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Full text of "The ocean of story, being C.H. Tawney's translation of Somadeva's Katha sarit sagara (or Ocean of streams of story)"

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(or ocean of streams op story) 




N. M. PENZER, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. 










WITH A foreword BY 



Made and Printed in Oreat Britain 


IT is a source of great pleasure to me that, by being 
invited to write the Foreword to this volume, I have 
been given an opportunity of paying tribute to the 
memory of an old friend and a great scholar. If, here, I 
confine myself to the latter aspect of his character, it is at 
the same time impossible to abstain from associating with 
it recollections of a cordial friendship extending over more 
than forty years. It was in Calcutta, in 1880, that I first 
met Charles Henry Tawney, who was then Principal of the 
Sanskrit College and had already achieved a high reputation 
for Sanskrit learning. A warm friendship, fostered on both 
sides by similarity of tastes, and on my part by his ever- 
ready kindness and help, then sprang up, and continued 
unchecked from that time till his lamented death two years 
ago in Camberley. A master of the Sanskrit language, and 
widely read in other branches of knowledge, he was an ideal 
translator of Somadeva's famous work, into the spirit of 
which he readily allowed himself to enter. The Attic salt 
of his fancy a perpetual source of joy to those who were 
intimate with him enabled him to reproduce the dry 
humour of the Sanskrit author in a sympathetic phraseology 
that few could equal. Whether it was such sophisms as 
those with which Yaugandharayana won over the simple 
straightforward soldier, Rumanvat, or such mock solemnity 
as that with which he tells the exploits of the two scapegrace 
rogues, Siva and Madhava, in this translation we seem to 
hear the original author's very voice. But it was not only 
as a capable translator that Tawney shone. A remarkably 
wide range of reading enabled him to adorn his work with 
numerous parallels taken from the legends of other countries^ 
and that at a time when little had been done in the scientific 
examination of folk-lore. Since the first volume appeared in 
1880 there has been a great advance in that science, and 
throughout the quest, up to the present day, his version of 


the Kathd Sarit Sdgara has been an indispensable tool in 
the hands of inquirers, without which much that has been 
discovered would still remain unknown. Now, with Mr 
Penzer's edition, the seed then sown by him has borne too 
late, alas, to rejoice the original sower rich and ample fruit, 
and, as Tawney himself would have done, we can welcome his 
admirable additions to the original notes, bringing Tawney 's 
information up to date and making correction of such few 
mistakes as the advance of science has rendered inevitable. 
Besides these notes Mr Penzer has added several appendixes 
of really absorbing interest, in which he has summarised 
all the information that has up to the present time been 
collected regarding certain important questions connected 
with folk-lore and anthropology that arise in the course of 
editing the work. I shall refer to some of these later on, but 
here a general expression of appreciation cannot be omitted. 

My knowledge of the subject is not sufficient to justify 
me in attempting to emulate Sir Richard Temple's example 
by giving notes on the origin and history of the many stories 
contained in this volume. That is a thing that I must leave 
to other and more capable hands ; but a good part of my 
life was spent in fairly intimate relations with the peoples of 
the Ganges Valley, and I may, perhaps, be pardoned if I jot 
down a few disjointed reminiscences that may illuminate 
passages which struck me as I read through the tales and 
Mr Penzer's notes. 

On the very first page of this volume we are told how 
the amorous king, Udayana of Vatsa, absorbed in the delights 
of his harem, neglected the responsibilities of his rule, and 
again, on page 55, a similar story is told of King Adityasena 
of Ujjayini. For India such stories are only too true to life. 
Over and over again does history tell us how kings have been 
destroyed, and how India has been lost, through the love of 
women. Somadeva tells us how, in each of the two cases men- 
tioned by liim his ministers succeeded in arousing the royal 
voluptuary to a sense of his kingly duties, and we have a 
pretty version of the same idea for modern times in the well- 
known story of the poet Vihari and King Jai Singh Mirza of 
Amber, who reigned in the seventeenth century. Jai Singh 



had been a mighty warrior, serving the emperor with high 
renown, but, in an evil moment, he wedded a girl wife of 
surpassing beauty. He retired with her into his inner 
apartments, and gave orders that any person disturbing 
him with official business should be blown from a gun. So 
matters went on for a year, and ended in dire confusion, but 
none of the ministers dared acquaint the king. At last the 
poet solved the problem by composing a verse that, while 
ostensibly praising the beauty of the young queen, gave no 
uncertain hint as to the state of affairs.^ This he concealed 
among the flower petals that each day were sent into the 
inner apartments of the palace to form the bed of the happy 
couple. In the morning the paper remained stiff among 
the withered petals and bruised the king's body. He drew 
it out, read it, and at once returned to a sense of his responsi- 
bilities. He came forth, held a public court, summoned, the 
ingenious poet and promised him a gold coin for every verse 
that he might bring him. As a result the kingdom was 
saved, and Vihari became a rich man; for he wrote seven 
hundred more verses that were later put together by his 
admirers and form that inimitable collection of miniature 
picture-poems known all over Northern India as the Bihdri 
Satsai or the " Seven Centuries of Vihari." 

A sadder instance is that of the gallant Prithiraj, the 
Chauhan monarch of Delhi. He wooed and carried off by 
force the fair Sanjogin, daughter of Jaichand of Kanauj. 
In the ensuing war Jaichand, hard pressed by Prithiraj, 
called to his assistance the Musalmans, who had already in- 
vaded India, and who had established themselves at Lahore. 
Lulled in the arms of Sanjogin, Prithiraj paid little heed to 
the threatening storm. When he awoke it was too late. The 
storm had burst in all its fury, and Prithiraj was defeated 
and slain in " The Great Battle " of a.d. 1192 at Thanesar. 
Sanjogin ended her life upon his funeral pyre, and Delhi 
became, and remained until it was captured by the English 
in the Mutiny, a Moslem capital. 

The long story of Vidushaka (p. 54 ff.) suggests more 
than one parallel with the beliefs of the Indian peasant of 

^ Bihdri Satsai, 630. 


to-day. On page 57 Mr Penzer supplies an interesting note 
on horses in folk-lore and their devotion to their masters. 
The Rajput Lay of Alhd is full of this. Each of the 
heroes possesses a horse of fairy breed that saves him in 
many a difficult situation. For instance, Malklian's mare, 
Kabutri, or "the Pigeon," is ridden by her master in a 
furious battle charge. I quote Waterfield's translation ^ : 

" As the lion the kine, as the wolf the sheep, 
As the schoolboy drives the ball. 
So trench by trench did Malkhan leap 
With his Rajputs following all. 

' If I gave thee barley in winter, 

And oil in time of rain, 
If Parmal stinted thee not of milk 

In thy foalhood lightsome and vain, 

' Kabutri, my mare, my Pigeon, 

Mine honour save this day, 
And let not thy foot take a backward step 

Whilst foes uphold the fray ! ' 

Kabutri arched her brown neck free. 
And they rushed on the Chauhan men ; 

But, where her master dealt with three. 
The mare she smote down ten. 

For with teeth she tore and her heels she flang 

That she made a passage wide, 
And each howda she passed, in air she sprang. 

That her lord might reach the side." 

In India it is natural that elephants should play a role 
similar to that of horses. In folk-lore they betray, or serve, 
their masters like human beings, and even converse with 
them in human voice. We have a striking example of this 
in the same Lay of Alhd, Dasraj's elephant, Pachsawad, 
has been carried off by his enemy, Karingha, and years 

1 The Lay of Alha (Oxford University Press, 1923), p. 234. 



later, when Dasraj's sons, Alha and Udan, with their cousin, 
Malkhan, wage a war of vengeance on their father's murderer, 
we find Pachsawad faithfully serving his new masters, 
Jambay and his son Karingha, and aiding in the capture of 
Udan. On hearing the news, Devi, Dasraj's widow, hastens 
to the battle-field and accosts the elephant ^ : 

" A mother's yearning filled her breast, 
For fear she nothing shrunk ; 
As it were a cow her calf caressed. 
She clasped Pachsawad's trunk. 

' I reared thee up in my house from youth, 
And gave thee milk good store ; 

little of grace, was this thy truth. 
My tJdan to bind so sore ? ' 

At her words a shame o'er Pachsawad came, 
' I was pledged to the king Jambay ; 

1 have eaten his salt, 'twas in me no fault 
I should bind thine Udan Ray. 

' Were Malkhan now to the battle seat. 
He would soon set Udan free.' " 

Following Pachsawad's advice, she dispatches Malkhan 
to the field, and he challenges Karingha, mounted on 
Pachsawad, with Udan as his prisoner, to mortal combat. 
Karingha orders his Mahout to charge upon Malkhan : 

" The driver laid on strokes well told. 
Not a step Pachsawad went ; 
His trunk between his tusks he rolled, 
And down on his knees he bent. 

And Alha then with all his men 

Came charging o'er the plain ; 
With a battle shout their swords flashed out. 

Like the sweep of the hurricane. 
1 P. 120. 


' Pachsawad doth play me false to-day ; 

He quits the foremost line ' ; 
Karingha's soul was troubled sore, 

And round he turned his eyne. 

Then straight he bade Papiha ^ bring, 

And lighted down to ride ; 
From his courser's back did Malkhan spring, 

And sat by Cdan's side. 

Odan unbound he laid on the ground. 

And Rupna Bendula ^ led ; 
Queen Devi down from her litter came, 

And worshipped Pachsawad's head. 

With sandal free, so fair to see. 

She painted his frontal wide ; 
' Behold I entrust my sons to thee. 

Now help in this perilous tide. 

' Lo, Alha, here thy father's beast, 

Mount up, my son, and ride ' : 
He climbed, and stood on the painted wood 

And sat as he grasped the side." 

In this way, Pachsawad having returned to his former 
allegiance, the battle is resumed, and ends with the villain 
Karingha's satisfactory death at the hands of Malkhan. 

Again, the fatal brides of the same story of Vidushaka 
(pp. 69 and 74), whose husbands die one after the other 
on the wedding night, have their counterpart in Kashmiri 
legend of the present day. Here, however, it is a python, 
issuing from the princess's mouth, not a visiting Rakshasa, 
who kills the bridegroom. He is duly slain by the hero, 
who, like Vidushaka, wins the lady for his wife, and, we 
hope, lives happy with her ever after. 

On page 81 ff., in his note on Rahu, the demon of eclipse, 

^ Papiha was the name of Karingha's horse. 

* Bendula was the name of Odan's horse, and Rupna here acts as squire. 
' See Hatims Tales (London, 1923), p. 69 yf! For numerous other variants 
of the Tobit legend see Groome, Folk-Lore, vol. ix, p. 226. 



Mr Penzer tells us how, in the Indian Central Provinces, he 
is the deity of the sweeper caste. There can be no doubt 
about Rahu being an aboriginal god, who has been borrowed 
by the Indo- Aryans as a demon, but who still retains his 
divine character among the non-Aryan, or semi-Aryan, 
lowest classes. In Northern India he is the god of the 
Dusadhs, a degraded caste, and is the object of a remark- 
able ceremony of fire-worship. On certain festal days a long 
trench is filled with burning coals, on which the devotees 
walk barefoot without apparently receiving any harm.^ 

Cutting off the nose of an unfaithful wife, as narrated on 
page 88, is still practised in India. An old friend, a Civil 
surgeon in Bihar, told me that he had more than once sewed 
on the nose of an erring spouse. There is a well- authenticated 
story that a woman once came to a surgeon with her severed 
nose. There was no time to be lost, so there and then, in 
the bungalow verandah, he set her on a table, and laid down 
beside her the severed portion while he prepared the surface 
of the wound. A watchful crow interfered with the opera- 
tion, flew down and carried off the tasty piece of flesh, so 
that the unfortunate patient had to go noseless for the rest of 
her days. The moral, of course, is that spouses should remain 
faithful, or else, if this is impossible, that crows should not 
be encouraged in the neighbourhood of Indian hospitals. 

In the story of Karttikeya (p. 101) we are told how Kama 
the Indian God of Love was consumed by a glance of 
the irate Siva, but was allowed to be born again without a 
body in the minds of animate creatures. We shall see later 
on how the curse was removed, and how Kama received 
bodily form in the shape of Krishna's son, Pradyumna ; but 
here I may mention that this story of his having no body 
seems to be an interesting example of false folk-etymology. 
One of his names was " Anariga," which was popularly 
explained as an-ariga, or " in-corporeal " ; but, as Professor 
Konow has pointed out,^ the word has probably an altogether 

^ See Risley, The Tribes and Castes of Bengal, i, 254, and also page 169 of 
this work. 

2 In the Wackemagel Festschrift, p. 1 ff. The word is probably merely 
an intensive form derived from the root anj, "anoint." 


different meaning, which can hardly be given in these pages. 
Popular etymology has divided it wrongly, and has thus 
given birth to a pretty legend that has inspired some of the 
most famous poetry of India. 

Mr Penzer, on p. 117 jgT., has given an important note on 
nudity in magic. In India the ceremonial use of nudity is 
especially prevalent in the north-east, where the population is 
largely of Tibeto-Burman origin. For instance, in Rangpur 
a Bengal district bordering on Assam in time of drought, 
the women set up by night a plantain- tree in honour of a non- 
Aryan god named Hudum Deo, and dance round it naked, 
singing obscene songs. ^ Mr Penzer refers to a similar custom 
among the Meithei women of Manipur, who also are not of 
Aryan stock ; and in Assam and parts of Bengal, when one 
person wishes to insult another, he makes himself naked 
before him. When I was a magistrate in Murshidabad a 
complainant who was angry at having failed to prove his 
case, met his enemies on the way home and insulted them in 
this manner. I shall never forget the speechless fury of these 
men when they came to me about it, although they had 
previously borne the abuse and perjury in the witness-box 
with unmoved faces. Perjury was a thing to be expected, 
and could be met in the orthodox manner by counter-perjury, 
but this conduct was breaking the rules of the game. In 
an Assam bazaar, when two old crones fall out there is a 
race between them as to who can disrobe first, in order to 
win a battle that had begun with only wordy warfare. 

The use of iron in the birth- chamber to scare away evil 
spirits, described by Mr Penzer (p. 166 j^f.), is, I believe, 
universal in India. I have come across it as far north as 
Kashmir, where, as elsewhere, not only is iron found in the 
lying-in room, but the woman's drink is water in which a 
piece of red-hot iron has been quenched.^ This might be 
supposed to be a kind of rude tonic, but the superstition 
regarding the metal as a demon-scarer shows its true 

On page 192 we are told how Saktideva was swallowed 

* See the present writer in Jouni. As. Soc. Bengal, \o\. xlvi, Pt. I, p. 188. 
^ Cf. hldm in India, p. 23. 


by an enormous fish and afterwards rescued. This, as Mr 
Penzer shows, is a common feature in Indian stories, but the 
locus classicus is the tale of Krishna's son, Pradyumna. We 
have seen above how Kama had been consumed by Siva 
and condemned for ever to be bodiless. The curse being re- 
mitted, he was born again as Pradyumna. His wife Rati, who 
all these ages had been searching for him without success, 
was shortly before this born as Mayavati, and became the 
wife of a demon named Sambara. Sambara, hating Krishna, 
stole Pradyumna while yet a babe and cast him into the sea. 
There he was swallowed by a great fish, which was afterwards 
caught and came into Sambara 's kitchen. The child was 
found inside it and was taken care of and reared by Mayavati. 
When he grew up the pair learnt from Narada that they 
were respectively Kama and Rati, and so Pradyumna killed 
Sambara, and, taking Mayavati with him, returned to his 
parents. The whole story is told in detail in the Bhdgavata 
Pur ana .^ 

Mr Penzer has a most interesting note on the sacred cow 
of the Hindus. He is inclined to look upon the Hindu 
veneration of this animal as dating from prehistoric times. 
Now it is a curious fact that, north of Kashmir, there is the 
important Dard tribe of Shins, the members of which loathe 
cows. They inhabit the country round Gilgit, and once 
extended far to the east, into Tibet. These people are 
certainly of Aryan stock, but, in my opinion, are not Indo- 
Aryans. They probably came, independently of the great 
Indo-Aryan migration, into their present seat from the 
north, over the Pamirs. To these people the cow, so far 
from being sacred, is abhorrent. This has been noted by 
more than one observer.- For instance. Drew says : 

" They hold the cow in abhorrence ; they look on it 
much in the same way that the ordinary Muhammadan 
regards the pig. They will not drink cow's milk, nor do 

^ X, Iv. See also Vishnu Purdna, Wilson-Hall trans., v, 12>ff. 

2 E.g. Drew, Jummoo and Kashmir, 428 ; Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo 
Koosh, 37 ; Shaw, " Stray Arians in Tibet," Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, xlvii, 
Pt. I. 29. 


they eat or make butter from it. Nor even will they burn 
cowdung, the fuel that is so commonly used in the East. 
Some cattle they are obliged to keep for ploughing, but they 
have as little as possible to do with them ; when the cow 
calves they will put the calf to the udder by pushing it with 
a forked stick, and will not touch it with their hands." 

Here we have apparently an ancient taboo among non- 
Indian Aryans, contrasted with the sacredness attributed to 
the same animal by their Indian cousins ; and this leads 
us to the consideration that in prehistoric times, before the 
Indo-Aryan invasion, the still united Aryans looked upon 
the cow as subject to certain taboos, which developed in- 
dependently on two separate lines, into the complete taboo 
of the Shins, and into the reverence of a sacred animal among 
the Indo- Aryans. 

I have much more that I could write about this interest- 
ing volume, but considerations of space compel me to restrict 
myself to Mr Penzer's very full treatment of the legends 
about poison-damsels in his important Appendix III. It 
is curious how the different versions of the story current 
in widely distant parts of India agree even in small details. 
Mr Penzer (p. 301) quotes Barbosa's account of Mahmud of 
Gujarat, who was so poisonous that " when a fly touched 
him, as soon as it reached his flesh it forthwith died and 
swelled up." We have also read on page 284 how Chanakya 
saved Chandragupta from a poison- damsel who had been 
sent to him by Rakshasa, but we are not told how he 
detected her poisonous character. We learn this, how- 
ever, from another work written in Bihar the Purusha- 
parlksha of the poet Vidyapati Thakkura, who flourished 
in the fourteenth century. He too, in chapter xx of 
his work, tells the story of Chanakya, and describes how 
he recognised the dangerous nature of the girl by noting 
that when flies settled on her to sip her perspiration they fell 
down dead. 

Perhaps I may add a few instances of my personal 
experience regarding the effects of opium to the very inter- 
esting account given by Mr Penzer in the same appendix. 


Most of my Indian service was in the poppy-growing districts 
of Bihar, and for part of the time I was in charge of the 
Opium Department. I found ample evidence that among 
the miUions of people with whom I was brought into contact 
the number of confirmed opium- sots was very small indeed. 
As for the educated classes, I have often been told that a man, 
after he has passed his fortieth year, should eat opium in 
moderation, merely to keep him in good health ; and, though 
I have had hundreds of officials under me, I can remember 
only two of them who were slaves to the habit. One of 
these managed to do his work, if not brilliantly, at least 
efficiently, and lived to retire on a pension, when I lost sight 
of him. The other was once found asleep in his office and 
was threatened with dismissal. He was able to pull him- 
self together and the offence was not repeated. As for 
the peasantry, every little cultivator in the opium districts 
kept back a small quantity of the drug, which he had to 
hand over to Government. This he stored at home as a 
family medicine, and took a little of it when he felt out 
of sorts. It may in fact be said that the people of 
Bihar, owing to generations of use, have as a body be- 
come immune to the evil effects of the drug. The evils 
that do arise from its use are seen in the case of its intro- 
duction among a population hitherto unaccustomed to it 
and, hence, not immune. Here its ravages are terrible, 
and total prohibition, as is the case in Burma, is the only 

It will be seen, therefore, that in the case of opium there 
is evidence that its use through many generations makes 
consumers immune to its evil effects, and that the power of 
restricting its use within the limits of moderation appears 
to be an hereditary habit acquirable by an entire nationality. 
That this immunity, as in the case of snake-charmers' 
traditional immunity to cobra poison, was an observed fact 
familiar to the Indian mind can easily be conceived, which 
strengthens Mr Penzer's explanation of the origin of the 
legend of his poison-damsels. 

I have now trespassed more than enough on Mr Penzer's 
kindness and on the space allotted for this Foreword. I 


therefore conclude with again congratulating him on his 
success in honouring my old friend's magnum opus by the 
preparation of this edition with such competent and, at the 
same time, such reverent hands. 

George A. Grierson. 

Camberley, Sept. 2, 1924. 




Author's Preface 
M(ain story) . 

11. Story of the Clever Physician 
M. Cont 

12. Story of the Hypocritical Ascetic 
M. Cont. 

13. Story of Unmadini 
M. Cont 

14. Story of the Loving Couple who 

M. Cont 

15. Story of Punyasena 
M. Cont 

16. Story of Sunda and Upasunda 
M. Cont 

died of 







M. Cont 

17. Story of Kunti 

M. Cont 




M. Cont 

18. Story of Urvasi 







CHAPTER X\Uc(mtintied 

M. Cont 

19. Story of Vihitasena 
M. Cont. 

20. Story of Somaprabha 
M. Cont 

21. Story of Ahalya . 
M. Cont. 




M. Cont. .... 

22. Story of Vidushaka 

M. Cont. . . . . 



M. Cont. 

23. Story of Devadasa 

M. Cont. 


M. Co7it. . . . . . .95 

24. Story of Phalabhuti . . . .95 

24a. Kuvalayavali and the Witch Kalaratri 99 
24AA. The Birth of Karttikeya . 100 

24a. Kuvalayavali and the Witch Kalaratri 103 
24b. Sundaraka and the Witches . . 105 

24a. Kuvalayavali and the Witch Kalaratri 111 
24. Story of Phalabhuti . . . .112 

M. Cont. . . . . . .115 




Invocation . . 

. 125 

M. Cont . . . . 

. 125 

25. Story of Devadatta 

. 129 

M. Cont 

. 132 

26. Story of Pingalika 

. 133 

M. Cont. 

. 134 


M. Cont . . . . . . 137 

27. Story of Jimutavahana .... 138 

27a. Jimutavahana 's Adventures in a former 

Birth . . . . 141 

27. Story of Jimutavahana .... 150 

27b. The Dispute about the Colour of the 

Sun's Horses . . . 150 

27. Story of Jimutavahana .... 153 

M. Cont . . . . . .156 

M. Cont .... 

28. Story of Sinhaparakrama . 
M. Cont .... 



Invocation ..... 
M. Cont ..... 

29. Story of the Golden City . 

29a. Siva and Madhava 



CHAPTER XXIV continued 


29. Story of the Golden City . . . .184 

29b. The Iniquity of Scandal . . 185 

29. Story of the Golden City . . . .186 


29. Story of the Golden City . . . .188 

29c. A^okadatta and Vijayadatta . . 196 

29, Story of the Golden City . . . .218 


29. Story of the Golden City . . . .217 

29d. Devadatta the Gambler . . 281 

29. Story of the Golden City . . . .286 

M. Cont. ...... 288 

The Story of Urva^i and Pururavas . . . 243 

Umbrellas ...... 261 

Poison- damsels ..... 278 

Index I Sanskrit Words and Proper Names . . 815 

Index II General ..... 887 


WITH the issue of this second volume of the Ocean 
of Story I would like to take the opportunity of 
thanking my many subscribers for their kind 
support. The appreciative and sympathetic manner in 
which the reviewers have received the first volume of the 
work has also been most encouraging. 

Subscribers will be pleased to hear that great progress 
is being made with the subsequent volumes. Volume III is 
now in the press and Volume IV is well in hand. 

It remains but to acknowledge the kind help I have 
received from so many quarters. 

To Sir George Grierson is due special thanks for his 
most interesting and relevant Foreword. I was particularly 
gratified when Sir George so kindly consented to write this, 
as I know how pleased Mr Tawney would have been to have 
seen the name of his old friend connected with the present 
edition of his magnum opus. 

Dr L. D. Barnett has again read through all my proofs, 
and has not only given me the advantage of his inexhaustible 
store of Sanskrit knowledge, but has translated afresh those 
passages which needed revision, owing either to improved 
readings in the D. text or to omissions made by Mr Tawney 

Mr C. Fenton has also been through the proofs from the 
general point of view, and his microscopic eye has detected 
many errors which I had passed unnoticed. In addition to 
which his knowledge of Central American ancient history 
and mythology has been particularly helpful, especially in 
portions of the " Poison- damsel " appendix. 


To the list of names already given in my Introduction 
to Volume I, I would add those of Mr H. Balfour, Professor 
Henri Cordier, Dr M. Gaster, Rev. A. S. Geden, Mr J. D. 
Gimlette, Lady Gomme, Mr R. Grant Brown, Mr F. H. 
Hudleston, Mr Edward Hutton, Professor Julius Jolly, 
Dr A. B. Keith, Dr D. B. Macdonald, Professor D. S. 
Margoliouth, Miss Joan Procter, Professor C. G. Seligman, 
and Mr P. G. Trendell. 

N. M. P. 

12 CuFTON Hill, 

St John's Wood, N.W.8, 

30th September 1924. 





HONOUR to the Conqueror of Obstacles whose favour, 
I ween, even the creator ^ implored, in order that he 
might accompUsh the creation of the world without 
let or hindrance. 

That five-arrowed God of Love conquers the world, at 
whose command even Siva trembles, when he is being 
embraced by his beloved. 

[M] Thus having obtained Vasavadatta, that King of 
Vatsa gradually became most exclusively devoted to the 
pleasure of her society. But his prime minister Yaugan- 
dharayana, and his general Rumanvat, upheld day and night 
the burden of his empire. And once upon a time the minister 
Yaugandharayana, full of anxiety, brought Rumanvat to 
his house at night and said to him as follows : " This lord of 
Vatsa is sprung from the Pandava race, and the whole earth 
is his by hereditary descent, as also the city named of the 
elephant. 2 All these this king has abandoned, not being de- 
sirous of making conquests, and his kingdom has so become 
confined to this one small corner of the earth. For he cer- 
tainly remains devoted to women, wine and hunting, and he 
has delegated to us all the duty of thinking about his kingdom. 
So we by our own intelligence must take such steps as that 
he shall obtain the empire of the whole earth, which is his by 
hereditary right. For, if we do this, we shall have exhibited 
devotion to his cause, and performed our duty as ministers ; 
for everything is accomplished by intellect, and in proof of 
this listen to the following tale : 

^ I read dhald for dhatrd. ^ I.e. Hastinapura. 

VOL. II. 1 A 


11. Story of the Clever Physician 

Once on a time there was a king named Mahasena, and he 
was attacked by another king far superior to him in power. 
Then the king's ministers met together, and in order to pre- 
vent the ruin of his interests Mahasena was persuaded by 
them to pay tribute to that enemy. And after he had paid 
tribute that haughty king was exceedingly afflicted, thinking 
to himself: " Why have I made submission to my enemy ? " 
And his sorrow on that account caused an abscess to form 
in his vitals, and he was so pulled down by the abscess that 
at last he was at the point of death. Then a certain wise 
physician, considering that that case could not be cured by 
medicine, said falsely to that king : " O King, your wife is 
dead." When he heard that, the king fell on the ground, and 
owing to the excessive violence of his grief the abscess burst 
of itself. And so the king recovered from his disease, and 
long enjoyed in the society of that queen the pleasures he 
desired, and conquered his enemies in his turn.^ 

[M] '* So, as that physician did his king a good turn by 
his wisdom, let us also do our king a good turn ; let us gain 
for him the empire of the earth. And in this undertaking our 

* Here Wilson observes : " The circumstances here related are not with- 
out analogies in fact. It is not marvellous, therefore, that we may trace them 
in fiction. The point of the story is the same as that of the ' Deux Anglais A 
Paris/ a Fabliau.'' Webster, Duchess of Malji, Act IV, sc. 2, tells a similar story ; 

" A great physician, when the Pope was sick 
Of a deep melancholy, presented him 
With several sorts of madmen, which wild object, 
Being full of change and sport, freed him to laugh, 
And so the imposthume broke." 

Cf. Henderson's Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties, p. 131. Reference 

should also be made to the Heptameron, Margaret of Navarre, nouvelle Ixxi, 
which treats of " Une femme k I'extremit^ qui se mit en si grosse colore, 
voyant son mari qui baisait sa servante, qu'elle recouvra la sant^." For the 
English translation see the five-volume edition printed in 1894 for the Society 
of English Bibliophilists, vol. v, p. 219 et seq. The story was imitated by 
Noel du Fail de la H^rissaye in his Contes d'Eutrapel (ch. v, " De la Goutte "), 


only adversary is Pradyota, the King of Magadha ^ ; for he 
is a foe in the rear that is always attacking us behind. So 
we must ask for our sovereign that pearl of princesses, his 
daughter, 2 named Padmavati. And by our cleverness we 
will conceal Vasavadatta somewhere, and setting fire to her 
house, we will give out everywhere that the queen 
is burnt. For in no other case will the King of 
Magadha give his daughter to our sovereign, for when I 
requested him to do so on a former occasion he answered : 
' I will not give my daughter, whom I love more than myself, 
to the King of Vatsa, for he is passionately attached to his 
wife Vasavadatta.' Moreover, as long as the queen is alive, 
the King of Vatsa will not marry anyone else ; but if a report 
is once spread that the queen is burnt, all will succeed. And 
when Padmavati is secured, the King of Magadha will be our 
marriage connection, and will not attack us in the rear, but 
will become our ally. Then we will march to conquer the 
eastern quarter, and the others in due succession, so we shall 
obtain for the King of Vatsa all this earth. And if we only 
exert ourselves, this king will obtain the dominion of the 
earth, for long ago a divine voice predicted this." 

When Rumanvat heard this speech from the great minister 

where the hero is called Glaume Esnaut de Tremeril. In Frere's Old Deccan 
Days, p. 217, we read of a quarrel between a blind man and a deaf man, 
which got so serious that the blind man gave the deaf man a tremendous 
box on the ear, so violent indeed that it made the deaf man hear. The deaf 
man returned the blow so hard on the blind man's face that his eyesight 
was immediately restored. It is unnecessary to give examples of the extra- 
ordinary cases of restoration of sight and hearing which constantly occurred 
in the Great War. A similar story to that in our text also occurs on p. 36 
of this volume. n.m.p. 

^ This ancient kingdom corresponds to the modern districts of Patna, 
Gaya and Shahabad in South Bihar. Its great importance in Indian history 
will be realised when we remember that it was not only the home of 
Buddhism and Jainism, but also the nucleus of two of the greatest of the 
Indian empires, the Maurya and the Gupta. Until the sixth century b.c. 
its capital was Girivraja, when its place was taken by Rajagriha, the modern 
Rajglr. Further information will be found in Rhys Davids' Buddhist India, 
1905; Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India, 1871; and the Cambridge 
History of India, vol. i, 1922. n.m.p. 

2 In the dramatic version (see note 1, p. 21) of this incident Padmavati 
is described as sister of King Praydota. n.m.p. 


Yaugandharayana, he feared that the plan would cover them 
with ridicule, and so he said to him : " Deception practised 
for the sake of PadmavatI might some day be the ruin of us 
both ; in proof of this listen to the following tale : 

12. Story of the Hypocritical Ascetic 

On the bank of the Ganges there is a city named Ma- 
kandika ; in that city long ago there was a certain ascetic 
who observed a vow of silence, and he lived on alms, and, 
surrounded by numerous other holy beggars, dwelt in a 
monastery within the precincts of a god's temple where he 
had taken up his abode. Once, when he entered a certain 
merchant's house to beg, he saw a beautiful maiden 
coming out with alms in her hand, and the rascal, seeing 
that she was wonderfully beautiful, was smitten with love, 
and exclaimed : " Ah ! Ah ! Alas ! " And that merchant 
overheard him. Then, taking the alms he had received, he 
departed to his own house ; and then the merchant went 
there and said to him in his astonishment : " Why did you 
to-day suddenly break your vow of silence ^ and say what 
you did ? " When he heard that, the ascetic said to the 
merchant : " This daughter of yours has inauspicious 
marks ^ ; when she marries, you will undoubtedly perish, 
wife, sons and all. So, when I saw her, I was afflicted, for 
you are my devoted adherent ; and thus it was on your 
account that I broke silence and said what I did. So place 
this daughter of yours by night in a basket, on the top of 
which there must be a light, and set her adrift on the Ganges.'* 
The merchant said, " So I will," and went away ; and at 
night he did all he had been directed to do, out of pure fear. 
The timid are ever unreflecting. 

The hermit for his part said at that time to his own 
pupils : " Go to the Ganges, and when you see a basket 
floating along with a light on the top of it, bring it here 
secretly, but you must not open it, even if you hear a noise 
inside." They said, " We will do so," and off they went ; 

* For the amazing austerities of ascetics sec Vol. I, p. 79, note 1. n.m.p. 

* See note on p. 7. n.m.p. 


but before they reached the Ganges, strange to say, a certain 
prince went into the river to bathe. He, seeing that basket, 
which the merchant had thrown in, by the help of the Ught 
on it, got his servants to fetch it for him, and immediately 
opened it out of curiosity. And in it he saw that heart- 
enchanting girl, and he married her on the spot by the gdn- 
dharva ceremony of marriage. And he set the basket adrift 
on the Ganges, exactly as it was before, putting a lamp on 
the top of it, and placing a fierce monkey inside it. 

The prince having departed with that pearl of maidens, 
the pupils of the hermit came there in the course of their 
search, and saw that basket, and took it up and carried it to 
the hermit. Then he, being delighted, said to them : "I 
will take this upstairs and perform incantations with it alone, 
but you must lie in silence this night." Wlien he had said 
this, the ascetic took the basket to the top of the monastery 
and opened it, eager to behold the merchant's daughter. 
And then a monkey of terrible appearance sprang out of it,^ 
and rushed upon the ascetic, like his own immoral conduct 
incarnate in bodily form. The monkey in its fury immedi- 
ately tore off with its teeth the nose of the wicked ascetic, and 
his ears with its claws, as if it had been a skilful executioner ; 
and in that state the ascetic ran downstairs, and when his 
pupils beheld him they could with difficulty suppress their 
laughter. And early next morning everybody heard the 
story, and laughed heartily ; but the merchant was delighted, 
and his daughter also, as she had obtained a good husband. 

[M] " And even as the ascetic made himself ridiculous, so 
too rnay we possibly become a laughing-stock, if we employ 

1 Cf. Sagas from the Far East, tale xi, pp. 123, 124. Here the crime 
contemplated is murder, and the ape is represented by a tiger. This story 
bears a certain resemblance to the termination of "Alles aus einer Erbse/' 
Kaden's Unter den Olivenh'dumenj p. 22. See also pp. 75 and 220 of the same 

collection. In the Pentamerone of Basile (Burton, vol. i, second diversion of 

the third day, p. 149 et seq.) a princess is set afloat in a box and found by a 
king, whose wife she eventually becomes. See also Tawney's Katkakoga, 
pp. 131-134. N.M.p. 


deceit, and fail after all. For the separation of the king from 
Vasavadatta involves many disadvantages." 

When Rumanvat had said this to Yaugandharayana, the 
latter answered : "In no other way can we conduct our 
enterprise successfully, and if we do not undertake the enter- 
prise, it is certain that with this self-indulgent king we shall 
lose even what territory we have got ; and the reputation 
which we have acquired for statesmanship will be tarnished, 
and we shall cease to be spoken of as men who show loyalty 
to their sovereign. For when a king is one who depends on 
himself for success, his ministers are considered merely the 
instruments of his wisdom ; and in the case of such monarchs 
you would not have much to do with their success or failures. 
But when a king depends on his ministers for success, it is 
their wisdom that achieves his ends, and if they are wanting 
in enterprise he must bid a long farewell to all hope of great- 
ness.* But if you fear the queen's father Chandamahasena, 
I must tell you that he and his son and the queen also will do 
whatever I bid them." 

When Yaugandharayana, most resolute among the reso- 
lute, had said this, Rumanvat, whose heart dreaded some 
fatal blunder, again said to him : " Even a discerning prince 
is afflicted by the pain of being separated from a beloved 
woman, much more will this King of Vatsa be. In proof of 
what I say, listen to the following tale : 

13. Story of JJnmddinl ^ 

Once on a time there was a king named Devasena, best 
of wise men, and the city of Sravasti was his capital. And in 

* Literally, a handful of water, such as is offered to the Manes, is offered 
to Fortune. It is all over with his chance of attaining glory. 

* Cf. SiciUanische M'drchen, Gonzenbach, vol. i, p. 220. Liebrecht, in note 
48.5 to page 413 of his translation of Dunlop's History of Fiction, compares 
this story with one in The Thousand and One Days of a princess of Kashmir, 
who was so beautiful that everyone who saw her went mad, or pined away. 
He also mentions an Arabian tradition with respect to the Thracian sorceress 
Rhodope: "The Arabs believe that one of the pyramids is haunted by a 
guardian spirit in the shape of a beautiful woman, the mere sight of whom 
drives men mad." He refers also to Thomas Moore, The Epicurean, note 6 to 
ch. vi, and The Adventures of Hativi Tai, translated by Duncan Forbes, p. 18. 


that city there was a wealthy merchant, and to him there 
was born a daughter of unparalleled beauty. And that 
daughter became known by the name of Unmadini, because 
everyone who beheld her beauty became mad. Her father, 
the merchant, thought : "I must not give this daughter of 
mine to anyone without telling the king, or he may be angry." 
So he went and said to the king Devasena : " King, I have a 
daughter who is a very pearl ; take her if she finds favour in 
your eyes." 

When he heard that, the king sent some Brahmans, his 
confidential ministers, saying to them : " Go and see if 
that maiden possesses the auspicious marks ^ or not." The 

^ The interpreting of bodily marks is known as sdmudrika, and there are 
several works on the art. Buddha was said to have possessed thirty-two hicky 
marks {mahdpurushalakshand) and eighty minor marks. Thurston tells us 
(^Ethnographic Notes in Southern India, p. 84) that among the Kurubas the 
bridegroom's father observes certain marks, or "curls," on the head of the 
proposed bride. If she has one on her forehead it is considered lucky ; but 
the opposite is the case if one is found at the back of the head, or near the 
right temple. 

Among the Pallis (Tamil agriculturists) a " curl " on the forehead is con- 
sidered as an indication that the girl will become a widow ; and one on the 
back of the head portends the death of the eldest brother of her husband. 

The following notes on sdmudrika were kindly obtained for me from Rai 
Bahadur B. A. Gupta by Mr Enthoven : 

The number of horizontal lines on the forehead indicate years of longevity. 
If a man has two lines, he will live for forty years or so ; if three, he will live 
for seventy-five years or so; if four, for full hundred years. If while smiling 
he gets a dimple or depression in his cheeks, he will be a loose character. 
If his chin is double and broad, he will be strong-willed. If his chin be thin 
and rounded, he would like to be loved by a woman. If he has very long ears, 
he will be licentious. If there be a deep horizontal line at the top of the 
nose, he would like to be authoritative. If he has five whorls at the five tips 
of his fingers, he will be a princeling ; if all the ten fingers have that mark, he 
will become a sovereign. If a man has a line on the sole of his foot running 
between his big toe and the second toe, he will get a palanquin. A woman 
with the little toe overlapping the next one, or if it does not reach the earth, 
will be morally bad-charactered and will seek many men. If the four fingers 
of a man when held up against the sun show light through interstices, he is 
an extravagant person. On the other hand, if he has fat fingers and no 
interstices, he is a close-fisted man, and likely to be a miser. 

As we shall see in a later volume (Chapter XLIII), Naravahanadatta is 
recognised as a future emperor by special distinguishing signs " such as the 
peculiar freckle and other marks." n.m.p. 


ministers said, *' We will do so," and went. But when they 
beheld that merchant's daughter, Unmadini, love was sud- 
denly produced in their souls, and they became utterly be- 
wildered. When they recovered their senses, the Brahmans 
said to one another : "If the king marries this maiden, 
he will think only of her, and will neglect the affairs of the 
state, and everything will go to rack and ruin; so what is 
the good of her ? " Accordingly they went and told the king, 
what was not true, that the maiden had inauspicious marks. 
Then the merchant gave that Unmadini, whom the king 
had refused, and who in her heart felt a proud resentment 
at it, to the king's commander-in-chief. When she was in 
the house of her husband, she ascended one day to the 
roof, and exhibited herself to the king, who she knew would 
pass that way. And the moment the king beheld her, 
resembling a world- bewildering drug employed by the God 
of Love, distraction seemed to be produced within him. 
When he returned to his palace, and discovered that it was 
the same lady he had previously rejected, he was full of 
regret, and fell violently ill with fever. The commander-in- 
chief, the husband of the lady, came to him and earnestly 
entreated him to take her, saying : " She is a slave ; she is not 
the lawful wife of another ; or, if it seem fit, I will repudi- 
ate her in the temple, then my lord can take her for his 
own." But the king said to him : "I will not take unto 
myself another man's wife, and if you repudiate her, your 
righteousness will be at an end, and you will deserve punish- 
ment at my hands." When they heard that, the other 
ministers remained silent, and the king was gradually con- 
sumed by love's burning, and so died.^ 

[M] *' So that king perished, though of firm soul, being 
deprived of Unmadini ; but what will become of the lord 
of Vatsa without Vasavadatta ? " When Yaugandharayana 
heard this from Rumanvat, he answered : " Affliction is 
bravely endured by kings who have their eyes firmly fixed 

^ See note to next story. n.m.p. 


on their duty. Did not Rama, when commissioned by the 
gods, who were obliged to resort to that contrivance to kill 
Ravana, endure the pain of separation from Queen Sita ? " 
When he heard this, Rumanvat said in answer : " Such as 
Rama are gods ; their souls can endure all things. But the 
thing is intolerable to men ; in proof whereof listen to the 
following tale : 

14. Story of the Loving Couple who died of Separation 

There is on this earth a great city rich in jewels, named 
Mathura. In it there lived a certain young merchant called 
lUaka. And he had a dear wife whose mind was devoted to 
him alone. Once on a time, while he was dwelling with her, 
the young merchant determined to go to another country on 
account of the exigencies of his affairs. And that wife of his 
wished to go with him. For when a woman is passionately 
attached to anyone she cannot endure to be separated from 
him. And then that young merchant set out, having offered 
the usual preliminary prayer for success in his undertaking, and 
did not take with him that wife of his, though she had dressed 
herself for the journey. She, looking after him when he had 
started, with tears in her eyes, stood supporting herself 
against the panel of the door of the courtyard. Then, he 
being out of sight, she was no longer able to endure her grief ; 
but she was too timid to follow him. So her breath left her 
body. And as soon as the young merchant came to know 
of that, he returned, and to his horror found that dear wife 
of his a corpse, with pale though lovely complexion, set off 
by her waving locks, like the spirit of beauty that tenants 
the moon fallen down to earth in the day during her sleep. ^ 
So he took her in his arms and wept over her, and immedi- 
ately the vital spirits left his body, which was on fire with 
the flame of grief, as if they were afraid to remain. ^ So that 

^ In the original it is intended to compare the locks to the spots in the 

2 Among the Hindus death was the tenth, and final, stage of love-sickness. 
Vatsyayana in his Kama Sutra (circa a.d. 250) gives the ten stages as follows : 
(l) love of the eyes i.e. pleasure in seeing the beloved one; (2) attraction 
and dwelling of the mind ; (3) the birth of desire for union ; (4) loss of sleep ; 


married couple perished by mutual separation, and therefore we 
must take care that the king is not separated from the queen. 

[M] When he had said this, Rumanvat ceased, with his 
mind full of apprehension, but the wise Yaugandharayana, that 
ocean of calm resolution, answered him : "I have arranged 
the whole plan, and the affairs of kings often require such 
steps to be taken ; in proof of it hear the following tale : 

15. Story of Punyasena 

There lived long ago in Ujjayini a king named Punyasena, 
and once on a time a powerful sovereign came and attacked 
him. Then his resolute ministers, seeing that that king was 
hard to conquer, spread everywhere a false report that their 
own sovereign Punyasena was dead ; and they placed him in 
concealment, and burnt some other man's corpse with all the 
ceremonies appropriate to a king, and they proposed to the 
hostile king through an ambassador that, as they had now 
no king, he should come and be their king. The hostile 
monarch was pleased and consented, and then the ministers 

(5) emaciation ; (6) total indifference to other objects ; (7) loss of shame ; 
(8) distraction and madness; (9) fainting, and (JO) death. 

This list was repeated in rather more detail in the Ananga-Ranga ; see the 
Kama Shastra Society edition, 1885, pp. 87, 88, and my Annotated Bibliography 
of Sir Richard Burton, pp. l6l-l73. 

In Arabian fiction the favourite stage appears to be the ninth, and nearly 
every hero faints for love on the slightest provocation. There are, however, 
cases of death. See the Nights (Burton, vol. v, p. 134), where three unhappy 
people die through love of each other. Cf. also the story of "The Mad 
Lover" on p. 138 of the same volume. In Europe the favourite form of the 
motif was for one of the lovers to die naturally or unintentionally, whereupon 
the other would either commit suicide or die of grief the consequence being 
that they were buried together in the same tomb. See, for example, Decameron, 
day 4, novs. 1, 5, 7, 8 and 9 ; Straparola, night 9, nov. 2 ; Bandello, part i, nov. 
33 ; Ileptameron, day 7, nov. 70. Cf. also the ballad of " Fair Margaret and 
Sweet William" (Percy, lieliques, iii, p. 125) and "Lord Thomas and Fair 
Annet" (op. cip., iii, p. 234). For numerous imitations of the tale in the 
Decameron, day 4, nov. 8, reference should be made to Lee, The Decatneron, its 
Sources and Analogues, pp. 140-143. n.m.p. 


assembled, accompanied by soldiers, and proceeded to storm 
his camp. And the enemy's army being destroyed, Punya- 
sena's ministers brought him out of concealment, and having 
recovered their power put that hostile king to death. 

[M] " Such necessities will arise in monarchs' affairs, 
therefore let us resolutely accomplish this business of the 
king's by spreading a report of the queen's having been 
burnt." When he heard this from Yaugandharayana, who 
had made up his mind, Rumanvat said : "If this is resolved 
upon, let us send for Gopalaka, the queen's respected brother, 
and let us take all our measures duly, after consultation 
with him." Then Yaugandharayana said, "So be it," and 
Rumanvat allowed himself to be guided, in determining 
what was to be done, by the confidence which he placed in 
his colleague. 

The next day these dexterous ministers sent off a 
messenger of their own to bring Gopalaka, on the pretext 
that his relations longed to see him. And as he had only 
departed before on account of urgent business, Gopalaka 
came at the request of the messenger, seeming like an in- 
carnate festival. And the very day he came Yaugandhara- 
yana took him by night to his own house, together with 
Rumanvat, and there he told him of that daring scheme 
which he wished to undertake, all of which he had before 
Gopalaka is deliberated about together with that Rumanvat ; 
let into the and Gopalaka, desiring the good of the King of 
Secret Vatsa, Consented to the scheme, though he knew 

it would bring sorrow to his sister ; for the mind of good men 
is ever fixed upon duty. 

Then Rumanvat again said : " All this is well planned ; 
but when the King of Vatsa hears that his wife is burnt he 
will be inclined to yield up his breath, and how is he to be 
prevented from doing so ? This is a matter which ought to 
be considered. For though all the usual politic expedients 
may advantageously be employed, the principal element of 
sound statecraft is the averting of misfortune." 


Then Yaugandharayana, who had reflected on every- 
thing that was to be done, said : " There need be no anxiety 
about this, for the queen is a princess, the younger sister of 
Gopalaka, and dearer to him than his Hfe, and when the King 
of Vatsa sees how Httle afflicted Gopalaka is, he will think to 
himself, ' Perhaps the queen may be alive after all,' and so 
^vill be able to control his feelings. Moreover, he is of heroic 
disposition, and the marriage of Padmavati will be quickly 
got through, and then we can soon bring the queen out of 

Then Yaugandharayana and Gopalaka and Rumanvat, 
having made up their minds to this, deliberated as follows : 
" Let us adopt the artifice of going to Lavanaka with the 
king and queen, for that district is a border district near the 
kingdom of Magadha. And because it contains admirable 
hunting-grounds, it will tempt the king to absent himself 
from the palace, so we can set the women's apartments there 
on fire and carry out the plan ^ on which we have determined. 
And by an artifice we will take the queen and leave her in the 
palace of Padmavati, in order that Padmavati herself may 
be a witness to the queen's virtuous behaviour in a state of 

Having thus deliberated together during the night, they 
all, with Yaugandharayana at their head, entered the king's 
palace on the next day. Then Rumanvat made the following 
representation to the king : " O King, it is a long time since 
we have gone to Lavanaka, and it is a very delightful place ; 
moreover, you will find capital hunting-grounds there, and 
grass for the horses can easily be obtained. And the King 
of Magadha, being so near, afflicts all that district. So let 
us go there for the sake of defending it, as well as for our 
own enjoyment." And the king, when he heard this, hav- 
ing his mind always set on enjoyment, determined to go to 
Lavanaka together with Vasavadatta. 

The next day, the journey having been decided on, and 
the auspicious hour having been fixed by the astrologers, 
suddenly the hermit Narada came to visit the monarch. 

He illuminated the region with his splendour as he 

^ Reading yad hi. 


descended from the midst of heaven, and gave a feast to the 
eyes of all spectators, seeming as if he were the moon come 
down out of affection towards his own descendants.^ After 
accepting the usual hospitable attentions, the hermit 
graciously gave to the king, who bowed humbly before him, 
a garland from the Parijata ^ tree. And he congratulated 
the queen, by whom he was politely received, promising her 
that she should have a son, who should be a portion of Kama 
and king of all the Vidyadharas. And then he said to the 
King of Vatsa, while Yaugandharayana was standing by : 
" O King, the sight of your wife, Vasavadatta, has strangely 
brought something to my recollection. In old time you had 
for ancestors Yudhishthira and his brothers. And those five 
had one wife between them,^ Draupadi by name. And she, 
like Vasavadatta, was matchless in beauty. Then, fearing 
that her beauty would do mischief, I said to them : ' You 
must avoid jealousy, for that is the seed of calamities ; in 
proof of it listen to the following tale, which I will relate to 
you : 

16. Story of Sunda and Upasunda * 

There were two brothers, Asuras by race, Sunda and 
Upasunda, hard to overcome, inasmuch as they surpassed 

^ The moon was the progenitor of the Panda va race. 

^ One of the five trees of Paradise. 

3 See note at the end of the chapter. n.m.p. 

* There is a certain resemblance in this story to that of Otus and Ephialtes. 
See Preller's Griechische Mythologie, vol. i, p. 81. Cf. also Grohmann's Sagen 

aus B'dhmen, p. S5. The story of Sunda and Upasunda is found in the 

Mahdbhdrata, Book I, sections ccxi-ccxiv (see Roy's new edition, 1920, vol. i, 
part iv, pp. 407-413). Here we have the tale in full, and learn how the two 
brothers went to the Vindhya hills to practise the severest austerities, until 
their power became so great that the gods grew alarmed. All their schemes 
to tempt the brothers from their asceticism failed. Finally Brahma asks the 
brothers what boon it is they want. They demand knowledge of all weapons 
and powers of illusion, to be endued with great strength, to assume any form 
at will, and finally to be immortal. All these demands are granted except 
the latter, which was denied them because they had performed their great 
penances only to subdue the three worlds. They are, however, allowed to 
name some form of death which would practically amount to their being 
immortal. Thinking it an absolute impossibility for two such loving brothers 


the three worlds in valour. And Brahma, wishing to destroy 
them, gave an order to Vi^vakarman,^ and had constructed 
a heavenly woman named Tilottama, in order to behold 
whose beauty even Siva truly became four- faced, so as to 
look four ways at once, while she was devoutly circumam- 
bulating him. She, by the order of Brahma, went to Sunda 
and Upasunda, while they were in the garden of Kailasa, in 
order to seduce them. And both those two Asuras, dis- 
tracted with love, seized the fair one at the same time by 
both her arms the moment they saw her near them. And 
as they were dragging her off in mutual opposition, they 
soon came to blows, and both of them were destroyed. To 
whom is not the attractive object called woman the cause of 
misfortune ? 

[M] *' ' And you, though many, have one love, Draupadi, 
therefore you must without fail avoid quarrelling about her. 
And by my advice always observe this rule with respect to 
her. When she is with the eldest, she must be considered a 
mother by the youngest ; and when she is with the youngest, 
she must be considered a daughter-in-law by the eldest.' 

to quarrel with each other, they say : " Let us have no fear [of death] then 
from any created thing, mobile or immobile, in the three worlds, except only 
from each other." At first all goes well from the brothers' point of view. 
They subdue the gods, extirpate the Brahman caste, and lead a life of luxury 
and voluptuousness. 

In their misery the Rishis and Siddhas implore Brahma to aid them. It is 
at this point that he calls upon the divine architect, ViiSvakarman, to construct 
the celestial maiden, as related in the Ocean of Story. The story is repeated 
in chapter cxxi, where the two brothers are called Ghanta and Nighanta. 
Here they are described as Danavas who were trying to impede Prajapati in 
his work of creation. The denouement of this version is weakened by the 
fact that there are two beautiful things created. 

Stories of hostile brothers are of quite common occurrence in Sanskrit litera- 
ture. See Par^vanatha, iv, 53 et xeq., and vi, 280 et seq.\ Dharmakalpadruma, ii, 
and the story of The Two Brothers" in Schiefner and Ralston's Tibetan Tales, 
p. 279- Bloomfield {Life and Stories of Pdr(^'anatha, pp. 15, l6) gives short 
extracts from the above. n.m.p. 

1 The architect or artist of the gods. 


Your ancestors, O King, accepted that speech of mine with 
unanimous consent, having their minds fixed on salutary 
counsels. And they were my friends, and it is through love 
for them that I have come to visit you here. King of Vatsa ; 
therefore I give you this advice. Do you follow the counsel 
of your ministers, as they followed mine, and in a short time 
you will gain great success. For some time you will suffer 
grief, but you must not be too much distressed about it, for 
it will end in happiness." 

After the hermit Narada, so clever in indirectly intimat- 
ing future prosperity, had said this duly to the King of Vatsa, 
he immediately disappeared. And then Yaugandharayana 
and all the other ministers, auguring from the speech of that 
great hermit that the scheme they had in view was about to 
succeed, became exceedingly zealous about carrying it into 



For the sake of readers who are unacquainted with the plot of the world's 
greatest epic I may, perhaps, be excused for beginning this note with a very 
brief outline of the events in the first book of the Mahdbhdrata, which has 
already been so often quoted in Volume I. 

The Mahabharata, meaning " great poem relating to the Bharatas," con- 
sists of eighteen parvans, or books, made up of about 400,000 verses of eight 
and eleven syllables each. 

The outline of the story up to the polyandrous marriage of Draupadi, 
mentioned in our text, is as follows : 

There once lived in the country of the Bharatas, in the city of Hastinapura 
(about sixty miles north-east of the modern Delhi), two princes named Dhrita- 
rashtra and Pandu. Their uncle, Bhishma, governed the kingdom until they 
came of age. Legally the eldest brother, Dhritarashtra, should have ruled, 
but he was born blind and so his younger brother took his place. There was 
also a third brother named Vidura, but as his mother was only a Sudra woman 
he could not succeed. Dhritarashtra married Gandhari, the daughter of King 
Subala of Gandhara. 

Pan^u had two wives, Pritha, or KuntT, and Madri, daughter of the King 
of Madra. After a series of most successful campaigns Pandu retired with his 
wives to the Himalayas, leaving the reins of government in the hands of his 
blind brother, and his uncle Bhishma as regent. 

Both brothers had sons by supernatural birth. Dhritarashtra had a hundred 
sons, called Kauravas, or Kuru princes, while Pandu had but five three from 
KuntI, named Yudhishthira, Bhima and Arjuna, and two from Madri, who were 
twins, Nakula and Sahadeva. 

While the five princes were still but children, their father Pan^u died as the 
result of the fulfilment of a curse. On hearing of this misfortune Dhritarashtra 
took his brother's wives and children under his care, and brought up the latter 
with his own hundred sons. Owing to the general superiority in all feats of 
strength of the Pandu princes, inordinate jealousy of their cousins finally led 
to Arjuna and his brothers leaving Hastinapura. They lived at Ekacakra, dis- 
guised as mendicant Brahmans. From there they went to the Court of King 
Drupada, whose beautiful daughter Draupadi was about to hold her svayamvara 
(marriage by choice). Only the man who could perform a certain great feat in 
archery could win her. All Dhritariishtra's sons tried and failed, and Arjuna 
alone succeeded in filling the conditions of the contest. 

We now come to the incident which is supposed to have caused the 
polyandrous marriage of Draupadi. 

The five Pan(^us returned to their mother with Draupadi, and she, think- 
ing they had merely brought back alms, called out from within the house : 
"Share the gift between you." This command of a parent was law, and 
accordingly Arjuna informed Drupada that he and his four brothers were going 
to have his daughter in common The king was taken aback, and begged the 


brothers not to commit an act that was sinful and opposed both to usage and 
the Vedas. At this juncture the illustrious Rishi Vyasa appears and, by relat- 
ing the supernatural history of both the Pandus and Draupadi herself, shows 
that in reality the five Pandus originated in a single divine being. Thus the 
proposed marriage was not really polyandrous, and so could be consummated 
without breach of propriety or transgression against the sacred Vedas. Ex- 
amples of similar marriages in the past are quoted, and finally the marriage 
takes place. 

This brings us to the consideration of the practice of polyandry, which is 
the subject of this note. 

From the above story it is clear that the practice was regarded with dis- 
favour by the Aryans. If it did occur, it was necessary to explain it away, or 
to prove that it was not a ir7ie case of polyandry. In fact the practice can be 
described as non-Aryan. It was certainly non-Vedic, and was strongly opposed 
by the Brahmans. 

On the other hand, it was not denounced in the Sutras, though we must 
not infer from this that the Pandus lived before they were composed. 

Polyandry was practised by both the Tibetans and Dravidians, and this 
fact has often been brought forward to explain the reference to the polyandrous 
marriage in the Mahdbharala. It has been suggested that, as the Pandus were 
themselves a northern hill tribe or family, probably they were really poly- 
androus, and needed no excuse. The Pandavas were of the Kshatriya caste 
and enjoyed the lowest forms of marriage sanctioned by Manu ; thus they 
would have little scruple in imitating the practices of the peoples they con- 
quered, especially as the number of their own women was bound to be very 
limited. The subject is an interesting one, especially when we remember 
that in modern times the practice is almost entirely confined to the Indian 
Empire and Tibet. 

In speaking of any form of human marriage it is as well to explain the 
exact scope of the terms employed. For instance, the word polygamy is 
now used as a generic term to include all forms of marriage which are non- 
monogamic, and not merely that form in which a single husband has more 
than one wife. 

There are three distinct forms of polygamy : 

1. Polygyny, where one man has more than one wife. 

2. Polyandry, where one woman has more than one husband. 

3. Communal- or group-marriage, in which there is more than one husband 
and more than one wife in a single household. 

In a true case of polyandry, therefore, the woman must be married to 
more than one husband, and not merely have one husband and several lovers. 
In India it is not so easy as it may appear to ascertain whether a woman is 
properly married or not. We have already seen that in various localities deva- 
ddsis are married (Vol. I, App. IV) to idols, knives, drums, etc., and in making 
up their statistical tables, reporters of the Census of India were in considerable 
doubt as to how to classify them. 

Among the Nairs or Nayars of Travancore, Cochin and Malabar, marriage 
may mean either the formal ceremony of tying a tali round the neck of a 


girl, known as ldUka((u ; or the ceremony of actual alliance as husband and 
Mrife, known as sambandham. 

For an interesting account of polyandry in Malabar, reference should be 
made to M. Long worth Dames' translation of the Book of Duarte Barbosa^ 
published for the Hakluyt Society, 1918, 1921, vol. ii, pp. 40, 40n2, 42, 42ni, 
43, 59, 59n^ 60, Glri^. The passages are most ably annotated by Dames, and 
many useful references are given. 

Although polyandry can be described as non-existent among the Nayars 
of to-day (except perhaps in certain remote country parts), its prevalence has 
been repeatedly testified by travellers and missionaries from the fifteenth 
century onwards. The two distinct marriage ceremonies have always existed, 
but the significance of the second has apparently greatly changed. The 
idlikaitu took place (and still does) before the girl attains puberty, and the 
tali is tied by a mock bridegroom. The second ceremony was a kind of 
official leave for the girl to cohabit with any Brahman or Nayar she chose. 
Such men were in no way related ; consequently this system of polyandry, 
if so it can be called, is known as non-fraternal. 

The more usual variety of polyandry is that in which the woman marries 
the head of a family of brothers, the younger ones sharing the marital rights. 
This "fraternal polyandry" is still found widely disseminated in Tibet and 
the neighbouring Himalayan regions, as well as among the Todas of the 
Nilgiri hills. Full references and adequate accounts of polyandry in these 
regions, as well as evidence from the Pacific Islands, and isolated cases in 
Africa and elsewhere, have been collected and admirably presented by 
Westermarck in his History of Human Marriage, fifth edition, 1921, vol. iii, 
chapters xxix and xxx. 

Thus there is no need for repetition here. It will suffice to enumerate 
briefly the different suggestions put forward to explain polyandry and to add 
any fresh reference of importance. 

We will take fraternal polyandry first. The most usual explanation given 
is excess of males over females. This has been found to exist in most localities 
where polyandry occurs viz. Siberia, Turkestan, Tibet, Mongolia, North and 
Central Bhutan, on the Sikkim-Bengal frontier, among the Todas and in 
Coorg in South India. It has also been noticed in the New Hebrides, the 
Bismarck Archipelago, the Hawaian Islands and New Caledonia. 

Some of the other possible causes of polyandry may be looked for in the 
factors which have produced this shortage of women. 

For the 1921 Census of India the following causes of the low proportion of 
females to males in the Indian Empire were suggested as a basis for inquiry ; 

1. Infanticide. 

2. Neglect of female children. 

3. Evil effects of early marriage and premature child-bearing. 

4. High birth-rate and primitive methods of midwifery. 

5. Hard treatment accorded to women, especially widows. 

6. Hard work done by women. 

The reports showed that the two commonest causes of paucity of females 
were Nos. 3 and 4. Infanticide was rare, although its practice in former times 


in such provinces as the Panjab and Bombay may still have effect in the low 
female birth-rate. 

In Eastern Bengal and the Central India Agency the hard life of the 
women has also to be taken into account, while in Travancore, where the 
women are well cared for both before and after marriage, the sole cause of 
the excess of males is that their mortality is increasingly small. 

There are, however, other reasons for a general scarcity of women, which 
are not at first apparent. For instance, polygyny of the richer classes may 
lead to polyandry among the poorer families. In many countries a wife is an 
expensive luxury, and consequently the brothers club together to meet the cost. 

There are still other factors to be considered. Polyandry of the fraternal 
variety strengthens family ties, and keeps the property intact. 

Among the pastoral tribes of Tibet and Southern India a man will 
wander for months on end with his flocks, leaving his brothers and co- 
husbands in charge of their common wife. 

When considering non-fraternal polyandry none of these factors applies, 
and we have to look for other reasons to explain the practice as formerly 
found among the Nayars. 

It cannot be said that they are in a stage of development only a 
little further advanced than promiscuity, because, on the contrary, they are 
considerably more highly civilised than the neighbouring castes who do not 
practise polyandry. 

The explanation probably lies in the history of the Nayars. They were 
originally a military caste, and as such adhered to a system of polity incom- 
patible with the then existing marriage state. The men never lived in the 
same houses as the women with whom they consorted, and inheritance ran 
through the mother. Burton, in his first published work, Goa and the Blue 
MouTitains, 1851, p. 218 et seq., drew attention to this very point: "The 
domestic ties, always inconvenient to a strictly military population, were 
thereby [the Brahmaic adoption of the Matriarchal inheritance] conveniently 
weakened, and the wealth, dignity and unbroken unity of interests were 
preserved for generations unimpaired in great and powerful families, which, 
had the property been divided among the several branches, according to the 
general practice of Hinduism, would soon have lost their weight and influence. 
As it was unnecessary that a woman should be removed from her home, or 
introduced into a strange family, the eldest nephew on the sister's side, when 
he became the senior male member of the household, succeeded, as a matter of 
course, to the rights, property and dignity of Karnovun [head of the house]." 

For other suggested origins of the non-fraternal polyandry reference 
rshould be made to Westermarck, op. cit.^ vol. iii, pp. 198-206. 

In conclusion, I would quote a short passage from his summary on p. 206 ; 

"To explain in full why certain factors in some cases give rise to 
polyandry and in other cases not is as impossible as it often is to say 
exactly why one people is monogamous and another people polygynous. 
But, generally speaking, there can be little doubt that the main reason why 
polyandry is not more commonly practised is the natural desire in most men 
to be in exclusive possession of their wives." n.m.p. 


THEN Yaugandharayana and the other ministers 
[M] managed to conduct the King of Vatsa with 
his beloved, by the above-mentioned stratagem, to 
Lavanaka. The king arrived at that place, which, by the 
roar of the host echoing through it, seemed, as it were, 
to proclaim that the ministers' object would be successfully 
attained. And the King of Magadha, when he heard that 
the lord of Vatsa had arrived there with a large following, 
trembled, anticipating attack. But he, being wise, sent 
an ambassador to Yaugandharayana, and that excellent 
minister, well versed in his duties, received him gladly. The 
King of Vatsa, for his part, while staying in that place, ranged 
every day the wide- extended forest for the sake of sport. 

One day, the king having gone to hunt, the wise Yaugan- 
dharayana, accompanied by Gopalaka, having arranged what 
was to be done, and taking with him also Rumanvat and Vas- 
antaka, went secretly to the Queen Vasavadatta, who bowed 
at their approach. There he used various representations 
to persuade her to assist in furthering the king's interests, 
though she had been previously informed of the whole 
affair by her brother. And she agreed to the proposal, 
Vcuavadattd though it inflicted on her the pain of separation. 
plays her part What, indeed, is there which women of good 
in the Scheme family, who are attached to their husbands, will 
not endure ? Thereupon the skilful Yaugandharayana 
made her assume the appearance of a Brahman woman, 
having given her a charm which enabled her to change 
her shape. And he made Vasantaka one-eyed, and like a 
Brahman boy, and as for himself, he in the same way 
assumed the appearance of an old Brahman. Then that 
mighty- minded one took the queen, after she had assumed 
that appearance, and, accompanied by Vasantaka, set out 
leisurely for the town of Magadha. And so Vasavadatta 




left her house and went in bodily presence along the road, 
though she wandered in spirit to her husband. Then 
Rumanvat burned her pavilion with fire, and exclaimed 
aloud : " Alas ! alas ! the queen and Vasantaka are burnt." ^ 
And so in that place there arose to heaven at the same time 
flames and lamentation ; the flames gradually subsided ; not 
so the sound of weeping. 

Then Yaugandharayana, with Vasavadatta and Vasan- 
taka, reached the city of the King of Magadha, and seeing 
the Princess Padmavati in the garden he went up to her with 
those two, though the guards tried to prevent him. And 
Padmavati, when she saw the Queen Vasavadatta in the dress 
of a Brahman woman, fell in love with her at first sight. The 
princess ordered the guards to desist from their opposition, 
and had Yaugandharayana, who was disguised as a Brahman, 
conducted into her presence. And she addressed to him 
The two this question: "Great Brahman, who is this girl 

Queens meet you have with you, and why are you come ? " 
And he answered her : " Princess, this is my daughter, 
Avantika by name, and her husband, being addicted to 
vice,^ has deserted her and fled somewhere or other. So I 
will leave her in your care, illustrious lady, while I go and 
find her husband and bring him back, which will be in a short 

^ The story of the stratagem of Yaugandharayana forms the plot of a 
drama known as Svapna-vdsavadatta, attributed to the poet Bhasa, although 
this authorship is uncertain. Its date is given by scholars at widely differing 
periods, varying from the fourth century b.c. to the seventh century a.d. The 
latest discussions on the subject will be found in the Joum. Roy. As. Soc, 
as follows :Banerji-Sastri, "The Plays of Bhasa," July 1921, pp. ;267-282 ; 
Barnett, "Bhasa," Oct. 1921, pp. 587-589; Thomas, "The Plays of Bhasa," 
Jan. 1922, pp. 79-83. See also A. K. and K. R. Pisharoti, " Bhasa's Works, 
are they Genuine .>" Bull. Sch. Orient. Stud., vol. iii, 1923, pp. 107-117. 

Translations of the Svapna-vasavadattd have been made into several 
European languages. For the English renderings reference should be made 
to those by K. Rama Pisharoti, Quart. Joum. Mythic. Soc, Bangalore, Jan., 
Apr., July, 1920, and Jan. 1921 ; and V. S. Sukthankar, Oxford, 1923. A full 
bibliography of texts, translations and critical articles appears in Sukthankar's 
"Studies in Bhasa," Joum. Bom. Br. Roy. As. Soc, vol. xxvi. No. 2, 1923, 
pp. 230-249. N.M.p. 

2 This is literally true. The king was addicted to the vyasana, or vice, of 


time. And let this one-eyed boy, her brother, remain here 
near her, in order that she may not be grieved at having to 
remain alone." He said this to the princess, and she granted 
his request, and, taking leave of the queen, the good minister 
quickly returned to Lavanaka. 

Then Padmavati took with her Vasavadatta, who was 
passing under the name of Avantika, and Vasantaka, who 
accompanied her in the form of a one-eyed boy ; and showing 
her excellent disposition by her kind reception and affection- 
ate treatment of them, entered her splendidly adorned palace ; 
and there Vasavadatta, seeing Sita in the history of Rama 
represented upon the painted walls, was enabled to bear her 
own sorrow.^ And Padmavati perceived that Vasavadatta 
was a person of very high rank, by her shape, her delicate 
softness, the graceful manner in which she sat down and ate, 
and also by the smell of her body,^ which was fragrant as the 
blue lotus, and so she entertained her with luxurious comfort 
to her heart's content, even such as she enjoyed herself. 
And she thought to herself : " Surely she is some distin- 
guished person remaining here in concealment ; did not 
Draupadi remain concealed in the palace of the King of 
Virata ? " Then Vasavadatta, out of regard to the princess, 
made for her unfading garlands and forehead- streaks,^ as the 

* The painting would represent Sita in a cave in Lanka guarded by female 
demons. She had been abducted by Havana, and, on her refusing to become 
his wife, had been confined in the cave, where she was patiently waiting for 
Rama to rescue her. See Book III of the Rdmdyana. n.m.p. 

2 The seclusion of ladies of high rank and the continual use of cosmetics 
after the bath would doubtless give a perfume to the skin which would require 
continued disuse to entirely eradicate. At a Brahman wedding the bride is only 
allowed to use scented soaps provided they contain no animal fats. n.m.p. 

3 We are told in the text that Vasavadatta had learned this art from the 
King of Vatsa. It will be remembered that he, in his turn, had acquired the 
art from the snake Vasunemi, whom he had rescued from a Savara (see Vol. I, 
p. 100). The reference, therefore, must be to the {ikh, or spangles worn by 
Hindu women of good caste, and not merely to the tilaka, or caste marks, 
already mentioned in Vol. I, p. 69 and 69n\ 

The name i'lkti is derived from tika, which means a mark on the forehead 
made in an initiation ceremony. The basis of the tikli is vermilion, which is 
smeared on lac-clay, while above it a piece of mica or glass is attached as an 
additional ornament. 

Russell describes them, and gives a plate of twenty-four specimens in 


King of Vatsa had previously taught her ; and Padmavati's 
mother, seeing her adorned with them, asked her privately 
who had made those garlands and streaks. Then Padmavati 
said to her : " There is dwelUng here in my house a certain 
lady of the name of Avantika; she made all these for me." 
When her mother heard that she said to her : " Then, my 
daughter, she is not a woman : she is some goddess, since she 
possesses such knowledge ; gods and also hermits remain 
in the houses of good people for the sake of deluding them, 
and in proof of this listen to the following anecdote : 

17. Story of Kuntl 

There was once a king named Kuntibhoja; and a her- 
mit of the name of Durvasas, who was exceedingly fond 
of deluding people, came and stayed in his palace. He 

colour in his Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces (vol. iv, pp. 1 06-110). 
He says that the tikti is worn in the Hindustani districts and not in the south. 
Women from Rajputana, such as the Marwari Banias and Banjaras, wear large 
spangles set in gold, with a border of jewels as well, if they can afford it. 
Thus it will be seen that considerable art in making and designing tiklis can 
be achieved. 

The tikh forms part of the sohdg or lucky trousseau. It is made chiefly by 
the Lakheras and Patwas in the Jubbulpore, Betul, Raipur and Saugor districts 
of the Central Provinces. It is affixed to the girl's forehead at her marriage 
and is worn until her husband's death. It appears that sometimes unmarried 
girls also wear small ornamental spangles. Another constituent of the sohdg 
is sindur, or vermilion, which is not usually worn if a tikli has already been 
affixed. The reason for this is that, as we have seen above, the basis of the 
tikti is vermilion. Thus we can look upon the tikti as a later development of 
the smear of vermilion. In some cases the bride and bridegroom mark each 
other with red lead, while the custom of mixing or exchanging blood prevails 
among certain Bengal tribes. It is interesting to note that in Brittany the 
bridegroom sucks a drop of blood from an incision made below the bride's 
left breast (see F. C. Conybeare, "A Brittany Marriage Custom," Folk-Lore, 
vol. xviii, p. 448, 1 907). 

Evidence seems to point to the fact that all these uses of vermilion or 
red lead are later survivals of the original blood rite by which a woman was 
received into her husband's clan. This explanation has not, however, found 
universal acceptance, and Westermarck {History of Human Marriage, vol. iii, 
pp. 446-448) considers that the colour red is used in marriage rites in circum- 
stances which do not allow us to presume that the use of it is the survival 
of an earlier practice of using human blood. Although he does not advance 
proof to the contrary, he gives a large number of useful references to articles 


commissioned his own daughter Kunti to attend upon the 
hermit, and she diligently waited upon him. And one day he, 
wishing to prove her, said to her : " Cook boiled rice with 
milk and sugar quickly while I bathe, and then I will come and 
eat it." The sage said this and bathed quickly, and then he 
came to eat it, and Kunti brought him the vessel full of that 
food ; and then the hermit, knowing that it was almost red- 
hot with the heated rice, and seeing that she could not hold 
it in her hands, ^ cast a look at the back of Kunti, and she, 
perceiving what was passing in the hermit's mind, placed the 
vessel on her back ; then he ate to his heart's content, while 
Kunti 's back was being burned, and because, though she was 
terribly burnt, she stood without being at all discomposed, 
the hermit was much pleased with her conduct, and after he 
had eaten granted her a boon. 

[M] " So the hermit remained there, and in the same way 
this Avantika, who is now staying in your palace, is some 

on the use of red in wedding rites. I hope to include a note on the colour 
red in a later volume. 

In conclusion I would quote from the writings of W. Crooke. In a paper 
on the "Hill Tribes of the Central Indian Hills" (Joum. Anth. Inst, 1899, 
p. 240 et seq.\ he mentions a case of marriage by capture in which a Bhuiyar 
girl wrestles with a youth as he applies vermilion to her hair. After discussing 
other modes of marriage he says : " More obvious still is the motive of the 
blood covenant. Here we can observe the stages of the degradation of custom 
from the use of blood drawn from the little finger of the husband which is 
mixed with betel and eaten by the bride among some of the Bengal tribes 
(Risley, Tribes and Castes of Bengal, \\, pp. 189, 201). The next stage comes 
among the Kurmis, where the blood is mixed with lac dye. Lastly come the 
rites, common to all these tribes, by which the bridegroom, often in secrecy, 
covered by a sheet, rubs vermilion on the parting of the girl's hair, and the 
women relations smear their toes with lac dye all palpable degradations of 
the original blood rite. That the rite is sacramental is clearly shown by the 
fact that the widow after her husband's death solemnly washes off the red 
from her hair or flings the little box in which she keeps the colouring matter 
into running water." 

The whole subject is very interesting, and opens up a field for much 
anthropological research. n.m.p. 

* 1 read hastagraJiatfogyam for the ahastagrahayogydm of Dr Brockhaus. 


distinguished person ; therefore endeavour to conciHate 
her." When she heard this from the mouth of her mother, 
Padmavati showed the utmost consideration for Vasavadatta, 
who was living disguised in her palace. And Vasavadatta 
for her part, being separated from her lord, remained there 
pale with bereavement, like a lotus in the night/ But the 
various boyish grimaces which Vasantaka exhibited,^ again 
and again called a smile into her face. 

In the meanwhile the King of Vatsa, who had wandered 
away into very distant hunting-grounds, returned late in the 
evening to Lavanaka. And there he saw the women's apart- 
ments reduced to ashes by fire, and heard from his ministers 
that the queen was burnt, with Vasantaka. And when he 
heard it, he fell on the ground, and he was robbed of his 
senses by unconsciousness, that seemed to desire to remove 
the painful sense of grief. But in a moment he came to him- 
self, and was burnt with sorrow in his heart, as if penetrated 
with the fire that strove to consume the image of the queen 
imprinted there. 

