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Full text of "The ocean of story, being C.H. Tawney's translation of Somadeva's Katha sarit sagara (or Ocean of streams of story)"

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Limited to one thousand five hundred sets. 







(or ocean of streams of story) 




N. M. PENZER, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. 












Made and Printed in Great Britain 






M.A., CLE. 



[The following account of the life and labours of Mr Tawney has been 
prepared chiefly from the obituary notices which appeared in " The 
Times" " Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society" and " The Calcutta 

CHARLES HENRY TAWNEY was the son of the 
Rev. Richard Tawney, vicar of Willoughby, whose 
wife was a sister of Dr Bernard, of Clifton. From 
Rugby, which he entered while the great days of Dr Arnold 
were still a recent memory, he went to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he greatly distinguished himself. He 
was Bell University Scholar in 1857, and Davies University 
Scholar and Scholar of Trinity in the following year. In 
1860 he was bracketed Senior Classic and was elected a 
Fellow of his college. 

For the next four years he worked as a Fellow and Tutor 
at Trinity, but though he had obviously excellent prospects 
of academical work at home, considerations of health induced 
him to seek employment in India. 

In 1865 he was selected to occupy the Chair of History in the 
Presidency College, just then vacated by Professor E. Byles 
Cowell. Mr Tawney filled this Chair with great credit from 
1866 to 1872 ; in the latter year he was appointed Professor 
of English. 

In 1875 he officiated as Principal in the place of Mr James 
Sutcliffe, and on the latter's death, in the following year, 
his position as Principal was confirmed. This office he held 
from 1876 to 1892, with breaks for short periods, during 
which he either went home on leave or was called upon 
to officiate as Director of Public Instruction in the then 
undivided province of Bengal. 

He also held the position of Registrar of the Calcutta 


University from 1877 to 1881, 1884 to 1885, and again in 
1886 and 1889. 

He was awarded the CLE. in 1888 and retired from the 
Education service at the end of 1892. 

Mr Tawney had a happy familiarity with the literature 
of his own country, and published in Calcutta (1875) The 
English People and their Language, translated from the German 
of Loth. His acquaintance with Elizabethan literature was 
remarkable, while in Shakespearean learning he had no living 
rival in India. In this connection it is to be regretted that, 
except for editing Richard III (1888), he left no record of 
his great learning in this particular field of knowledge. 

There was little scope in Calcutta for the display of Mr 
Tawney 's knowledge of Latin and Greek, and so almost as 
soon as he arrived in India he threw himself heart and soul 
into the mastering of Sanskrit. This he achieved with the 
greatest credit, as the numerous works which he has left 
clearly show. His first publications were prose translations of 
two well-known plays, the Uttara-rama-carita of Bhavabhtiti 
(1874) and the M dlavikdgnimitra of Kalidasa (1875). In 
Two Centuries of Bhartrihari (1877) he gave a skilful render- 
ing into English verse of two famous collections of ethical 
and philosophico-religious stanzas. But his magnum opus, 
to which he devoted some later years of his Indian career, 
was his translation of Somadeva's Katha Sarit Sdgara, which 
was published by the Asiatic Society of Bengal in their 
Bibliotheca Indica series (two volumes, 1880-1884). Con- 
sidering the date of the appearance of this great translation 
it was well annotated by most useful notes drawn from a 
wide reading in both classical and modern literature. The 
extreme variety and importance of the work, together with 
the recent strides made in the study of comparative folk- 
lore, religion and anthropology, are the raison d'etre of the 
present edition. 

The same interests which prompted Mr Tawney to pro- 
duce his magnum opus also led him, during his official life 
in London, to the study of the rich stores of narrative con- 
nected with the Jain doctrine, resulting in his translations 
of the Kathdkofa (Oriental Translation Fund, N.S., ii, 1895) 



and Merutunga's Prabandhacintdmani (Bibliotheca Indica, 
1899-1901), both works of considerable difficulty and interest. 
At the same time he was engaged in superintending the 
preparation and printing of catalogues issued from the India 
Office Library, the Catalogue of Sanskrit Books by Dr Rost 
(1897), the Supplement to the Catalogue of European Books 
(1895), the Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS. by Professor Eggeling, 
of Persian MSS. by Professor Ethe, of Hindustani books by 
Professor Blumhardt (1900), and of Hindi, Punjabi, Pushtu 
and Sindhi books by the same (1902), of the Royal Society's 
Collection of Persian and Arabic MSS. by E. D. Ross and 
E. G. Browne (1902). He was himself joint-author of a 
catalogue of the Sanskrit MSS. belonging to the last-named 
collection (1903). 

Mr Tawney's services to Sanskrit scholarship were there- 
fore both varied and extensive. 

Apart from Sanskrit and European languages, Mr Tawney 
knew Hindi, Urdu and Persian. 

As an Anglo-Indian he was a worthy successor to men 
like Jones, Wilson and Colebrook. He genuinely loved India 
through its learning and literature. The great influence that 
he had upon his Indian students was amazing. It was due, 
in a large measure, to his elevated moral character, his im- 
partiality, his independence of judgment and his keen desire 
to do justice to all who came into contact with him. 

In this connection it is interesting to read the opinion of 
one of his old pupils. 

At the unveiling of his portrait at the Presidency College, 
Calcutta, Professor Ganguli speaks of his wonderfully sym- 
pathetic nature, and adds : " What struck me most in my 
master was his utter indifference to popularity, which, un- 
fortunately, in some cases magnifies the artful, and minimises 
the genuine. I consider him to be an ideal teacher who 
combined in himself the best of the East and the best of 
the West, and I look upon him as a never-failing source of 
inspiration to me." 

After his retirement from the Education service at the 
close of 1892 he was made Librarian of the India Office. He 
held this post till 1903, when he was superannuated. 


Mr Tawney married in 1867 a daughter of Charles Fox, 
M.D., and the union extended over fifty-three years, Mrs 
Tawney dying in 1920. They had a large family. 

In concluding this short account of Mr Tawney's life, 
the following lines from his own translation of Bhartrihari 
seem especially relevant : 

Knowledge is Man's highest beauty, 
Knowledge is his hidden treasure, 
Chief of earthly blessings, bringing 
Calm contentment, fame and pleasure." 


I HAVE been asked by Mr Penzer to write a Foreword to 
the first volume of his great work on the Kathd Sarit 
Sdgara, but when I observe the research that he has 
bestowed upon it and read the lists of those whose assistance 
he has secured, I cannot but feel much diffidence in comply- 
ing with his request. I can, however, take this opportunity 
of saying what it has long been in my mind to say about 
the books and papers that this gigantic collection of Indian 
folk-tales has from time to time called forth. I am also 
somewhat encouraged to do this by the attitude of Mr Penzer 
towards his own important efforts, as it is clear that he does 
not look on them otherwise than as a continuation of the 
research that has been already devoted to the collections; 
for despite the exhaustive nature of his Appendix IV to 
this volume, his last paragraph the very last of the whole 
volume runs thus : " More than this it is impossible to 
say. Much research still remains to be done on this highly 
important anthropological problem." It is in this spirit that 
I, too, propose to approach the subject of the Kathd Sarit 
Sdgara the Ocean of Story and what I am now about to 
say points to further research being necessary, a proposition 
Mr Penzer would, I take it, be the last person to controvert. 
Nevertheless, I wish to say at once that Mr Penzer's notes 
to the text, short and long, and the four fine appendices on 
folk-lore to this volume viz. on Mythical Beings, the Use 
of Collyrium and Kohl, the Cravings of Pregnant Women motif, 
and Sacred Prostitution fulfil to my mind the purpose 
for which they are written, and must always be a mine into 
which students can delve with profit. They are a good 
augury for the value of the information he has in store for 
scholars in the volumes that are to follow. Anything that 
I may remark, therefore, which savours of criticism is 
said only with the object of assisting the research he has so 
gallantly and so usefully undertaken to promote. 



On page 268 Mr Penzer makes a series of remarks to 
which I would like to draw attention, as they exhibit the 
spirit in which his researches have been made, and to my 
mind they show generally the soundness of his observation 
and conclusions. At any rate I for one can heartily endorse 
them. He says, firstly : " I feel that the fact is often over- 
looked that the origin of a certain custom [speaking for 
the moment of sacred prostitution] in one part of the world 
may not necessarily be the same as that of a similar custom 
in another part of the world." And then he follows up this 
excellent sentiment by another remark: "We must also 
remember that the religion, ethics and philosophy of India 
have been ever changing, and nothing is more inapplicable 
than to speak of the * changeless East ' in this respect " : to 
this I would like to add, "or in any other respect." Later, 
on the same page, he says : " Our knowledge of the early 
Dravidian religion of India before it was 'taken over' by 
the Aryan invaders is so slight that it is impossible to make 
any definite statement with regard to the origin of any 
particular custom of ritual or religious observance." Here, 
however, it seems to me that the researches of Professor 
Krishnaswami Aiyangar and others, and of the Anthropolog- 
ical Society of Bombay, the Mythical Society of Bangalore 
and other such bodies in India, are leading us to a closer 
knowledge thereof. Let us hope they will enable us to solve 
the puzzle, which, after all, it is peculiarly the office of the 
native of India to solve. 

With these preliminary remarks let me start upon my 
own observations on the subject of Mr Penzer's great work. 
I judge from the Invocation that Somadeva, the author of 
the original book, was a Saiva Brahman of Kasmir. His 
real name was Soma, deva being a mere suffix to the names 
of Brahmans, royalties and the like. Mr Penzer shows that 
he must have composed his verses about a.d. 1070, or about 
two hundred and fifty years after Vasugupta introduced into 
Kasmir the Saiva form of the Hindu religion peculiar to 
Kasmir, which was subsequently spread widely by his pupil 
Kallata Bhatta. Later on, but still one hundred years 
before Somadeva, it was further spread by Bhaskara, and 



then in Somadeva's own time made popular by Abhinava 
Gupta, the great Saiva writer, and his pupils Kshemaraja and 
Yogaraja. The last three, who must have been Somadeva's 
contemporaries, were much influenced by the philosophic 
teaching of another Soma Somananda, to give him his 
full name who with his pupil Utpalacharya created the 
Advaita (Monistic) Saiva Philosophy, known as the Trika, 
about two hundred years before Somadeva. Other impor- 
tant Kasmiri philosophic writers before Somadeva's date were 
Utpala Vaishnava and Rama-kantha. 1 So while Somadeva 
was composing his distichs for the delectation of Suryavati, 
the Queen of King Ananta of Kasmir, at a time when the 
political situation was " one of discontent, intrigue, bloodshed 
and despair," it was also as has often happened in Eastern 
history a time of great religious activity. The religion and 
its philosophy were Aryan in form, meaning by the term 
"religion" a doctrine claiming to be revealed, and by 
"philosophy " a doctrine claiming to be reasoned out. 

There is plenty of evidence of the Brahmanic nature of 
the Kathd Sarit S agar a. Here is a strong instance. The 
story of the birth and early days of Vararuchi (p. 11 ff.) is 
not only Indian but also typically Brahmanical. Inter alia 
he exhibits his wonderful memory to Kanabhuti, the Yaksha, 
turned Pisacha, king of the Vindhya wilds, telling the king 
how his mother had said to some Brahmans that "this boy 
will remember by heart everything that he has once heard." 
And then he relates that they "recited to me a Prdtisdkhya" 
a peculiarly difficult and uninviting grammatical treatise, 
and that he immediately repeated it back to them. The 
same class of memory is claimed by Gunadhya in his account 
(p. 75) of how the Kdtantra or Kdldpaka grammar was re- 
vealed to him by the god Skanda (Karttikeya). Now, though 
the claim put forward by Vararuchi is extravagant, the 
extraordinary accuracy of memory cultivated by the ancient 
Brahman and Bardic classes in India still exists, and has 
been taken advantage of by Sir Aurel Stein and Sir George 

1 See J. C. Chatterjee, Kashmir Shaivaism (1914); Grierson and Barnett, 
Lalla-vakyani (1920), and a forthcoming work on the last by myself, The Word 
ofLalla,the Prophetess, Cambridge University Press (1924). 


Grierson in reproducing from word of many mouths the 
text of the Lalld-vdkydni six centuries after the date of the 
authoress Lai Ded with an accuracy which the written word 
does not possess. Accurate memory is not a monopoly of the 
Brahmans and Bards of India, but it is no doubt specifically 
characteristic of them. 

The point of the Brahmanic character of Somadeva's 
collection of tales is of importance to the present argument. 
The author of the Kathd Sarit Sdgara is a Brahman, and he 
gives the work a Brahmanic i.e. an Aryan form, 1 giving 
rise, 'prima facie, to the assumption that the origin of the 
tales is to be sought in the land whence the Aryans came, 
somewhere to the west of India proper. But it is clear that 
the author purported to make a general collection of tales 
current in India about a.d. 1000, or rather he claims to have 
made a selection, as did his contemporary Kasmiri Brahman 
Kshemendra in his Brihat Kathd Manjari out of a much older, 
but now lost, work, Gunadhya's Brihat Kathd or Great Tale. 
This general collection contains to my mind certain tales, 
customs and folk-lore which do not appear to be Aryan in 
origin. The writer or his original has in fact drawn on 
popular Indian folk-lore, whether Aryan or non- Aryan, con- 
necting his tales by rather simple literary devices, so that 
they are all made to run together as parts of one general 

The Aryan invasions of India were spread over a long 
period and the progress about the country was very slow. 
The Aryans came across at least one race, the Dravidians, 
equal to themselves in mental capacity, and across many 
others whose minds they could more or less easily dominate. 
Neither the Dravidians nor the others were of their form of 
civilisation and traditions, but they all mingled with them 
in some degree or other, at any rate to the extent of social 
contact, generally as master and servant. The consequent 

1 I take the story of The Chanter of the Sama Veda and the Courtesan 
(pp. 64-65) as good-natured chaff, showing how a learned Brahman can be 
a fool in the ways of the world, the Chanter of the Sama Veda being a 
species of our old friend Verdant Green of Oxford. 


development was on the recognised lines of evolution as far 
as the author of the Kathd Sarit Sdgara and his hearers were 
concerned. That is to say, it was fundamentally Aryan, 
with accretions from every race with which the Aryans had 
come in close contact for, say, three thousand years by Soma- 
deva's time. These races were Dravidians, " Kolarians " or, 
shall we say, " aborigines," and people across the Northern 
and Eastern frontiers all very different in origin from the 
Aryans. They all carried their religions, folk- tales and folk- 
lore with them, and cannot but have infected the indigenous 
corresponding nations of the Aryans of India with alien 
ideas and folk-tales. 

Here then it seems that we have a line, as it were, 
given us for research : whence did the various non- Aryan 
tales and ideas come? It is not an easy line to follow, as 
the period is so late and the whole matter by that time 
already so complicated. Suppose a custom or tale is non- 
Aryan Indian i.e. Dra vidian or " Kolarian " or Farther 
Indian (Mon, Shan, Tibeto-Burman) by origin: by Soma- 
deva's date it had plenty of time to be assimilated and 
take on an Aryan form. Suppose it to date back before the 
Aryan irruption into India : its existence in principle now 
or at some ancient date in Western Asia or Europe would not 
prove that it arose either in India or in Europe or Western 
Asia. Suppose research to show a tale or idea to be of 
general occurrence in India, Asia, Europe, Africa, and even 
in America and the Pacific Islands : recent works show so 
much and so ancient communication all the world over as 
to make one very careful as to asserting origin. Suppose we 
find a story in Siam, in Indonesia, in Persia, in Europe, in 
South Africa, as well as in India: it might well have gone 
thence out of India or gone through or even round India in 
either direction. To show how this kind of thing can happen 
I printed in 1901 x a tale told in the Nicobars in Nicobarese 
form to a European officer who was a Dane by nationality, 
Mr A. de Roepstorff, which turned out to be a Norse tale he 

1 Report on the Census of India, Part I, vol. iii ("Andaman and Nicobar 
Islands"), p. 2S0. 


had himself told the people some years before. Wherever, 
then, a civilisation or a people travels, there go also folk-lore 
and custom. Take as an example the recent travel west- 
wards in Europe of the Christmas Tree and the Easter Egg. 
The whole question is very difficult. Even if we trace a 
tale or an idea to the Jdtakas, to the earliest part of the 
Mahdbhdrata or the Rdmdyana, to the oldest Purdnas, to the 
Brdhmanas, to the very Vedas themselves that does not 
make it Indian or Aryan in origin. 

However, I do not personally feel inclined to despair. 
Work like that of Mr Penzer will, I feel sure, if continued 
seriously, go far to solve the principles of the puzzle to 
help to unlock the secret of the actual line that the progress 
of civilisation has taken in the past. I take it that a tale 
or idea in the Kathd Sarit Sdgara may be found to be by 
origin : 

1. Aryan, with analogies among Asiatic and European 
Aryan peoples. 

2. Semitic, with analogies in Western Asiatic countries 
and elsewhere among Semitic peoples. 

3. Asiatic, with analogies among Mongolian peoples. 

4. Non-Aryan Indian with analogies among Dravidian, 
" Kolarian," Farther Indian or other Indian peoples. 

5. General, with analogies spread widely over the world 
perhaps from an ascertainable source. 

6. A merely literary invention of Indian Aryans, such 
as the origin of the town name Pataliputra, or of the personal 
name of Gunadhya, Malyavan and other celebrities of old. 
Folk etymology of that kind has never died down in India, 
as the (Revenue) Settlement Reports of the middle nineteenth 
century show e.g. one such Report soberly stated that " the 
Malee {mall, gardener) Caste " had an origin in a river-borne 
boy foundling of Rajput descent, taken over by a low-class 
woman who mothered him ; so he afterwards became known 
as the ma lee (as the Report spelt it) or his "mother took 
him." It is a case of the old Indian widely and persistently 
used effort to raise caste status by an etymological legend. 
It was used in the earliest European days in India when the 
Malayalam washermen claimed to Barbosa a Nayar descent, 


which an ancestor was said to have forfeited " by a mistake " 
and there are signs of it in the Kathd Sarit S agar a. 

I must not unduly spin out the Foreword by examining 
all the stories and ideas in this volume in the light of the 
above remarks, and I will therefore confine myself to a few 
instances where further examination may perhaps be usefully 
undertaken on such evidence as may be available. I will 
take first those that seem to point to a non- Aryan origin as 
the most important for the present purpose. 

Chapter VIII commences with a remarkable statement 
(p. 89) : " In accordance with this request of Gunadhya that 
heavenly tale consisting of seven stories was told by [King] 
The Paimcha Kanabhuti in his own language, and Gunadhya, 
Language f or his part, using the same Paisacha language, 
threw them into seven hundred thousand couplets in seven 
years." So the claim is that the original of the Brihat Kathd> 
the Great Tale, was composed in the Paisacha language. 
From the Great Tale came Kshemendra's BriJiat Kathd 
Mafljari and Gunadhya's Kathd Sarit Sdgara ; but the story 
goes further. Gunadhya's two pupils, Gunadeva and Nandi- 
deva, took his Kathd Sarit Sdgara to King Satavahana 
(Salivahana), who, " when he heard that Paisacha language 
and saw that they had the appearance of Pisachas . . . said 
with a sneer : c . . . the Paisacha language is barbarous . . . 
Away with this Paisacha tale.' " So Gunadhya burnt 600,000 
couplets and reserved only 100,000, on which Kshemendra 
and Somadeva eventually worked. King Satavahana ob- 
tained possession of the 100,000 couplets which formed the 
Brihat Kathd and " composed the book named Kathdpitha 
[Book I of the Kathd Sarit Sdgara] in order to show how 
the tale came first to be known in Paisacha language." 
Now whether the home of this " Paisacha language " was 
in the North- Western Panjab or in the Vindhyas of Central 
India, it was not Sanskrit, but something else, and the 
people speaking it were to the old Indian Aryans a demon 
race (see Appendix I to this volume, pp. 204 ff.). Are we 
to understand then from the Kathd Sarit Sdgara itself that 
the tales it purports to recapitulate were of foreign origin, 
at any rate in the majority of cases ? Some are obviously 


Aryan, but what of the rest ? Presently we shall see that 
probably neither Gunadhya himself nor Kanabhuti, from 
whom Gunadhya is said to have obtained his tales, were 

The frequent mention of the gdndharva form of marriage 
amongst people not only of great position, but held in high 
personal esteem, seems to be a result of a ruling class pass- 
Gandharva ing into a foreign country. There are several 
Marriage instances in this volume of gdndharva marriage, 
from which I select the following : 

1. Page 61. A Naga prince, Kirtisena, marries a Brah- 
man girl, Srutartha, clandestinely, and her son is Gunadhya 
himself, who is "of the Brahman caste." 

2. Page 83. Devadatta, a Brahman, with the interven- 
tion of Siva himself, marries Sri, daughter of King Susarman 
of Pratisthana (in the Deccan), secretly by a trick on her 

3. Page 116. Sridatta, a fighting Malava Brahman of 
Pataliputra, marries secretly Sundari, daughter of a Savara 
(wild tribe) chief, whom he first deserts and then receives 
back, having already a princess, Mrigankavati, for wife, 
married apparently irregularly, whom he again seemingly 
marries regularly. 

It will be observed that Gunadhya, the author of the 
Brihat Kathd, is thus said to be himself by birth a Naga- 
Brahman half-breed. If so, he could imbibe quite as many 
non- Aryan as Aryan folk-tales and ideas in his childhood. 
The case may be put even more strongly. It is possible that 
the story in the Kathd Sarit Sdgara has arisen on the same 
principle as that of the mall already mentioned, and goes to 
cover the fact that Gunadhya was not a Brahman, nor even 
an Aryan, and it was inconvenient for the Brahmans of 
Somadeva's date to allow that anyone but one of themselves 
had originally collected the Great Tale. 

But apart from such general inferences, the point of stories 
like the above appears to be that in the earlier Aryan days 
in India illicit unions between Aryans and non- Aryans 
among classes of consequence, which for reasons of policy 
could not be set aside, were recognised as regular, and that 


when the girl brought forth a son the marriage of the 
parents was assumed, the convenient fiction of supernatural 
Gandharvas as witnesses being brought into play. The 
gdndharva marriage was undoubtedly recognised, but it was 
seemingly never considered reputable. Was the custom, how- 
ever, Aryan or non- Aryan in its origin? The story of the 
Founding of the City of Pataliputra (Patna) seems to give it 
a non- Aryan origin (p. 18 ff.). Putraka, a Brahman prince 
of Southern Indian descent (the geography is, however, 
vague), marries " Patali, the daughter of the king," secretly, 
and their intrigue is discovered by a woman appointed (p. 23) 
" to watch secretly the seraglio at night." She, finding the 
prince asleep, " made a mark with red lac upon his garment 
to facilitate his recognition." Upon discovery Putraka 
then flies off magically with Patali through the air to the 
banks of the Ganges and founds Pataliputra. A not un- 
common method of discovering an intrigue between a man 
and a maid among the Andamanese is for the elders to paint 
the man with red or grey matter on a ceremonial pretext 
and to await the result on the following morning. If the 
girl shows signs of the paint the pair are formally married. 
The story in the Kathd Sarit S agar a infers the existence of 
some similar custom in ancient India. Was it Aryan or 
non- Aryan ? 

On page 5 of this volume Siva is found talking to Parvati, 
his mountain Himalayan bride, of what happened to them- 
selves in a former life, and tells her that because he wore 
The Necklace " a necklace of skulls " he was kept away from 
of Skulls h er father's sacrifice. The whole context is also 
remarkable, as it seems to deal with the rise of Siva as the 
Supreme out of the early Vedic gods. As I understand the 
situation, Siva was originally a local Himalayan god, who, 
with Vishnu, gradually became a chief among the whole 
Hindu pantheon. This would assume that he was a non- 
Aryan deity who grew into prominence and he wore a 
necklace of skulls. Why ? Was this a non- Aryan aboriginal 
notion ? Among the Andamanese, who may be taken to be 
among the most untouched aborigines in existence, it is still 
the custom to wear skulls of deceased relatives. At page 132 


of A. R. Brown's Andaman Islanders, Plate XVIII, there is a 
figure of a girl wearing her sister's skull. Similar figures have 
been published by E. H. Man and M. V. Portman. At pages 
292 and 293 of his work Brown explains the custom as part 
of his general Philosophy of Social Values : they are to him 
" visible and wearable signs of past dangers overcome through 
protective action of the Society itself and are therefore a 
guarantee of similar protection in the future." Without in 
any way endorsing an explanation of savage customs which 
bids fair to disturb past efforts in that direction, I would 
suggest that it is worth while making a detailed investiga- 
tion of the story of Siva and his necklace of skulls, on the 
ground that we may have here something definitely non- 
Aryan in Indian hagiology. 

This idea is strengthened on considering a passage on page 
146. Lohajangha, a Brahman, plays a trick upon a bawd, 
but in the course of it he says to a courtesan, Rupinika, her 
daughter : " Thy mother is a wicked woman, it would not 
be fitting to take her openly to paradise ; but on the morning 
of the eleventh day the door of heaven is opened, and many 
of the Ganas, Siva's companions, enter into it before anyone 
else is admitted. Among them I will introduce this mother 
of thine, if she assume their appearance. So shave her head 
with a razor, in such a manner that five locks shall be left, 
put a necklace of skulls round her neck, and stripping off her 
clothes, paint one side of her body with lamp-black and the 
other with red lead, for when she has in this way been made to 
resemble a Gana, I shall find it an easy matter to get her into 
heaven." The Ganas were (p. 202) superhuman attendants 
on Siva and Parvati under Ganesa and Nandi (Siva's Bull or 
Vehicle). The passage presumes that they wore a necklace 
of skulls, went naked, partially shaved their heads and 
painted their bodies with lamp-black and red lead. Here, 
again, we are strongly reminded of Andamanese customs. 
Is it possible that the Ganas refer back to an actual savage 
non- Aryan tribe of very ancient India whose deities were 
the prototypes of Siva and Parvati ? 

Here is another instance of apparent non-Aryanism. 
King Chandamahasena (p. 133) " had made a large artificial 


elephant like his own, and after filling it with concealed 
warriors he placed it in the Vindhya forest." Mr Penzer 
in a footnote remarks that " the introduction into a city of 
Martaban armed men hidden in jars is found in an Egyptian 
Jars papyrus of the twentieth dynasty," and he 

refers also to the tale of Ali Baba. In Burma there are still 
made very large jars of glazed pottery called Pegu or Marta- 
ban (Mortivan) jars for storage purposes, quite large enough 
to hide human beings in, and there are many stories of their 
use for such a purpose. There was an old and considerable 
trade in them Eastwards and Westwards, and their existence 
would well account for such a story as that of Ali Baba and 
his Forty Thieves, and to give use to similar tales in India, 
which would then be non- Aryan in origin. 1 

In some instances whether the origin of one class of 
Somadeva's tales is Aryan or not appears to be very doubtful, 
though prolonged research may still reveal the real source. 
Th TV d ' o- S ucn are tne stories of the Wandering Soul, and 
or External 3 of the External Soul or Life-index or Life-token, 
Soul : the Life which arc common in Indian folk-tales, and are all 
found in the Kathd Sarit Sdgarae.g. (pp. 37-38) : 
" Indradatta, who was an adept in magic, said : 4 1 will enter 
the body of this dead [Nanda] king,' " while " Vyadi remained 
in an empty temple to guard the body of Indradatta." But 
(p. 39) "the body of Indradatta was burned after Vyadi 
had been hustled out of the temple." Mr Penzer has ex- 
cellent notes on these ideas, and it is difficult at present to 
conjecture whether they indicate an Aryan or a non- Aryan 
origin. Later on in the volume Chandamahasena of Ujjayini 
slays the Daitya (demon) Angaraka by (p. 127) smiting 
" him with an arrow in that hand which was his vital part." 
Here, again, are we in the presence of Aryan or non- Aryan 
tradition ? 

Once again, Mr Penzer has a story and a valuable 
note on page 80 ff. on the wide spread of sign-language, 
commenting on the statement that the maiden Sri, daughter 
of the king, made Devadatta a sign. She " took with her 

1 See Indian Antiquary, vol. xxii, p. 364, and vol. xxxiii, p. 159. 


teeth a flower and threw it down to him," which act his 

preceptor explained to him meant that he was "to go to 

this temple rich in flowers, called Pushpadanta, and wait 

there." Here the wide distribution of the idea 

ign-angnage conve y e( j j n tne use Q f Sign-language makes it 

difficult to suggest either an Aryan or a non- Aryan origin 
for it. 

Yet, again, the form of the superhuman bird, Garuda 
(p. 141) and of its exploits is so Indian that one is loath to 
give it any but an Indian Aryan origin, but the nature of its 
The Garuda spread is such that for the present, at any rate, 
Bird it seems impossible to say whence it came, in or 

out of India. The same may be said about the idea of Meta- 
Meta- morphosis by means of a charm (pp. 136-137), in 

morplwsis order to forward the objects of the hero or the 
actors in a tale, about which a long book could be well 
written ! 

Also the notions about the Longings of Pregnancy and 
r . v. the Blood Covenant in their various aspects are 

Longings of -* 

Pregnancy and so widely spread over the world that it seems 
the Blood as y e t difficult to assert that they originated in 

Covenant tj* j j_j j. j 

India and migrated outwards. 

So, too, the spread of making Phallic Cakes and the like 
at festivals is such that it seems quite as likely that the custom 
Pk ir r h ovigmsiMy arose in Europe as in India. The same 
remark applies to Circumambulation at Hindu 
weddings with the object of reverence at the right hand. 
Circumamba- Mr Penzer's elaborate note (p. 190 ff.) referring to 
lahon the marriage of Vasavadatta to the King of Vatsa 

(p. 184) seems to make the idea quite as old in Europe as 
in India or the East generally. 

Lastly, in the course of the story of the founding of 
Pataliputra (p. 22) occurs the incident of a pair of shoes 
which give " the power of flying through the air," and of a 
Magical staff with which whatever is written " turns out 

Articles to be true." On this Mr Penzer has (pp. 25-29) 

a long and valuable note: the "Magical Articles Motif in 
Folk-lore." He thinks that " there is no doubt that it did 
travel from the East." But he hesitates as to this opinion 


and finally he says (p. 29) : " It seems very probable that 
the incident of the fight over the magical articles was directly 
derived from the East, while the idea of the magical articles 
themselves was, in some form or other, already established 
in Western Marchen." Does this account for its world-wide 
existence ? May it not be that the idea of a magical article 
is non-Aryan and the particular uses to which it is put, 
in the folk-tales so far collected, are Aryan in origin? 
But even if they are the uses would not necessarily have 
arisen in India. There are clearly many questions yet to 
answer here, far as Mr Penzer has driven his probe into 
the mystery. 

In one instance of a common folk-tale motif or incident 1 
we seem to be on the border-line between Aryan and non- 
Aryan. At page 32 we have a version of the Entrapped 
The En- Suitor, where a woman holds up an illicit gallant 

trapped Suitor to ridicule. In dealing with this tale and its 
concomitants, the Test of Chastity, the Faith Token and the 
Act of Truth, Mr Penzer in a long note states that it is to be 
found throughout both Asia and Europe, and he considers 
that "it forms without doubt an example of a migratory 
tale," and is of opinion that "the original form of the story, 
and origin of all others, is that in the Ocean of Story " (p. 42). 
That is to say, it is Indian and migrated from India outwards. 
If Indian, is it, then, Aryan or non- Aryan ? 

This type of story in all its forms occurs in the volume at 
page 32 and in the stories of Devasmita, Siddhikhari and 
Saktimati (p. 153 jf.), and Mr Penzer has some illuminating 
The Laughing special notes thereon (pp. 165-171). But some 
F rii ,J /ie r^ of his parallels in Europe and Western Asia are 

of Half a Lite. A, -.,.-, , .* n 

the Letter of very old, and if the idea at the root ot them all 
Death i s Indian it must be very old also much older 

than the Katha Sarit Sdgara as we have it. Something of 
the same kind can be said of the stories of the Laughing Fish 
(pp. 46-47) and the Gift of Half one's own Life (p. 188), and 
with even more force regarding the Letter of Death (p. 52), 
widely known in Europe also. 

1 See Mr Penzer's note (p. 29) on the use of the term motif for the 
incident, theme, trait of a story. 


At page 84 is the well-known tale of King Sivi offering 
his flesh and finally all his body to protect a dove which had 
flown to him for shelter. This is believed to be Buddhistic 
The Pound in origin, but the idea is very old both in the 
of Flesh East and in Europe, where it turns up in many 
forms, and in Shakespeare's well-known borrowed tale of 
the Pound of Flesh. It is difficult to believe that it origin- 
ated in India on the evidence at present available. The 
Th f f same comment is applicable to the story of 
Terrible : The Balavinashtaka, the Enfant Terrible at page 185, 
Wishing Tree an d to the Wishing Tree of Paradise, which is 
of Paradise sgdd ^ p 1U ^ tQ exist ^ Lankilj clearly from the 

context (p. 144) meaning Ceylon, of which the Rakshasa 
(non- Aryan) Vibishana was king. The whole story is inter- 
esting as it introduces the great Garuda bird and the 
Balakhilyas, Elves engaged in austerities, as well 
as the Wishing Tree, the whole of which, the 
great bird, the elves and the tree, are world-wide in the 
East and Europe. 

On the other hand, of ideas and customs which seem to 
be of Indian Aryan origin, and if found elsewhere to be prima 
facie attributable to an Indian derivation, I may mention 
Murder to nostrums for procuring the birth of a son. The 
procure a story of Devasmita starts with a request from a 
Son merchant to some Brahmans to procure him a 

son, which they do by means of ceremonies, and to " give an 
instance " a story is told of an " old-time king " who at a 
Brahman suggestion, without demur kills his only son, over 
whom he had made a tremendous fuss because the child had 
been stung by an ant. Nostrums for procuring sons are 
peculiarly Indian, because of the Hindu's necessity for an 
heir to perform his funeral rites in a manner that will secure 
him " salvation." Murder of another person's is a nostrum 
for securing an heir to the present day, as many cases in the 
Indian law courts show (see Indian Antiquary, vol. xxvii, 
p. 336). Various methods and customs for this purpose are 
very common in Indian folk-lore and seem to be an outcome 
of the Hindu religion. 

I will now wind up this survey of the Kaiha Sarit Sdgara 


by the presentation of what appear to me, prima facie, to be 
instances of a possible folk-tale migration from Europe into 
India. At page 136 it is recounted that Yaugandharayana 
Vampire: set out for Kausambi via the Vindhya Forest 
vetala an d arrived at " the burning ground of Mahakala 

in Ujjayini, which was densely tenanted by [vetdlas, i.e.] 
vampires." Here we have in thoroughly Indian form a 
reference to the well-known modern series of tales the 
Baitdl Pachisi traced to the Kathd Sarit Sdgara, Book XII. 
But, as Mr Penzer points out in his note on this page, the 
Indian ideas about the vetala closely resemble those of the 
Slavs about the vampire. Now, if we are to follow the 
modern researchers, who trace the Aryan migrations East 
and West from the South Russian plains, it is quite possible 
that the original migrants took with them the idea of the 
vampire i.e. of the superhuman demoniacal tenant of dead 
bodies wherever they or their influence wandered : so that 
in the vetala we thus have an idea that wandered Eastwards 
from Southern Russia to India and not the other way round. 
I may here remark that the likeness of many Slavonic super- 
stitions to those of India cannot but forcibly strike those 
who study the races of both Russia and India. 

Again, in the story of Gunadhya (pp. 76-78) there 
is a passage worth quoting in full. Kanabhuti explains to 
Gunadhya that Bhutivarman, a Rakshasa possessed of 
Demons and " heavenly insight " said to him : " 6 We have 
the Night no power in the day; wait, and I will tell you 
at night.' I consented, and when night came on I asked 
him earnestly the reason why goblins delighted in disporting 
themselves, as they were doing. Then Bhutivarman said to 
me : ' Listen ; I will relate what I heard Siva say in a con- 
versation with Brahma. Rakshasas, Yakshas and Pisachas 
have no power in the day, being dazed with the brightness 
of the sun, therefore they delight in the night. And where 
the gods are not worshipped, and the Brahmans, in due form, 
and where men eat contrary to the holy law, there also they 
have power. Where there is a man who abstains from flesh, 
or a virtuous woman, there they do not go. They never 
attack "chaste men, heroes, or men awake.' " Taking all the 



words after "they delight in the night" as a Brahmanical 
addition, the other notions appear to me to be originally 
European and not Asiatic or Indian, and if the idea is right, 
the Aryans brought them and their forerunners to India 
with them in their early wanderings. Research may show 
the truth. At any rate Mr Penzer's note traces the notions 
in Ancient Egypt and China. 

And here, after only just lifting the fringe of the curtain 
hiding the mystery, I must cease trespassing on Mr Penzer's 
good nature and conclude this Foreword, hoping that some- 
thing useful has been said towards indicating how research 
can be beneficially conducted in the future, and saying once 
again how greatly students of folk-lore have reason to be 
thankful to Mr Penzer for his present efforts. 

Richard Carnac Temple. 

Montreux, March 1924 



Author's Introduction . 

. xxxi 



Summary of the Work . 





The Abode of Siva 


Brahma and Narayana 


Parvati's Former Births 


The Great Tale related 


Parvati's Curses 






Pushpadanta meets Kanabhut] 

i . 9 

The Creation and Kuvera's Cui 

rse . 10 


Story of Vararuchi, his teacher Varsha, 

and his 

fellow-pupils Vyadi and Indradatta 


1a. The Two Brahman Brothers 


Iaa. Varsha and Upavarsha 


1a. Cont. . 



Cont. . 




Cont. . 



Cont. . 


1b. The Founding of Pataliputra . 


Ibb. King Brahmadatta 


1b. Cont. . 









MI. Cord. ...... 30 

1. Cont .... . . 30 

(This portion includes the incident ofUpakoSd and her four lovers) 


MI. Cont 
1. Cont. 

1. Cont 
MI. Cont 

lc. Sivavarman 


MI. Cont .... 
2. Story of Gunadhya 

2a. The Mouse Merchant . 
2b. The Chanter of the Sama Veda 
2. Cont .... 

2c. The Magic Garden 
2. Cont , 

MI. Cont .... 

2d. The History of Satavahana 
MI. Cont .... 
2. Cont 


2. Cowtf. .... 

2e. The New Grammar revealed 

2. CW. 
MI. CcmJ. 

3. Story of Pushpadanta . 

3a. Indra and King Sivi 

3. Cont. 

4. Story of Malyavan 





MI. Cont. 





M(ain story) 


M. Cont. .... 

5. Story of Sridatta and Mrigankavati 
M. Cont. .... 


M. Cont. .... 

6. Story of King Chandamahasena 
M. Cont. .... 


M. Cont. .... 

7. Story of Rupinika 

M. Cont. .... 

M. Cont. .... 

8. Story of Devasmita 

8a. The Cunning Siddhikari 
8. Cont. .... 

8b. Saktimati 
8. Cont. .... 
M. Cont. .... 








M. Cord. ..... 



9. Story of the Clever Deformed Child 
M. Cont. ..... 



10. Story of Ruru .... 
M. Cont. ..... 


Mythical Beings 

Collyrium and Kohl 

The Dohada Motif 

Sacred Prostitution 









Index I Sanskrit Words and Proper Names 
Index II General .... 




THE Ocean of Story, or, to give it its full Sanskrit title, 
the Kathd Sarit Sagara, is, for its size, the earliest 
collection of stories extant in the world. Its author, 
or rather its compiler, was a Brahman named Somadeva. 
Unfortunately we know nothing of him, except what he 
himself has told us in the short poem at the end of his work, 
and what we may gather of his ideas and religious beliefs 
from the work itself. 

In the first place let us look at the title he has chosen for 
his collection. He felt that his great work united in itself all 
stories, as the ocean does all rivers. Every stream of myth 
and mystery flowing down from the snowy heights of sacred 
Himalaya would sooner or later reach the ocean, other 
streams from other mountains would do likewise, till at 
last fancy would create an ocean full of stories of every con- 
ceivable description tales of wondrous maidens and their 
fearless lovers, of kings and cities, of statecraft and intrigue, 
of magic and spells, of treachery, trickery, murder and war, 
tales of blood- sucking vampires, devils, goblins and ghouls, 
stories of animals in fact and fable, and stories too of beggars, 
ascetics, drunkards, gamblers, prostitutes and bawds. 

This is the Ocean of Story ; this the mirror of Indian 
imagination that Somadeva has left as a legacy to posterity. 

Following out his metaphor he has divided the work into 
one hundred and twenty-four chapters, called tarangas 
" waves " or " billows "while a further (and independent) 
division into eighteen lambakas" surges " or " swells " 
was made by Brockhaus, whose text is that used by Tawney. 

The whole work contains 22,000 distichs, or slokas, which 
gives some idea of its immense size. It is nearly twice as 
long as the Iliad and Odyssey put together. 

The short poem of Somadeva already referred to was not 
included by Brockhaus in his text, but was printed later 
from MS. material by Buhler. From this it appears that the 



name of our author was Soma i.e. Somadeva. He was th< 
son of a virtuous Brahman named Rama. His magnum opui 
was written for the amusement of Suryavati, wife of King 
Ananta of Kashmir, at whose court Somadeva was poet. 

The history of Kashmir at this period is one of discontent, 
intrigue, bloodshed and despair. The story of Ananta's two 
sons, Kalasa and Harsha the worthless degenerate life of 
the former, the brilliant but ruthless life of the latter, the 
suicide of Ananta himself and resulting chaos is all to 
be read in the Raja-tarangini, or Chronicle of the Kings of 

This tragic history forms as dark and grim a background 
for the setting of Somadeva's tales as did the plague of 
Florence for Boccaccio's Cento Novelle nearly three hundred 
years later. 

It is, however, these historical events in the history of 
Kashmir which help us in determining our author's date 
with any degree of certainty. 

Ananta surrendered his throne in 1063 to his eldest son 
Kalasa, only to return to it a few years later. In 1077 he 
again retired. This time Kalasa attacked his father openly 
and seized all his wealth. Ananta killed himself in despair 
and Suryavati threw herself on the funeral pyre. This was 
in 1081. 

It was between the first and second retirements of Ananta 
from the throne that Somadeva wrote possibly about 1070. 
One can almost imagine that these stories were compiled in 
an effort to take the mind of the unhappy queen off the 
troubles and trials which so unremittingly beset her and her 

He tells us that the Ocean of Story is not his original work, 
but is taken from a much larger collection by one Gunadhya, 
known as the Brihat Kathd, or Great Tale. 

The MS. of this Great Tale has not been found. In his 
first book Somadeva gives us the legendary history of it, 
showing how it was related in turn by Siva, Pushpadanta, 
Kanabhuti, Gunadhya and Satavahana; the latter at first 
rejected it, and in despair Gunadhya began to burn it leaf 
by leaf 600,000 distichs are thus lost. Satavahana reappears 


and saves the rest (100,000 couplets), which became 
known as the Brihat Kathd. He added to it a lambaka, or 
book, explaining its marvellous history. This book Soma- 
deva retains in full, and it forms about half of our first 

The Ocean of Story is not the only rendition of the Great 
Tale, for twenty or thirty years previously Kshemendra 
had written his Brihat Kathd Mafijari. Compared with 
Somadeva's work it pales into insignificance, lacking the 
charm of language, elegance of style, masterly arrangement 
and metrical skill of the later production. Moreover, 
Kshemendra's collection is only a third the length of the 
Ocean of Story. 

As early as 1871 Professor Biihler (Indian Antiquary, 
p. 302 et seq.) proved these two important facts : firstly, that 
Somadeva and Kshemendra used the same text, and secondly, 
that they worked entirely independently from one another. 

It was, however, many years before this that the Ocean of 
Story became known to European scholars. 

In 1824 that great pioneer of Sanskrit learning, Professor 
H. H. Wilson, gave a summary of the first five chapters 
(or lambakas) in the Oriental Quarterly Magazine. The first 
edition of the work was undertaken by Professor Brockhaus. 
In 1839 he issued the first five chapters only, and it was 
not till 1862 that the remaining thirteen appeared. Both 
publications formed part of the Abhandlungen der Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. 

It was this text which Tawney used for his translation 
published by the Asiatic Society of Bengal in the Bibliotheca 
Indica, 1880-1884 (the index not appearing till 1887). 

Brockhaus' edition was based primarily on six MSS., 
though in the second part of the work he apparently had not 
so many at his disposal. Tawney was not satisfied with 
several of Brockhaus' readings, and consequently made 
numerous fresh renderings or suggestions largely taken from 
MSS. borrowed from the Calcutta College and from three 
India Office MSS. lent him by Dr Rost. 

In 1889 Durgaprasad issued the Bombay edition, printed 
at the Nirnayasagara Press, which was produced from 


Brockhaus' edition and two Bombay MSS. This is the latest 
text now available and proves the correctness of many of 
Tawney's readings where he felt the Brockhaus text was in 

Although a comparison between these two texts would 
be instructive, its place is not in a general introduction 
like this. 

The late Professor Speyer of the Koninklijke Akademie 
van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam has written in a most 
authoritative manner on the whole subject, and has made 
detailed comparisons and criticisms of the text of Brockhaus 
and that of Durgaprasad. The Bureau de la section des 
Lettres of the Amsterdam Academy has very kindly given 
me leave to incorporate this work of Professor Speyer in 
the present edition of the Ocean of Story, which I hope 
to do in a later volume. It is needless to emphasise the 
value this addition will have to the student of Sanskrit and 

Turning now to the actual contents of the Ocean of Story, 
the general reader will continually recognise stories familiar 
to him from childhood. The student of Indian literature 
will find well-known tales from the Panchatantra and the 
Mahabhdrata, as well as strange fantastic myths of early 
Rig-Veda days. He will encounter whole series of stories, 
such as the Vetalapanchavimsati or cycle of Demon stories. 
But apart from this the work contains much original matter, 
which Somadeva handles with the ease and skill of a master 
of his art. The appeal of his stories is immediate and lasting, 
and time has proved incapable of robbing them of their 
freshness and fascination. 

The Ocean of Story, therefore, may be regarded as an 
attempt to present as a single whole the essence of that rich 
Indian imagination which had found expression in a literature 
and art stretching back to the days of the intermingling of 
the Aryan and Dravidian stocks nearly two thousand years 
before the Christian era. 

India is indeed the home of story-telling. It was from 
here that the Persians learned the art, and passed it on to 
the Arabians. From the Middle East the tales found their way 


to Constantinople and Venice, and finally appeared in the 
pages of Boccaccio, Chaucer and La Fontaine. 

It was not until Benfey wrote his famous introduction to 
the Panchatantra that we began to realise what a great debt 
the Western tales owed to the East. 

Although it is well known to students of folk-lore, I am 
still hoping to see the great work of Benfey translated 
into English and suitably annotated by such a body as the 
Folk-Lore Society. 

When Galland first introduced the Arabian Nights into 
Europe at the beginning of the eighteenth century the chief 
attraction was the originality of the Oriental settings and 
the strange manners and customs, now for the first time 
described. It was thought that he had made up the tales 
himself. In time many of the originals were found and 
people changed their opinions. Even in Burton's day there 
still remained a number of Galland 's tales of which no text 
could be traced, although from the very first Burton main- 
tained that such texts did exist. The original " Aladdin " 
was discovered while Burton's edition was actually coming 
out, and " Ali Baba " was found by Dr D. B. Macdonald as 
recently as 1908. The influence of the Arabian Nights on 
European contes populaires must not be overlooked, nor 
must its unde derivator be forgotten. It is only in quite 
recent times that the Indian origin of much of the Alf Layla 
Wa Layla has been realised, and the sifting of the different 
recensions been commenced. 

The great advance made in the study of Sanskrit has 
shown that incidents in stories well known to every European 
child existed in India over two thousand years ago. This 
does not necessarily mean that the story, or incident in the 
story, travelled, slowly but surely, from India to the English 
nursery. The whole question is most fascinating, and I 
shall have occasion to discuss the migration of some of the 
tales as they appear ; it is particularly interesting to note 
that some of the early stories from the Egyptian papyri are 
so similar to tales in the Ocean of Story that one is led at 
once to suspect some connection. 

Although I am leaving further discussion on the subject 


to the notes and appendices which appear in each of these 
ten volumes, yet I feel I must mention one factor, which 
we must not forget environment. In warm latitudes the 
temperature has naturally produced a general laxity in the 
habits of the people, and in Eastern countries the often 
exaggerated code of hospitality, coupled with the exclusion 
of women and consequential gatherings of men in the cool 
of the evenings, has given great impetus to story-telling. 
So much so, indeed, that it has produced the Rdwi, or 
professional story-teller an important member of the com- 
munity unknown in cooler latitudes, where the story-telling 
is almost entirely confined to the family circle. 

Thus the migratory possibilities of tales in the East are 
far greater than those in the West. Added to this is the 
antiquity of Eastern civilisation, compared with which that 
of the West is but of yesterday. 

A study of the movements of Asiatic peoples, their early 
voyages of exploration and trade, their intermarrying, and 
their extensive commerce in slaves of every nationality will 
help to show how not only their stories, but also the customs, 
architecture, religions and languages, became transplanted 
to foreign soil, where they either throve and influenced their 
surroundings, or found their new environment too strong for 

Thus in this great storehouse of fiction, the Ocean of 
Story, we shall continually come upon tales in the earliest 
form yet known. 

It is here that I intend to trace the literary history of 
the incident, trait, or motif and, by such evidence as I can 
procure, try to formulate some definite ideas as to its true 
history. In many cases this will be impossible, in others 
little more than mere conjecture. Full bibliographical 
details will be given, so that readers can form their own 
opinions and draw their own conclusions concerning this 
most fascinating study. 

With regard to the method of transliteration adopted 
throughout the work, I have followed, as far as possible, the 
system approved by the International Oriental Congress of 
1894. This system is almost identical with that approved 


by the Committee on Transliteration appointed by the Council 
of the Royal Asiatic Society in January 1922. 

For full tables of the Sanskrit signs and their English 
equivalents reference should be made to the J own. Roy. As. 
Soc, July 1923, pp. 525-531 ; and January 1924, pp. 171- 
173. In the case of the long quantity of a vowel, Tawney 
used an acute accent. This has now been changed to a 
macron, or horizontal line. It is interesting to mention 
that Tawney regretted having used the acute accent and 
specially asked me to change it. 

Short vowels have no mark, thus the i in Siva should not 
be pronounced long. 

Passing on to the translation itself, I would stress the fact 
that Tawney was most anxious to convey in his English 
rendering not only the meaning, but also the atmosphere of 
the original. In this he has succeeded, and the ancient 
Hindu environment at once makes itself felt. In a previous 
work, Two Centuries of Bhartrihari, Tawney alludes to this 
very point. " I am sensible," he says, " that, in the present 
attempt, I have retained much local colouring. For instance, 
the idea of worshipping the feet of a god or great man, 
though it frequently occurs in Indian literature, will un- 
doubtedly move the laughter of Englishmen unacquainted 
with Sanskrit, especially if they happen to belong to that 
class of readers who rivet their attention on the accidental 
and remain blind to the essential. But a certain measure 
of fidelity to the original, even at the risk of making one- 
self ridiculous, is better than the studied dishonesty which 
characterises so many translations of Oriental poets." 

Although the Ocean of Story doubtless contains phrases, 
similes, metaphors and constructions which may at first 
strike the " Englishman unacquainted with Sanskrit " as 
unusual and exaggerated, yet I feel that as he reads he 
will find that it is those very " peculiarities " which are 
slowly creating an un-English, but none the less delightful, 
atmosphere, and which give the whole work a charm all 
its own. 

In a work of this magnitude it is necessary to say some- 
thing of the arrangement of the text, the numbering of the 


stories, the scope of the fresh annotation and the system of 
indexing employed. 

The text is left entirely as translated by the late Charles 
Tawney except where certain omissions have been adjusted 
or more literal renderings added. In one or two cases a 
short story left out by Tawney has been restored, thus 
making the work absolutely complete in every detail. 

These fresh translations have been made by Dr L. D. 
Barnett, Keeper of the Department of Oriental Printed 
Books and MSS. in the British Museum. 

In Volume I no fresh translations have been added 
except where the text of Durgaprasad seems to be a distinct 
improvement on that of Brockhaus. In these cases I have 
simply added a note at the bottom of the page giving the 
new reading. 

The system of numbering the stories requires a detailed 
explanation. In order that the reader may know exactly 
what story he is reading and can pick up the thread of a tale 
long since suspended, each story will have a distinct number. 
It will be numbered by an Arabic numeral ; while a sub- 
story will have the addition of a letter, a, b, c, etc., and a 
sub-sub-story will have the letter repeated. It often happens 
that a story is broken off three or four times ; each time we 
return to that main story its special number reappears with 
it. Thus every tale will be kept separate and facilities for 
folk-lore reference will be afforded. 

Sometimes in a long story numerous incidents occur 
which cannot be numbered separately. These are shown by 
side-headings, which can, however, easily be catalogued or 
referred to by the help of the number of the story in which 
they occur. 

Two considerations other than those mentioned need 
explanation. There is one main story which runs through- 
out the entire work, though towards the end it takes a very 
back seat, especially where a large collection of stories, like 
the Vikram cycle, appear. This main story is numbered 
M, without any Arabic numeral. 

Secondly, Book I is all introductory. It too has a main 
story running through it, which I call MI i.e. Main (Intro- 


duction). The first story is 1, the first sub-story 1a, the first 
sub-sub-story Iaa, and so on. There are four stories in 
MI, so when Book II commences the first story is 5, as the 
numbering does not start again, but runs straight on. A 
glance at the Contents pages at the very beginning of this 
volume will explain exactly what I am trying to convey. 

We will now turn to the question of the fresh annotations. 
So great have been our strides in folk-lore, anthropology and 
their kindred subjects since Tawney's day, that many of 
the original notes can be largely supplemented, corrected, or 
entirely rewritten in the light of recent research. Further, 
in some cases subjects are touched on that in Victorian 
days would be passed over in silence, but to-day conven- 
tion allows a scholarly treatment of them, and does not 
demand that they " be veiled in the obscurity of a learned 

If notes are of only a few lines they appear at the bottom 
of the page ; if longer, and there are few other notes coming 
immediately after, the note goes at the bottom of two or 
three consecutive pages. If, however, the opposite is the 
case, the note is put separately at the end of the chapter. 
Thus in some instances there will be two or three notes at 
the end of a chapter. 

Sometimes we light on a subject on which no compre- 
hensive article has been written. Such a note may run to 
thirty or more pages. This, then, forms an appendix at the 
end of a volume. 

Each note which I have written is initialed by me, so 
that it will be quite clear which notes are mine and which 
those of Tawney. Occasionally a note may be written by 
both Tawney and myself. In these cases his remarks come 
first, and are separated from mine which follow by a rule, 

thus : . In some of these notes recent research may have 

proved, disproved, or amplified Tawney's original note. It 
is therefore considered best to give both the original note 
and the fresh one following it. 

It often happens that an old edition of a work quoted by 
Tawney has been completely superseded by a more recent one. 
In these cases if the reference is more detailed and up-to-date 


in the new edition, the original one is disregarded. English 
translations of many works can now be quoted which in 
Tawney's day were only to be found in their original tongues, 
or in an Italian or German translation. 

These fresh references have accordingly been added. 

The Terminal Essay and all appendices are entirely 
fresh, as is also the system of numbering the stories, and the 
elaborate indexing. 

At the end of each volume are two indices. The first 
contains all Sanskrit words and names, also proper names of 
peoples, towns, etc., in any language. The second, and by 
far the larger of the two, is the General Index. Important 
references may be cross-indexed six times. Nothing of the 
least possible importance is omitted: every note, appendix 
and every portion of the text is fully indexed. 

If space permits I shall include a volume containing the 
two accumulated indices of the entire work, together with a 
list of authors, a bibliography of the Ocean of Story iself, 
and a list of all the stories in alphabetical order. 

In conclusion I would like to acknowledge the help I 
have received from so many private individuals and learned 
institutions. In the first place I would particularly mention 
those gentlemen who have read through my proofs, or some 
particular portion of them, and given me most valuable 
advice : Sir Richard Temple, Dr L. D. Barnett, Professor 
R. L. Turner, Mr C. Fenton (who has also drawn my attention 
to important Central American analogies) and Sir Aurel 
Stein ; while Mr R. Campbell Thompson has criticised my 
Babylonian and Assyrian notes, and Sir Wallis Budge, 
Dr H. R. Hall, and Professor G. Eliot Smith have helped me 
in points connected with Egyptology. 

As the list of correspondents giving information increases 
nearly every day, it is impossible to include them all in 
this first volume. I would, however, particularly mention 
Mr J. Allen, Professor Maurice Bloomfield, Mr F. H. Brown, 
Mr A. G. Ellis, Mr R. E. Enthoven, Dr Lionel Giles, Mr T. A. 
Joyce, Mr W. G. Partington, Brigadier-General Sir Percy 
Sykes, Mr Robert Sewell, Dr F. W. Thomas and Mr Edgar 


Of the following institutions and learned societies I 
would thank the librarians and their assistants for the 
valuable help they have given and kindness they have 
always shown : the Royal Asiatic Society, the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, the Geological Society, the Folk-Lore 
Society, the India Office Library, School of Oriental Studies 
Library, the British Museum Library, the Library of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, the Wellcombe Medical Museum, 
the Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, 
and finally I owe a special debt of gratitude to the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal for their permission to use the original 
edition of the Kaiha Sarit Sdgara. 




MAY the dark neck of Siva, 2 which the God of Love 3 
has, so to speak, surrounded with nooses in the 
form of the alluring looks of Parvati reclining on 
his bosom, assign to you prosperity. 

May that Victor of Obstacles, 4 who, after sweeping away 
the stars with his trunk in the delirious joy of the evening 
dance, seems to create others with the spray issuing from his 
hissing 5 mouth, protect you. 

After worshipping the Goddess of Speech, the lamp that 
illuminates countless objects, 6 I compose this collection 
which contains the pith of the Brihat-Katha. 

1 Compare with the introduction to The Thousand Nights and a Night, 
where Allah, Mohammed and his family are invoked. n.m.p. 

2 His neck is dark because at the Churning of the Ocean poison came 
up and was swallowed by Siva to save creation from disaster. The poison 
was held in his throat, hence he is called Nilakantha (the blue-throated one). 
For the various accounts of the Churning of the Ocean see Mahabharata, 
trans, by P. C. Roy, new edition, 1919, etc., Calcutta, vol. i, part i, pp. 55-57 
(Book I, Sects. XVII, XVIII); Ramayana, trans, by Carey and Marshman, 
Serampore, 1806, vol. 1, p. 41 et seq. (Book I, Sect. XXXVI); Vishnu Purana, 
vol. i, H. H. Wilson's Collected Works, 1864, p. 142 et seq. n.m.p. 

3 I.e. Kama, who here is simply the Hindu Cupid. n.m.p. 

4 Dr Brockhaus explains this of Ganesa : he is often associated with 
Siva in the dance. So the poet invokes two gods, Siva and Ganesa, and 

one goddess, SarasvatI, the goddess of speech and learning. It is in his 

form as Vinayaka, or Vighnesa, that Ganesa is the "Victor" or, better, 
" Remover of Obstacles." n.m.p. 

5 Sitkara : a sound made by drawing in the breath, expressive of pleasure. 

6 There is a double meaning: padartha also means words and their 

A 1 



The first book in my collection is called Kathapitha, 
then comes Kathamukha, then the third book named 
Lavanaka, then follows Naravahanadattajanana, and then 
the book called Chaturdarika, and then Madanamanchuka, 
then the seventh book named Ratnaprabha, and then the 
eighth book named Suryaprabha, then AlankaravatI, then 
Saktiyasas, and then the eleventh book called Vela, then 
comes Sasankavati, and then Madiravati, then comes the 
book called Pancha, followed by Mahabhisheka, and then 
Suratamanjari, then Padmavati, and then will follow the 
eighteenth book Vishamasila. 

This book is precisely on the model of that from which 
it is taken, there is not even the slightest deviation, only 
such language is selected as tends to abridge the prolixity 
of the work ; the observance of propriety and natural con- 
nection, and the joining together of the portions of the poem 
so as not to interfere with the spirit of the stories, are as far 
as possible kept in view : I have not made this attempt 
through a desire of a reputation for ingenuity, but in order 
to facilitate the recollection of a multitude of various tales. 


[MI 1 ] There is a mountain celebrated under the name 
of Himavat, 2 haunted by Kinnaras, Gandharvas, and Vidya- 
dharas, 3 a very monarch of mighty hills, whose glory has 
attained such an eminence among mountains that Bhavani, 

1 For explanation of the system of numbering the stories adopted 
throughout the work see my Introduction, pp. xxxviii and xxxix. n.m.p. 

2 This is another form of Himalaya, "the abode of snow." Himagiri, 
Himadri, Himakuta, etc., are also found. The Greeks converted the name 
into Emodos and Imaos. Mt Kailasa (the modern Kailas) is the highest 
peak of that portion of the Tibetan Himalayas lying to the north of Lake 
Manasarowar. It is supposed to resemble a linga in shape, thus being an 
appropriate dwelling-place for Siva and Parvati, who, as we see, appear 
under a variety of names. It is naturally a very sacred spot, and one to 
which numerous pilgrimages are made. n.m.p. 

3 For details of these mythical beings see Appendix I at the end of this 
volume, pp. 197-207. n.m.p. 


the mother of the three worlds, deigned to become his 
daughter ; the northernmost summit thereof is a great peak 
named Kailasa, which towers many thousand yojanas in the 
The, Abode air, 1 and, as it were, laughs forth with its snowy 
of Ska gleams this boast : " Mount Mandara 2 did not 

become white as mortar even when the ocean was churned 
with it, but I have become such without an effort." There 
dwells Mahesvara the beloved of Parvati, the chief of things 
animate and inanimate, attended upon by Ganas, Vidya- 
dharas and Siddhas. 3 In the upstanding yellow tufts of his 
matted hair the new moon enjoys the delight of touching 
the eastern mountain yellow in the evening twilight. When 
he drove his trident into the heart of Andhaka, the King of 
the Asuras, 3 though he was only one, the dart which that 
monarch had infixed in the heart of the three worlds was, 
strange to say, extracted. The image of his toe-nails being 
reflected in the crest- jewels of the gods and Asuras made 
them seem as if they had been presented with half moons by 
his favour. 4 Once on a time that lord, the husband of Parvati, 
was gratified with praises by his wife, having gained con- 
fidence as she sat in secret with him ; the moon - crested 
one, attentive to her praise and delighted, placed her on his 
lap, and said : " What can I do to please thee ? " Then the 
daughter of the mountain spake : " My lord, if thou art 
satisfied with me, then tell me some delightful story that is 
quite new." And Siva said to her : " What can there be in 

1 Possibly the meaning is that the mountain covers many thousand 

yojanas. Either would be applicable (allowing, of course, for the usual 

Oriental exaggeration), for Kailasa is 22,300 feet high and pilgrims take three 
weeks to circumambulate the base, prostrating themselves all the way. It is 
hard to say what distance a yojana represents. It is variously given as equal 
to four krosas {i.e. nine miles), eighteen miles and two and a half miles. For 
references see Macdonell and Keith's Vedic Index, vol. ii, pp. 195, 196, and 
especially J. F. Fleet, "Imaginative Yojanas," Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 1912, 
pp. 229-239. n.m.p. 

2 This mountain served the gods and Asuras as a churning-stick at the 
Churning of the Ocean for the recovery of the Amrita and fourteen other 
precious things lost during the Deluge. 

3 For details of these mythical beings see Appendix I at the end of 
this volume. n.m.p. 

4 Siva himself wears a moon's crescent. 


the world, my beloved, present, past, or future, that thou 
dost not know ? " Then that goddess, beloved of Siva, 
importuned him eagerly because she was proud in soul on 
account of his affection. 

Then Siva, wishing to flatter her, began by telling her a 
very short story, referring to her own divine power. 

" Once on a time * Brahma and Narayana, 2 roaming 
through the world in order to behold me, came to the foot of 
Himavat. Then they beheld there in front of them a great 
Brahma and flame-liriga 3 ; in order to discover the end of it, 
Narayana one f them went up, and the other down ; and 
when they could not find the end of it, they proceeded to 
propitiate me by means of austerities : and I appeared to 
them and bade them ask for some boon : hearing that 
Brahma asked me to become his son ; on that account 
he has ceased to be worthy of worship, disgraced by his 
overweening presumption : 

" Then that god Narayana craved a boon of me, saying : 
O revered one, may I become devoted to thy service ! Then 
he became incarnate, and was born as mine in thy form ; 
for thou art the same as Narayana, the power of me all- 

" Moreover thou wast my wife in a former birth." When 
Siva had thus spoken, Parvati asked : " How can I have 
been thy wife in a former birth ? " Then Siva answered 
Parvati s her : " Long ago to the Prajapati Daksha were born 
Former Births ma ny daughters, and amongst them thou, O 
goddess ! He gave thee in marriage to me, and the others to 
Dharma and the rest of the gods. Once on a time he invited 
all his sons-in-law to a sacrifice. But I alone was not included 
in the invitation ; thereupon thou didst ask him to tell thee 
why thy husband was not invited. Then he uttered a speech 

1 The Sanskrit word asti, meaning "thus it is" [lit. "there is"], is a 
common introduction to a tale. 

2 I.e. Vishnu. The name was also applied both to Brahma and 
GaneSa. n.m.p. 

3 The linga, or phallus, is a favourite emblem of Siva. Flame is one 

of his eight tanus, or forms the others being ether, air, water, earth, sun, 

moon, and the sacrificing priest. n.m.p. 


which pierced thy ears like a poisoned needle : 6 Thy husband 
wears a necklace of skulls ; how can he be invited to a 
sacrifice ? ' 

" And then thou, my beloved, didst in anger abandon 
thy body, exclaiming : ' This father of mine is a villain ; 
what profit have I then in this carcass sprung from 

"And thereupon in wrath I destroyed that sacrifice of 
Daksha. 1 

" Then thou wast born as the daughter of the Mount 
of Snow, as the moon's digit springs from the sea. Then 
recall how I came to the Himalaya in order to perform 
austerities ; and thy father ordered thee to do me service 
as his guest: and there the God of Love, who had been 
sent by the gods in order that they might obtain from me a 
son to oppose Taraka, was consumed, 2 when endeavouring 
to pierce me, having obtained a favourable opportunity. 
Then I was purchased by thee, 3 the enduring one, with 
severe austerities, and I accepted this proposal of thine, 
my beloved, in order that I might add this merit to my 
stock. 4 Thus it is clear that thou wast my wife in a former 

11 What else shall I tell thee ? " Thus Siva spake, and 
when he had ceased, the goddess, transported with wrath, 
exclaimed : " Thou art a deceiver ; thou wilt not tell me 
a pleasing tale even though I ask thee. Do I not know 
that thou worshippest Sandhya, and bearest Ganga 5 on thy 
head ? " Hearing that, Siva proceeded to conciliate her, and 
promised to tell her a wonderful tale : then she dismissed 
her anger. She herself gave the order that no one was to 

1 See the Bhagavata Purana for details of this story. It was translated 
by Burnouf, 4 vols., Paris, 1840-1847, 1884. n.m.p. 

2 He was burnt up by the fire of Siva's eye. 

3 Compare Kalidasa's Kumara Sambhava, Sarga v, line 86. 

4 Reading tatsanchayaya as one word. Dr Brockhaus omits the line. 
Professor E. B. Cowell would read priyam for priye. 

5 I.e. the Ganges, the most worshipped river in the world. It is supposed 
to have its origin in Siva's head, hence one of his many names is Garigadhara, 
" Ganges-supporter." For full details of the legend see R. T. H. Griffith, 
Ramayana, Benares, 1895, p. 51 et seq. n.m.p. 


enter where they were ; Nandin * thereupon kept the door, 
and Siva began to speak. 

" The gods are supremely blessed, men are ever miserable, 
the actions of demigods are exceedingly charming, therefore 
I now proceed to relate to thee the history of the Vidya- 
m ^ .* i dharas." While Siva was thus speaking to his 

The Great I ale r 

related, but consort, there arrived a favourite dependent 01 
overheard by Siva's, Pushpadanta, best of Ganas, 2 and his 
usipa ana en t. rance was forbidden by Nandin, who was 
guarding the door. Curious to know why even he had been 
forbidden to enter at that time without any apparent reason, 
Pushpadanta immediately entered, making use of his magic 
power attained by devotion to prevent his being seen, and 
when he had thus entered, he heard ail the extraordinary 
and wonderful adventures of the seven Vidyadharas being 
narrated by the trident-bearing god, and having heard them, 
he in turn went and narrated them to his wife Java ; for 
who can hide wealth or a secret from women ? Java, the 
doorkeeper, being filled with wonder, went and recited it in 
the presence of Parvati. How can women be expected to 
restrain their speech ? And then the daughter of the moun- 
tain flew into a passion, and said to her husband : " Thou 
didst not tell me any extraordinary tale, for Jaya knows it 
also." Then the lord of Uma, perceiving the truth by pro- 
found meditation, thus spake : " Pushpadanta, employing 
the magic power of devotion, entered in where we were, and 
thus managed to hear it. He narrated it to Jaya ; no one else 
knows it, my beloved." 

Having heard this, the goddess, exceedingly enraged, 
caused Pushpadanta to be summoned, and cursed him, as he 
stood trembling before her, saying : " Become a mortal, thou 

1 One of Siva's favourite attendants a sacred white bull on which he 

rides. Most of the paintings and statues of Siva represent him in company 
with Nandin and Ganesa. n.m.p. 

2 Attendants of Siva, presided over by Ganesa for details of these 

mythical beings see Appendix I at the end of this volume. n.m.p. 


disobedient servant." * She cursed also the Gana Malyavan 
who presumed to intercede on his behalf. Then the two 
fell at her feet together with Jaya and entreated her to say 
Pdrvatis when the curse would end, and the wife of 
Curses gj va slowly uttered this speech: "A Yaksha 2 

named Supratika, who has been made a Pisacha 2 by the curse 
of Kuvera, is residing in the Vindhya forest under the name 
of Kanabhtiti. When thou shalt see him, and calling to mind 
thy origin, tell him this tale ; then, Pushpadanta, thou shalt 
be released from this curse. And when Malyavan shall hear 
this tale from Kanabhtiti, then Kanabhtiti shall be released, 
and thou, Malyavan, when thou hast published it abroad, 
shalt be free also." Having thus spoken, the daughter of the 
mountain ceased, and immediately these Ganas disappeared 
instantaneously like flashes of lightning. Then it came to 
pass in the course of time that Gauri, full of pity, asked 
Siva : " My lord, where on the earth have those excellent 
Pramathas, 3 whom I cursed, been born ? " And the moon- 
diademed god answered : " My beloved, Pushpadanta has been 
born under the name of Vararuchi in that great city which is 
called Kausambi. 4 Moreover Malyavan also has been born 
in the splendid city called Supratishthita under the name of 
Gunadhya. This, O goddess, is what has befallen them." 
Having given her this information, with grief caused by 

1 For the ativinita of Dr Brockhaus' text I read avinita. 

2 For details of these mythical beings see Appendix I at the end of this 
volume. n.m.p. 

3 Pramatha, an attendant on Siva. 

4 Kausambi succeeded Hastinapura as the capital of the emperors of 
India. Its precise site has not been ascertained, but it was probably some- 
where in the Doab, or, at any rate, not far from the west bank of the 
Yamuna, as it bordered upon Magadha and was not far from the Vindhya 
hills. It is said that there are ruins at Karali, or Karari, about fourteen miles 
from Allahabad on the western road, which may indicate the site of Kausambi. 
It is possible also that the mounds of rubbish about Karrah may conceal some 
vestiges of the ancient capital a circumstance rendered more probable by 
the inscription found there, which specifies Kata as comprised within Kausambi 

mandala or the district of Kausambi (note in Wilson's Essays, p. 163).- 
As will be seen later (Chapter XXXII), the site of Kausambi was discovered 
by General Cunningham. It is now called Kosam, and is on the Jumna 
(Yamuna), about thirty miles above Allahabad. n.m.p. 



recalling to mind the degradation of the servants that had 
always been obedient to him, that lord continued to dwell 
with his beloved in pleasure-arbours on the slopes of Mount 
Kailasa, which were made of the branches of the Kalpa 
tree. 1 

1 A tree of Indra's Paradise that grants all desires. 


THEN Pushpadanta, wandering on the earth in the 
[MI] form of a man, was known by the name of 
Vararuchi and Katyayana. Having attained perfec- 
tion in the sciences, and having served Nanda as minister, 
being wearied out he went once on a time to visit the shrine 
Pushpadanta ^ Durga. 1 And that goddess, being pleased with 
at last meets his austerities, ordered him in a dream to repair 
Kanabhuti to the wilds of the yindhya to behold Kana- 
bhuti. And as he wandered about there in a waterless 
and savage wood, 2 full of tigers and apes, he beheld a lofty 
Nyagrodha tree. 3 And near it he saw, surrounded by hun- 
dreds of Pisachas, that Pisacha Kanabhuti, in stature like a 
Sdla tree. When Kanabhuti had seen him and respectfully 
clasped his feet, Katyayana sitting down immediately spake 
to him : " Thou art an observer of the good custom, how hast 
thou come into this state ? " Having heard this Kanabhuti 
said to Katyayana, who had shown affection towards him: 
" I know not of myself, but listen to what I heard from Siva 
at Ujjayini in the place where corpses are burnt ; I proceed 
to tell it thee. 

" The adorable god was asked by Durga : ' Whence, my 
lord, comes thy delight in skulls and burning places ? ' 

" He thereupon gave this answer : 

" ' Long ago, when all things had been destroyed at the 
end of a Kalpa, the universe became water : I then cleft my 
thigh and let fall a drop of blood ; that drop falling into the 
water turned into an egg, from that sprang the Supreme 
Soul, 4 the Disposer; from him proceeded Nature, 5 created 

1 More literally, the goddess that dwells in the Vindhya hills. Her 
shrine is near Mirzapur. 

2 Dr Brockhaus makes parusha a proper name. 

3 Ficus Indica. 4 Pitman =puruska, the spirit. 
5 Prakriti, the original source, or rather passive power, of creating the 

material world. 


by me for the purpose of further creation, and they 
created the other lords of created beings, 1 and those in turn, 
the created beings, for which reason, my beloved, the Supreme 
The Creation Soul is called in the world the grandfather. Having 
and Kuvera's thus created the world, animate and inanimate, 
Curse t i mt Spi r jt became arrogant 2 : thereupon I cut 

off his head : then, through regret for what I had done, 
I undertook a difficult vow. So thus it comes to pass that I 
carry skulls in my hand, and love the places where corpses 
are burned. Moreover, this world, resembling a skull, rests in 
my hand ; for the two skull-shaped halves of the egg before- 
mentioned are called heaven and earth.' 3 When Siva had 
thus spoken, I, being full of curiosity, determined to listen ; 
and ParvatI again said to her husband : ' After how long a 
time will that Pushpadanta return to us ? ' Hearing that, 
Mahesvara spoke to the goddess, pointing me out to her: 
c That Pisacha, whom thou beholdest there, was once a 
Yaksha, a servant of Kuvera, the God of Wealth, and he 
had for a friend a Rakshasa named Sthtilasiras ; and the Lord 
of Wealth, perceiving that he associated with that evil one, 
banished him to the wilds of the Vindhya mountains. But 
his brother Dirghajangha fell at the feet of the god, and 
humbly asked when the curse would end. Then the God of 
Wealth said: "After thy brother has heard the great tale 
from Pushpadanta, who has been born into this world in 
consequence of a curse, and after he has in turn told it to 
Malyavan, who owing to a curse has become a human being, 
he together with those two Ganas shall be released from the 
effects of the curse." Such were the terms on which the 
God of Wealth then ordained that Malyavan should obtain 
remission from his curse here below, and thou didst fix the 
same in the case of Pushpadanta ; recall it to mind, my 

1 Prqjapati. 

2 The spirit was, of course, Brahma, whose head Siva cut off. 

3 The conception of the world-egg is found throughout Indian cosmology. 
Similar legends of the origin of the world appear both in the period of the 
Brahmanas and Upanishads and in that of the Epics and Puranas. For full 
details see the article "Cosmogony and Cosmology (Indian)," by H. Jacobi, in 
Hastings' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. iv, p. 155 et seq.n.M.P. 



beloved.' When I heard that speech of Siva, I came here, 
overjoyed, knowing that the calamity of my curse would be 
terminated by the arrival of Pushpadanta." 

When Kanabhuti ceased after telling this story, that 
moment Vararuchi remembered his origin, and exclaimed 
like one aroused from sleep : " I am that very Pushpadanta, 
hear that tale from me." Thereupon Katyayana related to 
him the seven great tales in seven hundred thousand verses, 
and then Kanabhuti said to him : " My lord, thou art an 
incarnation of Siva, who else knows this story ? Through 
thy favour that curse has almost left my body. Therefore 
tell me thy own history from thy birth, thou mighty one, 
sanctify me yet further, if the narrative may be revealed to 
such a one as I am." Then Vararuchi, to gratify Kanabhuti, 
who remained prostrate before him, told all his history from 
his birth at full length, in the following words : 

1. Story of Vararuchi, his teacher Varsha, and his fellow- 
pupils Vyadi and Indradatta 

In the city of Kausambi there lived a Brahman called 
Somadatta, who had also the title of Agnisikha, and his 
wife was called Vasudatta. She was the daughter of a 
hermit, and was born into the world in this position in 
consequence of a curse; and I was borne by her to this 
excellent Brahman, also in consequence of a curse. Now 
while I was still quite a child my father died, but my 
mother continued to support me, as I grew up, by severe 
drudgery ; then one day two Brahmans came to our house 
to stop a night, exceedingly dusty with a long journey; 
and while they were staying in our house there arose the 
noise of a tabor ; thereupon my mother said to me, sobbing 
as she called to mind her husband : " There, my son, is your 
father's friend Bhavananda, giving a dramatic entertain- 
ment." I answered: " I will go and see it, and will exhibit 
the whole of it to you, with a recitation of all the speeches." 
On hearing that speech of mine, those Brahmans were as- 
tonished, but my mother said to them : " Come, my children, 
there is no doubt about the truth of what he says ; this boy 


will remember by heart everything that he has heard once." * 
Then they, in order to test me, recited to me a Pratisakhya 2 ; 
immediately I repeated the whole in their presence, then I 
went with the two Brahmans and saw that play, and when 
I came home I went through the whole of it in front of my 
mother : then one of the Brahmans, named Vyadi, having 
ascertained that I was able to recollect a thing on hearing it 
once, told with submissive reverence this tale to my mother. 

1a. The Two Brahman Brothers 

Mother, in the city of Vetasa there were two Brahman 
brothers, Deva-Svamin and Karambaka, who loved one an- 
other very dearly ; this Indradatta here is the son of one of 
them, and I am the son of the other, and my name is Vyadi. 
It came to pass that my father died. Owing to grief for his 
loss, the father of Indradatta went on the long journey, 3 
and then the hearts of our two mothers broke with grief; 
thereupon, being orphans, though we had wealth, 4 and 
desiring to acquire learning, we went to the southern region 
to supplicate the lord Karttikeya. And while we were engaged 
in austerities there, the god gave us the following revelation 
in a dream. " There is a city called Pataliputra, the capital 

1 It appears from an article in Melusine, by A. Bart, entitled " An Ancient 
Manual of Sorcery," and consisting mainly of passages translated from 
Burnell's Samavidhana Brahmana, that this power can be acquired in the 
following way : " After a fast of three nights, take a plant of soma (Asclepias 
acida) ; recite a certain [formula and eat of the plant a thousand times, you 
will be able to repeat anything after hearing it once. Or bruise the flowers 
in water, and drink the mixture for a year. Or drink soma, that is to say 
the fermented juice of the plant, for a month. Or do it always " (Melusine, 
1878, p. 107; 11,7,4-7). 

In the Milinda Panho (Pali Miscellany, by V. Trenckner, Part I, p. 14), 
the child Nagasena learns the whole of the three Vedas by hearing them 
repeated once. 

2 A grammatical treatise on the rules regulating the euphonic com- 
bination of letters and their pronunciation peculiar to one of the different 
Sakhas or branches of the Vedas. See Monier Williams, Indian Wisdom^ 
pp. 160, 161. 

3 I.e. died. 

4 Here we have a pun which it is impossible to render in English. 
Anatha means without natural protectors and also poor. 



of King Nanda, and in it there is a Brahman, named Varsha, 
from him ye shall learn all knowledge, therefore go there." 
Then we went to that city, and when we made inquiries 
there, people said to us : " There is a blockhead of a Brahman, 
in this town, of the name of Varsha." Immediately we went 
on with minds in a state of suspense, and we saw the house 
of Varsha in a miserable condition, made a very ant-hill 
by mice, dilapidated by the cracking of the walls, untidy, 1 
deprived of eaves, looking like the very birthplace of misery. 
Then, seeing Varsha plunged in meditation within the 
house, we approached his wife, who showed us all proper 
hospitality ; her body was emaciated and begrimed, her 
dress tattered and dirty ; she looked like the incarnation of 
Poverty, attracted thither by admiration for the Brahman's 
virtues. Bending humbly before her, we told her our circum- 
stances, and the report of her husband's imbecility, which 
we had heard in the city. She exclaimed : " My children, I 
am not ashamed to tell you the truth : listen ! I will relate 
the whole story," and then she, chaste lady, proceeded to 
tell us the tale which follows : 

Iaa. Varsha and Upavarsha 

There lived in this city an excellent Brahman, named 
Sankara Svamin, and he had two sons, my husband Varsha, 
and Upavarsha ; my husband was stupid and poor, and his 
younger brother was just the opposite : and Upavarsha 
appointed his own wife to manage his elder brother's house. 2 
Then in the course of time the rainy season came on, and at 
this time the women are in the habit of making a cake of 
flour mixed with molasses, of an unbecoming and disgusting 
shape, 3 and giving it to any Brahman who is thought to be a 

1 Taking chhaya in the sense of sobha. It might mean "affording no 
shelter to the inmates." 

2 Dr Brockhaus translates the line : Von diesem wurde ich meinem Manne 
vermahlt, um seinem Hauswesen vorzustehen. 

3 Like the Roman fascinum ; guhya = linga = phallus. Professor E. B. Cowell 
has referred me to an article by Dr Liebrecht in the Zeitschrift der Morgenlandis- 
chen Gesellschaft. It was reprinted in his Zur Volkskunde, Heilbronn, 1879, 
p. 436 et seq., under the title of " Der Aufgegessene Gott." He connects the 
custom with that of the Jewish women mentioned in Jeremiah vii. 18 : "The 


blockhead, and if they act thus, this cake is said to remove 
their discomfort caused by bathing in the cold season, and 

women knead their dough to make cakes to the Queen of Heaven/' and he 

quotes a curious custom practised on Palm Sunday in the town of Saintes. 

Dulaure went deeply into the subject in his Des Divinites Generatrices, Paris, 
1805 (1st edition); 2 vols., 1825 (2nd edition); vol. 2 was enlarged and 
reprinted in 1885 the last edition was issued in Paris, 1905. He says that 
in his time the festival was called there " La fete des Pinnes " ; the women and 
children carried in the procession a phallus made of bread, which they called 
a pinne, at the end of their palm branches ; these pinnes were subsequently 
blessed by the priest, and carefully preserved by the women during the year. 
Liebrecht gives numerous examples of the making and eating of gods for 
various reasons. They are usually a form of sympathetic or homoeopathic 
magic. For instance in the time of famine the Hamfa tribe of Arabia make 
an idol of hais (dates, butter and milk kneaded together), which they eat, 
thus hoping to obtain food supplies and a speedy termination of the famine. 
See Burton's Nights, vol. vii, p. 14, where, in the story of Gharib and his 
brother Ajib, Jamrkan worships a god of 'Agwah i.e. compressed dates, 
butter and honey. In other cases we see customs connected with the corn 
goddess which involve the eating of a cake made in some particular shape. 

To give a few examples : 

At Ulten, in the Trentino district of the Tyrol, the women make a god 
with the last of the dough which they have been kneading, and when they 
begin baking the god is thrown into the oven. 

In Germany there are distinct festivals connected with such cake cere- 
monies. In Upper Germany they are called Manoggel, Nikolause, Klaus- 
manner; in Lower Germany, Sengterklas, Klaskerchen, etc. They are all 
connected with St Nicolaus. 

In France, in La Pallisse, it is customary to hang several bottles of wine 
and a " man of dough " on a fig-tree. The tree and its offerings are carried to 
the Mairie and kept till the end of the grape-picking season, when a harvest 
festival is held, at which the Mayor breaks the dough figure and distributes it 
among the people. 

In Sweden the figure of a girl is made from the grain of the last sheaf, 
and is divided up among the household, each member of which eats his 
allotted portion. 

In England, at Nottingham, it was, according to Liebrecht (op. cit.), the 
custom for the bakers to send at Christmas to all their customers buns in 
the shape of a lozenge, upon which was stamped the Cross, or more often the 
Virgin and Child. The distant connection with the "Queen of Heaven," 
mentioned at the beginning of this note, will be recognised. 

In the above examples of "cake customs" the phallic element is to a 
large extent either hidden or forgotten, or else plays but a minor part in the 
ceremonies described. In many cases, however, the opposite is the case. 
In his Remains of the Worship of Priapus, R. P. Payne Knight states that in 
Saintonge, in the neighbourhood of La Rochelle, small cakes baked in the 


their exhaustion caused by bathing in the hot weather 1 ; 
but when it is given, Brahmans refuse to receive it, on the 
ground that the custom is a disgusting one. This cake was 
presented by my sister-in-law to my husband, together with 
a sacrificial fee ; he received it, and brought it home with 
him, and got a severe scolding from me ; then he began to be 
inwardly consumed with grief at his own stupidity, and went 
to worship the sole of the foot of the god Karttikeya : the god, 
pleased with his austerities, bestowed on him the knowledge 
of all the sciences ; and gave him this order : " When thou 
findest a Brahman who can recollect what he has heard 
only once, then thou may est reveal these " thereupon my 
husband returned home delighted, and when he had reached 

shape of a phallus form part of the Easter offering ; they are subsequently 
distributed at all the houses. A similar custom existed at St Jean d'Angely. 
According to Dulaure (op. cit.), in 1825 such cakes were still commonly made 
at certain times, the male being symbolised at Brives and other localities of 
Lower Limousin, while the female emblem was adopted at Clermont, in 
Auvergne, as well as other places. 

Turning to the ancient world we find that cakes of phallic form were 
among the sacred objects carried about in Greece during the Thesmophoria, 
and in the kUvov, or baskets of first-fruits, at the orphic rite of the 
Liknophoria, and also at marriages. They were included in the mystic food 
eaten by the women at the Hola, and in all probability formed part of the 
sacra presented to the /-ivo-r^s in the Eleusinian Mysteries (J. E. Harrison, 
Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion, Cambridge, 1908, pp. 122, 518, 522, 
530 et seq. ; cf. Clem. Alex., Protrept, ii). At Syracuse, on the day of the 
Thesmophoria, cakes of sesame and honey, representing the female sex, 
and known by the name of [jlvWoi, were carried about and offered to the 
goddesses probably Demeter and Kore (Athenaeus, xiv, 56; Farnell, Cults 
oj the Greek States, iii, 99, and the authorities there cited). The Romans, 
according to Martial, made cakes in the form of either sex. 

For further details on customs connected with the making of cakes as 
part of magical or religious ceremony reference should be made to Hastings' 
Encycl. Rel. and Eth., vol. iii, p. 57 et seq. (Art. "Cakes and Loaves," by 
J. A. Macculloch) ; vol. ix, p. 818 et seq. (Art. " Phallism," by E. S. Hartland, 
from which the Greek references in the above note have been taken). n.m.p. 

1 I read tat for tah according to a conjecture of Professor E. B. Cowell. 
He informs me, on the authority of Dr Rost, that the only variants are sd 
for tah and yoshiid for yoshitah. Dr Rost would take evamkrite as the dative of 
evamkrit. If tah be retained, it may be taken as a repetition " having thus 
prepared it, I say, the women give it," Professor Cowell would translate 
(if tah be retained) : " the women then do not need to receive anything to 
relieve their fatigue during the cold and hot weather." 


home, told the whole story to me. From that time forth he 
has remained continually muttering prayers and meditating : 
so find you some one who can remember anything after 
hearing it once, and bring him here : if you do that, you will 
both of you undoubtedly obtain all that you desire. 

1a. The Two Brahman Brothers 

Having heard this from the wife of Varsha, and having 
immediately given her a hundred gold pieces to relieve her 
poverty, we went out of that city ; then we wandered through 
the earth, and could not find anywhere a person who could 
remember what he had heard only once ; at last we arrived 
tired out at your house to-day, and have found here this 
boy, your son, who can recollect anything after once hearing 
it : therefore give him us and let us go forth to acquire the 
commodity knowledge. 

1. Story of Vararuchi . . . 

Having heard this speech of Vyadi, my mother said with 
respect : " All this tallies completely : I repose confidence 
in your tale : for long ago at the birth of this my only son, a 
distinct spiritual l voice was heard from heaven. * A boy has 
been born who shall be able to remember what he has heard 
once ; he shall acquire knowledge from Varsha, and shall 
make the science of grammar famous in the world, and he 
shall be called Vararuchi by name, because whatever is ex- 
cellent 2 shall please him.' Having uttered this, the voice 
ceased. Consequently, ever since this boy has grown big, I 
have been thinking, day and night, where that teacher Varsha 
can be, and to-day I have been exceedingly gratified at 
hearing it from your mouth. Therefore take him with you : 
what harm can there be in it, he is your brother ? " When 
they heard this speech of my mother's, those two, Vyadi and 
Indradatta, overflowing with joy, thought that night but a 
moment in length. Then Vyadi quickly gave his own wealth 

1 Literally bodiless she heard the voice, but saw no man. It is the 

same as the Hebrew Bath kol, and the Arabic Hdtif. n.m.p. 

2 Vara = excellent ; ruck to please. 


to my mother to provide a feast, and desiring that I should 
be qualified to read the Vedas, invested me with the Brah- 
manical thread. 1 Then Vyadi and Indradatta took me, who 
managed by my own fortitude to control the excessive grief 
I felt at parting, while my mother in taking leave of me 
could with difficulty suppress her tears, and considering that 
the favour of Karttikeya towards them had now put forth 
blossom, set out rapidly from that city ; then in course of 
time we arrived at the house of the teacher Varsha : he too 
considered that I was the favour of Karttikeya arrived in 
bodily form. The next day he placed us in front of him, 
and sitting down in a consecrated spot he began to recite the 
syllable Om 1 with heavenly voice. Immediately the Vedas 
with the six supplementary sciences rushed into his mind, 
and then he began to teach them to us ; then I retained what 
the teacher told us after hearing it once, Vyadi after hearing 
it twice, and Indradatta after hearing it three times : then 
the Brahmans of the city, hearing of a sudden that divine 
sound, came at once from all quarters with wonder stirring 
in their breasts to see what this new thing might be, and 
with their reverend mouths loud in his praises, honoured 
Varsha with low bows. Then beholding that wonderful 
miracle, not only Upavarsha, but all the citizens of Patali- 
putra 2 kept high festival. Moreover, the King Nanda, of 
exalted fortune, seeing the power of the boon of the son 
of Siva, was delighted, and immediately filled the house of 
Varsha with wealth, showing him every mark of respect. 3 

1 Explanatory notes will occur in a future volume. n.m.p. 

2 I.e. Palibothra of the Greek historians. See note in Vol. II, Chapter 

3 Wilson remarks {Essays on Sanskrit Literature, vol. i, p. 165): "The 
contemporary existence of Nanda with Vararuchi and Vyadi is a circumstance 
of considerable interest in the literary history of the Hindus, as the two latter 
are writers of note on philological topics. Vararuchi is also called in this 
work Katyayana, who is one of the earliest commentators on Panini. Nanda 
is the predecessor, or one of the predecessors, of Chandragupta or Sandrakottos ; 
and consequently the chief institutes of Sanskrit grammar are thus dated 
from the fourth century before the Christian era. We need not suppose 
that Somadeva took the pains to be exact here ; but it is satisfactory to be 
made acquainted with the general impressions of a writer who has not been 
biased in any of his views by Pauranik legends and preposterous chronology." 




AVING thus spoken while Kanabhuti was listening 
[MI] with intent mind, Vararuchi went on to tell 
his tale in the wood : 

1. Story of Vararuchi 

It came to pass in the course of time that one day, when 
the reading of the Vedas was finished, the teacher Varsha, who 
had performed his daily ceremonies, was asked by us : " How 
comes it that such a city as this has become the home of 
Sarasvati and Lakshmi 1 ? tell us that, O teacher." Hearing 
this, he bade us listen, for that he was about to tell the history 
of the city. 

1b. The Founding of the City of Pdtaliputra 

There is a sanctifying place of pilgrimage, named Kana- 
khala, at the point where the Ganges issues from the hills, 2 
where the sacred stream was brought down from the table- 
land of Mount Usinara by Kanchanapata, the elephant of 
the gods, having cleft it asunder. 3 In that place lived a cer- 
tain Brahman from the Deccan, performing austerities in the 
company of his wife, and to him were born there three sons. 
In the course of time he and his wife went to heaven, and 
those sons of his went to a place named Rajagriha, for the 
sake of acquiring learning. And having studied the sciences 
there, the three, grieved at their unprotected condition, went 
to the Deccan in order to visit the shrine of the god Kartti- 
keya. Then they reached a city named Chinchini, on the 

1 I.e. of learning and material prosperity. 

2 Literally the gate of the Ganges : it is now well known under the name 
of Haridvar (Hurdwar). 

3 Dr Brockhaus renders the passage : " wo Siva die Jahnavi im goldenen Falle 
von den Gipjeln des Berges Usinara herabsandte." 



shore of the sea, and dwelt in the house of a Brahman named 
Bhojika, and he gave them his three daughters in marriage, 
and bestowed on them all his wealth, and having no other 
children, went to the Ganges to perform austerities. And 
while they were living there in the house of their father-in- 
law a terrible famine arose, produced by drought. Thereupon 
the three Brahmans fled, abandoning their virtuous wives 
(since no care for their families touches the hearts of cruel 
men). Then the middle one of the three sisters was found 
to be pregnant ; and those ladies repaired to the house of 
Yajnadatta, a friend of their father's ; there they remained 
in a miserable condition, thinking each on her own husband 
(for even in calamity women of good family do not forget 
the duties of virtuous wives). Now in the course of time the 
middle one of the three sisters gave birth to a son, and they 
all three vied with one another in love towards him. So it 
happened once upon a time that, as Siva was roaming 
through the air, the mother of Skanda, 1 who was reposing on 
Siva's breast, moved with compassion at seeing their love 
for their child, said to her husband : " My lord, observe, 
these three women feel great affection for this boy, and place 
hope in him, trusting that he may some day support them ; 
therefore bring it about that he may be able to maintain 
them, even in his infancy." Having been thus entreated by 
his beloved, Siva, the giver of boons, thus answered her : 
" I adopt him as my protege, for in a previous birth he and 
his wife propitiated me, therefore he has been born on the 
earth to reap the fruit of his former austerities ; and his 
former wife has been born again as Patali, the daughter of 
the King Mahendravarman, and she shall be his wife in this 
birth also." Having said this, that mighty god told those 
three virtuous women in a dream : " This young son of 
yours shall be called Putraka ; and every day when he 
awakes from sleep a hundred thousand gold pieces shall be 
found under his pillow, 2 and at last he shall become a king." 

1 Skanda is Karttikeya and his mother is, of course, Durga, or Parvati, the 
consort of Siva. 

2 This may be compared with Grimm's No. 60, " Die zwei Briider." Each 
of the brothers finds every day a gold piece under his pillow. In one of 


Accordingly, when he woke up from sleep, those virtuous 
daughters of Yajnadatta found the gold and rejoiced that 
their vows and prayers had brought forth fruit. Then by means 
of that gold Putraka, having in a short time accumulated 
great treasure, became a king, for good fortune is the result of 
austerities. 1 Once upon a time Yajnadatta said in private to 
Putraka : " King, your father and uncles have gone away 
into the wide world on account of a famine, therefore give 
continually to Brahmans, in order that they may hear of it 
and return : and now listen, I will tell you the story of 
Brahmadatta : 

Ibb. King Brahmadatta 2 

There lived formerly in Benares a king named Brahma- 
datta. He saw a pair of swans flying in the air at night. They 
shone with the lustre of gleaming gold, and were begirt with 
hundreds of white swans, and so looked like a sudden flash 
of lightning surrounded by white clouds. And his desire to 
behold them again kept increasing so mightily that he took 

Waldau's Bbhmische Marchen, " Vogelkopf und Vogelherz," p. 90, a boy named 
Fortunat eats the heart of the Gliicksvogel and under his pillow every day are 
found three ducats. See also " Der Vogel Goldschweif," in Gaal's Marchen der 

Magyaren, p. 195. M. H. Busk in Folk-Lore of Rome, London, 1894, pp. 146- 

154, tells a story which he says is orally current among the common people 
of Rome. The heart of a bird swallowed by the elder of two brothers has the 
effect of producing each morning a box full of sequins, which is always found 
under his head on awakening. The more usual method of enriching poor 
people in folk-tales is by means of a gold-producing article or animal. The 
former is nearly always an inexhaustible purse, while the latter varies con- 
siderably. In the Panchatantra (iii, 5) and iEsop the gold-producing animal 
is a goose ; it becomes an ass in Gonzenbach's Sicilianische Marchen and the 
Pentamerone (1st div.), a ram or bull in Norse tales, a lion in Dozon's Contes 
Albanais (No. 17), a little dog in La Fontaine's Contes et Nouvelles, and a serpent 
in the Kalmuck Relations of Siddhi Kur. In the Mahabharata we read of King 
Srinjaya, who obtained as a boon a son whose nature was such that everything 
that issued from his body was pure gold. Cf. also the well-known story of 
Midas, King of Phrygia. n.m.p. 

1 In this case the austerities which he had performed in a former birth 
to propitiate Siva. 

2 This story is, according to Dr Rajendra Lai Mitra, found in a MS. 
called the Bodhisattva Avadana (Account of the Buddhist Literature of Nepal, 
p. 53). 


no pleasure in the delights of royalty. And then, having 
taken counsel with his ministers, he caused a fair tank to be 
made according to a design of his own, and gave to all living 
creatures security from injury. In a short time he perceived 
that those two swans had settled in that lake, and when they 
had become tame he asked them the reason of their golden 
plumage. And then those swans addressed the king with an 
articulate voice : "Ina former birth, O king, we were born 
as crows ; and when we were fighting for the remains of the 
daily offering x in a holy empty temple of Siva we fell down 
and died within a sacred vessel belonging to that sanctuary, 
and consequently we have been born as golden swans with a 
remembrance of our former birth." Having heard this, the 
king gazed on them to his heart's content, and derived great 
pleasure from watching them. 

1b. The Founding of the City of Pdtalijmtra 

" Therefore you will gain back your father and uncles by 
an unparalleled gift." When Yajnadatta had given him this 
advice, Putraka did as he recommended ; when they heard 
the tidings of the distribution, those Brahmans arrived ; 
and when they were recognised they had great wealth be- 
stowed on them, and were reunited to their wives. Strange 
to say, even after they have gone through calamities, wicked 
men, having their minds blinded by want of discernment, 
are unable to put off their evil nature. After a time they 
hankered after royal power, and being desirous of murdering 
Putraka, they enticed him under pretext of a pilgrimage to 
the temple of Durga ; and having stationed assassins in the 
inner sanctuary of the temple, they said to him : " First go 
and visit the goddess alone. Step inside." Thereupon he 
entered boldly, but when he saw those assassins preparing 
to slay him he asked them why they wished to kill him. 
They replied : " We were hired for gold to do it by your father 
and uncles." Then the discreet Putraka said to the assassins, 

1 I.e. ball, a portion of the daily meal offered to creatures of every de- 
scription, especially the household spirits. Practically the ball generally falls 
to some crow, hence that bird is called balibkuj. 


whose senses were bewildered by the goddess : " I will give 
you this priceless jewelled ornament of mine. Spare me. I 
will not reveal your secret ; I will go to a distant land." 
The assassins said, " So be it," and taking the ornament 
they departed, and falsely informed the father and uncles of 
Putraka that he was slain. Then those Brahmans returned 
and endeavoured to get possession of the throne, but they 
were put to death by the ministers as traitors. How can the 
ungrateful prosper? 

In the meanwhile that King Putraka, faithful to his 
promise, entered the impassable wilds of the Vindhya, dis- 
gusted with his relations. As he wandered about he saw two 
The Magic heroes engaged heart and soul in a wrestling match 
Articles an( j he asked them who they were. They replied : 

" We are the two sons of the Asura Maya, and his wealth 
belongs to us, this vessel, and this stick, and these shoes ; it 
is for these that we are fighting, and whichever of us proves 
the mightier is to take them." When he heard this speech of 
theirs, Putraka said, with a smile : " That is a fine inheritance 
for a man ! " Then they said : " By putting on these shoes 
one gains the power of flying through the air ; whatever is 
written with this staff turns out true ; and whatever food a 
man wishes to have in the vessel is found there immediately." 
When he heard this, Putraka said : " WTiat is the use of 
fighting ? Make this agreement, that whoever proves the 
best man in running shall possess this wealth." Those 
simpletons said, " Agreed," and set off to run, while the 
prince put on the shoes and flew up in the air, taking with 
him the staff and the vessel. Then he went a great distance 
in a short time and saw beneath him a beautiful city named 
Akarshika and descended into it from the sky. He reflected 
with himself : " Courtesans are prone to deceive, Brahmans 
are like my father and uncles, and merchants are greedy of 
wealth ; in whose house shall I dwell ? " Just at that 
moment he reached a lonely dilapidated house, and saw a 
single old woman in it; so he gratified that old woman 
with a present, and lived unobserved in that broken-down 
old house, waited upon respectfully by the old woman. 

Once upon a time the old woman in an affectionate mood 


said to Putraka : "lam grieved, my son, that you have not 
a wife meet for you. But here there is a maiden named 
Patali, the daughter of the king, and she is preserved like 
Princess a jewel in the upper story of a seraglio. " While he 

Patali was listening to this speech of hers with open ear 

the God of Love found an unguarded point and entered by 
that very path into his heart. He made up his mind that he 
must see that damsel that very day, and in the night flew up 
through the air to where she was, by the help of his magic 
shoes. He then entered by a window, which was as high 
above the ground as the peak of a mountain, and beheld that 
Patali, asleep in a secret place in the seraglio, continually 
bathed in the moonlight that seemed to cling to her limbs : 
as it were the might of love in fleshly form reposing after the 
conquest of this world. While he was thinking how he should 
awake her, suddenly outside a watchman began to chant : 
" Young men obtain the fruit of their birth when they 
awake the sleeping one, embracing her as she sweetly scolds, 
with her eyes languidly opening." On hearing this encourag- 
ing prelude, he embraced that fair one with limbs trembling 
with excitement, and then she awoke. When she beheld that 
prince, there was a contest between shame and love in her eye, 
which was alternately fixed on his face and averted. When 
they had conversed together, and gone through the ceremony 
of the gdndharva marriage, 1 that couple found their love 
continually increasing as the night waned away. Then 
Putraka took leave of his sorrowing wife, and with his mind 
dwelling only on her, went in the last watch of the night to 
the old woman's house. So every night the prince kept 
going backwards and forwards, and at last the intrigue was 
discovered by the guards of the seraglio. Accordingly they 
revealed the matter to the lady's father, and he appointed a 
woman to watch secretly in the seraglio at night. She, finding 
the prince asleep, made a mark with red lac upon his garment 
to facilitate his recognition. In the morning she informed 
the king of what she had done, and he sent out spies in 
all directions, and Putraka was discovered by the mark and 

1 For a description of this form of marriage see my note on pp. 87, 88 of 
this volume. n.m.p. 


dragged out from the dilapidated house into the presence of 
the king. Seeing that the king was enraged, he flew up into 
the air with the help of the shoes, and entered the palace of 
Patali. He said to her, " We are discovered, therefore rise 
up, let us escape with the help of the shoes," and so taking 
Patali in his arms he flew away from that place through the 
air. 1 Then descending from heaven near the bank of the 
Ganges, he refreshed his weary beloved with cakes provided 
by means of the magic vessel. When Patali saw the power 
of Putraka, she made a request to him, in accordance with 
which he sketched out with the staff a city furnished with a 
force of all four arms. 2 In that city he established himself as 
king, and his great power having attained full development, 
he subdued that father-in-law of his, and became ruler of the 
sea-engirdled earth. This is that same divine city, produced 
by magic, together with its citizens ; hence it bears the 
name of Pataliputra, and is the home of wealth and learning. 

1. Story of Vararuchi . . . 

When we heard from the mouth of Varsha the above 
strange and extraordinarily marvellous story, our minds, O 
Kanabhuti, were for a long time delighted with thrilling 

1 Compare the way in which Zauberer Vergilius carries off the daughter 
of the Sultan of Babylon and founds the town of Naples, which he makes 
over to her and her children (Simrock's Deutsche Folksbiicker, vol. vi, pp. 354, 
355). Dunlop is of opinion that the mediaeval traditions about Vergil are 
largely derived from Oriental sources. 

2 I.e. infantry, cavalry, elephants and archers. 




A similar incident to that in our text is found in Grimm's Fairy Tales, 
translated by Mrs Paull, p. 370. The hero of the tale called "The Crystal 
Ball " finds two giants fighting for a little hat. On his expressing his wonder, 
" Ah/' they replied, "you call it old, you do not know its value. It is what 
is called a wishing hat, and whoever puts it on can wish himself where he 
will, and immediately he is there." " Give me the hat," replied the young 
man. " I will go on a little way and when I call you must both run a race 
to overtake me, and whoever reaches me first, to him the hat shall belong." 
The giants agreed, and the youth, taking the hat, put it on and went away ; 
but he was thinking so much of the princess that he forgot the giants and 
the hat, and continued to go farther and farther without calling them. 
Presently he sighed deeply and said : " Ah, if I were only at the Castle of 
the Golden Sun." 

Wilson (Collected Works, vol. iii, p. 169, note) observes that "the story is 
told almost in the same words in the [Persian] Bahar-i-Ddnish, a purse being 
substituted for the rod ; Jahiindar obtains possession of it, as well as the cup, 
and slippers in a similar manner. Weber [Eastern Romances, Introduction, 
p. 39] has noticed the analogy which the slippers bear to the cap of 
Fortunatus. The inexhaustible purse, although not mentioned here, is of 
Hindu origin also, and a fraudulent representative of it makes a great 
figure in one of the stories of the Dasa Kumara Charita [ch. ii * see also 
L. Deslongchamps, Essai sur les Fables Indiennes, Paris, 1838, p. 35 et seq., and 
Grasse, Sagen des Mittelalters, Leipzig, 1842, p. 19 et seq.]." The additions 
between brackets are due to Dr Reinholdt Rost, the editor of W T ilson's 

The Mongolian form of the story may be found in Sagas from the Far 
East, p. 24. A similar incident also occurs in the Swedish story in Thorpe's 
Scandinavian Tales, entitled " The Beautiful Palace East of the Sun and North 
of the Earth." A youth acquires boots by means of which he can go a 
hundred miles at every step, and a cloak that renders him invisible in a very 
similar way. 

I find that in the notes in Grimm's third volume, p. 168 (edition of 1856), 
the passage in Somadeva is referred to, and other parallels given. The author 
of these notes compares a Swedish story in Cavallius, p. 182, and Prohle, 
Kindermcirchen, No. 22. He also quotes from the Siddhi Kur, the story to which 
I have referred in Sagas from the Far East, and compares a Norwegian story in 
Ashbjornsen, pp. 53, 171, a Hungarian story in Mailath and Gaal, No. 7, and an 
Arabian tale in the continuation of The Thousand Nights and a Night (see later 
in this note). See also Sicilianische Mdrchen, by Laura Gonzenbach, part i, 
story 31. Here we have a tablecloth, a purse and a pipe. When the tablecloth 
is spread out one has only to say : "Dear little tablecloth, give macaroni" or 
roast meat or whatever may be required and it is immediately present. The 
purse will supply as much money as one asks it for, and the pipe is something 


like that of the Pied Piper of Hamelin everyone who hears it must dance. 
Dr Kohler, in his notes at the end of Laura Gonzenbach's collection, compares 
(besides the story of Fortunatus, and Grimm, iii, 202), Zingerle, Kinder und 
Haus?ndrchen, ii, 73 and 193; Curze, Popular Traditions from Waldeck, p. 34; 
Gesta Romanorum, ch. cxx ; Campbell's Highland Tales, No. 10, and many 
others. The shoes in our present story may also be compared with the bed 
in the ninth novel of the tenth day of The Decameron. See also Ralston' s 
Russian Folk-Tales, p. 230; Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagan, p. 152; and the 
story of "Die Kaiserin Trebisonda" in a collection of South Italian tales 
by Woldemar Kaden, entitled Unter den Olivenbaumen, published in 1880. 
The hero of this story plays the same trick as Putraka, and gains thereby 
an inexhaustible purse, a pair of boots which enable the wearer to run like 
the wind, and a mantle of invisibility. See also " Beutel, Mantelchen, 
und Wunderhorn," in the same collection, and No. 22 in Miss Stokes' Indian 
Fairy Tales, pp. 153-163. The story is found in the Avadanas, translated by 
Stanislas Julien (Leveque, Mythes et Legendes de I'Inde et de la Perse, p. 570 ; 
Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, p. 117). M. Leveque thinks that La Fontaine 
was indebted to it for his fable of L'Huitre et les Plaideurs. See also De 
Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, vol. i, pp. 126-127 and 162. We find a 
magic ring, brooch and cloth in No. 44 of the English Gesta. See also 
Syrische Sagen und Marchen, Von Eugen Prym und Albert Socin, p. 79, where 
there is a flying carpet. There is a magic tablecloth in the Bohemian " Story 
of Biismanda" (Waldau, p. 44), and a magic pot on p. 436 of the same collec- 
tion; and a food-providing mesa in the Portuguese story "A Cacheirinha" 
(Coelho, Contos Populares Portuguezes, No. 24, pp. 58-60). In the Pentamerone, 
No. 42 (see Burton's translation, vol. ii, p. 491), there is a magic chest. Kuhn 
has some remarks on the " Tischchen deck dich " of German tales in his 
Westfalische Marchen, vol. i, p. 369. 

For a similar artifice to Putraka's, see the story entitled " Fischer Marchen " 
in Gaal's Marchen der Magyaren, p. 168; Waldau, B'dhmische Marchen, pp. 260 
and 564 (at this point Tawney's notes end and mine begin n.m.p.) ; Dasent's 
Popular Tales from the Norse, 2nd edition, p. 263 ; and A. C. Fryer's 
English Fairy Tales from the North Country. See also (( Some Italian Folk- Lore," 
H. C. Coote (Folk-Lore Record, 1878, vol. i, pp. 204-206). In the first story 
of Basile's Pentamerone (Burton's translation, 1893, vol. i, pp. 11-19) we find 
the hero, after receiving two magical gifts from a ghul, has them stolen by 
a landlord. A third gift, a magical mace, enables him to recover his stolen 
property. Similar incidents will be found in L. Leger's Contes Populaires 
Slaves, Paris, 1882; E. H. Carnoy's Contes Francais, Paris, 1885 ; T. F. Crane's 
Italian Popular Tales, London, 1885; and "The Legend of Bottle Hill" in 
J. C. Croker's Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland. The 
incident of an attempt to steal magic articles, usually inherited or given as 
a reward for some kindness, is common in folk-tales. We find it again in 
Busk's Folk-Lore of Rome, 1894, p. 129, where three sons each inherit a 
magical object an old hat (of invisibility), a purse (always containing money) 
and a horn (which summons "One" who accedes to all requests). A wicked 
queen gets hold of all these articles, but the second son (who, strange to say, 


is the hero of the story) finds magical figs which produce long noses and 
cherries which counteract the effect. He has his revenge on the queen, 
takes the magic articles, and leaves her with a nose twelve feet long. The 
story also occurs in Grimm's Kinder und Hausmarchen. See also the fourteenth 
tale of Sagas from the Far East. 

The lengthening and diminishing noses remind us of the "three wishes" 
cycle of stories, which started in India (Panchatantra), went through Persia 
(see Clouston's Book of Sindibad, 1884, pp. 71, 72, 190 and 253) and Arabia 
(see Burton's Nights, vol. vi, p. 180, and Chauvin's Bibliographic des Ovvrages 
Arabes, 1904, viii, pp. 51, 52), and via Turkey into Europe, where it appeared 
in La Fontaine's Trois Souhaits, Prior's Ladle and Les Quatre Souhaits de 
Saint Martin. Apart from the North European variants of the "magical 
articles" motif already mentioned, we find the shoes of swiftness worn by 
Loki when he escaped from Hell. It is not often one finds a recipe for 
making magic articles, but in an Icelandic story is the following: "The 
giant told her that Hermodr was in a certain desert island, which he named to 
her ; but could not get her thither unless she flayed the soles of her feet and made 
shoes for herself out of the skin ; and these shoes, when made, would be of such 
a nature that they would take her through the air, or over the water, as she 
liked" {Icelandic Legends, translated by Powell and Magnusson, 2nd series, 
p. 397). The invisible coat is identical with the Tarnhut, or hat of darkness, 
in the Nibelungenlied and in the Nifflunga Saga, and with the Nebelkappe, or 
cloud-cap, of King Alberich, a dwarf of old German romance. 

In the Norse tale of the "Three Princesses of Whiteland" (Dasent, 
2nd edition, 1859, p- 209 et seq.) the wandering king procures a hat, cloak 
and boots from three fighting brothers. 

In the Italian tale of "Liar Bruno" the articles are a pair of boots, a 
purse and a cloak. 

In a Breton version (vol. i of Melusine, under the title of " Voleur A vise ") 
they are a cloak of transportation, an invisible hat, and gaiters which make 
the wearer walk as fast as the wind (cf with the story of "Die Kaiserin 
Trebisonda" mentioned on p. 26). 

In tale 21 of Portuguese Folk-Tales (Folk- Lore Society, 1883) a soldier 
comes across two separate couples fighting. From the first couple he gets 
a cap of invisibility and from the second a pair of magical boots. Similar 
caps and coats occur in Mitford's Tales of Old Japan, where Little Peachling 
is given these articles by the conquered ogres. 

There is a curious Mongolian legend (Folk-Lore Journal, 1886, vol. iv, 
pp. 23, 24) in which a man obtains a gold-producing stone from two quarrelling 
strangers. The interest in the tale lies in the fact that from this incident 
the entire Chinese nation can trace its origin ! 

Returning to Arabia, we read in the Nights (Burton, vol. viii, p. 120) 
that Hasan of Bassorah "came upon two little boys of the sons of the 
sorcerers, before whom lay a rod of copper graven with talismans, and beside 
it a skull-cap of leather, made of three gores and wroughten in steel with 
names and characters. The cap and rod were on the ground and the boys 
were disputing and beating each other, till the blood ran down between 


them; whilst each cried, 'None shall take the wand but I.' So Hasan 
interposed and parted them, saying, ' What is the cause of your contention ? ' 
and they replied, 'O uncle, be thou judge of our case, for Allah the Most 
High hath surely sent thee to do justice between us.' Quoth Hasan, ' Tell 
me your case, and I will judge between you.' " The cap made the wearer 
invisible and the owner of the rod had authority over seven tribes of the 
Jinn. For numerous references to incidents similar to those contained in 
" Hasan of Bassorah " see Chauvin's Bibliographic des Ouvrages Arabes, vii, 
pp. 38, 39, under the headings of " Ruse pour s'emparer d'un objet precieux" 
and " Invisible." 

There is another story in the Nights (Burton, vol. iv, p. 176), called "Abu 
Mohammed hight Lazybones," in which the hero is presented with a sword 
of invisibility. Burton suggests in a note that the idea of using a sword 
for this purpose probably arose from the venerable practice of inscribing the 
blades with sentences, verses and magic figures. 

Finally to get back to our starting-place India. In Steel and Temple's 
Wide-Awake Stories from the Panjab and Kashmir there are four magical 
articles a wallet with two magic pockets, a staff which will restore to life, 
a brass pot providing food, and a pair of sandals of transportation. 

In Lai Behari Day's Folk-Tales of Bengal (p. 53 et seq.) a Brahman receives 
from Durga an earthen pot which provides sweetmeats. It is stolen, and Durga 
gives a second pot, out of which issues Rakshasas who soon help to recover 
the original gift. A similar story occurs in Freer's Old Deccan Days (No. 12. 
" The Jackal, the Barber and the Brahman "), where a food-producing chattee 
is recovered by another containing a magical stick and ropes by means of 
which the offenders are punished until they restore the stolen property. 

In a manuscript at Le Bibliotheque Nationale is a story described as a 
"Conte Hindoustani." It has been translated into French by Garcin de 
Tassy as " L'inexorable Courtisane et les Talismans " (see Revue Orientale et 
Americaine, 1865, vol. x, pp. 14-9-157). It is a combination of two motifs. The 
first is that of the "magical articles." The king finds four robbers quarrelling 
over a sword (capable of cutting off heads of enemies at any distance), 
a porcelain cup (providing food), a carpet (giving money), and a jewelled 
throne (of transportation). The king gets them in the usual way and arrives 
at a city where he sees a palace of great splendour. He is told it belongs 
to a wealthy courtesan whose fees are enormous. The king, however, falls in 
love with the girl and by means of the magic carpet gets enough money for 
a long stay. She learns the king's secret and awaits her opportunity, until 
she obtains possession of the four magical articles. The king is reduced 
to beggary. During his wanderings while in this state, he discovers some 
magical water which turns those who touch it into monkeys. He collects 
some, and has his revenge on the courtesan, finally getting back his 

This second part of the tale belongs to that cycle of stories where a 
courtesan tries to ruin men and finally meets her match. The original of 
this motif is "The Story of the Merchant's Son, the Courtesan and the 
Wonderful Ape, Ala," which occurs in Chapter XVII of the Ocean of Story. 


I shall give numerous variants of the motif in a note to the tale when we 
come to it. 

