When Parson Reed, the Royalist rector, prayed for the 
King, lads drummed at the door and shouted "Off with his head!" 

The NEW BERN ACADEMY, New Hancock and Johnson Sts., was 
the first free school incorporated in the Colony. Chartered by the 
Assembly in 1766, this school was partly maintained by a tax of one 
penny a gallon on rum and other liquors, the tax being used to defray 
the tuition for 1 poor children and to pay part of the salary of the 
principal. The academy building, burned in 1795, was rebuilt on the 
same site in 1806-10. The semicircular porch is a recent restoration. 

The CHESTER B'NAI SHOLEM TEMPLE, opposite the Catholic 
church, was built in 1908. The women of the synagogue bought the 
lot and the men paid for the building. 

The JOHN WRIGHT STANLY HOUSE, S. side of New St. near Middle, 
is now occupied by a free public library (open 10-12 a.m., 3-8 p.m. 
daily except Sun.). This massive 18th-century frame mansion, paneled 
and painted white to simulate stone, was removed from its original 
site and remodeled in 1935-36. The interior woodwork is hand- 
carved and the spacious hallway with its sweeping staircase is well 
proportioned. This was the home of John Wright Stanly, who lost 14 
privateers during the Revolution. 

The white painted PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, New St. opposite the 
Stanly house, built by Uriah Sandy in 1819, has an Ionic columned 
portico and is of frame construction. It is 55 by 70 feet, and has a 
steeple rising 125 feet. Early prints show urns on each set-back of the 
tower but they have disappeared. The hand-carved pulpit is between 
the two doors, and the floor rises toward the rear. About 1892 the 
rear entrance was added and new pews were installed; originally the 



ii 4 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

wealthy members of the congregation had mahogany box pews in 
the center of the auditorium and the rest sat on benches under the 
balcony. The church was used as a Federal hospital during the Union 
occupation. 

The MASONIC TEMPLE (1808), SE. corner of Hancock and Johnson 
Sts., contains a Blue Lodge room, on the second floor, having hand- 
carved woodwork. Under the trees behind the building on September 
5, 1802, took place the fatal duel between Gov. Richard Dobbs 
Spaight and John Stanly. As leaders of rival parties, the two had 
frequent clashes. One day Stanly charged that Spaight, while a mem- 
ber of the U.S. Senate, had under pretense of illness avoided voting 
on important Congressional legislation. Spaight retaliated with a 
handbill. A challenge from Stanly was promptly accepted. Mortally 
wounded on the fourth fire, Spaight died the following day. Criminal 
proceedings were instituted against Stanly but he was pardoned by 
Gov. Benjamin Williams. 

The JONES-LIPMAN HOUSE, SW. corner Pollock and Eden Sts., is a 
small frame structure that was used as a Federal prison; here Emeline 
Piggott, the Confederate spy, was held. There are many old houses 
nearby. 

The west wing, now 24 George St., is all that survives of TRYON 
PALACE, regarded as one of the most beautiful edifices in British 
America. This relic retains no vestige of past glory, beauty, or ele- 
gance. It had served as warehouse, dwelling, stable and carriage 
house, parochial school and chapel, prior to its conversion into an 
apartment house. In 1798 a Negress, searching, with a lightwood 
torch, for eggs in the cellar of the old structure started a fire that 
destroyed the central and east wings. 

Tryon Palace was built in 1767-70 under the supervision of John 
Hawks, who had come from England with Tryon. It was the Gov- 
ernor's residence and the statehouse, containing the assembly hall, 
the council chamber, and public offices. It was the seat of govern- 
ment under Royal Governors Tryon and Martin, and under William 
Caswell, first constitutional Governor (1777). Here on Aug. 25, 
1774, in defiance of royal authority, was held the first North Carolina 
provincial congress, and on April 7, 1777, the first General Assembly. 
The palace was the center of a gay social life, which probably reached 
its zenith under Tryon. By 1791, however, when Washington, visiting 
the town, was guest of honor at a magnificent ball, his horses were 



NORTH CAROLINA 115 

stabled in the executive offices and he described the palace as "now 
hastening to ruin." 

Tryon was able to secure the appropriation for the erection of the 
palace because the Assembly was in a tractable mood owing to the 
recent repeal of the unpopular Stamp Act. The amount required for 
construction was more than 16,000 pounds. Wide disapproval of 
such an expenditure of the people's tax money was a factor in pre- 
cipitating the War of the Regulation, in which Tryon resorted to 
armed force to quell the protests of tax-ridden farmers. 

The central section of the three-story marble-trimmed brick struc- 
ture measured 87 by 59 feet. The flat roof had a balustrade enclosing 
a walk, a roof garden, and an aquarium. The two-story wings were 
joined to it by curving colonnaded arcades. Driveways circled the 
courtyard. The rear of the triple structure facing the Trent River 
was fashioned after the Lord Mayor's House in London. Over the 
vestibule door was a Latin inscription ironic to tax-burdened Caro- 
linians: "A free and happy people, opposed to cruel tyrants, has 
given this edifice to virtue. May the house and its inmate, as an ex- 
ample for future ages, here cultivate the arts, order, justice, and the 
laws." 

Southwest of New Bern US 17 runs through a level area of old 
plantations. 

At 70 m. (L) is the FOSGUE HOUSE, a brick dwelling built in the 
early part of the 1 8th century as the big house of a plantation con- 
taining several thousand acres. Legend has supplied the house and 
lands with numerous ghosts. 

POLLOCKSVILLE, 71 m. (357 pop.), on the banks of the nar- 
row Trent River, was named for Col. Thomas Pollock, owner of 
many acres in this section; he was a leader of the government party in 
North Carolina under the Lords Proprietors. Pollocksville in Colonial 
days was the center for a number of plantations on which remain a 
few houses of faded splendor. The railroad skirting the eastern boun- 
dary of the village carries logs from here to mills at New Bern. 

At 73 m. is the junction with State 12. 

Right on State 1 2, which runs through tobacco and cotton farms and past oak 
groves that formerly surrounded fine plantation homes. TRENTON, 10 m. (28 
alt., 500 pop.), the seat of Jones County, is built half around Brock Mill Pond, 
where huge gnarled cypress trees, shrouded with Spanish moss, shade unruffled 
blue water. The Brock mill has operated continuously since before the Civil 
War. 



n6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Several Revolutionary skirmishes occurred within 6 miles of this hamlet. 
The old courthouse with its records was burned by Union troops in 1863. 

Jones County, formed in 1779, is an agricultural region with a few lumber 
mills. It has a forested area of about 200,000 acres, more than half of which are 
swampland. 

George Washington on his southern journey in 1791 deviated from the direct 
route to visit Trenton. He stopped at the OLD SHINGLE HOUSE, then a tavern. 
The shingles have been removed from the sides of the structure, which has been 
remodeled to serve as a dwelling. 

The THOMAS WEBBER HOUSE, Jones St., is an old, two-story frame structure 
that has been modernized. Wooden pegs were used in its construction. The first 
court held in Jones County met here in 1784. 

MAYSVILLE, 78 m. (42 alt., 797 pop.), is near broad savannas 
and a number of ponds where in Colonial times attempts were made 
to raise rice. On the western side, pine forests grow to the rear doors 
of the houses. 

The border of CROATAN NATIONAL FOREST, the first 
created in coastal North Carolina, is near the eastern edge of the town. 
Purchase of a tract of 306,300 acres has been authorized, and in 
1936, 113,000 were under Federal control. Five lakes are within the 
area. 

Left from Maysville on the Catfish Rd. to CATFISH LAKE, 3 m., in the Croatan 
National Forest. Deer and other game are found in the bog lands of the section. 
The lake is in the Lake Pocosin area, characterized by a permanently saturated 
peaty soil, overlying sand or sandy loam. There is a sparse growth of trees, 
mostly black pine, and a dense undergrowth of evergreen shrubs and vines. In 
places the streams are coffee-colored. The pocosin is typical of swamps in eastern 
North Carolina. 

2. Left from Maysville on the Maysville-Swansboro Rd. to the YELLOWHOUSE 
FIELD, 4.5 m., site of the home of Gen. John Starkey, member of the Committee 
of Safety in Colonial days. Phoebe Warburton, a sister of Starkey who lived 
near the Yellowhouse Field, educated girls in her home. 

At 7 m. is the three-story frame HOME OF DANIEL RUSSELL, Governor of North 
Carolina 1897-1901. The burial place of Governor Russell is on Hickory Hill, 
near Yellowhouse Field. 

South of Maysville, in the long straight stretch where US 17 
parallels the railroad, is KELLUM, 91 m., a flag station on the ACL; 
S. of it is scrubby, burnt-over woodland. 

JACKSONVILLE, 95 m. (15 alt., 783 pop.), seat of Onslow 
County stands on bay-like New River, known in the early 1 8th cen- 
tury for the great plantations that lined its banks, and for three 



NORTH CAROLINA 117 

long-gone courthouses that stood upon its bluffs (1734-1752). 
Dominating the village from a small, central square is the present 
COURTHOUSE, a red brick structure, sixth courthouse in the county 
in two centuries. Two earlier buildings stood on the same site, the 
first built 1757-1 761. 

Jacksonville is surrounded by broad fields, forests, and impenetra- 
ble swamps. Agriculture sets the tempo of the slow-moving com- 
munity life. New River provides some income from fishing and oys- 
ter culture. Tobacco is the money crop, but peanuts, cotton, and 
corn are also produced. 

The earliest mention of Wantland's Ferry, the village that became 
Jacksonville, occurs in records of court held there in July 1757. The 
site having been chosen for the county seat, one acre convenient to 
the river and a spring was purchased from James Wantland, who also 
agreed to lay out such further land as was needed at 20 shillings a 
half acre. 

In 1761 citizens started a lottery to raise money for clearing a 
channel in New River, but this form of promotion was subsequently 
banned by the British Crown. New River is the only large river in 
North Carolina with headwaters and mouth in the same county. 
It is 5 miles wide at the mouth, where extensive oyster beds are 
under cultivation. New River oysters grow singly instead of in clus- 
ters. Being large and of an unusual flavor, they command a high 
price. 

The BURNS HOUSE, on the eastern edge of town in the rear of the 
new school, is a three-story frame structure believed to have been 
built about 1800. 

Left from Jacksonville on partly paved State 24 to HUBERT, 15 m., a tiny 
farming community lying in a low swampy area. 

SWANSBORO, 20 m. (10 alt., 394 pop.), dating from the 18th century, is a 
comparatively isolated fishing village and minor resort on the western bank, 
near the mouth of Whiteoak River, overlooking the eastern end of shallow 
Bogue Sound and Bogue Inlet. Visible across the sound and inlet are grass- 
capped white sand dunes on Bogue Island. Narrow shell-paved or sandy streets, 
general stores, fish houses, a small post office, and unhurried inhabitants, charac- 
terize the town. A long wooden bridge and a causeway carry State 24 from the 
waterfront to the further bank of the river, connecting the town with Morehead 
City and the resort area on the coast. 

Land at the mouth of the Whiteoak River was settled about 1720 and trade 
was carried on by boats using Bogue Inlet. In the middle 1700's the village was 
known as New Town, but in 1783, when it was chartered, the name was changed 



ii8 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

to the present one, either because of the number of wild whistling swans nearby 
or to honor some prominent citizen. 

A peculiar law gave control of the town's affairs to a board of managers who 
were permitted to perpetuate themselves in office by naming their own successors. 

South of Jacksonville US 17, following the old dirt road over 
which George Washington once traveled, is nearly level, traversing a 
wooded country where for several miles few farms are seen. The long 
white ribbon of highway stretches like an aisle through groves of tall 
longleaf pine and between broad meadows. There are many natural 
gardens of wild flowers, some of them covering hundreds of acres 
and all having blooms every month of the year but January. Many 
flowers of this region are curious as well as beautiful. Here grow the 
insectivorous plants including the pitcherplants, of which the 
trumpet is commonest, and the sundews, best known of which is the 
Venus's fly-trap. The Carolina yellow jessamine and azalea grow 
in abundance. In spring the savannas are blue with butterwort and 
iris. In the fall the tall purple spikes of the iron weed rise above a 
sea of yellow goldenrod. Asters bloom in November and December. 

At VERONA, 101 m., is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this dirt road to the SITE OF THE LOST TOWN OF JOHNSTON, 
5 m., on a bluff overlooking New River. The town, holding Onslow County's 
third courthouse, was demolished by a tornado in 1752. Destruction was so com- 
plete that a sum was appropriated by the assembly for relief of the victims. The 
effort of the Royal Governor, Arthur Dobbs, to have a new courthouse built at 
Johnston failed because of the site's inaccessibility. 

At FOLKSTONE, 111 m. is the junction with State 38. 

Left on State 38, a dirt road, is SNEADS FERRY, 9 m., a hamlet having 
about 100 inhabitants and offering limited accommodations to sportsmen who 
fish in the vicinity of New River Inlet. A free ferry connects the village with 
MARINES, 10 m. (300 pop.), on the opposite shore of New River. At 10.7 m., 
is COURTHOUSE BAY, the site of the first courthouse of Onslow County, which 
was built in 1734 or earlier. In this vicinity were the first settlements made along 
New River. 

HAMPSTEAD, 129 m., is a small village surrounded by beauti- 
ful woodlands. Here a fiddlers' contest is held each fall, at which 
prizes usually in the form of merchandise are awarded; the first prize 
one year was a mule. Spreading live-oaks, draped with Spanish 
moss, press close to the highway. 

Left from Hampstead on a dirt road that winds through the woods to the water, 



NORTH CAROLINA 119 

about 1m., where boats and guides can be hired for fishing. TOPSAIL INLET 
nearby is a popular spot among anglers. Bluefish, drum, sheepshead, and mackerel 
are plentiful in season. 

South of Hampstead is (R) the WASHINGTON TREE, a large live-oak 
marked by the Stamp Defiance Chapter, D.A.R., as the tree under 
which Washington stopped to rest on his way to Wilmington in 1791. 

The highway traverses forests of loblolly pine, sprinkled with 
young growths of longleaf pine, and fields of wild flowers. 

SCOTTS HILL, 134 m. (49 pop.), on the Pender-New Hanover 
County Line, consists of a few houses standing in groves of moss- 
covered oaks. 

Passing BAYMEADE, 140 m., US 17 enters a longleaf pine plan- 
tation where the resinous sap is gathered. Small cups, attached below 
a double series of slanting incisions in the bark, collect the oozing 
fluid. This farm, similar to others in the section, extends 3 miles along 
both sides of the highway. 

US 1 7 enters Wilmington from the N. along an avenue of spread- 
ing, moss-hung oaks. 

WILMINGTON, 146 m. (52 alt., 32,270 pop.) (see JV. C. 
GUIDE.) 

Railroad Stations. Seaboard Air Line, end of Brunswick St.; Atlantic Coast Line, 
Red Cross and Front Sts. 

Accommodations. Four hotels; boarding houses, tourist homes. 

Points of Interest. Cornwallis Headquarters, St. James Church and Churchyard, 
Bellamy Mansion, Anderson Residence, De Rossett House, Dudley Home, 
Thalian Hall, Oakdale Cemetery. 

US 17 runs W. on Market St. to 3rd St. and R. on 3rd St., crossing 
the Cape Fear River on beautiful TWIN BRIDGES. Along the causeway 
grow many flowers, some of whose progenitors were brought from 
foreign ports in the soil used as ballast for ships. In the woods the 
waterlily, marsh bluebell, a variety of clematis, marsh aster, spider- 
lily, marshmallow, and numerous other flowers abound. Open spaces 
are covered with marsh-grass and cattails. The road continues across 
two more bridges, one spanning Alligator Creek and the other the 
Brunswick River, to which many fishermen and duck hunters come. 

SUPPLY, 175 m. (110 pop.), is a hamlet where guides can be 
hired for deer and quail hunting in season. 

Left from Supply on a dirt road to LOCK WOOD'S FOLLY INLET, 5m., 
whose name appears on maps as early as 1671. Lockwood probably came from 



i2o THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Bermuda; the rest of the name refers to his foolhardiness in starting a settlement 
so exposed to both sea and Indians by whom it was promptly destroyed. On the 
beach are skeletons of several Confederate blockade-runners, scuttled when 
penned in by Federal gunboats or sunk by gunfire from Union vessels. Among the 
wrecks lying between the mouth of the Cape Fear River and the mouth of Little 
River are those of the Spunky, the Georgiana McCaw, the Bendigo, the Elizabeth, the 
Ranger, the Dare, and the Vesta. Other wrecks line the coast N. of the mouth of 
Cape Fear. 

SHALLOTTE, 183 m. (214 pop.), offers fishing in the Shallotte 
River as an attraction to visitors. Boats and guides can be hired in the 
village. In 1729, according to the Pennsylvania Gazette of April 29, 
1731, this village was known as Shelote, but there is no indication of 
the origin of the settlement or of the name. According to the same 
issue of the newspaper, Lockwood's Folly (see above) was spelled 
Lockard. The country near the village saw some unpleasant activity 
by night riders in 1936-7. 

US 17 crosses the South Carolina Line at 198 m. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 



North Carolina Line Georgetown Charleston Walterboro 
Georgia Line, 234.6 m. US 17. 

Between Charleston and the Georgia Line the Atlantic Coast Line R.R. parallels 

the route. 

Paved, level roadbed. 

Accommodations: hotels in larger towns supplemented in spring and summer by 

those at resorts. 

Section 9. North- Carolina Line to Charleston, 119.3 m. US 17 

US 17 follows what was the King's Highway of Colonial times, 
which in turn followed an Indian trail. It was formerly known locally 
as the Georgetown Road or the Wilmington Road, according to the 
direction in which travelers were going. This highway sometimes 
dips seaward among the wind-blown clumps of myrtle, then veers 
back landward through tall pine groves, only to swing east again 
along the salt marshes. 

Varying in altitude from approximately 9 to 15 feet, the route is 
truly level. It passes the sites of ancient Indian towns and of early 
Spanish and French attempts at settlement, and traverses the later 
baronies of Colonial Carolina, Revolutionary battlefields, and ante- 
bellum plantations. 

Bishop Francis Asbury, as persistent as the Hound of Heaven, 
traveled up and down the coast (1771-1815) in his efforts to establish 
Methodism in a country predominantly Anglican. His labors were 
tremendous and his physical endurance almost superhuman, as he 
toiled through the river swamps, sometimes in a carriage but more 
often on horseback. Another constant traveler was Mason Locke 
Weems, selling books to aristocrats and gatherers at wayside taverns 
and collecting the anecdotes he used to point morals in his lurid 
tracts. 

George Washington followed the road on his presidential tour, 
entering the State from North Carolina on April 27, 1791 with his 
lumbering entourage. He remarked, "It may as well in this as in any 
other place, be observed, that the country from Wilmington through 
which the Road passes, is, except in very small spots, much the same 
as what has already been described; that is to say, sand & pine bar- 

121 



122 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

rens with very few inhabitants we were indeed informed that 
at some distance from the Road on both sides the land was of a better 
quality, & thicker settled, but this could only be on the Rivers & 
larger waters for a perfect sameness seems to run through all the 
rest of the country on these especially the swamps and low 
lands on the Rivers, the Soil is very rich; and productive when 
reclaimed; but to do this is both laborious and expensive." 

Through the years there have been many visitors, each comment- 
ing on the country with curiosity, with envy, or with admiration, 
according to his interests. Audubon found wild life to delight him in 
the coastal swamps and Bartram found the rare Gordonia and 
Venus's fly-trap, which still grow in secluded spots near the route. 
Audubon on his way to Charleston spoke of "Travelling through the 
woods already rendered delightfully fragrant by the clusters of yellow 
jessamines that bordered them, I arrived in safety at Charleston." 
In early spring, the pinelands are lacy with white dogwood bloom; 
later the bay, then the magnolia, fill the air with their heavy sweet 
fragrance. On glassy, black lagoons golden waterlilies and blue 
waterhyacinths float above the reflections of gray-bearded trees. 
There is a feeling of eeriness about the area when moonlight shines 
through the broken walls of the scattered chapels of ease, when the 
Jack-o'-lantern glows in the swamps, and when the bull alligator 
bellows through the stillness to a minor accompaniment of owls. 

Animal life exists in such great variety including the white 
egret that nests in secluded islands that several bird sanctuaries 
have been created in this area. There are herds of deer and flocks 
of wild turkeys. The fur trade, dealing mostly in deer skins pro- 
cured from the Indians, brought to South Carolina her first prosperity. 

US 17 crosses the North Carolina Line, Om., and traverses Horry 
County (pronounced O-ree'), unique along the coastal section of 
this State in that its population is preponderantly white. Called the 
Independent Republic of Horry, this county was long isolated from 
the rest of the State by vast swamplands. Its chief industries, 
lumbering and the production of naval stores, did not require slave 
labor and were carried on by white settlers who came from North 
Carolina. Racial antagonism in the area has been so pronounced in 
some localities that Negroes have been afraid to "let the sun go down 
on them." Recently the construction of roads and establishment of 
schools have alleviated this situation to some extent. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 123 

LITTLE RIVER, 2 m., a hamlet formerly facetiously known as 
Yankee Town because of its North Carolina settlers, was at one 
time a place of some importance, with regular seagoing steamer 
service to Wilmington, N. C. The women seen in summer operating 
sewing machines on the piazzas are always glad to talk with travelers. 

Left from the northern edge of Little River village, on an unpaved road to the 
banks of the LITTLE RIVER, 0.5 m. (small hotel}, a wide salt stream, now 
traversed by the Inland Waterway. Huge oaks furnish delightful shade for pic- 
nicking and motorboats can be hired here for fishing in the Atlantic. 

At 5.4 m., just S. of a bridge spanning the Inland Waterway, is 
the junction with a dirt road marked Cherry Grove Beach. 

Left on this road to a fork 1 m.; R. here 3 m. through dense woodland and 
salt marshes to CHERRY GROVE BEACH, a little resort, especially popular 
among those who like to fish. It stands on a tract called Miner's Island that was 
granted to John Allston in 1767. During the Civil War there was a plant here 
boiling sea-water to obtain salt. 

From Cherry Grove it is possible at low tide to travel along the hard-packed 
shore nearly 20 miles S. to Myrtle Beach. Two swashes, unimportant at low tide, 
are at high tide likely to demolish a car. Of one of these George Washington 
wrote: "Mr. Vareen piloted us across the swash (which at high water is impass- 
able, & at times, by the shifting of Sands, is dangerous) on the Long Beach of the 
ocean; and it being at proper time of the tide we passed along it with ease and 
celerity to the place of quitting it." 

The main side road turns L. at the fork and leads to LITTLE RIVER NECK, 
5.5 m., at the end of which are traces of the BREASTWORKS OF FORT RANDALL, 
attacked and captured by Federal naval forces in 1864. 

This sheltered inlet was reputedly used by the pirate Blackboard and his band. 
Legend also makes it a headquarters of various other buccaneers, such as Stede 
Bonnet, Worley and Captain Kidd. Local treasure-hunters believe that they will 
some day find vast treasure concealed by the outlaws in some of the numerous 
small fresh-water lakes nearby. 

At 10.3 m. is the junction with a marked road. 

Left on this road is ATLANTIC BEACH, 0.5 m., for Negroes. 

A filling station (R), 12 m., is on the land of a plantation where 
George Washington was entertained on his first night in South 
Carolina in 1791. The oak tree on the lawn and the chimney of the 
old house are visible from the highway. An old Negro on the place 
used to explain that the numerous sand spurs along this route came 
from the hay Washington brought with him to feed his horses. 

The million-dollar OCEAN FOREST HOTEL, 19.1 m. (L), is on the 



124 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Myrtle Beach Estates. This land was once too inaccessible to be in- 
cluded in the baronies that were parcelled out when the Lords 
Proprietors of the Province planned a complex government and an 
elaborately graded society for the area granted by Charles II. The 
Fundamental Constitutions drawn up for them by John Locke 
provided for the titles of landgrave and cacique, to be held by the 
major landowners according to the size of their estates, but the 
vastness of the unsettled areas of the continent and the need for 
conciliating members of the less exalted ranks soon broke down the 
undemocratic system. Hobcaw (see below)was on one of these baronies. 

MYRTLE BEACH, 23.2 m. (12 alt.), a long established resort 
(bathing, boating, fishing), has in the past few years, changed from a 
large summer colony of beach houses to a year-round community 
with attractive and substantial homes. 

The thick growth of myrtles that give this beach its name bear 
waxy berries from which candles were formerly made for export. 
Other interesting forms of plant life are found here; within 2 miles 
of the town, in an area of less than 10 acres, more than a hundred 
different species have been officially catalogued. 

Adjacent to the southern end of Myrtle Beach, a section on Withers' 
Swash called SPIVEY or YAUPON BEACH, is a formation called 
THE ROCKS. This ledge extends into the sea providing still-water 
bathing and, at low tide, excellent crabbing. 

The Yaupon or Cassina holly, a decorative evergreen plant abun- 
dant in this region, furnished the American Indian with "the holy 
drink of the cuseena plant prepared for their religious ceremonies." 
(See Side Route A.) Near Charleston, tea is still made from the leaves. 
In winter when other foods are scarce, its quantities of scarlet berries 
are eaten by the red birds and mocking birds. 

MYRTLE BEACH STATE PARK, 26.6 m. (bathhouse, play- 
grounds, picnic grounds, fireplaces), being developed by the South 
Carolina Department of Forestry, is a recreational area with 321 
acres of beach and sand dunes. 

Bordered on one side by longleaf pine forests and on the other 
side by the Atlantic Ocean, this park is one of the most beautiful in 
the State. The bathhouse, 150 feet long, has an assembly hall and 
open terraces. The park cabins are rented to the general public at a 
nominal cost and by the highway is a public camp ground. 

Southwest of Myrtle Beach along the highway are many signs 






&Y7v< 






NEAR CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA 






I 






ST. MICHAELS, CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA 



SOUTH CAROLINA 125 

pointing down sandy roads to private estates. Most of these are not 
open to the public. 

MURRELLS INLET, 35 m. (210 pop.), until 1914 called Lau- 
rel, is supposedly named for a pirate captain, but may have been 
renamed for some early settlers. It is a fisherman's paradise. Crabs, 
soft shell-crabs, oysters, clams, shrimp, mussels, and terrapin are 
numerous; the last has high commercial value, bringing as much as 
$70 a dozen on the New York market, but for some years there has 
been a closed season to protect them from extermination. All winter 
mullet are caught in nets. Many natives earn livings by fishing for 
them at night from rowboats with the aid of forked gigs and light- 
wood torches. The flickering lights from the fire-pans of the strikers, 
as these night fishermen are called, appear like jack-o'-lanterns 
moving over the marshes. In early spring shad taken from the Wacca- 
maw River bring fancy prices. 

SUNNYSIDE (L), 35.2 m., home of Mott Allston, was built in Civil 
War times. Here later lived Dr. Cleveland Bigham, who one sunset, 
shot his lovely young wife on the lonely beach, saying he thought she 
was a ghost. 

THE HERMITAGE, built in 1849, was the home of two beautiful 
Alice Flaggs. The body of the first, who died of typhoid fever before 
the Civil War, was kept for a long time in a glass-covered coffin before 
her brothers reluctantly buried her in All Saints Chapel, under a 
flat slab marked Alice. Twin portraits had been made of this Alice 
by a kinsman, George Flagg; one of these is now in the possession of 
a member of the du Pont family, the other hangs at Brookgreen (see 
below) . 

The second Alice, niece of the first, lost her mother when quite 
young, and led a life of isolation with her father. When a suitor came 
to the Hermitage to take her buggy-riding, her father firmly offered 
his saddle horse to the young man, saying, "I will ride by my daugh- 
ter's side in the buggy. Being younger and more agile, you will find 
the saddle comfortable." As a result of his tactics Alice, who died in 
1936, some years past her four-score was never married. 

By the Murrells Inlet post office, 36.7 m., is the junction with a 
rough, sandy road. 

Right on this road to a fork, 1.4 m.; L. from the fork to a fork at 2 m.; R. 
here 0.5 m. to WAGHESAW PLANTATION (private), by the Waccamaw River. This 
property, now a hunting preserve, is the SITE OF AN INDIAN VILLAGE where 13 



i 2 6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

skeletons have been uncovered, as well as bones in containers; graves have 
yielded trade beads, a copper anklet, and a spoon. 

Left at the 2 m. fork 1 m. to a public landing where Negroes from Sandy 
Island barter rough rice for potatoes and groceries. On their native island across 
the Waccamaw, they thresh the rice in an old mortar hollowed from a cypress 
log, using a pestle cut by hand. These Negroes are described in Black April, the 
novel by Julia Peterkin. Sandy Island is inaccessible except by boat. The Negroes 
paddle across the river to or from their work on the Brookgreen Estate. Before the 
railroad arrived this was an important landing. Here the rice and later, fish and 
clams, were loaded for shipment. Lumber, building materials, fertilizers, and all 
other supplies arrived from Conway and Georgetown aboard the old side- 
wheelers, the Burroughs and the Mitchell C. 

At 36.9 m. is the junction with a marked sandy road. 

Right on this road 1 m. is a private MUSEUM (adm. J0 & 25$, containing 
about 2,000 exhibits stuffed birds, fish, and animals, Indian relics, and strange 
souvenirs. 

BROOKGREEN GARDENS (R), 40.1 m. (open), formerly the Alstons' 
plantation was purchased in 1930 for $200,000 by Archer Milton 
Huntington who gave it to the State for an open-air museum. The 
estate, covering 4,444 acres, has a collection of native plants, a zoo, 
numerous fountains and pools, and 1 30 pieces of statuary, some by 
well-known artists. Approximately $500,000 has been expended on 
development and Mr. Huntington has provided a trust fund of 
approximately $1,200,000 for maintenance. 

The game sanctuary already contains many specimens of native 
wildlife including bears, turkeys, and swans, and will eventually be 
stocked with every variety known to the region. Many of the marbles 
and bronzes are the work of Mr. Huntington's wife, Anna Hyatt 
Huntington, who is represented in the Metropolitan, Luxembourg 
and Edinburgh museums. 

Mr. Huntington's purchase included, in addition to the original 
Brookgreen, three other old rice plantations, Laurel Hill, Springfield, 
and The Oaks. Brookgreen is the Blue Brook plantation setting of 
Scarlet Sister Mary, Pulitzer prize novel, by Julia Peterkin. 

At 44.3 m. is the junction with a dirt road marked Litchfield. 

Right on this road to a junction at 1.5 m.; R. here to ALL SAINTS CHAPEL, 
2 m., founded in 1767. The present building, erected in 1916, is a copy of the 
pre-Revolutionary church; in the churchyard, enclosed by a brick wall, are an- 
cient magnolias, oaks, and azaleas shading tombstones with records of the old 
plantation families. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 127 

LITCHFIELD (private), 2.6m. (L), a private estate, is admired for its avenue of 
unusually beautiful and large oaks visible from the road. One of these oaks is 
more than 20 feet in circumference. 

At 3.3 m. is WILLBROOK PLANTATION (L), another private estate partly visible 
from the road. 

At 45.8 m. is the junction with a shell road. 

Left on this road to PAWLEY'S ISLAND, 0.5 m., named for Percival 
Pawley; it is the oldest of the resorts between Myrtle Beach and Georgetown. 
Yucca, beach-cedar, palmetto, and myrtle cover the landward slope of the sand 
dunes. The older summer homes are built behind the dunes, with steps winding 
up to lookouts on the summits, and down to the beach. The newer cottages are 
on the open sands. 

At 53.9 m. the highway passes HOBGAW (private), granted to Sir 
George Carteret, one of the Proprietors, and now owned by Mr. 
Bernard M. Baruch. 

About 2 miles from the coast here is NORTH ISLAND (reached by boat), on which 
De Kalb and Lafayette landed in June 1777 when, inspired by the ideals under 
which the American Revolution was being carried on, they arrived to assist the 
colonists. 

They wandered about cutting undergrowth out of their way with swords. 
Finally some slaves met them and led them to the house where the Hugers 
(pronounced U-jee) were temporarily residing for the sea bathing. After ascer- 
taining that the sympathy of their host was with the revolutionists, they revealed 
the purpose of their journey and were assisted in reaching General Washington. 
Seventeen years later, Francis Kinloch Huger, the son of Lafayette's host, was 
traveling on the Continent after studying medicine in London. Learning that 
Lafayette had been imprisoned by the Austrians at Olmutz, he and another 
physician effected Lafayette's escape to the frontier. Here all three were captured 
and put into prison. After their release Lafayette maintained a close friendship 
with the family, and a cousin of Dr. Huger's married one of Lafayette's nieces. 

At 55 111. US 17 crosses the LAFAYETTE BRIDGE; it was completed 
in 1935; the toll removed August 1, 1937. 

GEORGETOWN, 58 m. (14 alt., 5,082 pop.), is a terminus for 
river trade and a winter resort (hunting, fishing, swimming and yachting; 
ample accommodations), at the head of Winyah Bay (Ind., bog or low- 
lands) which is at the confluence of the Sampit, Black, Waccamaw, 
and Peedee rivers. Georgetown, named for George II, then Prince of 
Wales, is one of the oldest settlements in the State. Organized in 1721 
the town was laid out in large and uniform squares on a 247-acre 
tract, donated by the Reverend William Screven. It was a thriving 
little seaport, dealing in naval stores, rice and indigo, which were 



is8 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

shipped down the river in vast quantities to Winyah Bay. Planters 
built their homes along the shores of the bay and along the banks of 
the tributary rivers. Ships sailed for England bearing produce and 
returned with goods for the colonists. The indigo trade perished with 
the Revolution and rice growing was abandoned soon afterward. In 
the journal of his travels the Methodist Bishop Francis Asbury ex- 
claimed of the rice plantations near Georgetown: "What blanks are 
in this country how much worse are the rice plantations: If a 
man-of-war is 'floating hell' These are standing ones; wicked masters, 
overseers, and Negroes cursing, drinking no Sabbaths; no 
sermons." 

The town is now entering a new phase of development, one of the 
largest kraft mills in the world being under construction here. (See 
INTRODUCTION.) 

On the corner of Highmarket and Broad Sts. is the PROTESTANT 
EPISCOPAL CHURCH, PARISH OF PRINCE GEORGE, Winyah, which was 
founded in 1721. The church was used as a stable by the British 
during the Revolution. 

The MARKET, Front and Screven Sts., erected in 1841, was the old 
slave market. It has a clock tower. A tablet on the building com- 
memorates the landing of Lafayette on North Island in 1777. 

The cornerstone of the COURTHOUSE, at Prince and Screven Sts., 
was laid in 1824 with Masonic rites. 

The MASONIC TEMPLE, on Prince St. opposite the courthouse, was 
erected in 1735 as a bank. 

According to tradition, the old PYATT HOUSE, on Front St. between 
Wood and King Sts., housed George Washington on his southern 
tour of 1791. One of the important events of his visit to Georgetown 
was a luncheon given in his honor by the Winyah Indigo Society; 
this socio-economic organization, now entirely social, was founded in 
1740. Dues, paid in indigo, went largely for education of children in 
the county. The present owners of the house are descendants of the 
Alstons who built it. It was from Georgetown that Theodosia Burr 
Alston embarked in 1812 to visit her father, Aaron Burr. (See SIDE 
ROUTE A.) 

South of Georgetown, somewhere along the coast of Winyah Bay, 
is the spot on which a Spanish settlement existed for a short time in 
1526. Five hundred colonists arrived in care of Lucas Vasquez de 
Ayllon of Santo Domingo, bringing with them extensive domestic 



SOUTH CAROLINA 129 

equipment, 89 horses, and a number of slaves. After their leader died, 
dissension arose among the colonists and a slave revolt, Indian at- 
tacks, and disease added to the unhappiness of the situation. When 
the Santa Clara sailed back to Spain she carried the 150 survivors. 
At 65.5 m. is the junction with a marked sandy road. 

Left on this road, being careful not to leave the worn track. Follow signs to a 
junction at 2.8 m.; R. here to the BELLE ISLE GARDENS, 3.3 m. (adm. $7; best 
season early to late spring). Noted for their japonicas and azaleas, which attain as- 
tonishing size and have exquisite colors, the gardens also contain the breastworks 
of the fort, BATTERY WHITE, built during the Civil War. The great iron can- 
non have "1864" cut deep into their surfaces. Out across the water can be seen 
the hulk of the federal supply ship, Harvest Moon, sunk by a mine during the Civil 
War. Belle Isle was at one time owned by General Peter Horry, for whom Horry 
County (see above) is named; he was a friend and fellow officer of General Francis 
Marion during the Revolution. 

At 71.1 m. is the junction with a sandy road. 

Right on this road to HOPSEWEE (open), 0.6 m., the home of Thomas Lynch, 
one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Built in 1740, the gray 
plantation home and outbuildings are beautifully placed among massive oaks on 
the northern bank of the Santee River. 

The bridge, 71.7 m., over the North Santee River, offers a glimpse 
of the main house of Hopsewee (R) through the gray and green of 
the moss and oaks. 

At 74 m. is the junction with an overgrown road. 

Left on this road to FAIRFIELD PLANTATION (private), 0.4 m., used as Tarle- 
ton's headquarters during the Revolution. The present house was built about 
1790 by General Thomas Pinckney and is now owned by members of his family. 

At 75 m. is SANTEE (guides for the Peachtree or Bowman Plantation 
or for the Daniel Huger Monument), a filling station at the junction with 
a cross road. 

1. Left on this road past several private estates partly visible through their 
entrance lanes. At 0.8 m. is the junction with a cross road; L. here to HARRI- 
ETTA (open), 1.6 111. The handsome frame building, in the plantation style, was 
built for Harriett Pinckney, grand-daughter of Chief Justice Pinckney. The gar- 
dens here are notable. 

EL DORADO PLANTATION (open), E. of Harrietta, was the second home of Gen. 
Thomas Pinckney, built later than Fairfield, by his own carpenters; it is sug- 
gestive of a French chateau. 

2. Right from Santee on the cross road to an obscure lane at 1 m.; R. 1 m. 
on this road (local guide needed in following it) to the RUINS OF PEACHTREE, or Bow- 



1 30 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

man Plantation. In Revolutionary days this crumbling brick structure, overlook- 
ing a tarn of the Santee River, was the home of Thomas Lynch, father of the 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. Its aspect is as forbidding as are the 
copperhead snakes that inhabit it. Among the ruins is a well eight feet in diam- 
eter with a well-curb built of the same dun-colored brick as are the remaining 
walls. 

