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University of California. 















H 2 3 

1 ^ ■? 


This work contains a Grammar and complete Dictionary 
of the language of Efate, New Hebrides, which is a typical 
specimen of the Oceanic languages which are spoken by 
fifty millions, or one-thirtieth, of the human race in 
islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, extending over 
two hundred degrees of longitude. 

It contains also a Comparative Grammar, and, to a 
sufficient extent, a Comparative Vocabulary of these 
languages, together with the evidence of their Arabian 
origin ; thus adding these fifty millions to those previously 
known as Semitic speakers, as, one hundred years ago, the 
many millions (now 219,725,509) in India were, by similar 
evidence, added to those previously known as Aryan 
(European) speakers. 

It is a unique unveiling of the linguistic, mental, 
religious and moral life, social organization, and pre- 
historic antecedents of the existing Oceanic * savages ', or 
* primitive ' man. 

To those engaged in the study of man. Anthropologists 
and Ethnologists, more especially to students of Linguistic 
science, Orientalists, and Semitic scholars, the work should 
prove a welcome, and even, it may be said, an indispensable 
aid. To all living and working among these fifty millions 


of people, missionaries, Government officials, and commer- 
cial men, it should be of practical use as helping to that 
thorough knowledge of the speech and character of the 
natives which means the power of dealing sympathetically 
and wisely with them to the advantage of all concerned. 
This last consideration, the author specially commends to 
the various Governments that now have possessions, and 
so have taken up ' the white man's burden ' in Oceania — 
France, Germany, Holland, United States of America, as 
well as our own United Kingdom and her great self- 
governing Dependencies in Australasia. 

The work should be very valuable among other things 
as a basis for further investigations all over the Oceanic 




Oct. 31, 1907. 



Intkoduction ....... vii-xv 

The Problem 1 

Phonology 9 

Triliteralism and Internal Vowel Change . . 34 


Inflexional or Word-forming Additions ; Prefixes, 

Infixes, Suffixes 52 

Pronouns and Particles 72 


Summary. Arabia the Motherland op the Oceanic 

Languages 90 

THE OCEANIC LANGUAGES : their Material, or 
Vocabulary, set forth in »a Complete Dic- 
tionary, Comparative and Etymological, of one 

RIDES) 97-316 



How the present writer was led to take up and prosecute 
for the last thirty-five years the studies of which the 
following work is the result may be briefly stated. Sent 
from Melbourne as a missionary of the Presbyterian Church 
of Victoria to the New Hebrides, and settled at Havannah 
Harbour, Efate, in the year 1872, it became his duty to 
study and acquire the speech of the natives, and to get a 
thorough knowledge of their mental life, religion and 
social organization. As these people, like the other New 
Hebrideans, were cannibal savages, without a written 
language, and inclined to be unfriendly, this was found 
to be no easy task. When, in the first years, they were 
suspicious and would give no help, or decreed a boycott 
as they sometimes did, there was still one resource open. 
One could study other Island languages reduced to writing 
by previous missionaries, and known to be of the same 
stock, as, e. g. the Aneityumese or Fijian or other 
Melanesian dialect ; the Polynesian, as the Samoan, Maori, 
and Hawaiian; and going still further afield, the Malayan, 
and the Malagasy : and it was found that all these threw 
great light upon the Efatese, and that the Efatese, once, after 
long years, acquired so that one could think in it, and 
speak and wiite it as if it were one's native tongue, threw 
great light upon them. But still there was something 
wanting for a complete and satisfactory knowledge. These 
far-extended Oceanic languages, sprung from the abysm 


of prehistoric time, were manifestly and admittedly of one 
stock or origin. What then was that origin ? The answer 
to this question is included in the following pages from 
which may be seen how great a light it throws upon the 
grammar and structure, and vocabulary of the Efatese, and 
of each and all of the other Oceanic languages. 

In the sketch-map of the Indian and Pacific Oceans the 
red tint is not intended to show an exact boundary in 
Formosa, nor to indicate any view as to the language of 
the Maldives : and the white spot on the east end of New 
Guinea is merely to indicate that in that quarter there is 
apparently some non-Oceanic linguistic element. In the 
map of the New Hebrides the dotted line is not an exact 
boundary in Epi. It should be observed that the New 
Hebrideans are all Melanesian speakers with the exception 
of a few people on the east of Mai, and those of the villages 
of Meli and Fila, and of the islets of Futuna and Aniwa, 
who are Polynesian speakers. All the Efatese speakers 
have now embraced Christianity. The Efatese New Tes- 
tament was printed in Melbourne by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society in 1889, and the Nguna-Efate Old 
Testament is now being printed by the same great society 
in London. Other translations of the whole or of part of 
the Scriptures have been printed in twenty-six different 
languages or dialects from Aneityum to Santo. Efate is 
to be the seat of government under the new Anglo-French 
Convention respecting the New Hebrides. Commercially 
and linguistically as well as geographically (see the map), it 
is the central island of the group, and no better standpoint 
could be chosen from which to study the languages in the 
other islands that extend from it southwards and north- 
wards. And perhaps no better could be chosen from which 
to make such a study of the languages of the whole Oceanic 
family — Melanesian, Polynesian, Malayan, and Malagasy — 


than that of which the result is set forth as briefly as possible 
in the following pages. 

The Efatese, with the other New Hebrideans, are a truly 
primitive people, typical cannibal savages. These people, 
in accordance with the geographical position of the group, 
at the end of a long chain of islands extending from the 
Malay Archipelago, have for ages been completely isolated, 
cut off from the civilized world, and thus have lived out 
their linguistic, religious, and social life. The Polynesians, 
whose dialects are less numerous and differentiated, are 
more recent comers into the Pacific than the Melanesians. 
The Malayans and Malagasy, especially the former, have 
always been more in touch with the civilized world. Of 
the considerable number of Sanskrit words introduced into 
the Malayan, probably about the beginning of the Christian 
era, not a trace is to be found in the Efatese. And of the 
Mongol element of blood in Malaysia, not a trace is dis- 
coverable among the Efatese people. If it be asked in 
what millennium b. c. the forefathers of the Oceanic- 
speaking race passed from the Semitic area (see the map) 
into and settled in the Oceanic world, the question must 
remain unanswered till Orientalists who are experts in the 
history of the development of the Semitic race within that 
area can give the necessary information. Meantime two 
facts can be given from the Oceanic side which may help 
towards the settlement of the question. The one is that 
at the time of that migration the Semitic languages had 
already attained to their fullest peculiar inflectional 
development: see, for instance, in Chap. III. d, and in 
the Dictionary and Index, the words mataku, to fear ; till, 
or tuli, to tell ; and toko, to sit, abide, in Efate (Melanesian), 
Samoan (Polynesian), Malay, and Malagasy. This is certain, 
though the Semitic speech of these migrants may even then 
abeady have passed through a subsequent development 


towards becoming a vulgar dialect or patois. The other is 
that at the time that oversea migration took place, south- 
wards and eastwards, to Madagascar and Malaysia, the 
Semites were sufficiently advanced to have ocean-going 
commerce and vessels capable of making long sea voyages. 
The names by which those early voyagers called, for 
instance, their vessels, masts, and oars, and by which their 
descendants, the Efatese (Mel.), Tahitians (Po.), Malays, and 
Malagasy, still call them, are the names by which they were 
first called in Arabia and by which they are called there to 
this day : see the Dictionary under the words rarua, seme, 
tere, uose, and balu-sa, and the Index for these words. 
These ancient navigators also had all the same name for 
* sail ', for which see lai. Dictionary and Index. 

Probably among primitive peoples no better standpoint 
could be chosen than Efate from which to make a study of 
the religion and social organization of existing savages. 
In connexion with what here follows may be consulted two 
papers by the present writer read before the anthropological 
section of the Australasian Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, the one (consisting of answers to a list of 
questions) entitled ' Efate, New Hebrides ', at the Hobart 
Session, 1892, the other *The Mythology of the Efatese', at 
the Sydney Session, 1898. The Efatese cannibal savages 
were a very religious people. Their deities were spirits, 
some of unknown origin as uota,^ who was known and 
worshipped by all the Efatese, and 11 raba (goddess of 
famine), worshipped and known only by some of them. 
All the deities of this kind were represented by stones 
or rocks — as in early Arabia — which we may call their 
idols, and known by the general names fatutabu and 
atatabu. The spirits whose origin was known were the 

^ See this word in other connexions on pp. xi, xiii, and see the Dictionary 
and Index. 


spirits of their ancestors, or deceased men^ and properly 
called atamate. See also atua and sube. Names of acts 
of worship are fira, taro-s, to pray ; ta bituatua, to speak 
(one's wishes) while making an offering ; taumafa, to 
invoke while making an offering or sacrifice ; bisa taumafa, 
to vow to make an offering or sacrifice ; ball, to fast : see 
also naleouan, belaki, tamate, mala (Tahiti marae). The 
religious authority in every community was called nata- 
mole tabu : see tabu (English taboo), prohibited, then 
sacred, consecrated, holy. He was as the prophet or seer 
or holy man of early Arabia. See also arifon, and koro, 
kita, lume. A ' familiar spirit ' was in some places called 
tobu. There were evil spirits greatly feared ; see, e. g. 
libo, subua, suru-oli. For the names of the spirits who 
examine every soul immediately after death at the entrance 
of Hades, and inflict dreadful punishment on those found 
wanting, see seritau, maseasi, faus, and especially maki 
(for the same in Arabia). For the names of Hades or the 
Under-world, see magaboaboa and the six words following 
it, and bokas, ebua, buaririj liboki, rales, and tuk. See all 
the preceding and following words in thick type in both 
Dictionary and Index. 

As to social organization the Efatese people lived in 
small communities called launa, each occupying a certain 
territory or district. Each launa was independent, and 
comprised (n)afiti, slaves ; (n)atatoko, native-born freemen ; 
(na)manaki, sojourners (admitted from other launa); and 
the civil and religious heads, (na)uota, and natamole tabu. 
Underlying this was a certain organization according to 
which every one of the people of every launa, without 
exception, belonged by birth to one or other of certain 
kins. Such kins are found among savages elsewhere, and 
called by Mr. Andrew Lang ' totem kins '} In Efate these 

* Social Origins, by Andrew Lang, and Primal Law, by J. J. Atkinson, 1903. 


kins are (1) by descent in the female line, that is, each 
person born belongs to the kin of the mother, and the 
whole kin is necessarily descended from one original 
mother, and comprised at first only her and the children 
she had borne ; and (2) with exogamy/ that is, inter- 
marriage between males and females of the same kin 
is prohibited as incestuous. Each kin has a totem name, 
the name of some plant or animal : thus in Efate we have, 
for example, the naui (yam) kin, the naniu (coco-nut) kin, 
the namkatu (a kind of yam) kin, the uit (a certain fish) 
kin, the karau (a shellfish) kin. The word for kin is 
felak (also kainaga, and mitarau) ; thus nafelak naui, the 
yam kin, and so with all the other kins. Now the word 
felak ^ (see bala) points back to the original mother (bila) 
of the kin consisting at first of her and her children; 
kainaga to the time when the kin consisted of her and 
her children all living and eating together ; and mitarau 
to the fact that the kin or kindred branched out from one 
source. As marriage was at first rightly prohibited 
as incestuous between the direct male and female chil- 
dren of the original mother, so, and this is strange to 
us, the prohibition has remained binding for the same 
reason ever since upon all males and females however 
remotely descended from her in the female line. Thus 
we have the totem kin with descent in the female line 
and exogamy. As to how these kins originally got their 
totem names, the personal name of the original mother, 
e.g. of the naui kin^ most probably was li naui, and so 
with all the other kins. Among the Efatese there was 
nothing religious about these totem names, or the plants 
and animals denoted by them : and this is in accordance 

^ Social Origins, &c., p. 159, &c. 

^ As in Early Arabia ; see Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia, by 
W. Eobertson Smith, new ed., 1903, pp. 37 sqq., 175. 


with the statement of Mr. Andrew Lang that ' totems 
[in other parts of the world] probably in origin had 
nothing really religious about them'.^ 

Along with and underlying the totem kin, which ex- 
cluded the husband and father, was the Family which 
included him as its head. As marriage was by purchase 
of the wife, she called her husband uota,^ lord, ana uota, 
her lord. If a man purchased additional wives, they 
were called ruba, and he was of course the uota, lord 
and owner of every one of them. But for the most 
part monogamy prevailed among the Efatese, the family 
consisting of husband and wife, or father and mother, 
with their children. This among the Efatese savages 
was the normal family, one man and one woman united 
in marriage, with their children. Polygamy, though not 
prohibited, was abnormal, and therefore one great, perhaps 
the greatest, cause of the incessant feuds and bloodshed 
among these savages. In the normal family, marriage 
between certain members of it who were necessarily of 
different totem kins — and therefore inter-marriageable by 
the totem kin rule — was, and has ever continued, pro- 
hibited as incestuous ; and this idea of incest prohibited 
by religious sanction, first in the family and then also 
in the totem kin, cannot be otherwise accounted for than 
as having existed from the beginning owing to the con- 
stitution of man as distinct from that of not -man, or 
brute. For the names or terms of family relationship 
see uota, guruni ; ab' or afa, or tema, tama ; bile, or 
bila, raita, ere, susu ; natu, nati, nani, nai (see ani) ; 
tai, balu, kore, or gore ; atena, tobu ; ^lo, maternal 
uncle ; mo, buruma ; taku, tauien, or tawien, and tua, 

1 Op. cit.,p. 136. 

^ For this same word so used in ancient Arabia, see Robertson Smith, 
op. cit., pp. 92 sq. 


&c. The word mo denotes father-in-law, mother-in-law, 
and son-in-law. For the words which denote how a 
mother-in-law avoided and concealed herself from her son- 
in-law, see lako, guku : when she happened to find herself 
where he could see her, she crouched, covering her face 
and bosom until she got beyond the reach of his vision. 
This could not have been due to the totem kin, and must 
have been due to the normal, or primitive family : for by 
the totem kin rule mother-in-law and son-in-law were 
inter-marriageable as being necessarily of different totem 
kins ; and the rule that such a union was deemed so 
incestuous as to be impossible must therefore have arisen, 
not with the totem-kin, but prior to it, in the normal or 
primitive family. 

First, then, there was the normal or primitive family. 
After that arose polygamy, and the wife and mother's totem 
kin — a kind of guild from which the husband and father 
was excluded, but by which he neither was nor could be 
excluded from his natural kin or blood relationship with 
his children. This is contrary to Mr. McLennan's primitive 
promiscuity hypothesis,^ which Professor Robertson Smith 
in his work, above cited, has laboured, with much learning, 
but with conspicuous unsuccess, to apply in the Semitic 

In the Efatese verbs in the following work, except in 
the Index, the formative ending t is preceded by a hyphen, 
thus, e. g. p. 218, luku-ti, and luku-taki, and in every such 
case the final i of the former and ki of the latter are the 
transitive particles, and the words might have been written 
luku-t i, luku-ta ki; see Chap. IV, and for the phonetic 
variations of the -t Chap. II. The na after substantives, as, 

^ For one criticism of which see Tlie Primitive Family in its Origin and 
Development, by C. N. Starcke, 2nd ed., 1896. International Scientific 


e.g. am na, p. 110, is the nominal sufRx (genitive) pro- 
noun third person ; and the same na (or a, or n, or nia, or 
sa) after verbs, e.g. mesau na, p. 241, banako sa, banak ia, 
bunako n, p. 129, is the verbal suffix (ace.) pronoun third 
person: see Chap. V. 

This introduction must not be concluded without ex- 
pressing thanks to the Government of the Commonwealth 
of Australia for defraying the expense of the publication 
of the present work. 

Note. — On p. 9, h'(liw) should be k'(kw) ; and omit balo-ni from 
third line from foot of p. 18. 

I^V <t>OLxiv,S^U-<t, Ox-JTTTcL^ ^°l^/- 

■^ O^ THE 

" UNIVEr-5T"Y 




During the past century linguistic science has endeavoured 
to solve the problem of the Asiatic (whether Indo-European, 
Turanian, or Semitic) relationship of the Oceanic family of 
languages. Some may question whether our knowledge of the 
Oceanic languages is as yet sufficiently advanced to permit 
of the final solution of the problem as to their continental 
relationship, as it certainly was not in the days of the attempted 
solutions of it by Bopp \ in the year 1841, and by Max Miiller ^ 
in the year 1854. If Bopp were living now it is probable that, 
with our present knowledge of the Oceanic, he would heartily 
agree with the verdict of linguistic science which has been 
given against his theory of the relationship of the Malayo- 
Polynesian languages through the Sanskrit to the Indo-Euro- 
pean ; and the same may be said of Max Mliiler and his theory 
of their relationship through the Thai of Siam to the Turanian. 
However that may be, the verdict of linguistic science has been 
decisively given against both of these theories. In the days 
when they were put forth our knowledge of the Oceanic, then 
called the Malayo-Polynesian, was too limited. Since then 
great advances have been made. The multitudinous languages 
of the Western Pacific — the Melanesian at that time little 
known, and erroneously supposed to be radically diverse from 
each other, and from the ' Malayo-Polynesian ' — are now well 
known, and have proved to be closely inter-related, and, while 

^ tjber die Verwandtschaft der Malayisch-Polynesischen Sprachen mit dtn Indixh- 
Europciischen, von Franz Bopp, Berlin, 1841. 
2 In Bunsen's Christianity and Mankind. 



not derived from, yet radically connected with, the Malayan 
and the Polynesian, as Gabelentz ^ pointed out as far back as 
the year 1860. These three groups of languages and dialects — 
the Malayan, the Polynesian, and the Melanesian — naming them 
in the order in which they have successively become known, 
are, as Friedrich Miiller has shown, ^ members or branches 
of the Oceanic, which is as perfectly well defined a family of 
languages as is the Semitic or the Indo-European. The Oceanic 
is, as its name indicates, insular. Its habitat, which we may 
call Oceania, stretches from Madagascar, off the east coast of 
Africa, across the Indian Ocean to the Malay Archipelago, and 
on through the Pacific Ocean to Easter Island. On the north 
it has invaded from the island world, and settled upon only 
the south-eastern extremity of the Asiatic Continent, hence 
called the Malay Peninsula. On the south it has not reached 
the Australian Continent, though closely approaching it in 
New Guinea. The Islanders who speak Oceanic number about 
fifty millions, or one-thirtieth of the human race. 

To say that the Oceanic languages are a perfectly well-defined 
family, is to say that they are all sprung from one mother- 
tongue — the Oceanic mother-tongue ; and to establish the 
Asiatic relationship of the Oceanic is to establish that that 
mother-tongue was originally carried by its speakers from the ^ 
Asiatic Continent into the Island world. The question as to | 
whether the Asiatic relationship of the Oceanic can be estab- 
lished is a purely linguistic question, which can only be 
answered from a due investigation of the available linguistic 
data. Three great Continents, Asia, Africa, and America, or, 
counting Australia, four, border on the Island world. It may 
be held as certain that the relationship of the Oceanic, whatever 

^ H. C. von dev Gabelentz, Die Melanesischen Sprachen nach ihrem gramma- 
iischen Bau und ihrer Verwandtschaft unter sich und mit den Malaiisch-Polynesischen 
Sprachen, Vol. I, Leipzig, 1861, Vol. II, 1873. Compare the more recent 
work of the Rev. Dr. Codrington on The Melanesian Languages. 

^ Friedrich Miiller, Reise der Fregatte Xovara, Wien, 1867 : Grundriss der 
Sirraclavissenschaft, Wien, 1882. and following years. 


it is, is not African, American, or Australian. Madagascar is 
near the African coast, but the Malagasy, which belongs to the 
Malayan or Tagalan branch of the Oceanic, is not related to 
the African languages. Easter Island approaches nearest, 
though not very near, to America ; but its language, which 
belongs to the Polynesian branch, is not related to the American 
languages. And the Melanesian branch, which approaches 
Australia, is not related to the Australian languages. The 
pre-historic geological history of the globe, whether as known 
or merely conjectured, throws no light on the problem of the 
relationship of the Oceanic. Were it proved, for example, 
than tens, or hundreds of thousands, or millions of years ago 
there had been a great continent in Oceania, of which the 
existing islands are the unsubmerged peaks, or were it proved 
that such had never been, in either case the Oceanic problem 
inviting the solution of linguistic science all through the 
nineteenth century, and now at the beginning of the twentieth 
still inviting it, would remain exactly the same, wholly un- 
affected by that proof. Nor would that proof throw any light 
on what we may call the apparent discrepancy of race and 
language in Oceania. It would still remain to be accounted 
for exactly as before. The Oceanic speakers, that is the Oceanic 
people or race, are a mixed race, not pure white, not pure 
black, not pure yellow, but, as De Quatrefages has observed,^ 
a mixture of all three. Nevertheless, the Oceanic speakers, 
however the Caucasian, the Negro, or the Mongol physique may 
be more in evidence in any particular part, constitute men- 
tally, socially, and religiously, as well as linguistically, one 
great, though much diversified, race or people, ju^ as the 
languages, though multitudinously diversified, constitute one 
great family. Though the cases are not exactly parallel, yet 
in North America at the present time we see Caucasian, Negro, 
and Mongol all speaking the same language — English, and 
we know that that language was not originally a Negro, or 
a Mongol, but an Indo-European tongue. If we could conceive 
^ A. De Quatrefages, The Human Species, 3rd Ed,, London, 1883. 



of some future time at which every other means of knowing 
this had been swept away, the Indo-European speakers of North 
America having been fused into one mixed diversified race, 
linguistic science alone would still be able to prove it. Be that 
as it may, other means than those of linguistic science do not 
exist by which to ascertain conclusively the relationship of 
the Oceanic mother-tongue. 

As a matter of fact three parts of the Asiatic Continent have 
been fixed upon as being, the one or the other of them, the 
starting-point from which the Oceanic race immigrated into 
the Island world, over which they gradually spread — the south- 
eastern or Indo-Chinese Peninsula, the south-central or Indian 
Peninsula, and the south-western or Arabian Peninsula. If we 
were to confine ourselves, apart from linguistic science, to the 
question of the possibility of the race having spread over the 
whole Oceanic world from any one of these points, we might 
choose one or other of these three, but there would be no certain 
proof of the correctness of our choice. The fact that the Negro 
element in the Oceanic race is older than the Mongol — a fact 
indicated by its greater predominance in the extremities of 
Oceania, as well as in the interior and more inaccessible parts 
of the larger islands — is against the Indo-Chinese Peninsula 
as the starting-point of the race. In like manner the indica- 
tions are that the race did not come from the Indian Peninsula 
into Oceania, but that after it was there Indian civilization 
came upon it in comparatively recent times, or about the 
beginning of the Christian era, confining itself mainly, if not 
wholly, to Java and neighbourhood, where its architectural 
and other relics still remain. The Indian modifications of the 
Oceanic alphabetic characters in the Malay Archipelago are 
such relics. Fundamentally these characters are not Indian, 
but Phoenician, altogether independently of the Indian, and 
of a more ancient type of Phoenician than the Indian.^ No 
modern alphabets preserve the ancient Phoenician type so 
markedly as these Oceanic alphabets, and they are therefore 

^ See Oceania : Linguistic and Anthropological, London, 1889. 


to be regarded as of the highest antiquity. This favours as 
the starting-point of the Oceanic race the south-western penin- 
sula of Asia, which was, according to Herodotus, the original 
home of the Phoenicians, from whence they colonized the 
Tyrian-Sidonian coast of the Mediterranean. And with this the 
following considerations all agree. From whatever point 
the Oceanic race migrated into the Island world, they did 
so in sea-going vessels, and we may reasonably infer that 
before doing so they were habitually in possession of such 
vessels, or were a sea-going, commercial people, as for the most 
part they are to-day. Now in the ancient world, long before 
the rise of Greece or Rome, it was in the waters of the southern 
seas alone that ocean-going commerce was begun and carried 
on for ages by the human race, and that not by the people 
of the Indian or the Indo-Chinese, but by those of the Arabian 
Peninsula. It was here that the commercial fleets of Solomon, 
manned by Phoenicians, made the first long sea-going voyages 
recorded by history, whether they went, as some think, to the 
east coast of Africa, or, as others hold with more probability, 
to India, or as Josephus, than whom there is no weightier 
historical authority on the subject, says, to the Malay Peninsula. 
What the Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon were later on in the 
Mediterranean, that their ancestors and cousins were then and 
had been in earlier times in the southern seas of the Island 
world. ^ In the Arabian Peninsula running out into those 
seas, and contiguous to Africa, there was, in ancient times, 
a great commercial empire. Then and to this day in the 
existing descendants of that long since fallen empire,- which 
colonized the neighbouring Abyssinia, there is, and we may 
reasonably infer there always was from the earliest times, 
a large negro element of blood. If we suppose that the 
Oceanic race originally, in ancient times, migrated from that 

* See Sir J. Emerson Tennent's Ceylon, 5tli Ed., London, 1860, Vol. I, 
Part V, Chap. II, pp. 553-4, &c. 

" On this ' vieux monde disparu ', «ee Kenan, Hishirc <(cs Langues Semi- 


peninsular empire or from among that people, along the east 
coast of Africa to Madagascar, and along the south coast of 
Asia to the Malay Archipelago, this fully accounts for the 
negro element of blood in the race, as we now find it, mani- 
festly an older element in it than the Indian or the Mongol. 
And as, when modern history lifts the veil from Malaysia, 
we find the existing or Mohammedan civilization of the Arabian 
peninsula there, newly introduced and predominating, so there 
is reason to think that that was only a later wave of immigration 
and influence from the mother-land of the Oceanic race. 

But plausible as all this is it is not till we take into account 
the linguistic data that we get upon the solid ground of 
certainty. And first of all it is to be observed that though 
there was a negro element of blood in the race, due to inter- 
mixture, the race itself, as its language proves, was not negro. 
What that race was can only be determined from its language, 
and what that mother-language was is to be learned from an 
examination of its descendants and representatives, the spoken 
Oceanic languages and dialects of the present day. If the 
race came from the Arabian Peninsula, the Semitic mother- 
land, sprung from the people of the commercial empire that 
existed there, then their language was Semitic. For the 
Phoenicians, the people of that ancient South Arabian empire 
and of their Abyssinian colony, and their descendants now 
in Abyssinia and Arabia, all are Semitic speakers. If the race 
came from the Indian Peninsula one might suppose with Boj)p 
that the language was Indo-European ; if from the Indo- 
Chinese Peninsula, with Max Mliller that it was Scythian or 
Turanian. The problem thus, as is clear, can only be solved 
linguistically. And the praiseworthy efforts of Bopp and 
Mliller to solve it are valuable if only as having led to the 
certainty that the Oceanic mother-tongue was neither Indo- 
European nor Turanian. Their attempts failed because made 
on insufficient data, and their methods were for the same 
reason inadequate. One great branch of the Oceanic, the 
Melanesian, with all the light it throws upon the subject, was 


to them unknown. They trusted mainly if not wholly on the 
comj^arison of words, chiefly the pronouns and numerals, in 
which there is always great liability to error, and which apart 
from comparison of grammar and structure can never be con- 
clusive. As to the pronouns, for instance, Bopp, and Max 
Miiller following him, chose to regard the Malay Klta, Kami, 
we, and Kamu, ye, as composed of an article Jci, or Jca, and the 
pronouns ta, mi, mu. This enabled Bopp to compare the latter 
with the Indo-European pronouns, and Max Miiller, it should 
be added, to compare them with equal probability or impro- 
bability with the Turanian ; and by this method the Oceanic 
pronouns might just as well be compared with any others 
whatsoever. The fact is, as the Melanesian clearly shows, that 
this Jci, or Jca, is not an article at all, and that this comparison 
of Bopp, and also that of Miiller, founded on the notion that it 
is, is illegitimate and futile. And again, as to the Malay 
numerals, dalapan, 8, and salapan, sanibilan, or samhalan, 9, 
Bopp, and Max Miiller following him, chose to regard them 
as compound words, and the prefixed da as the numeral 2, and 
sa, 1, dalapan, thus signifying Hwo taken (from ten)', and sam- 
hilan ' one taken (from ten) ', or as Miiller phrases it 'ten minus 
two ', and ' ten minus one '. In this way Bopp for his part 
makes these words, though not Indo-European numerals, yet 
to fall in with his Indo-European theory, while Miiller, on the 
other hand, finds in them, while admitting that the Oceanic 
numerals are not those of the Thai of Siam, a feature ' peculiarly 
Turanian '. But unfortunately for both contentions these are 
not compound words at all, but simple primitive numeral 
words with the first syllable reduplicated in the well-known 
Oceanic manner : thus dalapan is analogous to the Tagalan 
dalaua, 2, found in other dialects as dalua, darua, Sec, the 
common unreduplicated form of the word being i'ua, or lua ; 
and sa of salapan, 9, by transposition samhilan, is similarly 
accounted for. 



In the following pages certain works are referred to thus : — 

C. G.S.L. Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages. By W. Wright, 
LL.D., Professor of Arabic, University of Cambridge, 1890. 

Von Maltzan. For the studies on the Mahri dialect of South Arabia 
by this writer, see Z.D.M.G., xxv, xxvii. 

M.L. The Melanesian Languages. By the Rev. R. H. Codrington, D.D. 
Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1885. 

Ray's List of Neio Hebrides Words. (For this see Journal of the Royal Society 
of N. S. Wales, 1893.) By Sidney H. Ray, London. This paper 
is valuable and contains (1) Introduction, (2) Classified list of 
Languages, (3) Comparative Vocabulary, and (4) Notes on the 

S.S.S. South Sea Languages. A series of Studies on the Languages of the 
New Hebrides and other South Sea Islands, Vol. II. Tangoan-Santo, 
Malo, Malekula, Epi (Baki and Bierian), Tanna, and Futuna, 
Melbourne, 1891. Vol. I. Three New Hebrides Languages : Efate, 
Eromanga, Santo. Melbourne, 1889. These two works edited 
by the present writer, were printed at the expense of the Trustees 
of the Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery of Victoria. 
They are sometimes referred to as Vols. I and II of this series, 
the present volume being the third and completing one. 

The abbreviated titles of other works referred to, do not require any 
explanation, except L., which stands for Latham's Comparative 
Philology, and W., which stands for Wallace's Malay Archipelago, 
list of words at end. 



1. The twenty-two letters of the Semitic alphabet, numbered 
as in Syriac and Hebrew, are represented thus : — 

(a) (b) (c) 

1. ', a soft, guttural breathing 

2. b, b and v 

3. g, g and gh g' (gw) 

4. d, d and dh (as th in 'this') d 

5. h * h'(hw) 

6. w, V and w 

7. z 

8. h, a stronger h h' h" (hw) 

9. t, a palatal t t' 

10. y 

11. k, kand as 8 k' (kw) 

12. 1 

13. m 

14. n 

15. s 

16. «, related to * and h, *' 
r grassey^, gh, ng (which we 

represent by g) 

17. p, p and f 

18. s, ts ?' 

19. k, a throat Jc, related to ' 

20. r 

21. s' (originally sh), ah, and s 

22. t, th and t t' 

To the original twenty-two letters, Arabic has added the 
six modified letters of column (b); Ethiopic the four of 
column (c). 


2. The letters b, g, d, k, p, t had each two sounds, as in 
Heb. and Arm., the unaspirated as in English, and the aspirated 
V (bh), gh, dh, kh (like h), f (ph), and th. These letters when 
aspirated readily passed into h and disappeared.' In Assy. 
m had the sounds of m and v (aspirated b), and when pro- 
nounced V readily disappeared : on the other hand, w (v) 
might be pronounced m. In Arb. d, t% t', s' are aspirated 
d, t, t, s. 

3. In all the Semitic dialects the weak or vowel letters ', 
h, w, y are * quie scents ', that is, readily lose their consonant 
power and disappear : in addition to these, in Assy, the letters 
h, % and " are weak or vowel letters, or quiescents, all being 
pronounced as *, or spiritus lenis, h', however, having the 
sound of h. As to the similar confounding and disappearing 
of ', h, h (h^), *, («) in other Semitic dialects, see C.G.S.L., 
pp. 49-50 ; and as to w and y, pp. 69-74. 

4. Dialectically, one or more of the original sounds may be 
dropped : thus in Assy., as just noted, the sounds of h, h, *, 
and (if they were original) the aspirated sounds of b, g, d, k, 
p, t. In Assy. No. 17 is pronounced only p, in Arb. and 
Eth. only f ; in Assy, and Eth. No. 21 only s, the original sh 
sound having been droj^ped. On the other hand, new sounds 
may be dialectically developed out of, or substituted for, the 
original, as in Eth. g', h^, h'', k^ (if they were not original) ; 
Arb. j (sometimes to s', s) for g ; Arb. and Arm. ty or ch, also 
Amh. tsh, or ts', for k ; Arb. dzh, or dz, or ch, for k ' ; Amh. 
ty, or ch, and dy, or j, for t and d.^ The ordinary sound of k 
throughout Arabia now is g, its original sound having been 

5. Gutturals : ', h, h (h'), ', ("), (h', h^^, g', k'), g, k, k, y. 
Dentals ; d (d), z, t (t^, 1, n, s, s (s'), r, s', t, i\ 
Labials : b, p, m, v, f, w. 

a. For obvious reasons letters of the same class readily 
interchange, gutturals with gutturals, dentals with dentals, 

^ C.G.S.L., p. 54. 2 C.G.S.L., pp. 51-2. ' p. 55. 


labials with labials. For examples, see especially Gesenius, 
H. Lex., first article under each letter ; Dillmann, Eth. Gr. ; 
C.G.S.L. ; and for Assy., the Grammars of Sayce and Delitzsch ; 
and for the Mahri, Yon Maltzan. As to the gutturals, g aspirated 
is pronounced like ", k aspirated like h, and k in parts of Syria, 
Egypt, and Abyssinia like ', as is noted in C.G.S.L. 

1). Interchange of letters of one class with those of another. 
Gutturals and Dentals : g and j (s', s) ; k and ty or ch, and ts ; 
k and dz, or ch : see § 4. The change k to t is seen, e. g., in 
the Semitic personal pronoun of the first person : for h 
to r, 1, and «« to rh, see Yon Maltzan. So ' to r is noted by 

c. Dental with Guttural. The change of t to k is seen in 
the Semitic pronoun of the second person, and that of s (s') to 
h, and », in that of the third person, and in the Causative pre- 
formative ; and that of t to h, and ', in the Semitic feminine 
and abstract formative ending. See C.G.S.L., pp. 61-4, for s, 
s', to «, », k, and b, and g. 

d. Guttural and Labial: y and w ; * and w : C.G.S.L. See 
Eth. Gr., pp. 47, 98, for k (h) and f, or vice versa, ko to fo, 
demonstrative particle. The kw sounds in Ethiopic are com- 
binations of Guttural and Labial. 

e. Labial and Guttural : Assy, m (probably through ng) and 
g : Delitzsch. B and h, Amh. la to lia, preposition ; Mahri 
hori(i to lioriq, ' lightning.' 

/. Dental and Labial : Arb. V and f : C.G.S.L., p. 66. 

(J. Labial and Dental : in all the Semitic dialects m and n 
are often interchanged, as in the plural ending of nouns and 
pronouns, the mimation — nunation, and the radical letters of 

6. Letters which readily fall away or disappear are the 
quiescents, § 4 ; the aspirated b, g, d, k, p, t, and m pronounced 
V, § 2 : V and f pass into w, d and t into h, g and k into * and 
h or h, k into *, § 5 « ; and so disappear : C.G.S.L. (as to d and 
t, p. 54). S, changed to h, readily disappears as in the Causa- 


tive preformative, and the third personal pronoun ; Mahri 
ititf 6, Ai^ ; homo, 5, *-.♦»; ibet, 7, aj^^ ; Jiirig[f 'steal,' ^^-z. 
As to t, Mahri iset, Sokotra saah, 9, llklj. 

7. Words whose initial radical was one of the weak letters, 
or quiescents, § 3, were apt to drop the first syllable, as yT', ' to 
know,' yn, nv% 'knowledge'; in^, j^\^, nn, 'one'; i?n (i?% 
' to go,' n^^, "ji?, 'go,' Assy, halak, ' to go,' laJcu, ' a going.' 

On the other hand, a syllable consisting of ', the prosthetic *, 
with a vowel was often prefixed to a word to make the pronun- 
ciation easier: C.G.S.L*, pp. 93-4. 

8. The Vowels ^ : a, e, i, o, u, as in Italian. 

U, and u, or ui, as in Scotch gude, guid, y, in Egypt, yclept, 
syntax, i as in sin, e, o, and i. 

A, and e, i, o, u ; Assy, -ami, and -1)111, Arb. -an, H. -on. 

I, and e. 

The diphthongs : ai (ay), and e, i, a ; au (aw), and 6, u, a. 

9. The Oceanic sounds : the vowels a, e, i, o, u, as in Italian : 
in Efatese & is often pronounced like 6, i, or u ; thus hanatu, or 
banotu, is often pronounced hinofe, which might as well be 
written Mnott The long sounds of a, e, i, u, as in father, 
fate, feet, moon, are very different. Hence the verbal pronoun 
of the third person is "written by one i, by another e, and, as we 
shall see, represents an original u or y : compare English do, 
did (A.S. dyde), Scotch di, or dae. The diphthongs are ai, 
sometimes written ei, and au : ai passes into e, or i, or a, as in 
i hai, or i hi set ? * he is who ? ' / 7nai, or i he, ' he comes ' ; 
i hai, or i ha se, or i he sdh ? ' he goes or comes (from) where ? ' 
So au passes into o, a, or u, as ^aut, and ^at ; and in Jcabu, Jcohu, 
kuhu, the a, o, and u are all for original an. 

Consonants, and mode of representing them. 
' is not represented, thus To. laa, ' the sun ' (not written la' a). 
b, in the Efatese of this work (and To.), represents both b and 
p, and when aspirated becomes f which represents both v and f : 

' C.G.S.L., Ghb. V and IX. 


in some Ef. dialects, however, b, p, v, and f are all written. In 
Mg. and My. b as in English. 

d, in Mg., My., Tanna, Ml., as in English ; not in our Ef., but 
in Ef. dialect, and sometimes pronounced nd. 

h, as in Semitic, not in our Ef., but in Ef. dialect, Mg., 
Tanna, ML, &c. 

w, in our Ef. written u as French on in * oui ' (wi), written 
w in Ef. dialect. 

z, as in Semitic, Tanna, Mare, Mg. 

h, as in Semitic, in Mare, Tanna, ML, Futuna. 

t, tr, Mg., Ef. 

y, written i in our Ef., but is written y in An., Tanna, ML, My. 

k, 1, m, n, s, r, t, as in Semitic. 

'. This represents various guttural sounds from g (gh) to '. 
It has been called ' the Melanesian g ', and, says Dr. Codrington 
(who writes it g), '' has been written g (hard), r, gg, gh, rh, and 
k . . . Bishop Patteson was struck by its resemblance to the 
Arabic Ghain ("), and Professor Max Miiller's description of the 
Heb. ain (*) as ' a vibration of the fissura laryngea, approaching 
sometimes to a trill, nearly equivalent to German g in tage/ 
closely suits it ".^ 

p, in My., Mg., Tanna, Ml. 

s, as in Semitic, in Ef. dialect, Santo, Mg. (written ts). 

s', as in Semitic, in Fut. , Mare ; and in Mg. s before i be- 
comes s^ 

The different Oceanic dialects have variously dropped or 
modified some of these sounds. As to the latter, those, ch. 
My. ; j. An. (ch in 'rich') ; and j, My., &c., modifications, as 
in Arb., and Amh., of dentals, are not in Efatese: but the 
sounds represented by g, b, and m, which must now be noticed, 
are. The sounds of b and m are not in all the Melanesian 
dialects, though perhaps in most of them from the New Hebrides 
to New Guinea. For the New Hebrides, see Vol. II of this 

' M.L.f pp. 204-5. 


series, and Ray's list of New Hebrides words; for the Sol. 
Islands, M,L., Ch. IV ; and for Motu (N.G.), Law's Dictionary. 
The nasalized guttural g is pronounced like ng in ' singing '. 
It is absent from Tahitian, but is in all the other Po. dialects 
except Hawaiian in which its place is taken by n, and Marquesan 
in which, according to Tregear,^ its place is taken by k. Ordi- 
narily in Efatese it is a modification of k, sometimes of n, more 
rarely of m. 

B : the guttural-labial sound symbolized by b is that sym- 
bolized by q in 3I.L. by Dr. Codrington, and in Motu by Laws. 
In Efatese it is impossible to say sometimes whether the sound 
is kw (like qu in English) or bw, or kb. It is a half-guttural, 
half-labial sound, and originally a modified guttural like the 
kw sound in Eth. and Amh. But now it sometimes represents 
not only an original guttural, but an original labial. It is a 
bridge between the two classes like the Latin QV, a guttural 
followed by a labial semivowel forming a transition from 
guttural to labial ; thus : - 

Sanskrit Ms, Lat. quis, Oscan pis. 

„ ^atvar, „ quaUuor, Vmhvisin petiir. 

„ quisque, Gr. TrifxTre, 

Latin cociis, ,, coqiio, Lat. popma. 

,, secimdus, ,, sequor, Gr. eVo/xat. 

m : This sound is like gm (gw), or mw. It is a nasalized, 
guttural-labial sound varying between the two classes. It is 
originally a modification of b (kw), just as g is of k: kw 
became gw, which passed into gm and mw, then m, exactly 
as kw passed into kb, bw, then b. Then sometimes an 
original b was pronounced b, and an original m was pro- 
nounced m, apparently just as the speaker pleased. In the 
Efatese New Testament m and rii are both written m, but b 
(when distinguished) is written p. 

' In the Banks Islands the suffixed form of the second per- 

^ Maori Chmparative Dictionary. Introd. 
"^ Smith's Latin Grammar. 


sonal pronoun (singular) is generally m, or ma, but in Merlav 
and Ureparai^ara it has become g, and in Maewo ga',^ Efatese 
ma, dialect ma. Neither g, m, nor m is the original sound in 
this word : it is k which passes into g, that into m, that 
finally into m : in Efatese the word is actually found in all 
these forms. But in Mota ima, Ef. sima, and suma, 'house,' 
Fiji rl^a, and Ef. dialect lima, 'hand,' both the m and g 
represent an original m. The same work states the view that 
g in some cases is a change from k, but generally from n. In 
Efatese, however, the contrary of this is the fact. A glance at 
the Dictionary {infra) proves that nearly all the words begin- 
ning with k are pronounced also with g (often indifferently 
by the same speaker), and represent words first radical guttural. 
Only in some cases in Efatese g represents original n, and in 
other and fewer cases original m. 

Usually those who have reduced the Island dialects to 
writing have acted on the right principle of expressing one 
sound by one character, and if all had used the same character 
for the same sound nothing would need to be said. But as this 
is not the case, and to use the same character for entirely 
different sounds would in the present work be confusing and 
apt to mislead, such characters have to be as far as possible 
transcribed into the alphabet above given. Thus the Fijian 
c == th in ' the ', and the An. d = th in ' thin ', is here V. 

New Hebrides c = g (hard) is here g. 

The Fijian q = gk is here g', and gg is g^\ 

New Hebrides, Sol. Islands, and Motu q is here b. 

Maori, My., and Mg. ng is here g, as is also New Hebrides, 
Polynesian, and Fiji g (= ng). 

Mg. and New Hebrides ts is here s. 
,, „ tr is here t. 

' The Melanesian g ' (in M.L.) is here '. 

The sound of ch in ' loch ' is here h. 

The Mg. o = u is here u. 

The Mg. y = i (as in ' county ') is here i. 

^ M.L., p. 214. 


My. j = English j, and My. ch = English ch in * church ' : 
in the New Hebrides j generally represents the latter, and in 
the Sol. Islands dialects sometimes the latter, sometimes the 

The Mg. j = dz, and is a heavier z. 

10. Dropping of letters : see §§ 2, 6. Letters aspirated and 
their disappearance. In Efatese b, i.e. b and p, is aspirated 
as in § 2, and then is apt in the same way to disappear. 
B aspirated is f, and this passes into w and then disappears, 
as hora, horauora, mauora, then maora. M, as in §§ 2, 6, is 
sometimes pronounced f (v or f ), as num, nuf, then nu [nuw), 

* to be ended ' : this accounts for the disappearance of the 
original final m in this word in Mg. and My. also (see hunu, 

* to make an end of '), and for the fact that some words in 
Oceanic have v, f, or w for the original m, as Arb., Eth., maiy 
'water,' Tah., Ef., vai,fai, Efate also after the article n-oai, for 
na-wai, and n-ai. j}^, a^Ti, 'banana,' Fut. fuji, My. pisa^, 
Ef. dti, asi, dialect vih (for vis), Mg. imti, id. ; Ef. cinoi, dialect 
mani, * male.' In Efatese m is often pronounced f (v or f ), as 
matuna, fatmia, * somewhat ' ; matoko, fatoJco, ' to abide ' ; of. 
Mg. matif fati, 'dead, corpse.' Thus initial, medial, and final 
m sometimes disappears ; final m also sometimes as in § 6. 

For original m, see (Dictionary, infi'a) katau, gisa (kiha, gia), 
ra {ta), taot [tawot), rahum and rdkua, una. 

For original b, see rania, Msue, horau, kolaii, roa (roua, or 
rowa, *to turn '), rau, Jcasau, Jcoau (and Jcabu), ate ('liver'), masoi 
(An. moijeuv, Tan. maliau), ui (uwi), larah (also, harau, haram, 
haraf, ' long '), Mrau (also harab and haram), an (and ahu), ran 
(and raf)y tau, 'time, season, year.' For f, see surata (siiuara, 
suara), uose, galau, halu-sa, uolau, matautaii, siuo {siwo, sua), kai 
(and kaf), mains (and malifus). 

So according to §§ 2, 6, g and k disappear, as also does k 
according to § 5. 

For original g, see lau (* sea '), huto (' navel '), liba, fdra. 

For original k, see to (and toko), horau (My. prahn, prau), 
dbura (and kabuer), hau-si, (Mg. fehi-zi). Mg. often has h for 


k in the prefixed form-particle My. Tea, Mg. hay Ef. halm, 
and faka, Mg. malm, and faha. How original k passes into li 
and disappears, is seen in the first personal pronoun, My. aku, 
Mg. ahUj Sam. aHi, Maori aw, Ef. Jc-inau, An. a-inali, Epi. nag'u^ 
Ml. h-inag', Kisa 2/c*/i?<, Bu. i^fd*, Tanna iyah, iaii, yak, Ero. ^aw, 
Mahri ho, ' I ' : so Assyrian nini, Hebrew ami, ' we ' : cf. the 
other Semitic dialects. According to Crauford, k ' by most of 
the Malay tribes, but not by all, is not sounded when it ends 
a word, or at most, only as a weak aspirate . . . even as a medial 
letter k is elided by some tribes aiming at softness of pronun- 
ciation '. The initial k of the suffixed second personal pronoun 
plural disappears thus, Ef. kama, and suffix mu. My. kamu, and 
mu : in Ef. dialects we have this pronoun (separate), after the 
demonstrative particle ni, with the k elided, thus, nikam, neem, 
nem, niniu, *ye.* 

For original k, see huil {hulo, '■ early, morning '), usi (and kusi), 

mataku (and matau), dso (* bow'), aso ('burn,' An. gas). 
So according to §§ 2, 6, d and t disappear. 
For original d, see fan (My. haharu), soko, kuli [My fkulit, 

Mg. hiidita), hla (My. jndt, Mg. afi, and mji), nahe (dialect mbat), 

and the numeral word for ' one '. 

For original t radical, see tolii (so M. Syrian tela), 'three,* 

and compare Arb. fall, 'third.' 

For original t servile, see mi-saki (My. sakit), ma-taku (Mg. 

tahuta) : in misaki, 'to be sick,' and mataku, ' to fear,' the servile 

t is dropped according to §§ 2, 6: see C.G-.S.L,, where cited 

there. Final t in Malay is in familiar discourse usually softened 

into a vowel or the aspirate, as sakit into sakih, takut into 


As to servile -t in Efatese the rule is that when, as in the 

Semitic dialects, it has no suffix attached to it, it disappears, 

but when it has it reappears, as hulu, hulutl ; fafano, balosi ; 

and third radical dental is often treated in the same way, as ala, 

alati ; amo, amosi ; kamu, kamidi, &c. 

11. The quiescents: see § 3. These, as may easily be seen 
by looking in the Index (infra), under the various letters, 


have usually, not always, lost their consonant power or dis- 
appeared, even when they are the first radicals of words, much 
more of course when second or third radicals. The first radical 
quiescent has usually either (a) lost its consonant power, its 
vowel only remaining, or (&), as in § 7, both it and its vowel 
have disappeared, or (c) it has passed into another sound. 

{a) For examples of this as to ', see amau^ afaru,^ of a, alat, 
Jcani ; 

as to h, abu, hagohago, atu, oro ; 

as to w, amosi, aseli, dso, afdfa ; 

as to h, and h', elo, alo (' to wave '), dlo (' uncle '), as'i ; 

as to y, aru, atai, atu, uba ; 

as to ^ and '', afiti^ dlidlla, dnu, dfina, uta^ dni, ara ; Tahiti 
ahu)V>, 'ten.' 

{h) For examples of this as to ', see fatu, rogOy safi, seli, sere, 
tern ; s'ikai, ' one.' 

as to h, ta (Ho chop, cut '), mu, hosa, feratera, rifu ; 

as to w, tao, hot, sieg, taki, hita ; 

as to h, heiy hau {hau-s), siJce, turu (toro), ses ; 

[No such example as to h' occurs, see Index under h'.J 

as to y, husa, tae (d. for atai), hia, ma-turii, ma (siisa) ; 

as to * and ", hea, bila, taoti (tdwot'i), fata (uota), tefi, lasi, 
mom, fasu, musu, sila {sol)-, Rotti hulii, Samoan fulu, Hen.' 
[Note. Examples of [h) are common in reduplicated words as 
lolo (alo-fi, also loa-sl, and lo-fi), momoa, hah, and ahdb (ah), &c.] 

(c) For examples of this as to ', see (e), he, fei, sei, interro- 
gative pronoun; tama, taliga, hinu (Ho weave'), hati, gisa, 
(kiha), Jcuruni ; 

as to h, ahu, lihu ; 

as to h, and h', Jcahu, suma {hima, ema, uma), lima {' five '), 
laso, raJcum, uis (tvis, his) ; sikai, tesa, ' one ' ; 

as to w, horoa, hani [hanu-s), halu, halo-ni, maui (mau), kan 
{kano, kanoka), malat (fhalat), marag (hurei), atelag (* moon ') ; 

as to y, faru (am, ' hand '), uha and kuha (' day ') ; 

^ For these words in other Oceanic dialects, see infra, the Dictionary, 
and for the same in the Semitic dialects, see the Index. 


as to ^ and ", uili {itU, oU), Jcari (' boy '), Icasu [Jcaii, * tree '), 
uisl (bisi), hago) {ynago\ fill, hulo (hugo), blnu ('to whistle'), 
fhata, ?hota, mlta {mata, ' eye '), fhala {mala) ; Maori gahurUy 
Vila and Meli (Po. Ef.) gafuru, nofuric, ' ten.' 

Modern English, it may be here observed, has dropped the 
guttural sounds of the Anglo-Saxon, which are still preserved 
in other dialects as Scotch and German : cf. lauch, Germ, lack- en, 
and laugh {laf} ; eneuch, Germ, genug, A.S. genoh, gewg, and 
enough (enuf), enow ; A.S, hoh, and hough (hok). So with 
Efatese as compared with some other New Hebrides and 
Oceanic dialects. In such examples in English we see not 
only the sometimes complete dropping, or quiescence, of the 
ancient gutturals, but also sometimes the passing of them into 
letters of another class, as here h, h, g, into f, w, k, which 
now represent them. Such changes in English have taken 
place in the past, and we know that they have fi'om the 
comparison of the present English with the other Indo-European 
ancient and modern dialects. It is exactly so with Efatese 
or other modern Oceanic dialects. The strong Semitic ancient 
guttural sounds ', h, h, % h% ", y, when in past times they 
were being dropped, either completely disappeared, or passed 
into other letters, as we have just seen. In My. initial h 
(written) is no longer sounded as hutan, Ef. uta, in which 
word the h represents an original y, p : here we see the process 

of softening the ancient harsher guttural sound in operation 
as it were. 

12. Dialectically one or more of the original consonant 
sounds may be dropped, as in § 4. In Tahitian all the 
gutturals have been softened to ', or lost, and s is always, 
f often, represented by h. In most of the Polynesian dialects 
all the sibilants have been softened to h, and Raratongan has 
lost even this h. Hawaiian has lost all the dentals, and 
softened s and f to h. Raratongan has lost both f and h, and 
also s. Tongan, like Arabic, has lost p ; Malay, like Assyrian, 
f ; and Malay v Malagasy w. Malay and Efatese have lost z, and, 



like Assyrian and Ethiopic, s^ In Efatese the sibilants have 
been reduced to s (which in one dialect is softened to h), 
the dentals practically to t, and the gutturals to k (g, b, rii) ; 
though the sounds of d, g, h are heard dialectically. In the 
New Hebrides dialects the original Semitic guttural sounds 
have been well j^reserved : Futunese shows that Polynesian, 
and Tanna, Malekula, &c., that Efatese originally had them. 
The change of k, g, and t to j (ch and j), not in Efatese, is 
seen, e.g. in Aneityumese (as in Arabic), as in akaija, infa, 
' we and thou ' ; Siijaua, gaua, ' ye ' ; rnoijeuv, * star,' j for original 
k, is in Ef. masoi, Santo masoi. So the s in Mg. sufina, * ear,* 
is for original k ('^y), through j (or eh), as in § 4, My. hiipigy 
and chupig. Lampong c/^/w^iy, Batta tshoppig (clioing). In Efatese 
s^Z^-/ (' enter '), q.v. Mj.juloJc, also scdat, or salaj:), Mg. juluka 
(i. e. cUulu-Jca), the My. j, Mg. dz, Ef. and My. s, all represent 
the original d, j. The same change of d to j and s is seen in 
the word for * one ', Ef. tesa, Gaudalcanar kesa. New Caledonia 
(Latham), tat, tecija, i.e. teja. 

In Ef. k, g (sometimes g') according to rule represent (My. 
and Mg. k, g, and) the Semitic k, g, k, see Index under these 

In Ef. the guttural-labial b, m, sometimes represent the 
guttural quiescents, § 11 c. 

In Ef. t (sometimes pronounced t, dialectically s, d) according 
to rule represents (My. t, d, Mg. t, t, s, d, and) the Semitic t, 
V, t, t', s, s', d, d, under which letters see Index. 

In Ef. s according to rule represents (Mg. and Tanna s, and 
z, Mare s, s', and z, Fut. s, s', and) the Semitic s, s', z, under 
which letters see Index. 

The Semitic s is represented in Ef. by t or s. See Index 
under the letter s. 

In Ef. 1, r, n according to rule represent the Semitic 1, r, n, 
under which letters see Index. 

In Ef. b (=b and p), f (=v and f) represent (Mg., Tanna, 
Malekula, &c., b, p, v, f, and) the Semitic b (v), p (f) ; and m 
the Semitic m : see Index under the letters b, p, m. 


In Ef. w (ii) in a few words represents the Semitic w : see 
Index under the letter w, and for the rest § 11. 

13. In the Oceanic dialects, as in § 5 «, letters belonging to 
the same class, gutturals, dentals, or labials, readily inter- 
change. For instance, original k, g, k, gutturals : 

{a) dig 



gape, wonder 




Ef. Jcili, gill, 



Icasi, gasi, g'asi 

mal^ay maga 

My. gali 


(jisi-Ji, A'/si'/j 

gaga, maga 

Mg. Imdi 




Sam. ^eli 




Ha. eli 


{h) Dentals; 

: t to 

n, tiima-'i 

m and noba-ni ; 

tobii and nohu ; 

binote and hinen. The change of the Semitic formative -t to n 
is frequent, and found in all the Oceanic dialects, thus, Mfe, 
' four,' N. Gruinea (Ray) bani, Motu Jiani ; Jcofu and kafu-ti, 
Fiji kovu-ta and kovti-na, My. kaxni-g ; tuku, Fi. iiiku-Va, Sam. 
tiiii-na ; Mahri iti-t {i':^), Mg. eni-na, ' six ' ; Syriac m-istnta, 
Mg. m-imma, 'EL m-mugi, Sam. inu, 'drink.' In Madagascar 
some tribes use -ta (dialect -sa), and -na interchangeably. 

T, s: afiti and ajisi; ta, sa, ti, cli, si, 'not'; tesa, sikai, 
siki-tik (redup.), ' one ' ; mita, Sam. and My. mata, Mg. masu, 
' eye.' The change of the Semitic formative -t to s (Mg. s, and 
z, and dialect s) is frequent, and in all the Oceanic dialects, 
thus bate, ' four,' Epi vase ; tagi-si, My. tagi-s, Fi. tagi-t'a ; Ufa, 
ma-lifii-s, Mg. lefi-ta. My. lapi-t, lain-s, Fi. lova-Va, Sam. lava-si, 
' to bend ' ; biinu-ti, dialect bimu-si, Mg. fimu-sl. In Madagascar, 
Hova -ta is in Betsileo dialect -sa. 

T, r, 1 : tm and riu ; tutu and hilu ; bcite, ' four,' Epi verl, 
Segaar (N.G.)/«Z. The Semitic formative -t becomes r, 1, thus, 
soka, soka-ta ki, soka-ri, Tongan hoko, Jioko-ta ki ; siimi-li. My. and 
Java sumba-t, sumjM-t, sumpa-l, sampa-l, My. tampi-na, Tong. 
umo-ji ; tami-si, sabe-li, My. simptc-l ; rogo, togo, togo, dogo, rogo-sa 

Note. — Wherever the name of the language is not given, the word is 
Efatese, and to be found with its meaning in the Dictionary, infra. 


M, Fi. rogo-fa, My. daga-r, Mg. re, reni, reni-s, * to hear ' ; Msij My. 
goso-ty Msi-l, 'rub.' Mg. -ta with suffix attached to it becomes 
t or r, as ma-talxU, Mg. taJmta, hatahurana (My. Jcatdkutan) ; Ef. 
mi'tiri, Mg. sura-fa, suratana, My. tuli-s, hilisan. The Semitic 
formative t- is sometimes changed to r-, ta-usi and ra-usi : so 
Fi. ra- and fa- are the same. 

Original n to t, s : ma-mfi. My. w/2:)i-s, tipi-s ; m?Ya, ' eye * ; 
fatu, * stone ' ; igita, An. m^a, Mg. islM, pronoun inclusive, * we 
and thou ' ; na and sa, n, s, pronoun third person, verbal suffix ; 
the same pronoun separate, Ef. inia, My. ina (iya), Mg. i^i, isi ; 
the n of the ' nunation ' sometimes becomes s, as Savu natun. 
My. ratus, ^ hundred.' For this word see Index under letter D. 

n to r : namu, 'mosquito,' Tah. namu and ramii. 

s to n : isuma and inuma. 

s to r : mesau, 7mm , * to desire.' 

r to s (z) : muri, ' send back, return,' and lusi ; gori, gusu, 
' nose ' ; karo, ' naked,' Mg. harihari, and haziliazL 

r to t : -ra and -ta, pronoun suffixed third person plural ; 
rowa and toua (roa, too), 'to fall.' When initial r is redupli- 
cated it is usually pronounced t, thus, roha, toroba ; rigi, tirigi ; 
rafi, terafi : in such cases the original letter may be r or t (d). 

r to n : mare and mane, ' man, male ' ; manu, Mg. vurima, 
My. hurug, 'bird.' 

r to 1 : roJco and loJco. 

1 to n : tulum and tinom. 

In some cases the change may not be direct from the 
original, but secondary, or through intermediate change or 
changes : thus, original 

1 to s, &c. : Arb. la, H. le, &c., ' not,' we find as ti, di, ri, 
sa, si, ta, ni, Sam. le, Maori te, My. ta, Mg. si ; and so the 
article, Arb. al, 1-, we find as na, ni, in, n-, Sam. le, Maori te. 
East Mai re, Mg. m, Fi. na (and a). Of these, s and s are from 
the original 1, through t. Tanna Mmia, himyalia, humiar, Ef. 
-dkamus, Fi. kemmii, Ml. P. hamdi, ' ye ' : here h, r, s, n, and d 
are all for original I, which in Mmia is elided, and is still 1 in 
Eromangan yoril, ' they.' See Ch. V, i, &c. 


So s to 1 : this may be through t or r (compare the change 
of s to 1 in Assyrian before a dental, and of s' to 1 ^ in Mahri), 
as in the word for ' man,' Ef ata, Epi a^a-mani, Epi si<-mano, 
Tanna ?/en<-man, Santo Za-mani : the letter here represented 
by t, r, s, 1 is in this word in Arm. s' and t, Arb. s, t', t, Eth. 
s, Heb. s\ In the words for 'two,' Hhree,' and 'eight,' the 
original initial Semitic letter is s', s, or t, V : Epi clma (jua), 
and lua, Ef. tua, and rua, and dua, and hia, My. diuva, Mg. rua, 
Sam. Ufa, 'two' ; Amb. siil, Ef. tohi, tolu, and rohf, 'three' ; My. 
lapan (reduplicated, dalapan), 'eight.' 

(c) Labials : b and m, as ho^, and mo^ ; humtti, and munuti ; 
6m, mai, ' to come ' ; 

b and w, as hon and uon ; hora, and torauora ; 

b and f, as hano, fano ; hami, nafamian : he, fe, ' to come ' ; 

f and w, fai, uai, ' water ' ; 

m and f, ma-tuna, s^nd fa-tuna, 'somewhat' : this ma is the 
Semitic interrogative and indefinite ma, sometimes changed 
in Assy, to va, Himyaritic to ha, as in Ef. in the same word, 
ma-toJco, it is also ha-toJco, and fa-toJco. The m of this word 
in the interrogative is in Ef. f, Mg. v. My. p ; and prefixed, as 
in the Semitic dialects, in the indefinite sense, to verbs and 
verbal nouns, it is in Mg. m and f (ma-, fa-, mpa-, malia-, 
fa-lia-, mpalia-). My. m and b, and p, Ef. b and f, also m (as in 
matoiko), Sam. m and f (as in mata'u, Ef. mataku, and fa^a-, 
Ef. haM; faJca-, Mg. maha-). 

m and m, b and b, and vice versa, interchange. 

w and b, as ualu and lalu. 

w and b, ualu and balu. 
For original initial w, see the Oceanic word for ' moon ', atUag^ 
Mg. vulana, &c. 

For original initial m, see the Oceanic words for ' male ', marl, 
muni, man, &c., and ' female', fafine, &c. 

14. Interchange of letters of one class with those of another, 
as in § 5, h, c, d, e, f, g, 

* See the Oceanic word for ' sun,' fjo. Tong. laa, &o. 


(a) Gutturals and Dentals, as in § 5 & : Ef. fila, Bu. hilah, 
My. hilat, Mg. Mlafa, ' lightning ' ; uJ^V, My. Jcujnff and clmpig, 
Mg. sufina, ^ear' ; Lobo (N.G.) IcomaJcoma, Timbora TiigTiOc/j Mg. 
Mntana, My. hinfag, tvintag, lintag, Chamori imtiun, Haw. /ioA;i<, 
San Christoval (Fagani) yi^w, Marq. /je/w, fctu, Maori whetu, 
Motu ^isiw, Oba visiu, Santo vituiy masoi, Ef. masoi, An. moijeiw, 

\ZS^, Mahri haMob, &c., ' star.' K to n (through g), Batta (Suma- 
tra) oka, Tanna ik, Ero. ha, My. and Ef. ag, Ef. dialect ke-i^a 
and ke-ma (Mg. anau, ana-xeu), pronoun second person singular. 
Ef. humu and cikam, My. hamu, Tanna itnma and Jcimia, pronoun 
second person plural. An. ni-lcma and ni-jm«, ' hand ' ; seik 
and seij, 'three.' Ef. kahi, Ml. kamhu, Epi sewi&i, Motu lahi, 
Kotuma raid, ' fire ' : for other examples, see § 11 c. 

{b) Dental and Guttural, as in § 5 c : Ef. sikai, siki-tik, Cayagan 
tadai, Sumatra sada, N. Caledonia tat, cliika, 'one.* The 
Hawaiians wholly confound dental with guttural, t being 
always pronounced and written k. (In Samoan the increasing 
tendency is to pronounce t as *.) Thus Maori ta-gata is in 
Haw. ka-ndka, Fi. ta-mata, Ef. ta-mole, 'man.* In the personal 
pronouns we have Ef. igita, Mg. isika, 'we and thou.* How n 
may become k (or h), through g, is seen in this same word, thus 
igita (for inita, Mota inina) in one Ef. dialect is akif, My. kita, 
Gaudalcanar ihita (suffixed Ef. -nita, gita, Mg. -sika), and in the 
first person exclusive also, 'we and they,* the same n becomes 
k (or h), through g, and is sometimes elided, thus, Ef. k-inami, 
(Santo anam), Ef. dialect agami, Aurora ikami, kami, My. kami, 
Ysabel (Gao) i'ami, 'ai, Mg. ahai (suffixed Mg. -nai, Ef. nami 
and -garni) Vla,wsL ami, Motu ai ; Ef. an, dialect ?r, dialect j9?f, mu, 
verbal pronoun, for nami as Ulawa ami, Motu ai, Motu verbal 
pronoun a ; Mg. vatana. My. hadag, Ef. hatako, ' body.* And 
thus the n of the Semitic formative sufiix an, ^\—, in Mg. a^m. 
My. an, Ef. an, or ana, is n in Haw., g in Maori, Sam., &c., 
k in Marquesan. In Ef. itself we have ran, rag, rak, ' time * ; 
and in Maori ragi and raki, Ef. lagi, Haw. lani, 'heaven, 
sky.' So the n of the 'nunation' may become g, k as Mg. 
tilun, My. orag, Ulu (Sumatra) orak, ' man ' ; and Ef. tasi, 


Oeram taisin, and tasoJc, My. tasih, * sea.' Not only n, but 1 and 
r ^ may become g, k, h, thus the 1 or r of the Oceanic numeral 
' three ' (tolu, tilu, sehi, tir, &c.) is g, and k, in My. tiga, An. sciJc ; 
Ef. taliga, An. tikga, ' ear.' Ef. tasila is in Ef. dialects tasiga, 
and aheka ; and hulo-ni is in a neighbouring village hugo-ni. 
Malo Uira is in Epi taka, Ef. fali(, ' the back.' The formative 
prefix in My. tar is in Tagala taga ; and that in My. har is in 
Tagala mag, Mg. malm, Ef. lalia, or /aA'a, Tah. /aa, or haa, 
Maori wJiaJca, the original Semitic being mata-. The formative 
prefix ^a, J, cL, may pass into hi, ha (and then into a, as in 
Ef. dialect ahelia = tasila, as just noted), thus Ef. talara, Maori 
tawera, and liaioera, 'burned.' This prefix [ta) in My. and Ef. 
is often M, Mg. ha, as Ero. devat-ugi, Ef. kafate, or A;e/a^e (so 
with all the numerals), My. kaampat, 'fourth,' Mg. hefarana, 
'four days.' 

So the Semitic formative suffix (collective, abstract, feminine) 
t, n, 8, often becomes k (or h) in Mg. and My., thus My. goso-t, 
goso-Jc, Mg. kasu-ka, Ef. kasi, 'to rub.' Mg. imsita, pusika. 
Ef. husa i, 'to smash.' This ending also changes through k, 
or, as in the Semitic dialects, directly, to h, and disappears (see 
siq)ra) : My. gam, garu-t, garo-k, Ef. karo, karu-ti, ' to scrape ' ; 
Mg. tapa-ka, Ef. tefi, 'to cut.' But always in such Mg. words 
the -ka, when another suffix (-una) is attached to it, becomes h 
(or f, see infra under section c), as tapa-ka, tapa-hina (not tapa- 
kind), ' cut off.' This suffix, -t, is seen in the Oceanic numeral 
'four', as Ef. hate, Mota vat, Uea vak, Pentecost j^ie^, N.G. (X., 
p. 332) fiak. The same change of t to k is seen in the Oceanic 
word for ' three ', which is in Ef. tolu, Mare tlni, but in Lifu 
koni, Uea Mm. 

(c) Guttural and Labial, as in § 5 : Ef, kui and hii, kiisu (dialect 
MM = kisi) and nisi, hisi ; Ef. kait. My. gatva and hawa : Ef. 
fila, ' lightning,' Bu. Mak, My. kilat (also kilap), as just noted). 

^ F. Miiller, 0. cler SijracJm., My. §, p. 92, and fol., notes the change ot 
r to g, k, h. Among the Malays the r is gutturally pronounced, like r 
grassey^, Northumbrian r, in some places. So the Semitic r has a guttural 


In Mg. the formative suffix Aa, with another suffix attached 
to it, becomes sometimes h, sometimes f, sometimes either 
one or the other (e. g. hiriJca, JiirUiana, or hirifana, * bored '), as, 
huhuM, hulmfana (not JmlmJcana), Ef. MJcu, gulm, guMia, 'bent,' 
* cui-ved.' Ef. dialect turnh, as in Arb., but hiruhi-si, as in Eth. : see 
Dillmann for this change in this and other words, e.g. Eth. Gr., 
p. 47. K, through g, to m, m, Ef. k, ko, go, ma, ma, Tanna 
k, m, suffixed pronoun second person singular : for this k, g, 
to n, see supra, § 14 a. In the reduplicated word for ' star ' 
the first k has become f, v, w, b, m, and p (wh, and h), and 1, 
the second k appears as g, j, s, s, h, see § 14 a. 

(d) Labial and Guttural, as in § 5 e : see Dillmann, where 
just cited for this change. Ef. hisi, Mg. fusita and husitaj 
'to rub.' Ef. ^?a, 'lightning,' My. Mlat and hilap. Ef. saluhe 
and sahike, 'to be ignorant.' Both Ef. b and m represent 
sometimes original gutturals as Mli, hili, and sometimes have 
passed into pure b or m ; and sometimes rejDresent, as in 
salute, saluke, original labials, and sometimes have passed into 
pure gutturals : that is, these sounds are bridges, which may 
be crossed either way, between the two classes, gutturals and 
labials. They are half-guttural, half-labial sounds. 

Ef. ^?a, 'lightning,' Bu. hikilCj Mg. halata, Mahri horiq, and 
horiq. The change of f to h, Ef. ban or fan (I have heard this 
in d. as han), An. pan {apan), and Jian, ' to go ' ; Tah. faa or Jiaa, 
(Ef. haha or faM), formative prefix. 

M to g and k : compare Assyrian m to g. Ef. lumi, and 
luffi, to swell (' rise up,' of the skin) ; cognate word lagi, My. 
lagit, Mg. lanita, Haw. lani, Maori ragi, dialect raM, ' the sky, 
heaven, above ' : in both of these cognate words, liigi (hmii), 
and lagi, the original letter is m. The change of original m to 
g is seen also in the word for ' wind ', Bugis loma, Maori msL'tagi, 
Fi. fagi, Ef. lagi, which see. For the change of k, through 
g, to m, see (c). 

(e) Dental and Labial, as in § 5 /. My. lakat and lakaj), 
Ef. l/iku, liJcut, q.v., 'to adhere': the t in this word is the 
formative ending above mentioned as sometimes passing into 


k, h, and f. When it occurs in Mg. as ta, the t on the addition 
to it of the other ending (ana) passes into t, r, or f, as Ef. liJco, 
liJcot, Mg. reMfa (or raiJcita), rekitana ; Ef. matdku, Mg. tafiuta, 
hatahurana, My. tahit, takutan, ' fear ' ; Mg. tarafa, tarafina 
(not taratina), Sam. tilof-ia, Fi. tiro, tirova, Maori tiro, tirohaga 
(= Mg. tarafana), Ef. tiro, 'to look, gaze, peep, spy.' The 
original dental (t) of this ending, retained in one dialect, may 
have passed into and be retained only as a labial in another, 
as Mg. ilita, or iclita, idirana, 'to enter,' Sam. ulu, uhif-ia, Ef. 
reduplicated alialia, ululia, ' entered (by a spirit), possessed ' ; 
My. salat, and salap, Ef. sili, silif, ' to enter, insert.' When the 
t of this ending has changed to n in Mg., this n, on the 
addition to it of the ending ana, often changes to m, as 
minuna, ' to drink,' minumana (not mimmana), My. minum, Ef. 
minu, minug, Sam. inu, mumaga=M.y, minuman, Mg. minumana, 
Ef. minugiana (the i after the g will be explained below) : so 
Mg. eni-na, Mg. ana-m, ' six ' ; original initial s in this word 
sometimes has become f, as Coram tvonen. Ml. tvon, Tah. fene ; so 
second radical s in the word for ' ten ', fuUt, piiluh, and that for 
* nine ', My. salapan (red.), MskasssiY jalatien (red.). In Santo m 
and n are often used indifferently by different speakers, or even 
by the same speaker (Vol. II of this series, p. 1). Thus we have 
Santo kanim — Fi. kemuni, ' ye,' pronoun second person plural, 
and Ef. komdm and kindmi, ' we and they ' ; My. nipis and 7mpis, 
Ef. 7)ia-nifl, 'thin.' In Kotuma t is very often pronounced f, 
as fa, for ta, ' man ' ; ynaf, for mat, ' eye ' ; folu, for tolu, ' three,' 
and so forth. 

(/) Labial and Dental, as in § 5 g. In Santo owing to the 
confusion, noticed under (e), between n and m, we often have 
n for original m, as Una for lima, 'five.' In South Santo 
(Vol. II of this series, p. 1) there is a sound, represented by t, which 
is described as tp, or a sound between the two. It is a half t 
half p sound. On the opposite coast of Malekula there is 
a sound which makes the same confusion between f (or v) and 
t'. One hears what is at once labial and dental, just as in 
b and m what is at once guttural and labial : Santo vate, and 


fate, N. Guinea (L. 332) fiaJc, and tiah, ^ four ' ; Malekula 
mnhitUy and ivontit, Mysol (W.)fitf and tit, N. Guinea Jih, txky 
and sik, Java pitu, My. %o7/, Mg. ^/?^if, and (dialect in Sir Joseph 
Banks) titii, ' seven,' Mahri ibet (for si&e^, Assy. sifeiO ; Ef. 
fanua, Santo vanua, and t'anua, ' house, country ' ; Ef. fafine, 
Malekula vavine, and fafine, ' woman * ; My. hidan, Mg. vulana, 
Bu. w%, Timuri /^(?aw, and tulan, Ef. atilagi, atlag (prosthetic 
a), (Port Praslin ^'a?aw, Duke of York Mlag, see (cl) above), 
Santo ivula, Fi. vula, N. Caledonia malog, An. moliog, Eotti 
&2/Za?^, Sumatra twZew, tw^eif, Z^t^Zrt, Mahri wareh, woret, eret, haret, 
ivorat, tviirut, tvurit, airif, Tigre tverha, Sokotra irah, ' moon ' : 
see Index s. v. (DC^ (D^I, ^t) — not in Arabic. 

15. Letters which readily fall away or disappear, as in § 6. 
For the aspirated b (=b and p), that is, f (=v and f), and m 
(when pronounced f which readily passes into w and disappears), 
and for k and t, see above. 

S has sometimes disappeared as (i::-.), Mahri itet, Mg. enina, 
'six'; minugi, minima ()loK<».-^), 'drink'; Causative prefix a, 
Arb. a ; pronoun third person, Tanna in, Ef. iga, ima, My. ina, 
Assy, sunu, sina, i^^*!}, nan, &c. ; li^, Mahri ihet, Mg. Sam. fitu, 
Java 2^itu, * seven ' ; a««^>, Mahri homo, Marquesan hima, Ef. 
lima, Mg. limi, and dimi, Maori rima, E^igima, sima, &c., 'five' ; 
(^, Mahri 7?w% Ef. UnaJc, finaJc, 'to steal.' In the word for 
' five ' it is the final s that has disappeared. 

T initial has disappeared in {l*^) Mahri iset, Sokotra sa'ah, 
M. Syr. icha (itsJia), (Sula tasia) Bouru esMa, chia, siiva, Batta 
siah, Santo siiva, Mg. sivi, Tong. Mva, Maori iiva, ' nine ' ; ^C> 

(Sumatra lapan) Savujpa??w, Easter Island varu, Mg., Sam. -ya^w, 
Maori ivaru, Carolines ivan, toal, Santo loahi, dUt, Malekula wal, 
alu, Oba hahi, ' eight.' 

L, Ef. mains, maus ; Ji**., 'to descend,' Ef. siivo, smva, Tong. 
Mfo, Sam. i/o, An. asuol (asuwol). 

R, Ef. verb. pron. ru, and e?/ : the r here is for original n (m) ^ : 

^ As in Tanna, verb, pron., r-, thus even, to go, in reveti, he goes, for in neven, 
and so with all verbs. So Ef. ru layi, they go, is for nu ban, Dual ra ban, 


Tanna Uar, ilia (inim), T\b^, Eth., Amh. eltif ela, Arb. ila, &c. 
(see Index under the letter N for this). This Semitic personal 
demonstrative plural pronoun is usually appended in Oceanic 
to the second and third personal pronouns plural, thus, third 
person, Ef. inla (now singular, but originally plural), My. iiia, 
Mg. ?>?, isi (plural and singular), Ef. inira, Mg. izareu (for 
inareu), Eromanga irora (for inora), yoril (for yonil), Tanna iraJia 
(for inara), dialects of Tannese ilar, Hat, ilah, iria, ilia, Fut. (Po.) 
Sik-iria, Tong. ki-nau, 'they,' lit. (na-u), 'they — those.' Second 
person : Mg. anareu, Tanna himialia, dialects humiar, Jcimia, itu- 
mat, Malekula dialect kamito, Ef. dialect aJcamus, Fi. Jcemuni, 'ye,' 
or 'you,' literally 'you — those.' 1«S^1, Amh. arut, at Arkeeko 
iihaJi, Sula riha, Tagala apat, My. ampat, Mg. efata, Acheen 
(Sumatra) haat, Ef. Mte, 'four.' 'Fruit,* Aramaic perali, plra, 
Mg. vua, My. hiiivah, Ef. hoiia, ua [tva). 

N : see the word for ' man ' under ^^, and 2, in Index. Ef. 
ani, or rtw or a, 'to abide'; nani, and nai, or nei, 'child,* hano, 
han, and ha, 'to go'; Ef. inatf, Tanna iau, &c., 'I'; Arb. t'ifia, 
Assy, sina, M. Syr. tern, Mahri t^aro, Sokotra tera, Celebes dia, 
My. dua, Ef. rita, tua, Mg. ma, &c., *two.' Formative prefix i-, 
for -in, Ifal for Infal. So the formative suffix -na becomes 
sometimes -a, in Polynesian, and -ina in Mg. is both -ina and 
ia in Polynesian. The preposition ni is often i as in Fi., 
Ef., &0. 

The final a of the word t^ina, rua, &c., ' two,' is the a of the 
Semitic dual ending. 

Initial n of triliterals, as in Heb. and Arm., often disappears : 

see Index under the letter i for examples, as hisa, 'speak,' Jcat, 

bite,' 5a^ 'ascend,' huJca, 'swell,' &c. Ef. and Fi. ni, and i, 

the preposition, in Arb. J. Final n also sometimes falls away, 

as in Jcaro, ' throat, gullet,' sohe, ' nape of neck.' 

M, as we have seen, may disappear whether initial, medial, 

or final. The m, in Arm. and Assy, changed to n, of the 

second and third personal pronouns plural, was apt to fall 

they two go, both ru, and rd, being for nu, nd, originally inii, md, A. humu. 
Dual humd. 


away, Arb. antuniu, antwm, and antUj Amh. a^tu, dialect of 

Syrisi anJcii, y^\, and so My. kamu, kau, and ag'au^ Mg. awaw, 
Ef. kumvi^ akam, eg% (suffix, Ef., My. -ynu^ Ef. dialect kama), Arb. 
ttim, kiim, Heb. ^em, kern, Tigri Z;?^m, Eth. ^emi*, Amh. hUf 
Ef. d. ^w, Arb. tu, Heb. ^i*, Syriac tun, Mandaitic tun, tu. So 
in the third person plural, thus Talmudic in-Jio, in-Jie, for in-Jion, 
in-Jien ; M. Syriac an-i, in which all that is left of the original 
pronoun, in Assy, sunu, sina, Arb. Jmmii, hunna, Heb. hem, 
hema, &c., is i, the an- or in- being demonstrative prefixes. 
The M. Syr. suffix of this pronoun sometimes retains its n 
but is usually without it simply as e. In the Semitic dialects 
generally, however, this pronoun whether separate or suffixed 
retains its m or n : so also in the Oceanic dialects especially 
in the suffixed form, thus in My. it is ina, or iga, suffixed ria 
Mg. iisl, isl, id, i, suffixed ni, Sam. ia (and na), suffixed na, 
Ef. ima, iga, na-i, suffixed na, nla, and mia. In My. ma-rika, 
' they,' the ma is probably this pronoun, like the ga, in Ef. 
ga-ra, and m (for na), in Mg. iza-reu, and ini in Ef. and Santo 
ini-ra, * they.' This pronoun* occurs also as the last part of the 
combination of the pronouns of the first and third persons 
called the 'exclusive', 'we and they,' Ef. kina-mi, dialect agam, 
Santo ana-m, My. ka-ml, Mg. aJia-i, suffixed Santo na-m, Ef. 

na-mi, Mg. na-i. 


16. (a) Dropping of initial syllables of words first radical 
weak, or quiescent, and on the other hand, (b) adding an initial 
syllable to words with » (Aleph prosthetic) to lighten the 
pronunciation, as in § 7. 

(a) For instance, the three Semitic words given as examples 
of this in § 7 appear thus in Oceanic, Ef. atai, and toe, 'to 
know ' ; ^n, Sumatra sada, Gaudalcanar kesa, Epi saka, Ef. sika-i, 
tesa, Sam. tasi, N. Caledonia tat, &c., 'one'; and Assy, laku, 
Fi. lako, 'to proceed,' 'going.' 

(b) For example 11[, 'name,' Ef. gisd, Malo isa, Santo kisa, 
Fi. gat'a; B*hA, 'sun,' see Index — Ef. do, alo, ali. My. ari, 
Mg. andru, all show this prosthetic syllable, the sound repre- 


sented by 8, (^, being difficult. So Ef. atmate, for temate, 
atelahi, for telaM ; and atla^ or atelaff (the moon). 

In Efate the first syllable of, for example, hati, * teeth,' is of 
a different kind : for which see Index under the letter ^. 
Thus ' teeth ' is in Santo um, and peti, Su. isi, Madura tvaja, 
Celebes ffisi, Savu ffutu, Gilolo ^edi, &c. ; and * head,* in Mahri 
here, Imroh, hare (final s dropped), is in Celebes urie, ulu, 
Amboyna uruJca, (Mg. hiha), ulura, Ceram. yuli, Sunda pulu, 
Lampong uluh, My. ulu, Maori um. As the Index shows, the 
additional initial syllable in these words for 'teeth' (and 
'head'), is that of the Semitic 'broken plural', or rather 
collective singular. As such 'broken plurals' have almost 
entirely replaced in Arabic the old or ' sound ' plurals, so the 
latter have almost completely disappeared from the Oceanic 

17. We give here a few specimens showing the letter changes 
in the words for 'man,' 'male,' 'woman' ('female'), 'sun,' 
* day,' ' bone,' and 'child,' &c. 

(a) J-li, ^U, ^f^^, Jjl-!., Assy, yasi, &c., 'man,' 'human 
being.' This is the word of which the following forms are 
given in Max Miiller's Science of Language, p. 262, orag, rag, 
oran, olan, Ian, ala, la, na, da, ra, Ef. ndtd, afa, ita, ta, and see 
below under (d), and (e). 

(6) ^^, (^'?.9), 'man, male, vir,' (c) »]p, 'i\y\, 'woman, female.' 

(h) Ef. Malo, and Oba mera, Ef. mare, mam, and ma, Ysabel 
m/xra, and mane, and mae, Batta morah, Satawal mar, and mal : 

Bima monemone. Ml. hanman, Motu maruana, Bali muwani, 
Carolines (Mortlock), muan, Ceram manowai, Ef. anoai, ami, 
Gilolo anow. 

The Mg. and My. word for ' male ' is quite different, lahi, and 

laM, Jii, Jt:^.?. 

(c) My. hini, N. Guinea 6m, pine, Bu. hai, Bauro tvai, Ef. 
bite, dialect matu : Reduplicated, 

My. parampuan, Java parawan, prawan, Tanna pilaven, pitan, 



Iran. Other Oceanic forms are mawina, vaivine, faifid, fafine, 
Mg. vavi, Motu liaine, Ef. dialect /ci/i we. The final n is for s, the 
Semitic feminine ending. 

(d) Combination of (a) and {b) signifying 'male', ' husband ': 

Ef. ata-mani Tanna yeru-man 
ita-mani eru-man 

Epi em-miine Ml. idu-man 

ata-mam Santo la-mani 
sii-mano le-man 

Ml. asa-maf Fi. ata-gane 

Tong- & Sam. fa-ane, ta-ni 

(e) Combination of (a) and (c) signifying 'woman', ' female,' 
' wife ' : 

Santa Maria ta-wa 


D. of Y. 











Satawal ra-hont 

or lc4 
Vanua Lava re-be 

S. Cris. ura-o 



N.G. si-ne 



N. G. Jcura-ni 


or yuru-m 

or yuru-i 

(/) Feminine of [a) signifying ' woman ' : 

H. Hs's'ali, Ch. Hta, S. ^atto, A. 'unt'a. Ef. lai, le, li, Fi. adi, 
di, Mota iro, ro. But Ef. lai may be la-i, see under (e). 

(^) Sun (also day, and daylight), and §§ 13 &, 16 b. See 
Index under B'hJZ. ' sun,' Tigre and Amharic sai, Epi (South- 
East ndae (dai), Tarawan tai, Cajeli lehei, Amblaw laei, Meli rea, 
Sulu Islands lea, Mota ?oa, Tongan Ida, Samoan la, Maori ra, 


Lifa t'o, t'u, Mare clii, Aurora aha, Efate elo, alo, ali, Mg. andru>, 
anru, My. art, Lobo orah and omk, Mafoor orl, Vaturaga aso, 
Florida aho, Fiji sl(/a, San Cristoval sina, Motu dina, Aneityum 
t^iff, &c. 

(h) Bone, v. § 10, and Index under ^lac, plural nim*y, Mahri 
'atait, at' at' (the m dropped), Efate tdot, or tawot, Mg. tdulana 
(note the nunation), Guaham tolan, Lampong tidan, My. fwZa^. 
In this word Efatese has the original plural (feminine) ending 
t, which the others change to 1. 

(i) Child, father, mother : see Diet. s.v. ani (for nani). The 
initial radical (v. Index) is found as w, y, and » (1). It is a in 
My. anak, Ml. anatu-n, Mg. anaka, k in Ef. kanoa, kanoka. 
My. kanak, and z in Mg. kanaka, dropped in Ef. nati, nani, in 
which the middle radical 1 is represented by n, and in reita n 
by r, as in Mg. reni, An. and Ml. risi, but by 1 in Pa. lati, Fila 
Ufa, Celebes ley to. The third radical d is represented by t, 
as in Ef. natu na, by n, as in nani na, by k in Mg. and My. 
anaka, Ef. kanaka, and elided in Ef. nai na, kanoa, Mg. rai, 
Ef. ere, Ceram. ina, Epi la, Ef. reita. Fila leta, &c.^ 

For the places in the foregoing where the letter changes in 
the numerals, and certain other much -used words (sun, moon, 
star, stone, fire, fruit, lightning, wind, heaven, water, ear, man 
(person), man (male), woman, eye, fruit) are explained, see 
Ch. VI; and for the same in the personal pronouns, Ch. V. 
In the foregoing are also explained the words for head, year, 
sea, navel, name, teeth, bone, skin, house, tree, canoe (ship), 
and many other nouns, verbs, and particles too numerous to 
mention here. 

' See Index. 



It is now to be shown that the Oceanic primitive hxnguage 
had like each of its sister dialects, Arabic, Assyrian, &c., its 
share of the common stock of purely and exclusively Semitic 
triliteral words (nouns and verbs) with the purely Semitic 
common method of word formation or inflexion by internal 
vowel change, and external additions (prefixed, infixed, sufiixed), 
and its share also of the limited common stock of purely 
Semitic particles. This, if it can be shown, will be admitted to 
be conclusive. The particles wall be dealt with subsequently. 

The ancient Semitic finite verb, with its perfect and imper- 
fect, was simply a verbal noun * joined in a certain way with 
the personal pronouns, and with it or from it other and 
numerous verbal nouns ^ were formed by vowel change and 
external formative additions. The ancient finite verb with 
its perfect and imperfect so formed is no longer found in the 
existing broken down Oceanic languages, though as analytic 
substitutes for it we have as the finite verb for instance 
in Efatese * the verbal pronoun ' joined with these verbal 
nouns after the fashion of the Imperfect, as a hano I (am, or 
was) going = I go (or I went), and in Malagasy the ^pronominal 
adjunctive' joined with these verbal nouns, after that of the 
perfect, as tiaku my loving = I loved, or, I love. The verbal 
nouns that were formed with or from that of the ancient 
finite verb were numerous, and in them we have the ground - 

1 C.G.S.L., pp. l&i and 178. 

2 Ibid., p. 195, and Wright's Arb. Gr., I. §§ 195, 196. 


forms of the modern Oceanic verb. We may compare here 
the following Arabic forms : — 

1. Jxi /a7 (fa'h«, or fa'lo, fa'l?', fa'la^- in the rest I shall 
not give these final vowels, but the reader should bear 
them in mind). 

2. jlj fil. 17. fail 

8. J^ fia. 18. fad. 

4. iii faUt. 19. fdilat, 

5. £l^ fiUa. 20. fallat. 

6. ii^ fulat. 21. faiil 

7. Ji.1 /a'«/. 22. fiiilat (Heb.). 

8. Jl^i fdal. 23. /?f'««Z. 

9. ilx:dfdalaf. 24. mafal. 

10. iJlil fdalat. 25. rtmf'il. 

11. Jii A"«^ 26. niaf'ilaf. 

12. Jlxi ^V<?. 27. maf'ul. 

13. iJUj fidlat. 28. maf'tdat. 

14. Jx.9 /«f'«/. 29. nmf'alat. 

15. /it a?. 30. fiiidat. 

16. ftcakit. &c.^ 

Of these forms 1-6 are the commonest in Oceanic. The 
difference from the Arabic form is mainly in the last vowel 
of 1-3 (this last vowel is not written in the above as explained) 
and in the last two vowels of 4-6 (the last being this same 
unwritten terminal) there being for the final u, or o, when it is 
not elided, sometimes a, or /, and for the a before the -t, often 
u, or 0, as in other Semitic languages. We now proceed to 
compare the Oceanic triliteral words with Arabic, Assyrian, tK.c., 

^ In Arabic as in the Semitic mother-tongue every noun ended with one 
of these italicized vowels, ii, or o (nominative) ; i (genitive) ; a (accusative). 
Generally the other Semitic languages, aud the modern Oceanic use these 
final vowels indiscriminately, without case signification. 

- For these and other forms, see Wright's Arb. Gr., Vol. I. §§ 196-21 9, &c. 



just as, for instance, we compare, say Assyrian or Himyaritic 
words with Arabic, Hebrew, Syriac, or Ethiopic. 

Take for example Efate lifai, to bend round ; nmlibaif bent 
(the final i, transitive particle, is explained below) ; lofa, a thing 
bent ; lofai, to bend ,• malofa, bent ; Jcalofa, or kolofa, bent ; lufa 
(Samoan lavalava), a wrapper round the loins ; Samoan lofa, to 
crouch ; lofataina, to cause to crouch ; lave, lavelave (Arabic 
lafelafa, to wrap round, &c.), to entangle ; lavelavea, to be en- 
tangled ; (for -a, and -taina, see below). Fiji love, lovet^a 
(Samoan lavasi), to coil, fold, to bend ; halove, bent ; salove, 
flexible ; Malay li2)af, lampit, lap'it, lampis, lapis, a fold, to fold, 
plait ; Malagasy lefifa, also liifita, folded, bent, plaited ; Arabic 
laffa, to be involved, intertwined, to wrap up, wrap round 
(oneself, as clothing), to fold ; laff, liff, laffat, liffat, involved, 
intertwined, &c. ; loffa, loffaf, coil of turban, winding of road. 
In this example the above given six commonest forms of the 
modern Oceanic verb (or noun), the ancient verbal noun, are 
seen, viz. : — 

1. lave. 3. lofa, love, lufa. 5. lipat 

2. Ufa. 4. lampit, lavasi. 6. lovet'a. 
The inference is irresistible that in the Oceanic prunitive 

or mother-tongue this word was triliteral, and had the vowel 
changes peculiar to the Semitic languages most fully preserved 
in the ancient Arabic ; and that as a triliteral word with the 
middle radical doubled it underwent the usual contractions, 
set forth in all Semitic grammars, of such words, as is plainly 
seen by comparing with the Arabic. These forms, originally 
verbal nouns and still often used as such, formed from the 
ancient finite verb, as lipat, a fold, lofa, a thing bent, or 
bending, have become ground-forms of the modern verb, as 
lipat, lipatkan,^ to fold ; lofai^ to bend ; from which again are 
formed by external additions modern verbal nouns, and derived 
verb forms. Thus we have lipatan, a fold ; lofaian, a bending 
or being bent ; lavelavea, entangled or entangling ; malibai, 
bent ; and the derived verb forms (see below) : ^ — 

^ For kan and i, transitive particles, see below on the Particles. - Ch. IV. 


Safal, Fiji salove, flexible. 

Mafal, Malay maUjMt, to fold, plait ; Efate mallfus, bent, 

Mifal, Malagasy milefita, folded. 

Tafal, Fiji lialove, Efate Mlofa, bent. 

Manfal, Malagasy mandefita, to fold, bend. 

Matafal, Samoan faalave, to take a turn of a rope as round 
a pin.^ 

It is not proposed to give here these modern verbal nouns, 
and derived verb forms for the following words, but they may 
easily be found in the dictionaries. 

As is seen in this example the vowels of the ground-forms of 
the Oceanic verb are retained in the modern derived forms and 
verbal nouns. It is in the ground-forms therefore that we 
find the proof of the part played in the ancient language (the 
primitive Oceanic) by internal vowel change. 

To show that this is a fair specimen of modern Oceanic 
words, that it is not exceptional but only one out of the mass 
and of a piece with the rest, would prove conclusively that the 
Oceanic primitive or mother-tongue had like each of the sister 
dialects, Arabic, Assyrian, &c., its share of the purely and 
exclusively common stock of Semitic triliteral words with the 
purely Semitic common method of word -formation or inflexion 
by internal vowel change and external additions. This then 
is what we have now to endeavour to show, and we may begin 
with words belonging to the same special class as this. viz. : — 

{a) Triliterals with the Second Radical Doubled. 

The figures refer to the above given verbal noun forms 1-30. 
Efate 1 ial)u, Maori tapu, prohibited ; Arabic (dahba, to prohibit) 
1 dahhu, a prohibiting, or being prohibited. 

Efate 1 7nalo, Malay 4 mcdas, disgusted, loathe, unwilling, 
averse. Arabic {nudla, to loathe, be disgusted, unwilling, avei*se) 
1 mallo, 4 mcdlat. 

* For these prefixes, see below on the Formative prelixes. 


Efate 1 tefa ; Fiji 4 tuva, to put in a series, range troops 
in order of battle. Arabic mffa^ to set or place in order in 
a series, to arrange the line of battle, 1 saff. 

Efate 1 l:m% liaro, to scratch, scrape, shave, seize, grasp : 
"karo, the throat, gullet ; A«rl, a plane ; Malay gani^ to rake ; 
Efate 3 gura, to rake ; Malagasy 3 /ji/ri, to scrape ; Efate 6 guras\, 
to gnaw ; Efate 4 karaha, Txarati, Mrisi, Jcarafi, Iwitti ; Malay 
garit, garis, gamt, garolc, garap, Mrut, JcaroJi ; Malagasy Imrata, 
to shave ; Arabic (garra, to drag, snatch, sweep, seize ; Hebrew, 
garar, to scrape, sweep, saw) : Arabic 1 garr : 4 garrat ; 6 gitrmf : 
Hebrew garon, the throat, gullet. 

Efate 1 Mht ; 3 Jcuhi, a covering, as of cloth or a mat, to cover 
oneself with such ; 4 Jcahtti ; 6 kuluti, to cover with such, to 
clasp one round so as to hold him ; hel, Iceleti, Jceht, kelaJceJa, turn 
round ; Malagasy 6 hudina, Imdidma, and herina, Malay guUg, 
gidug, golig : 5 gilig, MlilU), to roll, to turn round ; Arabic 
{gaUa, to cover, &c., Hebrew gcdal, to roll) 1 gaUu ; 3 gulln, 
a covering; Hebrew g'dgal, a wheel, a whirlwind, compare 

the analogous Malagasy Imdmlxiidma, turned repeatedly ; "J-f, 5^X 
^^^^, Ip^ to turn round, revolve, Ef. hel, Jcelet, helakela, helekeUt} 

Efate 3 Tiusi, and, with h elided, tisi, to follow, to track, 
to narrate : Malay 6 usir, to pursue ; Arabic hami, to track, to 

Efate 3 soka, to leap, go swiftly, be inflamed with anger, 
to spear, inivit midierem ; Samoan soso'a, Tongan Jwka, to 
spear, pierce : Arabic zalilia, to leap, to go with vehemence, to 
burn with rage, inivit muliercm, to project, to throw. 

Malagasy 4 haraka, scorched, dried up, parched ; Malay garig, 
krig ; Efate 1 karcu dry ; Arabic Jiarra ; Hebrew Jiarar^ to be 
hot, burned, dried up. 

Malagasy 1 tani, Efate tagi, to sound, clank, tinkle, hum, 

^ In this paragraph there are two cognate words (for which see Ae/, 
kalv, in Dictionary), the one beginning with g, the other with k, both 
second radical, 1 or r, doubled. The doubled letter is seen in kuclidma, 
kalilig, and the reduplicated form Arb. Karakara, karakarat, Eth. an-k'arlutra, 
is seen in Ef. kelakela, kdekelet. 


wail ; Malay 4 tagls, (Efate, Samoaii) tagisi ; Arabic tanna, to 
tinkle, clank, ring, hum. 

Efate 3 Icofu, to wrap up, enclose, to clothe ; Tongan, Icofu ; 
Samoan d'ofii, to put on a garment ; Efate 4 Jcafiiti, to wrap 
up, enclose ; Efate kofu ; Samoan 'ofu'ofu ; Fiji 6 Tiovuna, to 
envelop in leaves food gathered into a mass to be cooked in 
the oven ; Efate Txofiikofua (-«), bent so as to be concave, so 
Maori lioliii, Jiolvlm ; Efate k elided, 3 ofa, 1 aha, to whirl 
round, so Tahiti o^?f, which also denotes to bend downwards, to 
stoop ; Hawaiian ohwhu, heavy ; Efate 1 Jcahu (dialect Jcoaii), the 
native food (Spudding') gathered into a mass wrapped in leaves 
and cooked in the oven, the principal daily food of the natives, 
so Arabic Jcohha, kahah, ' hiUby,' the national dish of the Arabs 
gathered into a round mass and cooked in the oven. Arabic 
hahba, to roll up into a ball, to make into balls food for cooking ; 
to invert, to stoop, to be heavy ; Imhakaha, to be wrapped up, 
enveloped, to wrap up or envelop oneself (in one's garment) ; 
Ethiopic Mlah, to whirl round. 

Efate 1 sant, Malay saru, Efate 21 saruni, to sound, resound, 
roar ; Arabic (mrra to make a noise, sound, roar) 1 mrru ; 
18 say int. 

Efate 1 hifheni ; Maori hqon, curly, the hollow of the hand ; 
Efate JcaflMfl; a native basket, to put the hand into such a 
basket to feel for and take out something ; Arabic Jca^fa, to 
take something stealthilj^ between the fingers ; Hebrew Jcafaf, 
to bend ; hif, the hollow of the hand, a hollow vessel ; and as to 
the form compare with hafekdfc Arabic kafelcafa. 

Efate 1 A'rts?, to rub ; Samoan 'asi ; Malay 6 gosot, gosol; 5 
gisiJi, lisU; Malagasy 4 JcasuJca, to rub; Arabic (hasps' a, to rub) 

Efate 1 ralca, 24 maraJca, to desire, will, be willing, desirous 
of; Syriac rag, to desire, will (this in Arabic would be ragga), 
2 rega, desire, will. 

Efate 1 sila, silasiJa, to sound, crackle, rattle (as thundei) ; 
Samoan {ai-tilitili; Maori whai-f?>v", thunder ; Maori tin, to crackle : 
Arabic mlla, mlamla, to sound, crackle, crack, as thunder. 


Efate 1 AT/?a, kalciMla, Malagasy 2 Jceli, or hel'i, little ; 5 Me^, 
in imperative passive helezii, verbal noun Jcelezina ; helezu is for 
helezi of which the u=i in the other Oceanic languages, and 
written i in helezina ; 23 hululi very small ; heliheli (and Jcediliedi) 
to move to and fro ; Efate rnaJcalakala, to move about quickly 
(as ants). Arabic (kalla, Hebrew kalal, to be little) 1 kallUf 
hilli, Italia, 5 killat ; Hebrew Mllvel (pilpel) ; Arabic JcaUhda, to 
move to and fro/ 

Efate 2 siha, 3 s^ffta (mas'iba, a fragment, broken) ; Fiji sove, to 
break ; Malagasy 6 simibina, fragment, broken ; Hebrew, 
Chaldee s'ahah (this in Arabic would be s'aliba). to break, 
Chaldee s'ihha. a fragment. 

Efate 3 sumi, 6 sumili ; Msday sumpaf, siimhat, sumjMl, 1 sum- 
pal ; Malagasy tamjyina, to plug, stop an aperture ; Arabic 
mmma, to plug, stop an aperture. 

(h) Triliterals with the Middle Radical ?v and y. 

Efate 1 mate ; Samoan rnatl ; Malay mati ; Malagasy {fati, 
a corpse) mafi, to die, be dead ; Malagasy 4 matesa ; Mangare- 
van 7nafer in materaga. Arabic mdta. to die, be dead, 1 (mawt) 

Efate 1 masi, to shave ; Arabic indsa, to shave, 1 [maivs) mm. 

Efate 1 laga, 4 lagat. to raise ; Samoan 1 laga ; Maori ragay 
to raise, Efate lagi, up, above, the sky, heaven ; Maori ragi ; 
Malay 4 lagit ; Malagasy lanita id. : Maori 8 ruga, the top, 
upper part, upwards, on high ; Samoan lug a ; Hawaiian luna, 
id. ; Hebrew ram (in Arabic this would be rama), to be high, 
to raise ; rum, height, elevation ; ramaJi, ramat, Ethiopic rama, 
a high place, third heaven (Ethiopic). 

Efate 3 soro, sore, sunt ; Malagasy 6 sudulca, sudika, to tell 
lies, to deceive ; Arabic sdra, to tell lies, 3 zuru or zoro. 

Efate 25 mitiri, misiri ; Malay 6 tulis ; Malagasy surata, 
surifa, to make figures, draw, paint, write ; Arabic mra, to form, 
make figures, draw, paint, 6 surat. 

^ 111 the foregoing the uncontracted form appears in some cases, as in 
My. kalilig, Mg. hudidina, Ef. saruru, Mg. kuluH. 


Efate 3 suru ; Malagasy 4 saruna ; Malay 6 sunik, to conceal ; 
Etliiopic, saivara (this in Arabic would be sdra\ to cover, 

Efate 1 tanij 3 funi, 4 tanumif tamimaki ; Malay tanam ; 
Samoan, fanumia, tamimahi, to cover with earth, soil ; Arabic 
tana, to cover with earth, clay, soil. 

Efate 1 tiri, sometimes pronounced riri ; Maori rere ; 
Samoan lele, to fly ; Arabic tclra, to fly ; 1 tayr or tair. 

Efate 1 a/a hi ; Malagasy 4 afna, to conceal, bury ; Efate 3 
ofa M ; Samoan iifi, 6 ufitdi, ufitia, to cover, conceal ; Efate 3 
uwi ; Samoan ufi ; Malay %ihi ; Malagasy uvl, the yam (so called 
as being a root buried in the ground, or covered with earth) ; 
Arabic "dlta, to be concealed, to conceal, to bury ; 1 ''dyh ; 4 "atjhat 
(cf. "ayah, roots). 

Mota 2 esii ; Polynesian 3 ora, ola ; Malay 6 urip ; Java 5 idup ; 
Efate 25 mairi ; Malagasy 26 veluna ; Efate 27 mauri, dialect 
mole ; Fiji hula ; Tanna 28 murif, wurep, life, to live ; Arabic 
'ds^a, to live ; 5 es'af ; 26 maWat ; 25 ma'is'. 

From the examples of verbs middle radical w and y it is clear 
from comparison with the Arabic that in the ancient Oceanic 
such words underwent the regular contractions set forth in 
Semitic grammars. 

(c) Triliterals w^ith \ h, li (and 1)'). AND ' (and "■) Middle 


In the Oceanic languages these verbs are contracted like 
those with w and y. In Assyrian Sayce {Assyr, Gr.) classes 
verbs middle radical w, y, ', \ h altogether as concave or qui- 
escent verbs. In the Semitic languages in the course of their 
analytic development these consonants tend to become all alike 
quiescent, as for instance in Mandean. In Assyrian, according 
to Delitzsch {Assyr. Gr.), ', ]f, h (and h'), ' (and ") were all pro- 
nounced alike as ', or spiritus lenis, that is, have lost their 
consonant power, //, however, being pronounced like Arabic (i : 
the modern Oceanic as distinctly compares in this with the 


Assyrian, as it does in the verbal noun forms with the Arabic. 
It is certain, however, that all these consonants were not always 
so pronounced, or quiescent, in ancient Oceanic. That they 
have become so especially when the middle radical of verbs is 
to be explained not only from their natural tendency to quiesce, 
but also from the fact that in the verbal noun forms 1-6, 
which are the common ground-forms of the Oceanic verb, the 
middle radical always lost its vowel. However it may be 
explained the fact is certain, as a few examples will show. 

Efate 3 holo or folo ; Fiji 1 vala, to do, to act ; Efate 6 bolosi ; 
Fiji 4 valata ; Arabic faala, to do, to act ; 1 fa I ; 4 falat. 

Efate 3 sulu, a torch, to light by a torch, to scorch with 
flame ; Samoan sithi, a torch, to light by a torch ; Malay 6 
suluJi, a torch ; Malagasy 3 mlu ; 2 sihi ; 5 siJitvana, to light 
by a torch ; Arabic s'aala, to kindle a fire, light a torch ; 6 
s'ulat flame. 

Efate 3 soro, to burn, flame (of fire, of rage) ; Maori toro ; 
Efate 6 sorofi, to burn, to flame with rage ; Fiji, t'oroga, to 
scorch ; Arabic saara, to kindle a fire, to rage ; 3 su'ru or soro, 
flame of fire, flame of rage. 

Efate hara, to burn, be burned, kindle ; 21 haurl, hawia, to 
kindle a fire in the oven ; Samoan 1 vela ; 4 velasia ; Maori ivera ; 
Tahiti vera, to burn, to heat, to be cooked ; Hebrew laar, to 
kindle, burn, be burned ; Arabic 1 would be Wr ; 21 haur. 

Efate 1 tagi, 2 tine, to carry sail (a canoe) ; mitaga, miten, to be 
laden, heavy ; 12 tiana, or tkna, laden, gravid ; Malagasy 1 enfxtna, 
burden ; Malay 4 fag gun g, to bear, carry ; Syriac fen, to bear, 
be laden, fana, burden ; fina, laden, gravid. 

Efate 12miaJaov miela, to be red : Samoan 1 onelo ; Malagasy 
mena, red ; Malay jnera, red, reddish-brown, bay ; Arabic 
ma'ara (4), to yield red milk mixed with blood ; ma'ir, red ; 
ma'ar, reddish. 

Efate 1 lami, to eat ; Samoan lamu, to chew ; Hebrew laham, 
to eat ; Arabic 1 would be lahn. 

Malekula 3 roso ; 6 rosovi ; Efate 8 loso, to wasli : Arabi 
ra/mm, to wash ; 3 (would be) ro/f^^o. 


Efate 3 rmni ; Fiji loma ; Samoan alofa, to compassionate, to 
love; Fiji 6 lomana; Samoan (in) alofagia,f('cdofani', Maori (in) 
aroliatia ; Fiji loma, the heart, the inner parts, midst or inside 
of a thing ; Arabic ra/iima ; Hebrew i'a/iam, to compassionate, 
to love ; Arabic 3 ru/nn or ro/nn ; Hebrew reJjem, the inner 

Efate 2 sila, to peel, shave off ; Malagasy 5 silafa, silaliCt ; 
Arabic sah'ala, to peel, shave off. 

Efate 2 simi, 3 tiinu, to heat, be hot, inflamed ; Malagasy, 
Malay, Samoan, Fiji twin ; Malagasy 4 tamna, tamhi ; Fiji 6 
vakahinima ; Arabic sah'ana, to heat, be hot, inflamed ; 3 suhni 
and mh'nu ; 6 suh'nat, 4 salinat. 

Efate 3 hono, to be shut, closed, secret ; 6 honoti, humtti, 
mmioti, mumitK to shut, close, stop, cover, conceal ; Maori Ipani, 
to shut ; Hawaiian ^6(n/, to shut, conceal ; Tahiti Z puni, to be 
enclosed, to hide ; tcqnmi, to hide ; Mangaiian piinif to hide ; 
Tongan hmi, closed, shut ; tahuni, to shut, to close up ; Samoan 
6 punitai, punitia, to stop with, to be shut up ; and moniti, to 
stop, cork, plug ; Malay 8 huni, hidden, to hide (and Sanfal 
form as in Amharic), samh^ini, hidden, concealed, secret ; Java 
6 hunkt, closed up, shut ; Efate hmmta, mute, silent (English 
* shut up ' = silent) ; Hebrew hahcim or halian, to shut, to 
cover ; Arabic haJiama, to shut, close, be covered, hid, mute, 

Efate 1 safa, sefa, to pant, to hasten ; 3 sofa, phthisis (panting), 
to pant (to have phthisis) to hasten ; Malagasy 1 sefu, asthma, 
sefusefn, or sevusevu, hurry, haste, breathless ; 4 scvuJca, in haste, 
bustling ; Hebrew sUCaf, to pant, to hasten. 

Efate 1 hami or /ami, to eat ; Tahiti hamii, gluttonous, to go 
to a feast whenever one occurs, to be burdensome to others by 
eating their food ; Hawaiian hamu, to eat fragments of food ; 
Maori hamu, feeding on fragments ; Tongan hamu, to eat one 
kind of food onlj^ ; Mangarevan amit, to eat with the mouth, 
not using the hands ; Hebrew, Ethiopic p^aam, faama ; Arabic 
fa'ama, to have the mouth full of food, to swallow down. 


(d) Triliteeals with the Third Radical : ', iv, y (i), //, 
h (and k% « (and «). 

Efate 2 siko, to look at ; Malagasy zalia ; Hebrew sakah ; 
Chaldee seha, to look at. 

Efate 23 tubu, to swell ; tdbu a tumour ; tumhu, tutna, will ; 
Polynesian 23 tupUf Uibu ; Malagasy htmhii, to spring forth, 
grow, increase ; Malay 24 Umihuh ; Samoan tupio and tu2Ml, in 
tupiiaga, tuxmlai ; Hebrew sabaJi, to come forth, to swell, to 
will ; Aramaic seha, to will ; sehf, will ; Arabic mWa and mhna, 
to come forth, rise, spring up, project ; 23 mhu, mhd, 

Efate 2 A;?7i ; Maori 1 Mri, Jceri ; Malay gali ; Malagasy Artd^ ; 
Fiji Mli, 4 A;rtifia, kaliva, to dig ; Arabic Jcara (third radical ?«;) ; 
Ethiopic Tiaraya (third radical y) ; Hebrew 'karali (third radical 
h) ; Aramaic Mm (third radical '), to dig; Arabic 1 harw ; 
Ethiopic 4 Jceryaf. 

Efate, Fiji, tatalai, to warm oneself at the fire ; Arabic mla, 
1 saly, (5) tmala{y), to feel the heat of fire, to warm oneself at 
the fire. 

Samoan tdlotalo ; Tahiti farofaro, to pray ; 4 talosia ; Efate 
taroiaro ; 4 tarosi, to pray ; Arabic mla ; Ethiopic scdaya, to 
pray ; 4 salot. 

Efate 2 tili ; 3 tuli ; Malay tutur ; Samoan 1 tala ; Malagasy 3 
tiiri, to narrate, tell : Malay 6 hirut, to follow ; Arabic tala, to 
follow, to recite, secondary root from wala(y) (8). 

Efate 3 toho, (shortened) to, matoko, to sit, rest upon, stay ; 
Malay dudulc, totoJc ; Fiji 2 tiJco ; Efate 6 tokora ; Fiji 5 f/A'cw'fl ; 
Malagasy 6 ^?ra^a, ^w/^r/, fwefa ; Arabic taJca, to rest upon, support 
oneself upon, sit, recline. This is a secondary root from Arabic 
waka (8) i.e. 'ftaka to rest upon, sit (Luke xiv. 8, Arabic 

Efate 1 taku, mafaku ; Samoan mata'u ; Malay 4 takut ; Mala- 
gasy tahuta ; Samoan mata'utia, fear, to fear ; Ai-abic taka, 
(Hebrew take), to fear. This is a secondary root from Arabic 
ivakaiy) (8) i.e. 'tiaka, to fear (to guard oneself being afraid). 


Efate 1 Jcarai, to dislike, be averse from, hate ; Malay 2 gili ; 
Malagasy 1 Mia ; Arabic Mriha, to dislike, abhor ; 1 karh. 

Malay 4 s'aMt ; Ilocan masahit ; Efate 1 masaJci ; Tongan 
maJiaJci ; Maori, Rarotongan maJd ; Samoan mai ; Hawaiian 
mai, sickness, to be ill ; Arabic s'uJca, to be sick, have a disease ; 
1 s'dka{y)y 4 s'dJ:ut. 

Efate 1 mam, to rub, to joke ; Maori 2 m'lri, to rub ; Arabic 
marah'a, to rub or anoint with oil, to joke ; 1 marly. 

Samoan 18 malie, well, agreeable, right, proper, good ; Maori, 
Mangarevan marie ; Efate malei or milei, good, well ; Arabic 
maluka, to be elegant, beautiful; 18 maU{i/)/i, mali/i, Ijeautiful, 
good, fit, proper. 

Efate 3 hoJca or huJca, to strike, to reprehend ; Malagasy puka ; 
Malay 6 pukiil, to strike ; Efate hukati ; Arabic haka'a, to strike, 
to reprehend ; 3 (would be) huk\ and 6 hiik'at. 

Efate 23 roko, also loko, loku, and Iiiki(, and 1 laku, to bow, 
stoop ; Samoan lolou, to bend, curve ; Fiji roko, a bowing form 
or posture, curved ; 24 rokota, to bend a bow ; rokova, bow to, 
pay respect to ; rokoroko, reverence, respect ; Efate 4 lakosa ; 
24 lukuta ; Mangarevan rokuroku, a final prayer when the 
torches are thrown down and extinguished at a funeral ; 
Arabic rakaa, to bow, stoop, as from old age, or in prayer ; 
23 rukii ; 4 rak'at. 

Efate 23 buliif huh, complete, the whole ; Tongan fali, all ; 
Malay tulah, the whole ; Arabic hala'a, to complete, to go 
through to the end ; 23 hulu". 

(e) Triliterals with the First Radical v (w), y (i), ', U, 
k (and h'), ' (and "). 

Efate 21 amosi, most, musi ; Maori mulm, to rub ; Arabic 
wamasa, to rub ; 21 (would be) tvamus. 

Efate 8 hara ; Malay paZ^< ; Malagasy veli ; Efate harati ; 
Malagasy velez-, to beat ; Arabic ivabala, to beat. 

Efate 8 atai, tat, to know ; Malay tan ; Hebrew yada, to 
know ; da at, dea. 


Efate 7 bali, to abstain, fast ; Malagasy fadl ; Arabic 'abala, 
to abstain, fast. 

Efate 8 Tcani, to eat ; Fiji kana ; Malay 24 makan ; Malagasy 
(transposed for tnahana), hiimana ; 20 hinana ; 10 hanina, 
to eat ; Arabic 'akala, to eat ; 8 'aMl ; 24 ma'kal ; Hebrew 
20 'dJcllat, 

Efate 21 royo, dialect, f7o^o ; Maori roffO, to hear, to smell ; 
Samoan loffo ; Malay 10 dajar ; Malagasy renes- ; Efate 22 
rogosa ki ; Samoan logologosa 'i ; Efate rogorogo ki, to pro- 
claim, to report ; Arabic 'adana, to hear, to smell, to proclaim ; 
10 'adanat ; 21-22 (would be) 'adon, 'adonat. 

Samoan 1 efu, dust, to become dust, dust-coloui*ed ; Malay 
ahu ; Tongan efu, dust, ashes ; Efate ahu, dust, ashes ; ahualni, 
to fly in the air (dust) ; Arabic haha, to fly in the air (dust) ; 
1 (would be) hcibto ; 4 hahwaf, dust, colour of dust. 

Efate 1 ta, to chop, cut, to speak, or utter quickly (as it were 
to make a chopping noise) ; Fiji, Samoan ta ; Efate, Samoan 
7 or 8 fata ; Malay 9 or 10 tafah ; Malagasy tatana ; Fiji 4 trnjUj 
tala-ka, tava-ka ; Arabic liadda, to cut, to cut quickly, to chop, 
to utter speech quickly ; 1 hadda ; 7 hadad ; 8 hadad ; 4 (would 
be) haddat, and 9 hadadat. 

Efate 21 loai, to rub, smear ; 22 alofi and lofi, also loasi, loan, 
and doubled loloasi, to rub, to smear or paint the face with 
a cosmetic or paint ; Malay hdut and lulur, to cleanse the skin 
by friction and cosmetics, to rub the skin with cosmetics, to 
smear ; Arabic hala'a, to rub, to smear ; 21 kaloiva or halmv ; 
22 (would be) kaloivat. 