Apart from all the above there are numerous tales in which single magical 
articles appear. Several have been mentioned, but only as far as they have 
any analogy to the tale in the Ocean of Story. Further details will be found 
in W. A. Clouston's Popular Tales and Fictions, 1887, vol. i, pp. 72-122, from 
which some of the above references have been derived. 

See also P. Saintyves, Les Contes de Perrault, Paris, 1923, pp. 281-292. 

As I have already stated in the Introduction, it is the incidents in a story 
which form the real guide to its history and migration. The plot is of little 
consequence, being abbreviated or embroidered according to the environment 
of its fresh surroundings. Thus we find a distinct theme, trait, or motif, as we 
may call it, appearing again and again not only in Eastern fiction, but also in 
that of the West. If the motif be of a simple nature it seems much more prob- 
able that it forms part of the general stock of ideas common to every nation. 
Certain definite fiction motifs would naturally suggest themselves to most 
people, such as letting the youngest son marry the princess or find the treasure, 
or obtaining magical articles or help from supernatural beings. In cases like 
these there is no necessity to suspect any Eastern origin, although the Western 
tale may have been improved or enriched from the East. 

In the "magical articles" motif 'we notice two distinct varieties : (1) where 
the articles are stolen by the hero ; (2) where they are stolen from the hero. 
In (1) he nearly always meets two or more people fighting and, without any 
scruples, proceeds to trick them out of their belongings in only one case (the 
first in this note) are the articles taken through absent-mindedness. In (2) 
the hero inherits or earns the articles ; he is tricked into telling their secrets 
and then has them stolen, only to recover them by the help of the original 

A glance through the above references to the numerous variants of the 
" magical articles " tale in East and West will show that it is in the Eastern 
stories in which the hero is allowed to steal with impunity, while in the 
Western tales he comes by the articles honestly. The Easterns have a highly 
developed sense of humour, and any successful trick played off against a Kazi, 
fakir, or in fact anyone, is sure to bring a round of applause. I therefore 
suggest this as a possible explanation. 

In conclusion, then, I would not class this motif as migratory to the same 
extent as is the story of M Upakosa and her Four Lovers," which is to be dis- 
cussed shortly. There is no doubt that it did travel from the East, but it seems 
probable that it found more or less the same ideas already in common circula- 
tion, for the simple reason that the particular motif happened to be rather 
a commonplace one. Perhaps the Eastern imagination could add a more 
amusing incident, portion of an incident, or a more striking denouement to 
a tale already current in a Western land. It seems very probable that the 
incident of the fight over the magical articles was directly derived from the 
East, while the idea of the magical articles themselves was, in some form or 
other, already established in Western M'drchen. n.m.p. 



AVING related this episode to Kanabhuti in the 
[MI] Vindhya forest, Vararuchi again resumed the 
main thread of his narrative : 

1. Story of Vararuchi . . . 

While thus dwelling there with Vyadi and Indradatta, 
I gradually attained perfection in all sciences, and emerged 
from the condition of childhood. Once on a time when we 
went out to witness the festival of Indra we saw a maiden 
looking like some weapon of Kama, not of the nature of an 
arrow. Then Indradatta, on my asking him who that lady 
might be, replied : " She is the daughter of Upavarsha, and 
her name is Upakosa " ; and she found out by means of her 
handmaids who I was, and drawing my soul after her with a 
glance made tender by love, she with difficulty managed to 
return to her own house. She had a face like a full moon, 1 
and eyes like a blue lotus; she had arms graceful like the 
stalk of a lotus, and a lovely full 2 bosom ; she had a neck 

1 This hardly seems complimentary from an English point of view, but 
the simile is a favourite one, not only in India, but in Turkey, Persia, Arabia 
and Afghanistan. Readers who have seen the full moon in the East will 
understand. n.m.p. 

2 Literally, " she was splendid with a full bosom . . . glorious with coral 

lips." For uttama in the first half of sloka 6 I read upama. As can be seen 

from the rock-carvings of ancient India, and also from the work of Court 
painters, the Hindus always admired the full breast. This was also considered 
a sine qua non among the Samoans. The Arabs insisted on firmness rather 
than size. The following description from the Nights (Burton, vol. i, p. 84) 
forms an interesting comparison to that in our text : " Her forehead was 
flower-white ; her cheeks like the anemone ruddy bright ; her eyes were those 
of the wild heifer or the gazelle, with eyebrows like the crescent-moon which 
ends Sha'aban and begins Ramazan ; her mouth was the ring of Sulayman, 
her lips coral-red, and her teeth like a line of strung pearls or of camomile 
petals. Her throat recalled the antelope's, and her breasts, like two pome- 



marked with three lines like a shell, 1 and magnificent coral 
lips ; in short, she was a second Lakshmi, so to speak, the 
storehouse of the beauty of King Kama. Then my heart was 
cleft by the stroke of love's arrow, and I could not sleep that 
night through my desire to kiss her bimba 2 lip. Having at 
last with difficulty gone off to sleep, I saw, at the close of 
night, a celestial woman in white garments ; she said to me : 
" Upakosa was thy wife in a former birth ; as she appreciated 
merit, she desires no one but thee; therefore, my son, thou 
oughtest not to feel anxious about this matter. I am Saras- 
vati 3 that dwell continually in thy frame, I cannot bear to 
behold thy grief." When she had said this she disappeared. 
Then I woke up and, somewhat encouraged, I went slowly 
and stood under a young mango- tree near the house of my be- 
loved ; then her confidante came and told me of the ardent 
attachment of Upakosa to me, the result of sudden passion ; 
then I, with my pain doubled, said to her : " How can I 
obtain Upakosa unless her natural protectors willingly be- 
stow her upon me ? For death is better than dishonour ; 
so if by any means your friend's heart became known to her 
parents, perhaps the end might be prosperous. 

" Therefore bring this about, my good woman : save the 
life of me and of thy friend." When she heard this she went 
and told all to her friend's mother, she immediately told it 
to her husband Upavarsha, he to Varsha his brother, and 
Varsha approved of the match. Then, my marriage having 
been determined upon, Vyadi, by the order of my tutor, went 
and brought my mother from Kausambi ; so Upakosa was 
bestowed upon me by her father with all due ceremonies, and 
I lived happily in Pataliputra with my mother and my wife. 

Now in course of time Varsha got a great number of 

granates of even size, stood at bay as it were ; her body rose and fell in waves 
below her dress like the rolls of a piece of brocade, and her navel would hold 
an ounce of benzoin ointment." All references to the Nights are to the 
original edition. n.m.p. 

1 Considered to be indicative of exalted fortune. Monier Williams. 

2 The bimba being an Indian fruit, this expression may be paralleled 
by "currant lip" in The Two Noble Kinsmen, \, 1, 21 6, or "cherry lip" in 
Richard HI, \, 1, 94. 

3 Goddess of eloquence and learning. 


pupils, and among them there was one rather stupid pupil 
of the name of Panini ; he, being wearied out with service, 
was sent away by the preceptor's wife, and being disgusted 
at it, and longing for learning, he went to the Himalaya to 
perform austerities : then he obtained from the god who 
wears the moon as a crest, propitiated by his severe austerities, 
a new grammar, the source of all learning. Thereupon he 
came and challenged me to a disputation, and seven days 
passed away in the course of our disputation ; on the eighth 
day he had been fairly conquered by me, but immediately 
afterwards a terrible menacing sound was uttered by Siva 
in the firmament ; owing to that our Aindra grammar was 
exploded in the world, 1 and all of us, being conquered by 
Panini, became accounted fools. Accordingly full of despond- 
ency I deposited in the hand of the merchant Hiranyadatta 
my wealth for the maintenance of my house, and after in- 
forming Upakosa of it, I went fasting to Mount Himalaya 
to propitiate Siva with austerities. 

Upakosa, on her part anxious for my success, remained 
in her own house, bathing every day in the Ganges, strictly 
observing her vow. One day, when spring had come, she, 
Upakom and bein sti11 beautiful, though thin and slightly 
her Four pale, and charming to the eyes of men, like the 
Lovers' 2 ' streak of the new moon, was seen by the king's 

domestic chaplain while going to bathe in the Ganges, and 
also by the head magistrate, and by the prince's minister ; 
and immediately they all of them became a target for the 
arrows of love. It happened too, somehow, that she took a 
long time bathing that day, and as she was returning in the 
evening the prince's minister laid violent hands on her, but 
she with great presence of mind said to him : " Dear sir, 
I desire this as much as you, but I am of respectable family, 
and my husband is away from home. How can I act thus ? 

1 See Dr Burnell's Aindra Grammar for the bearing of this passage on the 
history of Sanskrit literature. 

2 Tawney writes a short note ot eleven lines on this story, but in order 
to appreciate the importance and wide distribution of the tale it will be 
necessary to rewrite and greatly enlarge the note in view of more recent 
research. See note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


Someone might perhaps see us, and then misfortune would 
befall you as well as me. Therefore you must come without 
fail to my house in the first watch of the night of the spring 
festival when the citizens are all excited." 1 When she had 
said this, and pledged herself, he let her go, but, as chance 
would have it, she had not gone many steps farther before 
she was stopped by the king's domestic priest. She made 
a similar assignation with him also for the second watch of 
the same night; and so he too was, though with difficulty, 
induced to let her go ; but after she had gone a little farther, 
up comes a third person, the head magistrate, and detains 
the trembling lady. Then she made a similar assignation 
with him too for the third watch of the same night, and 
having by great good fortune got him to release her, she went 
home all trembling, and of her own accord told her hand- 
maids the arrangements she had made, reflecting : " Death 
is better for a woman of good family, when her husband is 
away, than to meet the eyes of people who lust after beauty." 
Full of these thoughts, and regretting me, the virtuous lady 
spent that night in fasting, lamenting her own beauty. 
Early the next morning she sent a maid-servant to the 
merchant Hiranyagupta to ask for some money in order that 
she might honour the Brahmans ; then that merchant also 
came and said to her in private : " Show me love, and then 
I will give you what your husband deposited." When she 
heard that, she reflected that she had no witness to prove 
the deposit of her husband's wealth, and perceived that the 
merchant was a villain, and so, tortured with sorrow and 
grief, she made a fourth and last assignation with him for 
the last watch of the same night ; so he went away. In the 
meanwhile she had prepared by her handmaids in a large vat 
lamp-black mixed with oil and scented with musk and other 
perfumes, and she made ready four pieces of rag anointed 
with it, and she caused to be made a large trunk with a 
fastening outside. So on that day of the spring festival 
the prince's minister came in the first watch of the night 
in gorgeous array. When he had entered without being 
observed, Upakosa said to him : "I will not receive you 

1 And will not observe you. 


until you have bathed, so go in and bathe." The simpleton 
agreed to that, and was taken by the handmaids into a secret 
dark inner apartment. There they took off his under- 
garments and his jewels, and gave him by way of an under- 
garment a single piece of rag, and they smeared the rascal 
from head to foot with a thick coating of that lamp-black 
and oil, pretending it was an unguent, without his detecting 
it. While they continued rubbing it into every limb the 
second watch of the night came and the priest arrived. 
The handmaids thereupon said to the minister : " Here is 
the king's priest come, a great friend of Vararuchi's, so 
creep into this box," and they bundled him into the trunk 
just as he was, all naked, with the utmost precipitation ; 
and then they fastened it outside with a bolt. The priest too 
was brought inside into the dark room on the pretence of a 
bath, and was in the same way stripped of his garments and 
ornaments, and made a fool of by the handmaids by being 
rubbed with lamp-black and oil, with nothing but the piece 
of rag on him, until in the third watch the chief magistrate 
arrived. The handmaids immediately terrified the priest 
with the news of his arrival, and pushed him into the trunk 
like his predecessor. After they had bolted him in, they 
brought in the magistrate on the pretext of giving him a 
bath, and so he, like his fellows, with a piece of rag for his 
only garment, was bamboozled by being continually anointed 
with lamp-black, until in the last watch of the night the 
merchant arrived. The handmaids made use of his arrival 
to alarm the magistrate, and bundled him also into the trunk 
and fastened it on the outside. So those three being shut up 
inside the box, as if they were bent on accustoming them- 
selves to live in the hell of blind darkness, did not dare to 
speak on account of fear, though they touched one another. 
Then Upakosa brought a lamp into the room, and making 
the merchant enter it, said to him : " Give me that money 
which my husband deposited with you." When he heard 
that, the rascal said, observing that the room was empty : 
" 1 told you that I would give you the money your husband 
deposited with me." Upakosa, calling the attention of the 
people in the trunk, said : " Hear, O ye gods, this speech 


of Hiranyagupta." When she had said this she blew out 
the light, and the merchant, like the others, on the pretext 
of a bath, was anointed by the handmaids for a long time 
with lamp-black. Then they told him to go, for the dark- 
ness was over, and at the close of the night they took him by 
the neck and pushed him out of the door sorely against his 
will. Then he made the best of his way home, with only 
the piece of rag to cover his nakedness, and smeared with 
the black dye, with the dogs biting him at every step, 
thoroughly ashamed of himself, and at last reached his 
own house; and when he got there he did not dare to look 
his slaves in the face while they were washing off that black 
dye. The path of vice is indeed a painful one. In the 
early morning Upakosa, accompanied by her handmaids, 
went, without informing her parents, to the palace of King 
Nanda, and there she herself stated to the king that the 
merchant Hiranyagupta was endeavouring to deprive her 
of money deposited with him by her husband. The king, 
in order to inquire into the matter, immediately had the 
merchant summoned, who said : "I have nothing in my 
keeping belonging to this lady." Upakosa then said : "I 
have witnesses, my lord ; before he went, my husband put 
the household gods into a box, and this merchant with his 
own lips admitted the deposit in their presence. Let the 
box be brought here and ask the gods yourself." Having 
heard this, the king in astonishment ordered the box to be 

Thereupon in a moment that trunk was carried in by 
many men. Then Upakosa said : " Relate truly, O gods, 
what that merchant said, and then go to your own houses ; 
if you do not, I will burn you or open the box in court." 
Hearing that, the men in the box, beside themselves with 
fear, said : " It is true, the merchant admitted the deposit 
in our presence." Then the merchant, being utterly con- 
founded, confessed all his guilt ; but the king, being unable 
to restrain his curiosity, after asking permission of Upakosa, 
opened the chest there in court by breaking the fastening, 
and those three men were dragged out, looking like three 
lumps of solid darkness, and were with difficulty recognised 


by the king and his ministers. The whole assembly then 
burst out laughing, and the king in his curiosity asked 
Upakosa what was the meaning of all this ; so the 
virtuous lady told the whole story. All present in court 
expressed their approbation of Upakosa's conduct, observ- 
ing : " The virtuous behaviour of women of good family 
who are protected by their own excellent disposition l only, 
is incredible." 

Then all those coveters of their neighbour's wife were 
deprived of all their living, and banished from the country. 
Who prospers by immorality ? Upakosa was dismissed by 
the king, who showed his great regard for her by a present 
of much wealth, and said to her : " Henceforth thou art my 
sister " ; and so she returned home. Varsha and Upavarsha, 
when they heard it, congratulated that chaste lady, and 
there was a smile of admiration on the face of every single 
person in that city. 

In the meanwhile, by performing a very severe penance 
on the snowy mountain, I propitiated the god, the 
husband of Parvatl, the great giver of all good things ; 
he revealed to me that same treatise of Panini ; and in 
accordance with his wish I completed it : then I returned 
home without feeling the fatigue of the journey, full of 
the nectar of the favour of that god who wears on his 
crest a digit of the moon ; then I worshipped the feet of 
my mother and of my spiritual teachers, and heard from 
them the wonderful achievement of Upakosa; thereupon 
joy and astonishment swelled to the upmost height in my 
breast, together with natural affection and great respect for 
my wife. 

Now Varsha expressed a desire to hear from my lips the 
new grammar, and thereupon the god Karttikeya himself 
revealed it to him. And it came to pass that Vyadi and 
The New Indradatta asked their preceptor Varsha what 
Grammar f ee they should give him. He replied : " Give 
me ten millions of gold pieces." So they, consenting to the 
preceptor's demand, said to me : " Come with us, friend, to 
ask the King Nanda to give us the sum required for our 

1 Instead of the walls of a seraglio. 


teacher's fee ; we cannot obtain so much gold from any 
other quarter : for he possesses nine hundred and ninety 
millions, and so long ago he declared your wife Upakosa 
his sister in the faith, therefore you are his brother-in-law ; 
we shall obtain something for the sake of your virtues." 
Having formed this resolution, we three fellow-students 1 
went to the camp of King Nanda in Ayodhya, and the very 
moment we arrived the king died ; accordingly an outburst 
of lamentation arose in the kingdom, and we were reduced 
to despair. Immediately Indradatta, who was an adept 
in magic, said : "I will enter the body of this dead king 2 ; 

1 Dr Brockhaus translates : " alle drei mit unsern Schiilern." 

2 This forms the leading event of the story of Fadlallah in the Persian 
tales. The dervish there avows his having acquired the faculty of animating 
a dead body from an aged Brahman in the Indies (Wilson). 

The same story as that in our text occurs in Merutunga's Prabandha- 
cintamani. See Tawney's translation, Bib. Ind., 1899, p. 170. On p. 10 of 
the same work the king enters the body of one of his own elephants, besides 
that of various other animals. 

It has been reported from Buddhist sources that the same thing actually 
happened at the death of Chandragupta, the Maurya monarch. His dead 
body was occupied by a Yaksha named Devagarbha. (See Benfey, Das 
PaJicatantra, vol. i, p. 123.) 

The idea of the soul leaving the body and going on its travels originates 
in the ancient Egyptian Ka, or "double." In the "Adventure of Satni- 
Khamois with the Mummies" (Maspero's Stories of Ancient Egypt, 1915, 
pp. 119, 120) we read: "And Nenoferkephtah was not alone in the tomb, 
but his wife Ahuri, and Maihet his son were with him j for though their 
bodies reposed at Coptos, their double was with him by virtue of the book 
of Thoth." This story dates from Ptolemaic times. 

The belief in a "double" is world-wide, as will be seen from A. E. 
Crawley's article, " Doubles," in vol. iv, p. 853 et seq., of Hastings' Ency. Bel. 
Eth. Among the Hindus there is a wide belief that when a man is asleep 
his soul leaves him and goes travelling, or whatever else it has a mind to do. 
When the body is thus left empty there is always the possibility of it being 
tenanted by some passing stranger hostile or friendly. Hindus are very 
cautious about waking up a sleeping friend lest his soul be absent. Crooke 
says {Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. i, 1896, p. 232) that in Bombay it is 
considered most reprehensible to play jokes on a sleeping person, such as 
painting the face in fantastic colours, or giving moustaches to a sleeping 
woman. The absent soul on returning would never be able to recognise its 
body, and depart altogether, leaving the body a corpse. Cf Frazer, Taboo and 
Perils of the Soul, pp. 37 and 49. 

The ancient idea of the wandering soul has given rise to a motif in Eastern 


let Vararuchi prefer the petition to me, and I will give him 
the gold, and let Vyadi guard my body until I return." 
Saying this, Indradatta entered into the body of King Nanda, 
and when the king came to life again there was great re- 
joicing in the kingdom. While Vyadi remained in an empty 
temple to guard the body of Indradatta, I went to the 
king's palace. I entered, and, after making the usual saluta- 
tion, I asked the supposed Nanda for ten million gold pieces 
as my instructor's fee. Then he ordered a man named 

fiction called by various names, such as dehantara-avesa, anya-deha-pravesako yogah, 
etc., which we may translate as "entering another's body." It is this motif 
which has given the rawi an excellent opportunity of introducing all kinds of 
situations and exciting incidents into his tales. Our story of King Nanda 
and Indradatta is a good example of the use to which the motif can be put. 

As the " entering another's body " motif occurs again in Chapter XLV of 
this work, I shall have more to say in a further note, especially with regard 
to a paper by Professor Bloomfield, entitled " On the Art of Entering Another's 
Body," Proc. Amer. Philoso. Soc., lvi, 1. I shall, however, conclude this note 
by stressing the fact that there are two distinct motifs in connection with 
the "soul." One is connected with the possession of the magical power 
(yoga) of leaving one's own body and entering that of a dead person or 
animal, which can be looked upon as a more developed form of the idea 
of the " wandering soul." 

The other motif is recognised by the fact that a person regularly keeps 
his "heart," "soul," or "life" in an extraneous object. This is the "external 
soul" or "life-index " motif 

The two motifs are perfectly clear and distinct, but, as both W. Crooke 
and E. Sidney Hartland have muddled them up (see below), some elucidation 
seems necessary. An excellent example of the motif with which we are here 
concerned that of "entering another's body" forms the ladies' thirtieth 
story in Gibb's History of the Forty Vezirs, p. 313. The story is still current 
in Kashmir and was told with only slight differences to Sir Aurel Stein in 
1896 by a professional story-teller named Hatim Tilawon u , of Panzil in the 
Sind Valley. It appears as " The Tale of a Parrot " in Stein and Grierson's 
Hatim s Tales, 1923, pp. 5-11. On pp. xxxi and xxxii of the same work both 
Crooke and Hartland comment on the story. The latter quotes Gibb's tale 
and wrongly says it is an example of the " separable soul " cycle. He also 
makes a mistake in his short resume of the story itself, as the king is not 
" forced to enter and reanimate a dead parrot," he does it entirely of his 
own free will, to show his vezlr how clever he is. The forcing comes in when 
he finds later he is unable to re-enter his own body as it is already occupied 
so he is forced to await his opportunity while still in the body of the parrot. 
On p. xxxii Crooke says : " The tale under consideration is what has been 
called ' The Life- Index ' of the king." This is equally wrong. It is clearly no 


Sakatala, 1 the minister of the real Nanda, to give me ten 
million of gold pieces. That minister, when he saw that the 
dead king had come to life, and that the petitioner immedi- 
ately got what he asked, guessed the real state of the case. 
What is there that the wise cannot understand ? That 
minister said : "It shall be given, your Highness," and 
reflected with himself : " Nanda's son is but a child, and our 
realm is menaced by many enemies, so I will do my best for 
the present to keep his body on the throne even in its present 
state." Having resolved on this, he immediately took steps 
to have all dead bodies burned, employing spies to discover 
them, and among them was found the body of Indradatta, 
which was burned after Vyadi had been hustled out of the 
temple. In the meanwhile the king was pressing for the 
payment of the money, but Sakatala, who was still in doubt, 
said to him : " All the servants have got their heads turned 
by the public rejoicing, let the Brahman wait a moment 
until I can give it." Then Vyadi came and complained aloud 
in the presence of the supposed Nanda : " Help, help ; a 
Brahman engaged in magic, whose life had not yet come 
to an end in a natural way, has been burnt by force on 
the pretext that his body was untenanted, and this in the 
very moment of your good fortune." 2 On hearing this the 

life-index at all, and it is hard to conceive how Crooke could consider it such. 
It is a very obvious example of the motif of "entering another's body." 

In a later note I shall discuss the " life-index " or " external soul " motif 
at some length, so that the difference between these two "soul" or "life" 
motifs will be even still clearer. n.m.p. 

1 So also in the Parisishtaparvan (ed. Jacobi), but in the Prabandha- 
cintamani (Tawney, p. 193) it appears as Sakadala, and in two MSS. as 
Sakatali. n.m.p. 

2 Compare the story in the Panchatantra, Benfey's translation, p. 124, 
of the king who lost his soul but eventually recovered it. Benfey in vol. i, 
p. 128, refers to some European parellels. Liebrecht in his Zur Folkskunde, 
p. 206, mentions a story found in Apollonius (Historia MiralriUwn) which 
forms a striking parellel to this. According to Apollonius, the soul of 
Hermotimos of Klazomenae left his body frequently, resided in different 
places, and uttered all kinds of predictions, returning to his body which 
remained in his house. At last some spiteful persons burned his body in 
the absence of his soul. There is a slight resemblance to this story in 
Sagas from the Far East, p. 222. By this it may be connected with a cycle 


supposed Nanda was in an indescribable state of distraction 
from grief; but as soon as Indradatta was imprisoned in 
the body of Nanda, beyond the possibility of escape, by the 
burning of his body, the discreet Sakatala went out and gave 
me that ten millions. 

Then the supposed Nanda, 1 full of grief, said in secret 
to Vyadi : " Though a Brahman by birth, I have become a 
Sudra. What is the use of my royal fortune to me though 
it be firmly established ? " When he heard that, Vyadi com- 
forted him, 2 and gave him seasonable advice : " You have 
been discovered by Sakatala, so you must henceforth be 
on your guard against him, for he is a great minister, and 
in a short time he will, when it suits his purpose, destroy 
you, and will make Chandragupta, the son of the previous 
Nanda, king. Therefore immediately appoint Vararuchi your 
minister, in order that your rule may be firmly established 
by the help of his intellect, which is of god- like acuteness." 
When he had said this, Vyadi departed to give that fee to 
his preceptor, and immediately Yogananda sent for me and 
made me his minister. Then I said to the king : " Though 
your estate as a Brahman has been taken from you, I do not 
consider your throne secure as long as Sakatala remains 
in office, therefore destroy him by some stratagem." When 
I had given him this advice, Yogananda threw Sakatala 
into a dark dungeon, 3 and his hundred sons with him, pro- 
claiming as his crime that he had burnt a Brahman alive. 
One porringer of barley-meal and one of water was placed 
inside the dungeon every day for Sakatala and his sons, and 

of European tales about princes with ferine skin, etc. Apparently a treatise 
has been written on this story by Herr Varnhagen. It is mentioned in The 
Saturday Review of 22nd July 1882 as "Ein indisches Marchen auf seiner 

Wanderung durch die asiatischen und europaischen Litteraturen." See 

also Tawney's Kathakoca, Royal Asiatic Society, 1895, p. 38. For the burning 
of temporarily abandoned bodies see Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. 253, and vol. ii, 
p. 147. N.M.P. 

1 Or Yogananda. So called as being Nanda by yoga or magic. The 

name Indradatta is now dropped and hereafter he is referred to only as 
Yogananda. n.m . p. 

2 I read ahasya. 

3 Compare this story with that of Ugolino in Dante's Inferno. 


thereupon he said to them : " My sons, even one man alone 
would with difficulty subsist on this barley-meal, much less 
can a number of people do so. Therefore let that one of us 
who is able to take vengeance on Yogananda consume every 
day the barley-meal and the water." His sons answered him : 
" You alone are able to punish him, therefore do you con- 
sume them." For vengeance is dearer to the resolute than 
life itself. So Sakatala alone subsisted on that meal and 
water every day. Alas ! those whose souls are set on victory 
are cruel. Sakatala, in the dark dungeon, beholding the death 
agonies of his starving sons, thought to himself : "A man 
who desires his own welfare should not act in an arbitrary 
manner towards the powerful without fathoming their 
character and acquiring their confidence." Accordingly his 
hundred sons perished before his eyes, and he alone remained 
alive, surrounded by their skeletons. Then Yogananda took 
firm root in his kingdom. And Vyadi approached him after 
giving the present to his teacher, and after coming near to 
him said : " May thy rule, my friend, last long ! I take my 
leave of thee. I go to perform austerities somewhere." Hear- 
ing that, Yogananda, with his voice choked with tears, said 
to him: "Stop thou and enjoy pleasure in my kingdom; 
do not go and desert me." Vyadi answered : " King ! life 
comes to an end in a moment. What wise man, I pray you, 
drowns himself in these hollow and fleeting enjoyments ? 
Prosperity, a desert mirage, does not turn the head of the 
wise man." Saying this he went away that moment, resolved 
to mortify his flesh with austerities. Then that Yogananda 
went to his metropolis, Pataliputra, for the purpose of enjoy- 
ment, accompanied by me, and surrounded with his whole 
army. So I, having attained prosperity, lived for a long 
time in that state, waited upon by Upakosa, and bearing 
the burden of the office of prime minister to that king, ac- 
companied by my mother and my preceptors. There the 
Ganges, propitiated by my austerities, gave me every day 
much wealth, and Sarasvati, present in bodily form, told 
me continually what measures to adopt. 



The "entrapped suitors" motif, as I would call it, is to be found through- 
out both Asia and Europe. I consider it forms, without doubt, an example 
of a migratory tale. The original form of the story, and origin of all 
the others, is that in the Ocean of Story. The incidents in it are of such 
a nature that the theory of numerous independent origins is unfeasible. 
A close inspection of the various stories I shall quote shows quite clearly 
the effects of local environment, and two distinct variants of story can be 
perceived : 

1. The woman entraps three, or more, suitors and holds them up to 
ridicule before her husband, or the entire city. 

2. The incident of a test article of chastity is added ; accordingly the 
gallants try to cause the wife to be unfaithful, so that her action will have its 
effect on the magic article. 

In both variants the gallants are hidden in trunks or sacks, and come out 
painted, naked, feathered, and so forth. 

We will start our inquiry in India and move slowly westwards. 

General Cunningham states on p. 53 of his The Stupa of Bharhut, London, 
1879, that in one of the sculptures he thinks he can clearly detect the 
denouement of our story. If this is so, it proves that (1) the story is of 
Buddhist origin ; (2) it dates from the third century b.c. Barhut (or Bharahut) 
is about one hundred and twenty miles south-west of Allahabad, and if the 
story, or at any rate some part of it, was well enough known to be represented 
in a bas-relief of an edifice raised over the ashes of some distinguished person, 
it seems quite possible that it would have found its way into the Brihat-Kathd, 
to be later utilised by Somadeva. Nevertheless the first literary appearance 
of the M entrapped suitors " story is undoubtedly in the Ocean of Story. In 
the story of Devasmita in Chapter XIII of this volume we find a distinct 
resemblance to the tale of Upakosa, with the addition of the two red lotuses, 
of which the absent husband takes one and the wife keeps the other. Both 
remain unfaded while chastity lasts. Devasmita has the gallants drugged, 
after which they are stripped, branded and thrown into a ditch of filth. Both 
these tales of Somadeva are strictly moral the heroine is a virtuous married 
woman, she is faithful to her absent husband and shames the would-be 
adulterers. We shall see shortly how, on reaching other lands, incidents are 
altered and new ones of a distinctly coarse nature added. 

In the Indian Antiquary, vol. ix, pp. 2, 3, 1873, G. A. Damant relates, in 
a story called "The Touchstone," the tricks played by a woman on four 
admirers. The first arrival is smeared over with molasses, drenched with 
water, covered with cotton-wool and fastened in a window. The woman 
pretends to the other men that he is a Rakshasa, which is sufficient for them 
to flee and leave her in peace. It is described in detail by Clouston in his 
Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. ii, pp. 303-305. In the chapter in which this 
occurs, headed " The Lady and her Suitors," will be found many extracts 


or detailed descriptions of several of the stories mentioned in this note. In 
Miss Stokes' Indian Fairy Tales (No. 28) the heroine is accosted by four 
men when selling her thread in the market. She gets them all in separate 
chests, which she sells to the men's sons. The shame of the fathers when 
their sons open the chests can be imagined ! (See also the note at the end 
of Miss Stokes' book.) 

There is a slight connection in one of the exploits of the Indian jester 
Temal Ramakistnan (quoted by Clouston, op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 305-307). He 
makes the raja and priest, from whom he wishes to obtain an oath of protec- 
tion, imagine they are going to an assignation with the fair wife of a traveller ; 
he then locks them up till he gets what he wants. 

Proceeding westward from India we find a similar story to that under dis- 
cussion in Thorburn's Bannu, or Our Afghan Frontier (see Melusine, p. 178). 

In Persia the story soon became popular. It occurs in the Tuti-Nmna of 
Nakhshabi ; in the Thousand and One Days, by the Dervish Makhlis of Ispahan, 
where the wife is still virtuous and successfully shames her would-be lovers. It 
also appears in the Bahar-i-Danish, or Spring of Knowledge, by 'Inayatu-'llah. 
In this story the husband is in the hands of the police. His wife, Gohera by 
name, entraps the Kutwal (police magistrate) in a big jar and a kazi in a chest, 
and finally gets her husband released. There is another Persian story worth 
mentioning Gul-i-Bakawall, or The Rose of Bakawall, written by Shaykh 'Izzat 
Ullah in 1712. Four brothers get enticed into the house of a courtesan, 
lose everything by gambling, become her slaves and, after being branded on 
their backs as a mark of their shame, are released by the hero, their youngest 
brother. (For further details see Clouston's A Group of Eastern Romances and 
Stories, 1889, p. 240 et seq.) 

We now pass on to Arabia, where we find the story fully developed, with 
a few coarse additions inserted by the rawi. It appears twice in the Nights 
(Burton, vol. vi, p. 172 et seq., and Supp., vol. v, p. 253 et seq.). The first of 
these is the tale of "The Lady and her Five Suitors." As in the Persian 
Bahar-i-Danish, so here the woman's action is caused by the desire to free 
her husband from prison. She dresses the men in comical clothes and hides 
each of them in a kind of tall-boy which she has had specially made for the 
purpose. The five men are kept locked up in it for three days, and it is here 
that the rawi takes care not to lose the chance of getting a laugh out of his 
audience by adding a few unpleasant details. The second story is "The 
Goodwife of Cairo and her Four Gallants." The woman makes them strip 
and put on a gaberdine and bonnet. When the husband returns they are 
let out of the chest on the condition that they will first dance and each tell 
a story, which they do. 

In The Seven Vazirs an almost exact story to the first one mentioned in 
the Nights appears as the first tale of the sixth vazlr. It is entitled "Story 
of the Merchant's Wife and her Suitors." (See p. 181 et seq. of Clouston's 
Book of Sindibad.) 

In the Turkish History of the Forty Vezirs, the twenty-first vezir's story 
bears a slight resemblance to the above, but there is only one man and he is 
the willing lover of the woman. (See Gibb's translation, p. 227 et seq.) In 


Europe we find the story very widely spread. One of the most complete 
and oldest versions is fabliau entitled " De la dame qui attrapa un pretre, 
un prevot, et un forestier," or " Constant du Hamel." See Barbazan-Meon's 
Fabliaux et Contes des Poetes Frangois des XI e -XV e siecles, 4 vols., Paris, 1808, 
iii, p. 296, and Montaiglon's Recueil general et complet des Fabliaux des 
XIII" et XI V e siecles, 6 vols., Paris, 1877, iv, p. 166. In this version the 
gallants strip, bathe, get into a tub of feathers and are finally chased by 
dogs through the streets. 

In Italy it forms, with variations, the eighth novel of the eighth day of 
The Decameron ; the forty -third of the third deca of Bandello ; the eighth novel 
of the ninth day of Sansovino ; the fifth tale of the second night of Straparola; 
the eighth novel of Forteguerri, and the ninth diversion of the third day of the 
Pentamerone. There is also a faint echo in Gonzenbach's Sicilianische Mcirchen, 
No. 55, pp. 359-362. Compare also No. 72 (6) in the Novella? Morlini 
(Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. 497). Fuller details of the Italian variants can be 
found in A. C. Lee's The Decameron, its Sources and Analogues, 1909, pp. 261-266. 
No. 69 of the Continental Gesta Romanorum begins with the story of a shirt 
of chastity. Three soldiers attempt to make it dirty, thereby showing the 
man's wife has been untrue with the usual result. In the English Gesta 
(Herrtage 25) three knights are killed. The best English version, how- 
ever, is found in the metrical tale of "The Wright's Chaste Wife," Adam 
of Cobsam, circa 1462. (See Furnivall, English Text Society, 1865.) In this 
story a garland is the article of chastity, the gallants fall through a trap-door 
and are made to spin flax until the husband returns. Massinger's play of 
1630, The Picture, may be taken from the above. (See Clouston, Popular Tales, 
vol. ii, p. 292.) 

In the story of the "Mastermaid" in Dasent, Tales from the Norse 
(2nd edition, p. 81 et seq.), a woman with magical knowledge consents to 
receive three constables on consecutive nights. On each man she employs 
her magic, making them do some foolish thing from which they are unable 
to get free till the dawn. 

An Icelandic variant is found in Powell and Magnusson's (2nd series) 
collection, entitled "Story of Geirlaug and Groedari." 

Finally in Portugal there is a variant in the sixty-seventh story in Coelho's 
Contos Populares Portugueses, 1879. n.m.p. 



AVING said this, Vararuchi continued his tale as 
[MI] follows: 

1. Story of Vararuchi . . . 

In course of time Yogananda became enslaved by his 
passions, and like a mad elephant he disregarded every 
restraint. Whom will not a sudden access of prosperity 
intoxicate? Then I reflected with myself: " The king has 
burst all bonds, and my own religious duties are neglected, 
being interfered with by my care for his affairs, therefore it 
is better for me to draw out that Sakatala from his dungeon 
and make him my colleague in the ministry ; even if he tries 
to oppose me, what harm can he do as long as I am in office ? " 
Having resolved on this, I asked permission of the king, and 
drew Sakatala out of the deep dungeon. Brahmans are 
always soft-hearted. Now the discreet Sakatala made up 
his mind that it would be difficult to overthrow Yogananda 
as long as I was in office, and that he had accordingly better 
imitate the cane which bends with the current, and watch 
a favourable moment for vengeance, so at my request he 
resumed the office of minister and managed the king's affairs. 

Once on a time Yogananda went outside the city, and 
beheld in the middle of the Ganges a hand, the five fingers 
of which were closely pressed together. That moment he 
summoned me and said : " What does this mean ? " But 
I displayed two of my fingers in the direction of the hand. 
Thereupon that hand disappeared, and the king, exceedingly 
astonished, again asked me what this meant, and I answered 
him : " That hand meant to say, by showing its five fingers : 
* What cannot five men united effect in this world ? ' Then 
I, king, showed it these two fingers, wishing to indicate that 
nothing is impossible when even two men are of one mind." 


When I uttered this solution of the riddle the king was 
delighted, and Sakatala was despondent, seeing that my 
intellect would be difficult to circumvent. 1 

One day Yogananda saw his queen leaning out of the 
window and asking questions of a Brahman guest that was 
looking up. That trivial circumstance threw the king into 
The Fish that a passion, and he gave orders that the Brahman 
Laughed should be put to death for jealousy interferes 
with discernment. Then as that Brahman was being led off 
to the place of execution in order that he might be put to 
death, a fish in the market laughed aloud, though it was dead. 2 

1 This language of signs occurs two or three times in the present work 
(see Chapters VII, LXXV). It is found in the Nights and other Eastern 
collections. I shall have more to say on the subject in a future note. n.m.p. 

2 Dr Liebrecht in Orient und Occident, vol. i, p. 341, compares with this 
story one in the old French romance of Merlin. There Merlin laughs 
because the wife of the Emperor Julius Caesar had twelve young men dis- 
guised as ladies-in-waiting. Benfey, in a note on Dr Liebrecht's article, 
compares with the story of Merlin one by the Countess D'Aulnoy, No. 36 
of the Pentamerone of Basile, Straparola, iv, 1, and a story in the Suka 

In the tale from Straparola (see translation by W. G. Waters, London, 
1894, vol. i, p. 177) it is a wild satyr, named Chiappino, who laughs twice. 
First because the hero is called Constanzo, when really she is a woman 
disguised and should be called Constanza. The second laugh was for 
exactly the same reason as in our story. The reference to the Pentamerone 
story of "The Three Crowns" (Burton, vol. ii, p. 404 et seq.) by Benfey is 
quite inappropriate, as it merely deals with a case of a woman's love scorned 
by a man who, when accused of attempted seduction, proves to be a woman. 
The version in Suka Saptati is very like our text, and the laugh is even 
more mysterious and ironical than that in the Ocean of Story, because it 
shows the double hypocrisy of the queen, and the fish is not only dead, 
but cooked : " King Vikramaditya of Ujjayini dines with his beloved wife 
Kamalila. He offers her roast fish, and she declines : ' My lord, I am unable 
to look at these men, much less to take hold of them.' When the fish 
heard that they, fried as they were, broke into peals of laughter, so 
that the people of the city heard it." In this case the final exposure of 
the queen is brought about in a very intricate way by the wise maiden 
Balapandita. The same story appears, even more elaborately, in Knowles' 
Folk-Tales of Kashmir, 1888, p. 484 et seq. It appears in Jacobi's Indian 
Fairy Tales, 1 892, p. 1 86 et seq. ; and also in Bompas' Folk-Lore of the 
Santal Parganas, 1909, p. 70 et seq. In the former the "guessing riddles" 
motif is introduced into the story, while in the latter there are two laughing 
fish. Professor Bloomfield (Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc, 191 6, vol. xxxvi, pp. 54-89), 


The king hearing it immediately prohibited for the present 
the execution of that Brahman, and asked me the reason 
why the fish laughed. I replied that I would tell him after 
I had thought over the matter ; and after I had gone out 
Sarasvati came to me secretly on my thinking of her and 
gave me this advice : " Take up a position on the top of this 
palm-tree at night so as not to be observed, and thou shalt 
without doubt hear the reason why the fish laughed." Hear- 
ing this I went at night to that very place, and ensconced 

in his paper, "Psychic Motifs in Hindu Fiction, and the Laugh and Cry 
Motif," has classified the various kinds of laughs occurring in Hindu fiction. 
There is the cry and laugh together, and each separately. Of laughter by 
itself, as in our text, there is the laugh of joy, of irony, malice, trickery 
and triumph. Then there is the sardonic laugh, the enigmatic, fateful 
laugh (sometimes with ironic humour in it), and finally there is the laugh 
of mystery, as in the case of the fish that laughed. Examples from Hindu 
fiction of all these varieties will be found in Bloomfield's article. In 
England we have the expression, "enough to make a cat laugh/' but 
imagine anything being so funny or curious as to raise a laugh from the 
coldest-blooded of animals a fish, and that a dead one ! 

In one case, however, in Prabandhacintamani (see Tawney's fine trans- 
lation, Bib. Indica, 1899, p. 15) the fish is not dead, but has just been 
thrown up by the waves. When the king demands an explanation it is 
given as follows : " In a former life, as a poor wood-carrier, you used to 
come to eat your humble meat at the bank of this very river. One time 
you saw walking in front of you a Jaina hermit who had come to break a 
month's fast. So you called him and gave him the ball of meat that you 
had made. From the surpassing merit of that act you have become King 
(^alivahana. The hermit has become a god. That god entered into the 
fish and laughed for joy at beholding the soul of the wood-carrier, which 
is none other than yourself, born in the rank of a king." (See Tawney's 
note on p. 208 of his translation, where he refers to a similar tale in the 
Prabandhakosa. ) 

Smuggling men into the harem is a favourite motif of Eastern tales. 
One of the best-known cases occurs at the beginning of the Nights (Burton, 
vol. i, pp. 6 and 9) in "The Story of King Shahryar and his Brother," 
where the brother sees the queen enter a garden with twenty slave-girls : 
"... they advanced a little way into the garden till they came to a jetting 
fountain amiddlemost a great basin of water; then they stripped off their 
clothes and behold, ten of them were women, concubines of the king, and 
the other ten were white slaves." (See also "The Reeve's Tale" on p. 282 of 
the same volume.) 

In ancient India the smuggling of men into harems seems to have 
been brought to a fine art, if we may judge from the sixth chapter of 


myself on the top of the palm-tree, and saw a terrible female 
Rakshasa x coming past with her children ; when they asked 
her for food, she said : " Wait, and I will give you to-morrow 
morning the flesh of a Brahman; he was not killed to-day." 2 
They said to their mother : " Why was he not killed to- 
day ? " Then she replied : " He was not executed because 
a fish in the town, though dead, laughed when it saw him." 
The sons said : " Why did the fish laugh ? " She continued : 
" The fish, of course, said to himself : ' All the king's wives 
are dissolute, for in every part of this harem there are men 
dressed up as women, and nevertheless while these escape an 
innocent Brahman is to be put todeath,' and this tickled 

Part V of Vatsyayana's Kama Sutra, Instructions are given as to the best 
way for entrance and exit, and by what means the Palace guards can be 
bribed or avoided. It is suggested that besides getting into the harem 
in women's clothes the lover can sometimes gain entrance disguised as a 
watchman, or may be taken in or out rolled in a bed or curtain cloth. 
After showing the utter depravity of both the women, their lovers and 
guards, Vatsyayana ends the chapter by saying the information given is 
merely for the good of men to enable them to protect their own wives 
against any such deceits ! n.m.p. 

1 For details of these demons see Appendix I at the end of this 
volume. n.m.p. 

2 Cf the following passage in a Danish story called " Svend's Exploits," in 
Thorpe's Yule-tide Stories, p. 341. Just as he was going to sleep, twelve crows 
came flying and perched in the elder-trees over Svend's head. They began 
to converse together, and the one told the other what had happened to him 
that day. When they were about to fly away, one crow said : " I am so 
hungry ; where shall I get something to eat ? " " We shall have food enough 
to-morrow when father has killed Svend," answered the crow's brother. 
"Dost thou think then that such a miserable fellow dares fight with our 
father?" said another. "Yes, it is probable enough that he will, but it will 
not profit him much, as our father cannot be overcome but with the Man of 
the Mount's sword, and that hangs in the mound, within seven locked doors, 
before each of which are two fierce dogs that never sleep." Svend thus 
learns that he should only be sacrificing his strength and life in attempting 
a combat with the dragon before he had made himself master of the Man of 
the Mount's sword. 

So Sigfrid hears two birds talking above his head in Hagen's Helden-Sagen, 

vol. i, p. 345. See also the story of Lalitanga, in which the cunning of 

Vararuchi is referred to, in Tawney, Kathakoqa, p. 164, and Bloomfield, Life 
and Stories of Pargvanatha, pp. 26, 31, 186 and 187. I shall have more to say 
on this motif of "overhearing" in a note in Vol. Ill, Chapter XXIX. n.m.p. 


the fish so that he laughed. For demons assume these dis- 
guises, insinuating themselves into everything, and laughing 
at the exceeding want of discernment of kings." After I had 
heard that speech of the female Rakshasa I went away from 
thence, and in the morning I informed the king why the fish 
laughed. The king, after detecting in the harem those men 
clothed as women, looked upon me with great respect, and 
released that Brahman from the sentence of death. 

I was disgusted by seeing this and other lawless proceed- 
ings on the part of the king, and while I was in this frame 
of mind there came to the Court a new painter. He painted 
The Mole on on a sheet of canvas the principal queen and 
the Queens Yogananda, and that picture of his looked as if 
Bod y it were alive ; it only lacked speech and motion. 

And the king, being delighted, loaded that painter with wealth, 
and had the painting set up on a wall in his private apart- 
ments. Now one day when I entered into the king's private 
apartments it occurred to me that the painting of the queen 
did not represent all her auspicious marks ; from the arrange- 
ment of the other marks I conjectured by means of my 
acuteness that there ought to be a spot where the girdle 
comes, and I painted one there. Then I departed after thus 
giving the queen all her lucky marks. Then Yogananda 
entered and saw that spot, and asked his chamberlains who 
had painted it. And they indicated me as the person who 
had painted it. Yogananda thus reflected while burning 
with anger : " No one except myself knows of that spot, 
which is in a part of the queen's body usually concealed, then 
how can this Vararuchi have come thus to know it ? x No 

1 Compare the "mole cinque-spotted" in Cymbeline. 

The attraction of the mole has always been fully recognised in the East. 
Indian, Persian and Arabic fiction abound in beautiful and often exaggerated 
similes. The mole is likened to a crumb of ambergris, a spot of nut-brown 
musk, or to an ant creeping on the cheek towards the honey of the mouth. It is 
well known that Hafiz offered (had they been his) to give away both Samarkand 
and Bokhara for a single mole on his beloved's face. 

So great is the admiration for moles that professional tattooists do a large 

trade in artificially producing them. In India it is usually done by low-caste 

wandering gypsies or members of the Nai, or barber caste. They insert the 

point of a needle under the epidermis and introduce the juice of a plant which 



doubt he has secretly corrupted my harem, and this is how 
he came to see there those men disguised as women." Foolish 
men often find such coincidences. 1 Then of his own motion 
he summoned Sakatala, and gave him the following order : 
" You must put Vararuchi to death for seducing the queen." 
Sakatala said : " Your Majesty's orders shall be executed," 
and went out of the palace, reflecting : "I should not have 
power to put Vararuchi to death, for he possesses god-like 
force of intellect ; and he delivered me from calamity ; 
moreover he is a Brahman ; therefore I had better hide him 
and win him over to my side." Having formed this resolu- 
tion, he came and told me of the king's causeless wrath 
which had ended in his ordering my execution, and thus 
concluded : "I will have someone else put to death in order 
that the news may get abroad, and do you remain hidden 
in my house to protect me from this passionate king." In 
accordance with this proposal of his, I remained concealed 
in his house, and he had someone else put to death at night, 
in order that the report of my death might be spread. 2 
When he had in this way displayed his statecraft, I said 
to him out of affection : " You have shown yourself an 
unrivalled minister in that you did not attempt to put me 
to death ; for I cannot be slain, since I have a Rakshasa to 
friend, and he will come, on being only thought of, and at 
my request will devour the whole world. As for this king, 
he is a friend of mine, being a Brahman named Indradatta, 
and he ought not to be slain." Hearing this, that minister 
said : " Show me the Rakshasa." Then I showed him that 
Rakshasa who came with a thought ; and on beholding 
him Sakatala was astonished and terrified. And when the 
Rakshasa had disappeared Sakatala again asked me : " How 
did the Rakshasa become your friend ? " Then I said : 

soon dries into an indelible dark spot. The usual places chosen are between 
the eyebrows, below the under lip, and on the cheek, breast and forearms. 
In Bengal the process is called Ulki or Godarii. n.m.p. 

1 See Sir G. Grierson's article, "Vararuchi as a Guesser of Acrostics/' 
in the Indian Antiquary, 1881, vol. x, pp. 366-370. He gives a much more 
elaborate version of this part of the story, which he heard from a Tirhutifi 
Brahman. It was known as " The Story of Sasemira." n.m.p. 

2 Compare Measure for Measure. 


"Long ago the heads of the police, as they went through 
the city night after night on inspecting duty, perished one 
by one. On hearing that, Yogananda made me head of the 
police, and as I was on my rounds at night I saw a Rakshasa 
roaming about, and he said to me : * Tell me, who is con- 
sidered the best-looking woman in this city ? ' When I 
heard that I burst out laughing, and said : ' You fool, any 
woman is good-looking to the man who admires her.' Hear- 
ing my answer, he said : 6 You are the only man that has 
beaten me.' And now that I had escaped death by solving 
his riddle, 1 he again said to me : c I am pleased with you ; 
henceforth you are my friend, and I will appear to you when 
you call me to mind.' Thus he spoke and disappeared, and 
I returned by the way that I came. Thus the Rakshasa 
has become my friend, and my ally in trouble." When I 
had said this, Sakatala made a second request to me, and 
I showed him the goddess of the Ganges in human form 
who came when I thought of her. And that goddess dis- 
appeared when she had been gratified by me with hymns 
of praise. But Sakatala became from henceforth my 
obedient ally. 

Now once on a time that minister said to me when my 
state of concealment weighed upon my spirits : " Why do 
you, although you know all things, abandon yourself to 
despondency ? Do you not know that the minds of kings 
are most undiscerning, and in a short time you will be 
cleared from all imputations ? 2 In proof of which listen to 
the following tale : 

lc. 6ivavarman 

There reigned here long ago a king named Adityavar- 
man, and he had a very wise minister, named Sivavarman. 

1 Cf. the story of (Edipus and the Mahabharata (Vanaparva, chap, cccxii), 
where Yudhishthira is questioned by a Yaksha. Benfey compares Mahabharata 
xiii (iv, 206), 5883-5918, where a Brahman seized by a Rakshasa escaped in 
the same way. The reader will find similar questioning demons described in 
Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, pp. 54-56, and 109. 

2 Reading chuddhis for the chudis of Dr Brockhaus' text. 


Now it came to pass that one of that king's queens became 
pregnant, and when he found it out, the king said to the 
guards of the harem : " It is now two years since I entered 
this place, then how has this queen become pregnant ? 
Tell me." Then they said: "No man except your minister 
Sivavarman is allowed to enter here, but he enters without 
any restriction." When he heard that, the king thought : 
" Surely he is guilty of treason against me, and yet if 
I put him to death publicly I shall incur reproach." 
Thus reflecting, that king sent that Sivavarman on some 
pretext to Bhogavarman, a neighbouring chief, 1 who was 
an ally of his, and immediately afterwards the king 
secretly sent off a messenger to the same chief, bearing 
a letter by which he was ordered to put the minister to 
death. 2 When a week had elapsed after the minister's 
departure, that queen tried to escape out of fear, and 
was taken by the guards with a man in woman's attire. 
Then Adityavarman when he heard of it was filled with 
remorse, and asked himself why he had causelessly brought 
about the death of so excellent a minister. In the mean- 
while Sivavarman reached the Court of Bhogavarman, and 
that messenger came bringing the letter; and fate would 
have it so that after Bhogavarman had read the letter he 
told to Sivavarman in secret the order he had received to 
put him to death. 

The excellent minister Sivavarman in his turn said to 
that chief : " Put me to death ; if you do not, I will slay 
myself with my own hand." When he heard that, Bhogavar- 
man was filled with wonder, and said to him : " What does 
all this mean ? Tell me, Brahman ; if you do not, you will lie 
under my curse." Then the minister said to him : " King, 
in whatever land I am slain, on that land God will not send 
rain for twelve years." When he heard that, Bhogavarman 
debated with his minister : " That wicked king desires the 

1 Samanta seems to mean a feudatory or dependent prince. 

2 Much could be written on the " letter of death " motif in fiction. I 
shall have more to say in Chapter XLII, where such a letter occurs again. 
Widely distributed throughout the East, the "letter of death" appeared in 
Europe about the twelfth century. n.m.p. 



destruction of our land, for could he not have employed 
secret assassins to kill his minister ? So we must not put this 
minister to death. Moreover, we must prevent him from 
laying violent hands on himself." Having thus deliberated 
and appointed him guards, Bhogavarman sent Sivavarman 
out of his country that moment ; so that minister by means 
of his wisdom returned alive, and his innocence was estab- 
lished from another quarter, for righteousness cannot be 
undone. In the same way your innocence will be made clear, 
Katyayana 1 ; remain for a while in my house ; this king too 
will repent of what he has done. 

1. Story of Vararuchi . . . 

When Sakatala said this to me, I spent those days 
concealed in his house. 

Then it came to pass that one day, O Kanabhuti, a son 
of that Yogananda named Hiranyagupta went out hunting, 
and when he had somehow or other been carried to a great 
Hiranyagupta distance by the speed of his horse, while he was 
and the Bear alone in the wood, the day came to an end ; and 
then he ascended a tree to pass the night. Immediately 
afterwards a bear, which had been terrified by a lion, ascended 
the same tree ; he seeing the prince frightened, said to him 
with a human voice: "Fear not, thou art my friend," and 
thus promised him immunity from harm. Then the prince, 
confiding in the bear's promise, went to sleep, while the bear 
remained awake. Then the lion below said to the bear : 
" Bear, throw me down this man and I will go away." Then 
the bear said : " Villain, I will not cause the death of a 
friend." When in course of time the bear went to sleep while 
the prince was awake, the lion said again : " Man, throw 
me down the bear." When he heard that, the prince, who 
through fear for his own safety wished to propitiate the lion, 
tried to throw down the bear, but, wonderful to say, it did 
not fall, since fate caused it to awake. And then that bear 
said to the prince : " Become insane, thou betrayer of thy 

1 Readers should not forget that when Pushpadanta descended to earth 
by Parvati's curse his name was changed to Vararuchi and Katyayana. n.m.p. 


friend," 1 laying upon him a curse destined not to end until 
a third person guessed the whole transaction. Accordingly 
the prince, when he reached his palace in the morning, went 
out of his mind, and Yogananda seeing it was immediately 
plunged in despondency, and said ; "If Vararuchi were 
alive at this moment all this matter would be known ; curse 
on my readiness to have him put to death ! ? Sakatala, 
when he heard this exclamation of the king's, thought to 
himself : " Ha ! here is an opportunity obtained for bringing 
Katyayana out of concealment, and he, being a proud man, 
will not remain here, and the king will repose confidence in 
me." After reflecting thus, he implored pardon, and said 
to the king : " O King, cease from despondency ; Vararuchi 
remains alive." Then Yogananda said : " Let him be brought 
quickly." Then I was suddenly brought by Sakatala into 
the presence of Yogananda and beheld the prince in that 
state ; and by the favour of Sarasvati I was enabled to reveal 
the whole occurrence ; and I said : 4i King, he has proved a 
traitor to his friend." Then I was praised by that prince 
who was delivered from his curse ; and the king asked me 
how I had managed to find out what had taken place. Then 
I said : " King, the minds of the wise see everything by 
inference from signs, and by acuteness of intellect. So I 
found out all this in the same way as I found out that mole." 
When I had said this, that king was afflicted with shame. 
Then, without accepting his munificence, considering myself 
to have gained all I desired by the clearing of my reputation, 
I went home ; for to the wise character is wealth. And the 
moment I arrived the servants of my house wept before me, 
and when I was distressed at it Upavarsha came to me and 
said : " Upakosa, when she heard that the king had put you 
to death, committed her body to the flames, 2 and then your 

1 Benfey considers that this story was originally Buddhistic. A very 
similar story is quoted by him from the Karmasataka (Panchatantra, i, p. 209) ; 
cf. also Chapter LXV of this work. 

2 This is the well-known suttee (an English corruption from the Sanskrit 
sati = " good woman"). It dates from about the fourth century b.c. By the 
sixth century a.d. it grew to have a full religious sanction, although it was 
not universal throughout India. In about the tenth to fifteenth centuries 
it was chiefly a Brahminic rite. The manner of sacrifice differs in various 


mother's heart broke with grief." Hearing that, senseless 
with the distraction produced by recently aroused grief, I 
suddenly fell on the ground like a tree broken by the wind ; 
and in a moment I tasted the relief of loud lamentations. 
Whom will not the fire of grief, produced by the loss of dear 
relations, scorch ? Varsha came and gave me sound advice 
in such words as these : " The only thing that is stable in 
this ever- changeful world is instability; then why are you 
distracted though you know this delusion of the Creator ? " 
By the help of these and similar exhortations I at length, 
though with difficulty, regained my equanimity ; then, with 
heart disgusted with the world, I flung aside all earthly lords 
and, choosing self-restraint for my only companion, I went 
to a grove where asceticism was practised. 

Then, as days went by, once on a time a Brahman from 
Ayodhya came to that ascetic grove while I was there. I asked 
him for tidings about Yogananda's government, and he recog- 
nising me told me in sorrowful accents the following story : 

" Hear what happened to Nanda after you had left him. 
Sakatala, after waiting for it a long time, found that he had 
now obtained an opportunity of injuring him. While thinking 
* .... ' how he might by some device get Yogananda 

Sakatala has _ . _ to J 1 , - 

kit Revenge on killed, he happened to see a Brahman named 
King Nanda Chanakya digging up the earth in his path. He 

(Yogananda) ^ ^ ^ . c Why ape yQU diggmg up t he 

earth ? ' The Brahman whom he had asked said : ' I am 
rooting up a plant of darbha grass here because it has pricked 
my foot. 1 When he heard that, the minister thought that 

districts. Under British rule suttee became illegal in 1829. I shall have more 
to say on the subject in a later volume. n.m.p. 

1 Probably his foot bled, and so he contracted defilement. Darb/ia 
grass is the most sacred of the various kinds of grasses (kusa, durva, etc.) 
held in special veneration. The origin of darbha grass is explained in 
numerous legends. It is said to have been formed from the hairs of 
Vishnu which came off while, in his tortoise incarnation, he was acting 
as a pivot for Mount Mandara at the Churning of the Ocean. Another story 
relates that while the gods were drinking the Amrita after the Churning 
a few drops fell on the grass and thus made it sacred. It enters into 
nearly all important ceremonies among the Hindus. It is used in the 
famous "sacred thread" (upanayana) ceremony, at weddings, in offering 
up prayers or invoking deities, at funerals, at a sraddha (see next note), 


Brahman who formed such stern resolves out of anger would 
be the best instrument to destroy Nanda with. After asking 
his name he said to him : ' Brahman, I assign to you the duty 
of presiding at a sraddha * on the thirteenth day of the lunar 

at sacrifices, and at numerous other ceremonies connected with initiation, 
magic, pregnancy, menses, and different forms of ordeals. 

With regard to its literary history, it is mentioned in the Rig-Veda 
(i. 191, 3) with sara and kusara grasses; in the Atharva Veda (in numerous 
places), where it is a charm against anger, baldness, etc. (See Macdonell 
and Keith, Vedic Index, vol. i, p. 340.) 

In appearance darbha grass is straight and pointed, about two feet in 
height, very rough to handle, and instantly draws blood if rubbed the 
wrong way by the hand or foot (as in our text). n.m.p. 

1 Sraddha (Sanskrit, sraddha, = faith, trust, belief) is the most important 
ceremony connected with Hindu ancestor-worship. It is a development of the 
ancient custom of eating at funerals and providing food for the dead. Manu 
{Institutes, iii, 267-271) gives a detailed list of the offerings of food and drink 
which are to be made, with regulations for the correct ritual to be observed. 
The modern sraddha is most intricate and elaborate. It has been described 
by nearly every Indian scholar since the days of Dubois and Colebrooke. The 
most recent and comprehensive account is in Mrs Sinclair Stevenson's The 
Rites of the Twice-born, 1920, pp. 158-192. See also the article, "Ancestor- 
Worship (Indian)," by W. Crooke, in Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. i, p. 453, and 
Sir Charles Eliot's Hinduism and Buddhism, 3 vols., 1921, vol. i, pp. 338, 339. 

Space will not permit any detailed account here of the various rites 
performed on the different days. I shall merely describe shortly the rite 
of feeding the spirit which extends for ten days, from the second onwards, 
as described by Crooke (op. cit.). Grains of rice (for Brahmans) or barley- 
flour (for Kshatriyas and illegitimate sons of Brahmans) are boiled in a 
copper jar, mixed with honey, milk and sesamum. The mixture is made into 
a ball (pinda), which is offered to the spirit with the invocation that it 
may obtain liberation, and reach the abodes of the blessed after crossing 
the hell called Raurava (Manu, Institutes, iv, 88). By this rite the creation 
of a new body for the disembodied soul begins. On the first day one ball 
is offered, on the second two, and so on until, during the observances of the 
ten days, fifty-five balls have been offered. Various invocations are made, 
for which see Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, v, 297. By these ten days' rites 
the spirit has been enabled to escape from the same number of different 
hells, and gradually a new body with all its members has been created. 
The order in which the new members of this new body are formed is some- 
times thus defined. On the first day the dead man gains his head ; on the 
second his ears, eyes and nose ; on the third his hands, breast and neck ; 
on the fourth his middle parts; on the fifth his legs and feet; on the 
sixth his vital organs ; on the seventh his bones, marrow, veins and arteries ; 
on the eighth his nails, hair and teeth ; on the ninth all remaining limbs 
and organs and his manly strength. n.m.p. 


fortnight, in the house of King Nanda ; you shall have one 
hundred thousand gold pieces by way of fee, and you shall 
sit at the board above all others ; in the meanwhile come to 
my house.' Saying this, Sakatala took that Brahman to his 
house, and on the day of the srdddha he showed the Brahman 
to the king, and he approved of him. Then Chanakya went 
and sat at the head of the table during the srdddha, but a 
Brahman named Subandhu desired that post of honour for 
himself. Then Sakatala went and referred the matter to 
King Nanda, who answered : ' Let Subandhu sit at the head 
of the table; no one else deserves the place.' Then Sakatala 
went and, humbly bowing through fear, communicated that 
order of the king's to Chanakya, adding : ' It is not my 
fault.' Then that Chanakya, being, as it were, inflamed all 
over with wrath, undoing the lock of hair on the crown of 
his head, made this solemn vow : * Surely this Nanda must 
be destroyed by me within seven days, and then my anger 
being appeased I will bind up my lock.' 1 When he had said 
this, Yogananda was enraged ; so Chanakya escaped un- 
observed and Sakatala gave him refuge in his house. Then, 
being supplied by Sakatala with the necessary instruments, 
that Brahman Chanakya went somewhere and performed a 
magic rite ; in consequence of this rite Yogananda caught 
a burning fever, and died when the seventh day arrived ; 
and Sakatala, having slain Nanda's son Hiranyagupta, be- 
stowed the royal dignity upon Chandragupta, a son of the 
previous Nanda. And after he had requested Chanakya, 
equal in ability to Brihaspati, 2 to be Chandragupta's prime 
minister and established him in the office, that minister, con- 
sidering that all his objects had been accomplished, as he had 
wreaked his vengeance on Yogananda, despondent through 
sorrow for the death of his sons, retired to the forest." 3 

1 The innumerable methods recorded of swearing an oath would take a 
volume to describe in detail. The most comprehensive account I know is that 
in Hastings' Ency. Rel. and Eth., vol. ix, p. 430 et seq., under "Oath." The 
article is by Crawley, Beet and Canney. n.m.p. 

2 The preceptor of the gods. 

3 See the Mudra Rakshasa for another version of this story (Wilson, 
Hindu Theatre, vol. ii). Wilson remarks that the story is also told differently 
in the Puranas. 


After I had heard this, O Kanabhuti, from the mouth 
of that Brahman, I became exceedingly afflicted, seeing that 
all things are unstable ; and on account of my affliction I 
came to visit this shrine of Durga, and through her favour 
having beheld you, O my friend, I have remembered my 
former birth. 

And having obtained divine discernment I have told you 
the great tale. Now, as my curse has spent its strength, I 
will strive to leave the body ; and do you remain here for 
the present, until there comes to you a Brahman named 
Gunadhya, who has forsaken the use of three languages, 1 
surrounded with his pupils, for he like myself was cursed by 
the goddess in anger, being an excellent Gana, Malyavan by 
name, who for taking my part has become a mortal. To him 
you must tell this tale originally told by Siva, then you shall 
be delivered from your curse, and so shall he. 

[MI] Having said all this to Kanabhuti, that Vararuchi 
set forth for the holy hermitage of Badarika in order to put 
off his body. As he was going along he beheld on the banks 
of the Ganges a vegetable-eating 2 hermit, and while he was 
looking on, that hermit's hand was pricked with kusa grass. 
Then Vararuchi turned his blood, as it flowed out, into sap 3 
through his magic power, out of curiosity, in order to test 
his egotism ; on beholding that, the hermit exclaimed : 
" Ha ! I have attained perfection " ; and so he became puffed 
up with pride. Then Vararuchi laughed a little and said to 
him : "I turned your blood into sap in order to test you, 
because even now, O hermit, you have not abandoned 
egotism. Egotism is in truth an obstacle in the road to know- 
ledge hard to overcome, and without knowledge liberation 

1 Sanskrit, Prakrit and his own native dialect. 

2 I change Dr Brockhaus' Sakdsana into Sdkasana. Durgaprasad's 

edition of the text now proves Tawney's reading correct. n.m.p. 

3 As, according to my reading, he ate vegetables, his blood was turned 
into the juice of vegetables. Dr Brockhaus translates: "machte, dass das 
herausstromende Blut zu Krystallen sick bildete." 


cannot be attained even by a hundred vows. But the perish- 
able joys of Svarga cannot attract the hearts of those who 
long for liberation ; therefore, O hermit, endeavour to acquire 
knowledge by forsaking egotism." Having thus read that 
hermit a lesson, and having been praised by him prostrate in 
adoration, Vararuchi went to the tranquil site of the hermi- 
tage of Badari. 1 There he, desirous of putting off his mortal 
condition, resorted for protection with intense devotion 
to that goddess who only can protect, and she, manifesting 
her real form to him, told him the secret of that meditation 
which arises from fire, to help him to put off the body. Then 
Vararuchi, having consumed his body by that form of medi- 
tation, reached his own heavenly home ; and henceforth 
that Kanabhuti remained in the Vindhya forest, eager for 
his desired meeting with Gunadhya. 

1 A celebrated place of pilgrimage near the source of the Ganges, the 
Bhadrinath of modern travellers. Monier Williams, s.v. 


THEN that Malyavan wandering about in the wood 
[MI] in human form, passing under the name of 
Gunadhya, having served the King Satavahana, and 
having, in accordance with a vow, abandoned in his presence 
the use of Sanskrit and two other languages, with sorrowful 
mind came to pay a visit to Durga, the dweller in the Vindhya 
hills ; and by her orders he went and beheld Kanabhuti. 
Then he remembered his origin and suddenly, as it were, 
awoke from sleep ; and making use of the Paisacha language, 
which was different from the three languages he had sworn 
to forsake, he said to Kanabhuti, after telling him his own 
name : " Quickly tell me that tale which you heard from 
Pushpadanta, in order that you and I together, my friend, 
may escape from our curse." Hearing that, Kanabhuti 
bowed before him, and said to him in joyful mood : " I will 
tell you the story, but great curiosity possesses me, my lord ; 
first tell me all your adventures from your birth; do me 
this favour." Thus being entreated by him, Gunadhya 
proceeded to relate as follows : 

2. Story of Gunadhya 

In Pratishthana * there is a city named Supratishthita ; 
in it there dwelt once upon a time an excellent Brahman 
named Somasarman, and he, my friend, had two sons, Vatsa 
and Gulma, and he had also born to him a third child, a 
daughter named Srutartha. Now in course of time that 

1 Pratishthana [the modern Paithan] is celebrated as the capital of 
Salivahana [a late form of Satavahana], It is identifiable with Peytan on the 
Godavan, the Bathana or Paithana of Ptolemy, the capital of Siripolemaios. 
Wilson identifies this name with Salivahana, but Dr Rost remarks that Lassen 
more correctly identifies it with that of Sri Puliman [Pulumayi] of the Andhra 
Dynasty, who reigned at Pratishthana after the overthrow of the house of 
Salivahana about 130 a.d. 



Brahman and his wife died, and those two sons of his remained, 
taking care of their sister. And she suddenly became preg- 
nant. Then Vatsa and Gulma began to suspect one another, 
because no other man came in their sister's way : thereupon 
Srutartha, who saw what was in their minds, said to those 
brothers : "Do not entertain evil suspicions : listen, I will 
tell you the truth. There is a prince of the name of Kirtisena, 
brother's son to Vasuki, the king of the Nagas x ; he saw me 
when I was going to bathe, thereupon he was overcome with 
love, and after telling me his lineage and his name, made 
me his wife by the gdndharva marriage 2 ; he belongs to the 
Brahman race, and it is by him that I am pregnant." When 
they heard this speech of their sister's, Vatsa and Gulma 
said : " What confidence can we repose in all this ? " Then 
she silently called to mind that Naga prince, and immediately 
he was thought upon he came and said to Vatsa and Gulma : 
" In truth I have made your sister my wife. She is a glorious 
heavenly nymph fallen down to earth in consequence of a 
curse, and you, too, have descended to earth for the same 
reason ; but a son shall without fail be born to your sister 
here, and then you and she together shall be freed from your 
curse." Having said this, he disappeared, and in a few days 
from that time a son was born to Srutartha. Know me, my 
friend, as that son. 3 At that very time a divine voice was 
heard from heaven : " This child that is born is an incarna- 
tion of virtue, 4 and he shall be called Gunadhya, 5 and is of 
the Brahman caste." Thereupon my mother and uncles, as 
their curse had spent its force, died, and I for my part be- 
came inconsolable. Then I flung aside my grief, and though 
a child I went in the strength of my self-reliance to the 
Deccan to acquire knowledge. Then, having in course of 
time learned all the sciences, and become famous, I returned 

1 For details of these serpent-demons see Appendix I at the end of this 
volume. n.m.p. 

2 For a note on this form of marriage see pp. 87, 88. n.m.p. 

3 It seems to me that tvam in Dr Brockhaus' text must be a misprint for tarn. 

4 Here Brockhaus has confounded guna and gana. Durgaprasad's text 
has the correct word, thus the translation should be: "an incarnation of one 
of his ganas." n.m.p. 

5 I.e. rich in virtues and good qualities. 


to my native land to exhibit my accomplishments ; and when 
I entered after a long absence into the city of Supratish- 
thita, surrounded by my disciples, I saw a wonderfully 
splendid scene. In one place chanters were intoning accord- 
ing to prescribed custom the hymns of the Sama Veda; in 
another place Brahmans were disputing about the interpre- 
tation of the sacred books ; in another place gamblers were 
praising gambling in these deceitful words :' " Whoever 
knows the art of gambling has a treasure in his grasp " ; and 
in another place, in the midst of a knot of merchants, who 
were talking to one another about their skill in the art of 
making money, a certain merchant spoke as follows : 

2a. The Mouse Merchant 1 

" It is not very wonderful that a thrifty man should acquire 
wealth by wealth ; but I long ago achieved prosperity with- 
out any wealth to start with. My father died before I was 
born, and then my mother was deprived by wicked relations 
of all she possessed. Then she fled through fear of them, 
watching over the safety of her unborn child, and dwelt in 
the house of Kumaradatta, a friend of my father's, and there 
the virtuous woman gave birth to me, who was destined to 
be the means of her future maintenance ; and so she reared 
me up by performing menial drudgery. And as she was so 
poor, she persuaded a teacher by way of charity to give me 
some instruction in writing and ciphering. 2 Then she said 
to me : ' You are the son of a merchant, so you must now 
engage in trade, and there is a very rich merchant in this 
country called Visakhila ; he is in the habit of lending 
capital to poor men of good family ; go and entreat him to 
give you something to start with.' Then I went to his house, 
and he, at the very moment I entered, said in a rage to some 

1 For comparison see the Cullaka-Setthi-Jataka (No. 4 Cambridge Edition, 
vol. i, pp. 14-20), also Kalilah and Dimnah, chap, xviii (Knatchbull, 
p. 358). n.m.p. 

2 Durgaprasad's text takes tayalcimcanyadinaya in one word, making better 
sense : u she, deserving compassion because of her poverty, persuaded . . . 
etc." N.M.P. 


merchant's son : You see this dead mouse here upon the 
floor, even that is a commodity by which a capable man 
would acquire wealth, but I gave you, you good-for-nothing 
fellow, many dinars, 1 and so far from increasing them, you 
have not even been able to preserve what you got.' When 
I heard that, I suddenly said to that Visakhila : ' I hereby 
take from you that mouse as capital advanced.' Saying this 
I took the mouse up in my hand, and wrote him a receipt 
for it, which he put in his strong-box, and off I went. The 
merchant for his part burst out laughing. Well, I sold that 
mouse to a certain merchant as cat's-meat for two handfuls 
of gram, then I ground up that gram and, taking a pitcher 
of water, I went and stood on the cross-road in a shady 
place, outside the city ; there I offered with the utmost 
civility the water and gram to a band of wood-cutters 2 ; 
every wood-cutter gave me as a token of gratitude two pieces 
of wood ; and I took those pieces of wood and sold them in 
the market ; then for a small part of the price which I got 
for them I bought a second supply of gram, and in the same 
way on a second day I obtained wood from the wood- cutters. 
Doing this every day I gradually acquired capital, and I 
bought from those wood-cutters all their wood for three days. 
Then suddenly there befell a dearth of wood on account of 
heavy rains, and I sold that wood for many hundred panas ; 
with that wealth I set up a shop and, engaging in traffic, I 
have become a very wealthy man by my own ability. Then 
I made a mouse of gold and gave it to that Visakhila ; then 
he gave me his daughter ; and in consequence of my history I 

1 From the Greek Syjvdptov = denarius (Monier Williams, *..). Dramma = 
Greek fy>axp) is used in the Panchatantra. See Dr Buhler's Notes to Pan- 

chata?itra, iv and v; note on p. 40, I, 3. The complicated and extensive 

history of the dinar was thoroughly studied by the late Sir Henry Yule. Full 
details will be found in his new edition of Cathay and the Way Thither, revised 
in the light of recent research by Henri Cordier, Hakluyt Society, 4 vols., 
1913-1916 (see vol. iv, pp. 54-62, and pp. 112, 113). In India the value of 
the dinar continually changes with its locality. It is usually given as con- 
sisting of twenty-five dirhems and being worth 3s. 4*32d., or, according to 
another reckoning, 3s. l*44d. Reference should also be made to Yule and 
Cordier's Marco Polo, 2 vols., 1903 (see in Index under " Bezant"), and to the 
long note in Stein's Rajatarangini, vol. ii, pp. 308-328. n.m.p. 

2 Literally wood-carriers. 


am known in the world by the name of Mouse. So with- 
out a coin in the world I acquired this prosperity." All 
the other merchants then, when they heard this story, 
were astonished. How can the mind help being amazed at 
pictures without walls ? x 

2b. The Chanter of the Sama Veda and the Courtesan 

In another place a Brahman who had got eight gold 
mdshas 2 as a present, a chanter of the Sama Veda, received 
the following piece of advice from a man who was a bit of 
a roue : " You get enough to live upon by your position as 
a Brahman, so you ought now to employ this gold for the 
purpose of learning the way of the world in order that you 
may become a knowing fellow." The fool said : " Who will 
teach me ? " Thereupon the roue said to him : " This lady, 3 
named Chaturika; go to her house." The Brahman said: 
" What am I to do there ? " The roue replied : " Give her 
gold, and in order to please her make use of some sama" 4 
When he heard this, the chanter went quickly to the house 
of Chaturika ; when he entered, the lady advanced to meet 
him and he took a seat. Then that Brahman gave her the 
gold and faltered out the request : " Teach me now for this 
fee the way of the world." Thereupon the people who were 
there began to titter, and he, after reflecting a little, putting 
his hands together in the shape of a cow's ear, so that they 
formed a kind of pipe, began, like a stupid idiot, to chant 
with a shrill sound the Sama Veda, so that all the roues 
in the house came together to see the fun ; and they said : 
" Whence has this jackal blundered in here ? Come, let u& 

1 He had made money without capital, so his achievements are compared 
to pictures suspended in the air. 

2 Both masha and pana (mentioned above) are really ancient native 
Indian weights: 16 mashas=l pana. As the pana was usually of copper or 
silver, it seems probable that the gold masha only exists in fiction. See 
E. J. Rapson, Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum (Andhra 
Dynasty), 1908, p. clxxviii. n.m.p. 

3 Courtesan. 

4 The vita or roue meant "conciliation," but the chanter of the Sama 
Veda took it to mean " hymn." 


quickly give him the half-moon x on his throat." Thereupon 
the Brahman, supposing that the half-moon meant an arrow 
with a head of that shape, and afraid of having his head cut 
off, rushed out of the house, bellowing out : "I have learnt 
the way of the world." Then he went to the man who had 
sent him and told him the whole story. He replied : " When 
I told you to use soma I meant coaxing and wheedling. What 
is the propriety of introducing the Veda in a matter of this 
kind ? The fact is, I suppose, that stupidity is engrained 
in a man who muddles his head with the Vedas." So he 
spoke, bursting with laughter all the while, and went off to 
the lady's house and said to her : " Give back to that two- 
legged cow his gold-fodder." So she, laughing, gave back the 
money, and when the Brahman got it he went back to his 
house as happy as if he had been born again. 

2. Story of Gunddhya 

Witnessing strange scenes of this kind at every step, I 
reached the palace of the king, w r hich was like the Court of 
Indra. And then I entered it, with my pupils going before 
to herald my arrival, and saw the King Satavahana sitting 
in his hall of audience upon a jewelled throne, surrounded 
by his ministers, Sarvavarman and his colleagues, as Indra is 
by the gods. After I had blessed him and had taken a seat, 
and had been honoured by the king, Sarvavarman and the 
other ministers praised me in the following words : " This 
man, O king, is famous upon the earth as skilled in all lore, 
and therefore his name Gunadhya 2 is a true index of his 
nature." Satavahana, hearing me praised in this style by 
his ministers, was pleased with me, and immediately enter- 
tained me honourably, and appointed me to the office of 
Minister. Then I married a wife, and lived there com- 
fortably, looking after the king's affairs and instructing my 

Once, as I was roaming about at leisure on the banks 

1 I.e. seize him with curved hand, and fling him out neck and crop. 
The precentor supposed them to mean a crescent-headed arrow. 

2 I.e. rich in accomplishments. 


of the Godavari out of curiosity, I beheld a garden called 
Devikriti, and seeing that it was an exceedingly pleasant 
garden, like an earthly Nandana, 1 I asked the gardener 
how it came there, and he said to me : " My lord, according 
to the story which we hear from old people, long ago there 
came here a certain Brahman who observed a vow of silence 
and abstained from food; he made this heavenly garden 
with a temple ; then all the Brahmans assembled here out 
of curiosity, and that Brahman being persistently asked by 
them told his history : 

2c. The Magic Garden 

" There is in this land a province called Bakakachchha, 
on the banks of the Narmada ; in that district I was born as 
a Brahman, and in former times no one gave me alms, as I 
was lazy as well as poor ; then in a fit of annoyance I quitted 
my house, being disgusted with life, and wandering round 
the holy places I came to visit the shrine of Durga, the dweller 
in the Vindhya hills, and having beheld that goddess, I re- 
flected : " People propitiate with animal offerings this giver 
of boons, but I will slay myself here, stupid beast that I 
am." Having formed this resolve, I took in hand a sword 
to cut off my head. Immediately that goddess, being pro- 
pitious, herself said to me : " Son, thou art perfected, do not 
slay thyself, remain near me." Thus I obtained a boon from 
the goddess and attained divine nature. From that day 
forth my hunger and thirst disappeared ; then once on a time, 
as I was remaining there, that goddess herself said to me : 
" Go, my son, and plant in Pratishthana a glorious garden." 
Thus speaking, she gave me, with her own hands, heavenly 
seed ; thereupon I came here and made this beautiful garden 
by means of her power ; and this garden you must keep 
in good order. 5 Having said this, he disappeared. In this 

1 Indra's pleasure-ground or Elysium. For a similar Zaubergarten see 
Liebrecht's translation of Dunlop's History of Fiction , p. 251, and note, 325 ; 
and Gonzenbach's Sicilianische Marcken, vol. i, p. 224. To this latter story 
there is a very close parallel in Jataka, No. 220 (Fausboll, vol. ii, p. 188), 
where Sakko makes a garden for the Bodhisattva, who is threatened with 
death by the king if it is not done. 


way this garden was made by the goddess long ago, my 

2. Story of Gunadhya 

When I had heard from the gardener this signal manifest- 
ation of the favour of the goddess, I went home penetrated 
with wonder. 

[Ml] When Gunadhya had said this, Kanabhuti asked : 
" Why, my lord, was the king called Satavahana ? " Then 
Gunadhya said : " Listen, I will tell you the reason. 

2d. The History of Satavahana 

There was a king of great power named Dvipikarni. He 
had a wife named Saktimati, whom he valued more then 
life, and once upon a time a snake bit her as she was sleeping 
in the garden. Thereupon she died, and that king, thinking 
only of her, though he had no son, took a vow of perpetual 
chastity. Then once upon a time the god of the moon- crest 
said to him in a dream : " While wandering in the forest 
thou shalt behold a boy mounted on a lion, take him and 
go home, he shall be thy son." Then the king woke up, and 
rejoiced, remembering that dream, and one day in his passion 
for the chase he went to a distant wood ; there in the middle 
of the day that king beheld on the bank of a lotus-lake a boy, 
splendid as the sun, riding on a lion x ; the lion, desiring to 
drink water, set down the boy, and then the king, remembering 
his dream, slew it with one arrow. The creature thereupon 
abandoned the form of a lion, and suddenly assumed the 
shape of a man. The king exclaimed: "Alas! what means 
this ? Tell me." And then the man answered him : " O king, 
I am a Yaksha of the name of Sata, an attendant upon the 
God of Wealth ; long ago I beheld the daughter of a Rishi 
bathing in the Ganges ; she too, when she beheld me, felt 

1 Owing to the scarcity of the lion in India, especially in the north, it 
appears little in folk-lore. There are, however, various references to the lion 
in the Ocean of Story. See Crooke, Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. ii, p. 210. 
He refers to Tawney, but misprints p. 178 as 78. n.m.p. 


love arise in her breast, like myself : then I made her my 
wife by the gdndharva form of marriage x ; and her relatives, 
finding it out, in their anger cursed me and her, saying : 
' You two wicked ones, doing what is right in your own eyes, 
shall become lions.' The hermit- folk appointed that her 
curse should end when she gave birth to offspring, and that 
mine should continue longer, until I was slain by thee with 
an arrow. So we became a pair of lions ; she in the course 
of time became pregnant, and then died after this boy was 
born, but I brought him up on the milk of other lionesses, 
and lo ! to-day I am released from my curse, having been 
smitten by thee with an arrow. Therefore receive this noble 
son which I give thee, for this thing was foretold long ago by 
those hermit- folk." Having said this, that Guhyaka, named 
Sata, disappeared, 2 and the king taking the boy went home ; 
and because he had ridden upon Sata he gave the boy the name 
of Satavahana, and in course of time he established him in 
his kingdom. Then, when that King Dvipikarni went to the 
forest, this Satavahana became sovereign of the whole earth. 

[MI] Having said this in the middle of his tale in 
answer to Kanabhuti's question, the wise Gunadhya again 
called to mind and went on with the main thread of his 

2. Story of Gunadhya 

Then once upon a time, in the spring festival, that King 
Satavahana went to visit the garden made by the goddess, 
of which I spake before. He roamed there for a long time 
The King ^ke Indra in the garden of Nandana, and de- 
ashamed of scended into the water of the lake to amuse him- 

his Ignorance sdf j n company with his wiyes Thefe he sprinkled 

his beloved ones sportively with water flung by his hands, 
and was sprinkled by them in return like an elephant by its 
females. His wives, with faces, the eyes of which were slightly 

1 See note on this form of marriage on pp. 87, 88. n.m.p. 

2 Guhyaka here synonymous with Yaksha. For details of these mythical 

beings see Appendix I at the end of this volume. n.m.p. 


reddened by the collyrium x washed into them, and which 
were streaming with water, and with bodies, the proportions 
of which were revealed by their clinging garments, 2 pelted 
him vigorously ; and as the wind strips the creepers in the 
forest of leaves and flowers, so he made his fair ones, who fled 
into the adjoining shrubbery, lose the marks on their fore- 
heads 3 and their ornaments. Then one of his queens, tardy 
with the weight of her breasts, with body tender as a sirisha 
flower, became exhausted with the amusement ; she not 
being able to endure more, said to the king, who was sprink- 
ling her with water : " Do not pelt me with water-drops." 
On hearing that, the king quickly had some sweetmeats 4 
brought. Then the queen burst out laughing and said again : 
" King, what do we want with sweetmeats in the water ? 
For I said to you, do not sprinkle me with water-drops. Do 
you not even understand the coalescence of the words ma and 
udaka, and do you not know that chapter of the grammar ? 
How can you be such a blockhead ? " When the queen, who 
knew grammatical treatises, said this to him, and the attend- 
ants laughed, the king was at once overpowered with secret 
shame ; he left off romping in the water and immediately 
entered his own palace unperceived, crestfallen and full of 
self-contempt. Then he remained lost in thought, bewildered, 
averse to food and other enjoyments, and, like a picture, even 
when asked a question, he answered nothing. Thinking that 
his only resource was to acquire learning or die, he flung 
himself down on a couch, and remained in an agony of grief. 
Then all the king's attendants, seeing that he had suddenly 

1 For a detailed note on the history and uses of collyrium and kohl see 
Appendix II at the end of this volume. n.m.p. 

2 Compare with the sixth story of the tenth day of The Decameron, in 
which the clinging garments of Ginevra and Isotta have such a disturbing 
effect on King Charles. n.m.p. 

3 The tilaka, a mark made upon the forehead or between the eyebrows 
with coloured earths, sandal-wood, etc., serving as an ornament or a sectarial 
distinction (Monier Williams, s.v.). 

4 The negative particle ma coalesces with udakaih (the plural instrumental 
case of udaka) into modakaih, and modakaih (the single word) means "with 
sweetmeats." The incident is related in Taranatha's Geschichte des Buddhismus 
in Indien, uebersetzt von Schiefner, p. 74. 


fallen into such a state, were utterly beside themselves to 
think what it could mean. Then I and Sarvavarman came 
at last to hear of the king's condition, and by that time the 
day was almost at an end. So perceiving that the king was 
still in an unsatisfactory condition, we immediately sum- 
moned a servant of the king named Rajahansa. And he, 
when asked by us about the state of the king's health, said 
this : " I never before in my life saw the king in such a state 
of depression : and the other queens told me with much 
indignation that he had been humiliated to-day by that 
superficial blue- stocking, the daughter of Vishnusakti." 
When Sarvavarman and I had heard this from the mouth 
of the king's servant, we fell into a state of despondency, and 
thus reflected in our dilemma : "If the king were afflicted 
with bodily disease we might introduce the physicians, but 
if his disease is mental it is impossible to find the cause of it. 
For there is no enemy in his country the thorns of which are 
destroyed, and these subjects are attached to him ; no dearth 
of any kind is to be seen ; so how can this sudden melan- 
choly of the king's have arisen ? " After we had debated 
to this effect, the wise Sarvavarman said as follows : " I 
know the cause : this king is distressed by sorrow for his 
own ignorance, for he is always expressing a desire for cul- 
ture, saying, 'I am a blockhead.' I long ago detected this 
desire of his, and we have heard that the occasion of the 
present fit is his having been humiliated by the queen." 
Thus we debated with one another, and after we had passed 
that night, in the morning we went to the private apart- 
ments of the sovereign. There, though strict orders had been 
given that no one was to enter, I managed to get in with 
difficulty, and after me Sarvavarman slipped in quickly. 
I then sat down near the king and asked him this question : 
" Why, O king, art thou without cause thus despondent ? ' 
Though he heard this, Satavahana nevertheless remained 
silent, and then Sarvavarman uttered this extraordinary 
speech : " King, thou didst long ago say to me, 'Make me a 
learned man.' Thinking upon that, I employed last night a 
charm to produce a dream. 1 Then I saw in my dream a lotus 

1 So explained by Bohtlingk and Roth, *.t?. ; cf. Taranga 72, it. 103. 


fallen from heaven, and it was opened by some heavenly 
youth, and out of it came a divine woman in white garments, 
and immediately, O king, she entered thy mouth. When I 
had seen so much I woke up, and I think without doubt that 
the woman who visibly entered thy mouth was Sarasvati." 
As soon as Sarvavarman had in these terms described his 
dream, the king broke his silence and said to me with the 
utmost earnestness : "In how short a time can a man, who 
is diligently taught, acquire learning ? Tell me this. For 
without learning all this regal splendour has no charms for 
me. What is the use of rank and power to a blockhead ? 
They are like ornaments on a log of wood." Then I said : 
The Kings " King, it is invariably the case that it takes 
llival Teachers me n twelve years to learn grammar, the gate to 
all knowledge. But I, my sovereign, will teach it you in 
six years." When he heard that, Sarvavarman suddenly 
exclaimed, in a fit of jealousy : " How can a man accustomed 
to enjoyment endure hardship for so long ? So I will 
teach you grammar, my prince, in six months." When 
I heard this promise, which it seemed impossible to make 
good, I said to him in a rage : "If you teach the king 
in six months, I renounce at once and for ever Sanskrit, 
Prakrit and the vernacular dialect, these three languages 
which pass current among men." x Then Sarvavarman said : 
" And if I do not do this, I, Sarvavarman, will carry your 
shoes on my head for twelve years." Having said this, he 
went out ; I too went home ; and the king for his part 
was comforted, expecting that he would attain his object 
by means of one of us two. Now Sarvavarman being in 
a dilemma, seeing that his promise was one very difficult 
to perform, and regretting what he had done, told the 
whole story to his wife, and she, grieved to hear it, said to 
him : " My lord, in this difficulty there is no way of escape 
for you except the favour of the Lord Karttikeya." 2 " It 
is so," said Sarvavarman, and determined to implore it. 

1 He afterwards learns to speak in the language of the Pisachas goblins 
or ogres. For details of this language see pp. 91, 92 of this volume. n.m.p. 

2 Called also Kumara. This was no doubt indicated by the Kumara, or 
boy, who opened the lotus. 


Accordingly in the last watch of the night Sarvavarman set 
out fasting for the shrine of the god. Now I came to hear of 
it by means of my secret emissaries, and in the morning I told 
the king of it ; and he, when he heard it, wondered what would 
happen. Then a trusty Rajput called Sinhagupta said to him : 
" When I heard, O king, that thou wast afflicted I was seized 
with great despondency. Then I went out of this city, and 
was preparing to cut off my own head before the goddess 
Durga in order to ensure thy happiness. Then a voice from 
heaven forbade me, saying: 'Do not so; the king's wish 
shall be fulfilled. 5 Therefore, I believe, thou art sure of 
success." When he had said this, that Sinhagupta took 
leave of the king and rapidly dispatched two emissaries after 
Sarvavarman, who, feeding only on air, observing a vow of 
silence, steadfast in resolution, reached at last the shrine 
of the Lord Karttikeya. There, pleased with his penance 
that spared not the body, Karttikeya favoured him according 
to his desire ; then the two spies sent by Sinhagupta came 
into the king's presence and reported the minister's success. 
On hearing that news the king was delighted and I was 
despondent, as the chdtaka joys, and the swan grieves, on 
seeing the cloud. 1 Then Sarvavarman arrived, successful 
by the favour of Karttikeya, and communicated to the king 
all the sciences, which presented themselves to him on his 
thinking of them. And immediately they were revealed to 
the King Satavahana. For what cannot the grace of the 
Supreme Lord accomplish ? Then the kingdom rejoiced on 
hearing that the king had thus obtained all knowledge, and 
there was high festival kept throughout it ; and that moment 
banners were flaunted from every house and, being fanned 
by the wind, seemed to dance. Then Sarvavarman was 
honoured with abundance of jewels fit for a king by the 
sovereign, who bowed humbly before him, calling him his 
spiritual preceptor ; and he was made governor of the terri- 
tory called Bakakachchha, which lies along the bank of the 
Narmada. The king being highly pleased with that Rajput 

1 The chdtaka lives on raindrops, but the poor swan has to take a long 
journey to the Manasa lake beyond the snowy hills at the approach of the 
rainy season. 


Sinhagupta, who first heard by the mouth of his spies that 
the boon had been obtained from the six-faced god, 1 made 
him equal to himself in splendour and power. And that 
queen too, the daughter of Vishnusakti, who was the cause 
of his acquiring learning he exalted at one bound above 
all the queens, through affection anointing 2 her with his 
own hand. 

1 Karttikeya. 

2 More literally,, " sprinkling her with water." 


2. Story of Giinadhya 

THEN, having taken a vow of silence, I came into the 
presence of the sovereign, and there a certain Brah- 
man recited a sloka he had composed, and the king 
himself addressed him correctly in the Sanskrit language ; 
and the people who were present in Court were delighted 
when they witnessed that. Then the king said deferentially 
to Sarvavarman : " Tell me thyself after what fashion the 
god showed thee favour." Hearing that, Sarvavarman pro- 
ceeded to relate to the king the whole story of Karttikeya's 
favourable acceptance of him. 

2e. The New Grammar revealed 

I went, O king, on that occasion fasting and silent from 
this place, so when the journey came to an end, 1 being very 
despondent, and emaciated with my severe austerities, worn 
out, I fell senseless on the ground. Then, I remember, a man 
with a spear in his hand came and said to me in distinct 
accents : " Rise up, my son ; everything shall turn out 
favourably for thee." By that speech I was, as it were, im- 
mediately bedewed with a shower of nectar, and I woke up, 
and seemed free from hunger and thirst and in good case. 
Then I approached the neighbourhood of the god's temple, 
overpowered with the weight of my devotion, and after 
bathing I entered the inner shrine of the god in a state of 
agitated suspense. Then that Lord Skanda 2 gave me a sight 
of himself within, and thereupon Sarasvati in visible shape 
entered my mouth. So that holy god, manifested before me, 

1 So corrupt was the text at this point that Tawney had practically to 
guess at its meaning. The Durgaprasad text edits tato 'dhvani manakcheshe 

jate: "when there was (still) little remaining of the way." n.m.p. 

2 Skanda is another name of Karttikeya. 



recited the sutra beginning, " the traditional doctrine of 
letters." On hearing that I, with the levity which is so 
natural to mankind, guessed the next sutra and uttered it 
myself. Then that god said to me : "If thou hadst not 
uttered it thyself, this grammatical treatise would have 
supplanted that of Panini. As it is, on account of its concise- 
ness, it shall be called Katantra, and Kalapaka, from the tail 
(kaldpa) of the peacock on which I ride." Having said this, 
that god himself in visible form revealed to me that new and 
short grammar, 1 and then added this besides : " That king 
of thine in a former birth was himself a holy sage, a pupil of 
the hermit Bharadvaja, named Krishna, great in austerity, 
and he, having beheld a hermit's daughter who loved him in 
return, suddenly felt the smart of the wound which the shaft 
of the flowery-arrowed god inflicts. So, having been cursed 
by the hermits, he has now become incarnate here, and that 
hermit's daughter has become incarnate as his queen. So 
this King Satavahana, being an incarnation of a holy sage, 2 
when he beholds thee will attain a knowledge of all the 
sciences according to thy wish. For the highest matters are 
easily acquired by great- souled ones, having been learnt in a 
former birth, the real truth of them being recalled by their 
powerful memories." 3 When the god had said this he dis- 
appeared, and I went out, and there grains of rice were pre- 
sented me by the god's servants. Then I proceeded to return, 
O king, and wonderful to say, though I consumed those 
grains on my journey day after day, they remained as 
numerous as ever. 

1 This grammar is extensively in use in the eastern parts of Bengal. 
The rules are attributed to Sarvavarman, by the inspiration of Karttikeya, as 
narrated in the text. The vritti (or gloss) is the work of Durga Singh, and that, 
again, is commented on by Trilochana Dasa and Kaviraja. Vararuchi is the 
supposed author of an illustration of the Conjugations and Srlpati Varma of 
a Supplement. Other commentaries are attributed to GopI Natha, Kula 
Chandra and Visvesvara. (Note in Wilson's Essays, vol. i, p. 1 83.) 

2 Rishis. 

3 Sanskara means "tendency produced by some past influence" often 
"works in a former birth." 


2. Story of Gunddhya 

When he had related his adventure, Sarvavarman ceased 
speaking, and King Satavahana in cheerful mood rose up and 
went to bathe. 

Then I, being excluded from business by my vow of 
silence, took leave, with a low bow only, of that king, who 
was very averse to part with me, and went out of that town, 
accompanied by only two disciples, and, with my mind bent 
on the performance of austerities, came to visit the shrine 
of the dweller in the Vindhya hills, and having been directed 
by the goddess in a dream to visit thee, I entered for that 
purpose this terrible Vindhya forest. A hint given by a 
Pulinda enabled me to find a caravan, and so somehow or 
other, by the special favour of destiny, I managed to arrive 
here, and beheld this host of Pisachas, and by hearing from 
a distance their conversation with one another, I have con- 
trived to learn this Paisacha language, 1 which has enabled 
me to break my vow of silence. I then made use of it to 
ask after you, and hearing that you had gone to Ujjayini, I 
waited here until your return ; on beholding you I welcomed 
you in the fourth language (the speech of the Pisachas), and 
then I called to mind my origin. This is the story of my 
adventure in this birth. 

[MI] When Gunadhya had said this, Kanabhuti said 
to him : " Hear how your arrival was made known to me 
last night. I have a friend, a Rakshasa of the name of 
Bhutivarman, who possesses heavenly insight, and I went to 
a garden in Ujjayini, where he resides. On my asking him 
when my own curse would come to an end, he said : ' We 
have no power in the day ; wait, and I will tell you at night.' 
I consented, and when night came on I asked him earnestly 
the reason why goblins 2 delighted in disporting themselves, 

1 For a note on this language, called Paisachi, see pp. 91, 92. n.m.p. 

2 For the idea cf. Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act I, sc. 1 (towards the end), and 
numerous other passages in the same author. This belief seems to be very 
general in Wales. See Wirt Sikes, British Goblins, p. 113. See also Kuhn's Her- 
abkunft des Feuers, p. 93 ; De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, vol. ii, p. 285. 


as they were doing. Then Bhutivarman said to me : ' Listen ; 

1 will relate what I heard Siva say in a conversation with 
Brahma. Rakshasas, Yakshas, and Pisachas have no power 
in the day, being dazed with the brightness of the sun, there- 
fore they delight in the night. 1 And where the gods are not 

1 Farmer, commenting on Hamlet, Act I, sc. 1, 150, quotes the following 
lines of Prudentius' Ad Gallicinium : " Ferunt vagantes daemonas, Lastos 
tenebris noctium, Gallo canente exterritos, Sparsim timere et cedere. Hoc 
esse signum prsescii Norunt repromissse spei, Qua nos soporis liberi Speramus 
adventum Dei." Douce quotes from another hymn said to have been com- 
posed by Saint Ambrose and formerly used in the Salisbury service : " Prseco 
diei jam sonat, Noctis profundae pervigil ; Nocturna lux viantibus, A nocte 
noctem segregans. Hoc excitatus Lucifer Solvit polum caligine ; Hoc omnis 
errorum cohors Viam nocendi deserit. Gallo canente spes redit, etc." See 
also Grossler's Sagen der Grafschaft Mansjeld, pp. 58 and 59 ; the Pentamerone 
of Basile, ninth diversion of second day (Burton's translation, vol. i, p. 215); 
Dasent's Norse Tales, p. 347 " The Troll turned round, and, of course, as soon 
as he saw the sun, he burst" ; Grimm's Irische M'drchen, p. x; Kuhn's West- 
fdlische M'drchen, p. 63 ; Schoppner's Sagenbuch der Bayerischen Lande, vol. i, pp. 
123 and 228 ; and Bernhard Schmidt's Griechische M'drchen, p. 138. He quotes 

an interesting passage from Lucian's ^iXoxj/evSyjs. The Philopseudes, or The 

Liar, is a satirical essay on the pseudo-science and superstition of antiquity. A 
group of philosophers are relating their several experiences. One of them, a 
Stoic, said he knew of a magician who could fly through the air, raise the dead, 
call up spirits, etc. Once he performed a love spell for a young man named 
Glaucias. First of all he raised the ghost of the youth's father and then 
summoned Hecate, Cerberus and the Moon, the latter appearing in three 
forms, as a woman, an ox and a puppy. The magician then constructed a 
clay image of the God of Love, which he sent to fetch the girl. " Off went 
the image, and before long there was a knock at the door, and there stood 
Chrysis. She came in and threw her arms about Glaucias' neck ; you would 
have said she was dying for love of him ; and she stayed on till at last we 
heard the cocks crowing. Away flew the moon into heaven, Hecate dis- 
appeared underground, all the apparitions vanished, and we saw Chrysis out 
of the house just about dawn " (trans, by H. and F. Fowler, vol. iii, p. 238). 
The idea of the night being evil and the time when ghosts walk abroad owing 
to their not having to fear the light dates from the very earliest times. 
Maspero notes (Stories from Ancient Egypt, p. liv) that all the lucky or unlucky 
diversions of the day were named and described in detail, while no notice 
was taken of the night, since it was all unlucky and unsafe to go abroad. 

See also A History of Magic and Experimental Science, Lynn. Thorndyke, 

2 vols., 1923 (vol. i, p. 280). In Giles' Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (vol. i, 
p. 177) Miss Li, a female devil, disappears as soon as she hears the cock crow. 

For details of the Rakshasas, Yakshas, etc., see the notes in Appendix I 
at the end of this volume. n.m.p. 


worshipped, and the Brahmans, in due form, and where men 
eat contrary to the holy law, there also they have power. 
Where there is a man who abstains from flesh, or a virtuous 
woman, there they do not go. They never attack chaste 
men, heroes, and men awake.' x When he said this on that 
occasion Bhutivarman continued : ' Go, for Gunadhya has 
arrived, the destined means of thy release from the curse. 5 
So hearing this, I have come, and I have seen thee, my lord. 
Now I will relate to thee that tale which Pushpadanta told ; 
but I feel curiosity on one point : tell me why he was 
called Pushpadanta and thou Malyavan." Hearing this 
question from Kanabhuti, Gunadhya said to him : 

3. Story of Pushpadanta 

On the bank of the Ganges there is a royal district granted 
to Brahmans by royal charter, named Bahusuvarnaka, and 
there lived there a very learned Brahman named Govinda- 
datta, and he had a wife, Agnidatta, who was devoted to her 
husband. In course of time that Brahman had five sons by 
her. And they, being handsome but stupid, grew up insolent 
fellows. Then a guest came to the house of Govindadatta, a 
Brahman, Vaisvanara by name, like a second god of fire. 2 
As Govindadatta was away from home when he arrived, he 
came and saluted his sons, and they only responded to his 
salute with a laugh ; then that Brahman in a rage prepared 
to depart from his house. While he was in this state of wrath 
Govindadatta came, and asked the cause, and did his best to 
appease him ; but the excellent Brahman nevertheless spoke 
as follows : " Your sons have become outcasts, as being 
blockheads, and you have lost caste by associating with them, 
therefore I will not eat in your house ; if I did so I should 
not be able to purify myself by any expiatory ceremony.'* 
Then Govindadatta said to him with an oath : "I will never 
even touch these wicked sons of mine." His hospitable wife 
also came and said the same to her guest ; then Vaisvanara 
was with difficulty induced to accept their hospitality. One 

1 Brockhaus renders it: " Fromme, Helden und Weise." 

2 Vaisvanara is an epithet of Agni, or Fire. 


of Govindadatta's sons, named Devadatta, when he saw that, 
was grieved at his father's sternness, and, thinking a life of 
no value which was thus branded by his parents, went in a 
state of despondency to the hermitage of Badarika to per- 
form penance ; there he first ate leaves, and afterwards he 
fed only on smoke, persevering in a long course of austerities 1 
in order to propitiate the husband of Uma. 2 So Sambhu, 2 
won over by his severe austerities, manifested himself to 
him, and he craved a boon from the god, that he might ever 
attend upon him. Sambhu thus commanded him : " Acquire 
learning, and enjoy pleasures on the earth, and after that 
thou shalt attain all thy desire." Then he, eager for learning, 
went to the city of Pataliputra, and according to custom 
waited on an instructor named Vedakumbha. When he was 
there, the wife of his preceptor, distracted by passion, which 
had arisen in her heart, made violent love to him. Alas ! the 
fancies of women are ever inconstant. Accordingly Deva- 
datta left that place, as his studies had been thus interfered 
with by the God of Love, and went to Pratishthana with un- 
wearied zeal. There he repaired to an old preceptor named 
Mantrasvamin, with an old wife, and acquired a perfect know- 
ledge of the sciences. And after he had acquired learning 

1 The amazing austerities of Hindu ascetics have been witnessed by 
nearly every traveller in India. The term tapas is applied to such penance, 
while sadhu is the usual word for an ascetic. The history of asceticism is 
interesting and may be looked upon as a revolt from the tyranny of caste. 
The forms of mortification vary. They include mutilations of all kinds, and in 
every part of the body lying on a bed of spikes (Monier Williams mentions a 
Brahman who lay naked on one of these beds for thirty-five years) ; totally 
renouncing washing, cutting the hair, etc. ; fasting for great lengths of time ; 
lying surrounded by fires, with the burning sun overhead ; hanging upside down 
from a tree or remaining standing on the head for long periods ; lying in a 
bath of red-hot coals ; remaining in a position with hands raised, so that they 
become atrophied ; clenching the fists for so long that the nails grow through 
the palms of the hands ; eating hot coals ; being buried alive ; remaining in 
water for long periods ; keeping silent till the power of speech is lost ; and 
many other such astounding austerities. For fuller details reference should 
be made to The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India, J. C. Oman ; the article 
" Asceticism," by F. C. Conybeare, in the Ency. Brit. (vol. ii, p. 717 et seq.), 
and that on " Asceticism (Hindu)," by A. S. Geden, in Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
vol. ii, p. 87 et seq. n.m.p. 

2 Siva. 


the daughter of the King Susarman, Sri by name, cast 
eyes upon the handsome youth, as the goddess Sri upon 
Vishnu. He also beheld that maiden at a window, looking 
like the presiding goddess of the moon, roaming through the 
air in a magic chariot. Those two were, as it were, fastened 
together by that look which was the chain of love, and were 
unable to separate. The king's daughter made him a sign to 
come near with one finger, looking like love's command in 
fleshly form. Then he came near her, and she came out of the 
women's apartments, and took with her teeth a flower and 
threw it down to him. He, not understanding this mysterious 
sign 1 made by the princess, puzzled as to what he ought 

1 The method of communicating by signs made with objects is widely 
distributed through the East, and has also been noticed in different parts of 
Africa and America. The seclusion of women in the East, their ignorance of 
writing and the risk of conveying a letter to an admirer was quite sufficient 
to create a necessity for the language of signs, so that the maiden peeping 
through her lattice of meshrebiya could convey messages quickly and discreetly 
to her lover or the passing stranger. 

Consequently we find the language of signs largely introduced into 
Eastern fiction. A curious fact is that the man to whom the signs are made 
never understands them, but has them interpreted by a friend or teacher. 
This is the case in our story of Devadatta, and also in two stories in the Nights 
(see Burton, vol. ii, p. 302 et seq., and vol. ix, p. 269). In the first of these 
stories, that of " Aziz and Azizah," are numerous examples of the sign language. 
The following may be quoted : The woman appears at the window with a 
mirror and a red kerchief. She then " bared her forearms and opened her 
five fingers and smote her breast with palms and digits ; and after this she 
raised her hands and, holding the mirror outside the wicket, she took the red 
kerchief and retired into the room with it, but presently returned and putting 
out her hand with the kerchief, let it down towards the lane three several 
times, dipping it and raising it as often. Then she wrung it out and folded it 
in her hands, bending down her head the while ; after which she drew it in 
from the lattice and, shutting the wicket-shutter, went away without a single 
word." The explanation is, the sign with her palm and five fingers : " Return 
after five days ; and the putting forth of her head out of the window, and her 
gestures with the mirror and the letting down and raising up and wringing 
out of the red kerchief, signify, Sit in the dyer's shop till my messenger come 
to thee." After similar other messages our hero meets the lady, but always 
goes to sleep while waiting for her. Each time on awakening he finds she has 
been, and deposited objects on his body while asleep. On one occasion he 
finds lying on his stomach a cube of bone, a single tip-cat stick, the stone of a 
green date and a carob-pod. The meaning of these articles is : M By the single 


to do, went home to his preceptor. There he rolled on the 
ground unable to utter a word, being consumed within with 
burning pain, like one dumb and distracted ; his wise pre- 
ceptor guessing what was the matter by these love symptoms, 
artfully questioned him, and at last he was with difficulty 
persuaded to tell the whole story. Then the clever preceptor 

tip-cat stick and the cube of bone which she placed upon thy stomach she saith 
to thee, Thy body is present but thy heart is absent ; and she meaneth, Love 
is not thus : so do not reckon thyself among lovers. As for the date-stone, it 
is as if she said to thee, An thou wert in love thy heart would be burning with 
passion and thou wouldst not taste the delight of sleep ; for the sweet of love 
is like a green date which kindleth a coal of fire in the vitals. As for the 
carob-pod, it signifies to thee, The lover's heart is wearied ; and thereby she 
saith, Be patient under our separation with the patience of Job." 

Lane (Arabian Nights, i, 608, and Arabian Society in the Middle Ages, p. 130} 
says that the art of sign language was first " made known to Europeans by ai 
Frenchman, M. du Vigneau, in a work entitled Secretaire Turc, contenant VArt 
d'exprimer ses pensees sans se voir, sans se parler, et sans s'ecrire : Paris, 1688 : 
in-12. Von Hammer has also given an interesting paper on this subject in 
the Mines de l' Orient, No. 1 : Vienna, 1809 (note to Marcel's Contes du Cheykh 
El-Mohdy, iii, 327, 328: Paris, 1833)." He gives an example of messages 
answered in the same manner. It is well worth quoting : i( An Arab lover 
sent to his mistress a fan, a bunch of flowers, a silk tassel, some sugar-candy, 
and a piece of cord of a musical instrument ; and she returned for answer a 
piece of an aloe-plant, three black cumin-seeds, and a piece of plant used in 
washing. His communication is thus interpreted. The fan, being called 
mirwahah, a word derived from a root which has among its meanings that of 
( going to any place in the evening,' signified his wish to pay her an evening 
visit : the flowers, that the interview should be in her garden : the tassel, 
being called shurrabeh, that they should have sharab (or wine) : the sugar-candy, 
being termed sukkar nebat, and nebat also signifying ( we will pass the night/ 
denoted his desire to remain in her company until the morning : and the 
piece of cord, that they should be entertained by music. The interpretation 
of her answer is as follows. The piece of an aloe-plant, which is called 
sabbarah (from sabr, which signifies patience because it will live for many 
months together without water), implied that he must wait : the three black 
cumin-seeds explained to him that the period of delay should be three 
nights : and the plant used in washing informed him that she should then 
have gone to the bath, and would meet him." 

Similar sign language occurs in Swynnerton, Indian Nights' Entertainments, 
p. 167 et seq. See also Stein and Grierson, Hatims Tales, 1923, pp. 21, 22, 
where in the story of the goldsmith the lady turns her back, shows a mirror, 
throws some water, a posy of flowers and a hair out of the window. Finally 
she scratches the sill of the window with an iron stiletto. All this means that 
someone else was in the room, but that he can meet her by the water-drain in 


guessed the riddle, and said to him 2 : " By letting drop a 
flower with her tooth she made a sign to you that you were 
to go to this temple rich in flowers, called Pushpadanta, and 
wait there ; so you had better go now." When he heard this 
and knew the meaning of the sign, the youth forgot his grief. 
Then he went into that temple and remained there. The 
princess on her part also went there, giving as an excuse 
that it was the eighth day of the month, and then entered the 
inner shrine in order to present herself alone before the god ; 
then she touched her lover, who was behind the panel of the 
door, and he suddenly springing up threw his arms round her 
neck. She exclaimed : " This is strange ; how did you guess 
the meaning of that sign of mine ? J ' He replied : "It was 

the garden and must be prepared to file through iron railings. At the moment 
she was combing her hair. 

The ancient Peruvians used knotted strings, called quipus, in a most 
elaborate manner, the colour chosen usually denoting objects and the knots 
numbers, The system is still found in the north of South America. For 
full details and excellent illustrations see J. L. Locke, The Ancient Quipu, 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, New York, 1923. 

The Australian message-stick is merely an aid to memory when conveying 
a message. In China chopsticks are sometimes used as a means of giving 
instructions in code, but here we are nearly touching on signalling in the 
modern sense of the word, which is outside our note. 

The language of signs has a distinct connection with the British rule 
in India, for it was employed by the natives at the outbreak of the Indian 
Mutiny. In 1856 mysterious chupattees, or griddle-cakes, were circulated from 
village to village, while among the regiments a lotus-flower was passed round. 
Each man took it, looked at it and passed it on. The exact meaning of these 
symbols has never been explained. See " Secret Messages and Symbols used 
in India," Journ. Bihar and Orissa Research Soc, 1919* vol. v, pp. 451, 452. 
W. Crooke, the author of this article, gives instances of the use of sticks, twigs, 
spears, arrows, etc., used symbolically. After referring to the Nights he says 
that in India a leaf of pawn with betel and sweet spices inside, accompanied 
by a certain flower, means, " I love you." If much spice is put inside the leaf 
and one corner turned down in a peculiar way, it signifies " Come." If turmeric 
is added it means, " I cannot come," while the addition of a piece of charcoal 
means, " Go, I have done with you." (See T. H. Lewin, The Wild Races of 
South-Eastern India, p. 123.) n.m.p. 

1 Cf. the first story in the Vetala Panchavimsati, Chapter LXXV of this 
work. See also Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 241, where Prince Ivan by 
the help of his tutor Katoma propounds to the Princess Anna the fair a 
riddle which enables him to win her as his wife. 


my preceptor that found it out, not I." Then the princess 
flew into a passion and said, " Let me go ; you are a dolt," 
and immediately rushed out of the temple, fearing her secret 
would be discovered. Devadatta on his part went away, and 
thinking in solitude on his beloved, who was no sooner seen 
than lost to his eyes, was in such a state that the taper of his 
life was well-nigh melted away in the fire of bereavement. 
Siva, who had been before propitiated by him, commanded 
an attendant of his, of the name of Panchasikha, to procure 
for him the desire of his heart. That excellent Gana thereupon 
came and consoled him, and caused him to assume the dress 
of a woman, and he himself wore the semblance of an aged 
Brahman. Then that worthy Gana went with him to King 
Susarman, the father of that bright- eyed one, and said to 
him : " My son has been sent away somewhere, 1 I go to seek 
him ; accordingly I deposit with thee this daughter-in-law 
of mine; keep her safely, O king." Hearing that, King 
Susarman, afraid of a Brahman's curse, took the young man 
and placed him in his daughter's guarded seraglio, supposing 
him to be a woman. Then after the departure of Panchasikha 
the Brahman dwelt in woman's clothes in the seraglio of his 
beloved, and became her trusted confidant. Once on a time 
the princess was full of regretful longing at night, so he 
discovered himself to her and secretly married her by the 
gdndharva form of marriage. 2 And when she became preg- 
nant that excellent Gana came on his thinking of him only, 
and carried him away at night without its being perceived. 
Then he quickly rent off from the young man his woman's 
dress, and in the morning Panchasikha resumed the sem- 
blance of a Brahman ; and going with the young man to the 
King Susarman he said : " O king, I have this day found my 
son ; so give me back my daughter-in-law." Then the king, 
supposing that she had fled somewhere at night, alarmed at 
the prospect of being cursed by the Brahman, said this to his 
ministers : " This is no Brahman ; this is some god come to 
deceive me, for such things often happen in this world. 