Near the house is the grave of one of the daughters of the Lynch family, who, 
the story is, was buried in a standing position. Thomas Lynch and his wife were 
lost at sea while on a trip to the Barbadoes. 

West of the junction with the lane leading to the old plantation at 1.5 in. from 
Santee is the intersection with the old King's Highway. 

Left 2.2 m. on the King's Highway to ST. JAMES (SANTEE) CHURCH, built in 
1768, the fourth church erected in St. James Parish. The broad, low, red brick 
structure with four crude brick columns is in excellent condition. The frame pedi- 
ment of the portico has classical proportions. Occasional services using the old 
pulpit Bible and prayer book are held there. During the Revolution this Bible 
and prayer book were seized by a British soldier and taken to England. A British 
officer who had been befriended by a member of St. James church during the 
campaign in South Carolina, saw the inscriptions in the books, bought them, and 
returned them to his Carolina friend. Today they are kept at Hampton Planta- 
tion. 

The main side road continues beyond the intersection with the King's High- 
way. At 1.9 m. from Santee is the junction with another dirt side road; R. here 
0.4 m. to HAMPTON PLANTATION (open), one of the few old estates in the area 
still operated by a southern owner. Construction of the dwelling was begun in 
the early days of the Colony but not completed until after the Revolution. 
George Washington, on his southern trip, stopped here for breakfast on Sunday 
morning, May 1, 1791 and, when taking leave of his hosts, commented on a 
young oak tree in front of the house, remarking that one day it would be the 
grandest of all the oaks on the place. The tree, still there, is now called the Wash- 
ington Oak. This plantation, now belonging to members of the Rutledge family, 
was the birthplace and childhood home of Archibald Rutledge, South Carolina's 
poet laureate (1937). 

At 5.9 m. from Santee on the main side road is the junction with yet another 
country road; R. here (local guide needed) 0.8 m. to the DANIEL HUGER MONU- 
MENT, erected in 1820. Huger (pronounced U-jee), one of the earliest settlers on 
the Santee was buried near the spot in 1711. Born at Turenne in 1651, Huger 
fled to avoid the persecution of the Hugenots that followed the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes in 1685. This monument, which was erected by Elias Horry, 
also honors his great-great-grandfather, Elias Horry, whose nearby estate, called 
Wambaw when it was owned by Huger, is known today as the Waterhorn Plan- 
tation. 

At 80.8 m. is the junction with an improved marked road and 
with State 179 (L) which unites with US 17 for 0.5 m. and then turns 
R. 

Left on State 179 is McCLELLANVILLE, 0.5 m. (600 pop.), which rose in 



SOUTH CAROLINA 131 

the early 1 850's as a colony of summer homes belonging chiefly to the owners of 
rice plantations. From May till November the rice fields were flooded with water, 
providing an excellent breeding place for the malarial mosquitoes; the inhabi- 
tants, plagued by the disease and unaware of its cause, blamed it on the miasmas 
arising from manmade swamps. Sometimes as many as 50 slaves were carried 
along on the annual migrations because the owners did not wish to separate the 
Negro families for so long a period. 

A participant thus described the treks: "At the end of May my father's entire 
household migrated to the sea, which was only 4 miles to the east of Chicora as 
the crow flies, but was only to be reached by going 7 miles in a rowboat and 4 
miles by land. The vehicles, horses, cows, furniture, bedding, trunks, and pro- 
visions were all put into great flats, some 60 by 20 feet, others even larger, at first 
dawn, and sent ahead. Then the family got into the rowboat and were rowed 
down the Peedee, then through Squirrel Creek, with vines tangled above them 
and water-lilies and flags and wild roses and scarlet lobelia all along the banks, 
and every now and then hands would stop their song a moment to call out, 
'Missy, a alligator' . . . There were six splendid oarsmen, who sang the mo- 
ment the boat got well under way." The songs the boatmen sang are still known 
to older generations along the coast; each plantation group had individual 
variations that are evident today. 

In McGlellanville are fine examples of ante-bellum architecture. Several 
oyster factories here formerly employed many hands, but the industry is not now 
flourishing. CAPE ROMAIN LIGHTHOUSE, visible from the town, is interesting be- 
cause of a noticeable list. Although it has been leaning for 70 years, the list is not 
considered dangerous and the lenses have been adjusted to the peculiar angle. 

THE CAPE ROMAIN MIGRATORY BIRD REFUGE, containing 61,986 
acres, is one of the largest wildlife retreats on the Atlantic coast; headquarters are 
at McClellanville. The refuge includes Bull's Island, and has 25 miles of salt and 
fresh-water frontage. 

In the sheltered swamps live numerous waterfowl and birds, including great 
herons, Louisiana herons, black-crowned night herons, ring-billed gulls, plovers, 
brown pelicans, royal terns, and ducks of many varieties. Wild turkey, deer, and 
wild hogs abound. Because of the abundance of aquatic vegetation the waters of 
the area are teeming with fish. 

At 81.3 m. is the junction (R) with State 179. 

Right from US 17 on State 179 is HONEY HILL, 10 m. Around this hamlet 
is a region long noted for the potent products of illicit distilling. During prohibi- 
tion days many northern tourists came here to obtain some of its celebrated 
"corn". 

South of the junction with State 179 numbers of the young pine 
trees in the groves lining the highway have little buckets fastened 
to them below a space where the bark has been skinned away (see 
INTRODUCTION): the exudate caught thus is used in the manu- 
facture of naval stores. Nearly all the Negro cabins seen from the 



132 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

highway in this area have dormer windows, called dog houses. Along 
the roadside in front of the houses are frequent displays of baskets. 
Weaving baskets of grasses is an art handed down by these Negroes 
from generation to generation. 

At 99.6 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Right on this road to a junction at 5.6 m.; L. here to a junction at 10.5 m.; 
L. 0.3 m. at this junction to WANDO, a solitary little hamlet on a bank of the 
Wando River. (Better reached by daily boat from Charleston, for visit to White Brick 
Church.) 

Just N. of the Wando road junction, at 10.6 m. from US 17, is the junction 
with a dirt road, branching between a cabin and a tiny schoolhouse. Right 
2.4 m. on this road to the WHITE BRICK CHURCH, an attractive little chapel 
erected in 1732 and still in good condition. It was the place of worship for the 
prosperous families owning rice plantations in the neighborhood. In the ceme- 
tery are many old tombstones with inscriptions of antiquarian interest. Those 
buried here lived in the houses of the vicinity that are now either heaps of crum- 
bling stone or mere mounds overgrown with vines and grasses, the haunts of 
wild turkeys and of deer. 

At 100.5 m. is a junction with a shell road. 

Right on this road to WAPPETAW CEMETERY, 0.2 m., under magnificent oaks' 
The church that stood here was founded in 1696 by a colony of 52 Congrega- 
tionalists from New England. Here Cornwallis' army encamped during the 
Revolutionary War, before marching to take possession of HaddrelPs Point 
now Remley's Point when Charleston capitulated in 1780. 

CHRIST CHURCH, 108.9 m. (L), is a small white structure built 
after the Revolution to replace one destroyed by fire. This church, 
third on the site, was restored in 1876, having been much damaged 
during the Civil War, when it was used as a stable. The register of 
the congregation, dating from 1694, has been preserved. In the sur- 
rounding cemetery is the GRAVE OF COL. CHARLES PINGKNEY (1757- 
1824), a signer of the Constitution who was first buried on Snee 
Plantation. 

MOUNT PLEASANT, 114.4 m. (25 alt., 1,415 pop.), is so called 
because of the mount, really a small hill, that seems higher than it is 
because of the flatness of the surrounding country. The town was a 
resort for coastal planters during the summer months (see above). 
The Mount Pleasant tract, containing about 47 acres, was formerly 
called Haddrell's Point. The hamlets of Greenwichville, Lucasville, 
and Hilliardsville were incorporated into the town of Mount 
Pleasant. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 133 

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Hibben St., is an oblong frame struc- 
ture having a portico with round columns. This was built as the 
chapel of ease for Wappetaw Church, Christ Church Parish. Some 
time before the Civil War, part of the congregation started to drift 
toward Presbyterianism, and about 1852 the present Presbyterian 
congregation was organized in this chapel. The building was used as 
a hospital both by the Confederates and the Federals. At the close of 
the war the congregation of Wappetaw gathered here to divide the 
property, the Episcopalians retaining possession of the church, the 
Presbyterians obtaining the chapel of ease. 

THE HIBBEN HOUSE, Hibben St., the oldest house in town, was the 
home of Andrew Hibben, planter, operator of Hibben's Ferry, and 
owner of a great deal of land. The structure, Southern Colonial in 
style, has a French balcony, tall square wooden columns supporting 
classic pediments, and, on the Cooper River side, large porches. 
The main structure has no nails, being mortised. The house was the 
headquarters of the Continental officers on parole in 1781, and here 
Gen. William Moultrie wrote the letter to Lord Montagu, in which 
he declined an offered commission in the British army. 

At the end of Hibben St. is the SITE OF THE OLD FERRY TROLLEY 
WHARF. Hilliardsville Battery, washed away in recent years, was 
near it. The battery was Battery Gary of the Revolutionary War, and 
part of the harbor defense in the Civil War. 

ST. ANDREW'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, on State 703, a brown frame 
building, formerly was a chapel of ease of Christ Church. The 
original structure, standing by the side of the present St. Andrew's, 
was erected 1833-35, and is now used by a Masonic lodge. The 
present St. Andrew's Chapel was erected 1856-57, on the designs of 
Col. E. B. White, architect of the U. S. Custom House in Charleston. 

At the rear of MOUNT PLEASANT BAPTIST CHURCH, Pitt St., is a 
CONFEDERATE CEMETERY, in which stands a WAR OF 1812 MONU- 
MENT. Mount Pleasant was for a time the seat of Berkeley County 
and the Baptist church was formerly the courthouse; after the county 
seat was moved to Monck's Corner, the courthouse was occupied for 
many years by the Lutheran Seminary; when the seminary moved to 
Columbia, the building was sold to the Baptist congregation. The 
Knights of Pythias have also met regularly in this two-story structure, 
which, contrary to the usual pattern of South Carolina courthouses, 
is of brick, with pilasters and interior steps. 



i 3 4 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

In Mount Pleasant is the junction with State 703 (see SIDE 
ROUTES). 

The COOPER RIVER BRIDGE, 115.5 m. (toll: car and driver 50, 
passengers 15 each; week end round trip, 75^ for car and all passengers), a 
cantilever structure constructed by a private corporation at an ap- 
proximated cost of $4,700,000, was opened to traffic August 8, 1929. 
Its channel span, rises 150 feet above high water; it has a length of 
10,050 feet. Seen from the distance the long graceful bridge looks 
somewhat like a roller-coaster. 

From the crest (no stopping on bridge allowed) is an excellent view of 
the surrounding country the Wando and Cooper Rivers (R) and 
between them DANI ELL'S ISLAND, the former plantation of 
Robert Daniell, Governor of the Colony 1716-1717. Negro residents 
of the island describe with details a local ghost a British soldier in 
full uniform of Revolutionary times, who rides about on horseback. 
HOG ISLAND (L) is a stretch of marsh and highland adjacent to 
the western shore of Mount Pleasant. This land was granted to Ed- 
mund Bellinger in 1694, and here Jonathan Lucas built a windmill 
to use in his rice-cultivation experiments. 

CHARLESTON, 119.3 m. (9 alt., 62,265 pop.) (see S. C. 
GUIDE). 

Railroad Stations. Union Station, Columbus and Bay Sts., for Atlantic Coast 
Line and Southern R.R.; Seaboard Station,' Grove St. and Rutledge Ave., for 
Seaboard Air Line R.R. 

Piers. Clyde-Mallory, E. end of Queen St.; Cooper River Ferry, E. end of 
Cumberland St. ; steamer to Ft. Sumter, foot of King St. ; steamer to Ft. Moul- 
trie, E. end of Cumberland St. ; Municipal Yacht Basin, W. end of Calhoun St. 

Accommodations. Hotels, tourist homes and tourist camps; rates much advanced 
in spring. 

Points of Interest. St. Michael's Episcopal Church, St. Philip's Episcopal Church, 
Robert Brewton House, Miles Brewton (Pringle) House, Izard House, Hibernian 
Hall, Exchange Building, Charleston Museum, the Fireproof Building, the Bat- 
tery, Cabbage Row, and others. 

Section 70. Charleston to Georgia Line, 115.3 m. US 17 

South of Charleston both the islands and the mainland are more 
populous than north of it. Many of the islands are inhabited only by 
Negroes, who in their isolation have evolved the Gullah dialect. A 
number of settlements along the coast are reached by boat alone. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 135 

The inhabitants gain livings chiefly by shrimping and oystering 
though they do some truck gardening. 

The area here is much more tropical than is that around George- 
town; the rich soil still has much of the fertility that made early 
settlers introduce plants from foreign lands, hoping to increase the 
variety of the exports. The native vegetation has had high interest for 
botanists almost since the days of settlement. 

South of CHARLESTON, m., the highway crosses the ASHLEY 
RIVER BRIDGE, dedicated to Charleston soldiers who served in the 
World War. This low-level concrete bascule-type structure was 
completed in 1926. Palmettos and oleanders line the causeway that 
crosses a wide marsh on the western side of the river. The highway is 
shaded by oaks dripping gray moss, but open fields are beyond them. 

At 2 m. is the junction with Folly Beach Rd. (see SIDE ROUTE C). 

At 3 m. is the junction with State 61 (see SIDE ROUTE D}. 

As the route proceeds S. it passes a number of large truck and dairy 
farms. Dotted here and there are the Negro tenant cabins, some of 
them having neither screens nor window-glass; the shutters and doors 
of many of the little houses are painted bright blue to keep out the 
spirits. Around them swarm babies and gangling mongrel dogs. 

In connection with an agricultural experiment station, (L) 7.9 m., 
is a U. S. REGIONAL VEGETABLE BREEDING LABORATORY, established 
in 1936. 

South of the experimental station are stretches of marshland, salt 
creeks and old abandoned rice fields, against which are silhouetted 
clumps of evergreens. 

At 12 m. is the GRAVE OF COL. WILLIAM A. WASHINGTON, a kins- 
man of George Washington who came to South Carolina after the 
Revolutionary War, establishing his home on a nearby plantation. 

RANTOWLES, 13.2 m. (22 alt., 30 pop.), is a scattered collec- 
tion of small farms. For several miles west of Rantowles the road 
passes through the quiet of a thick growth of pines. 

At Rantowles is the junction (R) with an alternate to US 17 that 
saves 4.1 miles between this point and the Edisto River (see below). 

HOLLYWOOD, 20 m. (28 alt.), is at the junction with an im- 
proved road. 

Left on this road, which runs between cabbage patches, is MEGGETTS* 
1.5 m. (28 alt., 1,050 pop.), the shipping center of a large vegetable growing 
region. It is headquarters of a trucking association and has a stock exchange in 



136 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

direct communication with the national produce exchanges. Local planters have 
been called Cabbage Kings and the town itself is known as The Cabbage Patch. 
Fortunes have been made and lost on the price fluctuations of this lowly vegeta- 
ble. The chief crops in addition to cabbage are potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, 
and spinach. 

Shortly after the Revolutionary War, one traveler described this country 
around the Edisto River as being "remarkable for rich widows, frolic, and feast- 
ing . . . The cause of so many widows being there is easily discovered : that part 
of the country, though rich and fertile, is extremely unhealthful; this, added to 
the great intemperance of the men and the excesses of every kind they are per- 
petually involved in, generates acute bilious disorders which quickly carry them 
off." The unhealthfulness of the country disappeared when the fields were no 
longer flooded for the raising of rice. 

In ADAMS RUN, 26.5 m. (32 alt., 500 pop.), a former summer 
resort for the neighboring plantation owners (see Section 9), is the 
junction with the unpaved Edisto Beach Rd. (see SIDE TOUR E). 

The GONZALES HOME (private), 30.4 m. (L), a two-story white 
structure with a red roof, is seen through iron gates at the end of a 
green tunnel of beautiful live-oaks; from the trees hangs a haze of 
Spanish moss that appears silvery gray, or green-gray or misty 
purple, according to the light. 

At 31.8 m. is the junction (R) with the shorter alternate to US 17 
(opened 1937} (see above). 

At 35 m. JAGKSONBORO BRIDGE crosses the Edisto River (boats 
rented for shad fishing) , the boundary between Charleston and Colleton 
Counties. 

At 35.7 m. (L) is JACKSONBORO, one of the many little towns 
of the area whose greatest period of prosperity and importance is long 
past. It was laid out between 1730 and 1740 on 400 acres of land that 
had been granted to John Jackson. 

Jacksonboro was the seat of government for Colleton County till 
1817, and the courthouse and jail and several other buildings were 
still standing in 1826. The legislature met here in 1782 when Charles- 
ton was in the hands of the British, and it was at this session that the 
confiscation and amercement acts against Royalists were passed. 

Lieut. Anthony Allaire, who stopped here with the American 
volunteers, on their march from Savannah during the Revolution, 
gave this picture of the village: "After crossing, continued our march 
to Jacksonborough, on the Pon Pon or Edisto River. The most of the 
houses are very good; the people well do live; some large storehouses 
for rice, from which they take it by water to the Charleston market. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 137 

In short, it is a pleasant little place and well situated for trade, but the 
inhabitants are all Rebels not a man remaining in the town, ex- 
cept two, one of whom was so sick he could not get out of bed, and 
the other a doctor, who had the name of being a friend to govern- 
ment." 

At 36 m. is a junction with State 32 (see SIDE ROUTE F). 

At 37.6 m. is a junction with a marked dirt road. 

Right on this road to the COL. ISAAC HAYNE MONUMENT, 1.2 m., erected by 
the State in 1929. It bears the coat of arms of South Carolina and the crest of the 
Hayne family. Colonel Hayne was one of those who fell into the hands of the Brit- 
ish when Charleston was captured in 1780; with many other citizens he received 
parole on condition that he maintain neutrality in the conflict. Having accepted 
the condition he refused to rejoin the Revolutionary forces until the British broke 
their end of the agreement made with the citizens. He then resumed command of 
his company but was captured and confined in the Old Exchange in Charleston 
and shortly afterward was hanged outside the city. His body was brought back 
to Hayne Hall and buried here in the garden. 

The SITE OF BETHEL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 38.5 m. (R), is 
marked by a sign. The congregation was established in 1728 by the 
Reverend Archibald Stobo, who built a church here. In 1828 a 
church was erected at Walterboro for use in the summer, and subse- 
quently the structure here was abandoned, all services being held in 
Walterboro. Bethel has a complete set of records and minutes from 
the beginning to the present. The GRAVE OF CAPT. JOHN DANT, for a 
short time commander of Old Ironsides, is here. 

At 39.3 m. at a filling station is a junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to THE BURNED CHURCH (R), 1 m. Today only brick walls 
mark the spot where St. Bartholomew's Chapel (Episcopal) was built shortly 
after the Indian War of 1715. Judge Aedanus Burke, founder of the Hibernian 
Society of Charleston, is buried in the desolate graveyard back of the ruins. 

WALTERBORO, 51.8 m. (80 alt., 2,592 pop.), at the junction 
(L) with US 15 (see SIDE ROUTE F), is the seat of Colleton County, 
and was settled in the 18th century by rice planters. The winter 
climate is so mild that palmettos, oleanders, and azaleas grow with- 
out protection. 

When the town's original name, Ireland Creek, fell into disfavor, 
two prominent citizens, Walter and Smith, each insisted on having 
the settlement named for him. Near the town, side by side, stood two 
lofty pines. Axes were given to Walter and Smith, who were told that 



138 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

the first to fell his tree could name the town. At last Walter's tree 
quivered, and with its fall the town became Walterboro. Walter had 
lived at Jacksonboro, but after nine of his ten children had died, he 
moved here, bringing with him his one remaining child, Mary, who 
throve in her new environment. 

The WALTERBORO LIBRARY, 127 Wichman St. (open Tues., Wed., 
Fri., 3 to 5 p.m.; Sat. 10 to 12 a.m.), contains 3,900 volumes, the oldest 
of which is a French prayer book published in 1716. The Walterboro 
Library Society was founded in 1820, when the building, a little 
white wooden structure with green blinds and roof, was erected. 

In the center of the town is the COURTHOUSE, built in 1820; the 
architect is said to have been Robert Mills. In 1828 the first public 
nullification meeting in the State was held here, and James Hamilton, 
Jr., delivered the keynote address that launched South Carolina on a 
course of action which was to make history. 

The CONFEDERATE MONUMENT, dedicated to the mothers, wives, 
sisters, and daughters, as well as the soldiers of the county, is a shaft 
on a heavy base, erected in 1913 on the Courthouse Square. 

The first county jail, which was moved here from Jacksonboro, 
stood near the corner opposite the courthouse. About 1840 a new one 
was built a block and a half from the courthouse on Jeffries Blvd. 
This structure, of the Spanish type, is now a county building. 

The old bell of BETHEL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 26 Church St., is 
now silent but still treasured. It hung in old Bethel Church near 
Jacksonboro during the Revolution. 

Among the many old homes with beautiful gardens in Walterboro 
is the LUCAS HOUSE (private), Washington St., which contains 21 
rooms. The nucleus of the structure, consisting of six rooms, was 
erected about the time the town was established. The garden is 
visible from the street. 

The FRASER HOUSE (open), Wichman St., was built in 1859. Three 
of the doors came from the old courthouse at Jacksonboro. The gable 
windows came from Hayne Hall, near Jacksonboro (see above). The 
kitchen, which was some distance from the house, was destroyed by 
the cyclone of 1879; the present kitchen has diamond-shaped win- 
dows from St. Jude's Episcopal Church, also destroyed by the cyclone. 

South of Walterboro the route proceeds through a flat region of 
swamps and occasional truck farms. Filling stations, tourist camps, 
and large signboards line the roadside. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 139 

At 62.8 m. is a marked dirt road (see SIDE ROUTE F). 

YEMASSEE, 73 m. (12 alt., 589 pop.), is the trading center 
(train and bus connections) of an area having numerous fine winter 
estates. 

POCOTALIGO, 76.3 m. (5 alt., 317 pop.), is a tiny village whose 
history goes back to the earliest settlement of the section, when one of 
the large towns of the Yamasee Indians and an Indian trading post 
were here. The first blow of the massacre of 1715 was struck here, 
several hundred whites being killed. Others, warned by a wounded 
seaman who swam across the Pocotaligo River, escaped by fleeing to 
a vessel that lay in Port Royal harbor. Being on the direct route be- 
tween Charleston and Savannah, Pocotaligo was later a stagecoach 
stop, and the former Van Bibber's Tavern entertained many notables. 
During the Revolution the British occupied Fort Balfour, which was 
here; on April 13, 1781, without a shot having been fired, it was cap- 
tured by Col. William Harden, a follower of Francis Marion. Mem- 
bers of the Colonial militia, who had been forced by the British into 
the defense of the fort, recognized their friends in the handful of at- 
tackers and refused to fire on them. 

During the Civil War the town was the scene of a number of 
skirmishes resulting from the efforts of Union soldiers to destroy the 
railroad between Charleston and Savannah. The town was held by 
the Confederates until January 14, 1865, when it was abandoned at 
the approach of Sherman's army. 

COOSAWHATCHIE, 82 m. (21 alt., township pop. 3,498), now 
only a hamlet, was established on the site of an Indian village known 
as the Refuge of the Coosaws. It was the scene of a Revolutionary 
battle between the forces of the British General Prevost and those of 
the American Lieut. Col. John Laurens, in which half of his Conti- 
nentals were killed. The town was the seat of government of the old 
Beaufort District from 1788 till 1840, when, because of the unhealth- 
fulness of the site, the offices were transferred to Gillisonville. 

RIDGELAND, 89.6m. (50 alt., 705 pop.), is the seat of Jasper 
County, named for Sergeant William Jasper who was killed at the 
siege of Savannah during the Revolutionary War. Ridgeland is 
named for the sandy ridge on which it is situated. Because of its near- 
ness to the Georgia Line, it is a popular place for marriages. 

Lumbering, turpentining, agriculture, and stock raising create 
ample employment for the men of this community. 



i 4 o THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Right from Ridgeland on State 36, an improved road, to GILLISONVILLE, 
10 m., a tiny, picturesque village with moss-hung trees and quiet charm. It was 
established as a summer village of plantation owners (see SECTION 9). From 
1840 to 1868 it was the seat of government of the old Beaufort District. Every 
structure in town except Gen. James Moore's home and the Baptist church was 
burned by Sherman's army. The church was used as headquarters for the Fed- 
eral army, and its silver communion service, dating from 1857, has one plate 
marked: "War of 1861 & 2 & 3 & 4. Feb. 7, 1865. This done by a Yankee sol- 
dier." 

Moore's home is said to have been spared because the mistress gave a pair of 
knitted socks to a Federal officer. 

At 91 m. is a junction with a marked dirt road. 

Left on this road, passing a village cemetery, all that is left of GRAHAM- 
VILLE, another village established as the summer home of lowland plantation 
owners. At 1.5 m. is a fork; L. here to OLD HOUSE SETTLEMENT, a cross 
roads, 5.8 m. 

1. Right from the crossroads 0.1 m. on a road lined with tall moss-draped 
trees to the gates of a cow pasture. In the center of the pasture, about 1.5m. 
from the gate, is a walled enclosure containing more moss-covered trees and the 
THOMAS HEYWARD TOMB. Heyward, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
was born in the Beaufort District July 1746 and died March 6, 1809. 

2. Left at Old House Settlement 1 m. on a dirt road to a junction with another 
dirt road beside a little schoolhouse; R. here to HONEY HILL BATTLE- 
GROUND, 2.5 m., where breastworks are still visible. Here, on November 30, 
1864, was fought one of the bloodiest minor battles of the Civil War with victory 
for the Confederates. The Federal troops were mowed down as they filed past the 
Confederates entrenched behind hastily constructed breastworks. The little 
stream that runs nearby is said to have been clogged with dead bodies. 

At 4.5 m. on the same road are the RUINS OF WHITEHALL PLANTATION, the 
former home of Thomas Heyward. Two tabby wings still stand at the end of an 
avenue of magnificent live-oaks; this avenue is nearly one-fourth mile long and 
one hundred yards wide. The trees, planted in four rows, form three arches over- 
head. 

Whitehall was a center of local social life during plantation days, and Wash- 
ington on his tour of the South made note of a visit here in his diary. The house 
escaped the flames of the Civil War, but was burned later. Its ruins give some 
idea of its former elegance. 

The OKEETEE CLUB, 93.7 m. (R), is a large hunting preserve of 
42,000 acres owned by a group of northern sportsmen. The clubhouse 
contains 50 rooms. The name survives from Okeetee Barony, granted 
by a patent dated December 5, 1718, to John Colleton, grandson of 
the Lord Proprietor of that name. The club was organized by John 
King Garnett, owner of the land, and the first clubhouse was built in 
1894. 



TENANT CABIN, SOUTH CAROLINA 





fe : VJ&> 



SPANISH MOSS IN GEORGIA 




WETTER HOUSE (1840), SAVANNAH, GEORGIA 









CHRIST'S CHURCH, ST. SIMON ISLAND, GEORGIA 



SOUTH CAROLINA 141 

HARDEEVILLE, 104.4 m. (23 alt., 728 pop.), named for the 
Hardee family, depends upon sawmills for a livelihood. 

1. Right from Hardee ville on State 33 to a junction with a dirt road, 0.2 in.; 
L. on this road to PURRYSBURG CEMETERY, 2.7 m., marking the abandoned vil- 
lage of Purrysburg, which was settled in 1735 by a colony of Swiss led by Jean 
Pierre Purry; the location was so unhealthful many died, and others moved. 
Some of the names on the gravestones are still borne by residents of Hardeeville 
and the vicinity. 

2. Left from Hardeeville on State 33 to ARTHUR CORLISS HUNTING PRESERVE 
(private), 3.2 m. (R), visible from the road. This is one of the many plantations 
in the Low Country bought by Northern sportsmen for hunting preserves. 

PRITCHARDVILLE, 9.5 m. (21 alt., 50 pop.), has an Ohio colony as the 
result of the mistake of a Savannah ticket agent. An Ohio man who was hunting 
a home site had been advised to look for one at Levys, Georgia; the agent sold 
him a ticket to Levys, South Carolina. The visitor liked the area so much that he 
decided to buy property here and influenced friends to join him. 

At 10.4 m. is a junction with a dirt road; R. here 2 m. to PALMETTO BLUFF 
PLANTATION, where are the ruins of the palatial home of R. T. Wilson, one of the 
show places of the South until destroyed by fire in 1 926. It still has a fourteen- 
acre garden of boxed walks and a walled graveyard. 

On State 33 at the edge of Bluffton, 15.3 m., is a junction with a dirt road; 
R. on this road through a narrow tunnel of myrtle, yaupon, young oaks, wild 
azaleas, and palmettos to SECESSION OAK, under whose shade Daniel Hamilton 
made the first secession speech heard in this area. The oak is on the Verdier 
Plantation. 

BLUFFTON, 15.5 m., on State 33 (24 alt., 520 pop.), established as a sum- 
mer home for plantation owners, is on a high bluff overlooking May River. It 
was formerly called Kirk's Bluff, for the Kirk family, but the name was later 
changed to Bluffton because it was felt that the Kirks should not be more honored 
than the Popes, also early residents. 

The village was practically destroyed by a Federal gunboat during the Civil 
War, but was rebuilt. The EPISCOPAL CHURCH, a wooden structure with some 
Gothic details, was not quite completed but it was saved by the arrival of the 
Confederate soldiers. 

The poet Timrod taught here before the Civil War and the botanist, Dr. Joseph 
Mellichamp, lived here and is buried in St. Luke's churchyard, 7 miles away. 

A business that at one time flourished here and that is still profitable to one or 
two men, is the gathering and shipping of deer tongues for use in the manufac- 
ture of scents, and of palmetto berries for use in medicines. 

Because of its charm, the village draws many writers and artists, some of whom 
have used its scenes in their works. 

a. Left from Bluffton 2 m. on the Brighton Beach Rd. to BRIGHTON 
BEACH, a small summer resort on the beautiful May River. 

b. Left from Bluffton 4.9 m. on a white shell road to a junction with a wooded 
road; R. here to ROSE HILL PLANTATION, 6 m.; or Kirk's Folly so called, because 
Dr. John Kirk, who started to build the house on a very elaborate plan, was not 



i 4 2 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

financially able to complete it after the Civil War. A northern soldier, who was 
applying a match to the structure, changed his mind, saying, "I can't do it, boys, 
this house is too beautiful to be burned." One feature of the house, designed by 
a Frenchman, Dimick, was a beautiful glass dome; it was put in place but later 
taken down and stored away. 

At 109.2 m. US 17 passes the northern boundary of the large 
SAVANNAH RIVER WILD LIFE REFUGE. The first purchase 
for the refuge was made in 1927 and there are now about 9,000 acres 
of land in this State and in the adjoining section of Georgia. This area 
is on the coastal migratory paths of various kinds of birds and is a 
point of biannual concentration. Seventeen thousand green-winged 
teal and an equal number of wood duck wintered here in 1936. For 
the most part this area was formerly planted with rice. 

RICE MILL TAVERN, 112.3 m. (L), was erected as a rice mill 
about 1830 by Daniel Hey ward. Ten years ago it was converted into 
a roadside tavern. 

At 115.3 m. US 17 crosses the Georgia Line. 



GEORGIA 

South Carolina Line Savannah Darien Brunswick Flor- 
ida Line, 136.7 m. US 17. 

Seaboard Air Line roughly parallels this route. 
Paved roadbed throughout. 

Luxurious hotel accommodations in Savannah, good in Brunswick; limited else- 
where. 

Section 11 . South Carolina Line to Florida Line, 136.7 m.U S17 

US 17 crosses the lowest part of the Georgia Coastal Plain with 
its many tidewater creeks and its swamps dense with cypress, tupelo, 
and bay-trees. Giant live-oaks, hung with gray Spanish moss, have 
a ghostly beauty that gives an impression of unreality. Along the 
route are many salt-water marshes light green with tender shoots 
in the spring, yellow with dying grass in the fall. The higher land is 
wooded with pine and palmetto. Through this sandy country, the 
highway crosses many local roads paved with crushed oyster shells. 

Findings in the coastal mounds indicate that this region was in- 
habited by some prehistoric race. Extensive excavations have been 
made only recently, however, and no scientific conclusion on the 
type of people has been reached. 

About the middle of the 16th century, Spain took possession of 
the islands along the Georgia coast, claiming an indefinite amount 
of territory on the mainland. According to her usual method of 
colonization, Spain sent first soldiers, then missionaries to convert 
the Indians to Christianity. They constructed mission buildings of 
tabby, originally called tapia (Sp., mud or cement), a material made 
by mixing burned and crushed oyster shells with sand. Frequently 
shells from old Indian mounds, which appear in great numbers 
along the coast, were used in making this material. 

Whether the tabby foundations standing today along the coast 
are ruins of these Spanish missions is a much debated question. 
Many authorities maintain that they are ruins of the sugar mills 
that had an important place on the coastal plantations in the early 
19th century; recent research, disclosing 19th century pottery in the 
tabby, seems to prove their contention. There are many people, 
however, who still believe that at least part of the ruins are those 
of former missions and the matter can not be considered as settled. 



i 4 4 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

With the coining of Oglethorpe and his colonists in 1733, English 
communities were established; in spite of the early plan for small 
farms it was not long before there grew up great plantations along 
the coast and on the islands where the owners lived in feudal splendor 
until the Civil War. Even though the number of great estates was 
relatively small in Georgia these coastal plantations established 
romantic traditions concerning the ante-bellum days. 

In recent years Northern capital has transformed the islands of 
the Georgia coast into winter playgrounds for the wealthy, meriting 
the old Spanish designation, the Golden Isles. Some of the former 
plantations are intact or have been restored by newcomers, but 
many more have been divided into small farms, most of them 
cultivated by tenants or sharecroppers. 

In every coastal county Negroes form approximately half or more 
than half of the total population. Living in one- or two-room cabins, 
they sustain themselves by farming, hunting, fishing, and domestic 
service. 

US 17 crosses the red waters of the SAVANNAH RIVER, m., 
the natural boundary between South Carolina and Georgia, on five 
concrete bridges and one steel drawbridge that link one delta island 
with another. The high causeway on the islands is lined with pink 
crape-myrtle and palmettos. Once covered with flourishing rice 
fields, these fertile islands are now included in the Savannah River 
Wild Life Refuge (see SECTION 10). The dikes were built by the 
U.S. Biological Survey to control the tides. At times, when the water 
is kept out to destroy the useless giant rice (cutgrass), the area is 
planted in wild millet, a valuable duck-food. 

At 2 m. (L) is the entrance to the SAVANNAH SUGAR REFINERY, 
one of the largest sugar refineries in the South, which manufactures 
Dixie Crystals from raw Cuban sugar. Behind the entrance gate, a 
half-mile oak-lined drive leads past a semi-tropical garden to the 
factory that has a daily melting capacity of 2,500,000 pounds and 
storage silos capable of holding 18,000,000 pounds. Fifty carloads of 
refined sugar are produced daily. 

Around the plant is a mill village having an area of 15 acres; 
there are 75 neat houses and a hotel with accommodations for 50 
guests. A hospital with a resident physician and a corps of nurses 
cares for the health and welfare of the employees and their families. 

At 4 m. is the junction with a graded road. 



GEORGIA 145 

Left on this road is (L) WHITEHALL PLANTATION (private), 0.5 in., which in 
Colonial days belonged to Thomas Gibbons, early capitalist of Savannah. Today 
it is owned by Lathrop Hopkins, a descendant. A grove of live-oaks, covered by 
moss, veils the mansion site. 

INDUSTRIAL CITY GARDENS, 6 m., a new residential dis- 
trict with modern homes, is on the former Brampton, a Colonial 
plantation owned by the patriot Jonathan Bryan. The first African 
Baptist Church in America was organized on this estate. Andrew 
Bryan, a slave ordained by Abraham Marshall, preached so elo- 
quently to his fellow slaves that his congregation grew, and within 
three years a church was erected for him in Yamacraw. 

Here the highway crosses PIPEMAKERS' CREEK, named for the 
Indian pottery-makers who in prehistoric days worked along its 
banks. 

Left from Industrial City Gardens on a dirt road to a point where the creek 
flows into the Savannah River; here is the SITE OF IRENE, 0.5 m., where 
John Wesley and Benjamin Ingham, assisted by the Moravians, founded an 
Indian mission in 1735. This mission stood on an ancient Indian mound on the 
banks of Pipemakers' Creek near the Indian village of New Yamacraw. Recent 
excavations have revealed artifacts that indicate the age of this pre-European 
civilization to be much greater than was formerly believed. 

At 7.3 m. is the junction with a narrow paved road. 

Left on this road to the UNION BAG AND PAPER Co. FACTORY, 1 m., a branch 
plant owned by a Northern organization that is extending its manufacturing 
activities to the South because of the recent experiments of Dr. Charles Herty 
in the manufacture of paper from Georgia slash pine pulp. This plant, as well as 
the one in Brunswick, manufactures paper bags and newsprint from pine pulp. 
(See INTRODUCTION.) 

At 8 m. is the junction with a sandy road. 

Left on this road to the SITE OF THE HERMITAGE, 1 m. (L), which was built 
in the early part of the 1 9th century by a Scotchman named Henry McAlpin. 
For many years the imposing stuccoed brick manor house with its graceful, curv- 
ing; double-entrance stairway, was of much interest to architects, who made 
studies of its fine proportions. Gradually, however, it suffered from vandalism 
and neglect, and in 1936 all the buildings on the plantation were bought by 
Henry Ford, who razed them and used the old brick in constructing his home on 
the Ogeechee River in Bryan County. Two of the old slave huts, carefully re- 
stored, are on display at Dearborn, Mich. 

Only the impressive entrance avenue of oaks remains to give a hint of the for- 
mer grandeur of the old plantation. McAlpin built a yard that produced "old 
Savannah greys," a type of brick now much admired; to facilitate the shipping of 



146 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

the brick he, in 1 820, constructed a clumsy railroad running from the factory to 
the river. 