Then overpowered with sorrow he lamented, and thought 
of nothing but suicide ; but a moment after he began to 
reflect, calling to mind the following prediction : " From 
this queen shall be born a son who shall reign over all the 
Vidyadharas. This is what the hermit Narada told me, and 
it cannot be false. Moreover, that same hermit warned me 
that I should have sorrow for some time. And the affliction 
of Gopalaka seems to be but light. Besides, I cannot detect 
any excessive grief in Yaugandharayana and the other 
ministers, therefore I suspect the queen may possibly be 
alive. But the ministers may in this matter have employed 
a certain amount of politic artifice, therefore I may some 
day be reunited with the queen. So I see an end to this 
affliction." * 

^ The flower closes when the sun sets. 

2 To keep up his character as a Brahman boy. 

3 I read ddkaishind. 

* This suspicion of Udayana seems to rather weaken the plot. In the 
Svapna-vdsavadatta the king is made to believe that not only Vasavadatta but 
also Yaugandharayana have been burnt to death. Thus the denouement is 
considerably strengthened. n.m.p. 


Thus reflecting, and being exhorted by his ministers, the 
king established in his heart self-control. And Gopalaka 
sent off a private messenger immediately, without anyone's 
knowing of it, to his sister, to comfort her, with an exact 
report of the state of affairs. Such being the situation in 
Lavanaka, the spies of the King of Magadha, who were there, 
went off to him and told him all. The king, who was ever 
ready to seize the opportune moment, when he heard this, 
was once more anxious to give to the King of Vatsa his 
daughter Padmavati, who had before been asked in marriage 
Ti. 1^- by his ministers. Then he communicated his 

ihe Ktng . i i i . i tt- 

agrees to his wishcs With rcspcct to this matter to the Kmg 
Marriage with of Vatsa, and also to Yaugandharayana. And 
a mavai y^^ ^j^^ advicc of Yaugandharayana the King of 
Vatsa accepted the proposal, thinking to himself that perhaps 
this was the very reason why the queen had been concealed. 

Then Yaugandharayana quickly ascertained an auspicious 
moment, and sent to the sovereign of Magadha an ambassador, 
with an answer to his proposal, which ran as follows : " Thy 
desire is approved by us, so on the seventh day from this the 
King of Vatsa will arrive at thy court to marry Padmavati, 
in order that he may quickly forget Vasavadatta." This was 
the message which the great minister sent to that king. 
And that ambassador conveyed it to the King of Magadha, 
who received him joyfully. 

Then the lord of Magadha made such preparations for 
the joyful occasion of the marriage as were in accordance with 
his love for his daughter, his own desire and his wealth ; and 
Padmavati was delighted at hearing that she had obtained 
the bridegroom she desired ; but when Vasavadatta heard that 
news she was depressed in spirit. That intelligence, when it 
reached her ear, changed the colour of her face, and assisted 
the transformation effected by her disguise. But Vasantaka 
said : "In this way an enemy will be turned into a friend, 
and your husband will not be alienated from you." This 
speech of Vasantaka's consoled her like a confidante, and 
enabled her to bear up. 

Then the discreet lady again prepared for Padmavati 
unfading garlands and forehead-streaks, both of heavenly 


beauty, as her marriage was now nigh at hand ; and when 
the seventh day from that arrived, the monarch of Vatsa 
actually came there with his troops, accompanied by his 
ministers, to marry her. How could he, in his state of be- 
reavement, have ever thought of undertaking such a thing, 
if he had not hoped in that way to recover the queen ? And 
the King of Magadha immediately came with great delight 
to meet him (who was a feast to the eyes of the king's 
subjects), as the sea advances to meet the rising moon. 

Then the monarch of Vatsa entered that city of the 
King of Magadha, and at the same time great joy entered 
the minds of the citizens on every side. There the women 
beheld him fascinating the mind,^ though his frame was 
attenuated from bereavement, looking like the God of Love 
deprived of his wife Rati. 

Then the King of Vatsa entered the palace of the lord 
of Magadha, and proceeded to the chamber prepared for the 
marriage ceremony, which was full of women whose husbands 
The Marriage Were still alivc. In that chamber he beheld Padma- 
Ceremony yati adomcd for the wedding, surpassing with the 
full moon of her face the circle of the full moon. And seeing 
that she had garlands and forehead- streaks such as he himself 
only could make, the king could not help wondering where 
she got them. Then he ascended the raised platform of the 
altar, and his taking her hand there was a commencement 
of his taking the tribute ^ of the whole earth. The smoke 
of the altar dimmed his eyes with tears, as supposing that 
he could not bear to witness the ceremony, since he loved 
Vasavadatta so much. Then the face of Padmavati, red- 
dened with circumambulating the fire, appeared as if full of 
anger on account of her perceiving what was passing in her 
husband's mind. 

When the ceremony of marriage was completed, the King 
of Vatsa let the hand of Padmavati quit his, but he never 
even for a moment allowed the image of Vasavadatta to be 
absent from his heart. Then the King of Magadha gave him 
jewels in such abundance that the earth seemed to be deprived 

^ This applies also to the God of Love, who bewilders the mind. 
2 Kara means " hand," and also " tribute." 


of her gems, they all having been extracted. And Yaugan- 
dharayana, calling the fire to witness on that occasion, made 
the King of Magadha undertake never to injure his master. 
So that festive scene proceeded, with the distribution of 
garments and ornaments, with the songs of excellent minstrels 
and the dancing of dancing-girls. In the meanwhile Vasa- 
vadatta remained unobserved, hoping for the glory of her 
husband, appearing ^ to be asleep, like the beauty of the 
moon in the day. 

Then the King of Vatsa went to the women's apartments, 
and the skilful Yaugandharayana, being afraid that he would 
see the queen, and that so the whole secret would be divulged, 
said to the sovereign of Magadha : " Prince, this very day 
the King of Vatsa will set forth from thy house." The King 
of Magadha consented to it, and then the minister made the 
very same announcement to the King of Vatsa, and he also 
approved of it. 

Then the King of Vatsa set out from that place, after his 
attendants had eaten and drunk, together with his ministers, 
escorting his bride Padmavati. And Vasavadatta, ascending 
a comfortable carriage send by Padmavati, with its great 
horses ^ also put at her disposal by her, went secretly in the 
rear of the army, making the transformed Vasantaka pre- 
cede her. At last the King of Vatsa reached Lavanaka, and 
entered his own house, together with his bride, but thought 
all the time only of the Queen Vasavadatta. The queen also 
arrived, and entered the house of Gopalaka at night, making 
the chamberlains wait round it. There she saw her brother 
Gopalaka, who showed her great attention, and she embraced 
his neck, weeping, while his eyes filled with tears ; and at 
that moment arrived Yaugandharayana, true to his previous 
agreement, together with Rumanvat, and the queen showed 
him all due courtesy. 

* I read iva for et^a. 

* It seems unnecessary to add "with its great horses," and this is ex- 
plained by the reading of the Durgaprasad text, where we find tan mahattara- 
kaih instead of tanmahdluragaih, thus meaning that attendants of high rank 
were put at her disposal. See Speyer, " Studies about the Kathdsaritsagara,'* 
Verh. Kon. Akad. Weten. Amst., viii, No. 5, 1908, p. 97. 


And while he was engaged in dispeUing the queen's grief, 
caused by the great effort she had made and her separation 
from her husband, those chamberlains repaired to Padmavati 
and said : " Queen, Avantika has arrived, but she has in a 
strange way dismissed us, and gone to the house of Prince 
Gopalaka." When Padmavati heard that representation 
from her chamberlains she was alarmed, and in the presence 
of the King of Vatsa answered them : "Go and say to 
Avantika : ' The queen says : " You are a deposit in my 
hands, so what business have you where you are ? Come 
where I am." ' " 

When they heard that they departed, and the king asked 
Padmavati in private who made for her the unfading garlands 
and forehead- streaks. Then she said : "It is all the product 
of the great artistic skill of the lady named Avantika, who 
was deposited in my house by a certain Brahman." 

No sooner did the king hear that than he went off to 
the house of Gopalaka, thinking that surely Vasavadatta 
would be there. And he entered the house, at the door of 
The Reunion which cunuchs wcrc standing, ^ and within which 
with were the queen, Gopalaka, the two ministers 

Vdsavadatm ^^^ Vasantaka. There he saw Vasavadatta re- 
turned from banishment, like the orb of the moon freed 
from its eclipse. Then he fell on the earth delirious with the 
poison of grief, and trembling was produced in the heart 
of Vasavadatta. Then she too fell on the earth with limbs 
pale from separation, and lamented aloud, blaming her own 
conduct. And that couple, afflicted with grief, lamented 
so that even the face of Yaugandharayana was washed with 

And then Padmavati too heard that wailing, which 
seemed so Httle suited to the occasion, and came in a state of 
bewilderment to the place whence it proceeded. And gradu- 
ally finding out the truth with respect to the king and Vasa- 
vadatta, she was reduced to the same state ; for good women 
are affectionate and tender-hearted. And Vasavadatta fre- 
quently exclaimed with tears : " What profit is there in my 

1 Reading taddvarasthitamahattaram as one word. 1 shall give a long 

note on Indian eunuchs in a later volume (Chapter XXXIII). n.m.p. 


life that causes only sorrow to my husband ? " Then the 
calm Yaugandharayana said to the King of Vatsa : " King, 
I have done all this in order to make you universal emperor, 
by marrying you to the daughter of the sovereign of Magadha, 
and the queen is not in the shghtest degree to blame ; more- 
over this, her rival wife, is witness to her good behaviour 
during her absence from you." 

Thereupon Padmavati, whose mind was free from jealousy, 
said : "I am ready to enter the fire on the spot to prove her 
innocence." And the king said : "I am in fault, as it was 
for my sake that the queen endured this great affliction." 
And Vasavadatta, having firmly resolved, said : "I must 
enter the fire to clear from suspicion the mind of the king." 

Then the wise Yaugandharayana, best of right- acting 
men, rinsed his mouth, with his face towards the east, and 
spoke a blameless speech : " If I have been a benefactor to 
this king, and if the queen is free from stain, speak, ye 
guardians of the world ; if it is not so, I will part from my 
body." ^ Thus he spoke and ceased, and this heavenly 
utterance was heard : " Happy art thou, O King, that hast 
for minister Yaugandharayana, and for wife Vasavadatta, 
who in a former birth was a goddess ; not the shghtest blame 
attaches to her." Having uttered this the Voice ceased. 

All who were present, when they heard that sound, which 
resounded through all the regions, delightful as the deep 
thunder roar at the first coming of the rain-clouds, having 
endured affliction for a long time, lifted up their hands ^ 
and plainly imitated peafowl in their joy. Moreover, the King 
of Vatsa and Gopalaka praised that proceeding of Yaugan- 
dharayana's, and the former already considered that the 
whole earth was subject to him. Then that king, possessing 
those two wives, whose affection was every day increased by 
living with him, like joy and tranquillity come to visit him in 
bodily form, was in a state of supreme felicity. 

^ See note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

* Here the Durgaprasiid text reads utkandharaq ca suciram, etc., meaning 
"with uplifted necks," which is more in keeping with the rest of the simile 
than "with uplifted hands." n.m.p. 




" If I have been a benefactor to this king, and if the queen is free from 
stain, speak, ye guardians of the world ; if it is not so, I will part from my 
body " (p. 30). 

This is a good example of the "act of truth" motif, to which reference 
has already be made in Vol. I, pp. 166, l67. As I stated on p. l66, I intend 
(in a note to Chapter XXXVI) giving examples of the various uses to which 
the motif can be put, and the numerous ways in which it can be introduced. 
I shall, therefore, confine myself here to explaining the meaning of the motif 
and the religious significance attached to the act. 

Truth has been regarded all over the world and in all ages as irresistible, 
as something possessing a power which even gods cannot spurn, and from 
which the wicked shrink in terror. The deities of the Jew, the Christian 
and the Mohammedan are regarded as acting in accordance with truth one 
might almost say as being the personification of truth in its widest sense. No 
wonder, then, that the utterance of a simple truth was considered sufficiently 
powerful to cause miracles to take place. For instance, we read in 2 Kings i, 
10-12: "And Elijah answered and said to the captain of fifty. If I be a man 
of God, then let fire come down from heaven, and consume thee and thy fifty. 
And there came down fire from heaven, and consumed him and his fifty." 

It lies at the background of the magic art of primitive peoples and is still 
used in some form or other among the most civilised countries. We have all 
heard a man in expressing surprise, or in making a resolution, begin with the 
words "as sure as my name's so-and-so . . ." This is a form of oath intro- 
duced by a statement of absolute truth, thus lending power to what follows. 

It is obvious what a useful motif the ''act of truth" can become in 
the hands of the story-teller. The hero or heroine is in a tight corner and 
suddenly, as a deus ex machina, an "act of truth " saves the situation. It is as 
sudden and unexpected as the use of the dohada motif (see Vol. I, pp. 221- 
228) when a woman suddenly demands some jewel, fruit or animal, which 
at once starts an entirely fresh series of adventures, when the dutiful husband 
sets out on his journeys to procure the desired article. 

The word sachchakiriyd, or simply kiriyd, is used to express an " act of truth " 
in Pali, but satyddhishthdnam ("truth-command") and satyavddya ("truth- 
utterance") are also found. For fuller details see Burlingame, Journ. Roy. 
Asiat. Soc.j July 1917, p. 429 et seq., to whose article I am indebted for much 
of the information contained in my notes on this motif. 

Owing to the omnipotence of truth we are not surprised to find that 
a direct appeal to its great power is not a casual action, but a formality of 
considerable religious importance. In the present text of the Ocean of Story 
we read that Yaugandharayana " rinsed his mouth, with his face towards the 
east, and spoke a blameless speech." Thus before making his sachchakiriyd he 
performed distinct religious acts firstly he turns in the direction in which all 
Brahmans turn at sunrise, read the Vedas and make their daily off'erings, and 


secondly he undergoes a form of purification. He is then in a fit state to 
invoke the great power of truth to his aid. 

The actual form of the act differs considerably thus in one instance, when 
the Buddha was in a previous existence as a quail^ before making his " act of 
truth," he jwnders deeply on the Buddhas of the past and their great powers 
and achievements. In another instance a king and queen, wishing to cross 
rivers dryshod, meditate on the virtues of the Buddha, the Law and the Order. 
Numerous other examples could be given. There is no necessity for the truth 
to refer to good actions, qualities or resolutions. It can, on the contrary, have 
reference to the very opposite. A man may affirm he is a liar and a scoundrel 
of the deepest dye, a woman may state she is the lowest kind of prostitute 
it matters not, as long as it is the absolute truth and as a result their .power 
will be temporarily as great as the mightiest king or most righteous Brahman. 
The locus classicus of the "act of truth " is one of the dialogues of King 
Milinda and the Buddhist sage Nagasena (Milindapanhd, 119-123). The king 
inquires whether Nagasena's statement that Sivi received Heavenly Eyes is 
not inconsistent with the Scriptural statement that the Heavenly Eye cannot 
be produced after the destruction of the physical cause. Nagasena explains 
that it was the power of truth that caused the restoration of Sivi's eyesight, 
and continues as follows : 

" But, your Majesty, is there such a thing in the world as Truth, by which 
truth-speakers perform an Act of Truth > Yes, reverend sir, there is in the 
world such a thing as Truth. By Truth, reverend Nagasena, truth-speakers 
perform an Act of Truth, and by this means cause rain, extinguish fire, counter- 
act poison, and do all manner of other things besides that have to be done. 
Well then, your Majesty, the two statements are perfectly consistent and 
harmonious. King Sivi received Heavenly Eyes by the power of Youth : by 
the power of Truth, your Majesty, on no other basis, is the Heavenly Eye 
produced ; the Truth alone was in this case the basis for the production of the 
Heavenly Eye. 

" The case was precisely the same, your Majesty, as when accomplished 
persons recite a Truth, saying, ' Let a mighty cloud send down rain ' ; and 
immediately upon their recitation of the Truth, a mighty cloud sends down 
rain. Your Majesty, is there stored up in the sky any cause of rain, by which 
the mighty cloud sends down rain } Of course not, reverend sir ; the Truth 
alone is in this case the cause whereby the mighty cloud sends down rain. 
In precisely the same manner, your Majesty, no ordinary cause operated 
in the case in question ; the Truth alone was in that case the basis for the 
production of the Heavenly Eye. 

** It was precisely the same, your Majesty, as when accomplished persons 
recite a Truth, saying, 'Let the mighty mass of flaring, flaming fire turn 
back ' ; and immediately upon their recitation of the Truth, the mighty mass 
of flaring, flaming fire turns back. ... It was precisely the same as when 
accomplished persons recite a Truth, saying, ' Let the deadly poison become 
an antidote ' ; and immediately upon their recitation of the Truth the deadly 
poison becomes an antidote. Your Majesty, is there stored up in this deadly 
poison any cause whereby it immediately becomes an antidote ? Of course 



not, reverend sir ; the Truth alone is in this case the cause of the immediate 
counteraction of the deadly poison. In precisely the same manner, your 
Majesty, in the case of King Sivi, the Truth alone, to the exclusion of any 
ordinary cause, was the basis for the production of the Heavenly Eye " 
(Burlingame's translation, pp. 437, 438 of Journ. Hoy. As. Soc, op. cit.). 

In conclusion Nagasena gives instances of the " act of truth " causing 
the ocean to roll back, and a river to flow backwards. n.m.p. 



THE next day the King of Vatsa, sitting in private 
[M] with Vasavadatta and Padmavati, engaged in a 
festive banquet, sent for Yaugandharayana, Gopalaka, 
Rumanvat and Vasantaka, and had much confidential con- 
versation with them. Then the king, in the hearing of them 
all, told the following tale, with reference to the subject of 
his separation from his beloved : 

18. Story of Urvasl ^ 

Once on a time there was a king of the name of Puru- 
ravas, who was a devoted worshipper of Vishnu ; he traversed 
heaven as well as earth without opposition, and one day, as 
he was sauntering in Nandana, the garden of the gods, a 
certain Apsaras of the name of Urva^i, who was a second 
stupefying weapon ^ in the hands of Love, cast an eye upon 
him. The moment she beheld him, the sight so completely 
robbed her of her senses that she alarmed the timid minds 
of Rambha and her other friends. The king too, when he 
saw that torrent of the nectar of beauty, was quite faint with 
thirst, because he could not obtain possession of her. Then 
Vishnu, who knoweth all, dwelling in the sea of milk, gave 
the following command to Narada, an excellent hermit, who 
came to visit him : " O divine sage,^ the King Pururavas, at 
present abiding in the garden of Nandana, having had his 
mind captivated by Urva^i, remains incapable of bearing the 
pain of separation from his love. Therefore go, O hermit, 
and, informing Indra as from me, cause that Urva^i to be 

^ This interesting story, dating back to Rig-Veda days, is fully treated 
in Appendix I of this volume, see pp. 24>5-259. n.m.p. 

* This, with the water weapon, and that of whirlwind, is mentioned in 
the Ilamayana and the Utlara Rama Charita. 

* Or Devarshi, belonging to the highest class of Rishis or patriarchal 



quickly given to the king." Having received this order 
from Vishnu, Narada undertook to execute it, and going to 
Pururavas, who was in the state described, roused him from 
his lethargy and said to him : " Rise up, O King ; for thy 
sake I am sent here by Vishnu, for that god does not neglect 
the sufferings of those who are unfeignedly devoted to him." 
With these words, the hermit Narada cheered up Pururavas, 
and then went with him into the presence of the king of 
the gods. 

Then he communicated the order of Vishnu to Indra, who 
received it with reverent mind, and so the hermit caused 
Urvasi to be given to Pururavas. That gift of Urvasi 
deprived the inhabitants of heaven of life, but it was to 
Urvasi herself an elixir to restore her to life. Then Pururavas 
returned with her to the earth, exhibiting to the eyes of 
mortals the wonderful spectacle of a heavenly bride. Thence- 
forth those two, Urvasi and that king, remained, so to speak, 
fastened together by the leash of gazing on one another, so 
that they were unable to separate. One day Pururavas went 
to heaven, invited by Indra to assist him, as a war had arisen 
between him and the Danavas. In that war the King of the 
Asuras, named Mayadhara, was slain, and accordingly Indra 
held a great feast, at which all the nymphs of heaven dis- 
played their skill.^ And on that occasion Pururavas, when 
he saw the nymph Rambha performing a dramatic dance 
called chalita,^ with the teacher Tumburu standing by her, 
laughed. Then Rambha said to him sarcastically : "I sup- 
pose, mortal, you know this heavenly dance, do you not ? " 
Pururavas answered : " From associating with Urvasi, I 
know dances which even your teacher Tumburu does not 
know." When Tumburu heard that, he laid this curse on 
him in his wrath : " May est thou be separated from Urvasi 
until thou propitiate Krishna." When he heard that curse, 
Pururavas went and told Urvasi what had happened to 
him, which was terrible as " a thunderbolt from the blue." 
Immediately some Gandharvas swooped down, without the 

^ Durgaprasiid reads pranrtta instead of pravrtta, thus the translation 
^would be : "where the Apsarases executed their dances." n.m.p. 
2 This dance is mentioned in Act I of the Malavikdsnimitra. 


king seeing them, and carried off Urva^i, whither he knew 
not. Then Pururavas, knowing that the calamity was due 
to that curse, went and performed penance to appease Vishnu 
in the hermitage of Badarika. 

But Urva^i, remaining in the country of the Gandharvas, 
afflicted at her separation, was as void of sense as if she had 
been dead, asleep, or a mere picture. She kept herself alive 
with hoping for the end of the curse, but it is wonderful 
that she did not lose her hold on life, while she remained 
like the female chakravaka during the night, the appointed 
time of her separation from the male bird. And Pururavas 
propitiated Vishnu by that penance, and, owing to Vishnu 
having been gratified, the Gandharvas surrendered Urva^i 
to him. So that king, reunited to the nymph whom he had 
recovered at the termination of the curse, enjoyed heavenly 
pleasures, though living upon earth. 

[M] The king stopped speaking, and Vasavadatta felt an 
emotion of shame at having endured separation, when she 
heard of the attachment of Urva^i to her husband. 

Then Yaugandharayana, seeing that the queen was 
abashed at having been indirectly reproved by her husband, 
said, in order to make him feel in his turn ^ : " King, listen 
to this tale, if you have not already heard it : 

19. Story of Vihitasena 

There is on this earth a city of the name of Timira, the 
dwelling of the Goddess of Prosperity ; in it there was a 
famous king named Vihitasena ; he had a wife named 
Tejovati, a very goddess upon earth. That king was ever 
hanging on her neck, devoted to her embraces, and could not 
even bear that his body should be for a short time scratched 
with the coat of mail. And once there came upon the king 

1 The Durgaprasad text makes better sense : " in order to dispel that 
thought from her mind . . ." See Speyer, op. cit., pp. 97-98. n.m.p. 


a lingering fever with diminishing intensity ; and the physi- 
cians forbade him to continue in the queen's society. But 
when he was excluded from the society of the queen, there 
was engendered in his heart a disease not to be reached by 
medicine or treatment. The physicians told the ministers 
in private that the disease might relieve itself by fear or the 
stroke of some affliction. The ministers reflected : " How 
can we produce fear in that brave king, who did not tremble 
when an enormous snake once fell on his back, who was not 
confused when a hostile army penetrated into his harem ? 
It is useless thinking of devices to produce fear; what are 
we ministers to do with the king ? " Thus the ministers 
reflected, and after deliberating with the queen, concealed 
her, and said to the king : " The queen is dead." While the 
king was tortured with that exceeding grief, in his agitation 
that disease in his heart relieved itself.^ When the king had 
got over the pain of the illness, the ministers restored to him 
that great queen, who seemed like a second gift of ease, and 
the king valued her highly as the saviour of his life, and as 
too wise to bear anger against her afterwards for concealing 

[M] " For it is care for a husband's interests that entitles 
a king's wife to the name of queen ; by mere compliance 
with a husband's whims the name of queen is not obtained. 
And discharging the duty of minister means undivided 
attention to the burden of the king's affairs, but the com- 
pliance with a king's passing fancies is the characteristic of 
a mere courtier. Accordingly we made this effort in order 
to come to terms with your enemy, the King of Magadha, 
and with a view to your conquering the whole earth. So it 
is not the case that the queen, who, through love for you, 
endured intolerable separation, has done you a wrong ; on 
the contrary she has conferred on you a great benefit." 

When the King of Vatsa heard this true speech of his prime 

1 Literals, " broke." The vyddhi or disease must have been of the nature 
of an abscess. 


minister, he thought that he himself was in the wrong, and was 
quite satisfied. And he said : *' I know this well enough, that 
the queen, like Policy incarnate in bodily form, acting under 
your inspiration, has bestowed upon me the dominion of 
the earth. But that unbecoming speech which I uttered was 
due to excessive affection. How can people whose minds are 
bhnded with love bring themselves to deliberate calmly ? " ^ 
With such conversation that King of Vatsa brought the day 
and the queen's eclipse of shame to an end. 

On the next day a messenger sent by the King of Magadha, 
who had discovered the real state of the case, came to the 
sovereign of Vatsa, and said to him as from his master: 
*' We have been deceived by thy ministers, therefore take such 
steps as that the world may not henceforth be to us a place 
of misery." 

When he heard that, the king showed all honour to the 
messenger, and sent him to Padmavati to take his answer 
from her. She, for her part, being altogether devoted to 
Vasavadatta, had an interview with the ambassador in her 
presence. For humility is an unfailing characteristic of 
good women. The ambassador delivered her father's message : 
" My daughter, you have been married by an artifice, and 
your husband is attached to another, thus it has come to 
pass that I reap in misery the fruit of being the father of 
a daughter." But Padmavati thus answered him : " Say 
to my father from me here : ' What need of grief ? For my 
husband is very indulgent to me, and the Queen Vasavadatta 
is my affectionate sister, so my father must not be angry with 
my husband, unless he wishes to break his own plighted 
faith and my heart at the same time.' " 

When this becoming answer had been given by Padma- 
vati, the Queen Vasavadatta hospitably entertained the am- 
bassador and then sent him away. When the ambassador 
had departed, Padmavati remained somewhat depressed with 
regret, calling to mind her father's house. Then Vasava- 
datta ordered Vasantaka to amuse her, and he came 
near, and with that object proceeded to tell the following 
tale : 

^ " Amare et sapere vix deo conceditur" (Publius Syrus). 



20. Story of Somaprabhd 

There is a city, the ornament of the earth, called PataU- 
putra,^ and in it there was a great merchant named Dhar- 
magupta. He had a wife named Chandraprabha, and she 
once on a time became pregnant, and brought forth a daughter 
beautiful in all her limbs. That girl, the moment she was 
born, illuminated the chamber with her beauty, spoke dis- 
tinctly,^ and got up and sat down. Then Dharmagupta, 

1 This great city (the modern Patna) was built about 482 B.C., and 
became the capital of Asoka, the first emperor of India (274-236 b.c). It 
was known at this time as Pataliputta, which the Greek ambassador, 
Megasthenes, corrupted to Palibothra. As the great Buddhist centre, 
Ai^oka enriched the city with magnificent temples and works of art of 
every kind. Its foundation is ascribed by Buddhists to Kaliisoka, although 
nothing definite can be said on this point. 

The most curious fact connected with Pataliputra is that from the seventh 
to eighteenth centuries a.d. its site seems to have been entirely lost, and 
many fantastic tales arose about its early history. One of these crept into 
the pages of Somadeva, as we have already seen (Vol. I, p. 18 et seq.). 

In 1878 the Government Archaeological Survey of India reported that 
Pataliputra must have stood near the modern Patna, but have been long 
since swept away by the Ganges. This theory, however, was disproved in 
1893 by the discovery of extensive ruins at Patna by Waddell and Spooner. 
The meaning of Pataliputra is still uncertain. It is said to signify the 
"city of flowers," but this is the meaning of Kusumapura, another name 
for Pataliputra. (See the story of Harasvamin in Book V, Chapter XXIV, 
and the twenty-second vampire story in Chapter XCVI of the Ocean of 
Stoiy.) Waddell considers it to mean simply the *^^son of Patali," from the 
old seaport at the mouth of the Indus. See D. B. Spooner, " The Zoroastrian 
Period of Indian History," Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 1915, p. 63 et seq.; L. A. 
Waddell, Discovery of the Lost Site of Pataliputra, 1 892 ; and Report on the 
Excavations of Pataliputra (Patna), 1903. n.m.p. 

2 Liebrecht in an essay on some modern Greek songs (Zw;- Volkskunde, 
p. 211) gives numerous stories of children who spoke shortly after birth. It 
appears to have been generally considered an evil omen. Cf. the " Romance 
of Merlin" (Dunlop's History of Fiction, p. 146). See also Baring Gould's 
Curious Myths of the Middle Ages (new edition, 1869), p. 170. In a startling 
announcement of the birth of Antichrist which appeared in 1623, purporting 
to come from the brothers of the Order of St John, the following passage 
occurs: "The child is dusky, has pleasant mouth and eyes, teeth pointed 
like those of a cat, ears large, stature by no means exceeding that of other 
children ; the said child, incontinent on his birth, walked and talked perfectly well." 
See Crooke, "The Legends of Krishna," Folk-Lore, Vol. xi, 1900, p. 10. 



seeing that the women in the lying-in chamber were astonished 
and terrified, went there himself in a state of alarm. And 
immediately he asked that girl in secret, bowing before her 
humbly : " Adorable one, who art thou that art thus become 
incarnate in my family ? " She answered him : " Thou must 
not give me in marriage to anyone ; as long as I remain in 
thy house, father, I am a blessing to thee ; what profit is 
there in inquiring further?" When she said this to him, 
Dharmagupta was frightened, and he concealed her in his 
house, giving out abroad that she was dead. 

Then that girl, whose name was Somaprabha, gradually 
grew up with human body, but celestial splendour of beauty. 
And one day a young merchant, of the name of Guhachandra, 
beheld her, as she was standing upon the top of her palace, 
looking on with delight at the celebration of the spring 
festival ; she clung like a creeper of love round his heart, so 
that he was, as it were, faint,^ and with difficulty got home 
to his house. There he was tortured with the pain of love, 
and when his parents persistently importuned him to tell 
them the cause of his distress, he informed them by the 
mouth of a friend. 

Then his father, whose name was Guhasena, out of love 
for his son, went to the house of Dharmagupta to ask him 
to give his daughter in marriage to Guhachandra. Then 
Dharmagupta put off Guhasena when he made the request, 
desiring to obtain a daughter-in-law, and said to him : " The 
fact is, my daughter is out of her mind." ^ Considering that 
he meant by that to refuse to give his daughter, Guhasena 
returned home, and there he beheld his son prostrate by the 
fever of love, and thus reflected : "I will persuade the king 
to move in this matter, for I have before this conferred an 
obligation on him, and he will cause that maiden to be given 
to my son, who is at the point of death." Having thus deter- 

1 In the Durgaprasjid text we find that he was faint "because his heart 
was hit, as it were, by love's arrow." n.m.p. 

^ It seems curious that, after publicly declaring that his daughter died 
at birth, he should now say she was alive, but mad. The Durgaprasad 
text reads kttto and mudheli instead of 'artkato and mudha 'iti, making the 
meaning, " Whence can I have a daughter, fool ! " which makes much better 
sense, and is, moreover, more in accordance with the rest of the tale. n.m.p. 


mined, the merchant went and presented to the king a splendid 
jewel, and made known to him his desire. The king, for 
his part, being well disposed towards him, commissioned the 
head of the police to assist him, with whom he went to the 
house of Dharmagupta, and surrounded it on all sides with 
troops,^ so that Dharmagupta's throat was choked with tears, 
as he expected utter ruin. 

Then Somaprabha said to Dharmagupta : " Give me in 
marriage, my father ; let not calamity befall you on my 
account ; but I must never be treated as a wife ^ by my 
husband, and this agreement you must make in express terms 
with my future father-in-law." When his daughter had said 
this to him, Dharmagupta agreed to give her in marriage, 
after stipulating that she should not be treated as a wife ^ ; 
and Guhasena, with inward laughter, agreed to the condition, 
thinking to himself: "Only let my son be once married." 
Then Guhachandra, the son of Guhasena, went to his own 
house, taking with him his bride Somaprabha. And in the 
evening his father said to him : " My son, treat her as a wife, 
for who abstains from the society of his own wife ? " * 

When she heard that, the bride Somaprabha looked angrily 
at her father-in-law, and whirled round her threatening fore- 
finger, as it were the decree of death. When he saw that 
finger of his daughter-in-law, the breath of that merchant 
immediately left him, and fear came upon all besides. But 
Guhachandra, when his father was dead, thought to himself : 
" The goddess of death has entered into my house as a wife." 
And thenceforth he avoided the society of that wife, though 
she remained in his house, and so observed a vow difficult as 
that of standing on the edge of a sword. And being inly 
consumed by that grief, losing his taste for all enjoyment, 
he made a vow and feasted Brahmans every day. And that 
wife of his, of heavenly beauty, observing strict silence, used 
always to give a fee to those Brahmans after they had eaten. 

^ More literally, " blockaded his house with troops and his throat with 
tears." The Durgaprasad text reads asubhih, "with his breath." n.m.p. 

2 Literally, "I must never be bedded by my husband." n.m.p. 

3 Literally, "bedded." n.m.p. 

^ Literally, "put this bride to bed, for who will not lie with his wife." n.m.p. 


One day an aged Brahman, who had come to be fed, be- 
held her exciting the wonder of the world by her dower of 
beauty ; then the Brahman, full of curiosity, secretly asked 
Guhachandra : " Tell me who this young wife of yours is." 
Then Guhachandra, being importuned by that Brahman, 
told him with afflicted mind her whole story. When he 
heard it, the excellent Brahman, full of compassion, gave him 
a charm for appeasing the fire, in order that he might obtain 
his desire. Accordingly, while Guhachandra was in secret 
muttering that charm, there appeared to him a Brahman 
from the midst of the fire. And that god of fire in the 
shape of a Brahman said to him, as he lay prostrate at his 
feet : " To-day I will eat in thy house, and I will remain 
there during the night. And after I have shown thee the 
truth with respect to thy wife, I will accomplish thy de- 
sire." When he had said this to Guhachandra, the Brahman 
entered his house. There he ate like the other Brahmans, 
and lay down at night near Guhachandra for one watch of 
the night only, such was his unwearying zeal. And at this 
period of the night Somaprabha, the wife of Guhachandra, 
went out of the house of her husband, all the inmates of 
which were asleep. At that moment the Brahman woke up 
Guhachandra, and said to him : " Come, see what thy wife 
is doing." 

And by magic power he gave Guhachandra and himself 
the shape of bees,^ and going out he showed him that wife 
of his, who had issued from the house. And that fair one 
Guhachandra ^^^^ ^ ^^^S distance outsidc the city, and the 
discovers his Brahman with Guhachandra followed her. There- 
H^ife is a upon Guliachandra saw before him a Nyagrodha ^ 
tree of wide extent, beautiful with its shady 
stem, and under it he heard a heavenly sound of singing, 
sweet with strains floating on the air, accompanied with 
the music of the lyre and the flute. And on the trunk 

* So in the twenty-first of Miss Stokes' Indian Fairij Tales the fakir 
changes the king's son into a fly. Cf, also Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, 
p. 127. 

* Ficus Indica. Such a tree is said to have sheltered an army. Its 
branches take root and form a natural cloister. Cf. Milton's Paradise Lost, 
Book IX, line 1000 ei seq. 


of the tree he saw a heavenly maiden/ like his wife in 
appearance, seated on a splendid throne, eclipsing by her 
beauty the moonbeam, fanned with white chowries, like the 
goddess presiding over the treasure of all the moon's beauty. 
And then Guhachandra saw his wife ascend that very tree 
and sit down beside that lady, occupying half of her throne. 
While he was contemplating those two heavenly maidens of 
equal beauty sitting together, it seemed to him as if that 
night were lighted by three moons.^ 

Then he, full of curiosity, thought for a moment : " Can 
this be sleep or delusion ? But away with both these sup- 
positions ! This is the expanding of the blossom from the 
bud of association with the wise, which springs on the tree of 
right conduct, and this blossom gives promise of the appropri- 
ate fruit." While he was thus reflecting at his leisure, those 
two celestial maidens, after eating food suited for such as 
they were, drank heavenly wine. Then the wife of Guha- 
chandra said to the second heavenly maiden : " To-day 
some glorious Brahman has arrived in our house, for which 
reason, my sister, my heart is alarmed and I must go." In 
these words she took leave of that other heavenly maiden 
and descended from the tree. When Guhachandra and the 
Brahman saw that, they returned in front of her, still pre- 
serving the form of bees, and arrived in the house by night 
before she did. And afterwards arrived that heavenly 
maiden, the wife of Guhachandra, and she entered the house 
without being observed. Then that Brahman of his own 
accord said to Guhachandra : " You have had ocular proof 
that your wife is divine and not human, and you have to-day 
seen her sister, who is also divine ; and how do you suppose 
that a heavenly nymph can desire the society of a man ? So 
I will give you a charm to be written up over her door, and 
I will also teach you an artifice to be employed outside the 

1 Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology (translation by Stally brass, p. 121, 
note) connects the description of wonderful maidens sitting inside hollow 
trees, or perched on the boughs, with tree-worship. See also Grohmann's 
Sagen aus B'dhmen, p. 41. 

2 For the illuminating power of female beauty see note 3 to the first 
tale in Miss Stokes' collection, where parallels are cited from the folk-lore 
of Europe and Asia. 


house, which must increase the force of the charm. A fire 
burns even without being fanned, but much more when a 
strong current of air is brought to bear on it ; in the same 
way a charm will produce the desired effect unaided, but 
much more readily when assisted by an artifice." 

When he had said this, the excellent Brahman gave a 
charm to Guhachandra, and instructed him in the artifice, 
and then vanished in the dawn. Guhachandra for his part 
But by Macric ^vTote it up ovcr the door of his wife's apartment, 
Aid gains her and in the evening had recourse to the following 
Love stratagem calculated to excite her affection. He 

dressed himself splendidly and went and conversed with 
a certain courtesan before her eyes. When she saw this, 
the heavenly maiden, being jealous, called to him with 
voice set free by the charm, and asked him who that woman 
was. He answered her falsely : " She is a courtesan who 
has taken a fancy to me, and I shall go and pay her 
a visit ^ to-day." Then she looked at him askance with 
wrinkled brows, and, lifting up her veil with her left hand,* 
said to him : " Ah ! I see : this is why you are dressed up so 
grandly ; do not go to her, what have you to do with her ? 
Lie with me, for I am your wife." When he had thus been 
implored by her, agitated with excitement, as if she were 
possessed, though that evil demon which held her had been 
expelled by the charm, he was in a state of ecstatic joy, and 
he immediately entered into her chamber with her, and en- 
joyed, though a mortal, celestial happiness not conceived of 
in imagination. Having thus obtained her as a loving wife, 
conciliated by the magic power of the charm, who abandoned 
for him her celestial rank, Guhachandra lived happily ever 

[M] " Thus heavenly nymphs, who have been cast down 
by some curse, live as wives in the houses of righteous men, 

^ Literally, " I go to her house." n.m.p. 

2 Reading nivdrya (as in the Durgaprasad text) instead of viddrya we 
get much better sense "retaining him with her left hand." n.m.p. 



as a reward for their good deeds, such as acts of devotion 
and charity.^ For the honouring of gods and Brahmans is 
considered the wishing- cow ^ of the good. For what is not 
obtained by that ? All the other politic expedients, known 
as conciliation and so on, are mere adjuncts.^ But evil 
actions are the chief cause of even heavenly beings, born in a 
very lofty station, falling from their high estate, as a hurricane 
is the cause of the falling of blossoms." When he had said 
this to the princess, Vasantaka continued : " Hear moreover 
what happened to Ahalya: 

21. Story of Ahalya'' 

Once upon a time there was a great hermit named Gau- 
tama, who knew the past, the present and the future. And 
he had a wife named Ahalya, who in beauty surpassed the 
nymphs of heaven. One day Indra, in love with her beauty, 
tempted her in secret ; for the mind of rulers, blinded with 
power, runs towards unlawful objects. 

And she in her folly encouraged that husband of Sachi, 
being the slave of her passions ; but the hermit Gautama 

1 The Durgaprasad reading differs slightly and means "sacrifices^ acts 
of charity and the like." See Speyer, op. cit., p. 99- n.m.p. 

2 Kamadhenu means a cow granting all desires ; such a cow is said to 
have belonged to the sage Vasishta. 

3 Conciliation, bribery, sowing dissension, and war. 

* There are several versions of this tale. One of them in the Rdmdyana 
(see Griffith's metrical translation, vol. i, 1870, pp. 211-216) describes Ahalya 
as being herself deceived, as Indra takes the form of her husband. Another 
story is that Indra was assisted in his designs by Soma (the moon), who, 
disguised as a cock, crowed at midnight. The unsuspecting Gautama left 
his bed and started his early morning devotions, while Indra immediately 
took his place. The morals of Indra were never above suspicion, but by the 
time of the Epics he had degenerated into nothing more than a "debonair 
debauchee." In the Vedic age he is a god of the people, the champion 
of the fighting man, a kind of Hindu Zeus. For the gradual changing 
and explanation of the attributes of Indra see L. D. Barnett, Hindu Gods 
and Heroes, "Wisdom of the East" Series, 1922, pp. 26-34, 74, etc. See 
also Bloomfield, Fedic Concordance, under " Ahalyayai," p. 150; ditto, Proc. 
Am. Phil. Soc, vol. Ivi, p. 7 ; V. Fausboll, Indian Mythology accordi7ig to the 
Mahdhhdrata, 1903, pp. 88-92; and A. A. Macdonell, A History of Sanskrit 
Literature, 1909, pp. 84-87, etc. n.m.p. 


found out the intrigue by his superhuman power, and arrived 
upon the scene. And Indra immediately assumed, out of fear, 
the form of a eat. Then Gautama said to Ahalya : " Who 
is here ? " She answered her husband ambiguously in the 
Prakrit dialect: "Here forsooth is a cat" so managing 
to preserve verba) truth.^ Then Gautama said, laughing : 
"It is quite true that your lover is here " and he inflicted 
on her a curse, but ordained that it should terminate, because 
she had showed some regard for truth. The curse ran as 
follows : " Harlot,^ take for a long time the nature of a 
stone, until thou behold Rama wandering in the forest." 
And Gautama at the same time inflicted on the god Indra 
the following curse : " A thousand pictures of that which 
thou has desired shall be upon thy body, but when thou 
shalt behold Tilottama, a heavenly nymph, whom Vi^va- 
karman shall make, they shall turn into a thousand eyes." 
When he had pronounced this curse, the hermit returned to 
his austerities according to his desire, but Ahalya for her 
part assumed the awful condition of a stone. ^ And Indra 
immediately had his body covered with representations of the 
female pudenda * ; for to whom is not immorality a cause of 
humiliation ? 

[M] " So true is it that every man's evil actions always 
bear fruit in himself, for whatever seed a man sows, of that 
he reaps the fruit. Therefore persons of noble character 
never desire that which is disagreeable to their neighbours, 
for this is the invariable observance of the good, prescribed 

^ The Prakrit word majjao means "a cat" and also "my lover." 

2 Literally, "woman of bad character." n.m.p. 

3 For numerous references to stone metamorphoses see Chauvin, Biblio- 
graphic des Ouvrages Arabex, vi, 58. n.m.p. 

* In some accounts Gautama repented of his curse and himself turned 
the marks into a thousand eyes. Another legend states that Indra obtained 
his numerous eyes in his eagerness to see as much as possible of the 
wonderful Tilottama. We have already seen how Siva became four-faced 
owing to the same cause (p. 14). Here the two stories seem rather 
muddled. n.m.p. 


by divine law. And you two were sister goddesses in a former 
birth, but you have been degraded in consequence of a curse, 
and accordingly your hearts are free from strife and bent on 
doing one another good turns." 

When they heard this from Vasantaka, Vasavadatta and 
Padmavati dismissed from their hearts even the smallest 
remnants of mutual jealousy. But the Queen Vasavadatta 
made her husband equally the property of both, and acted 
as kindly to Padmavati as if she were herself, desiring her 

When the King of Magadha heard of that so great gener- 
osity of hers from the messengers sent by Padmavati, he was 
much pleased. So on the next day the minister Yaugan- 
dharayana came up to the King of Vatsa in the presence of 
the queen, the others also standing by, and said : " Why do 
we not go now to Kausambi, my prince, in order to begin 
our enterprise, for we know that there is nothing to be feared 
from the King of Magadha, even though he has been de- 
ceived ? For he has been completely gained over by means 
of the negotiation termed ' Giving of a daughter ' : and how 
could he make war and so abandon his daughter, whom he 
loves more than life ? He must keep his word ; moreover 
he has not been deceived by you ; I did it all myself ; and it 
does not displease him ; indeed I have learned from my spies 
that he will not act in a hostile way, and it was for this very 
purpose that we remained here for these days." 

While Yaugandharayana, who had accomplished the task 
he had in hand, was speaking thus, a messenger belonging to 
the King of Magadha arrived there, and entered into the 
palace immediately, being announced by the warder, and 
after he had done obeisance he sat down, and said to the 
King of Vatsa : " The King of Magadha is delighted with 
the intelligence sent by the Queen Padmavati, and he now 
sends this message to your Highness : ' What need is there 
of many words ? I have heard all, and I am pleased with 
thee. Therefore do the thing for the sake of which this 
beginning has been made ; we submit ourselves.' " The 
King of Vatsa jojrfuUy received this clear speech of the mes- 
senger, resembling the blossom of the tree of poHcy planted 


by Yaugandharayana. Then he brought Padmavati with 
the queen and, after he had bestowed a present upon the 
messenger, he dismissed him with honour. 

Then a messenger from Chandamahasena also arrived, 
and, after entering, he bowed before the king, according to 
custom, and said to him : " O King, his Majesty Chanda- 
mahasena, who understands the secrets of poUcy, has learnt 
the state of thy affairs and dehghted sends this message : 
' Your Majesty's excellence is plainly declared by this one 
fact, that you have Yaugandharayana for your minister; 
what need of further speeches ? Blessed too is Vasavadatta, 
who, through devotion to you, has done a deed which makes 
us exalt our head for ever among the good ; moreover Pad- 
mavati is not separated from Vasavadatta in my regard, for 
the two have one heart ; therefore quickly exert yourself.' " 

When the King of Vatsa heard this speech of his father- 
in-law's messenger, joy suddenly arose in his heart, and his 
exceeding warmth of affection for the queen was increased, 
and also the great respect which he felt for his excellent 
minister. Then the king, together with the queens, enter- 
tained the messenger according to the laws of hospitality, 
in joyful excitement of mind, and sent him away pleased ; 
and as he was bent on commencing his enterprise, he deter- 
mined, after deliberating with his ministers, on returning to 


SO on the next day the King of Vatsa set out from 
[M] Lavanaka for Kausambi, accompanied by his 
wives and his ministers, and as he advanced shouts 
broke forth from his forces, that filled the plains like the 
waters of the ocean overflowing out of due time. An image 
would be furnished of that king advancing on his mighty 
elephant, if the sun were to journey in the heaven ac- 
companied by the eastern mountain. That king, shaded 
with his white umbrella,^ showed as if waited upon by the 
moon, delighted at having outdone the splendour of the 
sun. While he towered resplendent above them all, the chiefs 
circled around him, like the planets ^ in their orbits around 
the polar star. And those queens, mounted on a female 
elephant that followed his, shone like the Earth Goddess and 
the Goddess of Fortune accompanying him out of affection 
in visible shape. The earth, that lay in his path, dinted with 
the edges of the hoofs of the troops of his prancing steeds, 
seemed to bear the prints of loving nails ,^ as if it had been 
enjoyed by the king. 

In this style progressing, the King of Vatsa, being con- 
tinually praised by his minstrels, reached in a few days the 
city of Kausambi, in which the people kept holiday. The 
city was resplendent on that occasion, her lord* having 
returned from sojourning abroad. She was clothed in the 
red silk of banners, round windows were her expanded eyes, 

^ For full details of the history and significance of the umbrella see 
Appendix II, pp. 263-272 n.m.p. 

2 Cf. Schiller's Gedichte, " Der Graf von Habsburg," lines 8, 9. 

3 Vatsyayana devotes a whole chapter in his Kama Sutra (Book II, ch. iv) 
to love-scratching with the finger-nails. He describes eight distinct varieties 
of scratches, and lists the desirable qualities in finger-nails. As this work is 
hard to obtain I shall give certain extracts in a note to the "Story of King 
Sinhaksha" in Book X, Chapter LXVI. n.m.p. 

* The word pati here means king and husband. 
VOL. II. 49 D 


the full pitchers in the space in front of the gates were her 
two swelling breasts, the joyous shouts of the crowd were 
her cheerful conversation, and white palaces her smile.^ So, 
^, accompanied by his two wives, the king entered 

rHumphant the city, and the ladies of the town were much 
Entry into delighted at beholding him. The heaven was 
Kau^dmbt ^y^^ ^^^^ hundreds of faces of fair ones stand- 
ing on charming palaces, as if with the soldiers of the moon ^ 
that was surpassed in beauty by the faces of the queens, 
having come to pay their respects. And other women, estab- 
lished at the windows, looking with unwinking eyes,^ seemed 
like heavenly nymphs in aerial chariots, that had come 
there out of curiosity. Other women, with their long-lashed 
eyes closely applied to the lattice of the windows, made, so to 
speak, cages of arrows to confine love. The eager eye of one 
woman, expanded with desire to behold the king, came, so to 
speak, to the side of her ear,* that did not perceive him, in 
order to inform it. The rapidly heaving breasts of another, 
who had run up hastily, seemed to want to leap out of her 
bodice ** with ardour to behold him. The necklace of another 
lady was broken with her excitement, and the pearl beads 
seemed like teardrops of joy falling from her heart. Some 
women, beholding Vasavadatta and remembering the former 

^ A smile is always white according to the Hindu poetic canons. 

^ Tlie countenances of the fair ones were like moons. 

3 There should be a mark of elision before nimishekshanah. 

* The eyes of Hindu ladies are said to reach to their ears. I read 
taddkhydtum for iaddkhydtim with a MS. in the Sanskrit College, kindly lent me 

by the Librarian with the consent of the Principal. See the introductory 

part of Appendix H (" Colly rium and Kohl") to the Ocean of Story, Vol. I, 
p. 211 e.t seq. n.m.p. 

^ This is the an^a or angiyd worn by the Hindu and Mohammedan women 
of the north. It is really nothing more than a breast-cloth, being short, tight 
and usually sleeveless. It is tied behind with strings or ribbons. In Western 
India it is known as a chott, and differs from the angiyd in that it buttons up 
in front. In Kashmir the kurtd, a kind of blouse open at the front, is worn 
instead of the angiyd. Young married women sometimes wear both the kurid 
and angiyd. The Pathan women have two varieties of kurtds : a coloured and 
decorated one worn by unmarried girls, and a more sombre one adopted by 
married women. 

Other terms for this bodice are mahram and slnahand (breast-cover). n.m.p. 


report of her having been burned, said as if with anxiety : 
" If the fire were to do her an injury at Lavanaka, then the 
sun might as well diffuse over the world darkness, which is 
alien to his nature." Another lady, beholding Padmavati, 
said to her companions : "I am glad to see that the queen 
is not put to shame by her fellow-wife, who seems like her 
friend." And others beholding those two queens, and throw- 
ing over them garlands of eyes expanded with joy so as to 
resemble blue lotuses, said to one another : " Surely Siva 
and Vishnu have not beheld the beauty of these two, other- 
wise how could they regard with much respect their consorts 
Uma and Sri ? " 

In this way feasting the eyes of the population, the King 
of Vatsa with the queens entered his own palace, after per- 
forming auspicious ceremonies. Such as is the splendour of 
a lotus-pool in windy weather,^ or of the sea when the moon 
is rising, such was at that period the wonderful splendour of 
the king's palace. And in a moment it was filled with the 
presents which the feudatories offered to procure good luck, 
and which foreshadowed the coming in of offerings from in- 
numerable kings. And so the King of Vatsa, after honouring 
the chiefs, entered with great festivity the inner apartments, 
at the same time finding his way to the heart of everyone 
present. And there he remained between the two queens, 
like the God of Love between Rati and Priti,^ and spent the 
rest of the day in drinking and other enjoyments. 

The next day, when he was sitting in the hall of assembly 
accompanied by his ministers, a certain Brahman came and 
cried out at the door : " Protection for the Brahmans, O 
King ! Certain wicked herdsmen have cut off my son's foot 
in the forest without any reason." When he heard that, 
the king immediately had two or three herdsmen seized and 
brought before him, and proceeded to question them. Then 
they gave the following answer ; " O King, being herdsmen 
we roam in the wilderness, and there we have among us a 
herdsman named Devasena, and he sits in a certain place in 

^ The Durgaprasad text (in future this will be referred to as the D. text) 
reads prabhdte, "at daybreak," instead oi pravdte, "in windy weather." n.m.p. 
2 Love and Affection, the wives of Kamadeva, the Hindu Cupid. 


the forest on a stone seat, and says to us, ' I am your king,' 
and gives us orders. And not a man among us disobeys his 
orders. Thus, O King, that herdsman rules supreme in the 
wood. Now to-day the son of this Brahman came that way, 
and did not do obeisance to the herdsman king, and when we, 
by the order of the king, said to him, ' Depart not without 
doing thy reverence,' the young fellow pushed us aside, and 
went off laughing, in spite of the admonition. Then the 
herdsman king commanded us to punish the contumacious 
boy by cutting off his foot. So we, O King, ran after him, 
and cut off his foot ; what man of our humble degree is able 
to disobey the command of a ruler ? " When the herdsmen 
had made this representation to the king, the wise Yaugan- 
dharayana, after thinking it over, said to him in private : 
" Certainly that place must contain treasure, on the strength 
of which a mere herdsman has such influence.^ So let us go 
there." When his minister had said this to him, the king 
made those herdsmen show him the way, and went to that 
place in the forest with his soldiers and his attendants. 

And while, after the ground had been examined, peasants 
were digging there, a Yaksha, in stature like a mountain, 
rose up from beneath it, and said : " O King, this treasure. 
The Findin ^hich I have SO loug guarded, belongs to thee, as 
of the having been buried by thy forefathers, therefore 

Jewelled take posscssion of it." After he had said this to 
the king, and accepted his worship, the Yaksha 
disappeared, and a great treasure was displayed in the ex- 
cavation. And from it was extracted a valuable throne 
studded with jewels,^ for in the time of prosperity a long 
series of happy and fortunate events takes place. The lord 
of Vatsa took away the whole treasure from the spot in 
high glee, and after chastising those herdsmen returned to his 
own city. There the people saw that golden throne brought 

^ So the mouse in the Panchatantra possesses power by means of a treasure 
(Benfey's PaHchatantra, vol. i, p. 320 ; vol. ii, p. 178). The story is found also 
in Chapter LXI of this work. Cf. also Sagas from the Far East, pp. 257, 263. 
The same idea is found in Jataka, No. 39, p. 322, of Rhys Davids' translation, 
and in Jataka, No. 257, vol. ii, p. 297, of Fausboll's edition. 

2 Cf. Sagas from the Far East, p. 263. 


by the king, which seemed, with the streams of rays issuing 
from its blood-red jewels, to foretell ^ the king's forceful 
conquest of all the regions, and which, with its pearls fixed 
on the end of projecting silver spikes, seemed to show its 
teeth as if laughing again and again when it considered the 
astonishing intellect of the king's ministers ^ ; and they ex- 
pressed their joy in a charming manner, by striking drums 
of rejoicing, so that they sent forth their glad sounds. The 
ministers too rejoiced exceedingly, making certain of the 
king's triumph ; for prosperous events happening at the very 
commencement of an enterprise portend its final success. 
Then the sky was filled with flags resembling flashes of 
lightning, and the king like a cloud rained gold on his 

And this day having been spent in feasting, on the morrow 
Yaugandharayana, wishing to know the mind of the king of 
Vatsa, said to him : " O King, ascend and adorn that great 
throne, which thou hast obtained by inheritance from thy 
ancestors." But the king said : " Surely it is only after 
conquering all the regions that I can gain glory by ascending 
that throne, which those famous ancestors of mine mounted 
after conquering the earth. Not till I have subdued this 
widely gemmed earth, bounded by the main, will I ascend 
the great jewelled throne of my ancestors." ^ Saying this, 
the king did not mount the throne as yet. For men of high 
birth possess genuine loftiness of spirit. 

Thereupon Yaugandharayana being delighted said to 
him in private : " Bravo, my King ! So make first an attempt 
to conquer the eastern region." When he heard that, the 
king eagerly asked his minister : " When there are other 
cardinal points, why do kings first march towards the East ? " 
When Yaugandharayana heard this, he said to him again : 
" The North, O King, though rich, is defiled by intercourse 
with barbarians ; and the West is not honoured as being the 
cause of the setting of the sun and other heavenly bodies ; 

^ I read darsayat. 

2 Sati is a misprint for mati Bohtlingk and Roth, s.v. 

3 In the D. text the dialogue of si. 52-54 is divided somewhat differently. 
See Speyer, op. cit., p. 99. n.m.p. 


and the South is seen to be neighboured by Rakshasas and 
inhabited by the God of Death ; but in the eastern quarter 
the sun rises, over the East presides Indra, and towards the 
East flows the Ganges, therefore the East is preferred.^ 
Moreover among the countries situated between the Vindhya 
and Himalaya mountains, the country laved by the waters 
of the Ganges is considered most excellent. Therefore 
monarchs who desire success march first towards the East, 
and dwell, moreover, in the land visited by the river of the 
gods.* For your ancestors also conquered the regions by 
beginning with the East, and made their dwelling in Hastina- 
pura on the banks of the Ganges ; but Satanika repaired to 
Kau^ambi on account of its delightful situation, seeing that 
empire depended upon valour, and situation had nothing to 
do with it." 

When he had said this, Yaugandharayana stopped speak- 
ing ; and the king out of his great regard for heroic exploits 
said : " It is true that dwelling in any prescribed country is 
not the cause of empire in this world, for to men of brave 
disposition their own valour is the only cause of success. For 
a brave man by himself without any support obtains pros- 
perity. Have you never heard, a propos of this, the tale of 
the brave man ? " Having said this, the lord of Vatsa, on 
the entreaty of his ministers, again began to speak, and 
related in the presence of the queens the following wonderful 
story : 

22. Story of Vidushaka 

In the city of Ujjayini, which is celebrated throughout the 
earth, there was in former days a king named Adityasena. 
He was a treasure-house of valour, and on account of his sole 
supremacy his war chariot, like that of the sun,^ was not im- 

^ For a good general article on orientation see T. D. Atkinson, " Points of 
the Compass," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. x, pp. 73-88. For the extent to 
which the subject enters into the life of a Brahman see Mrs Stevenson's The 
Rites of the Twice-born, Oxford, 1920. n.m.p. 

* I.e. the Ganges. 

' In Sanskrit pratdpa the word translated "valour" also means "heat," 
and chakra may refer to the wheels of the chariot and the orb of the sun, so 
that there is a pun all through. 


peded anywhere. When his lofty umbrella,^ gleaming white 
like snow, illuminated the firmament, other kings free from 
heat depressed theirs. He was the receptacle of the jewels 
produced over the surface of the whole earth, as the sea is the 
receptacle of waters. Once on a time he was encamped with 
his army on the banks of the Ganges, where he had come for 
some reason or other. There a certain rich merchant of the 
country, named Gunavartman, came to the king, bringing a 
gem of maidens as a present, and sent this message by the 
mouth of the warder : " This maiden, though the gem of 
the three worlds, has been born in my house, and I cannot 
give her to anyone else ; only your Highness is fit to be 
the husband of such a girl." Then Gunavartman entered 
and showed his daughter to the king. The king, when he 
beheld that maiden, Tejasvati by name, illuminating with her 
brightness the quarters of the heavens, like the flame of the 
rays from the jewels in the temple of the God of Love, was 
all enveloped with the radiance of her beauty and fell in love 
with her, and, as if heated with the fire of passion, began to 
dissolve in drops of sweat. So he at once accepted her, who 
was fit for the rank of head queen, and, being highly delighted, 
made Gunavartman equal to himself in honour. 

Then, having married his dear Tejasvati, the king thought 
all his objects in life accomplished, and went with her to 
Ujjayini. There the king fixed his gaze so exclusively on her 
face that he could not see the affairs of his kingdom, though 
they were of great importance. And his ear being, so to 
speak, riveted on her musical discourse, could not be attracted 
by the cries of his distressed subjects. The king entered into 
his harem for a long time and never left it, but the fever of 
fear left the hearts of his enemies. And after some time 
there was born to the king, by the Queen Tejasvati, a girl, 
welcomed by all. And there arose in his heart the desire of 
conquest, which was equally welcome to his subjects. That 
girl of exceeding beauty, who made the three worlds seem 
worthless as stubble, excited him in joy, and desire of con- 
quest excited his valour. Then that King Adityasena set 
out one day from Ujjayini to attack a certain contumacious 

1 See Appendix 11, pp. 263-272. n.m.p. 


chieftain ; and he made that Queen Tejasvati go with him 
mounted on an elephant, as if she were the protecting goddess 
of the host. And he mounted an admirable horse, that in 
spirit and fury resembled a torrent,^ tall like a moving moun- 
tain, with a curl on its breast, and a girth. It seemed to 
imitate, with its feet raised as high as its mouth, the going of 
Garuda,2 which it had seen in the heaven, rivalling its own 
swiftness ; and it lifted up its head and seemed with fearless 
eye to measure the earth, as if thinking : " What shall be the 
limit of my speed ? " 

And after the king had gone a little way he came to a level 
piece of ground, and put his horse to its utmost speed to show 
it off to Tejasvati. That horse, on being struck with his heel, 
jr. went off rapidly, like an arrow impelled from a 

Aditt/asena's catapult, in somc unknown direction, so that it 
Horse runs bccamc invisible to the eyes of men. The soldiers, 
awayw im ^^j^^j^ they saw that take place, were bewildered, 
and horsemen galloped in a thousand directions after the 
king, who was run away with by his horse, but could not 
overtake him. Thereupon the ministers with the soldiers, 
fearing some calamity, in their anxiety took with them the 
weeping queen and returned to Ujjayini ; there they remained 
with gates closed and ramparts guarded, seeking for news of 
the king, having cheered up the citizens. 

In the meanwhile the king was carried by the horse in an 
instant to the impassable forest of the Vindhya hills, haunted 
by horrible lions .^ Then the horse happened to stand still, and 
the king was immediately distracted with bewilderment, as 
the great forest made it impossible for him to know where- 
abouts he was. Seeing no other way out of his difficulties, 
who knew what the horse had been in a former birth, he 
got down from his saddle and, prostrating himself before the 
excellent horse, said to him : " Thou art a god ; a creature 
like thee should not commit treason against his lord; so I 
look upon thee as my protector ; take me by a pleasant 

1 More literally, "a torrent of pride and kicking." The D. text differs, 

and can be translated, "sweating from (ardour and) pride." n.m.I'. 
* See note in Ocean of Story ^ Vol. I, pp. 103-105. n.m.p. 
3 See Ocean of Story, Vol. I, p. 67n. n.m.p. 



path." When the horse heard that, he was full of regret, 
remembering his former birth, and mentally acceded to the 
king's request ; for excellent horses are divine beings.^ Then 
the king mounted again, and the horse set out by a road 
bordered with clear cool lakes, that took away the fatigue of 
the journey; and by evening the splendid horse had taken the 
king another hundred yojanas^ and brought him near Ujjayini. 
As the Sun, beholding his horses, though seven in number, 
excelled by this courser's speed, had sunk, as it were through 
shame, into the ravines of the western mountain, and as the 
darkness was diffused abroad, the wise horse, seeing that the 
gates of Ujjayini were closed, and that the burning- place 
outside the gates was terrible at that time, carried the king 
for shelter to a concealed monastery of Brahmans, that was 
situated in a lonely place outside the walls. And the King 
Adityasena, seeing that that monastery was a fit place to 
spend the night in, as his horse was tired, attempted to enter 
it. But the Brahmans who dwelt there opposed his entrance, 
saying that he must be some keeper of a cemetery ^ or some 
thief. And out they poured in quarrelsome mood, with 
savage gestures, for Brahmans who live by chanting the Sama 
Veda are the home of timidity, boorishness and ill temper. 

1 Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology (translation by Stallybrass, p. 392) 
remarks ; " One principal mark to know heroes by is their possessing intelligent 
horses, and conversing with them. The touching conversation of Achilles 
with his Xanthos and Balios finds a complete parallel in the beautiful Karling 
legend of Bayard." (This is most pathetically told in Simrock's Deutsche 
Volksb'ucher, vol. ii, " Die Heimonskinder," see especially p. 54.) Grimm 
proceeds to cite many other instances from European literature. See also 
note 3 to the twentieth story in Miss Stokes' collection, and the remarks in 

Bernhard Schmidt's Griechische Mdrchen, p. 237. Owing to the great value 

of war horses among the early Aryans we find them an object of worship from 
Vedic days. See Rig- Veda, iv, S3. For notes on horse- worship and horse-sacrifice 
see Crooke, Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. ii, pp. 204-208 and the numerous 
references given on those pages. When horses were first introduced to the 
Central American Indians by the Spaniards, they were regarded as super- 
natural beings and worshipped as such. For the horse in mythology see 
Negelein in Teutonia, ii ; de Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, vol. i, pp. 290- 
296 and 330-355; Pauly-Wissowa, under ** Aberglaube," p. 76; and Crooke, 
"Some Notes on Homeric Folk-Lore," Folk-Lore, vol. xix, 19O8, p. 65. n.m.p. 

2 See Ocean of Story, Vol. I, p. Sn^. n.m.p. 

3 The keeper of a burning or burial ground would be impure. 


While they were clamouring, a virtuous Brahman named 
Vidushaka, the bravest of the brave, came out from that 
monastery. He was a young man distinguished for strength 
of arm, who had propitiated the Fire by his austerities, and 
obtained a splendid sword from that divinity, which he had 
only to think of and it came to him.^ That resolute youth 
Vidushaka, seeing that king of distinguished bearing, who 
had arrived by night, thought to himself that he was some 
god in disguise. And the well-disposed youth pushed away 
all those other Brahmans, and bowing humbly before the 
king, caused him to enter the monastery. And when he had 
rested, and had the dust of the journey washed off by female 
slaves, Vidushaka prepared for him suitable food. And he 
took the saddle off that excellent horse of his, and relieved its 
fatigue by giving it grass and other fodder. And after he had 
made a bed for the wearied king, he said to him : " My lord, 
I will guard your person, so sleep in peace." And while the 
king slept that Brahman kept watch the whole night at the 
door with the sword of the Fire God in his hand, that came 
to him on his thinking of it. 

And on the morrow early Vidushaka, without receiving 
any orders, of his own accord saddled the horse for the king 
as soon as he awoke. The king for his part took leave of 
him, and mounting his horse entered the city of Ujjayini, 
beheld afar off by the people bewildered with joy. And the 
moment he entered, his subjects approached him with a con- 
fused hum of delight at his return. The king accompanied 
by his ministers entered the palace, and great anxiety left 
the breast of the Queen Tejasvati. Immediately grief 
seemed to be swept away from the city by the rows of silken 
flags displayed out of joy, which waved in the wind ; and 
the queen made high festival until the end of the day, until 
such time as the people of the city and the sun were red as 

^ This summoning by thought is found many times in the Ocean of Story. 
It is, however, a supernatural being who is usually thus summoned. Readers 
will remember that Vararuchi had made a friend of a Rakshasa who appeared 
on thought (Vol. I, p. 50). In the Nights the jinn is summoned by the 
rubbing of a magic article, such as a lamp, ring, etc., or less frequently by 
burning hair (contagious magic). See Chauvin, Bibliographie des Ouvrages 
Arahes, v, .5. n.m.p. 



vermilion.^ And the next day the King Adityasena had 
Vidtishaka summoned from the monastery, with all the 
other Brahmans. And as soon as he had made known what 
Vidushaka *^^^ place in the night, he gave his benefactor 
wins the Vidushaka a thousand villages. And the grate- 

Kings Favour f^j ]^jj^g ^\^^ ^^^^ ^y^^^ Brahman an umbrella ^ 

and an elephant and appointed him his domestic chaplain, 
so that he was beheld with great interest by the people. 
So Vidushaka then became equal to a chieftain; for how 
can a benefit conferred on great persons fail of bearing 

And the noble-minded Vidushaka shared all those villages 
which he had received from the king with the Brahmans who 
lived in the monastery. And he remained in the court of 
the king in attendance upon him, enjoying, together with the 
other Brahmans, the income of those villages. But as time 
went on those other Brahmans began striving each of them 
to be chief, and made no account of Vidushaka, being intoxi- 
cated with the pride of wealth. Dwelling in separate parties, 
seven in one place, with their mutual rivalries they oppressed 
the villages like malignant planets. Vidushaka regarded 
their excesses with scornful indifference; for men of firm 
mind rightly treat with contempt men of little soul. 

Once upon a time a Brahman of the name of Chakradhara, 
who was naturally stern, seeing them engaged in wrangling, 
came up to them. Chakradhara, though he was one-eyed, 
was keen- sighted enough in deciding what was right in other 
men's affairs, and though a hunchback, was straightforward 
enough in speech. He said to them : " While you were 
living by begging you obtained this windfall, you rascals ; 
then why do you ruin the villages with your mutual intoler- 
ance ? It is all the fault of Vidushaka, who has permitted 
you to act thus ; so you may be certain that in a short time 
you will again have to roam about begging. For a situation 
in which there is no head, and everyone has to shift for 

1 Probably the people sprinkled one another with red powder, as at the 

Holl festival. For a description of this see Crooke, "The Holl: A Vernal 

Festival of the Hindus," Folk-Lore, vol. xxv, 1914, pp. 55-83. n.m.p. 

2 See Appendix II, pp. 263-272. n.m.p. 


himself by his own wits as chance directs,^ is better than one 
of disunion under many heads, in which all affairs go to rack 
and ruin. So take my advice and appoint one firm man as 
your head, if you desire unshaken prosperity, which can only 
be ensured by a capable governor." On hearing that, every 
one of them desired the headship for himself ; thereupon Cha- 
kradhara after reflection again said to those fools : "As you 
are so addicted to mutual rivalry I propose to you a basis of 
agreement. In the neighbouring cemetery three robbers have 
been executed by impalement ; whoever is daring enough to 
cut off the noses of those three by night, and to bring them 
here, he shall be your head; for courage merits command."* 
When Chakradhara made this proposal to the Brahmans, 
Vidushaka, who was standing near, said to them ; " Do this ; 
what is there to be afraid of ? " Then the Brahmans said 

Vidushaka ^^ ^ " ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ cuough to do it ; let 
undertakes a whocvcr is able do it, and we will abide by the 
daring Task agreement." Then Vidushaka said: "Well, I 
will do it. I will cut off the noses of those robbers by 
night and bring them from the cemetery." Then those 
fools, thinking the task a difficult one, said to him : "If you 
do this you shall be our lord ; we make this agreement." 
When they had pronounced this agreement, and night had 
set in, Vidushaka took leave of those Brahmans and went to 
the cemetery. So the hero entered the cemetery, awful as 
his own undertaking, with the sword of the Fire God, that 
came with a thought, as his only companion. And in the 
middle of that cemetery, where the cries of vultures and 
jackals were swelled by the screams of witches and the flames 

^ The D. text perhaps makes better sense: "better, indeed, is a state 
without a ruler, so that their prosperity merely depends on Fate, than one 
with many discordant rulers, which entails the scattering of all their wealth." 
See Speyer, op, ciL, p. 100. n.m.p. 

2 So in Grimm's Marchen, " Von einem der auszog das Fiirchten zu lernen," 
the youth is recommended to sit under the gallows where seven men have been 
executed. Cf. also the story of "The Shroud" in Ralston's Russian Folk- 
Tales, p. 307. Cf. also the extraordinary tale of Bellephoron in Apuleius' 

Golden Ass, eh. xi. n.m.p. 

3 Literally, " we consider ourselves bound by this word." See Speyer, 

op. cit., p. 100. N.M.P. 


of the funeral pyres were reinforced by the fires in the mouths 
of the fire-breathing demons, he beheld those impaled men 
with their faces turned up, as if through fear of having their 
noses cut off. And when he approached them those three, 
being tenanted by demons, struck him with their fists ^ ; 
and he for his part slashed them in return with his sword, 
for Fear has not learned to bestir herself in the breast of 
the resolute. Accordingly the corpses ceased to be convulsed 

^ Cf. Ralston's account of the vampire as represented in the Skazkas : 
"It is as a vitalised corpse that the visitor from the other world comes to 
trouble mankind, often subject to human appetites, constantly endowed with 
more than human strength and malignity" (Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, 
p. 306). The belief that the dead rose from the tomb in the form of vampires 
appears to have existed in Chaldaea and Babylon. Lenormant observes in his 
Chaldosan Magic and Sorcery (English translation, p. 37) : " In a fragment of 
the Mythological epopee which is traced upon a tablet in the British Museum, 
and relates the descent of Ishtar into Hades, we are told that the goddess, 
when she arrived at the doors of the infernal regions, called to the porter 
whose duty it was to open them, saying ; 

' Porter, open thy door ; 
Open thy door that I may enter. 

If thou dost not open the door, and if I cannot enter, 
I will attack the door, I will break down its bars, 
I will attack the enclosure, I will leap over its fences by force ; 
I will cause the dead to rise and devour the living, 
I will give the dead power over the living.' " 

The same belief appears also to have existed in Egypt. The same author 
observes (p. 92) : " These formulae also kept the body from becoming, during 
its separation from the soul, the prey of some wicked spirit which would enter, 
reanimate, and cause it to rise again in the form of a vampire. For, according 
to the Egyptian belief, the possessing spirits, and the spectres which frightened 
or tormented the living, were but the souls of the condemned returning to 

earth, before undergoing the annihilation of the ' second death.' " Another 

version of the above translation of the attempt of Ishtar to get into Aralu 
(Sheol or Hades) is to be found in Morris Jastrow's The Religion of Babylonia 
and Assyria, 1898, pp. 568-569. There are seven doors, and at each Ishtar is 
forced to abandon some portion of her clothing and ornaments, until finally 
she is entirely naked. This is symbolic of the gradual decay of vegetation 
(see Jastrow, op. cit., p. 570). The whole reference, however, although very 
interesting, has little to do with vampires. For these see R. Campbell 
Thompson, The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia, 1903-1904, which contains 
numerous Babylonian and Assyrian incantations against vampires ; while for 
Indian vampires and other evil spirits see W. Crooke, " Demons and Spirits 
(Indian)," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth.,\o\. iv, pp. 6OI-6O8. n.m.p. 


with demons, and then the successful hero cut off their noses 
and brought them away, binding them up in his garment. 

And as he was returning he beheld in that cemetery a 
religious mendicant sitting on a corpse muttering charms, 
and through curiosity to have the amusement of seeing what 
he was doing he stood concealed behind that mendicant. In 
a moment the corpse under the mendicant gave forth a hissing 
sound, and flames issued from its mouth, and from its navel 
mustard-seeds. And then the mendicant took the mustard- 
seeds, and rising up struck the corpse with the fiat of his 
hand, and the corpse, which was tenanted by a mighty 
demon, stood up, and then that mendicant mounted ^ on its 
shoulder and began to depart at a rapid rate, and Vidushaka 
silently followed him unobserved, and after he had gone a 
short distance Vidushaka saw an empty temple with an 
image of Durga in it. Then the mendicant got down from 
the shoulder of the demon, and entered the inner shrine of the 
temple, while the demon fell fiat on the earth. But Vidu- 
shaka was present also, contriving to watch the mendicant, 
unperceived by him. The mendicant worshipped the goddess 
there and offered the following prayer : "If thou art pleased 
with me, O Goddess, grant me the desired boon. If not, I 
will propitiate thee with the sacrifice of myself." When 
the mendicant, intoxicated with the success of his powerful 
spells, said this, a voice coming from the inner shrine thus 
addressed the mendicant : " Bring here the maiden daughter 
of King Adityasena, and offer her as a sacrifice, then thou 
shaft obtain thy desire." When the mendicant heard this he 
went out, and striking once more with his hand the demon,^ 
who hissed at the blow, made him stand upright. And, 
mounting on the shoulder of the demon, from whose mouth 
issued flames of fire, he flew away through the air to bring 
the princess. 

Vidushaka seeing all this from his place of concealment 

^ Cf. the way in which the witch treats the corpse of her son in the 
sixth book of the jEthiopica of Heliodonis, ch. xiv, and Lucan's Pharsalia, 
Book VI, 11. 754-757. 

^ I.e. the corpse tenanted by the Vetala or demon. See Ocean of 

Story, Appendix I, Vol. I, p. 206; and Sir Richard Temple's Foreword to 

Vol. I, p. XXV. N.M.P. 


thought to himself : " What ! shall he slay the king's 
daughter while I am alive ? I will remain here until the 
scoundrel returns." Having formed this resolve, Vidushaka 
remained there in concealment. But the mendicant entered 
the female apartments of the palace through the window, 
and found the king's daughter asleep, as it was night. And 
he returned, all clothed in darkness, through the air, bringing 
with him the princess, who illuminated with her beauty the 
region, as Rahu ^ carries off a digit of the moon. And bearing 
along with him that princess, who exclaimed in her grief, 
" Alas ! my father ! Alas ! my mother ! " he descended from 
the sky into that very temple of the goddess. And then, 
dismissing the demon, he entered with that pearl of maidens 
into the inner shrine of the goddess, and while he was prepar- 
And saves ^^S ^o slay the princess there Vidushaka came in 
the Life of with his sword drawn. He said to the mendi- 
the Princess ^^^^ . cc yin^jj^ f j)q y^^ ^jg]^ ^^ smitc a jasmiuc 

flower with a thunderbolt, in that you desire to employ a 
weapon against this tender form ? " And then he seized 
the trembling mendicant by the hair, and cut off his head. 
And he consoled the princess, distracted by fear, who clung 
to him closely as she began to recognise him. 