1 The Durgaprasad text reads prositak, thus making a better reading: 
"my son is abroad somewhere." n.m.p. 

2 See note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


3a. Indra and King &ivi 

"So in former times there was a king named Sivi, self- 
denying, compassionate, generous, resolute, the protector of 
all creatures ; and in order to beguile him Indra assumed 
the shape of a hawk, and swiftly pursued Dharma, 1 who by 
magic had transformed himself into a dove. The dove in 
terror went and took refuge in the bosom of Sivi. Then the 
hawk addressed the king with a human voice : ' O king, this 
is my natural food; surrender the dove to me, for I am 
hungry. Know that my death will immediately follow if you 
refuse my prayer ; in that case where will be your righteous- 
ness ? ' Then Sivi said to the god : ' This creature has fled 
to me for protection, and I cannot abandon it, therefore I 
will give you an equal weight of some other kind of flesh.' 
The hawk said : ' If this be so, then give me your own flesh.' 
The king, delighted, consented to do so. But as fast as he cut 
off his flesh and threw it on the scale, the dove seemed to 
weigh more and more in the balance. Then the king threw 
his whole body on to the scale, and thereupon a celestial 
voice was heard : ' Well done ! This is equal in weight to the 
dove.' Then Indra and Dharma abandoned the form of 
hawk and dove and, being highly pleased, restored the body 
of King Sivi whole as before, and after bestowing on him 
many other blessings they both disappeared. In the same 
way this Brahman is some god that has come to prove me." 2 

1 The god of justice. 

2 Benfey considers this story as Buddhistic in its origin. In the Memoires 
sur les Contrees Occidentales traduits du Sanscrit par Hiouen Tlisang et du Chinois 
par Stanislas Julien we are expressly told that Gautama Buddha gave his flesh 
to the hawk as Sivi in a former state of existence. It is told of many other 
persons (see Benfey's Panchatantra, vol. i, p. 388 ; cf. also Campbell's West 
Highland Tales, vol. i, tale xvi, p. 239). M. Leveque (Les Mythes el Legendes 
de L'Inde, p. 327) connects this story with that of Philemon and Baucis. 
He lays particular stress upon the following lines of Ovid : 

" Unicus anser erat, minimee custodia villae, 
Quern Dls hospitibus domini mactare parabant : 
Ille celer penna tardos aetate fatigat, 
Eluditque diu, tandemque est visus ad ipsos 
Confugisse deos. Superi vetuere necari." 

See also Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, vol. ii, pp. 187, 297 and 414 


3. Story of Pushpadanta 

Having said this to his ministers, that King Susarman 
of his own motion said to that excellent Gana that had 
assumed the form of a Brahman, prostrating himself before 
him in fear : " Spare me. That daughter-in-law of thine was 
carried off last night. She has been taken somewhere or other 
by magic arts, though guarded night and day." Then the 
Gana, who had assumed the Brahman's semblance, pretend- 
ing to be with difficulty won over to pity him, said : " If 
this be so, king, give thy daughter in marriage to my son." 
When he heard this, the king, afraid of being cursed, gave 
his own daughter to Devadatta ; then Panchasikha departed. 
Then Devadatta having recovered his beloved, and that in 
an open manner, flourished in the power and splendour of 
his father-in-law, who had no son but him. And in course 
of time Susarman anointed the son of his daughter by 
Devadatta, Mahidhara by name, as successor in his room, 
and retired to the forest. Then having seen the prosperity 
of his son, Devadatta considered that he had attained all 
his objects, and he too, with the princess, retired to the forest. 
There he again propitiated Siva, and having laid aside his 
mortal body, by the special favour of the god he attained 
the position of a Gana. Because he did not understand the 
sign given by the flower dropped from the tooth of his be- 
loved, therefore he became known by the name of Pushpa- 
danta in the assembly of the Ganas. And his wife became a 
doorkeeper in the house of the goddess, under the name of 
Java. This is how he came to be called Pushpadanta. Now 
hear the origin of my name. 

4. Story of Mdlyavdn 

Long ago I was a son of that same Brahman called 
Govindadatta, the father of Devadatta, and my name was 

and compare how the Persian hero Hatim Tai cuts a slice of flesh from his 
own thigh to feed a wolf who was in pursuit of a milch-doe. See Clouston's 
Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. i, pp. 241, 242, and especially the article 
by Dames and Joyce in Man, Feb. 1913, pp. 17-19- n.m.p. 


Somadatta. I left my home indignant for the same reason 
as Devadatta, and I performed austerities on the Himalaya, 
continually striving to propitiate Siva with offerings of many 
garlands. The god of the moony crest, being pleased, revealed 
himself to me in the same way as he did to my brother, and 
I chose the privilege of attending upon him as a Gana, not 
being desirous of lower pleasures. The husband of the daughter 
of the mountain, that mighty god, thus addressed me : 
" Because I have been worshipped by thee with garlands of 
flowers growing in trackless forest regions, brought with 
thy own hand, therefore thou shalt be one of my Ganas, and 
shalt bear the name of Malyavan." Then I cast off my mortal 
frame and immediately attained the holy state of an attend- 
ant on the god. And so my name of Malyavan was bestowed 
upon me by him who wears the burden of the matted locks, 1 
as a mark of his special favour. And I, that very Malyavan, 
have once more, O Kanabhuti, been degraded to the state of 
a mortal, as thou seest, owing to the curse of the daughter 
of the mountain ; therefore do thou now tell me the tale told 
by Siva, in order that the state of curse of both of us may 

1 I.e. Siva. 



This form of marriage occurs in the Ocean of Story more frequently than 
any other. This may be due to the fact that our heroes are usually warriors 
and belong, therefore, to the Kshatriya caste, and it is for this caste that 
the gandharva form of marriage is particularly recommended. 

The name of the marriage is taken from the Gandharvas, who are spirits 
of the air, and are, moreover, very fond of beautiful women. Thus the 
nature of the marriage is explained the only witnesses are the spirits of 
the air, and the marriage itself is due to sexual attraction, sometimes quite 
sudden and unpremeditated. 

In the course of the present work the gandharva form of marriage occurs 
about a dozen times, and the context usually shows that those who parti- 
cipated realised a certain irregularity in their action, although they knew 
that they were "within the law." 

Thus we read "... and secretly married her by the ...";"... and 
secretly made her his wife by the ...";"... then they both became 
eager for the . . . " ; "... made the fair one forget her modesty, and 
married her by the ..." 

Manu {Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxv, by Biihler, 1886) first refers 
to this form of marriage in iii, 21-26, pp. 79-80. Speaking of the four 
original castes, or varnas (Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras), he 
says that they use eight marriage rites viz. brahma, daiva, arsha, prajapatya, 
asura, gandharva, rakshasa and paisacha; and (23) that the first six are 
lawful for a Brahman, and the last four for a Kshatriya, and the same 
four, excepting the rakshasa rite, for a Vaisya and a Sudra. Each rite is 
briefly described, and (in 32) we read : " The voluntary union of a maiden 
and her lover one must know (to be) the gandharva rite, which springs 
from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose." Later we learn 
that of the eight rites the first four are blameless and the last four blamable, 
and that (41) from the latter spring sons who are cruel and speakers of 
untruth, who hate the Veda and the sacred law. 

In the introduction to Sir R. F. Burton's Vikram and the Vampire, 1870, 
the dancing-girl Vasantasena marries the devotee by the gandharva rite. 
Burton adds the following note (p. 28): "This form of matrimony was 
recognised by the ancient Hindus, and is frequent in books. It is a kind 
of Scotch wedding ultra-Caledonian taking place by mutual consent, 
without any form or ceremony. The Gandharvas are heavenly minstrels of 
Indra's court, who are supposed to be witnesses." 

In his Principles of Hindu and Mohammedan Law, I860, Sir W. H. 
Macnaghten (p. 6*3) states that the gandharva form of marriage is " peculiar 
to the military tribe" (i.e. Kshatriyas), and suggests that the indulgence 
may have originated in principles similar to those by which, according both 
to the civil and English laws, soldiers are permitted to make nuncupative 


wills, and to dispose of their property without those forms which the law 
requires in other cases. 

John D. Mayne, dealing with the question in his Treatise on Hindu Law 
and Usage, 1878, compares the rakshasa and gandharva forms of marriage. 
He considers the latter is better than the former in that it assumes a state 
of society in which a friendly, though perhaps stealthy, intercourse was 
possible between man and woman before their union, and in which the 
inclinations of the female were consulted. He points out that in neither 
form of marriage was there anything to show that permanence was a 
necessary element in either transaction (pp. 66, 67). Speaking further 
on the subject Mayne says (p. 70) that the validity of a gandharva marriage 
was established in court in 1817, but that the definition seems to imply 
nothing more or less than fornication. 

Sripati Roy in his Customs and Customary Law in British India. Tagore Law 
Lectures, 1908, 1911, deals with the subject on pp. 288, 289- 

He states that the form of marriage is still prevalent among rajahs 
and chiefs, and that the ceremony consists in an exchange of garlands and 
flowers between the bride and bridegroom, without a nuptial tie, homam, 
and without the customary token of legal marriage, called pustelu, being 
tied round the neck of the bride. This form seems very similar to the 
svayamvara mentioned twice in the Ocean of Story, in which a garland is 
thrown on the neck of the favoured suitor. Readers will also remember 
the incident in the story of u Nala and Damayanti." 

In conclusion I would quote the classical example of the gandharva form 
of marriage which occurs in the Mahdbharata (section lxxiii, "Adiparva"), 
where King Dushyanta tries to persuade Princess Sakuntala with these 
words : u Let the whole of my kingdom be thine to-day, O beautiful one ! 
Come to me, O timid one, wedding me, O beautiful one, according to the 
gandharva form! O thou of tapering thighs! of all forms of marriage, the 
gandharva one is regarded as the first." 

Sakuntala demurs and speaks of fetching her father; whereupon King 
Dushyanta quotes Manu on the eight forms of marriage and shows she 
need have no apprehensions on the step he wants her to take as it is 
sanctioned by religion. She is persuaded, but stipulates that her son 
shall become the heir-apparent. This being agreed upon, the marriage 
takes place there and then. The king departs with a promise to send 
for Sakuntala later. 

Her father, Kanva, returns, and Sakuntala, filled with a sense of shame, 
does not go out to meet him. Her father, however, by his spiritual know- 
ledge, already knows all that has happened, and addresses her: "Amiable 
one, what hath been done by thee to-day in secret, without having waited 
for me viz. intercourse with man hath not been destructive of thy virtue. 
Indeed, union according to the gandharva form of a wishful woman with 
a man of sexual desire, without mantras of any kind, it is said, is the best 
for Kshatriyas . . ." (translated by P. C. Roy, new edition, 191 9, etc., 
part ii, pp. 150, 151, 152). 

The Gandharvas are described in Appendix I of this volume. n.m.p. 


IN accordance with this request of Gunadhya that heavenly 
[MI] tale consisting of seven stories was told by Kanabhuti 
in his own language, and Gunadhya for his part using 
the same Paisacha language threw them into seven hundred 
thousand couplets in seven years ; and that great poet, for 
fear that the Vidyadharas should steal his composition, 
wrote it with his own blood in the forest, not possessing ink. 
And so the Vidyadharas, Siddhas and other demigods came 
to hear it, and the heaven above where Kanabhuti was recit- 
ing was, as it were, continually covered with a canopy. And 
Kanabhuti, when he had seen that great tale composed 
by Gunadhya, was released from his curse and went to his 
own place. There were also other Pisachas that accompanied 
him in his wanderings : they too, all of them, attained heaven, 
having heard that heavenly tale. Then that great poet 
Gunadhya began to reflect : u I must make this Great Tale 1 
of mine current on the earth, for that is the condition that 
the goddess mentioned when she revealed how my course 
would end. Then how shall I make it current ? To whom 
shall I give it ? " Then his two disciples who had followed 
him, one of whom was called Gunadeva, and the other 
Nandideva, said to him : " The glorious Satavahana alone 
is a fit person to give this poem to, for, being a man of taste, 
he will diffuse the poem far and wide, as the wind diffuses the 
perfume of the flower." " So be it," said Gunadhya, and 
gave the book to those two accomplished disciples and sent 
them to that king with it ; and went himself to that same 
Pratishthana, but remained outside the city in the garden 
planted by the goddess, where he arranged that they should 
meet him. And his disciples went and showed the poem to 
King Satavahana, telling him at the same time that it was 
the work of Gunadhya. When he heard that Paisacha 

1 Brihat-Katha. 


language and saw that they had the appearance of Pisachas, 
that king, led astray by pride of learning, said with a sneer : 
" The seven hundred thousand couplets are a weighty 
authority, but the Paisacha language is barbarous, and the 
letters are written in blood. Away with this Paisacha tale." 
Then the two pupils took the book and returned by the 
way which they had come, and told the whole circumstance 
to Gunadhya. Gunadhya for his part, when he heard it, was 
immediately overcome with sorrow. Who indeed is not inly 
grieved when scorned by a competent authority ? Then he 
went with his disciples to a craggy hill at no great distance, 
in an unfrequented but pleasant spot, and first prepared a 
consecrated fire cavity. Then he took the leaves one by one, 
and after he had read them aloud to the beasts and birds, 
he flung them into the fire, while his disciples looked on 
with tearful eyes. But he reserved one story, consisting of 
one hundred thousand couplets, containing the history of 
Naravahanadatta, for the sake of his two disciples, as they 
particularly fancied it. And while he was reading out and 
burning that heavenly tale, all the deer, boars, buffaloes 
and other wild animals came there, leaving their pasturage, 
and formed a circle round him, listening with tears in their 
eyes, unable to quit the spot. 1 

In the meanwhile King Satavahana fell sick. And the 
physicians said that his illness was due to eating meat want- 
ing in nutritive qualities. And when the cooks were scolded 
for it they said : " The hunters bring in to us flesh of this 
kind." And when the hunters were taken to task they said : 
"Ona hill not very far from here there is a Brahman reading, 
who throws into a fire every leaf as soon as he has read it ; so 
all the animals go there and listen, without ever grazing ; they 
never wander anywhere else ; consequently this flesh of theirs 
is wanting in nutritive properties on account of their going 
without food." When he heard this speech of the hunters 
he made them show him the way, and out of curiosity went 
in person to see Gunadhya, and he beheld him, owing to his 
forest life, overspread with matted locks that looked like the 
smoke of the fire of his curse, that was almost extinguished. 

1 Compare the story of Orpheus. 


Then the king recognised him as he stood in the midst 
of the weeping animals, and after he had respectfully saluted 
him, he asked him for an explanation of all the circum- 
stances. That wise Brahman then related to the king in the 
language of the demons his own history as Pushpadanta, 
giving an account of the curse and all the circumstances 
which originated the descent of the tale to earth. Then the 
king, discovering that he was an incarnation of a Gana, 
bowed at his feet, and asked him for that celestial tale that 
had issued from the mouth of Siva. Then Gunadhya said 
to that King Satavahana : tc O king ! I have burnt six tales 
containing six hundred thousand couplets ; but there is one 
tale consisting of a hundred thousand couplets, take that, 1 
and these two pupils of mine shall explain it to you." So 
spake Gunadhya and took leave of the king, and then by 
strength of devotion laid aside his earthly body and, released 
from the curse, ascended to his own heavenly home. Then the 
king took that tale which Gunadhya had given, called Brihat 
Kathd, containing the adventures of Naravahanadatta, and 
went to his own city. And there he bestowed on Gunadeva 
and Nandideva, the pupils of the poet who composed that tale, 
lands, gold, garments, beasts of burden, palaces and treasures. 
And having recovered the sense of that tale with their help, 
Satavahana composed the book named Kathapitha, in order 
to show how the tale came to be first made known in the 
Paisacha language. Now that tale was so full of various 
interest that men were so taken with it as to forget the tales 
of the gods, and after producing that effect in the city it 
attained uninterrupted renown in the three worlds. 

1 It is unnecessary to remind the reader of the story of the Sibyl. 



As the Pisachas are dealt with in Appendix I at the end of this volume 
(see p. 205), it is only the so-called " Paisachi," or language of the Pisachas, 
with which we are here concerned. 

The language of the Pisachas is described as a kind of gibberish, and 
hence natives call the English language pisacha-bhasha, or "goblin language," 
as to them it appears only as gibberish. 

In the Mahabharata the Pisachas are described as a human race inhabiting 
N.W. India, the Himalaya and Central Asia. Moreover, Kashmir tradition 
connects their original home with an oasis in the Central Asian desert. 
There are two distinct streams of tradition concerning the language spoken 
by this tribe. The first is that in our text, while the other is derived from 
the works of Indian grammarians. 

The first of these, Vararuchi {circa sixth century a.d.), familiar to us from 
the Ocean of Story, speaks of only one Paisachi dialect, but by the time of 
Markandeya (seventeenth century) the number had increased to thirteen. 
This, however, includes many dialects which had no connection with Paisachi. 
Accordingly Sir George Grierson (see article " Pisachas," Hastings' Ency. 
Bel. Eth., vol. x, pp. 43-45) considers it safest to accept the statement of 
Hemachandra (thirteenth century), who states that there were at most 
three varieties. Although the later grammarians assign different localities 
all over India as to where the language was spoken, there is only one 
locality on which they are all agreed namely, Kekaya, a country on the east 
bank of the Indus, in the N.W. Panjab. 

Markandeya considers the Kekaya Paisachi to be without doubt the 
language of the Brihat-Katha, and consequently of the Ocean of Story, and 
makes quotations in support of his theory. As the forms of the dialect as 
described by Vararuchi closely agree with the Kekaya Paisachi, we may 
conclude that the language in our text belonged to the extreme N.W. corner 
of modern India. All scholars, however, are not agreed on this point. 

From a passage in Rajasekhara's (see No. 7 in list given below) 
Kavyamlmamsa Konow infers that in the ninth century the country in the 
neighbourhood of the Vindhya range was considered as the home of the 
old dialect of the Brihat-Katha. Grierson (see notes below), however, shows 
that there were two distinct schools, an eastern and a western one, and it 
is of the greatest importance to keep these strictly apart when attempting 
to determine the home of Paisachi. 

Readers wishing to study the different theories and to obtain further 
general information on the subject should see the following: 

1. G. A. Grierson, "Pisaca = '12/xo<ayos," in Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 1905, 
p. 285 et seq. 

2. S. Konow, "The Home of Paisaci," Zeitschrift der deutschen morgen- 
Idndischen Gesellschaft, 1910, lxiv, p. 95 et seq. 


3. G. A. Grierson, " Pisacas in the Mahabharata," in Festschrift fir Vilhelm 
Thomsen, Leipzig, 1912, p. 138 et seq. 

4. G. A. Grierson, " PaisacI, Pisacas, and Modern Pisacha,' " in Zeit. der 
deuts. morg. Gesell., 1912, lxvi, p. 68. 

5. A. A. Macdonell and A. B. Keith, Fedic Index of Names and Subjects, 
London, 1912, vol. i, p. 533. 

6. G. A. Grierson, Linguistic Survey of India : the Dardic or Pisacha 
Languages, Calcutta Government Press, 1919- 

7. S. Konow, "Rajasekhara and the Home of PaisacI," in Journ. Roy. 
As. Soc, April 1921, pp. 244-246. 

8. G. A. Grierson, "Rajasekhara and the Home of PaisacI," in Journ. Roy. 
As. Soc, July 1921, pp. 424-428. 

9. A. B. Keith, Classical Sanskrit Literature, Heritage of India Series, ] 923, 
pp. 90, 91. (Keith considers Grierson's reply to Konow ineffective.) n.m.p. 


This nectarous tale sprang in old time from the mouth of Siva, 
set in motion by his love for the daughter of the Himalaya, as 
the nectar of immortality sprang from the sea when churned by 
the mountain Mandara. Those who drink eagerly the nectar 
of this tale have all impediments removed and gain prosperity, 
and by the favour of Siva attain, while living upon earth, the 
high rank of gods. 



MAY the water of Siva's sweat, fresh from the em- 
brace of Gaurl, 1 which the God of Love when afraid 
of the fire of Siva's eye employs as his aqueous 
weapon, protect you. 

Listen to the following tale of the Vidyadharas, which the 
excellent Gana Pushpadanta heard on Mount Kailasa from 
the god of the matted locks, and which Kanabhiiti heard on 
the earth from the same Pushpadanta after he had become 
Vararuchi, and which Gunadhya heard from Kanabhuti, and 
Satavahana heard from Gunadhya. 

Story of Udayana, King of Vatsa 

[M] There is a land 2 famous under the name of Vatsa, 
that appears as if it had been made by the Creator as an 
earthly rival to dash the pride of heaven. In the centre of it 
is a great city named Kausambi, the favourite dwelling-place 
of the Goddess of Prosperity ; the ear-ornament, so to speak, 

1 I.e. Durga. 

2 At last the Ocean of Story really commences. n.m.p. 



of the earth. In it dwelt a king named Satanika, sprung from 
the Pandava family ; he was the son of Janamejaya, and the 
grandson of King Parikshit, who was the great-grandson of 
Abhimanyu. The first progenitor of his race was Arjuna, 
the might of whose strong arm was tested in a struggle with 
the mighty arms of Siva x ; his wife was the earth, and also 
Vishnumati his queen : the first produced jewels, but the 
second did not produce a son. Once on a time, as that king 
was roaming about in his passion for the chase, he made 
acquaintance in the forest with the hermit Sandilya. That 
worthy sage, finding out that the king desired a son, came 
to Kausambi and administered to his queen an artfully 
prepared oblation 2 consecrated with mystic verses. Then he 
had a son born to him called Sahasranika. And his father 
was adorned by him as excellence is by modesty. Then in 
course of time Satanika made that son crown prince and, 
though he still enjoyed kingly pleasures, ceased to trouble 
himself about the cares of government. Then a war arose 
between the gods and Asuras, and Indra sent Matali as a 
messenger to that king begging for aid. Then he committed 
his son and his kingdom to the care of his principal minister, 
who was called Yogandhara, and his commander-in-chief, 
whose name was Supratlka, and went to Indra with Matali 
to slay the Asuras in fight. That king, having slain many 
Asuras, of whom Yamadamshtra was the chief, under the 
eyes of Indra, met death in that very battle. The king's body 
was brought back by Matali, and the queen burnt herself with 
it, and the royal dignity descended to his son Sahasranika. 
Wonderful to say, when that king ascended his father's 
throne the heads of the kings on every side of his dominions 
were bent down with the weight. Then Indra sent Matali, 
and brought to heaven that Sahasranika, as being the son 
of his friend, that he might be present at the great feast which 

1 I believe this refers to Arjuna's combat with the god when he had 
assumed the form of a Kirata, or mountaineer. Siva is here called Tripurari, 
the enemy or destroyer of Tripura. Dr Brockhaus renders it quite differently. 

2 Composed of rice, milk, sugar and spices. For similar child-giving 

drinks see L. B. Day's Folk-Tales of Bengal, p. 187, and Knowles' Folk-Tales 
of Kashmir, pp. 131 and 41 6. Cf also the child-giving mango in Freer's Old 
Deccafi Bays, p. 254. n.m.p. 


he was holding to celebrate his victory over his foes. There 
the king saw the gods, attended by their fair ones, sporting 
in the garden of Nandana, and desiring for himself a suitable 
wife, fell into low spirits. Then Indra, perceiving this desire 
of his, said to him : " King, away with despondency ; this 
desire of thine shall be accomplished. For there has been 
born upon the earth one who was long ago ordained a suitable 
match for thee. For listen to the following history, which I 
now proceed to relate to thee : 

"Long ago I went to the Court of Brahma in order to 
visit him, and a certain Vasu named Vidhuma followed me. 
While we were there an Apsaras named Alambusha came to 
Udayanas see Brahma, and her robe was blown aside by 
Parents the wind. And the Vasu when he beheld her 

was overpowered by love, and the Apsaras too had her eyes 
immediately attracted by his form. The lotus-sprung god 1 
when he beheld that looked me full in the face, and I, know- 
ing his meaning, in wrath cursed those two : ' Be born, you 
two shameless creatures, into the world of mortals, and 
there become man and wife.' That Vasu has been born as 
thou, Sahasranika, the son of Satanlka, an ornament to the 
race of the moon. And that Apsaras too has been born in 
Ayodhya, as the daughter of King Kritavarman, Mrigavati 
by name, she shall be thy wife." 

By these words of Indra the flame of love was fanned in 
the passionate 2 heart of the king and burst out into full 
blaze ; as a fire when fanned by the wind. Indra then dis- 
missed the king from heaven with all due honour in his own 
chariot, and he set out with Matali 3 for his capital. But as 
he was starting the Apsaras Tilottama said to him out of 
affection : " King, I have somewhat to say to thee ; wait a 
moment." But he, thinking on Mrigavati, went off without 
hearing what she said ; then Tilottama in her rage cursed him : 
" King, thou shalt be separated for fourteen years from her 
who has so engrossed thy mind that thou dost not hear my 

1 Brahma. He emerges from a lotus growing from the navel of Vishnu. 

2 In the word sasnehe there is probably a pun, sneha meaning "love/' 
and also "oil." 

3 The charioteer of Indra. 


speech." Now Matali heard that curse, but the king, yearning 
for his beloved, did not. In the chariot he went to Kausambi, 
but in spirit he went to Ayodhya. Then the king told with 
longing heart all that he had heard from Indra with reference 
to Mrigavati to his ministers, Yogandhara and the others ; 
and not being able to endure delay, he sent an ambassador 
to Ayodhya to ask her father Kritavarman for the hand 
of that maiden. And Kritavarman having heard from the 
ambassador his commission, told in his joy the Queen 
Kalavati, and then she said to him : " King, we ought cer- 
tainly to give Mrigavati to Sahasranika, and, I remember, 
a certain Brahman told me this very thing in a dream." 
Then in his delight the king showed to the ambassador 
Mrigavati 's wonderful skill in dancing, singing and other 
accomplishments, and her matchless beauty ; so the King 
Kritavarman gave to Sahasranika that daughter of his who 
was unequalled as a mine of graceful arts, and who shone like 
an incarnation of the moon. That marriage of Sahasranika 
and Mrigavati was one in which the good qualities of either 
party supplemented those of the other, and might be 
compared to the union of learning and intelligence. 

Not long after sons were born to the king's ministers ; 
Yogandhara had a son born to him named Yaugandharayana ; 
and Supratika had a son born to him named Human vat. 
Tilottamas And to the king's master of the revels was born 
Curse fulfilled a son named Vasantaka. Then in a few days 
Mrigavati became slightly pale and promised to bear 
a child to King Sahasranika. And then she asked the 
king, who was never tired of looking at her, to gratify her 
longing x by filling a tank of blood for her to bathe in. 2 

1 On the curious motif of the longings of pregnancy see Appendix III 
at the end of the volume. n.m.p. 

2 For illustrations of this bath of blood see Dunlop's Liebrecht, p. 135, 
and the note at the end of the book. The story of "Der arme Heinrich," 
to which Liebrecht refers, is to be found in the sixth volume of Simrock's 

Deutsche VolksbUcher. Compare also the story of " Amys and Amylion," Ellis' 

Early English Romances, pp. 597, 598 ; the Pentamerone of Basile (ninth diversion, 
third day ; Burton, vol. ii, p. 318); Prym and Socin's Syrische Marchen, p. IS ; 
Grohmann's Sagen aus Bohmen, p. 268 ; Gonzenbach's Sicilianische Marchen, 
p. 354, with Dr Kohler's notes ; and Schiefner and Ralston's Tibetan Tales, 



Accordingly the king, who was a righteous man, in order to 
gratify her desire, had a tank filled with the juice of lac and 
other red extracts, so that it seemed to be full of blood. And 
while she was bathing in that lake, and covered with red dye, 
a bird of the race of Garuda 1 suddenly pounced upon her 
and carried her off, thinking she was raw flesh. As soon as 
she was carried away in some unknown direction by the bird 
the king became distracted, and his self-command forsook 
him as if in order to go in search of her. His heart was so 
attached to his beloved that it was in very truth carried off 
by that bird, and thus he fell senseless upon the earth. As 
soon as he had recovered his senses, Matali, who had dis- 
covered all by his divine power, descended through the air 
and came where the king was. He consoled the king, and told 
him the curse of Tilottama with its destined end, as he had 
heard it long ago, and then he took his departure. Then the 
king, tormented with grief, lamented on this wise : " Alas, my 

p. 60 ; Trumbull, in The Blood Covenant, p. 116 et seq. y notes that the blood- 
bath was considered a cure for leprosy from ancient Egypt to the Middle 
Ages. For numerous strange examples see Strack, Das Blut im Glauben und 
Aberglauben der Menschheit, Miinchen, 1900. 

The belief in the magical properties and general potency of blood, both 
human and animal, is nearly universal. Besides the blood-covenant, the power 
contained in blood is acquired by drinking, external application, and being 
baptized in blood. In China charms against disease are written in blood. 
For full details see H. W. Robinson's article, " Blood," in Hastings' Ency. Rel. 
Eth, vol. ii, p. 714 et seq. 

In German folk-tales (Grimm, Household Tales, i, 396) leprosy is cured 
by bathing in the blood of innocent maidens. The blood of virgins appears 
to have been especially potent, for Constantine the Great was advised to bathe 
in children's blood to cure a certain complaint, but owing to the parents' cries 
he decided not to do it, with the result that he was miraculously cured. 
Crooke (Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. ii, pp. 172, 173) relates actual facts 
to show how largely such beliefs prevail in India: "In 1870 a Musalman 
butcher losing his child was told by a Hindu conjurer that if he washed his 
wife in the blood of a boy his next infant would be healthy. To ensure this 
result a child was murdered. A similar case occurred in MuzafFarnagar, where 
a child was killed and the blood drunk by a barren woman." About 1896 at 
the same locality " a childless Jat woman was told that she would attain her 
desire if she bathed in water mixed with the blood of a Brahman child. A 
Hindu coolie at Mauritius bathed in and drank the blood of a girl, thinking 
that thereby he would be gifted with supernatural powers." n.m.p. 

1 See note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


beloved, that wicked Tilottama has accomplished her desire." 
But having learned the facts about the curse, and having 
received advice from his ministers, he managed, though with 
difficulty, to retain his life through hope of a future reunion. 

But that bird which had carried off Mrigavati, as soon 
as it found out that she was alive, abandoned her, and, as fate 
would have it, left her on the mountain where the sun rises. 
And when the bird let her drop and departed, the queen, 
distracted with grief and fear, saw that she was left un- 
protected on the slope of a trackless mountain. While she was 
weeping in the forest, alone, with only one garment to cover 
her, an enormous serpent rose up and prepared to swallow 
her. Then she for whom prosperity was reserved in the future 
was delivered by some heavenly hero who came down and 
slew the serpent and disappeared almost as soon as he was 
seen. Thereupon she, longing for death, flung herself down 
in front of a wild elephant, but even he spared her as if out 
of compassion. Wonderful was it that even a wild beast did 
not slay her when she fell in his way ! Or rather it was not 
to be wondered at. What cannot the will of Siva effect ? 

Then the girl, tardy with the weight of her womb, desiring 
to hurl herself down from a precipice, and thinking upon 
that lord of hers, wept aloud ; and a hermit's son, who 
The Birth of had wandered there in search of roots and fruits, 
Udayana hearing that, came up, and found her looking like 
the incarnation of sorrow. And he, after questioning the 
queen about her adventures, and comforting her as well as 
he could, with a heart melted with compassion led her off to 
the hermitage of Jamadagni. There she beheld Jamadagni, 
looking like the incarnation of comfort, whose brightness so 
illumined the eastern mountain that it seemed as if the 
rising sun ever rested on it. When she fell at his feet, that 
hermit who was kind to all who came to him for help, and 
possessed heavenly insight, said to her who was tortured with 
the pain of separation : " Here there shall be born to thee, 
my daughter, a son who shall uphold the family of his father, 
and thou shalt be reunited to thy husband; therefore weep 
not." When that virtuous woman heard that speech of the 
hermit's she took up her abode in that hermitage, and 


entertained hope of a reunion with her beloved. And some days 
after the blameless one gave birth to a charmingly beautiful 
son, as association with the good produces good manners. 
At that moment a voice was heard from heaven : " An 
august king of great renown has been born, Udayana by 
name, and his son shall be monarch of all the Vidyadharas." 
That voice restored to the heart of Mrigavati joy which she 
had long forgotten. Gradually that boy grew up to size and 
strength in that grove of asceticism, accompanied by his own 
excellent qualities as playmates. And the heroic child had 
the sacraments appropriate to a member of the warrior caste 
performed for him by Jamadagni, and was instructed by him 
in the sciences and the practice of archery. And out of love 
for him Mrigavati drew off from her own wrist, and placed 
on his, a bracelet marked with the name of Sahasranika. 

Then that Udayana, roaming about once upon a time in 
pursuit of deer, beheld in the forest a snake that had been 
forcibly captured by a Savara. 1 And he, feeling pity for the 
Savara and beautiful snake, said to that Savara : " Let go 
the Snake this snake to please me." Then that Savara said : 
" My lord, this is my livelihood, for I am a poor man, and I 
always maintain myself by exhibiting dancing snakes. The 
snake I previously had having died, I searched through the 
great wood, and finding this one, overpowered him by charms 
and captured him." When he heard this, the generous Udayana 
gave that Savara the bracelet which his mother had bestowed 
on him, and persuaded him to set the snake at liberty. The 
Savara took the bracelet and departed, and then the snake, 
being pleased with Udayana, bowed before him and said as 
follows : " I am the eldest brother of Vasuki, 2 called Vasu- 
nemi : receive from me, whom thou hast preserved, this 
lute, sweet in the sounding of its strings, divided according 
to the division of the quarter-tones, and betel leaf, together 
with the art of weaving unfading garlands and adorning 
the forehead with marks that never become indistinct." 
Then Udayana, furnished with all these, and dismissed by 

1 A wild mountaineer. Dr Buhler observes that the names of these 
tribes are used very vaguely in Sanskrit story-books. 

2 Sovereign of the snakes. 



the snake, returned to the hermitage of Jamadagni, raining 
nectar, so to speak, into the eyes of his mother. 1 

In the meantime that Savara who had lighted on this 
forest, and while roaming about in it had obtained the 
bracelet from Udayana by the will of fate, was caught 
attempting to sell this ornament, marked with the king's 
name, in the market, and was arrested by the police, and 

1 Eastern fiction abounds in stories of grateful and ungrateful snakes 
We shall come across more such stories in later volumes of this work. 
They are usually of Buddhist origin, and we find numerous snake stories 
in the Jatakas {e.g. "The Saccarhkira," No. 73, which is found in vol. i, p. 177 
et seq., of the Cambridge edition). In this story the snake is one of a 
trio of grateful animals, and presents the hermit with forty crores of gold. 
See the story of Aramacobha and the grateful snake in the Kathakoca 
(Tawney's translation, p. 85 et seq.). In Kaden's Unter den Olivenb'dumen there 
is a similar snake in the story of "Lichtmess." Compare the tale of the 
goldsmith's adventure with the tiger, the ape and the snake in Katila wa 
Dimna, and the Pali variant from the " Rasavahini Jambudlpa " story in The 
Orientalist for November 1884. In some cases after the man has helped 
the snake, the latter attempts to bite him, or forces from him some promise 
of self-sacrifice at a later date. 

For examples of such stories see Clouston's Eastern Romances, p. 231, 
where in the Tamil Alakesa Katha is the story of the "Brahman and the 
Rescued Snake." In this case the snake gives the jewel from its head, 
which he is bidden to give his wife and then return to be devoured. On 
the honest man's returning the snake repents of its ingratitude and gives 
a second jewel. Compare the famous story of the snake in "Nala and 
Damayanti." See also J. Jacob's JEsop, Ro. ii, 10, p. 40, and his Indian Fairy 
Tales, pp. 246 and 247. 

In the second story of Old Deccan Days (p. 21) a grateful cobra creates a 
palace twenty-four miles square. 

In Arabian fiction we find the grateful snake in the Nights (Burton, 
vol. i, p. 173; vol. ix, p. 330). In both these stories the snake is rescued 
from a pursuing dragon. See also Chauvin (op. cit., v, p. 5). 

In Europe we find many stories of the grateful snake. In the Bohemian 
version of M. Leger's Slav Tales, No. 15, the youngest son befriends a dog, 
cat and serpent. The latter gives him a magic watch resembling Aladdin's 
lamp. In the ninth of M. Dozon's Contes Albanais the reward is a stone 
which, when rubbed, summons a black man who grants all desires. In a 
popular Greek tale in Holin's collection the reward is a seal ring which, when 
licked, summons a black man, as in the Albanian story. (See Clouston, Popular 
Tales and Fictions, vol. i, pp. 226, 227, 228, 231, 321-325.) 

Finally compare the tale of Guido and the Seneschal, entitled "Of 
Ingratitude," in the Gesta Romanorum (Swan's edition, vol. ii, p. 141, 
No. 39). n.m.p. 


brought up in court before the King. Then King Sahasra- 
nika himself asked him in sorrow whence he had obtained 
the bracelet. Then that Savara told him the whole story of 
his obtaining possession of the bracelet, beginning with his 
capture of the snake upon the eastern mountain. Hearing 
that from the Savara, and beholding that bracelet of his 
beloved, King Sahasranika ascended the swing of doubt. 

Then a divine voice from heaven delighted the king, who 
was tortured with the fire of separation, as do the raindrops the 
peacock when afflicted with the heat, uttering these words : 
" Thy curse is at an end, O king, and that wife of thine, 
Mrigavati, is residing in the hermitage of Jamadagni together 
with thy son." Then that day at last came to an end, though 
being made long by anxious expectation, and on the morrow 
that King Sahasranika, making the Savara show him the 
way, set out with his army for that hermitage on the eastern 
mountain, in order quickly to recover his beloved wife. 



The Garuda bird is the vehicle of Vishnu. It is described as half-man 
and half-bird, having the head, wings, beak and talons of an eagle, and human 
body and limbs, its face being white, its wings red and its body golden. 

Garuda is the son of one of the daughters of Daksha. The account of 
its miraculous birth and how it became the vehicle of Vishnu is given at the 
beginning of the Mahabharata (I, xvi). Other adventures in its life, such as 
the attempt to stop Ravana from abducting Sita, are described in the Ramdyana 
and the Vishnu Purana. 

As we shall see in Appendix I, Garuda is an enemy of the Nagas (snakes), 
and in this connection it is interesting to note that in the well-known story 
of "Sindbad the Sailor" the roc is represented as attacking gigantic snakes. 
From Rig-Veda days it is obvious that the sun is meant when reference is 
made to Garuda, and the myth in the Mahabharata confirms this. Garuda also 
bears the name of Suparna, which is a word used for the bird-genii appearing 
in rock-carvings, etc. 

Gigantic birds that feed on raw flesh are mentioned by the Pseudo- 
Callisthenes, Book II, chapter xli. Alexander gets on the back of one of 
them and is carried into the air, guiding his bird by holding a piece of liver 
in front of it. He is warned by a winged creature in human shape to proceed 
no farther, and descends again to earth. See also Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. 143 
and note. See also Birlinger, Aus Schivaben, pp. 5, 6, 7. He compares 
Pacolet's horse in the story of Valentine and Orson. A Wundervogel is found 
among nearly every nation. It is best known to Europeans under the form 
roc, or more correctly rukh, owing to its appearance as such in the second 
voyage of Sindbad (see Burton's Nights, vol. vi, pp. 16, 17 and 49). See 
Ad-Damiri's Hay at al-Hayaivan (zoological lexicon), trans, by A. Jayakar, 
1906, vol. i, pp. 856, 857. 

In Persia we find the bird was originally known as amru, or (in the Minoi- 
Khiradh) sinamru, which shakes the fruit from the tree bearing the seed of 
all things useful to mankind. In later Persian times it is called simurgh and 
becomes the foster-father of Zal, whose son was the Persian hero Rustam 
(see Sykes' History of Persia, 2nd edition, 1921, vol. i, p. 136). The word roc 
is also Persian and has many meanings, including "cheek " (e.g. Lalla Rookh), 
" hero " or " soldier," u tower " or ( ' castle " (hence the piece " rook " in chess), 
a "rhinoceros," etc. 

In Arabia the bird is called 'anqa (" long-necked "), and has borrowed some 
of its features from the phoenix, that curious bird which Herodotus describes 
(ii, 73) as coming to Egypt from Arabia every five hundred years. (See 
Ad-Damiri, op. cit., vol. ii, part i, p. 401, and the Ency. of Islam, under 
"'anka.") Other curious myths connected with the phoenix (which has been 
identified with the stork, heron or egret, called benu by the ancient 
Egyptians) will be found in Pliny (Nat. Hist., x, 2), Tacitus (Ann., vi, 28) 


and Physiologus (q.v.). The benu has been found to be merely a symbol 
of the rising sun, but it hardly seems sufficient to account for the very rare 
visits of the phoenix to Egypt (see article " Phoenix," Ency. Brit., vol. xxi, 
pp. 457, 458). 

It is interesting to note that not only the Indian Garuda, but also the other 
great bird (half-eagle and half-lion) of classical antiquity, the griffin, was 
connected with the sun, and furthermore was a guardian of precious stones, 
which reminds us of the tales of the rukh whose resting-place is covered with 

Tracing the huge-bird myth in other lands, we find it as the hatthilinga in 
Buddhaghosa's Fables, where it has the strength of five elephants. In a trans- 
lation of these parables from the Burmese by T. Rogers, which is really a 
commentary on the Dhammapada, or " Path of Virtue," we find a story very 
similar to that in the Ocean of Story. Queen Samavati is pregnant, and her 
husband, King Parantapa, gives her a large red cloak to wear. She goes out 
wearing this cloak, and just at that moment a hatthilinga flies down from the 
sky, and mistaking the queen for a piece of raw meat snatches her up and 
disappears in the sky again. 

This fabulous bird becomes the eorosh of the Zend, the bar yuchre of the 
Rabbinical legends, the kargas or kerkes of the Turks, the gryps of the Greeks, 
and the norlca of the Russians (see Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 73, with 
the numerous bibliographical references on p. 80). 

In Japan there is the pheng or kirni, while in China most writers cite the 
sacred dragon. This, however, seems to me to be quite incongruous. I think 
the an-si-tsio or Parthian bird is much more likely to be the origin of Chinese 
bird myths. It is simply the ostrich, which was introduced to the Court of 
China from Parthia in the second century a.d. (see H6u-Han-shu, 88, and 
Hirth, China and Roman Orient, 39). The Chinese traveller Chau Ju-Kua in his 
Chu-fan-ch'i, a work on Chinese and Arab trade of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, speaks of Pi-p'a-lo (i.e. Berbera) as producing the "camel-crane," 
"which measures from the ground to its crown from six to seven feet. It has 
wings and can fly, but not to any great height." For other references to the 
"camel-bird" see Henri Cordier's Notes and Addenda to the Book ofSer Marco 
Polo, 1920, pp. 122, 123. 

Many of the encounters with these enormous birds are reported to have 
been made at sea, usually during a terrific storm, but sometimes in a dead 
calm. Ibn Batuta gives a description of such an encounter (see Yule and 
Cordier's Cathay and the Way Thither, vol. iv, p. 146). All of these stories are 
now put down to the well-known effects of mirage, abnormal reflection, or 

So much for the mythological side of the rukh. 

We now turn to the other side namely, the possibility of the stories of 
huge birds being founded on fact. 

Attention was first drawn to Madagascar as being the possible home of 
the rukh after the discovery of the great fossil JEpyornis maximus and its 
enormous egg, a model of which can be seen in the British Museum. The 
chief investigations were made by Professor G. G. Bianconi of Bologna, a 



friend of Sir Richard Burton (see the Nights, vol. vi, p. 49). More recently 
bones of the Harpagornis have been discovered by Dr Haast in New Zealand. 
This bird must have been of enormous size, as it preyed upon the extinct moa, 
which itself was at least ten feet high. The work of Professor Owen and 
H. G. Seeley (who has recently died) has proved beyond doubt the existence 
of gigantic birds in comparatively recent times (see Seeley, Dragons of ike Air, 
London, 1901, which contains descriptions of various large pterodactyls). 

It is impossible to state with any certainty whether a particular species 
of bird has died out through the agency of man or through natural causes, 
except in those few cases where the age of the beds in which the bones 
have been found is accurately known. 

In the last few years a fine specimen of the Diatryma has been described 
by Matthew and Granger (1917) quite seven feet in height. 

In northern Siberia the bones of great pachyderms have implanted a 
firm belief in the minds of the people of the former existence of birds of 
colossal size. 

Marco Polo describes Madagascar as the home of the rukh, and it was 
the discovery of the JEpyornis remains in the island which has made the 
story more credulous. Yule (Marco Polo, vol. ii, pp. 415-421) gives a 
comprehensive account of the rukh, with a note on " Rue's quills," on 
pp. 596, 597. See also the article in the Dictionary of Birds, 1893, by Professor 
Newton. By far the best bibliography on the whole question of these 
gigantic birds is to be found in Victor Chauvin's Bibliographic des ouvrages 
Arabes (a truly marvellous work), Part V, p. 228, under "Le Garouda," 
and Part VII, pp. 10-14, where the subject is treated under the headings, 
"Rokh," "Garouda," "'Anqa," "Simourg," "Griffon," with a list of general 
works, including those by Bianconi, on the JEpyornis of Madagascar. For 
further details concerning the mythical history of Garuda see Jarl Charpentier, 
Die Suparnasage, Upsala, p. 220 et seq. n.m.p. 


A FTER he had gone a long distance, the king en- 
/% [M] camped that day in a certain forest on the border 
JL JL^of a lake. He went to bed weary, and in the evening 
he said to Sangataka, a story-teller who had come to him 
on account of the pleasure he took in his service : " Tell me 
some tale that will gladden my heart, for I am longing for the 
joy of beholding the lotus-face of Mrigavati." Then Sangataka 
said : " King, why do you grieve without cause ? The union 
with your queen, which will mark the termination of your 
curse, is nigh at hand. Human beings experience many 
unions and separations ; and I will tell you a story to illustrate 
this. Listen, my lord. 

5. Story of &ridatta and Mrigdnkavatl 

Once on a time there lived in the country of Malava a 
Brahman named Yajnasoma. And that good man had two 
sons born to him, beloved by men. One of them was known 
as Kalanemi and the second was named Vigatabhaya. Now 
when then* father had gone to heaven, those two brothers, 
having passed through the age of childhood, went to the 
city of Pataliputra to acquire learning. And when they 
had completed their studies their teacher Devasarman gave 
them his own two daughters, like another couple of sciences 
incarnate in bodily form. 

Then seeing that the householders around him were 
rich, Kalanemi through envy made a vow and propitiated the 
Goddess of Fortune with burnt- offerings. And the goddess being 
satisfied appeared in bodily form and said to him : " Thou 
shalt obtain great wealth and a son who shall rule the earth ; 
but at last thou shalt be put to death like a robber, because 
thou hast offered flesh in the fire with impure motives." 

1 The Durgaprasad text reads amarsha instead of amisharrij which seems to 
make better sense. Thus the translation would be : because thou hast offered 
libations with a mind troubled by anger." x.m.p. 




When she had said this, the goddess disappeared ; and 
Kalanemi in course of time became very rich ; moreover, 
after some days a son was born to him. So the father, 
whose desires were now accomplished, called that son 
Sridatta, 1 because he had been obtained by the favour of the 
Goddess of Fortune. In course of time Sridatta grew up, and 
though a Brahman, became matchless upon earth in the use 
of weapons, and in boxing and wrestling. 

Then Kalanemi's brother Vigatabhaya went to a 
foreign land, having become desirous of visiting places of 
pilgrimage, through sorrow for his wife, who had died of the 
bite of a snake. 

Moreover, the king of the land, Vallabhasakti, who 
appreciated good qualities, made Sridatta the companion 
of his son Vikramasakti. So he had to live with a haughty 
prince, as the impetuous Bhima lived in his youth with 
Duryodhana. Then two Kshatriyas, natives of Avanti, 
Bahusalin and Vajramushti, became friends of that Brah- 
man. And some other men from the Deccan, sons of 
ministers, having been conquered by him in wrestling, re- 
sorted to him out of spontaneous friendship, as they knew 
how to value merit. Mahabala and Vyaghrabhata, and also 
Upendrabala and a man named Nishthuraka, became his 
friends. One day, as years rolled on, Sridatta, being in attend- 
ance on the prince, went with him and those friends to sport on 
the bank of the Ganges ; then the prince's own servants made 
him king, and at the same time Sridatta was chosen king by 
his friends. This made the prince angry, and in overweening 
confidence he at once challenged that Brahman hero to fight. 
Then being conquered by him in wrestling, and so disgraced, he 
made up his mind that this rising hero should be put to death. 
But Sridatta found out that intention of the prince's, and 
withdrew in alarm with those friends of his from his presence. 

And as he was going along he saw in the middle of 
the Ganges a woman being dragged under by the stream, 
looking like the Goddess of Fortune in the middle of the 
sea. And then he plunged in to pull her out of the water, 
leaving Bahusalin and his five other friends on the bank. 

1 I.e. given by Fortune. 


Then that woman, though he seized her by the hair, sank 
deep in the water ; and he dived as deep in order to follow 
her. And after he had dived a long way he suddenly saw 
The Asura a splendid temple of Siva, but no water and no 
Maid and the woman. 1 After beholding that wonderful sight, 
being wearied out, he paid his adorations to the 
god whose emblem is a bull, and spent that night in a 
beautiful garden attached to the temple. And in the morning 
that lady was seen by him, having come to worship the god 
Siva, like the incarnate splendour of beauty attended by all 
womanly perfections. And after she had worshipped the god, 
the moon-faced one departed to her own house, and Sridatta 
for his part followed her. And he saw that palace of hers 
resembling the city of the gods, which the haughty beauty 
entered hurriedly in a contemptuous manner. And without 
deigning to address him, the graceful lady sat down on a 
sofa in the inner part of the house, waited upon by thousands 
of women. And Sridatta also took a seat near her. Then 
suddenly that virtuous lady began to weep. The teardrops 
fell in an unceasing shower on her bosom, and that moment 
pity entered into the heart of Sridatta. And then he said to 
her : " Who art thou, and what is thy sorrow ? Tell me, fair 
one, for I am able to remove it." Then she said reluctantly : 
" We are the thousand granddaughters of Bali, 2 the king of 
the Daityas, and I am the eldest of all, and my name is 
Vidyutprabha. That grandfather of ours was carried off by 
Vishnu to long imprisonment, and the same hero slew our 
father in a wrestling match. And after he had slain him he 
excluded us from our own city, and he placed a lion in it to 
prevent us from entering. 3 The lion occupies that place, and 

1 Cf. the story of Sattvasila, which is the seventh tale in the Vetdla 
Panchavimsati, and will be found in Chapter LXXXI of this work. Cf. also 
the story of Saktideva in Book V, chap, xxvi, and Ralston's remarks on it in 
his Russian Folk-Tales, p. 99. 

2 Vishnu assumed the form of a dwarf and appeared before Bali, and 
asked for as much land as he could step over. On Bali granting it, Vishnu, 
dilating himself, in two steps deprived him of heaven and earth, but left the 
lower regions still in his dominion. 

3 This incident may be compared with one described in Veckenstedt's 
Wendische Sagen, p. 82. 


grief our hearts. It is a Yaksha that was made a lion by 
the curse of Kuvera, and long ago it was predicted that the 
Yaksha's curse should end when he was conquered by some 
mortal ; so Vishnu deigned to inform us on our humbly asking 
him how we might be enabled to enter our city. Therefore 
subdue that lion, our enemy : it was for that reason, O hero, 
that I enticed you hither. And when you have overcome 
him you will obtain from him a sword named Mriganka, 1 by 
the virtue of which you shall conquer the world and become 
a king." When he heard that, Sridatta agreed to undertake 
the adventure, and after that day had passed, on the morrow 
he took those Daitya maidens with him as guides, and went 
to that city, and there he overcame in wrestling that haughty 
lion. He being freed from his curse assumed a human form, 
and out of gratitude gave his sword to the man who had put 
an end to his curse, and then disappeared together with the 
burden of the sorrow of the great Asura's daughter. Then 
that Sridatta, together with the Daitya's daughter, who was 
accompanied by her younger sisters, entered that splendid 
city, which looked like the serpent Ananta 2 having emerged 
from the earth. And that Daitya maiden gave him a ring 

1 I.e. " the moon " bright and shining literally, " the hare-marked," as 
the Hindus see a hare in the moon instead of a "man." The custom of giving 
names to swords is very widely spread and dates from the earliest times. 
Sword-making has always been a highly specialised craft with many well- 
guarded secrets, and consequently magic has been continually connected 
with it. Many were actually made by sorcerers, while others took years to 
fashion. Sometimes the name of the sword gives its history, as in Arthur's 
Excalibar = Ex cal (ce) liber (are) = "to free from the stone." In most cases, 
however, a name was given to it which would inspire confidence to the 
wielder and terror to the foe. Thus Caesar's sword was called Crocea Mors, 
the u yellow death"; Edward the Confessor's was Curta'na, the "cutter"; 
Mohammed had many the " beater," the "keen," the "deadly"; Hieme's 
was the " blood-fetcher," and so forth. 

A long list will be found in Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 
pp. 1196, 1197. See also Oppert's On the Weapons, etc., of the Ancient Hindus, 
1880; Burton's Book of the Sword, pp. 214-219; J. A. Macculloch's Childhood 
of Fiction, pp. 203, 204, and my Selected Papers of Sir Richard Burton, 1923, 

p. 51. N.M.P. 

2 Ananta (endless, or infinite) is the name of the thousand-headed serpent 

Sesha. A coiled snake in Maya (Central America) was the symbol of 

eternity. n.m.p. 


that destroyed the effect of poison. 1 Then that young man, 
remaining there, fell in love with her. And she cunningly said 
to him : " Bathe in this tank, and when you dive in take 
with you this sword 2 to keep off the danger of crocodiles." 
He consented, and diving into the tank rose upon that very 
bank of the Ganges from which he first plunged in. Then he, 
seeing the ring and the sword, felt astonishment at having 
emerged from the lower regions, and despondency at having 
been tricked by the Asura maid. Then he went towards his 
own house to look for his friends, and as he was going he saw 
on the way his friend Nishthuraka. Nishthuraka came up to 
him and saluted him, and quickly took him aside into a 
lonely place, and when asked by him for news of his relations 
gave him this answer : " On that occasion when you plunged 
into the Ganges we searched for you for many days, and out 
of grief we were preparing to cut off our heads, but a voice 
from heaven forbade that attempt of ours, saying : ' My 
sons, do no rash act, your friend shall return alive.' And 
then we were returning into the presence of your father 
when on the way a man hurriedly advanced to meet us and 
said this : ' You must not enter this city at present, for the 
king of it, Vallabhasakti, is dead, and the ministers have with 
one accord conferred the royal dignity on Vikramasakti. 

1 Poison detectors are of various kinds. Sometimes they were objects 
which could be worn, as in the text, but more often the presence of poison 
would cause some noticeable effect on an adjacent object. 

Thus peacocks' feathers become ruffled, opals turn pale and Venetian 
glass shivers at the approach of poison. Cups of rhinoceros horn cause the 
drink to effervesce, if it contains poison. 

The German abbess and mystic St Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) says 
(Subtleties, vi, 7) that the heart of a vulture split in two, dried before a slow 
fire and in the sun, and worn sewn up in a belt of doeskin makes the wearer 
tremble in the presence of poison. 

In describing his palace, Prester John says the gates are of sardonyx 
mixed with cornu cerastis (horn of the horned serpents), and so prevent the 
secret introduction of poison. 

Thomas of Cantimpre tells us that a stone from the head of a toad is an 
amulet against poison. 

Finally in the Middle Ages the sign of the cross was supposed to detect 
poison. n.m.p. 

2 Reading khadgam for the khadge of Dr Brockhaus' text. 


Now the day after he was made king he went to the house 
of Kalanemi and, full of wrath, asked where his son Sridatta 
was, and he replied : " I do not know." Then the king in 
a rage, supposing he had concealed his son, had him put to 
death by impalement as a thief. When his wife saw that, 
her heart broke. Men of cruel deeds must always pile one 
evil upon another in long succession ; and so Vikramasakti is 
searching for Sridatta to slay him, and you are his friends, 
therefore leave this place.' When the man had given us 
this warning, Bahusalin and his four companions, being 
grieved, went by common consent to their own home in 
Ujjayini. And they left me here in concealment, my friend, 
for your sake. So come, let us go to that very place to meet 
our friends." Having heard this from Nishthuraka, and 
having bewailed his parents, Sridatta cast many a look at 
his sword, as if reposing in that his hope of vengeance ; 
then the hero, biding his time, set out, accompanied by 
Nishthuraka, for that city of Ujjayini in order to meet his 

And as he was relating to his friend his adventures from 
the time of his plunging into the stream, Sridatta beheld 
a woman weeping in the road ; when she said, " I am a 
woman going to Ujjayini and I have lost my way," Sridatta 
out of pity made her journey along with him. He and Nish- 
thuraka, together with that woman, whom he kept with him 
out of compassion, halted that day in a certain deserted town. 
There he suddenly woke up in the night and beheld that the 
woman had slain Nishthuraka and was devouring his flesh 
with the utmost delight. Then he rose up, drawing his sword 
Mriganka, and that woman assumed her own terrible form, 
that of a Rakshasi, 1 and he seized that night-wanderer by 
her hair, to slay her. That moment she assumed a heavenly 
shape and said to him : " Slay me not, mighty hero, let me 
go; I am not a Rakshasi; the hermit Visvamitra imposed 
this condition on me by a curse. For once, when he was per- 
forming austerities from a desire to attain the position of the 
God of Wealth, I was sent by the god to impede him. Then 

1 Female demon. The Rakshasas are often called " night- wanderers." 

See Appendix I at the end of this volume. n.m.p. 


finding that I was not able to seduce him with my alluring 
form, being abashed, I assumed, in order to terrify him, a for- 
midable shape. When he saw this, that hermit laid on me 
a curse suitable to my offence, exclaiming : ' Wicked one, 
become a Rakshasi and slay men.' And he appointed my 
curse should end when you took hold of my hair ; accord- 
ingly I assumed this detestable condition of a Rakshasi, and I 
have devoured all the inhabitants of this town. Now to-day, 
after a long time, you have brought my curse to an end 
in the manner foretold, therefore receive now some boon." 
When he heard that speech of hers, Sridatta said respectfully : 
" Mother, grant that my friend may be restored to life. 
What need have I of any other boon ? " " So be it," she said, 
and after granting the boon disappeared. And Nishthuraka 
rose up again alive without a scratch on his body. Then 
Sridatta set out the next morning with him delighted and 
astonished and at last reached Ujjayini. There he revived by 
his appearance the spirits of his friends, who were anxiously 
expecting him, as the arrival of the cloud revives the pea- 
cocks. And after he had told all the wonders of his ad- 
ventures Bahusalin went through the usual formalities of 
hospitality, taking him to his own home. There Sridatta 
was taken care of by the parents of Bahusalin, and lived with 
his friends as comfortably as if he were in his own house. 

Once on a time, when the great feast of springtide 1 had 
arrived, he went with his friends to behold some festal re- 
joicings in a garden. There he beheld a maiden, the daughter 
The Princess of King Bimbaki, who had come to see the show, 
Mrigankavati looking like the Goddess of the Splendour of 
Spring present in bodily form. She, by name Mrigankavati, 
that moment penetrated into his heart, as if through the 
openings left by the expansion of his e}^e. Her passionate 
look, too, indicative of the beginning of love, fixed on him, 
went and returned like a confidante. When she entered 
a thicket of trees, Sridatta, not beholding her, suddenly felt 
his heart so empty that he did not know where he was. 
His friend Bahusalin, who thoroughly understood the 
language of gestures, said to him : " My friend, I know your 

1 Or, more literally, of the month Chaitra i.e. March-April. 


heart, do not deny your passion, therefore come, let us go 
to that part of the garden where the king's daughter is." 
He consented and went near her, accompanied by his friend. 
That moment a cry was heard there which gave great pain 
to the heart of Sridatta : " Alas, the princess has been bitten 
by a snake ! " Bahusalin then went and said to the chamber- 
lain : " My friend here possesses a ring that counteracts 
the effects of poison, and also healing spells." Immediately 
the chamberlain came and, bowing at his feet, quickly led 
Sridatta to the princess. He placed the ring on her finger 
and then muttered his spells, so that she revived. Then all 
the attendants were delighted, and loud in praise of Sridatta, 
and the King Bimbaki hearing the circumstances came to the 
place. Accordingly Sridatta returned with his friends to the 
house of Bahusalin without taking back the ring. And all 
the gold and other presents which the delighted king sent to 
him there he handed over to the father of Bahusalin. Then, 
thinking upon that fair one, he was so much afflicted that 
his friends became utterly bewildered as to what to do with 
him. Then a dear friend of the princess, Bhavanika by name, 
came to him on pretence of returning the ring, and said to 
him : " That friend of mine, illustrious sir, has made up her 
mind that either you must save her life by becoming her 
husband, or she will be married to her grave." When Bha- 
vanika had said this Sridatta and Bahusalin and the others 
quickly put their heads together and came to the following 
resolution: "We will carry off this princess secretly by a 
stratagem, and will go unperceived from here to Mathura 
and live there." The plan having been thoroughly talked 
over, and the conspirators having agreed with one another 
what each was to do in order to carry it out, Bhavanika then 
departed. And the next day Bahusalin, accompanied by 
three of his friends, went to Mathura on pretext of traffick- 
ing, and as he went he posted in concealment at intervals 
swift horses for the conveyance of the princess. But Sridatta 
then brought at eventide a woman with her daughter into 
the palace of the princess, after making them both drink 
spirits, and then Bhavanika, on pretence of lighting up the 
palace, set fire to it, and secretly conveyed the princess 


out of it ; and that moment Srldatta, who was remaining 
outside, received her, and sent her on to Bahusalin, who had 
started in the morning, and directed two of his friends to 
attend on her and also Bhavanika. Now that drunken woman 
and her daughter were burnt in the palace of the princess, 
and people supposed that the princess had been burnt with 
her friend. But Srldatta took care to show himself in the 
morning, as before, in the city ; then on the second night, 
taking with him his sword Mriganka, he started to follow his 
beloved, who had set out before him. And in his eagerness 
he accomplished a great distance that night, and when the 
morning watch * had passed he reached the Vindhya forest. 
There he first beheld unlucky omens, and afterwards he saw 
all those friends of his, together with Bhavanika, lying in 
the road gashed with wounds. And when he came up all 
distracted they said to him : " We were robbed to-day by a 
large troop of horsemen that set upon us. And after we were 
reduced to this state one of the horsemen threw the terrified 
princess on his horse and carried her off. So before she has 
been carried a great distance, go in this direction; do not 
remain near us, she is certainly of more importance than we." 
Being urged on with these words by his friends, Srldatta 
rapidly followed after the princess, but could not help fre- 
quently turning round to look at them. And after he had 
gone a considerable distance he caught up that troop of 
cavalry, and he saw a young man of the warrior caste in the 
midst of it. And he beheld that princess held by him upon his 
horse. So he slowly approached that young warrior ; and 
when soft words would not induce him to let the princess go, 
he hurled him from his horse with a blow of his foot and 
dashed him to pieces on a rock. And after he had slain him 
he mounted on his horse and slew a great number of the other 
horsemen who charged him in anger. And then those who 
remained alive, seeing that the might which the hero dis- 
played was more than human, fled away in terror ; and 
Srldatta mounted on the horse with the Princess Mrigan- 
kavati and set out to find those friends of his. And after he 
had gone a little way he and his wife got off the horse, which 

1 At nine o'clock in the morning. 


had been severely wounded in the fight, and soon after it fell 
down and died. And then his beloved Mrigankavati, ex- 
hausted with fear and exertion, became very thirsty. And 
leaving her there, he roamed a long distance hither and 
thither, and while he was looking for water the sun set. 
Then he discovered that though he had found water he had 
lost his way, and he passed that night in the wood roaming 
about, moaning aloud like a Chakravaka. 1 And in the morn- 
ing he reached that place, which was easy to recognise by the 
carcase of the horse. And nowhere there did he behold his 
beloved princess. Then in his distraction he placed his sword 
Mriganka on the ground and climbed to the top of a tree, 
in order to cast his eye in all directions for her. That very 
moment a certain Savara chieftain passed that way, and he 
came up and took the sword from the foot of the tree. Be- 
holding that Savara chieftain, Sridatta came down from the 
top of the tree and in great grief asked him for news of 
his beloved. The Savara chieftain said : " Leave this place 
and come to my village ; I have no doubt she whom you 
seek has gone there ; and I shall come there and return 
you this sword." When the Savara chieftain urged him to 
go with these words, Sridatta, being himself all eagerness, 
went to that village with the chief's men. And there those 
men said to him: "Sleep off your fatigue." And when 
he reached the house of the chief of the village, being 
tired, he went to sleep in an instant. And when he woke 
up he saw his two feet fastened with fetters, like the two 
efforts he had made in order to obtain his beloved, which 
failed to reach their object. Then he remained there weep- 
ing for his darling, who, like the course of destiny, had for 
a moment brought him joy, and the next moment blasted 
his hopes. 

One day a serving-maid of the name of Mochanika came 
to him and said : " Illustrious sir, unwittingly you have come 
hither to your death. For the Savara chieftain has gone some- 
whither to accomplish certain weighty affairs, and when he 

1 Anas Casarca, commonly called the Brahmany duck. The male has to 
pass the night separated from its female if we are to trust the unanimous 
testimony of Hindu poets. 


returns he will offer you to Chandika. 1 For with that object 
he decoyed you here by a stratagem from this slope of 
the wild Vindhya hill, and immediately threw you into the 
Sridatta chains in which you now are. And it is because 

marries Sundari vou are intended to be offered as a victim to the 
goddess that you are continually served with garments and 
food. But I know of only one expedient for delivering you, if 
you agree to it. This Savara chieftain has a daughter named 
Sundari, and she having seen you is becoming exceedingly love- 
sick ; marry her who is my friend, then you will obtain deliver- 
ance." 2 When she said this to him Sridatta consented, desiring 
to be set at liberty, and secretly made that Sundari his wife by 
the gdndharva form of marriage. And every night she removed 
his chains, and in a short time Sundari became pregnant. 
Then her mother, having heard the whole story from the 
mouth of Mochanika, out of love for her son-in-law Sridatta, 
went and of her own accord said to him : " My son, Srichanda, 
the father of Sundari, is a wrathful man, and will show thee no 
mercy ; therefore depart ; but thou must not forget Sundari." 
When his mother-in-law had said this, she set him at liberty, 
and Sridatta departed, after telling Sundari that the sword 
which was in her father's possession really belonged to himself. 
So he again entered, full of anxiety, that forest in which 
he had before wandered about, in order again to search for 
traces of Mrigankavati. And having seen an auspicious omen 
he came to that same place where that horse of his died 
before, and whence his wife was carried off. And there he 
saw near him 3 a hunter coming towards him, and when he 
saw him he asked him for news of that gazelle-eyed lady* 
Then the hunter asked him : " Are you Sridatta ? " and he, 
sighing, replied : "lam that unfortunate man." Then that 
hunter said : " Listen, friend, I have somewhat to tell you. I 
saw that wife of yours wandering hither and thither lamenting 

1 A name of Durga. Cf Prescott's account of the human sacrifices in 

The History of the Conquest of Mexico, vol. i, pp. 62, 63. See Rai Bahadur 

Hira Lai's article on " Human Sacrifice in Central India " in Man in India, 
vol. i, pp. 57-66 ; also E. A. Gait's article on " Human Sacrifice (Indian) "in 
Hastings' Ency. Bel. Eth. f vol. vi, pp. 849-853. n.m.p. 

2 This incident reminds us of the fifth tale in Wright's Gesta Romanorum. 

3 Or it may mean " from a distance," as Dr Brockhaus takes it. 


your absence, and having asked her her story, and consoled 
her, moved with compassion I took her out of this wood to 
my own village. But when I saw the young Pulindas 1 there 
I was afraid, and I took her to a village named Nagasthala, 
near Mathura. 2 And then I placed her in the house of an old 
Brahman named Visvadatta, commending her with all due 
respect to his care. And thence I came here, having learnt 
your name from her lips. Therefore you had better go quickly 
to Nagasthala to search for her." When the hunter had told 
him this Sridatta quickly set out, and he reached Nagasthala 
in the evening of the second day. Then he entered the house 
of Visvadatta and when he saw him said : " Give me my 
wife, who was placed here by the hunter." Visvadatta when 
he heard that answered him : " I have a friend in Mathura, 
a Brahman, dear to all virtuous men, the spiritual preceptor 
and minister of the King Surasena ; in his care I placed your 
wife; for this village is an out-of-the-way place and would 
not afford her protection. So go to that city to-morrow 
morning, but to-day rest here." When Visvadatta said this, 
he spent that night there, and the next morning he set off, 
and reached Mathura on the second day. Being weary and 
dusty with the long journey, he bathed outside that city in 
the pellucid water of a lake. And he drew out of the middle 
of the lake a garment placed there by some robbers, not sus- 
pecting any harm. But in one corner of the garment, which 
was knotted up, a necklace was concealed. 3 Then Sridatta 
took that garment, and in his eagerness to meet his wife did 
not notice the necklace, and so entered the city of Mathura. 
Then the city police recognised the garment, and finding the 
necklace, arrested Sridatta as a thief, and carried him off, 
and brought him before the chief magistrate exactly as he 

1 Pulinda is the name of a savage tribe. 

2 Mr Growse remarks : " In Hindi the word Nagasthala would assume the 
form Nagal ; and there is a village of that name to this day in the Mahaban 
Pargana of the Mathura district." 

3 A common way of carrying money in India at the present day. In 

Arabia it is often carried in the turban, while in Morocco it is kept with the 
hashish pipe, knife, etc., in the large yellow leather bag slung underneath the 
haik or jellaba. I brought back several beautifully worked specimens of these 
bags when last in Morocco. n.m.p. 


was found with the garment in his possession ; by him he 
was handed up to the king, and the king ordered him to be 
put to death. 1 

Then as he was being led off to the place of execution, 
with the drum being beaten behind him, 2 his wife Mrigan- 
kavati saw him in the distance. She went in a state of the 
Sndatta meets utmost distraction and said to the chief minister, 
Ms Uncle m whose house she was residing : " Yonder is my 
husband being led off to execution." Then that minister 
went and ordered the executioners to desist, and by mak- 
ing a representation to the king got Sridatta pardoned, 
and had him brought to his house. And when Sridatta 
reached his house, and saw that minister, he recognised 
him and fell at his feet, exclaiming : " What ! is this 
my uncle Vigatabhaya, who long ago went to a foreign 
country, and do I now by good luck find him established 
in the position of a minister ? " He too recognised, to his 
astonishment, Sridatta as his brother's son, and embraced 
him, and questioned him about all his adventures. Then 
Sridatta related to his uncle his whole history, beginning 
with the execution of his father. And he, after weeping, said 
to his nephew in private : " Do not despond, my son, for I 
once brought a female Yaksha into subjection by means of 
magic ; and she gave me, though I have no son, five thou- 
sand horses and seventy millions of gold pieces ; and all that 
wealth is at your disposal." After telling him this, his uncle 
brought him his beloved, and he, having obtained wealth, 
married her on the spot. And then he remained there in joy, 

1 Cf. Samaradityasainkshepa 4, p. 104 et seq. We shall come across a similar 
incident in Chaper LIV, where I shall add a further note. n.m.p. 

2 Cf the last scene of "The Toy Cart" in the first volume of Wilson's 

Hindu Theatre. See also Ryder's edition, 1905, p. 155. In the Kanavera 

Jataka (318) the thief is made to wear a wreath of flowers symbolic of death, 
is scourged with whips and led to execution to the beat of the harsh-sounding 
drum. For further references see Bloomfield, "The Art of Stealing," Am. 
Journ. Phil, vol. xliv, 3, pp. 227, 228. On the ceremonial uses of the drum 
see A. E. Crawley's article, "Drums and Cymbals," in Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
vol. v, p. 93 et seq. For the use of the drum for proclamation and obtain- 
ing a royal audience see Bloomfield, Life and Stories of Parcvanathd and the 
references there given. n.m.p. 


united with that beloved Mrigankavati as a bed of white 
lotuses x with the night. But even when his happiness was 
at its full, anxiety for Bahusalin and his companions clouded 
his heart, as a spot of darkness does the full moon. Now one 
day his uncle said secretly to Sridatta : u My son, the King 
Surasena has a maiden daughter, and in accordance with his 
orders I have to take her to the land of Avanti to give her 
away in marriage ; so I will take her away on that very pre- 
text, and marry her to you. Then, when you have got 
possession of the force that follows her, with mine already 
at your disposal, you will soon gain the kingdom that was 
promised you by the goddess Sri." Having resolved on this, 
and having taken that maiden, Sridatta and his uncle set out 
with their army and their attendants. But as soon as they 
had reached the Vindhya forest, before they were aware of the 
danger, a large army of brigands set upon them showering 
arrows. After routing Sridatta's force and seizing all the 
wealth, they bound Sridatta himself, who had fainted from 
his wounds, and carried him off to their village. And they 
took him to the awful temple of Durga, in order to offer him 
And recovers U P m sacrifice, and, as it were, summoned Death 
his Wife and with the sound of their gongs. There Sundari 
Sword saw k*^ one Q f j^g w i ves> the daughter of the 

chief of the village, who had come with her young son to visit 
the shrine of the goddess. Full of joy she ordered the brigands 
who were between her and her husband to stand aside, and 
then Sridatta entered her palace with her. Immediately 
Sridatta obtained the sovereignty of that village, which 
Sundari 's father, having no son, bequeathed to her when he 
went to heaven. So Sridatta recovered his wife and his sword 
Mriganka, and also his uncle and his followers, who had been 
overpowered by the robbers. And while he was in that town 
he married the daughter of Surasena, and became a great 
king there. And from that place he sent ambassadors to his 
two fathers-in-law, to Bimbaki and King Surasena. And 
they, being very fond of their daughters, gladly recognised 
him as a connection, and came to him accompanied by the 

1 The esculent white lotus (Sanskrit, kumuda) expands its petals at night 
and closes them in the daytime. 


whole of their armies. And his friends Bahusalin and the 
others, who had been separated from him, when they heard 
what had happened, came to him with their wounds healed 
and in good health. Then the hero marched, united with his 
fathers-in-law, and made that Vikramasakti, who had put 
his father to death, a burnt- offering in the flame of his 
wrath. And then Sridatta, having gained dominion over 
the sea-encircled earth, and deliverance from the sorrow of 
separation, joyed in the society of Mrigankavati. Even so, 
my king, do men of firm resolution cross the calamitous sea 
of separation and obtain prosperity. 

[M] After hearing this tale from Sangataka, the King 
Sahasranika, though longing for the sight of his beloved one, 
managed to get through that night on the journey. Then, 
engrossed with his desire, sending his thoughts on before, in 
the morning Sahasranika set out to meet his darling. And in 
a few days he reached that peaceful hermitage of Jamadagni, 
in w r hich even the deer laid aside their wantonness. And 
there he beheld with reverence that Jamadagni, the sight of 
whom was sanctifying, like the incarnate form of penance, 
who received him hospitably. And the hermit handed over 
to him that Queen Mrigavati with her son, regained by the 
king after long separation, like tranquillity with joy. And 
that sight which the husband and wife obtained of one 
another, now that the curse had ceased, rained, as it were, 
nectar into their eyes, which were filled with tears of joy. 
And the king embracing that son Udayana, whom he now 
beheld for the first time, could with difficulty let him go, as 
he was, so to speak, riveted to his body with his own hairs 
that stood erect from joy. 1 Then King Sahasranika took 

1 In Sanskrit poetry horripilation is often said to be produced by joy. 
I have here inserted the words " from joy " in order to make the meaning 

clear. It is the same as the Arabic kusJiarlrah and the pclo arriciato of 

Boccaccio. In the Nights, however, horripilation is usually produced by anger ; 
thus we read (Burton, vol. ii, p. 88) : " She raged with exceeding rage, and 
her body-hair stood on end like the bristles of a fretful hedgehog." n.m.p. 


his Queen Mrigavati with Udayana, and, bidding adieu to 
Jamadagni, set out from that tranquil hermitage for his own 
city, and even the deer followed him as far as the border of 
the hermitage with tearful eyes. Beguiling the way by listen- 
ing to the adventures of his beloved wife during the period of 
separation, and by relating his own, he at length reached the 
city of Kausambi, in which triumphal arches were erected 
and banners displayed. And he entered that city in company 
with his wife and child, being, so to speak, devoured l by the 
eyes of the citizens, that had the fringe of their lashes elevated. 
And immediately the king appointed his son Udayana crown 
prince, being incited to it by his excellent qualities. And he 
assigned to him as advisers the sons of his own ministers, 
Vasantaka and Rumanvat and Yaugandharayana. Then a 
rain of flowers fell, and a celestial voice was heard : "By 
the help of these excellent ministers, the prince shall obtain 
dominion over the whole earth." Then the king devolved on 
his son the cares of empire, and enjoyed in the society of 
Mrigavati the long-desired pleasures of the world. At last 
the desire of earthly enjoyment, beholding suddenly that old 
age, the harbinger of composure, had reached the root of the 
king's ear, 2 became enraged and fled far from him. Then that 
King Sahasranika established in his throne his excellent son 
Udayana, 3 whom the subjects loved so well, to ensure the 
world's prosperity, and, accompanied by his ministers and 
his beloved wife, ascended the Himalaya to prepare for the 
last great journey. 

1 Literally, drunk in. 

2 Alluding to his grey hairs. In all Eastern stories the appearance of 
the first grey hair is a momentous epoch. The point of the whole passage 
consists in the fact that jara (old age) is feminine in form. Cf the per- 
turbation of King Samson in Hagen's Helden-Sagen, vol. i, p. 26, and Spence 

Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, I860, pp. 129 and 130. See also Jatakas, 

Nos. 9, 411 and 541 ; Tawney's Kathakoca, pp. 125, 146; Jacobi's preface to 
his edition of the Parisishtaparvan, p. 14, note 2. 

Bloomfield (Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc, vol. xxxvi, Part I) has written 
briefly on the " Grey Hair " motif in Sanskrit literature. See op. cit., p. 57, 
where he gives a few further references to those already mentioned n.m.p. 

3 There is a pun between the name of the King Udayana and prosperity 


THEN Udayana took the kingdom of Vatsa, which his 
[M] father had bequeathed to him, and, establishing 
himself in Kausambi, ruled his subjects well. But 
gradually he began to devolve the cares of empire upon his 
ministers, Yaugandharayana and others, and gave himself 
up entirely to pleasures. He was continually engaged in the 
chase, and day and night he played on the melodious lute 
which Vasuki * gave him long ago ; and he subdued ever- 
more infuriated wild elephants, overpowered by the fascin- 
ating spell of its strings' dulcet sound, and, taming them, 
brought them home. 2 

That King of Vatsa drank wine adorned by the reflection 
of the moon- faces of fair women, and at the same time robbed 
his ministers' faces of their cheerful hue. 3 Only one anxiety 
had he to bear ; he kept thinking : " Nowhere is a wife found 
equal to me in birth and personal appearance; the maiden 
named Vasavadatta alone has a liking for me, 4 but how is 
she to be obtained ? " 

Chandamahasena also, in Ujjayini, thought : " There 
is no suitable husband to be found for my daughter in the 

1 Not Vasuki, but his eldest brother. 

2 Cf. the Vidhurapandita-Jataka (Cambridge edition, vol. vi, p. 127), where 
the chief minister bewitched his hearers by his discourses on law "as 
elephants are fascinated by a favourite lute." n.m.p. 

3 Chhaya means "colour" ; he drank their colour i.e. made them pale. 
It also means " reflection in the wine." 

4 As Speyer remarks in his Studies about the Kathasaritsagara, p. 96 
(in all probability to be embodied in a later volume), Brockhaus' reading 
purports an impossibility, as Udayana could at the most have heard of her 
only by name. Moreover, we find later that it is not for a long time 
that Vasavadatta falls in love with Udayana, which is actually brought 
about by a plan of Udayana himself. The Durgaprasad text reads, kanyaka 
sruyate param, etc., instead of kanya kamayate param, etc., meaning, "there is 
but one maiden, they say (that suits me as a wife)," thus making much 
better sense. n.m.p. 


world, except one Udayana by name, and he has ever been 
my enemy. Then how can I make him my son-in-law and 
my submissive ally ? There is only one device which can 
effect it. He wanders about alone in the forest capturing 
elephants, for he is a king addicted to the vice of hunting ; 
I will make use of this failing of his to entrap him and bring 
him here by a stratagem ; and, as he is acquainted with 
music, I will make this daughter of mine his pupil, and then 
his eye will without doubt be charmed with her, and he will 
certainly become my son-in-law, and my obedient ally. No 
other artifice seems applicable in this case for making him 
submissive to my will." 

Having thus reflected, he went to the temple of Durga, 
in order that his scheme might be blessed with success, and, 
after worship and praise, offered a prayer to the goddess. 
And there he heard a bodiless voice saying : " This desire 
of thine, O king, shall shortly be accomplished." Then he 
returned satisfied, and deliberated over that very matter with 
the minister Buddhadatta, 1 saying : " That prince is elated 
with pride, he is free from avarice, his subjects are attached 
to him, and he is of great power, therefore he cannot be 
reached by any of the four usual expedients beginning with 
negotiation, nevertheless let negotiation be tried first." 2 
Having thus deliberated, the king gave this order to an 
ambassador : " Go and give the King of Vatsa this message 
from me : 6 My daughter desires to be thy pupil in music ; 
if thou love us, come here and teach her.' " 

When sent off by the king with this message, the 
ambassador went and repeated it to the King of Vatsa in 
Kausambi exactly as it was delivered ; and the King of 
Vatsa, after hearing this uncourteous message from the 
ambassador, repeated it in private to the minister Yaugand- 
harayana, saying : " Why did that monarch send me that 

1 I.e. given by Buddha. 

2 The four upayas, or means of success, are : saman (negotiation), which 
his pride would render futile ; dana (giving), which appeals to avarice ; bheda 
(sowing dissension), which would be useless where a king is beloved by his 
subjects ; and danda (open force), of no use in the case of a powerful king 
like Udayana. 


insolent message ? What can be the villain's object in making 
such a proposal ? " 

When the king asked him this question, the great minister 
Yaugandharayana, who was stern to his master for his good, 
thus answered him : " Your reputation for vice x has shot 
up in the earth like a creeper, and this, O king, is its biting 
bitter fruit. For that King Chandamahasena, thinking that 
you are the slave of your passions, intends to ensnare you by 
means of his beautiful daughter, throw you into prison, and 
so make you his unresisting instrument. Therefore abandon 
kingly vices, for kings that fall into them are easily captured 
by their enemies, even as elephants are taken in pits." 

When his minister had said this to him, the resolute King 
of Vatsa sent in return an ambassador to Chandamahasena 
with the following reply : " If thy daughter desires to 
become my pupil, then send her here." When he had sent 
this reply, that King of Vatsa said to his ministers : " I will 
march and bring Chandamahasena here in chains." When 
he heard that, the head minister Yaugandharayana said : 
" That is not a fitting thing to do, my king, nor is it in thy 
power to do it. For Chandamahasena is a mighty monarch, 
and not to be subdued by thee. And in proof of this hear his 
whole history, which I now proceed to relate to thee : 

6. Story of King Chandamahasena 

There is in this land a city named Ujjayini, the ornament 
of the earth, that, so to speak, laughs to scorn with its palaces 

1 The chief vices of kings denounced by Hindu writers on statecraft 
are : hunting, gambling, sleeping in the day, calumny, addiction to women, 
drinking spirits, dancing, singing, playing instrumental music and idle roaming. 
These proceed from the love of pleasure. Others proceed from anger viz. 
tale-bearing, violence, insidious injury, envy, detraction, unjust seizure of 

property, abuse, assault. See Monier Williams, s.v. vyasana. Speaking 

of the vices of caliphs in the Nights (vol. i, p. 190), Burton has the following 
note : " Injustice, Arab Zulm, the deadliest of monarchs' sins. One of the 
sayings of Mohammed, popularly quoted, is, ' Kingdom endureth with Kufr 
or infidelity {i.e. without accepting Al-Islam) but endureth not with Zulm 
or injustice.' Hence the good Moslem will not complain of the rule of 
Kafirs or Unbelievers, like the English, so long as they rule him righteously 
and according to his own law." n.m.p. 


of enamelled whiteness 1 Amaravati, the city of the gods. In 
that city dwells Siva himself, the lord of existence, under the 
form of Mahakala, 2 when he desists from the kingly vice of 
absenting himself on the heights of Mount Kailasa. In that 
city lived a king named Mahendravarman, best of monarchs, 
and he had a son like himself, named Jayasena. Then to that 
Jayasena was born a son named Mahasena, matchless in 
strength of arm, an elephant among monarchs. And that 
king, while cherishing his realm, reflected : " I have not a 
sword worthy of me, 3 nor a wife of good family." 

Thus reflecting, that monarch went to the temple of 
Durga, and there he remained without food, propitiating 
for a long time the goddess. Then he cut off pieces of his 
own flesh and offered a burnt- offering with them, where- 
upon the goddess Durga, being pleased, appeared in visible 
shape and said to him : " I am pleased with thee ; receive 
from me this excellent sword ; by means of its magic power 
thou shalt be invincible to all thy enemies. Moreover, thou 
shalt soon obtain as a wife Angaravati, the daughter of the 
Asura Angaraka, the most beautiful maiden in the three 
worlds. And since thou didst here perform this very cruel 
penance, therefore thy name shall be Chandamahasena." 

Having said this and given him the sword, the goddess 
disappeared. But in the king there appeared joy at the 
fulfilment of his desire. He now possessed, O king, two 
jewels, his sword and a furious elephant named Nadagiri, 

1 Sudhadhauta may mean "white as plaster," but more probably here 
"whitened with plaster," like the houses in the European quarter of the 

"City of Palaces." The real Amaravati could also be described as "of 

enamelled whiteness" owing to its numerous white sculptures. They date 
from about 200 b.c, and were nearly all destroyed at the end of the eighteenth 
and beginning of the nineteenth centuries. To give some idea of the enormous 
extent of these white marble sculptures, it is estimated that the carved figures 
in just the outer rail of the stupa must number about 14,000. The remain- 
ing bas-reliefs are now on the walls of the chief stairway of the British 
Museum. n.m.p. 

2 A linga of Siva in Ujjayinl. Siva is here compared to an earthly 
monarch subject to the vyasana of roaming. I take it the poet means 
Ujjayinl is a better place than Kailasa. 

3 Cf. the way in which Kandar goes in search of a sword in Prym and 
Socin's Syrische Marchen, p. 205. 


which were to him what the thunderbolt and Airavata 
are to Indra. Then that king, delighting in the power of 
these two, one day went to a great forest to hunt ; and 
there he beheld an enormous and terrible wild boar ; like 
the darkness of the night suddenly condensed into a solid 
mass in the daytime. That boar was not wounded by the 
king's arrows, in spite of their sharpness, but after breaking 
the king's chariot l fled and entered a cavern. The king, 
leaving that car of his, in revengeful pursuit of the boar, 
entered into that cavern with only his bow to aid him. 
And after he had gone a long distance he beheld a great and 
splendid capital, and astonished he sat down inside the city 
on the bank of a lake. While there he beheld a maiden mov- 
ing along, surrounded by hundreds of women, like the arrow 
of love that cleaves the armour of self-restraint. She slowly 
approached the king, bathing him, so to speak, again and 
again in a look that rained in showers the nectar of love. 2 
She said : " Who art thou, illustrious sir, and for what reason 
hast thou entered our home on this occasion ? " The king, 
being thus questioned by her, told her the whole truth ; hear- 
ing which, she let fall from her eyes a passionate flood of 
tears, and from her heart all self-control. The king said : 
" Who art thou, and why dost thou weep ? " When he asked 
her this question she, being a prisoner to love at his will, 
answered him : " The boar that entered here is the Daitya 
Angaraka by name. And I am his daughter, O king, and my 
name is Angaravati. And he is of adamantine frame, and has 
carried off these hundred princesses from the palaces of kings 
and appointed them to attend on me. Moreover, this great 
Asura has become a Rakshasa owing to a curse, but to-day, 
as he was exhausted with thirst and fatigue, even when he 
found you, he spared you. At present he has put off the form 
of a boar and is resting in his proper shape, but when he wakes 
up from his sleep he will without fail do you an injury. It is 

1 Dr Brockhaus translates it: " Stiirzte den Wagen des K'dnigs um." Can 
Syandana mean " horses," like magni currus A chilli ? If so, ahatya would mean 
"having killed." 

2 Rasa means "nectar," and indeed any liquid, and also "emotion," 
"passion." The pun is, of course, most intentional in the original. 



for this reason that I 

hope of a happy 


see no nope or a nappy issue lor you, 
and so these teardrops fall from my eyes like my vital spirits 
boiled with the fire of grief." 

When he heard this speech of Angaravati's the king said 
to her: " If you love me, do this which I ask you. When 
your father awakes, go and weep in front of him, and then 
he will certainly ask you the cause of your agitation ; then 
you must say : 4 If someone were to slay thee, what would 
become of me ? x This is the cause of my grief.' If you do 
this there will be a happy issue both for you and me." 

When the king said this to her she promised him that 
she would do what he wished. And that Asura maiden, 
apprehending misfortune, placed the king in concealment 
and went near her sleeping father. Then the Daitya woke up, 
and she began to weep. And then he said to her: "Why 
do you weep, my daughter ? " She, with affected grief, said 
to him : "If someone were to slay thee, what would become 
of me ? " Then he burst out laughing and said : " Who could 
possibly slay me, my daughter ? for I am cased in adamant 
all over ; only in my left hand is there an unguarded place, 
but that is protected by the bow." 

In these words the Daitya consoled his daughter, and all 
this was heard by the king in his concealment. Immediately 
afterwards the Danava rose up and took his bath, and pro- 
ceeded in devout silence to worship the god Siva. At that 
moment the king appeared with his bow bent, and rushing 
up impetuously towards the Daitya, challenged him to fight. 
He, without interrupting his devout silence, lifted his left hand 
towards the king and made a sign that he must wait for a 
moment. The king for his part, being very quick, immediately 
smote him with an arrow in that hand which was his vital 
part. And that great Asura Angaraka, being pierced in the 
vital spot, immediately uttered a terrible cry and fell on the 
ground, and exclaimed, as his life departed : "If that man 
who has slain me when thirsty does not offer water to my 
manes every year, then his five ministers shall perish." After 
he had said this that Daitya died, and the king, taking his 
daughter Angaravati as a prize, returned to Ujjayini. 

1 See note at the end of this chapter. - 



There the king Chandamahasena married that Daitya 
maiden, and two sons were born to him, the first named 
Gopalaka and the second Palaka ; and when they were born 
he held a feast in honour of Indra on their account. Then 
Indra, being pleased, said to that king in a dream: "By 
my favour thou shalt obtain a matchless daughter." Then in 
course of time a graceful daughter was born to that king, 
like a second and more wonderful shape of the moon made by 
the Creator. And on that occasion a voice was heard from 
heaven : " She shall give birth to a son, who shall be a very 
incarnation of the God of Love, and king of the Vidyadharas." 
Then the king gave that daughter the name of Vasavadatta, 
because she was given by Indra being pleased with him. 

[M] And that maiden still remains unmarried in the 
house of her father, like the Goddess of Prosperity in the 
hollow cavity of the ocean before it was churned. That King 
Chandamahasena cannot indeed be conquered by you, O 
king ; in the first place, because he is so powerful, and, in the 
next place, because his realm is situated in a difficult country. 
Moreover, he is ever longing to give you that daughter of 
his in marriage, but, being a proud monarch, he desires the 
triumph of himself and his adherents. But I think you must 
certainly marry that Vasavadatta." When he heard this that 
king immediately lost his heart to Vasavadatta. 1 

1 For the idea of falling in love by a mere mention or description see 
Chauvin, Bibliographie des Ouvrages Arabes, vol. v, p. 132, where numerous- 
references are given. n.m.p. 



Cf the story of Ohime in the Sicilianische M'drchen, collected by Laura 
Gonzenbach, where Maruzza asks Ohime how it would be possible to 
kill him. So in Indian Fairy Tales, collected by Miss Stokes, Hiralal Basa 
persuades Sonahri Rani to ask his father where he keeps his soul. Some 
interesting remarks on this subject will be found in the notes to this tale 
(Indian Fairy Tales , p. 260). See also No. 1 in Campbell's Tales of the Western 
Highlands, and Dr Reinhold Kohler's remarks in Orient und Occident, vol. ii, 
p. 100. Cf. also Ralston' s Russian Folk-Tales, pp. 80, 81 and 136, and 
Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 72. 

In the "Gehornte Siegfried" (Simrock's Deutsche Volksbucher, vol. iii, 
pp. 368 and 41 6) the hero is made invulnerable everywhere but between the 
shoulders by being smeared with the melted fat of a dragon. Cf also the 
story of Achilles. For the .transformation of Chandamahasena into a boar 
cf Bartsch's Sagen, Mdrchen und gebr'duche aus Mehlenburg, vol. ii, pp. 144, 145, 
and Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, vol. ii, p. 14. See also Schoppner's 
Geschichte der Bayerischen Lande, vol. i, p. 258. 

The idea of life depending on some extraneous object dates from the 
earliest times. It first appears on a papyrus of the nineteenth dynasty sold 
by Madame Elizabeth d'Orbiney to the British Museum in 1857. The tale 
which is known as "The Story of the Two Brothers" contains many in- 
teresting incidents to which we shall have to refer in a later volume. Among 
them is a clear account of an external soul. We read (Maspero, Popular 
Stories of Ancient Egypt, p. 10): "I shall take out my heart by magic to place 
it on the top of the flower of the acacia; and when the acacia is cut down 
and my heart falls to the ground thou shalt come to seek for it. When thou 
shalt have passed seven years in seeking for it, be not disheartened, but when 
once thou hast found it place it in a vase of fresh water; without doubt I 
shall live anew, and recompense the evil that shall have been done to me." 

In the "Adventure of Satni-Khamois with the Mummies," which appears 
on a papyrus of Ptolemaic age, we find the first example of concealing an 
article in numerous boxes for the sake of safety. In later days this motif -was 
applied to the external soul, and, as we shall see shortly, it is this form of 
the story which has spread through so many nations. In the Egyptian tale 
of Satni-Khamois the hidden article is the famous book of Thoth, which gave 
the possessor superhuman knowledge of every kind. It was naturally very 
hard to obtain, and is described as being " in the midst of the sea of Coptos in 
an iron coffer. The iron coffer contains a bronze coffer; the bronze coffer 
contains a coffer of cinnamon wood ; the coffer of cinnamon wood contains a 
coffer of ivory and ebony ; the coffer of ivory and ebony contains a coffer of 
silver ; the coffer of silver contains a coffer of gold, and the book is in that. 
And there is a schene (12,000 royal cubits of 52 centimetres each) of reptiles 
round the coffer in which is the book, and there is an immortal serpent rolled 
round the coffer in question" (Maspero, op. cit., pp. 124, 125). 


The scientific study of the "external soul," or "life-index/' has occupied 
the attention of several scholars. See, for instance, Cox, Aryan Mythology, 
vol. ii, pp. 36, 330; De Gubernatis, op. cit, vol. i, p. 168; Edward Clodd on 
the " Philosophy of Punchkin" in the Folk-Lore Journal, 1884, vol. ii, p. 302 ; 
Steel and Temple's Wide-Awake Stories, pp. 404, 405 ; Clouston, Popular Tales 
and Fictions, vol. i, pp. 347-351 ; Macculloch, The Childhood of Fiction, p. 118 
et seq. ; Frazer, The Golden Bough, vol. ix, p. 95 et seq. ; Sidney Hartland, 
Legend of Perseus, vol. ii, pp. 1-54, and his article, "Life-Token," in 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. viii, pp. 44-47 ; and Ruth Norton in her 
article, " The Life-Index : A Hindu Fiction Motif," in Studies in Honor of 
Maurice Bloomjield, 1920, pp. 211-224. 

The subject divides itself into two main headings : 

1. The life of a person is dependent on some external object. 

2. The condition of a certain object shows to his friends or relations 
the state of a person's health or chastity. 

It is only the first division with which we are concerned in this note. 
The other will be discussed later when the text warrants it. There is, how- 
ever, the same original idea running through both varieties of "life-index." 
As Hartland has shown in his article, "Life-Token" (see above), there is 
a widespread belief of a distinct organic connection between the life-token 
and the person whose condition it exhibits. The life -token is derived 
from the doctrine of sympathetic magic, according to which any portion of 
a living being, though severed, remains in mystic union with the butk, and 
is affected by whatever affects the bulk. This belief being so general, we 
find that it has entered not only into the folk-tales, but into the custom 
and superstition of a very wide variety of countries. Examples are given 
by Hartland from different parts of all five continents. 

I have already shown in a note on p. 37 how it is commonly supposed 
that the soul wanders about in sleep, etc. We must, however, use the word 
"soul" with care. It is sometimes referred to in stories as "heart" or 
" life," or perhaps there is no direct reference except the information that if 
a certain object or animal is destroyed the person with whom it is mystically 
connected will die. In the ancient Egyptian "Story of the Two Brothers" 
we saw it was a "heart" which was put in the acacia-tree, not in any way 
hidden, but merely awaiting its fate, as the owner knew that in time the 
tree would be cut down and his heart would fall and so he would die. 
This idea, with certain alterations of details, occurs in numerous folk-tales 
and in the customs of savage peoples. The Eastern story-teller, always 
ready to exaggerate and embroider, introduced the idea of making the 
"soul" as hard to find as possible, thus he encases it in a series of various 
articles or animals and puts it in some apparently inaccessible place, which, 
as we have already seen, was first employed by the ancient Egyptians with 
regard to the magic book of Thoth. 

It is this form of life-index motif that has spread all over India and 
slowly migrated to Europe via Persia, Arabia and the Mediterranean. We 
shall first of all consider briefly the occurrence of this motif in Hindu 


In Freer's Old Deccan Days, in the "Story of Punchkin" (p. 13), the 
magician's life ends when a little green parrot is killed. The bird is in a 
cage, in the sixth of six chattees of water, in a circle of palm-trees in a 
thick jungle, in a desolate country hundreds of thousands of miles away, 
guarded by thousands of genii. In Miss Stokes' Indian Fairy Tales the 
demon's life depends on a maina (hill-starling), in a nest, on a tree, on the 
other side of a great sea. 

Compare D'Penha, "Folk-Lore of Salsette," Ind. Ant., xxii, p. 249, 
and Damant, "Bengali Folk-Lore," Ind. Ant., i, 171. In L. B. Day's 
Folk-Tales of Bengal, No. 1, the "soul" is in a necklace, in a box, in the 
heart of a boal fish, in a tank. Again in No. 4 of the same collection 
of tales the princess is told by the Rakshasa that " in a tank close by, deep 
down in the water, is a crystal pillar, on the top of which are two bees. 
If any human being can dive into the water and bring up these two bees 
in one breath, and destroy them so that not a drop of blood falls to the 
ground, then we rakshasas shall certainly die; but if a single drop of 
their blood falls to the ground, then from it will start a thousand rakshasas." 
In Knowles, Folk-Tales of Kashmir, p. 383, and Ind. Ant, Sept. 1885, p. 250, 
the ogre's life depends on that of a queen bee who lives in a honey-comb 
on a certain tree guarded by myriads of savage bees. Compare- Steel 
and Temple's Wide-Awake Stories, p. 59, and Damant's article mentioned 
above, p. 117. 

In a story appearing in H. H. Wilson's Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Mackenzie MSS., i, p. 329, the life of Mairavana is divided up into five 
vital airs, which are secured in the bodies of five black bees living on a 
mountain 60,000 kos distant. (See also p. 218 of the same work.) 

The bird appears to be the most popular index in Indian tales. Norton 
(op. cit., p. 217) gives numerous references. For more usual indexes see 
Chilli's Folk-Tales of Hindustan, p. 114; Wadia's "Folk-Lore in Western 
India," Ind. Ant., xxii, p. 318 ; Bompas' Folk-Lore of the Santal Parganas, p. 224 ; 
and Ramaswami Raju's Tales of the Sixty Mandarins, p. 182. In O'Connor's 
Folk-Tales of Tibet, p. 113 et seq., is the unique example of one mortal being 
the index of another mortal. Thus the boy in whose keeping is the giant's 
soul is hidden in a subterranean chamber. 

In the great majority of the above tales there is a captive princess, or 
an ogre's daughter, who falls in love with the hero and tells him the way 
in which the obstacles to the destruction of the demon, or Rakshasa, may 
be overcome. 

We now turn to Persia and Arabia, where we find the "life-index" 
occurring in the " History of Nassar," from the Persian Mahbub ul-Qulub, 
reproduced in Clouston's Group of Eastern Romances (see p. 30) ; while in 
Arabian literature it appears in the "Story of Sayf al-Muluk and Badi'a 
al-Jamal" (Burton, Nights, vol. vii, p. 350). Here the form of the motif 
is unusual, as the king of the Jann was told at his birth that he would be 
killed by the son of a king of mankind. Accordingly, he says, "I took it 
[the soul] and set it in the crop of a sparrow, and shut up the bird in a 
box. The box I set in a casket, and enclosing this in seven other caskets 


and seven chests, laid the whole in an alabastrine coffer, which I buried 
within the marge of yon earth -circling sea ; for that these parts are far 
from the world of men and none of them can win thither. So now see, I 
have told thee what thou would'st know, so do thou tell none thereof, for it 
is a matter between me and thee." 

In Europe we still have the "soul" hidden in numerous "wrappings" 
which differ with the locality of the story. In Rome ("Story of Cajusse," 
Busk, Folk-Lore of Rome) it is in a stone, in the head of a bird, in the head 
of a leveret, in the middle head of a seven-headed hydra. Miss Busk 
cites a Hungarian tale where the dwarfs life is finally discovered to be 
in a golden cockchafer, inside a golden cock, inside a golden sheep, inside 
a golden stag, in the ninety-ninth island. 

In Russia (Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 103 el seq.) the life is in an 
egg, in a duck, in a casket, in an oak. In Serbia (Mijatovich's Servian 
Folk-Lore, p. 172) it is in a board, in the heart of a fox, in a mountain. 
Similar " wrappings " of the u soul " will be found in Albania (Dozon, p. 1 32), 
South Slavonia (Wratislaw, p. 225), Schleswig-Holstein (Mullenhoff, p. 404), 
Norway (Asbjornsen, No. 36; Dasent, p. 69) and the Hebrides (Campbell, 
p. 10). See J. Jacob's Indian Fairy Tales, p. 238, 239- 

We have thus seen that the idea of the " external soul " is of very old 
conception and is widely embedded in the customs and superstitions of 
numerous peoples of the world. This idea arose independently to a large 
extent, and no one nation can be definitely said to have "created" the 
idea, as is proved by its existence in remote corners of the globe such as 
New Zealand. 

The idea of using the " external soul " as an attractive story motif by 
casing it in numerous articles, etc., arose in India (although it was originally 
used in Egypt to hide a magical book), whence the idea has migrated, with 
very little alteration, to other Eastern countries and to nearly every part 
of Europe. n.m.p. 


IN the meanwhile the ambassador sent by the King of 
[M] Vatsa in answer to Chandamahasena's embassy 
went and told that monarch his master's reply. Chanda- 
mahasena for his part, on hearing it, began to reflect : "It 
is certain that that proud King of Vatsa will not come here. 
And I cannot send my daughter to his Court ; such conduct 
would be unbecoming ; so I must capture him by some 
stratagem and bring him here as a prisoner." Having thus 
reflected and deliberated with his ministers, the king had 
made a large artificial elephant like his own, and, after filling 
it with concealed warriors, he placed it in the Vindhya forest. 
There the scouts kept in his pay by the King of Vatsa, who 
was passionately fond of the sport of elephant- catching, 
discerned it from a distance x ; and they came with speed 
and informed the King of Vatsa in these words : " O king, 
we have seen a single elephant roaming in the Vindhya 
forest, such that nowhere else in this wide world is his equal 
to be found, filling the sky with his stature, like a moving 
peak of the Vindhya range." 

Then the king rejoiced on hearing this report from the 
scouts, and he gave them a hundred thousand gold pieces 
by way of reward. The king spent that night in thinking : 
" If I obtain that mighty elephant, a fit match for Nadagiri, 
then that Chandamahasena will certainly be in my power, 

1 They would not go near for fear of disturbing it. Wild elephants are 
timid, so there is more probability in this story than in that of the Trojan 
horse. Even now scouts who mark down a wild beast in India almost lose 

their heads with excitement. The hiding of men in imitation animals is 

rare in literature, but the introduction into a city of armed men, hidden in jars, 
is found in an Egyptian papyrus of the twentieth dynasty. The incident occurs 
in the story, " How Thutiyi took the City of Joppa." It has been translated, 
and well annotated, by Maspero, Stories of Ancient Egypt, pp. 108-144. The 
same idea, which will at once occur to readers, was used in the story of AH 
Baba in the Nights. Maspero refers to this story, but makes the usual mistake 
of calling the jars earthenware instead of leather or sewed skins. n.m.p. 


and then he will of his own accord give me his daughter 
Vasavadatta." So in the morning he started for the Vindhya 
forest, making these scouts show him the way, disregard- 
The Artificial ing, in his ardent desire to capture the elephant, 
Elephant fl^ advice of his ministers. He did not pay any 
attention to the fact that the astrologers said that the posi- 
tion of the heavenly bodies at the moment of his departure 
portended the acquisition of a maiden together with im- 

When the King of Vatsa reached the Vindhya forest he 
made his troops halt at a distance, through fear of alarming 
that elephant, and, accompanied by the scouts only, holding 
in his hand his melodious lute, he entered that great forest 
boundless as his own kingly vice. The king saw on the 
southern slope of the Vindhya range that elephant looking 
like a real one, pointed out to him by his scouts from a 
distance. He slowly approached it, alone, playing on his lute, 
thinking how he should bind it, and singing in melodious 
tones. As his mind was fixed on his music, and the shades 
of evening were setting in, that king did not perceive that 
the supposed elephant was an artificial one. The elephant, 1 
too, for its part, lifting up its ears and flapping them, as 
if through delight in the music, kept advancing and then 
retiring, and so drew the king to a great distance. And 
then, suddenly issuing from that artificial elephant, a body of 
soldiers in full armour surrounded that King of Vatsa. When 
he beheld them, the king in a rage drew his hunting-knife, 
but while he was fighting with those in front of him he 
was seized by others coming up behind. And those warriors, 
with the help of others, who appeared at a concerted signal, 
carried that King of Vatsa into the presence of Chanda- 
mahasena. Chandamahasena for his part came out to meet 
him with the utmost respect, and entered with him the city 
of Ujjayini. 

Then the newly arrived King of Vatsa was beheld by the 
citizens, like the moon, pleasing to the eyes, though spotted 

1 For the part played by elephants in folk-tales see W. Crooke, Folk-Lore 
of Northern India, vol. ii, pp. 238-241, and F. W. Thomas' article, " Animals," in 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth. 3 vol. i, p. 514. n.m.p. 



with humiliation. Then all the citizens, suspecting that he 
was to be put to death, through regard for his virtues as- 
sembled and determined to commit suicide. 1 Then the King 
Chandamahasena put a stop to the agitation of the citizens 
by informing them that he did not intend to put the monarch 
of Vatsa to death, but to win him over. So the king made 
over his daughter Vasavadatta on the spot to the King of Vatsa 
to be taught music, and said to him : " Prince, teach this lady 
music ; in this way you will obtain a happy issue to your 
adventure; do not despond." But when he beheld that fair 
lady the mind of the King of Vatsa was so steeped in love 
that he put out of sight his anger ; and her heart and mind 
turned towards him together ; her eye was then averted 
through modesty, but her mind not at all. So the King 
of Vatsa dwelt in the concert-room of Chandamahasena's 
palace, teaching Vasavadatta to sing, with his eyes fixed ever 
on her. In his lap was his lute, in his throat the quarter- 
tone of vocal music, and in front of him stood Vasavadatta, 
delighting his heart. And that princess was devoted in her 
attentions to him, resembling the Goddess of Fortune in 
that she was firmly attached to him, and did not leave him 
though he was a captive. 

In the meanwhile the men who had accompanied the 
king returned to Kausambi, and the country, hearing of the 
captivity of the monarch, was thrown into a state of great 
excitement. Then the enraged subjects, out of love for the 
King of Vatsa, wanted to make a general 2 assault on Uj jayini. 
But Rumanvat checked the impetuous fury of the subjects 
by telling them that Chandamahasena was not to be over- 
come by force, for he was a mighty monarch, and besides 
that an assault was not advisable, for it might endanger the 
safety of the King of Vatsa; but their object must be at- 
tained by policy. The calm and resolute Yaugandharayana, 
seeing that the country was loyal, and would not swerve 
from its allegiance, said to Rumanvat and the others : 
" All of you must remain here, ever on the alert ; you must 
guard this country, and when a fit occasion comes you must 

1 I.e. they sat in Dharna outside the door of the palace. 

2 Perhaps we should read samantatah one word. 


display your prowess ; but I will go, accompanied by Vasan- 
taka only, and will without fail accomplish by my wisdom 
the deliverance of the king and bring him home. For he is 
a truly firm and resolute man, whose wisdom shines forth in 
adversity, as the lightning flash is especially brilliant during 
pelting rain. I know spells for breaking through walls, and 
for rending fetters, and receipts for becoming invisible, 
serviceable at need." 

Having said this, and entrusted to Rumanvat the care 
of the subjects, Yaugandharayana set out for Kausambi 
with Vasantaka. And with him he entered the Vindhya 
forest, full of life, 1 like his wisdom, intricate and trackless 
as his policy. Then he visited the palace of the King of 
the Pulindas, Pulindaka by name, who dwelt on a peak of 
the Vindhya range, and was an ally of the King of Vatsa. 
He first placed him, with a large force at his heels, in readi- 
ness to protect the King of Vatsa when he returned that 
way, and then he went on, accompanied by Vasantaka, 
and at last arrived at the burning-ground of Mahakala in 
Ujjayini, which was densely tenanted by vampires 2 that 
smelt of carrion, and hovered hither and thither, black as 
night, rivalling the smoke-wreaths of the funeral pyres. 
And there a Brahman-Rakshasa 3 of the name of Yogesvara 
immediately came up to him, delighted to see him, and 
admitted him into his friendship ; then Yaugandharayana 
by means of a charm, which he taught him, suddenly altered 
his shape. That charm immediately made him deformed, 
hunchbacked and old, and besides gave him the appearance 
of a madman, so that he produced loud laughter in those 

1 Sattva, when applied to the forest, means " animal " ; when applied to 
wisdom it means " excellence." 

2 Vetala is especially used of a goblin that tenants dead bodies. See 
Captain R. F. Burton's Vikram and the Vampire. The tales will be found in the 
twelfth book of this work. In the fifth chapter of Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales 
will be found much interesting information with regard to the Slavonic 
superstitions about vampires. They resemble very closely those of the 
Hindus. See especially p. 311 : "At cross-roads, or in the neighbourhood of 
cemeteries, an animated corpse of this description often lurks, watching for 
some unwary traveller whom it may be able to slay and eat." 

8 We shall meet this gentleman again in Chapter XXXII. n.m.p. 


who beheld him. 1 And in the same way Yaugandharayana, 
by means of that very charm, gave Vasantaka a body full 
of outstanding veins, with a large stomach, and an ugly 
mouth with projecting teeth ; then he sent Vasantaka on in 
front to the gate of the king's palace, and entered Ujjayini 
with such an appearance as I have described. There he, 
singing and dancing, surrounded by Brahman boys, beheld 
with curiosity by all, made his way to the king's palace. 
And there he excited by that behaviour the curiosity of 
the king's wives, and was at last heard of by Vasavadatta. 
She quickly sent a maid and had him brought to the 
concert-room. For youth is twin brother to mirth. 2 And 
when Yaugandharayana came there and beheld the King 
of Vatsa in fetters, though he had assumed the appearance 
of a madman, he could not help shedding tears. And he 
made a sign to the King of Vatsa, who quickly recognised 
him, though he had come in disguise. Then Yaugandhara- 
yana by means of his magic power made himself invisible to 
Vasavadatta and her maids. So the king alone saw him, 
and they all said with astonishment : " That maniac has 
suddenly escaped somewhere or other." Then the King of 
Vatsa hearing them say that, and seeing Yaugandharayana 
in front of him, understood that this was due to magic, and 
cunningly said to Vasavadatta : " Go, my good girl, and 
bring the requisites for the worship of Sarasvati." When 
she heard that she said, "So I will," and went out with 
her companions. 

Then Yaugandharayana approached the king and com- 
municated to him, according to the prescribed form, spells 
for breaking chains ; and at the same time he furnished him 

1 Cf. the way in which the Ritter Malegis transmutes Reinhold in 
the story of "Die Heimonskinder" (Simrock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, vol. ii, 
p. 86) : w He changed him into an old man, a hundred years of age, with a 
decrepit and misshaped body, and long hair." See also p. 114. So Merlin 
assumes the form of an old man and disguises Uther and Ulfin (Dunlop's 

History of Fiction, translated by Liebrecht, p. 66). In Durgilprasad's text 

we read that Yogesvara "chose him" as a friend, and he is also described as 
bald in addition to his other attractions ! n.m.p. 

2 The Eastern equivalent of the mediaeval court jester was nearly always 
a deformed dwarf. n.m.p. 


with other charms for winning the heart of Vasavadatta, 
which were attached to the strings of the lute ; and informed 
him that Vasantaka had come there and was standing out- 
side the door in a changed form, and recommended him to 
have that Brahman summoned to him. At the same time 
he said : " When this lady Vasavadatta shall come to repose 
confidence in you, then you must do what I tell you ; at the 
present remain quiet." Having said this, Yaugandharayana 
quickly went out, and immediately Vasavadatta entered with 
the requisites for the worship of Sarasvati. Then the king 
said to her : " There is a Brahman standing outside the door, 
let him be brought in to celebrate this ceremony in honour 
of Sarasvati, in order that he may obtain a sacrificial fee." 
Vasavadatta consented, and had Vasantaka, who wore a de- 
formed shape, summoned from the door into the music-hall. 
And when he was brought and saw the King of Vatsa, he 
wept for sorrow; and then the king said to him, in order 
that the secret might not be discovered : " O Brahman, I 
will remove all this deformity of thine produced by sickness ; 
do not weep, remain here near me." And then Vasantaka 
said : " It is a great condescension on thy part, O king." 
And the king seeing how he was deformed could not keep 
his countenance. And when he saw that, Vasantaka guessed 
what was in the king's mind, and laughed so that the 
deformity of his distorted face was increased ; and there- 
upon Vasavadatta, beholding him grinning like a doll, burst 
out laughing also, and was much delighted. Then the 
young lady asked Vasantaka in fun the following ques- 
tion: " Brahman, what science are you familiar with? 
Tell us." So he said : " Princess, I am an adept at 
telling tales." Then she said : " Come, tell me a tale." 
Then, in order to please that princess, Vasantaka told the 
following tale, which was charming by its comic humour 
and variety. 

7. Story of Rupinikd 

There is in this country a city named Mathura, the birth- 
place of Krishna ; in it there was a courtesan known by the 



name of Riipinika ; she had for a mother an old bawd named 
Makaradanshtra, who seemed a lump of poison in the eyes 
of the young men attracted by her daughter's charms. One 
day Rupinika went at the time of worship to the temple to 
perform her duty, 1 and beheld from a distance a young man. 
When she saw that handsome young fellow, he made such an 
impression upon her heart that all her mother's instructions 
vanished from it. Then she said to her maid : " Go and tell 
this man from me that he is to come to my house to-day." 
The maid said, " So I will," and immediately went and 
told him. Then the man thought a little and said to her : 
" I am a Brahman named Lohajangha 2 ; I have no wealth ; 
then what business have I in the house of Rupinika, 
which is only to be entered by the rich ? " The maid said : 
" My mistress does not desire wealth from you." Whereupon 
Lohajangha consented to do as she wished. When she heard 
that from the maid, Rupinika went home in a state of excite- 
ment, and remained with her eyes fixed on the path by which 
he would come. And soon Lohajangha came to her house, 
while the bawd Makaradanshtra looked at him, and wondered 
where he came from. Rupinika for her part, when she saw 
him, rose up to meet him herself with the utmost respect, and 
clinging to his neck in her joy led him to her own private 
apartments. Then she was captivated with Lohajangha's 
wealth of accomplishments, and considered that she had 
been only born to love him. So she avoided the society of 
other men, and that young fellow lived with her in her house 
in great comfort. 

1 Tawney merely says naively, " Such people dance in temples, I believe," 
but we touch here upon one of the oldest and most interesting customs 
of religion, that of sacred prostitution. Recent research has thrown much 
light on this strange custom, which found its way all over the (then) civilised 
world. Its importance warrants more than a mere note, so I shall discuss the 
subject in detail in Appendix IV at the end of this volume. n.m.p. 

2 Mr Growse writes to me with reference to the name Lohajangha : 
" This name still exists on the spot, though probably not to be found else- 
where. The original bearer of the title is said to have been one of the 
demons whom Krishna slew, and a village is called Lohaban after him, 
where an ancient red sandstone image is supposed to represent him, and 
has offerings of iron made to it at the annual festival." 


Rupinika's mother Makaradanshtra, who had trained up 
many courtesans, was annoyed when she saw this, and said 
to her in private : " My daughter, why do you associate with 
a poor man ? Courtesans of good taste embrace a corpse in 
preference to a poor man. What business has a courtesan 
like you with affection ? * How have you come to forget 
that great principle ? The light of a red 2 sunset lasts but 
a short time, and so does the splendour of a courtesan 
who gives way to affection. A courtesan, like an actress, 
should exhibit an assumed affection in order to get wealth ; 
so forsake this pauper, do not ruin yourself." When she 
heard this speech of her mother's, Rupinika said in a rage : 
"Do not talk in this way, for I love him more than my life. 
And as for wealth, I have plenty, what do I want with more ? 
So you must not speak to me again, mother, in this way." 
When she heard this, Makaradanshtra was in a rage, and 
she remained thinking over some device for getting rid of this 
Lohajangha. Then she saw coming along the road a certain 
Rajput, who had spent all his wealth, surrounded by re- 
tainers with swords in their hands. So she went up to him 
quickly and, taking him aside, said : " My house is beset 
by a certain poor lover. So come there yourself to-day, and 
take such order with him that he shall depart from my 
house, and do you possess my daughter." "Agreed," said 
the Rajput, and entered that house. 

At that precise moment Rupinika was in the temple, 
and Lohajangha meanwhile was absent somewhere, and, 
suspecting nothing, he returned to the house a moment 
afterwards. Immediately the retainers of the Rajput ran 
upon him, and gave him severe kicks and blows on all his 
limbs, and then they threw him into a ditch full of all kinds 
of impurities, and Lohajangha with difficulty escaped from 

1 Compare the seventh of Lucian's'ETou/atKoi SiaAoyot, where the mother 
blames Musarium for favouring good looks rather than wealth. "You see 
how much this boy brings in ; not an obol, not a dress, not a pair of shoes, 
not a box of ointment, has he ever given you ; it is all professions and 

promises and distant prospects; always if my father should , and I should 

inherit, everything would be yours " (Fowler, iv, p. 60). n.m.p. 