At 8.7 m. (R) is a small wooden shelter covering JASPER SPRING, 
where Serg. William Jasper, aided by Sergeant Newton, captured 
ten British soldiers who were taking American prisoners to Savannah 
to be hanged. Jasper was killed in the Battle of Savannah and a large 
monument to him stands today in the center of one of the Savannah 
squares. 

At 9.4 m. the road traverses the OLD YAMACRAW section, site 
of the village inhabited by the Indians who befriended Oglethorpe 
and his first colonists. Today it is a small congested district where 
3,000 Negroes are crowded together in the shabby, one-story houses 
that line the narrow streets. 

US 17 turns L. from Augusta Rd. on Bay St. in the northern end 
of Savannah. 

SAVANNAH, 10.3 m. (45 alt., 85,025 pop.) (see GA. GUIDE) 

Railroad Stations. Union Station, 419 West Broad Street, for Atlantic Coast 
Line, Seaboard Air Line, and the Southern Rys.; Central of Georgia Station, 301 
West Broad Street, for the Central of Georgia R.R.; Savannah and Atlanta 
Station, foot of Cohen St., for the Savannah and Atlanta Ry. 

Airport. Municipal Airport, Emmet Wilson Boulevard, 5 m. on White Bluff 
Rd. for Eastern Airlines; taxi fare $1.00; time 20 min. 

Piers. Ocean Steamship Terminals, Wadley and River Sts., Ocean Steamship 
Company; Merchants and Miners Terminals, Wadley and River Sts., Mer- 
chants and Miners Line; Municipal Piers, foot Abercorn St., Augusta and Sa- 
vannah Line; Municipal Docks, Beaufort and Savannah Line. 

Points of Interest. Christ Church, Lowe House, Mclntosh House, Sherman's 
Headquarters, Wetter House, Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, Forsyth 
Park, and others. 

At 16.2 m. is (R) the SITE OF SILK HOPE PLANTATION, a tract of 
500 acres granted in 1756 to James Habersham, who had been 
selected by the trustees in London to develop the silk industry in 
Georgia. With vast fields of mulberry trees and with gardens de- 
signed by an English horticulturist, this was a noted plantation 
until its devastation during the Civil War. 

At 17.6 m. the road crosses the LITTLE OGEECHEE RIVER, 
one of the numerous salt-water inlets indenting the Georgia coast. 
The enlarged roots, or knees, of the dark cypresses extend above the 
surface of the still, black water that reflects the moss-covered 
branches. This small river provides good opportunities for fishing. 



GEORGIA 147 

At 18.5 m. (L) is the entrance to LEBANON (private), the Colonial 
plantation of the Anderson family. The simple and dignified planta- 
tion house, which has been carefully restored, has wide verandas 
and is surrounded by delightful semi-tropical gardens. The present 
owner has developed a model farm on his land and also raises 
Satsuma oranges commercially. 

HOPETON (R), 21.2 m., is a small trading center on what was 
formerly an old plantation. Negro laborers live in the former slave 
cabins, small frame houses with clay chimneys. 

At 22 m. is the junction with a private dirt road. 

Left on this road to (R) WILD HORN PLANTATION (private), 3 m., a 650-acre 
tract granted to Francis Harris in Colonial times. A driveway leads to the old 
house, which is constructed of hand-hewn logs and brick. 

At 3.5 m. is the junction with a second dirt road. 

Right on this road 1.5 m. to (L) VALLAMBROSA (private), the former plantation 
of Thomas Young, a wealthy Tory. Successive owners grew pecans, pears, 
grapes, and oranges; the estate was purchased, in 1930, by Henry Ford who re- 
stored the old plantation houses. 

At 4.5 m. on the Main dirt road is (R) GROVE HILL PLANTATION (private), a 
2,000-acre estate, owned before the Revolution by the Habersham family of 
Savannah. This fertile soil of the Ogeechee River Valley has been used suc- 
cessively to produce tobacco and rice and, today, miscellaneous crops. A modern 
residence has been built by the present owner. 

GROVE POINT PLANTATION (private}, 6 m. (R), is an old estate comprising 2,200 
acres. The brick house overlooks farmland on which rice was formerly cultivated. 

BAMBOO FARM, 23 m. (R), is an experimental station where 
bamboo was grown successfully for the first time in the State. The 
growth is so thick and feathery that at a short distance it gives the 
effect of a low hill completely covered with ferns. The grove is on 
part of a 46-acre farm called the Barfour Lathrop Introduction 
Garden, which was presented to the Federal Government for experi- 
mental purposes. The bamboo canes are used in the manufacture 
of tooth-brush handles, brooms, flagpoles, fishing poles, radio aerials, 
furniture, and for experiments in paper making. When sliced, 
peeled, boiled, and covered with butter sauce, the tender young 
sprouts are delicious and are a popular ingredient of Oriental foods. 

Other foreign plants are also grown here for the purpose of 
determining their adaptability to the South Georgia climate and 
soil. 

At 24.8 m. the highway crosses the Ogeechee River on King's 
Ferry Bridge. North of the bridge is (R) the marked SITE OF AN 



148 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

ENGAGEMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION in 
which Col. John E. White and six patriots forced the surrender of 
a number of British regulars . 

WAYS, 27.3 m. (32 alt., 1,134 pop.), is a trade center and a 
distributing point for producers of early vegetables. Here Mr. Henry 
Ford is developing a community similar to the one that he built at 
Dearborn, Mich. Beginning his operations here in 1925 with the 
purchase of several old plantations, he has added to his holdings and 
now owns a total of 70,000 acres in Bryan and Chatham Counties. 

The COMMUNITY SCHOOL was built by Mr. Ford to train the local 
people in crafts and sciences. The building contains an electric 
plant, a machine shop, a foundry, a chemical laboratory, a home 
economics room, and a wood-working department. The only require- 
ment for attendance is a high standard of work and behavior. Mr. 
Ford assists many of the graduates of his school to attend college; 
these proteges are required to write to him periodically. 

In a large kitchen and lunch room, soup and nourishing lunches 
are provided for the needy children of the vicinity. This project was 
formerly operated under WPA supervision but has been taken over 
by Mr. Ford. A trained nurse is in attendance at all times and a 
doctor conducts a clinic in the school once a week. 

The COMMUNITY CLUBHOUSE was opened by Mr. Ford in Febru- 
ary 1937 with a dance given in the spacious ballroom which is finished 
in Georgia knotty pine and has large exposed rafters. On this occa- 
sion the boys and girls danced a quadrille taught them by an in- 
structor whom Mr. Ford employed. The house contains a large dining 
room for club dinners, a lounge, a reception room, and 20 guest 
rooms for the use of school children and their parents. 

Under Mr. Ford's direction, land has been cleared for gardens and 
a chemistry laboratory has been established for research on Georgia 
farm products. Proposed projects are a roadside market where 
children may sell their garden produce or handwork; a museum to 
display the industrial arts of the South; a community house in which 
school girls may practice domestic arts; and a factory for the con- 
struction of automobile parts. 

1 . Left from Ways on a dirt road (private and guarded) is a series of old planta- 
tions, 1.5 m. They are, in order, RICHMOND, CHERRY HILL, WHITEHALL, and 
STRATHY HALL plantations, all fronting on the Ogeechee River. These estates 
are now owned by Henry Ford, who built his home at Richmond of bricks from 
the Hermitage (see above). 



GEORGIA 149 

The dead town of HARDWICK, 7 m. (road almost impassable even when passage 
through Ford holdings is permitted), is the place that John Reynolds, first Royal 
Governor of the Colony (1754-1757), wished to make the seat of government. 
DeBrahm, the noted French engineer, drew the plan for the town. 

The SITE OF FORT MCALLISTER, 9 m., is opposite Genesis Point on the Ogee- 
chee River. This was considered a point that had to be taken in Sherman's march 
to the sea. With a force of about 200 men Major Anderson made a gallant at- 
tempt to defend the fort against the attack of a division led by General Hazen. 

2. Right from Ways on a dirt road to the HENRY FORD FISH HATCHERY, 
0.4m. 

FREEDMAN'S GROVE, 37.4 m. (L), is a Negro settlement on 
land deeded by the owner to his former slaves immediately after the 
Civil War. Although this was not a common practice, there are 
several instances of such gifts in Georgia. 

At 39.4 m. is the junction with an unpaved road (impassable in 
wet weather). 

Right on this road to HALL'S KNOLL, 2m., the Colonial plantation of Dr. 
Lyman Hall, one of the Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
Nothing now remains of the old dwellings. 

MIDWAY, 40.4 m. (30 alt., 50 pop.), once the center of a large 
and prosperous plantation area, was probably given its name because 
it is approximately midway between Savannah and Brunswick. 

The old MIDWAY CHURCH, a white frame structure 40 feet wide 
by 60 feet long has double rows of shuttered windows and a box- 
like steeple surmounted by a spire. The slave gallery remains. This 
building which was erected in 1792, and is the fourth church on the 
same site, stands in a grove of moss-covered oaks and tall longleaf 
pines. Regular services are no longer held, but annually on April 
26, Confederate Memorial Day, the descendants of the early mem- 
bers meet here. Speeches are made, communion is taken from the 
ancient paten and goblet, and flowers are placed on the graves in the 
cemetery. 

In 1695 a group of Puritans from Dorchester, Mass., interested in 
converting the Indians, moved to South Carolina; in 1752 the colony 
began to move here, and two years later organized a Congregational 
Society. Thrifty and independent, they were among the first in 
Georgia to oppose the British. Around the church was centered the 
life of the settlers, who acquired large rice plantations and hundreds 
of slaves. For a period of six weeks General Sherman made the church 
his "headquarters; from here he directed operations against the 



i 5 o THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

countryside. With the decline of the plantation system after the Civil 
War, the importance of Midway ended. 

Among the early pastors of the church were the Reverend Abiel 
Holmes, father of Oliver Wendell Holmes, the author, and the 
Reverend Jedediah Morse, father of S. F. B. Morse, inventor of the 
telegraph. Although the membership of the church never exceeded 
1 50, it numbered among its communicants four governors, including 
Lyman Hall and Button Gwinnett, both signers of the Declaration 
of Independence. 

Across the highway from Midway Church is the MIDWAY CEME- 
TERY, densely shaded by great oaks and protected by a six-foot wall. 
The old inscriptions on the weather-stained stones are now illegible. 
Dominating the cemetery is the Federal MONUMENT TO GEN. 
JAMES SGREVEN AND GEN. DANIEL STEWART, Revolutionary officers. 

In a section of the village called Black Midway is a NEGRO 
CHURCH, with a wooden hand pointing heavenward from the top 
of the steeple. 

Left from Midway on the sandy Dorchester Rd. to old DORCHESTER VIL- 
LAGE, 2 m. (30 alt., 220 pop.), where the immigrants from Massachusetts 
settled. 

At 6 m. is a fork. 

1. Left from the fork, 4 m., is the SITE OF SUNBURY, which in early days 
was a busy port rivaling Savannah. It is believed that one of the earliest Masonic 
lodge meetings in America was held here in 1734, with James Oglethorpe as 
master. Here is the SITE OF FORT MORRIS, built for defense in 1776. Garrisoned by 
Continerfcal troops, it offered spirited resistance to British attacks, but the town 
was virtually destroyed. 

2. Right from the fork, 5 m., is COLONEL'S ISLAND between the mainland 
and St. Catherines Island. A historian, writing of this island in 1859, said that 30 
or 40 Indian mounds, many of them quite prominent and with sharply defined 
outlines, were easily recognized; others, because of the action of the elements and 
the furrows of the plow, were scarcely perceptible. These mounds have not yet 
been excavated except by amateur diggers. 

Across St. Catherines Sound Ossabaw and St. Catherines Island are visible. 

OSSABAW ISLAND (private}, known to the Indians as Obispa, underwent 
the Spanish occupation of the other Golden Isles; under Oglethorpe's regime it 
was an Indian reservation. For some time it was the hunting preseve of a group 
of northern businessmen but is now owned by a resident of Detroit, who uses 
it as a game preserve and winter home. The island is frequented by huge sea 
turtles that bury their eggs in the soft sand beyond the tides to be hatched by 
the warm sun rays. Turtle-egg hunts are often held along the shore of Ossabaw 
Island on summer nights. 

ST. CATHERINES ISLAND was the first of the Golden Isles to be settled by 



GEORGIA 151 

the Spanish. A band of 30 Spaniards, the first arrivals, was followed by a larger 
group who named it Santa Catalina. In 1566 it was visited by Pedro Menendez 
de Aviles, who claimed the coastal islands and mainland for Spain; he was so 
graciously received by the Indians that he called the island Guale (pronounced 
Wahli) in honor of their chief. Later the name was applied to the whole region. 
Missions were established by Jesuit monks, among whom was Brother Domingo 
Augustin, who in 1568 wrote a grammar of the Yamasee tongue and translated 
the Catechism. By 1733, however, following repeated raids by pirates and after 
hostile Indians had sacked and burned the mission and all other buildings on the 
island, all signs of Spanish occupation were swept away. By a treaty made be- 
tween Oglethorpe and the Indians, St. Catherines* and Sapelo Islands, as well as 
Ossabaw, were reserved to the Indians as hunting and fishing preserves. 

In 1749 Thomas Bosomworth, a priest of the Church of England who had 
married Mary Musgrove, a half-breed interpreter for Oglethorpe, induced his 
wife to declare herself Empress of the Creeks and, as her right, to demand grants 
including the three islands. Her claims were rejected by the English, but after 
10 years of intrigue the Bosomworths received large gifts including Ossabaw 
Sapelo and St. Catherines Island; they retired to St. Catherines and were later 
buried there. The island subsequently passed to various purchasers, among them 
Button Gwinnett. It is thought that Button Gwinnett, the Georgia signer, built 
the old TABBY HOUSE that has been remodeled by the present owner. The simple 
lines of the structure have been preserved, and the original mantels, stairways, 
and other details have been retained. 

At 41.9 m. is the BATTLEGROUND OF SPENCER HILL 

(R), where on November 22, 1778, General Screven was mortally 
wounded in attempting to block the British who were marching on 
Savannah. 

CEDAR HILL, 44.9 m. (R), the site of the home of Gen. Daniel 
Stewart, Revolutionary patriot, has been purchased by a paper 
company for a forest reserve. General Stewart was the grandfather of 
Martha Bulloch, who married Theodore Roosevelt of New York, 
and became the mother of President Theodore Roosevelt and the 
grandmother of Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

RICEBORO, 45.8 m. (233 pop.), a marketing center for a large 
number of nearby plantations, attests by its name the importance of 
rice culture in the early Colony. 

EULONIA, 61.1 m. (36 pop.), is on a sandy plain covered with 
longleaf and slash-pine trees that are tapped for gum resin to be dis- 
tilled into turpentine and hard rosin. 

Left from Eulonia on the Darien Crescent Rd. to CRESCENT, 3 m. From 
the crescent-shaped bluff here is a clear view of CREIGHTON ISLAND and 
of SAPELO ISLAND (Sp., Zapala\ another of the Golden Isles (not open). After 
the Revolution, when many of the plantations were destroyed by the British, the 



1 52 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

island became the property of a group of Frenchmen, who established here a 
communal settlement. In 1 802, because of dissensions, the partnership was dis- 
solved, four of the members becoming owners of Jekyll Island and one retaining 
his holdings on Sapelo. An area at the north end of the island was purchased by 
the Marquis de Montalet, who had fled from the Santo Domingo revolt. 

In 1802 Thomas Spalding purchased 4,000 acres of Sapelo and built a home, 
SOUTH END, on the ruins of the Spanish mission of San Jose. Being among the first 
to plant cotton, grow cane, and manufacture sugar, he had, by 1843, become 
extremely wealthy, owning most of the island. When Spalding died in 1851, 
South End was left to his grandson and namesake, Thomas Spalding. During 
the Civil War the island was abandoned. In 1914 South End was carefully rebuilt 
in all its former beauty by the late Howard Coffin, of Detroit and Sea Island, 
who later sold the island to Richard J. Reynolds of Winston-Salem. 

Across the creek to the NE. is visible BLACKBEARD ISLAND (private), 
a small, heavily wooded area now maintained as a State and Federal Game Pre- 
serve. It was named for Blackbeard, or Edward Teach, an English pirate, who, 
according to legend, tied his bushy, black beard behind his ears with blue rib- 
bons. He began his career in the West Indies during the War of the Spanish 
Succession. About 1716 he is supposed to have made his headquarters on this 
island from which he terrorized the coasts of Georgia, Carolina, and Virginia 
until he was killed by a British lieutenant in a hand-to-hand combat in 1718. 
From 1840 until 1910 the island was used as a quarantine station. 

The RIDGE, 6 m., is a residential section where most of the houses are built 
facing the tidewater river. At the Ridge on property known as the Thicket are 
some of the contested TABBY RUINS. Although recent evidence indicates they 
were erected for industrial purposes some students identify the ruins with the 
Tolomato Mission, one of the largest Spanish missions built on the Georgia coast. 
Founded in 1595 by Pedro Ruiz, the mission was abandoned in 1686. 

DARIEN, 73 m. (25 alt., 925 pop.), seat of Mclntosh County, is 
sheltered by spreading live-oaks. The tabby warehouses along the 
banks of the Altamaha River, the shrimp fleet at anchor with nets 
spread out to dry, and the ( old paddlewheel dredge boats give this 
town an atmosphere of the past. 

In 1735 the Colonial Trustees, aided by a grant of Parliament, 
decided to send a group of fighters to protect the Georgia frontier 
from the Spaniards who were threatening its security. Oglethorpe, 
who was in England at the time, sent a man into the Scottish High- 
lands for recruits. One hundred and thirty men were enlisted, and 
after a stormy voyage they and the 50 women and children who 
accompanied them, landed in Savannah in January 1736. In April 
they proceeded down the coast to establish an outpost. The settle- 
ment was called New Inverness and the surrounding area Darien, 
but later the town name was changed to Darien. John Mohr Mcln- 



GEORGIA 153 

tosh directed the construction of a fort in which four cannons were 
mounted. 

Because of the development of large plantations and the com- 
merce afforded by the harbor, Darien became a large and prosperous 
community. On December 5, 1818, the Bank of Darien was char- 
tered; branches were later established in several other Georgia cities. 

In 1864 the town was completely destroyed by General Sherman's 
army, only one Negro cabin being left standing. Though Darien was 
rebuilt, its trade was drained by the rapidly growing Savannah, and 
it was never able to regain its former importance. 

When, near the close of the 19th century, the lumber industry 
superseded agriculture, large quantities of cypress and yellow pine 
were shipped from here to many parts of the world. Though no 
longer an important port, Darien is still largely dependent on ship- 
ping; its most important industrial activity is the production of naval 
stores. It also ships annually thousands of cases of canned shrimp and 
canned oysters besides many carloads of raw oysters and many bar- 
rels of catfish and other seafood. The mink, raccoon and otter found 
in the tidal marshes nearby yield about $175,000 worth of furs 
annually (1935). 

Negro shrimpers operate on the banks of the tidal river, making 
their catches with large circular nets weighted with metal sinkers. 
The lumbermen divide their time between their farms and the camps 
in the pine forests. 

Near the courthouse is OGLETHORPE'S OAK, a giant tree over- 
shadowing the street. It is said that its symmetical branches sheltered 
an entire company of General Oglethorpe's soldiers who encamped 
here. 

The PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH was established in 1736 under the 
supervision of John McLeod. The present edifice, a brick structure 
with a tall steeple, was built in 1 870 and contains the records of the 
original congregation. 

At 75 m. is the red ALTAMAHA RIVER, its channels divided 
by deltas known as GENERAL, BUTLER, and CHAMPNEY 
ISLANDS. The rich soils and semitropical climate of the islands 
make them particularly adapted to the extensive agricultural experi- 
ments that are being conducted (1937) by Col. T. L. Huston, former 
owner of the New York Yankees. Excellent pasturage is afforded for 
the fine dairy cattle. 



154 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

At the northern end of Butler Island (R) is the FANNY KEMBLE 
HOUSE, a modest dwelling with dormer windows. Miss Kemble 
(1809-1893), the English actress, was the wife of Pierce Butler who 
owned the islands (see SIDE ROUTE G). Near the highway (R) is an 
ivy-covered brick chimney, what is left of an old rice mill. 

At 76 m., on Butler Island, is the STATE COASTAL EXPERIMENT 
STATION, where the culture of rice is studied, and various flowering 
bulbs are cultivated. 

The road here, passing through a heavily wooded swamp, was 
built on the old roadbed of the Georgia Coast and Piedmont Ry. 

At 78 m. is the junction with a shell road. 

Right on this road through a wood, dense with laurel, cedar and dogwood, 
to SANTO DOMINGO STATE PARK, 0.5 m. (restaurant; picnic area and foot 
trails). 

The park contains 350 acres. At the entrance is a wrought-iron gate, swung 
between pylons of concrete capped with red Spanish tiles. Within the park are 
many tabby ruins, half hidden by live-oak, cypress, and magnolia trees. The 
ground is covered with scrub palmettos. 

This park was established as a memorial to the Spanish occupation of the 
Georgia coast. It was part of the old Elizafield Plantation, developed by Hugh 
Frazer Grant. The area was bought in 1925 by Cater Woolford of Atlanta, who 
donated it to the State. 

A winding road leads to the SLAVE BURIAL GROUNDS of the former plantation. 
The graves are decorated with bits of china, various utensils, and bright colored 
glass, all either used by the persons in their last illnesses or placed on the graves 
to ward off evil spirits. These slaves worked in the cultivation of rice and indigo 
fields. 

Beyond the burial grounds is the ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, a one-story 
structure of 17th century Spanish design, with a patio and arched cloisters in the 
rear. Opposite this is a dense grove covered with climbing native muscadine 
vines that bear large purple grapes. An old millstone has been placed here for 
use as a table, and nearby are stone benches. 

Numerous wooded trails radiate from the administration building. The LA- 
GOON TRAIL passes over cypress bridges, built as the Indians fashioned them, and 
leads to TABBY RUINS shadowed by cypress trees. Because of their octagonal 
construction many believe these ruins were the foundations of Santo Domingo 
De Talaxe, erected in 1 604 on the banks of a deep lagoon. This, however, is a 
matter of controversy. 

The WOODS TRAIL winds through cypress forests carpeted with many varieties 
of fern and thick with gnarled cypress knees. 

The waters of the old BRUNSWICK CANAL flow through the chain of lagoons. 
This canal, construction of which was begun in 1826 to facilitate the shipping of 
rice, cotton, lumber, and naval stores down the Altamaha River, was abandoned 
many years ago. During the development of the park, articles of both Spanish 



GEORGIA 155 

and Indian origin, including bronze and iron axes, chains and arrowheads, were 
dug from the lagoons. 

At 4 m. on the shell road are ALTAMA and HOPETON (private), old plantations 
long ago the property of James Hamilton Couper and John Couper. The original 
Altama house, built about 1858, has been enlarged and modernized by the pres- 
ent owner. 

At 87.4 m. is a settlement about two plants, one manufacturing 
crates and other containers, and another producing large quantities 
of naval stores from pine resin extracted from stumps by shredding 
them and subjecting them to a steaming process. (Plants not open to 
visitors.) 

At 89.9 m. in Glynn County is LANIER'S OAK (L); under this 
gnarled live-oak Sidney Lanier received the inspiration for his poem 
The Marshes of Glynn. 

At the VISITORS' CLUB, 91.8 m. (tourist information), a low Spanish- 
type building with red-tiled roof and high tower, modern industrial 
exhibits and relics of Colonial days and of the Spanish occupation 
are displayed. 

At this point is the junction (L) with a paved highway (see SIDE 
ROUTEG). 

BRUNSWICK, 93.3 m. (10 alt., 14,022 pop.), seat of Glynn 
County is a busy seaport (boating, fishing, waterfowl shooting). Despite 
its commercial and shipping activities the city has the gay air of a 
resort town. The semi-tropical climate and rich alluvial soils have 
made the region around Brunswick excellent for early vegetable 
growing; the products, especially iceberg lettuce, are sent in large 
quantities to northern markets. While there is no regular steamship 
service, tramp steamers arrive with considerable regularity to take 
on cargoes of shrimp, lumber, naval stores, cotton, and rice for 
carriage to far parts of the United States and to Europe. The Bruns- 
wick Little Theatre produces one play every month at the ST. 
FRANCIS XAVIER HALL. 

After the arrival of Pedro Menendez de Aviles in 1 566, this section 
of Georgia, known later as the District of Guale, was under Spanish 
domination until the coming of the English under Oglethorpe. In 
1742, six years after Frederica was founded on St. Simon Island 
(see SIDE ROUTE G) to protect the young Colony from the Span- 
iards, Mark Carr established a plantation on the site of the present 
city of Brunswick. It was not, however, until 1771 that the Council 



i 5 6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

of the Royal Province of Georgia decided to build a town here, and 
set aside a rectangular tract of 384 acres, naming the town in honor 
of George III of England, a member of the House of Brunswick. 

During the following century, Brunswick approached Savannah in 
importance as a port, shipping cargoes of lumber, cotton, fruit, in- 
digo, and rice. In 1864 Federal forces raided the town and looted the 
plantation homes nearby, and it was not until the beginning of the 
20th century that commerce began to revive. Construction of a 
factory here for the use of local pulp wood in the manufacture of 
white paper provides opportunity for a major industrial development. 
(See INTRODUCTION.) 

The CITY HALL, Newcastle and Mansfield St., erected in 1889, is 
designed in the Romanesque style, and built of brick and marble. 

The LOVERS' OAK, Albany and Prince Sts., a tree with wide 
spreading limbs is believed to be many centuries old. There is a 
legend that an Indian girl once held tryst here with a warrior of a 
rival tribe; they were discovered and put to death. 

OGLETHORPE HOTEL, Newcastle and F Sts., built in Moorish 
style with turrets at each end, was designed by Stanford White of 
New York. 

At 97.4 m. the highway crosses TURTLE RIVER on a bridge 
from which is a broad view of the Brunswick waterfront with the 
faint outlines of St. Simon (see SIDE ROUTE G) and Jekyll Islands 
in the distance. 

JEKYLL ISLAND (private) has since 1886 been the home of the 
Jekyll Island Club now controlled by descendants of the first 
members. In 1858 the island was brought to national attention by a 
sensational slave-smuggling episode, and during the Civil War it was 
the scene of much destruction. 

BLYTHE ISLAND, 98.1 in., has been developed as a residential 
suburb of Brunswick. 

At 100.1 m., S. of the bridge over Little Satilla River, is a knoll 
called SPRING BLUFF, the site of an old hunting lodge, where a 
Civil War skirmish occurred. 

At 120.5 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to the entrance of REFUGE PLANTATION (private'), 2m., 
now a 5,000-acre hunting preserve; this land was granted by George III to 
John Mohr Mclntosh, who settled there in 1765. The house, built in 1798 of 
hand-hewn timber, has a gabled roof with two dormers. The chamfered wood 






w*;, ,' ; 

1 I v " ;/.* I k 1 











WORMSLOE GARDENS, SAVANNAH, GEORGIA 



BONA VENTURE CEMETERY, NEAR SAVANNAH, GEORGIA 



GEORGIA 157 

columns of the porch rest on the ground, and behind them is a frame balus- 
traded balcony approached by double staircases. The old kitchen, connected 
with the house by a covered passage, contains a brick fireplace with a crane 
and pots. 

At 120.6 m. the highway crosses the SATILLA RIVER, named 
for Captain St. Ilia, a Spanish explorer of the 16th century. 

WOODBINE, 120.7 m. (30 alt., 325 pop.), seat of Camden 
County, was incorporated in 1893. There are two versions of the 
origin of the name, one attributes it to the wild honeysuckle or 
woodbine growing in profusion nearby; the other maintains that 
this was the site of a grant from George III to an English colonist, 
General Woodbine, from whom it was later confiscated by the State 
because of his Royalist sympathies. 

The small EPISCOPAL CHURCH (L) was built of cobblestones from 
the piles of ballast that the old-time sailing vessels left on the low 
marsh inlands at the mouth of the Satilla River. 

Near the bridge is the SITE OF THE HEADQUARTERS OF EDMUND 
GRAY, leader of a band of outlaws, who settled here about 1758. 
Since the band had no title to the lands they occupied, and professed 
no allegiance to the Colony, they withdrew when threatened by 
military force. 

Left from Woodbine on a dirt road 16 in. to the old plantation of BELLEVUE 
(private), the former home of Gen. Charles Floyd, a noted Indian fighter who be- 
came the grandfather of William Gibbs McAdoo. Many believe that the old 
tombs, without inscriptions or dates, are those of early Spanish settlers. 

Indications of ancient Indian occupation of the site are found in the various 
shell mounds. 

KINGSLAND, 132.7 m. (20 alt., 600 pop.), was established as a 
flag station on the Seaboard Air Line Ry. in 1894. 

Left from Kingsland on State 40, an unpaved road, to the CAMDEN PARK RACE 
TRACK, 2 m. (horse races in spring and fall). 

At 4 m. is the junction with a dirt road; L. here 2.5 m. to the junction with 
another dirt road; R. on this road at 4 m. are TABBY RUINS, probably of sugar 
mills but formerly believed to be the foundations of the Santa Maria Mission, 
built about 1570 by Menendez and his missionaries. The ruins include a perfectly 
preserved two-story wall, 75 feet high and 150 feet long with 34 windows, the 
foundations of two buildings constructed of tabby, and several square detached 
columns. 

At 10.7 m. on State 40 is ST. MARYS (15 alt., 500 pop.), an old port occupy- 
ing an eminence by the St. Marys River. A wide street lined with oaks and wind- 



158 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

scarred cedars leads to the docks and the beautiful wide stretch of river. Small 
fishing smacks lie here at anchor with their nets drying in the sun. The dilapi- 
dated Ford-bus with train wheels, which formerly operated between Kingsland 
and St. Marys, has been featured by Roy Crane in his comic strip Wash Tubbs, 
and the imaginary adventures of Wash and Captain Easy are followed with pro- 
prietary interest by the townspeople. 

In 1763 this area was made St. Marys Parish; when, in October 1776, after the 
Declaration of Independence, the parishes were abolished and counties were 
given new names, St. Marys Parish became Camden County. 

It is thought that St. Marys is the site of an Indian village, Thla-thloth-la- 
gupka, to which in 1562 Capt. Jean Ribault came with some Huguenot settlers 
from France. French names were given to all points in the region; the St. Marys 
River was called the Seine. Spain was jealous of this encroachment on its terri- 
tory and sent Menendez here with "sword and cross" ostensibly to convert the 
Indians. Sir Francis Drake, arriving later, captured St. Eleana, S. C., claiming 
the region for the English. 

After the American Revolution a group of settlers on Cumberland Island saw 
the advantages of making a settlement on the mainland. They bought 1,672 
acres for $38 and in 1788 laid out the town of St. Patrick. Each subscriber received 
four squares of four acres each on which he agreed to erect a house frame, log, 
or brick within six months. In 1792 the town was given the name of the river 
beside which it was built. 

At the large frame HOUSE OF MAJ. ARCHIBALD CLARK (private), collector of 
the port in 1807, many notable men have been entertained, among whom were 
Aaron Burr, in flight after his duel with Hamilton, and Winfield Scott after his 
strenuous Indian campaign. 

Near the Clark home is the GEORGE WASHINGTON TREE AND PUMP; in 1799, 
soon after George Washington's death, a funeral service was held here to honor 
his memory. A flag-draped coffin was towed up the river to the landing and 
given an impressive burial. At the grave a well was dug and three trees planted. 
The hollow pump shaft still remains and one of the trees is living. 

The INDEPENDENT PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, opposite the pump, is a small build- 
ing erected about 1840. For many years it served as a school, the Old Academy, 
and still houses the library and old church records. It is said that in the early 
days smugglers of rum, cigars, and gin often anchored near the town and that on 
one occasion the crew proceeded to the Presbyterian Manse, took the minister's 
horse and hoisted it to the church belfry. When the neighing of the horse brought 
the townspeople together, the smugglers were able safely to land their contra- 
band. 

ORANGE HALL (private), a severe white-columned house, was built in 1800 by 
Dr. Nathaniel Pratt, a Presbyterian minister. The balusters of the porch are 
miniature columns, similar to the larger ones. 

A beautiful avenue of oaks leads to ST. MARYS CEMETERY, which has been in 
continuous use since 1 780. Inside the brick wall surrounding the burying ground, 
lower walls four or five feet high enclose many of the lots. The large trunks of the 
oaks here are colored with a lichen that appears pink when covered with rose- 
tinted brood-buds. Vine-covered marble slabs with dim old English and French 
inscriptions mark graves believed to be those of exiled Acadians and of French 



GEORGIA 

planters who fled from the Island of Santo Domingo to escape massacre at the 
hands of slaves. 

On October 13, 1755, when the French were forced by the English to leave 
Acadia, 10 vessels set out for Georgia and South Carolina. The 400 members 
who came to Savannah were received but, because of their religion, not wel- 
comed, by the Protestant colony. In 1757 to avoid being distributed throughout 
the colony as indentured servants, a great many fled to Haiti and Santo Do- 
mingo. Peace was not long theirs, however, for an uprising of the slaves in Santo 
Domingo forced those who escaped death to leave, some coming back to St. 
Marys. 

At 136.7 m. the highway passes under an arch on the Florida 
Line. 



FLORIDA 



Georgia Line Jacksonville, 32 m. US 17. 

Seaboard Air Line parallels route. 
Hard-surfaced roadbed. 

Section 12. Georgia Line to Jacksonville, 32 m. 

In northeastern Florida US 17 runs through country almost un- 
inhabited since Civil War days. Between the small hamlets are un- 
cultivated stretches of marsh, and of sand flats covered with oak, pine, 
and palmetto; the silence of these wild places is seldom broken except 
by the occasional harsh cry of a water bird. Formerly the area was 
divided into huge cotton plantations. 

A steel and concrete drawbridge spans the ST. MARYS RIVER, 
Om., the official boundary between Georgia and Florida since 1763. 
Along the shores of this deep, narrow stream, and throughout the 
region left of the route were fought a number of Colonial and Revo- 
lutionary skirmishes. The success of English Royalists in repulsing 
American invaders in part prevented the peninsula from becoming a 
possession of the United States until 1821, although it was ceded by 
Treaty in 1819. 

YULEE, 9 m. (39 alt., 155 est. pop.), was named for David L. 
Yulee (1810-1886), a native of the West Indies, whose family moved 
to Virginia and then to Florida; he became first a Delegate, then a 
United States Senator from Florida and later served in the Confeder- 
ate Congress. He changed his name from David Levy to David Levy 
Yulee in 1 846 during his first term as Senator, when he married the 
daughter of the Governor of Kentucky. In 1853 David Yulee built a 
railroad from Fernandina to Cedar Keys. 

A post road connecting Fernandina and Jacksonville was con- 
structed through this section during the Seminole War (1835-42). 
Rural trade and turpentine are Yulee's chief sources of revenue. 

Left from Yulee on paved State 13 is FERNANDINA, 12 m. (10 alt. 3,023 
pop.), on Amelia Island; it was once a popular port because of its fine natural 
harbor; it lies on the west shore of the little island, overlooking the Intra- 
coastal Waterway. Here, side by side, stand new and old Fernandina; all that 
remains of the older settlement, known officially as Old Town, is a group of bat- 
tered buildings and the RUINS OF SPANISH FORT SAN CARLOS. As early as 1680 the 
place was a fortified Spanish outpost; later it began to develop as a port, being 

1 60 



FLORIDA 161 

the shipping point for the Duke of Egmont's indigo plantation. After the Rev- 
olutionary War the trade increased, this being the foreign port nearest to the 
Georgia border and hence a logical base for smugglers. Fernandina's great era of 
prosperity began after the United States passed the Embargo Act of 1807; in 
1808 the importation of slaves into the United States became illegal. In that 
year Fernandina became officially a free port; pirates and smugglers of manu- 
factured goods and of slaves came here openly to dispose of their cargoes. At 
times there were 150 to 300 ships at anchor in the harbor. The Spanish com- 
mandant with a dozen soldiers maintained a semblance of law and order but 
adventurers two or three times took possession of the port. Adding to the dis- 
order, hi-jackers lurked in the nearby inlets to seize cargoes before the ships could 
make the harbor. Pierre Lafitte, brother of Jean, at one time set up a head- 
quarters and gathered many associates of ill repute. Not only pirates but British 
spies were active. In 1811 President Madison, knowing that war with England 
was imminent, sent a confidential agent to this place. With the aid of American 
settlers and a ship, he seized the town and organized a Republic of Florida. 
Spanish protests were so strong that the United States, at war with England, 
withdrew its support from the movement, and later paid a large sum for the dam- 
age done to private property by American forces. 

After the withdrawal, anarchy prevailed until 1817 when Gregor MacGregor, 
brother-in-law of Bolivar, South American leader, captured the town. A few 
months later he retired before a force of 500 Spaniards, leaving the community's 
defense to another adventurer, Irwin. The latter defeated the Spaniards in the 
Battle of Amelia. Two days after the event, Louis Aury, a notorious pirate, came 
into port with a prize, and joined forces with Irwin. Aury claimed Amelia Island 
for the Republic of Mexico and carried on slave smuggling on a large scale; 
approximately 1 ,000 slaves and large quantities of goods were disposed of in two 
months. Finally the United States sent a man-of-war to end these flagrant oper- 
ations, and Aury surrendered December 23, 1817. The town came into the pos- 
session of the United States when East Florida was sold by Spain in 1819. 

In 1877, the Egmont, an early tourist hotel, was built here, attracting distin- 
guished patronage for about two decades. Shortly after the Egmont opened its 
doors, the Strathmore was erected at Fernandina Beach (see below). These resort 
hotels were so popular that the Clyde-Mallory Lines made Fernandina a port of 
call. About 1 900 they began to suffer from competition with resorts further south 
and after the Egmont was destroyed by fire in 1905 it was not rebuilt. 

The modern city of Fernandina just S. of the original settlement is the seat of 
Nassau County. Fifty boats leave its waterfront daily for ocean shrimping and 
fishing. Its three large shrimp canneries have widespread markets, and there are 
three plants producing fish, fertilizer, fish oil, and stock feed. 

Of major importance is the city's newest industry the manufacture of paper. 
Two pulp mills (see INTRODUCTION) are being constructed (1938) at the cost 
of several million dollars. 