And then the hero thought : " How can I manage during 
the night to convey this princess from this place to the 
harem ? " Then a voice from the air addressed him : " Hear 
this, O Vidushaka ! The mendicant whom thou hast slain 
had in his power a great demon and some grains of mustard- 
seed. Thence arose his desire to be ruler of the earth and 
marry the daughters of kings, and so the fool has this day 
been baffled. Therefore, thou hero, take those mustard- 
seeds, in order that for this night only thou may est be enabled 
to travel through the air." Thus the aerial voice addressed 
the delighted Vidushaka ; for even the gods often take such a 
hero under their protection. Then he took in his hand those 
grains of mustard-seed from the corner of the mendicant's 
robe, and the princess in his arms. 

And while he was setting out from that temple of the 
goddess another voice sounded in the air : " Thou must 

^ See note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


return to this very temple of the goddess at the end of a 
month ; thou must not forget this, O hero 1 " When he 
heard this, Vidushaka said : " I will do so " and by the 
favour of the goddess he immediately flew up into the air,* 
bearing with him the princess. And flying through the air 
he quickly placed that princess in her private apartments, 
and said to her after she had recovered her spirits : " To- 
morrow morning I shall not be able to fly through the air, 
and so all men will see me going out, so I must depart now." 
When he said this to her, the maiden, being alarmed, answered 
him ; *' When you are gone, this breath of mine will leave my 
body, overcome with fear. Therefore do not depart, great- 
souled hero ; once more save my life ; for the good make it 
their business from their birth to carry out every task they 
have undertaken." 

When the brave Vidushaka heard that he reflected : "If 
I go and leave this maiden she may possibly die of fear ; and 
then what kind of loyalty to my sovereign shall I have 
exhibited ? " Thinking thus he remained all night in those 
female apartments, and he gradually dropped off to sleep, 
wearied with toil and watching. But the princess in her 
terror passed the night without sleeping ; and even when the 
morning came she did not wake up the sleeping Vidushaka,* 
as her mind was made tender by love, and she said to herself : 
" Let him rest a little longer." Then the servants of the 
harem came in and saw him, and in a state of consternation 
they went and told the king. The king for his part sent the 
warder to discover the truth, and he entering beheld Vidu- 
shaka there. And he heard the whole story from the mouth 
of the princess, and went and repeated it all to the king. 
And the king, knowing the excellent character of Vidushaka, 
was immediately bewildered, wondering what it could mean. 
And he had Vidushaka brought from his daughter's apart- 
ment, escorted all the way by her soul, which followed him 
out of affection. 

* This art has always been regarded in Hindu mythology as the mark 
of dignity and a necessary adjunct to kingship. See A. M. Hocart, " Flying^ 
through the Air," Ind. Ant., vol. lii, 1923, pp. 80-82. n.m.p. 

* Cf. Simrock's Deutsche Volkshiicher, vol. iii, p. SQ^. 


And when he arrived, the king asked him what had 
taken place, and Vidushaka told him the whole story from 
the beginning, and showed him the noses of the robbers 
His Conduct fastened up in the end of his garment, and the 
satisfactorily mustard-seeds which had been in the possession 
explaiiied ^^ ^^^ mendicant, different from those found on 
earth. The high-minded monarch suspected that Vidu- 
shaka's story was true from these circumstances, so he had 
all the Brahmans of the monastery brought before him, 
together with Chakradhara, and asked about the original 
cause of the whole matter. And he went in person to the 
cemetery and saw those men with their noses cut off, and 
that base mendicant with his neck severed, and then he 
reposed complete confidence in, and was much pleased with, 
the skilful and successful Vidushaka, who had saved his 
daughter's life. And he gave him his own daughter on the 
spot. What do generous men withhold when pleased with 
their benefactors ? Surely the Goddess of Prosperity,^ out 
of love for the lotus, dwelt in the hand of the princess, since 
Vidushaka obtained great good fortune after he had received 
it in the marriage ceremony. 

Then Vidushaka, enjoying a distinguished reputation, 
and engaged in attending upon the sovereign, lived with that 
beloved wife in the palace of King Adityasena. Then as 
the days went on, once upon a time the princess, impelled by 
some supernatural power, said at night to Vidushaka : " My 
lord, you remember that when you were in the temple of the 
goddess a divine voice said to you : ' Come here at the end 
of a month.' To-day is the last day of the month and you 
have forgotten it." When his beloved said this to him, 
Vidushaka was delighted, and recalled it to mind, and said 
to his wife : " Well remembered on thy part, fair one ! But 
I had forgotten it." And then he embraced her by way of 

And then, while she was asleep, he left the women's 

1 Lakshml or Sri, the Goddess of Prosperity, appeared after the Churning 
of the Ocean with a lotus in her hand. According to another story she is 
said to have appeared at the Creation floating on the expanded leaves ot 
a lotus-flower. The hand of a lady is often compared to a lotus, 



apartments by night, and in high spirits he went armed 
with his sword to the temple of the goddess ; then he 
exclaimed outside : " I, Vidushaka, am arrived." And he 
His reiuni to heard this speech uttered by someone inside : 
the Temple '' Come in, Vidushaka." Thereupon he entered 
and beheld a heavenly palace, and inside it a lady of 
heavenly beauty with a heavenly retinue, dispelling with her 
brightness the darkness, like a night set on fire, looking as 
if she were the medicine to restore to life the God of Love 
consumed with the fire of the wrath of Siva. He, wondering 
what it could all mean, was joyfully received by her in person, 
with a welcome full of affection and great respect. And when 
he had sat down and had gained confidence from seeing her 
affection, he became eager to understand the real nature of 
the adventure, and she said to him : " I am a maiden of the 
Vidyadhara race, of high descent, and my name is Bhadra, 
and as I was roaming about at my will I saw you here on that 
occasion. And as my mind was attracted by your virtues, I 
uttered at that time that voice which seemed to come from 
someone invisible, in order that you might return. And 
to-day I bewildered the princess by employing my magic 
skill, so that under my impulse she revived your remembrance 
of this matter, and for your sake I am here, and so, handsome 
hero, I surrender myself to you ; marry me." The noble 
Vidushaka, when the Vidyadhari Bhadra addressed him in 
this style, agreed that moment, and married her by the 
gdndharva ceremony. Then he remained in that very place, 
having obtained celestial joys, the fruits of his own valour, 
living with that beloved wife. 

Meanwhile the princess woke up when the night came to 
an end, and not seeing her husband, was immediately plunged 
in despair. So she got up and went with tottering steps to 
her mother, all trembling, with her eyes flooded with gushing 
tears. And she told her mother that her husband had gone 
away somewhere in the night, and was full of self-reproach, 
fearing that she had been guilty of some fault. Then her 
mother was distracted owing to her love for her daughter, 
and so in course of time the king heard of it, and came 
there, and fell into a state of the utmost anxiety. When his 


daughter said to him, " I know my husband has gone to the 
temple of the goddess outside the cemetery," the king went 
there in person. But he was not able to find Vidtishaka 
there, in spite of all his searching, for he was concealed by 
virtue of the magic science of the Vidyadhari. Then the 
king returned, and his daughter in despair determined to 
leave the body, but while she was thus minded some wise 
man came to her and said this to her : " Do not fear any 
misfortune, for that husband of thine is living in the enjoy- 
ment of heavenly felicity, and will return to thee shortly." 
When she heard that, the princess retained her life, which 
was kept in her by the hope of her husband's return, that 
had taken deep root in her heart. 

Then, while Vidushaka was living there, a certain friend 
of his beloved, named Yogesvari, came to Bhadra, and said 
to her in secret : " My friend, the Vidyadharas are angry 
with you because you live with a man, and they seek to do 
you an injury ; therefore leave this place. There is a city 
called Karkotaka on the shore of the eastern sea, and beyond 
that there is a sanctifying stream named Sitoda, and after 
you cross that, there is a great mountain named Udaya,^ the 
land of the Siddhas,^ which the Vidyadharas may not invade ; 
go there immediately, and do not be anxious about the be- 
loved mortal whom you leave here, for before you start you 
can tell all this to him, so that he shall be able afterwards 
to journey there with speed." When her friend said this to 
her, Bhadra was overcome with fear, and though attached 

^ Udaya is a Sanskrit word meaning "rising," "appearance," and then 
as the eastern mountain behind which tlie sun was supposed to rise. Writing 
to me on the subject the Rev. A. S. Geden says that in this sense compounded 
words like udayagiri, udaijaparvata, " eastern mountain," were probably more 
common than the simple term udaya, and he does not remember the 
word being found with this meaning in the Vedas. It does not play a 
conspicuous part in Hindu classical mythology, and is, of course, distinct 
from Meru, the world mountain, and Mandara, the mountain used at the 
Churning of the Ocean. The myth would seem to have arisen in the 
Himalayan country, or behind the Hindu Kush, where the sun did actually 
appear behind a mountain in the east. It could hardly have suggested 
itself on a dead plain like that of the Ganges. See Bohtlingk and Roth. n.m.p. 

2 I.e. semi-divine beings supposed to be of great purity and holiness. 

See Vol. I, Appendix 1, p. 204. n.m.p. 


to Vidushaka, she consented to do as her friend advised. 
So she told her scheme to Vidushaka, and providently gave 
him her ring, and then disappeared at the close of the night. 
And Vidushaka immediately found himself in the empty 
temple of the goddess, in which he had been before, and 
no Bhadra and no palace. Remembering the delusion pro- 
duced by Bhadra's magic skill, and beholding the ring, 
Vidushaka was overpowered by a paroxysm of despair and 
wonder. And remembering her speech as if it were a dream, 
he reflected : *' Before she left, she assigned as a place of 
meeting the mountain of the sun-rising; so I must quickly 
go there to find her ; but if I am seen by the people in this 
state, the king will not let me go : so I will employ a strata- 
gem in this matter, in order that I may accomplish my 

So reflecting, the wise man assumed another appearance, 
and went out from that temple with tattered clothes, be- 
grimed with dust, exclaiming : " Ah, Bhadra ! Ah, Bhadra ! " 
And immediately the people who lived in that place, behold- 
ing him, raised a shout : " Here is Vidushaka found ! " And 
the king hearing of it came out from his palace in person, 
and seeing Vidushaka in such a state, conducting himself 
like a madman, he laid hold on him and took him back to 
his palace. When he was there, whatever his servants and 
connections, who were full of affection, said to him he 
answered only by exclaiming : " Ah, Bhadra ! Ah, Bhadra ! " 
And when he was anointed with unguents prescribed by 
the physicians, he immediately defiled his body with much 
cinder- dust ; and the food which the princess out of love 
offered to him with her own hands he instantly threw down 
and trampled underfoot. And in this condition Vidushaka 
remained there some days, without taking interest in any- 
thing, tearing his own clothes, and playing the madman. 
And Adityasena thought to himself : " His condition is past 
cure, so what is the use of torturing him ? He may perhaps 
die, and then I shall be guilty of the death of a Brahman, 
whereas if he roams about at his will he may possibly recover 
in course of time." So he let him go. 

Then the hero Vidushaka, being allowed to roam where 


he liked, set out the next day at his leisure to find Bhadra, 
taking with him the ring. And as he journeyed on day by 
day towards the East, he at last reached a city named 
rr . Paundravardhana,^ which lay in his way as 

He goes in ' *' ^ 

search of he travelled on ; there he entered the house of 
Bhadra ^ certain aged Brahman woman, saying to her : 

" Mother, I wish to stop here one night." And she gave 
him a lodging and entertained him, and shortly after she 
approached him, full of inward sorrow, and said to him : 
" My son, I hereby give thee all this house, therefore receive 
it, since I cannot now live any longer." He, astonished, said 
to her : " Why do you speak thus ? " Then she said : 
" Listen, I will tell you the whole story," and so continued 
as follows : 

"My son, in this city there is a king named Devasena, 
and to him there was born a daughter, the ornament of the 
earth. The affectionate king said, ' I have with difficulty 
Bnkkhalah- obtained this one daughter,' so he gave her the 
dki'ka and the name of Duhkhalabdhika. In course of time, 
Rdkshasa when shc had grown up, the king gave her in 
marriage to the King of Kachchhapa, whom he had brought 
to his own palace.^ The King of Kachchhapa entered 
at night the private apartments of his bride, and died 
the very first time he entered them. Then the king, 
much distressed, again gave his daughter in marriage to 
another king ; he also perished in the same way ^ : and when 
through fear of the same fate other kings did not wish to 
marry her, the king gave this order to his general : ' You 
must bring a man in turn from every single house in this 
country, so that one shall be supplied every day, and he 
must be a Brahman or a Kshatriya. And after you have 
brought the man, you must cause him to enter by night into 

1 General Cunningham identifies Paundravardhana with the modern 

^ There is a curious parallel to this story in Taranatha's History of 
Buddhism, translated into German by Schiefner, p. 203. Here a Rakshasi 
assumes the form of a former king's wife, and kills all the subjects, one 
after another, as fast as they are elected to the royal dignity. 

3 Compare the apocryphal Book of Tobit. See p. 30 of Lenormant's 
Chaldcean Magic and Sorcery, English translation. 


the apartment of my daughter ; let us see how many will 
perish in this way, and how long it will go on. Whoever 
escapes shall afterwards ^ become her husband ; for it is im- 
possible to bar the course of Fate, whose dispensations are 
mysterious.' The general having received this order from 
the king, brings a man every day in turn from every house 
in this city, and in this way hundreds of men have met their 
death in the apartment of the princess. ^ Now I, whose 
merits in a former life must have been deficient, have one 
son here ; his turn has to-day arrived to go to the palace to 
meet his death ; and I being deprived of him must to-morrow 
enter the fire. Therefore, while I am still alive, I give to 
you, a worthy object, all my house with my own hand, in 
order that my lot may not again be unfortunate in my next 

When she had said this, the resolute Vidushaka answered : 
" If this is the whole matter, do not be despondent, mother. 
I will go there to-day : let your only son live. And do not 
feel any commiseration with regard to me, so as to say to 
yourself, ' Why should I be the cause of this man's death ? ' 
for owing to the magical power which I possess I run no 
risk by going there." When Vidushaka had said this, that 
Brahman woman said to him : " Then you must be some 
god come here as a reward for my virtue, so cause me, my 
son, to recover life, and yourself to gain felicity." When she 
had expressed her approval of his project in these words, 
he went in the evening to the apartment of the princess, 
together with a servant appointed by the general to conduct 
him. There he beheld the princess flushed with the pride 
of youth, like a creeper weighed down with the burden of its 
abundant flowers that had not yet been gathered. Accord- 

^ As the word hhavlyyati is future, the addition of pascal (afterwards) 
seems unnecessary. It is, moreover, not found in the D. text, which is 
rendered by Speyer : "who survives in this (trial) shall become her husband." 


2 For reference to such tales of the Perseus and Andromeda type see 
Frazer, Pausanias, vol. ix, 26, 27 ; I. V. Zingerle, Kinder- und Hammarchen aus 
Tirol, Nos. 8, 21, 35, pp. 35 et seq., 100 et seq., and 178 et seq. ; G. F. Abbott, 
Macedonian Folk-Lore, p. 270 et seq. ; and especially E. S. Hartland, The Legend 
of Perseus, 1894-1896. n.m.p. 


ingly, when night came, the princess went to her bed, and 
Vidushaka remained awake in her apartment, holding in his 
hand the sword of the Fire God, which came to him with a 
thought, saying to himself ; "I will find out who it is that 
slays men here." And when people were all asleep, he saw 
a terrible Rakshasa coming from the side of the apartment 
where the entrance was, having first opened the door ; and 
the Rakshasa, standing at the entrance, stretched forward 
into the room an arm, which had been the swift wand of 
Death to hundreds of men. But Vidushaka, in wrath 
springing forward, cut off suddenly the arm of the Rakshasa 
with one stroke of his sword.^ And the Rakshasa immedi- 
ately fled away through fear of his exceeding valour, with 
the loss of one arm, never again to return. When the 
princess awoke, she saw the severed arm lying there, and 
she was terrified, delighted, and astonished at the same time. 
And in the morning the King Devasena saw the arm of 
the Rakshasa, which had fallen down after it was cut off, 
lying at the door of his daughter's apartments ; in this way 
Vidushaka as if to say, " Henceforth no other men must 
enter here " fastened the door as it were with a long bar.^ 
Accordingly the delighted king gave to Vidushaka, who 
possessed this divine power, his daughter and much wealth ; 
and Vidushaka dwelt there some days with this fair one, as 
if with prosperity incarnate in bodily form. 

But one day he left the princess while asleep, and set 
out at night in haste to find his Bhadra. And the princess 
in the morning was afflicted at not seeing him, but she was 
He continues co^iforted by her father with the hope of his 
his search for return. Vidushaka, journeying on day by day, 
Bhadra ^^ j^^^ reached the city of Tamralipta, not far 

from the eastern sea. There he joined himself to a 
certain merchant, named Skandhadasa,^ who desired to 
cross the sea. In his company, embarking on a ship laden 

1 Ralston in his Russian Folk-Tales, p. 270, compares this incident with 
one in a Polish story, and in the Russian story of " The Witch Girl." In 
both the arm of the destroyer is cut off. 

^ I read iva ; the arm was the long bar, and the whole passage is an 
instance of the rhetorical figure called utprekshd. 

3 A better reading is Skandadasa, with the D. text. n.m.p. 


with much wealth belonging to the merchant, he set out 
on the ocean path. Then that ship was stopped suddenly 
when it had reached the middle of the ocean, as if it were 
held by something. And when it did not move, though the 
sea was propitiated with jewels,^ that merchant Skandhadasa 
being grieved, said this : " Whosoever releases this ship of 
mine which is detained, to him I will give half my own 
wealth and my daughter." The resolute-souled Vidushaka, 
when he heard that, said : "I will descend into the water 
of the sea and search it, and I will set free in a moment this 
ship of yours which is stopped : but you must support me 
by ropes fastened round my body. And the moment the 
ship is set free, you must draw me up out of the midst of 
the sea by the supporting ropes." 

The merchant welcomed this speech with a promise to 
do what he asked, and the steersmen bound ropes under his 
armpits. Supported in that way, Vidushaka descended in 
the sea ; a brave man never desponds when the moment 
for action has arrived. So taking in his hand the sword of 
the Fire God, that came to him with a thought, the hero de- 
scended into the midst of the sea under the ship. And there 
he saw a giant asleep, and he saw that the ship was stopped 
by his leg. So he immediately cut off his leg with his sword, 
and at once the ship moved on freed from its impediment.^ 
When the wicked merchant saw that, he cut the ropes 
by which Vidushaka was supported, through desire to save 
the wealth he had promised him, and went swiftly to the 
other shore of the ocean, vast as his own avarice, in 
the ship which had thus been set free. Vidushaka for his 
part, being in the midst of the sea with the supporting 
ropes cut, rose to the surface, and seeing how matters 
stood he calmly reflected for a moment : " Why did the 
merchant do this ? Surely in this case the proverb is 
applicable : ' Ungrateful men blinded by desire of gain 
cannot see a benefit.' Well, it is now high time for me to 

^ For collected evidence of sacrifices to water-spirits see Frazer, Golden 
Bough, vol. ii, pp. 1.55-170. n.m.p. 

2 Cf. the freeing of Argo by Hercules cutting off Pallair's arm in the 
Togail Trot, ed. Stokes, p. 67. 


display intrepidity, for if courage fails, even a small calamity 
cannot be overcome." 

Thus he reflected on that occasion, and then he got astride 
on the leg which he had cut off from the giant sleeping in the 
water, and by its help he crossed the sea, as if with a boat, 
paddling with his hands ; for even destiny takes the part 
of men of distinguished valour. Then a voice from heaven 
addressed that mighty hero who had come across the ocean, 
as Hanuman did for the sake of Rama ^ : " Bravo, Vidu- 
shaka ! Bravo ! Who except thee is a man of valour ? I 
am pleased with this courage of thine : therefore hear this. 
Thou hast reached a desolate coast here, but from this thou 
shalt arrive in seven days at the city of Karkotaka ; then 
thou shalt pluck up fresh spirits, and journeying quickly 
from that place, thou shalt obtain thy desire. But I am the 
Fire, the consumer of the oblations to gods and the spirits of 
deceased ancestors, whom thou didst before propitiate : and 
owing to my favour thou shalt feel neither hunger nor thirst 
therefore go prosperously and confidently." Having thus 
spoken, the voice ceased. 

And Vidushaka, when he heard that, bowed, adoring the 
Fire God, and set forth in high spirits, and on the seventh 
day he reached the city of Karkotaka. And there he 
entered a monastery, inhabited by many noble Brahmans 
from various lands, who were noted for hospitality. It was 
a wealthy foundation of the king of that place, Aryavarman, 
and had annexed to it beautiful temples all made of gold. 
There all of the Brahmans welcomed him, and one Brahman 
took the guest to his chamber, and provided him with a bath, 
with food and with clothing. And while he was living in the 
monastery, he heard this proclamation being made by beat 
of drum ^ in the evening : " Whatever Brahman or Kshatriya 
wishes to-morrow morning to marry the king's daughter, let 
him spend a night in her chamber." 

When he heard that, he suspected the real reason, and being 
always fond of daring adventures, he desired immediately 

^ There is probably a pun here. Rdmartham may mean "for the sake 
of a fair one." 

^ See the note on the uses of the drum. Vol. I, p. 11 Sn^. n.m.p. 


to go to the apartment of the princess. Thereupon the 
Brahmans of the monastery said to him : " Brahman, do not 
be guilty of rashness. The apartment of the princess is not 
rightly so called, rather is it the open mouth of death/ for 
whoever enters it at night does not escape alive, and many 
daring men have thus met their death there." In spite of 
what these Brahmans told him, Vidushaka would not take their 
advice,'^ but went to the palace of the king with his servants. 
There the King Aryavarman, when he saw him, welcomed 
him in person, and at night he entered the apartment of the 
king's daughter, looking like the sun entering the fire. And 
he beheld that princess, who seemed by her appearance to be 
attached to him, for she looked at him with tearful eye, and 
a sad look expressive of the grief produced by utter despair. 
And he remained awake there all night gazing intently, 
holding in his hand the sword of the Fire God, that came 
to him with a thought. And suddenly he beheld at the 
Aud a 'rain entrance a very terrible Rakshasa, extending his 
encounters left hand becausc his right had been cut off. And 
the Rakshasa ^Yievi he saw him, he said to himself : " Here is 
that very Rakshasa whose arm I cut off in the city of 
Paundravardhana. So I will not strike at his arm again, 
lest he should escape me and depart as before, and for this 
reason it is better for me to kill him." Thus reflecting, 
Vidushaka ran forward and seized his hair, and was preparing 
to cut off his head when suddenly the Rakshasa in extreme 
terror said to him . " Do not slay me ; you are brave, there- 
fore show mercy." Vidushaka let him go, and said : " Who 
are you, and what are you about here ? " Then the Rak- 
shasa, being thus questioned by the hero, continued : '' My 
name is Yamadanshtra, and I had two daughters this is one, 
and she who lives in Paundravardhana is another. And 
Siva favoured me by laying on me this command : ' Thou 
must save the two princesses from marrying anyone who is 
not a hero.' While thus engaged I first had an arm cut off 
at Paundravardhana, and now I have been conquered by you 
here, so this duty of mine is accompHshed." 

^ I read na tad for tatra with a MS. in the Sanskrit College. 

2 Here there is a pun on Ananga, a name of Kama, the Hindu Cupid. 



When Vidushaka heard this he laughed, and said to him 
in reply : "It was I that cut off your arm in Paundravar- 
dhana." The Rakshasa answered: "Then you must be a 
portion of some divinity, not a mere man. I think it was for 
your sake that Siva did me the honour of laying that command 
upon me. So henceforth I consider you my friend, and when 
you call me to mind I will appear to you to ensure your success 
even in difficulties." In these words the Rakshasa Yama- 
danshtra out of friendship chose him as a sworn brother, and 
when Vidushaka accepted his proposal, disappeared. Vidu- 
shaka, for his part, was commended for his valour by the 
princess, and spent the night there in high spirits ; and in the 
morning the king, hearing of the incident and highly pleased, 
gave him his daughter as the conspicuous banner of his 
valour, together with much wealth. Vidushaka lived there 
some nights with her, as if with the Goddess of Prosperity, 
bound so firmly by his virtue ^ that she could not move a 
step. But one night he went off of his own accord from that 
place, longing for his beloved Bhadra ; for who that has 
tasted heavenly joys can take pleasure in any other ? 

And after he had left the town he called to mind that 
Rakshasa, and said to him, who appeared the moment he 
called him to mind, and made him a bow : " My friend, I 
must go to the land of the Siddhas on the eastern mountain 
for the sake of the Vidyadhari named Bhadra, so do you 
take me there." The Rakshasa said : " Very good." So he 
ascended his shoulder, and travelled in that night over sixty 
yojanas of difficult country ^ ; and in the morning he crossed 
the Sitoda, a river that cannot be crossed by mortals, and 
without effort reached the border of the land of the Siddhas.^ 
The Rakshasa said to him : " Here is the blessed mountain, 
called the mountain of the rising sun, in front of you, but I 
cannot set foot upon it, as it is the home of the Siddhas." 

Then the Rakshasa, being dismissed by him, departed, and 
there Vidushaka beheld a delightful lake ; and he sat down 

1 Here there is a pun. The word guna also means " rope." 
^ For stories of transportation through the air see Wirt Sikes, British 
Goblins, p. 157 et seq. 

3 See Vol. I, Appendix I, p. 204. n.m.p. 


on the bank of that lake, beautiful with the faces of full- 
blown lotuses, which, as it were, uttered a welcome to him 
with the hum of roaming bees. And there he saw unmistak- 
able footsteps as of women, seeming to say to him : " This is 
the path to the house of your beloved." While he was think- 
ing to himself, " Mortals cannot set foot on this mountain, 
therefore I had better stop here a moment and see whose 
footsteps these are," there came to the lake to draw water 
many beautiful women with golden pitchers in their hands. 
So he asked the women, after they had filled their pitchers 
with water, in a courteous manner . " For whom are you 
taking this water?" And those women said to him i "Ex- 
cellent sir, a Vidyadhari of the name of Bhadra is dwelling 
on this mountain ; this water is for her to bathe in." 

Wonderful to say. Providence, seeming to be pleased with 
resolute men who attempt mighty enterprises, makes all 
things subserve their ends. For one of these women suddenly 
said to Vidushaka : " Noble sir, please lift this pitcher on to 
my shoulder." He consented, and when he lifted the pitcher 
on to her shoulder the discreet man put into it the jewelled 
ring he had before received from Bhadra,^ and then he sat 

^ Cf. the way in which Torello informs his wife of his presence in 
Boccaccio's Decameron, tenth day, nov. ix. The novels of the tenth day must 
be derived from Indian, and probably Buddhistic, sources. There is a Bud- 
dhistic vein in all of them. A striking parallel to the fifth novel of the tenth 
day will be found farther on in this work. Cf. also for the incident of the 
ring Thorpe's Yule-tide Stories, p. l67. See also the story of ** Heinrich der 
Lowe," Simrock's Deutsche Volksb'iicher, vol. i, pp. 21, 22; Waldau's Bohtnuiche 
Marchen, pp. 365, 432; Coelho's Contos Populares Portugueses, p. 76; Prym 
and Socin's Si/rische Marchen, p. 72, and Ralston's Tibetan Tales, Introduction, 
pp. xlix and 1. 

In his Decameron, its Sources and Analogues, p. 343 et seq., A. C. Lee gives 
several examples of recognition by a ring or portion of a ring in folk-tales. 
It is usually dropped in a cup of wine, as in the old French poem, " Horn and 
Rimenhild," and the old English version, " Geste of King Horn." For full 
bibliographical details see H. Schofield, "The Story of Horn and Rimenhild," 
Mod. Lang. Ass. Amer., vol. xviii, No. 1, 1903. A similar tale occurs in the 
French romance of" Pontus and the Fair Sidone," for which see E. J. Matter, 
Mod. Lang. A.^s. Amer., vol. xii (N.S., vol. v), 1895. In many European collec- 
tions of poems and ballads we read of parting couples breaking a ring in half 
for future recognition. For full particulars see Child, English and Scotch 
Popular Ballads, 10 parts, Boston, 1882 [1898]. Cf. also W. E. A. Axon, 



down again on the bank of that lake, while those women went 
with the water to the house of Bhadra. And while they were 
pouring over Bhadra the water of ablution, her ring fell into 
her lap. When Bhadra saw it she recognised it, and asked 
those friends of hers whether they had seen any stranger 
about. And they gave her this answer : " We saw a young 
mortal on the banks of the lake, and he lifted this pitcher 
for us." Then Bhadra said : "Go and make him bathe and 
adorn himself, and quickly bring him here, for he is my 
husband, who has arrived in this country." 

When Bhadra had said this, her companions went and told 
Vidushaka the state of the case, and after he had bathed, 
brought him into her presence. And when he arrived 
Vidushaka at ^^ ^^^' ^^^cr long Separation, Bhadra, who was 
last meets eagerly expecting him, like the ripe blooming 
Bhadra fruit of the tree of his own valour in visible 

form : she for her part rose up when she saw him, and 
offering him the argha,^ so to speak, by sprinkling him with 
her tears of joy, she fastened her twining arms round his 
neck like a garland. When they embraced one another the 
long-accumulated affection ^ seemed to ooze from their limbs 
in the form of sweat, owing to excessive pressure. Then they 
sat down, and never satisfied with gazing at one another, 
they both, as it were, endured the agony of longing multiplied 
a hundredfold. Bhadra then said to Vidushaka : " How did 
you come to this land ? " And he thereupon gave her this 
answer : " Supported by affection for thee, I came here endur- 
ing many risks to my life ; what else can I say, fair one ? " 
When she heard that, seeing that his love was excessive, as it 

Lancashire Gleanings, 1883, p. 343; Trans. Roy Soc. Lit., 2nd series, vol. ix, 
p. 440, and Antiqiiary, vol. xxxviii, 1902, p. 24. 

This '^declaring presence" motif, as it might be called, is sometimes 
mixed up with other motifs ; thus it appears in the well-known cycle of tales 
where the hero is given various tasks to perform before he can gain his bride, 
and must pick out the girl from a number exactly alike. It is sometimes an 
animal that helps, or the girl herself makes some sign. Readers will remember 
the well-known story of " Nala and DamayantI " in the Mahabhdrata ; but of 
this more later. n.m.p. 

^ An oblation to gods, or venerable men, of rice, durva grass, flowers, etc., 
with water, or of water only in a small boat-shaped vessel. 

2 S7ieha means "oil," and also "affection." 


caused him to disregard his own life, Bhadra said to him who 
through affection had endured the utmost ^ : " My husband, 
I care not for my friends, nor my magic powers ; you are my 
Hfe, and I am your slave, my lord, bought by you with your 
virtues." Then Vidushaka said : *' Then come with me to 
live in Ujjayini, my beloved, leaving all this heavenly joy." 
Bhadra immediately accepted his proposal, and gave up all 
her magic gifts (which departed from her the moment she 
formed that resolution) with no more regret than if they had 
been straw. Then Vidushaka rested with her there during 
that night, being waited on by her friend Yogesvari, and in 
the morning the successful hero descended with her from the 
mountain of the sunrise, and again called to mind the Rak- 
shasa Yamadanshtra ; the Rakshasa came the moment he 
was thought of, and Vidushaka told him the direction of 
the journey he had to take, and then ascended his shoulder, 
having previously placed Bhadra there. She too endured 
patiently to be placed on the shoulder of a very loathsome 
Rakshasa. What will not women do when mastered by 
affection ? 

So Vidushaka, mounted on the Rakshasa, set out with his 
beloved, and again reached the city of Karkotaka ; and there 
men beheld him with fear, inspired by the sight of the Ra- 
And collecting ^shasa ; and when he saw King Aryavarman he 
his numerous demanded from him his daughter ; and after re- 
iVives ceiving that princess surrendered by her father, 

whom he had won with his arm, he set forth from that city 
in the same style, mounted on the Rakshasa. And after he 
had gone some distance he found that wicked merchant on 
the shore of the sea who long ago cut the ropes when he had 
been thrown into the sea. And he took, together with his 
wealth, his daughter, whom he had before won as a reward 
for setting free the ship in the sea. And he considered the 
depriving that villain of his wealth as equivalent to putting 
him to death ; for grovelling souls often value their hoards 
more than their life. Then mounted on the Rakshasa as on a 
chariot, taking with him that daughter of the merchant, he 

^ The D. text edits kasthagatasnehdl, thus meaning "at hearing this, 
her affection came to its highest pitch." n.m.p. 


flew up into the heaven with the princess and Bhadra, and 
journeying through the air he crossed the ocean, which Uke 
his valour was full of boisterous impetuosity, exhibiting it 
to his fair ones.^ And he again reached the city of Paun- 
dravardhana, beheld with astonishment by all as he rode on 
a Rakshasa. There he greeted his wife, the daughter of 
Devasena, who had long desired his arrival, whom he had won 
by the defeat of the Rakshasa ; and though her father tried 
to detain him, yet longing for his native land, he took her 
also with him and set out for Ujjayini. And owing to the 
speed of the Rakshasa he soon reached that city, which 
Returns safely appeared like his satisfaction at beholding his 
to Vjjayim homc, exhibited in visible form. There Vidushaka 
was seen by the people, perched on the top of that huge 
Rakshasa, whose vast frame was illuminated by the beauty 
of his wives seated on his shoulder, as the moon ^ rising over 
the eastern mountain with gleaming herbs on its summit. 
The people being astonished and terrified, his father-in-law 
the King Adityasena came to hear of it, and went out 
from the city. But Vidushaka, when he saw him, quickly 
descended from the Rakshasa, and after prostrating himself 
approached the king ; the king too welcomed him. Then 
Vidushaka caused all his wives to come down from the 
shoulder of the Rakshasa, and released him to wander where 
he would. And after that Rakshasa had departed, Vidu- 
shaka, accompanied by his wives, entered the king's palace 
together with the king his father-in-law. There he de- 
lighted by his arrival that first wife of his, the daughter of 
that king, who suffered a long regret for his absence. And 
when the king said to him, " How did you obtain these 
wives, and who is that Rakshasa ? " he told him the whole 

Then that king, pleased with his son-in-law's valour, and 
knowing what it was expedient to do, gave him half his 

^ Sattva when applied to the ocean probably means "monsters." So 
the whole compound would mean "in which was conspicuous the fury of 
gambling monsters," The pun defies translation, 

2 I read aushadheh. The Rakshasa is compared to the mountain, Vidushaka 
to the moon, his wives to the gleaming herbs. 


kingdom ; and immediately Vidushaka, though a Brahman, 
became a monarch, with a lofty white umbrella and chowries 
waving on both sides of him. And then the city of Ujjayini 
was joyful, full of the sound of festive drums and music, 
uttering shouts of delight. Thus he obtained the mighty 
rank of a king, and gradually conquered the whole earth, so 
that his foot was worshipped by all kings, and with Bhadra 
for his consort he long lived in happiness with those wives 
of his, who were content, having abandoned jealousy. Thus 
resolute men, when Fortune favours them, find their own 
valour a great and successful stupefying charm that forcibly 
draws towards them prosperity. 

[M] When they heard from the mouth of the King of 
Vatsa this varied tale ^ full of marvellous incident, all his 
ministers sitting by his side and his two wives experienced 
excessive delight. 

^ Thorpe in his Yule-tide Stories remarks that the story of Vidushaka 
somewhat resembles in its ground-plot the tale of the " Beautiful Palace 
East of the Sun and North of the Earth." With the latter he also compares 
the story of Saktivega in the fifth book of the Kathd Sarit Sdgara. (See the 
Table of Contents of Thorpe's Yule-tide Stories, p. xi.) Cf. also Sicilianische 

Marchen, vol. ii, p. 1, and for the cutting off of the giant's arm, p. 50. 

Numerous stories from all parts of Europe bearing a certain similarity to 
that in our text will be found in G. H. Gerould's The Grateful Dead, Folk-Lore 
Society, 1908, pp. 44-75. 

For some inexplicable reason Gerould heads the chapter " The Grateful 
Dead and the Poison Maiden," when not one of the stories have anything to 
do with poison maidens. The women in question merely have snakes, dragons, 
etc. (which have caused the death of many husbands), extracted by magic or 
divine aid. He should have called this suh-7notif " Possessed Women," as he 
originally did on page 26 of the same volume, or else some such title as "The 
Fatal Bride," "The Wedding of Death." 

For the connection of snakes and poisoned women, see Appendix III, 
pp. 306, 307 of this volume. n.m.p. 




Rahu was the Asura (see Vol. I, pp. 197-200) who, disguised as a god at 
the Churning of the Ocean (see Vol. I, pp. In^, 3n^, 55n^ and 202), obtained 
possession of some of the Amrita and proceeded to drink it in order to become 
immortal. Surya and Soma (the sun and moon), however, noticed what 
was going on, and immediately told Narayana (Vishnu), who instantly cut 
off Rahu's head with his discus. As the head contained Amrita it became 
immortal and came to represent the ascending nodes of the moon's orbit. 
The body of Rahu, according to the Puranic notion, was called Ketu, and 
represented the descending nodes. It also became the progenitor of the 
whole tribe of meteors and comets. Not having obtained his wish to become 
completely immortal, Rahu naturally bore a grudge against Surya and Soma, 
and, whenever he gets the opportunity, he tries to swallow them. His shadow 
is thus thrown on the intended victim, and so are caused what we call the 
eclipses ! 

The interesting point about this myth is that the origin appears to be 
unknown. As E. J. Thomas has mentioned (Hastings' Enci/. Rel. Eth., " Sun, 
Moon and Stars (Buddhist)," vol. xii, p. 72), the story is not early Buddhist, 
nor even ancient Hindu. Although it occurs in the Mahdbhdrata (I, xix), it is 
not found in the account of the Churning of the Ocean in the Vishnu Purana. 
Is it, then, Aryan or non-Aryan } An eclipse of the sun or moon has every- 
where been regarded with dread, and in many parts of the world its advent 
still gives rise to a variety of rites, some of a threatening and others of a 
propitiatory nature. The usual explanatory myth resembles that described 
above, at least as far as the idea of the sun or moon being devoured is 
concerned. It is an animal or demon who is trying to eat up the sun or 
moon, hence it is necessary to frighten it away by terrifying noises. 

In China and Assam gongs are sounded for this purpose, while more 
primitive peoples scream, hit their cooking utensils and fire pistols, and 
among the Sencis of Eastern Peru lighted arrows are shot at the intruder. 
It is interesting to notice that in the Confucian classic Tsun Tsiu ("Springs 
and Autumns ") the word for " eclipse " is the same as that for " eat." Among 
the Tlaxcalans of Mexico matters became very serious during an eclipse. The 
phenomenon was thought to be caused by a fight between the sun and moon, 
and in order to appease them red-skinned people were sacrificed to the sun 
and albinos to the moon. 

The Peruvians (and at one period the Mexicans also) considered that, 
owing to a former kindness rendered it, dogs were held in high esteem by 
the moon. Accordingly when an eclipse of the moon occurred, they beat 
all the dogs, so that the moon, angry at this treatment of her friends, would 
immediately uncover her face. 

Another primitive idea is that the light of the sun and moon has gone 
out, and consequently a fire or torches lit during the eclipse will persuade the 
luminary to smile upon the world once more. 



As in China, the Hindus see a hare in the moon in place of our ''man" 
(see Ocean of Story, Vol. I, p. 109^). The Todas of the Nilgiri Hills imagine 
that during an eclipse of the moon a snake is devouring the hare. They fast 
until the eclipse is over and shout out to frighten away the snake (see 
Rivers, The Todas, p. 593). 

In the Central Provinces it is believed that Rahu was either a sweeper or 
the deity of the sweepers ; thus the Mehtar caste of scavengers collect alms 
during an eclipse, as it is thought that Rahu will be thus appeased and loose 
his hold on the luminaries. Similarly the Teli, or oil-pressers caste of the 
Chhattlsgarh and Nagpur divisions, believe that the sun owes the sweeper a 
debt which he refuses to pay. The sweeper, however, is not to be put off 
easily and sits dhamd at the sun's door. This is obvious, for his dark shadow 
can be seen quite clearly. In time the debt is paid and the sweeper departs. 

In Bombay, J. J. Modi (see reference below) was told the following as the 
usual explanation of an eclipse. 

Rama, on his return from the defeat of Ravana in Lanka, gave a feast to 
his victorious army. Mahadeva (Siva) and Parvati were serving the meals. 
Presently Mahadeva drew the attention of Parvati to the presence of a 
low-caste Mang boy (a caste who act as village musicians and castrate 
bullocks, the women serving as midwives) in the assembly, and asked her 
to be careful, and to serve him the meals from a distance. But as soon as 
Rama saw the Mang he slew him for daring to mar the sacredness of the 
feast by his impure presence. The mother of the slain boy took up the head, 
placed it in a basket and tried in vain to resuscitate it with fresh water. 
With the basket containing the head of her lost son, she went to the gods 
and goddesses begging for her meals. In turn she still goes to the sun and 
moon, threatening to touch them if her request is not granted, thus desecrating 
their sacred character. It is the shadow of her basket that causes the eclipse, 
and so it is to remove this Mang woman, this importunate creditor, that people 
are asked to give offerings to the luminaries and alms to the Mang caste. 

An eclipse is always of evil omen, and is regarded rather like an evil 
eye from whose influence everything should be protected. The wise house- 
wife (says Crooke, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 21, 22), when an eclipse is announced, 
takes a leaf of the Tulasi or sacred basil, and sprinkling Ganges water on 
it, puts the leaf in the jars containing the drinking water for the use of 
the family and the cooked food, and thus keeps them pure while the eclipse 
is going on. Confectioners, who are obliged to keep large quantities of 
cooked food ready, relieve themselves and their customers from the taboo 
by keeping some of the sacred kusa or dub grass in their vessels when an 
eclipse is expected. A pregnant woman will do no work during an eclipse, 
as otherwise she believes that her child would be deformed, and the deformity 
is supposed to bear some relation to the work which is being done by her 
at the time. Thus, if she were to sew anything, the baby would have a 
hole in its flesh, generally near the ear ; if she cut anything, the child would 
have a hare-lip. On the same principle the horns of pregnant cattle are 
smeared with red paint during an eclipse, because red is a colour abhorred 
by demons. While the eclipse is going on, drinking water, eating food. 


and all household business, as well as the worship of the gods, are all pro- 
hibited. No respectable Hindu will at such a time sleep on a bedstead 
or lie down to rest, and he will give alms in barley or copper coins to 
relieve the pain of the suffering luminaries. 

An eclipse is an important event among modem Hindus, and considerable 
ritual is carried out in every Brahman household (see Mrs Stevenson, The 
Rites of the Twice-horn, p. 352). For further information on the superstitions 
of eclipses reference should be made to E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture, vol. i, 
pp. 288, 328 et seq., and S56 ; W. Crooke, Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. i, 
pp. 18-23; Jivanji Jamshedji Modi, "A few Ancient Beliefs about the Eclipse 
and a few Superstitions based on these Beliefs," Joiirn. Anth. Soc. Bomb., 
vol. iii, 1894, pp. 346-360; Frazer, Golden Bough, vol. i, pp. 311, 312; vol. x, 
pp. 70, l62n; Russell, Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces, \o\. iv, pp. 232, 
550 ; W. D. Wallis, " Prodigies and Portents," Hastings' Ency. Pel. Eth., vol. x, 
pp. 368, SQQ, and the numerous authors on "Sun, Moon and Stars" in ditto 
vol. xii, pp. 48-103. n.m.p. 


THEN Yaugandliarayana said to the King of Vatsa : 
[M] " King, it is known that you possess the favour 
of destiny, as well as courage ; and I also have taken 
some trouble about the right course of policy to be piu-sued 
in this matter : therefore carry out as soon as possible your 
plan of conquering the regions." When his chief minister 
had said this to him, the King of Vatsa answered : " Admit- 
ting that this is true, nevertheless the accomplishment of 
auspicious undertakings is always attended with difficulties, 
accordingly I will with this object propitiate Siva by 
austerities, for without his favour how can I obtain what I 
desire ? " When they heard that, his ministers approved of 
his performing austerities, as the chiefs of the monkeys did 
in the case of Rama, when he was intent upon building a 
bridge over the ocean. ^ 

^ This well-known incident occurs in the sixth book of the Ramayana, 
known as the Yuddha-kdnda (" Battle Section "). Rama, having concluded an 
alliance with Sugriva, king of the monkeys, is advised by him to build a bridge 
from the mainland to Lanka (Ceylon), where the Rakshasa, Ravana, is holding 
Sita (Rama's wife) captive. 

Accordingly a huge army of monkeys assembles on the seashore. 
Vibhishana, Ravana's brother, advises the surrender of Sita, but is insulted 
by Ravana. He thereupon joins Rama and advises him to propitiate the God 
of the Sea, before starting building the bridge. This is done, and then, 
tearing up rocks and trees, the multitude of monkeys construct a bridge across 
the straits. A fearful battle ensues, Ravana is killed, and after Sita has proved 
her purity she is joyfully received back by Rama. 

Thus the Hindus have given the name Rama's Bridge (Ramasetu) to the 
row of islands and sandbanks stretching from the island of Manaar, near the 
north-west coast of Ceylon, to the island of Rame^varman, just off the Indian 
mainland. It is a famous place of pilgrimage, and contains a wonderful carved 
temple, 700 ft. long, with pillared corridors. 

The English name Adam's Bridge is in all probability adopted from the 
Arabs, who regard Ceylon as the place of Adam's exile after he had been 
driven from Eden. The well-known depression on Adam's Peak, the most 
prominent, though not the largest, mountain in Ceylon, is considered to 




And after the king had fasted for three nights, engaged 
in austerities with the queens and the ministers, Siva said to 
him in a dream : "I am satisfied with thee, therefore rise up ; 
thou shalt obtain an unimpeded triumph, and thou shalt 
soon have a son who shall be king of all the Vidyadharas." 
Then the king woke up, with all his fatigue removed by the 
favour of Siva, like the new moon increased by the rays of 
the sun. And in the morning he delighted his ministers 
by telling them that dream, and the two queens, tender as 
flowers, who were worn out by the fasting they had endured 
to fulfil the vow. And they were refreshed by the descrip- 
tion of his dream, well worthy of being drunk in with the 
ears, and its effect was like that of medicine,^ for it restored 
their strength. 

The king obtained by his austerities a power equal to 
that of his ancestors, and his wives obtained the saintly re- 
nown of matrons devoted to their husband. But on the 
morrow, when the feast at the end of the fast was celebrated, 
and the citizens were beside themselves with joy, Yaugan- 
dharayana thus addressed the king : " You are fortunate, 
O King, in that the holy Siva is so well disposed towards 
you, so proceed now to conquer your enemies, and then enjoy 
the prosperity won by your arm. For when prosperity is 
acquired by a king's own virtues it remains fixed in his 
family, for blessings acquired by the virtues of the owners 
are never lost. And for this reason it was that that 
treasure long buried in the ground, which had been ac- 
cumulated by your ancestors and then lost, was recovered 
by you. Moreover with reference to this matter hear the 
following tale : 

be Adam's footprint by the Mohammedans, Buddha's footprint by the 
Buddhists, Siva's by the Brahmans, while the claims of the Portuguese 
Christians are divided between St Thomas and the eunuch of Candace, 
Queen of Ethiopia. 

For further information on this subject reference should be made to 
T. W. Rhys Davids' "Adam's Peak," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Etk., vol, i, pp. 87, 
88, with the references given; Yule and Cordier, Marco Polo (1903), vol. ii, 
pp. 321, 322, 328w, and Cathay and the Way Thither, vol. i, pp. 171, 172, 
vol. iii, pp. 233, 242. n.m.p. 

^ Perhaps we should read svddvaushadha, " sweet medicine." 


23. Story of Devaddsa 

Long ago there was in the city of Pataliputra a certain 
merchant's son, sprung from a rich family, and his name was 
Devadasa. And he married a wife from the city of Paun- 
dravardhana, the daughter of some rich merchant. When his 
father died, Devadasa became, in course of time, addicted to 
vice, and lost all his wealth at play. And then his wife's 
father came and took away to his own house in Paundravar- 
dhana his daughter, who was distressed by poverty and the 
other hardships of her lot.^ Gradually the husband began to 
be afflicted by his misfortunes, and wishing to be set up in his 
business, he came to Paundravardhana to ask his father-in- 
law to lend him the capital which he required. And having 
arrived in the evening at the city of Paundravardhana, see- 
ing that he was begrimed with dust and in tattered garments, 
he thought to himself : " How can I enter my father-in-law's 
house in this state ? In truth for a proud man death is pre- 
ferable to exhibiting poverty before one's relations." Thus 
reflecting, he went into the market-place, and remained outside 
a certain shop during the night, crouching with contracted 
body, like the lotus which is folded at night. And immedi- 
ately he saw a certain young merchant open the door of that 
shop and enter it. And a moment after he saw a woman 
come with noiseless step to that same place, and rapidly 
enter. And while he fixed his eyes on the interior of the 
shop, in which a light was burning, he recognised in that 
woman his own wife. Then Devadasa seeing that wife of 
his repairing to another man, and bolting the door, being 
smitten with the thunderbolt of grief, thought to himself: 
" A man deprived of wealth loses even his own body, how 
then can he hope to retain the affections of a woman ? For 
women have fickleness implanted in their nature by an in- 
variable law, like the flashes of lightning. So here I have an 
instance of the misfortunes which befall men who fall into the 
sea of vice, and of the behaviour of an independent woman 
who lives in her father's house." 

^ As we shall see in the note on p. SSn}, this was considered in the Rig- 
Veda quite sufficient for the wife to turn to another man. n.m.p. 



Thus he reflected as he stood outside, and he seemed to 
himself to hear his wife confidentially conversing with her 
lover. So he applied his ear to the door, and that wicked 
woman was at that moment saying in secret to the merchant, 
her paramour : " Listen ; as I am so fond of you, I will to- 
day tell you a secret : my husband long ago had a great- 
grandfather named Viravarman ; in the courtyard of his 
house he secretly buried in the ground four jars of gold, one 
jar in each of the four corners. And he then informed one 
of his wives of that fact, and his wife at the time of her death 
told her daughter-in-law, she told it to her daughter-in-law, 
who was my mother-in-law, and my mother-in-law told it to 
me. So this is an oral tradition in my husband's family, 
descending through the mothers-in-law. But I did not tell 
it to my husband though he is poor, for he is odious to me as 
being addicted to gambling, but you are above all dear to me. 
So go to my husband's town and buy the house from him with 
money, and after you have obtained that gold come here and 
live happily with me." 

When the merchant, her paramour, heard this from that 
treacherous woman, he was much pleased with her, thinking 
that he had obtained a treasure without any trouble. Deva- 
dasa, for his part, who was outside, bore henceforth the hope 
of wealth, so to speak, riveted in his heart with those pierc- 
ing words of his wicked wife. So he went thence quickly to 
the city of Pataliputra, and after reaching his house he took 
that treasure and appropriated it. Then that merchant, 
who was in secret the paramour of his wife, arrived in that 
country on pretence of trading, but in reality eager to obtain 
the treasure. So he bought that house from Devadasa, who 
made it over to him for a large sum of money. Then Deva- 
dasa set up another home, and cunningly brought back that 
wife of his from the house of his father-in-law. When this 
had been done, that wicked merchant, who was the lover of 
his wife, not having obtained the treasure, came and said to 
him : " This house of yours is old and I do not like it ; so 
give me back my money and take back your own house." 

Thus he demanded, and Devadasa refused, and being 
engaged in a violent altercation, they both went before the 


king. In his presence Devadasa poured forth the whole 
story of his wife, painful to him as venom concealed in his 
breast. Then the king had his wife summoned, and after 
ascertaining the truth of the case he punished that adulterous 
merchant with the loss of all his property. Devadasa for 
his part cut off the nose ^ of that wicked wife, and married 
another, and then lived happily in his native city on the 
treasure he had obtained. 

[M] " Thus treasure obtained by virtuous methods is 
continued to a man's posterity, but treasure of another 
kind is as easily melted away as a flake of snow when the rain 
begins to fall. Therefore a man should endeavour to obtain 
wealth by lawful methods, but a king especially, since wealth 
is the root of the tree of empire. So honour all your ministers 
according to custom, in order that you may obtain success, 
and then accomplish the conquest of the regions, so as to gain 
opulence in addition to virtue. For out of regard to the 
fact that you are allied by marriage with your two power- 
ful fathers-in-law, few kings will oppose you ; most will join 
you. However, this King of Benares named Brahmadatta is 
always your enemy, therefore conquer him first ; when he is 

^ In the oldest historical period of India there was no word for " adultery "; 
yet its occurrence is distinctly proved, if proof be needed among a highly 
developed culture like the Aryan, by various passages in the Rig-Veda. One 
in particular is of special interest here as it shows that the adultery of a 
woman whose husband gambled was of quite ordinary occurrence. The 
passage is in verse 4 of the didactic poem Rig-Veda, x, 34: "Others lay 
hands on the wife of the man who abandons himself to the dice." 

The method of punishment mentioned in our text is found in other places 
besides India ; thus in Mexico the woman had her nose and ears cut off, and 
was stoned to death (see A. de Herrera, West Indies, vol. iv, p. 338, and 
W. Prescott, Peru, p. 21). Every conceivable form of punishment imaginable 
has been employed in different parts of the world. For full details reference 
should be made to the numerous articles on " Adultery " in Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., vol. i, pp. 122-137. Among the Pardhi caste of Central India, the 
punishment for adultery in either sex consists in cutting off a piece of the left 
ear with a razor. See Russell, Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces, vol. iv, 
p. 364 ; Ronaldshay, India, a Bird's-Et/e View, 1924, p. 48, and cf. Flinders Petrie, 
"Assyrian and Hittite Society," Ancient Egi/pt, M&rch 1924, p. 23 e/ seq. n.m.p. 


conquered, conquer the eastern quarter and gradually all the 
quarters, and exalt the glory of the race of Pandu gleaming 
white like a lotus." 

When his chief minister said this to him, the King of 
Vatsa consented, eager for conquest, and ordered his sub- 
jects to prepare for the expedition ; and he gave the 
The Kins: Sovereignty of the country of Videha to his 
prepares for brother- iu-law Gopalaka, by way of reward for 
Conquest j^jg assistance, thereby showing his knowledge of 
policy ; and he gave to Sinhavarman, the brother of Padma- 
vati, who came to his assistance with his forces, the land of 
Chedi, treating him with great respect ; and the monarch 
summoned Pulindaka, the friendly King of the Bhillas,^ who 
filled the quarters with his hordes, as the rainy season fills 
them with clouds ; and while the preparation for the expedi- 
tion was going on in the great king's territories a strange 
anxiety was produced in the heart of his enemies ; but 
Yaugandharayana first sent spies to Benares to find out the 
proceedings of King Brahmadatta ; then on an auspicious 
day, being cheered with omens portending victory, the King 
of Vatsa first marched against Brahmadatta in the eastern 
quarter, having mounted^ a tall victorious elephant, with 
a lofty umbrella on its back, as a furious lion ascends a 
mountain with one tree in full bloom on it. 

And his expedition was facilitated^ by the autumn, 
which arrived as a harbinger of good fortune, and showed 
him an easy path, across rivers flowing with diminished 
volume, and he filled the face of the land with his shouting 
forces, so as to produce the appearance of a sudden rainy 
season without clouds ; and then the cardinal points, re- 
sounding with the echoes of the roaring of his host, seemed 
to be telling one another their fears of his coming, and his 
horses, collecting the brightness of the sun on their golden 
trappings, moved along, followed, as it were, by the fire 
pleased with the purification of his army.* 

1 Le. Bheels. See Vol. I, p. 152i. n.m.p. ^ j ^ead drvdhah. 

3 A MS. in the Sanskrit College reads sambhavah for the sampadah of 
Dr Brockhaus' text. 

* Lustratio exercitus ; waving lights formed part of the ceremony. 


And his elephants with their ears like white chowries, and 
with streams of ichor flowing from their temples reddened 
by being mixed with vermilion, appeared, as he marched 
along, like the sons of the mountains, streaked with the 
white clouds of autumn, and pouring down streams of water 
coloured with red mineral, sent by the parent hills, in their 
fear, to join his expedition. And the dust from the earth 
concealed the brightness of the sun, as if thinking that the 
king could not endure the effulgent splendour of rivals. 
And the two queens followed the king step by step on the 
way, like the Goddess of Fame, and the Fortune of Victory, 
attracted by his politic virtues.^ The silk of his host's 
banners, tossed to and fro in the wind, seemed to say to his 
enemies : " Bend in submission, or flee." Thus he marched, 
beholding the districts full of blown white lotuses, like the 
uplifted hoods of the serpent Sesha ^ terrified with fear of 
the destruction of the world. 

In the meanwhile those spies, commissioned by Yaugan- 
dharayana, assuming the vows of skull-bearing worshippers 
of Siva,^ reached the city of Benares. And one of them, who 
was acquainted with the art of juggling, exhibiting his skill, 
assumed the part of teacher, and the others passed them- 
selves off as his pupils. And they celebrated that pretended 
teacher, who subsisted on alms, from place to place, saying : 
" This master of ours is acquainted with past, present and 
future." Whatever that sage predicted, in the way of fires 
and so on, to those who came to consult him about the 
future, his pupils took care to bring about secretly ; so he 

^ It also means " drawing cords." 

2 He is sometimes represented as bearing the entire world on one of his 
heads. See Vol. I, p. logn^. n.m.p. 

* The Saiva mendicants have ten classes, known collectively as Da^namis, 
"ten names." Among other more respectable orders are included the Aghorl, 
a sect of ascetics who follow the most vile practices imaginable. They are 
also known by the name of Kapalika or Kapaladharin (Skr. kdpala, "a skull," 
dhdrin, "carrying"). For fuller details see H. W. I3arrow, "Aghoris and 
Aghorapanthis," Jouni. Aiith. Soc. Bomb., vol. iii. No. 4, 1893, pp. 197-251 ; 
W. Crooke, "Aghorl," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eih., vol. i, pp. 210-213. The 
connection of skulls with the worship of Siva has already occurred in the 
Ocean of Story (Vol. I, p. 5, 5n^). n.m.p. 

m heoa 


became famous. He gained complete ascendancy over the 
mind of a certain Rajput courtier there, a favourite of 
the king, who was won over by this mean skill of the 
teacher. And when the war with the King of Vatsa came 
on, the King Brahmadatta began to consult him by the 
agency of the Rajput, so that he learnt the secrets of the 

Then the minister of Brahmadatta, Yogakarandaka, laid 
snares in the path of the King of Vatsa as he advanced. 
He tainted, by means of poison and other deleterious sub- 
stances, the trees, flowering creepers, water and grass all 
along the line of march. And he sent poison damsels ^ as 
dancing- girls among the enemy's host, and he also dispatched 
nocturnal assassins into their midst. But that spy, who had 
assumed the character of a prophet, found all this out, and 
then quickly informed Yaugandharayana of it by means of 
his companions. Yaugandharayana for his part, when he 
found it out, purified at every step along the line of march 
the poisoned grass, water, and so on, by means of corrective 
antidotes, and forbade in the camp the society of strange 
women, and with the help of Rumanvat he captured and put 
to death those assassins. When he heard of that, Brahma- 
datta, having found all his stratagems fail, came to the con- 
clusion that the King of Vatsa, who filled with his forces 
the whole country, was hard to overcome. After deliberating 
and sending an ambassador, he came in person to the King of 
Vatsa, who was encamped near, placing his clasped hands 
upon his head in token of submission. 

The King of Vatsa for his part, when the King of Benares 
came to him, bringing a present, received him with respect 
and kindness ; for heroes love submission. He being thus 
And after subducd, that mighty king went on pacifying 
subduing all the East, making the yielding bend, but extirpat- 
hts Enemies jj^g ^^le obstinate, as the wind treats the trees, 
until he reached the eastern ocean, rolling with quivering 
waves, as it were, trembling with terror on account of the 
Ganges having been conquered. On its extreme shore he 

^ For a detailed account of poison damsels, etc., see Appendix III at the 
end of this volume. n.m.p. 


set up a pillar of victory,^ looking like the king of the 
serpents emerging from the world below to crave immunity 
for Patala. Then the people of Kalinga ^ submitted and 
paid tribute, and acted as the king's guides, so that the 
renown of that renowned one ascended the mountain of 
Mahendra. Having conquered a forest of kings by means 
of his elephants, which seemed like the peaks of the Vindhya 
come to him terrified at the conquest of Mahendra, he went 
to the southern quarter. There he made his enemies cease 
their threatening murmurs and take to the mountains, 
strengthless ' and pale, treating them as the season of autumn 
treats the clouds. 

The Kaveri being crossed by him in his victorious onset, 
and the glory of the king of the Chola * race being surpassed, 
were befouled at the same time. He no longer allowed the 
Muralas ^ to exalt their heads, for they were completely 
beaten down by tributes imposed on them. Though his 
elephants drank the waters of the Godavari divided into 

^ Jayasiamhha. Wilson remarks that the erection of these columns is 
often alluded to by Hindu writers, and explains the characters of the solitary 
columns which are sometimes met with, as the Lat at Delhi, the pillars at 
Allahabad, Bubbal, etc. 

^ Kalinga is usually described as extending from Orissa to Dravi^a or 
below Madras, the coast of the Northern Circars. It appears, however, to be 
sometimes the Delta of the Ganges. It was known to the ancients as Regio 
Calingarum, and is familiar to the natives of the Eastern Archipelago by the 
name of Kling (Wilson). 

3 The clouds are nihsdra, void of substance, as being no longer heavy with 
rain. The thunder ceases in the autumn. 

* Chola was the sovereignty of the western part of the peninsula on the 
Carnatic, extending southwards to Tanjore, where it was bounded by the 
Pan^yan kingdom. It appears to have been the Regio Soretanum of Ptolemy, 
and the Chola mandala, or district, furnishes the modern appellation of the 
Coromandel coast (Wilson, Essays, p. 24 17^). 

* Murala is another name for Kerala, now Malabar (Hall). Wilson 

identifies it with the Curula of Ptolemy. Bamett, however, considers this 

very dubious n.m.p. 

* By kdnta and kuccsu being separated in the Brockhaus text, Tawney 
misunderstood the whole phrase. The D. text reads it as one word, the 
translation being : " Not only did he not allow the Muralas to keep their 
heads high, he abated also the elevation of the women's breasts beaten down 
by their own hands (in mourning over their killed relations)." See Speyer, 
op. cit.y p. 102. N.M.P. 


seven streams, they seemed to discharge them again seven- 
fold in the form of ichor. Then the king crossed the Reva 
and reached Ujjayini, and entered the city, being made by 
King Chandamahasena to precede him. And there he be- 
came the target of the amorous sidelong glances of the ladies 
of Malava, who shine with twofold beauty by loosening their 
braided hair and wearing garlands ; and he remained there 
in great comfort, hospitably entertained by his father-in-law, 
so that he even forgot the long- regretted enjoyments of his 
native land. And Vasavadatta was continually at her parent's 
side, remembering her childhood, seeming despondent even 
in her happiness. 

The King Chandamahasena was as much delighted at 
meeting Padmavati as he was at meeting again his own 
daughter. But after he had rested some days, the delighted 
King of Vatsa, reinforced by the troops of his father-in-law, 
marched towards the western region ; his curved sword ^ was 
surely the smoke of the fire of his valour, since it dimmed 
with gushing tears the eyes of the women of Lata ; the 
mountain of Mandara, when its woods were broken through 
by his elephants, seemed to tremble lest he should root it 
up to churn the sea.^ Surely he was a splendid luminary ex- 
celling the sun and other orbs, since in his victorious career 
he enjoyed a glorious rising even in the western quarter. 
Then he went to Alaka, distinguished by the presence of 
Kuvera, displaying its beauties before him that is to say, 
to the quarter made lovely by the smile of Kailasa and 
having subdued the King of Sindh, at the head of his cavalry 
he destroyed the Mlechchhas as Rama destroyed the Ra- 
kshasas at the head of the army of monkeys ; the cavalry 
squadrons of the Turushkas ^ were broken on the masses of 
his elephants, as the waves of the agitated sea on the woods 
that line the seashore. The august hero received the tribute 

^ Or perhaps more literally "creeper-like sword." Probably the ex- 
pression means " flexible, well-tempered sword," as Professor Nilmani 
Mukhopadhyaya has suggested to me. 

2 It has been employed for this purpose by the gods and Asuras. Lata= 

the Larice of Ptolemy (Wilson). i.e. Gujarat. See Cambridge History oj 

India, vol. i, p. 606. 

3 Turks, the Indo-scythae of the ancients (Wilson). 


of his foes, and cut off the head of the wicked King of the 
Parasikas ^ as Vishnu did that of Rahu.^ His glory, after he 
had inflicted a defeat on the Hunas,^ made the four quarters 
resound, and poured down the Himalaya like a second Ganges. 
When the hosts of the monarch, whose enemies were still 
from fear, were shouting, a hostile answer was heard only in 
the hollows of the rocks. It is not strange that then the 
King of Kamarupa,* bending before him with head deprived 
of the umbrella,** was without shade and also without bright- 
ness. Then that sovereign returned, followed by elephants 
presented by the King of Kamarupa, resembling moving 
rocks made over to him by the mountains by way of tribute. 

Having thus conquered the earth, the King of Vatsa with 
his attendants reached the city of Magadha, the father of 
Padmavati. But the King of Magadha, when he arrived 
Returns to ^^^^ ^^^ quecus, was as joyous as the God of Love 
Lavanaka whcu the moou iUumiuatcs the night. Vasava- 
victorious datta, who had lived with him before without being 
recognised, was now made known to him, and he considered 
her deserving of the highest regard. 

Then that victorious King of Vatsa, having been honoured 
by the King of Magadha with his whole city, followed by the 
minds of all the people which pursued him out of affection, 
having swallowed the surface of the earth with his mighty 
army, returned to Lavanaka in his own dominions. 

^ Persians. 

2 See note on p. 81. n.m.p. 

3 Perhaps the Huns. 

* The western portion of Assam (Wilson). 
* See Appendix II, pp. 263-272. n.m.p. 


THEN the King of Vatsa, while encamped in Lavanaka 
[M] to rest his army, said in secret to Yaugandhara- 
yana : " Through your sagacity I have conquered all 
the kings upon the earth, and they being won over by politic 
devices will not conspire against me. But this King of 
Benares, Brahmadatta, is an ill-conditioned fellow, and he 
alone, I think, will plot against me ; what confidence can be 
reposed in the wicked- minded ? " Then Yaugandharayana, 
being spoken to in this strain by the king, answered : " O 
King, Brahmadatta will not plot against you again, for when 
he was conquered and submitted, you showed him great 
consideration ; and what sensible man will injure one who 
treats him well ? Whoever does, will find that it turns out 
unfortunately for himself, and on this point listen to what I 
am going to say ; I will tell you a tale. 

24. Story of Phalabhuti 

There was once on a time in the land of Padma an 
excellent Brahman of high renown, named Agnidatta, who 
lived on a grant of land given by the king. He had born 
to him two sons, the elder named Somadatta, and the second 
Vaisvanaradatta. The elder of them was of fine person, but 
ignorant, and ill- conducted, but the second was sagacious, 
well-conducted, and fond of study. And those two after 
they were married, and their father had died, divided that 
royal grant and the rest of his possessions between them, 
each taking half ; and the younger of the two was honoured 
by the king, but the elder, Somadatta, who was of unsteady 
character, remained a husbandman. 

One day a Brahman, who had been a friend of his father's, 
seeing him engaged in conversation with some Stidras, thus 
addressed him : " Though you are the son of Agnidatta, 


you behave like a Sudra, you blockhead, and you are not 
ashamed, though you see your own brother in favour with the 
king." Somadatta, when he heard that, flew into a passion, 
and, forgetting the respect due to the old man, ran upon 
him, and gave him a kick. Then the Brahman, enraged 
on account of the kick, immediately called on some other 
Brahmans to bear witness to it, and went and complained 
to the king. The king sent out soldiers to take Somadatta 
prisoner, but they, when they went out, were slain by his 
friends, who had taken up arms. Then the king sent out a 
second force, and captured Somadatta, and blinded by wrath 
ordered him to be impaled. Then that Brahman, as he was 
being lifted on to the stake, suddenly fell to the ground, as if 
he were flung down by somebody. And those executioners, 
when preparing to lift him on again, became blind, for the 
Fates protect one who is destined to be prosperous. 

The king, as soon as he heard of the occurrence, was 
pleased, and being entreated by the younger brother, spared 
the life of Somadatta ; then Somadatta, having escaped 
death, desired to go to another land with his wife on account 
of the insulting treatment of the king, and when his relations 
in a body disapproved of his departure, he determined to live 
without the half of the king's grant, which he resigned ; then, 
finding no other means of support, he desired to practise 
husbandry, and went to the forest on a lucky day to find a 
piece of ground suitable for it. There he found a promising 
piece of ground, from which it seemed likely that an abundant 
crop could be produced, and in the middle of it he saw an 
A^vattha tree of great size. Desiring ground fit for cultiva- 
tion, and seeing that tree to be cool like the rainy season, as it 
kept off the rays of the sun with its auspicious thick shade, 
he was much delighted. He said : "I am a faithful votary 
of that being, whoever he may be, that presides over this 
tree," ^ and walking round the tree so as to keep it on his 

^ For the worship of trees and tree-spirits, see Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, 

p. 75 et scq., and Tylor's Primitive Culture, vol. ii, p. I96 et seq. Besides 

the references already given in Vol. I, p. 144ni, see also Sidney Hartland, 
legend of Perseus, 1895, vol. ii, pp. 175-231; Crooke, Popular Religion of 
Northern India, vol. ii, pp. 83-121 ; Westermarck, Origin and Development of 


right,^ he bowed before it. Then he yoked a pair of bullocks, 
and recited a prayer for success, and after making an oblation 
to that tree, he began to plough there. And he remained 
under that tree night and day, and his wife always brought 
him his meals there. And in course of time, when the corn 
was ripe, that piece of ground was, as fate would have it, 
unexpectedly plundered by the troops of a hostile kingdom. 
Then the hostile force having departed, the courageous man, 
though his corn was destroyed, comforted his weeping wife, 
gave her the little that remained, and after making an offer- 
ing as before, remained in the same place, under the same 
tree. For that is the character of resolute men, that their 
perseverance is increased by misfortune. 

Then one night, when he was sleepless from anxiety 
and alone, a voice came out from that Asvattha tree : " O 
Somadatta, I am pleased with thee, therefore go to the 
rj^j^^ kingdom of a king named Adityaprabha in the 

Reward of land of Srikantha ; continually repeat at the door 
Perseverance q ^j^^^^ hivig (after reciting the form of words used 
at the evening oblation to Agni) the following sentence : 
' I am Phalabhuti by name, a Brahman, hear what I say : 
he who does good will obtain good, and he who does evil will 
obtain evil ' ; by repeating this thou shalt obtain great 
prosperity ; and now learn from me the form of words used 
at the evening oblation to Agni ; I am a Yaksha." Having 
said this, and having immediately taught him by his power 
the form of words used in the evening oblation, the voice 
in the tree ceased. 

And the next morning the wise Somadatta set out with 
his wife, having received the name of Phalabhuti by im- 
position of the Yaksha, and after crossing various forests, 
uneven and labyrinthine as his own calamities, ^ he reached 
the land of Srikantha. There he recited at the king's door 
the form of words used at the evening oblation, and then he 

the Moral Idea (2nd edit.), 1919, vol. ii, p. 5l6; T. C. Hodson, "Primitive 
Culture of India," Roy. As. Soc, 1922, p. 104. n.m.p. 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 190-193. N.M.P. 

2 I here read durdasdh for the durdarsdh of Dr Brockhaus' text. It must 
be a misprint. A MS. in the Sanskrit College reads durdasdh. 



announced, as he had been directed, his name as Phalabhuti, 
and uttered the following speech, which excited the curiosity 
of the people : " The doer of good will obtain good, but the 
doer of evil, evil." And after he had said this frequently, 
the King Adityaprabha, being full of curiosity, caused Phala- 
bhuti to be brought into the palace, and he entered, and 
over and over again repeated that same speech in the pres- 
ence of the king. That made the king and all his courtiers 
laugh. And the king and his chiefs gave him garments and 
ornaments, and also villages, for the amusement of great 
men is not without fruit ; and so Phalabhuti, having been 
originally poor, immediately obtained by the favour of the 
Guhyaka ^ wealth bestowed by the king ; and by continually 
reciting the words mentioned above he became a special 
favourite of the monarch ; for the regal mind loves diversion. 
And gradually he attained to a position of love and respect 
in the palace, in the kingdom, and in the female apartments, 
as being beloved by the king. 

One day that King Adityaprabha returned from hunting 
in the forest, and quickly entered his harem ^ ; his suspicions 
were aroused by the confusion of the warders, and when he 
The King's entered, he saw the queen named Kuvalayavali 
amazing engaged in worshipping the gods, stark naked ^ 

Discovery ^-^j^ j^^j. j^g^-j, standing on end, and her eyes half 
closed, with a large patch of red lead upon her forehead, 
with her lips trembling in muttering charms, in the midst 
of a great circle * strewed with various coloiured powders, 

^ The Guhyakas are demigods, attendants upon Kuvera and guardians 
of his wealth. See Vol. I, Appendix I, p. 203. n.m.p. 

2 See note, p. l62. n.m.p. 

3 Literally, " having the cardinal points as her only garment." For 

nudity in ritual and magic see Note 1 at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

* For the circle see Henry FI, Part II, Act i, sc. 4, line 25, and Henry V, 
Act V, sc. 2, line 420 : " If you would conjure . . . you must make a circle." 
See also Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales^ p. 272 ; Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, 
pp. 292, 302, 303. See also Wirt Sikes, British Goblins, pp. 200, 20 1 ; Henderson's 
Northern FoUc-Lore, p. 19 ; Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen und Gehr'duche aus Meklen- 
burg, vol. i, pp. 128, 213. Prof. Jebb, in his notes on Theophrastus' 
"Superstitious Man," observes: "The object of all those ceremonies, in 
which the offerings were carried round the person or place to be purified, 
was to trace a charmed circle within which the powers of evil should not 


after offering a horrible oblation of blood, spirits and human 
flesh. She for her part, when the king entered, in her 
confusion seized her garments, and when questioned by him 
immediately answered, after craving pardon for what she 
had done : "I have gone through this ceremony in order 
that you might obtain prosperity, and now, my lord, listen 
to the way in which I learnt these rites, and the secret of my 
magic skill. 

24a. Kuvalay avail and the Witch Kalardtri 

Long ago, when I was living in my father's house, I was 
thus addressed, while enjoying myself in the garden during 
the spring festival, by my friends who met me there : " There 
is in this pleasure-garden an image of Ganesa, the god of gods, 
in the middle of an arbour made of trees, and that image 
grants boons, and its power has been tested. Approach with 
devout faith that granter of petitions, and worship him, in 
order that you may soon obtain without difficulty a suit- 
able husband." When I heard that, I asked my friends in 
my ignorance : " What ! do maidens obtain husbands by 

<;ome." Cf. also Grossler's Sagen ausder Grafschaft Mansfeld, p. 217 ; Brand's 

Popular Antiquities, vol. iii, p. 5Q\ Grohmann's Sagen aus Bohmen, p. 226. 

In his Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India (vol. i, pp. 103, 142; 
vol. ii, p. 4<1) W. Crooke gives details of the circle among the Hindus. For 
the magic circle in Babylonia, Assyria and adjacent countries see R. Campbell 
Thompson, Semitic Magic, 1908, pp. Ix et. seq., 102, 123, l65, 204 and 207. 
The numerous mediaeval references in the works of William of Auvergne, 
Roger Bacon, Raymond Lull, Peter of Abano, etc., are all to be found in 
Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, 1923. (See the General 
Index in each volume under " Circle, magic") For a comprehensive article 
on the whole subject reference should be made to A. E. Crawley, " Magical 
Circle," Hastings' Ewcy. Rel. Eih., vol. viii, pp. 321-324. I would also draw 
the attention of readers to the exhaustive series of articles on " Magic " by 
a large number of eminent scholars in the same volume (pp. 245-321). 