2 Ragini means "affection" and also "red." 


it. Then Rupinika returned to the house, and when she 
heard what had taken place she was distracted with grief, 
so the Rajput, seeing that, returned as he came. 

Lohajangha, after suffering this brutal outrage by the 
machinations of the bawd, set out for some holy place of 
pilgrimage, in order to leave his life there, now that he was 
Lohajangha is separated from his beloved. As he was going along 
camed off by a in the wild country, 1 with his heart burning with 
Ganida Bird an g er against the bawd, and his skin with the 
heat of the summer, he longed for shade. Not being able to 
find a tree, he lighted on the body of an elephant which had 
been stripped of all its flesh 2 by jackals making their way 
into it by the hind-quarters ; accordingly Lohajangha, being 
worn out, crept into this carcass, which was a mere shell, as 
only the skin remained, and went to sleep in it, as it was kept 
cool by the breeze which freely entered. Then suddenly clouds 
arose from all sides and began to pour down a pelting shower 
of rain ; that rain made the elephant's skin contract so that 

1 Atavl is generally translated "forest." I believe the English word 
" forest" does not necessarily imply trees, but it is perhaps better to 

avoid it here. "Forest" comes from the Latin forts, "out of doors," and 

its connection with trees came later. n.m.p. 

2 For the vritam of the text I read kritam. Cf this incident with 
Joseph's adventure in the sixth story of the Sicilianische M'drchen. He is 
sewn up in a horse's skin and carried by ravens to fhe top of a high 
mountain. There he stamps and finds a wooden trap-door under his feet. 
In the notes Dr Kohler refers to this passage, Campbell, No. 44 ; the story 
of Sindbad and other parallels. Cf. also Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 124. 
See also the story of " Heinrich der Lowe," Simrock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, 
vol. i, p. 8. Dr Kohler refers to the story of " Herzog Ernst." The incident 
will be found in Simrock's version of the story, at p. 308 of the third volume 

of his Deutsche Volksbiicher. An incident very similar to that in our text 

occurs in the "Story of Janshah " (Burton, Nights, vol. v, pp. 341, 342): "So 
Janshah slit the mule's belly and crept into it, whereupon the merchant 
sewed it up on him and, withdrawing to a distance, hid himself in the skirts 
of the mountain. After a while a huge bird swooped down on the dead 
mule and, snatching it up, flew with it to the top of the mountain. . . ." 

In the Travels of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela it is related that when 
sailors were in danger of being lost in the stormy sea that led to China, 
they sewed themselves in hides and, cast on the surface of the waters, were 
snatched up by "great eagles called Gryphons," which carried their supposed 
prey ashore. (See Yule's Marco Polo, vol. ii, p. 418.) n.m.p. 


no aperture was left, 1 and immediately a copious inundation 
came that way, and carrying off the elephant's hide swept 
it into the Ganges, so that eventually the inundation bore it 
into the sea. And there a bird of the race of Garuda saw that 
hide and, supposing it to be carrion, took it to the other side 
of the sea ; there it tore open the elephant's hide with its 
claws and, seeing that there was a man inside it, fled away. 
But Lohajangha was awaked by the bird's pecking and 
scratching, and came out through the aperture made by its 
beak. And finding that he was on the other side of the sea, 
he was astonished, and looked upon the whole thing as a 
daydream ; then he saw there to his terror two horrible Rak- 
shasas, and those two for their part contemplated him from a 
distance with feelings of fear. Remembering how they were 
defeated by Rama, and seeing that Lohajangha was also a 
man who had crossed the sea, 2 they were once more alarmed 
in their hearts. So, after they had deliberated together, one 
of them went off immediately and told the whole occurrence 
to King Vibhishana. King Vibhishana, too, as he had seen 
the prowess of Rama, being terrified at the arrival of a man, 
said to that Rakshasa : " Go, my good friend, and tell that 
man from me, in a friendly manner, that he is to do me the 
favour of coming to my palace." The Rakshasa said, "I 
will do so," and timidly approached Lohajangha, and told 
him that request of his sovereign's. Lohajangha for his part 
accepted that invitation with unruffled calm, and went to 
Lanka with that Rakshasa as his companion. And when he 
arrived in Lanka, he was astonished at beholding numerous 
splendid edifices of gold, and entering the king's palace he 
saw Vibhishana. 

The king welcomed the Brahman, who blessed him in 
return, and then Vibhishana said : " Brahman, how did you 
manage to reach this country ? " Then the cunning Loha- 
jangha said to Vibhishana : "I am a Brahman of the name 
of Lohajangha residing in Mathura; and I, Lohajangha, 
being afflicted at my poverty, went to the temple of the god, 

1 Cf. Freer' s Old Deccan Days, p. 164. n.m.p. 

2 Referring, of course, to Rama's defeat of Ravana and his army of 
Rakshasas in Lanka (Ceylon). n.m.p. 


and remaining fasting, for a long time performed austerities 
in the presence of Narayana. 1 Then the adorable Hari x com- 
manded me in a dream, saying : c Go thou to Vibhishana, for 
he is a faithful worshipper of mine, and he will give thee 
w r ealth.' Then I said : ' Vibhishana is where I cannot reach 
him.' But the lord continued : c To-day shalt thou see that 
Vibhishana.' So the lord spake to me, and immediately I 
woke up and found myself upon this side of the sea. I know 
no more." When Vibhishana heard this from Lohajangha, 
reflecting that Lanka was a difficult place to reach, he thought 
to himself: "Of a truth this man possesses divine power." 
And he said to that Brahman: "Remain here; I will give 
you wealth." Then he committed him to the care of the 
man-slaying Rakshasas as an inviolable deposit, and sent some 
of his subjects to a mountain in his kingdom called Swarna- 
mula, who brought from it a young bird belonging to the race 
of Garuda ; and he gave it to that Lohajangha (who had to 
take a long journey to Mathura) to ride upon, in order that 
he might in the meanwhile break it in. Lohajangha for his 
part mounted on its back, and riding about on it in Larika, 
rested there for some time, being hospitably entertained by 

One day he asked the King of the Rakshasas, feeling 
curiosity on the point, why the whole ground of Lanka was 
made of wood ; and Vibhishana, when he heard that, explained 
Whuthe Ground tne circumstance to him, saying: "Brahman, if 
of Lanka was you take any interest in this matter, listen, I will 
made of Wood eX pl a in it to you. Long ago Garuda, the son of 
Kasyapa, wishing to redeem his mother from her slavery to 
the snakes, to whom she had been subjected in accordance 
with an agreement, 2 and preparing to obtain from the gods 
the nectar which was the price of her ransom, wanted to eat 
something which would increase his strength, and so he went 

1 Names of Vishnu, who became incarnate in the hero Krishna. 

2 See chap, xx, //. 181 et seq. KaSyapa's two wives disputed about the 
colour of the sun's horses. They agreed that whichever was in the wrong 
should become a slave to the other. Kadru, the mother of the snakes, won 
by getting her children to darken the horses. So Garuda' s mother, Vinata, 

became a slave. See Charpentier, Die Suparnasage, Upsala, 1922, p. 220 

et seq. n.m.p. 


to his father, who, being importuned, said to him : c My son, 
in the sea there is a huge elephant and a huge tortoise. They 
have assumed their present form in consequence of a curse : 
go and eat them.' Then Garuda went and brought them both 
to eat, and then perched on a bough of the great wishing- tree 
of paradise. 1 And when that bough suddenly broke with his 
weight, he held it up with his beak, out of regard to the 
Balakhilyas 2 who were engaged in austerities underneath it. 
Then Garuda, afraid that the bough would crush mankind if 
he let it fall at random, by the advice of his father brought 
the bough to this uninhabited part of the earth and let it 
drop. Lanka was built on the top of that bough, therefore 
the ground here is of wood." When he heard this from 
Vibhishana, Lohajangha was perfectly satisfied. 

Then Vibhishana gave to Lohajangha many valuable 
jewels, as he desired to set out for Mathura. And out of his 
devotion to the god Vishnu, who dwells at Mathura, he en- 
Lohamncriia trusted to the care of Lohajangha a lotus, a club, 
disguised as a shell and a discus all of gold, to be offered to 
Vishnu f-ke god. Lohajangha took all these and mounted 

the bird given to him by Vibhishana, that could accomplish 
a hundred thousand yojanas* and rising up into the air in 
Lanka, he crossed the sea and without any difficulty arrived at 

1 The wishing-tree of paradise is found in all Eastern religions, including 
Christianity. In a note on the Arabian variety Burton says [Nights, vol. v, 
p. 237) : * The paradiseal tree which supplied every want. Mohammed 
borrowed it from the Christians (Rev. xxi, 10-21, and xxii, 1-2) who placed 
in their paradise the Tree of Life which bears twelve sorts of fruits and 
leaves of healing virtue. (See also the third book of Hermas, his Similitudes.) 
The Hebrews borrowed it from the Persians. Amongst the Hindus it appears 
as Kalpavriksha ; amongst the Scandinavians as Yggdrasil. The curious reader 
will consult Mr James Fergusson's learned work, Tree and Serpent Worship, 
London, 1873." Reference should also be made to the article on "Tree- 
Worship," by S. A. Cook, in the Ency. Brit., vol. xxvii, p. 448 et seq., and to 
that on "Trees and Plants," by T. Barnes, in Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
vol. xii, p. 235 et seq., and to the general index to Frazer's Golden Bough, 
p. 501. N.M.P. 

2 Divine personages of the size of a thumb. Sixty thousand were pro- 
duced from Brahma's body and surrounded the chariot of the sun. The 
legend of Garuda and the Balakhilyas is found in the Mahabharata (see De 
Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, p. 95). 

3 See note on p. 3. n.m.p. 


Mathura. And there he descended from the air into an empty 
convent outside the town, and deposited there his abundant 
treasure, and tied up that bird. And then he went into the 
market and sold one of his jewels, and bought garments 
and scented unguents, and also food. And he ate the food in 
that convent where he was, and gave some to his bird ; and 
he adorned himself with the garments, unguents, flowers and 
other decorations. And when night came he mounted that 
same bird and went to the house of Rupinika, bearing in his 
hand the shell, discus and mace ; then he hovered over it in 
the air, knowing the place well, and made a low, deep sound 
to attract the attention of his beloved, who was alone. But 
Rupinika, as soon as she heard that sound, came out, and 
saw hovering in the air by night a being like Narayana, 
gleaming with jewels. He said to her : "I am Hari come 
hither for thy sake " ; whereupon she bowed with her face 
to the earth and said : " May the god have mercy upon 
me ! " Then Lohajangha descended and tied up his bird, and 
entered the private apartments of his beloved hand in hand 
with her. And after remaining there a short time he came out 
and, mounting the bird as before, went off through the air. 1 

In the morning Rupinika remained observing an obstinate 
silence, thinking to herself : " I am the wife of the god Vishnu, 
I must cease to converse with mortals." And then her mother 
Makaradanshtra said to her : " Why do you behave in this 
way, my daughter ? " And after she had been perseveringly 
questioned by her mother, she caused to be put up a curtain 

1 Compare the fifth story in the first book of the Panchatantra, in Benfey's 
translation. He shows that this story found its way into Mohammedan 
collections, such as The Thousand and One Nights, and The Thousand and One 
Days, as also into The Decameron of Boccaccio, and other European story- 
books, vol. i, p. 159 et seq. The story, as given in the Panchatantra, reminds 
us of the " Squire's Tale " in Chaucer. But Josephus in Ant. Jud., xviii, 3, 
tells it of a Roman knight named Mundus, who fell in love with Paulina, 
the wife of Saturninus, and, by corrupting the priestess of Isis, was enabled 
to pass himself off as Anubis. On the matter coming to the ears of Tiberius, 
he had the temple of Isis destroyed and the priests crucified. (Dunlop's 
History of Fiction, vol. ii, p. 27 ; Liebrecht's German translation, p. 232.) 
A similar story is told by the Pseudo-Callisthenes of Nectanebos and Olympias. 
Cf. Coelho's Contos Popular es Portugueses, No. 71, p. 155. 


between herself and her parent, and told her what had taken 
place in the night, which was the cause of her silence. When 
the bawd heard that, she felt doubt on the subject, but soon 
Has his Re- a ^ er > at night, she saw that very Lohajangha 
venge on the mounted on the bird, and in the morning Maka- 
Bawd radanshtra came secretly to Rupinika, who still 

remained behind the curtain, and inclining herself humbly, 
preferred to her this request : " Through the favour of the 
god, thou, my daughter, hast obtained here on earth the rank 
of a goddess, and I am thy mother in this world, therefore 
grant me a reward for giving thee birth : entreat the god 
that, old as I am, with this very body I may enter paradise. 
Do me this favour." 

Rupinika consented, and requested that very boon from 
Lohajangha, who came again at night disguised as Vishnu. 
Then Lohajangha, who was personating the god, said to that 
beloved of his : " Thy mother is a wicked woman, it would 
not be fitting to take her openly to paradise; but on the 
morning of the eleventh day the door of heaven is opened, 
and many of the Ganas, Siva's companions, enter into it 
before anyone else is admitted. Among them I will intro- 
duce this mother of thine, if she assume their appearance. 
So shave her head with a razor, in such a manner that five 
locks * shall be left, put a necklace of skulls round her neck, 
and stripping off her clothes, paint one side of her body with 
lamp-black and the other with red lead, 2 for w T hen she has in 
this way been made to resemble a Gana, I shall find it an easy 
matter to get her into heaven." When he had said this, Loha- 
jangha remained a short time and then departed. And in the 
morning Rupinika attired her mother as he had directed ; 
and then she remained with her mind entirely fixed on para- 
dise. So when night came Lohajangha appeared again, and 
Rupinika handed over her mother to him. Then he mounted 

1 Compare Mahabodhi-Jataka (No. 528, Cambridge edition, vol. v, pp. 125, 
1 26), where the king as a punishment to the five princes u stript them of all 
their property and disgracing them in various ways, by fastening their hair 
into five locks, by putting them into fetters and chains and by sprinkling 
cow-dung over them, he drove them out of his kingdom." n.m.p. 

2 Thus she represented the Ardha-nari^vara, or Siva half-male and 
half-female, which compound figure is to be painted in this manner. 


on the bird, and took the bawd with him naked, and trans- 
formed as he had directed, and he flew up rapidly with her 
into the air. While he was in the air, he beheld a lofty stone 
pillar in front of a temple, with a discus on its summit. So he 
placed her on the top of the pillar, with the discus as her only 
support, 1 and there she hung like a banner to blazon forth 
his revenge for his ill usage. He said to her : " Remain here 
a moment while I bless the earth with my approach," and 
vanished from her sight. Then beholding a number of people 
in front of the temple, who had come there to spend the night 
in devout vigils before the festive procession, he called aloud 
from the air : " Hear, ye people, this very day there shall fall 
upon you here the all- destroying Goddess of Pestilence, there- 
fore fly to Hari for protection." When they heard this voice 
from the air all the inhabitants of Mathura who were there, 
being terrified, implored the protection of the god, and re- 
mained devoutly muttering prayers to ward off the calamity. 
Lohajangha for his part descended from the air and en- 
couraged them to pray, and after changing that dress of his 
came and stood among the people, without being observed. 
The bawd thought as she sat upon the top of the pillar : 
" The god has not come as yet, and I have not reached 
heaven." At last, feeling it impossible to remain up there 
any longer, she cried out in her fear, so that the people below 
heard: "Alas! I am falling, I am falling." Hearing that, 
the people in front of the god's temple were beside them- 
selves, fearing that the destroying goddess was falling upon 
them, even as had been foretold, and said : " O goddess, do 
not fall, do not fall." So those people of Mathura, young and 
old, spent that night in perpetual dread that the destroying 
goddess would fall upon them, but at last it came to an end ; 
and then beholding that bawd upon the pillar in the state 
described, 2 the citizens and the king recognised her at once. 

1 She held on to it by her hands. 

2 Wilson remarks that this presents some analogy to the story in The 
Decameron (No. 7, Gior. 8) of the scholar and the widow, u la quale egli con 
un suo consiglio, di mezzo Luglio, ignuda, tutto un di fa stare in su una torre." 
It also bears some resemblance to the story of " The Master Thief" in Thorpe's 
Yule-tide Stories, p. 272. The master thief persuades the priest that he will 


All the people thereupon forgot their alarm and burst out 
laughing, and Rtipinika herself at last arrived, having heard 
of the occurrence. And when she saw it she was abashed, 
and with the help of the people who were there she managed 
to get that mother of hers down from the top of the pillar 
immediately. Then that bawd was asked by all the people 
there, who were filled with curiosity, to tell them the whole 
story, and she did so. Thereupon the king, the Brahmans 
and the merchants, thinking that that laughable incident 
must have been brought about by a sorcerer or some person 
of that description, made a proclamation, that whoever had 
made a fool of the bawd, who had deceived innumerable 
lovers, was to show himself, and he would receive a turban 
of honour on the spot. When he heard that, Lohajangha 
made himself known to those present, and, being questioned, 
he related the whole story from its commencement. And he 
offered to the god the discus, shell, club and lotus of gold, the 
present which Vibhishana had sent, and which aroused the 
astonishment of the people. Then all the people of Mathura, 
being pleased, immediately invested him with a turban 
of honour, and by the command of the king made that 
Rupinika a free woman. And then Lohajangha, having 

take him to heaven. He thus induces him to get into a sack, and then he 
throws him into the goose-house, and when the geese peck him, tells him 
that he is in purgatory. The story is Norwegian. See also Sir G. W. Cox's 

Mythology of the Aryan Nations, vol. i, p. 127. The story in The Decameron 

(see Rigg's translation, 1906, vol. ii, p. 209 et seq.) can be sufficiently explained 
by the rubric a scholar loves a widow lady, who, being enamoured of another, 
causes him to spend a winter's night awaiting her in the snow. He afterwards 
by a stratagem causes her to stand for a whole day in July, naked, upon a 
tower, exposed to the flies, the gadflies and the sun. 

It is interesting to notice that scholars contend that in this tale of revenge 
Boccaccio introduces himself. 

A. C. Lee (The Decameron, its Sources and Analogues, pp. 259, 260) gives 
various examples of tricks played on lovers by a basket being drawn half-way 
up to the lady's window and there left till a crowd assembles. For full 
details reference should be made to Comparetti, Virgilio nel medio evo, Firenze, 
2nd edition, vol. ii, p. 1 1 1 et seq. 

Cf. also chap, viii of Le Sage's Le Diahle Boiteux, where Patrice is made 
to wait outside the door of two women under the pretext that the brother of 
one is within. n.m.p. 


wreaked upon the bawd his w r rath caused by her ill usage of 
him, lived in great comfort in Mathura with that beloved of 
his, being very well off by means of the large stock of jewels 
which he had brought from Lanka. 

[M] Hearing this tale from the mouth of the transformed 
Vasantaka, Vasavadatta, who was sitting at the side of the 
fettered King of Vatsa, felt extreme delight in her heart. 


AS time went on Vasavadatta began to feel a great 
[M] affection for the King of Vatsa, and to take part 
with him against her father. Then Yaugandharayana 
again came in to see the King of Vatsa, making himself 
invisible to all the others who were there. And he gave 
him the following information in private in the presence of 
Vasantaka only : " King, you were made captive by King 
Chandamahasena by means of an artifice. And he wishes to 
give you his daughter, and set you at liberty, treating you 
with all honour ; so let us carry off his daughter and escape. 
For in this way we shall have revenged ourselves upon the 
haughty monarch, and we shall not be thought lightly of in 
the world for want of prowess. Now the king has given 
that daughter of his, Vasavadatta, a female elephant called 
Bhadravati. And no other elephant but Nadagiri is swift 
enough to catch her up, and he will not fight when he sees her. 
The driver of this elephant is a man called Ashadhaka, and 
him I have won over to our side by giving him much wealth. 
So you must mount that elephant with Vasavadatta, fully 
armed, and start from this place secretly by night. And you 
must have the superintendent of the royal elephants here 
made drunk with wine, in order that he may not perceive 
what is about to take place, 1 for he understands every sign 
that elephants give. I for my part will first repair to your 
ally Pulindaka in order that he may be prepared to guard 
the road by which you escape." When he had said this, 
Yaugandharayana departed. 

So the King of Vatsa stored up all his instructions in 
his heart ; and soon Vasavadatta came to him. Then he 
made all kinds of confidential speeches to her, and at last 
told her what Yaugandharayana had said to him. She 

1 Cf. the way in which Riidigar carries off the daughter of King Osantrix, 
Hagen's Helden-Sagen, vol. i, p. 227. 



consented to the proposal, and made up her mind to start, 
and causing the elephant- driver Ashadhaka to be summoned, 
she prepared his mind for the attempt, and, on the pretext 
of worshipping the gods, she gave the superintendent of the 
elephants, with all the elephant- drivers, a supply of spirits 
and made them drunk. Then in the evening, which was dis- 
turbed with the echoing roar of clouds, 1 Ashadhaka brought 
that female elephant ready harnessed, but she. while she was 
being harnessed, uttered a cry, which was heard by the super- 
intendent of the elephants, who was skilled in elephant's 
language ; and he faltered out in a voice indistinct from ex- 
cessive intoxication : " The female elephant says she is going 
sixty- three yojanas to-day." But his mind in his drunken 
state was not capable of reasoning, and the elephant-drivers, 
who were also intoxicated, did not even hear what he said. 
Then the King of Vatsa broke his chains by means of the 
charms which Yaugandharayana had given him, and took 
that lute of his, and Vasavadatta of her own accord brought 
him his weapons, and then he mounted the female elephant 
with Vasantaka. And then Vasavadatta mounted the same 
elephant with her friend and confidante Kanchanamala ; then 
the King of Vatsa went out from Ujjayini with five persons 
in all, including himself and the elephant- driver, by a path 
which the infuriated elephant clove through the rampart. 

And the king attacked and slew the two warriors who 
guarded that point, the Rajputs Virabahu and Talabhata. 
Then the monarch set out rapidly on his journey in high 
spirits, mounted on the female elephant, together with his 
beloved, Ashadhaka holding the elephant-hook. In the 
meanwhile in Ujjayini the city patrol beheld those guards 
of the rampart lying dead, and in consternation reported the 
news to the king at night. Chandamahasena inquired into 
the matter, and found out at last that the King of Vatsa had 
escaped, taking Vasavadatta with him. Then the alarm spread 
through the city, and one of his sons named Palaka mounted 
Nadagiri and pursued the King of Vatsa. The King of Vatsa 
for his part combated him with arrows as he advanced, and 

1 TrjprjO-avTes vvktol yei^kpiov v&an kcu aVe/xw /cat ap a<7 k\i)vov e^rjevav, 
Thucyd., iii, 22. 


Nadagiri, seeing that female elephant, would not attack her. 
Then Palaka, who was ready to listen to reason, was induced 
to desist from the pursuit by his brother Gopalaka, who had 
his father's interests at heart. 

Then the King of Vatsa boldly continued his journey, and 
as he journeyed the night gradually came to an end. So by the 
middle of the day the king had reached the Vindhya forest, 
and his elephant, having journeyed sixty- three yojanas, was 
thirsty. So the king and his wife dismounted, and the female 
elephant having drunk water, owing to its being bad, fell 
dead on the spot. Then the King of Vatsa and Vasavadatta, 
in their despair, heard this voice coming from the air : "I, 
O king, am a female Vidyadhara named Mayavati, and for 
this long time I have been a female elephant in consequence 
of a curse ; and to-day, O lord of Vatsa, I have done you a 
good turn, and I will do another to your son that is to be : 
and this queen of yours, Vasavadatta, is not a mere mortal ; 
she is a goddess for a certain cause incarnate on the earth." 
Then the king regained his spirits, and sent on Vasantaka to 
the plateau of the Vindhya hills to announce his arrival to 
his ally Pulindaka ; and as he was himself journeying along 
slowly on foot with his beloved he was surrounded by brigands, 
who sprang out from an ambuscade. And the king, with 
only his bow to help him, slew one hundred and five of them 
before the eyes of Vasavadatta. And immediately the king's 
ally Pulindaka came up, together with Yaugandharayana, 
Vasantaka showing them the way. The King of the Bheels 
ordered the surviving brigands * to desist, and after prostrat- 
ing himself before the King of Vatsa, conducted him with his 
beloved to his own village. 

The king rested there that night with Vasavadatta, whose 
foot had been cut with a blade of forest grass, and early in 
the morning the General Rumanvat reached him, who had 
before been summoned by Yaugandharayana, who sent a 

1 The word dasyu here means "savage," "barbarian." These wild 
mountain tribes, called indiscriminately Savaras, Pulindas, Bhillas, etc., seem 
to have been addicted to cattle-lifting and brigandage. So the word dasyu 
comes to mean "robber." Even the virtuous Savara prince described in the 
story of Jimutavahana plunders a caravan. 


messenger to him. And the whole army came with him, 
filling the land as far as the eye could reach, so that the 
Vindhya forest appeared to be besieged. So that King of 
Vatsa entered into the encampment of his army, and re- 
mained in that wild region to wait for news from Ujjayini. 
And while he was there a merchant came from Ujjayini, a 
friend of Yaugandharayana's, and when he had arrived re- 
ported these tidings : " The King Chandamahasena is pleased 
to have thee for a son-in-law, and he has sent his warder to 
thee. The warder is on the way, but he has stopped short 
of this place ; however, I came secretly on in front of him, 
as fast as I could, to bring your Highness information." 

When he heard this the King of Vatsa rejoiced, and told 
it all to Vasavadatta, and she was exceedingly delighted. 
Then Vasavadatta, having abandoned her own relations, and 
being anxious for the ceremony of marriage, was at the same 
time bashful and impatient : then she said, in order to divert 
her thoughts, to Vasantaka, who was in attendance : " Tell 
me some story." Then the sagacious Vasantaka told that 
fair-eyed one the following tale in order to increase her 
affection for her husband. 

8. Story of Devasmitd 

There is a city in the world famous under the name of 
Tamralipta, and in that city there was a very rich merchant 
named Dhanadatta. And he, being childless, assembled many 
Brahmans and said to them with due respect : " Take such 
steps as will procure me a son soon." Then those Brahmans 
said to him : " This is not at all difficult, for Brahmans can 
accomplish all things in this world by means of ceremonies 
in accordance with the scriptures. To give you an instance, 
there was in old time a king who had no sons, and he had 
a hundred and five wives in his harem. And by means of a 
sacrifice to procure a son there was born to him a son named 
Jantu, who was like the rising of the new moon to the eyes of 
his wives. Once on a time an ant bit the boy on the thigh as 
he was crawling about on his knees, so that he was very un- 
happy and sobbed loudly. Thereupon the whole harem was 


full of confused lamentation, and the king himself shrieked 
out, ' My son ! my son ! ' like a common man. The boy was 
soon comforted, the ant having been removed, and the king 
blamed the misfortune of his only having one son as the cause 
of all his grief. And he asked the Brahmans in his affliction 
if there was any expedient by which he might obtain a large 
number of children. They answered him : ' O king, there is 
one expedient open to you : you must slay this son and offer 
up all his flesh in the fire. 1 By smelling the smell of that 
sacrifice all thy wives will obtain sons.' When he heard that, 
the king had the whole ceremony performed as they directed ; 
and he obtained as many sons as he had wives. So we can 
obtain a son for you also by a burnt- offering." When they 
had said this to Dhanadatta, the Brahmans, after a sacrificial 
fee had been promised them, performed a sacrifice : then a son 
was born to that merchant. That son was called Guhasena, 
and he gradually grew up to man's estate. Then his father 
Dhanadatta began to look out for a wife for him. 

Then his father went with that son of his to another 
country, on the pretence of traffic, but really to get a 
daughter-in-law; there he asked an excellent merchant of 
the name of Dharmagupta to give him his daughter named 
Devasmita for his son Guhasena. But Dharmagupta, who 
was tenderly attached to his daughter, did not approve of 
that connection, reflecting that the city of Tamralipta was 
very far off. But when Devasmita beheld that Guhasena, her 
mind was immediately attracted by his virtues, and she was 
set on abandoning her relations, and so she made an assigna- 
tion with him by means of a confidante, and went away from 
that country at night with her beloved and his father. When 
they reached Tamralipta they were married, and the minds 
of the young couple were firmly knit together by the bond of 
mutual love. Then Guhasena's father died, and he himself 

1 I have already (p. 98) given cases of child murder with the hopes of 
obtaining offspring. I would also draw attention to an article in the Indian 
Antiquary for May 1923, "Ritual Murder as a Means of Producing Children." 
It consists of cases which came under the personal notice of Sir Richard 
Temple when he was Superintendent of the Penal Settlement at Port Blair, 
Andaman Islands, between 1893-1896. n.m.p. 


was urged by his relations to go to the country of Kataha * 
for the purpose of trafficking ; but his wife Devasmita was 
too jealous to approve of that expedition, fearing exceedingly 
that he would be attracted by some other lady. Then, as his 
wife did not approve of it, and his relations kept inciting him 
to it, Guhasena, whose mind was firmly set on doing his duty, 
was bewildered. Then he went and performed a vow in the 

1 Tawney suggested that Kataha might possibly be identified with Cathay, 
the mediaeval name of China. His surmise, however, has been proved 
incorrect. It has now been traced to Kedah, one of the unfederated Malay 
States, which was apparently known in Southern India as Kadaram, or 
Kataha. The data for arriving at this conclusion is interesting. 

The Chola monarch, Rajendra Chola I (a.d. 1012-1052), dispatched several 
expeditions over the water to the East probably in defence of Tamil or 
Telugu settlements on the east coast of Sumatra and on the west coast of 
southernmost Burma, the isthmus of Kra, and Malaya. Among the inscrip- 
tions recording such events is one which tells of an expedition to Kadaram via 
Ma-Nakkavaram i.e. the Nicobar Islands. For full details of the evidence 
derived from this inscription reference should be made to Hultzsch, South 
Indian Inscriptions, vol. iii, Part. II, Arch. Surv. Ind., New Imp. Series, vol. xxix, 
1903, pp. 194-195; Hultzsch, Epigraphia Indica, vol. ix, No. 31, 1907-1908, 
p. 231; and especially pp. 19-22 of Coedes' " Le Royaume de rivijaya " in 
Bull, de Vicole Franqaise d' extreme Orient, Tome XVIII, 1918. R. Sewell, in 
a letter to me on the subject, would trace the phonetic changes of Kedah 
as follows : 

Granted that Kedah was so spelt in ancient times, and that it came 
to be called Kadaram in South India, we can delete the "m" as a South 
Indian dialect suffix {e.g. pattana becomes pattanam, mandala is mandalam, etc.). 
Then the transformation is natural enough : 



h 1 




or ki / 



Sewell considers that the phonetic change from ha to ra is not too forced. 

It should be noted that the Southern Hindus knew of a Kadaram in their 
own country, and it is natural for people, hearing of a foreign place with a name 
like that of one of their own towns, to call the foreign place after their own. 

There is, however, a little further evidence of considerable interest. In 
the Kanyakumari (Cape Cormorin) inscription of Virarajendra, verse 72 reads : 
" With (the help of) his forces, which crossed the seas, which were excessively 
powerful in arms and which had scattered away the armies of all his enemies, 
he burnt Kataha, that could not be set on fire by others. What is (there that 
is) impossible for this Rajendra-Chola ! " 

This burning of Kataha is considered by K. V. S. Aiyar to refer to the 
conquest of Burma. See Travancore Archaeological Series, vol. iii, Part I, 1922, 
pp. 120, 159, from which the above translation has been taken. n.m.p. 


temple of the god, observing a rigid fast, trusting that the 
god would show him some way out of his difficulty. And his 
wife Devasmita also performed a vow with him. Then Siva 
was pleased to appear to that couple in a dream ; and giving 
them two red lotuses, the god said to them : " Take each 
of you one of these lotuses in your hand. And if either of 
you shall be unfaithful during your separation the lotus in 
the hand of the other shall fade, but not otherwise." x 

After hearing this the two woke up, and each beheld in 
the hand of the other a red lotus, and it seemed as if they 
had got one another's hearts. Then Guhasena set out, lotus 
in hand, but Devasmita remained in the house with her eyes 
fixed upon her flower. Guhasena for his part quickly reached 
the country of Kataha, and began to buy and sell jewels 
there. And four young merchants in that country, seeing 
that that unfading lotus was ever in his hand, were greatly 
astonished. Accordingly they got him to their house by 
an artifice, and made him drink a great deal of wine, and 
then asked him the history of the lotus, and he being in- 
toxicated told them the whole story. Then those four young 
merchants, knowing that Guhasena would take a long time 
to complete his sales and purchases of jewels and other wares, 
planned together, like rascals as they were, the seduction 
of his wife out of curiosity, and eager to accomplish it, 
set out quickly for Tamralipta without their departure being 

There they cast about for some instrument, and at last had 
recourse to a female ascetic of the name of Yogakarandika, 
who lived in a sanctuary of Buddha ; and they said to her in 
an affectionate manner : " Reverend madam, if our object is 
accomplished by your help we will give you much wealth." 
She answered them : " No doubt you young men desire some 
woman in this city, so tell me all about it, I will procure you 
the object of your desire ; but I have no wish for money. I 
have a pupil of distinguished ability named Siddhikari ; owing 
to her kindness I have obtained untold wealth." The young 
merchants asked : " How have you obtained untold wealth 
by the assistance of a pupil ? " Being asked this question, 

1 See the first note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


the female ascetic said : " If you feel any curiosity about the 
matter, listen, my sons, I will tell you the whole story : 

8a. The Cunning Siddhikari 

Long ago a certain merchant came here from the north ; 
while he was dwelling here my pupil went and obtained, with 
a treacherous object, the position of a serving-maid in his 
house, having first altered her appearance ; and after she had 
gained the confidence of that merchant she stole all his hoard 
of gold from his house and went off secretly in the morning 
twilight. And as she went out from the city, moving rapidly 
through fear, a certain Domba, 1 with his drum in his hand, 
saw her, and pursued her at full speed with the intention of 
robbing her. When she had reached the foot of a Nyagrodha 
tree she saw that he had come up with her, and so the cunning 
Siddhikari said this to him in a plaintive manner : "I have 
had a jealous quarrel with my husband, and I have left his 
house to die, therefore, my good man, make a noose for me 
to hang myself with." Then the Domba thought : " Let her 
hang herself. Why should I be guilty of her death, especially 
as she is a woman ? " and so he fastened a noose for her to the 
tree. Then Siddhikari, feigning ignorance, said to the Domba : 
" How is the noose slipped round the neck ? Show me, I 
entreat you." Then the Domba placed the drum under his 
feet, and saying, " This is the way we do the trick," he 
fastened the noose round his own throat. Siddhikari for her 
part smashed the drum to atoms with a kick, and that 
Domba hung till he was dead. 2 At that moment the merchant 
arrived in search of her, and beheld from a distance Siddhi- 
kari, who had stolen from him untold treasures, at the foot of 
the tree. She too saw him coming, and climbed up the tree 
without being noticed, and remained there on a bough, having 
her body concealed by the dense foliage. 

When the merchant came up with his servants he saw the 

1 A man of low caste, now called Dom. They officiate as executioners. 

2 Cf. the way in which the widow's son, the shifty lad, treats Black Rogue 
in Campbell's Tales of the Western Highlands. (Tale xvii a 1 ., Orient und Occident, 

vol. ii, p. 303.) Cf. Parker's Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. iii, p. 346 et 

seq. 9 and Benfey, PaTichatantra, i, p. 609. n.m.p. 


Domba hanging by his neck, but Siddhikari was nowhere to 
be seen. Immediately one of his servants said, " I wonder 
whether she has got up this tree," and proceeded to ascend 
it himself. Then Siddhikari said : "I have always loved 
you, and now you have climbed up where I am, so all this 
wealth is at your disposal, handsome man ; come and embrace 
me." So she embraced the merchant's servant, and as she 
was kissing his mouth she bit off the fool's tongue. He, over- 
come with pain, fell from that tree, spitting blood from his 
mouth, uttering some indistinct syllables, which sounded like 
" Lalalla." When he saw that, the merchant was terrified, 
and supposing that his servant had been seized by a demon, 
he fled from that place, and went to his own house with his 
attendants. Then Siddhikari, the female ascetic, equally 
frightened, descended from the top of the tree, and brought 
home with her all that wealth. Such a person is my pupil, 
distinguished for her great discernment, and it is in this way, 
my sons, that I have obtained wealth by her kindness. 

8. Story of Devasmitd 

When she had said this to the young merchants the 
female ascetic showed to them her pupil, who happened to 
come in at that moment, and said to them : " Now, my 
sons, tell me the real state of affairs what woman do you 
desire ? I will quickly procure her for you." When they 
heard that they said : " Procure us an interview with the 
wife of the merchant Guhasena named Devasmita." When 
she heard that, the ascetic undertook to manage that business 
for them, and she gave those young merchants her own house 
to reside in. Then she gratified the servants at Guhasena's 
house with gifts of sweetmeats and other things, and after- 
wards entered it with her pupil. Then, as she approached 
the private rooms of Devasmita, a bitch, that was fastened 
there with a chain, would not let her come near, but opposed 
her entrance in the most determined way. Then Devasmita 
seeing her, of her own accord sent a maid, and had her 
brought in, thinking to herself: " What can this person be 
come for ? " After she had entered, the wicked ascetic gave 


Devasmita her blessing, and, treating the virtuous woman with 
affected respect, said to her : u I have always had a desire to 
see you, but to-day I saw you in a dream, therefore I have 
come to visit you with impatient eagerness ; and my mind is 
afflicted at beholding you separated from your husband, for 
beauty and youth are wasted when one is deprived of the 
society of one's beloved." With this and many other speeches 
of the same kind she tried to gain the confidence of the virtu- 
ous woman in a short interview, and then taking leave of her 
she returned to her own house. 

On the second day she took with her a piece of meat full 
of pepper dust, and went again to the house of Devasmita, 
and there she gave that piece of meat to the bitch at the 
door, and the bitch gobbled it up, pepper and all. Then 
owing to the pepper dust the tears flowed in profusion 
from the animal's eyes, and her nose began to run. And 
the cunning ascetic immediately went into the apartment of 
Devasmita, who received her hospitably, and began to cry. 
When Devasmita asked her why she shed tears she said with 
affected reluctance : " My friend, look at this bitch weeping 
outside here. 1 This creature recognised me to-day as having 
been its companion in a former birth, and began to weep ; 
for that reason my tears gushed through pity." When she 
heard that, and saw that bitch outside apparently weeping, 
Devasmita thought for a moment to herself : " What can be 
the meaning of this wonderful sight ? " Then the ascetic said 
to her : " My daughter, in a former birth I and that bitch 
were the two wives of a certain Brahman. And our husband 
frequently went about to other countries on embassies by 
order of the king. Now while he was away from home I 
lived with other men at my pleasure, and so did not cheat 
the elements, of which I was composed, and my senses, of 
their lawful enjoyment. For considerate treatment of the 
elements and senses is held to be the highest duty. There- 
fore I have been born in this birth with a recollection of 
my former existence. But she in her former life, through 
ignorance, confined all her attention to the preservation of her 
character, therefore she has been degraded and born again 

1 See the second note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


as one of the canine race ; however, she too remembers her 
former birth." 

The wise Devasmita said to herself: " This is a novel con- 
ception of duty ; no doubt this woman has laid a treacherous 
snare for me " ; and so she said to her : " Reverend lady, for 
this long time I have been ignorant of this duty, so procure 
me an interview with some charming man." Then the ascetic 
said : " There are residing here some young merchants that 
have come from another country, so I will bring them to you." 
When she had said this the ascetic returned home delighted, 
and Devasmita of her own accord said to her maids : " No 
doubt those scoundrelly young merchants, whoever they may 
be, have seen that unfading lotus in the hand of my husband, 
and have on some occasion or other, when he was drinking 
wine, asked him out of curiosity to tell the whole story of it, 
and have now come here from that island to seduce me, and 
this wicked ascetic is employed by them. So bring quickly 
some wine mixed with Datura, 1 and when you have brought 
it, have a dog's foot of iron made as quickly as possible." 

When Devasmita had given these orders, the maids exe- 
cuted them faithfully, and one of the maids, by her orders, 
dressed herself up to resemble her mistress. The ascetic for her 
part chose out of the party of four merchants (each of whom 
in his eagerness said : " Let me go first ") one individual, and 
brought him with her. And concealing him in the dress of 
her pupil, she introduced him in the evening into the house 
of Devasmita, and coming out, disappeared. Then that maid 
who was disguised as Devasmita courteously persuaded the 
young merchant to drink some of that wine drugged with 
Datura. That liquor, 2 like his own immodesty, robbed him 
of his senses, and then the maids took away his clothes 
and other equipments and left him stark naked; then they 
branded him on the forehead with the mark of a dog's foot, 3 

1 Datura is still employed, I believe, to stupefy people whom it is thought 
desirable to rob. 

2 I read iva for the eva of Dr Brockhaus' text. 

3 Cf. the incident in the Persian story of the u Gul-i-Bakawall," or the 
u Rose of Bakawall" (Clouston, A Group of Eastern Romances and Stories, 1889, 
pp. 269 and 287), where the courtesan Dilbar brands the four wicked brothers 
of Taj ul-Muluk in the same way as in our text. n.m.p. 


and during the night took him and pushed him into a ditch 
full of filth. Then he recovered consciousness in the last 
watch of the night, and found himself plunged in a ditch, as 
it were the hell Avichi assigned to him by his sins. Then he 
got up and washed himself and went to the house of the female 
ascetic, in a state of nature, feeling with his fingers the mark 
on his forehead. And when he got there he told his friends 
that he had been robbed on the way, in order that he might 
not be the only person made ridiculous. And the next morn- 
ing he sat with a cloth wrapped round his branded forehead, 
giving as an excuse that he had a headache from keeping 
awake so long and drinking too much. In the same way 
the next young merchant was maltreated when he got to the 
house of Devasmita, and when he returned home naked he 
said : " I put on my ornaments there, and as I was coming 
out I was plundered by robbers." In the morning he also, on 
the plea of a headache, put a wrapper on to cover his branded 

In the same way all the four young merchants suffered 
in turns branding and other humiliating treatment, though 
they concealed the fact. And they went away from the 
place without revealing to the female Buddhist ascetic the 
ill treatment they had experienced, hoping that she would 
suffer in a similar way. 

On the next day the ascetic went with her disciple to 
the house of Devasmita, much delighted at having accom- 
plished what she undertook to do. Then Devasmita received 
her courteously, and made her drink wine drugged with 
Datura, offered as a sign of gratitude. When she and her 
disciple were intoxicated with it, that chaste wife cut off 
their ears and noses and flung them also into a filthy pool. 
And being distressed by the thought that perhaps these 
young merchants might go and slay her husband, she told 
the whole circumstance to her mother-in-law. Then her 
mother-in-law said to her: "My daughter, you have acted 
nobly, but possibly some misfortune may happen to my son 
in consequence of what you have done." Then Devasmita 
said: "I will deliver him even as Saktimati in old time 
delivered her husband by her wisdom." Her mother-in-law 


asked : " How did Saktimati deliver her husband ? Tell me, 
my daughter." Then Devasmita related the following story : 

8b. Saktimati and her Husband 

In our country, within the city, there is the shrine of 
a powerful Yaksha named Manibhadra, established by our 
ancestors. The people there come and make petitions at this 
shrine, offering various gifts, in order to obtain various bless- 
ings. Whenever a man is found at night with another man's 
wife, he is placed with her within the inner chamber of the 
Yaksha's temple. And in the morning he is taken away from 
thence with the woman to the king's court, and his behaviour 
being made known, he is punished. Such is the custom. 
Once on a time in that city a merchant, of the name of Samu- 
dradatta, was found by a city guard in the company of 
another man's wife. So he took him and placed him with 
the woman in that temple of the Yaksha, fastening the door 
firmly. And immediately the wise and devoted wife of that 
merchant, whose name was Saktimati, came to hear of the 
occurrence ; then that resolute woman, disguising herself, 
went confidently at night to the temple of the Yaksha, 
accompanied by her friends, taking with her offerings for the 
god. When she arrived there the priest whose business it 
was to eat the offerings, through desire for a fee, opened the 
door to let her enter, informing the magistrate of what he 
had done. And she, when she got inside, saw her husband 
looking sheepish, with a woman, and she made the woman 
put on her own dress, and told her to go out. So that woman 
went out in her dress by night, and got off, but Saktimati 
remained in the temple with her husband. And when the 
king's officers came in the morning to examine the merchant, 
he was seen by all to be in the company of his own wife. 1 

1 A precisely similar story occurs in the Bahdr-i-Bdnish. The turn of 
the chief incident, although not the same, is similar to that of nov. vii, 
part iv, of Bandello's Novelle, or the Accorio Avvedimento di una Fantesca a 
liberate la padrona e I'innamorato di quella de la morte. (Wilson's Essays, vol. i, 
p. 224.) Cf. also the Mongolian version of the story in Sagas from the Far East, 
p. 320. The story of Saktimati is the nineteenth in the Suka Saptati. I have 
been presented by Professor Nilmani Mukhopadhyaya with a copy of a MS. of 


When he heard that, the king dismissed the merchant from 
the temple of the Yaksha, as it were from the mouth of death, 
and punished the chief magistrate. So Saktimati in old time 
delivered her husband by her wisdom, and in the same way I 
will go and save my husband by my discretion. 

8. Story of Devasmitd 

So the wise Devasmita said in secret to her mother-in- 
law, and, in company with her maids, she put on the dress of 
a merchant. Then she embarked on a ship, on the pretence 
of a mercantile expedition, and came to the country of 
Kataha where her husband was. And when she arrived there 
she saw that husband of hers, Guhasena, in the midst of a 
circle of merchants, like consolation in external bodily form. 
He seeing her afar off in the dress of a man, 1 as it were, drank 
her in with his eyes, and thought to himself : " Who may 
this merchant be that looks so like my beloved wife ? " So 
Devasmita went and represented to the king that she had a 
petition to make, and asked him to assemble all his subjects. 
Then the king, full of curiosity, assembled all the citizens, and 
said to that lady disguised as a merchant : " What is your 
petition ? " Then Devasmita said : " There are residing here 
in your midst four slaves of mine who have escaped, let the 
king make them over to me." Then the king said to her : 
" All the citizens are present here, so look at every one in 
order to recognise him, and take those slaves of yours." Then 
she seized upon the four young merchants, whom she had 
before treated in such a humiliating way in her house, and 
who had wrappers bound round their heads. Then the 
merchants, who were there, flew in a passion, and said to her : 
" These are the sons of distinguished merchants, how then 
can they be your slaves ? " Then she answered them : "If 

this work made by Babu Umesa Chandra Gupta. See also the " Tale of the 

Goldsmith" in Hatirris Tales, Stein and Grierson, 1923, p. 27, with Crooke's 
notes on p. xxxiv. A good variant occurs in the Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. v, 
p. 335 et seq.). n.m.p. 

1 Cf. the " Story of the Chest " in Campbell's Stories from the Western 
Highlands. It is the first story in the second volume and contains one or 
two incidents which remind us of this story. 


you do not believe what I say, examine their foreheads, which 
I marked with a dog's foot." They consented, and removing 
the head- wrappers of these four, they all beheld the dog's foot 
on their foreheads. Then all the merchants were abashed, 
and the king, being astonished, himself asked Devasmita what 
all this meant. She told the whole story, and all the people 
burst out laughing, and the king said to the lady : " They are 
your slaves by the best of titles." Then the other merchants 
paid a large sum of money to that chaste wife to redeem 
those four from slavery, and a fine to the king's treasury. 
Devasmita received that money, and recovered her husband, 
and being honoured by all good men, returned to her own 
city Tamralipta, and she was never afterwards separated 
from her beloved. 

[M] " Thus, O queen, women of good family ever worship 
their husbands with chaste and resolute behaviour, 7 and 
never think of any other man, for to virtuous wives the 
husband is the highest deity." When Vasavadatta on the 
journey heard this noble story from the mouth of Vasantaka 
she got over the feeling of shame at having recently left her 
father's house, and her mind, which was previously attached 
by strong affection to her husband, became so fixed upon him 
as to be entirely devoted to his service. 

1 I read mahakulodgatah. 



Compare the rose garland in the story of "The Wright's Chaste Wife," 
edited for the Early English Text Society by Frederick J. Furnivall, especially 
lines 58 et seq : 

" Wete thou wele withowtyn fable 

Alle the whyle thy wife is stable 

The chaplett wolle holde hewe ; 

And yf thy wyfe use putry 

Or tolle eny man to lye her by 

Then wolle yt change hewe, 

And by the garland thou may see, 

Fekylle or fals yf that sche be, 

Or elles yf she be true." 

See also note in Wilson's Essags on Sanskrit Literature, vol. i, p. 218. He 
tells us that in Perceforest the lily of the Kathd Sarit Sagara is represented by 
a rose. In Amadis de Gaula it is a garland which blooms on the head of her 
that is faithful, and fades on the brow of the inconstant. In Les Contes a Rire 
it is also a flower. In Ariosto the test applied to both male and female is 
a cup, the wine of which is spilled by the unfaithful lover. This fiction also 
occurs in the romances of Tristan, Perceval and La Morte d' Arthur , and is well 
known by La Fontaine's version, La Coupe Enchantee. In La Lai du Corn it is 
a drinking-horn. Spenser has derived his girdle of Florimel from these sources, 
or more immediately from the Fabliau, " Le Manteau mal taille " or " Le Court 
Mantel," an English version of which is published in Percy's Reliques, u The 
Boy and the Mantle " (Book III), where in the case of Sir Kay's lady we read : 

" When she had tane the mantle 
with purpose for to wear, 
It shrunk up to her shoulder 
and left her backside bare." 

In the Gesta Romanorum (chap, lxix) the test is the whimsical one of a 
shirt, which will neither require washing nor mending as long as the wearer 
is constant (not the wearer only, but the wearer and his wife). Davenant has 
substituted an emerald for a flower : 

" The bridal stone, 
And much renowned, because it chasteness loves, 
And will, when worn by the neglected wife, 
Shew when her absent lord disloyal proves 
By faintness and a pale decay of life." 

I may remark that there is a certain resemblance in this story to that of 
Shakespeare's Cymbeline, which is founded on the ninth story of the second 
day in The Decameron, and to the seventh story in Gonzenbach's Sicilianische 


Marchen. See also " The King of Spain and his Queen " in Thorpe's Yule-tide 
Stories, pp. 452-455. Thorpe remarks that the tale agrees in substance with 
the ballad of the " Graf Von Rom" in Uhland, ii, 784 ; and with the Flemish 
story of "Ritter Alexander aus Metz und seine Frau Florentina." In the 
twenty-first of Bandello's novels the test is a mirror (Liebrecht's Dunlop, 
p. 287). See also pp. 85 and 86 of Liebrecht's Dunlop, with the notes at the 
end of the volume. 

In considering the "Tests of Chastity," or "Faith Token" motif, as 
E. S. Hartland prefers to call it, we should be careful to differentiate 
from other motifs which are rather similar. In the motif with which we are 
here concerned the usual details are : The husband is going abroad, leav- 
ing behind a beautiful wife. Both are in love with each other, but are not 
unmindful of the adage, "Out of sight, out of mind," so they arrange that one 
of them (or both) should have a magical article to serve as an index to their 

Closely allied to this idea is that where the services of a chaste woman 
or a virgin are required. Thus in Chapter XXXVI of the Ocean of Story only 
a chaste woman could raise up the fallen elephant. As we shall see later in a 
note to that story, there are many variants of this motif 

Finally there is the "Act of Truth" motif (ably discussed by Burlingame 
in the Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc., July 1917, p. 429 et seq.), which at times practically 
coincides with that mentioned immediately above. An "act of truth" is a 
declaration of fact accompanied by a desire for a certain thing to happen in 
proof of the declaration being true. Thus in making the elephant rise up 
(see above) the chaste woman says : " If I have not ever thought in my mind of 
any other man than my husband, may it rise up." As the declaration is the 
absolute truth, the elephant rises immediately. But the "act of truth" need 
not necessarily have any connection with chastity, as numerous examples (to 
be quoted in Chapter XXXVI) will show. Thus the elephant incident is both 
a " test of chastity " and "act of truth " motif 

In the method of leaving behind flowers (or other articles) which show the 
chastity of the absentee, or of the lady left at home, I would, therefore, not 
call the motif " Test of Chastity," as there is really no test used at all. The test 
is used in the " Act of Truth " motif where, as explained above, it may be a 
chastity test or any other sort of test. 

The name " Faith Token " is an improvement, but I think " Chastity 
Index " is the most suitable. 

Thus the three varieties would be : 

1. Chastity Index. Where an object by some mystical power records the 
chastity of an absent person. 

2. Test of Chastity. Where a person is ready to put his or her chastity 
to the test, thereby achieving some wish or rendering some help in an 

3. Act of Truth. Where the power of a simple truthful declaration (of 
whatever nature) causes the accomplishment of some wish or resolution. 

In several cases a person before setting out on a dangerous journey will 
leave an object which will show if that person is hurt or killed. This idea 


dates from Ptolemaic times, where, in the " Veritable History of Satni-Khamois," 
Tnahsit has to go to Egypt, and says to his mother : " If I am vanquished, when 
thou drinkest or when thou eatest, the water will become the colour of blood 
before thee, the provisions will become the colour of blood before thee, the 
sky will become the colour of blood before thee." While even earlier, in the 
nineteenth dynasty, the misfortune of an absent brother will be shown to 
the one at home by his beer throwing up froth and his wine becoming thick. 
This motif is clearly the passive side of the " Life Index " motif (see my 
note on p. 129) and has been classified as such by Dr Ruth Norton (Studies in 
Honor of Maurice Bloomfield, p. 220). 

In view of the above classification we find that certain incidents which 
at first sight seem to be variants of the motif in our text come under "Tests 
of Chastity" and are not examples of the "Chastity Index." Thus Zayn 
al-Asnam (Burton, Nights, Supp., vol. iii, p. 23) has a mirror which tests the 
virtue of women who look into it, remaining clear if they are pure, and be- 
coming dull if they are not (rather like " Le Court Mantel" already mentioned). 
Similarly, the cup which Oberon, King of the Fairies, gave to the Duke Huon 
of Bordeaux immediately filled itself with wine when held in the hand of a 
man of noble character, but remained empty when in that of a sinner. Both 
of these are examples of the " Tests of Chastity " motif and not of the 
u Chastity Index." 

Apart from the examples of the "Chastity Index" motif already given at 
the beginning of this note a few more can be added. 

As both Clouston and Hartland have noticed, it is quite possible that 
"The Wright's Chaste Wife" suggested to Massinger the idea of the plot of 
his comedy of The Picture (printed in 1630), where a Bohemian knight, 
Mathias by name, is given a picture by his friend Baptista, which will serve as 
an index to his (the knight's) wife's behaviour while away at the wars. The 
picture is of the wife herself, and Baptista explains its properties, saying : 

" Carry it still about you, and as oft 
As you desire to know how she's affected, 
With curious eyes peruse it. While it keeps 
The figure it has now entire and perfect, 
She is not only innocent in fact 
But unattempted ; but if once it vary 
From the true form, and what's now white and red 
Incline to yellow, rest most confident 
She's with all violence courted, but unconquered ; 
But if it turn all black, 'tis an assurance 
The fort by composition or surprise 
Is forced, or with her free consent surrendered." 

As readers will have noticed, it often happens that a story combines the 
" Entrapped Suitors" motif and that of the "Chastity Index." Thus several 
of the tales mentioned in my note to the story of " Upakosa. and her Four 
Lovers" (pp. 42-44) occur again here. Moreover, the second part of the 


present story may be looked upon as a variant of the "Entrapped Suitors" 
motif. It will be discussed in the next note. 

An example of a story embodying both motifs is found in the Persian 
Tutl-Nama (fourth night of the India Office MS., No. 2573). It bears quite 
a strong resemblance to the tale of Devasmita. A soldier receives a nosegay 
from his wife on parting which is an index of her chastity. The husband 
enters the service of a nobleman, who learns the history of the unfading 
flowers. For a joke he sends one of his servants to tempt the wife to be 
unfaithful. He fails, so a second servant is sent, who likewise fails both 
being entrapped by the wife. Finally the nobleman himself, in company 
with many retainers, including the husband, visit the wife. She receives them 
most courteously and his own servants are made to wait upon him at supper. 
The nobleman apologises for his behaviour and all is well. 

For a detailed list of chastity articles see Chauvin, Bibliographie des 
Ouvrages Arabes, vii, pp. 167-1 69. See also Swynnerton, Indian Nights 
Entertainments , p. 335. 

Both Burton and Clouston mention an incident in the Pentamerone where 
a fairy gives each of a king's three daughters a ring, which would break if 
they became immoral. I have failed to find this, but suspect a mistake, as in 
the third diversion of the fourth day Queen Grazolla gives a ring to each of 
her three daughters, saying that if parted from each other, on meeting again, 
or meeting any of their relations at any time, they would always be able to 
recognise them (however changed or altered) by the virtue of the rings. 
Thus it has no bearing on our note at all. 

The mystic connection between the absent person and an object left 
behind is fully believed in by certain peoples. Thus in Peru the husband 
knots a branch of Euphorbia before leaving home. If on his return the 
knots are withered it is a sign that his wife has been unfaithful (Zeitschrift fur 
Ethnologie, vol. xxxvii, p. 439). 

In the course of his researches among the Indians in the Vera Paz, 
Guatemala, Mr Fenton was told that when a husband goes into the bush 
to trap animals the wife is not expected to leave her hut to greet a visitor, 
but to coax him to come into the room in the same way as she hopes the 
animals are being coaxed into her husband's trap. 

If, however, the husband is away shooting (pursuing), the wife on seeing 
her visitor will leave her hut and go after him to greet him. 

Should the absent husband see two monkeys making love, he goes 
straight home and beats his wife, taking it for granted that she has been 
unfaithful to him. 

At Siena formerly (says Hartland) a maiden who wished to know how 
her love progressed kept and tended a plant of rue. If it withered it was a 
sign that her lover had deceived her (Archivio, 1891, vol. x, p. 30). 

Various methods of finding by means of different articles whether lovers 
are true exist everywhere and many examples will occur to readers. n.m.p. 



With regard to the incident of the bitch and the pepper in the story 
of Devasmita see the note in the first volume of Wilson's Essays on Sanskrit 
Literature. He says: "This incident with a very different and much less 
moral denouement is one of the stories in the Disciplina Clericalis, a collection 
of stories professedly derived from the Arabian fabulists and compiled by 
Petrus Alfonsus, a converted Jew, who flourished about 1106 and was godson 
to Alfonso I, King of Aragon. In the Analysis prepared by Mr Douce, 
this story is the twelfth, and is entitled 'Stratagem of an Old Woman in 
Favour of a Young Gallant.' She persuades his mistress, who had rejected 
his addresses, that her little dog was formerly a woman, and so transformed 
in consequence of her cruelty to her lover. (Ellis' Metrical Romances, i, 130.) 
This story was introduced into Europe, therefore, much about the time at 
which it was enrolled among the contents of the Brihat-Katha in Kashmir. 
The metempsychosis is so much more obvious an explanation of the change 
of forms that it renders it probable the story was originally Hindu. It was 
soon copied in Europe, and occurs in Le Grande as La vieille qui seduisit la 
jeune Jille, iii, 148 [ed. Ill, vol. iv, 50]. The parallel is very close and 
the old woman gives une chienne a manger des choses fortemcnt saupoudrees de 
seneve qid lid picotait le palais et les narines et F animal larmoyait beaucoup. She 
then shows her to a young woman and tells her the bitch was her daughter. 
Son malheur fut d 'avoir le cceur dur ; un jeune homme Vawiait, elle le rebuta. Le 
malheureux apres avoir tout tente pour Uattendrir, desespere de sa durete en prit 
tant de chagrin qu'il tomba malade et mound. Dieu I' a bien venge ; voyez en quel 
etat pour la punir il a reduit ma pauvrefllle, et comment elle pleure sa faute. The 
lesson was not thrown away. 

" The story occurs also in the Gesta llomanorum as ' The Old Woman and 
her Dog' [in Bonn's edition it is tale xxviii], and it also finds a place 
where we should little have expected to find it, in the Promptuarium of 
John Herolt of Basil, an ample repository of examples for composing sermons : 
the compiler, a Dominican friar, professing to imitate his patron saint, who 
always abundabat exemplis in his discourses." (In Bonn's edition we are told 
that it appears in an English garb amongst a translation of iEsop's Fables 
published in 1658.) Dr Rost refers us to Th. Wright, Latin Stories, London, 
1842, p. 218; Loiseleur Deslongchamps, Essai sur les Fables Indiennes, 
Paris, 1838, p. 106 et seq. ; F. H. Von der Hagen, Gesammtabenteuer, 1850, 
I, cxii et seq. ; and Griisse, I, i, 374 et seq. In Gonzenbach's Sicilianische 
Mdrchen, No. 55, vol. i, p. 359, Epomata plays some young men much the 
same trick as Devasmita, and they try in much the same way to conceal 
their disgrace. The story is the second in my copy of the Suka Saptati. 

As the story in our text is not only an excellent example of a migratory 
tale, but one on which the effects of new environment are plainly discernible, 
I shall treat the second part of the story of Devasmita at some length. 


The incident of the bitch and the pepper became at an early date a 
common motif throughout Eastern collections of stories. It enters into every 
cycle of tales dealing with the deceits and tricks of women such a favourite 
theme in the East. In its original form (in the Ocean of Story) we see that 
the denouement is much more moral than in its numerous variants, where the 
wife is persuaded by the wiles of the bawd and grants her favours to the 
lover who is introduced into her house. 

In the Persian Sindibad Nama, the Syriac Si?idban, the Greek Syntipas and 
the Libro de los Enganos it forms the fourth vazir's story, but in the Hebrew 
Sandabar it becomes the second vazir's story. 

In the Sindibad Nama the third vazir's story is " The Libertine Husband," 
in which an old man is married to a young and beautiful wife. He often 
goes away to a farm outside the city, when his wife takes advantage of his 
absence and meets many lovers. One day the old husband, instead of going 
straight home, calls on a bawd in order to be introduced to a mistress. The 
bawd says she knows the very woman, and leads the husband to his own wife. 
Being a very clever woman, she hides her own confusion and makes him 
believe the whole thing was a trick to expose his infidelity, which she had 
long suspected. 

Now we find in the Arabic versions of the "bitch and pepper" incident 
that the Persian " Libertine Husband " story has been worked in as well, with 
certain slight alterations. Thus in the Nights (Burton, vol. vi, pp. 152-156) it 
appears as " The Wife's Device to Cheat her Husband." Here both husband and 
wife are young and good-looking. For some time past " a certain lewd youth 
and an obscene " has been casting loving glances at her, and accordingly employs 
a go-between on his behalf. The husband is away from home on business ; the 
bawd plays the " bitch and pepper " trick with such success that she agrees 
to accept the attentions of the youth. All is arranged, but apparently some 
accident happens to the youth, as he fails to turn up at the appointed time. 
The bawd has been promised ten dinars, so she must produce some young man. 
She is in despair when suddenly " her eyes fell on a pretty fellow, young and 
distinguished-looking." She approaches him and asks if he has a mind to 
meat and drink and a girl adorned and ready. He is accordingly taken to the 
house and is amazed to find it is his own. The wife then avoids trouble by 
pretending the whole thing is a trick. 

The above version is found practically unchanged in Nefzaoui's Perfumed 
Garden, p. 207 et seq. 

In the TTdi-Nama and the Suka Saptati the "bitch and pepper" incident 
is absent, only the u libertine husband " part occurring. In another tale from 
the Suka Saptati (ii, p. 23 of the translation by R. Schmidt, 1899) we have a 
variant of the " bitch and pepper " story alone. Here the lady is the wife of 
a prince ; a youth becomes enamoured of her, and his mother, seeing the ill 
effect his love has on his health, manages by the " bitch and pepper " trick to 
win the lady's love for her son. 

For further details concerning these different forms of this motif in the 
various Eastern versions reference should be made to Comparetti's Researches 
respecting the Book of Sindibad , pp. 47-49, Folk- Lore Society, 1882; Clouston's 


Book of Sindibad, pp. 58, 6l and 224? et seq. ; and Chauvin's Bibliographie des 
Outrages Arabes, viii, pp. 45, 46, where under "La Chienne qui Pleure" will 
be found numerous references. 

In the old German poem by Konrad of Wiirtzburg (Hagen, Gesammtabenteuer, 
vol. i, No. 9) called " The Old Wife's Deception " is an almost exact imitation of 
" The Libertine Husband," except that it is the old bawd who entirely on her 
own account gets the two chief people in the story anxious to have a rendez- 
vous. Details will be found in Lee, The Decameron, its Sources and Analogues, 
p. 81. (He also gives numerous instances of the wife taking the place of the 

The idea of inducing a lady to take a lover by showing her the unhappy 
results, which were brought about in the case of another woman who was 
too particular in this respect, is well known from the story of u Nastagio and 
the Spectre Horseman," which forms the eighth novel of the fifth day of The 
Decameron. Here Nastagio fails to gain the love of a damsel of the Traversari 
family. One day he wanders through a pine wood and suddenly hears the 
cries of a woman in distress. He looks up and sees a nude woman being 
chased by two huge mastiffs and a knight in armour with rapier in hand. On 
attempting to defend the woman he is told that when alive the woman had 
scorned his love and he had killed himself. When the woman died it was 
decreed that she would be ever fleeing before him and his love would be 
changed to hatred. Two dogs would help in the pursuit, who would bite her 
in pieces and tear out and eat her cold heart. As soon as this is done the 
woman becomes whole again and the chase goes on. Nastagio, on discovering 
the phantom horseman will be in the pine wood again on the following Friday, 
arranges for the Traversari damsel and her kinsfolk to breakfast in the wood. 
In the middle of the meal, however, the company is thrown into confusion by 
the sudden appearance of the naked woman, the dogs and the knight. The 
whole scene is enacted again. Nastagio explains that it is merely a case of 
Heaven fulfilling its decree. The maiden, afraid of a similar fate, looks 
favourably on Nastagio' s suit. 

For further details of this part of our story reference should be made 
to Lee, op cit., p. 169; Keller, Li Romans des Sept Sages, Tubingen, 1836, 
p. cxlvi ; Gesla Romanorum, Oesterley, p. 499, No. 228 ; and Jacob's Msop's 
Fables, vol. i, p. 266. n.m.p. 



The following metrical version of the "Story of Devasmita" was translated 
by the Rev. B. Hale Wortham and printed in the Journ. Roy. As. Soc. t 
vol. xvi, N.S., 1884, pp. 1-12. It is reproduced here in full by kind 
permission of the Royal Asiatic Society, and affords an interesting 
comparison with our text. 

Upon this earth a famous city stands 

Called Tamralipta ; once a merchant dwelt 

Within that town, possessed of endless wealth, 

Named Dhanadatta. Now he had no son. 

Therefore with all due reverence he called 

The priests together ; and he spoke and said : 

" I have no son : perform, most holy Sirs ! 

Such rites as may procure for me a son, 

Without delay." The Brahmans answering 

Said : " This indeed is easy : there is naught 

Impossible to Brahmans by the means 

Of sacred rites ordained by Holy Writ. 

This be a proof to you. In times gone by 

There lived a king, and though his wives surpassed 

By five a hundred, yet he had no son. 

At last a son the fruit of sacrifice 

Was born to him : to whom they gave the name 

Of Santu : and the prince's wives were filled 

With joy as if the newly risen moon 

First broke upon their eyes. It happened once 

The child was crawling on the ground, an ant 

Bit him upon the thigh ; and at the smart 

He sobbed and cried. Immediately there rose 

The sound of woe, and lamentation filled 

The royal palace, while the king himself 

Forgot his royal state, and cried aloud, 

' My son ! my son ! ' Ere long the child's lament 

Was pacified the ant removed. The king, 

Reflecting thus upon the cause which led 

To all his sorrow, thought ; ' My heart is filled 

With pain because I have, alas ! but one, 

One only son. Is there,' he asked, in grief, 

' Most holy Brahmans, is there any means 

By which innumerable sons may be 

My lot ? ' They answered him, ' There is, O king, 

But one expedient. Slay this thy son, 

And offer up his flesh a sacrifice. 


Thy wives shall smell the savour of his flesh 

Burnt by the fire : so shall they bear thee sons.' 

The King, obedient to the Brahmans' word, 

Strengthened with all due pomp and ritual, 

Offered the sacrifice : and thus ere long 

Each wife bore him a son. So too will we 

By sacrifice and offering procure 

A son for you." When Dhanadatta heard 

The Brahmans, then the sacrificial fee 

He gave, and they performed the sacrifice ; 

So through that sacrifice the merchant gained 

A son, named Guhasena. Time went on, 

The boy grew up and Dhanadatta sought 

A wife for him. So then the father went 

To some far distant country with his son, 

On the pretence of traffic : but in truth 

To get his son a bride. And there he begged 

One Dharmagupta held in high repute 

Among his fellow-citizens to give 

His daughter Devasmita as a bride 

To Guhasena. But the father loved 

His child, nor cared that she should be allied 

With one whose home was in a distant land. 

But Devasmita saw the merchant's son, 

And at the sight of him, so richly graced 

With virtues, lo ! her heart fled from her grasp, 

Nor thought she more of sire or home, but sent 

A trusty friend to tell him of her love. 

And then, leaving her native land, she fled 

By night with her beloved. So they came 

To Tamralipta : and the youthful pair 

Were joined in wedlock, while their hearts were knit 

Together in the bonds of mutual love. 

Then Guhasena' s father passed away 
From earth to heaven : and kinsmen urged on him 
A journey to Kataha, for the sake 
Of merchandise. But Devasmita, filled 
With doubt, fearing her husband's constancy 
Might fail, attracted by another's charms, 
Refused to listen to him when he spoke 
Of his departure. Guhasena's mind 
Was filled with doubt, on one side urged by friends 
To go, while on the other side his wife 
Was hostile to his journey. Thus what course 
He should pursue his heart intent on right 
He knew not. Therefore to the god he went 
With rigid fast, and now, hoping to find 


His way made plain before him, through the aid 

Of the Divinity ; and with him went 

His wife. Then in a dream the god appeared 

With two red lotuses : and Siva said 

Placing a lotus in the hand of each : 

" Take each of you this lotus in your hand ; 

If in your separation one shall be 

Unfaithful, then the lotus flower shall fade 

The other holds." The pair awaking saw 

The lotus blossom in each other's hand. 

And as they gazed it seemed as though each held 

The other's heart. Then Guhasena went 

Forth on his journey, bearing in his hand 

The crimson lotus : while, with eyes fast fixed 

Upon her flower, Devasmita stayed 

At home. No long time passed in Kataha 

Arrived her husband, making merchandise 

Of jewels. Now it happened that there dwelt 

Four merchants in that country : when they saw 

The unfading lotus ever in his hand, 

Wonder possessed them. So by stratagem 

They brought him home, and put before him wine 

In measure plentiful. And he, deprived 

Of mastery o'er his sense, through drunkenness, 

Told them the whole. Then those four merchants planned, 

Like rascals as they were, to lead astray 

The merchant's wife through curiosity. 

For well they knew that Guhasena's trade 

Would keep him long in Kataha engaged 

On merchandise. Therefore they left in haste 

And secrecy to carry out their plan, 

And entered Tamralipta. There they sought 

Some one to help them, and at last they found 

A female devotee, dwelling within 

The sanctuary of Buddha : " Honoured dame ! " 

They said, addressing her with reverence, 

u Wealth shall be thine in plenty, if in this 

Our object thou wilt grant to us thy help." 

"Doubtless," she said, " some woman in this town 

Is your desire : tell me and you shall gain 

Your wish. I want no money : for enough 

I have, through Siddhikari's care, 

My pupil of distinguished cleverness, 

By whose beneficence I have obtained 

Riches untold." " We pray thee, tell us now," 

Exclaimed the merchants, " how these riches came 

To thee through Siddhikarl." " Listen then ! " 


Replied the devotee. " If you, my sons, 

Desire to hear it, I will tell the tale : 

Some time ago a certain merchant came 

Here from the north, and while within this town 

He dwelt, my pupil, meaning treachery, 

Begged, in disguise, the post of serving maid 

In his abode : and after having gained 

The merchant's confidence, she stole away 

At early dawn, and carried off with her 

The merchant's hoard of gold. And as she went 

Out from the city, flying rapidly 

Through fear, a certain Domba followed her 

Bearing his drum, on plunder bent. At length 

In headlong flight, a Nyagrodha tree 

She reached, and seeing that her foe was close 

Behind her, putting on a look of woe 

The crafty Siddhikari said, ' Alas ! 

A grievous strife of jealousy has come 

Between my spouse and me, therefore my home 

Have I forsaken, and I fain would end 

My life ; therefore I pray thee make a noose 

That I may hang myself.' The Domba thought, 

' Nay ! why should I be guilty of her death ? 

Nought is she but a woman ! let her hang 

Herself.' And therefore tying up the knot, 

He fixed it firmly for her to the tree. 

Then said she, feigning ignorance, ( This noose 

Where do you place it ? I entreat of you 

To show me.' Then the Domba put the drum 

Upon the ground, and mounting on it, tied 

Round his ov/n neck the noose ; ( This is the way, 

He said, ' we do the job ! ' Then, with a kick, 

The crafty Siddhikari smashed the drum 

To atoms : and the thievish Domba hung 

Till he was dead. Just then in view there came 

The merchant, seeking for his stolen gold. 

Standing beneath the tree, not far ahead, 

He saw his servant maid. She saw him too 

Into the tree she climbed, unseen by him, 

And hid among the leaves. The merchant soon 

Arrived, attended by his serving men. 

He found the Domba hanging by a rope, 

But as for Siddhikari, nought of her 

Could he perceive. One of his servants said : 

f What think you ? Has she climbed into this tree ? ' 

And straightway clambered up. Then seeing him, 

* Ah ! sir,' said Siddhikari, f now indeed 


I am rejoiced : for you have ever been 

My choice. Take all this wealth, my charming friend, 

And come ! embrace me ! ' So the fool was caught 

By Siddhikari' s flattery ; and she, 

Kissing him on the lips, bit off his tongue. 

Then uttering spluttering sounds of pain, the man 

Fell from the tree, spitting from out his mouth 

The blood. The merchant seeing this, in fear and haste 

Ran homewards, thinking that his serving man 

Had been the victim of some demon foul. 

Then Siddhikari, too, not less alarmed, 

Descended from the tree, and got clear off 

With all the plunder. In this way, my sons, 

Through her ability I have obtained 

The wealth, which through her kindness I enjoy." 

Just as she finished, Siddhikari came 

Into the house : and to the merchant's sons 

The devotee presented her. " My sons ! " 

Said the ascetic, u tell me openly 

Your business : say what woman do you seek 

She shall be yours." They said, " Procure for us 

An interview with Devasmita, wife 

To Guhasena." Said the devotee, 

"It shall be done for you," and gave these men 

A lodging in her house. Then she assailed 

With bribes and sweetmeats all the slaves who dwelt 

In Guhasena's house : and afterwards 

Went there with Siddhikari. When she came 

To Devasmita' s dwelling and would go 

Within, a bitch chained up before the door 

Kept her from entering. Devasmita then 

Sent out a maid to bring the stranger in, 

Thinking within herself, " Who can this be ? " 

The vile ascetic, entering the house, 

Treated the merchant's wife with feigned respect, 

And blessed her, saying : u Long have I desired 

Exceedingly to see you : in a dream 

To-day you passed before me : therefore now 

I come with eagerness : affliction fills 

My mind when I behold you from your spouse 

Thus torn asunder. What avails your youth, 

Or what your beauty, since you live deprived 

Of your beloved ? " Thus, with flattering words, 

The ascetic tried to gain the confidence 

Of virtuous Devasmita. No long time 

She stayed, but soon, bidding farewell, returned 

To her own house. Ere long she came again, 


This time bringing a piece of meat well strewed 
With pepper dust : before the door she threw 
The peppered meat ; the bitch with greediness 
Gobbled the morsel up, pepper and all. 
The bitch's eyes began to flow with tears 
Profusely, through the pepper, and her nose 
To run. Then went the crafty devotee 
Within, to Devasmita : and she wept, 
Although received with hospitality. 
Then said the merchant's wife : " Why do you weep ? " 
Feigning reluctance, the ascetic said : 
" My friend ! you see this bitch weeping outside ; 
Know then ! this creature in a former state 
Was my companion : seeing me again 
She knew me, and she wept : my tears gush forth 
In sympathy." When Devasmita saw 
The bitch outside seeming to weep, she thought, 
w What may this wonder be ? " " The bitch and I " 
Continuing her tale, the ascetic said 
" Were in a former birth a Brahman's wives. 
Our husband often was from home, engaged 
On embassies by order of the king. 
Meanwhile I spent my time with other men, 
Living a life of pleasure, nor did I 
Defraud my senses of enjoyment due 
To them. For this is said to be, my child, 
The highest duty to indulge one's sense, 
And give the rein to pleasure. Therefore I 
Have come to earth again, as you behold 
Me now, remembering my former self. 
But she thought not of this, setting her mind 
To keep her fame unsullied : therefore born 
Into this world again, she holds a place 
Contemptible and mean : her former birth 
Still in her memory." The merchant's wife 
Prudent and thoughtful, said within herself 
" This doctrine is both new and strange : no doubt 
The woman has some treacherous snare for me." 
" Most reverend Dame ! " she said, " too much, alas ! 
I fear, have I neglected hitherto 
This duty. So, I pray you, gain for me 
An interview with some delightful man." 
The ascetic answered, " There are living here 
Some merchants, young and charming, who have come 
From afar ; them will I bring you." Filled with joy 
She homeward turned : while Devasmita said 
Her natural prudence coming to her aid : 


" These scoundrelly young merchants, whosoe'er 
They be, I know not, must have seen the flow'r 
Unfading, carried in my husband's hand. 
It may be that they asked him, over wine, 
And learnt its history. Now they intend 
To lead me from my duty : and for this 
They use the vile ascetic. Therefore bring" 
(She bid her maids) " as quickly as you may, 
Some wine mixed with Datura : and procure 
An iron brand, bearing the sign impressed 
Of a dog's foot upon it." These commands 
The servants carried out : one of the maids, 
By Devasmita's orders, dressed herself 
To personate her mistress. Then the men, 
All eagerness, each wished to be the first 
To visit Devasmita : but the dame 
Chose one of them : in Siddhikari's dress 
Disguising him, she left him at the house. 
The maid, clothed in her mistress's attire, 
Addressed the merchant's son with courtesy, 
Politely offering him the wine to drink 
Drugged with Datura. Then the liquor stole 
His senses from him, like his shamelessness, 
Depriving him of reason ; and the maid 
Stripped him of all his clothes, and ornaments, 
Leaving him naked. When the night had come, 
They cast him out into a filthy ditch, 
Marking his forehead with the iron brand. 
The night passed by, and consciousness returned 
In the last watch to him, and waking up 
He thought himself in hell, the place assigned 
To him for his offences. Then he rose 
From out the ditch, and went in nakedness 
Home to the devotee, the mark impressed 
Upon his forehead. Fearing ridicule, 
He said that he had been beset by thieves 
Upon the way, and all day long at home 
He sat, a cloth bound round his head to hide 
The brand, saying that sleeplessness and wine 
Had made his head ache. In the self-same way 
They served the second merchant. He returned 
Home naked ; and he said, " While on the road 
From Devasmita's house, I was attacked 
By robbers, and they stripped me of my clothes, 
And ornaments." He sat with bandaged head 
To hide the brand, and made the same excuse. 
Thus all the four suffered the same disgrace, 


And all concealed their shame ; nor did they tell 

Their ills to the ascetic when they left 

Her dwelling : for they trusted that a plight 

Like theirs would be her lot. Next day she went, 

Followed by her disciple, to the house 

Of Devasmita ; and her mind was filled 

Full of delight, because she had achieved 

Her end so happily. With reverence 

The merchant's wife received the devotee, 

And feigning gratitude, with courteous speech 

Offered her wine mixed with the harmful drug. 

The ascetic drank : and her disciple : both 

Were overcome. Then helpless as they were 

By Devasmita s orders they were cast, 

With ears and noses slit, into a pool 

Of filthy mud. Then Devasmita thought, 

" Perchance these merchants may revenge themselves 

And slay my husband." So she told the tale 

To Guhasena's mother. " Well, my child," 

Answered her husband's mother, " have you done 

Your duty ! Still misfortune may befall 

My son through this." " I will deliver him," 

Said Devasmita, " as in times gone by 

By wisdom Saktimati saved her spouse." 

" My daughter, how was this ! tell me, I pray." 

Then answered Devasmita, " In our land 

Within this city stands an ancient fane, 

The dwelling of a Yaksha : and his name 

Is Munibhadra. There the people come 

And offer up their prayers, and make their gifts, 

To gain from heaven the blessings they desire. 

If it so happen that a man is caught 

At night with someone else's wife, the pair 

Are placed within the temple's inmost shrine. 

Next morning they are brought before the king, 

Sentence is passed on them, and punishment 

Decreed. Now in that town the city guards 

Once found a merchant with another's wife ; 

And therefore by the law the two were seized 

And placed within the temple : while the door 

Was firmly shut and barred. The merchant's wife, 

Whose name was Saktimati, came to learn 

Her husband's trouble ; and she boldly went 

By night with her companions to the shrine, 

Bearing her off rings for the god. The priest, 

Whose duty was to eat the offering, 

Beheld her come : desirous of the fee, 


He let her in, telling the magistrate 

What he had done. Then Saktimati saw 

Her husband looking like a fool, within 

The inner room, in company with him 

The woman. So she took her own disguise 

And putting it upon the woman, bade 

Her flee with haste. But Saktimati stayed 

Within the shrine. Day broke ; the officers 

Came to investigate the merchant's crime, 

And lo ! within the temple's inner room 

They found the merchant and his wife. The king, 

Hearing the tale, punished the city guard 

But set the merchant free. So he escaped, 

As if held in the very jaws of death, 

Out of the Yaksha's temple. So will I, 

As Saktimati did, in bygone times, 

By wisdom and discretion save my spouse." 

Thus Devasmita spoke : and putting on 

A merchant's dress, she started with her maids 

Under pretence of merchandise to join 

Her husband at Kataha. When she came 

To that fair country, she beheld him sit, 

Like comfort come to earth in human form, 

Amid the merchants. He beholding her 

Afar, clothed in a merchant's dress, then thought ; 

" Who can this merchant be, so like my wife 

In form and feature ? " Earnestly he gazed 

Upon her face. Then Devasmita went 

And begged the king to send throughout his realm 

And summon all his subjects ; for she had 

A boon she fain would ask of him. The king 

Convoking, full of curiosity, 

His citizens, addressed that lady clothed 

In man's attire, and said, " What do you ask ? " 

Then answered Devasmita, " In your town 

Four slaves of mine are living, who have run 

Away. I pray you, noble king, restore 

My slaves." " The citizens," replied the king, 

ei Are all before you, therefore recognise 

And take your slaves." Then Devasmita seized 

The four young merchants, whom she had disgraced 

And treated so disdainfully : their heads 

Still bound about with wrappers. Then enraged, 

The merchants of the city said, " Why, these 

Are sons of honourable men : then how 

Can they be slaves to you ? " She answered them : 

" If you believe me not, here is the proof: 


Take from their heads the bandage ; you will see 

A dog's foot on their forehead : with this brand 

I marked them." Then the wrappers were removed 

And on their foreheads all beheld the mark 

The dog's foot brand. Then were the merchants filled 

With shame : the king himself in wonder said : 

" Pray, what means this ? " Then Devasmita told 

The story. Laughter filled the crowd : the king 

Turned to the merchant's wife : " There are your slaves/' 

He said; "your claim indeed none may dispute." 

Then all the merchants in the city gave 

Vast sums of money to the prudent wife 

Of Guhasena, to redeem the four 

Young men from slavery : and to the king 

They paid a fine. Thus Devasmita gained 

Money, and honour too, from all good men. 

Then to her native city she returned, 

Even to Tamralipta, never more 

To be disjoined from her beloved lord. 


ACCORDINGLY while the King of Vatsa was remain- 
[M] ing in that Vindhya forest the warder of King 
Chandamahasena came to him. And when he arrived 
he did obeisance to the king, and spoke as follows : " The 
King Chandamahasena sends you this message : ' You did 
rightly in carrying off Vasavadatta yourself, for I had brought 
you to my Court with this very object ; and the reason I did 
not myself give her to you while you were a prisoner was 
that I feared, if I did so, you might not be well disposed to- 
wards me. Now, O king, I ask you to wait a little, in order 
that the marriage of my daughter may not be performed 
without due ceremonies. For my son Gopalaka will soon 
arrive in your Court, and he will celebrate with appropriate 
ceremonies the marriage of that sister of his.'" This message 
the warder brought to the King of Vatsa, and said various 
things to Vasavadatta. 

Then the King of Vatsa, being pleased, determined on 
going to Kausambi with Vasavadatta, who was also in high 
spirits. He told his ally Pulindaka and that warder in the 
service of his father-in-law to await, where they were, the 
arrival of Gopalaka, and then to come with him to Kausambi. 
Then the great king set out early the next day for his 
own city with that Queen Vasavadatta, followed by huge 
elephants raining streams of ichor that seemed like moving 
peaks of the Vindhya range accompanying him out of affec- 
tion ; he was, as it were, praised by the earth, that outdid 
the compositions of his minstrels, while it rang with the 
hoofs of his horses and the tramplings of his soldiers; and 
by means of the towering clouds of dust from his army, that 
ascended to heaven, he made Indra fear that the mountains 
were sporting with unshorn wings. 1 

1 Alluding to Indra's having cut the wings of the mountains. This 

fine exaggeration was borrowed by the Persians and appears in Firdausi, 
where the trampling of men and horses raises such a dust that it takes one 


Then the king reached his country in two or three days, 
and rested one night in a palace belonging to Rumanvat ; 
and on the next day, accompanied by his beloved, he enjoyed, 
after a long absence, the great delight of entering Kausambi, 
the people of which were eagerly looking with uplifted faces 
for his approach. And then that city was resplendent as a 
wife, her lord having returned after a long absence, beginning 
her adornment and auspicious bathing vicariously by means 
of her women; and there the citizens, their sorrow now at 
an end, beheld the King of Vatsa accompanied by his bride, 
as peacocks behold a cloud accompanied by lightning 1 ; and 
the wives of the citizens, standing on the tops of the palaces, 
filled the heaven with their faces, that had the appearance 
of golden lotuses blooming in the heavenly Ganges. Then 
the King of Vatsa entered his royal palace with Vasavadatta, 
who seemed like a second goddess of royal fortune ; and that 
palace then shone as if it had just awaked from sleep, full of 
kings who had come to show their devotion, festive with songs 
of minstrels. 2 Not long after came Gopalaka, the brother of 
Vasavadatta, bringing with him the warder and Pulindaka. 
The king went to meet him, and Vasavadatta received him 
with her eyes expanded with delight, as if he were a second 
spirit of joy. While she was looking at this brother a tear 
dimmed her eyes lest she should be ashamed ; and then she, 
being encouraged by him with the words of her father's 
message, considered that her object in life was attained, now 
that she was reunited to her own relations. 

Then on the next day Gopalaka, with the utmost eager- 
ness, set about the high festival of her marriage with the 
King of Vatsa, carefully observing all prescribed ceremonies. 
Then the King of Vatsa received the hand of Vasavadatta, 

layer (of the seven) from earth and adds it to the (seven of the) heavens. 
In the Nights (Burton, vol. Hi, p. 83) we read: 

" The courser chargeth on battling foe, 
Mixing heaven on high with the earth down low." n.m.p. 

1 The peafowl are delighted at the approach of the rainy season, when 
" their sorrow" comes to an end. 

2 It is often the duty of these minstrels to wake the king with 
their songs. 


like a beautiful shoot lately budded on the creeper of love. 
She too, with her eyes closed through the great joy of 
touching her beloved's hand, having her limbs bathed in 
perspiration accompanied with trembling, covered all over 
with extreme horripilation, 1 appeared at that moment as if 
struck by the god of the flowery bow with the arrow 
of bewilderment, the weapon of wind and the water 
weapon in quick succession 2 ; when she walked round the 
fire, keeping it to the right, 3 her eyes being red with 
the smoke, she had her first taste, so to speak, of the 
sweetness of honey and wine. 4 Then by means of the 
jewels brought by Gopalaka, and the gifts of the kings, 
the monarch of Vatsa became a real king of kings. 5 

That bride and bridegroom, after their marriage had 
been celebrated, first exhibited themselves to the eyes of the 
people and then entered their private apartments. Then the 
King of Vatsa, on the day so auspicious to himself, invested 
Gopalaka and Pulindaka with turbans of honour and other 
distinctions, and he commissioned Yaugandharayana and 
Rumanvat to confer appropriate distinctions on the kings 
who had come to visit him, and on the citizens. Then 
Yaugandharayana said to Rumanvat : " The king has 
given us a difficult commission, for men's feelings are hard 
to discover. And even a child will certainly do mischief if 
not pleased. To illustrate this point, listen to the tale of 
the child Vinashtaka, my friend : 

9. Story of the Clever Deformed Child 

Once on a time there was a certain Brahman named 
Rudrasarman, and he, when he became a householder, had 
two wives, and one of his wives gave birth to a son and died ; 

1 See note on p. 120. n.m.p. 

2 Weapons well known in Hindu mythology. See the sixth act of the 
Uttara Rama Charita. 

3 See note at the end of the chapter. n.m.p. 

4 Sutrapdta?n akarot = she tested, so to speak. Cf. Taranga 24>, SI, 93. 
The fact is, the smoke made her eyes as red as if she had been drinking. 

5 Or "like Kuvera." There is a pun here. 


and then the Brahman entrusted that son to the care of his 
stepmother ; and when he grew to a tolerable stature she 
gave him coarse food ; the consequence was, the boy became 
pale and got a swollen stomach. Then Rudrasarman said 
to that second wife : " How comes it that you have neglected 
this child of mine that has lost its mother ? " She said to 
her husband: "Though I take affectionate care of him, he 
is nevertheless the strange object you see. What am I to 
do with him ? " Whereupon the Brahman thought : " No 
doubt it is the child's nature to be like this." For who sees 
through the deceitfulness of the speeches of women uttered 
with affected simplicity ? 

Then that child began to go by the name of Balavinash- 
taka x in his father's house, because they said this child (bdla) 
is deformed (vinashta). 

Then Balavinashtaka thought to himself: "This step- 
mother of mine is always ill-treating me, therefore I had 
better be revenged upon her in some way " for though the 
boy was only a little more than five years old he was clever 
enough. Then he said secretly to his father when he returned 
from the king's Court, with half-suppressed voice 2 : "Papa, 
I have two papas." 

So the boy said every day, and his father, suspecting that 
his wife had a paramour, would not even touch her. She for 
her part thought : " Why is my husband angry without my 
being guilty ? I wonder whether Balavinashtaka has been 
at any tricks." So she washed Balavinashtaka with careful 
kindness, and gave him dainty food, and, taking him on 
her lap, asked him the following question: "My son, why 
have you incensed your father Rudrasarman against me?" 
When he heard that, the boy said to his stepmother : "I will 
do more harm to you than that, if you do not immediately 
cease ill-treating me. You take good care of your own children ; 
why do you perpetually torment me?" 

When she heard that, she bowed before him, and said 

1 Young deformed. 

2 Durgaprasad's text reads avispastayd gird (instead of ardhdvistayd gird), 
meaning "with his inarticulate voice/' which is perhaps more suitable 
here. n.m.p. 


with solemn oath : "I will not do so any more ; so reconcile 
my husband to me." Then the child said to her: "Well, 
when my father comes home, let one of your maids show him 
a mirror, and leave the rest to me." She said, "Very well," 
and by her orders a maid showed a mirror to her husband 
as soon as he returned home. 

Thereupon the child, pointing out the reflection of his 
father in the mirror, said : " There is my second father." 
When he heard that, Rudrasarman dismissed his suspicions 
and was immediately reconciled to his wife, whom he had 
blamed without cause. 1 

1 Tales of precocious children are widely spread both in the East and 
West. In the Simhdsana-dvatrimsika (or Thirty-two Tales of a Throne) the 
sagacity of a young boy brings a jewel thief and his accomplices to justice. 
There is one Enfant Terrible story which is found in several Persian and Arabic 

It appears as one of the Prince's stories in the Sindibad Nama, and relates 
how a child of three, speaking from its cradle, rebuked an adulterous king 
about to gratify an unlawful passion, on whom its words made such an 
impression that the king abandoned his intention and became a paragon of 
virtue. It appears in Sindban and Syntipas, and also in the Nights (Burton, 
vol. vi, p. 208), as "The Debauchee and the Three-year-old Child." 

Another famous story of a clever child is that of "The Stolen Purse." 
The outline of the story is as follows : Three (sometimes four) people 
enter into partnership. They amass money and deposit it with a trusted 
woman, telling her she is not to give it up unless all partners are present. 
One day they are all together and one of the men calls in at the old 
woman's house ostensibly for a comb (or other articles for the bath) and 
says: "Give me the purse." "No," says the woman; "you are alone." He 
explains the others are just outside, and calls out: "She is to give it me, 
isn't she?" They (thinking he refers to the comb) say: "Yes." He gets 
the purse and escapes out of the town. The others refuse to believe the 
woman's explanations and take her to the judge. She is about to lose 
her case when a child of five, hearing the details, tells her to say to the 
Kazi that she intends to keep strictly to her original agreement and will 
give up the purse when all the partners are present. This could certainly 
not be done as one had run away, and so the woman is saved. 

This story with minor differences occurs in Persian, Arabic, Turkish, 
Hebrew, Greek and Italian collections. It is also found in numerous 
English jest-books. Burton (Nights, vol. vi, pp. 210, 211) gives a long note 
on the subject. 

Further references should be made to both Clouston and Comparetti's 
works on the Book of Sindibad, and also to Chauvin, Bibliographie des Ouvrages 
Arabes, viii, pp. 62-64. n.m.p. 



[M] " Thus even a child may do mischief if it is annoyed, 
and therefore we must carefully conciliate all this retinue." 
Saying this, Yaugandharayana, with the help of Rumanvat, 
carefully honoured all the people on this the King of Vatsa's 
great day of rejoicing. And they gratified 1 all the kings so 
successfully that each one of them thought : " These two men 
are devoted to me alone." And the king honoured those 
two ministers and Vasantaka with garments, unguents and 
ornaments bestowed with his own hand, and he also gave 
them grants of villages. Then the King of Vatsa, having 
celebrated the great festival of his marriage, considered all 
his wishes gratified, now that he was linked to Vasavadatta. 
Their mutual love, having blossomed after a long time of 
expectation, was so great, owing to the strength of their 
passion, that their hearts continually resembled those of the 
sorrowing Chakravakas when the night, during which they 
are separated, comes to an end. And as the familiarity of 
the couple increased, their love seemed to be ever renewed. 
Then Gopalaka, being ordered by his father to return to get 
married himself, went away, after having been entreated by 
the King of Vatsa to return quickly. 

In the course of time the King of Vatsa became faithless, 
and secretly loved an attendant of the harem named Vira- 
chita, with whom he had previously had an intrigue. One 
day he made a mistake and addressed the queen by her 
name ; thereupon he had to conciliate her by clinging to her 
feet, and bathed in her tears he was anointed 2 a fortunate 
king. Moreover, he married a princess of the name of Bandh- 
umati, whom Gopalaka had captured by the might of his 
arm and sent as a present to the queen ; and whom she 
concealed, changing her name to Manjulika ; who seemed 
like another Lakshmi issuing from the sea of beauty. Her 
the king saw when he was in the company of Vasantaka, 
and secretly married her by the gdndharva ceremony in a 
summer-house. And that proceeding of his was beheld by 

1 Cf. the distribution of presents on the occasion of King Etzel's 
marriage in the Nibelungenlied. 

2 It must be remembered that a king among the Hindus was inaugurated 
with water, not oil. 


Vasavadatta, who was in concealment, and she was angry, 
and had Vasantaka put in fetters. Then the king had re- 
course to the good offices of a female ascetic, a friend of the 
queen's, who had come with her from her father's Court, of 
the name of Sankrityanam. She appeased the queen's anger, 
and got Bandhumati presented to the king by the obedient 
queen, for tender is the heart of virtuous wives. Then the 
queen released Vasantaka from imprisonment; he came 
into the presence of the queen and said to her with a laugh : 
" Bandhumati did you an injury, but what did I do to you ? 
You are angry with adders 1 and you kill water- snakes." 
Then the queen, out of curiosity, asked him to explain that 
metaphor, and he continued as follows : 

10. Story of Ruru 

Once on a time a hermit's son of the name of Ruru, 
wandering about at will, saw a maiden of wonderful beauty, 
the daughter of a heavenly nymph named Menaka by a 
Vidyadhara, and brought up by a hermit of the name of 
Sthulakesa in his hermitage. That lady, whose name was 
Prishadvara, so captivated the mind of that Ruru when he 
saw her, that he went and begged the hermit to give her 
to him in marriage. Sthulakesa for his part betrothed the 
maiden to him, and when the wedding was nigh at hand 
suddenly an adder bit her. Then the heart of Ruru was full 
of despair ; but he heard this voice in the heaven : ' O 
Brahman, raise to life with the gift of half thy own life 2 this 

1 The word "adders" must here do duty for all venomous kinds of 

2 A similar story is found in the fourth book of the Pauchatantra, fable 5, 
where Benfey compares the story of Yayati and his son Puru (Benfey, 
Panchatantra, i, 436). 

Bernhard Schmidt in his Griechische M'drchen, p. 37, mentions a very 
similar story, which he connects with that of Admetos and Alkestis. In a 
popular ballad of Trebisond a young man named Jannis, the only son of 
his parents, is about to be married when Charon comes to fetch him. He 
supplicates St George, who obtains for him the concession, that his life 
may be spared, in case his father will give him half the period of life still 
remaining to him. His father refuses, and in the same way his mother. 
At last his betrothed gives him half her allotted period of life, and the 



maiden, whose allotted term is at an end." When he heard 
that, Rum gave her half of his own life, as he had been 
directed ; by means of that she revived, and Ruru married 
her. Thenceforward he was incensed with the whole race of 
serpents, and whenever he saw a serpent he killed it, thinking 
to himself as he killed each one : " This may have bitten my 
wife." One day a water-snake said to him with human voice 
as he was about to slay it : " You are incensed against 
adders, Brahman, but why do you slay water- snakes ? An 
adder bit your wife, and adders are a distinct species from 
water-snakes ; all adders are venomous, water-snakes are 
not venomous." When he heard that, he said in answer to 
the water-snake : " My friend, who are you ? " The water- 
snake said : " Brahman, I am a hermit fallen from my high 
estate by a curse, and this curse was appointed to last till I 
held converse with you." When he said that he disappeared, 
and after that Ruru did not kill water-snakes. 

[M] " So I said this to you metaphorically : ' My queen, 
you are angry with adders and you kill water-snakes.' " 
When he had uttered this speech, full of pleasing wit, Vasan- 
taka ceased, and Vasavadatta, sitting at the side of her 
husband, was pleased with him. Such soft and sweet tales in 
which Vasantaka displayed various ingenuity, did the loving 
Udayana, King of Vatsa, continually make use of to con- 
ciliate his angry wife, while he sat at her feet. That happy 
king's tongue was ever exclusively employed in tasting the 
flavour of wine, and his ear was ever delighting in the sweet 
sounds of the lute, and his eye was ever riveted on the face of 
his beloved. 

marriage takes place. The story of Ruru is found in the Adiparva of the 

Mahabharata (see Lev&me, Mythes et Legendes de VInde, pp. 278 and 374). 

See also Benfey, op. cit., ii, 545, and Chauvin, Bibliographie des Ouvrages Arabes, 
viii, p. 119. n.m.p. 



The practice of walking round an object of reverence with the right hand 
towards it (which is one of the ceremonies mentioned in our author's account 
of Vasavadatta's marriage) has been exhaustively discussed by Dr Samuel 
Fergusson in his paper, " On the Ceremonial Turn called Deisul," published 
in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy for March 1877 (vol. i, Ser. II., 
No. 12). He shows it to have existed among the ancient Romans as well 
as the Celts. One of the most striking of his quotations is from the Curculio 
of Plautus (I, i, 69). Phaedromus says: "Quo me vortam jiescio." Palinurus 
jestingly replies : " Si deos salutas dextrovorsum ce?iseo." Cf. also the following 
passage of Valerius Flaccus {Argon, viii, 243) : 

" hide ubi sacrificas cum conjuge venit ad aras 
JEsonides, unaque adeunt pariterque precari 
Incipiunt. Ignem Pollux undamque jugalem 
Prcetulit ut dextrum pariter vertantur in orbem." 

The above passage forms a striking comment upon our text. Cf. also 
Plutarch in his Life of Camillus : " Tavra cinw, KadaTrtp cori 'Pw/zouois edos, 
7rvaju,vots /cat 7rpoo-Kvvr}<ra(riv errt Se^ca i^eXtTTetv, ea^dXr] 7repLO-Tp<f>6p.vos. 
It is possible that the following passage in Lucretius alludes to the same 
practice : 

" Nee pietas ulla est velatum scepe videri 
Vertier ad lapidem atque omnes accedere ad aras" 

Dr Fergusson is of opinion that this movement was a symbol of the 
cosmical rotation, an imitation of the apparent course of the sun in the 
heavens. Cf. Hyginus, Fable CCV : " Arge venatrix, cum cervum sequeretur, cervo 
dixisse fertur : Tu licet Solis cursum sequaris, tamen te consequar. Sol, iratus, in 
cervam earn convertit." He quotes, to prove that the practice existed among 
the ancient Celts, Athenceus, IV, par. 36, who adduces from Posidonius the 
following statement : ** Tovs deovs TrpocrKVvovcriv kirl Septet o~Tpe<f>6piVOL." The 
above quotations are but a few scraps from the full feast of Dr Fergusson's 
paper. See also the remarks of the Rev. S. Beal in the Indian Antiquary for 
March 1880, p. 67. 

See also Henderson's Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties, p. 45 : "The vicar 
of Stranton (Hartlepool) was standing at the churchyard gate, awaiting the 
arrival of a funeral party, when to his astonishment the whole group, who had 
arrived within a few yards of him, suddenly wheeled and made the circuit of 
the churchyard wall, thus traversing its west, north and east boundaries, and 
making the distance some five or six times greater than was necessary. The 
vicar, astonished at this proceeding, asked the sexton the reason of so extra- 
ordinary a movement. The reply was as follows : ' Why, ye wad no hae them 
carry the dead again the sun; the dead maun aye go with the sun.'" This 
custom is no doubt an ancient British or Celtic custom, and corresponds to 


the Highland usage of making the deazil, or walking three times round a person 
according to the course of the sun. Old Highlanders will still make the deazil 
round those whom they wish well. To go round the person in the opposite 
direction, or " withershins," is an evil incantation and brings ill fortune. Hunt 
in his Romances and Drolls of the West of England, p. 418, says: "If an invalid 
goes out for the first time and makes a circuit, the circuit must be with the 
sun, if against the sun, there will be a relapse." Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, 
p. 322, quotes from the Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. v, p. 88, the following 
statement of a Scottish minister, with reference to a marriage ceremony : 
"After leaving the church, the whole company walk round it, keeping the 
church walls always on the right hand." 

Thiselton Dyer, in his English Folk-Lore, p. 171, mentions a similar custom 
as existing in the west of England. In Devonshire blackheads or pinsoles 
are cured by creeping on one's hands and knees under or through a bramble 
three times with the sun that is, from east to west. See also Ralston's Songs 
of the Russian People, p. 299. 

See also the extract from Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland in Brand's 
Popular Antiquities, vol. i, p. 225 : " When a Highlander goes to bathe or to 
drink out of a consecrated fountain, he must always approach by going round 
the place from east to west on the south side, in imitation of the apparent 
diurnal motion of the sun. This is called in Gaelic going round the right, or 
the lucky way. The opposite course is the wrong, or the unlucky way. And 
if a person's meat or drink were to affect the wind-pipe, or come against 
his breath, they would instantly cry out, ' Desheal,' which is an ejaculation 
praying it may go by the right way." Cf the note in Munro's Lucretius on 
v, 1199, and Burton's Narratives from Criminal Trials in Scotland, vol. i, p. 278. 

Here Tawney's note ends. As it deals almost entirely with circum- 

ambulation in the West, I will confine my remarks chiefly to the East. 

In India the custom of walking round objects as part of sacred or secular 
ritual is known by the name of pradakshina. In our text Vasavadatta walks 
round the fire keeping it on her right i.e. sunwise or clockwise. This in 
accordance with the Laws of Manu, where the bride is told to walk three 
times round the domestic hearth. Sometimes both bride and bridegroom do 
it, or else they walk round the central pole of the marriage-shed. Similarly 
in the Grihya STdras Brahmans on initiation are to drive three times round a 
tree or sacred pool. 

Before building a new house it is necessary to walk three times round 
the site sprinkling water on the ground, accompanying the action with the 
repetition of the verse, u O waters, ye are wholesome," from the Rig-Veda. (See 
Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxix, p. 213.) Pradakshina is also performed 
round sacrifices and sacred buildings or tombs. In the Satapatha Brahmana 
it is set down that when walking round the sacrifice a burning coal is to 
be held in the hand. When sacrifices are offered to ancestors, the 
officiating Brahman first walks three times round the sacrifice with his 
left shoulder towards it, after which he turns round and walks three times 
to the right, or sunwise. This is explained in the Satapatha Brahmana as 
follows : " The reason why he again moves thrice round from left to right is 


that, while the first time he went away from here after those three ancestors 
of his, he now comes back again from them to this, his own world ; that is 
why he again moves thrice from left to right." This anti-sunwise movement 
is called prasavya in Sanskrit, and corresponds to the Celtic cartuasul, or 

The movement from left to right is almost universally considered unlucky 
and ill-omened, and the English words "sinister" and "dexterous" show how 
the meaning has come to us unaltered from the Latin. 

In his excellent work, The Migration of Symbols, 1 894, Count D'Alviella has 
shown in his study of the swastika or gammadion that the "right-handed" 
variety is always the lucky one. Sir George Birdwood mentions that among 
the Hindus the " right-handed " swastika represents the male principle and 
is the emblem of Ganesa, while the sauwastika (or "left-handed") repre- 
sents the female principle and is sacred to Kali, and typifies the course of 
the sun in the subterranean world from west to east, symbolising darkness, 
death and destruction. 

The magical effect on objects repeatedly circumambulated is exemplified 
in the Maha Parinibbdna Sutta. We read that after the pyre on which lay the 
body of Buddha had been walked round three times by the five hundred 
disciples it took fire on its own account. Readers will naturally think of 
Joshua and the walls of Jericho. 

The pradakshina rite was also performed by the ancient Buddhists, and 
still is, by the modern Hindus for the purpose of purification. In India, Tibet, 
China and Japan we find galleries, or walls round stupas or shrines for circum- 
ambulation of pilgrims. The same idea is, of course, connected with the 
Ka'bah at Mecca (which we shall discuss shortly) and the Holy Sepulchre 
at Jerusalem. 

It has often been suggested by Indian students that the reason for walking 
round an object three times is connected with the traditional "three steps" of 
Vishnu, as God of the Sun. Evidence does not, however, seem sufficient to 
attempt any decisive statement on that point. 

Three is considered a lucky number among the Hindus, and with seven 
forms the two most lucky numbers throughout the world. 

Turning to the Moslem world we find that in circumambulating the 
Ka'bah at Mecca, the pilgrims walk from left to right, which is nearly 
always considered unlucky. The " Tawaf," as it is called, has been described 
by Burton {Pilgrimage, 1st edition, 1855-1856, vol. iii, pp. 204, 205, 234-236). 
He gives full details of the seven circuits with all the elaborate sunnats, or 
practices, involved. In a note we read the following: "Moslem moralists 
have not failed to draw spiritual food from this mass of materialism. f To 
circuit the Bait Ullah,' said the Pir Raukhan (As. Soc, vol. xi, and Dabistan, 
vol. iii, ' Miyan Bayezid '), ' and to be free from wickedness, and crimes, and 
quarrels, is the duty enjoined by religion. But to circuit the house of the 
friend of Allah (i.e. the heart), to combat bodily propensities, and to worship 
the angels, is the business of the (mystic) path.' Thus Saadi, in his sermons, 
which remind the Englishman of 'poor Yorick,' 'He who travels to the 
Kaabah on foot makes a circuit of the Kaabah, but he who performs the 


pilgrimage of the Kaabah in his heart is encircled by the Kaabah.' And 
the greatest Moslem divines sanction this visible representation of an invisible 
and heavenly shrine, by declaring that, without a material medium, it is 
impossible for man to worship the Eternal Spirit." 

Further references to the deiseil, deasil or deisul in Greece, Rome and 
Egypt, among the Celts and Teutons, in England, Scotland and Ireland, 
and among savage tribes will be found in D'Alviella's article, " Circum- 
ambulation," in Hastings' Ency. Rel. Etk., vol. iii, pp. 657-659, from which 
several of the above references have been taken. n.m.p. 





The mythical beings mentioned in the Ocean of Story are : 

x\psaras Gana Naga 

Asura Gandharva Pisacha 

Bhuta Guhyaka Rakshasa 

Daitya Kinnara Siddha 

Danava Kumbhanda Vetala 

Dasyus Kushmanda Vidyadhara 


Of the above the great majority are mentioned in Book I, 
but Apsaras, Daitya and Danava occur for the first time in 
Book II, Vetala in Book V, Kumbhanda in Book VIII, 
Dasyus in Book IX, Bhtita in Book XII, and Kushmanda in 
Book XVII. 

It is possible to classify them under four headings as 
follows : 

1. Enemies of the gods, very rarely visiting the earth : 
Asura, Daitya, Danava. 

2. Servants of the gods, frequently connected with 
mortals : Gandharva, Apsaras, Gana, Kinnara, Guhyaka 
and Yaksha. 

3. Independent superhumans, often mixing with mortals : 
Naga, Siddha and Vidyadhara. 

4. Demons, hostile to mankind : Rakshasa, Pisacha, 
Vetala, Bhtita, Dasyus, Kumbhanda, Kushmanda. 

1. Enemies of the Gods 

The origin of the terms Asura, Daitya and Danava is of 
the greatest importance in attempting to ascertain the exact 
position they hold in Indian mythology. It is not sufficient 
merely to say they are usually applied to the enemies of the 

Although many derivations of the word asura have been 
suggested, it seems very probable that the simplest is the 


most correct namely, that it comes from am, spirit, life- 
breath. (See Brugmann, Vergl. Gramm., ii, p. 189.) It 
means, therefore, spiritual being," and, as such, is applied 
to nearly all the greater Vedic gods. 

Among the suggested derivations, however, mention 
may be made of that which is looked for in Mesopotamia. 
Attempts have been made to trace it thence to India. As 
the theory is attractive I will attempt to give the main lines 
of argument. 

In the early Vedas, including the older hymns of the 
l$ig-Veda 9 the word asura is an alternative designation for 
" deity," or " friendly gods," besides being used as an epithet 
of the most important gods, such as Varuna, Rudra, etc. In 
the later Vedas, and especially in the Purdnas, asura is used 
to denote a formidable enemy of the gods (Devas). It is this 
strange contradiction of meanings that has led scholars to 
suspect some foreign origin of the word, and to attempt to 
trace its etymology. 

Assur, Asur, Ashir, or Ashur was the national god of 
Assyria from whom both the country and its primitive capital 
took their names. The exact meaning of the word is not 
known ; it has been interpreted as " arbiter," " overseer," or 
" lord," but its original meaning is wrapped in mystery. 
The Persians borrowed the word, which became ahura, mean- 
ing " lord " or " god." The Vedic Hindus did likewise, but 
gradually altered the meaning to the exact opposite. Various 
suggestions are put forward to account for this. 

The discovery of a treaty in Asia Minor between the 
King of the Hittites and the King of Mitani (see Journ. Roy. 
Asiatic Soc., 1909, p. 721 et seq.) shows that the Vedic Aryans 
were neighbours of the Assyrians, so it may be that the 
progress of these Aryans into India was contested by their 
neighbours, the Asuras, just in the same way as later it was 
contested by the Dasyus in India itself. 

Thus in time, when the religious system began to be 
fully developed, reminiscences of the human Asuras and their 
fights with the Aryans would be transformed into a myth of 
the enmity between the Devas (gods) and Asuras. (For 
details of this theory see Bhandarkar's " The Aryans in the 
Land of the Assurs," Journ. Bombay Br. Roy. As. Soc, 
vol. xxv, 1918, p. 76 et seq.) 

We may, however, find further possibilities from 
Assyria's other neighbours, the Iranians. As I have already 


mentioned, they used the word ahura to mean " lord " or 
" god," but it is significant to note that daeva denoted evil 
spirits. The various nations of the Mesopotamian area had 
many gods in common, but their different interpretations of 
the speculative philosophy of life soon led them into differ- 
ent paths of religious thought and application. Zoroaster's 
doctrine helped to widen this breach when he made the evil 
spirits appear in the Avesta as daevas. In India the con- 
ception of asura gradually became a god of reverence and 
fear with an awful divine character, while deva became more 
friendly in its meaning and kinder to humans. Zoroaster, 
however, looking upon the daevas as upstarts who were 
gradually ousting the original position of the Asuras, elevated 
the latter and added the epithet Mazdao, the " wise," to their 
name. Thus arose the Persian Ahuro Mazdao, which in time 
became Ormazd, the " Wise Lord," the " All-father." The 
daevas, in inverse ratio, became enemies of the gods. In 
India, as we have seen, the exact opposite had taken place, 
and thus the curious difference of meaning is brought about. 

It is often said that the word asura means " not-god," the 
negative " a " being prefixed to sura, which means " god." 
This, however, is incorrect, the exact opposite being the 
case. When the Asuras had become the enemies of the gods, 
the word sura was formed as meaning the opposite of asura. 

Turning now to the terms Daitya and Danava, we find 
that Daitya means " descendant of Diti." Diti is a female 
deity mentioned in the Big-Veda and Atharva-Veda, whose 
particular nature was apparently little known. She is usually 
regarded as the sister of Aditya, to whom she probably owes 
her existence (cf. the way in which sura was formed from 
asura). The name Aditya is used as a metronymic from Aditi 
to denote some of the most important deities; thus their 
enemies were named Daityas after Diti. 

According to the Mahdbharata (i, 65) the Asura race 
was derived from five daughters of Daksha, son of Brahma. 
Of these daughters two were Aditi and Diti. A third was 
Danu, from whom the name Danava is derived. Thus the 
close relationship of the three terms will be realised, although 
it is only the word asura that may have an ancient extraneous 

In the Ocean of Story the Asuras, Daityas and Danavas 
are, with few exceptions, represented as the enemies of the 
gods. In Book VIII, however, where the terms asura and 


danava are used synonymously, we find one called Maya 
who comes to earth in order to teach the hero the magic 
sciences. To do this he takes the prince back to Patala, 
which is the usual dwelling-place not only of the Asuras, but 
also of the Nagas, or snake-gods. Patala is described as a 
place of great beauty, with magnificent castles and abundance 
of every kind of wealth. Some of the Asuras prefer to dwell 
outside Patala, either in the air, in heaven, or even on earth 

The widely different legendary accounts of the history 
of the Asuras are to be found in the Mahdbhdrata and the 
Pur etnas. (See Wilson's Vishnu Pur ana ;, i, 97 ; ii, 69.) 

The power that Asuras can obtain is shown by the story 
of Jalandhara, an Asura who actually conquered Vishnu, and 
whom neither Siva nor Indra could destroy* 

In the Churning of the Ocean the gods found they could 
not get on without the help of the Asuras. Occasionally they 
have actually been held in respect and worshipped. In the 
Vdyu Purdna is the history of Gaya, an Asura who was so 
devout in the worship of Vishnu that his accumulated merit 
alarmed the gods. (This legend is given in a note in Chapter 
XCIII of this work, when Gaya is actually referred to.) 

Rahu should also be mentioned, who is the Asura causing 
the eclipses of the sun and moon. 

Further details will be found in H. Jacobi's article, 
under " Daitya," in Hastings' Ency. Eel. Eth., vol. iv, p. 390 
et seq. 

It is interesting to note that the term asura is applied to 
marriage by capture. It forms with the paisdcha variety the 
two kinds of marriage condemned by Manu as altogether 
improper. In modern days, however, the asura form is 
recognised even for the Vaisya and Stidra castes. 

2. Servants (or Attendants) of the Gods 

Foremost among these are the Gandharvas and Apsa- 

In the early Vedas the Gandharvas occupy a minor posi- 
tion, which in later days became more prominent. They are 
trusted servants of the gods, having guard of the celestial soma, 
and so become heavenly physicians, as soma is a panacea. 
They also direct the sun's horses and act as servants to Agni, 
God of Fire and Light, and to Varuna, the divine judge. They 


dwell in the fathomless spaces of the air, and stand erect on 
the vault of heaven. They are also (especially in the Avesta) 
connected with the waters, and in the later Vedas have the 
Apsarases, who were originally water-nymphs, as wives or 
mistresses. It is at this period, too, that they become especi- 
ally fond of and dangerous to women, but at the same time 
they are the tutelary deities of women and marriage. They 
are always represented as being gorgeously clad and carrying 
shining weapons. 

In post-Vedic times they are the celestial singers and 
musicians at Indra's Court, where they live in company with 
the Apsarases. They wander about the great spaces of air at 
random. Thus the term gandharvanagara means " mirage " 
literally, the " city of the Gandharvas." 

They often visit humans, being attracted by beautiful 

In number they vary greatly in different accounts. They 
are twelve, twenty-seven, or innumerable. 