The EPISCOPAL CHURCH, Center and 7th Sts., is a fine example of old American 
craftsmanship, both inside and out. Several beautiful stained glass windows are 
memorials to victims of a yellow fever epidemic in 1877. 

INDIAN MOUNDS, near the Fernandina High School, are of Ogeechee origin, 
according to William Bartram, who discovered them in 1774. 



162 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

ST. JOSEPH'S ACADEMY, on 4th St., is a 12-grade Catholic academy, built on 
the former plantation of Don Domingo Fernandez, an early settler. 

1. Right from Fernandina 2 m. on a shell road to FORT CLINCH STATE 
PARK, covering 1,200 acres on the northern end of Amelia Island, and overlook- 
ing Cumberland Sound. Construction of FORT CLINCH (guides furnished), named 
for Gen. D. L. Clinch, Federal officer during the Seminole War, was begun in 
1847; it was not completed till 1861. At the beginning of the Civil War, Confed- 
erate forces seized Fort Clinch in order to protect the supply boats entering the 
harbor; in 1863 Federal troops captured the fort. It was garrisoned for the next 
six years and again in 1898 when troops embarked from here for Spanish- Ameri- 
can War duty. 

The walls of the fort are of brick, the inner wall pierced by tunnels and the 
outer, eight feet thick, having large port holes through which the channel and 
Cumberland Island are visible. 

Cedar, salt spurge, and cactus with bright yellow flowers, grow on the old 
parade grounds. The large purple fruit of the cactus was highly prized by the 
Indians because of its refreshing quality. Behind the fort are high sand dunes and 
dwarf live-oaks, their tops flattened by the prevailing east winds. 

2. Right from Fernandina 1 m. on Center St. to FERNANDINA BEACH 
(municipal casino, cottages, and various commercial amusement facilities) . Here is a 14- 
mile stretch of hard sand on which cars can be driven. 

3. Right from Fernandina 4 m. on a macadamized road to GERBING'S OYSTER 
FARM AND AZALEA GARDENS (open), a commercial enterprise; here the latest 
types of equipment are used in harvesting oysters from the beds in the Amelia 
River. 

The azalea gardens are on a high bluff overlooking the river. Their rich foliage 
and beautiful flowers are bright against a grove of fine old oaks; views of the river 
are framed by tall cedars, growing along the bluff. 

South of Yulee saw-palmettos and longleaf pine grow profusely 
along the route. Here US 17 follows the course of the King's Road, 
built in 1765 by public subscription. 

At 12.5 m. (L) is LAKE HUTSON (private, nofshing), a small artifi- 
cial lake created when sand was removed for use in building the 
roadbed. 

South of the lake US 17 passes over a 3-mile expanse of Nassau 
River salt marshes, a continuation of the marshes of Glynn (see SEC- 
TION 77). 

At 13.1 m. the highway crosses the NASSAU RIVER. After the 
American Revolution, large plantations were developed in this region 
by Tory refugees from the Colonies. A few of these people cultivated 
their land with great success but the prosperity of the area ended with 
the abolition of slavery. 

At 23.6 ni. is Cedar Creek. Sandy ridges with a sparse growth of 



FLORIDA 163 

black-jack oak extend 2 miles southward from it. Patches of sand 
mark the burrows of the Florida salamander, a small shy rodent with 
fine fur; some natives consider their luck assured for a year if they can 
catch one. This animal has no relationship to the amphibian with the 
same name. 

At 25 m. (L) is the JACKSONVILLE MUNICIPAL AIRPORT. Between 
this point and Jacksonville, barbecue stands, tourist camps, road- 
houses, and signboards line the highway. 

At 26.5 m. is the junction with the scenic Hecksher Dr. (sedans, 
75 round trip, coupes, 50 f). 

Left on this paved road to the JACKSONVILLE CITY Zoo, 0.5 m., an 11 -acre 
tract. Miss Chic, the elephant, was purchased through the donations of school 
children. 

East of the zoo, Hecksher Dr. winds along the edge of rich woodlands, within 
sight of the St. Johns River. Many water birds fly over the marsh regions; the 
mingled wild flowers, sand dunes and jungle growth add to the beauty of the area. 

The road crosses a series of causeways and wooden bridges. 

PILOT TOWN, 15.5 m., a small fishing village, is on FORT GEORGE 
ISLAND, where at various times were forts of the Spanish, English and French, 
each seeking command of the river. Here also was the Spanish mission of San 
Juan del Puerto, which in 1616 baptized 500 parishioners. 

The road runs N. winding through a jungle where the bellow of alligators is 
occasionally heard. Zephaniah Kingsley, who formerly lived on a plantation 
covering*the northern end of the island, was one of early Florida's most notorious 
slave traders, bringing Negroes from Africa to Florida in his own ships. In 1868 
the property was purchased from Kingsley's heirs by John Rollins of Dover, H. N. 

John H. Mclntosh, President of the Republic of Florida from 1812 to 1816 
(see above), was the owner of the plantation before Kingsley. 

Facing Fort George Inlet is the former Big House, behind it are Ma-am Anna's 
House, the old well and the stable. Tradition says this last was once a British 
barracks. The grist mill is a circular tabby building SE. of the stable. The 40 or 
more slave houses are arranged in a crescent. 

When Rollins came to Fort George many of the Negroes who had belonged to 
Kingsley were still living in their cabins. He did much to develop the mandarin 
orange and the Shaddock, later called the grapefruit. 

At a time when the orange groves were not in bearing, and farming appeared 
destined to failure, Rollins formed a company and built two hotels, one on the 
present site of the Ribaut Club, and the other on the beach facing the St. Johns, 
to attract the tourists who were beginning to come to Florida for the winter. 

Today the plantation belongs to the Fort George Club. The Ribaut Club owns 
a large nearby tract on the island. 

At 28 m. on US 17 a long concrete bridge spans Trout River, 
tributary of the St. Johns. From the bridge pleasant homes are visible 
along the southern shores of the river. 



164 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

JACKSONVILLE, 32 m. (26 alt., 129,549 pop.) (see FLA. 
GUIDE). 

Railroad Station. Union Terminal, 1000 W. Bay St., for Atlantic Coast Line 
Ry., Southern Railway, Florida East Coast Ry. and Seaboard Air Line Ry. 

Airport. Municipal for Eastern Air Lines, National Air Lines and Atlantic 
and Gulf Coast Air Lines, N. Main St., 7 miles from center of city; taxi fare $1 
(5 passengers for one fair); time 20 min. 

Piers. Clyde-Mallory, Ft. Liberty St., to Miami, Charleston & New York; 
Merchants & Miners, 800 E. Bay St., to Savannah, Norfolk, Baltimore and Bos- 
ton. 

Accommodations. Many hotels, apartment houses, rooming houses, and tourist 
camps; rates higher December- April; highest in February. 

Points of Interest. Naval Stores Yards, Cotton Compress, Hemming Park, Me- 
morial Park, Site of Fort Collins, and others. 



SIDE ROUTES 



SIDE ROUTE A 

NORTH CAROLINA 



Elizabeth City Kitty Hawk Nags Head Manteo Oregon 
Inlet Hatteras Inlet, 125 m. State 30, 34, 345. 

Paved roadbed to Manteo; uncertain travel S. of this point along sandy beach 
road. 

Limited accommodations as far as Kitty Hawk; hotel accommodations available 
at Kitty Hawk, Nags Head, Manteo, and Hatteras. Between Manteo and Hat- 
teras accommodations only in private homes. 

This route, known as the Virginia Dare Trail, leads along the 
picturesque banks, called by the Indians "Out Islands," narrow 
strips of sand that form the eastern boundary of North Carolina, 
separating the ocean from the sounds; it borders Currituck Sound 
abounding with migratory waterfowl and other forms of wild life, 
skirts the most dangerous section of the Atlantic coast where lie re- 
mains of many marine wrecks, and passes the birthplace of English 
colonization in America and the site of the first successful airplane 
flight. 

State 30 branches NE. from US 17 in Elizabeth City (see Main 
Route, Section 7) and crosses the beautiful modern drawbridge span- 
ning the broad Pasquotank. From here the harbor is always an inter- 
esting sight with gay pleasure yachts riding at anchor, and moth-type 
sailboats skimming gracefully over the water. At night the lights 
from the moored boats and from the streets of Elizabeth City, topped 
by the beacon on the water tank, provide illumination visible for 
several miles. 

The route continues on the so-called FLOATING ROAD, 1.5 miles 
long, crossing what is known locally as GOAT ISLAND, though 
the man who owned it named it MACHELHE, a combination of 
two letters of the names of his four children; Mary, Charles, Eloise, 
and Helen. A deep but narrow cut is crossed on STINKING GUT 
BRIDGE, and thence the road runs through FERRY SWAMP. The first 
course over this swamp was a corduroy road of cross logs and dirt. 
On both sides of this shaky thoroughfare were bogs that meant cer- 
tain death to anyone who fell into them while traveling alone. 
When soundings were taken no bottom was reached and piles 
driven down 100 feet disappeared. Finally the State decided to 

167 



i68 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

float a road; a 1 6-foot-wide strip of concrete on steel netting was sus- 
pended over the treacherous morass. The construction of this road 
was hailed as an engineering feat, but the road eventually settled and 
tidewater rose 2 or 3 feet over it. The problem was finally solved 
by construction of the present asphalted roadbed elevated 3.5 feet 
on pilings joined by steel cables; there is a 10-inch railing on each 
side. 

Here the woods are fragrant with laurel, pine, and cedar, most 
beautiful in the spring with dogwood and Carolina yellow jessamine, 
and in the summer sweet with the perfume of honeysuckle and wild 
rose. Cattails rise from the waving reeds, and bamboo twines around 
the taller trees. 

The highway passes one of the largest groves of pecan trees in this 
area. 

CAMDEN, 4m. (10 alt., 116 pop.), the ancient seat of Camden 
County, is a typical rural crossroads. Prior to 1777, when the terri- 
tory around the Pasquotank River was a part of Pasquotank County, 
this town was named Jonesboro in honor of a prominent resident, 
Joseph Jones. In 1777, when the present county was separated from 
Pasquotank County, the town was named Camden for Charles Pratt, 
who was then Baron Camden; because of his excellence as a judge he 
had become Lord Chancellor of England, but because of his opposition 
to the government's American taxation policies, had been asked to 
resign; later he became the first Earl of Camden. 

During Colonial days Camden was surrounded by the estates of 
wealthy planters who owned numerous slaves, and who were noted 
for their handsome residences and cordial hospitality. 

The present CAMDEN COURTHOUSE, with a portico having four 
massive columns supported on brick piers, was built in 1847. An 
earlier one, built in 1 780, has been converted into a dwelling and inn. 
The courtroom is on the second floor, because, when the structure 
was built, what is now the ground floor was left open so that horses 
might be hitched there; the ground floor now houses the county 
offices. 

Camden is in a potato-growing section and at harvest time the 
people work night and day digging and shipping the crop. On the 
railroad sidings paralleling the highway boxcars stand in long lines 
in readiness for loading. At night the fields are aglow with the head- 
lights of the busy trucks and it is only when harvest is over or the 



NORTH CAROLINA 169 

price of potatoes breaks that the activity subsides and the calm 
pace of life is resumed. 

1 . Left from Camden on State 343 to the junction with the Shipyard Ferry 
Rd., 3.5 m.; L. here on this dirt road running along Pasquotank River to the 
GRICE HOME (private), 4m., built by Charles Grice; the date 1746 is scratched 
on the chimney. Tradition says that it was used as a hospital and place of refuge 
during the Civil War. 

2. Right from Camden on State 343 to the junction with the old Indian town 
Rd., 2 m.; L. on this dirt road to FAIRFAX HALL, 2.5 m., the home of Gen. 
Isaac Gregory, Revolutionary officer. The tall, old mansion, standing well back 
from the road, is one of two brick houses in Camden County. The interior panel- 
ing has been removed and sold. 

At SHILOH, 12 m., is SHILOH BAPTIST CHURCH, bearing on its front the date 
1727; it is believed to be the oldest Baptist church in the State. This 60- by 90- 
foot structure is constructed of handhewn heart pine, put together with pegs. 
The arched ceiling is 40 feet high. On the floors are the marks made by musket 
butt plates when the church was used as an arsenal by Federal troops during the 
Civil War. 

Opposite the church is the GRAVE OF LIEUT. COL. DEMPSEY BURGESS, Revolu- 
tionary War officer who served in the Provincial Congress in 1775 and 1776, 
and in the National House of Representatives 1795 to 1799. 

OLD TRAP, 16 in., now a trucking center for vegetables going to northern 
markets, remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War. The section was iso- 
lated; the people were not slave owners, and they did not feel inclined to risk life 
and property to save the fortunes of those who owned slaves. Like other south- 
erners with Union sympathies, they were called "buffaloes" by their neighbors. 
In spite of their attitude many of these young men were conscripted by the Con- 
federacy. 

In this town and all through the district bordering the broad mouth of the 
Pasquotank River is heard frequently the colloquialism: "Did you travel or come 
by boat?" This expression is a relic of old England, when the traveler was one 
who "labored" on foot. 

SHAWBORO, 12 m. (15 alt., 366 pop.), is a rural village. On the 
L. at the bend in the highway is a TWIN HOUSE, consisting of two 
two-story-and-a-half gabled houses, built one behind the other 
about 10 feet apart and connected by a one-story gabled structure 
having a door at each end, and a ridgeline perpendicular to the sides 
of the main sections. The effect is charming, though unplanned. 
The story is that a husband and wife who at one time occupied the 
front part of the house, which dates from about 1 800, quarreled so 
bitterly that they decided to live apart; the husband built a duplicate 
of the old house in the rear of it, joining the two with a common 



iyo THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

hallway. The husband remained in the old house, the wife moved to 
the new one. 

SLIGO, 15 m. (15 alt.), was so named because Edward Drom- 
goole, Methodist circuit rider, saw in the place a resemblance to his 
native Sligo in Ireland. He was one of the first three preachers sent to 
the Carolina Circuit of the Methodist Church which was formed in 
Albermarle in 1776. Dromgoole arrived in December 1783 and re- 
tired from circuit work in 1786, settling in Brunswick County, Va., 
where he named his estate Sligo. 

Left from Sligo on State 34 is the village of MOYOCK, 10 m. (200 pop.), 
which has the only bank in Currituck County. The local woman's club sponsored 
the planting of cannas along the highway throughout the town, the flowers, 
when in bloom, form a gay border. 

Left from Moyock on a dirt road to PUDDING RIDGE, 11 m., on the edge 
of the Dismal Swamp. Here is an Amish-Mennonite colony, whose members are 
sometimes called the "hook-and-eye" Mennonites, because they wear no buttons 
on their clothing. The practice, like that of shaving the upper lip, was adopted 
when their progenitors were opposing civil authority in Switzerland where a tax 
was imposed on buttons and mustaches. The first members of this colony came 
from Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana in 1 907. Some were seeking health, and 
others were attracted by reports of cheap, fertile land. 

The Mennonites believe that the simplicity of rural life makes possible greater 
consecration to God. The church decrees that no Mennonite may serve on a 
jury, bring a lawsuit, hold public office, swear oaths, attend theaters, or use to- 
bacco or liquor. He must wear the apparel specified and lead an abstemious life. 
They live contentedly apart from their neighbors, coming in contact with people 
of other faiths only in the necessary business associations. The men wear long 
hair, flowing beards, and straight-hanging coats, and the women severe dark 
dresses and, except on Sunday, a kind of quilted or slatted bonnet; on Sunday 
they put on the "prayer covering," a little white bonnet that is tied under the 
chin with long strings. From infancy the children are dressed like their elders, the 
little girls in long dresses, with full gathered skirts, and the little boys in home- 
made coats and long trousers. At home they speak the dialect known as Penn- 
sylvania Dutch. All church services are conducted in the German language, the 
Scripture reading in High German and the preaching in the dialect. They do not 
approve of more education than is necessary to enable them to write and do sim- 
ple arithmetic, and few of their children are permitted to go to school beyond 
the compulsory school age. They are industrious, prosperous farmers and have 
made a business of the growing of mint, which they make into a syrup that is 
shipped out in considerable quantities. 

At Sligo is the junction with State 34; R. here on State 34. 
CURRITUCK, 19 m. (10 alt., 213 pop.) (boats for island trips; 
guides and hunting supplies available). The town name is derived from 



NORTH CAROLINA 171 

Coratank (Ind., wild geese). The county, and the beautiful fresh-water 
sound it borders, also bear this name. The sound, 50 miles long and 1 
to 10 miles wide is connected with Chesapeake Bay by the Albe- 
marie and Chesapeake Canal. 

Currituck, formerly a part of the old County of Albemarle, was 
involved in the boundary dispute between North Carolina and 
Virginia. In 1728, to the satisfaction of Currituck's early settlers, the 
line was so laid as to include them in North Carolina instead of 
Virginia. 

Truck farming, commercial fishing and catering to sportsmen are 
the mainstays of livelihood. The marshes and waters of the sound, 
covered with wild celery, pond-weed, and sago grass, form a rendez- 
vous for millions of migratory waterfowl. The shipping of these duck 
foods is a commercial side line. Sportsmen from all parts of the coun- 
try patronize the clubhouses and lodges that dot the islands and the 
shores. During the open season, which lasts from five to six weeks, 
shooting is permitted four days a week. Fishing in the sound is done 
with rod and reel, and with net and seine. The catches include bass, 
rock, German carp, mullet, white and ring perch, herring, pickerel, 
and shad. 

Because of the high prices paid in northern markets for game birds, 
some local hunters formerly employed the goose-gun, a weapon 
with a barrel about two inches in diameter and 10 feet in length. 
At one discharge it fired two pounds of small shot into a flock of birds 
and brought down scores of them. Such wholesale slaughter threat- 
ened the fowl with extinction, till the Audubon Society fought to have 
the use of the gun outlawed, and finally succeeded. 

Currituck Sound is also a favorite wintering place of the rare 
whistling swan (Cygnus columbianus) , which breeds in Alaska and 
northwestern Canada where probably more than 10,000 of the 
young birds, known as cygnets, are hatched yearly. Under govern- 
ment protection the continued propagation of these beautiful birds 
with their flute-like notes seems assured. The resonant quality of the 
swan's cry is produced by the large size of the cavity in which the 
windpipe is coiled before reaching the lungs. 

In 1720 Timothy Hanson brought to Currituck County, the seeds 
of the European grass (Phleum pratense), which he developed into 
"timothy", now one of the most valuable fodder grasses grown in the 
United States. 



172 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

The highway winds close to the water and on the narrow strip of 
land between is (L) the COURTHOUSE, a red brick structure erected in 
1876. The county, having no incorporated towns, is governed as a 
unit, which makes the courthouse so important that the town is 
frequently referred to as "the Courthouse", rather than by town 
name. 

South of Courthouse Point is (R) PILMOOR MEMORIAL METHODIST 
CHURCH, 19.3 m., on a little rise overlooking the sound. Erected in 
1928, it replaced the Baxter's Grove Church and stands on the spot 
where Joseph Pilmoor, on September 28, 1772, preached the first 
Methodist sermon ever delivered in North Carolina. The Methodists 
of the county adopted the consolidation system now used by the 
schools and built this as a county church, served by the only Sunday 
School bus in the State, called Miss Memorial. 

From the courthouse several islands are visible in the distance. 
On clear days the southern tips of Knott's Island and of Mackey's 
Island, about 6 miles off, are discernible to the N. About 2 miles to the 
S. is Monkey Island, and beyond that are Bell's Island and Church's 
Island. In the far distance can sometimes be seen the gleam of 
Penny's Hill, one of the highest sand dunes along the coast. These 
islands are accessible by boat from Currituck (see above) and, with the 
exception of Monkey Island, are also reached over uncertain marsh 
roads. KNOTT'S ISLAND is the largest, with a population of 
about 500. Recently it has secured a land outlet by means of a road 
over the marsh from Virginia. 

MACKEY'S ISLAND (private) is owned by Joseph P. Knapp, 
who has built a reproduction of Mount Vernon for his home, with 
spacious grounds containing miniature lakes, a golf course, and rose 
gardens. He maintains a mallard farm for the conservation and 
propagation of wild ducks, some of which are occasionally released to 
provide guests with sport. 

MONKEY ISLAND (private) is owned by the Penn family, which 
maintains a shooting lodge there. 

BELL'S ISLAND and CHURCH'S ISLAND have several shoot- 
ing clubs and lodges, and are busy spots during the hunting season. 
It is from Church's Island that most of the wild celery and sago grass 
is shipped, sometimes to far distant points, for use as duck feed. 

COINJOCK, 28 m. (12 alt., 216 pop.), is on the banks of the 
Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal. At this point the U. S. Lighthouse 




A FLORIDA CATCH 



p 



t ,,. . t 









* 




SHOW BOAT MOORED IN CANAL, COINJOCK, NORTH CAROLINA 



_ 



FROM JOCKEY'S RIDGE, NAG'S HEAD, NORTH CAROLINA 





























".-. 



. 



-"..'- ''*- 



WHERE THE COLONISTS CAME ASHORE ON ROANOKE ISLAND 



NORTH CAROLINA 173 

Service maintains a station for the lights and buoys on the Intra- 
coastal Waterway through Currituck Sound. Its keeper is Captain 
W. J. Tate, the Kitty Hawk citizen at whose home the Wright 
brothers first lived while making their airplane experiments 1 900-03 
(see below). 
At BERTHA, 31 m., is the junction with State 3. 

Left on State 3 to POPLAR BRANCH, 3 m. (325 pop.) (boats chartered to the 
banks). East on the banks is the CURRITUCK BEACH LIGHTHOUSE, generally known 
as Whale's Head Lighthouse. The village post office has yet another name, 
COROLLA (110 pop.). The lighthouse, built of rough unpainted brick, is 163 
feet high, and has a light of 160,000 candlepower. Erected in 1875, it was one of 
the last large seacoast lights placed on the Atlantic coast, filling a dangerous un- 
lighted gap between Cape Henry to the N. and Bodie Island to the S. The mark- 
ing of the low-lying shores of North Carolina is important because most south- 
bound ships keep well inshore to avoid the northerly flowing current of the Gulf 
Stream. 

On Jan. 31, 1878, 3 m. S. of this lighthouse occurred the wreck of the Metropo- 
lis, with a loss of more than 100 lives. The surf was violent and in some places 
wreckage was piled up to a height of 4 or 5 feet. The victims were buried along 
the beach in rudely made graves. 

South of Bertha the route leads through a succession of farms and 
farm villages ranging in population from a score to 500 people, and so 
strung out along the highway that it is difficult to tell where one 
village ends and the next begins. 

The small houses are trim and prosperous in appearance though 
the absence of telephone and electric light wires running to them 
is noticeable. Close to nearly every house rises a long well-sweep 
above what is the popular well-curb in this area a section of large 
red sewer pipe. In many of the farm fields are family graveyards. 

JARVISBURG, 41 m. (550 pop.), was named for Thomas Jarvis, 
Governor of North Carolina (1881-1885) and one of Currituck's 
popular sons. A crab-canning plant operates here in season. At 
POINT HARBOR, 50 m., the highway crosses the three-mile 
WRIGHT MEMORIAL BRIDGE, which is near the confluence of four 
sounds Currituck, Albemarle, Roanoke and Croatan and gives 
entrance to Dare County through an iron archway, whose inscription 
declares that this county was, in the year 1584, the birthplace of the 
Nation and, in 1903, the birthplace of aviation. The bridge was 
named in honor of the Wright brothers (see below). 

Dare County was the scene of the first settlement attempted by 



174 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

England in America, the birthplace of the first child born of English 
parents on North American soil, the scene of the first known celebra- 
tion of a Christian sacrament in the territory of the original 1 3 States, 
and the scene of the first successful airplane flight. 

Dare was formed in 1870 from parts of Hyde, Currituck, and 
Tyrrell, and named in honor of Virginia Dare (see below). The county 
has an area of some 300 square miles of land and 1,200 square miles 
of water. 

The natives of Dare, long isolated, have preserved English ballads 
and folk songs, and many expressions common in the English 
language centuries ago. 

Dare has an exceptionally long coast line, and along the 80-mile 
stretch of beach between the Currituck County line and Hatteras 
Inlet are (1937) 9 active Coast Guard Stations whose men patrol the 
coast day and night, and are always alert for distress signals from 
vessels. The stations also give storm warnings to the summer cottagers 
and rescue motorcars stranded in the soft sand off the paved highway. 

For about a mile east of the bridge the highway runs straight 
ahead through a dense forest of pine and dogwood, gradually climb- 
ing to a ridge from which is suddenly seen a long stretch of high white 
sand dunes with, beyond them, the vast blue expanse of the Atlantic. 
Each year these constantly shifting dunes have been engulfing more 
and more of what was formerly forested land; as they drift they fre- 
quently cover the narrow highway or endanger the summer cottages 
and the permanent hamlets. During 1936 more than 700 men from 
work-relief projects were busy planting Cape Cod grass and Uniola 
and erecting miles of sand fencing in an attempt to anchor the 
migratory sands. 

The highway swings R. paralleling the ocean beach, which is for 
several miles lined with cottages and boarding houses. 

At 56 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Right here to KITTY HAWK, 1 m. (260 pop.), which is on the shore of the 
sound. The name, according to some of the natives, is derived from the mosquito 
hawk, a large insect infesting the region in great swarms at certain seasons; 
"mosquito hawk," they say, became "skeeter hawk," and later Kitty Hawk. 
Others assert the name comes from an Indian word haunk, describing the cry of 
the wild goose. The Indians, having learned enough English to say hilly for kill, 
computed the white man's year as that period of time "Fum a killy hauk to a 
killy hauk," that is, the time between the killing of the first goose of one season 
and the killing of the first goose of the next. Old records in the Currituck Court- 



NORTH CAROLINA 175 

house include references to Killy Honk Bay, Kitty Hock Bay and, later, Kitty 
Hawk Bay. 

It is generally believed that the beautiful Theodosia Burr Alston met her death 
near the strip of coast between Kitty Hawk and Nags Head. She was a daughter 
of Aaron Burr and the wife of Governor Alston of South Carolina. 

When Aaron Burr returned from exile, Governor Alston sent his wife to visit 
her father in New York, hoping the sea trip would improve her health, which had 
been impaired by grief over her father's disgrace and the death of her only child. 
On Dec. 30, 1812, she sailed from George Town, S. G., on the Patriot, a small 
pilot boat, and was never seen again. At that time the boat was thought to have 
been wrecked off the coast of Hatteras during a severe storm, but there was no 
evidence to substantiate the theory. 

In 1869, 57 years later, Dr. W. G. Pool, a physician of Elizabeth City, was 
called to attend a poor banker (shoredweller) woman, from whom he would 
take no fee. The grateful woman insisted that he accept a portrait as a gift and 
told him how it had come into her possession: 

In 1813 a small pilot boat with all sails set and rudder lashed had drifted 
ashore at Kitty Hawk. There was no one on board, yet there were no signs of 
violence; a meal on the table was untouched, in a cabin were silk dresses, waxed 
flowers under glass, a beautifully carved nautilus shell, and on the wall this 
portrait of a young and beautiful woman, painted in oils on mahogany and set in 
a richly gilded frame. When the bankers stripped the boat, the portrait fell to the 
share of this woman's sweetheart, who later gave it to her. The bankers believed 
that pirates had seized the boat and forced all on board to walk the plank, but, 
before they could plunder the boat, had been frightened away by the approach 
of another vessel. 

Dr. Pool, chancing upon an old magazine containing a picture of Aaron Burr, 
was struck with the resemblance between the woman in his portrait and the man. 
He made a check of the dates involved and decided that he had a clue to an un- 
solved tragedy. A brief account of his supposition was published in the New York 
Sun, and immediately brought numerous requests for particulars. Photographs 
of the portrait were sent to members of the Burr and Edwards families, who 
almost without exception proclaimed the likeness that of Theodosia; comparisons 
made with the Sully portrait of Theodosia revealed identical features and expres- 
sion. The Nags Head portrait is now in a private museum in New York City. 

Legendary confessions round out the story. It is said that years after the dis- 
appearance of the Patriot, two criminals, before their execution at Norfolk, testi- 
fied that they were members of a pirate crew who boarded the Patriot and com- 
pelled everyone on board to walk the plank. A beggar, dying in a Michigan 
almshouse, confessed that he had been one of a pirate crew, and that he could 
never forget how one of his victims, a beautiful woman, pleaded for her life that 
she might go to her father in New York. 

The long strip of beach has other and less tragic associations. In the summer 
of 1900, the postmaster at Kitty Hawk received a letter dated August 19, from 
Dayton, Ohio, describing some proposed "scientific kite flying experiments" 
that Wilbur Wright and his brother Orville intended to make during their 
September vacation. They wished to know something of the topography of the 
region and to have a description of the beach. Capt. W. J. Tate, whose wife was 



176 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

postmistress, answered the letter; the Wrights lived in Captain Tate's home until 
they constructed a camp. They carried on their glider experiments for three years, 
eventually equipping a glider with a gasoline motor, with results that made 
world history. 

On May 22, 1928, a COMMEMORATIVE MARKER was unveiled at Kitty Hawk 
honoring the Wright brothers. The marble shaft bears the following inscription: 
"On this spot, Sept. 17, 1900, Wilbur Wright began the assembly of the Wright 
brothers' first experimental glider which led to man's conquest of the air. Erected 
by the citizens of Kitty Hawk." 

At intervals along the beach the wrecks of ships and boats are seen. 
In 1927 the Paraguay, a Greek steamer, broke in two when she 
grounded on a reef near shore; a year later the Carl Gerhard was 
wrecked and driven ashore between the bow and stern of the Para- 
guay. During the summer the Gerhard furnishes solid footing for fisher- 
men, though at high tide her decks are awash; in rough weather her 
masts are hardly visible. 

The WRIGHT MEMORIAL MONUMENT, 60 m. (R), rises 
from the top of the 90-foot dune, Kill Devil Hill, which has been 
clothed with wiregrass and transplanted sod to restrain its wander- 
ings. There are various legends to account for the name of this dune; 
a favorite is that it was named for a brand of Medford rum that 
gained this nickname because of its potency. The power of the liquor 
was celebrated in a ballad long popular on the banks and called the 
Ballad of Kill Devil Hills, or the Ballad of Medford Rum. William Byrd, 
in his History of the Dividing Line, wrote of this section: "Most of the 
Rum they get in this country comes from New England, and it is so 
bad and unwholesome, that it is not improperly call'd 'Kill Devil.' 5: 
A manuscript description of Barbadoes, written 25 years after the 
settlement of the island in 1651, says: "The chief fudling they make in 
the island is Rumbullion, alias Kill-Devil, and this is made of sugar 
canes, distilled, a hot, hellish, and terrible liquor." It is believed 
there was formerly an inlet near here through which cargoes of rum 
were brought ashore. Another story is that the hills were named for 
the killdee, or killdeer, a bird of the plover family formerly numerous 
in the region. 

A spiral walk leads from the base of the hill to the summit where 
rises a 60-foot stylized wing of granite on a star-shaped base that had 
to be sunk 35 feet to hold it steady. Above the recessed entrance, 
which has doors of stainless steel, are graven the names of the broth- 
ers. Within are niches intended for a model of the original Wright 



NORTH CAROLINA 177 

plane and for busts of Wilbur and Orville Wright. A stainless steel 
table here is engraved with a map indicating the notable flights of 
the first 25 years of aviation. On the wall is a tablet bearing lines from 
the Greek poet Pindar: "The long toil of the brave is not quenched in 
darkness, nor hath counting the cost fretted away the zeal of their 
hopes. O'er the fruitful earth and athwart the sea hath passed the 
light of noble deeds, unquenchable forever." On another wall is: 
"From a point near the base of this hill Wilbur and Orville Wright 
launched the first flight of a power-driven airplane, Dec. 17, 1903." 

A steep stone and steel staircase ascends to the observatory from 
which is a wide view of the banks and the ocean. Above this is a 
powerful searchlight. 

Visible from the observatory is a small monument 600 feet to the 
north, erected by the National Aeronautical Association in 1928 
on the 25th anniversary of the successful flight. It has been placed on 
the approximate spot where the crude fragile machine left the earth 
on its maiden flight. On that day four flights were made, the brothers 
alternating at the controls, until a sudden increase in the 27-mile 
wind rolling the machine over and over, damaged it so that further 
experiments were impossible at the time. Orville was at the controls 
on the first flight when the plane stayed in the air 1 2 seconds, trav- 
ersing a distance of 120 feet. On the fourth flight, with Wilbur at 
the controls, the machine flew a distance of 852 feet in 59 seconds. 

The monument was erected by the Federal Government in 1932. 

Right from the monument on a paved road running through wooded hills to 
the FRESH PONDS, 2 m. There are eight large ponds and several smaller ones, the 
largest covering about 125 acres. These pools, lying on a narrow sandbar between 
the briny waters of the ocean and the sound, are covered with lush pond lilies and 
contain fresh-water fish. They are popularly supposed to be bottomless. In all 
probability an inlet once existed at this point, connecting the restless waters of the 
ocean with those of the quieter Kitty Hawk Bay. Mounds of sea shells, or Indian 
kitchen-middens, formerly lined the shores of the bay. 

Beyond the ponds runs a sand road that crosses two toll-free bridges to COL- 
INGTON, 3 m., on Colington Island, in Kitty Hawk Bay. This quiet little 
fishing village was named for one of the Lords Proprietor, Sir John Colleton. 
Most of the inhabitants are of English and Swedish descent. Delicious figs grow 
here. 

On Colington Island, as elsewhere in this extreme northeastern part of the 
State, high two-wheeled springless carts are seen frequently, sometimes drawn 
by an ox but more often by a horse. These vehicles, which are somewhat like 
Irish jaunting-cars, were very practical conveyances for travel in the marshy 
country before the advent of paved roads. 



I 7 8 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

At 64 m. is NAGS HEAD BEACH, where cottages, resort hotels 
and boarding houses are numerous. Garages border the highway, and 
board walks and driveways lead to the rears of the cottages, which 
face the ocean. Some of the driveways are built of asphalt blocks 
salvaged from the original main roadbed destroyed by storm and 
tide. 

The REMNANTS OF THE HURON are pointed out by a marker, which 
gives brief details of the disaster of November 24, 1887, when the 
sloop-of-war Huron was wrecked with the loss of 108 lives. When the 
sea is calm, the tank, boiler, and bell of the ship, about 175 yards 
offshore, are plainly visible. The wreckage swarms with fish and is 
noted particularly for huge sheepshead, providing good sport for 
anglers. This tragedy occurred three years after the Government had 
established a makeshift lifesaving service. Small huts, called stations, 
were 20 miles apart and manned only during the winter. 

NAGS HEAD, 65 in., has been a resort for more than a century. 
Until 1929 all visitors came by boat to a long pier jutting out into 
Roanoke Sound and the larger cottages and hotels were on that side 
of the sandy strip of land. The opening of the Virginia Dare Trail 
and the Wright Memorial Bridge has stimulated the growth of the 
colony along the ocean beach. 

In the early days of this settlement, according to legend, there were 
certain unscrupulous "land pirates," who deliberately sought to 
wreck ships approaching the dangerous shore. On a stormy night, 
one of their number would tie a lantern to the neck of his nag and 
ride her up and down the dunes. Unfortunate mariners, mistaking 
the light for a beacon or a ship riding at anchor in a safe harbor, were 
lured to the teacherous reefs, there to be boarded and looted by the 
wily shoremen. These exploits are said to have given rise to the names 
of Nags Head, and of Jockey's Ridge, applied to its largest dune. 

The folklore of this coast includes the myth of the headless horse- 
man, who swiftly and silently rides over the dunes; and that of an 
everlasting stain running across the narrow beach to the water 
the blood of a banker woman slain by her husband who found her in 
the embrace of a man later proved to be her brother, long absent and 
supposedly lost at sea. 

The White Doe, a reincarnation of Virginia Dare, is said to roam 
the hills and is visible to human beings only on the stroke of mid- 
night. According to one story, Virginia Dare, together with other 



NORTH CAROLINA 179 

members of the Lost Colony, was adopted by the Croatan Indians. 
When she grew up, she was loved by Okisco, a young Indian, and by 
Chico, a magician. To thwart his rival, Chico changed the maiden 
into a white doe, and in this guise she roamed the dunes of Nags 
Head for many years. Weando, a magician of another tribe, gave 
Okisco a magic arrow, which he promised would cause her to regain 
human form if it pierced her heart. Okisco shot the doe through the 
heart; as she fell, a mist arose about her. When the mist cleared the 
doe had vanished and in its stead lay the fair form of Virginia Dare 
dead. 

One of the charms of Nags Head is the constant change wrought 
as the sand is shifted by wind, storm, and tide. The sea steadily 
encroaches, and yearly the span of sandy beach between the long 
row of cottages and the ocean grows narrower. The shore is being 
built up on the Roanoke Sound side and cottages, erected a few years 
ago on pilings over the sound, today stand on dry sand. Among the 
vast and continually shifting dunes that lie between the sound and 
ocean cottages are JOCKEY'S RIDGE and ENGAGEMENT 
HILL, both more than 100 feet in height. 

By the WHALEBONE FILLING STATION, 70 m., is part of the skeleton 
of a whale washed up on the beach 2 miles S. of Oregon Inlet in 
1927; in 1931 its bleached bones were gathered up and assembled 
here where its whiteness is startling against the blue of the sea and 
the pale gold of the sand. 

(For the drive on the banks S. of this point see below.} 

State 34 turns R. at this point and crosses 3 miles of causeway and 
bridges connecting small islands. 

At 73 m. State 34 enters ROANOKE ISLAND, which is 12 miles 
long, with an average width of 3 miles. 

At this point is a junction with State 345, a paved road running 
the length of the island. At the junction is the SITE OF THE BAT- 
TLE OF ROANOKE ISLAND, fought Dec. 7, 1862. After the fall of 
Hatteras, Roanoke Island was the only hope of defense for Albemarle 
Sound and its tributaries. When General Burnside with 15,000 troops 
sailed up Croatan Sound and landed on the island, the Confederates 
under Col. Henry M. Shaw engaged the Federals but were forced to 
retreat and finally to surrender. 