Efate 1 elo, to be sweet, pleasant ; Hawaiian 3 oht ; Arabic 
kald', to be sweet, pleasant, agreeable ; 1 /laliv ; 3 koliv. 

Efate 23 iilu, to grow up, produce leaves, or foliage ; ulu, 
a leaf ; (doubled) lulu, to go up, be high ; Hawaiian 2(lu, 
uluulu, to grow up, lift up ; Arabic 'ala\ to go up, be high ; 
Hebrew 'alah, to go up, sprout forth, grow up ; 'aleh, sl leaf ; 
Arabic 13 'ilawat, the head ; 23 'ulim. 

Samoan 3 ulu, 6 uluf (in ulufia, Hawaiian ultihia, Malagasy 5 
idita and iZi^a, to enter, go in ; Arabic "alia, to enter, go in) ; 


Chaldee 'dial (this should have been placed above under verbs 
with middle radical doubled). 

Efate 18 liko ; 21 liilio or luku, a rope, to adhere or be fastened 
to ; 20 likotl ; 22 luJcuti, to fasten, make fast to ; Malay 10 laJcat 
and lakaj:), to adhere ; laJcatkan, to fasten ; Malagasy raikita^ 
rekita ; Arabic 'alika, to adhere, to fasten to ; 1 'alak, a rope ; 
18 'alik, 20 'alikat, 10 'alaJcat, 21 'aliik. 

Efate 21 huUi or fulu, any sticky substance used to cover 
with as paint, to cover as with a poultice, paint, oil ; Samoan 
2mIu ; Tahiti 2)iiru ; Fiji hiilu, an external application or thing 
that covers, to cover with earth or external application, to 
repair or expiate (cover) an injury, a peace offering, or thing 
offered as a reparation for an injury ; 22 huluta ; Efate hiiluti ; 
Samoan puliiti, pulutdi ; Samoan fulUf Futuna fufuni, Tahiti 
hum, Efate (dialect) 18 fili, Malay hicln, Malagasy vitlu, hair 
(also down, feathers, wool) ; Samoan fulufulua, Malagasy 
vidulna, hairy ; Arabic "afara, to cover, to cover and imbue (as 
the hair with a tincture), to be hairy, shaggy, to forgive ; 18 
"iifir, hair ; 21 "aftim. 

(/) Triliterals Doubly Weak, that is with two of the 
ABOVE Weak Letters or Quiescents. 

Samoan 3 nofo, to sit, dwell, live with, remain ; Maori-Tahiti 
mJio ; Efate no ; Samoan 6 nohoa ; Mangarevan nohoka ; Tahiti 
noJwraa, a seat ; Paumotan nolioliaga^ nolioraga, abode, dwelling- 
place ; Hebrew navah, to sit, to dwell (also nciah) ; navat, a seat, 
a habitation. 

Efate 1 ?eo, le, lo, to see ; Samoan leo ; Fiji rai ; Fiji 4 rait^a ; 
Malay liat, kaliat ; Malagasy hirata, hirasa ; Efate (dialects) losi, 
lek, liimi, Uhisi, to see ; Arabic raa ; Hebrew raah ; Ethiopic 
ray, to see ; Arabic 1 rdi ; Hebrew reoh ; Ethiopic rai ; Arabic 4 
rat, rayat ; Hebrew reot or revot ; Arabic 6 ruvyat. 

Efate ha, ha'i, he, mai, to come, to enter ; Marquesan memai, 
to come ; Efate and Polynesian maij hither, towards the 


speaker ; Efate dialect he ; Efate 4 hasi, enter upon, go upon ; 
Fiji vat'a ; Ethiopia hmvi, to come, to enter ; Hebrew ha, to 
come, to enter ; Arabic ha a, to enter, &c. ; Ethiopic 4 ha't 

Efate mt, dialect notu (Mosin nat, Vaturanga atu and tatu, 
outwards), to go outwards (opposite of mai or he, preceding 
word) atii or as in hanotu, hanas ; Maori ivlianatu ; Polynesian 
atu, away, away from, outwards ; Ethiopic ivasa ; Hebrew ?/a5a ; 
Assyrian am, to go out, or outwards ; Hebrew yaso (infinitive or 
verbal noun = atu) and 4 set ; Ethiopic sat (= tatu) and by 
change of s to n, mt, notu, as Fiji yani=yaso ; ani=atu. 

These two Semitic words are the opposites of each other, the 
one denoting 'exitus, egressus, sive, exeundi actus', the other 
{ha, haivi) 'introitus', as Ludolf, Lex. Eth., observes s.v. sa't. 

Efate hano-mal or hana-mai, to come ; hanas, i. e. han as, to go ; 
Maori ivlianatu ; Efate hano, to go ; Maori whano, to verge 
towards, to go on, proceeding towards ; Hebrew panah, to turn, 
to turn oneself, to turn the back, to turn in order to go any- 
where. Thus hafwtu, ivhanafu= to turn, going away, or out- 
wards, and hano-mal, hano-he=to turn coming, to come. 

So Fiji lako-mai=to proceed coming ; lako-yani, to proceed 
outwards, away ; lako, Malay laku, to proceed ; Hebrew halah ; 
Assyrian halah ; Assyrian 7 laku. 

For Maori haere in haere atu, haere mai, see below. 

{g) Triliterals with the Weak or ' Fleeting ' Letter n 

THE First Radical. 

The Oceanic in dropping this n compares with the Hebrew 
and Aramaic, and not with the Arabic. 

Efate 7 saM, to ascend, go up ; Tongan hahi ; Samoan ai ; 
Hawaiian ae ; Maori ahe ; Aramaic nesaJc, to ascend, go up ; 
Imperative (showing the dropping of the n) saJc. 

Efate 7 Usa or hasa, to speak ; Tagala hasa ; Fiji 21 vosa ; 22 
vosata ha, to speak about ; Efate visura ki, to converse, talk ; 
Arabic nahasa and nahasa, to speak, talk. 


Efate 21 hulia, a swell, ground swell, to swell, be puffed up, 
then to have the belly swollen with food ; Maori jpiihu ; 
Malagasy viiki ; 22 viiJds- ; Malay 7 Idkat ; Efate 22 huMtu ; 
Malay hdcit ; Malagasy vuhita or mthim, a rise, a hill ; Malagasy 
VHCi-vuhita, swelled, bulged ; vuhirana, made to bulge ; mihirina 
(buhita), made convex, protuberant : so huhina, from 21 hiihi, 
an inflated and puffed-up aspect ; Arabic nafak^a, to inflate, be 
inflated, to swell. 

Efate 8 Mt, a bite, to bite ; Fiji kata, to bite ; Raratongan 
Jcati, to bite (doubled), katiJcati, to bite ; Malay gigit ; Malagasy 
heliita, kaiJcita ; Aramaic nekat, to bite. 

(/?) Triliterals with the Three Radicals Strong. 

Efate 8 samat, samit ; 15 sumat, to beat, whip, chasten, 
hastening, being quick ; Fiji 21 samuta, to beat ; Malay 8 
cJiamati, chamiti, a whip or scourge ; Hebrew s'amat, sUmias, to 
smite, thrust ; Arabic samasa, to strike, to thrust, to urge on 
a beast violently ; smnas, hastening, being quick. 

Efate 2 sluo; 3 sinva, to descend, downward, be low ; Fiji sohu ; 
Samoan 2 ifo ; Tongan hifo ; Tahiti iho ; Aneityumese asuolj 

(asuivoT) ', Arabic Jji., to be low, to descend. 

Efate 21 Jcamitt, to nip, take with the hand, seize, grasp 
firmly ; Fiji g'amuta ; Hebrew hamas, to take with the hand ; 
Jcamat, to hold fast with the hand, to seize firmly. 

Efate 11 hilisi, dialect 14 hoUsi, to spread out ; Malagasy 
velata ; Samoan 14 folas (in folasia) ; Arahicfaras^a, to spread 

Efate 2SfuIusi, htloh}, &c., to turn; Samoan /?^??5 {in fulisia) ; 
Tongan fulihi; Maori 7mW, to turn, turn over; Tahiti Jmri, to 
roll ; Hebrew faJas', to roll, revolve (turn). 

Efate 12 siuer (siwar), to walk, proceed, journey ; 15 smvara, 
3 siir, 6 surata ; Samoan 7 savali, to walk, proceed ; savalivali 
(Pe^alal ^ form), to walk about ; Maori haere, Jiaereere ; Hawaiian 

^ Hebrew and Aramaic. 


haele, hele ; Moriori Jtei'e ; Arabic su/ara, to journey, go, pro- 
ceed ; 7 safar, 12 sifar, 6 siifrat. 

These examples sufficiently show that the above Oceanic word 
first given lave, lapit, Ufa, lipat, love, lovetUi, is not exceptional, 
but only one out of the mass and of a piece with the rest, and 
this conclusively establishes that the Oceanic primitive or 
mother-tongue had like each of its sister dialects, Arabic, 
Assyrian, &c., its share of the common stock of purely and 
exclusively Semitic triliteral words (nouns and verbs) with the 
purely Semitic common method of word-formation or inflexion 
by internal vowel change and external additions. 

Passive Participle of the First Form ' kal '. 

Like the Arabic J^xa^ are Efate masua. f-^y^, *^9r^*j bald ; 
Efate matiiki {taki), Mg. mafithi, Jyy>, trusted, firm, steadfast, 
brave ; Ef. %J.«I, watidii, swollen ; and maldre, or milaie, 
Tahiti mariri, Samoan maalili, Maori maliariri, Malo magarin, 
j^jA^ (makrard, or ma'rnru), cold, ' frigore affectus.' 

On the other hand the form J^xi, which is used for the 
passive participle in He]:)rew, seems to appear in bdrua ; Hebrew 
pdrua, free from, made naked, devoid of. In such a word 
as kasua, hard, strong, the -a may be the feminine ending -ta 
with the t elided as in Modern Syriac, or it may be the participle 
kam (Efate dialect), intensified by the adjective ending -a, for 
which see below. 

Active Participle of First Form ' kal '. 

In this, in Arabic and Hebrew the vowel of the first syllable 
of the verb is made long : so Efate klU, to dig ; kali, JS, a dig- 

ging-stick, a thing for digging ; so sdr, Idga, and analogously 
Ma, let, Ufa, lunia, nifi, ori, sera, siko, tunu, soro, &c. 

An example of form 15 is seen in the Oceanic word for ' pig ', 
Polynesian puaka, piiaa, puaa ; Fiji vuaka ; Efate uak, uago 
(jli, and Jli, see Index), 15 Jj^>? and ^\y. 


An example of the original ' nomen actionis ' of the Arabic 
Conjugation II, form JlSi is seen in Efate recWi, to strain, 
a strainer (cohim), ,j\j (see Index), Jj^, to strain ; n.a., Jij. ; 
JX, a strainer (coimn). 

Remark on Ch. III. It is easy to see from the above, how 
the ancient triliterals came to be pronounced in the Oceanic 
dialects, as they prevailingly are, as bisyllabic words with the 
accent on the first syllable. 





The Semitic inflexional verb-form or ' conjugation ' prefixes 
were three, the causative, the reflexive or reciprocal, and the 
reflexive ; alone or with the pronominal particle m prefixed to 
them. These were : — 

1. Causative — Arabic, Ethiopic, Aramaic, a, originally s'a, 
sa (ta, ti) ; Hebrew lu ; Himyaritic sa, and ha. S to t, h, and 

2. Reflexive or reciprocal — Arabic, Ethiopic, Assyrian, 
Hebrew n, in, i. N elided. 

3. Reflexive — Arabic, Assyrian, Hebrew, &c., ta, U, it'. 
These three were combined thus : — 

4. Causative-reflexive, or simply causative, or transitive (1 and 
2). Ethiopic, Amharic an ; Himyaritic han ; also Amharic 
asan (for san). 

5. Causative-reflexive, simply causative, or reflexive, middle 
(1 and 3). Tigre, Amharic, Ethiopic, Himyaritic, Arabic, ata, 
ista (for sata), asta (for sata), saVa. haVa, or haV. 

6. Reflexive-passive, or reciprocal-reflexive (2 and 3). Assy- 
rian, Himyaritic nit\ inta, itta, 

7. Reflexive-passive (3 and 4). Ethiopic, Amharic faa Also 
Assyrian (2 and 7), ittan, intan. 

The infinitives and participles of these often had the pro- 
nominal particle m prefixed, and then with this m prefixed 
were sometimes used for the finite verb. Thus we have ma 
Syriac (Maphel), causative, for the simple a (Aphel) of 1. In 


modern Syriac this has become ahnost the sole form of the 
causative. The m, whether prefixed to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7, 
makes no difference in the signification. 

8. Reflexive-passive (3 and 1). Syriac efma. 

9. Apart from these three prefixes, this m, or ma, was some- 
times alone prefixed to infinitives, and to passive participles 
of the ground-form. Thus in Mahri (modern Himyaritic) the 
common passive partici^^le is expressed through m, which 
replaces many lost inner passives. See Von Maltzan on the 
Mahri in Z.DJL G. , Vol. XXVII. This passive form is frequent 
also in Oceanic, as Efate baTcu, to pluck out, mafaJm, plucked 
out ; hasu, to snap off, mafasu, snapped off ; hua, to cleave, 
mafua, cleft ; lioto, to break, maJcoto, broken. 

In comparing the Oceanic forms, here following, of the 
above-given three inflexional prefixes, it is to be observed that 
the m (phonetically varied to h, p, v, f) is sometimes separably, 
sometimes (as in the Syriac Maphel) inseparably, attached to 
them. Thus we have luimber for number : — 

1. Causative. — Efate sa\ Tahiti ta; Malagasy a, ma ; Dayak 
uia ; Bugis, Makassar pa ; Efate ha, fa ; Mota va ; Lifu, Mare a. 

2. Reciprocal, or reflexive. — Dayak in, i ; Tagala i ; Malagasy 
/, ml ; Efate hi, fi ; Samoan fe ; Fiji vei. 

3. Reflexive. — Makassar, Dayak, Fiji, Efate, &c., ta ; Malay, 
Java, Fiji, Efate, &c., lia (^ to A'); Malagasy, Dayak lia (A', or t 
to li) ; Fiji (and Ef.) ra {t to r). 

And, as above, these three are combined thus : — 

4. Causative, transitive (1 and 2). — Malagasy an, man ; Malay, 
Tagala, Dayak, &c., man ; Malay, Malagasy san. The n is often 
changed for euphony to ^, m, &c. See the grammars. 

5. Causative -reflexive, causative, reflexive (1 and 3). Mala- 
gasy aha, maJia ; Tagala mag, maJca ; Makassar _2:>«X'a ; Efate 
haJca, faJia ; Fiji vaJca ; Maori whalca ; Samoan faa ; Malay bar. 

6. Reflexive (2 and 3). — Malagasy iJia, miha. 

7. Reflexive of 4 (3 and 4).— Dayak tan (Malay, Malagasy 
fan) ; the n changed for euphony, as in 4 ; also Jean, Malagasy 
Jam. Also (2 and 7), Malagasy itan, and mitan. 


8. Keflexive, or passive of 1 (o and 1). — Malagasy tufa ; Dayak 
tapa ; Efate taba ; Oba tama : Mota tava. 

9. Passive participle, or infinitive, of ground-form. See 
under 9 above. Frequent in Oceanic, Malagasy, Tagala, Samoa, 
Efate, Solomon Islands, &c. 

To these must be added : — 

10. Keflexive-passive of 5. Malay tar, formed from {h)ar, as 
tan from an, {m)an. 

Other combinations in Oceanic of these inflexional j^refixes 
need not here be noticed, as ; — 

11. Reciprocal. — Malagasy ifa (2 and 1), [fan (2 and 4). In 
Malagasy there are many other combinations of these three 
particles which need not be noticed here. 


These inflexional particles are also found ' infixed ' by trans- 
position, as the one numbered 2, giving a reflexive-passive 
sense, in Java, and in a few words in Malagasy : it is found 
infixed in Arabic after the second radical of quadriliterals. 
In Himyaritic and Assyrian ta (3) was infixed, and in Assyrian 
tan (3 and 2). In Malagasy m is found infixed in a few words. 
In this case, as in that of the n of number 2, the prefix becomes, 
as in the Semitic languages, by transposition, an infix. 

Examples. For the Malayan and Pacific Islands generally 
see F. Mailer, Grundriss d. Sprachvissenschaft, and for Dayak, 
Grammatik der DayakscJien Spraclie, by Frederik Miiller, 1858. 
For the letter changes of these formative particles see above, 
Ch. 11. 


1. (a) Safal, {h) Tafal, (c) Afal, (d) Mafal. 

(a) Ef. sarafi, sagahigalu ; {h) Tahiti ma, clean, tama, to 
cleanse ; (c) Mare ivanima (Mg. veluna, Ef. moli, inaiiri), to live, 
aivat'uma, to make to live ; {d) Mg. tahuta, fear, matalmta, and 
(in past and future tenses) atalmta, to fear ; Ef. hagani, Fi. 
vaJcani, to feed, cause to eat, kani, to eat ; Ef. marafi, see 
sarafi, and compare Syriac Afal and Safal of this word. 


2. Ifal, Mifal (Nifal, Infal, Ifal). Ef. fiatu, fimeri, fimuriy 
hialo, hiauli ; Sam. alofa, love, fealofani, to love one another ; 
Dayak puhd, beat, mamnlml, to beat, hmikul, to be beaten ; 
Mg. {m)ilahata, to arrange oneself, to be arranged, from lahafa ; 
telu, three, mitelu, to three itself, to be divided into three. 

3. Tafal. Ef. tdbaro, tahelu, tabare, tahara, taJcel, tatalai, takusiy 
tausi, and rausi ; Eromangan devat, Tanna kuvas, four, Ef. kefate, 
and hafaf, fourth ; and so with all the numerals. 

4. Manfal, Anfal, Sanfal. Mg. mamdima (i. e. manveluna), 
ameluna, My. magidupi (man-idupi) (and with same meaning 
5, Ef. hcikammiri, Fi. vaJcuhula, Sam. faaola), to make to live, 
save. Mg. hudina {herina) (Ef. Jieletl, Jceht), turning round, 
sagudina (san-hudina), a top (spinning, whirling round) ; My. huni., 
samhimi (san-hum), to conceal, concealed, Ef. ho)i, honoti, hunut'i. 

5. Matafal, Atafal. As seen in 4, haka-, in Ef., &c., may as 
to meaning be the same as man- in Mg. and My., as is easily 
explained etymologically, the final particles, in 2 and 3, being 
both reflexive. Fi. vakamatea, Mg. mcdiafafi, Tah. haamati (My. 
mamati, for man-mate, 4. with same meaning), to make die, kill ; 
Ef. mate, die, dead. Here it may be observed once for all that 
formative particles etymologically identical are not necessarily 
wholly identical in use either in the Semitic or Oceanic dialects. 
Thus My. bar- is the same etymologically as Ef. haJia-, but not 
in use : one of the uses of Fi. vaka-, not in Ef., is the same as 
that of My. bar-, e. g. My. harumali (bar-rumah, rumaJi, house) ; 
Fi. vakavale {vale, house), to have a house ; literally, make for, 
or to oneself a house. 

6. Itafal (Intafal, Nithpael). Mg. fana (Ef. bani), warm, 
(m)ihafana, to grow warm ; Ef. rausi, to follow, birausi, to keep on 
following, follow one another ; foli, to go before (put behind), 
bitoli, to go before one another (as in a race). See ^isi and liu. 

7. Tanfal, Itanfal. Mg. undrika, tanund)'ika, (m)itammdrika, 
stoop ; lasaka, fandasaka, {m)itandamka, fall, sink. So kan-, as 
usa, cowardly, kanusa, a confirmed coward. 

8. {' Etmafal ') Tamafal. Ef. laga. (Mafal) balagafl to raise ; 
tabaJaga, raised. 


9. See above under 9. On 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9 in the Melanesian 
dialects generally, see M.L,, pp. 183-9. 

For the added initial syllable of the ' broken plurals ', see 
above § 16 [h], Ch. II. 


{n) Mg. tapaJca, cut off, tinaxnilia, to be cut off, Ef. tefi ; 
Java rayali, to plunder, rinayali, to be plundered : (m) Mg. tani 
(Ef. tagi), and tuniani, to wail, cry ; and compare My. mcikmi, 
Mg. huniana, Ef. Jcani, to eat. Cousins, Mg. Diet, p. xvii, notes 
also ar, as sapaM, sarapaka, which may be the infixed t, as in 
the Arabic eighth conjugation, and Himyaritic ' Fatal '. 

Ef. kala, Mg. Mi, small: then Mg. /tme?i= Arabic seventh 
conjugation, Hebrew Nifal of the verb ^3, bb\). 


In the Semitic languages we have — 

1. f, forming abstracts and feminines : in all the dialects the 
t is sometimes elided leaving vowel only, as a, i, e. 

2. an, Assyrian also in, Ethiopic also na, forming abstracts 
from verbs, and adjectives from nouns, and intensive adjectives 
from other adjectives and participles. The n is sometimes 
elided in Hebrew, leaving only vowel o for a. 

3. tan (1 +2), abstracts and adjectives (participles). 

4. awi, ai, a, i, adjectives from nouns, and intensive adjectives 
from other adjectives or participles. 

5. iyyat, iat, if, ut, ot (4 + 1), feminine adjectives and abstracts. 

6. ani (2 + 4), adjectives. 

These are found in the Oceanic dialects thus : — 
1. Ef. hariia, and harharufa, fat ; hunuta, silent (shut up) ; 
huUil)uliit{a), sticky (like plaster or paint) ; Fi. dre^a, glue, 
dregadregafa, gluey, sticky : these are really abstract verbal 
nouns used in the passive sense, from hono, shut, bono- or 
hitmiti, to shut, and hulu, plaster, bidiiti, to plaster, Fiji dregata, 
to glue. This formative ending forms abstract or verbal nouns 
which sometimes are thus used as passive verbs or adjectives. 


but which very often are used as active verbs usually with 
the transitive particles -i or -M, My. -i and -hm : see below. 
The t or ta with the t elided is usually a, but sometimes i or e, 
as in Ef. siJcai, one ; lai, mulier, donna, lady ; toJmi, suJcai. 

2. Ef. arifon, a wise man, a diviner, ^J^i■, 'arljlui, sciens, 
from \irafa, to know, to divine. Ef. oraorana and oroa, hilana, 
or hilena, and Wa, telteJa, and teJatelana; ra, branch, rana 
branchy ; Mg. MnJcana, worm, kanJcanina, affected with worms 
(see Index under p), (Sam. ane, anea, ancanea, has -a) ; lela, 
tongue, Jelana, talkative ; Jdri, obstinacy, Jcirina, obstinate ; 
vidu, hair, vuluina, hairy, Sam. fidiifulua, has -a. Usually 
this ending forms abstract nouns or participles from verbs, 
or verbal nouns used as verbs ; see below. In Ulawa, San 
Cristoval, and Pentecost the ordinals are formed by -wa, as 
ruana, second, from rua, 2, &c. 

8. Ef. harharuta and harhandena, fat : Mg. timfa. Ef. iia, 
sinew, uzatuia, sinewy ; iilita, worm, iihrma, wormy (Fi. 
ttloulo, iiloiiloa, has -a) ; sumata, beard, sumarina, bearded ; 
tahlana, bone, taulanina, bony ; Sam. ola, life, olataga, salva- 
tion, a saviour. Usually this ending forms abstract nouns 
from verbs, as My. talait, Mg. tahuta, abstract nouns (1), which 
are again used as verbs (compare such secondary roots as ^inK^ 
from n^^j nnj from D^J), from which abstracts or nomina verbi 
are formed by the ending an, as tahiitan, hafalmrana. The 
nomina verbi of these verbs, or of verbs without the -/, or of 
verbs with the 4 alone, may be used, like the Semitic nomina 
verbi, in both an active and a passive sense, and in the latter 
case they are like participles or verbal adjectives : thus Ef. 
/ami, to eat, famian, an eating, or to be eaten, eatable ; huluj 
hitluti, to plaster, hiihihulufa, to be sticky, as plaster, hiilutlan, 
a plastering, or to be plastered. Ef. fcifjii, to wail, tag km, a 
wailing ; tag'isl, to bewail, tagislan, a bewailing, or to be 
bewailed. In Ef. these nomina verbi formed by -an cannot 
be used as verbs, but only either as verbal nouns, thus nahu- 
lutian ni nasimia, the plastering of the liouse ; or in the 
passive bense as verbal adjectives, thus nasauia btdutian. u 


house to be plastered ; nafinaya faynian, food eatable, food to be 
eaten ; tea tagisian, a thing or person to be bewailed. To every 
verb in the Ef. language with or without the 4 this formative 
ending, -an, may be attached. 

The i before this ending an, as e.g. in tagisian, is the transitive 
particle seen in My. and Ef. tagisi, to bewail, suffixed to the 
verb, but in My. it is never retained in the verbal noun which 
in this case is tagisan, never as it is in Ef. tagisian ; and so in 
all cases. 

4. (i) Aurora and Mota moai, first ; Ef. hea, dialect hei, Sam. 
mua, (Aurora vaganiai, second). This word in Amharic fatana, 
first, has a more complex ending, according to Pratorius aw, % 
and a (ani as in 6). 

(a) Cf. tano, earth, soil ; tanoaj earthy, soiled ; oroa, sanm, 
koa, lehaleha, lasoa. halea, suUa, fitta, ulna, Jwria ; Sam. fidu, 
hair, fidufidua, hairy ; nifo, teeth, nifoa, having teeth ; 'eli, 
rust, 'elea, rusty ; Fi. dravu, ashes, dravudravua, ashy. 

5. Ef. tiiriai, young man, 1^.5, same meaning; tuai, ijAc. ; 

munuai, from mimu {himuti) ; [lebaleba) lehalehdra, {haghagoa) 
haghagora, {milesia) onilcsira. 

6. Eromangan saingi, diinigi, deselugi, devafugi, first, second, 
third, fourth, from sal, duru, descl, devaf, 1, 2, 3, 4 ; Florida 
ruani, tohini, second, third ; Gaudalcanar keliani, first. So in 
Ysabel (Bugotu and Gao), the ordinals are formed by -ni ; Mg. 
luhani, first, head-man, chief, from Jaha, head, Hebrew ris'oni 
(and ris'on). 

In Polynesian and Melanesian there are two well-known 
prepositions,^ Efate ?, and M ; Maori ?, and hi ; Samoan i, 
and V ; (Fi. ?, and ha, combined hi). These, often used as 
transitive prepositions immediately after the verb connecting 
it with its object, have come sometimes to be suffixed to the 
verb and treated as if a part of it ; and to this compound verb, 
as to the simple verb, -ana or -a is suffixed. Thus from Samoan 
nofo, Efate no, to sit, dwell, we have nofoj, and noi, and from 

^ For these see below on the Particles. 


these again nofoia, and noiana. And so in Polynesian when 
-ana is found as -na, as Efate uta ; Maori uta ; Efate iitai, to put 
freight in a canoe, whence utaiana ; Maori utaina. And so 
with hi, as Efate lua, Tongan lua, to vomit ; then Efate luali% 
or lua 7ci, Maori rudki, ivJialcaruaki, whence luaMana, wlialmrua- 
Jcina. Malay for i, and ki, has i, and Tcan, as {daulu, first), daidiri, 
to anticipate, daidid'an, to go before, to place before. Thus 
Ef. and My. ta^/isl ; Ef. tagisian ; My. fajisan. Malagasy never 
has Jean, or hi, thus suffixed, but only i, thus Efate {hunu, 
Malagasy vunu), hunui, to kill, Malagasy vunui^, whence 
hmuiana, or hunueana, and runuina (for vunuiana) ; and Efate 
so, MiilagSbsy anm, to call, then soi, amid \ whence soiana, 

The suffixes to the primary verb then are : — 

Table I. 







ta, and a 

i, or ta, or a 

ana, na 


na, or a 

ana, an 








in a 

ina, or ia 


Maori hina, or hia 


On these suffixes it is to be observed that the rule is 
that : — 

1. -aym, -ta, or -a, form abstract verbal nouns. 

2. -ana, but not -ta, forms adjectives from nouns. 

3. -ana, or na, or a, but not -ta, in Malagasy and in 
Polynesian forms the passives. The passives in Samoan thus 

' Griffith's Malagasy G-rammar, pp. 125, 127. Compare the use of thi-i i in 
Fiji, Hazlcwood's Fiji Grammar, -pj^. 32-9 ; thus ra /<'»', passive, ' to be seen,' 
except before proper nouns and personal pronouns, when it is transitive 
like the same word in My. liati, to sec. When the verb with the transitive 
particle -i is used in a passive sense we have the passive of a transitive 


formed — for they all end in this -na, or -a, as -a, -na, -ia, -ina, 
'tia, &c. — are actives when ' the pronoun precedes ' (Pratt), 
that is they are passives or actives according to the construction 
of the sentence. 

4. When -ta, or -a, and -ana (-na, -a), are combined, -ana is 
suffixed to the -ta, or -a, as in 4ana (see below), or -ana (as in 
mataku-a, mataku-dna). 

5. When -ana {-na, -a) is combined with the transitive 
particles i, and Id, it follows or is suffixed to them, as -ina, -ia, 
-Jcina, -iana, -Mana. 

6. When -t, or -ta, or -a, is combined with these transitive 
particles they follow or are suffixed to it, as -ti, -taki, -aki. 

7. Thus while the verbal noun, formed from the primary 
verb by -ana, or -na, or -a, and that by -ta, or -a, are both used 
also as verbs, it is only usually the latter that becomes the 
basis of a secondary verb, taking, like the primary verb, the 
suffixes -ana {-na) ; the transitive particles -/, -ki, and -kma 
{•imi}, -ia, -kia, -k'lana i-kina), as we are now more fully 
to see. 

How large a part these transitive particles with the formative 
suffixes t, an, tan, play in the Oceanic dialects may now be 

The -t, or -ta, has undergone various phonetic changes : 
see above. Thus when the word with it stands independently 
in the Malagasy Dictionary, it is -ta (dialect sa), -ka, or •7ia ; -ta 
being pronounced ta, or sa, and also -ka {t to k), and -na {t to n). 
But when in grammatical construction, -ta is pronounced -ta, 
•ra, or -fa ; -ka is pronounced -ha, or -fa ; and -na is pronounced 
-na, or -ma.^ In addition to these phonetic variants of -ta, 
there are -sa, and along with it -m, and along with -fa, -va. 
The -ta, with these phonetic variations is found in the other 
three Oceanic languages, Ef., My., and Sam., though of course 
in them -sa, and -^a, are simply -sa, while -fa, and -va, in Malay 
are simply -|>, and in Samoan and Efate -fa — but rfa in Efate iy 

^ Parker's Malagasy Grawmar, p. li). 


pronounced sometimes -fa, and sometimes -va : again -na (for id) 
is often in them found pronounced -^ft— and in Samoan of 
course, -ra is always pronounced -la. In Samoan and Efate -ia 
is also found with the consonant elided, as -a^ (Fiji -xm, -ya^ -a 
— the others occur in Fiji as -ta, t'a (Efate -sa), -r«, -na, -ga, -ma, 
•Jca, -va ^). With independent words in the dictionary, as those 
with 'ta, 'Jca, -na, in Malagasy, we have it in Samoan as -ta, -ga, 
-la, -a, the prevailing form being ga, as fiiata, fruitage, also 
fuaga, from fiia : tula (Maori tuga), a perch, a standing-place, 
from tu, to stand ; nofoa, a seat, from nofo, to sit : and in other 
Polynesian dialects we have it as -na (Hawaiian), -Im (Marquesan); 
'a (Tahiti). As ta, -Jca, -na in Malagasy, so in Samoan and 
Polynesian -ta, ga, -a, may phonetically change when the word 
is in construction, thus : — 

[The letter that is pronounced variously is italicized.] 

-ta, or ga, may vary to ' a, fua^a, or fua^a ' fuafaga, fua'aga. 

-ga to 4a, -a, as ola, to live, ola^a, ola^aga, ola'aga. 

.ga to -ma, as tanu, to bury, tanu^a, tanuwmga. 

•ga to -sa, as leo, to watch, leoleo^a, leoleosa'i. 

•ga to -n{a), as alofa, to love, alofa^a, fealofa^^i, alofa^ia, Maori 

•ga to -ra, as Mangarevan mate, to die, mate^a, materaga. 

ga to -la, 'a, as tujm, to increase, grow, tii-puga, tupu7aga. 

-ga to -a, as tau, to leave, &c., tuu^a, tuurtga. 

. , . i i. J ( tula, tulaga (Samoan). 

-f/a to -ra. as ttt, to stand, ^ , , '^ \,, 

( tu^a, turagrt (Maori). 

-a to ra, as Tahiti fanau, to be born, fanau«, fanauraa. 

-/ to -f, as Sam. %ma, to pinch, una/ia, and una/ia. 

In Malay we have -t with all its variants in the dictionary 
with independent words, and also, but not as a rule, in Efate. 
In Efate the rule is, as in Malagasy and Samoan, that all the 
variants of -ta appear only in construction. 

^ So in Mod. Syr., see C.G.S.L., p. 54. 
^ Hazlewood's Fijian Orammar, p. 32, 



Thus we have : — 





















n, g 



na, ga 

na, ga 














r, 1 


ra, la 

ra, la 






a, wa, ya 

These Malagasy forms of this suffix, as also those below 
in Table IV, are used in, e.g. what Griffiths (Grammar, pp. 134, 
&c.) calls the 'Pronominal Adjunctive Conjugation", as sura- 
tahu, I write, in which word -ta is the formative suffix of the 
secondary verb, and hi the suffixed pronoun first person singular 

Table III. 








tana, taji 



laga, Tab. raa 










kan a 


nan, gan 













Here the Samoan g is for n, but the My. and Ef. g (in -gana) 
for f, as in Table II. And as in Table II the -ta becomes some- 
times in Sam. and Ef., and always in Tahiti, -a-, so the Sam. 
-ga (in -laga, &c.) for na is always in Tahiti -a (as in -raa) by 


elision of the >?, as in Table VI Sam. and Maori (and Tahiti) -ia 
is for 'ina by the same elision. 

With 4, Table IV. 





















ni, gi 



ni, gi 










For these Malagasy suffixes in IV see remark under Table II. 
The Samoan are found thus with the reciprocal verb, as fealo- 
fawi, to love one another. The Efate forms are very common 
as huluti, to cover with bulu, and from every such verb in 
Efatese you have the form in Table VI by suffixing -an<i. The 
form seen in hiiUiti, apart from the reciprocal, is not unknown 
in Polynesian, e.g. Samoan pidutl (= Efate huluti), whence 
form of Table VI nfi ptdiitia. But often in Samoan we find the 
form like pulutia, while that \ike> puluti is no longer found, or 
found only in the reciprocal, or in cognate dialects. 

With ki, or kan, we have Table V. 














raka, laka 







-nkan, gkan 

-na'i, gai 

-naki, ; 













waka, yak a 



In Samoan this form, like the previous, is found with the 
reciprocal verb, aafelamatai, to watch for one another, and also 
independently of it, as logologosa'i, to report. In Efate and 
Malay it is found in this latter way, as Efate rogosaM, to listen, 
or hearken to, Malay liafkan, to see. <► 



we have Table VI. 
















whina (Maori) 


kia (Maori) 


nia, gia 

niana, giana 








As Mg. taJmta, ampi-takiirma, Sam. matmt, matautki, being 
frightened (Ef. matahu, matahm, fear, Table II) : here the 
Polynesian -ia is for Po. and Mg. -ina, Ef. -irtwft, by elision of 
the ^i (but the Ef. -a is for -ta, by elision of the f). 

Finally, with -hiana, we have Table VII. 

Malagasy Malay 

[wanting] [wanting] 















As Samoan tuimtu/pulaina, to increase, from hipu, to grow, 
whence also are the forms tupulai (V), tupnga (II), tupiCaga, and 
tupiilaga (III), tupiia (I). 


Here let it be observed that all these suffixes are not found 
with every verb, and that a form wanting in one language may 
be found in another, e.g. it may be thus with (1) the basis 
(Table II) of the secondary verb wanting in Samoan folo (Maori 
lioro), to swallow, but found in Maori lioroga. 

(2) Some derived form of the secondary verb as Maori lioromi 
(Table IV), to swallow, wanting in Samoan, while both have 
(Table VI) fologia, Jioromia, and Samoan folomaga (Table III), 
Maori horomaga. 

(3) Some derived form of the primary verb (Table I) as Maori 
tvhakuhoroa wanting in Samoan. 

(4) In one language in the case of a particular verb the 
secondary form may be wanting, in another the primary form 
may be wanting, while in a third we may find both the 
secondary and primary forms of it, as e. g. in the case of the 
verb ' to fear ', Efate matakii, primary only, Malay tahit, Mala- 
gasy talmta^ secondary only, Samoan matau, matautia, both 
primary and secondary. 

(5) The -a of Tables I, II, and VI, whether for -ia or for -na, 
is distinct from the ending -a, No. 4, pp. 56 and 58, given 

Ef. examples. Both the primary and the secondary verb 
with the transitive particles, i and My are transitive, and some- 
times with M (so My. Jean), causative : in this way we have in 
the Oceanic dialects analytic substitutes for ancient intensives, 
or causatives. Thus Ef. rogo, to hear, rogif v. tr., to hear, 
rogorogoJci, to proclaim, make to be heard : in the last case the 
reduplication is intensive. Then from these we have na rogoaUf 
a report, thing heard ; na rogian, a hearing ; na rogorogoJcian, 
a proclaiming. 

With -a, for -ta, mitiri, to write, na mitiria, a writing, so 
mataJcUy mataJcua ; tabu, tabua ; tanm, tanua ; misaki, misakia ; 
milatCf milatea ; tirOj tiroa ; maietOj maietoa ; moru, deep, na 
morua, the deep. 



Table II. 




tokora (Mg. toeta) 


Table III. 





Table IV. 





atugi, buluni 
Table V. 


sokataki (soka) 

atumaki (atu, atugi) 

tokoraki (toko) 



silifaki (sili) 

toroaki (i 


tokonaki (toko) 

Table VI. 





atugian, bulunian 
Table VII. 








Compare Fi. keli, kdia, keUvaJca ; Sam. nofOy nofoa, nofoai. 

In Madagascar, 'Some tribes,' says Kichardson, 'use them 
{-ta, -lea, and -tia) interchangeably.' In the Hova dialect itself, 
as Parker has observed, they are interchangeable in certain 
words, thus silata and silaJca, Ef. sila, chipping off ; Mg. tanina 


(also Icanma) and taniJca, and tunu, roasting, &c. For -w, -^ 
occurs in dialects. Malagasy examples : — tarata, farafina, ps.p. 
(Sa. titotilo, to spy, tilofia, ps.); unuta, unutana, or unurana, ps.p. 
(Sa. una, to pinch, pluck off, unatia or mmfla, ps.) ; hirika, 
hirihana, or hirifana, ps.p., bored ; minima (drink), minumina ; 
andrasana or andrazana, ps.p., being watched ; tandrina, tan- 
drinana, or tandrimana, p.p., being taken care of. 

Malay examples : — lulut, lulur (Ef. ?oai, to stroke, paint ; lolo, 
loasi, or loari) ; lapit, lapis (Ef. Ufai, malifus, to bend, bent) ; 
lakat, laJcap (Ef. liko, Ukoti, fasten, &c.) ; garut, garoh (Ef. karu, 
karuti, to scrape) ; gosot, gosok, rub (Ef. kasi ; Mg. kasuka, kusuka) ; 
tambat, tambag, to bind, fasten ; ^w?i^, to roll (Mg. hudina) ; 
minum, to drink (Mg. minuna). 

Efate examples : — As in Mg., My., Sa., and Fi., so in Ef., the 
t may have more than one phonetic form with the same word 
as keleti, kelufaki [kelu) ; sokarl, sokataki {soka, to join on to) ; 
kamii, karisi, karafi, karaka {karo, kari, scratch) ; (dialects) halosi, 
haloni, hulunl, hulugi {bafano, wash the hands), Sa. fufulu, 
Fi. vuluvulu; atugi, atumaki (atii, break, smite, &c.), munugi 
(dialect mimuma, munu, to drink). 

In Fiji, words with -t are usually transitive verbs, equivalent 
to Ef. with -ti Fiji examples : — koviita, kovuna {kovu, wrapper) ; 
tura, to place (Sa. tula, n. ; Maori tuga), {tu, to stand) ; tutaka, 
to defend (from tura) ; rait' a, to look at {rai, to look, seeing) ; 
vakaraitaka, to show (from rait' a) ; volia, to buy {voli, barter) ; 
volitaka, to sell (from volia) ; vuruya, to crumble (vuruvuru, 
crumb) ; vurutaka, to crumble (from vuruya) ; vosaka, to speak 
to {vosa, speak, speech) ; vosataka, to speak of (from vosaka) ; 
rogot'a, to hear, tr. [rogo^ to hear, intr.) ; rogotaka, cause to 
be heard (from rogot'a) ; rogovaki, to be spread abroad, of 
a report [rogotaka) ; rokota, to bend, bow (roko, a bowing, bent) ; 
rokova, to bow to [roko, v for t); t'oroga, to singe, scorch (Ef. 
soro, to blaze, burn) ; Vorokaka, to singe, scorch (from t'oroga) ; 
unuma, to drink (Mg. minmia ; My. minimi). 

Of the two non-inflexional suffixed particles, really transitive 
prepositions, i is for (ni, ri), li. And li is the Semitic preposi- 

F 2 


tion in Arb. li, of the same meaning, and, what is particularly 
to the point, of similar use in Arb. after verbal nouns. In 
Arb., 'the verb may govern either {a) the acmsative of a noun, 
or (5) a preposition ivitli the genitive of a noun, which takes the 
place of the accusative, and gives a greater precision and 
accuracy to the expression. This government is not restricted 
to the finite tenses of the verb, but extends to the nomen verbi 
or actionis, the nomina agentis and patientis, and other verbal 
substantives and adjectives, whenever and so far as these 
different kinds of nouns contain somewhat of the conception or 
nature of the verb. ' ' The nomen actionis (with the others 
above-named) often takes its objective complement not in the 
accusative, but in the genitive with li, in which case this 
preposition is used as an outward exponent of the relation 
between the nomen verbi and its object. Hence the Arab 
grammarians rightly call it . . . the lam {li) that strengthens the 
regent (the nomen actionis or the verbal power which it pos- 
sesses ; for since the verbal force which dwells in the nomen 
actionis is less than that in the finite verb, the language helps 
the former to exercise its influence upon the object by annexing 
to it a preposition expressing the direction of the action towards 
the object.' It is added, ' This use of li to designate the objective 
comjplement is common in Oh. and Syriac, rare in Heb. and 
Eth.' * No words could better describe the function of this 
transitive preposition, whether, as originally, not suffixed, or 
suffixed as in Tables IV and VI. The other is the Semitic 
particle hi, or ha, which was used, like li, in Southern Arabic, 
or Himyaritic, ' as the sign of the accusative, and even of the 
dative ... or more exactly, perhaps, of the accusative alone. ^ 

See M.L.y pp. 137-40, for the following examples : — 
•a, Mota matea [mate), death ; Maori matiga, death ; Ef. matigo, 
the grave (place of death). 
•va, Fagani maeva, death. 
•hey Saa maurihe {mauri), life ; Java urip, Tanna murif. 

1 Wright's Arabic Grammar, II, §§ 1, 21, 29. 
* Hal6vy, Etudes SabSenms. 


•ra, Mota togora (toga, Ef. toko), behaviour (way of abiding). 
Ef. toJcora, a place (place of abiding). 

The following word shows many of the changes this ending 
undergoes : — 

UiSy a net (fishing), Ef. dialects kuhena, Tcuhega, Sam. 'upega, 
Tah. upca, Maori Unpeg a, Marquesan upeka, Haw. upena, Tongan 
hubega, a net (fishing) : see Index u^ST 

Plural Endings. 

Ancient Semitic masculine in -m : see below on the personal 

Ancient Semitic feminine in -t : see Ef. taot, and Index 
under y. 

Dual Ending. 

See rua, two; Mod. Syriac tera, &c., and the verbal pronoun 
forms of the personal pronouns, infixi, for the ancient Semitic 
dual ending -a in Oceanic. 

Reduplicated Forms. 

1. Falfal (Pilpel). 
Ef. kaldkala, 'js^i to laugh. 
Ef. kofukofii-a (kofii), A. kabekala, Sam. 'ofuofn. 
Ef. kaldkala, A. kaldkala, H. keJkel, Mg. lielilieli, and kedikedi, 
very small, and of rapid motion, moving about, Ef. ma-kaldkala. 
Ef. kelakela (kel) and kelekelet (Mg. hucUnkucUna), A. karekara, 

and IJ^JS. 

Ef. kafikafe [kaf], A. kafekafa, Maori kapukapu. 

Ef. silasila (sila), A. saJamla, Sam. {&i-tilitiU (Ef. fai, thunder). 

In Ef. it is the radical part of the word which is reduplicated, 
not the formative prefixes or suffixes, thus, haro, tabaro, tabaro- 
bare (see Tafalfal form infra), and so bitht, buluhiihd, hulut ; so 
kelekelet, A. karekarat, &c. An exception to this rule is Ef. 
mitiri, mitimitiri, the ini having come to be regarded as radical. 


The Falfal form is frequent in Ef. and other Oceanic dialects. 

2. Fafal (Assyrian ' Papel '). 
Ef. JcaJcasi {Msi). 

Ef. Jcahat (kati), My. gigit, Mg. JcaiMta. 

Ef. tutiiru [turn, turuturu, A. s'alla, s'ales'ala) ; Fi. tuhiru ; 
Sam. tuttilu, to drip. 

My. duduk, Java totok, Ef. toho, and to, to sit, toJcora, Mg. 
#oe^a. This form is also frequent. 

3. Pe'alal (Hebrew and Aramaic). 

Sam. savalivali, to keep on walking (savali, to walk, Ef. siuer, 
suuara). Ef. uses, instead of this, form 2 in this word, sisiuer. 

4. Sam. savavalij another form of savali, to walk : compare 
perhaps 1??^2fn, the one word of this form in Hebrew, and the 
original form of the Arabic twelfth conjugation, for which see 
C.G.S.L., pp. 220-1. 

The Falfal and Fafal forms may be said to have partly taken 
in the later Oceanic dialects, as Ef., the place of the ancient 
Intensive forms, in Arabic the second conjugation, in Hebrew 
Piel, but it is easy to show that such forms as these latter (the 
Intensive forms) belonged to the Oceanic mother- tongue. Thus : 

(Arabic 2 and 5.) 

Ef. reaJce, to strain, and J}^ , Jl^ : see above, and Index. And 
the fifth conjugation or form of the Arabic, which is the 
reflexive of the second, is seen in 

Ef. haro, taharo, to be heedless, refractory, c,9, cj^-i'. 

lorai, to split, tahare (tabarre), to be split, (jy^,Jlh 

tatalai, to warm oneself, JJi, A^K 

toli (liii), to go before (put behind), J^, JJj. 

talumi, to swallow, I4), 1^;. 

See also tafakka, tafagka, tageli (dialect takeX), takusi, &c. 

Such Tafalfal forms as tabaroharo, takelkel, taharebare are also 
ancient, as 

Ef. rere, or rerea, tarere, ^^l^lir (Vy")), to break (as breakers 
rushing on the shore). 


(Arabic 1 and 8.) 
So the reflexive of the simple or unaugmented verb, Arabic 
first conjugation, Hebrew Kal, is seen in Ef. Jcari, to hasten, 
taJcari, Jo, (originally) '^111, 8^: and that this form thoroughly 
belonged to the Oceanic mother-tongue, see above (Ch. III. d), 
the secondary verbs tuU, ma-tahu, and toJco, for which see also 
Index under letter D . 

(Arabic 3 and 6.) 

The form in the Arabic third conjugation, H. Po6l, being 
simply a lengthening of the first vowel was apt to become 
unrecognizable in the analytic Oceanic dialects, but appears 
in Ef. sluer [siwer, suwara), to make a journey, to walk ; Sam. 
sdvali (J^Jl, Sam. savali), J-lLl, 3, n.a., jll-, Sam. sdvali, Ef. 
^tier. We have perhaps the reflexive of this, as in Arabic 6, 
in Ef. naboa, or nabo (for taboo), dialect tamo, from 6oa, to be 
odorous, diffuse odour, or fragrance, ^U(and cli), 6, n.a., ^jl-aij. 

^ C.G.S.L., pp. 207-9. 



See Dillmann, Qrammatik der AefMopischen Sprache, §§ 62-5, and 146, fol. ; 
and CG.S.L., Ch. VI. 

1. The Demonstratives : this, that, here, there. 

In the Semitic languages, as Dillman has pointed out, these 
are ta, by letter change da, da, za, sa, ha, a ; 
na or an; 
la, or al ; 

Tea, ho, by letter change fo, po ; 

In Oceanic these occur thus : — 

Ef. se ; Ethiopic se ; Tigre iz- ; Merlav se, Samoan sia, sena, 

Ef. setu, and sentu ; My. situ ; Mg. imfu ; Ethiopic zenhi, 

My. and Mg. itu ; Aramaic ide, ideh. 

Ef. na, ne, in ; Sam. 7iei, na ; My. and Mg. ini ; Assyrian 
annu, anna, anni; Heb. hen, hineh. 

Ef. sin, Sana ; Sam. senei, sena ; My. sini ; Mg. imni ; Aramaic 
den and zen ; Eth. sentu. 

Ef. eru, eri, ri, ra (see Index under letter b) ; Vanua Lava le, 
lo ; Sam. la ; Maori ra ; Mg. iri ; Aramaic harka, halka ; Assy. 
ullu, ulli, ulla. 

The Article, originally the demonstrative I, is in Arabic 
al, l; a ; Heb. ha ; in Ef. in, ne, na, and sometimes a (very 


rarely l-, ^) ; Mg. ni ; Sam. le ; East Mai re ; Maori te ; Tong. 
he ; Fi. wa, a. In Ef. the article is written prefixed to nouns, 
and is used prefixed to other demonstratives thus : — 

With s, nis (nrSi) ; with n, nin ; Sam. lend, Una, leJa ; with f, 
netu ; Santo natu ; with Jc, nag a ; Santo nakai. 

The Semitic plural demonstrative, Hhese, those,' is formed 
from the demonstrative I, and is in Ethiopic elu, ela ; Heb. 
elch ; Arb. ild, ulai ; Amharic ela, &c. ; Mg. re, in ireK, ireni, 
iretu, &c., plurals of m, ini, itu ; so Florida rami, these, plural 
of eni, this, exactly as Amharic eJcma, those ; elayali, these ; 
plurals of zia, yeh, that, this ; and so also Arabic dol, dola, plural 
of de, this ; Vanua Lava ter, tar, plural of fe, fa, this. In 
Amharic it is used also combined as a pluralizing word with 
the personal pronoun, as ant, thou ; elant, ye ; this is frequent 
in Oceanic, to mark that the personal pronoun (originally 
plural but now used also for singular) is used in the plural 
sense only, as Mg. isi, they, also he, but Izareu, they; so Ef. 
nara, inira ; Santo inira, they ; nai, hiia, being now used for 
singular ' he '. In Amharic eld is used also to form the plurals 
of Interrogative pronouns (see for this in Oceanic below, on the 
Interrogatives), and also as an article before proper nouns 
forming a kind of honorific plural, or plural majestatis : ^ thus 
also Mg. ra, the honorific and personal ^ article. 

Ef. he ; Mota ihe ; Maori ho ; My. iha, ihi, ihu ; Assy, aga ; 
Aramaic (ha) ih, hah ; Arb. hah (hadah) ; Amh. yih (for yih) ; 
Heb. ho ; Aramaic ha. 

This Semitic h is used before other demonstratives as an 
article, thus, before the above s. Assy, agastt ; Ef. his ; Banks 
Islands (Gaua) hose ; Volow iges ; Bugis hotu. Thus also it is 
used prefixed to the above n, Ef. hin ; Java hone, hono ; Maori 
honei, hona ; Assyrian agannu. This h is also suffixed to other 
demonstratives, Aramaic deh ; Arb. daha ; Santa Cruz deha ; 
Sunda diyah ; Santo ituga ; and to this again the n is added, 
Aramaic dihen ; Vanua Lava tigen. 

^ Pr&torius, Die AmJuirische Sprache. 
' Richardson's Mg. Diet., p. xlix. 


The /, or p, for this h (see above), fo, or po, for ho, ha, is used 
exactly as the h in Ef., thus Mn, he, dialects {ban. Ion), ua/na, 
uane, uin, uu, uo (i. e. wa, wo), none ; so his, dialects uis, uase, 
uose ; Celebes (Holontalo) ho, wo, hotia, wotia. 

The demonstrative i is seen prefixed in some of the above 
examples, as in My. itu, Aramaic ide. In Ef. i alone in one 
dialect denotes ' this '. 

The Semitic ha, or a, is prefixed to other demonstratives as 
may be seen in the above : when suffixed it points to a distance, 
thus Amharic yih, this (for sih), zia (siha), that ; Harari yi, this, 
ya, that ; Ef. uane ; Tongan ne, this ; Ef. nana ; Tongan na, 
that ; Aramaic ai, this ; ala, that. 

1 a. Demonstratives prefixed to the Personal 

The demonstrative syllable <m (m, en) was so prefixed in all 
the Semitic languages : in Mahri it has been dropped now 
from all ^ except the 1st plural. But it is still found generally 
all over Oceania,^ Ef. h-lnau, ago or nago, niga, I, thou, he (see 

Another is h-, Ef. dialect hi (verbal pronoun, 3rd person, 
used interchangeably with i), Pentecost hea (pi. hera), Gurague 
(a modern Eth. dialect) hiia, Ma, Fi. and Po. ho, as in hoia, hdya, 
pronoun, 3rd person. This is seen in Himyaritic h; Eth. 
Ma-, prefixed to the personal pronouns, usually in the emphatic 
sense and in the accusative, as hiaha, thyself, as for thee, thee 
thyself. As may be seen in C.G.S.L., in the later Semitic 
dialects this was used also in the nominative, and became in 
Arb. iya, Tigre i. This i is common in the Melanesian dialects 
and in Mg., as e.g. in Tigre iha, Tanna ih, thou. 

Another is ha, a, Melanesian and Polynesian a, Gaudalcanar 
aia, i.e. a-ia; so e.g. in Aramaic ai, aia, for ha-hi, ha-hia. 

1 Z.D.M.G., XXV. 

* For a long list of the personal pronouns, v. M.L., p. 112 fol., and Ray's 
list of New Hebrides words, and see S.S.S., I and II. 


The Personal Article i : Melanesian (not in Ef.) ia, i, Mg. i, 
is connected with the third personal pronoun ; compare C.G.S.L., 
p. 182. For Mg. ra, see above. 

2. The Personal Pronouns. 

For these see Index under the letters ^? and n, and the above 
chapter on Phonology, places specified mfra. Here we may 
observe — 

(1) That the loss in the Oceanic dialects of the distinction of 
gender in the 2nd and 3rd persons has taken place in the same 
way in Mod. Syriac ^ in the 2nd and 3rd persons plural, and in 
Mahri * in the 2nd singular. 

(2) As to the use of the 2nd plural for the singular in some 
dialects, as in My. and Mg. {not in Ef. and many others), we 
see an approach to the same thing in the use of Amharic antu 
(you) for the singular, as in English ' you ' is commonly used 
for * thou'. As to the 3rd personal pronoun, the ancient plural of 
which is now used in the Oceanic dialects also for the singular, 
e. g. in My. and Mg., or for the singular mainly, e.g. in Ef., 
&c., the 3rd plural is used by way of politeness in speaking 
of a distinguished individual in Amharic and Efatese ; and 
in Mod. Syriac ^ the 3rd plural is often used also for the 

(3) This made it necessary to distinguish the word when 
used in the plural sense alone, and this was done by using 
it in a different or less contracted form, or more commonly 
by attaching to it the ancient plural demonstrative (for 



which see above, and Index under the letter 5<, ^Jl, &c.), or in 
some dialects tou, or tolu, three, thus Ef. and Santo ima, mira, 
Mg. m, uareu, Tanna in, iraha (for inara), dialects (Tanna) iJar, 
Hat, iliay iria, Futuna (Polynesian) ak-irea, all for inara, or inala, 
Sam. latou (for na-tou), Ef. (verbal pronoun) iru, ni, for inu, nu 

1 Stoddart's Mod. Syrian Grammar, p. 22. 2 z.D.M.G., XXV, p. 200. 

3 Stoddart, p. 39. 


(dialect iu), 3rd person plural ; and au for ami, or amiif for 
na-nu, or na-mu, dialects mu,pu, u, 1st person pi. 'exclusive'. 

(4) As to the so-called ' exclusive ' and ' inclusive ', Ef. indmi, 
or nigami (ninami), * we and they,' and ninita, nigita, igita, ' we 
and thou,* it is to be observed (a) that according to the native 
way of speaking the conjunction ' and ' is left out in such ex- 
pressions, thus in Ef. ' thou and John ' is * kumu John ', literally 
' ye John ' (not * thou John ') ; and * he and John ' is * nara 
John ', literally 'they John' (not * he John'); and so *I and 
thou ' is ' we thou ', nini-ta, igi-ta, and ' I and they 'is 'we they ', 
niga-mi, ina-mi, or nigi-m% ini-mif probably for nina-imii, ina-imi, 
or nin-umi (the i or ii as in Scotch gucle) ; and (6) the order of 
the words in such expressions is different from that in English, 
in which we say ' you and I,' ' they and we,' and the same 
as in Arabic, in which the 1st personal pronoun is put first. ^ 

(5) The Oceanic mother-tongue formed the plurals of the 
personal pronouns like the other Semitic languages, and in the 
2nd and 3rd, by the ending m (as in nouns), with the same 
interchange, and occasional elision, of m and n ; and the Dual 
of the 2nd and 3rd as in Arabic by the ending a (see the Ef. 
verbal pronouns and Index). 

(6) These pronouns played the same large grammatical part 
in the Oceanic as in the other Semitic languages, as separate, 
prefixed (nom.), and suffixed (to nouns and prepositions, geni- 
tive ; to verbs, accusative ; and to verbs, nominative). 

In the Semitic languages the suffixed pronouns were all 
originally of one form and without the demonstrative prefixed 
syllable cm, except 1st person plural and the verbal suffix 1st 
sing., which retained the n-, and except that the h of the 1st 
person interchanged with t, and the t of the 2nd person 
with h, from the very first. Thus we have the verbal suffix 
(ace.) in — 

^ Caussin de Percival, Orammaire Arabe Vulgaire, § 223. 



Nominal Si 

affix (gen.) 

■y • 






ni (for naku) 

nau, au (for 

i (for ku) 

gu, dialect k, 
Santo u 



k, ko 


ma^ (for ka 
through ga) 


(pi. for sing., 
w, na) 

(pi. for sing.) 




na (in wa-mi, 


na (as before) 



mu for kuniu 
(d. kama) 


mu (as before) 


homu, omu 
Arm. hiin, hon 
H. am, amo 

n, na, ana 

Arm. hon 

n, na, ana 

The verbal suffix in Ef. (and most other Melanesian languages) 
though ivritten separate is really, and as pronounced, a suffix, 
and should have been written, as the nominal suffix is, suffixed. 
By prefixing the an to these vre have the separate pronoun, 
Heb. ani, Assy, analm, Ef. anu^ Jc-inaUf &c., ' I,* and so with 
the others (see above Ch. II on Phonology, and Index). The 
nominal suffix with slight phonetic variations here and there 
is found throughout the Oceanic dialects, and in the mother- 
tongue was undoubtedly as truly and unmistakably Semitic 
as in Arabic or Ethiopic. Now, the nominative suffix with 
the verb in Mg., (a substitute for the ancient perfect), is not 
used with the verb in most of the Oceanic dialects (and neither 
the verbal pronoun nor the verbal suffix, on the other hand, is 
now used in Mg. as it is in Ef.), and is identical with the 
above, thus : — 








nau (for kau, for kamu), pi. for sing. 



(pi. for sing.) ni 

^ Aurora go, Tanna k and w, Ero. ka and ma. 






na (in na-i) 



na-reu (for ^-reu, v. sing.) 



ni (as nominal suffix) 

The verbal pronoun (nom.) in Ef. (and many other Melanesian 
dialects) is never used except immediately before the verb, and 
any word with which it is used is a verb. Thus we have 
a substitute for the ancient imperfect which prefixed shoit 
forms of the pronoun to the verb. 



Ef. Arb. Ef. 



PI. Dual. 




a-u [a for na 


ku(d. Jco) 


ku, tu turn, tu ta 





iru, ru (for ira, ra (for 
inu, nu) ina, ima) 


In the singular these Ef. short pronouns strikingly resemble 
the ancient in every way, but no such resemblance was possible 
in the plural and dual, which were not so prefixed in the 
ancient languages except in the 1st plural. The 2nd and 
3rd had the same prefixed forms as the singular, and denoted 
the plural by suffixed particles. The Ef. plural and dual of 
the 2nd and 3rd persons are simply the short forms of the 
ancient short pronouns 2nd and 3rd plural and dual as used in 
the perfect. Here we give an Ef. verb with these verbal 

bano, *to go.' 


1. a bano, I go. 

2. ku bano, thou goest. 

3. i bano, he goes. 

* au for 7va-mUf see supra. 


1. Exc. a-u (dialects u, bu, mu) bano, we, they go. 

1. Inc. tu ^ bano, (we) you go. 

2. ku bano, you go. 
(dialect, iu bano ) 

( ru banoj ^ ^ 


1. Exc. a-ra'^ bano, we they-two go. 

1. Inc. ta' bano, (we) you- two go. 

2. ko ra bano, you they-two go. 

3. ra bano, they-two go. 

There are only two duals in these, ra in the 1st and 2nd 
being the ra of the 3rd, for na (orig. ma), they two, Arb. humciy 
and tUy ye two, Arb. tuma. 

For the New Hebrides dialects, see S.S.S., Vols. I and II. 
For other Melanesian dialects, M.L. For the Mg., Richardson's 
Mg. Dictionary, p. xliv fol., and Griffith's Mg. Grammar. For 
Aneityumese, Dr. Inglis's An. Grammar and Dictionary. 

For the letter changes in the Personal Pronouns, see above, 
Ch. II, §§ 9, 10, 13 b, U a, b, c, e, 15. 

1st person. 

II, § 10, separate, sing, and pi. 

§ IBb, 'Inclusive,' and § 14 &, and § 12. The final syllable 
is the pronoun of the 2nd person. 

§ 14 &, e, ' Exclusive,' suffix § 15 m. The final syllable is the 
pronoun of the 3rd person. 

* Exclusive,' verbal pron., § 14 &. 

2nd person. 
II, § 9, and § 14 c (suffix) ; separate, sing, and pi., § 14 a ; 
plural, § 10, and § 15 {m), separate and suffix. 

And final syllable of ' Inclusive '. 

^ <u is for tm-tu, in Aneityumese inta. See Inglis's An. Grammar and 

^ Tlie a in ara, as the a in au, is for na, we. 
' td for na'ta, as tii for na-iu, note 1. 


3rd person. 
II, § 13 ?) (suffix), and separate, § 15 (w) and (m), separate and 
suffix, and verbal pron. 

Verbal pronoun, pi. and dual, § 15, K. 

And final syllable of * Exclusive *. 

3. The Eelative Pronouns. 

These are in origin demonstratives, C.G.S.L., p. 116 fol. 

Aramaic di, de, Eth. /sa, Assy, sa, Tahiti te, Ef. te, tea, Tanna 
si, Santo se, Mg. izai. Ef. te is used as in Aramaic as a con- 
junction, 'that,' 'because,' and also very often in the sense of 
'that which,' 'what,' 'he who,' ' they who,' as te ku tilia i uia, 
'what you say is good,' literally, 'that you say it, is good,' 
'that which you say is good.' The demonstratives tiane, nag, 
or naga are commonly used as relatives in Ef. 

As in Arb. and Heb. the article is sometimes used as a rela- 
tive. In Samoan the relative is le, with which we may compare 
the Modern Arabic dll, Maltese ll. 

4. The Interrogative Pronouns. 

SeeC.a.S.L., p. 120 fol. 

a. (j\ ayy, Eth. ay, Heb. e, Aramaic e, he, also a, who, which, 
what, where? 

h, 'Another interrogative pronoun in the Semitic languages is 
that which is characterized bj^ the letter m. Its oldest forms 
appear to me to be man for the masculine, and mant for the 
fern. ; but in practice man is used as the interrogative for per- 
sons of both sexes, "who ? " whilst mant is employed in speaking 
of things, " what ? " ' ^ Himyaritic usually changes the m into h 
(or v), and Mahri mon is used of all genders and numbers. The 
n is dropped in the Heb. mi, who? and the nt in the Arb., 
Heb., and Arm. ma, what? ^ 

c. These two, (1) and (2), are combined in Arabic thus, I^jI, 
Modern atna, what ? which ? 

acb. The initial letter of (1), see Phonology, in Ef. has either 

^ C.G.8.L., loc. eit. 


lost its consonant power as in e, or changed it as in he^ se% fe\ 
who ? Poljmesian vai^ tvai^ hai, a% Melanesian ha% hei, fei, teif 
sei, si, re, Mg. i-m, who ? 

hh. My. mcma, who, what, which, where? Lifu mene, what? 
Epi va-i, what ? Eromangan me, Tanna dialect ha, who ? Torres 
Islands (Lo) va, what ? And with the demonstrative suffixed, 
as in Arb. made, what ? we have Ef. dialects uase, fife, feha, 
Carolines (Strong's Island) meta, what ? Ef. uai, lai, uan, ue, 
mbe, Polynesian fea, &c., where ? 

cc. That is (1) and (2), Ef. safa, sefa, lief a, contracted sa, 
Ysabel, &c., }iava, Fi. ifava, &c., what ? which ? My. a]^a, Mg. 
znv\ and uvi (who ? which ?), Polynesian alia, aa, a, what ? 

d. These pronouns are also as in Arabic, &c., used indefinitely, 
thus (1) Ef. sei, who ? also some, any, some one, any one (see 
Diet, under the word sega-, i.e. se ga-) ; (2) Po. mena, mea, any- 
thing, something, &c. ; and (3) Ef. sefa, what ? also something, 
somehow or other, &c. ; My. apa, Mg. zavata ; Ef. matim or 
fatun; Mod. Syriac ynudi, for maden, C.G.S.L., p. 125. 

In Ef. the ma, or ha, of (5) and (hh) is suffixed in an in- 
definite sense to the negative adverb, as it is in Assyrian, thus, 
ta, or ti, not, also tama, or tiha, as i ta hano, or i tama hano, or 
i tiha hano, he did not go. It is also used, exactly as in Arabic, 
after nouns and personal pronouns. 

This m, or ma, plays a very large part in the Oceanic dialects, 
as in all the Semitic languages, prefixed to participles and 
verbal nouns, and in Ef. may sometimes be used or not as the 
speaker pleases, thus we can say i toko, or i matolco, hatolw, or 
fatolco, he sat, or abode. But usually it has become inseparably 
prefixed as in the verb-form prefixes ha-, haka-. In Mg., 
however, where it is prefixed in the present or indefinite tense, 
it is dropped in the past and future tenses : see below on the 
Tense particles. 

5. The Interrogative Adverbs. 
Generally, in Ef. the above pronouns may be used in the 
sense of ' where ? ' ' what (place) ? * 



With the particle of comparison, (*), 3, as, prefixed to the 
pronoun in a, aa, we have a word signifying quot, how many ? 

thus (^u (see Index), gisa, gihx, his, fisa, firi, pira, Ma, fia, &c. , 
how many? and used indefinitely, tot, so many. In Tanna 
* how many? ' is Mva or Iceva, H. n^3 literally, ' as what ? * 

With the same particle of comparison suffixed to it and the 
demonstrative t, Arm. d, prefixed, we have in Ef. a word, talca. 
Arm. daJca (see Index), and the same with the demonstrative n 
suffixed, Ef. tdko/na, Aramaic daJcana, how? and used inde- 
finitely, 'so,' Hhus.' 

With the final conjunction °^ ("•?) prefixed to the pronoun in 
(h) we have u^, Ef. kua (Jcuwa), or gua, Epi Jcava-i, that what ? 
for what purpose? why? Wright's Arabic Grammar, I. 351. 
So with cc in Ef., kasafa and kasd, having exactly the same 
meaning in one dialect as kua in another. 

6. PiiKTiCLE OF Comparison. 

This, as we have seen in dealing with the interrogative 
adverbs signifying * how many ? ' and ' how ? ' is in Arabic ka, 
Hebrew ke, as. In Ef. it is ka or ke, as. Prefixed to the 
demonstrative da, de, di, it is in Ai'b. kada or kade (Arm. kedi), 
Java kadi, Ef. kite or klta, as ; literally, ' as this.' 

7. Particle of Negation (Negative Adverb). 

Arabic la, Hebrew Je, la, lo, Samoan le, Maori te, Paama re, 
Efate ti, ta, di, si, Malay ta, Malagasy si, not. 

The same prefixed to a verb substantive, Aramaic ata, ita, 
is : Aramaic lata, Mandaitic laita, lata, Malay tada, tiada, 
Malagasy siadri, is not, no ; and the same with the verb sub- 
stantive ka, Arabic kana with the n dropped, Malay tadak^, or 
with the verb substantive ka, is, alone ; Mandaitic (and Talmudic) 
laku, lika, Samoan leai {lekai), Ef. tika, nika, sika, sia, Malagasy 
sia, Malay tak, is not, no ; and with the I of the negative elided 

^ On this compound and these Semitic words, see NOldeke, Manddische 


Ethiopic ako (so Noldeke), Tongan iMi, is not, no. As already- 
said, the Ef. tama, tab, or tiha, not, is the negative adverb witli 
the m of the interrogative pronoun used indefinitely suffixed 
to it as it is in Assyrian: it is never used in Ef. except 
immediately before the verb. 

8. Particles of Mood. 

(1) ^, (^3), that, in order that, to, ut : in Ef. this is Tea, or A;-, 
or ga, Malagasy Tea and 7m, or 7i-, Malekula g'a, ga, Florida g'a, 
Ti; Raratongan ha, Tongan he. 

(2) uJ, fa, that, so that, in order that, &c. ; Ef. ha and h-, 
Motu (N.G.) la, Fiji, Maori, and Ysabel (Gao) me, Malagasy /a, 
Futuna pe, Tanna^ja, Aneityum jpzi or mu, Malekula {S.S.S., 
p. 42 fol.) ha, 1)'. 

(3) ""^ \ H, di, de, za, that, so that, in order that, quod, ut, 
Merlav, Mota si, Lakona sa, Mosin ta, Vaturaga ti, Lo te. For 
Ef. te, see above on the Relative Pronoun, to which it is here 
to be added that in the sense of a final conjunction, ' that,' it 
is used with (1). Thus, taga or takfano, that I go, I may go, 
let me go, I will go, &c. In this Ef. tak there are three 
particles, the t of (3) ; a, I, the verbal pronoun ; and k of (1) ; 
and it is to be observed, once for all, that these particles of 
mood (1), (2), and (3), by which what we call the Imperative, 
Concessive, Subjunctive, Conditional, and Infinitive are ex- 
pressed, are also used as particles of the future tense : see 
below on the Particles of Tense. 

In Ef. the ancient order, particle — verbal pronoun — verb, is yet 
used thus, kafano, k- (1) — verbal pronoun [a) — verb, * that I go,' 
*to go,' 'I will go,' &c. ; so 3rd person singular, ke fano, k-, e 
(so Florida ke=k; e), fano, that he go, &c., and 2nd sing. 
ba fano, go (imperative), b- (2), a verbal pronoun 2nd sing, (for 
ka), and verb, literally, 'that thou go.' Generally in Ef. (1) is 
used, but in one dialect (2) is used instead of (1) throughout 
in the same sense. And another order, viz. verbal pronoun — 
particle — verb, has become the usual order in most dialects, thus 
instead of kafano, kefano we have agafano, igafano, in exactly 



the same sense, but, literally, 'I to go,' 'he to go.' This 
variation in Ef. of the order of the three elements of the 
expression in no way varies the sense, and seems to be purely 
for euphony, and it is for the same reason that in Ef. and many 
other Melanesian dialects the verbal pronoun of the 2nd person 
singular has dropped its consonant and retained only its vowel. 
In Malekula {S.S.S., p. 42 fol.) the particle in (2) is used thus 
(imperative, infinitive, and future) : — 

Ml. Ef. Florida. Ef. 

Sing. To sit. To speak. 

1. ba tok ka tok ku bosa ka bisa 

2. bo tok ba tok ko bosa ba fisa 

3. bi tok ke tok ke bosa ke bisa 

Sing. Ef. (dialect) 

1. aga tok aga bisa 

2. kuga tok kuga bisa 

3. iga tok iga bisa 

The particles (1) and (2) are also used thus in Ef. — (1) i kani 
kai hiika; Mg. nihinana izi ka viiki, he ate (so) that (or, and 
then, or thereupon) he was satiated. Here Ef. hii is ka (as in 
Mg.) with the verbal pronoun i. 

So (2) Ef. i kani ho liika, exactly the same meaning, and ho 
(o the ancient 3rd pers. pron.) is used exactly as the Arabic fa, 
see Wright's Arabic Grammar, II, § 140. Also in such ex- 
pressions this particle may be left out, exactly as in the later 
Arabic usage, thus i kani huka. *He spoke saying', or 'he 
spoke and said ', is in Ef. either i hisa ho tuU or i hisa tuli. The 
latter mode of expression is exceedingly frequent in Ef., one 
verb following another, and this is the explanation of it. Here 
we may note the peculiar Semitic idiom to express ' again ' 
before the verb. 

9. * Again.' This is expressed in Hebrew by ^IK^ (Arm. 3in), 
*to turn,' 'return,' and in Syriac by ^^o^, 'to turn.' The 
former of these verbs is used in exactly the same way in Ef. 


(see Index), and the latter in Polynesian, Aniwa foke (Sam. fdi ; 
Maori hoTii; Tongan foki, to turn). Thus Ef. roa {rowa, for 
rova), to turn, i ro bmio, he again went, literally, he 'turned 
went ', or ' he returned went' ; and with the prefixed me, i mero 
bmio, which again is often, the r elided, i mo bano. In one 
dialect it is i mer Icr bano, he again went, literally, ' he turned 
returned went' [ler, dialect for liliu, q. v.). In Aniwa foke, 
as in Syriac, is thus used, see Index for ^o», and Uhleman's 
Syriac Grammar, § 82. In Hebrew and Syriac the conjunction 
is sometimes left out, as always in Ef., in this characteristic 

10. Particles of Tense. 

Tlie Present Tense. 

(a) The present or indefinite tense particle is in Ef. mo 
(which in different dialects becomes bo, fo, no, and even o), 
Mg. m- ; Malekula m- ; Lifu me ; Santo, Oba mo ; Pentecost ma, 
me, &c. In Ef. this particle is, according to its origin, for 
which see the Interrogative pronouns used indefinitely, Semitic 
ma (compare Hebrew, also mo), rather, as in all the Semitic 
languages, a participle or verbal noun prefix than a tense particle. 
That this is what it is even in Mg., where it has most the 
appearance of being a tense particle, is certain : see Richardson's 
Mg. Diet, p. XXXV, and what has been shown above on the 
Formative Prefixes. In Mg. it is dropped in the past and 
future tenses, but in Ef. it is not dropped in the future tense, 
and the indefinite tense is used for both present and past, with, 
or without (as is the rule) tense particle. On this Semitic m, 
as a similar kind of tense or participial particle, see Isenberg's 
AmJiaric Grammar, p. 73. 

TJie Future Tense, 

(b) The particle for this in Mg. is the above (1) in §8: see 
Particles of Mood. This is hu, or h-, alone, in Mg., and the 
same in Ef. Jc-, or ^a, but prefixed to (a), thus ka fo bano, I will 
or shall go ; ke fo bano, he will or shall go ; and in Ef. with 


(2) in § 8, h; or ha, as ha fo hano, thou shalt go ; iha mo ham, he 
will or shall go ; in another dialect, iga uo hano, he will or shall 
go ; aga uo hano, I will or shall go. For Florida with h, alone, 
and Malekula, with (2) h- alone, Aneityum pu or mu alone, 
Santo pa alone, see under Particles of Mood. In Polynesian, 
Earatongan, we have Tea (imperative and) future : see Buzacott's 
Baratongan Grammar (1851), pp. 26-8. 

Particle of Mood (3) is also, as well as (1) and (2), used as 
a particle of the future tense, but not in Ef., thus Tanna te, 
or t- ; Banks Islands ta, t- ; Sam. , and Tongan te. 

The Past Tense. 

(c) The particle of the past tense is in Mg. nu, n- ; Tanna n ; 
Samoan and Tongan na. This is, so far as we can judge, the 
demonstrative n (see above) ; compare the use of this demon- 
strative with the participle for the finite verb, present, past, 
or future, in the ancient languages : Gesenius, Heh. Diet., s.v. 
niin. In Fiji na is the particle of the present, or future ; Aurora 
n, ni, future ; Pentecost n, nu, past and present, &c. 

Ef. dialect Jca (past) ; Fi. In (past, sometimes present), is 
probably the hi in Ef. tika (v. Particle of negation), i.e. the 
verb substantive in Arabic Jcana, and is used like I'a in Mandaitic 
which according to Noldeke, is for DN'p, whence \Xp, Np, ^p. 
Example NTiNp, er kommt ; Ef. i ka mai, he came. In Modern 
Syriac lea, or ga. 

11. Prepositions. 

(1) J, rt, ^, U, la, le, Tigre ne, ni, Gurague ya, Tanna la, ya, 
Holontalo (Celebes) li, Bugis ri, My. di, i, Mg. ani, Aneityum an, 
Tagala, Battak ni, Ef., Fi.. &c., ni, i, Polynesian i ; Ef., with 
suffix pronoun, na, a, Polynesian a, Mg. a, Fi. ne, no ; to, of, 
for ; sign of genitive, dative, accusative. 

(2) Himyaritic ha^, Amharic Jca, My. ka, Fi. ka, Ef. ki, gi, 
Maori ki, Sam. % o, Mare ko, o, Mg. hu ; Ef., with suffix pronoun, 
ka, ga, ki, Fi. ke, Po. o, to, of, for, by, with, from ; sign of 
accusative, genitive, dative, ablative. 

^ Hal^vy, Etudes Sabeenms, p. 92 foL 


^^3) t_), fl, 3, hi, ha, he, Amharic ha, ha, Tigre ahe, a, Mg. ami, 
Aurora mi, Motlav, Voloiv h-, Merlav he, Aneityum va, vori, 
Fi. ve-i, Ef. he-i, ma, mi, My. pa-da, Hawaiian ma, Eromangan 
hu, pi {S.S.S., 1, p. 79) ; Tanna with suffix pronoun va, fa, fu,pa, 
and consonant elided, Ef. a, or e, or i, Epi a, and Ef. after verbs 
in the sense of ^ by ' or ' with * (instrumental), ' from,' ' because 
of/ &c., the suffix pronoun of the 3rd person after it being 
always sa, s (for na, n) ; Po, e, sign of ablative, ' by,' &c. ; on, 
in, at, by, with (instrumental), by (in swearing, Haw. ma), &c. ; 
sign of dative, genitive, ablative. 

(4) II (DV)» w<^j Ef. ma, me, Melanesian and Polynesian 

generally ma, me, Mg. ama-na, with, together with ; with suffix 
pronoun in Arabic and many Melanesian dialects, sign of 
genitive. As to the difference between (1), (3), and (4) in 
Arabic with the (genitive) suffix pronoun, see C. de Percival, 
Gr. Arab, Vulg.,^^ 279-83. What is to or for (1) a person, and 
so (2) ; what is in or on (3) a person ; and what is with or 
beside (4) a person ; is, ' his,' or for him. 

(6) J\ , ^?^5, ila, ele, Aneityum, Tanna, Eromanga ira, 
Malekula (Maskelynes) ila, to, towards. 

(5 a) sl-&, iLc-, near by, beside, Ef. uta, near by, beside. 

(6) (2 + 1) Epi Mn, dialect Mri, Mg. hu omi, for, My. almn, 
Jean, to, for ; sign of accusative, Malekula Jmii, gini, Vaturaga 
Tione ] Ef. with suffix pronoun liana, kini, Epi, Jcana, Icona, 
to, for. 

(7) (2 + 3) Fi. Jcive-i, My. Jcapa-da. The da in My. pada is the 
demonstrative da, d, and is used suffixed to this preposition 
without changing its meaning exactly in the same way in 
Mod. Syriac, hud, but, Stoddart, Gr., p. 143; with suffix 
pronoun, Tanna Tcafa, hapa, Ef. , Epi Ma. 

(8) (3 + 2) My. baU, hagi, Ef. hahi, Epi heki, to ; Fagani/a^i, 
with ; Merlav mug, mugu, Ef. ma^i, contracted md, Mota mo, Po. 
mo, for (dative). 

(9) (3 + 1) Epi bani, to, Florida, Vaturaga va/ni, to, for; Ef. 
'tnani, mini, contracted md, Po. 7na, for (dative). 


Prepositions with the Article as a Relative, or other Relative 
Pronoun prefixed, as Pp, ?^'^., Hft, s^el, dil, mha. Thus with 
the Article we have : — 

(10) (1) Ef. ani, ana, Erom. ari, Sam. la (for le-a) ; 

(11) (2) Ef. nagi, nig, agi, aga, Epi neU, Sam. lo (for le-o) ; 

(12) (1 + 2) Ef. anaga. 

The Article has sometimes become inseparably attached to 
the preposition as perhaps in Mg. ani S CLvni, and certainly in 
Ef. dialect nagi, nig, the meaning and use being the same as 
that of the simple preposition. 

With the Relative Pronoun we have : — 

(13) (1) Eromangan sore, Epi seni, Sam. sa, ^f. 

(14) (2) Samoan so. 

(15) (3) Tanna sava, sei, Epi sia, Hft. 

(16) Sometimes the Relative alone is the sign of the genitive, 
as Assyrian sa, Ethiopic m, Aramaic di, de, Malekula, Epi, 
Tanna sa {S.S.S., II, pp. 38, 89, 123). 

For the uses of the prepositions, which vary somewhat both 
in each of the ancient and in each of the Oceanic dialects, the 
Grammars must be consulted: see the Grammars in S.S.S., 
I and II, and those in M.L., and Gabelentz's Die Melanesischen 
Sprachen, Vol. I (1863), especially Ch. XII, and Vol. II (1873). 
Here we shall give examples of their use with the suffixed 
pronoun, and it will be sufficient to give that of the 3rd person 
only (for the other persons see above on the suffixed Personal 

(1) Ef. ana, Sam. ana, Mg. azi (for ani), Fi. nena, nona, Tanna 
Ian, Ethiopic lomu, Ion. 

Fi. a nena, Ef. (10) anena, anana. 
Sam. lana (for le-ana). 

(2) Ef. Icana, JcaJcana, Tanna Jcun, M. Syriac Jcahun, kai. 
Fi. kena, Sam. ona. 

Fi. a Jcena, Ef. (11) agana. 
Sam. lona (for le-ona), 

^ But the a- in Mg. ani, ami, may be a prosthetic. Cf. Tigre abe, for 
he, (3). 


(3) Tanna^M, Pentecost hena, Eromangan huhni, piiii, Heb. 
bam, Eth. bomu, ton, Mg. amini, Pentecost ahena. 

(4) Epi mano, Fi. mena, Mota fuan, Ambrym mena, Arb. 
maJium, mahun. 

(5) Eromangan irajiy Malekula elan, Arb. ilahum, ilahun. 
(5 a) Ef. utana, Arb. 'undaJmm, 'undahun. 

(6) Ef. kanana, hinin, Epi konana, kanana, M. Syriac kalaliun, 

(7) Tanna kafun, Ef. and Epi A;?awa (possessive, with certain 
nouns), My. kapadana. 

(8) Merlav mugim ; Mota wow ; Po. mowa, for (dative). 

(9) Ef. manena, dialect masa (for mana) ; Po. mana, for 

(10) See (1). 

(11) See (2). 

(12) Ef. anagana, same meaning as (2). 

(13) Samoan sana, same meaning as '^^ ; Eromangan 5orug, 
my, 5orum, thy, 5o;^mi, your. 

(14) Samoan sona, possessive. 

(15) Tanna savant ; Epi siana ; Eth. zabotnu, zabon. 


For the Ef. go, and ; ko, or ; and he, if, see the Dictionary, 
and for the final conjunctions ha, and ga, or ka, see supra, 
§ 8. 1, 2. The preposition me, or Wia, with, is used also as 
a conjunction, and for this and temate, a conjunction used only 
with numerals, see the Dictionary. 



The Article. 

See II, § 13 h. It is written prefixed in Ef. as in Arb. and 
Heb. ; and is often mistaken by voyagers in Melanesia, collecting 
from the natives lists of words, for a radical part of the word. 
It is written separate in Mg. and Polynesian. There is no 
article in My. as in Syriac. 

The Noun. 

Number, The ancient ' sound plurals ' with ending m, or n, 
have disappeared except in the personal pronouns, and been 
replaced, as largely in Arabic, by the ' broken plurals ' : see 
II, § 16 h. These ' broken plurals ', originally singulars with 
a collective signification, may take the verb either in the 
singular or the plural, that is, the verb with the verbal pronoun 
singular or plural in Ef., thus nafa i hano, a man goes ; nata ni 
hano, men go. The plural may also be denoted in Ef. by 
a pluralizing adjective after the noun, as, natamoJe Idba, many 
men ; natamole rafalu, some men, &c. For an example of the 
ancient plural (feminine) in -t : see Ch. II, the word tdot. 

The Dual. See II, § 15 [n), and the Personal Pronouns in 
Ch. V. In Ef. it is seen in the Verbal Pronoun, that is, the 
short pronoun, expressing person and number, by which the 
verb is conjugated. It is thus in Ef. retained more fully 
than in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Ethiopia 


Gender. This is expressed by the words for 'male' and 
' female ' in Ch. II. Traces of the ancient feminine ending 4 
are still retained in the word for * female ', also in sikai, one, and 
lai, woman, lady. For this ending -t forming abstract nouns, 
throughout the Oceanic, see Chs. lU and IV, and for its phonetic 
variations Ch. II. 

Case. The ancient terminations in Arabic -w, -a, 4, nomi- 
native, accusative, genitive, are now used in Ef., as in 
Hebrew, &c., without case signification. The expression of the 
genitive by the ' construct state * is still, however, found 
throughout the Oceanic, as in all the Semitic dialects, thus 
Ef. mitcma ; My. mataha ; Mg. masuni, his (or their) eye ; Ef. 
mita nata, eye of a person ; My. mata an, Mg. masu andrtu eye 
of day. The genitive and other oblique cases are also expressed 
by the prepositions, q.v., in Ch. V. 

The letter changes that have occurred in the Oceanic nouns 
for the following English words, have been explained in 
Ch. II, viz. :- 

sun, 13 h, 16 6. heaven, lid. 

moon, 14/ water, 10, 13 c. 

star, 12, 14: a, c. ear, 14 «, Z), lie. 

stone, 13 h. man, person, 14 b, 17. 

fire, 14 a. male (vir), 14 c, 17. 

fruit, 15, R. woman, female, 14 c. 17. 

lightning, 14 a, c, d. eye, 13 ?>, 11 c. 
wind, lid. 

Many other words are similarly explained in the same 
chapter, q.v. 

It would be easy to give here a long list of words, nouns, 
and verbs, which have suffered very little phonetic change 
as compared with these, and the numeral words, and pronouns, 
but this is not necessary, and may be done by any one from 
the materials in the following Dictionary, and Index. 

TU Niination. For this see II, 13 h, 14 h. It is seen in 


My. kuhi^ ; Mg. sufina, ear, ^y ; in (Ef. toot), My. tulaff^ 
Mg. taiilana, bone, and in the words for * hundred ' and * thou- 
sand,' &c. On this final n in the Semitic languages, see 
C.G.S.L., Ch. VII. It is frequent in My. and Mg., not so 
in Ef., and not so in Hebrew, Aramaic, &c. 

The Numerals. The letter changes in these are explained in 
Ch. II (see the places indicated) : — 

1. 11 1, c, 12, 13 h, 14 b. 7. 14/; 15. 

2. 13 &, 15 {n). 8. 14 6, 15. 

3. 13 6, 14 6. 9. 14 e, 15. 

4. 13 6, 14 6,/ 10. 11a, 6, c, 14 e. 

5. 15. 100. 13 6, V. Index under letters. 

6. 13 6, 14 c, 15. 1000. v. Index under letter N. 

On these we may remark that 1 occurs both in the ancient 
masculine, Mg. isaka, and feminine form, Ef. siJcui ; and 4, 6, 
and 7, manifestly with the ancient feminine and abstract ending 
4, throughout the Oceanic. 

These twelve Oceanic numerals are the ancient Semitic 
numerals, but some of them have been lost from certain dialects. 
Thus, e.g. only the first five are now found in Ef., and in 
Ambrym the first five, and that for ' ten '. In Santo you find 
all the twelve in one village, and only the first five in a neigh- 
bouring village. In such cases as the latter the natives have 
found it easier than to remember the second five to substitute 
for them combinations of the first five thus : 5 + 1, for 6 ; 
5 + 2, for 7 ; 5 + 3, for 8 ; 5 + 4, for 9 ; 2 of 5, for 10. These 
combinations in Ef. are la-tesa, 6, larua, 7, latolu, 8, lijiti, 9, 
riialima, 10, latesa being for lima tesa^ &c., and rualima, two of 
five, for 10. And Ef. having lost or forgotten the ancient 
words for 100 and 1000, has substituted for them other words, 
dunti and manu. 

The Adjective. 

For the adjective formative endings, see Ch. IV. In Ef. 
the adjective follows the noun, and every adjective may be 


used, with the verbal pronoun, as a verb : thus fatu Msua, a 
hard stone, fatu i kasua (the) stone is hard. By adding the 
formative ending -an to an adjective (as to a verb) an abstract 
noun is formed, thus naJcasudn, the being hard or strong, 
hardness, strength. 

The Pronouns. 

For these, Personal (Separate, Suffix, and Verbal), Relative, 
Demonstrative, Interrogative, Indefinite, see Ch. V, and for the 
letter changes in them Ch. II. (As to the Personal Pronouns the 
places where they are treated in Ch. II are pointed out in 
Ch. V.) 

The conjugation (person and number) of the Ef. verb by 
means of the verbal pronoun is a real and natural substitute 
for the conjugation of the ancient verb. As in the ancient 
languages the verbal pronoun includes or implies in it the 
verb substantive. 

The Verb. 

This, as in the ancient languages, is a verbal noun (see 
Ch. Ill), thus Arabic a-mata, Ef. a mati, I (am or was) dying, or 
dead, rather than, I die, I died. In Ef. from every verb may be 
formed a verbal noun by the formative ending -an, which, 
if the verb is transitive, may be used in both an active and 
a passive sense, see Ch. IV, and see the same for the verbal 
noun formative ending 4, with all its phonetic variations as 
explained in Ch. II. Also the verb forming prefixes (and 
infixes) are set forth in Ch. IV, and their phonetic variations 
explained in Ch. II. For the verb forms or ' conjugations ', 
see Ch. IV. 

The Adverb. 

An adjective may be used adverbially with a verb, thus 
i sefa, he hastens, i sefa kasua, he hastens strongly ; and with 
an adjective thus, uia, good, uia bihilena, greatly good. 

For the interrogative adverbs signifying quot ? and how ? in 


indefinite sense tot, and so, thus ; and for * as ', and the negative 
adverb, see Ch. V. 

For the Conjunctions and Prepositions, see Ch. V. 

When we say that Arabia is the motherland of the Island 
family of languages this does not mean that the primitive 
Oceanic tongue, of which the multitudinous dialects of Oceania 
as at present spoken are the analytic or simplified descendants — 
as English is of Anglo-Saxon, or the Komance dialects of Latin — 
was derived from Arabic ; but that Arabia is the motherland 
of the primitive Oceanic, as it is of the Ethiopic, Amharic, 
and Tigre, and of the Assyrian, Phoenician, Hebrew, and 
Aramaic. See C.G.S.L., Chs. I and II. If it had more in 
common with Arabic than with any other Semitic language, 
that is because Arabic has more than any other preserved the 
features of the primitive Semitic tongue, the common mother 
of all of them. The primitive Oceanic must be regarded, not 
as a descendant of, but as a sister to the Ai*abic, Himyaritic, 
Ethiopic, Assyrian, Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic, and 
the Ef., Samoan, Mg., Malay, &c., as cousins to the Mahri, 
Amharic, Tigre, Mandaitic, Modern Syriac, and vulgar Arabic 
dialects, due allowance being made for the fact that these 
latter have been always more or less under the conserving 
influence of the surrounding Semitic literature and civilization, 
from which the Island dialects have been for ages completely 
cut off, as well as completely isolated from each other. The 
word for ' sun * in Oceanic, Ef. elo, Tong. Ida, Tarawan tai, is 
not the common word for 'sun' in Arabic, &c., but it is the 
common word in Ethiopic, Amharic, and Tigre, sahai, ^ai : 
but this proves, not that it was derived from Ethiopic, but only 
that it was derived from the same source as the Ethiopic. The 
Ethiopic and Oceanic word for ' moon ', also in Mahri, Hebrew, 
and Aramaic, is not in Arabic. The common word for * fruit ', 
Ef. ua, in Oceanic, Ethiopic, Hebrew, and Arm., is not in 
Arabic. On the other hand, such common Oceanic words, as 
in Ef. toko, sit, dwell, ma-taku, fear, are in Arabic (v. Ch. Ill), 
and not in Ethiopic, though traces of them appear in Hebrew. 


The word sa/i'afi (Ef.), q.v., and the common Pacific Island 
word in Ef. saM, q. v., are in Aramaic, not in Ethiopic or 
Arabic. The word for * star * is universal in the Semitic and 
Oceanic dialects, see Ch. II. In a number of dialects springing 
from the same original inflected tongue it is usual that one may 
drop one word or inflection, another another. The same is seen 
in comparing one Island dialect with another. Each dialect 
has its peculiarities, while nevertheless all have much in 
common, and this is true whether we compare the Arabic, 
Ethiopic, &c., with each other; or the Ef , Mg., &c., with each 
other ; or the latter with the former, as shown in Chs. II, III, 
IV, and V, and as will further appear in what follows. 


a., adjective, 
ad., adverb, 
art., article, 
c, with. 

c. art., with the article, 
eg., egg., cognate, cog- 

conj., conjunction. 

cf., compare. 

d., dd., dialect, dialects. 

d. syn. c, dialect syno- 
nymous with. 

dem., demonstrative. 

den., denominative. 

der., derivation. 

i.q., the same as. 

imp., imperative. 

inf., infinitive. 

inter., inten-ogative. 

interj., interjection. 

mid., middle voice. 

n. a. ,nomen actionis (in- 

n. ag., nomen agentis 
(active participle). 

n. p., nomen patientis 
(passive participle). 

nom.suf., nominal suffix. 

num., numeral. 

opp., opposite, opposed. 

part., participle. 

pers. pron. , personal pro- 

pi., plural. 

pref., preformative. 

prep., preposition. 

prob., probably. 

pron., pronoun. 

ps., passive. 

q. v., which see. 
redup., reduplicate. 
s., substantive. 
S.V., under the word 

(sub voce), 
sing., singular, 
syn., synonymous, 
syn. c. , synonymous with* 
t., transitive. 
v., vide, 
v., verb. 

V. c. ,verb causative form. 
V. i., verb intransitive. 
V. r., verb reflexive, or 

V. t., verb transitive, 
verb, suf., verbal suffix, 
voc, vocative. 

A., Arabic. 
Am., Ambrym. 
Amh., Amharic. 
An., Aneityum. 
Arm., Aramaic. 
Assy., Assyrian. 
Bu., Bugis. 
Ch., Chaldee. 
E., Ethiopic. 
E. Mai, East Mai. 
Ef., Efate. 
Er., Eromanga. 
Fi., Fiji. 
Fut., Futuna. 
H., Hebrew. 
Ha., Hawaiian. 
Ja., Java. 
Ma., Maori. 
Mg., Malagasy. 

Ml., Malekula. 

Ml. A., Malekula Aulua. 

Ml. P., Malekula Pang- 

Ml. U. , Malekula Uripiv. 
Mod. A. , Modern Arabic. 
Mod. S., Modern Syriac. 
My., Malay. 
Pa., Paama. 
S., Syriac. 
Sa., Samoan. 
Soc, Socotra. 
T., Tigre. 
Ta., Tanna. 
TaSa., Tangoan Santo. 
Tah., Tahiti. 
To., Tonga. 

Ct., Catafago's Dic- 
tionary of Mod. A. 

Freytag, Freytag's Ara- 
bic Lexicon. 

Ges., Gesenius's Dic- 
tionary of Hebrew. 

Nm., Newman's Dic- 
tionary of Mod. A. 

St . , Stoddart's Grammar 
of Mod. S. 

After an Arabic verb 1, 
2, 3, 4, 5, &c., denote 
its different forms, 
different meanings. 

After a Hebrew verb 
Pi. denotes Piel, Pu. 
Pual, Hi. Hiphil, Ni. 









A, verbal pron., I: d. ni, q.v. 

A, v., contraction of ani, q.v., 
to be, or dwell in. 

A, prep., see Ch. V. 11, 1, some- 
times e, or i, in, at, to, of. 
Used prefixed to nouns, as 
ataku, etaku, or itaku, at 
the back, behind ; and to the 
suffixed pronoun of the pos- 
sessive, as agu, my, ana, his, 
dialect enea, or inea, his, 
inu, my. [The same is found 
in Mg. alil, my, azl, his, and 
in Sa. ana, his.] 

A, art., or dem., prefixed to 
certain words, as to some 
nouns, and prepositions, ani, 
of, aki, or agi, of; and to 
verbs, nikam, d. agau, that 
which nips, or grasps. [Fi. 
a, an article, prefixed also to 
prepositions, as a nei, a Jcei, 
denoting the possessive case 
as in Efatese. The Fi. a is 
a form of the article na, and 
the Efate a, being the same as 
the Fi., must in that case be 
a form of the common article 

na{m, ne, &c.), q.v. A^i [a^i) 
of, in Efate in one dialect is 
nagi or nagil (na gi), of, and the 
above nikam, in another dia- 
lect, is agau. The same article 
is found in Ma. and To. as a. 
In Fi. and Ef., prefixed to 
possessive prepositions, it has 
somewhat of the force of a 
relative pronoun.] H. ha, 
for hal ; A. 1-, al, a, some- 
times hal, art., used also 
sometimes as a relative pro- 
noun prefixed to verbs and 

A, inter]., 0! lo ! [Ha. o, 
Tah. a, lo ! o !] Arm. ha, 
this, as an interjection, lo I 
H. h9, A. ha, a. 

Ab, s., d. voc, father. [Ma. 
pa. My. pa, pak, Mg. «&«.] 
A. ab, H. ab, Ch. aba, 

Aba, V. See ofa. 

Abab, s., father. [Ma. papa, 
My. hapa, hapak, Mg. haba.'] 
See ab, bab. Kedupl. of ab. 

Abu, v., to heal, get well (a 


sore), d. an, id., d. mau, to 
get well, recover from sick- 
ness. [Sa. mafu, to heal up, 
Ma. malm, Mangaian mau, 
heal, Ha. maha, be conva- 
lescent, Mg. m'lafa, to recover 
from sickness.] A. 'afa; 3, 4, 
restore to health. 

Abu, s., ashes, also afu, au. See 
following word. 

Abuabu, v. redupl. , to be dusty, 
to fly in the air (dust), also 
afuafu, id. ; tano afu, tano 
abu, tano au, ashes; libu, v., 
to be ashy, ash-coloured, dirt3^ 
or covered with ashes, as in 
mourning for the dead, hence 
malibu, v., to be a mourner 
thus, especially for a deceased 
husband or wife, and hence ma- 
libu, s., a widow or widower, 
that is, one so mourning : libu, 
v., is also found (Bau d.) as 
lifu, lifulifu; mafu, s., a 
thick vapour like dust; un- 
cleanness (ritual), which 
makes the sight dim. [Sa. 
efii, s., efuefu, s., dust, efu, 
v., to become dust, efu, a., 
reddish-brown. To. efu, s., 
dust, ashes, efuia, a., dusty 
covered with ashes, Sa. lefn, 
a., s., lefidefn, s., ashes, Ma. 
neliu, s., dust, nelmnelm, a., 
dusky, whaJcanehu, v., reduce 
to powder, Ha. lelehu, To. ne- 
nefu, dimness or weakness of 
sight, My. ahu, s., Ja. atvii, s., 
dust, ashes. My. clahu, labu, 
id., Jculahu, v., a., ashy, ash- 
coloured, also Mahu, Ja. Jclu- 
ivu, Mg. vuvuJca, s.,dust, ashes, 
mamavuJia, v., to dust, sprinkle 

98 [API I 

with dust, mavu, a., brown, 
manavu, v., despise, blacken, 
sully, mavuana,Si., unadhesive 
(applied to mortar), Fi. clravii, 
s., ashes, draviidravua, a., 
ashy, of the colour of ashes, 
poor, hence vahadravudra- 
vua-taJm, v., to make poor.] 
A. haba (habu), v., rise, float 
in the air (dtcst), become like 
dust, de carhone igne extincto, 
die, 4, raise or excite dust, 
habwat, dust, colour of dust, 
Ct. habut, dust, dust mixed 
with ashes, a thick vapour 
like dust, Nm. hebwa, fine 
dust, powder, mutahabbi, 
weak in sight. 

Abuera, and abura, s., d. for 
kabuer, q.v. 

Afa (ava), s., father, an afa his 
father. See ab, d. voc. afa. 

Afa, v., swim {man or animal), 
d. ofa; 

Afa i, V. t., carry (him, or it), 
d. ofe. The first meaning 
seems not connected with the 
second, to a European, but a 
native connects them thus : a 
man afa natas, swims or floats 
on the sea, the sea afa nata- 
mole bears or carries the man ; 
so a man afa ki nakasu, swims 
holding a floating stick, but if 
he gets on to the stick and lets 
it float him ashore the stick is 
said to afa i carry him. The 
sea or the stick carries him 
thus, hence afa, v. t., denotes 
carry a man on one's back, 
then to carry anything on the 
back : and as a man so carried 
clasps with his arms the car- 

ApA I] 



rier round the chest, the head 
of an axe is said to afa its 
handle, and as one carrying a 
basket on his back holds the 
string of it over his shoulder, 
so a man drawing a log by a 
string thus over his shoulder 
is said to afa it, and a tug 
steamer is said to afa or tow 
a ship. A dog afa a piece of 
meat, carrying it off firmly 
held by its teeth, and a man 
afa a pipe or a twig, i.e. 
carries it held by his teeth. 
A messenger afa, carries his 
message, a horse its rider, and 
a warrior afa, carries, i.e. 
leads his troop ; also a jDerson 
afa narogitesan, bears a dis- 
ease or infirmity or trouble 
(see bafa) ; 
Afafa, V. reduj)!., dd. ofaofa, 
ofafa. [My. a29^<^, s.,afloat, 
ampug, a., buoyant, kamhag, 
v., to float. Sa. ojyeope, to 
float. Ha. ope, bundle up to 
carry away, Epi mava, d. mia, 
to swim.] A. 'ama, swim 
{man), go {camel), 2, dispose 
in sheaves or bundles : Nm. 
float, swim. <Amat, a bun- 
dle, a float, or raft, for carry- 
ing things across water. In 
this A. word there is the idea 
of connecting together (as 
things in a bundle. &c.). In 
afai, carry liim, as a float- 
ing stick carries a man in the 
water, or a horse carries him 
on land, the transitive pre- 
position i=bi (afai = *ama 

bi), gives the verb its transi- 
tive force, make to swim, to 
go, i.e. carry. 

Afa ki, V. t., and ofa ki, to 
bury, Maka tafaki*, pr. n., 
name of the person who 
buried the first men who died 
in the beginning of the world, 
according to native story ; 
cf. safaki. QSa. ufi, v., cover, 
conceal, ps. ufitia, with in- 
strumental particle ufitai, ufi, 
s., a cover, ufi, s., the yam, 
Efate ui, or uui, (pronounced 
liivi), the yam, Mg. afina, vu 
afina, is concealed, miafina, 
to conceal oneself, manafina, 
to conceal, to bury.] A. 
"aba, be concealed, 2 to con- 
ceal, to bury, 5 be absent. 
See egg. s. V. bei, infra. 
"Ayab'j roots (so called be- 
cause buried in the ground 
or covered with earth), Sa. 
ufi, Ef. uwi, Ja., My. uwi, 
ubi, Mg, uvi, yams. 

Afaru na, s., d. ofari, wing, 
wings. fEro. eiioJc, Tidore 
filafila, Torres Islands j;e>pe;v', 
wing.] H. 'abar, Hi. to soar, 
mount upwards in flight, 
'eber, and 'evrah, wing fea- 
ther (with which birds soar). 

Af i, V. t., to be near to, d. 
of i, A. wahafa, to approach, 
draw near to. 

Afin i, V. t., afan i, afen i, 
also dd., 

Afls i, and aflt i, to put or 
carry under the arm or arms, 
held between the arm and 

* Note, — Tafa-ki, and Sxfa-ki, lit., burying, is of the Ancient Tafal 
or Safal, i. e. Causative Form. 

B 2 




the side ; to cover with its 
wings, as a bird its young, 
clasping between the wing 
and the side. Afinina, s., 
armpit, axilla, and d. afili 
na, id., also the groin. [My. 
Mj?e^, mdngcipet. carry under 
the arm, Sa. afisi, cany under 
the arm.] A. "abana, 8, 
sub axilla posuit, 1, 3, plait, 
ma"bin*, groin, armpit. 

Afiti, s., a slave. This word 
occurs with the article as 
nafiti. [My. beta, Ja. patik, 
a slave.] H. 'ebed, Ch. 
<abad, a slave. See bati, v. 

Afo, s. See foga, and nafo. 

Afuafu. See abuabu. 

Agau, d. nikam, s., a, or ni, 
art., and kam, or gau, nip- 
pers, tongs : from the verb 
kamu, q.v. [Fi. ai qamu, 
id.. My. aghub, forceps, 
nippers, pincers.] See kamu, 

Aga, for anka, art., a., and 
prep, ka, literally that or the 
to, or that which to ; a par- 
ticle prefixed to the nom. suf. 
pron., forming a poss. pron. 
Without the art. it is pro- 
nounced ka, q.v. See kagu, 
«&c., for meaning. 

Agana, poss. pron., 3 sing. ; 
aga, na. See kaua, kakana, 
kanana, and for meaning 
and use see under kiana. 
Fi. a kena. 

Agama, poss. pron., 2 sing. ; 
aga, ma. See kama. 

Agagu, poss. pron., 1 sing. ; 
aga, gu. See kagu. 

Ag'gami, poss. pron., 1 pi., 
excl. ; aga, garni. Kagami. 

Agagita, poss. pron., 1 pi., 
incl. ; aga, gita. Kagita. 

Agamu, poss. pron., 2 pi. ; 
aga, mu. Kamu. 

Agara, poss. pron., 3 pi. ; aga, 
ra. Kara. 

Agam, pron., 2 pi., you, ye ; 
dd. igam, nigami, nigkam 
(gk for g), akam, egu, the 
pers. pron. 2 pers. pi., which 
in one dialect is kumu, in 
another is kami, q.v. 

Ag, pron., 2 sing., you, thou ; 
dd. nago, nigo, nego. See 
k, ko, ku, ki. 

Agi, or aki, particle consisting 
of the art. a, and prep, gi 
(for ki, q.v.) to, of; dd. nig% 
nag, nigi, or nigki, in which 
the art. is na, or ni. Agi 
is often equivalent to ani, 
q.v., but not always: ani, or 
ini sometimes means 'of 
nearly in the sense of ' from ', 
as rarua ini se ? a canoe of 
(from) what place? which 
cannot be expressed by rarua 
agi se ? See the preps, ki and 
ni. Agi is often equivalent 
to the simple prep, gi, or ki, 
but sometimes it means the, 
the (thing), that which, of, the 
art. having the force of a rela- 
tive pronoun. 
Agiegi, s., c. art. nagiegi, the 

air, breeze : lagi. 
Aginago, poss. pron., 2 sing., 

thy, of thee ; agi, nago. 
Aginai, poss. pron., 3 sing., 
his, her, of him ; agi, nai. 
Aginami, poss. pron., 1 pi. 




excl., our and theirs, of us 
and them ; agi, nami. 

Aginara, poss. pron., 3 pi., 
their, of them ; agi, nara. 

Aginau, poss. pron., 1 sing., 
my, of me ; agi, nau. 

Agita, poss. pron., a, prep., 
and nom. suf. gita, ; a, gita. 
[Sa. a tatoit, Mg. ansika.'} 

Ago, pron., 2 sing., you, thou ; 
ag, nago, in dd. 

Agu, poss. pron., 1 sing., my ; 
a, prep., and gu. QSa. an. 
Ma. aM, Mg. «/??', my.] 

Agumu, poss. pron., 2 pi., 
your ; a, kumu. 

Aheka, d., tasila, d. tasiga : 
sila ia. 

Ais, or eis, ad., here, d. ieta ; 
a, or e, or i, prep., and is, 
see sa, se, s, this, here ; d. 
esas, q.v. QMg. ati, eti, atu, 
etu, Ta. yesa. My., without 
prep., sini, silca, and with 
preps, dl and JiCi, cUsmi, Iri- 
sini."] H. zeh, without prep., 
here, j^i'operly this, Ef. se, 
this, here, E. zeya, here. 
Also H. bazeh, E. bazya, c. 
prep, ba, with which is to be 
compared. Ha. ma in manei, 
here, and also generally. The 
prep, a, e, or i was also simi- 

See examples of 
the word igin, 

larly used. 

this under 

Ai, s., c. art. nai, water, d. for 

nifai, q.v. 
Aia ( = d. ao), that's it ; a, dem. , 

and ia, 3 pers. pron. 
Aime, s., c. art. naime, a 

stream : preceding word, ai, 

and me, q.v. 

Aka, a., d. koa, and koakoa, 

a., stringy, fibrous, as a yam 
when cooked (bad to eat) ; 
akoa na, or ako ana, root, 
its root, lit. and fig. ; aka, 
a relative, family connection 
(considered as root or off- 
shoot from), aka na, d. ek, 
eka na ; in one place ek or 
eka denotes great grand- 
father, and great grand- 
mother (which in another 
place is denoted by tai la, or 
tai, q.v.), in another place 
aka denotes mother (used by 
a child addressingits mother), 
d. iak (i, art.), mama ; aka 
na, or uaka na (waka na), 
fissure, inside of fissure, as of 
the mouth, of a canoe (hold), 
of a bag or basket, or of any- 
thing; kaka naniu, the fib- 
rous substance like coarse 
cloth that grows round the 
top of the stem of the cocoa- 
nut tree (naniu) ; makaka, to 
be ragged or fissured, as cloth ; 
mako, or maka, offspring, 
in pr. nn. as mako nam, 
&c. ; taumako, the wild yam 
growing on the hills, so 
called because koa or fibrous. 
Koa has the a. ending a. 
[To. aka, Fi. ivaJca, My. aJcar, 
Mg. faJca, root. Ma. long and 
thin roots, aJcaaJca, fibrous 
roots, kaka, a fibre or hair, 
a garment, a kind of net, 
Ha. aa wm=Ef. kaka nankt, 
also roots (small), offspring, 
a pocket, a bag, a coarse kind 
of cloth, Sa. aa, fibres of a 
root, family connection. Mg. 




MM, iJcaU (i art., cf. Ef. aJca, 
iak), father, papa, Tah. aa, 
root, sieve, &c.,aaa, the stringy 
substance in any kind of food 
or vegetable, native cloth 
that is not well worked.] 
A. 'akka, n.a. 'akak, to be 
split, fissured, 'akko, a fis- 
sure, 'akikat', a bag (pera 
viatoria. Ha. aa), also like 
'akiko and *ikkat% hairs of 
a foetus ; '^awako, small 
shoots sprouting from the 
upper part of a palm, *ikkano, 
shoots sprouting from the 
roots of palms and vines, 
*akka, 4, to send forth such 
shoots from the roots (palms 
or vines), Mg. faka, root, caus. 
verb mamaka, to send forth 
roots, and My. akar, roots 
of a plant, scan dent plant, 
parts of a plant that climb. 

Akam, d. ; you ; pers. pron., 
2 pi. See kumu. 

Akamus, preceding word, with 
dem. suffixed. See Ch. 11. 
13 Z). 

Ake, interj. See ako, ako ri. 
[Mg. a/.Tf//] A, interj., and 
ke, q.v. 

Ake ri, interj., ake, or aki, 
and ri, as in ako ri, q.v. 

Aki, prep., i.q., agi, q.v. 

Akit, d., pron., 1 pL, inch, 
we and j^ou. [My. Jdta, Tag. 
Mta, Fut. akitea, An. alwja.'] 
See nininta. 

Akoa na, or ako ana, s., root. 
See aka. 

Ako, interj. For ri, dem. 
particle, used also as an ex- 

pletive, and la, ad., see these 

Ako ri la, interj. 

Ako ri, interj. Ako expresses 
surprise, wonder, admiration, 
also mourning, commisera- 
tion. A, interj., and ko, q.v. 

Al, d., syn. with elo, d. all, 
the sun. See ali. 

Alat ia, v. t. (and let, q.v.) to 
press together, nip as with 
scissors, or with the teeth, 
press between two things 
drawn together, to press, 
urge, persist, be importunate 
with, to grasp. The final 
consonant is often dropped ; 

Ala, s., c. art. nala, a basket 
or purse the edges of whose 
mouth can be closed by being 
drawn or pressed together, 
women's carrying basket ; 

Alati, s., scissors, nippers, 
clippers ; 

Alaterabati, also alati bati 
ore, to gnash the teeth, lit., 
press the teeth together creak- 
ing. See bati and ore ; 

Ala goro ki, v. t., press, urge. 
See goro ; 

Alala, a., compressing. [Mg. 
lasita, nmndasifa, to pinch.] 
H. Lahas, to press, squeeze, 
'alas, to urge, S. 'elas, coegit, 
arctavit, A. lahis, angustus, 
arctus (drawn, pressed to- 

Alalu, i.q. elalo, q.v. See 
alo na. 

Alan, s. ; a, prep., and lau, 
sea ; also elan, d. ela, the sea, 
on the sea, seawards. [Malo 
a lau, Epi lau, My. lauf, Ja. 




lalmt, lot. Tag. dagat, Mar- 
shall Islands lojet, the sea, 
My. lauti, v., and malauf, v., 
to put to sea, be at sea in 
a boat or ship,] A. logg% 
and loggat, or lojjat, middle 
and depth of the sea, ocean, 
lajja, or lagga, 8, the sea was 
wide and deep, or such a sea 
was sailed over, 2, he entered 
the vast and deep sea. 

Alekabu, c. art., talekabu, d. 
for arekabu. 

Ali, s., c. art., nali, leaf, 
leaves: ulua. 

All, s., day (d. ali, sun, d. ali, 
light, see Una). Sera ali, 
every day, toko ali, stay at 
home during the day, not 
going to work. Usually this 
word is doubled, as, 

Aliati, s., da5\ [An. aVkif'}. 

Aliati, V. to day, to dawn, to 
lighten as the dawn. fSee al, 
alo, elo, the sun, also meta 
ni al, meta ni elo, the sun, 
lit., eye, i.e., source of day or 
light. [Mg. anclru, Malo alo, 
My. ari, hari, Sa. la, Ma. ra, 
day, Sa. la, To. laa, Ma. ra, 
My. mata-ari, Mg. masu-andru, 
the sun.] For this word see 
Ch. II. 17, above. 

Al i, V. t., for gal i, or kal i, 

Ali, and alia, s., place, part, 
alia n, its place or part, d. 
male n, or mile n ; luan, 
that place, there, for alia 
uan, 11 ban, d. lo bon, there 
(11 for alia) ; mala, and malo, 
a place, a part, malo, time, 

i.e., a part of time, as malo 
ni aliati, a part of the day, 
malo uan, that time, or that 
place, malo, trunk of tlie 
body, or of a tree, mala, 
malala, an open place or 
plain, also the village dancing 
and public worship ground, 
malmal, redup., a small place 
or part ; malu, malumalu, 
to be bare, clear, as a piece of 
ground, to be bare, devoid of 
hair, as the face, malamala, 
naked. [Fi. inaJa, a part, Sa. 
malae, the open space where 
public meetings are held, 
Tah. marae, the sacred place 
formerly used for worship, 
marae, a., cleared, as a garden, 
or a place of worship. Ma. 
marae, enclosed space in front 
of a house, a yard, mara- 
mara, a small piece.] A. 
'ariya, to be naked, 'ara% 
'ara% *arat, an open place, 
tract, part, mo'rai, and mo'- 
rat% naked part of the body 
not covered with clothing, 
H. 'arah, to be naked, 'arah, 
a naked or bare place, ma'ar, 
a naked space, void space, 
ma'arah, a naked place, i.e. 
a plain or field devoid of 
trees, 'A. mo'arrai, naked, 

Aliali, V. i. (doubled), to delay, 
be slow, and taliali, id., in- 
tensive. [Cf. Ha. alia, v., to 
wait.] A. ala (alu), and, 2, 
alia*, and, 5, to delay, be 

Alialia, v. i., or a., insane, to 
be insane ; connected with 




this is ululia, inspired, pos- 
sessed, or entered by a deity 
(natemate) or demon, and, 
therefore, as a matter of 
course, out of one's senses. 
Alialia is not used in some 
places where ululia (for ulu- 
uluia) is used in both senses ; 
this latter word is also pro- 
nounced luluia, and lulia. 
It is a reduplicate and has 
the ending la, and literally 
means entered (i.e. by a 
spirit), possessed. £Sa. nlui- 
fino, enter the body, possess 
(as by an aitit), tdu, to enter, 
and tino, body, Ha. 'iihiia. 
and uluMa, to be inspired, 
possessed by a spirit, ulu, to 
have spiritual possession, 
good or bad, uMa, insane, out 
of one's senses, Tah. uni, to be 
inspired, uniliia, inspired . This 
last word corresponds to Sa. 
ulufia, which simply means 
entered, being the passive of 
tdu, to enter. Corresponding 
to Sa. ulu, to enter, is Mg. 
idita, or ilita, to enter, and 
with this latter is connected 
the reduplicate addla. insane, 
senseless, a lunatic, a fool 
(cf. Ha. ulala). Ef. Ma, an 
idiot, senseless person, fool, 
may belong here also, and 
cf. Fi. Ualia, foolish, crazy, 
an idiot.] Ch. 'alal, to enter. 
S. id., 'al, he entered, imp.. 
«ul, enter, A. "alia, he en- 

Note. — The A. is followed 
by prep, fi, the S. by b and 
also 1 (A. li): the first of 

these preps, is used in Mg. 
(ami), as in Jno. xiii. 27, 
Satan nidita amini, entered 
into him ; and the second 
(ani, sometimes contracted 
to an and a), as in Lu. xxii. 
3, and often: in Sa. we have 
the last in the i of ulufia, 
i of Ha. uluhia, and in the i 
of ulu-i-tino, and of Ha. 
uluia, and Ef. luluia, &c. 
This is the verb constantly 
used in S., Mg., and Sa., to 
denote the entering into a 
man of a spirit. The Ef. and 
Fi. use another and synony- 
mous verb, Ef. sill, to enter, 
Fi. t'uru, id., which is used 
also in A. to express this 
idea: for the A. verb corre- 
sponding to sili, t'uru, see 
sill, infra. 