The Vishnu Parana says they are the offspring of Brahma, 
and recounts how 60,000,000 of them warred against the 
Nagas, or snake-gods, but they were destroyed with Vishnu's 

Finally, they lend their name to a form of marriage. 
When two people desire mutual intercourse the resulting 
marriage is called gdndharva, because these spirits of the 
air are the only witnesses. Full details of the gdndharva 
marriage have already been given in this volume (pp. 87, 88). 

We now pass on to the Apsarases, who, as we have 
already seen, were originally water-nymphs. (Their very 
name means " moving in the waters.") They are seldom 
mentioned in the Vedas, Urvasi, who became the wife of 
King Pururavas, being one of the most famous. (fiig-Veda, 
x, 95, and Ocean of Story, Chapter XVIII.) 

In the later Vedas they frequent trees, which continually 
resound with the music of their lutes and cymbals. 

In the Epics they become the wives of the Gandharvas, 
whom they join as singers, dancers and musicians in Indra's 
Court. They serve the gods in other capacities ; for instance, 
if a pious devotee has acquired so much power by his 
austerities that the gods themselves are in danger of being 
subservient to him, a beautiful Apsaras is at once dispatched 
to distract him from his devotions (e.g. Menaka seduced 
Visvamitra and became the mother of Sakuntala). 


The beauty and voluptuous nature of the Apsarases is 
always emphasised, and they are held out as the reward for 
fallen heroes in Indra's paradise. In this they resemble the 
Mohammedan houris. 

According to the Rdmdyana and the Vishnu Purdna they 
were produced at the Churning of the Ocean. When they 
first appeared in this way, neither the gods nor the Asuras 
would have them as their wives ; consequently they became 
promiscuous in their affections. They have the power of 
changing their forms, and are most helpful and affectionate 
to mortals whom they favour. 

They preside over the fortunes of the gaming-table, and 
it is here that their friendship is most desirable. 

The estimate of their number varies, but it is usually put 
at 35,000,000, of which 1060 are the chief. 

In the Ocean of Story they often fall in love with mortals, 
but are usually under some curse for past misbehaviour. In 
Chapter XXVIII King Sushena recognises his future Apsaras 
wife as divine, " since her feet do not touch the dust, and her 
eye does not wink." As soon as she bears him a child she is 
forced to return to her abode in the heavens. 

Gana is the name given to an attendant of Siva and 
Parvati. The chief is Ganesa (" Lord of Ganas "), who is a 
son of Siva and Parvati. He it was who ranked as chief of 
the followers of Siva, hence all the others are termed Ganas. 
The position seems, however, to have been an honorary one 
as far as Ganesa was concerned, for we find in actual practice 
that Nandi, Siva's bull, was leader of the Ganas. As we have 
seen in the Introduction to the Ocean of Story, both Siva and 
Parvati kept strict control over their Ganas, and any breach 
of discipline was punished by banishment from Kailasa 
usually to the world of mortals, where they had to serve their 
time till some event or other brought the curse to an end. 

Kinnaras, Guhyakas and Yakshas are all subjects to 
Kuvera, or Vaisravana, the God of Wealth and Lord of 

Kinnaras sing and play before Kuvera, and have human 
bodies and horses' heads. The Kimpurushas, who have 
horses' bodies and human heads (like the centaurs), are also 
servants of Kuvera, but are not mentioned in the Ocean of 


The Guhyakas help to guard Kuvera's treasure and dwell 
in caves. They are often (as in Chapter VI of the Ocean of 
Story) synonymous with Yakshas. The beings who assisted 
Kuvera in guarding treasures were originally called Rakshas, 
but the name savoured too much of the demons, the Rakshasas, 
who were subject to Ravana, the half-brother of Kuvera 
so the name Yakshas was adopted. The word yaksha means 
' being possessed of magical powers," which, as we shall see 
later, is practically the same meaning as vidyddhara. 

It appears that both Yakshas and Rakshasas come under 
the heading of Rakshas, the former being friendly to man 
and servants of Kuvera, the latter being demons and hostile 
to man. 

3. Independent Superhumans 

The Nagas are snake-gods dwelling in Patala, the under- 
world, in a city called Bhogavati. Although snake-worship 
dates from the earliest times in India, there is but little 
mention of Nagas in the Vedas. In the Epics, however, they 
attain full recognition and figure largely in the Mahabhdrata. 
Here their origin is traced to Kadru and Kasyapa, and their 
destruction through the sacrifice of Janamejaya is related. 

In some stories they retain their reptilian character 
throughout; in others they possess human heads, or are 
human as far as the waist. They are usually friendly to man 
unless ill-treated, when they have their revenge if not duly 

Garuda, the sun-god, is their enemy (see the Ocean of 
Story, Chapter LXI), from whom they fly. As the snake is 
sometimes looked upon as representative of darkness, the 
idea has arisen that they are eaten by Garuda, or the dawn, 
each morning (see pp. 103-105 of this volume). 

The extent of serpent- worship in India can be imagined 
when we read in Crooke's Folk-Lore of Northern India (vol. ii, 
p. 122) that in the North-West Provinces there are over 
25,000 Naga- worshippers, and in the census-returns 123 people 
recorded themselves as votaries of Guga, the snake-god. 

It would be out of place here to give details of the cere- 
monies, superstitions and archaeological remains of snake- 
worship throughout India. I would merely refer readers 
to Cook's article, " Serpent- Worship," in the Ency. Brit., 
vol. xxiv, pp. 676-682, and that by Macculloch, Crooke and 


Welsford in Hastings' Ency. Rel Eth., vol. xi, pp. 399-423. 
Both contain full bibliographical references. 

Readers will remember the amazing story in the Nights 
(Burton, vol. v, p. 298 to the end of the volume) of 
"The Queen of the Serpents," whose head alone is human, 
and the sub-story, " The Adventures of Bulukiya," where 
Solomon and his ring are guarded by fiery serpents. The 
relationship of the Nagas to the Pisachas is discussed below, 
in section 4. Their origin, like that of the Pisachas, was 
probably a primitive hill tribe of North India. 

Siddhas play a very unimportant part in Hindu myth- 
ology. They are described as kindly ghosts who always be- 
have in a most friendly manner to mankind. They are usually 
mentioned in company with Ganas and Vidyadharas, as at 
the commencement of the Ocean of Story. In the earlier 
mythology they were called Sadhyas (Manu, i, 22), where 
their great purity is emphasised. 

Vidyadharas play a very important part in the Ocean of 
Story and require little explanation here, as their habits, abode 
and relations with mortals are fullv detailed in the work itself. 

Their government is similar to that in the great cities on 
earth ; they have their kings, viziers, wives and families. They 
possess very great knowledge, especially in magical sciences, 
and can assume any form they wish. Their name means 
" possessing spells or witchcraft." 

4. Demons 

The Rakshasas are the most prominent among malicious 
superhumans. From the Rig-Veda days they have delighted 
in disturbing sacrifices, worrying devout men when engaged 
in prayer, animating dead bodies and generally living up to 
the meaning of their name, " the harmers " or " destroyers." 

In appearance they are terrifying and monstrous. In the 
Atharva-Veda they are deformed, and blue, green or yellow in 
colour. Their eyes, like those of the Arabian jinn, are long 
slits up and down, their finger-nails are poisonous, and their 
touch most dangerous. They eat human flesh and also that 
of horses. Parvati gave them power to arrive at maturity at 

It is at night that their power is at its height, and it is 


then that they prowl about the burning-grounds in search 
of corpses or humans. They are, moreover, possessors of 
remarkable riches, which they bestow on those they favour. 

Chief among Rakshasas is Havana, the great enemy of 
Rama. Reference should be made to Crooke's Folk-Lore of 
Northern India, vol. i, p. 246 et seq. 

They have also given the name to one of the eight forms 
of marriage which Manu says is lawful only for men of the 
Kshatriya caste. 

The Pisachas are rather similar to the Rakshasas, their 
chief activities being in leading people out of their way, 
haunting cemeteries, eating human flesh and indulging in 
every kind of wickedness. In Chapter XXVIII of the Ocean 
of Story they appear to possess healing power, and, after being 
duly propitiated, cure disease. 

In the Vedas they are described as kravydd, " eaters of 
raw flesh," which is perhaps the etymological sense of the 
word Pisacha itself. In the Rdmaydna they appear occasion- 
ally as ghouls, but in the Mahdbhdrata besides being ghouls 
they are continually represented as human beings living in 
the north-west of India, the Himalayas and Central Asia. 
This is one of the points which has led Sir George Grierson to 
believe in the human origin of the Pisachas. (See the numer- 
ous references given in my note on Paisachi, the Pisacha 's 
language, on pp. 92, 93.) 

Macdonell and Keith (Vedic Index, vol. i, p. 533) con- 
sider that when they appeared as human tribes, they were 
presumably thus designated in scorn. A science called 
Pisacha-veda or Pisacha-vidya is known in the later Vedic 
period. (See Gopatha Brdhmana, i, 1, 10, and Asvaldyana 
Srauta Sutra, x, 7, 6.) 

There is a form of marriage named paisdcha, after the 
Pisachas, which consists of embracing a woman who is drugged, 
insane or asleep. This is mentioned by Manu as the last and 
most condemned form of marriage. It was, however, permis- 
sible to all castes except Brahmans. (See Manu, Sacred Books 
of the East, Buhler, vol. xxv, pp. 79-81 and 83.) 

Finally there are the Purana legends to be considered. 
They state that the valley of Kashmir was once a lake. Siva 
drained off the water and it was peopled by the Prajapati 
Kasyapa. He had numerous wives, but three in particular, 
from whom were born the Nagas, the Pisachas, the Yakshas 


and the Rakshasas. Thus the relationship of these various 
demons is understood. 

Both Buddhist and non-Buddhist literature continually 
refers to them synonymously, and in modern Kashmiri the 
word yachh, for yaksha, has taken the place of the old 

There is also a rather similar legend in the Nilamata, a 
legendary account of Kashmir dating (so Grierson says) from 
perhaps the sixth or seventh century. According to it 
Kasyapa first peopled the dried valley of Kashmir only with 
the Nagas. He then wished to introduce men, but the Nagas 
objected. Kasyapa cursed them, and for every six months 
of the year his other sons, the Pisachas, who came from an 
island in the sand ocean (an oasis in Central Asia, probably 
Khotan), dwelt there. 

Many similar stories are found in the Dard country, 
north and west of Kashmir. 

Vetalas are also closely related to the above demons. 
They are almost entirely confined to cemeteries and burning- 
grounds, where they specialise in animating dead bodies. 

The twenty-five tales of a Vetala are included in the 
Ocean of Story, where their nature is fully described. 

Bhuta is really a generic name given to ghosts of many 
kinds. They are often synonymous with both Rakshasas and 
Pisachas. (See E. Arbman, Rudra, p. 165 et seq.) 

The Bhuta proper is the spirit of a man who has met 
a violent death, in consequence of which it assumes great 
malignity against the living. 

The three tests of recognising a Bhuta are : (1) it has no 
shadow; (2) it cannot stand burning turmeric; (3) it always 
speaks with a nasal twang. It plays a very minor part in the 
Ocean of Story, being mentioned only once. 

Crooke (op. cit., vol. i, p. 234 et seq.) has given very full 
details of the modern Bhuta, its veneration and the numerous 
superstitious rites connected with it. 

Dasyus (or Dasas) was originally the name given to the 
aboriginal tribes of India who resisted the gradual advance 
of the Aryans from the west. Owing to the legends which 
naturally sprang up about the bloody battles with these 
early foes, they have been introduced into fiction as demons 


of terrible and hideous appearance and are classed with 
Rakshasas and Pisachas. 

They are described as having a black skin, being snub- 
nosed, god-hating, devoid of rites, addicted to strange vows, 
and so forth. 

They are mentioned only once in the Ocean of Story, and 
then in company with Rakshasas. 

Kumbhandas and Kushmandas are also mentioned only 
once, and are merely a variety of demon, and of little im- 

The two words are probably synonymous, one being 
Sanskrit and the other Prakrit. 




The word collyrium has an interesting etymological history. 

It is a Latin word (icoWvpiov, in Greek) meaning " a mass 

(or article) similar to the collyra- dough." Collyra is a kind of 

pastry, round in shape, closely resembling vermicelli. Thus 

collyrium came to mean (1) a pessary, suppository, etc., 

when used in a medical sense, (2) a liquid eye-wash, applied 

in a long thin line above the eye, and (3) kohl, for beautifying 

the eyes. 

The word collyrium is often used (as in our text) to mean 

kohl, whereas its strict use in connection with the eye should 

be only in a medical sense. Kohl is from the Arabic j^$, 

kuhl, kohl, which means a " stain," from kahala, "to stain." 
In English the word is applied in chemistry to any fine 
impalpable powder produced by trituration, or especially by 
sublimation, and by further extension to fluids of the idea of 
sublimation an essence, quintessence, or spirit obtained by 
distillation or " rectification," as alcohol of wine. Thus our 
own word " alcohol " really means " a thing (produced) by 
staining." Kohl consists of powdered antimony ore, stibnite, 
antimony trisulphide (-rrXarvocpOoXjuLov o-r/^^f), galena or lead ore. 

The custom of applying kohl to the eyes dates from the 
dawn of history and is still practised in some form or other 
in almost every race of the world. After shortly considering 
its use in India, it will be interesting to give some account 
of the custom in other countries chiefly in ancient Egypt 
and the Moslem East. 

From a study of the Ajanta cave paintings and the work 
of the Indian court artists of the various schools, it is at once 
noticeable how exaggerated are the eyes of the women. They 
are very large and stretch in almond shape almost to the ears. 
This is considered a great attraction, and the painting of the 
eye is as important as the application of henna to the hands 
and feet. The kohl (surma) is used both as a means of producing 
large and lustrous eyes and as a collyrium (anjana). 

In ancient India the recipes for making various anjanas 
are strange and numerous. In the Susruta Samhitd of the first 


century either b.c. or a.d. (Bhishagratna's trans., Calcutta) 
there are many, of which the following is an example : 

" Eight parts of Rasdnjana (antimony) having the hue of 
a (full-blown) blue lotus flower, as well as one part each of 
(dead) copper, gold and silver, should be taken together and 
placed inside an earthen crucible. It should then be burnt 
by being covered with the burning charcoal of catechu or 
asmantaka wood, or in the fire of dried cakes of cow- dung 
and blown (with a blow-pipe till they would glow with a 
blood-red effulgence), after which the expressed juice (rasa) 
of cow-dung, cow's urine, milk-curd, clarified butter, honey, 
oil, lard, marrow, infusion of the drugs of the sarva-gandhd 
group, grape juice, sugar-cane juice, the expressed juice of 
triphald and the completely cooled decoctions of the drugs 
of the sdrivddi and the utpalddi groups, should be separately 
sprinkled over it in succession alternately each time with the 
heating thereof. After that the preparation should be kept 
suspended in the air for a week, so as to be fully washed by 
the rains. The compound should then be dried, pounded and 
mixed together with proportionate parts (quarter part) of 
powdered pearls, crystals, corals and kdlanu sdrivd. The com- 
pound thus prepared is a very good anjana and should be 
kept in a pure vessel made of ivory, crystal, vaidurya, sankha 
(conch-shell), stone, gold, silver or of asand wood. It should 
then be purified (lit, worshipped) in the manner of the purifi- 
cation of the Sahasra-Paka-Taila described before. It may 
then be prescribed even for a king. Applied along the eye- 
lids as a collyrium, it enables a king to become favourite with 
his subjects and to continue invincible to the last day of his 
life free from ocular affections." 

In more recent days we find surma used by both sexes of 
the Musulmans of India. It is put on the inside of the eye- 
lids with a stick called mikhal. Surma is variously powdered 
antimony, iron ore, galena, and Iceland spar from Kabul. 
The jars or toilet-boxes (surma- dan) resemble those to be 
described later in modern Egypt. 

The eyelashes and outer lids are stained, or rather 
smudged, with kdjal or lamp-black, which is collected on a 
plate held over a lamp. The box where it is stored is called 

As black is one of the colours spirits fear, surma and 
kdjal are used as a guard against the evil eye at marriages., 
deaths, etc. 


Herklots in his Qanun-i-Islam (by Ja'far Sharif, with 
notes by Crooke, new edition, 1920) refers to a legend current 
in the Pan jab. It is said that a fakir from Kashmir " came 
to Mount Karangli in the Jhilam district and turned it into 
gold. The people fearing that in time of war it would be 
plundered, by means of a spell turned the gold into antimony, 
which is now washed down by the rain from the mountain. 
It is said that if it is used for eight days it will restore the sight 
of those who have become blind by disease or by accident, 
but not of those born blind." 

One of the chief attractions of surma, especially in hot 
countries, is the coolness it imparts to the eyes. It is this 
attribute, coupled with its beautifying effects, which makes 
it so popular in India among both Mohammedans and 

When obtained in the crude ore it is laboriously pounded 
in a stone mortar, the process sometimes taking over a week. 
If the family can afford it, a few drops of attar of roses is 
occasionally added, thus giving a pleasant perfume to the 

The amount of antimony-sulphide produced in India is 
very small, the chief localities being the Jhelum and Kangra 
districts of the Panjab ; the Bellary, Cuddapah and Viza- 
gapatam districts of Madras ; and the Chitaldroog and Kadur 
districts of Mysore. 

The galena found in some of the above districts, par- 
ticularly Jhelum, is sometimes sold in the Indian bazaars as 

As we proceed westwards from India, we find everywhere 
that the practice of painting the eyes is a firmly established 

In Persia the preparation used for the eyes was known as 
tutia. Marco Polo, in describing the town of Cobinam, which 
has been identified as Kuh-Banan in Kerman, says that 
tutia is prepared there by putting a certain earth into a 
furnace over which is placed an iron grating. The smoke and 
moisture expelled from the earth adheres to the grating. This 
is carefully collected and is " a thing very good for the eyes." 
In commenting upon this passage Yule says (Marco Polo, 
vol. i, p. 126) that Polo's description closely resembles Galen's 
account of Pompholyx and Spodos (see his Be Simpl. Medic, 
p. ix, in Latin edition, Venice, 1576). 


Writing about four hundred years later (1670) the Portu- 
guese traveller Teixeira (Relaciones . . . de Persia, y de 
Harmuz . . .) also refers to the tutia of Kerman, and says 
the ore was kneaded with water and baked in crucibles in a 
potter's kiln. The tutia was subsequently packed in boxes 
and sent for sale to Hormuz. The importation into India of 
moulded cakes of tutia from the Persian Gulf was mentioned 
by Milburn in 1813 (Oriental Commerce, vol. i, p. 139). 

It is interesting to note that in The History of the Sung 
Dynasty an Arab junk-master brought to Canton in a.d. 990, 
and sent thence to the Chinese Emperor in Ho Nan, " one 
vitreous bottle of tutia." (E. H. Parker, Asiatic Quarterly 
Review, January 1904, p. 135.) 

Writing in 1881 Gen. A. Houtum-Schindler (Journ. Roy. 
As. Soc, N.S., vol. xiii, p. 497) says that the term tutia is not 
now used in Kerman to denote a collyrium, being applied to 
numerous other minerals. " The lamp-black used as collyrium 
is always called Surmah. This at Kerman itself is the soot 
produced by the flame of wicks, steeped in castor oil or goat's 
fat, upon earthenware saucers. In the high mountainous 
districts of the province, Kiibenan, Pariz, and others, Surmah 
is the soot of the Gavan plant (Garcia's goan). This plant, a 
species of Astragalus, is on those mountains very fat and 
succulent ; from it also exudes the Tragacanth gum. The 
soot is used dry as an eye-powder, or, mixed with tallow, as 
an eye-salve. It is occasionally collected on iron gratings." 

In Persia to-day surmah forms a very important part of a 
lady's toilet. She uses it from early childhood, and the more 
she puts on the more she honours her husband and her guests. 
It is considered to serve the twofold purpose of beautifying 
the eyes and preventing ophthalmia. It is also applied in a 
long thick line right across both eyebrows. 

In all Mohammedan countries the meeting eyebrows are 
looked upon as beautiful, while in India the opposite is the 
case. Morier in his immortal Hajji Baba of Ispahan tells us 
that when Hajji had become a promoter of matrimony, among 
the charms enumerated by Zeenab her most alluring were her 
" two eyebrows that looked like one." 

In his edition of 1897, Dr Wills gives an illustration on 
page 428 of the surmah and tattoo marks on the chin and 

Sir Percy Sykes recently reminded me of a Persian saying 
which shows the esteem in which surmah is held : 


" The dust of a flock of sheep is surmah to the eyes of a 
hungry wolf." 

Before considering the custom in ancient and modern 
Egypt it will be interesting to say a word on its great antiquity. 

Mr Campbell Thompson, one of our leading Assyriolo- 
gists, tells me that it seems certainly to have been in use by 
the Sumerian women (5000 B.C.) and in after years by the 
Babylonians and Assyrians. In one of the historical texts 
kohl (kilhla) is mentioned as among the tribute paid by 
Hezekiah to the conquering Sennacherib (700 B.C.). 

Even at this early date it was used as a collyrium as well 
as a " make-up " for the eyes. 

In ancient Egypt the custom of applying kohl to the 
lashes, eyelids, the part immediately below the lower lashes, 
and the eyebrows dates from the earliest dynasties. It seems 
to have been of numerous varieties and colours. Sesqui- 
sulphuret of antimony, sulphide of lead, oxide of copper and 
black oxide of manganese are among the chief substances 
used in powdered form. Miniature marble mortars were used 
for pounding the mineral into powder. The Egyptian name 
for any such powder was mestem, while the act of applying 
the powder was called semtet, and the part painted was semti. 
The mestem was kept in tubes made of alabaster, steatite, 
glass, ivory, bone, wood, etc. These were single, or in clusters 
of two, three, four or five. In many cases the single tube was 
formed by a hole being bored into a solid jar of alabaster, 
granite, faience, steatite or porphyry. Such jars had lids, 
edges and sometimes stands for them to rest on. The stick for 
applying the mestem was usually of the same materials as the 
jars. One end was slightly bulbous. It was this end which, 
after being moistened and dipped in the mestem, was used in 
the application on the eyelids and eyebrows. The tubes and 
jars, from three to six inches in height, were often of the most 
beautiful workmanship, as an inspection of the numerous 
specimens at the British Museum will show. Several have 
been reproduced in Wilkinson's Manners and Customs of the 
Ancient Egyptians, 3 vols., 1878 (vol. ii, p. 348). Some have 
a separate receptacle for the mestem stick, otherwise it re- 
mained in the bottle, after the manner of the small " drop " 
perfume bottles of to-day. Of particular interest are the in- 
scriptions found on some of the boxes. Pierret (Die. cTArchcel. 
gypt> P- I 39 ) gives examples : " To lay on the lids or 


lashes"; "Good for the sight"; "To stop bleeding"; 
"Best stibium"; "To cause tears," etc. One of the most 
interesting specimens of an inscribed kohl- or stibium-holder 
is one which belonged to Lord Grenfell and is now in Case 316 
of the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum in Wigmore 
Street, London. It is made of a brown wood and consists of 
a cluster of five tubes, one in the centre and the others sur- 
rounding it. The central cylinder holds the kohl-stick. On 
one side is a full face of Bes, who says he " does battle every 
day on behalf of the followers of nis lord, the Scribe Atef, 
renewing life." On the other side is the figure of an ape, 
Nephrit, who " anoints the eyes of the deceased with mestem" 
Each of the four remaining tubes held a mestem of a differ- 
ent tint, with instruction as to when they were to be used : 
(1) "To be put on daily"; (2) "For hot, dry weather"; 
(3) " For use in winter " ; (4) " For the spring." This interest- 
ing specimen was found in the temple of Queen Hatshepset 
at Deir el Bahari. 

Thus the great importance of the use of kohl in ancient 
Egypt is undoubted, for the inscriptions show that besides 
its use for purposes of adornment it was recognised to have 
medicinal properties and to act as a charm ; the application 
was, moreover, regulated by seasonal changes. I have in my 
collection examples of Egyptian heavily kohled eyes with sus- 
pension eyelets. The mystic " Eye of Osiris " was worn as a 
protection against magic, and was of as great necessity to the 
dead as to the living, as can be seen by the large numbers 
found in mummy- wrappings, etc. Full details on this branch 
of the subject will be found in Elworthy's Evil Eye, 1895. 

We now turn to the Old Testament, where we find 
several references to the practice of kohling the eyes. The 
most famous is the reference to Jezebel, in 2 Kings ix, 30, 
where the correct translation of the Hebrew is, " she painted 
her eyes," or " set her eyes in kohl" and looked out of the 
window. In Jeremiah iv, 30 we read : " though thou rent- 
est thy eyes [not face] with painting, in vain shalt thou make 
thyself fair " ; and in Ezekiel xxiii, 40 : " and lo, they came : 
for whom thou didst wash thyself, paintedst thy eyes, and 
deckedst thyself with ornaments." 

The custom was, and still is, universal throughout Islam, 
and the kohled eye has always been prominent in the poetry 
and tales of Egypt, Arabia and Persia. The kohl (mirwad) is 
of many kinds, but is commonly composed of the smoke-black 


produced by burning a cheap variety of frankincense. Almond- 
shells are also used in the same manner. These two kinds have 
no medicinal value, but kohl produced from the grey powder 
of antimony and lead ores is, as Burton discovered, a pre- 
ventive of ophthalmia. The origin of the use of powdered 
antimony for the eyes among Mohammedans is, that, when 
Allah showed himself to Moses on Sinai through the opening 
the size of a needle, the prophet fainted and the mount took 
fire : thereupon Allah said : " Henceforth shalt thou and thy 
seed grind the earth of this mountain and apply it to your 
eyes." (See Burton's Nights, vol. i, p. 59.) The powdered ores 
are often mixed with sarcocolla, long pepper, sugar- candy, 
the fine dust of a Venetian sequin, and sometimes with 
powdered pearls, as in India. 

The mirwad is usually kept in a glass vessel called muk- 
hulah, and similar varieties are found as in ancient Egypt. 
(For illustrations see Lane's Modern Egyptians, 5th edition, 
1860, p. 37.) The mirwad is applied with a probe wetted in 
the mouth or with rose-water. Both eyelids are blackened, 
but no long line is drawn out at the corners towards the ears 
as was the custom in ancient Egypt. 

It is common to see children in Egypt with blackened eyes. 
This is merely a charm against the evil eye, as black is one 
of the colours feared by evil spirits. Kohl has entered into 
many proverbs, and a popular exaggeration for an expert thief 
is to say, " he would take the very kohl off your eyelids." 

Mohammedans of both sexes use antimony for the eyes, 
and Mohammed himself did not disdain its use, as well as dye 
for the beard and oil for the hair. (See my Selected Papers of 
Sir Richard Burton, 1923, p. 37.) 

In his Arabia Deserta (vol. i, p. 237) Doughty speaks of 
the fondness of every Arabian man and woman, townsfolk 
and bedouins, to paint the whites of their eyes with kohl. 

In Morocco the custom enters largely into marriage- 
ceremonies, where in addition the lips are painted with 
walnut juice. (For numerous references see the index of 
Westermarck's Marriage Ceremonies in Morocco, 1914.) 

In Central and Eastern Africa the Moslem natives apply 
kohl to both outer lids by fixing it on with some greasy sub- 
stance. (Burton, op. cit, i, 63.) I have in my collection little 
leather bags for holding kohl from Zanzibar and kohl-sticks 
of glass. Livingstone, in his Journal, says that the natives of 
Central Africa used powdered malachite as an eye paint. 


In Europe kohl was used by women in classical Greece 
and Rome. In his second Satire (85) Juvenal, in speaking of 
effeminate men who have copied the tricks of the women's 
toilet, savs : 

" One with needle held oblique adds length to his eyebrows 
touched with moistened kohl, 
And raising his lids paints his quivering eyes." 

In modern days kohl is in great demand among both the 
social and theatrical world throughout Europe. Although 
some Parisian " houses " still sell small flasks of powdered 
antimony, the usual forms are as an eyebrow-pencil, a black 
powder and a solidified block which is rubbed with a 
moistened brush and applied to the lashes, as described so 
clearly by Juvenal. 

The composition of these cosmetics varies. Some are 
made by simply dissolving Chinese or Indian ink in a mixture 
of glycerine and water. In other cases the " black " is lamp- 
black or fine carbon black. 

The following is a recipe from Poucher's Perfumes and 
Cosmetics, 1923: 

Ivory black, or vegetable black . . 100 grm. 

Tragacanth in powder . . .15 grm. 

Alcohol, 58 o.p. . . . .135 cub. cm. 

Orange-flower water . . . 750 cub. cm. 

It is interesting to note the use of tragacanth gum> 
which, as we have already seen, appears in the Persian surmah. 
Directions for making the kohl from the above ingredients are 
as follows . 

Place the alcohol in a bottle, add the tragacanth and 
shake until evenly distributed, pour in the orange-flower 
water and shake until a creamy mucilage is obtained. Rub 
down the pigment and gradually add this mucilage to it. 
Pass through muslin and transfer to bottles, which should 
be corked immediately. 

The kohl sold in paste form often consists of ivory black, 
soft yellow paraffin and a few drops of ionone (synthetic 
violet) or attar to give it a perfume. 




The scientific study and cataloguing of the numerous inci- 
dents which continually recur throughout the literature of 
a country has scarcely been commenced, much less the com- 
parison of such motifs with similar ones in the folk-lore of 
other nations. 

Professor Bloomfield of Chicago has, however, issued a 
number of papers treating of various traits or motifs which 
occur in Hindu fiction, but unfortunately neither he nor 
his friends who have helped by papers for his proposed 
Encyclopedia of Hindu Fiction have carried their inquiries 
outside the realms of Sanskrit. The papers are none the less 
of the utmost interest and value. One of them (Journ. Amer. 
Orient Soc, vol. lx, Part I, 1920, pp. 1-24) treats of " The 
Dohada or Craving of Pregnant Women." With certain modi- 
fications I have used this as the chief source of the following 

There are, however, certain points in which I beg to differ 
from Professor Bloomfield. For instance, the incident in the 
Ocean of Story seems clearly an example of dohada prompting 
a husband to shrewdness, and does not come under the heading 
of dohadas which injure the husband. 

The craving or whim of a pregnant woman is an incident 
which to the Western mind appears merely as an intimate event 
in a woman's life, any discussion of which should be confined 
to the pages of a medical treatise. Not so among the Hindus. 
It forms a distinct motif in folk-lore and is, moreover, one from 
which most unexpected situations arise. 

The Hindu name given to such a longing is dohada. The 
word means "two- heartedness," and is self-explanatory 
when we remember that the pregnant woman has two hearts 
and two wills in her body. Any wish which the woman may 
have is merely the will of the embryo asserting itself and 
causing the mother to ask for what it knows is necessary for 
its auspicious birth. 

The dohada in Hindu literature forms a motif which is 


not only absolutely free from any suspicion of obscenity or gross- 
ness, but in some of its aspects is beautiful and highly poetical. 

Let us take the poetical dohada first. It is not only human 
beings who have a dohada that the husband knows it is his 
bounden duty to satisfy. The vegetable kingdom also has 
its dohadas. Thus if a certain tree is known to blossom only 
after heavy rains heralded by thunder, its dohada is thunder, 
and until it is satisfied the pregnant tree cannot blossom. 

More fanciful customs have arisen with regard to the 
dohadas : some must be touched by the feet of women ; others 
must have wine sprinkled over them from the mouths of 
beauteous maidens. Hindu poetry abounds in such extra- 
vagant ideas. To give an example from the Pdrsvanatha 
Charitra (vi, 796, 797) : 

" (Came spring) when the kuruvaka trees bloom, as they 
are embraced by young maids ; when the asoka trees burst 
into bloom, as they are struck by the feet of young women ; 
when the bakula trees bloom, if sprayed with wine from the 
mouths of gazelle- eyed maidens ; when the campaka trees 
burst, as they are sprinkled with perfumed water." 

Compare Pliny, Nat Hist, xvi, 242, where a noble Roman 
pours wine on a beautiful beech-tree in a sacred grove of Diana 
in the Alban hills. For the significance of this see Frazer, 
Golden Bough, vol. i, p. 40 ; cf. also vol. ii, pp. 28 and 29. 

It is, however, the human and animal dohadas that enter 
so largely into Hindu fiction and serve some particular 
purpose in the narrative. Sometimes it is merely used as a 
start-motif for a story, but at other times it acts as a means 
of introducing some incident which, but for the strange long- 
ing of the woman, would have been quite out of place. Thus 
the water of life, the Garuda bird, magic chariots, etc., can 
be suddenly and unexpectedly introduced. 

Then, again, a tale may be quite devoid of incidents until 
the dohada gives it a sudden jerk by creating a demand for 
the husband's entrails, or some equally disturbing request. 
It is surprising to what varied use the dohada has been put 
and what an important part it plays in Hindu fiction. 

Professor Bloomfield divides the use of the dohada motif 
under the following six headings : 

1 . Dohada either directly injures the husband, or impels some 

act on his part which involves danger or contumely. 

2. Dohada prompts the husband to deeds of heroism, 

superior skill, wisdom or shrewdness. 


3. Dohada takes the form of pious acts or pious aspira- 


4. Dohada is used as an ornamental incident, not in- 

fluencing the main events of a story. 

5. Dohada is feigned by the woman in order that she may 

accomplish some purpose, or satisfy some desire. 

6. Dohada is obviated by tricking the woman into the 

belief that her desire is being fulfilled. 

1. Dohada either directly injures the husband, or impels some act 
on his part which involves danger or contumely 

Under this heading are classed those forms of dohada 
which injure. 

It is seldom that the woman herself is injured as the result 
of her whim. There is, however, such a case in Parker, Village 
Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. ii, p. 388 et seq. Here the disaster 
is brought about by her dohada being unsatisfied, and may 
consequently be regarded as a lesson to husbands on their 
moral duties. It is the husband who nearly always is the in- 
jured party. In Thusa-Jdtaka (338) King Bimbisara gives his 
wife blood from his right knee; in Schiefner and Ralston's 
Tibetan Tales, p. 84, Queen Vasavi wishes to eat flesh from 
her husband's back. The king in order to satisfy his wife's 
cravings conceals some raw meat under a cotton garment 
and so the queen is freed from her dohada. She has, however, 
a second dohada this time for the king's blood. Accordingly 
he opens various veins, and so satisfies the queen. The first of 
these dohadas more properly belongs to the sixth heading, as 
it shows trickery on the part of the husband, but the dohada 
was intended to injure the king. Compare also Tawney's 
Kathakofa, p. 177, and Niraydvaliyd Sutta, Warren, Amster- 
dam Academy, 1879. In Samarddityasamkshepa, ii, p. 356 
et. seq., Queen Kusumavall wishes to eat her husband's en- 
trails. The difficulty is overcome by the king hiding the 
entrails of a hare in his clothes and bringing them out as his 
own. Matters, however, became complicated and finally the 
queen turns nun and the son slays his father. 

Some of the best stories containing dohada motifs are 
animal stories. In Suvannakakkata - J ataka (No. 389, 
Cambridge edition, vol. iii, p. 185) the longing of a she-crow 
for a Brahman's eyes causes not only her husband's death, 
but also that of her friend, the cobra. 


In the "Story of the Couple of Parrots" (Tawney's 
Kathdkofa, p. 42 el seq. (the hen-parrot longs for heads of 
rice from the king's rice-field. This is procured by the loving 
husband till the depredation is noticed. Snares are laid and 
the bird is taken before the king. The hen-parrot begs his 
life and, after the usual interloped stories, the couple are set 
at liberty, with leave to have unlimited rice. To show her 
satisfaction at having her dohada satisfied the hen-parrot 
promptly lays two eggs ! 

Compare with the above Supatta-Jdtaka (No. 292, Cambridge 
edition, vol. ii, p. 295). 

In Jacobi's Ausgewdhlte Erzdhlungen in Mdhdrdshtri, 
p. 34, line 25 el seq., Queen Paumavai longs to ride through 
the parks and groves on an elephant's back. The dutiful king 
accompanies her. The elephant gallops out of the path to 
the woods. The king and queen decide to catch hold of the 
branches of a fig-tree and so escape, but the queen fails to do 
this and is carried off by the elephant. 

The best of these dohada stories can be treated under this 
first heading, as it deals with the intended harm to a third 
party caused by the dohada of the female which the husband, 
usually reluctantly, attempts to satisfy. The story is Bud- 
dhist in origin and appears in two distinct variants, both of 
which (as Bloomfield says) are distinguished by inventiveness 
and perfect Hindu setting. 

It originally occurs as Sumsumara-Jataka (No. 208, 
Cambridge edition, vol. ii, p. 110), with a shorter form as 
V anara-J ataka (No. 342, op. cit., vol. hi, p. 87). 

Briefly, the story is that of a sturdy monkey who lived 
by a certain curve of the Ganges. A crocodile's mate con- 
ceives a longing to eat its heart. Accordingly the crocodile 
approaches the monkey with a story about the fine fruits on 
the other side of the river, and offers to convey him across 
on his back. All is arranged, but when half-way across the 
crocodile plunges the monkey into the water and explains 
the action by telling him of his wife's whim. 

"Friend," said the monkey, "it is nice of you to tell 
me. Why, if our hearts were inside us when we go jump- 
ing among the tree-tops, they would be all knocked to 
pieces ! " 

" Well, where do you keep them ? " asked the other. 

The monkey points to a fig-tree laden with ripe fruit. 
" There are our hearts hanging on that tree." 


Accordingly he is taken back to fetch his heart, and so 

Variants of this story are found on p. 110 of vol. ii (op, 
cit, supp.). In the Ocean of Story it appears as the " Story 
of the Monkey and the Porpoise," in Chapter LXIII, where 
I shall add a further note. 

The other variant of this story appears as the Vanarinda- 
Jdtaka (No. 57, Cambridge edition, vol. i, pp. 142-143), of 
which Bloomfield gives numerous similar tales under the 
" Cave-Call Motif " heading (Journ. Amer. Orient Soc. 9 vol. 
xxxvi, June 1916, p. 59). It starts as the above story, except 
that the monkey gets his food from an island in the river, 
which he reaches by using a large rock as a stepping-stone. 
The crocodile, in order to get the monkey's heart for his mate, 
lies flat on the rock in the dark of the evening. The monkey, 
however, when about to return from the island, noticing that 
it seems a bit larger than usual, calls out " Hi ! Rock ! " 
repeatedly. As no answer comes he continues : " How comes 
it, friend rock, that you won't answer me to-day ? " At this 
the crocodile thinks the rock is accustomed to answer, so he 
answers for it, and thus not only betrays his presence, but tells 
his intentions. The monkey concedes, and tells the crocodile 
to open his jaws and he'll jump in. But (according to the 
story) the eyes of a crocodile shut when he opens his jaws. 
The monkey realises this and, using his enemy's back as a 
stepping-stone, reaches his own home in safety. 

2. Dohada prompts the husband to deeds of heroism, superior 
skill, wisdom or shrewdness 

It often happens that in order to satisfy his wife's dohada 
the husband resorts to clever tricks or heroic deeds. Thus 
in Bhadda-Sdla- Jdtaka (No. 465, Cambridge edition, vol. iv, 
pp. 91-98) the king's commander-in-chief was a man named 
Bandhula, whose w T ife Mallika had a dohada to bathe in and 
drink the water of the sacred tank in Vesali city. The tank 
was closely guarded and covered with a strong wire net, but 
Bandhula heroically scatters the guards, breaks the net and 
plunges with his wife into the sacred tank, where after bath- 
ing and drinking they jump into their chariot and go back 
whence they had come. They are, however, pursued by five 
hundred men in chariots. Bandhula, in no way perturbed, 
asks Mallika to tell him when all the five hundred men 


are in one straight line. She does so, and holds the reins 
while the king speeds a shaft which pierces the bodies of 
all the five hundred men " in the place where the girdle is 

Then Bandhula shouts to them to stop as they are all 
dead men. They refuse to believe this. " Loose the girdle of 
the first man," shouts Bandhula. They do so and he falls 
dead and so with all the five hundred. This great feat had 
its full effect, for Mallika bore him twin sons sixteen times 
in succession ! 

In the Chavaka-Jdtaka (No. 309, op. cit, vol. iii, p. 18) the 
husband has to obtain a mango from the king's garden, and 
only saves himself by his great power of oratory and know- 
ledge of the law. Compare with this Parker's Village Folk- 
Tales of Ceylon, vol. i ? p. 362 et seq. In Dabbhapuppha-Jdtaka 
(No. 400, op. cit, vol. iii, p. 205) a jackal's mate longs to eat 
fresh rohita fish. The husband finds two otters quarrelling 
over such a fish. He is invited to arbitrate in their dispute, 
and does so by giving the head piece to one, the tail piece to 
the other and "taking the centre as his fee. Cf. Schiefner and 
Ralston's Tibetan Tales, p. 332 et seq. 

3. Dohada takes the form of pious acts or pious aspirations 

In some cases instead of dohada prompting the wife to 
cruel or extravagant acts it works in the very opposite direc- 
tion and produces longings to do pious acts or visit some 
famous hermitage or shrine, etc. This form of the motif ap- 
pears almost entirely in Buddhist and Jaina edificatory texts. 
Accordingly in Dhammapada Commentary (v, 156, and vi, 
5 632 ) the mother longs to entertain monks; in the "Story 
of Nami," Jacobi, Ausgewdhlte Erzdhlungen in Mdhdrdshtri 
(p. 41, line 25 et seq.), the longing is to reverence the Jinas 
and the Sages, and to continually hear the teachings of the 

Again in the Kathdkofa (Tawney, p. 19) Madanarekha 
has a longing to bestow a gift for the purpose of divine wor- 
ship ; on page 53 Queen Srutimati has a dohada to worship 
the gods in the holy place on the Ashtapada mountain ; and 
on page 64 the pregnant Queen Jaya felt a desire to worship 
gods and holy men, and to give gifts to the poor and 
wretched. In the " Dumb Cripple " story in Schiefner and 
Ralston's Tibetan Tales, p. 247, Queen Brahmavati begs her 


husband to order presents to be given away at all the gates 
of the city. 

4. Bohada is used as an ornamental incident, not influencing 

the main events of a story 

In certain cases the dohada motif is subordinate to the 
main events of a story, being in itself merely an ornamental 
and attractive incident introduced to give impetus to the 
narrative. In religious Sanskrit literature this use of dohada 
is scarce, but it enters largely into secular works, such as the 
Ocean of Story. Thus in Chapter XXII Vasavadatta wishes 
for stories of great magicians and to fly in a magic chariot. 
Similarly in Chapter XXXV Queen Alankaraprabha roams 
about the sky in a magic chariot in the shape of a beautiful 
lotus, " since her pregnant longing assumed that form." 

5. Bohada is feigned by the woman in order that she may 

accomplish some purpose, or satisfy some desire 

The idea of pretending to have a certain dohada in order 
to get a husband out of the way is common in Indian stories. 
It is frequent in the Jdtakas (see Nos. 159, 491, 501, 534, 545). 
In the Nigrodha-Jataka (No. 445, op. cit., vol. iv, pp. 22-27) 
the trick dohada is used, not to send the husband away on 
some dangerous and nearly impossible task, but to please her 
husband by making him believe she is pregnant. As she is 
barren she is treated disrespectfully by her husband's relations. 
In her trouble she consults her old nurse, who teaches her 
the behaviour of pregnant women and what kind of strange 
things she must long for. By clever working all goes well, and 
as part of her pretended dohada she wanders into a wood, 
where, as luck will have it, she finds a babe abandoned by 
some passing caravan. 

See also Julg's Kalmukische Mdrchen, p. 31, where a trick 
to eat the heart of a stepson fails. The most extraordinary 
story of a feigned dohada is " The Nikini Story " in Parker's 
Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. i, p. 284 et seq. Here the 
woman has a weakness for continually remarrying. This she 
does by pretending dohada for some object so hard to obtain 
that in the effort to satisfy her the husband always dies. The 
first whim is for some stars from the sky, the second for a bed 
of sand from the bottom of the sea, the third for Nikini. After 


long and weary wandering the husband is told that his wife 
must have a lover and merely wanted him to get killed. By a 
supposed magical cage they finally get into the Nikini man's 
house, who proves to be his wife's paramour. The husband, 
hidden in the cage, leaps out and beats the Nikini to death. 

6. Dohada is obviated by tricking the woman into the belief that 
her desire is being fulfilled 

An excellent example of this form of dohada is that in our 
present text, when Queen Mrigavati thinks she is bathing in a 
bath of blood, whereas in reality it is water dyed by the juice 
of lac and other red extracts. 

In Parisishtaparvan (viii, 225 et seq.) the chief's daughter 
wishes to drink the moon. Accordingly a shed is constructed 
the thatch of which has an opening. At night a bowl of milk 
is placed on the floor so that the ray of moonlight falls directly 
on it. The girl is told to drink, and as she drinks a man posted 
on the roof gradually covers the hole in the thatch, so she 
is convinced she has drunk the moon. Bloomfield gives a 
number of references to works citing tricks played by the 
moon and other things reflected in water, milk, etc. (op. cit., 
p. 24). He does not, however, refer to the most interesting 
side of the question the extent to which such ideas are 
actually embedded in the customs of the Hindus. " The 
Doctrine of Lunar Sympathy " has been discussed by Frazer 
(Golden Bough, Adonis, Attis and Osiris, vol. ii, chap, ix, 
pp. 140-150). The belief that the moon has a sympathetic 
influence over vegetation is well known throughout litera- 
ture, and on the same principle the custom of drinking the 
moon is found in different parts of India. See Crooked 
Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. i, pp. 14-15. 

Tricks used for satisfying dohadas, by the husband 
pretending he is giving his wife his own entrails, etc., have 
already been mentioned under section 1. 

In conclusion I would mention a curious case of dohada 
from Java, quoted by Frazer (Golden Bough, vol. ii, p. 23). 
A woman sometimes craves for a certain pungent fruit 
usually only eaten by pigs. The husband, on approaching 
the plant, pretends to be a pig and grunts loudly, so that 
the plant, taking him for a pig, will mitigate the flavour of 
the fruit. 




The story of Rupinika (p. 138 et seq.) is laid in " a city named 
Mathura, the birthplace of Krishna." The lady herself is 
described as a courtesan who at the time of worship went 
into the temple to perform her duty. 

From this passage it is quite clear that Rupinika combined 
the professions of prostitution and temple servant, which 
latter consisted chiefly in dancing, fanning the idol and 
keeping the temple clean. She was, in fact, a deva-ddsi, or 
" handmaid of the god." As we shall see in the course of 
this appendix, the name applied to these so-called " sacred 
women " varied at different times and in different parts of 

Mathura is the modern Muttra, situated on the right bank 
of the Jumna, thirty miles above Agra. From at least 300 B.C. 
(when Megasthenes wrote) it had been sacred to Krishna, and 
we hear from reliable Chinese travellers that in a.d. 400 and 
650 it was an important centre of Buddhism and at a later 
date again became specially associated with the worship of 
Krishna, owing to the fact that Mathura was the scene of 
the adventures and miracles of his childhood as described 
in the Vishnu Pur ana. Thus Mathura has always been one 
of the most sacred spots in Hindu mythology. 1 

It has suffered from the Mohammedan invaders more 
than any city of Northern India, or nearly so, for it was first 
of all sacked* in 1017-1018 by the Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, 
and again in 1500 by Sikander Lodi, in 1636 by Shah Jahan, 
in 1669-1670 by Aurangzeb, by whose commands the magnifi- 
cent temple of Kesavadeva was levelled to the ground, and by 
Atimad Shah in 1756. By this time every temple, image and 
shrine had been destroyed and a large part of the population 
had embraced Mohammedanism. The history of Mathura is 
typical of what has occurred in many cities of Northern India, 
and I consider it is an important factor in the explanation of 

1 See F. S. Growse, Mathura: A District Memoir, 2nd edition, 1880. 
Published by the N.W. Provinces & Oudh Government Press. 



why sacred prostitution is much more developed in Southern 

At the date when Somadeva wrote the city must have re- 
covered from its first sacking and the religious life have been 
assuming its normal course. It was after our author's day that 
the systematic and thorough destruction began, and in conse- 
quence we hear less about Hindu temples of Northern India. 

In view of the anthropological importance of the connec- 
tion of religion and prostitution, and of the interesting ritual, 
customs and ceremonies which it embodies, I shall endeavour 
to lay before my readers what data I have been able to collect, 
with a few suggestions as to the possible explanation of the 
curious institution of the deva-ddsis. 

Ancient India 

Owing to the lack of early historical evidence it is im- 
possible to say to what extent sacred prostitution existed in 
ancient India. 

Even in modern times it is often hard to differentiate 
between secular and sacred prostitution, while, through the 
clouds of myth and mystery which cover the dawn of Indian 
history, any distinction must be looked upon as little more 
than conjecture. In common with so many other parts of the 
world secular prostitution in India dates from the earliest 
times and is mentioned in the Rig-Veda, where terms meaning 
"harlot," "son of a maiden," "son of an unmarried girl," 
etc., occur. In the Vdjasaneyi Samhitd it seems to be recog- 
nised as a profession, 1 while in the law-books the prostitute is 
regarded with disfavour. (Manu, ix, 259 ; iv, 209, 211, 219, 
220 ; v, 90.) In the Buddhist age Brahmans were forbidden 
to be present at displays of dancing or music, owing to their 
inseparable connection with prostitution; yet on the other 
hand we see in the Jatakas (tales of the previous births of the 
Buddha) that prostitutes were not only tolerated, but held in 
a certain amount of respect. 2 

We also hear of the great wealth of some of the women 
and the valuable gifts made to the temples, which reminds us of 

1 See R. Pischel and K. F. Geldner, Vedische Studien, Stuttgart, 1888- 
1889, I, xxv, pp. 196, 275, 309 et seq. ; ii, p. 120; also A. A. Macdonell and 
A. B. Keith, A Vedic Index of Names and Subjects, London, 1912, i, p. 395; 
ii, p. 480 et seq. 

2 See index volume to the English translation of the Jataka stories under 
the word "courtesan." Cambridge, 1913. 


similar donations among the eratpcu of ancient Greece. In his 
article on "Indian Prostitution" in Hastings' Encyclopaedia 
of Religion and Ethics (vol. x, p. 407) W. Crooke quotes 
Somadeva as saying that prostitutes are occasionally of noble 
character and in some cases acquire enormous wealth. He 
also gives other references apart from those already quoted. 

As literary historical evidence on the subject under dis- 
cussion is so scarce, the discovery in 1905 of a work on Hindu 
polity was of the utmost importance. It is known as the 
Arthasdstra, and gives full details of the social, administra- 
tive, fiscal and land systems of the Maurya age. The 
author is Kautilya (Chanakya, or Vishnugupta), who wrote 
about 300 B.C. 1 Book II, chap, xxvii, deals with the duties 
of the superintendent of prostitutes (ganikds), who held a 
highly paid post at the Court of Chandragupta. The women 
enjoyed a privileged position and held the royal umbrella, 
fan and golden pitcher. They were, however, subject to strict 
official control, and Kautilya gives a long list of penalties for 
any breach of the regulations for instance, a ganikd who 
refused her favours to anyone whom the king might choose 
received a thousand lashes with a whip or else had to pay five 
thousand panas. A further clause states that all the rules 
prescribed for the ganikds are also to apply to dancers, 
actors, singers, musicians, pimps, etc. There is no mention 
of temples, but the fact that the dancer, musician and 
prostitute are all put on the same basis is important in 
attempting to trace the history of sacred prostitution. 

The corruption of the Court at this period is partly shown 
by the fact that every ganikd had to pay to the govern- 
ment each month the amount of two days' earnings. They 
were, moreover, sometimes used as secret service agents and 
acquired position and wealth. 

We shall see later that a similar state of affairs existed at 
the great city of Vijayanagar in the sixteenth century. 

The Christian Era (First Eleven Centuries) 

In the first eleven centuries of the Christian era more 
attention seems to have been paid to what we may politely 

1 See the English translation by R. Shama Sastri in Mysore Review, 1906- 
1909, Books I-IV, and Indian Antiquary, 1909-1910, Books' V-XV; also list of 
modern articles, etc., on the Arthasdstra on pp. 679, 680 of vol. i of the Cambridge 
History of India, 1922. Both author and date are, however, still doubtful. 


call the Science of Erotics, and many such works were 
written. 1 Very few, however, are now extant, and it is of 
interest to note that those which do exist usually mention 
numerous other similar writings from which they have largely 
drawn. In most cases they deal in all seriousness with some 
quite trivial point (such as the best way for a courtesan to 
rid herself of a lover whose wealth is nearly spent) by listing 
the various opinions of previous writers and then giving their 
own opinion as the most acceptable. 

It was a method used in 300 b.c. by Kautilya, and again 
by Vatsyayana, who was the earliest and most important 
erotic writer of the Christian era. His work, the Kama Sutra, 
dates from about a.d. 250, and has been translated into most 
European languages, including English. 2 Although Vatsyayana 
devotes a whole book (six chapters) to courtesans, there is 
no direct reference to sacred prostitution. He mentions, 
however, dancing, singing and the playing of musical in- 
struments as among the chief requirements not only for a 
Erostitute, but also for any married woman wishing to keep 
er husband's affections. He divides prostitutes into nine 
classes, 3 the most honourable of which is the ganikd, which, 
as we have already seen, was the name used by Kautilya. 
" Such a woman," says Vatsyayana, " will always be rewarded 
by kings and praised by gifted persons, and her connection 
will be sought by many people." 

The next work of importance was by Dandin, who ranks 
among the greatest poets of India. He flourished in the sixth 
century. Two of his works give a vivid, though perhaps rather 
exaggerated, picture of the luxury and depravity of his day. 
The first is the Dasa Kumara Charita,* or Adventures of the 
Ten Princes, while the second (whose authorship is doubtful, 

1 See J. J.Meyer, Kavyasamgraha : erotische und exoterische Lieder. Metrische 
Dbersetzungen aus indischen und anderen Sprachen. Leipzig [1903]. Das 
Weib im altindischen Epos. Ein Beitrag zur indischen und zur vergleichenden 
Kulturgeschichte. Leipzig, 1915. Also R. Schmidt, Beitrage zur Indischen 
Erotik ; das Liebesleben des Sanskritvolkes nach den Quellen dargestellt. Leipzig, 
1902; Berlin, 1911. 

2 See Kama Shastra Society (R. F. Burton and F. F. Arbuthnot) edition, 
1883, and that by K. R. Iyengar, Mysore, 1921. Details of various articles on 
the Kama STdra and its author will be found in my Bibliography of Sir Richard 
F. Burton, London, 1923, pp. 166-171. 

3 Thurston in his Castes and Tribes of Southern India, vol. ii, p. 125, says 
that old Hindu works give seven classes of deva-dasz, but gives no reference. 

4 Edited by H. H. Wilson, G. Buhler and P. Peterson, and freely 
translated by P. W. Jacob. 


though sometimes ascribed to Dandin) is the Mrichchhakatika, 1 
or Clay Cart, which treats of the courtship and marriage of a 
poor Brahman and a wealthy and generous prostitute. Both 
works are important in our discussion as giving some idea 
of the social condition of middle and low class life of the 
sixth century. 

A certain passage in the Dasa Kumar a Charita is of special 
interest as showing how all female accomplishments were to 
be found in the courtesan, whose education and conversa- 
tional powers would certainly be more attractive than the 
uneducated and paltry household chatter of the wife. 

The story goes that a famous dancer, who was, of course, 
also a prostitute, suddenly pretended to feel the desire to 
become a devotee. She accordingly went to the abode of an 
ascetic to carry out her purpose. Soon, however, her mother 
follows to dissuade her from her intention, and addresses the 
holy man as follows : 

" Worthy sir, this daughter of mine would make it appear 
that I am to blame, but, indeed, I have done my duty, and 
have carefully prepared her for that profession for which by 
birth she was intended. From earliest childhood I have be- 
stowed the greatest care upon her, doing everything in my 
power to promote her health and beauty. As soon as she 
was old enough I had her carefully instructed in the arts 
of dancing, acting, playing on musical instruments, singing, 
painting, preparing perfumes and flowers, in writing and con- 
versation, and even to some extent in grammar, logic and 
philosophy. She was taught to play various games with skill 
and dexterity, how to dress well, and show herself off to the 
greatest advantage in public ; I hired persons to go about 
praising her skill and her beauty, and to applaud her when 
she performed in public, and I did many other things to pro- 
mote her success and to secure for her liberal remuneration ; 
yet after all the time, trouble and money which I have spent 
upon her, just when I was beginning to reap the fruit of my 
labours, the ungrateful girl has fallen in love with a stranger, 
a young Brahman, without property, and wishes to marry 
him and give up her profession, notwithstanding all my 
entreaties and representations of the poverty and distress 
to which all her family will be reduced, if she persists in her 

1 Apart from the earlier European translations see that by A. W. Ryder, 
issued in 1905 by the Harvard University. It forms vol. ix of the Harvard 
Oriental Series. 


purpose ; and because I oppose this marriage she declares 
that she will renounce the world and become a devotee." * It 
transpires in the course of the tale that the dancing-girl stays 
w T ith the ascetic, who falls madly in love with her. She leads 
him to her home and finally to the palace of the king, where 
he learns to his great consternation that the whole thing was 
merely the result of a wager between two court beauties. 
The participation of the king in the joke and his rewarding 
the winner clearly shows the importance of the courtesan in 
this age. 

Passing on to the eighth century we have Damodara- 
gupta's Kuttanimatam, which resembles Vatsyayana's Kama 
Sutra. Besides a German translation, it has also been trans- 
lated into French. 2 

This was followed in the tenth or eleventh centuries by 
Kalyana Malla's Ananga-Ranga, which is a general guide to 
ars amoris indica. It is very well known in India and has been 
translated into numerous European languages. 3 

The only other work worthy of mention is Kshemendra's 
Samayamdtrikd. It can best be described as a guide or hand- 
book for the courtesan, but its chief value lies in the fact that 
the author was a contemporary of Somadeva. His work has 
been translated into German 4 and French. 5 

The connection between Kshemendra and Somadeva is 
strengthened by the fact that, besides being contemporary 
Kashmirian court poets, they both wrote a great collection 
of stories from a common source the Brihat-Kathd. Soma- 
deva's collection was the Kathd Sarit Sdgara, while that by 
Kshemendra was the Brihat-Kathd- Manjari. The latter work 
was, however, only a third as long as the former and cannot 
compare in any way with the Ocean of Story as regards its 
style, metrical skill and masterly arrangement and handling 

1 The extract is from p. 76 of Early Ideas : A Group of Hindoo Stories, 
1881, by " Anaryan" that is to say, by F. F. Arbuthnot. He was helped in 
his translations by Edward Rehatsek, who assisted both Burton and Arbuthnot 
in the Kama Shastra Society publications. 

2 See the German translation by J. J. Meyer, 1903 [Altindische Schelmen- 
b'ucher, ii], and Les Lecons de V Entremetteuse, by Louis de Langle, Bibliotlieque 
des Curieux, Paris, 1920, p. 127 to end. 

3 For the English translation see the edition of the Kama Shastra Society 
(Burton and Arbuthnot), 1885. Further details will be found in my Burton 
Bibliography, 1923, pp. 171-173. 

4 Translated by J. J. Meyer, 1903 [Altindische Schelmenb'iicher, i]. 

5 he Breviaire de la Courtisane, Louis de Langle, Bibliotheque des Curieux, 
Paris, 1920, pp. 1-126. 


of the stories. I shall have more to say about Kshemendra in 
Vol. X of the present work. 

It is practically impossible to say to what extent the 
above-mentioned works have bearing on sacred prostitution. 
I have merely endeavoured to acquaint the reader with such 
literature as exists dealing with the social life of women of 
these early times. It seems, however, quite safe to assert 
that from Buddhist times onwards the prostitute, especially 
the more learned classes, was held in a certain amount of 
esteem. She was an important factor in the palace and often 
acquired great wealth. Dancing and singing were among her 
accomplishments, but to what extent she was connected with 
temples we are not told. Soon after the twelfth century 
historical and literary evidence increases and it becomes 
possible to examine our data under definite geographical 
headings. Although Southern India yields by far the most 
material for our discussion, we will begin in the north, and 
work slowly southwards. 

Northern India 

In the introductory remarks to this appendix it has been 
shown to what extent Mathura suffered from Mohammedan 
invasion. The whole of Northern India was similarly affected, 
and the bloody battles, enforced slavery, terrible tortures 
and complete destruction of Hindu temples and other public 
buildings during the Mohammedan Sultanate of Delhi (1175- 
1340) clearly show that the great upheavals so caused made 
any continual religious practices of the Hindus an impossi- 
bility. By 1340 the Sultanate of Delhi was breaking up and 
in the south Vijayanagar was already a powerful kingdom. 
I shall have more to say about Vijayanagar in the section on 
Southern India. 

The destruction of the Hindu temples was continued with 
unabated zeal in the Mogul Empire. In the reign of Akbar 
(1556-1605) we are told by his most intimate friend, Abu-1 
Fazl, 1 that the prostitutes of the realm (who had collected at 
the capital, and could scarcely be counted, so large was their 
number) had a separate quarter of the town assigned to them, 
which was called Shaitanpurah, or Devilsville. A Ddroghah 
(superintendent) and a clerk were also appointed for it, who 

1 A'in - i - Akbafi, Abu - 1 - Fazl, Blochmann and Jarrett, Biblio. Indica. 
Calcutta, 1873, 1891, 1894 (3 vols.). 


registered the names of such as went to prostitutes, or wanted 
to take some of them to their houses. People might indulge 
in such connections provided the toll- collectors heard of it. 
But, without permission, no one was allowed to take dancing- 
girls to his house. 

The celebrated musician Tansen, who was attached to 
Akbar's Court, became a kind of patron saint of dancing-girls. 
It is believed that chewing the leaves of the tree above 
Tansen's grave at Gwalior imparts a wonderful melody to the 
voice, and consequently girls make pilgrimages there for that 
purpose. 1 

In the reigns of the next two Emperors, Jahangir (1605- 
1627) and Shah Jahan (1628-1658), the luxury, ostentation, 
extravagance and depravity increased, 2 and it was not till the 
reign of Aurangzeb (1659-1707) that any attempt was made 
to check the ruthless waste which was slowly draining the 
resources of the country. Aurangzeb was a Mohammedan 
Puritan who lived and died an ascetic. During his long reign 
thousands of Hindu temples were demolished by his orders, 
and every effort was made to wipe out prostitution and 
everything pertaining thereto. 

Khafi Khan, 3 the historian, tells rather a pathetic story. 
It appears that Aurangzeb issued public proclamations pro- 
hibiting singing and dancing, and at the same time ordered 
all the dancing-girls to marry or be banished from the 
kingdom. They did not, however, submit to this treatment 
without a protest. One Friday as the Emperor was going 
to the mosque (another account says he was sitting at his 
audience window) he suddenly saw about a thousand women 
carrying over twenty highly ornamented biers. Their pierc- 
ing cries and lamentations filled the air. The Emperor, sur- 
prised at such a display of grief, asked the cause of so great 
sorrow. He was told that Music, the mother of the dancing- 
girls, was now dead, and they were burying her. " Bury her 
deep," cried the unmoved Emperor; "she must never rise 

After the death of Aurangzeb there followed an anarchical 

1 Bholanath Chandra, Travels, ii, 68 et seq. W. H. Sleeman, Rambles and 
Recollections of an Indian Official, ii, 333 et seq. 1844. A. Cunningham, 
Archaeological Reports, ii, 370; xxi, 110. 

2 Manucci, Storia do Mogor, edited by W. Irvine. Indian Text Series. 
London, 1907. See vol. ii, p. 9. 

3 Muntakhabu-l-lubab (H. Elliot, History of India, London, 1867-1877, 
vol. vii, p. 283). 


period which lasted till the advent of the British. During 
this time the standard of morality among the princes and 
public men sank lower and lower. Their lives were vicious 
and cruel in the extreme, and their gross sensuality natur- 
ally affected their courts and, through them, the populace. 
Prostitution had increased to huge dimensions, and appears 
to have been entirely secular. Thus we see how, partly 
owing to foreign conquest and partly to the general spread of 
immorality, the " religious " element in the temple dancers 
dropped out and they became ordinary prostitutes, who 
danced when occasion demanded. They would naturally be 
called upon if any dancing was wanted for a wedding feast 
or other private entertainment, for dancing and prostitution 
had been inseparable in India from the earliest times. 

In modern accounts of the tribes and castes of Northern 
India (which are few enough) we find, therefore, practically 
no mention of temples or sacred prostitution. 

Certain castes such as the tawdif and gandharb consist 
entirely of dancers, singers and prostitutes, but their sub- 
castes are so numerous that it is quite impossible to distin- 
guish or describe them by any definite principle. Details of 
the tawdif and similar castes were given by Crooke * in 1896, 
and when writing on the same subject in 1918 2 he apparently 
had nothing further to add. The following details are taken 
from his former work. 

The term tawdif is a general one, but is chiefly used for 
Mohammedan girls, while the Hindu branch is usually called 
pdtar, pdtu?\ pdturiyd (from the Sanskrit pdtra, an actor). 
When they are nubile, the pdtar girls marry a plpal tree and 
then commence their career of prostitution. One of the 
numerous sub-castes is known as rdjkanya, which appears to 
be the only one whose members actually dance in the Hindu 
temples. Prostitution is said to be rare among them. The 
pdtars have Krishna as their personal god and Siva, in 
the form of Mahadeva, as their guardian deity. Among the 
tawdif s the rites are interesting. The girl is taught to dance 
and sing when about seven or eight years old. At the com- 
mencement of her training sweets are offered at a mosque 

1 W. Crooke, The Tribes and Castes of the North- Western Provinces and Oudh, 
4 vols., Calcutta, 1896. See vol. i, p. 245 ; vol. ii, p. 379 et seq. ; and vol. iv, 
p. 364 et seq. 

2 Hastings' Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol, x, 1918. See article 
on " Prostitution," by W. Crooke, p. 406 et seq. 


and then distributed among Mohammedan faqirs. At the 
first lesson the master receives a present of sweetmeats be- 
sides his pay. When the girl reaches puberty and her breasts 
begin to develop the rite of angiya, or " the assumption of the 
bodice," is performed. Certain of the brethren are feasted 
and the girl is ready for her first paramour. After the price 
is fixed she goes to him, which rite is known as sir dhankdi, 
or " the covering of the head." When she returns after the 
first visit, the brethren are again given sweetmeats, after 
which follows the rite of missi, or " blackening of the teeth." 
She is dressed like a bride and paraded through the streets, 
afterwards attending a party with singing and dancing. The 
teeth cannot be stained until this feast is held, but Crooke 
says that at Lucknow the rule was relaxed. After the rite of 
missi the girl ceases to wear the nose-ring, and hence the 
ceremony is sometimes known as naihni utdrnd, or " the 
taking-off of the nose-ring." 

Somewhat similar ceremonies exist among the gandharbs, 
or gandharvs, who take their name from the heavenly 
musicians who attend the gods at Indra's Court. In Northern 
India they are found only in Benares, Allahabad and Ghazi- 
pur. They are Hindus of the Vaishnava sect. Ganesa is the 
patron of the dancing-girls since he is regarded by them as 
the author of music. They offer him wreaths of flowers and 
a sweetmeat made of sesamum and sugar every Wednesday. 
There are also certain gypsy tribes, such as the bediyds and 
nats, who are dancers, acrobats and prostitutes. They are 
divided into a large number of clans whose occupation is, 
nevertheless, the same. As they have no connection with 
temple worship, further details here would be superfluous. 
They have been fully described by B. R. Mitra 1 and W. 
Crooke. 2 

Central India 

As the ancient kingdoms of India were confined either to 
the North or South, early travellers were naturally drawn to 
the most important cities, and tell us but little of Central 
India, especially as regards the religious practices and social 
conditions of the towns. 

1 " The Gypsies of Bengal," Memoirs read before the Anthropological Society 
of London 3 vol. iii, pp. 120-133. 

2 The Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, vol. i,. 
p. 245 ; vol. iv, pp. 56-80. 


The earliest direct reference to the dancing-girls of Central 
India which I can find is made by the Chinese traveller Chau 
Ju-Kwa in his work, Chu-fan-chi, dealing with the Chinese 
and Arab trade of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 1 
Speaking of Guzerat (p. 92) he mentions " four thousand 
Buddhist temple buildings, in which live over twenty thou- 
sand dancing-girls who sing twice daily while offering food 
to the Buddha (i.e. the idols) and while offering flowers." 
He also speaks of similar customs in Cambodia (p. 53). They 
are here called a-nan, derived from the Sanskrit word dnanda, 
meaning " joy " or " happiness." 2 

We hear little more on the subject till the seventeenth 
century, when the French traveller Jean Baptiste Tavernier a 
made his second journey to the East (1638-1643). In describ- 
ing Golconda (five miles west of the modern city of Hydera- 
bad) he says there are over 20,000 public women entered in 
the Daroglia's [sic] register. They danced before the king v 
every Friday. In the evenings they stood before the doors of 
their houses and as soon as they lighted a lamp or candle all 
the drinking-places were opened. No tax was levied on the 
women, for they were looked upon as the chief cause of the 
large consumption of tari, which was a Government mon- 
opoly. No mention is made of the women dancing in the 
temples, but from the evidence of other writers it seems very 
probable they did this in their spare time ! 

We shall return to Hyderabad (Nizam's dominions) later 
when giving the most recent information, but we now pass 
on to the east coast and examine the evidence given by 
W. Ward, the Baptist missionary, who wrote at the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century. 4 He is speaking of the 
temple of Jagannatha (usually called Puri), in Orissa. " It 
is a well-authenticated fact," he says, " that at this place a 
number of females of infamous character are employed to 
dance and sing before the god. They live in separate nouses, 
not in the temple. Persons going to see Jugunnat'hu [sic] 
are often guilty of criminal actions with these females." 

1 Translated from the Chinese and annotated by Hirth and Rockhill, 
St Petersburg Printing Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1911. 

2 See Henri Cordier's Marco Polo, Notes and Addenda, 1920, pp. 115, 11 6. 

3 Travels oj Tavernier, translated by V. Ball, 2 vols., 1889. See vol. i, 
pp. 157, 158. 

4 A View of the History, Literature and Religion of the Hindoos, 2nd edition, 
Serampore, 1815-1818. See vol. ii, p. 327. 



Then in a note he adds : " The officiating Brahmans there 
continually live in adulterous connection with them." 

Puri is to-day one of the most sacred spots in India. The 
name Juggernaut, the anglicised corruption of Jagannatha 
(Lord of the World), is that given to the form of Vishnu 
worshipped there. The legend of the sacred blue-stone image, 
details of the famous Car Festival and the truth about the 
suicides under its great wooden wheels have been told by 
Hunter. 1 The present temple is built in the shape of a 
pyramid, and is surmounted with the mystic wheel and flag 
of Vishnu. The annual rent-roll of the temple was put at no 
less than 68,000. Since Ward's days little has been written 
on the deva-ddsi of Central India. Anything of importance 
was reproduced by R. V. Russell in his work on the tribes 
and castes of the Central Provinces. 2 He says : 

"When a dancing-girl attains adolescence, her mother 
makes a bargain with some rich man to be her first consort. 
Oil and turmeric are rubbed on her body for five days as in the 
case of a bride. A feast is given to the caste and the girl is 
married to a dagger, walking seven times round the sacred 
post with it. Her human consort then marks her forehead 
with vermilion and covers her head with her head- cloth seven 
times. In the evening she goes to live with him for as long as 
he likes to maintain her, and afterwards takes up the practice 
of her profession. In this case it is necessary that the man 
should be an outsider and not a member of the kasbi caste, 
because the quasi-marriage is the formal commencement on 
the part of the woman of her hereditary trade. ... In the 
fifth or seventh month of the first pregnancy of a kasbi 
woman 108 3 fried wafers of flour and sugar, known as gujaha, 
are prepared, and are eaten by her as well as distributed to 
friends and relatives who are invited to the house. After this 
they, in return, prepare similar wafers and send them to the 
pregnant woman. Some little time before the birth the mother 

1 Orissa, 2 vols., 1872, and District Gazetteer of Puri, 1908. See also 
p. 355 et seq. of Yule and Burnell's Hobson Jobsoti, London, 1 886. 

2 R. V. Russell, The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, 
4 vols., London, 191 6. See under the word " Kasbi," vol. iii, p. 373. 

3 The number 108 is mystical among both Brahmans and Buddhists. 
Thus at Gautama's birth the number of Brahmans summoned to foretell 
his destiny was 108 ; there are 108 shrines of special sanctity in India ; there 
are 108 Upanishads ; 108 rupees is a usual sum for a generous temple or 
other donation. In Tibet and China we also find 108 occurring as a sacred 
or mystic number in connection with architecture, ritual and literature. 
See Yule's Marco Polo, vol. ii, p. 347, London, 1903. 


washes her head with gram flour, puts on new clothes, and 
jewels, and invites all her friends to the house, feasting them 
with rice boiled in milk, cakes and sweetmeats." 

The term kasbi, derived from the Arabic kasab= prostitu- 
tion, denotes rather a profession than a caste. The term is 
only used for Hindus, as is also gdyan. The Mohammedan 
dancing-girls are known, as in Northern India, by the name 
of tawdif. 

In Bengal this class of women become so-called religious 
mendicants, who join the Vaishnavi or Bairagi community. 
They wander about the country, and, under the cloak of 
religion, carry on a large trade in kidnapping. They are 
notoriously licentious, and infanticide is apparently common. 1 

The following description of the dress and dancing of the 
better class of kasbi women is given by Russell. 2 

They " are conspicuous by their wealth of jewellery and 
their shoes of patent leather or other good material. Women 
of other castes do not commonly wear shoes in the streets. 
The kasbis are always well and completely clothed, and it 
has been noticed elsewhere that the Indian courtesan is more 
modestly dressed than most women. No doubt in this matter 
she knows her business. A well-to-do dancing-girl has a dress 
of coloured muslin or gauze trimmed with tinsel lace, with 
a short waist, long straight sleeves, and skirts which reach a 
little below the knee, a shawl falling from the head over the 
shoulders and wrapped round the body, and a pair of tight 
satin trousers, reaching to the ankles. The feet are bare, and 
strings of small bells are tied round them. They usually dance 
and sing to the accompaniment of the tabla, sdrangi and 
majira. The labia or drum is made of two half-bowls one 
brass or clay for the bass, and the other of wood for the treble. 
They are covered with goat-skin and played together. The 
sdrangi is a fiddle. The majira (cymbals) consist of two 
metallic cups slung together and used for beating time. 
Before a dancing-girl begins her performance she often in- 
vokes the aid of Sarasvati, the Goddess of Music. She then 
pulls her ear as a sign of remembrance of Tansen, India's 
greatest musician, and a confession to his spirit of the im- 
perfection of her own sense of music. The movements of the 
feet are accompanied by a continual opening and closing of 
henna- dyed hands ; and at intervals the girl kneels at the 

1 Sir H. Risley, Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. "Vaishnava," Calcutta, 1891. 

2 Op. cit., vol. iii, p. 383. 


feet of one or other of the audience. On the festival of Basant 
Panchmi, or the commencement of spring, these girls worship 
their dancing-dress and musical instruments with offerings of 
rice, flowers and a cocoanut." 

Proceeding southwards we find that in Hyderabad 
(Nizam's dominions) the usual term used for Telugu dancing- 
girls is bogam, although several others, including those with 
which we are already acquainted, are found. The bogams are 
divided into two classes, according as to whether they are 
Hindus or Mohammedans. If they are the former, the titles 
sdni or ndyaka are attached to their names ; if the latter, they 
are called jdn or ndyakan. Siraj Ul Hassan x describes them 
as having been originally attached to the temples of Siva and 
Vishnu as " servants of the gods," most of whom now earn 
their living by dancing, singing and prostitution. The initia- 
tion ceremonies of a bogam sdni include the marriage of the 
girl to an idol of Krishna, and those of a bogam jdn to a 
dagger. In the former case a marriage-booth of sixteen pillars- 
is put up at the girl's house, whither the idol is brought on an 
auspicious day. 

The girl is made to stand before the idol as if it were the 
bridegroom, a curtain is held between them and the officiat- 
ing Brahman, reciting the Mangalashtaka, or marriage stanzas,, 
weds them in the orthodox fashion. The ceremonies that 
follow correspond in every particular to those of a Kapu or 
Munnur marriage. On the Nagveli day the girl is seated by 
the side of the idol and made to offer puja to Gauri, the 
consort of Siva. Betel leaves, areca nuts and kunkum (red 
powder) are distributed to the assembly of dancing-girls, 
who sing songs, and, after blessing the bride, retire to their 

In the case of a bogam jdn when a girl is married to a 
dagger the ceremony resembles that above described, with 
the addition that the rite of missi is also performed. It in- 
cludes not only the blackening of the teeth, as among the 
tawdif of Northern India, but also the tying of a string of 
glass beads round the neck. Girls thus married are to a 
certain extent envied, for, as their husband is immortal, they 
can never become widows a thing to be avoided at any cost! 
The bogams belong to both the Vaishnava and Saiva sects. 
Their chief gods are Krishna and Ganesa, and in the light 

1 Syed Siraj Ul Hassan, The Tribes and Castes of H.E.H. the Nizam's 
Dominions [Hyderabad], Bombay, 1920. See vol. i, p. 91 et seq. 


tenth of As win (October) they worship their dancing dresses, 
instruments, etc. 1 Their ranks are recruited to a certain 
extent from girls who have been vowed to temple service 
by their parents on their recovery from sickness, or on some 
other similar occasion when they wish to show gratitude to 
their gods. The training of the bogams is most thorough and 
complete. " Commencing their studies at the early age of seven 
or eight, they are able to perform at twelve or thirteen years 
of age and continue dancing till they are thirty or forty years 
old. Dancing-girls attached to temples are required to dance 
daily before the idols, while the priests are officiating and 
offering puja to them : but the majority of these are trained 
to appear in public, when they are profusely ornamented 
with gold and jewels and sumptuously dressed in silk and 
muslin." 2 Their dress, mode of dancing and details of accom- 
panying instruments are the same as already described by 
Russell. Most of their songs are lewd in character, usually 
relating to the amorous life of Krishna. 

Turning westwards to Bombay there is in the Ratnagiri 
and Kanara districts and in the Savantvadi State a Sudra 
caste in which the men are known as devlis or ndiks, and the 
women as bhdvins or ndikins. The majority trace their descent 
from the female servants of the Savantvadi or Malvan chiefs 
who were regularly dedicated to the service of the local gods. 
Women from other Sudra castes can become bhdvins by 
simply pouring oil on their heads from the god's lamp in the 
temple. When a bhdvin girl attains puberty she has to under- 
go a form of marriage known as the sesha. The bridegroom 
is represented by a god from the temple. On an auspicious 
day Ganapati is worshipped and the ceremony of Punydha- 
vdchana (holy-day blessing) is performed at the girl's house, 
and also in a temple, by the Gurav or Raul of the temple. 
The Gurav and other servants of the temple then go in pro- 
cession to the girl's house, taking with them a dagger and the 
mask of the god. The marriage ceremony is performed with 
the same details as an ordinary marriage, the mask taking 
the place of the bridegroom. The homa, or marriage sacrifice, 
is also performed. The ceremony ends with a feast to those 
assembled, but is frequently dispensed with owing to the 
expenditure involved. In such cases the young girl performs 

1 In the Central Provinces we saw that this worship was made in the 
spring, not the autumn. 

2 Siraj Ul Hassan, op. cit., p. 94. 


the worship of Ganapati, and dressing herself in her best 
attire goes to a temple to the beating of drums, accompanied 
by a party of bhdvins and temple servants, taking in her hands 
a cocoanut and a packet of sugar. She places the cocoanut 
and sugar before the image of the god and bows to him. The 
Gurav and other temple servants then invoke on her the 
blessings of the god, and the ceremony ends. Her temple 
duties are confined to sweeping the floor, sprinkling it with 
fresh cow-dung, and waving the fly- whisk before the god. She 
practises prostitution promiscuously, and only differs from 
the secular variety by her being a deva-ddsi. 

It is, however, interesting to note that the bhdvin is not 
allowed to dance or sing in public. The devlis also serve in 
the temples, their chief duties being the blowing of horns and 
trumpets morning and evening. The daughters of bhdvins 
usually follow their mothers' calling ; if not, they are married 
to the sons of other bhdvins i.e. to the devlis. 1 

In the Karnatak, Kolhapur and the States of the 
Southern Mahratha country the ddsa caste dedicate their 
men to the temple, and their women only in a lesser degree. 
Contrary to the usual rule the women so dedicated are not 
allowed in the temple at all, their duties being only to sweep 
the temple yard. They live by prostitution. 

Southern India 

As has already been mentioned, it is in Southern India 
that the tenets of the Hindu faith have suffered less from 
the devastating hand of the invader. Consequently details of 
ritual have become deeply rooted in the minds of the people, 
so that in many cases we may expect to find earlier and 
more original forms of any particular custom or ceremony. 
Furthermore, the love of building innumerable temples and 
constantly increasing the Hindu pantheon always appears to 
have been greater in the South. It is here, therefore, that we 
get much fuller accounts of sacred prostitution, and nearly 
all the writings of missionaries and travellers have something 
to say of the deva-ddsis of Madras, Mysore or Travancore. 

1 See the Ethnographical Survey of Bombay, monograph 60, Bhdvins and 
Devlis, 1909 ; and monograph 92, Dasa, 1907. Reference should also be made 
to Kennedy's Criminal Classes of Bombay, 1908, pp. 13, 122, 274 and 283, and 
to It. E. Enthoven's Tribes and Castes of Bombay, 3 vols., 1920. 


The earliest direct reference to the subject I can find 
appears in certain Tamil inscriptions dating back to the time 
of Rajaraja the Great, the most prominent of the Chola 
monarchs. He came to the throne in a.d. 985 and, like all the 
Choja kings, was a votary of Siva. One inscription x shows 
that in a.d. 1004 the chief temple at Tanjore had four hundred 
tali-cheri-pendugal, or " women of the temple," attached to 
it. They lived in the streets surrounding the temple and in 
return for their service received one or more shares, each of 
which consisted of the produce of one veli 2 of land, calculated 
at 100 kalam of paddy. The whole Chola country was full of 
temples with deva-ddsis in attendance, as is clear from this 
inscription, which gives a long list of the dancing-girls who 
had been transferred to the Tanjavur (Tanjore) temple. After 
each name details are added showing from what temple the 
girl originally came, and the number of shares she was now 
to receive. Finally the names and shares of the eunuchs, 
musicians, dancing-masters, singers, parasol-bearers, barbers 
and other men connected with the temple are given. It is 
interesting to note that although Rajaraja was a Saiva, the 
temple girls imported came from both Saiva and Vaishnava 

The next mention of the deva-ddsis is made by the greatest 
of mediaeval travellers, Marco Polo. About 1290 he was on the 
Coromandel coast, and in describing the inhabitants of the 
"Province of Maabar" (i.e. Tanjore) he says 3 : "They have 
certain abbeys in which are gods and goddesses to whom 
many young girls are consecrated ; their fathers and mothers 
presenting them to that idol for which they entertain the 
greatest devotion. And when the [monks] of a convent desire 
to make a feast to their god, they send for all those con- 
secrated damsels and make them sing and dance before the 
idol with great festivity. They also bring meats to feed their 
idol withal; that is to say, the damsels prepare dishes of 
meat and leave it there a good while, and then the damsels 
all go to their dancing and singing and festivity for about as 
long as a great Baron might require to eat his dinner. By 
that time they say the spirit of the idols has consumed the 

1 E. Hultzsch, South Indian Inscriptions, vol. ii, Part III, pp. 259-303, 
Archaeological Swvey of India, Madras, 1895. 

2 26,755 square metres. 

3 Yule and Cordier, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, 1903, vol. ii, pp. 34>5-34>6. 
See also p. 335 for identification of the places visited by Polo. 



substance of the food, so they remove the viands to be eaten 
by themselves with great jollity. This is performed by these 
damsels several times every year until they are married. 

" The reason assigned for summoning the damsels to these 
feasts is, as the monks say, that the god is vexed and angry 
with the goddess, and will hold no communication with her ; 
and they say that if peace be not established between them 
things will go from bad to worse, and they never will bestow 
their grace and benediction. So they make those girls come 
in the way described, to dance and sing, all but naked, 
before the god and the goddess. And those people believe 
that the god often solaces himself with the society of the 

As Yule says in a note on this passage (p. 351), Polo does 
not seem to have quite understood the nature of the institu- 
tion of the temple dancing-girls, for there was no question of 
marriage as they were already married either to the god or 
to some substitute for a bridegroom such as a sword, dagger 
or drum. Another point to notice is that Polo describes the 
girls as "all but naked." This is in strict contradiction to 
all accounts which came later ; in fact travellers have drawn 
special attention to the fact that the attraction of the covered 
body was fully realised by the dancers. 

At the beginning of the section on Northern India w r e saw 
that by 1340 the Sultanate of Delhi was breaking up and that 
in the South Vijayanagar was already a powerful kingdom. 
The story of the foundation of this great Hindu monarchy, 
formed to check the onrush of the Moslem hordes which were 
sweeping gradually southwards, makes a thrilling page of 
Indian history. The glories of the magnificent capital have 
been fully described by many travellers, 1 but a complete 
history of the kingdom has yet to be written. It was not 
until 1565 that Vijayanagar was destroyed by the Moslems, 
and even then the peninsula to the south of Tungabhadra re- 
mained unaffected as far as its dharma (religion and morality) 
were concerned. Of the various writers who have described 
the kingdom the two who give the best description of the 
social conditions are 'Abdu-r Razzaq, the ambassador from 

1 (a) Nicolo Conti (1420). See his account in India in the Fifteenth Century, 
(Part II, p. 23), R. H. Major: No. 22 of Series 1 of the Hakluyt Society 
publications, 1858. (6) 'Abdu-r Razzaq (1443). See Elliot's History of India, 
vol. iv, p. 89 et seq. ; also first section of Major's work quoted above, 
(c) Domingos Paes (1522). See A Forgotten Empire, R. Sewell, 1900, p. 
236 etseq. (d) Fernao Nuniz (1537). See A Forgotten Empire, p. 291 et seq. 


Persia, and Domingos Paes, the Portuguese. c Abdu-r Razzaq 
explains how the prostitution of the dancing-girls was a great 
source of revenue to the kingdom ; in fact the entire upkeep 
of the police (12,000 in number) was paid out of the proceeds 
of the women. He gives a description of the wealth and 
splendour of the girls, and says : " After the time of mid-day 
prayers, they place at the doors of these houses, which are 
beautifully decorated, chairs and settees on which the courte- 
sans seat themselves. Every one is covered with pearls, 
precious stones and costly garments. They are all exceedingly 
young and beautiful. Each has one or two slave girls standing 
before her, who invite and allure indulgence and pleasure." 
We get, however, a better account from Paes. He is speaking 
of the idols in the temples, and after giving some description 
of Ganesa says : " They feed the idol every day, for they say 
that he eats ; and when he eats, women dance before him 
who belong to that pagoda, and they give him food and all 
that is necessary, and all the girls born of these women be- 
long to the temple. These women are of loose character, and 
live in the best streets that are in the city ; it is the same 
in all their cities, their streets have the best rows of houses. 
They are very much esteemed, and are classed among those 
honoured ones who are the mistresses of the captains ; any 
respectable man may go to their houses without any blame 
attaching thereto. These women are allowed even to enter 
the presence of the wives of the king, and they stay with 
them and eat betel with them, a thing which no other person 
may do, no matter what his rank may be." He also makes 
special mention of their great wealth : " Who can fitly describe 
to you the great riches these women carry on their persons ? 
collars of gold with many diamonds and rubies and pearls, 
bracelets also on their arms and on their upper arms, girdles 
below, and of necessity anklets on the feet. The marvel should 
be otherwise, namely that women of such a profession should 
obtain such wealth ; but there are women among them who 
have lands that have been given to them, and litters, and so 
many maid-servants that one cannot number all their things. 
There is a woman in this city who is said to have a hundred 
thousand pardaos, and I believe this from what I have seen 
of them." 

It seems obvious from the above accounts that in wealthy 
and powerful kingdoms, such as Vijayanagar was in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, secular and " religious " 


prostitution practically coincide. 1 If the diamonds were re- 
placed by cheap and tawdry jewellery made in Birmingham, 
'Abdu-r Razzaq's description might almost refer to one of the 
courtesan streets in the Esbekiya quarter of Cairo or to similar 
ones in Algiers. He is describing only the " prostitute " part 
of the girl's business and makes no mention of her duties in 
the temple. They certainly must have been quite unimportant, 
and the powers of their " protectors " could in all probability 
regulate the amount of " service " in the temple. Paes, on 
the other hand, speaks of their temple duties, but also says 
that they live in the best streets. 

We saw that in Maurya times, when Chandragupta was 
at the zenith of his power in Pataliputra (circa 300 B.C.), a 
similar state of affairs prevailed. Again in the early eigh- 
teenth century the reaction which occurred after the death 
of the Puritan Aurangzeb caused an enormous laxity of 
morals, and in consequence the " temple " part of the deva- 
ddsls entirely dropped out. In the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries travellers gave no detailed descriptions of the devi- 
dasis, and we get only scanty mentions in the various works 
of travel. The chief of these are Linschoten (1598), De Bry 
(1599), Gouvea (1606), Bernier (1660), Thevenot (1661), 
Fryer (1673), Wheeler (1701), a writer in Lettres Edificantes 
(1702), Orme (1770), Sonnerat (1782), and Moor (1794). 2 

At the end of the eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries the accounts become more detailed, the two most 
reliable of which are those of the Abbe J. A. Dubois and 
Francis Hamilton (formerly Buchanan). Dubois worked in 
the Madras Presidency in 1792 and went to Mysore in 1799 to 
reorganise the Christian community. The outcome of this 
work was his famous Hindu Manners, Customs and Cere- 
monies, which was translated into English in 1816 direct 
from the French MS. His remarks on the dancing-girls are 
interesting. He says 3 that at first they were reserved ex- 
clusively for the Brahmans, and proceeds : " And these lewd 

1 For further information on Vijayanagar see S. K. Ayyangar, Sources of 
Vijayanagar History, Madras University Series, 1919. Also see the various 
articles, etc., quoted by V. A. Smith in his Oxford History of India, 1919, 
pp. 319, 320. 

2 Details of these travellers' works with reference to the deva-dasis can 
be found in Hobson Jobson, Yule and Burnell, 1886. See under u dancing-girl," 
deva-dasl, bayadere, " nautch-girl," cunchurree. 

3 From the third edition, with notes by Henry K. Beauchamp, Oxford, 
1906, pp. 585-587. 


women, who make a public traffic of their charms, are conse- 
crated in a special manner to the worship of the divinities of 
India. Every temple of any importance has in its service a 
band of eight, twelve, or more. Their official duties consist 
in dancing and singing within the temple twice a day, morn- 
ing and evening, and also at all public ceremonies. The first 
they execute with sufficient grace, although their attitudes 
are lascivious and their gestures indecorous. As regards their 
singing, it is almost always confined to obscene verses describ- 
ing some licentious episode in the history of their gods. Their 
duties, however, are not confined to religious ceremonies. 
Ordinary politeness (and this is one of the characteristic 
features of Hindu morality) requires that when persons of 
any distinction make formal visits to each other they must 
be accompanied by a certain number of these courtesans. To 
dispense with them would show a want of respect towards 
the persons visited, whether the visit was one of duty or of 
politeness. [This custom is certainly not observed at the 
present day. Beauchamp.] 

" These women are also present at marriages and other 
solemn family meetings. All the time which they have to spare 
in the intervals of the various ceremonies is devoted to in- 
finitely more shameful practices ; and it is not an uncommon 
thing to see even sacred temples converted into mere brothels. 
They are brought up in this shameful licentiousness from 
infancy, and are recruited from various castes, some among 
them belonging to respectable families. It is not unusual for 
pregnant women, with the object of obtaining a safe delivery, 
to make a vow, with the consent of their husbands, to devote 
the child that they carry in their womb, if it should turn out 
a girl, to the temple service. They are far from thinking that 
this infamous vow offends in any way the laws of decency, or is 
contrary to the duties of motherhood. In fact no shame what- 
ever is attached to parents whose daughters adopt this career. 

" The courtesans are the only women in India who enjoy 
the privilege of learning to read, to dance, and to sing. A well- 
bred and respectable woman would for this reason blush to 
acquire any one of these accomplishments. [In these days 
female education is slowly extending to all classes, and the 
prejudice which formerly existed no longer applies to women 
learning to read and sing, though dancing is still restricted 
to the professional dancing- girls, and is not considered 
respectable. Beauchamp.] 


" The deva-dasis receive a fixed salary for the religious 
duties which they perform ; but as the amount is small they 
supplement it by selling their favours in as profitable a manner 
as possible." 

Like several other writers he mentions the special care 
taken by the deva-dasis not to expose any part of their body, 
because they fully realise that the imagination is more easily 
captivated than the eye. Dubois says in the above extract 
that they dance " twice a day, morning and evening." This 
agrees with the remarks of the Chinese traveller Chau Ju-Kwa 
of the thirteenth century, but differs from the description to 
be given by Shortt below. 

) Francis Hamilton, 1 writing nearly the same time as Dubois, 
gives a similar account of the deva-dasis. He says, however, 
that if a girl is pretty she is almost certain to be taken 
from the temple by some " officer of revenue," and seldom 
permitted to return except in his presence. When a dancing- 
girl grew too old to be attractive she was turned out of the 
temple without any means of support given her, and for this 
reason she always tried to get a good-looking daughter to 
succeed and support her. Speaking of the temples at Tulava 
he says : " There prevails a very singular custom, which has 
given origin to a caste named moylar. Any woman . . . who 
is tired of her husband, or who (being a widow, and conse- 
quently incapable of marriage) is tired of a life of celibacy, 
goes to a temple, and eats some of the rice that is offered to 
the idol. She is then taken before the officers of Government, 
who assemble some people of her caste to inquire into the 
cause of her resolution ; and, if she be of the Brahman caste, 
to give her an option of either living in the temple or out 
of its precincts. If she choose the former, she gets a daily 
allowance of rice, and annually a piece of cloth. She must 
sweep the temple, fan the idol with a Tibet cow's tail 
(bos grunniens), and confine her amours to the Brahmans. 
. . . The Brahmany women who do not choose to live in the 
temple, and the women of the three lower castes, cohabit 
with any man of pure descent that they please ; but they 
must pay annually to the temple from one sixteenth to half 
a pagoda." 

No further information on the deva-dasis appears to have 
been published till 1868, when Dr John Shortt read a most 

1 A Journey from Madras through the Countries of Mysore, Canara and 
Malabar, 3 vols., London, 1807. 


interesting paper before the Anthropological Society, entitled 
" The Bayadere : or, Dancing Girls of Southern India." l His 
investigations confirm previous accounts, but owing to ad- 
vantages gained in his medical capacity he was able to obtain 
details which the ordinary traveller finds so hard to acquire. 
He differs from Dubois in saying that the girls dance six 
times a day, but in turns. They never marry, and begin a 
strenuous three-year course of singing and dancing at the 
early age of five. " When these girls are attached to pagodas, 
they receive certain sums as wages, the amount of which is 
dependent on the worth, sanctity, and popularity of the 
particular temple which they have joined. The money salary 
they receive is nominal seldom exceeding a few annas, and 
sometimes a rupee or two a month. The chief object in being 
paid this sum as a salary is to indicate that they are servants 
of the temple ; in addition to this, one or more of them receive 
a meal a day, consisting merely of a mass of boiled rice rolled 
into a ball." He gives full details of their dress. It differs 
from that described by Thurston as worn by the girls in 
Central India. Instead of tinsel- covered dress with skirts 
reaching below the knees and tight satin trousers, Shortt says : 
" Their dancing dress comprises usually the short jacket 
or choolee, a, pair of string drawers tied at the waist, termed 
pyjamas both these are generally of silk, and a white or 
coloured wrapper or saree : one end of the saree is wound 
around the waist, and two, three, or more feet, according to 
the length, is gathered and inserted into the portion en- 
circling the waist, and permitting of a folding fringe or gather- 
ing of the cloth in front, and the other end, taken after the 
usual native fashion over the left shoulder, descends towards 
the waist, when the end, or moonthanee, is opened out and 
allowed to drop in front, one end of it being inserted in the 
waist on the side, and the other left free. This portion of the 
saree is usually highly ornamented with golden thread, tinsel, 
etc. the free end descends to the middle or lower part of the 
thighs, the other free end of the saree hanging down towards 
the legs is now got hold of, passed between the legs and 
fastened to the tie around the waist at the back, and the whole 
encircled by a gold or silver waist belt. By this mode of dress 
a fold of the muslin saree forms a loop round each leg, and 

1 Memoirs read before the Anthropological Society of London, 1867-1869, 
vol. iii, London, 1870, pp. 182-194. The word bayadere is merely a French 
form of the Portuguese bailadeira, from bailar to dance. 


descends nearly to the ankles, whilst the gathering hangs in 
front between the legs free." 

They had their own special laws for adoption and inherit- 
ance, and were treated with respect and consideration. At 
one time their ranks were largely increased by kidnapping, 
but even in Shortt's day this was quite a rare occurrence. 
This was often done by an aged dancer in order to procure a 
successor and a maintenance. Once again we see the worst 
side of a depraved priesthood, for " as soon as a girl attains 
maturity, her virginity, if not debauched by the pagoda 
brahmins, is sold to outsiders in proportion to the wealth of 
the party seeking the honour, if such it may be termed, after 
which she leads a continuous course of prostitution prosti- 
tuting her person at random, to all but outcasts, for any 
trifling sum." Details of the musical instruments and dances 
are given, special attention being drawn to the surprising 
feats of strength and bodily powers of endurance the girls 
undergo. " In what is called the sterria coothoo, athletic feats 
are performed, resting their hands on the ground and fling- 
ing their feet in the air with great rapidity, and thus twirling 
round and round successively performing various somer- 
saults ; lying full length on the ground with their hands and 
feet resting, contorting, twirling, and twisting their bodies in 
various ways, or whilst resting on the hands and legs, with 
their backs to the ground and their chest and abdomen 
turned upwards, drawing the hands and feet as close together 
as possible ; whilst their bodies are thus arched, they, with 
their mouths, pick up rupees from the ground. In this arched 
position, beating time with their hands and feet, they work 
round and round in a circle. During their performance they 
join their attendants in the songs that are sung, and regulate 
the various movements of their bodies to the expressions 
given vent to in the song." In the remainder of his article 
Shortt confirms what we have already seen the girls are far 
more educated than the married women, their songs are lewd, 
they get most of their wealth outside the temple, they are 
considered an acquisition in a town and form the chief mag- 
net of Hindu society ; a wife considers it honourable for her 
husband to patronise them, and, finally, they are more sinned 
against than sinning. This is obviously true, for what chance 
can a child of five have when everything is arranged for her 
probably before her birth ! Owing to the wise guidance of 
British rule female education and enlightenment have made 


great strides since 1868 and we are likely to hear less and less 
of the deva-ddsis. Secular prostitution always has existed 
and always will exist, for the simple reason that, where there 
is a certain and constant demand, so also is there an equally 
certain and constant supply. 

We have now to consider a class of women who, although 
being sacred prostitutes, are hardly ever dancing-girls. Their 
existence is due to circumstance alone. Among women of the 
lower Stidra castes of Southern India, when there is no son to 
perform the obsequies of the parents, it is customary to endow 
a daughter with masculine privileges by dedicating her to 
a deity. Such a woman is known by the name of basivi. As 
is often the custom among deva-ddsis, girls are frequently 
dedicated as basivis by promise before their birth, or owing 
to a vow during illness. 

Detailed investigations on the basivis have been carried 
out by Mr Fawcett 1 in the western part of the Bellary dis- 
trict of Madras, and in the portions of Dharwar and Mysore 
which adjoin it. Although variations of the dedication cere- 
mony occur in different localities, the following description 
by Mr Fawcett can be taken as generally representative. 

After the girl has been conducted with music to the temple 
by her parents, she is dressed in new clothes, usually white, 
and two seers of rice, five dates, five cocoanuts, five 2 betel 
leaves, and the same number of betel nuts, also turmeric 3 and 
plantains and areca nuts, a gold tali, a silver bangle, and two 
silver toe-rings are borne in a tray or basket. On arrival at 
the temple reverence is made to the idol, and, if he is present, 

1 "Basivis: Women who through Dedication to a Deity assume Masculine 
Privileges," Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay, vol. ii, 1892, 
pp. 322-345. This is followed by a note on the same subject by Dr W. 
Dymock (pp. 345, 34-6) and an appendix (pp. 34>6-353). 

2 Five is a mystical number. It consists of 2 + 3, the first even and first 
odd numbers i.e. if unity is God alone, 2 = diversity, while 3 = 1 +2 = unity 
and diversity. Thus the two principles of nature are represented. 

Mankind has five senses. The Brahmans worship the five products of the 
cow. Siva has five aspects. The Dra vidians recognise five divine foods, the 
Assamese five essentials for worship, and the Avestan doctrine five divisions of 
human personality. Five wards off the evil eye among the Mohammedans, and, 
being considered lucky by the Romans, entered into their wedding ceremonies. 

3 This plant, which is used in India as a substitute for saffron and other 
yellow dyes, always plays an important part in marriage ceremonies not only 
in India, but also in ancient Greece. It has a distinct erotic significance and 
has magical properties ascribed to it. See the paper by Dr W. Dymock on 
"The Use of Turmeric in Hindoo Ceremonial" in the Journal of the Anthropo- 
logical Society of Bombay, p. 44-1 et seq. of the volume quoted in note 1 above. 


to the guru, or high priest, and he, as the officiating priest, 
receives a fee and the tray or basket of things, and the cere- 
mony is begun. If the guru is present he orders the priest 
and disciples who may be present " to bring the god to the 
girl," and they proceed with the ceremony. She is conducted 
to that part of the temple where such ceremonies are generally 
performed, usually in front of the idol, and is made to sit on a 
black cambly, or country-made blanket (never on a white one), 
facing east, right knee raised and right elbow resting on it, 
head bent and covered. In front of her is spread some rice, 
on which are placed the kernels of five cocoanuts, one at each 
corner and one in the centre, and similarly five betel nuts, 
five pieces of turmeric, five dried dates, and five duddus and 
a tankam in a bran vessel (a duddu=l anna 8 pies, and a 
tankam=5 annas 4 pies). Kankanam, a yellow thread, such 
as is used in Hindu marriages and once to be used in satis, to 
which a betel leaf is fastened, is tied on her right wrist by the 
senior basivi present. A marriage song is then sung by the 
basivi and married women (not widows), who throw yellow rice 
over the girl. They put the bangle on her right wrist, and tie 
the tali, on which is depicted the iraman of Vishnu, and which 
is fastened to a necklace of black beads, round her neck, and 
they make the girl put on the toe-rings. These marriage 
tokens, which are worn by Hindu women until their husbands' 
death, are worn by the basivi until her own death. She is 
given, by way of insignia, a cane about three feet long, as a 
wand, carried in the right hand, and a gopalam, or begging 
basket, slung on the left arm. She is then branded with a 
heated brass instrument, with a chakra on the right shoulder, 
in front, similarly on the left shoulder with a shenk (chank) 
and over the right breast with a chakra. As well known, these 
are the emblems of Vishnu. The third mark, over the breast, 
is never done if there is any suspicion the girl is not a virgin. 
Sometimes girls are dedicated after maturity. It may be men- 
tioned that, if he is present, the guru heats the instruments 
or holds them a moment ere they are used. After being 
branded, the girl's forehead is marked with kunkam, a red 
powder commonly used in feminine adornment. A seer and 
a quarter of rice, two dried cocoanuts minus the shells, betel 
leaves, a few areca nuts, five pieces of turmeric and five dates 
are then tied in her cloth, in front, below the waist, and she 
is made to rise, taken thrice round the temple and into the 
god's sanctuary, where she prostrates herself before the image. 


Alms are distributed, certain sums, determined by the girl's 
parents, are given to the officiating priest and to the guru, 
and the ceremony is concluded by the priest whispering a 
mantram in the girl's ear. She is told to be good and think of 
god " Rama Krishna," " Govind." For the next five weeks 
she is required to beg in the village, carrying her insignia and 
shouting " Ram ! Ram ! " " Govind ! " as she approaches 
each house. After this there is the hemm ceremony to mark 
the girl's puberty, which corresponds with the garbhddhdna 
ceremony of the Hindus when the bride is of an age for the 
fulfilment of marriage. An auspicious day is chosen and fixed 
on if the parents of the girl are not needy ; if they are, 
they wait until they can find the money or some man who, 
for the sake of securing the girl, will bear the expenses. The 
girl is given an oil-bath during the day, and in the evening 
the initiatory ceremony is repeated, with some additions. A 
sword with a lime stuck on its point is placed upright beside 
the novice, and it is held in her right hand. It represents the 
bridegroom, who in the corresponding ceremony of the Hindu 
marriage sits on the bride's right. If the basivi happens to 
be a dancing-girl the object representing the bridegroom is a 
drum, and the girl's insignia consists of a drum and bells. 
A tray, on which is a kalasyam and a lamp, is then produced 
and moved thrice in front of the girl from right to left. She 
rises and, carrying the sword in her right hand, places it in 
the god's sanctuary. The ceremony is concluded between nine 
and ten p.m. The actual religious duties of a basivi are few. 
They are entirely confined to the temple of her dedication, 
and consist of fasting on Saturdays, attending the temple for 
worship, and accompanying processions with her insignia dur- 
ing festivals. Their superior position over married women is 
due to their bearing the god's mark on their bodies, and by 
having no widowhood. 

Among the Kakatias, a sect of weavers in Conjeeveram 
(and perhaps the custom obtains elsewhere), the eldest 
daughter is always dedicated to a deity, but she does not 
thereby attain any superior right to property. She is taken 
to a temple, with rice, cocoanuts, sugar, etc., a plantain leaf 
is placed on the ground, and on it some raw rice, and on that 
a brass vessel containing water ; mango leaves and darbha 
grass are put into the vessel, a cocoanut and some flowers are 
placed on the top of it, and the water is purified by mantrams, 
and the leaves, grass and water are lightly thrown over the 


girl. A thread is then tied to her left wrist, and she swallows 
a pill of the five products of the cow for purification. She is 
then branded with a chakra on the right shoulder and with a 
shenk or chank on the left, and her forehead is marked with 
the god's irdmam ; the priest prays for her, and she distributes 
alms and presents. A tali, which has been lying at the god's 
feet, is then placed on her neck by a senior dancing-girl (there 
are no basivis there), to whom she makes obeisance. She is 
given tridham to drink, a piece of cloth is tied on her head, 
she is decked with flowers and crowned with the god's cap 
or mitre, she offers worship through the priest, and is taken 
home with music. At night she comes to the temple and 
dances before the idol with bells on her feet. She is not 
a vestal, and she may ply her music ; but she is the god's, 
and if not dedicated would soon be cut off from the living ; 
so for her own benefit, and chiefly for the benefit of her 
family, she is dedicated. To avoid legal complications the 
public ceremony takes place after puberty. 

In Mysore the castes among which the dedication of 
basivis is common are the Killekyatas, Madiga, Dombar, 
Vadda, Beda, Kuruba and Golla. Details will be found in 
the pamphlets on these castes by H. V. Nanjundayya. 1 
There is a certain amount of variation in ceremonies, but 
the general idea is the same in all cases. In his long article 
on the deva-dasis Thurston 2 gives interesting samples of peti- 
tions presented to a European magistrate or superintendent 
of police by girls or mothers of girls who are about to become 
basivis. One reads as follows : 

" I have got two daughters, aged fifteen and twelve re- 
spectively. As I have no male issues, I have got to necessarily 
celebrate [sic] the ceremony in the temple in connection with 
the tying of the goddess's tali to my two daughters under 
the orders of the guru, in accordance with the customs of 
my caste. I therefore submit this petition for fear that the 
authorities may raise any objection (under the Age of Con- 
sent Act). I therefore request that the Honourable Court 
may be pleased to give permission to the tying of the tali to 
my daughters." 

1 In the order given they form Nos. 22, 17, 13, 11, 3, 1 and 20 of 
a series of short pamphlets issued by the Ethnographical Survey of Mysore, 
Bangalore, 1906-1 911. 

2 Castes and Tribes of Southern India, by Edgar Thurston and K. Rangachari, 
Madras, 1909, vol. ii, pp. 125-153. See also Ethnographic Notes in Southern 
India, by Thurston, Madras, 1906, pp. 35-41. 


The most recent account of the deva-ddsis is that by 
Thurston already mentioned. It is drawn mainly from 
articles in the census reports and gazetteers. Many of the 
customs have already been discussed in this appendix. There 
are, however, several important points in the Madras Census 
Reports for 1901, prepared by Mr Francis, which deserve 

The profession is not now held in the consideration it once 
enjoyed. ... It is one of the many inconsistencies of the 
Hindu religion that, though their profession is repeatedly and 
vehemently condemned by the sdstras, it has always received 
the countenance of the Church. ... At the present day they 
form a regular caste, having its own laws of inheritance, 
its customs and rules of etiquette, and its own panchdyats 
(councils) to see that all these are followed, and thus hold 
a position which is perhaps without a parallel in any other 
country. Dancing-girls, dedicated to the usual profession of 
the caste, are formally married in a temple to a sword or a 
god, the tali (marriage badge) being tied round their necks 
by some men of their caste. It was a standing puzzle to the 
census-enumerators whether such women should be entered 
as married in the column referring to civil condition. 

Among the ddsis, sons and daughters inherit equally, 
contrary to ordinary Hindu usage. Some of the sons remain 
in the caste, and live by playing music for the women to 
dance to, and accompaniments to their songs, or by teaching 
singing and dancing to the younger girls, and music to the 
boys. These are called nattuvar. Others marry some girl of 
the caste who is too plain to be likely to be a success in the 
profession, and drift out of the community. Some of these 
affix to their names the terms pillai and mudali, which are the 
usual titles of the two castes (velldla and kaikdla) from which 
most of the ddsls are recruited, and try to live down the 
stigma attaching to their birth. Others join the melakkdrar, 
or professional musicians. Cases have occurred in which 
wealthy sons of dancing- women have been allowed to marry 
girls of respectable parentage of other castes, but they are very 
rare. The daughters of the caste, who are brought up to follow 
the caste profession, are carefully taught dancing, singing, 
the art of dressing well, and the ars amoris, and their success 
in keeping up their clientele is largely due to the contrast 
which they thus present to the ordinary Hindu housewife, 
whose ideas are bounded by the day's dinner and the babies. 


The dancing-girl castes and their allies, the melakkdrar, 
are now practically the sole repository of Indian music, the 
system of which is probably one of the oldest in the world. 
Besides them and the Brahmans few study the subject. . . . 

There are two divisions among the ddsis, called valangai 
(right-hand) and idangai (left-hand). The chief distinction 
between them is that the former will have nothing to do with 
the kammdlar (artisans) or any other of the left-hand castes, 
or play or sing in their houses. The latter division is not 
so particular, and its members are consequently sometimes 
known as the kammdla ddsis. Neither division, however, is 
allowed to have any dealings with men of the lowest castes, 
and violation of this rule of etiquette is tried by a panchdyat 
of the caste, and visited with excommunication. . . . 

Among the kaikolan musicians of Coimbatore at least 
one girl in every family should be set apart for the temple 
service, and she is instructed in music and dancing. At the 
tali-tying ceremony she is decorated with jewels and made 
to stand on a heap of paddy (unhusked rice). A folded cloth 
is held before her by two ddsis, who also stand on heaps of 
paddy. The girl catches hold of the cloth, and her dancing- 
master, who is seated behind her, grasping her legs, moves 
them up and down in time with the music which is played. 
In the evening she is taken, astride a pony, to the temple, 
where a new cloth for the idol, the tali, and other articles 
required for doing pujd (worship) have been got ready. The 
girl is seated facing the idol, and the officiating Brahman 
gives the sandal and flowers to her, and ties the tali, which 
has been lying at the feet of the idol, round her neck. The 
tali consists of a golden disc and black beads. She continues 
to learn music and dancing, and eventually goes through the 
form of a nuptial ceremony. The relations are invited on an 
auspicious day, and the maternal uncle, or his representative, 
ties a golden band on the girl's forehead, and, carrying her, 
places her on a plank before the assembled guests. A Brah- 
man priest recites mantrams (prayers), and prepares the sacred 
fire (homam). For the actual nuptials a rich Brahman, if 
possible, or, if not, a Brahman of more lowly status, is in- 
vited. A Brahman is called in, as he is next in importance to, 
and the representative of, the idol. As a ddsi can never be- 
come a widow, the beads in her tali are considered to bring 
good luck to women who wear them. And some people send 
the tali required for a marriage to a ddsi, who prepares the 


string for it, and attaches to it black beads from her own tali. 
A ddsi is also deputed to walk at the head of Hindu marriage- 
processions. Married women do not like to do this, as they 
are not proof against evil omens, which the procession may 
meet. And it is believed that dasis, to whom widowhood is 
unknown, possess the power of warding off the effects of in- 
auspicious omens. It may be remarked, en passant, that dasis 
are not at the present day so much patronised at Hindu 
marriages as in olden times. Much is due in this direction 
to the progress of enlightened ideas, which have of late been 
strongly put forward by Hindu social reformers. When a 
kaikdlan ddsi dies, her body is covered with a new cloth 
removed from the idol, and flowers are supplied from the 
temple to which she belonged. No pujd is performed in the 
temple till the corpse is disposed of, as the idol, being her 
husband, has to observe pollution. 

In Travancore the institution of the deva- dasis affords an 
interesting comparison with that existing in other parts of 
India. The following account is taken from data collected 
by Mr N. S. Aiyer. 

While the dasis of Kartikappalli, Ambalapuzha and 
Shertallay belonged originally to the Konkan coast, those 
of Shenkottah belonged to the Pandiyan country. But the 
South Travancore dasis are an indigenous class. The female 
members of the caste are, besides being known by the ordin- 
ary name of tevadiydl and ddsi, both meaning "servant of 
god," called kudikkar, meaning " those belonging to the house " 
(i.e. given rent free by the Sirkar), and pendukal, or women, 
the former of these designations being more popular than the 
latter. Males are called tevadiyan, though many prefer to be 
known as Nanchindt Velldlas. Males, like these Velldlas, take 
the title of Pillai. In ancient days deva-ddsis who became 
experts in singing and dancing received the title of Rayar 
(king), which appears to have been last conferred in a.d. 1847. 
The South Travancore dasis neither interdine nor intermarry 
with the dancing-girls of the Tamil- speaking districts. They 
adopt girls only from a particular division of the Nayars, the 
Tamil Padam, and dance only in temples. Unlike their sisters 
outside Travancore, they do not accept private engagements 
in houses on the occasion of marriage. The males, in a few 
houses, marry the Tamil Padam and Padamangalam Nayars, 
while some Padamangalam Nayars and Nanchindt Velldlas in 
their turn take their women as wives. 


When a dancing- woman becomes too old or diseased, and 
thus unable to perform her usual temple duties, she applies 
to the temple authorities for permission to remove her ear- 
pendants (todu). The ceremony takes place at the palace of 
the Maharaja. At the appointed spot the officers concerned 
assemble, and the woman, seated on a wooden plank, pro- 
ceeds to unhook the pendants, and places them, with a nazar 
(gift) of twelve panams (coins), on the plank. Directly after 
this she turns about, and walks away without casting a second 
glance at the ear-ornaments which have been laid down. She 
becomes immediately a taikkizhavi, or old mother, and is 
supposed to lead a life of retirement and resignation. By way 
of distinction, a ddsl in active service is referred to as dtum- 
pair am. Though the ear- ornaments are at once returned to 
her from the palace, the woman is never again permitted to 
put them on, but only to wear the pampadam, or antiquated 
ear-ornament of Tamil Sudra women. Her temple wages 
undergo a slight reduction, consequent on her proved in- 

In some temples, as at Keralapuram, there are two 
divisions of dancing-girls, one known as the muzakkudi, to 
attend to the daily routine, the other as the chirappukudi, to 
serve on special occasions. The special duties that may be 
required of the South Travancore ddsls are : (1) to attend 
the two Utsavas at Padmanabhaswami's temple, and the 
Dusserah at the capital ; (2) to meet and escort members of 
the royal family at their respective village limits ; (3) to 
undertake the prescribed fasts for the apamdrga ceremony 
in connection with the annual festival of the temple. On 
these days strict continence is enjoined, and they are fed at 
the temple, and allowed only one meal a day. 

The principal deities of the dancing-girls are those to 
whom the temples, in which they are employed, are dedicated. 
They observe the new and full moon days, and the last 
Friday of every month, as important. The Onam, Sivaratri, 
Tai-Pongal, Dipavali and Chitrapurnami are the best recog- 
nised religious festivals. Minor deities, such as Bhadrakali, 
Yakshi and Gandharva are worshipped by the figure of a 
trident or sword being drawn on the wall of the house, to 
which food and sweetmeats are offered on Fridays. The 
priests on these occasions are ochchans. There are no recog- 
nised headmen in the caste. The services of Brahmans are 
resorted to for the purpose of purification, of nampiyans and 


Saiva Velldlas for the performance of funeral rites, and of 
gurus on occasions of marriage and for the final ceremonies 
on the sixteenth day after death. 