It appears that the use of the magical circle is really twofold. Firstly 
it serves as a protective barrier to the dead and dying, and also round a house, 
subsequently giving rise to the superstitions connected with wedding rings, 
bangles, etc. Secondly it appears in black magic as a kind of magical vantage 
ground in which the "operator" is himself safe and to which he can compel 
the presence of evil spirits. The circle also denotes finality and continuity. 
It commands every point of the compass and can be regarded as an inner 
concentric circle of the horizon itself. All these points are made quite clear 


worshipping Gane^a ? " Then they answered me : " Wliy do 
you ask such a question ? Without worshipping him no one 
obtains any success in this world ; and in proof of it we will 
give you an instance of his power. Listen." Saying this, my 
friends told me the following tale : 

24aa. The Birth of Kdrttikeya 

Long ago, when Indra, oppressed by Taraka, was desirous 
of obtaining a son from Siva to act as general of the gods, 
and the God of Love had been consumed,^ Gauri by perform- 
ing austerities sought and gained as a husband the three- eyed 
god, who was engaged in a very long and terrible course of 
mortification. Then she desired the obtaining of a son, and 
the return to life of the God of Love, but she did not remember 
to worship Ganei^a in order to gain her end. So, when his 
beloved asked that her desire should be granted, Siva said 
to her : " My dear goddess, the God of Love was born long 
ago from the mind of Brahma, and no sooner was he born 
than he said in his insolence : ' Whom shall I make mad 
{kan darpaydmi) ? ' So Brahma called him Kandarpa, and 
said to him : ' Since thou art very confident, my son, avoid 
attacking Siva only, lest thou receive death from him.* 
Though the creator gave him this warning, the ill-disposed 
god came to trouble my austerities, therefore he was burned 
up by me, and he cannot be created again with his body.^ 

if we look through the voluminous literature on the subject. There is> 
however, one further point I would mention. The circle is not only a safe 
place to be in when "conjuring," but often acts as a prison from which 
escape is impossible. Thus in J. H. Bridges, Opus Mains of Roger Bacon^ 
vol. ii, p. 208, we read : " Moreover, there are numerous things which kill 
every venomous animal by the slightest contact ; and if a circle is drawn about 
such animals with objects of this sort [herbs, stones, metals, etc.] they cannot 
get out, but die without having been touched." Cf. with this the curious 
story of the magic circle made of dittany juice as told in Appendix III of 
this volume, p. 295. In Chapter XXXVII we shall come across a great circle 
made of ashes, where I shall add a further note. n.m.p. 

^ I.e. by the fire of Siva's eye. 

* Perhaps we ought to read sadehasya. I find this reading in a MS. lent 
to me by the Librarian of the Sanskrit College with the kind permission of 
the Principal. 



But I will create by my power a son from you, for I do 
not require the might of love in order to have offspring as 
mortals do." 

While the god, whose ensign is a buU,^ was saying this 
to Parvati, Brahma accompanied by Indra appeared before 
him ; and when he had been praised by them, and entreated 
to bring about the destruction of the Asura Taraka, Siva 
consented to beget on the goddess a son of his body. And, 
at their entreaty, he consented that the God of Love should 
be born without body in the minds of animate creatures, 
to prevent the destruction of created beings. And he gave 
permission to love to inflame his own mind ; pleased with 
that, the creator went away and Parvati was delighted. 

Some days after this, Siva in privacy pursued the sport 
of love with Uma. When there was no end to his amorous 
play, though centuries passed by, the triple world trembled 
at the friction thereof. Then from fear of the world perish- 
ing, the gods, by order of Brahma, called to mind Agni in 
order to stop Siva's amorous play. Agni, for his part, the 
moment they called him to mind, thinking that the foe of 
the God of Love was irresistible, and afraid to interfere, fled 
from the gods and entered the water ; but the frogs, being 
burned by his heat, told the gods, who were searching for 
him, that he was in the water ; then Agni by his curse im- 
mediately made the speech of the frogs thenceforth inarticu- 
late, and again disappearing fled to a paradise tree.^ There 
the gods found him, concealed in the trunk of the tree, in the 
form of a snail, for he was betrayed by the elephants and 
parrots, and he appeared to them. And after making by a 
curse the tongues of the parrots and the elephants incapable 
of clear utterance, he promised to do what the gods requested, 
having been praised by them. So he went to Siva and by 
his heat stopped Siva from his amorous play, and after in- 
clining humbly before him, through fear of being cursed, he 
informed him of the commission the gods had given him. 
Siva, in his turn, as the impulse arose in him, deposited his 

1 I.e. Siva. 

2 The correct reading here is mandara, " paradise " tree ; Tawney originally 
had "place of refuge." n.m.p. 


seed in the fire. Neither the Fire nor Uma was able to bear 
this. The goddess, distracted with anger and grief, said : 
" I have not obtained a son from you after all " ; and Siva 
said to her ; " An obstacle has arisen in this matter, because 
you neglected to worship Gane^a, the Lord of Obstacles ; 
therefore adore him now in order that a son may speedily be 
born to us in the fire." 

When thus addressed by Siva, the goddess worshipped 
Ganei^a, and the fire became pregnant with that germ of Siva. 
Then, bearing that embryo of Siva, the fire shone even in the 
day as if the sun had entered into it. And then it discharged 
into the Ganges the germ difficult to bear, and the Ganas, 
by the order of Siva, placed it in a sacrificial cavity on Mount 
Meru. There that germ was watched by the Ganas, Siva's 
attendants, and after a thousand years had developed it, it 
became a boy with six faces.^ Then, drinking milk with his 
six mouths from the breasts of the six Krittikas ^ appointed 
by Gauri to nurse him, the boy grew big in a few days. In 
the meanwhile, the king of the gods, overcome by the Asura 
Taraka, fled to the difficult peaks of Mount Meru, abandoning 
the field of battle. And the gods, together with the Rishis, 
went to the six-mouthed Karttikeya for protection, and he, 
defending the god, remained surrounded by them. When 
Indra heard that, he was troubled, considering that his king- 
dom was taken from him, and being jealous he went and made 
war upon Karttikeya. But from the body of Karttikeya, 
when struck by the thunderbolt of Indra, there sprang two 
sons called Sakha and Vi^akha, both of incomparable might. 

Then Siva came to his offspring Karttikeya, who ex- 
ceeded Indra in might, and forbade him and his two sons to 
fight, and rebuked him in the following words : " Thou wast 
born in order that thou mightest slay Taraka and protect 
the realm of Indra, therefore do thy own duty." Then 
Indra was delighted, and immediately bowed before him, 
and commenced the ceremony of consecrating by ablutions 

^ Cf. with this wild legend a similar one in the first book of the Rdmdyana. 
Tawney omitted some details here in the translation. They have now been 
added from the D. text by Dr Barnett. n.m.p. 

^ I.e. the six Pleiades. 


Karttikeya as general of his forces. But when he himself 
lifted the pitcher for that purpose, his arm became stiff, 
wherefore he was despondent, but Siva said to him : " Thou 
didst not worship the elephant-faced god when thou desiredst 
a general ; it was for this reason that thou hast met with this 
obstacle, therefore adore him now." Indra, when he heard 
that, did so, and his arm was set free, and he duly performed 
the joyful ceremony of consecrating the general. And, not 
long after, the general slew the Asura Taraka, and the gods 
rejoiced at having accomplished their object, and Gauri at 
having obtained a son. So, princess, you see even the gods 
are not successful without honouring Ganesa, therefore adore 
him when you desire a blessing. 

24a. Kuvalay avail and the Witch Kdlardtri 

After hearing this from my companions, I went, my 
husband, and worshipped an image of Ganesa that stood in 
a lonely part of the garden, and after I had finished the 
worship I suddenly saw that those companions of mine had 
flown up by their own power and were disporting themselves 
in the fields of the air ; when I saw that, out of curiosity I 
called them and made them come down from the heaven, 
and when I asked them about the nature of their magic 
power, they immediately gave me this answer : " These are 
the magic powers of witches' spells, and they are due to the 
eating of human flesh, and our teacher in this is a Brahman 
woman known by the name of Kalaratri." When my com- 
panions said this to me, I, being desirous of acquiring the 
power of a woman that can fly in the air, but afraid of eating 
human flesh, was for a time in a state of hesitation ; then, 
eager to possess that power, I said to those friends of mine : 
" Cause me also to be instructed in this science." And 
immediately they went and brought, in accordance with my 
request, Kalaratri, who was of repulsive appearance. Her 
eyebrows met,^ she had dull eyes, a depressed flat nose, 

^ Mr Tylor (in his Primitive Culture, vol. ii, p. 1 76), speaking of Slavonian 
superstition, says : " A man whose eyebrows meet as if his soul were taking 
flight to enter some other body, may be marked by this sign either as a 
werewolf or a vampire." In Icelandic Sagas a man with meeting eyebrows 


large cheeks, widely parted lips, projecting teeth, a long 
neck, pendulous breasts, a large belly, and broad expanded 
feet. She appeared as if the creator had made her as a 
specimen of his skill in producing ugliness.^ When I fell at 
her feet, after bathing and worshipping Gane^a, she made me 
take off my clothes and perform, standing in a circle, a horrible 
ceremony in honour of Siva in his terrific form, and after she 
had sprinkled me with water she gave me various spells 
known to her, and human flesh to eat that had been offered 
in sacrifice to the gods ; so, after I had eaten man's flesh 
and had received the various spells, I immediately flew up, 
naked as I was, into the heaven with my friends, and after 
I had amused myself, I descended from the heaven by com- 
mand of my teacher, and I, the princess, went to my own 
apartments. Thus even in my girlhood I became one of the 
society of witches,'^ and in our meetings we devoured the 

is said to be a werewolf. The same idea holds in Denmark, also in Germany, 
whilst in Greece it is a si^n that a man is a Brukolak or vampire (note by 
Baring-Gould in Henderson's Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties). The same 
idea is found in Bohemia, see Grohmann's Sagen aus Bohmen, p. 210. Cf. 

Grimm's IrLsche M'drchen, p. cviii. See Tawney's original note on this 

subject in Ind. Ant., vol. vii, 1878, p. 87. We have already seen (Vol. I, 
p. 214) that the Persians considered joined eyebrows beautiful. The Arabs 
held the same views, and we read in the Nights (Burton, vol. i, p. 227 ; vol. iii, 
p. 164 ; vol. viii, p. 206) of "high-bosomed maids and of an equal age, with 
black eyes and cheeks like the rose, joined eyebrows and looks languorous" 
and "she had eyes kohtd with nature's dye and joined eyebrows, a mouth 
as it were Solomon's seal and lips and teeth bright with pearls' and coral's 
ight." N.M.p. 

^ The D. text reads nayanananavantolkd as one of the epithets, " casting 
forth flames out of her eyes and mouth." The Arab story-tellers have equally 
lucid descriptions of old hags and witches. Thus in the Nights (Burton, 
vol. ii, p. 233) we read : " Now this accursed old woman was a witch of 
the witches, past mistress in sorcery and deception ; wanton and wily, 
deboshed and deceptious ; with foul breath, red eyelids, yellow cheeks, 
dull-brown face, eyes bleared, mangy body, hair grizzled, back humped, skin 
withered and wan, and nostrils which ever ran." Similarly in vol. viii, p. 86, 
Hasan meets a " grizzled old woman, blue-eyed [unlucky] and big-nosed, a 
calamity of calamities, the foulest of all created things, with face pock- 
marked and eyebrows bald, gap-toothed and chap-fallen, with hair hoary, 
nose running and mouth slavering . . ." n.m.p. 

2 These magical rides in the air remind us of the orgies held by witches 
on the Brockcn mountain in the Harz on Walpurgis night (1st May). Readers 


W bodie 


bodies of many men. But listen, King, to a story which is a 
digression from my main tale. 

24b. Sundaraka and the Witches 

That Kalaratri had for husband a Brahman of the name 
of Vishnusvamin, and he, being an instructor in that country, 
taught many pupils who came from different lands, as he 
was skilful in the exposition of the Vedas. And among his 
pupils he had one young man of the name of Sundaraka, the 
beauty of whose person was set off by his excellent character. 
One day the teacher's wife Kalaratri being love-sick secretly 
courted him, her husband having gone away to some place 
or other. Truly Kama makes great sport with ugly people 
as his laughing-stocks, in that she, not considering her own 
appearance, fell in love with Sundaraka. But he, though 
tempted, detested with his whole soul the crime ; however 
women may misbehave, the mind of the good is not to be 

Then, he having departed, Kalaratri in a rage tore her own 
body with bites and scratches, and she remained weeping,^ 
with dress and locks disordered, until the teacher Vishnus- 
vamin entered the house. And when he had entered she said 
to him : " Look, my lord, to this state has Sundaraka reduced 
me, endeavouring to gain possession of me by force. "^ As 
soon as the teacher heard that, he was inflamed with anger ; 
for confidence in women robs even wise men of their power of 
reflection ; and when Sundaraka returned home at night he 
ran upon him, and he and his pupils kicked him, and struck 
him with fists and sticks ; moreover, when he was senseless 

will, naturally, think of the famous " Brocken scene " in Goethe's Faust, See 
the Index volume to Frazer's Golden Bough, p. 517. A similar night was 
31st October, known as Hallowe'en or All-Hallows day, which was the one 
night in all the year that ghosts and witches were sure to be found wandering 
about. See Brand's Popular Antiquities of Great Britain, 1882-1883; Grimm's 
Deutsche Mythologie, ch. xx (Elemente) and ch. xxxiv ; and the references 
given in Frazer, Golden Bough, vol. x, p. 266 et seq., and vol. xi, pp. 184n*, 
185. N.M.P. 

^ I read dsta for asu. 

2 See Note 2 at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


with the blows, he ordered his pupils to fling him out in 
the road by night, without regard to his safety ; and they 
did so. 

Then Sundaraka was gradually restored to consciousness 
by the cool night breeze, and seeing himself thus outraged 
he reflected : " Alas ! the instigation of a woman troubles 
the minds even of those men whose souls are not under the 
dominion of passion, as a storm disturbs the repose of lakes 
which are not reached by dust/ This is why that teacher 
of mine, in the excess of his anger, though old and wise, was 
so inconsiderate as to treat me so cruelly. But the fact is, 
lust and wrath are appointed in the dispensation of fate, 
from the very birth even of wise Brahmans, to be the two 
bolts on the door of their salvation. ^ For were not the sages 
long ago angry with Siva in the devaddru wood, being afraid 
that their wives would go astray ? And they did not know 
that he was a god, as he had assumed the appearance of a 
Buddhist mendicant, with the intention of showing Uma 
that even Rishis do not possess self-restraint. But after 
they had cursed him, they discovered that he was the ruling 
god that shakes the three worlds, and they fled to him for 
protection. So it appears that even hermits injure others 
when beguiled by the six faults that are enemies of man,* 
lust, wrath and their crew, much more so Brahmans learned 
in the Vedas." 

Thinking thus, Sundaraka, from fear of robbers during 
the night, climbed up and took shelter in a neighbouring 
cow-house. And while he was crouching unobserved in a 
corner of that cow-house, Kalaratri came into it with a drawn 
sword in her hand,* terrible from the hissing she uttered, with 
wind and flames issuing from her mouth and eyes, accom- 
panied by a crowd of witches. Then the terrified Sundaraka, 
beholding Kalaratri arriving in such a guise, called to mind 
the spells that drive away Rakshasas, and bewildered by 

* Rajas in Sanskrit means "dust" and also "passion." 

* I.e. immunity from future births. 

2 I.e. desire, wratli, covetousness, bewilderment, pride and envy. 

* Cf. the j^thiopica of Heliodorus, Book VII, eh. xv, where the witch is 
armed with a sword during her incantations ; and Homer's Odyssey, xi, 48. 
See also for the magic virtues of steel, Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, pp. 312, 313. 


these spells Kalaratri did not see him crouching secretly in a 
corner, with his limbs drawn together from fear. Then Kala- 
ratri with her friends recited the spells that enable witches 
to fly, and they flew up into the air, cow-house and all. 
And Sundaraka heard the spell and remembered it ^ ; 

^ See Veekenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 289, where a young man over- 
hears a spell with similar results. See also Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen und 

Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, vol. i, p. 115. This well-known motif h^s already 

occurred in the Ocean of Story (Vol. I, p. 48), where Vararuchi discovers why 
the fish laughed by overhearing the conversation of a female Rakshasa. I 
gave a few analogues in a short note (p. 487?^) and will add some more in a 
note in Vol. Ill, Chapter XXIX. I shall, therefore, chiefly confine myself 
here to a brief discussion of the origin of the motif with special reference to 
the art of learning the languages of animals. 

That birds and beasts have a language of their own which can sometimes 
be understood by human beings is a most natural and universal motif of folk- 
tales. All manner of ways in which this great gift can be obtained have 
suggested themselves to the story-teller. It is sometimes given as a reward 
for some kind service rendered to an animal, it may be acquired by the aid of 
magic, it can be a boon from a god, or the hero may be actually born with the 
power. Primitive minds have always credited animals with great wisdom and 
understanding, and as possessing important secrets which can only be dis- 
covered if the language is understood. Stories have, therefore, naturally 
arisen to explain how the hero acquired this most useful gift. 

The language of birds enters into folk-lore much more than the language 
of beasts. This is not to be wondered at, owing, I think, to the simple fact 
that a bird can get to inaccessible places much more easily than a beast. Thus 
the bird can fly to a magic island, to an enchanted tree or a hidden cave it 
can perch on the window-sill of a room and see and hear what goes on inside. 
In fact it becomes a most useful Deus ex machina to the story-teller. The 
English expression "a little bird told me " contains the same idea. Cf, Eccles. 
X, 20. 

But to return to the 7o^i/' of overhearing. A bird or beast meets his mate 
and proceeds to tell his most recent adventures what strange place he has 
visited, what rare jewel he has found, or the latest scandal from the palace in 
the neighbouring city. The hero in nearly all cases happens to be hiding or 
sleeping in the tree on which the birds perch or under which the animals are 

In other cases it is supernatural beings who converse Rakshasas, giants, 
vampires, etc. Sometimes they give away a secret which is fatal to them- 
selves a snake will tell his companion what is the only way he could be 
killed, and, of course, the hero takes the tip at the earliest opportunity, 
usually securing some hidden jewel or gold. 

The above gives, roughly, the usual uses to which this motif is put. The 
origin of the idea can perhaps be traced to homoeopathic or imitative magic. Thus 


but Kalaratri with the cow-house quickly flew through the 
air to Ujjayini : there she made it descend by a spell in a 
garden of herbs, and went and sported in the cemetery 
among the witches : and immediately Sundaraka, being 
hungry, went down into the garden of herbs and made a meal 
on some roots which he dug up, and after he had allayed 
the pangs of hunger, and returned to the cow-house, Kalaratri 
came back in the middle of the night from her meeting. 
Then she got up into the cow-house, and, just as before, 
she flew through the air with her pupils by the power of her 
magic, and returned home in the night. And after she had 
replaced the cow-house, which she made use of as a vehicle, 
in its original situation, and had dismissed those followers of 

if you wish to acquire a certain quality of an animal all you have to do is to 
kill it and eat it, and, ipso facto, the particular quality of your victim becomes 
yours. In a widely distributed number of stories the eating of a snake imparts 
the power of understanding the language of birds and beasts. The exact 
reason for this is not clear unless it is because the snake (or dragon) is often 
considered as half-way between a beast and a bird. It is interesting to note 
that Pliny (//w/. Nat,, x, 137; xxix, 72) reports Democritus to have said that 
serpents were generated from the mixed blood of certain birds, and that in 
consequence anyone who ate a serpent would acquire the power to understand 
the bird language. In describing the " Dragons of India," Apollonius of Tyana 
(iii, 9) says that the Indians eat the dragon's heart and liver in order to be 
able to understand the language and thoughts of animals. During his sojourn 
among the Arab tribes he is said to have mastered this great art and to have 
listened to the birds, as these predict the future (i, 20). See Thorndike, A 
History of Magic and Experimental Science, vol. i, p. 26 1. For other examples 
of the use of the snake to give the power of understanding the language of 
birds see J. A. Macculloch, The Childhood of Fiction, p. 41 ; Frazer, Golden 
Bough, vol. viii, p. 146. 

At times (see for instance Tawney's Prahandhacintdmani, p. 174) it is an 
ordinary human conversation that is overheard, but I would not include these 
examples under this motif (as does Bloomfield, Life and Stories of Pargvandtha, 
p. 18.5), as such an ordinary and commonplace occurrence ceases to have the 
same degree of interest and importance as the overheard conversation of the 
animal world. As we shall see in my note in Chapter XXIX, the motif of 
overhearing is found in the Mahdbhdrata, the Jdtakas, PaJichat antra, Kathdkoqa, 
Parisixhtapanmn and numerous collections of Indian tales such as those by 
Temple, Frere, Steel, Day, etc. For further references see Clouston, Popular 
Tales aiid Fictional, vol. i, pp. 242-248 ; ditto, A Group of Eastern Romances and 
Stories, pp. 505, 510 ; Chauvin, Bihliographie des Ouvrages Arahes, v, p. 180, and 
G. Nicasi, " Le credenze religiose delle popolazioni rurali dell'alte valle del 
Taveri," in Lares, vol. i (1912), p. 169. n.m.p. 


hers, she entered her sleeping apartment. And Sundaraka, 
having thus passed through that night, astonished at the 
troubles he had undergone, in the morning left the cow-house 
and went to his friends ; there he related what had happened 
to him, and, though desirous of going to some other country, 
he was comforted by those friends and took up his abode 
among them, and leaving the dwelling of his teacher, and 
taking his meals in the almshouse for Brahmans, he lived 
there, enjoying himself at will in the society of his friends. 

One day Kalaratri, having gone out to buy some neces- 
saries for her house, saw Sundaraka in the market. And 
being once more love-sick, she went up to him and said to him 
a second time : " Sundaraka, enjoy me even now, for my 
life depends on you." When she said this to him, the virtuous 
Sundaraka said to her : " Do not speak thus, it is not right ; 
you are my mother, as being the wife of my teacher." Then 
Kalaratri said : "If you know what is right, then grant me 
my life, for what righteousness is greater than the saving of 
life ? " Then Sundaraka said : " Mother,^ do not entertain 
this wish, for what righteousness can there be in approach- 
ing the bed of my preceptor ? " Thus repulsed by him, and 
threatening him in her wrath, she went home, after tearing 
her upper garment with her own hand, and showing the gar- 
ment to her husband, she said to him : " Look, Sundaraka 
ran upon me and tore this garment of mine in this fashion." 
So her husband went in his anger and stopped Sundaraka 's 
supply of food at the almshouse, by saying that he was a 
felon who deserved death. ^ Then Sundaraka in disgust, 
being desirous of leaving that country, and knowing the spell 
for flying up into the air which he had learnt in the cow- 
house, but being conscious that he had forgotten, after hear- 
ing it, the spell for descending from the sky, which he had 
been taught there also, again went in the night to that 
deserted cow-house, and while he was there Kalaratri came 
as before, and flying up in the cow-house in the same way as 
on the former occasion, travelled through the air to Ujjayini, 
and having made the cow-house descend by a spell in the 

^ See note on p. 20ln^ of this volume. n.m.p. 
2 See Note 2 at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


garden of herbs, went again to the cemetery to perform her 
nightly ceremonies. 

And Sundaraka heard that spell again, but failed again 
to retain it ; for how can magic practices be thoroughly 
learnt without explanation by a teacher ? Then he ate some 
roots there, and put some others in the cow-house to take 
away with him, and remained there as before ; then Kalaratri 
came, and climbing up into the cow-house, flew through the 
air by night, and stopping the vehicle, entered her house. 
In the morning Sundaraka also left that house, and taking 
the roots with him he went to the market in order to pro- 
cure money with which to purchase food. And while he 
was selling them there some servants of the king, who were 
natives of Malava, took them away without paying for them, 
seeing that they were the produce of their own country. 
Then he began to remonstrate angrily, so they manacled him, 
and took him before the king on a charge of throwing stones 
at them, and his friends followed him. Those villains said 
to the king : " This man, when we asked him how he managed 
continually to bring roots from Malava and sell them in 
Ujjayini, would not give us any answer ; on the contrary 
he threw stones at us." 

When the king heard this, he asked about that marvel ^ : 
then his friends said : "If he is placed on the palace with us, 
he will explain the whole wonder, but not otherwise." The 
king consented, and Sundaraka was placed on the palace, 
whereupon by the help of the spell he suddenly flew up into 
the heaven with the palace. And travelling on it with his 
friends, he gradually reached Prayaga,^ and being now weary, 
he saw a certain king bathing there, and after stopping the 
palace there, he plunged from the heaven into the Ganges, 
and, beheld with wonder by all, he approached that king. 
The king, inclining before him, said to him : " Who art thou, 
and why hast thou descended from heaven ? " Sundaraka 

^ I read tan tad. 

^ Called more usually by English people Allahabad. Prayaga means 

"the place of sacrifice," while Allahabad, "abode of Allah," was the name 
given to the place by Akbar in 1572. For further details see Cunningham, 
Archoeological Reports, vol. i, p. 296 et seq. n.m.p. 


answered : "I am an attendant of the god Siva, named 
Murajaka, and by his command I have conie to thee desiring 
human pleasures." When the king heard this, he supposed 
it was true, and gave him a city, rich in corn, filled with jewels, 
with women and all the insignia of rank. Then Sundaraka 
entered that city and flew up into the heaven with his 
followers, and for a long time roamed about at will, free from 
poverty. Lying on a golden bed, and fanned with chowries 
by beautiful women, he enjoyed happiness like that of Indra. 
Then once on a time a Siddha, that roamed in the air, with 
whom he had struck up a friendship, gave him a spell for 
descending from the air, and Sundaraka, having become 
possessed of this spell enabling him to come down to earth, 
descended from the sky-path in his own city of Kanyakubja. 
Then the king, hearing that he had come down from 
heaven, possessed of full prosperity, with a city, went in 
person to meet him out of curiosity, and Sundaraka, when 
recognised and questioned, knowing what to say on all 
occasions, informed the king of all his own adventures 
brought about by Kalaratri. Then the king sent for Kala- 
ratri and questioned her, and she fearlessly confessed her 
improper conduct ; and the king was angry, and made up his 
mind to cut off her ears, but she, when seized, disappeared 
before the eyes of all the spectators. Then the king forbade 
her to live in his kingdom, and Sundaraka, having been 
honourably treated by him, returned to the air. 

24a. Kuvalaydvall and the Witch Kalaratri 

Having said this to her husband, the King Adityaprabha, 
the Queen Kuvalayavali went on to say : " King, such magic 
powers, produced by the spells of witches, do exist, and this 
thing happened in my father's kingdom, and it is famous in 
the world, and, as I told you at first, I am a pupil of Kala- 
ratri's, but because I am devoted to my husband I possess 
greater power even than she did. And to-day you saw me 
just at the time when I had performed ceremonies to ensure 
your welfare, and was endeavouring to attract by a spell a 
man to offer as a victim. So do you enter now into our 


practice, and set your foot on the head of all kings, conquering 
them by magic power." ^ 

24. Story of Phalabhuti 

When he heard this proposal, the king at first rejected 
it, saying : " Wliat propriety is there in a king connecting 
himself with the eating of human flesh, the practice of 
witches ? " But when the queen was bent on committing 
suicide, he consented ; for how can men who are attracted 
by the objects of passion remain in the good path ? Then 
she made him enter into the circle previously consecrated, and 
said to the king after he had taken an oath . " I attempted 
to draw hither as a victim that Brahman named Phalabhuti, 
who is so intimate with you, but drawing him hither is a 
difficult task, so it is the best way to initiate some cook in our 
rites, that he may himself slay him and cook him. And you 
must not feel any compunction about it, because by eating 
a sacrificial offering of his flesh, after the ceremonies are com- 
plete, the enchantment will be perfect, for he is a Brahman 
of the highest caste." 

When his beloved said this to him, the king, though afraid 
of the sin, a second time consented. Alas ! terrible is com- 
pliance with women ! Then that royal couple had the cook 
summoned, whose name was Sahasika, and after encouraging 
him, and initiating him, they both said to him : " Whoever 
comes to you to-morrow morning and says, ' The king and 
queen will eat together to-day, so get some food ready 
quickly,' him you must slay, and make for us secretly a 
savoury dish of his flesh." When the cook heard this, he 
consented, and went to his own house. And the next morn- 
ing, when Phalabhuti arrived, the king said to him : " Go 
and tell the cook Sahasika in the kitchen : ' The king together 

^ From the days of the ancient Egyptians it was customary for kings to 
dabble in magic, and the magicians of Pharaoh often had Pharaoh himself as 
a pupil. See Maspero, Popular Stories of Ancient Egi/pt, p. 1. In a note he 
says : " Even as late as the time of the Renaissance a prince was more highly 
regarded because he was a sorcerer. For example, in the Weisskunig one finds 
the young Maximilian of Austria instructed by his ecclesiastical preceptors 
not only in the secrets of white magic, but of black." n.m.p. 


with the queen will eat to-day a savoury mess, therefore 
prepare as soon as possible a splendid dish.' " Phalabhuti 
said, " I will do so," and went out. 

When he was outside, the prince whose name was Chandra- 
prabha came to him, and said : " Have made for me this 
very day with this gold a pair of earrings, like those you 
had made before for my noble father." When the prince 
said this, Phalabhuti, in order to please him, went that 
moment, as he was commissioned, to get the earrings made, 
and the prince readily went with the king's message, which 
Phalabhuti told him, alone to the kitchen. When he got 
there and told the king's message, the cook Sahasika, true 
to his agreement, immediately killed him with a knife, and 
made a dish of his flesh, which the king and queen, after 
performing their ceremonies, ate, not knowing the truth ^ ; 

^ This incident reminds one of Schiller's ballad : " Der Gang nach dem 
Eisenhammer " (Benfey, PaTichatantra, vol. i, p. 320). The story of Fridolin in 
Schiller's ballad is identical with the story of Fulgentius which is found in 
the English Gesta Komanorum (see Bohn's Ge*if a i?07wanor7w. Introduction, p. 1). 
Douce says that the story is found in Scott's Tales from the Arabic and Persian, 
p. 53 J and in the Conies Devots or Miracles of the Virgin (Le Grand, Fabliaux, 
V, 74). Mr Collier states upon the authority of M. Boettiger that Schiller 
founded his ballad upon an Alsatian tradition which he heard at Mannheim. 
Cf. also the eightieth of the Sicilianische Mdrchen, which ends with these 
words : " fVer gutes ihut, wird gutes erhalten." There is a certain resemblance 
in this story to that of Equitan in Marie's Lais. See Ellis's Early English 
Metrical Romances, pp. 46 and 47. It also resembles the story of Lalitanga in 
the Kathdkoga (see my translation, p. l66), and the conclusion of the story of 
Damannaka (pp. 173, 174). The story of Fridolin is also found in Schoppner's 
Sagenbuch der Bayerischen Lande, vol. i, p. 204. 

As Tawney mentions above, the incident in our story appears in the 
Contes Devots. The title of this tale is: ^^D'un Roi qui voulut faire bruler 
le fils de son Seneschal." It was adapted in the Italian Cento Novelle Antiche, 
No. 68, where the plot is cleverly worked out. An envious knight advises 
one of the king's favourites, of whom he is jealous, to hold his head farther 
back when serving the king, who, he says, objects to his unpleasant breath. 
The knight then tells the king that his favourite page acts in this way to 
avoid his breath. The enraged monarch orders his kilnman to throw the 
first man who brings him a message into the furnace. The page is immedi- 
ately dispatched, but passing a monastery, goes in to listen to Mass. The 
knight now sets out to see if his plan has worked, and arrives at the kiln 
before the page, where he pays the penalty of his wickedness. 

The story is also found in a work of Walter Mapes of the twelfth 


and after spending that night in remorse, the next morning 
the king saw Phalabhuti arrive with the earrings in his hand. 
So, being bewildered, he questioned him about the earrings 
immediately ; and when Phalabhuti had told him his story, 
the king fell on the earth, and cried out, " Alas, my son ! " 
blaming the queen and himself; and when his ministers 
questioned him, he told them the whole story, and repeated 
what Phalabhuti had said every day : " ' The doer of good 
will obtain good, and the doer of evil, evil.' Often the 
harm that one wishes to do to another, recoils on oneself, as 

century. It was printed and annotated by Thomas Wright, De Nugis Cnrialium 
(1850), Camden Society. It reappears in the Liber de Donis of Etienne 
de Bourbon (thirteenth century) ; John of Bromyard's Sumvia Prcedicantium 
(fourteenth century); the Dialogiis Creaturarum of Nicolaus Pergamenus, etc. 
Reference should be made to Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. ii, 
pp. 444-, 445, whence these latter have been taken. 

The Arabic form of the story is found in the Book of Sitidibad, Clouston's 
edition, pp. 137-141 (see also pp. 292, 293). Here a sultan adopts an abandoned 
infant who is given the name of Ahmed. When grown up he discovers by 
chance one day that the favourite concubine has a slave as lover. He does 
not report the matter, but the guilty woman is afraid, and feigning to have 
been raped by Ahmed, calls upon the sultan for a suitable punishment to 
be inflicted. The executioner is told to behead the first man who says to 
him : " Hast thou performed the business } " Ahmed is told to ask this question 
in a certain house. On the way he meets a group of slaves, and among them 
is the concubine's lover. He tries to delay Ahmed in order to get him into 
trouble with the king, and finally agrees to take the message himself with 
the usual result. 

Two similar tales occur in C. Vernieux, Indian Tales and Anecdotes, Cal- 
cutta, 1873. In the second of these it is a letter, and not a message, which 
is used as the instrument of death. 

As already mentioned in Vol. I, p. 52n\ "the letter of death" motif is 
a lieu commun in folk-lore. It has been referred to by various names, such 
as the " Uriah letter," " Bellerophon letter," and "Mutalammis letter" motif, 
according as to which the particular author took as the standard example 
the Biblical, Greek or Arabic. 

I think, however, that a general term, such as that suggested above, is 
preferable. As compared with the " letter of death," examples of the " message 
of death " are rare, but they are, of course, only different varieties of the same 
motif I shall discuss this motif at greater length at the end of Chapter XLII, 
where a good example of the *' letter of death " occurs. 

The incident of innocently eating the flesh or heart of a loved one is 
well known from the story in Boccaccio, day 4, nov. 10. For full details see 
Lee, The Decameron, its Sources atid Analogues, pp. 152-156. n.m.p. 


a ball thrown against a wall rebounding frequently ; thus we, 
wicked ones, desiring to slay a Brahman, have brought about 
our own son's death, and devoured his flesh." 

After the king had said this, and informed his ministers, 
who stood with their faces fixed on the earth, of the whole 
transaction, and after he had anointed that very Phalabhuti 
as king in his place, he made a distribution of alms, and then, 
having no son, entered the fire with his wife to purify himself 
from guilt, though already consumed by the fire of remorse : 
and Phalabhuti, having obtained the royal dignity, ruled the 
earth ; thus good or evil done by a man is made to return 
upon himself. 

[M] Having related the above tale in the presence of the 
King of Vatsa, Yaugandharayana again said to that king : 
*' If Brahmadatta therefore were to plot against you, O great 
King, who, after conquering him, treated him kindly, he 
ought to be slain." When the chief minister had said this 
to him, the King of Vatsa approved of it, and rising up went 
to perform the duties of the day, and the day following he 
set out from Lavanaka to go to his own city Kausambi, 
having accomplished his objects in effecting the conquest of 
the regions. In course of time the lord of earth, accompanied 
by his retinue, reached his own city, which seemed to be 
dancing with delight, imitating with banners uplifted the 
taper arms ^ of the dancing-girl. So he entered the city, 
producing at every step, in the lotus garden composed of the 
eyes of the women of the city, the effect of the rising of a 
breeze. And the king entered his palace, sung by minstrels, 
praised by bards, and worshipped by kings. 

Then the monarch of Vatsa laid his commands on the 
kings of every land, who bowed before him, and triumphantly 
ascended that throne, the heirloom of his race, which he had 
found long ago in the deposit of treasure. And the heaven 
was filled with the combined high and deep echoes of the 
:sound of the drums, which accompanied the auspicious 

^ Literally, " creeper-like." 


ceremonies on that occasion, like simultaneous shouts of 
applause uttered by the guardians of the world, each in his 
several quarter, being delighted with the prime minister of 
the King of Vatsa. Then the monarch, who was free from 
avarice, distributed to the Brahmans all kinds of wealth 
acquired by the conquest of the world, and, after great 
festivities, satisfied the desires of the company of kings and 
of his own ministers. 

Then in that city filled with the noise of drums resembling 
the thunder of the clouds, while the king was raining benefits 
on the fields ^ according to each man's desert, the people, 
expecting great fruit in the form of corn, kept high festival 
in every house. Having thus conquered the world, that 
victorious king devolved on Rumanvat and Yaugandhara- 
yana the burden of his realm, and lived at ease there with 
Vasavadatta and Padmavati. So he, being praised by 
excellent bards, seated between those two queens as if they 
were the goddesses of Fame and Fortune, enjoyed the rising 
of the moon, white as his own glory, and continually drank 
wine as he had swallowed the might of his foes. 

^ There is a double meaning here : kshetra means " fit recipients " as well 

as "field." The king no doubt distributed corn. The point is obscured 

by Tawney's translation. The poet uses as a term for "king" the word 
narendra, " Indra of men " ; so the words mean that " the king (narendra} 
pours forth benefits upon worthy objects (kshetras) with beating of drums, 
as the god Indra pours forth rain upon the fields {kshetras) amidst the thunders 
of the clouds " (Barnett). n.m.p. 



In many forms of black magic nudity appears to be an essential factor. 
The reason for this is hard to explain, and many suggestions have been put 

The most probable are : 

1. Dread of pollution which may arise during a rite, and so spoil the 

2. Clothes used in a sacred or magical rite become taboo and caimot be 
used again. 

3. In order to do abnormal things successfully, the state of the operator 
should also be abnormal ; hence nudity is a great asset. 

4. Complete nudity represents total submission to the spirit power whose 
aid is needed in the particular rite to be carried out. 

5. Nudity is supposed to shock the spirits and so force them to grant the 
desired aid. 

6. The belief in the apotropaeic powers attributed to the sexual organs. 

As will be readily seen, it would be little short of pure guess-work in 
most cases to pick out a nudity rite and definitely assign to it one or other of 
the above explanations. We can only be certain of the true reason when 
actions accompanying the ritual make it obvious. For instance, in many 
countries ceremonies to obtain rain are often carried out in a state of complete 
nudity. Here the reasons seem to be twofold. In the first place, as the 
nature of the rite is usually to produce rain, by drenching the body with 
water, or standing up to the neck in water, it is obvious that any clothes 
would be ruined. Secondly, if other methods have failed it is necessary to 
give the Rain God a shock, to wake him up, to arouse his pity or to make him 
give what is wanted through fear. Thus some unusual and curious sight 
would be bound to arrest his attention. A few examples will help to explain 
these points. 

On the principles of homcEopathic or imitative magic, various methods to 
produce rain after a drought are employed in many parts of the world. After 
prayers and sacrifices have proved ineffective, other means are tried. Thus 
in the Rumanian village of Ploska both girls and women go naked at night to 
the boundaries of the village, and pour water on the ground, in the hope that 
the sky will do likewise. Similarly in Serbia a girl is stripped and covered in 
grass, flowers and herbs. She is then conducted, dancing and singing, to every 
house, where she has a pail of water thrown over her (Frazer, Golden Boughj 
vol. i, pp. 248, 273). In other cases nude women have recourse to a ploughing 
rite to procure rain. Thus in Russia they draw a furrow round the village, and 
bury at the juncture a cock, a cat and a dog. The cat is sacred, and the dog 
is considered a demonic character, so both sides are thus conciliated (Conway, 
Demonology y vol. i, p. 267). In Chunar, Mirzapur district, after the drought 
in 1892 had continued a long time, the following ceremony was performed 
secretly : " Between the hours of nine and ten p.m. a barber's wife went 


from door to door and invited all the women to join in ploughing. They all 
collected in a field from which all males were excluded. Three women from 
a cultivator's family stripped off all their clothes; two were yoked to a plough 
like oxen, and a third held the handle. They then began to imitate the 
operation of ploughing. The woman who had the plough in her hand 
shouted : * O Mother Earth ! bring parched grain, water and chaff. Our 
bellies are bursting to pieces from hunger and thirst.' Then the landlord 
and village accountant approached them and laid down some grain, water and 
chaff in the field. The women then dressed and went home" (North Indian 
Notes and Queries, vol. i, p. 210). Cf. Russell, Tribes and Castes of the Central 
Provinces, vol. iii, p. 563. 

In a district of Transylvania the girls take off all their clothes and, led by 
an older woman, who is also naked, steal a barrow and carry it across the fields 
to a brook, where they set it afloat. They then sit on the barrow, keeping 
a tiny flame burning on each corner of it for an hour. Then they leave the 
barrow in the water and return home (Frazer, op. cit,, p. 282, where other 
examples are also given). 

Volleys of abuse and curses often accompany these rites ; thus, when rain 
fails, the Meitheis of Manipur, headed by their Raja, strip off all their clothes, 
and stand cursing each other in the streets of Imphal, the capital town, while 
women strip themselves at night and throw rice-pounders into the river 
(T. C. Hodson, The Meitheis, p. 108. See also A. E. Crawley, "Dress," 
Hastings' Ena/. liel. Eth., vol. v, p. 60). 

Nudity also enters into fertility-rites practised by women. In the Panjab 
on a Sunday or Tuesday night, or during the Divali, or Feast of Lights, a 
barren woman desiring a child sits on a stool, which is then lowered down 
a well. After divesting herself of her clothes and bathing, she is drawn 
up again and performs the Chaukpurnd ceremony with incantations taught 
by a wizard. Should there be any difficulty about descending the well, the 
ceremony is performed beneath a sacred pipal or fig-tree. It is believed that, 
after such a ceremony is performed, the well runs dry and the tree withers, 
the Mana of both having been exhausted during the rite {Census Report, Panjab, 
1901, vol. i, p. 164. For another version see Panjab Notes and Queries, vol. iv, 
p. 58). Crooke records an interesting rite, also from the Panjab, performed 
during the Divali ("The Divali, the Lamp Festival of the Hindus," Folk-Lore, 
vol. xxxiv, Dec. 1923, p. 276. This was a posthumous publication). On the 
Amavas, or no-moon night, barren women, and those who have lost several 
children, go to a place where four roads meet, strip themselves naked, and 
cover a piece of ground with the leaves of five " royal " trees, the pipal (Jicus 
religiosa), the bar (^/icus indica), the siras {acacia speciosa), and the dm or mango. 
On this they lay a black bead representing the demigod Rama, and, sitting 
down, bathe from pitchers containing water drawn from five wells, one in 
each of the four quarters of the town or village, and one outside it in the 
direction of the north-east. The water is poured from the pitchers into a 
vessel with a hole in the bottom, from which it is allowed to drop all over 
the women's bodies. The well from which the water has been drawn for this 
purpose is supposed to lose its fertilising power and runs dry. 


Magical powers of healing disease are often practised in a state of nudity. 
In the Sirsa district a man can cure a horse attacked by a fit by taking off all 
his clothes and striking the animal seven times with his shoe on its forehead. 
In the Jalandhar district paralysis in cattle is cured by a man stripping himself 
naked and walking round the animal with a wisp of burning straw in his hand. 
The Oraon tribe supplies many instances of similar practices. At the time of 
the rice harvest they practise a solemn rite for driving fleas out of the village, 
in the course of which young men strip off their clothes, bathe, wrap them- 
selves in rice-straw, and march round the houses, where they receive doles of 
food (W. Crook e, " Nudity in India in Custom and Ritual," Journ. Anth. Inst., 
vol. xlix, 1919, p. 248. See the whole paper for numerous other references, 
only a few of which are quoted in this note). 

Semi-nudity has always been regarded by Brahmans as a mark of respect 
when in a holy place or before superiors. Thus they bare their bodies in the 
more sacred precincts of a temple or in the presence of the Maharaja. This 
is still observed at the Darbars of H.H. the Maharaja of Mysore (see Crooke, 
Journ. Anth. Inst., vol. xlix, p. 238). 

In circumambulating the Kaaba at Mecca pilgrims at one time used to 
either strip or borrow other clothes, as their own would become taboo owing 
to contact with the sacred place or function (W. Robertson Smith, Lectures on 
the Religion of the Semites, 2nd edition, p. 48 1 ). 

From the above examples we can see that there is a distinct mystic 
significance attached to the naked body, an uncanny power which can be 
utilised for the purposes of producing rain, procuring offspring, etc. But as 
is the case with all power, it can also be used for less praiseworthy purposes. 
It can be employed for acquiring magical properties, to gain control over a 
person or a spirit. Thus, in Gujarat, to obtain control over a spirit, the Hindu 
exorcist goes to a burial-ground alone at midnight on the dark fourteenth day 
of Aso (October), unearths the body of a low-caste Hindu, and bathes in the 
river. After bathing, while still naked, he carries the body within a circle 
cut with a knife or formed by sprinkling a line of water ; then he goes on 
muttering charms, and evil spirits of all kinds congregate round him (Bombay 
Gazetteer, vol. ix, part i, p. 418). 

A strange story is told in the United Provinces of a noted witch, known 
as Lona or Nona Chamarin, a woman of the caste of leather-dressers. One day 
all the village women were transplanting rice, and it was noticed that Lona 
could do as much work as all her companions put together. So they watched 
her, and when she thought she was unobserved she stripped off her clothes, 
muttered some spells, and throwing a bundle of seedlings into the air, each 
settled down into its proper hole (Crooke, Tribes and Castes of the North- West 
Provinces and Oudh, vol. ii, p. 171). 

Finally there is the question of the apotropaeic power of the sexual organs 
themselves to be considered. Hartland points out (see his article, " Phalhsm," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. ix, p. 830) that as the great instruments of 
reproduction, and consequently the enemies of sterility and death, the sexual 
organs are in many countries exhibited and employed, actually and by symbol 
i.e. magically to counteract the depredations of mortality. Furthermore, 


they are regarded as having prophylactic virtue against all sorts of evil 
influences. Hence their common use of priapic figures and ithyphallic statues. 
In his article quoted above, Hartland gives numerous references and examples, 
some of which we have already noticed. 


As is only natural, the motif of the revenge of a woman whose love has 
been scorned enters into nearly every collection of stories in the world. It is, 
moreover, not only in fiction that we have records of such happenings. Apart 
from Joseph and Potiphar's wife, we read (Paulin Paris, l^Aiide sur les diff'ereiits 
Textes, imprimis et manuscripts, du Roman des Sept Sages), of Fausta, second wife 
of Constantine the Great, who caused the death of Crispus, son of his first 
wife, and also of Lucinian, son of Lucinius, by similar false accusations. Then 
there was the case of A^oka, the great Buddhist Emperor of India (274-237 b.c). 
After the death of his first wife, named (according to the Ceylon records) 
Asandhimitra, he married one of her attendants, Tishyarakshita, and made her 
his chief wife. She had fallen in love with Anoka's eldest son and heir (by 
another wife), Kunala, Viceroy of Taxila. He rejected her advances, however, 
and was shortly sent abroad to put down a revolt. The Emperor became ill 
in his son's absence and decided to recall Kunala and set him on the throne. 
Tishyarakshita, seeing what this would mean for her, managed to cure the 
Emperor herself, obtaining in return the favour of exercising regal power for 
seven days. She immediately has Kunala's eyes put out, but later the blind 
son comes to the court disguised as a lute-player, and the queen is burnt. 
(See Benfey, Orient und Occident, vol. iii, p. 177; Cambridge History of India^ 
vol. i, p. 500 ; Przyluski, " La L^gende de I'Empereur A^oka," Annales du 
Musee Guimet, vol. xxxiii, 1923, chap, iv, " Avadana de Kunala," p. 281-295.) 

Both the above stories appear in W. A. Clouston's Book of Sindibad, 
pp. xxvii, xxix, to which we shall refer again later. 

In Greek legend we have the stories of Hippolytus and his stepmother 
Phaedra; Phineus and his sons with their mother-in-law; Bellerophon and 
Anteia, wife of Proetus; and Peleus and Astydameia (called Hippolyte in 
Horace, Odes, iii, 7, 1 7), wife of Acastus. 

The oldest tale of this nature comes from Egypt, and was current in 
Thebes towards the end of the XlXth Dynasty. It is known as "The Story 
of the Two Brothers," and has already been referred to (Vol. I, pp. 129, 130) 
in connection with the " External Soul " motif. I take the following from 
Maspero's Popular Stories of Ancient Egypt. It forms the first story in his 
excellently annotated collection, and is preceded by a full bibliography. 

The two brothers Anupu and Baiti lived in the same house. Anupu, the 
elder brother, was married and owned the house, while Baiti did all the field 
work and slept with the cows each night. One day both brothers were in 
the fields and Anupu sent Baiti to the village to get seed. He asks Anupu's 
wife for it ; she is dressing her hair and tells him to take it. He shoulders 



five measures of the seed, which exhibition of strength at once rouses her 

" And her heart went out to him as one desires a young man. She arose, 
she laid hold on him, she said to him : ' Come, let us lie together for the space 
of one hour. If thou wilt grant me this, in faith I will make thee two beauteous 
garments.' The youth became like a cheetah of the south in hot rage, because 
of the evil suggestion she had made to him, and she was frightened exceedingly, 
exceedingly. He spake to her, saying ; ' But in truth thou art to me as a mother, 
and thy husband is to me as a father, and he who is my elder, it is he who enables 
me to live. Ah ! this horrible thing that thou hast said to me, do not say it to 
me again, and for me I shall tell it to no one ; I shall not let it escape from my 
mouth for anyone.' He took up his burden and went to the fields. When 
he reached his elder brother they set to work at their labour." 

That evening Anupu's wife tore her garments, rubbed fat on her body to 
look like bruises and told her husband, who was the first to get home, that 
his brother had reduced her to this condition. Accordingly Anupu prepares 
to slay Baiti and awaits his arrival behind the stable door. The cows, however, 
warn Baiti of his impending fate, and he flies with all his might. We then get 
the earliest example of the " Magical Impediments " motif a sheet of water full 
of crocodiles separates the two brothers, and after waiting till the next morning 
Baiti tells his brother the whole truth, and castrates himself on the spot. 

" The elder brother cursed his heart exceedingly, exceedingly, and he 
remained there and wept over him. He leapt, but he could not pass over to 
the bank where his younger brother was, because of the crocodiles. His 
younger brother called to him, saying ; ' Thus whilst thou didst imagine an evil 
action, thou didst not recall one of the good actions or even one of the things 
that I did for thee. Ah ! go to thy house, and do thou thyself care for thy 
cattle, for I shall not live longer in the place where thou art I go to the Vale 
of the Acacia.' " 

Anupu is overcome, and returning home kills his wife and throws her to 
the dogs. 

Turning to India, we find examples of the motif occur very frequently. 
See, for instance, the story of " Pala und Gopala," translated by J. Hertel, 
Indische Erzdhler, vol. vii, 1922, pp. 64-68. 

In his Book of Sindihdd (pp. xxx, xxxi) Clouston cites two examples 
from H. H. Wilson, Descriptive Catalogue of the Mackenzie Collection of Oriental 
MSS.j etc., 1828. 

" In a Telugu palm-leaf manuscript entitled Sdrangdhara Charita, the 
hero, Sarangdhara, is the son of Rajamahendra, King of Rajamahendri, whose 
stepmother Chitrangi falls in love with him. He rejects her advances, on 
which she accuses him to the king of attempting to violate her, and the king 
orders him to have his feet cut off, and to be exposed in the forest to wild 
beasts. There a voice from heaven proclaims that the prince in his former 
life was Jayanta, minister of Dhaval Chandra, who, being envious of Sumanta, 
one of his colleagues, contrived to hide the slippers of Sumanta under the bed 
of the queen. The king, finding them and ascertaining whose they were. 


commanded Sumanta to be exposed to wild beasts after having his legs and 
hands cut off; in retribution of which Jayanta, now Sarangdhara, suffers the 
like mutilation. He acknowledges the justice of the sentence, and his 
wounds are healed by a Yogi. A voice from heaven apprises the king of the 
innocence of his son, and he takes Sarangdhara back and puts ChitrangI to 
death. Sarangdhara adopts a religious life. In the Tamil version, when 
the prince has been mutilated and cast into the jungle, his dead mother's 
lamentations are heard by the Siddhas, who restore the prince's limbs, and 
a voice from heaven apprises the king of Chitrangi's guilt. Again : In the 
Kuftiara Rama Charita, Ratnangl, one of the wives of Raja Kampila, became 
enamoured of Kumara Rama, his youngest son, and importuned him to gratify 
her desires. Finding him inexorable, her love was changed to hatred, and 
she complained to Kampila that Rama had attempted her chastity. Kampila 
in a rage ordered Rama to be put to death instantly, with his four chief 
leaders. The minister Bachapa, however, secreted Rama and his friends in 
his palace, and decapitating five ordinary criminals, produced their heads 
to the raja as those of his intended victims. Kampila soon repented of his 
haste, and the prince's death was the subject of universal sorrow. After some 
time Rama reappeared, and the Princess Ratnangl, on hearing of this, hanged 
herself, by which Kfimpila was satisfied of the innocence of his son." 

The niolif is also found in the Mahdpaduma Jdlaka (see Cambridge Edition, 
vol. iv, p. 116, No. 47ii), and Bloomfield, Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha, 
pp. 64, 85, 146, 199. On the latter page a preliminary bibliography of the 
motif is given, which includes references to the Mahdbhdrata, Kathd Sarit 
Sdgara, Jdtakas, Kathdprakdqa, etc., besides the collections of Ralston, Steel 
and Temple, and Clouston. One of the references is to Ralston's Tibetan 
Tales, p. 206. In this story the mother of Utpalavarna seduces her own 
son-in-law and he complies with her desires. A maid discloses the matter 
and Utpalavarna leaves the house. I would not include such examples under 
this motif Bloomfield, however, divides it into three forms: the woman 
tempts, and the man rejects; the woman out of hatred [or fear] pretends 
that a man has made overtures to her, so as to get him into trouble ; and 
the woman tempts and the man succumbs. The whole point of the motif 
is, I feel, the refusal of the man and the consequent intended revenge of 
the woman. Thus, whereas the first variety is the only true example of the 
motif, the second also may be included, but the third seems quite beside 
the point the most important incident of the motif being missing. 

Both Persian and Arabic fiction abound in examples of the motif The 
best-known collection is that entitled The Book of Sindihdd, or the Story of 
the King, his Son, the Damsel and the Seven Vazirs. For further details of its 
history, etc., reference should be made to Comparetti's Ricerche intomo al Lihro 
di Sindihdd, translated by H. C. Coote for the Folk-Lore Society, 1882; The 
Book of Sindihdd, W. A. Clouston, privately printed, 1884; and V. Chauvin, 
Bihliographie des Ouvrages Arabes, viii, Synti})a8. 

The frame-story in every case is based on the motif here under 
consideration. A brief outline is as follows: 


After numerous failures to teach the only son of the king, the sage 
Sindibad finally succeeds in under six months. He then discovers that the 
prince is threatened with loss of life if he speaks a single word during the 
next seven days. Nevertheless, he goes to his father, who is anxious to test 
his newly acquired knowledge. To all the king's questions he answers not a 
word. At this juncture one of the king's harem, who is secretly enamoured 
of the prince, enters the audience-chamber and asks leave to try privately to 
induce the prince to speak. On leave being given she tells him of her love, 
and offers to poison the king. The prince flies from her in horror. The girl, 
fearing exposure, tears her clothes, scratches her face and in this condition 
returns to the king, stating that the prince, only pretending to be dumb, 
has attempted to rape her, and has suggested poisoning the king. The king 
orders the executioner to cut off his son's head. There are seven vazirs at 
the court and they determine to do what they can to prolong the carrying 
out of this hasty sentence, hoping in time to establish the prince's innocence. 
Accordingly the First Vazir tells a story showing the deceit of women, with 
the result that the king wavers in his decision. The guilty woman, however, 
now relates a tale exemplifying the deceits of man. The Second Vazir there- 
upon retaliates. These alternate stories continue till all the Vazirs have 
spoken. By this time the unlucky seven days have passed and the innocence 
of the prince is established, as he can now safely speak and give the real facts 
of the case. 

The collection also appears in the Nights (see Burton, vol. vi, p. 127), 
under the title, "The Craft and Malice of Women." In the Persian Bakhtydr 
Nama it is the vazirs (ten in number) who urge the death of the accused 
man, and it is he himself who tells the stories. It also appears in the Nights 
(Burton, Supp., vol. i, p. 55 et seq.) as "The Ten Wazirs : or, the History of 
King Azadbakht and his Son." In Supp., vol. ii, pp. 295, 296, Clouston writes 
a note on the story. The plot, however, differs from the other similar collec- 
tions, not only because of the fact stated above, but also because the son, in 
a state of drunkenness, wanders into the queen's bedroom and falls asleep 
on the bed, to be later discovered by the royal couple. The king refuses 
to believe that she knows nothing about the matter and the jealous ten 
vazirs do all they can to bring about the prince's death. Closely allied to 
these is the Tamil Alakeswara Kathd (see H. H. Wilson, Descriptive Catalogue 
of the Mackenzie Collection of MSS., etc., vol. i, p. 220). In the Turkish version, 
however, the plot follows the Arabic, and it is the prince's mother-in-law 
who tempts his virtue. His horoscope shows that his life is in danger for 
forty days (not seven, as in the other versions) and forty vazirs tell stories. 
See E. J. W. Gibb, The History of the Forty Vezirs, 1886. The work is very 
popular in Turkey, where it is known as, Qirq Vezlr Tnflkhi. The original 
Turkish translation is said to have been made by one Sheykh-zada, and the 
title of the work to have been Hikdyetu-Erbalna-Sabdhin we Mesd i.e. The 
Story of the Forty Moms and Eves. 

There are two other occurrences of the "scorned love of women" in 
the Nights. 


The first of these is in the long "Tale of Kamar al-Zaman" (Burton, 
vol. iii, p. 314). The two brothers, Amjad and As'ad, are tempted to incest 
by each other's mother. On being repulsed they shut themselves up in the 
harem, and tell the king that his two sons have raped them and they refuse 
to come out until their two hearts are brought to them. The enraged 
monarch gives the necessary order, but the pitying treasurer, whose duty 
it is to kill the brothers, takes back to the king two vials of a lion's blood 
which the brothers chance to slay. Later the repentant father finds the 
original letters written by the queens in his sons' clothes. After numerous 
adventures Amjad and As'ad meet their father (vol. iv, p. 27), and marry 
two beautiful women they met during their wanderings, and all is well " till 
there overtook them the Destroyer of delights, and the Sunderer of societies ; 
and Allah knoweth all things ! " 

The second tale is that of the " History of Gharib and his Brother Ajib" 
(vol. vii, p. 83). Queen Jan Shah is suddenly called out as her prisoner, 
Gharib, had broken her idol and slain her men. She immediately goes to 
the temple and (like Anupu's wife in the Egyptian tale) on seeing the great 
strength of Gharib " her heart was drowned in the love of him and she said 
to herself: 'I have no need of the idol and care for naught save this Gharib, 
that he may lie in my bosom the rest of my life.' " On his refusal he is 
turned into an ape by her magic, and kept carefully in a closet. After two 
years he pretends by signs to agree to her wishes, and is accordingly restored 
to his original shape. That evening, he seizes her by the neck, breaks it 
and so kills her. 

The first of the above stories is common in Kashmir ; see, e.g., Stein and 
Grierson, "Tale of a King," Hatims Tales, 1923, pp. 45-57; and Knowles, 
Folk-Tales of Kashmir, pp. l66, 423. 

Thus we see that, in order for a story to be classified under the heading 
of this motif, the woman must make the suggestion, be repulsed, and seek 
revenge. This is the natural sequence of events which has proved so popular 
in every part of the East, whence it has travelled slowly westward. An 
interesting point to notice is that it can be traced from East to West in 
the same collection of stories that of the Sindibdd Kama cycle, for besides 
the various versions already mentioned (see also Vol. I, p. 170) it is found 
in the French Dolopathos, the English Seven Wise Masters, and numerous 
other versions. n.m.p. 




VICTORY to the Conqueror of Obstacles,^ who marks 
with a line, like the parting of the hair, the principal 
mountains ^ by the mighty fanning of his ear-flaps, 
pointing out, as it were, a path of success ! 

[M] Then Udayana, the King of Vatsa, remaining in 
Kausambi, enjoyed the conquered earth which was under 
one umbrella ^ ; and the happy monarch devolved the care 
of his empire upon Yaugandharayana and Rumanvat, and 
addicted himself to pleasure only in the society of Vasantaka. 
Himself playing on the lute, in the company of the queens 
Vasavadatta and Padmavati, he was engaged in a perpetual 
concert. While the notes of his lyre were married to the soft 
sweet song of the queens, the rapid movement of his executing 
finger alone indicated the difference of the sounds. And while 
the roof of the palace was white with moonlight as with his 
own glory, he drank wine in plenteous streams, as he had 
swallowed the pride of his enemies * ; beautiful women 
brought him, as he sat retired, in vessels of gold, wine flaming 
with rosy glow,^ as it were the water of his appointment as 
ruler in the empire of love ; he divided between the two 

^ I.e. Ganesa, who has an elephant's head. 

2 Seven principal mountains are supposed to exist in each Varsha, or 
division of a continent. 

3 See Appendix II, pp. 263-272. n.m.p. 

* There is a reference here to the mada, or ichor, which exudes from an 
elephant's temples when in rut. 
5 Rdga also means "passion." 


queens the cordial liquor, red, delicious and pellucid, in 
which danced the reflection of their faces ; as he did his 
own heart, impassioned, enraptured and transparent, in which 
the same image was found. 

His eyes were never sated with resting on the faces of 
those queens, which had the eyebrows arched, and blushed 
with the rosy hue of love, though envy and anger were far 
from them. The scene of his banquet, filled with many 
crystal goblets of wine, gleamed like a lake of white lotuses 
tinged red with the rising sun. And occasionally, accom- 
panied by huntsmen, clad in a vest of dark green as the 
paldsa tree, he ranged, bow and arrows in hand, the forest 
full of wild beasts, which was of the same colour as himself. 
He slew with arrows herds of wild boars besmeared with 
mud, as the sun disperses with its dense rays the masses of 
darkness ; when he ran towards them the antelopes, fleeing 
in terror, seemed like the sidelong glances of the quarters 
previously conquered ^ by him. 

And when he slew the buffaloes, the ground, red with 
blood, looked like a bed of red lotuses come to thank him 
hmnbly for delivering it from the goring of their horns. 
When the lions too were transfixed by his javelins falling 
in their open mouths, and their lives issued from them with 
a suppressed roar, he was dehghted. In that wood he em- 
ployed dogs in the ravines and nets in the glades ; this was 
the method of his pursuit of the chase, in which he relied 
only upon his own resources. 

While he was thus engaged in his pleasant enjoy- 
ments, one day the hermit Narada came to him as he 
was in the hall of audience, diffusing a halo with the 
radiance of his body, like the sun, the orb of heaven, 
descending therefrom out of love for the Solar dynasty. 
The king welcomed him, inclining before him again and 
again, and the sage stood a moment as if pleased and 
said to that king : " Listen, O King ; I will tell you a 
story in a few words. You had an ancestor once, a king 
of the name of Pandu ; he like you had two noble wives ; 
one wife of the mighty prince was named Kunti and the 

^ The quarters are often conceived of as women. 


other Madri/ That Pandu conquered this sea-engirdled 
earth, and was very prosperous, and being addicted to the 
vice of hunting, he went one day to the forest. There he 
Narada con- ^^^ % ^^ arrow and slew a hermit of the name 
demns the Vice of Arindama, who was sporting with his wife in 
of Hunting ^j^^ f^^^m of a dccr.^ That hermit abandoned 
that deer-form, and with his breath struggling in his throat 
cursed that Pandu, who in his despair had flung away 
his bow : ' Since I have been slain while sporting at 
will by thee, inconsiderate one, thou also shalt die in the 
embraces of thy wife.' Having been thus cursed, Pandu, 
through fear of its effect, abandoned the desire of enjoyment, 
and accompanied by his wives lived in a tranquil grove of 
ascetic quietism. While he was there, one day, impelled by 
that curse, he suddenly approached his beloved Madri, and 
died. So you may rest assured that the occupation called 
hunting is a madness of kings, for other kings have been done 
to death by it, even as the various deer they have slain. For 
how can hunting produce benign results, since the genius of 
hunting is like a female Rakshasa, roaring horribly, intent on 
raw flesh, defiled with dust, with upstanding hair and lances 
for teeth. Therefore give up that useless exertion, the sport 
of hunting ; wild elephants and their slayers are exposed 
to the same risk of losing their lives. And you, who are 
ordained for prosperity, are dear to me on account of my 
friendship with your ancestors, so hear how you are to have 
a son who is to be a portion of the God of Love. 

^ For an outline of this story as related in the Mahdbhdraia see p. l6. 


^ In the eighteenth tale of the Gesta Romanorum Julian is led into trouble 
by pursuing a deer. The animal turns round and says to him : '' Thou who 
pursuest me so fiercely shalt be the destruction of thy parents." See also 
Bernhard Schmidt's Griechische Marchen,p. 38: "A popular ballad referring to 
the story of Digenes gives him a life of 300 years, and represents his death 
as due to his killing a hind that had on its shoulder the image of the Virgin 
Mary, a legend the foundation of which is possibly a recollection of the old 
mythological story of the hind of Artemis killed by Agamemnon" [Sophocles' 
Electra, 568]. In the " Romance of Doolin of Mayence," Guyon kills a hermit by 
mistake for a deer (Liebrecht's translation of Dunlop's History of Fiction, p. 138). 

See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, pp. 84-86 ; and W. Crooke, 

Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. ii, p. 238. n.m.p. 


"Long ago, when Rati worshipped Siva with praises in 
order to effect the restoration of Kama's body, Siva, being 
pleased, told her this secret in few words : ' This Gauri,^ 
desiring a son, shall descend to earth with a part of 
herself, and, after propitiating me, shall give birth to an 
incarnation of Kama.' Accordingly, King, the goddess has 
been bom in the form of this Vasavadatta, daughter of 
Chandamahasena, and she has become your queen. So she, 
having propitiated Siva, shall give birth to a son who shall 
be a portion of Kama, and shall become the emperor of all 
the Vidyadharas." 

By this speech the Rishi Narada, whose words command 
respect, gave back to the king the earth which he had offered 
him as a present, and then disappeared. When he had de- 
parted, the King of Vatsa, in company with Vasavadatta, in 
whom had arisen the desire of obtaining a son, spent the day 
in thinking about it. 

The next day the chief warder, called Nityodita, came to 
the lord of Vatsa while he was in the hall of assembly and 
said to him : " A certain distressed Brahman woman, accom- 
The Poor panied by two children, is standing at the door. 
Brahman O King, dcsiriug to see your Highness." When 
Woman ^.j^^ ^ing heard this, he permitted her to enter, 

and so that Brahman woman entered, thin, pale and be- 
grimed, distressed by the tearing of her clothes and wound- 
ing of her self-respect, carrying in her bosom two children 
looking like Misery and Poverty. After she had made the 
proper obeisance she said to the king : " I am a Brahman 
woman of good caste, reduced to such poverty. As fate 
would have it, I gave birth to these two boys at the same 
time, and I have no milk for them, O King, without food. 
Therefore I have come, in my misery and helplessness, for 
protection to the king, who is kind to all who fly to him 
for protection ; now my lord the king must determine what 
my lot is to be." 

When the king heard that, he was filled with pity, and said 
to the warder : ** Take this woman and commend her to the 
Queen Vasavadatta." Then that woman was conducted into 

^ I.e. Uma or Parvatl. 


the presence of the queen by that warder, as it were by her 
own good actions marching in front of her. The queen, 
when she heard from that warder that the Brahman woman 
who had come had been sent by the king, felt all the more 
confidence in her. And when she saw that the woman, 
though poor, had two children, she thought : " This is ex- 
ceedingly unfair dealing on the part of the creator ! Alas, 
he grudges a son to me, who am rich, and shows affection to 
one who is poor ! I have not yet one son, but this woman 
has these twins." Thus reflecting, the queen, who was her- 
self desiring a bath, gave orders to her servants to provide 
the Brahman woman with a bath and other restoratives. 
After she had been provided with a bath, and had had clothes 
given her, and had been supplied by them with agreeable 
food, that Brahman woman was refreshed like the heated 
earth bedewed with rain. And as soon as she had been re- 
freshed, the Queen Vasavadatta, in order to test her by 
conversation, artfully said to her : " O Brahman lady, tell 
us some tale." When she heard that she agreed, and began 
to tell this story : 

25. Story of Devadatta 

In old time there was a certain petty monarch of the 
name of Jayadatta, and there was born to him a son, named 
Devadatta. And that wise king, wishing to marry his son, 
who was grown up, thus reflected : " The prosperity of kings 
is very unstable, being like a courtesan to be enjoyed by 
force ^ ; but the prosperity of merchants is like a woman of 
good family ; it is steady and does not fly to another man. 
Therefore I will take a wife to my son from a merchant's 
family, in order that misfortune may not overtake his throne, 
though it is surrounded with many relations." Having 
formed this resolve, that king sought for his son the daughter 

^ As a courtesan is not enjoyed by force, the sense seems doubtful. 
Barnett explains in a letter to me on the subject that balavad does literally 
mean "forcibly," but that the word is more usual in the sense of "intensely," 
as of rain, wind, sound, etc. Thus the meaning here is " to be intensely (or 
thoroughly) enjoyed." n.m.p. 



of a merchant in Pataliputra named Vasudatta. Vasudatta 
for his part, eager for such a distinguished alliance, gave that 
daughter of his to the prince, though he dwelt in a remote 
foreign land. 

And he loaded his son-in-law with wealth to such an extent 
that he no longer felt much respect for his father's magnifi- 
cence.* Then King Jayadatta dwelt happily with that son 
of his who had obtained the daughter of that rich merchant. 
Now one day the merchant Vasudatta came, full of desire to 
see his daughter, to the palace of his connection by marriage, 
and took away his daughter to his own home. Shortly after 
the King Jayadatta suddenly went to heaven, and that 
kingdom was seized by his relations, who rose in rebellion ; 
through fear of them his son Devadatta was secretly taken 
away by his mother during the night to another country. 

Then that mother, distressed in soul, said to the prince : 
" Our feudal lord is the emperor who rules the eastern 
region ; repair to him, my son ; he will procure you the 

When his mother said this to him, the prince answered 
her : " Who will respect me if I go there without attend- 
ants ? " When she heard that, his mother went on to say : 
" Go to the house of your father-in-law, and get money there, 
and so procure followers ; and then repair to the emperor." 
Being urged in these words by his mother, the prince, though 
full of shame, slowly plodded on and reached his father-in- 
law's house in the evening. But he could not bear to enter 
at such an unseasonable hour, for he was afraid of shedding 
tears, being bereaved of his father and having lost his worldly 
splendour ; besides, shame withheld him. 

So he remained in the verandah of an almshouse near, 
and at night he suddenly beheld a woman descending with 
a rope from his father-in-law's house, and immediately he 
recognised her as his wife, for she was so resplendent with 
jewels that she looked like a meteor fallen from the clouds ; 
and he was much grieved thereat. But she, though she 
saw him, did not recognise him, as he was emaciated and 

^ The D. text reads agalad instead of acalad, " that his pride on account 
of his father's splendour vanished." n.m.p. 


begrimed, and asked him who he was. When he heard that, 
he answered : "I am a traveller." Then the merchant's 
daughter entered the almshouse, and the prince followed her 
secretly to watch her. There she advanced towards a certain 
man, and he towards her, and asking why she had come so 
late, he bestowed several kicks on her.^ Then the passion of 
the wicked woman was doubled, and she appeased him, and 
remained with him on the most affectionate terms. ^ 

When he saw that, the discreet prince reflected: " This 
is not the time for me to show anger, for I have other affairs 
in hand ; and how could I employ against these two con- 
temptible creatures, this wife of mine and the man who has 
done me this wrong, this sword which is to be used against 
my foes ? Or what quarrel have I with this adulteress, for 
this is the work of malignant desire that showers calamities 
upon me, showing skill in the game of testing my firmness ? 
It is my marriage with a woman below me in rank that is in 
fault, not the woman herself ; how can a female crow leave 
the male crow to take pleasure in a cuckoo ? " 

Thus reflecting, he allowed that wife of his to remain in 
the society of her paramour ; for in the minds of heroes 
possessed with an ardent desire of victory, of what import- 
ance is woman, valueless as a straw ? But at the moment 
when his wife ardently embraced her paramour there fell 
from her ear an ornament thickly studded with valuable 
jewels. And she did not observe this, but at the end of her 
interview, taking leave of her paramour, returned hurriedly 
to her house as she came. And that unlawful lover also 
departed somewhere or other. 

Then the prince saw that jewelled ornament, and took it 
up ; it flashed with many jewel-gleams, dispelling the gather- 
ing darkness of despondency, and seemed like a hand-lamp 
obtained by him to assist him in searching for his lost 

1 Cf. an incident in " Giil and Sanaubar" (Liebrecht, Zur Folkskunde^ 

p. 144) also the "Tale of the Ensorcelled Prince," Nights (Burton, vol. i, 

p. 72), and see Chauvin, Bibliographie des Ouvrages Arabes, vi, p. 51 n^. n.m.p. 

2 This is not a correct rendering of yadrichchhayd. It means literally, 
*' casually," "by chance," or "arbitrarily." Barnett suggests that its meaning 
here is "at her own pleasure," "of her own free will" thus "wantonly" 
would perhaps be the best translation. n.m.p. 


prosperity. The prince immediately perceived that it was 
very valuable, and went off, having obtained all he required, 
to Kanyakubja ; there he pledged that ornament for a 
hundred thousand gold pieces, and after buying horses and 
elephants went into the presence of the emperor. And with 
the troops which he gave him he marched, and slew his 
enemies in fight, and recovered his father's kingdom ; and 
his mother applauded his success. 

Then he redeemed from pawn that ornament, and sent 
it to his father-in-law to reveal that unsuspected secret ; 
his father-in-law, when he saw that earring of his daughter's, 
which had come to him in such a way, was confounded, and 
showed it to her. She looked upon it, lost long ago like her 
own virtue ; and when she heard that it had been sent by 
her husband she was distracted, and called to mind the whole 
circumstance : " This is the very ornament which I let fall 
in the almshouse the night I saw that unknown traveller 
standing there ; so that must undoubtedly have been my 
husband come to test my virtue, but I did not recognise him, 
and he picked up this ornament." 

While the merchant's daughter was going through this 
train of reflection, her heart, afflicted by the misfortune of 
her unchastity having been discovered, in its agony, broke. 
Then her father artfully questioned a maid of hers who 
knew all her secrets, and found out the truth, and so ceased 
to mourn for his daughter ; as for the prince, after he re- 
covered the kingdom, he obtained as wife the daughter of 
the emperor, won by his virtues, and enjoyed the highest 

[M] "So you see that the hearts of women are hard as 
adamant in daring sin, but are soft as a flower when the 
tremor of fear falls upon them. But there are some few 
women born in good families that, having hearts virtuous ^ 
and of transparent purity, become like pearls, the ornaments 
of the earth. And the fortune of kings is ever bounding 

^ Here there is a pun, suvritta meaning also '* well rounded." 


away like a doe, but the wise know how to bind it by the 
tether of firmness, as you see in my story : therefore those 
who desire good fortune must not abandon their virtue even 
in calamity, and of this principle my present circumstances 
are an illustration, for I preserved my character, O Queen, 
even in this calamity, and that has borne me fruit in the 
shape of the good fortune of beholding you." 

Having heard this tale from the mouth of that Brahman 
woman, the Queen Vasavadatta, feeling respect for her, im- 
mediately thought : " Surely this Brahman woman must be 
of good family, for the indirect way in which she alluded to 
her own virtue and her boldness in speech prove that she 
is of gentle birth, and this is the reason why she showed such 
tact in entering the king's court of justice." Having gone 
through these reflections, the queen again said to the Brahman 
woman : " Whose wife are you, or what is the history of your 
life ? Tell me." When she heard that, the Brahman woman 
again began to speak : 

26. Story of Pingalikd 

Queen, there was a certain Brahman in the country of 
Malava, named Agnidatta, the home of Fortune and of Learn- 
ing, who willingly impoverished himself to help suppliants. 
And in course of time there were born to him two sons like 
himself : the eldest was called Sankaradatta and the other 
Santikara. Of these two, O glorious one, Santikara suddenly 
left his father's house in quest of learning, while he was still 
a boy, and went I know not whither, and the other son, his 
elder brother, married me, who am the daughter of Yajna- 
datta, who collected wealth for the sake of sacrifice only. 
In the course of time the father of my husband, who was 
named Agnidatta, being old, went to the next world, and his 
wife followed him ^ ; and my husband left me, when I was 
pregnant, to go to holy places, and through sorrow for his 
loss abandoned the body in fire purified by the goddess 
Sarasvati ; and when that fact was told us by those who 

^ I.e. burned herself with his body. 


accompanied him in his pilgrimage, I was not permitted to 
follow him by my relations, as I was pregnant. 

Then, while my grief was fresh, brigands suddenly swooped 
down on us and plundered my house and all the royal grant ; 
immediately I fled with three Brahman women from that 
place, for fear that I might be outraged, taking with me very 
few garments. And, as the whole kingdom was ravaged, I 
went to a distant land, accompanied by them, and remained 
there a month, only supporting myself by menial drudgery. 
And then, hearing from people that the King of Vatsa was 
the refuge of the helpless, I came here with the three Brahman 
women, with no other travelling provision than my virtue ; 
and as soon as I arrived I gave birth at the same time to two 
boys. Thus, though I have the friendly assistance of these 
three Brahman women, I have suffered bereavement, banish- 
ment, poverty ; and now comes this birth of twins. Alas, 
Providence has opened to me the door of calamity ! 