Alo, s., d., the sun. See ali. 

Alo-fi, v., wave (with a circular 
and rolling motion) to him, 
beckon to by so waving the 
hand, or a branch of a tree ; 
alof, and prep, i : bialo, v. r., 
wave often, or wave to each 
other, alo-alo, wave repeat- 
edly, talo, go round, avoid, 
turn round, taloalo, keep 
going round (as on a zigzag 
or crooked path), turn round. 
See next word. 

Alo n, or alu n, s., belly, 
abdomen, the front, before, d. 
al» naru na, belly, i. e. , palm 
(or front) of his hand ; re- 
duplicate lalo n, or lalu n, 
id., elalo, before (e, prep., 
and lalo, front). [Fi. ydlova, 
Ml. P. onivi, Ml. U, oluve, 




TaSa. lohe or love, Malo alovi, 
to beckon, To. ialit, to beckon, 
Sa. ah, to fan, talo, to fan, 
to beckon, to wave a piece of 
tutuga over the dead, begging 
him to take calamities and 
diseases with him, alofi, to 
sit in a circle, alofilima, palm 
of hand (i.e., front or belly 
of hand), Sa. alo, belly, under 
side, Ma. aro, face, front, Ha. 
alo, belly, face. Ma. arohi, to 
look for, arohirolii, to turn 
round and round, Ha. aloalo, 
to turn this way and that, 
alo, to elude, to oppose (face, 
front), to swim (wave hands), 
double (as a cape, i.e., go 
round).] A. hala, to turn 
round, twist about, desire, 
look at, turn the eyes or face 
towards ; hiyalo, the fronf 
of a thing, Ef. alo, the front 
(as of the hand, or body), 
reduplicate with prep, e, 
elalo, at the front, as opposed 
to etaku, (see taku), at the 
back ; hayalo, shadow, image 
of a man in a mirror, spirit, 
Fi. yalo, id. The Ef. f, Ma. 
h, is the Semitic servile t of 
the n. a. For this see Ch. II. 
and Ch. III. 

Al' (naru) (for alo naru), d., 
palm (front) of the hand. 
[Ml. P. aro, Malo lolo.2 

Alo ana, s., maternal uncle ; 
vocative (reduplicate) lolo 
cf. abab, mama). [In Ef. 
dd. syn. auaua, bau. Malo 
taura (ta art.), maternal 
uncle.] A. h'alo, maternal 

Aloara, a. ; formative ending 
ara or ra ; and 

Aloaloara, a., redupl., orna- 
mented, painted (as cloth). 
See alo-fi, loa-ri. [A dif- 
ferent word is Sa. ilaila, a., 
spotted, marked, i?^, s., a 
mother's mark, a mark in the 
skin, To. ila, a mole or mark 
in the skin. A. h'alo, pi. 
h'ilan, mole or mark in the 
skin, ah'yalo, a., having such 
marks in the skin, spotted, 

Alo-fl v., rub on (to) it, 
paint. See lea, loa-ri a, loa- 
si, and lo-fi. A. hala, halu, 
or halo, rub, smear, paint, 

Alikas, s., c. art. nalikas, for 
na uli nakasu, leaf or leaves 
of trees. See uli, and kasu. 

Alser, s., c. art. nalser, dried 
or withered cocoanut leaves, 
so called because jagged : 
from nal for na uli, leaves, 
and sere, jagged, hairy. 

Alu na, s., for alo na, q.v. 

Ama, poss. pron., 2 sing, thy : 
a prep., and nom. suf. ma. 
[Sa. au, Mg. anau, thy.] 

Amau, a., true: in loamau, 
q.v., lo, a thing, and amau, 
also mau, mori, mauri, true. 
H. aman. See mau. 

Amos i, v., to carry on the 
shoulder, to bear, to carry. 
Often the final s is dropped ; 

Amo, v., to carry, to put a 
load on the shoulder ; and 

Amo-taki, d.. id. ; and 

Amo-rua, am*rua (rua, two), 




to carry two (burdens), one 
on each end of a stick (as 
a Chinaman carries two bas- 
kets) ; the word also occurs 
in tak'amo, d. takiamo, to 
carry a burden on only one 
end of such a stick ; and 

Amoamo, c. art. namoamo, 
s., a burden, lit., that which 
is carried. [Sa. amo, v., to 
carry on the shoulders, amoga, 
s., a burden, Ma. amo, amohia, 
Ha. amo, to carry a burden 
on the shoulder, to carry.] 
H. 'arnas, bear, carry, es- 
pecially lift up a load and 
put it on a beast. 

Amo, s., c. art. namo na, the 
lungs, but also 

Am' kanoa, the heart, and 

Am' insat, the lungs (see 
kanoa, insat) ; and 

Am' molu, the spleen. [Fut. 
ama, Sa. mama, the lungs, To. 
mama, id., Ha. aJiemama, the 
lungs, from ake, liver, and 
mama. ] In To. , Sa. , Fut. , and 
Ha., mama (a reduplicate) 
means light, to be light (opp. 
of heavy), but this is not the 
stem to which the word mama 
denoting the lungs belongs, 
and does not occur at all in 
Ef., though the Ef. amo is 
manifestly the same as Fut. 
ama, and Sa. (reduplicate) 
mama, the lungs. For 
analogues of aJcemama, see 
under the word ate, the liver. 
In Ef. uateam, q.v., the 
kidneys, is ua ate am', lit., 
fruit of the liver (or inside) 
of the belly (am', the belly) : 

uateau (d. uateaf), is d. for 
uateam', and balau, q.v. (for 
balam'), the common Ef. for 
inside, is lit. the hollow of 
the am' (amo), i.e., belly. 
See following — 

Amo, s., c. art. namo, the soft 
forming kernel of a young 
cocoanut: so called like the 
internal parts of man or 
animal from the softness and 
smoothness : 

Amoamo, v. i., a., reduplicate, 
to be soft and smooth, as the 
forming kernel of a young 
cocoanut, or the intestines or 
viscera, or any smooth or 
polished surface; d. momoa. 
[Sa. mama, a., clean (i.e., 
smooth), Tah. clean, not 
soiled or polluted, To. and 
Ma. ma, clean, white.] A. 
ma'y', pi. am'a', intestinum ; 
also, a level place between 
two rugged places (Ef. na 
momo, or na amo'mo, a 
smooth and level place be- 
tween the rocks in a reef), 
ma*a, 4. to have dates ripe or 
ripening {a palm), ma'w', 
dates on the tree, ripe or 
growing ripe, ma'i, soft, 
smooth {of food), ma*«y' soft- 
ness of skin, H. me'^eh, only 
in pi. me'im or m^ey in- 
testines, the belly, then the 
bosom, heart: eg. is A. maha, 
to gleam with whiteness, to 
gild, whence raahw', new soft 
dates. Gesenius gives the 
radical meaning as 'flowing 
down, softness ', see H. 




Amo*mo, or am'mo, c. art. 
namomo, or nam*mo; see 
s. preceding word : d. mo- 

Amori. See mori. 

Amos i, V. t.. to rub, to rub 
in order to make smooth : mos 
1, mus i. A. wamasa, to 
rub (a thing), to rub (a thing) 
that it may be smooth. 

Amu, poss. pron., 2 pi., your: 
a, prep., and nom. suf. mu. 

Ana, form of pers. pron., 3 
sing., he, she, preserved in 
aneana : other forms nai, 
enea (inia), ga. 

Ana, poss. px'on.. 3 sing., his, 
her, its : a, prep., and na, 
nom. suf. [Sa. ana, id., Mg. 

Anagagu, anagama, ana- 
gana, anagagita, anagami, 
anagamu, anagara (or ana- 
gata), poss. prons., syn. c. 
agagu, agama, &c., q. v. 
See Ch. V. 

Anaga, in these words, is the 
art. a, and preps, na, and ga 
(for ka). With anagagu (for 
anakaku), cf. Mg. d. ana- 
kahi, id. 

Anal, poss. pron., 3 sing., his, 
her, its : a, prep., and nai. 

Anana, poss. pron., 3 sing., 
his, her, its, d. for aneana, 

Aneana, poss. pron., 3 sing., 
of him, his, her, its : an^ or 
ani, q.v., prep., and ana, a 
form of the pers. pron. 3 sing. , 
orig. pi. 

Anekabu, c. art. nanekabu, 
d. for arekabu. 

Anekama, c. art. uanekama, 
d. for arekabu. 

Anekabu, c. art. tanekabu, 
d. for arekabu. 

Anena, d. for aneana. 

Anera, for aneara, often pro- 
nounced aneta, aneata, d. 
arSara, poss. pron., 3 pi., of 
them, their ; prep, ani, and 
ara, pers. pron., 3 pi. 

Aneta, d. for anera. 

Ani, prep., particle consisting 
of the art. a and prep, ni, 
q.v., and often used for the 
simple prep, ni, of, belonging 
to (genitive prep. ), for (dative, 
rare, this is usually expressed 
by magi, d. syn. nag', or 
nig', q.v.) : generally synony- 
mous with agi, q.v. for a 

Anigami ; d. syn. c. aginami ; 
poss. pron. 1 pi. excl., of us 
— them (of us and them) : 
ani, prep., and gami (for 
nami), pers. pron. 1 pi. excl. 
See nami, kinami. 

Anigita; d. aninita, q.v.; 
poss. pron. 1 pi. inch, of us 
— you (of us and you) : ani, 
prep., and gita (for nita). 
See ninita, nita. 

Animu ; d. , syn. c. agumu ; 
poss. pron. 2 pi., of you, your: 
a, prep., and nimu (for ni- 
kamu), d. nikam, pers. pron. 
2 pi., d. niem. 

Aninita, d. obsolete, syn. c. 
anigita: ani, prep., and nita, 
pers. pron. 1 pi. incl. See 
ninita, nita. 

Ani, v., usually pronounced 
eni, d. oni, contracted to an. 



[(ANI NA) 

en, a, o ; c. preformative m* 
or ma, it is, man, ma, ban, 
(and mban), ba,dd. bon,ben, 
bao,baon, maon; to abide, to 
be, as i ani, or, i an suma, 
he abides or is at home (in 
the house), i man, or, i ma 
tafa, he is on the hill, i man, 
or, i ma rarua, it is in the 
ship or canoe, i ma, or, i an 
til ia, bat ia, he abides (con- 
tinues), or is telling it, doing- 

Note 1. — The verb an may 
be thus used before any verb, 
like toko (contracted to), to 
sit, dwell, be, with which it 
is nearly synonymous. But 
an tano, lies or is on the 
ground, toko tano, or to 
atano, sits on the ground, tu 
tano, stands on the ground. 
Both tu and toko are used 
before other verbs like an, 
and toko til ia, tu til ia, 
like an til ia, denote to abide, 
continue, or be telling it. 
Another verb, tau, q.v., is 
used in the same way before 
other verbs, as i tau til ia, 
bat ia, he abides, or is con- 
stantly, habitually, or ad- 
dictedly, or repeatedly, tell- 
ing, doing it. So Fi. dau, 
which is the same word. 
These verbs thus used before 
other verbs express continu- 
ance, intensity, repetition. 

Note 2. — The preformative 
m', ma» (me, mi) is used with 
toko, tu, and tau, as well as 
with ani, an, as matoko (or 
mato), dd. batoko, fatoko 

(vatoko), matu, batu, fatu 
(vatu), mitau or metau: 
with this preformative these 
verbs have much the same 
meaning as without it ; they 
have the same meaning with 
the added idea of continuance. 
[Mg. munina, dwell, reside, 
inhabit, unenana, funenana 
(a dwelling), mjmnina 
(dweller).] A. (4) "aniya, 
to dwell, abide (8) to be, 
ma"na', dwelling, cf. H. 
«un, to rest, to dwell, ma*on, 
a dwelling. 
(Ani na), nani na, s., child, 
son or daughter, dd. nati, 
natu. [My. andk, Mg. anaka, 
Ml. d. anati, id., My. TicmaTx, 
(see Mnao, hmo, infra), Mg. 
zanaka, id.] A. wald', walad', 
walid', E. walde, Amh. 
wande, T. wade, H. yalid, 
one born, child, son, from 
the verb H. yalad, A. wa- 
lada, to bring forth, bear {a 
mother), to beget [a father), 
A. walid', parent, genitor, 
father, walidat' mother, geni- 
trix (Nm. welid, welida, Ct. 
walidah). My. b^ranak 
(Makassar, ma-ana), to bear 
a child, bring forth any off- 
spring, have children, be a 
parent, Sa. fanau (cf. A., 4) 
to briug forth, fananau, fa- 
nafanau, fanaua (ps.), fanau, 
s., offspring, children, fanau- 
ga, s., offspring, child-bear- 

Note. — The word nani, or 
nati, natu, son or daughter, 
probably represents an origi- 

(ANI NA)] 



nal masculine (and so that 
denoting father, A. walid, 
Ml. and Santo tata, Santo d. 
tai, Mg. rai), but the word 
belonging to this stem de- 
noting mother, the ancient 
feminine (w§lida, walidah). 
This is in Ef. d. raite na, or 
reita na, mother, d. ere na 
(for era na), Ta. iti, d. rih, 
Am. rahi, An. risi, Ml. risi, 
d. are, Epi d. la. Pa. lati, Fila 
leta, Celebes leyto, Ef. ki- 
ll ti, q.v. : Ef. voc. tete, also 
in Epi mother, in one d. la, 
in another is kaine, i. e. ka, 
art. , and ine (for ina) mother, 
and this latter is the prevail- 
ing form of this word in the 
Malay Archipelago (see 
Wallace's list), Amboyna, 
Oeram, &c., ina, Mg. reni, 
and ineni, (Ta. d. nana). 
Celebes undo, Bu. indok, 
ina. My. indu, J. idug ; also 
Ysabel ido, San Cristoval 
ina. Mare nene, Duke of 
York na. On these letter 
changes see Ch. II, above. 

Anoi, or anui, d. anoai (ano- 
wai), s., c. art. nanoi, or 
nanni, vir, husband, male : 
m has been elided from the 
beginning of this word as in 
noai, d. nai, d. nifai (nivai), 
q.v. , water ; d. mane (mwane), 
ma'an (mo'an), male. See 
mani, and Ch. II, 17. 

Anu, d., pers. pron. 1 sing., I. 
See kinau. 

Anu na, s. c. art., nanu na, 
his, her, its shadow, i bi an' 
fur, it is an empty appear- 

ance, mere shadow (worth- 
less). [Epi ununo, Malo unu, 
Ml. d. nunii, id.] And, 

An', s., a rope, c. art. n&n'. 
These two meanings are also 
found in the A. A. <anna, 
n. a. 'annu, «ananu, 'ununu, 
to present itself, to appear, 2, 
to hold with a rein ; «anu, 
a long rope, *ananu and 
'inanu, adparitio rei, 'ananu, 
clouds, H. 'anan, a cloud : 
A. 'a*nan% demon nature, 
ma'nun and magnun, pos- 
sessed by a demon or 

Note. — The radical mean- 
ing of 'anan, is to cover, 
and cognate are kanan, and 
ganan ; A. ganna, to cover, 
to be dark (of the night), 
to be possessed by a demon 
and insane, ginnu, darkness 
of night, also demons, spirits, 
or every kind of them (this 
is the jin of the 'Arabian 
Nights '), hin, a kind of 
demons, ginniyyu, a demon 
or spirit, ganunu, genii. In 
Ef., d., unu, ghost, d. inini, 
spirit, soul. Ml. P. oni, noni 
n, his soul, or his shadow, 
Epi d. anunu, soul or spirit, 
Epi (Baki) unu, c. art. niu- 
nu, soul or spirit, ununo, 
shadow ; and Ml. oni, Malo 
unu, one's likeness in water, 
or in a looking glass. So 
Ef. ate, q.v., denotes the 
soul, a spirit, one's shadow, 
and one's likeness in water, 
or in a looking-glass. 

Ao (or au), v., d., to bark (as 



[Artt na 

a dog). See bakau. [Sa. ou, 


Ao, ad., yes. [Ma. au.'} See 

Ara, form of pers. pron. 3 pi., 
preserved in areara: other 
forms nara, nigara (gara). 
enera, kiniara. See Ch. V. 

Ara, s., a fence: c. art. nara, 
d. nar : see koro, c. art. na- 
koro, id. (ara has the initial 
k elided), Nar fat, d. for 
nakoro fatu, a stone fence. 

Ara i, v. t., seek, ara ika, 
search, look for fish, come 
seeking, ba ara, go or come 
seeking, ti ara, press after 
seeking. [Fi. qa}'a, v. t., 
seek, qaqara, qaraqara, vaJca- 
saqara."} S. har, to see, look 

Araara, or arara, v., redupli- 
cate of ara, to join to, join 
together, connect with, arara 
naui, attach the yam vines 
to stakes, arara nia, connect 
it, arara ni or a naui ki 
nakau, connect or attach the 
yam vine to the stake : arara 
ki nalo na, agree to his voice 
(judgement, opinion, &c.), lit. 
join on to it. syn. sokari 
A. "ara, 3, to join 
one thing to an- 


Aran, or 
uen, s.. 

oran, d. arain, d. 

(redup.). d. on, d. 

c. art. naran, &c., 
sand. In on, and uen (wen), 
the radical r is changed to n. 
[Sa., Ma., Tah., To., Ha., 
one, and oneone, sand ; oneo- 
nea {a, a. ending), sandy.] 

A. horr'j or horron, sand, 
from harra, to be hot. 

Aral, d., dem. pron., this, that. 
For the final ai, see uai. 
[Ha. la, Ma. ra, there, Fut. 
ra, that, Mg. irua, that, there, 
eri, ari, there.] S. hal, H. 
halah, there, connected with 
the dem. H. hal, A. al, the 
art. ; Ch. alu, aru, Ch. and 
Talmud hare, are, dem., lo! 
there ! Of this dem. syllable 
al, hal, ar, har, Gesenius 
remarks — 'It is hard to say 
which form is the more 
ancient and primitive ; ' it is 
seen also in Arm. harka, 
halkah, here, H. elleh, &c., 
these, those, and in Ef. arog, 
(d.), eri, erik, eru, q.v. See 
Ch. V. 

Areara, d., foraneara, anera, 
q.v. ; the prep, ani, or ane, 
is are, in this word, orig. ale, 
art. a, and prep. 

Arekabu na, s., c. art. nare- 
kabu, the liver. See ate. 

Arifon, s., c. art. narifon, 
diviner, magician. A. *arra- 
fon, a diviner, from 'arafa, 
to know, divine. 2, make 
known, *arefan, one who 

Ari, V. t., to plane, scrape 
off, rub off. [Sa. oro, id.] 
S. gra% to scrape off, shave, 
H. gara'. 

Arog, d., dem. pron., this. 
See arai and erik. The final 
g, as in nag, naga, dem. 

Aru na, s., c. art. nam na, 
hand, arm ; fore -foot of a 
quadruped: nfi-ru, arms, i.e., 

Abu NAi 



weapons of war, war ; i bi 
aru uia, he is industrious, 
lit. a good hand, i bi aru sa, 
he is handless, lazy, lit. a bad 
hand. [New Guinea, dd. 
uacht, (lei, Ml. P. /era, Ml. A. 
vema.'} H. yad, hand, S. id., 
A. yadu (and yaddu), dual, 
yadan ; also, *adu, dual 
'adan, hand, arm ; fore-foot 
of a quadruped. 

Asa, or isa, prep, a, or i, and 
sa, suffix pronouns 3rd per- 
son, d. syn. kina, prep, ki, 
and s. p. na, Fi. kina, with, 
by, on. at, from, because of, 
him or it. For this prep., 
see Ch. V, Prepositions, 3. 

Asa, ad., the day after to- 
morrow. See uasa. 

Asdli na, s., a friend. [MI. U. 
sele n, Bu. solao, id.] A. 
wasiP, intimate friend, from 
wasala, to join, be joined. 

As ia, d. uas ia, v. t., cut, cut 
out, as asi naniu, cut out the 
kernel of a cocoanut (to make 
a water vessel of it), asi (lua 
namena na), cut (out his 
tongue), asi intale, cut the 
roots of taro (while it is in 
the water, to pull it out of 
the ground) : hence maseasi, 
q.v. A. h'adda, fidit, sulca- 
vit, and 

Asi na, s., c. art. nasi na, the 
part of the face bearded, jaw. 
jawbone, chin. [Malo a$e, 
TaSa. ese, chin, Ml. P. fese, 
chin, ese, cheek.] The radi- 
cal idea is that of cutting, 
sharp, tearing, A. h'add', 
mala, gena ; and 

Asi ta bunu, jaw cutting 
dead ; and 

Asi tageli, crooked jaw : these 
expressions denote, the latter 
crooked talk, the former talk 
calculated for and resulting 
in the death of one hated. 
See ta, bunu, tageli. 

Aso, V. i., to burn, be burning 
(ajire), be kindled, to be burnt 
or scorched (as one's skin, or 
food in being cooked). [Fi. 
qesa, qesaqesa, a., burnt or 
scorched, as in cooking. Sa. 
'aasa^ To. kakaha, An. egesgas, 
a., burned, agas, or gas, to 
burn ; hot, burning.] A. 
wakada, n. a. wakdo. H, 
yakad, S. ikad, to burn, be 
burning, be kindled. 

Aso, s., a kind of crab, the 
robber crab. 

Aso, or asu, s., c. art. naso, 
or nasu, a bow (for shooting 
arrows). [Aurora itsii, Paama 
Jiisic, Ml. P. vus. Ml. U. vis, 
Amblaw husic. My. husor, 
Saparua/??<5w, id.] A. kawsu, 
or kasu, id. So called from 
being curved. 

Asoara, s., the rainbow. Cloth 
brilliantly variegated with 
different coloured bands or 
stripes is called na kalu aso- 
ara, a phrase in which the 
word is an adjective. Also 
a stone fence constructed of 
three rows or bands of stone 
is described as asoara. See 
Index, A. zabara. 

Asolat, see soli. 

Asua, V. i., to smoke, c. t. 
prep., asud nia, to smoke on 




to it, or him: c. art. it is s., 
naasua na, the smoke of 
it, its smoke. [Mg. etuna, 
s., smoke, mcmekma, v., to 
smoke, My. asap (probably 
this word lit. means smoke 
of fire, api) Mrdsap, to smoke, 
Malo asUy s., mo asuasu, v., 

TaSa. asu, s. 

m'asu, v., Ml. P. 

ese, s., mi es^ v., Ml. A. na- 
Jiamp hasua, s., lit. the fire 
smokes, hama, v., Sa. asu, s., 
asua, and asuina, v. ps.] H. 
'as'en, to smoke, 'as'an, 
smoke, A. 'at'ana, 1, 2, 4, to 

At, or as, c. art. nat, q.v., 

Ata (or nata), s., c. art. nata, 
d. na eta for na ata, a man. 
a person ; one, some one ; 
nata nata, every one. See 
atamole, atemate, ata na, 
atamanl. fMotlav et, Ure- 
parapara at, man. See below, 
Note 2.] A. nat», for nas% 
which is the commonly used 
plural (' pluralis fractus ', a 
collective or abstract, or sin- 
gular with a collective mean- 
ing), of 'insan', man, male or 
female, a human being, also 
umbra hominis (the older 
plural is 'Unas', with which 
corresponds H. 'enos', Arm. 
'anas'a, a man, men), and 
denotes men, also genii, de- 
Note 1. — A. 'insan, for 
which there is also 'isan, 
corresponds to H. 'is'on, 
which is formed from 'is' by 
the ending on, and denotes, 

when followed by the word 
eye, ^ little man of the eye, 
i.e. pupil in which as in a 
glass a little image of a man 
is seen ' (Ges.) ; the A. denotes 
in addition to the meanings 
given above * the little image 
appearing in the pupil of the 
eye ' : A. 'insan is from the 
root 'ans and H. 'is', vir, 
'is'ah, woman, from 'ins', 
'ins'ah, hence the pi. of 'is'ah 
is nas'im, corresponding to 
A. nisa', niswat, and nis- 
wan, women. The words 
'is', vir, is'ah, woman (and 
their equivalents in the cog- 
nate languages), must be 
carefully distinguished from 
that given above under ata 
(or nata) denoting ' a human 
being' whether male or 
female, though they all 
belong to the same root or 

Note 2. — According to the 
above, the t in ata, like that 
in A. nat', represents an 
original s as in nas'. In Ef. 
dd. this t is sometimes pro- 
nounced nearly as r, and s. 
In other New Hebrides dia- 
lects this consonant is found 
as t, s, r, 1 ; thus correspond- 
ing to Efate ata-mani, male 
(vir), are An. ata-maig, Fut. 
ta-ne (for ta-ane), Ta. yeru- 
man, Ej)i dd. ata-mani, su- 
mano. Ml. U. oro-man, 
TaSa. la-mani. My. orag, 
Mg. nluna belong here, and 
=ata. Note 3. See Ch. II, 




Ata na, s., c. art. nata na (or 
nate na), his spirit, his soul ; 
his shadow ; his image (in 
water or a glass). This is 
the same word as the pre- 
ceding, but in this use has 
the nom. suf. [Sa. ata, a 
spirit, a shadow, Fut. ata, 
a ghost, shadow, image (as in 
water), picture or likeness, 
Fila tano ata, his soul, Ha. 
aM, the shadow of a person, 
figure, outline, or likeness.] 
See preceding word. 

Ata i, or atai, v. t., to know, 
d. tai, q.v. 

Atakasua, a., jealous ; sus- 
picious : from ata (soul), and 
kasua, q.v. 

AtS^lagi, s., usually written 
atelagi, d. atlag, the moon. 
See Ch. II. 14 /. 

Atamauri, or atemauri, s.. 
the spirit of a living man 
that has gone out of him 
during sleep and been seen 
by someone. This word oc- 
curs in one dialect and is 
composed of ata, the soul, 
and mauri, q.v., to live. 

Atamate, or atemate, s., c. 
art. natemate, spirit of one 
dead, ghost, spirits of the 
dead, demons, good or bad 
spirits, supernatural beings, 
objects of worship, gods (gen. 
name). The word is com- 
posed of ata (above), and 
mate, q.v., to die, be dead, 
a. dead. [Ml. P. demej, Epi 
dd. atamate, shnaro, Ta. i/e^-a- 
mis, Ml. A, temes, An. natmas, 
id.] The primary meaning 

of natemate seems to be ' dead 
man ' : thus a corpse may be 
called natemate, and nate- 
mate sometimes denotes ' the 
dead ' in a collective sense. 
Atamole, s., c. art. natamole, 
man, male or female, a human 
being, same as ata, or nata, 
w^th the addition of mole, 
q.v., to live, a. living. Nata- 
mole lit. denotes living man'. 
QMg. uhmiheluna, id. The 
Mg. is composed of the same 
two words as the Ef. ; for 
nhina, see ata (above), and 
for velmia, to live, see mole 
(below) ; and the meaning of 
the compound word is the 
same in each case. Fi. tamata, 
Sa. tamata, Tah. faata, id., 
belong here, and My. oragi- 

Ataihani, s., c. art. natamani, 
male, lit. a male human 
being, from ata (above), and 
mani, q.v., male. [For New 
Hebrides forms of this com- 
pound word, see ata (above). 
Note 2. Fi. tagane, Sa. tane, 


Atatabu, or at'tab, s., c. art. 
natatabu, or nat'tab, lit. 
sacred spirits, sacred stones 
identified with such spirits, 
and objects of pagan worship: 
from ata (above), and tabu, 

Atama, s., d. syn. c. ore, the 
pointed rubbing stick for pro- 
ducing fire by its friction 
with another stick : a, art., 
and tama i, q.v. 

Atara. See natara. 




Atata, V. i., or a., a redupli- 
cate, to have white spots or 
marks such as show where 
sores have healed. See next 

Atata, s., an albino. The 
radical meaning would there- 
fore seem to be white. [Mg. 
Jiasata, white, pale, wan, 
sickly, Sa., Ma., ata, dawn, 
Ma. ata-marama, moonlight.] 
A. was'ah*, white spot ap- 
pearing on the head or feet 
of a horse, was'ah, whiten- 
ing spots of leprosy, was'ih*, 
very white ; from was'aha, 
to be manifest, white (as 
milk), &c., shine as the dawn, 
moon, &c. 

At§, c. art. nate na (d. nante 
na), the liver (of a shark), the 
spleen ; in arekabu (for ate- 
kabu) it signifies the liver or 
principal viscus of the kabu 
(or kobu, q.v.), inside, and 
in uateam, q.v., the proper 
meaning seems to be the 
middle, the middle and more 
important part. [My. ati, 
the liver, then the mind, 
heart or inside, Mg. ati, the 
liver, the inside, Sa. ate, 
Ternati hut, the liver.] A. 
kabd% kabid% H. kabed, 
E. kabde, the liver, Amh. 
hode, the belty. A. kabid% 
also denotes the belly with 
its parts, the middle and 
more important part (of a 
thing), the middle (of a thing). 
E. kabde, viscus (nom. gen.), 
stomach, belly, inside, and 
particularly the liver, as the 

heaviest of the viscera. (See 
Ludolfs E. Lex.) H. kabad, 
E. kabda, to be heavy (pri- 
mary meaning), &c. The 
verb is in Ef dd. kauota 
(kawota), kot, and et. 

Note 1. — Arekabu, q.v., c. 
art. narekabu, dd. talekabu, 
nanekabu, tanekabu, and 
nanekama, the liver, is com- 
posed of are (for ate), the 
liver or principal viscus, and 
kabu (for which see kobu, 
the belly, the inside), and 
lit. denotes the viscus (or 
liver) of the inside ; with are 
(for ate) corresponds Ml. U. 
ere, and New Guinea, Maclay 
Ktiste arre, the liver. 

Note 2. — With Ludolfs 
statement (above), compare 
that in the Ha. Diet., where 
ake (for ate) is defined as 
'the liver', and also * a general 
name for several internal 
organs, qualified by different 
terms ' : thus akeloa, spleen 
(loa, long), and also akeniau ; 
akepaa, the liver, as well as 
the simple ake: akemama, 
the lungs (see above, s.v. 
amo). In Sa. atepili, the 
spleen, atevae, the calf of 
the leg, Tail, aterima, the 
thick part of the arm. In 
Ef. uateam' (d. uateau), the 
kidneys (see above, s.v. amo), 
ua-nate-natuo, or ua-nate- 
tuo, the calf of the leg, in 
one dialect is denoted by 
uateau natore, lit. kidneys 
of the shin (i.e. the leg from 
the knee to the foot, see 




tore), and uateau laso de- 
notes kidneys of the scrotum. 
Ua-nate has exactly the 
same meaning as uate (i.e. 
ua-ate), the only difference 
being that in the former ate 
c. art. is nate ; ua, fruit, is 
used because the parts spoken 
of are round or fruit-shaped. 
In Ef. dd. the calf of the leg 
is uateau natore, ua-nate 
tuo (or natuo), and nabela 
natore, of which the last lit. 
denotes the belly of the leg 
(below the knee). 

Atelakl na, or d. telaki ana, 
s., the owner of it, owner : 
from a, art., or a, prosthetic, 
and telaki, q.v. 

Atena na (d. atia na), s., 
maternal grandmother ; voc. 
tata. A. gadat, id. 

(Ati na), s., nati na, child, d. 
nani na, q.v. [Ma., Tah., 
ati, offspring.] See s.v. ani 

Atia na, s., paternal grand- 
father or grandmother ; voc. 
tia. See atena na, tata, 
tematete ta, tia, tematia ta, 
and s.v. atena. 

Ati(a), d. uati(a), v. t., d. for 
ari a, q.v. 

Atoara, see natoara. 

(Atu na), s., natu na, d. nati 
na, his, her child, offspring. 
See ani na. 

Atii, c. suf. atu-gi (d. uatu), 
beat, smite, break off or 
divide off (as a piece of a 
plantation) ; atu (namauri), 
utter (an incantation), at* 

usi, utter rehearsing (see us 
i), atti saki, plop up (of a 
turtle, also of the sound of 
the breath in the throat of 
a man recovering from a faint 
or dying) ; and atu taku, 
turn the back (to anyone on 
being addressed, as if not 
aware of it), atu taluko, turn 
oneself (from someone) ; atu 
tuai, break in pieces (a planta- 
tion) giving him (a portion) ; 
fiatu, V. r., to be fighting, 
to be smiting each other : 
nalagi atu, the wind beat- 
ing, a hurricane ; atu nabau, 
kill (by smiting the head) ; 
atu ualubota, rout the 
enemy (smite, break the 
enemy). With the ending 
and prep, ki, the w^ord, atu- 
maki, means jerk, snap, as 
atu-maki, jerk (as the branch 
of a tree), balusa atu-maki, 
to paddle jerking (with a 
jerking motion of the paddle), 
atu-maki nalo ra, jerk their 
voices, or snap their voices. 
A. hata, beat, smite, hatia, 
be bent, stoop (a man), Nm. 
heti, declaim : cf. hatta, to 
break, to beat off (as leaves 
from trees), to utter (words). 
Atuta (see ta atuta ki), s., 
set time, or place, as i ta 
atuta ki nia, he declares a 
set time to (one), i.e. to meet 
him on a certain day, or at a 
certain time (to do some- 
thing), ru tu natuta, they 
kept the set time, i risugi 
natuta, he changed the set 
time. See ta atuta. 

I 2 




Atu-maki, v. See atii. 

Atu saki, at* saki, v. See 
atu and saki. 

Atu taku, at» taku, v. See 
atu and taku. 

Atu taluko, at* taluko, v. 
See atu and taluko. 

Atu, see banotu. 

Atua, s., God. Introduced 
word. In Meli. c. art. the 
word tetua (East Mai retua, 
To. hotua, he otua, Sa. le 
atua), denotes among the 
heathen the same as nata- 
mate, that is, any spiritual 
being regarded as having 
supernatural qualities or 
powers, as a demon, good or 
bad, a ghost, a god : it is a 
general name. A human 
being on dying immediately 
becomes a tetua or nata- 
mate — that is, not only a 
spirit, but among the heathen, 
an object of superstitious 
regard. In Sa. aitu, a spirit, 
a god, seems to belong to the 
same stem, whence, with a. 
ending a, aitua, haunted. 
The word in Ha. (akua). To. 
(otua), Ma. and Sa. (atua), 
now denotes God in the 
Christian sense, and it has 
been introduced with this 
meaning into Aneityum, 
Tanna, Efate, Epi, &c. Der. 
uncertain ; but cf. the A. 
word under Ef. tuai, matua, 
old. [Mg. matua, old, matua- 
tua, ghost, spirit, atuay a song- 
sung in honour of the sove- 
reign, the idols.] If this is 
the origin of the word it 

accords with the ancestor 
worship of the islanders. 

Atum-kol, s., echo, lit. off- 
spring of the call or shout, 

Atuma, in pr, nn. atuma- 
neru, offspring of war, &c. 
See kola, and for atuma, off- 
spring, see futum. 

Atuta. See p. 115. 

Au, verb. pron. 1 pi. excl., we 
they, d. pu, d. mu, d. u : 
separate pron. kinami, we 
they ; au is a-u, a for na 
in na-mi, kinami, and u, d. 
u, d. pu, or mu = mi in na- 

Au, ad., yes, d. ao. A, dem. 
prefix, and u, or o, for which 
see o. H. hahu*, that (is it). 

Au, V. i., to heal, get well, d. 
for abu, id., q.v. 

A.U, s., a kind of lizard, d. for 
kau, id. 

Au, V. i., to bark. See ao. 

Alia (awa), s., veins, muscles, 
or naiia : i bi aua, or naua 
(a-, or na-, art.), he is strenu- 
ous (veins, or muscles stand- 
ing out). [Fi. and Sa. ua, 
Bu. ^lr^h, My. urat, Java, 
ivad (through uhat, uat), Mg. 
uzata, Immta.'] A. * irk,* 
&c., veins, &c., v. 'araka. 

Aua (awa), ad., no, it is not : 
d. eiio, q.v. 

Auaua, s. (awawa, a redupli- 
cate), d. syn. bau, q.v., mater- 
nal uncle. QMy. uiva, wa, 
imah an uncle or aunt.] A. 
*amm», an uncle. 

Aue, interj., surprise, com- 
miseration. [Sa. aue, alas ! 




oh I of wonder.] A. awwi 
(&c.), alas ! ah ! oh ! 
Aui, interj., surprise, com- 
miseration ; a, clem. , and ui, 

Auis, interj., surprise, com- 
miseration ; a, dem., and uis, 

Aul i, V. t., dd. ul i, ol i, nil i. 
See ul i. 

Aum, s., c. art. naum, d. for 
aime, q.v. 

Aure, s., a singer, bard, a, 
art., and ure, or ore (see 
ore). [Fut. goro, Ma. lolia- 
kaor'iorl Ha. olo, My. iimiira, 
Mg. him, to sing. &c.] E. 
haiaya, to sing. 

Aiita, s., or ad., auta, ashore, 
on land, d. euta, q.v., a, prep., 
and uta, q.v. 

Ba=, or fa-, cans, prefix, origin- 
ally ma. CMg. ma-, fa-, 
mpa:2 S. ma- (Maphel conj.), 
Mod. S. ma-, cans, prefix (St., 
pp. 110, 111): the Mafel or 
Maphel is simj^ly the verbal 
noun of the ancient Aphel 
(H. Hiphil, A. 4). See Ch. 

Ba (bwa), and ua (wa), v. i., 
to rain = d. boua (bowa). 
[Epi mhoha, mhoho, Ta. nfu, 
id.] A. ba'a, to rain con- 
tinuously, ba'a'a, rain, rain 

Ba, or fa (va), v., to come, 
enter (a ship, &c.), tread (go 
upon), with suffix, ba-si, to 
tread, tread upon (go upon or 
in). (Fi. va-t'a, to tread 
ui^on.) This word in Ef. is 

found as bai, be, to come, to 
l^ossess, to be like, to abide, 
to be (before nouns), also in 
latter sense, d., bi, and d. 
mi ; d. mai, to come, d be, 
to come. [The form mai is 
common in Polynesian and 
Fi., and is the well-known 
* directive ', see Ch. Ill, ' Tri- 
literals doubly weak.' Mg. 
avi, to come ; Tah. vai, to 
abide, to be; Ma. wliai, to 
possess.] H. bo, ba, E. 
bawi, come, enter, be like, 
A. baa, faa, be like, abide, 
possess, and bawa, bawaa, 
be like, abide. 

Ba, v., to come from (from a 
place), as, Ku ba se? you 
come from where ? i ba nalia 
nan, he comes from that 
place, dd. bai, be, baki 
(where the prej). ki = from), 
[Mg. avi alza ? — ba se? — 
come from where? come 
whence? avi, to come.] See 
preceding word. 

Bai, v., d., ba, q.v., to come 
from, as, bai se ? come from 
where ? See under banotu. 

Bai, v., to be, d. bi, q.v. 

Bai a, v. t., to gather together 
in order to carry home, as 
firewood, or fruit, &c., to put 
in. insert, ba, to enter, and 
prep, i, make enter a basket, 
bai a nala. 

Ba ki, v.. c. prep., to go to (a 
place) : ba, to go, and the 
prep, ki, to : ba is contracted 
for ban, bano, to go, q.v. 

Ba, d. mba, final conj., that: 
used in the conjugation of 




the future and imperative 
and infinitive of verbs ; 

Ba, that thou, sign of 2 pers. 
sing, imperative ; includes 
verbal pron. 2 pers. sing., a. 
[Motu ha, used in the same 
way in fut., inf., and imp., 
Fi. me, in imp. and inf., Ma. 
me, forming a kind of im- 
perative future, Mg. tiiba, 
that, Ml. P. ha, h% that, used 
in conjugation of imp., inf., 
and future.] A. fa, that 
(final conj.), &c. 

Ba, v., d. for ma. See ani, v. 

Bab, s., d. voc, father = ab, 
babu, abab, id. 

Baba na, s., hollows, or 
channels ; and 

Baba, s., c. art. nababa, a 
hollow, channel, or bed of 
a stream, dry except after 
heavy rains : it is an opening 
through the jungle ; 

Baba, s., c. art. nababa, a 
board: [Sa., Tah. i^ajpa, My. 
papan, id. ;] A. baba-t', 
facies, board, table, slab, bib', 
channel, bab', door, gate, 
hall, baba, to dig a hole, &c., 
H. babah, a gate. 

Babu na (d. bamu na). s., c. 
art. nababu na, the cheek. 
[My. pipl Mg. fifi, id.] A. 
fakmu, and fa^'mu, id. 

Babatega, v. i., or a., varie- 
gated, versicoloured, as cloth : 
the formative prefix, ba, 
doubled ; said to be denomi- 
native from t6ga (toga), 
q.v., a versicoloured woven 

Babu, s., d., voc, father: dd. 
afa, ab, abab, bab». 

Bafa, s., a small separate 
house used only by women 
dwelling apart from men 
during menstruation, and 
also at the time of parturi- 
tion. From afa, to bear, 
carry, c. pref. ba (for ma). 
See baofa (d.), which is from 
ofa, d. for afa, bear, carry : 
baofa, though etymologically 
the same as bafa, has a dif- 
ferent meaning, no such 
custom as is implied by the 
bafa obtaining among the 
speakers who say * baofa.' 
It denotes the act of men- 
struating, not the house for 
those menstruating. 

Note. — In Ha. the house 
for menstruating women was 
called hale pea. 

Bafanau, same as fanau, q.v. 

Bafano, or fafano, v., to wash 
the hands. See bano-li. 
[Sa. fafano, wash the hands 
and mouth, Fi. viduviilu, 
wash the hands. See hulu-ni, 
hano-li, halo-ni, &c., infra.] 

Bafatu, or fafatu, v. t., to 
trust in, confide in. rely upon. 
See fatu. 

Baga, V. c. See bagan i, to 
feed, charge, fill ; 

Bagan i, v. c, to feed, lit. 
make to eat, bagan ia sa, lit. 
make him eat it ; caus. prefix 
ba, and kan, to eat. With 
the n elided baga, as baga 
nata, feed anyone, baga sisi, 
load a gun ; baga, absolute, 
as i baga (of a pig or a fish). 





to wander about in search of 
food ; faga (of fire), nakabu 
faga, a burning or devouring 
fire, i faga, it burns, devours, 
or eats (of fire, and of an 
ulcer) ; nafaga, a bribe, na- 
fagafaga, a bait. [Fi. vaha- 
ni-a, Sa. fafaga^ feed, cause 
to eat, Mg. mamahana, to feed, 
also load (a gun), caus. pref. 
ma, BXidi fahana.'\ See kan-i. 

Bagau-nabau, pr. n., c. art. 
nabagau-nabau : the feeder 
of the oven with the slain ; 
baga, ua, nabau. 

Baga, s. See bago, a hill, d. 
mago, d. bega. 

Baga, s., d. for maga, the 
banyan tree. 

Bagabaga, v. i. See bago- 

Bagarai, v. c, to dry, lit. 
make dry : from gara, kara, 
dry. [My. magarig kan, id.] 
See gara, kara, 

Bagaranu a i, den. v. c. ; from 
ran, c. art. niran, fresh water ; 
to wash with fresh water 
after bathing in the sea : d. 
bakanaru-mi, id. (naru, 
transposed for ranu). [Sa. 
faaJanu, to wash off salt 
water, ps. faalanumia ; with 
'i, faalanuma-'i.'} See ran, s. 

Bagi, v., to mount, climb, 
ascend (a hill, ladder, tree, 
ship, &c,) ; may also have 
the prep, ki before the object, 
as bag! nakasu, or bagi ki 
nakasu, climb the tree, bagi, 
to go up, ascend, bagi ki, go 
up on. QMg. aJcata, ntiaikata, 
id.. My. mig"a](. id., Ma. j;//ii, 

to oXiviih, pikit hi. "^ A. «aka', 
(4), to ascend. 

Bagobago, v. i., or a., to be 
crooked. [Sa. pio, piopi'o, 
id.,Ma.^/^*o, bent, Mg.vukuka, 
crooked. My. heg^ok, Ja. he- 
gog, crooked.] H. hafak, 
S. hpak, A. 'apaka, to turn, 
&c., H. hapakpak, crooked, 
twisted. Hence 

Bagobagoa, a., crooked, 
twisted : -a, a. ending ; and 

Bagobagora, a., id. : a. ending 

Bago, v., to be behind, i bago 
asa, he is behind it, as i bago 
nakoro, he is behind the 
fence (of a man behind a 
fence put up about his house 
to shut out the public view), 
i bago nafanua, it is behind 
the land (of a ship taking 
shelter under the lee side of 
an island in a hurricane). 
The word bago na, s., denotes 
the heel ; the lower part of 
the back (syn. bisi na) ; bago 
nafanua, west end of an 
island, is the opp. of meta 
nafanua, east end of an 
island (fore-end and heel- 
end) ; bago na kelu, or baga 
na kelu, is the after part of 
an army that (kelu) goes in 
a circuitous course to surprise 
the enemy — and in all these 
senses the word in one dia- 
lect is pronounced mago na. 
The hills behind the villages, 
or not far back from the 
shore, on which there is no 
jungle, are called bega, baga, 
d. mago. This word is much 




used in names of places, 
points or heels of the land : 
thus Bagona is the name of 
west end of Deception Island, 
Havannah Harbour, and Ba- 
go, of the long point of land on 
the south of Fila harbour ; 
Selimbaga, a place on Ton- 
goa, &c. The end of any- 
thing, as the land, a stick, 
&c., is called meta-bago na, 
lit. the eye or point of its 
end. [TaSa. pi^o na, end or 
extremity.] H. 'akab, A. 
*akaba, to be behind, to come 
from behind : cf. A. ma*kob : 
H. <akeb, the heel, A. 'akib', 
id., and the end of a thing : 
H. *akeb, also denotes the 
extreme rear of an army, and 
*akob, a hill, acclivity (A., 

B.; id.). 

Bago na, s., d. mago na, heel 
of foot ; back part of body ; 
hinder end (of an island) in 
opp. to meta na, fore end 
(i. e. east) ; hinder part of an 
army ; an end (of anything) ; 
end of a house (the Efatese 
house has two ends), hence, 
inside of a house at the far 
ends, and then generally in 
one d. inside (of a house) ; 
end, i. e. bottom, of a hole or 
deep pit. See preceding word 
and mago. 

Bagote-fl, V. c, to buy it, pur- 
chase it, lit. to break, sepa- 
rate (from its former owner) 
a thing, d. bakotufi. See 

Bagokot, or bagot, v. redupli- 
cate of foregoing. 

Ba gote-fl, v., to break a thing 
(as a stick) by treading (see 
ba) on it. See koto. 

Bal, v., d. ba, to come from 
(a place) : ba v., and prep, i., 
d. ba ki, id., has prep. ki. 

Bai, or bei, v. dd. bi, mi, to 
be, as, i bai fatu, it is a 
stone. See bi ; and ba. 

Baibai, or baibaia, v. i., or a., 
to be large, wide ; said to be 
d. for bebea, q.v. 

Bai na, s., d. for bau na, the 
head. See bau na. 

Bai, s.. d., c. ai*t. nabai na, 
feathers or covering of a bird : 
d. man na. [Ml. dd. hai, 
moe, id.] Same word as pre- 
ceding : see ban. 

Bai! baibai! inter j., surprise 
and pleasure. [Mg. haba, id.] 
A. bah'i bah'i, id. 

Baina, v., to go there (away 
from speaker) : d. for binen* : 
d. syn. banotu, q.v. Baina, 
is ba ina. 

Baka, d. sometimes for baki, 
v., ba, to go, and prep, ki 
(rarely ka), to, as 1 baki nalia 
uane, he goes to that place. 

Baka, or faka, caus. prefix. 
[Fi. vaka, Sa. faa, Ma. ivliaka, 
Mg. aha, maha, faha, mpaha.Ji 
vide Ch. IV. 

Baka roa, v. i., to jerk over 
to the other side (a canoe 
sail): boka-ti, to strike, and 
roa, to turn round. 

Baka, s. a fence, a fence of 
stone or wood made for pro- 
tection or fortification in 
war. [Ha. pa, a fence. Ma. 
2M, a stockade, fortified place, 




pa, to block up, obstruct.] 
H. ma'S-keh, a parapet (sur- 
rounding a flat roof) to hinder 
one from falling oif, from 
'akah, A. 'aka', to hold back 
(and *aka), hinder, impede. 

Baka-si, d. transposed for 
kaba-si, koba-si, to follow. 

Bakabase, v. c, d. syn. c. 
suer i, to scold, vituperate : 
from base, id. 

BakabatS, or bakafat^, v. c, 
make the fourth time : from 
bate, 4. [Mg. faJiefata, the 

Bakabulu-ti, v. c, nearly the 
same as the simple verb 
bulu-ti, q.v. 

Bakabunuti, bakamanu, &c. 
See bakaralima. 

Bakafakal i, v., to console, 
comfort : reduplicate from 
bakal i, id., q.v. 

Bakafla, d. bakafisa, v., make 
how many times ? malce how 
often ? See bisa. 

Bakafiti, v., fold the arms 
across, hands on sides (fiti 
na) : baka for kafa, kafi-ti, 
see fakarogo ; lit., cover the 

I. Bakal i, v. c, to soothe, 
comfort, take tender care of 
(as of a child, or one in 
sorrow) : see kal. A. 'agila, 
to soothe, comfort ; E. 'ogal, 
a child, Ef. kal, fakal, and 
d.kekel, id., usually vocative, 
and much used in proper 
names of children, as kal 
nagusu, child of the point 
(promontory), kal, or fakal 
tamate, child of peace, «&c. 

II. Bakal i, v. c, to sharpen 
(as a knife, axe, &c.) H. 
kalal, Pilpel, to sharpen ; to 
move to and fro, A., E., id. 
See makal, sharpened, sharp, 
kala, little, &c. H. kalal, 
to be light, to be swift, fleet, 
to be diminished, little, so 
A. kalla, to be despised, H. 
kalon, shame, pudenda, Ef. 
makal. See Ch. III. 

Bakalailai, v. c, nearly same 
as simple verb lailai, q.v., to 
be delighted. 

Bakalarua, v. c, make the 
seventh time, or seven times. 
See larua, kalarua. [Mg. 
faJiafihi, the seventh.] 

Bakalatesa, v. c, make the 
sixth time, or six times. See 
latesa,kalatesa. [EpifaaH.] 

Bakalatolu, v. c, make the 
eighth time. [Epi vaarolu,^ 
See latolu, 

Bakaliflti, v. c, make the 
ninth time. [Epi valcoveri.'] 
See lifiti. 

Bakaleba, v. c. , make (himself) 
great, be proud : leba, laba. 

Bakalima, v. c, make the 
fifth time, or five times. 
QMg. fahadimi, the fifth.] 
See lima. 

Bakamataku ki, v. c, to make 
afraid, to threaten, frighten: 
from mataku, to be afraid. 
[Mg. mahatahuta, My. mana- 
kuti, manahtt Jean, Sa. /aaw?«- 

Bakamaturu ki, v. c, make 
to sleep, put to sleep: from 
maturu, to be asleep, to 
sleep. [My. manidor han."^ 




Bakamauri, v. c, to make 
alive, save: from mauri, to 
be alive, live. [Sa. faaola, 
My. magid'upi, Mg. mameluna.'^ 

Bakameta sa, v. c, to direct 
the eyes to, look at : a baka- 
meta gu is, i bakameta na 
sa, &c., seems to mean lit. 
I direct my eyes, make my 
eyes upon it, &c. : meta, or 
mita, q.v., v., and s. Baka- 
mita, id. 

Bakamirara. See mirara. 

Bakanaru-mi, v. c, naru, 
transposed for ranu : d. for 
bagaranu a i. 

Bakarairai, v. c. Nearly the 
same as the simple v. rairai, 

Bakarau sa, v. c, divide it 
(among a number of persons), 
distribute it : from rau, q.v. 

Bakarogo, v. c, make (him- 
self) hear or obey, be humble, 
quiet, meek ; from rogo, q.v. 

Bakaru. See bukaru. 

Bakarua, v. c, make the 
second time, or two times. 
See rua, karua. [Mg. fahania, 
the second.] 

Bakaralima, or bakarualima, 
V. c, make the tenth time, or 
ten times. [Epi vaclufdimo.'] 
See rualima, or ralima, 

Note. — The caus. prefix 
baka may be attached to 
the word or words denoting 
any number, as bakabunuti 
(bunuti, 100), bakamanu 
(manu, 1000), make the 
hundredth, thousandth time, 
or one hundred, one thousand 

times, bakaralima lima 
(ralima lima, 50), bakamanu 
ralima (manu ralima, 1 0, 000), 
make the fiftieth, ten thou- 
sandth time, or fifty or ten 
thousand times, &c. 

Bakas, or bokas, s., c. art. 
nabakas, flesh ; then, a pig 
(not a sow or a boar) specially 
reared and esteemed for its 
flesh. [Epi huJiahi, a pig (not 
boar or sow), Fut. ■pdkasi, a 
pig (gen. name), Ero. miookas, 
a pig (gen. name), An. pigaf, 
a pig (gen. name).] A. man- 
hus', having much flesh, 
fleshy, from uahas'a, to de- 
nude a bone of flesh, to take 
the flesh from off a bone. 

Bakasa, v. c, bakasa ki, or 
bakasa i, to paint (as the 
face), hence nafakasa, s., a 
festival (adornment) ; to clean, 
make clean (as a place), to 
clear, make clear. [Fi. ai 
qisa, paint for the face.] A. 
nakas'a, to paint, to colour; 
to clear, make clear (as a 
place): bakasa, dd. (trspd.) 
bisaki, biski. 

Bakasau, v. c, dd. bisakau i, 
bisaui, bisaku-ti, to make 
or build up a fire, lit., make 
to join on to, i. e., one stick 
to another, to make a bigger 
fire. (By joining together the 
smouldering ends of two fire 
sticks and then joining on to 
them the ends of other sticks 
a fire is built up.) The initial 
bi, or ba, in this word is 
the causative prefix : the sim- 
ple verb is siku-ti, q.v. 


Bakaser i, v. c, to loosen or 
remove a tabu (as from a 
place), make common or non- 
tabu. See ser i. 

Bakaser e, v. c, to treat 
kindly carefully providing 
for, to entertain hospitably. 
See sere, ps. masere. 

Bakasikai (d. fakasikitika), 
V. c, make the first time, or 
one time. [Mg. faharaika, 
the first.] See sikai, kasikai. 

Bakasiki-ti, v. c, to tie or 
bind fast the edge of a mat 
where the plaiting ceases : 
see siki-ti. 

Bakasoro-fi, v. c. make to 
burn: from soro, v. i,, to burn, 

Bakatabtabu ki, v. c, make 
tabu, or declare tabu. See 
tabu. [To. fakatdbu, to in- 

Bakatar i, v. c. Nearly the 
same as the simple verb tar 
i, q.v. 

Bakatau, v. c. Nearly the 
same as the simple v. tau, 

Bakateba, v. c, cans. form, 
to watch, to look out or 
watch for, as bakateba nabai 
saki ni aliati, watch or look 
out for the rising flush of 
dawn. [Sa. tepa, fetepa, to 
look towards.] H. sapah, 
to look out, view, watch, 
look out for. 

Bakatilas i, v. c, to suffice : 
from tilas i, q.v., and see 
also the simple v. las i. 

Bakatogo i, v. c, d. for 

Bakatoko i, v. c to make a 

123 [BAKI 

show or feint of striking or 
pushing. See the simple v. 

Bakatolu, v. c, make the 
third time, or three times. 
[Mg. fahatelu, the third.] 

Bakatuai, v. c, to prolong, 
put off, delay. [Sa. fa'atuai, 
id.] See tuai. 

Bakau, or bakaue, v. c, to 
say or shout aue ! aue ! or 
au ! au ! to make a howling 
or barking noise in a well- 
known Efatese way expressive 
of joy, triumph, or derision : 
the howl or cooee repeated 
several times, ending in the 
loud jerking or barking ut- 
terance of au ! au ! au ! H. 
'avah, to howl, cry out, A. 
'aui, to howl, as a dog, wolf, 
or jackal. 

Bakauli, v. c, to make like, 
imitate, to be like to, resem- 
ble : the simple v. is auli 
(dd. uli, oil), or uli, q.v. 

Bakauti, v. c, d. buti, q.v., 
make an end, finish. [Fi. 
vaJcaoti, To. vakaochi. Sa. /a^/ofi. 
Ma. whakaoti.'] H. kaseh, 
an end, kasah, A. kasV, 2, 
to finish : for k to % v. Ch. 

Bake, d. baku, v., to search, 
to search for (as to search for 
insects in the head, or for 
fleas and such like in mats 
or cloth). S. bka% or bko', 
to search. 

Baki, v., to go to (a place), 
ba, to go, and ki, prep. ' to ' : 
d. be' (nearly beh), id. 



[ii. BALA 

Baki, prep., to, unto. See 
Ch. V, Prepositions. 

Baki, v., d., to go or come 
from (a place), dd. ba, bai: 
ba, to come, and prep, ki 
(to), from. For ba see bai, 
ba, ba. 

Bake, d. for baki se,go where? 
bake is for baki e, go to 
where ? se, d. e, where ? See 
Ch. II. 

Bakilina, v., to go or come 
into the light, i. e. , into view, 
to appear : baki, go or come 
to, and Una, light. See lina, 
d. ali. 

Bakitakita, d. for makitakita, 

Bako, Se, shark, d. bak6. 
f Malo hagio, Epi heheu,'} Der. 

Bakor, v.. d., to come in front 
of, to appear : ba, to come, 
and koro, q.v. 

Bakotu-fi, V. t., d. forbagote- 
fi, q.v. 

Baku, v., d. for bake, q.v. 

Baku, V. t. , to pluck out, baku 
sa, pluck it out, ps. mafaku, 
plucked out, tafakaka, d. 
tafagka, (i. e., tafak'ka), v. i., 
to burst, explode. [Sa. fa'i, 
pluck, extract, mafcnfa'if ex- 
tracted, Ma. wlialmcliaM, and 
Jcotvhald, to pluck. My. JiOpaJc, 
to burst, break out, Mg. val'i, 
burst out, mitifaJxCt, to burst, 
mitefu'ka, to sound (as the ex- 
plosion of a gun).] A. faka', 
to burst, to pluck out, ta- 
fakka', 5, to be burst. 

I. Bala, V. i,, to be smooth. 
[Sa. molemole,lamolemole, id., 

\ Tah. moremore, smooth, with- 
out branches, as a tree ; even, 
without protuberances ; also, 
hairless, more, v. i., to drop 
or fall, as pia leaves when 
ripe, Ma. moremore, v. t., to 
make bald or bare ; strip of 
branches, &c.] A. mara, 
n. a. maur», to fall off (as 
wool or hair from the body, 
feathers from an arrow) ; to 
pluck out or off (as hair, 

Bala, i bi bala, it is smooth, 
level. See preceding word. 

Bala-gara, v. i., d., to be poor, 
lit. smooth (or bare) dvj, bare 
and dry : gar a, or kara, dry, 

II. Bala, V. i., often pronounced 
bela, d. bola, to incline to ; 
be close to : i bala nakasu, 
inclines and keeps close to a 
tree (hiding), bala sa, inclineb 
and keeps close to it, bala-afi 
nafanua, hugs the land (a 
ski})), (see af i) ; bala is close 
to (as a man to a tree, or one 
board to another), hence to be 
stuck and inclining from side 
to side to get through (as a 
man in the vines of the 
jungle, or in any confined 
place, as a narrow door ; a 
bone in the throat, or the 
branches of a fallen tree in 
those of another) ; bala- 
tagoto, or bala-goto, incline 
across, hence cross, a., as 
nakasu balatagoto(see goto), 
a cross beam, or cross stick, 
hence fala, a ship's yards 
(because they are fixed across 




or on the mast), and sticks 
fastened across or on a tree 
for a ladder to climb it are 
called fala, or balafala, and 
bala-galu (see gain), is the 
upper cross board at the end 
of a canoe ; fala, also denotes 
a litter, so called because the 
sticks forming it are fastened 
across or upon each other. 
[Sa. pilia, to be entangled 
(as one tree falling against 
another, &c.), pilijpili, be 
near, pipili, a cripple, Ma. 
piri, to stick, come close, keep 
close, skulk, hide oneself, 
pijpm, come to close quarters, 
join battle. Ha. pil'i, to cleave 
to (as to a friend).] A. mala, 
n. a. mayP, to incline, incline 
to, bend or lean to (some- 
thing) ; to be close or near 
to ; to have a part of the 
body (vitio naturae) inclined 
or bent to one side (used also 
of a building leaning to one 
side) ; 3, make a hostile in- 
cursion. Nm. miel, v. i., 
slant, deviate, incline (to- 
wards), mail (gerund), slope, 
inclination, propensity. 
III. Bala, s., the belly, usually 
pronounced bele, q. v. ; ba- 
lau, for bala am» (like 
uateau for d. uateam'), the 
inside of a man, or of any- 
thing (hollow or womb of the 
am', abdomen), baloa (end- 
ing a), a hollow, a valley, 
balua, a hollow or hole in a 
rock, falea, a cave, balakutu 
na, the hollow at the back of 
the head (lit, the hollow of 

his kutu, q.v.), baloleba, the 
stomach (lit. the big hollow), 
bile na, or bela na, his 
mother (lit. his womb, the 
womb that bore him), na- 
felak, a family, tribe, bela-ki, 
to gird (oneself), to tie or 
fasten under one's girdle or 
belly, to take with one, to 
conceive (a ivoman), bela, 
source, belu, uelu, to hide, 
be hidden, to be doubled up, 
tabelu, doubled up, bent. 
[Ma. ivliarua, a., concave, s., 
\Si\\ey,ivhawharua, s., mother, 
whare, a house, people of a 
house, u'liaretagata, connec- 
tion by marriage, Tah. fare. , 
a house, farefare, a., hollow, 
as the stomach for want 
of food.] H. beten, the 
belly, the inside, the womb, 
mother, batan, properly 
to be empty, hollow, vain, 
i.q. batal (see balo in- 
fra), A. batn'j belly, inside 
or middle of anything, pi. 
connections by marriage, a 
tribe (small), batana, to have 
the belly distended with food, 
to be intimate and familiar, 
to be hid, 4, to fasten the 
girth under the belly (of a 
beast of burden), to cover, 
hide, 5. to put a thing under 
one's belly, S. btan, to con- 
ceive, have in the womb, A. 
batuna, to have a great 

Balaf i, v. t., incline to keep- 
ing near to: bala ii., and 
af i. 

Balagote-fl, v. t., incline (or 




bend) across it : bala ii., and 
goto, or koto. 

Balafis i, v. t., hug (as a ship 
hugging the coast) : bala ii., 
and afis i. 

Balaga-ti, v. c, to lift up (as 
the cover from anything) ; and 

Balaga-saki, v. c, lift up, 
stripping off (as the husk of 
reeds) : Hence 

Balaga na, s., husk, scale, or 
similar thing that is or may 
be lifted up from what it 
covers or encloses : syn. laga- 
laga na. See laga-ti, laga. 

Balafala sa, v., to be entan- 
gled (as one tree falling against 
another). [Sa. pilia, id.] 
The radical idea is seen in 
bala to be entangled or stuck 
in the throat (a hone) ; the 
bone inclines to one side and 
so sticks. See bala ii. 

Balafala, s. See fala, s. 

Balas, c. art. nabalas, i. e., 
naba or nababa las, big hol- 
low ; nabua nabalas, the 
road of the big hollow or 
gorge behind Utaon. 

Balau na, s., the belly, inside ; 
inside, middle of anything: 
bala III., and an for amo : 
balau is, lit., the hollow or 
middle or inside of the belly. 

Balans i, v. t., to go through 
or along a thing lengthwise, 
not to go across it (balagote- 
fi) : bala ii., and us i, to 
follow, go through or along 
(as a road, &c.). 

Balea, s., d. for baloa, valley : 
bala III., and a. ending a. 

Balebalea, and belebelea, full 

of hollows, bellied, large : bala 
III., and a. ending a. QHa. 
pele, to have a large belly ; to 
be large.] 

Bale-si, v. t., d., to husk, strip 
off (as the envelope of sugar 
cane) ; and 

Bala-saki, v.t., id. A. wafala, 
to decorticate. 

Bali, V. i., to fast ; 

Bali ki, v. t., to fast from (a 
thing) ; 

Balifali, v. i., to fast (many 
people), [Mg. fadiy id.] A. 
'abala, or 'abila, to abstain ; 
to be devoted to the worship 
of God, 2, to mourn (the 

Balikau i, v. t., to go or step 
over : ba, to go, and likau, 
or lakau, q.v. 

Balo, V. i., a., ad., to be empty, 
vain, null and void, to no 
purpose or effect : i balo, it 
is empty, nasuma balo, an 
empty house, lo or te balo, 
an empty, i. e., a worthless 
thing, a trifle, nothing, i toko 
balo, he remains in vain, to 
no purpose, for nothing, idle ; 
d. mole ; hence sera te balo, 
or sera te mole, to deem 
worthless, vain, to desj^ise. 
[Fi. ivale, uselessly, for noth- 
ing, idly, Ha. 2oale, Sa. valc.'\ 
A. batala, n. a. butl% or 
botl», to be vain, nothing, to 
no end or purpose, in vain, 
for nothing, idle, H. batal, 
to be empty, vacant, idle 
(cognate batan, bala iii.), E. 
batala, to be empty, vain. 

Balo. prep, or ad,, d,, above. 




up : see (b') prep., Ch. V, and 
ulua, V. [Malo aulu (a. prep. 
' on '), (Fut. zveiluffa, see ela^, 
infra, Ha. maluna, above, up, 
Twa, prep., and lima, Ef. ela^).^ 
Amh. balai above, and ex- 
actly as Ef. bale ki (above 
to), balai ka, as above his 
house, or a&ot'e anything : the 
prep, ba, E. ba, on, and lai, 
the upper part, high, A. *alu, 
'alo, upper part. 

Note. —Compound preps, or 
ads. of this kind consist of a 
preposition prefixed to an- 
other V7ord, which may be an 
ad., s., or a. used substan- 
tively (as English al)ove, 
aboard, around, i. e., on-bove. 
on-board, on-round) : thus Ef. 
elag, d. balo, Sa. iluga, Ha. 
maluna, Malo aulu, Amharic 
balai, above, on high, on the 
upper side or part, all consist 
of the preps, e, i, or a, q.v., 
or ba, b', or ma, q.v., and 
words signifying high, up, or 
the upper part and side, for 
which see ulua, elag, lu, 
laga, infra. 

Balo-ni, v. t., dd. balo-si, or 
bllo-si, bulo-si, bulu-gi, 
bunu-li, bulu-ni, bano-li, 
to wash (anything) to wash 
(by rubbing) : fafano, or 
bafano, q.v., to wash the 
hands. [Sa. fiifulu to rub, 
to wash. My. basuh, Mg. um, 
to wash.] A. masa, n. a. 
maus' to wash ; to rub with 
the hand. 

Baloa, s., c. art. nabaloa, a 
vallev. lit. what is hollow or 

concave, -a being the a. end- 
ing. [Ma. wliarua, a., con- 
cave, s., valley.] See bala 

Baloleba, s., the stomach : 
balo, cavity. See bala iii., 
and leba, laba, big. 

Balotu, V. i., d., to go there, 
or thither (away from the 
speaker), dd. banotu, blnotS, 
binas, net, to set out, go 
away (from the speaker), hence 
a common word of farewell to 
one departing is, Ku balotu, 
you are going away, to which 
the one departing replies, 
Ku mato, you remain. See 

Balua, s., a hole or hollow in 
a rock : see bala iii. 

Balu-saki, v. t., to paddle (a 
canoe), row (a boat) ; 

Balu-sa, v., to paddle, row, 
balusa sa, paddle or row with 
it (a paddle or oar). [Epi dd. 
mbeluo ha, mbalma hin, v. t.. 
An. ahelet', to paddle, to row, 
to sail. Am. fuloh, to paddle, 
Fi. ai vot'e, an oar, vot'e, to 
paddle, to row, vot^e-taJca, v. t. 
(= balu-saJii), Pa. xmlnsa, Ml. 
d. masii, Ml. A. sua, Malo mo 
sua, Ta. asua, Fut. sua, Mg. 
vui, act of rowing, mivui, to 
row, vidzina, rowed, fivui, an 
oar. My. d'ayug, an oar, 
d'ayug, bard'ayug, to row.] 

Note. — Balu-saki is the 
same as vot'e-taka. The verb 
' to row ' is balu, vot^e, (m)- 
beluo, (m)bahua, vui, masu, 
and without the preformative 
b' (v', m»), asua, sua, d'ayug. 




and the 1 in balu, t' in vot'e, 
h in mbahua, s in sua, d in 
d*ayug, all are variations of 
the same original consonant 
which is elided in vui. The 
word for 'oar', ai vot'e, fivui, 
is in Ef. uose, d. uohe (wose, 
wohe), Fut. foi. In Fut. the 
connection between sua, to 
paddle, and foi, an oar or 
paddle, is not so apparent as 
that between Ml. P. su, to 
paddle, and bos, a paddle, 
because in foi, as in vui 
( = Fi. vot'e) the s has been 
elided ; and the connection 
between Ef. balu, to paddle, 
and uose, a paddle, is not so 
apparent as that between Epi 
mbahua, to paddle, and voho, 
a paddle, Epi d. bahua, to 
paddle, boho, a paddle. See 
uose, infra. A. gadafa, ka- 
dafa, (or 'at'afa), Amharic 
kazaf (or >azaf), to propel 
with oars, to row, Mod. A. 
kaddaf, or »addaf, part, 
mo'addif (anc. mo'addif, or 
mo'azzif, cf. vot'e, bose, 
uose, vui, foi). Sua is with- 
out the preformative, cf. 
'azafa, *addaf: balu seems 
to have the same prefix as Sa. 
pale, to row, without which 
is Sa. alo (ps. alofia), and 
alo-fa'i, to paddle, row, and 
with another verb, Sa. taualo, 
to row, to keep on rowing. 
As to the prefix in balu com- 
pare that in batok, batu, q.v. 
Balu na, or balu na, s., rela- 
tive, friend ; a brother's bro- 
ther, or sister's sister. A. 

ma*lai, helper, relative, friend, 
associate, walai to be closely 
related, to be a friend, helper. 

Balu-naki, v. t., to be a balu 
to a brother or to a sister. 

Balu gor i, v. t., help, be- 
friend, take the part of. See 
gor i. 

Baluk, s., c. art. nabaluk, an 
inlet or small bay, a cul de 
sac : ba, and luku : v. baba, 
and luku. 

Bamasokd sa, v. t., come upon, 
find ; ba, go, and masoko, 

Bamau-ri, v. t., d. bamau sa, 
come upon, find it : ba, go, 
and mau (sa), q.v. 

Bamau, v., to reach to, or term- 
inate at, as i bamau nalia 
uane, it reaches to. or stops 
or terminates at, that place ; 
hence, absolute, i bamau, it 
terminates, stops, or ceases: 
ba, go. and mau, q.v. 

Bamu na, s., the shoulder 
blade, shoulder, d. bau na. 

■[Tah. papa, the shoulder 
blade.] See baba, a board. 

Bamu na. s., d. for babu na. 

Ban, v.. d. for man ; anl, q.v., 
c. preformative m. 

Ban, V. i., for bano. 

Ban, s., and baniben, s., arm- 
let, worn between the elbow 
and the shoulder, and woven 
so that the outer surface con- 
sists of different coloured 
beads (carved out of shells) 
arranged in regular figures. 
[Malo han, Epi heni.'} See 
banu, binu, banaga. 




Banl, v., to act violently, to 
be hot, angry, to oppress, as 
ru bani kiena, they violently 
destroy or take away a man's 
property (from his house or 
plantation), as in time of 
war, or as a punishment for 
crime ; baniban us i, follow 
him, acting oppressively, per- 
secute him. See bani a, in- 

Banako, v. t., dd. binako, 
bunak, to steal, banako sa, 
and banak ia, d. bunako n% 
steal it. [Ma. whanaJco, wliena- 
]co, Fi. hutaJco, Ero. proTc, Ml. 
fenahe, My. chohg, Ja. noloy, 
Mg. halata, c. pref. magalata, 
id.] A. saraka, n. a. sark', 
Mahri heriq, iieliq, and de- 
soq, to steal. 

Banaga, s., mats, d. banu; 
so called because they are 
plaited, see binu. 

Banei, v. i., to come here (to 
the speaker) ; same as bani- 
mai, or ban6-mai. [Ml. P. 
vine, id.] 

Banei, s., d. bane, volcano : 
see bani a, v. t. [Pa. ba- 
nei, id.] 

Bani, or ban i, v. t., to burn; 
to roast, to cook by roasting 
on the fire ; ben or fen 
cooked or roasted, dd. beni a, 
banu sa, banu-s. See banei ; 
[Sa. faafana, to warm up 
food, mafanafana, to be warm. 
To. mafana, heat, warmth, 
Ma. mahana, warm, Ta. ma- 
hana, warm, the smi, a day, 
Ja. panaSf hot, warm, pana- 
shan, to heat, Mg. fana, vua- 

fana, warm (applied to food 
cooked and warmed the 
second time), majana, mafana- 
fana,wsLTni, hafanana, s., heat, 
mcmafana, and mahafanafana, 
V. t., to heat, mihafcma, v. i., 
to be hot, grow hot.] A. 
wamiha, to be hot, n. a., 
wamat, wamhat. 

Banimai, v. i., to come here 
(to the speaker), opp. to ba- 
notu, go there (away from 
the speaker) : see ban6mai. 
[Epi mbinime.'} See bano, 
and mai. 

Bano-li, d. balo-si, v. t., d. for 
balo-ni, q.v. 

Bano, V. i., to go, go off, or 
away. [Malo vano, Epi mba- 
no, mhene, Ma. whano, Meli 
fano, Put. fano, Ta. uven, An. 
apan."} H. panah, to turn 
the back, turn to go. See 
Ch. III. /. 

Bandmai, banamai, or bani- 
mai, V. i., to come here or 
hither, dd. ba be, umai, mai, 
be : bano mai ; with ba, 
for bano, corrupted to u, 
umai; and, without bano 
(or ba), mai, d., or be, d., as 
a verb in the sense of the full 
expression, bano-mai, or ba- 
be. See ba, bano, supra ; 
and under the following word. 
[Meli fano mai'} For mai, 
see ba, ba, to come, supra. 
Mai is for bai, ba, for which 
also is d. be: d. ba be = 
bano mai. 

Banotu, sometimes pro- 
nounced balotu, V. i., to go 
away (in a direction from 




the speaker), to go there or 
thither, dd. binoti, banas, 
binas, binen, baina, and 
notu, net. [Ma. ivhanatii, 
tvhano, and atii.'} Bano, and 
atu. See Ch. III. / 

Note 1. Mai, or be, coming 
after a verb is an ad. or 
' directive ' signifying here, 
hither. [So in Fi., Sa., Ha., 
Tah., To., Ma.] Coming 
before a verb in Fi. it signi- 
fies to come, as au sa mat 
kauta, I have come to take ; 
so in Ef. a mai buati, I have 
come to take : in two Ef. dd. 
a mai, a be, I have come. 
So Mg. avi is also a verb 
signifying ' to come '. Before 
a noun or the ad. Svhere', 
mai signifies 'from' in Fi., 
Sa., Ha, To. (mei, or me), 
Ef. (bai, ba, be), and Mg. 
(avi), thus Fi. maivei? Sa. 
maifea ? Tah. mai hea ? To. 
meife ? or mefe ? Ef. ba se ? 
bai se? or be sabe? Mg. 
avi aiza? from where? 
whence? The Mg. and Ef. 
are verbs — i ba se ? avi aiza 
izi ? he comes from where ? 
In the other cases the mai, as 
in mai hea ? is called a prej). 
Ef. i ba, or bai se ? is, liter- 
ally, he comes (from) where ? 
and in one dialect the prep. 
ki=from, is expressed as, 
i ba ki e P he comes here (or 
hither) from where ? In Fi. 
mai is also a prep, signifying 
in, at. 

Note 2. — Notu, or net (or 
atu), in two dialects is a verb 

(notu, net), with the same 
meaning as banotu,for which 
it is used, as dd. mai and be 
for banomai, babe. For 
notu, or net, see Ch. III. /. 
In Ef. atu, is not used sepa- 
rate from bano. 

Banu, s., d. banaga. q.v. 

Banu sa, and banus. See 
bani a, to roast. 

Bao, V. i., d. for ma, man, ba, 
ban, bon. See ani, v. i. 

Baofa, s., d., menstruation, i 
su baofa meamea (said 
of a woman menstruating 
while still suckling a child) : 

Bara, v. i., to be burned (as 
food in cooking) : see buria, 
d. bouria, or bauria, tabara. 
[Ma. tvera, burnt, hot, and 
tmvera, liaivera, s., heat, pa- 
2vera, hot, S. vevela, to be 
hot, ps. velasia, vela, done, 
well cooked, M.j. j^ciriJc,, marcik, 
to kindle, set on fire.] H. 
ba'ar (Ch. be'ar, to burn, 
Pael, to kindle), to burn up, 
to kindle, to be burned. 

Bara, v. i., or a., to be barren, 
d. oro. E. 'abara, to be 
barren, *ebur, barren. 

Barab, v. i., or a., long, high 
(as a hill). [Malo harauo, Fi. 
halavu, Ml. U. periv, long, 
also wide.] Ef. dd. baraf, 
baram, barau, birerife (see 
laba, leba), prop, extended, 
cf. Ml. U. 

Baraf, d. barab. 

Baragai, d., transposed for 

Bara-ti, v. t., to beat. [Fi. 




tvaro-t^a, My. palit, Ja. ^JrtZrt, 
Mg. veli'J A. wabala, to 

Bara-ti, v. t., to bind together. 
[My. harot, to gird, to bind 
round.] H. hibar, to con- 
nect, join together. See fa- 
rati, infra, H. hoberet, a 

Barabara, v. i., to ckick (of a 
hen) : cf. meromero. 

Baram, d. barab. 

Bara-tnna, s., d. for bura. 

Barau, d. barab. 

Barau, V. i., to reproach, speak 
loudly reproaching. See rau. 

Bare, v. i., to be moved, move 
about, bare ki, v. t., to move, 
agitate, barefare ki, id. A. 
farefara, to move, agitate. 

Bare, or barea, v. i., or a., d. 
uorea, or orea, to be blind (a 
man), to have a white speck 
(of an eye whose sight is lost), 
to be dirty looking, like a 
sightless eye (of half-raw 
food). [Ml. A. bar, U. oror, 
Epi mUli,'} H. «avar, E. 
«awir, to be blind ; and 

Baretau, a., black and white 
spotted (as a pig), also a yam 
that has been peeled, or a tree 
that has been barked, i bi 
baretau: tan, white, and 
bare, for which see the fol- 
lowing word ; and 

Barea, or borea, d., v. i., or 
a., black, dirty coloured. 
[My. Mm, blue, TaSa. herika, 

Baro, V. i., or a., to be heed- 
less, taliga baro, deaf, d. na 

baro, one deaf, barobaro, to 
be heedless, indifferent, ta- 
baro, to be heedless, refrac- 
tory, lav^^less, barna, free 
from, as i tiimana bisa ba- 
rua ki nia, he declares him- 
self free from it (as a crime), 
marua, to cease, leave off, lo 
barua ki nia, see the naked- 
ness of someone, literally, or 
as to his poverty or being 
devoid of food, &c. See 
baror, biira. H. para% to 
loose, let go, make naked, 
paru'a, lawless, unbridled, 
A. fara"a, to empty, leave 
off, be free from (as free from 
cares or labour, careless, idle), 
5, tafarra^'a, to be idle. 

Baro, c. art. nabaro, s., one 

Baro-si, or baru-si, v. t. This 
verb was used thus in the old 
daj^s : to fell a big tree they 
burned round the base of it, 
then ru baru-si, or baru lu, 
namalifera, that is, smashed, 
broke, shaved, chipped, cut, 
or scraped off the charred 
wood ; then burned the 
new exposed surface again, 
smashed or cut off (with the 
karau tare) charred parts 
again, and so on till the tree 
fell ; to rub, grate, as one 
branch of a tree on another, 
or anything on anything. 
On E. Mai barusi naniu = 
Ef. koi naniu (see koi). Tea 
farofaro, that which cuts, 
shaves, rasps off, barobaroa 
(a. ending -a), fit for rasping 
off (as sandpaper or a grind- 

K 2 




stone). [Fi. varo-ta, to file, 
saw, or rasp, Sa. valu, scrape 
out nuts ( = Ef. koi), to scrape 
(as taro), ps. valua, Ma. tvaru, 
to scrape, shave, cut (the 
hair), Ha. ^val^l, to scratch, 
rub, rasp, polish, Tah. varu, 
to shave, to bark a tree, to 
scrape. My. paras, to shave, 
to pare close to the surface, 
Mg. fara, scrape, scratch, 
make smooth.] A. faraka, 
Nm. to rub, grate. 

Baroaki, d. See boroaki. 

Barobaroa, a. See under 

Baror, s., one careless, heedless, 
lawless, wicked, foolish. See 

Barobaro, v. i., or a. See 
under baro. 

Barua, v. i., or a., made naked, 
devoid of, clear or free from. 
See baro. 

Barua, or uarua, v. i., or a., 
fat, big, large. [Mg. hatihari, 
hari, large, full, well made, 
Fi. vora, to grow fat or stout.] 
H. bara', to grow fat, bari', 
fat, A. wara', to be fat. 

Barubaruta, a. , fat ; ending 
-ta: barua. 

Barubarutena, a. , fat ; ending 
-tena: barua. 

Ba-si, v., go upon, tread upon, 
basi namatuna, tread upon 
something: ba, to enter. [Fi. 
va-fa.'] E. aAt. 

Basa, to speak. See bisa. 

Base a, v. t. , to break off (as a 
branch from a tree), to break 
off with a snap or jerk, basu, 
id. , mafasu, d. moas (mowas), 

broken off, base-raki, takes a 
different object, as base nara 
nakasu, break off the branch 
of a tree, base-raki na-usu, 
break off from a reed (the 
husk or covering, so as to 
make it bare), basebase-raki 
nia, id., basu-li a, to detach, 
break off, tabasuli, detached, 
broken off, separated. [Fi. 
hasu-Jca, or -raJiU, to break, 
also to open one's eyes or 
mouth, hasi-a, nearly syn. c. 
hasu-Jca. Sa. fati, to break 
off, ps. fafia.'} A fas's'a, to 
break off, fassa, detach, 
shiver off, H. pasah, q.v., to 
distend, open (the lips), A. 
fasa', to separate, detach (as 
flesh from a bone). 

Base, V. t., c. verb, suf., scold, 
vitui3erate, rail at, d. syn. 
suer ia : bakabase, id. A. 
nabaza, to reproach, blame, 
rail at. 

Basiu, s., a bone piercer. See 

Baso i, V. t., to pierce. See 
sui. [Fi. veso-ha and sua-lca.'} 

Bastak, v., d. for bataka: 
basi, taka. 

Bastufl, V. t., d., to follow, to 
be like : basi, and tufi. A. 
tabi*a, to follow. 

Basu-li. See base a. 

Bataka na, v. t., to be like, 
equal to, sufficient for (bas- 
tufi, and mautaka, nearly 
syn.): ba, q.v., and taka, like, 
similar to. 

Batako na, or batoko na, s., 
the body, d. mole na. [Ta. 




buti, My. hata^, Mg. vatana.'J 

A. badano, the body. 
Bate, v., d. for batu, q.v. 
Bate, num., four. [Mg. efata, 

My. ampat, Sa. /a.] A. ar- 

ba'at', four. 
Bati na, s., the teeth, a tooth, 

also a shoot (of banana or 

taro), a seed. [Fi. hati.'] 

See Ch. II, 16. h. JL{ id. 

Bati-gat, and d. bati-gaut, s., 
a thorny plant, with crooked, 
grasping thorns, like teeth : 
for gaut, see under gau, 

Bati-rik, s., mosquito : batl, 
and rik, q.v. Lit. small- 

Bat i, or bati, v. t., to do, 
make, work at ; afiti, q.v., 
slave. [My. lyuat, to do.] 
S. 'bad, to do, to work, work 
at, make, Ch. 'abad, slave. 

Batik, d. uarik, v. i., or a., 
few, to be few. See tik, or, 

Batira, s., precipice, rugged 
declivity : 

Batlbatira, a., rugged and 
precipitous : syn. na tiroa. 
See tiro, tiroa. 

Batok, V. i., d., to remain : 
toko, q.v. 

Batu, V. i., d., to remain : tu, 

Batu, s., na batu, an adult, 
young man. A. fatiy% adult, 
fata', young man. 

Batu, v., d. bate, to close up 
the roof by iveaving thatch on 
the ridge-pole : na fatu, the 
ridge-pole. [Epi IjofiigOy v., 

id. Ma. ivliatu, to weave, 
Sa. Tah. fatu, to plait, inter- 
weave.] H. 'abat, to inter- 
weave, *abot, wreathen work. 

Batua na, s., the knee : prob. 
bau (q.v.), the head, and tua, 
leg. [Ml. A. Ilia, leg, mhii- 
Ilia, knee, Ml. P. and Malo 
hau, knee.] 

Batua ki, v. t., to depart from 
(any thing or person) : ba, to 
come, and tua ki, to place, 
lay down : lit. go laying down 
or leaving. 

Bau na, s., d. for bamu na, 

Bau, s., one slain, lit. head, 

Bau na, s., the head ; a head 
or chief, specially, d. mater- 
nal uncle, that is, head of 
the family. [Malo hatu, San 
Cristoval tau, head, Epi haru, 
Motu 5am, Ml. ytar^^, id.] Efate 
bau, V. t., to be above, over, 
surpass, bau goro, to be over, 
covering, tabau, id., to surpass 
in dignity, also mau, feathers 
on birds, and head ornament 
of feathers, bo(forbau),bo-fi, 
bobo-fi, to be above, over, to 
conquer, and bo goro. A. 
fara'a, to ascend, surj^ass or 
excel in dignity, overcome, 
conquer, have the head 
covered with hair, n. a. far'u, 
summit, top, vertex, head or 

Bau lulu, s., a proud person, 
lit. high head : lu. 

Baua, or uaua (waua), s., a 
pillow : preceding word and 




ending -a : also, v., to jnllow 
one's head. 

Bau-maso na, s., portion of 
the projierty of one deceased 
inherited by a member of 
the family : bau, and maso, 
q.v. For bau, see s. bau- 

Bau, V. t., to be above, over, 
surpass, i bau gor ia. See 

Bau-si, or fau-si, v. t., to 
fasten together ; to plait (a 
mat) ; bau rarua, fasten to- 
gether (the parts of) a canoe ; 
bau uago, fasten a pig to 
the carrying pole : ora naui i 
bau, the yam vine fastens on 
or round the stake ; redup. 
bau-fau ; bau-maso (maso 
a portion) the portion col- 
lected or fastened or gathered 
together, bau-terag ia, fasten 
— to dry it (as wet cloth), 
i. e. fasten it on something in 
the sun or before a fire. [Sa. 
fau (Ma. /iow), tie together, 
fasten by tying, ps. fausht, 
To. fan, fillet round the head, 
turban, Fut. fausia, to fasten, 
tie, Fi. vau-t'a, to bind to- 
gether, Sa. faU'la'i, to be 
heaped up, to abound, Mg. 
feJd, feliizana, to tie, knot.] 
A. habaka, to weave, bind, 
interweave, n. a. habikat'. 

Bau gor i, v. t., to be above, 
over : tabau sa, to be above 
(as covering a thing), to be 
over, surpass him (in dignity 
or rank). See under bau. 

Bau or fau, bao or fao, v. i., 
or a., new. [Malo baro, Ml. 

mermer, Motu matamata, My. 
haJiaru, Sa. fou, Fi. vovou, vou, 
Mg. vaic (havaumna), new.] 
A. mahdut', part, of hadat^a, 
to be new, new. H. hadas', 
S. hdat^, id., E. hadas. to 

Bauli, V. c, to buy by ex- 
changing ; 

Bauiu, or faulu, s., the thing 
given in exchange wherewith 
to purchase something, barter 
(wherewith to buy by ex- 
changing). See aul i, ul i. 

Bau-ragi, or bau-teragi. See 
bau-si. Teragi is for re- 

Baus i, and bausus i, v. t., 
to ask him (or her), bausus 
ia sa, ask him it (or about 

Bausu ki, to inquire about (a 
thing), bausu baki, to in- 
quire at (a person), to ask, to 
question (a person). See us 

Bauria, d. for buria, q.v. See 

Bea (kbe, or bwe), s. See 

Be, d. mai, v., to come here, 
like mai, q.v. ; also d. for ba, 
bai, to come or go from, as 
i be sab ? he comes from 
where ? 

Be d mia, v. t., to have it, 
i be nalo, he has a thing, d. 
i bi e nia, he has it: bi 5 
nia, be d nia. See ba. 

Be, or bea, dd. bei, mia (tia- 
mia), V. i., or a., to precede, 
go before, be first, first. [Sa. 
mua, and muoH, first, miiamua, 




to go before, first, Lakon mo, 
Volow mag, Arag moana, first, 
Fi. macla, to precede.] A. 
fuhat, mouth, entrance (as of 
a river), hence the first or 
foremost part of anything, 
Amh. pat, or fat, fore-part, 
and c. a. ending fatana, first. 

Be, d., a particle used after 
interrogatives, then, now, 
thus ua be ? sa be (sab) ? 
where then ? takana aga bat 
ia be ? how shall I do it 
then (or now). In other dia- 
lects it is not used. H. 'epo% 
then, now, as ayeh 'epo', 
where then ? cf. 'epoh (poh, 
here), where? how? 

Be, fe, conj., if, should ; ku 
fe bano i fe uia, should you 
go it were well, i be fano 
i be uia, should (or if) he go 
it were well. [Ta. i2), Fut. 
pe, if.] Amh. ba, be, if, 
should (repeated in each 
clause as in Ef., Isenberg's 
Amh. Gr., pp. 158-9). 

Be a, or fe a, redup. befe, v. t., 
to read, also to count, A. 
faha, utter, pronounce, 

Be, or bea, redup. bebea, v. i., 
or a., to be great, wide ex- 
tended. [Mg. Jje, great, large, 
Motajjoa, Gao VioJ\ E. *abya, 
or 'abia, to be great, wide, 
extended, 'ably, great, large. 

Bebe, s., butterfly, H. 'up, 
(Pilpel) Ib'eb, to flutter. 

Bega, d. baga, q.v., a hill. 

Bel ki, or bai ki, d. bi ki, 
V. t., to show : d. syn. bisai 
ki. [Tah. /ai, divulge.] A. 

baha, to appear, be shown, 
manifest, show, divulge, in- 
dicate ; hence 

Beifei ki, make manifest, in- 

Bei, v., bei ki, to watch for 
(as for an animal to take or 
kill it). [Ma. ivhai, search for, 
spy.] A. ba"a (ba"ai), to 
watch, observe, look at, look 
out for, rush upon (the prey) 
from an ambush, seek, &c. 

Bei, or bai, a thing hidden, 
concealed, i bi bei, it is hid- 
den. See afa: eg. to the 
word there given are A. 
''abai, H. haba% A. h'aba', 
to hide. 

Bei, d. for be, or bea, v. i., or 
a., to precede, first. 

Bei, or bai, d. ba, prep, used 
mostly after verbs, connect- 
ing them with their object : 
lo, to look, lo bei a, look 
upon it, see it, taruba, to 
fall, taruba bei a, fall upon 
it, d. ro, to fall, ro bei a, to 
fall upon it ; an, to be, to lie, 
an bei a, lie upon it ; toko, 
sit, toko bei a, sit upon it ; 
ba, to go, ba bei a, go or 
tread upon it (for instance, 
upon filth in the path, ba 
bai intai) ; the final i in bei 
or bai belongs to the jjronoun 
of the third person. [Fi. 
vei, to, d. m.~\ E. ba, A. fi, 
bi, H. b\ See Ch. V. 

Bei, s., na bei saki ni aliati, 
the ascending rosy cloud of 
dawn, the dim cloudy or misty 
appearance preceding day- 
light at dawn : d. in tei saki, 




the rising rosy cloud. See 

Befe, or fefe, s., oven cover 
(made of leaves) ; a covering 
trap (for catching fowls). 
[Sa. veve, oven cover of 
leaves.] See (bofl), bo. 

Beigo, or baigo, s., a trumpet 
(shell) ; d. a kind of flute 
(cocoanut shell). [Sa. fagu- 
fagxi; a flute, To. fagofago, 
a flute blown by the nose.] 
A. baka, to blow a trumpet, 
ba'ku, or ba'ko, a trumpet. 

Belaki, v. t., to gird (oneself), 
bela ki natali, put on one's 
girdle or belt ; to tie or fasten 
anything or carry anything 
between one's girdle and the 
lower part of the belly"; 
hence, to take with one, to 
have with one or attached to 
one. See bala iii. The s. is 
nafelaki, d. nabiilai, or ba- 
lai, what is fastened, or 
girded round the loins, girdle. 

Belaki, v. i., to be pregnant : 
bala, III. 

Belaki, s., c. art. nabelaki, d. 
syn. intamate, great heathen 
feast or series of feasts periodi- 
cally held at every village, at 
which there was abundance of 
food, singing, and dancing : 
prob. so called because of 
the abundance of food, and 
friendly feeling : bala, iii. 

Bela, or fela, if perhaps, if in- 
deed, conj. be, and ad. la. 
Bela, V. i., to be smooth, level ; 
bala I. 
Bela, d. for bala ii., q.v. 
Bela-tagot. See bala ii. 

Bela-galu. See bala ii. 

Bele, s., the dead body of a 
pig : said to be so called be- 
cause its belly swells. Bala 
III. [Ha. pele, to swell out, 
have a large belly.] 

Bele na, s., the belly (or bala 
na) ; the w^omb ; a mother 
(dd. syn. eri na, raite na, 
susu na) ; a source, as bele 
ni torogo, the source or 
master of the torogo (a species 
of divination), also bele nai 
(naui) kanoa, the beginning 
or feast of the first ripe yams : 
bala III. 

Belbel, d. for bile, bilebile, 

Beles, s., c. art. nebeles, a 
dance in which the two 
parties keep meeting each 
other. See lasi, tilasi. 

Ben, or fen, a., cooked, broiled, 
roasted : bani a. 

Beni a, d. for bani a. 

Ben, d. for ban. See ani, to 
be, abide. 

Belli ki, v. t., to fold, to 
double, tabelu (takwelii), 
folded, doubled ; 

Belu, V. i., to be doubled up, 
as it were folded together, 
hence to be hidden, to hide 
oneself, belu ki, to be hidden 
from, also uelu. 

Bdluuelu, V. i., or a., folded, 
hence limp, doubled up, and 
beluueluki, a., doubled up, 
uneven, limp, limber, weak, 
flexible, tabelu. [Ha. pelu^ 
to double over, bend, or flex, 
as a joint, to fold, doubled, 




folded over, pelupclu, to 
double over and over, doubled 
over, Sa. mapelu, mapelupeUi, 
to bend, stoop, Fi. belu-Jca, to 
bend, curve, Jcahelu, bent, Mg. 
valuna, folded, doubled.] See 
Bala, III. 

Bera, or fera, v. i., to 
crumble, fall to pieces, bera- 
fera, and taberafera, to 
crumble, fall to pieces, be 
scattered about in frag- 
ments ; 

Bera ki, v. t., to scatter about, 
tabera ki, to scatter al)out, 
make to fall to pieces, and 
beraferaki, v. t. , and tafera- 
fera ki, v. t. [Fi. viiru-taka, 
to crumble, vuruvuru, v. i., 
to crumble, and S., a crumb, 
Mg. miveraberaJca, v. i., to 
crumble, mahavera, v. t., My. 
dmhor, scattered, tahur, to be 
scattered.] E. farfur, a 
crumb, Talmud, parpor from 
H. pur, par, to break, Pilpel 
pirper, to break in pieces. 

Bera-gi, v. t., d. birigi, q.v. 

Berakati, d. bera-ti, bera- 
tiki, V. used as ad., fully, 
thoroughly, accurately ; also 
thus, tea berakati na, a thing 
fully his, a thing his own. 
See bura, d. biri, to be full, 
full. Berakati is by trans- 
position for bera-taki. 

Beru, V. d., syn. uma, to clear 
for a plantation, to cut down 
trees, cut or clear the jungle. 
[Mg. firala {/ira, cut, ala, 
wood, forest), miferala, cut 
down wood in order to make 

some use of the ground, clear 
the forest, Ja. iijjar, felling 
and burning the forest for 
cultivation, Ma. para, to cut 
down bush, clear.] H. bere% 
Piel of bara', to cut down — 
' go into the wood and cut 
out room for thee there ' 
Josh. xvii. 15. 

Bes, or besii, s., dry wood, 
hard dry wood used for 
fencing. A. yabis*, dry 
(wood), Nm. yabis, dry 

Bes, d. besii, s., a young pig 
whose mother is dead and 
which is brought up as a pet 
and is therefore tame and 
gentle ; also a motherless 
child, syn. mitabusa. So 
called from being deprived 
of the mother's milk, and, as 
it were, arid. See preceding 
word and busa: A. yabisa, 
to be dry. 

Beta, or feta, s., a tribe, a 
crowd or lot of people, or of 
animals, accompanying each 
other, as nabeta Togoliu, 
the tribe of Togolius, the 
Togoliu crowd, set, or lot ; 
a shoal, nabeta naika, a 
shoal of fish. See bita, bita- 
naki, ta. 

Beti, or bati, s., in proper 
names, as Togoliu beti, 
Metanibeti, &c. : beti seems 
a form of the word bati (see 
s.v. nabati na), and prob. 
means chief of the family, or 

Beti, s., a kind of spear 
pronged with sharpened 




human bones, and feathered : 
prob. so called because 
pronged or toothed. See bati. 

Bi, v., d. for umba ki, q.v. 

Bi, or fl, dd. mi, bai, v., to be, 
only used before substantives, 
or words used as substan- 
tives, as i bi natamole, fatu, 
nakasu, it is a man, stone, 
tree, ru bi natamole uia, 
they are good men. [Epi 
ml)e, ve, to be. Ml. P. fe, A. 
mhe, he, U. vL"} See ba, 

Bi ^ nia (d. bi d mia, or be e 
mia), V. t., to have ; i be 
nalo, or i bieni nalo, he has 
something. [With hie)ii, we 
should perhaps compare My. 
2nmal, to possess.] See ba, 

Bi ki, V. t., d. for bei ki, q.v., 
to show. 

Bi, s., only in meta-ni-bi, 
small openings in the ends 
of a house through which 
light comes, and which are 
left uncovered in thatching. 
Of same stem as preceding 
word, whence is A. buhu, 
a name of the sun, and buh', 
the uncovered part of a house 
or tent. 

Bia, or fia, d. bisa, or fisa. 
[Malo, Santo, &c., ^/■^sa], v. i., 
or a., how many ? as ru bia? 
they are how many? nata- 
mole bia ? how many men ? 
And, not interrogatively, ru 
bia, they are so many, few, 
natamole bia, so many men, 
i.e. a few men. [Sa. fia, ad., 
how many? Fi. vifa, ad., 

how many? Mg,, ad., firi, 
how many? mifirl v. i., 
into how many paiis does it 
divide?] The final part of 
bia or bisa, namely a or sa, 
is the interrogative pronoun. 
Compare as to the initial 
consonant, Tanna keva, d. 
kuva. See Ch. V. 5, and 4. 

Bi, or fi, reflexive verb pre- 
formative (ba, or baka, fa, 
or faka, being the causative 
verb preformative), as ru 
atu-gi, V. t., they smite him, 
ru fiatu, V. r., they smite 
each other, they fight, auli a, 
V. t., exchange, replace, sub- 
stitute for it, bauli a, or 
faulia, V. c, nearly the same, 
make to take the place of, 
barter for it, ru biauli, v.' r., 
they are bartering with each 
other, or they are replacing 
each other or taking each 
other's places (as men at the 
oar). [Sa. fe, ' the reciprocal 
particle ', prefixed to verbs, 
Fi. vei, Mg. ?', mi, reflexive 
verb preformative (Griffith's 
Mg. Gr,, p. 112). See Ch. 

Bia, bibia, d. biau, or beau, 
d. ia, s., a child, youth, bia 
kiki, little children, bia 
turiai, young men ; and in 
names of children as bia- 
naru, &c. [TaSa. 2^Wh ^^' 
fant, Ml. U. bihi, infant, Ml. 
A. pepe, infant, Mg. afi, safi, 
My. piyud. xnijat, piat. piyii, 
Ja. hayi, infant, child.] A. 
(hafada), hafld, hafidat, ne- 
potes, off'spring. 




Biaii, or beau, s., wave, waves. 
£Sa.2^em(, id., My. omlaJi, id.] 
E. ababi, A. 'ubab', i.q. 
*ubab», flood, waves, from 
'abba, to have broken waves 
{the sea). Hence 

Biafiau (for biaufiau), v. i., to 
be raised in waves, rough (as 
the sea). [Sa. peaiici, rough 
(as the sea), lit. wavy, full of 
waves ; 2^ecm, and the a. end- 
ing a.2 

Biauli, V. r. , d. bioli, barter or 
exchange with each other ; 
take each other's places, as 
men at the oar or other work, 
spell each other. See auli. 

Bialo, V. r., to wave (beckon- 
ing) ; reflexive of alo-fi, q.v. 

Bib, s., d. for baba, a board. 

Bibisinu, v. i., to ring, sing 
(of the ears) : sinu ; bibi, is 
the preformative bi doul^led. 

Bibe, V. i., or a., for bebea. 

Bibila, v. i., or a., big, great: 
redup. of bila, q.v. 

Bifera ki, v. t., to show by a 
fera (or omen) : fera. 

Bigo. See buigo. 

Bikutu ki, v. t., speak to each 
other (against someone in 
his absence) ; decide about 
(someone). See kutu ki. 

Bila, V. i., shine, lighten, gleam, 
flash, appear ; bilaflla, re- 
dup., to do so repeatedly: lo 
bila ki, glance at ; fila, light- 
ning ; bule-meta, eyeball 
(gleaming part of the eye). 
[Sa. ^;2f?fe, puimla^ ptdcqmla, 
to shine.] A. barak, or 
bara', shine, gleam, flash, 
glitter, appear ; lighten (light- 

ning), 2, open the eyes, glance 
at, bark', lightning, pi. bu- 
ruk, H. barak, S. barka: 
hence bila, or fila, bile, or 
file, s., lightning: c. art. 

Bila i, or bilai, v. t., pick 
up, gather up (anything, as 
fallen leaves, fruits, fish lying 
on the ground, &c.) ; 

Bila guru ki, bili lua, bill 
sai, &c. See guru, lua, sai, 
Bilai has the pref. b'. [Fi. 
vili-lca, pick up, as fallen leaves 
or fruits.] E. 'araya, gather 
(as fruits, herbs), glean (as 
after reapers): c. preforma- 

Bila, also (dd. mbula, bur) ; 

Bibila, redup. (intensive), and 

Bilena, bibilena, v. i., or a. 
(-na, a. ending), big, large, 
great. [Mg. Imlithulu, mihiilu- 
hulu, a., thick, close, dense.] 
A. 'abula, 'abila, to be thick, 
big, 'abanbaP, strong, great, 

Bile, or bila, v. i., to be quick ; 
hence sudden, confused, in- 
accurate, to err, make a 
mistake : redup. bilebile (d. 
belbel) quick, sudden, bilieli, 
sudden, quick, hence con- 
fused, erroneous : tabile, to 
be hasty, commit an error. 
Often used adverbially, as ba 
bilebile, go quickly, si bile, 
shoot missing (lit. hastily, 
erroneously, not hitting the 
mark), &c. H. bahal, bahel, 
prop, to tremble, be in trepi- 
dation, Piel to hasten, to 
hasten (as if to tremble) to do 




anything, Hi. id., Ch. (behal) 
Ithpeal inf. hitbehalah, s., 
haste, speed, with prefixed 
be, ad., quickly. 

Bile, d. bile, v. i., to dispute, 
wrangle. [My. haM., to 
wrangle, squabble.] E. be- 
hil, (2) contradict, tabahala, 
dispute, wrangle, bahl, dis- 
pute, altercation, wrangle. 

Bili, V. t., bill meta, shut the 
eyes, redup. biliuili, id. (of 
many) ; hence 

Bili, s., a blind person (with 
closed eyes) ; and 

Bilil, s., a tree (whose leaves 
at a certain stage of their 
growth cleave together) : d. 
bilbilo, wink, close the eyes. 
See uili, kuli : uili mita, 
eyelids, and i uili mita, or 
bili mita, close the eyelids. 

Bili, V. t., d. forbeluki, q.v. 

Bilaki, v. i., to be terrified, 
tremble (as it wsere) with fear. 
H. balah, to be terrified, to 
fear, Piel billeah, to terrify, 
and suffix ki. 

Bile na, s. See bele na, 

Bile-meta na, s., nephew or 
niece, child of a man's gore 
na, that is, his full or uterine 
sister. Lit. mother, i. e., 
source, of the tribe or family, 
such nephew being a man's 
heir (and not his own son). 
D. syn. fito na. 

Bilaga, v. t., bilaga sa, seek, 
search for it. See laga, laga 
sa, id. 

Bilele, v. i., r., to turn hither 
and thither, to go backwards 

and forwards, round and 
round : lele. 

Bilele, v. i., r., d. for bitoli, 

Biliasa, ad., the morning 
(day-break) of the day after 
to-morrow : biilo, asa ; bill, 
as in bili-bog, bili-mitamai. 

Bilibog, ad. (d. bulbog), morn- 
ing : bulo, bog. 

Bilieli, v., see bile, bilibile, 
to be quick, &c. 

Bilikit i, v. t., to peel (as a 
banana), [An. milaga, to 
peel, Sa. mile'i, to husk, Fi. 
loqa-ta, to peel.] E. lahasa, 
to peel. 

Bilimitamai, ad., the morning 
(day -break) of the morrow ; 
bilimitamai ki nia, the 
morrow following it, sera 
bilimitamai, every recurring 
morrow: bulo, mitamai. 

Bilis i, d. bolis i, uolis i, v. t., 
to spread out anything on the | 
ground as a mat ; hence to 
make a bed ; hence na uol, 
s., that spread out, a bed, d. 
na mauol ; and from this 
latter is mauoli ki, make a 
bed with (something), spread 
it out for a bed. [Mg. velata, 
mivelata, to spread, expand 
itself (be spread out), mami- 
lata, V. t., to spread.] A. 
faras'a, to spread out any- 
thing, as a mat on the ground, 
spread (a bed for anyone), 
hence fars", a bed. 

Biliti, s., the fat in the belly 
of a pig : connected with bele 
na, the belly. 


Bilisai, v., used as ad., to- 
gether, as i till bilisai ki 
nia, he told (two or more 
things) together : it is really 
a V. t., and tili bilisai ki, 
lit. he told gathering-together 
it: bila i, or bilai, and sai 
(see saisai). 

Bilo, V. i., d. bulo, q.v., to 
awaken, to open the eyes ; 
bulo-ni, d. bulobulo i, v. t., 
to awaken (from sleep), to 
cause to open the eyes. [Sa. 
ala, to awake, Ma. ara, v. i., 
wake \x^,wlicikaara, v. t., rouse, 
Fi. yadra, open the eyes, 
awake, yadra-va, watch for, 
vaJcayadra-ta, to awaken.] H. 
<ur, to awake, be awake, cause 
to awake. Hi. to arouse, awake 
(from sleep) ; to watch, fol- 
lowed by the prep. *al, to 
watch over anyone. 

Bilo-si, V. t., d. balo-ni, wash. 

Bilora, for bulora, q.v. 

Bilu, or biliu, v. r., to go 
backwards and forwards be- 
tween two places or parties : 
liliu, liu. 

Bilu, uilu, uulu (wulu), q.v., 
to dance {a ivoman or ivomen ; 
men dancing are said to sali). 

Bilulu, V. r., vie with each 
other, contend with each 
other for superiority. A. 
'ala' (^alu), 3, vie, compete, 
contend for superiority : see 
lulu, or lu. 

Bilubaki, v. r., to land cargo 
from a ship, or to land pas- 
sengers (land each other) : 

Bimeta ua, v. and s., to be his 


guide, lit. his eye : bi, to be, 
and meta, eye. 

Binako, v. t., d. banako, q.v., 
to steal. 

Binaka, s., mats, cloth: see 

Binata, and dd. bunas, and 

Binauta, v. i., to be numb, 
devoid of feeling, as one's 
limb from stoppage of circula- 
tion of the blood in it : bi, to 
be, nata, a person (as if the 
limb belonged to some other 
person). See ata. 

Binen, v. i., d. syn. c. banotu, 
q. v., and baina, q.v. 

Binas, d. for banotu. 

Binoinoi, v. r., be confusedly 
together (as different kinds 
of things, people of different 
districts or languages), tu- 
mara noinoi ra : 

Binofinoi, a., confused, per- 
plexed, d. bunofunoi : noi, 

Binote, d. for banotu. 

Binu na, s., as, binu nafanua, 
head of the country (the chief 
and natamole tabu are said 
to be binu naf.), binu naui, 
head of a yam, syn. bau 
naui, binu namit, first half 
of a mat with long threads 
attached, from which the 
weaving or plaiting of the 
second half begins ; hence 

Binu, v., as binu namit, make 
a beginning of the second 
half of a mat, plaiting from 
the already finished half. See 
banu, ban, baniban, bana- 
ga, binaka. [My. anaiUj to 




weave.] E. 'anama, to weave, 

Binii, V. i., to whistle, del. 
bin, boge. [Am. mofin, Ml. 
P. SiudilJ., puinxmin, ivimvin, 
Mg. enu, nenu, mcmemi, to 
sound, crow, sing, ring, Sa. 
vivini, to crow.] A. ma*anu, 
cantor, A. "aniya, sing, coo, 
«ina, cantus, H. 'anah, sing, 

Binunu, v., complete, ba 
binunu ki, to go throughout, 
complete (a piece of a fence) : 
nu, num. 

Bio-so, V. i., to call or cry 
out, shout, calling: bio, and 
so, q.v. The verb bio, or 
fio (see rafloso), means to 
cry out, shout. [Sa. piajno, 
an outcry, a shouting, Mg. 
fell, voice, sound, report.] 
H. pa'ali, to call, to cry out. 

Bira-gi, d., 

Biri-gi, d. firi-gi, v. i, to 
carry on the back, take, bring, 
lead. [Epi ^nhario, carry on 
the back.] A. hamala, to 
carry on the back, bring, 
send, impel to do something, 
S. hmal, collect, carry. 

Biri-nala, s., the plaited or 
braided (rojoe) handle of a 
carrying basket : see ala, and 
bir i, to plait. 

Biri-ofa, s., the cloth in which 
a child is slung and carried 
on the back of its mother : 
birigi, and ofa (i), d. afa, 
both of which verbs signify 
to carry on the back. 

Biragoro, v., d. boragoro, 
q.v., to make, break into a 

noise near someone : see bora 
i, and goro. 

Biraka, v. r., to give presents 
to guests at a naleoiian (feast 
after a death), lit. to give 
presents (or rewards) to each | 
other : raka-ti ; " 

Birakana, s., the giving of 
such presents. 

Biri-raki, v. t., to give pre- 
sents to guests at a naleoiian: 
biri a (biri nabo ra, i. e. 
make their hearts void of 
evil thoughts, i.e. pleased or 
good). See biri. 

Biraiisi, v. r.. to follow each 
other : rausi. 

Bir i, or biri, v. t., to make 
void, bring to nought, as 
counsel, bisa biri nalo na: 
the radical notion is break to 
pieces, biri na maietoa, break 
to pieces or put an end to 
(one's) anger, appease, biri 
nabo na, bring to an end the 
evil feelings of one's heart, 
appease. This verb is much 
used after other verbs, as 
mitoa, bisa, &c., think void, 
i.e. despise, &c., and ba biri 
nafanua, means to go all 
through the land : tale, 
round, tale-firi, all round ; 
reduplicated it is 

Birifiri, nearly the same 
meaning as biri i. H. pa- 
rar, to break in pieces. Hi. 
hefer, to break, as a covenant, 
make void, be void, bring to 
nought : eg. para% and fol- 
lomng word. 

Biris i, and boris ia, v. t., to 
break down, destroy, birisi 

BIRIS I] 143 

nakoro, break down a wall : 
the notion of breaking in 
pieces, asunder, is implied in 
this word, which is cognate 
with the preceding. H. pa- 
ras, to break, break down, 

Biri, V. i., to warble, whistle 
(birds). [Epi faru, forfaru.'} 
A. watta, watwata, to 

Biri, d. for biira, to be full, 

Bir i, V. t., to plait a string 
or rope. [Sa. fiU, to plait ; 
to be entangled, involved. 
Ma. tvJiiri, twist, plait, Ha. 
hili, braid, plait, twist, fasten, 
Tah. flri, to plait. My. pintal, 
d. 2^Un, Bu. j^^ioi} Batavia 
hilcm, twist.] A. fatala, 
n. a. fatP, E. fatlat, twist, 
spin (fetlat). In H., A., Ch., 
Syr., and E. 

Bir i, V. t., d., to stick, stab, 
pierce, as, biri naui, to stick 
a knife or fork into a yam 
while being boiled to know 
whether it is cooked. See 
bur i. 

Birife, v. r., to seize, pull 
hither and thither (to take 
away a man's 23roperty as 
a punishment). A. hadiba 

Birigirigi, v. r., to be moan- 
ing, bemoaning oneself. See 

Brigi, d., v. t., bri (i.e. biri), 
prob. for meri, q.v., to do, 
make : therefore it is bri-gi 
(biri-gi). See meri. 


Birigite na, s., d. for bur a na, 

Biriki, s., a part, side. [Mg. 
varalM, to separate.] A. fa- 
rik*, a part, from faraka, 
to divide, separate, &c. Hence 

Biriki, s., a 'falling' star, a 
meteor : used also as a name 
of men. 

Biri-sai, v. t., to j)ierce open, 
birisai na bago aso, pierce 
open the tunnel (or end of it) 
of the robber-crab, fig. to lay 
ojDen some hidden wicked- 
ness : biri, to pierce, and sai, 
q. V. 

Biroa, and biroaroa, v. r., to 
turn each other (in some 
work, causing it to be done 
in some other way), as, when 
one is doing some piece of 
work, to make him do it some 
other way is to biroa : see 
roa, to turn, to change. 

Bisa, flsa, or basa, and bisu- 
raki, v. i. , to speak, na f isan, 
d. nafsan, the act of speaking, 
speech, a word ; tabisa, to 
speak earnestly (ta, q.v., and 
bisa), tafisaflsa, d. tafisfis, 
to speak earnestly ; to pray 
(so used now in Christian 
sense) ; to utter inarticulate 
sounds (as those made by a 
cocoanut on the gi*avel which 
a rat is turning about trying 
to get at its kernel). [My. 
hacha, to read, recite, chant, 
Tag. hasa, Fi. vosdf to speak, 
talk.] A. nabasa, and na- 
basa, to speak ; to peep or 
chirp {a hirdj ; nabsat', a 




Bisaflsa, v. i., redup. of fore- 
going, to speak rapidly (as 
one in delirium). 

Bisa, or fisa, d. bia, q.v., to 
be how many ? so many, a 
few ; bisa-mau, d. bisi-ba, 
to be only a few, few. See 

Bisab, d. for bisif, v. i., or a., 
surpassing, excelling, as, fonu 
bisab, an excelling (big) 
turtle, i uia bisif, it is good, 
surpassing or excelling. See 

Bisai ki, v. t., to show, d. 
bisa ki. See sai. 

Bisakaui, d. for bisaku-ti, 

Bisaki (d. biski), d. transposed 
for bakasa, q.v. 

Bisaka, or busaki, v. c, to 
raise up, to place above, fig. 
to appoint or make one a 
chief. See saki. 

Bisaku-ti, v. t., d. bakasau, 
q.v. See siku-ti. 

Bisalot (for bosa-lot), v. i., to 
clap the hands, lit. bring (the 
hands) together, sound, or 
crack : bosa i, and lot. 

Bisau, V. i., dd. futum, bu- 
suf, or busofu, bisobu, to 
sprout forth, spring up. See 

Bisaui, d. for bisaku-ti, bisa- 

Biseka, v. i., d., to sit (as 
talking with a neighbour): 

Bisela, v. r., to bear, bring 
forth, give birth to : sela-ti. 

Bisera, biserasera, v. i., to 

be not of one size, to be 
different : sera i. 

Bisere, v. r., to be near: 
sere a. 

Bis i, or uis i, v. t., to take 
with the hand, grasp, take 
hold of, accept, receive. [Mg. 
hazuna, id.] H. 'ahaz, A. 
'ahad'a, Imp. hud, Arm. 
»ahad, E. 'ahaza, n. a. »eha- 
zat, id. 

Bisi na, or biisi na, s., the 
posteriors, the backside, the 
rump. Compare busi, d. for 
muri, q.v. [Mg. vudi, the 
posteriors, My. hurl, the back, 
the rear. Ma. muri, hinder 
part, Sa. muli, the rump.] 