Girls belonging to this caste may either be dedicated to 
temple service or married to a male member of the caste. 
No woman can be dedicated to the temple after she has 
reached puberty. On the occasion of marriage a sum of from 
fifty to a hundred and fifty rupees is given to the bride's 
house, not as a bride-price, but for defraying the marriage 
expenses. There is a preliminary ceremony of betrothal, 
and the marriage is celebrated at an auspicious hour. The 
guru recites a few hymns, and the ceremonies, which include 
the tying of the tali, continue for four days. The couple 
commence joint life on the sixteenth day after the girl has 
reached puberty. It is easy enough to get a divorce, as 
this merely depends upon the will of one of the two parties, 
and the woman becomes free to receive clothes from another 
person in token of her having entered into a fresh matrimonial 

All applications for the presentation of a girl to the temple 
are made to the temple authorities by the senior dancing-girl 
of the temple, the girl to be presented being in all cases from 
six to eight years of age. If she is closely related to the 
applicant no inquiries regarding her status and claim need 
be made. In all other cases formal investigations are in- 
stituted, and the records taken are submitted to the chief 
revenue officer of the division for orders. Some paddy (rice) 
and five panams are given to the family from the temple funds 
towards the expenses of the ceremony. The practice at the 
Suchindram temple is to convene, on an auspicious day, a 
yoga, or meeting, composed of the Valiya Sri-kariyakkar, the 
Yogattil Potti, the Vattappalli Muttatu, and others, at which 
the preliminaries are arranged. The girl bathes, and goes to 
the temple on the morning of the selected day with two new 
cloths, betel leaves and nuts. The temple priest places the 
cloths and the tali at the feet of the image and sets apart one 
for the divine use. The tali consists of a triangular bottu, 
bearing the image of Ganesa, with a gold bead on either side. 
Taking the remaining cloth and the tali, and sitting close to 
the girl, the priest, facing to the north, proceeds to officiate. 
The girl sits, facing the deity, in the inner sanctuary. The 
priest kindles the fire, and performs all the marriage cere- 
monies, following the custom of the Tirukkalyanam festival, 


when Siva is represented as marrying Parvati. He then 
teaches the girl the Panchakshara hymn if the temple is 
Saivite, and Ashtakshara if it is Vaishnavite, presents her 
with the cloth, and ties the tali round her neck. The nattu- 
van, or dancing-master, instructs her for the first time in his 
art, and a quantity of raw rice is given to her by the temple 
authorities. The girl, thus married, is taken to her house, 
where the marriage festivities are celebrated for two or three 
days. As in Brahmanical marriages, the rolling of a cocoanut 
to and fro is gone through, the temple priest or an elderly 
ddsi, dressed in male attire, acting the part of the bridegroom. 
The girl is taken in procession through the streets. 

The birth of male children is not made an occasion for 
rejoicing, and, as the proverb goes, the lamp on these occa- 
sions is only dimly lighted. Inheritance is in the female line, 
and women are the absolute owners of all property earned. 
When a dancing-girl dies some paddy and five panams are 
given to the temple to which she was attached, to defray 
the funeral expenses. The temple priest gives a garland, and 
a quantity of ashes for decorating the corpse. After this a 
nampiyan, an ochchan, some Velldla headmen and a kudik- 
kdri, having no pollution, assemble at the house of the de- 
ceased. The nampiyan consecrates a pot of water with 
prayers, the ochchan plays on his musical instrument, and the 
Vellalas and kudikkdri powder the turmeric to be smeared 
over the corpse. In the case of temple devotees, their dead 
bodies must be bathed with this substance by the priest, after 
which alone the funeral ceremonies may proceed. The kartd 
(chief mourner), who is the nearest male relative, has to get 
his whole head shaved. When a temple priest dies, though he 
is a Brahman, the dancing-girl on whom he has performed 
the vicarious marriage rite has to go to his death- bed and 
prepare the turmeric powder to be dusted over his corpse. 
The anniversary of the death of the mother and maternal 
uncle are invariably observed. 

The adoption of a dancing-girl is a lengthy ceremony. 
The application to the temple authorities takes the form of a 
request that the girl to be adopted may be made heir to both 
kudi and pati that is, to the house and temple service of 
the person adopting. The sanction of the authorities having 
been obtained, all concerned meet at the house of the person 
who is adopting, a document is executed, and a ceremony, of 
the nature of the Jatakarma, performed. The girl then goes 


through the marriage-rite, and is handed over to the charge of 
the music-teacher to be regularly trained in her profession. 

In concluding his article, Thurston gives a number of cases 
about the initiation, laws of inheritance, etc., which have 
been argued in the Madras High Court, besides a selection 
of current proverbs relating to dancing-girls. These will be 
found on pp. 145-153 of the above-mentioned article. 

We have now become acquainted with all the important 
data on the subject under discussion so far as India is 

In summarising we notice the following points : 

In Vedic times reliable evidence is insufficient to enable 
us to form any definite conclusion as to the possibility of 
distinct connection between religion and prostitution. 

Although the law-books regarded the latter with dis- 
favour, and in the Buddhist age Brahmans were not even 
allowed to hear music or witness dances owing to their in- 
separable connection with prostitution, yet it appears that 
the letter of the law was not carried out in any great strict- 
ness. This is especially evident when in the collection of the 
birth-stories of Buddha (the Jdtakas) we read of the high 
esteem in which such women were held, and of the important 
positions sometimes even in the king's palace which they 

It is quite a feasible suggestion that this State approval 
of prostitutes may have been, even at this early date, largely 
due to their taking part (however small) in the ritual at the 
neighbouring temples. Direct historical evidence of the privi- 
leges which these women enjoyed is afforded by Kautilya's 
Arthasdstra {circa 300 B.C.), where we learn that, although 
under strict regulations, the prostitutes often acquired great 
position and wealth. 

In the early Christian era we still find no direct reference 
to the deva-ddsi, but literary evidence distinctly refers to 
dancing as one of the chief accomplishments of the courtesan. 
After about the twelfth century our evidence becomes more 
definite and geographical. 

In the time of Akbar rules were issued relating to the 
superintendence of the prostitute dancing-girls, and, as the 
oppression of the Mohammedans increased, so, in inverse 
ratio, did the " religious " element in the institution of the 
deva-ddsis become less and less. After the death of the 
Puritan Aurangzeb the general morality sank to a very low 


level, and prostitution, now entirely secular, reached huge 

In modern days the prostitute dancing-castes divide 
themselves into two branches, according as to whether they 
are Hindus or Mohammedans. Only one sub-caste, the rdj- 
kanyd, has any definite connection with the temples. Further 
evidence shows that there is no system of deva-ddsis as there 
is in the South, which state of things is due mainly to the 
Mohammedan conquest in earlier days. 

As we proceed southwards direct references to the deva- 
ddsis become more common. In Central India we find the 
system fully developed at Jagannatha, in Orissa, where the 
sincerity of the worshippers was as undoubted as the vicious- 
ness of the priesthood. Thus there existed side by side 
religion and prostitution. As the latter was recognised and 
approved by both Church and State, its acceptance by the 
worshippers of Vishnu, who looked to the Brahman priests 
for guidance, can be readily understood. 

We now come across accounts of the so-called marriage 
ceremonies of the deva-ddsis which attach to them a certain 
amount of envy, owing to the fact that, as they are married 
to a god, or an emblem of a divine husband, they can never 
become widows. This fact and the stamping of the bodies of 
the women with the symbols of the gods are the chief reasons 
which cause the deva-ddsi to be approved by the ordinary 
married women and resorted to by their husbands. 

Although British rule has done much to suppress the 
element of vice in the institution of the deva-ddsis, it is 
much too deeply rooted to extirpate. We find the ritual still 
prevalent in parts of Central India and still more so in the 

It is here that our accounts are much fuller and reliable, 
and even as early as a.d. 985 we find the system flourishing 
under the Choja monarchs. Mediaeval travellers confirm 
these accounts. 

It seems clear, however, that when the wealth and 
splendour of a kingdom reached its height, as in the case of 
Vijayanagar in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the 
" service of the deva-ddsi became almost entirely confined 
to the streets, while her temple duties were practically non- 

Farther south the religious observances had been more 
closely maintained, and travellers of the seventeenth, eigh- 


teenth and nineteenth centuries found the temple-women 
taking a prominent part at all the chief temples. It is obvi- 
ous to see from the more detailed accounts that here we have 
the fuller and more developed form of the system of sacred 
prostitution as compared with what we find farther north. 

The privileges of dedicating a girl to the deity are fully 
realised by the lower Sfidra castes and, as we see by the 
strange system of basivis, they can actually perform the 
obsequies of the parents in the place of the son. As the duty 
to the dead is of such great importance to the Hindu, it can 
at once be realised that not only are the dedicated prostitutes 
regarded with favour, but in many cases are entrusted with 
the performing of the most sacred duties, thus enabling their 
parents to die in peace. 

On the other hand, the status of the deva-ddsi is not held 
in the high consideration it once was, and modern education 
in India has done much to open the eyes of a more enlightened 

Surveying the total evidence here collected, the reader 
naturally asks himself how it was that the sacred and profane 
became thus united; or, in other words, what was the real 
origin of " sacred " prostitution. Numerous theories exist 
as to the true explanation of this strange custom, but none 
is entirely satisfactory. It will, however, help us in our 
inquiry to list the chief : 

1. It is a substitute for human sacrifice, being an offering 
to the deity in order to appease him or to secure blessings for 
the country in question and its inhabitants. 

2. It is an expiation for individual marriage as a tem- 
porary recognition of pre-existing communal marriage. 

3. It springs from the custom of providing sexual hospi- 
tality for strangers ; and if such hospitality be offered by the 
mortal wife of a deity, good would be bound to result. 

4. It is a rite to ensure the fruitfulness of the ground and 
the increase of man and beast on the principle of homoeopathic 

5. It arises from the secular and precautionary practice 
of destroying a bride's virginity by someone other than the 

6. It merely represents the licentious worship of a people, 
subservient to a degraded and vicious priesthood. 

7. It is a part of the phallic worship which existed in 
India from, early Dra vidian times. 


All the above theories have been put forward from time 
to time by men whose opinions have been, or are, respected. 

The evidence already laid before the reader shows clearly 
that most of them are quite insufficient to account for the 
whole institution of deva-ddsis, while others, such as Nos. 5 
and 6, have already been disproved. No. 4, supported 
by Frazer and many other scholars, seems to be feasible, 
although it certainly does not account for everything. 

The above theories have been presented by men who 
made comparisons, and I feel that the fact is often over- 
looked that the origin of a certain custom in one part of the 
world may not necessarily be the same as that of a similar 
custom in another part of the world. 

In speaking of sacred prostitution in Western Asia Frazer * 
says : * The true parallel to these customs is the sacred pros- 
titution which is carried on to this day by dedicated women 
in India and Africa." This is a sweeping statement to make, 
especially when we bear in mind how scanty is our knowledge 
of the early Semitic pantheon, the differences of opinion held 
by some of our greatest Babylonian scholars, and the lack of 
reliable historic data of the early Vedic period in India. 

We must also remember that the religion, ethics and 
philosophy of India have been ever changing, and nothing is 
more inapplicable than to speak of the " changeless East in 
this respect. 

Our knowledge of the early Dravidian religion of India 
before it was " taken over " by the Aryan invaders is so 
slight that it is impossible to make any definite statement 
with regard to the origin of any particular custom of ritual or 
religious observance. 

In order, however, to enable readers to make their own 
deductions and to follow up any branch of the subject, I shall 
give a few notes on sacred prostitution in countries other 
than India. 

Religious prostitution in Western Asia is first mentioned 
in some of the earliest records of Babylonia, and has also 
been traced in Syria, Phoenicia, Arabia, Egypt, Greece and 
Rome. Similar cults also occur in the Far East, Central 
America, West Africa and other localities to be mentioned 

The subject is a very extensive one, upon which volumes 
could be written. The following remarks, therefore, merely 

1 Golden Bough, Adonis, Attis and Osiris, vol. i, p. 61, 


deal with it in a very general manner. Care, however, has 
been taken to provide ample references, so that the student 
can pursue the subject to any length. 

As Mesopotamia was the original home of sacred prostitu- 
tion, I shall deal with the Babylonian evidence more fully 
than with that from other localities outside India, about 
which the classical writers of Rome and Greece have already 
made us sufficiently familiar. 


In discussing the " sacred servants," or hierodouloi, in 
ancient Babylonia we can conveniently divide the subject 
under the two following headings : 

1. The Code of Hammurabi. 

2. The Epic of Gilgamesh. 

1. About 2090 B.C., during the first dynasty of Babylon 
(which corresponds to the twelfth Egyptian dynasty), Ham- 
murabi set up in the temple of Marduk, the city god, at 
Babylon, a code of laws embodying the decisions of a long 
series of judges who were already acquainted with a system 
of laws probably of Sumerian origin. Babylonian law ran in 
the name of God, and the temple was naturally a very large 
factor in the life of the people. It formed an intimate con- 
nection between their god and themselves, and their ritual 
tended to emphasise this fact. 

Accordingly their god would dine with them at sacrificial 
feasts, he would intermarry with them, and would be appealed 
to as an adviser and helper in times of danger or difficulty. 
The temple was, moreover, the house of the god and thus was 
the outward sign of human relations with divine powers. It 
was also the centre of the country's wealth, the equivalent 
of the modern bank. Its wealth was derived partly from the 


land it owned, which was either leased out or used for cattle- 
breeding, and partly from dues of various kinds. 

The Code of Hammurabi x affected the whole realm, and 
the laws therein applied to every temple, no matter what 
god or goddess happened to be locally enshrined. Although 
Marduk was worshipped at Babylon, at Larsa or Sippar it 
was Shamash, at Erech it was Innini or Ishtar the mother- 
goddess, in Ur it was Nannar the moon-god, and so on. Each 
temple had a staff, varying with its size, which in most cases 
included both male and female hierodouloi in its service. 

The priestesses and temple women formed several distinct 
classes which need some detailed description. 

The priestesses were of two kinds, the entu (Nin-An) and 
the natitu (Sal-Me). Both classes were held in respect, and 
the entu (brides of the god) were looked upon as the highest 
class in the land. It is not clear if they married mortal 
husbands or not, anyway no mention of a father is made. The 
natitu were much more numerous and were allowed to marry, 
but were not expected to bear children, a maid being supplied 
for this purpose. Both the entu and the natitu were wealthy 
and owned property. 

They could either live in the gagum (cloister) adjoining the 
temple or in their own houses. If they chose the latter they 
were forbidden, on pain of being burned alive, to own or enter a 
wine-shop, so great was the prestige the class had to maintain. 

A study of the contract-literature of the period seems to 
make it clear that just as an ordinary well-to-do citizen could 
have a chief wife and many inferior ones as well as concu- 
bines, so also the god would have his chief wife (entu), his 
many inferior ones (natitu) and his concubines (zikru). 

This latter class of consecrated women known as zikru 
or zermashitu came immediately after the two varieties of 
priestesses already mentioned. They, too, were well-to-do 
and held in respect. The zikru or " vowed " woman is not 
mentioned in religious literature, nor is zermashitu (seed- 
purifying). Both of these temple harlots could marry and 
bear children. The zikru appears to be slightly superior to the 
zermashitu owing to the fact that in the laws relating to the 

1 For further details of the Code see the articles on Babylonian law by 
C. H. W. Johns in Ency. Brit., vol. iii, p. 115 et seq., and Ency. Rel. Eth., 
vol. vii, p. 817 et seq. Special reference should be made to J. Kohler and 
A. Ungnad, Hammurabi s Gesetz, Leipzig, 1909* and finally the Bibliography of 
p. 651 of the Cambridge Ancient History, vol. i, 1923. 


inheritance of property it is stated that if the father of a zikru 
died and nothing was left her in his will she was to inherit 
equally with her brothers, but if she was a zermashitu or a 
kadishtu (to be discussed shortly) she received only one- third 
of a brother's share. 

The kadishtu, although classed with the zermashitu as 
regards the inheriting of property, clearly occupied a sub- 
ordinate position. Her name means " sacred woman " and 
is the same as the Biblical kedeshah (Deut. xxiii, 18). There 
is no record of her marriage, and her speciality, outside her 
temple duties, was suckling the children of Babylonian ladies, 
for which service she received payment, together with a clay 
tablet recording the contract. Several examples of such 
tablets can be seen in the British Museum. 1 

Apart from the various temple women already mentioned 
there were others who were more especially connected with 
the worship of Ishtar. In the time of Hammurabi the centre 
of this cult was at Erech, although she had a shrine in the 
temple of Marduk in Babylon, where, under the name of 
Sarpanit, she appears in later texts as the wife of Marduk. 
It is undoubtedly Sarpanit to whom Herodotus refers in his 
well-known account of the enforced temporary prostitution 
of every Babylonian woman (i, 199). 

In order to understand the cult of the great mother- 
goddess throughout Western Asia it is necessary to say a 
few words on the origin of Ishtar. Recent evidence 2 seems 
to show that Ishtar was not of Semitic Babylonian or even 
of Sumerian creation, but was a primitive Semitic divinity 
personifying the force of nature which showed itself in the 
giving and taking of life. The various functions of Sumerian 
local goddesses became by absorption merely fresh attributes 
of Ishtar, the original name sometimes remaining. 

1 See D. G. Lyon, "The Consecrated Women of the Hammurabi Code," 
in Studies in the History of Religions, presented to C. H. Toy, New York, 1912, 
pp. 341-360. Both Lyon and Johns (Amer. Journ. Sem. Lang., vol. xix, 1902, 
pp. 96-107) tried to show that the temple women were chaste. This view 
has, however, been proved untenable by G. A. Barton (art. " Hierodouloi," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Etk, vol. vi, p. 672 et seq.) and D. D. Luckenbill (" The 
Temple Women of the Code of Hammurabi," in Amer. Journ. Sem. Lang., 
vol. xxxiv, 1917, pp. 1-12). 

1 am indebted to Mr R. Campbell Thomson for drawing my attention to 
the above papers, and to his own excellent chapter on " The Golden Age of 
Hammurabi" in the Cambridge Ancient History, vol. i, 1923, pp. 494-551, 
which has been of the greatest help in this appendix. 

2 See note on page 270. 


Thus we find different cities sacred to different goddesses 
which are all certain aspects of Ishtar, the great mother- 
goddess. It follows, therefore, that the characteristics of 
Ishtar were numerous, for besides being connected with 
creation of animal and vegetable life and the goddess of 
sexual love, marriage and maternity, she was also the 
storm and war goddess and the destroyer of life. It is 
interesting to compare similar attributes in the male-female 
(Ardha-narisvara) form of Siva, who was both a creator and 
a destroyer. 

In Erech Ishtar was known as Innini, Innanna or Nana, 
and as many hymns originally addressed to Innini are appro- 
priated by Ishtar, she bears, among others, the titles of 
" Queen of Eanna," " Queen of the land of Erech." 1 Her 
cult extended to all cities of importance in Babylonia and 
Assyria, and it is in her capacity as goddess of sexual love 
that she concerns us here. 

Her character is clearly represented in numerous hymns, 
where she is described as "the languid-eyed," "goddess of 
desire," " goddess of sighing," and refers to herself as " a loving 
courtesan " and " temple-harlot." In one hymn she says : 
" I turn the male to the female, I turn the female to the male, 
I am she who adorneth the male for the female, I am she who 
adorneth the female for the male." 2 In art she is depicted 
as naked with her sexual features emphasised, or as lifting 
her robe to disclose her charms. 3 Several statues represent 
her as offering her breasts ; some have been found outside 
Babylonia e.g. in Northern Syria and Carchemish. 4 

The names given to the licentious ministrants at the Ishtar 
temple at Erech were kizreti (harlot), shamkhdti (joy-maiden), 
and kharimdti (devoted one). If they differed from the 
zermashitu and kadishtu it is impossible to say exactly what 
the difference was. They are thus described in the Legend 
of Girra : 

" Of Erech, home of Anu and of Ishtar, 
The town of harlots, strumpets and hetaerae, 
Whose (hire) men pay Ishtar, and they yield their hand." 

1 Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., vol. xxxi, p. 60. 

2 Op. cit. } vol. xxxi, pp. 22, 34. 

3 W. H. Ward, The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, Washington, 1910, 
pp. 161 tt seq., 296, 380, 387. 

4 D. G. Hogarth, Liverpool Ann. Arch., ii, 1909, p. 170, fig. 1. 


We will now pass on to the Epic of Gilgamesh, where 
further data can be obtained. 

2. The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the most important 
literary products of Babylonia, and sheds considerable light 
on the cult of Ishtar. It consists of a number of myths of 
different ages some dating back to 2000 b.c. or even earlier 
which have all been gathered round the name of Gilgamesh, 
an early Sumerian ruler of about 4500 b.c. 

The Epic is known to us chiefly from a collection of twelve 
sets of fragments found in the library of Assur-bani-pal, King 
of Assyria (668-626 B.C.). In the first tablet the goddess 
Aruru creates a kind of " wild man of the woods," by name 
Engidu, 1 to act as a rival to Gilgamesh, whose power and 
tyranny had begun to be a burden to the people. In order 
to get Engidu away from his desert home and his beasts, a 
shamkhdt from Ishtar 's temple is taken to him. " This woman, 
when they approached Engidu, opened wide her garments, 
exposing her charms, yielded herself to his embrace, and for 
six days and seven nights gratified his desire, until he was 
won from his wild life." 2 In the second tablet the harlot 
takes him back to Erech, where she clothes and generally 
looks after him. 

He finally meets Gilgamesh, and the next three tablets 
relate their friendship, quarrels and adventures. The sixth 
tablet is especially interesting, for here we get a reference to 
the Ishtar- Tammuz myth which is so inseparable from the 
great mother-goddess. 

After overcoming an enemy named Khumbaba the two 
friends returned to Erech in triumph. Ishtar asks Gilgamesh 
to be her husband and promises him all manner of riches and 
power. He refuses, reminding her of the numerous lovers she 
has had in the past and what ill luck befell them. In particular 
he refers to Tammuz, the lover of her youth, whose death she 
bewails every year. This is, of course, the youthful solar God 
of the Springtime, who was wooed by the Goddess of Fertility, 
Ishtar. Each year that Tammuz died Ishtar went to Hades 
(Sheol) in search of him. The myth has been detailed by many 
scholars and does not in itself concern us here. 3 

1 Engidu is now considered a more correct reading than Eabani. 

2 Schrader, Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek, 1878, vol. vi, p. 127. 

3 See Frazer's Golden Bough, Attis, Adonis and Osiris, and the numerous 
articles in Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., under such headings as " Babylonians and 
Assyrians," " Heroes and Hero Gods," "Tammuz," "Ishtar," etc. 



The effects of Ishtar's descent to Sheol in search of 
her youthful lover have, however, direct bearing upon our 

As soon as Ishtar had gone on her annual journey to the 
underworld, copulation in men and animals ceased. Conse- 
quently some remedy had to be sought in order to circumvent 
such a disastrous state of affairs. Thus arose the necessity for 
women to play her part as goddess of sexual love and fertility ; 
and to fill this office the " sacred prostitute " was created. 

This applies only to the Ishtar cult and not to those cases 
where priestesses were found in temples dedicated to other 

We have seen that in the case of Marduk the god was 
credited with all human attributes and passions. 

To return to Gilgamesh, we find Ishtar very wroth at 
having her offers of love refused. She sent a bull to kill him, 
but he destroyed it. Thereupon Ishtar gathered together all 
her temple women and harlots, and made great outcry and 
lamentation. 1 

The remaining tablets, containing, among other incidents, 
the story of the Deluge, do not concern us. 

We have seen that at this early period sacred prostitution 
was fully established and entered into the literature and 
mythology of the country. Under the male deity the temple 
harlot plays the part of concubine, while under the female 
deity she was a kind of " understudy," always ready to sym- 
bolise by her action the purpose of the great mother-goddess. 

Without going farther into the cult of Ishtar it will serve 
our purpose better to move slowly westwards, noting the 
spread of the worship of a goddess of love and fertility which 
clearly resembled that of Ishtar. We must not necessarily 
conclude that whenever we find a mother-goddess it is merely 
Ishtar transplanted to new soil and given a new name. It 
seems to be more probable, anyhow in several cases, that 
local female deities acquired fresh attributes from Ishtar 
which occasionally became the most prominent features of 
the cult. 

1 Schrader, Keilins. Biblio., vol. vi, p. 86 et seq. 


Syria, Phoenicia, Canaan, etc. 

In Syria the great mother-goddess was known by the 
name of Attar or Athar, while at the sacred city of Hierapolis 
(the modern Membij) in the Lebanon she was called Atar- 
gatis, a word compounded out of 'Atar and 'Ate, two well- 
known Syrian deities. The full etymology of these names has 
been discussed by L. B. Paton, 1 who gives a large number of 
useful references. 

Our information on the worship at Hierapolis is mainly 
derived from Lucian's De Dea Syria, which is considered 
one of his earliest works, probably written about a.d. 150. 
Recent researches in Asia Minor and Northern Syria, largely 
numismatic, show that at the height of the Hittite domina- 
tion in the fourteenth century B.C. the chief religious cult 
was very similar to that described by Lucian. There were, 
however, certain differences. The Hittites worshipped a 
mated pair, a bull god and a lion goddess, while in later 
days it was the mother- goddess who became prominent, 
representing fertility, and (in Phoenicia) the goddess who 
presided over human birth. Religion in the East adapted 
itself to changing conditions and the immediate needs of 
the community. 

Thus in Syria the climate and temperament of the people 
tended to develop the sensuous aspect of the goddess. As the 
cult became more popular, the rites and festivals became more 
orgiastic in character. The phallic nature of some of the rites 
at Hierapolis is described by Lucian (28), where he speaks of 
two huge phalli, thirty fathoms high, which stood at the door 
of the temple. Twice every year a man (probably one of the 
castrated Galli) climbed to the summit from the inside, where 
he was supposed to hold converse with the gods to ensure the 
prosperity and fertility of the land. 

Speaking of the temple at Byblos, Lucian states that after 
the termination of the mourning for the loss of Adonis (cf. the 
Tammuz myth) the men shave their heads and the women 
who refuse to submit to a similar treatment have to prosti- 
tute themselves for a whole day in the temple. The proceeds 
of their hire paid for a sacrifice to the mother-goddess. The 
fact that the women were only allowed to be hired by strangers 
forms a curious relic of the system of exogamy. 

1 Hastings' Ency. Bel. Eth., vol. ii, p. 164 et seq., art. " Atargatis." 


Evidence seems to make it practically certain that there 
was a permanent, besides a temporary, system of religious 
prostitution at the temples, and Eusebius tells us that 
matrons as well as maids served the goddess in this manner. 
Lucian shows that the system of enforced temporary prosti- 
tution had been modified, and that a modest woman might 
substitute a portion of her hair instead of her person. This 
fact is interesting as showing the belief in the hair possessing 
a large and important percentage of the owner's personality. 
Readers will remember the care with which the savage 
hides or destroys his hair, nail-clippings, etc., lest an enemy 
get possession of them and work him harm through their 

By this passage in Lucian we see that at Byblos (Gebal) 
the sacrifice of chastity was looked upon as the most personal, 
and therefore most important, offering a woman could make. 
If she did not give this, then the next best thing her hair 
would be accepted. No such substitution, however, appears 
to have been allowed in former days i.e. before Lucian's 

The name given to the great mother-goddess in Phoenicia, 
Canaan, Paphos, Cyprus, etc., was Ashtart, Ashtoreth or 
Astarte. Her attributes closely resemble those of Ishtar, for 
we find her represented as a goddess of sexual love, maternity, 
fertility and war. Both the Greeks and Phoenicians identified 
her with Aphrodite, thus showing evidence of her sexual 
character. As is only natural, the Phoenicians carried this 
worship into their colonies, and so we read in Herodotus 
(i, 199), Clement of Alexandria (Protrept, ii), Justin (xviii, 
5, 4) and Athenaeus (xii, 2) of sacred prostitution closely re- 
sembling that in Syria. Special mention is made of male 
prostitutes at the temple of Kition in Cyprus. They are the 
same as the kddhesh of Deut. xxiii, 18, 19. 

Phoenician inscriptions give evidence of a temple of Ash- 
tart at Eryx in Sicily, while along the coast of North Africa 
the Semitic mother-goddess became very popular under the 
names of Ashtart and Tanith. 

St Augustine (De Civ. Dei, ii, 4) gives some account of 
the worship which, when stripped of its oratorical vagueness, 
points to a system of temporary hierodoiiloi, very similar to 
that described by Lucian. 

In Arabia the mother-goddess was Al-Lat or Al-'Uzza, 
whose worship was accompanied by the temporary practice 


of sacred prostitution. It would be superfluous to magnify 

We have seen that the practice spread all over Western 
Asia and into Europe and Africa. Egypt we have not 
discussed, but the numerous references given by G. A. Barton 
in his article, " Hierodouloi," in Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth. 9 
vol. vi, pp. 675-676, show that the system can be clearly 
traced, especially at Thebes. 

To sum up our evidence from Western Asia, there ap- 
pear to be several reasons to which the institution of sacred 
prostitution owes its origin : 

1. The male deity needed concubines like any mortal, 
thus women imitated at the temples their divine duties. 

2. The female deity, being a goddess of fertility, had 
under her special care the fruitfulness of vegetation as well 
as of the animal world. Thus she endeavours to hasten on 
the return of spring. It is only natural that at her temples 
women should assist in this great work of procreation, chiefly 
by imitating the functions necessary to procreate. When the 
goddess was absent in search of spring, the whole duties of 
the cult would fall on her mortal votaries. 

3. Sacrifices of as important and personal nature as pos- 
sible would be acceptable to such a goddess, and the hopes 
of prosperity in the land would be increased. 

When human passions enter so largely into a ritual, and 
when the worshippers and ministrants of the goddess are of 
an excitable and highly temperamental nature, and finally 
when one takes into account such factors as climate and 
environment, it is not surprising that at times the religious 
side of the ritual would play but a minor part. This happened 
in India and also in Western Asia, and evidence shows the 
same thing to have occurred both in ancient Central America 
and Western Africa. 

West Africa 

Before comparing the above with our Indian data, refer- 
ence might suitably be made to the sacred men and women 
in West Africa. 

Among the Ewe- speaking peoples of the Slave Coast and 
the Tshi-speaking peoples of the Gold Coast is to be found 


a system of sacred prostitution very similar to that which 
we have already considered. The subject was mentioned by 
Burton l and has since been fully discussed by Ellis, 2 and as 
Frazer has quoted so largely from him, 3 it will not be necessary 
to give any detailed description here. 

Two quotations will be sufficient : 

" Young people of either sex, dedicated or affiliated to a 
god, are termed kosio, from kono, ' unfruitful,' because a child 
dedicated to a god passes into his service and is practically 
lost to his parents, and si, to run away.' As the females 
become the 6 wives ' of the god to whom they are dedicated, 
the termination si in vodu-si has been translated ' wife ' by 
some Europeans ; but it is never used in the general accepta- 
tion of that term, being entirely restricted to persons conse- 
crated to the gods. The chief business of the female kosi is 
prostitution, and in every town there is at least one institu- 
tion in which the best-looking girls, between ten and twelve 
years of age, are received. Here they remain for three years, 
learning the chants and dances peculiar to the worship of the 
gods, and prostituting themselves to the priests and inmates 
of the male seminaries ; and at the termination of their 
novitiate they become public prostitutes. This condition, 
however, is not regarded as one for reproach ; they are 
considered to be married to the god, and their excesses 
are supposed to be caused and directed by him. Properly 
speaking, their libertinage should be confined to the male 
worshippers at the temple of the god, but practically it is 
indiscriminate. Children who are born from such unions 
belong to the god." 

Just as in India, these women are not allowed to 
marry a mortal husband. On page 148 of the same work 
Ellis says : 

" The female kosio of Daiih-gbi, or Danh-sio, that is, the 
wives, priestesses, and temple prostitutes of Danh-gbi, the 
python-god, have their own organisation. Generally they 
live together in a group of houses or huts inclosed by a 
fence, and in these inclosures the novices undergo their three 
years of initiation. Most new members are obtained by the 

1 A Mission to Gelele, vol. ii, p. 155. 

2 A. B. Ellis, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa, 
London, 1890, p. 140 et seq. ; and The Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast 
of West Africa, London, 1887, pp. 120-138. 

3 Golden Bough, Attis, Adonis and Osiris, vol. i, pp. 65-70. 


affiliation of young girls ; but any woman whatever, married 
or single, slave or free, by publicly simulating possession, and 
uttering the conventional cries recognised as indicative of 
possession by the god, can at once join the body, and be 
admitted to the habitations of the order. The person of a 
woman who was joined in this manner is inviolable, and dur- 
ing the period of her novitiate she is forbidden, if single, to 
enter the house of her parents, and, if married, that of her 
husband. This inviolability, while it gives women oppor- 
tunities of gratifying an illicit passion, at the same time serves 
occasionally to save the persecuted slave, or neglected wife, 
from the ill treatment of the lord and master ; for she has 
only to go through the conventional form of possession and 
an asylum is assured." 

The reader will, I think, notice a closer relationship to the 
customs of West Africa in India than in Western Asia, but 
we must remember that we have much more evidence on 
such customs in India and Africa than in Babylonia, Syria 
and Phoenicia. In Western Asia we have no account of the 
initiation and duties taught to the new votary, so we cannot 
make sufficiently close comparisons. 

There are undoubtedly instances of the past existence of 
somewhat similar institutions to those we have been consider- 
ing in other parts of the world such as Peru, Mexico, Borneo, 
Japan, etc. The evidence has been collected, and references 
given, by John Main in " his " Religious Chastity, New York, 
1913, pp. 136-181. 

Now that we have considered our subject in countries 
other than India we feel in a better position to theorise as to 
the origin of the institution of the deva-ddsi. 

The basis on which all such systems rest seems to be the 
natural desire to ensure fertility in both the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms. Environment, changing sentiment, 
temperament and religious feeling account for the particular 
channel into which such a system, touching the human 
passions so closely, has run. 

Different conditions may produce quite different schools 
of thought in exactly the same place. Old customs may be 
followed by modern people with little idea of why they 
follow them. 

In India the system of caste, the status of women, suttee, 
srdddha and numerous other customs already mentioned 



in the Ocean of Story have all left their mark on such an 
institution as that of the deva-ddsi. 

More than this it is impossible to say. Much research still 
remains to be done on this highly important anthropological 



The n stands for " note " and the index number refers to the number of the note. If there 
is no index number to the n it means that either there is only one note on the page 
or else it refers to a note carried over from a previous page. 

Lbhimanyu, 95 
*Abdu-r Razzaq, in Elliot's 

History of India, 248ft 1 ; de- 
scription of dancing-girls 

by, 248-249 _ 
Abu-1-Fazl, A'in - i - Akbarl, 

Blochmann and Jarrett, 

Bihlio. Indica, 237ft 1 
Achilles, story of, 129 
Adam of Cobsam, "The 

Wright's Chaste Wife," 

English Text Society, 

Furnival, 44 
Ad-Damiri's Hay at al- 

Hayawan (zoological lexi- 
con), trans, by A. Jayakar, 

Aditi, 199 
Aditya, 199 

Adityavarman, King, 51, 52 
Adonis, mourning for the loss 

of, 275 
Mpyornis maximus, discovery 

of the fossil, 104, 105 
.Esop, Fables, 20ft, 101ft 1 , 

Africa, sacred prostitution in, 

276, 277-279 
Africa, use of kohl in, 217 
Agni, God of Fire and Light, 

Agnidatta, wife of Govinda- 

datta, 78 
Agnisikha (or Somadatta), 11 
Agra, 231 
'Agwah (compressed dates, 

butter and honey), 14ft 
Ahatya (having killed), 126ft 1 
Ahmad Shah, sack of Mathura 

by, 231 
Ahura, Persian "lord" or 

"god," 198, 199 
Ahuri, wife of Nenofer- 

kephtah, 37ft 2 
Ahuro Mazdao, the Persian, 

Aindra Grammar, 32, 32ft 1 


A'in-i-Akbari, Abu-i-Fazl, 

Blockmann and Jarrett, 

237ft 1 
Airavana, 126 
Aiyar, K. V. S., 155ft 1 
Aiyer, N. S., 261 
Ajanta cave paintings, 211 
Ajib (story of Gharib), 14ft 
Akarshika (city named), 22 
Akbar (1556-1605), 237 ; rules 

for dancing - girls in the 

time of, 265 
Al-Islam, 124ft 
Aladdin's lamp (resembling 

magic watch of Bohemian 

tale), 101ft 1 
Alakesa Katha, the Tamil 

(snake story), 101ft 1 
Alambusha, Apsaras named, 

Alankaraprabha, Queen, 227 
Alankaravati (Book IX), 2 
Alberich (King), dwarf of old 

German legends, 27 
Alexander and the gigantic 

bird, 103 
Alfonso I, King of Aragon, 

Algiers and Cairo, courtesan 

streets in, 250 
Allah, 1ft 1 , 28, 192 
Allah shows himself to Moses 

on Sinai, 217 
Allahabad, 7w*, 42, 240 
Al-lat, mother -goddess in 

Arabia, 276 
Al-'Uzza, mother-goddess in 

Arabia, 276 
Amadis de Gaula, 165 
Amaravati, the city of the 

gods, 125, 125ft 1 
Amarsha, 106/* 1 
Ambalapuzha, 261 
Amisham, 106ft 1 
Amrita (nectar), 3w 2 , 55ft 1 
Amru, Persian name for 

Garuda bird, 103 

A-nan or dancing - girls in 
_ Cambodia, 241 
Ananda (joy or happiness), 

241, 241^2 
Anan ga - llanga, K a 1 y a n a 

Malla, 236, 236ft 3 
Ananta (endless, or infinite), 

name of the thousand- 
headed serpent Sesha, 

Ananta, serpent, 109, 109ft 2 
"Anaryan" (F. F. Arbuth- 

not), 236ft 1 
Anas Casarca, Brahmany duck 

or Chakravaka, 115ft 1 
Anatha (Sanskrit pun), 12ft 4 
Andaman Islands, 154ft 1 
Andhaka (King of the 

A suras), 3 
Andhra Dynasty, coins of the, 

64ft 2 
Andhra Dynasty, Sri Pullman 

of the, 60ft 1 
Angaraka, the Asura, 125, 

126, 127 
AngaravatI, daughter of the 

Asura Angaraka, 125, 126, 

Angiya (the assumption of the 

bodice), rite of, 240 
Anjana or collyrium, 211, 212 ; 

boxes for, 212 ; purification 

of, 212 ; recipes for making, 

'Anka, Garuda bird (Islam), 

Anna, the princess, 82/i 1 
'Anqa (long-necked), Arabian 

name for Garuda bird, 103 
'Anqa (Garuda bird), 105 
An-si-tsio or Parthian bird, 

Anu, 272 
Anubis, 145ft 1 
Anya-deha-pravcsako yogah, or 

wandering soul, 37w 2 , 38ft 
Apamaraga ceremony, 262 



Aphrodite, Ashtart identified 

with, 276 
Apollonius, Historia Mira- 

bilium, 39ft 2 
Apsaras named Alambusha, 

96 ; named Tilottama, 96 
Apsarases, servants of the 

gods, 197, 200-202 
Arabia, sacred prostitution 

in, 268; Hanifa tribe of, 


Arabic Hdtif (bodiless voice), 
16ft 1 

Arabic kasab (prostitution), 

Arabic mother-goddess, 276 

Aramacobha and the grate- 
ful snake, Tawney, Kathd- 
koca, 101m 1 

Arbman, E., Rudra, 206 

Arbuthnot, F. F., and R. F. 
Burton, Kama Shastra 
Society, 234ft 2 

Arbuthnot, F. F., Early Ideas: 
A Group of Hindoo Stories, 
236, 236ft 1 

Ardha-narisvara (Siva) half- 
male and half- female, 
146w 2 , 272 

Ardhdvistayd gird, 185ft 2 

Ariosto, 165 

Arjuna, combat with Siva of, 
95, 95* 1 

Ars amoiis indica, 236, 259 

Arsha form of marriage, 87 

Arthasdstra, Kautilya's, a 
work on Hindu polity, 233, 
233ft 1 , 265 

Arthur's sword, Excalibar, 
109ft 1 

Aruru, the goddess, 273 

Aryans, 198, 206 

Asana wood, 212 

Asbjornsen, Norwegian 
stories, 25, 132 

Asclepias acida {soma), 12ft 1 

Ashadhaka, an elephant- 
driver, 150, 151 

Ashir, national god of As- 
syria, 198 

Ashtakshara hymn, 264 

Ashtapada mountain, holy 
place on the, 226 

Ashtart (Ishtar), 276 

Ashtoreth (Ishtar), 276 

Ashur, national god of As- 
syria, 198 

Asia Minor, 198 

Asmantaka wood (used in 
anjana), 212 

Asoka trees, 222 

Assur, national god of As- 
syria, 198 

Assur-bani-pal, King of As- 
syria, 273 

Assyria, Assur, Ashir or 
Ashur god in, 198; Assur- 
bani-pal, King of, 273 

Assyrians, 215 

Astarte (Ishtar), 276 

Asti (thus it is), 4/a 1 

Astralagus plant, 214 

Asu (spirit or life-breath), 198 

Asura Angaraka, 125-127 

Asura, daughter of the, 125- 

Asura, derivation of the 
word, 197-199 

Asura maid, the, 108-110 

Asura marriage (by capture), 
87, 200 

Asura Maya, sons of the, 22 

Asura, Mesopotamia the pos- 
sible home of the term, 198 

Asuras and gods, war between 
the, 95 

Asuras (usually enemies of 
the gods), 3, 3ft 2 , 95, 197- 

Asvaldyana Sratda Sutra, the, 

Asvdsya, 40ft 2 

Aswin (October), 245, 245ft 1 

Atargatis (Ishtar), 274 

Atavl (forest), 141ft 1 

Atef, the Scribe, 216 

Athar or Attar (Ishtar), 275 

Atharva-V eda, the, 56, 199, 

Athenseus, 15ft, 190, 276 

Ativinita, In 1 

Attar or Athar (Ishtar), 275 

Atumpdtram (a ddsi in active 
service), 262 

Aurangzeb,the Mohammedan 
Puritan, 231, 238, 250, 265 

Auvergne, "female" cakes 
made at Clermont in, 15w 

Avadana Bodhisattva, 20ft 2 

Avaddnas, trans, by Stanislas 
Julien, 26 

Avanti, 107, 119 

A vesta, Zoroaster, 199 

Avichi, hell called, 161 

Avinita, 7ft 1 

Avispastayd (with his inarticu- 
late voice), 185ft 2 

Ayodhya, 37, 96, 97 

Ayyangar, S. K., Sources of 
Vijayanagar History, 250ft 1 

"Aziz and Azlzah," story of 
(Nights), 80ft 1 


Babu Umesa Chandra Gupt 

Babylon, 24ft 1 , 269, 270, 271 
Babylonia, 269-274 
"Babylonian Law," C. H. W 

Johns, Ency. Brit., 269ft 1 
Babylonians, 215 
Badarika, hermitage of, 58 

Bahdr-i-Ddnish, 25, 43, 162ft 1 
Bahusalin, friend of Sridatta 

107, 111-114, 119 
Bahusuvarnaka, 78 
Bairagi community, 243 
Bait Ullah, 192 
Bakakachchha, province 

66, 72 
Bakula trees, 222 
Bala (child), 185 
Balakhilyas, divine person 

ages the size of a thumb 

144, 144ft 2 
Balapandita, 46ft 2 
Balavinashtaka (young de 

formed),' 185 
Bali, King of the Daityas 

108, 108ft 2 

Bali (daily offering to ani- 
mals), 21, 21ft 1 
Balibhuj (crow), 21ft 1 
Ball, V., trans, of Travels oj 

Tavernier, 241ft 3 
Bandello, Novelle, 44, 162ft 1 

Bandhula, 225, 226 
Bandhumati, wife of the King 

of Vatsa, 187-188 
Barahat (Barhut), 42 
Barbazan-Meon, Fabliaux ei 

Contes des Pontes Franqou 

des XI e -XV e siecles, 44 
Barhut (Bharahut), 42 
Barnes, T., "Trees and 

Plants," Hastings' Ency. 

Rel Eth., 144ft 1 
Bart, A., "An Ancient 

Manual of Sorcery," 

Melusine, 12ft 1 
Barton, G. A., "Hiero- 

douloi," Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 271ft 1 , 277 
Bartsch, Sagen, Marchen und 

gebr'duche aus Meklenburg, 

Bar yuchre (fabulous bird of 

the Rabbinical legends), 

Basant Panchmi, festival of, 

Basile, Pentamerone, 20w, 2 

44, 46ft 2 , 77ft 1 , 97n 2 , 168 




asivis (dancing-girls), 255- 

267, 267 
Bathana or Paithana of 

Ptolemy (Pratishthana), 

60ft 1 
Bath kol (bodiless voice), 16W 1 
Bayadere (Portuguese bailar, 

to dance), 253, 253ft 1 
Beal, S., in Indian Antiquary, 

Beauchanip, H. K., editor of 

Dubois' Hindu Manners, 

Customs and Ceremonies, 

250, 250ft 3 
Beda, caste of, 258, 258ft 1 
Bediyas and nats, gipsy 

tribes, 240 
Beet, Crawley, and Canney, 

" Oath," Hastings' Ency. 

Bel Eth., 57ft 1 
Bellary district of Madras, 

213, 255 
Benares, 20, 240 
Benfey, translator of the 

Panchatantra, S7n 2 , 39ft 2 , 

46ft 2 , 51ft 1 , 54* 1 , 84ft 2 , 145ft 1 , 

157ft 2 , 188ft 2 , 189ft 
Bengal, 75ft 1 , 243 
Benu, the symbol of the 

rising sun, 103, 104 
Berbera (Pi-p'a-lo), "camel- 
crane " of, 104 
Bernier (1660), 250 
Bes, the god, 216 
Bhadda - Sala - Jataka (Cam- 
bridge edition), 225 
Bhadrakali, a minor deity, 

BhadravatI, elephant called, 

Bhadrinath (Badarl), 59ft 1 
Bhagavata Purana, 5ft 1 
Bhandarkar, "The Aryans in 

the Land of the Assurs," 

Journ. Bom. Br. Roy. Asiatic 

Soc., 198 
Bharadvaja, hermit, 75 
Bhavananda, 11 
Bhavani (Parvatl), mother of 

the three worlds, 2 
Bhavanika, 113, 114 
Bhavins (dancing-girls), 245, 

Bheda (sowing dissension), 

123ft 2 
Bheels, King of the, 152 
Bhillas, 152ft 1 
Bhima the impetuous, 107 
Bhishagratna, translation of 

the Susruta Samhita, 211- 


Bhogavarman, 52, 53 
Bhogavati, city called, 203 
Bhojika, a Brahman named, 

Bholanath Chandra, Travels, 

238ft 1 
Bhuta, demons hostile to 

mankind, 197, 206 
Bhutivarman, Rakshasa 

named, 76, 77, 78 
Bianconi, Prof. G. G., of 

Bologna, 104, 105 
Bimba (an Indian fruit), 31, 

31ft 2 
Bimbaki, King, 112, 113, 119 
Bimbisara, King, 223 
Bingen, St Hildegard of, 

Subtleties, 110ft 1 
Birdwood, Sir George, 192 
Birlinger, A us Schwaben, 103 
Birmingham, 250 
Blochmann and Jarrett , A 'in-i- 

Akbarl, by Abu-1-Fazl, 237ft 1 
Bloomfield, Prof., 46ft 2 , 47ft, 

118ft 2 , 121ft 2 , 221, 222, 224, 

225, 228; Encyclopedia oj 

Hindu Fiction, 221 ; " On the 

Art of Entering Another's 

Body," Proc. Amer. Philoso. 

Soc, 38ft ; "On the Art of 

Stealing," 118ft 2 
Boat fish, 131 
Boccaccio, Decameron, 44, 

145ft 1 , 147ft 2 , 148^,165,171; 

pelo arriciato (horripilation), 

120ft 1 
Bodhisattva Avadana, 20n 2 , 

66ft 1 
Bogams, Telugu dancing-girls, 

244, 245 
Bohn's edition of the Gesta 

Romanorum, 169 
Bohtlingk and Roth, 70ft 1 
Bokhara, 49ft 1 
Bombay, 37ft 2 , 245 
Bompas, Folk-Lore of the 

Santal Parganas, 46ft 2 , 131 
Borneo, sacred prostitution 

in, 279 
Bos grunniens (Tibet cow), 252 
Bottu (part of the tali or 

marriage token), 263 
Brahma, 4, 4ft 2 , 10ft 2 , 77, 96, 

96ft 1 , 144ft 2 , 199, 201 
Brahma form of marriage, 

Brahmadatta, King, 20, 21 
Brahman caste, marriage 

forms for, 87 
Brahmanas, the, 10ft 3 
Brahmavatl, Queen, 226-227 

Brand, Popular Antiquities, 191 
Brewer, Dictionary of Phrase 

and Fable, 109ft 1 
Brihaspati, preceptor of the 

gods, 57, 57ft 2 
Brihat-Katha, the, 1, 42, 89, 

89ft 1 , 91, 92, 169, 236 
Brihat-Katha-Manjari, Kshe- 

mendra, 236 
Brives, "male" cakes made 

at, 15ft 
Brockhaus, Dr, 1ft 4 , 5ft 4 , 7ft 1 , 

9ft 2 , 13ft 2 , 18ft 3 , 37ft 1 , 51ft 2 , 

58ft 2 , 58w 3 , 61ft 3 , 61ft 4 , 7871 1 , 

95ft 1 , 110ft 2 , 116ft 3 , 126ft 1 , 

160ft 2 
Brugmann, Vergl. Gramm., 

"Bruno, Liar," Italian tale 

of, 27 
Bry, De (1599), 250 
Buddha, 84w 2 , 156, 192, 241 ; 

tales of the previous births 

of the (Jatakas), 232 
Buddhadatta, minister of 

Chandamahasena, 123, 

123ft 1 ' 
Buddhaghosa's Fables, 104 
Biihler, Dr G., editor oiDasa- 

Kumara-Charita, 63?* 1 , 100ft 1 , 

234ft 4 
Biihler, Sacred Books of the 

East, 87, 205 
Burlingame, "Act of Truth 

Motif," Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 

Burma, 155ft 1 
Burnell, Aindra Grammar, 

32W 1 ; Sdmavidhana Brah- 

mana, 12ft 1 
Burnell and Yule, Hobson 

Jobsoji, 242ft 1 , 250ft 2 
Burnouf, trans, of Bhagavata 

Purana, 5ft 1 
Burton and Arbuthnot, Kama 

Shastra Society, 234ft 2 , 

236ft 1 
Burton, J. H., Narratives from 

Criminal Trials in Scotland, 

Burton, Bibliography of Sir 

Richard F., N. M. Penzer, 

234ft 2 , 236ft 3 ; Selected Papers 

of, N. M. Penzer, 109ft 1 , 

Burton, R. F., Book of the 

Sword, 109ft 1 ; // Pentam- 

erone, 26, 46w 2 , 77ft 1 , 97ft 2 , 

168; A Mission to Gelele, 278, 

278m 1 ; Nights, In 1 , 14ft, 25, 

27, 28, 43, 47ft, 80ft 1 , 101ft 1 , 



Burton, R. F. continued 
103, 105, 120ft 1 , 124ft 1 , 131, 
133ft 1 , 141ft 2 , 144ft 1 , 163ft, 
167, 170, 183ft, 186ft 1 , 204, 
217; A Pilgrimage to El- 
Medinah and Meccah, 192 ; 
Vikram and the Vampire, 87, 
136m 2 

Busk, M. H., Folk-Lore of 
Rome, 20ft, 26, 132 

Byblos (Gebal), 275, 276 

Caesar, Julius, 46w 2 , 109ft 1 
Cairo, courtesan streets in, 

Calcutta, the "City of 

Palaces," 125ft 1 
Calivahana, 47ft 
Cambly, or country - made 

blanket, 256 
Cambodia, dancing-girls in, 

Campaka trees, 222 
Campbell, Tales of the Western 

Highlands, 26, Sin 2 , 129, 

132, 157ft 2 , 163ft 1 
Canaan, sacred prostitution 

in, 275-277 
Canney, Crawley, Beet and 

"Oath," Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 57ft 1 
Cantimpre, Thomas of, 110ft 1 
Carchemish, statues of Ishtar 

at, 272 
Carey and Marshman trans, of 

the Rdmdyana, In 2 
Carnoy, E. H., Conies Francais, 

Cartuasul, or " withershins," 

Catechu wood, 212 
Cathay, 155ft 1 
Cerberus, 77ft 1 

Chaitra (March-April), 112ft 1 
Chakra, 256, 258 
Chakravaka, (Brahmany 

duck), 115, 115ft 1 , 187 
Chanakya, Brahman named, 

55, 56, 57 
Chanakya (Kautilya or Vish- 

nugupta), 233, 233ft 1 
Chandamahasena, 122, 124- 

125, 128, 129, 133-135, 

150-151, 153, 182 
Chandika (Durga) 116, 116ft 1 
Chandragupta, 17ft 3 , 37ft 2 , 40, 

57, 233, 250 
Chank (or shenk), 256, 258 
Charles, King, 69ft 2 
Chataka, 72, 72ft 1 
Chaturdarika (Book V), 2 

Chaturika, 64, 65 

Chaucer, Squire's tale in, 
145ft 1 

Chau Ju-Kwa, Chu-fan-ch'i, 
104, 241, 241ft 1 , 252 

Chauvin, Bibliographic des 
Ouvrages Arabes, 27, 28, 
lOln 1 , 105, 128ft 1 , 168, 171, 
186ft 1 , 189ft 

Chavaka-Jdtaka, 226 

Chhdyd, 13ft 1 

Chhdyd (colour), 122ft 3 

Chilli's Folk-Tales of Hindu- 
stan, 131 

China, 155ft 1 , 242ft 3 ; circum- 
ambulation in, 192 

Chinchinl, 18 

Chirappukudi, dancing - girl, 

Chitaldroog, district of My- 
sore, 213 

Chitrapurnami, festival of, 

Chola country, 247; monarchs, 
155ft 1 , 247, 266 

Choolee, or short jacket, 253 

Chrysis, 77ft 1 

Chuddapah district, Madras, 

Chuddis, 51ft 2 

Chu-fan-ch'i, by Chau Ju-Kwa, 
104, 241, 241ft 1 

Chupattees (griddle-cakes), 82ft 

Clement of Alexandria, Pro- 
trept, 15ft, 276 

Clermont, "female" cakes 
made in, 15ft 

Clodd, Edward, in Folk-Lore 
Journal, 130 

Clouston, 167, 168; Book of 
Sindibdd, 27, 43, 170, 171, 
186ft 1 ; A Group of Eastern 
Romances and Stories, 43, 
lOln 1 , 131, 160ft 3 ; Popular 
Tales and Fictions, 29, 42, 
43, 44, 85ft, 101ft 1 , 130 

Cobinam, 213 

Coedes,"LeRoyaume de Crivi- 
jaya," 155ft 1 

Coelho, Contos Populares Portu- 
guezcs,26, 44, 145ft 1 

Coimbatore, 260 

Colebrooke, 56ft 1 

Collyrium, 69, 211-218 

Comparetti, Virgilio net medio 
evo, 148ft ; Researches re- 
specting the Book of Sindibdd, 
170, 186ft 1 

Conjeeveram, 257 

Constantine the Great (bath 
of blood), 98ft 

Conti, Nicolo, in R.H.Major's 
India in the Fifteenth Century "\ 
248ft 1 

Conybeare, F. C, "Asceti- 
cism," Ency. Brit., 79ft 1 

Cook, S. A., "Serpent- Wor- 
ship," Ency. Brit., 203 ; 
"Tree-Worship," Ency. 
Brit., 144ft 1 

Coote, H. C, Some Italian 
Folk-Lore {Folk-Lore Re- 
cord), 26 

Coptos, sea of, 37w 2 , 129 

Cordier and Yule, The Book of 
Ser Marco Polo, 63ft 1 , 104, 
105, 141ft 1 , 213, 241ft 2 , 
242ft 3 , 247ft 3 ; Cathay and 
the Way Thither, 63w 2 , 

Cormorin, Cape (Kanya- 
kumari), 155ft 1 

Cormi Cerastic (horn of the 
horned serpent), llOn 1 

Coromandel coast, the, 247 

Cow ell, E. B., 5ft 4 , 13 3 , 
15ft 1 

Cox, Mythology of the Aryan 
Nations, 130, 148ft 

Crane, T. F., Italian Popular 
Tales, 26 

Crawley, Beet and Canney, 
"Oath," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 57ft 1 

Crawley, A. E., "Doubles," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
37ft 2 ; "Drums and Cym- 
bals," Hastings' Ency. Rel, 
Eth., 118ft 2 

Crocea Mors (yellow death), 
Caesar's sword, 109ft 1 

Croker, J. C, Fairy Legends 
and Traditions of the South 
of Ireland, 26 

Crooke, Macculloch and 
Welsford, "Serpent- Wor- 
ship," Hastings' Ency. Rel. 
Eth., 203, 204 

Crooke, W., 38ft, 163ft, 213; 
" Ancestor - Worship (In- 
dian)," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 56ft 1 ; Folk-Lore 
of Northern India, 37ft 2 , 
67ft 1 , 98ft, 134ft 1 , 203, 205, 
206, 228; "Prostitution 
(Indian)," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 233, 239ft 2 ; 
"Secret Messages and 
Symbols used in India," 
Journ. Bihar and Orissa 
Research Soc, 82w ; Tribes 
and Castes of the North- 



>ke, W. continued 
Western Provinces, 239m 1 , 

240m 2 

Proves of gold, 101m 1 
^ullaka-Setthi-Jfitaka, 62m 1 
Ainchurree (dancing - girl), 

250m 2 
Cunningham, A., Archaeological 
Reports, 7m 4 , 238m 1 ; The 
Stupa of Bharhut, 42 
Curta'na, the "cutter," 109m 1 
Curze, Popular Traditions from 

Waldeck, 26 
Cyprus, 276 

Dabbhapuppha-Jataka, 226 

Dabistan, 192 

Daevas, Persian enemies of 

the gods, 199 
Daityas, enemies of the gods, 

108, 109, 126, 127, 128, 197, 

Daiva marriage, 87 
Daksha, son of Brahma, 4, 5, 

5m 1 , 103, 199 
D' Alviella " Circumambula- 

tion," Hastings' Ency. Rel. 

Eth., 193 ; The Migration oj 

Symbols, 192 
Damant, G. A., "The Touch- 
stone, "Indian Antiquary, 42 ; 

Bengali Folk-Lore, 131 
Dames and Joyce, "Story 

of King Sivi," Man, 85m 
Damodaragupta, Kuttanl- 

matam, 236, 236m 2 
Dana (giving), 123m 2 
Danava, enemies of the gods, 

127, 197, 199-200 
Danda (open force), 123m 2 
Dandin, great poet of India, 

234, 235 
Danh-gbi, the python -god, 

Dafih-sio, the python -god, 

Dante, Inferno, 40m 3 
Danu, daughter of Daksha, 

Darbha grass, 55, 55m 1 , 56m, 

Ddroghah (superintendent of 

prostitutes), 237 
Daroglias register, 241 
Dasa caste, 246, 259, 260- 

Dasa Kumar a Charita, Dandin, 

25, 234, 234n*, 235 
Dasent, Popular Tales from 
the Norse, 26, 27, 44, 
77m 1 

Dasyu (savage, barbarian, 

robber), 152m 1 
Dasyus, demons hostile to 

mankind, 197, 198, 206-207 
Datura, 160, 160m 1 , 161 
Davenant, 165 
Day, Lai Behari, Folk-Tales 

of Bengal, 28, 95m 2 , 131 
Deasil, 193 
Deazil (walking three times 

round a person with the 

sun), 191, 193 
Deccan, the, 18, 61, 107 
Dehantara-avesa (the wander- 
ing soul), 37m 2 , 38m 
Deir el Bahari, 216 
Deisul (circumambulation), 

Delhi, Sultanate of, 237, 248 
Demeter and Kore, offerings 

to, 15m 
Denarius, the Greek, 63m 1 
Dervish Makhlis of Ispahan, 

Thousand and One Days, 43 
" Desheal," an ejaculation, 

Deslongchamps, L., Essai sur 

les Fables Indiennes, 25, 169 
Deva-dasis, Appendix IV, 231- 

Deva-dasis (handmaids of the 

gods), 231, 232, 242, 246, 

247, 250, 252, 255, 258-261, 

262-268, 279, 280 
Devadatta, 79, 83, 85, 86 
Devagarbha, Yaksha named, 

37m 2 
Devasarman, 106 
Devas, Indian gods, 198, 199 
Devasmita, 42, 153-156, 158- 

164, 168, 169, 172-181 
Deva-Svamin, 12 
Devikriti, garden called, 66, 

66m 1 
Devlis, male servants of the 

god, 245, 246 
Dhammapada (path of virtue), 

Dhammapada Commentary, 226 
Dhanadatta, 153, 154, 172, 173 
Dharma, God of Justice, 4, 84 
Dharma (religion and moral- 
ity), 248 
Dharmagupta, 154, 173 
Dharna, sitting in, 135, 135m 1 
Dhawar, 255 

Diana, sacred grove of, 222 
Diatryma, description of, 105 
Dinars, 63, 63m 1 
Dipavali, festival of, 262 
Dlrghajangha, 10 

Dirhems, 63ft 1 

Diti, daughter of Daksha, 199 

Doab, 7m 4 

Dohada (longing of preg- 
nancy), 97m 1 , 221-228; 
(two-heartedness), 221 

Dom or Domba, man of low 

' caste, 157, 157m 1 , 174, 175 

Dombar, caste of, 258, 258m 1 

Domingos Paes, A Forgotten 
Empire, by R. Sewell, 248, 
248m 1 , 249 

D'Orbiney, Madame Eliza- 
beth, 129 

Dozon, Contes Albanais, 20m, 
10W, 132 

Douce, Mr, 77m 1 , 169 

Doughty, Arabia Deserta, 217 

D'Penha, " Folk-Lore of Sal- 
sette," Ind. Ant, 131 

Dramma, 63m 1 

Dubois, the Abbe J. A., 
Hindu Manners and Customs 
and Ceremonies, 56m 1 , 250- 
251, 252, 253 

Duddhu ( = 1 annai, 8 pes), 256 

Dunlop, History of Fiction, 
Liebrecht's translation, 
24m 1 , 66m 1 , 97m 2 , 103, 137m 1 , 
145m 1 , 166 

Dulaure, Des Divinites Gener- 
atrices, 14m, 15m 

Durga (Parvatl), 9, 9m 1 , 19m 1 , 
21, 28, 58, 60, 66, 72, 94m 1 , 
116m 1 , 119, 123, 125 

Durga Singh, 75m 1 

Durgaprasad's edition of the 
Katha Sarit Sagara, 58m 2 , 
61m 4 , 62m 2 , 74m 1 , 83m 1 , 
106m 1 , 122m 4 , 137m 1 , 185m 2 

Durva grass, 55m 1 

Duryodhana, 107 

Dushyanta, King, 88 

Dusserah, 262 

Dvipikarni, King, 67, 68 

Dyer, Thiselton, English Folk- 
Lore, 191 

Dymock, "The Use of Tur- 
meric in Hindoo Cere- 
monial," Journ. Anth. Soc. 
Bombay, 255m 1,3 

Eabini, or Engidu, wild man 

of the woods, 273m 1 
Edward the Confessor's sword, 

109m 1 
Egypt, 268; use of kohl in, 

Eleusinian mysteries, 15m 
Eliot, Sir Charles, Hinduism 

and Buddhism, 56m 1 



Elliot, H., History of India, 

Muntakhabu-l-lutab , 238?i 3 , 

248ft 1 
Ellis, Early English Romances, 

97ft 2 ; Metrical Romance, 169 
Ellis, A. B., The Tski-speaking 

Peoples of the Gold Coast 

of West Africa, 278w 2 ; 

The Ewe-speaking Peoples 

of the Slave Coast of West 

Africa, 278ft 2 
Elworthy, The Evil Eye, 216 
Emodos (Greek form of 

Himalaya), 2ft 2 
Emperor Shahjahan, 238 
Engidu, a wild man of the 

woods, 273 
Enthoven, R. E., Tribes and 

Castes of Bombay, 246ft 1 
Entu {Nin-An), chief wife of 

the god, 270 
Eorosh, fabulous bird of the 

Zend, 104 
Epics, the, 10ft 3 
Erech, 270, 271, 272 
Eryx in Sicily, 276 
Esbekiya quarter of Cairo, 250 
EratptKoi Stdkoyoi, Lucian, 

140ft 1 
Etzel, King, 187ft 1 
Europe, use of kohl in, 218 
Eusebius, 275 
Eva, 160ft 2 
Evamkrite (dative of evam- 

krit), 15ft 1 
Ewe-speaking peoples, 277 
Excalibar, 109ft 1 
Ezekiel, 216 

Fadlallah, 37ft 2 

Faquir, 28 

Farmer, comments on Ham- 
let, 77ft 1 

Farnell, Cidts of the Greek 
States, 15ft 

Fascinum, the Roman. See 
Phallus or hinga 

Fausboll, Jataka, 66ft 1 

Fawcett, "Basivis: Women 
who through Dedication 
to a Deity assume Mascu- 
line Privileges," Journ. 
Anthr. Soc. Bom., 255, 255ft 1 

Fenton, C, 168 

Fergusson, James, Tree and 
Serpent Worship, 144ft 1 

Fergusson, Dr S., " On the 
Ceremonial Turn called 
Deisul," Proc. Roy. Irish 
Academy, 190 

Fernao Nuniz, 248ft 1 

Ficus Indica (Nyagrodha tree), 

9, 9ft 3 
FirdausT, 182ft 1 
Fleet, J. F., " Imaginative 

Yojanas," Journ. Roy. As. 

Soc, 3ft 1 
Fontaine, La, Conies et Nou- 

velles, 20w ; fable of V Huitre 

et les Plaideurs, 26; Les Trois 

Souhaits, 27 ; ha Coupe En- 

chantee, 165 
Foris (out of doors), 141ft 1 
Forteguerri, 44 
Fortunat eats the heart of 

the Gliicksvogel, 20ft 
Fortunatus, cap of, 25, 26 
Fowler, H. and F., 77ft 1 
Fowler's translation of Lu- 

cian's 'ErcuptKot SidXoyoi, 

140ft 1 
France, "man of dough" 

custom in (La Pallisse), 14ft 
Francis, Mr, 259 
Frazer, Golden Bough, 130, 

144ft 1 , 222, 228, 268, 273ft 3 , 

278,278ft 3 ; Taboo and Perils 

of the Soul, 37ft 2 
Freer, Old Deccan Days, 28, 

95ft 2 , 101ft 1 , 131 1 , 142ft 1 
Fryer, A. C, English Fairy 

Tales from the North Country, 

Fryer (1673), 250 
Furnivall, English Text Soc, 

44, 165 

Gaal, M'drchen der Magyar en, 

20ft, 26 
Gagum (cloiser), 270 
Gait, E. A., "Indian Human 

Sacrifice," Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 116ft 1 
Galen, De Simpl. Medic, 213 
Galli, castrated man, 275 
Gammadion or swastika, 192 
Ganapati, 245, 246 
Ganas, servants of the gods, 

3, 6, 7, 10, 58, 61w 4 , 83, 85, 

86, 91, 94, 146, 197, 202 
Gandharb caste, 239, 240 
Gandharva form of marriage, 

23, 23n\ 61, 68, 83, 87, 88, 

116, 187, 201 
Gandharvanagara (mirage), 

Gandharvas, deities of women 

and marriage, 2, 87, 88, 

197, 200-201, 262 
Ganesa, son of Siva and 

ParvatI, 1ft 4 , 4ft 2 , 6ft 12 , 192, 

202, 240, 244, 249, 263 

Ganga, 5, 5ft 5 

Garigadhara, 5ft 5 

Ganges, river, 5ft 5 , 18, 18ft 2 


78, 107, 110, 142, 183, 224 
Ganika (prostitute), 233, 234 
Garbhadhana ceremonj 

(puberty), 257 
Garuda, the sun-god and 

vehicle of Vishnu, 203 
Garuda bird, 98, 98ft 1 , 103- 

105, 141, 142, 143, 143ft 2 , 

144, 144ft 2 , 222 
Gaurl (Durga, i.e. ParvatI), 

7, 94, 94ft 1 , 244 
Gautama Buddha, 84ft 2 , 242ft s 
Gavan plant (used for surmah), 

Gaya, 200 

Gay an (prostitute), 243 
Gebal (Byblos), 276 
Geden, A. S., "Asceticism 

(Hindu)," Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 79ft 1 
Geldner,K. F.,and R. Pischeh 

Vedische Studien, 232ft 1 
Germany, cake ceremonies 

in, 14ft ; folk-tales in, 98ft 
Gharib, story of, 14ft 
Ghazipur, 240 
Ghul, 26 
Gibbs' (translation) History 

of the Forty Vezirs, 38w, 43 
Giles, Strange Stories from a 

Chinese Studio, 77ft 1 
Gilgamesh, 272, 273, 274 ; the 

Epic of, 269, 272-274 
Ginevra and Isotta, De- 
cameron, 69ft 2 
Girra, legend of, 272 
Glaucias, 77ft 1 
Godani or Ulki, method of 

producing moles, 50ft 
Godavari, 60ft 1 , 66 
Gohera, 43 
Golconda, 241 
Gold Coast of West Africa, 

Golla, caste of, 258, 258ft 1 
Gonzenbach, Laura, Sicilian- 

ische M'drchen, 20rc, 25, 26, 

44, 66n\ 97ft 2 , 129, 141rc 2 , 

165, 169 
Gopalaka, son of Chanda- 

mahasena, 128, 152, 182- 

184, 187 
Gopalam (begging basket), 

Gopatha Brahmana, 205 
Gopi Natha, commentaries 

of, 75ft 1 



;a (1606), 250 
Govind, 257 
Govindadatta, 78, 85 
Grand, Le, La vieille qui 

seduisit lajeunefdle, 169 
Granger and Matthew, 105 
Grasse, Sagen des Mittelalters, 

25, 169 

Greece, kohl used in classi- 
cal, 218; phallic cakes 
carried in, 15n ; religious 
prostitution traced in, 268 

Greeks, convert " Himalaya " 
into " Emodos " and 
" Imaos," 2ft 2 ; identifica- 
tion of Ashtart with Aphro- 
dite by the, 276 

Grenfell, Lord, 216 

Grhya STdras, 191 

Grierson, G. A., belief about 
Pisachas, 205 ; Linguistic 
Survey of India : the Dardic 
or Pisacha Languages, 93 ; 
"Pai^acI," Zeitsch. d. morg. 
Gesell, 92; "Pisachas," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
92 ; " Pisachas," Festschrift 
fur V. Thomsen, 93; " Pis- 
acas," Journ. Roy. As. 
Soc, 92; " Rajasekhara 
and the Home of Paisaci," 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 93 ; 
"Vararuchi as a Guesser 
of Acrostics," Ind. Ant., 
50ft 1 

Grierson, Stein and, Hatim s 
Tales, 38ft, 81ft, 163ft 

Griffith, R. T. H., Ramayana, 
5ft 5 

Griffon, 105 

Grimm, Fairy Tales, 19ft 2 , 25, 

26, 27, 77ft 1 , 98/i 
Grohmann, Sagen aus Bohmen, 

97ft 2 
Grossler, Sagen der Grafschaft 

Mansfeld, 77ft 1 
Growse, F. S., 11 W, 139ft 2 ; 

Mathura : A District Memoir, 

231ft 1 
Gryphons, eagles called, 

141ft 2 
Gryps, fabulous bird of the 

Greeks, 104 
Guatemala, 168 
Gubernatis, De, Zoological- 
Mythology, 26, 76>i 2 , 84n 2 , 

129, 130, 144ft 2 
Guga, the snake-god, 203 
Guhasena, husband of De- 

vasmita, 154, 155, 156, 158, 

163, 173, 174, 179-181 

Gtihya (phallus or lingo), 2ft 2 , 
4w 3 , 13w 3 , 14ft, 15ft, 125ft 2 

Guhyakas, subjects of Ku- 
vera, 68, 197, 203 

Gujahs (wafers of flour and 
sugar), 242 

" Gul-i-Bakawali," Clouston, 
A Group of Eastern Ro- 
mances, 43, 160ft 3 

Gulmad and Vatsa, 60, 61 

Guna, 61ft 4 

Gunadeva, disciple of Gun- 
adhya, 89, 91 

Gunadhya, 7, 58, 59, 60, 61, 
61w 5 , 65, 67, 68, 74, 78, 89, 
90, 91, 94 

Gurav, 245, 246 

Guru (high priest), 256, 258, 

Guzerat, 241 

Gwalior, 238 

Haast, Dr, 105 

Hades (Sheol),273 

Hafiz, 49?* 1 

Hagen, Helden Sagen, 48ft 2 , 

121ft 2 , 150?! 1 ; Gesammtaben- 

teuer, 169, 171 
Hais (dates, butter and milk), 
' 14ft 

Hakluyt Society, 63a 1 , 248ft 1 
Hamilton, Francis, A Jowney 

from Madras through the 

Countries of Mysore, Canara 

and Malabar, 252, 252ft 1 
Hamlet, Shakespeare, 76ft 2 , 

77ft 1 
Hammer, von, Mines de 

V Orient, 81ft 
Hammurabi, 269, 271; the 

code of, 269-272 
Hanifa, tribe of (Arabia), 14ft 
Hardy, Spence, Manual of 

Buddhism, 121ft 2 
Hari (Narayana, Vishnu or 

Krishna), 143, 143ft 1 , 145 
Haridvar (or Hurdwar), 18ft 2 
Harpagomis, 105 
Harrison, J. E., Prolegomena to 

the Study of Greek Religion, 

Hartland, E. S., 38ft ; Archivio, 

168; "Faith Token," 166, 

167 ; Legend of Perseus, 130 ; 

" Life-Token," Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth., 130 ; 

" Phallism," Hastings' 

Ency. Rel Eth., 15ft; in 

Stein and Grierson's 

Hatirns Tales, 38ft 1 
Hasan of Bassorah, 27, 28 


Hastinapura, 7ft 4 

Hastings' Encyclopaedia of 
Religion and Ethics, 10ft 3 , 
15rc, 37ft 2 , 56ft 1 , 57ft 1 , 79ft 1 , 
92, 98ft, 116ft 1 , 118tt 2 , 130, 
134ft 1 , 144ft 1 , 193, 200, 203, 
204, 233,239ft 2 , 269i, 271ft 1 , 
273ft 3 , 277 

Hatif (bodiless voice), 16ft 1 

Hatim Tai, 85ft 

Hatim Tilawon", 38ft 

Hatshepset, temple of 
Queen, 216 

Hatthllinga, a huge bird, 104 

Hecate, 77ft 1 

Hemachandra, 92 

Hemm (ceremony of puberty), 

Henderson, Folk-Lore of the 

Northern Counties, 190 
Herklots, Qanun-i- Islam, by 

Ja'far Sharif, 213 
Hermas, Similitudes, 144ft 1 
Hermotimos of Klezomenae, 

39ft 2 
Herodotus, 103, 271, 276 
Herolt, John of Basil, 

Promptuarium, 169 
Herrtage, English Gesta, 44 
Hezekiah, 215 
Hieme, sword of, 109ft 1 
Hierapolis or Membij, 275 
Hierodouloi (sacred servants), 

269, 276 
Hildegard, St, of Bingen, 

Subtleties, 110ft 1 
Himadri, 2ft 2 
Himagiri, 2ft 2 
Himakuta, 2ft 2 
Himalaya, 2ft 2 , 5, 32, 86, 92, 

94, 121, 205 
Himavat, 2, 2w 2 , 4 
Hiralal Basa, 129 
Hiranyagupta, 32, 33, 35, 53, 

Hirth, China and Roman 

Orient, 104 
Hirth and Rockill, translation 

of Chau Ju-Kwa's Chu-fan- 

ch'i, 241ft 1 
Hittite dominion, 275 
Hittites, King of the, 198 
Hogarth, D. G., Liverpool 

Ann. Arch., 272ft 4 
Holin's collection of tales, 

101ft 1 
Homa (marriage sacrifice), 245 
Homam (nuptial tie), 88 
Homam, 260 
Ho Nan, China, 214 
Hormuz, 214 



Hou-Han-shu, 104 

Houris, 202 

Houtum-Schindler, Gen. A., 
in Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 214 

Hultzsch, Epigraphia Indica, 
155ft 1 ; South Indian In- 
scriptions, 155ft 1 , 247ft 1 

Hunt, Romances and Drolls oj 
the West of England, 191 

Hunter, District Gazetteer of 
Puri, 242ft 1 ; Orissa, 242, 
242ft 1 

Huon of Bordeaux, Duke, 167 

Hurdwar (Haridvar), 18ft 2 

Hyderabad, 241, 244 

Hyginus, Fable CCV, 190 

Ibn Batuta, 104 

Idangai (left hand), 260 

Imaos (Greek form of Hima- 
laya), 2ft 2 

Inayatu-i-'llah, Bahar-i- 
Danish, or "Spring of Know- 
ledge," 25, 43 

Indica, Ficus, 9ft 3 

Indra, 8ft 1 , 65, 66ft 1 , 68, 84, 
95, 96, 97, 126, 128, 182, 
182ft 1 , 200, 201, 202, 240 

Indradatta, 11, 12, 16, 17, 30, 
36, 37, 3Sn, 39, 40, 50 

Indus, 92 

Innanna (Ishtar), 272 

Innini (Ishtar), 270, 272 

Iraman of Vishnu, 256, 258 

Iranians, 198 

Irvine, W., editor of Storia do 
Mogor, Manucci, 238ft 2 

Ishtar, 270-274, 276 

Ishtar-Tammuz myth, 273 

I sis, 145ft 1 

Islam, use of kohl in, 216-217 

Iva (liquor), 160ft 2 

Ivan, Prince, 82ft 1 

Iyengar, K. R., trans, of Kama 
Sidra, 234 

Jacob, J., JEsop's Fables, 
101ft 1 , 171 ; Indian Fairy 
Tales, 46w 2 , lOlra 1 , 132 

Jacob, P. W., trans, of Dasa- 
Kumar a-Charita, 234ft 4 

Jacobi, H., " Cosmogony and 
Cosmology," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., 10ft 3 ; Aus- 
gewdhlte Erzdhlungen in 
Maharashtrl, 224, 226; Par- 
isishta Parvan, 39w 2 , 121ft 2 ; 
"Daitya," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 200 

Ja'far Sharif, Qanfm-i- Islam, 
Herklots' ed., 213 

Jagannatha or Puri (Lord of 

the World), 241, 242, 266 
Jahandar, 25 
Jahangir, Emperor, 238 

Jalandhara, an Asura, 200 

Jamadagni, hermitage of, 
99, 101, 102, 120 

Jamrkan, 14m 

Jan, Mohammedan term for 
bogam, 244 

Janamejaya, 95, 203 

Jantu, 153 

Japan, sacred prostitution in, 

Jara, "old age," 121ft 2 

Jarrett and Blochmann, A'in- 
i-Akban, Abu-1-Fazl, 237ft 1 

Jat woman, a, 98ft 

Jatakarma, ceremony of, 264 

Jatakas, the, 66ft 1 , 101ft 1 , 121ft 2 , 
227, 232, 265 

Java, form of dohada (preg- 
nant longing) in, 228 

Jaya, Queen, 226 

Jaya, wife of Pushpadanta, 

Jayakar, A., trans, of Ad- 
Damiri's Hayat al-Uayawdn 
(zoological lexicon), 103 

Jayasena, son of Mahendra- 
varman, 125 

Jeremiah, 13ft 3 , 216 

Jericho, 192 

Jerusalem, 192 

Jezebel, 216 

Jhelum district, Panjab, 213 

Jhllam district, 213 

Jimutavahana, the prince, 
152ft 1 

Jinn, the Arabian, 204 

John, Prester, 110ft 1 

Johns, C. H. W., Babylonian 
Law," Ency. Brit., 269ft 1 

Johns, Lyon and, in Am. 
Journ. Sem. Lang., 271ft 1 

Josephus, Ant. Jud., 145ft 1 

Joshua, 192 

Joyce and Dames' "Story of 
King Sivi," Man, 85w 

Jugunnat'hu (Jagannatha), 

Julg, Kalmukische Marchen, 

Julien, Stanislas, Avadanas, 
26 ; Meinoirs sur les Contrees 
Occidentales traduits dm San- 
scrit par Hiouen Thsang et du 
Chinois par, 84ft 2 

Julius Caesar, 46ft 2 

Jumna (Yamuna river), 7ft 4 , 

Justin, 276 
Juvenal, Satires, 218 

Ka, Egyptian "wandering 

soul," 37ft 2 
Ka'bah at Mecca, 192, 193 
Kabul, Iceland spar from. 

Kadaram, or Kataha, 155ft 1 
Kaden, Woldemar, Unter der, 
Olivenbaumen, 26, 101ft 1 -"I 
Kddhesh (male prostitutes). 
' 276 
Kadishtu (sacred woman), 270, 

Kadru, mother of the snakes. 

143ft 2 , 203 
Kadur district of Mysore, 213 
Kahala (to stain), 211 
Kaikola, caste of, 259, 260, 

Kailas, Mt., 2ft 2 
Kailasa, Mt., 2ft 2 , 3, 3ft 1 , 8, 

125, 202 
Kajal (lamp-black), 212 
Kajalanti (box for keeping 

kajal), 212 
Kakatias, a sect of weavers, 

257, 258 
Kalam, 247 

Kalanemi, 106, 107, 111 
Kdlanu sariva, 212 
Kalapa (the tail), 75 
Kalapaka grammar, 75 
Kalasyam, 257 
Kalavatl,wife of Kritavarman, 

Kali, 192 
Kalidasa's Kumdra Sambhava, 

5ft 3 
Kalila wa Dimna, lOlrc 1 
Kalmuck, Relations of Siddhi 

Kur, 20ft 
Kalpa, 9 

Kalpa tree, 8, 8ft 1 
Kalpavriksha (wishing-tree), 

144ft 1 
Kalyana Malla, Ananga- 

Ranga, 236, 236ft 3 
Kama, the Hindu Cupid, 1, 

lft 3 , 30, 31 
Kamallla, wife of Vikrama- 

ditya, 46ft 2 
Kama Shastra Society, 234ft 2 , 

236ft 1 
Kama STdra, Vatsyayana, 48ft, 

234, 234ft 2 , 236 
Kammalar (artisans), 260 
Kanabhuti, 7, 9, 11, 18, 24, 

30, 53, 58, 59, 60, 67, 68, 

76, 78, 86, 89, 94 




ianakhala, place of pilgrim- 
age, 18 
Ianara, 245 
anavera-Jataka, 118ft 2 
anchanamala, confidante of 
Vasavadatta, 151 
anchanapata, the elephant 
of the gods, 18, 18ft 3 
angra district, Panjab, 213 
Kankanam, a yellow thread, 

Kanva, father of Sakuntala, 88 
Kanyd kamayate par am (" there 

is but one maiden, they 

say"), 122ft 4 
Kanyakd sruyate par am, 122ft 4 
Kanyakumari (Cape Cormo- 

rin), 155ft 1 
Kapu marriage, 244 
Karali, 7n 4 
Karambaka, 12 
Karangli, Mount, 213 
Karari, 7ft 4 
Kargas or lcerkes, fabulous 

bird of the Turks, 104 
Karmasataka, story from the, 

54ft 1 
Karnatak, 246 
Karrah, 7ft 4 

Karta (chief mourner), 264 
Kartikappalli, 261 
Karttikeya, 12, 15, 17, 18, 36, 

71, 7^ 2 , 72, 73ft 1 , 74, 75ft 1 
Kasab (prostitution), 243 
Kasbi caste, 242, 243 
Kashmir, 28, 38ft, 92, 169, 

205, 206, 213 
Kasyapa, father of Garuda, 

143, 143ft 2 , 203, 205, 206* 
Kata 7ft 4 
Kataha, 155, 155ft 1 , 156, 163, 

173, 174, 180 
Katantra grammar, 75, 75ft 1 
Kathdkoca, Tawney, 40ft, 48ft 2 , 

101ft 1 , 121ft 2 , 223, 224, 226 
Kathamukha (Book II), 94- 

Kathapitha (Book I), 1-93 
Kathd Sarit Sdgara, Somadeva, 

17ft 2 , 25, 42, 232, 236 
Katoma, 82ft 1 
Katyayana (i.e. Pushpadanta 

or Vararuchi),9, 11, 17ft 3 , 53, 

Kausambi, 7, 7ft 4 , 11, 31, 94, 

95, 97, 120, 122, 123, 135, 

136, 182, 183 
Kausambi mandala, 7 
Kautilya (Kautiliya, Chana- 

kya, or Vishnugupta), 233, 

233ft 1 

Kautilya, Arthasastra, 233, 

234, 265 
Kaviraja, 75ft 1 
Kdvijamimdmsd, Rajasekhara, 

Kdvyasamgraha, J. J. Meyer, 

234ft 1 * 
Kazi, 28, 43, 186ft 1 
Kedah, Malaya, 155ft 1 
Kedeshdh, 271 
Keith, A. B., Classical Sanskrit 

Literature, 93 
Keith, Macdonell and, Vedic 

Index, 3ft 1 , 56w, 93, 205, 

232ft 1 
Kekaya, 92 
Keller, Li Romans des Sept 

Sages, 171 
Kennedy, Criminal Classes of 

Bombay, 246ft 1 
Keralapuram, temple at, 262 
Kerkes or kargas, fabulous bird 

of the Turks, 104 
Kerman, 213, 214 
Kesavadeva, temple of, 231 
Khadgam, l]0ft 2 
Khadge, 110ft 2 
Kha'ft Khan, 238, 238ft 3 
Kharimati (devoted one), 

Khotan, home of the Pisachas, 

Khumbaba, enemy of Gil- 

gamesh, 273 
Kilelkyatas, caste of, 258, 

258ft 1 
Kimpurushas, servants of 

Kuvera, 202 
Kinnaras, subjects of Kuvera, 

2, 197, 202 
Kiriita (mountaineer), 95ft 1 
Kirni or pheng, huge bird of 

Japan, 104 
Kirtisena, nephew of Vasuki, 

King of the Nagas, 61 
Kition, temple of (Cyprus), 

Kizreti (harlot), 272 
Klaskerchen (Lower German 

cake festival), 14ft 
Klausmanner (Upper German 

cake festival), 14ft 
Knatchbull, Kalilah and 

Dimnah, 62ft 1 
Knight, R. P. Payne, Remains 

of the Worship of Priapus, 

Knowles, Folk - Tales of 

Kashmir, 46ft 2 , 95ft 2 , 131 
Kohl, appendix on the use of, 


Kohler, Dr, 26, 97ft 2 ; Orient 

und Occident, 129 
Kohler, J., and A. Ungnad, 

Hammurabi s Gesetz, 270ft 1 
Kolhapur state, 246 
Konkan coast, 261 
Kono (unfruitful), 278 
Konow, S., "The Home of 

Paisaci," Zeits. d. deutschen 

morgenldndischen Gesell., 

92 ; " Rajasekhara and the 

Home of Paisaci," Journ. 

Roy. As. Soc, 93 
Konrad of Wiirtzburg, 171 
Kore and Demeter, offerings 

to, 15ft 
Kos (measure of distance), 131 
Kosam (Kausambi), 7ft 4 
Kosio, young people dedicated 

to a god, 278 
Kra, the isthmus of, 155ft 1 
Kravyad (eaters of raw flesh v 

e.g. Pisachas), 205 
Krishna, 138, 139ft 2 , 143ft 1 , 

231, 239, 244, 245 
Krishna, a sage named, 75 
Kritdm, 141ft 2 
Kritavarman, father of Mri- 

gavati, 96, 97 
Krosas (measure of distance), 

3ft 1 
Kshatriyas (warrior caste), 

56ft 1 , 87, 88, 107, 205 
Kshemendra, Brihat - Katha- 

MaTijari, 236, 237 ; Samaya- 

matrika, 236, 236ft 4 - 5 
Kudi (house service), 264 
Kudikkar (those belonging to 

the house), 261, 264 
Kufr (Arabic, infidelity), 124ft 1 
Kuh-Banan, 213, 214 
Kuhl (to stain), 211 
Kuhla (kohl), 215 
Kuhn, Herabkunjt des Feuers, 

76ft 2 
Kula Chandra, 75ft 1 
Kumara or Karttikeya, 71ft 2 
Kumaradatta, 62 
KumaraSambhava, Kalidasa,5n 3 
Kumbhandas, demons hostile 

to mankind, 197,207 
Kumuda (white lotus), 119ft 3 
Kunkam (red powder), 256 
Kunkum (red powder), 244 
Kuruba, caste of, 258, 258ft 1 
Kuruvaka trees, 222 
Kusa grass, 55ft 1 , 58 
Kush'arirah (Arabic horripila- 
tion), 120ft 1 
Kushmandas, demons hostile 
to mankind, 197, 207 



Kusumavali, Queen, 223 
Kuttanlmatarn, Meyer's trans- 
lation of, 236, 236/i 2 
Kutwal (police magistrate), 43 
Kuvera, God of Wealth, and 
Lord of Treasures, 7, 10, 
109, 184ft 5 , 202, 203 

La Fontaine. See Fontaine, 

Lake Manasarowar, 2ft 2 
Lakshmi, goddess of material 

prosperity, 18, 18ft 1 , 31, 

Lai Behari Day, Folk -Tales 

of Bengal, 28 
Lalitanga, story of, 48ft 2 
Lalla Rookh, 103 
Lane, Arabian Nights, Sin; 

Arabian Society in the 

Middle Ages, Sin ; Modem 

Egyptians, 217 
Langle, Louis de, Breviaire 

de la Courtisane, 236ft 5 ; 

Les Lecons de VEntre- 

metteuse, 236ft 2 
Lanka (Ceylon), 142, 142ft 2 , 

143, 144, 149 
La Pallisse, "man of dough" 

custom in, 14ft 
La Rochelle, phallic cakes 

made at Saintonge, near, 

14ft, 15?i 
Larsa or Sippar, 270 
Lassen, 60ft 1 
Lavanaka (Book III), 2 
Lebanon, 275 
Lee, A. C, The Decameron, its 

Sources and Analogues, 44, 

148ft, 171 
Leger, L., Contes Populaires 

Slaves, 26, 101ft 1 
Leveque, Mythes et Legendes 

de Flnde et de la Perse, 26, 

84w 2 , 189ft 
Lewin, T. H., The Wild Races 

of South-Eastern India, 82ft 
Liebrecht, Dr, trans. Dunlop's 

History of Fiction, 66ft 1 , 97ft 2 , 

103, 137ft 1 , 145ft 1 , 166; 

tr. Dunlop's Novella? Mor- 

lini, 44; Orient u. Occident, 

46ft 2 , 157ft 2 ; Zur Volkskunde, 

13ft3, 14ft, 26, 39ft 2 , 191 
Liknophoria, Orphic rite of, 

Limousin (Lower), "male" 

cakes made in, 15ft 
Linga (phallus or guhya), 2ft 2 , 

4, 4ft3, 13ft3, 14ft, 15ft, 125ft 2 
Linschoten (1598), 250 

Livingstone, Journal, 217 

Lohaban, 139ft 2 

Lohajangha, 139-149 

Loki, shoes of swiftness worn 
by, 27 

Lucian, De Dea Syria, 275, 
276 ; The Liar (^lAo^ev&js), 
77ft 1 ; 'Ercu/HKot StdkoyoL, 
140ft 1 

Luckenbill, D. D., "The 
Temple Women of the 
Code of Hammurabi," 
Amer. Journ. Sem. Lang., 
271ft 1 

Lucretius, 190 

Lyon, D. G., "The Conse- 
crated Women of the Ham- 
murabi Code," Studies in the 
History of Religions presented 
to C. H. Toy, 271ft 1 

Lyon and Johns in Amer. 
Journ. Sem. Lang., 271ft 1 

Ma (negative particle), 69, 

Maabar, province of (Tan- 
jore), 247 

Macculloch, J. A., "Cakes 
and Loaves," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., 15ft 

Macculloch, Crooke and 
Welsford, " Serpent-Wor- 
ship," Hastings' Ency. Rel. 
Eth., 203-204 

Macdonell and Keith, Vedic 
Index, 3ft 1 , 56n, 93, 205, 
232ft 1 

Macnaghten, W. H., Principles 
of Hindu and Mohammedan 
Law, 87 

Madagascar, 104, 105 

Madanamanchuka (Book VI), 

Madanarekha, 226 

Madiga, caste of, 258, 258ft 1 

Madiravati (Book XIII), 2 

Madras, 213, 246, 255 

Madras High Court, 265 

Magadha, 7ft 4 

Magni currus Achilli, 126ft 1 

Magnusson and Powell, Ice- 
landic Legends, 27, 44 

Mahabala, 107 

Mahaban Pargana of the 
Mathura district, 117ft 2 

Mahdbhdrata, the, 1ft 2 , 20ft, 
51ft 1 , 88, 92, 93, 103, 144ft 2 , 
189ft, 199, 200, 203, 205 

Mahabhisheka (Book XV), 2 

Mahabodhi-Jataka (Cambridge 
ed.), 146ft 1 

Mahadeva (Siva), 239 
Malmkala (Siva), 125, 125ft 2 ; 
the burning - ground of 
Mahdkulodgatdh (resolute be- 
haviour), 164ft 1 
Mahd Parinibbdna Sutta, 192 
Maharaja, the palace of the, 

Mahasena, son of Jayasena, 

Mahbub ul-Qulub, Persian tale 

of, 131 
Mahendravarman, father of 

Patall, 19 
Mahendravarman, King, 125 
Mahesvara (Siva), 3, 10 
Mahidhara, son of Devadatta, 

Mahratha country, 246 
Maihet, 37ft 2 
Main, John, Religious Chastity, 

Maina (hill-starling), 131 
Mairavana, 131 
Mafira (cymbals), 243 
Major, R. H., India in the 

Fifteenth Century, 1kln y 
Makaradanshtra, a bawd 
named, 139, 140, 145-149 
Malava, country of, 106 
Malaya, 155ft 1 
Mallika, 225-226 
Malvan chiefs, 245 
Malyavan, a Gana called, 7, 

10, 58, 60, 78, 85, 86 
Ma-Nakkavaram (Nicobar 

Islands), 155ft 1 
Manasa lake, 72ft 1 
Manasarowar, Lake, 2ft 2 
Mandala, 155ft 1 
Mandalam, 155ft 1 
Mandara, Mount, 3, 3ft 2 , 55ft 1 , 

Mangalashtaka, recitation of 

the, 244 
Manibhadra, a Yaksha called, 

162, 179, 180 
Manjulika or Bandhumati, 

Manoggel (Upper German 

cake festival), 14ft 
Mantrams, 88, 257, 260 
Mantrasvamin, 79 
Manu, laws of, 56ft 1 , 87, 88, 

191, 200, 204, 205, 232 
Manucci, Storia do Mogor, 

238ft 2 
Marcel, Contes du Cheykh 

Mohdy, 81ft 
Marco Polo, 213, 247-248 

arco Polo, Yule and Cordier, 
63ft 1 , 104, 105, 141ft 2 , 213, 
241ft 2 , 242ft 3 , 247ft 3 
Marduk, 269, 270, 271, 274 
Markandeya, 92 
Marshman, Carey and, trans. 

of Rdmayana, In 2 
Martial, statement of, re 

phallic cakes, 15ft 
Mdshas, Indian weight, 64ft 2 
Maspero, Stories of Ancient 

Egypt, 37ft 2 , 77ft 1 , 129, 133ft 1 
Massinger, The Picture, 44, 

Matali, charioteer of Indra, 

95, 96, 98 
Mathura or Muttra, 113, 117, 


Matthew and Granger, 105 
Mauritius, 98ft 
Maurya monarch, 37ft 2 
Maurya times, 233, 250 
Maya (Central America), 

109ft 2 
Maya, Danava named, 22, 200 
Mayavati, female Vidyadhara 

named, 152 
Mayne, John D., Treatise 

on Hindu Laiv and Usage, 

Mazdao the wise, 199 
Mecca, 192 
Megasthenes, 231 
Melakkdrar (professional 

musicians), 259, 260 
Membij or Hierapolis, 274, 

Menaka, a nymph named, 

188, 201 
Merlin, 46ft 2 , 137ft 1 
Meruturiga, Prabandhacinta- 

mani, 37ft 2 
Mesa, a food-providing, 26 
Meshrebiya, 80ft 1 
Mesopotamia, 198, 199, 269 
Mestem (kohl), 215, 216 
Mexico, human sacrifice in, 

116ft 1 ; sacred prostitution 

in, 279 
Meyer, J. J., Altindische 

Schelmenbucher, 236ft 2 , 236ft 4 ; 

Kavyasamgraha : erotische u. 

exoterische Lieder. Metrische 

Ubersetzungen aus indischen 

u. anderen Sprachen, 234ft 1 ; 

translation of ' Kuttanlmatam , 

236ft 2 
Midas, King of Phrygia, 20ft 
Mijatovich, Servian Folk-Lore, 




Mikhal, or stick for applying 

kohl, 212 
Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 

MilindaPanho (Pali Miscellany, 

by V. Trenckner), 12ft 1 
Minoi-Khiradhj the, 103 
Mirwad or kohl, 216-217 
Mirwahah (a fan), 81ft 
Mirzapur, 9ft 1 
Missi (rite of blackening the 

teeth), 240, 244 
Mitani, King of, 198 
Mitford, Tales of Old Japan, 

Mitra, Dr Rajendra Lai, 20ft 2 
Mitra, B. R., The Gypsies of 

Bengal, 240ft 1 
Miyan Bayezid, 192 
Moa, an extinct animal, 105 
Mochanika, 115, 116 
Modakaih (sweetmeats), 69ft 4 
Mohammed, 1ft 1 , 109ft 1 , 124ft 1 , 

144ft 1 , 217 
Mongolian stories, 25 
Monier Williams, 12ft 2 , 31ft 1 , 

59^, 63ft 1 , 69^, 79ft 1 ; Vya- 

sana, 124ft 1 
Montaiglon, Recueil general 

et complet des Fabliaux des 

XIII' et XIV siecles, 44 
Moonthanee, or end of the 

Saree, 253 
Moor, 250 

Morier, Hajji Baba of Ispa- 
han, 214 
Morocco, 117ft 3 , 217 
Moses on Sinai, 217 
Moylar, caste of, 252 
Mrichchhakatika, or Clay Cart, 

ascribed to Dandin, trans. 

by A. W. Ryder, Harvard 

Oriental Series, 235, 235ft 1 
Mriganka, sword named, 109, 

109ft 1 , 111, 114, 115, 119 
Mrigankavati, the Princess, 

106, 112, 114, 115, 116, 118, 

Mrigavati, daughter of King 

Kritavarman, 96, 97, 99, 

100, 102, 106, 120, 121, 

Mudali, title of the ddsi caste, 

Mudra Rakshasa, the, 57ft 3 
Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, 

56ft 1 
Mukhopadhyaya, Prof. Nil- 

mani, 162ft 1 
Mukhulah, vessel for keeping 

mirwad, 217 

Miillenhoff, 132 

Mundus, a Roman knight, 

145ft 1 
Munnur marriage, 244 
Munro, Lucretius, 191 
Muntakhabu-l-lutdb, H. Elliot, 

History of India, 238ft 3 
Muttra (Mathura), 231 
MuzafFarnagar, 98ft 
Muzakkudi dancing- girl, 262 
Mysore, *213, 246, 255, 258 

Nadagiri, elephant named, 

125, 133, 150, 151, 152 
Nagal (Nagasthala), 117ft 2 
Nagas, snake-gods, 103, 197, 

200, 203-204 ; Vasuki, King 

of the, 61, 61ft 1 
Nagasena, 12ft 1 
Nagasthala, 117, 117ft 2 
Naga-worshippers, 203 
Nagveli day, 244 
Nai, or barber caste, 49ft 1 
Naikins, women of a Sudra 

caste, 245 
Naiks, men of a Sudra caste, 

Nakhshabi, Tuti-Nama, 43 
" Nala and Damayanti," 

story of, 88, 101ft 1 
Nampiyans, 262, 264 
Nana or Ishtar, 272 
Nanchinat Vellalas (male 

dasis), 261 
Nanda, King, 9, 13, 17, 17ft 3 , 

35, 36, 38ft, 39, 40, 40ft 1 , 

55, 56, 57 
Nandana, Indra's pleasure- 
ground, 66, 66ft 1 , 68, 96 
Nandideva, disciple of Gun- 

adhya, 89, 91 
Nandin, Siva's white bull, 6, 

6ft 1 , 202 
Nanjundayya, H. V., 258, 

258ft 1 
Nannar, the moon-god, 270 
Naples, legend of the found- 
ing of, 24ft 1 
Naravahanadatta, history of, 

Naravahanadattaj anana 

(Book IV), 2 
Narayana (Vishnu or Krishna, 

also Brahma and Ganesa), 

4, 4ft 2 , 143, 143ft 1 , 145' 
Narmada, 66, 72 
Nathni idama, or " taking off 

of the nose-ring," 240 
Natitu, inferior wives of the 

god, 270 



Nats and bediyas, gypsy 

tribes, 240 
Nattuvar, men of the ddsi 

caste, dancing - masters, 

etc., 259, 264 
Nayaka, Hindu term for 

bogams, 244 
Nayakan, Mohammedan term 

for Bogams, 244 
Nazar (gift), 262 
Nebdt (to pass the night), 81m 
Nectanebos and Olympias, 

Pseudo - Callisthenes, 103, 

145m 1 
Nefzaoui, Perfumed Garden, 

Nenoferkephtah, 37m 2 
Nephrit, the ape, 216 
Newton, Dictionary of Birds, 

Nicobar Islands, the, 155m 1 
Nigrodka-Jdtaka, 227 
Nikolause (Upper German 

cake festival), 14m 
Nilakantha (blue - throated 

one, i.e. Siva), 1m 2 
Nllamata, the, 206 
Nin-An or entu, chief wife of 

the god, 270 
Niraydvaliyd Sutta, Warren, 

Nishturaka, friend of Sri- 

datta, 107, 110, 111, 112 
Nizam's dominions, 241, 244 
Norka, Russian fabulous bird, 

Norton, Ruth, Studies in 

Honor of Maurice Bloom- 
field, 130, 131, 167 
Nottingham, sacred buns 

made at Christmas in, 14m 
Nuniz, Fernao (1537), 248m 1 
Nyagrodha tree (Ficus Indica), 

9, 9m 3 , 157, 175 

Ochchans (priests), 262, 264 
O'Connor, Folk-Tales of Tibet, 

(Edipus, story of, 51ft 1 
Oesterley, Gesta Romanorum, 

Om, the syllable, 17, 17m 1 
Oman, J. C, The Mystics, 

Ascetics and Sai?its of India, 
_ 79m 1 

Onam, festival of, 262 
Oppert, On the Weapons, etc., 

of the Ancient Hindtis, 109m 1 
Orissa, 241, 266 
Ormazd, the "Wise Lord" 

and the "All-father," 199 

Orme (1770), 250 

Orpheus, 90ft 1 

Orson and Valentine, story 

of, 103 
Osiris, the Eye of, 216 
Ovid, 84^ 2 
Owen, Professor, 105 

Pachyderms in Siberia, 105 
Pacolet's horse (story of 

Valentine and Orson), 103 
Padamangalam Ndyars, 261 
Padartha (words and their 

meanings), 1m 6 
Padmanabhaswami, temple 

of, 262 
Padmavati (Book XVII), 2 
Paes, Domingos, 248m 1 , 249, 

Paisacha language, 60, 76, 

76m 1 , 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 205 
Paisacha marriage, 87, 200, 

Paithana or Bathana, 60m 1 
Palaka, son of Chandama- 

hasena, 128, 151, 152' 
Palibothra (Pataliputra), 17, 

17m 2 
Pali Miscellany, V. Trenckner 

(Milinda Panho), Yin 1 
Palinurus, 190 
Pallisse, La, " man of dough " 

custom in, 14m 
Pampadam (antiquated ear- 
ornament), 262 
Panams (coins), 262, 263, 264 
Panas (ancient Indian 

weights), 63, 64m 2 , 233 
Pancha (Book XIV), 2 
Panchakshara hymn, 264 
Pancha^ikha, Gana called, 83, 

Panchatantra, the, 20ft, 27, 

37m 2 , 39m 2 , 54m 1 , 63m 1 , 84;*, 

145m 1 , 157ft, 188m 2 
Panchdyats (councils), 259, 260 
Pandava family, 95 
Pandiyan country, 261 
PaJiho, Milinda (Pali Miscel- 
lany), Trenckner, 12m 1 
Panini, a pupil of Varsha, 

17m3, 32, 36 
Panini' s grammar, 75 
Panjab, 28 

Panjab, legend of the, 213 
Panzil in the Sind Valley, 38m 
Paphos, 276 
Parantapa, King, 104 
Pardaos, courtesan owning a 

hundred thousand, 249 

Parikshit, King, 95 
Parisishtaparvan, Jacobi, 39m 1 , 

121m 2 , 228 
Pariz, province of Kerman, 

Parker, E. H., in Asiatic 

Quarterly Review, 214 
Parker, Village Folk-Tales oj 

Ceylon, 157m 2 , 223, 226, 227 
Parsvanatha Charitra, 222 
Parusha (savage wood), 9m 2 
Parvati, wife of Siva, 1, 2m 2 , 

3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 19m, 36, 53m 1 , 

202, 204, 264 
Patala, the underworld, 200, 

Patall, daughter of King 

Mahandravarman, 19, 23, 

Pataliputra, 12, 17, 17m 2 , 18, 

i9, 21, 24, 31, 41, 106, 250 
Patar, Patur, Paturiya, Hindu 

dancing-girls, 239, 240 
Pati (temple service), 264 
Paton, L. B., " Atargatis,' 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth 

275, 275m 2 
Patra (actor), 239 
Pattana, 155m 1 
Pattanam, 155m 1 
Paulina, wife of Saturninus 

145m 1 
Paull, Mrs, trans, of Grimm's 

Fairy Tales, 25 
Paumavai, Queen, 224 
Pauranik legends, 17m 3 
Pelo arriciato (horripilation) in 

Boccaccio, 120ft 1 
Pendukal (women), 261 
Penzer, N. M., Bibliography of 

Sir Richard Burton, 234m 2 

236ft 3 ; Selected Papers of 

Sir Richard Burton, 109m 1 

Perce forest, 165 
Perceval, romance of, 165 
Percy, Reliques, 165 
Persia, use of kohl in, 213-215 
Persian, Bahar-i-Ddnish, 25 
Peru, sacred prostitution in 

Peterson, P., editor Dasa 

Kumdra-Charita , 234ft 4 
Petrus Alfonsus, 169 
Peytan, 60ft 1 
Phaedromus, 190 
Phallus (guhya or lihga), 2ft 2 

4m 3 , 13ft 3 , 14m, 15m, 125ft 2 

Pheng or kirni, huge bird o 

Japan, 104 

Philemon a 



lilemon and Baucis, 84 2 
4>tAo^vSr/s, Lucian's, 77ft 1 
Phoenicia, mother-goddess in, 

268, 275, 276, 277 
Phcenix, 103, 104 
Phrygia, Midas, King of, 20ft 
Pierret, Die. d'Arckcel. Egypt, 

Pillai, title of the ddsl caste, 

259, 261 
Pinda (ball of rice, honey, 

milk, etc.), 56m 1 
" Pinnes, La fete des," 14ft 
Pinal tree, marriage to a, 

Pi-p'a-lo (Berbera), 104 
Pir Raukhan (As. Soc), 192 
Pisachas or demons, 7, 9, 10, 

76, 77, 89, 90, 92, 93, 197, 

205-206, 207 
Pisdcha bhdshd, goblin lan- 
guage, 92 
Pisacha-veda or P i s a c h a- 

vidya, a science called, 205 
Pisachi, language of the 

Pisachas, 71ft 1 , 89, 92 
Pischel, R., and K. F. 