Left on State 345 is WANCHESE, 5 m. (1,040 pop.), named for one of two 
Indians who were taken to visit England by the Ralegh expedition under 



i8o THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Amadas and Barlow (see below). Wanchese has one of the best harbors in the sec- 
tion and is a trading point for Pamlico Sound (one boat daily to Hatter as}. It is the 
center of Dare's great shad fishing business, in which 90 percent of its population 
is employed. 

Visible from Wanchese is DUCK ISLAND (accessible only by boat\ in Pamlico 
Sound. The only building on the island is the private shooting lodge of the 
Mellons. Sportsmen come each season to this remote spot for duck, goose, and 
brant shooting. 

MANTEO, 76 m. (12 alt., 547 pop.), seat of Dare County 
(guides and boats available for fishing and hunting), is the only incorporated 
town in the country. It was named for the Indian Manteo (see below), 
who with Wanchese was taken back to England by Ralegh's expedi- 
tion. The name of its ancient hostelry, the Tranquil House, is descrip- 
tive of the town's atmosphere. Two-wheeled oxcarts occasionally 
rumble up and down its half dozen streets. 

Proximity to the ocean makes the winter temperature here average 
about 13 degrees higher and the summer temperature several degrees 
lower than in the Sandhill section of the State. 

There are many kinds of fish in the nearby waters; the shad -fishing 
business represents an investment of about half a million dollars in 
equipment and employs 1,000 men in season. The abundance of 
game fish attracts many sportsmen the year round. Channel bass 
weighing 50 to 75 pounds are frequently taken by skilled anglers. 
Other favorites of sportsmen are bluefish, speckled or gray trout, 
rock or striped bass, pig fish, blackfish, and several kinds of perch. 

Among the numerous wild fowl migrating to this natural feeding 
ground each year, are the Canada goose, the white swan, and many 
varieties of wild ducks and wild geese. The golden plover and the 
yellow legs are found in large numbers. In addition to waterfowl, 
the section has quail and snipe. 

Roanoke hominy, commonly called "big hominy," is a food made 
today in some rural sections as the Indians made it at the time of the 
first white settlement. Selected white corn is put into a wooden 
mortar or heavy iron pot, covered with boiling water and rubbed 
with a pestle till the husks are loose. When the husks have been 
winnowed out, the remainder is returned to the mortar where the 
grains are cracked slightly. The grain is then cooked with salt and 
bacon in an iron pot for about 10 hours. This food, tradition says, 
was served to Amadas and Barlow by the Indians of Roanoke Island 
in 1584. 



NORTH CAROLINA 181 

The so-called BURNSIDE HEADQUARTERS, on an extension of Main 
St. in little Manteo, is merely constructed of timbers from the build- 
ing that was commandeered for the use of the Union general during 
the occupation of the town in 1862. This old structure had held 
the first post office established on the island and stood much nearer 
the shore, where it was finally undermined. 

At 80 m. is the junction with a dirt road,. 

Right on this road to the MOTHER VINEYARD, 1.5 m. (not open to public except 
by special arrangement). Here is an unusually fine specimen of the scuppernong 
grape vine, annually yielding large quantities of delicious yellow-green grapes. 
The place is called the Mother Vineyard because local tradition is that this vine 
was planted by Amadas and Barlow from roots brought from the Scuppernong 
River. There is another theory to explain this variety's discovery in Tyrrell 
County, near the present town of Columbia (see N. C. GUIDE}. 

FORT RALEIGH, 83 m. (always open), is the site of the first 
attempted English settlement in America, the Citie of Ralegh or 
New Fort in Virginia. 

On July 4, 1 584, Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlow, sent out by 
Sir Walter Ralegh, landed on the present North Carolina coast, 
planted the arms of England on Roanoke Island, and took possession 
of the territory for Sir Walter Ralegh under his patent from Queen 
Elizabeth. After two months spent in exploring this new country, 
they returned to England, taking with them two Indians, Manteo and 
Wanchese, and samples of the strange products of the land, including 
tobacco and sweet potatoes. 

In the following year Sir Richard Grenville brought over 108 
Ralegh colonists, including Gov. Ralph Lane, and landed on Roa- 
noke Island August 17, 1585. Grenville returned to England for 
supplies and the colonists set about building huts and a stockade. 
Trouble with the Indians and near-starvation ensued and when Sir 
Francis Drake's fleet appeared in 1586, the colonists returned to 
England with him. Grenville arrived with supplies two weeks later; 
he left 15 men on the island and returned home. 

In 1587 Gov. John White, landing on the island with a new 
group of colonists, found no trace of the 1 5 men except an unburied 
skeleton; the fort and dwellings were in ruins. The newcomers set 
about rebuilding the fort and restoring friendly relations with the 
Indians, aided by Manteo. On August 13, 1587, Manteo was 
baptised and invested with the title of Lord of Roanoke. This is 



i8s THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

the first recorded celebration of a Christian sacrament in the New 
World. 

Among the colonists was Governor White's young daughter, 
Eleanor, wife of Ananias Dare. The daughter of this couple, born on 
August 18, 1587, was the first white child born of English parents on 
American soil. She was christened Virginia Dare the following 
Sunday, August 25. 

On August 27, 1587, John White anxiously sailed for England to 
obtain "the present and speedy supply of certain known and appar- 
ent lacks and needs, most requisite and necessary for the good and 
happy planting of us, or any other in the land of Virginia." White 
was detained in England by the trouble with Spain and did not 
manage to leave for America until the 20th of March, 1591. He 
arrived at Roanoke Island August 15, 1591, searched for two days 
and "found the houses taken down and the place very strongly 
enclosed with a high palisade of great trees, with curtains and flank- 
ers, very fort-like; and one of the chief trees or posts at the right side 
of the entrance had the bark taken off, and five feet from the ground, 
in fair capital letters was graven CROAT AN, without any sign or 
cross of distress." This word is the only clue ever found to the fate of 
the forlorn little band. None of the various explanations offered 
for their disappearance has the slightest foundation in fact. They may 
have died of disease or starvation or been killed at the fort by Indians 
but White found no unburied skeletons, which would support these 
surmises. It is probable that they were either taken captive by the 
Indians, or were driven by starvation to join the Indians; the fact 
that the name of the island on which Manteo's family lived was left 
on the tree "without any sign or cross of distress" gives color to the 
latter view. 

Governor White's careful drawings of the settlement, which are 
now in the British Museum, were consulted in the reconstruction of 
the fort. 

The reservation entrance is flanked with simple brick and concrete 
posts and blockhouses; on each side of them stretches a palisade of 
split, unpeeled juniper trunks. The dense growth of pine, oak, dog- 
wood and holly in the reservation has been cleared only to provide 
space for a few buildings and for an unpaved road that circles through 
the reservation. Colony Landing, on the shore of Roanoke Sound, is, 
according to tradition, the place where the colonists first came ashore, 



NORTH CAROLINA 183 

but both shore and sound have been so changed by tides and erosion 
that this is not certain. 

Close to the entrance, inside a palisade, stands (R) the RECON- 
STRUCTED FORT, a little blockhouse of logs with an overhang having 
portholes for the rifles of defenders. It is built on a slight rise of ground 
that, according to careful research workers, is the probable site of 
the original blockhouse. Close to it is a stone monument, erected in 
1896, bearing a plaque with the word "Croatan." 

A large hall has been constructed in the center of the area for the 
use of visiting groups and for meetings. Around it are a few cabins, 
including one in which the caretaker lives. Stones used for founda- 
tions and fireplaces are ancient ship ballast recovered from the 
waters of the sounds. Nearby on a hummock is a tiny CHAPEL built 
of juniper logs and thatched with reeds. Benches are backless and 
the earthen floor is covered with rushes. 

The Roanoke Colony Memorial Association holds an annual 
memorial service here on August 18th, the birthday of Virginia Dare. 

State 345 continues to WEIR POINT, 85 m., at the end of Roa- 
noke Island. Here in 1902, Reginald A. Fessenden, an employee of 
the U. S. Weather Bureau, carried on experiments in wireless com- 
munication with a ship offshore. 

DRIVE ON BANKS 
Whalebone Filling Station to Hatteras Inlet, 55 m. 

Unpaved sandy road, unusable at certain times of the year and during high tide; 
safest when ground is frozen. Inquire locally about conditions. Automobile tires 
should be somewhat deflated before the paved roadbed is left; motorists should 
carry long strips of coarse canvas or an old sail for use under the wheels to provide 
traction if needed. The Coast Guard Stations along the banks between Oregon 
and Hatteras Inlets provide assistance to motorists. 
This route is recommended for the adventurous. 

The constantly shifting dunes of this long narrow reef created by 
the restless currents of the Atlantic form fantastic shadows, contrast- 
ing with the gray-green or blue of the waters in a scene of primitive 
splendor. 

BODIE ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE, 5m., was built in 1872. The first 
light bearing this name was erected in 1848 when there was an urgent 
appeal for the marking of the dangerous coast between Cape Henry 
and Cape Hatteras, on which many vessels had been wrecked. It was 



i8 4 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

rebuilt in 1859, but was entirely destroyed in the Civil War; during 
this war the Confederates erected Fort Oregon near the lighthouse 
site. When the present light was built it was placed on a new site, on 
the northern side of Oregon Inlet, which had recently opened. Five 
sailing vessels were wrecked in the vicinity during the time this 
tower was under construction. The lighthouse is 163 feet high and 
throws a 160,000-candlepower beam, visible for 19 miles. 

OREGON INLET, 8 m., 1 mile wide, is crossed by a toll ferry 
($2 round trip for car and driver; extra passengers 25 each way) capable of 
carrying 10 cars at a time. This is one of the best points on the coast 
for drum (channel bass) fishing. During the runs of channel bass and 
bluefish scores of fishing boats with shining lures trailing astern 
pass in and out of the inlet. Every year millions of pounds of choice 
fish pour through the waters of the inlet, providing commercial 
fishermen with many rich hauls. Surf casting is practiced the entire 
length of the coast. 

The territory between Oregon Inlet and Rodanthe has been set 
aside as a GAME SANCTUARY under control of the U. S. Biological 
Survey and is a part of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore (see 
below). 

PEA ISLAND STATION, 15 in., is the only Coast Guard Station in the 
service manned entirely by Negroes. In the surf near the station is 
the rusty cast-iron boiler of a Confederate blockade runner, grounded 
during the Civil War. 

NEW INLET, 16 m., crossed by free bridges, was opened in 1933 
during a severe storm. 

RODANTHE, 21 m. (420 pop.), is the most eastern point on the 
coast of North Carolina. The isolated fisherfolk of this village still 
celebrate Old Christmas, or January 6. 

CHIGAMAGOMIGO COAST GUARD STATION is here where the coast is 
especially dangerous. At the station is the wooden surf boat in which, 
on August 16, 1918, Capt. John Allen Midgett and a crew of five 
men from the station braved a sea covered with blazing oil and gaso- 
line to rescue 42 persons from the torpedoed British tanker Mirlo. 
For this deed Congress awarded them the bronze Medal of Honor, 
for "unusual and extraordinary heroism of maximum degree." 
Close by the station is the mound under which are buried British 
seamen carried ashore after the wreck of the St. Catharis, on April 16, 
1891, in which 90 lives were lost. 



NORTH CAROLINA 185 

At SALVO, 29 m., on a barren sandhill, grows an immense fig 
tree that until 1933, when it was damaged during a storm, produced 
from 50 to 100 bushels of figs annually. 

AVON, 39 m. (489 pop.), a fishing village, is also known locally 
as Kinnakeet, the Indian name for the section. The BIG KINNAKEET 
COAST GUARD STATION is here. Tons of bluefish are caught near 
here every season. Fruit trees, vineyards, and truck gardens bear evi- 
dence of the fertility of this stretch of ground. 

South of Avon the beach road winds through woods where palmet- 
tos grow in abundance, the trees are hung with Spanish moss, and 
the vegetation is subtropical. The open beach is strewn with the 
wreckage of ships. Planking, timbers, and the hull of the Kohler, one 
of the last of the four-masted schooners, attest the aptness of the 
name by which the waters off Cape Hatteras are known the 
Graveyard of the Atlantic. 

CAPE HATTERAS, 45 m., is more than 30 miles from the main- 
land across Pamlico Sound. Wild life is abundant here. Herds of 
ponies, cattle, and hogs range at will. Tradition is that the banker 
pony is a descendant of Barbary ponies either brought over by Sir 
Walter Ralegh's colonists or rescued from wrecked Portuguese ships. 
Whatever their antecedents, these wiry little creatures live a wild 
free life of their own, and resist attempts to tame them. In winter 
the sound waters are dotted with ducks and geese, and frequently 
the gleam of a white swan is seen. Sandpipers and gulls feed in flocks 
on the beach, undisturbed by the busy sandfiddlers scurrying from 
hole to hole. Eagles and ospreys are on the lookout for their prey, and 
schools of porpoises sport just beyond the breakers of the roaring 
Atlantic. 

Hatteras cats are a distinctive breed. They are large, bushy- tailed 
animals, said to be the descendants of an island Maltese and a brown 
bush-tailed Norwegian cat, sole survivor of a wreck many years ago. 

At the tip of the cape 1,200 acres, including the gently shelving 
beach on the south, were donated to the Federal Government by 
Frank Stick and J. S. Phipps to be developed as the CAPE HAT- 
TERAS NATIONAL SEASHORE, which will eventually be in- 
cluded in a greater recreational area embracing 50 miles or more of 
beachland and bordering sound. 

Within the park is CAPE HATTERAS LIGHTHOUSE, abandoned in 
1936. Spirally painted black and white, the structure rises to a height 



1 86 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

of 193 feet and commands a view of that section of the Atlantic coast 
where the most shipwrecks have occurred. Within 125 yards, 15 or 
more skeletons of ships protrude from the sand. 

Among the more notable wrecks that have occurred off Hatteras 
are: the coastal steamer Pulaski, which went down on June 14, 1838, 
with the loss of 140 lives; the Kensington in collision with the bark 
Templar, on Jan. 27, 1871, with the loss of 150 lives; the Emily B. 
Sonder, wrecked Dec. 10, 1878, with the loss of 38; and the Ward 
Line ship Santiago, wrecked Mar. 11, 1924, with the loss of 25 lives. 

After the engagement between the Merrimac and the Monitor in 
Hampton Roads on March 9, 1862 (see MAIN ROUTE, Section 5), it 
was decided to dispatch the Monitor to Charleston harbor. She ac- 
cordingly set off December 29 in tow of the side-wheel steamer Rhode 
Island. Between 11 p.m. and midnight the following night the stout 
but clumsy little "cheese-box" floundered in a gale off Hatteras, with 
a loss of 4 officers and 12 men. Forty-nine of her crew were saved by 
the sailors of the Rhode Island. 

The first lighthouse at this point, built in 1798, was blown up dur- 
ing the Civil War. The present one was built in 1869-70. Its founda- 
tion of pine timber extends 30 feet into the ground, but during heavy 
gales it sways as much as nine inches. The revolving 450,000-candle- 
power fresnel lens of 24 panels radiated brilliant white beams 20 
miles out to sea every 60 seconds. Many birds migrating southward, 
dazzled by the light, struck the tower, enabling collectors to obtain 
rare specimens. When built, this lighthouse was 2 miles inland, but 
the water gradually encroached upon it. When the Atlantic was only 
100 feet away, the Government abandoned the 66-year old structure, 
retreating to higher ground, where a skeleton tower now replaces the 
older, more picturesque light. 

DIAMOND SHOALS lie offshore at this point. The white spray 
of the breakers on these treacherous shallows is visible for miles at 
sea. They are vast shifting ridges of sand, swept down the coast by 
powerful ocean tides. 

Few ships that run aground on the shoals can ever be refloated. 
The Maurice R. Thurlow, however, proved to be an exception. On 
October 13, 1927, this schooner, valued at $50,000 and carrying a 
$30,000 cargo of lumber and a crew of nine, grounded on the shoals 
during a storm. Certain that their ship would soon be broken up, the 
crew signaled for help, and were taken off by the coast guardsmen in 



NORTH CAROLINA 187 

their surfboat. By this time the sea had become so violent that efforts 
to reach shore were abandoned and the surfboat crew took the men 
to the lightship until the storm abated. 

The Coast Guard headquarters at Norfolk, Va., had meanwhile 
dispatched the cutter Mascoutin to assist the schooner. Upon arriving, 
the cutter found no trace of the Maurice R. Thurlow and reported her 
a total loss. This was on October 14. Thirteen days later the Dutch 
tanker Sleidrecht wirelessed that she had sighted the schooner more 
than 500 miles away. She carried no sail but was apparently making 
about two knots. Later another steamer reported sighting the derelict. 

A general order to run down the modern Flying Dutchman was 
broadcast and numerous craft joined the hunt, but to this day no 
further trace of the sea wanderer has been found. 

The shoals are marked and guarded by DIAMOND SHOALS LIGHT- 
SHIP, moored 1 3 miles off the tip of Cape Hatteras by chains capable 
of withstanding a 40-ton drag. Even a West India hurricane passing 
up the coast seldom breaks these moorings. During one such gale, in 
September 1933, this ship dragged her 5,500-pound mushroom an- 
chor 5 miles without breaking the mooring chain. This ship with 
radio signals and with a 480,000-candlepower beacon, serves passing 
vessels continuously for a year, at the end of which she and her crew 
of 16 are relieved by another "wave wallower." 

One of the first lightships of the country was placed here in 1824, 
but three years later broke from her mooring and was wrecked. It 
was 70 years before another lightship was stationed at the shoals. 
Unsuccessful attempts were made to keep both bell-boats and buoys 
on the spot; Congress even authorized the construction of a lighthouse 
on the shoals, but the work was abandoned when the sea partly de- 
stroyed the foundation. Since a lightship was placed here in 1897, 
one has been maintained almost continuously. 

One period when the watch was not maintained occurred during 
the World War, on August 8, 1918, the ship on duty was sunk by a 
German submarine. The lightship crew escaped in small boats, 
watched the ship sink, and landed safely on Cape Hatteras. 

In September 1936 hurricane tides accompanying a storm uncov- 
ered the bow of the Carroll A. Deering at Ocracoke, some 15 miles S. of 
Cape Hatteras, recalling the story of the ghost ship of Diamond 
Shoals. In September 1920, coast guardsmen discovered the Carroll 
A. Deering, a five masted schooner with all sails set, reeling help- 



1 88 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

lessly under heavy seas, off the shoals. The coast guardsmen put out 
to rescue the crew, but upon boarding the vessel were astonished to 
find the ship deserted except for a gray cat. Everywhere were evi- 
dences that the ship had been recently occupied. Food was in the 
galley; a coffee pot was on the stove. What had become of her crew 
of ten men has remained an unsolved mystery to this day. A story 
was circulated that a bottle, picked up from the sea nearby, con- 
tained a message signed by Captain Wormsley, the ship's master, 
stating that the crew had been captured by pirates and taken away 
on another vessel. Government officials worked on the case without 
results. The dynamiting of the wreck to remove the hazard was au- 
thorized but before the orders were carried out, another storm blew 
up, beat the vessel to pieces, and cast the wreckage along the shore. 

South of Cape Hatteras Park the road leads through sand hills 
whose ridges are clothed with a thick growth of loblolly pine, live- 
oak, and magnificent holly, including the yaupon, or cassena holly. 
The trees incline westward, bent by the prevailing winds. These 
woods have large numbers of deer and small game. 

Yaupon (Ilex cassine and Ilex vomitoria) is a dark evergreen with 
bright red berries. The small glossy leaves are dried and used for tea 
that causes violent nausea. The Creeks drank it at their annual 
"busk", or green-corn thanksgiving, and for a ceremonial purifica- 
tion. 

An early writer thus described the Indians' use of yaupon: 

"At a certain time of the year they (the Indians) came down in 
droves from a distance of some 100 miles to the coast for the leaves of 
this tree. They make a fire on the ground, and putting a great kettle 
of water on it, they throw in a large quantity of these leaves, and set- 
ting themselves around the fire, from a bowl that holds a pint they 
begin drinking large draughts, which in a short time occasions them 
to vomit freely and easily. Thus they continue drinking and vomiting 
for the space of two or three days, until they have sufficiently cleansed 
themselves; and then everyone taking a bundle of the tree, they all 
retire to their habitations." 

BUXTON, 47 m. (315 pop.), is (R) in a growth of unusually fine 
pine. The village consists of weathered fishing shacks, for the most 
part, but houses and premises are always neat and shipshape. 

In FRISCO, 50 m. (115 pop.), on the sound side of the highway, 
the neat white houses with bright blue blinds are enclosed by white 




TREES IN AVON, NORTH CAROLINA 



WRECK OF THE KOHLER OFF HATTERAS 



NORTH CAROLINA 189 

picket fences; dooryards are gay with flowers. Beside the road here, 
which is thick with pine needles, yucca and palmetto mingle with 
the pines and live-oaks. The FRISCO COAST GUARD STATION is on the 
beach (L). 

South of Frisco the route continues through the woods, which at 
length gives way to open beachland strewn with still more wreckage. 

HATTERAS, 54 m. (5 alt., 1,132 pop.), is the largest community 
on the beach. Sportsmen resorting here for deep-sea fishing have 
brought considerable revenue to the place. The only other sources 
of income are fishing and working for the coast guard and lighthouse 
services. The houses stand among scrubby, stunted live-oaks and 
bushes teeming with mocking birds. Some of the houses are flam- 
boyantly painted, others flaunt new and shiny lightning rods, and in 
summer nearly all have bright flower gardens. Plants seldom have to 
be housed, for the winters are very mild, because of the proximity of 
the Gulf stream. Here and there amidst the more somber foliage of 
the palms and pines is the gaudy bloom of the crape-myrtle or the 
red gleam of the yaupon berry. Nearly all the roads are little more 
than lanes thickly carpeted with pine needles. 

The people of this section are weathered and bronzed, and have 
unusual independence and self-reliance. They speak in broad Devon 
accents. Many of the older families believe they are descended from 
English sailors who were shipwrecked on this lonely shore. Most are 
members of well defined clans. Archaic words and phrases have sur- 
vived, and the distinctive banker enunciation gives them a special 
quality. 

"Couthy" is the local word for capable; "heerd" is the pronuncia- 
tion for "heard." "Don't fault me if I'm scunnered" means "Don't 
blame me if I'm disgusted." The mainland is usually referred to as 
"the country," and day begins at "calm daylight." "Disremember 
and "disencourage" are frequently used. "Fleech" means to flatter, 
not a complimentary term since the native is sparing with his praise. 
His pocket is "a poke," a kiss is a "buss," and a man's sweetheart is 
his "may." 

In this neighborhood a model T is driven as if it were a ship in sail. 
To turn left is to "port the helm," and when the right front tire blows 
out, "she's listin' by the starb'rd beam." A wife riding in the rear 
seat is "supercargo in the stern sheets." 

Towns are "neighborhoods," and though there are no formal 



igo THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

boarding houses, visitors, or "comers n'goers" can find shelter along 
the way. Graves are usually in the yards close by the houses, but 
there is always the chance that the bones of the departed may "blow 
out" if the winds are high. A canoe is a "cunner," and some of the 
houses "rest on blocks because of the toids." 

The spit turns W. here and at the western end the woods disappear 
and the ground is low and wet. 

HATTERAS INLET, 55 m., the principal one on the North 
Carolina coast, is a spot famous among anglers (boats available for 
trips to the Gulf Stream, 20 m. off shore). Dolphin, amberjack, tarpon, 
sailfish, and marlin swordfish, provide excitement for the deep-sea 
fisherman (fishing best in late May, early June, and Oct.). 

Where the marsh and beach converge to a bare point at the inlet 
are traces of FORT HATTERAS and its outlying flank defense, BATTERY 
CLARK. They were originally sand redoubts, held in place by earth 
from the adjoining marshes, and pitifully inadequate to guard the 
strategic position that provided the only protection for Albemarle 
and Pamlico Sounds. Col. W. F. Martin was in charge of Fort Hat- 
teras when, on August 27, 1861, a Federal fleet, equipped with 
Dahlgren guns, appeared beyond the range of the old-style smooth 
bore pieces of the Confederate defenders. On August 29th, after most 
of the fort's guns had been silenced, Federal troops landed on the 
beach, and Colonel Martin surrendered. 



SIDE ROUTE B 

SOUTH CAROLINA 



Mount Pleasant Sullivan's Island Isle of Palms, 9.6m. State 
703. 

Accommodations available at Sullivan's Island and Isle of Palms during summer 
months. 

State 703 branches S. from US 17 in Mount Pleasant (see MAIN 
ROUTE, SECTION 9). 

COVE INLET BRIDGE, 3 in., is a draw-bridge spanning a channel 
between the mainland and Sullivan's Island. In Revolutionary days 
there was a pontoon bridge here. 

SULLIVAN'S ISLAND, 3.1 m. (1,378 pop.), on the northern 
side of Charleston Harbor, fronts on the Atlantic Ocean. Because the 
island has been set aside as part of the national coastal defense, the 
title to those parts not now occupied by Federal reservations is vested 
in the State of South Carolina and leases to private persons can be 
terminated at any time if the land is needed for military purposes. 
The Federal tracts embrace Fort Moultrie, a Coast Guard Station, 
fortifications along the beach, and a rifle range. The permanent 
population, consisting chiefly of people serving or working on the 
reservations, is much increased in summer by cottagers seeking relief 
from the inland heat. The eastern end of the island, for the most part 
uninhabitated, is covered with myrtle and palmettos. 

FORT MOULTRIE RESERVATION, containing 40 acres, has 
barracks, officers' homes, a golf course, and a theater. A series of bat- 
teries extends along the eastern side of the island. The present fort, 
which has been modernized at intervals, was established in 1811 to 
protect Charleston Harbor. The first military structure erected on 
the island was Fort Sullivan, which stood a little southwest of the 
present fort. 

Charles Town, as Charleston was called in Colonial days, was the 
first southern city to join the American Revolution and the British 
almost immediately sent a fleet under Sir Peter Parker to capture it. 
The Colonials had started to fortify the harbor and assigned Col. 
William Moultrie to the Sullivan's Island end of the defense; the little 
structure, made of palmetto logs and sand, was not yet completed 



Ig2 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

when the Americans moved in. The British attack, on June 28th, 
1776, did not greatly harm the primitive structure, the balls burying 
themselves in the soft walls. One shot, however, broke off the staff 
carrying the flag of South Carolina; impetuous Serg. William Jasper 
jumped over the low earthworks, snatched up the flag and, under 
fire, fastened it to a new pole before leaping back unhurt. This event 
made him a popular hero. 

British forces had been gathered on Long Island now called Isle 
of Palms with the idea of having them cross Breach Inlet and at- 
tack the fort by land on the exposed side; the American Col. William 
Thomson was sent to the inlet to prevent the movement. As the 
British troops some in boats and others, having mistaken the 
depth of the water, attempting to wade approached Sullivan's 
Island, Thomson's force was able to repel them. The successful de- 
fense of the fort greatly strengthened American morale. 

During the critical days of December 1860, Major Anderson, the 
Federal commander of the fort, moved his troops to the stronger 
Fort Sumter. Secessionists seized Moultrie and used it to subdue 
Sumter. Moultrie was not abandoned by the southern forces until 
1865. 

At 3.7 in . (R) is the OLD FORT (soldiers guide visitors), used during 
the Civil War. Here are the old barracks and the prison; the mine 
control room was under a large mound of earth. 

Outside the fort is the GRAVE OF OSCEOLA, the Seminole chief, who 
was confined in the dungeon within the walls. Osceola, the son of a 
white man and his Creek wife, was born in Georgia but moved to 
Florida at an early age, where he became a chief of the Seminoles; 
when the Government attempted to move the tribe west of the 
Mississippi, Osceola persuaded the Indians to resist. In 1835 war- 
fare resulted and during the hostilities, Osceola was induced to visit 
General Jesup's camp under a flag of truce; the truce was violated 
and he was seized. Later he was sent to Fort Moultrie, where he died 
of a fever. On the grave is a stone slab engraved: "Osceola, Patriot 
and Warrior. Died at Fort Moultrie January 30, 1838." 

By the side of Osceola's grave is a simple granite shaft erected to 
the memory of the crew of the Patapsco, which was blown up in 
Charleston harbor on January 15, 1866. Sixty-six names are in- 
scribed on the monument. 

Edgar Allan Poe was stationed on Sullivan's Island as a soldier in 



SOUTH CAROLINA 193 

1828 and there wrote Israfel; he later used the island as the scene of 
The Gold Bug. 

State 703 passes the cottages of the large summer colony. 

THE ISLE OF PALMS, 8 m. (25 pop.), has a broad smooth 
beach 7 miles long that makes it a popular summer and fishing resort. 
Many Charlestonians still call it by its old name of Long Island. 

ISLE OF PALMS PAVILLION, 9.6 m., the social center of the summer 
community, is used for dances and other forms of entertainments. 



SIDE ROUTE C 

Junction with US 17 Folly Beach, 8.8 m. Folly Beach Rd. 
Hard-surfaced roadbed. 

The Folly Beach Rd. branches S. from US 17, 2 miles W. of 
Charleston (see MAIN ROUTE, SECTION 10). 

At 0.5 m. is WAPPOO HEIGHTS, a wooded residential area in- 
habited chiefly by people whose business takes them to Charleston. 

The McLEOD HOUSE, 1.4 m. (L), with large columns and a formal 
entrance-avenue of oaks, was a hospital in the Civil War and later 
headquarters of the Bureau for Protection of Refugees, Freedmen, and 
Abandoned Lands, popularly called the Freedmen's Bureau, that 
was conducted (1865-1872) by the Government under the War 
Department. 

At 1.5 m. is a junction with the paved Wappoo Hall Rd. 

Right on this road to the MUNICIPAL GOLF COURSE (L), 1.3 m., an 18-hole 
course with grass greens. (Adm. 50.) 

At 4.1 m. are the side gates (R) of FENWICK HALL (private), built in 1730 by 
the seventh John Fenwick. The "castle" has an underground passage to a creek 
emptying into Stono River. 

The ninth Edward Fenwick, a lover of horses, built a race track on his estate 
and imported trainers and grooms from England to care for his stud. One of the 
grooms won the heart of Fen wick's daughter; when the indignant father refused 
to give permission for their marriage, the young people eloped but were caught 
and brought back to the hall. The daughter, according to the story, was impris- 
oned in a room overlooking the yard in which her lover was hanged. Since then 
the place has been endowed with strange noises and sights; silken skirts are said to 
rustle in the dead of night, wails and moans echo through the upper rooms, 
sometimes a chair is heard rocking and bumping in an empty chamber, and, 
local people declare, a white wraith at times floats out of an upper window, 
dropping to earth at the place where the groom died. 



194 



THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 



The northerners who now own Fenwick Hall have planted and developed a 
CACTUS GARDEN, containing many imported plants; :ome of these cacti, grotesque 
in appearance, have reached a height of 25 feet. Many are rare night-blooming 
varieties. Contrary to the usual practice, the owners spend their summers, rather 
than their winters, here in order to enjoy their unusual garden. 

Fenwick Hall faces JOHNS ISLAND ROAD. In 1778 a company of Americans was 
stationed on Johns Island across Stono River from a British encampment. One 
night Thomas Fenwick, who at the time was not known as a Royalist, came into 
the American camp for supper with the officers, who discussed their plans with 
him. In the night the British crossed the river in two divisions, one surrounding 
the quarters and taking every man prisoner and the other capturing a company 
stationed at Matthew's Landing. The latter company, under command of Col. 
John Barnwell, surrendered to a British sergeant, who then proceeded to violate 
the rules of warfare by killing most of the men. 

At 8.1 m. is the junction with marked Angel Oak Rd.; L. here 0.3 m. to 
ANGEL OAK in an enclosure (adults 10<k, children 5$ on the former Angel planta- 
tion. This tree, estimated to be 1,000 years old, is 60 feet high; its trunk is 21 feet 
in circumference and the longest of its low-hanging branches is 76 feet long. 
The home of the Angel family was burned during the Civil War. 

ROCKVILLE, 20.3 m., on Wadmalaw Island, ships out large quantities of 
shrimp, oysters, and vegetables by water to points north. Boat races are held 
here during the summer. 

It is said that here in 1666 Capt. Robert Sandford claimed the territory of 
Carolina for the English by the turf and twig ceremony. This custom was one 
that endured for many years in the Colony and consisted of passing a handful of 
earth and a twig from the old to the new owner of the tract. 

At 3.5 m. on the Folly Beach Rd. is a junction with a marked 
hard surfaced road. 

Left on this road 1.7 m. to the end of the road, which is at the gates of the 
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY PLOT on the intersecting King's Highway. 

The gates are a memorial to Samuel Gaillard Stoney, president for many 
years of the Agricultural Society of South Carolina, which was organized in 
1785. The United States Agricultural Field Station was established here in 
1925. 

Left on the King's Highway, a broad dirt, tree-lined road that was a thorough- 
fare in Colonial days; at 3.6 m. is a junction with another dirt road; R. here to 
LIGHTHOUSE POINT, a new residential development so named because the 
Charleston Light can be seen from it across a short stretch of water. 

At 5.4 m. on King's Highway are the REMAINS OF FORT JOHNSON, beside the 
U. S. QUARANTINE STATION. Here are a brick building, formerly the powder 
magazine, and batteries; there is also an old tabby wall about 200 years old. 
The individual gun mountings, made of tabby, are now used for children's 
playhouses and for chicken coops. 

Fort Johnson was on the site of the oldest fortifications of Charleston Harbor, 
built in 1704-08 and named for the Governor, Sir Nathaniel Johnson. In 1765, 



SOUTH CAROLINA 195 

a British sloop bringing in the hated tax stamps was threatened by colonists 
who had imprisoned the garrison and put themselves in command of Fort John- 
son; they forced the sloop to return the stamps to England. During the Civil War 
Fort Johnson helped guard the harbor entrance. Like Fort Moultrie it was never 
surrendered, though it was evacuated in 1865. 

The Quarantine Station was built here in 1878. Harbor quarantine regulations 
have been in effect since 1712, when incoming ships were ordered "to lie under 
the guns of Fort Johnson" until inspected for disease. The Federal Government 
took over this station in 1908. 

A map of the fort as it appeared during the Civil War is now in the office of 
the Quarantine Station. 

East of the powder magazine and across the water is a clump of bushes on the 
SITE OF BATTERY SIMKINS, from which the first shot at Fort Sumter was fired. 
A splendid view of Charleston Harbor and the Battery is had from this spot. 

At 4 m. on the Folly Beach Rd. after it rounds a curve, is another 
junction with the King's Highway. 

Left on the King's Highway at 0.6 m. is a brick church beside a junction with 
a side road; R. on this road to a junction with another dirt road at 1.4 m.; L. on 
this to SECESSIONVILLE, 3.2 m., named long before 1860 because of the 
secession of planters from their plantations to this site during the summer. 

At Secession ville on June 16, 1862 occurred a serious skirmish that has been 
commemorated by a monument. 

At 8.2 m. on Folly Beach Rd. is a TOLLGATE (20 round trip), 
at the head of the long causeway. Tiny palmetto-crowned islands 
dot the expanse of marsh grass that changes in appearance with the 
tide. Herons, gulls, and other sea birds hunt on the edge of the mud- 
flats and sandbanks. 

FOLLY ISLAND, 8.8 m., is laid out in residential lots and 
streets. Summer homes, inns, and camps lie among the hillocks and 
dense growths of trees that rise above the ten-mile stretch of beach. 
From Folly the Union troops laid siege to Morris Island in 1863. 
On the eastern end of the island is a U. S. ARMY RADIO STATION. 

Across the intervening Lighthouse Inlet Morris Island is visible; 
it is at the southern extremity of Charleston Harbor. This lighthouse 
is the third erected here, the first having been built in 1767. From 
Morris Island on January 9, 1861, three months before the bombard- 
ing of Fort Sumter, an impetuous corps of Citadel cadets fired on a 
ship bringing supplies to Anderson who had withdrawn from Fort 
Moultrie to Fort Sumter (see above). This was actually the first shot 
in the Civil War. 



i g6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

SIDE ROUTE D 

Junction with US 17 Magnolia Gardens Middleton Gardens 
Summerville, 22.9 m. State 61. 

Paved and dirt roads. 

Accommodations available only in Summerville. 

This Garden Tour traverses country marked by the natural beauty 
that is typical of South Carolina Low Country. Paralleling the 
Ashley River most of the distance, the road runs through a swampy 
region with dense forests of spreading live-oaks, and over little 
bridges that span cypress-shaded waters mirroring misty banners of 
Spanish moss. 

State 61 branches NW. from US 17, 3 miles W. of Charleston (see 
MAIN ROUTE, SECTION 10). 

ST. ANDREW'S PARISH CHURCH, 5.6 m. (R), a white structure 
with a red roof and green blinds, is one of the notable early buildings 
of this region. The first minister was assigned in 1707, a year after 
the parish was established on the banks of the Ashley River. The 
first church on the present site, known to have been here in 1719, 
was a brick rectangle surrounded by a burial ground of three acres. 
This structure, which was enlarged and made cruciform in 1 722, was 
destroyed by fire about 1760. To help defray the cost of rebuilding, 
an act was passed in 1764 authorizing the vestry to sell pews; because 
those near the front were more costly than those in the rear, the 
position of a parishioner's seat became an approximate index to his 
wealth. Slaves were allowed to sit in the small gallery. Since the 
death of the Reverend John Grimke Dray ton in 1891, there has 
been no rector at St. Andrew's. The gravestones surrounding the 
church itself bear many inscriptions of interest. 

DRAYTON HALL (R), 8.2 m., approached through an avenue of 
fine trees, is visible through the locked gates. This large house, one 
of the best examples of Georgian architecture in the State, is a two- 
story brick structure on a high basement; double entrance steps lead 
to the two-story pedimented portico, which is partly recessed. The 
house, built before the Revolution, is owned and occupied by de- 
scendants of the builder. 

This, the only one of the Ashley River estates not marred by 
vandalism of Federal soldiers during the Civil War, was saved by the 



SOUTH CAROLINA 197 

action of a Confederate officer, who, when he learned of the Yankees' 
approach, transferred a number of slaves, ill with smallpox, from 
their homes to the big house. Fear of the deadly disease kept the 
Northerners away. 

Adjoining the Drayton Hall property, (R) at 8.9 m., is MAGNOLIA 
GARDENS (open Jan. 1 to May 1; best season late Feb. to mid- Apr.; ample 
time should be allowed for a leisurely survey of the 25 acres; adrn. $2). 