Bis ia, or bisi a, v. t., to beget, 
procreate, make to be born, 
as a father his child ; mafls, 
one begotten or born, nama- 
fisien, the being begotten or 
born ; 

Bisi, or fisi, v. t., to rub one 
stick on another to produce 
fire, bisi nakabu, produce 
fire by friction. The rubbing 
stick is pointed and rubs a 
groove into the other, the 
rubbed out dust at the end of 
which gradually is ignited. 
[Mg. fusita, rubbed so as to 
produce fire by the friction, 
Quijusita, to produce fii-e by 
friction.] A. fasa'a, 2, to rub 
(a thing), so that its soft 
and broken interior may be 

Bis i, or bisi, v, t., to uncover 
or dig up anything buried 
under ground, to dig up, or 
uncover, by removing the 




covering earth, a dead and 
buried body, or any other 
thing buried in or covered 
with earth, as a yam, &c. A. 
nabas'a, to uncover what was 
covered or hid, as what lies 
hid under ground ; to dig up 
again, or uncover by digging 
{a corpse). 

Bisiba, v. i., or a., d. for bisa- 
mau (bisa-mau). See mau, 
and bisa. 

Bisif, V. i., or a., d. for bisab, 

Bisig, V. i., or a., to stink, be 
bad (mouldy, &c.), and of 
men, to be opposed, hostile : 

Bisobu, V. i., to sprout forth, 
spring up. See futum. 

Bisua, V. r., to meet together, 
to meet each other : sua. 

Bisuaki, or fisuaki, v. r., or a., 
order or command (or send) 
each other ; i bisuaki, he 
commands, that is, he com- 
mands some other person, or 
persons : sua ki. 

Bisueri, v. r., scold or vitu- 
perate each other : sueri. 

Bisuraki, or bisureki, i.e. 
bisu-raki, v., to speak, lit. 
to speak for, about ; nafi- 
suraki, speech, a word or 
utterance, naflsuraki sa, bad 
talk : bisa. 

Bisuru, V. r., lie (deceive each 
other), bisuru ki, lie to 
(some one): suru, d. sore- 

Bita, v. r., to be joined to- 
gether, associated (of men) ; 
bita ki, t., make to be joined 

together, or associated : ta, 

Bitabelu, and, d., 
Bitafetabelu, same as tabelu : 

Bitago, V. r., beg (from each 

other, or one from another), 

also bitagd sa, t., beg it, i.e. 

beg (for himself) it : tago-fl 

(q.V.), beg of him. D. for 

bitali, q.V. 
Bitaki, v.t., to place or fix the 

hot stones on the nakoau in 

the oven, d. uataki a, bitaki 

nakeau : taki. 
Bital i, or bitali, d., v. t., beg, 

ask him (for something) : pre- 

formative bi, and tali. [Sa. 

fcsili, to question, ask, sili, ps. 

siJia, to ask, inquire.] A. 

sa'ala, to question, 5, beg, 6, 

question, ask each other, n.a. 

sa'lat, H. s'aal, n.a. s'6alah. 
Bitanaki nia, v. t., r., to 

accompany one, bita-naki : 

see ta. 
Bitau sa, v. t., to invite, and 
Bitautau (of many) : tau, 

Bitau-ri, v. t., to marry (her) : 

Bite, V. t., to cut ; bitesu, d. 

biteiu, to cut reeds (see usu). 

[My. poto^, to cut.] A. 

batta (and batta), to cut ; 

Bite, s., an instrument for 

cutting, knife. 
Bite lua i. See bute lua i. 
Bitefa, v. r., to arrange them- 
selves opposite to each other 

for battle : tefa. 

BITEI A] 146 

Bitei a, v. t., to paint, to smear 
with intei; tei, turmeric, a 
reddish powder (made from 
a plant) much used for smear- 
ing the body, or wounds, or 
the nafona (native cloth), and 
tei, d. bei, the rosy, reddish 
flush (of dawn). A. 'a'da'u, 
crocus, sanguis draconis, a 
red gum used for healing 
wounds, a plant with which 
cloth is coloured or tinged, 
yadda'a, to tinge or colour 
a thing with the thing called 

Bitelo, d. butol, bitol, v. i., 
to be hungry. [Fi. vitolo, to 
be hungry.] A. talaha, to 
have an empty belly, toliha, 

Biteriki, s., an old woman, a 
matron, opp. to mariki, an 
old man, a senior ; ma-'riki, 
bite-Tiki, see fiteriki; bite 
means ' woman '. The com- 
mon word for 'woman' in 
one dialect is matu [Ja. 
ivedo}, q.v. 

Bitia, or fitia, v. i., to germi- 
nate, put forth shoots. See 
buti, biti. Dialect syn. sulia, 
from suli na. 

Bito, s., one lame, H. pasah, 
to be lame, pisseah, lame. 

Bitoli, V. r., to pass (or go 
before) each other : toli a. 

Bit5-si, V. t., to extend, spread 
out (as cloth, &c.), i fito, it is 
stretched out. H. matah, 
S. mtah, spread out, extend. 

Bitua sa, v. r., give it, place 
it ; hence bituana, s., a 
giving, gift: tua i. 


Bitua ki, v. t., place, lay 
down : tua ki. 

Bitubetuba, v. r., lit. to be 
touching each other (of things) 
in a series, then, to be con- 
tinual, uninterruptedly, con- 
stantly ; not redup. it is, 

Bitub, to be touching or reach- 
ing to each other, as in tale 
bitub, it is all round (the 
two ends of that which goes 
round), meeting or touching 
each other: tuba ia. [My. 
tubitubi, successively, un- 
interruptedly.] See tuba i. 

Bituma ki, v. r., to point to 
with the finger : tuma i. 

Bo, conj., particle connecting 
verbs thus, i tulena bo lotu, 
he arose and worshipped, i 
tili a bo ban, he said it and 
went away : the bo can some- 
times be and sometimes is 
omitted as i tulena lotu : d. 
syn. kai. A. fa, Wr., A. Gr., 
II. § 140, *One finite verb 
may be put in apposition to 
another. In this case a) the 
first is the preparative act, 
introductory to the second,' 
as in the above Ef. examples : 
' the older and more elegant 
form is to insert the conjunc- 
tion fa,' its omission being 
a later construction. As to 
the o in bo it seems to be the 
third pers. pron., i.e. bo = 
'and he' or 'and she', d. 
syn. kai. 

Bo, d., other dd. fo, mo, u6, 
o, a particle used after an- 
other particle to form the 
future tense, thus, i ga bo 




ban, dd. i ga uo ban, i g'o 
ban, k'e fo ban, i ba mo 
ban (or, i mba mo ban), he 
will go away : without the 
bo (uo, o, mo, fo) as, i ga 
fan, &c., the meaning is im- 
perative, or i^ermissive, let 
him go, he must go, should 
go, may go, lit. that he go, 
the particles ga (or ka), and 
ba, being final conjunctions 
denoting ut, that, to (as in, 
I told him to go) : see supra 
ba, conj., and infra ka (ga), 
conj. In Ml. P., Motu, &c., 
this ba alone forms the 
future tense, and in Florida 
and Vaturanga this k» (ka, 
ga) alone forms the future, 
thus k'e fan, i.e. ke fan, 
that he go, Ef., is in these 
two languages not only 
equivalent to this, but also 
equivalent to ke fo ban, he 
will go. It is therefore 
manifest that the particle bo 
does not by itself express the 
future idea, but, in Ef., &c., 
it is a final conjunction 
which does. See the follow^- 
Bo, a particle used to form the 
present ^progressive or indefi- 
nite tense, as, i bo ban, he 
is going : i ban, denotes 
either he goes or he went. 
This is the same particle as 
is used in the future tense. 
It makes the verb to which 
it is prefixed a participle, 
thus, iga bo ban, that he (be) 
going, i bo ban, he (is) going. 
See Ch. V. 10, a, h. 

Bo na, redup. bobo na, or 
bobo na, s., the heart (i.e. 
the mind, the seat of the 
intellect and affections). The 
original meaning is seen in 
the phrase nakasu nabo na, 
the cartilaginous substance 
on the front of the throat, 
lit. the stick, or tree, of the 
bo (pectus). [Mg. fii, the 
heart, mind.] A. bahw', 
the cavity of the chest 

Boa, V. i., to emit odour ; 
nabo, d. tamo, to emit odour, 
bon, odour. [Ha. po, xmia^ 
id.. My. Jjaii, Mg. fufuna, 
odour.] A. faha, fah'a 
(fa'a), to emit odour. 

Bob', d., father (voc). See ab, 
babu, &c. 

Bobo. See bo na. 

Bobo, v., as bobo ki atelagi, 
to hail the new moon by 
making an exclamation or a 
series of sounds like bo ! bo ! 
bo! [Mg. hahahciba, cry, &c.] 
S. yabeb, clanxit, H. yabab, 
Pi. to exclaim, cry out. 

Boboi, s., a mask, cover, or 
disguise ; not only a mask 
for the face, but a cover of 
the whole body, made of 
kaka naniu, &c., and 2:>ainted 
so as to appear terrific (to 
children) ; used at the na- 
leouan after the death of a 
chief when the nabea was 
set up. Perhaps so called 
from concealing oneself with 
the mask or disguise. [To. 

fiific, hide, conceal, disguise.] 
See bei, supra. 

L 2 




Bobu, s,, redup., cl. bua, grand- 
father (voc), mother's father. 
See bua, tobu na. 

Bo-fi, and reduplicate 

Bobo-fi, V. t., to cover, to be 
upon a thing, or above it, 
covering it : see bau. 

Bogi, V. t., or bugi, to over- 
shadow ; 

Bogor i, V. t., bogi, and gor 
i, to be covering over — see 
gor i, and bogi, infra; 

Bog-kor i, v. t., to be above, 
over, to overtop, overshadow, 
as a tree over a smaller plant, 
a higher chief over a lower 
(see kor i) ; 

Bogi, or bog, s., darkness, 
night, also * day ' in counting 
as * third day ', bog tolu, or 
mog tolu, &c., te nabog, 
some day, some time, also 
naubog ; 

Bogien, s., darkness ; 

Bog, s., a dark black powder, 
used in painting ; 

Bog, a., black, dark. [Sa. po, 
night, ps. pogia, to be be- 
nighted. Ma. po, night sea- 
son. Hades (from being dark). 
Ha. po, night, darkness, v. to 
be dark, become night, to be 
out of sight, hence slain, lost, 
to overshadow (as the foliage 
of trees), assemble thickly to- 
gether, a. dark, dark coloured, 
ignorant, obscure. An. pig, 
night, apigj black, po'ig, dark, 
Ja. hugi, night.] A. fahuma, 
to be black, fuhum, black, 
fahma-t, night. 

Bok, redup. bokauok, v. i., 
onomat., to blow, to pant. 

[Ma. piilca, to pant.] H. 
puah, to breathe, to blow, 
Hi. to pant. 

Boka-ti, V. t., to strike, bisa 
boka-ti, to reprehend. [My. 

jnihul, Mg. puJca, strike.] A. 
baka'a, to strike with re- 
peated blows ; to cut up ; 2, 

Bokas, s., Hades; abokas, c. 
prep, in Hades. See s. v. 
bua, IsUc. 

Bokauoka, redup. of boka-ti. 

Bokota, V. i., or a., dirty (as 
water): gota. 

Bolaf i, d. forbalafi, q.v., d. 
bolbolaf i. 

Bola sa, d. for bala sa, q.v. 

Bolau ki, to steer (a canoe or 
ship) : boiiolau. 

Bole, d. buele, v. i., to be lost, 
absent : buele. 

Bolo, V. i., or a., to be empty 
(as a cocoanut) : balo. 

Bolo, s., a small basket. [Ma. 
paro, a small basket. To. hchc, 
a cup.] H. kpor, or kepor, 
a cu]), E. kapar, a basket. 

Bolo, v., to do, redup. bolo- 
folo, to do, to act, nafolon, 
nafolofolon, deeds (doing, 
acting), work, conduct ; 

Bolo, d., to behave deceitfully; 

Bolo-si, v. t., to do one, to 
treat him (as in quarrelling), 
to treat him, bolo sa, bolo 
uia ki, to behave ill, to be- 
have well to. [Fi. vala, vcila- 
vala, V. i., valcirta, v. t., to 
make or do, vala, to fight, 
valavala, s., work, custom, 
habit.] H. pa'al, to make, 


to do, po'al, or pool, deed, 
act, work, A. fa'ala, move 
oneself, act, do work, do 
(something to some one), 8, 
devise (deceit against some 
one), fl'l*, action, work, fa'i- 
lat, custom, n. a. fa'lat. 

Bolis i, d. for bills i. 

Bolboloa, or bolbboloa, d. for 
balebalia, large. 

Bolof i, d. for balaf 1, q.v. 

Bologa, V. i., to turn itself 
about (as something sinking 
in water), tafiloga, id. See 
bulo ki. 

Bolu, V. 1., to be blunt (as an 
edged tool). A. bohira, to be 
blunt (as a sword). 

Bon, bono, v. i., to be shut, 
closed, stopped, bono sa, shut 
because of it, bon, bonbon, 
to crowd together, crowded 
together : 

Bono-ti, or bonu-ti (and mo- 
no-ti, bunu-ti, munu-ti), v. 
t, to shut, close, plug, stop, 
block up, and 

Bon, a., and s., 1,000, d.marni, 
1,000; bunuti, bunti, 100. 
These words denote lit., a 
gathering, crowd. [Sa. puni- 
puni, shut in, close in, cover 
over, punitai, to stop with, 
taimni, to shut, momono, to 
plug, monotl, to cork, plug, 
Xmipui, to shut, Fi. vuni, vuni- 
taJca, Mg. afuia, My. liuni, Fut. 
hima, Epi mhin, Ma. piani, 
papanij block up, hopani, shut 
to, close up, close in, Mg. 
laimbiina, or Jiumhuna, shut, 
closed, mihimliuna, to shut, 
close, coalesce, Ha. pan'i, to 

149 [i. BORA I 

close, shut, stop, Sa. mano^ a 
myriad, a great number.] 
H. babam, bahan, A. bah- 
hama, 2, 4, 5, 10, to shut, 
cover, conceal, be mute. 

Bono-gor i, to crowd together 
(gor i) about him or it ; 

Bonbon, d., a., redup. of bon, 
crowde d together, nam er bon- 
bon, people crowded together. 

Boolau. See boiiolau. 

I. Bora i, or borai, v. t., to 
rend, split open, split ; borai 
nabati na, part the teeth, 
i.e. open the mouth to speak, 
hence borai, to make a noise, 
borai-goro, make a noise (as 
children) about or near (one), 
borai-uora-goro, id., dd. 
bora-goro, bira-goro, id., 
bororai, v. t., redup., rend, 
split open, elo borora, the 
sun (rising) rending or split- 
ting asunder or bursting 
through (the clouds), tabare 
(tabarre), v. r. (passive), to 
be split open, burst, hence 
to be open (as a door), maora, 
or manor a, redup. maora or a, 
V. i., to be rent, hence uora, 
a place, especially a landing- 
place for a canoe (perhaps 
from being an opening or 
split in the reef), and, there- 
fore, often in names of places, 
a side (of an island), as, uora 
n tan, uora n lig, lower, 
upper side (of Efate), bora, a 
basket woven out of the frond 
of a cocoanut palm whose 
stalk is split asunder, and the 
frond itself, bora, the sides 
of the head or face, the 




temples (which women used 
to cut and tear open with 
a sharp shell (kai) in mourn- 
ing for the dead). A. fara', 
to split, rend, slit, 5, ta- 
farra', to become slit, rent, 
burst, i.e. open, faryat, 
tumult, clamour. 

Bora, s., the temples : bora i. 

Bora, s., cocoanut leaf, or 
basket made of it, or plaited 
for thatching houses : bora i. 

Borabora, s., cocoanut leaf 
basket : bora i. 

II. Bora, V. i., to spring up, 
sprout, grow (of plants), be 
born (of men) ; bakauora ki, 
V. c, make to bora (men and 
plants), nauora na, nauo- 
rauora na, offshoot, offspring 
(of plants and men), ora 
naui, the vine of the yam ; 
fara, a cocoanut (fruit) that 
begins to shoot. [Motu vara, 
to grow, to be born, Oba 
hin, to grow.] H. parah 
(A. farih^a, 2), to break out, 
burst forth (of the young as 
issuing from the womb), to 
sprout, to flourish (a plant). 
Hi. to cause to do so, sprout, 
shoot, H. perah, sprout, 
shoot, A. farh'% offspring, 
shoot or sprout. 

Bora-bau, v. and s., over-head, 
noon, only in the phrase elo 
i bora-bau, the sun is over- 
head, lit. sj^lits-head : bora i. , 
and bail. 

Bora-goro, or borai-goro, or 
borai-uora-goro, to make 
a tumult, noise near (one) : 
bora I. 

Borai, s., c. art., the sugar- 
cane ; 

Borairai, s., a reed like sugar- 
cane growing in streams. 
A. bara', 4, to find sugar- 

Bora-kai, v. and s., to tear or 
rend the kai (a shell-fish, or 
its shell) : borai i. Men who 
were worthless and died poor, 
and had no pigs killed at 
their death and burial, bora- 
kai, in Hades, their jaws 
being torn and bleeding in 
doing so. 

Bora-kese na, s., gills of 
fish ; bora i., and kesa (dark 
coloured) ; dd. morese na, 
kurumase na. 

Borau, v. i., to ride or be 
carried (on a canoe or ship, 
horse, vehicle, or other thing), 
to voyage. [Fi. vodo, em- 
bark, go on board, ride, Sa. 
folau, a voyage, the crew and 
vessel. To. felau, to navigate, 
make a voyage, a canoe, a 
fleet of canoes, a voyage. My. 
praJm, prau, a canoe, boat, 
ship, general name for any 
kind of vessel, hcirprau, to 
travel by boat or ship.] A. 
markab', E. markab, a ship, 
vessel, A. rakib*, navigating, 
voyaging, rakiba, to be 
carried, to ride (A. markab', 
denotes a vehicle, carrying- 
beast, chariot, as well as a 
ship), H. rakab, to be carried 
(on a horse, chariot, the 
clouds, &c. — so Ef. borau). 

Note. — A. markab', is an 
infinitive, and therefore is 

BORAU] 151 


naturally in Ef. and Fi. a 
verb, My. and Sa. a substan- 
tive, and To. both a verb 
and a substantive. 

Borea, s., c. art. naborea, a 
dream, or vision (in sleep) ; 

Borea ki naborea, v., to 
dream a dream, or see a 
vision (in sleep). [Tab. ria, 
a vision in sleep, Santo po- 
porU Lakon Jjoro, id.] H. 
mar'eh, a vision (in sleep), 
A. roya, sleep, what is seen 
in sleep, from ra'a' (H. ra'ah), 
to see, then to have a vision 
in sleep, E. id. 

Bor i, or bori, v. t., to break, 
bori nakasu, break a stick, 
manori, mauoriuori, to be 
broken, and 

Bori-si, redup. 

Boriuori-si, v. t., break to 
pieces. [Mg. pur it a, Fi. voro- 
ta."^ H. por, inf. of parar, 
to break, break to pieces 
(pur, to break), Hithpolel to 
be broken. 

Borroa, v. i., to grow crooked, 
for boraroa : bora ii., and 

Boro-silaia. See buru ma- 

Boro-aki, v., also biro-aki, 
bero-aki, baro-aki, to be- 
queath to, or order to do (by 
will, when dying) ; to com- 
mission (one to do some- 
thing), give orders to. [My. 
pdscm, to commission, enjoin, 
Sa. poloai, to leave commands 
(as on going a journey or 
dying), to command, Mg. 
Jiafata [liafarana), a will or 

testament, order, bequeathed, 
ordered.] A. wasa% 2, to 
bequeath by will, 4, id., and 
to give power to, or com- 
mission, by will ; to com- 
mand, to enjoin. 

Borori-si, contraction of bo- 

Bosa i, V. t., to compress, 
manu i tumana bosa ia, a 
bird comi3resses itself (with 
its closed wings), i bosai 
naniu, he compresses a cocoa- 
nut (so as to break the shell), 
press together, squeeze (as a 
sponge), hence bosa, or uosa, 
V. i., to be compressed, i. e. 
narrow, and tabosa (sela 
uosa, a narrow track, nata- 
mole tabosa, a man thin as 
if pressed together), redup. 
uosauosa; bosa naru na, 
clap the hands, bosa-lot, 
clap the hands with a sound, 
d. bosa ki, i.q. bosa i. A. 
hamaza, to press with the 
fingers or hand, to compress, 
push, strike, bite, break. 

Bosabosa, s., froth (coming 
from the mouth, as of one in 
sickness), sputum, d. fut. 
[Mg. futaficta, slaver, spittle, 
foam, mifutafuta, to slaver, 
to foam.] A. bozak', bosak', 
saliva, sputum. 

Bosi, V. t., twist (a rope). 
[Sa. fusi, gird. My. i->ws/^, 
twist, turn round.] A. 
'afasa, to t^vist. 

Bota, V. i., and a., to be, or 
become, different, other, 
alien ; 

Bota i, V. t., to divide, part, 




make one remove from the 
other, botauota (or botota), 
redup. ; i toko botauota, he 
is in the middle or midst, 
exactly between two things, 
lit. he is parting or dividing 
(the two things), mauota, or 
maota, to be divided or 
parted, hence na maota, the 
midst or middle space be- 
tween two things, i.e. the 
space by which they are 
parted, removed, or distant 
from each other. [My. heda, 
or hida, distinct, separate, 
different, heda-Mn, to sepa- 
rate, to distinguish, to make 
a difference.] E. b'ud, 
other, alien, different, A. 
ba'oda, and ba*ida, to stand 
apart, be distant, remote, 2, 4, 
make to be so, 6, to be apart 
from each other, also to 
recede or go apart from some 
one, 3, make to be apart or 
distant, also to go apart or 
be distant, bo'd% distance : 
of. banabota, diverse, dif- 
ferent. Hence 

Beta, s., c. art., a person un- 
married (apart) ; 

Botauota, and 

Botota i, V. t., redup. of 
bota i. 

Botu, V. i. , to swell (of a girl's 
breasts). A. nabata, (3) n. a. 
nobot*, begin to s^vell (a 
girl's breasts) ; (1) to germi- 

Bona (bowa), v. i., to rain, d. 
for ba. 

Boua ki (bowa ki), v., d. ua 
ki, to fruit, to produce fruit. 

Oh. pera, Syr. pira, fruit, v. 
to bear fruit. See ua. 

Boiiolau ki, v. t., to steer (a 
canoe or ship), then, fig., to 
steer a country (bouolau ki 
nafanua), &c., that is, govern 
it, bouolau ki emeromina, 
govern the world (of God). 
[Ml. dd. harau, taro, wcdu, 
foro, Ef. uolau {tvolaii) in 
l)Oitolau-Jci.2 E. Ijadafa, to 
steer (a vessel or ship), then, 
fig., to govern men, to steer, 
i.e. govern the world (said 
of Jesus Christ), mahdaf, 
rudder, helm. See uolau, 
Note. — Boiiolau ki is redup- 
licate, see bolau ki (d.), id., 
and uolau ki, and note the 
pref. b' (for m) in bolau. 

Bu, d., verbal pron., 1 pi., 
excl., dual moa: d. au, dual 

Bua, d. bobu (q.v.), voc, 
maternal grandfather. [Fut. 

Bu (nalo), v. t., to see (a thing). 
See bunu, bunu-si. [Santo 
d. vai, to see.] Bu, is for 
bunu. H. bin, to discern, 
perceive, see, n. a. binah, for 

Bu, s., c. art., a bundle. [Fi. 
ai vau."} See bau-si. 

Bua, v., divide, as, ta bua i, 
cut, divide it (cut it open), 
mafua, and tabua, to be rent 
open, cracked, ti bua i, press, 
rend it (press, burst it open, 
as new wine old wine skins), 
and fai (or fae) in magafai, 
a half, a division (of a thing), 




and lao fai (see fai). [Sa. 
vaega, a division, vaevae, to 
divide in parts, cut up, ma- 
vae, to be split, to be cracked 
open.] A. fa'a, n. a., fa'W, 
or fa'y% 1, 4, to split, cleave, 
7, to be open, to be separated, 
rent, cleft. 

I. Bua, V. i., to be emj^ty, 
vacant, having nothing (as 
an empty cocoanut), tabu, 
i.e. ta bu, men having 
nothing, or naked (name 
applied to the naked people 
of some neighbouring islands, 
i.e. people who use no waist 
cloth). A. bahiya, to be 
empty and bare (as a house). 

II. Bua, and bubu, d. mobu, 
V. i.; and a., to be deep (as 
the sea, or a pit), i toko bua 
(said of a yam down in the 
ground), ebu or ebua, in the 
deep part (of a thing), i toko 
ebu, or ebua, and sofa ni 
ebu is consumption or 
phthisis in the deep part 
(i.e. inside) of the body 
(deep-seated) ; ebua and 
bokas, abokas, the abyss, 
Hades, Malo abua, id., bua- 
riri, abyss, Hades (riri, to 
sink), and bugi, or bubugi, 
to sink deep, d. na tibu, 
the deep. [Ma. Jtopua, deep, 
An. ulo, deep, Fi. tohit, d. 
miUt, deep.] A. 'amuka, 
and ma'uka, 1, to be deep, 
also, to be distant, far olf 
(emai, ufea), 4, make deep, 
5, to be deep, H. 'amak, to 
be deep, 'amek, 'amik, deep, 
'S,mukah, A. «amakat, E. 

'amaka, to be deep, •muk, 
deep, ma'mak, any depth, a 
valley, the abyss (Hades). 

III. Bua or fua (in na fua- 
goro, d. na mua-goro, a 
sirring on the shore covered 
by the flood-tide, (so called 
because the sea mua gor ia, 
flows over it), and mua, v. i., 
to flow (the tide) ; 

Buafua, v., na tas i buafua, 
or naroa i buafiia, the sea 
or current flows or carries 
things floating on it ; 

Bua-ti, V. t., to take (make to 


Bue a, V. t., make to flow 
upon (a thing), pour upon, 
moisten. [Ha. puai, to flow, 
as blood from a vein, or 
water from a fountain, to 
cast up ; to boil up, as water 
from a spring, My. huwag, 
eject, expel, cast.] H. naba% 
to bubble forth, gush out, 
Ch., S., A. naba% naba". 
Of. A. ba'^a, to gurgle out 
(as blood). The connection 
between the ideas of gomg or 
fioiving out and talcing out 
(making to go out) is seen in 
the eg. Ch. nepak, to go out, 
caus. to take out, and also in 
H. yabal, to flow, caus. to 
bring, bear, carry. 

Bubu, V. i., to gargle. [Sa. 
2nipi(, to gargle.] See under 
preceding word, and cf. A. 
ba«ba«, or ba'ba'u, gurgling 
sound of water flowing from 
a bottle or flask. 

Bua na. See bui na. 

Bugi, and 



[ill. BUKA 

Bubugi, V. t., to sink down, 
to dip (anything) [Ma. poTxO- 
poJiO, Ha. 2^oopoo% put it 
down into the water ; uta 
bngi rarua, load a canoe 
deep ; 

Bubu, V. i., to be deep : 
bua II. 

Buele, d. bole, v. i., to be 
lost, missing. [My. ila^, to 
lose, be lost, missing, Fi. 
palL Mg. veri, lost, missed.] 
H. »abad, Mendaite awid, 
to be lost, missing. 

Bugafuga, v. i., to be awake, 
to awake, bugo-ni, v. t., to 
awaken one. [Sa. fagufagu^ 
fafagu, to waken, rouse from 
sleep, ps. fagiia, Mg. fuJm, 
fiiliafulia, imp., awake, mi- 
fulia, V. i., to awake, mmmilia, 
V. t., to awake, fiiMzina, 
being awakened.] See bulo, 

Bugo-ni, V. t., to awaken. 
See preceding word, and 
bulo-ni, Ch. II. 14. &. 

Bui na, or bua na, s., c. art., 
backbone, tail, rump. [Fi. 
hui, tail, Fut. hua, back. To. 
miti, after, the hindermostend, 
tip, or extremity of anything, 
Sa. miili, the end, the rump, 
Mg. mlm, the back.] See 

Buigo, or bigo, v. i., to lose 
the way, be at a stand, per- 
plexed, not knowing the 
way. [Compare Sa. p)ogi, 
to be benighted.] See bog. 

I. Buka, V. i., to be filled, 
swell out, as the belly when 
filled with food, or as a sail 

filled with wind ; namarita 
na i buka, his belly is puffed 
up or swollen, or pants (with 
rage), mafukafuka, to be 
swollen or puffed up, nafu.- 
kana, the being swollen or 
puffed up. [Mg. miM, sati- 
ated, filled, mimuki, v. i., 
mamuM, v. t., vuMsana, Jiavu- 
Msana, My. haTcat^ stuffed, 
filled. Ma. j^tf^w, to swell.] 
A. nafab'a, to inflate, 8, to 
be inflated, to swell, naf b^at% 
inflation of the belly, man- 
fuh% ventrosus ; obese ; 

Buka, s., a swell, as a ground 
swell. [My. haJcat, id.] See 

Buk, s., as nabuk natamole, 
a band of men. [H. jp^m, a 
gathering or collection, sign 
of plm'al number, he pim 
JcanaJca, a gathering or band 
of men.] See buka. 

Note. — This word is used 
in Ef. also for a gathering or 
collection of things, thus : 
nabuk anena i oni au, I am 
in his debt, but lit. his collec- 
tion of things (which he has 
given me) remains on me 
(i.e. I have not yet repaid 


II. Buka-si, or buki-si, v. t., 
to open, as a roll of cloth, 
buka ua (iiwa), open the 
oven. [My. buJca, to open, 
unclose, uncover, Mg. miliaj 
opened, minmha, v. i., ma- 
mulia, V. t., to open.] A. 
fakka, v. t., to open. 

III. Buka, V. i., to bark (a 
dog), buka ia, bark at it, 



[ii. BULE 

bukai kusue, bark at a rat, 
d. syn. oro-maki; also, 
buka, to cough. H. nabah, 
A. nabaha, to bark (a dog). 
[Mg. viwu.'J Formed from 
the sound. A. nabaha, is 
followed by ace. with or 
without a prep. 

IV. Buka 1, V. t. , to hit upon, 
meet, fall in with, find, 
as, i ba bukai uago buele, 
he hit upon, met, fell in with, 
or found a lost pig. H. 
paga', id., as in Ex. xxiii. 4. 

Bukaru, or bakaru, d. fakaru, 
v., to joke, jest, bukaru ki, 
V. t., mock, deride. [Motu 
Uri, to laugh, My. gurau, to 
joke, and Jcara, id., Mrgurcm, 
maggurcm, joke, jest, mctggu- 
rau-kan, v. t., mock, deride.] 
A. kahara (5) laugh, joke. 

Buko na, s., c. art., pro- 
tuberance or knob, as nabuko 
naui, protuberance or knob 
of a yam. [Ha. ptm.Ji See 
buka I. 

Bukoro, s., enclosure round 
a house at its base, name of 
a tree and its fruit (from its 
kernel being enclosed), a 
proper name (of men). [Ma. 
puJcoro, sheath, case, halo, 
net.] See koro. 

Bukota, V. i., or a., to be 
dark-coloured, dirty, blackish 
(as water with dust or earth 
in it) : gota. 

Bukubukura, a., full of little 
swellings (pimples) : ra, end- 
ing. [Ha. puiipim, id. ; Sa. 
pou, pimple, pdupioua, full of 
pimples.] See buka i. 

Bukutu, s., a rise, hill. [Ha. 

puu, id., My. Ijuldtf a hill.] 

See buka i. 
Bul-meta na, s., eyeball, 

gleaming part of eye. See 

Bula, mbula, d. for bila, q.v., 

big, large. 

Bule, a., adult, nafera bule, 
a lot of grown up men 
(adults). A. bala"a, to reach 
mature or full age, ball", 
adult ; and 

I. Bule, V. t., complete, used 
after other verbs adverbially, 
as, i ba bule nafanua, he 
went completely through the 
land, le bule nagusu, it (a 
canoe) completely rounded 
the point, nafisan i soka 
bule nafanua, the word shot 
(lit. leaped) through the 
whole land, from end to end, 
noai i sera fule (or fulefule) 
nalia, the water ran com- 
pletely throughout the place. 
Bule is really a verb, in 
these instances, in apposition 
to the verb preceding it, as 
he went — completed (fin- 
ished) the land, &c. [My. 
bulah, the whole, To. full, 
all.] A. bala"a, n. a. bulu", 
to complete, go through to 
the end. 

II. Bule, V. t., to strip off 
leaves, ora naui i bule na- 
kasu, the yam vine strips off 
leaves from the tree, mafule, 
to be stripped of leaves (a 
tree). [My. luluSj stripped 
of leaves.] A. 'abala, 1, 2, 




to strip off leaves, foliis 
nudavit arhorem. 

Bule, s., a shell, lit. gleaming, 
shining, glittering. See bila. 

Bulibog, d. for bilibog, for 
bulo bog : bulo. 

Bull, s., a corpulent person ; 

Bulla, a., swollen ; and 

Bulifulia, a. , swollen here and 
there (the body), a, a. ending ; 
and mabulu, q.v. [Sa. fiila, 
stout, fulafula, swelling, fuJa- 
fida, fiifula, to be swollen.] 
H. 'afal, prop, to swell up, 
be tumid, A. 'aflla, to have 
a tumour or hernia. See 

Bulai, s., d. for belaki, and 

Bulai, V. t., d. for belaki, to 

Bulo, d. bull, V. i., and s., 
dawn, break (of day) : iga uo 
bulo (bo) mai, he (or it) will 
come early, lit. will be early 
and come : bulo-bog, dd. 
bull-bog, blli-bog, morning, 
lit. break of night (day- 
break) ; and so bulo asa, 
bulo metamal. [My. pagi, 
pagi ari, morning, early, by 
times, presently.] H. boker, 
morning, dawn, day-break, 
presently, A. bukra-t, id., 
bakara, to be early. 

Bulo, V. i., d. for bllo ; 

Bulo-ni, V. t., to awaken ; bulo 
nameta na, open his eyes ; 

Bulobulo 1, V. t., awaken him. 
See bllo. 

Bulo kl, V. t., to turn, to 
twist, also bulosl, bulusl, 
bulls! ; tafolo, to be turned, 
twisted, tafulus, to be turned. 

bologa, to turn itself (as 
a thing in sinking in water), 
tafiloga, id., bulora, or 
filora, twisted, confused (as 
a lot of things turned or 
twisted about). [My. pulds, 
Ja. pulir, to wring, twist, to 
turn aside (out of the way), 
to turn, turn round, Sa. 
tafuli, also, ftiU, fulisia, turn 
round, milo, to twist, mhnilo, 
milomilo, ps. mllosia, milosi, 
to be twisted, to be j)erverse, 
milomilosi, Fi.mulo-fa, to twist 
a single thread, Ma. miro, to 
spin, twist, Mg. full, fiiUsina, 
and mamuUsa, id.] H. palas 
(Talmud palek), turn round, 
twist, spin, A. falakat, 

Buloi, s., a mask, cover of the 
face. [Sa. pulou, a cover, 
disguise.] See maloi. 

Bulokl, V. i., or a., to be 
sticky, d. bubulu. See 

Bulora, v. i., or a., to be 
twisted. See bulo kl. 

Bulu-sl, or bulosl, or bllosi, 
V. t., to wash. See balo-ni. 

Bulusl, bulosi, or bullsl, v. 
t., to turn. See bulo kl. 

Bulu-tl, V. t., to plaster, over- 
spread with some sticky sub- 
stance (as lime, oil, paint, 
pitch), to cover with a plaster 
or poultice, as a wound, na- 
biilu, s. , plaster, &c. , bubulu, 
bulubuiut, bulokl (and ma- 
bulu, q.v.), to be sticky, as 
plaster ; d. fill, q.v., hair. 
[Fi. huht-ia, to bury or cover 
with earth, to apply an ex- 




ternal remedy, ai hidio, an 
external application or thing 
that covers or buries, Sa. 
jmluti, to glue, to pitch, 2^ulu, 
glue, gum, resin, xmluimlUy to 
cover the body with a cloth, 
pupulu, to interpose, to medi- 
ate, ps. pulutia, Fi. hulu-ta, 
to repair an injury, lit. to 
bury it, al huhihulu, a peace 
offering, or thing offered as 
a reparation of an injury.] 
H. kapar, A. "afara, to 
cover, cover over : A. "afara, 
to cover, cover over ; to cover 
(white hairs, with some dye 
or tincture, Ef. bulu-ti) ; to 
pardon (sin), 2, to cover with 
dust, H. kapar, to cover, 
overspread with anything, as 
with pitch, to xMch, Gen. vi. 
14 (H. koper, pitch) ; to 
cover (i.e. pardon) sin, Pi. to 
make expiation for an offence ; 
A. "aflru, hair, &c. 

Bulu, bulufulu, and fulu- 
fulu : bule i. 

Bulu, V. i., to fall down (as 
soft fruit from a tree, &c.), 
mala bulu, faint, fall down 
(a man) : i bulu natano. 

Bulu-aki, v. t., throw (as fire- 
wood on the fire, &c.), with 
a turning motion ; and 

Bulu-aki, d. for bulo ki, to 
turn, twist. 

Bulum, or buluma, d. bulim, 
V. i., to be changed, lit. 
turned : luma. 

Buma, V. i., d. for fuga, to 
flower or blossom, nabuma 
na, s., its flower or blossom. 
[Ml. P. pug, to blossom, 

pitgan, its flower or blossom, 
Sa. fuga, flowers, blossoms. 
My. huga, flowers, blossoms, 
Mg. vuni, flower, mamimi, to 
blossom.] A. fukah, flower. 

Buna sum i, v. t., to cork, 
plug, hence 

Bunaso, or funaso, s., c. art, 
a cork or plug : see bono-ti, 
or bunu-ti, and sume-li. 

Bunas, d. for binata. 

Bunofunoi, d. binofinoi, v. 
r., to be confused, j)erplexed. 
See binoinoi : noi, no 1, no. 

Buma, s., an insect that makes 
a shrill sound in the jungle 
in the evening, hence, buma 
i gai (the buma makes its 
sound) is often used for ' it is 
getting dark ', ' it is evening'. 

Bunu, d. for fanau, q.v. 

Bunu-li, V. t., d. for balo-ni, 

Bunu-si, V. t., to see (a thing). 
See s.v. bu. 

Bunu, s., death, destruction, 
as, ru sua bunu ; 

Bunu e, v. t., to make an 
end of, to kill or destroy 
(fish, men, &c.), to extinguish 
or quench (a fire, or lamp), 
ru sua bunu, they met 
destruction (having fallen 
into the sea), mafunufunu, 
and mafunei, d. fanei, to be 
ended, to be finished. [My. 
hunoJi, to kill, mamhunoJi, 
mamunoli, to kill, Mg. vunii, 
killed, mamunii, to kill.] 

Bunufunu, redup. of preced- 
ing word. See nu, to be 




Bunu-ti, V. t., same as bono- 

Biinutia, s., hundred, d. bunti 
(cf. bon) ; and 

Bunuta (and bunta), v. i., or 
a., to be silent, lit. to be shut 
(the mouth), ba funuta, be 
silent, exactly equivalent to 
the vulgar English '■ shut 
up', hence, nafunuta, s., a 
silent person, one that says 
little (a term of praise). See 

Bur, d. for bila, bula, to be 
big, large. 

Bura, or fura, v. i, or a., to 
be empty, to be devoid of, as, 
i bi an fura, it is an empty 
shadow, a bura ki nalo, 
I am empty of the thing, 
devoid of it, A. fara"a, 1, 2, 
to empty. See baro. Hence 

Bura, s., rubbish; nabura 
naniu, the husk of the cocoa- 
nut, nabura na, the husk or 
worthless part of a thing : 
hence the stalk of a fruit (as 
a worthless thing thrown 
away as rubbish) is called in 
different dialects bura-tena, 
bura-gitena, bara-tuna, 
biri-gitena, and miri-gitena, 
1. e. the bura of it. 

Biira, d. biri, v. 1., or a., to 
be full, bakafura, to fill. 
[Mg. fenUj full, mamenu, to 
fill, My. pcinoJi, full, mdmd- 
nolii, to fill.] H. mala', to 
fill, to be full. Pi. to fill; 
with another verb, to do 
anything fully, i. e. thorough- 
ly, so Ef. bera-ti, d. bera- 
kati (bera-kati, d. by trans- 

position for bera-ti ki), as lo 
b., look fully or thoroughly 
at it, i.e. watch it, rogo b., 
hear fully, i.e. obey, i uia 
b., it is good fully, i.e. 
thoroughly good, and it can 
also be said tea berakati na, 
i.e. tea anena berakati, 
a thing fully or thoroughly 
his ; A. mala', S. mla', same 
as H. Hence 

Burafura, furafura, s., the 
jungle, forest, vegetation : so 
called because it fills the 
land. A place covered with 
any kind of weeds, &c., is 
called nalia bura, a full 

Bura-gitena, and 

Bura-tena, see bura, s. 

Burasa. See marasa. 

Burau, or burou, s., the sky : 
H. marom, above, heaven. 

Bure i, fure i, or bure, burei 
ki, furei ki, v. t., to wash, 
rub, as, bure naui, wash off 
the earth from a yam, furei 
ki natuo na, cleanse his feet, 
furei ki lu nasoga; bure 
biakik, wash, cleanse a child, 
bure nabau na ki naroro, 
rub his hair with oil, oil his 
hair. [Fi. hore-a, to scrape, 
or wash the dirt off a thing, 
to brighten.] H. marak, 
(rub), polish, cleanse by 
washing or anointing (egg. 
marah, &c.). 

Bure i, or bura i, v. t., d., to 
leave, allow, forsake, aban- 
don. A. bara», 3, to leave, 
abandon. [My. &ir, to per- 
mit, allow.] 




Burei, d. marag ki, v., to 
spit out, to spit, to spit on. 
E. waraka, to spit, mirak, 

Bur i, burl, v. t., to pierce, 
stick, burl uago, stick a pig : 
d. for biri. [Ma. ivero, id.] 
E. barara, to stick, stab. 

Buria, v. i., or a., to be swollen 
(of the body), to have the 
dropsy. [Ma. hoptmia, drop- 
sical, My. hum, elephantiasis, 
Jjiinit, hernia.] The a in 
buria is the a. ending. A. 
nabara, to raise up, heap up, 
8, to swell, nabrat, a swelling 
on the body. 

Buria (bauria, bouria), v., to 
kindle or make a fire (in the 
oven), ru buria ua (uwa), 
and ru buria, they make a 
fire in the oven, or, simply, 
they make a fire, kindle up : 
this is done every evening 
about an hour before sunset. 
See bara (H. ba'ar). 

Burog, v. i., or a., offensive, 
mouldy, filthy (as food). [Ma. 
XMni, mouldy, and Jcopiiru, 
JcojMrupuru, id.] A. mara"a, 
to be contaminated. 

Buru masila, v. i., to roar (of 
thunder), tifai i buru masila, 
d. boro silaia, the thunder 
roars, or thunders sounding : 
for masila and silaia, see 
sila. [TaSa. hiri, Mg. varata, 
thunder, and to thunder, Ml. 
P. omburu7nbur, Ml. A. amhu- 
ramliiir, to roar (of thunder), 
Ml. P. herver, thunder.] A. 
barbara, to roar. 

Buru, burufuru, v. i., or a., 
to be short : d. mito, q.v. 

Buruma ki, or beruma (or bi- 
ruma) ki, v., to be in the rela- 
tion of son-in-law to parent- 
in-law, or of parent-in-law to 
son-in-law, syn. monaki (mo- 
naki) ; 

Buruma, or biruma, c. art. 
naburuma, s. , one in that rela- 
tion, son-in-law, mother-in- 
law, father-in-law : see mo 
na. One greatly reverences 
his buruma, and holds him 
so that he will not approach 
him. For the derivation of 
this word, see Index for the 
word mo. 

Busa, V. i., or a., reduji. busa- 
fusa, to be young, springing 
up (of plants and animals), 
hence to be inexperienced, 
foolish, to be spotted (the 
skin, as with cold, &c.). [My. 
mud'ci, young, immature, not 
deep in colour (light), foolish.] 
A. wabis'a, to be spotted 
(with white and black sj^ots, 
as the nails or skin), 4, to 
germinate, or put forth plants 
(the soil). 

Busa, s., or a., dumb, mute. 
A. yabisa, to be arid (see 
bes), 4, to be silent, mute. 

Busa, a., orphaned, meta 
busa, orphan. A. yabisa, 
to be arid, dry. An orphan 
is called meta busa, because 
deprived of its mother's milk. 
See bes, besu. 

Busi, v., i. q. bosi, q.v. 

Busi, V. i., to blow, spout (as 
a whale). [Sa. pitsa, to send 




up a smoke (also applied to 
spray, dust, and heat), Tah. 
];)ulia, to blow (as a whale), 
Xmliepuhi, to blow out of the 
mouth, blow, as with bellows. 
Ha. puld, to blow or puff, 
breathe hard, blow a trumpet, 
&c., Mg. fiiftda, blowing the 
bellows, mifufuta, to blow 
the bellows. My. Cmibus, to 
blow, make a current of aii*, 
dmhusan, bellows, cimhusi, to 
blow, drive, a current of air.] 
A. nafat^a, i. q. nafah'a, to 
blow with the mouth, blow 
out, puff, eject venom from 
the mouth (as a serj^ent), eject 
spittle (a man). 

Busa, s., nabusa, a mist. See 
under preceding word. 

Bus i, V. t., d., to lay down, 
leave, abandon ; 

Busfus ki, d., redup., d. for 
bure i, or bura i, q.v. 

Busi, or fusi, v. t., d. for 
muri, q.v. [Mg. fudi, re- 
turned, sent back.] 

Busa i, or fusai, v. t., break or 
smash to pieces, smash (as a 
yam), mafusai, ps. [Mg. 

jmsHa, Siiid pusilca.'} H. pus, 
or fus, to break in pieces. 

Buta ki, d. for milei, q.v. 

Buta, d., in meta-buta, blind, 
lit. eye dark. [Fi. matahuto. 
faint, hiito, darkness. My. huta, 

Buta, or futa, v. i., to spring 
up or out, as water from a 
sirring ; to spring up or out, 
as smoke from a fire ; to 
spring out, as a musket ball 
from a wound — i si buta i, 

he shot him, the bullet 
springing out from, or glanc- 
ing off his body, wounding 
but not fatal ; 

Butafuta, d. futfut, redup., 
to spring up or out, as water 
from a spring ; 

Butu-raki, or buti-raki, d., 
V. i., to appear, come in sight. 
[Ma. puta, V. i. , pass through, 
in or out, come in sight, My. 
tcirMt, to issue, come out, 
emanate, spring, arise, ap- 
pear, escape.] A. nabata, to 
spring up or out, as water 
from a spring, 4, ps. form, to 
api^ear, go or come forth, 
come in sight. 

Butaki, dd. mitaki,milai,q.v. 

But, d. for bota, unmarried. 

But i, or buti, or futi, v. t. , to 
pluck, as a fowl, pluck out or 
up, as weeds, mafuta, to be 
plucked. [Fi. vuti-a, to pluck 
feathers, hairs off animals, 
hence, to pull up grass or 
weeds, Sa. futi, to pluck 
feathers or hairs, fufuti, ps. 
futia, My. hantun, to pluck, 
pull out.] A. namasa, 1, 2, 
to pluck out, as hairs. 

Buti (for ba-uti), v., d. for 
bakauti, q.v. [Mg. vita, com- 
pleted, finished, mamita, to 

Bute (lua i), v. t., to praise. 
A. madaha, to praise. 

Buti na, biti na, s., germ, 
knob or excrescence growing 
on a tree, a joint (from its 
bulging out). See botu, and 

Butili, bitili, fitili, v. r., to 




speak of each other, speak of 
one behind his back : till. 

Buto, V. i., to germinate, 
bud. A. nabata, germinate. 

Buto na, s., bud, d. muto na. 

Buto na, s., navel, then mid- 
dle ; malebuto (lit. the place 
of the middle), the middle (of 
the body, a land, anything), 
d. but, hence d. tu-but, rain- 
bow, lit. stand in the middle 
(of the sky). [TaSa. htifo, 
navel, ta^a nahute, stomach, 
To. JjHo, Sa. pute, Tah. ^j?7o, 
navel, Tah. pitopito, a button, 
My. pusat, Mg. fulta, the 
navel.] A. bugrat (or buj- 
rat), the navel, a knob. 

Butol, V. i., d. for bitelo, q.v. 

Butua, V. t., d. for bitua, q.v., 
to place, lay down, give ; ta 
bituatua, to speak (or pray) 
while giving (or laying down) 
an offering (to the natemate). 

Butut, s., a place where offer- 
ings to the natemate are 
put : now used for ' altar '. 
Note. — The verb bntua or 
bitua is the reflective of tua, 
q.v. : ba butua ki, go back- 
wards and forwards between 
two things, to halt between 
two opinions. 

Buturaki. See under buta, 

E, article, for a, sometimes i : 
a, ne, na, in. 

E, dem., this, that, as mal e 
(for mala uai), that time, 
then : e is a contraction for 

uai : rag uai, this time, now. 
See i (d.), dem. This e, ori, 
is used also as a tense par- 
ticle — see i. 

E, or i, prep., in, on ; t. prep. : 
na, ni, a, i. [Sa. /, in, at, 
with, to, from, for, of, on, on 
account of, concerning, Ma. i, 
of, &c., and t. prep., My. i, t. 
prep., Fi. e, or i, in, with or 
by (instrumental).] A. 11, 
H. le, T. ne, Gurague ya, 
or ia. 

E, inter, ad., where? See se. 

Ei, ad., yes. [Mg. el Sa. e, 
id.] A. ey, or ei, yes. 

Ei a, or ei ia, ad., yes, that's 
it : preceding word, and dem. 

Ei eri, ad., d. syn. ei a: ei, 
and eri, dem. 

Ei, ad., here, d. i, q.v. 

Ei (e-i), ad., no, it is not. 
[Er. eijl Mg. ai, id.] Neg. 
ad. e, and i, dem. H. 'i, E. 
'i, not. 

Eba, V. See tali-eba, tali- 

Ebau, ad., at the head (of the 
island, i.e. the east), opp. to 
etu, at the foot (west) ; e, 
prep., and bau. 

Ebago, ad., in the end (of the 
house), inside : e, prep., and 

Ebua, or ebu, ad., in the deep : 
e, prep., and bua ii. Also 
ebua, s., the abyss. Hades. 

Ebut, d., in the middle; e, 
prep., and but, d. for buto, 

Egura, s., the stick used for 
spreading (scraping) out the 





heated stones of the oven : e, 

art., and gura i. 
Eis, ad., same as ais. 
Eka na, s., a relative, family 

connection. See aka. 
Ekatema, ad., on the outside 

of the house, outside : e, 

prep., and katema, q.v. 
Eksakes, d. forkesakesa, q.v. 
Eko, s. See neko. 
Ekobu, ad., in the inside, in 

the house, inside: e, prep., 

and kobu. 
Ela, d. for elan. 
Elagi, ad., and s., above, 

heaven : e, pre]i., and lagi, 

Elalo, or elalu, ad., in front, 

before: e, prep., and lalo, or 

lain, see alo, or alu na. 
Elan, ad., on the sea, by the 

sea: e, prep., and Ian. 
Elo, s., d. alo, the sun: ali. 
Elo, or eP, v. i., to be sweet, 

pleasant, agreeable, redup. 

lolo. [Ha. olii, to be pleasant, 

agreeable.] A. hala', halW, 

Elol, ad., d., in the belly, in- 
side: e, prep., and lol. [Ma. 

roto.2 Ef. dd. roar a, loga. 

A. rawt'o, ^jj garden, en- 
closure, lake, pool. 

Emai (or emai), ad., in the 
distance, afar, far away ; d. 
nfea : e, prej)., and mai. [Sa. 
mao, mamao, to be far off. 
distant, mamao, ad., far off, 
distant.] A. ma'oka,to be far 
off, distant, ma'k', distance. 

Emalebnto, ad., in the middle, 
inside : e, prep., and male- 
bnto na. 

Emate n, s., d. for namatigo 

na, the grave : mate. 
Enea, or inia, d., personal 

pron., 3 sing., he, she, it, dd. 

nai, niga, kinini ; 
Enera, or inira, pi. of pre- 
ceding word, they, dd. nara, 

nigar, kiniara. See Ch. V. 
En», vulgar pronunciation 

sometimes heard for nnnn, 

to wipe, rub off. 
Eni, v., d. for ani, contracted 

en, an, to abide, be. 
Enn, pers. pron., 1 sing., I, 

dd. ann, kinan, kinn, ke- 

Ere na, or dri na, d., mother. 

See s.v. ani na, note. 
Erai, dem., d., this : arai. 
Eri, dem., this. See arai. 
Erik, dem., this, here. See s. 

arai and ka. 
Eru, dem., same as eri, d. 

nro, nra. 
Ern, s., c. art. niern, arms, 

war : am na. 
Esan, ad., here, there, and 
Esanien, id., and 
Esas, id. : e, prep., and the 

demonstrative particles se, 

na, q.v. See ais (eis). [My. 

s'mi, siJca. here, sana, sanan, 

situ, there, and with prep. 

disini, here, disana, disitu, 

there, Mg. ahi, etu, ati, eti, 

Esega. See asaga. 
Esike, s., a forked stick, that 

which sike-ti, grasps, seizes : 

sike-ti, e, art. 
Esai, or esei, s., the open, open 

space, d. esai leba, a road, 

lit. big open space : sai. 




Eso, or esa, d., ad., yes: ei 
(supra), and so or sa, dem. 

Esu, d., ad., outside, away, e, 
prep, and su. [Cf. Fi. escm 
(e sail), on the outside, saiisau, 
outskirts, saiisau kel vuravura, 
ends or outsides of the earth.] 
H. kesu, or ksu, only pi. 
kaswe, kiswoth, ends or ex- 
tremities (of the earth), A. 
kasa', n. a. kasw% kasa', to 
stand apart, he afar off. 

Esuma, ad., in the house, at 
home : e, prep., and suma. 

Et, V. i., or a., d., to be many, 
dd. kote, kaiiota, to be great, 
plentiful. H. kabad, kabed, 

Etaku, ad., at the back, be- 
hind. [Sa. i tua, id.] E, 
prep., and taku na. 

Etan, ad., on the ground, 
down : e, prep., and tano, 
the ground. 

Etu, ad., at the foot (of the 
island, i.e. the west, opp. to 
ebau) : e, prep., and tua na, 
the foot. 

Eiio (ewo), ad., no, it is not : 
e, as in ei, and uo, dem. 

Euta, ad., on shore, ashore, on 
land, opp. to elau : e, prep., 
and uta. 

Fa (and fe or fi), inter, pron., 
in safa, sefa, what? also 
where ? It is ma in matuna, 
q.v. A. ma', H. mah, what ? 
See Ch. V. 4. 

Faa na, s., d. mao na, the 
thigh : see mao. 
Pa, or ba, q.v., to go. 

Pafa-si, V. t., redup. of ba-si, 
q.v., to tread upon (of many). 

Fa, d. for man, in mal fa nin 
= male mau ua = this very 
time, now. 

Fafan, for bafano, to wash 
the hands. 

Fafaga, redup. of faga, q.v. 

Fafatu, V. r., to trust, confide, 
fafatu isa, to trust or confide 
in him, or in it. See under 

Fafine, s., d., a woman, and, 
a., female. See Ch. V. 17. c, 
for this word in the Oceanic 
dd., and in A. 

Fagan i, v. c, same as bagan i, 
q.v. Hence 

Fagafaga, v., redup., and 

Fagafaga, s., a bait, and 

Faga, s., that which is given 
to eat, food ; a present, a 

Fai (vai), c. art. nifai, dd. 
noai (n'uai, i. e. n'wai), nai 
(n'ai), s., water. [An. inwai, 
Er. nu. Ml. nue, Epi tie, Sa., 
Fut. vai, Ma. tvai, Bouru dd. 
7cai, Ceram dd. tcai, My. ai/e?; 
i.e. ay {ai), and er.'] H. ma' 
unused in sing., pi. maim, 
construct, me', water ; Nm. 
mai, E. mai, water. For 
My. er, v. Ef. elo, dP. 

Fai, V. t., d., divide or cleave, 
as lao fai, plunge into, cleav- 
ing (with a spear) : bua, to 
divide, cleave, and see also 

Fai, s., a skate (fish). [Cf. My. 
pari, Tag. pagi, skate fish.] 
Der. unknown. 



Fakal i, same as bakal i i. 

Fakal, a. (in active sense) kano 
fakal, a comforting person, 
comforter (in passive sense), 
uago fakal, domestic or tame 
animals, lit. pigs cared for, 
or taken care of. 

Fakalo, or fakal, s., war. 
[My. hdrJidlaki [Udalii), to 
fight, to quarrel, Mlahi, fight, 
quarrel.] (Mahri ghorat, 
war), H. garah, Hith., to 
make war (with any one). 

Fakamatua, s., c. art., an 
ancient story : matua, tuai. 

Fakamauri, i.q. bakamauri, 

Fakarago, s., c. art., the rough 
prickly scab that covers a 
sore : rago. Faka-rago, d. 
kafa-rago, for which it is 
transposed. For kafa, see 
kafa i, infra. 

Fakarogo, i.q. bakarogo. 

Fakaru, i.q. bakaru. See bu- 

Fakaruku, s., the under part, 
as, na fakaruku ki nakasu, 
the under part of a tree (i. e. 
shade or shelter under its 
overhead foliage), ki nauot, 
(fig.) the shelter or protection 
of a chief: rukua (and the 
cans, prefix), q.v. 

Fakasa, s., a festival : bakasa. 

Fakataliga, s., an ear pen- 
dant: cans, prefix, and tali- 
ga, q.v. 

Fakatokoi, or fakatokei, i.q. 

Fakau, or fakaiia, s., d. fikau, 

164 [FANAU SA 

fikaua, a messenger, ambas- 
sador, agent sent to do some- 
thing for a chief or commu- 
nity ; and 

Fakau, or fakaua, s., a mes- 
sage such as the agent sent 
by a chief or a community 
carries to deliver, i ofl nafa- 
kaua, he carries the message 
(of state). See kau, gau, 
grasp, take hold of, carry, &c. 
[Sa. feait, to send for (v. r.), 
feUm, a message. To. fekau, to 
bid, command, order ; a mes- 
sage, order ; My. and Ja. pag- 
gmva, a grandee, a noble : in 
Java it is the title of the five 
chief councillors of state, and 
the word is derived from 
gawa, to bear or carry, convey, 
bring, Ef. Arm, to carry (as a 
club), Fi. Jcau-ta, to carry, Sa. 
'cm, to send, 'cm mai, to bring, 
'cm'cmna, a servant.] 

Fala, s. (see under bala ii), a 
ship's yards. 

Falafala, s., cross sticks fas- 
tened on a tree for a ladder 
to climb it : bala ii. 

Falea, s., a cave. [Tah. fare- 
fare, a., hollow, fare, a house, 
Ma. tvhare, Sa. fale.2 See 
bala III. 

Fam i, or bam 1, v. t., to eat. 
[Tah. amu, to eat.] H. 
pa'am, A. fa'ama, to have 
the mouth full, to swallow 

Fanau sa, v. t., d, bunu, to 
teach, to instruct : to i^reach. 
[Fi. vimau-fttf to admonish, 
harangue, preach to.] H. 




'anah, to harangue, proclaim, 
preach, admonish. 

Fanauen, s., c. art., the teach- 
ing, i.e. either the act of 
teaching or the thing taught, 
law (as ' law ' of Moses, re- 
cent use). 

Fanei, v. i., cl., to be extin- 
guished, out (of a fire): see 
bunu e, bunue. 

Fanu, s., d., darkness, shade, 
only in kot-fanu, evening, 
lit. time of shade, d. rag 
melu. See melu, and under 
gota fanu, infra. 

Fanua, s., inhabited country, 
land, My. banua, id. [Malo 
vanua, house, Santo d. venua, 
house, village.] H. banah, 
to build, as a house, ps. part. 
banu>, built, binyaha, build- 
ing ; A. bana', S. bna*. 

Note. — The Santo word has 
best preserved the primaiy 
meaning ' house ', or ' build- 
ing ' ; then a country, district, 
or land is called banua, or 
fanua, because, like a house 
or village (or building), it is 
the dwelling-place of men, or 
place of buildings. 

Fara ki nameta na, v. t., to 
fix the eyes, stare with open 
and motionless eyes. Nm. 
fagar, 2, fix (the eyes), stare. 

Fara, s., c. art., a cocoanut 
(fruit) that begins to shoot. 
[Cf. Fi. vara, a cocoanut ready 
to shoot.] Bora ii. 

Fara, s., a chafed place on the 
skin, especially on the thigh 
(from being rubbed or chafed 
in walking) : baro-si. 

Fara, or fera, s., a row, or 
rank, or band ; 

Farafara, or ferafera, s., a 
row, a lot, a band (as of sores 
on a limb), lit. a number of 
rows ; 

Bifara ki, or bifera ki, v. c, 
to put or arrange in rows. 
[My. hciiis, a line, row, rank, 
file, troops, mcimharis, v., and 
haris Jean, v., and bdrhcms, 
v., harisan, parade, place 
where troops are exercised.] 
H. ma'arakah (and ma'arot' 
for ma'arakot'), disposing, 
ranging in order, a row or 
pile, battle set in array, army, 
or band ; from 'arak, to ar- 
range in order, or in a 

Fara-bule, s., c. art., a rank, 
row, or band, of adults or 
full-grown men : fara, rank, 
and bule, adult. 

Fara-kal, c. art., a row or 
band of men connected to- 
gether by relationship, as of 
brothers : fara, and kal, see 
bakal i. 

Farati, s., c. art, sticks fas- 
tened above and upon the 
rafters of a house : a pr. 
name (the name of the chief 
of Sesake, the chief binding 
the people together as the 
nafarati (lit. that which 
binds together) do a house). 
[My. hciroti, rafters, Fi. vora- 
ti, upper cross beams of a 
house.] From bara-ti, q.v. 
H. hibar (E. ahabara, v. c), 
to bind together, connect or 




join together, H. mehabirot, 

Note. — In d. rub (raf) = d. 

farati; and in d. rau (for 

raf ) is rafter, which in another 

d. is tokai. 
Fare, farefare. See bare, 

barefare, to move. 
Farea, s., the public house of 

a village, d. fare, outside. 

[Mota varea, outside. Ml. P. 

vere, Ur. van, outside, Mg. 

ivclam, outside {i-vdani).'^ A. 

barriyy', outer, external (Ct. 

barri), Nm. barrani, outer, 

exterior (and barra, out). 

Farea, d. for bi reko, to be 
poor : reko ; and bi, to be. 

Farofaro, a., tea farofaro, a 
thing that rasps, &c. : baro- 

Fasi, i.e. fa-si, v. t., tread 
upon, fasi koro, bind to- 
gether the reeds of the koro- 
fence (which is done by tread- 
ing upon them) : basi. 

Fasu (na meta na), s., d., eye- 
brows, tafasi, V. r.. to make 
a sign with the eye. A. 
''amaza, to make a sign (with 
the eye, eyebrows), 6, make 
such signs to each other. 

Fasu, fasua na, s., a part, por- 
tion ; member (of the body). 
[Sa. fasi, a piece, a place, 
fasifasi, to split up in pieces, 
fasi, to split, beat.] H. basa% 
cut in pieces, A. bas'a'a, cut, 
cleave, bas^^at, j^art, a piece. 
(Cg. H. badad, to divide, 
bad, a part, pi. members of 
the body, A. badda, separate. 

disjoin, budd% portion, part 
(of anything), badad', part. 
See s. V. H. badad.) 

Fata, s., a bench, shelf, stand, 
platform, dd. uenr% uere, 
uete, kofeta. [Sa. fata, 
raised house for storing yams 
in, a shelf, a bier, Tah. fata, 
altar, scaffold, piece of wood 
to hang baskets of food on, 
&c., Mg. vata (and vata), box, 
shelf for keeping rice, &c.] 
H. 'omed, platform, place, 
'emdah, a lodging (place). 
See fatu. 

Fatok, same as batok and 
matok : toko. 

Fatu, same as batu and matu : 

Fatu, hence fafatu, v., to 
trust in, rely upon, confide 
in ; fata (see ante) ; g''ofita, 
or kofeta, to be stickj^, gluey, 
wet and sticky. [Sa. faafatu- 
fatu, to persevere indefatig- 
ably, fatu (-amoa), to have a 
swollen shoulder (from bear- 
ing burdens), Mg. feta, fetalai, 
petalca, sticky.] A. 'amada 
1, 2, 3, to sustain, prop up, 
make firm or stable, with 
a column, to be wet and 
sticky, 8, to rely upon, trust 
or confide in (fafatu) ; also, 
1, to have the hump or the 
back contused with carry- 
ing (a camel), H. 'amad, to 
stand (be firmly set), confide 
in, endure, persist, persevere, 
(cf. Sa.), A. 'imad, higher 
structures, column, stake, 
*am5d', prop, column, stones 
put in the ground for sup- 




ports for the foundation, 
column, prop of a family, 
chief, lord, the back, 'amid', 
column and chief or prince 
(of a people), H. 'amud, 
column, pillar, platform, scaf- 
fold. See fata (ante). 
Fatu, s., stone. [Mg. vatu, 
Ml. d. var, My. hatu, Sa. fatu, 
id.] H. eben, E. eban, 
Fatu, s., c. art. nafatu, the 
ridge of a house, ridge-pole : 
see batu. [TaSa. papcdu, id., 
Malo uohatu, id., Ml. U. ?fo- 
hut.'J See batu, supra. 
Fatuna, s., and ad., d. for ma- 
tuna, q.v. 
Fau, same as bau, q.v., a., 

Faulu, s.. barter, i.q. baulu, 

Faum, d. fau, new ; na fau- 

Faus i, same as baus i, ask, 

question ; hence 
Faus, pr. n. (Questioner), a 

spirit, officer of Saritau at 

the gates of Hades. 
Fe, and fefe, same as be, befe ; 

nafeana, nafefeana, s., the 

act of reading, or counting. 
Fe, conj., if, should, for be. 
Fe, d., conj., then, but. A. 

fa, id. 
Fea, same as be, or bea, to 

precede, first. 
Fefe, same as befe. 
Fei, or fe, d., inter, pron., 

who? [Sa. at, Tah. o vai, 

id.] See Ch. V. 4. (2). 
Feifei ki, same as beifei ki; 

nafeifeien, s.. the act of in- 

dicating or showing, or the 
thing by which something is 
made manifest ; a sign, token. 
See bei ki. 

Feko, s., a cockroach, and 
similar insects. 

Felak, s., c. art., d., a tribe, or 
family clan, dd. syn. meta- 
rau, kainaga : bala iii. 

Felaki, s., c. art., girdle to 
which the nafon, or loin 
cloth, was attached : it is 
about six inches wide : be- 

Fera, c. art., a row. See fara. 

Fera-bule, fera-kal. See fara- 
bule, fara-kal. 

Ferafera, rows. See fara- 

Fera, c. art., s.. an omen, also 
fefera ; the natamole tabu, 
having poured out some na- 
maluk (kava) to the nate- 
mate, drinks off his own cup, 
and then looking into it sees 
some blood, or a human hair, 
or some other thing, which 
is called fera, an omen, or 
indication, good or bad, as 
the case may be : or he per- 
ceives the omen, good or bad, 
by * lo namo ', which is 
another species of divination. 

Fefera ki, or fera ki, and 
bifera ki, v., to show by a 
fera, as the natemate are 
supposed to do (see under the 
preceding word) ; to give an 
omen. [Mg. fanibani, an 
omen, presage, My. fal, omen 
(A.).] A. fa'I', omen. 

Fera, v. i., fera ki, v. t., fera- 




fera, v. i., ferafera ki, v. t. : 
see bera. 

Feroa, c. art., s., a crumb, 
food, H. biryah, food. 

Fet, s., a bird's nest, made like 
a jDlatform of woven twigs. 
[Sa. fataniga, a nest.] See 

Feta, c. art., s., a tribe : beta. 

Fete, or fite, c. art. nafete, 
inter, pron., what? Nm. 
made, what ? 

Fetta, s., soapstone, a soft 
stone that can easily be cut : 
fatu, stone, and ta, to cut. 

Fi, v., to be : bi. 

Fiare ki, v., to go into the pre- 
sence of some one, to be un- 
abashed (opposite of maliare, 
or malidre). See rairai. 

Fiatu, V. r., to smite each 
other, to fight, war : atu. 

Fidre, v. r., d., to speak, eon- 
verse. A. hara, 6, to converse, 
talk together. 

Fifl, s., anything binding 
round, as a fillet or turban, 
cS:c., then a thing going round, 
as a shij) round a cape or 
island, then hostile talk (with 
which one's adversary as it 
were binds him round) ; 

Fifl ki, V. t., to go round, as 
a yam vine round a stake, a 
ship round an island : fifl, is 
for fifisi, redup. of fisi, q.v. 

Fifis i, V. t., to bind round : 
redup. of fisi. 

Fikit, or fikat, v. r., to be 
savage, given to biting, lit. 
to bite each other : kat i. 
[Fi. veiJiatttf id.] 

Fikoba, v. r., lit. to chase, or 
pursue, each other : koba-si. 

Fill, s., d., hair, feathers, &c. 
[Po. fitlu, Jndu, huru, Mg. 
vulu, My. itulu, id.] See s.v. 

Fill, or fila, c. art., same as 
bila, lightning: bila. [Sa. 
uila, My. Jdlat, Mg. Jielata, 

Fiiifili, s., a gleaming or 
flashing shell worn as an 
ornament : bila. 

Filora, same as bulora, and, 
redup. , 

Filifilora. See bulo ki. 

Fimeri, v. r., to be doing 
something to each other, 
usually in a hostile sense, to 
be fighting : meri. 

Fimuri, v. r., to be returning 
each other, dismissing with 
presents, repaying : muri. 

Finaga, c. art., s., food : kan i. 
[For other Oceanic forms of 
this word, see the lists of 
Codrington and Kay. Mg. 
liinana, id.] 

Fira-ni, v. t., supplicate, or 
pray, him, and without ob- 
ject, fir a, to supplicate, pray, 
also bifira, bifira-ni. [Tah. 
pure, to pray, piipure, to pray 
frequently.] H. falal, Hithp., 
to supplicate, pray. 

Firaka, v. i., to delay. A. 
'araka, (5), to delay. 

Fisa, v., fisan, c. art., s., to 
speak, word : bisa. 

Fis i, or fisi, v. t., to bind 
round, to bind about, as a 
fillet, turban, or vine round 
the head, a string round a 




parcel, a bandage round a 
wounded limb ; fisi nama- 
nuk, to bind up a wound ; 
a yam vine binds round a 
stake (twines round it), and 
fisi name, to twist a rope 
(bind round the one strand 
on the other — this is usually 
bulo ki) ; a whip or rod binds 
round the body to which it is 
applied, hence tale fisi, to 
flog (see tale, to go round), 
lit. to go round binding about, 
d. mafisi, to whip, flog : often 
the final s is elided, hence 
fi-gote-fi, to flog him to pieces 
(for fisi-gote-fi), lit. to flog — 
break him, and see fifi (supra), 
and tafifi ; the word of an 
adversary is said to fisi the 
object of his anger, that is, 
bind him round ; fisi uago, 
bind round a pig (in order to 
its being carried slung to a 
pole, so that it may not be 
hurt). [Sa. fisi, to entwine 
as a vine, To. fi, to twist, and 
filii, entwine, twist. Ma. tvlil- 
ivhl, be entangled, whalmvhh 
ivM, wind round, fasten. My. 
pusi^, to turn round, twist.] 
H. habas', to bind, bind on, 
bind about, as a head band, 
turban, tiara, ' the seaweed is 
bound about (fisi na bau gu) 
my head,' Jon. ii. 6 ; to bind 
up a wound, to bind fast, 
shut up ; cf. (A. 'afas), bosi, 
Fisi, a. used as s., 1 bi fisi (a 
boy that is circumcised, ru 
tefe a i bi fisi, they circum- 
cise him, he is fisi). A. 

'afsa'u, e praeputio appa- 
rentem habens glandem puer, 
fasa'a, a glande praeputium 
reduxit puev. 

Firi na, c. art., s., d. fiti na, 

Firi, or fir i, v. t., same as bir i, 
q.v., to make void, bring to 
nought ; hence 

Firi, in tale-firi, round-bring- 
ing to nought, i. e. all round. 

Firigi, same as biri-gi, to 

Fisau na, s., d., as nafisau 
naui = ora naui, the sprout, 
shoot, or vine of a yam : 

Fisiko na, s., flesh. H. basar, 
Ch. bisra, or bisira, flesh. 
[TaSa. vescl'O, id.] 

Fiso, c. art., s., an annual 
reed-like plant whose toj) is 
used for food. [Sa. fiso, a 
species of reed.] Der. un- 

Fisuaki, same as bisuaki. 

Fisueri, same as bisueri. 
i Fisuraki, c. art., s., talk, 
j speech : bisuraki. 
I Fisiirakien, c. art., s., the act 
I of talking: bisuraki, q.v. 

Fisurua, c. art., s., a lie. or 
lies ; and 

Fisuruen, c. art., s., lying: 
bisuru, q.v. 

Fiti na, c. art., s., d. firi na, 
the rib, or ribs, side. [Er. 
mperi, Santo d. porcra na, Ma. 
vara, Mafoor raar, rib.] H. 
sela% Ch. 'ala% rib, side, A. 
s'il% rib. 

Fitaua, c. art., s., d. syn. with 
fakaua or fikaua : tau. 




Fit, V. i., d.. to run. A. 
fadda, to run. 

Fite, interr. See nafete. 

Fitdriki, or biteriki, s., an 
old woman, matron, lady, as 
mariki, an old man, senior, 
sir : mariki is ma', man, and 
riki, old, and fltdriki is fite, 
woman, and riki, old : for 
fite, see under fafine and 
matu ; and for riki, old, what 
follows. [Ma. ariki, first- 
horn male or female in a 
family of note, hence chief, 
priest, leader."^ E. leheka, to 
advance in age ; be the first- 
born, or eldest, in a family ; 
be senior ; alhaka, to grow 
old, Ihik, advanced in age, 
aged ; contracted lik, chief. 

Fitefa, same as bitefa. 

Fitili, same as butili. 

Fitia, same as bitia, q.v. 

Fito na, s., d., syn. bile-meta 
na, q.v.: buto, v. i., and 
buto, s., bud. 

Fo, d. for bo, q.v., particle 
used in the formation of the 
future tense. 

Foga, s., d. nafo, whetstone, 
grinding stone, and (because 
used as whetstone) pumice 
stone. [To. fuaga (Ma. lioaga, 
Sa. foaga), a grindstone, a 
whetstone, fuafuaga, pumice 
stone.] See nafo. 

Fona, c. art., s., d. syn. tofe, 
the native cloth, or clothing, 
made from the bark of a tree. 
[E. Mai funa, id.] See bo- 

Fonu, s., the turtle or tortoise. 
[Fi. vonu, My. pdm. Mg. 

fani, Ha. lionu, Sa. volu, To. 
fonu.2 A. 'awinat, 'ayinat, 
the tortoise or turtle. 
Fu, V. i., d. for mu, to hum, 
buzz, lago fu, humming or 
buzzing fly (blow fly) : mu. 

Fua na, or bua na, s., nafua 
n rarua, the bottom (outside) 
of a canoe or ship, lit. the 
back, syn. na matu n rarua : 
bua na, bui na. 

Fuagoro, s. See muagoro. 

Fuata, V. i., or a., to have 
raised stripes on the skin (as 
from blows with a rod, or as 
are formed by the veins on 
the arm). See bua iii, and 
bua-ti : the radical notion is 
siveUing out. 

Fua-ti, i.q. bua-ti. 

Fuga, d. buma, q.v. 

Fugaga, V. i., to well up, 
spring, bubble up, welling 
over or spreading asunder 
(as a spring) : fua, or bua iii, 
and gaga, for which see 

Fugafuga, v. i., or a., i. q. 
bugafuga, q.v. [Sa. fagu- 

Fugafuga na, s. , as, fugafuga 
nabiau, the whitened or 
breaking crest of a wave, lit. 
its blossom : fuga. 

Fule, and fulefule, or bule- 
fule. See bule i. 

Fulu, and fulufulu : i.q. pre- 
ceding word. 

Fuluara, v. i., or a., to be bad, 
a rascal, ill-looking, horrid, 
malignant. A. 'afar, ^jji^-, 
&c., malignant, horrid, &c. 



Fulus, v., to turn: bulusi. 

Fumafuma na, s., d. for fuga- 
fuga na, q.v. 

Fnnaso, c. art., s., stopper: 

Fura, same as bura, to be 

Furei, s. See futei. 

Furei ki, v. t. See bnrei : 
rub, cleanse ; furei ki natua 
na, cleanse his feet, as by 
rubbing or scraping them on 
a scraper, &c. 

Furei a, same as burei, or 
bur a i, to leave. 

Furiana, c. art., s., the being 
swollen, or having the droj^sy : 

Fus i, same as bus i, d. mur i, 

Fusa i, same as busa i. 

Fusfus ki, same as busfus ki. 

Fut, c. art., s., d. for bosa- 

Futei, dd. furei, futei, mitoi 
or mitei, s., the white ant. 
See rei, tei. [Sa. hi, Tah. 
ro, ant, gen. name.] 

Futfut, d. for butafuta. 

Futum,v. i., dd. bisau, busuf, 
busofu, bisobu, to sprout 
forth, sirring uji, grow. [Fila, 
Meli, Aniwa, Fut. somo, id., 
Mg. misemiiJxa, to germinate.] 
H. samah, Kal and Piel, to 
sprout forth, to grow (as 
plants, trees, the hair), and 
tig. used of the first begin- 
nings of things which occur 
in the world, as Isa. xliii. 19, 
' Behold I make a new thing ; 
now it shall sxmng forth,'' Hi. 
make to sprout forth or grow, 


and fig. make something 
spring up or exist, H. semah, 
offspring, Ef. atuma, id. 

Gr (pronounced ng). 

Ga, d., pers. pron., 3 sing., 
he, she, it (nom. suf. n, or 
na). [Ma. gd, pi. art., Sa. na, 
he, she, this, that, these, those. 
Ha. na, pi. art., and sign of 
pi. number ; Mg. izi. My. ina 
[ini/a), he, she, it, they.] See 
Ch. V. 2. 

Ga, conj., usually go, q.v., 
and : ka, in kai, conj. 

Ga, final conj., that, ut, d. ka, 
or k*, q.v. 

Ga, dem., this, here, there, 
always (in this form) suffixed 
as in nag, naga, q.v., alaga 
(alia ga), this place, or place 
here, i.e. here (d. li ke, see 
ke) ; but alaga may be a 
contraction for alia naga : ka, 

Gaber, a., and s., grey-haired, 
aged, a grey-haired, i. e. aged 
person : kaber. 

Gafa, s.. a fathom (six feet). 
[Sa. gafa, a fathom.] A. 
kamat (Nm. kama), a fathom 
(six feet). 

Gafikafi, s., a small basket; 

Gafikafi, v., to feel for or 
take hold of a thing in a 
basket with the fingers. A. 
kofiat, a basket, kafiTa, to 
take stealthily between the 

Gaga, V. i., to well out. or 
bubble up, as water from a 
spring, in fugaga. See maga. 




Gai, or gei, redup. gaigai, 
V. i., to ciy, sing, &c. : kai, 
or kei. 

Gai (ga, final conj., and 1, 
tense particle of the fut.). 
^See i, dem. 

Gaigai, v. i. , to pant, be out of 
breath. [Sa. get eg a e, to be 
out of breath, Ha. oiae, naenae, 
to be out of breath, to pant.] 
S. kah, to pant. 

Gai-tagoto, v. i., to scream (as 
in -psim) : gai, and tagoto, for 
which see koto, to break. 

Gakalau i (gkalau i), redup. 
of galau i. 

Gakarafi (gkarafi). See ka- 

Gakasi (gkasi). See kasi. 

Gakat (gkatak). See kati. 

Gakau sa, v. t., to grasp (as an 
oar, in pulling, or a branch of 
a tree); usually pronounced 
gkau. See gau, kau. 

Gakua, inter, ad., redup. of 
kua, or gua, q.v. 

Gala, V. i., or a., small : kala. 

Galakala, v. i., to laugh. [My. 
gcdaJc, to laugh loud continu- 
ously.] A. karkara, to laugh 
loud and long, karkara, to 
laugh, cf. kalla, 7, to laugh. 

Galau i, v. t., d. galau sa, to 
cross over, d. (transposed) 
lakau i, q.v. E. halafa, to 
cross over, ahlafa, make to 

^cross over. 

Gale-baga, s., d., bowstring: 

Gal i (al i, kal i), v. t., to stir 
round (as water or any liquid). 
[Ma. gant, a wave, game, 
shake, move to and fro. Ha. 

ale, well up, aleale, make into 
waves, stir up, as water, ale, a 
wave, Sa. gain, a wave, gagalu, 
to be rippled, galu, to be 
rough, break heavily on the 
reef, &c.. My. alun, Mg. aUma, 
a wave.] H. galal, to roll, 
hence gal, fountain, well, pi. 
waves, S. galo», a wave. 

Galu, c. art., s., husks, peel, 
&c. (for pig's food), better 
part of a thing ; pudenda ; d. 
the inner bark of trees : see 
kalu-ti. Cf. Ch. gilla% S. 
gelc, A. gillu, gullu, chaff, 
&c., a covering, better part of 

^a thing. 

Galu-ti, V. t., galuti nasu, to 
put the bowstring on a bow, 
nabela galu, covering board 
on end of a canoe ; and 

Galu, c. art., s., bowstring. 
See kalu-ti. 

Galugalua, v. i., or a., d. sa- 
galugalu, to be aged, ex- 
perienced (of persons), to be 
mature, also to be worn out 
as with age (of anything), as 
if to be full of agedness, and 
mere husk or skin : it has the 
a. ending a ; nagalu matua, 
an aged, full-grown, or full- 
bearded person, or one not 
immature. A. galla, 2, to be- 
come aged and expert or ex- 

Gan i, ganikani, v. t., to eat : 
kan i. 

Gar a, v. i., to be dry : kara. 

Garagara, v. i., to be strong, 
vehement, and garakarai : 
kara, karakarai. 

Gara sa, v., to meet (any per- 


son or thing), to come upon, 
hit, as, ru ba gara nata, they 
went, met a person, i ba gara 
sa, it (as a calamity) came 
upon him, i si gara sa, he 
shot (hit) it or him, i bisa 
gara sa, he spoke, met (or 
hit) it, i. e. he spoke to the 
point. H. karah, and kara% 
to meet. 

G-ara ki, v. See kara ki. 

Gara, d., pers. pron., 3 pL, 
they : ga, and 'ra.' [Ma. (/«r«, 

^they, them.] See Ch. V. 2. 

Gar i, v., and, redup., 

Garikari. See kar i. 

Garo i, v. t. See kar i. 

Garu-ti, and redup., 

Garukaru. See karu-ti. 

Garei ki. See karei ki. 

Garaf i, v. t. See karaf i. 

Gari, a., d. for kasi. 

Gasa, inter, ad. See kasa. 

Gas i, V. See kas i. 

Gasua, and gasukasua, a. 
See kasua. 

Gat. See gaut. 

Gat i, V. See kati. 

Gat, V. See kat. 

Gatikati. See kati. 

Gati, d. for kasi. 

Gato na, d. karo na. 

Gau, V. t., to grasp: kau. 

Gaua, a., barbed (of a spear) : 
kau, V. t. , tagau. It has the 
a. ending a. 

Gaut, d. gat, in bati-gaut, 
a plant with hook-like thorns, 
lit. grasping teeth ; kau, v. t., 

Gel i, V. t., to clasp (in order 
to lift or carry), carry away ; 

Gele-ti, v. t., id. ; and 

3 [GIL I 

Gelakela, v., used of many 
carrying away. See kele-ti, 
and kalu-ti. 

Gel i, for gal i. 

Gema, d., verb suf., 1 pL, 
excl. : garni, nami. 

Gemi, d. garni, nami, nom. 
suf. 1 pi., excl. 

Gera-fi, for kara-fi. 

Gere na, s., in mele-gere na, 
and na garagara na, the part 
of the tail of a fish which 
when it is feeding near shore 
appears above water like a 
shark's fin. [Ml. P. Jcare, 
tail ; My. ehor, iJcur, tail.] H. 
»ah6r, A. 'ob^or', hinder part, 
rear, end ; Nm. ekir, end. 

Gesa, gesakesa, for kesa, 

Gi, prep., and ki, q.v., to, be- 
longing to, of. 

Gi, s., porpoise: perhaps so 
called because of the squeak- 
ing noise it makes on rising 
out of the water. See next 

Gi, gki, giki, v. i., creak, 
squeak, ping, moan. [Fi. ffl, 
to squeak, Sa. Y?", squeak.] 
A. nakka, nakik', creak, &c. 

Gie na, or gia na, s., name, 
dd. kiha na, and gisa na, q.v. 

Gie sa, or gie ki, v. (see pre- 
ceding word), to have or 
acquire a name for or in con- 
nection with something. 

Giki. See kiki, small. 

Gil i, or kil i, or kili, v. t., 

to dig. [Sa. 'eJi, My. gall, 

Mg. hadi, to dig.] A. kara', 

n. a. karw', to dig. 

Note. — Kili natano, dig the 


ground, kill ki nakasu na- 
tano, dig a stick into the 

Gkiliki (i. e. gikili ki), redup., 
intensive, as ba gkiliki na- 
tuoma, dig thy feet (into the 
ground), i.e. stand firm, or 
simply, ba gkiliki. 

Gkita, i. e. gikita, v. redup. 
See gita, kita. 

Ginit i, v., gini gote-fi. See 
kinit i. 

Girigiri,v. i., or a., to be bright, 
brilliant, shining, polished. 
[To. gig'ila, bright, brilliant, 
polished, My. g'llag, and gilau, 
to shine, glitter, be bright, 
brilliant, dazzle.] A. gala', 
to be clear, shining, &c., 
galiyy', bright, shining, 

Note. — The A. word also 
denotes to be or appear un- 
covered: Ef. d. karo, to be 
unclothed, have the clothes 
removed, naked. 

Gis, or gisa, ad., together, lit. 
as one, with numerals, as, rua 
rua gis, two, two together, in 
twos, and so with all the 
numerals. H. k'ehad, as 
one, i. e. together, Ch. ka- 
hada. See ki, as, and sa, s, 

Gisa. See kisa, or kesa. 

Gisa na, s., c. art., name, dd. 
gia na, kiha na (for kisa na). 
[TaSa. Msa, Ml. U. se, Malo 
isa^ Epi (Ba.) sia, (Bi.) Jda, 
Ta. dd. rige [narige), ncCge 
i'ge), An. t'a, Fi. yat'a, Am. 
sa, Paama isa, Ta. d. hge 



inahge).2 A. 'ism» and sim', 
H. s'em, name. 
Note.— The Ef. gisa (kiha, 
gia) has k» (or g') prefixed, 
as Epi kia, and TaSa. kisa, 
for which see Ch. II. 11. c, 
not in Epi sia. Ml. se, Am. 
sa, Malo and Paama isa : in 
all these the final m of the 
original is elided, as it is in 
ta (q.v.), blood, and nu (for 
num) ; this final m appears 
as g in Ta. 

Gis i, V. t., to feel, touch, and 

Giskis, redup. See kis i. 

Gita i, V. t. See kita i. 

Gite toa i, for gita toa i. See 
kite toa i. 

Go, conj., connecting substan- 
tives and sentences, and. 
[MI. P. ga, ka, Ml. U. Iw, 
Fi. l:a, and.] Amh. ka, and 
(with numerals). 

Goba (gote-fi), v. t., to cut, as 
a nakoau, with a knife. [Mg. 
Mpa, cut, mikapa, v. t., to 
cut.] H. gub, A. gaba, to 

Goba-si, v. t. See koba-si. 

Gobera, or gobara, s., or ko- 
bara, side, as, kobara kerua, 
the other side. H. *eber, Ch. 
'abar, id. 

Gofu sa, V. t. See kofu sa. 

Gofkofua, a. See kofkofua. 

Gkofita (for gokofita), a., 
sticky, gluey. {Kg. feta, feta- 
ka, clay adhering, wet, stick- 
ing to.] A. 'amada, 2, 5, to 
be wet so as to stick (earth or 


Gogo, V. i., to wade, to wade 
lialf swimming ; 




Gogo, s., an aquatic bird. [An. 
agag^ to swim, Sa. 'cCau, to 
swim, Fila Tzauliau, to bathe, 
Ma. Imu, swim, wade, Ha. cm, 
miau, swim, bathe, hasten, cf. 
Ja. Txiinibah, to wash.] A. 
hamma, 1, hasten, 4, bathe, 
or wash oneself in cold water, 
10, bathe in hot water ; and, 
general term, wash the body. 

Goi, or go 1, V. i, or ko i, as, 
goi naniu, to rub, scrape, or 
grind out by rubbing or scrap- 
ing the kernel of the cocoa- 
nut, suru-go i (cover-drain 
out) to cover with one's mouth 
the aperture of a drinking 
vessel and drain out the con- 
tents, koi, a mark or bound- 
ary, also koika nafanua ; 
redup. , 

Goko i, V. t., to scrape (na- 
fona) ; to mark, paint, or 
smear (nafona, i.e. native 
cloth), koko, the paint used 
for this, gokoi (or gokai, or 
gokei) nafona. [Sa. 'dal, to 
mark or paint native cloth.] 
H. hakah, i.q. hakak, cut 
into, liaclx, engrave, carve, 
draw, paint, delineate, hok, 
a defined limit, a bound, A. 
hakka, 3, grind by rubbing, 
1, hack, cut, pierce, 7, drain 
out (as milk), hakka, scrape, 
rub ; hence also 
Gko, or goko, v., to cut into, 
cut, hack, always followed by 
another verb, as, gko bora i, 
gko gote-fi (used of cutting 
uj) the nakoau, or native 
pudding), na kokoen, s., the 
cutting up. 

Gokolau, see gakalau (gka- 
lau i). 

Gole, s., a cripple, one lame. 
A. gayala, to be lame. 

Gkola (gokola). See kola, 
kokola, to be dry. 

Gkola. See kola, shout. 

Gkolau. See kolau. 

Goli na, c. art., s., bird's beak, 
lips, mouth. [Sa. gutu, mouth 
(of animals, wells, bottles), 
Ma. giitu, lip, rim, tvJiaka- 
guhtgutu, grumble at, scold, 
Fi. gusu, mouth, Fut. ragutu, 
beak.] A. nakara, to peck 
with its beak (a bird) ; to 
scold, nakrat, foramen (^^<?rte), 
mankar, bird's beak. 

Goloba, V. i., to be filthy, dirty. 
Karafa, 3, to be defiled, 4, to 
be infected, contaminated, 
^Nm., 4, to disgust. 

Gkolofa. See kolofa. 

Golu-ti, V. t. See kalu-ti. 

Gon, V. i., to be firm, fast : 

Gkon (kokon), redup. of pre- 

Gkon (gokon), v. i., to be 
bitter : kon, kokon. 

Gonai, v. t. See konai. 

Gor i, or kor i, v. t., to en- 
close or surround with a fence 
(nakoro) ; then to enclose as 
with a fence a sick person 
(shutting out and prohibiting 
evil spirits or evil influences 
from him) — this is done by 
the ' Sacred Man ' (natamole 
tabu) — hence gorokoro, to 
divine, and nekoro, divina- 
tion, or incantation, with its 
accompanj^ing rites; redup.. 




gorokor i (native Christian 
prayer, Atua O, ba gorokoro 
garni auga toko loga namo- 
lien anago — ' God, enclose 
us that we may abide in the 
loga (enclosure) of Thy salva- 
tion) ' ; goro sa, to conceal it 
(as a crime with which one is 
charged) ; gor i, to prohibit, 
as, tuba gor i, prohibit, im- 
pede, obstruct, bisa gor i, 
speak, impede, or obstruct 
him ; tu gor i, stand, ob- 
struct ; gkoro (gokoro), v., 
and nakokoro, s., a prohibi- 
tion, also an obstruction or 
thing put to close up or 
obstruct the entrance to a 
house, a door. This verb is 
much used after other verbs 
as ba gor i, to go obstructing, 
i.e. to meet, d. bakor, to 
meet, or rather to come or 
go before, i. e. appear before 
(any one), then to arise, come 
into sight (as a man, ship, &c.), 
and take place (as an event) ; 
meri gor i, bati gor i, like 
gor i, simply mean to en- 
close or surround with a fence, 
sera gor i, to enclose or en- 
circle (the head) with a fillet, 
hence seragoro-bau, a hat ; 
gore na, a brother's sister, or 
sister's brother, brother and 
sister being children of the 
same mother, or of the same 
nakainaga. A. hagara, im- 
pede, prohibit, interdict, 2, to 
have a halo surrounding it 
(the moon), (see koro), 4, to 
conceal ; higr', hogr», a fence, 
a wall, what is prohibited, 

genitals of a man or a woman, 
kindredship, relationship, ha- 
gir% a fence ; H. hagar, to 
gird, hagor, a girdle, clad. 
Nm. , 2, to fence round, con- 
fine, forbid ; E. hagar, town, 
village (Fi. koro, id.). 

Gore na, s., brother's sister, 
sister's brother. See under 
preceding word. 

Goro, V. i., or koro, to snore. 
[Ma. go goro (reduj).), My. 
goro'k, Mg. eruta, id.] H. 
nahar, A. (h'arra, h'arh'ara) 
nah'ara, S. nhar, snort, 
breathe hard through the 
nose, E. nehera, snore ; 

Gore na, c. art. , s. , the nostrils, 
nose, dd. usu, gusu. [Fi. 
liVii, Sa. isu, Ma. ihu, My. 
idug, Ja. irug^ Mg. uruna, 
nose.] H. nhiraim, du., the 
nostrils, S. nhiro*, the nose, 
A. noh'J^at, aperture of the 

Gorot i, V. t. , to cut round, as 
to cut round a stick in order 
to break it ; hence 

Goro gote-fi, v. t., cut round, 
break it (as a stick). Nm. 
h^arat, to shave off in turn- 
ing, H. harat (q.v.), S. hrat, 
cut in, engrave. See karati. 

Gota, redup. gogota, v. i., or 
a., black, dirty, bukota, dirty 
(as water with dust or earth 
in it). [Gilolo IcoJcotu, Mthidu, 
black.] "115, ■^' kadara, n. a. 
kadru, kadara, n. a. ka- 
dra-t, id. 

Gota fanu, s., or ad., evening, 
d. kot' fan, d. syn. rag melu, 
lit. time of dusk, or sunset : 



[d^URA 1 

gota, or kot», a time (see 
kota). A. wakata, 1, 2, to 
fix a time, wakt', a time, a 
point or part of time : fanu. 
[Santo pumi, to set (the sun), 
puni, dusk.] H. pun (per- 
haps i.q. A. 'afana = 'afala, 
cf. H. 'apal, see melu), to 
set (as the sun), to be dark- 

Got, v., cut. See koto-fi. 

Gote-fi, V. t. See koto-fi. 

Gotokoto, V. i., to begin (break 
or cut, as it were, into the 
doing of something, 'break 
ground' in the matter), as 
i gotokoto bat i, he began — 
did it : koto-fi. 

Gil, d. mu, nom. suf., your, 2 
pi. (kii, verb, pron., 2 pi.) : 
separate pron., 2 pL, kumu. 

Gu, dd. mu, kama, verb, suf., 
you. See preceding word, 
and fol. 

Gu, d. k (for ku), nom. suf., 
1 sing., my, as, narugu, my 
hand. See Ch. V. 2. 

Gua, inter, ad., why ? lit. that 
what? It is used with the 
verbal prons., as, i kua, it is 
for what ? Indefinitely i kua, 
it that so (assent) : kua and 

gua are equally used. uS, 
that what? why? See Ch. 
V. 5. 

Gua, V. i. See kua, Sa. gu, 
to growl. 

Guku, V. i., to stoop, be in- 
curved, maguku, to be in- 
curved, guku rumu ki mo 
na, to shrink or incurve the 
bosom to her son-in-law (of 

a mother-in-law bowing and 
covering her bosom and face 
so as not to be seen by her 
son-in-law), d. kuku riima. 
[Mg. huhuJca, bow down, 
cover.] E. g'uhka, to be 
incurved, bent, specially 
from old age, hence guhuk', 
one aged, bent, and shrunk 

Guku-taki, v. t., to make 
guku. See guku. 

Gulu-ti, V. t. See kalu-ti. 

Gulu, V. i. See kulu. 

Gum i, V. t., or kum i, to 
absorb in the mouth (as a 
lolly). H. gama', to absorb, 
to drink up, to swallow, i.q. 

Gum i, V. t, dd. um i, gu i 
(gw i), m i (mw i), to seize, 
grasp, catch, hold, with or in 
the hand. [Sa. 'ttu, to take 
hold of, to grasp, ps. 'umia^ 
Fi. qumi-a, quqii, id., My. gdn- 
gam, Ja. gcigcim, to clutch, to 
clench, the fist, the clenched 
hand. To. Jculcii, hold in the 
hand, or mouth, bite, raven- 
ous, Ma. JcuJcu, grate, Man- 
gar wan JcuJcu, wipe.] A. 
kamkama, to collect, to seize 
or catch with the hand, to 
take, kamma, to sweep, 

Gunut i, V. t. See kinit i. 

Gura i, v. t., to scrape oif, 
gura ua, to scrape or rake off 
the heated stones from an 
oven, magir i, v. t., scrape, 
magura, v. i., or ps. a., 
diminished, lean, igura, d. 
igiri, the stick for scraping 





or raking the stones from an 
oven, gura biri ki (d. syn., 
sera biri ki), to startle (one) 
(as by coming behind one and 
suddenly laying or sweeping 
the hand on him) : kar i, 
garu. H. gara% to scratch, 
to scrape, scrape off, then 
take away, withhold, to dimi- 
nish, Ni. to be taken away, 
withheld. Note the Ef. ma- 
gura, denotes, lit. taken 
away from, i.e. diminished, 
lean, with the prep, ki, ma- 
gura ki, to withhold from 
(one), meta magura ki, he 
eyes withholds (something) 
from (one), he is stingy ; in 
one d. i meta makur ki, is 
said to denote he eyes with- 
draws from (one), he is covet- 
ous, lit. he eyes scrapes off 
(from some one). 

Gure-si, v. t., to gnaw : see 
gura i and kar i. [Sa. gaVi, 
gnaw, Fi. qiiru, v. i., qiiru-ia, 
v. t., to eat anything unripe, 
to scranch, eat ravenously, to 
gnaw. My. greb, to gnaw.] 
This word seems projDerly to 
denote, scranch, scrape off, 
absorb, H. gara% scrape off, 
A. gara'a, to absorb, swal- 

Guru ki, v. t., to gather to- 
gether, guru-maki, v. t., id., 
or kuru ki, kuru-maki, 
gkuruk (gukuruk), gather 
together (without object) ; 

Gurua, s., c. art., a field (of 
battle, of yams), so called be- 
cause men or things are 

gathered together in it ; ku- 
ru. A. kara (mid. j), JJ^ isjj.^ 
to gather together, karkara, 
cf. H. gur, (3), to be gathered, 
to gather together, 'agar, 
collect, gather in. 

Gurui, and 

Guruni, s., c. art. naguruni, 
a woman, wife, female. See 
Ch. 11. 17. e, 

Gusi, V. i., to be crooked, con- 
torted, magusi, crooked, con- 
torted. A. 'akis'a, to be 
crooked, contorted, 5, id. 

Gusu, V. i., to stoop. A. na- 
kasa, to stoop. 

Gusu na, s., c. art., the nose : 
gore na, q. v. 

Gusugisu ki, v. den., from 
preceding word, to nose (a 
thing), i.e. smell it. [Mg. 
iiriika (from uruna, the nose), 
miuruha, to kiss by touching 

Gusu, V. i. See kusu, kosu- 

Gusu-mi, V. t. See kosu-mi. 

Gut i, V. t., and gukut i 
(gkut i). See kut i. 

Gutu ki, V. t. See kutu ki. 

I, verb, pron., 3 sing., he, she, 
it, sometimes pronounced e ; 
also dd. i, e, verb, suf., 3 
sing. , him, her, it. [Epi Ba. 
0, Epi Bi. (?, him, her, it ; 
Fut. i, Ml. P. ?, TaSa. i, he, 
she, it.] Separate pron. nai, 
dd. inia, or enea, ga, or niga, 
he, she, it. 

I, dem., d., this, here, d. ei, 
rag i, this time, now. 




I, or e, a tense particle used 
after ka (sign of past tense, as, 
i ka fano, he went), and ga, 
and ba (final conjs.), thus, 
i kai bano, he had gone, i gai 
bano, let him have gone, the 
notion expressed being that 
the action (as going) was done 
or is to be done heforc the 
doing of something else. 
Dialect syn. ko, ba i bano 
= ba ko bano = that thou 
have gone, lit. that thou noiv 
(before something else to 
follow") go. [Cf . e after verbs 
in Ha. and Tah.] Probably 
the dem. e, this or that (per- 
haps contraction of uai, this, 
now, that, then, thus, igai 
bano = iga bano uai, which 
is sometimes used, the ex- 
pression denoting exactly the 
same, only the ad. being 
diiferently placed, as in 
English we might say, let 
him notv go=let him go note), 
thus, i kai (or, ka e) bano, 
he went then (that time), ba i 
bano, go noiv (this time), d. 
kui ban, you now go (as 
bidding farewell). 

I, dem., in ei, not that, no : 


etio, e, and uo, dem. 

I, no, compare e in ei. [This 
neg. ad. is seen in Sa. / (in 
lai, no). To. i (in ilxai, no) ; 
for the Imi, see tika.~\ 

I, prep, (also e), contracted 
from ni (li), often t. prep. 
[Ma. i, id.] 

Note. — The verb, suf., 3 
sing., is often combined with 
this prep, ia, dt i, for iia, ii. 

la, s., d. for bia, child. 

Ia, verb, suf., 3 sing., dd. i, e, 
him, her, it. 

lak, s., d., mother (vocative). 
See aka, and i, art. [Mg. 
7i«7i/, and ikald, my father 

Ibe ! iebe ! iboi ! interj., ex- 
clamation of wonder, sur- 
prise, and pleasure, d. bai. 
See bai ; i, as in io, iore. 

Igam, dd. agam, nigami, 
kigami, kinami, q.v., 1 pers. 
pron. exclusive. 

Igin, d., ad., here; i, prep., 
and gin (or kin), q.v. [Sa. 
i 'inei, Fut. ikunei, id.] 

Igira, d. forigita, 1 pers. pron. 

Igiri, s., and 

Igura, s., same as egura. 

Igita, dd. agita, nigita, ki- 
gita, nininta : gita, for nita, 
1 pers. pron. inclusive. 

Ika, s., c. art. naika, fish. 
[Sa. ia, My. ikan, Santo d. 
ika."} Cf. H. dag, pi. const, 
dege and dagah, const, de- 
gath, fish. It is possible that 
ika is the same by the elision 
of the d. See Ch. II. 

Iki, a., small, little ; in kariki 
(kar' iki), little children. 
See kiki. [To. iki, small, 

Ikin, or kin, s., c. art. nikin, 
a bird's nest. [Mg. akani.'J 
H. ken, A. wakn', wukunat, 
id. * 

Ilibagoen, s., a basket with 
closed bottom, a purse, or 
wallet: ala (basket), bago, 
uon (bon). 





Ili-fiki, v., also lele-, or lili- 

flki, d. syn. kelu-faki, as, 

rarua i ili-flki nagusu, the 

canoe rounds the point, or 

cape. See lele, lili. 
Ilisela, ad. .throughout, for lili- 

sela, lit. all round (through- 
out) the way : lele (or lili), 

sola, q.v. 
Imrum, d. imrau, ad., inside 

the house : i, prep., moru, 

hollow, um, house. See ka- 

in, s., or nin, the wind, the 

air: lagi. [My. agin, Mg. 

anina, the wind.] 
In, dem., this, d. na. [Cf. Sa. 

nel, this, now, Mg. ini, that, 

this. My. ini, this.] Assy. 

annu, this. 
Inia, inea, or enea, d., pers. 

pron., 3 sing., he, she, it. 
Inin, here : i, prep., and nin, 

Inini, d., s., c. art. nainini, 

spirit, soul. See anu. 
Inira, inera, or enera, d., 

pers. pron., 3 pi., they. 
Inira, or nira, or nera, d., 

verb, suf., 3 pi., them. 
Inuma, s., d. for isuma, q.v. 
lo, ad., yes. [Sa. io, Fi. io, or 

ia, yes, Ja. iya.Jl H. »ihu», 

E. 'ewa, yes. 
Ior5, ad., d. ore, yes. [Fi. 

iami, yes.] From io, and 
^ri, dem. See eri. 
Ira, or era, or ra, verb, pron., 

3 dual, they two. 
Ira (d. ir), or ra, verb, suf., 

3 pi., them, 
iru, or eru, or rn, verb, pron., 

3 pi., they, d. in, or u. 

is, ad., or interj., no, not so. 
[Mg. isi, id.] I, neg. ad., 
and s', dem. See se. 

Isi, s., c. art. naisi na, basis, 
foundation ; naisi matua na, 
its great foundation, naisi 
matua nafisan, the great 
foundation of the discourse 
or speech, its text, naisi 
namal, the foundation of the 
affair ; and 

Isuma, d. inuma (s to n), s., 
a clearing for a plantation, 
lit. the foundation of the 
clearing for cultivation. See 
uma. A. »iss% &c., a founda- 

Ita, s., c. art. naita, d. for 
nata, a human being, man. 
See ata. 

ita, interj. of exhortation, 
come ! now then ! come now ! 
[Ta. Ha, id.] A. hi'ta, ades- 
dum, adeste. 

Itaki, s., dd. otaki, uataki, a 
split stick for grasping and 
lifting hot oven stones, the 
native tongs : i, art., and 

In, or eu, verb, pron., 3 pi., 
d. for iru, or eru, they. 

iu, s., c. art. naiu, or naiyu, 
d. for nausu. See usu. 

K, d., verb, suf., 2 sing., thee, 
d. ko. A. ka, thee. 

Ka, ki, or ke, ad., as ; tera ki 
mala, move (lit. fly) like a 
hawk (of the dancing of 
women who move with both 
arms stretched out like the 
wings of a hawk) ; usually 




prefixed to another particle, 
as, kite, as. A. ka, H. ke, as. 

E, d. gu (ku), nom. suf., 1 
sing., my, as, naruk, my hand. 
[My. Im, Mg. Im.'} 

Ka, k*, tense particle, past in- 
definite, as, a ka bano, 1 
went, i ka bano, he went. 
[Fi. Ixa, a sign of the past 
tense, sometimes of the pre- 
sent.] For this ka, see Ch. 
V. 10. c. 

K', d. ga, d. ka, final conj., 
that, in order that : prefixed 
to the verbal pron. it loses its 
vowel : in the d. in which 
this particle is pronounced 
ga, the verb. pron. is put 
before it — i ga, he that, i.e. 
that he, d. ke (k% that, e, he), 
that he, ka (k', that, a, I), 
that I, d. a ga: the order 
seen in ka, that I, ke, that 
he, is the older and more 
correct : examples, ka fan, 
that I go, ke fan, that he go, 
let him go, and so with every 
verb in the language. This 
is not a tense but a mood, 
though the idea of futurity is 
implied : to make the future 
tense fo (see bo, mo, uo) is 
added, thus, ka fo ban, I 
shall go, I will go, ke fo ban, 
he will go (he shall go, is 
rather ke ban, i.e., he must 
go, but also, let him go, and, 
he may go, and, to go, or, 
that he go). As final conj. 
A. ka', H. ki, that, in order 
that (with the future), Latin 

ut (with the subjunctive). 
It is not sur^Drising that k' in 
some dialects denotes the 
future. Thus in Florida it 
denotes the future, as, ke 
bosa* (k', this particle, and 
e, he), he will speak, com- 
pare Tigre Matt. xvi. 27 
(when the Son of Man) shall 
come (kimase), for the simple 
future in Ethiopic : this Tigre 
ki is k*, the particle in ques- 
tion (A. ka'j, and i, verb, 
pron. or preformative, 3 sing. 
[Ef. d. ga, d. A;', final con- 
junction, Ysabel ge, gi, Eara- 
tonga Jia, usually hia, Ma. Ma 
(the a is a dem. added). To. 
Tie, Mg. li^ : Raratonga Tia, 
future, in some places past, 
Florida h% future, Mg. h\ 
future.] See Ch. V. 8. 1. 
Ka, d., dem. ki, or ke, this, 
there (near), as, nauot ka, 
this chief; ke, and ga in 
naga. See word after next 
below. [My. ild, ilia, iJm, 
this, that, TaSa. alcl, or aJce, 
this.] E. ka, dem., seen in 
zekii, Amh. yeh, or ihe, for 
ike, this. Arm. dek, dak, 
deka', dake', A. daka. With 
the Semitic demonstrative 
ka(Dillmann, Gr. Eth., §§ 62, 
65), seen in these words 
(whence E. kia, prefixed to 
personal pronouns) compares 
probably Assy, aga, this 
(Sayce, Assy. Gr.). 

Note. — This Semitic dem. 
ka is seen also in E. 'elku, 

Ef. ke bisa, that he speak, he may, must, &c., speak, let hijn speak. 




'elkStu, Ch. 'illek, A. 'olaka, 
&c., these, those. 

Ka, prep., usually ki, rarely 
ka (see Ch. V. 11. 3), as, d. 
i ba ka tafa (commonly i ba 
ki tafa), he went to the hill : 
ki, or gi, to, belonging to, of, 
for, from, and transitive prep, 
after verbs ; prefixed to the 
nom. suf. it forms poss. 
prons., as kagu, kama, kana, 
&c. ; kana, his, for him, is 
syn. c. kakana, kanana; see 
Ch. V. 11. (6). [My. Im, to, 
unto, towards, after, accord- 
ing to, much used in com- 
position in the formation of 
other preps, and ads., as in 
han transitive prep, after 
verbs, and ciTiCin, to, &c., and 
particle of the future tense, 
Mg. hu, to, for, belonging to, 
and particle of the future 
tense, Ma. hi, to, towards, 
&c., and, after verbs, transi- 
tive prep.] Amh. ka, to, of, 
from, Himyaritic ka or ki, 
after verbs transitive prejD. ; 
H. ki is a conj., that ; com- 
pare 'ad ki, until (conj.), or 
until that, with E. and Amh. 
»eska ('es, for H. 'ad), prep., 
to, unto. Thus the same 
particle which is a final con- 
junction (see above, under k' 
(ga, ka), final conj.) in A. 
and H., is a prep, in Him- 
yaritic and Amh. 

Ka, or ki, dem., rel. pron., art. 
(same as word before the pre- 
ceding, above), prefixed to 
pers. prons., nom., kinau, 
kigita ; see Ch. V, 1. a» 

Kaba-si, d. See koba-si, to 

Kabe, s., a small basket. [Ma. 
MliCqm, a small basket for 
cooked food, so called from 
being curved (hajni) like the 
hollow of the hand (Ary;i^).] 
S. kapo', poculum H. kaf, 
or kap, hollow of the hand, 
pi. a hollow vessel, pan, or 
bowl (H. kafaf, to bend, 

Kabe, s., a kind of crab. 

Kabe, d. kaflni, s., a pigeon, 
d. kime. [Ma. hukuim, Tah. 
^mj;a, Am. nm, Epi ama, id.] 
A. hama', pigeons. 

Kabu, s., d. koau, the native 
' pudding ' (tied up in a 
bundle, and cooked in the 
oven) ; the main article of 
native food : see kofu. [Tah. 
olm, a bundle of some food 
tied up and baked in the 
native oven, Sa. 'ofiCofu, to 
envelop in leaves (for cook- 
ing).] A. kobbat, kabab', 
*kibby,' the national dish of 
the Arabs, made of pounded 
or brayed wheat and fish or 
flesh, gathered into a round 
mass, and cooked in the oven. 
See the verb under the word 

Kabu, s., fire ; and 

Kabu teragi, v., to burn heat 
ing it (cold food), to warm or 
heat (cold food). [My. ajpi, 
Sa. afi, Mg. afu, fire, Sa. afia, 
ps., to be burnt accidentally.] 
S. hab, to burn, A. hobahib', 
(redup.) fire. See teragi. 


Kabu, s., in talekabu na. See 

Kaber, v. i., or a., to be grey- 
haired, aged ; 

Kaber, d., s., a husband, lit. 
an aged man ; 

Kabera, d., s., a wife, an aged 
woman, d. abera, or abura, 
c. art. nabera, nabura (k 
elided). A. kabira, to be ad- 
vanced in age, kabir, ad- 
vanced in age and fully 
grown, E. »eber, old woman 
(k elided). 

Kaf, V. i., to be bent (as with 
hunger). See also kai. [Ma. 
"kaxoii, curly, Txci^ii, the hollow 
of the hand.] H. kafaf, to 
be bent, kaf, hollow of the 

Kafa i, v. t., to cover (as a 
rotten wood board with 
another), A. kaffa, 1, 2, to 
cover, &c. 

Kafa-rago, s., see d. trans- 
posed faka-rago. 

Kaflka, s., the rose apple. 
[Fut. Icafil^a, Fi. JcaviT^a, Ml. P. 
l.aviJi, Malo aviga, TaSa. lea- 
hila {JiliabiTid), id.] H. ta- 
puah, an apple (so called 
from its scent, from nafah), 
A. toflfah% an apple, not only 
the common one, but also the 
lemon, citron, &c. 

Kaflkafl, v., gafikafi, q.v. 

Kafini, s., d. kabe, q.v. 

Kafl-si, V. t., to uncover, open 
(eye, basket, &c.), A. kafaha, 
to uncover. 

Kafu-ti, or gafu-ti, v. t., to 
wrap up (a thing, as a stone, 
with cloth, so as to cover it 

183 [KAIMIS 

all round), same as kofu sa, 
q.v., which is used of thus 
wrapping up food to be 
cooked ; hence 

Kafukafu na, s., j^ellicle, as 
of an egg or fruit (its wrapper 
or covering), d. kamii. 

Kai, V. i., to be bent, for kaf, 

Kai, conj., d. syn. bo, conj., 
q.v. : ka (see ga, conj.) andi, 
he, she, it. 

Kai, or kae, tense particle 
(compounded of ka, q.v., sign 
of past tense, and i, or e) of 
the pluperfect. See i. 

Kai (or kei), gai, v. i., to cry, 
sing (men, birds), sing out, 
sound, &c. [Ml. P. Icelce, to 
sing.] E. nakawa, to sound, 
give forth a sound (of the 
human voice, songs of birds, 
&c.), A. naka'a, to cry out, 
sing out. 

Kai, s., a sharp shell used for 
scraping : goi. 

Kaimi-si, v. t., to make to 
exist, as (the heathen used to 
say of the sea, &c.), i tumana 
kaimi-si, it made itself to 
exist ; and 

Kaimis, s., c. art. nakaimis, 
one that does anything hid- 
denly and wonderfully, as 
destroying an enemy by 
changing one's form magic- 
ally and deceiving, «S:c. H. 
kum, arise, exist, go forth, 
grow up, stand (be fixed), Hi. 
cause to arise, exist, A. kama, 
2, rightly appoint and dis- 
pose (a thing), 4, prepare (evil 
against a person), &c. 




Kainaga, s., c. art, a tribe or 
family clan. [(Sa. 'mga, a 
family, relations.) To. lia'i- 
naga, a meal, victuals.] See 
kan i. kainaga is for ka- 
ninaga, orig. kanitana. 

Kaka, s., kaka naniu. See 
under aka. 

Kakana (kakagu, kakama, 
kakagita, &c.), poss. jn-on., 
syn. agana, &c., q.v. : kaka 
is ka prep, doubled. [Epi 
gha, glmna, his, &c.] 

Kakat, s., a bite. See katior 
kat i. 

Kakei, s., c. art. nakakei, 
a story (traditional). A. ha- 
ka% to narrate, Nm. hucdya, 
narrative, tale. 

Kal, s., a child. See under 
bakal i i. 

Kala, V. i., or a., little, small. 
See under bakal i ii. [Mg. 
Tceli, id.] 

Kalai, d., s., a spider's web, 
and d. nilau, and 

Kalau, d.. id., lit. a woven 
thing. [My. lahaUiba. and 
Zawa?a?e?a, a spider.] H. 'arab, 
to weave. See kolau. 

Kalau, gkalau. See galau i. 

Kale-baga, s., d. kalemaga, 
bowstring (made out of the 
baga or maga tree) : kalu. 

Kali, s., native spade, digging 
stick : kil 1. 

Kal i, or gal i, q.v., and re- 

Kalikal i, 
Kalu, and galu, s., bowstring, 

kalu nasu : kale in kale 

baga. See kalu-ti. 

Kalu, s., d. kul, cloth, cloth- 
ing, lit. a covering ; and 

Kalu-ti (same as galu-ti), d. 
kulu-ti, V. t., to cover, as 
with a mat or rug, i kalu ki 
nakalu, he covers (himself) 
with cloth or clothing, i kalu, 
d. i kulu, or i gulu, middle 
sense, he covers (himself), as 
with bedclothes, i.e. mats or 
such like, also to put the bow- 
string on a bow (or galu-ti) 
and to clasp round with the 
arms (a violent man, to re- 
strain him, or a pig, &c., 
stooping to lift it in order to 
carry it) : the vowels of this 
word are changed in kalu, 
kulu, kele (galu, gulu, gele), 
golu. See similar changes of 
vowels in the My. word under 
kela, infra. A. galla, 2, to 
cover, 5, to be covered, 
clothed, gullu, coverings, 
clothes, &c., as rugs : the 
idea of covering arises from 
that of wrapping round or 
rolling up — see the eg. H. 
galal, to roll, and its related 
words in Ges. Diet, and see 
below, under kela, kelu. 

Kalumi, s., the spider. See 
under kalau. 