Geldner, Vedischc Shidien, 

232ft 1 
Plautius, Curculio, 190 
Pliny, Nat Hist, 103, 222 
Plutarch's Life of CamiUus, 

Posidonius, 190 
Pouch er, Perfumes and Cos- 
metics, 218 
Powell and Magnusson, 

Icelandic Legends, 27, 44 
Prabandhacintdmani, Tawney's 

trans., Biblio. Indica., 37ft 2 , 

39ft 1 , 47% 
Prabandhakosa, 47ft 
Pradakshina (circumambula- 

tion), 191, 192 
Prajapati, lords of created 

beings, 10, 10ft 1 
Prajapati, the Daksha, 4, 

Prajdpdtya marriage, 87 
Prakrit, 58ft 1 , 71, 207 
Prakriti, the power of creat- 
ing material world, 9, 9ft 5 
Pramathas (attendants on 

Siva), 7, 7ft 3 
Prasavya (anti-sunwise move- 
ment), 192 
Pratisakhya (grammatical 

treatise), 12, 12ft 2 , 
Pratishthana, 60, 66, 79, 89 
Prescott, The History of the 

Conquest of Mexico, 116ft 1 

Prester John, 110ft 1 

Prior's Tale of the Ladle, 

27 ; Les Quatre Souhaits de 

Saint Martin, 27 
Prishadvara, lady named, 188 
Priyam, 5ft 4 
Priye, 5ft 4 

Prohle, Kindermdrchen, 25 
Prositah, 83ft 2 
Protrept, Clem. Alex., 15ft, 

Prudentius, Ad Gallicinium, 

77ft 1 
Prym, Eugen, Syrische Sagen 

u. Mdrchen, 26, 97ft 2 , 125ft 3 
Pterodactyls, 105 
Ptolemaic story, 37ft 2 , 129, 

166, 167 
Ptolemy, 60ft 1 
Puja offerings (worship), 244, 

245, 260, 261 
Pulinda, savage tribe of, 76, 

117, 136, 152ft 1 
Pulindaka, King of the 

Pulindas, 136, 150, 152, 

183, 184 
Putnam (Purusha, the spirit), 

9;t 4 
Punjab. See Panjab 
Punyahavdchana (holy - day 

blessing), 245 
Purdna, Bhdgavata, 5m 1 
Purdnas, the, 10ft 3 , 57ft 3 , 198, 

Puri or Jagannatha, 241, 242 
Pururavas, King, 201 
Pushpadanta, an attendant 

of Siva,6,7,9, 10,ll,53fti, 

60, 78, 82, 85, 91, 94 
Pustelu (token of legal mar- 
riage), 88 
Putraka, 19,20, 21, 22,23,26 
Pyjamas (drawers), 253 

Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, 
Travels, 141n 2 

Rdgini (affection and red), 
140n 2 

Rahu, an Asura, 200 

Rai Bahadur Hira Lai, 
" Human Sacrifice in Cen- 
tral India," Man in India, 
116ft 1 

Raja, 43 

Rajagriha, 18 

Rajahansa, a servant of King 
Satavahana, 70 

Rajaraja the Great, 247 

" Rajasekhara and the Home 
of Paisachi," S. Konow, in 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 93 

Rajasekhara, Kdnyamimdmsa, 

Rajatarahgini, Sir Aurel Stein, 
63ft 1 

Rajendra Chola I, 155ft 1 

Rajendra Lai Mitra, Dr, 20n x 

Rdjkanya, sub-caste of, 239 

Rajput Talabhata, 151 

Rajput Virabahu, 151 

Rdhshasa form of marriage, 
87, 88, 205 

Rakshasa named Bhutivar- 
man, 76 

Rakshasa named Sthulasiras, 

Rakshasas, demons hostile to 
mankind, 10, 28, 42, 48, 
142, 143, 197, 203, 204-205, 

Rakshasi, a female demon, 
111, 111ft 1 , 112 

Ralston, Russian Folk-Tales, 
26, 82ft 1 , 104, 108ft 1 , 129, 
132, 136ft 2 ; Songs of the 
Russian People, 191 

Ralston and Schiefner, Tibetan 
Tales, 97ft 2 , 223, 226 

Rama, 142, 142ft 2 , 205 

Rama Krishna, 257 

Ramaswami Raju, Tales of the 
Sixty Mandarins, 131 

Rdmdyana, the, 1ft 2 , 5ft 5 , 103, 
202, 205 

Ramazan, 30ft 2 

Rangachari and Thurston, 
Castes and Tribes of Southern 
India. See Thurston 

Rapson, E. J., Catalogue of the 
Indian Coins in the British 
Museum, 64ft 2 

Rasa (juice), 212 

Rasa (nectar, emotion, pas- 
sion), 126ft 2 

Rasdnjana (antimony), 212 

1 ' Rasavahini Jambudipa " 
story in The Orientalist, 
101ft 1 

Ratnagiri district of Bombay, 

Ratnaprabha (Book VII), 2 

Raul (priest), 245 

Raurava, hell called, 56ft 1 

Ravana, chief of the Rak- 
shasas, 103, 142ft 2 , 203, 205 

Rdwl (story-teller), 43 

Rayar (king), 261 

Rehatsek, Edward, 236ft 1 

Richard III, 31ft 2 

Rigg's trans, of The De- 
cameron, 148ft 



Rig-Veda, the, 56ft, 103, 191, 

198, 199, 204, 232 
Rishi (holy sage), 67, 75ft 2 
Risley, H., Tribes and Castes 

of Bengal, 243ft 2 
Robinson, H. W., "Blood," 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Roc or rukh, 103, 104 
Rochelle, La, phallic cakes 

made at Saintonge, near, 

14ft, 15ft 
Rockhill and Hirth's trans. 

of Chau Ju-Kwa's Chu-fan- 

ch'i, 241ft 1 
Rogers, T., trans, of Bud- 

dhaghosa's Fables, 104 
Rokk, 103-105 
Roman fascinum (see also 

guhya, phallus or lingo), 13ft 3 
Rome, kohl used in classical, 

Rost, Dr Reinhold, 15ft 1 , 25, 

60ft 1 , 169 
Roth and Bohtlingk, 70ft 1 
Roy, P. C, trans, of the 

Mahabharata, In 2 , 88 
Ruch (to please), 16ft 2 
Rudra, the god, 198 
Rudrasarman, Brahman 

named, 184-186 
Rukh or roc, 103-105 
Rumanvat, minister of Uda- 

yana, 97, 121, 135, 136, 152, 

183, 184, 187 
Rupinika, Story of, 138-141, 

145-146, 148, 231 
Ruru, Story of, 188-189 
Russell, R. V., Tribes and 

Castes oj the Central Pro- 
vinces, 242, 242ft 2 , 243, 245 
Rustam, son of Zal, 103 
Ryder, A. W., trans, of 

Mrichchhakatika, or Clay 

Cart, 118ft 2 , 235ft 1 

Sa, 15ft 1 

Saadi, the sermons of, 192 
Sabbdrah (aloe plant), 81ft 
Sabr (patience), 81ft 
Saccamkira-Jdkata, 101ft 1 
Sddhu (ascetic), 79ft 1 
Sadhyas or Siddhas, 204 
Sage, Le, Le Diable Boiteux, 

Sahasranlka, King, 95-97, 102, 

120, 121 
Sahasra-Paku-Taila, 212 
St Ambrose, 77ft 1 
St Augustine, De Civ. Dei, 


St Hildegard of Bingen, 

Subtleties, 110ft 1 
St Jean d'Angely, cake 

custom in, 15ft 
St Nicolaus, cake custom of, 

Saintes, custom on Palm 

Sunday at, 14ft 
Saintonge, phallic cakes 

made at, 14ft, 15ft 
Saintyves, P., Les Contes de 

Saiva sect, 244, 247 
Saiva Vellalm, 263 
Saivite, 264 

Sakasana and Sakasana, 58ft 2 
Sakatala, minister of King 

Nanda, 39, 39ft 1 , 40,41,45, 
, 46, 50, 51, 53-55, 57 
Sakhas (branches of the 

Vedas), 12ft 2 
Sakko, garden made by, 66ft 1 
Saktideva, 108ft 1 
SaktimatI, wife of Dvipikarni, 

, 6 7 

SaktimatI, wife of Samudra- 

datta, 161, 162, 163, 179, 

Saktiyasas (Book X), 2 
Sakuntala, 88, 201 
Sdla tree, 9 

Salisbury service, the, 77ft 1 
Salivahana (Satavahana), 60ft 1 
Sal-Me (natitu or inferior wives 

of the god), 270 
Sama (conciliation or hymn), 

64, 64ft*, 65 
Saman (negotiation), 123, 

123ft 2 
Samanta (feudatory or de- 
pendent chief), 52, 52ft 1 
Samantatah, 135ft 2 
Samarddityasamkshepa, 1 1 8ft 1 , 

Samarkand, 49ft 1 
Samavati, Queen, 104 
Sama Vedas, the, 62, 64, 65 
Sdmavidhdna Brahmana, Bur- 

nell, 12ft 1 
Samayamatrika, Kshemendra, 

236, 236ft45 
Sambhu (Siva), 79, 79ft 2 
Samoans, 30ft 2 
Samson, King, 121ft 2 
Samudradatta, 162 
Sandabar, the Hebrew Sindi- 

bad Kama, 170 
Sandhya, 5 
Sandilya, a hermit, 95 
Sandrakottos (Chandragupta), 

17ft 3 

Sangataka, a story-teller, 106, 

Sani, Hindu term for bogam, 

r 244 

Sankara Svamin, Brahman 

^ named, 13 

Sankha (conch-shell), 212 

Sankrityanani, a female as- 
cetic named, 188 

Sanskara (tendency produced 
by some past influence), 
75ft 3 

Sanskrit, 4ft 1 , 17ft 3 , 32ft 1 , 58ft 1 , 
60, 71, 74, 100ft 1 , 119ft 1 , 
192, 206, 221 

Sansovino, 44 

Sara grass, 56ft 

Sarangi (fiddle), 243 

Sarasvati, goddess of elo- 
quence and learning, 1ft 4 , 
18, 18ft 1 , 31, 31ft 3 , 41, 47, 
54, 71, 74, 137, 138, 243 

Saree (coloured wrapper), 253 

Sarivadi, drugs of, 212 

Sarpanit (Ishtar), 271 

Sarva-gandha, drugs of, 212 

Sarvavarman, minister of 
Satavahana, 65, 70, 71, 72, 

, 74, 75, 75ft 1 , 76 

Sasankavati (Book XII), 2 

Sasnehe (passionate), 96ft 2 

Sastras, the, 259 

Sata, Yaksha named, 67, 68 

Satanika, grandfather of 
Udayana, 95 

Satapatha Brahmana, 191 

Satavahana, King, 60, 60ft 1 , 
65, 67, 68, 70, 72, 75, 76, 
89, 90, 91, 94 

Sail (good woman), 54ft 2 ; 
Brah manic rite of, 54ft 2 , 256 

Sattva (full of life), 136, 136ft 1 

Sattvaslla, story of, in Vetdla 
Panchavimsati, 108ft 1 

Saturninus, 145ft 1 

Savantvadi state, 245 

Savara (a wild mountaineer), 
100, 100ft 1 , 101, 102, 115, 
116, 152ft 1 

Schene (12,000 royal cubits of 
52 centimetres each), 129 

Schiefner and Ralston's Ti- 
betan Tales, 97ft 2 , 223, 226 

Schmidt, Bernhard, Griech- 
ische Marchen, 77ft 1 , 188ft 2 

Schmidt, R., Beitrdge zur 
Indischen Erotik ; das hie 
besleben des Sanskritvolkes 
nach den Quellen dargestellt, 
234ft 1 ; trans, of Snka 
Saptati, 170 




choppner, Sageiibuch (or 
Geschichte) der Bayerischen 
Lande, 77ft 1 , 129 
Schrad er, Keilinschiiftliche 

Bibliothek, 273ft 2 , 274ft 1 
Scribe Atef, 216 
Seeley, Dragons of the Air, 105 
Semitic mother-goddess, the, 

Semitic origin of Ishtar, 271 

Semtet, or act of applying kohl 
to the eyes, 215 

Semti, the part of the eye 
painted with kohl, 215 

Sengterklas (Lower German 
cake festival), 14ft 

Sennacherib, 215 

Sesha, form of marriage, 245 

Sesha, the thousand-headed 
serpent, 109ft 2 

Sewell, R., 155ft 1 ; A Forgotten 
Empire, 248ft 1 

Sha'aban (eighth month of 
Muslim year), 30ft 2 

Shah Jahan, the Emperor, 
231, 238 

Shaitanpurah or Devilsville, 

Shakespeare, Cymbeline, 49ft 1 , 
165 ; Hamlet, 76ft 2 ; Measure 
for Measure, 50ft 2 

Shama Sastri, R., trans, of 
Arthasastra, 233ft 1 

Shamash, 270 

Shamkhdti (joy-maiden), 272, 

Shardb (wine), 81ft 

Shaykh 'Izzat Ullah, Gul-i- 
Bakdwati or " Rose of Baka- 
wall," 43 

Shenk or chank, 256, 258 

Shenkottah, 261 

Sheol (Hades), 273, 274 

Shertallay, 261 

Shortt, John, "The Baya- 
dere : or, Dancing Girls of 
Southern India," Memoirs 
read before the Anthropologi- 
cal Society of London, 252, 
253, 253ft 1 , 254 

Shurrdbeh (tassel), 81ft 

Si (to run away), 278 

Sibyl, story of the, 91ft 1 

Siddhas, independent super- 
humans, 3, 89, 197, 204 

Siddhikarl, 157-158, 174-176 

Siddhi Kur, Relations of, 20ft, 

. 25 

Sidney Hartland. See Hart- 
land, E. S. 
Sigfrid, 48ft 2 

Sikander Lodi, 231 

Sikes, Wirt, British Goblins, 

76ft 2 
Simhdsana - dvdtrimsikd or 
Thirty -Two Tales of a 
Throne, 186ft 1 
Simrock, Deutsche Volks- 

bucher, 24ft 1 , 97ft 2 , 129, 

137ft 1 , 141ft 2 
Simourg, or Garuda bird, 105 
Simurgh, later Persian name 

for Garuda bird, 103 
Sinai, Moses on, 217 
Sinamru, Persian name for 

Garuda bird, 103 
Sinclair, Statistical Account of 

Scotland, 191 
Sindbad, the second voyage 

of, 103 
Sindban, 170, 186ft 1 
Sindibdd Kama, the, 170, 186ft 1 
Sinhagupta, Rajput named, 

72, 73 
Sippar or Larsa, 270 
Siraj Ul Hassan, Tribes and 

Castes ofH.E.H. the Nizarns 

Dominions, 244, 244ft 1 
Sir dhankdi (rite of covering 

the head), 240 
Siripolemaios, 60ft 1 
Sirlsha flower, 69 
Sirkar, 261 
Sita, 103 
Sltkdra (drawing in the 

breath), 1ft 5 
Siva, 1, 1ft 2 - 4 , 2ft 2 , 3, 3ft 4 , 4, 4ft 3 , 

5,5ft 2 ' 5 , 6,6ft 12 , 7, 7ft 3 , 9, 

10, 10ft 1 , 11, 17, 19, 19ft 1 , 

20ft 1 , 32, 58, 77, 79ft 2 , 83, 

86, 91, 94, 95, 95ft 1 , 99, 108, 

125, 125ft 2 , 146ft 2 , 156, 174, 

200, 202, 239, 244, 247, 255, 
, 264,272 

Sivaratri, festival of, 262 
Sivavarman, a minister 

named, 51, 52 
Sivi, story of King, 84, 84ft 2 
Skanda (Karttikeya), 19, 

19ft 1 , 74, 74ft 2 
Slave Coast of West Africa, 

Sleeman, W. H., Rambles and 

Recollections of an Indian 

Official, 238ft 1 
Sloka, 74 
Smith, V. A., Oxford History 

of India, 250ft 1 
Sneha (love and oil), 96ft 2 
Sobhd, 13ft 1 
Socin, Prym and, Syrische 

Mdrchen, 26, 97ft 2 , 125ft 3 

Solomon, the ring of, guarded 

by fiery serpents, 204 
Soma (Asclepias acida), 12ft 1 , 

Somadatta, father of Vara- 

ruchi, 11 
Somadatta, son of Govinda- 

datta, 85 
Somadeva, Kathd Sarit Sdgara, 
^ 17ft 3 , 25, 42, 232, 236 
Somasarman, Brahman called, 

Sonahri Rani, 129 
Sonnerat (1782), 250 
Spenser's girdle of Flori- 

mel, derivation of, 165 
Speyer, Studies about the Kathd- 

saritsdgara, 122ft 4 
Srdddha, ceremony of, 56, 
, 56ft 1 , 57, 279 
Sraddhd (faith, trust, belief), 
, 56ft 1 
Sri, daughter of King Siisar- 

man, 80 
Sri, the goddess, 80, 119 
Srlchanda, father of Sundari, 

, 116 " 

Srldatta, i.e. "given by For- 
tune," 106-109, 111-119 

Srinjaya, story in Mahdbhdr- 
ata, 20ft 

Sripati Roy, Customs and Cus- 
tomary Law in British India, 

Sripati Varma, 75ft 1 

Sri Puliman, of the Andhra 
Dynasty, 60ft 1 

Srutartha, mother of Gun- 
adhya, 60, 61 

SrutimatI, Queen, 226 

Stanislas, Julien, trans, of 
Avaddnas, 26 

Steel and Temple, Wide- 
Awake Stories, 28, 130, 131 

Stein, Sir Aurel, 38ft; 
Rdjatarangini, 63ft 1 

Stein and Grierson, Hatims 
Tales, 38ft, 81ft, 163ft 

Sterria Coothoo dance, 254 

Stevenson, Mrs S., The Rites 
of the Twice-born, 56ft 1 

Sthulakesa, a hermit named, 

Sthulasiras, a Rakshasa 
named, 10 

Stokes, Miss, Indian Fairy 
Tales, 26, 43, 129, 131 

Strack, Das Blut im Glauben 
u. Aber glauben der Men- 
schheit, 98ft 

Straparola, Nights, 44, 46ft 2 



Stupas, 125ft 1 , 192 
Subandhu, Brahman named, 

Suchindram temple, 263 
Sudhadhauta (whitened with 

plaster), 125ft 1 
Sudra caste, 87, 200, 245 
Suka Saptati, the, 46ft 2 , 162ft 1 , 

169, 170 
Sukkar nebat (sugar-candy), 

Sulayman, mouth like the 

ring of, 30ft 2 
Sultan of Babylon, 24ft 1 
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, 

Sultanate of Delhi, 237, 248 
Sumatra, 155ft 1 
Sumerian goddesses, 271 
Sumerian laws, 269 
Sumerian ruler, Gilgamesh, 

Sumerian women, 215 
Sumsumara-Jataka, 224 
Sundarl, wife of Sridatta, 116, 

Sunnats (practices of the cir- 
cuit), 192 
Suparna or Garuda, 103 
Supatta-Jfitaka, 224 
Supratika, a Yaksha named, 7 
Supratika, t commander - in - 

chief of Satanlka, 95, 97 
Supratishthita, city of, 7, 60 
Sura (god), 199 
Surasena, King, 117, 119 
Surma or kohl, 211, 212-213 
Surma-dan (toilet boxes), 212 
Surmah, Persian term for kohl, 

214-215, 218 
Suratamanjari (Book XVI), 2 
Suryaprabha (Book VIII), 2 
Susarman, King, 80, 83, 85 
Sushena, King, 202 
Susruta Samhitd, Bhishgrat- 

na's translation, 211-212 
Sutra, 75 
Sutrapatam akarot (she tested), 

184ft 4 
Suttee {satl, i.e. good woman), 

54ft 2 , 279 
Suvannakakkata-Jataka, 223 
Svamin, Sankara, 13 
Svarga, 59 
Svayamvara form of marriage, 

Svend, Danish story of, 48ft 2 
Swan's edition of the Gesta 

Romanorum, 101ft 1 
Swarnamula, mountain called, 


Sweden, figure of a girl eaten 

in, 14ft 
Swynnerton, Indian Nights' 

Entertainments, 81ft, 168 
Syandana (horses ?), 126ft 1 
Sykes, History of Persia, 103 
Sykes, Sir Percy, 214 
Syllable Om, the, 17, 17ft 1 
Syntipas, the, 170, 186ft 1 
Syracuse, cake ceremonies at, 

Syria, 268, 275-277 

Tabla (drum), 243 

Tabor, 11 

Tacitus, Ann., 103 

Tah, 15ft 1 

Taikkizhavi (old mother), 262 

Tai-Pongal, festival of, 262 

Talabhata, Rajput named, 151 

Tali (marriage token), 255, 

256, 258, 259, 260, 261, 263, 

Tali-cheri-pendugal (women of 

the temple), 247 
Tarn, 61ft 3 

Tamil, Alakesa Katha, 101ft 1 
Tamil inscriptions, 247, 247ft 1 
Tamil Padam (Nayar dancing- 

girls), 261 
Tamil settlements, 155ft 1 
Tamil Sudra women, 262 
Tammuz, lover of Ishtar, 273, 

Tamralipta, 153, 154, 164, 

Tanith or Ashtart (Ishtar), 

Tanjavur (Tanjore), 247 
Tanjore, 247 

Tankam (5 annas, 4 pies), 256 
Tansen, musician at Akbar's 

court, 238, 234 
Tanus (forms), 4ft 3 
Tapas (austerities), 79ft 1 
Taraka, 5 
Taranatha, Geschichte des 

Buddhismus in Indien, ueber- 

setzt von Schiefner, 69ft* 
Taranga, 184ft 4 
Tari, Government monopoly 

of, 241 
Tat, 15ft 1 
Tassy, Garcin de, " L'inex- 

orable Courtisane et les 

Talismans," Revue Orientate 

et Americaine, 28 
Tatsanchayaya, 5ft 4 
Tavernier, Jean Baptiste, 241 
Tavernier, Travels of, trans. 

by V. Ball, 241ft 3 

"Tawaf," circumambulation 

at Mecca, 192 
Tawciif caste, 239, 240, 244 

f awney, C. H., 26, 32ft 2 , 58ft 2 , 
67ft 1 , 74ft 1 , 139ft 1 , 155ft 1 , 
191 ; Kathakoca, 40ft, 48ft 2 , 
101ft 1 , 121ft 2 , 223, 224, 226 ; 
Prabandhacintamani, 37ft 2 , 
39ft 1 , 47ft 

Tayakimcanyadinaya, 62 ft 2 

Teixeira, Relaciones . . . 
de Persia, y de Harmuz, 

Telugu dancing-girls, 244 

Telugu settlements, 155ft 1 

Temal Ramakistnan (Indian 
jester), 43 

Temple, Sir Richard C, 154ft 1 

Temple and Steel, Wide- 
Awake Stories, 28, 130, 

Tevadiyal (servant of the god), 

Tevadiyan (male servant of 
the god), 261 

Thebes, sacred prostitution 
in, 276 

Thesmorphoria, festival of 
(Greece), 15ft 1 

Thevenot (1661), 250 

Thomas, F. W., "Animals 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth. y 
134ft 1 

Thomas of Cantimpre, 110ft 1 

Thompson, R. Campbell, 215 ; 
"The Golden Age of Ham 
murabi," Cambridge Ancient 
Histoiy, 271ft 1 

Thorburn, Bannu or our 
Afghan Frontier, 43 

Thorndike, A History of 
Magic and Experimental 
Science, 77ft 1 

Thorpe, Scandinavian Tales, 
25 : Yule-tide Stories, 48ft 2 , 
147ft 2 , 166 

Thoth, the book of, 37ft 2 , 129, 

Thucyd., 151ft 1 

Thurston, Castes and Tribes 
of Southern India, 234ft 3 , 253, 
258, 258ft 2 , 259, 265 ; Ethno- 
graphical Notes in Southern 
India, 258ft 2 

Thusa-Jataka, 223 

Tiberius, the Emperor, 145ft 1 

Tibet, 242ft 3 

Tibetan Himalayas, Mt 
Kailasa in the, 2ft 2 

Tilaka (mark on the fore- 
head), 69ft 3 


'ilottama, Apsaras named, 

Tirhutia Brahman, a, 50ft 1 
Tirukkalyanam, festival of, 

'itthayaras, longing to hear 
the teachings of, 226 
nahsit, Egyptian story of, 
odu (ear-pendants), 262 
Tragacanth gum, surmak 

^made from, 214 
ravancore, temple at, 246, 
261, 262 

Trenckner,V., Pali Miscellany, 
12ft 1 

Trentino district of the Tyrol, 
cake custom in the, 14ft 

Trevenot (1661), 250 

Tridham, drunk by dancing- 
girl, 258 

Trilochana Dasa, 75ft 1 

Triphala, juice of, used in 
anjanas, 212 

Tripurari (Siva), 95ft 1 

Tristan, 165 

Trumbull, The Blood Cove- 
nant, 98ft 

Tshi-speaking peoples, 277 

Tulava, temple at, 252 

Tungabhadra, 248 

Tutia (Persian preparation for 
the eyes), 213, 214 

Tuti-Nama, Nakhshabi, 43, 
168, 170 

Tvam, 61ft 3 

Tyrol (Ulten in the Tren- 
tino district), cake custom 
in the, 14ft 

Udaka, 69, 69ft* 

Udakaik (plural instrumental 
case of udaka), 69ft 4 

Udaya (prosperity), 121ft 3 

Udayana, King of Vatsa, 94, 
96, 99, 100, 101, 120-124, 
128, 133-138, 149-153, 182- 
184, 187-189 

Ugolino, 40ft 3 

Uhland, " Der Graf von Rom," 

Ujjayini, 9, 46ft 2 , 76, 111, 112, 
122, 124, 125ft 1 , 127, 134, 
135, 137, 151, 153 

Ulki or godani (process of pro- 
curing moles), 50ft 

Ulten in the Tyrol, 14ft 

Uma (Parvati), 6, 79, 79ft2 

Ungnad, A., and J. Kohler, 
Hammurabi s Gesetz, 270ft 1 

Upakosa, wife of Vararuchi, 
28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 
36, 41, 42, 54, 167 

Upama, 30ft 2 

Upanayana, " sacred thread" 
ceremony, 55ft 1 

Upanishads, the, 10ft 3 , 242ft 3 

Upavarsha, brother of Varsha, 
13, 17, 30, 31, 36, 54 

Upayas (the means of suc- 
cess), 123ft 2 

Upendrabala, friend of Sri- 
datta, 107 

Ur, the moon-god wor- 
shipped in, 270 

Urvasi, wife of King Puru- 
ravas, 201 

Usinara, Mount, 18, 18ft 3 

Uttama, 30ft 2 

Uttara Rama Charita, the, 
184ft 2 

Utpaladi, drugs of, 212 

Utsavas, the two, 262 

Vadda, caste of, 258, 258ft 1 
Vaishnava sect, 240, 243, 244, 

Vaishnavite, 264 
Vaisravana, or Kuvera, 202 
Vaisvanara, Brahman named, 

78, 78ft 1 
Vaisya caste, 87, 200 
Vajasaneyi Samhita, the, 232 
Vajrasmushti, friend of Sri- 

datta, 107 
Valangai (right hand), 260 
Valentine and Orson, story 

of, 103 
Valerius Flaccus, Argon, 190 
Valiya Sri-kariyakkar, 263 
Vallabhasakti, King, 107, 110 
Vanaparva, the, 51ft 1 
Vanara-Jataka, 224 
Vanarinda-Jataka, 225 
Vara (excellent), 16ft 2 
" Vararuchi as a Guesser of 
Acrostics," G. A. Grierson, 
Ind. Ant., 50ft 1 
Vararuchi or Pushpadanta, 7, 
9, 11, 16, 1W, 18, 24, 30, 
34, 38, 40, 45, 49, 50, 53, 
53ft 1 , 54, 58, 59, 75ft 1 , 92 
Varnas (or four original 

castes), 87 
Varnhagen, " Ein indisches 
Marchen auf seiner Wan- 
derung durch die asiatis- 
chen und europaischen 
Litteraturen," Saturday 
Review, 40n 


Varsha, teacher of Vararuchi, 
11, 13, 16, 17, 18, 24, 31, 
36, 55 

Varuna, the divine iudge, 
198, 200 

Vasantaka, friend of Uda- 
yana, 97, 121, 136-138, 149, 
150-153, 164, 187-189 

Vasantasena, 87 

Vasavadatta, wife of Udayana, 
122, 128, 134-135, 137, 138, 
149, 150, 151-153, 164, 182- 
184, 187-189, 190, 191, 227 

Vasavl, Queen, 223 

Vasu named Vidhuma, 96 

Vasudatta (mother of Vara- 
ruchi), 11 

Vasuki, King of the Nagas, 61, 
61ft 1 , 100, 100ft 2 , 122, 122ft 1 

Vasunemi, brother of Vasuki, 

Vatsa, Udavana, King of, 94, 
96, 99, 100, 101, 120-124, 
128, 133-138, 149-153, 182- 
184, 187-189 

Vatsa and Gulma, two Brah- 
mans named, 60, 61 

Vatsyayana, Kama Sutra, 48ft, 
234, 234ft 2 , 236 

Vattappalli Muttatu, 263 

Vayu Pur ana, the, 200 

Veckenstedt, Wendische 
Sagen, 26, 51ft 1 , 108ft 3 , 129, 
141ft 2 

Vedakumbha, instructor 
named, 79 

Vedas, the, 12ft 1 , 17, 18, 65, 

Vela (Book XI), 2 

Veli (26,755 square metres), 
247, 247ft 2 

VeUala, caste of, 259, 261, 264 

Vera Paz, Guatemala, 168 

Vergilius, Zauberer, story of 
the, 24ft 1 

VesalT, sacred tank in, 225 

Vetala Panchavhmati, the, 
82ft 1 , 108ft 1 

Vetalas (goblins or vampires), 
136, 136ft 2 , 197, 206 

Vetasa, city of, 12 

Vibhishana, King of the 
Rakshasas, 142-144 

Vidhuma, Vasu named, 96 

Vidhurapandita-Jataka, 122ft 2 

Vidyddhara (possessing spells 
and witchcraft), 203, 204 

Vidyadharas (independent 
superhumans), 2, 3, 6, 89, 
94, 100, 128, 152, 188, 197, 
203, 204 



Vidyutprabha, grand- 

daughter of Bali, 108 
Vigatabhaya, uncle of Sri- 

datta, 106, 107, 118 
Vighnesa, form of Ganesa, 

lft 4 
Vigneau, M. du, Secretaire 
Turc, contenant V Art d'ex- 
primer ses pensees sans se 
voir, sans se parler, et sans 
secrire, 81ft 
Vijayanagar, 233, 237, 248, 

249, 266 
Vikramaditya, King, 46ft 2 
Vikramasakti, 107, 110, 111, 

Vinashta (deformed), 185 
Vinashtaka, 184, 185 
Vinata, mother of Garuda, 

143ft 2 
Vinayaka, form of Ganesa, 

lft 4 
Vindhya forest, 7, 9, 30, 59, 76, 
114, 119, 133, 134, 136, 152, 
153, 182 ; hills, 7ft 4 , 9ft 1 , 60, 
66, 76, 116, 152 ; mountains, 
10, 22 ; range, 92, 133, 134, 
136, 182 
Virabahu a Rajput, 151 
Virachita, an attendant of the 

harem, 187 
Virarajendra, inscription of, 

155ft 1 
Visakhila, 62, 63 
Vishamasila (Book XVIII), 2 
Vishnu, 4ft 2 , DM*, 80, 96ft 1 , 
103, 108, 108^ 2 , 109, 143k 1 , 
144, 145, 192, 200, 201, 242, 
244, 256, 266 
Vishnugupta or Kautilya, 233 
Vishnumati, 95 
Vishnu Purdna, the, In 2 , 103, 

200, 201, 202, 231 
Vishnusakti, daughter of, 

70,' 73 
Visvadatta, Brahman named, 

Visvamitra, a hermit, 111, 

Visvesvara, commentaries of, 

75ft 1 
Vita {roue), 64, 64ft 4 , 65 
Vizagapatam district of 

Madras, 213 
Vodu-si (consecrated persons), 

Vritam, 141ft 2 
Vritti (gloss), 75ft 1 
Vyadi, brother of Indradatta, 
11, 12, 16, 17, 1W, 30, 31, 
36, 38, 39, 40 

Vyaghrabhata, 107 
Vyasana (vices of kings), 

Wadia, " Folk-Lore in West- 
ern India," Ind. Ant, 131 

Waldau, B'ohmische Marchen, 
20, 26 

Ward, W., A View of the 
History, Literature and Re- 
ligion of the Hindoos, 241, 
241ft 4 , 242 

Ward, W. H., The Seal 
Cylinders of Western Asia, 
272ft 3 

Warren, Niraydvaliyd Sutta, 

Waters, W. G., trans, of 
Straparola, 46ft 2 

Weber, Eastern Romances, 25 

Wellcome Historical Museum, 

Welsford,Macculloch, Crooke 
and, " Serpent- Worship," 
Hastings' Ency. ReL Eth., 
203, 204 

Westermarck, Marriage Cere- 
monies in Morocco, 217 

Wheeler (1707), 250 

Wilkinson, Manners and 
Customs of the Ancient 
Egyptians, 215 

Williams, Monier, 12ft 2 , Sin 1 , 
59m 1 , 63ft 1 , 69ft 3 , 79W 1 , 124ft 1 

Wills, Dr, editor of Hajji 
Baba of Ispahan, 214 

Wilson, Collected Works, In 2 , 
25, 60m 1 ; Descriptive Cata- 
logue of the Mackenzie MSS., 
131; editor of Dasa-Kumara- 
Charita, 234, 234ft 4 ; Essays 
on Sanskrit Literature, In*, 
17ft 3 , 75ft 1 , 147ft 2 , 162-w 1 ; 
Hindu Theatre, 57ft 3 , USn 2 ; 
Vishnu Purdna, In 2 , 200 

Wirt Sikes, British Goblins, 
76n 2 

Wortham, B. Hale, metrical 
version of the "Story of 
Devasmita," Journ. Roy. 
As. Soc, 172-181 

Wratislaw on life-index in 
South Slavonia, 132 

Wright, Th., Gesta Roman- 
orum, 116ft 2 ; Latin Stories, 

Yajnadatta, 19, 20, 21 
Yajnasoma, Brahman named, 



Yaksha (possessed of magica 

powers), 203 
Yakshas, servants of the gods, 

7, 10, 37ft 2 , 51ft 1 , 67, 77, 

109, 118, 162, 163, 179, 180, 

197, 203, 262 
Yamadamshtra, chief of the 

Asuras, 95 
Yamuna, the river (Jumna), 

7ft 4 
Yaugandharayana, minister 

of the King of Vatsa, 97, 

121-124, 135-138, 150-153, 

184, 187 
Yggdrasil (Scandinavian 

wishing-tree), 144ft 1 
Yoga (magic), 38ft, 40ft 1 
Yoga (meeting), 263 
Yogakarandika, a female 

ascetic called, 156, 158, 

159, 161 
Yogananda, King, 40ft 1 , 41, 

45, 46, 49, 51, 53, 54, 55, 

Yogandhara, minister 

Satanika, 95, 97 
Yogattil Potti, 263 
Yogesvara, a Brahma n- 

Rakshasa, 136, 136ft 3 , 137ft 1 
Yojanas (measures of dis- 
tance), 3, 3ft 1 , 144, 144ft 3 , 

151, 152 
Yoshitd, 15ft 
Yoshitah, 15ft 
Yudhishthira, 51ft 1 
Yule and Burnell, Hobson 

Jobson, 242ft 1 , 250ft 2 
Yule and Cordier, The Book 

of Ser Marco Polo, 63ft 1 , 
104, 105, 141ft 2 , 213, 241ft 2 , 

242ft 3 , 247ft 3 ; Cathay and the 
Way Thither, 63m 1 , 104 

Zal, father of the hero 

Rustam, 103 
Zanzibar, bags for holding 

kohl in, 217 
Zauberer Vergilius, story of 

the, 24ft 1 
Zend, fabulous bird of the 

(Eorosh), 104 
Zermashitu (seed-purifying) 

Zermashitu or zikru (vowed 

women), 270 
Zikru, concubines of the god, 

Zingerle, Kinder und Haus- 

mdrchen, 26 
Zoroaster, Avesta, 199 
Zulm (Arabic injustice), 124" 1 



Abbess and mystic, St 

Hildegard of Bingen, 

Subtleties, 110ft 1 
Abbeys in province of 

Maabar,, 247 
Abode of Siva (Mt Kailasa), 3 
Abode of Snow (Himalaya), 

2ft 2 
Aboriginal tribes of India, 

Dasyus connected with 

the, 206-207 
Abuse, vice of, 124ft 1 
Acacia, heart placed on the 

top of the flower of the, 

Accomplishments found in 

the courtesan, all female, 

235, 252 
Account of the Buddhist 

Literature oj Nepal, 20ft 2 
Acquiring wealth by a dead 

mouse, 63 
Acrobats, 240 
Act of applying kohl to the 

eyes, or semtet, 215 
Act of truth motif, 166, 167 
Actor (patra), 239 
Adamant, Daitya cased in, 

126, 127 
Adders, 188, 188ft 1 , 189 
Addiction to women, vice 

of, 124ft 1 
Ad Gallicinium, Prudentius, 

77ft 1 
Adorable god (Siva), 9 
Adorning the forehead with 

marks which never fade, 

Advent of British in India, 

14 Adventure of Satni-Kha- 

mois with the Mummies," 

37ft 2 , 129 
Adventures of Krishna, 231 
Adventures of the Ten Princes 

Dasa-Kumara-Charita, Dan- 
din, trans, by P. W. Jacob, 

234, 234ft* 
Advice from a roue, 64 ; to 

courtesan, 140; to Yoga- 

nanda by Vyadi, 40 


Mpyornis of Madagascar, 

Bianconi, 105 
Msops Fables, Jacob, 101ft 1 , 

Affection (ragini), 140, 140ft 2 ; 

of Vasavadatta for Uda- 

yana, 150, 164 
Age, feminine form of old, 
_ 121ft 2 
A* in - 1 - Akbari, Abu - 1 - Fazl, 

237ft 1 
Air, spirits of the, 87 ; voice 

from the, 152 
Alabaster coffer, soul put in 

an, 132 
Alabaster tubes for mestein, 

Alakesa Katha, 101ft 1 
Albanian Tales, Dozon, 20ft 
Alcohol, meaning of the 

word, 211 
Ally of Udayana, Pulindaka 

an, 136 
Alms distributed by Putraka, 

Aloe-plant (sabbarah), 81ft 
Alternative to enforced 

prostitution, 275, 276 
A Itindische Schelmenbiicher, 

J. J. Meyer, 236ft, 2 ' 4 
Ambergris, a crumb of (a 

mole), 49ft 1 
American (South) language 

of signs, 82ft 
Am. Journ. Phil, 118ft 2 
Am. Journ. Sem. Lang., Lyon 

and Johns in, 271ft 1 ; " The 

Temple Women of the Code 

of Hammurabi," D. D. 

Luckenbill, 271ft 1 
Amorous life of Krishna, 

songs of the, 245 
Amulet against poison, stone 

from the head of a snake 

as, 110ft 1 
" Amys and Amy lion," Early 

English Romances, Ellis, 

97ft 2 
Analysis, Douce, 169 
Ananga-Ranga , the Kalyfina 

Malla, 236, 236ft 3 

Anarchical period, 238-239 
"Ancestor-Worship (Indian)," 

W. Crooke, Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 56ft 1 
Ancient Egypt, custom of 

applying kohl to the eyes 

in, 215-216 * 
Ancient India, rock-carvings 

of, 30ft 2 ; sacred prostitu- 
tion in, 232-233 
Ancient Indian weights, 64, 

64ft 2 
" Ancient Manual of Sorcery, 

An," A. Bart, Melusine, 12ft 1 
Anemone, cheeks like the, 

30ft 2 
Anger, charm against, 56ft; 

horripilation usually pro- 
duced by, 120ft 1 
Anglicised corruption of Jag- 

annatha (Juggernaut), 242 
Angry with adders yet killing 

water-snakes, 188, 189 
Animal (sattva), 136ft 1 ; and 

human dohadas, 222, 223- 

225 ; conversations, 48ft 2 ; 

gold-producing, 20ft 
Animal life, Ishtar goddess 

of, 272 
"Animals," F. W. Thomas, 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

134ft 1 
Animals listen to the Great 

Tale, 90 
Animals, men hidden in 

imitation, 133, 133ft 1 , 134 
Animating a dead body, 37ft 2 , 

204, 206 
Ann., Tacitus, 103 
Annual journey of Ishtar to 

the underworld, 273, 274 
Annual payment of deva-dasis 

to the temple, 252 
Annual rent-roll of the temple 

of Jagannatha, 242 
Anointing of Hindu kings, 

187ft 2 ; of the daughter of 

Vishnusakti, 73, 73ft 2 
Ant, simile of mole as an, 

49ft 1 
Ant. Jud., 145ft 1 




Anthropological Society 
of London, Memoirs read 
before the, 253ft 1 

Antimony among Moham- 
medans, origin of the use 
of, 213 

Antimony {rasdnjana), 212 ; 
sesquisulphuret of, 215 ; 
trisulphide, 211; ore, 
powdered, 211 

Antiquity of the use of kohl, 

Ape Nephrit, the, 216 

Apes, 9 

Appearance of darbha grass, 
56/i ; of Dasyus, 206-207 

Arabia Deserla, Doughty, 217 

Arabian fiction, snakes in, 
101ft 1 

Arabian method of carrying 
money, 117, 117ft 3 

Arabian name for Garuda 
bird, 'anqa (long-necked), 

Arabian Nights, The, Burton 
(see Nights), In 1 , etc. 

Arabian Nights, The, Lane, Sin 

Arabian tale in the 
27, 28 

Arabic kusliartrah (horripila- 
tion), 120 1 

Archaeological Reports, A. Cun- 
ningham, 238ft 1 

Archaeological Survey of India, 
155ft 1 , 247ft 1 

Archers, 24ft 2 

Architecture, 108 mystic 
number in, 242ft 3 

Archivio, Hartland, 168 

Areca nuts, 255 ; distribution 
of, 244 ; 

Argon, Valerius Flaccus, 190 

" Arme Heinrich, Der," Sim- 
rock's Deidsche Volksbiicher, 
97ft 2 

Armed men concealed in 
artificial elephant, 133, 
133ft 1 , 134 

Arms, 30; force of all four, 
24, 24ft 2 

Army, dust from the tramp- 
ling of an, 182, 182ft 1 , 183ft 

Arrival of Gunadhya at 
Satavahana's court, 65 

Arrogant spirit (Brahma), 10, 
10ft 2 

Arrow of bewilderment, 184, 
1 84ft 2 ; of love that cleaves 
the armour of self-restraint, 

Arrows of love, 31, 32 

Art, Ishtar in, 272 

"Art of Entering Another's 

Body," Bloomfield, Proc. 

Am. Philos. Soc, 38ft 
"Art of Stealing, The," 

Bloomfield, 118ft 2 
Art of weaving unfading 

garlands, 100 
Arthasastra, a work on Hindu 

polity, 233, 233ft 1 , 265 
Article, gold-producing, 20ft; 

test of chastity, 42, 165- 

168 ; within numerous 

other articles, 131-132 
Articles, of chastity, 42, 165- 

168 ; the magic, 22 ; notes 

on motif in folk-lore of 

magical, 25-29 ; recipe for 

making magic, 28 ; varieties 

of motifs on magical, 29 
Artificial elephant, 133-134 
Artificial production of moles, 

49ft 1 , 50ft 
Artisans (kammalar), 260 
"Aryans in the land of the 

Assurs, The," Bhandarkar, 

Journ. Bombay Br. Roy. As. 

Soc, 198 
Aryan Nations, Mythology of 

the, Cox, 130 
Ascension of Himalaya to 

prepare for last journey, 121 
Ascetic (sddhu), 79ft 1 
Ascetic named Yogakar- 

andika, a female, 156, 158, 

159-161, 188 
Asceticism, 55, 79, 79ft 1 
"Asceticism," F. C. Cony- 

beare, Ency. Brit., 79ft 1 
"Asceticism (Hindu)," A. S. 

Geden, Hastings' Ency. 

Eel. Eth., 79ft 1 
Ascetics, austerities of 

Hindu, 79ft 1 
Ashamed of his ignorance, 

the king, 68, 69, 70 
Asiatic Quarterly Review, E. H. 

Parker in the, 214 
Asiatic Society, the Royal, 40ft 
Aspects of Ishtar, different, 

Ass, gold -producing, 20ft 
Assassins appointed by the 

three Brahmans, 21, 22 
Assault, vice of, 124ft 1 
Assignations of Upakosa with 

her would-be lovers, 33 
Asvalayana Srauta Sutra, 205 
"Atargatis," L. B. Paton, 

Hastings' Ency. Eel, Eth., 

275, 275ft 1 , 

Atharm-Veda, 56ft, 199, 204 

Attendants of the gods, 197, 
200-203; of Siva (Ganas), 
6, 6ft 2 , 202 

Attire, man in woman's, 

Attraction of the mole in the 
East, 49ft 1 , 50ft 

Attractions of surma, 213 

" Aufgegessene Gott, Der," 
Zur Volkskunde, Liebrecht, 
13ft 3 

Ausgewdhlte Erzahlungen in 
Maharashtri, Jacobi, 224, 

Auspicious bathing, 183 : 
marks, 49 ; omen, 116 

Aus Schwaben, Birlinger, 103 

Austerities, 4, 5, 9, 12, 19, 20, 
20ft 1 , 41, 74, 76, 111, 143 ; 
of Devadatta, 79, 79ft 1 ; god 
pleased with Varsha's, 15 ; 
on the Himalaya, 5, 32, 86 ; 
of Hindu ascetics, 79ft 1 ; 
performed by a Brahman 
from the Deccan, 18 ; per- 
formed by Panini at Hima- 
laya, 32 

Australian message - stick, 

Author ot music, Ganesa. 

Avesta, Zoroaster, 199, 201 

" Babylonian Law," C. H. W. 

Johns, Ency. Brit., 270ft 1 
Baker's custom in Notting- 
ham, 14ft 
Baldness, charm 


Balls, offerings of, 56m 1 
Bangle, silver, 255, 256 
Bank of the Ganges, sport 

on the, 107 
Banks of the Godavari, 66 
Bannu or Our Afghan Frontier , 

Thorburn, 43 
Baptist missionary, W. Ward, 

241, 24^* 
Barbarian (dasyu), 152n 1 
Barber caste or Nai, 49/2 1 
Barbers attached to the 

temple at Tanjore, 247 
Barren women, drinking of 
blood by, 98ft ; pretended 
dohadas of, 227 
Base of Kailasa, circumambu- 
lating the, 3ft 1 
"Basivis: Women who 
through Dedication to a 
Deity assume Masculine 


Basivis continued 

Privileges," Joum. Anth. 
Soc. Bombay, F a w c e 1 1, 
255ft 1 

Baskets of first-fruits (XUvov), 

Bas-reliefs at AmaravatI, 
125ft 1 ; at Barhut, 42 

"Bassorah, Hasan of," tale of, 
Nights, 27, 28 

Bath of blood as a cure for 
leprosy, 98ft 

Bath of hot coals, lying in a, 
79ft 1 

Bathing, auspicious, 183 ; in 
the Ganges, 32, 67 ; relief 
of discomfort caused by, 
14, 15 ; in a tank of blood, 
97, 97n 2 , 98w ; in the sacred 
tank at Vesali, 225-226 

Bawd named Makaradansh- 
tra, 139, 140, 141 ; on the 
pillar, 147 - 148 ; Loha- 
jangha's revenge on the, 

Bayadere, 253 

"Bayadere : or, Dancing Girls 
of Southern India, The," 
Memoirs read before the 
Anth. Soc. London, Dr John 
Shortt, 253, 253ft 1 

Bear and Hiranyagupta, the, 

Bear terrified by lion, 53 

Beasts and birds, the Great 
Tale related to the, 90, 91 

Beating the drum, 118, 118ft 2 

"Beautiful Palace East of 
the Sun and North of the 
Earth," Thorpe, Scandi- 
navian Tales, 25 

Bed, the magic, 26 

Bed of spikes, lying on a, 
79ft 1 

Bed of white lotuses, 119, 
119ft 1 

Bee, ogre's life dependent 
on that of a queen, 131 

Begging-basket, gopdldm, 256 

Beitr'dge zur Indischen Erotik ; 
das Liebesleben des Sanskrit- 
volkes nach den Quellen 
dargestellt, R. Schmidt, 
234ft 1 

Belief in a "double," 37ft 2 

Belief in magic properties of 
blood, 98ft 

Belief (Sanskrit sraddha), 56ft 1 

Belt, gold or silver, 253 

" Bengali Folk-Lore," Ind. 
Ant., Damant, 131 


Betel-eating, 249 

Betel leaf, 82ft, 100 

Betel leaves, 255 ; distribution 

of, 244 
Betel nuts, 256 
" Beutel, Mantelchen u. 

Wunderhorn," Kaden, Un- 

ter den Olivenb'dumen, 26 
Bewilderment, the arrow of, 

184, 184ft 2 
Bhadda-Sala-Jdtaka, 225 
Biblical kcdeshdh, 271 
Biblio. Indica, 37ft 2 , 46ft, 237ft 1 
Bibliographic des Ouvrages 

Arabes, Chauvin, 27, 28, 

101ft 1 , 105, 128a 1 , 168, 171, 

186ft 1 , 189ft 
Bibliography of Sir Richard 

Burton, N. M. Penzer, 

234ft 2 
Bibliotheque des Curieux, 

236ft 2 - 5 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Le, 

Bird, Alexander and the 

gigantic, 103 
Bird, description of Garuda, 

Bird-genii in rock-carvings, 

Bird, half-lion, half-eagle, 

the griffin a, 104 
Bird in Buddhaghosa's 

fables, hatthilinga, 104 
Bird of the race of Garuda, 

98, 99, 142, 143, 144, 146, 

147, 222 
Bird which shakes the fruit 

from the tree bearing all 

things useful to mankind, 

Birds and beasts, the Great 

Tale related to the, 90, 

Birds, encounters at sea with 

enormous, 104 
Birds in comparatively recent 

times, proof of existence 

of gigantic, 105 
Birds the most popular index 

in Indian tales, 131 
Birth, former, 20ft 1 , 60; of 

the swans, 21 
Birth, maturity at, 204 
Birth of Gautama, 242ft 3 ; of 

Gunadhya, 61 ; of Putraka, 

19 ; former, of Putraka, 19, 

20ft 1 ; of Sahasranika, 95 ; 

of Udayana, 99, 100; of 

Vararuchi, spiritual voice 

at the, 16, 16ft 1 


Birthplace of Krishna, Ma- 

thura, 138, 231 * 
Births of the Buddha, tales of 

the previous (Jdtakas), 232 
Births, Parvati's former, 4, 5 
Bitch belonging to Devas- 

mita, 158, 159 
Bitch and pepper motif, 169- 

Bitch and the pepper, 158, 

Bite of a snake, 107 
Black beads round the neck, 

a string of, 256 
Black colour feared by evil 

spirits, 212, 217 
Black oxide of manganese, 

Blackening of the teeth 

(missi), rite of, 240, 244 
Blackhead, cure for, 191 
Blanket (cambly), country- 
made, 256 
Blessing, ceremony of holy- 
day (panydhavdchana) , 245 
Blessing the bride, 244 
Blockhead Brahman, giving 

priapic cake to the, 13, 

13ft 3 , 14 
Blood - bath as a cure for 

leprosy, 98ft 
Blood, bathing in a tank of, 

97, 97ft 2 ; belief in magic 

properties of, 98ft ; given 

from the right knee, 223 ; 

turned into sap, 58, 58?i 3 
Blood covenant, 98ft 
Blood Covenant, The, Trumbull r 

Blood, dohada for the king's, 

Blood - drinking by barren 

women, 98a 
"Blood," H. W. Robinson, 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Blood, in the forest, seven 

stories written with, 89, 90 
Blood in the water, a drop of 

(Supreme Soul), 9 
Blood to procure a son, wash- 
ing in, 98ft 
Blue lotus, eyes like a, 30 
Blue-stocking, 70 
Blue-stone image, the sacred, 

Blue-throated one (Siva), 1ft 2 
Blut im Glauben u. Aberglauben 

der Menschheit, Das, Strack, 

Boar, a wild, 126 



Boar breaks the king's chariot, 

a, 126, 126k 1 
Bodice, the assumption of the 

(angiya), 240 
Bodies, position of the 

heavenly, 134 
Bodies reposing at Coptos, 

37m 2 
Bodies revealed by clinging 

garments, 69, 69m 2 
Bodiless voice, a, 16ft 1 , 123 
Body of Nanda guarded by 

Vyadi, 38, 39 
Body, rites for the creation 

of a new, 56m, 1 
Bohemian story of Busmanda, 

Waldau, 26 
Bohmische M'drchen, Waldau, 

20m, 26 
Bone, a cube of, 80m 1 , 81m, 
Bones of the Harpagornis, 105 
Book II, Kathamukha, 94 
Book of Ser Marco Polo, The, 

Yule and Cordier, 63k 1 , 

104, 105, 141m 2 , 213, 241m 2 , 

242m 3 , 247m 3 
Book of Sindibad, Clous ton, 

27, 43, 171, 186m 1 
Book of the Sword, Burton, 

109m 1 
Book of Thoth, the, 37m 2 , 

129, 130 
Boons, giver of (Siva), 19 
Booth of sixteen pillars, the 

marriage, 244 
Boots, magical, 25, 26, 27, 28 
Bosom, 30, 30m 2 
"Bottle Hill, The Legend 

of," 26 
Boxes for anjana, 212 ; for 

keeping mestem or kohl, 215 
Boxing, Srldatta proficient in, 

" Boy and the Mantle, The," 

Percy's Reliques, 165 
Boy maintaining mother and 

aunts even in infancy, 19 
Boy riding on a lion, 67, 67m 1 , 

Bracelet of Mrigavati, the, 

100, 101, 102 ' 
" Brahman and the Rescued 

Snake," Alakesa Kathd, 

101m 1 
Brahman blockhead, giving 
j^cake of flour to, 13, 13m 3 

Brahman brothers, tale of the 

two, 12-13, 16 
Brahman child, bath in the 

blood of a, 98ra 

Brahman from the Deccan, 
austerities performed by, 

Brahman in woman's clothes, 

Brahman Lohajangha, 139- 

Brahman named Bhojika, 19 ; 
named Chanakya, 55, 56, 
57; named Govindadatta, 
78; named Gunadhya, 58, 
59 ; named Rudra^arman, 
184-186 ; named Soma- 
datta, 11 ; named Somasar- 
man, 60 ; named Subandhu, 
57 ; named Vaisvanara, 78, 
78?i 2 ; named Visvadatta, 
117 ; named Yajnasoma, 

Brahman - Rakshasa named 
Yogesvara, 136, 136m 3 

Brahmanreceives pipkinfrom 
Durga, 28 

Brahmanic rite of Sail, 54m 2 

Brahmanical thread, the, 17, 
17m 1 , 55m 1 

Brahman s' adultery with 
Jagannatha dancing-girls, 

Brahmans and Buddhists, 
108 mystical among, 242m 3 

Brahmans call at Vararuchi's 
house, the two wandering, 
11 ; journey to Rajagriha, 
the three, 18; taught by 
Varsha, the three, 17, 18 

Brahmans, dancing-girls re- 
served exclusively for, 
250; desire to murder 
Putraka, 21 ; forbidden to 
witness displays of dancing 
and music, 232; honour 
Varsha, 17 ; illegitimate 
sons of, 56m 1 ; soft-hearted, 

Brahman's eyes, she-crow's 
longing for a, 223 

Brahmany duck, 115, 115m 1 , 

Branch of Euphorbia as chas- 
tity index in Peru, 168 

Branches of the Vedas, 12m 2 

Branded lovers, 42 

Branding of basivi women, 

Branding with the mark of a 
dog's foot, 160, 161 

Breaches of rules, penalties 
of ganikds for, 233 

Breaking chains, spells for, 
136, 137 

Breaking walls, spells for. 

Breton tale of " Voleur 

Avise," Melusine, 27 
Breviaire de la Courtisane, 

Louis de Langle, 236m 5 
Bribery of the assassins by 

Putraka, 22 
Bride, blessing the, 244 
Bride, tawdif dressed like a, 

Bridegroom, drum as, 257 ; 

idol as, 244; mask of the 

god as, 245 ; sword as, 257 
Brides of the god or entu, 270 
Brigands, Udayana attacked 

by, 152 
Brihat-Kathd, the, 1, 42, 89, 

91, 92, 169, 236; rejected 

by Satavahana, 90 
Brihat-Kathd-Manjari, 236 
British, advent of, 239 
British Goblins, Wirt Sikes, 

76m 2 
British Museum, 104, 125m 1 , 

215, 271 ; papyrus at, 129 
British rule in India, effect 

of, 55m, 266 ; sign language 

connected with, 82m 
British rule, progress of 

female education under, 

254, 255 
Brooch, the magic, 26 
Brother of Vasavadatta, 152, 

182, 183, 184 
Brother of Vasuki, king of 

the snakes, 100 
Brothers, tale of two Brah- 
man, 12-13, 16 
" Bruno, Liar," Italian tale of, 

Buddhism, Mathura centre 

of, 231 
Buddhist age, 232; sacred 

prostitution in the, 265 
Buddhist Literature of Nepal, 

Account of, 20m 2 
Buddhist edificatory texts, 

226 ; literature, 242m 3 ; 

origin of " entrapped 

suitors " tale, 42 ; origin 

of snake stories, 101m 1 ; 

story of the monkey and 

the crocodile, 224-225 
Buddhistic origin of the story 

of the bear, 54m 1 ; origin of 

tale of King Sivi and Indra, 

84m 2 
Buddhists, number 108 

mystical among, 242m 3 
Building temples, love of, 246 

I'ull. de I'lZcoIe Francaise cC ex- 
treme Orient, 155m 1 
ull, god whose emblem is a 
(Siva), 108 
ull god and lion goddess 
worshipped by the Hittites, 
ull, gold-producing, 20ft 
Bull of Siva, Nandin, 6, 6ft 1 , 

Bun, lozenge-shaped, 14ft 
Bunch of flowers, a, 81ft 
Burden of the matted locks, 
he who wears the (Siva), 
Buried in the sea, soul, 131, 

Burmese, Parables from the, 

trans, by T. Rogers, 104 
Burning-ground of Mahakala, 

Burning of the Great Tale by 

Gunadhya, 90 
Burning of Indradatta's body, 

Burning-places, Siva's delight 

in, 9, 10 
Burnt-offering to Durga, 125 
Burnt-offerings to Goddess of 

Fortune, 106 
Burnt-offerings to procure a 

son, 154 
Burton, Bibliography oj Sir 
Richard, N. M. Penzer, 
234ft 2 , 236ft 3 
Biismanda, Bohemian story 

of, Waldau, 26 
Butter, dates, and milk, idol 
of, 14ft 

Cake ceremonies in Germany, 

Cake customs, phallic ele- 
ment in, 14ft ; of the 
Romans, 15ft; in St Jean 
d'Angely, 15 ; in Saintes, 
14ft; in Saintonge, 14ft 

Cake of flour, giving a, to 
blockhead Brahman, 13, 
13ft 3 

Cake presented to Varsha, 
phallic, 15 

Cakes, feast of, 242 ; in 
Greece, 15ft ; of sesame 
and honey at Syracuse, 

" Cakes and Loaves," J. A. 
Macculloch, Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., 15ft 


Caliphs, vices of, 124m 1 
Calumny, vice of, 124ft 1 
Cambridge Ancient History, the, 
270ft 1 ; "The Golden Age 
of Hammurabi," by R. 
Campbell Thompson, in 
the, 271# 
Cambridge History of India, 

233ft 1 
Cambridge edition of the 

Jdtakas, 221-227 
"Camel-crane" of Pi-p'a-lo 

(Berbera), 104 
Camomile petals, teeth like, 

30ft 2 
Camp of King Nanda at 

Ayodhya, 37 
Cap of Fortunatus, 25 
Cap or mitre, 258 
Cap, the magic, 26 
Capital of the emperors of 

India, 7ft 4 
Captivity of Udayana, 134- 

138, 149-151 
Capture, marriage by (Asura), 

87, 200 
Car festival, the famous, 

Car of Juggernaut, 242 
Carob-pod, 80ft 1 , 81ft 
Carpet, a magic, 26 ; the 

flying, 26 
Carved figures in outer rail 

of the stupa, 125ft 1 
Carvings, bird-genii in rock-, 

Carvings of ancient India, 

rock-, 30ft 2 
Carrying money in India, 117, 

117ft 3 
Carrying off of Mrigavati by 

Garuda bird, 98, 99 
Carrying the dead with the 

sun, 190, 191 
Cased in adamant all over, 

126, 127 
Caste, the Brahman, 87 ; the 

dasa, 246, 259, 260-262; 

gandharb, 239 ; kasbi, 242, 

243; Kshatriya, 87, 205; 

of moylar, 252 ; of rdjkanya, 

the sub-, 239 ; the Sudra, 

87, 245, 255, 256; the 

tawdif, 239 ; the Vaisya, 

Castes and Tribes of Southern 

India, Thurston, 234ft 3 , 

253, 258, 258ft 2 , 259, 265 
Castle of the Golden Sun, 

Castrated man, Gallic 275 


Catalogue of the Indian Coins 
in the British Museum, E. J. 
Rapson, 64ft 2 
Cathay and the Way Thither, 

Sir Henry Yule, 63ft 1 , 104 
Cavallius, Swedish story in, 25 
Cavalry, 24ft 2 
" Cave-Call Motif," 225 
Cave paintings, the Ajanta, 

Celebrated mountain Hima- 

vat, 2 
Celebrated place of pilgrim- 
age (Badari), 59, 59ft 1 
Celestial singers at Indra's 

court, 201 
Celestial voice, a, 121 
Celestial woman, a, 31 
Centaurs like Kimpurushas, 

Central India, sacred prostitu- 
tion in, 240-246 
Centre of Buddhism, Mathura 

the, 231 
Ceremonial turn, the (Deisul), 

Ceremonies of the dedication 

of a basivi, 255-257 ; of a 

bogamjdn, 244 ; bogam sani, 

Ceremonies, darbha grass used 

in all Hindu, 56ft 1 ; among 

deva-dasis,259, 260,261, 262; 

among the gandharbs, 240 ; 

of marriage, 183, 184, 190, 

255ft 3 
Ceremony of puberty (henun), 

257 ; of Punyahavachana 

(holy - day blessing), 245 ; 

of Upanayana or "sacred 

thread," 55ft 1 
Chains, spells for breaking, 

Changeless East, the, a phase 

inapplicable to India, 268 
Chant of watchman, 23 
Chanter of the Sama Veda 

and the Courtesan, story of 

the, 64-65 
Chanters intoning the Sama 

Vedas, 62 
Chaplain, the king's domestic, 

Character of songs, 245 
Characteristics of Ishtar, 272 
Chariot in the shape of a 

lotus, a magic, 227 
Chariot of the king broken 

by a boar, 126, 126ft 1 
Charioteer of Indra, Matali, 

95, 96, 96ft 3 , 97 



Charm against anger and 
baldness, 56ft; to alter 
shape, 136; to produce a 
dream, 71, 71ft 1 ; for win- 
ning love, 137, 138 

Charms for curing disease, 

Chaste woman, fallen ele- 
phant raised up by a, 

Chastity, articles of, 165-168 ; 
cup of, 165 ; drinking-horn 
of, 165 ; emerald of, 165 ; 
garland of, 44, 165 ; index, 
165-168; mantle of, 165; 
mirror of, 166, 167 ; nose- 
gay as index of, 168 ; ring 
as index of, 168 ; sacrifice 
of, 275, 276 ; shirt of, 44, 
165 ; test article of, 42 ; 
test of, 165-168; vow of 
perpetual, 67 

Chastity tests, lotuses as, 42, 
156, 165-168 

Chattee, a food-producing, 28 

Chattees of water, 131 

Chavaka-Jataka, 226 

Cheeks like the anenome, 
30ft 2 

Cheerful hue, faces robbed of 
their, 122, 122ft 3 

Cherries, magical, 27 

Cherry lip, 31ft 2 

Chest, the magic, 26 

Chests, suitors in, 34, 35, 42- 

Chewing leaves, 238 

Chief, feudatory or depen- 
dent (Samanta), 52ft 1 

Chief mourner (karta), 264 

Chief of the Asuras, Yama- 
darashtra, 95 ; of the 
Rakshasas (Ravana), 205 

Chief wife of the god (Entu or 
Nin-An), 270 

"Chienne qui Pleure, La," 
Chauvin, Biblio. des Ouv- 
rages Arabes, 171 

Child (bala), 185 ; ill-treated 
by stepmother, 185; 
murder to procure another, 
98ft, 154, 154ft 1 

Child -giving oblation, 95, 
95ft 2 

Childhood of Fiction, The, J. A. 
Macculloch, 109ft 1 , 130 

Childhood of Krishna, 231 

Childless woman of Jat, 98ft 

Children, tales of precocious, 
186ft 1 ; with painted eyes, 

Child's revenge on step- 
mother, 185-186 

China and Roman Orient, 
Hirth, 104 

Chinese nation, incident from 
its origin, 28 

Chinese traveller, Chau Ju- 
Kwa, Chn-fan-chi, 104, 241, 
241ft 1 , 252 ; travellers, 231 

Chopsticks as a means of 
giving instructions in code, 

Chord from a musical in- 
strument, 81ft 

Christian era, deva-dasls in 
the, 265 ; sacred prostitu- 
tion in the, 233-237 

Christmas, sacred buns made 
in Nottingham at, 14ft 

Churning of the Ocean, 1ft 2 , 
3ft 2 , 55ft 1 , 94, 128, 200, 202; 
Apsarases produced at the, 

Churning stick, 3ft 2 

Ciphering and writing, in- 
structions in, 62, 62ft 2 

* ' Circumambulation ," D' Alvi- 
ella, Hastings' Ency. Rel. 
Eth., 193 

Circumambulation in China, 
192 ; in India, 191-192 ; in 
Japan, 192; in Scotland, 
190-191 ; in Tibet, 192 

Circumambulation of the base 
of Kailasa, 3ft 1 

Circumambulation or deisul, 
note on, 190-193 

Citizens, devoured by the 
eyes of the, 121, 121ft 1 

< City of Palaces " (Calcutta), 
125, 125ft 1 

City of the Gandharvas, 201 

City of the gods, AmaravatI, 
125, 125ft 1 

City under the Ganges, the 
magical, 107-110 

Classes of priestesses, the 
various, 270, 271 ; of prosti- 
tutes, 234, 234ft 3 , 244 ; of 
temple women, the various, 
270, 271 

Classical Greek and Rome, 
kohl used in, 218 

Classical Sanskrit Literature, 
A. B. Keith, 93 

Clay Cart, or Mrichchhakatika, 
ascribed to Dandin, trans, 
by A. W. Ryder, 235, 235ft 1 

Cleft thigh, Siva's, 9 

Clever Deformed Child, Story 
of the, 184-186 

Climate, effect of religio: 

owing to, 275 
Clinging garments, 69, 69ft 2 
Cloak, the magic, 25, 27 ; o 

invisibility, 25 
Clockwise movement, 191 
Cloister (gagimi), 270 
Cloth, the magic, 26 
Cloud cap (Nebelkappe) o 

King Alberich, 27 
Cloud revives the peacock 

112, 183, 183ft 1 
Cloud, swan's grief on seeing 

the, 72, 92ft 1 
Clouds, echoing roar of, 151 

151ft 1 
Club the emblem of Vishnu 

Coals, eating hot, 79ft 1 ; lyinj 

in red-hot, 79ft 1 
Coat, invisible, 27 
Cobra, a grateful, 101ft 1 
Cockcrow, devils disappear 

ing at, 77ft 1 
Cocoanut, offerings of a, 244 

Cocoanuts, 255, 256 
Code of Hammurabi, the, 269 

Coins (panams), 262 
Collected Works, Wilson, 1ft 2 

Colour (chhaya), 122ft 3 
Colour of the sun's horses 

dispute about the, 143ft 2 
Collyrium and kohl, appendi: 

on the use of, 211-218 
Collyrium, meaning of th< 

word, 211 
Comfort, the incarnation of 

Commentaries of GopI Natha 

75ft 1 ; of Kula Chandra 

75ft 1 ; of Visvesvara, 75ft 1 
Communication by signs 

80ft 1 , 81ft, 82ft 
Community of BairagI, 243 

of Vaishnavl, 243 
Compassion of Parvati, 19 
Composition of modern kohl 

Composure reaches the roo 

of the king's ear, the har 

binger of, 121, 121ft 2 
Compound figure of Siva 

half - male, half - female 

146ft 2 , 272 
Concealed warriors, 133, 134 
Concealment, Vararuch 

brought out of, 54 
Conch-shell (sankha), 212 

mciliation (sama), 64, 64ft 4 
Concubines of the god (zikru), 

Conjurer, advice of Hindu, 

Connection between Kshe- 

mendra and Soraadeva, 

Conquered ogres, 27 
" Consecrated Women of the 

Hammurabi Code," D. G. 

Lyon, Studies in the History 

of Religions presented to C. 

H. Toy, 271ft 1 
Consecration of girls to gods 

and goddesses, 247 
Consistency of kohl, 211 
Consolation in bodily form, 

Consort of Siva, Gauri the, 

"Conte Hindoustani," 

Garcin de Tassy, Revue 

Orientale et Americaine, 28 
Contemporary Kashmirian 

court poets, 236 
Contes Albanais, M. Dozon, 

20ft, 101ft 1 
Conies du Cheykh El-Mohdy, 

Marcel, 81ft 
Contes et Nouvelles, La Fon- 
taine, 20/1 
Contes de Perrault, Les, P. 

Saintyves, 29 
Contes Francais, E. H. Carnoy, 

Contes Populaires Slaves, 26 
Contos Populaires Portuguezes, 

Coelho, 26, 44, 145ft 1 
Control of ganikds, strict, 233 
Conversation of Siva with 

Brahma, 77 
Conversations of animals, 

48ft 2 
Copper, oxide of, 215 
Coral-red lips, 30ft 2 , 31 
Corals, powdered, 212 
Corner of garment concealing 

necklace, 117, 117ft 2 
Corn-goddess, customs con- 
nected with the, 14ft 
Corpses are burnt, place 

where, 9 
Cosmetics, composition of 

modern, 218 
Cosmical rotation, symbol of, 

Cosmology, Indian, 9, 10, 

10ft 3 
Cosmogony and cosmology, 

Indian, 9, 10, 10m 3 



" Cosmogony and Cosmology 
(Indian)," H. Jacobi, Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 10ft 3 

Cotton- wool, lover covered 
in, 42 

Councils (panchayats), 259 

Country - made blanket or 
cambly, 256 

Country of Kataha, the, 156, 
156ft 1 

Country, wild, 141, 141ft 1 

Couple of parrots, story of 
the, 224 

Course of the sun, imitation 
of the apparent, 190, 191, 

Court jester, Eastern equiva- 
lent of the, 137ft 2 

" Court Mantel, Le," Fabliau, 

Court of Brahma, 96 ; of 
Indra, 65 

Court poets, Kashmirian, 236 

Courtesan, 28, 138, 140, 231 ; 
advice to a, 140 ; all female 
accomplishments found in 
the, 235 ; handbook for the, 
236 ; more modestly dressed 
than other women, 243; 
story of the Chanter of 
the Sama Veda and the, 
64, 65 ; streets in Cairo or 
Algiers, 250 

Covenant, The Blood, Trum- 
bull, 98ft 

Covering of the head (sir 
dhankai), rite of, 240 

Covering of the head seven 
times, 242 

Cow's tail, fanning the idol 
with Tibetan, 252 

Craft of sword-making, 109ft 1 

Craving of pregnant women, 
or dohada, 97ft 2 , 221-228 

Created beings, lords of 
(Prajapati), 10, 10ft 1 

Creation of animal and vege- 
table life, Ishtar, goddess 
of, 272 

Creation and Kuvera's curse, 
the, 9, 10 

Creation, Hindu conception 
of the, 9, 9ft 5 10, 10ft 3 

Creation of a new body, rites 
for the, 56ft 1 

Creation of the sacred prosti- 
tute in the cult of Ishtar, 

Creator, Siva the, 272 

Crescent moon, eyebrows like 
the, 30ft 2 


Crest, god of the moony 
(Siva), 67, 86; god ,who 
wears the moon as a (Siva), 

Criminal Classes of Bombay \ 
Kennedy, 246ft 1 

Crocodile and monkey, Bud- 
dhist story of, 224-225 

Crocodile's longing for 
monkey's heart, 224 

Crop of a sparrow, soul set 
in the, 131 

Cross as a poison detector, 
sign of the, 110ft 1 

Crows, 20, 20m 1 

" Crystal Ball," story of the, 

Crystals, powdered, 212 

Cube of bone as secret 
message, a, 80ft 1 , 81ft 

Cullaka-Setthi-Jataka, 62ft 1 

Cult of Ishtar, origin of the 
creation of the sacred 
prostitute of the, 274 

Cult of the great mother- 
goddess, 271, 272 

Cult, the dual, 272 

Cult under the Hittite 
domination, religious, 275 

Cults of the Greek States, 
Farnell, 15ft 

Cumin-seeds, three black, 81ft 

Cunning Siddhikarl, the, 157- 
158, 174-176 

Cup of chastity, 165 

Cup, magical, 25 ; of porce- 
lain, a magic, 28 

Cupid, Kama, the Hindu, 1ft 3 

Cups of rhinoceros horn as 
poison indicators, 110ft 1 

Curculio, Plautus, 190 

Cure for blackheads, 191 ; for 
leprosy, 98ft; for pinsoles, 

Currant lip, 31ft 2 

Curse of Brahma, 96 ; of God- 
dess of Fortune, 106, 107 ; 
Gunadhya released from 
his, 91 ; of Kanabhuti dis- 
pelled, 89; ofKuvera, 7, 
10, 109 ; Vararuchi released 
from his, 59 ; of hermit Vis- 
vamitra, 111, 112; laid upon 
Hiranyagupta, 53, 54, 54ft 1 ; 
of Tilottama, 96, 97, 98- 
101 ; fulfilment of the, of 
Tilottama, 99 

Curses, Parvatl's, 6, 7 

Custom in Nottingham, 14ft ; 
in town of Saintes, 14ft ; in 
Sweden, 14ft; of applying 



Custom continued 

kohl, 211, 215; of eating 
at funerals, 56ft 1 ; of giving 
names to swords, 109 n 1 ; 
of Jewish women, 31ft 3 

Customs and Customary Law in 
British India, Sripati Roy, 

Customs connected with the 
corn-goddess, 14ft; in La 
Pallisse, France, 14ft ; of 
women of the Moylar caste, 

" Cutter," i.e. Curta'na, 
sword of Edward the 
Confessor, 109ft 1 

Cycle of stories, three wishes, 

Cycle of tales in India, Persia, 
Arabia, Turkey and Europe, 
27, 28. See also under 

Cymbals (majlra), 243 

Cymbeline, 49W 1 , 165 

Dabbhapuppha-Jdtaka, 226 

Dagger, girl married to a, 

Daily meal offered to animals, 
{bali), 21, 21ft 1 

"Daitya," H. Jacobi, Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 200 

Dance and sing in public, 
bhavins forbidden to, 246 

Dance, description of, 254 

Dances of the deva-dasis, 251 

Dancing and singing pro- 
hibited under Aurangzeb, 

Dancing castes in modern 
times, prostitute, 266 

Dancing dress, worship of, 
244, 245 

Dancing - girl and Vasanta- 
sena, 87 

Dancing-girls, 238; descrip- 
tion of, by 'Abdu-r Razzaq, 
248-249 ; description of, by 
Domingos Paes, 249-250; 
dress of, 253, 254 ; feats of 
strength and powers of 
endurance of, 254 j Ganesa 
patron -saint of gandharb, 
240; in Guzerat, 241; 
Hindu, 239, 243; laws of, 
254 ; Mohammedan, 239, 
243; name for Telugu, 
244 ; patron-saint of, 238 ; 
reserved exclusively for 
Brahmans, 250 ; salaries of, 
249, 252, 253 ; in the time 

Dancing-girls continued 
of Akbar, rules for, 265 ; 
wealth and splendour of, 
249, 250 

Dancing-masters attached to 
the temple at Tanjore, 

Dancing of kasbi women, 

Dancing or music, Brahmans 
forbidden to witness dis- 
plays of, 232 

Dancing, vice of, 124ft 1 

Dark dungeon, Sakatala 
thrown into a, 40 

Dark neck (Nilakantha) of 
Siva, 1, lft 2 

Dasa-Kumdra- Charita , Dan- 
din, 25, 234, 234ft*, 235 

Date of beginning of secular 
prostitution in India, 232 ; 
of "entrapped suitors" 
story, 42 ; of " external 
soul " motif, 129 ; of San- 
skrit grammar, 17ft 3 

Date, stone of a green, as 
secret message, 80ft 1 , 81ft 

Dates, butter and milk, idol 
of (ha is), 14ft 

Daughter of the Asura, 
Vidyutprabha, 108, 109 ; of 
the Asura, Angaravati, 126, 
127 ; of the Himalaya (Par- 
vatl), Siva's love for the, 
94 ; of King Kritavarman, 
MrigavatI, 96, 97 ; of King 
Mahendravarman, Patali, 
19, 23, 24 ; of the Mount 
of Snow (Parvatl), 5; of 
the Mountain (Parvatl), 3, 
6, 7, 86 ; of a Rishi, 67 ; 
of the Sultan of Babylon, 
24ft 1 ; of Susarman, Sri, 
80 ; of Surasena, 119 ; of 
Vishnusakti, 70, 73, 79ft 2 

Daughters of Bhojika, 19 

Daughters of Daksha, 4, 199 ; 
Garuda, son of one of the, 

Day, vice of sleeping in the, 
124ft 1 

Dazed by the sun, goblins, 

Dead bodies, goblin that 
tenants, 136, 136ft 2 

Dead carried with the sun, 
190, 191 ; importance of 
the duty to the, 267 ; pro- 
viding food for the, 56ft 1 

Dead mouse, acquiring wealth 
with a, 63, 64 


Death escaped by solvii 
riddle, 51, 51ft 1 ; of the 
female elephant, 152 ; of 
King Nanda, 37 ; of Sata- 
nlka, 95 ; of the sons of 
Sakatala, 41 ; of Vishnu- 
mati, 95 ; of Yogananda, 
57 ; summoned with the 
sound of gongs, 119 

Death motif, the letter of, 52, 
52ft 2 

Decameron, Boccaccio, 26, 44, 
69ft 2 , 145ft 1 , 147ft 2 , 148ft, 
165, 171 

Decameron, its Sources and 
Analogues, The, A. C. Lee, 
44, 148ft, 171 

De Civ. Dei, St Augustine, 

De Dea Syria, Lucian, 275 

Dedication of a basivi woman, 
255-257; of men to the 
temple, 246 

Dedicating a girl to the deity, 
privileges of, 255 

Deer lay aside their wanton- 
ness, 120 

Deformed (vinashta), 185 

Deformed Child, Story of the 
Clever, 184-186 

Deformed dwarf Eastern 
equivalent to the mediaeval 
court jester, 137, 137ft 2 

Deity (asura), 198 ; privileges 
of dedicating a girl to the, 
255, 267 

Delight in skulls and burn- 
ing-places, Siva's, 9 

Delight in the night, goblins, 
76, 76ft 2 , 77ft 1 

Deluge, the, 3ft 2 

Demon, female (Rakshasl), 
111, 111ft 1 , 112 

Demons, 204-207; hostile to 
mankind, list of, 197 ; killed 
by Krishna, Lohaban one of 
the, i39ft 2 

Dependent or feudatory chief 
(Samanta), 52ft 1 

Depravity in the reigns of 
Jahangir and Shahjahan, 
238, 238ft 2 

Derivation and origin of the 
name of Vararuchi, 16, 16ft 2 ; 
of the word asura, 197-199 

Descent of bhavins from 
Savantvadi and Malvan 
chiefs, 245 

Description of basivis, 255- 
257 ; of " camel-crane," 
104; of dance, 243, 244, 

Description continued 

250, 254 ; of dancing-girls 
by <Abdu-r Razzaq, 248-249, 

250; of dancing -girls by 
Domingos Paes, 249 ; of 

diatryma by Matthew and 
Granger, 105 ; of dress of 

kasbi women, 243; falling 

in love by, 128, 128ft 1 ; of 

Garuda bird, 103; by 

Marco Polo of deva-dasis, 

Descriptive Catalogue of the 

Mackenzie MSS., H. H. 

Wilson, 131 
De Simpl. Medic, Galen, 213 
Desire to eat husband's 

entrails, 222, 223 
Destiny of Gautama foretold 

by 108 Brahmans, 242m 3 
Destroyer of life, Ishtar, the, 

Destroyer, Siva the, 272 
Destroyer of t Tripura, i.e. 

Tripurari or Siva, 95ft 1 
Destroyers or Rakshasas, 204 
Destruction of Hindu 

temples, 231, 238; of the 

temple of Kesavadeva, 231 
Detectors of poison, HOw 1 
Detraction, vice of, 124m 1 
Deutsche Volksb'ucher, Simrock, 

24ft 1 , 97ft 2 , 129, 137ft 1 , 141ft 2 
Devils disappearing at cock- 
crow, 77m 1 
Devilsville or Shaitanpurah, 

quarter of the town as- 
signed to deva-dasis, 237 
Devoted one or kharimati, 272 
Devotion, magic power of, 6 
Devoured by the eyes of the 

citizens, 121, 121m 1 
Devouring flesh, a woman, 

111, 112 
Dexterous, meaning of the 

word, 192 
Dhammapada Commentary, 226 
Diademed god, the moon, 7 
Dialect, the PaisachI, 92, 93, 

Die. d'Archcel. Egypt., Pierret, 

Dictionary of Birds, Newton, 

Digit (or streak) of the moon, 

Digit of the moon, god who 

wears on his crest the 

(Siva), 36 
Digit of the moon springs 

from the sea, 5 


Dipping and raising the ker- 
chief, message conveyed 
by, 80W 1 
Disaster brought about by 
dohada (pregnant longing) 
being unsatisfied, 223 
Disciple of Gunadhya, Guna- 
deva, 89, 91 ; of Gunadhya, 
Nandideva, 89, 90, 91* 
Disciplina Clericalis, Petrus 

Alfonsus, 169 
Discomfort caused by bath- 
ing, relief of, 14, 15 
Discovery of the fossil JEpy- 

ornis maximus, 104, 105 
Discus an emblem of Vishnu, 

Disguise of Lohajangha as 

Vishnu, 144-145 
Disgusting shape, cake of 

(phallic), 13 
Disposer, the (Supreme Soul), 

Dispute about the colour of 
the sun's horses, 143ft 2 ; of 
Vararuchi and Panini over 
the new grammar, 32 
Dissension, sowing (bheda), 

123ft 2 
Distance, measures of 

(yojanas), 3, 3ft 1 
Distribution of alms to Brah- 
mans by Putraka, 21 ; of 
presents bv Udayana, 187, 
187ft 1 
District Gazetteer of Puri, 

Hunter, 242m 1 
District of Jhilam (Jhelum), 

District on the bank of the 
Ganges granted to Brah- 
mans, 78 
Districts of Bombay, prosti- 
tution in, 245, 246 
Divine Judge, Varuna the, 

Divine personages the size 
of a thumb, Balakhilyas, 
144, 144ft 2 
Divine woman, a (Sarasvati), 

Divine worship, Madana- 
rekha's longing to bestow 
a gift for the purpose of, 
Divinites Generatrices, Des, 

Dulaure, 14ft, 15ft 
Divinity, Ishtar a primitive 

Semitic, 271 
Division of life of Mairavana, 


Division of the use of the 
dohada (pregnant longing), 
motif, 222-223 
Divisions of dancing castes, 

"Doctrine of Lunar Sym- 
pathy, The," Frazer, Golden 
Bough, 228 

Doctrine of sympathetic 
magic, 130 

Doctrine of Zoroaster, 199 

Dog's foot, branding with the 
mark of a, 160, 161, 164, 
178, 181 

Dogs, gallants chased by, 
42, 43 ; nude woman chased 
by (Boccaccio) 171 

Domestic chaplain,the king's, 

Domination, religious cult 
under the Hittite, 275 

Door of heaven open on the 
eleventh day, 146 

Doorkeeper of the goddess, 
6, 7,85 

Double, belief in a, 37ft 2 

"Doubles," A. E. Crawley, 
Hastings' Ency. ReL Eth., 
37^ 2 

Dough, a man of, customs 
connected with, 14ft 

Dove, Dharma assumes shape 
of a, 84 

Dragon of China, the sacred, 

Dragons of the Air, Seelev, 

Dramatic entertainment, 11 

Drawers (pyjamas), 253 

Dream of the three women, 
19; production of a, 70, 
70ft 1 ; revelation in a, 12, 

Dress of bogams, 245; of danc- 
ing-girls, 252, 253, 254 ; of 
kasbi women, 243; of a 
woman assumed by Deva- 
datta, 83 ; woman in man's, 
163, 164 ; worship of danc- 
ing, 224, 245 

Drink the sacred water in 
Vesali, desire to, 225-226 

Drinking the Amrita, 55ft 1 

Drinking of blood by barren 
women, 98ft 

Drinking-horn as a chastity 
test, 165 

Drinking the moon, desire of, 

Drinking-places, opening of, 




Drinking spirits, vice of, 

Driver, an elephant, 150, 151 

Drop of blood in the water 
(Supreme Soul), 9 

Drought, 19 

Drugged gallants, 42 

Drugs of sarivadi, 212 ; sarva- 
gandha, 212; of Utpaladi, 

Drum, beating of the, 118, 
118ft 2 , 246 

Drum or tabla, 243, 257 

"Drums and Cymbals," A. E. 
Crawley, Hastings' 
Rel Etk., ll&tt 2 

Dual cult, the, 272 

Ducats found daily under 
boy's pillow, 20ft 

Duck, Brahmany, 115, 115ft 1 , 

'Dumb Cripple/The," Schief- 
ner and Ralston's Tibetan 
Tales, 226 

Dungeon, Sakatala thrown 
into a, 40, 40ft 3 , 41, 45 

Dust from the trampling of 
an army, 182, 182ft 1 , 183ft 

Duties of a bhavin in the 
temple, 246 ; of a deva-dasi, 
233, 251 ; of a devli in the 
temple, 246 ; of the 
jcadishtu, 270, 271 ; of min- 
strels, 183, 183ft 2 ; of moylar 
women, 252 ; of prostitutes, 
233; of South Travancore 
dasis, 262 ; of superintend- 
ents of prostitutes, 233 

Duty to the dead, importance 
of the, 267 ; of presiding at 
a sraddha, 56 ; temple, 139, 
139ft 1 , 231, 250, 251; of 
women who refuse to shave 
their heads, 275, 276 

Dwarf assumed by Vishnu, 
form of a, 108ft 2 

Dwarf equivalent of the 
court jester, deformed, 
137ft 2 

Dwarf of old German romance 
(King Alberich), 27 

Dweller in the Vindhya hills 
(Durga), 60, 66, 76 

Dwelling-place of the God- 
dess of Prosperity, 94; of 
Siva and Parvati (Mt 
Kailasa), 2, 2ft 2 

Dyes, turmeric as substitute 
for yellow, 255ft 3 

Dynasty of Babylon, the first, 

Dynasty, the 
Egyptian, 269 



Eagles called Gryphons, 141ft 2 
Ear, speech that pierces the, 

like a poisoned needle, 4 ; 

the harbinger of composure 

reaches the king's, 121, 

121ft 2 
Ear-ornament of the earth, 

Ear-pendants (todu), 262 
Earliest erotic writer of the 

Christian era, 234 
Early English Romances, Ellis, 

story of "Amys and 

Amylion," 97ft 2 
Early English Text Society, 

"The Wright's Chaste 

Wife," F. J. Furnivall, 165 
Early Ideas : A Group of Hindu 

Stories, F. F. Arbuthnot, 

236ft 1 
Earth, the ear-ornament of 

the, 94, 95 
Earthly Nandana, an, 66, 66ft 1 
East, the changeless, 268 ; se- 
clusion of women in the^O?! 1 
East to west, walking round 

an object from, 191 
Easter offering in Saintonge, 

Eastern equivalent to court 

jester, 137ft 2 ; sense of 

humour, 29; story-teller, 

the, 130 
Eastern fiction, snake in, 101ft 1 
Eastern Romances, Clouston, 

43, 101ft 1 , 131, 160ft 3 ; 

Weber, 25 
" Eaters of raw flesh," kravydd 

(Pisachas), 205 
Eating at funerals, 56ft 1 ; hot 

coals, 79ft 1 ; leaves, 79 
Eclipse of the sun and moon 

caused by Rahu, 200 
Echoing roar of clouds, 151, 

151ft 1 
Education in India, prejudice 

against female, 251 
Education, progress under 

British rule, 254, 255 
Effect of British rule in India, 

266 ; of climate and tem- 
perament on religion, 275 ; 

of Mohammedan influence 

on deva-dasis, 265, 266 ; of 

Mohammedan invasions on 

Northern India, 231 
Effects of Ishtar's descent to 

Hades, 274 

Egg, Hindu conception of the 
world as an, 9, 10, 10ft 3 ; of 
JEpyornis maximus, 104 

Eggs laid by satisfied hen- 
parrot, 224 

Egret called benu by ancient 
Egyptians, 103; phoenix 
identified with the, 103 

Egyptian name for egret, 
benu, 104 ; papyrus, 133ft 1 

Eight forms of marriage, 87 

Eighth day of the month, 82 

Eldest daughter dedicated to 
the deity, 257 

Elephant, an artificial, 133, 
133ft 1 , 134 ; among mon- 
archs, an, 125; called Bha- 
dravati, 150, 151, 152; 
carries off Queen Pau- 
maval, 224; of the gods, 
Kanchanapata the, 18, 
18ft 3 ; Lohajangha rests in 
body of, 141, 141ft 1 , 142; 
named Nadagiri, 125; 
raised up by chaste woman, 
a fallen, 166 

Elephant-catching, sport of, 
133, 133ft 1 

Elephant-driver, 150, 151 

Elephant-hook, the, 151 

Elephant's language under- 
stood, 151 

Elephants raining streams of 
ichor, 182; subduing in- 
furiated, 122 ; timidity of 
wild, 133ft 1 ; understood by 
superintendent, signs of, 

Eloquence and learning, 
Sarasvati, goddess of, 1ft*, 
18, 18ft 1 , 31, 31ft 3 

Elysium or pleasure-ground, 
Indra's (Nandana), 66ft 1 

Emblem of Ganesa, the right- 
handed swastika, 192 ; of 
Siva, the linga, 4ft 3 

Emblems of Vishnu, 144, 256 

Embrace of Gaurl (Parvati, 
Durga), 94 

Embryo asserting itself, will 
of the (dohada), 221 

Emerald of chastity, 165 

Emotion (rasa), 126ft 2 

Emperor Jahangir, 238, 238 2 

Emperors of India, Hastin- 
apura the capital of the, 7ft 4 

Empire, the Mogul, 237 |$&$| 

Enamelled whiteness, palaces 
of, 125, 125ft 1 

Encounters at sea with 
enormous birds, 104 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, " As- 
ceticism," F. C. Conybeare, 
79ft 1 ; ''Babylonian Law," 
C. H. W. Johns, 270ft 1 ; 
"Phoenix," 104; "Ser- 
pent-Worship," S. A. Cook, 
203; "Tree- Worship," 
S. A. Cook, 144ft 1 

Encyclopaedia of Hindu Fiction, 

Encyclopaedia of Islam, 103 

Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics, Hastings' : " Ances- 
tor-Worship (Indian)," W. 
Crooke, 56ft 1 ; "Animals," 

F. W. Thomas, 134k 1 ; 
"Asceticism (Hindu)," 
A. S. Geden, 79ft 1 ; 
"Atargatis," L. B. Paton, 
275, 275ft 1 ; "Babylonians 
and Assyrians, 273ft 3 ; 
"Blood," H. W. Robinson, 
98ft; " Cakes and Loaves," 
J. A. Macculloch, 15ft; 
" Circumambulation," 
D'Alviella, 193; "Cos- 
mogony and Cosmology," 
H. Jacobi, 10ft 3 ; " Daitya," 
H. Jacobi, 200; " Doubles," 
A. E. Crawley,37ft 2 ;" Drums 
and Cymbals," A. E. Craw- 
ley, 118ft 2 ; "Heroes and 
HeroGods,"273ft 3 ;"Hiero- 
douloi," G.A.Barton, 271ft 1 , 
277; "Human Sacrifice 
(Indian)," E. A. Gait,116n!; 
"Ishtar," 273ft 3 ; " Life- 
Token," Sidney Hartland, 
130; "Oath," Crawley, 
Beet and Canney, 57ft 1 ; 
" Phallism," Sidney Hart- 
land, 15ft; " Pisachas," 

G. A. Grierson, 92; "Prosti- 
tution (Indian)," W.Crooke, ? 
233, 239ft 2 ; "Serpent- 
Worship," Macculloch, 
Crooke and Welsford, 203, 
204 ; Tammuz," 273ft 3 ; 
"Trees and Plants," T. 
Barnes, 144ft 1 

Endurance of dancing-girls, 

powers of, 254 
Enemies of the gods, list of, 

197, 198-200 
Enemy or destroyer of Tri- 

pura, Tripurari (Siva), 95ft 1 
Enemy of Gilgamesh, Khum- 

baba, 273 
Enemy of the Nagas, Garuda 

the, 103 
En f ants terrible, tales of, 186ft 


Enforced prostitution, alter- 
native to, 275, 276 
English Fairy Tales from the 

North Country, A. C. Fryer, 

English Folk-Lore, Thiselton 

Dyer, 191 
English Gesta, 26, 44 
English Text Society story 

of "The Wright's Chaste 

Wife," Furnivall, 44 
Entering into another's body, 

37, 37ft 2 
Entertainment, a dramatic, 11 
Entrails, desire to eat hus- 
band's, 222, 223 
Entrance to city prevented 

by a lion, 108, 108ft 3 
Entrapped suitors motif, 42- 

44, 167 ; first literary 

appearance of the, 42 
Envy of Kalanemi, 106 ; vice 

of, 124ft 1 
Epic of Gilgamesh, 269, 273- 

Epics, the, 10ft 3 , 201, 203 
Epigraphia Indica, Hultzsch, 

155ft 1 
Epithet of Agni or Fire 

(Vaisvanara), 78ft 2 
Equivalent of the mediaeval 

court jester, Indian, 137ft 2 
Erotic significance of tur- 
meric, 255ft 3 
Erotics, science of, 234, 234ft 1 
Escape from death by solving 

riddle, 51, 51ft 
Essai sur les Fables Indiennes, 

Deslongchamps. 25, 169 
Essays on Sanskrit Literature, 

Wilson, 7ft, 4 17ft 3 , 75ft 1 , 

162ft 1 , 165, 169 
Esteem, prostitutes held in, 

Etfmographic Notes in Southern 

India, Thurston, 258ft 2 
Ethnographical Survey of 

Bombay, 246ft 1 
Ethnographical Survey of 

Mysore, 258ft 1 
Ethnologische Parellelen u. Ver- 

gleiche, Andre e, 82ft 
Etymology of the word asura, 

198, 199; of the name 

Atargatis, 275 
Eunuchs attached to temple 

at Tanjore, 247 
Euphorbia as chastity index 

in Peru, branch of, 168 
European fiction, snake in, 

101ft 1 


European quarter in the 
" City of Palaces," 125ft 1 

Evidence of sacred prostitu- 
tion in Vedic times, 265 ; 
in Western Asia, 277 

Evil eye, black a guard 
against the, 212, 217 

Evil Eye, The, Elworthy, 216 

Evil spirits (daevas), 199 ; 
colour black feared by, 212, 

Evils of the night, 77ft 1 

Ewe-speaking people of the 
Slave Coast, 277 

Ewe-Speaking Peoples of the 
Slave Coast of West Africa, 
A. B. Ellis, 278ft 2 

Exaggeration of the Eastern 
story-tellers, 130 

Example of migratory tale, 
29, 42 

Examples of feigned dohadas 
(pregnant longings), 227, 
228 ; of petitions to Euro- 
pean police, 258 ; of the 
sign language, 80ft 1 , 81ft 

Excellence (sattva), 136ft 1 

Execution of Vararuchi 
ordered by Yogananda, 

Executioner, Domba or Dom, 
157, 157ft 1 * 

Explosion in the world of 
Aindra grammar, 32 

External soul motif, 38ft, 39ft, 

Extraneous object, "soul," 
"life" or "heart "kept in 
an, 38ft, 129, 130, 132 

Eye, fire of Siva's, 5ft 2 , 94 ; of 
Osiris, 216 

Eyebrows, 30ft 2 

Eye-wash, collyrium a liquid, 

Eyes, 30,30ft 2 ; children with 
painted, 217 ; custom of 
painting the, in Morocco, 
217 ; painting the, in the 
Old Testament, 216 ; like 
a blue lotus, 30 ; like the 
wild heifer or the gazelle, 
30ft 2 ; of the citizens, de- 
voured by the, 121, 121ft 1 ; 
red with smoke, 184, 184ft 4 ; 
she - crow's longing for a 
Brahman's, 223 

Fable of VHuitre et les 
Plaideurs, La Fontaine, 26 

Fables, jEsop, 169; Buddha- 
ghosa, 104; Hyginus, 190 



Fabliau, " Le Court Mantel," 
165 ; " Le Manteau mal 
taille," 165 
Fabliaux et Conies des Poetes 
Francois des XP-X V e siecles, 
Barbazan, 44 
Fabulists, Arabian, 169 
Fabulous birds, 103-105 
Face like a full moon, 30, 

30ft 1 
Faces robbed of their cheer- 
ful hue, 122, 122b 3 
Fairy Legends and Traditions 
of the South of Ireland, 
J. C. Croker, 26 
Fairy Tales, Grimm, 19b 2 , 25 
Fairy Tales, Indian, Miss 

Stokes, 26, 43, 129, 131 
Faith (sraddha), 56b 1 
Fakir from Kashmir, 213 
Faith-token motif, 166 
Fallen elephant raised up by 

chaste woman, 166 
Falling in love by mere men- 
tion or description, 128, 
128ft 1 
Family of Pandava, 95 
Famine, custom of Hariifa 
tribe in time of, 14b ; flight 
of the three Brahmans 
owing to a, 19 
Fan, message conveyed by a, 

Fan held by prostitutes, the 

royal, 233 
Fanning the idol with Tibetan 

cow's tail, 252 
Faqirs, Mohammedan, 240 
Fascinum (guhya, linga or 
phallus), 2b 2 , 4b 3 , 13?i 3 , 14b, 
15b, 125b 2 
Fasting, 12b 1 , 32, 79b 1 
Fate of Yogananda, 55-58 
Favour of Karttikeya, Vara- 
ruchi the bodily form of 
the, 17 
Favour of the Lord Kartti- 
keya, 71, 71b 3 
Fear of evil spirits for black, 

212, 217 
Feast in honour of Indra, 128 ; 
of monks, dancing - girls 
employed at, 247 ; of rice, 
cakes and sweetmeats, 242 ; 
of springtide, 112, 112b 1 ; 
of victory of Indra, 95, 96 
Feasts in honour of the god, 

reason for the, 248 
Feathered gallants, 42, 44 
Feats of strength of dancing- 
girls, 254 

Fee, Chanakya's, 57 ; of the 

courtesan, 28 ; Varsha's, 36, 

Feeding the idol, 247-249 ; the 

spirit, rite of, 56b 1 
Feet flayed to make magic 

shoes, 27 
Feigned dohadas (pregnant 

longings), examples of, 227- 

Female accomplishments all 

found in the courtesan, 235, 

Female ascetic named Yoga- 

karandika, 156, 158-161; 

named Sankrityanani, 188 
Female demon, Rakshasi, 111, 

111b 1 
Female elephant called Bha- 

dravatl, 150-152 
Female emblem at Clermont, 

Female and male hierodouloi, 

Female principle represented 

by left-handed sauwastika, 

Female Rakshasa, 48, 49 
Female servants of the god, 

kosio, 278 
Female sex, cakes represent- 
ing the, 15b 
Female Vidyadhara named 

Mayavati, 152 
Female Yaksha, 118 
Feminine form of old age, 

121b 2 
Fertility, Goddess of (Ishtar), 

273, 276 
Festival of Aswin (October), 

245, 245b 1 ; of Basant 

Panchmi, 244 ; of the 

commencement of spring, 

68 ; the famous car, 242 ; 

of Indra, 30 ; of marriage, 

183, 184 
Festivals, principal religious, 

Festschrift fur Vilhelm 

Thomsen, Sir G. A. Grier- 

son, " Pi^acas in the 

Mahabharata," 93 
" Fete des Pinnes, La," 14b 
Fetters, spells for rending, 

Feudatory or dependent chief 

(Samanta), 52b 1 
Fiction, dohada motif in 

Hindu, 221-228; ^life- 
index " in Eastern, 130-132 ; 

language of signs in East- 


Fiction contmuea 

ern, 80b 1 , 81b; laughs in 
Hindu, 47b ; simile of moles 
in Indian, 49b 1 ; snake in, 
101b 1 

Fickleness of Udayana, 187- 

Ficus Indica, 9b 3 

Fiddle (sarangi), 243 

Figs, magical, 27 

Fig-tree, " man of dougl 
and wine hung on, 1^ 
monkeys' hearts on the, 

Fines for breaches of regula- 
tions by prostitutes, 233 

Fingers opened, message 
conveyed by, 80b 1 

Fire, Agni, God of, 78, 78b 1 , 
200; or Agni, Vaisvanara 
epithet of, 78; the Great 
Tale thrown into the, 90 ; 
the sacred (homam), 260 ; 
set to palace, 113, 114; of 
Siva's eye, the, 52b 2 , 94; 
walking round the, cere- 
mony of, 184, 184b 3 , 191 

Fires, lying surrounded by, 
79b 1 

First dynasty of Babylon, 269 

First-fruits, basket of, 15b 

First literary appearance of 
" entrapped suitors " story, 

Fish that laughed, the, 46-49 

Fists clenched till the nails 
grow through the palm, 
79b 1 

Five locks left on shaven 
head, 146, 146^ 

Five products of the cow, a 
pill made of the, 258 

Five, significance of the 
number, 255, 255b 2 

Flag of Vishnu, 242 

Flame-liriga, 4, 4b 3 

Flame of love fanned in the 
heart of the king, 96 

Flames, Upakosa submits her 
body to the, 54, 54b 2 , 55 

Flesh from the husband's 
back, dohada (pregnant 
longing) for the, 223 

Flesh, woman devouring 
human, 111, 112 

Flight of the three Brahmans 
owing to famine, 19 

Flour, cake of (phallic), 13, 
13b 3 

Flour and sugar, wafers of 
{gujahs), 242, 242b 3 

Flower of the acacia, heart 

placed on the top of the, 

Flower-arrowed god (Kama), 

Flower as chastity index, 165 
Flower, sirisha, 69 
Flower in the teeth, 80 
Flower-white forehead, 30k 2 
Flowers, message conveyed 

by a bunch of, 81k ; offered 

to Ganesa, 240 ; offerings 

of, 244; wreath of, 118k 2 
Flowery bow, god of the 

(Kama), 184 
Flying carpet, 26 
Flying through the air, power 

of, 22 
Folk-Lore Journal, 27 
Folk -Lore Journal, "The 

Philosophy of Punchkin," 

Edward Clodd, 130 
Folk-Lore of the Northern 

Counties, Henderson, 190 
Folk-Lore of Northern India, 

W. Crooke, 37k 2 , 6W, 98/?, 

134k 1 , 203, 205, 206, 228 
Folk-Lore Record, 26 
Folk-Lore of Rome, M. H. 

Busk, 20k, 26; "Story of 

Cajusse " in, 132 
"Folk-Lore of Salsette," 

D'Penha, Ind. Ant., 131 
Folk-Lore of the Santa I Par- 

ganas, Bom pas, 46k 2 , 131 
Folk-Lore Society, 170 ; Por- 
tuguese Folk-Tales, 27 
"Folk-Lore in Western 

India," Wadia, Ind. Ant., 

Folk-Tales from Bengal, Lai 

Behari Day, 28, 95k 2 , 131 
Folk-tales, German, 98k 
Folk - Tales of Hindustan, 

Chilli, 131 
Folk - Tales of Kashmir, 

Knowles, 46k 2 , 95k 2 , 131 
Folk-Tales, Russian, Ralston, 

26, 82k 1 , 104, 108k 1 , 129, 

132, 136k 2 
Folk-Tales of Tibet, O'Connor, 

Following the course of the 

sun, 190-191 
Food for the dead, providing, 

56k 1 
Food eaten by women at the 

Hola, mystic, 15k 
Food-producing chattee, 28 
Food - providing mesa, 26 ; 

vessel, 22 


Foot of iron, a dog's, 160, 

Force of all four arms, 24, 
24k 2 

Force, open (danda), 123k 2 

Forearms bared, message 
conveyed by, 80k 1 

Forehead adorned with un- 
fading marks, 100 ; flower- 
white, 30k 2 ; marked with 
a dog's foot, 160, 161, 164 ; 
marked with vermilion 
(kunkam), 242, 244, 256; 
marks on the, 69, 69k 3 

Forest (atavz), 141k 1 ; Sakatala 
retires to the, 57 ; seven 
stories written with blood 
in the, 89, 90; the Vindhya, 
134, 136, 152, 153, 182 

Forgotten Empire, A, R. Sewell, 
248k 1 

Former birth, 19, 21, 58; of 
Putraka, 19 

Former births, Parvati's, 4, 5 

Forms of dohada (pregnant 
longing) which injure, 223- 
225 ; of mortifications of 
ascetics, 79k 1 

Formula connected with 
soma for producing a good 
memory, 12k 1 

Fortune, given by {i.e. Srl- 
datta), 107, 107k 1 ; Goddess 
of, 106, 107, 135 

Fossil JEpyornis maximus, dis- 
covery of the, 104, 105 

Foster-father of Zal, father 
of Rustam, simurgh the, 
103 ' 

Founding of Pataliputra, 18- 

Four lovers, Upakosa and her, 
32-36, 42-44 

Four upayas or means of 
success,' 123, 123k 2 

Four young merchants of 
Kataha, 156, 160-164 

Fourth language, the, 76 

Frankincense, kohl made 
with, 217 

Friend of Vasavadatta, 
Kanchanamala, 151 

Friendly god (asura), 198 

Friends of Sridatta, 107 

Friendship of Engidu (Eabini) 
and Gilgamesh, 273 

Fringe of lashes elevated, 121 

Fruit, bimba an Indian, 31k 2 

Fulfilment of Tilottama's 
curse, 99 


Full bosom admired by H indus 

and Samoans, 30, 30k 2 
Full of life (sattva), 136, 136k 1 
Full moon, face like the, 30, 

30k 1 
Funeral ceremonies of dans. 

Funerals, eating at, 56k 1 
Furious elephant named 

Nadagiri, 125 

Galena, 211, 213 

Gallants covered in cotton- 
wool, 42 ; fastened in win- 
dow, 42; feathered, 42; 
naked, 42-44 ; painted, 42 ; 
in sacks, 42 ; in trunks, 33, 
34, 35, 42 

Gamblers, 62 

Gambling, vice of, 124k 1 

Gaming-table, Apsarases pre- 
side over the fortunes of 
the, 202 

Ganges - supporter (Garigfi- 
dhara), 5k 5 

Garden called Devikriti, 66 ; 
the magic, 66, 67; of 
Nandana, 96 ; planted by 
the goddess, the, 66, 67, 
68, 89 

Garland of chastity, 44, 165 

Garlands, art of weaving un- 
fading, 100; as marriage 
ceremony, exchange of, 
88; propitiating Siva with, 
85, 86 

Garment drawn out of a lake, 

Garments, bodies revealed 
by clinging, 69, 69k 2 ; of 
Ginevra and Isotta, cling- 
ing, 69k 2 

Gate of the Ganges (Haridvar 
or Hurdwar), 18, 18k 2 

Gates of sardonyx mixed with 
cornu cerastic (horn of the 
horned serpent) to prevent 
introduction of poison, 
110k 1 

Gazelle-eyed lady, 116 

Gazelle, eyes like the, 30k 2 

"Gehornte Siegfried, Der," 
Simrock, Deutsche Volks- 
bucher, 129 

Genii in rock-carvings, bird-, 

Genii, thousands of, 131 

German abbess and mystic, 
St Hildegard of Bingen, 
Subtleties, 110k 1 

German folk-tales, 98k 



Gesammtabe?iteuer } F. H. Von 
der Hagen, 169, 171 

Geschichte (or Sagenbuch) der 
Bayrischen Lande, Schopp- 
ner, 77, 129rc 

Geschichte des Buddhismus in 
Indien, uebersetzt von 
Schiefner, Taranatha, 69ft 4 

Gesta, English, 26, 44 

Gesta Romanorum, 26, 44, 
116ft 2 , 165 ; Oesterley, 171 ; 
(Swan's edition) "Of 
Ingratitude," 101ft 1 ; "The 
Old Woman and her Dog," 

Gestures, language of, 112 

Ghost or Bhuta, 206 

Ghosts walking abroad, 77ft 1 

Ghouls or Pisachas, 205 

Giants, 25, 131 

Gibberish, Paisachi language 
a kind of, 92 

Gift {nazar), 262 ; of half a life, 
188, 188ft 2 , 189 

Gigantic bird, Alexander and 
the, 103 

Gigantic birds in compara- 
tively recent times, proof 
of the existence of, 105 

Gipsies. See Gypsies 

Girdle of Florimel, 165 

Girl eaten in Sweden, figure 
of a, 14ft 

Girls consecrated to gods and 
goddesses, 247; devoted 
to temple service as a re- 
sult of parents' vow, 252 ; 
vowed to temple service by 
parents, 245 

Given by Buddha, i.e. 
Buddhadatta, 123, 123m 1 ; 
by Fortune, i.e. Sridatta, 
107, 107ft 1 

Giver of boons (Siva), 19 

Giving (dana), 123ft 2 

Glass shivers at approach of 
poison, Venetian, 110ft 1 

Gliicksvogel's heart produces 
ducats, 20ft 

Goblin language, 89, 90, 92, 
205 ; pisacka-bhasha, 92 ; 
that tenants dead bodies, 
136, 136tt 2 

Goblins dazed by the sun, 
77; Pisachas, 71, 71ft 2 , 89, 
90, 92 ; power of, 76, 76ft 2 , 

God, the adorable (Siva), 9 

God Bes, the, 216 

God (Brahma), the lotus- 
sprung, 96, 96ft 1 

God as bridegroom, mask of 

the, 245 
God, concubines of the 

(zikru), 270 
God whose emblem is a bull 

(Siva), 108 
God, entu or brides of the, 270 
God of Fire (Agni), 78, 200 
God, the flowery-arrowed 

(Kama), 75, 184 
God of Justice (Dharma), 84, 

84ft 1 
God, the lotus-sprung 

(Brahma), 96, 96ft 1 
God of Love (Kama), 1, 1ft 3 , 5, 

23, 94 ; incarnation of the, 

128; interferes with 

Devadatta's studies, 79 
God Marduk, the solar, 271, 

God of the matted locks 

(Siva), 94 
God, the moon-diademed 

(Siva), 7 
God of the moony crest (Siva), 

67, 86 
God Nannar worshipped at 

Ur, the moon-, 270 
God pleased with Varsha's 

austerities gives him know- 
ledge of sciences, 15 
God, reason for feasts in 

honour of the, 248 
God, shrine of the, 72 
God of Springtime, Tammuz 

the solar, 273 
God, the six-faced (Kart- 

tikeya), 73, 73m 1 
God, the trident - bearing 

(Siva), 6 
God, vodu-si, persons con- 
secrated to a, 278 
God of Wealth (Kuvera), 10, 

67, 111, 202, 203 
God who wears on his crest 

a digit of the moon (Siva), 

God who wears the moon as 

a crest (Siva), 32 
God, young people dedicated 

to a (kosio) 278 
God, sikru or concubines of 

the, 270 
Goddess of animal and vege- 
table life (Ishtar), 272 
Goddess Aruru, the, 273 
Goddess, the corn-, 14ft 
Goddess, cult of the great 

mother-, 271 
Goddess Durga, the, 9, 28, 


Goddess who dwells in th( 

Vindhya hills (Durga), 9/i 
Goddess of eloquence a: 

learning ( Saras vatl), 1 

18, 18ft 1 , 31ft 3 
Goddess of Fertility, 273 
Goddess of Fortune, 106, 1 

Goddess of the Ganges, 51 
Goddess, garden planted bj 

the, 66, 67, 68, 89 
Goddess Ishtar or Innini, the 

mother-, 272 
Goddess of marriage oi 

maternity (Ishtar), 272, 276 
Goddess, matrons as servants 

of the, 276 
Goddess of Music (Sarasvatl), 

Goddess of Pestilence, 147 
Goddess, propitiating the, 

Goddess of Prosperity, 128 
Goddess of Prosperity, 

dwelling-place of the, 94 
Goddess of Sexual Love 

(Ishtar), 272 
Goddess of Speech, 1 
Goddess of the Splendour of 

Spring, 112 
Goddess Sri, the, 80, 119 
Goddess of Storm (Ishtar), 

Goddess in Syria, Attar or 

Athar, the mother-, 275 
Goddess of War (Ishtar), 272 
Goddesses, girls consecrated 

to, 247 
Gods, Amaravati, the city of 

the, 125, 125W 1 
Gods and A suras, war be- 
tween, 95 
Gods of bogams, 244 
Gods, Brihaspati, perceptor 

of the,* 57, 57ft 2 
Gods, deva-dasis, or hand- 
maids of the, 231 
Gods of dough, 14ft 
Gods, enemies of the, 197, 

Gods, girls consecrated to 

the, 247 
Gods, Kan chanapata, elephant 

of the, 18, 18ft 3 
Gods, servants of the, 197, 

Gods, servants of the, bogams, 

Gods, the Vedic, 198 
Gold Coast, Tshi-speaking 

peoples of the, 277 



Id, mountain turned into, 

Gold pieces under pillow, 19, 

19ft 2 , 20, 20/i 
Gold pieces, Varsha's fee of 

ten million, 36, 37, 38-40 
Gold- producing animal, 

article or person, 20ft 
Gold-producing stone, Mon- 
golian legend of, 27 
" Golden Age of Ham- 
murabi, The," R. Camp- 
bell Thomson, Cambridge 

Ancient History, 27 lft 1 
Golden Bough, Frazer, 130, 

144ft 1 , 222, 228, 268, 268ft 1 , 

273ft 3 , 278ft 3 
Golden lotuses floating in the 

Ganges, faces like, 183 
Golden Sun, Castle of the, 

Golden swans' former birth, 

Goldsmith's adventure with 

the tiger, the ape and the 

snake, 101ft 1 
Gongs, death summoned with 

the sound of, 119 
Goose, gold-producing, 20ft 
Gopatha Brahmana, the, 205 
" Gott, Der Aufgegessene," 

Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, 

13ft 3 
Government monopoly of tar i, 

Government of Vidyadharas, 

"Graf Von Rom," Uhland, 

Grain figure of girl eaten in 

Sweden, 14ft 
Grains of rice, inexhaustible, 

Gram flour, head washed 

with, 243 
Grammar, dispute over the 

new, 32 ; the new, 32, 36, 

74, 75, 75ft 1 ; time required 

to learn, 71 
Grammatical treatise, 69, 75 
Grammatical treatise (Prati- 

sakhya), 12, 12ft 2 
Granddaughters of Bali, the 

thousand, 108, 108ft 2 
Grandfather of the world 

(Supreme Soul), 10 
Grass, darbha, 55, 55ft 1 , 257 ; 

durva, 55ft 1 ; kusa, 55ft 1 , 

58; kusara, 56ft; sara, 56ft 
Grateful and ungrateful 

snakes, 100, 101ft 1 

Grave, pilgrimages to 
Tansen's, 238, 238ft 1 

Great eagles called Gryphons, 
141ft 2 

Great poet of India, Dandin 
the, 234, 234ft*, 235 

Great Tale, the (Brihat- 
Katha), 6, 89-91; rejected by 
Satavahana, 90; renowned 
in the three worlds, 91 

Great tales, the seven, 11 

Greek tale in Holin's collec- 
tion, 101ft 1 

Green date, message con- 
veyed by the stone of a, 
80ft 1 , 81ft 

Grey hairs, simile of, 121ft 2 

Griddle cakes as secret mes- 
sage, 82ft 

Griechische M'drchen, Bern- 
hard Schmidt, 77ft 1 , 188ft 2 

Grief causes death, 12 

Grief of Vararuchi at parting 
with his mother, 17; of 
Yaugandharayana, 137 

Griffin, half-lion, half-eagle, 
the, 104 

Ground of Larika made of 
wood, 143-144 

Group of Eastern Stories and 
Romances, A, Clouston, 43, 
101ft 1 , 131, 160ft 3 ; "Gul-i- 
Bakawall" in, 43, 160ft 3 

Grove where asceticism is 
practised, 55 

Gryphons, eagles called, 141ft 2 

Guard against the evil eye at 
marriages, etc., 212 

Guardian deity of patars, Siva 
the, 239 

Guardian of precious stones, 
the griffin the, 104 

Guardians of soma, 200 

Guards pursue Bandhula and 
Mallika, 225-226 

Guido and the Seneschal, 
"Of Ingratitude," Gesta 
Romanorum (Swan's edi- 
tion), 101ft 1 

Gul-i-Bakdwali, or The Rose 
of Bakawall, Shaykh 'Izzat 
Ullah, 43 

Gypsies of Bengal, The, B. R. 
Mitra/ 240ft 1 

Gypsies, tattooing done by, 
49ft 1 

Gypsy tribes, bediyas and 
nats, 240 

Hades (Sheol), Ishtar's search 
for Tammuz in, 273, 274 


Hair, possession of person- 
ality by, 276; undoing a 

lock of, 57 ; yellow tuft of 

matted, 3 
Hairs of body on end like a 

fretful hedgehog, 120ft 1 
Hairs, grey, 121ft 2 
Hairs standing erect for iov. 

120 J y 

Hairs of Vishnu, the, 55ft 1 
Hajji Baba of Ispahan, 

Morier, 214 
Hakluyt Society's publica- 
tions, 63ft 1 , 248ft 1 
Half a life given to save 

another's, 188, 188ft 2 , 189 
Half-moon on the throat, 65, 

65ft 1 
Hamelin, Pied Piper of, 

Hamlet, Shakespeare, 76ft 2 , 

77ft 1 
Hammurabi's Gesetz, J. Kohler 

and A. Ungnad, 270ft 1 
Hand in the Ganges, the, 

45, 46ft 1 
Hand only unguarded place, 

the left, 127 
Handbook of the courtesan, 

Kshemendra's Samayajna- 

trika, a, 236 
Handmaid of the gods (deva- 

dasi), 231 
Handmaids of Upakosa, 33, 

Hands, henna-dyed, 211, 243 
Hands raised, 80ft 1 
Hanging upside down from 

a tree, 79ft 1 
Happiness (Sanskrit ananda), 

Harbinger of composure 

reaches the king's ear, the, 

121, 121ft 2 
Hare in the moon, 109ft 1 
Harem, an attendant of the, 

loved by Udayana, 187 ; 

smuggling men into the, 

47ft, 48ft 
Harlot or kizreli, 232, 272 
Harmers or destroyers, i.e. 

Rakshasas, 204 
Harvard Oriental Series, 

A. W. Ryder, trans, of 

Mrichchhakatika, or Clay 

Cart, 235, 235ft 1 
Harvest festival in La Pallisse, 

Hat of darkness (Tamhut), 27 ; 

of invisibility, 26 ; a magic, 




Hatims Tale*, Stein and 

Grierson, 38ft, Sin, 163m 1 
Hawk assumed by Indra, 

shape of a, 84 
Hay at al-Hayawan (zoological 

lexicon), Ad-Damirl, trans. 

by A. Jayakar, 103 
Head of Brahma cut off by 

Siva, 10, 10ft 2 
Head - cloth, head covered 

seven times with the, 242 
Head magistrate, the, 32, 34 
Head, rite of covering the 

(sir dhankai), 240; shaved 

and five locks left to 

resemble a Gana, 146, 

146ft 1 ; standing on the, 

79/?, 1 ; washed with gram 

flour, 243 
Headings of the dohada 

(pregnant longing) motif, 

222-223; of " life - index," 

motif, 130 
Heart of bird swallowed 

produces a daily box of 

sequins, 20ft 
Heart cleft by the stroke of 

love's arrow, 31 
Heart, crocodile's longing for 

monkey's, 224 
Heart placed on the top of 

the flower of the acacia, 

Heart of a vulture as poison 

detector, 110ft 1 
Heaven opened on the 

eleventh day, 146 
Heaven, the queen of, 14ft 
Heaven, voice heard from, 

61, 100, 102, 128 
Heavenly bodies, the position 

of the, 134 
Heavenly nymph, a, 61, 188 
Heavenly tale of seven stories, 

Heavenly youth, a, 71 
Hebridean, life-index motif 

(Campbell), 132 
Hedgehog, body hairs raised 

on end like a fretful, 

Heifer, eyes like a wild, 

30ft 2 
" Heimonskinder, Die," Sim- 
rock, Deutsche Volksbucher, 

137ft 1 
" Heinrich der Lowe," Sim- 
rock, Deutsche Volkb'ucher, 

141ft 2 

Helden Sagen, Hagen, 48ft 2 , 
121ft 2 , 150ft 1 

Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Hell Ainchi, 161 

Hell called Raurava, 56ft 1 

Hell, shoes of swiftness worn 
by Loki on escaping from, 

Henna-dyed hands, 211, 243 

Herabkunft des Fetters, Kuhn, 
76ft 2 

Hereditary trade of women 
of the kasbi caste, 242 

Hermit Bharadvaja, 75 

Hermit, a Jaina, 47ft; a 
vegetable-eating, 58, 59 

Hermit's son, a, 99, 188 

Hermitage of Badarika, 58, 
59, 59ft 1 , 79 ; of Jamadagni, 
99, 101, 102, 120 

Hero, the sleeping, 80ft 1 , 

Heron, phoenix identified 
with the, 104 

"Herzog Ernst," Simrock, 
Deutsche Volksbucher, 141ft 2 

Hiding of men in imitation 
animals, 133, 133ft 1 , 134; 
in jars, 133ft 1 

" Hierodouloi," G. A. Barton, 
271ft 1 

Highland Tales, 

Highland usage of deazil, 190, 

High priest or guru, 256 

Hill-starling {maina), 131 

Hills, monarch of mighty, 2 ; 
the Vindhya, 7ft 4 , 9ft 1 , 60, 
66, 76, 116, 152 

Hindu ancestor-worship, 56ft 1 

"(Hindu) Asceticism," A. S. 
Geden, Hastings' Encij. Rel. 
Eth., 79ft 1 

Hindu ascetics, austerities of, 
79ft 1 

Hindu bogams called sani or 
nayaka, 244 ; conception of 
world as an egg, 9, 10, 
10ft 3 ; conjurer, advice of a, 
98ft; coolie at Mauritius 
drinks the blood of a girl, 
98ft; dancing - girls, patar, 
patur, paturiya, 239; 
fiction, dohada motif in, 
221-228 ; fiction, laughs in, 
47ft; kings anointed with 
water, 187, 187ft 2 ; litera- 
ture, poetical aspect of 
dohada in, 221-222; name 
for wishing - tree, Kalpav- 
riksha, 144ft 1 ; origin of the 
inexhaustible purse, 25 ; 




Hindu continued, 

polity, Arthasastra wor 

233 ; profession of prostitu 

tion, gay an or kasbi, 243 

temples, destruction 

231, 232-233, 238 
Hindu Manners, Customs 

Ceremonies, Abbe J. 

Dubois, 250, 250ft 3 
Hindu Theatre, The, Wi 

57ft 3 ; "The Toy Cart" ir 

118ft 2 
Hinduism and Buddhism, Si 

Charles Eliot, 56ft 1 
Hiring of women, 275, 276 
Hissing mouth, spray froi 

Ganesa's, 1, 1ft 5 
Historia Mirabilium, 

lonius, 39ft 2 
History of the Conqu 

Mexico, Prescott, 116ft 
History of Fiction, D 

(Liebrecht's edition), 

97ft 2 , 103, 137ft 1 , 145ft 1 , 16* 
History of the Forty Vazir 

Gibb's translation, 43 
History of Gunadhya 

to Satavahana, 90 
History of India, H. 

248ft 1 
History of India, H. 

History of Magic and 

mental Science, A. 

dike, 77ft 1 
History of Mathura, 231 
" History of Nassar," Mahbi 

ul-Qulub, 131 
History of Persia, Sykes, 10* 
History of Satavahana, 67-6' 
History of the Sung Dynast 

Hittite domination, reli 

cult under the, 275 
Hobson Jobson, Burnell 

Yule, 242ft 1 , 250ft 2 
Hola, mystic food eate 

women at the, 15ft 
Holy-day blessing (Punyah 

vachana), ceremony of, 24 
Holy hermitage at Badarik 

Holy place on the Ashtapac 

mountain, dohada (pre; 

nant longing) to worsh 

on the, 226 
Holy sages (Rishis), 67, 75ft' 
Holy Sepulchre at Jerusaler 

Homoeopathic and symp 

thetic magic, 41ft 



238ft 3 

T "" 



en I 

" Home of Paisaci, The," S. 
Konow in Zeit. deuts. morg. 

Gesell., 92 
Home of Pisachas (Khtitan), 

92, 205, 206 
Home of wealth and learning 

(Pataliputra), 24 
Honey and sesame at Syra- 
cuse, cakes of, 15ft 
Honour, turbans of, 148, 184 
Hook, the elephant-, 151 
Horn of the horned serpents 

(cormi cerastic), llOn 1 
Horn, magic, 26 
Horns and trumpets, blowing 

of, by devlis, 246 
Horripilation, 120, 120k 1 , 184 ; 

in Sanskrit poetry, 120k 1 
Horse of Pacolet, 103 
Horse, the Trojan, 133ft 1 
Horses (syandana ?), 126ft 1 ; 

dispute about the colour 

of the sun's, 143ft 2 
Horses' bodies and human 

heads (Kimpurushas), 202 
Host of Pisachas, 76 
House of Allah, the, 192 ; of 

Varsha, the, 13 
House service (kudi), 264 
Household Tales, Grimm, 98ft 
"How Thutiyi took the City 

of Joppa," Stories of Ancient 

Egypt, Maspero, 133ft 1 
Huge bird in Buddhaghosa's 

Fables (hatthilinga), 104 
Human and animal dohadas, 

Human bodies and horses' 

heads, Kinnaras, 202 
Human origin of Pisachas, 205 
Human sacrifice, 116, 116ft 1 , 

"Human Sacrifice (India)," 

E. A. Gait, Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 116ft 1 
"Human Sacrifice in Central 

India," Rai Bahadur Hira 

Lai, Man in India, 116ft 1 
Humiliation of King Satava- 

hana, 70 
Humour, the Eastern sense 

of, 29 
Hundreds of Pisachas, Kana- 

bhuti surrounded by, 9 
Hungarian story in Mailath 

and Gaul, 25 
Hunting, son of Yogananda 

goes, 53; vice of, 123, 124ft 1 
Husband, dancing -girls 

married to an immortal, 



Husband of the daughter of 

the mountain (Siva), 86 ; 

of ParvatI (Siva), 3, 36 ; of 

Uma (Siva), 79 
Husband nearly always the 

injured party in the dohada 

(pregnant longing) motif, 

Husband's entrails, desire to 

eat, 222, 223 
Hydra, soul in the head of a 

seven-headed, 132 
Hymn (sama), 64, 64?z 4 
Hymns of Ishtar, 272 

Iceland spar used in surma, 

212 ; variant of " entrapped 

suitors " motif, 44 
Icelandic Legends, Powell and 

Magnusson, 27, 44 
Ichor, elephants raining 

streams of, 182 
Identification of Ashtart with 

Aphrodite by the Greeks, 

Idle roaming, vice of, 124ft 1 
Idol as bridegroom, 244; 

fanning the, 231, 252; 

feeding the, 247-249; of 

hats (dates, butter and 

milk), 14ft; of Krishna, 

marrage to an, 244 
Ignorance, the king ashamed 

of his, 68-71 
Ignorance of writing, 

women's, 80ft 1 
Illegitimate sons of Brah- 

mans, 56ft 1 
111 luck of Ishtar's lovers, 273 
Illness of Satavahana, 90 
Image of the God of Love, 

77ft 1 
Image, a red sandstone, 139ft 2 ; 

the sacred blue-stone, 242 
" Imaginative Yojanas," J. F. 