The color and charm of this wonder spot have challenged genera- 
tions of painters and writers. Galsworthy referred to it as "the most 
beautiful of all the gardens planted by the sons of men." The estate 
has been in possession of the Drayton family since the early years of 
the 18th century. The early mansion, burned during the Revolution, 
was replaced by a second fine building, which was destroyed in the 
Civil War. The present house stands upon the old foundations but 
is architecturally unimportant. 

The garden was planned and started toward its present perfection 
by the Reverend John Grimke Drayton. The present owners, his 
descendants, have inherited his genius for developing a garden of 
extreme informality, where exotic plants flourish among the rich 
flora of the Carolina coast. 

The fame of the gardens rests not upon its native magnolias, but 
upon the azaleas, camellias, and wistaria, the first of which were im- 
ported by Mr. Drayton in 1843. The azaleas have reached an amaz- 
ing size and their extraordinary range of color runs from cool white 
through shades of lavender and coral to a bonfire blaze of scarlet, 
harmonized and tempered by drooping cypresses and live-oaks, 
garlanded with gray moss, and by the reflections from the waters of 
the pool and the river. In addition to its superb native trees, the 
gardens have fine specimens of California redwood, Chinese yew, and 
Spanish and French cypresses. 

RUNNYMEDE PLANTATION (R), 9.4 m . (seaym: Mar. -Apr.; small 
adrn. fee), laid out on the site of an Indian village, was first called 
Greenfields, later Susan's Place and subsequently Runnymede be- 
cause of some topographical similarity to the estate of that name on 
the Thames in England. Its history begins with a royal grant to John 
Cattell, issued in 1705. The landscape is informal but impressive. 
The lawns, covering several hundred acres, are shaded by towering 
trees of many varieties. One giant live-oak, growing in front of the 
house, is unusual for its symmetry and the wide spread of its branches. 



i 9 8 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Vistas of the winding Ashley River and across the black waters of 
picturesque lagoons are impressive. Azaleas blazing against the dark 
background of the forest are charmingly grouped with camellias and 
roses; the native jasmine, dogwood, and wistaria add their beauty 
to the scene. The present home, built by Charles Cotesworth Pinck- 
ney, who operated phosphate mines in the vicinity, is the third struc- 
ture to stand on the foundations. The first, of pre-Revolutionary con- 
struction, was destroyed by fire; near the end of the Civil War the 
handsome second residence also burned. 

A feature of Runnymede is ALPHABET AVENUE, created according 
to a fanciful idea of Captain Pinckney's. Each side of this driveway is 
bordered with trees, planted so that the first letter of their names 
form the alphabet; the line begins with an ash, a beech, and a chest- 
nut. One of these trees, the Koelreuteria, was brought from the 
Orient. Another avenue, shaded by large magnolias, leads to a bluff 
on the river that was the site of another plantation, now a part of 
Runnymede. The boundary between Magnolia and Runnymede 
traverses an Indian mound from which many relics have been col- 
lected. Prehistoric fossils have been excavated from phosphate mines 
here. 

John Galsworthy, the English novelist, was a guest at Runnymede 
during one of his visits to America. While here he was charmed with 
the gardens of the State and published numerous articles about them. 
Scenes of some of his novels are laid in the vicinity. 

MIDDLETON PLACE, 12.4 m. (R), also has famous old gardens 
(best in Mar. and Apr.; open Feb. -May; adm. $2). The property, granted 
to Jacob Wayte in 1695, was the dowry of the bride of Henry Middle- 
ton (1717-1784), who was later elected President of the Continental 
Congress but resigned from that body in 1776 when his policy of 
moderate resistance was overruled by the more radical members. Al- 
though he sought protection from the British when they held Charles- 
ton, his estates were not confiscated after the Revolution as were 
those of nearly all loyalists. About 1740 Mr. Middleton sent to Eng- 
land for an experienced landscape gardener to design and develop a 
formal setting for the great brick manor house he was building; only 
the right wing of this structure is standing today, the left wing and 
three-story central unit having been destroyed by Federal troops in 
February 1865. The remaining wing with its curved gable-end 
topped by a stone coping is reminiscent of many Oxford colleges. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 199 

This house with its gardens covering 60 acres demonstrates more 
clearly than any historical treatise the completeness of the ties be- 
tween tidewater Carolina and the mother country. The Colonial 
gentlemen transplanted bits of England to the marshes of the New 
World. 

Many southern Colonial gardens were planned as carefully as 
were the houses they surrounded; often indeed the gardens were 
partly designed before the house. When plantation tracts were being 
selected the first requirement was fertile land near a navigable 
stream and the second a site suitable for the domestic unit. For the 
latter purpose an elevation not too far from the river was considered 
most desirable because it raised the dwelling above the swamp 
miasmas and to a position receiving breezes during the hot months; 
further, such a site offered great opportunity for the development of 
impressive approaches, charming vistas and formal landscaping. 
Having acquired his plantation the owner then gave attention to the 
design of the domestic yard, usually studying one or more of the 
many books on estate landscaping fashionable in England at the 
time; these had formulas based on French and Italian plans. In most 
cases such gardens were either square or rectangular, the relation of 
length to breadth in the latter being worked out by mathematical 
computations; the shape of this unit was often cunningly disguised 
by the use of circular and elliptical plantings and paths. Having de- 
termined the outline and location of the domestic tract the owner 
then considered river and land approaches, then the placement of 
wings, kitchens, the schoolhouse, the stables, the washhouse, and 
cabins for the domestic servants. Frequently, he also set aside a space 
for a family burial ground. 

Often considerable leveling and building up was done before con- 
struction of the house was started; some South Carolinians spent 
much effort to obtain the terraces or "falls" that were so fashionable 
for the river front. 

The gardens themselves were never finished because most planters 
added to them constantly, trying out new effects and experimenting 
with new varieties and species of plant life. It is said that the making of 
the Middleton gardens required the labor of 100 slaves for ten years. 

The sweeping terraces, dropping to the river, the bordered paths, 
and "butterfly" lakes, date from the time of the first Henry Middle- 
ton. His son Arthur, who succeeded his father as a delegate to the 



200 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Continental Congress and was a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, is buried in the gardens. The second Henry, son of Arthur, 
and a Governor of South Carolina, added much to the beauty of 
Middleton Place. The French botanist, Andre Michaux, visited him 
and procured for him many new plants the first camellia japonica 
brought to the United States, Chinese azaleas, mimosas, ginkgos, and 
varnish and candleberry trees. William Middleton, son of the second 
Henry, in the years preceding the Civil War, added the first azalea 
indica. The estate is not only rich in these imported shrubs and trees 
but has been called a "botanical paradise of native American plant 
life." 

The camellia japonicas are the special glory of the estate. Hundreds 
of them, of many varieties, bloom from late fall through early spring. 
The three original plants are still here. Many camellias are notable 
specimens 20 or 30 feet in height, while others form long green tun- 
nels above ancient sun-flecked brick walks. 

The huge moss-draped Middleton Oak, with a circumference of 
37 feet at a point 4 feet above the ground, is estimated to be 900 years 
old. 

At 19.7 m. is a junction with a neighborhood road. 

Right on this road are the RUINS OF OLD WHITE MEETING HOUSE (L), 0.5m. 
At 2.2 m. on this road is a junction with a narrow lane; R. here to the RUINS OF 
FORT DORCHESTER and the SITE OF THE TOWN OF DORCHESTER, 2.4 m. The town 
was named for Dorchester, Mass., whence the first settlers came in 1 696. Today only 
the ruins of the meeting house and the remnants of the old fort mark the site of a 
town that had 1,000 people and that endured for more than half a century. 
When the town was abandoned the lumber and bricks of the buildings were car- 
ried away to construct others. 

SUMMERVILLE, 22.9 m. (75 alt., 2,579 pop.), is largely a 
residential winter resort attracting visitors by its beauty. In the spring 
it is as much a mecca for garden lovers as are Magnolia and Middle- 
ton Gardens. Azaleas, camellias, and wistaria bloom lavishly against 
the dark blue-green of the pines, and give the town an almost theatri- 
cal color. 

The city ordinance forbidding the cutting of pine trees even on 
private property has not only preserved the trees but caused the 
streets to curve and ramble in avoiding them. 

Two blocks from the business section of Summerville is the AZALEA 
PARK, on the far side of which is a BIRD SANCTUARY. Native birds are 



SOUTH CAROLINA 201 

seen here at all times, and thousands of migrants arrive in the spring 
and fall. Among the more than 800 plants in the park are many 
trees and shrubs having berries; these were planted to supply food for 
the birds during the winter. 

Right from Summerville on State 64 to PINEHURST TEA FARM 
(open usually Mar. 31 and Apr.l). Planted in 1890 by Dr. Charles U. 
Shepard for experimentation in commercial tea growing, it was the 
first place in the United States where tea was grown for profit. Tea 
plants remain as hedges and ornamental shrubs. Doctor Shepard 
became interested in the "Brass Ankles" of Dorchester County, 
founding a mission school for the children about 1900. 

The "Brass Ankles" are a racial group resulting from the inter- 
mingling of white, Negro, and some Indian blood. They are a people 
apart, unwelcome in white society and shunning Negro companion- 
ship. Their skins are usually darker and muddier than that of whites, 
but their hair and eyes vary in color. 

The name is said to have come from the fact that Negro slaves 
with Indian blood were made to wear brass rings about their ankles. 
DuBose Heyward's novel Brass Ankle deals with them. 



SIDE ROUTE E 

Adams Run Edisto Beach, 20.3 m. Edisto Beach Rd. 

Surfaced roadbed; Dawhoo Causeway unsafe during high tides and rainy 

weather. 

Accommodations at Edisto Beach in summer. 

The large oaks and subtropical vegetation along this route near 
US 17 thin out to pine barrens a few miles from the Federal highway. 
Along the road are occasional glimpses of salt creek and green marsh 
lands. 

The Edisto Island Rd. branches S. from US 17 in Adams Run 
(see MAIN ROUTE, SECTION 10). 

BARRELVILLE, 2.8 m. (15 pop.), where barrels and containers 
of many kinds are manufactured for the Meggetts section, is near the 
crossing of the Seaboard Airline Ry. and is the only village on the 
mainland through which this route passes. 

The Dawhoo River causeway that connects the mainland with 



202 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Whooping Island, was made of layer on layer of oyster shells, placed 
on a precarious foundation of slimy black mud, and for years has been 
gradually sinking. In 1937 it was rebuilt with clay and sand. 

WHOOPING ISLAND 6.2 m. It is said that in earlier days the 
ferryman at this point usually stayed on the mainland bank of the 
river and people bound inland from Edisto Island summoned him by 
yelling at the top of their voices hence the name, Whooping Island. 

LITTLE EDISTO ISLAND, 6.8 m., is between Whooping 
Island and Big Edisto. On both sides are vast stretches of marsh, and 
occasional truck farms with the usual barns and packing sheds. 

At 8.9 m. is the old WHALE Y PLANTATION HOME (L), fronting on 
Russell Creek, which divides Little Edisto from Big Edisto Island. 
The late J. Swinton Whaley, last of his line to live here, was an out- 
standing authority on the cultivation of sea-island cotton. As late as 
1934 he planted a small patch of this staple, contending that the crop 
would be revived. 

At 9 m. is EDISTO ISLAND (1,675 pop.), bounded on the north- 
east by the North Edisto River, on the northwest by Walls Cut and 
Russell Creek, on the west by the South Edisto River and on the 
south and southeast by the Atlantic Ocean. When there was still 
some hesitancy about signing the Ordinance of Secession, the dele- 
gate from Edisto Island walked to the table and before signing said, 
"Even if South Carolina refuses to secede from the Union, Edisto 
Island will !" I. Jenkins Mikell wrote in Rumbling of the Chariot Wheels, 
"Evidently that settled the matter, for South Carolina voted to leave 
the Union of States and thus saved Edisto from the distinction of 
being 'The Independent Republic of Edisto Island' with fifty square 
miles of territory and with 5,000 inhabitants 4,600 being slaves." 

At 10 m. is the junction with the Edisto Island Public Rd., old 
before the Revolution. This winding road, that toward the N. loses 
itself among the live-oaks, was probably used soon after the English 
settlers came to these shores. Left on this road through a long green 
tunnel formed by overhanging boughs shrouded with gray moss, over 
a slight dip into a little savannah where bamboo vines like huge 
snakes twine in and out of the luxuriant undergrowth. 

At 10.8 m. is a junction with Brick House Ave. 

Left on this road to BRICK HOUSE PLANTATION, 1.7m.; here the walls of a brick 
house erected in 1883, as the seat of the Jenkins family, stand in a grove of live 
oak and pine. A lawn spreads to a salt creek that almost surrounds the place. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 203 

At 12.7 m. (L) is the EDISTO ISLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 
erected in 1831 by a congregation organized in the early part of the 
18th century. The white building is vivid against a background of 
dark green foliage. The churchyard contains many interesting tomb- 
stones, among them one designed for the grave of an Italian prince. 

At 13.4 m. is the junction with the Steamboat Landing Rd. 

Left on this road to the SANCTIFY CHURCH (L), 0.4 in. In this little building 
which was once a country store, worship a group of Negroes who call themselves 
"The Sanctify." Their religious services are held at irregular intervals, beginning 
a little after dark and continuing sometimes even until morning. In these weird 
rites reminiscent of the Congo drums beat, slowly at first, then with a 
steadily increasing tempo until the tum-tum-tum is one wild prolonged roll; 
feet pound the floor faster and faster; hands clap; women sway; little girls keep 
time with tambourines; and the priestess raises her voice in a high obbligato of 
praise audible above the vibrating accompaniment of the drums. 

A few leaders begin the movements; then as the beat of the drums continues, 
other dusky forms begin to sway, dance, and whirl madly, until the little building 
seems to overflow with frenzied worshippers, many of whom fall to the floor from 
exhaustion. 

At 0.9 m. on the Steamboat Landing Rd. is a junction with Mail Route Rd.; 
L. on Mail Route Rd. 0.7 m. to SEABROOK MANSION (private), partly visible 
through the trees. Although constructed in the period immediately following 
the Revolutionary War, it is excellently preserved. Stories are told of how the 
Marquis de Lafayette was entertained here while touring the South in 1825. 
The distinguished Frenchman stepped ashore on carpets covering the quarter 
of a mile between the boat landing and the house. Lafayette requested the honor 
of naming William Seabrook's infant daughter, whom he called Carolina de 
Lafayette. 

The old house is simple, dignified and attractively proportioned. Double steps 
lead to the front porch where wrought iron railings with the initials of the Sea- 
brook family guard the entrance. The dwelling was the scene of many Confed- 
erate reunions. 

At 2.1 m. on the Mail Route Rd. is a junction with Oak Island Ave.; L. here 
0.9 m. to OAK ISLAND PLANTATION (open by special permission), the former seat of 
the Seabrook family. A rambling Colonial house stands near the river. Before the 
Civil War the Seabrook family owned more than a thousand slaves; a dozen 
Negro urchins were assigned the task of picking up the leaves as they fell from the 
trees in the 10-acre formal gardens that were later devastated by raiders from 
Sherman's army. 

At 3.3 m. on the Mail Route Rd. is a junction with Point of Pines Rd.; L. on 
this road 1 m. to POINT OF PINES PLANTATION (private). It is thought that the ruins 
of a tabby house standing on the river front here in a little grove of trees are the 
remains of a dwelling built by Paul Grimball, secretary to the Lords Proprietors. 

Across the broad North Edisto River, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean 
a few miles farther east, WADMALAW ISLAND is visible. Robert Sandford 



204 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

and his party explored this country before the settlement of the original Charles 
Town and it was on Wadmalaw Island that he claimed the Carolinas westward 
from the Atlantic Ocean to the "South Seas" for the King and Lords Proprietors. 
Here also he met the friendly Indians ruled by the Cassique of Kiawah. The 
pirate, Yeats, operated in these waters before he surrendered to the English in 
Charles Town. 

At 14.6 m. on the Edisto Island Public Rd. is TRINITY PROT- 
ESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH (R), founded about two centuries ago. 
The original building, modeled after St. Michael's Church in 
Charleston, was burned in recent years. Towering live-oaks and 
laurels shade many ancient graves in the church cemetery. 

At 15.6 m. is the junction with the Peter's Point Plantation Rd. 

Right on this road to PETER'S POINT PLANTATION, 4.1 m., a typical ante- 
bellum southern planter's home. 

It is still in the possession of the Mikell family, who have owned the place for 
generations. The house is in an excellent state of preservation. The grounds bor- 
der St. Pierre's Creek, which flows into the South Edisto River. On the banks of 
this river Spanish Jesuits conducted a mission school for Indians before English 
colonists settled on the North American continent. 

At 16.1 m. is the junction with the Edisto Beach Rd., which 
swings R. and is the main route. 

Left at this junction on a road formerly used by the planters as a race track 
for their blooded horses. 

HAMILTON'S HILL, 0.4 m., a little elevation, was the starting point for 
the races, and is known for a wide variety of ghosts including such fearsome crea- 
tures as a 10-foot cat that explodes before the beholder's eyes, plat-eyes in the 
guise of three-legged hogs and two-headed cows, boo-daddies, boo-hags, and 
drolls. The drolls are supposed to be the spirits of infants who died painful deaths. 
Edisto Negroes say their crying can be heard in the dank green malarial swamps 
during the hour just before sunrise. 

At 16.6 m. on the Edisto Beach Rd. is the junction with Bay or 
Cowper's Rd. 

Left on Bay Rd. to a landing, 1.3 m., at the end of the road (row boats some- 
times available for use to Edingsville Beach). From here Edingsville Beach, a barrier 
island, is visible 1 .4 miles south. 

EDINGSVILLE BEACH, offshore, was, between 1825 and 1885, a flourishing 
village of 60 houses where planters and their families spent the summer. The 
buildings were destroyed by a series of hurricanes and Edingsville is now a 
desolate waste, inhabited only by sand crabs, rabbits, wild cats, and waterfowl. 
The beach is said to be haunted by a woman in white who walks the strand on 
bright moonlight nights and disappears in the surf when followed. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 205 

At 19.5 m. is a junction with a sandy road. 

Right on this road to a junction with a winding single track lane at 0.4 m.; 
R. to the end of this road where are the remains of a large INDIAN MOUND, sur- 
rounded by palmettos, oaks, and a tangled web of subtropical vegetation. 

At 20.2 m. is the entrance to the winding Jungle Rd. 

Right on the Jungle Rd., through a thick grove of palmetto, myrtle, oak, pine, 
and yaupon, to the junction, 2.2 m., with the central route to Edisto Beach. 

EDISTO BEACH, 20.3 m. (bait, boats, and guides secured here for 
fishing expeditions), is a summer resort where are about a hundred 
cottages, a store, a filling station, and a clubhouse. 

EDISTO STATE PARK, covering an area of 800 acres, almost 
surrounds Edisto Beach and extends southwest to Big Bay Creek; it 
was given to the State Commission of Forestry by the Edisto Beach 
Corporation. An additional tract of land lies along the beach to the 
left of the settlement. A mile and a half of excellent beach is included 
in this recreational area in addition to a large tract in which sea- 
island cotton was formerly grown ; the cotton fields are now covered 
with a young growth of poplar, yucca, yaupon, and other vegetation. 

This park, now under development, will have a bathhouse, public 
camping grounds, boathouse, picnicking grounds, cabins and facil- 
ities for bathing, boating and salt-water fishing. Extensive landscap- 
ing will be done on the dunes. 

Tabby, an early form of concrete for which the lime was obtained 
by burning oyster shells, was used extensively in this area in early 
days; the park authorities are therefore using a modern version of 
tabby in the construction of park buildings. 



SIDE ROUTE F 

Walterboro Ritter Combahee Paver, 19.5 m. State 303, State 
32. 

Paved roadbed; limited accommodations. 

Beautiful old plantations constitute the main interest of this route. 
Delightful vistas and wooded stretches appear suddenly near down- 
at-the-heel villages; ante-bellum homes and their charming gardens 
are hidden behind high brick walls. 



2 o6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

State 303 branches S. from US 17 at the southwestern end of Wal- 
terboro (see MAIN ROUTE, SECTION 10). 

RITTER, 7.7 m. (30 pop.), is a small rural settlement where a 
few Negroes around the store offer the only evidence of life in the 
neighborhood. 

Left from Ritter on a dirt road at 1.2 m. are entrances to two plantations. 

Left is BEECH HILL (private), one of the few plantations in the Low Country 
that has been continuously occupied and cultivated by the same family for more 
than a century. A stately avenue of palmettos leads up to the house which is visible 
from the road. 

Beech Hill, though visited nine times by Sherman's raiders, escaped destruc- 
tion, largely owing to the courage of the owner's wife, who met every attempt 
at intimidation with calm and unruffled serenity. On one occasion, after repeated 
threats from the raiders, who were trying to evict her in order to destroy the 
house, she turned to them and said, "Gentlemen, this is my home. As often as you 
come here you will find me here." 

Shortly afterward, a Federal officer found her sitting on the porch. "Beautiful 
day, Madam," he greeted her. "Maybe for you, but not for me," she retorted, 
relating the story of the hardships suffered at the hands of his men. He then asked 
if she spoke French, and promised her in that language that she should be 
molested no more. 

Right opposite the entrance to Beech Hill, 5.6 m., on a private lane shaded by 
ancient live-oaks to the house of BONNIE DOONE (private). The estate was part of a 
land grant made by George I in 1722. The gateway at the entrance is made of 
old English bricks dug up on the plantation; ancient live-oaks form a stately 
avenue leading to the white brick home, designed in the Colonial style but of 
modern construction. 

Only a pile of brick remained from the original plantation house after Sher- 
man's raiders had left. 

On the right side of the lane is an ante-bellum rice field. 

At 13.5 m. is the junction with State 32; R. on State 32 from this 
point. 

Left on State 32 at 2.1 m. is a junction with the Airy Hall Rd.; here 0.5 m. 
to (L) the entrance lane of Poco SABO PLANTATION (private"), part of the vast 
Bellinger barony on Ashepoo River. The first Landgrave, Edmund Bellinger, left 
the barony intact and willed it to his son Thomas, who, dying intestate, left it 
to his brother, Edmund Bellinger. He died in 1768 and his son, the fourth land- 
grave, who was born in 1743 and died in 1801, inherited the estate. 

On the plantation in an area enclosed by a high brick wall is a slab laid in 
memory of Edmund Bellinger (1743-1801), his wife, and his seven children; it 
gives a brief history of his life and is the only marker in this section erected to a 
landgrave. 

The present two-story white house with its red roof and storm windows is a 
typical present-day plantation home; many chimneys extend high above the 



SOUTH CAROLINA 207 

roof lines. The front is terraced and there is a delicate lattice work on each side 
of the doorway. Unlike most of the modern plantation homes, this one is long 
and narrow; the rooms have charming views of the river and woods and are 
exceptionally light. 

On State 32 near ASHEPOO RIVER, 4.1 m., is the LOST TOWN OF 
EDMUNDSBURY, laid out in 1740 upon a tract of 600 acres, part of the original 
grant to the first Landgrave Edmund Bellinger, for whom the town was named. 
Mention of it appears in the Statutes of March 8, 1741, at which time the com- 
missioners were directed to "lay out and keep in repair a road from the Town of 
Edmundsbury near the Ashepoo River bridge into Salt Catcher road." The plan 
for the town was approved in May 1 742, and construction of a chapel of ease to 
the church of Bartholomew's Parish, created November 30, 1706, was begun 
here in 1753. 

At 14.2 m. on State 32 is a junction with a dirt road by a filling 
station. 

Left on this deep sandy road at 4.7 m. is STOCK CEMETERY (L). Here the body 
of John Laurens (1753-1782), the Revolutionary soldier, was buried temporarily 
before being removed to Mepkin, the Laurens plantation on the Cooper River. 

One of the old moss-covered tombs bears this inscription: "Sacred to the mem- 
ory of John Stock, Esq., a gentleman whose many virtues ender'd him to all 
who knew him, in whom were united the Son, tender Husband, affectionate 
Parent, and sincere Friend. He has left those to lament their several losses, having 
left the world the early Period of 24 years on the 27th of June, 1784." 

The REMAINS OF EARTHWORKS constructed during the Civil War are here. 

At 16.1 m. is a junction with a marked dirt road. 

Right on this road to (L) WHITE HALL (private), 5.2 m., one of the loveliest 
of the Low Country plantations. The house, of the Colonial type, is surrounded 
by live-oaks and green lawns. The owner, C. L. Lawrence, designed the motor of 
the Lindbergh plane, Spirit of St. Louis. 

At 17.4 m. is a junction with a marked dirt road. 

Left on this road at 3 m. are the gates of LONG BROW PLANTATION (private}. 
The rambling white house, 1 m. from the gate, is an enlargement of the original 
building. 

At 17.7 m. (L) is LAUREL SPRING PLANTATION, where Theodore 
Ravenel, last of South Carolina's rice growers, planted his crops. 

Back water rice fields still exist about halfway between Laurel 
Spring and the adjoining OAKLAND. 

Both Laurel Spring and Oakland were part of the old Lowndes 
Place, a grant made to the Lowndes family. At Oakland, the ante- 
bellum house, large, square, and white, is still standing. Some of the 



2 o8 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

mantels and mouldings are said to have been imported. The house, 
constructed of cypress and heart pine, has a charming window half- 
way up the graceful mahogany stairway. 

The last commercial rice fields in the State are behind this house. 

The Lowndes Place is the only large ante-bellum home by the 
Combahee River spared during Sherman's march to the sea. A 
brother-in-law of the owner was an officer in the Federal army. 
Charred embers said to have been found in the attic are considered 
evidence that orders to burn the house were countermanded at the 
last minute. On the estate are also an ancient carriage house, stables, 
a barn and a kitchen, with outside stairs to its attic. All were built in 
the first quarter of the 1 8th century. 

The LODGE of the present owner of the Lowndes Place, is a white 
painted brick structure built in the shape of a Z, and surrounded 
by beautiful trees, a number of camellias and azaleas, and a wide 
expanse of green lawn. Right of the lodge is the TOMB OF DR. JAMES 
LYNAH, a surgeon-general in the Revolutionary War. 

At 19.5 m. is a drawbridge over the COMBAHEE RIVER, called 
the River Jordan by the Spaniards when they visited this coast in 1 525. 
When crossing in their flat boats, the early planters, so the story goes, 
believed it to be one of the purest rivers in the world and used to 
drink a toast in Combahee water to "God's Country." 

On both sides of the causeway approaching the bridge are old rice 
fields, now frequented by duck hunters; an old rice-mill chimney in 
Cypress Plantation is visible across the field (R). 

Near the Combahee is the SITE OF THE LOST TOWN OF 
RADNOR, laid out in 1734 by William Bull. Radnor, like Edmunds- 
bury (see above), apparently did not .thrive, for in 1763 a petition from 
the people of Granville and Colleton Counties stated that if only the 
town of Radnor were made a port of entry, people would be en- 
couraged to settle there. 



SIDE ROUTE G 

GEORGIA 



Junction US 17 St. Simon Island Sea Island, 11.5 m. 
St. Simon Causeway, Sea Island Rd., and Frederica Rd. 

Bell Bus Line from Brunswick to Sea Island in summer; fare 50& round trip 75 
Shell and paved highways. Good hotel, boarding houses, cottages, and lunch 
rooms on St. Simon Island; luxurious hotel on Sea Island. 

St. Simon Island, including the small adjacent Sea Island, is, 
with the exception of Tybee, Georgia's only coastal island open to 
the public. For many years. St. Simon has been a popular summer 
resort for Georgia people; Sea Island, more recently developed, is a 
winter playground for Northern visitors, offering luxurious facilities. 

On these beautiful islands, wooded stretches of moss-draped live- 
oaks and glossy-leafed cassenas mingle with rows of cerise crape- 
myrtles and pink and white oleanders. Evergreens and vivid flowers 
grow the year round in the mild island air. 

History has made these Golden Isles important landmarks in the 
New World. Since its occupation by the white man four centuries 
ago, St. Simon Island has been successively under the dominion of 
Spain, England, the United States, the Confederate States of Amer- 
ica, and again the United States. As early as 1575 American com- 
modities were being shipped to Europe from the mouth of the 
Frederica River; when English settlers arrived in 1736 they found 
flourishing orange and olive groves that had been planted by 
Spanish missionaries. 

The Spanish, who at one time laid claim to all America, had 
gradually given up attempts to establish sovereignty over the terri- 
tory far north of Florida but when the British set up the Georgia 
Colony they met determined resistance. Both the English and the 
Spanish established forts and there were several minor clashes not 
far from the present boundary between Georgia and Florida before 
the Battle of Bloody Marsh, which took place on this island in 1742, 
put an end to the Spanish attempts to hold the Georgia coast. 

With the defeat of the Spanish, the military importance of the 
island was ended. The English soldiers were subsequently given small 
grants of land. This was the beginning of the plantation regime that 

209 



210 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

made St. Simon Island, from the early 18th century until the Civil 
War, one of the most highly developed contiguous agricultural areas 
in the country, almost all of its 30,000 acres being under cultivation. 
The Civil War put an end to the gay life of the island, many of 
the homes being burned, the church used for stabling horses, and 
the fields laid waste. Few of the old families returned later to the 
scene of their former affluence. In the early 1900's, wealthy northern- 
ers became interested in St. Simon, and its new era of prosperity 
began. 

East of its junction with US 17 at the Visitors Club, Om., just 
N. of Brunswick (see SECTION 77), the route crosses the St. Simon 
Causeway (toll 30 a round tripjor car and driver; 70^ for each additional 
person). Bordered by sea myrtles and palmettos, the causeway 
stretches across land reclaimed from the Marshes of Glynn and the 
tidewater rivers. 

GASCOIGNE BLUFF, 4.5 m. (L), is a low, wooded, shell- 
covered bank overlooking the Frederica River. It is named for 
Captain Gascoigne, commander of the man-of-war Hawk, which 
convoyed the two ships bringing settlers to Georgia in 1736. 
Known as the Great Embarkation, this group included Oglethorpe, 
making his second trip to America, John and Charles Wesley, and 
many Salzburgers and Moravians. After taking his charge to Sa- 
vannah, Gascoigne brought his ship to St. Simon where it reenforced 
the defense offered by Fort Frederica. This bluff was the scene of 
numerous encounters between the settlers and the Spanish and 
Indians. During the era of lumbering activity along the coast, 
there were two large saw mills on the bluff; in the early days of the 
Republic timber was cut on St. Simon for use in building vessels 
for the navy, timbers shipped from this bluff going into the con- 
struction of the Constitution. When the historic ship was rebuilt in 
later years, timbers from St. Simon were again used. 

Left from Gascoigne Bluff on a shell road to HAMILTON PLANTATION (private), 
0.5m., the winter home of Eugene W. Lewis of Detroit. The two-story residence 
was built about 1880 but was remodeled after Mr. Lewis bought it in 1927. 
The grounds include rose and azalea gardens, a formal garden, lily pools, and 
extensive lawns. The plantation was established about 1793 by James Hamilton, 
one of the wealthiest planters of the island, on land granted by King George II 
to Captain Gascoigne after his arrival here in 1736. 

At 4.7 m. at the intersection with the paved Kings Way, is the 
junction with a private road. 



GEORGIA 211 

Right on the private road to the SEA ISLAND YACHT CLUB, 0.5 m. (reserva- 
tions made), a white frame structure set on landscaped lawns broken by curving 
shell roads. The north entrance opens into a spacious lounge decorated with 
ships, lanterns, and other nautical objects. During the winter season many dances 
are held in the lounge. About 200 yards W. of the club is the Frederica River, 
part of the Intracoastal Waterway, between Gape Cod, Mass., and Rio Grande, 
Tex. 

JEWTOWN, 5.5m., is a Negro hamlet with small, shabby frame 
houses, surrounded by rambling flower gardens and small vegetable 
patches. The inhabitants, descendants of slaves, speak an almost 
unintelligible dialect; they derive most of their meager incomes 
from fishing and crabbing. The village is so named because of the 
Jewish merchants who were in business here during the lumbering 
period. 

At the junction with Retreat Ave. and Demere Rd., 5.8 m., is a 
TABBY HUT (R), a low cabin, the only remaining Retreat Planta- 
tion slave house. Its thick tabby walls, which have a rough, grayish 
appearance, blend into a background of moss-covered oaks. 

Sea Island Rd. turns L. at this point. 

Right from this junction on Retreat Ave. 1 m. to the junction with Kings Way; 
R. (straight ahead) here 0.5 m. on Retreat Ave. to the RIDING ACADEMY (horses 
for rent). 

The SEA ISLAND GOLF CLUB (R), 0.8 m. (greens fee $3) from the Kings Way 
junction on Retreat Ave., has two nine-hole courses: one is the usual type of 
inland links, with fairways bordered by massive oaks and pines, the other, built 
along the river edge, resembling an English seaside course, has sand traps and 
difficult water hazards. The two-story clubhouse, with a hanging balcony above 
the front entrance, is set in a cluster of large palms. It is built around the tabby 
walls of an old barn which was an appurtenance of Retreat Plantation. This 
estate, at first covering the southern part of the island, was granted to James 
Spalding, a Scotsman who came to America in 1760. About 1775 the plantation 
was bought by Major William Page, of South Carolina, who left it to his daughter, 
Anne, wife of Thomas Butler King, Congressman and planter. An olive tree, a 
few rare plants, and a majestic avenue of live-oaks are reminders of the beautiful 
grounds that John James Audubon greatly admired. The old slave cemetery 
of the Retreat Plantation lies near the ninth green of the golf course. Retreat was 
well known for the high quality of its sea-island cotton. 

Left from Retreat Ave. on Kings Way. 

ST. SIMON VILLAGE, 2.8m. from Sea Island Road, is a year-round resort 
(hotels, boarding houses, cottages; faking and crabbing equipment rented at piers; deep-sea 
faking trips about $2 per person; stores, small restaurants, casino with usual resort amuse- 
ment facilities) . This village is on the blunt southern end of the island overlooking 
St. Simon Sound at the point where it meets the Atlantic Ocean. From the foot of 



212 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

Mallory St., Jekyll Island (see MAIN ROUTE, SECTION 77) is visible across the 
Sound. 

ST. SIMON LIGHTHOUSE rises above Neptune Park (R). A light was first estab- 
lished at this point in 1 804, guiding boats into the port of Brunswick. During the 
Civil War all the buildings at the light-station were destroyed by Confederate 
forces, and it was not until 1871 that a new tower was completed. 

The SITE OF FORT ST. SIMON, Oglethorpe's fortification on the south end of the 
island, is adjacent to the lighthouse. This fort was connected with Fort Frederica, 
farther north, by a military road. Oglethorpe kept a guard on a bluff to protect 
the northern end of the island and erected Fort Delegal on the eastern side. 

North of St. Simon Village runs Ocean Shore Drive on the smooth white sand 
of St. Simon Beach. The beach slopes gently to the water, which is warm through- 
out the year. (Bathers should be on guard against deep inlets worked by the waves; they 
are dangerous at certain stages of the tide.) 

Left from St. Simon Village on Demere Rd., which returns to Sea Island Rd. 

The BLOODY MARSH BATTLEFIELD MONUMENT, 5m., marks the 
site of the final conflict between the Spanish and the English for sovereignty in 
Georgia. In 1742 a Spanish fleet of more than 50 vessels anchored in St. Simon 
Sound and after a brief engagement destroyed the garrison there. Elated over 
this victory, the Spanish forces pursued Oglethorpe, who had withdrawn toward 
Frederica (see below). The British commander rallied his forces, waited in ambush, 
and drove the Spanish into the marsh where almost all of them were either killed 
or wounded. The battle is thought to have received its name from the bloody 
appearance of the marsh after the struggle. 

The battle took place on what became KELVIN GROVE PLANTATION, which was 
first owned by Thomas Gator, and later became the property of the Postell 
family. The plantation is now (1937) owned by Mrs. Maxfield Parrish wife of the 
painter. Mrs. Parrish, who spends the winters here, has made valuable contribu- 
tions toward a knowledge of Negro folk music by preserving the spirituals, 
work songs, and play songs of the island Negroes. Because these Negroes were 
long isolated here, their music is distinctive. By bringing the Negroes together in 
the evenings in a cabin on her plantation, where they are encouraged to sing, 
Mrs. Parrish has rediscovered many forgotten melodies. 

At 6 m. on Demere Rd. is the junction with Sea Island Rd. by the Retreat 
Plantation tabby hut (see above). 

On Sea Island Road at 8 m. is TWITTY PARK, a triangular wood 
plot. Here is the junction with Sea Island Causeway and with 
Frederica Rd. 

Right from Twitty Park on Sea Island Causeway is SEA ISLAND, 1.8 m., a 
luxurious resort developed by the late Howard Coffin. (Tennis, badminton, 
archery, golf, trapshooting, horseback riding, hunting, fahing, and fresh- and salt-water 
swimming.) 

At the center of a group of stuccoed buildings is (L) the CLOISTER HOTEL, 
designed by Addison Mizner in a modified Spanish style. The three-story tile- 
roofed building is built around courtyards filled with tropical plants. The main 
group of buildings stands on landscaped grounds in which are bowling greens, 



GEORGIA 213 

archery courts and other amusement areas. The terrace of the Cloister Apartment 
Annex is by the river, where private boats can be anchored. Beside the hotel is 
the CASINO, overlooking the ocean; adjoining it is an outdoor swimming pool. 

Left from the Cloister Hotel, on Sea Island Dr. through an ocean-beach resi- 
dential colony where are many white stuccoed houses of types seen along the 
Riviera. 

At 6.3 m. on a shell extension of Sea Island Dr. is the SEA ISLAND FISHING 
CAMP (fishing equipment and guides available), a rustic camp overlooking the Hamp- 
ton River, which affords good sport for fishermen. 

GLYNN HAVEN ESTATES, 8.5 m., on Frederica Rd., is a 
summer colony of small houses surrounding a lake well stocked with 
fresh-water fish. 

Left from Glynn Haven on a dirt road to EBO LANDING, 0.5 m., on Dunbar 
Creek, where cargoes of slaves were landed. On one occasion a group of Ebo 
tribesmen arrived who refused to submit to slavery. Trusting that the waters that 
brought them to this country would carry them back to their native land, they 
were led by their chief into the water and, singing tribal songs, disappeared under 
the waves. Even today Negroes will not fish in these waters; they imagine they 
hear in the murmer of the river the songs of the Eboes. 