Kama, d. for kabu, in ane- 
kama, q.v. 

Kama, d., verb, suf., 2 pi., you, 
d. mu. My. mu. 

Kamam, d. for kinami, q.v. 

Kami, d.. pers. pron., 2 pi., 

Kami, v. t., to seize, grip, take 
with the fingers, or with 
nippei'S, compress or squeeze 




between two things (like 
alat i) ; same as kamut i, 

Kamu na, s., pellicle, d. for 
kafukafu na, q.v. 

Kamut i, or gamut i, v. t., to 
take, grasp with the fingers, 
nip, then (like alat i) to nip 
or cut with scissors, to cut 
the hair ; hence 

Kam, s., c. art. nikam, native 
tongs (a split stick for grasp- 
ing hot oven stones, and 
lifting them), lit. that which 
(kami, or kamut) nips, seizes, 
grasps, d. kau, q.v., or gau 
(agau), and 

Kamkam, s., scissors. [My. 
cubit, or chiibit, Ja. juivit, to 
nip, pinch. My. agkiib = agau, 
tongs, nippers, Ha. umiJii, to 
pinch with the fingers, Fi. 
qamuta, to take hold of, or 
hold as with pincers, to shut 
(the mouth); ai qamit, any- 
thing to qamuta with (My. 
aghub), as pincers, bullet 
mould, vice.] H. kamas, to 
squeeze together, hence to 
take with the hand, kamat, 
to hold fast with the hands, 
to seize firmly, kafas, con- 
tract, shut (as the mouth), 
kabas, to take, grasp with 
the hand, A. kabasa, to take 
with the tips of the fingers, 
kabas'a, take, grasp with the 

Kana-, pref. to nom. suf., 
forming poss. pron., kanagu, 
kanama, kanana, &c. : ka- 
nana, d. kinin, is syn. c. 
kakaua, q.v. [Epi liana-, d. 

Jcona-, as, JcanaJcu, my, &c.] 
Kana- is ka, prep., and na, 
prep. See Ch. V. 11. (6). 

Kana, v. i., d. kano, to shrink 
from, to be unable ; i kana 
bat i, he is unable to do it 
(shrinks from, or is afraid), 
i sua bo kin, or bo ki, he 
takes (acquires) a mind shrink- 
ing from, afraid, unable (to 
do something). A. kanaka, 
to shrink from, not daring, 
or being afraid. 

Kan i, v. t., to eat, redup. 
kanikani : tea kanien, that 
which is for eating, naka- 
nien, act of eating, the eating, 
food,finaga, q.v., food, bagan 
i, to feed, make to eat, or fa- 
gan i, q.v., and faga, faga- 
faga, nakabu faga, devour- 
ing (eating) fire, nalagi kani- 
kani, a strong wind, kana, 
a squall ; kainaga, a tribe, 
family clan (from eating to- 
gether). [Fi. kana, to eat, 
Jcani-a, to eat, vaJcani-a, feed, 
cause to eat, used also of the 
heat of the sun, and violence 
of the wind, Sa. ai, My. ma- 
I'an, Mg. {m transposed) hu- 
man a, hanina, to eat.] A. 
'akala, to eat, 3, eat together, 
4, to feed, cause to eat, 'akil', 
one who lives with one, 
messmate, familiar friend (cf. 
kainaga, and A. 3), H. »akal, 
to eat ; A. 'akala, (2), to 
scratch (the head), 'akila, to 
be itchy, Ef. makinikini. 
to be itchy. 

Kana, s., a squall. See under 
preceding word. 




Kanau, or kanao, s. , d. kanoa, 
kano, child ; nasuma ni ka- 
noa, or kano, the womb, 
lit. house of the child (or 
foetus). In E. Mai this is 
called kiri fanau, the cover 
(kiri = kuli = skin or cover- 
ing), or skin of the child. 
This word is familiarly used 
by men to each other as a 
vocative, as kanao, or kano, 
mate ! (child !), pi. kan6 
maga, you people, d. naka- 
noa, kano ni Efate, man of 
Efate, pi. nakan Efate, 
people of Efate, lit. children 
of Efate, d. nati ni Efate 
(see ani, ati, child) : hence 
kano is sometimes equivalent 
to * person ', as kano sa, kano 
uia, a bad, a good person ; 

Kan, c. art. nakan, children 
(of a place) ; 

Kano, or kanoa, s., see ka- 

Kanoa, s., c. art. nakanoa, 
see kanao. [My. Jiancik, child, 
analc, id., as Ef. kanao and 
ani, q.v., child, so Mg. sa- 
naka and anaka, Sa. fanau, 
Ef. kanao.] A. walada, H. 
yalad, E. walada, to bring 
forth, bear (of a mother), to 
beget (of males), and used in 
E. also of the earth bringing 
forth its produce. 

Kano, or kanoa, d. kanau, or 

Kanoka, v. i., or a., to be pro- 
duced (as it were born, of 
yams), nani i kanoa (d. ka- 
nau), the yam is produced, 
born, or growing (as if the 
insat, q.v., had brought it 

forth new born), naui kano, 
new or growing yams. See 
preceding word, and s. v. ani. 
For the change of the first 
radical of this Semitic word 
to f, k, and z, and ' ; of the 
second radical to n ; and of 
the third radical to k, and ', 
see Ch. II. 

Kara, or gara, redup. gara- 
gara, v. i., or a., strong, and 
d. karakarai, or garakarai, 
strong, tagaragara, strong, 
vehement. [My. Tzras^ hard, 
violent, strong, vehement, 
force, Mg. lieri, power, 
strength, force, might, Tui- 
lier'i, strong, powerful, mighty, 
lierij being forced to, com- 
pelled, constrained.] A. ka- 
hara, n. a., kahr% to be 
mighty, might, force, alkah- 
haro, omnipotent (God). 

Kara, or gara, redup. gara- 
gara, v. i., or a., to be dry, 
bagara i, v. c, to make dry, 
to dry (a thing), nakaran, 
the being dry, also, the 
being (bare and dry) poor, 
poverty ; kara, dry, then 
hard, strong, stiff, rigid (as 
dry wood). See also kara, 
s., and makarakara, v. i., 
infra. [My. lirig, dry, hrig 
Imi, to dry [a thing), Mg. 
haraJca, dried up, scorched, 
parched.] H. harar, to burn, 
be hot (cf. A. harra, E. ha- 
rara) ; the primary idea is 
that of ' the shrivelled rough- 
ness of things that are dried 
or scorched ', Ges. ; to be 
burned, to be dried up. 


Kara, s., c. art. nekara, the 
nettle (so called from its 
burning ; compare makara- 
kara, to he burning, to be hot, 
as the mouth with pepper, or 
the skin stung by a nettle). 
See preceding word, and com- 
pare H. harul, the nettle, so 
called from its burning, from 
the root haral=harar. 

Kara ki, or gara ki, v., to 
seize, grasp, and 

Kar i, or gar i, v. t., to scratch, 
scrape, shave, seize, redup. 
garikar i, also karu-ti, or 
garu-ti, V. t., to scratch, and 
karo i, or garo i, v. t., to 
scratch, scrape, redup. garo- 
karo, and karokaro, karo- 
karoa, or garokaroa, itchy, 
scratchy, scabby, and garn, 
and tagaru, v. t., to seize, 
grasp, garu sera, (grasp 
everything) be grasping, re- 
dup. garukaru, id., karo, to 
scrape, sweep, to swim (i.e. 
siveej) with the arms — to swim 
without doing this is afa, or 
ofa), karati, karakarati, 
scratched, marked, scored ; 
kari, s., a plane (from being 
moved with a sweeping or 
sawing motion, or shaving) ; 
kare-si, v. t., to scratch, 
scrape ; giire-si, v. t., to 
gnaw, scranch. [My. garis, 
Ja. garif, to scratch, score, 
gam, to rake, &c., garut, 
scratch, scrape, claw, garok, 
to scrape, gCirap, grasp at, 
gdraji, a saw, greh, to gnaw, 
Icarat, karot, Mrot, grind or 
gnash the teeth, make a grat- 

187 [KARE-SI 

ing noise, Jcctrut, to scratch, 
MroJc, to rub, curry (a horse), 
liiJcir, to rasp, file, a rasp, 
file, avaricious, Mg. liar at a, 
shaved, manarata, to shave, 
Jatri, gnaw, scrape, Fi. hiri, 
or JcariJcari, v. i., liari-a, Jcari- 
taha, V. t., to scrape, JcaroJcaro, 
prickly heat, itch, Sa. 'ill, a 
rasp, file, saw.] A. garra, 
to drag, snatch, sweep, seize, 
H. garar, to scrape, sweep, 
saw (primary meaning), to 
drag or snatch away, to saw 
(megerah, a saw), to gargle, 
produce rough sounds in the 
throat (see Ef. karo, throat, 
infra), cognates S. gra% to 
shave, H. gara% scratch, 
scrape (see Ef. gura i, magir 
i). &c. 

Karab, s., dd. karau, karaf, 
karam, a cutting instrument. 
H. hereb, id. 

Karafi, v. t., to scratch, scrape 
(the earth or ground) ; hence 

Karafi, v. i., to creep on the 
ground (as it were scratching 
or scraping on the ground) : 
see kar i. Karafi is kara-fi. 

Karaka, v. i., to move tremu- 
lously (creep), as crabs and 
such like animals do ; karaka 
ki naburuma, (a mother-in- 
law) creeps or shrinks away 
from her son-in-law (trem- 
bling and afraid) : kara-ka, 
compare preceding word. 

Karakarati, a., see kar i. 

Karati, and redup., 

Kare-si, v. t., to scratch, 
scrape, and, from the idea of 




scraping together, being 
gathered together. 

Karesi, or karisi, s., a cluster 
(as of cocoaniits), and 

Karesibum, d. for karesi- 
bunu (see bunu), pr. n., of 
a person mentioned in a myth, 
one of the two sons of a 
woman who came down from 
heaven, lit. seize — kill. See 
kar i, and bunu. 

Karei sa, d. karei ki nia, v. t., 
to dislike, be averse from, 
hate. [My. m, to hate, Mg. 
hala, hated, detested, ab- 
horred.] A. kariha, to dis- 
like, abhor. 

Karei, or garei turi, to dis- 
like (the thing he is bidden 
or sent to do) abiding with 
(some one). See turi, and cf. 
kita roa sa. 

Karl, s., a plane. See kar i. 

Karl, V. i., to hasten, takari, 
id. [Ma. Jcari, rush along 
violently.] A. kara, 1, 8, to 

Kari-iki (kariki), s., little 
child, little children, and 

Kari-kiki (karikiki), s., id. 
(kiki, little), and 

Kari-riki (kaririki), s., d., 
riki, little, and kari, boy, 
child. A. "aiP, Mahri gairu, 
H. 'ul, S. 'ula, boy, child. 
See Index under JU. 

Karo, karoi, garoi, v. i., to 
swim (sweeping with the 
arms) : kar i. 

Karokaro, and 

Karokaroa, scabby, itchy ; 
kar i. 

Karo na, s., c. art., dd. gato na 
(garo na), kanro na, the 
throat, gullet. H. garon, the 
throat, from garar (see kar i), 
E. g'ere, the throat. 

Karo, V. i., d., to be uncovered, 
have the clothes off, naked. 
H. galah, to be naked. See 

Karu-ti, or karut i. See 
kar i. 

Kasa, and kasafa, also kasana, 
inter, ad., for what? why? 
d. kua : ka, final conj., 
and sa, or safa, q.v., what? 
See Ch. V. 5. 

Kasana, inter, ad., for what? 
kasa, with the dem. na 

Kasau, s., c. art., small branch, 
fruit stalk, nakasau na, its 
small branch, d. (transposed) 
sakau, id., and also a reef. 
See sakau. [My. gusog, a 
reef of rocks.] A. kas'ib', 
long and slender branch, H. 
kisbe', pi. const., 'the ends, 
i.e. the roots of the mountains 
(in the depth of the sea),' Jon. 
ii. 7 ; perhaps, the branches 
of the mountains (running out 
into the sea). 

Kas i, or kasi, gas i, v. t., to 
rub, wipe. [My. goso'k, gosot, 
gosoJci, gisik, kisil, to rub, Mg. 
IxisuJca, rubbed, mikasiilca, to 
rub.] A. kas's^a, (3), to rub, 
kas'a' (kas'w'), to rub, w^pe. 

Kas-toru, s., handkerchief, lit. 
sweat-wiper : kas i, and torn, 

Kasi, V. i., or a., to be sweet, 
redup. gkasi (gakasi), dd. 




gari, gat, kati. [Cf. Mg. 
hanita, fragrance, manlfa, 
sweet smelling. My. mcmis, 
sweet, luscious, mild, gentle.] 
A. nakusa, to be sweet, 
nakis', sweet, fragrant with 
sweet odour. 

Note. — The k elided and 
initial n retained in My. and 

Kasu, s., an old man, a kind 
of priest or sacred man. [Fi. 
qasc, an old man.] S. kas'is'o, 
an old man, a priest, from 
kas', to grow old (Freytag), 
A. kas's% a Christian Pres- 

Kasu, or kas, d. kau, s., c. art. 
nakasu, tree, wood. [Epi 
dd. yesi, laJcai, Ml. dd. nigc, 
nai, TaSa. tagai (tagJiai), Fut. 
rakauy Sa. lacm, My. Iw/u, 
Mg. Jiazu, tree, wood, Mg. 
Jia^u, hard.] H. 'es, tree, 
wood, Ch. 'a% from H. 'asah, 
A. 'asa% to be hard, firm. 
See Index. 

Kasua, or gasua, d. kasu, v. i., 
or a., hard, strong, redup. 
kaskasua, id., nakasuana, 
s., the being hard or strong, 
strength. [Ja. Ticikas, hard, 
firm, rigid, stiif, cf. Jcmvasa, 
strong.] H. kas'ah, A. kasa', 
to be hard, stiff, H. kas^eh, 
hard, firm, fast, strong, power- 

Note. — In Ef. nabona i 
gasua, his heart is hard, 
meri gasua ki nia, treat him 
hardly, or with violence. 

Kat, or kati, v. i., to thunder, 
tifai i kat, or i gat, the 

thunder thunders. See fol- 
lowing word. 
Kat i, or gat i, v. t., to bite, 
to make fast, as, nakasu i 
gati natua na, the log makes 
fast his foot, i.e. jambs it 
and holds it firmly fixed 
against something; to com- 
press between two things ; 
to bite, redup. katikati, na 
kakat, s., a bite, flkit, to 
bite each other, savage ; na- 
lagi i katikati, the wind be- 
comes fixed (in a certain 
direction) ; i tua gat ia sa, 
he gave him for it, i mate 
gat ia, he died for it, as, for 
sin ; i kati, or gati, to thun- 
der, is said to be the same 
word, tifai i gat, and when 
a thunderbolt' rends a tree 
it is said, tifai i gati bora ia, 
the thunder bites, rending it 
(bora i). The Efatese say 
that the thunder has teeth, 
and the idea in tifai i gat 
is that the tifai is biting, i. e. 
grinding its teeth together, or 
rending with its teeth. [Ma. 
Jiatl, block up, closed, JcaJcati, 
a bundle, sheaf, and, v. t., tie 
up in bundles, katikati, v. i., 
champ, move the jaw as in 
eating, Fi. kafa {vci kata = 
fikit), to bite, a., close to- 
gether, as boards on a floor, 
My. gigit, to bite, gigitan, 
a bite, Mg. heJiita, s., hold, 
grasp, seizure, clutch, bite, 
kaikita, a bite, bitten, manai- 
kita, v. t., to bite, kekerina, 
being bitten.] S. nkat, to 




Katak, v. i., to coagulate. 
[My. kantal, Jcandal, id.] A. 
h'atara, id. 

Katau, s., a kind of crab. [Cf. 
My. Mtam, a crab ; to nip, 
snip off.] Cf. A. katama, to 
bite, cut off. See koto, a kind 
of crab, infra. 

Kate, tense part., d., past, a 
kate, ku kate, i kate, au 
kate, &c. : ka, and te. 

Kate, s., c. art. nakate, any- 
thing, a thing, lit. the that- 
that, d. nete (ne te, the that). 
See ka, and te. [Fi. hi, a 
thing.] Dem. ka, and dem. 

Kate, s., kate ni rarua, the 
stick on the outside of the 
canoe superstruction on the 
side oj^p. to the sama. 

Katema, ad., outside of the 
house. H. bus, outside, and 
ema, house. See imrum, 
suma. In ekatema, q.v. 

Kati, d. for kasi, sweet, redup. 

Katoro, s., a basket. A. ka'- 
tarat, a basket. 

Kau, s., a collection, bunch, 
herd, &c. A. gam% a collec- 
tion, gama'a, v. See umkau, 
makau, ko-fakal. [Sa. Utii, 
a troop, gang, bunch, cluster.] 

Kau, or gau, redup. kaukau 
(c. art. agau, d. ni kam, 
tongs, forceps, nippers, for 
grasping), v. t. , to grasp with 
the hand, i kau nabe, he 
grasps a club (carried on 
his shoulder), then to carry 
anything on the shoulder, 
i kau nauos, he grasps the 

oar (in rowing), i kaukau 
nara nakasu, (the flying fox) 
grasps the branch of a tree 
(moving along it as it were 
hand over hand, till it finds a 
resting-place), hence, ba kau- 
kau, (of men) go seeking a 
resting-j)lace. See kam, ka- 
mut i. [My. gatca, Fi. kauta, 
to carry.] 

Kau, d. au, a lizard, perhaps 
from grasping or clinging. 

Kau, V. i., to bend (as with 
hunger), also kai, and kaf, 

Kau, s., d. for kasu, tree, 

Kau, V. i., or a., d. for kasua, 
hard, strong. 

Kaua, s., an open worked 
wicker basket or trap for 
catching fish : so called be- 

Kaukaua, a., full of openings 
or aj)ertures, as if windowed, 
or apertured : the final a is 
the a. ending. A. kaww', an 
opening in a wall, kawwat, 
a window (Nm. couwa, dor- 
mer window), Ch. kaw, a 
window, from kawah, or 

Kaukau, s. , c. art. nakaukau, 
the upper cross (i.e. above, 
and across the kiat) or bind- 
ing sticks between a canoe 
and its outrigger (sama) ; 
from grasping or holding to- 
gether, kau, V. t. 

Kauota, v. i., or a., to be 
great, plentiful, dd. kote, et, 




Ke, or ke (cf. kei), dem., this. 
See ka, id., and ko, id. 

Ke, d., that he, k% final conj., 
and e (or i) verb, pron., 3 
sing. : ka, k. 

Ke, keke, interj. See ake ! 
and ako ! ^Florida liC ! JieJcc /] 

Ke, d., verb, pron., 2 sing., 
you, dd. k, ma, ko. 

Keikei, s., c. art. nakeikei, 
tattoo marks or lines upon 
the skin. [Fi. qia, to tattoo.] 
See goi (or koi, or kei). 

Kei naniu, for koi naniu. 
See goi. 

Kei, d., dem., this, that (near), 
for koi, q.v. 

Kekel, s., d. for kal, child, 
infant. See under bakal i i. 

Kei, redup. gkel (kekel), v. i., 
to sweep round or wheel in 
curves (of a bird in flight 
without moving its wings) ; 

Kela, s., the curved beam or 
wall-plate that goes round the 
end of a native house ; and 

Kele-ti, v. t. (see golu-ti, 
gele-ti, gel i, gulu-ti, ka- 
luti), as, keleti, kei, or golu 
nasu, put the bowstring on 
a bow, niiana i laba i keleti 
nara nakasu, its (a tree's) 
fruit plentiful bends the 
branch of the tree, i keleti 
uago (or other heavy thing 
to be carried), he stoops down 
and clasps the pig (or other 
heavy thing) to lift and carry 
it, hence, kelakela, or gela- 
kela (of a peoj^le carrying 
such things, as in going to 
a naleouan) ; and 

Kelu-faki, v. t., to round or 
double a cape (of a canoe or 
ship), eg. syn. ili-fiki; and 

Kelu, a., going round, as ba- 
gana kelu, its (the armj^'s) 
rear or hinder part (see bago, 
baga), going round, making 
a detour (to surprise the 
enemy). [My. gidi^, goUg, 
fjilig, gulug, to turn round, 
revolve, roll, roll up, igal, to 
whirl, curly, and ih:il, to 
whirl, g3^ration, Mg. laidiaj 
a wheel, rolled, mikiidia, milm- 
diadia, to roll, and mikicdinkU' 
dlna, &c.,s\soJcunana, twirled, 
mihuriana, to twirl, and misi- 
gerina, misigcrigcr'ma, to turn, 
wind, roll, revolve, also Im- 
dlna, &c.] E. k'arar, often 
red., A. karra, n. a. karat', 
go round, revolve, karkara, 
to turn (a mill) round, 2, to 
revolve, wheel (as a bird in 
flight). See Ges. s. v. H. ka- 
rar, for egg. 

Ken, for kana, v. i. 

Kerikeri, v. i., to be deep, as 
a pit, the sea. A. ka'ara, to 
be deep. 

Kesa, kesakesa, gesa, gesa- 
kesa. See kisa. 

Ketaku, or keltaku, s., the 
hinder end of a canoe, ad. 
behind ; for ko itaku. See 
kobe, and ko, face, 

Ki, ad., see ka, ad., as: also 
in kite. 

Ki, d., k% dem., and i, verb, 
pron., 3 sing., syn. c. the 
simple i. 

Ki, d., dem., this, or ke, id. : 
ka, dem. 


Ki, V. i., to be fearful, faint- 
hearted, shrink from (for fear). 
H. ka'ah, A. ka'a, id. 

Ki, prep, (the usual form), c. 
ai*t., aki, the, that which to, 
or of, also gi, agi. See ka, 

Ki, same as ka, art. 

Ki, redup. kiki, v. i. See gi, 
gki (giki), V. i., to squeak. 

Ki, d., verb, pron., 2 pL, you, 
dual kia : ku. 

Kia-, or kie-, pref. to the nom. 
suf. forming possessive pro- 
nouns kiagu, kiama, kiana, 
kiagita, kiagami, kiamu, 
kiara, or kiata: kiana, his 
(country, plantation, house, 
vicinity). The use of ka- 
kana is different, his or its 
(as a weapon to kill him, 
a door for a house, oar for 
a boat, &c.) [EpiA'M-?/. Mamo, 
Mano,Mandro, hiememi, Vicmiii, 
Malo, same as Ef. kiagu, kia- 
ma, &c.] Ef. kia-, is in Ta. 
kafa-, Ef. kiagu = Epi kiaku 
=Ta.kafak,'my'. SeeCh.V. 
11. (3), (7). 

Kia, d., verb. pron.. 2 dual, 
you two, d. ko ra. [Epi Jco, 
An. eJcau. id.] 

Kiag, d. for kiama, thy (vi- 
cinity) : kia-, and g, suf. 
pron., 2 sing. 

Kiat, s., c. art. nakiat, the 
sticks which cross from the 
canoe to the outrigger (sama) 
joining them together. [Sa. 
Tah. iato, Ta. niJiiatu, Fut. 
(iMato. Ha. iaJco, id.. Ma. Jciato, 
thwart of a canoe.] A. h'ata, 


to sew, to join together, 

Kie, s., c. art. nakie, the plant 
whose leaf is baked, dried, and 
split into thin threads to be 
woven into mats, &c. [Sa. 
'ie, a fine mat, cloth.] See 
under neko. 

Kigami, d. kinami, 1 pers. 
pron. exclusive. 

Kigita, d. syn. nigita, 1 pers. 
pron. inclusive. 

Kiki, V. i., or a., and iki in 
kariki, small. [To. iki, id.] 
For riki, q.v. 

Kikita, or gkita, redup. of 

Kilakila, a., knowing, saga- 
cious, shy, i meta kilakila 
(of an animal). [Fi. Jcila, 
wild, suspicious, on the look- 
out, as an animal.] A. 'akala, 
1. 2, to be intelligent, pru- 
dent, sagacious, 'akil', a., id. 

Kil i, or kili, v. t., to dig, 
hence kali, s., a digging stick, 
and nakili, s., a current (as 
in the sand, lit. that which 
digs). [Sa. 'eli, to dig, met ell, 
to be dug. My. gall, to dig, 
Mg. hadi, ditch, trench, &c., 
dug, miJiadi, to dig, Ma. kcri, 
har'i, to dig.] E. karaya, A. 
kara', H. karah, Ch. kera', 
to dig. 

Kili, s., c. art. nakili, d., a 
current : kili. 

Kilikili, v., redup. of kili, 
used of many digging : ru 
kilikili, they (as the people 
of a district and whose yams 
are ripe) dig. 




Kiliti, s., a sow, a mother-pig. 
[An. harite, or Icerite, an 
animal that has had young.] 
Kiliti, lit. that brings forth 
(young), or the bringer forth, 
i.e. mother. See ani, note, 
and kano. 

Kin, s. See ikin, nest. 

Kin, d., dem., this: ki, dem., 
and in, dem. [Assy, agannu, 
this, aga, dem., and annu, 

Kinam, d. kinami, 

Kinami, pers. pron., 1 pi., 
excl., we, they ; k', dem. ina, 
we, 'mi, they. 

Kinau, pers. pron., 1 sing., I, 
shortened kinu, dd. keino, 
anu, enu : k% dem. prefix, 
and 'nau (for 'naku, hence 
nom. suf. gu, d. k). [An. 
aiiiak, Epi. nag'u, TaSa. enau, 
Sa. a\i (for 1:0 ahi), My. aliu, 
Mg. i^aJm, aim, I.] H. »ano- 
ki, shortened 'ani. Assy. 
anaku, Aram. '&na', 'eno', 
E. 'ana, I. 

Kinit i, also ginit i, and gu- 
nut i, V. t., ni]3 with the 
fingers, nakini na, the fingers 
(nippers), kini gote-fi, nip, 
breaking it (reeds for thatch- 
ing), hence nakini-got, reeds 
for thatching. [Fi. MnitUi, 
nip, pinch between finger and 
thumb, Sa. 'ini, to take hold 
of with the nails, pinch, ps. 
'initia, Ma. hini, Ha. inihi, 
My. gdntas, to break ofi', nip 
off, snap off.] A. karasa, to 
nip (with the fingers), pinch, 
grasp with the points of the 
fingers or hand, snip off ; 

Kini na, s., c. art., the fingers, 
or toes, lit., the nippers, or 
graspers ; also claws, talons ; 

Kini gote-fl, v. t., and 

Kinigot, s., c. art., see kinit i. 

Kintu, dem., that (near) : 
kin, dem., and tu. 

Kinu, I, see kinau. 

Kiri, d., s., c. art. nakiri, d. 
syn. ori, rubbing stick for 
producing fire. [Sa. 'ili, rasp, 
file, saw.] See kar i, ma- 

Kirikiri, s., gravel, pebble. 
[Sa. 'iU'ili, Ma. liiriJcin, My. 
kriJcil, Mrikil, JcariJcil, gravel, 
pebble.] H. garger, A. gir- 
gir', a berry, from H. garar, 
see kar i, eg. A. garal', 

Kirikiri, a., small, like peb- 
bles, bia kirikiri, little chil- 
dren. See preceding word. 

Kis, s. , a shell, used for cutting. 
A. giz'at, a shell, from gaza'a, 
to cut. 

Kis, d., dem., this, here : ki, 
dem., and se, dem. 

Kisa, a., in mita kisa, blind 
(the eyes sunk into the head). 
A. has', id. And 

Kisa, or gisa, v. i., or a., re- 

Kisakisa, v. i., or a., to be 
putting forth leaves, hence to 
be green ; hence 

Kisa, s., c. art., nakisa, d. 
takis, a green stone or chalk 
(used only for painting him- 
self by a chief), a chiefs grave 
(in the bush, sacred). A. 
h'awisa, to have the eyes 
sinking into the head, 4, to 




put forth leaves (a plant), to 

Kihi na, d. kui na, q.v. : kihi 
na, i.e. kisi na (h being for s 
in that d.). 

Kis i, or kisi, v. t., also gis i, 
redup. giskis, to feel, touch, 
lo giskis, to look, exploring 
(as at a person's body partly 
uncovered). A. gassa, to 
feel, touch, to explore or 
grope with the hand or with 
the eyes, H. gas'as', Pi., E. 
gasasa, to feel, touch, S. gas', 
to feel, touch, to explore. 

Kisau, V. i., d. kisur, to re- 
move, get out, stand apart: 
i kisau ki nabua, he removes 
from, or stands out, or gets 
out of the road, ba kisau, 
get out (of the way), remove, 
stand away. A. kasa', ka- 
sww», kusuww, kasa*, to 
stand apart, to be remote. 

Kistu, dem., this here : kis, 
dem., and tu. 

Kisur (ksur), d. for kisau. 
See (d.) esu. 

Kita, a., little, small, li kita, 
small place (name of small 
boat entrance of Havannah 
Harbour) opp. to li leba, big 
place (name of large entrance 
to Havannah Harbour). [Sa. 
iti, itUti, small, few. Ma. and 

' Tah. iti, itiiti, small, little. 
My. Jcafe, kite, Mg. hitika, 
diminutive.] H. katan, to 
be small, little. 

Kita (rare), or kite, ad., as, 
takes the verb, pron., as i kite 
fatu, it is as (or like) a stone, 
kite, or kite uan, as, as if, 

i bisa i kite i maieto, he 

speaks as if he were angry, 
i marafl kite niflla, it is 
quick as lightning. A. kada, 
like, as this, as that. See ki, 
as, and te, kite, or kita, lit., 
as that, or like that : te, 

Kita, or kite, conj., or, d. ko : 
rarua kite boat, a canoe or 
boat ; inter, particle at the 
end of sentences, d. ko, as 
i bano kite ? has he gone ? 
fully this is, i bano kite i 
tika ? has he gone or not ? 
For kite, disj. conj., see ko, 
conj., infra. 

Kita, v., to divine, redup. ki- 
kita, gkita, lit. to perceive 
or feel with the eye or the 
mind (cf. rogo, rorogo), bati 
kita i, or gita i, to try (cf. 
bati rog i), lit. make or do 
feeling or perceiving or know- 
ing or finding out. [Ma. 
hite, to see, know, perceive, 
find out, discover, matahite, 
to divine, s. one who foresees 
an event, Mg. liita, mahita.'J 
A. wagada, to find with the 
eye or the mind {a thing 
sought), to perceive by the 
feeling of the body (a thing), 
or by the mind, 4, make to 
find or to perceive. 

Kita i, and gita i, v. t., to 
hate, redup. kitakita i, to be 
envious of, to hate ; and 

Kita roa sa, or kita roa i, to 
hate turning after him (some- 
one), as a boy sent a message 
meeting another boy and 
(hating to do the message) 




turns after him to play. See 
roa. H. kut, followed by 
prep, be, to loathe, also kus 
and nakat. 

Kita, in bakita and bakita- 
kita. See makitakita, id. 

Kite. See kita, ad. 

Ko, verb, suf., 2 sing., you, 
dd. k, ke, ma, g. 

Ko, d., verb, pron., 2 sing., 
you, d. ku, d. ke. 

Ko, sign of imperative, 2 pi. 
(sing, ba), lit. that you : k», 
final conj., and o, fragment 
of pers. pron., 2 pi. 

Ko, d., ad. of assent, d. syn. 
na, and redup., 

Koko, id., d. ko, interj. See 
ako and kori : ko, dem. 

Ko, d. for uo (wo), as i ko 
toko (d. for i uo toko) he 
(is) remaining (has not yet 
gone). See bo, supra, (k 
for b). 

Ko, dem. See koi, E. ku, 

Ko, d., disj. conj., or; inter, 
particle at the end of a sen- 
tence, as, i bano ko? has 
he gone ? fully, i bano ko i 
tika ? has he gone or not ? 
D. syn., in both uses, kite, 
or kita. [An. ka, id., Er. In, 
or.] H. A., S., 'aw, or. 

Note. — Kite has a dem. 
suffixed to ki, te, and there- 
fore lit. denotes or — this. 

Ko, s., c. art. nako na (or 
n ako), the face, a part ; na- 
kona, his face (see nako, 
infra), nakonako ki, to face 
(someone), nako nafakotoen, 
a part of the price, ba tu au 

nakon, give me a part, nakon 
ru bano nakon ru toko, 
a part (of the whole number 
of men) go, a part remain ; 
and, without the article, 
shortened to ko, as, ko-be ni 
rarua, or nakobe, the fore- 
part of a canoe, keitaku ni 
rarua, or nako-itaku, the 
after-part of a canoe ; ko-be, 
the part before, the front, 
i baki kobe, he goes to the 
front, ke-itaku, the part 
behind, behind, i baki ke- 
itaku, he goes behind, or to 
the rear. A. wagt' (wagto), 
the face, a part or side, wigat, 
a band, wagaha, 3, to face 

Koa, a., fibrous, stringy, as a 
yam when cooked, naui koa : 
aka, ako, and a, a. ending. 

Koakoa, redup. of koa, verj'^ 
stringy or fibrous. 

Koau, s., c. art. nakoau, d. 
kabu, the native pudding. 
See kofu sa. 

Koba-si, v. t., to follow, to 
drive away, to pursue : i koba 
nabona, he follows his own 
heart (does or strives to do 
what is in his mind) ; v. r., 
fikoba, to follow each other, 
or to drive away each other ; 

Koba-usi, v. t., i.e. koba, 
and usi, to track ; to follow 
after. A. kafa, to follow, to 
drive away. 

Kobara, s., see gobara. 

Kobu, d. See kubu. 

Kofa, s., and redup., 

Kofakofa, s., an alcove, tem- 
porary house or shed, tent. 




H. kubah, a tent, chamber 
(so called from its arched 
form, from kabab, to make 
gibbous and hollow, to arch, 
to vault). A. kubbat, tent, 
vault, chamber, hence the 
word alcove. 

Kofakal, s., a herd of pigs 
cared for, lit. herd cared for : 
ko for kau, q.v., a herd, and 

Kofe na, s., nakofena, his 
skull, the skull. A. kihf , 
the skull. 

Kofeta, d., s., fata, q.v., a 
bench, platform. 

Kofu sa, V. t., to enclose (as 
fish in a net), wrap up or en- 
enclose (as a pudding in 
leaves, to be put in the oven). 
See kabu, d. koau, the native 
pudding ; and 

Kofukofua, a., redup., and 
with a. ending a, bent up at 
the edges, as a shovel, or any- 
thing, as it were rolled up or 
turned over. The pudding, 
koau, is laid on a mass of 
leaves, very wide and long, 
which are rolled up or over it 
all round, completely enclos- 
ing it, and then tied up. [Fi. 
Jcovuta, TxoTxofii blistered 
(small balls or pimples), liovu, 
banana leaf in which native 
puddings are done uf>, d., a 
coat, Jcomma, to do up in a Jcovu, 
Sa. 'ofu, a garment, 'oofii, put 
on a garment, 'ofu' ofu, to en- 
velop in leaves (for cooking), 
'ofulua, twenty leaf dishes of 
native food ; Ma. liohii, Tiohohu, 
a., somewhat concave, bent or 

warped so as to become con- 
cave (cf . Ef. kofukofua), Tcoliu^ 
to cook in a native oven any 
article contained in a hollow 
vessel. To. Tcofu, to enclose or 
wrap up, to clothe. Ha. olm, 
to roll up (as the sea that 
does not break) a roller, a 
swell, olina, a crowd of people, 
ohui, to twist round, ohuohu, 
heavy, burdensome, a wreath 
worn round the neck, to dress 
in uniform, Tah. ohu, a bank 
or ridge of earth thrown up, 
a bundle of native food tied J 
up and baked in the native " 
oven, to bend downwards as 
the branch of a tree, to stoop, 
to twirl round as a wheel.] 
A. kabba,to roll up into a ball, 
to make into balls (food) for 
cooking, to invert, to stoop, to 
be heavy, A. kobbat', kabab', 
(see under kabu, d. koau, 
supra) : kobbat also denotes 
a mob of horses, crowd or 
mass of men, herd of camels, 
a ball of threads rolled up to- 
gether, a heavy ponderous 
thing, a hill, kabkaba, 2, to 
be wrapped up, enveloped, to 
wrap up or envelop oneself 
in one's garment). 

Koi, d., dem., this, d. kei : ko 
dem., and i, dem. 

Kola (ko-ia, ko-ya), same as 

Koi, s., and 

Koika, s., a boundary, from j 

Koi, or ko i, v. t. See goi. 

Koko, s., c. art. nekoko, i 
reddish juice or paint for ■ 
nafona, made from a plant 




(also called nekoko) : goko i. 

[To. holm, Sa. 'o'a, id.] 

Kokoro, s. See under gor i. 

Kokoti, s., a net for catching 
fish : koto. 

Kola, d., and rediip., 

Kokola, V. i., to be bent, d. 
kolo, kola ki na buruma, 
(a mother-in-law) bends or 
stoops to the son-in-law. H. 
kara% id., transposed. A. 
raka, see lako, infra. 

Kola, V. i., and reduj)., 

Kokola, V. i., or gkola, to be 
arid, dry ; hence 

Kola, s., a dry stick or log. 
A. kahala, kohoP, to be arid, 

Kola, V. i., and gola, and 
redup. gkola (kokola), to call 
out, cry out, to speak loud ; 

Kola oli, s., echo, lit. calling 
out like. See oli. [Fi. ka'ila, 
to shout, Mg. akura, s., shout- 
ing.] H. kara', to cry out, 
call out. 

Kolau, redup. gkolau. See 
galau i. 

Kolau, s. See kalau, spider's 
web, dd. kalai, nilau ; na- 
mera kolau, web of fat on 
the inwards of a pig. [An. 
nilva — kolau, nilvanilva = 

Kolau (see preceding word), 
pr. n., prob. originally given 
to a warrior full of stratagems. 
See also the verb under kalau, 
to weave, to lie in wait, watch 
in ambush (as in war). A. 
*aruba, to be wily or cun- 

Kolobu na, s., its joint (of a 
bamboo or reed), applied also 
to the knobs or rivets on a 
tank. A. karibu, joint of a 
bamboo or reed. 

Kolofa, V. c, to be bent, as 
with hunger or famine, redup. 
gkolofa. See lofa i, lofa. 
[Fi. l-alove, bent, from love-fa, 
to bend.] 

Komam, dd. kinami, kimam. 

Kon, V. i., or a. (with ending 
n), and redup., 

Kokon, gkon, to be bitter (of 
anything), kona ki, to be 
bitter towards (someone), na- 
marita na i gkon, his belly 
is bitter (he is angry). [Sa. 
'ona, 'dona, bitter, sour. 
'ona, bitter, poisonous, 'ona, 
to be poisoned, 'dona, 'onasia.'} 
A. lioma-t, E. hama-t, H. 
hamah, bitter, heat, gall, 

Konai na, s., c. art. nakonai 
na, his gall or bile : kon, 

Eona, V. i., gona, to stand 
firm, to be fixed, firm, then, 
to have the mind fixed upon, 
to be occupied with, kona ki. 
H. kun, prop, to stand up- 
right, Hi. to set up, found, 
then to apply one's mind to, 
Ni. to stand firm, fixed, steady, 
firm, constant ; 

Kona gor i, v., to stand firm 
protecting him (as in war). 
See gor i. 

Kona i, or konai, v. t., and 
gonai, to pierce (as a board 
with an instrument like an 
awl). E. kanawa, to pierce. 




Konaisai, v. , to pierce through. 
See sai. 

Kore na, s., see gore na, 
brother's sister, sisters 
brother, children of the same 
mother (actually), or, if not, 
members of the same na- 

Kor i. See gor i. 

Kor6 ea, v. t., conceal it (as 
misconduct of which one is 
accused) : gor i. 

Koro, s., c. art. nakoro, a 
fence, a wall, d. ara, c. ai-t. 
nara : gor i. 

Koro, s., a fish fence, enclosure 
for catching fish ; a ring (or 
halo) round the moon : gor 1. 

Koro, s., c. art. nekoro, in- 
cantation or rites of divina- 
tion ; and 

Koro, v., to divine : gor i. 

Koroatelagi, d., or nakoro- 
atelagi, the sky, dd. koroin- 
lagi, rikitelagi, lit. the fence, 
or that which surrounds or 
encloses the atelagi, q.v. 

Koroinlagi, s., d., the sky, lit. 
the fence, or that which en- 
closes heaven. See lagi, 

Koroki, v., to insist (as in 
argument), provoke, irritate. 
S. gareg (Pael), to provoke. 

Kori, or koria, also kuri, or 
kuria, s., a dog, a warrior, 
a brave, cognate oro, to bark. 
[Sa. tiU, id., Ma. hiri, a dog, 
an)'- quadruped, To. Mdi, a 
dog, Fut. kiili, Ta. hitri, Ej)! 
kuli, Jculiu, TaSa. vurlu, Malo 
viiria, Ml. Jcuri, id.] A. gorw', 
a young dog, gariyy', brave. 

Kori, inter j., also in akori, 
kori la ! this now indeed ! 
here, or there indeed ! ko, 
dem., ri, dem. 

Koro, V. i., to snore. See 

Koroi, d. kuriii, a woman ; 

Koruni, kuruni, q.v. See 
Ch. II. 17. e. 

Kos i, kus i, V. t., to cut or 
shear off (as the end of the 
outer covering of a young 
cocoanut fit for drinking) ; 

Kosu-mi, V. t., to husk a cocoa- 
nut, also kusu-mi, gusu-mi ; 
i gusu, V. i., said of a ripe 
cocoanut which separates it- 
self and falls from the tree, 
kusu-mi, or gusu-mi, v. t., 
to gather cocoanuts from the 
tree, kusu, or gusu, v. i., to 
be ripe, soft, makusukusu, 
to be ripe, soft, kusue na, s., 
the soft place on the top of a 
child's head, the last to close 
up, makus, q.v., s., cutter or 
knife. A. gazza, to cut off, 
shear ; to cut (grass, &c.) in 
order to gather provender, to 
cut ofi" the clusters of dates 
from the tree ; to begin to 
ripen (dates), 4, to have 
(sheep) ready for shearing, or 
ripe grain, to be ready to be 
gathered from the tree (dates), 
to be ripe or ready for gather- 
ing (fruit of the palm tree), 
for reaping (grain), for shear- 
ing (sheep) ; migazz>, a cut- 
ting instrument. 

Kosu, s., a cutting instrument 




made of bone: preceding 

Kosoafa, s., c. art. nakosoafa, 
dd. nasoafa, soafa, a plant 
used in ceremonial or ritual 
purifications : it is swept down 
the limbs to carry away the 
uncleanness ; lit. the tree that 
carries (away) ; kosu (see 
kasu), and afa i. 

Kota, s., a time, in, i ta kota 
ki (a person), he appoints a 
time to or for (someone) ; 
and in 

Kotfan, d. for gotafanu, gota 
fanu, q.v., evening. 

Kote, d. for kauota, and et, 

Koto bolo, s., a basket (see 
bolo). [Ml. gat, Malo gete, 
To. Icato. Sa. 'ato, a basket.] 
A. ka'tat, a basket (for carry- 
ing dates). 

Koto, s., a kind of crab: so 
called from nipping. See 
following word. 

Koto-fl, V. t., kote-fi, kotu-fi, 
gote-fi, redup. kotokote-fl, 
gotokote-fi (intensive), to 
cut, to cut off, break off ; eni 
gote-fi, to lie across it, bala 
tagoto, inclined across, a- 
cross, ba gote-fl, go across 
it, soka gote-fi, leap across 
it ; sai gote-fi, tuba gote-fi, 
pronounce judgement against 
him, condemn him to death, 
i gotokoto bat i, he made 
a beginning, first did it {hroJie 
ground in the doing of it), 
makoto, broken (a stick, or 
anything), ceases (as war), a 
makoto ki, I cease from (a 

thing, as a thing I have sold), 
have no further connection 
with, separate from, cease 
from (a thing or person), kuti 
nakoau, cut up the pudding 
(cooked), gkuti (gukuti), to 
make a stealthy invasion or 
inroad, i gal tagoto, or mako- 
tokoto, he screams abruptly, 
cries out in sharp, sudden, 
broken screams ; kokoti, a 
net (cutting off the fish) ; ba- 
gote-fi, to buy it (make it 
separate from its former 
owner) ; i kote-fiau isa, he 
breaks me off from it (a thing 
I possessed) ; bikutu, v. r., 
decide about (someone), bi- 
kutu ki nia, decide about 
him, sera makoto, to be 
startled, surprised, makot, 
a place. [Sa. 'oti, to cut (as 
the hair), 'o'oti, 'otioti, Fi. 
lofi-va, to clip, or shear, ai 
I'oti, scissors or shears (origin- 
ally a shell or shark's tooth).] 
A. kata'a, cut, cut off", 
separate, cross (a river) ; cease ; 
decide about (a thing) ; to 
snap (as a rope), break ; to 
break off, cease from (a jour- 
ney, &c. = makoto ki) ; to 
invade, or make an inroad, 
stealthily, «S:c. ; makta% a 

Ku, verb, pron., 2 sing., and 
pi., you. 

Ku, dem., this, as, nai ku na, 
d. ga kin, this (is) he, or it, 
nai ua naga, nai ua, nai 
naga, nai kis. [My. HUf 
that.] E. ku, id. See ko, 
ka, ki% dem. 




Ku, d., kua, or gua, v. i., to 
cry out, vociferate, cry or call 
out, low (an ox). H. ga'ah, 
S. g'o', cry out, vociferate, 
low (an ox). 

Kua, gua, i^receding word. 

Kua, ad., inter., and indef. : 
gua, q.v. 

Kuba na, s., c. art. nakuba 
na, its or his day ; d. for uba 
na, or ube na, q.v. 

Kubega, s., d., a net (for catch- 
ing fish), d. kubena, id. [Sa. 
upega, Tah. upea, Ma. Txupega, 
id.] A. kiffat, a net, from 
kafifa, to wrap round, &c. 

Kubu, s., inside, the belly, also 
kobu, and kabu, d. kama (in 
arekabu, q. v., anekama), 
then, inside (a house), and 
with the prep, e, ekubu, 
ekobu, in the inside, inside : 
then, ekobu, in one d. de- 
notes also a house. [Mg. 
hibu, the belly, Inibani, its 
centre or middle, huhiini, the 
inside, inner part, entrails.] 
A. ga'fu, the belly, interior 
cavity of a thing, inside (of a 
house), from gafa, to be 

Kufagufa, d., v. i., to fly, to 
flap the wings, flutter. [To. 
liapalxapa, to flap the wings, 
My. hapak^ to fly, flapping the 
wings, not gliding.] A. h'a- 
faka, 1, 4, to fly, to flap with 
the wings. 

Kui na, d., s., c. art. nakui 
na, d. kihi na (i.e. kisi na, 
in that d. h is for s), the back, 
rump, tail : kui na d. bui na, 

and kihi na (i. e. kisa na) d. 
bisi na, by the change of 
b and k. 

Kuku, V. i. See guku. 

Kuli na (d. uili na), s., the 
skin, bark. [Ha. Hi, Ma. hirij 
skin, bark, My. Tiiilit, skin, 
hide, pelt, leather, bark, rind, 
husk, shell, Mg. hudita, skin, 
bark.] A. gilid, id. 

Kulu, V. i., to wrap oneself 
up, to cover oneself up (as in 
bed) ; 

Kulu-ti, V. t., same as kalu- 

Kulu, s., c. art. nakulu, cloth, 
covering, that which covers ; 

Kuiekule, or kulukulu, d., 
id. : kalu, q.v. 

Kuma na, s., or guma na, c. 
art. na kumana, inner bark, 
pellicle, or cover, as of an 
egg, orange, &c. : d. for kamu 

Kum i, V. t. (see gum i), to 
absorb, red up. kukumi. 

Kumu, d., pers. pron., 2 pi., 
you, dd. akam and akamus, 
kami, nikam, nimu, nem, 
or neem, egti. [My. kamu, 
Tag. Jcamo, Ml. P. hamdi, Epi 
Txamhi, Ta. ituma, id.] 

Kunuti na, s., c. art. naku- 
nuti na, food, fruits, as the 
almond ; also new j^ams. See 
kan i. A. 'ukilat, whatever 
is eaten, as fruits, &c. 

Kura, s., c. art. nakura, a 
plant; so called from its 
bitterness. Of a stingy man 
who withholds food from a 
visitor it is said, nalo anena 

KUBA] 201 

i bi naktira. See under 
gura i. 

Kuraf, d. for karafl, q.v. 

Kuri, or kuria, s., same as 
kori, koria, dog. 

Kuril, or kura, a., shrivelled, 
dried, nali kuru, shrivelled 
dried leaves (as ])anana leaves 
when withered and dry are). 
See kara, or gara. 

Kuru ki, v. t., to gather 
together ; and 

Kuru-maki, v. t., to gather 
together ; and 

Kuruk ; and 

Kukuruk (gkuruk), v. i., or 
mid., to gather itself, or to 
be gathered together : see 
guru ki ; l^elonging to this 
stem are also takara, crowd 
(of men), and makara, to be 
gathered together, d. (trans- 
posed) maraka, or meraka. 
See guru. 

Kuruku na, s., kuruku natua 
na, the ankle : kuruk. The 
ankle is so called because the 
leg gathers itself, as it were, 
into the knob of the joint. 

Kurumase na, s., d. (trans- 
posed) for borakese na, q.v. 

Kuruni, s., a woman. See 
Ch. II. 17. e. And 

Kurui, s., a., id. 

Kus, d., V. i., to be hidden ; 
d. gusu (i.e. kusu), q.v., to 
stoop. As to connection of 
these two meanings, see belu: 
a man stoops to avoid being 
seen, or to be hidden. 

Kus i, or kusi, v. t., to go in 
the track of, follow, usually 
usi, q.v. (the k being elided), 


rafe kus i, to go through 
following it (as a pig going 
through a hole in the fence 
of a garden following another 
pig(, hence the proverb, uago 
iskai i bora bua nakoro, 
uago laba i rafe kus i,]one 
pig bursts o\)en the fence, 
many pigs go through the 
opening following (or after) 
it : in takus i, rukus i (nru- 
kus i) the k also is not elided. 
See usi. 

Kusu na, d., s., dd. kui na, 
kihi na, bui na, q.v. 

Kusu, V. i., and 

Kusue na, s. See kosu-mi. 

Kusue, or kusutie (pronounced 
kusu we), d. kusu, s., rat (or 
mouse). [Ta. i/asiik, Ml. dd. 
Miasiq), akasu, Pa. asua, Santo 
dd. Imribi, Jeer hi, Ma. Jciore, 
Sa. iore, My. tiJctis, Mysol 
Jcelof, Gilolo luf, liqni, id.] 
A. kutrub', rat. 

Kut i, V. t., to cut, and 

Kukut i (gkut i), redup. : i 
gkuti ban, he goes to make 
an inroad stealthily (as in 
time of war) ; also si kut i 
(si, to shoot) to shoot not 
killing, but only cutting or 
wounding ; and 

Kutu ki, bikutu ki, to decide 
about (someone). See koto-fi. 

Kutu, s., louse. [Sa. 'iitK, 
louse, an insect which eats 
the skin of the hands and 
feet, My. JuitK, louse. To., 
Fut., JiUtii, Ta. Jiigct, An. get, 
Ml. P. gut, Malo utu, louse.] 
A. kurdu% &c., id. 
Note. — There is no other 




word for flea in Ef., but to 
distinguish a flea from a louse 
the former is called kutu n 
koria, the kutu of the dog, 
so Fut. kutu kuli, M}^ kutu 
anjig (anjig, dog), TaSa. utu 
vuriu, Init Malo utu (simply). 
The Efatese say there were 
no fleas in the island before 
Europeans brought them. In 
Sa. flea is 'utufiti, and in Fi. 
kutu ni manumanu. 

La, d. le, ad., indeed, certainly, 
surely, particle of emphasis, 
as uisi la, yes indeed, i la 
masikina, he indeed is one, 
or one only, i le sa, he is 
indeed bad, i ga fano la, let 
him go indeed. [Sa. la, My. 
lah, id. 3 A. la, certainly, 
surely, indeed. 

La i, or lai, v. t., to put out, 
or eject from, the mouth, as 
food, froth, the tongue (see 
le) : lua. 

Laba, v. i., to be much, many ; 
lab a or leba, labalaba or 
lebaleba, to be or become 
big, grow up, d. lafulafu, to 
be or become (grow) big, 
lalaba, or leleba, big, great, 
leba, elder ; tea laba or leba, 
plenty, enough (no more), it 
is enough, milaba, last, 
nameligu milaba i en lu 
ua, my last footprint is in 
this place, i. e. I will come no 
more here, tea milaba, the 
last (person or thing), i libi 
milaba sa, he looked upon it 
for the last time, d. leb, 
indeed, very ; barab (barau, 

&c.) long. [Sa. Java, to be 
enough, indeed, very, loa, 
long (and leva, long, of time), 
Mg. lava, long, tall, con- 
tinuing long ( = Ef. harab, 
haraf), My. luwas, luas, wide, 
extensive, large, ample, Fi. 
levu, great, or large ; in great 
numbers, all, as, em sa lako 
levu, they are all, or many, 
gone (= Ef. 7'u Uiha hano), 
vaJcalevu-taJia, to increase ; 
cause to be great or many, 
halavu, long.] H. rabab, to 
become much or man^^ to 
be increased, to be much or 
many, inf. rob, a being much 
or many, abundance, multi- 
tude ; poetically multitude is 
almost used for ' all ' (so in 
Fi. and Ef. levu, laba), a 
being great (of might), a 
being long (of a way), rab, 
much, many ; enough (it is) 
enough (no more, cease, leave 
ofi^, so Ef.) ; big (great, large, 
vast), applied to a ivide space, 
to a long way, and to things 
generally in the sense of 
great, big ; elder. The cog- 
nate and supplementary verb 
is rabah, to be multiplied, 
increased, often to be many ; 
to become great, to grow up, 
to be great. See Index. 

Labalaba, or lebaleba, v. i., 
and a., redup. of laba, or leba, 
V. i., and a., to be great, big, 
as, natasi leba, the great sea. 
See laba. 

Labo, s. See leba : leba 

Laf i, or lafl, v. t., to take, 


take up, carry (a thing), take 
up (a song). [Ha. laive (ps. 
laivea) to take, carry.] A. 
rafa'a, to take up, carry. 

Lafi na, s., c. art., the cover, 
sheath, or envelope of the 
flowers or buds of the cocoa- 
nut palm ; the hard sub- 
stance (of same shape) of the 
cuttle-fish (d. namagi rofa- 
rofa = little canoe of the 
cuttle-fish). A. "ilaf, a 
cover, sheath, or envelope, 
H. 'alaf, to cover, to wrap 
up, A. "alafa, to enclose in 
a sheath or vessel. 

Lafuis, dd. rifalu, libuis, 
lifaru, q.v. 

Lafulafu, d., v. i., and a., to 
grow up, big : laba. 

Laga, V. t., to seek, search for, 
laga sa, seek it, bilaga sa, 
id., and redup., 

Lagalaga sa, v. t., id. (fre- 
quentative). A. rama, to 
seek, search for, n. a. ma- 

Laga-ti, v. t., to raise, lift up 
(as a thing from the ground), 

Laga, s., that which raises : 
laga laga-ti (the planks of a 
boat) : 

Laga i, or lagai, v. t., to 
raise, lift up (as the wind 
raises thatch from a roof) ; 
then to raise (a thing, so as 
to make it conspicuous), as, 
i mirama laga-ti, it (the 
moon, &c.) shines raising it 
(into view, making it con- 
spicuous) ; hence 

Laga (without object) to shine 

203 [LAQI 

(to raise into view, make 
conspicuous), bisa laga-ti, 
to speak raising it (into 
view), laga-ti, to speak with 
a loud voice, laga, v. i., to 
sing, and 

Lagalaga, v., redup. (in all 
these senses) : nalagalaga 
na, s., a thing raised from or 
ofP something (as a scale from 
the eyes, husk from grain, 
&c.) : malaga, malagalaga, 
to be raised (so as to be con- 
spicuous, as a ship on the 
sea) ; balaga-ti, v. c, to 
make raised (a thing), balaga- 
saki nia, v. c, balaga na 
(see under these words), taba- 
laga, V. r., to raise itself, be 
raised (from above, or off, 
anything) ; 

Lagi, s., with prep, elagi, ad. 
(used also as a prep.) and s., 
the sky, heaven, above. QSa. 
laya, to rise up, to raise up, 
redup. lagalcuja, s., a stick 
for raising up flat coral, v., 
to raise up (as a heavy weight), 
l(((/ala(/aola, to raise the finger 
nails from the flesh, la^l, the 
sky, heaven, v., to call out 
with a loud voice, to sing, 
Ha. land, to float (on water), 
float (i. e. be lifted up, raised) 
in the air, lani, sky, heaven, 
luna, the upper side of any 
thing, the upper, the above, 
a., upper, higher, above, and, 
witli a prep., ad., or i)rep., 
above, Sa. iluffci, id., My. 
la^it, sky, firmament, Jala jit, 
the palate, an awning, canopy, 
Mg. lanita, sky, heaven.] H. 




rum, ram, v. to be high, to 
raise (anything, voice, &c.), 
lift up (take up, away), rim, 
ramut, marom (barou), 
ramah, E. rama (for ramat), 
the third heaven, aryam, 
heaven, aryamat, the heavens, 
Mod.S. mirem, &c., to raise 

Lagaraf, v. i., or mid., to 
mourn (as for the dead) : 
laga-ti, to raise, and teraf i, 
to scratch, from raising the 
hands and tearing or scratch- 
ing the cheeks in mourning 
(see bora i., bora na, the 

Lagafaru na, v. and s. com- 
pounded, to raise its wings 
(a bird) : laga-ti, and afaru 

Lagafasu ki, v., make a sign 
to : laga-ti, and fasu na. 

Lagilagi, v. i. , to be proud, 
uplifted. [Ha. lanilani, to 
be high-minded, proud, show 
haughtiness.] See laga-ti. 

Laga ki, v. t., to have, to 
possess. See laka. 

Lagi, s., c. art. nalagi, the 
wind : other forms of this 
word are in, and redup. 
agiegi, with article nin, 
nagidgi, the air, the breeze. 
[Ml. nien, Paama la^, Am. 
% W, Fi. fa^i, My. affin, 
Mg. anina, Bu. loma, the 
wind, Sa. matagi, to blow, be 
windy, ps. matagia, s., the 
wind. Ma. matagi, the wind, 
Jiotegitegi, gentle wind, koJiegi, 
or kohegiJiegi, wind.] A. na- 
sama, to blow gently (the 

wind), nasam% a light wind, 
na'sam, and nasim% a light 
wind, breeze, air. 

Lago, s., fly ; lago fu, buzzing 
fly, blow-fly. [Sa. lago, a fly. 
My. lagan, a large fly, a blue- 
bottle.] A. lakka'u, a fly, 
from laka'a, prehendit ex- 
tremo rostro rem. 

Lago, v., to prop, s., the 
wooden pins whose sharpened 
ends are driven into the sama 
(outrigger), and whose upper 
ends (crossed) hold and bear 
up the nakiat, of a canoe. 
[Sa. lago, Santo lako, props 
of a canoe.] A. rakaha, to 
prop, see laka. 

Lagor, or lagora, or lagoro, 
ad., d. laker, q.v. 

Lai. See la i : redup., 

Lailai, v. t., frequentative or 

Lai, or lei, contracted to le, 
li, s., woman, as, le kiki, 
little woman (in addressing 
a female child or girl), le, or 
li meroan, women, ladies (in 
addressing an assembly of 
women) : this word is used 
before names of females, as 
ma, q.v., is before names of 
males, as, lei, le, or li, mako, 
madam, mistress, miss, or 
lady, mako. [Fi. adi. con- 
tracted dl, id., Bali luJi, Mota 
iro, ro, id.] H. *is's'ah, Ch. 

*ita, S. »atto% A. 'untha, 
woman, Ch. emph. 'itta% 
'intta', id. But see Ch. II. 
17. /,e. 

Lai, s., c. art. nalai, or inlai, 
or nilai, sail (of a canoe or 




ship). [Sa. Ja, Ma. ra, Mg. 
lai, My. lai/ar, N. Guinea rcr, 
id. ; My. Jayar, to sail, to 
navigate, also hdrlayar, and 
onalai/ar.2 See tiri, riri, to 
fly, &c. Lai is what makes 
the canoe fly, its tvings. Ma. 
rei-a (from rere, to fly), to be 
sailed over. Cf. lea, infra. 

Lailai, v. i., to be delighted, 
rejoice. [Mg. laulau, play, 
playthings, milmdciK', to play.] 
A. laha% n. a. lahw% to 
play : to be delighted. 

Lai, or lei, or la i, v. t., to 
pluck, to gather (fruit), lai 
nua nakasu, to pluck or 
gather the fruits of trees. 
See bila i, or bilai. [My. 
Icdi, to pluck, to gather.] E. 
'araya, H. 'arah, to pluck, 
to gather (as fruits). 

Lai, or lei, v. t., to tie up, as 
lei namanuk, to tie up a 
wound. A. 'ara*, to tie up ; 

Lak, d. for lako, q.v. 

Laka, s., laka leo, foundation 
or cause of a matter or affair ; 

Laka, or lake, c. art. nalake 
na, its foundation, then, its 
cause, as, nalake na tafa, 
the foundation of the hill or 
mountain, Atua i bi nala- 
kegita, God is our founda- 
tion, i.e. our upholder, te 
uane i bi nalake nafakal, 
that is the cause of the war, 
then nalakena, because, lit. 
its cause ; and 

Lake, or laki, v. i., to marry 
(of a woman) : lake ki nanoi. 

marry a husband, lit. betake 
herself to a husband ; and 
lake kiena, betake herself to 
his house, and then generally 
of anyone, i lake, he betakes 
himself (to dwell somewhere), 
i lake en lu ua, he has be- 
taken himself to dwell here ; 
laga ki, v. t., to have, to 
possess, d. lakea ki, telakie 
na, its possessor, or telake 
na, atelakie na, atelakea na, 
or atelake na, id., Atua i bi 
atelakea gita, God is our 
possessor, possesses us. [Ma. 
tal'etaJie, a., well founded, 
take, s., root, stump, post of 
a j;«, cause, imtal^e, s., base, 
root, reason, cause.] A. 
rakaha, to lean upon (some- 
thing) ; to betake oneself (to 
someone) ; to place upon, 
found, as to found (his house 
upon a rock), 4, to support 
(prop ujd), 5, to abide (in some 
place ; to use free power (in a 
matter) ; rukah', the firm 
side of a mountain, by which 
it is upheld, 'arkah'j a foun- 

Note. — The expression tu- 
lake, is composed of tu, to 
give (or tiia), and lake, and 
means to give in trust to (to 
give relying upon or trusting 
in) — i ttilake is, he gave in 
trust it, i tulak ira sa, he 
gave in trust to them it (as 
a present or money to be 
taken charge of and conveyed 
by them to the person for 
whom it is intended). 
Lakau, v. t., d. (transposed) 




for galau i, q.v., to cross over. 
[Sa. la'a, to step, to pass 
over, ps. la'asia, redup. lalaa, 
la'alaa ; laai, to pass over, 
break over (as a wave over a 
canoe from one side over to 
the other), Jdaga, laasaga, a 
step, a stepping over.] Hence 

Lakau, s., a crossing place in 
a fence ; a stile. 

Lako, s., d. lak, a small en- 
closure (like a hole, for put- 
ting or confining a pig in). 
See following word. 

Lako, V. i., dd. laku, loku, 
loko, roko, nrok, to stoop, 
be curved, then stoop or 
crouch, concealing herself (as 
a mother-in-law from her 
son-in-law), to be concealed 
(as one stoops in order to be 
concealed, see belu, kusii), 
redup. lakolako, c. prep, ki, 
lakolako ki, to be crouching 
and stooping and concealed 
from (someone), toko loku, 
to abide concealed or in con- 
cealment, luku, id., luku- 
taki nia, or loko-taki nia, 
to place him in concealment 
(as a wounded warrior for 
surgical treatment), ba lako- 
saki nia, to creep upon it 
stealthily (as a hunter upon 
a bird), hence ba lako, to 
hunt (birds), lit. to go con- 
cealed, luku, or luk, a hole 
or pit, luku noai, a well, 
lako, or lak (see preceding 
word), baluku (i. e. ba luku), 
a curved ba (concavity). £Fi. 
roko, a bowing form or pos- 
ture, a., bent like a bow, ad.. 

sa lako roko, goes stooping 
or bowing, ai roko, bow- 
string, roko-ta, bend a bow, 
roko-va, bow to, pay respect 
to, rokoroko, reverence, re- 
spect, vakaroko, bow down 
with weakness, or go stoop- 
ing, Sa. lolo'u, to bend, bend 
down, bend round.] A. 
raka'a, n. a. roko% or ruku% 
to stoop, to be curved or bent, 
to bow or be bent down (as in 
prayer), rak'at, bowing, 
stooping (as in ]3rayer), ru- 
k'at, a hole, pit. 

Lakolako ki, redup. of pre- 
ceding word ; and 

Lako-saki, the same. 

Lakor, ad., i.e. la-kor, indeed 
now : lakor is sometimes 
practically syn. with la as, 
i fe la mat matol, or i fe 
lakor mai matol, he may 
indeed come to-morrow, or the 
latter may be rendered, he 
may indeed now come to- 
morrow. This is the lit. 
translation, but it might be 
expressed, he may perhaps, 
or possibly, come to-morrow, 
hence, i lakor sa ko maki, 
it indeed now is bad, or don't- 
know, and simply, i lakor sa, 
expresses that the thing very 
probably is bad in the speaker's 
opinion, who, however, does 
not state, as a positive, ascer- 
tained fact that it is so : la, 
ad., and the dem. particles ko 
and r» (ra, ri, ro, ru). 

Lakore, s., a kind of flute. A. 
nakor', cornu, tuba, Nm. 
naqour, clarion, A. nakara, 




3, to make hollow, hollow 
out (as wood), A. nakur'. 

Lala, s., an idiot, one de- 
mented, a fool. QFi. I i alia, 
s., an idiot, a., foolish, out of 
one's mind, Mg. adala, s., an 
idiot, one destitute of reason, 
a lunatic, a fool, a., foolish, 
infatuated.] See alialia. 

Lala gor i, v. t., to conceal, 
deny : gor i, and lala, for 
laulau, redup. of lau. 

Lalo na, or lalu na, s., c. art. 
inlalo na, the belly, then the 
front (see elalo), and the 
under side (as of cloth) : alo 
na, q.v. 

Lam i, d., v. t., to eat, hence 

Lamien, s., c. art. nalamien, 
act of eating, food. H. la- 
ham, to eat. 

Lao. See lau. 

Larua, num. 7, la, for lima, 
5, and rua, 2. 

Lasa, or las, s., a bowl (as a 
kava bowl), a dish, a cup. 
[Ml. P. ras, Malo lasa, Santo 
las, id.] A. tas% vasculum, 
Ct. tass, a bowl, Nm. saucer, 
flat cup. 

Laso na, s., c. art. inlaso na, 
the testicles. [Pa. as'l, Am. 
hiJio, Ml. dd. lisi, erasi. Put. 
raso, id., Sa. laso, scrotum.] 
A. h'isy', and h^usy', and 
h'usyat, h'usa% the testi- 

Lasoa, v. i., or a., to have 
swollen testicles : preceding- 
word and a. ending a. 

Las, or lasi, v. i., or a., big, 
large, great, sufficient ; and 

Lasilasi, id. ; and 

Las i, or lasi, v. t., to meet, 
i. e. to suffice, be sufficient for, 
as nafinaga i lasigita, the 
food is sufficient for (meets) 
us and you, tilasi, id., also to 
meet, come upon, come across 
(a person) i tilasinami na- 
bua, he met us— them on the 
way, bakatilasi, to suffice, 
redup. tilatilasi, id. A. 
'aras'a, to meet, 'arus% to 
be wide, large, 5, ta'arras'a, 
for which is used also ta'arra- 
s^a, to meet, 2, to make wide, 

Latesa, num. 6, la, for lima, 
5, and tesa, 1. 

Latolu, num. 8, la, for lima, 
5, and tolu, 3. 

Lau, s., the sea ; usually with 
the prep, e, elau, or a, alau, 

Lau, s., c. art. nilau, dd. ka- 
lau, kolau, q.v. [Bisaya 
lawa, a spider's web. Pi. lawa, 
a net ; an ambush ; to lie in 

Lau i, V. t., to plant (a yam or 
other plant) ; to plant any- 
thing upright, as a post or 
stake ; to plant (a spear in 
anyone) ; laulau i, to plant, 
(words in anyone), putting 
him out, or exposing him in 
his true colours ; lau suru e, 
to plant (words, in anyone) 
tempting him ; and 

Lau, V. i., to stand upright (to 
be planted), lau tu, lit. to 
stand planted, i.e. to stand 
upright ; to fall down (plant- 
ing itself), as rain, &c. ; and 


Lau gor i, v. t., to plant, sur- 
rounding or concealing him or 
it ; redui). lala gor i (for lau- 
lau gor i), id., intensive ; 

Lau fai 1, v. t., d. lau bua 1, 
to plant (as a spear, in any- 
one) piercing him. See fai, 
bua. [Sa. to, to plant, to 
build, to fall (as rain), &c.. 
To. tan, to implant, to plant, 
to drop, to fall, &c.] H. 
nata% fut. ita% inf. ntoa% to 
set (anything) upright, to 
plant (any plant) ; to plant 
(anything, as a people) ; to 
fix, fasten in ; set uj) (as a 
tent, an image), n. a. ta'at. 

Launa, s., c. art. nalauna, 
redup. nalalauna, a commu- 
nity, as the people of a village 
or district. Lit., the people 
planted, born in the country : 
see preceding word. 

Lausa. See lousa. 

Lausu na, s., the nose, d. for 
nagusu na ; la, art. (usually 
na), and usu, for gusu, q.v., 

Le, s. See lai, woman. 

Le, V. t., for lai, or la i : i le 
mina, he puts out the tongue : 

Le, ad., d. for la. 

Le, also leo, and lo, v., to see, 
as lo nasan, see evil, lo na- 
fanua, see the land, to look, 
lebi, or libi, look upon, li- 
bi-si (d. lim-si), look upon 
him, libi nata, look upon, 
see a person, d. leba nata, 
look upon a person, leba i, 
look upon him, see him, d. 

208 [LE 

lekS. nata, look at a person, 
leka, look at him, see him ; 

Lele is, redup., to look for it, 
d. leolea sa, rai, q.v., aspect, 
look, forehead, rairai, to be 
in countenance, unabashed, 
unashamed, leo, or lo, to 
watch, i.e., to look, ba lo, 
behold. [Sa. leo, to watch, 
redup. leleo ; leoleoga, a watch- 
ing, leoleosa'i, to watch, My. 
Imt, to see, to look, liati, 
liatJcan, &c.,Mg. liirata, sight, 
seeing, Fi. rai, a., seeing, rai, 
rairai, to look, rai-t'a, to look 
at, rairai, a prophet (a seer), 
vakarai-taJca, to show.] H. 
ra'ah, to see, ra'ah be, look 
upon, see, ra'ah »et% look at. 
Hi. to show, ro'eh, a prophet, 
seer, A. ra'a', to see, 4, show, 
E. re'ya, to see. See also 
borea, naborea. 

Le, leo, lu (in lu rik, d.), lo, 
s., c. art. nale na, naleo na, 
nalo na, his voice, speech, 
word, rogi nalo na, hear his 
voice, i.e. obey him, or rogi 
berakati nalona, or naleona, 
d. nalen; without the nom. 
suf. and with or without the 
art. it signifies a thing, some- 
thing, as, nalo sikai, one 
thing, nalo laba, many 
things ; nalo nagiena, on 
account of, for the sake of, 
his name, lit. the thing of 
his name ; lo-soko, true, lit. 
true thing, le-soko, lo balo, 
emj^ty, worthless thing, lo 
sa, bad thing, lo uia, good 
thing, d. lo amau, true, lit. 
true thing, hence the expres- 


sions sera-loamau, or sera- 
lesoko, to believe, sera- 
lobalo, to deem worthless, 
despise. [Sa. leo, the voice, 
a sound, leoleod, a,., loud 
talking. To. lea, speech, voice, 
language.] A. la"a', to 
speak, n. a. la"w*, sound, 
voice, lo"at, word, language, 
dialect (see misleo, infra). 

Lea ki, v. t., to toss away, 
throw down (anything), to 
sweep, drive away (as the 
wind trees), and redup., 

Leleaki, v. t., intensive. [Sa. 
lele, to fly, lelca, to be driven 
by the wind (as if made to 
fly). To. id. and Je, to drive.] 
See tiri, riri. 

Leana, v. i., or a., d. lena, d. 
leg, to be straight (not 
crooked), then to be right, 
upright, righteous, bisa lena, 
speak straight, i.e. right, 
natamole lena, a straight, 
i. e. upright or righteous man ; 
tu lena, to stand straight, 
stand up. [Fi. clomi, straight, 
then righteous, vahidodonu- 
tcika, to make straight. Sa. 
tonu, a., right, straight, cor- 
rect, To. tonu, straight, direct, 
clear, faJca-tonu, to make 
evident, manifest, tonuia, 
righteous, tu tonu, (stand) 
upright.] H. takan, to be 
or become straight, Pi. to 
make straight, to dispose 
rightly (proverbs). 

Leba i, leba i, or lebe i, d., 
V. t., d. syn. leka, to look 
upon it : le, to look, see. 

Leba, redup. leleba, lebaleba 

209 [LELE 

(intensive), v. i., or a., to be 
or become big, great : nale- 
baleban, greatness, the being 
great : lab a. 

Leba, s., c. art. naleba, s., a 
species of earth, clay, mud, 
dirt, lebalebara, a., dirty, 
soiled (a. ending ra), d. leba- 
leba, a., id. (a. ending a), d. 
labo (i.e. leba bo, or boa) 
stinking leba, slush, mud. 
£Ha. lepo, to be dirty, defiled, 
soiled, s., dirt, ground, clay, 
lepolepo, dirty (intensive).] 
A. tabi^a, to be dirty, tabeS 
taba% dirt, mud, taba'a, to 
impress or seal, (4) to make a 
water vessel from clay, tubman, 

Lebaleba, v. i., or a. See 
leba, laba. 

Lebaleba, a. See leba, s. 

Lebalebara, a. See leba, s. 

Lebule, v., i.e. le (lele), to go 
round, and bule, q.v., to 
complete, to go completely 
round (of a canoe, as round a 
point or headland) : lele, ill- 

Leg, V. i., or a., d. for lena, 

Lei. See lai, s., woman. 

Leka, v. t., leka, look at him, 
leka nata, look at, see a 
person : d. leba. See leo. 

Lele, or lili (lie, or le. 111, or 
ill, 1'), to wind, to go round, 
turn, curve, as, raru i sefa, 
soke, or ba lele ki nafanua, 
the ship runs, moves swiftly, 
or goes curving round the 
land (island), naflsan i soka 




lele nafanua, the word moves 
swiftly round (i. e. all through) 
the land, le-bule, q.v., le, or 
li-taku na, or lele taku na, 
to turn behind his back, lele 
takuna sa, to turn behind 
one's back with it (i.e. to do, 
say something, concealing it 
from someone), ili-flki, or 
lili-flki nagusu, to round 
the point or cape (a canoe), 
ilisela, or lili-sela, as, i su- 
rata ilisela, he walked all 
the way, lit. round the way 
(see sela), i talele (or talle 
or tale), he turned aside, 
i talele ki, he turned or 
turns aside from (a person or 
thing), malele, to be bent 
or curved (as a branch of a 
tree heavy with fruit), bilele, 
V. r., to turn hither and 
thither, lusi, or liilusi (i.e. 
lele usi), lit. to go round 
following or tracking it, as, 
lulusi noai sera, he follows 
the stream, walking in the 
water, lusi nakasu, goes 
along a stick, lili maroa, lit. 
to go round turning itself. 
[Fi. lele-t'a, to bend.] A. 
lawa ((jjl), to wind, bend, 
turn, &c., E. (iwd (eg.) for 
AcdAo?, H. hh' 

Note. — See the cognate liu, 

Lele, s., tortoiseshell, the 
cover of the turtle ; a tortoise- 
shell bracelet. The shell of 
the turtle is called lele from 
its round or curved form. 
See preceding word. [Mg. 

rerc, the largest kind of tor- 

Lemina: le, v. t., to put out, 
and mina, s., the tongue, to 
put out the tongue, syn. lua 
mina. See le, lua, v. t. 

Lena, d. loana, q.v. 

Leo, to look, see le ; le or leo 
goro gita, to watch, look for, 
expect, look after us. 

Leo, s., c. art. naleo, thing, 
affair ; hence 

Leouan, s., c. ai-t. naleouan 
(i.e. naleo uan, that thing, 
or affair), a feast (in heathen- 
ism), or heathen gathering, in 
which offerings or sacrifices 
are made to the natemate, 
and presents given to the 

Ler, V. i., d. for liliu, q.v., to 
return, go or come baok, also, 
i mer ler brigi, he did it 
again, lit. ' he mer (q.v.) 
returned did it.' 

Les, s., c. art. nales, a plant 
with thick dark leaf ; and 

Les, a., dark or dusky, as in 
fal'lds (fale les), dark or 
dusky cave (name of a big 
cave at the entrance of 
Havannah Harbour) ; ra Ids, 
Dark-ra or Dusky-ra, a name 
of Hades. See ra. A. la'isa, 
n. a. la'as*, to become dark, 
or blackish, 'al'asu, of a dark 
colour, dusky ; multus et 
densus, de planta. 

Les, s., coral rock, or stone. 
Cf. A. radat, a rock in water ; 
radat, rocky, stony, a j)lace 
like a rugged hill. 

Lesilesi, for lasilasi. 




Let, V. i., or a., to be stiff, 
rigid ; redup. , 

Lelet, id., intensive ; and 

Let, s., spasm, rigidity, as in 
tetanus. See leti, alati. 

Let i, for alat i ; 

Leti bati ore, same as alatera- 
bati ; 

Leti lua i, v. t., to grasp, or 
seize, taking it away, leti lua 
i kiana, grasp it away from 
him ; 

Letileti, a. : natamole leti- 
leti, a grasping man : alati. 

Letilet, or 

Letilot, V. i., to crackle, as 
the bubbles of boiling water ; 

Letilot, s., c. art. naletilot, d. 
naltelta, froth, i. e. lit., burst- 
ing bubbles. See lita. 

Li, s., place : for alia. 

Li, s. See lai, woman. 

Li, v., d. See lulu. 

Lia, s. Same as li, or alia, a 

Liba, s., an arrow with a 
broad point (about the size of 
a shilling) for shooting birds, 
or the arrow head of such an 
arrow ; and 

Liba i, v. t., to shoot birds 
with the liba (which does not 
2)lerce them, but kills them 
by a violent blow or shock). 
A. lagafa, to strike violently ; 
lagif % an arrow with a broad 

Libi-si, d. leba i, or leba i, 
V. t., look upon him, see 
him : see leo. 
Note. — In two other dd. 

this word occurs (the b 
changed to m) as lim-si or 
limi-si, and lumi, see him. 

Libo, V. i., hide, to vanish, 
disappear, be hidden, talibo, 
id. ; hence libo, s., a vanish- 
ing demon, a demon that 
assumes the aspect of some- 
one to deceive, and appears 
to one in the forest, and then 
vanishes after the evil deed 
is committed, leaving the 
victim to return home to 
die ; liboki, c. art. naliboki, 
a name of Hades (the invisible 
world, or hidden refuge or 
home of the dead) ; 

Libo, s., an evil demon. See 
libo, V. i., 

Liboki, s., c. art. naliboki, 
the invisible world, or hiding 
23lace where dej^arted souls 
dwell. Hades. [Sa. laji, to 
hide oneself, lalafi (of many), 
lafitai, to conceal, lafitaga, 
a hiding place, Mg. levina, 
buried, interred.] A. s^aba', 
n. a. s'ab'a and s'ubu', to 
hide (in the earth), 8, to hide, 
be hidden (hide oneself), 
cf. s'aba, to lie hid in wait 
for the enemy, mas'ba', 
hiding place. 

Libu, V. i., to be covered or 
dirty with ashes, ash- 
coloured ; 

Libu, s., an oven stone, the 
stones that are heated red 
hot for cooking in the oven 
(so called because covered 
with ashes, or ash coloured) ; 

Lilibu ki, v., to put the libu 





on the oven fire to be heated. 
See abuabu. 

Libu, or lebu, s., d., the 
middle of the lower part of 
the body at the upper part 
of the back of the pelvis. 
[Ml. Ur. llvu, TaSa. lihuJca, 
the middle.] H. leb, the 
middle, heart, lubbu, cor et 
medulla m, &c. 

Libuis, d. Ilfaru, q.v. 

Lifa i, V. t., to bend, and 
redup. , 

Lifalifa i, id., intensive ; mali- 
bai, to be bent, see also lofa, 
malofa, and lufa. [Sa. lava- 
lava, wrapper round the 
loins, lavasi, to tie round and 
round, entwine (as a serpent), 
lavelave, lave, to entangle, be 
intertwined, intricate. My. 
lipat (lampis, lapis, IdmpH, 
Idpit), Ja. lapU, to fold, lap, 
lay in plaits, Mg. lefita, 
folded, bent, plaited.] A. 
laffa, to be intricate, in- 
volved, intertwined ; to wrap 
up, wrap round, to fold : Nm. 
wrap up, roll up, lofia, coil 
of turban, winding of road, 
lifafa, wrapper, envelope, 
bandage, 8, to be wrapt, &c. 

Lifalifa, v. i., to blaze, naka- 
bu i sor lifalifa, the fire 
burns blazing, or putting 
forth flames. [Ha. lalafa, 
lafalafa, to blaze (of a fire), 
Mg. lelufa, My. malapu."} A. 
lahiba, n. a. lahb', to blaze, 
put forth flames. 

Lifaru, s., and a., dd. libuis, 
rafalu, rifalu, a part, some, 
as natamole lifaru, some 

men, lifaru ru bano, lifaru 
ru toko, some went, some 
remained. [Fut. efaru, some, 
many, Nine (Savage Island) 
falu, some.] A. ba's'u, a 
part, some, and pi. dem. li 
(ri, ra). See Ch. V. 1. 

Li-fiki, for ili-fiki, q.v. 

Lifu, s., d. for rifu, q.v. 

Lifu, V. i., and redup., 

Lifulifu, V. i. (intensive), to 
be covered, dirty, with ashes, 
as in mourning, d. for libu, 

Liga, s., d. taliga, ear, the 
ears : taliga, q.v. 

Liga, V. i., to sing, and redup., 

Ligaliga, id. (of many), and 

Ligana, s., c. art. naligana, 
a song, d. nalag : laga, q.v. 

Ligi-si, V. t., to pour out, 
maligi, or maligsi, to spill, 
be poured down. [Sa. li^i, 
liligi, ligiligi, to pour, maligi, 
to spill, to be poured down, 
maligi, s., a pouring (of rain), 
Ma. rigi, ririgi, to pour out. 
An. aijagjig, to pour out.] 
A. raka (mid. y) 1, 4, to pour 

Liglig, V. i., to be proud : 
lagilagi, q.v. 

Likau, for lakau, v. t. 

Liko-ti, V. t., to tie, fasten 
(with a rope, as a boat to a 
ship, an animal to a stake, 
&c.), and 

Liko, V. i., to be fastened to, 
affixed to, adhere to : i lik6 
sa, it is fastened to, as a leech 
to the body, &c. ; 
Liko, s., c. art. naliko, a rope 
for fastening or suspending ; 




Likoliko, red up. of liko-ti 
(used of fastening or suspend- 
ing the yams to a horizontal 
pole). [My. Wcat, to adhere, 
IdkatJcan, to fasten, Ja. raJcdt, 
to adhere, Mg. raikita, stuck, 
adhered to, miraihita, to ad- 
here, reJvita, id., mandreluta, 
to fasten.] A. 'alika, to 
adhere, be affixed, be fastened 
to, 2, to suspend, 4, make 
to adhere, fasten, 'alako, a 

Lilia, d. for liliu, q.v. 

Lili-maroa, v. i., to go round 
turning itself: lele, or lili, 
and maroa. 

Liliu, V. i., to return, go or 
come back : liu. 

Lima, num., five ; d. c. art. 
nalima na, his hand ; baka- 
lima, q.v. [Sa. llma^ five, 
the hand. My. lima, Mg. dimi, 
five, Epi jiwio (and limo), five, 
juma, hand ; d. lima, yima, or 
sima, hand ; d. lima, five, ma, 
hand ; An. nijman, or nikman 
(=Ef. nalimana) his hand, 
five.] A. h^amsat, h^ams% 
five, alh^ams, digiti: Mahri 
khomo, Sokotra khemah, 

Lim-si, d. for libi-si, q.v. 

Lina, s., the light. [Mota 
di7ia. My. dina, Er. dan, day.] 
As, i en lina, it is in the 
light (not concealed), d. i en 
ali : aliati, ali. 

Lira, redup. liralira, dd. 
nrirnrir (i. e. tirtir), litalita, 
litalita, v. i., or a., to be 
bright, shining, gleaming, 
brilliant. A. nas'ara (2), and 

(b), nas^ira, 4, to be bright, 
shining, gleaming, brilliant. 

Lirea, v. i., or a., for litea, 

Lisi, V. t., to lay down, put 
down, and 

Lisaki, v. t., to throw down, 
throw away, E. rasaya, to 
lay down. 

Lisoa, V. i., dd. tiso, toto : 

Lita, V. i., and liti, to crackle, 
to burst, explode, as wood, or 
a stone in the fire, see letelot, 
also lot, to crackle (as a fire), 
explode (as a gun), to sound 
(as a crack or explosion), and 
melita, to crack or crackle (as 
wood in the fire, &c.), and 
then nagiena i melita, his 
name resounds, he is famous ; 

Lita i, or litai, or litai i, v. t., 
lita i lita i, a spark, or frag- 
ment of something, bursting 
or crackling or exploding in 
the fire, leaps or explodes on 
to him ; also, a wasp stings 
him ; 

Lita, s., a spark, fully lita na- 
kabu (see preceding word) ; 
also a red wasp (because it is 
red like a spark, or because 
its sting burns like fire) : d. 
(transposed) tila. [Fi. lidi'. 
lidilidi, to burst, or explode, 
s., report of an explosion, as 
of thunder, or a stone in a 
heated oven, Hdi-ka, to strike 
in flying off, lidi ni huka, 
a spark, lidi-ha, to crack 
between the finger and 
thumb nails, as a louse, My. 




IdtoJc, to crackle, to decrepi- 
tate, Idtuj:), and Idtuh, id., 
latum, to boom, or give out 
a booming noise.] See lot. 

Lita-kuruma na, v., to have 
the breast (kuruma, see ru- 
ma), thrust forward or out 
(bulging or swollen out), in 
a spasm (the opisthotonic) of 
tetanus, then, to be bulging 
or swollen stiffly out (of the 
face of a log or board that 
should be level) : see let, 
spasm, or rigidity, as in teta- 
nus ; let, lelet, to be stiff, 
rigid (of anything, as of a 
dead body, &c.). 

Litea, a., or v. i., dirty, to be 
dirty, d. lirea: used of any- 
thing, as cloth, &c. Also, as 
in English we speak of a 
* dirty -looking ' sky or night, 
so, tokalau meta lirea, dirty- 
looking tokalau (tokalau is 
an easterly wind). [My. Idtah, 
Ja. latup, turbid, foul, muddy, 
Mg. lutu, dirtiness, filth, 
dirty, soiled, maliitu, dirty, 
filthy, foul.] A. latah'a, n. a. 
lath', to be dirty. 

Liu sa, V. t., to pass by (lit. to 
put him behind, make him 
go back, by passing him), to 
surpass, d. toll a, d. toliu 

Liu-uaki (waki), or liu-aki 
(see also lu-aki), v. t., to turn, 
as to turn a stick end for end, 
d. Ha ki, and lilia ki ; 

Liliu, d. lilia, d. ler, v. i., 
redup., to turn back, return, 
go or come back: biliu, q.v. 
[Sa. liu, to turn, to turn over, 

to turn into, to change, redup. 
liliu, liuliu, faaliliu to turn 
round, maliuliu to be able to 
turn. To. liliu, to return, Ma. 

ririu, to pass by.] Jp, to 

return, turn back, i. q. ^JJ, 

2, 5, n. a. Jp, tawalli=Ef. 


Lo, s., d. li, alia, as, lo koi, 
or kola, d. li ke, this place, 

Lo, s., thing, and c. art. nalo: 

Loamau (lo, thing, and amau, 
true), s., a true thing, truth, 
a., true, d. syn. losoko, or 
lesoko (lo, or le, thing, and 
soko, true), d. lo-ua (uwa). 

Lo, V. i. and t., to look, to 
see: leo, le, id. 

Loa, s., c. art. naloa, dirt (on 
anything) ; 

Loa, redup., loaloa, a., and 
V. i., to be black, to be 
blackish. See also malolo, 
or milo, milolo. £Fi. loa, 
a black cloud, black paint for 
the face, loaloa, a., black, loa- 
nimata, the black part of the 
eye which surrounds the 
pupil, Ml. P. roro, dirty.] A. 
lo'wat, lawla% blackness. 

Loa i, V. t., to rub, smear ; 

Lo-fl, V. t., same as alo-fl, 

q.v., to rub on, to smear; 

Loa-si, d. loa-ri, v. t., and 

Loloa-si, d. loloa-ri, v. t., to 

rub, also to flatter ; hence 


Lolo, s., paint (for the face). 
[My. lulut, and lulur, to 
cleanse the skin by friction 
and cosmetics, to rub the 
skin with cosmetics, to 
smear.] H. hala', to rub, 
strip, A. hala% to rub and to 
smear the eyes with colly- 
rium, halo', oil or paint (used 
by women for their faces), 
H. hala' (A. hala', see elo, 
lolo, sweet, pleasant), Piel, 
to stroke, to soothe anyone, 
from the primary idea of the 
roots hala', halah, i.e. that 
of rubbing, hence to stroke 
anyone's face, i.e. to soothe, 

Lobu, s., bamboo (the plant) ; 
also, bamboo water vessel 
and bamboo knife. [Santo 
lumuo, Ml. namhu, New 
Guinea dd. hmi, ifa, inha, Icem, 
Sa. 'ofe, To. Icofe, bamboo. Ha. 
oJie, bamboo, a reed generally, 
bamboo knife, a kind of flute.] 
H. 'ebeh, a reed, A. 'aba'at', 
a reed, and 'abau. 

Lofa na, s., c. art. nalofa na, 
his track (so called because 
his track is marked by "bent 
grass, &c.) : lofa, Ufa i. 

Lofa i, V. t., to bend ; same as 
Ufa i. QSa. lofa, to cower 
down, crouch, Fi. love-tUi, to 
bend, Jcalove, bent.] 

Lofa, s., hunger or famine (be- 
cause it bends one) ; a sword 
(because it is flexible) : lofa 
lofa i, hunger or famine 
bends him : lofa i. 

Lo-fl, redup. lolo-fi. See loa i, 


Loga, s., an enclosure, garden, 
the inside of an enclosure ; 
given as d. for elol (in the 
sense of enclosure, that is, 
the inside of an enclosure). 
See elol. 

Lokoloko ki, same as lako- 
lako ki ; lako, v. i. 

Loko-taki, v. t. , same as luku- 
taki : lako, v. i. 

Loku, a., concealed, i toko 
loku, he remains concealed : 
lako, V. i. 

Loknloku ki, same as loko- 
loko ki. 

Lolo, s., voc, uncle, redup. of 
alo ana, q.v. 

Lolo, s. , c. art. nalolo, thread : 
the native thread was made 
by ruhhing the fibre between 
the hand and the thigh : 

Lolo, a., or v. i., redup. of 61o, 
q.v., sweet, pleasant. 

Lolo-fi, redup. of lo-fl, and 

Loloa-si, or 

Loloa-ri, redup. of loa-ri, 

Lolofa, a., or v. i., d. lulum, 
lumu, to be wet, moistened : 
see tin, d. luma. [Fi. Jmii, 
to sink in the water, luma, 
to kill by putting the head 
under water. Ma. rumaM, to 
dip in water, Mg. riiUtl-a, 
plunged, dipped, soaked.] 
Ch. seba% to dip into (H., 
A., id.), Ithpael 'istabaS to 
be wet, moistened. 

Lolo-mina, a., lolo, sweet, 
pleasant, and mina, q.v., 
sweet and pleasant. 




Lor, s., d. roro, the oily milk 
expressed from the grated 
kernel of the cocoanut for 
puddings. See ror, roro i. 
OS, or loso, redup. lolos, or 
loloso, V. i., or mid., to 
bathe, to wash (oneself). 
[TaSa. lalos, Ml. roso, Malo 
loloso, id., Ml. roso-vi, to wash 
(clothes, &c.).] A. rahas^a, 
n. a. rahs', to wash (clothes, 
the body), H. rahas, to wash 
(the body), to wash oneself, 
E. rahsa, to be wet. 

Losia, V. i. See lusia. 

Lot, V. i., to crackle, as a fire ; 
explode, as a gun, &c. ; 

Lotelot, V. i., redup., to crackle 
frequently and rapidly, as 
the bubbles in a boiling pot ; 

Lotelot, s., c. art. nalotelot, 
same as naletilot, froth ; 

Lot, s., c. art. nalot, froth (i. e. 
a mass of bursting or crack- 
ling bubbles). A. la«ata, 
n. a. la"t, li"at, to crackle, 
&c. (as water boiling, &c.). 

Lousa, redup. lolousa, v. i., 
to be wet, or losa, lolosa. 
See lusa. 

Louua, d. for loamau (lo, a 
thing, and uua, i.e. uwa, for 
amau, true). 

Lu, s., d. for lo, a thing, in 
lurik, a thing, lit., little 

Lu, s., a place, for li, alia, as 
lu ua, this place, here, lu 
uan, that place, there. 

Lu, V. i., to rise up, as, intano 
i lu, the ground rises up (as 

when the swelling yams 
below heave it up), redup. 
lulu, nabiau i lulu, the 
waves rise up ; lulu, to be 
uplifted, proud, bau lulu, a 
proud person (lit. high head), 
also lulu, d. li, to vie with, 
contend for superiority, bi- 
lulu, V. r., to vie or contend 
with each other for superi- 
ority, bilulu ki, vie or con- 
tend with each other for 
superiority about (something) ; 
ulua, to grow up, uli, all, 
and ula, a leaf, and lulu, the 
hair (of the head, face, or 
other part of the bod}^), 
redup. uluulua, q.v., to be 
growing up, putting forth 
leaves, also to be hairy, to 
be woolly (as a sheep), to be 
covered with down (a plant). 
[Ha. iilu, uluulu, to grow 
up, lift up, &c.] A. *alu, 
H. 'alah, A. 'ala', n. a. 
'uluw% to ascend, go up, be 
above it, over it, overlay it, 
become suj)ernatant upon it ; 
overcome, become superior ; 
exalt (himself) ; recoil (from), 
remove, or go away (from), 
2, to take up or off, 3, to vie, 
contend, or compete for 
superiority, 4, take up, take 
out, &c. H. 'alah, to go 
up : inanimate things are 
also said to go up, as smoke, 
a rising ground, a plant 
which si^routs forth and 
grows, whence the participle 
'oleh (a plant) sprouting 
forth (Ef. ulua, ulu), and 
'aleh, a leaf (Ef. uli, ali) ; 




used also of things which are 
taken up, carried away, Hi. 
(causative) to take out or up 
(as out of a pit), to take up, 
or away, to put up (the cud, 

»from the stomach into the 
mouth, of ruminating ani- 
mals), generally, to make to 
go up (out or away), E. redup. 
la'ala, 'al'ala, to make to go 
up, lift up, take up, le'lena, 
height, highness, &c. 

Lua, V. t., lua i, lua ki, to 
vomit, to put out (as the 
tongue, anything), to flow 
out, lu e a, flow out on or 
into it, lua ki, to put out 
(anything, as words, to utter), 
hence luaki, an utterance, 
proverb ; also le, and lai. 
This verb is much used after 
other verbs, as, sela lua i, 
bear or carry (taking) out, or 
away, ba lua i, &c. ; miroa 
lua i, think (taking or putting) 
out or up (discover it by 
thought), &c. [Fi, lua, lua- 
ra, lua-raJca, to vomit, Sa. 
luai, to spit out. Ha. luai, to 
vomit, lualual, to ruminate, 
chew the cud, to raise the 
food again from the stomach 
to the mouth, as ruminating 
animals, Ma. ntahi, Tah. ruai, 
to vomit. My. luivat, or luat, 
to vomit, lutvar, or luar, out, 
' away, Imvari, and lutcarJcan, 
to put out, expel, Mg. lua, s., 
vomit, majidua, to vomit, 
luata, ad., over and above, 
luata, taken up, put out, 
manduata, to take out or up, 
luarana, being taken up.] 

cl) , to flow, n. a. Va't, vomit, 

and ta'a, n. a. tai'at, and 
t'a'a, n. a. t'a'at, to vomit, &c. 

Lualua, v. t., redup. of pre- 
ceding. See lua. 

Lua, s., c. art. nalua, a land- 
slip : lua. 

Luaki, s., an allegorical utter- 
ance, a proverb or parable ; 

Luaki, V. t., i luaki naflsan, 
he utters speech, i till luaki 
lau era sa, he says a proverb 
(parable, or allegory) plant- 
ing it on them (lit. planting, 
piercing, or fixing them with 
it). See lua ki. 

Lualua, s., c. art. nalualua, 
an old plantation [out of 
which the yams have been 
taken) ; the hair or grass- 
like growth on rocks under 
the sea : lua. 

Luba ki, v. t., to pour out 
(as water, grain, &c.), luba, 
mid., to ]30ur (itself) as rain ; 
also used of pouring out any- 
thing (as men) from a ship, 
luba ki ra, pour them out, or 
land them, hence bilubaki, 
V. r., to pour each other out, 
to land (men) ; malubaki, to 
be spilt, poured out (water or 
fluid), talubaki, to be spilt 
or poured out (as water or 
fluid). [My. tumpah, to spill, 
shed, pour out, mdnumpah, 
id., Fi. livi-a, to pour gently, 
or in a small stream, talivi, 
to be poured out, spilt.] A. 
sabba, to pour out (of all 
things, and of things dry); 
to pour, be poured out, 5, 7, 




8, to be poured out, and 

saba, n. a. sa'b', to pour 

Lufa, s., loin wrapper, girdle 

round the loins. See Ufa i. 
Lug i, V. t., to bend, make 

curved, and redup., 
Luglug i, id., d. nugnug i ; 

Lug, s., c. art. nalug, d., the 

native pudding (see nakoau, 

kabu), so called because 

wrapped in leaves which are 

bent or curved round it. 

[My. leg'o% bent, crooked.] 

A. laga, n. a. la»g% 2, to 

make curved, to bend. 
Luk, or luku, s., a hole or 

pit, a well : luku noai, well 

(pit or hole) of water : lako. 
Luku, a., same as loku. 
Luku-taki, v. t., same as 

loko-taki. See lako, v. i. 
Luko, V. i., same as liko, 

V. i. 
Luku-ti, V. t., same as liko- 

Luko, s., c. art. naluko, same 

as liko, s. ; takes the nom. 

suf. nalukona, or nalikona, 

its rope, i.e. the rope for 

tying or fastening it. 
Lukuluku, same as likoliko. 
Lukoluko, and 
Lukuluku ki, same as loko- 

loko ki : lako. 
Lulia, and 
Luluia, V. i., for ululia : ali- 

alia, q.v. 
Lulu, V. i., redup. ; and 
Lulu, V. t., I'lu, d. IT, vie, 

contend with for superiority, 

dispute with : lu, and see 
bau lulu, and bilulu. 

Lulu, s., c. art. nalulu, as 
nalulu nabau na, the hair 
of his head, nalulu na, his 
hair : lu, and see uluulua. 

Lulu, V. i., to roll: i lulu 
ban, it rolls away ; 

Lulu ki, V. t., to roll up (as 
cloth into a bale) ; hence 

Lulu, s., c. art. nalulu, a roll, 
a bale ; and talulu, and talu, 
or taPlu, s., a roll (of cloth), 
a crowd (of men), a herd (of 
pigs), a heap (of stones) : see 
also malilu, to roll. See 

Lulu, V. i., to sink, d. tutu, 

Luluk, s., a thing rolled up 
(as cloth). See lulu ki (lulu- 

Luma, or lum, v. i., and 

Lumlum, to be wet. See 
lolofa, d. ; 

Liima, s., the wet, as luma 
iga luma, the wet is about to 
wet, or will wet (' it will rain', 
or ' is going to rain ') ; 

Lume a, v. t., lume nafanua, 
to wash (immerse) or cleanse 
the land by a religious ser- 
vice or ceremony performed 
by the natamole tabu, or 
priest : so if a man has been 
poisoned, natamole tabu i 
lume a ki, the poison, cleanses 
or washes him from the 
poison by a religious service 
or ceremony. When the land 
is suffering from drought, 
natamole tabu i lume, or 


219 [M» 

lumi a, and the hard-baked 
and therefore barren earth 
becomes soft and moist (lum, 
lulum), clothed with verdure, 
and fruitful, yielding abun- 
dance of food ; redup., 

Lulume a, id. The radical 
meaning of the word is to 
dip, to immerse (see under 
lolofa). [Fi. lomo-Va, to dip, 
to dye, luvii, to sink in water, 
to be flooded (as the land).] 
H. saba% A. sab"a, to dip 
into, to immerse, then to dye, 
to tinge, S. sba% to tinge, 
saba% to wash, E. tam'a, to 
tinge, to immerse (in water). 
See also riu, tiu, tutu, tu- 

Lume-si, v. t., to turn, d. 
lume, to wrap up, buluma, 
or bulima, to be turned, to 
be changed (in form or ap- 
pearance). [Tah. rumi, to 
wring, turn over, upset. Ha. 
limu, to turn, to change, to 
have various appearances, 
limulimii, twisting, turning.] 
E. tawim, to roll up, fold 
up. ' 

Lumi, V. i., to swell up, d. 
lugi. A. warama, to swell 
(eg. H. 'aram, rum). 

Lumi a, to look upon it, see 
it : d. for libi-si, d. lim-si, 
d. leba i. See le, leo, lo. 

Lusa, V. i., to be wet, also 
lousa, lolousa. E. rehsa, 
to be wet. 

Lusi, redup. lulusi. See lele 
(and usi). 

Lusia, V. i., to be dirty, faded, 
i bi namau lusia (of a lazy. 

languid husband). [My. IdsUy 
languid, feeble, Mg. lazily 
fading, withering, faded.] A. 
lat'a, to dirty, to be slow, 5, 
to be dirty, lut^at, languor, 
laziness, 'alwat'u, languid, 
faded, withered. See mi- 

M* (ma, mi, me), a formative 
I)refix or preformative par- 
ticle : the m' is sometimes 
changed to b, and f, as toko, 
or to, mato, bato, or fato ; 
in the causative prefix it is b*, 
or f , being the initial con- 
sonant of baka, or faka, 
rarely ba, or fa; in the re- 
flexive prefix it is b', or f, 
being the initial consonant of 
bi, or fi. In bi, or fi, q.v., 
the i is a fragment of the 
ancient reflexive prefix, as 
the a in ba, or fa, q.v., is the 
ancient causative prefix. In 
many cases ma- (often mi-) 
is found prefixed to verbs 
having a passive sense, the 
same verbs being without the 
ma-, active : in these cases we 
may regard the word as re- 
presenting the ancient ps. 
part., or the ancient n. a. 
(active, or passive). The pre- 
formative m (originally ma) 
in H. and Arm. me, or m% 
A. mo, or mu, E. ma, Amh. 
ma, was attached to infini- 
tives and participles (active 
and passive). Sometimes ma- 
in Ef., or m' (b% f ) is to be 
regarded as originally pre- 
fixed to the simplest form of 




the verb. See borau (A. 
markab, an infinitive), &c. 

M, ad., contraction of mo, 

Ma, s., day; in mas, maisa, 
mes, masus (nanum, nanu, 
nanofa, nanoasa,nasa,uasa, 
asa) to-day, lit. this day. H. 
yom, A. ya'm', S. yom, Ch. 
emphatic yoma', and sa, 

Ma, prep., for, contraction of 
magi, or of mane (d. mini), 
as i manai (or maginai) bat i, 
d. i manena bat i, d. i masa 
bati. See magi. [Ma., Fut., 
&c., ma, id.] 

Ma, s., contraction for maga, 
in names of places. [Ma. ma, 
id.] Maga, q.v. 

Ma, d. me, prep., with (of 
accompaniment), and. [Ha. 
me. Ma. me, with, and, Mg. 
amana, with, and, Mota ma, 
me.2 H. 'im, A. ma% with, 
together with : may, like me, 
sometimes be translated by 
' and '. 

Ma, V. i., for mani: ani, v., 
q.v., c. preformative m\ 

Mani, v. t., to rub, grind, or 
grate (as yams) ; 

Ma, s., c. art. nima, a fern 
tree ; the rough bark of it 
(used as a grater) : nima, that 
which ma, i. e. grates. [Ma. 
wan?, scrape, rub.] A. ma- 
hana, n. a. mahn', to rub, 

Ma, s., a man, a male, opp. to 
lai (lei, le, li), a female, a 
woman ; used also before 
names of men, as lai, before 

names of women ; as ma 
tuele, Mr. tuele ; ma-riki, 
lit. old man, senior, sir, often 
used also before names of 
men, Hke ma: ma is a con- 
traction of mare, q.v. 
[Ysabel (Gao) mae, male, 
and used also before mascu- 
line names.] 

Note. — This ma (contrac- 
tion of mare) occurs also in 
d. ma'ani, mani (sometimes 
pronounced mwane, or mo- 
an), and denotes male, thus 
nata-mani, or ta-manl, a 
male, male, lit. a male human 
being, and in another d. the 
initial m is elided, and for 
mani, we have anoi, q.v., 
a male, male. Ch. II. 17. 

Ma'ani, or maani, or mani (or 
mwani, or moan), a., male, 
d. anoi, s. and a. , male : see 
preceding word. [Malo mu- 
era, Obaamem, Celebes hurani 
(husband, Wallace), Ambry m 
iuUi^, Bali miiivani, Epi d. 
man, and Ef. ta-, or ata-mane, 
Epi dd. sumano, atamani {su- 
mano, ata-mam), Ta. yeru- 
man, TaSa. la-7nani, Fi. ta- 
gajie, To. fa-ane, Fut. and 
Sa. tane {ta-ane), id.] Ch. 11. 

Mabe, s., c. art. namabe, the 
chestnut tree and its fruit. 
[Tall, mape, id. ; also the 
kidneys of any animal ; An. 
mop{o}, the chestnut, also the 
inside (i.e. belly) of a box, 
inside (i.e. belly) of an ani- 
mal, the pluck, the heart, 
liver, and lungs, Malo malue, 




chestnut.] See under amo, 

Mabelu, mabelubelu, v. i.,d.; 

refl. of belu ; to be bent, 

doubled, folded : belu. 
Mabor, d. mauora, q.v. 
Mabulu, V. i., or a., d. mafulu, 

fat : bulla. 
Mabulu, s., a large kind of 

Mabulu, V. i., or a., sticky; 

waxy, as a yam when cooked : 

bubulu, bulu-ti. See mofa. 
Mafa, a. , swollen, in las mafa, 

d. las mau, swollen testicles 

(mau for mafu). H. bua% 

ba'ah, A. ba"a», to swell. 

See fuata, bua iii. 
Mafa, V. i., as, i maf ban, he 

goes hiddenly or unobserved 

= i bi bei ban ; 
Mafa na, s., his being hid or 

unseen (in going) : see bei, 

and afa. 
Mafa, d., v. i., or a., to be 

broken, cracked, d. mafua, 

q.v. [To. mafa, crack, rent, 

Mafa i, or mafai, v. t., to 

cover : see s., bei. 
Mafaifai, v. i., or a., to be 

smashed to pieces: fai. See 

bua, to divide, cleave. 
Mafaku, v. i., to be plucked 

up, or out : baku sa. 
Mafasu, v. i. , to be broken off, 

snapt off. [To. mafachi, id.] 

Maflriflri, v. i., to be loosed, 

to be made void : bir i, 

V. t. 
Mafis, s., a knife, d. for makus, 


Mafisi, s., a child, one be- 
gotten or born, and 

Mafisi, V. i., or a., to be be- 
gotten, born, brought forth ; 

Mafisien, s., c. art. namafi- 
sien, the being born or 
brought forth : bis i, v. t., 
to beget. 

Mafisi, V. t., to beat : fisi. 

Mafu, s., c. art. namafu (d. 
namam), a mist ; ceremonial 
uncleanness : abu, abuabu. 

Mafua, V. i., to be split, 
cracked : bua, to divide, 
cleave. [Sa. mavae, to be 
split, cracked.] 

Mafukafuka, v. i., to be swol- 
len out, puffed up : buka i. 

Mafule, V. i., to be stripped of 
leaves : bule. 

Mafunai, or mafunei, v. i., to 
be consumed, annihilated, as 
wood in the fire ; and 

Mafunufunu, v. i., to be 
brought to an end, to be 
ended, finished : annihilated : 
bunu e. 

Mafusai, v. i., to be smashed 
to pieces, as a yam : busa i. 

Mafuti, V. i., to be plucked : 
but i. 

Maga, V. i., to gape (seemaka, 
gaga, fugaga), open out, then 
to wonder, then to gape or 
open the mouth (to speak), 
to speak, maga asi, is to 
speak about it, lit. to open 
the jaws, part asunder the 
jaws (asi), maga lua i, speak 
it up or out, lit. gape outing 
it, maga lo saki, d. maka 
lo saki, to gape looking up ; 




Maga, s., a small canoe : na- 
maga; and 

Maga, s., c. art. namaga, d. 
nabaga, the banyan ; and 

Magan, s., c. art. namagan, 
the act of gaping, wonder : 

Magamaga, v. i., redup., to 
gape often and rapidly, to 
pant ; and 

Maga-fai, s., a division, a part 
(see fai, bua) ; and 

Maga, s., the first part in 
names of places, as gorges or 
valleys, and especially of 
places in the depths of the 
abyss of Hades ; sometimes, 
but rarely, contracted to ma, 
as maga-tika, or ma-tika, 
the lowest abyss in Hades. 
[Ma. maga, brook, water- 
course, ditch, and contracted 
ma, in names of streams, Sa. 

faamaga, to open the mouth, 
to gape (To. faliamaga); ma- 
ga, a branch (as of a tree, road, 
or stream, or anything having 
a branch, or forked), Tah. 
maa, cloven, divided. My. 
gaga, to gape, magii, wonder, 
amazement, magah, to pant, 
palpitate, ondga, open.] E. 
naka'a, to gape, to yawn, to 
be rent, parted or sundered, 
and of water gushing forth 
(see fugaga), A. manka% a 
place where water remains 
(i.e. a hollow, fissure in the 
earth, or valley), naka'a, to 
rend asunder, E. nka'at, an 
opening, gap, fissure ; 

Maga, s., see above, in names 
of the following places in 

Hades, signifies chasm, yawn- 
ing chasm, gulf, or abyss, of 
which there are several, some 
say six, one below the other, 
viz. — 

Maga-boaboa, evil-smelling 
abyss — see boa ; 

Maga-bua, profound abyss — 
see bua ; 

Magaliu, s., name of a place 
in Efate, lit. the turning gap. 
See liu. 

Magali, v. i., to be turned 
round : elo i magali, the sun 
is turned round (it is late in 
the afternoon). See kelu. 

Maga-lulululu, sinking sink- 
ing abyss : lulu ; 

Maga-nabonabo, evil-smelling 
abyss : nabo ; 

Maga-seasea, abyss of ob- 
livion : seasea ; 

Magasi, v. i., to speak about, 
lit. to open or part the jaws : 
maga, asi. 

Maga-tika, or ma-tika, abyss 
of annihilation (this is the 
lowest abyss) : tika : 

Maga-tiro, sinking abyss. See 

Note. — Magatiro in one 
dialect is magalulululu in 
another : and magaboaboa 
and maganabonabo, denote 
the same. Thus there are 
five abysses yawning one 
below the other in succession. 
All these are below bokas, 
which is the uppermost, and 
the first to which departed 
souls go, and also the general 
name of Hades. 

Maga, prep, and pron. of 3 




person, denoting, with-them, 
thus — (1) kihe maga ? who 
they? d. se mani ? d. se 
mai ? d. fei manag ? (2) 
John maga, d. John manag, 
d. John mera uan (or me- 
roan), John and his com- 
panions ; (3) natamolo maga, 
d. manag, d. mera uan, a 
man with them (i.e. a man 
with those beside him), some 
men, indefinite plural. The 
literal meaning of maga in 
(Ij, (2), (3), is with-them 
there : kihe maga ? who he 
with-them there (beside him), 
or together with them there 
(beside him) ; John maga, 
John together with them 
there beside him ; natamole 
maga, the man together with 
them there (beside him). It 
is probable that maga is a 
contraction of which manag 
is the fuller form ; and the 
-ga (for naga) is the dem. 
'there '(see ga, dem.) This 
manag = with them there : 
in addressing a number the 
speaker says tagu maga, or 
manag, or mera uan, my 
friends, lit. my friend with 
them there (beside you) ; so, 
tai manag, &c., brother with 
them there (beside you), 
brothers. The expression 
mera uan is me, with, to- 
gether with, ra, them or 
those, and uan, dem. (that) 
there, and manag and maga 
differ in having the r elided 
(as it is in eu, u, for eru, ru, 
they, verb, pron ) and the 

suffixed dem. nag or naga, 
q.v., instead of uan, q.v. 
Mani (and mai) are not used 
as in (2) and (3), but only as 
in (1) in the above example. 
[Ma. ma, Ha. ma, Fut. 7na, 
Ta. 7nin, d. mi {meh) pL, ml, 

Magasaga, v. t., to make a 
saga (crotch, fork) : maga, 
and saga. 

Magau, pr. n., c. art. nama- 
gau, for nabagau. See ba- 

Magi (d. syn. mini), comp. 
prep., for, contracted ma, 
q.v. : magi is gi, q.v., and 
ma, on account of, in, to, and 
thus aginai = his, maginai, 
on his (account), in his 
(interest), i.e. for him ; in 
one d. the genitive prep, 
nig, q.v., of, denotes also 
'for', niga=:his, and also = 
for him. Both magi and 
nig, when = for, are placed 
between the verbal pronoun 
and its verb, thus, i maginai, 
or, i niga mate, he for him 
died. [Mota mun, for, An. 
imi, to, for, Ma. ma, for, &c.] 
See Ch. V. 11. (8). 

Magie na, prep, and s., for 
his name, i magiena bat i, 
he for his name did it, tuga 
magiegita bat i, let us for 
our names (i.e. for each of 
us) do it, &c. : ma, i.e. magi, 
for, and gie, name. 

Magiri, v. t., to scratch, scrape : 
giri, see gura. 

Mago na, s., c. art. namago 
na: bago na, q.v. for mean- 




ing and origin, is the same 

Magoago (m» prep.), d., ad., 

dawn, early morning, lit. at 

dawn. [Cf. Arag. vaigogo, 

to-morrow.] E. goha, to 

dawn, goh, dawn. 
Magoro, s. See muagoro. 
Magura ki, v., to withhold 

from, d. makur ki : gura i. 
Magura, v. i., or a., to be lean, 

d. makur : gura i. 
Magura, s., c. art. namagora, 

contraction of muagoro. 
Maguku, V. i., to be bent, 

&c. : guku. [An. megug, 

old, wrinkled, makaka^ bent, 

Magusi, V. i., to be crooked, 

contorted, cross-grained, as 

wood ; also, nabona i magusi, 

his heart is crooked. See 

Mai, ad., here, as bano-mai, 

to come here, lo mai, look 

here, &c., and v. i., to come 

here. See bai, be, ba, to 

Mai, s., c. art. namai, a rope, 

a string. See d. me. 
Mai, or ma i, v. t., to chew 

(softening food for an infant). 

[Sa. mama, to chew, ps. 

maia.'^ A. ma"ma"a, to 

chew (meat), but not wholly. 
Mai, d. for mani, as sei ? 

who (is) he? se mai? who 

(are) they ? See maga. 
Maia, s., a species of banana. 
Mai, distance, only in emai, 

ad., q.v. 

Maieta, or maita, d., and 

Maieto, or maito, d., v. i., or 
a., to hQ black, black. [My 
itani, Mg. mainti, Bisaya mai 
turn, Tagala Him, black.] A 
'adhamo' (abtamo, 'athamo 
&c., id.) black, 'idhamma 
and 'ithamma (i.e. dahama 
tahama, 9), to be black. 

Maieto, maito, v. i., to be 
angry, maito sa, to be angry 
on account or because of it, 
maito ki nia, to be angry at 
him, maito ki nia sa, to be 
angry at him on account of 
it. A. ma*it/a, to be angry, 
ma'it'o, and ma'it'o, angry. 

Maietoa, and 

Maietoan, s., c. art. namaie- 
toa, anger, namaietoan, the 
being angry, anger. 

Mailoa (ma-, prep.), s., ad., 
d., dawn, early morning, lit. 
at dawn. [An. imraig, to- 
morrow, Mg. maraina, morn- 
ing.] See aliati. 

Mailua. See malua. 

Mailum, mailumlum. See 

Maimai, v. i., to be in a 
tumult (of haste or passion), 
namarite na i maimai, his 
inside (heart, feelings) is in a 
tumult. [Mg. maika, and 
maimai, a., hasty, in a hurry.] 
A. ma'ma'a, to do a thing 
hastily, to be in a tumult, 
ma'ma'at, crackling (of burn- 
ing reeds or such like). 

Mairi, v. i., to live : dd. 
maurl, moli. 

Maisa, ad., to-day, dd. mas, 




mes, masusa. See ma, clay, 
and s, dem. 

Mak, V. i., d., to fall, become 
mild, gentle, die away, as the 
wind : eg. mao. S. mak, to 
be cast down, prostrated, 
humble, mild. 

Maka. See mako. 

Maka, v. i., or maga, q.v., 
to gape, to wonder, to be 
amazed, i maka sa, or maga 
sa, he is amazed or gapes at 
(because of) it ; and maka lo 
saki, or maga lo saki, he 
gapes looking upwards. See 

Makaka, v. i., or a., to be 
ragged or fissured, as cloth. 
See aka. 