Accordingly, reflecting that I had no other means of main- 
taining these children, I laid aside shame, the ornament of 
women, and entering into the king's court I made a petition 
to him. Who is able to endure the sight of misery of 
youthful offspring ? And in consequence of his order, I have 
come into your august presence, and my calamities have 
turned back, as if ordered away from your door. This is 
my history : as for my name, it is Pingalika, because from 
my childhood my eyes have been reddened by the smoke of 
burnt- offerings. And that brother-in-law of mine Santikara 
dwells in a foreign land, but in what land he is now living 
I have not as yet discovered. 

[M] When the Brahman woman had told her history in 
these words, the queen came to the conclusion that she was a 
lady of high birth, and, after reflecting, said this to her with 
an affectionate manner : " There is dwelling here a foreign 
Brahman of the name of Santikara, and he is our domestic 
chaplain ; I am certain he will turn out to be your brother- 
in-law." After saying this to the eager Brahman lady, the 


queen allowed that night to pass, and the next morning sent 
for Santikara and asked him about his descent. And when 
he had told her his descent, she, ascertaining that the two 
accounts tallied completely, showed him that Brahman lady, 
and said to him : " Here is your brother's wife." And when 
they recognised one another, and he had heard of the death 
of his relations, he took the Brahman lady, the wife of his 
brother, to his own house. There he mourned exceedingly, 
as was natural, for the death of his parents and his brother, 
and comforted the lady, who was accompanied by her two 

And the Queen Vasavadatta settled that the Brahman 
lady's two young sons should be the domestic chaplains of 
her future son, and the queen gave the eldest the name of 
Santisoma, and the next of Vaisvanara, and she bestowed 
on them much wealth. The people of this world are like a 
blind man, being led to the place of recompense by their own 
actions going before them,^ and their courage is merely an 
instrument. Then those two children and their mother and 
Santikara remained united there, having obtained wealth. 

Then once upon a time, as days went on, the Queen 
Vasavadatta beheld from her palace a certain woman of the 
caste of potters coming with five sons, bringing plates, and 
she said to the Brahman lady Pingalika, who was at her side : 
" Observe, my friend, this woman has five sons, and I have 
not even one as yet ^ ; to such an extent is such a one the 
possessor of merit, while such a one as myself is not." 

Then Pingalika said : " Queen, these numerous sons are 
people who have committed many sins in a previous exist- 
ence, and are born to poor people in order that they may 
suffer for them ; but the son that shall be born to such a one 
as you must have been in a former life a very virtuous person. 
Therefore do not be impatient, you will soon obtain a son 
such as you deserve." Though Pingalika said this to her, 
Vasavadatta, being eager for the birth of a son, remained 
with her mind overpowered by anxiety about it. At that 

^ Purogaik means "done in a previous life," and also "going before." 
2 Cf. Gaal, M'drchen der Magyaren, p, 364; Gonzenbach's Sicilianische 
Mdrchen, vol. i, pp. 285, 294. 


moment the King of Vatsa came, and perceiving what was 
in her heart, said : " Queen, Narada said that you should 
obtain a son by propitiating Siva, therefore we must con- 
tinually propitiate Siva, that granter of boons." Upon that, 
the queen quickly determined upon performing a vow, and 
when she had taken a vow, the king and his ministers, and the 
whole kingdom also, took a vow to propitiate Siva ; and 
after the royal couple had fasted for three nights, that lord 
was so pleased that he himself appeared to them and com- 
manded them in a dream : " Rise up ; from you shall spring 
a son who shall be a portion of the God of Love, and owing 
to my favour shall be king of all the Vidyadharas." 

When the god, whose crest is the moon, had said this and 
disappeared, that couple woke up, and immediately felt un- 
feigned joy at having obtained their boon, and considered that 
they had gained their object. And in the morning the king 
and queen rose up, and after delighting the subjects with 
the taste of the nectarous story of their dream, kept high 
festival with their relations and servants, and broke in this 
manner the fast of their vow. After some days had passed, 
a certain man with matted locks came and gave the Queen 
Vasavadatta a fruit in her dream. Then the King of Vatsa 
rejoiced with the queen, who informed him of that clear 
dream, and he was congratulated by his ministers, and sup- 
posing that the god of the moon- crest had given her a son 
under the form of a fruit, he considered the fulfilment of his 
wish to be not far off.^ 

^ The whole question of supernatural birth in M'drchen, Sagas and custom 
has been ably discussed in detail by Hartland, The Legend of Perseus, vol. i, 
pp. 71-181 (the reference on p. 76 to the Kathd Sarit Sdgara should be ii, ^(^5). 
See also V. Chauvin, op. cil., v, p. 43, under the heading "Conceptions 

In the "Story of King Parityagasena, his Wicked Wife and his Two 
Sons," which appears in a later volume, the two wives receive two heavenly 
fruits from Durga. So in Chapter CXX the mother of the future King 
Vikramaditya is given a fruit by Siva. The fruit in question is sometimes 
a mango, as in Stokes, Indian Fatty Tales, p, 4-1 ; Frere, Old Deccan Days, 
p. 254; Sastrl, Folk-Lore in Southern India, p. 140. In Stokes, op. cil., p. 91, 
lichi fruits are given, while in other tales it is a pomegranate. It is un- 
necessary to give further examples, as Hartland has recorded anything of 
importance. n.m.p. 


THEN, in a short time, Vasavadatta became pregnant 
[M] with a child, glorious inasmuch as it was an 
incarnation of the God of Love, and it was a feast 
to the eyes of the King of Vatsa. She shone with a face the 
eyes of which rolled, and which was of palish hue, as if with 
the moon come to visit her out of affection for the God of 
Love conceived in her. When she was sitting down, the 
two images of her form, reflected in the sides of the jewelled 
couch, seemed like Rati and Priti come there out of regard 
for their husband.^ Her ladies-in-waiting attended upon her 
like the Sciences that grant desires come in bodily form to 
show their respect for the future King of the Vidyadharas ^ 
conceived in her. At that time she had breasts with points 
dark like a folded bud, resembling pitchers intended for the 
inaugural sprinkling ^ of her unborn son. When she lay down 
on a comfortable couch in the middle of the palace, which 
gleamed with pavement composed of translucent, flashing, 
lustrous jewels, she appeared as if she were being propitiated 
by the waters, that had come there trembling, through fear 
of being conquered by her future son, with heaps of jewels on 
every side. 

Her image, reflected from the gems in the middle of 
the chariot, appeared like the Fortune of the Vidyadharas 
coming in the heaven to offer her adoration. And she felt 
a longing * for stories of great magicians provided with in- 
cantations by means of spells, introduced appropriately in 
conversation. Vidyadhara ladies, beginning melodious songs, 

^ 1 read with a MS. in the Sanskrit College patisnehdd for pratisnehdd. 
The two wives of the God of Love came out of love to their husband, who 
was conceived in Vasavadatta. 

2 Vidyadhara means, literally, " magical knowledge-holder." 

3 The ceremony of coronation. 

* See Vol. I, Appendix III, pp. 221-228, on the " Dohada, or Craving of 
the Pregnant Woman." n.m.p. 


waited upon her when in her dream she rose high in the 
sky, and when she woke up she desired to enjoy in reaUty 
the amusement of sporting in the air, which would give the 
pleasure of looking down upon the earth. And Yaugan- 
dharayana gratified that longing of the queen's by employ- 
ing spells, machines, juggling, and such-like contrivances. So 
she roamed through the air by means of those various 
contrivances, which furnished a wonderful spectacle to the 
upturned eyes of the citizens' wives. But once on a time, 
when she was in her palace, there arose in her heart a desire 
to hear the glorious tales of the Vidyadharas. Then Yaugan- 
dharayana, being entreated by that queen, told her this tale 
while all were listening : 

27. Story of Jlmutavdhana 

There is a great mountain named Himavat,^ the father 
of the mother of the world, ^ who is not only the chief of 
hills, but the spiritual preceptor of Siva, and on that great 
mountain, the home of the Vidyadharas, dwelt the lord of 
the Vidyadharas, the King Jimutaketu. And in his house 
there was a wishing-tree,^ which had come down to him from 
his ancestors, called by a name which expressed its nature, 
" The Giver of Desires." And one day the King Jimutaketu 
approached that wishing-tree in his garden, which was of 
divine nature, and supplicated it : " We always obtain from 
you all we desire, therefore give me, O god, who am now child- 
less, a virtuous son." * Then the wishing-tree said : " King, 
there shall be born to thee a son who shall remember his 
past birth, who shall be a hero in giving, and kind to all 
creatures." When he heard that, the king was delighted, 

1 See Vol. I, p. 2, Sn". n.m.p. 

^ Ambika i.e. Parvatl the wife of Siva. 

3 See Vol. I, pp. 8, 144, 144^^, and also W. Crooke, Popular Religion and 
Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. ii, p. 88. n.m.p. 

* Liebrecht, speaking of the novel of Guerino Meschino, compares this 
tree with the sun and moon trees mentioned in the work of the Pseudo- 
Callisthenes, Book III, ch. xvii. They inform Alexander that the years of his 
life are accomplished, and that he will die in Babylon. See also Ralston's 
Song,K of the Russian People, p. 111. 

w ^^^ 


and bowed before that tree, and then he went and delighted 
his queen with the news : accordingly in a short time a son 
was born to him, and his father called the son Jimutavahana. 

Then that Jimutavahana, who was of great goodness, 
grew up step by step with the growth of his innate com- 
passion for all creatures. And in the course of time, when 
he was made crown prince, he, being full of compassion for 
the world, said in secret to his father, who was pleased by his 
attentions : "I know, O father, that in this world all things 
perish in an instant, but the pure glory of the great alone 
endures till the end of a kalpa.^ If it is acquired by bene- 
fiting others, what other wealth can be, like it, valued by 
high-minded men more than life ? And as for prosperity, 
if it be not used to benefit others, it is like lightning, which 
for a moment pains the eye and, flickering, disappears some- 
where or other. So, if this wishing-tree, which we possess, 
and which grants all desires, is employed for the benefit of 
others, we shall have reaped from it all the fruit it can give. 
So let me take such steps as that by its riches the whole 
multitude of men in need may be rescued from poverty." 

This petition Jimutavahana made to his father, and 
having obtained his permission, he went and said to that 
wishing-tree : " O god, thou always givest us the desired 
fruit, therefore fulfil to-day this one wish of ours. O my 
friend, relieve this whole world from its poverty, success to 
thee, thou art bestowed on the world that desires wealth ! " 
The wishing-tree, being addressed in this style by that self- 
denying one, showered much gold on the earth, and all the 
people rejoiced ; what other compassionate incarnation of 
a Bodhisattva except the glorious Jimutavahana would be 
able to dispose even of a wishing-tree in favour of the needy ? 
For this reason every region of the earth ^ became devoted 
to Jimutavahana, and his stainless fame was spread on high. 

Then the relations of Jimutaketu, seeing that his throne 
was firmly established by the glory of his son, were envious, 
and became hostile to him. And they thought it would be 
easy to conquer that place, which possessed the excellent 

^ A period of 432 million years of mortals. 

2 More literally, '" the cardinal and intermediate points." 


wishing-tree that was employed for bestowing gifts, on ac- 
count of its not being strong ^ : then they assembled and deter- 
mined on war, and thereupon the self-denying Jimutavahana 
said to his father : "As this body of ours is like a bubble 
in the water, for the sake of what do we desire prosperity, 
which flickers like a candle exposed to the wind ? And what 
wise man desires to attain prosperity by the slaughter of 
others ? Accordingly, my father, I ought not to fight with 
my relations. But I must leave my kingdom and go to 
some forest or other ; let these miserable wretches be, let 
us not slay the members of our own family." 

When Jimutavahana had said this, his father, Jimu- 
taketu, formed a resolution and said to him ; " I too must 
go, my son ; for what desire for rule can I, who am old, have, 
when you, though young, out of compassion abandon your 
realm as if it were so much grass ? " In these words his 
father expressed his acquiescence in the project of Jimutava- 
hana, who then, with his father and his father's wife, went 
to the Malaya mountain. There he remained in a hermitage, 
the dwelling of the Siddhas, where the brooks were hidden 
by the sandalwood-trees, and devoted himself to taking care 
of his father. There he struck up a friendship with the self- 
denying son of Vi^vavasu, the chief prince of the Siddhas, 
whose name was Mitravasu. And once on a time the all- 
knowing Jimutavahana beheld in a lonely place Mitravasu 's 
maiden sister, who had been his beloved in a former birth. 
And the mutual gaze of those two young people was like the 
catching in a frail net of the deer of the mind.^ 

Then one day Mitravasu came up suddenly to Jimutava- 
hana, who deserved the respect of the three worlds, with a 
pleased expression, and said to him : "I have a younger 
sister, the maiden called Malayavati ; I give her to you, 
do not refuse to gratify my wish." When Jimutavahana 

^ The sense here is not at all clear, but is explained in the 1). text, which 
reads mukta instead o( i/u/cla, thus meaning: "They thought it would be easy 
to conquer that (kingdom) as it had lost its strength on account of the change 
of place of the excellent wishing-tree now employed to bestowing gifts." 
See Speyer, op. cit., pp. lO.S, 104. n.m.p. 

2 Reading manomrigl, "the deer of the mind." 


heard that, he said to him : " O Prince, she was my wife in 
a former birth, and in that Hfe you became my friend, and 
were Hke a second heart to me. I am one who remembers 
the former state of existence ; I recollect all that happened 
in my previous birth." When he said this, Mitravasu said 
to him : " Then tell me this story of your former birth, for 
I feel curiosity about it." When he heard this from Mitra- 
vasu, the benevolent Jimutavahana told him the tale of his 
former birth as follows : 

27a. Jlmutavdhana's Adventures in a Former Birth 

Thus it is ; formerly I was a sky-roaming Vidyadhara, 
and once on a time I was passing over a peak of the Himalaya. 
And then Siva, who was below, sporting with Gauri, being 
angry at my passing above him, cursed me, saying : " De- 
scend into a mortal womb, and after obtaining a Vidyadhari 
for your wife, and appointing your son in your place, you 
shall remember your former birth, and again be born as a 
Vidyadhara." Having pronounced when this curse should 
end, Siva ceased and disappeared ; and soon after I was born 
upon earth in a family of merchants. And I grew up as the 
son of a rich merchant in a city named Vallabhi, and my 
name was Vasudatta. 

And in course of time, when I became a young man, I 
had a retinue given me by my father, and went by his orders 
to another land to traffic. As I was going along, robbers 
fell upon me in a forest, and after taking all my property, led 
me in chains to a temple of Durga in their village, terrible 
with a long waving banner of red silk like the tongue of 
Death eager to devour the lives of animals. There they 
brought me into the presence of their chief, named Pulindaka, 
who was engaged in worshipping the goddess, in order that I 
might serve as a victim. He, though he was a Savara,^ the 
moment he saw me, felt his heart melt with pity for me ; an 
apparently causeless affectionate movement of the heart is 
a sign of friendship in a former birth. Then that S a vara 
king, having saved me from slaughter, was about to complete 

1 Member of a savage tribe. 


the rite by the sacrifice of himself, when a heavenly voice 
said to him : " Do not act thus, I am pleased with thee, 
crave a boon of me." Thereupon he was delighted, and said : 
" O goddess, thou art pleased ; what other blessing can I 
need ; nevertheless I ask so much may I have friendship 
with this merchant's son in another birth also." The voice 
said, "So be it," and then ceased ; and then that Savara 
gave me much wealth, and sent me back to my own home. 

And then, as I had returned from foreign travel and from 
the jaws of death, my father, when he heard the whole occur- 
rence, made a great feast in my honour. And in course of 
time I saw there that very same Savara chief, whom the 
king had ordered to be brought before him as a prisoner for 
plundering a caravan. I told my father of it immediately, 
and making a petition to the king, I saved him from capital 
punishment by the payment of a hundred thousand gold 
pieces. And having in this way repaid the benefit which he 
conferred upon me by saving my life, I brought him to my 
house, and entertained him honourably for a long time with 
all loving attention. And then, after this hospitable enter- 
tainment, I dismissed him, and he went to his own village, 
fixing upon me a heart tender with affection. 

Then, while he thought about a present for me that 
might be worthy of my return for his previous kindness, he 
came to the conclusion that the pearls and musk and treasures 
of that kind, which were at his disposal, were not valuable 
enough. Thereupon he took his bow and went off to the 
Himalaya to shoot elephants, in order to obtain a sur- 
passingly splendid necklace ^ for me. And while he was 
roaming about there, he reached a great lake with a temple 
upon its shore, being welcomed by its lotuses, which were 
as devoted to their friend ^ as he was to me. And sus- 
pecting that the wild elephants would come there to drink 

* I.e. of the pearls in the heads of the elephants. The pearl {kunjara- 

mani gajamukta) is said to be found in the brain, forehead and stomach of the 
elephant. It possesses protective qualities and is used in charms. See Bull. 
Madras Mus., vol. iii, p. 221 ; North Indian Notes and Queries, vol. iii, p. 53; 
Crooke, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 240 ; and Waddell, Buddhism of Tibet, p. 208. n.m.p. 

* I.e. the sun. 


water, he remained in concealment with his bow in order 
to kill them. 

In the meanwhile he saw a young lady of wonderful 
beauty riding upon a lion ^ to worship Siva, whose temple 
stood on the shore of the lake ; looking like a second 
daughter of the King of the Snowy Mountains, devoted to 
the service of Siva while in her girlhood. And the Savara, 
when he saw her, being overpowered with wonder, reflected : 
" Who can this be ? If she is a mortal woman, why does 
she ride upon a lion ? On the other hand, if she is divine, 
how can she be seen by such as me ? So she must certainly 
be the incarnate development of the merits of my eyes in a 
former birth. If I could only marry my friend to her, then 
I should have bestowed upon him a new and wonderful recom- 
pense. So I had better first approach her to question her." 
Thus reflecting, my friend the Savara advanced to meet 

In the meanwhile she dismounted from the lion, that lay 
down in the shade, and advancing began to pick the lotuses 
of the lake. And seeing the Savara, who was a stranger, 
coming towards her and bowing, out of a hospitable feeling 
she gratified him with a welcome. And she said to him : 
" Who are you, and why have you come to this inaccessible 
land ? " Thereupon the Savara answered her : "I am a 
prince of the Savaras, who regard the feet of Bhavani as my 
only refuge, and I am come to this wood to get pearls from 
the heads of elephants. But when I beheld you just now, 
O goddess, I called to mind my own friend that saved my 
life, the son of a merchant prince, the auspicious Vasudatta. 
For he, O fair one, is, like you, matchless for beauty and 
youth, a very fount of nectar to the eyes of this world. 
Happy is that maiden in the world whose braceleted hand is 
taken in this life by that treasure-house of friendship, gener- 
osity, compassion and patience. And if this beautiful form 
of yours is not linked to such a man, then I cannot help 
grieving that Kama bears the bow in vain." 

By these words of the king of the hunters the mind of the 
maiden was suddenly carried away, as if by the syllables of 

^ See Vol. I, p. l7?^^ n.m.p. 


the God of Love's bewildering spell. And, prompted by 
love, she said to that Savara : " Where is that friend of 
yours ? Bring him here and show him to me." When he 
heard that, he said : "I will do so." And that moment the 
Savara took leave of her and set out on his journey in high 
spirits, considering his object attained. And after he had 
reached the village, he took with him pearls and musk, a 
weight sufficient for hundreds of heavily laden porters, and 
came to our house. There he was honoured by all the in- 
mates and, entering it, he offered to my father that present, 
which was worth much gold. And after that day and that 
night had been spent in feasting, he related to me in private 
the story of his interview with the maiden from the very 
commencement. And he said to me, who was all excite- 
ment, " Come, let us go there," and so the Savara carried me 
off at night just as he pleased. And in the morning my 
father found that I had gone off somewhere with the Savara 
prince ; but feeling perfect confidence in his affection, he re- 
mained master of his feelings. But I was conducted in course 
of time by that Savara, who travelled fast, to the Himalaya, 
and he tended me carefully throughout the journey. 

And one evening we reached that lake, and bathed ; and 
we remained that one night in the wood, eating sweet fruits. 
That mountain wood, in which the creepers strewed the 
ground with flowers, and which was charming with the hum 
of bees, full of balmy breezes, and with beautiful gleaming 
herbs for lamps, was like the chamber of Rati to repose in 
during the night for us two, who drank the water of the lake. 
Then the next day that maiden came there, and at every step 
my mind, full of strange longings, flew to meet her, and 
her arrival was heralded by this my right eye, throbbing 
as if through eagerness to behold her.^ And that maid with 

^ Throbbing of the right eye in men portends union with the beloved. 

In all countries involuntary twitchings or itchings are looked upon with 

great superstition movements of the right ear, hand, leg, etc., signifying 
good luck and the left bad luck. This was the case among the Hindus, 
but it applied only to men. With women the omens were reversed. Thus 
in Kalidasa's Sakuntald (Act V), SakuntalTi says, " Alas I what means this 
throbbing of my right eyelid } " to which Gautaml replies, " Heaven avert 
the evil omen, my child ! May the guardian deities of thy husband's family 


lovely eyebrows was beheld by me, on the back of a knotty- 
maned lion, like a digit of the moon resting in the lap of an 
autumn cloud ; and I cannot describe how my heart felt at 
that time while I gazed on her, being full of tumultuous 
emotions of astonishment, longing and fear ; then that 
maiden dismounted from the lion, and gathered flowers, and 
after bathing in the lake, worshipped Siva, who dwelt in the 
temple on its banks/ 

And when the worship was ended, that Savara, my friend, 
advanced towards her and, announcing himself, bowed, and 
said to her who received him courteously : " Goddess, I have 
brought that friend of mine as a suitable bridegroom for you : 
if you think proper, I will show him to you this moment." 
When she heard that, she said, " Show him," and that 
Savara came and took me near her and showed me to her. 
She looked at me askance with an eye that shed love, and 
being overcome by Kama taking possession of her soul, said 
to that chieftain of the Savaras : " This friend of yours is 
not a man, surely he is some god come here to deceive me 
to-day : how could a mortal have such a handsome shape ? " 

When I heard that, I said myself, to remove all doubt 

convert it into a sign of good fortune ! " As is natural, such superstitions 
enter largely into English literature. To give a few examples : 

^ Mine eyes do itch ; 
Doth that bode weeping ? " 

Shakespeare, Othello, iv, 3. 
" If your lips itch, you shall kisse somebody." 

Melton, Astrologaster, p. 32. 

" We shall ha' guests to-day 
. . . My nose itcheth so." 

Dekker, Honest Whore. 

" By the pricking of my thumbs. 
Something wicked this way comes." 

Shakespeare, Macbeth, iv, 1. 
In The Encyclopaedia of Superstitions, Folk-Lore and the Occult Sciences^ 
(edited by Cora Linn Daniels and Prof. C. M. Stevans, Chicago and Milwaukee^ 
1903, vol. i, pp. 298-300 and p. 338) numerous references will be found under 
the headings "Itching" and "Twitching." Apart from superstitions relating 
to all parts of the face are included those regarding the palm, knee, elbow, 
leg, etc. For sneezing see Vol. Ill, Appendix I, of this work. n.m.p. 
^ No doubt by offering the flowers which she had gathered. 


from her mind : " Fair one, I am in very truth a mortal ; 
what is the use of employing fraud against one so honest as 
yourself, lady ? For I am the son of a merchant named 
Mahadhana, that dwells in Vallabhi, and I was gained by 
my father by the blessing of Siva. For he, when performing 
austerities to please the god of the moony crest, in order 
that he might obtain a son, was thus commanded by the god 
in a dream being pleased with him : ' Rise up, there shall 
spring from thee a great-hearted son, and this is a great secret, 
what is the use of setting it forth at length ? ' After hearing 
this, he woke up, and in course of time I was bom to him as a 
son, and I am known by the name of Vasudatta. And long 
ago, when I went to a foreign land, I obtained this Savara 
chieftain for a chosen friend, who showed himself a true 
helper in misfortune. This is a brief statement of the truth 
about me." 

When I had said this I ceased ; and that maiden, with 
her face cast down from modesty, said : " It is so, I know ; 
Siva being propitiated deigned to tell me in a dream, after I 
had worshipped him, ' To-morrow morning thou shalt obtain 
a husband ' ; so you are my husband, and this friend of 
yours is my brother." When she had delighted me by this 
nectar-like speech, she ceased; and after I had deliberated 
with her, I determined to go to my own house with my 
friend, in order that the marriage might be solemnised in due 
form. Then that fair one summoned by a sign of her own 
that lion, on which she rode, and said to me : " Mount it, 
my husband." Then I, by the advice of my friend, mounted 
the lion, and taking that beloved one in my arms, I set out 
thence for my home, having obtained all my objects, riding 
on the lion with my beloved, guided by that friend. And 
living on the flesh of the deer that he killed with his arrows, 
we all reached in course of time the city of Vallabhi. Then 
the people, seeing me coming along with my beloved, riding 
on a lion, being astonished, ran and told that fact quickly to 
my father. He too came to meet me in his joy, and when 
he saw me dismount from the lion, and fall at his feet, he 
welcomed me with astonishment. 

And when he saw that incomparable beauty adore his feet, 


and perceived that she was a fit wife for me, he could not 
contain himself for joy. So he entered the house, and after 
asking us about the circumstances, he made a great feast, 
praising the friendship of the Savara chieftain. And the next 
day, by the appointment of the astrologers, I married that 
excellent maiden, and all my friends and relations assembled 
to witness our wedding. And that lion, on which my wife 
had ridden, having witnessed the marriage, suddenly, before 
the eyes of all, assumed the form of a man. 

Then all the bystanders were bewildered, thinking : 
" What can this mean ? " But he, assuming heavenly 
garments and ornaments, thus addressed me : "I am a 
Vidyadhara named Chitrangada, and this maiden is my 
daughter, Manovati by name, dearer to me than life. I used 
to wander continually through the forest with her in my 
arms, and one day I reached the Ganges, on the banks of 
which are many ascetic groves. And as I was going along 
in the middle of the river, for fear of disturbing the ascetics, 
my garland by accident fell into its waters. Then the hermit 
Narada, who was under the water, suddenly rose up, and, 
angry ^ because the garland had fallen upon his back, cursed 
me in the following words : ' On account of this insolence, 
depart, wicked one ; thou shalt become a lion, and repairing 

^ Such unintentional injuries are common in folk-lore. We shall come 
across other examples in the Ocean of Story. Thus in the twentieth vampire 
story, in Chapter XCIV, the king and the hermit's daughter lie down on a 
bed of flowers under an Asvattha tree. This disturbs the sacred home of 
the Brahman demon Jvalamukha, and the king has either to forfeit his own 
heart, or find a Brahman boy willing to offer himself in his place. In the 
ame way in Chapter C the king's ministers climb into a tree to gather 
fruit and, not knowing it was a dwelling-place of Ganesa, do not rinse their 
mouths or wash their hands and feet. In consequence they become fruits 
themselves. Readers will remember the "Tale of the Trader and the Jinni" 
in the Nights (Burton, vol. i, p. 25), where the hapless trader is eating dates 
and throwing away the stones. A huge Ifrit suddenly appears, and accuses 
the merchant with the death of his son. On being asked how this was 
possible, he replies : " When thou atest dates and threwest away the stones, 
they struck my son full in the breast as he was walking by, so that he died 
forthwith." The death of the trader is only saved by the stories of the three 
Shaykhs whom the trader and the jinni meet by chance. For a note on the 
^* jerking of the date-stone " see E. Forster, Arabian Nights' Entertainments, 1839, 
J), xxvi. See also V. Chauvin, op. cit., vi, p. 23. n.m.p. 


to the Himalaya, shalt cany this daughter upon thy back. 
And when thy daughter shall be taken in marriage by a 
mortal, then, after witnessing the ceremony, thou shalt be 
freed from this curse.' Atter being cursed in these words by 
the hermit, I became a lion, and dwelt on the Himalaya, 
carrying this daughter of mine, who is devoted to the worship 
of Siva. And you know well the sequel of the story, how by 
the exertions of the Savara chieftain this highly auspicious 
event has been brought about. So I shall now depart ; 
good luck to you all ! I have now reached the termination 
of that curse." 

Having said this, that Vidyadhara immediately flew up 
into the sky. Then my father, overwhelmed with astonish- 
ment at the marvel, delighted at the eligible connection, and 
finding that his friends and relations were overjoyed, made 
a great feast. And there was not a single person who did not 
say with astonishment, reflecting again and again on that 
noble behaviour of the Savara chieftain : " Who can imagine 
the actions of sincere friends, who are not even satisfied when 
they have bestowed on their sworn brothers the gift of life ? " 
The king of the land too, hearing of that occurrence, was 
exceedingly pleased with the affection which the Savara 
prince had shown me, and finding he was pleased, my father 
gave him a present of jewels, and so induced him immediately 
to bestow on the Savara a vast territory. Then I remained 
there in happiness, considering myself to have attained all 
that heart could wish, in having Manovati for a wife, and 
the Savara prince for a friend. And that Savara chieftain 
generally lived in my house, finding that he took less pleasure 
in dwelling in his own country than he formerly did. And 
the time of us two friends, of him and me, was spent in 
continually conferring benefits upon one another without our 
ever being satisfied. 

And not long after I had a son bom to me by Manovati, 
who seemed like the heart-joy of the whole family in external 
visible form ; and being called Hiranyadatta he gradually 
grew up, and after having been duly instructed, he was 
married. Then my father, having witnessed that, and con- 
sidering that the object of his life had been accomplished. 


being old, went to the Ganges with his wife to leave the body. 
Then I was afflicted by my father's death, but having been 
at last persuaded by my relations to control my feelings, I 
consented to uphold the burden of the family. And at 
that time on the one hand the sight of the beautiful face 
of Manovati, and on the other the society of the Savara 
prince delighted me. Accordingly those days of mine passed, 
joyous from the goodness of my son, charming from the 
excellence of my wife, happy from the society of my friend. 
Then, in course of time, I became well stricken in years, 
and old age seized me by the chin, as it were out of love 
giving me this wholesome reproach : " Why are you re- 
maining in the house so long as this, my son ? " Then 
disgust with the world was suddenly produced in my breast, 
and longing for the forest I appointed my son in my stead. 
And with my wife I went to the mountain of Kalinjara, 
together with the King of the Savaras, who abandoned his 
kingdom out of love to me. And when I arrived there, I at 
once remembered that I had been a Vidyadhara in a former 
state of existence, and that the curse I had received from 
Siva had come to an end. And I immediately told my wife 
Manovati of that, and my friend the King of the Savaras, 
as I was desirous of leaving this mortal body. I said, " May 
I have this wife and this friend in a future birth, and may 
I remember this birth," and then I meditated on Siva in my 
heart, and flung myself from that hill-side, and so suddenly 
quitted the body together with that wife and friend. And 
so I have been now born, as you see, in this Vidyadhara 
family, under the name of Jimutavahana, with a power of 
recollecting my former existence. And you, that prince of 
the Savaras, have been also born again by the favour of Siva, 
as Mitravasu the son of Visvavasu, the King of the Siddhas. 
And, my friend, that Vidyadhara lady, my wife Manovati, 
has been again born as your sister, Malay avati by name. So 
your sister is my former wife, and you were my friend in a 
former state of existence, therefore it is quite proper that I 
should marry her. But first go and tell this to my parents, 
for, if the matter is referred to them, your desire will be 
successfully accomplished. 


27. Story of Jimutavdhana 

When Mitravasu heard this from Jimutavahana, he was 
pleased, and he went and told all that to the parents of Jimu- 
tavahana. And when they received his proposal gladly, 
he was pleased, and went and told that same matter to his 
own parents. And they were delighted at the accomplish- 
ment of their desire, and so the prince quickly prepared for 
the marriage of his sister. Then Jimutavahana, honoured 
by the King of the Siddhas, received according to usage the 
hand of Malayavati. And there was a great festival, in 
which the heavenly minstrels bustled about, the dense crowd 
of the Siddhas assembled, and which was enlivened by bound- 
ing Vidyadharas. Then Jimutavahana was married, and 
remained on that Malaya mountain with his wife in very 
great prosperity. And once on a time he went with his 
brother-in-law Mitravasu to behold the woods on the shore 
of the sea. And there he saw a young man come in an 
agitated state, sending away his mother, who kept exclaim- 
ing : " Alas, my son ! " And another man, who seemed to 
be a soldier, following him, conducted him to a broad and 
high slab of rock and left him there. Jimutavahana said to 
him : *' Who are you ? What are you about to do, and why 
does your mother weep for you ? " Then the man told him 
his story. 

27b. The Dispute about the Colour of the Sun's Horses 

Long ago Kadru and Vinata, the two wives of Kai^yapa, 
had a dispute in the course of a conversation which they 
were carrying on. The former said that the Sun's horses 
were black, the latter that they were white, and they made 
an agreement that the one that was wrong should become a 
slave to the other. ^ Then Kadru, bent on winning, actually 
induced her sons, the snakes, to defile the horses of the Sun 
by spitting venom over them ; and showing them to Vinata 

^ Like the two physicians in Gesia Romanorum, Ixxvi. See Ocean of 

Story, Vol. I, p. 1 43, 1 ^3n^. There was a misprint in this note : chap, xx 
should read chap. xxii. n.m.p. 


in that condition, she conquered her by a trick and made her 
her slave : terrible is the spite of women against each other ! 
When Garuda/ the son of Vinata, heard of that, he came 
and tried to induce Kadru by fair means to release Vinata 
from her slavery ; then the snakes, the sons of Kadru, re- 
flecting, said this to him : " O Garuda, the gods have begun 
to churn the sea of milk, bring the nectar ^ thence and give 
it to us as a substitute, and then take your mother away 
with you, for you are the chief of heroes." 

When Garuda heard that, he went to the sea of milk, and 
displayed his great might in order to obtain the nectar. Then 
the god Vishnu, pleased with his might, deigned to say to 
him : "I am pleased with thee, choose some boon." Then 
Garuda, angry because his mother was made a slave, asked 
as a boon from Vishnu : " May the snakes become my food." 
Vishnu consented, and when Garuda had obtained the nectar 
by his own valour, he was thus addressed by Indra, who had 
heard the whole story : " King of Birds, you must take steps 
to prevent the foolish snakes from consuming the nectar, 
and to enable me to take it away from them again." When 
Garuda heard that, he agreed to do it, and elated by the boon 
of Vishnu, he went to the snakes with the vessel containing 
the nectar. 

And he said from a distance to those foolish snakes, who 
were terrified on account of the boon granted to him : " Here 
is the nectar brought by me ; release my mother and take it ; 
if you are afraid, I will put it for you on a bed of darbha grass. 
When I have procured my mother's release, I will go ; take 
the nectar thence." The snakes consented, and then he put 
the vessel of nectar on a pure bed of kusa grass, ^ and they 
let his mother go. So Garuda departed, having thus re- 
leased his mother from slavery ; but while the snakes were 
unsuspectingly taking the nectar, Indra suddenly swooped 
down and, bewildering them by his power, carried off the 
vessel of nectar from the bed of kusa grass. Then the snakes 

1 See the note on the Garuda Bird, Vol. I, pp. 103-105. n.m.p. 

2 For a long bibliography on the " eau-de-jouvence" see Chauvin, Biblio- 
graphie des Oiwrages Arahes, vi, p. 73. n.m.p. 

3 A peculiarly sacred kind of darbha gi'ass. 


in despair licked that bed of darbha grass, thinking there 
might be a drop of spilt nectar on it ; the effect was that 
their tongues were split, and they became double-tongued 
for nothing. What but ridicule can ever be the portion 
of the over-greedy?^ Then the snakes did not obtain the 
nectar of immortality, and their enemy Garuda, on the 
strength of Vishnu's boon, began to swoop down and devour 
them. And this he did again and again. And whUe he was 
thus attacking them, the snakes ^ in Patala were dead with 
fear, the females miscarried, and the whole serpent race was 
well-nigh destroyed. 

And Vasuki, the King of the Snakes, seeing him there 
every day, considered that the serpent world was ruined at 
one blow ; then, after reflecting, he preferred a petition to 
that Garuda of irresistible might, and made this agreement 
with him : "I will send you every day one snake to eat, O 
King of Birds, on the hill that rises out of the sand of the 
sea. But you must not act so foolishly as to enter Patala,' 
for by the destruction of the serpent world your own object 
will be baffled." When Vasuki said this to him, Garuda con- 
sented, and began to eat every day in this place one snake 
sent by him : and in this way innumerable snakes have 
met their death here. But I am a snake called Sankhachuda, 
and it is my turn to-day : for that reason I have to-day, by 
the command of the King of the Snakes, in order to furnish 
a meal to Garuda, come to this rock of execution, and to be 
lamented by my mother.* 

^ M. L^v^que considers that the above story, as told in the Mahabhdrata, 
forms the basis of the Birds of Aristophanes. He identifies Garuda with 
the hoopoe {Les Mythes et Legendes dc VInde et de la Perxe, p. 14-). 

* Rajila is a striped snake, said to be the same as the dundubha, a non- 
venomous species. 

3 The D. text reads mardakdrind, instead of mandaknrind, thus making 
the sense: "You must not enter Patala, pursuing your work of destruction." 


* The remarks which Ralston makes (Russian Folk-Tales, p. 6.5) with 
regard to the snake, as represented in Russian stories, are applicable to the 
Naga of Hindu superstition : '* Sometimes he retains throughout the story 
an exclusively reptilian character, sometimes he is of a mixed nature, partly 
serpent and partly man." The snakes described in Veckenstedt's Wendische 
Sagen (pp. 402-409) resemble in some points the snakes which we hear so 



27. Story of Jzmutavdhana 

When Jimutavahana heard this speech of Sankhachtida's 
he was grieved, and felt sorrow in his heart, and said to him : 
" Alas ! Vasuki exercises his kingly power in a very cowardly 
fashion, in that with his own hand he conducts his subjects 
to serve as food for his enemy. Why did he not first offer 
himself to Garuda ? To think of this effeminate creature 
choosing to witness the destruction of his race 1 And how 
great a sin does Garuda, though the son of Kasyapa, commit ! 
How great folly do even great ones commit for the sake of 
the body only ! So I will to-day deliver you alone from 
Garuda by surrendering my body. Do not be despondent, 
my friend." 

When Sankhachuda heard this, he, out of his firm patience, 
said to him : " This be far from thee, O great-hearted one ; 
do not say so again. The destruction of a jewel for the sake 
of a piece of glass is never becoming. And I will never incur 
the reproach of having disgraced my race." In these words 
the good snake Sankhachuda tried to dissuade Jimutavahana, 
and thinking that the time of Garuda 's arrival would come 
in a minute, he went to worship in his last hour an image of 
Siva under the name of Gokarna, that stood on the shore of 
the sea. 

And when he was gone, Jimutavahana, that treasure- 
house of compassion, considered that he had gained an 
opportunity of offering himself up to save the snake's life. 
Thereupon he quickly dismissed Mitravasu to his own house 
on the pretext of some business, artfully pretending that he 
himself had forgotten it. And immediately the earth near 
him trembled, being shaken by the wind of the wings of 
the approaching Garuda, as if through astonishment at his 

much of in the present work. See also Bartseh's Sagen, M'drchen und Gehrduche, 

aus Meklenburg, vol. i, p. 277 et seq. Numerous references will be found 

in the General Index of Vol. I, under "Serpent" and "Snake." 

In Arabian fiction the most extraordinary snake story is "The Queen 
of the Serpents," Nights (Burton, vol. v, p. 29S et seq.). The serpents in this 
story are wholly reptilian, except the queen herself, who "shone like a 
crystal and whose face was as that of a woman, and who spake with human 
speech." See also Hartland, Legend of Perseus, vol. ii, p. 44. n.m.p. 


valour. That made Jimutavahana think that the enemy 
of the snakes was approaching, and full of compassion for 
others he ascended the stone of execution. And in a moment 
Garuda swooped down, darkening the heaven with his 
shadow, and carried off that great-hearted one, striking him 
with his beak. He shed drops of blood, and his crest- jewel 
dropped off, torn out by Garuda, who took him away and 
began to eat him on the peak of the mountain. At that 
moment a rain of flowers fell from heaven, and Garuda was 
astonished when he saw it, wondering what it could mean. 

In the meanwhile Sankhachuda came there, having wor- 
shipped Gokarna, and saw the rock of execution sprinkled 
with many drops of blood ; then he thought : " Alas I 
surely that great-hearted one has offered himself for me, so 
I wonder where Garuda has taken him in this short time. 
I must search for him quickly, perhaps I may find him." 
Accordingly the good snake went following up the track 
of the blood. And in the meanwhile Garuda, seeing that 
Jimutavahana was pleased, left off eating and thought with 
wonder : " This must be someone else, other than I ought 
to have taken, for though I am eating him, he is not at all 
miserable ; on the contrary the resolute one rejoices." While 
Garuda was thinking this, Jimutavahana, though in such a 
state, said to him in order to attain his object : " O King of 
Birds, in my body also there is flesh and blood ; then why 
have you suddenly stopped eating, though your hunger is 
not appeased ? " When he heard that, that King of Birds, 
being overpowered with astonishment, said to him : " Noble 
one, you are not a snake ; tell me who you are." Jimutava- 
hana was just answering him, " I am a snake,^ so eat me, 
complete what you have begun, for men of resolution never 
leave unfinished an undertaking they have begun," when 
Sankhachuda arrived and cried out from afar : " Stop, stop, 
Garuda ! he is not a snake ; I am the snake meant for you, 
so let him go ; alas ! how have you suddenly come to make 
this mistake ? " 

On hearing that, the King of Birds was excessively be- 

^ The word ndgn, which means " snake," may also mean, as Dr Brockhaus 
explains it, "a mountaineer" from nnga, "a mountain." 


wildered, and Jimutavahana was grieved at not having ac- 
complished his desire. Then Garuda, learning, in the course 
of their conversation ^ with one another, that he had begun 
to devour by mistake the King of the Vidyadharas, was 
much grieved. He began to reflect : " Alas ! in my cruelty 
I have incurred sin. In truth, those who follow evil courses 
easily contract guilt. But this great-hearted one who has 
given his life for another, and despising ^ the world, which is 
altogether under the dominion of illusion, come to face me, 
deserves praise." Thinking thus, he was about to enter the 
fire to purify himself from guilt, when Jimutavahana said to 
him : " King of Birds, why do you despond ? If you are 
really afraid of guilt, then you must determine never again 
to eat these snakes ; and you must repent of eating all those 
previously devoured, for this is the only remedy available in 
this case ; it was idle for you ever to think of any other." 

Thus Jimutavahana, full of compassion for creatures, 
said to Garuda, and he was pleased, and accepted the advice 
of that king, as if he had been his spiritual preceptor, deter- 
mining to do what he recommended ; and he went to bring 
nectar from heaven to restore to life rapidly that wounded 
prince, and the other snakes, whose bones only remained.^ 
Then the goddess Gauri, pleased with Jimutavahana 's wife's 
devotion to her, came in person and rained nectar on him : 
by that his limbs were reproduced with increased beauty, 
and the sound of drums of the rejoicing gods was heard 
at the same time. Then, on his rising up safe and sound, 
Garuda brought the nectar of immortality * from heaven and 

^ I conjecture kramad for krandat. If we retain krandat we must suppose 
that the King of the Vidyadharas wept because his scheme of self-sacrifice 
was frustrated. 

" I read adhah for adah. 

^ See Manning, Ancient India, vol. ii, p. 330 et seq., and Crooke, op. ciL, 
vol. ii, p. 122. N.M.p. 

* In the Sicilian stories of Laura Gonzenbach, an ointment does duty for 
the Amrita cf., for one instance out of many, page 1 45 of that work. Ralston 
remarks that in European stories the raven is connected with the Water of 
Life. See his exhaustive account of this cycle of stories on pages 231 and 232 
of his Russian Folk-Tales. See also Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 245, and 
the story which begins on page 227. In the thirty-third of the Syrian stories 
collected by Prym and Socin we have a King of Snakes and Water of Life. 


sprinkled it along the whole shore of the sea. That made all 
the snakes there rise up alive, and then that forest along the 
shore of the sea, crowded with the numerous tribe of snakes, 
appeared like Patala ^ come to behold Jimutavahana, having 
lost its previous dread of Garuda. 

Then Jimutavahana 's relations congratulated him, having 
seen that he was glorious with unwounded body and undying 
fame. And his wife rejoiced with her relations, and his 
parents also. Who would not joy at pain ending in happi- 
ness ? And with his permission Sankhachuda departed to 
Rasatala,^ and without it his glory, of its own accord, spread 
through the three worlds. Then, by virtue of the favour of 
the daughter of the Himalaya, all his relations, Matanga and 
others, who were long hostile to him, came to Garuda, before 
whom the troops of gods were inclining out of love, and 
timidly approaching the glory of the Vidyadhara race, 
prostrated themselves at his feet. And being entreated by 
them, the benevolent Jimutavahana went from that Malaya 
mountain to his own home, the slope of the Himalaya. 
There, accompanied by his parents and Mitravasu and 
Malay avati, the resolute one long enjoyed the honour of 
Emperor of the Vidyadharas. Thus a course of fortunate 
events always of its own accord follows the footsteps of all 
those whose exploits arouse the admiration of the three 

[M] When the Queen Vasavadatta heard this story from 
the mouth of Yaugandharayana she rejoiced, as she was 
eager to hear of the splendour of her unborn son. Then, in 
the society of her husband, she spent that day in conversa- 
tion about her son, who was to be the future King of the 
Vidyadharas, which was suggested by that story, for she 
placed unfailing reliance upon the promise of the favouring 

^ The home of the serpent race below the earth. See Vol. I, pp. 200, 

203. N.M.p. 

* Here equivalent to Patala. 


THEN Vasavadatta on the next day said to the King 
[M] of Vatsa in private, while he was surrounded 
by his ministers : " My husband, ever since I have 
been pregnant with this child the difficulty of taking care of 
it afflicts my heart ; and last night, after thinking over it 
long, I fell asleep with difficulty, and I am persuaded I saw 
a certain man come in my dream, glorious with a shape 
distinguished by matted auburn locks and a trident-bearing 
hand ; and he, approaching me, said as if moved by com- 
passion : ' My daughter, you need not feel at all anxious 
about the child with which you are pregnant ; I will protect 
it, for I gave it to you. And hear something more, which I 
will tell you to make you confide in me : a certain woman 
waits to make a petition to you to-morrow ; she will come 
dragging her husband with her as a prisoner, reviling him, 
accompanied by five sons, begirt with many relations ; and 
she is a wicked woman, who desires by the help of her rela- 
tions to get that husband of hers put to death, and all that 
she will say will be false. And you, my daughter, must 
beforehand inform the King of Vatsa about this matter, in 
order that that good man may be freed from that wicked 
wife.' This command that august one gave and vanished, 
and I immediately woke up, and lo ! the morning had come." 
When the queen had said that, all spoke of the favour of 
Siva, and were astonished, their minds eagerly expecting the 
fulfilment of the dream ; when lo ! at that very moment 
the chief warder entered and suddenly said to the King of 
Vatsa, who was compassionate to the afflicted : " O King, a 
certain woman has come to make a representation, accom- 
panied by her relations, bringing with her five sons, reviling 
her helpless husband." When the king heard that, being 
astonished at the way it talhed with the queen's dream, he 
commanded the warder to bring her into his presence. And 


the Queen Vasavadatta felt the greatest delight, having be- 
come certain that she would obtain a good son, on account 
of the truth of the dream. Then that woman entered by 
the command of the warder, accompanied by her husband, 
looked at with curiosity by all, who had their faces turned 
towards the door. Then, having entered, she assumed an 
expression of misery, and making a bow according to rule, 
she addressed the king in council accompanied by the 
queen : " This man, though he is my husband, does not give 
to me, helpless woman that I am, food, raiment and other 
necessaries, and yet I am free from blame with respect to 

When she had said this, her husband pleaded: "King, 
this woman speaks falsely, supported by her relations, for 
she wishes me to be put to death. For I have given her 
supplies beforehand to last till the end of the year ; and other 
relations of hers, who are impartial, are prepared to witness 
the truth of this for me." When he had said this to the king, 
the king of his own accord answered : " The trident-bearing 
god himself has given evidence in this case, appearing to the 
queen in a dream. What need have we of more witnesses ? 
This woman with her relations must be punished." 

When the king had delivered this judgment, the discreet 
Yaugandharayana said : " Nevertheless, King, we must do 
what is right in accordance with the evidence of witnesses, 
otherwise the people, not knowing of the dream, would in no 
wise believe the justice of our proceedings." When the king 
heard that he consented, and had the witnesses summoned 
that moment, and they, being asked, deposed that that 
woman was speaking falsely. Then the king banished her, 
as she was plotting against one well known to be a good 
husband, from his territory, with her relations and her sons. 
And with heart melting from pity he discharged her good 
husband, after giving him much treasure, sufficient for 
another marriage. And in connection with the whole affair 
the king remarked : " An evil wife, of wildly ^ cruel nature, 
tears her still Uving husband like a she- wolf, when he has 
fallen into the pit of calamity ; but an affectionate, noble 

^ Here there is a pun ; dktila may also mean "by descent." 


and magnanimous wife averts sorrow as the shade ^ of the 
wayside tree averts heat, and is acquired by a man's special 
merits." Then Vasantaka, who was a clever story-teller, 
being at the king's side, said to him a propos of this : " More- 
over, King, hatred and affection are commonly produced in 
living beings in this world owing to their continually recalling 
the impressions of a past state of existence, and in proof of 
this hear the story which I am about to tell : 

28. Story of Sinhapardkrama 

There was a king in Benares named Vikramachanda, and 
he had a favourite follower named Sinhaparakrama, who 
was wonderfully successful in all battles and in all gambling 
contests. And he had a wife, very deformed both in body 
and mind, called by a name which expressed her nature, 
Kalahakari.2 This brave man continually obtained much 
money both from the king and from gambling, and, as soon 
as he got it, he gave it all to his wife. But the shrewish 
woman, backed by her three sons begotten by him, could 
not, in spite of this, remain one moment without a quarrel. 
She continually worried by yelling out these words at him 
with her sons : " You are always eating and drinking away 
from home, and you never give us anything." And though 
he was for ever trying to propitiate her with meat, drink 
and raiment, she tortured him day and night like an 
interminable thirst. 

Then at last Sinhaparakrama, vexed with indignation on 
that account, left his house and went on a pilgrimage to the 
goddess Durga, that dwells in the Vindhya hills. While he 
was fasting, the goddess said to him in a dream : " Rise up, 
my son ; go to thy own city of Benares ; there is an enormous 
Nyagrodha tree ; by digging round its root thou wilt at once 
obtain a treasure. And in the treasure thou wilt find a dish 
of emerald, bright as a sword-blade, looking like a piece of 

1 Kulind may mean " falling on the earth/' referring to the shade of 
the tree. Mdrgasthdmeans "in the right path " when applied to the wife. 

2 I.e. Madam Contentious. Her husband's name means "of lion-like 


the sky fallen down to earth ; castmg thy eyes on that, thou 
wilt see, as it were, reflected inside, the previous existence of 
every individual, in whatever case thou mayest wish to know 
it. By means of that thou wilt learn the previous birth of 
thy wife and of thyself, and having learned the truth wilt 
dwell there in happiness free from grief." 

Having thus been addressed by the goddess, Sinhapara- 
krama woke up and broke his fast, and went in the morning 
to Benares ; and after he had reached the city he found at 
the root of the Nyagrodha tree a treasure, and in it he dis- 
covered a large emerald dish, and, eager to learn the truth, 
he saw in that dish that in a previous birth his wife had been 
a terrible she-bear and himself a lion. And so, recognising 
that the hatred between himself and his wife was irremedi- 
able, owing to the influence of bitter enmity in a previous 
birth, he abandoned grief and bewilderment. Then Sinha- 
parakrama examined many maidens by means of the dish, 
and discovering that they had belonged to alien races in a 
previous birth, he avoided them, but after he had discovered 
one who had been a lioness in a previous birth, and so was a 
suitable match for him, he married her as his second wife, 
and her name was Sinha^ri. And after assigning to that 
Kalahakari one village only as her portion,^ he lived, de- 
lighted with the acquisition of treasure, in the society of his 
new wife. Thus, O King, wives and others are friendly or 
hostile to men in this world by virtue of impressions in a 
previous state of existence. 

[M] When the King of Vatsa had heard this wonderful 
story from Vasantaka, he was exceedingly deUghted, and so 
was the Queen Vasavadatta. And the king was never weary 
day or night of contemplating the moon-like face of the 

^ Speyer (o/). cit., p. 104) suggests grasaikabhdgini as a more probable 
reading than grdmaikahhdginl, thus meaning that the repudiated wife was 
merely accorded her livelihood. Similar subsistence-allowances were given 
as punishment to the wicked officials in Mudrd-Iiakshasa, Act. Ill (see p. 135 of 
the Bombay edition). n m.p. 


pregnant queen. And as days went on there were born to 
all of his ministers in due course sons with auspicious marks, 
which heralded approaching good fortune. First there was 
born to Yaugandharayana, the chief minister, a son, Maru- 
bhuti by name. Then Rumanvat had a son called Harisikha, 
and to Vasantaka there was born a son named Tapantaka. 
And to the head warder, called Nityodita, whose other title 
was Ityaka,^ there was born a son named Gomukha. And 
after they were born a great feast took place, and during it 
a bodiless voice was heard from heaven : " These ministers 
shall crush the race of the enemies of the son of the King of 
Vatsa here, the future universal emperor." 

And as days went by the time drew near for the birth of 
the child with which the Queen Vasavadatta was destined 
to present the King of Vatsa, and she repaired to the orna- 
mented lying-in chamber, which was prepared by matrons 
having sons, and the windows of which were covered with 
arka and saml plants. The room was hung with various 
weapons, rendered auspicious by being mixed with the gleam 
of jewel-lamps, shedding a blaze ^ able to protect the child ^ ; 
and secured by conjurers who went through innumerable 
charms and spells and other incantations, so that it became 
a fortress of the matrons hard for calamity to storm ; and 
there she brought forth in good time a prince of lovely aspect, 
as the heaven brings forth the moon from which stream pure 
nectarous rays. 

The child, when born, not only irradiated that room, but 
the heart also of that mother, from which the darkness of 
grief had departed; then, as the delight of the inmates of 
the harem * was gradually extended, the king heard of the 

^ I read (after Bohtlingk and Roth) Ityakdpara. See chapter xxxiv^ 
//. 115. 

2 re/fw also means "might," "courage." 

3 See note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

* The word harem, from the Arabic haram and harim, means " that which 
is prohibited/' and is applied to that portion of the house allotted to the 
women, and also to the women themselves. It is further used to denote a 
particularly sacred spot, such as the sanctuary at Mecca. Owing to its con- 
stant use in English, it is often employed in describing the women's quarters 
in non-Moslem lands, or in countries where only a certain proportion of the 


birth of a son from the people who were admitted to it ; the 
reason he did not give his kingdom in his deUght to the person 
who announced it was that he was afraid of committing an 
impropriety, not that he was avaricious. 

And so the king, suddenly coming to the harem with 
longing mind, beheld his son, and his hope bore fruit after a 
long delay. The child had a long red lower lip like a leaf, 
beautiful flowing hair like wool, and his whole face was like 
the lotus, which the Goddess of the Fortune of Empire carries 
for her delight. He was marked on his soft feet with um- 
brellas and chowries, as if the fortunes of other kings had 
beforehand abandoned their badges in his favour, out of fear. 
Then, while the king shed with tearful eye, that swelled with 
the pressure of the fullness of the weight of his joy, drops 

inhabitants are Moslems. The other words used with a similar meaning are 
zenana, seraglio and purdah. 

Zenana^ or more correctly zanana, is from the Persian san, " woman " (yvv^), 
and is almost exclusively used in India. The word has become familiar in 
Britain owing to the establishment in India of zenana schools, hospitals and 
missionary societies. 

Seraglio has an interesting etymological history. It is derived directly 
from the Italian serraglio, *'an enclosure" (Latin sera, a bar), and has become 
connected with harim, through confusion with the Persian sara, sarai, which 
originally meant merely "an edifice," or "palace." In this sense .varm was 
largely used by the Tartars, from whom the Russians obtained the use of the 
word, degrading it, however, to mean only a "shed." In the language of 
the Levantine Franks it became serail and serraglio. It was at this point that 
a mistaken " striving after meaning " with the Italian serrato, " shut up," etc., 
connected it with the private apartments of women. 

The Italian traveller Pietro della Valle (1586-1652) refers to the subject 
in his Travels (vol. i, p. 36) : 

" This term serraglio, so much used among us in speaking of the Grand 
Turk's dwelling . . . has been corrupted into that form from the word serai, 
which in their language signifies properly 'a palace.' . . . But since this word 
serai resembles serraio, as a Venetian would call it, or seraglio as we say, and 
seeing that the palace of the Turk is {serrato or) shut up all round by a strong 
wall, and also because the women and a great part of the courtiers dwell in 
it barred up and shut in, so it may perchance have seemed to some to have 
deserved such a name. And thus the real term serai has been converted into 

See Yule's Hohson Jobson, under "Serai, sert/e," whence I have taken the 
above extract. 

The use of sardi, meaning " house " or " building," is very well known. 


that seemed to be drops of paternal affection,^ and the 
ministers, with Yaugandharayana at their head, rejoiced, a 
voice was heard from heaven at that time to the following 
effect : 

" King, this son that is born to thee is an incarnation of 
Kama, and know that his name is Naravahanadatta ; and he 
will soon become emperor of the kings of Vidyadharas, and 
maintain that position unwearied for a Kalpa of the gods." ^ 
When so much had been said, the voice stopped, and immedi- 
ately a rain of flowers fell from heaven, and the sounds of the 
celestial drums went forth. Then the king, excessively de- 
lighted, made a great feast, which was rendered all the more 
solemn from the gods having begun it. The sound of cymbals 
floated in the air, rising from temples, as if to tell all the 
Vidyadharas of the birth of their king ; and red banners, 
flying in the wind on the tops of the palaces, seemed with 

though perhaps not often recognised, in the word "caravanserai" (Persian 
Jcarwdnsardi), "a (halting)-place for camels." 

Turning to the word purdah, or pardah, it is derived from parda, "a 
curtain," and has come to mean the women's part of the house, which is 
separated from the rest by a thick curtain or blinds to which this name is 

The literature dealing with the haum life of the East is naturally 
voluminous. The following references, however, contain the more important 
accounts : 

"Harim," Hughes' Dictionary of Islam, pp. 163-167; Hoffman's article 
in Ersch and Gruhev s Enci/clopddie ; J. M. Mitchell, Ency. Brit. (] 1th edit.), 
vol. xii, pp. 950-952 ; F. Millingen, " The Circassian Slaves and the Sultan's 
Harem," Journ. Anth. Soc, 1870, pp. cix-cxx ; G. Dorys, La Femme Turque, 1902 ; 
Harvey, Turkish Harems and Circassian Homes, 1871 ; L. M. Garnett, The 
Women of Turkey and their Folk-Lore, 1901 ; E. Lott, Harem Life in Egypt and 
Constantinople, 1869 ; E. W. Lane, Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians 
(5th edit, I860), pp. 175-191 ; B. Mullick, Essays on the Hindu Family in Bengal, 
Calcutta, 1882; J. Jolly, Recht und Sitte, Strassburg, 1896; S. C. Bose, The 
Hindoos as They Are, Calcutta, 1881 ; M. F. Billington, Woman in India, London, 
1895; Otto Rothfeld, Women of India [1920]. 

For further references see the numerous articles in Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth. under "Birth," "Education," "Emancipation," "Ethics," "Family" 
and " Marriage." n.m.p. 

1 Sneha, which means "love," also means "oil." This is a fruitful source 
-of puns in Sanskrit. 

^ Infinitely longer than a mortal Kalpa. A mortal Kalpa lasts 432 
million years. 


their splendour to fling red dye to one another. On earth 
beautiful women assembled and danced everywhere, as if 
they were the nymphs of heaven glad that the God of Love 
had been born with a body.^ And the whole city appeared 
equally splendid with new dresses and ornaments bestowed 
by the rejoicing king. For while that rich king rained riches 
upon his dependents, nothing but the treasury was empty. 
And the ladies belonging to the families of the neighbouring 
chieftains came in from all sides, with auspicious prayers, 
versed in the good custom, ^ accompanied by dancing-girls 
bringing with them splendid presents, escorted by various 
excellent guards, attended with the sound of musical instru- 
ments, like all the cardinal points in bodily form. Every 
movement there was of the nature of a dance, every word 
uttered was attended with full vessels,^ every action was of 
the nature of munificence, the city resounded with musical 
instruments, the people were adorned with red powder,* 
and the earth was covered with bards all these were so in 
that city which was full of festivity. 

Thus the great feast was carried on with increasing 
magnificence for many days, and did not come to an end 
before the wishes of the citizens were fully satisfied. And 
as days went on that infant prince grew like the new moon, 
and his father bestowed on him with appropriate formalities 

^ He is often called Ananga, ^^the bodiless/' as his body was consumed by 
the fire of Siva's eye. 

2 Or virtuous and f^enerous. 

3 It is still the custom to give presents of vessels filled with rice and 
coins. Empty vessels are inauspicious, and even now if a Bengali on going 
out of his house meets a person carrying an empty pitcher he turns back^ and 
waits a minute or two. 

* This is the kunkam, kunkum, or kunku already mentioned in Vol. I, 
pp. 244, 256. It enters largely into Hindu ceremony and ritual, especially 
on auspicious occasions and at times of general rejoicing. 

It is described as a pink powder made of turmeric, lime-juice and borax. 
It seems to be a more agreeable substitute for vermilion, whose constant use 
has probably an injurious effect on the skin and hair. The powder is used in 
the Maratha country in the same way as vermilion, and a married woman will 
smear a little patch on her forehead every day and never allow her husband 
to see her without it. See Russell, op. cit., vol. iv, p. 109. In the month of 
fasting (Shrawan) the auspicious kunkam is not used, but at festivals such as^ 
the Holi it is greatly in evidence. n.m.p. 



the name of Naravahanadatta, which had been previously- 
assigned to him by the heavenly voice. His father was de- 
lighted when he saw him make his first two or three totter- 
ing steps, in which gleamed the sheen of his smooth fair 
toe-nails, and when he heard him utter his first two or three 
indistinct words, showing his teeth which looked like buds. 

Then the excellent ministers brought to the infant prince 
their infant sons, who delighted the heart of the king, and 
commended them to him. First Yaugandharayana brought 
Marubhuti, and then Rumanvat Harisikha, and then the 
head warder named Ityaka brought Gomukha, and Vasan- 
taka his son named Tapantaka. And the domestic chaplain 
Santikara presented the two twin sons of Pingalika, his 
nephews Santisoma and Vaisvanara. And at that moment 
there fell from heaven a rain of flowers from the gods, which 
a shout of joy made all the more auspicious, and the king 
rejoiced with the queens, having bestowed presents on that 
company of ministers' sons. And that Prince Naravahana- 
datta was always surrounded by those six ministers' sons, 
devoted to him alone, who commanded respect even in their 
boyhood, as if with the six political measures ^ that are the 
cause of great prosperity. The days of the lord of Vatsa 
passed in great happiness, while he gazed affectionately on 
his son with his lotus-like face, going from lap to lap of the 
kings whose minds were lovingly attached to him, and making 
in his mirth a charming indistinct playful prattling. 

^ Peace, war, march, halt, stratagem, and recourse to the protection of 
a mightier king. 



On page l6l we saw that the room in which Vasavadatta was con- 
fined had its windows covered with sacred plants. These were to act as a 
protection against the possible intrusions of evil spirits, whose malign in- 
fluence was feared on such an auspicious occasion. Furthermore, the room 
was hung with various weapons. Here again we have a charm to ward off 

In India iron does not bring good luck, but scares away evil spirits, 
consequently weapons hung up in the birth-chamber act as a powerful pro- 
tection. In the same way our horseshoe is really only lucky because of the 
power in iron to repel evil influences. Steel is equally effective. In her 
Rites of the Twice-born, Mrs Stevenson, in describing the Brahman birth- 
chamber, states that the scissors which have been used to sever the umbilical 
cord are put under the pillow on which the young mother's head is resting, 
and the iron rod with which the floor has been dug up for the burial of the 
after-birth is placed on the ground at the foot of the bed. This iron rod 
is part of a plough, and, if the householder does not possess one of his own, 
it is specially borrowed for the occasion ; its presence is so important that 
it is not returned for six days, however much its owner may be needing it. 
The midwife, before leaving, often secretly introduces a needle into the 
mattress of the bed, in the hope of saving the mother after-pains. 

Frazer {Golden Bough, vol. iii, p. 234 et seq.) has collected numerous 
examples showing the dislike of spirits for iron in various parts of the world, 
especially Scotland, India and Africa. Among the Majhwar, an aboriginal 
tribe in the hill country of South Mirzapur, an iron implement such as a 
sickle or a betel-cutter is constantly kept near an infant's head during its 
first year for the purpose of warding off" the attacks of ghosts (W. Crooke, 
Tribes and Castes of the North- Western Provinces and Oudh, vol. iii, p. 431). 
Among the Maravars, an aboriginal race of Southern India, a knife or other 
iron object lies beside a woman after childbirth to keep off" the devil (F. Jagor, 
''Bericht iiber verschiedene Volksstiimme in Vorderindien," Zeitschrijl Jur 
Ethnologic, vol. xxvi, 1894, p. 70). When a Mala woman is in labour, a 
sickle and some nm leaves are always kept on the cot. In Malabar people 
who have to pass by burning-grounds or other haunted places commonly 
carry with them iron in some form, such as a knife, or an iron rod used as 
a walking-stick. When pregnant women go on a journey, they carry with 
them a few twigs or leaves of the nhn tree, or iron in some shape, to scare evil 
spirits lurking in groves or burial-grounds which they may pass (E. Thurston, 
Ethnographic Notes in Southern India, Madras, 1906, p. 341 ; and Castes and 
Tribes of Southern India, vol. iv, p. 369 et seq.). See also the articles on 
pregnancy observances in the Panjab by H. A. Rose, Joum. Anth. Inst., 
vol. xxxv, 1905, pp. 271-282. 

In Annam parents sometimes sell their child to a smith, who puts an iron 
anklet on the child's foot, usually adding a small iron chain. After the child 



has grown and all danger from the attack of evil spirits is over, the anklet is 

The use of the sword to scare away evil spirits during childbirth is found 
in the Philippines, where the husband strips naked (see p. 117 of this volume) 
and, standing on guard either inside the house or on the roof, flourishes his 
sword incessantly until the child is born. 

In Malaya a piece of iron is numbered among the articles necessary 
for the defence of infancy against its natural and spiritual foes. See 
R. J. Wilkinson, Papers on Malay Subjects, part i, p. 1, Kuala Lumpur, I9O8. 

As iron frightens demons away it is not surprising that it is used in cases 
of illness. Thus, during an outbreak of cholera, people often carry axes or 
sickles about with them. On the Slave Coast of Western Africa, when her 
child is ill, a mother will attach iron rings and bells to the child's ankles 
and hang iron chains round its neck. 

Iron has a similar significance of driving away spirits at death, thus the 
chief mourners will carry iron with them. When a woman dies in childbed 
in the island of Salsette, they put a nail or other piece of iron in the folds of 
her dress ; this is done specially if the child survives her. The intention 
plainly is to prevent her spirit from coming back ; for they believe that 
a dead mother haunts the house and seeks to carry away her child 
(G. F. D'Penha, "Superstitions and Customs in Salsette," Indian Antiquary, 
vol. xxviii, 1899, p. 115). 

In all these cases the original cause of the dread of iron by evil spirits 
appears to be simply that the spirits themselves date back to Stone Age 
times, and the discovery of iron, with its enormous advantages over stone, 
attached to it miraculous powers which the evil spirits, in their ignorance, 
came to dread. 

Crooke in his article, " Charms and Amulets (Indian)," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth. (vol. iii, p. 443), gives other useful references. He first refers to 
W. Johnson, Folk Memory, I9O8, p. I69 et seq., where the protective value 
of iron is described. When a child is still-born, the Burmese place iron 
beside the corpse, with the invocation : " Never more return into thy mother's 
womb till this metal becomes as soft as down " (Shway Yoe [Sir George Scott], 
The Burman, vol. i, p. 3). The Vadvals of Thana, in order to guard against 
the spirit which attacks the child on the sixth day after birth (an unconscious 
recognition of the danger from infantile lockjaw, caused by neglect of sanitary 
precautions), place an iron knife or scythe on the mother's cot, and an iron 
bickern at the door of the lying-in room a custom which also prevails in 
the Panjab (Campbell, Notes on the Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom, Bombay, 
1885, p. 387; Malik Muhammad Din, The Bahdwalpur State, Lahore, 1908, 
p. 98). An iron bracelet is worn by all Hindu married women, those of high 
rank enclosing it in gold (Rajendralala Mitra, The Indo- Aryans, London, 1881, 
vol. i, pp. 233, 279 ; Risley, Tribes and Castes of Bengal, vol. i, p. 532, 533 ; 
vol. ii, p. 41). In the form of the sword it has special power. When a birth 
occurs among the Kachins of Upper Burma, guns are fired, knives {dha) and 
torches are brandished over the mother, and old rags and chillies are burned 
to scare demons by the stench {Gazetteer, Upper Burma, vol. i, pt. i, p. S^9)' 


The Mohammedans of North India wave a knife over a sufferer from cramp, 
with the invocation : " I salute God ! The knife is of steel ! The arrow is 
sharp ! May the cramp cease through the power of Muhammad, the brave 
one ! " {North Indian Notes and Queries, vol. v, p. 35). On the Irrawaddy 
river in Burma iron pyrites is valued as a charm against alligators (Yule, 
Mission to Ava, London, 1858, p. 198). A curious belief in the sanctity of 
iron appears among the Doms, a criminal tribe of North India. They inherit 
from the Stone Age the belief that it is unlawful to commit a burglary with 
an iron tool ; anyone disobeying this rule is expelled from the community, 
and it is believed that the eyes of the offender will start from his head (North 
Indian Notes and Queries, vol. v, p. 63). 

Apart from the reference to the birth-chamber of the son of the King of 
Vatsa being hung with various weapons, we are told that they were " rendered 
auspicious by being mixed with the gleam of jewel-lamps, shedding a blaze 
able to protect the child." There are two similar descriptions in Chapters 
XXVI II and XXXIV, where the light of the lamps is eclipsed by the beauty 
of the expectant mother. 

We have already seen (Vol. I, p. 77^) that demons fear the light and can 
indulge in their machinations only when it is dark. The same idea obtains at 
the time of childbirth, for being a most critical period, evil spirits naturally 
try to take every advantage. Thus it is an almost universal custom to have 
lights in the birth-chamber to scare away such spirits as may be hovering 
round to do what harm they can. 

" The rule that, where a mother and new-born child are lying, fire and 
light must never be allowed to go out," says Hartland, " is equally binding 
in the Highlands of Scotland, in Korea, and in Basutoland ; it was observed 
by the ancient Romans ; and the sacred books of the Parsis enjoin it as a 
religious duty ; for the evil powers hate and fear nothing so much as fire 
and light." 

Among the Chinese, as soon as the birth-pangs are felt, the women light 
candles and burn incense before the household shrine and gods. Red candles 
are also lighted in the chamber as at a wedding, the idea being that a display 
of joy and cheerful confidence repels all evil influences. 

Crooke (op. cit. supra, pp. 444, 445) also gives useful references about the 
protecting powers of light and fire in all parts of the world. 

The Nayars of Malabar place lights, over which rice is sprinkled, in the 
room in which the marriage is consummated (Bull. Madras Museum, vol. iii, 
p. 234 ; cf. Dubois, Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies, p. 227). Among 
the Savaras of Bengal the bridesmaids warm the tips of their fingers at a 
lamp, and rub the cheeks of the bridegroom (Risley, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 243). 
The Mohammedan Khojas of Gujarat place a four-wicked lamp near a young 
child, while the friends scatter rice (Bombay Gazetteer, vol. ix, pt. ii, p. 45). 
In Bombay the lamp is extinguished on the tenth day, and again filled with 
butter and sugar, as a mimetic charm to induce the light to come again 
and bring another baby (Panjab Notes and Queries, vol. iv, p. 5). The Srigaud 
Brahmans of Gujarat at marriage wear conical hats made of leaves of the 


sacred tree Butea frondosa, and on the hat is placed a lighted lamp {Bombay 
Gazetteer, vol. ix, pt. i, p. 19 ; and cf. idem, p. 272). 

Fire is commonly used for the same purpose. The fires lit at the Holi 
spring festival are intended as a purgation of evil spirits, or as a mimetic 
charm to produce sunshine. Touching fire is one of the methods by which 
mourners are freed from the ghost which clings to them. When an Arer 
woman of Kanara has an illegitimate child, the priest lights a lamp, plucks 
a hair from the woman's head, throws it into the fire, and announces that 
mother and child are free from taboo (Bombay Gazetteer, vol. ix, pt. i, p. 215). 
The rite of fire-walking practised in many parts of the country appears to 
be intended as a means of purging evil spirits ; and the fire lighted by all 
castes in the delivery-room seems to have the same object. Such use of fire 
is naturally common among the Zoroastrian fire-worshippers (Shea-Troyer, The 
Dabistan, Paris, 1843, vol. i, p. 317). 

In the Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. i, p. 279) we read : " When the woman 
came to her delivery, she gave birth to a girl-child in the night, and they 
sought fire of the neighbours." 

In the text of the Ocean of Story under discussion the lamps are described 
as *' jewel-lamps, shedding a blaze," and in Chapter XXXIV we read of "a 
long row of flames of the jewel-lamps." Tawney gives a note to this latter 
reference, but does not tell us what jewel-lamps are. The question arises as 
to whether they are lamps encrusted with jewels, lamps carved out of a solid 
jewel, or jewels so bright that they do the service of lamps. The first seems 
quite probable, while the second is most unlikely and, as far as I can discover, 
does not appear in folk-tales. But the luminous jewel is of very common 
occurrence, and not only appears largely in Eastern fiction, but enters into 
Alexandrian myths and is found in the works of mediaeval physiologists. 

Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. i, p. 412, gives references from 
the Gesta Romanorum, the Talmud, Pseudo-Callisthenes, Lucian's De Dea Syria, 
The Forty Vazirs, and ends his note with "Jewel-lamps are often mentioned 
in the Kathd Sarit Sagara," so he evidently thought the references were to 

In the Nights (Burton, vol. i, p. l66) a room is lit by a light which "came 
from a precious stone big as an ostrich egg . . . and this jewel, blazing like 
the sun, cast its rays far and wide." 

On the other hand, lamps enter so enormously into Hindu ritual that 
one is inclined to think that lamps are really meant, especially when we read 
of the "long row of flames." Whenever a luminous jewel is mentioned it is 
nearly always a single stone. There are exceptions, however. The gable of 
Prester John's palace was lit at night by two carbuncles, one at either end. 
But a whole row of such jewels used for such a purpose is unheard of. n.m.p. 



MAY Gane^a, painting the earth with mosaic by 
means of the particles of red lead flying from his 
trunk whirled round in his madness,^ and so, as 
it were, burning up obstacles with the flames of his might, 
protect you. 

[M] Thus the King of Vatsa and his queen remained 
engaged in bringing up their only son Naravahanadatta, 
and once on a time the minister Yaugandharayana, seeing the 
king anxious about taking care of him, said to him as he was 
alone : " King, you must never feel any anxiety now about 
the Prince Naravahanadatta, for he has been created by the 
adorable god Siva in your house as the future emperor over 
the kings of the Vidyadharas ; and by their divine power the 
kings of Vidyadharas have found this out, and meaning 
mischief have become troubled, unable in their hearts to 
endure it; and knowing this, the god with the moon crest 
has appointed a prince of the Ganas,^ Stambhaka by name, 
to protect him. And he remains here invisible, protecting 
this son of yours, and Narada coming swiftly informed me 
of this." 

While the minister was uttering these words there descended 
from the midst of the air a divine man wearing a diadem 
and a bracelet, and armed with a sword. He bowed, and 
then the King of Vatsa, after welcoming him, immediately 
asked him with curiosity : " Who are you, and what is your 

^ The elephant-headed god has his trunk painted with red lead like a 
tame elephant, and is also liable to become mast. 

2 Followers and attendants upon Siva. See Vol. I, p. 202. n.m.p. 



errand here ? " He said : " I was once a mortal, but I have 
now become a king of the Vidyadharas, named Saktivega, 
and I have many enemies. I have found out by my power 
that your son is destined to be our emperor, and I have come 
to see him, O Eiig." 

When Saktivega, overawed at the sight of his future 
emperor, had said this, the King of Vatsa was pleased, and 
again asked him in his astonishment : " How can the rank 
of a Vidyadhara be attained, and of what nature is it, and 
how did you obtain it? Tell me this, my friend." When 
he heard this speech of the king's that Vidyadhara Saktivega, 
courteously bowing, answered him thus : " O King, resolute 
souls having propitiated Siva either in this or in a former 
birth, obtain by his favour the rank of Vidyadhara. And 
that rank, denoted by the insignia of supernatural know- 
ledge, of sword, garland and so on, is of various kinds, but 
listen ! I will tell you how I obtained it." Having said this, 
Saktivega told the following story, relating to himself, in the 
presence of the Queen Vasavadatta : 

29. Story of the Golden City 

There lived long ago in a city called Vardhamana,^ the 
ornament of the earth, a king, the terror of his foes, called 
Paropakarin. And this exalted monarch possessed a queen 
of the name of Kanakaprabha,^ as the cloud holds the 
lightning, but she had not the fickleness of the lightning. 
And in course of time there was born to him by that queen 
a daughter, who seemed to have been formed by the creator 
to dash Lakshmi's pride in her own beauty. And that moon 
of the eyes of the world was gradually reared to womanhood 
by her father, who gave her the name of Kanakarekha,^ 
suggested by her mother's name Kanakaprabha. 