Fleet, Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 

3ft 1 
Imitation animals, men 

hidden in, 133, 133ft 1 , 134 
Imitation of the apparent 

course of the sun, 191 
Immortal husband, an, 244 
Immortal serpent guards 

"soul," 129 
Immortality, nectar of, 94 
Impalement, death by, 111 
Importance of the duty to 

dead, 267 ; of the use of 

kohl in Egypt, 216 
Incarnation of comfort, 99 ; 

of the God of Love, 128 ; 


Incarnation continued 

of the moon, 128 ; of 
poverty, 13 ; of virtue, 61, 
61ft 5 ; of Vishnu, the tor- 
toise, 55ft 1 

Incident from the origin of 
the Chinese nation, 27 

Independent superhumans, 
197, 203-204 

Index of chastity motif, 165- 

Index in Indian tales, bird 
the most popular, 130 

Index, the life-, 38ft, 39ft, 129- 

Index volume of the Jatakas, 
232ft 2 

India in the Fifteenth Century, 
R. H. Major, 248ft 1 

Indian Antiquary, the, 42, 
154ft 1 , 190, 233ft 1 ; "Folk- 
Lore of Salsette," 
D'Penha, 131; "Folk- 
Lore in Western India," 
Wadia, 131; "Vararuchi 
as a Guesser of Acrostics," 
G. A. Grierson, 50ft 1 

Indian Cosmology, 9, 10, 
10ft 3 

Indian Fairy Tales, J. Jacob, 
46ft 2 , 101ft 1 , 132 

Indian Fairy Tales, Miss 
Stokes, 26, 43, 129, 131 

Indian fiction, simile of moles 
in, 49ft 1 

" (Indian), Human Sacrifice," 
E. A. Gait, Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 116ft 1 

Indian jester, Temal Rama- 
kistnan, 43 

Indian Mutiny, sign language 
employed at the outbreak 
of the, 82ft 

Indian Nights' Entertainments, 
Swynnerton, 81ft, 168 

"(Indian) Prostitution," W. 
Crooke, Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 233 

Indian Text Series, 238k 2 

Indian Wisdom, Monier 
Williams, 12ft 2 

Inexhaustible purse, the, 20?*, 

Infanticide, 243, 243ft 1 

Infantry, 24ft 2 

Inferior wives of the god 
(natitu), 270 

Inferno, Dante, "Story of 
Ugolino," 40ft 3 

Influence of the moon, sym- 
pathetic, 228 



Infuriated elephants, sub- 
duing, 122, 122ft 2 
Ingredients of kohl, 211 
Inhabitants of the province 

of Maabar, 247 
Inheritance for temple 

women, laws of, 259, 264, 

270, 271 
Initiation ceremonies of a 

bogam jan, 244 ; of a bo- 
gam scini, 244 
Initiation ceremony of a 

Brahman, part of the, 191 
Initiatory ceremony of hemm, 

Injure, forms oidohada (preg- 
nant longings) which, 223, 

Injury, vice of insidious, 124ft 1 
Injustice (Arab Zulm) the 

deadliest of monarchs' sins, 

124ft 1 
Innocent maidens, leprosy 

cured by bath in the blood 

of, 98ft 
Insanity of Hiranyagupta, 54 
Inscriptions on mestem boxes, 

215-216; Phoenician, 276; 

Tamil, 247, 247ft 1 
Insidious injury, vice of, 

124ft 1 
Institutes, Manu, 56ft 1 , 87, 88, 

191, 200, 204, 205, 232 
Institutions for kosi or female 

servants of the god, 278 
Instructions for smuggling 

men into harems, 48m 
Instrument, cord from a 

musical, 81ft 
Instrumental music, vice of, 

124ft 1 
Instruments, playing of 

musical, 243 ; worship of 

musical, 244, 245 
Introduction of armed men 

into a city, 133ft 1 
Invaders, Mohammedan, 231 
Invasions, effect on Northern 

India of Mohammedan, 231 
Invisibility, cloak of, 25 ; hat 

of, 26 ; mantle of, 26 ; 

sword of, 28 
Invisible, recipes for becom- 
ing, 136, 137 
Invocation to the Ocean of 

Story, 1, 1ft 1 
Ireland, Fain/ Tales and Tra- 
ditions of the South of, 

J. C. Croker, 26 
Irische M'drchcn, Grimm, 77ft 1 
Iron coffer, soul in an, 129 

Iron, a dog's foot of, 160; 

offerings of, 139ft 2 
Italian Folk-Tales, Some, H. C. 

Coote, 26 
Italian Popular Tales, T. F. 

Crane, 26 
Italian tale of " Liar Bruno," 

Italian Tales, South, Kaden, 

Italian variants of ' 'entrapped 

suitors " motif, 44 

Jackals, elephant's flesh 
stripped off by, 141, 141ft 2 

Jackal's mate's longing for 
rohita fish, 226 

Jacket, or choolee, 253 

Jaina edificatory texts, 226 ; 
hermit, 47ft 

Jars, men hidden in, 133ft 1 

Jatakas, the, 66ft 1 , 101ft 1 , 
121ft 2 , 227, 232, 265 

Jester, Eastern equivalent of 
the mediaeval court, 137ft 2 ; 
Indian (Temal Ramakist- 
nan), 43 

Jewelled throne, a magic, 28 

Jewels of dancing-girls, 249 

Jewish women, custom of 
(Queen of Heaven), 14ft 

Jinas and Sages, longing to 
reverence the, 226 

Jokes played on a sleeping 
person, superstitions re- 
garding, 37ft 2 

Joy (Sanskrit ananda), 241 

Joy maiden {shamkhati), 272, 

Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc., 
"Cave-Call Motif," Bloom- 
field, 225; "The Dohada 
or Craving of Pregnant 
Women," Bloomfield, 221 ; 
the "Grey Hair" motif, 
Bloomfield, 121ft 2 ; "Psychic 
Motifs in Hindu Fiction, 
and the Laugh and Cry 
Motif" Bloomfield, 47ft 

Journ. Anthro. Soc. of Bombay, 
"Basivis: Women who 
through Dedication to a 
Deity assume Masculine 
Privileges," Fawcett, 255, 
255ft 1 ; "The Use of 
Turmeric in Hindoo Cere- 
monial," W. Dymock, 255ft 3 

Journ. Bom. Br. Roy. As. Soc, 
"The Aryans in the Land 
of the Assurs,"Bhandarkar, 

Journ. Bihar and Orissa Re 
search Soc, "Secret Mes 
sages and Symbols used i; 
India," W. Crooke, 82ft 

Journal, The Folk-Lore, 26 

Journal, Livingstone, 217 

Journ. Roy. As. Soc, "Act c 
Truth " motif, Burlingame 
166;"Imaginative Yojanas, 
J. F. Fleet, 3ft 1 ; ["Notes o 
Marco Polo's Itinerary i 
Southern Persia "] A. K 
Schindler, 214; " Pisaca, 
G. A. Grierson, 92; "Pn 
historic Aryans and th 
Kings of Mitani," J. Ker 
nedy, 198; " Rajasekhar 
and the Home of PaisacI, 
G. A. Grierson, 93 ; " Raj; 
sekhara and the Home ( 
PaisacI," S. Konow, 93 
"Story of Devasmita," 1 
Hale Wortham, 172 

Journey, going on the Ion 
(dying), 12, 12 W 3 

Journey from Madras throug 
the Countries of Myson 
Canara andMalabar, Frc 
Hamilton, 252, 252ft 1 

Journey of the three Bral 
to Rajagriha, 18 

Judge, Varuna the divine, 2C 

Juice of lac, tank filled wit 
the, 98 ; of triphala, 212 

Justice, Dharma God of, 4, 6 



" Kaiserin Trebisonda, Die, 

story of, 26, 27 
Kalilah and Dimnah, Knatcl 

bull, 62ft 1 , 101ft 1 
Kalmukische Mdrchen, Jiilj 

Kama Shastra Society, 234ft 
Kama STdra, the, Vatsyavam 

234, 234ft 2 
Kashmirian court poets, 236 
Kathakoca, Tawney's tran 

lation, 48ft 2 , 101ft 1 , 121ft 

223, 224, 226 
Kavyammiamsa, Rajasekhar; 

Kamjasamgraha : erotische s 

exoterische Lieder. Meirisci 

Vbersetzungen aus indischi 

u. anderen Sprachen, J. 

Meyer, 234ft 1 
Keilinschrift lie he Bibliothe 

Schrader, 273ft 2 , 274ft 1 
Kerchief, message conveye 

by dipping and raising 

80ft 1 

Kidnapping, ranks of deva- 
dasls increased by, 254 ; 
trade in, 243 

Kinder mcirchen, Prohle, 25 

Kinder u. Haus?ndrchen, Grimm, 

Kinder u. Hausm'drchen, Zing- 
erle, 26 

Kindness, magic articles 
usually a reward for, 26 

King ashamed of his ignor- 
ance, 68, 71 

King of Assyria, Assur-bani- 
pal, 273 

King of the Asuras, Andhaka, 

King of the Bheels, 152, 152ft 1 

King Bimbisara, 223 

King of kings, Udayana be- 
comes a veritable, 184, 184ft 5 

King of the Nagas, Vasuki, 
61, 61m 1 , 100, 100ft 2 , 122, 

King Parantapa, 104 

King Parikshit, 95 

King of the Pulindas, Pulin- 
daka, 136, 150, 152, 183, 

King Satanika, 95 

King of the Vidyadharas, 128 

Kingly vice, Siva's, 125 

King's regard for Upakosa, 36 

King's rival teachers, the, 
71, 72 

Kings, vices of (vyasana), 124, 
124ft 1 , 134 

Knee, blood given from the 
right, 223 

Knotted strings and notched 
sticks, messages conveyed 
by, 82ft 

Knowledge, going to the 
Deccan to acquire, 61 ; of 
sciences given to Varsha, 
15 ; contained in the book 
of Thoth, superhuman, 
129, 130 

Kohl and Collyrium, Appen- 
dix II, 211-218 

Kohl, consistency of, 211 ; 
custom of applying, 211 ; 
custom of applying, in 
Africa, 217 ; custom of ap- 
plying, in Ancient Egypt, 
215-217 ; custom of apply- 
ing, in Morocco, 217; mean- 
ing of the word, 211 ; 
mestem, Egyptian name 
for, 215, 216 ; or mi?-wad, 
216-217; used by Musul- 
mans of India, 212 ; in 


Kohl continued 

proverbs, 215, 217; or 

stibium holder, 216 
Kohling the eyes in the Old 

Testament, 216 
Kuttanimatam, Damodara- 

gupta, 236, 236ft 2 

La Coupe Enchantee, La Fon- 
taine, 165 

La Lai du Corn, 165 

La vieille qui seduisit la jeune 
file, Le Grande, 169 

Lac, mark with red, 23 ; tank 
filled with the juice of, 98 

Ladies-in-waiting, men dis- 
guised as, 46n 2 

Ladle, Tale of the, Prior, 27 

Lady named Chaturika, a, 
64, 65 

Lake, garment drawn out of 
a, 117 

Lake Manasarowar, 2ft 2 

Lake, valley of Kashmir 
once a, 205 

Lamp-black or kajal, 212, 
214 ; mixed with oil and 
scented with musk, 33, 34, 
35 ; one side of the body 
painted with, 146 

Land of Avanti, 119 ; of 
Vatsa, 94 

Landlord, magical gifts stolen 
by a, 26 

Language of elephants under- 
stood, 150, 151 

Language of gestures, 112 ; 
of goblins, 205 ; Paisachi, 
60, 76, 89, 90-93, 205; 
of the Pisachas, 71, 71ft 2 , 
76, 89-93; Sanskrit, 4ft 1 , 
17ft 3 , 32ft 1 , 58ft 1 , 60, 71, 74 j 
of signs, 46, 46ft 1 , 80, 80ft 1 , 
81ft, 82ft; of signs employed 
at the outbreak of the 
Indian Mutiny, 82ft 

Languages, the three. 58, 
58ft 1 , 71 

Lashes elevated, fringe of 
eye-, 121 

Latin Stories, Th. Wright, 169 

Laughed, the fish that, 46-49 

Laughs in Hindu fiction, 46ft 1 , 

" Law, Babylonian," C. H. W. 
Johns, Ency. Brit., 270ft 1 

Law - books, prostitutes re- 
garded with disfavour by 
Ancient Indian, 232 

Laws of dancing-girls, 254 ; 
of inheritance for temple 


Laws continued 

women, 259, 264, 270, 271 ; 

of Manu, 56ft 1 , 87, 88, 191, 

200, 204, 205, 232; of 

Sumerian origin, 269 
Lead, red, painting the body 

with, 146, 146ft 2 ; sulphide 

of, used in kohl, 215 
Learn the way of the world, 

Brahman tries to, 64, 65 
Learning acquired by Deva- 

datta, 79 
Learning and eloquence, god- 
dess of (Sarasvati), 1ft 4 , 18, 

18ft 1 , 31, 31ft3 
Learning and wealth, Patali- 

putra the home of, 24 
Leather, jars of, 133ft 1 
Leaves, chewing, 238 ; eating, 

Lecons de V Entremetteuse , Les, 

Louis de Langle, 236ft 2 
Le Diable Boiteux, Le Sage, 

Left hand (idangai), 260 ; the 

only unguarded place, 127 
Left-handed sauwastika em- 
blem of the female prin- 
ciple, 192 
Legal marriage, pustelu token 

of, 88 
"Legend of Bottle Hill," 

Croker, 26 
Legend of Garuda and the 

Balakhilyas, 144, 144ft 2 
Legend of Girra, 272 
Legend of Kashmir, a, 206 
Legend of the Panjab, a, 213 
Legend of Perseus, Sidney 

Hartland, 130 
Legend of Vishnu and Bali, 

108ft 2 
Legends, Pauranik, 17n 3 
Leprosy, bath of blood as a 

cure for, 98ft ; cured by 

bath in blood of innocent 

maidens, 98ft 
Les Contes a Hire, 165 
Letter of death motif, 52, 51ft 2 
Lettres Edifcantes (1702), 250 
" Liar Bruno," Italian tale of, 

Liar, The, Lucian, 77ft 1 
"Libertine Husband," the 

story of the, 170, 171 
Libro de los Enganos, 170 
" Lichtmess," Kaden, Unter 

den Olivenb'dumen, 101ft 1 
Life-breath (am), 198 
Life of Camillas, Plutarch y 




Life, full of (saliva), 136, 
136/i 1 

Life given to save another's, 
half a, 188, 188ft 3 , 189 

Life guarded by thousands of 
genii, 131 

Life-Index in Albania, 132 ; in 
Arabia, 131-132 ; in Europe, 
132; in the Hebrides 
(Campbell), 132; in Nor- 
way (Ashbjornsen), 132 ; in 
Persia, 131-132 ; in Schles- 
wig-Holstein (MiillenhofF), 
132 ; in South Slavonia, 132 

"Life-Index, The: A Hindu 
Fiction-Motif," Ruth Nor- 
ton, Sladies in Honor of 
Maurice Bloonifield, 130 

Life-index motif, 38ft, 39ft, 
129-132; headings of, 130; 
passive side of, 132 

Life, Ishtar the destroyer of, 

Life of Krishna, songs of the 
amorous, 245 

Life and Stories of Parcna- 
natha, Bloomfield, 118ft 2 

* l Life -Token," Sidney Hart- 
land, Hastings' Ency. Bel. 
Eth., 130 

Life, the Tree of, 144ft 1 ; 
water of, 222 

Light and Fire, Agni God of, 

XUvov (basket of first-fruits), 

Lily as chastity index, 165 

Lines from Ovid, 84ft 2 

Lines like a shell, neck with, 
31, 31ft 1 

Linga (phallus, fascinum or 
guhya), 2ft 2 , 4ft 3 , 13ft 3 , 14ft, 
15ft, 125ft 2 

Linguistic Survey of India : the 
Dardic or Pisacha Languages, 
G. A. Grierson, 93 

Lion and the A sura maid, 
the, 108-110 

Lion, bear terrified by a, 53 ; 
boy riding on a, 67, 67ft 1 , 
68; a gold-producing, 20ft; 
overcome by wrestling, 109; 
placed in a city to prevent 
entrance, 108, 108ft 3 ; scar- 
city of, in India, 67ft 1 

Lion-goddess and bull-god 
worshipped by the Hit- 
tites, 275 

Liquid eye-wash or collyrium, 

Liquor (iva), 160ft 2 

Li Romans des Sept Sages, 
Keller, 171 

Literature, Buddhist, 206 ; 
108 mystic number in, 
242ft 3 ; poetical aspect of 
the dohada (pregnant long- 
ing) in Hindu, 221-222 

Literary appearance of "en- 
trapped suitors" motif, the 
first, 42 

Literary history of darbha 
grass, 56ft 

"Little Peachling," Japan- 
ese tale of, 27 

Liverpool Ann. Arch., D. G. 
Hogarth, 272, 272ft 4 

Localities where Paisachi lan- 
guage is spoken, 92 

Lock of hair while swear- 
ing an oath, undoing a, 

Locks, God of the matted 
(Siva), 94; he who wears 
the burden of the matted 
(Siva), 86 

Long journey, going on the 
(i.e. dying), 12, 12ft 3 

Long noses produced by 
magical figs, 27 

Longing to entertain monks, 
226 ; to hear teachings of 
the tilthayaras, 226; for 
learning, Panini's, 32 ; of 
MrigavatI, 97, 97ft 2 , 98; 
to reverence the Jinas and 
Sages, 226 ; of a she-crow 
for Brahman's eyes, 223 

Longings of pregnancy 
(dohada), 97ft 2 , 221-228 

Lord (Persian ahura), 198 

Lord of Treasure (Kuvera), 
202, 203 

Lord of Uma (Siva), 6 

Lord of Wealth (Kuvera), 
10, 202, 203 

Lord of the World (Jagan- 
natha), 242 

Lords of created beings (Pra- 
japati), 10, 10ft 1 

Loss of Adonis, mourning 
for the, 275 

Lotus, the emblem of Vishnu, 
144 ; eyes like a blue, 30 ; 
fallen from heaven, a, 70, 
71 ; flower circulated among 
the regiments, 82ft ; flowers 
as chastity index, 42, 156 ; 
lake, the banks of a, 67 ; 
magic chariot in the shape 
of a beautiful, 227 ; the un- 
fading, 156, 160 


Lotusesfioatinginthe Ganges 
golden, 183; the two red. 
42, 156; white (kumuda) 
119, 119ft 1 

Lotus-sprung god (Brahma). 
96, 96ft 1 

Love (sneha), 96ft 2 

Love, arrows of, 31, 32 ; 
building temples, 246 
chain of, 80 ; charms foi 
winning, 138, 139; thai 
cleaves the armour of self- 
restraint, the arrow of, 126 
God of (Kama), 1, 1ft 3 
5, 23, 94 ; God of, interfere; 
with Devadatta's studies 
79 ; incarnation of the Goc 
of, 128; index, plant of ru< 
as, 168 ; image of the Go( 
of, 77ft 1 ; Ishtar goddes 
of sexual, 272, 276; bymer< 
mention or description 
falling in, 128, 128ft 1 ; th< 
nectar of, 126, 126ft 2 ; o 
pleasure, vices proceeding 
from, 124ft 1 ; spell o 
Glaucias, 77ft 1 ; symptom 
of Devadatta, 81 

Lovers, ill luck of Ishtar's 
273 ; Upakosii and her fc 
32-36, 42-44 

Low caste, Dom a man 
157, 157ft 1 

Lozenge-shaped bun of Virgil 
and Child, 14ft 

Lucky numbers, 192 

Lucretius, Munro, 191 

Lute, the melodious, 122, 134 
151, 189; given to Udayan 
by Vasunemi, 100 

Luxury, ostentation and de 
pravity in the reigns c 
Jahangir and Shah Jahar 
238, 238ft 2 

Lying in a bath of hot coals 
79ft 1 ; on a bed of spikes 
79ft 1 ; surrounded by fires 
79ft 1 

Mace, magical, 26 

Madness of Hiranyaguptf 

Magic articles, the, 22 ; re 
cipe for making of, 27 
as reward for kindness 

Magic bed, 26; brooch, 26 
cap, 26, 27, 28 , carpet, %. 
28 ; chariot, 80 ; chariot i 
the shape of a beautift 
lotus, 227 ; chest, 26 ; cit 

ri oi 



Magic continued 

under the Ganges, 108; 
cloak; 25, 27; cloth, 26; 
connected with swords, 
109ft 1 ; cup, 25 ; doctrine of 
sympathetic, 130; gaiters, 
27; garden, 66, 67; hat, 
25 ; heart removed by, 129 ; 
horn, 26; pipe, 25; porce- 
lain, 28; pot, 26, 28; 
power of devotion, 6 ; pro- 
perties of blood, belief in 
the, 98ft 1 ; purse, 20ft, 25, 
26, 27; ring, 26; rite 
performed by Chanakya, 
57; rod, 25, 27, 28; ropes, 
28; sandals, 28; shoes, 22, 
23, 24, 25, 26, 27; staff, 24; 
stick, 22, 24, 28; sword, 
28, 110 ; sympathetic and 
homoeopathic, making and 
eating gods a form of, 14ft ; 
tablecloth, 25, 26 ; vessel, 

Magical articles, note on, 25- 
29 ; motif in folk-lore, 25- 
29 ; motif, varieties of, 25-29 

Magical boots, 25, 26, 27; 
cherries, 27 ; figs, long 
noses produced by, 27 ; 
mace, 26; properties of 
blood, the belief in the, 
98/1 ; properties of turmeric, 
255>i 3 ; wallet, 28; water, 

Magical power {yoga), 38ft 

Magician who flies through 
the air, 77ft 1 

Magician's life contained 
in a little green parrot, 

Magistrate, head, 32-34 

Mahdbhdrata, the, 1ft 2 , 20ft, 
51ft 1 , 88, 92, 93, 103, 144ft 1 , 
189ft, 199, 200, 203, 205 

Mahabodhi Jdtaka, 146ft 1 

Maha Parinibbdna Sutta, 192 

Mahbub ul-Qulub, " History of 
Nassar," 131 

Maid and the lion, the Asura, 

Maiden, Balapandita, the 
wise, 46ft 2 ; son of a, 232 

Maiden of the Traversari 
family, the, 171 

Maidens, Daitya, 108, 109, 
125, 126, 127; leprosy 
cured by bath in the blood 
of innocent, 98ft; wine 
sprinkled from the mouths 
of beauteous, 222 

Mailath and Goal, Hungarian 
story in, 25 

Malachite as eye paint, 
powdered, 217 

Male emblem at Brives, 15ft ; 
principle represented by 
right - handed swastika, 
192 ; prostitutes at temple 
of Kition in Cyprus, 276 

Male-female (ardha-naris vara) 
form of Siva, 146ft 2 , 272 

Male and female hierodouloi 
(sacred servants), 270 

Man, "Story of King Sivi," 
Dames and Joyce in, 85ft 

" Man of dough," a, 14ft 

Man in India, Rai Bahadur 
Hira Lai, "Human Sac- 
rifice in Central India," 
116ft 1 

Man of low caste, Dom, 157, 
157ft 1 ; of the Mount, the, 
48ft 2 ; in woman's attire, 83 

Manganese, black oxide of, 
used for kohl, 215 

Mango, a child-giving, 95ft 2 ; 
from the king's garden, 
longing for a, 226 ; leaves, 

Manners and Customs of the 
Ancient Egyptians, Wilkin- 
son, 215 

" Manteau mal taille, Le," 
Fabliau, 165 

Mantle of invisibility, 26 

Manual of Buddhism, Spence 
Hardy, 121ft 2 

March - April (chaitra), 112, 
112ft 1 

Marchen, Bohmische, Waldau, 
20ft, 26 

Marchen der Magyaren, 20ft, 

Marco Polo, The Book of Ser, 
Cordier and Yule, 63ft 1 , 
104, 105, 141ft 2 , 213, 241ft 2 , 
242ft 3 , 247ft 3 

Mark with red lac, 23 

Market, the fish that laughed 
in the, 46-49 ; heroine sell- 
ing thread in the, 43 

Marks on the forehead, 69, 
69ft 3 , 100, 242 

Marks with a dog's foot ; 160, 
161, 164 

Marriage, arsha form of, 87 ; 
asura form of, 87 ; of 
bhdvin girl, form of, 245 ; 
of a bogamjdn, 244; booth 
of sixteen pillars, 244 ; by 
capture (asura form of), 

Marriage continued 

200; ceremonies of deva- 
ddsis, 260-262 ; ceremonies, 
use of turmeric in, 255ft 3 ; 
daiva form of, 87 ; of the 
daughters of Bhojika to 
the three B rah mans, 19; 
the eight forms of, 87 ; 
festival of, 183, 184; 
gdndharva form of, 23, 
23ft 1 , 61, 68, 83, 116, 
187, 201; note on the 
gdndharva form of, 87-88 ; 
Gandharvas deities of, 201 ; 
of a girl to a dagger, 242, 
244 ; to idol of Krishna, 
244; Ishtar, goddess of, 
272; Kapu, 244; Munnur, 
244 ; of pdtar girls to a 
plpal tree, 239 ; paisdcha 
form of, 87, 88, 200, 205 
prdjdpalya form of, 87 
pustelu token of legal, 88 
rdkshasa form of, 87, 88 
205 ; sacrifice (homa), 245 
of Sahasramka and Mriga- 
vati, 97 ; of Sridatta and 
Mrigankavati, 118; of Sri- 
datta and Sundarl, 116 ; 
shesha form of, 245 ; 
song, 256 ; stanzas, 244 ; 
svayamvara form of, 88 ; 
token (tall), 255, 256, 
258, 259 ; tokens of basivi 
women, 256 ; of Udayana 
and Vasavadatta, 183, 184; 
of Vararuchi and Upakosa, 

Marriage Ceremonies in 
Morocco, Westermarck, 217 

Marriages, black as guard 
against the evil eye at, 212 

Married women, require- 
ments for, 234 

Masculine privileges of basivi 
women, 255 

Mask of the god as bride- 
groom, 245 

"Master Thief, The," 
Thorpe, Yule - tide Stories, 
147ft 2 

Mated pair worshipped by 
the Hittites, 275 

Material prosperity, Lakshmi 
goddess of, 18, 18ft 1 

Material world, creation of 
the, 9, 9ft 5 

Maternity, Ishtar goddess 
of, 272 

Mathurd : A District Memoir, 
F. S. Growse, 231ft 1 



Matrons as servants of the 
goddess, 276 

Matted locks, god of the 
(Siva), 94 ; he who wears 
the burden of the (Siva), 86 

Maturity at birth given to 
Rakshasas by Parvati, 
power of, 204 

Meaning of the word 
"alcohol," 211; "collyr- 
ium," 211, "dexterous," 
192; "Kataha," 155ft 1 ; 
"kohl," 211; "roc," 103, 
104; "sinister," 192 

Means of success (Upayas), 
the four, 123, 123ft 2 

Measure of distance (yojana), 
3, 3ft 1 , 247, 247ft 2 

Measure for Measure, Shake- 
speare, 50ft 2 

Mediaeval court jester, East- 
ern equivalent of, 137ft 2 

Mediaeval name for China, 
Cathay the, 155ft 1 

Meeting {yoga), 263 

Melancholy of the king, 70 

Melodious lute, the, 122, 134, 

Me lu sine, A. Bart, "An 
Ancient Manual of 
Sorcery," 12ft 1 ; "Voleur 
Avise," 27 

Memoirs read before the 
Anthropological Society of 
London, "The Bayadere: 
or, Dancing Girls of South- 
ern India," Shortt, 253, 
253ft 1 

Memoirs sur les Contrees Occi- 
dentals traduits du Sanscrit 
par Hiouen Thsang et du 
Chinois par Stanislas Julien, 
84ft 2 

Memories, powerful, 75, 75ft 3 

Memory, method of obtain- 
ing wonderful, 12ft 1 ; Vara- 
ruchi's extraordinary, 11, 12 

Men dedicated to the temple, 
245, 246, 278; dressed up 
as women in the harem, 
47ft, 48ft ; from the Deccan, 
friends of Srldatta, 107 ; 
hidden in imitation 
animals, 133, 133ft 1 , 134; 
hidden in jars, 133ft 1 

Mendicants (religious) in 
Bengal, 243 

Mention, falling in love by 
mere, 128, 128ft 1 

Merchant, Devasmita dis- 
guised as a, 163, 164 

Merchant Hiranyagupta, 
Vararuchi deposits money 
with the, 32 

Merchant, The Mouse, 62-63 

Messages conveyed by lan- 
guage of signs, 80ft 1 , 81ft, 

Messages by knotted strings 
and notched sticks, 82ft 

Message-stick, Australian, 

Method of becoming a 
bhavin, 245 ; of carrying 
money, 117, 117ft 3 ; of ob- 
taining power of repeti- 
tion, 12ft 1 ; of procuring 
children, 154, 154ft 1 ; of 
producing moles, 49ft 1 ; of 
swearing an oath, 57ft 1 

Metrical Romances, Ellis, 169 

Metrical version of the story 
of Devasmita, W. Hale 
Wortham, Journ. Roy. As. 
Soc, 172-181 

Mighty arms of Siva, the, 
95, 95ft 1 

Migration of life-index motif, 

Migration of Symbols, Count 
D'Alvielia, 192 

Migratory motif, 29, 42, 130, 
169, 170, 171 

Milk, butter and dates, idol 
of (hais), 14ft 

Mines de I 'Orient, von 
Hammer, 81ft 

Minister of Nanda, Vara- 
ruchi, 9 

Minister, the prince's, 32, 
33; reception of the 
prince's, 33, 34 

Minister of Satavahana, 
Gunadhya the, 65 

Minister of Yogananda, Vara- 
ruchi the, 40 

Minstrels of Indra's court or 
Gandharvas, 87 

Minstrels, songs of, 183, 183ft 2 

Miracles of Krishna, Mathura 
the scene of the, 231 

Miraculous birth of Garuda, 

Mirage, effects of, 104 ; or 
gandharvanagara, 201 

Mirror, message conveyed 
by a, 80ft 1 ; of chastity, 
166, 168 

Mission to Gelele, A, R. F. 
Burton, 278, 278ft 1 

Missionaries' accounts of 
deva-dasls, 246 


Missionary, a Baptist (W 
Ward), 241, 241ft* 

Mistresses of the Gandharvas 
Apsarases the, 201 

Mitre or cap, 258 

Modern Egyptians, Lane, 217 

Modern times, prostitut 
dancing castes in, 266 

Modest dress of the courtesar 

Modesty of deva-dasls, 252 

Mogul Empire, the, 237 

Mohammedan faqlrs, dis- 
tribution of sweets among 

Mohammedan hour it 
Apsarases resemblance 

Mohammedan influence 
deva-dasls, effect of, 244 
265, 266 ; invasions c 
India, 231 ; Puritan, Aui 
angzeb, 231, 238, 250, 265 
term for bogam, jan c 
nayakan, 244; term fc 
dancing-girl, tawaif, 23i 

Mohammedanism embrace 
by many at Mathura, 231 

Mohammedans, origin of 
use of powdered antimon 
among the, 217 

Molasses, 13, 13ft 3 , 42 

Mole, attraction of the, 49ft 
50ft ; on the queen's bod^ 
the, 49, 49ft 1 , 50ft 

Moles in Arabic fictioi 
similes of, 49ft; artificial) 
produced, 49ft 1 , 50r* 
similes in Indian fictio 
of, 49ft 1 ; in Persian fictioi 
similes of, 49ft 

Monarch, the Chola, 155n 
247; of mighty hil 
Himavat), 2 

Monarchs, an elephai 
among, 125 

Money carried in turbai 
117ft 3 ; in India, carrying o 
117ft 3 ; in Morocco, methc 
of carrying, 117ft 3 ; skill i 
the art of making, 62 

Mongolian legend of gok 
producing stone, 27 

Monkey and the crocodil 
Buddhist story of the, 22 

Monkey and the porpois- 
story of the, 225 

Monkeys by magical wate 
persons turned into, 28 


Monks, feast of, 247 ; longing 
to entertain, 226 

Monopoly of tari, govern- 
ment, 241 

Month, eighth day of the, 82 

Moon crescent worn by Siva, 

Moon as a crest, god who 
wears the (Siva), 32 

Moon-crested god, the (Siva), 

Moon, desire to drink the, 
228 ; eclipse caused by Rahu 
of the, 200 ; face like a full, 
30, 30*i; the god who 
wears on his crest a digit 
of the (Siva), 36 ; incarna- 
tion of the, 128; streak 
(or digit) of the new, 5, 
32; sympathetic influence 
of the, 228 ; three forms of 
the, 7W ; tricks played by 
the, 228; (half) on the 
throat, 65ft 1 

Moon-diademed god (Siva), 7 

Moon-god Nannarworshipped 
in Ur, 270 

Moon's digit springs from the 
sea, 5 

Moony crest, God of the 
(Siva), 67, 86 

Moral duties of husbands, 223 

Morality of princes and public 
men, 239 

Morality and religion (dhar- 
ma), 248 

Morality of Somadeva's tales, 

Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, 
Zeitschrift der, 13ft 3 , 92, 93 

Morning watch, the (9 a.m.), 
114, 114ft 1 

Mortal condition, putting off 
the, 59 

Mortal life-index of another 
mortal, one, 131 

Morte a" Arthur, La, 165 

Mortification, forms of, 79ft 1 

Mosque, sweets offered at a, 

Mother of Garuda, Vinata, 
143ft 2 

Mother - goddess in Arabia, 
276; in Canaan, 275-277; 
cult of the, 272-279; in 
Cyprus, 276 ; in Erech, 270 ; 
in Hierapolis, 275 ; in North 
Africa, 276 ; in Paphos, 
276 ; in Phoenicia, 275-277 ; 
in Syria, 275-277 

Mother, old (taikkizhavi), 262 ; 


Moth er continued 

of Skanda (Durga), 19,19ft 1 ; 
of the snakes, Kadru, 143ft 2 ; 
of the three worlds (Bha- 
vanl), 2, 3; Vararuchi's 
grief at parting with his, 17 

Motif, the "act of truth," 
166, 167; the "bitch and 
the pepper," 169-171 ; the 
"chastity index," 165-168; 
the " dohada or craving of 
the pregnant woman," 
97ft 2 , 221-228; the "en- 
trapped suitors," 29, 42-44, 
167; the "grey hair," 
121ft 2 ; the "guessing 
riddles," 46ft 2 ; the "laugh 
and cry," 47ft; the "letter 
of death," 52ft 2 ; the "life- 
index," 38ft, 39ft, 129-132 ; 
the "magical articles," 25- 
29 ; the migratory, 29, 42 ; 
the " overhearing," 48ft 2 ; 
the "wandering soul," 
37ft 2 , 38ft, 39ft 

Mount Kailasa, 2, 2ft 2 , 3, 3ft 1 , 
8 ; Karangli, 213 ; Mandara, 
3, 3ft 2 , 55ft 1 , 94 ; of Snow, 
daughter of the (Parvati), 
5 ; Uslnara, 18, 18ft 3 

Mountain, daughter of the 
(Parvati), 3, 6, 7 

Mountain Himavat, cele- 
brated, 2 

Mountain where the sun 
rises, 99 ; called Swarna- 
mula, 143 ; turned into 
gold, 213 

Mountaineer or Kirata, shape 
assumed by Siva, 95ft 1 

Mountaineer, Savara a wild, 
100, 100ft 1 , 101, 102, 115, 
116, 152ft 1 

Mountains sporting with un- 
shorn wings, 182 

Mountains, the Vindhya, 10 

Mourner, chief (karta), 264 

Mourning for the loss of 
Adonis, 275 

Mouse Merchant, The, 62-63 

Mouth like the ring of 
Sulayman, 30ft 2 

Mouth of Siva, tale fromthe,94 

Mouth, spray from GanesVs 
hissing, 1, 1ft 6 

Mouths of beauteous maidens, 
wine sprinkled from, 222 

Moving peak of the Vindhya 
range, a, 133 

Mrichchhakatika or Clay Cart, 
Dandin, 235, 235ft 1 


Mudra Rdkshasa (Wilson, 

Hindu Theatre), 57ft 3 
fxvkXoi ("female " cakes), 15ft 
"Mummies, Adventure of 

Satni-Khamois with the," 

37ft 2 , 129 
Muntakhabu-l-lubab (H. Elliot, 

History of India), 238w 3 
Murder of a child to procure 

another, 98n, 154, 154ft 1 
Music or dancing, Brahmans 

forbidden to witness, 232 
Music, Gan6sa author of, 240 ; 

the motherof dancing-girls, 

238 ; Sarasvati Goddess of, 

243 ; taught to Vasavadatta 

by Udayana, 135; vice of 

instrumental, 124ft 
Musical instrument, cord from 

a, as secret message, 81ft 
Musical instruments, playing 

of, 243 ; worship of, 244, 245 
Musician Tansen the patron 

saint of dancing-girls, 238 
Musicians attached to the 

temple at Tanjore, 247 ; at 

Indra's court, Apsarases, 

Musk, lamp-black and oil 

scented with, 33, 34, 35 
Muslin, dress of, 243 
fivo-Trjs (Eleusinian mysteries), 

Musulmans of India, kohl 

used by the, 212 
Mutilations of ascetics, 79ft 1 
Mutiny, sign language used 

at the outbreak of the, 82ft 
Mutual consent, marriage by 

(gandharva form), 87, 88 
Mysore Review, The, 233ft 1 
Mysteries, Eleusinian, 15w 
Mystic food eaten by women 

at the Hola, 15ft ; numbers, 

108 and five, 242, 242ft 3 , 

255w 2 ; syllable Om, 17, 17ft 1 ; 

verses to procure a son, 95 ; 

wheel of Vishnu, 242 
Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of 

India, J. C. Oman, 79ft 1 
Myth of Ishtar and Tammuz, 

273, 274 
Mythes et Legendes de TInde 

et de la Perse, Leveque, 26, 

84ft 2 , 189ft 
Mythical beings, appendix 

on, 197-207 
Mythological side of the rukh, 

103, 104 
Mythology of the Aryan Nations, 

G. W. Cox, 130, 148ft 1 



Mythology, Mathura a sacred 

spot in Hindu, 231 ; 

weapons of Hindu, 184, 

184ft 2 
Mythology, Zoological, De 

Gubernatis, 26, 76ft 2 , 84ft 2 , 

129, 130, 144ft 2 

Nail-clippings, personality in, 

Nails growing through the 

palms of the hands, 79ft 1 
Naked gallants, 42-44 
Name for kohl in Egypt, 215 
Names of swords, 109ft 1 
Narrative from Criminal Trials 

in Scotland, J. H. Burton, 

"Nastagio and the Spectre 

Horseman," Decameron,\l\ 
Nat. Hist., Pliny, 103, 222 
National god of Assyria, 198 
Natives of Avanti friends of 

Srldatta, 107 
Nature, origin of, 9, 9ft 5 
Nautch-girl, 250ft 2 
Navel of Vishnu, lotus grow T - 

ing from the, 96ft 1 
Nebelkappe(c\oud-cap) of King 

Alberich, 27 
Necessity for sign language, 

80ft 1 
Neck like a shell, lines on 

the, 31, 31ft 
Neck of Siva, the dark, 

(Nilakantha), 1, 1ft 2 
Necklace of skulls, 5, 146 
Nectar (Amrita), 3ft 2 , 55ft 1 , 74 
Nectar {rasa), 126ft 2 
Nectar into the eyes of his 

mother, raining, 101 
Nectar of immortality, 94 ; of 

love, 126, 126ft 2 
Nectarous mouth of Siva, 94 
Needle, piercing the ear like 

a poisoned, 4 
Negotiation (saman), 123, 

123ft 2 
New grammar, the, 32, 36, 

74, 75, 75ft 1 
New moon, streak of the, 

Upako^a like a, 32 
Nibelungenlied, the, 27, 187ft 1 
Nifflunga Saga, 27 
Night, evils of the, 77ft 1 ; to 
pass the (nebdt), 81ft; Pis- 
achas delight in the, 76, 
76ft 2 , 77, 77ft 1 ; Rakshasas 
delight in the, 76, 76ft 2 , 77, 
77ft 1 ; Yakshas delight in 
the, 76, 76ft 2 , 77, 77ft 1 

" Night wanderers" or Rak- 
shasas, 111ft 1 

Nights, The Thousand and One, 
Burton, 1ft 1 , 14ft, 25, 27, 
28, 30ft 2 , 46ft 2 , 80ft 1 , 82ft, 
10^,103, 105, 120ft 1 , 124ft 1 , 
131, 133ft 1 , 141ft 2 , 144ft 1 , 
145ft 1 , 163ft, 167, 170, 183ft, 
186ft 1 , 204, 217 

Nights, the, Straparola, 44, 
46ft 2 

Nigrodha-Jataka, 227 

" Nikini Story, The," Parker, 
Village Folk-Tales of 
Ceylon, 227 

Nllamata, the, 206 

Nirayavaliya Sutta, Warren, 

Noble Kinsmen, The Two, 
31ft 2 

Norse, Popular Tales from the, 
Dasent, 26, 27, 44, 77ft 1 

Norse tale of the "Three 
Princesses of Whiteland," 

North Africa, Semitic mother- 
goddess in, 276 

Northern India affected by 
t'he Mohammedan in- 
vasions, 237 ; sacred prosti- 
tution in, 237-240; suffering 
of, by invaders, 237 

Norwegian life-index (Ash- 
bjornsen, 132 

Norwegian story in Ash- 
bjornsen, 25 

Nose of the female ascetic 
cut off, 161 

Nosegay as chastity index, 

Nose-ring, rite of taking off 
the (nathni utarna), 240 

Noses produced by magical 
figs, long, 27 

Note on the "bitch and 
pepper" motif, 169-171; 
on the "chastity index" 
motif, 165-168 ; on the 
circumambulation, or 
deisul, 190-193; on the 
'* entrapped suitors " motif, 
42-44; on the "external 
soul" motif, 129-132; on 
the gandharva form of 
marriage, 87-88 ; on the 
Garuda bird, 103-105; on 
the language of signs, 
80ft 1 -82ft; on the "magical 
articles" motif, 25-29; on 
the Pai^achi language, 

Notes and Addenda to the Book 

of Ser Marco Polo, Henri 

Cordier, 104 
Novelle, Bandello, 44, 162ft 1 , 

Novelle Morlini, Liebrecht's 

Dunlop, 44 
Nude woman chased by dogs 

(Boccaccio), 171 
Number of Gandharvas. 201 ; 

108 the mystical, 242ft 3 ; 

of prostitutes, large, 237 ; 

of shrines of special 

sanctity (108), 242ft 3 
Numbering used throughout 

the work, system of, 

xxxviii, xxxix 
Nuptial tie or hbmam, 88 
Nymph, a heavenly, 61 
Nymph named Menaka, 188 

Oasis in the Central Asian 
desert, original home of 
Pisachas an, 92 

"Oath," Crawley, Beet and 
Canney, Hastings' Ency, 
Rel. Eth., 57ft 1 

Oath of Govindadatta, 78; 
of Chanakya, 57 

Object of reverence, walking 
round a (deisul), 190-193 

Oblation for obtaining a son, 
an, 95, 95ft 2 

Obsequies of parents per- 
formed by daughter, 255 

Obstacles, Victor of (Ganesa), 
1, 1ft 1 

Ocean, Churning of the, 1ft 2 , 
3ft 2 , 55ft 1 , 94, 128, 200, 202 

Ocean of Story, the, 28, 29, 42, 
46ft 2 ,' 55ft 1 , 67ft 1 , 87, 88, 92, 
94ft 2 , 166, 170, 197, 199, 
201, 202, 203-207, 221, 225, 
227, 236, 280 

October, Aswin, festival of, 
245, 245ft 1 

Offer of Hafiz for a mole on 
his beloved's face, 49ft 1 

Offering to animals (bali), 
daily, 21, 21ft 1 ; of a cocoa- 
nut, 244 ; his own flesh to 
Durga, 125 ; of puja to 
Gauri, consort of Siva, 244 ; 
up one son to obtain an- 
other, 154, 154?! 1 ; of sugar, 

Offerings of balls (pinda) of 
rice, honey and milk, 56ft 1 ; 
to the Buddha, 241; to 
dancing-dress and musical 
instruments, 244; to 

Offerings continued 

Demeter and Kore, 15ft; 
of iron to image of Loha- 
jangha, 139ft 2 ; of rice, 
flowers and a cocoanut, 244 

Officer of revenue, girls taken 
from the temple by an, 252 

Offspring of Brahma, the 
Balakhilyas, 144, 144ft 2 

Ogre's life dependent on that 
of a queen bee, 131 

Ogres (Pisachas), 71, 71ft 2 ; 
conquered, 27 

Oil (sneha), 96ft 2 

Oil and lamp-black, 33, 34, 35 

Oil and turmeric rubbed on 
the body, 242 

Old age, feminine form of, 
121, 121ft 2 

Old Deccan Days, Freer, 28, 
95ft 2 , 101ft 1 , 131, 142ft 1 

Old mother (taikkizhavi), 262 

Old Testament, kohling the 
eyes in the, 217 

"Old Woman and her Dog, 
The," Gesta Romanorum, 

Omen, auspicious, 116 

Omens, unlucky, 114 

" On the Art of Entering 
Another's Body," Bloom- 
field, Proc. Amer. Philoso. 
Soc, 38ft 

* 'On the Ceremonial Turn 
called Deisul," Dr Samuel 
Fergusson, Proceedings of 
the Royal Irish Academy, 190 

On the Weapons, etc., of the 
Ancient Hindus, Oppert, 
109ft 1 

One hundred and eight, 
mystic number of, 242ft 3 

One mortal as life-index of 
another mortal, 131 

One side painted black the 
other red, 146, 146ft 2 

Opals turn pale in the pres- 
ence of poison, 110ft 1 

Open force {danda), 123ft 2 

Opening of drinking-places, 

Ophthalmia, surmah used as 
a preventative for, 214 

Order of creation of new 
body, 56ft 1 

Orient und Occident, Dr Rein- 
hold Kohler, 129 

Orient und Occident, Liebrecht, 
46ft 2 , 157ft 2 

Oriental Commerce, Milburn, 


Orientalist, " Rasavahini Jam- 
budipa," story in the, 101ft 1 

Origin of the " bitch and 
pepper " motif, 169 ; of 
Chinese nation, incident 
from the, 27 ; of darbha 
grass, 55ft 1 ; and derivation 
of the name Vararuchi, 16, 
16ft 2 ; of the Ganges in 
Siva's head, 5ft 5 ; of the 
name Kataha, 155ft 1 ; of 
the use of kohl in Islam, 
217; of nature, 9, 9ft 5 ; 
of sacred prostitution in 
Babylonia, 274; of the 
Supreme Soul, 9, 9ft 4 ; of 
the word asura, 197-199 

Original home of sacred 
prostitution, Mesopotamia, 
the, 269 

Original Sanskrit Texts, Muir, 
56ft 1 

Original source of creating 
the material world, 9, 9ft 5 

Orissa, Hunter, 242ft 1 

Ornament of the earth, the 
ear-, 94, 95 

Orphans though having 
wealth, 12, 12ft 4 

Orphic rite of the Likno- 
phoria, 15ft 

Ostentation, depravity and 
luxury in the reigns of 
Jahangir and Shah Jahan, 
238, 238ft 2 

Ostrich introduced from 
Parthia, 104 

Otters quarrel over fish, 226 

Out of doors (Latin foris, 
hence "forest"), 141ft 1 

Overhearing motif, the, 48ft 2 

Ox form of the moon, 77ft 1 

Oxford History of India, V. A. 
Smith, 250ft 1 

Oxide of copper, 215 ; of 
manganese, black, 215 

Paddy, kalam of, 247 
Pagoda, payment of a, 252 
Painted gallants, 42 
Painting of the eyes, 211, 213 
Painting one side of the body 

red and the other black, 

146, 146ft 2 
Painting of Yogananda and 

his queen, 49 
Pair of lions, a, 68 
" Paiaci," G. A. Grierson, 

Zeit. d. deutschen morgen- 

landischen Gesell., 93 
Palace of Prester John, 110ft 1 


Palace, prostitutes important 
factors in the, 237 ; set fire 
to, 113, 114; Upakosagoes 
to the king's, 35 

Palaces, City of (Calcutta), 
125ft 1 ; of enamelled white- 
ness, 124, 125, 125ft 1 

Pauchatantra, the, 20 n, 27, 
37ft 2 , 39ft2, 54ft 1 , 63ft 1 , 84ft 2 , 
145ft 1 , 157ft 2 , 188ft 2 

Papyrus at British Museum, 
129; Egyptian, 133ft 1 ; of 
Ptolemaic age, 129 

Parables from the Burmese, 
trans, by T. Rogers, 104 

Paradise, Indra's, 8ft; the 
wishing-tree of, Sn, 144, 
144ft 1 

Parasol-bearers attached to 
temple at Tanjore, 247 

Parents, girls vowed to temple 
service by, 245, 251 ; ob- 
sequies of, 255 ; of Udayana, 
story of the, 96-99 

Parisishtaparvan, Jacobi, 39ft 1 , 
121ft 2 , 228 

Parrot, magician's life con- 
tained in a little green, 131 

Parrots, story of the couple 
of, 224 

Parsvandtha Cliaritra, the, 222 

Parthian bird or an-si-tsio, 104 

Pass the night (nebdt), 81ft 

Passion {rasa), 126ft 2 

Passionate (sasnehe), 96ft 2 

Passive power of creating the 
material world (prakriti), 
9, 9ft 5 

"Path of Virtue," or Dham- 
mapada, 104 

Patience (sabr), 81ft 

Patron saint of dancing-girls 
(Tansen), 238; of gandliarb 
dancing-girls, Gane^a, 240 

Peacock revived bv cloud, 
112, 183, 183ft 1 ; tail {kalapa) 
of the, 75 

Peacock's delight in rain- 
drops, 102 ; feathers ruffled 
in the presence of poison, 
110ft 1 

Peafowl's delight in the 
approach of the rainy 
season, 183, 183ft 1 

Pearls, powdered, 212, 217 ; 
teeth of, strung, 30ft 2 

Penal settlement at Port 
Blair, the, 154ft 1 

Penalties for breaches of the 
regulations of prostitutes, 



Penance (tapas), 79ft 1 
Pentamerone, Basile, 20ft, 26, 

44, 46ft 2 , 77ft 1 , 97ft 2 , 168 
Pentamerone, Burton's trans- 
lation of the, 26, 77ft 1 , 

97ft 2 
Pepper given to the bitch, 

Perceforest, 165 
Perfection in sciences at- 
tained by Vararuchi, 9, 

Perfumed Garden, The, 

Nefzaoui, 170 
Perfumes and Cosmetics, 

Poucher, 218 
Perpetual chastity, a vow of, 

Persian Ahuro Mazdao, 199 ; 

names for Garuda bird, 

amru, sinamru, 103; term 

for "lord " or "god," 

ahura, 198, 199 ; Tuti-Nama, 

Nakhshabi, 43, 168, 170 
Personal god of patars, 

Krishna the, 239 
Personality in the hair, 276 ; 

in nail -clippings, 276 
Persons turned into monkeys 

by magical water, 28 
Pestilence, Goddess of, 147 
Petals of white lotus expand 

by night and close up by 

day, 119, 119ft 1 
Petition of Devasmita to the 

king, 163 
Petitions to European police, 

examples of, 258 
Phallic element in cake 

customs, 14ft, 15ft ; rites in 

Syria, 275 
"Phallism," E. S. Hartland, 

Hastings' Ency. Bel. Eth., 

Phallus (linga, fascinum or 

guhya), 2ft 2 , 4, 4ft 3 , 13ft 3 , 

14ft, 15ft, 125ft 2 
Phantom horseman in The 

Decameron, 171 
Philopseudes, the, Lucian, 77ft 1 
" Philosophy of Punchkin, 

The," Edward Clodd, Folk- 

Lore Journal, 130 
Phoenician inscriptions, 276 
" Phoenix," Ency. Brit, 104 
Phoenix's visits to Egypt, 103 
Phonetic changes of the word 

Kataha, 155ft 1 
Physicians, Gandharvas the 

heavenly, 200-201 
Physiologus, 104 

Picture, The, Massinger, 44, 

Pied Piper of Hamelin, 26 
Piercing the ears like a 

poisoned needle, 4 
Pilgrimage, Badari place of, 

59, 59ft 1 ; Kanakhala place 

of, 18; to sacred spot 

(Kailasa), 2ft 2 ; to temple 

of Durga, 21, 58 
Pilgrimage to El Medinah and 

Meccah, the, Burton, 192 
Pilgrimages to Tansen's 

grave, 238, 238ft 1 
Pill made of the five pro- 
ducts of the cow, 258 
Pillar, Makaradanshtra placed 

on a, 147, 147ft 2 , 148, 148ft 
Pillars, marriage booth of 

sixteen, 244 
Pillow, gold pieces under, 19, 

19ft 2 , 20ft 
Pinne {phallus), 14ft 
Pinnes blessed by priests, 14ft 
" Pinnes, La fete des," 14ft 
Pinsoles, cure for, 191 
Pipe, a magic, 25 
Pipkin given to a Brahman 

by Durga, 28 
"Pi^achas," Sir G. A. 

Grierson, Hastings' Ency. 

Bel. Eth., 92 
"Pisacas in the Mahab- 

hdrata," G. A. Grierson, 

Festschrift fur Vilhelm 

Thomsen, 93 
Pitcher held by prostitutes, 

a golden, 233 
Pivot, Vishnu as a, 55ft 1 
Place where corpses are 

burnt, 9 
Place of pilgrimage, Kana- 
khala, 18 
Plan to capture Udayana by 

stratagem, 133 
Plan to carry off Vasava- 

datta, 150, 151 
Plant of rue kept as love- 
index, 168 
Plant used for producing good 

memory, soma, 12ft 1 
Plant used in washing as 

secret message, 81ft 
Plaster, whitened with (sud- 

hddhauta), 125ft 1 
Plateau of the Vindhya 

hills, 152 
Playing musical instruments, 

vice of, 124ft 1 
Pleasure-arbours of Kailasa, 



Pleasure-ground or Elysium 
(Nandana), 66ft 1 

Poetical aspect of the dohada 
in Hindu literature, 222 

Poetry, horripilation in 
Sanskrit, 120ft 1 ; kohl 
Eastern, 217 

Poison comes up at Churni 
of the Ocean, 1ft 2 ; cups of 
rhinoceros horn cause drink 
to effervesce if it contains, 
110ft 1 ; detector, sign of 
the cross as, 110ft 1 ; de- 
tector, recipe for making 
the heart of a vulture into 
a, 110ft 1 ; detectors, 110ft 1 ; 
opals turn pale in the 
presence of, 110ft 1 ; pea- 
cock's feathers ruffle in the 
presence of, 110ft 1 ; ring to 
destroy the effect of, 110, 
llOw 1 ; stone from the 
head of a toad as amulet 
against, 110ft 1 ; Venetian 
glass shivers at approach 
of, 110ft 1 

Poisoned needle, speech that 
pierces the ear like a, 4 

Police magistrate (Kutwal), 

Popular Antiquities, Brand, 

Popular index in Indian 
tales, birds the most, 131 

Popular Stories of Ancient 
Egypt, Maspero, 37ft 2 , 77ft 1 , 
129, 133ft 1 

Popular Tales and Fictimis, 
W. A. Clouston, 29, 42, 44, 
85ft, 101ft 1 , 130 

Popular Tales from the Norse, 
Dasent, 26, 27, 44, 77ft 1 

Popular Traditions from Wal- 
deck, Curze, 26 

Porcelain cup, a magic, 28 

Portuguese Folk-Tales, Folk- 
lore Society, 27 

Portuguese story of ' c A Cach- 
eirinha," Contos Portugueses, 
Coelho, 26, 

Position of the heaven! 
bodies, 134 

Post, the sacred, 242 

Pot, magic, 26 

Potency of blood, belief 
the, 98ft 

Poverty, the incarnation of, 

Powder, distribution of red 
(kunkum or kunkam), 244, 

Powdered antimony among 
Mohammedans, origin of 
the use of, 211 ; corals, 
212; crystals, 212; pearls, 
212, 217 
Power of devotion, magical, 
6 ; of flying through the 
air, 22 ; of goblins, 76, 76V, 
77; of goblins at night, 
76, 76ft 2 , 77, 77m 1 , 205; 
magical {yoga), 38ft; of 
repetition, method of ob- 
taining, 12ft 1 
Powerful memory, 75, 75ft 3 
Powers of endurance of 

dancing-girls, 254 
Practice of walking round an 
object of reverence, 190- 
Preceptor of the gods, Bri- 

haspati, 57, 57ft 2 
Preceptor named Mantras- 

vamin, 79, 81 
Precious stones, the griffin 
the guardian of, 104; things 
lost in Deluge, 3ft 2 
Precocious children, tales of, 

186W 1 
Pregnancy of kasbi woman, 
the first, 242, 243; longings 
of, 97w 2 , 221-228 
Pregnant woman, longings of 

a, 97ft 2 , 221-228 
Prejudice against female edu- 
cation in India, 251 
Preparation for last journey, 

Preparations of Upakosa for 
reception of would - be 
lovers, 33, 34 
Presence of dancing-women 

at marriages, 251 
Presents, distribution of, 187, 

187ft 1 
Presumption of Brahma, 4 
Pretended dohadas of barren 

women, 227 
Preventative for ophthalmia, 

kohl as a, 214, 217 
Priestess of Isis, 145ft 1 
Priestesses, various classes of, 

Priests, pinnes blessed by, 

Primitive Semitic divinity, 

Ishtar a, 271 
Prince's minister, the, 32, 33, 
44; reception of the, 32, 
Princes and public men, 
morality of, 239 


Princess Mrigankavati, the, 
106, 112, 114-116, 118, 120 
Princess Patall, 19, 23, 24 
Princesses of Whiteland, 
Norse tale of the three, 
Principal deities of dancing- 
girls, 260; religious festi- 
vals, 262 
Principles of Hindu and Mo- 
hammedan Law, W. H. 
Macnaghten, 87 
Privileged profession of 

ganikds, 233 
Privileges of dedicating a 
girl to the deity, 255, 
Proc. Amer. Philoso. Soc., 
Bloomfield, "On the Art of 
Entering Another's Body," 
Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy, Dr S. Fergusson, 
"On the Ceremonial Turn 
called Deisul," 190 
Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 272ft 1 
Production of antimony in 
India, 213; of a dream, 
71, 71ft 1 
Profession of kasbi (prostitu- 
tion), Hindu, 232, 243 
Professional tattooists, 49ft 1 
Prohibition of singing and 
dancing under Aurangzeb, 
Prolegomena to the Study of 
Greek Religion, J. E. 
Harrison, 15ft 
Promise of Indra to Sahas- 

ranika, 96 
Promptuarium , John Herolt 

of Basil, 169 
Proof of existence of gigantic 
birds in comparatively 
recent times, 105 
Properties of blood, belief in 

the magical, 98ft 
Property, vice of unjust 

seizure of, 124ft 1 
Propitiating the goddess, 
106, ,125; Siva, 20ft 1 , 85, 
86 ; Siva with austerities, 
4, 32, 79, 86 
Proposal of Parvati, 5 
Prosperity, the Goddess of, 
128 ; material (Lakshmi), 
18, 18ft 1 ; udaya, 121ft 3 
Prostitute dancing castes in 

modern times, 266 
Prostitutes, 232 ; Ddroghah, 
superintendent of, 237 ; 


Prostitutes continued 

duties of, 233; ganikds, 
233; held in esteem, 237, 
265 ; held in respect, 232 ; 
important factors in the 
palace, 237 ; large number 
of, 237; requirements for, 
234; as secret service 
agents, 233 ; superinten- 
dent of, 233 ; at temple of 
Kition in Cyprus, male, 
276 ; various classes of, 
234, 234ft 3 , 244 ; wealth of, 
232, 233, 237 
Prostitution, alternative to 
enforced, 275, 276 ; Arabic 
kasab, 243; religious and 
secular, coincident in Vija- 
yanagar, 248-250 
"Prostitution (Indian)," 
W. Crooke, Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., 233, 239ft 2 
Prostitution, sacred (App. 
IV), 231-280; in ancient 
India, 232-233; in Baby- 
lonia, 269-274 ; in the Bom- 
bay district, 245, 246; in 
Borneo, 279 ; in the Bud- 
dhist age, 265 ; in Central 
India, 240-246; in the 
Christian era, 233-237; in 
the cult of Ishtar, origin 
of, 274; in Egypt, 268; in 
Europe, 277 ; in Japan, 279 ; 
in Mexico, 279 ; in Northern 
India, 237-240; in Peru, 
279 ; in Southern India, 
246-269; in Syria, Phoenicia, 
Canaan, etc., 275-277 ; 
theories on the custom of, 
267, 268; in Vedic times, 
evidence of, 265; in West 
Africa, 277-279 ; in Western 
Asia, 268-277 
Prostitution, secular, in India, 

232, 239, 255, 266 
Protege, Putraka Siva's, 19 
Protrept, Clement of Alex- 
andria, 15ft, 276 
Proverbs, kohl in connection 

with, 215,' 217 
Providing food for the dead, 

56ft 1 
"Province of Maabar," 

abbeys in the, 247 
Pseudo-Calllsthenes, 103, 145ft 1 
"Psychic Motifs in Hindu 
Fiction," Bloomfield, 47ft 
Ptolemaic age, papyrus of 
the, 129; story dating 
from the, 37ft 2 



Puberty, hemm ceremony of, 

Public, bhavins not allowed 
to dance and sing in, 246 ; 
men and princes, morality 
of, 239 ; women at Gol- 
conda, 241 
Pun, Sanskrit, 12, 12b 4 , 121b 2 
Pupil of Varsha, Panini, a, 32 
Puppy form of the moon, 77b 1 
Puranas, the, 198, 200, 205 
Purchase of Siva by Parvati, 

5, 5b 3 
Purification ofanjana, 212 
Puritan, Aurangzeb a Moham- 
medan, 231, 238, 250, 265 
Purse, Hindu origin of inex- 
haustible, 25 ; inexhaust- 
ible, 20, 25 ; magic, 25, 27 
Pursuit of Palaka, 151, 152 
Putting off the mortal con- 
dition, 59 
Pyramid, temple of Jagan- 

natha the shape of a, 242 
Pyre of Buddha, 192 
Python-god, Danh-gbi the, 

Qanun-i- Islam, Ja'far Sharif, 
trans, by Herklots, 213 

Qualification to read the 
Vedas, 17 

Quarrel of otters over fish, 226 

Quarter in town assigned to 
prostitutes, Shaitanpurah 
or Devilsville, 237* 

Queen bee, ogre's life de- 
pendent on that of a, 131 

Queen of Eanna (Ishtar), 272 

Queen of the land of Erech 
(Ishtar), 272 

Queen of Heaven, 14b 

Queen Sfimavati, 104 

Queen Vasavl wishes to eat 
flesh from her husband's 
back, 223 

Queen, a wicked, 26, 27 

Quills, a rue's, 105 

Quotation from Lucian's 
Philopseudes , 77b 1 

Rabbinical legends, fabulous 
bird the bar yuchre of, 104 

Race of Garuda, bird of the, 

Raindrops delight the pea- 
cock, 102 

Raining nectar into the eyes 
of his mother, 101 

Rainy season, 13; peafowl's 
delight in, 183, 183ft 1 

Rajatarahgim, Sir Aurel Stein, 

63b 1 
Rajput, a, 140, 141, 151 
Rajput named Sinhagupta, 
72, 73 

Ram, gold-producing, 20b 

Ramayana, the, 1b 1 , 5b 5 , 103, 
202, 205 

Rambles and Recollections of an 
Indian Official, W, H. Slee- 
man, 238ft 1 

Range, the Vindhya, 92, 133, 
134, 136, 182 

Reappearance of Putraka's 
father and uncles, 21 

Reason for feasts in honour 
of the god, 248 ; why the 
fish laughed, 48, 49 ; why 
goblins delight in the 
night, 76, 76b 2 , 77, 77b 1 

Reception of suitors, prepara- 
tions for the, 33, 34 

Recipe for making magic 
articles, 27 

Recipes for making anjana, 
211, 212, 218; for becom- 
ing invisible, 136 

Recitation of the Manga- 
lashtaka, 244 

Recueil general et complet des 
Fabliaux des XIIP et XlV e 
siecles, Montaiglon, 44 

Red cloak worn by Queen 
Samavati, 104 

Red extracts, tank filled with, 

Red lac, mark with, 23 

Red lead, painting one side 
of the body with, 146, 146b 2 

Red lotuses, the two, 42, 

Red powder (Jcunkum or kun- 
kam), distribution of, 244, 

Red (ragini), 140, 140b 2 

Red sandstone image, 139b 2 

Register of the Daroglia, 241 

Regulations of prostitutes, 
penalties for breaches of, 

Reign of Akbar, 237-238 

Rejection of the Great Tale 
by Satavahana, 90 

Relaciones . . . de Persia, y 
de Harmuz, Teixeira, 214 

Relation of the Great Tale 
overheard by Pushpadanta, 
6; of the seven great tales, 
6, 11, 89 

Relatio7is of Siddhi Kur, Kal- 
muck, 20b 

Relief of discomfort caused 
by bathing in the cold 
season, 14, 15 

Religion, effect of climate and 
temperament on, 275 ; and 
morality (dharma), 248 

Religious Chastity, John Main, 

Religious cult under the 
Hittite domination, 275 ; 
duties of a basivi, 257 ; 
festivals, principal, 262; 
mendicants in Bengal, 243 ; 
prostitution in Western 
Asia, 266 

Religious and secular prostitu- 
tion in Vijayanagar, 248- 

Reliques, Percy's, 165 

Remains of the Worship of 
Priapus, R. P. Payne 
Knight, 14ft 

Remover of Obstacles 
(Ganesa), 1b 4 

Remuneration of temple 
women, 247 

Rending fetters, spells for, 

Rent-roll of the temple, the 
annual, 242 

Repeating after hearing any- 
thing once, 12, 16 

Repetition of dramatic enter- 
tainment, 11, 12 ; of the 
Vedas after hearing once, 
12b 1 

Reproof of Yaugandharayana 
to Udayana, 124 

Request of the bawd to Loha- 
jangha, 146 ; of Patali for 
Putraka to found a city, 24 

Requirements for married 
women, 234 ; of prostitutes, 

Researches respecting the Book 
of Sindibad, Comparetti, 
170, 186b 1 

Respect of King Nanda for 
Varsha, 17, 17b 3 

Respect, prostitutes held in, 
232, 249, 270 

Return of Udayana to Kau- 
sambi, 183 

Revelation in a dream, 12, 13 ; 
of the new grammar, 74, 75 

Revenge of child on step- 
mother, 185-186; of 
Lohajangha on the bawd, 
146-149; of Sakatala on 
Yogananda, 55, 56, 57, 58 

Revenue, officer of, 252 

Reverence, walking round an 
object of, 190-193 

Revue Orientate et Americaine, 
" L'inexorable Courtisane 
et les Talismans," Garcin 
de Tassy, 28 

Reward for fallen heroes, 
Apsarases the, 202 

Reward for kindness, 26 

Rhinoceros horn as poison 
detector, cups of, 110ft 1 

Rice boiled in milk, feast of, 

Rice from the king's field, 
parrot's longing for, 224 

Rice, inexhaustible grains of, 
75 ; offerings of, 244 

Riches of dancing-girls, 249 

Riddle, death escaped by 
solving of, 51, 51ft 1 ; guess- 
ing of the, 82 ; of the 
hand in the Ganges, 45, 

Right hand {valangai), 260 

Right-handed swastika repre- 
sents the male principle 
among the Hindus, 192 

Rig-Veda, 56w, 103, 191, 198, 

Ring to destroy the effect of 
poison, 109, 110, 110ft 1 ; as 
index of chastity, 168 ; 
magic, 26 ; of Sulayman, 
mouth like the, 30ft 2 

Rising sun, the benu the 
symbol of the, 104 

Rite of angiy a or " assumption 
of the bodice," 240; of 
feeding the spirit, 56ft 1 ; 
of missi or "blackening of 
the teeth," 240, 244; of 
nathni utama or " taking-off 
the nose-ring," 240 ; of the 
Liknophoria, Orphic, 15ft 1 ; 
of sail, Brahmanic, 54ft 2 ; 
of sir dhankai or " covering 
of the head," 240 

Rites, eight marriage, 87 ; in 
Syria, phallic, 275 ; of 
tawaifs, 239-240 

Rites* of the Twice-born, The, 
Mrs S. Stevenson, 56ft 1 

Ritual, 108 mystic number 
in, 242ft 3 ; of sraddha, 56ft 1 ; 
of walking round an object 
(pradakshina) , 191-192 

"Ritter Alexander aus Metz 
u. seine Frau Florentina," 
Flemish story of, 166 

Rival teachers of the king, 
71, 72 


Riveted with hairs that stand 

erect for joy, bodies, 120, 

120ft 1 
Roaming, vice of idle, 124ft 1 
Roar of clouds, echoing, 151, 

151ft 1 
Robber (dasyu), 152, 152ft 1 
Robbing faces of their cheer- 
ful hue, 122, 122ft 3 
Rock as monkey's stepping- 
stone, 225 
Rock - carvings of ancient 

India, 30ft 2 ; bird-genii in, 

Rod, magic, 25, 27, 28 
Rohita fish, jackal's longing 

for, 226 
Roman fascinum (see also 

phallus or liiiga), 13ft 3 
Romances and Drolls of the 

West of England, Hunt, 191 
Romanorum, Gesta, 26, 44, 

101ft 1 , 116ft 2 , 165, 169, 171 
Romans, phallic cake customs 

of the, 15ft 
Rome, Folk-Lore of, M. H. 

Busk, 20ft, 26, 132 
Root of the king's ear, 

harbinger of composure 

reaches the, 121, 121ft 2 
Ropes, magical, 28 
"Rose of Bakfiwali," Clouston, 

A Group of Eastern Ro- 
mances, 43, 160ft 3 
Rose as chastity index, 165 
Rose garland, 165 
Roses, attar of, 213, 218 
Rotation, symbol of cosmical, 

the deisul, 191 
Roue (vita), 64; advice from 

a, 64 
Royal Asiatic Society, 40ft, 

Royal umbrella held by 

prostitutes, 233 
Rubbing the body with oil 

and turmeric, 242 
Rudra, E. Arbman, 206 
Rue as love-index, plant of, 

Ruins at Karali (or Karari), 

7ft 4 
Rukh, mythological side of 

the, 103, 104 
Rules for dancing-girls in the 

time of Akbar, 265 
Ruse to carry off Mrigan- 

kavati, 113-114 
Russian Folk-Tales, Ralston, 

26, 82ft 1 , 104, 108ft 1 , 129, 

132, 136ft 2 


Russians, norka fabulous bird 
of the, 104 

Sack of Mathura by Ahmad 
Shah, 231 ; by Aurangzeb, 
231 ; by Shah Jahan, 231 ; 
by Sikander Lodi, 231; 
by Sultan Mahmud of 
Ghazni, 231 

Sacks, gallants in, 42 

Sacred Books of the East, 
87, 191, 205 

Sacred blue-stone image, the, 
242 ; city of Hierapolis, the, 
275 ; dragon of China, 104 ; 
fire (homam), 260; pilgrim- 
age spot, Kailasa, 2, 2ft 2 ; 
post, walking round the, 
242; ritual of walking 
round an object (pradak- 
shina), 191 ; servants or 
hierodouloi, 269, 276 ; spot 
in India, 2ft 2 , 242 ; tank in 
Vesall, 225-226 ; thread or 
upanayana, 55ft 1 ; white 
bull of Siva (Nandin), 6, 
6ft 1 ; women, 231; women 
or kadishtu, 271 

Sacred prostitution, appendix 
on, 231-279; in ancient 
India, 232-233; in Baby- 
lonia, 269-274; in Borneo, 
279 ; in the Buddhist age, 
265 ; in Central India, 240- 
246 ; in the Christian era, 
233-237; in the cult of 
Ishtar, origin of, 274 ; in 
Egypt, 276, 277 ; in Europe, 
277; in Japan, 279; in 
Mexico, 279 ; in Northern 
India, 237-240; in Peru, 
279 ; in Southern India, 
231-232, 246; in Syria, 
Phoenicia, Canaan, etc., 
275-277; theories of the 
custom of, 267, 268; in 
Vedic times, 265 ; in West 
Africa, 277-279; Western 
Asia, 268-277 

Sacrifice of chastity, 275, 276 

Sacrifice, Daksha's, 4, 5 ; 
human, 116, 116ft 1 , 119; of 
Janamejaya, 203 ; marriage 
(homa), 245; to procure a 
son, 153, 154 

Sacrificial fee presented with 
phallic cake, 15 

Saffron, turmeric as substitute 
for, 255ft 3 

Sagacity of children motif, 
186ft 1 



Sagas from the Far East, 25, 

27, 39ft 2 , 162ft 1 
Sage, holy (Rishis), 75ft 2 ; 

named Krishna, 75 
Sagen am Bbhmen, Grohmann, 

97ft 2 
Sagen der Grafschaft Mans- 

feld, Grossler, 77ft 1 
Sagen, M'drchen u. Gebrauche 

aus Meklenburg, Bartsch, 

Sagen des Mittelalters , Grasse, 

Sagen, Wendische, Vecken- 

stedt, 26, 51ft 1 , 108ft 3 , 129, 

141ft 2 
Sagenbuch (or Geschichte) der 

Bayrischen Lande, Schopp- 

ner, 77ft 1 , 129ft 
Sages and Jinas, longing to 

reverence the, 226 
Saint Martin, Les Quatre 

Souhaits de, Prior, 27 
Saint, patron, of dancing- 
girls, 238, 240 
Salaries of dancing-girls, 249, 

252, 253 
Sama Veda and the Courtesan, 

The Chanter of the, 64- 

Samaradityasamkshepa, 1 18m 1 , 

Samaijamatrika, Kshemendra, 

Sanctuary of Buddha, 156 
Sandals, magic, 28 
Sandal - wood, mark with 

(tilaka), 69ft 3 
Sandstone image, a red, 139ft 2 
Sanskrit grammar, date of, 

17ft 3 ; poetry, horripilation 

in, 120m 1 ; puns, 12, 12ft 4 , 

121ft 2 
Sap, blood turned into, 58 
Sardonyx and cornu cerastic to 

prevent introduction of 
^ poison, gates of, 110ft 1 
Satapatha Brahmana, the, 191 
Satires, Juvenal, 218 
Saturday Review, treatise by 

Varnhagen in the, 40ft 
Satyr named Chiappino 

(Straparola), 46ft 2 
Sauwastika, left-handed, re- 
presents female principle, 

Savage {dasyu), 152m 1 ; tribe, 

Pulinda, 76, 117, 117m 1 ; 

wood, a waterless and 

(parusha), 9, 9ft 2 
Saying of Mohammed, 124ft 1 

Scandinavian name for wish- 
ing-tree, Yggdrasil, 144ft 1 

Scandinavian Tales, Thorpe, 

Scarcity of the lion in India, 
67ft 1 

Science of erotics, 234, 234ft 1 

Science called Pisacha-veda 
or Pisacha-vidya, 205 

Sciences given to Varsha, 
knowledge of, 15; revealed 
to Devadatta, 79 ; revealed 
to Satavahana, 72 ; six sup- 
plementary, 17 ; Vararuchi 
attains perfection in, 9, 30 

Scotch wedding or gandharva 
marriage, 87 

Sculptures at Amaravati, 
125ft 1 

Sea of Coptos, 129 

Sea, encounters with enor- 
mous birds at, 104 ; moon's 
digit springs from the, 5 ; 
soul buried in the, 129, 
131, 132 

Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, 
The, W. H. Ward, 272ft 3 

Search for Tammuz in Hades 
(Sheol) by Ishtar, 273, 

Search of Vyadi and Indra- 
datta for Brahman with 
wonderful memory, 16 

Season, the rainy, 13 

Seclusion of women, 80ft 1 

Second voyage of Sindbad, 
the, 103 

"Secret Messages and Sym- 
bols used in India," W. 
Crooke, Journ. Bihar and 
Orissa Research Soc, 82ft 

Secret service agents, prosti- 
tutes as, 233 

Secretaire Turc, contenant V Art 
aV exprimer ses pensees sans 
se voir, sans se parler et sans 
secrire, M. du Vigneau, 81ft 

Sect of weavers, Kakatias, 
257, 258 

Sects, the VaishnavaorSaiva, 

Secular prostitution in India, 
232, 239, 255, 266 

Secular and religious prosti- 
tution in Vijayanagar, 248- 

Secular ritual of walking 
round an object, pradak- 
shina, 191, 192 

Seed-purifying or zermashitu, 
270, 271 

Seed of all things useful to 
mankind, bird which 
shakes the fruit from the 
tree bearing the, 103 

Seeds, three black cumin-, 
message conveyed by, 81ft 

Seizure of property, vice of, 
124ft 1 

Selected Papers of Sir Richard 
Burton, N. M. Penzer, 
109ft 1 , 217 

Semitic divinity, Ishtar a, 271 

Semitic mother-goddess in 
N. Africa, 276 

Sense of humour, the East- 
ern, 29 

Separable soul, the. 38ft 

Sepulchre, the Holy, 192 

Sequin, dust of Venetian, 
used in kohl, 217 

Sequins obtained by swallow- 
ing bird's heart, box full 
of, 20ft 

Seraglio, 23, 36ft 1 , 83 

Sermons of Saadi, 192 

Serpent Ananta, the, 109, 
109ft 2 

Serpent, gold-producing, 20ft ; 
prepares to swallow Mriga- 
vati, 99 ; soul guarded by 
an immortal, 129 

Serpent Sesha, the thousand- 
headed, 109ft 2 

" Serpent-Worship," Cook, 
Ency. Brit, 203; Maccul- 
loch, Crooke and Welsford, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
203, 204 

Servant of the king, named 
Rajahansa, 70 ; of Kuvera, 

Servants of Agni, the Gand- 
harvas, 200 

Servants of the goddess, 
matrons as, 276 

Servants of the gods, 197, 
200-203 ; boga?ns, 244 

Servants, sacred, or hiero- 
douloi, 269, 276 

Servian Folk-Lore, Mijatovich, 

Service, girls vowed to 
temple, 245 

Sesame and honey at Syra- 
cuse, cakes of, 15ft 

Sesamum and sugar offered 
to Ganesa, 240 

Sesquisulphuret of antimony 
an ingredient of kohl, 215 

Setting fire to a palace, 113, 

Seven circuits at Mecca, 192 

Seven classes of deva-dasis, 
234ft 3 

Seven great tales, the, 6, 11, 

Seven-headed hydra, soul in 
the head of the, 132 

Seven stories, the heavenly 
tale of, 89, 90, 91 ; written 
with blood in the forest, 

Seven times covering the 
head, rite of, 242 

Seven Fazirs, Clouston, Book 
of Sindibad, 43 

Seven Vidyadharas, wonder- 
ful adventures of the, 6 

Sewed skins, jars of, 133ft 1 

Sexual love, Ishtar goddess 
of, 272, 276 

Shaft of the flowery-arrowed 
god, 75 

Shaft hits five hundred men 
at once, 226 

Shape, charm to alter, 136, 

^ 137, 137ft 1 , 138 

Shave the head, duties of 
women who refuse to, 275, 

She-crow longs for Brahman's 
eyes, 223 

Shell emblem of Vishnu, 144] 

Shirt of chastity, 44, 165 

Shoes, magic, 22, 23, 24, 26, 
27; flaying the feet to 
make magic, 27 ; of swift- 
ness worn by Loki on 
escaping from hell, 27 ; 
worn by kasbi women, 243 

Shrine of Durga, 9, 9ft 1 , 58, 
66, 76, 119; of the Lord 
Karttikeya, 18, 72; of a 
Yaksha named Manib- 
hadra, 162 

Shrines of special sanctity, 
number of, 242ft 3 

Siberia, bones of pachyderms 
found in Northern, 105 

Sicilianische Marchen, Gonzen- 
bach, 20ft, 25, 44, 66ft 1 , 97ft 2 , 
129, 141ft 2 , 165, 169 

Sicily, temple of Ashtart at 
Eryx in, 276 

Sign of the cross as poison 
detector, 110ft 1 

Sign language, 46, 46ft 1 , 80, 
80ft 1 , 81ft 1 , 82ft; employed 
at the outbreak of the 
Indian Mutiny, 82ft ; con- 
nection with British rule 
in India, 82ft 


Significance of turmeric, 

erotic, 255ft 3 ; of number 

five, 255, 255ft 2 
Signs of the king's daughter, 

80, 80ft 1 
Silence, a vow of, 66, 72, 74 
Silver bangle, 255 ; toe-rings, 

Simile of full moon in India, 

Turkey, Persia, Arabia and 

Afghanistan, 30ft 1 
Similes of moles in Arabic, 

Indian and Persian fiction, 

49ft 1 
Similitudes , Hermas, 144ft 1 
"Sindbad the Sailor," Burton, 

Nights, 103 
Sing and dance in public, 

bhavins forbidden to, 246 
Singing and dancing pro- 
hibited under Aurangzeb, 

Singing of the deva-dasis, 

description of the, 245 
Singing, vice of, 124ft 1 
Singers at Indra's court, 201 ; 

attached to temple at 

Tanjore, 247 
Sinister, meaning of the 

word, 192 
Site of Kausambi, discovery 

of the, 7ft 4 ; of Mathura, 

Sitting in Dharna, 135, 135ft 1 
Six-faced god (Karttikeya), 

Six supplementary sciences, 

Skull, world resembles a, 10 
Skulls, necklace of, 5, 146 ; 

Siva's delight in, 9, 10 
Slav Tales, M. Leger, 26,101ft 1 
Slave Coast, Ewe-speaking 

people of the, 277 
Slavonic superstition about 

vampires, 136ft 2 
Sleeping in the day, vice of, 

124ft 1 
Sleeping hero, 80ft 1 , 81ft 
Sleeping person, superstitions 

regarding jokes played on 

a, 37ft 2 
Smoke, eyes red with, 184, 

184ft 3 ; feeding on, 79 
Smuggling men into the 

harem, 47ft, 48ft 
Snake in Arabian fiction, 

101ft 1 ; bite, 67, 107; in 

Eastern fiction, 101ft 1 ; in 

European fiction, 101ft 1 ; 

gods, Nagas, 200,203-204; 


Snake continued 

princess bitten by a, 113; 
the Savara and the, 100; 
stories of Buddhist origin, 
101ft 1 ; story of ' Nala and 
Damayanti," 101ft 1 ; wor- 
ship, 203, 204 

Snakes, Garuda the enemy 
of the, 103; grateful and 
ungrateful, 101ft 1 ; Kadru 
mother of the, 143ft 2 , 203 ; 
Vasuki sovereign of the, 

^ 100, 100ft 2 

Snow, abode of (Himalaya), 
2ft 2 ; daughter of the Mount 
of (Parvati), 5 

Society , The Folk- Lore, Portu- 
guese Folk-Tales, 27 

Solar god Marduk, 269-271 

Soldiers in full armouremerge 
from the artificial elephant, 

Solemn vow of Chanakya, 57, 
57ft 1 

Solving riddles, death escaped 
by, 51, 51ft 1 

Soma (Asclepias acida), 12ft 1 , 
200; taken after fast pro- 
duces wonderful memory, 
12ft 1 

Some Italian Folk-Tales, H. C. 
Coote, 26 

Son of Devadatta, Mahidhara, 
85; of Govindadatta, De- 
vadatta, 79; of a maiden, 
232 ; of a hermit, 99 ; of 
Srutartha, 60, 60ft 1 ; of 
Yogananda goes hunting, 53 

Song, a marriage, 256 

Songs, character of deva- 
dasls 9 , 245, 251 

Songs of minstrels, 183, 183ft 2 

So?igs of the Russian People, 
Ralston, 191 

Sons of bhavins, devlis, 246 ; 
offered up to obtain others, 
154, 154ft 1 ; of Sakatala, 

Soot and lamp-black used as 
surmah, 214 

Sorcerers, swords made by, 
109ft 1 

''Sorcery, An Ancient Manual 
of," A. Bart, Melusine, 12ft 1 

Soul enclosed in many cas- 
kets and buried in the sea, 
131-132; external, motif, 
38;?, 129-132; of Hermo- 
timos of Klazomenae, 39w 2 ; 
leaving the body, Egyptian 
origin of, 37ft 2 ; origin of 



Soul continued 

the Supreme, 9, 9ft 4 , 10; 
put in inaccessible place, 
130-131 ; the separable, 
38.??, 39m ; the wandering 
(dehantara-avesa), 37ft 2 , 38ft 

Sources of Vijayanagar History, 
S. K. Ayyangar, 250ft 1 

South Indian Inscriptions, E. 
Hultzsch, 155ft 1 , 247ft 1 

S outh S lavonia, Tales of, 
Wratislaw, 132 

Southern India, sacred prosti- 
tution more developed in, 
231, 232, 246-269; Sudra 
castes of, 255, 256 

Sovereign of the snakes, 
Vasuki, 61, 61ft 1 , 100, 100ft 2 , 
122, 122ft 1 

Sowing dissension (bheda), 
123>i 2 

Sparrow, soul set in the crop 
of a, 131-132 

Speech and learning, Saras- 
vati goddess of, 1ft 4 

Spells for breaking chains, 
136, 137; for breaking 
walls, 136 ; for dispelling 
snake poison, 113; for 
rending fetters, 136 

Spikes, lying on a bed of, 
79ft 1 

Spirit, the arrogant 
(Brahma), 10, 10ft 2 ; asu, 
198 ; pitman {purusha), 9ft 4 ; 
rite of feeding the, 56ft 1 

Spirits of the air (Gandhar- 
vas), 87 ; black feared by 
evil, 212, 217 

Spirits given to superinten- 
dent of elephants, 151 ; vice 
of drinking, 124ft 1 

Spiritual voice, a, 16, 16ft 1 

Splendour of dancing-girls, 

Splendour of Spring, Goddess 
of the, 112 

Sport on the banks of the 
Ganges, 107 ; of elephant- 
catching, 133, 133ft 1 

Spray from Ganesa's hissing 
mouth, 1, 1ft 5 

Spring, festival of the com- 
mencement of, 68, 244 ; 
Goddess of the Splendour 
of, 122 

"Spring of Knowledge," or 
Bahtir-i-Danish, 'Infiyatu- 
'llah, 26, 43, 162ft 1 

Springtide, feast of the, 112, 
112ft 1 

Squire's tale in Chaucer, 145ft 1 

Staff, magic, 24, 28 

Stain or kahala, 211 

Stalk of a lotus, arms like 

the, 30 
Stanzas, marriage, 244 
Starling, a hill- (maina), 131 
State of Savantvadi, 245 
Statement of Hemachandra, 

States of the Southern 

Mahratha country, 246 
Statistical Account of Scotland, 

Sinclair, 191 
Statues of Ishtar, 272 
Status of dancing-girls in 

modern India, 267 
Stepmother, child entrusted 

to his, 185; child's revenge 

on his, 185-186 ; ill-treats a 

child, 185 
Stepping-stone for a monkey, 

Stibium-holder, 216 
Stick for applying kohl 

(mikkal), 212, 215 
Stick, churning, 3ft 2 ; magic, 

22, 24, 28; tip-cat, 80ft 1 , 

Sticks, messages by notched, 

"Stolen Purse, The," story 

of, 186 
Stone, Mongolian legend of 

gold-producing, 27 ; from 

the head of a toad as 

amulet against poison, 

110ft 1 ; of a green date as 

secret message, 80ft 1 , 81ft 
Stones, the griffin guardian of 

precious, 104 
Storehouse of the beauty of 

King Kama, 31 
Storia do Mogor, Manucci, 

edited by W. Irvine, 238ft 2 
Stories of Ancient Egypt, 

Maspero, 37ft 2 , 77ft 1 , 129, 

133ft 1 
Stork, phoenix identified with 

the, 103 
Storm and war, Ishtar god- 
dess of, 272 
Story of Aramacobha and 

the grateful snake, 

Kathakoca, Tawney's trans- 
lation, 101ft 1 
Story of Brahmadatta, 20-21 
"Story of Cajusse" Busk, 

Folk-Lore of Rome, 132 
Story of Chandamahasena, 


Story of the Clever Deformed 

Child, 184-186 
"Story of the Couple of 

Parrots," 224 
Story of "The Crystal Ball," 

Grimm's Fairy Tales, 25 
Story of Devasmita, 153-164 
"Story of De vasmi ta," 

metrical version, B. Hale 

Wortham, Journ. Roy. As. 

Soc, 172-181 
Story of Gharib, Nights, 14ft 
"Story of Janshah," Nights. 

141ft 2 

"Story of Nami," Jacobi, 

Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen im 

Maharashtm, 226 
"Story of Punchkin," Freer, 

Old Deccan Days, 131 
Story of Rupinikk, 138-149 
Story of Ruru, 188-189 
" Story of Sayf al-Muluk and 

Badi'a al-Jamal," Nights, 

Story of Sndatta and Mrigan- 

kavatl, 106, 120 
Story of the Two Brothers, 

129, 130 
Story of Udayana, King of 

Vatsa, 94 et seq. 
Story of Vararuchi, 11 et seq. 
Story-teller named Sanga- 

taka, 106, 120 
Strange Stories from a Chinese 

Studio, Giles, 77ft 1 
Stratagem of an old woman 

in favour of a young gallant, 

Stratagem, plan to capture 

Udayana by, 133, 134 
Streak (or digit) of the moon, 

Streets in Cairo and Algiers, 

courtesan, 250 
Strength of dancing - girls, 

feats of, 254 
Strict official control of 

ganikas, 233 
String, messages conveyed by 

knotted, 82ft 
Struggle of Arjuna with Siva, 

95, 95ft 1 
Studies in the History of Re- 
ligions, presented to C. H. 

Toy, D. G. Lyon, "The 

Consecrated Women of the 

Hammurabi Code," 271ft 1 
Studies in Honor of Maurice 

Bloomfield, Ruth Norton, 

"The Life-Index: A Hindu 

Fiction Motif," 130, 167 


Studies about the Kathasarit- 
sdgara, Speyer, 122ft 4 

St up a of Bharhut, The, 
General Cunningham, 42 

Sub-caste of rdjkanya, 239 

Subduing infuriated ele- 
phants, 122 

Subjects of Kuvera, 202- 

Substances of kohl in ancient 
Egypt, 215 

Substitute for human sacri- 
fice, sacred prostitution a, 
267, 276 ; for saffron, tur- 
meric a, 255ft 3 

Subtleties, St Hildegard of 
Bingen, 110ft 1 

Success, the four means of 
(updyas), 123, 123ft 2 

Sugar-candy (sukkar nebat), 
81ft, 217 

Sugar and flour, wafers of 
(gujahs), 242, 242ft 3 

Sugar, offering of, 246 

Sugar and sesame offered to 
Ganesa, 240 

Suicides under the wheels of 
Jagannatha's car, 242 

Suitors in chests, 42, 43 

Suitors motif, variants of 
, entrapped, 42-44, 167 

Suka Saptati, the, 162m 1 , 169, 

Sulphide of lead, 215 

Sultanate of Delhi, the, 237 

Summary of the work, 2 

Sumsumdra-Jdtaka, 224 

Sun, the benu the symbol of 
the rising, 104 ; carrying 
the dead with the, 190, 
191 ; eclipse caused by 
Rahu, 200; goblins dazed 
by the, 77 ; imitation of 
the apparent course of the, 
190, 191; referred to as 
Garuda, 103, 104 

Sun-god, Garuda the, 203 

Sun rises, mountain where 
the, 99, 102 

Sun's horses, dispute about 
the colour of the, 143ft 2 ; 
Gandharvas the directors 
of the, 200 

Sunwise movement, anti- 
(prasavya), 191, 192 

Supatta-Jataka, 224 

Superhuman powers gained 
bv the book of Thoth, 129, 

Superhumans, independent, 
197, 203, 204 


Superintendent of prosti- 
tutes (Ddroghah), 233, 237 ; 
of the royal elephants, 150 

Supernatural powers gained 
by drinking girl's blood, 

Superstitions about jokes 
played on a sleeping 
person, 37ft 2 ; about vam- 
pires, 136ft 2 

Suppressed voice, speaking 
in a, 185, 185ft 2 

Supreme Soul, origin of the, 
9, 9ft4, 10 

Surrounded by fires, lying, 
79ft 1 

Susruta Samhita, the, 211 

Suvannakakkata-Jdtaka, 223 

Swan's grief on seeing the 
cloud, 72, 72ft 1 

Swans flying in the air, 20 ; 
former birth of the two, 

Swastika, 192 

Swearing an oath, methods 
of, 57ft 1 

Sweat, water of Siva's, 94 

Swedish story in Cavallius, 
25 ; of magical articles, 25 

Sweetmeats, 28, 69, 69ft*, 
243, 244 

Sweet spices, 82^ 

Sweets offered at a mosque, 
239, 240 

Swiftness worn by Loki on 
escaping from hell, shoes 
of, 27 

Sword of Caesar, Crocea Mors, 
i.e. "yellow death," 109ft 1 ; 
of Edward the Confessor, 
Curta'na, the "cutter," 
109ft 1 ; held by girl at 
basivi marriage ceremony, 
257 ; of Hieme, 109^ ; of 
invisibility, 28 ; a magic, 
28, 125 ; named Mriganka, 
109, 109ft 1 

Sword-making a highly 
specialised art, 109W 1 

Swords, custom of giving 
names to, 109ft 1 ; made by 
sorcerers, 109ft 1 ; magic 
connected with, 109ft 1 ; of 
Mohammed, 109ft 1 

Syllable Om, 17, 17ft 1 

Symbol of cosmical rotation, 
191 ; of eternity, a coiled 
snake as, 109?i 2 ; of the 
rising sun, the benu the, 104 

Sympathetic influence of the 
moon, 228 


Sympathetic and homoeo- 
pathic magic, 14ft 

Sympathetic magic, doctrine 

^ of, 130 

Symptoms of love, Deva- 
datta's, 81 

Syrische Mdrchen, Prym and 
Socin, 26, 97ft 2 , 125ft 3 

System of dcva-ddsis fully 
developed in Jagannatha, 
226 ; of deva-dds'is in Orissa, 
226 ; of numbering used 
throughout the work, 
xxxviii, xxxix 

Systematic destruction of 
Mathura, 232 

Tablecloth, magic, 25, 26 
Taboo and Perils of the Soul, 

Frazer, 37ft 2 
Tail of the peacock (kaldpa) 

grammatical treatise named 

after the, 75 
Tale-bearing, vice of, 124ft 1 
Tale of the Two Brahman 

Brothers, 12, 13 
Tale of the Vidyadharas, 94 
Tales of Old Japan, Mitford, 

Tales of the previous births 

of the Buddha, the Jatakas, 

Tales of the Sixty Mandarins, 

Ramaswami Raju, 131 
Tales of the Western High- 
lands, Campbell, 26, 84ft 2 , 

129, 132, 157ft 2 , 163ft 1 
Tank of blood, bathing in a, 

97, 97ft 2 , 98 
Tank filled with the juice of 

lac, 98; filled with red 

extracts, 98 ; made for 

golden swans, 21; in Vesall, 

sacred, 225-226 
Tarnhut (hat of darkness), 27 
Tassel (shurrdbeli), message 

conveyed by a, 81ft 
Tattooists, 49ft 1 , 50ft 
Tax payable by ganikds to the 

government, 233 
Teachers of the king, the 

rival, 71, 72 
Teaching by Varsha of the 

three Brahmans, 17, 18, 30 
Teachings of the tittliayaras, 

longing to hear the, 226 
Teeth, 30ft 2 ; flower in the, 

80 ; rite of blackening the 

(*}, 240, 244 
Temperament, effect on re- 
ligion of, 275 



Temple, annual rent-roll of 
the, 242 ; the centre of 
a country's wealth, 269 ; 
duties of bhavi?is, 246 j 
duties of devlis, 246 ; duty, 
139, 139ft 1 , 231 ; Gurav of 
the, 245, 246; men dedi- 
cated to the, 246 ; Raul of 
the, 245 j servant, 231, 246 ; 
service (pati), 264 ; service, 
girls vowed by parents to, 

Temple of Ash tart at Eryx 
in Sicily, 276 ; at Babylon 
a large factor in the life of 
the people, 269 ; at Byblos, 
275; of Durga, 119, 123, 
125 ; of Durga, pilgrimage 
to, 21 ; of Ishtar at Erech, 
prostitutes at, 272 ; of Isis, 
145m 1 ; of Jagannatha in 
Orissa, 214, 242 ; of Kera- 
lapuram, 262 ; of Kesava- 
deva, destruction of the, 
231 ; of Kition, male pros- 
titutes at the, 276; of 
Marduk, 269 ; called Push- 
padanta, 82 ; of Padmana- 
bhsawami, 262 ; of Queen 
Hatshepset at Deir el 
Bahari, 216 ; of Siva, 108 ; 
of Suchindram, 263; at 
Tanjore, 247 ; of the 
Yaksha, 162 

" Temple Women of the Code 
of Hammurabi, The," D. D. 
Luckenbill, Arner. Journ. 
Sem. Lng., 271ft 1 

Temple women connected 
with the worship of Ishtar, 
271 ; laws of inheritance 
for, 270, 271 ; remuneration 
of, 247 ; various classes of, 
270, 271 

Temples, destruction of 
Hindu, 237, 238; love of 
building, 246 ; at Tulava, 
252; of Siva, bogams at- 
tached to, 244; of Vishnu, 
bogams attached to, 244 

Temporary prostitution, 275, 

Ten days' rites, 56ft 1 

Test article of chastity, 42, 

Tests of chastity, 165-168; 
for recognising a Bhuta 
(ghost), 206 

Theories on the custom of 
sacred prostitution, 267, 
268 ; on the deva-dasls, 279 

Thigh, drop of blood from 

Siva's, 9 
"Thirty -two Tales of a 

Throne," Simhasana- 

dvatriinsika, 186ft 1 
Thousand gold pieces under 

pillow daily, 19, 19ft 2 ; 

granddaughters of Bali, 

the, 108, 108ft 2 ; times 

eating soma produces good 

memory, 12ft 1 
Thousand - headed serpent 

Sesha, 109ft 2 
Thousand Nights and a Night, 

The. See Nights 
Thousand and One Days, 

Dervish Makhlis of Ispahan, 

43, 145ft 1 
Thousands of genii, life 

guarded by, 131 
Thread, the Brahmanical, 17, 

55ft 1 ; kankanam, the yellow, 

Three languages, the, 58, 

58ft 1 , 71 
Three forms of the moon, 

77ft 1 
Three a lucky number among 

Hindus, 192 
Three steps of Vishnu, 

1 ' Three wishes " cycle of 

stories, 27 
Three worlds, Great Tale re- 
nowned in the, 91 ; mother 

of the (Bhavanl), 2, 3 
Throat, half-moon on the, 

65, 65ft 1 ; like an antelope, 

30ft 2 ; Siva's discoloured by 

poison, 1ft 2 
Throne, endeavour of three 

Brahmans to get possession 

of the, 21 ; a magic, 28 
Thumb, Balakhilyas divine 

personages the size of a, 

144, 144ft 2 
Thunder the dohada (preg- 
nant longing) of certain 

trees, 222 
Thunderbolt of Indra, 126 
Thusa-Jataka, 223 
"Thus it is" (asti), 4ft 1 
Tibetan Tales, Ralston and 

Schiefner, 97ft 2 , 223, 226 
Tiger, the ape and the snake, 

Goldsmith's adventure 

with the, 101ft 1 
Time required to learn gram- 
mar, 71, 72 
Timidity of wild elephants, 

133ft 1 

Tip-cat stick, message coi 

veyed with a, 80ft 1 , 81ft 
Titles of bogams, 244 
Toad as amulet again* 

poison, stone from the 

head of a, 110ft 1 
Toe-rings, silver, 255, 256 
Toilet - boxes or surma - da? 

Toilet, surmah necessary part 

of a lady's, 214 
Token of legal marriage or 

pustelu, 88 ; of marriage 

(tali) 255, 256, 258, 259 
Tokens of basivis, marriage, 

Toll collectors, 238 
Tortoise incarnation of 

Vishnu, 55ft 1 
To run away (si), 278 
"Toy Cart," Wilson, Hindu 

Theatre, 118ft 2 
Trade of the kasbi caste 

women, hereditary, 242 ; 

in kidnapping, 243 
Traditions about the Paisachi 

language, 92 
Training of bogams, 245 
Transportation, cloak of, 27 
Travancore Archaeological 

Series, 155ft 1 
Traveller Chau Ju-Kwa, the 

Chinese, Chu-fan-ch'i, 104, 

241, 241ft 1 , 252 
Travellers, Chinese, 231, 241 ; 

in the seventeenth and 

eighteenth centuries, 250 
Travels, Bholanath Chandra, 
^ 238ft 1 
Travels, Rabbi Benjamin of 

Tudela, 241ft 2 
Travels of Tavernier, V. Ball, 

241, 241ft 3 
Treasure, Lord of (Kuvera), 

202, 203 
Treatise, a grammatical, 12, 

12ft 2 , 69, 75; of Panini 

revealed to Vararuchi, 36 
Treatise on Hindu Law and 

Usage, J. D. Mayne, 88 
Tree, asoka, 222 ; bakula, 

222 ; bearing the seed of all 

things useful to mankind, 

bird which shakes the fruit 

from the, 108 ; campaka, 

222 ; hanging upside down 

from a, 79ft 1 ; kalpa, 8, Sn 1 ; 

kuruvaka, 222 ; of life, 144?* 1 ; 

nyagrodha (Ficus Indica), 9, 

9ft 3 , 157; of paradise, the 

wishing-, 144, 144ft 1 ; pipal, 

Tree continued 

girl married to a, 239 ; 

Sdla, 9 
Tree and Serpejrf Worship, 

James Fergusson, 144m 1 
4 'Tree- Worship," S. A. 

Cook, Ency. Brit, 144ft 1 
"Trees and Plants," T. 

Barnes, Hastings' Ency. 

Bel. Eth., lHw 1 
Tribe, Pulinda a savage, 117, 

117ft 1 
Tribes, bediyas and nats the 

gypsy, 240 
Tribes and Castes of Bengal, 

H. Risley, 243ft 1 
Tribes and Castes of Bombay, 

R. E. Enthoven, 246ft 1 
Tribes and Castes of the Central 

Provinces, R. V. Russell, 
r 242, 242/i 2 , 243ft 2 , 245 
Tribes and Castes of the North- 
western Provinces and Oudh, 

W. Crooke, 239ft 1 , 240ft 2 
Tribes and Castes ofH.E.H. the 

Nizam's Dominions, Syed 

Siraj Ul Hassan, 244, 244ft 1 , 

245ft 2 
Tricked by the Asura maid, 

Sridatta, 110 
Tricks played by the moon, 

Trident-bearing god (Siva), 6 
Trois Souhaits, Les, La Fon- 
taine, 27 
Troll, the, 77ft 1 
Trumpets blown by devlis in 

the temple, 246 
Trunks, gallants in, 34-36, 42 
Trust (sradda), 56ft 1 
Truth, act of, 166, 167 
Tshi-speaking peoples of the 

Gold Coast, 277 
Tshi-speaking Peoples oj the 

Gold Coast of West Africa, 

The, A. B. Ellis, 278ft 2 
Tubes, mestem kept in, 215 
Turban of honour bestowed 

of Lohajangha, 148 
Turbans of honour, 148, 184 
Turbans, money carried in, 

117ft 3 

Turmeric, 82ft, 255, 255ft 3 , 

Turmeric and oil rubbed over 

the body, 242 
"Turmeric, The Use of, in 

Hindoo Ceremonial," W. 

Dymock, Journ. Anthro. 

Soc. Bombay, 255ft 3 
TTdi-Nama, the, 168, 170 


Twin sons borne by Mallika, 

Two-heartedness {dohada), 221 
Two Noble Kinsmen, The, 31ft 2 
Two red lotuses, the, 156 

Umbrella held by prostitutes, 
the royal, 233 

Underworld, Patala the, 200, 

Unfading garlands, art of 
weaving, 100 

Unfading lotus, the, 156, 160 

Unfruitful {kono), 2 7 8 

Ungrateful and grateful 
snakes, 101ft 1 

Unguarded place, the left 
hand an, 127 

Unimportant part played by 
Siddhas, 204 

Universe becomes water, 9 

Unsatisfied dohada (pregnant 
longing) causes disaster, 

XJ nter den Olivenb'dumen , 
Kaden, 26, 101ft 1 

Use of the dohada motif, divi- 
sion of the, 222, 223 

" Use of Turmeric in Hindoo 
Ceremonial, The," W. Dy- 
mock, Journ. Anthro. Soc. 
Bombay, 255ft 3 

Validity of the gandharva form 
of marriage, 87, 88 

Valley of Kashmir peopled by 
the Prajapati Kasyapa, 205 

Value of the dinar, 63ft 1 

Vampires (vetala), 136, 136ft 2 , 
206 ; superstitions about, 
136ft 2 

Vdnara-Jataka, 224 

Vanarinda-Jdtaka, 225 

"Vararuchi as a Guesser of 
Acrostics," G. A. Grierson, 
Ind. Ant, 50ft 1 

Variants of the "bitch and 
pepper" motif, 170, 171; 
of the "chastity index" 
motif, 166; of the "en- 
trapped suitors " motif, 42- 
44; of the "magical 
articles " motif, 25-29 

Varied use of the dohada 
(pregnant women) motif, 

Varieties of kohl in ancient 
Egypt, 215-216; of poison 
detectors, 110ft 1 

Vayu Purana, the, 200 


Vazirs, The Seven, Clous- 
ton's Book of Sindibad, 

Vedas, the, 198, 200, 201, 203, 
205; learnt by heart, 12, 
12ft 1 ; qualification to read 
the, 17 

Vedic Aryans, 198 

Vedic gods, 198 

Vedic Index, The, Macdonell 
and Keith, 3ft 1 , 56ft, 93, 
205, 232ft 1 

Vedic times, evidence of 
sacred prostitution in, 265 

Vedische Studien,K. F. Geldner 
and R. Pischel, 232ft 1 

Vegetable-eating hermit, 58, 
58ft 3 , 59 

Vegetable kingdom, dohada 
(pregnant longing) in the, 

Vegetable life, Ishtar goddess 
of, 272 

Vegetation, influence of the 
moon on, 228 

Vehicle of Vishnu, Garuda 
the, 103 

Veins opened to satisfy do- 
hada (pregnant longing), 

Venetian glass shivers at 
approach of poison, 110ft 1 

Vergl. Gramm., Brugmann, 

"Veritable History of Satni- 
Khamois," 167 

Vermilion, forehead marked 
with, 242 

Vessel, magic, 22 

Vice of addiction to women, 
124, 124ft 1 ; of calumny, 
124, 124ft 1 ; of detrac- 
tion, 124, 124ft 1 ; of drink- 
ing spirits, 124, 124ft 1 ; of 
envy, 124, 124ft 1 ; of gam- 
bling, 124, 124ft 1 ; of hunt- 
ing, 123, 124ft 1 , 134 ; of idle 
roaming, 124, 124ft 1 ; of in- 
sidious injury, 124, 124ft 1 ; 
kingly (Siva's), 125; of 
sleeping in the daytime, 
124, 124ft 1 ; of tale-bearing, 
124, 124ft 1 ; of violence, 
124, 124ft 2 

Vices of caliphs, 124, 124ft 1 ; 
of kings (vyasana), 124, 
124ft 1 , 134 

Victor of Obstacles (Gane^a), 
1, 1ft 4 

Victory, Indra's feast of, 95, 



Vidhurapandita-Jdtaka , 122ft 2 
View of the History, Literature 

and Religion of the Hindoos, 

A. W. Ward,' 241ft 4 
Vikram and the Vampire, 

R. F. Burton, 87, 136ft 2 
Village Folk-Tales of Ceijlon, 

Parker, 157ft 2 , 223, 226, 227 
Violence, vice of, 124ft 1 

Virsilio nel 


Comparetti, 148ft 
Virgin and Child stamped on 

a cake in Nottingham, 14ft 
Virtue, incarnation of, 61, 

61ft 4 
''Virtue, Path of," or Dham- 

mapada, 104 
Vishnu Purana, the, lft 2 , 103, 

200, 202, 231 
Vision of Moses on Sinai, 217 
Visits of the phoenix to 

Egypt, 104 
Vital spot, the left hand a, 

"Vogel Goldschweif, Der," 

Gaal, M'drchen der Mag- 

yaren, 20ft 
Vogelkoph u. Vogelherz, 

Waldau, 20ft 
Voice from the air, 152; a 

bodiless, MnP, 121, 123; 

from heaven, 61, 100, 102, 

110, 128; an inarticulate 

(avispastaya gird), 185ft 2 ; 

spiritual, 16, 16m 1 
"Voleur Avise," Breton tale 

in Melusine, 27 
Voluntary union or gdndharva 

marriage, 87 
Votary of Siva, 247 
Vow of Chanakya, 57 ; of 

Gunadhya, 71 ; of 

Kalanemi, 106 ; of parents, 

girls dedicated to temple 

by, 245, 255 ; of perpetual 

chastity, 67 ; of silence, 

Vow, Siva's, 10; in the 

temple of the god, 

Guhasena's, 155, 156; 

Upakosa's observance of 

her, 32 
Vowed women or zikru, 270 
Voyage of Sindbad, the 

second, 104 
Vulture as a poison detector, 

recipe for preparing the 

heart of a, 110ft 1 

Wafers of flour and sugar 
{gujahs), 242, 242ft 3 

Wager of court beauties, 236 

Walking round the fire, 184, 
184ft 4 ; round an object of 
reverence with right hand 
towards it, 184, 190-193 

Wallet, magical, 28 

Walls of Jericho, Joshua and 
the, 192 

Walls, spells for breaking, 

Wandering Briihmans call at 
Vararuchi's house, two, 11 

Wandering soul , dehantara- 
dvesa, 37ft 2 , 38ft 

War between the gods and 
Asuras, 95 

War and storm, Ishtar god- 
dess of, 272, 276 

W T arder of Chandamahasena, 

Warrior caste, young man of 
the, 114 

Warriors concealed in arti- 
ficial elephant, 133, 133ft 1 , 

Washing in the blood of a 
boy to procure a son, 98ft ; 
the head with gram flour, 
243; plant used in, 81ft; 
renounced, 79ft 1 

Watch, the morning (9 a.m.). 
114, 114ft 1 

Watchman's chant, 23 

Water, Hindu kings anointed 
with, 187, 187ft 2 ; of life, 
222 ; magical, 28 ; nymphs 
or Apsarases, 200 ; of Siva's 
sweat, 94 ; six chattees of, 
131 ; universe becomes, 9 ; 
weapon, 184, 184ft 2 

Waterless and savage wood, 
a 9 

Water-snake, 188, 189 

Way of the world, Brahman 
tries to learn the, 64 

Wealth acquired through a 
dead mouse, 63, 64 ; God 
of (Kuvera), 10, 67, 111, 
202, 203; the home of 
(Pataliputra), 24 ; of prosti- 
tutes, 233, 234, 237, 270; 
and splendour of dancing- 
girls, 249 ; temple the 
centre of the country's, 
269 ; of Vararuchi en- 
trusted to Hiranyagupta, 

Weapon of Kama, 30; of 
wind, 184, 184ft 2 

Weapons of Hindu myth- 
ology, 184, 184ft 2 

Weavers, Kakatias a sect of, 

257, 258 
Weaving unfading garlands, 

the art of, 100 
Wedding, gdndharva form of 

marriage like a Scotch 

Weeping bitch, the, 159 

Weib im altindischen Epos. 
Ein Beilrag zur indischen 
u. vergleichenden Kultur- 
geschichte, 234ft 1 

Weights, ancient Indian, 
64, 64ft 2 

W T ellcome Historical Museum , 
the, 216 

Wendische Sagen. Veckenstedt, 
26, 51ft 1 , 108ft 3 , 129, 141?i 2 

West Africa, sacred prosti- 
tution in, 

West coast of Burma, ex- 
peditions to the, 155ft 1 

Westfdlische Marchen, Kuhn, 
26, 77ft 1 

West Highland Tales, Camp- 
bell, 26, 84n 2 , 129, 132, 
157ft 2 , 163ft 1 

Wheels of Jagannatha's car, 
suicides under the, 242 

Whims to get rid of husbands, 

White bull of Siva (Nandin), 
6, 6ft 1 

White lotuses {kumuda), 118, 
118ft 2 

White sculptures at Amara- 
vati, 125, 125ft 1 

"Whitened with plaster," 
sudhadhauta, 1257Z 1 

Whiteness, palaces of enam- 
elled, 125, 125ft 1 

Whites of the eyes painted 
with kohl, 217 

Why the fish laughed, 48 ; 
the ground at Larika is 
made of wood, 143-144 

Wicked queen steals magical 
articles, 26, 27 

Wide- Awake Stories, Temple 
and Steel, 28, 130, 131 

Widows, bogams never be- 
come, 244 

Wife of the god, entu (Nin- 
An) the chief, 270; of 
Julius Caesar, a story of 
the, 46ft 2 ; of Marduk, 
Sarparnit (Ishtar). 271 ; of 
Pushpadanta, Jaya, 6, 7 ; 
of Siva, Parvati (Durga, 
Gauri, etc.), 7; of Varsha, 
description of the, 13, 16 


Wild animals listen to the 
Great Tale, 90 ; boar, 
Chandamahasena's adven- 
ture with a, 126, 127 ; coun- 
try, 141, lilw 1 ; elephants, 
timidity of, 133ft 1 ; heifer, 
eyes like a, 30ft 2 ; man of 
the woods, Eabini or 
Engidu, 273 ; satyr named 
Chiappino,the (Straparola), 
46ft 2 

Wild Races of South-Eastern 
India, The, Lewin, 82ft 

Wilds of the Vindhya, 9, 10, 22 

Will of the embryo asserting 
itself (dohada), 221 ; of Siva, 

Wind, the weapon of, 184, 
184ft 2 

Window, lover fastened in a, 

Wine (sharab), 81ft; mixed 
with Datura, 160, 160ft 1 ; 
sprinkled from the mouths 
of beautiful maidens, 222 

Wine-shop, dancing-girls for- 
bidden to enter a, 270 

Winning love, charms for, 
137, 138 

Wise maiden Balapandita, 
46ft 2 

Wise, Mazdao the, 199 

Wishing hat, 25 

Wishing-tree of paradise, 8n, 
144, 144ft 1 

" Withershins" (walking 
round a person away from 
the sun), 191, 192; cartua- 
sul or, 192 

Wives of the Gandharvas, 
Apsarases, 201 ; of the god, 
natitu or the inferior, 270 ; 
of the king, temple women 
allowed in the presence of, 
249 ; Satavahana and his, 
68, 69 

Woman, a celestial, 31 ; de- 
vouring flesh, 111 ; a divine, 
71 ; form of the moon, 77ft 1 ; 
in man's attire, 163, 164 


Woman's clothes, Brahman 
in, 83 ; dress assumed by 
Devadatta, 83 

Women, dream of the three, 
19 ; Gandharvas deities 
of, 201 ; hiring of, 275 ; men 
dressed up as, 48 ; at Gol- 
conda, public, 241 ; <pen- 
dukal, 261 ; who refuse to 
shave their heads, 275, 276 ; 
sacred, 231, 271 ; seclusion 
of, 80ft 1 ; of the temple, 
remuneration of, 247 ; of 
the temple (tali-cheri-pen- 
dugal), 247 ; of the temple 
at Tanjore, 247 ; vice of 
addiction to, 124ft 1 

Women's ignorance of writ- 
ing, 80ft 1 

Wood, a waterless and savage, 
9 ; why the ground of 
Lanka is made of, 143-144 

Wood-cutters, 63 

Work, summary of the, 2 

World-egg creation, Indian 
theory of, 9, 9ft5, 10, 10ft 3 

World, explosion of Aindra 
grammar in the, 32, 32ft 1 ; 
grandfather of the, 10; 
Jagannatha Lord of the, 

Worlds, Great Tale renowned 
in the three, 91 ; mother 
of the three (Bhavani), 

World-wide belief in 
"double," 37ft 2 

Worship of Atargatis in 
Syria, 275; of dancing-dress 
and musical instruments, 
244, 245 ; of Ganapati, 245, 
246 ; of Ishtar, temple 
women connected with 
the, 271 ; of Sarasvati, 137, 

Worshipping Siva with gar- 
lands, 86 

Wrapper or saree, 253 

"Wrappings" of the "soul" 
in Albania, 132 


Wrath of Brahma, 96; of 
Parvati, 5 ; of Siva, 5 ; of 
Tilottama, 96, 97 ; of Vais- 
vanara, 78 

Wreath of flowers symbolic 
of death, 118ft 2 ; of flowers 
offered to Ganesa, 240 

Wrestling, lion overcome by, 
109 ; Srldatta proficient in, 

"Wright's Chaste Wife, The," 
F. J. Furnivall, Early Eng- 
lish Text Society, 44, 165 

Writing and ciphering, in- 
structions in, 62, 62ft 2 

Writing, women's ignorance 
of, 80ft 1 

Wundervogel, a, 103 

"Yellow death" or Crocea 
Mors, Caesar's sword, 109ft 1 

Yellow dyes, turmeric as sub- 
stitute for, 255ft 3 

Yellow thread {kankanam) , 

Yellow tuft of matted hair, 
Siva's, 3 

Young deformed (Balavinash- 
taka), 285 

Young people dedicated to a 
god (kosio), 278 

Youth, a heavenly, 71 

Yule-tide Stories, Thorpe, 48>i 2 , 
147ft 2 , 166 

Zaubergarten, a, 66ft 1 
Zeitschrift d. deutschen mor- 

genl'dndischen Gesellschaft, 

13ft 3 , 92, 93 
Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, 168 
Zoological lexicon (Hay at al- 

Hayawan) Ad-Damiri, 

trans, by A. Jayakar, 103 
Zoological Mythology, De 

Gubernatis, 26, 76ft 2 , 84ft 2 , 

129, 130, 144ft 2 
Zur Volkskunde, Liebrecht, 

13ft 3 , 14ft, 26, 39ft 2 , 191 
"Zwei Bruder, Die," Grimm, 

19ft 2 

Printed in Great Britain 

by The Riverside Press Limited 



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