Makal, s., an ant (so called 
from its smallness, or quick 
and light movements) : kala, 
and bakal i ii. 

Makal, s., shame, pudenda. 
See under bakal i ii. 

Makal, v. i., or a., and redup., 

Makalkal, to be sharp : ba- 
kal i II. [To. macJida, sharp.] 

Makalakala, v. i., or a., to be 
itchy : connected with makal, 
ant, thus, makal i makama- 
kala ki nau, an ant moves 
about on (is creeping or run- 
ning on) me, and therefore, 
a makalakala, I am itchy : 
bakal i ii. 

Makamakala ki, v., to move 
about or creep on (one), of an 
ant (makal), hence makala- 
kala, itchy. 

Makara, v. i., to be assembled, 
to be a crowd or many to- 
gether, dd. maraka (trans- 

posed), and mera, or mara (k 
elided) : kuru, guru. 

Makarakara, v. i., or a., to 
be burning, as the throat 
from eating curry with too 
much pepper : kara. 

Makas i, v. t., to pluck out 
or off, as a scab or anything 
from the skin, loose bark 
from a tree, husk from a 
cocoanut. A. nakas^a, (3), 
to pluck out. See bakasa ki. 

Maki, V. t., to be ignorant of, 
not to know ; redup., 

Makimaki, as, i makimaki 
isa, he is ignorant of, does 
not know, it ; 

Maki, don't know (in answer 
to a question) ; 

Maki, pr. n. of a demon or 
spirit, one of the officers of 
Saritau at the gate or entrance 
of Hades. When the spirit 
of a deceased person presents 
himself after death for ad- 
mission to Hades, Faus 
(another spirit) asks ' Who is 
it?' H Maki says, 'Maki' 
(i.e. don't know), a dreadful 
punishment is inflicted by 
Saritau ; if he says ' He is 
one of our people ' admission 
w^ithout punishment is given. 
[My. niuldr, Ja. magldr {nmg- 
Idr), to deny, disavow.] A. 
nakira, 1, 4, 6, 10, to be 
ignorant of, not to know, 4, 
to deny, to disavow, Munkar% 
name of the angel who to- 
gether with Nakir is said to 
have the office of examining 
deceased persons in the grave; 
see Koran. 





Makinikini, v. i., to be itchy: 
kan i. [Sa. maim, mainiini, 
to tingle, to smart.] 

Makit i, v. t., to seize or take 
with the uataki (native tongs) 
the hot oven stones, ru sela 
uataki makiti fatu isa, or 
maki fatu isa. H. hatah, to 
take, take hold of, seize. It 
is once applied to a man, else- 
where always to fire or burn- 
ing coals. 

Makita, redup. makitakita, 
V. i., or a., to be bent, curved, 
onl}'^ in the expression lo ma- 
kita, to look bent, i. e. to look 
round or back, lo makitakita, 
id., d. bakita, bakitakita. 
A. ka'aVa, to bend, to curve, 
mak'ut'', bent, curved. 

Mako, and maka,s., offspring; 
in pr. names, as, maka folu, 
lai, or 11 mako, &c. : aka 
(ako). [TaSa. mahaxn, grand- 
child (offspring, or offshoot, 
of grandfather, jji), Fi. malaibu, 
or molailu, grandchild.] 

Makota, or makoto, v. i. , to be 
broken, and redup., 

Makotakota, to be much 
broken ; and 

Makota ki, to be broken from, 
i. e. to cease from (some person 
or thing) ; and 

Makota, s., a part (of a plan- 
tation), a place, makot i mi- 
late, the place is cold, i. e. 
there is no one about the 
place (on calling at a house 
and finding no one at home), 
makota ua, this place, lit. 
this part ; koto-fi. 

Makus, s., a wooden knife 

(used for cutting up pud- 
dings), d. mafis. 

Makuskus, or 

Makusukusu, v. i., to be soft 
(ripe) : kosu-mi. 

I. Mala bulu, v. i., to faint, 
falling down (of men), to be- 
come soft and falling down 
(of breadfruit) — see bulu ; 

Mala, s., faint, as, mate ki 
mala, to faint, lit. to die in 
a faint ; a species of hawk (of 
a faded colour) ; 

Malamala, v. i., to be foolish 
(My. JjCibal, silly, doltish), c. 
art. namalamala, a fool, one 
foolish ; and 

Mala, s., c. art. namala, a fool, 
one stupid, foolish, senseless ; 

Mala nono, v. i., to abide 
senseless, deprived of sense 
or motion (as by terror) : no, 
to abide. H. nabal, to be or 
become faded (used of leaves 
and flowers falling off from 
being faded), to fall down, to 
faint, to lose one's strength 
(of men) ; and to be foolish 
(the mind faded), flaccid, 
devoid of vigour, stupid, 
nabal, foolish, senseless. 

II. Malamala, v. i., or a., to be 
naked, naked ; and 

Mala, s., or malala (intensive), 
the cleared place at each vil- 
lage, in the midst of which 
the nabeas are set up, and in 
which are performed the sacri- 
fices, singing, and dancing of 
the intamate ; often in the 



W \ V 


names of places (because clear- 
ed or bare, because having a 
mala, or cleared place). [Ma. 
viarae, enclosed sjDace in front 
of a house, yard, Tah. inarae, 
a., cleared, as a garden, or a 
jilace of worship, s., the sacred 
place formerly used for wor- 
ship, where stones were piled 
up, altars erected, sacrifices 
offered, prayers made, and 
sometimes the dead deposited, 
Sa. malac, the open space 
where public meetings are 
held.] And also 

Mala, s. (also malo), a place or 
part (as of a garden), a part 
of time, and 

Malmal, s., a small place, or 
part. See under all, or alia. 

III. Mala, V. i., or a., d. ma- 
lala, to be loose, and redu]). 
malamala, id. A. halla, to 
loosen, mahlul', loosened, 
loose, Ct. mahlul, loose. 

Malamala i, or malamalai, d., 
redup. of (malai) milai, or 
milei, q.v. 

Malafiafi, v. i., or a., to be 
thin. [Ha. lalii, lah'dahi, thin. 
My. rcu)ipi(/, thin.] A. raffa, 
n. a. rafaf, to be thin. 

Malari, d. for milati, q.v. 

Malasilus, redup. of milesu, 

Malat, s. See melat. 

Malatiga, d. malandigi, ad., 
and prep., near, malatiga ki, 
near to : mala, place, and 
tiga, tigi. 

Malan, v. i., to be bad tasted 
(as stale food), to be corrupt, 
loathsome (as bilge water). 

[Tah. maraii, old, worn out, 
fading, My. lamii, loathsome, 
fat, corpulent.] A. tahhama, 
to loathe, fat, corpulent. 

Malei, or male i, v. t., to di- 
vorce. [Sa. ale/, to divorce.] 
A. hala'a, to divorce. 

Malebuto, ad. and s., middle 
part ; inside, heart : mal 
(mala), place, part, e, prep., 
and buto, the middle. 

Malele, v. i., or a., to be bent, 
curved : lele. 

Maleoleo, d. malolo, v. i., to 
become tame, gentle (i.e. in- 
telligent), as an animal does 
when domesticated. A. ra'a», 
4, 'ar'a', n. a. 'ira% to be- 
come prudent, intelligent. 

Maler, d. maleru, or malirii, 
V. i., to be transparent, shin- 
ing (as smooth water or glass 
reflecting the light) : lira. 

Malera, v. i., to be thin, run- 
ning, of a fluid, as paint. See 
lor, roro, ro i, roro i. 

Maletileti, v. i., to be stiff (as 
the ])ack, in some disease) : 
let, let. 

Mali, and redup. malimali, 
V. i., to be drooping, as the 
countenance in shame ; and 

Mali, s., c. art. namali, a plant 
(which when eaten is said to 
make one so) ; and 

Malidri, i.e. mali-eri, v. i., to 
be ashamed, lit. to be droop- 
ing or abashed in the face or 
countenance : see rai, face, 
forehead. [M5\ mahc, to be 
ashamed, a1)aslied, malumalu, 
bashfully, Mg. main, main- 
main, bashfulness, mimaJi(, 

q 2 

w \ w. 




mimaliimalu, bashful, meek- 
eyed, shamefaced.] H. 'amal, 
'amel, to languish, to droop, 
prop, to hang down the head. 

Maliblib, v. i., weak, limber, 
d. maliflif: Ufa i. A. la- 
flafa, weak. 

Malibu, s., widow (also 
widower), i. e. one mourning, 
lit. covered with ashes : libu. 

Maliflif, d. maliblib, q.v. 

Malifus, dd. malus, maus, v. 
i., or a., bent: lifa i. 

Maligo, V. i., to be dark ; and 
red up., 

Maligoligo, id., intensive ; 

Maligo, s., c. art. namaligo, 
darkness, d. malik, q.v. 

Malik, v. i., redup. maliko- 
liko; namalik, s., to be 
dark, darkness, d. maligo. 
[Epi miTzoJeko, Vanua Lava 
malegleg, melijlig, black.] A. 
halika, to be very black 
(holakliko, very black), part, 

Malilu, V. i., to roll away, to 
roll, malilu ki, v. t., to make 
to roll, to roll (a thing) away : 

Malilua, v. i. See malua. 

Malio ki, v. t., to forget (a 
thing) : lailai. [My. Idlai, 
Ja. lali, to forget.] A. laha, 
n. a. lohiyy', being diverted 
to forget (a thing). 

Malis, d. for malus : malifus. 

Malitiga, dd. maririgi, mul- 
tig : malatiga. 

Malo, s., a place, part ; a part 
of time ; mal, or malo tageli, 
a crooked part (either a place 

difficult of access, or crooked 
conduct) : c. art. na malo na, 
the trunk (of a tree or the 
body) : mala. See ali, alia. 

Malo, s., a kind of rock in the 
sea. [Santo malo, a rock.] 
Cf. A. marw% very hard 

Malo, V. i., to be weary, unwil- 
ling, averse ; malo ki, v. t., 
to dislike (a thing). [My. 
molds, averse, &c.] A. malla, 
to dislike, to be tired, weary ; 
mallo, disgusted, wearied. 

Maloi, s., a mask. [To. huh, 
to mask, to veil, huloa, and 
hulobulo, a mask ; veil for the 
head. Ha. pidou, to cover 
the head, veil the eyes, s., a 
veil.] A. barka'a, to cover 
the face, to veil, 2, to be 
covered with a veil, veiled, 
burka'o, a veil, burkii% id. 

Maloiloi, V. i., to be feeble, 
tottering from weakness. 
[Ha. loeloe, maloeloe, feeble.] 
A. la'la'a, 2, to be twisted 
and moved (from hunger), to 
be infirm and weak from 
disease or languor. 

Malolo. See maleoleo. 

Malosu, d. milesu, q.v. 

Mal-tageli. See malo, s., and 

Malu, V. i., or a., to be bare, 
cleared ; redup., 

Malumalu, id. See ali, alia, 

Malua, and mailua, v. i., to 
do anything gently and 
quietly, not to be in a hurry, 
to do after a time, by-and-by, 
d. mailua, malilua, d. ma- 




lulu. [Fi. malua, go gently, 
not to hurry, by-and-by, vaJcci- 
malua, gently.] See malum. 

Malubaki, v. i., to be spilt : 
luba ki. 

Malum, and mailum, v. i., 
to be weak, faint, soft ; to 
do anything weakly, i.e. 
gently, not in a hurry. 

Malumlum, redup., also mai- 
lum, mailumium. [Fi. ma- 
lumu, ynalumulumu, weak, 
faint, sick. My. IdmaJi, Ja. 
lamas, soft, flexible, weak, 
feeble, faint, Mg. lemi, soft- 
ness, meekness, gentleness, 
malemi, soft, meek, gentle, 
TaSa. naliim, Ml. malum, id.] 
A. haluma, halim', to be 
gentle, weak, &c. See Index. 

Malus, d. for malifus. 

Mam, V. i., or a., to be soft 
(as ripe fruit), ripe. A. ma'W, 
ripe or ripening dates, ma'a, 
to have such dates (a palm), 
ma% soft, mild (of food). 

Mam, s., c. art. namam, d. 
for mafu, q.v. 

Mama, s., voc, father, dd. ab, 

Mamau, redup. of mau, q.v. 

Manamana, s., c. art. na- 
manamana, a pudding mixed 
with pig's fat wraj^ped uj) 
(munu-ti) in leaves to be 
cooked in the oven ; a captive 
taken in war (because such 
were cooked in the oven and 
eaten). See munu-ti, bunu- 
ti, &c. 

Manag, d. maga, q.v. : ma- 
nag, i.e. ma, with them or 
those, nag (dem.), there. 

Manaki, v. i., to stay for the 
night, to rest, as a guest ; 

Manaki, s., c. art. namanaki, 
one who does so, a guest. 
[My. mdndg, to rest.] Mod. 
S. maneh, to rest, Mafel, i.e. 
the causative with the pre- 
formative m ; H. nuah, to 
rest, A. nah'a, to kneel down, 
as a camel, monah', a place 
where camels lie down (to 
rest or sleep). 

Mani, V. i., or man, contracted 
ma, to abide, to be : ani. 

Mandu, d. for matu. 

Maneinei, v. i., to be weak. 
A. na'na'a, to be weak. 

Mani, as, sei, who (is) he ? se 
manI, who (are) they? d. 
kihe maga ? See maga. 

Mani, d. mini, prep., for. 
See magi, and Ch. V. 11. (9). 

Manifenife, v. i., or a., to be 
thin. [Sa. mmiifi, mamfinifi, 
My. mlmpis, iuijns, nipis, tip is, 
Mg. manifi, thin, hanifisina, 
being made thin. ] A. nahifa 
and nahufa, n. a. nahafat, 
nahif, manhuf , thin, 
slender. Ct. nahif, thin, 
nahafat, thinness. 

Manru, d. for matu. 

Manu, s., a multitude ; d. a 
thousand (d. bon, a thou- 
sand), manumanu (d. bon- 
bon), a very great number, 
or multitude ; see bon, bono- 
ti, bunu-ti, munu-ti. £Sa. 

mano, a great number, mano- 

mano, innumerable.] 

Manu, s., a bird, birds. [Ja. 

manuk, Ta. manug, Er. maioJc, 

Vanua Lava mo7i, My. hunt (J, 




Mg. vuruna, Sa. manu, id.] 
H. parah, S. parah, to fly, 
parohto, bird (gen. name), 
A. farhu, H. efroah, young 
of birds ; 

Manumanu, s., a streamer or 
flag of a native canoe sail : 
preceding word. [Fi. manxi- 
manu, id., also a bird.] 

Manu na, s., the palate and 
upper part of the throat. A. 
hanaku, the palate and lower 
part of the mouth answering 
to it (eg. nanoa na, q.v.), A. 
hanaka, to rub food with 
the palate, 2, to rub the 

Manna, v. i., to be finished, 
ended ; and 

Manunu, id., d. manubn. See 

Mannbu, v. i., to be finished, 
ended ; and 

Manubunubu, id., redup. : 
nubu, num, nu. 

Manubunubu, d. matumu- 
tumu, to be soft, sleek, as 
the skin of a newly born pig, 
or of an infant. See nubu, 
tumu, noba. [Ha. noim- 
nopit, to spring or swell up, 
a., soft, spongy, thoroughly 
cooked, plump, fat, swelled 
out, nojme, plump, round, as 
a well fed, fat hog.] 

Manugnug, d., v. i., to be 
bent : luglug i. 

Manuka, s., c. art. namanuk, 
wound. [Sa. manu a, to be 
wounded, s., a wound, manii- 
aya, party wounded, Mota 
ma)2iga, wound, mamgata, 
wounded.] A. naka% to 

wound, H. nakah, E. na- 

Mao, and redup., 

Maomao, v. i., to be gentle, 
mild. A. mahiha, to be 
mild, eg. mak. 

Maole, or mauole, s., c. art. 
namaole, a bed : hence 

Maole ki, v., to make a bed 
with (something) : d. uol, see 
bilis i (bolis i, and uolis i). 

Maon, s., d., c. art. namaon, 
sweat : der. uncertain. Cf. 
s. bani. 

Mao na, s., d. faa, thigh. 
[My. iKiali, id., also the limbs 
or quartei's of a slaughtered 
animal, Mg. fe, the thigh : 
Santo ^vaclo, id.] A. fahdo, 
or fahd', id. 

Maoni, V. i., d. mani : ani, 
V. i. 

Maora, v. i., to be rent, redup. 
maoraora (intensive) : bora i. 

Maosa, d. taos, v. i., to be 
fatigued, tired. [Fi. of'rt, 
weary, tired.] A. fat'a', 4, 
to be fatigued, weary, 'aft'a', 
fatigued, worn out. 

Maota, or mauota (mawota), 
V. i., to be parted asunder ; 

Maotaota, id., and 

Maota na, s., c. art. namaota, 
interval : bota 1. 

Mara uoka, a., having the 
hands chapped with hard 
work, as with digging with 
the kali, or with using an 
axe, naruna i bi maraiioka : 
maras, and boka-ti (or uoka- 





Mara, v. i., to rest, stop, mara 
tu, stand still ; 

Mara bakarogo, v. i., or a., 
to be quiet, rest quiet, peace- 
able: mara, i.e. maro, q.v., 
and bakarogo. 

Marafi, v. i., to hasten, be 
quick ; reduj)!., 

Marafirafi, id. See sarafi. 
S. rhab, whence sarhab, 
Pael, to hasten, mesarhiba, 
sudden, mesarhibat, hastily, 
quickly. Uhlemann (Syr. 
Gr., §25, A, b) gives sarheb 
(Saphel, similar to Aphel), to 
permit to hasten, and to 
hasten = arheb (H. rahab, 
to urge on, press, &c.). 

Marag ki, v. t., d., to spit out, 
to loathe. See burei. 

Maraka, v. i., or a., to be 
willing, desirous ; 

Marakaraka, id., redup. See 

Maraka, or meraka, v. i., d. 
for makara, q.v. 

Marase, v. i., to be softened 
or excoriated (as the hands 
with work), to be peeled off, 
excoriated, tamaras, peeled 
off (of the skin of a body 
softened or macerated in 
water). A. maras'a, marat^a, 
to macerate in water, rub, 
scratch with the nails ; and 

Maraserase, redup., to be 
peeled or excoriated here and 
there, as the skin. Compare 

Marasa, or murasa, d. burasa, 
V. i., used as an ad., gently, 
slowly, by-and-by, as, ba 

marasa mer ia, do it gently, 
not in a hurry, slowly, or by- 
and-by. A. rat'a, to delay, 
to be slow, 2, soften ; be 
fatigued, murayyat", slow. 

Marate, v. i., or mareti, to 
be excoriated, peeled, as the 
hand with hard work. See 
marase. H. marat, to make 
smooth ; to polish ; to make 
bald, pluck out the hair ; 
marut, to be peeled (as the 
shoulder with carrying 
burdens). Ch. to pluck 
(wings), to be plucked, A. 
marata, to pluck from the 
body (hairs), 3, pluck out 
hair and wound with the 

Marate, or mardte, a., in 
fatu marete, oven stones 
(hard, smooth or hare stones, 
worn smooth by the sea): 
preceding word. 

Mare, v. i., to be turned, lo 
mare, to look turned (round), 
look back. See roa, rea. 

Mare, s., a man (male, not 
female), as pr. n., mare 
uota, man of Uota : see 
ma, maani, or mani, and 
mariki. [Tah. maroa, a boy, 
a male {tamaroa, boy, fama- 
hine, girl), Motu mcro, a boj'- 
(not a girl), Malo muera, i.e. 
mera, Oba amera, a male, vir.] 
Ch. mare', lord, S. mar' ; A. 
mar' (also homo, see, infra, 
mera), mor', mir', vir., 
mara'a, (2) to be virile, 
masculine, and brave, as be- 
comes a man. 

Mareserisu, v. i., to shift, 




subside (as a swelling). See 

Mariki, s., lit. senior, sir, old 
man, Mr., opposite to fite 
riki, matron, old woman, 
Mrs. : nia, for mare, and 
riki. See filer iki. 

Marita na, or marite na, s., 
the belly, bowels, also a rope 
or string ; hence 

Maritausa, v. i., to be angry, 
or marita sa, or marita na 
i sa : and marita uia, to be 
well or kindly disposed. See 
sa, uia. A. muryita', the 
belly. See the verb under 

Maritau, v. i., to wither, be 
withered. A. saha, 2, v. t., 
to wither or dry plants (as 
the sun, wind), 5, tasawwaha, 
to be withered. 

Maro, V. i., to breathe, to rest, 
be quiet, to be glad, restful, 
contented, satisfied ; maro 
ki, V. t., to perceive the 
odour of (to breathe or in- 
hale the odour of), to smell ; 

Maromaro, v. i., to breathe ; 
to rest ; hence 

Maromaroan, s., c. art., the 
act of breathing or resting, 
rest ; and 

Maro na, s., c. art., breath. 
A. raha, n. p. maroh, to rest 
(i. e. respire) ; to be glad ; to 
perceive the odour of; to 
blow (wind), 2, to be quiet, 
to rest, 4, to breathe, H. 
ruah, to breathe, blow, Hi. 
to smell ; to be pleased, glad 
(smell with pleasure). 

Maroa, v. i., to turn round: 

Marobaroba, v. i., to fall 
down, be level, as the smoke 
of a fire signal. [Mg. ravuna, 
level.] See roa (rowa). 

Marou, and marouroii, s., d. 
(transposed) for riima, q.v. 

Maru, V. i., or a., d. meru, to 
be limpid, clear, pure (of 
water). A. namiru, namiru, 

Maru, d. for matu, q.v. 

Maru sa, v. t., to rub ; mas- 
turbate ; to joke. A. ma- 
rah'a, n. a. marh'u, to joke, 
to anoint, to soften (the body 
with oil), H. mar ah, to rub ; 

Maruen, s., c. art. namaruen, 
joking, &c. 

Marua, v. i., to cease, leave 
off, marua ki, to cease from ; 

Maruana, s., c. art., cessation : 
baro, V. i., barua, q.v. 

Mas, s. See maso. 

Mas, ad., d. for maisa, mesa, 

Mas, and sam, ad., alone, 
only: ma for mau (as in 
sikei mau), and »s, sa, one. 

Masa, d., v. i., to go, to walk. 
A. mas'a, id ; 

Masana, s., c. art. namasana, 
the going, walking. 

Masa i, v. t., to rub, rub off, 
masa ia nafo, rub it on the 
nafo (to rub the rust off it) ; 

Masamasa ki, redup., rub (as 
the rust off a needle, on a 
stone) ; and 

Masamasoa ki, v. t., end. 'a, 



to stroke, smooth, flatter ; 

Masa, V. i., at ease (as wild 
animals in their lair, as if 
smoothed into gentleness) ; 

Masaki. See misaki. 

Masamasa(n)ta, d., v. i., or a., 
end. ta, smooth, as a board : 
dd. musi ki, mus i, to stroke, 
smooth, rub. H. mas^ah, to 
stroke, anoint, A. masaha, to 
stroke, to flatter, wipe off, 
ma'asa, to rub strongly, 
ma^as^a, to rub gently, ma- 
sih% smooth, S. ms'ah, to 
anoint ; to measure ; A. ma- 
saha, to measure (land), H. 
mis^hah, mas^hah, a part, 
a portion (Ef. mas, maso, 
mis, id.). 

Mas, s., also maso, mase, and 
mis, a part, a portion, a place 
(part of the land), as, bau- 
maso na, q.v., masleo, a 
portion of speech or words, 
as of a song, masleo nali- 
gana, a portion of human 
speech, dialect (see leo), maso 
ua, this part, or place. See 
preceding Avord. 

Mas', or masu, v. i., d., to 
come ; hence 

Masuen, s., c. art. namasuen, 
the act of coming. E. mas' a, 
to come (H. masa', means to 
come to, i.e. to attain to, to 
arrive at, anything). 

Mas i, V. t., to shave, as masi 
nasina, to shave the chin or 
part of the face covered with 
the beard : masi noai, shave 
off the surface of water, bail, 
or bale, out: hence, redup.. 

Masimasi, v., to bail out (a 
canoe, or boat), and 

Masi, s., a knife, and 

Masimasi, s., id., d. mismis. 
A. masa, to shave, musa', 
mawasi, a knife. 

Masei, s. See masoi. 

Masere, s., c. art. See miseri. 

Masere, v. i., to be treated 
kindly ; sere, bakasere ; te 
masere, one treated kindly, 
as a beloved child. 

Masere, v. i., to be torn : sere. 
[Fi. hasere, broken, loosed.] 

Masiba, v. i., to be broken, 
done into fragments ; and 

Masibasiba, id., intensive: 
siba i. 

Masi-balo, s., wilderness, lit. 
empty part (of land). See 
mas, maso, and balo. 

Masika, v., in sera masika sa, 
to desire, covet (a person or 
thing). A. s'aka, 5, to be 
desirous of. 

Masiki na, d. mihi (for misi), 
V. i., taking the nom. suf. 
agreeing in number and per- 
son with its subject as, a 
masikigii, I alone, ku masi- 
kima, thou alone, i masikina, 
or masikinia, he alone : siki, 
and pref. ma. 

Masila, or masili, v. i., to be 
thin ; and 
Masilasila, d., redup. ; and 
Masila na, s., c. art. namasila 
na, chip, shaving. See sila i. 
Masila, in buru-masila, q.v. 

See sila. 
Masirsir, d., v. i., to sob (as 

after crying). A. zahara, to 




utter the voice, to give forth 
a sound, to pant or gasp with 
vehemence and groaning. 

Mas-leo, s. See mas, s., part 
or 23ortion, and leo, voice, 

Maso, s. See mas, s., a part, 
portion, place. 

Maso, V. i., or a., to be cooked, 
done, d. mahi. [My. masaJc, 
Mg. masaJca, Ma. maoa, and 
maoJca, and maoga, cooked, 
also ripe, Bugis motasoJi, rij^e, 
Tail, maoa, cooked, ripe, Fut. 
riioa, Santo, d., mda, cooked. 
To. momoJio, ripe.] A. na- 
s'iga, 1, 2, 4, to be ripe, 

Masoi, masoei, or masei, s., 
star, stars, d. mohoi, c. art. 
namohoi. [Epi d. molioel 
Fila masoi, Fut. fatu, Sa. fetfi, 
Santo dd. vitii, masoi, vihii, 
vitiu, My. hintag, uintag, and 
lintag, Mg. kintana and va- 
siana, Tag. hifoin, Sumbawa 
hintoig, Sulu Jjitohon, Menado 
hiUiy, Sanguir hituin, id.] See 
Ch. 11. 13. a., and c (at end). 

Masoi, or masei, star, is used 
in pr. n., as Masei, Mare 
Masei, &c. 

Masok, V. i., to be violently 
agitated or enraged, as, na- 
maritana i masok, lit. his 
belly or his bowels leaped up : 
soka, to leap. 

Masoko, a., true, exact, to the 
point, as nafisan masoko, a 
word or speech true, exact, or 
to the point ; as an adverb, 
bisa masoko, to speak truly, 
exactly, or to the point, ba 

masoko, to go exactly, ba 
masoko sa, go exactly upon 
it, &c. : soko. 

Masoi, V. i., to turn aside, de- 
cline. A. zala, n. a. zuwuP, 
to decline (as the sun) ; cease 
to be in place, remove ; start 
on a journey and change one's 

Masu, s., c. art. namasu, the 
time of harvest, or of plenty 
of food, opposite to sukei, 
q.v., lit. the coming, namasu 
nafinaga, the coming of food, 
as yams, taro, bread-fruit, &c. : 
mas' (or masu), v. i., to 

Masua na, s., c. art. namasua 
na, the top, crown, or summit 
(of anything) : sua, su. 

Masua, v. i., or a., to be bald. 
A. nazi'a, to be bald about 
the temples, manzu". 

Note. — Sa. tula. My. sulah, 
Mg. sula, bald, A. saliva, to 
be bald on the forepart of 
the head, sul'at, place of 

Masukuta ki. See musukuta 

Masula ki, v. t., to scorch (as 
the skin of a pig in order to 
its being scraped and pre- 
pared for cooking) : sulu. 

Masusa, ad., for mas, maisa, 

Mat', V. i., to ebb ; to be low 
water ; hence 

Mat', s., c. art., namat, the 
ebb ; low water ; the shore 
left bare at low water. [Sa. 
masa, to be low tide ; to be 




sour ; to have an offensive 
smell ; To. maJia, nmnaJia, to 
ebb, Fi. mdti, to ebb, and s., 
namati, the ebb.] A. mat'a, 
to macerate and dissolve (a 
thmg in water), H. masas, 
eg., to melt, How down, to 
waste away. 

Mata (or mwata), a snake. 
[Sa., Fut, Fi. (jfCiia, id., Malo 
moata, Santo dd. 'inafa, maum, 
My. ular, id. (Ma. gata, snail, 
slug, leech).] A.'it'at^ 'at'a', 
a snake : 'at^t'a, v., tinea 
erosit lanam, serpens momordit, 
'ut'at, tinea, &c. See iila, 
My. ulat, worm, maggot. 

Mata, s., the eyes, usually 
pronounced mita, or meta, 

Mataisau, s., a carpenter. [Sa. 
mataisaii, id.] ; 

Matakseu, d., id. Mataisau 
is lit. the eye (or director or 
master) of cutting. See (ma- 
ta), meta, and sau. 

Mataku. See mitaku. 

Mataloa, s., a pig with crooked 
tusks, one on each side, that 
is, a mature, full-grown pig. 
A. sala"a, and sala"a, to have 
or acquire a tooth or tusk on 
each side. 

Matata, s., a phosphorescent 
worm (which gleams brilli- 
antly), phosphorescence of 
the sea. [Fi. ivatata, to clear 
up, as the weather, the sky.] 
A. s'a'a, to shine; Nm. mo- 
s^ui, phosphorescent. 

Matau, s., d. na mitau, an 
anchor : tau. 

Matautau, v. i., to utter sounds 

as one in sickness or pain, to 
groan, moan. A. hatafa, to 
moan, &c. 

Mate, V. i., to die ; and redup., 

Matemate, v. i., to be quiet, 
soft, gentle ; and 

Matian, s., c. art. namatian, 
act of dying, death : 

Matigo na, s.,c. art., the grave, 
d. emate n ; tamate, v. i., to 
become calm (wind, wave), 
s., peace, a calm ; also a 
series of feasts or festivals 
held every fifth day (see d. 
syn. belaki). [Sa. mate, My. 
matiy to die, Mg. mati, a., 
dead, matimafi, lukewarm.] 
A. mata, to die ; to become 
calm (the wind), 4, to soften 
by cooking. This word 
occurs in all the Semitic 

Matiratira, v. i., or a., to be 
shining, bright (as any 
polished surface). See tare. 

Matiu, d., V. i., to sink. See 
till sa. 

Mato, and 

Matoko, V. i., to remain, 
abide, to sit : to, toko. [Mg. 
mituata, initueta, mituita, mitu- 
miieta, to reside, dwell, abide, 
sit, rest.] See toko. 

Matol, ad., to-morrow : tola. 

Matoltol. See matultul. 

Matu, V. i., to abide, to abide 
standing : tu. 

Matu, s., c. art. namatu, d., 
woman. See Ch. II. 17. c. 
[Ja. %cedo, Sula nifata, Tidore 
fojja. id.] 

Matu ki, V. t.. to strengthen 
or support with posts (a 




fence), matu ki nakoro ; 

Matu na, s., c. art. namatu 
na, post or stake (of a fence) ; 
the backbone, vertebral 
column, the back. A. ma- 
tuna, H. matan, to be 
strong, firm, A. matenu, 
back, vertebral column. 

Matu, V. i., to be thirsty, to 
thirst, dd. manru, mandu, 
maru. [Ml. P. meruli, Epi 
mereu, TaSa. maroiku, Malo 
madoge, Bugis madoka, Santo 
(Pelia) marara, Marshall Is- 
lands maru, New Caledonia 
mcdii, to thirst.] S. sho, 
to thirst, sahyo, thirst, H. 

Matua, V. i., or a., to be old, 
mature, elder, then (full- 
grown) large, great ; also 
wise, opposite to busa, as, 
meta matua, wise, lit. old 
or mature, i.e. experienced 
eye, bo matua, wise, lit. old, 
mature, i. e. experienced 
heart ; te matua, the aged, 
or the ancients ; meta matua 
ki, to withhold from (a 
person, something) ; 

Matuatua, redup. of preceding 
word, very old ; 

Matua, s., or ad., the right 
hand, or side : tuai, q.v. 
[Sa. matua, aged, elder, ma- 
ture (matuatua, dim.), a 
parent, Fi. matua, mature, 
My. mdntuwah, a father or 
mother-in-law, Mg. matua, 
eldest son or daughter, yna- 
tuatua, a ghost, aj^parition, 
Malo matua, right hand. J 

Matuki, a. used as s., one 
trusted in, confident, brave, 
as a warrior : tuki. [Mg. 
matuld, confident, brave, 
trusting. ] 

Matulu, V. i., or a., to be 
swollen, thick; and redup., 

Matultul, id. : telatela, tela- 

Matumutumu, d. manubu- 
nubu, q.v. 

Matuna, s., and ad., c. art. 
namatuna, d. fatuna, some- 
thing, anything, somewhere, 
anywhere, somehow ; also a 
ghost or apparition, lit. some- 
thing : ma, or fa (the inter, 
pron. used indefinitely), q.v., 
and tuna, dem., te (or tu) 
with the dem. na added to it. 
See safa, or sefa. H. mah, 
anything, something, what- 
ever, Ch. mah di, whatever, 
what that, that which, A. 
ma', that which, whatever. 
See Ch. V. 4. d. 

Maturu, d. matur, v. i., to 
sleep, bakamaturu ki, to 
put or make to sleep. [My. 
tidor, Ja. turn, to sleep, Mg. 
turi, s., sleep, mititri, to sleep, 
Bugis matinro, to sleejD, MI. 
P. metur, Malo maturu, TaSa. 
tsuruve, Santo dd. cJdnaru 
(tsli'maru), ch'inaro, chiranu, 
noro, ront'iii. An. umjeg, Fi. 
mot'e, Sa. moe, ps. moea, to 
sleep.] H. yas^en, A. wa- 
sina, to sleep, sinat', H. 
s^enat% and s^enah, sleep. 

Mau, V. i., to recover from 
sickness, be well : abu. 

Mau, V. i., a., and maui, and 




ad., to be whole, all together 
(as a number of men), to be 
whole (of a thing), redup. 
mamau, id. ; nai man, it 
wholly, or only (of a sub- 
stance), nara mau, they 
wholly or only (of a number 
of persons). fEpi momoti,\the 
whole. Ha. j;a«, a., all, ad., 
wholly, Mg. ahi, all, every 
one, the whole.] A. wafa, 
to be whole, &c., n. a. ^ij. 
Mau, maul, is of Form 25, 
see Ch. Ill, as ^-i^-*, maufi, 
maul, or mauwi. 

Mau na, s., c. art. namau na, 
d. nabai na, covering of it 
(a bird), i. e. its feathers ; na 
mau, the bunch of feathers 
worn as an ornament on the 
top of the head ; na mau 
nasuma (d. na bau nasuma), 
nakasu, the top of the house, 
of a tree ; mau naliati (d. 
bau naliati), midday ; see 

Mau, or amau, a., true, lo- 
amau, or lo-mau, a true 
thing, d. mauri, or mori. 
[Tah. mail, true, Fut. niari, 
To. mooni, Ma. j^ono, Sa. vioni, 
true] ; and 

Mau, a., used as s., one firm, 
intrepid, brave, i.e. warrior 
of such a character, also, in 
Mautukituki, pr. n. of a 
mythological hero. [Sa. inau, 
to be firm, to be decided, 
unwavering] ; and 

Mau sa, v. t., to come upon, 
obtain, find, bamau-ri, reach 
to. See bamau. [Sa. maiia, 

to obtain, reach to, Tah. 
mau, to seize, take hold of] ; 

Mau asa, d. mau is, v. t. (to 
trust in), to desire, tea mau- 
mauan, a thing trusted in, 
or desired, te namaiiana, id. 
[Ma. iiopono, to covet] ; and 

Sera lo-amau asa, v. t., to 
believe on or in (him or it). 
[Ma. ivlialcapono, Fi. vcika- 
haif\ ; and 

Mau, ad., very, indeed, con- 
tinually, as, bisa mau, to 
speak continually, toko mau, 
abide continually, constantly, 
&c. [Ha. mau, continually] ; 
elagi mau, above indeed, in 
the highest place, toga mau, 
very far away, malitiga mau, 
very near, etaku mau, or 
maumau (intensive), behind 
indeed, the last (as the last 
day), male mau ua naga, 
this very time, d. mal fa nin 
(fa for mau), bisa mau, few 
indeed, very few, d. bisiba 
(ba for mau), sikei mau, one 
only. [Fi. dua hau, Sa. tasl 
pe, one only] ; mas (for mau 
sa, only one), and sam (for 
sa mau, one only), are like 
sikei mau ; ti bano mau, 
did not go indeed [Aniwa, 
Fut., sifano ma, sifano mana, 
id.] ; this mau after a verb 
preceded ])y the negative is 
very commonly used, but 
maybe omitted, and ti bano, 
ti bano mau, are both used, 
though the latter is the more 
common. H. 'aman, to prop, 
stay, sustain, support ; to 




carry (sustain) a child ; 'amen, 
to be firm, unshaken, faithful, 
A. 'amuna, to be faithful, 
*amana, to confide in, trust, 
'amina, to trust, be secure ; 
H. Niphal, to bear in the 
arms, to be firm, to be of 
long continuance, continual ; 
to be sure, certain ; Hi. to 
lean upon, trust, confide in, 
believe ; stand firm, still, A. 
'am ana, generally the same ; 
S. 'eman, to persevere, be 
constant, and, contrarily, to 
cease, Aph. to believe, 'amen, 
&c., verily, truly, certainl)^, 
E. 'aman, id., also truly, and 
'amanawi, id., 'amana, to 
believe ; both the m and the 
n of this word are sometimes 
elided in the ancient lan- 
guages, as H. emeV, Amh. 
aim. See Ef. amau, una, 
amori, uua, in louua ; and 

Mau-ti, V. t., to save, to pro- 
tect : mu-ti. Hence nauota 
maumau, or mumu, a chief 
saving, or protecting, a 

Maua ki, v. t., to give food to 
(people, as to those who have 
been doing something for 
one) ; and 

Maua, s., c. art. namaua, 
food, or provisions. A. mana, 
to give food, mawunat, pro- 

Mau, d. for mafa, swollen. 

Maiialia (mawawa), v. i., to 
be separated. See mafa, 

Matiori (mauori), v. i., to be 
broken, and redup., 

Maiioriuori, intensive: bori. 

Mauosa (mawosa), v. i., com- 
pressed : bosa. 

Mauri, s., as mauri nalagi, 
the place where the wind 
ends at, to leeward ; the left 
hand or side, opposite to 
matua. [Sa. muU niatagi, 
To. mid matayi, the place 
where the wind ends at, Ma. 
maul, Malo marao, Ta. maul, 
Epi dd. incdl, man, left, on 
the left hand.] See muri. 
Mahri manghtira, behind. 

Mauri, v. i., to live, dd. mairi, 
mole; bakamauri, make to 
live ; 

Maurian, s., c. art. namau- 
rian, life. [Fi. hula, Sa. ola, 
Fut. mauri, My. icliip, Ja. 
urip, Ta. miirif, Mg. veliina, 
to live, Epi d. meoiili, manlLll 
A. 'as'a, n. a. 'ais", ma'as", 
ma'is", ma'is'at, to live, 4, 
make to live. 

Mauri, a., true, till mauri, 
speak true ; 

Mauri, s., c. art. namauri, a 
prayer or incantation, lit. 
what is true : mau, true. 

Maus (mawus), d. for malus 

Mauta, d. mautu, s., a rising 
ground ; one's native land : 
so called because (i tu mau 
tu) it remains firm or con- 
tinulng. See mau. [Sa. 
manga, a hill ; a residing at 
a place (from mau).~\ 

Mba, V. i., for ba, or ma, v. i. : 
a mere euphonic change. 

Mbat, s., d. nabe, a club. [To. 
mata, a kind of club.] Nm. 




nabboud, a club ; also nab- 
bout, a staff, club. 

Me, prejD., d. ma, q.v. 

Me, or mea, v. i., to make 
water ; also, redup., 

Meme, id., and 

Me, s., urine, me-riki, dy- 
suria, lit. small or scanty me ; 

Me, or mea, v. i., to flow, wet, 
us i mea, the rain pours out, 
i me nakoau, it (a fluid, as 
water) flows upon or moistens 
the pudding ; nai me, a flood 
or freshet, lit. flowing water, 
d. naum, a stream, lit. flowing 
water ; na bisi me, semen 
genitale. [Mg. mamani, to 
urine, amani, urine, Ha. mi, 
niia, mimi, to make water.] 
A. maha, to have water (a 
well), leak (a ship), 2, to pour 
water ; to wet with water ; 
emit water (the ground), ma', 
juice (of anything), semen 
genitiile (H. me), H. me (of 
the feet), euphemism for 
urine. See Ges., Diet, s.v. 
ma% who gives a root mo', 
to flow. Hence 

Me, s., c. art. name, d. namai, 
a rope, or string. [Sa. maea, 
To. mala, id.] And 

Me, and 

Meamea, long ; as, tali me 
tuturu (see tuturu), a rope 
long, hanging down, i barau 
meamea, it is long, like a long 
streak of water running down 
a tree, or the face of a cliff. 
See me, mea, to flow. 

Memi, d., v. i., to be gentle, 
tame : mao, maomao. 

Mela, melamela, for mala, 
malamala, fool, foolish. 

Melat, s., c. art. namelat, or 
malat, flower (of a plant), 
then flower (of anything), that 
is, crown or most excellent 
part, as, namelat natamole, 
the flower of men, the most 
excellent of men. A. warada, 
2, to flower, ward', a flower. 

Mele na, s., c. art. namele na, 
the hollow ; as, nameleru na, 
the hollow (palm) of the hand, 
d. nal'naru na (see alo, aru, 
belly, hand), namele natuo 
na, the hollow (sole) of the 
foot or feet, namele gere na, 
the hollow of the tail of a 
fish. [iMg. fcdadia, i. e. f(da 
dia, sole of the feet.] A form 
of the word bele na, belly, 

Melesia, d. melesira. See 

Meliboi, or melibai, v. i., to 
be bent, as grass by the wind, 
&c. : Ufa i. 

Meliki, d., v. i., for melu, 
q.v., to be dilatory, slow. 

Melita, v. i., to crackle, re- 
sound (as one's name) : (lot) 

Melu, v. i., d. meliki. A. 
mahala, n. a., mahlu, to do 
anything gently and quietly, 
not in a hurry. 

Melu, s., shade, rag melu, 
time of shade, evening, melu 
na, its shade, or his shade 
(protection) ; 

Melu, V. i., to be shady (as the 
day), and redup., 

Melumelu, id. [Sa. imdit, to 




be shaded, to be protected, 
mahimalu, to be overcast, 
cloudy, Mg. malumalulM, 
shady, cool, gloomy.] H. 
'afel, obscure, dark (of the 
day), 'afal, to be obscure, 
dark : eg. 'amal, or 'amel. 
See mali. 

Melu, s., that which, or what 
milu, departs or removes 
(from), separates (from) : 

Men, a. See mina, a. 

Mena na, s., the tongue (of 
animal) ; of fire (flame) ; of 
knife (blade or edge) ; of 
breaker (edge of the wave) ; 
to be the namena, or tongue, 
of an}^ one is to be his spokes- 
man ; hence 

Mena i, or 

Menamena i, v. i, to lick it 
with the tongue, tongue it. 
[Epi mena, TaSa. me, Santo 
(P.) memc, Guebe mamalo, 
the tongue, Mg. memimenuna, 
or menhnenina, loquacity.] A. 
manmuP, the tongue, from 
namala, to be a detractor. 

Mer, ad., d. mero, q.v. 

Mera (for mar a), s., c. art. 
namera, man in general, 
people, as, namera ni Efate, 
the people of Efate : mera is 
contracted to fa in fa-fine, 
q.v. A. mar', mir% a male, 
or, in general, man, Ct. mir'a, 
man in general. 

Merai, a., used as s., pertain- 
ing to a male, the male organs 
of generation, virilia : merai 
gara (gar a, bare), addressed 
to young boys not yet wear- 

ing a waist cloth, or naked ; 
a man is sometimes jocularly 
or disrespectfully spoken of 
as merai tamana, the merai 
of his father : mare, q.v., 
with the a. end. i. A. ma- 
r'ayy', virilis, pertaining to 
a male. 

Mera, s., d. mara, a rippling 
(of water) : meromero. 

Mera, conj., lit. with them, or 
with those : me, with, and 
'ra, them or those, as John 
mera Peter, John and Peter ; 
this can also be expressed 
John me Peter, and John 
nara Peter (John they Peter); 
with dem. uan, 

Mera uan, dd. syn. manag, 
maga, as John mera uan, 
John and his companions, 
lit. John with those there 
(beside him) ; mera uan, can 
also be used of inanimate 
things, as, fatu mera uan, 
a stone with those (stones) 
there (beside it), stones. 

Mera, d. contraction for me- 
raka, maraka, for makara, 

Mera, ad., again, d. for mero, 

Merafalu, some, as, koria me- 
rafalu, some dogs : me, with, 
and rafalu, see lifaru. 

Merafalu, s., c. art. namera- 
falu, contraction of namera 
rafalu, some people. 

Mera gi, d. for 

Mera ki, v. t., to go before, 
leading, to lead ; 

Merakian, s., c. art. namera- 
kian, act of leading, also 




meramera, redup., leading, 
and namerameran, s., act of 
leading or ruling, kingdom, 
that led or ruled, natamole 
meraki, or meramera, lead- 
ing or ruling men. E. marha, 
to lead ; to go before. 

Merakolau, s., web-like fat on 
the intestines (of a pig) : me- 
ra, fat (see merei), and kolau, 
q.v., a web (spider's). In 
An. this is called nilvanilva 
(redup. of nilva, spider's 

Meraroa, v. i., to turn round : 
roa i. 

Merei, s., marrow ; eel ; cater- 
pillar ; medulla of banana 
fruit. H. merP, fat. 

Mer 1, V. t., to do, to make to 
work, act, namerian, s., act 
of doing, what is done, con- 
duct ; fimeri, v. r., to ])e doing 
something to each other, 
fighting ; 

Merimeri,v.,to keep on doing. 
A. 'amila, to work, Nm. to 
work, act, be active, practise, 
4, cause to work. 

Mero, ad., again, dd. mera, 
mer, moro, mro, ro, and 
mo, m, contraction of mero, 
as, i mero bano, he again 
went, lit. he turned went, d. 
i mer ler ban, he again went, 
lit. he turned returned went : 
roa i. See Ch. V. 9. 

Meromero, v. i., hoarse, gruff, 
as, i bisa meromero, he 
speaks hoarse, gruff ; and cf. 
barabara, supra, to cluck. 
[Mg. harahara, hoarse, having 
a rough voice, lara-feo, a 

coarse, gruff voice, farina, 
hoarse.] A. "ar^ara, 1, 2, 
to make rough sounds in the 
throat (whether with the 
voice, or liquor, or the 
breath), "ar^arat, hoarse 
sound ; sound of boiling 

Emeromina, ad., and s., in 
the world, the world, lit. in 
the light, oi^posite to abokas, 
in the under-world, Hades 
(which is dark and gloomy) : 
e, prep., and meromina, s., 
formed from mirama, or 
merama, to shine. 

Meru, V. i., d. for maru, q.v. 

Mes, ad., d. for maisa, to-day. 

Mesa, ad., perha^DS, expletive 
used at the beginning of a 
clause. E. 'emsa, but if, 

Mesau na, v. t., to desire, and 
redup. (dd. muri, mori), 

Mesausau, desire much, be 
lustful ; 

Mesauan, s., c. art., desire, 
will, what one wills : sau. 

Meta, V. i., or a., to be raw, 
then, unripe, crude, green. 
[Sa. mata, raw, unripe, Mg. 
quanta, raw, unripe, crude, 
green, My. maniali, raw, un- 
ripe.] A. 'anut'a, to be 

Meta, s., the eye, the eyes : 

Metita, v. i., or a., to be 
rotten, to be falling to pieces 
from rottenness. A. t'a'ita, 
to be rotten ; to be falhng to 
pieces from rottenness. 

Mi, v., to be, d. for bi, q.v. 




Mi, redup. mimi: for gumi, 

Miel, V. i., or a., to be red, 
and reduj)., 

Mimiel, id. QSa. melomelo, 
memelo, red, Mg. mena, red, 
My. merah, red ; the ruby ; 
bay colour in a horse.] A. 
ma"ir% reddish, 'am"aru, of 
the colour of red clay. 

Mihi, d., masiki, q.v. 

Mikit i, V. t., d. for makit i, 

Mila, V. i., or a., to be shy, 
skittish, to be wild, opposite 
to malolo. [My. liyar, wild, 
untamed, shy.] A. hali'a, 
to be uneasy, timid, im- 
patient, shy. Hence 

Mila, s., a wild animal ; a 
warrior sleeping out in the 
bush and watching to cut off 

Milaba. See laba. 

Milag, s., a part, or half, c. 
art. namilag. Ch. pelag, a 
half, A. filag', a part, a half. 

Milago, V. i., d., to be sick, to 
be ill, have a disease. A. 
s'aniya, (2), n. a. s^ana*, to 
be ill, to be sick with a latent 
disease, Nm. mos'na% faint, 
languid, moribund ; 

Milagoan, s., c. art., the being 
ill, disease. 

Milakesa, or milakisa, v. i., 
or a., to be darkish green : 
milo, kisa. 

M'lame, d., s., c. art. nam'- 
lame, dew : mala, clear 
(rainless), and mea. 

Milate, dd. malare, mllaur, 

V. i., or a., to be cold, cold. 
[Sa. maalili, Tah. mcirhi, Ma. 
maJcarm, Fut. maMligi, id.] 
A. makrur', cold, from 
karra, to be cold. 

Milate, s., c. art. namilate, 
cold, the being cold, also 
namilatea; and redup., 

Milamilati, v., to be coldish : 
milate. [New Hebrides, 
TaSa. maJccmri, Ml. U. milas, 
Malo magariri, Ml. P. mereiis, 
Epi meneni, cold.] 

Milau, for malau, q.v. 

Mile na, s., place, its place, d. 
for alia na, q.v., and see 
malo, a place. 

Mile ki, mile-raki, v. t., to 
seek for (as for a pig in the 
bush), milemile ki, id., also 
mole ki, mole-raki, mole- 
mole ki. A. 'ala, (2), to go 
through a place, 4, to seek 
for ; to desire eagerly. 

Mile, or milei, v. i., or a., to 
be good, good, as, noa milei, 
tell good (well) it, bati milei 
a, make good (well) it, syn. 
noa uia ki, bati uia ki (uia, 
good), dd. mita ki, buta ki, 
as, noa mita ki nia, bati 
buta ki nia, id. [Earatonga 
meitciM, Tah. maitai, Niue 
mitaJci, Fila, Meli, Ma. marie, 
Ha. maiJcai, to be handsome, 
good.] A. malih', beautiful, 
good, Nm. melieh, elegant, 

Milds, V. i., or a., to be faded, 
drooping, withered : lusia. 
[Mg. malazu, withered.] 

Miles, s., c. art. namiles, the 




forest, the jungle, the bush. 
[My. alas, a forest, alasan, a 
forest country ; a founda- 
tion, alas-JcaJii, footstool, Mg. 
ala, a forest, a wood, Bugis 
aloJi, id., Fi. ra, below.] A. 
'aras'a, and 'arus'a, to 
abound in grasses and herbs 
(of the land) ; 'ars'', the 
earth, soil, region, whatever 
is below, H. 'eres, the earth, 
land, country, region, soil, 
Ch. 'ara% earth ; below. 

Miles, s., a plant with dark 
leaves : les. 

Milesia, v. i., or a., d., and 

Milesira, id., to be faded, 
dirty, mouldy : endings a and 
ra; and 

Milo, V. i., a., to be unclean, 
unclean. [Ml. Maskelynes 
hlgal, id.] H. pigul, E. 
fahala, id. 

Milo, or miloa, redup. milolo, 
or miloaloa, d. maloio, v. i., 
or a., to be dirty, to be 
darkish, of a dark, dirty 
colour : loa.' 

Milu, or riiilua, v. i., to depart, 
go away (from), remove, na- 
miluan, s., the removing, 
depaiiiure. See lua. 

Mim, or mam, q.v. 

Mimi, s., voc, aunt (paternal). 
See simam. [Fut. moma, 


Mimita, s., a sign, a showing 
of something. See mita, 
mimita, v. 

Mina, a., pleasant, nice. [Tah. 

tnona, monamona, rtiomona.'J 
A. 'anik*, pleasant, nice. 

Mina, tongue. See mena. 

Mini-gi, d. minu-gi, munu- 
gi, d. munuma (munu-ma), 
v. t., to drink, also minii, 
munu ; hence namunuan 
and namnnugian, s., drink- 
ing, drink. [Fi. ^imuva, 
ummia, Ml. min, Malo inu, 
Epi muni, Sa. inu, ps. inumia, 
s., inumaga, Santo o^o-mia, 
ulu-mia. My. mbium, Mg. mi- 
nuna.'} See Ch. II. 13. h., 
14. e., and 15, for the pho- 
nology of this word. Ch. 
s^t^a% 'is^'o', S. s't'o, H. 
s^at^a, E. sataya; and with 
the V changed to k, H. 
s'akah, A. saka% E. sakaya, 
to drink. 

Minranin, d., ad., now ; mi 
nra nin, mi, time, nra nin, 
this here ; as to mi compare 
ma, day. E. yom, to-day, 
now, this time. 

Mira-gi, d. for mera-ki. 

Mirama, v. i., to be light, to 
shine ; namirama, s., light ; 
emeromina, in the light, the 
world ; 

Mirama- ni a, to shine upon or 
on it, or him. [Sa. malama, 
to be light, malamalama, v., 
to be light, s., light, malama, 
s., the moon, a lamp, torch. 
Ha. lama, a torch.] A. la- 
ma'a, to shine, &c. 

Mirara, v. i., or a., to be light 
(not heavy), slender, small. 
A. rakka, to be thin, slender, 
slight, rakaraka, to pour out 
not much (water or other 





Mirati, reclup. miratirati, d. 
minrat, minratinrat, v. i., 
or a., to be loosed, untied : 
rat i, q.v. [Ma. niatara, Sa. 
matala, matalatala, Tah. ma- 
tara, mataratara, to be un- 

Misa, or misa, v. i., to be 
stinking, rotten, decayed, 
wasted away ; and redup., 

Misimisi, v. i., to be wasted 
away (of a very old man). 
Ch. mesa, S. msa, to be de- 
cayed, putrefy. 

Misafe, misafesafe, v. i., to be 
separated (as a cocoanut from 
its branch) : safe. 

Misaki, d. masaki, v. i., to be 
sick, to have fever, to be ill. 
[My. sahit, Sa. mdi, Fut. maid, 
Ml. P. meselc, Epi dd. msaJd, 
miei, id.] And 

Misaki, or misakia, s., c. art., 
sickness. [Fut. makiga, sick- 
ness.] A. s'aka', (2), to afflict 
(some one, a disease), s^akat, 
disease, mas'kuww', afflicted 
with a disease. 

Misal, V. i., or a., to be re- 
moved, separate (from others). 
A. 'azala, to remove (one), 
5, 6, 7, 8, to be removed, 8, 
separate (from others), man- 
zul% separated, removed. 

Misal, misalsal, or misali, 
misalisali, v. i., or a., to be 
light (not heavy). See sali. 

Misaru, v. i., to hang down, 
prostrated: saru. 

Misei, or misal, miseisei, v. 
i., or a., to be open, cracked : 

Miser a, v. i., or a., to be 

parted, disjoined (as joints), 
separated : sera. 

Miseri, s., c. art., part of a 
woman's dress, consisting of 
a little mat, terminating in a 
bulky fringe, attached to the 
waist cincture and hanging 
down like an apron. See 
seri. A. 'azzara, to cover 
the body with the covering 
or garment called 'izar', mi- 
zar», a garment, covering, 
Nm. an apron. 

Miser oa sa, v. t., to desire, 
covet : soroa sa. 

Miseroana, s., c. art., coveting, 

Misimis, s., d. masimasi. 

Misimis, v.; d. masimasi. 

Mit, s., c. art. namit, a mat; 
so called because plaited — 
see batu. Ml. t'y, Epi mlie, 
to plait (a mat). [Ml. devij, 
Epi yemhi, a mat.] 

Mita, V. t. (also meta), to look 
at, watch, observe, view, as, 
i mita natai-inlagi, he 
watches or observes the cloud 
(to see if it will rain), mita 
sa, or mimita sa, look at, 
watch it (anything) ; and 
mita gita, or bakamita gita 
= leo goro gita (see leo), 
watch, look for, look out for 
(expecting) us : bakamita, v. 
t., same as mita. [Sa. mata, 
to look at, matamata, to look, 
to view, mamata, id. (of many). 
Ha. maJcai, makaikm, to look 
at closely, inspect, search out, 
spy, act the part of a spy, to 
look on, look at, to examine 
secretly for evil purposes, To. 




mamata, to look, look at, be- 
hold, discern.] A. *ana, 1, to 
emanate (water), to be a sj^y, 
2, to flourish, produce flowers 
(a plant), to show, make con- 
spicuous, o, to see, look at or 
on, 5, to look at malevolently, 
to look at well, accurately, to 
be manifest, conspicuous, 8, 
to look at malevolently, to be- 
come a spy, to view or watch, 
to look out for. 

Note. — For the phonology 
of this word, see Ch. II. 11. c, 
and 13. 1). 

Mita na, s., c. art. namita na, 
the eye, that which sees, looks 
at, watches, or observes ; mita 
noai, a fountain ; mita, the 
beginning ; mita, bud, shoot, 
' eye ' (as of a potato), bud, 
germ, ofl'shoot (of men) ; mita 
nalagi, eye of the wind ; mita 
bagona, eye of its end, point 
of its end, end ; mita, a win- 
dow, door, or other opening, 
as the eye (of a needle) ; i bi 
mita na, to be the eye (i.e. 
guide) of some one ; namita 
nalo, the eye (price) of some- 
thing ; mita kita, a spy (in 
war), see kita ; mita ni elo, 
(d. al), the sun (eye of light, 
or of day, or fountain or source 
of light). [My. mata, Mg. 
masu, Sa. mata, the eye, &c., 
Fi. mata, eye, source, opening, 
point.] See mita, v. 

Mita, V. i., to bleed, mita nia, 
bleeds on it, as i tumana 
mita nia, red up. mitamita 
nia, he bleeds on himself 
(covers himself with blood), 

used also of rust — it rusts 
(covers itself with rust) : ta, 
blood. [My. hdrdaraJi, Bu. 
madara, to bleed.] 

Mita-bago na, s. , end, lit. point 
of its end : mita, s. 

Mita-busa, s., orphan child : 
mita, s. (bud, shoot), and 
busa, q.v. 

Mitaga, and mitagataga, v. i., 
to be heavy : d. miten, q.v. 

Mitailau (mita-i-lau), s., d. 
syn. bile-mita, q.v., lit. germ 
or source of the tribe or com- 
munity. See launa. 

Mitaki, v. i., to be inclined to 
one side : taki, ta. 

Mitaki, i. e. mita ki, d. milei, 

Mitakisa, s., blind, the eyes 
receding into the head : mita, 
eye, and kisa. 

Mitakitik, d. matakitaki, a., 
last or first of a row (as of 
men) ; from closing up, or, 
as it were, binding together 
the series : taki. 

Mitaku, or mataku, v. i., to 
fear, be afraid ; mitaku, or 
matakn ki, usually contr. to 
mitau ki, or matau ki, v. t., 
to be afraid of, to fear ; baka- 
mataku ki, to frighten (one) ; 

Mitakua, s., c. art. fear; and 

Mitakuan, s., c. art., act of 
fearing, fear. [Sa. matau, ps. 
mata'utia. My. talut, Mg. 
tahiifa, s., fear, matalmta, v. i., 
to be afraid, to fear.] A. 
taka', V. t., to fear (derived 
from waka', 8), takiyyat, 
fear, caution, taking heed, 




takwa, fear of God, takiyy', 
fearing God. See infra, mita- 

Mitamai, or matamai, or mi- 
timai, ad., to-morrow. [Mota 
matava, morning, Sa. tafa, to 
dawn.] A. sabaha, 4, to be 
morning, to be early, to dawn, 
E. sabha, to become light, or 
day, to dawn, A. sabah', 
morning, masbah% and mus- 
bah', morning, dawn. 

Mitanielo, s., the sun, lit. eye 
of day : mita ni elo. [My. 
mata-ari, Mg. masuandru.J 

Mitao, d., V. i., d. mitefe, 
q.v. : tao, roa. 

Mitarau, s., c. art. tribe, lit. 
the bud, or germ, spreading 
out into many branches : mi- 
ta, s., and rau. 

Mitariki, s., the seven stars, 
Pleiades : mita, s., and riki. 
[Sa. matalil, Ma. maiarilci, 


Mitariki, s., as, lo mitariki, 
to look with little (i. e. con- 
tracted) eyes. Same word as 

Mitaru, v. i., to sink down : 

Mitasabo, s., a stranger, lit. 
eye not knowing : mita, 

Mitataku, v. t., as, i tumana 
mitataku na, he heedfully 
watches himself, he being 
afraid watches himself: mita, 
V. t., and see mitaku. 

Mitau, or matau, v. i., to 
abide, continue : tau. 

Mitau ki, v. t., to fear : con- 
traction for mitaku ki. 

Mitaukian, a., dreadful, to be 

Mitausi a, v. t., to look after : 
mita, V. t., and usi, v. t. 

Mitefe, d., v. i., to fall down, 
as a portion of a precipice. 
See roua, roa. 

Mitefe-risu, v. i., to fall down 
(see preceding word), rushing 
or slipping to a distance : 

Miteftef, v. i. , and 

Mitefutefu, id., to twitter, 
chirp, peep (of a bird or fowl), 
to make a whispering noise 
(of men). H. sifsaf, to twitter, 
peep, chirp (of birds), to make 
a whispering, peeping sound 
(of the voice of a wizard). 

Mitei, or mutei, s., c. art., 
breadfruit cheese (salt and 
sour), that is, breadfruit fer- 
mented and preserved. [Sa. 
masi, id., My. 7nasin, salt (as 
water), Mg. masima since, salt- 
ish, ramc-masina, the sea (salt 
water).] A. masi% salt (of 

Mitela, v. i., or a., to be broken 
(as crockery, or pottery). A. 
t^ala'a, to break (the head), 
mut'alla*, broken. And 

Mitela, s., c. art. namitela, a 
fragment, lit. that which is 
broken, the broken. 

Mit^n, V. i., d. mitaga, to be 
heavj'', to be burdened : tien, 
or tiana, q.v., as also tago, 
tagie. [Mg. entana, s., bur- 
den, vua entana, lifted up, 
mienfana, to set out, taiyina, 
placed ujion (a horse), tugua, 
placed upon, My. tiig^\iff, 




to ride, be conveyed by any 
vehicle, tag"ng, to bear, 
carry.] S. t'an, to carry, 
Aph. to burden, load, ta'no', 
a burden, H. ta'an, Ch. te'en, 
to be laden, A. t'a'ana, 8, to 
sit on a camel, H. sa'an, to 
move tents, go forward (as 
a nomadic tribe), A. t'a'ana, 
id., E. sa'na, sa'ana, to put 
on a horse, &c., and conse- 
quently of other things where 
one sits, is placed, upon 
another, seun, burden. 

Miti, V. i., to move rapidly, to 
strive, quarrel, to jump back- 
wards and forwards excitedly 
in a quarrel or a rage, to land 
or remove from a canoe ; 
miti goto, depart or go 
rapidly across (as an arm of 
the sea) ; and redup., 

Mitimiti, v. i., to throb, flutter 
(as the pulse). A. mata, and 
mata, to move quickly. 

Mitiri, v. t., to write, to 
carve, cut or make figures ; 

Mitimitiri, a., figured, as cloth 

Mitiri, d. mansiri, s., c. art., 
writing, figures ; and 

Mitirian, s., c. art., act of 
writing, what is written. 
fSanto d. tari, Epi siri, My. 
tul'is, to draw, delineate, paint, 
picture, figure, write, Mg. 
surata, colour, writing, 
written, misiirata, to be 
spotted, printed, of different 
colours, and sur'ita, misurita, 
to mark, engrave.] (E. sa'ala, 
to paint, figure), A. sara, 2, 
to figure, paint, 5, to be 

formed, musawwir, sculptor, 
painter, Nm. 2, to form, draw, 
trace, paint. The radical 
idea is that of cutting. 

Mitiri, s., a kind of locust or 
grasshopper (so called from 
its mode of moving) ; 

Mitiri, v. i., to leap flying (as 
a grasshojDper) : tiri. 

Mitoa, v., to think, mitoa ki, 
V. t., to think of or about, 
dd. miroa, mitoa, mintoa, 
minroa ; redup., 

Mititoa, d. minintoa, v. i., 
to be thoughtful, sensible ; 

Mitoan, s., c. art., act of 
thinking, thought: ro, roro, 
toto, rara, or tara. [Mg. 
erita, er'itarita, cogitation, mie- 
rUa, mieriterita, Fut. mentua, 
To. manatu (Sa. manatu), to 
think.] S. 'etra'i, to think, 
Ethpa. of r'o% Ch. re'ah, to 
think, H. ra'ali, (3), to de- 
light in, rea% a friend, lover, 
one loved, thought, will, Ch. 
ra^yon, thought. 

Mito (mwito), v. i. or a., to 
be short, redup., 

Mitemito, id. , d. biiru, buru- 
furii. [Tall, mure, ■}nure- 
miire, Ma. jjoto.] A. ma'don, 
short, or mawdon (n. p. of 

Miu, V. i., to be wet : eg. mea. 
A. mai% fluid, ma'a, to flow 
gently on the surface, 4, to 
be dissolved in liquid. 

Miura, s., c. art., dew : miu, 
and lira, q.v. 

Mo, ad., contraction of mero. 

Mo, d. bo, dd. fo, uo, o. See 




Mo na, s., father or mother- 
in-law, son-in-law : hence, 

Mo-naki, v. t., to be related 
to (one) in this relationship. 
E. ham, father-in-law, son- 
in-law, A. ham', hamo, 
ham'o, &c., father-in-law or 
kinsman of the husband or 
the wife, Nm. hamou, father- 
in-law, ham ay a, mother-in- 
law, H. ham, Assy, emu, 
father-in-law, Samaritan, a 
son-in-law, also, one espoused. 
' The proper signification of 
the word lies in the idea of 

Note.— E. Mai ma = Ef. 
mo, Fila ma, brother-in-law, 
vugona (nearly pronounced 
like VTimona) = (in meaning) 
Ef. burtima: in Tah. mo- 
moa is to espouse, to contract 

Moa, d., verbal pron., 1 dual, 
excl., pi. bu, mu. 

Moas, d. for mafasu. 

Mobu, d. m'bua, v. i., to sink : 
bua II. 

Mofa, s., or mafa, when the 
blood of men or animals has 
been shed, and forms a pool 
on the ground, one feeling 
the smell of it, or of any 
similar thing, says i nabo 
mofa, it smells mofa ; tau- 
mofa (tau mafa), to make 
a sacrifice or ofi'ering to the 
natemate. See taumafa. 
A. ma'habat, a small pool, 
wahaba, to give, make an 

Mok, s., water flowing from 
the eye ; 

Mokemok, v. i., to flow from 
the eye (of water), to water 
(of the eye) : eg. miu, mou. 
H. mug, to flow, flow down, 

Mokot, d., s., tongs : mikit i. 

Mola, V. i., to yawn. [Ma. 
kowhera, to open, gape.] H. 
pa'ar, to open the mouth 
with a wide gape, S. far, A. 

Mole, d. for balo, v. i., q.v. 

Mole, or mole ki, molemole 
ki, d. mile, mile ki, q.v. 

Moll na, s., d. for batoko na, 

Moli, V. i., d., mauri, to live ; 

Molian, s., c. art., d. maurian, 

Momoa, or momo, d., v. i., to 
3"awn. [Tah. mama, to open 
the mouth, Sa. mavava, Fut. 
mava, to yawn, Mg. vava, the 
mouth, vava, opened, mivava, 
v. i., mavava, v. t., to open.] 
H. peh, mouth, A. fah% 
mouth, faha, to speak, fa- 
wiha, to have a wide mouth. 

Momoa, v. i., d. for amoamo, 

Monam, d. monau, s., c. art., 
grass (of any kind). A. 
nama', to grow, namaya, 
vegetation, manma', place of 
(a tree's) growth. The word 
' grass ' is connected with 
' grow '. 

Monamona, v. i., or a., to 
be yellow. [Ma. xmgaxmga, 
yellow colour, Mg. vuni, s., 
yellow, Amboyna poho, d. 
apoo, Ceram poTvO, yellow, 




id.] A. faka*a, n. a. fuku', 
to be yellow. 

Mono-ti. See munu-ti. 

Mori, cl., a., true, till mori, 
speak true : mori, true, used 
like loamau, lesoko, also 
amori : mauri, mau, true. 

Mori a, d., for mesau na, for 
which also is d. mfiri n. 

Morese na, s., d. borakese na, 

Moro, ad., d. mero, q.v. 

Moru, V. i., to sink, or be 
covered with water, as a 
canoe in the waves ; 

Moru-aki, v. t., to sink, over- 
whelm (a canoe), as, nabeau 
i sera moru-aki rarua, the 
waves rush, sinking, or cover- 
ing, or overwhelming the 
canoe ; 

Morua, s., c. art., the deep, 
i. e. the deep sea ; 

Moru, s., any deep place, as a 
hole, pit, grave ; hence im- 
rum (d. imrau), inside of a 
house, i.e. moru nasuma, or 
moru uma, the hole, i. e. the 
inside, of a house. A. "ama- 
ra, to cover (a thing with 
water), "amar', much water, 
deep (of the sea), Nm. to 
overwhelm, drown, "amra, 
deep water, abyss. 

Mos i, for amos i, q.v. 

Moso, s., the entrance to a 
harbour ; a space or tract of 
country, as that between 
two mountains ; pr. n. of the 
village and district on the 
northern end of Deception 
Island, at the boat entrance 
to Havannah Harbour, and 

in Ko-Moso, name of an 
inland village and district. 
H. mahoz, a seaport, coast, 
Ch. id., also a region, A. 
ha'z% border, side, region, 
hence also a port. 

Mot, s. See mut, s. 

Mot, or motu, s., c. art. 
namot, as, nataku namot, 
back of the land, or island ; 
lit. what is broken off, hence 
a district or place. [Sa. 
motic, islet, district, motu, to 
be broken off, ps. motiisia, 
V. t. motusi, s. motusaga, v. i. 
motumotu, s. motumotiiga, My. 
putus, to break, Mg. maitii, 
broken asunder, snapped, 
maituHii, broken in pieces, 
utuscma, being cut, broken, 
snapped.] A. makta% a 
place. See the verb under 

Mota, s., c. art., and redup., 

Motamota,id., rubbish, refuse, 
as leaves of trees fallen on 
the ground, &c. fSa. oia, 
rubbish. Ma., Tah. ota, Ha. 
oJcci.'} And 

Mota, V. i., or a., to be covered 
with rubbish, dirty. [Sa. 
otaotCi, full of rubbish : a. 
ending a.] A. "ota% rubbish, 
refuse, husks, leaves, and 
scum mixed together, "ata*, 
to have rubbish mixed with 
scum (as a river). 

Mot i. See mut i. 

Mou, moumou. Same as 
miu, q.v. 

Mu, verbal suf. pron., 2 pL, 
you. d. kama. 




Mu, V. i., to coo (as a clove), 
to hum — see fu. QTah. mu, 
a buzz, mumic, to make a 
confused noise, as of a mul- 
titude of persons talking 
together, Ha. mumu, id., Sa. 
muhmii, to murmur, Fut. mu, 
to buzz, Mg. mulnmi, hum, 
murmur.] H. hamah, coo, 
hum (as a multitude), A. 
hamhamah, to murmur, &c., 
Nm. to whoop, drone, sing 

Mu-ni, V. t., to take out (a 
thing, as out of a basket), 
f Mg. vuaJca, mivuaka, to go 
out, mamitaJca, to drive out, 
take out. ] See under bua iii. 

Mua, V. i., to flow out, flow 
(of the tide) ; hence 

Muana, s., c. art., the flood 
tide, as opposite to the ebb ; 

Mua-goro, s., c. art., dd. fua- 
goro, magoro, a spring of 
fresh water on the shore that 
is covered (goro) by the sea 
at high water : bua iii. 

Mubu. See mobu. 

Muku-ti, V. t., to cover or 
enclose in leaves (as bananas, 
to ripen them) ; to rub, wipe 
off; and 

Mukumukuen, s., c. art., the 
doing so. [Fi. moJco-ta, to 
embrace, to clasp round with 
the arms. Ma. mulmmiiku, 
muJcu, and ulm, to wipe, rub. ] 
A. haka (mid. j), n. a. huk% 
to sw^eep, cleanse by sweep- 
ing ; to rub ; to surround, 
embrace, enclose. 

Muli (mwuli), v. t., to work 

into a round mass, as dough 
or clay ; to gather rubbish 
into a heap ; to clasp a pig 
(or man) round with the arms ; 

Mulimul, V. i., or a., round. 
[TaSa. mohnol. Ml. P. moro- 
mor, My. hulat, Mg. turiburi, 
round.] H. fol, E. falfal, 
round, roll. 

Mulusi, V. t., to strip off the 
skin, and 

Mulu, V. i., and tamulu, to 
cast the skin (as a snake, a 
crab, a scab, men in myths), 
redup. mulumulu ; and 

Mulu na, s., c. art., the skin 
which is cast ; then, the 
lower rank which a chief 
casts off on his being pro- 
moted to a higher. [Fi. Tculi, 
skin, Jcidufaht, to strip off the 
skin, Mg. hudita, skin, mcmu- 
clita, to strip off the skin, 
Jmdirana, being flayed, 
skinned, Ef. hdi, d. ulU (ivili) 
and idi, skin, midusi, to skin, 
midu, also tamidu, to cast the 
skin, i. e. to be skinned, or to 
skin oneself or itself.] A. 
gild', skin, galada, 1, 2, 
to skin, to strip off the skin. 
.jlls^, mulu, mulusi ; and 

Muluan, s., c. art., act of cast- 
ing the skin ; namulusian, 
s. , the act of stripping off the 

Mulua, s., a grove or clump 
of trees : ulua. 

Mumu, a., saving, protecting, 
preserving : niu-ti,ormau-ti. 

Munu-gi. See minu-gi. 


Munii-ma, d. munu-gi. 

Munu-ti, V. t., to close up (as 
a wound, a hole in cloth, &c.) ; 

Munuai, or munue, s., a sacred 
man (natamole tab) who by 
his natabuan, or magical 
power, closes up, or heals, 
wounds received by men in 
battle : bunu-ti. 

Murasa, d. marasa. 

Muri n, V. t., d. for mesau na; 

Murian, s., c. art., d. for me- 

Muri, V. t. (d. busi), to return 
(as a thing borrowed), to re- 
pay, recompense, requite (for 
work done), to return (an 
injury), repay (a person, for 
an injury), redup. murimuri ; 

Murian, s., c. art., the act of 
returning, repaying, pay, re- 
quital, recompense, retribu- 
tion. And 

Muri na, s., c. art., the after 
j)art of a thing (as of a stream, 
that is, the place to which it 
flows and where it ends), 
opposite to namita na, the 
forepart of a thing (eye), 
beginning, source. [Fi. nm- 
ri-a, to follow, also to imitate, 
Ma. trntri, rear, hinder part, 
Sa. miili, end, back, or hinder 
part, rump, muUmuli, to fol- 
low after, To. muli, nmi, Ja. 
huri, the back, rear, behind, 
after, M}'-. Jjicrit, the funda- 
ment, Mg. i^frf/, the posteriors, 
stern (of a ship), vulm, the 
back, fudi, returned, sent 
back, mamudi, to return the 

251 [MUSIT 

thing bought, vcrina, re- 
turned, sent back, mamerina, 
to return, send back.] See 
also mauri, busi, bisi na, 
but na, kui na, kusu na, 
kihi na, fua na, bua na, 
gere na, uri na. A. 'ah'h'- 
ara, to be behind, after, Nm. 
mo'weh'h'ar, placed at the 
end, mouh'ir, stern, hinder 
part, 'ehlr, end, 'uh^ur', be- 
hind, after part, H. 'ahar, 
to be after, behind, 'ahar, 
after, behind, hinder part, ex- 
tremity, 'ahor, hinder part, 
rear, meahor, from behind, 
behind ; also in Arm. and E. 

Muru, V. i., to laugh, muru 
ki, to laugh at (one). fTa. 
maliali, My. ilai, Mota marae, 
to laugh.] A. harharat, 
laughter (harhara), karkara, 
laugh repeatedly (karra). 

Murubua, s., a bat : moru, 
bua ; from its dwelling in 
deep holes. 

Musa-gi, V. t, to take on 
board a canoe or ship (men 
or things) ; redup., 

Musamusa; and 

Musagian, s., c. art., and 

Musamusoan, s., c. art., the 
act of doing so ; and 

Musi a, V. t., to put or drag 
immersed in the water (a 
thing, as a log) ; and 

Musu, V. i., to dive (as a man), 
to set (the sun) ; elo i musu, 
the Sim sets, or has set. A. 
"amasa, dip, submerge, to set 
(as a star), and kamasa, dip, 
plunge, dive, and makasa, 
immerse in water. 




Musi a, V. t. , to remove a 
child (from the breast), wean 
it ; and 

Mils (ki STisu), V. i., to be re- 
moved (from the breast). H. 
mus% remove, take away. 

Mus i, V. t., rub, smooth, 
flatter ; 

Musamus i, id., redup. : mos i. 

Musuku-taki, v. t., to abhor : 

Mut, V. i., to slip or fall out, 
as a rope out of a block. A. 
ma'ata, to take a sword out 
(of its sheath), 8, 'amma'ta, 
id., also, to fall out (as hairs). 

Mu-ti, V. t., d. for maii-ti, to 
save, keep, preserve, protect. 
A. 'amana, 4, render secure, 
protect, give security to (some 
one). Hence 

Miitian, s. , c. art. , act of saving, 

Mut i, and mot 1, v. t. , to bind ; 

Mut, s., c. art., a bond, rope. 
A. makata, (6), bind, mukt', 
bond, rope. 

Mutui, V. i., to sneeze. fSa. 
mafatua, to sneeze.] A. na- 
fata (cf. 'afata, 2), to sneeze. 

Na, ad. of assent, and inter j., 
d. syn. ko : dem. na. H. na, 
indeed, &c. 

Na, d., dem., this, as, mal na, 
this time : in. 

Na, sometimes a, also in, ni, 
n, la (in lausu), the article. 
[Mg. ni, Epi na, Fi. na, a, 
Sa. le, the article.] A. al, 
hal, H. ha, A. a (the 1 being 
assimilated to certain letters). 

In Mod. A. al is pronounced 
al or el, and 1'. In South 
Arabia am was (and even still 
is) used for al. A. al (and 
H. ha) is sometimes used as 
a relative pronoun ; so in 
Efate : see nig, agi. 

N', a particle expressive of past 
time, in nanum, nasa, nano- 
asa. [Mg. n\ Sa. na. sign of 
past tense.] See Ch. V. 10. c. 

Na, d. n, and na, or nia (si- 
kina, or sikinia), nom. suf. 
pron., o sing., his, her, its. 
[Sam. na, sing., Mg. ni, pi. 
and sing., My. nia or lui, pi. 
and sing.] See nai, note. 

Na, d. n, verbal suf., pron., 3 
sing., him, her, it. See nia, 
and nai, note. 

Nabatl na, s., is bati, q.v., c. 
art., tooth, teeth; seed, also 
the shoots from the roots of 
a banana, and the shoots or 
roots of taro. [Ml. riho, Epi 
livo, Sa. oiifo (whence nifoa), 
Fut. 7iifo, Mg. nifi, teeth. This 
is another word for tooth, 
teeth. A. nW, pi. nuhiW, &c., 
tooth, teeth, nciha, 2, 4, to put 
forth roots (a plant).] 

Nabe, s., d. mbat, club. Nni. 
nabboud and nabbout, id. 

Nabe, or nabea (nakbe, or 
nakbea), d. nakima, s., a hol- 
lowed log, set up in the middle 
of the malala or mala, used 
as a drum or musical instru- 
ment in the dances of the 
intamate, and on which the 
face of Uota, and symbols of 
the natemate (the deceased) 
are carved. [Sa. nafa, To. 




7iaffa, Flit. Mifa, a drum, Ml. 
U. namhivi, id.] H. nekeb, a 
hollowed thing, that which is 
hollowed, used as a musical 
instrument (Ezekiel xxviii. 
13), English Version, 'pipes': 
' thy tabrets and thy pipes ' ; 
from nakab, to hollow out. 

Nabis, s., end, the last, d. 
nakis : bisi na. 

Nabo, ornaboa, d. tamo, v. i., 
to smell ; and 

Nabo n, s., its smell. [Sa. 
namu, to have a bad smell. 
To. namu, odour, either good 
or bad, Fut. 7tamii.2 See 
boa. A. faha, 6, to emit 

Nabua, s., a road, path. A. 
nabiyy' and nabiy', id. 

Nafete (d. syn. sefete), d. 
nefeha, d. (te)uase (wase), 
inter, pron., what? which? 
M.S. mudi, A. mada, Nm. 
made, what ? Nafete is na, 
art., and fete, and sefete, 
sefa, q.v., and te. 

Nafo, s., eld. afo, foga, whet- 
stone, pumice stone. A. 
nasfa-t, id. 

Naga, or nag, dem., this, 
that : na, dem., and ka, dem., 
changed to ga. 

Nag, or naga, s., dd. lag, rag, 
nrak, ran, time. A. 'an, 

Nagasa, inter, ad., when ? i. e. 
naga sa? lit. what time? 
also indefinitely, when, what- 
ever time. Ml. U. seve-lig=: 
Ef. d. sefe-nag — what time ? 
naga-sa ? 

Nago, pers. pron., 2 sing., you, 

dd. ago, ag, nigo, keiga, 
keina, nego. 

Nagore na, s., nostrils, nose. 
See gore na. 

Nai n, d. for nani n, child. 
See nei n and ani. 

Nai, pers. pron., 3 sing., he, 
she, dd. enea, or inia, ga, 
niga, kinini. [My. inya, or 
iva (Ef. inia, or iiia, sing.), 
pi. and sing., they, he, she.] 
See Ch. V. 2. 

Nai, s., water, d. for noai, 

Nai, s., side board of a canoe 
to keep the waves out, a pro- 
tector or defence of a place 
(a warrior who keeps out the 
enemy) ; d. a fence. [Sa. di, 
a fence, a railing, di, to fence 
in. To. a fence.] A. nawa% 
naa', to guard, protect. 

Waita natuo, s., d. for iia- 
nate-natuo, the calf of the 
leg, hence nalake naita na- 
tuo n, the ankle, lit. the base 
of the calf of the leg. 

Nakate, s., d. syn. nete, q.v., 
lit. the that that. 

Nakima, s., d. nabea. 

Nakis, s., d. nabis : kusu na, 
kihi (or kisi) na. 

Nakis, or nakisa, or nakes, s. , 
green or blue paint: kesa- 

Nako na, s., the face. See ko, 
s. ; n, art., and ako; hence 

Nakonakoa ki, v. (formed by 
ending a, from preceding 
word) to assume the face, or 
appearance of (ki) some one ; 

Nakonako ki, v., to face (some 
one), i. e. front (him). A. 




wagaha, 5, id., to front or 
face each other. 

Nalu, or nalua, an arrow. A. 
nabl', arrow. 

Namu, s., d., mosquito, d. na 
mamamanii (d. batirik = 
small tooth). [Sa. mamu, 
Tah. naniu, ramu, Fut. namo, 
My. 7lamoJc, Bu. namoJc, Mg. 
mtiJca, Ml. U. mim, TaSa. 
moJce, Malo mohe, Ta. Jcumiig, 
An. inyum, Motu namo, id.] 
A. namus, mosquito. 

Nanoa na, s., the neck, i. e. n', 
art., and anoa, neck, eg. ma- 
nu na, q.v. [Santo d. cdo, d. 
redo, Bu. oloff.2 -^- 'iiJik', 
*unuk% 'anik', neck. 

Nanofa, ad., d., yesterday, 

Nanoasa, ad., d. nasa, the 
day before yesterday, and 

Nanu, ad., d. nanofa, and 

Nanum, ad., d. nanu, yester- 
day. [Fi. e 7ia noa, Santo 
nonovi {pivcmovi, to-morrow), 
Epi nioho {bani = maisa = to- 
day).] Nan-ofa, nan-u, nan- 
Tim, consist of ofa, u, um, 
day (see ma, s., day), and 
(Fi. e na noa, e, in or on, na, 
the ; noa, past day = nu, 
num, nofa), nan', i.e. na, 
the art., and n% q.v., particle 
expressive of past time, as in 
nasa, infra. Nanoasa (for 
nanofasa) has sa (for rua, 
sometimes ra, 2) : hence na 
nofa, lit. the past day, and 
na noasa, the second past 
day. Nanoasa, nasa. [Epi 
mm, d. 7mha, Ta. d. neis, 


Nanua, s., necklace, beads, 
i.e. n% art., and anna. H. 
'anak, necklace. 

Nao, s., d. noa, q.v. 

Naob, s., lime, d. noba, q.v. 

Nara, pers. j^ron., 3 pL, they 
(for nai 'ra), d. gara, or 
nigara (ga 'ra), d. inira 
(inia, and 'ra). See ra, and 

Naro, d. for nalo. See lo, a 

Naroa, s., na, art., a current 
(of water, especially in the 
sea) : so called because i roa, 
turns (itself). See roa. 

Nasa, ad., the day before 
yesterday, d. nanoasa : nasa 
is without the article and for 
noasa (in nanoasa). 

Nasafa, inter, pron., also na- 
sefa, and nesefa ; na, art., 
and safa, or sefa, q.v. 

Nasaga, s., na, art., a stretch 
of sea between two places. 
See saga. 

Nasu na, na, art., s., juice, 
what flows out, or exudes. 
[Sa. SM, to be wet, sua, juice.] 
A. nazza, to exude, nizu, 
flow, water. 

Nata, a person. See ata. Nata 
na, or nate na, soul, spirit ; 

Natamole, a living person, 

Natamate, or natemate, a 
dead person, a ghost, a demon, 
an object of worship. See 
ata, moli, mate, atamole, 

Natara, s., n, art., and atara, 
a., a virgin, young woman ; 
naguruni atara, a young 
woman. [My. dara, Ja. rara, 




a maid, virgin.] A. *adara, 
to be a virgin ('adera% a 
Nate, or nase, s., the banana, 
or plantain, plant and fruit : 
n, art., and ate, or ase. [Ml. 
P. nevij, Ml. U. navits, Ero. 
nohos, Epi viki, Am. noJios, 
Ml. dd. navis, ahus, Paama 
ahisi, Fi. vt(di, Ulawa hiifi, 
Fut. viiji, Fila htitsh^, Aniwa 
Imtslii, Nine fiiti, My. pisa^, 
Ceram fucli, ph'itim, Sanguir 
Jjusa, Mg. un-fi, d. liusi, id.] 
A. muz', Amh. muz, id. 

Nate-kuru, s., dried, withered 
banana leaves. See kuru, a. 

Natemate, for natamate. See 

Natoara, s., n, art., a kind of 
grass (sword grass). H. hasir, 
grass, A. h'as^ira, to be 

Naturiai, s. See turiai, a., 
young man. 

Nau, s., reeds ; Pan's pipes ; 
fornausu: na, art., and usu, 

Nau, V. i., usually nu, q.v. 

Nau i, V. t., to rub, wipe off. 
See nu e. 

Naiia (nawa), na, art., and 
iia (wa), q.v. 

Ne, for noi, v., to dwell, or 
be beside (some one) : the 
verb no is intransitive, and i 
is the t. prep. [Fi. no, to 
lie (of things, not persons), 
Sa. nofo, to sit, dwell, remain, 
Ma., Tah., Ha. nolio.~\ H. 
navah, and naah, to sit 
down, to rest, to dwell. 

Ne, dem., here, there, this, 
that, uane, kine, netu. See 
in, na. [Sa. nei, this.] 

Nego, pers. pron., d. for nago, 

Nei n, or nai n, s., his child, 
d. for nani n. The n of ani, 
q.v., is elided : nai for nani. 

Neinei, v., as boka neinei a,- 
beat it soft, beat making it 
soft (or weak). See manei- 

Neko (for naiko), s., n, art., 
and eko, the wooden mallet 
for beating native cloth (in 
making it). [Sa. i'e, To. 
ilil, id., Ha. hu, hiJat, to beat 
native cloth.] A. waka'a, 
to beat, (7), to sharpen, make 
thin a knife, (8), make slender, 
&c., waki% sharp, thin, 
slender. (For To. iki meaning 
'small', see Ef. iki, kiki, id.), 
kie also belongs liere, the 
leaf being rubbed and split 
into slender threads. 

Neru, naru, and nieru, war, 
lit. arms : art., and aru, q.v. 

Net, d. for binet, banotu, q. v. 

Neta ki, v. t., to throw, net i, 
to throw upon, hit with a 
thing thrown. A. nada% to 
throw, H. nadah, Pi., to cast 

Nete, s., a thing, anything, 
something, d. syn. nakate: 
art., and te, dem., lit. the 
that. Nete ra, their thing, 
also ara te, id., agu te, my 
thing, ama te, thy thing. 

Netu, dem., this, that : ne, 
dem., and tu, v., lit. this or 
that standing out or up. 


Netua, d. nerua, s., twins, 
art. and tua, or rua, 2, lit. 
the two. [Fi. drua, id. ; 
also double, a., as a double 
canoe, a double fruit.] 

Ni, prep., of (genitive), to, 
belonging to, also i, in, on, 
at (with art. ani, q.v.), t. 
prep, after verbs, as mesau 
ni au, desire me (also mesau 
au, d.), i, as, soka-ri, join on 
to, no i, &c. [Fi. ni, i, or e, 
of, in, and t. prep., Ma. i, of, 
belonging to, &c., and t. prep., 
Battak ni, Bu. ri, Holontalo 
li, Tag. ni, Mg. 7U, n\ ani, of, 
belonging to, My. i, t. prep.] 
A. 11, H., Arm. le, E. la, T. 

^ne, id. See Ch. V. 11. 1. 

Ni, art., also na, in, n. [Mg. 
ni, id.] 

Ni, same as na, ad., and 
inter j. ; 

Ni, verb, suf., 3 sing., d. nia, 

Nia, verb, suf., 3 sing., same 
as na, q.v., once (in sikinia, 
and sikina, his one, he alone) 
nom. suf. (which usually is 
na). See nai, inia. 

Niba ki, v. t., to throw away, 
make to go away. A. nafa', 
drive away, ex^Del, hurl away 
(as a torrent, rubbish, the 
wind, dust). 

Nifai, s., water, dd. nai, noai : 
ni, art., and fai, water. 

Nife ni, a., v. t., to fan, t. 
prep, ni, lit. to wave, or 
brandish, on or to ; 

Nifenife, v. i., to fan, to wave, 
or brandish, as the branches 
of a tree in the wind ; 

256 [NINITA 

Nife, s., a fan. H. nuf, to 
wave up and down, Hi. 
henif, to wave, to shake. 

Nig, d., prep., of (gen.) for 
(dative), ni, art., and g (for 
gi, i.e. ki, q.v.), dd. nag, 
nagi, nagki, and, art. with- 
out its n, agi, d. agki (gk 
for g). 

Niga, d., pers. pron., 3 sing. : 
ni, n% dem., and ga, or iga. 

Nigara, d., pers. pron., 3 pi. : 
niga, and ra, pi. dem. 

Nigita, pers. pron., 1 pi., incl. : 

Nikenika, v. i., to be silent, 
quiet, or noiseless, or stealthy ; 
also to move quickly along a 
sharp ridge (of a mountain), 
or along a log across a stream. 
[Ha. nilii, to walk very softly 
and quietly, as on tiptoe, to 
do a thing quietly or secretly, 
nihinihi, standing up on edge, 
narrow ridged, or edged. Ma. 
ninihif to move stealthily.] 
A. naga', to hasten ; com- 
municate a secret, 3, act, or 
speak, secretly (with some 
one), naga», branch of a tree, 
higher part of land, nagwat, 
higher part of land, a secret. 

Niko na, s., the spine (ridge) 
of a cocoanut leaf. See pre- 
ceding word. 

Nin, dem., d., this : n, art., 
and in, dem. [My. mm, 

Ninita, or nininta, d., obso- 
lete, see nigita, niginta, 
pers. pron., 1 pi., inch, we 
(and) thou, dd. keigita, 
igira, akit, nikit : ninita, 


nini, we, and ta, thou. 
[An. inta, verb, pron., id., 
Santo d. niti, and infi, sepa- 
rate pron., id.. Ml. d. ante, id.. 
My. hita, Mg. isiJca, Sa. 'o i ta 
[toil), id.] 

Wis, dem. ; also, nistii, this ; 
art. ni, and se, dem. [S. 
Cris. nasi, that.] 

Niti, or nit i, v. t., to plane, 
shave (wood). A. nahata, 
n. a. naljLt', id. 

Niu, s., c. art. naniu, the 
cocoanut palm. [Fi. niu, 
Er. noM, An. neaiff, My. nior, 
Ceram niiila, Ml. hula, Mg. 
nihu, Sa. nki, id. ; niu ])iu, 
fan palm (therefore niu is 
a general name for a palm) ; 
niiti, to sprinkle with the 
juice of the cocoanut. Ha. 
niu, to whirl about.] A. 
nah'Iu, palm (gen. name), 
nah^ilu (coll. name), nah^ala, 
to sift, to pour out or sprinkle 
(snow, as the clouds), Nm., 
7, to drizzle. 

No i, or noi, d. ne, noi, d. 
ne : hence redup. noinoi, 
and V. r., binoinoi, d. bino- 
finoi. See ne, for noi ; 

None, V. i., no (in no i), redup., 
to abide, as, mala nono, 
abide senseless. See also bi- 
noinoi, to abide with each 
other, and binoflnoi, or 

Noa, s. (for na ua), d. nao, a 
swell, or wave. See ua*a. 

Noa ki, V. t., tell, lit. say to, 
dd. ni ki, ti ki, nofa i, q.v. ; 
noa i, v. t., say or tell it ; 


binoa, to speak about each 
other, V. r. 

Noai, s., d. nifai, water ; for 
na uai. 

Noba, s., c. art. nanoba, d. 
naob, lime (ashes of coral) ; 

Nobanoba, v. i., or a., to be 
dusty, become dust, fly in the 
air (dust). QSa. navu, lime.] 

Noba-ni, v. t., to wrap in 
leaves with hot stones and 
cook, to cook, d. tuma-ni; 

Nobanoba, v. i., to be cooked, 
soft. See also maniibunubu, 
and d. tomo or tumu, tumxi- 
tumua,matumutumu. [Ha. 
nopu, thoroughly cooked, 
soft, plump, fat, swelled out, 
and nopimqpu, spring or swell 
up (in the mind), swell, be 
large, round, spring up.] A. 
tabaha, n. a. tabh*, to cook, 
roast, to ripen, 2, to grow 
up, 7, 8, to be cooked, tub- 
bah', tabih', fatness, tabih', 

Nobu, 8., flood, d. tobu. A. 
taf, to flood (Ct.), tawwafu, 
a flood. 

Nof, d. for num, v. i., q.v. 

Nofa i, V. t., d. noa i, q.v., to 
tell. A. naba% (6), 2, show, 
declare, announce, tell. 

Nono. See ante, no, nono. 

Notinoti, v. i., or a., to be 
spotted (as an animal). H. 
nakod, spotted (as an animal), 
Nm. nokta, a spot, mo- 
nakkat, spotted, H. nakad. 




to mark with 

A. nakata, 


Notu, d., see under banotu, 
Note 2. 

Nu, V. i., d. num, q.v., hence 
manua, manunu. 

Nu e a, V. t., to wipe, rub off; 

Nunu ea, id., and 

Nunu, s., a wiper, rubber, and 

Nunu-tafe, s., the wrist, lit. 
snot-wiper. [Sa. numi, to 
grate down, mtaga, a grating 
down.] A. t'amma, (4), to 
sweep (a house, or place), (5), 
to rub, wipe off. (Of. A. tam- 
ma, Ef. mirn, nu, for t to n.) 

Nua na, s., n, art., and ua, 
q.v., fruit. 

Nuanua, v. i., to wave about, 
or to and fro (as the branches 
of a tree) ; nuanua ki, v. t., 
to wave, make to wave, or 
shake (anything). H. nu«a, 
to move to and fro, wave to 
and fro, Hi. move to and fro, 

USTub, s., d. rub, q.v. 

Nubu na, d. tumu na, s., 
c. art., the soft swelling pro- 
tuberance of anything (as of 
a yam) growing. See noba- 

Nubu, V. i., d. num, and 

Nuf, V. i., d. num, q.v. 

Nugnug, V. i., to be careless, 
heedless, maturu nugnug, 
to sleep and be devoid of all 
care or thought, be utterly 
heedless. A. numat, heed- 
less, careless, nama, to sleep, 
doze, be quiet, tranquil, 2, 
deaden (as pain). 

Nugnug i, V. t., d. luglug i, 
q.v. : hence manugnug, q.v. 

Num, V. i., to be finished, 
completed, dd. nu, nau, nu- 
bu, nuf, nof; ru nau, nu, 
num, nuf ban, they all have 
gone, a bat ia i nu, I have 
done it, it is finished. See 
bunu, manunu, binunu, 
manubu, manubunubu. A. 
tamma, n. a. tum', &c., to 
be all, whole, finished, com- 
pleted, at an end, and, transi- 
tive, to complete, &c. 

Numnum ia, v. t., d. for 
nugnug i. 

Niira, s., syn. miura, q.v., is 
for ne ura : ura. 

O, sign of vocative, interj., as, 
temanami o, our father. 
[Ml, Santo, Malo o, id.] E. 
o, id. 

O, dem., io, ao, ore, or lore, 
q.v. [Fi. 0, in oqo, Tah. o. 
Mare o, Motu o, dem.] The 
Semitic pers. pron. 3 sing, 
used as a dem., and as a verb 

O, verbal suf., 1 sing., me, d. 
for au. 

O, V. i., contr. for oni, q.v. ; 
also in bao. 

Ob, s., d., c. art. naob, d. na- 
noba, lime (ashes of coral): 

Of, s., dd. um, ubu, ua, cook- 
ing oven. A. mifa, oven. 

Ofa, in taliofa, dd. taliaba, 
talieba. See tali. Ofa, to 
whirl round. [Tah. ohu (also 
rrzliofu, q.v., supra), to whirl 
round. Ma. koumuumUy My. 




iibag, mubdg.'\ E. kabab, to 
whirl round. 

Qfa, i. q. afa, to swim, be 
above, float on ; and 

Of a i, i. q. afa 1, q.v. 

Ofa ki, V. t., i. q. afa ki ; na- 
lia ofakian, a place of burial, 
to be buried in, naofakian, 
act of burying, burial. 

Ofa, a., high, tall, as a tree. 
[Mg. avUj high, lofty, emi- 
nent, proud.] H. gabah, to 
be high, as a tree, gobab, 
height (as of trees), pride, 
gaboah, high, lofty, proud. 

Of i, or ofi, V. t., to be near to, 
alongside of, d. afi ; 

Ofiofi, v., a., near to. [To. 
ofi, near to, at hand.] A. 
wahafa, n. a. wahf, to draw 
near to, approach near. 

Ola, s., a spear. [Ulawa Hula, 
New Ireland lelu, Maklay 
Kuste (N. G.) iur, id.] A. 
'allat', pi. »alal', 'el..P, id. 

Oli, d. uli, q.v. 

On, s., sand, d. aran, q.v. 

Oni, contr. o, d. ani, q.v., to 
abide, be. 

Or, d., s., c. art. naor, or na 
uor. See uora. 

Ora na, s., sprout, shoot, or 
vine (as of a yam) ; 

Oraora na, id. : bora, uora. 

Or an, and orain, d. oraone, s., 
sand : aran. 

Oraora, s., dazzling (varie- 
gated) rays of the (morning) 
sun, oraora ni elo ; and 

Oraorana, a., na, a. ending, 
variegated. [Tab. piirexyure, 
spotted, chequered, of diverse 
colours.] E. hubur, varie- 

gated, of various colours, Ch. 
habarbar, spotted. 

Ore, i. q. aure, q.v. 

Ore, d. or, ad., yes, that's it: 
o, dem., and re, or ri, dem., 
cf. lore. 

Ori a, V. t., to rub, grate, ori, 
V. i., to make a creaking, 
grating noise (as the branches 
of trees rubbing against each 
other) ; 

Ori, s., the rubbing stick in 
producing fire by the friction 
of two sticks. [Tab. oro, Sa. 
olo, to rub, olo, a plane. My. 
unit, to rub, Mg. uta, rubbed, 
urina, being rubbed.] A. 
'arata, 'arat^a, to rub. 

Oro, V. i., to grunt (a pig), to 
growl, snarl (a dog), and with 
transitive prep, ki, oro-maki, 
to bark at (a person or thing), 
bioro, V. r., to make a con- 
fused murmuring noise (as a 
crowd of men all speaking at 
once) ; and 

Orooro, id., redup., cf. uru, 
uruuru. [Ma. guru, to sigh, 
grunt, rumble, gegere, to 
growl, geri, to chant (in 
launching a canoe, &c.), gegeri, 
to grunt, My. Jciitkur, to grunt 
(a pig), Mg. eruta, to snore, 
eruna, mieruna, to growl, 
snarl, roar.] A. nah^ara, 
Nm. to grunt, h'ara, to low, 
h'arb'ara, snort, snore, har- 
ra, to growl, snarl (a dog), to 
creak, harharat, murmur or 
sound of copiously flowing 

Oro, d., v.i., or a., to be barren : 
d. for bara, q.v. 




Oroa, V. i., or a. Same as 
oraorana, to be coloured, 
variegated : a. ending a, d. 
contr. oro ; hence 

Oroa, d. oro, s., a species of 
grasshopper, so called from 
its colours. 

Otaki, d. uataki, s., native 
tongs: taki. 

Oti, i. q. uti, q.v. 

Ra, d. nra, dem., this, that. 
See arai. 

Ra, s., a depressed place, damp 
or watery : ruku. 

Ra, verbal pron., 3 dual, they 
two ; pi. ru, they. See 
Ch. V. 2. 

Ra na, s., branch. [Sa. la, 
Ma. ra, My. daan, Mg. rahana, 
rahalca.^ A. s'agnat, s'agan», 

Ra, or ta, dd. ta, nra, s., 
blood, mita, to bleed. [Er. 
de, TaSa. rai, Malo dai. Motu 
rara, Sa. toto (redup.), Ja. ra, 
My. darah, Mg. ra, blood.] 
H., E. dam, S. dem, A. dam*, 
blood ; damiya, to bleed. 

Ra, V. i., vociferate, in rasoso, 
rafioso. [My. ruwah, id.] 
H. ru'a, Hi. vociferate. 

Ra, verb, and nom. suf., 3 pi. : 
nara, they. 

Ra, num., two: rua. 

Ra tan i, rara tan i, tara 
tan i, tara tan i, v. t., to 
forget, lit. to think burying 
or covering it. See mitoa 
and tun i. 

Raba na, s., side (of a river or 
valley). A. s^aflRat', id. 

Rabaraba, v. i., to flap the 
wings. A. rafrafa, id. 

Rabaraba kaf (or kai),- v. i., 
to be bent with hunger or 
famine ; and 

Raba, s., hunger or famine, in 
11 raba, goddess, or she demon 
of hunger (a ' sacred stone '). 
H. ra'eb, E. rehaba, to 
hunger, H. ra'ab, hunger, 

Rabag, see tabag. 

Rafalu, d. lifaru, q.v. 

Raf i, V. t., to scratch, dig, 
scrape. A. sahafa, sahf , id. 

Rafe, V. t., to weave a reed 
fence ; hence 

Rafena, s., a reed (woven) 
fence, d. rofe ; and 

Rafean, s., c. art., the act of 
weaving a reed fence. H. 
»arab, to weave, intertwine, 
A. 'araba, a knot, H. 'aru- 
bah, interwoven work, or 

Raf, s., d. ran, binding cross- 
sticks in framing a roof. 
Preceding word. 

Rafe, V. t., to go through (as 
through a hole in a fence, 
the eye of a needle) ; and 

Rafe-aki, v. t., to make to go 
through, as, rafeaki nausu, 
make a reed to go through 
among the others in weaving, 
a rafena. See rafe. 

Rafioso, V. i., to call out as 
when in terror or danger : 
ra, V. i., and bioso. 

Rafite na, s., wall or side of a 
house. E. arafete, partition, 




Raga-elo, d., v. i., to warm 
or dry oneself in the sun 
(elo) ; raga is transposed for 
gara, as baragai for bagarai, 

Rag, s., time, c. nom. suf. ragi 
na, its time : d. ran, rani 
na, dd. lag, nag. A. 'an', 

Rago, s., cart., thicket, rough- 
ness. See fakarago ; 

Ragoa, and ragorogoa, v. i., 
or a., to be full of rago, as 
a reef full of jagged, sharp 
rocks. [Mg. rulmniJm, rough- 
ness, rough.] H. ragaS (2) 
to be corrugated, rough. 

Rago, s., rollers on which a 
canoe or boat is hauled up. 
[Ma. rago, id.] See lago. 

Rai, d. re, s., forehead, aspect, 
face. [To. lae, My. dai, Ja. 
rai, id.] E. rey, sight, as- 
pect ; 

Rairai, d. tairai, v. i., to be in 
good countenance. See baka- 
rairai, and lo, leo. 

Raite na, or reite na, d., s., 
mother. See under ani na. 

Raka, v. i., to be willing, and 
maraka ; also, redup., 

Rakaraka, id., and mara- 
karaka, id. ; also, 

Rakana, s., the willingness, 
readiness, tuga fat la rakana 
sikaimau, let us do it, the 
readiness or willingness for 
it one only, i.e. with one 
mind or will. S. regag, to 
desire, to will, Ethpael id., 
rega, desire, will. 

Rakaf i, and rakof i, v. t., to 
cleave to. and 

Rarako, d. tarako, as, toa i 
rarako, sits on, cleaves close 
to (her eggs). S. nkaf, etna- 
kaf, to cleave to, eg. E. 

Raka i, v. t., to lift, raise up, 

Raka-ti, id. A. rakiya, 2, 
raise up, make to go up. 

Rakei, v. t., to adorn, dress; 
tumana rakei, adorn or dress 
himself. [Sa. laei^ ; 

Rakei, d. raki, s., c. art., 
dress, adornment. E. la- 
haya, to adorn, dress. 

Raku sa, v. t., redup. raraku 
sa, and taraku sa, and d. 
taku-ti, to bind up, to 
remove anyone's things, as 
in a flitting ; i raraku, he is 
doing so, or is removing to 
another district, or flitting, 
to remove, carry away (any- 
thing). [Sa. la'u, Ma. raku, 
Marq. nahu, scratch, carry 
away, Mg. raguta, to scratch.] 
A. raka (final j), to dig, to 
bind up. 

Rakua, and, dd., 

Rakum, rakoma, s., a crab. 
[Epi lahum, Fi. qumuqiimu.'^ 
A. h^umh'um', a crab. 

Rales, a place in Hades, lit. 
dark pit, swamp, or depressed 
place : ra, and les. 

Rana, dem. and num., those 
two : ra, 2, and na, dem. 

Rana, and reduj). rarana, v. 
i., or a., to branch out : ra, 
and a. ending na. 

Ran, rani na. See r&g, ragi 

Ran, d., 8., water. [Fi. drano, 




Sa. lanu, My. danu, J. rami, 
Carolina ralo, Mg. ranu."} A. 
rahalu, water (of a kind). 

Rarua, d. raru, s., a canoe, 
boat, or ship : v. Note. [My. 
prahu, Ml. ndrav, Segaar rai, 
Ta. laou (laau), An. eJgau, Er. 
?o.] A. markab. See borau, 

Note. — The Ef. raru corre- 
sponds to the ralm in My. 
prahu, both the r and the li 
of the final syllables ru, Jm 
being for the original Jc, and 
ram, through ratu, Ta. d. tata, 
for raht, My. (p)ralm, Motu 
laJca{'toi), Mg. lakana, An. 
elgau (for elegait), Ta. d. ?aotf 
(Zaazf), Er. Zo : in the two 
latter the original h is dropped 
as in My. (p)rau, Segaar rai, 
Er. d. lai. In all of these 
the final radical b (or v) is 
elided, Ef. raru is for raraw 
(for raraf). In Meli, and 
Fila, Fut. vaTxa (Santo alca), 
the V, like the My. p (in 
prahu) is for the original 
servile m (in markab), and 
the first radical r as well as 
the final (as in raru, &c.) 
elided. The m was pro- 
nounced V, then w, then only 
the vowel was retained, elgau, 
oka, then the vowel was 
dropped, laou, Jo, tata, raru, 
Mg. d. laJca. 

Ras, d. nras, dem. and num., 
these two : ra, 2, and s, 

Ras i, V. t., d. tas i, to shave 
(the beard or chin), shave (or 
strip) off (as fruit from a tree, 

shave or strip the tree). E. 
las'aya, to shave. 

Ras, or res, d. tas, redup. 
reres, or teres, v. i., to 
rustle, crash (as the foliage 
of plants, or waves of the sea, 
moved by the wind, or men 
in a tumult). H. ra<as', the 
primary notion lies in noise 
and crashing: used of the 
rustling of grain moved by 
the wind, ra'as% noise, tu- 

Rasoso, V. i., see rafloso; 
rasoso, to vociferate, calling 
(for help) : ra, and soso. 

Rat i, V. t., d. tat i, d. nrat, 
to loose, untie. See mirati. 
[Sa. tala, tatala, Tah., Ma. 
tara.'} H. nat'ar. Hi. hitir, 
to loose. 

Rau% and ndau% v. i., d., to 
go. Ct. rawah, to go. 

Rau, redup. rarau, v., to 
grope for with the hand, seize, 
snatch out or away. [Ma. 
harau, grope for with the 
hand, Ha. laJau, extend out 
as the hand, Ma. rau, catch, 
lay hold of, gather, Ha. Jau, 
seize, take out of a place. To. 
Jau; nip, pinch. An. rap, 
grope for, and raprap, My. 
raha, to feel for, grope.] A. 
lamaa, to feel for, grope, 
take away. 

Rau, s., leaves (for food to be 
cooked, and for putting food 
on, as on a plate, when 
cooked). [Mg. ravina, My. 
dawun, Sa., Ma. lau, rau, Fi. 
dya\i\ ; and 

Rau, s., as, rau nasuma, eaves 




of a house, rau mita, lashes 
of the eyes, eyelashes ; a 
tribe, group, bi ran, in parties, 
rau, a fruit that grows in 
clusters ; and 

Bau, in bakarau, to divide, 
distribute ; and 

Raua, rauraua, a., hairy, as a 
rope, nakasu rauraua, a tree 
full of branches. [Mg. 7'avi- 
ravi, hanging over, sus- 
pended] ; and 

Rau, in barau, i. e. ba, to go, 
and rau, speak violently and 
reproachfully, to ' carp '. [Sa. 
lau, speak, abuse indecently.] 
A. hadiba, hadaba, to pluck, 
to have long eyelashes, to 
have long branches, hadab', 
branches, leaves, see rifu, 

Rea, s., d. for reko, bisa ki 
rea ki nau, speak as a pauper 
to me : reko. 

Reaki, v. t., to strain, and, s., 
a vessel for straining, a 
strainer, colander. [Lakon 
reaJc, id.] A. raka, 2, raw- 
waka, to strain, and rawak* 
(and rawuk'), a vessel for 
straining, a strainer, colander. 

Rei a, roi a, rei, rerei, or 
terei, d. roroi, to moisten 
the pudding (nakoau) with 
lor (the rich oily juice of 
grated cocoanut). A. ra*a, 

2, to moisten bread with fat, 
ra"a, 2, id., 1, to bend, turn, 

3, wrestle, 5, roll itself (an 
animal), 6, wrestle. 

Rei, s., c. art. nerei, a band of 
men ; a clump of trees. A. 
ra*a, to grow, luxuriate, 2, be 

congregated, rPat», a band, a 

Rei, d. rea, d. reko, q.v. 

Rei, d. tei, v., rei natano, 
burrow, or cover itself with 
earth, as the white ant (futei, 
furei) does. A. damma, (2), 
to cover its hole with earth, 
dimmat', ant. 

Reko (see rei, rea, farea), s., 
a pauper, poor. H. rek, 
empty, vain, impoverished, 

Reluko (or raluko). See ta- 
luk o. 

Rere, rerea, v. i., to break 
rushing upon the sand or 
shore (of waves), also tarere. 
Ch. re'a', to break in pieces, 
H. ra'a% id. S. etra*re% id. 

Res, reres, teres. See ras. 

Ri, d., verb, pron., 3 pi., dd. 
ru, eu, u. 

Ri. See ti. 

Ri, or re, dem., eri, &c. : arai. 

Ria, d., verb, pron., 3 dual, d. 

Ribu, riribu, to sound (with 
a trumpet), ribu-aki baigo, 
sound a trumpet, taribu, to 
sound trumpets alternately 
(of two men). See rubua. 

Rifalu, d. lifaru, q.v. 

Rifu, d. rife, d. lifu mita, d. 
rau mita, s., eyelashes, and 
see birife or birifu, to snatch, 
pluck away, plunder. [My. 
ramhbja, rambu, ramhut, Mg. 
rumbu, rmnbuta, rumbita, 
rumhaka, My. ranijpas, rabat.'J 
See rau. 

Rigi, ririgi, or tirigi, v. i., to 
make a tremulous groaning 


noise in suffering pain, birigi- 

rigi. A. ranna, vociferate, 

utter the voice with weeping, 

make a noise, twang, tinkle. 
Riki, a., small, kari-riki, 

uarik, batik ; 
Riki, s., c. art. neriki, child, 

little one. [Ha. lii, Tah. Hi, 

Ma. riJci'} E. dawik, to be 

Riki, old, see under the word 

Riki, s., tiki, nriki (d.), pud. 

mul. A. rika', id. 
Rikit, V. i., to be small : riki. 
Rikitelag, d. for koroatelagi : 

koro, atelagi. 
Riri, in buariri (Hades), for 

tiro, to sink. 
Riri, V. i., to fly, d. for tiri. 
Riri, s., a spark: tiri. 
Riri-mita, s., tears ; turu, tu- 

turu. [To. tulu he mafa.'} 
Risu, V. i., to move, shift : 

Riu sa, d. tuma i, to point 

out. See tin. 
Riu sa, riuriu sa, also tiu, or 

til sa, q.v. 
Ro, d., V. i., to fall, c. prep. 

ro bei a, fall upon it : roa. 
Ro, ad., again, d. mero ; 
Roa i, V. t. , to turn. See mero, 

ro, meraroa ; and 
Roa-leo, and roaroa-leo, s., 

echo ; roa, rowa, d. doa, 

dowa (see also maroa, mare, 

biroaroa, taroaroa), H. s'ub. 

Arm. tub (A. t^aba), to turn, 

S. t^ub, again : for the Ef. 

expression for * again ', see 

Ch. V. 9. 
Roa, or roua (rowa), or toua, 



V. i., to fall, dd. ro, rouo, 
touo, tibe (ndibe), tao, mi- 
tao, mitefe, lubu. [An. 
ero}^, My. rubuh, mdruhiih, 
rdhah, mdrabah, ribah, md- 
rihaJi.'] H. rafah, S. refo% 
etrafi, to cast down, to sink, 
or fall down. 

Roba, s., affluence ; and 

Roba-leba, s., great affluence, 
a rich man. A. raf", afflu- 

Roba-gi. See toba-gi. 

Roba, roroba, or toroba, d. 
nrob, V. i., or a., to be 
insane, senseless. A. raba, 
(2), to be insane, stupefied. 

Ro-bei, d. oro-bei, v. t., to 
snarl, snap, bark at : ro, for 
oro, and t. prep., bei. 

Rofa, s., a red or purple dye 
or colour. A. sohbat, a red 
or reddish colour. 

Rofarofa, or tofarofa, and 
tofe, V. mid., to cover oneself 
with cloth, clothe oneself, 
be clothed, tofe, cloth, cloth- 
ing. H. «ataf, to cover, be 
covered, be clothed. S. 'taf, 

Rofe, s., d. for rafena. 

Rogo, rog i, V. t., d. togi 
(dogi), d. nrog, also tog i, to 
hear, obey, to feel, know (as 
grief or pleasure), rogo na- 
bon, to perceive or feel or 
smell the odour (of anjrthing), 
r or ego, or torogo, v. i., to 
be still, s., a species of divina- 
tion (in order to know what 
is to be done) by a certain 
movement in the muscles of 
the arms or legs, rogorogo 




ki, to make heard, report, 
rogoan, rogorogoan, s., c. 
art., report, taki rogo-saki, 
bend or incline oneself hear- 
ing (a person) ; bakarogo, 
q.v. ; marogo, or matogo, 
or manrog, v. i., to be idle, 
amuse oneself, marogo ki, 
to amuse oneself at the ex- 
pense of (someone). [Sa. 
logo, My. ddgCir, Mg. reni, 
and rea.] A. 'adina, to hear, 
to know, to feel the smell of, 
2, cause to hear, make known, 
proclaim, H.'azan, Hi. he'zin, 
to hear, listen, to obey. 

Rogo, togo, in sera-togo, s., 
anything ; rogo is A. hano, 
a thing. [Santo sonu, TaSa. 
hinao, Ml. nanu, a thing, 
Florida Jianu, Oba heno, Ja. 
ano, Mg. anu.'^ A. hanu, 
a thing. 

Roko, V. i., d. lako, q.v., d. 
nrok, to stoop. 