Once on a time, when she had grown up, the king, her 
father, said to the Queen Kanakaprabha, who came to him 
in secret : "A grown-up daughter cannot be kept in one's 

^ The modern Burdwan. This is, however, not necessarily so (Barnett). 


2 Kanaka-prabhd means "lustre of gold." n.m.p. 

3 I.e. "gold-gleam/' or " streak of gold." n.m.p. 


house, accordingly Kanakarekha troubles my heart with 
anxiety about a suitable marriage for her. For a maiden of 
good family who does not obtain a proper position is like 
a song out of tune ; when heard of by the ears even of one 
unconnected with her she causes distress. But a daughter 
who through folly is made over to one not suitable is like 
learning imparted to one not fit to receive it, and cannot 
tend to glory or merit, but only to regret. So I am very 
anxious as to what king I must give this daughter of mine, 
and who will be a fit match for her." 

When Kanakaprabha heard this she laughed and said : 
" You say this, but your daughter does not wish to be 
married ; for to-day, when she was playing with a doll and 
making believe it was a child, I said to her in fun : ' My 
daughter, when shall I see ycu married ? ' When she heard 
that, she answered me reproachfully : ' Do not say so ; you 
must not marry me to anyone; and my separation from 
you is not appointed. I do well enough as a maiden, but 
if I am married, know that I shall be a corpse ; there is a 
certain reason for this.' As she has said this to me I have 
come to you, O King, in a state of distress ; for, as she has 
refused to be married, what use is there in deliberating about 
a bridegroom ? " 

When the king heard this from the queen he was be- 
wildered, and going to the private apartments of the princess 
he said to his daughter : " When the maidens of the gods 
and Asuras practise austerities in order to obtain a husband, 
why, my daughter, do you refuse to take one ? " When the 
Princess Kanakarekha heard this speech of her father's she 
fixed her eyes on the ground and said : " Father, I do not 
desire to be married at present, so what object has my father 
in it, and why does he insist upon it ? " That King Paropa- 
karin, when his daughter addressed him in that way, being 
the discreetest of men, thus answered her : " How can sin 
be avoided unless a daughter is given in marriage? And 
independence is not fit for a maiden who ought to be in de- 
pendence on relations. For a daughter, in truth, is bom 
for the sake of another and is kept for him. The house of 
her father is not a fit place for her except in childhood. For 


if a daughter reaches puberty unmarried her relations go to 
hell, and she is an outcast, and her bridegroom is called the 
husband of an outcast." 

When her father said this to her, the Princess Kanaka- 
rekha immediately uttered a speech that was in her mind : 
" Father, if this is so, then whatever Brahman or Kshatriya 
has succeeded in seeing the city called the Golden City, to him 
I must be given, and he shall be my husband, and if none 
such is found, you must not unjustly reproach me." When 
his daughter said that to him, that king reflected : " It is a 
good thing at any rate that she has agreed to be married on 
a certain condition, and no doubt she is some goddess born 
in my house for a special reason, for else how comes she to 
know so much though she is a child ? " Such were the king's 
reflections at that time ; so he said to his daughter, " I will 
do as you wish," and then he rose up and did his day's work. 

And on the next day, as he was sitting in the hall of 
audience, he said to his courtiers : " Has anyone among 
you seen the city called the Golden City? Whoever has 
seen it, if he be a Brahman or a Kshatriya, I will give him 
my daughter Kanakarekha and make him crown prince." 
And they all, looking at one another's faces, said : " We have 
not even heard of it, much less have we seen it." 

Then the king summoned the warder and said to him : 
" Go and cause a proclamation to be circulated in the whole 
of this town with the beating of drums,^ and find out if 
anyone has really seen that city." When the warder re- 
ceived this order, he said, " I will do so," and went out ; and 
after he had gone out he immediately gave orders to the city 
guards, and caused a drum to be beaten all round the city, 
thus arousing curiosity to hear the proclamation, which ran as 
follows ; " Whatever Brahman or Kshatriya youth has seen 
the city called the Golden City, let him speak, and the king 
will give him his daughter and the rank of crown prince." 
Such was the astounding announcement proclaimed all about 
the town after the drum had been beaten. And the citizens 
said, after hearing that proclamation : " What is this Golden 
City that is to-day proclaimed in our town, which has never 

1 See Vol. I, p. 1182._N.M.P. 


been heard of or seen even by those among us who are 
old ? " But not a single one among them said : "I have 
seen it." 

And in the meanwhile a Brahman living in that town, 
Saktideva by name, the son of Baladeva, heard that proc- 
lamation ; that youth, being addicted to vice, had been 
rapidly stripped of his wealth at the gaming-table, and he 
reflected, being excited by hearing of the giving in marriage 
of the king's daughter : " As I have lost all my wealth by 
gambling, I cannot now enter the house of my father, nor 
even the house of a courtesan, so, as I have no resource, it is 
better for me to assert falsely to those who are making the 
proclamation by beat of drum that I have seen that city. 
Who will discover that I know nothing about it, for who has 
ever seen it? And in this way I may perhaps marry the 

Thus reflecting, Saktideva went to the city guards and 
said falsely : "I have seen that city." They immediately 
said to him : " Bravo ! Then come with us to the king's 
warder." So he went with them to the warder. And in the 
same way he falsely asserted to him that he had seen that 
city, and he welcomed him kindly, and took him to the king. 
And without wavering he maintained the very same story 
in the presence of the king : what indeed is difficult for a 
blackleg to do who is ruined by play ? 

Then the king, in order to ascertain the truth, sent that 
Brahman to his daughter Kanakarekha, and when she heard 
of the matter from the mouth of the warder, and the Brah- 
man came near, she asked him : " Have you seen that Golden 
City ? " Then he answered her : " Yes, that city was seen 
by me when I was roaming through the earth in quest of 
knowledge." ^ She next asked him : " By what road did 
you go there, and what is it like ? " That Brahman then 
went on to say : " From this place I went to a town called 
Harapura, and from that I next came to the city of Benares ; 
and from Benares in a few days to the city of Paundravar- 
dhana, thence I went to that city called the Golden City, and 

^ For an account of the Wanderjahre of young Brahman students see 
Dr Biihler's introduction to the Vikramankadevacharita. 


I saw it, a place of enjoyment for those who act aright, like 
the city of Indra, the glory of which is made for the delight 
of gods.^ And having acquired learning there, I returned 
here after some time ; such is the path by which I went, and 
such is that city." 

After that fraudulent Brahman Saktideva had made up 
this story, the princess said, with a laugh : " Great Brahman, 
you have indeed seen that city ; but tell me, tell me again, 
by what path you went." When Saktideva heard that, he 
again displayed his effrontery, and then the princess had 
him put out by her servants. And immediately after putting 
him out she went to her father, and her father asked her : 
" Did that Brahman speak the truth ? " And then the 
princess said to her father : " Though you are a king you act 
without due consideration ; do you not know that rogues 
deceive honest people? For that Brahman simply wants 
to impose on me with a falsehood, but the liar has never 
seen the Golden City. And all kinds of deceptions are 
practised on the earth by rogues ; for listen to the story of 
Siva and Madhava, which I will tell you." Having said 
this, the princess told the following tale : 

29a. Siva and Madhava 

There is an excellent city rightly named Ratnapura,^ and 
in it there were two rogues named Siva and Madhava. Sur- 
rounding themselves with many other rogues, they contrived 
for a long time to rob, by making use of trickery, all the rich 
men in the town. And one day those two deliberated 
together and said : " We have managed by this time to 
plunder this town thoroughly ; so let us now go and live in 

^ More literally, "those whose eyes do not wink." The epithet also 
means "worthy of being regarded with unwinking eyes." No doubt this 
ambiguity is intended. " The city of Indra " is svarga a temporary para- 
dise, where the blessed enjoy unequalled delights before their next birth on 
earth. The duration of the stay is in proportion with their good deeds in 
their previous life. In Vol. I, p. 59, Vararuchi speaks of the " perishable joys 
of Svarga." It is here that the Gandharvas and Apsarases are in continual 
service of Indra, as we have already seen (Vol. I, p. 201). n.m.p. 

" I.e. the city of jewels. 


the city of Ujjayini ; there we hear that there is a very rich 
man named Sankarasvamin, who is chaplain to the king. 
If we cheat him out of his money we may thereby enjoy the 
charms of the ladies of Malava. He is spoken of by Brah- 
mans as a miser, because he withholds^ half their usual fee 
with a frowning face, though he possesses treasure enough to 
jfill seven vessels ; and that Brahman has a pearl of a daughter 
spoken of as matchless ; we will manage to get her too out 
of him along with the money." 

Having thus determined, and having arranged before- 
hand what part each was to play, the two rogues Siva and 
Madhava went out of that town. At last they reached 
Ujjayini, and Madhava, with his attendants, disguised as a 
Rajput, remained in a certain village outside the town. But 
Siva, who was expert in every kind of deception, having 
assumed the disguise of a reUgious ascetic, first entered that 
town alone. There he took up his quarters in a hut on the 
banks of the Sipra, in which he placed, so that that could be 
seen, clay, darbha grass, a vessel for begging, and a deerskin. 
And in the morning he anointed his body with thick clay, as 
if testing beforehand his destined smearing with the mud of 
the hell Avichi. And plunging in the water of the river, he 
remained a long time with his head downward, as if rehears- 
ing beforehand his futiu-e descent to hell, the result of his 
evil actions. And when he rose up from his bath he remained 
a long time looking up towards the sun,^ as if showing that 
he deserved to be impaled. Then he went into the presence 
of the god, and making rings of ku^a grass,^ and muttering 
prayers, he remained sitting in the posture called Padma- 
sana,* with a hypocritical, cunning face, and from time to 
time he made an offering to Vishnu, having gathered white 
flowers, even as he took captive the simple hearts of the 
good by his villainy ; and having made his offering he again 

^ Askandin is translated "granting" by Monier Williams and the 
Petersburg lexicographers. 

2 For the amazing austerities of Hindu ascetics see Vol. I, p. 79n^ n.m.p. 

3 These are worn on the fingers when offerings are made. 

* A particular posture in religious meditation, sitting with the thighs 
crossed, with one hand resting on the left thigh, the other held up with the 
thumb upon the heart, and the eyes directed to the tip of the nose. 



pretended to betake himself to muttering his prayers, and 
prolonged his meditations as if fixing his attention on wicked 

And the next day, clothed in the skin of a black antelope, 
he wandered about the city in quest of alms, like one of his 
own deceitful leers intended to beguile it, and observing a 
strict silence, he took three handfuls of rice from Brahmans' 
houses, still equipped with stick and deerskin, and divided 
the food into three parts, like the three divisions of the day,^ 
and part he gave to the crows, and part to his guest, and 
with the third he filled his maw ; and he remained for a long 
time hypocritically telling his beads, as if he were counting 
his sins at the same time, and muttering prayers ; and in the 
night he remained alone in his hut, thinking over the weak 
points of his fellow-men, even the smallest ; and by thus 
performing every day a difficult pretended penance he gained 
complete ascendancy over the minds of the citizens in every 
quarter. And all the people became devoted to him, and a 
report spread among them in every direction that Siva was 
an exceedingly self-denying hermit. 

And in the meanwhile his accomplice, the other rogue, 
Madhava, having heard from his emissaries how he was 
getting on, entered that city ; and taking up his abode there 
in a distant temple, he went to the bank of the Sipra to bathe, 
disguised as a Rajput, and after bathing, as he was returning 
with his retinue, he saw Siva praying in front of the god, 
and with great veneration he fell at his feet and said before 
all the people : " There is no other such ascetic in the world, 
for he has been often seen by me going round from one holy 
place to another." But Siva, though he saw him, kept his 
neck immovable out of cunning, and remained in the same 
position as before, and Madhava returned to his own lodging. 

And at night those two met together and ate and drank, 
and deliberated over the rest of their programme, what they 
must do next. And in the last watch of the night Siva went 

^ There seem to be two or three mistakes in Brockhaus' text. D. reads 
hhikmtrayam iatah . . . cakre trih satyam iva khandasah, " he divided the begged 
food, three handfuls of rice, into three parts, just as he broke asunder the 
truth." See Speyer, op. ciL, pp. 104, 105. n.m.p. 



back leisurely to his hut. And in the morning Madhava 
said to one of his gang : " Take these two garments and give 
them as a present to the domestic chaplain of the king here, 
who is called Sankarasvamin, and say to him respectfully : 
' There is a Rajput come from the Deccan of the name of 
Madhava, who has been oppressed by his relations, and he 
brings with him much inherited wealth ; he is accompanied 
by some other Rajputs like himself, and he wishes to enter 
into the services of your king here, and he has sent me to 
visit you, O treasure-house of glory.' " 

The rogue who was sent off by Madhava with this 
message went to the house of that chaplain with the present 
in his hand, and after approaching him, and giving him the 
present at a favourable moment, he delivered to him in 
private Madhava 's message, as he had been ordered ; he, 
for his part, out of his greed for presents, believed it all, 
anticipating other favours in the future, for a bribe is the 
sovereign specific for attracting the covetous. The rogue 
then came back, and on the next day Madhava, having 
obtained a favourable opportunity, went in person to visit 
that chaplain, accompanied by attendants, who hypocritic- 
ally assumed the appearance of men desiring service,^ pass- 
ing themselves off as Rajputs, distinguished by the maces 
they carried ; he had himself announced by an attendant 
preceding him, and thus he approached the family priest, 
who received him with welcomes which expressed his delight 
at his arrival. Then Madhava remained engaged in conversa- 
tion with him for some time, and at last being dismissed by 
him, returned to his own house. 

On the next day he sent another couple of garments as 
a present, and again approached that chaplain and said to 
him : " I indeed wish to enter into service to please my re- 
tainers, for that reason I have repaired to you, but I possess 
wealth." When the chaplain heard that, he hoped to get 
something out of him, and he promised Madhava to procure 
for him what he desired, and he immediately went and 

^ Kdrpa(ika may mean a pilgrim, but it seems to be used in the Katha 
Sarit Sagara to mean a kind of dependent on a king or great man, usually a 
foreigner. See Chapters XXXVIII, LIII and LXXXI of this work. 



petitioned the king on this account, and, out of respect for 
the chaplain, the king consented to do what he asked. And 
on the next day the family priest took Madhava and his 
retinue, and presented them to the king with all due respect. 
The king too, when he saw that Madhava resembled a Rajput 
in appearance, received him graciously and appointed him a 
salary. Then Madhava remained there in attendance upon 
the king, and every night he met Siva to deliberate with him. 
And the chaplain entreated him to live with him in his house, 
out of avarice, as he was intent on presents. 

Then Madhava with his followers repaired to the house 
of the chaplain ; this settlement was the cause of the chap- 
lain's ruin, as that of the mouse in the trunk of the tree was 
the cause of its ruin. And he deposited a chest in the strong- 
room of the chaplain, after filling it with ornaments made of 
false gems. And from time to time he opened the box and 
by cunningly half showing some of the jewels he captivated 
the mind of the chaplain, as that of a cow is captivated by 
grass. And when he had gained in this way the confidence 
of the chaplain, he made his body emaciated by taking little 
food, and falsely pretended that he was ill. 

And after a few days had passed, that prince of rogues 
said with weak voice to that chaplain, who was at his bed- 
side : " My condition is miserable in this body, so bring, 
good Brahman, some distinguished man of your caste, in 
order that I may bestow my wealth upon him for my happi- 
ness here and hereafter, for, life being unstable, what care 
can a wise man have for riches ? " That chaplain, who was 
devoted to presents, when addressed in this way, said, " I 
will do so," and Madhava fell at his feet. Then whatever 
Brahman the chaplain brought, Madhava refused to receive, 
pretending that he wanted a more distinguished one. One of 
the rogues in attendance upon Madhava, when he saw this, said : 
" Probably an ordinary Brahman does not please him. So it 
will be better now to find out whether the strict ascetic on the 
banks of Sipra named Siva pleases him or not. ' ' When Madhava 
heard that, he said plaintively to that chaplain : " Yes, be kind, 
and bring him, for there is no other Brahman like him." 

The chaplain, thus entreated, went near Siva, and beheld 


him immovable, pretending to be engaged in meditation. 
And then he walked round him, keeping him on his right 
hand, and sat down in front of him : and immediately the 
rascal slowly opened his eyes. Then the family priest, 
bending before him, said with bowed head : " My lord, if it 
will not make you angry, I will prefer a petition to you. 
There is dwelling here a very rich Rajput from the Deccan, 
named Madhava, and he, being ill, is desirous of giving away 
his whole property : if you consent, he will give you that 
treasure which glitters with many ornaments made out of 
priceless gems." When Siva heard that, he slowly broke 
silence, and said : " O Brahman, since I live on alms, and 
observe perpetual chastity, of what use are riches to me ? " 
Then that chaplain went on to say to him : " Do not say 
that, great Brahman ; do you not know the due order of the 
periods in the life of a Brahman ? ^ By marrying a wife, 
and performing in his house offerings to the Manes, sacrifices 
to the gods and hospitality to guests, he uses his property 
to obtain the three objects of life ^ ; the stage of the house- 
holder is the most useful of all." ^ 

Then Siva said : " How can I take a wife, for I will not 
marry a woman from any low family ? " When the covetous 
chaplain heard that, he thought that he would be able to 
enjoy his wealth at will, and, catching at the opportimity, 
he said to him : "I have an unmarried daughter named 
Vinayasvamini, and she is very beautiful ; I will bestow her 
in marriage on you. And I will keep for you all the wealth 
which you receive as a donation from Madhava, so enter on 
the duties of a householder." When Siva heard this, having 
got the very thing he wanted, he said : " Brahman, if your 
heart is set on this,* I will do what you say. But I am an 

^ First he should be a Brahmacharin or unmarried religious student, next 
a Grihasthn or householder, then a Vanaprastha or anchoret, lastly a Bhikshu 
or beggar. 

2 I.e. virtue, wealth, pleasure ; dhanna, artha, kama. 

3 In his translation of this story from the D. text in The Golden Town, 
1909, Barnett adds "among the men in the four orders" before "the stage," 
thus making the meaning clearer. n.m.p. 

* Graha also means "planet" i.e. inauspicious planet. Siva tells the 
truth here. 


ascetic who knows nothing about gold and jewels : I shall 
act as you advise ; do as you think best." 

When the chaplain heard that speech of Siva's he was 
delighted, and the fool said, " Agreed," and conducted 
Siva to his house. And when he had introduced there that 
inauspicious guest named Siva,^ he told Madhava what he 
had done, and was applauded by him. And immediately 
he gave Siva his daughter, who had been carefully brought 
up, and in giving her he seemed to be giving away his own 
prosperity lost by his folly. And on the third day after his 
marriage he took him to Madhava, who was pretending 
to be ill, to receive his present. And Madhava rose up and 
fell at his feet, and said what was quite true : " I adore thee 
whose asceticism is incomprehensible." ^ And in accordance 
with the prescribed form he bestowed on Siva that box of 
ornaments made of many sham jewels, which was brought 
from the chaplain's treasury. Siva for his part, after re- 
ceiving it, gave it into the hands of the chaplain, saying : "I 
know nothing about this, but you do." And that priest 
immediately took it, saying : "I undertook to do this long 
ago, why should you trouble yourself about it ? " Then 
Siva gave them his blessing, and went to his wife's private 
apartments, and the chaplain took the box and put it in his 

Madhava for his part gradually desisted from feigning 
sickness, affecting to feel better the next day, and said that 
his disease had been cured by virtue of his great gift. And 
he praised the chaplain when he came near, saying to him : 
" It was by your aiding me in an act of faith that I tided 
over this calamity." And he openly struck up a friendship 
with Siva, asserting that it was due to the might of Siva's 
holiness that his life had been saved. Siva, for his part, 
after some days said to the chaplain : " How long am I to 
feast in your house in this style? Why do you not take 
from me those jewels for some fixed sum of money ? If they 
are valuable, give me a fair price for them." 

When the priest heard that, thinking that the jewels were 

^ I.e. the auspicious or friendly one. 

2 There is probably a double meaning in the word "incomprehensible." 


of incalculable value, he consented, and gave to Siva as 
purchase-money his whole living. And he made Siva sign a 
receipt for the sum with his own hand, and he himself too 
signed a receipt for the jewels, thinking that that treasure 
far exceeded his own wealth in value. And they separated, 
taking one another's receipts, and the chaplain lived in one 
place, while Siva kept house in another. And then Siva and 
Madhava dwelt together, and remained there, leading a very 
pleasant life consuming the chaplain's wealth. And as time 
went on, the chaplain, being in need of cash, went to the town 
to sell one of the ornaments in the bazar. 

Then the merchants, who were connoisseurs in jewels, 
said after examining it : " Ha ! the man who made these 
sham jewels was a clever fellow, whoever he was. For this 
ornament is composed of pieces of glass and quartz with 
various colours and fastened together with brass, and there 
are no gems or gold in it." When the chaplain heard that, 
he went in his agitation and brought all the ornaments from 
his house, and showed them to the merchants. When they 
saw them, they said that all of them were composed of 
sham jewels in the same way ; but the chaplain, when he 
heard that, was, so to speak, thunderstruck. And immedi- 
ately the fool went off and said to Siva : " Take back your 
ornaments and give me back my own wealth." But Siva 
answered him : " How can I possibly have retained your 
wealth till now ? Why, it has all in course of time been 
consumed in my house." 

Then the chaplain and Siva fell into an altercation, and 
went, both of them, before the king, at whose side Madhava 
was standing. And the chaplain made this representation 
to the king : " Siva has consumed all my substance, taking 
advantage of my not knowing that a great treasure which he 
deposited in my house ^ was composed of skilfully coloured 
pieces of glass and quartz fastened together with brass." 
Then Siva said : " King, from my childhood I have been a 
hermit, and I was persuaded by that man's earnest petition 
to accept a donation, and when I took it, though inexperienced 
in the ways of the world, I said to him, ' I am no connoisseur 

* Perhaps we ought to read dattva for tatra. 



in jewels and things of that kind, and I rely upon you,' and 
he consented, saying, ' I will be your warrant in the matter.' 
And I accepted all the donation and deposited it in his hand. 
Then he bought the whole from me at his own price, and 
we bold from one another mutual receipts ; and now it is 
in the king's power to grant me help in my sorest need." 

Siva having thus finished his speech, Madhava said : 
" Do not say this ; you are honourable, but what fault have 
I committed in the matter ? I never received anything 
either from you or from Siva ; I had some wealth inherited 
from my father, which I had long deposited elsewhere ; then 
I brought that wealth and presented it to a Brahman. If 
the gold is not real gold, and the jewels are not real jewels, 
then let us suppose that I have reaped fruit from giving away 
brass, quartz and glass. But the fact that I was persuaded 
with sincere heart that I was giving something is clear from 
this, that I recovered from a very dangerous illness." 

When Madhava said this to him without any alteration 
in the expression of his face, the king laughed, and all 
his ministers, and they were highly delighted. And those 
present in court said, laughing in their sleeves : " Neither 
Madhava nor Siva has done anything unfair." Thereupon 
that chaplain departed with downcast countenance, having 
lost his wealth. For of what calamities is not the blinding 
of the mind with excessive greed the cause ? And so those 
two rog-ues Siva and Madhava long remained there happy 
in having obtained the favour of the delighted king.^ 

^ This is the first of several excellent "thieving" stories which appear in 
the Ocean of Story. The history of stealing plays a very important part in both 
fact and fiction in India. The " Art of Stealing in Hindu Fiction " has recently 
been treated by Bloomfield in two most entertaining and instructive papers, 
Amer. Journ. Phil., vol. xliv, part ii, pp. 97-133 ; part iii, pp. 1.93-229, 1923. I 
shall have occasion to refer to these again. The arch-thief of Hindu fiction 
is Muladeva, whom Bloomfield identifies with Karnisuta, Gonlputraka, 
Gonikaputra and Gonikiisuta. We shall meet him in the fifteenth vampire 
story. Chapter LXXXIX, in the " Story of the Magic Pill," and also in the 
last story of the whole work. He is supposed to have written a famous manual 
of thievery entitled Steyasdstra-pravartaka or SteyasTitra-pravartaka. 

The science is regarded with the utmost seriousness, and thieving was 
regularly taught to a selected number of pupils, a high standard of mutual 
regard existing between teacher and pupil. See J. J. Meyer's remarks on 


29. Stonj of the Golden City 

" Thus do rogues spread the webs of their tongue with 
hundreds of intricate threads, like fishermen upon dry land, 
living by the net. So you may be certain, my father, that 
this Brahman is a case in point. By falsely asserting that 
he has seen the City of Gold, he wishes to deceive you, and 
to obtain me for a wife. So do not be in a hurry to get me 
married ; I shall remain unmarried at present, and we will 
see what will happen." When the King Paropakarin heard 
this from his daughter Kanakarekha, he thus answered her : 
" When a girl is grown up, it is not expedient that she should 
remain long unmarried, for wicked people envious of good 
qualities falsely impute sin. And people are particularly 
fond of blackening the character of one distinguished ; to 
illustrate this, listen to the story of Haras vamin which I am 
about to tell you." 

thieves' practices in his introduction to Dasa Kvmara Charita, or The Story of 
the Ten Princes, p. 1 5 et seq. 

Among the numerous extracts from thieving stories collected by Bloom- 
field, I will here quote a Tamil story, reported by De Rosairo in The Onentalist, 
vol. iii, p. 183. Apart from the excellence of the tale itself it affords a good 
parallel to the ascetic practices of the rogue Siva in our text, showing to what 
a degree of risk and personal discomfort the expert thief must be prepared 
to go. 

A king wishes to study the art of stealing, in order to mete out more 
perfect justice. His learned minister presents before him a notorious thief 
and pilferer. After the king has dismissed all attendants, he expresses his 
desire to become the thief s pupil. To his surprise, the thief pleads ignorance 
of the art of stealing, and asserts that he has been most unjustly accused. 
The king dismisses him, but on the next day misses his signet-ring off his ring- 
finger. The thief, though asserting his innocence, is condemned to be impaled 
upon a three-pronged stake. But the king, uneasy in his mind, disguises him- 
self, and goes in the still of the night to the place of execution. As he comes 
near he hears tlie thief, in pitiful accents, address the Almighty Creator, plead- 
ing his innocence, and calling for vengeance from heaven on the head of him 
who had judged him so wrongly and pronounced so unjust and heavy a punish- 
ment. The king has the thief set free, but on the next morning the thief 
appears once more, and, with expressions of respect and civility, presents to 
his Majesty the lost signet-ring. When asked to explain, the thief says ; 
" May it please your Majesty, I have the ring because I played my part with 
alacrity and decision. Should your Majesty wish to follow my profession, 
there would be no difficulty in doing so, if you could but behave as I did 


29b. The Iniquity of Scandal 

There is a city on the banks of the Ganges named Kusu- 
mapura,^ and in it there was an ascetic who visited holy 
places, named Harasvamin. He was a Brahman living by 
begging ; and constructing a hut on the banks of the Ganges, 
he became, on account of his surprisingly rigid asceticism, the 
object of the people's respect.^ And one day a wicked man 
among the inhabitants, who could not tolerate his virtue, 
seeing him from a distance going out to beg, said : " Do you 
know what a hypocritical ascetic that is ? It is he that has 
eaten up all the children in this town." When a second 
there who was like him heard this, he said : "It is true ; I 
also have heard people saying this." And a third confirm- 
ing it said : " Such is the fact." The chain of villains' con- 
versation binds reproach on the good. And in this way the 
report spread from ear to ear, and gained general credence in 
the city. And all the citizens kept their children by force 
in their houses, saying : " Harasvamin carries off all the 
children and eats them."^ 

And then the Brahmans in that town, afraid that their 
offspring would be destroyed, assembled and deliberated 
about his banishment from the city. And as they did not 

namely, maintain a lie even when put to extreme trial. My behaviour is the 
first lesson in the art your Majesty is desirous of being taught." 

For the practices of modern thieves see Russell, Tribes and Castes of the 
Central Provinces, vol. i, pp. 234, 248; vol. iv, pp. 190, 191, 472-474, 483-487, 
606-6O8 ; and Kennedy, Criminal Classes of Bombay, 1908. n.m.p. 

^ Thecity of flowers i.e. Pataliputra. See p. Sdn^ of this volume. n.m.p. 

^ Perhaps we ought to read yayau for dadau. This 1 find is the reading 
of an excellent MS. in the Sanskrit College, for the loan of wiiich I am deeply 
indebted to the Principal and Librarian. 

^ A report similar to that spread against Harasvamin was in circulation 
during the French Revolution. Taine in his history of the Revolution, vol. i, 
p. 418, tells the following anecdote: "M, de Montlosier found himself the 
object of many unpleasant attentions when he went to the National Assembly. 
In particular a woman of about thirty used to sharpen a large knife when he 
passed and look at him in a threatening manner. On inquiry he discovered 
the cause Deux enfants du quartier out disparu enleves par des bohemiens, et c est 
maintenant un bruit repandu que M. de Montlosier, le marquis de Mirabeau, et d'autres 
deputes du cote droit se rassemhlent pour Jaire des orgies dans lesquelles ils mangent 
de petits enfants." 


dare to tell him face to face, for fear he might perhaps eat 
them up in his rage, they sent messengers to him. And 
those messengers went and said to him from a distance : 
" The Brahmans command you to depart from this city." 
Then in his astonishment he asked them: "Why?" And 
they went on to say : " You eat every child as soon as you 
see it." When Haras vamin heard that, he went near those 
Brahmans, in order to reassure them, and the people fled 
before him for fear. And the Brahmans, as soon as they saw 
him, were terrified and went up to the top of their monastery. 
People who are deluded by reports are not, as a rule, capable 
of discrimination. Then Harasvamin, standing below, called 
all the Brahmans who were above, one by one, by name, and 
said to them : " What delusion is this, Brahmans ? Why 
do you not ascertain with one another how many children 
I have eaten, and whose, and how many of each man's 
children ? " 

When they heard that, the Brahmans began to compare 
notes among themselves, and found that all of them had 
all their children left alive. And in course of time other 
citizens, appointed to investigate the matter, admitted that 
all their children were living. And merchants and Brahmans 
and all said : " Alas ! in our folly we have belied a holy 
man ; the children of all of us are alive ; so whose children 
can he have eaten ? " Harasvamin, being thus completely 
exonerated, prepared to leave that city, for his mind was 
seized with disgust at the slanderous report got up against 
him by wicked men.^ For what pleasure can a wise man 
take in a wicked place, the inhabitants of which are wanting 
in discrimination ? Then the Brahmans and merchants, pros- 
trating themselves at his feet, entreated him to stay there, 
and he at last, though with reluctance, consented to do so. 

29. Story of the Golden City 
" In this way evil men often impute crime falsely to good 
men, allowing their malicious garrulity full play on beholding 
their virtuous behaviour. Much more, if they obtain a slight 

^ Cf. Virgil's well-known description of the growth of rumour, ^neid, iv, 
74 et seq. N.M.p. 


glimpse of any opportunity for attacking them, do they 
pour copious showers of oil on the fire thus kindled. There- 
fore if you wish, my daughter, to draw the arrow from my 
heart, you must not, while this fresh youth of yours is de- 
veloping, remain unmarried to please yourself, and so incur 
the ready reproach of evil men." 

Such was the advice which the Princess Kanakarekha 
frequently received from her father the king, but she, being 
firmly resolved, again and again answered him : " Therefore 
quickly search for a Brahman or Kshatriya who has seen 
that City of Gold and give me to him, for this is the condition 
I have named." 

When the king heard that, reflecting that his daughter, 
who remembered her former birth, had completely made up 
her mind, and seeing no other way of obtaining for her the 
husband she desired, he issued another order to the effect 
that henceforth the proclamation by beat of drum was to 
take place every day in the city, in order to find out whether 
any of the new-comers had seen the Golden City. And once 
more it was proclaimed in every quarter of the city every 
day, after the drum had been beaten : "If any Brahman 
or Kshatriya has seen the Golden City, let him speak ; the 
king will give him his own daughter, together with the rank 
of crown prince." But no one was found who had obtained 
a sight of the Golden City. 


29. Story of the Golden City 

IN the meanwhile the young Brahman Saktideva, in 
very low spirits, having been rejected with contempt 
by the princess he longed for, said to himself : " To-day 
by asserting falsely that I had seen the Golden City I 
certainly incurred contempt, but I did not obtain that 
princess. So I must roam through the earth to find it, until 
I have either seen that city or lost my life. For of what use 
is my life, unless I can return, having seen that city, and 
obtain the princess as the prize of the achievement ? " 

Having thus taken a vow, that Brahman set out from the 
city of Vardhamana, directing his course toward the southern 
quarter ; and as he journeyed he at last reached the great 
forest of the Vindhya range, and entered it, which was diffi- 
cult and long as his own undertaking. And that forest, so 
to speak, fanned, with the soft leaves of its trees shaken by 
the wind, him, who was heated by the multitudinous rays 
of the sun ; and through grief at being overrun with many 
robbers it made its cry heard day and night in the shrill 
screams of animals which were being slain in it by lions and 
other noisome beasts. And it seemed, by the unchecked 
rays of heat flashed upward from its wild deserts, to en- 
deavour to conquer the fierce brightness of the sun : in it, 
though there was no accumulation of water, calamity was to 
be easily piu'chased ^ : and its space seemed ever to extend 
before the traveller as fast as he crossed it. 

In the course of many days he accomplished a long journey 
through this forest, and beheld in it a great lake of pure cold 
water in a lonely spot, which seemed to lord it over all lakes, 
with its lotuses like lofty umbrellas, and its swans like gleam- 
ing white chowries. In the water of that lake he performed 

^ Probably a poor pun there is a play upon the words Jala, " water," 

and Jada, "fools," thus the sense is: "The forest is without gatherings of 
water (or fools), yet it is fertile in misfortune" (Barnett). n.m.p. 



the customary ablutions, and on its northern shore he beheld 
a hermitage with beautiful fruit-bearing trees ; and he saw 
an old hermit named Suryatapas sitting at the foot of an 
Asvattha tree, surrounded by ascetics, adorned with a 
rosary, the beads of which by their number seemed to be the 
knots that marked the centuries of his life,^ and which rested 
against the extremity of his ear that was white with age. 
And he approached that hermit with a bow, and the hermit 
welcomed him with hospitable greetings. 

And the hermit, after entertaining him with fruits and 
other delicacies, asked him : " Whence have you come, and 
whither are you going ? Tell me, good sir." And Sakti- 
deva, inclining respectfully, said to that hermit : " I have 
come, venerable sir, from the city of Vardhamana, and I have 
undertaken to go to the Golden City in accordance with a 
vow. But I do not know where that city lies ; tell me, vener- 
able sir, if you know." The hermit answered : " My son, I 
have lived eight hundred years in this hermitage, and I have 
never even heard of that city." Saktideva, when he heard this 
from the hermit, was cast down, and said again : " Then my 
wanderings through the earth will end by my dying here." 

Then that hermit, having gradually elicited the whole 

^ Lenormant in his Chaldoean Magic and Sorcery, p. 41 (English transla- 
tion), observes : " We must add to the number of those mysterious rites the 
use of certain enchanted drinks, which doubtless really contained medicinal 
drugs, as a cure for diseases, and also of magic knots, the efficacy of which 
was firmly believed in, even up to the Middle Ages." See also Ralston's 

Songs of the Russian People, p. 288. Cf. the speech of the river-goddess, 

Tamasa, in Act III of the Uttara Rama Charita as translated by Wilson (Select 
Specimejis of the Theatre of the Hindus, vol. ii, 1827): 

" And homage therefore should be done 

This day to their great Sire, the Sun, 

For that the lucky knot has told, 

Twelve years their rapid course have rolled. 

Since, from the daughter of the Earth, 

Kusa and Lava drew their birth." 

In a note explaining the "lucky knot" Wilson states that the expression 
alludes to the practice, still in use amongst the Hindus, of making a knot every 
year of a person's life in the string or thread which is wound round the paper 
scroll on which the calculations of his nativity are inscribed. For collected 
references on knots in magic and ritual see Frazer, Golden Bough, vol. iii, 
pp. 293-317. N.M.p. 


story, said to him : "If you are firmly resolved, then do what 
I tell you. Three yqjanas from here there is a country 
named Kampilya, and in it is a mountain named Uttara, 
and on it there is a hermitage. There dwells my noble elder 
brother named Dirghatapas ^ ; go to him, he being old may 

^ In the story of the " Beautiful Palace East of the Sun and North of 
the Earth" (Thorpe, Yule-tide Stories, p. 158) an old woman sends the youth, 
who is in quest of the palace, to her old sister, who again refers him to an 
older sister dwelling in a small ruinous cottage on a mountain. In I^ura 
Gonzenbach's Sicilianische Marche?i, p. 86, the prince is sent by one " Einsiedler " 
to his brother, and this brother sends him to an older brother, and he again to 
an older still, who is described as " Steinalt." See also p. l62. We have a 
similar incident in Melusiiie, p. 447. The story is entitled " La Montagne 
Noire ou Les Filles du Diable." See also // Pe?itamerone, ninth diversion of 
the fifth day (Burton, vol. ii, pp. 54.9, 550) ; Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 76 ; 
Waldau's Bohmische Marchen, pp. 37, 255 et seq.; Dasent's Popular Tales from 
the Norse, 1859, pp. 31-32, 212-213, and 330-331 ; and Kaden's Uriter den 
Olivenb'dumen, p. 56. 

The motif is found in the first voyage of Aboulfaouaris, Les Mille et un 

Jours, Lille, 1784, vol. iv, p. l66, whence it was copied in "The Story of Qara 
Khan," a sub-tale in The Story of Jewad, translated by E. J. W. Gibb, Glasgow, 
1884. See Chauvin, op. cit., vii, pp. 60, 6l*, where other references are given. 

Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. ii, pp. 94-98, quotes from a paper 
by Cowell, " The Legend of the Oldest Animals," in Y Cymrodor (Welsh 
Society's Journal), October 1882, where in the "Story of Kilhwch and 
Olwen " Arthur's ambassadors seek certain tidings by the aid of animals, each 
referring them to an older and cleverer one than themselves. In the "Tale of 
the Jealous Sisters," Dozon, Contes Albanais (No. 2), the hero meets a lamia, 
in quest of a magic flower, who not only refrains from eating him, but directs 
him to her elder sister, and she again refers him to her elder sister. In the 
tale of " Hasan of Bassorah " in the Nights (Burton, vol. viii, pp. 72-82), Hasan 
is sent by a venerable Shaykh to his brother, and thence to the King of the 
Camphor Islands, who all aid him in his search for the Islands of Wak. There 
is no mention of each being older than the last, although the story is always 
quoted as an example of this motif 

A curious variant is found in Sastri's Dravidian Nights. The hero, in quest 
of the pdrijata flower, is sent to an ascetic who opened his eyes every watch, 
then to one who opened his eyes every second watch, and finally to one who 
only opened them every third watch. 

I do not agree with Clouston {op. cit., p. 98), who says: "The idea is 
probably a survival of some primitive myth, suggested by the physical and 
mental imbecility of extreme old age 'second childhood.' " On the contrary, 
old age in man is usually venerated in the East, and apart from the use of 
the motif to the story-teller to excite the curiosity of his audience as the 
denouement is thus continually postponed, it serves as an excellent lesson in 
perseverance and patience. n.m.p. 


perhaps know of that city." When Saktideva heard that, 
hope arose in his breast, and having spent the night there, 
he quickly set out in the morning from that place. 

And wearied with the laborious journey through difficult 
forest country, he at last reached that region of Kampilya 
and ascended that mountain Uttara; and there he beheld 
that hermit Dirghatapas in a hermitage, and he was delighted 
and approached him with a bow ; and the hermit received 
him hospitably, and Saktideva said to him : "I am on my 
way to the City of Gold spoken of by the king's daughter ; 
but I do not know, venerable sir, where that city is. How- 
ever, I am bound to find it, so I have been sent to you by the 
sage Suryatapas in order that I may discover where it lies." 
When he had said this, the hermit answered him : " Though 
I am so old, my son, I have never heard of that city till to- 
day ; I have made acquaintance with various travellers from 
foreign lands, and I have never heard anyone speak of it, 
much less have I seen it. But I am sure it must be in some 
distant foreign island, and I can tell you an expedient to help 
you in this matter ; there is in the midst of the ocean an 
island named Utsthala, and in it there is a rich king of the 
Nishadas ^ named Satyavrata. He goes to and fro among 
all the other islands, and he may have seen or heard of that 
city. Therefore go first to the city named Vitankapura, 
situated on the border of the sea. And from that place go 
with some merchant in a ship to the island where that Nishada 
dwells, in order that you may attain your object." 

When Saktideva heard this from the hermit, he immediately 
followed his advice, and taking leave of him set out from the 
hermitage. And after accomplishing many kos and crossing 
many lands he reached the city of Vitankapura, the ornament 
of the seashore. There he sought out a merchant named 
Samudradatta, who traded with the island of Utsthala, and 
struck up a friendship with him. And he went on board his 
ship with him, and having food for the voyage fully supplied 
by his kindness, he set out on the ocean path. Then, when 
they had but a short distance to travel, there arose a black 
cloud with rumbling thunder, resembling a roaring Rakshasa, 

^ Wild aboriginal tribes not belonging to the Aryan race. 


with flickering lightning to represent his lolling tongue. 
And a furious hurricane began to blow like Destiny herself, 
whirling up light objects and hurling down heavy/ And 
from the sea, lashed by the wind, great waves rose aloft like 
the mountains equipped with wings,^ indignant that their 
asylum had been attacked. And that vessel rose on high 
one moment, and the next moment plunged below, as if 
exhibiting how rich men are first elevated and then cast 

And the next moment that ship, shrilly laden with the 
cries of the merchants, burst and split asunder as if with 
the weight. And the ship being broken, that merchant its 
owner fell into the sea, but floating through it on a plank he 
at last reached another vessel. But as Saktideva fell a large 
fish, opening its mouth and neck, swallowed him without 
injuring any of his limbs. And as that fish was roaming at 
will in the midst of the sea it happened to pass near the 
island of Utsthala ; and by chance some servants of that 
king of the fishermen, Satyavrata, who were engaged in the 

* Destiny often elevates the worthless, and hurls down men of worth. 

Clouston {Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. i, p. 407) compares this sentiment 
with Defoe's scathing reply to Lord Haversham's Vindication of his Speech : 
" Fate makes footballs of men ; kicks some upstairs and some down ; some 
are advanced without honour, others suppressed without infamy; some are 
raised without merit, some are crushed without crime ; and no man knows, 
by the beginning of things, whether his course will issue in a peerage or a 
pillory." And these passages from the drama of Mrichchhakatika, or The 
Toy Cart (Wilson, Theatre of the Hindus): 

" Fate views the world 
A scene of mutual and perpetual struggle ; 
And sports with life as if it were a wheel 
That draws the limpid water from the well ; 
For some are raised to affluence, some depressed 
In want, and some are borne awhile aloft. 
And some hurled down to wretchedness and woe." 

" O Fate ! thou sportest with the fortunes of mankind. 
Like drops of water trembling on the lotus-leaf." 


* The usual story is that Indra cut off the wings of all except Mainaka, 
the son of Himavat by Mena. He took refuge in the sea. Here it is 
represented that more escaped. So in Bhartrihari Ntti Sataka, st. 76 (Bombay 


pursuit of small fish, came there and caught it. And those 
fishermen, proud of their prize, immediately dragged it along 
to show their king, for it was of enormous size. He too, out 
of curiosity, seeing that it was of such extraordinary size, 
ordered his servants to cut it open ; and when it was cut 
open Saktideva came out alive from its belly, having endured 
a second wonderful imprisonment in the womb.^ Then the 

1 For Saktideva's imprisonment in the belly of the fish cf. Chapter LXXIV 
of this work ; Indian Fairy Tales, by Miss Stokes, No. xiv ; and Lucian's 
Vera Historia, Book I. In this tale the fish swallows a ship. The crew 
discover countries in the monster's inside, establish a "scientific frontier/' 

and pursue a policy of Annexation. In Chapter CXXIII of the Oceati of 

Story the huge fish appears twice : firstly in the " Story of the Two 
Princesses," where it swallows a ship and all on board ; and secondly in the 
tale of " Ke^ata and Kandarpa/' where a woman is rescued from a fish's belly. 
To the former of these Tawney adds a few further references. 

Similar incidents are found in the Hindi Bundelkhandi, where the hero 
Alha is cut out from captivity in a fish's inside (see Ind. Ant,, vol. xiv, 
October 1885, p. 258). In some cases the flights of fancy of the story- 
teller fall little short of those indulged in by Lucian. In a Kasmiri tale 
(J. H. Knowles, "Pride Abased," Ind. Ant., vol. xv, June 1886, p. 157) a king 
lives inside a fish for years, until he is finally rescued by a potter who is 
hacking at the stranded fish with an axe. Similarly in Miss Stokes' tale 
"Loving Laili" lives twelve years in a rohita fish. All these stories appear 
to me to be merely examples of one of the numerous forms of exaggeration 
dear to Oriental story-tellers, and which comes in most handily as part of the 
hero's adventures during his travels in a foreign land, or while on his search 
for a lost bride, magic article or what not. 

In the case of Sindbad, he is not swallowed by a fish, but lands with the 
crew on a huge fish's back mistaken for an island. See Nights, Burton, vol. vi, 
p. 6 with note. Further references will be found in Crooke, Popular Religion 
and Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. ii, p. 254 ; and Chauvin, op. cit., vii, p. 9, 
under " La Baleine." 

Various explanations of this legend have been offered, some rather 
fantastic like that of a certain American astronomer of the last century who 
saw the star-group " Cetus " in the whale and the "moon passing through it 
in three days and nights " in Jonah. There are, however, other cosmological 
interpretations deserving of more attention. We have already seen (pp. 81-83 
of this volume) how widespread was the belief that at eclipses the luminary 
was swallowed or attacked by some monster, and it is quite understandable 
that the primitive mind might easily conceive of the sunset being caused by 
a huge fish swallowing the sun. But when we come to the Jonah legend, we 
find that the prophet was in the fish i.e. invisible to human eyes for three 
days the period of the moon's disappearance at the end of the month (see 
R. Campbell Thompson, Semitic Magic, pp. 53, 54). Jonah is the Hebrew 


fisher-king Satyavrata, when he saw that young man come 
out and bestow his blessing on him, was astonished, and asked 
him : " Who are you, and how did this lot of dwelling in the 
belly of the fish befall you ? What means this exceedingly 
strange fate that you have suffered ? " When Saktideva 
heard this he answered that king of the fishermen : " I am 
a Brahman of the name of Saktideva from the city of 
Vardhamana; and I am bound to visit the City of Gold, 
and because I do not know where it is, I have for a long 
time wandered far over the earth ; then I gathered from a 
speech of Dirghatapas' that it was probably in an island, 
so I set out to find Satyavrata the king of the fishermen, 
who lives in the island of Utsthala, in order to learn its 
whereabouts, but on the way I suffered shipwreck, and so, 
having been whelmed in the sea and swallowed by a fish, 
I have been brought here now." 

word for " dove," and, as Robertson Smith has pointed out {Religion of' the 
Semites, quoting Al-Nadim, 294*), it was at Harran, the city sacred to the 
moon-god, that the dove was not sacrificed. 

A fairly widely accepted interpretation of the Jonah legend, however, is 
that it is a prophecy conveyed under a parable. There are several reasons 
given for the propagation of this view. In the first place, no reference of 
the supposed conversion of Nineveh by Jonah is mentioned by Isaiah, Ezekiel, 
Hosea, or the other prophets, and no records of Jonah's visit to the city have 
been discovered. Jeremiah (li, 34) clearly shows the meaning of expressions 
similar to those found in the Jonah story. Here we read ; "Nebuchadrezzar, 
the king of Babylon, hath devoured me, he hath crushed me, he hath made 
me an empty vessel, he hath swallowed me up like a dragon, he hath filled 
his belly with my delicates, he hath cast me out." See also Jeremiah 1, 17 ; 
1, 44; and Isaiah xxvii, 1. 

Other interpretations of the story have been advocated. W. Simpson 
{The Jonah Legend, London, 1899) considers that it is an initiatory legend 
showing death and subsequent resurrection, embodying the same principles 
as Christian baptism and the Brahmanic "rite of the twice-born." He points 
out that Jonah (ii, 2) cried out from "hell" i.e. "Hades," "Sheol," or the 
"grave" which shows that there was no real "fish" in the case, and that 
it was, on the contrary, the dramatic action of a ceremony, with its symbolic 

For other interesting references see G. A. Smith, 7'he Book of the Twelve 
Prophets, 1899, vol. ii, p. 524; Hans Schmitt, Jona, 1907; and T. K. Cheyne, 
''Jonah," Ency. Brit.^ vol. xv, pp. 496, 497. For a Polynesian and Dutch New 
Guinea parallel of the Jonah story see respectively Macculloch, Childhood of 
Fiction, p. 50, and Frazer, Folk-Lore of the Old Testament, vol. iii, p. 83. n.m.p. 


When Saktideva had said this, Satyavrata said to him : 
" I am in truth Satyavrata, and this is the very island you 
were seeking ; but though I have seen many islands I have 
never seen the city you desire to find, but I have heard of it 
as situated in one of the distant islands." Having said this, 
and perceiving that Saktideva was cast down, Satyavrata, out 
of kindness for his guest, went on to say : " Brahman, do 
not be despondent ; remain here this night, and to-morrow 
morning I will devise some expedient to enable you to attain 
your object." The Brahman was thus consoled by the 
king, and sent off to a monastery of Brahmans, where guests 
were readily entertained. There Saktideva was supplied with 
food by a Brahman named Vishnudatta, an inmate of the 
monastery, and entered into conversation with him. And 
in the course of that conversation, being questioned by him, 
he told him in a few words his country, his family and his 
whole history. When Vishnudatta heard that, he immedi- 
ately embraced him, and said in a voice indistinct from the 
syllables being choked with tears of joy : " Bravo ! you are 
the son of my maternal uncle and a fellow-countryman of 
mine. But I long ago in my childhood left that country 
to come here. So stop here awhile, and soon the stream of 
merchants and pilots that come here from other islands will 
accomplish your wish." 

Having told him his descent in these words, Vishnudatta 
waited upon Saktideva with all becoming attentions. And 
Saktideva, forgetting the toil of the journey, obtained delight, 
for the meeting of a relation in a foreign land is like a fountain 
of nectar in the desert. And he considered that the accom- 
plishment of his object was near at hand, for good luck 
befalling one by the way indicates success in an under- 
taking. So he reclined at night sleepless upon his bed, 
with his mind fixed upon the attainment of his desire, and 
Vishnudatta, who was by his side, in order to encourage and 
delight him at the same time, related to him the following 
tale : 


29c. ASokadatta and Vijayadatta ^ 

Formerly there was a great Brahman named Govinda- 
svamin, Hving on a great royal grant of land on the banks 
of the Yamuna. And in the course of time there were born 
to that virtuous Brahman two sons like himself, Ai^okadatta 
and Vijayadatta. While they were living there, there arose 
a terrible famine in that land, and so Govindasvamin said to 
his wife : " This land is ruined by famine, and I cannot bear 
to behold the misery of my friends and relations. For who 
gives anything to anybody ? So let us at any rate give away 
to our friends and relations what little food we possess and 
leave this country. And let us go with our family to Benares 
to live there." When he said this to his wife she consented, 
and he gave away his food and set out from that place with his 
wife, sons and servants. For men of noble soul cannot bear 
to witness the miseries of their relatives. And on the road he 
beheld a skull-bearing Saiva ascetic, white with ashes, and with 
matted hair, like the god Siva himself with his half-moon. 

The Brahman approached that wise man with a bow, 
and out of love for his sons asked him about their destiny, 
whether it should be good or bad, and that Yogi answered 
him : " The future destiny of your sons is auspicious, but you 
shall be separated. Brahman, from this younger one, Vijaya- 
datta, and finally by the might of the second, A^okadatta, 
you shall be united to him," Govindasvamin, when that 
wise man said this to him, took leave of him and departed, 
overpowered with joy, grief and wonder ; and after reaching 
Benares he spent the day there in a temple of Durga out- 
side the town, engaged in worshipping the goddess and such- 
like occupations. And in the evening he encamped outside 
that temple under a tree with his family, in the company 
of pilgrims who had come from other countries. And at 
night, while all were asleep, wearied with their long journey, 
stretched out on strewn leaves and such other beds as 
travellers have to put up with, his younger son Vijayadatta,^ 
who was awake, was suddenly seized with a cold ague fit; 

^ Cf. Grimm's M'drchen, No. 60; Sicilianische Marchen, Nos. 39 and 40, 
with Dr Kohler's notes. 


that ague quickly made him tremble, and caused his hair to 
stand on end, as if it had been the fear of his approaching 
separation from his relations. And oppressed with the cold 
he woke up his father, and said to him : "A terrible ague 
afflicts me here now, father, so bring fuel and light me a fire 
to keep off the cold ; in no other way can I obtain relief or 
get through the night." When Govindasvamin heard him 
say this, he was distressed at his suffering, and said to him : 
" Whence can I procure fire now, my son ? " Then his son 
said : " Why, surely we can see a fire burning near us on this 
side, and it is very large, so why should I not go there and 
warm my body ? So take me by the hand, for I have a 
shivering fit, and lead me there." Thus entreated by his son, 
the Brahman went on to say : " This is a cemetery,^ and the 
fire is that of a fimeral pyre, so how can you go to a place 
terrible from the presence of goblins and other spirits, for 
Vijayadatta Y^u are Only a child ? " When the brave Vijaya- 
hecdmes a datta heard that speech of his affectionate father 
Rakshasa -^e laughed, and said in his confidence : " What 
can the wretched goblins and other evil ones do to me ? 
Am I a weakling? So take me there without fear." When 
he said this so persistently, his father led him there, and the 
boy warming his body approached the pyre, which seemed to 
bear on itself the presiding deity of the Rakshasas ^ in visible 
form, with the smoke of the flames for dishevelled hair, devour- 
ing the flesh of men. The boy at once encouraged his father ^ 

^ If such a word can be applied to a place where bodies are burnt. 

The usual expression is "burning-ground/' or "burning-ghat." n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. I, pp. 204, 205. When Hanuman, the monkey-god, entered 
Lanka in the form of a cat, to reconnoitre, he saw that the Rakshasas who 
slept in the house "were of every shape and form. Some of them disgusted 
the eye, while some were beautiful to look on. Some had long arms and 
frightful shapes ; some were very fat and some were very lean ; some were 
dwarf and some were prodigiously tall. Some had only one eye, and 
others had only one ear. Some had monstrous bellies, hanging breasts, long 
projecting teeth, and crooked thighs ; whilst others were exceedingly beauti- 
ful to behold and clothed in great splendour. Some had the heads of serpents, 
some the heads of asses, some of horses, and some of elephants." For further 
details see Crooke, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 246-250. n.m.p. 

3 Samdsvasya, the reading of a MS. in the Sanskrit College, would perhaps 
give a better sense. 


and asked him what the round thing was that he saw inside 
the pyre. And his father, standing at his side, answered 
him : " This, my son, is the skull of a man which is burning 
in the pyre." 

Then the boy in his recklessness struck the skull with a 
piece of wood lighted at the top and clove it. The brains 
spouted up from it and entered his mouth, like the initiation 
into the practices of the Rakshasas, bestowed upon him by 
the funeral flame. And by tasting them that boy became 
a Rakshasa,^ with hair standing on end, with sword that he 

1 Although at first sight the disgusting method by which Vijayadatta 
becomes a Rakshasa may appear merely fantastic and revolting, the idea is 
based on practices which enter into the Tantric rites of the Sakta worshippers 
of Devi, in one of her various forms, as Kali, Durga, Chamunda, etc. Apart 
from the cannibalism and human sacrifices connected with this worship, we 
find similar and even more loathsome practices among the Aghorl caste, who 
are not even extinct to-day (see p. 90n^). Members of this caste eat the 
most disgusting things imaginable, including putrid corpses, human and animal 
excretions, etc. 

As Crooke points out (" Aghori," Hastings' Enci/, Rel. Eih., vol. i, p. 212), 
these vile practices may perhaps be accounted for by similar ones which 
existed, and in some cases do still exist, among wizards and medicine-men 
of savage tribes. The idea at the root of such practices is that the unusual 
and filthy food thus consumed enhances the spiritual exaltation of the eater. 
I consider it is really the same principle as we saw (p. 117) existed in the 
minds of people who perform rites in a state of nudity. 

The following examples of eating disgusting food for magical reasons have 
been collected by Crooke (op. cit., p. 212) : According to Haddon (Report 
Cambridge Exped., vol. v, p. 321), at Mabuiag in Torres Straits, the Maidelaig, 
or sorcerer, "made a practice of eating anything that was disgusting and 
revolting in character, or poisonous or medicinal in nature, not only during 
the course of instruction, but subsequently, whenever about to perform a 
special act of sorcery. For instance, they were said frequently to eat flesh 
of corpses, or to mix the juices of corpses with their food. One effect of this 
diet was to make them ' wild ' so that they did not care for anyone, and all 
affection temporarily ceased for relatives, wife and children ; and on being 
angered by any of them, they would not hesitate to commit murder." In 
parts of Melanesia, according to Codrington, Mana, or spiritual exaltation, is 
gained by eating human flesh ; and in this way people obtain the power of 
becoming vampires, the ghost of the corpse which was eaten entering into 
friendly relations with the eater (Joum. Anlh. Iml., vol. x, p. 305 ; Melanestans, 
p. 222). In Central Africa, according to Macdonald, witches and wizards feed 
on human flesh, and anyone tasting a morsel of such food becomes himself a 
wizard {Joum. Anth. Inst., vol. xxii, p. 107). Among nearly all the Bantu negro 


had drawn from the flame, terrible with projecting tusks : 
so he seized the skull and, drinking the brains from it, he 
licked it with tongue restlessly quivering like the flames of 
fire that clung to the bone. Then he flung aside the skull, 
and lifting his sword he attempted to slay his own father 
Govindasvamin. But at that moment a voice came out 
from the cemetery : " Kapalasphota,^ thou god, thou oughtest 
not to slay thy father. Come here." When the boy heard 
that, having obtained the title of Kapalasphota and become 
a Rakshasa, he let his father alone and disappeared; and 
his father departed, exclaiming aloud : " Alas, my son ! 
Alas, my virtuous son ! Alas, Vijayadatta ! " And he re- 
turned to the temple of Durga, and in the morning he told 
his wife and his eldest son Asokadatta what had taken place. 
Then that unfortunate man together with them suffered 
an attack of the fire of grief, terrible like the falling of 
lightning from a cloud, so that the other people who were 
sojourning in Benares, and had come to visit the shrine of 
the goddess, came up to him and sympathised heartily with 
his sorrow. 

In the meanwhile a great merchant, who had come to 
worship the goddess, named Samudradatta, beheld Govinda- 
svamin in that state. The good man approached him and 
comforted him, and immediately took him and his family 
home to his own house. And there he provided him with a 

races there is a lingering suspicion that the sorcerer, or person desiring to 
become a sorcerer, is a corpse-eater, a ghoul who digs up the bodies of dead 
persons to eat them, either from a morbid taste, or in the belief that this 
action will invest him with magical powers. In Uganda, as well as in many 
parts of Bantu Africa, there is believed to exist a secret society of such ghouls, 
who assemble at midnight for the purpose of disinterring and eating corpses. 
People cursed with this morbid taste are in Uganda called basezi (Johnston, 
Uganda, vol. ii, pp. 578, 692 et. seq.). 

Stories similar to those in the present work are still told in India (Panjab 
Notes and Queries, vol. ii, p. 75 ; Steel and Temple's Wide-Awake Stories, p. 418). 
Even at the present day the Odi magicians in Malabar are said to eat filth as 
a means of acquiring power (Fawcett, Bulletin of the Madras Museum, vol. iii, 
p. 311). 

For further details reference should be made to Bourke, Scatalogic Rites 
of all Nations, see especially ch. xliii, under " Witchcraft," etc. n.m.p. 

^ I.e. "skull-cleaver." 


bath and other luxuries, for this is the innate tendency of the 
great, to have mercy upon the wretched. Govindasvamin 
also and his wife recovered their self-command, having 
heard ^ the speech of the great Saiva ascetic, hoping to be 
reunited to their son. And thenceforth he lived in that city 
of Benares, in the house of that rich merchant, having been 
asked by him to do so. And there his other son Aiokadatta 
grew up to be a young man, and after studying the sciences 
learnt boxing and wrestling. And gradually he attained 
such eminence in these arts that he was not surpassed by 
any champion on the earth. And once on a time there was 
a great gathering of wrestlers at an idol procession, ^ and a 
great and famous wrestler came from the Deccan. He con- 
quered all the other wrestlers of the King of Benares, who 
was called Pratapamukuta, before his eyes. Then the king 
had Aj^okadatta quickly summoned from the house of that 
excellent merchant, and ordered him to contend with that 
wrestler. That wrestler began the combat by catching the 
arm of Ai^okadatta with his hand, but A^okadatta seized 
his arm and hurled him to the ground. Then the field of 
combat, as it were, pleased, applauded the victor with the 
resounding noise produced by the fall of that champion 
wrestler. And the king being gratified, loaded A^okadatta 
with jewels, and having seen his might, he made him his 
own personal attendant. So he became a favourite of the 
king's, and in time attained great prosperity, for to one who 
possesses heroic qualities a king who appreciates merit is a 
perfect treasure-house. 

Once on a time that king went on the fourteenth day 
of the month away from his capital, to worship the god Siva 
in a splendid temple in a distant town. After he had paid 
The Call ^^^ devotions, he was returning by night near 
from ihe the Cemetery when he heard this utterance issue 

Funeral Pyre ^^^ ^ . c. q j^^^^ ^j^^ ^j^-^f magistrate OUt of 

private malice proclaimed that I deserved death, and it is 

^ Perhaps we ought to read smritva for srutva, " remembering," " calling 
to mind." 

^ Barnett {Golden Town, p. \6) translates simply "a religious festival." 



now the third day since I was impaled, and even now my 
life will not leave my body, though I am innocent, so I am 
exceedingly thirsty. O King, order water to be given me." 
When the king heard it, out of pity he said to his personal 
attendant Asokadatta : " Send that man some water." 
Then Asokadatta said : " Who would go there at night ? 
So I had better go myself." Accordingly he took the water 
and set off. 

After the king had proceeded on his way to his capital, 
the hero entered that cemetery, the interior of which was 
difficult to penetrate, as it was filled with dense darkness 
within ; in it there were awful evening oblations offered 
with the human flesh scattered about by the jackals ; in 
places the cemetery was lighted up by the flaming beacons 
of the blazing funeral pyres, and in it the Vetalas made 
terrible music with the clapping of their hands, so that it 
seemed as if it were the palace of black night. ^ Then he 
cried aloud : " Who asked the king for water ? " And he 
heard from one quarter an answer : "I asked for it." Follow- 
ing the voice he went to a funeral pyre near, and beheld a 
man impaled on the top of a stake, and underneath it he saw 
a woman that he had never seen before, weeping, adorned 
with beautiful ornaments, lovely in every limb like the 
night adorned with the rays of the moon, now that the moon 
itself had set, its splendour having waned in the dark fort- 
night, come to worship the funeral pyre.^ He asked the 
woman : " Who are you, mother,^ and why are you standing 
weeping here ? " She answered him : "I am the ill-fated 

^ Barnett {pp. cit, p. 17) translates "while the tuneless hand-clapping of 
goblins rang out ; it was like black Night's own palace." n.m.p. 

2 The passage is not clear. Speyer (op. cit., p. 105) points out that the 
difficulty vanishes when we read citdrohaya of the D. text instead of citdrcdya 
in Brockhaus. The wife, who sits down on the earth near her impaled husband, 
is duly compared to a night of the dark half of the month, at the time when 
the moon has set; both, in fact, are preparing to ascend the pyre that is to 
consume their husband the woman after the death of the tortured man, and 
Night in the glow of the approaching dawn, n.m.p. 

2 As the lady was young and beautiful, this mode of address may seem 
strange, but it is an assurance that the speaker has no designs on the other's 
chastity. It corresponds with the Arabic " Ya Ummi ! " " O my mother ! " 
See Nights (Burton, vol. viii, p. 87). n.m.p. 


wife of him who is here impaled, and I am waiting here with 
the firm intention of ascending the funeral pyre with him. 
And I am waiting some time for his Ufe to leave his body, 
for though it is the third day of his impalement his breath 
does not depart. And he often asks for that water which I 
have brought here, but I cannot reach his mouth, my friend, 
as the stake is high." When he heard that speech of hers, the 
mighty hero said to her : " But here is water in my hand sent 
to him by the king, so place your foot on my back and lift it 
to his mouth, for the mere touching of another man in sore need 
does not disgrace a woman." When she heard that, she con- 
sented, and, taking the water, she climbed up so as to plant her 
two feet on the back of A^okadatta, who bent down at the foot 
of the stake. Soon after, as drops of blood unexpectedly began 
to fall upon the earth and on his back, the hero lifted up his face 
and looked. Then he saw that woman cutting off slice after 
slice of that impaled man's flesh with a knife and eating it.^ 
Then, perceiving that she was some horrible demon, ^ he 

^ So in Laura Gonzenbach's Sicilianische M'drchen, p. 66', a lovely woman 
opens with a knife the veins of the sleeping prince and drinks his blood. See 
also Veckenstedt's Wendische Sageti, p. 354. Ralston in his Russian Folk-Tales, 
p. 17, compares this part of the story with a Russian story called "The Friend" 

(Afanasief, vi, No. 66). The incident in our text found its way into the 

story of "Brave Seventee Bai/' Frere's Old Deccan Days, pp. 27, 28. The 
best-known story of people digging up corpses and eating them occurs in 
the " History of Sidi Nu'uman," Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. iii, pp. 325-336). 
A very similar tale is current at Palena, in the Abruzzi, and is given in vol. iii 
of the Archivio per lo studio delle Tradizioni Popolari (Palermo, 1882), p. 222. 
An important abstract was given by E. Sidney Hartland to W. S. Clouston, 
who printed it on pp. 585-586 of the same volume of the Nights as given above. 
In this case (as in that of Sidi Nu'uman) the attention of the husband is 
drawn to his wife's behaviour as she cannot eat anything when at home and 
merely " picks a few grains of rice with a large pin." Her suspicious husband 
follows her one night to the burial-ground, where she meets with certain 
female companions, who open a grave and feast on a newly buried corpse. 
V^ hen on the next day the husband shows he is no longer in ignorance of 
his wife's strange pastime, he is immediately turned into a dog by her magic. 

Other references will be found in Crooke, Popular Folk-Lore of Northern 
India, vol. ii, pp. l68, l69: Chauvin, op. cit., vii, p. 199; and Macculloch, 
The Childhood of Fiction, ch. x. n.m.p. 

^ One is tempted to read vikritdm lor vikfitiin, but vikriti is translated by 
the Petersburg lexicographers as Gesperisierscheinung, Vikritam would mean 
transformed into a Rakshasl. 


dragged her down in a rage, and took hold of her foot with 
its tinkUng anklets in order to dash her to pieces on the 
earth. She for her part dragged away from him that foot, 
and by her deluding power quickly flew up into the heaven 
and became invisible. And the jewelled anklet, which had 
fallen from her foot while she was dragging it away, re- 
mained in one of Asokadatta's hands. Then he, reflecting 
that she had disappeared after showing herself mild at first, 
and evil-working in the middle, and at the end horror- 
striking by assuming a terrible form, like association with 
wicked men, and seeing that heavenly anklet in his hand, 
was astonished, grieved and delighted at the same time ; 
and then he left that cemetery, taking the anklet with him, 
and went to his own house, and in the morning, after bathing, 
to the palace of the king. 

And when the king said, " Did you give the water to the 
man who was impaled ? " he said he had done so, and gave 
him that anklet ; and when the king of his own accord asked 
him where it came from, he told that king his wonderful 
and terrible night adventure. And then the king, perceiving 
that his courage was superior to that of all men, though he 
was before pleased with his other excellent qualities, was 
now more exceedingly delighted ; and he took that anklet 
in his joy and gave it with his own hand to the queen, and 
described to her the way in which he had obtained it. And 
she, hearing the story and beholding that heavenly- jewelled 
anklet, rejoiced in her heart and was continually engaged in 
extolling Asokadatta. Then the king said to her : " Queen, 
in birth, in learning, in truthfulness and beauty Asoka- 
datta is great among the great ; and I think it would be a 
good thing if he were to become the husband of our lovely 
daughter Madanalekha ; in a bridegroom these qualities are 
to be looked for, not fortune that vanishes in a moment, so I 
will give my daughter to this excellent hero." 

When she heard that speech of her husband's, that queen 
approving the proposal said : "It is quite fitting, for the 
youth will be an appropriate match for her, and her heart 
has been captivated by him, for she saw him in a spring- 
garden, and for some days her mind has been in a state of 


vacancy and she neither hears nor sees. I heard of it from 
her confidante, and, after spending an anxious night, towards 
morning 1 fell asleep, and I remember I was thus addressed 
As k d tt ^^ some heavenly woman in a dream : ' My child, 
marries thou must not give tliis thy daughter Madanalekha 

the Kings to anyouc but A^okadatta, for she is his wife 
''"^ ^^ acquired by him in a former birth.' And when 
I heard it I woke up, and in the morning I went myself on 
the strength of that dream and consoled my daughter. And 
now my husband has of his own accord proposed the marriage 
to me. Let her, therefore, be united to him, as a spring- 
creeper to its stalk." ^ When the king's beloved wife said 
this to him, he was pleased, and he made festal rejoicings, 
and summoning A^okadatta gave that daughter to him. 
And the union of those two, the daughter of the king, 
and the son of the great Brahman, was such that each 
enhanced the other's glory, like the union of prosperity and 

And once upon a time the queen said to the king, with 
reference to the anklet brought by A^okadatta : " My 
husband, this anklet by itself does not look well, so let 
another be made like it." When the king heard that, he 
gave an order to the goldsmiths and other craftsmen of the 
kind, to make a second anklet like that. But they, after 
examining it, said : "It is impossible, O king, to make 
another like it, for the work is heavenly, not human. There 
are not many jewels of this kind upon the earth, so let another 
be sought for where this was obtained." When the king and 
the queen heard this, they were despondent, and A^okadatta, 
who was there, on seeing that, immediately said : " I myself 
will bring you a fellow to that anklet." And having made 
this promise he could not give up the project on which he 
was resolved, although the king, terrified at his temerity, 
endeavoured to dissuade him out of affection. 

And taking the anklet he went again on the fourteenth 

^ Indian rhetoric always compares the union of husband and wife to the 
creeper clinging to a tree. This is, moreover, found in the D. text, which 
reads vrkshenevariavl lata. See Speyer, op. cil., p. 10.5. Barnett {Golden Toton, 
p. 18) translates "as a climbing plant of spring with its tree." n.m.p. 


night of the black fortnight to the cemetery where he had 
first obtained it ; and after he had entered that cemetery 
which was full of Rakshasas as it was of trees, besmirched 
with the copious smoke of the funeral pyres, and with men 
hanging from their trunks ^ which were weighed down and 
surrounded with nooses, he did not at first see that woman 
that he had seen before, but he thought of an admirable 
device for obtaining that bracelet, which was nothing else 
than the selling of human flesh. ^ So he pulled down a corpse 
from the noose by which it was suspended on the tree, and 
he wandered about in the cemetery, crying aloud : " Human 
flesh for sale, buy, buy ! " ^ And immediately a woman 
called to him from a distance, saying : " Courageous man, 
bring the human flesh and come along with me." When 
he heard that, he advanced, following that woman, and 
beheld at no great distance under a tree a lady of heavenly 
appearance, surrounded with women, sitting on a throne, 
glittering with jewelled ornaments, whom he would never 
have expected to find in such a place, any more than to find 
a lotus in a desert. 

And having been led up by that woman, he approached 
the lady seated as has been described, and said : " Here I 
am ; I sell human flesh : buy, buy ! " And then the lady of 
He obtains hcavculy appearance said to him : " Courageous 
the second hcro, foT what pricc will you sell the flesh ? " 
Anhlet Then the hero, the corpse hanging over his 

shoulder and back, said to her, showing her at the same time 
that single jewelled anklet which was in his hand i " I will 
give this flesh to whoever will give me a second anklet like 
this one ; if you have got a second like it, take the flesh." 
When she heard that, she said to him : "I have a second like 
it, for this very single anklet was taken by you from me. I 
am that very woman who was seen by you near the impaled 
man, but you do not recognise me now, because I have 

^ Skandha when applied to the Rakshasas means " shoulder." 

^ Literally, " great flesh." " Great " seems to give the idea of unlawfulness, 

as in the Greek //.cya cpyov. 

3 This resembles the Tantric rite described in the Mdlatl Mddhava. See 

note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


assumed another shape. So what is the use of flesh ? If 
you do what I tell you, I will give you my second anklet, 
which matches the one in your hand." When she said this 
to the hero, he consented, and said ; " I will immediately do 
whatever you say." 

Then she told him her whole desire from the beginning : 
" There is, good sir, a city named Trighanta on a peak of 
the Himalayas. In it there lived a heroic prince of the Rak- 
shasas named Lambajihva. I am his wife, Vidyuchchhikha 
by name, and I can change my form at will. And as fate 
would have it, that husband of mine, after the birth of my 
daughter, was slain in battle fighting in front of the King 
Kapalasphota ; then that king being pleased gave me his 
own city, and I have lived with my daughter in great comfort 
on its proceeds up to the present time. And that daughter 
of mine has by this time grown up to fresh womanhood, and 
I have great anxiety in my mind as to how to obtain for her 
a brave husband. Then being here on the fourteenth night 
of the lunar fortnight, and seeing you coming along this way 
with the king, I thought : ' This good-looking youth is a hero 
and a fit match for my daughter, so why should I not devise 
some stratagem for obtaining him ? ' Thus I determined, 
and imitating the voice of an impaled person, I asked for 
water, and brought you into the middle of that cemetery 
by a trick. And there I exhibited my delusive power in 
assuming a false shape and other characteristics, and, saying 
what was false, I imposed upon you there, though only for 
a moment. And I artfully left one of my anklets there to 
attract you again, like a binding chain to draw you, and then 
I came away. And to-day I have obtained you by that 
very expedient ; so come to my house, marry my daughter 
and receive the other anklet." 

When the Rakshasi said this to him, the hero consented, 
and by means of her magic power he went with her through 
the air to her city. And he saw that city built of gold on a 
peak of the Himalayas, like the orb of the sun fixed in one 
spot, being weary with the toil of wandering through the 
heavens. There he married that daughter of the Prince of 
the Rakshasas, by name Vidyutprabha, like the success of his 


own daring incarnate in bodily form. And Asokadatta dwelt 
with that loved one some time in that city, enjoying great 
comfort by means of his mother-in-law's wealth. Then he 
said to his mother-in-law i " Give me that anklet, for I must 
now go to the city of Benares, for I myself long ago promised 
the king that I would bring a second anklet, that would vie 
with the first one so distinguished for its unparalleled beauty." 
The mother-in-law gave him that second anklet of hers and 
in addition a golden lotus.^ 

Then he left that city with the anklet and the lotus, 
after promising to return, and his mother-in-law by the 
power of her magic knowledge carried him once more 
And returns through the air to the cemetery. And then she 
safeli/ to stopped under the tree and said to him : "I always 

the Palace comc here on the fourteenth night of the black 
fortnight, and whenever you come here on that ^ night 
you will find me here under the banyan-tree." When 
Asokadatta heard this, he agreed to come there on that 
night, and took leave of that Rakshasi, and went first to 
his father's house. And just as he was gladdening by his 
unexpected arrival his parents, who were grieved by such an 
absence of his, which doubled their grief for their separation 
from their younger son, the king, his father-in-law, who had 
heard of his arrival, came in. The king indulged in a long 
outburst of joy, embracing him who bent before him, with 
limbs the hairs of which stood on end like thorns, as if terrified 
at touching one so daring.^ 

Then Asokadatta entered with him the palace of the 
king, like joy incarnate in bodily form ; and he gave to the 
king those two anklets matched together, which so to speak 
praised his valour with their tinkling; and he bestowed on 
that king the beautiful golden lotus, as it were the lotus 
with which the presiding Fortune of the Rakshasas' treasure 
plays, torn from her hand. Then being questioned out of 
curiosity by the king and queen he told the story of his 

^ Cf. the golden rose in Gaal, Mdrchen der Magyaren, p. 44. 
2 Reading tasyan for tasvidn. 

^ Somadeva no doubt means that the hairs on the king's body stood on 
end with joy. See Vol. I, p. 120w\ n.m.p. 


exploits, which poured nectar into their ears. The king then 
exclaimed : " Is glittering glory, which astonishes the mind 
by the description of wonderful exploits, ever obtained 
without a man's bringing himself to display boldness ? " 
Thus the king spoke on that occasion, and he and the 
queen, who had obtained the pair of anklets, considered their 
object in life attained, now that they had such a son-in-law. 
And then that palace, resounding with festal instruments, 
appeared as if it were chanting the virtues of A^okadatta. 