At the junction with unpaved Couper Rd., 10 m., Frederica Rd. 
turns L. 

Right on Couper Rd. 0.5 m. to the junction with another dirt road; R. here 
1 m. to the SITE OF THE SALZBURGER VILLAGE, a settlement made by a 
group of persecuted Lutherans from Austria who accompanied Oglethorpe to St. 
Simon Island. These industrious people lived almost entirely from the yield of their 
lands; they grew foodstuffs and raised mulberry trees for the culture of silkworms. 

At 5 m., on Couper Rd. is a fork. 

1. Left from the fork 2 m. to HAMPTON POINT, at the northern tip of the island. 
Here are the ruins of the house and garden of the old Hampton Plantation, 
established by Major Pierce Butler of South Carolina. Aaron Burr, after his duel 
with Alexander Hamilton, visited this estate; and Pierce Butler, the grandson of 
the founder, later lived here with his wife, the English actress, Fanny Kemble. 
Mrs. Butler was so repelled by the institution of slavery that she voiced her hos- 
tility in bitter letters to her friends in England. Although she always remained 
unwavering in her opposition to slavery, later her attitude softened toward the 
people of the island, as is shown in her book, Journal of a Residence on a Georgia 
Plantation (1838-39). 

2. Right from the fork 1.5 m. to where John Couper of Scotland developed 
the plantation that has been called Georgia's first agricultural experiment sta- 
tion, because he planted here every tree, flower, and shrub that he thought would 
grow in this semi-tropical climate. He was especially interested in his olive grove. 
The trees imported from France throve so well that 300 bottles of good grade olive 
oil were produced in one year from their fruit. Only a few shrubs and a Persian 



2i 4 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

date palm which still bears remain of this fine early garden. The kitchen 
fireplace in the ruins of the old mansion has been rebuilt by the Cloister Hotel, 
whose guests use this picturesque spot for barbecues and oyster roasts. 

Little St. Simon Island, across the Hampton River, is visible from this point. 

The SITE OF GENERAL OGLETHORPE'S FARM (L), 10.2 m., on 
Frederica Rd., is indicated by a stone marker. The orange trees 
nearby are said to be descendants of those planted by Oglethorpe 
on his 50-acre estate; here Oglethorpe erected a small tabby dwell- 
ing and planted an orchard of oranges, figs, and grapes. This farm 
was the only home Oglethorpe ever owned in America; he preferred 
the military atmosphere of Frederica to the agricultural and religious 
activities of Savannah. 

CHRIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 10.5 m. (L), a low, gabled, frame 
structure, is surrounded by the graves of early settlers and soldiers, 
and a grove of moss-hung, giant live-oaks. The present church, in 
which regular services are held, was erected in 1875 to replace the 
first church, in which both John and Charles Wesley served as rec- 
tors. It was while he was fulfilling his duties as secretary to Ogle- 
thorpe on St. Simon Island that Charles had his historic quarrel with 
Oglethorpe, which resulted in Charles' departure for Savannah and, 
later, for England. Wesley Oak, a large tree shading the churchyard, 
marks the place where the Wesleys preached to the colonists and to 
the friendly Indians. 

The RUINS OF FORT FREDERICA, 11.5 m. (R), consist of two small 
chambers surmounted by a low parapet. These tabby ruins, covered 
with vines, have been worn by the passage of years and the wash of 
the nearby river. In 1736 Oglethorpe established here, as a military 
outpost, the town and fort which he named in honor of Frederick, the 
only son of George II of England. Selecting a site on the southern 
branch of the Altamaha River, known locally as the Frederica 
River, he erected a fort on a small bluff 10 feet above high water, 
at a point that commanded almost the entire length of the river. 
In a short time this temporary fort was replaced by one constructed 
of tabby, with four bastions. Oglethorpe built the town of Frederica 
behind the fort in the shape of a crescent. With its thickly wooded 
forests to the N. and E. and the boggy marshes of the river to the 
W., the site was well protected from attack. Today nothing remains 
of the town that at one time boasted a thousand inhabitants. 



BARLOW'S DESCRIPTION OF THE 
NORTH CAROLINA COAST 

The 27 day of Aprill, in the yeere of our redemption, 1584, we 
departed the West of England, with two barkes well furnished with 
men and victuals, having received our last and perfect directions 
by your letters, confirming the former instructions, and command- 
ments delivered by your selfe at our leaving the river of Thames. 
And I think it is a matter both unnecessary, for the manifest dis- 
coverie of the Countrey, as also for tediousnesse sake, remember 
unto you the diurnall of our course, sayling thither and returning; 
onely I have presumed to present unto you this briefe discourse, by 
which you may judge how profitable this land is likely to succeede, 
as well to your selfe, by whose direction and charge, and by whose 
servantes this our discoverie hath beene performed, as also to her 
Highnesse, and the Commonwealth, in which we hope your wis- 
dome wilbe satisfied, considering that as much by us hath bene 
brought to light, as by those smal meanes, and number of men we 
had, could any way have bene expected, or hoped for. 

The tenth of May we arrived at the Canaries, and the tenth of 
June in this present yeere, we were fallen with the Islands of the 
West Indies, keeping a more Southeasterly course then was neede- 
full, because wee doubted that the current of the Bay of Mexico, 
disbogging betweene the Cape of Florida and Havana, had bene 
of greater force than afterwards we found it to bee. At which Islands 
we found the ayre very unwholesome, and our men grew for the 
most part ill disposed: so that having refreshed our selves with sweet 
water, & fresh victuall, we departed the twelfth day of our arrivall 
there. These islands, with the rest adjoining, are so well knowen to 
your selfe, and to many others, as I will not trouble you with the 
rememberance of them. 

The second of July we found shole water, wher we smelt so sweet, 
and so strong a smel, as if we had bene in the midst of some delicate 
garden abounding with all kinde of odoriferous flowers, by which we 
were assured, that the land could not be farre distant: and keeping 
good watch, and bearing but slacke saile, the fourth of the same 
moneth we arrived upon the coast, which we supposed to be a 
continent and firme lande, and we sayled along the same a hundred 
and twentie English miles before we could finde any entrance, or 
river issuing into the Sea. The first that appeared unto us, we entred, 

215 



2 i6 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

though not without some difficultie, & cast anker about three 
harquebuz-shot within the havens mouth on the left hand of the 
same; and after thanks given to God for our safe arrivall thither, 
we manned our boats, and went to view the land next adjoyning, 
and to take possession of the same, in the right of the Queenes most 
excellent Majestic, and rightfull Queene, and Princess of the same, 
and after delivered the same over to your use, according to her 
Majesties grant, and letters patents, under her Highnesse great 
scale. Which being performed, according to the ceremonies used 
in such enterprises, we viewed the land about us, being, whereas we 
first landed, very sandie and low towards the waters side, but so full 
of grapes, as the very beating and surge of the Sea overflowed them, 
of which we found such plentie, as well there as in all places else, 
both on the sand and on the greene soile on the hils, as in the plaines, 
as well on every little shrubbe, as also climing towardes the tope of 
high Cedars, that I thinke in all the world the like abundance is 
not to be found; and my selfe having scene those parts of Europe 
that most abound, find such difference as were incredible to be 
written. 

We passed from the Sea side towardes the toppes of those hilles 
next adjoyning, being but of meane higth, and from thence wee 
behelde the Sea on both sides to the North, and to the South, finding 
no ende any of both wayes. This lande laye stretching it selfe to the 
West, which after wee found to bee but an Island of twentie miles 
long, and not above sixe miles broade. Under the banke or hill 
whereon we stoode, we behelde the valleys replenished with goodly 
Cedar trees, and having discharged our harquebuz-shot, such a 
flocke of Cranes (the most part white), arose under us, with such 
a cry redoubled by many ecchoes, as if an armie of men had showted 
all together. 

This Island had many goodly woodes full of Deere, Conies, Hares, 
and Fowle, even in the middest of Summer in incredible abundance. 
The woodes are not such as you finde in Bohemia, Moscouia, or 
Hercynia, barren and fruitless, but the highest and reddest Cedars 
of the world, farre bettering the Cedars of the Acores, of the Indies, 
or Lybanus, Pynes, Cypres, Sassaphras, the Lentisk, or the tree 
that beareth the Masticke, the tree that beareth the rine of blacke 
Sinamon, of which Master Winter brought from the streights of 
Magellan, and many other of excellent smell and qualitie. We 



THE NORTH CAROLINA COAST 217 

remained by the side of this Island two whole dayes before we saw 
any people of the Countrey; the third day we espied one small 
boate rowing towardes us having in it three persons: this boat came 
to the Island side, foure harquebuz-shot from our shippes, and there 
two of the people remaining, and third came along the shoreside 
towards us, and wee being then all within boord, he walked up and 
downe upon the point of the land next unto us: then the Master and 
the Pilot of the Admirall, Simon Ferdinando, and the Captaine 
Philip Amadas, my selfe, and others rowed to the land, whose com- 
ming this fellow attended, never making any shewe of fear or doubt. 
And after he had spoken of many things not understood by us, we 
brought him with his owne good liking, aboord the ships, and gave 
him a shirt, a hat & some other things, and made him taste of our 
wine, and our meat, which he liked very wel: and after having 
viewed both barks, he departed, and went to his owne boat againe, 
which hee had left in a little Cove or Creeke adjoyning: assoone 
as hee was two bow shoot in the water, hee fell to fishing, and in 
lesse than halfe an houre, he had laden his boate as deepe as it could 
swimme, with which hee came againe to the point of the lande, and 
there he divided his fish into two parts, pointing one part to the ship, 
and the other to the pinnesse: which, after he had, as much as he 
might, requited the former benefites received, departed out of our 
sight. 

The next day there came unto us divers boates, and in one of them 
the Kings brother, accompanied with fortie or fiftie men, very hand- 
some and goodly people, and in their behaviour as mannerly and 
civill as any of Europe. His name was Granganimeo, and the king 
is called Wingina, the countrey Wingandacoa, and now by her 
Majestic Virginia. The manner of his comming was in this sort: 
hee left his boates altogether as the first man did a little from the 
shippes by the shore, and came along to the place over against the 
shipes, followed with fortie men. When he came to the place, his 
servants spread a long matte upon the ground, on which he sate 
downe, and at the other ende of the matte foure others of his com- 
panie did the like, the rest of his men stood round about him, some- 
what a farre off: when we came to the shore to him with our weapons, 
hee never mooved from his place, nor any of the other foure, nor 
never mistrusted any harme to be offered from us, but sitting still 
he beckoned us to come and sit by him, which we performed: and 



2i8 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

being set hee made all signes of joy and welcome, striking on his 
head and his breast and afterwardes on ours to shew wee were all 
one, smiling and making shewe the best he could of al love, and 
familiaritie. After hee had made a long speech unto us, wee pre- 
sented him with divers things, which hee received very joyfully, 
and thankefully. None of the company, durst speake one worde all 
the time: only the foure which were at the other ende, spake one in 
the others eare very softly. 

The King is greatly obeyed, and his brothers and children rever- 
enced: the King himself in person was at our being there, sore 
wounded in a fight which hee had with the King of the next coun- 
trey, called Wingina, and was shot in two places through the body, 
and once cleane through the thigh, but yet he recovered: by reason 
whereof and for that hee lay at the chief towne of the countrey, being 
sixe dayes journey off, we saw him not at all. 

After we had presented this his brother with such things as we 
thought he liked, wee likewise gave somewhat to the other that sat 
with him on the matte: but presently he arose and tooke all from 
them and put it into his owne basket, making signes and tokens, that 
all things ought to bee delivered unto him, and the rest were but his 
servants, and followers. A day or two after this, we fell to trading 
with them, exchanging some things that w* had, for Ghamoys, 
Buffe, and Deere skinnes: when we shewed him all our packet of 
merchandize, of all things that he sawe, a bright tinne dish most 
pleased him, which hee presently tooke up and clapt it before his 
breast, and after made a hole in the brimme thereof and hung it 
about his necke, making signes that it would defende him against 
his enemies arrowes: for those people maintaine a deadly and terrible 
warre, with the people and King adjoyning. We exchanged our 
tinne dish for twentie skinnes, woorth twentie Crownes, or twentie 
Nobles: and a copper kettle for fiftie skins woorth fifty Crownes. 
They offered us good exchange for our hatchets, and axes, and for 
knives, and would have given any thing for swordes: but wee would 
not depart with any. After two or three dayes the Kings brother 
came aboord the shippes, and dranke wine, and eat of our meat and 
of our bread, and liked exceedingly thereof: and after a few days 
overpassed, he brought his wife with him to the ships, his daughter 
and two or three children: his wife was very well favoured, of meane 
stature, and very bashfull: shee had on her backe a long cloake of 



THE NORTH CAROLINA COAST 219 

leather, with the furre side next to her body, and before her a piece 
of the same: about her forehead she had a bande of white Corall, 
and so had her husband many times: in her eares shee had bracelets 
of pearles hanging down to her middle, whereof wee delivered your 
worship a little bracelet, and those were of the bignes of good 
pease. The rest of her women of the better sort had pendants of 
copper hanging in either eare, and some of the children of the Kings 
brother and other noble men, have five or sixe in either eare: he 
himselfe had upon his head a broad plate of golde, or copper, for 
being unpolished we knew not what mettal it should be, neither 
would he by any means suffer us to take it off his head, but feeling 
it, it would bow very easily. His apparell was as his wives, onely 
the women weare their haire long on both sides, and the men but 
on one. They are of colour yellowish, and their haire black for the 
most part, and yet we saw children that had very fine auburne and 
chestnut coloured haire. 

After that these women had bene there, there came downe from 
all parts great store of people, bringing with them leather, corall, 
divers kindes of dies, very excellent, and exchanged with us: but 
when Granganimeo the kings brother was present, none durst 
trade but himselfe: except such as weare red pieces of copper on 
their heads like himselfe: for that is the difference betweene the 
noble men, and the gouvernours of countreys, and the meaner sort. 
And we both noted there, and you have understood since by these 
men, which we brought home, that no people in the worlde cary 
more respect to their King, Nobilitie, and Governours, than these 
do. The Kings brothers wife, when she came to us, as she did many 
times, was followed with forty or fifty women alwayes: and when she 
came into the shippe, she left them all on land, saving her two daugh- 
ters, her nurse and one or two more. The kings brother alwayes 
kept this order, as many boates as he would come withall to the 
shippes, so many fires would he make on the shore a farre off, to 
the end we might understand with what strength and company he 
approached. Their boates are made of one tree, either of Pine or of 
Pitch trees: a wood not commonly knowen to our people, nor found 
growing in England. They have no edge-tooles to have them withall: 
if they have any they are very fewe, and those it seemes they had 
twentie yeres since, which, as those two men declared, was out of a 
wrake which happened upon their coast of some Christian ship, 



2 2o THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

being beaten that way by some storme and outragious weather, 
whereof none of the people were saved, but only the ship, or some 
part of her being cast upon the sand, out of whose sides they drew 
the nayles and the spikes, and with those they made their best in- 
struments. The manner of making their boates is thus: they burne 
down some great tree, or take such as are winde fallen, and putting 
gumme and rosen upon one side thereof, they set fire into it, and 
when it hath burnt it hollow, they cut out the coale with their shels, 
and ever where they would burne it deeper or wider they lay on 
gummes, which burne away the timber, and by this means they 
fashion very fine boates, and such as will transport twentie men. 
Their oares are like scoopes, and many times they set with long poles, 
as the depth serveth. 

The Kings brother had great liking of our armour, a sword, and 
divers other things which we had : and offered to lay a great boxe of 
pearls in gage for them: but we refused it for this time, because we 
would not make them knowe, that we esteemed thereof, untill we 
had understoode in what places of the countrey the pearle grew: 
which now your Worship pe doeth very well understand. 

He was very just of his promise: for many times we delivered him 
merchandize upon his worde, but ever he came within the day and 
performed his promise. He sent us every day a brase or two of fat 
Bucks, Conies, Hares, Fish and best of the world. He sent us divers 
kindes of fruites, Melons, Walnuts, Cucumbers, Gourdes, Pease, and 
divers rootes, and fruites very excellent good, and of their Countrey 
corne, which is very white, faire and well tasted, and groweth three 
times in five moneths: in May they sow, in July they reape; in June 
they sow, in August they reape; in July they sow, in September 
they reape: onely they caste the corne into the ground, breaking a 
little of the soft turfe with a wodden mattock, or pickaxe; our 
selves prooved the soile, and put some of our Pease in the ground, 
and in tenne dayes they were of fourteene ynches high: they have 
also Beanes very faire of divers colours and wonderfull plentie: 
some growing naturally, and some in their gardens, and so have 
they both wheat and oates. 

The soile is the most plentifull, sweete, fruitfull and wholesome 
of all the worlde : there are above fourteene severall sweete smelling 
timber trees, and the most part of their underwoods are Bayes and 
such like: they have those Okes that we have, but farre greater and 



THE NORTH CAROLINA COAST 221 

better. After they had bene divers times aboord our shippes, my 
selfe, and seven more went twentie mile into the River, that runneth 
towarde the Citie of Skicoak, which River they call Occam: and the 
evening following wee came to an Island which they call Roanoak, 
distant from the harbour by which we entred, seven leagues: and 
at the North end thereof was a village of nine houses, built of Cedar, 
and fortified round about with sharpe trees, to keepe out their 
enemies, and the entrance into it made like a turnepike very artifi- 
cially; when wee came towardes it, standing neere unto the waters 
side, the wife of Granganimo the Kings brother came running out 
to meete us very cheerfully and friendly, her husband was not then 
in the village; some of her people shee commanded to drawe our 
boate on shore for the beating of the billoe: others she appointed to 
carry us on their backes to the dry ground, and others to bring our 
oares into the house for feare of stealing. When we were come into 
the utter roome, having five roomes in her house, she caused us 
to sit downe by a great fire, and after tooke off our clothes and 
washed them, and dryed them againe: some of the women plucked 
off our stockings and washed them, some washed our feete in warme 
water, and she herselfe tooke great paines to see all things ordered 
in the best maner shee could, making great haste to dresse some 
meate for us to eate. 

After we had thus dryed ourselves, she brought us into the inner 
roome, where shee set on the boord standing along the house, some 
wheate like furmentie, sodden Venison, and roasted, fish sodden, 
boyled and roasted, Melons rawe, and sodden, rootes of divers 
kindes and divers fruites: their drinke is commonly water, but while 
the grape lasteth, they drinke wine, and for want of caskes to keepe 
it, all the yere after they drink water, but it is sodden with Ginger 
in it and blacke Sinamon, and sometimes Sassaphras, and divers 
other wholesome, and medicinable hearbes and trees. We were 
entertained with all love and kindnesse, and with much bountie, 
after their maner, as they could possibly devise. We found the people 
most gentle, loving and faithfull, voide of all guile and treason, and 
such as live after the manner of the golden age. The people onely 
care howe to defend themselves from the cold in their short winter, 
and to feed themselves with such meat as the soile affoordeth: there 
meat is very well sodden and they make broth very sweet and 
savorie: their vessels are earthen pots, very large, white and sweete, 



222 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

their dishes are wooden platters of sweet timber: within the place 
where they feede was their lodging, and within that their Idoll, which 
they worship, of whome they speake incredible things. While we 
were at meate, there came in at the gates two or three men with 
their bowes and arrowes from hunting, whom when wee espied, 
we beganne to looke one towardes another, and offered to reach our 
weapons: but as soone as shee espied our mistrust, shee was very 
much mooved, and caused some of her men to runne out, and take 
away their bowes and arrowes and breake them, and withall beate 
the poore fellowes out of the gate againe. When we departed in the 
evening and would not tary all night she was very sorry, and gave 
us into our boate our supper halfe dressed, pottes and all, and 
brought us to our boate side, in which wee lay all night, remooving 
the same a prettie distance from the shoare: shee perceiving our 
jealousie, was much grieved, and sent divers men and thirtie women, 
to sit all night on the banke side by us, and sent us into our boates 
five mattes to cover us from the raine, using very many wordes, 
to entreat us to rest in their houses: but because we were fewe men, 
and if wee had miscarried, the voyage had bene in very great danger, 
wee durst not adventure any thing, although there was no cause of 
doubt: for a more kinde and loving people there can not be found in 
the worlde, as farre as we have hitherto had triall. 

Beyond this Island there is the maine lande, and over against this 
Island falleth into this spacious water the great river called Occam 
by the inhabitants, on which standeth a towne called Pomeiock, & 
sixe days journey from the same is situate their greatest citie, called 
Skicoak, which this people affirme to be very great: but the Savages 
were never at it, only they speake of it by the report of their fathers 
and other men, whom they have heard affirme it to bee above one 
houres journey about. 

Into this river falleth another great river, called Cipo, in which 
there is found great store of Muskles in which there are pearles: 
likewise there descendeth into this Occam, another river, called 
Nomopana, on the one side whereof standeth a great towne called 
Chawanook, and the Lord of that towne and countrey is called Poo- 
neno: this Pooneno is not subject to the King of Wingandacoa, but 
is a free Lord: beyond this country is there another king, whom they 
cal Menatonon, and these three kings are in league with each 
other. Towards the Southwest, foure dayes journey is situate a 



THE NORTH CAROLINA COAST 223 

towne called Sequotan, which is the Southermost towne of Wingan- 
dacoa, neere unto which, sixe and twentie yeres past there was a 
ship cast away, whereof some of the people were saved, and those 
were white people whom the countrey people preserved. 

And after ten days remaining in an out Island unhabited, called 
Wocokon, they with the help of some of the dwellers of Sequotan 
fastened two boates of the countrey together & made mastes unto 
them and sailes of their shirtes, and having taken into them such 
victuals as the countrey yeelded, they departed after they had re- 
mained in this out Island 3 weekes: but shortly after it seemed they 
were cast away, for the boates were found upon the coast cast a 
land in another Island adjoyning: other than these, there was never 
any people apparelled, or white of colour, either scene or heard of 
amongst these people, and these aforesaid were scene onely of the 
inhabitantes of Secotan, which appeared to be very true, for they 
wondred marvelously when we were amongst them at the whitenes 
of our skins, ever coveting to touch our breasts, and to view the 
same. Besides they had our ships in marvelous admiration, & all 
things els were so strange unto them, as it appeared that none of 
them had ever scene the like. When we discharged any piece, were 
it but an hargubuz, they would tremble thereat for very feare and 
for the strangenesse of the same: for the weapons which themselves 
use are bowes and arrowes: the arrowes are but of small canes, 
headed with a sharpe shell or tooth of a fish sufficient ynough to 
kill a naked man. Their swordes be of wood hardened: likewise 
they use wooden breastplates for their defence. They have beside 
a kinde of club, in the end whereof they fasten the sharpe horns of 
a stagge, or other beast. When they goe to warres they cary about 
with them their idol, of whom they aske counsel, as the Romans 
were woont of the Oracle of Apollo. They sing songs as they march 
towardes the battell in stead of drummes and trumpets: their 
warres are very cruell and bloody, by reason whereof, and of their 
civill dissentions which have happened of late yeeres amongst them, 
the people are marvelously wasted, and in some places the countrey 
left desolate. 

Adjoyning to this countrey aforesaid called Secotan beginneth a 
countrey called Pomouik, belonging to another king whom they 
call Piamacum, and this king is in league with the next king ad- 
joyning towards the setting of the Sunne, and the countrey Newsiok, 



224 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

situate upon a goodly river called Neus: these kings have mortall 
warre with Wingina king of Wingandacoa: but about two yeeres 
past there was a peace made betweene the King Piemacum, and 
the Lord of Secotan, as these men which we have brought with us to 
England, have given us to understand: but there remaineth a mortall 
malice in the Secotanes, for many injuries & slaughters done upon 
them by this Piemacum. They invited divers men, and thirtie 
women of the best of his countrey to their towne to a feast: and when 
they were altogether merry, & praying before their Idoll, which is 
nothing els but a meer illusion of the devill, the captaine or Lord 
of the town came suddenly upon the, and slewe them every one, 
reserving the women and children: and these two have oftentimes 
since perswaded us to surprise Piemacum in his towne, having 
promised and assured us, that there will be found in it great store of 
commodities. But whether their perswasion be to the ende they 
may be revenged of their enemies, or for the love they beare to us, 
we leave that to the tryall hereafter. 

Beyond this Island called Roanoak, are maine Islands, very plenti- 
full of fruits and other naturall increases, together with many townes, 
and villages, along the side of the continent, some bounding upon 
the Islands, and some stretching up further into the land. 

When we first had sight of this countrey, some thought the first 
land we saw to bee the continent: but after we entred into the Haven, 
we saw before us another mighty long Sea: for there lyeth along 
the coast a tracte of Islands, two hundreth miles in length, adjoyning 
to the Ocean sea, and between the Islands, two or three entrances: 
when you are entred betweene them, these Islands being very narrow 
for the most part, as in most places sixe miles broad, in some places 
lesse, in few more, then there appeareth another great sea, containing 
in bredth in some places, forty, and in some fifty, in some twenty 
miles over, before you come unto the continent: and in this inclosed 
Sea there are above an hundreth Islands of divers bignesses, whereof 
one is sixteene miles long, at which we were, finding it a most pleas- 
ant and fertile ground; replenished with goodly Cedars, and divers 
other sweetewoods, full of Corrants, of fl axe, and many other notable 
commodities, which we at that time had no leasure to view. Besides 
this island there are many, as I have sayd, some of two, or three, 
or foure, of five miles, some more, some lesse, most beautifull and 
pleasant to behold, replenished with Deere, Conies, Hares and divers 



THE NORTH CAROLINA COAST 225 

beasts, and about them the goodliest and best fish in the world, and 
in greatest abundance. 

Thus, Sir, we have acquainted you with the particulars of our 
discovery made this present voyage, as farre foorth as the shortnesse 
of the time we there continued would affoord us to take viewe of: 
and so contenting our selves with this service at this time, which 
wee hope here after to inlarge, as occasion and assistance shalbe 
given, we resolved to leave the countrey, and to apply ourselves to 
returne for England, which we did accordingly, and arrived safely 
in the West of England about the middest of September. 

Arid whereas wee have above certified you of the countrey taken in 
possession by us to her Majesties use, and so to yours by her Majesties 
grant, wee thought good for the better assurance thereof to record 
some of the particular Gentlemen & men of accompt, who then 
were present, as witnesses of the same, that thereby all occasion 
of cavill to the title of the countrey in her Majesties behalfe may be 
prevented, which otherwise, such as like not the action may use 
and pretend, whose names are: 

Master Philip Amadas, 1 ~ 

TV/T A u r> i t Captames 

Master Arthur Barlow, J 

William Greenvile, John Wood, James Browewich, Henry Greene, 
Benjamin Wood, Simon Ferdinando, Nicholas Petman, John Hewes, 
of the companie. 

We brought home also two of the Savages, being lustie men, whose 
names were Wanchese and Manteo. 



ANNUAL EVENTS ALONG THE 
OCEAN HIGHWAY 

January, St. Cecilia Ball, Charleston, S. C. 

January-May, Magnolia Gardens Open, near Charleston, S. C. 

January 1, Emancipation Day Parade (Negro), Savannah, Ga. 

February-May, Middleton Gardens Open, near Charleston, S. C. 

February-May, Belle Isle Gardens Open, Georgetown, S. C. 

February 12, Georgia Day, Pageant Commemorating Oglethorpe's Landing, 
Savannah, Ga. 

February 14, Twilight Concert, New Brunswick, N. J. 

March-April, Weekly Negro Singing in the Municipal Auditorium, Savan- 
nah, Ga. 

March-May, Runnymede Gardens Open, Near Charleston, S. C. 

Spring, Flower Show, Salisbury, Md. 

Easter Sunday, Sunrise Services at Ribaut Monument, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Easter Sunday, Sunrise Services, Palmyra, N. J. 

April, Azalea Festival, Charleston, S. C. 

April, Sailboat Races, Charleston and Mt. Pleasant, S. C. 

April, Flower Show, Jacksonville, Fla. 

April, Huckster Contest (Negro peddlers repeat their street calls), Forsyth 
Park, Savannah, Ga. 

April, Dog Show in Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Ga. 

April, Duval County Fair, Jacksonville, Fla. 

April 24-26, Cape Henry Pilgrimage Commemorating the Landing of the 
First Permanent English Settlers in America, Cape Henry, Va. 

April 25-30, Garden Week and Tours of Private Homes and Gardens, Va. 

April 26, Memorial Service at Old Midway Church, Midway, Ga. 

April 26, Confederate Memorial Day Services, Former Confederate States. 

April 26, Confederate Memorial Pilgrimage, Finns Point, N. J. 

April 27, Hampton Roads Kennel Club Show, Norfolk, Va. 

May, Racing Pigeon Club Show, Elizabeth City, N. C. 

May, Outdoor Art Exhibit, Charleston, S. C. 

May, Pageant and Horse Show, New Brunswick, N. J. 

May 1-15, Blossom Time, Camden and Gloucester Counties, N. J. 

May, 1st or 2nd Saturday, Dover Day, Dover, Del. 

May 1-4 (approx.) Schiitzenfest (Shooting Festival), Charleston, S. C. 

May 1, Chatham Artillery Anniversary Service in Armory, Savannah, Ga. 

May 8-9, Cavalier Horse Show, Virginia Beach, Va. 

May 13, Jamestown Day, Religious Services Commemorating the Founding 
of Jamestown, Jamestown, Va. 

May 14-15, Hampton Horse Show, Hampton, Va. 

May 14-15, Rose Show, Virginia Beach, Va. 

May 15 or 30, Beauty Contest, Tybee Island, Ga. 

226 



ANNUAL EVENTS 227 

May 20, Wilmington Light Infantry Celebration and Drill, Wrightsville 

Beach, N. C. 

May 21-23, Tidewater Horse Show, Norfolk, Va. 
May 22, National Maritime Day, Boat Races and Street Dance, Brunswick, 

Ga. 

May, 3rd Saturday (approx.), New Castle Day, New Castle, Del. 
May 30, Summer Seashore Season Opens, Virginia Beach, Va. 
May 31, Walt Whitman's Birthday Celebration, Camden, N. J. 
Whitsunday (7th Sunday after Easter), Christ Church, Open, Sermon at 

2:30 E.S.T., Broad Creek Hundred, Del. 
June, 1st Sunday, Clover Sunday Celebrated at Drawyers Church, near 

Odessa, Del. 

June, American Legion Outdoor Mass, Camden, N. J. 
June, Services at Old Moravian Church, Swedesboro, N. J. 
June, Sailboat Regatta, Charleston and Mt. Pleasant, S. C. 
June 4-5 (approx.), Potato Blossom Festival, Keller Fair Grounds, Va. 
July-September, Weekly Sailboat Races, Isle of Hope, Ga. 
July, Automobile Races, Folly Beach, S. C. 
July, Motorboat Regatta, Charleston, S. C. 
July, Sailboat Regatta, Charleston and Mt. Pleasant, S. C. 
July, Poultrymen's Field Day, New Brunswick, N. J. 
July 3-4, Hampton Yacht Club Regatta, Hampton, Va. 
July 4, Canoe and Outboard Motorboat Races, St. Simon Island, Ga. 
July, 2nd Thursday, Interstate Sailboat Regatta off Wilmington Island, 

Savannah, Ga. 

July 28-August 3 (approx.), Kent and Sussex Fair, Harrington, Del. 
July 30 (approx.), Pony Penning Day, Chincoteague Island, Va. 
August, Swimming Races, Charleston, S. C. 
August, Sailboat Regatta, Charleston and Mt. Pleasant, S. C. 
August 1-15, Delmarva Camp Meeting, Laurel, Del. 
August 8, Founders' Day Celebration, Salisbury, Md. 
Fall, Flower Show, Salisbury, Md. 
Fall, Farm and Home Show, Salisbury, Md. 
September, Florida Yacht Club Regatta, Jacksonville, Fla. 
September, Feast of Lights (Italian), Trenton, N. J. 
September, Regatta, Newport News, Va. 
September, Labor Day, Boat Races, New Bern, N. C. 
September, 4th Week, State Fair, Trenton, N. J. 
October, Chrysanthemum Day, New Brunswick, N. J. 
October 11, Pulaski Day, Camden, N. J. 
October 15, International Moth Class Association Regatta, Elizabeth City, 

N. C. 
October 18, Virginia Dare's Birthday Celebration, Manteo, N. C. 



228 THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 

October 31, Hallowe'en Costume Parade and Street Dance, Brunswick, Ga. 
December, Racing Pigeon Club Show, Elizabeth City, N. C. 
December- April, Dog Racing, Jacksonville, Fla. 

December 24, Christmas Celebration, Bethesda Orphanage, Savannah, Ga. 
December 31, New Year's Eve Bonfires, Savannah, Ga. 



INDEX 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Accomac Episcopal Rectory .... 70 

Accomac, Va 68 

Adams Run, S. C 136 

Agricultural Society Plot 194 

Airports: 

Gamden 7 

Jacksonville Municipal 163 

Salisbury 47 

Albemarle, The 94 

Allen House 70 

Allen, Md 50 

Alphabet Avenue 1 98 

Alston, Theodosia Burr 128, 175 

Altama 155 

Altamaha River 153, 154 

Amadas, Philip 180, 181, 217, 225 

Amelia Island 160 

Amish Colony 170 

Amstel House Museum 12 

ArTderson Residence 119 

Angel Oak 194 

Appoquinimink 25 

Arbuckle's Landing 88 

Arlington Cemetery, Cinnaminson 6 

Asbury, Francis XIII, 121, 128 

Ashepoo River 207 

Ashland 98 

Ashley River Bridge 135 

Assateague Island 63 

Atlantic Beach, S. C 123 

Auction Block 44 

Augusta, The 8 

Aury, Louis 161 

Avoca, N. C 102 

Avon, N. C 185 

Azalea Gardens, Gerbing's 1 62 

Azalea Park, Summerville 200 



Bacon's Rebellion 71, 74, 77, 80, 82, 88 
Bagwell, Obelisk to John 71 



PAGE 

Baker, Elijah 70 

Ballad of Kill Devil Hills 176 

Bamboo Farm 147 

Bandon 101 

Barlow, Arthur. . . .180, 181, 215, 225 

Barrelville, S. G 201 

Barton School, Clara 4 

Bartram, William XII, 122, 161 

Battle of: 

Amelia 161 

Barges, The 71, 72 

Bloody Marsh 209 

Honey Hill 140 

Red Bank 7 

Roanoke Island 179 

Sawyers' Lane 92 

Spencer Hill 151 

Battery Clark 190 

Battery Simkins 195 

Battery White 129 

Batts Island 101 

Baymeade, N. G 119 

Beard House, Duncan 25 

Beech Hill 206 

Belgrade Mansion 98 

Bellamy Mansion 119 

Bellanca Field 12 

Belle Isle Gardens 129 

Bellevue 157 

Bell's Island 172 

Belmont Hall 29 

Belvidere, N. G 96 

Bendigo, The 120 

Berkeley, William. . .71, 77, 80, 82, 88 

Bertha, N. C 173 

Beveridge House 95 

Beverly 57 

Beverly Farm 53 

Biggs Home, Asa 104 

Biological Station, U. S 144 



231 



232 



THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 



PAGE 

Bird Refuge, Cape Remain Mi- 
gratory 131 

Bird Sanctuary, Summerville . . . 200 

Birdsnest, Va 76 

Black April, Peterkin 126 

Blackbeard (Edward Teach) ... 26, 

92, 152 

Blackbeard Island 1 52 

Blackbird, Del 25 

Bluffton, S. G 141 

Blythe Island 156 

Bodie Island Lighthouse 183 

Bonaparte, Napoleon 54, 107 

Bonaparte Park 4 

Bonner's Grave, James 107 

Bonnie Doone 206 

Bordentown Military Institute . . 4 

Bordentown, N. J 4 

Borough Hall 9 

Bowman's Folly 67 

Brainerd, David 2 

Brainerd Lake 2 

Brass Ankle, Hey ward 201 

Brentwood 51 

Brewton House, Miles 134 

Brewton House, Robert 1 34 

Brick House, Old 92 

Brick House Plantation 202 

Bridgeboro, N. J 5 

Bridgeport, N. J 9 

Bridgeton, N. G 110 

Bridgeville, Del 39 

Brighton Beach 141 

Brookfield 16 

Brookgreen Gardens XII, 126 

Brown House 109 

Brownsville 75 

Brunswick Canal 154 

Brunswick City Hall 156 

Brunswick, Ga 155 

Buena Vista 14 

Burberry's Berry 36 



PAGE 

Burgess, Grave of Dempsey 169 

Burlington, N. J 5 

Burns House 117 

Burnside, Ambrose E.. .112, 179, 181 

Burnside Headquarters 181 

Burr, Aaron 2, 54, 128, 175, 213 

Burroughs, The 126 

Butler Island 153, 154 

Butler, Pierce XII, 154, 213 

Buxton, N. C 188 

Byrd, William 87 

Cabarrus, Home of Stephen .... 102 

Cabbage Row 134 

Cactus Garden 194 

Camden Courthouse, N. C 168 

Camden, Del 34 

Camden, N. C 168 

Camden, N.J 7 

Camden Park Race Track 157 

Cannon, Grave of William ^40 

Cannon's Tavern, Patty 40 

Canterbury, Del 36 

Cape Charles, Va 83 

Cape Hatteras 185 

Cape Hatteras Lighthouse 185 

Cape Hatteras National Seashore 185 

Cape Remain Lighthouse 131 

Carl Gerhard, The 176 

Carney's Point 10 

Carroll A. Deering, The 187 

Casino, Sea Island 213 

Castle William 23 

Cedar Island 73 

Cedar Hill 151 

Cellar House 56 

Cessford 79 

Champney Island 153 

Charles House 94 

Charleston Museum 134 

Charleston, S. C 134 

Charlton, Stephen 76 



INDEX 



233 



PAGE 

Chase House 50, 53 

Chase, Samuel 50, 52, 53, 54 

Chatham 76 

Cherry Grove Beach 123 

Cherry Hill, Ga 148 

Cherry Hill, Md 50 

Chesapeake and Delaware Canal 17 

Cheswold, Del 30 

Chicamacomico Coast Guard 

Station 184 

Chincoteague Crossroads, Va. . . 61 

Chincoteague Island 62 

Chocowinity, N. C 110 

Chowan Courthouse, Eden- 
ton 99 

Chuckatuck 56 

Churches and Other Places of 
Worship: 

African Baptist, Georgia 145 

All Saints Chapel 126 

Bluffton Episcopal 141 

Bethel Presbyterian . 137 

Bethel Presbyterian, Walter- 

boro 138 

Burned Church 137 

Chester B'Nai Sholem Temple 1 1 3 

Christ, Eastville 78 

Christ, Elizabeth, N. C 95 

Christ, Savannah 1 46 

Christ, S. C 132 

Christ Episcopal, Ga 214 

Christ Episcopal, New Bern, 

N. C 113 

Christ Episcopal, Old, Del. . . 44 

Cranbury Presbyterian, First. 2 

Darien Presbyterian 153 

Drawyers Presbyterian, Old, 

Del 20 

Edisto Island Presbyterian . . . 203 

Fernandina Episcopal 161 

Friends Meeting House, Cam- 
den. . 35 



PAGE 

Friends Meeting House, Cin- 

naminson 6 

Friends Meeting House, Odessa 24 

Hungar's 76 

Immanuel, New Castle 12 

Independent Presbyterian, St. 