Romi, roromi, v. t., to com- 
passionate, to love. See rumi. 

Ro na, roro na, s., thought, 
mind, also toto na, and d. 
nro n ; v. mitoa ; and 

Roro, or toto, v., to think, 
rara, &c. (tan i), d. totu. 

Ror, s., oil, also same as lor, 
q.v., the oily or fatty ex- 
pressed juice of grated cocoa- 
nut used to moisten or fatten 
puddings : ro i, roro i, rei. 

Roro na. See ro na. 

Roro i. See ro i, rei. 

Roroa, v. i. See toroa. 

Roro-fl. See toro-fi. 

Rosa-gi, V. t., to drag, haul, 
make to move, shift ; and 

Rosa, V. i., to move, shift, 
tosa, dd. nros, nrus, tosa, 
also rusa, risu; and 

Ros, s., c. art., a breaker or 
wave that sweeps up upon 
the sand of the shore. [Sa. 
toso, tosotoso, to drag.] A. 
ra*asa, to move, shake, drag, 
4, id. 

Rot 1, or tot i, V. i., to em- 
brace clasping to the breast, 
to embrace or encircle, bind 
round. Hence 

Rot, s., anything going round 
another as a band or girdle 
(as an ulcer round one's leg, 
&c.) ; and 

Rot i, as, ta rot i, ta rotirot i, 
or rutirut i, cut a band or 
girdle round (as in barking a 
tree). A. rabata, rabt», to 

Rouo (rowo), i. q. rau', to go. 

Ru, verb, pron., 3 pi., they: 
d. ri. 

Ru sa. See riu sa, tu sa, 
tin sa. 

Rua, num., two. See also tua, 
ra (and sa, in uasa), d. nru. 
[Sa. Ilia, My. dua, Ja. roro, 
Mg. riia.'] H. s'ne, &c., 
Mahri tharo, Soc. tarawah, 
M.S. tira, Assy. sina. 

Rub, s., d. roba, d. nub, d. 
raba, s. , q. v. 

Ruba, 8., additional wife taken 
by a man already married. 
[TaSa. naraii, a wife, Mg. 
raji, one of two or more wives 
of the same husband ; ad- 
versary, opponent ; rafiia, 
joining together, contention, 




strife.] A. rafa*, to join, sew 
together, make peace, 2, to 
utter a formula of blessing or 
prayer to a new spouse, rafa', 
2, id. (' Mayest thou live with 
concord and with children '). 

Bubaki, s., a big flat nakoau. 
A. ra«ir, round thin cake 
baked on the hearth. 

Bubua, d. rufua, s., clamour ; 
noise, tumult (as of mourners 
in wailing). S. rhab, make 
a noise, uproar, tumult, utter 
lamentations (Mark v. 38, 39), 
eg. H. ra'am, v., to make a 
noise, thunder, s., uproar, 
clamour, tumult. 

Buku, s. . a hole, cf. ra ; edible 
clay found in holes, syn. tano 
ra ; a bribe secretly given, or 
given underhand to procure 
the death of one hated, nafa- 
karuku, hollow or hole under 
anything, as a cellar under a 
house, si ruku, to go under 
(through the hole or hollow 
under) anything ; and 

Bukua, d., s., a hole, pit, a hole 
or hollow with water in it, cf. 
ra. A. raka', to dig (the 
ground) ; to revile (someone), 
rakiyyat, a pit, rika% pud. 

Buma na, s., c. art. naruma 
na; n, art., and ruma, or 
aruma, and kuruma (in lita- 
kuruma, q. v., the breast, 
bosom.) [Sa., Ha. uma, Motu 
ge7ne, id.] A. ha'zum', the 
breast, bosom. 

Buma, dd. bara, oro, v. i., or 
a., to be barren. H. 'arab, 
E. (tr.) 'abara. 

Buma, and tuma, s., a pool of 

water, d. transposed marou. 

A. 'arim', a hole, trench, or 

hollow in which water is col- 
Burnt, rurumi, v. t., same as 

romi, to compassionate, love. 

A. rahuma, ruhm*, id. ; 
Bumian, s., c. art., and ruru- 

mian, compassion, love. 
Bumo, d. ruma, pool. 
Buru, redup. of ru, riu sa. 

See tiu, tu sa. 
Buru, V. i., to tremble ; 
Buru, s., c. art.. an earthquake. 

[Tah. ruru, to tremble.] S. 

r'el, to tremble. 
Buru, s., a cluster. £Tah. 

ruru, to congregate.] See 

Busa, see rosa; rusa-gi, see 

rosa-gi ; 
Busarusa-gi, redup., d. nrus, 

Butirut i. See rot i. 

Sa, interrogative pron., contr. 

of safa, sefa. 
Sa, or se, or s, dem., this, here. 

H. zeh, E. ze. 
Sa, d. for ta, neg. ad., only in 

prohibitive clauses. 
Sa, si, s. num., one, in gis (or 

gisa), sam, mas. 
Sa, s', verbal suf., 3 sing., d. a, 

as, ti ki nia sa, say to him it, 

d. ti ki nia a, id. 
Sa, s., d. ta, d. seat, q.v. 
Sa, cans. pref. See sarafi, 

sagalugalu, sigiri. [My. sa, 

Tah. ta.'] H. s^a. Arm. sa 

(Shaphel, Saphel). 
Sa, V. i., or a., to be bad, evil, 




sasa, intensive. [Fut. 5a, My. 
jahatj Fi. t'a, Malo sat, Ta. m, 
Mg. rasi.'^ A. sa% to be bad, 
evil, sawat. Hence 

San, s., c. art., the being evil ; 
also the being ill, sickness, 
misfortune, misery ; and 

Sasana, v. i., or a., to be ill, 
have a disease : redup. 

Sabe, inter, ad., where? sa, 
and be, q.v. 

Sabe-li, v. t., to bind, tie, d. 
tami-si. [My. simpul, v., and 
s., knot.] H. samam, eg. A. 
zamma, &c., to bind. 

Sabe-li, v. t., to beat, slap. 
fMy. tampar, Ja. tampd, Fi. 
saba-laka.^ A. safa'a, to beat, 

Saberi ki, v. t., to scatter, break 
asunder or to pieces, scatter- 
ing, d. sabura ki. 

Saberik, v. i., to be broken 
to pieces, fallen or parted 
asunder. [My. s'lbarlzan, sa- 
har.~\ See tasabsabu. H. 
8'abar, Ch. tebar, A. tabara, 
break in pieces. 

Sabo, V. i., or a., ignorant, to 
be ignorant, sasabo, to be 
ignorant, to not know (his 
waj^), sabo-naki, v. t., to be 
ignorant of or about, dd. sub- 
neki, sbu-ni ; see also tasabo ; 
nasabo (for nata sabo), a 
stranger (not knowing the 
place), meta-sabo, id. A. 
safoha, to be ignorant, 6, id. 
Safa, sefa, or sofa, v. i., to 
pant, redup. sofasofa, to 
hasten, to run ; 
Sofa, s., consumption, hard 
breathing. [Mg. sefusefii, 

sevusevu, sevuJca, in haste, 
bustling, to hasten.] H. 
s^a'af, to breathe hard, pant ; 
to hasten. 

Safa, sefa, sefe, inter, pron., 
what ? c. art. insefa, nasafa, 
what ? Without the art. it is 
used adjectively as sefe na- 
kasu, what tree or wood? 
With the art. it is used sub- 
stantively, as, i tili nasafa, 
what does he say? See Ch. 
V. 4. c, cc. 

Safaki, pr. n. Ma safaki, name 
given to a man who had 
buried a relative ; a sea 
animal, so called from bury- 
ing itself in the sand : afa ki. 

Safana, c. art. nasafana, what 
that, what (is) there? safa, 
and na, dem. : contr. sana. 
[My. ajKi, Epi ava-Jcai, Malo 
sava, savana.^ 

Saf i, or safl, v. t., to pluck 
or gather fruit ; to scrape, 
safisafl natano (with a hoe), 
safisafl-raki, scrape, pluck off 
the husk from (reeds), safl 
nauot, to excel the chief; 
safisafl, big, so bisab ; bisif, 
excelling ; misafe, to be se- 
parated (as fruit from a tree). 
See also sifa, sifl. [Fi. sivi-a, 
uasivi, excel.] H. 'asaf, 
gather (as fruits), assemble, 
draw back, take, take away 
(as breath) ; radical meaning, 
to scrape, yasaf, to add, to 
increase, to surpass, excel. 

Saga, or sega, s., a crotch, fork 
(as made by two branches). 
[Fi. saga]; and see nasafa; 

Saga-fi, V. t., to take hold of 




with a crotch or forked stick. 
[Fi. saga-va, take hold of 
with tongs.] See sega. A. 
s'akka, 2, 5, to be sundered, 
split (wood), s'ikkat, half of a 
thing, part, distance. 

Sag, ad., d., there. QMy.sawa.] 
Sa, and g, dem. 

Sagalugalu, d. syn. galuga- 
lua: sa-, c. prefix. 

Sagara sa, v. t., to rub, grate, 
ground on, as a canoe or ship 
on a reef. [Ha. iU.'\ Gar i, 
and sa-. 

Sago, s., a trumpet (conch). 
H. t'aka% E. takwa, to blow 
a trumpet. 

Sai, V. i., to come forth, go 
forth into the open (as men), 
saisai, to assemble, sai, to 
shoot forth (of a plant), buka 
sai (of a blossom expanding 
into a flower), sesai, shoot 
forth (as a serpent), misai, to 
be opened, cracked ; 

Sai ki, V. t., make to go forth 
or out (as the tongue, hand, 
anything) ; 

Sai a, V. t., to cleave, split, 
open it (as a secret, &c.), tili 
sai a, tell it out, &c. ; 

Saisai, v. i., assemble (come 
forth of many) ; also to be 
associated together, or have 
in common, ru saisai isa ; 
saisai ki, make to assemble ; 
so or soa [Sa. soa. Ma. liocf^, 
a follower, companion, asso- 
ciate ; si, to blow (with the 
breath), to shoot (with a gun), 
81, to blow (the wind) ; d. sui, 
or si, to rest, or spell (one), 
to help ; esei, in the ojjen, 

an open space ; bisai ki, to 
put forth, to show ; 

Sai, s., c. art. nesai, a scented, 
white-leaved plant. A. s^a'a 
(y), to become open, be di- 
vulged ; c. prep, bi, to make 
open, divulge ; to leave un- 
divided; to follow, 2, to roast; 
to blow (with the breath), 3, 
follow each other ; to aid, 4, 
make open, s'ai% associate, 
follower, s^aya% common (to 
many, see saisai), s'ai*, com- 
mon (to many), not distri- 
buted ; made open, open ; 
s'i'at, a band, assembly, 
s'ayu*, a firestick. 

Saka-fe, s., first ripe fruits or 
yams. See taka-fe, d. 

Sakau, s., a reef; d. a branch. 
See kasau. [Fi. t'akau, Sa. 

Saki, V. i., to ascend, go up, 
bisaki, v. c, to put up, to 
appoint (raise up) a chief ; 
sakesake, to be up, to sit 
upon, tasaki, id., sakei ki, 
to shout a person's name, 
attributing something (to 
him). [Sa. ai, Ha. ae, My. 
dahi, To. halie^ Ma. eke, ivlia- 
7taeA*e.] H. nasak. Arm. 
nsak, imp., sak, id. 

Sala, s. See sela. 

Sali, V. i., to move lightly, 
easily, to dance, to float, drift ; 
sali-aki, v. t., to send afloat 
(a canoe, or anything), to send 
adrift, misal, misalsal, d. 
saisai, light (not heavy), 
moving easily, lightly. H. 
»azal, to go quickly (spin 
along), A. 'azala. 




Sali a, V. t., to weave. [My. 
sdri^.'} H. 'azal, S. *zal, A. 
"azala, to spin, weave. 

Sali, V. t., to deceive; and 
red up., 

Salisali, to deceive. H. s^alah, 
Hi. to deceive. 

Salube, d. saluke, v. i., to be 
ignorant, not to know. A. 
sarafa, (3), to be ignorant, not 
to know. 

Sam, a., or ad., one alone, only: 
sa, 1, and m for mau. 

Sama i, v. t., to rasp, scranch 
(sugar-cane, in sucking its 
juice). [Ml. U. tsumivi, Ml. 
P. jimiie, Malo samaQ ; hence 

Sama na, s., chips, dregs, 
shreds (as of sugar-cane with 
the juice extracted), sawdust, 
&c. ; hence 

Sama, v. i., or a., dreggy, 
shreddy: -a ending. A. sa- 
fana, to rub, or shave off the 
skin, or bark, adze, chip, 
safin, safinat, H. sefinah, a 
ship. See seme, or sama, 
infra ; and see sema, sesema. 

Samben, d., ad., there : san 
(sag), and ben, v. i. 

Samit i, also samat i, d. su- 
mat i, v. t., to beat, chastise. 
[Fi. samU'ta, My. chamiti, cha- 
mati, a whip or scourge.] H. 
B'amas, to thrust, to hasten 
(see infra, sumati), s^amat, to 
smite, strike, A. s^amasa, to 
impel, thrust, s'amisa, to 
hasten, speak hastily, s'amat, 
Nm., to whip. 

Samura, s., a thing or word of 
no consequence, that falls to 

pieces, as it were, for sabura : 

San, ad., there, here, esan, 
also esanien. [My. sana.'] 
Esanien is esan, there or 
here, and i en, it is. See 
ani, V. i. 

Sante, s., d. seate na, q.v. 

Sao-fi, V. t., to look upon, see, 
d. sa-fl, sao kiana, look about 
(in) his place or plantation. 
H. s'a'ah, and s'a'ah, to look, 
to look about. 

Sar i, or sari, v. t., to saw, 
also seri, to cut with a sawing 
motion, sara, a saw. [Malo 
sarosaro, to saw, isaro, a saw, 
Fut. seiia, to saw.] H. nas'- 
ar, Arm. nsar, to saw, A. 
nas'ara, was'ara', as^ara, E. 
was'ar, wasar, H. sur, to 
saw, rub, sweep, &c. Hence 

Sara gote-fl, to saw asunder. 

Sarafl, used as ad. ; bat sarafl 
a, did it hastily, i. e. badly, 
confusedly, incompletely. See 
marafi, and cf. tere-ti, su- 
mati. Sarafl. is Safal form. 

Saria, v. i., to look around ; 
saria kiana, look about, or 
go about, (in) his plantation. 
[Fi. sarasara, v. i., to survey, 
sara-va, v. t.] H. s'ur, (2), 
to look around or about, (1), 
to go about. 

Saru, V. i., to hang down 
prostrated (as the broken 
branch of a tree, or a broken 
arm), misaru, id. A. sara'a, 
to prostrate, sari% prostrated. 

Sam, V. i., to be loud, noisy, 
speak aloud, saru goro, speak 


aloud or be noisy, drowning 
the voice (of someone) ; and 

Saruru, v. i., to roar, resound 
(as the sea, or a waterfall). 
[My. ddrii, Ja. sdru, sru.'\ A. 
sarra, sarir', to make a noise ; 
to sound, to cry out vehe- 
mently, make a great clamour. 

Sas, esas, ad., here : sa, dem. 

Sasana. See sa. 

Sati na, s., the shrivelled and 
worthless seed yam when the 
new yam has sucked all the 
substance out of it : sa. 

Sau-fi, V. t. , to scoop, or shave, 
the surface off water ; to cut 
or shave off the surface of 
wood, sau-baba, an adze, lit. 
plank shaver or cutter — see 
mataisau, a master cutter, 
carpenter ; to strip off, peel 
off (as clothes), sau lua i. 
[Mg. sauka, scmfina, to scoop 
out (water), to draw water, 
Ef. sau noai.] H. s'a'ab, 
to draw water. The primary 
idea lies in taking off the sur- 
facCf eg. sahaf, to sweep, 
scrape off, hasaf, to strip off, 
A. sahafa, to scrape, peel, or 
rub off, to shave. 

Sau, V. i., to blow (wind) ; 

Sau, s., c. art. insau, gentle 
breeze, cold air, as in the 
morning and evening. H. 
nas^af, to blow, nes^ef, the 
evening twilight, when a 
colder gale blows ; the morn- 
ing twilight. 

Sau, s., dew. [Ma., Tah., Ha. 
hau, Sa. smi, Mg. andu, dew.] 
A. nada% for nadau, dew. 

270 [SAU-TAKI 

Sau, v., to desire, mesau na, 
v. t., desire, insau, a gift, 
sautoga, id., a free gift, hence, 
as ad., ' for nothing ' ; sau 
uia [Fi. sau vinaJca'], liberal 
in giving, sau sa [Fi. sau i^aj, 
stingy ; sau mitaki, d., syn. 
sau uia ; sau sera, greedy 
(desiring everything). A. 
s'aha', to desire, 2, to say 
' I will give what you desire ', 
3, to be like (someone), 4, to 
give to one what he desires, 
5, 8, to desire (a thing). 

Saua i, v. t., to fix (as upon 
a shelf, in a fork of a tree, &c.). 
See soa ki (for saua ki) ; 

Saua ia, v. t., to shoot with an 
arrow called saua ; 

Saua (sawa), s., a pronged 
arrow (which adheres tena- 
ciously). A. nas'aba, to stick, 
inhere, be fixed tenaciously, 
2, make a thing be so, 4, id., 
nos's'abat, an arrow, Nm. 
nas^ab, 2, to shoot, squirt, 
fie, into. 

Sau ki, V. t., as, i tumana sau 
ki nia, he admii'es himself, 
sau roa 1, to mock such a one 
by pretending to join ^vith 
him in such admiring, to 
mock. A. s'aa (mid. j), to 

Sauro-aki, v. t., to place (their 
voices) with accuracy to- 
gether, as giving a shout alto- 
gether : for saruru-aki, see 
saruru, supra. 

Sau-taki, v. t., to place upon, 
as food upon food already in 
the oven, or as a speech upon 
a speech by another pre- 




viously spoken, lit. to make 
like to : sau, A. 3. 

Sautoga, s. See preceding 

Se, who ? some, any ; it takes 
the nominal suf., as segamu, 
who of you? segara, and seara, 
who of them? or some, any of 
them, one or more of them. 
Se (Ch. V. 4. d.), and nom. suf. 
Segamu (se-gamu), interro- 
gatively, is, Who (or which) 
of you ? indefinitely, some, or 
any of you ; 

Sei, d. fei, inter, pron., sing., 
who ? pi. se mai, d. se mani, 
d. kihe (for kise) maga. [Sa. 
'o ai, Tah. o vai, Ma. a tvai 
(pi. a wai ma), To. Jw hai, 
a hai, Epi sie, Male isei, Mg. 
im.'} See Ch. V. 4. a., and aa. 

Se, or s, dem., this, here. See 
sa. Se is the common form. 

Se, inter, ad., where ? See sa, 

Se. See so i. 

Sea, sesea, or seasea (redup.), 
v., to forget, be forgetful, 
sesea gor i, forget him. See 
magaseasea. A. saha, to 
forget, be forgetful. 

Seara, d., some, a few. See 
under segara. 

Se^te, s., a firestick (by which 
the fire can be rekindled), dd. 
sante, ta, sa. See sai. 

Sefa, sefe, or sifi. See safa, 
what? This inter, is some- 
times used indefinitely in the 
sense of whatever, however, 
as, a belake namanuka sifi 
naga, I have received, or 
I carry, a wound however 

now (or here), fatu sefa, a 
stone however, or whatso- 
ever. A. ma, qualiscunque. 

Sega, s., or saga, q.v., a crotch, 

Seka, v. i., to sit ; seka ki, to 
sit about, or on (someone, or 
thing, consult about it or 
him) ; biseka, v. r., to sit 
with someone, or with each 
other. H. s'akan (A. saka- 
na, H. sakan), shaken, to set 
oneself down, to lie down, to 
rest, to abide, dwell. 

Seke, ske, v. t., to raise up, 
set upright : saki. 

Seke-mau, v. i., to swear, 
seke, and mau, true : a man 
who swore, as in denying 
a charge, often tore off his 
loin cloth, and imprecated all 
kinds of calamities upon him- 
self if he were not speaking 
the truth. A. sahaga, to 
peel, scratch, comb the hair, 
sahug', frequently and rapidly 

Sekof i, V. t., to catch rapidly 
with the hand (a thing- 
thrown). A. zakafa, to take 
rapidly, snatch, 8, to take 
with the hand, snatch quickly. 

Sela-ti, V. t., to bear, carry ; d. 
sola-ti ; selasela (of many) ; 
sela, bear (a child), bisela, 
V. r. , to bear, bring forth, 
nafiselan, child-bearing, 

childbirth, d. bisol. [Fi. 
t^ola-ta.'} E. sawar, to bear, 

Sela gisa na, v. t., to call his 
name (so and so) ; sela ki, 
V. t., attribute to (one, some- 




thing) ; sola, go, as, sela tera 
ki, go after (one), sela butu- 
aki, go between two points, 
be of two minds ; 

Sela, s., road, path ; landing- 
place of canoe ; a portion of 
time (cf. mal, place, time). 
[My. salelmn, to call, sdleh, 
proceed, saleh, a road.] A. 
s'ala', to proceed, 4, to call. 

Sel i, V. t., to bind. [Fi. 
soll'a.'\ H. 'asar, to bind, 
S. 'sar. 

Sel sa, to be unable, selu bia, 
be able, sele atai nabo na, 
be able to know his mind, d. 
for sill atai nabo na, lit. to 
know (how) to enter his mind, 
i. e. to understand his secret 
views : sill, q.v. 

Seloa, s., a flat wooden dish. 
[Mg. suliaka, flat, as a dish.] 
H. selaha, pans, such as were 
flat and broad, not deep, A. 
zuluh*, large pans, E. sahl, 

Sema, sesema, v. i., to be 
bare, sticking out (as one's 
bones), or as the point of an 
auger or piercing instrument : 
sama i. 

Semasema, v. i., to rejoice. 
H. samah, to rejoice. 

Semam, s., paternal aunt, ana 
semam, his aunt : susu, 

Sema-ni, v. t, to praise, 
glorify. S. s'abah, Pa., to 
praise, glorify ; 

Semanian, s., c. art., praise, 
glory, also act of praising. 

Semani, s., the rudder, or 
steering oar of a canoe, d. 

uose-man. [Paama seman, 
TaSa. lamani'} Se, in se- 
mani, is contr. for uose, q.v., 
oar, and mani is manu, a bird, 
a figure of which (a bird) was 
carved on the stern of the 
canoe w^here the steering oar 
is held firmly in steering : 
hence the rudder was called 
uose-man, the oar of the 

Semasemana, or samasa- 
mana, v. i., or a., disgusting : 
-na, a. ending. A. s'ahama, 
to be corrupt (as food). 

Seme, or sama, s., the out- 
rigger of a canoe, or, more 
accurately, the part of the 
outrigger, shaped exactly like 
a canoe, which floats in the 
water. [An. jmaig, i.e. ji- 
inaig, Ta. timen, TaSa. sama, 
Fi. t'ama, Varna Jcau, a canoe 
whose outrigger is only a 
stick Ckati), in distinction 
from a double canoe ; To. 
Jiama, the smaller canoe of 
a double canoe, My. sampan, 
a small boat, Mg. sanibu, a 
ship.] A. safinat, safin% 
H., S. sefina, ship, vessel. 

Note. — The Tongan hama 
suggests that the seme, or 
sama, was originally not a 
mere log fashioned into the 
shape of a canoe, but a real 
canoe, and that the outrigger 
canoe of Oceania is a degene- 
rate form of the * double 
canoe '. 

Sera i, v. t., to bind, fasten on, 
as the handle of a basket on 
a hook, sera ki, id., sera- 




gorobau, a hat, lit. fasten 
upon the head. H. s'arar, 
to twist, be firm ; S. s'rar, to 
be firm, s'arar, to make firm, 
stable, Aph. 'as'ar, to firmly 
believe. Hence 

Sera loamau, seralesoko, 
believe true ; 

Sera lobalo, sera teamole, 
believe worthless, despise ; 

Sera tea sa, sera tea uia, 
believe bad, believe good ; 

Sera masika, make firm 
desire ; 

Sera sog, make firm sog, 
q.v. ; 

Sera gor i, make firm upon, 
or covering. 

Sera, v. i., to run, flow (water, 
stream). A. sala, id. 

Sera i, v. t., to sweep (as a 
house), tea sesera, a sweeper, 
broom [Mg. sunilia, sweep] ; 

Sera guru-maki, v. t., sweep, 
gathering together ; and 

Sera kuruk, v. mid., id. ; 

Sera taua ki, v. t., sweep into 
heaps ; and 

Sera lo tua, v. t., sweep things 
giving (them) to (someone), 
used of men telling an evil 
doer of his misconduct and 
its consequences. Hence 

Seralotu, v. mid., to repent ; 

Sera tua, v. t., to sweep (to- 
gether things) giving (them) 
to (someone), as a peace off'er- 
ing ; and 

Sera biri ki, syn. gura biri 
ki, to startle ; and 

Sera makoto ki, id. A. sa- 
fara, safr*, to sweep (as a 

Sera gisa na, d. for sela gisa 

Sera usi, v. t., to call (pro- 
nounce) after (one, as in 
learning to read) : sela, and 

Sera i, v. t., to rend asunder, 
as the two branches of a 
forked stick ; misera, rent 
asunder. A. sara, (3), wrench 

Sera, or sere i, or serei, v. t., 
to importune, entreat. A. 
nazara, to ask"importunately, 
to entreat pressingly. 

Sera lua, v. t., to remove 
(clothing, &c., from one ; also 
ceremonial uncleanness, sera 
lua namam), make to go out, 
or away. A. sara, 2, remove, 
make to go ; sar', and sair% 
the whole, every, part, some, 
any. Hence 

Sera, any, some ; sera-rogo, 
sera nalo, something, any- 
thing; every, sera natamole, 
every man ; the whole, all 
(with nom. suf.) sera ra, 
serasera ra, the whole, all, 
of them, every of them, sera 
bakauti era, every of them 
all ; every (kind), sau-sera, 
greedy, ba sera, going every 
(where), a vagabond ; also, d., 
i nuf sera, it is finished all 
QFi. sara, ad.] ; bisera, bise- 
rasera, of every kind (i 
bisera, i.e. i bi sera, it is 
(in) every (kind, or sort). 




Serab, v. i., to flow out (as of 
a vessel, run over). A. sa- 
riba, to flow (of water), sarab', 
flowing out. 

Sera miihi, d., syn. sera ba- 
kauti ; and 

Serume (sera 'me) : sera, and 
me, or mimi, contr. of man, 

Sere, as, nakasu i tuba sere 
nakalu, the stick thrust tear- 
ing the cloth, masere, torn, 
rent. A. nasara, to tear, to 

Sere ra, v. t., dwell among, 
near them, bisere, to be 
among, near, bakasere, and 
masere, q.v. A. 'asara, 3, 
to be near, 6, to be near to 
each other, 'isr', love, &c. 

Sereserea, or seriseria, v. i., 
or a., to be hairy, hirsute ; a. 
ending a. A. s'a'ira, to be 

Seri, v., to be unable to do a 
thing (from old age and in- 
firmity) ; seri nalo, forsake, 
leave, abandon a thing, baka- 
seri, to loose (a prohibition, 
or tabu). [Fi. sere-lea, untie, 
unloose.] H. s^arah, Ch. 
sera, to loose, Pi. s'ereh, to 
loose, to desert, leave. 

Seri, V. t., to speak of, decide, 
consult about ; make a sign, 
show. A. s'ara, 2, 3, &c., 
make a sign, show, consult. 

Seri, V. t., to strain ; sari is, 
strain with it, nakalu sari, 
straining cloth. S. slal (sal), 
to strain. 

Seri, V. t., to hollow out (as a 

canoe). H. sur, to hollow 

Seri, v., as, seri taku-ra, to 
cover their back, seri nama- 
seri, or namiseri, put on the 
miseri, q.v. 

Seri, seri goto, to cut ; 

Seritau, s., the cutter-up of a 
human body for the oven, 
Seritau, or Saritau, or Sara, 
pr. n. of a demon who is lord 
over the entrance to Hades, 
and whose helj^ers are Mase- 
asi, Faus, and Maki. A. sara, 
(5), to cut ; and tau, q.v., to 

Seru e, v. t., rub, wash 
(clothes, &c.), seseru, rub (as 
oil on the head). Same as 
sesere, sesera. So also, 

Seru, s., a comb. [Fi. sent, 
Sa. selit, My. sisir. syn. garu.'j 

Ses, d., to be small : sos. 

Sesere, d., rub, grate. Same 
as sesera, sera, to sweep. 

Si, V. See su, sua, finished 

Si, d. soi, V. t., scrape, cut (si 
nabora na, scrape the cheeks 
with a shell removing the 
skin) ; sisi, redup. A. saha', 
n. a. saliy% scrape off, with 
the notion of cutting. Nm. 
also to harrow (the ground). 

Si, sisi, to blow (wind, breath) ; 
si, V. t., to blow (a thing, as 
the fire), to shoot (with a 
gun) ; si-ruku : sai, q.v. 

Si, d. sui, to help : sai, q.v. 

Siba i, d. suba i, v. t., to break 
(as a yam), reduj?. sisiba, 
and sibasiba i ; masiba, ma- 
sibasiba, to be broken, na 




masiba, a fragment. [Fi. 
sove, Jcasove, Mg. simiba, shnha,'] 
Ch. s'ibeb, to break in pieces, 
s'iba, a fragment. 

Sibu na, s., feathers (short) on 
a bird's back. A. ziffu, small 
feathers (of a bird). 

Sieg, V. i., to hang on the waist 
cloth (of a woman) ; and 

Sieg, s., c. art. nasieg, a 
woman's waist cloth. A. 
was's'aha, v., id., wus'ah', 
s., id. 

Siel, a., red. C^^Y* serah.ll 
A. s'ahila, to be of a dark 
reddish (&c.) colour. 

Sifa, V. i., to depart, withdraw, 
namaron 1 sif, his breath 
departs, i. e. he dies ; sifa ki, 
V. t., make to depart, toss, 
throw away, sifesife, red up. ; 
sifa, V. i., to assemble. See 

Sifanua, s., a cannon, lit. 
shoot the land : si fanua. 

Sifili, and sifili ki, d., trans- 
posed for sili-fi, sili-fiki, q.v. 

Siflri, s., parrot. A. safara, 
to sibilate. 

Sigi, v., redup. sigsig, v., to 
be hostile, disobedient ; sig- 
sigleo (leo, thing, or voice), 
to be disobedient, to sin, 
sigsigleo ki, to be disobedi- 
ent to (one), nasigsigleoan, 
disobedience, sin, bisig, q.v., 
V. r., to stink, to be dis- 
obedient, opposed to someone 
or to each other. A. zahuma, 
zahrn', zahuma, to stink, to 
be alienated from, hostile to, 
someone, and therefore dis- 

Sigsigi, V. t., to kindle. H. 
nasak, hisik, Ch. asik, id. 

Sigir i, V. t., or c, to 
strengthen : gara, and caus. 
pref. si. [Cf. syn. My. maff- 
%ras Jean, My. mampaheri.'} 

Sikara, v. i., or a., prickly, 
spiny, and of hair standing 
on end : ending -ra. A. 
s'aka, 2, to be spiny, hirsute, 
s'akat*, spiny. 

Sikai, or sikei, num., one, d. 
sikitika (redup.) : tesa (in 
la-tesa, q.v., d. la-teha), also 
in masiki, d. mihi, also in 
gisa, mas, sam ; and 

Siki, with nom. suf. (trans- 
lated in this case as nomina- 
tive, as in H. and A.), as 
sikina (his one), he alone, 
sikira (their one), they alone, 
&c. In i sikina uia (and 
similar expressions) the mean- 
ing is, he alone is good, i.e. 
he is incomparably good ; 

Sikiskei, one (by) one ; sikiski 
gisa, one by one together, 
andseebakasikei. H. 'ahad. 
Mod. S. hda, &c. 

Note. — [Mg. isa, irai, also 
isalia, iraiJiCi, My. asa, sa, Sa. 
fast. "J See Ch. II, on this 
and the other numerals. 

Sik e, V. t., d. siko e, to 
avenge ; soka-ri. 

Sik 0, or sek e, to raise : saki ; 

Sike-rau, d. si-rau ki, or sT6- 
rau ki, to raise or lift up a 
leaf (rau), presenting cooked 
food to one to be eaten. 

Sike, to be swearing, and 

T :i 




Sike-mau (see seke-mau), to 
swear true ; and 

Sike, V. t., to comb (the hair) : 

Sike-ti, V. t., redup. sikesike, 
to grasp with tongs, or with 
a forked stick ; hence 

Esike, s., tongs, syn. uatakl, 
H. hazak, to hold fast, stick 
fast (A. hazaka). Hi. to take 
hold of, seize. 

Siki-naki, v. t., to abhor, 
loathe, abominate, d. ma- 
suku-taki, or musuku-taki. 
A. zahak, Nm. , to take disgust 
for, loathe. 

Sikitau, s., only child : sikai, 
sikei, totau. 

Siko e, V. t., to avenge, d. 
sik e ; soka-ri. 

Siko sa, V. t., to gaze at : siko 
mail isa, to gaze continually 
(see mau) at, redup. siko- 
siko : hence 

Siko, s., kingfisher, lit. gazer 
(because it sits gazing into 
the water for fish). H. sakah, 
Ch. seka% to look at, to 

Siko-ti, or siku-ti, v. t., to 
adhere to (someone), continue 
or dwell with. A. 'as'ika, to 
adhere to (someone). 

Sila i, V. t., as ta sila i, chop, 
peeling or shaving off, chop or 
cut a thin shaving off ; hence 

Masila na, s., a shaving, chip ; 
and masila, masilasila, to be 
thin. [Mg. silaka, and silafa, 
to peel, bark, skin, chip off.] 
A. sahala, to peel, bark, shave, 
or scale off, mashuP, small. 

Sila, v., to crack, as thunder, 
boro silai, buru masila, id., 
silasila, redup., ta silasila, 
id. [Sa. faitiUtUi, Ma. ivhaUri, 
Ha. JieMi.'] A. salla, salsala, 
to sound, to crack (thunder), 
musalsil', braying (an ass). 

Sila i, V. t., to help, aid, sup- 
port, strengthen, tasila (dd. 
tasiga, ahika) helper, sup- 
porter, sil, wall i>lsLiG(sup2^orter 
of roof), tua-sil, givers of 
support (to a chief, as giving 
food or other aid when he is 
making a feast, &c.). A. *aza- 
ra, 2, to aid, help, strengthen, 
support, make firm, H. 'azar, 
to help, aid. Hence 

Sil, s., wall plate (supporter) of 
a house, help (tua sil, give 
aid or help). 

Sila i, or sela i, d. sol i, sila- 
sila i, V. t., to rub, as to rub 
(oneself with oil, &c.) [Fi. 
sola-ta, rub, Sa. solol, wipe, 
Ma. horoi, w^ash. Ha. holoi, 
wash, wipe, brush.] A. "asa- 
la, "Usui', to wash. 

Sill, V. t., to enter, sill isa, 
enter it (a house), enter him, 
that is enter under his pro- 
tection ; sili-fl a, enter into 
him (as a spirit or demon 
into a man) ; sili-faki, or sili- 
fiki, make to enter into, also 
thrust or throw into (any- 
thing into anything). [Sa. 
sulu, thrust into, take refuge, 
sidii-fai, and sulu-ma'i, My. 
juloJa, thrust into, Mg. jiduJca, 
enter, Fi. t^uru, t'lirut'iiru, t'u- 
rii-ma, t'uru-maka, enter, push, 
or thrust into.] A. dahala, n. 




a. duh'uP, to enter (a house) ; 
take refuge with, 2, make to 
enter, 4, make to enter, thrust, 
&c., in. This word is used 
much to denote among other 
things the entering info a man 
of a spirit or demon. See 

Sili ki, or sila ki, v. t., make 
to shake (anything ; if water, 
to sprinkle), silisili ki, id., to 
pour out, shake out, throw 
away, throw down, ru sili 
ki flsera, they flee in different 
directions (those overcome in 
battle), lit. they throw (them- 
selves, shake out, or scatter 
themselves) in different (or 
every, or all) directions. H. 
zalal, to shake, make tremble, 
pour out, shake out, A. zal- 
zala, to shake, make to 

Simbolo, s., d., a basket. A. 
zibbil', zimbil', id. 

Simi-ki-leo, or sima-leo, d. 
STima-ki-leo, s., echo, lit. 
sound of the voice. A. za- 
mat, vehement sound, and leo. 

Sina, or sine, v. i., to shine, be 
clear, us i sine, the rain clears 
up, Fi. ut^a sa siga. [Fi. siffci, 
sun, day. My. sii/aff, day, 
clear.] A. saha', E. sahawa, 
H. sahah, to shine, be clear ; 
sun, day, in derivatives. See 
Ch. II. 17 g. 

Sinu, sisinu, v. i., to be hot, 
burn (of the grass on the hills, 
yearly), to be inflamed (of 
one's face) nako na i sinu, 
his face is inflamed (with 
passion) ; hence 

Sinu, s., c. art., the burning of 
the grass on the hills ; a place 
on which the grass has been 
burned : see also tunu, bi- 
tunu, d. bisin. [Sa. sunu.'} 
A. sah'ana, n. a. suh^un', to 
be hot, sah^una, and sah^ina, 
to be hot, 2, to heat, suh'n', 
and suh'n', hot, H. s'ahan, 
S. s^hen, to be hot, inflamed 
(sore), heat oneself at the fire. 

Siora, s., a pipe for drawing 
off^ water from one place and 
pouring it out at another ; 
said to be for sie rau (for 
sike rau, lit. lift up, distri- 

Sirak, a., used as s., for si- 
taki, i. e., si taki, blow, heel- 
ing over (a canoe), a squall 
or high wind : si, to blow, 
and taki, to incline over. 

Si-rau, or sierau, contr. of 

Siri ki, v. t. , to scatter, sprinkle, 
of seeds, water, siri kia ki, 
i. e., siri ki uia ki, scatter 
or sow well (seeds) ; and 

Sirisir i a, v. t., to scatter (or 
sprinkle) on him (as water or 
blood spurting on one) ; 

Siri, V. i., to sprout, shoot (of 
a plant) ; and 

Siria, d., v. i. (-a, ending), to 
sprout, shoot ; and 

Siri na, s., c. art., a shoot, 
sprout ; and used of men, 
off"spring ; hence in proper 
names of children and men, 
siri, (seed, offspring) as, siri 
fakal, &c. H. zara', scatter, 
disperse, especially to scatter 
seed, sow, bear seed (of a 




plant), zere«, seed, offspring, 
A. zara'a, scatter seed, to 
produce plants. 

Sisi, si, red up. ; hence 

Sis, s., a shell used for scraping. 

Sisi, V. i., redup. of si, to blow ; 

SisT, s., a gun ; si fanua, a 

Sito, V. i., cacavit, A. s'ahata, 
(8), cacavit. 

Siu, s., a pricker, or awl (a 
sharpened bone). [To. hiii, 
needle or pin (of bone).] A. 
s'i«a% a prick, spike. See sui. 

Siua (siwa), v. i., to hunt for 
fish, or shellfish (on the reef), 
slue (siua i) v. t., hunt (fish, 
or shellfish, on the reef). A. 
safa to examine or explore 
the ground by the smell, hence 
to hunt. 

Siua, or sua, d. siuo (siwo), 
(suwa), V. i., to descend. [Sa. 
ifo, To. hifo, An. asuol {asu- 
tvol.)'2 A. safala, sufuP, 
sifl', to be low, to descend. 

Siuer (siwer). dd. suara, suu- 
ara, surata, v. i., to walk, 
proceed, go away, sisiuer, 
redup., walk about. [Sa. sa- 
vali, savalivali, savali(/a.'} A. 
safara, 3, n. a. si^r», &c., to 
make a journey, go away. See 
Ch. III. h, and pp. 70-1. 

Soa, s., c. art. asoa na, com- 
panion, follower, or neso (art. 
ne), especially of the opposite 
sex, hence, tauso, q. v. : sal. 
[Fi. sa.2 

So e, d. se (for so i), v. t., to 
call (one) ; 

Soso, V. t., redup., to call, sos i 

(for soso i) call (him): also 
in bioso, rasoso, rafloso. E. 
saw'a to call, H. s'ua% Pi. 

Soa ki, soiia ki. See saua ki. 

Soa-ni, or soe-ni, v. t., to 
mock. A. haza', to mock. 

Soar i, or souar i, v. t., to 
abrade, scrape, scratch, as 
rago i souari rarua, the 
roller scrapes, scratches, or 
tears by scraping, or abrades 
(the bottom of) the canoe, 
souasouar i, redup., and so- 
ara, or souara, v. i., to split 
open (as a ripe seed, pod, or 
banana), i. e., to be abraded, 
or uncover or abrade itself. 
S. safar to shave, to abrade, 
H. safar (to scratch, polish), 
to write, A. safara, to sweep, 
uncover the face (a woman), 
to shine (the dawn), H. s'afar 
(scratch, polish), be bright, 
beautiful, Ch. s'efarpara, S. 
s'afra, the dawn. 

Soata, V. i., to slip. A. da- 
has'a, to slip, E. dehas'a. 

Sobe na, s., c. art., the nape, 
or back of the neck. E. za- 
ban, id., A. zabbunat, neck. 

Sobu, V. i., d. syn., bea, to 
precede, be first. A. sabaka, 
sabku, to precede, be first. 

Sofa, sofasofa, v. i., sofa, s. 
See sefa. 

Soga, s., c. art., d. nasok, 
dust, rubbish, a lot of things 
(belonging to one) ; 

Sogasoga, id. ; hence 

Soga-leba, s., a rich man, lit. 
big lot of things ; and, d., 

Sogoa, V. i., or a. (ending, a), 
rich ; 





Sok, d. soga, s. ; 

Soksok, d. sogasoga, s. ; 

Sok-leb, d., soga-leba ; also 

Sok, s., d., c. art, a cloud. H. 
s'ahak, dust, a cloud, A. 
sah'k' ; the verb signifies to 
rub, hence dust (from being 
rubbed small). 

Note. — Sogoa, lit. signifies 
full of dust, dusty, dust being 
taken in the sense which is 
given it in the vulgar English 
phrase 'to come down with 
the dust '. 

Sog i, or sogi, v. t., d. sug i. 

Sogo-ni, v. t., to press upon, 
compress (one, as by crowd- 
ing upon him), to straiten, 
sogosogo-ni, redup. ; 

Sog, or sogi, s., what straitens, 
compulsion, force, constraint, 
&c., as, i meri sogi au, 
makes or uses constraint or 
force upon me (to compel me 
to do something), i till sog 
soko i, he declares force or 
compulsion upon him (to 
make him pay a fine, or to 
suffer death, as the case may 
be). [My. sclsaJc, straitened, 
sdsal-Jian, to straiten.] H. 
suk. Hi. (A. s'aka, 2), to 
straiten, compress, press, urge 
upon, force, compel, H. sok, 

Sol, d., V. t. See si, to scrape. 
[Fi. so-ya, soi."} Hence 

Sol, or sola, s., the hole scraped 
out for the yam to be planted 

Sok, s., c. art., what stops or 
blocks, as a dam : suk i, q.v. 

Soka, V. i., to leap, jump, go 

swiftly ; to be violently ex- 
cited, inflamed with anger (of 
the belly) ; soka i, v. t., to 
spear ; inivit mulierem ; so- 
ka-ba, v. i., to go swiftly 
away, hence, s., what goes 
swiftly away, a worthless or 
lost thing or person ; soka- 
baki, V. t., throw away, make 
to be soka-ba ; soka ki, v. t., 
make to soka, throw. A. 
zah'h^a, (4), leap, (2), inivit 
mulierem, (5), go with vehe- 
mence, (6), to be angry, burn 
with rage. 

Soka-ri, v. t., to join on to 
(one thing on to another), 
then to repay (one thing by 
another, the one thing being 
regarded as joining on to, or 
touching, the other), to avenge 
(one slain, by slaying another, 
also sike, d. siko) ; soka- 
soka-ri, redup. ; 

Sokarian, s., c. art., a joining, 
as a splice ; repayment, retri- 
bution, vengeance ; 

Soka-taki, v. t., to join on to, 
to meet, tumara soka-taki 
ra, meet together. H. nas^ak 
(A. nasaka), to join, 2), kiss 
(join mouth to mouth), join 
on to each other, meet (of two 
things). Hi. to join on to (one 
thing on to another). 

Soko, V. i., or a., to be true, 
true, as naleona i soko sa 
his voice (prediction) is true 
as to or about it (thing pre- 
dicted, as is known when it 
takes place as foretold), le- 
or losoko, a true thing, truth, 
tili lesoko, to speak truth, d. 

SOKOj 280 

syn. till mori, speak true, d. 
till loamau, speak truth. 
See also masoko. [Sa. sao, 
straight, correct, right, My. 
mg"uh, true.] A. sadaka, 
n. a. sadk% to be true, H. 
sadak, to be straight, right, 

Soli, V. t., rub. See sila i, id. 

Soli, sosoli, V. i., to creep (i. e., 
to rub or scrape along the 
ground, cf. karafl) ; 

Asolat, s., a worm : a, art. 
fSa. totolo, ps. tolofia, Fut. 
toro^ Ha. holo, TaSa. tari, Malo 
nsalansala, to creep, sulati, a 
worm.] H. zahal, to creep, 

Sore, V. i., to lie, be untruth- 
ful, d. bisuru ; 

Soresore, id. H. zur, to turn 
aside, A. zara, tell lies. 

Sor i, or sori, v. t., to give (a 
thing). [Fi. soli-a, give, My. 
sciraJi, and srah, to submit, 
sdraJi Jean, to give.] A. s'a- 
ra'a, 1, to submit, 4, to give. 

Soro, V. i., to burn, flame, 
soro-fl, V. t., send a flame on 
to, also to treat with violence, 
to rush violently and with 
savage rage upon (as a wild 
pig charging a man), baka- 
sorosoro-fi, v. c, make the 
fire to burn up. [Mg. clow, 
Sa. tolo, matoro.'2 A. samara, 
to kindle (a fire, war), 2, to 
rage (of a camel), 3, to treat 
with cruelty and rage. so*r', 
blaze of fire, rage, insanity, 
sa'ir' flame of fire, fire burst- 
ing into flame. 

Soroa sa, v. t., to covet, desire ; 


Soro, a. used as s., a covetous 
person, and see miseroa. A. 
s^ariha, to eovet. 

Soroa, d., v. i., to be sick, syn. 
sasana. A. s^arro, fever, and 
a ending, from s'arra, to be 
bad, as sasana, from sa. 

Soroa, s,, c. art., d. tiroa. 

Sore, V. t., to saw (one, of the 
breakers sawing one on the 
reef) ; and 

Soro-aki, v. t., to make a 
man's body saw on the reef 
(of the waves or breakers) : 
sar i. 

Sos, V. i., to be small (syn. 
mito), d. ses, small, little. E. 
hesos, id. 

Su, sua, V. i., to rise up (tobu 
i tubu sua, swells up) as 
ground in which the growing 
yams are swelling (cf. lua) ; 
another form of this word is 
tu, to stand up ; 

Su raka-ti, v. t. (to take up, 
lift up), to startle ; 

Sua i, V. t., to take up, lift up. 
then to take, receive, obtain, 
acquire, as, i su naleo, he 
obtained something ; and to 
bear, as, i su nafolofolon sa 
anena, he bore his sin, i.e., 
he received its punishment ; 
and to meet, as, i sua nata, 
he met a person, bisua, v. r, ; 
su-naki, to carry on the head 
(of women), su-ni, to put on 
(clothes), hence susu, clothed 
(having clothes upon or car- 
ried or borne by one) ; to 
meet or take up the (odour 
of a thing) su rogi nabon. 




The notion of meeting is' in 
that of lifting oneself or rising 
up against (one) ; and a swell- 
ing in the skin is said to sua, 
i. e., raise itself up, it rises 
up; su (nasuma), s., the 
upper part (ridge-pole) of a 
house, and masua, s., the 
highest part or top of any- 
thing. Su or sua is also 
used in proper names of 
children, as Sua ragoa, &c. 
H. nasa% to take up, lift up, 
E. nasa', take, receive, A. 
nas'a% be exalted, grow, to 
bear, carry, to bear one's sin, 
that is, to receive its punish- 
ment. H. si% se'et', height, 
a raising or lifting up, a rising 
up in the skin, A. nas'a% to 
grow up, to be raised, high, 4, 
to produce, 10, perceive or 
feel the odour (of a thing), 
nasa', sprout or shoot (of a 
plant) — sua (in pr. names), 
young people. 

Su, sua, d. si, v., finished off, 
as, i nu su, it is ended or 
completed, finished off, i bati 
8U e a, he has finished off 
doing it ; i bano su, he has 
gone, he has finished off going, 
completed going. The word 
thus forms with any other 
verb a completed tense denot- 
ing that what is expressed by 
the first verb is finished off. 
A. sawa, 2, 8, to finish, be 

Su na, s., c. art., highest part 
(as ridge of a house, or top of 
the head), cf. masua na, top 
(of anything) : su, or sua. 

Su na, s., c. art. nasu na, q.v., 

Sua, for suua (suwa), siua, 

Sua, s., brother. See tai. 
Suasua, v. i., to be willing ; 

Sua ki, V. t., to impel, order, 

send. See bisuaki, A. s'ayi- 

ya, 1, to be willing, to will, 

2, to impel. 
Suara, or suuara (suwara), 

susuara, d. siuer, q.v. 
Suara, v. t., to meet (as a 

head wind, any obstruction 

in one's way) : sua, and ara, 

V. t. 
Suer, V. i., d. suerai. 
Suerai, v. i., to put out rai, 

i.e. tai, q.v., dung, cacavit : 

sui, see sal, v. t., and tai. 
Suer i, v. t., to vituperate, d. 

sur. S. se'ar, to vituperate. 

Suba i. See siba i. 

Sube, v. t., to place, deter- 
mine, appoint, constitute, 
syn. tonaki, as, i sube biri 
a, he appoints it over again 
(and differently), syn. to- 
naki biri a, as to appoint 
a day of meeting, &c., and 
afterwards to alter the day, 
appointing another ; i sube 
roa au, he appoints me, 
changing, changes or alters 
(roa, to turn round, to alter) 
the appointment he made 
with me, as having first 
appointed me a certain day, 
he afterwards changes the 
appointment to another day ; 




Sube, s., what is placed, fixed, 
redup. susube, as upright 
stones firmly planted in the 
ground, nafera susube, a 
row of such stones, sube, 
such a stone, a statue, an 
idol or sacred stone ; a thing 
fixed firmly, as a plank firmly 
nailed, a stone firmly fixed, 
a wind continuing firmly in 
one quarter, nalagi i bi sube 
the wind is firmly fixed (in 
some quarter) ; also, custom, 
as a thing fixed, sube na- 
fanua, custom of the country, 
sube na, its or his custom, 
also the fixed nature, custom, 
or disposition, sube nig Atua 
i leg, the nature, custom, or 
disposition, or fixed char- 
acter of God is righteous : 
sube i tonaki nafanua, the 
fixer, or constitutor, or estab- 
lisher — fixed, established, or 
constituted the country. In 
this last sense it is a general 
term used to denote either 
the first or early or ancient 
inhabitants of a place (the 
original settlers of a district), 
or, which is the same thing 
in another form, the persons 
who figure in Efatese myths, 
or the spirits of such, now 
being natemate ; or the deity 
who constituted the world. 
In the same active sense 
siihe in Epi denotes chief, or 
headman, dd. fiimho, sumha, 
Malo siihe, id. H. nissab, 
officer, director. In the 
Shepherd Islands it is now 
used for Atua, q. v. [Ma. 

tupn, firmly fixed, Sa. tupua, 
a stone supposed to have 
been a man petrified, an 
image, Fi. tovo, habit, nature, 
practice.] H. nasab, i. q. 
yasab, to set, put, place, Hi. 
hissib, to make to stand, 
place, erect, set up (as a 
column), fix, establish (as 
bounds). Ho. to be fixed, 
planted, yassib, firm ; A. 
nasaba, to place, fix, set up, 
declare, appoint, constitute ; 
nasb% a thing set up, a statue, 
what is worshipped besides 
God, i.e. an idol; nasib, 
erecting, setting up ; nasi- 
bat, stones placed or fixed 
round a waterhole. 

Sub-neki. See sabo-naki. 

Subu. See sobu, v. i.. and d., 
s., child, offspring. 

Su-bua, V. t., to lift up, or 
ascend, bursting or breaking 
through (the ground, hence 
subua (natano), a demon or 
demons who do so), syn. su- 
bora i, and sua-sai : su or 
sua, to rise, or lift up, and 

Sug i, V. t, to kiss, d. sum i. 

Sug 1, V. t., to block up, d. 
suk i, q. V. 

Sui, V. t., d. si, q.v., to help ; 
to blow upon ; also (see sal), 
to make holes in (as a moth 
in cloth) ; also to burn with 
heat, as elo i sui a, the sun 
burns him ; and redup., elo i 
tera suisui, the sun shines 
burning (hot) ; and 

Sui, s., heat ; sui ni elo, heat 
of the sun. See sal. 


Suk i, V. t., d. sug i, to block 
up, obstruct. A. s'akka, (2), 
(3), block up, obstruct ; 

Suk i, V. t., to cause to stoop, 
suki Ufa ia (a burden) makes 
him stoop, bending him ; to 
still, as suki namaritana, 
still the commotion (of 
passion) within him, suki 
namaieto, stills the anger ; 

Suki, V. i., to be patient, firm, 
quiet, still, sink (subside). 
H. s'akak, to stoop (A. 
s'akka), subside, be appeased, 
Hi. to still ; 

Suki, V. t., make fast, firm, 
sell suki a, bisa, tili (&c.) 
suki a, tie firm, speak making 
it firm and sure, meri suki- 
suki, make firm, turi suki, 
nail firm. A. s^akka, (3), 
adhere, cohere firmly ; 

Suki, V. t., to stick, stab. A. 
s'akka, (7), transfix (with a 

Suka, V. i., to draw back, 
recede, sukasuk, redup. ; 

Sukei, or sukai, s., c. art., the 
receding (of food), the annual 
time of scarcity of food, opp. 
to namasu. [Fi. suhi, cf. 
t^uqa.^ H. nasag, sug, to 
draw back, retreat. 

Suku-ti. See siko-ti. 

Suku-ti. See sike-ti. 

Sula, V. i., to rise up (as a 
rising ground) ; 

Sula, s., a rising ground. H. 
salal, to lift up. cast up a 

Suli na, s., shoot (as of a 

283 [SUM I 

banana), off'spring (of man) ; 

Sulia, V. i., to have shoots (as 
a banana). [Sa. suli, a young 
banana, son of a chief.] H. 
neser, a sprout, shoot ; off- 

Su-lua i, V. t., to bring up (a 
child) : su, or sua, and lua. 

Sulu e, V. t., to scorch with 
flame, illuminate with a torch 
(ne sulu), and see masula ki ; 

Sulu, s., c. art. nasulu, a 
torch. [Sa. sulu, v. and s., 
Ja. siihiJi.'] A. s'a'ala, 1, 2, 
4, to kindle (a fire), 8, be 
kindled, 10, light or kindle 
(a torch), s'u'ulu, flame of 
fire, mas'^al', a torch. 

Suma, s., c. art. nasuma, 
house, d. uma, d. hiriia, see 
also katema, imrum : i_My. 
rmnali, Ja. umah, Ml. im, 
TaSa. ima, Motu rumci.'^ A. 
Va'mat, h'im* &c., house. 

Sumat i, v. t., to beat, d. 
samit i ; d. sumanr i, to 
beat, also used as an ad., 
hastily, confusedly, ineffec- 
tively, as, lo sumanr i, brig 
sumanr i, &c., see, do hastily, 
confusedly, ineffectively (cf. 
sarafi, tere-ti). See samit i. 

Sum i, V. t., to kiss, dd. sug i, 
sog i. [An. aijumnyi, to kiss, 
Sa. sogi, rub noses, salute, 
sogisogi, to smell, My. chyuyn, 
to smell, to kiss.] A. s'am- 
ma, to smell. There is no 
trace of this meaning in 
sum i. In E. sa'ama is to 




Sum i, y. t., to suck, as fat. 
[My. isap, An. at'moi, to 
kiss, lick, suck, as fat.] A. 
sahab, Nm., suck in (liquid 
or air). 

Sume-li, v. t., to make a 
sucking noise to (to attract 
one's attention). See preced- 
ing word. 

Sumi-li, V. t., d. sumo-li, to 
shut, close (as a door), to 
patch up, repair (as a hole in 
a mat) ; hence 

Sumili, s., a thing like india- 
rubber in a clam shell which, 
when touched, causes the 
shell to close ; an ornament 
(shell) which stops up a hole 
pierced in the septum of the 
nose. A. samma, (4), to stop 
(as a bottle), (6), to patch up, 
repair (a thing). 

Sur, V. i., to go (of a departed 
spirit going to Hades) ; siuer. 
See Ch. III. li. 

Sur i, V. t., d. suer i, q.v. 

Sura i, v. t., to root up, extir- 
pate (as the things growing 
in one's plantation). E. 
sarawa, to root up, extirpate. 

Surata, sursurata, v. i., d. 
for suara, to walk, go on a 
journey. See Ch. III. h. 

Suru ki, V. t., make to suru, 
i. e. to be covered, as by 
inserting an arrow head into 
the (reed) shaft ; and 

Suru-faki, v. t., make to be 
covered, as by thrusting a 
thing into the dust or earth ; 

Suru goi, V. t., to cover. 

drain out (as the milk of a 
cocoanut) by covering the 
aperture of the nut with the 
mouth and draining out 
the contents. For goi see 
go i. Tasuru ki, to conceal, 
suruoli, dd. suruili, suru- 
auli (see uli, auli), to take 
the place, or assume the form 
of, hiddenly or stealthily, 
and, s., a demon, or demons, 
who do this to destroy men. 
[My. suruTc, to conceal, Mg. 
saruna, to cover.] E. sawa- 
ra, to cover, tasawara, to be 
hidden, secret, to hide. 

Su-rua, s., upper of the two 
ridge-poles of a house : su na, 
and rua, two. 

Suru e, V. t., to allure, tempt 
(deceiving), lit. to deceive ; 

Surusuru e, id., redup. See 
sore, bisuru. 

Suruk, i.e. su-ruk, also si- 
ruk, and sai-ruk (see sai, 
and ruku), to go into the 
ruku (of anything). 

Surut i, V. t., to scarify, 
make fissures on the surface 
of anything. A. s'arata, to 

Susu, s. , the breast or breasts ; 
a calabash (round like a 
breast) : susu na, d. his 
mother, lit. his breast, or 
mamma ; hence 

Susu, v., to suck the breast, 
bakasusu, to suckle. [Sa. 
siisii, the breast, to suck the 
breast, Fi. sut'u, the breasts, 
to suck the breast, My. siisu, 
Mg. mmu, the breasts.] H. 




s'od, A. t'idy, pi. t'udiyy', 

breast, breasts. 

Ta, passive or reflexive passive 
prefix to many verbs. [Fi., 
Sa., My., Ja., Mg., id.] A.. 
E., ta, reflexive or reflexive 
passive prefix to verbs. 

Ta, and ta, nom. and verb, 
suf., 3 pi. (very common), for 

Ta, s.. for ata, man, person. 

Ta, neg. ad., not, dd. ti, tu, 
and see sa. [Sa. Ic, My. ta, 
Mg. d.'] H. lo, le, li, Ch. 
la, A. la. 

Ta i, V. t., to chop, cut, also 
to si3eak or utter (as it were 
making a chopping noise), 
redup. tata. [Fi. ta-pa, My. 
tataJi, Sa. ta, Mg. tafana."} 
A. hadda, to cut quickly ; 
utter speech quickly. 

T', conj., that (because), ta, 
that I, te, that he, te ku, 
that you : te. 

Ta, ad., now, dd. syn. uo, ko, 
i, as, i ta toko, i uo toko, 
i ko toko, he yet (now) 
remains : ta, dem. 

Ta, verb, pron., 1 dual inch 
[An. intau, Sa. ta, taua.Jl 
The ta of nigita, or ninita, 
and -a. See Ch. V. 2. 

Ta, or ra, d. nra, q.v., blood. 
Originally ta, as in mita, to 

Ta, s., d. sa, d. seate, q.v. 

Ta na, s., friend, companion. 
[Cf. Fi. tail, to, Ma. ft/.] A. 
sahi, contraction of sahib', 
friend, companion, ya sahi, 
(cf. Ma. e ta !) friend, com- 

rade ! sahaba, to be a friend 
or companion, to take with 
one as a companion, 3, to 
accompany (someone), 8, to 
be companions to each other. 
Hence bita, and bita-naki, 

Ta-atuta, v. and s. : ta, cut, 
speak, utter, and atuta, s., 
a fixed or appointed time ; 
ta-atuta ki, appoint a time 
and place (of meeting) to 
(someone). H. 'adad, A. 
'adda, to number, especially 
days, time, hence S. 'ad'da, 
same as H. mo*ad, a set 
time, api3ointed time, eg. H. 
ya'^ad, A. wa'ada, 3, to 
appoint a time and place (of 

Ta-bau, s., syn. tagoto-bau, a 
cap, or hat, lit. cut-head. 

Ta, v., to bend, bow. incline, 
extend, as, ta bau, bend the 
head, bow, ta tuba, strike, 
turning aside, deflecting (a 
spear, &c.), ta gor i, extend 
over it (of time, so many 
days), ta gor i, extend over 
(or cover) it (the day in the 
past named). H. natah, fut. 
yitteh, to extend, to incline, 
to bow, to turn. 

Tab, d. tiba, dd. tama, tam, 
neg. ad., not : ta, not, and 
ba, for ma, as in Assy, aama, 
not, i.e. H. mah, A. ma, 
used indefinitely. 

Taba na, d. tauba na, s., 
side, or shore (as a side). 
[Ma. ta2xc.2 A. taff', side, 

Taba i, d. tama i, q. v. 




Taba, v. t., to be like, tabale, 
to be like that thing (taba 
le), so, also tabalai, tabalan, 
tabalas, tabalo uai (taba lo, 
or P (thing), and uai, n, s, 
i, clem.) to be like that or 
this thing, tabalo uanaga, 
id. ; also tabale sa ? tabale 
safa ? to be like what thing ? 
to be how? fMy. dama- 
hiyan so, Mg. mituvi.'\ H. 
damah, to be like. 

Taba, s., property given away 
in payment of a fine for mis- 
conduct: ta, to cut, and ba 
(away) as in soka-ba. 

Taba, v. i., to turn, bend, 
taba lo sua, or lo saki, bend 
looking down, or up, taba 
kai, bend contracting the 
stomach (as to avoid a spear), 
bitelo tababa, to be bent 
with hunger, also tama, as 
tama-lu, d. tumalu, to bend 
rising (in setting forth or 
out), taba soka, to bend, 
leaping (as in climbing a 
tree), d. tama, or tuma soka, 
also, to leap aside. A. dafa', 
6, to turn hither and thither, 
dafa', bending, »adfa', bent, 
curved (of men). 

Tabaraba, for rabaraba. 

Tabag, v. t., to slap. [My. 
tapuli, Ja. tcibiili.lj^ E. tafaha, 
to clap with the hand, Ch. 
tepah, the palm of the hand, 
My. tapak, id. 

Tabalaga, v. r. (see balaga-ti), 
to raise itself off, as a scab, 
&c. Reflexive causative. 

Tabalas', or tabalasoa, v. i., 
tabale, and aso, to burn, to 

peel itself off after a burn (of 
the skin) : tabal', is the 
reflexive of bale-si, or bala- 
si; and 

Tabales, v. i., reflexive of 
bale-si, to peel itself off, as 
the skin of one's lips ; and 

Tabales, s., husk (as of cocoa- 
nut, chestnut), finger nails. 

Tabara, v. i., to be burned. 

Tabara ki, v. t., to burn : 

Tabare, tabarebare, v. i., 
reflexive of bora i, to be 
sj^lit, split open, to be open. 

Tabare, s., a male animal. 
Compare E. taba't, mas, a 

Tabaro, tabarobaro, v. i., to 
be heedless, careless, dis- 
obedient : reflexive of baro ; 

Tabaro, d, s., senselessness, 

Tabasuli, v. i., to be detached, 
broken off : reflexive of basu- 

Tabau sa, v. t., to cover, to 
be over (surpass, be above 
another) : tabau-goro, lid, 
cover : bau. 

Tabeiu, v. i., reflexive of belu, 

Tab e, v. t., to take. [Fi. 
tale-a, Mg. tdba.'\ S. nsab, 
to take. 

Tabe, s., c. art. natabe, a 
freshet ; see tafe. 

Tabe, v., to lean or incline, 
tabe to osa, lean abiding on 
it, tabe ki, lean upon, trust 
in (a thing) ; 




Tabitab, s., a thing leaned 
upon, or trusted in. [Fi. ravi, 
My. arapi.'] A. s'afa, 4, to 
make to lean or incline (a 
thing towards a thing), 1, be 
the guest of someone. 

Tabei, v. t., to desire or pur- 
pose setting the mind on. A. 
bayya, 5. id. 

Tabera ki, v. t., to make to be 
tabera, scattered, taberafera, 
or taferafera, to be scattered, 
taberafera ki, make to be 
so: bera, berafera. 

Tabes, s., axe: ta, to cut, and 

Tabeti, v. i., to adorn oneself. 
S. sabet, to adorn, Ethpa. 
adorn oneself. 

Tabilakigon, d. tabilagon, 
V. i., to stumble, d. tabila 
kon, id. lit. to strike, or knock 
(the foot) by mistake (hastily) 
fast (that is, the foot caught 
fast) : ta, bila, or bile, gon, 
or kon. 

Tabisa, v. i. , to speak ; 

Taflsafisa, v. i., to pray : bisa. 

Tabora i, v. t., to cut, splitting 
(a thing) ; 

Taborai na, s., c. art., the 
body where it forks off or is 
divided into the two legs : ta, 
bora i. 

Tabos, V. i., compressed, nar- 
row: bosa. 

Tabotai, v. t., to divide; ta, 
cut, and bota. 

Tabu, s., naked j)eople, people 
of other islands of the New 
Hebrides, so called by the 
Efatese : ta, men, and bua i. 

Tabu, tab, v. i., or a., to be 

forbidden, prohibited ; to be 
sacred ; 

Tabua, s., c. art., sacredness ; 

Tabuan, s., id. A. dabba, n. 
a. dabbu, to prohibit. 

Tabua, v. i., to be split open, 
cracked, also mafua : ta, and 

Tafa, s., c. art. natafa, a hill, 
lit. that which goes up or is 
high ; and 

Tafa(d.), ad., high, above. [Fi. 
t'ahe.'} T. day aba, to go up. 
E. diba, above. 

Tafagka, tafak^ka. See baku. 

Tafakarua ki, i. e., ta, utter, 
and bakarua ; to repeat a 
thing, as a slanderer's words 
to the person slandered. 

Tafar. See taiar. 

Tafasi, v. See fasu, eyebrows. 

Tafe, V. i., to flow out, go out. 
[Sa. tafe, Fi. dave. id.] ; 

Tafe, s., c. art., d. tabe, freshet. 
[Sa. tafi^a, id.] H. zub, 
Arm. dub, to flow out. 

Tafea, d. for tofe, q.v. 

Tafera, s., c. art., breaker, 
breakers ; and 

Taferafera, v. i., to break, as 
waves. See bera. 

Tafl, V. t., to be near. A. tafia, 
to be near. 

Tafl na, s., and c. art. a, atafi, 
follower, successor of a chief 
(next in rank), that is, his 
present helper and right hand 
man, and who is his recog- 
nized successor. A. tabi% 
follower, helper. 

Tafifi, V. i., to be involved, 
entwisted : flfi, fisi. 




Tafllo, tafolo, taifolo, and 
Tafulus. See bulo ki, bulusi. 
Taflloga. See bulo ki, and 

Taflrofiro, to be twisted 

(crooked) : biri. 
Taga, s., basket, d. toga, q.v. ; 

d. stomach. [Sa. taga, taga 

Tagal, s., a hook for hanging 
things on : tageli. 

Tagaragara, v. i., or a., strong : 
gara, garagara. 

Tagaru, v. t., to grasp : kar i. 

Tagatag, s., a mist, or mass of 
clouds: tagotago. 

Tagau, s., a hook, so called 
from seizing ; 

Tagau, tagaugau, v., to grasp, 
seize ; 

Tagau lua, select, lit. grasp 
or seize, lifting up or out : 
gau, kau. 

Tageli, tageligeli. See takel. 

Tagi, V. i., to wail, cry, ring, 
sing, clank, hum, «S:c. (as a 
drum, &c.) ; tagi- si, v. t., to 
bewail, tagitagi, redup., na- 
tagian, wailing, sounding (in 
various ways). [Sa. iagi, My. 
tagis, Mg. tani, a cry, tumani, 
mitumani, to cry.] A. tanna, 
to tinkle, &c., Nm. to clank, 
ring, hum. tanien, din, tan- 
tun, to tinkle, jingle. 

Tagia, v., d. tine (ndine), to 
hoist the sail on a canoe, 
tagi-aki rarua. See under 
miten, and tago. 

Note. — The idea is that of 
making the sail mount on the 
canoe as a horseman mounts 

a horse, or a burden mounts, 
or is placed upon, the back. 

Tagidgi, V. i., to be slow, dila- 
tory. A. «aka, 5, to be averse, 
to delay. 

Tagotago, v., to be placed one 
thing above or upon another, 
as the stories of a house, 
banks of clouds (see tagatag), 
generations of men ; and 

Tago na, s., such a thing, or 
things, as the story of a house, 
a generation of men, leaves of 
a book (which lie one upon 
the other). See under miten 
(and cf. tiana, tagi-aki, mi- 

Tago-fl, V. t., to beg, ask (a 
person for a thing), tatago 
sa, beg, ask for (a thing) ; 
bitago, V. r., to be asking, 
begging, earnestly (from 
others). [My. taiia, tanai, id.] 
See bitali. 

Tagoto, s., tomahawk, axe : 
ta, goto; and 

Tagote-fi, V. t., to cut with an i 
axe. ^ 

Tagura, s., a heap (of stones) : 
guru, kuru. 

Tai or tae, v. t., d. for ata i, 
or atai, to know. H. yada*, 
to know. 

Tai, s., excrement, filth. [Sa. 
tae, My. tai, Mg. tai.'] H. 
seah, excrement, filth, from 
yasa', to go out. 

Tai na, s., d. ke sua, brother's 
brother, or sister's sister. 
[Fi. tat'i, Malo tasi, Ml. tesi, 
Bauro asi, Epi tahi, Motu 
tacli. My. ad-ili, Bu. ami, Mg. 
mndri.] A. rasi<, brother, 




properly collactaneoiis, from 
rasi'a, to suck. 

Tatar, a., d. tafar ; fatu taiar, 
or tafar, crumbling stone : 
bera, taferafera. 

Taifolo, d. tafolo. 

Tairai, d. rairai. 

Taka, a., such as. like, such 
like : S. da'k, id. ('ak, and 
d»). talis ; 

Takani (takan uan, takana 
uai, &c., putting any dem. 
after it) like this, that, &c. ; 
so, in this way, in that way, 
thus, &c. ; also, interroga- 
tively, how ? S. da'k hana 
(for da'k, see preceding word), 
such as this, like this. This 
S. word is composed of d' 
(dem. or relative pron.), a', 
or ai (inter.), k% as, like (ad.), 
and hana, or 'na, this ; 
without the d', S. 'akana, 
how ? 

Taka, is also used thus, bi 
taka sikei, are as one, alike, 
sera taka, every what-like, or 
kind, taka leba, first-born of 
children, taka-fe, d. saka-fe, 
first ripe (yams), taka riki, 
youngest of children. 

Taka-ni, v. t., to thrust on, or 
into (a thing), to thrust (a 
thing), taka sila ki, thrust 
making to shake or fall. H. 
dahah, A. daha, &c., to 

Takal i, or tikal i, d., v. t., to 
carry. S. s'kal to carry. 

Tak'amo, ortakaamo,to carry 
on a stick across the shoulder : 
taki, and amo. 

Takara, s., the crowd, lit. men 

(ta) gathered together (kara) : 
ta, kuru, guru. 

Takara, s., c. art. natakara, 
that which seizes, or grasps, 
or lays hold (of one), as the 
consequence of some act, &c. 
See kar i, tagaru. 

Takari, v. i., to hasten, go 
swiftly, sail swiftly (as a 
canoe) : kari. 

Takel, takelkel, v. i., or a., to 
be crooked, then unrighteous, 
d. tageli, tageligeli. H. 
'akal, ^akalkal, A. 'akila, 5, 
&c., id. 

Takes, d. for nakes, or na- 
kisa : kisa. 

Tak i, or taki, v. t., to fasten 
(as thatch on a roof, a rope on 
a log, anything on anything), 
and see mitakitaki ; to fasten 
the tongs on an oven stone 
(to lift it), bitaki, uataki, 
otaki ; and matuki, trusted 
in, confident, brave. [My. 
taguh.Ji A. wat'ika, to trust 
in, be firm, steadfast, con- 
fident, resolute. 4, to fasten, 
to bind. 

Taki, V. t., to incline, to pour 
out (anything by inclining a 
vessel) ; taki, to incline (one- 
self), taki mita, incline watch, 
taki torogo-saki, incline, 
hearken to, lo taki, look in- 
clined, look round or back, 
mitaki, to be inclined, lean 
over (as if ready to fall) ; see 
si-rak, i. e. si-taki, a squall, 
lit. blow, incline (a canoe, or 
cause it to heel over on its 
side). H. sa'ah (A. sa"a'), 
to incline (as a vessel which 





is to be emptied) ; to be in- 
clined, bent, stoop. 

Taku, V. i., to be after, behind, 
d. nruk ; or itaku, inruk ; 

Taku na, s., the back ; etaku, 
or itakn, at the back, behind 
(d. inruk), also outside (the 
village), also the (time) behind, 
or after (as opposite to the 
time before, the past), as te 
naliati etaku, some day after, 
as he died, sela itaku ru afa 
ki nia, some time after they 
buried him, generally tau 
itaku, naliati itaku, the 
years, or days after (i. e. , 
hereafter), naliati itaku mau, 
the last day, day of judgment. 
[Sa. tua, Malo tura, Epi tcika, 
Motu dohi, the back.] A. 
t'ahr% the back, E. dahr, 
posterior part, dahari, the 
last, dehara, after, behind, 
dahara, to be after, behind. 

Takutaku, v. i. , to speak [Sa. 
ta'ii, tell. Ma. talm, Fi. tuku- 
wa.] A. nataka, to speak. 

Taku, s., brothers-in-law, 
sisters-in-law, syn. tauien. 
[Mg. zauta, zaii, My. tiri, 
family relations.] A. t'aha- 
ra, t'ahr', and sihr% to aid, 
befriend, socius, tribe, family, 

Takuer, or takuwer, s., a big 
man, a strong man : ta, man, 
and kuwer. A. kabura, to 
be great, of big body. 

Takus i, or takusi, v. t., to 
be like, similar to, also, with 
k elided, tausi, id., and to 
follow, also rausi (t to r), v. t., 
to follow, from usi, v. t., to 

follow, and also (in rafe-kusi) 
kusi, id. See usi and bausi, 
A. kassa, to follow ; to nar- 
rate, and 5, 8, to follow ; 1, 
to be near, 10, to ask. 

Taku-ti, d. raku sa, q.v. 

Talakoiako, v. i., to whisper, 
i. e., to conceal what is being 
said (from someone): ta, utter 
speech, and lakolako. 

Tale is, v. t., d. tele is, to 
search for. [Mg. tadi.'] A. 
dara, 2, Nm., to rummage 
(vulgar), lit. to turn over 
(things, in search of some- 
thing) ; 

Tale, s., c. art., a belt, also a 
rope, string ; and 

Tale ki, v. t., to make to go 
round (as a yam vine round a 
stake), tale is, to coil round 
something (as a snake), tale 
ki maro (see roa), to whirl 
round (as the eyes in dizzi- 
ness), tali ki, to twist round 
one (crooked dealing, to in- 
jure), talo, round, around, 
taltal, round. [Mg. tadi, 
mitadi, to twist, tadi, a rope, 
My. tali, a rope, string, band- 
age, &c.] A. dara, to go 
round, whirl, turn ; be dizzy, 
2, make round, 4, turn round, 
da'ro, orb, around, dairo, 
round ; circuit, &c. 

Tale, s., c. art., the taro (so 
called because round). [Sa. 
talo, My. talds, id.] See pre- 
ceding word. 

Taleaba, and taltaleaba, v. i., 
to whirl round (as a wheel), 
taleaba ki, v. t., to make to 




whirl round, to turn round 
(as a grindstone) : tale, and 

Talebaga, s., d. syn. kale- 
baga, bow-string : tale, and 
baga, s. (the tree from which 
the string is made). 

Talefa, s., a side region, cir- 
cuit : and 

Talefan, s., the circuit of the 
horizon : tale. 

Tale-firi, a., all round (as 
round an island, «S:c.) : tale, 
and firi or biri. 

Talekabu na, d. arekabu, 

Talemat, s., plantation, en- 
closed and cultivated field. 
Cf. H. s'edemot', and s'ere- 
mot', id. 

Taleuor, s., a side, circuit : 
tale, and uor, or uora. See 
bora i. 

Taliali, v. i., to be slow, delay : 
aliali. [Sa. tali, tatalL'} 

Talibo (see libo), to hide, be 
hid, hide oneself. 

Taliga na, s., c. art. nataliga 
na, d. liga na, and naliga 
na, the ear or ears. [Ml. P. 
ririga, Epi dd. tiline, seligo, 
An. tHifja^ Motu taiaj Sa. ta- 
liga, Fut. tariga, My. taliga, 
Mg. iadini^ H. 'ozen, du., 
used also as pi., 'azenaim, 
'azene, S. 'adna, Ch. 'uden, 
'udena, A. 'udn', pi. »adan', 
and 'ucLun'. For the verb, 
see rogo, togo. 

Tali-si, V. t., to prize up, 
wrench up (as the side of a 
flat stone). See tila i, or 

Talle, or taPle, v. i., to turn 
aside (as from a path) ; and 

Talele, id., talele ki, to turn 
aside or away from (a person 
or thing.) See lele. 

Talo, taloalo. See alo-fi. 

Talo, a., round, and ad., round 
about: tale. 

Talokuloku ki. See taluko. 

Taltal, a., round : tale. 

Taltalura, s., a sea snake 
covered with round strips or 

Talu, or talulu, s., a crowd, 
herd : lulu. 

Talubaki, v. i., to be spilt, 
poured out, to pour itself out : 

Taluko, or taluku, and talu- 
koluko ki, v., to conceal one- 
self from ; atu taluko baki 
nia, turn away from, or con- 
ceal oneself from : lako. 

Talug i, d., and 

Talum i, d. See tulum i. 

Tam i, v. t., to add to, dd. 
tam i, taum i. [Mg. tiivana, 
and tuvima.'} A. s'amma, to 

Tama i, d. taba i, v. t., to 
cover (as fruit, &c., covering 
the ground, being abundant), 
to rub, and see atama, that 
which rubs, syn. ore. A. 
tamma, to cover with, abun- 
dance (Nm. smother, over- 
whelm), (2), to scrape or 

Tama na. See tema na. 

Tama, dd. tab, (tiba), q.v. 

Tama, for taba, q.v. 

Tamaliam', v. i., to delay. A. 
mahala, 5, to delay, and H. 

u 2 




mahah, to delay, linger (prop, 
to refuse, turn back). 

Tamalu, v. i., to bend, rise (to 
set out), to go or come forth, 
set out : taba, In, lua. 

Tamaras, reflexive of maras, 

Tarn ate, v. i., to fall calm, be 
calm (as the sea, the wind), 

Tamate, s., c. art., peace (oppo- 
site to war), a calm, silence ; 
also, the festivals in honour 
and worship of the dead, at 
which the people of different 
villages assembled : mate. 

Tamisal, or tamusal, s., an 
unmarried person : ta, a per- 
son, and misal. 

Tami-si, d. sabe-li, q.v., to tie. 

Tamo, V. i., d. nabo, to smell, 
see nabo. 

Tamole, s., man : ta, man, and 
mole, to live, living. [Fi. 
tamata, Sa. tagata, My. orag- 
idup, Mg. ulumhcliina, id.] 

Tamon, s., smell, d. nabon. 

Tamtam, a., dusky ; ragi tam- 
tam (syn. rag mefa), evening, 
lit. time dusky, or of dusk. A. 
'atama, to be evening, dusky, 
'atamat, dusk of evening. 

Tamulu, v. i., syn. c. mulu, 

Tanekabu, s., d. arekabu. 

Tan i, v. t., to earth it, to 
cover with earth, then with 
anything (tun i) ; 

Tanu-mi, v. t., to cover with 
earth, put into the ground ; and 

Tanu-maki, id. ; hence 

Tano, s., d. tan, earth of any 
kind, soil, clay, ground, and 

etan, ad. and prep., on the 
ground, below. [Sa. tanu, 
ps. fanua, and tanumia, My. 
tandm, tananikan, tanumany 
tani, Sa. tanuma'i, ianuga, 
tamimaga.'} A. tana, to 
cover with clay ; to cover, 
tino, dialect tano, earth, clay. 

Tanoabu, d. tanoafu, d. ta- 
noau, s., ashes : tano, abu ; 

Tanonon, or tanoonon, s., 
level ground, d. ten : tano, 
and one, reduplicated. 

Tanotanoa, a., soiled with 
e.irth : tano, and ending a. 

Tanu e, tanua, v., to spit, 
dd. tani, taniu ; and 

Tanua, d. taniu, s., c. art., 
spittle. [Sa. ami, ps. anusia, 
Motu kanudi, ps. Immidia, Fi. 
Jianusi : My. ludaJi, Ml. nit, 
Malo lifo.'} A. rawwala, 
n. a. tarwilu (taniu, Ef.), id. 

Tao, V. i., to fall, d. for roa 
(rouo, touo). 

Tao, s., d., V. t., to lay down, 
leave, permit, &c. [Mg. Mil, 
manddu.'} A. wada'a, not 
used in perfect, fut. yada*o, 
imp. da', to lay down, leave, 
permit. So A. was'a'a. 

Taos, V. i., d. maosa, q.v. 

Taosi, d. tausi. See takusi. 

Taoti na, s., bone, bones, 
weapons made of dead men's 
bones. [My. tiilag, Mg. tau- 
lana."} A. 'atm', Mahri (m 
elided) 'atait (Von Maltzan), 
at'at' (Carter), H. 'esem, pi. 
'S-samot', id., often of bones 
of the dead. 

Tara, taratara. See tera, to 
be quick. 




Tare, v. i., or a., to be pure, 
clean, white, tartare, wliitisli, 
matiratira, polished, bright, 
shining. A. tahara, to be 
clean, pure, II. taher, to 
shine, be bright, clean, pure. 

Tare, v. i., to cry, call out (of 
men) ; to call out, i. e. crow 
(cock). A. saraha and sara', 
to cry, call out, sarih', a 
crying or calling out, a 

Tarere, v. i., to break on the 
shore with noise (of breakers) : 

Tari, or tar 1, v. t., to drag, 
draw along. [Mg. iarika, 
My. tariJc, Ma. tari"} A. na- 
tara, id. 

Taroa, s., a pigeon. C^Y* 
dara.^ A. tair', id. 

Taru-si, or taro-si, v. t., to 
praj'- to (the natemate), taro- 
taro, red up. QSa. tatalo, 
talotalo, ps. tcdosia, Ha. Jcalo- 
Jiulo, Tah. tarotaro.^ A. sala', 
E. salaya, Ch. sola, to pray. 

Taruba, v. i., to fall ; taruba 
bei, to fall upon ; taruba ki, 
V. t., throw down, make to 
fall, d. tarubik, v. i., and 

Taruba, s., c. art., sticks 
thrown on or laid across the 
rafters of a house. E. sadefa 
(A. sadafa, to decline), to 
fall. * 

Tas, tasi, s., c. art., the sea. 
[My. tasik, To. taJii, Sa. tai'} 
A. ta's', the sea. 

Tas i, or tasi, v. t., to shave : 
ras i. 

Tas, V. i., for ras, teres. 

Tasabo, v. i. See sabo. 

Tasabsabu, s., shattered to 
pieces : see sabe-riki. 

Tasiga, s., d. for tasila. 

Tasike, v. i., to lift, raise (the 
head) : saki. 

Tasila, s., helper, assistant: 
sila i. 

Tasilasila, v. i., to make a 
clear startling sound (of men), 
to crack (of thunder); ta, 
chop, &c., and silasila. See 

Tasmen, s., salt : tas, the sea 
or salt, and men, or mina, 
q.v. pleasant (so called be- 
cause it makes food pleasant 

Tasuki, v. i., to bow : suki. 

Tasuru ki, v. t, to conceal: 

Tata, v., voc, maternal grand- 
mother. [TaSa., Ml., tafa, 
father, Ml. and Malo tcifa, 
paternal uncle.] See under 
atena na. 

Tata, redup. of ta, to chop, cut. 

Tata-gasi, v. t., tata, same as 
tatau (in preceding word), 
redup. of tau, and gasi, to 
(wipe) stroke, smooth, flatter. 

Tatalaij talai, also tilai, titi- 
lai, V. i., to warm oneself (at 
the fire). [Fi. fafalai, Mg. 
mit'ulu (buhu).] A. sala, 
salyy', &c., to warm (one, 
oneself, at the fire), be warmed 
at the fire. 

Tatamares, tamares, with 
ta- doubled. 

Tatau-fi, V. t., as, bisa tatau- 
fi, to speak, deceive : tau. 

Tati, d. rati, q.v. [Sa. taVtj 
Tah. tam.'\ 




Tatok, or atatok (or natatok, 
s.), a., resident, native : ta, 
man, and toko. 

Tatu, s. (see tui), a stake, 
post (of a fence), then tatu 
nafanua, lord or chief of the 
land. A. watada, to fix, 
stake, make firm, watadu, 
stake, post, H. yated, pin, 
nail, then 'prince'. 

Tau, tautau, v. i., or a., to be 
pure, clean, white. [Ma. 
tea.'] A. nasa*a, to be pure, 

Tau, V. i., also mitau, to 
abide, as, i tau suma, he 
abides (in) the house, i tau 
nara nakasu, it abides (on) 
the branch of the tree (as a 
bird or fruit), nabona i tau 
isa, his heart is fixed, abides 
on (the person or thing), 
i tau isa, it abides (as fruit) 
on it (the branch), i tau ki 
nuana, makes to tau, as a 
tree makes fruit to tau, yields 
(fruit), nakasu i tau, the tree 
yields (fruit), tau nata, take 
a person to one's house (as 
a guest), tau e a ; mamitau, 
matau, d., an anchor. A. 
t'awa', to abide, remain, (2), 
take for a guest, (4), make to 
stay, detain. 

Tau asa, and tou-gi, and toii- 
ni, V. t., to measure, to 
weigh ; tau, also to, toto, 
s., a measure ; and to-naki 
(for tau-naki), d. towa-naki, 
tawa-naki, to place, set, 
fix firmly, establish, appoint, 
determine, ordain, also to 
compare ; tau, redup. tautau, 

to commission (one to do 
something), command, hence 
fltaua, c. art. nafltaua, one 
commissioned, a messenger, 
also a commission or message 
(syn. fakaua, q.v.). [Fi. 
tatau-nctka, My. titali, to com- 
mand, order, decree.] H. 
sawah, to set up, place (S. 
so'), to constitute, appoint, 
decree, charge, command, 
commission, eg. H. s^awah, 
to be like, resemble. 

Tau, tatau-fi, tata gasi, 
tautau, V. t., to deceive, mis- 
lead. S. t'a% ta'uta ; also in 
H. and A. ; to err, deceive, 

Tau, bitau, bitautau, v. i., 
and t., to invite (as to a 
feast) ; tau, in tau-mafa, to 
invoke, ask, pray ; taumafa, 
is mafa, to give a gift, to 
sacrifice, to (a deity, or nate- 
mate), and tau, to invoke, 
pray, thus taumafa, to invoke 
or pray (while) sacrificing, 
or giving an offering. A. 
da'a, to call with a loud 
voice ; to invite ; to invoke, 

Tau, s., a season, time, year. 
[Mg. taima, My. taun (tawun), 
Sa. tau.] A. zaman, S. 
ziban. Mod. S. zona, id. 

Taua, s., a heap, a crowd, a 
herd ; taua ki, to heap, pile. 
[My. tambun, tinibun, turn- 
puk, id., Mg. tauna.] H. 
sabar, A. s'abara, id. 

Tau, tautau, v. t., to com- 
mission. [Fi. tatau-naJca, id.. 
My. titaJif to command, order. 





decree (to-naki, infra.)] 

Tau-gi, V. t., to grasp firmly 
with the hand, to pluck oif 
with the hand (as fruit), tau 
isa, hold it firmly in the 
hand. [Sa., Ma. tan, to 
pluck fruit with the hand, 
Mg. sanibufa, My. samhut, to 
lay hold of, Fi. taura, take 
hold of.] H. sabat, A. 
s'abata, (1), (5), (7), to grasp, 
lay hold of firmly, pluck, also 
s'abat^a, (1), (8), hold (a 
thing) in the hand, seize, 

Tau-ri, v. t., to bind, be bound 
firmly to, to marry {a tvoman), 
to tie firmly to (as a boat to 
a ship to be towed), taura ki, 
tau lua i, to be fixed or 
bound firmly (to one), bring- 
ing out one (as from bondage, 
or from her relations), to 
redeem ; to marry ; bitauri, 
V. r., to be bound, or tied, or 
attached, firmly to each other, 
to be married. [Sa. taula 'i, 
hang on to, taula, an anchor.] 
A. sabara, sabr', to bind, be 
bound to, &c. 

Tali-ni, or tao-ni, v. t., to 
cook, to bake (in the oven). 
[Sa. tao, ps. taoa, faoina ; 
taonai, to bake food the day 
before giving it ; To., Ma., 
tao.'\ A. taha, n. a. tahw', 
to cook. Hence 

Tao, s., c. art., leaves for 
cooking which are put into 
the oven along with the food 
to be cooked. [To. tau, the 
cooking leaves. Tali, tao, 

leaves and stones put into 
the inside of a pig to be 

Taueru isa, v. t., to haul, 
drag, tau and eru, i.e. aru, 
the hand, lit. fix the hand on 
(to drag), as to drag a man to 

Taui, V. t., to twist, wring 
(as to wring clothes after 
washing them), to milk (as a 
goat), squeeze, or wring (the 
milk out). A. tawa% (E. 
tawiy, H. tawah), to wring, 

Tauien, or tawien, s., a sister's 
husband, a wife's brother, 
that is, brother-in-law ; but, 
d., a general name for reliable 
friend, brother, or sister, and 
in another d. the word is 
applied to father-in-law and 
son-in-law. [Fut. safe, Aniwa 
nosafe, Ta yafanl d., c. art. 
nevun.'i ^' ^a-flyyS a friend 
of a pure and sincere mind, 
i.e. a real friend, safa*, 3, to 
be of sincere and pure affec- 
tion (towards someone), 4, to 
show sincere love, 6, to live 
in mutual sincerity of friend- 

Taubora, s., an ornament that 
abides on the side of the 
head : tau, bora. 

Taulalo, v. or s., to hang, or 
be fixed or what hangs or 
abides in front of the belly, 
nasieg i taulalo : tau, lalo. 

Taumafa, d. taumofa, v. i., 
to invoke giving an offering 
(to the natemate), taumafa 




sa, give an offering of or 
with it (something), taumafa 
ki nia, offer it (something), 
taumafa tua i, make an 
offering, giving to him (a 
natemate). [Ml. P. tomav. 
Ha. liaumaha, to offer in sacri- 
fice, to offer a gift upon an 
altar, s., a sacrifice, Tah. tau- 
maha, sl portion of food offered 
to the gods or spirits of the 
dead.] Tau (to pray, invoke), 
and mafa, or mofa (q.v.), 
giving or offering. A. ma'ha- 
bat, a gift, H. habhabim 
(Hos. viii. 13), offerings (to 
God), A. wahaba, H. yahab, 
to give. 

Taumako, s., the wild (edible) 
yam that grows or abides on 
the hills : tau, and mako, 
for which see aka, ako. 

Taumi. See tami. 

Taunako, s., a thing (like the 
peak of a cap) worn over the 
forehead. [Cf. syn. Sa. tau- 
mafa'} : tau, and nako. 

Tauruuru, v. i., to grumble, 
murmur, mutter : ta, and 

Tausi, V. t. See takusi. 

Tauso, or tausoa, v. i., to 
commit adultery or fornica- 
tion (of either sex) : tau, and 
so, or soa. [Fi. dan fa."} 

Te, dem., rel. pron., conj., as 
agute, mine this, ana te, his 
this or that ; te uia, what 
(is) good, that which is good, 
or he or she who is good, te 
sa, that which is bad, or he 
or she who is bad ; in this 

sense d. tea, as tea uia, tea 
sa ; te nata, what, or what- 
ever person, any person, some- 
one ; te, redup. tete, may be 
used substantively, as, te ru 
ban, or tete ru ban, some 
went ; te, dem., is found in 
flte (nafite, sefete, what 
this, that, or it ? or simply, 
what?) alsoinmatuna; with 
art., nete, s., the that, any- 
thing, something, and d. with 
dem. ka prefixed, nakate, 
id. ; te is also found with ka, 
dem. prefixed in one d. as a 
tense particle (see kate, tense 
particle, supra) ; te, or t% is 
also used as a conj. and 
before the verbal pron. of the 
1st person sing., a, and of 
the 3rd sing., i or e, loses its 
vowel, as ta ban, that I go, 
or be gone, te ban, that he 
has gone, or because he has 
gone. In one dialect for 
i kate, ku kate, a kate ban, 
he, you, I went, there is ka 
te ban, ku te ban, ki te 
ban, I went, you went, he 
went. A. da, dem., du, rel., 
S. d', Ch. di, rel. and conj., 
that, because. 

Tea. See te. 

Teba, or taba, v. i., to dry up 
(of liquid or moisture), to be- 
come dry ; and mun teba 
ki, to drink, making it dry 
(liquid). E. nasefa, to be- 
come dry (as a river) ; to dry 
up (as a spring), nesuf, dry, 
dried up. 

Teel, s., shellfish, &c., got on 
the reef, lit. te el% that which 




is pleasant, sweet, or tasty : 
te elo. 

Tefa, tetefa, v. i., to draw up 
in order of battle ; and 

Tefa ki, v. t., to put in a series, 
to range (troops, in order of 
battle) ; bitefa, range them- 
selves in order of battle, face 
to face ; tefa-gi, d. tefa-ni, 
V. t., to put things in a series, 
either one before or one 
above another. QFi. tuva, 
V. i., tui% V. t., to place in 
regular order, to range in 
close compact, or place one 
upon another, tuvai nai vain, 
tuvai valu, to put in the atti- 
tude of war, put in battle 
array, tuva net Imva ni valu, 
arrange or put in ranks the 
Uma ni valu.'^ A. safia, 1, 
2, 6, 8, to set or place in 
order in a series ; to arrange 
the line of battle, draw up in 
order of battle ; Nm. to 
arrange (troops), 2, id., to 
range themselves mutually 
face to face. 

Tef i, or tefl, redup. tetefi, 
V. t., to cut ; tefi, to circum- 
cise. [Fi. teve, tava, Sa. tefe, 
To. tefe, Sa., To. tafa, Mg. 
tapalxa."^ A. 'as'aba, to cut. 

Tefarafara, v. i., to break (of 
the sea) ; and 

Tefara, s., c. art., breakers: 
tafera, taferafera. 

Tefarere (i. e. tefarrere), v. i., 
to break rushing up on the 
shore (of the breakers) : te- 
fara, and rere. 

Tei, s., c. art. intei, a reddish 

powder made from a plant, 
turmeric : bitei. 

Tei. See rei. 

Tei a, for toitoi. 

Telake na, d. telakea na, s., 
lord, owner, j^ossessor : lake. 

Telatela, v. i., or a., to be 
large, wide ; and 

Telatelana, id., c. ending -na. 
and see matulu, matultul, 
matoltol, swollen, large. [Epi 
toru, large, Sa. tetele, telatela, 
latele, vatele, Ma. tetere, large, 
swollen.] H. »adir, large, 
great, 'adar, to be wide, A. 
'adira, to have hernia (to 
swell out). 

Tele, v. t. See tale is, to 
search for. 

Telei, or talai, s., the ancient 
axe, or adze-like axe (a shell). 
[Sa. talai, to adze, Ma., Tali. 
tarai, choi? with an adze, Ha. 
Jcalai, to chop, hew, pare, 
carve.] A. s^araha, to cut, 
slice, carve, dissect. 

Teiuko. See taluko. 

Tema na, or tama na, s., 
father: see Ch. II. 11. e. [Sa. 
tamd, My. rama, id.] 

Temabalu, s., brothers, lit. te 
(he who), ma (with), balu, 
(brother) : balu ; and 

Temabalu ta, for temabalu 
ra, who (or those who) with 
their brother, i. e. brothers. 
So tema in the following 
words is, lit., he or she who 
or those who, or that (person) 
or those (persons) with. 

Temabau ra, s., d., uncle and 
nephew : bau. 




Temabele ta, s., mother and 
child : bele na. 

Temagore ta, s., brother and 
sister : gore ua ; d. mera 
gore na. See mera. 

Temaloa ta, s., d. syn. tema- 
bau ra : alo ana. 

Temamo ta, s., mother-in-law 
and son-in-law : mo na. 

Temaratauien, s., i. e. te ma- 
ra tauien, that with (his) 
tauien, d. syn. temataku ta : 

Temarauota, s., i.e. te mara 
uota, that with (her) uota 
(husband), wife and husband : 
uota, d. me nimariki. 

Temasere, s.. a beloved one, 
esi^ecially a child much cared 
for ; te, that, masere, loved, 
cared for. See also sere, ba- 

Tematafa, for temarafa, s., 
father and child, lit. that (i. e. 
the child) with the father. 
See afa. 

Temataku ta, s., a man and 
his brother-in-law (his wife's 
gore na) : taku na. 

Tematema ta, s., father and 
child : tema na. 

Tematete ta, s., maternal 
grandmother, and her grand- 
child : atena na. 

T^mati, i. q., ma, with, and, 
only with numerals. H. ^^^^, 
see ^^V. 

Tematia ta, s., paternal grand- 
father (&c.) and his grand- 
child : atia na. 

Tematobu ta, s. maternal 
grandfather and his grand- 
child: tobu na. 

Tematua ta, s., paternal grand- 
mother and her grandchild: 
tua na. 

T'te na, s., juice: toto. 

Ten, d. for tanonon. 

Tena na, s. See atena na; 
d. atia, or, tia na. 

Ter, V. i., to be slow, tardy. 
A. 'ah'h'ara, 5, to be slow, 

Tera sa, v. t., be ignorant of, 
forget, not to know (it), d. 
rere, d. tenr. A. s^alla, to 
not know, be ignorant of; 

Tera, v. i., to shine (of the 
sun), tera i, v. t., shine upon 
it (of the sun). [My. tdra^, 
tdmg han, Fi. t'ila, Malo sara- 
sara.'\ H. sahar (cf. zahar, 
&c.), to shine. 

Tera i, tetera i, v. t., to go 
after, to do anything after (or 
in the track of) another, baka- 
tera i, to answer (make one's 
word to go after another's), 
ba, and sela tera i, go after, 
gua tera i, shout after, bisa 
tera i, speak after; also to 
rehearse, recount, tera usi, 
to recount following, tera uti 
na, to go after close to. [My. 
tiirut, follow, go after.] A. 
'at'ar', track, 'at'ara, 4, make 
something follow another, 5, 
8, follow the track of some- 
one, go after, 1, recount, 

Tera, v. i., to be quick, swift, 
tera ki mala, wheel, swoop, 
shoot, or glide swiftly like a 
hawk, tera gulu-ti, swoop 
(upon one) clasping (him, as 




in war), tera tukituki, run 
rapidly beating the ground 
with one's feet, tera belbel, 
to be exceedingly swift or 
quick, tera man, to be quick 
indeed or truly, to be instant, 
do instantly, tera bile, to be 
very quick, teratera, redup. ; 
tera lo saki, to turn quickly, 
looking up, tera tabo (d.), to 
turn quickly bending the 
head down, torutoru, to 
sweat. [Ma. tere, Sa. teleteU.'\ 
A. darra, (10), to run vehe- 
mently, or swiftly, 4, to turn 
or whirl a spindle very swiftly, 
H. darar, (also) to fly in a 
circle, wheel in flight ; and 
like A. darra, to spout, to 
pour out (as rain, &c.), to 
sweat, Ef. torn, torutoru. 
Ter e, v. t., to pour into ; and 
Tera, s., c. art., a pouring out ; 
natera ni us, a rain squall, 
an outpouring of rain. 
Tera, a., having (lit. that has) 
branches, as tera rua, tolu, 
&c., having two, three, &c., 
branches (of a tree): te,andra. 
Terafi, v. t., for rerafi, to 
scratch (as the ground). See 
Teragi, v. t., in kabu teragi, 
to heat cooked food over 
again, teragi is for reragi, 
as in bauragi, bau-terag i 
(see bau-si, baraga i, raga- 
Teratar, v. i., to stagger, 
totter (as a man drunk). A. 
tartara, to stagger (as a man 

Teratera, v. i., to be delirious, 
insane ; A. hatara, 1, 4, to 
make, or to be delirious, in- 
sane ; also torotoro. 
Tere, teretere, v. t., to feast, 
to entertain (especially visitors 
at a festival), also to make a 
feast or banquet for a friend 
who visits one. The radical 
idea lies in that of gathering 
folks together for a festival, 
or enclosing them as it were 
in one's house and hospitality. 
H. 'asarah, an assembly of 
people for keeping a festival, 
'asar (primary idea is that of 
surrounding, enclosing), Ni., 
(3), to be gathered together, 
especially for a festival, A. 
a'asir, breakfast and dinner, 
or supper. 
Tere, s., c. art., the mast (of a 
canoe or ship), calf (column) 
of the leg. A. sariyat, Nm. 
sari, the mast (of a ship), a 

Tere, s., and teretere, s., the 
comb (of a cock) ; the eaves 
of a house. [Sa. tala, Tah., 
Ma. tara, H. 'kala.'\ Nm. 
torra, crest, comb of bird, A. 
torrat, extremity, side of 
anything, forelock, pointed, 
from tarra, to cut, to sharpen, 
to snatch, to shoot (as plants), 
to propel vehemently, irri- 
tate, stir up. 
Terei, v. t., for rerei, for 

roroia: rei. 
Terina, s., enclosure. H. tur, 

fence, enclosure. 
Teres, for reres : res. 




Tere-ti, v., used as ad., as, 
boka tere-ti, to smite or 
strike hastily (and therefore 
ineffectively, confusedly), syn. 
sarafi, and sumati, and bile, 
or bilebile : tera, to be 

Tete, s., voc, mother. See 
under ani na. 

Tete, and tetea. See te. 

Ti, and d. si, neg. ad., not: 
d. ta. [Sa. le, Ma. te, Fut. 
si, My. ta, Mg. .<??.] 

Ti, V. t., to say ; ti ki nia, 
say to him, tell him, ti ki 
nia sa, tell him it : dd. ni, 
noa, nofa, q.v. 

Ti, s., chief, as, ti Tongoa, 
chief of Tongoa : for tui, q.v. 

Ti, and ri, v. t., to push, 
thrust, proi^el, or drive. A. 
daya, to propel, thrust. 

T'tie na, or t'tia na, s., saliva, 
water of the mouth, nat'tia 
na i sera sa, his mouth 
waters because of it, lit. the 
water (of his mouth) runs at 
it : titia. 

Tiamia, v. i. or a., to be first, d. 
bea or tobea (for toko bea) : 
tia, to abide or be, and mia, 
d. bea, q.v. [Oba tomua, Sa. 
mua, and tomua.'J 

Tia na, or tie na, s. See atia 

Tiana, v. i., to be with child. 
See miten. S. t'yina, laden, 

Tiba, neg. ad., not. See d. 
tab: ti, ad., and ba for ma, 
as in Assy, aama, not. 

Tib e, or tuba i, v. t., to shoot 
with an arrow ; 

Tiba, or tuba, s., c. art., an 
arrow, i.e. what is cast: 
tuba. [Mg. si/piJca.'] E. na- 
dafa, (2) to shoot with an 
arrow, (1) to strike, (3), to 
prick, H. nadaf, to drive 
away. The radical idea is 
thrusting, pushing. 

Tiba, s., the post in a house 
that supports the ridge- 
pole: Compare A. di«mat, 
column, pillar, from da'- 
ama, v. 

Tibi-li, V. t., to burn, to 
sear. A. s'ahaba, to roast, 
to broil. 

Tibu (pronounced timbu), d., 
s., c. art. natimbu, the deep 
(sea) : bua. 

Tiele, v. i., to finish a laugh 
with shrill cries, in a whinny- 
ing manner (of women). H. 
sahal, to utter shrill cries ; 
to neigh (of a horse), A. 
sahala, n. a. sahiP, to 

Tifai, s., thunder : ti, art., and 
fai. [Sa. fai-tilitili, Fila te- 
facluri, Aniwa tefackiri.'} A. 
bahh.' (used of thunder), 
hoarse, cf. Sa. fa, hoarse. 

Tikal i. See takal i. 

Tigi na, or tiki na, s., side, 

Tigi elo, v., to bask in the 
sun, warm oneself in the sun. 
A. s^aha, to bask or warm 
oneself in the sun, s'ahiyat, 
side, outside or edge. Hence 

Tigi (side) in malitigi, mali- 
rigi, &c., place at the side, 
that is, beside, near : and 




Tigitigi na, s., d., edge (out- 
side or exposed edge or side 
of a thing), and 

Tiki na, and 

Tikitiki na, id. ; and 

Tiki nra nin, d., this point 
(of time), now. 

Tika, a strong negative, it is 
not, no, by no means ; 

Tiki (or tika), neg. ad., not; 
i tiki ban, he did not go ; 

Tika, and tiki, the same, used, 
with the verb, pron., as a 
verb, to be not, to exist not, 
dd. sika, nika, rika, tika : 
neg. ad. ti, and ka. It is 
thus construed : i tika sa, it 
is not in it or him, or he has 
it not, i tika ki nia, it is not 
to or in him, or he has it 
not, thus, namuruen i tika 
ki nia, there is no laughing 
in him, i tika ki namuruen, 
he has not laughing. For ti 
see ti, neg. ad., supra ; ka is 
to be compared with the E. 
ko, in 'eko, not, ko being 
a contraction of kona (A. 
kana), to be ; and tika with 
the Talmudic and Mandaite 
lika, not, is not (Noldeke, 
Mand. Grammatih). [Fut. ji- 
hai^ My. tak^ Mg. sia, and 
diaJme, To. iJcai, Sa. i'ai, no, 
not, not so.] 

Tiki-amo, d. takamo, q.v. 

Tiki, V. i., to be soft (of the 
skin), syn. busa, as, nauili 
na i tiki, or, i busa, his skin 
is soft (his skin is bad, or has 
an uncomfortable feeling, as 
on hearing some dreadful 

story, or witnessing some 
fearful thing). See busa. A. 
'atika, (6), (3), to become soft 
and tender (of the skin). 

Tiki na, and tiki na, s., for 
riki na. 

Tiko, s., a staff, a walking 
stick, a pole by which a canoe 
is poled forward in shallow 
water. QSa. fo'o, a canoe 
pole, a stick in which is fixed 
the perch of a pigeon, (o'o- 
ndi, to lean on a staff, to lean 
on anything for support, too- 
too, a staff', walking stick, 
totdo, to lean upon a staff, 
To. toTiO, a post used to make 
fast canoes to, tokofolv, a 
staff. My. tciMn, Mg. tehina, 
a staff, miteJiina, to walk with 
a staff, to walk leaning on a 
person.] A. toka'at, a staff, 
a support, he who leans much 
on his side, and props himself 
up. Hence, Nm., taka, 8, 
itteci, to lean upon. Hence 

Tiko ki, V. t., to pole (a canoe). 
This is done by leaning upon 
the tiko, and so throwing 
one's weight upon it. 

Tila i, d. til e (and tali-si), 
V. t., to wrench, prize (with a 
lever), to struggle, wriggle, 
wrestle (as through a narrow 
place) ; tila ki, v. t., to 
wrench, sprain, twist (as one's 
foot by stepping into a hole) ; 
tilatila, v. t. , wrench up with 
a lever roots and rocks in 
making a hole in which to 
plant a yam ; hence 

Tila, s., a lever, crowbar. 
[Mg. iuhma, mituJuna, to 




struggle together, to wrestle.] 
A. 'atala, to violently drag 
and wrench away, 3, to 
wrestle with, atalat, Nm. 
'atela, crowbar, lever, hod. 

Tila i, tila, d. for lita i : lita. 

Tilasi, and rediip. tilatilasi : 

Tilai, titilai. See talai, tata- 

Till, V. t., to tell, relate (a 
thing). [Sa. tola, v. and s., 
tell, relate, tale, narration, 
tdldi, talatalai, To. tala."} A. 
tala', to follow, to relate (a 
narrative), read, recite. 

Tili-mar, v. i., d. for lele 
maroa, to revolve or roll 
turning round : lele, maroa. 

Tinom i, d. for tulum i. 

Tiragi (riragi), v., to look at 
(as at a spectacle). A. rana, 
to look at. 

Tira sa, d. rira sa. See tera 

Tiri, V. i., to fly (of birds), d. 
riri ; also to fly into a rage, 
to be transported with rage, 
flying and jumping about 
excitedly ; i tiri, syn. i miti, 
as, i tiri bas i, or i miti bas i, 
he (transported with rage) 
flies snatching him (the ob- 
ject of his passion, as if to 
tear out his e3^es). Hence 
riri, a spark, and mitiri, a 
grasshopper (from leaping 
and flying), and taroa, a 
pigeon. [Sa. lele, Ma. rere.J 
A. tara, to fly ; to be swift, 
move quick. 

Tirigi, for ririgi, rigi. 

Tirikit, v. i., to begin to drop 

or sputter (of rain). [Fi. tiri, 
to drop.] For tiri, see tutu- 
ru, and for kit, kita, small, 

Tiro, v. i., to sink, roll down 
(as in the sea, or down a pre- 
cipice, or into a pit) ; hence 

Tiroa, s., c. art., a precipice, 
or deep, steep place. [Fi. 
tiro, siro, sisiro, My. tiirun, 
turun'kan.'\ A. hadara, 
hudur', to descend, put down. 
See mitaru, toroaki ; also 

Tiro e, d., v. t., to swallow, 
send down, make to sink 
down (into the stomach) ; 

Tiro-aki, v. t., make to sink 
down (as an anchor,) to 
anchor, d. toro-aki, tirotiro, 

Tiso, v. i., to exude, d. lisoa, 
tise, exude on to (a thing) : 

Titi, v., to tread, titia ki na- 
kasu, tread on a log (as on 
a log thrown across a stream). 
[My. titi.'\ A. watiya, to 

Titia, V. i., to slaver, dribble 
(as an infant), to have saliva 
flowing, to have the mouth 
watering, nat'tia na, saliva, 
water of the mouth. [Mg. 
rura, saliva.] H. rir, saliva, 
A. rala, to slaver, dribble (of 
an infant), riyaP, saliva, cf. 
My. liyor, slaver, dribble. 

Titiro, V. i., to gaze into the 
sea looking for fish or shell- 
fish ; to look at one's image 
in water or a looking-glass. 




[Fi. tiro, tiro-va, to look at 
oneself in the water, peep at, 
Sa. filotilo, ps. tilofia, to peep, 
spy, Mg. tarafa, tarafina. Ma. 
tiro, tirotiro, titiro, look, gaze, 
Ha. Mlo, to look hard, earnest- 
ly, to star-gaze, prognosticate, 
act as a sorcerer.] A. na- 
t'ara, to gaze, look for, con- 
sider, spy, to prognosticate, 
Tiu sa, d., v. t., to sink, dip, 
matiu, V. i., to sink, d. redup. 
tutu, d. lulu, V. i., to sink, 
d. riu sa, v. t., to point out 
with the finger, d. tuma i, 
V. t., to point out with the 
finger, d. tiu sa, tu sa, d. 
tu-ni a, or riu sa, or ru sa, 
or redup. tiutiu sa, tutu sa, 
riuriu sa, or ruru sa, v. t., 
to smear, tinge, colour, or 
paint nafona (native cloth). 
See also lolofa, lum, luma, 
lulum. [Ma. totohu, to sink, 
tohu, mark, sign, toi, finger, 
also toe, Tah. toJm, to point 
at with the finger, make a 
sign, To. tnJiu, v., to point 
with the finger, s., the fore- 
finger, Sa. tiisi, to mark 
(native cloth), to write, to 
point out, tusitusi, striped, 
Fi. luvu, to sink, Mg. tsultihi, 
soaked, drenched, dipped, 
My. tud'ig, to point at with 
the finger, to indicate. See 
also under lolofa, luma.] 
H. taba', to sink, eg. saba% 
A. saba'a, to dip into, im- 
merse, E. tam'a, id., to be 
dipped, plunged, H. saba% 
to dip in, immerse, to dye, 

tinge, seba% something dyed, 
a versicoloured garment, Ch. 
(see lolofa) seba% A. saba'a, 
to point out or at with the 
finger, 'asbi«, 'asbu% &c., 
the finger, H. 'asba% finger, 
also toe, A. saba"a, to dye 
or colour (cloth), to make a 
sign, indicate. 

To, V. i., contr. for toko, or 
tok, dd. ti, te, to rest, sit 
down, dwell, remain, be. 
[Malo ate, Ml. d. at, Mg. 
tueta, tuata, tuifa.'} See 

To, redup. toto, d. touo, d. 
tau, s., a measure, equal. 
[Fi. rau.'] And 

To-naki, v. t., to compare ; to 
place, fix ; to appoint, deter- 
mine, establish. See tau. 

To (and seetofi), v. t, to push, 
press upon. A. da"a, to 
push, propel. 

Toa (towa), or to', s., a 
(domestic) fowl, also a bird 
(=: manu). [Fi. toa. My. 
ayam, Coram dd. tofi, totvim, 
Bouru dd. telmi, teput, tepnti, 
Cocos Island iifa, bird. Tag. 
Ihon.'J H. 'of, bird (gen. 
name), A. 'a'f, gallus. 

Note. — For Ef. toa, see 
Index under 1. 

Toa i. See roa i. 

Tob, d., V. i., or a., to be large, 
great. [Epi som&i, Mg. dubc.'} 
A. *at'oma, to be great. 

Tob, s., c. art. natob, spittle. 
H. tof, E. tafe% to spit. 

Tobag i. See tabag i. 

Tobaroba. See rabaraba. 




Tobet, s., rubbish heap. Cf. 

H. tofet, spittle. See tob. 
Tobu, s., a tumour, swelling. 

See tubu. 
Tobu na, s., grandfather, an- 
cestor. [Malo tiibii, Ta. tupu, 
Po. tiqnma.^ See tubu. 
Tobu, s., d., a natemate, 
spirit, familiar spirit, demon, 
d. tobua. [Ma. taejjo.'} A. 
taifo, vulg. A. taif, id. 
Tobu, d. nobu, q.v. 
Tofe na, s., native cloth, 
clothing. [To. tcqja, H. 
Jcapci} ; 
Tofe, V. i., d., to put on the 
tofe, to dress. See under 

Tofl, V. t., to push. A. da'aba, 
to push. 
Toga, d. rog, d. taga, s., a 

basket. H. tene', id. 
Toga, s., far away, also, na- 
toga, a distant place or 
country. H. rahok, S. 
ruhka, E. rehuk, far off, 
Toga, for toga, basket. 
Togo i, d. toko i, v. t., to 
push, thrust, and see baka- 
toko i. H. dahak, A. da- 
haka, to push, thrust. 
Togo, d. nrogo, for rogo, to 

Toitoi, V. t., also teitei (and 
tei), to hate. A. 'ada', (2), 
n. a. «adw', (b), 'adiya, to 
Tokei, or tokai, s., c. art., a 
prop, or rafter (which reaches 
from the ground to the ridge- 
pole in an Efatese house) ; 
then natokai nafanua, the 

prop, i.e. chief, of the land. 
[Mg. tuhana, prop, support.] 
See tiko. A. 'atka'a, to prop 
Toki, tokitoki, v. t., to gather 
up one's things, or pack up, 
preparatory to flitting. See 
raku, taku-ti. [Fi. toki-a.'^ 
Toko, d. tok, V. i., to rest, 
sit down, dwell, remain, be, 
contr. to, q.v., sometimes 
pronounced tuk. [My. and 
Ja. duduJc, dodok, Mg. iuata, 
(see to), Fi. tiko, toka.Ji H. 
takah, Pu. tukah (Deut. 
xxxiii. 3), A. waka'a, 8, 
'ttaka'a, cf. 5, to sit (Luke 
xiv. 8), to remain. Hence 
Tokon, s., c. art., a village, 
remaining or dwelling place. 
Toki, s., an axe ; and 
Tok, s., violence, force. A. 
takka, to cut, H. tok, vio- 
Tokalau, s., easterly wind : 

tok, remain, alau, on the 

Toko i. See togo i. 
Toko-naki, v. t., to strike on 

(as one's foot on a stone, the 

wind on a mountain). [Ma. 

tutuM, To. iKJcia."} See tuki. 
Tokora, s., a place. [Mota 

togara, behaviour, togava, a 

station.] See toko. 
Tokotoko na, s., a shark's 

fin : toko i. 
Toko-ni, v. t., to kindle, set 

fire to, redup. tokotoko. A. 

daka', to kindle. 
Tol, s., violence, force. See 

tila, to wrench. 




Tola, V. i., to be early dawn, 
toa i tola, the cock crows, 
lit. crows at early dawn ; 

Tola, s., the dim early dawn ; 
the dim distance in the sky ; 

Tolarola, id., redup. ; and, d. 
tolau, id. Hence matol, d., 
to-morrow. H. s^ahar, A. 
Sahara, to be far remote, 
sahira, to do, or to set out at 
early dawn, 8, the cock crew 
at early dawn, H. mis'har, 
the morning. 