And on the next day the king dedicated the golden lotus 
in a temple made by himself, placing it upon a beautiful 
silver vessel ; and the two together, the vessel and the lotus, 
gleamed white and red like the glory of the king and the 
might ^ of A^okadatta. And beholding them thus, the king, 
a devout worshipper of Siva, with eyes expanded with joy, 
spoke inspired with the rapture of adoration : " Ah ! this 
lofty vessel appears, with this lotus upon it, like Siva white 
with ashes, with his auburn matted locks. If I had a second 
golden lotus like it I would place it in this second silver 
vessel." When A^okadatta heard this speech of the king's, 
he said: "I, King, will bring you a second golden lotus." 
When the king heard that, he answered him : "I have no 
need of another lotus ; a truce to your temerity ! " 

Then as days went on, Ai^okadatta being desirous of 
bringing a golden lotus, the fourteenth day of the black 
fortnight returned ; and that evening the sun, the golden 
lotus of the sky-lake, went to the mountain of setting, as if 
out of fear, knowing his desire for a golden lotus ; and when 
the shades of night, brown as smoke, began immediately to 
spread everywhere like Rakshasas, proud of having swallowed 
the red clouds of evening as if they were raw flesh, and the 
mouth of night like that of an awful goblin began to yawn, 
shining and terrible as tamdla, full of flickering flames,'* 
A^okadatta of his own accord left the palace where the 
princess was asleep, and again went to that cemetery. 
There he beheld at the foot of that banyan-tree his mother- 

^ According to the canons of Hindu rhetoric glory is always white. 
2 Night is com{)ared to a female goblin (Rakshasi). These creatures have 
fiery mouths. 



in-law the Rakshasi, who had again come, and who received 
him with a courteous welcome; and with her the youth 
went again to her home, the peak of the Himalayas, where 
his wife was anxiously awaiting him. And after he had 
remained some time with his wife he said to his mother- 
in-law : " Give me a second golden lotus from somewhere or 
other." When she heard that, she said to him : " Whence 
can I procure another golden lotus ? But there is a lake 
here belonging to our King Kapalasphota, where golden 
lotuses of this kind grow on all sides. From that lake he 
gave that one lotus to my husband as a token of affection." 
When she said this, he answered her : " Then take me to 
that lake in order that I may myself take a golden lotus from 
it." She then attempted to dissuade him, saying : " It is 
impossible ; for the lake is guarded by terrible Rakshasas " ; 
but nevertheless he would not desist from his importunity. 
Then at last his mother-in-law was with much difficulty 
induced to take him there, and he beheld from afar that 
heavenly lake on the plateau of a lofty mountain, covered 
with dense and tall-stalked lotuses of gleaming gold, as if 
from continually facing the sun's rays they had drunk them 
in, and so become interpenetrated with them. 

So he went there and began to gather the lotuses ; and 
while he was thus engaged the terrible Rakshasas who 
guarded it endeavoured to prevent him from doing so. 
Asokadatta -^^^ being armed he killed some of them, but 
meets his the others fled and told their King Kapalas- 
Brother phota,i and when that King of the Rakshasas 

heard of it he was enraged, and came there himself, and saw 
Ai^okadatta with the lotuses he had carried off. And in his 
astonishment he exclaimed as he recognised his brother : 
" What ! is this my brother Asokadatta come here ? " Then 
he flung away his weapon, and, with his eyes washed with 
tears of joy, he quickly ran and fell at his feet, and said 
to him : "I am Vijayadatta, your younger brother ; we are 
both the sons of that excellent Brahman Govindasvamin. 
And by the appointment of destiny I became a Rakshasa 
such as you see, and have continued such for this long time ; 

^ Cf. Sicilianiscke MdrcheUj collected by Laura Gonzenbach, vol. i, p. l60, 


and I am called Kapalasphota from my cleaving the skull 
on the funeral pyre. But now from seeing you I have re- 
membered my former Brahman nature, and that Rakshasa 
nature of mine, that clouded my mind with delusion, has 
left me." When Vijayadatta said this, A^okadatta embraced 
him, and, so to speak, washed with copious tears of joy his 
body defiled by the Rakshasa nature. And while he was 
thus engaged there descended from heaven by divine com- 
mand the spiritual guide of the Vidyadharas, named Kau^ika. 
And he, approaching these two brothers, said : " You and 
your family are all Vidyadharas, who have been reduced to 
this state by a curse, and now the curse of all of you has 
terminated. So receive these sciences, which belong to you, 
and which you must share with your relations. And return 
to your own proper dwelling, taking with you your relations." 
Having said this, the spiritual guide, after bestowing the 
sciences on them, ascended to heaven. 

And they, having become Vidyadharas, awoke from their 
long dream and went through the air to that peak of the 
Himalayas, taking with them the golden lotuses ; and there 
A^okadatta repaired to his wife, the daughter of the King 
of the Rakshasas, and then her curse came to an end and 
she became a Vidyadhari. And those two brothers went in 
a moment with that fair-eyed one to Benares, travelling 
through the air. And there they visited their parents, who 
were scorched with the fire of separation, and refreshed 
them by pouring upon them the revivifying nectar of their 
own appearance. And those two, who, without changing the 
body, had gone through such wonderful transformations, 
produced joy not only in their parents, but in the people 
at large. And when Vijayadatta's father, after so long a 
separation, folded him in a close embrace, he filled not only 
his arms, but also his desire. 

Then the King Pratapamukuta, the father-in-law of 
A^okadatta, hearing of it, came there in high delight; and 
A^okadatta, being kindly received by the king, entered with 
his relations the king's palace, in which his beloved was 
anxiously awaiting him, and which was in a state of festal 
rejoicing. And he gave many golden lotuses to that king, 


and the king was delighted at getting more than he had 
asked for. Then Vijayadatta's father Govindasvamin, full 
of wonder and curiosity, said to him in the presence of all : 
" Tell me, my son, what sort of adventures you had after you 
had become a Rakshasa in the cemetery during the night." 

Then Vijayadatta said to him : " My father, when in 
my reckless frivolity I had cloven the burning skull on the 
funeral pyre, as fate would have it, I immediately, as you 
Vijayadatta ^^^> became a Rakshasa by its brains having 
relates his entered my mouth, being bewildered with delu- 
Adventures ^{qyi. Then I was Summoned by the other Rak- 
shasas, who gave me the name of Kapalasphota, and I joined 
them. And then I was led by them to their sovereign, 
the King of the Rakshasas, and he, when he saw me, was 
pleased with me and appointed me commander-in-chief. 
And once on a time that King of the Rakshasas went, in his 
infatuation, to attack the Gandharvas, and was there slain in 
battle by his foes. And then his subjects accepted my rule, 
so I dwelt in his city and ruled those Rakshasas ; and while 
I was there I suddenly beheld that elder brother of mine, 
Asokadatta, who had come for golden lotuses, and the sight 
of him put a stop to that Rakshasa nature in me. What 
follows, how we were released from the power of the curse, 
and thereby recovered our sciences,^ all this my elder brother 
will relate to you." 

When Vijayadatta had told this story, Asokadatta began 
to tell his from the beginning : " Long ago we were Vidya- 
dharas, and from the heaven we beheld the daughters of 
the hermits bathing in the Ganges near the hermitage of 
Galava,^ and then we fell suddenly in love with them, and 
they returned our affection ; all this took place in secret, 
but their relations, who possessed heavenly insight, found 
it out and cursed us in their anger : ' May you two wicked 
ones be born both of you to a mortal woman, and then 
you shall be separated in a marvellous manner, but when the 
second of you shall behold the first arrived in a distant land, 

^ Magical sciences, in virtue of which they were Vidyadharas or science- 

2 A son or pupil of Visvamitra. 


inaccessible to man, and shall recognise him, then you shall 
have your magic knowledge restored to you by the spiritual 
preceptor of the Vidyadharas, and you shall again become 
Vidyadharas, released from the curse and reunited to your 
friends.' Having been cursed in this way by those hermits, 
we were both bom here in this land, and you know the whole 
story of our separation ; and now by going to the city of the 
King of the Rakshasas, by virtue of my mother-in-law's 
magic power, to fetch the golden lotuses I have found this 
younger brother of mine. And in that very place we ob- 
tained the sciences ^ from our preceptor Prajnaptikau^ika, 
and suddenly becoming Vidyadharas we have quickly arrived 
here." Thus Asokadatta spoke, and then that hero of vari- 
ous adventures, delighted at having escaped the darkness 
of the curse, bestowed on his parents and his beloved, the 
daughter of the king, his wonderful sciences of many kinds, 
so that their minds were suddenly awakened and they became 

Then the happy hero took leave of the king, and with his 
brother, his parents and his two wives flew up and quickly 
reached through the air the palace of his emperor. There he 
beheld him, and received his orders, and so did his brother, 
and he bore henceforth the name of Ai^okavega, and his 
brother of Vijayavega. And both the brothers, having be- 
come noble Vidyadhara youths, went, accompanied by their 
relations, to the splendid mountain named Govindakuta, 
which now became their home. And Pratapamukuta, the 
King of Benares, overpowered by wonder, placed one of the 

^ Prajnapti, "foreknowledge," is one of the many "sciences" controlled 
by Vidyadharas, or "holders of magic science." 

She (for the science is feminine) occurs again at the beginning of 
Chapter XXX; in the "Story of Alankaravatl," Chapter LI; and in the 
"Story of the Silent Couple," Chapter CXI. In Chapter XLV the art is 
said to be founded on Sankhya and Yoga and is described as " the famous 
supernatural power, and the independence of knowledge, the dominion over 
matter that is characterised by lightness and other mystic properties." 

Various other sciences besides Prajnapti occur in this work, thus in 
Chapter XLVI the science called Mohani, "bewitching," appears, and in 
Chapter CVII it is Gaurl, "with three eyes, armed with a trident," who 
paralysed the chief heroes of Naravahanadatta's army. See Bloomfield^ 
Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. Ivi, 1917, pp. 1-6. n.m.p. 


golden lotuses in the second vessel in his temple, and offered 
to Siva the other golden lotuses presented by Ai^okadatta, 
and, delighted with the honour of his connection, considered 
his family highly fortunate. 

29. Story of the Golden City 

" Thus divine persons become incarnate for some reason, 
and are born in this world of men, and possessing their 
native virtue and courage, attain successes which it is hard 
to win. So I am persuaded that you, O sea of courage, are 
some portion of a divinity, and will attain success as you 
desire ; daring in achievements hard to accomplish even by 
the great, generally indicates a surpassingly excellent nature. 
Moreover, the Princess Kanakarekha, whom you love, must 
surely be a heavenly being, otherwise being a mere child how 
could she desire a husband that has seen the Golden City ? " 
Having heard in secret this long and interesting story from 
Vishnudatta, Saktideva, desiring in his heart to behold the 
Golden City, and supporting himself with resolute patience, 
managed to get through the night. 



Bhavabhuti, the great romantic dramatist of India, who flourished towards 
the end of the seventh century, has three plays attributed to him the Mdlati 
Madhava, the Maha Vtra Charita, and the Uttara llama Charita. 

It is in the first of these that we have such insight into the esoteric rites 
of Hinduism. The Tantric practices pictured here are so vivid and detailed 
that imagination must have been aided by a knowledge of actual fact. The 
goddess whose worship figures so largely in the play is Chamunda, a form of 
Durga. Among the rites of the high priest is the sacrifice of a human virgin, 
and by means of sorcery Mfilatl is led to the dread temple of the goddess. 

The hero Madhava has decided, like Faust, to call the powers of evil 
to his aid in his winning of Malati. Accordingly he prepares for the necessary 
Tantric rites by procuring human flesh as an offering flesh which had been 
obtained not by the common method of cutting it from a man slain in battle, 
but, we are led to suppose, by more grim and sanguinary means. Chance 
takes Madhava, with his offering of flesh, to the very temple where, little as 
he knows it, his beloved is bound and about to be offered up as a sacrifice to 

The temple is situated in a burning-ground and as Madhava approaches 
the terrors of the place begin to have their effect on him. On hearing a 
noise behind he speaks as follows (the extracts given here are taken from 
Act V of the play, as translated by H. H. Wilson; see his Theatre of the 
Hindus J vol. ii, 1827) : 

" Now wake the terrors of the place, beset 
With crowding and malignant fiends ; the flames 
From funeral pyres scarce lend their sullen light. 
Clogged with their fleshly prey, to dissipate 
The fearful gloom that hems them round. Pale ghosts 
Sport with foul goblins, and their dissonant mirth 
In shrill respondent shrieks is echoed round. 
Well, be it so. I seek, and must address them. 
Demons of ill, and disembodied spirits, 
Who haunt this spot, I bring you flesh for sale. 
The flesh of man untouched by trenchant steel. 
And worthy your acceptance. (-4 great noise.) 
How, the noise 

High, shrill, and indistinct, of chattering sprites 
Communicative fills the charnel ground. 
Strange forms like foxes flit along the sky ; 
From the red hair of their lank bodies darts 
The meteor blaze ; or from their mouths that stretch 
From ear to ear thickset with numerous fangs. 
Or eyes or beards or brows, the radiance streams. 


And now I see the goblin host : each stalks, 
On legs like palm-trees, a gaunt skeleton. 
Whose fleshless bones are bound by starting sinews. 
And scantly cased in black and shrivelled skin : 
Like tall and withered trees by lightning scathed 
They move, and as amidst their sapless trunks 
The mighty serpent curls so in each mouth 
Wide-yawning rolls the vast blood-dripping tongue. 
They mark my coming, and the half-chewed morsel 
Falls to the howling wolf and now they fly. 

(^Pauses and looks round. ^ 
Race dastardly as hideous all is plunged 
In utter gloom. (^Considering.) The river flows before me. 
The boundary of the funeral ground, that winds 
Through mouldering bones its interrupted way. 
Wild raves the torrent as it rushes past. 
And rends its crumbling bank ; the wailing Owl 
Hoots through its skirting groves, and to the sounds 
The loud-moaning Jackal yells reply." 

Suddenly Madhava hears a voice and rushes off alarmed. 

Meanwhile the priest and priestess in the temple have dressed the luck- 
less Malati as a victim and a ritual dance is being performed round her as she 
lies bound and terrified. The priest begins his incantations thus : 

' Hail hail Chamunda, mighty goddess, hail ! 
I glorify thy sport, when in the dance. 
That fills the court of Siva with delight. 
Thy foot descending spurns the earthly Globe. 
Beneath the weight the broad-backed tortoise reels ; 
The egg of Brahma trembles at the shock ; 
And in a yawning chasm, that gapes like hell. 
The sevenfold main tumultuously rushes. 

The elephant hide that robes thee, to thy steps 
Swings to and fro the whirling talons rend 
The crescent on thy brow from the torn orb 
The trickling nectar falls, and every skull 
That gems thy necklace laughs with horrid life 
Attendant spirits tremble and applaud. 
The mountain falls before thy powerful arms. 
Around whose length the sable serpents twine 
Their swelling forms, and knit terrific bands. 
Whilst from the hood expanded frequent flash 
Envenomed flames 

As rolls thy awful head, 

The lowering eye that glows amidst thy brow 


A fiery circle designates, that wraps 

The spheres within its terrible circumference : 

Whilst by the banner on thy dreadful staff, 

High waved, the stars are scattered from their orbits. 

The three-eyed God exults in the embrace 

Of his fair Spouse, as Gaurl sinks appalled 

By the distracting cries of countless fiends. 

Who shout thy praise. Oh, may such dance afford 

Whate'er we need whate'er may yield us happiness." 

W^hile this is proceeding Madhava enters unseen and slaying the priest 
releases Malatl. 

There are many other striking episodes in the play, but the above is 
sufficient to show the Tan trie basis of the scene described in pp. 198, 199 and 
205 of this volume. n.m.p. 


29. Story of the Golden City 

THE next morning, while Saktideva was dwelling in the 
monastery, in the island of Utsthala, Satyavrata, the 
king of the fishermen, came to him and said to him 
in accordance with the promise which he had made before : 
" Brahman, I have thought of a device for accomplishing 
your wish. There is a fair isle in the middle of the sea named 
Ratnakuta, and in it there is a temple of the adorable Vishnu 
founded by the Ocean, and on the twelfth day of the white 
fortnight of Ashadha there is a festival there, with a procession, 
and people come there diligently from all the islands to offer 
worship. It is possible that someone there might know about 
the Golden City, so come let us go there, for that day is near." 
When Satyavrata made this proposal, Saktideva con- 
sented gladly, and took with him the provisions for the 
journey furnished by Vishnudatta. Then he went on board 
the ship brought by Satyavrata, and quickly set out with him 
on the ocean-path ; and as he was going with Satyavrata on 
the home of marvels ^ in which the monsters resembled islands, 
he asked the king, who was steering the ship : " What is 
this- enormous object which is seen in the sea far off in this 
direction, looking like a huge mountain equipped with wings 
rising at will out of the sea ? " Then Satyavrata said : 
" Brahman, this is a banyan-tree ^ ; underneath it they say 
that there is a gigantic whirlpool, the mouth of the submarine 
fire. And we must take care in passing this way to avoid that 
spot, for those who once enter that whirlpool never return 
again." While Satyavrata was thus speaking, the ship began 
to be carried in that very direction by the force of the wind.^ 

^ I.e. the Ocean. 

2 Cf. the pueos fJieyas <f>vXXoi(Ti Ti9rjXu)<i in the Odyssey, Book XII, 103. 

3 The metre of this line is incorrect. There is a superfluous syllable. 

Perhaps we ought to read ambuvegatah, "by the current." The D. text 

shows Tawney's guess was quite correct. n.m.p. 



When Satyavrata saw this he again said to Saktideva : 
" Brahman, it is clear that the time of our destruction has 
now arrived, for see, this ship suddenly drifts^ in that 
direction. And now I cannot anyhow prevent it, so we are 
certain to be cast into that deep whirlpool, as into the 
mouth of death, by the sea which draws us on as if it were 
mighty Fate, the result of our deeds. And it grieves me not 
for myself; for whose body is continuing? But it grieves 
me to think that your desire has not been accomplished in 
spite of all your toils, so while I keep back this ship for a 
moment quickly climb on to the boughs of this banyan-tree ; 
perhaps some expedient may present itself for saving the 
life of one of such noble form; for who can calculate the 
caprices of Fate or the waves of the sea ? " 

While the heroic Satyavrata was saying this the ship drew 
near the tree ; at that moment Saktideva made a leap in his 
terror ^ and caught a broad branch of that marine banyan- 
tree,^ but Satyavrata 's body and ship, which he offered for 
another, were swept down into the whirlpool, and he entered 
the mouth of the submarine fire. But Saktideva, though he 
had escaped to the bough of that tree, which filled the regions 
with its branches, was full of despair, and reflected : "I 
have not beheld that Golden City, and I am perishing in 
an uninhabited place ; moreover, I have also brought about 
the death of that king of the fishermen. Or, rather, who can 
resist the awful Goddess of Destiny, that ever places her foot 
upon the heads of all men ? " * While the Brahman youth 
was thus revolving thoughts suited to the occasion on the 

^ I think we ought to read adhah, "downwards." 

^ Brockhaus does injustice to Saktideva, who was no coward in the greatest 
dangers. The D. text reads visadhvasah, "fearless," instead of 'tha sddhvascU. 


^ Cf. Odyssei/, xii, 432 : 

avrap lyu) irorl fAaKphv ipivthv vxj/ofT* aipdtis 

TW 7rpoa-<f>VS )(OfX1]V (U9 VVKXipU, 

Similarly Sindbad saves himself by bestriding a tub which carried him 

under the lee of a lofty island, with trees overhanging the tide. Thereupon 
(Nights, Burton, vol. vi, p. 7) "I caught hold of a branch and by its aid 
clambered up on to the land, after coming nigh unto death." n.m.p. 
* aAA.' dpa -ijyi Kar dvSpoJv Kpdara /Saivei, Iliad, xix, v. 93. 


trunk of the tree the day came to an end. And in the even- 
ing he saw many enormous birds, of the nature of vultures, 
coming into that banyan-tree from all quarters, filling the 
sides of heaven with their cries, and the waves of the sea, 
that was lashed by the wind of their broad wings, appeared 
as if running to meet them out of affection produced by 
long acquaintance. 

Then he, concealed by the dense leaves, overheard^ the 
conversation of those birds perched in the branches, which 
was carried on in human language. One described some 
The City of distant island, another a mountain, another a 
Gold at last distant region, as the place where he had gone to 
roam during the day, but an old bird among them said : 
"I went to-day to the Golden City to disport myself, and 
to-morrow morning I shall go there again to feed at my 
ease ; for what is the use of my taking a long and fatiguing 
journey ? " Saktideva's sorrow was removed by that speech 
of the bird's, which resembled a sudden shower of nectar, 
and he thought to himself : " Bravo ! that city does exist, 
and now I have an instrument for reaching it this gigantic 
bird, given me as a means of conveyance." Thinking thus, 
Saktideva slowly advanced and hid himself among the back- 
feathers of that bird while it was asleep, and next morning, 
when the other birds went off in different directions, that 
vulture, exhibiting a strange partiality to the Brahman like 
destiny,^ carrying Saktideva on his back where he had climbed 
up, went immediately to the Golden City to feed again.^ Then 

^ Here we have another example of the " overhearing " motif. See Vol. I, 
p. 48w^, and the note on p. 107 of this volume. As stated in this latter 
reference, I shall give further variants in a note in Vol. Ill, Chapter XXIX. 


2 Pakshapdta also means "flapping of wings." So there is probably a 
pun here. 

3 So in the Swedish tale, " The Beautiful Palace East of the Sun and 
North of the Earth/' the phoenix carries the youth on his back to the 
palace. Cf the halcyon in Lucian's Vera Historia, Book II, 40 (see Fowler's 
translation, Oxford, 1905, vol. ii, p. I69), whose nest is seven miles in cir- 
cumference, and whose egg is probably the prototype of that in the Arabian 
Nights. Cf also the Gliicksvogel in Prym and Socin, Syrische Mdrchen, p. 269, 
and the eagle which carries Chaucer in The House of Fame. 

In the Kathdkoga (Tawney, pp. 29, 30) the hero Nagadatta climbs up a 


the bird alighted in a garden, and Saktideva got down from 
its back unobserved and left it, but while he was roam- 
ing about there he saw two women engaged in gathering 
flowers ; he approached them slowly, who were astonished 
at his appearance, and he asked them : " What place is this, 
good ladies, and who are you ? " And they said to him : 
" Friend, this is a city called the Golden City, a seat of the 
Vidyadharas, and in it there dwells a Vidyadhari, named 
Chandraprabha, and know that we are the gardeners in her 
garden, and we are gathering these flowers for her." Then 
the Brahman said : " Obtain for me an interview with your 
mistress here." When they heard this, they consented, and 
the two women conducted the young man to the palace in 
their city. 

When he reached it, he saw that it was glittering with 
pillars of precious stones, and had walls of gold,^ as it were the 
very rendezvous of prosperity. And all the attendants, when 
they saw him arrived there, went and told Chandraprabha 
the marvellous tidings of the arrival of a mortal ; then she 
gave a command to the warder, and immediately had the 
Brahman brought into the palace and conducted into her 
presence. When he entered he beheld her there giving a feast 
to his eyes, like the creator's ability to create marvels repre- 

banyan-trce and sounds gongs in order to scare away enormous bharunda birds, 
who, by the wind produced by the flapping of their wings, cause a stranded 
ship to continue on its course. In the same collection of Jain stories (pp. l64, 
165) Lalitanga, having overheard a valuable secret from the conversation of 
two birds, crawled in among the feathers of one of the birds and lay there. 
" At the hour of dawn they all went to the city of Champa. Lalitanga crept 
out of the bird's feathers, and entered the city." 

Our old friend Sindbad makes similar use of the rukh when stranded on a 
desert island. The great bird suddenly alighted on a great white dome, its 
egg, " and brooded over it with its wings covering it and its legs stretched 
out behind it on the ground, and in this posture it fell asleep, glory be to 
Him who sleepeth not ! When I saw this, I arose and, unwinding my turband 
from my head, doubled it and twisted it into a rope, with which I girt my 
middle and bound my waist fast to the legs of the rukh, saying in myself: 
* Peradventure, this bird may carry me to a land of cities and inhabitants, and 
that will be better than abiding in this desert island ' " (Nights, Burton, vol. vi, 
p. 17). I have already given (Vol. 1, pp. 103-105) full references to the 
Garu^a bird, rukh, etc. n.m.p. 

^ We should read sauvarnabhitii 


sented in bodily form. And she rose from her jewelled couch, 
while he was still far off, and honoured him with a welcome 
herself, overpowered by beholding him. And when he had 
taken a seat she asked him : " Auspicious sir, who are you 
that have come here in such guise, and how did you reach this 
land inaccessible to men ? " When Chandraprabha in her 
curiosity asked him this question, Saktideva told her his 
country and his birth and his name, and he related to her how 
he had come in order to obtain the Princess Kanakarekha as 
the reward of beholding the Golden City. 

When Chandraprabha heard that, she thought a little and 
heaved a deep sigh, and said to Saktideva in private : " Listen, 
I am about to tell you something, fortunate sir. There is in 
this land a king of the Vidyadharas named Sasikhanda, and 
we four daughters were bom to him in due course ; I am the 
eldest, Chandraprabha, and the next is Chandrarekha, and 
the third is Sasirekha, and the fourth Sasiprabha. We 
gradually grew up to womanhood in our father's house, and 
once upon a time those three sisters of mine went together to 
the shore of the Ganges to bathe, while I was detained at home 
by illness ; then they began to play in the water, and in the 
insolence of youth they sprinkled with water a hermit named 
Agryatapas while he was in the stream. That hermit in his 
wrath cursed those girls, who had carried their merriment too 
far,i saying : ' You wicked maidens, be born all of you in 
the world of mortals.' When our father heard that, he went 
and pacified the great hermit, and the hermit told how the 
curse of each of them severally should end, and appointed to 
each of them in her mortal condition the power of remember- 
ing her former existence, supplemented with divine insight. 
Then, they having left their bodies and gone to the world 
of men, my father bestowed on me this city, and in his 
grief went to the forest ; but while I was dwelling here the 
goddess Durga informed me in a dream that a mortal should 
become my husband. For this reason, though my father has 

^ It looks as if Tawney guessed at the more correct atinirbandhimh of the 
D. text, which means "over-insisting," "with excessive insistence " ; the ati?iir- 
vartinih of Brockhaus would mean " feeling satisfaction," " coming into being," 
or "coming to completion," all of which are quite inappropriate here. n.m.p. 


recommended to me many Vidyadhara suitors, I have rejected 
them all and remained unmarried to this day. But now I 
am subdued by your wonderful arrival and by your handsome 
form, and I give myself to you ; so I will go on the approach- 
ing fourteenth day of the lunar fortnight to the great moun- 
tain called Rishabha to entreat my father for your sake, for 
all the most excellent Vidyadharas assemble there from all 
quarters on that day to worship the god Siva, and my father 
comes there too, and after I have obtained his permission I 
will return here quickly ; then marry me. Now rise up." 

Having said this, Chandraprabha supplied Saktideva 
with various kinds of luxuries suited to Vidyadharas, and 
while he remained there he was as much refreshed as one 
The Forbidden heated by a forest conflagration would be by 
Terrace bathing in a lake of nectar. And when the 

fourteenth day had arrived Chandraprabha said to him : 
" To-day I go to entreat my father's permission to marry 
you, and all my attendants will go with me. But you must 
not be grieved at being left alone for two days ; moreover, 
while you remain alone in this palace, you must by no 
means ascend the middle terrace." 

When Chandraprabha had said this to that young Brah- 
man she set out on her journey, leaving her heart with him, 
and escorted on her way by his. And Saktideva, remaining 
there alone, wandered from one magnificent part of the palace 
to another to delight his mind ; and then he felt a curiosity to 
know why that daughter of the Vidyadhara had forbidden 
him to ascend the roof of the palace, and so he ascended that 
middle terrace of the palace ; for men are generally inclined 
to do that which is forbidden. And when he had ascended it 
he saw three concealed pavilions, and he entered one of them, 
the door of which was open ; and when he had entered it he 
saw a certain woman lying on a magnificently jewelled sofa, 
on which there was a mattress placed, whose body was hidden 
by a sheet. But when he lifted up the sheet and looked he 
beheld lying dead in that guise that beautiful maiden, the 
daughter of King Paropakarin ; and when he saw her there 
he thought : " What is this great wonder ? Is she sleeping 
a sleep from which there is no awaking, or is it a complete 


delusion on my part ? That woman, for whose sake I have 
travelled to this foreign land, is lying here without breath, 
though she is alive in my own country, and she still retains 
her beauty unimpaired, so I may be certain that this is all 
a magic show, which the creator for some reason or other 
exhibits to beguile me." 

Thinking thus, he proceeded to enter in succession those 
other two pavilions, and he beheld within them in the same 
way two other maidens. Then he went in his astonishment 
out of the palace, and sitting down he remained looking at 
a very beautiful lake below it, and on its bank he beheld a 
horse with a jewelled saddle ; so he descended immediately 
from where he was, and out of curiosity approached its side ; 
and seeing that it had no rider on it, he tried to mount it, 
and that horse struck him with its heel and flung him into 
the lake. And after he had sunk beneath the surface of the 
lake he quickly rose up to his astonishment from the middle 
of a garden lake in his own city of Vardhamana ; and he saw 
himself suddenly standing in the water of a lake in his own 
native city, like the kumuda plants, miserable without the 
light of the moon.^ He reflected : " How different is this city 

1 Or Chandraprabha, whose name means " light of the moon." The for- 
bidden chamber will at once remind the reader of Perrault's La Barhe Bleue, 
The lake incident is exactly similar to one in Chapter LXXXI of this work 
and to that of Kandarpaketu in the Hitopadesa. In Wirt Sikes' British Goblins, 
p. 84, a draught from a forbidden well has the same effect. See Ralston's 
Russian Folk-Tales, p. 99- He refers to this story and gives many European 
equivalents. See also Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 214. Many parallels 
will be found in the notes to Grimm's Mdrchen, Nos. 3 and 46, to which 
Ralston refers in his exhaustive note. 

The "forbidden chamber" motif has already been ably discussed by 

Sidney Hartland (" The Forbidden Chamber/' Folk-Lore Journal, vol. iii, ]885, 
pp. 193-242), so that there is no need to go into any great detail here. 
One of the closest accounts to that in our text occurs in the third Kalandar's 
tale {Nights, Burton, vol. i, p. l60). In this story Ajib, son of Khazib, is 
entrusted with the keys of a palace containing forty chambers all of which 
he can open except one, and he is warned that if he does, he and his beloved 
will be separated for ever. However, as usual, curiosity overcomes him, and 
as soon as he opens the door a wonderful perfume meets his nose which im- 
mediately sends him into a faint. After a time he recovers and inspects the 
room, which is lit with lamps of gold diffusing a scent of musk and ambergris. 
" Presently," he says when relating the story, " I espied a noble steed, black 


of Vardhamana from that city of the Vidyadharas ! Alas ! 
what is this great display of marvellous delusion ? Alas I I, 
ill-fated wretch, am wonderfully deceived by some strange 
power ; or rather, who on this earth knows what is the nature 
of destiny ? " Thus reflecting, Saktideva rose from the 
midst of the lake, and went in a state of wonder to his own 
father's house. There he made a false representation, giving 
as an excuse for his absence that he had been himself going 
about with a drum, and being gladly welcomed by his father 
he remained with his delighted relations ; and on the second 
day he went outside his house, and heard again those words 
being proclaimed in the city by beat of drum : " Let who- 
ever, being a Brahman or a Kshatriya, has really seen the 
Golden City say so : the king will give him his daughter 
and make him crown prince." 

as the murks of night when murkiest, standing, ready saddled and bridled 
(and his saddle was of red gold) before two mangers, one of clear crystal 
wherein was husked sesame, and the other also of crystal containing water 
of the rose scented with musk. When I saw this I marvelled and said to 
myself, ' Doubtless in this animal must be some wondrous mystery ' ; and 
Satan cozened me, so I led him without the palace and mounted him ; but 
he would not stir from his place. So I hammered his sides with my heels, 
but he moved not, and then I took the rein-whip and struck him withal. 
When he felt the blow, he neighed a neigh with a sound like deafening 
thunder, and opening a pair of wings flew up with me in the firmament of 
heaven far beyond the eyesight of man. After a full hour of flight he 
descended and alighted on a terrace roof and shaking me off" his back lashed 
me on the face with his tail and gouged out my left eye, causing it roll 
along my cheek. Then he flew away." He then goes down from the 
terrace and finds himself among the ten one-eyed youths who had met with 
similar adventures themselves, and through whom Ajib had originally started 
on his adventure. 

Reference should be made to W. Kirby (who wrote some of the 
analogues in Burton's edition of the Nights, vol. x, and Supp., vol. vi), "The 
Forbidden Doors of the Thousand and one Nights," Folk-Lore Journal, vol. v, 
pp. 112-124; Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. i, pp. 198-205; ditto. 
The Book of Sindibad, pp. 173, 174, 308, 309; J. A. Macculloch, Childhood of 
Fiction, pp. 306-324 ; and V. Chauvin, op. cit., v, p. 203. The whole subject 
has recently been discussed by P. Saintyves, Les Contes de Perrault, 1923, 
pp. 359-396, which contains a full bibliography. For the identification of 
Bluebeard with Gil de Rais and Comorre the Cursed see E. A. Vizetelly, 
Bluebeard, 1902, and cf. A. France, Les Sept Femmes de Barbe Bleu, 1909- 



Then Saktideva hearing that, having successfully accom- 
plished the task, again went and said to those who were 
proclaiming this by beat of drum : "I have seen that 
city." And they took him before that king, and the king, re- 
cognising him, supposed that he was again saying what was 
untrue, as he had done before. But he said : " If I say what 
is false, and if I have not really seen that city, I desire now 
to be punished with death ; let the princess herself examine 
me." When he said this, the king went and had his daughter 
summoned by his servants. She, when she saw that Brah- 
man, whom she had seen before, again said to the king : 
" My father, he will tell us some falsehood again." Then 
Saktideva said to her : " Princess, whether I speak truly or 
falsely, be pleased to explain this point which excites my 
curiosity. How is it that I saw you lying dead on a sofa 
in the Golden City and yet see you here alive ? " 

When the Princess Kanakarekha had been asked this 
question by Saktideva, and furnished with this token of 
his truth, she said in the presence of her father : " It is 
true that this great-hearted one has seen that city, and in 
a short time he will be my husband, when I return to dwell 
there. And there he will marry my other three sisters ; 
and he will govern as king the Vidyadharas in that city. 
But I must to-day enter my own body and that city, for 
I have been born here in your house owing to the curse of a 
hermit, who moreover appointed that my curse should end 
in the following way : ' When you shall be wearing a human 
form, and a man, having beheld your body in the Golden 
City, shall reveal the truth, then you shall be freed from 
your curse, and that man shall become your husband.' And 
though I am in a human body I remember my origin, and I 
possess supernatural knowledge, so I will now depart to my 
own Vidyadhara home, to a happy fortune." Saying this, 
the princess left her body, and vanished, and a confused 
cry arose in the palace. 

And Saktideva, who had now lost both the maidens^ 
thinking over the two beloved ones whom he had gained by 
various difficult toils, and who yet were not gained, and 
not only grieved but blaming himself, with his desire not. 

VOL. II. p 


accomplished, left the king's palace and in a moment went 
through the following train of thought : " Kanakarekha said 
that I should attain my desire ; so why do I despond, for 
success depends upon courage ? I will again go to the Golden 
City by the same path, and destiny will without doubt again 
provide me with a means of getting there." 

Thus reflecting, Saktideva set out from that city; for 
resolute men who have once undertaken a project do not turn 
back without accomplishing their object. And journeying 
^aktideva sets on, he again reached after a long time that city 
out again named Vitankapura, situated on the shore of the 
sea. And there he saw the merchant coming to meet him, 
with whom he originally went to sea, and whose ship was 
wrecked there. He thought : " Can this be Samudradatta, 
and how can he have escaped after falling into the sea ? 
But how can it be otherwise ? I myself am a strange illustra- 
tion of its possibility." While he approached the merchant 
thinking thus, the merchant recognised him, and embraced 
him in his delight ; and he took him to his own house 
and after entertaining him asked him : " When the ship 
foundered, how did you escape from the sea ? " 

Saktideva then told him his whole history, how, after 
being swallowed by a fish, he first reached the island of 
Utsthala ; and then he asked the good merchant in his turn : 
" Tell me also how you escaped from the sea." Then the mer- 
chant said : " After I fell into the sea that time, I remained 
floating for three days supported on a plank. Then a ship 
suddenly came that way, and I, crying out, was descried by 
those in her, and taken on board her. And when I got on 
board I saw my own father, who had gone to a distant island 
long before, and was now returning after a long absence. My 
father, when he saw me, recognised me, and embracing me 
asked my story with tears, and I told it him as follows : 
' My father, you had been away for a long time and had not 
returned, and so I set about trading myself, thinking it was 
my proper employment ; then on my way to a distant island 
my ship was wrecked, and I was plunged in the sea, and you 
have found me and rescued me.' When I had said this to 
him, my father asked me reproachfully : ' Wliy do you run 


such risks ? For I possess wealth, my son, and I am en- 
gaged in acquiring it ; see, I have brought you back this ship 
full of gold.' Thus spoke my father to me, and comforting 
me, took me home in that very ship to my own dwelling in 

When Saktideva had heard this account from the mer- 
chant, and had rested that night, he said to him on the 
next day: "Great merchant, I must once more go to the 
island of Utsthala, so tell me how I can get there now." 
The merchant said to him . " Some agents of mine are 
preparing to go there to-day, so go on board the ship, and 
set out with them." Thereupon the Brahman set out with 
the merchant's agents to go to that island of Utsthala, and 
by chance the sons of the king of the fishermen saw him 
there, and when they were near him they recognised him, 
and said : " Brahman, you went with our father to search 
here and there ^ for the Golden City, and how is it that 
you have come back here to-day alone ? " Then Saktideva 
said : " Your father, when out at sea, fell into the mouth 
of the submarine fire, his ship having been dragged down 
by the current." When those sons of the fisher-king heard 
that, they were angry, and said to their servants : " Bind 
this wicked man, for he has murdered our father. Other- 
And has ^^^^ ^^^ could it havc happened that, when 

strange two men wcrc in the same ship, one should have 

Adventures fallen iuto the mouth of the submarine fire and 
the other escaped it ? So we must to-morrow morning 
sacrifice our father's murderer in front of the goddess Durga, 
treating him as a victim." Having said this to their ser- 
vants, those sons of the fisher-king bound Saktideva, and 
took him off to the awful temple of Durga, the belly of which 
ivas enlarged, as if it continually swallowed many lives, and 
which was like the mouth of Death devouring tamdla with 
projecting teeth. ^ 

There Saktideva remained bound during the night, in 

^ Brockhaus* <a<flA disturbs the sense. The D. text renders the passage 
cinvann itas tadd, "at that time you went . . ." n.m.p. 

2 Following the D. text, Speyer (op. cit., p. 105) would translate, "whose 
TOWS of teeth are adorned with bells." n.m.p. 


fear of his life, and he thus prayed to the goddess Durga : 
" Adorable one, grant er of boons, thou didst deliver the 
world with thy form, which was like the orb of the rising sun, 
appearing as if it had drunk its fill of the blood gushing 
freely from the throat of the giant Ruru ^ ; therefore deliver 
me, thy constant votary, who have come a long distance out 
of desire to obtain my beloved, but am now fallen without 
cause into the power of my enemies." Thus he prayed to 
the goddess, and with difficulty went off to sleep; and in 
the night he saw a woman come out of the inner cell of the 
temple ; that woman of heavenly beauty came up to him, and 
said in a compassionate manner : " Do not fear, Saktideva, 
no harm shall happen to you. The sons of that fisher-king 
have a sister named Vindumati; that maiden shall see you 
in the morning and claim you for a husband, and you must 
agree to that ; she will bring about your deliverance : and 
she is not of the fisher caste : for she is a celestial female 
degraded in consequence of a curse." When he heard this 
he woke up, and in the morning that fisher- maiden came to 
the temple, a shower of nectar to his eyes. And announcing 
herself, she came up to him and said in her eagerness : "I 
will have you released from this prison, therefore do what 
I desire. For I have refused all these suitors approved of by 
my brothers, but the moment I saw you, love arose in my 
soul; therefore marry me." When Vindumati, the daughter 
of the fisher-king, said this to him, Saktideva, remember- 
ing his dream, accepted her proposal gladly ; she procured 
his release, and he married that fair one, whose wish was 
gratified by her brothers receiving the command to do so 
from Durga in a dream. And he lived there with that 
heavenly creature that had assumed a human form, obtained 
solely by his merits in a former life, as if with happy 

And one day, as he was standing upon the roof of his 
palace, he saw a Chandala coming along with a load of cow's 
flesh, and he said to his beloved : " Look, slender one ! how 
can this evil-doer eat the flesh of cows, those animals that 

^ The Danavas are a class of demons or giants. Rum was a Danava slain 
by Durga. See Vol. I, pp. 199-200. N.m.p. 


are the object of veneration^ to the three worlds?" Then 
Vindumati, hearing that, said to her husband : " The wicked- 
ness of this act is inconceivable ; what can we say in pallia- 
tion of it ? I have been born in this race of fishermen for a 
very small offence owing to the might of cows, but what can 
atone for this man's sin ? " When she said this, Saktideva 
said to her : " That is wonderful. Tell me, my beloved, 
who are you, and how came you to be born in a family of 
fishermen ? " When he asked this with much importunity, 
she said to him : "I will tell you, though it is a secret, if you 
promise to do what I ask you." He affirmed with an oath : 
" Yes, I will do what you ask me." 

She then told him first what she desired him to do : 
" In this island you will soon marry another wife, and she, 
my husband, will soon become pregnant, and in the eighth 
The Strange month of her pregnancy you must cut her open 
Bargain and take out the child, ^ and you must feel no 

compunction about it." Thus she said, and he was aston- 
ished, exclaiming : " What can this mean ? " And he was 
full of horror ; but that daughter of the fisher- king went 
on to say : " This request of mine you must perform for a 

^ For details of the cow-worship of the Hindus see the note at the end 
of this chapter. n.m.p. 

2 Once again this extraordinary act is not merely the product of the 
story-teller's fertile imagination, but is founded on fact. Risley (Tribes and 
Castes of Bengal, vol. i, p. 94) states that among the Bhandaris of Bengal, when 
a pregnant woman dies before delivery, her body is cut open and the child 
taken out, both corpses being buried in the same grave. J. S. Campbell 
{Notes on the Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom, Bombay, 1885) tells us that in 
Bombay, when a woman dies in pregnancy, her corpse, after being bathed 
and decked with flowers and ornaments, is carried to the burning-ground. 
There her husband sprinkles water on her body from the points of a wisp of 
the sacred darbha grass and repeats holy verses. Then he cuts her right side 
with a sharp weapon and takes out the child. Should it be alive, it is taken 
home and cared for; should it be dead, it is then and there buried. The 
hole in the side of the corpse is filled with curds and butter, covered with 
cotton threads, and then the usual rite of cremation is carried out. 

For further details on foeticide and abortion reference should be made 
to Havelock Ellis, Studies in the Psychology of Sex, vol. vi, pp. 605-6l2; 
Westermarck, The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas (2nd edition, 1912), 
ch. xvii; and A. E. Crawley, "Foeticide," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. vi, 
pp. 54-57, all of which contain full bibliographical references. n.m.p. 


certain reason. Now hear who I am, and how I came to 
be born in a family of fishermen. Long ago in a former 
birth I was a certain Vidyadhari, and now I have fallen into 
the world of men in consequence of a curse. For when I 
was a Vidyadhari I bit asunder some strings with my teeth 
and fastened them to lyres, and it is owing to that that I 
have been born here in the house of a fisherman. So, if such 
a degradation is brought about by touching the mouth with 
the dry sinew of a cow, much more terrible must be the 
results of eating cow's flesh ! " While she was saying this, 
one of her brothers rushed in in a state of perturbation and 
said to Saktideva : " Rise up ! an enormous boar has appeared 
from somewhere or other, and after slaying innumerable 
persons is coming this way in its pride, towards us." When 
Saktideva heard that, he descended from his palace, and 
mounting a horse, spear in hand,^ he galloped to meet the 
boar, and struck it the moment he saw it ; but when the hero 
attacked him the boar fled, and managed, though wounded, 
to enter a cavern ; and Saktideva entered there in pursuit 
of him, and immediately beheld a great garden shrubbery 
with a house. And when he was there he beheld a maiden 
of very wonderful beauty, coming in a state of agitation to 
meet him, as if it were the goddess of the wood advancing to 
receive him out of love. 

And he asked her : " Auspicious lady, who are you, and 
why are you perturbed ? " Hearing that, the lovely one thus 
answered him : " There is a king of the name of Chanda- 
vikrama, lord of the southern region. I am his daughter, 
auspicious sir, a maiden named Vindurekha. But a wicked 
Daitya, with flaming eyes, carried me off by treachery from 
my father's house to-day and brought me here. And he, 
desiring flesh, assumed the form of a boar, and sallied out ; 
but while he was still hungry he was pierced with a spear 
to-day by some hero ; and as soon as he was pierced he 
came in here and died. And I rushed out and escaped 
without being outraged by him." Then Saktideva said to 
her ; " Then why all this perturbation ? For I slew that 

^ In //. 172b I conjecture saktihasto for l^aktidevo, as we read in si. 181b 
that the boar was wounded with a sakti. 


boar with a spear, princess." Then she said, " Tell me who 
you are," and he answered her, "I am a Brahman named 
Saktideva." Then she said to him, "You must accordingly 
He marries bccome my husband," and the hero consenting 
Vindurekha went out of the cavern with her. And when he 
arrived at home he told it to his wife VindumatI, and with 
her consent he married that Princess Vindurekha. So, while 
Saktideva was living there with his two wives, one of his 
wives, Vindurekha, became pregnant ; and in the eighth 
month of her pregnancy, the first wife Vindumati came up 
to him of her own accord and said to him : " Hero, remember 
what you promised me ; this is the eighth month of the 
pregnancy of your second wife ; so go and cut her open and 
bring the child here, for you cannot act contrary to your own 
word of honour." When she said this to Saktideva, he was 
bewildered by affection and compassion ; but being bound 
by his promise he remained for a short time unable to give 
an answer ; at last he departed in a state of agitation and 
went to Vindurekha ; and she seeing him come with troubled 
air said to him : " Husband, why are you despondent to- 
day ? Surely I know : you have been commissioned by 
Vindumati to take out the child with which I am pregnant ; 
and that you must certainly do, for there is a certain 
object in view, and there is no cruelty in it, so do not feel 
compassion ; in proof of it hear the following story of 
Devadatta : 

29d. Devadatta the Gambler 

Long ago there lived in the city of Kambuka a Brahman 
named Haridatta ; and the son of that auspicious man, 
who was named Devadatta, though he studied in his boy- 
hood, was, as a young man, exclusively addicted to the vice 
of gaming. As he had lost his clothes and everything by 
gambling,^ he was not able to return to his father's house, so 

^ The Indian has been an inveterate gambler from the earliest times. 
In a famous hymn of the Big-Veda (x, 34) a gambler tells of the fatal fasci- 
nation the dice have had for him, and the consequent ruin and slavery, which 
was one of the final conditions of the debtor. Details of the play referred to are 
not described, but scattered allusions seem to show that four, and sometimes 


he entered once on a time an empty temple. And there he 
saw alone a great ascetic, named Jalapada, who had attained 
many objects by magic, and he was muttering spells in a 
corner. So he went up to him slowly and bowed before him, 
and the ascetic, abandoning his habit of not speaking to any- 
one, greeted him with a welcome ; and after he had remained 
there a moment, the ascetic, seeing his trouble, asked him 

five dice were used, and the aim of the gambler was to throw a number 
which should be a multiple of four (see Liiders, Das JViirfelspiel im alien 
Jjidien; Caland, Zeit. d. deutsch. morg. Ges., vol. Ixii, p. 123 et seq. ; and Keith, 
Joum. Roy. As. Soc, 1908, p. 823 et seq.). 

Cheating at play appears in the Rig-Veda as one of the most frequent of 
crimes, and the word for " gamester," kitava, came to mean " cheat " in classical 

In the Mahdbharata the vice of gambling is often mentioned. The Kuru 
prince schemed to overthrow the Pandus by gambling, and the well-known 
episode of Nala and Damayantl (iii, 59-61) shows the extent to which it was 

The theme also occurs in the Mrichchhakatika, where there is a vivid 
description of a gambler's quarrel in Act II. See also the story of" Nala and 
Davadanti " (Tawney, Kathdkoga, p. 201, etc.). 

Crooke gives some interesting details in the last of his mass of valuable 
papers, "The Divali, the Lamp Festival of the Hindus," Folk-Lore, vol. xxxiv, 
1923, pp. 287, 288. The Nepalese are inveterate gamblers, and a tale is told 
of a man who cut off his left hand and put it down under a cloth as his stake. 
When he won he insisted on his opponent cutting off his hand, or else 
restoring all his winnings (D. Wright, History of Nepal, p. 39). In Kashmir 
nearly all classes gamble at the Divali under the belief that winning will 
bring them luck during the coming year (F. Drew, The Jummoo and Kashmir 
Territories, p. 72 ; but see W. R. Lawrence, The Valley of Kashmir, p. 266). 
In the Deccan, at the Divali, men and women play chess till midnight in the 
hope that the goddess ParvatT will bring them cartloads of treasure (Bombay 
Gazetteer, vol. xviii, part i, p. 251), At their chief festival held in March by 
the Shans of Upper Burma gambling is permitted to Burmese, Shans and 
Chinese, but not to natives of India. The gambling booths are put up to 
auction, and even the Pongyi priests may be seen gambling in the lines of 
huts outside the gambling enclosure (Sir J. G. Scott, J. P. Hardiman, Gazetteer 
of Upper Burma and the Shan States, Part II, vol. i, p. 229). In the Panjab, 
success in gambling at the Divali is believed to bring good luck. Native 
gentlemen gamble only with their wives, so that, whoever wins, they lose 
nothing. Traders play to find out whether the next year will be lucky or 
not. If a man wins he speculates freely, but if he loses he confines himself 
to safe ordinary business (Panjab Notes and Queries, vol. ii, p. 152). 

For further details see J. L. Paton, " Gambling," Hastings' Ency. Bel. Eth.y 
vol. vi, p. 164 and the references there given. n.m.p. 


the cause, and he told him of his affliction produced by the 
loss of his wealth, which had been dissipated in gambling. 
Then the ascetic said to Devadatta : " My child, there is not 
wealth enough in the whole world to satisfy gamblers ; but 
if you desire to escape from your calamity, do what I tell 
you, for I have made preparations to attain the rank of a 
Vidyadhara; so help me to accomplish this, O man of 
fortunate destiny,^ you have only to obey my orders and 
then your calamities will be at an end." When the ascetic 
said this to him, Devadatta promised to obey him, and 
immediately took up his residence with him. 

And the next day the ascetic went into a corner of the 
cemetery and performed worship by night under a banyan- 
tree, and offered rice boiled in milk, and flung portions of the 
oblation towards the four cardinal points, after worshipping 
them, and said to the Brahman, who was in attendance on him : 
" You must worship here in this style every day, and say : 
* Vidyutprabha, accept this worship.' And then I am certain 
that we shall both attain our ends." Having said this, the 
ascetic went with him to his own house. Then Devadatta, 
consenting, went every day and duly performed worship at 
the foot of that tree, according to his instructions. And one 
day, at the end of his worship, the tree suddenly clave open, 
and a heavenly nymph came out of it before his eyes, and said : 
" My good sir, my mistress summons you to come to her." 
And then she introduced him into the middle of that tree. 
When he entered it he beheld a heavenly palace made of 
jewels, and a beautiful lady within it reclining upon a sofa. 
And he immediately thought : " This may be the success of 
our enterprise incarnate in bodily form " ; but while he was 
thinking thus that beautiful lady, receiving him graciously, 
rose with limbs on which the ornaments rang as if to welcome 
him, and seated him on her own sofa. And she said to him : 
" Illustrious sir, I am the maiden daughter of a king of the 
Yakshas, named Ratnavarsha, and I am known by the name 
of Vidyutprabha ; and this great ascetic Jalapada was en- 
deavouring to gain my favour ; to him I will give the attain- 
ment of his ends, but you are the lord of my life. So, as you 

^ Literally, having auspicious marks. 


see my affection, marry me." When she said this, Devadatta 
consented, and did so. And he remained there some time, 
but when she became pregnant he went to the great ascetic 
with the intention of returning, and in a state of terror he 
told him all that had happened, and the ascetic, desiring 
his own success, said to him : " My good sir, you have acted 
quite rightly, but go and cut open that Yakshi and, taking 
out the embryo, bring it quickly here." The ascetic said 
this to him, and then reminded him of his previous promise ; 
and being dismissed by him, the Brahman returned to his 
beloved, and while he stood there despondent with reflecting 
on what he had to do the Yakshi Vidyutprabha of her own 
accord said to him : " My husband, why are you cast down ? 
I know Jalapada has ordered you to cut me open, so cut me 
open and take out this child, and if you refuse I will do it 
myself, for there is an object in it." Though she said this to 
him, the Brahman could not bring himself to do it ; then she 
cut herself open and took out the child and flung it down 
before him, and said : " Take this, which will enable him who 
consumes it to obtain the rank of a Vidyadhara. But I, 
though properly a Vidyadhari, have been born as a Yakshi 
owing to a curse, and this is the appointed end of my cm^e, 
strange as it is, for I remember my former existence. Now 
I depart to my proper home, but we two shall meet again 
in that place." Saying this, Vidyutprabha vanished from his 
eyes. And Devadatta took the child with sorrowful mind 
and went to that ascetic Jalapada and gave it to him, as that 
which would ensure the success of his incantations ; for good 
men do not even in calamity give way to selfishness. 

The great ascetic divided the child's flesh, and sent 
Devadatta to the wood to worship Durga in her terrific form. 
And when the Brahman came back after presenting an 
oblation, he saw that the ascetic had made away with all the 
flesh. And while he said, " What 1 have you consumed it 
all ? " the treacherous Jalapada, having become a Vidya- 
dhara, ascended to heaven. When he had flown up, with 
sword blue as the sky, adorned with necklace and bracelet, 
Devadatta reflected : " Alas, how I have been deceived by 
this evil-minded one ! Or, rather, on whom does not exces- 



sive compliance ^ entail misfortune ? So how can I revenge 
myself on him for this ill turn, and how can I reach him who 
has become a Vidyadhara ? Well ! I have no other resource 
in this matter except propitiating a Vetala." After he had 
made up his mind to do this, he went at night to the cemetery. 
There he summoned at the foot of a tree a Vetala into the 
body of a man, and after worshipping him he made an 
oblation of human flesh to him. And as that Vetala was 
not satisfied, and would not wait for him to bring more, he 
prepared to cut off his own flesh to gratify him. And 
immediately that Vetala said to that brave man : " I am 
pleased with this courage of yours ; do not act reck- 
lessly. So, my good sir, what desire have you for me to 
accomplish for you ? " When the Vetala said this the hero 
answered him : " Take me to the dwelling-place of the 
Vidyadharas, where is the ascetic Jalapada, who deceives 
those that repose confidence in him, in order that I may 
punish him." The Vetala consented, and placing him on his 
shoulder, carried him through the air in a moment to the 
dwelling of the Vidyadharas. And there he saw Jalapada in 
a palace, seated on a jewelled throne, elated at being a king 
among the Vidyadharas, endeavouring by various speeches 
to induce that Vidyutprabha,^ who had obtained the rank of 
a Vidyadhari, to marry him in spite of her reluctance. And 
the moment that the young man saw this he attacked him, 
with the help of the Vetala, being to the eyes of the delighted 
Vidyutprabha what the moon, the repository of nectar, is 
to the partridges. And Jalapada beholding him suddenly 
arrived in this way, dropped his sword in his fright, and fell 
from his throne on the floor. But Devadatta, though he had 
obtained his sword, did not slay him; for the great-hearted 
feel pity even for their enemies when they are terrified. 

And when the Vetala wanted to kill him, he dissuaded 
him, and said : "Of what use will it be to us to kill this miser- 
able heretic ? So take him and place him in his own house 

^ The D. text reads "excessive uprightness." See Speyer, op. cit., p. 107. 


2 I read Vidyutprahhdm for Vidyadharlm. But perhaps it is unnecessary. 

3 The Chakora is said to subsist upon moonbeams. 


on earth ; it is better that this wicked, skull-bearing ascetic 
should remain there." At the very moment that Devadatta 
was saying this the goddess Durga descended from heaven 
and appeared to him, and said to him who bent before her : 
"My son, I am satisfied with thee now, on account of this 
incomparable courage of thine ; so I give thee on the spot 
the rank of King of the Vidyadharas." Having said this, she 
bestowed the magic sciences ^ on him and immediately dis- 
appeared. And the Vetala immediately took Jalapada, whose 
splendour fell from him, and placed him on earth (wicked- 
ness does not long ensure success) ; and Devadatta, accom- 
panied by Vidyutprabha, having obtained that sovereignty 
of the Vidyadharas, flourished in his kingdom. 

29. Story of the Golden City 

Having told this story to her husband Saktideva, the 
softly speaking Vindurekha again said to him with eager- 
ness : " Such necessities do arise, so cut out this child of 
mine as Vindumati told you, without remorse." When 
Vindurekha said this, Saktideva was afraid of doing ^vrong, 
but a voice sounded from heaven at this juncture : " O 
Saktideva, take out this child without fear, and seize it by 
the neck with your hand, then it will turn into a sword." 
Having heard this divine voice, he cut her open, and quickly 
taking out the child he seized it by the throat with his hand ; 
and no sooner did he seize it than it became a sword in his 
hand ; like the long hair of Good Fortune seized by him with 
an abiding grasp.^ 

Then that Brahman quickly became a Vidyadhara, and 
Vindurekha that moment disappeared. And when he saw 
that, he went, as he was, to his second wife Vindumati and 
told her the whole story. She said to him : " My lord, we 
are three sisters, the daughters of a king of the Vidyadharas, 

^ So making him a Vidyadhara or " magic-knowledge-holder." 

2 The D. text reads satlvatah, "courage," instead of Brockhaus' mtatahf 

*' abiding." n.m.p. 

^ The sudden transformation is doubtless to be attributed to the magical 

power of steel, for which see pp. l66-l6.9 of this volume. n.m.p. 


who have been banished from Kanakapuri in consequence 
of a curse. The first was Kanakarekha, the termination of 
whose curse you beheld in the city of Vardhamana ; and she 
has gone to that city of hers, her proper home. For such 
was the strange end of her curse, according to the dispensa- 
tion of Fate ; and I am the third sister, and now my curse 
is at an end. And this very day I must go to that city of 
mine, my beloved, for there our Vidyadhara bodies remain. 
And my elder sister, Chandraprabha, is dwelling there ; so 
you also must come there quickly by virtue of the magic 
power of your sword. And you shall rule in that city, after 
obtaining all four of us as wives, bestowed upon you by our 
father, who has retired to the forest, and others in addition 
to us." 

Thus Vindumati declared the truth about herself, and 
Saktideva, consenting, went again to the City of Gold, this 
time through the air, together with that Vindumati. And 
Saktideva whcu he arrived he again saw those three 
returns to the darlings of his bending before him, Kanakarekha 
City of Gold ^^^ ^]^g others, after entering with their souls, 
as was fitting, those heavenly female bodies, which he saw 
on a former occasion extended lifeless on the couches in 
those three pavilions. And he saw that fourth sister there, 
Chandraprabha, who had performed auspicious ceremonies, 
and was drinking in his form with an eye rendered eager by 
seeing him after so long an absence. 

His arrival was joyfully hailed by the servants, who were 
occupied in their several duties, as well as by the ladies, and 
when he entered the private apartments that Chandraprabha 
said to him : " Noble sir, here is that Princess Kanakarekha, 
who was seen by you in the city of Vardhamana, my sister 
called Chandrarekha. And here is that daughter of the 
fisher-king, Vindumati, whom you first married in the island 
of Utsthala, my sister Sasirekha. And here is my youngest 
sister Sasiprabha, the princess, who after that was brought 
there by the Danava and then became your wife. So now 
come, successful hero, with us into the presence of our 
father, and quickly marry us all, when bestowed upon you 
by him." 


When Chandraprabha had swiftly and boldly uttered 
this decree of Kama, Saktideva went with those four to the 
recesses of the wood to meet their father; and their father, 
the King of the Vidyadharas, having been informed of the 
And marries facts by all his daughters, who bowed at his 
the Four Sisters f^^t, and also movcd by a divine voice, with de- 
lighted soul gave them all at once to Saktideva. Immediately 
after that he bestowed on Saktideva his opulent realm in 
the City of Gold, and all his magic sciences; and he gave 
the successful hero his name,^ by which he was henceforth 
known among his Vidyadharas. And he said to him : 
"No one else shall conquer thee, but from the mighty 
lord of Vatsa there shall spring a universal emperor, who 
shall reign among you here under the title of Naravahana- 
datta and be thy superior ; to him alone wilt thou have to 
submit." With these words the mighty lord of the Vidya- 
dharas, named Sa^ikhandapada, dismissed his son-in-law 
from the wood where he was practising asceticism, after en- 
tertaining him kindly, that he might go with his wives to his 
own capital. Then that Saktivega, having become a king, 
entered the City of Gold, that glory of the Vidyadhara world, 
proceeding thither with his wives. Living in that city, the 
palaces of which gleamed with fabric of gold, which seemed 
on account of its great height to be the condensed rays of 
the sun falling in brightness, he enjoyed exceeding happiness 
with those fair-eyed wives, in charming gardens, the lakes of 
which had steps made out of jewels. 

[M] Having thus related his wonderful history, the 
eloquent Saktivega went on to say to the King of Vatsa : 
" Know me O lord of Vatsa, ornament of the lunar race, to 
be that very Saktideva come here, full of desire to behold the 

^ The Brockhaus text is not clear here. The meaning (as the D. text 
shows) is that the king altered the name of his son-in-law a little by changing 
the last syllable det^a into vega, the latter being a termination found among 
Vidyadharas. The same thing happened in the case of A^okadatta and Vijaya- 
datta (see p. 212). It will be noticed that the altered name, Saktivega, is 
used a few lines lower down. n.m.p. 


two feet of your son who is just born and is destined to be 
our new emperor. Thus I have obtained, though originally 
a man, the rank of sovereign among the Vidyadharas by the 
favour of Siva : and now, O King, I return to my own home. 
I have seen our future lord ; may you enjoy unfailing felicity." 
After finishing his tale, Saktivega said this with clasped 
hands, and receiving permission to depart, immediately flew 
up into the sky like the moon in brightness ; and then the 
King of Vatsa, in the company of his wives, surrounded by 
his ministers, and with his young son, enjoyed, in his own 
capital, a state of indescribable felicity. 



Although the worship of the sacred cow plays such an important part 
in modern Hinduism, there appears to be considerable doubt as to whether 
the practice dates from historical or prehistorical times in India. Thus in 
Hastings' Ency. lie/. Eth., in the article on "Animals" (vol. i, p. 507), by 
N. W. Thomas, we read : " Unlike Egypt, it is clear that India developed a 
respect for the animal in historic times " ; while in the article on the " Cow 
(Hindu)," by H. Jacobi (vol. iv, pp. 224-226), we find: "The belief in the 
sanctity of the cow, which is a very prominent feature of Hinduism, seems to 
have been inherited by the Indians from prehistoric times, before they and 
the Iranians had separated." Crooke (op. cil., vol. ii, p. 226) is inclined to 
support the former view, but inspection of the early references in the Avesta, 
Rig-Veda, Atharva-Veda show, without doubt, that the cow was held sacred 
from the very earliest times. In the Purdnas the worship increased, while in 
the Mahdbhdrata the great sacredness of the cow becomes a firmly established 
fact so firmly indeed that even to-day its slaughter fills the Hindu with such 
horror that it is prohibited in native states under treaties with the English. 

We will now examine the evidence in closer detail. 

The Vedic Indians were a nation of meat-eaters, the chief food being the 
ox, sheep and goat. The slaughter of the ox, however, was always regarded 
as a kind of sacrificial act, and therefore particularly appropriate for the 
entertainment of guests. It also played an important part at wedding 
festivals. In the Cambridge History of India, vol. i, p. 102, A. B. Keith points 
out that there is no inconsistency between this eating of flesh and the growing 
sanctity of the cow, which bears already in the Rig-Veda the epithet aghnyd, 
" not to be killed." Such a term should be looked upon merely as a proof of 
the high value attached to an animal which supplied the milk that meant so 
much both for secular and sacred use to the Vedic Indian. 

It is interesting to note that in Rig-Veda days the cow was used as a 
standard of value, and the epithet sataddya denotes that the price of a man's 
blood was a hundred cows. Although there were no coins even in the times 
of the later Sanihitds and Brdhmanas, the nishka, originally a gold ornament, 
was used as a unit of value and the cow was gradually being superseded 
as such. 

Early Buddhist literature shows the ancient systems of barter and 
reckoning values by cows almost entirely replaced by a metal currency, 
commodities being stated in figures of a certain coin, or its fractions (see 
Joum. Roy. As. Soc, 1901, p. 882 et .seq.). 

But quite apart from the sanctity attached to the cow in Vedic times 
owing to its value as a supplier of milk, the mystic relation between the 
cow and the universe is alluded to in the Rig-Veda in several places {e.g. 
i, 153, 3; viii, 90, 15; x, 11, 1). For further details see A. A. Macdonell, 
Vedic Mythology, Grundriss d. Indo-Arischen Philologie, iii, 1a, 1 897, under " Cow " 
and "Cows." 


The same idea is found in the Atharva-Veda, especially in viii, 10 and 
22-29. By the time of the Purdnas the idea has become fully developed 
as a legend and in the Vishnu Purdna (Wilson, vol. i, ch. xiii) we get the 
following (according to Jacobi's resume) : 

Prithu, son of Vena, having been constituted universal monarch, desired 
to recover for his subjects edible plants, which, during the preceding period 
of anarchy, had all perished. He therefore assailed the Earth, which, assuming 
the form of a cow, fled from him and traversed all the heavenly regions. At 
last she yielded to him, and promised to fecundate the soil with her milk. 
Thereupon Prithu flattened the surface of the earth with his bow, uprooting 
and thrusting away hundreds and thousands of mountains. Having made 
Svayanibhuva Manu the calf, he milked the Earth, and received the milk 
into his own hand, for the benefit of mankind. Thence proceeded all kinds 
of corn and vegetables upon which people subsist now and always. By 
granting life to the Earth, Prithu was as her father; and she thence derived 
the patronymic appellation Prithivl ("daughter of Prithu "). Then the gods, 
the sages, the demons, the Rakshasas, the Gandharvas, Yakshas, Pitris, 
serpents, mountains and trees took a milking vessel suited to their kind, 
and milked the Earth of appropriate milk. And the milker and the calf 
were both pecuhar to their own species. 

The cow was also identified with speech, and as speech was regarded 
as divine we have here an additional reason for the sanctity of the cow. 
Jacobi (op. cit., p. 225) points out that this identification was perhaps due, not 
so much to a popular association of ideas, as to a chance similarity of sound 
between the two words go, " cow," and gd, "to sing," or perhaps glr, " speech." 

The doctrine of ahimsd, the forbidding of any injury to an animal, was 
not fully developed in the Brdhmana period. For although the Satapatha 
Brdhmana prohibits the eating of a cow (iii, 1, 2, 21), the great sage Yajna- 
valkya ate meat of milch cows and oxen provided the flesh was amsala 
i.e. "firm," or "tender." 

It is only when the belief in transmigration strengthened the philosophic 
tenets of the Brdhmanas as to the unity and concord of existence that the 
taboo was really established. It has been pointed out that the cow was still 
killed for guests in the Grihya STitras, but it should be noticed that the offer 
to kill a cow for a guest was merely a rite of hospitality, corresponding 
somewhat to the "my house and everything in it is yours" attitude of the 
Oriental of to-day. In vol. i, ch. x, p. 232 of the Cambridge History of India, 
E. W. Hopkins makes this quite clear the host says to the guest, holding 
the knife ready to slay the cow, that he has the cow for him ; but the guest 
is then directed to say : " Mother of Rudras, daughter of the Vasus, sister of 
the Adityas, navel of immortality (is she). Do not kill the guiltless cow ; 
she is (Earth itself), Aditi, the goddess. I speak to them that understand." 
He adds : " My sin has been killed and that of So-and-so ; let her go and eat 
grass." But if he really wants to have her eaten, he says: "I kill my sin 
and the sin of So-and-so" (in killing her), and though in many cases the off"er 
of the cow is thus plainly a formal piece of etiquette, yet the offering to the 


guest was not complete without flesh of some sort ; and it is clear from the 
formulas that any of the worthiest guests might demand the cow's death, 
though as the "six worthy guests" are teacher, priest, father-in-law, king, 
friend, and Aryan "reborn" man, and all of these were doubtless well 
grounded in that veneration for the cow which is expressed above by identify- 
ing her with Earth (as Aditi), there was probably seldom any occasion to 
harrow the feelings of the cow-revering host. 

Gradually there was no question of the cow being killed, the goat being 
the animal usually substituted. As already mentioned, it is in the Mahdbharata 
that we find the great sacredness of the cow fully established. Here emphasis 
is laid on the great merit acquired by gifts of cows, and the value of the 
animal for religious sacrifice owing to its great purity. 

So pure, indeed, is the cow that its five products, paNchagai^a (milk, 
curds, ghee, urine and dung), are also considered pure and enter largely, 
sometimes in a very disgusting way, into rites of purification, besides being 
used in exorcism, magic, disease and domestic ritual. 

The peculiar smell of cows has led to the myth tracing their descent from 
Surabhi, "the fragrant one." It is fully given in Mahahharata, xiii, 77. 
Surabhi once practised austerities and Brahma granted her immortality and a 
region above the three worlds to dwell in, called Goloka. This is, therefore, 
the cow's heaven, a beautiful place, only to be attained by those who have 
achieved merit on earth by the continual gifts and worship of cows. 
For other rites in the Mahdbharata see xiii, 80, 1-3 ; 78, 24- et seij. 
The connection of the bull with Siva, the celestial cow, Kamadhenn, 
with Indra, and the friendship of Krishna with the herdsmen and his love 
of the gopls, particularly Riidha, have all added to the general sacredness of 
the cow. 

Its connection with fertility seems to appear in the phallic worship of 
Siva, where the evil influences of the female principal through the yoni are 
partly counteracted by the bull, Nandin, being placed between the i/oni and 
the direction of the village. 

For further details on this part of the question see E. Sellon, "The 
Phallic Worship of India," Mem. Anih. Soc. Ldn., vol. i, 1865, pp. 327-3.S4. 

For references on cow ritual, apart from those already mentioned at the 
beginning of the note, see Dubois, op. cit., pp. 191-192, 573-574, 686, 706 ; 
the Index of Macdonell's A History of Sanskrit Literature under " Cow " ; 
Russell, Tribes atid Castes of the Central Provinces, vol. i, p. 415, where a most 
curious penalty for killing a cow by members of the Tiyor caste is described ; 
and Stevenson, lUtes of the Twice-born, pp. l6l, 194, 273, 311 et seq., 324 el seq., 
and 376. The fullest account, however, is that by Crooke, " The Veneration 
of the Cow in India," Folk-I^re, vol. xxiii, 1912, pp. 275-306. I did not dis- 
cover this interesting article till my note was in the press. I notice that he 
(pp. 280, 291) has entirely abandoned his old views (line 10 of note), and fully 
recognises the great antiquity of cow-worship among the Hindus. n.m.p. 




This well-known story appears in many forms owing to its 
great age and the enormous popularity it has always enjoyed. 
As related in the Ocean of Story, it has unfortunately lost 
nearly all its original character and charm. Before attempt- 
ing, therefore, to offer any suggestions as to the possible 
meaning of the legend, it will be as well to tell the story in 
its original form. 

In the first place, however, I would like to point out why 
this story is so intensely interesting. It is the first Indo- 
European love-story known, and may even be the oldest 
love-story in the world. Its history throughout the whole 
range of Sanskrit literature is astonishing. The story itself 
can be regarded from several points of view all of them 
interesting. Firstly, it is a tale of a great love, full of deep 
feeling and real pathos. Its beauty is quite sufficient to 
immortalise it, whatever else we may read in it. Secondly, 
it contains incidents which strike one as distinctly sym- 
bolical, and immediately open up that ever-fascinating 
pursuit of theorising. Thirdly, it has a distinct historical 
and anthropological value, and is without doubt the earliest 
example of nuptial taboo in existence. Lastly, the tale so 
appealed to Kalidasa that he made it the theme of his play 
Vikramorvasi, still further beautifying it with some of the 
choicest gems of his poetical genius. 

We first hear of Urvasi and Pururavas in a somewhat 
obscure hymn of the Rig-Veda (x, 95). It consists of a 
dialogue when the Apsaras is about to leave her mortal 
husband for ever. As the story is incomplete and dis- 
jointed, we must pass on to the fuller account as found in 
the Satapatha Brdhmana (v, 1), which, however, includes 
several of the verses from the Rig-Veda,^ 

1. The nymph Urvasi loved Pururavas, the son of Ha. 
When she wedded him she said : " Thrice a day shalt thou 
embrace me ; but do not lie with me against my will, and let 

^ J. Eggeling's translation, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xliv, pp. 68-74. 


me not see thee naked, for such is the way to behave to us 

2. She then dwelt with him a long time, and was even 
with child of him, so long did she dwell with him. Then the 
Gandharvas said to one another : " For a long time, indeed, 
has this Urva^i dwelt among men : devise ye some means 
how she may come back to us." Now a ewe with two lambs 
was tied to her couch : the Gandharvas then carried off one 
of the lambs. 

3. " Alas," she cried, " they are taking away my darling, 
as if I were where there is no hero and no man ! " They 
carried off the second, and she spake in the selfsame 

4. He then thought within himself : " How can that be 
(a place) without a hero and without a man where I am ? " 
And naked as he was he sprang up after them : too long 
he deemed it that he should put on his garment. Then the 
Gandharvas produced a flash of lightning and she beheld 
him naked even as by daylight. Then, indeed, she vanished. 
" Here I am back," he said, and lo ! she had vanished. 
Wailing with sorrow he wandered all over Kurukshetra. 
Now there is a lotus-lake there called Anyatahplaksha. He 
walked along its bank, and there nymphs were swimming 
about in the shape of swans. 

5. And she (Urvasi), recognising him, said : " This is 
the man with whom I have dwelt." They then said: "Let 
us appear to him!" "So be it!" she replied, and they 
appeared to him. 

6. He then recognised her and implored her {Rig-Veda, 
X, 95, 1) : " Oh, my wife, stay thou, cruel in mind : let us 
now exchange words ! Untold, these secrets of ours will not 
bring us joy in days to come." " Stop, pray, let us speak 
together ! " this is what he meant to say to her. 

7. She replied {Rig-Veda, x, 95, 2) : " What concern 
have I with speaking to thee ? I have passed away like the 
first of the dawns. Pururavas, go home again : I am like 
the wind, difficult to catch." " Thou didst not do what I 
had told thee ; hard to catch I am for thee, go to thy home 
again! " this is what she meant to say. 

8. He then said, sorrowing {Rig-Veda, x, 95, 14) : " Then 
will thy friend rush away this day, never to come back, to go 
to the farthest distance : then will he lie in Nirriti's lap, or 
the fierce wolves will devour him." " Thy friend will either 


hang himself or start forth ; or the wolves or dogs will devour 
him ! " this is what he meant to say. 

9. She replied {Rig-Veda, x, 95, 15) : " Pururavas, do 
not die ! Do not rush away ! Let not the cruel wolves 
devour thee ! Truly, there is no friendship with women, 
and theirs are the hearts of hyenas." " Do not take this to 
heart ! There is no friendship with women : return home ! " 
this is what she meant to say. 

lo: {Rig 'Veda, x, 95, 16): "When changed in form I 
walked among mortals, and passed the nights there during 
four autumns. I ate a little ghee, once a day, and even now 
feel satisfied therewith." This discourse in fifteen verses 
has been handed down by the Bahvricas. Then her heart 
took pity on him. 

11. She said : " Come here the last night of the year from 
now : then shalt thou lie with me for one night, and then 
this son of thine will have been born." He came there on the 
last night of the year, and lo ! there stood a golden palace. 
They then said to him only this (word), " Enter ! " and then 
they bade her go to him. 

12. She then said : " To-morrow morning the Gandharvas 
will grant thee a boon, and thou must make thy choice." He 
said : " Choose thou for me 1 " She replied : " Say, let me 
be one of yourselves ! " In the morning the Gandharvas 
granted him a boon, and he said ; " Let me be one of your- 
selves ! " 

13. They said : " Surely there is not among men that 
holy form of fire by sacrificing wherewith one would become 
one of ourselves." They put fire into a pan and gave it to 
him, saying : " By sacrificing therewith thou shalt become 
one of ourselves." He took it (the fire) and his boy and 
went on his way home. He then deposited the fire in the 
forest and went to the village with the boy alone. He came 
back and thought, " Here I am back," and lo ! it had dis- 
appeared : what had been the fire was an Asvattha tree 
{Ficus religiosa), and what had been the pan was a Sami tree 
(Mimosa suma). He then returned to the Gandharvas. 