Mary, Ga 158 

Magothy Bay 83 

Manokin Presbyterian, Prin- 
cess Anne 52 

Midway Church, Ga 149 

Mount Pleasant Presbyterian. 133 

Mount Pleasant Baptist 133 

Negro Church, Midway 150 

New Bern Baptist 113 

New Bern Presbyterian 113 

Pilmoor Memorial Methodist, 

Currituck 172 

Pitts Creek Presbyterian 57 

Rehoboth Presbyterian 56 

St. Andrew's Episcopal, Mount 

Pleasant 133 

St. Andrew's Parish, S. C 196 

St. Andrew's P. E. Princess 

Anne 53 

St. George's, Pungoteague. . . 74 

St. James, Santee 130 

St. James, Wilmington, N. C. 119 

St. Mary's, Burlington, N. J. . 5 
St. Michael's Episcopal, 

Charleston 1 34 

St. Paul's, Edenton 100 

St. Paul's, Norfolk 86 

St. Peter's Episcopal, Wash- 
ington, N. C 108 

St. Philip's Episcopal, Charles- 
ton, S. C 134 

Sanctify Church, S. C 203 

Shiloh Baptist, N. C 169 

Trinity, Chocowinity 110 

Trinity P. E., S. C 204 

White Brick Church, S. C.. . . 132 



234 



THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 



PAGE 

White Meeting House, Old . . 200 

Wicomico Presbyterian 49 

WinyahP. E 128 

Woodbine Episcopal 157 

Church's Island 172 

Cinnaminson, N. J 6 

Clark House 95 

Clark, House of Archibald 158 

Clayton, John M 14 

Clayton Place 71 

Clifton, Md 54 

Cloister Hotel, Sea Island 212 

Coastal Experiment Station, Ga. 

State 154 

Cockburn, George 74 

Coinjock, N. C 172 

Cokesbury 72 

Colington, N. C 177 

Collins House 44 

Collins, Thomas 30 

Colonel's Island 1 50 

Combahee River 208 

Concord, Del 42 

Confederate Cemetery, Mount 

Pleasant 133 

Confederate Monument, Eden- 
ton 99 

Confederate Monument, Walter- 

boro 138 

Congress, The 85 

Constitution, The (Old Ironsides) 137, 210 

Cooper House 35 

Cooper House Museum, Joseph . 7 
Cooper, Birthplace of James 

Fenimore 5 

Cooper River Bridge 134 

Coosawhatchie, S. C 139 

Corbin Hall 61 

Corbit, Charles 16 

Corbit Library 23 

Corliss Hunting Preserve 141 

Cornwallis Headquarters 119 



PAGE 

Corolla, N. C 173 

Corporation Laws, Del 32 

Costen Station, Md 55 

Cotton Compress 164 

Cotton, William 76, 83 

Courthouse Bay, N. C 118 

Cove Road 6 

Cranbury Inn 2 

Cranbury, N. J 2 

Craney Island 86 

Creighton Island 151 

Crescent, Ga 151 

Crisfield House, John W 53 

Croatan 182 

Croatan National Forest, N. C.. 116 

Cropper, John 67, 68, 72 

Crosswicks Creek 4 

Custis IV, John 78, 82 

Custis Tomb 81 

Cumberland, The 85 

Cummins House 27 

Cupola House 100 

Currituck Beach Lighthouse ... 173 

Currituck Courthouse 172 

Currituck, N. C 170 

Curtin House, L. P 2 

Damascus, Del 16 

Daniell's Island 134 

Daniels, Birthplace of Josephus. 109 

Dant, Grave of John 137 

Dare, The 120 

Dare, Virginia 178, 179, 182 

Darien, Ga 1 52 

Davis, Jefferson 84 

Dayton, Jonathan 1 

Dayton, N. J 1 

Deans, N.J 1 

Debtor's Prison 70 

Deep Creek, Va 87 

Deepwater, N. J 10 

De Graffenried, Christopher. . . Ill 



INDEX 



235 



PAGE 

Delmar, Del 45 

Delmar, Md 47 

Delmarva Camp 43 

Del. State College for Colored 

Students 31 

Del. State Teachers College 49 

Del. State Welfare Home 29 

DC Medici, Cosimo 107 

De Mille House 109 

De Rossett House 119 

Desire, The XVI 

Diamond Shoals 186 

Diamond Shoals Lightship. ... 187 

Dimock, Home of Dr. Susan. ... 109 

Dismal Swamp 87, 91, 170 

Dismal Swamp Canal 87 

Dorchester 200 

Dorchester Village, Ga 1 50 

Dover, Del 31 

Drawyers Creek 20 

Drayton Hall 196 

Drummond House, George. ... 70 

Drummond's Mill 71 

Drummond's Point 101 

Drummond, William 88, 101 

Duck Creek 26 

Duck Creek, Del 28 

Duck Island 180 

Dudley Home 119 

Du Pont, Alfred 1 28 

Durant, Geo 95, 97 

Durant's Neck 95 

Dutch House, Old 12 

Eagle Tavern, Old 97 

Earle, Daniel 101 

East Glen 53 

Eastville, Va 78 

Ebo Landing 213 

Eden, Home of Charles 102 

Edenhouse Beach 102 

Edenhouse Point .. 102 



PAGE 

Eden, Md 51 

Edenton, N. C 98 

Edenton Tea Party Marker 99 

Edingsville, Beach 204 

Edisto Beach 205 

Edisto Island, S. C 202 

Edisto State Park 205 

Edmundsbury 207 

Edmundson-Fox Memorial .... 96 

El Dorado Plantation 129 

Elizabeth City, N. C 93 

Elizabeth City Shipyards 95 

Elizabeth, The 120 

Elkington 80 

Elmwood 109 

Emancipation Proclamation . . . XX 

Emily B. Sonder, The 186 

Emperor, N. C 102 

Engagement Hill 179 

Entailed Hat, The, Townsend. . . 53, 75 

Eulonia, Ga 151 

Exchange Building 134 

Eyre Hall 81 

Eyreville 80 

Fairfax Hall 169 

Fairfield Plantation 129 

Fair-view 25 

Farmington, Del 37 

Farm Life School, Craven County 110 

Fearing House 94 

Fenwick Hall, John 193 

Fernandina Beach 162 

Fernandina, Fla 1 60 

Ferries: 

Cape Charles-Little 

Creek 84, 86 

Chester, Pa 9 

Norfolk 84 

Pennsgrove 10 

Pennsville.. 10 

Portsmouth-Norfolk . . 86 



236 



THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 



PAGE 

Reading 50 

Snead's 118 

Ferry Swamp 167 

Ferry Trolley Wharf, Old 133 

Fiddler's Bridge 19 

Fireproof Building 1 34 

Fishery, Gape Hart 102 

Fish Hatchery, Henry Ford 149 

Fish Hatchery, Pembroke, U. S. 102 

Fishing Gamp, Sea Island 213 

Floating Road 167 

Floating Theater 109 

Floyd, Charles 157 

Flying Dutchman, The 187 

Folkstone, N. G 118 

Folly Island 195 

Ford, Henry 147, 148 

Forsgate Farms 2 

Forsyth Park 146 

Foscue House 115 

Fort Clinch State Park. . 162 

Fort George Island 1 63 

Fort Moultrie Reservation 191 

Forts: 

Collins 164 

Dorchester 200 

Frederica 214 

Hatteras 190 

Johnson 194, 195 

McAllister 149 

Mercer 7 

Monroe 84 

Morris 150 

Moultrie 192 

Norfolk 86 

Raleigh 181 

Randall 123 

St. Simon 212 

San Carlos 160 

Union 101 

Wool 85 

Fox, George XIII, 50, 51, 97 



PAGE 

Franklin, William 5 

Fraser House 138 

Freedman's Grove 149 

Freedmen's Bureau 193 

Frisco, N. G 188 

Frisco Coast Guard Station 189 

Fruitland, Md 50 

Galsworthy, John 198 

Game Sanctuary, U. S 184 

Garrison's Lake 30 

Gascoigne Bluff 210 

General Island 153 

General Store, Windsor 3 

Georgetown Courthouse, S. C. . . 128 

Georgetown, S. G 127 

Georgiana McCaw, The 120 

Gibbstown, N. J 9 

Gillisonville, S. C 140 

Girard, Stephen 78 

Glebe 76 

Glynn Haven Estates, Ga 213 

Goat Island 167 

Gold Bug, The, Poe 193 

Golden Isles 144 

Gonzales Home 136 

Grahamville, S. C 140 

Gray, Headquarters of Edmund 157 

Green Bank 5 

Greenbush, Va 71 

Green Hill Picnic Area 55 

Green, The 33 

Grice Home, Charles 169 

Grist Mill, Tonytank 49 

Grove Hill Plantation 147 

Guale 151,155 

Gwinnett, Button 151 

Hackland 51 

Halfway House 91 

Hall's Knoll, Lyman 149 

Hamilton's Hill.. 204 



INDEX 



237 



PAGE 

Hamilton, N. C 105 

Hamilton Plantation 210 

Hampstead, N. C 118 

Hampton Plantation 1 30 

Hampton Point 213 

Hampton Roads 85 

Hampton, Va 85 

Handy, Isaac 48 

Hardeeville, S. C 141 

Hardwick 149 

Hare's Corner, Del. 14 

Harrietta 129 

Harrington, Del 36 

Harvest Moon, The 129 

Harvey Home 97 

Harvey's Neck 98 

Hassell Home, G. B 104 

Hastings Barn, E. Guy 46 

Hatteras Inlet 1 90 

Hatteras, N. C. . . 189 

Havens House 109 

Hawk, The 210 

Hayes 101 

Hayne Monument, Isaac 1 37 

Hearn's Pond, Del 40 

Hecklefield Farm, John 95 

Hedra Cottage 74 

Hemming Park 1 64 

Henry, Patrick 88 

Hermitage, S. C 125 

Hermitage, Ga 1 45 

Hertford, N.C 96 

Herty, Charles XX, 145 

Hewes, Joseph Monument. ... 99 

Hey ward Tomb, Thomas 140 

Hibben House, Andrew 133 

Hibernian Hall 134 

Hicksites 24 

Hightstown, N. J 2 

Hill Farm 71 

History of the Church of God, from 

Creation to 1885. . 104 



PAGE 

History of the Dividing Line, Byrd 87, 

176 

Hobcaw 127 

Hog Island, Va 75 

Hog Island, S. C 134 

Hollywood, S. C 135 

Holmes, Abiel 150 

Honey Hill, S. C 131 

Hooper House 42 

Hope House 103 

Hopeton Plantation 155 

Hopeton, Ga 147 

Hopsewee 129 

Hornblower's Point 100 

Horntown, Va 60 

Hubert, N. C 117 

Huger Monument, Daniel 130 

Hungar's Wharf 77 

Huntington, Archer Milton. ... 126 

Huron, The 178 

Huston, T. L 153 

Indian Mounds, Fernandina. . . 161 

Indian Mound, Edisto Island. . 205 

Indian Woods 103 

Industrial City Gardens, Ga 145 

Ingleside 79 

Iredell House, James 100 

Irene, Site of 145 

Irwin 161 

Isle of Palms Pavilion 193 

Isle of Palms, S. C 193 

Israfel, Poe 193 

Ivy Hill 55 

Izard House 134 

Jacksonboro, S. C 136 

Jackson, Mrs. Andrew 66 

Jacksonville City Zoo 163 

Jacksonville Courthouse, N. C. . 117 

Jacksonville, Fla 164 

Jacksonville Memorial Park. ... 164 



238 



THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 



PAGE 

Jacksonville, N. C 116 

Japanese Beetle Laboratory 6 

Jarvisburg, N. C 173 

Jarvis-Hand House 112 

Jasper Spring 146 

Jasper, William 146, 192 

Jefferson, Thomas (on slavery) . XVI 

Jekyll Island 156 

Jersey Homesteads 3 

Jewtown, Ga 211 

Jockey's Ridge 179 

John Bull Locomotive Monument 4 

Johnston House 108 

Johnston 118 

Jones House, Paul 50 

Jones-Lipman House 114 

Joseph Cooper House Museum . 7 
Journal of a Residence on a Georgia 

Plantation, Kemble XII, XIX, 213 

Jumping Juniper, The 93 

Justiceville 71 

Keller Fairgrounds 73 

Keller, Va 73 

Kellum, N. C 116 

Kelvin Grove Plantation 212 

Kemble, Fanny. .XII, XIX, 154, 213 

Kendall Grove 77 

Kendall, William 74, 77 

Kensington, The 186 

Kent County Courthouse 34 

Kent and Sussex Fairgrounds. . 36 

Kcrr Place 71 

King, Nehemiah 54 

King's Creek, Md 53 

Kingsland, Ga 157 

Kinnakeet Coast Guard Station, 

Big 185 

Kiptopeke 83 

Kitty Hawk, N. C 174 

Knott's Island 172 

Kohler, The 185 



PAGE 

Lafayette, Marquis de 127, 203 

Lafayette Bridge 127 

Lafitte, Pierre 161 

Lake of the Dismal Swamp, The, 

Moore 89 

Lake Drummond 88 

Lake Como 28 

Lanier's Oak, Sidney 155 

Laurel, Del 43 

Laurel Spring Plantation 207 

Lawrence, Del 40 

Lebanon 147 

Lee, Robert E 85 

Leigh Home, James 95 

Leonard's Mill 47 

Lighthouse Point 194 

Lincoln, Abraham 80 

Lincoln Park 9 

Linden 79 

Liston Range 19 

Litchfield 127 

Little Edisto Island 202 

Little River Neck 123 

Little River, S. C 123 

Locke, John 124 

Lockwood House 27 

Lockwood's Folly Inlet 119 

Long Brow Plantation 207 

Loretto, Md 51 

Louisiana House 112 

Lovers' Oak 156 

Lowe House 146 

Lucas House 138 

Lynch, Thomas 129 

Macdonough, Del 19 

Macdonough House, Thomas. . 20 

MacGregor, Gregor 161 

Machelhe 167 

Mackey's Island 172 

Mackey's Point 100 

Magnolia Gardens 197 



INDEX 



239 



PAGE 

Makemie, Francis 49, 52, 55, 

57, 64, 65, 71 

Makemie Monument 65 

Manteo, N. C 180 

Manual Training School, N. J. . 4 

Marines, N. G 118 

Maritime Signal Tower, Eliza- 
beth City 95 

Marriage Tree 58 

Marshes of Glynn, The, Lanier. ... 155 

Martin, Luther 54 

Maryland, The 53 

Mascoutin, The 1 87 

Mason-Dixon Line 25, 45 

Masonic Hall, Cranbury 2 

Masonic Temple, Georgetown, 

S. C 128 

Masonic Temple, New Bern ... 114 

Mattawoman Creek 77 

Maurice R. Thurlow, The 186, 187 

Maysville, N. C 116 

McClellanville, S. G 130 

McCullum House 98 

McGuire, Grave of Peter J 6 

Mclntosh House 1 46 

McLeod House 193 

Meggetts, S. G 1 35 

Menendez de Aviles, Pedro 151, 155, 

157,158 

Merlin, The 8 

Merrimac, The 85, 1 86 

Metropolis, The 173 

Michaux, Andre 200 

Middleton, Arthur 199, 200 

Middleton Place 198 

Midway Cemetery 1 50 

Midway, Ga 149 

Mifflin House, Daniel 35 

Milhado House 86 

Mill Landing Farm 102 

Mineola, N. C 105 

Minnesota, The 85 



PAGE 

Mirlo, The 184 

Mitchell C, The 126 

Monitor, The 85, 186 

Monkey Island 172 

Moore, John Bassett 28 

Moravians 145, 210 

MorrillAct 31 

Morris Island 1 95 

Morris Island Lighthouse 195 

Morse, Jedediah 150 

Mother Vineyard 181 

Mount Custis 67 

Mount Pleasant, S. C 132 

Mount Wharton 66 

Murrells Inlet 125 

Musgrove, Mary 151 

Myers House, Norfolk, Va 86 

Myers House, Washington, N. C. 1 08 

Myrtle Beach 124 

Myrtle Beach State Park 1 24 

Nags Head Beach 178 

Nags Head, N. G 178 

Nash Home 94 

Nassawadox, Va 75 

Nassau River 162 

Naval Operating Base, U. S 85 

Naval Stores Yards, Jacksonville 1 64 

New Bern Academy 113 

New Bern, N. G 110 

New Castle Common 12 

New Castle Courthouse, Del 11 

New Castle, Del 11 

New Church, Va 60 

New Hope, N. C 95 

New Inlet 184 

New Jersey Manual Training 

School 4 

Newport, Christopher 80, 84 

Newport News, Va 85 

Norfolk Museum of Arts and 

Science . . 86 



240 



THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 



PAGE 

Norfolk Tidewater Terminals . . 85 

Norfolk, Va 86 

North Carolina Gazette 112 

Northampton County Court- 
house, Eastville 78 

North Island 127 

Oakdale Cemetery, Wilmington, 

N. C 119 

Oak Island Plantation 203 

Oakland 207 

Oaksmith House Ill 

Ocean Forest Hotel 123 

Odessa, Del..... 22 

Ogeechee River, Little 146 

Oglethorpe Hotel, Brunswick. . . 156 

Oglethorpe, James 144, 152, 155, 

210,212,213,214 

Oglethorpe's Farm 214 

Oglethorpe's Oak 153 

Okeetee Club 140 

Old Castle 80 

Old House Settlement 140 

Old Ironsides (The Constitution) .137 , 210 

Old Point Comfort 84 

Old Trap, N. C 169 

Onancock, Va 71 

Onley, Va 73 

Orange Hall 158 

Oregon Inlet 1 84 

Osceola, Grave of 192 

Ossabaw Island 1 50 

Oyster Farms, Gerbing's 1 62 

Palmetto Bluff Plantation 141 

Paraguay, The 176 

Parksley, Va 66 

Parsons Home for the Aged, 

John B 49 

Pastoria, Va 66 

Patapsco, The 1 92 

Patriot, The 175 

Paulsboro, N. J 8 



PAGE 

Pawley's Island 127 

Peachtree or Bowman 129 

Pea Island Station 184 

PeddieLake 2 

Pembroke Creek 102 

Pennsgrove, N. J 10 

Pennsville, N. J 10 

Penn, William 12, 32 

Perquimans County Courthouse, 

N. C 97 

Peter's Point Plantation 204 

Philadelphia Navy Yard 7 

Phoebus, Va 85 

Pierce House, Abraham 27 

Pilot Town, Fla 163 

Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth . . 1 98 

Pinckney, Grave of Charles 132 

Pinehurst Tea Farm 201 

Pipemakers' Creek 145 

Pocahontas Farm 79 

Pocomoke City, Md 57 

Poco Sabo Plantation 206 

Point Harbor, N. C 173 

Point of Pines Plantation 203 

Pollocksville, N. C 115 

Pomona Hall 7 

Poplar Branch, N. C 173 

Poplar Hill 49 

Porter, John 64 

Portsmouth Navy Yard 87 

Portsmouth, Va 87 

Pory, John 71 

Potato Blossom Festival 73 

Powhatan 80 

Princess Anne, Md 52 

Princeton, The 77 

Pritchardville, S. C 141 

Pudding Ridge, N. C 170 

Pulaski, The 186 

Pungoteague, Va 73 

Purrysburg Cemetery 141 

Pyatt House 128 



INDEX 



241 



PAGE 

Quaker Burial Ground, Old 5 

Quarantine Station, U. S 194 

Quinby, Va 74 

Radio Station, U. S. Army 195 

Radnor, S. G 208 

Rainbow Banks, N. G 105 

Raleigh, Walter 101, 179, 

180,181,185 

Rancocas Creek 5 

Ranger, The 120 

Rantowles, S. C 135 

Raven, Poe , 92 

Read House 12 

Records Pond 44 

Red Bank Battlefield National 

Park , 7 

Red Lion Creek 15 

Red Lion Hundred 15 

Refuge Plantation 156 

Rehobeth Village, Md 56 

Reliance, Del 40 

Revel House, Thomas 5 

Rhode Island, The 186 

Ribault, Jean 158 

Riceboro, Ga 151 

Rice Mill Tavern 142 

Richardson House 112 

Richmond 148 

Ridge 152 

Ridgeland, S. C 139 

Ridgley House 34 

Ritter, S. C 206 

Riverview Beach 10 

Roanoke Island 179, 221, 224 

Robbinsville, N.J 3 

Robinson, William 75 

Rocks, The 124 

Rockville, S. G 194 

Rodanthe, N. C 184 

Rodman Quarters 110 

Roebling, N.J 4 



PAGE 

Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D 151 

Roosevelt, Theodore 151 

Rosefield 103 

Rose Hill Plantation 141 

Roseland 70 

Rumbling of the Chariot Wheels, 

Mikell 202 

Runnymede Plantation 1 97 

Rural Hill 71 

Russell, Home of Daniel 116 

Rutledge, Archibald 130 

St. Catharis, The 184 

St. Catherines Island 150 

St. Marys Cemetery, Ga 158 

St. Mary's Cemetery, N. J 5 

St. Marys, Ga 157 

St. Marys River 160 

St. Simon Lighthouse 212 

St. Simon Village, Ga 211 

Salisbury, Md 47 

Salisbury Municipal Park 49 

Salvo, N. C 185 

Salzburgers 210 

Salzburger Village 213 

Samson Against the Philistines, 

Higgins 16 

Sams House 86 

Sandford, Robert 194, 103 

Santa Clara, The 129 

Santee, S. C 129 

Santiago, The 186 

Santo Domingo State Park 1 54 

Sapelo Island 151 

Saratoga, The 20 

Satilla River 157 

Savage, Thomas 80 

Savannah, Ga 146 

Savannah River 1 44 

Savannah Sugar Refinery 1 44 

Saxis Island 65 

Scarburgh, Edmund . 55, 68, 71, 74, 76 



242 



THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 



PAGE 

Scarlet Sister Mary, Peterkin 126 

Scott Hall 71 

Scotts Hill, N. C 119 

Screven and Stewart Monument 1 50 

Sea Island 212 

Sea Island Golf Club 211 

Seabrook Mansion 203 

Scaford, Del 40 

Secession Oak 141 

Secessionville, S. C 195 

Secretary's Plantation 81 

Shad Point, Md 50 

Shallotte, N. C 120 

Shawboro, N. G 169 

Shepard-Pruden Memorial Li- 
brary 100 

Shepherd's Inn 61 

Sherman's Headquarters 146 

Shiloh, N. C 169 

Shingle House, Old 116 

Show Boat, Ferber 109 

Silk Hope Plantation 146 

Silver Lake, Del 31 

Slave Burial Grounds 154 

Slave Market 128 

Sligo, N. G 170 

Slover-Guion House 112 

Small Home, Walter L 94 

Smallwood-Ward House 112 

Smith, Francis Hopkinson 79 

Smith House, Sarah B 2 

Smith Island 83 

Smith, John 72, 83 

Smyrna, Del 26 

Sothel, Gravestone of Seth 95 

South End 152 

South Mills, N. C 92 

Spaight-Stanly Duel 114 

Spalding, James 211 

Spalding, Thomas 152 

Spirit of St. Louis 207 

Spivey Beach 124 



PAGE 

Spring Bluff 156 

Spruance House, Enoch 26 

Spruance House, Presley 28 

Spunky, The 120 

Stanly House, John Wright 113 

Stevens Home, William 55 

Starkey, John 116 

Stock Cemetery 207 

Stone House, Old 88 

StrathyHall 148 

Stratton Manor 81 

Stuyvesant, Peter 11 

Sullivan's Island 191 

Summerville, S. G 200 

Sunbury, Ga 1 50 

Sunnyside 125 

Supply, N. C 119 

Sutton House, James W 17 

Swansboro, N. C 117 

Tabby House 151 

Tabby Hut 211 

Tabby Ruins 143, 152, 154, 157 

Tacony- Palmyra Bridge 6 

Taillade, Louis 107 

Tangier Island, Va 72 

Tasley, Va 71 

Taylor Tavern 79 

Teackle Mansion 52 

Teackle, Thomas 74 

Telfair Academy of Arts and 

Sciences 146 

Telfair House 108 

Temperanceville, Va 64 

Templar, The 186 

ThalianHall 119 

Tharp House, William 37 

Thistle Tender, The 67 

Timothy Grass 171 

Tonytank Creek 49 

Tonytank Manor 50 

Tonytank, Md 49 



INDEX 



243 



PAGE 

Townsend House, Betsy 56 

Trenton, N. C 115 

Tryon Palace 114 

Turtle River 156 

Twin House 1 69 

Twitty Park 212 

Union Bag and Paper Company 

Factory 145 

Upshur, Abel Parker 77 

Vallambrosa 147 

Vanceboro, N. C 110 

Verona, N. G 118 

Vasquez de Ayllon, Lucas 1 28 

Vaucluse 77 

Vegetable Breeding Laboratory, 

U. S. Regional 135 

Verrazzano, Giovanni da 83 

Vesta, The 120 

Viola, Del 36 

Visitors' Club 155 

Wachaprague, Va 73 

Wachawampe 63 

Wachesaw Plantation 125 

Wadmalaw Island 203 

Waggaman Cut Farm 51 

Wallacetown, Va 88 

Walterboro Courthouse, S. C.. . 138 

Walterboro Library 138 

Walterboro, S. C. 137 

Wanchese, N. C 179 

Wando, S. C 132 

Wappetaw Cemetery 1 32 

Wappoo Heights 193 

Warner Museum, Mary Corbit. 23 

War of 181 2 Monument 133 

Warwick 74 

Wash Tubbs, Crane 158 

Washington Academy 54 

Washington Chair 99 



PAGE 

Washington Courthouse, N. C.. 107 
Washington Field Museum, 

N. C 108 

Washington, George 88, 121 

Washington, Grave of William 

A 135 

Washington Hotel, Princess 

Anne 52 

Washington, N. C 105 

Washington Tree 119 

Washington Tree and Pump, 

George 158 

Wash Tubbs, Crane 158 

Ways, Ga 148 

Webber House, Thomas 116 

Weems, Mason Locke XVIII, 121 

Weir Point 183 

Welbourne 61 

Wesley, John and Charles 145, 210, 214 

Wetter House 146 

Whalebone Filling Station 179 

Whaley Monument 71 

Whaley Plantation Home 202 

Wharton Place, John ......... 65 

Whipping Posts 34 

Whistling Swans 171 

White Cliff 80 

Whitehall 148 

White Hall 207 

Whitehall House, Ann 8 

Whitehall Plantation 140 

Whitehall Plantation 145 

Whitington, William 63 

Whitman House Museum, Walt 7 

Whooping Island 202 

Wicomico State Game Farm. . . 49 

Wild Horn Plantation 147 

Wild Life Refuge, Savannah 

River 142 

Wild Ponies 63, 185 

Willbrook Plantation 127 

Williamston, N. C 104 



244 



THE OCEAN HIGHWAY 



PAGE 

Willis Wharf 75 

Willoughby Spit 85 

WilmaryN. G 110 

Wilmington, N. C 119 

Wilson House, David 23 

Windsor Castle 103 

Windsor, N. G 102 

Windsor, N.J 3 

Winfall, N. G 96 

Wingfield 101 

Wise, Henry A 73 

Witches' Tree 5 

Woodbine, Ga 157 

Woodburn 34 

Woodbury Bag- Loading Plant . . 7 



PAGE 

Woodlawn 30 

Woodside, Del 36 

Wrangle Hill 16 

Wright Brothers 173, 176, 177 

Wright Memorial Bridge 173 

Wright Memorial Monument. . 176 

Yamacraw, Old 146 

Yardville, N. J 4 

Yaupon Beach 124 

Yaupon (Cassina Holly) .... 124, 188 

Yellowhouse Field 116 

Yemassee, S. C 139 

Yulee, David L 160 

Yulee, Fla 160 



COMPLETE LIST OF 





NOTE: Except where otherwise indicated, all MODERN AGE 
BOOKS are of the same general size and style as this one, 
bound in durable card covers. 

NEW BOOKS, NEVER BEFORE PUBLISHED 

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2. OLD HELL by EMMETT GOWEN. Authoritative portrait 
of a hillbilly Casanova. Illustrated by Howard Simon. 
"Almost every line seems uproariously right and splittingly 
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5. ALL'S FAIR by RICHARD WORMSER. An exciting story 

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background of the Spanish Civil War. 95i 

SHORT STORIES 

6. BABIES WITHOUT TAILS, by WALTER DURANTY. 

Dramatic stories, mostly about the new Russia, by the 
author of I WRITE AS I PLEASE. 25f* 

39. LOVE, HERE IS MY HAT by WILLIAM SAROYAN. 

Twenty-one new and provocative stories by the author of 
THE DARING YOUNG MAN ON THE FLYING 
TRAPEZE (see SEAL BOOK No. 17) 25*< 

FOR MYSTERY FANS 

4. MURDER STRIKES THREE by DAVID MACDUFF. A terse 
mystery of the hard-boiled, Dashiell Hammett school. 25^ 

23. DEATH SLAMS THE DOOR by PAUL CADE. "Fine for 
readers who like to unravel a case through the medium of 
police interrogation." New Yorker 25^ 

40. GRAVEYARD WATCH by JOHN ESTEVEN. A rookie 

cop gets the goods on a big dope ring and discovers a 
murderer. 25j 



HISTORY 

11. THE UNITED STATES: A Graphic History by LOUIS M. 
HACKER, RUDOLF MODLEY and GEORGE R. TAYLOR. 
Size 814 by 1114 inches/ with 76 pictorial charts. An 
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CURRENT AFFAIRS 

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8. THE LABOR SPY RACKET by LEO HUBERMAN. The 

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10. FROM SPANISH TRENCHES compiled by MARCEL 
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camera portraits of the Southern sharecropper. "Deserves 
the audience of another Uncle Tom's Cabin." Editorial 
in N. Y. Post 750 

48. YOU CAN'T DO THAT by GEORGE SELDES. The full 
story of how and by whom our democratic rights are 
flouted, by the hard-hitting author of YOU CAN'T PRINT 
THAT! and SAWDUST CAESAR. 500 

59. LABOR'S NEW MILLIONS by MARY HEATON VORSE. 

Presents a graphic, human picture of the labor movement 
as it is today and of the way in which it is reflected in the 
life and culture of America. 500 

60. THE RIGHT TO WORK by NELS ANDERSON. Discusses 

the problem of unemployment in America and makes a 
plea for public employment where it is needed. 500 

61. I LIKE AMERICA by GRANVILLE HICKS. One of Amer- 

ica's most brilliant young critics gives an exciting account 
of his particular brand of constructive patriotism. 500 



BIOGRAPHY 

22. LAGUARDIA: A Biography by JAY FRANKLIN. A 
vivid portrait of one of the most colorful men on the 
American scene today, and the possibilities that lie before 
him. Note: At the request of New York's Mayor two pas- 
sages have been excised. 35j 

COOK BOOKS 

3. MEALS ON WHEELS by LOU WILLSON and OLIVE 
HpOVER. A practical cqok book for kitchenettes and 
trailers. "Offers many food surprises and time-saving 
tricks." Miami News 25? 

30. MOST FOR YOUR MONEY COOK BOOK by CORA, 

ROSE and BOB BROWN. Bound in washable cloth. 
How to make inexpensive materials into delicious and 
exciting meals, by a famous family of experts. 50 

GUIDE BOOK 

32. U. S. ONE: Maine to Florida compiled by the W.P.A. 
FEDERAL WRITERS' PROJECT. Bound in cloth. A new 
and lively guide that gives the tourist in a hurry all the 
facts he needs, with a wide variety of entertaining detail 
about this important highway. 95j 

MISCELLANEOUS 

27. ALMANAC FOR NEW YORKERS 1938 by the W.P.A. 
FEDERAL WRITERS' PROJECT. Sprightly comment and 
handy information for the year. Second annual edition of 
this popular almanac. 25 

29. TICKETS TO FORTUNE by ERIC BENDER. Colorful history 
of lotteries, sweepstakes, and contests, showing the pit- 
falls besetting the amateur entrant. 35j4 

31. HOW TO KNOW PEOPLE BY THEIR HANDS by 

JOSEF RANALD, Ph.D. Bound in cloth. Human hands 
and how they reveal character, by one of the world's 
foremost authorities. 95 

50. BETTER THAN BEAUTY: A Guide to Charm by HELEN 
VALENTINE and ALICE THOMPSON. Lively and 
common-sense advice on how to look nice and be nice 
how to make the best of what one has. 50^ 

53. PUZZLE OMNIBUS by HAROLD HART. Sixty different 
kinds of puzzles a rich feast for every puzzle fan by 
one of the greatest puzzle-makers of our time. A grand 
party, vacation, and gift book for any time of year. 50 



FOR BOYS AND GIRLS 

1. RED FEATHER by MARJORIE FISCHER. "A fairy tale as 
delicate as moonlight, which ^yet has tenderness and a 
wisdom born of true humor." Ellen Lewis Buell in 
N. Y. Times Book Review 25^ 

25. PIXIE PETE'S CHRISTMAS PARTY by PHINEAS O'MEL- 

LISH and SAM BERMAN. Size ?3/ 8 by 814 inches, with 
mailing envelope. A gay picture book for use as a unique 
Christmas card or for fun the year round. 25f4 

26. YpU ARE ... by EMERY I. CONDOR. Size 1% by 8!4 

inches. Bound in boards. A charming picture puzzle book, 
in which a famous Hungarian artist shows youngsters just 
how clever "You Are . . ." 75^ 

45. ADVENTURES IN STEEL by LAVINIA DAVIS. Bound in 

boards. Real stories of what happens where steel is made 
and used, for boys and girls too from 12 to 16. 75ji 

46. TALES OF LIVING PLAYTHINGS by ANTONIOR- 

ROBLES. Size 7 3 /s by 8 14 inches. Bound in boards. First 
American appearance of an author known for his delight- 
ful children's stories throughout the Spanish-speaking 
world. 50? 

New Editions of Popular Favorites 

Original Editions were $2 to $5 

FICTION General 

16. THEY SHALL INHERIT THE EARTH by MORLEY CAL- 
LAGHAN. A simple and deep-felt story of Americans in 
the Depression. 25^ 

18. THE HONORABLE PICNIC by THOMAS RAUCAT. A 

gay French farce, with a dash of satire, in which East meets 
West. 25 

20. A PASSAGE TO INDIA by E. M. FORSTER. A superbly 

written story of race antagonism in India. One of the great 
novels of our time. 25j5 

19. MR. WESTON'S GOOD WINE by T. F. POWYS. 

"Recommended to connoisseurs of rare vintages." Wil- 
liam McFee 25 

21. THE BLOOD OF THE CONQUERORS by HARVEY 

FERGUSSON. A romantic tale of the clash between Latin 
and northern civilizations in the Southwest. 25j 

38. LIGHTSHIP by ARCHIE BINNS. The drama of nine men 
anchored out in the Pacific. 35j 

34. LITTLE CAESAR by W. R. BURNETT. Hard-hitting classic 
of the Chicago gang era. 25^ 



35. GOD'S ANGRY MAN by LEONARD EHRLICH. The 

grandeur and tragedy of John Brown's singlehanded 
fight to free the slaves. "Seems to me the finest American 
historical novel I have read." Granville Hicks 500 

42. FONTAMARA by IGNAZIO SILONE. The greatest of 

recent novels about Fascist Italy. 350 

43. THE PASTURES OF HEAVEN by JOHN STEINBECK. 

This early novel by the author of TORTILLA FLAT and OF 
MICE AND MEN is generally considered his finest. 250 

SHORT STORIES 

17. THE DARING YOUNG MAN ON THE FLYING 
TRAPEZE by WILLIAM SAROYAN. These are the 
stories which made Saroyan a literary sensation (see also 
SEAL BOOK No. 39) 250 

FOR MYSTERY FANS 

14. SUSPICIOUS CHARACTERS by DOROTHY L. SAYERS. 

One of the finest stories by a past master of the art of 
detective fiction. 250 

15. THE LEAVENWORTH CASE by ANNA KATHARINE 

GREEN. The classic of American mystery fiction, by which 
all others are measured. 250 

36. PERIL AT END HOUSE by AGATHA CHRISTIE. Agatha 

Christie and her famous detective, Hercule Poirot, at 
their best. 250 

BIOGRAPHY 

13. TWELVE AGAINST THE GODS by WILLIAM BO- 
LITHO. Lucid portraits of great adventurers by one of the 
most distinguished of modern writers. 250 

37. BURTON: Arabian Nights Adventurer by FAIRFAX 

DOWNEY. The story of an altogether incredible man, 
whose story is as astonishing as that of T. E. Lawrence. 350 

51. THREE TITANS by EMIL LUDWIG. Biographies of Michael 
Angelo, Rembrandt and Beethoven, by the most famous of 
living biographers. 350 

TRAVEL 

12. TRAVELS IN THE CONGO by ANDRE' GIDE. A unique 
travel record, free from all bias and romantic distortion. 
"A book to place beside one's set of Conrad." 
N. Y. Times 250 

41. CITIES OF SIN by HENDRIK DELEEUW. The story of prosti- 
tution and the white slave traffic in six great cities of the 
Orient. 350