Tole na, s., c. art., egg (of a 
bird), d. atol mita na, eye- 
ball. [My. tcilor, Mg. atudi, 
and antudi, Oba toligi, Sulu 
iMug, Nias O/juloh, Poggi ago- 
loJi.^ Mahri hall, Amh. 'an- 
k'ilal: the radical meaning 
is 'round'. 

Toll a, V. t., to surpass, to go 
past, before, bitoli, v. r., d. 
bilele; to pass or go before 
each other, d. toliu sa. vSee liu. 

Tom, or tom, s., turmeric, a 
reddish curry powder. [Fi. 
damudamu, red, Mg. tamii- 
tamu, turmeric, ttimamutamu, 
yellow, of an orange, saffron 
colour.] A. 'adoma, to be 
red, H. 'adamdom, reddish. 

Tomo na, s., tumu na. 

Tomotomoa, v. i., tumutu- 

Tonako, for taunako. 

Tontono sa, v. i., to be per- 
plexed, in pain or distress on 
account of (something) : tunu. 

Tore, or tere (natuona), s., 
the leg below the knee. See 
tere, mast (of ship), column. 

Toro, V. i., to leak (as a canoe). 
A. ta"ara, to boil, emit water 
(as clouds), to leak (as a vein 
or vessel). 

Toro, V. t., to lay down, aban- 
don, let down, permit, tor ea, 
lay it down, &c. ; 

Tor6 sa, lit. lays down or 
abandons on account of it, 
i. e., gives up his old mind or 
opinion in consequence of the 
evil it has brought upon him, 
rues ; tor ea, put into (as 
liquid into a vessel), totor 
ea, id., syn. tutua ki; 

Toroa, v. i., to be rich, toro 
(lay down, store up, and end- 
ing a) : matoro-toro, let 
down, slackened, slack (as a 
rope) ; 

Toro-aki, for tiro-aki. See 

Toro na, s., his impulse, onset, 
power, might. [Ma. tara, 
courage, mettle.] This same 
word occurs as tere na (comb 
of cock, &c.), where see the 
verb. A. tarra to propel 
vehemently, &c., Nm. tarr, 
free will, arbitrary power ; 

Torotoro na, id., redup. 

Torotoro, for teratera. 

Torotoro, v. i., to sweat. 

Torutoru, id., and 

Toru, s., sweat. See tera. 

Tos, d., V. i., to creep, d. for 

Tot i. See rot i. 

Totau, dd. tatau, titau, titu, 
s., a child, infant. [Mg. 
zaza."} E. sa's'ae, H. se'- 
esa'em, offspring. 




Toto, v.. to think ; and 

Toto na, s., th ought, mind. 
See mitoa. 

Toto, dd. tiso, lisoa, v. i., to 
exude (as gum, juice, from 
plants). [Fi. titi, titi-va, My. 
titili, Mg. mitete, mitate, tele- 
vana.'\ A, nas's'a, n. a. na- 
s'is', to exude. Hence 

Toto, s., a plant abounding in 
a milky juice, and its juice. 

Totofa, d., V. i., to swell : d. 
tubu, q.v. 

Toli-gi, d. toii-ni, v. t, to 
measure, to weigh. See tau, 
d. tau asa, to measure. 

Touo, d. for roua. See roa. 

Tu, verb, pron., 1 pi. incl. ; 
dual ta. See nigita, ninita. 

Tu, V. i., to stand, dd. su, ru, 
and see su ; also to abide, 
dwell, be ; tu lena, stand up 
straight, used also of rising 
up, to rise up ; tu-ri also 
occurs, to stand, or abide to 
(or with) a person, and tu- 
raki, to stand or abide for 
(a person or thing). [Fi. hi, 
hi-ra, turcica, TaSa. tuni, Ml. 
P. tu, tutu ( = My. diri), Sa. 
tu, tutu, faatu, tula 'i, tulaga. 
Ma. tu, tutu, turaga. Ha. liu 
(1, rise up, 2, to stand), My. 
diri, Mg. juru.'\ H. nasa', 
so', s'et, imp. sa', cf. Hithp., 
E. nasa'a, A. uas'a'. See 
su, supra. 

Note. — This word also oc- 
curs as matu, batu, fatu ; 
and, like toko, matoko, and 
also ani, it is put after de- 
monstratives, as uane tu, 
uane matu, nin batu, nistu, 

&c., lit. this or that standing 
or being (there or here). 

Tua, V. t., to place, put down ; 
also to give, tua i, give him ; 
tua ki, place, put down ; used 
also of liquids, tua ki nia 
las, put or place it in the 
vessel (cf. tor ea), make it to 
fall into the vessel, red up. 
tutua ki, bitua ki nia, or 
bitua sa, to put down, also 
to give (a thing) ; with some 
verbs it is like ' from ' as ba 
tua ki nia, go or come from, 
lit. go or come leaving, or 
putting it down, or placing 
it, hence ba bituaki, to halt 
between two opinions (in 
which the reflexive force of 
bitua, V. r., comes out), ba 
bituaki, lit. being, to go 
leaving it over and over 
again. H. natan, ten, tet, 
tenak, matanah, Ch. ma- 
tena, H. matat, to give, a gift ; 
also, to set, place. 

Tua na, s., name of various 
relatives, as brother's wife, 
husband's mother, paternal 
grandmother, and her grand- 
children, husband's sister. 
See under the following word. 
[Ml. U. tuan, elder brother. 
My. nuintuwah, father-in-law 
or mother-in-law.] 

Tuai, or tuei, a., old, ancient, 
and ad. long ago, also a long 
time hereafter. See baka- 
tuai, to make long (of time), 
matua, old, mature, &c. [Sa. 
tuai, faatuai, matua. My. tu- 
tvah. Ja. tuiva, Mrtmvah, Mtu- 
wall, mantutvah, Bu. matua, 




Mg. antita, anti [panalii), antu 
(cmdru), matua, mahtta.'] A. 
<adiyy% old, ancient (has the 
a, ending), and 'a'd% from 
«ada, to confer a benefit on 
one, to favour, &c. (see pre- 
ceding word), mo'id', power- 
ful, experienced, accustomed. 
See matua. A. <adiyy% 'a- 
diyyat', old, ancient, Mg. 
antita, antu-andru ( = Ef. 
aliati matua), tuai, My. in- 
tvahy id. Then My. hartU' 
wall, hatuwah, mantuwali, Ef. 
Mg. Po. matua, Ef. matua- 
tua, very old, Mg. matna- 
tua, a ghost (spirit of the de- 
parted, ancestral spirit), seem 
to be from this (i. e. tuwah, 
tuai), as also Ef. tua, and 
probably the Po. atua (aitu), 
q.v. supra. 

Tua, d. tue, s., cart., twins: rua. 

Tua, V. i., to go, redup. tutua. 

Tua na, or tuo na, s., legs, 
feet. [An. t^uo, Ta. sii, legs.] 
H. s'uk, to run, whence s^ok, 
Ch. s'ak, A. sak% suk», the 

Tuasil, s., giver of help : tua, 
place, give, sila. 

Tui, pronounced also ti, s., as 
tui Tongoa, chief of Tongoa. 
[Fi. tui.'} A. waddu, for 
watadu. See tatu, supra. 

Tuba i (see tiba i, tibd, which 
is the same word), to thrust, 
impel, hence tuba ki, to send, 
and natuba, s., an arrow, 
also a prick, sting, or thorn ; 
tuba gote-fl (to thrust break- 
ing) to condemn, or adjudge 

to die, tuba gori (thrust over 
or in front of) to forbid, tuba 
gasi (thrust wiping), to wipe, 
and redup. tubatuba i, to 
impel, propel, send off: from 
the idea of thrusting comes 
that of reaching to, touching, 
hence bitub, bitubetuba, 
v. r., to be touching (thrust- 
ing, lit.) each other, i. o., 
throughout, wholly, continu- 
ally, as, tale flri bitub, all 
round wholly, tafisaflsa bi- 
tubetuba, pray continually 
(one prayer touching another 
as in a series), and, i mate 
tuba nasefa? he died on 
account of what ? lit. touch- 
ing what ; ru tumara tuba 
ra, they touch each other (as 
of any two things, also of one 
thing done in retaliation for 
another). See tiba i. 

Tubara. See tabara. 

Tubatua, v. i., to kneel, lit. 
to stand on the knees : tu, 

Tubu, or tub, d. totofa, or 
totoba, V. i., to swell. [Oba 
tntumhu, Ml. tim'b.'} Arm. 
seba, H. sabah, to swell, 
sabeh, a swelling. See tobu, 
supra. This word also means 
to will, as Arm. seba, to will, 
to wish, properly to be in- 
clined, prone, so H. sabah ; 
hence in Efatese (cf. S., John 
iii. 27, and 8) tuma, d. tum- 
bu (ndumbu), with the nom. 
suf. denotes will, sua sponte, 
as, i tuma-na, he of his own 
will or accord, as ' Who told 
him to do this ? ' i tumana 





bat ia ' He of his own will or 
accord did it ', Meli tubu, id. ; 
Po. tupu, Mg. tumbu, My. 
tumbuh, see Ch. III. d, 
where also see A. saba'a, 
subu, &c., to grow. 

Tubut, d., s., rainbow: lit. 
stand in the middle (i. e. of 
the sky) : tu, buto (middle). 

Tugo-fl, d. for toko i, togo i. 

Tuk i, or tuki, v. t., to strike, 
beat, pound, redup. tuki- 
tuki; and, uru tukituki, 
run quickly, lit. run beating 
(the ground with the feet). 
[Fi. tuM-a, To. tuhi, Ma. tiiJcl, 
tuJcitulci.'] H. duk, dakak, 
A. dakka, dakka, &c., beat, 
pound, Nm. daqdaqa, sound 
of horses' feet beating (the 

Tuki, in matuki, s., q.v., and 
Mau-tukituki, or Mau-tiki- 
tiki, name of a mythical 
person, one of the first men. 
[Mg. hiM, matiiM. See ma- 
tuM, supra.] See under taki, 
supra, and see mau. 

Tu-ki-roa ki, v. t., to give in 
commission : roa, as in bo- 
roa ki, and tua, or tu, to give. 

Tuku, V. i., to go down, sink 
down, also v. t., tuku nalai, 
lower the sail (of a canoe), 
tuku bia kiki, put a child in 
a cloth basket to be carried 
on the back. [Ma. tulcu, To. 
iuJcu, Sa. tmi, Ha. Mu, Fi. 
tuku-t'a^ H. s'uah, A. sah'a, 
sah'a (t'ah'a, tah'a), to sink 
down, H. s'uhah, s'ihah, a 
pit, s^ahat, pit, cistern, the 
grave. Hence 

Tuk, s., a hole, enclosure like 
a hole or pit ; and 

Tukituki, s., the seven stars 
(because like an enclosure) ; 

Tuk, s., uora tiik, place of 
the pit, i. e. Hades ; and 

Tukituki, or tukutuku, s., 
name of a place on the 
western side of Efate, where 
is the entrance to Hades ; and 

Tuku, s., a fence, stake, or 
post (because sunk in the 
ground and firm). 

Tukunua, s., d., a story, 
tradition, d. syn. kakai. See 

Tula, s., wax of the ear. [Fi. 
tule, id., daligatula, deaf, Sa. 
tuli, deaf. My. tuli, deaf.] A. 
salah, deafness. 

Tu-lake, v. t., to give in com- 
mission : tua, give, and lake, 

Tuletule, v. i. , to swing ; and 

Tule-aki, v. t., to swing ; and 

Tula, s., d. a swing, v. i., to 
swing. H. dalal, dalah, 
talal, A. daldala, and taltala, 
to swing. 

Tuli for till, to tell, relate. 

Tuluku, for taluko. 

Talum i, or 

Tulum i, V. t., to swallow 
down, dd. tulug i, tinom i, 
tunug i, talug i. [An. atleg^ 
My. tdldn, cf. pdrldn, tdrldn, 
Mg. telina,2 A. lahima, n. a., 
lahm% 5, 8, Nm., 5, teleh- 
hem, to sw^allow down. 

Note. — Sa. and To. 'to 
swallow' is folo, A. bali'a, 




Tuma, d. tumbu (see under 

tubu). S. sebu, will. 
Tuma, or tama sok, for taba 

soka: taba. 
Tuma, d. ruma, q.v. 
Tuma i, v. t., to point out 

with the finger, bituma, v. r. ; 

d. riu sa. See tiu sa. 
Tuma i, v. t., to knock (as a 

door), as a sign to open it. 

Tumatuma i, id., redup. [Sa. 

tuma, cf. My. antam.Ji For 

tuba i. 
Tumalu, for tamalu: taba, 

Tuma-ni, v. t., d., to cook (in 

a particular way), redup. tu- 

tuma; and 
Tumu na, d. nubu na, q.v., 

also tomo na ; 
Tumutumua, v. i., or a., 

formed from tumu by a. 

ending a. See noba-ni, and 

nobanoba, and matumutu- 

mu, and manubunubu. 
Tumana, s., a parcel : taum i, 

tam i. 
Tumi, or tomi, v. t., to suck. 

QMotu tohoa.2 E. tabawa, 

to suck. 
Tumi. See rumi. 
Tu na, s., bones (of fish). 

Tutu, a., bony. [Fi. sui, d. 

(hia, bone, suisuia, lean, bare 

of flesh, bony, rough, sharp. ] 

A. s^a'a, 4, to become spiky, 

to be rayed. 
Tuni, V. t., to heat, tuni fatu, 

to heat red hot the oven 

stones. [Fi. tunu, tiimdunu, 

vaJmttmu-na.'} And 

Tunu, V. t., to heat, to oppress 
or make to suffer (as heat 
does) ; bitunu, to be hot, 
painful, dd. bitin, bisin (see 
also sinu, sisinu, and ton- 
tone) ; tutun, to light up 
(torches, the evening cooking 
fires) ; and 

Tunu, s., heat (of fire, or of 
the sun). See sinu. 

Tuni. See tani. 

Tunika, s. , place where the 
watchers at a koro (fish-trap) 
noiselessly remain : tu, to 
stand, and see nikenika. 

Tura sa, v. t., to lengthen (as 
by splicing) ; tutur ki, to 
delay for (as for a sick man 
unable to walk quickly), d. 
tutura ki, bakatura ki, id. 
A. tala, 1, 2, 4, make long, 
lengthen, to delay. 

Turausi. See tera usi. 

Tu-ri, see tu, to. stand up. 

Tur i, d. turu sa, v. t., to 
sew ; also to nail ; to go 
through an opening (as a ship 
through the entrance of a 
harbour) ; 

Turi, and turituri, s., needle, 
also nail. See turu ki. 

Turiai, or turiei, s., offspring, 
youth, children, young man, 
young men. A. duriyyat* 
(vulg. A. pronounced dori- 
ya), children, offspring, pro- 
geny, from darra, v. 

Turua (a. ending a), full of 
holes (as a rock of holes 
through which rain perco- 
lates) ; 

Tuturu, v. i., to drip (as eaves), 
leak (roof) ; 




Tuturu, s., a drop, dripping, 
c. art. ; and 

Turu ki, drip or leak through. 
See also tiri-kit. [Sa. tiihti, 
tuluhdu, faatulutidu, To. tulu, 
tuhd, To. tidu he mata = riri 
mita (tears), Fi. tlri, turu. 
titiri, tuturu, tirt-va, turu-va."]^ 
A. s'alla, (3), to sew, (2), 
shed tears, s^als''ala, to drip, 
fall in drops, was'ala, to drip, 
drop, leak out. 

Turubi-si, or d. torobi-si 
to lay down, leave, permit 
(d. turiik, permit), E. tarafa, 
A. taraka. See Ch. II. 14. c. 

Turuk, d., v., to permit. A. 
taraka, id., E. tarafa. 

Tu sa (see tiu sa). d. tu-ni, 
to tinge, mark, colour native 

Tusi, s., book, writing, Sa. 
word. See tiu sa, tu sa, for 
its origin. 

Tutu, V. i., to sink : tiu sa. 

Tutu a ki, redup. of tua ki, 
to place. 

Tutua, redup. of tua, to go. 

Tutuma, redup. of tuma-ni, 
to cook. 

Tutun (redup. of tunu, q.v.. 
to heat), to light up (torches 
and cooking fires, as in the 

Tuuti, V. t.; to tie : hence 

Tuut, s., a knot. [Tah. toti, 
My. tamlat.'^ E. s'abata, 
Arm. sebat and sewat, id. 

U, verb, pron., 1 pi., excl. (con- 
traction for au), d. bu, mu 
(dual moa), we (and) they. 
Mahri hem, or habu, they 

(Ef. bu = habu = 'mi in ki- 
nami, nami). 

U, s., in nau, d. for usu ; also 
in biteuj for bitesu. 

U, verb, pron., 3 pi., they : d. 
for ru (for nu, mu). 

U, v., d. for ba, q.v. ; in umai, 
to come here. 

Ua (wa), dd. ua (wa), ui 
(wi), interj., ad., yes: ua, 

Ua (u-a, and u-wa), s., oven, 
dd. um, ubu, of (ov). 

Ua (wa), d. ud q.v., inter, ad. 

Ua, s.. c. art. naua (nawa), 
and aua, veins, or muscles. 
[Fi. ua, Sa. ua.'^ See aua. 

Ua, V. i., d. for ba, and boua, 
to rain : ba. 

Ua ki, V. t.. d. boua ki, to 
yield fruit ; and 

Ua, s., c. art. naua (nawa), or 
nua na, its fruit. [Ta. v., 
auwa, s., noiva, Oba, v., mo 
tti, Sa., V. and s., fua, My., s., 
hitwah, Ja. tnvoh, woJi, My., v., 
larhmcaJi, Mg., s., vua, v., 
mamua, Ef. d. ueti na (weti 
na), Malo vira, Ml. P. fami, Er. 
d. mil, fruit, Ml. P. mi uan, 
Malo 'tuo fira, to bear fruit.] 
See under boua. Arm. fera, 
fira, &c., H. peri, fruit ; 
para, to bear fruit, E. fa- 
raya, id. 

Ua, yes, that's it : ua, dem. 

Ua, dem., this : with other 
demonstratives suffixed,either 
this or that, uana, uane, ua 
naga, uai, uase, uai na, uai 
naga, and with tu, uane tu, 
dd. uo uose, uintu. Con- 
nected with this word are 



ua, UTia, ui, uisa, uiko, 
uila, uana. H. po, fo, this. 
See Ch. V. 1. 

Ua'a, s., a swelling, rise, i bi 
ua'a (of, e. g., an island seen 
from a distance swelling up 
or rising out of the sea). See 
fuata, and bua iii. 

Uabe, inter, ad., d. syn. sabe, 
where now? where then? 
See be, and ue (d. ua). 

Uago, s., d. uak, j)ig, swine. 
[Ta. piiha, Fi. vualca, Sa. 
pacta, Malo hoi, Epi hue, 
Bouru hahue, My. hahi, Mysol 
hoJi."] This name seems lit. 
to denote ' grunter ', Ta. 2^uka, 
to grunt, j;«Jvrt, s., a pig. 
Compare supra buka, to bark, 
to cough (also d. buku). A. 
faka, fuak% or fuwak', to 
emit hoarse guttural sounds, 
fakfaka, to bark. 

Uai, dem., this, that ; and 

Uaia, id., also uai na, uai 
naga, uai ntu, id. Compare 
English, this here, this 'ere, 
for this. 

Uaka na, s., d. for aka na : 

Uako, interj.. a mere exclama- 
tion : ua and ko, dems. 

Ualu, for balu, friend ; and 

Ualubota, s., enemy, lit. alien 

Uan, inter, ad., d., where? 
See ue. [Santo vcai and 
even, id.] See Ch. V. 4. h., hh. 

Uana, dem., that : ua, dem., 
and na, dem. suffixed to it. 

Uana, interj., an exclamation, 
see ! look out ! Dems. ua, 
and na. 


Ua-nate natua na, s., d., calf 
of the leg, lit. fruit of the 
belly (liver) of the leg. 

Uane, dem., this : ua, ne. 

Uarik, d. for batik, q.v. 

Uasa, ad., d. asa, the day 
after to-morrow. [An. vit% 
Epi veua. Ml. vis, wisa, Am. 
hughna, Santo pogiriia, Lo 
weria, Mota arisa!^ The word 
uasa is ua (for which see 
ma), day, and sa (for ra, or 
rua, 2), 2 or 2nd : in pogi- 
rua, pogi is another word 
for day, and, in arisa, ari is 
still another, Ef. ali. 

Uase, interrog. See nafete, 
fete, d. feha. 

Uase, dem., this : ua, se. 

Uasi, v., d. for asi. 

Uata, s., a portion : bota i. 

Uataki, v., d. for bitaki ; and 

Uataki, s., dd. otaki, itaki. 

Uateaf, and d., 

Uateam, and d., 

Uateau, s., kidneys: ua, fruit, 
ate, liver (&c.), and amo, 
belly, lit. fruit of the liver 
(or inside) of the belly ; 

Uateau-laso, s., testicles, lit. 
kidneys of the scrotum. 

Uati, v., d. ati. 

Uatu, v.. d. for atu. 

Uaua (waua), v. and s., for 
baua, q.v. 

Uba na, or ube na, s., his day, 
d. kuba na. H. &c., yom, 
&c., id. 

Ubog, s., day. See bog. 

Ubu, s., dd, um, ua, and of, 

Ue, inter, ad., where? dd. ua, 




(uan, uabe), uai, bai, mbd. 
[Fi. vei, Sa. fea.2 See Ch. 
V. 4. &., hi). Ef. uabe, is ua 
be, where then ? See be. 

Uei, interj., an exclamation : 

Uelu, v., for belu, and 

Uelu, s., a heathen function 
in which the men pass days 
in the bush, hidden from the 
women, under the direction 
of the natamole tabu, in 
order to ascertain from the 
natamate, in dreams, what 
their future fortune is to be. 

Uen, s., c. art., sand : aran. 

Uenr, d. for 

Uere, d. for 

Uete, d. for fata, q.v. 

Ufea, ad., afar, far away, at a 
distance : d. emai, q.v. 

tJi, interj., and ad., yes (that's 
it) : ua, or uai, dem. 

TJi, uia, also bia (pwia), v. i., 
or a., good, well, beautiful, 
&c. [Mota ivia, Am. ivi, 
Ml. Jju, Santo va, Ma. xmi 
(luJiakapaipai, to adorn), Sula 
pia, Ceram fia, My. haiJc.'J 
H. yapah, to be fair, beauti- 
ful, Pi. to adorn (cf. Ma. 
supra), yapeh, fair, beautiful, 
good, excellent. 

Uiko, interj., exclamation : ui, 
interj., and kp, dem. 

Uila, interj., exclamation : ui, 
interj., and la, ad. 

Uili na, s., d. for kuli na, the 

Uiroa, s., a crooked kind of 
yam : biri, tafirofiro. 

Uis, or uisa, interj., and ad. 
yes : ui, and sa, dem. 

Uisi, V. , for bisi, to take with 
the hand. 

Uisi, uisiuisi (wisiwisi) d. 
bisi uisi, d. bisi, d. busiwusi, 
v., to make, to work, bisi 
ekobu, make a house, uisi- 
uisi ki, work at, nauisian, 
work, or act of working. 
[Sa. osi, Ja. yasa, Mg. asa.J 
H. 'asah, n. a. ma'aseh 
(work), to make, produce by 

Uisiki na, s., elbow, or any- 
thing, as a corner, like an 
elbow, uisiki aru na (or, 
naru na), rump of the arm, 
d. mago naru na, heel of the 
arm ; uisi, for bisi, s., q.v., 
and jDrep. ki. 

Ula, s., a maggot. [Sa. ilo, 
My. ulat, Mg. iiUta.'J E. 
'es'e, vermis, 'as'ya, vermes 
producere (Ex. xvi. 23 (4), 
Acts xii. 23) : A. 'ut^at : see 

Uli, for uili, kuli, skin. 
Mahri gotl. See kuli na. 

Uli, or ul i, V. t., dd. oli, auli, 
uili, to take the place of, to 
substitute for, to barter for, 
buy. See biauli, d. bioli, 
V. r., and bauli, faulu ; also, 
c. art., naulu, s., barter, and 

Uiiul, id., and especially in 
the phrase uliul nako, sub- 
stitute the appearance (or face) 
of some other person for his 
own to deceive (demons were 
supposed to do this). [Mg. 
vidi, mividi, to buy, Fi. voli-a, 
id., volivoli, to trade or barter, 




Santo uliul, give for, buy ; 
Ha. oulL'2 A. 'as'a, to do or 
give something for another 
thing, 2, 3, id., 4, id., 5, 
accept one thing for another, 
8, substitute one for another ; 
«awis% one (person or thing) 
in place of another, in place 
of, ma'us'at, what is given 
for another thing (i. e. one 
thing given for another thing, 
Ef. faulu, id.). 

Uli na, s., leaf, leaves, also 
ulu ; and 

Ulua, V. i., or a., to put forth 
leaves, to grow up (of plants 
and hair), and redup., 

Uluulua, id., also to be full of 
leaves, to be hairy, hence 
lulu na (for uluulu na), hair. 
[Ha. uhi, ulimlu.'} See In 
lulu, &c. A. 'ala, n. a. 
«aluw», H. 'alah, to go up, 
whence A. 'ilawat, the head, 
H. *aleh, leaf, leaves, 'oleh, 
sprouting forth, growing up. 

Ululuia, ululia, and lulia. 
See alialia. 

Uluma, s., a pillow for the 
head. [Ha. uluna, To. uhiga 
[ulu, the head), Tah. urua 
{uru, the head). Ma. uruga 
(uru, the head), id.] See 
Ch. II. 16. J), for this word 
for 4iead', and Index under 
letter 1 for the Semitic forms 
of it, and of the word for 
' pillow '. 

Um, s., oven, dd. ubu, &c. 
See of. 

Uma, v., to clear for a 23lanta- 
tion, cut down the jungle 

for this purpose, d. syn. beru. 
[My. uma.'} And 

Uma, s., a clearing for cultiva- 
tion, in isuma, q.v. [My. 
uma.'] A. h'amma, to cut ; 
to sweep out, to clean, 
h'imm', a garden vacant of 
trees and fruits. 

Umai, d. See banomai, babe. 
[Sa. ma?.] 

Umba 1, V. t., to cast on it, 
umbaki, v. t., to cast a thing, 
d. bi. E. haypa, to cast. 

Umkau, d. makau, or mu- 
kau, a cluster, gathering, 
hence d., many, all : kau. 

Un, s., a fish scale. [Sa. una, 
id., Ma. unahi. Ha. unahi, 
to scale a fish, fish-scale. M5^ 
imus, to pull out.] H. halas, 
A. h'ala'a, to pull out, pull 
off. ' 

Una, v., to cover or bury itself 
in the sand or mud (of a 
snake, and an eel-like fish 
which does so) ; 

Una ki, v. t., to make to bury 
itself in the ground (a post or 
fence stake) ; 

Una, s., an eel-like fish that 
burrows or buries itself in 
the sand ; 

Una, s., a post, or fence stake. 
H. 'omnah, column, post, 
stake (because supporting). 

Unu, s., ghost. See anu. 

Uo, dem., d. for ua. 

Uo, for bo, mo. See mo, bo. 

Uokati, v., for boka-ti ; hence 

Uoka, chapped, sore (of the 
hands, as from striking or 
chopping with an axe. &c.). 




Uoki, s., an axe. A. waki% 
a sharp cutting instrument. 

Uol, s., c. art., a bed ; and 

Uolis i, V. See bolis i, mauol, 

Uol. See bol, bolo. 

Uolau. See bolau, bouolau. 

Uolo, interj., exclamation. 
[Fi. naJa.'} See uoro. 

Uon, dem., d. for uane. 

TJon, V. for bon. 

Uonda, s., d. uete. 

Uontu, dem., uon, tu : d. for 

Uora, v., and 

Uora na, redup. uorauora na, 
s., and 

Uoratan, s. (uora, sprout, 
tano, of the ground), a plant 
that springs up of its own 
accord (without being planted 
or sown) ; fig. a person with- 
out friends or connexions to 
avenge him, i bi uoratan ba 
faku sa, he is a person with- 
out friends, pluck him up 
(i.e. uproot, or kill him). 
See bora ii. 

Uora, or era, s. See bora i. 

Uorausi, d. for uru usi. 

Uori, uoriuori, mauori. See 

Uoro, and auoro, interj., ex- 
clamation (d. uolo): uo, dem., 
and ro, dem., and a, as in 
ako, ake, interj. 

Uosa, uosauosa, uosagoro. 
See bosa, bosauosa, bosa- 

Uose, or uos, d. uohe, s., oar, 
paddle. See balu-sa. [Ml. 
hos, Epi. Bi. volio, Fi. vot'e, 
Ta. vea, Fut. foi, Sa. foe, My. 

dayug, Mg. fi-vui, Bisaya hug- 
sai.'^ A. mikdaf , migdaf, 
mihdaf*, mikdaf, Amh. 
makzaf, A. "aduf , oar. 

Uose, dem., d. for uase. 

Uota, or uot, s., c. art., nau- 
ota, or nauot, a chief, lord, 
husband ; the chief idol of 
the Efatese. [Mg. vali, or 
vadi, husband or wife, one of 
a pair, Fi. toati, husband, or 
wife, Tah. fatii^ Ha. liaku, 
cliief, lord, Ml. P. mar, Santo 
mill, chief, lord.] A. ba*ala, 
to become a husband, or wife, 
ba*l*, husband, or wife ; in 
South Arabia, lord, also name 
of an idol ; H. ba'al, lord, 
husband. Arm. ba'al, be'el, 
E. ba'ale ; bel (Bel), chief 
idol or god of the Baby- 
lonians ; Baal, c. art., lord, 
an idol of the Phoenicians, 
their chief deity, Baal also 

occurs in pr. nn. as ^Vy^T\'Of 
*man of baal', cf. Ef. Mari 
uota which probably means 
' man of uota '. 

Note. Among the Efatese 
a face was cut or carved 
usually upon the arm near 
the shoulder-joint, but some- 
times on the chest of many 
of the people, called uota, or 
narai nauota ' the face of 
uota ', and the same was also 
carved upon the nabeas 
erected in every village in 
the public worship ground. 
Another form of this word in 
Efatese is fatu, thus Mare 
uota, pr. n.. is also in one 
village Mare fatu. The great 




rock (about which 
a myth) in the sea 

there is 
fourteen miles north of Efate 
is called Uota. It has the 
shape of the ancient Semitic 
Baal pillars, and the Efatese 
in passing it used to lower 
their heads or veil their faces. 
It is also called Uota-n- 
manii, or Fatu-n-manu. 
Manu, multitude, denotes 
also * abundance ', ' wealth,' 
and Uota-n-manu seems to 
mean Uota of wealth, or 
plenty, i. e. who gives wealth, 
or plenty to his worshippers. 
Uota is said to have a wife : 
a natural cave on the coast of 
Efate opposite to the idol is 
called the wife of Uota. 

Uota, uotauota : for bota, 

Uoti, d. for uti, oti. See uti. 

Uotu, s., a mark ; hence 

Uotuuotu, a., having marks. 
A. nabat'u, mark. 

Ura, v., in, masi ura ki, to 
scoop up water, sprinkling 
(someone) ; and 

Ura, s., c. art. niura, dew. or 
rain water on the foliage of 
plants (from its sprinkling 
and wetting people). H. ya- 
rah, sprinkle, to water, hence 
yoreh, rain, lit. sprinkling. 

Ura, s., lobster, prawn. [Sa., 
Ha. ida. Ma. loura. My. nd'- 
a^, Ja. uraj, Mg. urana 
{uranurana, eating greedily).] 
H. hawar, to be white, be- 
come pale, A. hara, to be 
bleached, &.c., 4, to eat greed- 

ily, hawar', Nm. haur, red 

Note. — Ef. ura seems to be 
so called because of the red 
colour which the lobster 
assumes immediately on 
being put on the fire to be 
cooked : hence the proverb, 
i ti bi ura iga miel marafl, 
it is not the lobster to be- 
come red immediately (said 
of wickedness whose punish- 
ment does not follow at once, 
but will come, however 

Uri na, s., the latter or after 
part, i.q. muri na, s. 

Uru, V. i., to run. A. "ara 
H. 'ir), to run. 

Uru, uruuru, v. i., to growl, 
grumble, mutter, murmur. 
See oro, orooro. 

Us, d. for su, V. t., to take up. 

Usi (for kusi), v. t., follow in 
the track of, investigate, ask, 
question ; and redup. 

Usiisi, V. t., investigate, ask. 
See takusi. [My. usir, ma- 
ffitsir, tamsir.'} 

Usi, V. i., to hasten, usu-naki, 
V. t., hasten about, or as to. 
H. hus^ (and *us'), A. has'a, 
to hasten. 

Usiraki, or usereki, i. e. usi- 
raki (usi q. v. to follow), v., 
to follow through, hence, as 
ad., throughout. 

Usii, s., c. art. nausu, d. iu, 
or u, a reed. [Ml. ni Epi 
fji, Sa. ti, Fut. yasau. To. 
/la/^o.] E. hasS, H. hes, 
reed, arrow. 




Uta, s., land, euta, e, prep. 

ashore, on land, by land. [Sa. 

uta, My. utan (lmtan),'\ A. 

"utaf, land planted with 

trees; and 
Uta i, or uta ki, v. t., to load 

(make sink, immerse) a canoe. 

[Ma. uta^ Mg. undrana.'\ And 
Uta, s., c. art. nauta, a canoe 

load, cargo. [Sa. uta, Ma. 

utagaJ^ And 
Utu, ut i, V. t., to fill (by im- 
mersing) a water vessel. [Sa. 

utu, utu-fia, Ha. uku-'kL'\ A. 

"ata ("a'tu), 4, to immerse. 
Uta na, v. t., and uta i, v. t., 

to pay for, repay, give in 

payment for (pay for work 

done, &c.), i utai a. [Ma. 

utu, s. payment, equivalent, 

tvhaJcautu, to pay for.] A. 

'ada', 2, to pay for, repay. 
Uti, V. t., to tie, bind; and 

prep., near, by, beside, as 

toko utina, stay by or beside 

him. H. 'anad, id., A. 'inda, 

rarely 'unda, prep., near, by, 

Uti na, s., membrum vii'ile. 

[Motu use, Astrolabe Bay 

(N. G.) titi, Ma. ure, To. tile, 

id.] A. «uss», id. 
Uua, (ua, or uwa), d. for 

amau, 'true', lo-ua, for lo- 

amau, q.v. 
Uui (uwi, and u-i), s., c. art. 

naui (nau-i, or nau-wi), the 

yam. See afa ki. 
Uulu, v. i., also uilu (wulu, 

wilu), for bilu, q.v., to dance. 

[Ml. U. vein, Malo velu, Motu 

mavarii, Ha. rnele.'} H. 

mahol, and mholah, dance, 

dancing, from hul, or hil, to 

go round, also to dance (in a 

Uusike, and uisiki, q.v., 




It is very possible that some words may have been omitted 
inadvertently from the following Index. And it is to be observed 
that it has not been attempted to give a word as a rule in more 
than one Semitic language, though it may occur in all. Nor are 
the Semitic verbal noun-forms given with the verb, except 
occasionally : for these the reader may consult Ch. Ill, and the 
Dictionaries under the words given. Also as a rule only the 
Efatese words are given : by looking up these in the Dictionary 
the words in other Oceanic dialects can be sufficiently found. 
The Semitic words, in the Index in their native dress, are given 
transliterated into the Roman character in the Dictionary. 

In the Dictionary the servile ending t (for which see Chs. II, IV) 
is usually represented thus, liko-ti, luku-taki (the finals i and 
ki being the transitive particles as explained in Ch. IV) : but in 
the Index the hyphen is omitted. The Dictionary would have 
been greatly enlarged had all the Efatese words derived from 
verbs and adjectives by the formative ending an (in one dialect 
pronounced en) been inserted, as a derivative is regularly formed 
from every verb and adjective in the language, as explained in 
Ch. IV. 

it5, 1«, jf> o^; ^o, ki-te. 
^; O. 

^^), 3^?, N3X ; abti, afa, tama, 

Mahri hab, hatb, heih. 

"ins^TiK; buele,bole; Mandaitic 

n?N%ii*l)l, ^Gl; lobu. 
pS, Aft J; Xftl; fat, fatu. 
-I3NI, n-)3N ; afaru, ofari. 
KX^ (v. Js^^). 
jl, or jj ; aru, faru (hand). 
t5.>', (^.>l, uta ia, uta na. 



«■ Pj> 

s ^i e- -^ 

^':>\: ^jjl, ^Jil, n.a. jjUl, iJlil, 

(pi. u^iT), n>*, n:^t5, u?/; 

Xm, |W, '?.!^?; togo, dogo, 
rogo ; liga, taliga. 

D'^PI^, <*^1 ; torn, torn. 

%1, "|•^^{, "i^N*; telatela, ma- 

njs* (v. t/^) ; ao, au, bakau, 

ilyf; fonu. 
sail a. 

, a S « ,o 

j3^ JT^ ? '^^^J miseri. 

)?-*•? ^■** » )♦*•> t** *' 

Jo. (Vulg. for j*l), (sikai=Nnn, 

in?, Arh^, I*lj,in, ^5^^, Amb. 
ande, Tig. acZe; iti, sa; Mg. 
My. isa, asa ;, fc^irij Amh. audit; sike, 
tika, tesa, teha, sikai; Mg., 
Sumatra isaka, sara, sadah, 
&c. Cf. nns* (n elided), for 
niriN, ;»rftt for ftrft^t, m. 


* ..* * •» j: OP 

tnx, Xi.1 [J^^j], Inip, jj>. ; bisi, 
Mg. haztma, and tazuna ; Arm. 
nn?, A-JH, X'iHt (n. a.). 

"^D?,^! (tte ' quiescent in Ara- 
maic) ; gere, kusu, kihi, 

kisi, kui, bui, muri, busi, 
uri, mauri, nabis, nakis, 

^\, ''^?, interrogative; sei, he, 
fei, e, S0 (and see safa) ; with 
nom. suf. pronoun, se-gamu, 
se-gara, or seara, interroga- 
tive, which or who of you, or 
of them 1 and indefinitely, some 
or any of you, or of them ; and 

see {j\S; and taka, <^> (» , and 
saI!, ai, interrogative, and k 
' as '). 

^J\ ; ei (ei a, ei eri). 
% h.', i (ei, ewo, is). 
N^n >*, I.T'K ; io (io re), ia. 
1j1 , Mod. A. ama ; safa, sefa. 

'^\, 1, 3, 4, j{(, ^3«; kani, 
kana, bagani, fagani, baga, 
faga, flnaga, kainaga, kani- 
ana, kunuti. 

Jl (el, a, or 1-), n, Phoen. a, 
article; na, a, la, in, ni, ra, ta. 

jji , see jJj . 

j1, :fl (yla,ila),&c., ^n:, n^X, 
Xrt*, M, Amh. Xrt, hi; era, 
ra, la, li, nara, intra, nigara, 
Mg. izareu : libuis, see ,^x) . 

Assy. ullu\ eri, ero, eru, 
ra, ri, ro, ru, arai, arog, 



^\ (final j), 1,5; aliali, taliali. 

dJl; ola. 

^^^, i—fiJl, Assy, cdapu, Miihri 
of; Tag., Bis. libu, livu, Mg. 
arivu, ISIy. rihu, Java eivu, f^a. 
a/e, Rotuma e/, N. G. rihun, 
Santo rowuna, ruwun: 1000, 
thousand. Note the nuna- 

yW, Xf; alat, leti, let, lita, 
ala, alala. 

PP^?; mali, mallmali, mali- 

|p«, ^J, r\m, &c. ; amau, 
man, amori, mori, mauri, 
uwa, una, maut i, mut i, 
maumau, mumu ; 

nJDN; una. 

<^fft>rt ; mesa, 

^\]\ , ^1 ; ran, rag, lag, nag, 

MffD, ctdXJ^; banu, binu, 
&C.5 My. anam. 

Assy, annu, mini, anna ; Inij 
in, na. 

Assy, anaku, aku, Mahri ho, 
^?3¥, ^J«, N^«, «, Ur, &c.; 
k-inau, k-inu, ke-ino, anu, 

Plural: Um«, lim, 13t5, ^^, 
vulgar Jwso, nehne, nehn, 
u*^l, EgyjDt ihna, Assy. «?iwi, 

nini, or 7/?*?iw, &c. ; nini-ta, 
nigi-ta, niga-mi, ina-mi, 
ana-m, aga-m. 

Nominal suffix (possessive) 
and verbal suffix (ace.) Ij na, 
\ na, ^J nu, Arm. i<^ na ; Ef. 
na-mi, ni-ta ; also verbal pro- 
noun suffix (nominative), also 
verbal pronoun prefix (nomina- 
tive), Mg. (suf. nom., ace., 
poss.) na-\, H. na, A. na, 
ne, ni, Assy., Arm. ni ; Epi 
m, Ml. na-mite, ne-ii, Ef. au 
(for na-mi). 

Note. — In the Oceanic dd. 
this pi. pron. is found now 
only in combination with the 
2nd and 3rd p. prons. q.v. for 
-mi and -ta. 

Sing. : verbal pronoun suffix 
(nominative), Assy, and Eth. 
kii, Arb. tu, H. ti, Arm. t, 
Mandaitic and Talmud f; Mg. 

The nominal suf. (poss.) 
(verbal suf. ace. ni, for naku, 
Ef. au, nau) in Heb. &c., is i 
(for ku, ki), but in Mg., Ef.. 
My,, Sam., &C.5 remains un- 
changed, ku (Santo u). Verbal 
pronoun prefixed (nominative) 
Arb. &c., a (for h/.), Ef a 
(always before the verb but 
not written prefixed). 

See Ch. V. 3, and places in 
Ch. II there cited. 



^il; meta, manta. 

Jii; mina. 

Ki4^^^, Mahri hali; natole, 
atol (Poggi agoloh). 

'uji, *ja\^, ^^^, j,iii, m,, 

^fy^, J,l3, ^11; nata, ata, 
ita, nata-mole, &c. 

^^^, ^PJ; safe, sifa, misafe, 
bisif, bisab. 

IpN, 'JaJ ; sel i. 

nsx, ^^ ; ubu, of, um, ua 
ia«, Nb, nb; ua, uo, be. 

i^DK, bsN, jil, ^^1, and cf. H. 
pS ; melu, fanu. 


y^\, 3, 6; sere, bisere, baka- 

sere, masere. 
niK, nziiS; rafe, rafe-aki, 

rafena, rafeana, rofe, raf, 

d. rau, kalau, kolau (d. 

nalau), kalumi. 

n^ ; tarag, Maori raga. 

L^L ^1?' ^^^j 1^^ ^> ^^^ ij 

efjl, 5; firaka. 

hi.^^', rafite. 

u^JU u^ji, m> m; miles. 
J.1 ; isi, is. 

(n^wsi) n^N, t?rix, Emph. ^r\m\ 
lai, lei, le, li ; Bali lull, Mota 
iw. SeeCh. II, §17. 

&c. ; ago, akam, &c., ta, in 
nigi-ta;Mandaiticnt<JN, nago: 
pi. (m. elided) Lijl, d. kumu, 

Mod. S., L.^1, e?2^w, ew^it, for 
an- or entun, enJcum, d. egu. 

2 p. pron. sing.: nominal suffix 
(thy), and verbal suffix (thee) : 

i^, ka, k; Ef. k, ko, go, 
ma, ma, ' thee ' ; ma, ma, 
'thy,' Er. ka, ma, Ta. k, m, 
Aurora ga, Pentecost m(x,Lakon 
g ^ : verbal pronoun suffix 
(nom.) as preceding, E., and 
Himy. ka, but in H., Arm., 
A., and Assy, ta,"^ (as E., and 
Himy. kemu, pi.) My. kau, 
Mg. nau (the last two pi. for 
sing.); verbal pron. prefix 
(nom.). A., &c., ta, te, ti, tu,^ 
Ef. (not ivritten prefixed) ku, 
ko, Epi ka, ko, ku, Ml. ke, 
Pa. ki. 

PI. : nominal suffix (' your '), 
and verbal suffix ('you', ace), 
A. kumu, kum, E. kemu, H. 
kem, Assy, kunu, kun, Arm. 
kcyni, kun, kon; My. mu, Ef. 
mu (and v. s., in one d. kama, 
'you,' ace, in another kem, 

1 ML., p. 125. 

2 C. G. S. L., p. 171. 

3 Id., p. 185. 



poss. 'your'): verbal pron. 
Buffix (nom.) ^, A. tu7nu, turn, 
tu, E. hemu, T. hum^ Himy. 
hum ; Santa Cruz gamu {'amu), 
Mg, [na-reu, pi.), nau (pi. used 
for sing.), My. 77iu {kau and 
kamu): verbal pron. prefix 
(nom.). A., &c., see sing., Ef. 
ku, Epi Tcu, ho, he, Pa. mi, 
Ml. he. 

The k form of this pron. pre- 
vails in Oc, but when com- 
bined with the 1st p. pron., 
as in Ef. nini^a, nigito, and 
igiia, it is usually t, but even 
here sometimes, as in Mg. 
t52ka, it is k — both the t 
and k foims are in all Semitic 

Ef. pi. verbal pron. of nigii!ci 
is tu, apparently the pi. of ta 
(A. tu, for turn, pL), and the 
dual is td, so Sam. ta, A. tumd, 
dual of turn, or tumu. 

See Ch. V, § 3, and places in 
Cli. II there cited. 

UCjl ; tokai, tokei. 

)1, 1, 4, 5, 8; tera, tetera, 


(for ynn, ny^i); bate. 

3, u_>, (1; Amh. fl, and U, »fl; 
o ; bai, bei, ba(ki), bi(ki), 
magi, mini, wa, wi, a, i. 

Jso. . i/^. ; but, buto ; Mg. 

fuiia, My. pusat. 

^1\; batako. 

i>4j ; bo, bobo. 

^4J ; bua, ta-bu. 

^nn, br\2, n^nnnn; bile, bel- 
bel, bilieli, tabili, bilebile. 

►riX^ ; bile, bile, bilebile. 

|nn, Dnn, ^J5,2,4,5,10;bono, 
bonot, monot, manu, fona, 
buta, bunuta, munuai. 

J^/, bolu. 

NU, \j.>, ^y,, 'li, Q'EK; bai, 
mai, be, bie, ba (t>ie-n, 
be-m), bi, mi, ba. 

lSIj (mid. j), l_)Ij, mo, ^j^^. ; 
baba, bib, bamu, d. bau. 

^U (mid. j) ; beik, bik, bei- 
feik, feikfeik. 

yin, nyn, U^, mafa, d. mau 
(for mafu), fuata. 

Jjj ; baigo, or beigo. 

(jlL), see ^jv-A-i. 

* J ; ti-fai (ti, article). 

1 Id., pp. 173-4. 



jLj (JkS), ^^2, acrid ; balo, 

mele, bela, bila, baloa, 
balua, belu, welu, tabelu, 
bil i, felak, bela ki, bale- 
balea, belebelea, d. bolbo- 
loa, beiuwelu, beluweluki, 
bitabelu, bitafitabelu, ma- 
belu, mabelubelu, biliti. 

Ill, 5; tabei. 

pn, nrs, for n:^3; bunus, 
bunu, bu. 

^5o, cf. o3o, id. ; boka, d. 
mbuh, mbuh, woka, bokat, 
uokat, bokauoka. 

psj,{p^, "^{p; buil-bog, bulo- 
bog ; My. 2)agi, jpagi-ari. Mot a 
hulo ; hog hulo = bulo bog. 

nb?; bilaki. 

jtAj ; Sa. folo. See tulum. 

sth , c^Li ; bule, bule, bulu, 

fule, fulufulu. 

nj3, OS, ).L&, m:2; fanua. 

VJj, jj.' ; baro, baru, barus, 
fara, farofaro, barobaroa. 

jtj ; ba, bowa, ua (wa). 

jir, 'dO*^" ; bota, botauota, 
bot, botota, uotanota, ma- 
uota, maota, maotaota. 

Ii5, JoJ, lij, JjX.'J; bai, or bei. 

ji3, ji^., ^yn, i^vn, b; uota, 
uot, Uota (Wota), d. fatu. 

■^y^ ; bara, tabara, bauria, or 
bouria, buria. 

JUJ ; bosabosa, fut. 

yif^, ^-2o, -^.aJ, dL»-iJ ; fasu. 

,^^; faru, fain, buis; always 
with the pi. dem. li, &c., thus 
li-faru, li-buis, era-falu, ra- 
falu, ri-falu. 

lA^ ; bake, baku. 

J!^. ; bum. 

^{'^n, 4, «nn; barua, baru- 
baruta, barubarutena. 

t<in, Piel; beru. 

^ , 3 ; bura i, or bure i ; d. 
bus i, busfus ki, bis i. 

nnn, to eat, n;in, and ninn, 
food ; feroa, id. 

^JjJ, 4; borai, borairai. 

l$y^ (mod. barri, barrani) ; 
faria, fari, Mg. velani. 

JJj , J^ ; bila, fila, bul, bila- 

l^j , }t3y^ ; buloi, maloi. 
dd^d, ; bir i, bur i. 

oo (and ^) ; bite, bite. 

-iK^n, N-jon; flsiko. 



'■^?;, f^?i; ofa. 

Vi-s j-*. , see i^'Xs. 

jia., J&., jl».; atia, tia, f. ate- 
na, tata. 

21^, Cp\^; koba. 

c-jj^; kabu, kama, kobu, 
kubu, ekobu. 

Jft. ; kos i, kosum i, kusum i, 
gusum i, kusu, kosu, gusu, 
makusukusu, makus, ma- 

cj^, AC1&.; kis. 

"7 lb J llfh ; magoago. 

l-cb^, liti*^; guku, kuku, 
maguku, gukiita ki. 

^^5 (^^¥) ; kal i, gal i, al i. 

J^; gole. 

J^ ; galu, kalu, kale, kulu, 
kulut, gulut, galukalua, 

0- O f 

jia., lU, ^jlsvT; kuli, "wili, 
uli, mulu, mulus i. 
npj, ^IL •^; karo, girigiri. 

x!^ , jC^ ; kau, makau, um- 
kau, ko-, for kau-fakal. Sa. 
'au [kau). 


J^, infra; inini, unu. 

'""V^j J-^; k^a, gua, ku. 

J^, "^15 ; kar i, gar i, sagara, 
ar i, d. at i, gam, karut, 
garut, tagaru, karo, kari, 
kiri, ori, karakarati, karo- 
karoa, kares, karaf, karak. 

nnj, Hithp., Mahri ghorat ; fa- 

jJ.iL, (i;*.; koria, kori ; ko- 

VI}, gr^; gura, gures i, 
igiri, magir i, makur, ma- 

P"^? , ^hd ; karo, gato, kanro, 

JU., ^Vh •'Art, 0^4,; kis i, 
gis i, giskis. 

^(Tigre), interrogative paiticle; 

.^9, Uoi^9 ; taka, takana, 
taka, d. saka. 

^T, '■'n> ^^Ij i^fl- (with article, 

(Lr, i^S ; tabu, tabua, tabu- 

, ,-of 

^j, j*A^J_, [♦A^i ; maieta, mai- 
eto (My. itam). 

Z.2, ^^^, vulgar jaja ; toa 
(towa), Gilolo toko, An.jda. 




^''"', Pi^T, J^, ci)S ; tuki, tuki- 

^'E^; riki, rik, tik (in ba- 
tik), kiki, iki, uarik, rikit. 

Jlj, 1, 2,^]S; tale, talo, ta- 
iefa, tale, tele, talefan. 

nni ; taka, takan i. 

J^^ , J^j ; sili, silif, trans- 
posed sifil. 

^^:> , 4, J^^B ; soata. 

J^S , PD"? ; toko, togo, tugof. 

^1^, J.J^ ; taku, itaku. 

^?a, ^Q; tafa. 

)u>5, JSV, ^3;, 'male'; My. 
/a^i, Mg. lahi. 

'^j, pS, CD"!;; ta, ra, mita, 
mitan i. 

yb"^ , Sec. ; tula, tuletule, tulea 

* S , ii^^ ; tei, rei, futei, mitei. 

no*! ; taba, taba le, &c. 

c.^ ; to. 

J^j ; tof i. 

_*si.> , ^:> , ije-:> , i\s-Xt> ; Dltau, 
tau (mafa) ; Tah. iau. 

IcS , A^^ ; tiba. 

\j1, nai, &c. ; taba, tababa, 
tama, tuma, tama (lu), tu- 
ma (lu), taba, or tama sok. 

^S , ^^l*} ; tera, teratera, teret, 
torutoru, toru. 

ll, ji, •>, ^^., 1; te, tea, 
(nafe-)te, (sifi-)te, (nafe-)lie, 
(wa-)se, &c., t(-aka) : see 

s ^ 

ij\j ; ti, ri. 

03 ; tokotoko, tokon i. 
*l$i, 'sun' : see B'hJS*. 
dj .3 ; turiai, turiei. 


\a , vulgar a, ^^ ; a. 

Ua, j^-A ; abu, afu, au, abu- 
abu, afuafu, mafu, d. mam, 
libu, malibu, lifu. 

JA ; ta, tata, ta(-goto), &c. 

c^AA, s-^'^^) ^-''^} s-><^) u_>j^ ', 
rifu, rau, birifi. 

^^T\r\^ ooi (au) ; au, ao. 

Nin, N^n, &c. ; o, u, in au, ao, 
io, ore, lore ; i, e. 

\yk> ; soan i. 

oujA ; it a. 

^«, V. ji. 

xIa ; mila, mila. 

0^^, 5f^; umba, or uba, d. 

' i (see Ch. V, § 3, and the places 



in Oh. II there cited), bu 
(mu), u, -mi (in kina-mi), u 
(in au). 

3 p. pron. pi. (used also now 
in Oceanic as often in Mod. S. 
and Amh. for sing, as well as 
pi.), A. humu, hum, {himu, 
himi), human, H, hem, hemah, 
Arm. himo, himon, inun (for 
\vL-hun\ henun, enun (for en- 
hun), Mod, S. mii (an-z, for 
ha-en-t), Talm. m-ho, Mahri 
hem, hahu ; Ta. in, Ef. inia, 
or enea, n-iga, na-i (for na-ia), 
Epi naiu, My. ina, and lya^ 
Sa. ia, and 7ia, Er. iyi, Mg. 
izi : Ef. d. k-inini, Epi n-iga- 
na. Mare n-uhone, hone^, Ef. 
k'ina-Toi, Santo ana-wi, Mg. 

Nom. suffix (poss.), A. as 
above, H. hem, am, and amo. 
Arm. (Jiom), hon, hum, E. 
homu, omu. Mod. S. i ; Ef. 
ana, n, na, and nia, na (the 
vowel before the n merges in 
the final vowel of the noun), 
Sa. na, My. na, Mg. ni, Mota 
n, na, Ysabel na, and a, Dayak 
of South Borneo e^, Epi no, 
and na. 

as above ; Ef. n, na (and 
sometimes nia, i.e. na), a (for 
na), ia (for ina), s, sa (for 
n, na). My. na, Mg. ni, zi, 
Ysabel na, za, Santo na, nia, 
a, ia (see Ef.). 

Verbal pron. suffix (nom.) : 
it is disputed as to whether 
the A. -una (3 p. pi. preterite) 
is the plural ending of nouns 
in this pronoun suffix, C.G.S.L., 
pp. 168-70; in Mg. ni. My. 
na, it is the pronoun. 

Verbal pron. prefixed (nom.) : 
C.G.S.L.,^]), 181-4, ya, ye, 
yi, i, n§ (Syriac), of which 
different explanations are 
given : Ef. i, or 6 (not ivritten 
prefixed but always before and 
vrith the verb), Ta.^ r-, d. U 
(written prefixed and both for 
w). Ml. ni, and ti, Am. i. Pa. 
e; these are short forms of the 
3 p. pron., as Ef. ru (pi.), ra 
(dual), for nu, na. 

To indicate when this pron. is 
used in the plural sense, either 
a difi'erent phonetic form of it 
is used, or there is combined 
with it the plural demonstra- 

tive for which see ^ 

Verbal suffix (ace), A., &c., 

^ See M.L., pp. 112-16, for the pers. prons. in a long list of Oceanic 

' See M. L., p. 125, for this suffix pron. in a long list of Oceanic 
languages. ' S. S. S., pp. 140, and fol. 



'""^tj |^**5 ^^^i fiij mama- 

j^% ; bosa, uosa, tabosa, 
bosa (-lot). 

^ ; sera-rogo, rogo, or togo. 

^an, ^o,, iil, ^Msn, nssn; 
bagobago, bagobagoa, bago- 
bagora (Po. piko, foi, hoki), 
V. Ch.V, §9. 

jL», &c. ; oro, bioro, oroma 

8^J^ (3-V' **^ laugh) ; muru, 
murumuru ; Ta. maliali. 

*ll4 , JiX (o^) ; atu, atug i, 
atuma ki. 

"yjA't teratera, torotoro. 


Jj>j ; barat i. 

,j£ij ; bus a. 

ji.J ; kita, gita. 

to.^ , 5,6, i»>j ; nako, nako- 
nakoa ki. 

cj^ , fut. cii , and cf. kj[ ; 


.>j, see jujj. 

mofa, mafa (Sa. mafat), in 
taumafa, taumafatia. 

^^ ^ 

uJ^Aj ; of i, af i. 
J^J ; titi, titia ki. 

Jsjisj , J(?j ; biri, biribiri. 

Uj, »l5o, tokai, tiko, LXJl, 
toko (n^n, q.v.). 


^Jj, li?; iki(na) ; Mg. a^am*. 

in this word (a) the first radical 
is dropped, e.g. in ^^, 'T^.?; 
(6) the third in rh\ for nib, 
and (DA^, for (OA^t (cf. the 
similar elision of d in the 
numeral word for ' one '). 
Both elisions (a) and (6) are 
exemplified in Mg. rai^ flJA-S, 
'father'; Ef. raita, Celebes 
ley to, Mg. r^m (for raini ?), 
An. and Ml. rid, Pa. Za^i, Fila 
leta, CD'l^^, 'mother': nati, 
nani, natu (N. G. dialects, 
Kiriwina latu, Sariba natu), 
reita, ere ; kan, kanau, ka- 
noka, kunuti, kiliti: Ml. 
anatu, My. anak, kanak ; Mg. 
anaka, zanaka. 

Jv ^P' ' ^^1^> balu, balu, 
baluna ki, ualu; liu, toll 
(Arabic 5). 

J^"^ ; amos i, mos 1, mus i. 

t^y lly, bani, banns. 

JTaJ ; bales i, balasa ki, ta- 
bala, tabales. 



J^J> J^jj asdli. 
^j'i atata. 

J^j, 2; boroa ki (cf. njV) ; 
roa (in tu-ki-roa). 
Jij, j5j ; aso. 

fy, 6, 7, 8, Xjj, eko, uoki 
(woki), kie. 
^^ ; maui, mau. 
c>5^ , os^ ; kot, kota, gota. 
SJJ, 2, SJJ; malat. 

toe's, HT m^, Mahri z^ar^, 
worit, erit, haret, wurit ; ola, 
wula, bulan, &c. See Ch. II, 

'^],j ; lumi, lugi. 

(Dl,^, £n>d«^; marag, bure i. 


^5, £li.J; Bieg. 
Jo^, Jjs, 8X), j«. \iy 



tui, ti. 

JjJ, 1, 4; taki, uataki (wa- 
taki), otaki, itaki, bitaki, 
matuki, matakitaki; (Mau, 
or Maui) tikitiki, or tuki- 
tuki, taki-amo, takamo (to 
fasten and carry on shoulder). 

^y^ , see fc<^9 j -^y- i^'^un. 

m*, J^J, ^9^ (in West Mahri 
the [^ in this word is pro- 
nounced 1, V. von Maltzam). 
See jJoUo. 

Tf, ^J ; s2», s6, si; and in san, 
sao, sag, sam(ben), &c. 

'i' ''i' 

(•J; > i*j; ) simi, sama, or suma 
(ki leo). 

HOI ; sobe(na). 
JJ;, J;ijj; masol. 

(jAj ; siki-naki, musuku- 

''DJ ; sole, sosole, asolat. 

Jj^j ; masirsir. 

jZj ; Boka. 

I' jjj) ; sili, sila, silasila. 

^jUj, ^) ; tau ; Mg. iawna, 
My. taun, tawun. 

J^)j J^ ; simbolo. 

("^J' e^'' y^^ ^^?)' ^'j 

sigi, bisig, sigisig-leo. 


tij ((SJ) **o skin'); sok; My. 



sekof i. 

•, njo siri, siria, siri- 


(•; (eg. DPy, "^, j^i); sabe-l i, 
tami-s i, *to tie, bind.' 

yj ; to write ; build stone upon 



stone ; written, villosa vestis ; 
-y)j , and fj^\ ; variegated 

ornamented cloth, splendour ; 
thin cloud in which red 
colour : asoara. 


ciL, Jl^lla. ; kabu ; My., Mg. 
aji, afu. 

^?0> W'-a-, ^^, ^3*c 2; bei, 
bof i, boboi, mafa, mafai. 

1*1.^, ixli ; bau, baus i, bau- 
maso ; Mg. fehi, fehiz-ina. 

"^sn, -i3n, -J^^ ■nn^nn, fn^, 

rft.ft-C, ;^, nin^njp ('beams, 

couplings'); J.i^, s;;;^, n"^^2n; 

barat i, farati, oroa, ora- 
orana, oraora. 

t^^n, A^, a*Ii**l/ (cf. Jc's^, 

bosi, bust) ; fis i, fifis i, 
mafls i, fifl, tafifl. 

j^ ; kor i, gor i, koro, goro, 
gorokoro, gore, kore, ko- 

jj>, imp. of jJ».l, q.v. 

in, l;., 'one': v. nn^. 

rf)^^; uolau, bowolau, bo- 
olau, aofti^e.. 

Jli, j^iL ; turu, toro, toroa 
ki, tiro, batira, tiroa, mi- 
taru, matorotoro, torofa 

OjvL , vIj j^s^i ; bau, fan, d. 
faum ; My. haharu, Mg. van, 


t^HDj^^; moso. 

J'vi, Jj:C, 1, 2, 3, 5, &c. ; alo, 
bialo, alof i, talo, taloalo, 
lalo, lalu. 

uulu, bilu. 

JU., (3^, J^:^; muku, mu- 
kut i. 
pn ; kat (-ema), kate. 
31^, 6; fldre. 
p]n, Hiph. ; sike, siki-ti. 

Ijj^ ; kuruma, aruma, ru- 

I3si , Mod. A. kuceya ; kakei. 

?(i, Ji, t^.^n, ^L; alof i, 
loas i, loar i, aloara. 

Ja. , jyisN* ; malala, mala, 

^ , Jii. ; elo, lolo. 

•Jrt?; aure, ore. 

dlla. , (*lA5Jb. ; malik, maligo, 
malikoliko, maligoligo. 

malum, mailum, malum- 
lum, malua, mailua, ma- 
lulu, d. mairere. 

1ft<L; kolau, kalau, galau, 
(transposed) lakau. 



|*^n, A.^; una. 

j:*, 1, 4; gogo. 

on, rfinOjjvi, Assy, emw, mo, 
mona ki. Hence "tdicnyco, 
^ih°^j Ef. buruma, i. e. bu- 
ruma (bu- for mu-; and r 
fort, see Ch. II, § 13 6, T, r). 

[Compare C?) A. C*, defend, 
look after, guard, protect, 5, 
be prohibited, refrain, 6, fear, 
reverence, avoid, keej) away 
from, ill&JLo, inaccessus, veti- 

l^=>. ; kona, kokona, ko- 

J^ ; kabe, kaflni, kime, 


dl* ; manu (cognate jic). 

jia. j^X (sJ^ft^) ; bia, ia (d.), 
biau ; Mg. aji, zafi^ My. j^iyu, 
fiat, piyud, ]jiyat. 

rfiRR, rfiR, ih%?:\ sos, sesi. 

"''^'Cj J-^ 5 Mahri hadauer, 
hadauiver ; atoara, natoara. 

n^n, Pi^n (^2)^, (*]L^) ; ko i, ke i, 
kokai, koko, keikei, goko, 
koi, koika. 

"^U} ; kara, gara, bagara i, 

^y!} , * a cutting instrument, 
axe,' &c. ; karab, karam, 
karaf, karaii, id. 

j^ ; on, wen, oraone (redupli- 
cated) orain, aran ; Po. one, 

iL ; ara, ara i. 

nnn ; makit i, mikit, mokot. 

li, j.b. ; asi, asi(na). 

Jli. (mid. j), Jli. ; alo, lolo. 

^ji, 1, 4, J^J-^\ kisa, gisa, 
kisakisa, gisakisa, nakisa, 
takis, mila-kisa. 

ip'js., IsUa. ; kiato. 

Jli>. (mid. ''), Jli. ; (see s.v. 
aloara, aloaloara) ; Sa. ila. 

l^i>., A^^^a., j«^ ; d. hima, 
suma ; ema, and um (in 
katema, imrum). 


i*. ; malei (^i.s.*) ; Sa. aUi, 
IL^ ; ra-kum, ra-koma, ra- 


Jm^, l.^-^\ Mahri homo, Soc. 
heina ; lima, Epi sima, yiina, 
Ceram hima. 

^ji.b. ; kufagufa. 

^ai., A^^-3* J laso, lasoa. 

]oj^, ^1^, tjU ; gorot i. 

ii., ij^li^ ; katak, My. kanial. 



mA(D ; tnmi, tomi. 

'"IL, 'IL; tomo, tumu, tu- 

man i, matumutumu, noba 
(d. ob), nubu, nobanoba, 
noban i, manubunubu, tu- 
tuma, tumutumua. 

jtA} , ^ ; leba, lebaleba, 

lebalebara, ^Ui?. 

l^, j^} ; tad, taon i, taun i. 

^ ; malau, My. lamu. 

^, ">n? ; tare, taretare, ma- 

j^,^, S^L\ taku, Po. iua. 

ijjo, njp, ma>«?; taui. 

ji (mid. 1), 1, 4, 5; tura, 

tutura, bakatura. 
m'Eao; lume, lumes i, bu- 

luma, bulima. 

*«i]^ ; tobu, d. nobu ; vulgar 

;it (mid. -), JX, J^>,^ll fly- 

ing, 8.lij navigu genus ; tiri, 
riri, riri, lai (N. G., Motn 
lara^ Galoma lola, Sinaugoro 
laia), mitiri, taroa, teroa, 
lea ki, lelea ki. 

Note on the word lai, sail, 
Mg. lai, N. G. rer, lata, laia, 
Po. la, ra, My. la^jar. My. 

layar is both v. and s., a sail, 
and to sail, Mg. milai^ to sail. 
Ma. rere, to fly, reia^ or rere^ia, 
to be sailed over : reia, i. e. 
re-i-a, and reregia, i.e. rere- 
g-i-a. So My. layag, to fly, is 
laya-g, and layar is laya^r, 
the original radical r having 
become y (as in the word tiyag, 
Ef. tere, mast), and the ori- 
ginal servile -t, -g (as in Ma. 
rere-g), and -r : see Chs. II and 
IV for this, and for the Ma. 
'ia. In Ef. and Mg. lai, Ma. 
reia, the radical r, in My. y, 
has disappeared, as also in To. 
le, Ef. lea, q.v. in Diet. 

4^ll> (mid. ^), ;j*»lL ; lasa. 

^jlis, ^Jli^ (mid. ^); tan i, tano, 
tanu, tun i, tanotanoa, ta- 
num i, tanuma ki. 

^_ilL (mid. ''), u-aJs ; tobii. Ma. 
taejpo, vulgar A. taif, an ap- 
parition, a spectre. 

,_^..-jl3 ; tas, tasi. 

Jo ; tagi, tagis i. 

J> ; tama i, taba i, atama. 

<^, ly?, m, l^, 1, 8, r;^j, 

ROI ; tagi, tine, tiena, tago, 
mitaga, tagotago, mitaga- 
taga, tagia ki, miten. 

uii?, u-ii? ; taba, tauba, taf i. 



nsip, m^ih ; tabag i ; My., J. 
tajpuk, tahuk, 

J§o ; bitelo, bitolo. 

^3?; taga, toga, rog, toga, 
babatega: W^, JJij ; My. 
tanun, 'to weave.' 

tau, tautau, tatauf i, tata 

j^, ijo, vulgar A. torra ; tore, 
torotoro, tere. 


See above, j^ , ^^ . 

cr^) 1> 4, tj*-j-o ; busa, busa, 
bes, besu. 

T, Jo, Jl; aru, faru. 
VT ; ata i, ta i, tae. 

pjjl, cIj ; tei, bitei. 

D^\ fj^_, "^^^ ^^^'; ma-s, 
ma-isa, ma-susa, "iibog, uba, 
kuba, mi-nra nin, uasa (wa- 
ea), a-sa. 

nDJ, riDJ ; bia, uia (wia, wi). 

"1^1, see jJj. 

Si*;, sy;, nxn, Assy, a^ ; atu, 
Fi. yani, net, notu, Guadal- 

canar atUy tatu = net, notu 
(n for t). 

^p;, nSD, cips; saf i, &c., 
bisab, bisif. 

nij, nii''; ura, miura. 

^J^ , iju, jK'; , T\y^ ; maturu, 
My. <zc?or, Mg. turi, maturi^ 
Santo s'inaru. 

HT, ni;; v.S. CDCf. 

d, 3 ('as'); ki, ka. 

h (Amh.) ' and ' ; go, ga. 

nb, S3, HD, h, h<, &c., de- 
monstrative ; ko, ka, ke, ki, 
ku ; and in naga, nago, kin, 
kis, knna, koi, kei. 

ns? gf; ki. 

nns3, snn3; kisa, kis, gisa, 

h (Amharic), 3 (Himyaritic), 
preposition, cf. E. kia ; ki, ka, 

JlX ZX-°f^, i^, hftfl; kofu, 
kofukofua, gofu, kafut 1, 
gafut i, kabu, koau, kafu, 
kamu, oba, aba. 

jir^ "1D3, and kabed, hO^ ; 

'■^S^, h-ajS: (cf. H., S.); (verb) 
kaiiota, kote, et ; noun 
('liver'), SIS^ Amb. Jwde-, atS, 



dd. are, ale, ane, Sariba 
(N.G.) hate. 

^, y*rSi XftC ; kabuer, ga- 
buer, kabuera, abura, abu- 
era, takuwer. 

lli ; kita, kite. 

^4^; bakaru, fakaru. 

n}3, 1? ; kaua, kaukaua. 

slS%^, ^?^2, l^ao, Maliri Icah- 
kob, &c. ; masoi or masoi, 
&c. See Ch. II, § 1 4 (a), and (c) 
(at end). N.G., Galavi gwame- 
gwame, Dobu kuadirna. 

^3 ; kona, gona. 

'is (mid. j), 1.8; karl, takarl. 

^^^(raid. j), 2, "^^3 ; kuru, guru, 
gurua, kuruma ki, makara, 
ta-kara, tagura. 

^ ; gaigai. 

^J, ^3; ka, ga, k-, (T. H 

»aO , interrogative particle ; ka, 

(ju (ex ^\ et i«J), quot? tot, 
how many? so many, literally 
* as what V (= '1^3, Ta. keva, 
kuva) ; Guadalcanar ffisa, 
Mahaga ^iha, Eotuma his, 
An. ehet^, Po. hia, Jia, Ef. bisa, 
fisa, bia, Mg.Jlri, Java^iVa. 

il^, that whaf? for what pur- 
pose ? for what '? why ] kua 



(kuwa), gua? d. syn. ka- 
safa, kasa ? ka, and sefa, or 
safa, what? 

hdP*, D3^ p ; kama, kumu, 
kamu, mu, kem. 

ilS ; kana, kano. 
PIM, P)?; kaf, kai. 

i5, 1, 2, kafa i, kafa-rago, 
d. transposed faka-rago. 

tf, &JS', kubega ; To. kuhega^ 
Ma. ku]^ega, Sa. \ipega, Ha. 
upena, Marq. upeka, Tah. 

]Ao, P)?; kabS. 

US , transposed I5si ; kaba, kaba- 
s i, kobas i, transposed baka- 
s i. 

y ; karei, garei. 

yi3, A. (transposed) jOj, q.v. ; 
kola, kolo. 

j^\ kafis i. 

\'jf, ;pC 55C?V; kill, gili, 
kali ; Fi. kali-a, kali-va ka, 

jSj.^ cf. ji^, 7; galakala. 

niD3; bolo. 

J5^ '^;^, Yhll., &c., kelu, 
kelet, kelekelet, &c. ; Mg. 
hudirut {herina), My. gulig, 




J ; la, la-kor, la-gora. 

J, rt, Sj, T. 1, Gurague ?, 
prep. ; ni, i, e. 

N^ *<>, ''?, ^'?, ^', I; ta, ti, 
si, sa, tu, to, ri, Sa. le. 

^, ^.?; libu, lebu. 

J, AsJ ; lau, elau, My. laut. 

<-_fl»,l , e-fl^ ; liba, liba i. 

cS^J ; Hfalifa, Z^l\ : Ha. la- 
lafa, My. malajpu. 

I4], ^|) ; lailai, bakalailai, 

I4) , 5, vulgar A. telehhem ; 
talum, tulum, tulug, tinom, 
tunug, talug : Sa. folo, k.\S, 

hV'P, ht^, A.^; riki, rik, 
in ma-riki, flte-riki. 

^5, ^y; lug, lugi,nugmigi, 
numnum i, manugmig. 

(^p, A(DA (contraction for 
([(DCiw), b^b ; le, li, lili, lele, 
malele, talele, lulu, talu, 

d>^, 7, 10, Cjj]] lusia, mi- 
lesu, milesia, milesira, ma- 
losu, malasilus. 

Arh? ; rakai, rakei, Sa. laei, 
Ma. rakai. 

jy> Jj; ^; lili^» Iilia> ^^ 
ler ; 

Jy ; toliu, toli. 

rD^S ^^l,jij'(6ee r^«); let. 
on^ ; lam i. 

ArftJi, clsJ, and ^^ ; bilikit i, 

Sa. mile'iy Fi. loqata, 

Ja), Jal ; litea, lirea. 

N3^^, lika (Talm. and Mand.) ; 
tika, rika, sia, sika, nika. 

l.J ; rau. 

xU ; mirama, miraman i, 
meromina, Sa. lama, 

UJ,jiJ, UJ, i.ij ; le, leo, lo, 
d. lu. 

^9 **o-. 

sjx), ^^ ; loa, loaloa, milo, 
malolo, mila-kisa. 
^J ; maloiloi. 

n^V^ (n»y, and )) ; temat^, d. 

JaiJ , iaiJ ; lot, letilet, melita. 

u_flJ , L_cJ , ujJ , ijiJ. ; lifa, lofa, 
lufa, malofa, malibai, mali- 
fus, (malus, malis, maus). 

^-iilf; lifalifa, maliflif, ma- 

A0? ; rasi, tasi. 

i^ , >iXJ ; lago. My. lagau. 


,o-« * •» oJ 

l^b, PK^Sj, mi, ^, Mahri 
lesa ; Mg. lela, My. Zzc?aA, Fut. 
r^ro, Sa. alelo. For Ef. mena, 


U, no J Himyaritic ha, va, ueut. 
interrog. pron. ; ba, fa, ma. 

"D ; m-, in all Semitic languages, 
prefixed to verbal nouns ; b-, 
f-, m- (bo, mo, fo, uo, o) ; 
and in all Oceanic dialects, in 
like manner. 

IjU, vulgar A. made; fite, 
feha, uase (wase). 

»U, ^U, fc^^l^, ""^ ; me, mea. 

iJU, Catafogo ma^at (ajU), 
T'h^i Amh. 7nato ; Tambora 
mart, N. Brit., and D. of Y. 
mara^ Santo vel, Bouru hot, 
utuTij Amboyna hutun, Male- 
kula ^utf Savu natun^ My. 
ratus, Ja. atus, Mg. zatu, 
Carolines puku, fok = 100, 

Note the nunation, and see 
Ch. II, § 13. 

fxi, "ixi ; bute (lua i). 

H-O) '"'^^j *^> ^-^ > maomao. 
J4^, Jjl ; melu, meliki. 
i'VOj mok, mokemok. 

u/^j^ (u^j) 5 niito, d. buru. 
j^, cn>*'H; at§, ase. 

^[H, A-ijt* ; maua. 

O *" o 

(J^l!«, j^j^^, aue^I ; (My. hasuh, 
Mg. w«a), fafano, banol i, 
balos i, «&c. 

.1*, .a^ ; bala. 

ma si. 

iriD ; mus i, mus ki. 

oU (^P^); mat. 

cl>U, u:j^-« ; m^tS, tamatS. 

m)^, 'P, D!P, *U; fai, ai, 

L^ ; of, ubu, um, ua. 

^ ; mak. 

JU, J^ ; bala, fala, bole, 

cU, 1, 4, ioU ; miu, mou, 

j:, J^; malo. 

,jsS, ^sts"^ ; man i, ma. 

Ua*, 1, 2, 8 ; see s. l£^. 

^?9, !)U ; bura, burafura, 
biri, berat i, bakafura. 

'-.U ; mile i, mala 1, mita ki, 
buta ki. 

\^j^ (v. ^J^)\ bakas. 



KpD, \jL:^ ; misa. 
DDD, (Dt)), oil; mat'. 
II, see DV; Dia, me. 
Ixl, xl ; mam, mim. 

"•J^Oj ij^) pl- *^^ j amo, 

iaLT; mut. 

j^sl, i^^^U ; maito, maieto, 

iZ^ ; maimai. 

kji2 ; mai a (Sa. mama). 

^JxI, 5 ; timbu : see (J*c. 

j-Mf j-t^j-* 3 miol. 

Joaa, Jdu ; mut, mot. 

a^Cih ; merak i, merag, me- 

J^ , and ^1 , ^"1.9 5 J^iare, vir, 
ma, vir, mera, homo, mane, 
* male,' ano(w)ai, ano(w)i, 
for (m)ano(w)a(ii)i, Cerarn 
manoicai, Ml. hanman (re- 
dupl.), 'male, husband,' Oba 
mera^ Male mera, Santo, &c. 
man{i) ; 

ip, 'i\jA>\^ ; matu, bite, fafine ; 
hut, fid, haine, &c., kuru- 
ni, yale-wa, yare-vin, &c. : 
BeeCh. II, § 17. 

^5''■}9 ; mera (kolau). 

4^2/^ ; merai. 

JUU ; mitei. 

cJDj^A ; mas, masu. 

*Ua^ ; marita. 

Sy^y niD ; maru. 

t^l^ ; maratS, mardterdte. 

v_15^, tii>Ch*fl; borau, rarua. 

HD-ijjp, ribnjjp, n'l-iviP, (^iv) ; 
fara, farafara, bifara ki. 

aoC*^ ; marag, bure i. 

P19; bure. 

^'j^ ; marasa, maresSresS. 

"'^9, ;-:-, "P^9, (J^-, u^^); 

masa, masamasoa ki, ma- 
samasanta, mas, maso, 

^X* j masa. 

nriDj w*)^, xa \ bito, bitos 1. 

ll^, and ikl (final j), 1, 2, 8 ; 
miti, mitimiti. 

iD9, J;-^ ; matu ki ; 

r^no, ^1^^, ^l:, 'the back'; 

na matu na : matu ki, den. 

V. as in una ki (fr. I^J?^)* 

J, h u 
W ; na, nl. 

nN3, ni: ; no, nono, binoinol, 
binoflnoi; Sa. nofo. 

Uli ; neinei, maneinei. 



loU, j^U, see s. ^JUlj\ , ^^^--jI,; 
nat, nata, ata, ta. 

s*> ; vulgar A. nabbud, nab- 
but, V. o^ ; nabe, mbat. 

^i ; nabua. 

J4j ; base, bakabase. 

"1^ , ^^^ ; buka, buka i. 

Jali ; buta, butafuta, futfiit. 

^35, ^3, (i?D3); mala, mala. 

p (egg. V2l i<y3); bua, 
mua, mun i, faa. 

JLI3 , ,jZS ; basa, bisa, tabisa, 
bisura ki. 

[jr^ ■> 

bis i. 

^ ; buria. 

\£Cji , i-iili ; flto, botu, buto, 
buti, biti, muto, bitia, fltia. 

Iso , ijs^'i ; niko, nikenika. 

J Jo, JjJ, for JjTi ; sau ; Mg. 

f^^, ^13 ; tiba, tibai, tibe a, 
tuba, tuba i, tuma, bituba. 

Uj, n^J, Pi el; neta ki, net i. 

tl>l3, C'j-^j see under the word 

n^J, -;.l3, ^lu, M.S. manik; 
manaki, na-manaki. 

t^Jj, bIJj, (<j^); nai. 

pU, lo^i; nugnug. 
y^i ; nua, nuanua. 

jj , tj ; nasu na. 

^1^ ^^M, ; nifenife, nifen i, 

cjj, ctjil; masua : Sa. tula, 

My. swZaA, Mg. sula, x.\^, 

j'jj ; sera i, sere i. 

* « **o*» **-•' 

manifenife : Sa. maniji, My. 
nipis, tijpis, mipis, Mg. mani/i, 
tiji, hanijis-ina. 

JiJ, ;i^, "^nj, Ifh^; koro, 
goro ; 

Ci^Tn^, f^, );I*,j ; (na)gor9, 
dd. (la)usu, (na)gusu. 

ic^so , osssi ; nit 1. 

n£23; ta. 

y^5 ; lau i, lau, to plant ; 
plant a people, (hence) launa. 

(jLi ; takutaku, d. tukunua. 

JJki, \%.t\ titiro. 

JCi ; manuka. 

jjJvJ ; gusu. 

^^ 1, 4, 6, 10; maki, maki- 
maki, Maki. 

k-aj, ^^?X) ; kat i, fikat. 

^^Zj, mod. j*i ; monam, mo- 



ji', jj^j-« ; mena, m^na- 
mena i, Motu (N. G.) malci, 

i^m ; but i, mafuti. 

J^ , J^l ; meru, maru. 

U.3, jiJ ; niba. 

cicn> ; tabe. 

ppi, pp3 ; saki, bisaki, tasaki, 

jjS ; buka, buka, buk, ma- 

fakafuka, buko, bukutu, 

nE)3, nisn ; kafika (kafyka). 

Lii ; mutui. 

75^, see i'35 ; mala; Ei. 6aZe. 

vjlAflJ ; busa, busi. 

nv3, 2T, n^2, j.:5,&c.; sube, 
susube, d. tumb. 

^?5) •'''^■3 suka, sukasuk, su- 

S^; maso, d. mahi: My., 

Mg. masakj masaka. 

ill ; tau. 

JJl^, IJ?.^ ; teba, taba. 

"»^3 ; suli, sulia. 

J^^, 1, 4 ; nrirnrir (tirtir), 
lira, lita, maliru. 

lP > Jt^a-'' ; gi, giki, gki, gia. 

2)'?^ ; naklma, nabea (nakbe). 

ifpO, A^3 ; gaga, maga, ma- 
ka, fugaga. 

sSloj (Ah^) ; rakaf i, rakof i, 

i^(D, xll ; kai, kei, gai, gai- 

Jok"^, (JaJij ; kasi, kati, kari, 

gati, kakati. 
Jl'i ; gole, nagole. 
jy[j ; lakore. 

JL!^ ; kus, gusu. 

j^fij ; bakas i, makas i, ba- 
kasa, transposed bisak i. 

LI), 'jflii, Oi^3); notenote. 

^5b*3, Ui, JiP/i; su, sua, su, 
tu, masua, sun i, suna ki, 
turi, tura ki. 

C^ '-' o •^ 

ii«j ; nafii, d. foga, d. afo. 

^^V? sau. 

v.^, 1, 3, 4, ajU.S ; saua, 
soua (saw^, sowa). 

IIS, llo ; (na)lagi, nin, nagi- 

P'^3, P'^!?, Arm. P^pt?; sigsige 

P^2^ Hi., t/Ij ; sik e, siko, so- 
kata, sokar i. 

"ic^3, np:^ &c. ; sar i, sara, 
sore, soroa ki. 



,J1j ; sere, masere. 

|n;, jn, nn, n^ntD, nriio; tu, 
tua, bitu, bitua, N. G., 

Kubiri iteu, Oiun nitin. 

j^ ; tar i, bakatari ; Mg. 

tarika, My. tarik, B. tari. 

"iri3j '\^'PiT} ; rat i, tat i, mi- 
rati, nrat i. 

i*D^ see ipj. 

ti(Dd.^ '\(\(Dl,\ suru, surufa 
ki, tasuru. 

n^iD ; ser i. 

^£^ ; sula, sula. 

ftOf"' ; sum i. 

HDD, see P1P«, f]p;. 

J£3, ni"'DDj j!^^, &c. ; sama i, 
sama na, sama, sema, sese- 
ma, sema n, or seme n. 

nsD, ;1^, ns^, )tai; so- 
ara (sowara), soar i. 

ZS, iLiri, ilil, ?iQ(l ; beau, 

iny, nny, my- afiti, bati. 

0»fl?, Oa^ ; be, bea, bebea. 
^* - 

J*c ; bila, bibila, bilena. 

nnj; , "iiij ; gobera, kobara. 

tS(iC, OrbC, 3iy (transposed) ; 
bara, d. oro, ruma (trans- 

jiff, 1,2; bule, mafule. 

^^V? t>atu, bate, ihit. 

JsP, X^^; kal, bakal i, ke- 
kel, fakaL 

">13, j^.^ &c. ; kel, kela, 
kelet i, kelufa ki, kelu, 
kola, kokola. 

Tl¥. "J^^j "^^'^ <3.^j ; atuta, ta- 

iSc, Jjff, (jAc ; toitoi, teitei, 

^jcc, *l,j^ ; atara, n-atara. 

.s^ff, j^c, ti-i^j ^^.?y^ 3 tuai, 
tuei, tua, matua, (Mg. ma- 
tua), matuatua, bakatuei : 
atua, Mg. matuatua f a spirit, 

(jjff, (njx) ; ao, au, bakau, 

lie (mid. j) ; afa, afa i, ofa, 
afafa, bafa, baofa. 

py, see ^.iff. 

«qiy (^y), ^yay, to flutter; 
bebe, Sa. pejpe, to flutter 
about, a butterfly, a motL 



For My. ayam, Cocos Island 
ufa, Zag. ihon^ see Diet. s.v. 

L/^*^) Lf^^^i «juitxx ; am 1, 01 1, 
wil i, ul i, bakaul i, biauli, 
bioli, faulu, baul i. 

J^j Jj^, 5 ; tagidgi. 

■^ly ; bilo, bulo, buga, buga- 
fuga, bulo-ni, bugo-ni, My. 
hagu-n, Mg. fuha, fulia-z. 

"^:iV, O'H^S ; bare, barea. 

— * fo- 

J^, J^jw; misal. 

Jjjs, 2, "ity ; sila i, tasila, dd. 
tasiga, ahika. 

li^, riiW, Mabri Wa?*.^, aVai' ; 
taot, tawot. 

^* * 

Jiff ; d. tob, tobi. 

Pj^y, .a^; tofarofa, rofa- 

jli (y), b^V, i>-V, ' to suckle ' ; 
biy, 'a cliild/ Mahri gairu, 
galli(-an) (Carter), Jjli:, ^ a 
boy,' IJcis.; kari, Bauro ar^, 
An. hal, Fi. gone. 

Jiff (mid. ■•), 4 ; mile, mole. 

^^Iff (mid. % 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, ^ 
[^*^] ; mata, mita, meta, 

^ •» 'o" *-- * »■ - *- ^ 

ivjlff, iii^ , A»< ; .ff , (_^Ut*, Aw*g^ j 

mauri, mairi, mole. 

^) Jff, &c., nby; ulu, ulua, 
uli, ali, lulu, ululu, balo, 

IXff (final ^), s^5i, bagi, Maori 
2)iki-t, Mg. aJcata^ My. mig^'ah. 

^j^ ; gusi, magusl. 

i'py, ^^^, imper. ^o.^ ; ali- 
alia, ultilia, luluia, lulia, 

JU, 1, 2, 4, Jk, &c.; liko, 
likot i, luko, lukot i, luku- 

Oy, ^I; ma, me, «&c. 

Iff ; auaua, (awawa). 

j.;^, 1, 3, 4, 8 ; 2, 5, gkofita 
(gokofita) ; fafatu, fata ; 

^py^ ^^5, ^j-^, 'i^'^y, fet, uere, 
uete, uenr, uonda. 

J*ff, ii^ff; meri, d. bri-gi. 
Jiff, and J«I, VQV, ^aoi^^ 
ja-iOJbw, iiUff, &C., ""Ij^lDy ; bU, 

bua, bokas, bua-riri, bugi, 
mobu, mbua, bubu, tibu. 

b^y, Dpy; amo, amosi, amo- 
ta ki. 

^, i^ (v. ^^), <S:c.; anu, an'. 
n^y ; fanau. 

cj---ff, ?i2, (J-.C, (j-^ff, (j-:.ff; 
anoi, anua. 

lie, 3, 4 ; abu, au, mau. 




''-Vj J-3^ 5 bull, bulla, ma- 
bulu, mafulu. 

iJLic ; tef i, tetefi. 

"^5?V, n-j?y, J^l^f; tere, tere- 

^_^, ^jJls.^ 1, 8, (cf. i^nn, 
fis i) ; bos i, bus i, fls i, 
fifi, tafifl. 

Jlc, ijjij^, &c. ; fuluara. 

n, v«, 00, hm(D<, 'ui:i, 

kasu, k^s, kau. 

^jc, ^j.flc ; ako, aka, koa, aka, 
eka, uaka (waka), maka, 
makaka, kaka. 

Cl^, ^i^y ; bago, bako, mago, 

"5V, "P^'?, J^; baka. 

j£i, 1, 2, 5, h\>V, h\h?V', kila- 
kila, takel, takelkel, ta- 
gell, tageligeli. 

t5jx* ; alia, li, lo, mala, 
malo, malmal, malamala, 
malu, &c. 

o^c ; rumS, tuma, (trans- 
posed) marou. 

'^IV^'niP, "915!^, ^?1J!^; fara, 
bifara ki, My. haris. 

«-_3/;, »— ij^fi, Miviner'; arifon, 
'diviner,' ;jUJ^, 'sciens.' 

L/^^» U^^> U^*"* ^^^ L,"^*-^ ' 

las i, lasilasi, tilas i, baka- 
tilasi, beles. 

(^^ , cS^ ; ori. My. urut. 

n^V^ n'^i/IP; uisi (wisi, wisi- 
wis), bisi, busiwusi. 

jj»»c ; uti. 

jAe ; sikot, sikut i. 

Jii, ->'^y, imJS-, )-in>., &c.; 
Tah. ahuru^ Rotti AwZw, Sa. 
/ii^z/^, Ma. gahuru, Vila and 
Meli gafuru, nofuru^ Santo 
hhulu, nafuru^ &c., Mg. /w??(, 
My. 2^^11(11. 

kLs-, A-iff ; ula; *l^, mata (m 

for g, Fut. gata, Fi. ^aiia, Ma. 


^^^ ««" ^ 

J::^, 1, 3 ; IbLc, tila, tilas i. 

IH^ , !»::& ; tamtam. 

J^, 6, 3 ; tiki. 

\^'ii o^^ ; i^V, ^i^ ; asu, asua. 

ij-f (v. JJ^); alia, (a-, art., 
and ua), ua, Bu. urok. 


^, see t^^C- 

^^ ; afina, aflla, afin i, afit i, 
afis i. 

w_9J^ (y. uJJS, and u.ij> t» ). 



i>U, iJojc.; uta, uta i, uta ki, 

cjU (mid. ^); afa ki, ofa ki; 
uwi, ui, N. G., Murua, Bo- 
niki kuvi, Mekeo lama, Epi 
yubi, Malo dam, ram, MI. rum, 
see Ch. II, (§ 11) c; tafaki, 

; usa; My. ujan, udan, 
Motu medu, Bugis bosi, To. 
uha, Sa. ua, Amblaw ulah, 
Mg. urana, 

Jii, see P^y ; Mg. ilita^ idita, 
Sa. w/2^, uhif i. 

i»c, j-^ ; fasu, tafasi. 

j.lsi,^', moru, moru, mo- 
rua(^ki), mori. 

(jM*^, ((j-^, tj**^) J musu, 

mus 1, 



^^, |iy ; ani, dni, an, en, 
oni, a, o, ma, man, ba, 
ban, bao, baon, maon, bon, 
mba, mban. 

JJ:, niV, *[^ ; binu. 
jJls.; fuluara. 

Jl^j pD3) ; bulu, bulut i, 
mabulu, buloki, bubulu, 
buiubulut, fili. 

*^0- a-^0. 

jiySi, ij£.j& ; mero, meromero, 

]/■, (l£/^) ; ara, arara, ara- 
ran i. 

* - ^ B i 9 

J-J:, J**.i: ; sol i, sila i. 

U-e, *li-ii ; mota, motamota, 
Sa. ota^ otaota. 

ba, d. mba ; bo ; d. fe. 


bua, ta bua i, tabiia, 
mafua, fai, mafa, mafaifai, 

Jli ; fera, bifera ki. 

£3^?, J* la ; fam i, bam i. 

^Jli, ^J\y, and mid. ^, ^U, 
i^Us, 'to emit hoarse guttural 

sounds/ (j-fuJi, 'to bark'; 
uak, uago, Fi. vuaka, Po. 
puaka, j^ua'a, fuaa, * pig,' 
' swine.' The word is formed 
from the sound. 

^, 2 ; fara (ki nameta). 
J.1 ; fit. 
sli ; be a, fe a, befe, fefe. 

(HD, sli), sli, sy ; momoa. 

liy, Ur, ^tf ; be, bea, bei, 
fea, mia, tiamia. 



llj, 6, (pll), mid. ^ ; boa, 
tamo, nabo. 

-lU, &c., niQ; bok, bokauok. 

pS ; biisa i, fusa i, mafusai. 

|13; fanu, fan (d. melu, see 

•'^3, iiif. of "»!?, (eg. ^'^3); 
bori, maiiori, boriuoris i, 
bororis i, boris i. 

j^», tliigh ; of. Santo wado, 
Ef. mao, d. faa, My. pdah, 
Mg. fe, thigh. 

* » - 

i- ' 

U^9j ^Li, dlL^; bog, bogi, 
bogian, meg, Kiviri (N. G.) 


/bSi, Hithp. ; fira, Aran i, 

^"iS, ^^<i^, ^^^v^U?; mul i, 

^b^ (cf. r\b^, £Cr, Talm. Tj^D): 
i i 

bnlus i, fulns i, bulo, ta- 
folo, tafulus, filora, tulora, 
bologa, tafiloga ; Sa. fulisi, 
tafuli, milosi ; My. pidds. jyuhr, 
Mg. fuU, fulesina, onaimdisa. 

"5? ; bano, ban, (contracted) 

yp^, '!i; milag. 

nvfi ; bio-so, ra-flo-so. 

Pya, Jjt9, 1U9; bolo, bolofolo, 
bolos i. 

"^ysi, ^9,^J!ij; mola. 

HDQ; bitO. 

lA^» u^j (J^^ *) basu, base, 
basul i, basera ki, mafasu, 
moas, tabasuli. 

kll, 2, 3, bisi, 3, fisi (cf. 

^j.9 ; buka, bukas i. 

l£i, 1, 5 ; baku, mafaku, 

tafakka, tafagka, (tafak- 

ka), 5, Uii. 

— ' • -» 

Ji, -Ui; buga, fuga, buma, 

Ifij (^ij) ; bamu, babu. 

ftji$, pjAi ; monamona. 

nns, x-jD, ^C?, 4.C?t; 'to 

fruit, bear fruit ' ; Arm. 

' fruit ' ; boiia, ua (wa), d. 
weti, Malo vira, Sa./i«a, Mg. 
vuttf My. huwah. 

^ i^^W^ lls-^ii; manu, 
wose-man, se-mani, My. hu- 
rug, Mg. vuruna, Ja. manuk. 

n^Q ; bora, far a, era, uora, 
bakauora ki. 



(^9, iSjJo ; bora i, borai, bo- 
rora, bora, uora (ora, era), 
tabare, mauora, maora, ma- 
oraora, tabarebare. 

-i^iD, ns-is, ^CaC, "lisi? ; bera, 
fera, tabera ki, taberafera, 
berafera, tafar (taiar). 

{^js ; baros i, farofaro, baro- 

VIQ, c^9 ; baro, barua, ma- 
rua, bura, barord. 

c^j, c^ ; bau (Epi haru, Malo 
batu), baua, uau-a (uaua), 
bai, mau, tabau, bau, bo, 
bo-fi, befe. 

n? ; biris i. 

J/' (Ji/'i biriki. 

jS^ ; bare, barefare. 

lis, "isn ; biri, biriflri, tabiri, 

u^i LK/'') bills i, bolis i, 
uolis i, uol, mauoli, maoli. 

*U.9, 4, ^jj\ ; maosa (mawosa), 
taosa (tawosa). 

^L9, ISs, (c^, *^ J batu. 

jTi, J^, ^tA, f^'^, ^^'ft", 
^t At ; biri, tafirofiro ; Sa. 

Jill, Jilo, Maori whiro, Tab. 
Jlri, taviri, Bugis bitoij My. 
dd. 2>^'^itcih bilan, j}ilin. 

i"i2?, ^rhA; milo, Ml. Mask. 

^, r 

RX^X, D'^5?^«?; titu, titau, 
tatau, totau. 

^?nif, nn^; tubu, tub, tobu, 
tuma, d. tumbu. 

C^, 1, 5, 7, 8, and CA^ (mid. 
j) ; luba, luba ki, maluba 
ki, talubaki ; My. tumjpuh. 

'Il», ^'ddi, ^.a^ ; mit3,mai, 

<r..o f 

earn, nnv, ni^r, niiv; tuut i, 

A^, ^^, AaxI ; tuma, tuma- 
tuma, tiu, riu, ru, tiutiu, 
tutu, tutu, lulu, matiu. 

ynv, ysDirx, Ch. (A., H. id.); 
lolofa, lum, luma, lulum, 

J^ , J.!o ; tau, taur i, taura 

"i?y , y.^ ; taua. 

li^r ; tabdti. 

R^<L, 1— 5j-^; taruba, taruba 
ki, in taruba, taruba suk. 

Pl^*, jj^, (jju^, l-D?^' ; soke, 
masoko, le-soko. 



Ju4^; rofa. 

t ' — ♦ ^ 

"'^y, lU-*, Jh^; tiele. 

"in?; tera. 

'"ij? ; tau, tautaii, tona ki, dd. 
towana ki, dawana ki. 

^U>, 5, «^«aJ ; maritau. 

RcD-O, yiK^, Piel; so, soso, bio- 
80, ra-soso, so e, sos i. 

V^-i, Hi., JU, 2, P*iif; sog, so- 
gon i. 

JU, 2 ; mitiri, d. misiri. 

Jo»j, )uot., nji?; matu, maru, 
matu, manru. 

JU, 3, 5 ; sera i, misera ; seri, 

RTC; sela, sola, selat i, so- 
lat i, bisela. 

%^L, t-J.s.-^, Amh. 55^; raf i, 
teraf i (reraf i). 

t«Asf*, JC>', ta, bita, bita- 
naki, beta, feta. 
^^i'* (d. bisin), bitunu, Eee 

9:h\a), n^ (eg. l^), *to be 

clear,' ' clear up ' ; sina, Fi. 
siga (Jl'*ijE. = 0^j&, q.v.). 

'*^»^«; seri, sari. 

Jw», JJu> (eg. ?D?^); sila, sila- 
sila, masila. 

iU, RA?, t^.^if, Rft^t; tarotaro, 
taros i. 


Xo, jJl?; talai, tatalai. 
'^O^??, Pj; J^*^; seloa. 
>jU ; tula. 
>r1^, see cjj. 

xJu», Alu; mataloa. 

y^;?, V^iJ; firi, fiti. 

npjf, n»if; futum, bisau, bu- 
suf, atuma. 

cpif, j*j; sabel, tamis i (tie, 
bind), My. simjpul. 

nyv^ LLj, hO<D (to pour out); 
taki, (si)rak, mitaki. 

(.— i-a ; tefa, tetefa, bitefa, 
tefan i, tefag i. 

i^s , '^\ ; suer i. 

nsj; bakateba. 

^^, ^^^ j tauien, or tawien. 

R^O, R'^01', M-, Aflwj, ;3i-»; 

sabe-1 i, Fi. saha-la ka, My. 
tampa-rj J. tamjpe-l. 

fj^Sif; miteftef, mitefiitefii. 

^j^yj;^; saru, saruru, sau- 
rua ki (sarurua ki). 

{jj^j i^L»,jU; Mod. A. sari, 



'mast'; tere, 'mast,' Ma., 

Tab, tira, My. tiya^^ Mg. sala- 

zana, id. 

^^^ * — 

c^, suj^ ; saru, misaru. 

^j^, and *1^; tare. 

c-^, ^5?; kau, au. 

Uo, *Lc, *^^, 8; libo, talibo, 

]a^f ^il*-->, *.^ia*^; taue, taugi. 
j^ 0?9) ; taua ki, taua. 
»_:^4^, 2 ; tibil i. 
*U; matata. 
«^U ; tabe, tabetab. 

> ^ «<• ^ 

Isr^, A^U; tiki, tikitiki, tigi, 

^ ; sina ; An. se^a, {ne)t^i^ ; 
Fi. si^a ; S. Ch, sina : v. 8'*i,l&, 

B'*!^, U?^(sun), Jj', 'sun'; Tig., 
Amh. sat ; Epi, S. E. ndae, To. 
Zda, Tarawan tai (cf. Sok. 
shiJien), Meli and Sulu rea, Z«a, 
Cajeli lahei, Amblaw laei, Lifu 
t'M, fjo ('sun'). Mare du, Ef.elo, 
alo, ali, My. art, Mg. anru, 

J^ ; tera, dd. rera, tenr, rira, 

^ ; tain i, tarn i, taum i. 

^^^, Lo; milago. 

La^ ; raba (rabba), nub, rub, 

cy^, 4; sori, sorisori. 

« w ^ 

n2j^ i^; kofa, kofakofa. 

'i^A*, ^Ad<, <-Jjii, u- 5J^, V-_iJL5, 

Amh. ^H% * to row,' ma'zaf, 
'an oar,' 'rowing,' A. migdaf, 
migdaf^ mihdaf, mCdaf, and 

«-ij jU, ' an oar ' ; uose, se- 
mani, uohe, balusa, Fiji 

vot'eta, xiot'e. 

"^15,^jj,^j$, s^jkS ; kota, gota, 

-- ^- * f 9 

J^j, J43; kola, kokola, gkola, 

^^i, ^45 ; kara, gara, kara- 
karai, tagaragara. 

D^p (pp, t:pJ); kita i, gita, 

kitakita i. 

*" °' 

il?^ ; koto (bolo). 

^ ^ S ■' * - - 

D^P, Hi., |*U, j4^, ijli, 4; 
kaimis i, kaimas i. 



v._jj5; My. kujpig, chu]pig, Mg. 
sufina, * ear.' 

A^li ; gafa. 

ij^js ; katoro. 

{j^js'j aso, asu. 

j^JsJ, i-Jss^ ; kofe, kofena. 

1^5 ; katau. 

?^5 ; kita, My. kate. 

«y ; koto, goto, kotof i, 
kut i, makoto, makot, 
motu, mot, bagotef, ko- 
koto, gotokoto, makoto- 

\^J^ ; kusuwe, kusue, kusu. 

diJ, ^aCi, bbil ; kal, kala, ba- 
kal i, makal, makalakala, 
makamakala ki. 

rP5, J^, Jxl5,r?i^; kamuti, 
gamut i, kam i, kau, gana, 
gau, agau, nikam, kam- 
kam, kaukau, gaut, gat, 
fakau, fakaua, tagau, ta- 

1m ; kukum i, kum i, gum i, 
mimi, mi, gwi, um i. 

2^5 » vl^-^; kasau, transposed 

fpi(D ; kona i, konai, gonai. 

^1^%, tinea, moth, white 

ant (worm, then winged), * a 

tinea erosus ' ; ^c , * to hmn ' 
(of insects), see U. G., p. 40; 
Mg. kanhanay *a worm,* kan~ 
kanina, a., * affected with 
worms,' My. aniani, * white 
ant,' Sara, ane, 'white ant,' 
anea, aneanea, * eaten by white 
ants, moth-eaten.' 

^x5, f^jxs^; makita, bakita, 


jj^; kerikeri. 

SLS, Isj; gafikafi, s. and v. 

^, 1, 5, 8; kus i, takus i, 
us i, taus 1, taos i, raus i 
(d. nrukus i), usus i, baus i, 
bausus i, faus. 

Us, j^ ; esu, klsau, kisur 

n^*i5 ^ ^^ ; bakauti, d. buti. 

'{ *^JU; wa^rarm (Malo); ma- 
lar!, milati, milanr ; Maori 

S^i? ; kola, gola, kokola, 
gkola, kola-oli. 

nif^, ir\J); gara. 

^jh fV' ^J' ^^*^- 
v_i^, 3, 4 ; goloba. 
j_^ ; kinit i, kini. 



^j^i, Gi; kas i, gas i, ma- 
kes i, kas. 

«*A, Kaa^; kasu. 

n^i^, \3; kasu, kasiia, ga- 
8ua, kasuana. 

Jj, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, n^n, 



a^Ch^', rai, rairai, borea, 
le, 15, leo, leoleo, lele, 
lum i, limis i, libi, libis, 
loh, los i, leka, malolo, 


u^^ji L^jj'j u-^') <J^3j^ U^3)^ 

t^i^'i, cxrt (pi. h-), U-;, 

Mahri /i^re, haroh, hare, ((j-j 
lost), ergs' : hulu, uru, luha, 
&c. See Ch. II, § 16. Mg. 
luhani = ^^IK'^"! : Ef. uluma 
(ulu-riia), Polynesian uluna, 
uruga, urua, ^15J'^?.1, 'pillow 
for the head/ pi. ; n:^J<l (not 

2?1, ^\ ^1, -?!, ^?1; laba, 
laba, leba, lalaba, leba- 
leba, milaba, leb, lafalafu, 
barab, baraf, baram, barau, 
birirdfe (C>^, l^j, cl/,, C^, 

«^j» 4))- 

«kj^, Jo-i^; rut i, rot i, rot. 

vs^^ t^is? >' raka, maraka, ma- 

Vn (eg. :ii<) , CIO ; rago, rago- 

8 jp , A4^ ; les. 

oo»>, and Ethpn., vaoij; ooi;^, 

(L^r)) ; rubua, marafi, sa- 

rafl, ribu, taribu. 

• *» 
Ja^ ; ran, Carolines ralo ; Mg. 

ranu, Ma. ranu, 

i^\^ (mid. j) ; roba, roroba, 
toroba, nrob. 

m"i, Hi., £lj, 1, 2, 4; maro, 
mara, maromaro, bakama- 

^\^j (rawah); rau% ndau% 

Jj^, Jij)^; taniu, tanu, ta- 
nua, N. G., Rubi kanuru^ 
Sinaugoro kanunuj Galoma 

-.- » '- 

pl^, ^]^; laga, bilaga, laga- 

D^i, Dn, D"i, non (niDn), ni»"i. 
DTO, nioi-i, HD^nn, <;,^ (rama, 
for ramat, ' the third heaven '), 
l^oo, hC^OD (^'heaven'), 
hC^^^ {' the heavens '), 
fi^:^, causative ; laga, la- 
gat i, lagi, lagilagi, bala- 



gat i, tabalaga, balagasa ki, 
lig, liga, lag; 

D'i"^9 (lieaven); burau, or bu- 
rou, or barou, Uhe sky, 

^jy ^f {^j\ 1, 2, 3, 5, 6; 
ro i, roro i, toro, toro i, 
rere, tere i, lor, roro, ma- 

U^3j J ' garden, lake, or pool ' ; 
d. elol, d. loga, d. roara; 
Maori and Po. roto^ ' garden, 
lake or pool, inside, the inside, 
heart, mind ' ; ^V^ 10, * to be 
well formed or constituted (said 
of the mind).' 

yil, VVr\', ra. 

(J1» 2, ^J^J ('to strain'), JJl^ 

(and Jijjl;), * colum, cadus ' ; 

reaki, v., s., id. n. a. ^Ij^ 

(n. a. of 2). 

rt?!, ^^jh:>-j ; loso, lolos. 
Cchd ; lausa, lousa, lusa. 
p^n"), )d**o>, Crh.^; toga. 

f-!; (i^id- '), 1, 2, aI^^ ; rei, 
(ne)rei, ruru. 

onn, l^i,, ^J, i;Lj; rum i, 
rom i : see Ch. Ill (c). 

P"*"! ; reko, rea, rei, farea. 
jl, (mid. '), 1, 4, Jy, iil^, 

(j];4*; ligi, ligis i, maligi, 

"^'■^j J^; ; tia. 

^1^ (mid. "»), (^^ ; murasa, 
burasa, marasa. 

c-^SJ , c-^S^Lo ; borau, rarua, 
raru, (raruwa). 

lij, il5j ; ruku, rukua, faka- 
ruku, ra. 

*l5j; riki, nriki, tiki. 

\y (final ^); raku, teraku, 
raraku, d. takut i, Sa. lau, 
Ma. raku, Mg. raguta, Marq. 

^, 1, 4, 5,*^, ^(5^1; laka, 
lakea ki, telaki, atelaki, 
laga ki, telakea, lago 
(' prop '), rago (* rollers, joists, 
upon which a canoe is placed '). 

jtSj, ci^*, auxS^' ; lako, loku, 

laku, loko, roko, nrok, 
luku, lukuta ki, lakosa ki, 
lokota ki, talukoluko, ta- 

^°J; rigi, ririgi, tirigi, bi- 

iM ; lisa ki, lisi. 

yy"), >^'^9ll ; rere, rerea, ta- 

^y*}, ^)i1 ; raba, rabaraba. 



nvi, nyn, Ui; ^Hr ; mi- 
roa, mitoa, mintoa, minroa, 
mititoa, ro, roro, rara 
(tan i), tara (tan i), toto, 

Dy"), see oojj ; rufua, «S:c. 

"^i^i ^yi, ^y"J; ruru. 

JkcJ, 1, 4; risu, rusa, ros, 
nrus, risug i, rosag i, tosa. 

^yi, ^'yi; ras, tas, res, reres, 

• ^ *-- 
L-i, , (^-ai, ; malafiafi. 

G,, *li,; ruba. 

x-9, ; roba. 

u-fl*c,; rubaki. 

^j\ lafi. 

ns"] (eg. ntt"]), [3> ; roua (rowa, 
rowo), roa, towo, tao, tibe, 
mitao, ro, mitefe, d. lubu, 
(Aneit. e7'oj){se) ), marobaroba. 

uJ^-s. ; rabaraba. 

«^-^. ; tasi, &c., tai na. 

{Jj, Oj', mirara, bakamirara. 
^J,, 2 ; raka i, rakat i. 

A,:<^ , ^^^ ; ra, raran, tera 
(te ra). 

2^p^ nno, &c. ; sau, sauf i. 

jC, IjL, lill, b^i^^, nW; 
bitali, d. bitago, tago-fl. 

^^^; safa, sefa, sofa, sofa, 

u-^ , c:^ ; subu, subua, sibi 
(in pr. nn.). 

naK', fc<3K^ ; siba, sisiba, ma- 
siba, sibasiba. 

Ajt^, Assy, sz^i^, Mahri ibet ; 
Mg. j^^ii, Santo 6ziw, ' seven,' 
J. 2^z7w, Ssi.Jitu. 

;j*-j, ;j*«* ; sobu (= d. bea, 
precede, be first). 

u-ftsT', see ^HD. 

niton^^, n'lDl^; talemat, tule- 

[^, ij^ ; sau, mesau (d. 
muri), santa ki, sautoga. 

*ll (mid. ^) ; sa, sasana. 

*l£ (mid. .) ; sau, tumana sau 

[^^ ; sea, sesea, (Maga) sesea. 
J4-; siel. 

il^ ; seman i. 

njK^, V. nii* (tau), to, towo, 
tona ki, toun i. 

msj', nmc^, ^u, &c. ; tuku, tuk, 

u u 

tuk, tukituki. 



(jr^; su, sua. 

dll (mid. j), loll j sikara. 

ujll (mid. j) ; siua (siwa). 

P^^, P?', J^, pi. Jir; tua, 

tuo, tutua, tua. 

^l£ (mid. j), 2, 3 ; ser i. 
jl£ (mid. j); masika. 
"11K^ ; saria. 

nv^^, 2^n ; roa, d. doa, rowa, 
biroa, taroaroa, biroaroa, 
meraroa, maroa, mare ; 
mero, mo, ro. 

Ur", -^ ; si, sisi, sis, sol. 

^, -.^ ; sike, sike, sike 

las.'-' ; sito. 

^^s***, ^A«uk,, iJi^-^; sinu, tunu, 
bitin, bisin, bitunu, &c. 

Jsr* ; sila, masila, masilasila. 
(j^, PD^; sok, soga, sogoa. 

nnB>, nne'*)?, j^; tola, rola, 
tolarola, matol. 

JL; sera, Jl- *U fluens aqua, 
Ef. fai sera, d,, c. art., noai 
sera, id. 

ell (mid. "■) ; sal, saisai, bisai, 

si, sui, sa, ta, seati, soa, 

^_^, 1, 2; sua, bisua. 

iiijj, ^, y->** ^ ijtwj ; sera, oisera, 

isU., "n?^; suk i, tasuki. 

15C1 ; misaki ; (sakit^ maki, mat). 

??^ i^J^)', seka, biseka. 
npK^, Hi. ; sal i, salisali. 

J^, J^; turu, turi, turua, 
tuturu, riri, turufa ki. 

!ill; sela, v., s. 

IZ ; sum i, sumil i. 

J^ (cf. rtOtfo) ; Sa. so^i, My. 
chyum] sumi, sugi, sogi. 
a a 

npK^; semasema. 

^W, Y'^^f, J^ , ^^ ; samit i, 
samat i, sumat i. 

xl; tu, tutu. 

i^> cr^j L)***^' ^^' T'^^'tij ^®*i' 
SeeCb. II, § 16 6. 

nv^, ^^ilc^; sao, saof i. 
jl£, J^«^; sulu, masula ki. 
.ii ; sereserea. 

'xl ; soro, sorof i, bakasoro- 
sorof i. 

^^i>jLk. ; takal 1. 



hJui, 1, 6; sabo, tasabo, sa- 
bona ki, sasabo. 

clli. ; siu. 

jM^, 3, jU^, iyJu*/', siuer (si- 
wer), suuara, suara (su- 
wara), surata, sur ; sera 

(to sweep). 

^^-. * tf 

J-i^, Jy-j, J^j siuo, suua 

(siwo, suwa), sua. 
^JSu>, see fSD ; sema, sama. 
»^ ; soro, soroa, miseroa. 
nn'^, i<% ; seri, bakaseri. 
j^) soroa. 
xPLfD ; sura i. 

L^ ; surut i. 

"TIK^, fU., Pa., Aph. ; sera i, 
sera ki, sera loamau, &c. 

v_i^ ; salube, saluke. 

c^-j ; serab. 

nt?, nn^, ^n^, njn^^, ji,:^, 

jl'olis-».'» i^ndnuna) ; minu, 
minugi, 2n2^, minunci, minurn 
(as to t to n, and s elided, 
866 next word), munuma. 

-» — «■ 

L^, Mahri t7z7; Mg. enina, 
enim-j My. awam, Sa. ono: 


j?^j, >?t.*-o ; tuf i, tafl. 

-\2^^ nntJ^D, j;j, nnn ; saberi 
ki, sabura ki, samura, ta- 

Jl.i, 1'^; susu. 

(jjj ; tau, mitau, Sa. tau^ Fi. 

fj'in, HDh, t^^; tob, tobet. 

HDn, n^n^ l^^ 8,t5o-l, secondary 
radical from A. 8, see A. G., 
I. 148 ; toko, tok, to, ti, te, 

dS, ^^ ; toke, tok. 

Xi, iia5j, follow, recite, secondary 
radical from ^4, 8 ; till, tuli, 
A. G., I. 148. 

l<.:il, vSb^:;, ill, JC^^, (tela); 
tolu, Mg. teht, Ja. toZit, 'three'; 
cf. JIJ, for ^if, * third,' with 
elision of the final tt;. 

»- e ;> O 

o, ^j; num, nubu, nuf, nu, 
nau, bunu, manubu, ma- 
nua, manunu, mafunai, 

^ ; nu e, nau i. 

^0", n;to^, jud.:»l; My. laioan 
(red. delaj)an), Suvu jpanu, Mg. 
va.%, Easter Island varu, Sa. 



valu, Carolines wan, wal, Santo 
walu, alu, Fi. walu. 

x^3 , Ax^-l , t(or^)rtO*, 

'f [or ^)(lO'V ; Sula Islands ^asm, 
Santo siiva, Amboyna, &c., 
siwa, sia, Tagala siam, Mg. 
sivi, To. hiva, Sa. iva, 

ias^ ; metita. 

cU (mid. ^), to flow, Lc\J, 

vomit ; A.?, n. a. Ajj to vomit, 
to go out and be ejected, 

JO, and Axj, vomit, 

cli, n. a. ^Jt-o, >st*i, (jW^ (Ef« 

luana), to flow out, go out or 

away, be ejected, vomit; lua, 

lu, milu, lua ki, luana, 

tama lu. 

11^^ ; leana, leg, lena. 

^, a-^ci; taku, mataku, 
mita-taku, matau ki, My. 

takut, A.G.,lAiS. From ^^j , 8 . 

Vi^n, m^cD; sago. 

n^, w»l {tera), tl):f, ^Q\ 

(^jIIj), Mahri t^aro, Sok. ta- 

rawa ; Celebes dia, My. duwa, 
Bis. duha, Mg. riia, Ef. tua, 
tua, rua, Epi lua, ' two.' 

jjjj ; teratar. 

Cij^j, iSj, iS^>J ; turuk, i'C^, 
turubi-si ; nin : see Ch. II, 
§ 14 c. 

"fCd. ; turubi-si : see d^i, 
Dillmann, p. ' 47. 



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BBfcClBi Jl 1'78 

CQAN DEPT. . ^ ^ 

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