14. They said : " Cook for a whole year a mess of rice 
sufficient for four persons ; and taking each time three logs 
from this Asvattha tree, anoint them with ghee, and put 
them on the fire with verses containing the words ' log ' and 
' ghee ' : the fire which shall result therefrom will be that 
very fire (which is required)." 


15. They said : " But that is recondite (esoteric), as it 
were. Make thyself rather an upper arani (fire-stick) of 
Ai^vattha wood, and a lower arani of Sami wood : the fire 
which shall result therefrom will be that very fire." 

16. They said : " But that also is, as it were, recondite. 
Make thyself rather an upper arani of A^vattha wood, and a 
lower ararii of Asvattha wood : the fire which shall result 
therefrom will be that very fire." 

17. He then made himself an upper arani of Asvattha 
wood, and a lower arani of Asvattha wood, and the fire 
which resulted therefrom was that very fire : by offering 
therewith he became one of the Gandharvas. Let him 
therefore make himself an upper and a lower arani of 
Ai^vattha wood, and the fire which results therefrom will 
be that very fire : by offering therewith he becomes one of 
the Gandharvas. 

In the above version there are several points to be 
noticed : 

1. A heavenly nymph loves a mortal man. 

2. The nuptial taboo. 

3. The inability to preserve it. 

4. The swan- nymphs. 

5. The aloofness of the nymph. 

6. Sudden pity for the mortal. 

7. The necessity for the mortal to become immortal. 

8. The fire-sacrifice as a means of achieving this. 
Looking at the legend as it stands, it appears to show how 

impossible it is for a mere man to aspire to a heavenly bride. 
His nature is such that he is incapable of abiding by the 
accustomed conditions of such a marriage, and in consequence 
misery is bound to result, unless by following the prescribed 
rules of sacrifice and esoteric ritual he can manage to rise 
to her level. Then, and only then, can he expect eternal 

Before examining the tale in greater detail it will be 
advisable to see if the other versions give us further data to 
work upon. It occurs in the Mahdbhdrata and most of the 
Purdnas, The best account, however, is probably that in 
the Vishnu Purdna, The following portions are taken from 
the translation by H. H. Wilson. 

We are first given more details about our hero. 

It has already been related how Buddha begot Pururavas 
by Ila. Pururavas was a prince renowned for liberality, 


devotion, magnificence, and love of truth, and for personal 
beauty. Urvasi, having incurred the imprecation of Mitra 
and Varuna, determined to take up her abode in the world of 
mortals, and descending accordingly, beheld Pururavas. 

Then follow the incidents of the taboo, the rams, lightning, 
and disappearance of Urvasi. The heart-broken Pururavas 
wandered naked over the world like one insane. 

At length coming to Kurukshetra, he saw Urvasi sport- 
ing with four other nymphs of heaven in a lake beautiful 
with lotuses, and he ran to her and called her his wife, and 
wildly implored her to return. " Mighty monarch," said the 
nymph, " refrain from this extravagance. I am now preg- 
nant : depart at present, and come hither again at the end of 
a year, when I will deliver to you a son, and remain with you 
for one night." Pururavas, thus comforted, returned to his 
capital. Urvasi said to her companions : " The prince is a 
most excellent mortal : I lived with him long and affection- 
ately united." " It was well done of you," they replied ; 
"he is indeed of comely appearance, and one with whom 
we could live happily for ever." When the year had expired 
Urvasi and the monarch met at Kurukshetra, and she con- 
signed to him his first-born, Ayus ; and these annual inter- 
views were repeated until she had borne to him five sons. 
She then said to Pururavas : " Through regard for me all 
the Gandharvas have expressed their joint purpose to bestow 
upon my lord their benediction ; let him, therefore, demand 
a boon." The Raja replied : " My enemies are all destroyed, 
my faculties are all entire ; I have friends and kindred, 
armies and treasures : there is nothing which I may not 
obtain except living in the same region with my Urvasi. 
My only desire, therefore, is to pass my life with her." When 
he had thus spoken, the Gandharvas brought to Pururavas 
a vessel with fire and said to him : " Take this fire and, 
according to the precepts of the Vedas, divide it into three 
fires ; then fixing your mind upon the idea of living with 
Urvasi, offer oblations, and you shall assuredly obtain your 

The Raja took the brazier and departed, and came to a 
forest. Then he began to reflect that he had committed a 
great folly in bringing away the vessel of fire instead of his 
bride ; and leaving the vessel in the wood he went discon- 
solate to his palace. In the middle of the night he awoke, 
and considered that the Gandharvas had given him the 


brazier to enable him to obtain the felicity of living with 
Urva^i, and that it was absurd in him to have left it by the 
way. Resolving, therefore, to recover it, he rose and went 
to the place where he had deposited the vessel ; but it was 
gone. In its stead he saw a young Asvattha tree growing 
out of a Sami plant, and he reasoned with himself, and said : 
" I left in this spot a vessel of fire, and now behold a young 
Asvattha tree growing out of a Sami plant. Verily I will 
take these types of fire to my capital, and there, having en- 
gendered fire by their attrition, I will worship it." Having 
thus determined, he took the plants to his city, and prepared 
their wood for attrition, with pieces of as many inches long 
as there are syllables in the Gayatri : he recited that holy 
verse and rubbed together sticks of as many inches as he 
recited syllables in the Gayatri. Having thus elicited fire, 
he made it threefold, according to the injunctions of the 
Vedas, and offered oblations with it, proposing as the end of 
the ceremony reunion with Urvasi. 

In this way, celebrating many sacrifices agreeably to the 
form in which offerings are presented with fire, Pururavas 
obtained a seat in the sphere of the Gandharvas, and was 
no more separated from his beloved. Thus fire, that was at 
first but one, was made threefold in the present Manwantara 
by the son of Ila. 

In this version the most important difference is the more 
detailed account of the fire-ritual. Here we at once see an 
unmistakable symbolism, and perhaps a lesson to show the 
importance of sacrifice when carried out in strict accordance 
with the teachings of the Vedas. We have now become 
acquainted with the legend in its fullest form and need not 
look at the numerous other versions, all of which are based 
on the above. 

I would, however, refer again to the original dialogue in 
Hymn xcv of the Rig-Veda, As we have already seen, verses 
1, 2, 14, 15 and 16 recur in the Satapatha Brdhmana, There 
are thirteen other verses, which describe the pleading of 
Pururavas on once again finding his beloved. He recalls the 
trick by which the Gandharvas made him break his promise, 
and the disadvantages he had, being only a mortal. Urvas^i 
is unmoved. Then he thinks of their son what will he 
think when he sees no father, when he hears he has been 
deserted ? Urvasi replies ^ : 

1 R. T. H. Griffith, vol. iv, Benares, 1892, p. 304 et seq. 


" I will console him when his tears are falling : he 
Shall not weep and cry for care that blesses. 
That which is thine between us will I send thee. 
Go home again, thou fool ; thou hast not won me." 

Pururavas in his misery determines to destroy himself 
(as in the other versions), and finally Urvasi speaks thus : 

" Thus speak these gods to thee, O son of Ila : as 
Death has verily got thee for his subject, 
Thy sons shall serve the gods with their oblation, 
And thou, moreover, shalt rejoice in Svarga." 

Thus the obdurate nymph shows no signs of yielding to 
her broken-hearted lover. She merely consoles him by telling 
him that the gods have promised that, after his death, his 
sons shall offer them sacrifices, and Pururavas himself shall 
attain the abode of the blessed. 

I feel that this sad ending, this unsatisfied love, would 
in time lose any significance it may once have had, and as 
the tale found its way into newer works a happier and more 
conventional ending would be substituted. 

As is usual in nearly every legend, scholars have en- 
deavoured to interpret the story of Pururavas and Urvasi as 
a nature-myth. Max Miiller tried to do this by his usual 
method of comparative philology. The principle he worked 
upon was, that in order to arrive at the original meaning 
of a myth all you have to do is to trace to their source 
the original meanings of the names of the gods or goddesses 
mentioned. In most cases these names will be found to 
denote elemental phenomena, and will have some natural 
significance, such as an earthquake, the sunset, a storm, the 
sky, and so on. 

Applying this principle to the tale under discussion, he 
would derive Urvasi from uru, " wide," and a root as, " to 
pervade," thus meaning " that which occupies the wide 
spaces of the sky " i.e, " the dawn." Pururavas he 
identifies with the Greek TroXvSeuKi]^, " endowed with much 
light," deriving the Sanskrit word from the root ru, " to 
cry," and applied to a loud or crying colour i.e. red. Thus 
the name really means the sun. So the story simply ex- 
presses the sun chasing the dawn. " Thus," says Miiller/ 

1 Max Miiller, Oxford Essays, 1856, p. 6l et seq. (reprinted in Chips from 
a German Workshop, vol. ii, 1868, pp. 101-108, 117-121, 126-l.SO). 


" ' Urva^i loves Pururavas ' meant ' the sun rises ' ; ' Urvai^i 
sees Pururavas naked ' meant ' the dawn is gone ' ; ' Urvai^i 
finds Pururavas again ' meant ' the sun is setting.' " 

This system of tracing the origin of myths through ety- 
mology has proved almost entirely unsuccessful. The reasons 
for this are numerous. Among others may be mentioned the 
fact that myths very similar indeed to those found among 
Aryan peoples have also been discovered among Australians, 
South Sea Islanders, Eskimos, etc. Then again, the mean- 
ing of a god's name need have nothing whatever to do with 
the myth in which it occurs, for the simple reason that nothing 
was more usual than to attach the name of a popular god to 
some old myth, the real origin of which had long been for- 
gotten. Names like Gilgamish, Buddha, Alexander, Solomon, 
David and a hundred others continually drew to them stories 
long ante-dating (or post-dating) them, which really had 
nothing to do with them at all. If there were no miracles 
connected with a popular hero or saint, some had to be found 
and were found. Then again, proper names of mortals 
were often derived from natural phenomena, and a story 
told about " Sun " and " Moon," two members of, say, some 
Brazilian tribe, would in later years be told of " the sun " 
and " the moon." 

But apart from all this, philologists differ widely 
as to the true etymology of words, especially names of 
deities. Nothing can be proved definitely, and the whole 
system is one that the mythologist of to-day " turns 
down." ^ 

The beginning of the story is simple enough. The 
heavenly nymph falls in love with a mortal who returns her 
love to the very utmost. Although warned that he must 
abide by certain conditions, he is willing to risk everything. 
He is told that the conditions are merely in accordance with 
the usual custom. Whether she means the custom among 
Apsarases or Aryan womanhood as a whole we are not told. 
Anyhow, we have here the earliest example of a nuptial taboo, 
which in after years appeared in a Greek Mdrchen, known to 

^ For further suggested explanations, etc., see A. Kuhn, Die Herahkunft 
des Feuers und dcs GMertranks, p. 81 et seq. (2nd edition, p. 73 et seq^\ 
A. Weber, Ind. Slreifen, vol. i, 1868-1879, p. l6 et seq.; K. F. Geldner in 
Pischel and Geldner's Vedische Studien, vol. i, 1889, pp. 244 et seq. ; H. Olden- 
berg, Religion des Veda, p. 253 ; ditto. Die Literalur des alien Indien, 1903, 
pp. 5S-5b ; Garrett's Classical Dictionary, p. 486 ; Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, 
p. 135. 


us through the Latin of Apuleius the famous Cupid and 
Psyche myth. 

This is not the place to go into any details on the subject 
of taboo, which has been so ably discussed by Frazer (see the 
volume of The Golden Bough (iii) entitled " Taboo and the 
Perils of the Soul "). I would, however, draw attention to 
J. A. MaccuUoch's Childhood of Fiction, pp. 324 et seq,, where 
wiU be found many interesting variants to our story in the 
folk-lore of both civilised and semi- civilised peoples. 

Although not usually mentioned, there is a story closely 
resembling " Cupid and Psyche " in the Pentamerone, second 
day, ninth diversion (Burton, vol. i, p. 211 et seq,), entitled 
" The Padlock." 

It seems very probable that all these taboos in legend had 
their origin in taboos in real life, many examples of which 
have been noted (Macculloch, op, cit, p. 335). 

In all these taboo stories the taboo seems to be made to 
be broken ; perhaps it is intended to teach some lesson or 
explain some principle. It may show the weakness of human 
nature, the evil results of lack of determination or the neces- 
sity for unremitting care and forethought any or all of 
which ideas would perfectly well serve as an incentive to a 
more protracted study and careful observance of the Vedas. 

Frazer 's theory as to the origin of tales like " Urvasi and 
Pururavas " and " Cupid and Psyche " is interesting.^ He con- 
siders that they represent a stage of decay in a cycle of stories 
which originally were totemic. He argues thus : " Now, 
wherever the totemic clans have become exogamous, that is, 
wherever a man is always obliged to marry a woman of a 
totem different from his own, it is obvious that husband and 
wife will always have to observe different totemic taboos, 
and that a want of respect shown by one of them for the 
sacred animal or plant of the other would tend to domestic 
jars, which might often lead to the permanent separation of 
the spouses, the offended wife or husband returning to her 
or his native clan of the fish-people, the bird-people or what 
not. That, I take it, was the origin of the sad story of the 
man or woman happily mated with a transformed animal 
and then parted for ever. Such tales, if I am right, were not 

1 The Golden Bough, vol. iv, "The Dying God/' pp. 130, 131. I would 
especially draw attention to the fine collection of references given in the 
notes on these two pages. vSee also P. Saintyves, Les Conies de Perrault, 
p. 41 6 et seq. 


wholly fictitious. Totemism may have broken many loving 
hearts. But when that ancient system of society had fallen 
into disuse, and the ideas on which it was based had ceased 
to be understood, the quaint stories of mixed marriages to 
which it had given birth would not be at once forgotten. 
They would continue to be told, no longer, indeed, as myths 
explanatory of custom, but merely as fairy tales for the 
amusement of the listeners. The barbarous features of the 
old legends, which now appeared too monstrously incredible 
even for story-tellers, would be gradually discarded and 
replaced by others which fitted in better with the changed 
beliefs of the time. Thus in particular the animal husband 
or animal wife of the story might drop the character of a 
beast to assume that of a fairy." 

Personally I am not in the least convinced by this theory, 
which, although ingenious, seems entirely devoid of any sort 
of proof, and is, moreover, one of those delightful theories 
that can have no proof. The idea of an animal husband or 
wife would not tax the imagination of a story-teller very 
far, and, moreover, nothing has yet been thought of too wild 
for the boundless imagination of the Hindus, whose pantheon 
is so full of animal incarnations. 

Referring to the tale under discussion, Frazer states in 
conclusion that " we can still detect hints that the fairy wife 
was once a bird- woman," and in the note below says that a 
clear trace of the bird nature of Urvasi occurs in the Sata- 
patha Brdhmana. Here again I would cry " not proven." 
As already mentioned (Vol. I, p. 201), Apsarases were origin- 
ally water-nymphs, those who " moved about in the water." 
In verse 10 of the version in the Rig-Veda Pururavas says in 
speaking of Urvasi : 

" She who flashed brilliant as the falling lightning 
Brought me delicious presents from the waters." 

This is merely describing Urvasi 's home : " from the 
waters (of the firmament)." Her nature was that of a 
beautiful bird moving serenely through the waters, and when 
we find her in her celestial home in the guise of a swan I see 
no reason to take this to be an early example of either the 
" Beauty and the Beast " or the famous " swan-maiden " 
cycle of stories. Furthermore, the one important feature 
of this latter cycle is the discovery of the disguise on the 



part of the man and his immediate efforts to keep her in her 
human shape. 

Then comes the aloofness of Urvasi after her reunion 
with Pururavas. In the earliest version she maintains this 
attitude to the end. In other versions she softens, and all 
ends happily. This makes a prettier story, and perhaps that 
explains a lot. Anyhow in no version is the lesson, which is 
intended to be conveyed, lost sight of. A mortal love and 
marriage is all very nice and proper, but it is only temporary. 
There is a far greater goal to be obtained that of im- 
mortality and until the mere mortal has realised the necessity 
to strive after something higher and finer he cannot hope to 
enjoy the lasting fruits of a passionate love. 

We now come to the incident about the sacrificial fire. 
It does not occur in Hymn xcv of the Rig-Veda, but in 
Hymn xxix ^ there is a full account of the process of fire-making 
by means of the fire-drill (arani), and the analogy between the 
process and the intercourse of the sexes is realised. It seems 
rather as if the fire-incident was connected with the story of 
Urvasi at a later date, and merely introduced to show the 
importance of sacrificial fires as initiatory rites to the final 
attainment of immortality. In the version found in the 
Satapatha Brdhmana Pururavas is given holy fire by sacrific- 
ing with which he can obtain his wish to become a Gan- 
dharva. He leaves the fire in the forest and on his return 
finds the fire and the pan turned into two trees, one an 
Asvattha (i.e. Ficus religiosa the modern pipal, aswat, jari, 
basri, bo, etc.), and the other a Sami tree (i.e. Mimosa suma 
the name of the leaves is Prosopis spicigera). He there- 
upon returns to the Gandharvas for further instructions. 
After mentioning various rites and methods of making fire 
from the two trees, they finally tell him that if both sticks for 
the fire-drill are made out of the Asvattha tree the resulting 
fire will be " that very fire." 

In the Vishnu Purdna details are more fully described, as 
already seen. Pururavas realised that the fire had been given 
him "to enable him to retain the felicity of living with 
Urvasi." On returning to the place where he left the fire he 
finds a young Asvattha tree growing out of a Sami plant. 
He immediately takes wood from each tree, which he makes 

1 Rig-Veda, iii, 29. See Griffith's translation, vol. ii, pp. 2.5-27, which 
begins : " Here is gear for friction, here tinder made ready for the spark. 
Bring thou the matron [lower stick], we will rub Agni in ancient fashion forth." 


into the upper and lower parts of a fire-drill taking care to 
cut them in accordance with a specially prescribed ritual. 
As he works the fire-drill he fixes his mind on reunion with 
his beloved, thus employing a kind of sexual sympathetic 
magic. Finally stress is laid on the importance of celebrating 
sacrifices in the form in which offerings are prescribed with 
fire. Pururavas carries out the necessary instructions of the 
Gandharvas and regains Urvasi. 

Thus (the version ends) fire that was at first but one was 
made threefold. The three kinds of fire referred to are : 
vadavdgni, which is submarine, causes the waves, and keeps 
the level of the ocean uniform by consuming so much water 
the inpouring rivers making the deficit ; laukikdgniy the 
domestic fire ; and vrika, the fire in one's own body which 
can be heard on putting the fingers in one's ears.^ 

It is possible that the fire resulting from the friction of 
the two sticks symbolised the child, for in a very large number 
of primitive tribes in all parts of the world the vertical stick 
is known by a name signifying " male," while the horizontal 
stick is called " female," and in some cases (as among the 
Thompson Indians of British Columbia) as soon as the spark 
falls on the tinder of dried leaves or grass they exclaim : "The 
woman has given birth ! " 

The whole subject of the fire-drill has been fully discussed 
by Frazer,^ while reference should also be made to Crooke ^ 
and Thurston."* 

It is curious that Frazer (p. 209) states that the sticks are 
not taken from the same tree, but that one must be hard and 
the other soft. Certainly this seems reasonable, but he must 
have overlooked the statements in the Satapatha Brdhmana 
and also the numerous examples quoted by Thurston, where 
both sticks are made from the same tree. 

^ For full details of the Agnyadhana, or ^' Establishment of the Sacred 
Fires," see Satapatha Brdhmana, part i, second kdnda, p. 274 ei seq. 

2 The Golden Bough, vol', ii, ch. xv, "The Fire Drill" (pp. 206-226), and 
ch, xvi, " Father Jove and Mother Vesta" (pp. 227-252). See also the General 
Index under " Friction." 

^ Poptdar Rcligio7i oj' Northern hidia, vol. ii, pp. 1.92-195. 

* Ethnographic Notes in Southern India, pp. 464-470 ; and Castes and 
Tribes of Southern India, vol. i, p. 99, where it is interesting to note that 
although the Badagas make fire by friction, reference is made in their folk- 
legends not to this mode of obtaining fire, but to chakkamukki (flint and steel). 
Commenting upon this, T. C. Hodson {Primitive Culture of India, Roy. As. Soc. 
Forlong Fund, vol. i, p. Si)) suggests that possibly the flint and steel had 
superseded the use of the fire-drill, except in the solemnity of funeral rites. 


In order to appreciate the extent to which the sacred fire 
entered into Hindu ritual as time went on we have only to 
glance at the daily offering to the fire made by the modern 
Brahman, known as homa. It is made twice daily, once in 
the morning before breakfast and again at night before 
dinner. It consists of ghee, curds, and rice or grain.^ Homa 
is also performed at the investiture of the Sacred Thread, at 
hair-cutting, marriages, srdddha, etc. 

After his wedding a Brahman can either be an ordinary 
householder or an agnihotrl i.e, fire-priest and observe the 
full forty-eight rites (instead of the ordinary sixteen). The 
fire used at any important ceremony such as a wedding 
should be kindled by friction and the fire in the domestic 
hearth lit by it. Full details of the agnihotrl have been given 
by Crooke.^ 

Thus, I think, we can regard the fire-incident of the 
story of Pururavas and Urvasi as showing the great sym- 
bolical significance of fire- sacrifice as a means of attaining 
Svarga, the abode of the blessed, and ensuring a final state 
of immortality. 

Before closing this appendix I would refer again to 
Kalidasa's dramatic version of the legend. It is known as 
Vikramorvasl, or " Urvasi won by Valour," and is a play in 
five acts. The plot differs considerably from the original 
story and is briefly as follows : 

King Pururavas, in answer to the cries of some nymphs, 
rescues one of their companions, Urvasi, from the clutches 
of a demon, pursuing him in his heavenly car. The two fall 
in love with one another. Urvasi is called to the Court of 
Indra, but sees the king in his garden later on. Complica- 
tions arise as Pururavas is already married and the queen 
becomes jealous. 

Urvasi has to act at Indra's court and when asked in the 
play whom she loves says " Pururavas " in mistake for Puru- 
shottama (Vishnu). This enrages her teacher Bharata, who 
curses her, saying that as she had forgotten her part so she 
would be forgotten in heaven. However Indra takes pity 

^ For a full description of the offerings see Stevenson, Rites of the Twice- 
born, p. 226-227. 

'^ Tribes and Castes of the North- West Provinces and Oiidh, under 
"Agnihotrl." See also Frazer, op. cit., pp. 247-250, 



on her and says she can be united to Pururavas until he sees 
the son which she will bear him. The lovers wander together 
on the Himalayas, when Urva^i, seeing Pururavas' attention 
attracted for a moment by a nymph, enters in her anger the 
groves of Karttikeya, forbidden to females. The curse of 
Bharata begins to take effect and she is immediately changed 
into a creeper. The king in his frenzied misery at her loss be- 
comes insane, and wanders through the forest inquiring for his 
beloved of every tree, stream, mountain, or animal he meets. 

Everywhere he imagines he sees traces of his lost one 
the flowers heavy with dew are her eyes glistening with start- 
ing tears, the rippling water is her frown, the meandering 
current her undulating gait. Wilson's translation gives a 
very good idea of the original. 

Pururavas inquires of a swan : 

" Ho ! Monarch of the tribes that breast the stream, 
Forbear awhile your course : forgo the provender 
Of lotus stems, not needed yet, and hear 
My suit redeem me from despair impart 
Some tidings of my love 'tis worthier far 
To render kindly offices to others 
Than meanly labour for a selfish good- 
He heeds me not, but still on Manasa 
Intent, collects his store and now I note him 
More closely, I suspect some mystery. 
Why seek to veil the truth ? if my beloved 
Was never seen by thee as graceful straying 
Along the flowery borders of the lake. 
Then whence this elegant gait 'Tis hers and thou 
Hast stolen it from her in whose every step 
Love sports thy walk betrays thee ; own thy crime, 
And lead me quickly to her. {Laughs.) Nay, he fears 
Our Royal power the plunderer flies the king." 

Later he sees a lotus with a bee amid its petals and 
exclaims : 

" Say, plunderer of the honeyed dew, hast thou 
Beheld the nymph whose large and languid eye 
Voluptuous rolls as if it swam with wine ? 
And yet methinks 'tis idle to inquire. 
For had he tasted her delicious breath 
He now would scorn the lotus. I will hence." 


After many inquiries for Urvasi he finds a gem, which 
proves to be the jewel of restoration. Suddenly he sees a 
vine : 

"What means this strange emotion? as I gaze 
Upon this vine no blossoms deck its boughs ; 
Nipped by the falling rains, like briny tears, 
The buds have perished, and the mournful shrub 
All unadorned appears to pine in absence 
No bees regale her with their songs silent 
And sad, she, lonely, shows the image 
Of my repentant love, who now laments 
Her causeless indignation ^I will press 
The melancholy likeness to my heart 
Vine of the wilderness, behold 
A lone, heart-broken wretch in me. 
Who dreams in his embrace to fold 
His love, as wild he clings to thee. 
And might relenting fate restore 
To these fond arms the nymph I mourn, 
I'd bear her hence, and never more 
To these forbidden haunts return." 

Gradually the creeper is transformed into Urvasi and 
Pururavas finds he is in the arms of his beloved : 

" What can this mean ? through every fibre spreads 
The conscious touch of Urvasi yet all 
I deemed her charms deceived me let me wake 
And realise the vision or dispel it. 
'Tis no deceit 'tis she my best beloved." (Faints.) 

The pair are happily united, but Urvasi remembers the 
curse. Years pass and by accident Pururavas meets Ayus, 
his son, and in consequence Urvasi must return to heaven. 
Once again Indra saves the situation and all ends happily. 




Owing to the great antiquity and significance of the umbrella, 
and to the fact that there appears to be no recent compre- 
hensive work on the subject, I shall give here a few notes on 
its history and Western migration. 

In the first place the etymology of the word is interesting. 
Our English word umbrella is, of course, a misnomer, for 
being derived from the Italian diminutive omhrella (Latin 
umbra) it means " little shade," and has no reference what- 
ever to rain. It is curious that we do not use a correct self- 
explanatory word, like the French parapluie, the German 
Regenschirm, and the Spanish paraguas, etc. 

Turning to classical references we find the word umbracu- 
lum, meaning " a sunshade," used by Ovid (Fasti, ii, 311 ; Ars 
Amat, ii, 209-210) ; Martial (xiv, 28) ; TibuUus (ii, 5, 97) ; 
and Ammianus Marcellinus (xxviii, 4) ; while the word 
umbella occurs in the same sense in Martial (xi, 73-76) and 
Juvenal (ix, 50). The Greek equivalent a-KiaSeiov occurs in 
Arrian (Indica, xvi), where he states that the umbrella is 
used by all Indians of consideration; and Athenaeus (ii, 31). 
It is also found represented on numerous ancient Greek 
vase-paintings. The word parasol appears to be of much 
later origin. It is mentioned in the Petrarchian vocabu- 
lary (fourteenth century) as the equivalent of saioual (from 
the Persian sdydban or sdiwdn, " an umbrella "). The word 
is now only used to denote the fragile and elegant variety 
of sunshade used by ladies. 

It is impossible to say with any certainty where the 
umbrella originated, but evidence seems to point to the 
Mesopotamian region as its home. It was the emblem of 
royalty in both Babylon and Assyria, as can be seen from 
the marvellous reliefs in the British Museum, excavated by 
Sir Henry Layard. The Nimrud Gallery contains sculptures 
from Calah, and some of the reliefs show Assur-nasir-pal in 
his chariot or on his throne with the royal umbrella held over 
him. Similar reliefs will be found in the Nineveh Gallery. 


The ancient Egyptian kings used the umbrella in exactly 
the same manner as the Assyrians. It appears from a Theban 
painting reproduced in Wilkinson's Manners and Customs of 
the Ancient Egyptians (vol. i, 1878, p. 235) that the honour 
also extended to members of the royal family. In this 
particular case it is an Ethiopian princess, and the umbrella, 
composed of lotus leaves, is fixed into the chariot on the 
left-hand side. 

The use of the umbrella as a symbol of power and sove- 
reignty appears to have existed in all parts of Asia from a 
very early date. In the Far East the centre of the practice 
was undoubtedly China, and bas-reliefs dating back to the 
eleventh century B.C. have been found depicting its use. 
In Dr Bushell's Chinese Art, vol. i, 1905 (H.M. Stationery 
Office), Figs. 1 and 5 show such bas-reliefs of the Han Dynasty. 
The latter represents an umbrella being held over the head 
of King Ch'eng of the Chou Dynasty (see op. cit, p. 18). 
Elaborate examples, such as those in the bas-reliefs, were 
used only by the sovereign and those to whom the honour was 
specially granted. The usual variety was made of varnished 
paper on split bamboo. Large quantities of these were, and 
still are, exported to Singapore, whence they find their way 
through Java, Sumatra and Malaya to the coastal towns of 

It is, however, chiefly to Burma, where the etiquette has 
remained unchanged, that we look for the full significance 
of the umbrella. As in ancient India, so also in Burma 
the colour of the royal umbrella (tibyu) was white. It was 
about twelve or fifteen feet high, with a diameter of nearly 
six feet. It was carried only over the king, and possibly his 
chief wife. It formed, moreover, one of the five articles of 
regalia, the others being the crown {mako), sceptre {thanlyet)^ 
sandal {chenin) and chowrie {thdmyi yat). The umbrellas 
have distinctive names attached to them, such as " the 
trembling," "moon," "golden," "sun," "lotus," "uplifted" 
and so forth. When Superintendent at Port Blair, Sir Richard 
Temple managed to get drawings and carvings made of 
the complete regalia of the Burmese kings.^ Nine white 
umbrellas mark the king, while the heir-apparent has eight 
golden ones, and a lesser number are allotted to other members 
of the royal family, the tributary chiefs and other high 
officials. If a king abdicated, he forfeited the right of the 

1 See Ind. AnL, vol. xxxi, Nov. 1902, pp. 442-444. 



regalia. An exception to this rule, however, occurred in the 
case of King Kunzaw of the eleventh century, who abdicated 
on religious grounds. He was allowed to continue the use of 
the royal symbol, and also of the title Tibyuzaung (" wearer 
of the white umbrella "), which is attached to all Burmese 
kings.^ The lesser officials have red umbrellas, though in 
some cases leave was given to cover the outside with coloured 
silks or satins, usually pink or green. Fringes were con- 
sidered an additional honour. The inside was nearly always 

The common umbrellas in general use were made of native 
parchment-like paper glued to spokes of split bamboo and 
coated with black varnish. Priests were allowed a yellow 
varnish, giving a diaphanous appearance.^ 

A favourite trick of King Noung daw Gyee was to con- 
tinually issue new edicts as to the length of umbrella handles 
allowed, with the result that district officials made small 
fortunes by fines. ^ 

As can be expected, the umbrella had also a religious 
significance, and we find images of Gautama crowned with 
this symbol of sovereignty. In Buddhist architecture the 
*' Wheel of Light," symbolising the Buddha, is overshadowed 
by an umbrella, and every Burmese pagoda is surmounted 
by a htee, htl or ti, which are really metal (and occasionally 
stone) umbrellas with bells and other decorations attached.* 
The significance of the ti is shown by an incident connected 
with the history of the famous Shwe Dagon pagoda at 
Rangoon. When, in 1768, it reached its present height 
of 321 feet from the platform, it was crowned with a ti 
by the Mon kings of Pegu. This was destroyed by an 
earthquake in 1768, and five years later King Sinbyushin 
replaced it by one of true Burmese shape, and the event 
symbolised the complete Burmanising of the Mon country 

^ See R. Grant Brown, "The Pre-Buddhist Religion of the Burmese/' 
Folk-Lore, June 1921, vol. xxxii, pp. 77-100. In his address to the Governor- 
General of India in 1855, the King of Burma styled himself "the monarch 
who reigns over the great umbrella-wearing chiefs of the Eastern countries." 

2 See J. Nisbet, Burma under British Rule and Before, 1901, p. 204. 

^ See Shway Yoe (Sir George Scott), The Burman, his Life and Notions, 
1896, p. 406. 

* For details of the ti in Burmese architecture reference should be made 
to J. Fergusson, J. Burgess and R. Phene Spiers' History of Indian and Eastern 
Architecture, 2 vols., 1910, vol.i, p. 70, and Sir George Scott's article, "Burma 
and Assam (Buddhism in)," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. iii, pp. 42, 43. 


and celebrated the recent successes against Siam, China 
and Manipur.^ 

Passing to India we find similar evidence of the great 
importance attached to the umbrella. It appears in ancient 
rock sculptures and enters into Hindu iconography. In the 
Bharhut tope there is a carving of a casket containing relics 
guarded by a seven-headed Naga, and over it is an umbrella 
of state. At Sanchi we find sculptured representations of 
two and even three such symbols placed one above the other 
over temples, the double and triple canopies of which appear 
to be fixed to the same handle or staff, as in the modern state 
umbrellas of China and Burma. Thus we have a primary 
idea of the accumulated honour of stone or metal discs which 
subsequently became such a prominent feature of Buddhist 
architecture, culminating in the many-storied pagodas of 
China and Japan.^ 

It will be remembered that in our text in the Ocean of 
Story (p. 49) the colour of the umbrella is given as white, 
while on p. 55 it is described as " gleaming white like snow." 
In this connection it is of interest to quote a paragraph from 
Yule, Marco Polo, vol. i, p. 355 : " An Indian prince, in a 
Sanskrit inscription of the ninth century, boasts of having 
wrested from the King of Marwar the two umbrellas pleasing 
to Parvati, and white as the summer moonbeams. Prithi 
Raj, the last Hindu king of Delhi, is depicted by the poet 
Chand as shaded by a white umbrella on a golden staff." 
This was also the colour in the Jdtakas. In the Rds Mala, 
however, Forbes ^ describes an image of Wun Raj (Vanaraja) 
in which the king is covered by a scarlet umbrella. 

The question naturally arises as to why the umbrella had 
such a universal importance throughout the East. Several 
suggestions have been put forward, some of which seem quite 
feasible. In the first place it was thought to symbolise the 
firmament owing to its shape, and in support of this view 
Russell (op. cit, pp. 450-451) states that " when one of the 
early Indian monarchs made extensive conquests, the annexed 

^ See Nisbet, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 385. The subsequent history of the it is 
to be found in Captain C. J. F. S. Forbes' British Burma and its People, 1878, 
pp. 200-201. 

2 See Jotini. Indian Art and Industrif, vol. xvi, April 1912, p. 3. It is 
quoted by Russell, Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces, vol. ii, p. 449. 

3 See the 1924 edition, with notes by H. J. Rawlinson. The umbrella is 
shown in vol. i, p. 40. See also note on p. 440. 


territories were described as being brought under his umbrella ; 
of the King Harsha-Vardhana (a.d. 606-648) it is recorded 
that he prosecuted a methodical scheme of conquest with the 
deliberate object of bringing all India under one umbrella 
that is, of constituting it into one state. This phrase seems 
to support the idea that the umbrella symbolised the firma- 
ment. Similarly, when Visvamitra sent beautiful maidens 
to tempt the good King Harischandra, he instructed them to 
try and induce the king to marry them, and if he would not 
do this, to ask him for the Puchukra Undi or State Umbrella, 
which was the emblem of the king's protecting power over 
his kingdom, with the idea that that power would be de- 
stroyed by its loss. Chhatrapati or Lord of the Umbrella 
was the proudest title of an Indian king. When Sivaji was 
enthroned in 1674 he proclaimed himself as Pinnacle of the 
Kshatriya race and Lord of the Royal Umbrella. All these 
instances seem to indicate that some powerful significance, 
such as that already suggested, attached to the umbrella. 
Several tribes, as the Gonds and Mundas, have a legend that 
their earliest king was born of poor parents, and that one 
day his mother, having left the child under some tree while 
she went to her work, returned to find a cobra spreading its 
hood over him. The future royal destiny of the boy was thus 

Another suggestion as to the original significance of the 
umbrella is that it was used to protect the eyes of the sove- 
reign from the people his glance being considered magical 
and harmful. This, however, seems more unlikely than the op- 
positenamely, that the sacred person of his Majesty should 
be protected from the common gaze of the populace; but 
both ideas lose their value when we remember the use of the 
symbol on temples and the fact that the umbrella is always 
represented as held vertically over the king's head, thus pro- 
tecting it from the powerful rays of a tropical sun. It seems, 
however, quite possible that, apart from the actual harm it 
might do, the sun should never be allowed to shine direct on 
the sacred person of the king. This idea is strengthened by 
the fact that at the most important period of a Brahman's 
life he had to keep the sun from shining on his head. Thus 
we read in the Grihya Sutras ^ that on the day when a Brah- 
man student of the Veda took a bath to signify that the time 
of his studentship was at an end, he entered a cow-shed before 

^ Oldenberg, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxx, pp. l65, 275. 


sunrise, hung over the door a skin with the hair outside, 
and sat there : on that day the sun should not shine upon 
him. Frazer ^ includes this under the various taboos of 
sacred persons in the section " Not to see the Sun," and gives 
numerous examples where the sovereign (as in the case of the 
Mikado) was so sacred that the sun was not worthy to shine 
upon him. 

The migration of the umbrella from East to West was 
slow and gradual. This is not to be wondered at when we 
remember the great size of the state umbrella, and the fact 
that as yet the folding variety was unknown. The costliness 
of such articles would also be a great disadvantage, besides 
being very hard to obtain. Mediaeval accounts given by 
travellers are not very numerous. Marco Polo, in describing 
the Court of Kublai Kaan in 1292 says ^ that generals who 
have command of 100,000 men are awarded a tablet of gold 
according to their rank, etc., and that everyone, moreover, 
who holds a tablet of this exalted degree is entitled, when- 
ever he goes abroad, to have a little yellow canopy, such as 
is called an umbrella {palieque in Pauthier, unum pallium in 
the Latin text), carried on a spear over his head in token of 
his high command. 

In Europe the umbrella was not unknown at this time 
and Martino da Canale, a contemporary of Polo, states that 
in Venice " when the Doge goes forth of his palace, ' si vait 
apres lui un damoiseau qui porte une umbrele de dras a or sur 
son chief,' which umbrella had been given by '' Monseigneur 
VApostoille.' There is a picture by Girolamo Gambarota, in 
the Sala del Gran Consiglio, at Venice, which represents the 
investiture of the Doge with the umbrella by Pope Alexander 
III, and Frederick Barbarossa (concerning which see Sanuto 
Junior, in Muratori, xxii, 512 ").^ Ibn Batuta (ii, 440) tells 
us that in his time (c. 1332) parasols were in general use 
at Constantinople. It was also in the fourteenth century 
that the folding umbrella was first noticed. It is described 
by Marignolli as " a thing like a little tent-roof on a cane 
handle, which they open out at will as a protection against 
sun or rain. This they call a chatyr ; I brought one to 
Florence with me." * 

^ Golden Bough, vol. x, pp. 18-21. 

2 Yule, Marco Polo, vol. i, p. 351. 

3 Idem, ibid., p. 3.54. 

* See Yule and Cordier, Cathay and the Way Thither^ vol. iii, p. 256. 


The next mention of a similar variety appears to be that 
given by Duarte Barbosa.^ They are described as " made 
of finely worked silk with many golden tassels, and many 
precious stones and seed pearls." In an interesting note 
Dames states that the next mention of umbrellas which open 
and shut is probably that in a passage in the Decadas of 
Joao de Barros (III, x, 9,/, 264, ed. of 1563). It speaks of 
events which occurred at Cananor in 1526. The first part 
of the passage is quoted in Hobson Johson (ed. 1903, p. 851), 
but the description itself is omitted. It is as follows : 

" All this is mounted on a staff as an awning, as we have 
said, and the canes play up and down, shutting and opening 
to close it or spread it out. And when they would put up the 
great crown which gives the shade, they insert into that staff 
(piam) a very light wooden shaft (aste) about fifteen palms in 
length, and then they run it by means of a socket (noete) work- 
ing on the wooden staff, in order that it may be fully spread 
out when it arrives at the top of the staff. There they put a 
cross-piece of wood through the shaft, in which there is a hole, 
so that it remains fixed and does not fall down." 

Although umbrellas were used by the Anglo-Saxons,^ as 
is shown in the Harleian MS. (603 in the British Museum), 
they do not reappear in England till the seventeenth century, 
and even then remained practically unknown until early in 
the following century, when it became the practice for coffee- 
houses to keep large umbrellas for use of their patrons ^ in 
very much the same way as they are used to-day by com- 
missionaires of clubs and hotels. The custom, however, 
could not have been very familiar, for in 1752 Colonel Wolfe 
noticed their use in Paris and wondered why they had not 
been introduced into England. 

Jonas Hanway (1712-1786) is stated to be the first man to 
habitually carry an umbrella. It is interesting to note that 
the Anglo-Indian term used for an umbrella in the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries was " roundel," a word of 
early English origin applied to a variety of circular objects, 
as a mat under a dish, a target, shield, etc.^ The form 

1 The Book of Duarte Barbosa, trans, by M. Longworth Dames, Hakluyt 
Society, 1921, vol. i, pp. 206-207. 

2 See Fig. 23 in Mrs Ashdown's British Costume, 1910. 

3 The Tatler, No. 238, 17th October 1710. 

* See Yule, Hobson Jobson, under "Roundel," also " Umbrella," "Kittysol," 
"Sombrero"; R. C. Temple, hid. Ant., December 1904, p. 31 6; and Murray's 
New English Dictionary under "Roundel." 


" arundel " is also found. The fact that the Anglo-Indians 
called the umbrella a roundel and regarded it as a symbol 
of sovereignty or nobility indicated that it was as yet little 
known in England. W. W. Skeat ^ points out that " some 
kind of umbrella was, however, occasionally used by ladies 
at least as far back as 1709 ; and a fact not generally known 
is that from about the year 1717 onwards a ' parish ' um- 
brella, resembling the more recent ' family ' umbrella of the 
nineteenth century, was employed by the priest at open- 
air funerals, as the church accounts of many places testify." 

Murray's New English Dictionary gives a long and inter- 
esting list of quotations under "Umbrella," the earliest 
being as follows : 

"1611. 'Many of them doe carry other fine things . . . 
which they commonly call in the Italian tongue ' umbrellaes.' 
. . . These are made of leather something answerable to the 
form of a little caunopy and hooped in the inside with divers 
little wooden hoopes that extend the umbrella in a pretty 
large compass.' Coryate, Crudities, iii." 

Among others may be mentioned two references from the 
writings of Swift : 

" 1704. ' A large skin of Parchment . . . served him for a 
Night-cap when he went to bed, and for an Umbrello in rainy 
Weather.' TaZ^ of a Tub, ix." 

" c. 1712. ' The tuck'd up semstress walks with hasty 
While streams run down her oil'd umbrella's 
sides.' A City Shower,'' 

Finally the following lines from Gay's Trivia, Bk. I, 
give quite a good idea of the history of the umbrella : 

" 1716. ' Good housewives all the winter's rage despise, 
Defended by the riding hood's disguise ; 
Or underneath the umbrella's oily shade 
Safe through the wet on clinking pattens tread. 

Let Persian dames the umbrella's ribs display 
To guard their beauties from the sunny ray ; 

1 The Past at our Doors, 1911, pp. 97, 98. 


Or sweating slaves support the shady load 
When Eastern monarchs show their state abroad ; 
Britain in winter only knows its aid 
To guard from chilly showers the walking maid.' " 

Very few early examples of English umbrellas appear to 
have been preserved, and the earliest specimens in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum date only from the first half of the nine- 
teenth century. They belong to the class which have whale- 
bone ribs, thick wooden sticks and large oiled silk covers. 
In time gingham (a kind of cotton cloth first made in 
Guingamp ^ in Brittany, the yarn of which is dyed before it 
is woven) was substituted, and in 1848 William Sangster 
patented the use of alpaca as an umbrella covering. 

The chief invention, however, was the " Paragon " rib, 
patented by Samuel Fox in 1852. It is formed of a thin strip 
of steel rolled into a trough section, thus combining lightness, 
strength and elasticity. 

Huge umbrellas have always been in demand in native 
courts in all parts of Africa, and many are made in England 
for this purpose. Brewer (Dictionary of Phrase and Fable 
" Umbrella ") quotes a paragraph from The Graphic of 18th 
March 1894, p. 270 : " An umbrella is now being made in 
London for an African potentate which, when unfurled, will 
cover a space sufficient for twelve persons. The stick is . . . 
fifteen feet long." 

In 1874 the sacred umbrella of King Koffee Kalcalli of 
the Ashantees was captured and found its way to the South 
Kensington Museum. Many similar ones were to be seen at 
the Empire Exhibition, Wembley, in 1924. 

In his famous Pilgrimage to El Medinah and Meccah, 
three vols., 1855-1856 (vol. iii, pp. 140-141) Burton describes 
the Sherif of Meccah as being " plainly dressed in white 
garments and a white muslin turban . . . and the only 
emblem of his dignity was the large green satin umbrella 
borne by an attendant on foot." And in a note he adds : 
" From India to Abyssinia the umbrella is the sign of royalty : 
the Arabs of Meccah and Senaa probably derived the custom 
from the Hindus." 

When visiting the Emir of Abyssinia at Harar,^ Burton 

1 The New English Dictionary derives the word from the Malay ging-gang, 
meaning *^ striped." 

2 First Footsteps in East Africa, 1 856, p. 336. 


was received by his Highness under a red satin umbrella 
heavily fringed. 

Apart from the references already given, the following 
may be consulted : 

O. Uzanne, UOmhrelle, Paris, 1883 (see the interesting 
copy in the Ashbee Collection, British Museum). It was 
translated into English as The Sunshade, the Glove, the Muff, 
London, 1883. References to the umbrella in the Rdmdyana 
and Mahdbhdrata will be found on pp. 13-16. See also by 
the same author, Les Ornements de la Femme, "L'Ombrelle 
(Le Parasol Le Parapluie)," Paris, 1892, pp. 131-195. 

For further information see W. Sangster, Umbrellas and 
their History, 1855 (see also the 1871 edition by Cassell & Co., 
with illustrations by Bennett) ; " Pagodas, Aurioles and 
Umbrellas," F. C. Gordon Cumming, The English Illustrated 
Magazine, 1887-1888, pp. 601-612, and 654-667 ; S. Baring- 
Gould, Strange Survivals, 1892, p. 129 et seq, ; numerous short 
articles are referred to in Poole's Index of Periodical Literature, 





On page 91 of this volume we read of the methods employed 
by Yogakarandaka, the minister of King Brahmadatta, 
against our hero, the King of Vatsa : " He tainted, by means 
of poison and other deleterious substances, the trees, flowering 
creepers, water and grass all along the line of march. And he 
sent poison- damsels as dancing-girls among the enemy's host, 
and he also dispatched nocturnal assassins into their midst." 

The tactics of this minister are as curious as they are un- 
scrupulous. We have read of wells being poisoned and even 
of diseased clothes being left for the enemy to find, but the 
poisoning of the vegetation and the dispatching of poisoned 
women are much more uncommon. 

This subject is of great interest from many points of view, 
and as there appears to be very little published on the matter, 
especially poison-damsels, I will discuss the whole question in 
some detail. 

Although by far the greater part of this appendix will be 
on poison-damsels, I will first give a few notes on the practice 
of poisoning water, etc., in both classical and modern times. 

Poisoned Water, Etc, 

The references to such practices in Sanskrit literature are 
not numerous. They are, however, mentioned, and even ad- 
vocated, in the Code of Manu, vii, 195, where, in the chapter 
on the duties of kings, we read^ : " When he has shut up his 
foe (in a town) let him sit encamped, harass his kingdom and 
continually spoil his grass, food, fuel and water." 

The glosses of the commentators on this text refer in 
general terms to bad or harmful substances which are mixed 
with the grass, etc., or to destroying them by fire, water and 
so on. The bad substances may be supposed to include poison. 
In only one of the glosses is the actual word " poison " used. 

In the well-known medical work dating from about the 

^ Buhler's translation, Sacred Books of the East^ vol. xxv, p. 247. 


beginning of the Christian era, the Susruta Samhitd,^ we read 
in a chapter on the subject of the nature of animal poisons, 
etc., the following : 

" A sheet of poisoned water becomes slimy, strong- 
smelling, frothy and marked with (black-coloured) lines on 
the surface. Frogs and fish living in the water die without 
any apparent cause. Birds and beasts that live (in the water 
and) on its shores roam about wildly in confusion (from the 
effects of poison), and a man, a horse or an elephant, by 
bathing in this (poisoned) water is afflicted with vomiting, 
fainting, fever, a burning sensation and swelling of the limbs. 
These disorders (in men and animals) should be immediately 
attended to and remedied, and no pains should be spared 
to purify such poisoned water. The cold ashes of Dhava, 
Asva-karna, Asana, Pdribhadra, Pdtald, Siddhaka, Mokshaka, 
Rdja-druma and Somavalka burnt together, should be cast 
into the poisoned pool or tank, whereby its water would be 
purified ; as an alternative, an Anjali-measure (half a seer) 
of the said ashes cast in a Ghata-measure (sixty-four seers) 
of the required water would lead to its purification. 

" A poisoned ground or stone-slab, landing-stage or desert 
country gives rise to swellings in those parts of the bodies of 
men, bullocks, horses, asses, camels and elephants that may 
chance to come in contact with them. In such cases a burning 
sensation is felt in the affected parts, and the hair and nails 
(of these parts) fall off. In these cases, the poisoned surface 
should be purified by sprinkling it over with a solution of 
Ananta and Sarva-gandha (the scented drugs) dissolved in wine 
(Sura), or with (an adequate quantity of) black clay dissolved 
in water, or with the decoction of Vidanga, Pdthd and Katabhi. 

" Poisoned hay or fodder, or any other poisoned food-stuff, 
produces lassitude, fainting, vomiting, diarrhoea, or even 
death (of the animal partaking thereof). Such cases should 
be treated with proper anti-poisonous medicines according 
to the indications of each case. As an alternative, drimis 
and other musical instruments smeared with plasters of anti- 
poisonous compounds (Agadas) should be beaten and sounded 
(round them). Equal parts of silver {Tdra), mercury (Sutdra), 
and Indra-Gopa insects with Kuru-Vinda equal in weight to 
that of the entire preceding compound, pasted with the bile 
of a Kapila (brown) cow, should be used as a paste over the 

^ English translation, edited by K. K. L. Bhishagratna, Calcutta, 191 1> 
vol. ii, pp. Q9Q-Q[)^. 


musical instruments (in such cases). The sounds of such 
drums, etc. (pasted with such anti-poisonous drugs), are said 
to destroy the effects of even the most dreadful poison."^ 

Turning to Europe, we find that from the earliest times 
writers on military law have continually distinguished be- 
tween the law of nature and the law of nations, showing how 
the two sometimes coincide, but as often operate in opposite 
directions. They have, moreover, condemned the use of poison 
in warfare as being against all laws human and divine. 

Hugo Grotius in his great work, Be jure belli ac pads, 
writes as follows ^ (Book III, chap, iv, sec. 15, etc.) : 

" As the laws of nations permit many things . . . which 
are forbidden by Natural Law, so they forbid some things 
which are permitted by Natural Law. For him whom it is 
lawful to put to death, whether we put to death by the sword 
or by poison, it makes no difference, if we look to Natural Law. 
It is doubtless more generous to kill so that he who is killed 
has the power of defending himself ; but this is not due to 
him who has deserved to die. But the Laws of Nations, if not 
of all, at least of the best, have long been, that it is not lawful 
to kill an enemy by poison. This consent had its rise in 
common utility, that the dangers of war, which are numerous 
enough, may not be made too extensive. And it is probable 
that this rule proceeded from kings, whose life may be de- 
fended from other causes, better than the lives of other 
persons ; but is less safe than that of others from poison, 
except it be defended by the scruples of conscience and the 
fear of infamy. 

'' Livy (xliii, 18), speaking of Perseus, calls these clandestine 
atrocities : so Claudian {De Bello Gild., v, 273) and Cicero 
{De Offic, iii, 22) use like expressions. The Roman consuls 
say that it is required, as a public example, that nothing of 
the kind be admitted, in the epistle to Pyrrhus which Gellius 
{Noct Attic, iii, 8) gives. So Valerius (vi, 5, 1). And when the 
prince of the Catti offered to procure the death of Arminius 
by poison, Tiberius rejected the offer, thus gaining glory like 
that of the ancient generals (Tacitus, Ann,, ii, 88). 

" Wherefore they who hold it lawful to kill the enemy by 
poison, as Baldus, following Vegetius {Cons., ii, 188), regard 

^ See also Kautilya's Arthasdstra, new edition, J. Jolly and R. Schmidt, 
Lahore, 1923, ix, 6, 86 ; xii, 4, 6-8, 14. 

2 Trans. W. Whewell, Cambridge, 1 853, vol. iii, chap, iv, pp. 86-88. 


mere Natural Law, and overlook the Instituted Law of 
Nations. ... To poison fountains, which must be discovered 
before long, Florus says (Lib. II, 20), is not only against old 
rule, but also against the law of the gods ; as the Laws of 
Nations are often ascribed to the gods ; nor is it to be 
wondered, if to diminish dangers, there be some such tacit 
conventions of belligerents, as formerly in the permanent 
war of the Chalcidians and Eretrians (Strabo, x, p. 488) it 
was agreed not to use missiles. 

"But the same is not true of making waters foul and 
undrinkable without poisoning them (i$]sch., De male oh, leg,, 
p. 262a), which Solon and the Amphictyons are said to have 
justified towards barbarians : and Oppian mentions as cus- 
tomary in his time. For that is the same thing as turning 
away a stream, or intercepting a spring of water, which is 
lawful both by Natural Law and by consent." 

Nearly a hundred years later (1758) Emeric de Vattel, the 
Swiss jurist, published his Droit des Gens, It was founded on 
the works of Wolff and Leibnitz, with many quotations from 
Grotius. After practically repeating the above extract, he 
continues ^ : 

" Assassination and poisoning are, therefore, contrary to 
the laws of war, and are alike forbidden by the Natural Law 
and the consent of civilised nations. The sovereign who makes 
use of such execrable means should be regarded as an enemy 
of the human race, and all nations are called upon, in the 
interest of the common safety of mankind, to join forces to 
punish him. In particular, an enemy who has been the object 
of his detestable practices is justified in giving him no quarter. 
Alexander the Great declared ' that he was determined to 
take the most extreme measures against Darius, and no 
longer treat him as an enemy in lawful war, but as a poisoner 
and an assassin ' (Quint. Curt., iv, 9, 18). The interest and 
the safety of those in command, far from allowing them to 
authorise such practices, call for the greatest care on their 
part to prevent the introduction of them. 

" Eumenes wisely said ' that he did not think any general 
would want to obtain a victory by the use of means which 
might in turn be directed against himself (Justin., xiv, 1, 12). 
And it was on the same principle that Alexander condemned 

^ Lex Droit de.s Gnis, ou Principes de la Loi Naturellc appliques d la Conduite 
et aux Affaires des Nations et des Souverains, E. de Vattel, translated by C. G. 
Fenwick, Washington, 19l6, vol. iii, ch. viii, pp. 288-289. n.m.p. 


the act of Bessus, who had assassinated Darius (Quint, 
Curt., vi, 3, 14)." 

The importance of Grotius's De jure belli ac pads Hes 
chiefly in the fact that it forms the foundation of the Inter- 
national Law of the present day. It was the first of such 
works to influence sovereigns and statesmen, for it showed 
in an exhaustive and masterly fashion what all men were 
beginning to feel. 

The value of Vattel's work is due to the fact that it con- 
sists of all that is best in the works of his predecessors, 
Grotius, Pufendorf, Leibnitz, Bynkershoek and Wolff. Con- 
sequently it became the handbook of statesmen and jurists, 
and is still quoted as one of the great authorities. 

As we have already seen, both these jurists condemned 
all unnecessary methods of killing an enemy particularly by 
any form of poisoning. But, as history is largely a record of 
cruelty exercised by those in power, we must not be sur- 
prised to find that, especially in mediaeval times, the number 
of deaths due to some form of poisoning was very large. At 
the same time superstition and general ignorance of medicine 
probably lay at the bottom of many so-called poison mysteries 
of ancient days, while in some cases, as with the Borgias, 
reliable evidence is weak. 

There are, however, many occasions on which poison in 
some form or other has been used in warfare. 

For instance, when the young Egyptian Sultan Faraj 
withdrew before the conquering hosts of Timur (Tamerlane) 
in 1400 he took care to poison both the fields and water 
before leaving. It is related ^ that in consequence Timur lost 
so many men and animals that he desisted from the pursuit. 

In India the most deadly poison is undoubtedly the 
variety of aconite found in the Himalayan districts. This is 
the so-called " Nepal aconite," known as his, bish, bikh, etc. 
There are numerous forms of the series, the most deadly being 
A, spicatum. It is so poisonous in the Sikkim Terai that 
the sheep often have to be muzzled. The uses to which the 
aconites are put vary, for the rural drug- dealer has a great 
knowledge of the plant and finds many commercial uses for 
it, such as an adulterant in making bhang from Indian hemp, 
for poisoning arrow-heads (for which see Lewin, " Arrow 
Poisons," Virchow's Archiv Path, Anat und Phys., 1894, 
pp. 138, 289) and many other uses. 

1 Hans Schiltberger's Reisebuch, ed. by Langmantel, Tiibingen, 1885, 25, 38. 


The Indian aconites are confined to the mountain tracts 
of the north-eastern boundary, stretching from Afghanistan 
and Baluchistan, through Kashmir, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan 
and Assam to Burma.^ 

The Gurkhas of Nepal regard the plant as a great protec- 
tion against enemy attacks, and Hamilton^ describes how 
they can destroy whole armies by poisoning the water, and in 
the Nepalese war the British found the wells poisoned with 
crushed aconite. 

The poisoning of water is not confined to India. Thus 
Burton ^ tells us that the Yuta Indians have diminished in 
numbers owing to the introduction of arsenic and corrosive 
sublimate in springs and provisions. 

Similar havoc was wrought among the Australians,* while 
in Tasmania ^ poisoned rum was used to exterminate the 

In Brazil, when the import of African slaves rendered the 
capture of the natives less desirable than their extermination, 
the Portuguese left the clothes of people who had died of 
smallpox and scarlet fever for them to find in the woods.* 
It is also said ' that the caravan traders from the Missouri 
to Santa Fe communicated smallpox to the Indian tribes of 
that district in 1831 by infectious clothing and presents of 

But vile as all these acts are, they are easily eclipsed by 
the inhuman methods of warfare introduced by the Germans 
in the Great War. They have cast a blot on European history 
which neither compunction nor time can ever eradicate. 

This is not the place to describe in detail the different 
varieties of poison-gases used in the Great War, but I would 
give a few reliable references sent me by the War Office : 

^ The different species of aconites are fully discussed in Watt's Commercial 
Products of India, the abridgment of The Dictionary of the Economic Products 
of India, 1908, pp. 18-24. 

2 Francis Hamilton, Account of the Kingdom of Nepal, Edinburgh, 1819, 
p. 99. 

3 City of the Saints, 186l, p. 576. 

* E. J. Eyre, Journals of Expeditions of Discovery into Central Australia, 
1845, vol. i, pp. 175-179. 

^ Bowick, Last of the Tasmanians, p. 58. 

J. J. von Tschudi, ReLien durch Sudamerika, vol. ii, p. 262. 

' J. Frobel, Seven Years' Travel in Central America, 1859, p. 272; and 
A. R. Wallace, Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, p. 326. 



L. Georges, UArme bacteriologique future concurrente des 
armes chimique et balistique ; tentatives allemandes repetees 
de son emploi de 1914 a 1918, 1922 ; Col. Zugaro, " Les 
bacteries comme arme de guerre," Bull. Beige des Sci. Milit., 
June 1924 (the original article appeared in Exercito e 
Marina, 4th March 1924). See also A. A. Roberts, The Poison 
War, 1915, and the bibliography at the end. 

The Historical Section of the War Office informs me that 
in General Botha's campaign in German South- West Africa 
the poisoning of wells was both authenticated and admitted. 
It is believed that the poison used to make the wells un- 
serviceable was chloride of mercury, which was available as 
it was employed in the gold-mining industry. The official 
records of the campaign are in the hands of the Government 
of the Union of South Africa. 

The following references may be consulted by readers 
generally interested in the subject of poisons : 

A. Wynter Blyth, Old and Modern Poison Lore, Inter- 
national Health Exhibition, London, 1884 ; A. W. and M. W. 
Blyth, Poisons : their Effects and Detection, new edition, 1920 ; 
C. J. S. Thompson, Poison Mysteries, 1923 ; M. P. Naidu, 
The History of Professional Poisoners and Coiners of India, 
Madras, 1912 ; T. N. Windsor, Indian Toxicology, Calcutta, 
1906 ; R. Calmette, Les Venins, les animaux venimeux et la 
serotherapie antivenimeuse, Paris, 1907. 

We now pass on to the study of the poison- damsel. 

The Poison-Damsel in India 

Although the poison- damsel is found in the Kathd Sarit 
Sdgara, her appearance in Sanskrit literature is rare. 

There are, however, two or three works in which she is 
mentioned. Of these the most important is undoubtedly 
Vi^akhadatta's political drama, the Mudrd-Bdkshasa, or 
Signet-ring of Rakshasa, This play, written about the seventh 
century a.d., deals with events which happened, or were 
supposed to have happened, at the formation of the great 
Maurya Empire in 313 B.C. From the commencement of 
this dynasty dates the unbroken chain of Indian history, 
and Chandragupta, its founder, must be regarded as the first 
paramount sovereign or emperor of India. He obtained the 
throne of Pataliputra under circumstances which have a 
distinct bearing on the subject under discussion. At the 


end of 327 B.C. or in the early spring of the following year* 
Alexander the Great began his invasion of Northern India. 
He had gradually pushed farther and farther eastwards until, 
at the river "Y^aa-i^ (the modern Beas, a tributary of the 
Sutlej), his victorious advance received a sudden, but none 
the less definite, check by his army refusing to proceed with 
the expedition. 

Thus he was prevented from attempting the overthrow of 
two great peoples, the Prasii and the Gangaridae, which, he 
was informed, inhabited a district beyond the Ganges. 

The king of these peoples was a certain Agrammes or 
Xandrames (according to the Greek writers), who has been 
identified by some with Dhana-Nanda, Nanda,^ or Nandrus, 
King of Magadha (South Bihar). 

At this time Chandragupta, an illegitimate relation^ of 
Nanda, held the position of Commander-in-Chief in his army. 
He chanced to incur Nanda 's displeasure and fled to the 
Panjab, where he is said to have met Alexander and to have 
made a close study of his methods of warfare. 

However this may be, the mention of Alexander in con- 
nection with Chandragupta is of the greatest interest in this 
inquiry. For, as we shall see later, the European versions 
of the poison-damsel find their origin in a certain Pseudo- 
Aristotelean work purporting to have been written for Alex- 
ander and sent to him on his campaigns, when age prevented 
his learned tutor from continuing his duties personally. This 
work was known as the Secretum Secretorum, and will be fully 
discussed in the course of this appendix. 

It will suffice here merely to draw attention to the fact 
that it was Aristotle who was credited with the wise teachings 
and prudent counsels which helped Alexander so much in 
his Eastern campaigns, and it was he who, in the Secretum 
Secretorum, prevented him from losing his life at the hands 
of the poison-damsel. 

^ Scholars differ about the duration of Alexander's Indian expedition. 
See v. A. Smith, Early History of India, 1904, pp. 106, 107, and also the 3rd 
edition, ipi^ ; A. E. Anspach, De Alexandri Magni Expeditione Indica, London, 
1903 ; F. W. Thomas in ch. xviii of the Cambridge History of India, with the 
Bibliography on pp. 674-676. 

2 We have already come across a legend of his reign in Vol. I, pp. IS, 17, 
S5 et seq. 

* Said to have been the Son of Mura, a concubine of the king. Hence 
his surname Maurya. 


In just the same way, Chandragupta benefited by the 
advice of a wise minister. For at the very time that he fled 
to the Pan jab there was a certain Brahman named Chanakya 
(Kautilya or Vishnugupta ^) who, incensed against King 
Nanda, owing to an effrontery to which he had been sub- 
jected, became not only a fellow- conspirator with Chandra- 
gupta in the overthrow of Nanda, but was the directing 
force guiding every movement of the plot. Although details 
of the defeat of Nanda are hidden under a veil of mingled 
fact and fiction, it seems almost certain that Chandragupta 
had the assistance of strong allies, the chief of whom 
was Porus,^ who ruled on the far side of the Hydaspes 

On his ascending the throne of Pataliputra Chandragupta, 
not forgetful of the part played by Chanakya in his success, 
made him his chief minister, and it is at this point that the 
Mudrd-Bakshasa commences. We find Chanakya involved 
in a maze of political intrigue, employing every form of 
cunning and strategy imaginable. His chief object is to win 
over the late king's ex-minister Rakshasa and so sever the 
one remaining link with the old line of Nanda kings. In this 
he is ultimately successful, but only after he has answered 
every stroke of his opponents by a more effective counter- 
stroke, at the same time shielding Chandragupta from the 
n-umerous attempts on his life. These attempts were of 
different kinds, including a poisoned draught and nocturnal 
assassins who were instructed to get into Chandragupta 's 
sleeping chamber by a subterranean passage and kill him in 
his sleep. The plot was, however, discovered by Chanakya. 
In relating the circumstances to Rakshasa, one of his secret 
agents, Viradhagupta, speaks ^ as follows : 

^ Chanakya appeared in Vol. I, p. 55 et seq., as a Brahman who brought 
about Nanda's death by a magical rite. In the same volume (p. 233) his 
name is mentioned as an alternative of Kautilya, the supposed author of the 
Arthasdstra. See p. 233w^. 

2 Jacobi's edition of Hemachandra's Sthaviravalicharita, -p. 55 et seq. ; and 
Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde, vol. ii, pp. 313-317. 

3 The translation given is that by H. H. Wilson, Select Specimens of 
the Theatre of the Hindus, vol. iii, 1827, p. 71. Reference should be made to 
his Introduction, which contains the different versions of the tale of Nanda, 
Chandragupta and Chanakya. For more recent translations of the Mudrd- 
Rdkshasa see those by S. C. Chakravarti, Calcutta, 1908, and B. Goswami, 
Calcutta [1909]. 


-Before the king retired to rest, 

The watchful minister was wont to enter 

The chamber, and with diligent scrutiny 

Inspect it thus, he saw a line of ants 

Come through a crevice in the wall, and noticed 

They bore the fragments of a recent meal ; 

Thence he inferred the presence of the feeders 

In some adjoining passage, and commanded 

That the pavilion should be set on fire 

That moment soon his orders were obeyed. 

And our brave friends, in flame and smoke enveloped, 

Unable to escape, were all destroyed." 

Rakshasa replies : 

" 'Tis ever thus Fortune in all befriends 
The cruel Chandragupta when I send 
A messenger of certain death to slay him. 
She wields the instrument against his rival, 
Who should have spoiled him of one half his kingdom. 
And arms, and drugs, and stratagems are turned 
In his behalf, against my friends and servants. 
So that whate'er I plot, against his power. 
Serves but to yield him unexpected profit." 

The " messenger of certain death " was the poison-damsel 
which Rakshasa had prepared for Chandragupta's undoing. 
The plot was discovered by the ever-watchful Chanakya, 
who, instead of killing or returning the girl, passed her on to 
Parvataka, who, although a former ally of Chandragupta, was 
thought best out of the way. 

It appears that the girl could poison only once, and, like 
the cobra, would be of little danger after the accumulated 
poison had been spent in her first embrace. 

Rakshasa, thinking of the well-known incident in the 
Mahdbhdrata, says (Chakravarti's translation) : 

" Friend, see how strange I As Karna in order to kill 
Arjuna reserved a strong lance capable of destroying only one 
person once and for aU, I too kept a vigorous poisonous 
maid to kill Chandragupta. But as the lance, to the great 
advantage of Krishna, killed the son of Hidimba, so she 
killed the Lord of the Mountains [Parvataka] to be destroyed 
by the wicked Chanakya, to his very great advantage." 

There is no need to pursue this reference further. Suffi- 


cient has now been said to show the analogy between Chandra- 
gupta and Chanakya on the one hand, and Alexander and 
Aristotle on the other. Both kings were saved from the 
deadly results of a poison-damsel by their equally clever 
ministers, both were in the Pan jab during the reign of the 
last of the Nanda kings, and both would naturally be the 
cause of endless plots. 

Although the possible connection of what may be two 
versions of a single incident (whether fact or fiction) is nothing 
more than a suggestion, the idea is none the less fascinating, 
and one on which much research might be carried out. 

Before dealing with the Secretum Secretorum I should 
mention other occurrences of the poison- damsel in Sanskrit 

In the Parisishtaparvan we find a slightly different version 
of the story. Here it is Nanda himself who has prepared the 
poison- damsel, and his minister Rakshasa has nothing to do 
with it. The passage is as follows ^ : 

" Then Chandragupta and Parvata [sic] entered Nanda's 
palace and began to divide his great store of treasures. Now 
in the castle there lived a maiden who was cared for as if all 
treasures were combined in her. King Nanda had had her fed 
on poison from the time of her birth. Parvata was seized 
with such a passion for her that he locked her in his heart 
like his guardian deity. Chandragupta's teacher [Chanakya] 
gave her to him, and he immediately began to celebrate the 
ceremony of taking hands. During this, however, poison was 
transferred to him through her, because their perspiration, 
caused by the heat of the sacrificial fire, was mixed together. 
The strength of this poison caused Parvata great agony ; all 
his limbs relaxed, and he said to Chandragupta : ' I feel as if 
I had drunk poison ; even speaking is well-nigh impossible. 
Help me, friend. I am surely going to die.' " 

Chanakya, however, advises Chandragupta to let him 
die, as then he will have the entire treasure to himself. Thus 
that king of the Himalayan mountain died, and Chandragupta 
became ruler of two mighty kingdoms. 

That the poison- damsel was well known and regarded 

^ Ausgewahlte Erz'dhlungen aus Hemacandras Parisishtaparvan, Johannes 
Hertel, Leipzig, 1908, viii, line S27 et seq. Bloomfield refers to this in his 
Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha, p. 198. On p. 62 of this work the word 
'* poison-damsel " is used as a simile of a stolen jewel-casket which was 
destined to bring bad luck to whoever touched it. 


with the greatest fear is clear from the seventy-first tale of 
the Suvdbahuttankathd, where, on the demand of Dharmdat 
for King Kamsundar's daughter, the wily minister Siddhreh 
gets out of the difficulty by saying that the girl is a poison- 
damsel, and by a clever trick persuades Dharmdat to depart.* 
Both Hertz ^ and Bloomfield ^ state that there is a treatise 
in Sanskrit for finding out whether a woman is a poison- 
damsel. It is described by Weber,* but appears on inspection 
to be nothing more than a treatise on horoscopes which some- 
times show if a child is going to be a poison-damsel when 
grown up, but there is no method given for discovering if a 
woman one might chance to meet is a poison-damsel or not. 

Secretum Secretorum 

After thus briefly enumerating the chief Sanskrit refer- 
ences to poison-damsels, we must now take a big jump to 
Europe in search of further evidence. This does not mean 
that there is no trace of our motif in Persia, Mesopotamia, 
Arabia, Syria and Asia Minor, but merely, that as Eastern 
Europe in the Middle Ages was the centre of great literary 
activity and the entrepot between East and West, it is here 
that we are most likely to find data to help us in our inquiry. 
Having surveyed the evidence, we must look eastwards for 
links with India, and westwards to mark the extent of its 
ultimate expansion. 

In the first place, then, it is necessary to become more 
acquainted with the character of the Secretum, to ascertain, 
if possible, why it was written, the cause of its immense 
popularity, and what is known of the history of the work 
itself.^ We shall then be in a better position to estimate the 
value of the inclusion of such a motif as that of the poison- 

^ " Uber die Suvabahuttarikatha," Johannes Hertel, Festschrift fur Ernst 
Windisch, Leipzig, 1914, pp. 146, 147. 

^ " Die Sage vom Giftmadchen," Abhandlungen d. k. hayer. Akad. d. fViss,, 
vol. XX, 1893, p. 143. 

8 Op.cit.,p. 199. 

* Verzeichnis der Sanskrit Handschriften der Koniglichen Bibliothek, Berlin^ 
1853, vol. i, p. 263 (No. 879), note 2. 

^ Although space will not permit any detailed discussion of this tangled 
mass of evidence, I shall endeavour to supply ample reference to the existing 
literature on the subject. 


About the very time that Somadeva wrote, a work ap- 
peared in European literature in the Latin language, trans- 
lated from the Arabic. It was entitled Secretum Secretorum, 
De Secretis Secretorum, or De Regimine Princi'pum} It 
purported to be nothing less than a collection of the most 
important and secret communications sent by Aristotle to 
Alexander the Great when he was too aged to attend his 
pupil in person. Such letters had been circulated from the 
earliest times, but here was a treatise containing not only the 
essence of political wisdom and state-craft, but regulations 
for the correct conduct of body and mind, and an insight into 
the mysteries of occult lore. 

Since his death in 322 B.C. the reputation of Aristotle 
had gradually increased, and in the Middle Ages any work 
bearing his name was sure to be received with the greatest 
enthusiasm. Furthermore, the name of Alexander was sur- 
rounded by an ever-growing wealth of romance and mystery. 
No wonder, then, that the discovery, or supposed discovery, 
of the actual correspondence between these two great men 
created something of a sensation. 

The Secretum, however, is not reckoned among Aristotle's 
genuine works, but as one of a number of unauthenticated 
treatises which, reflecting as it does theories and opinions 
contained in his famous philosophical writings, was readily 
accepted as a work of the Master himself. Its popularity 
was so great that it became the most widely read work 
of the Middle Ages, and contributed more to Aristotle's 
reputation than any of his fully authenticated writings. It 
was translated into nearly every European language, and 
consequently played a very considerable part in European 

As already mentioned, the Latin version of the Secretum 
first made its appearance in the twelfth century. There were 
two distinct recensions, a longer and a shorter one, both 
derived from Arabic MSS., which in their turn were said to 
rest upon Greek originals. Owing to the complicated and 
uncertain history of the Secretum it was considered necessary 
in the later MSS. to account in some way for the appearance 
of this hitherto unheard of correspondence between Aristotle 
and Alexander. A kind of prologue was accordingly added, 
both to the longer and shorter rescensions, written by the 

^ For other titles see Forster, De Aristotelis quce femntur secretis sccretorum 
commentaiio, Kilise, 1888, 1. 


alleged discoverer of the work, Yatiya ibn Batriq ^ i,e, John 
the son of Patricius, who was a Syrian freedman under the 
Khalifa al-Ma'mun {circa 800). He first gives what he describes 
as the preliminary correspondence between Aristotle and 
Alexander, and states that in accordance with the commands 
of the Khalifa, who had somehow heard of the existence of 
the Secretum, he started on a prolonged search for the MS. and 
" left no temple among the temples where the philosophers 
deposited their hidden wisdom unsought," until finally he 
came across the object of his search in the Temple of the Sun 
dedicated to ^sculapius (Asklepios). It was written in letters 
of gold, and he immediately translated it first into Rumi 
(Syriac), and then from Rumi into Arabic. Whether Yahya 
was really the double translator is unknown. He certainly 
would know Syriac and Arabic, but if he was ignorant of 
Greek we must assume that the translation from the Greek 
into Syriac had been made earlier. It has been suggested 
that it was on the occasion of the second translation that 
the other treatises previously existing independently were 
incorporated, thus accounting for the longer and shorter 
recensions found both in the Arabic and Latin versions. 
The number of existing Latin MSS. is very large, and every 
library of any note possesses a number of copies.^ 

As was only to be expected with a popular book like 
the Secretum, it suffered greatly at the hands of copyists, 
who removed or added chapters as they thought fit. The 
work was, moreover, so wide in its scope that in some 
cases a chapter was enlarged to such a degree that it 
appeared as a fresh work of its own and was circulated 
separately. This is what happened with the chapters on 
Regimen Sanitatis rules for preserving the health and 
that on Precious Stones, while that on Physiognomy was 
incorporated into the works of Albertus Magnus and Duns 

A comparison of the various texts and translations shows 

^ See Steinschneider in Virchow's Archiv filr pathologische Anatomic und 
Physiologic, lii, p. 364 ct seq. ; and Forster, op. cit., p. 23 et seq. 

2 There is no complete bibliography of the MSS., prints, etc., of the 
Secretum in all the different languages in the libraries of Europe, but Forster 
made a list of no less than 207 Latin MSS. See the Centralblatt fur Biblio- 
thckswescn, vol. vi, 1889, p. 1 et seq. 

3 See Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, vol. ii, 
pp. 266, 267. 



that in all probability these very chapters, or sections, which 
are also found as separate works, did not form part of the 
original composition, but were added at a later date. The 
chief reasons for arriving at this conclusion will be given a 
little later. Thus a kind of " enlarged edition " was formed, 
which would naturally enjoy a greater circulation. Without 
going over the ground that has already been sufficiently 
covered,^ I would merely mention the two men who are re- 
puted to have made the Latin translations. The first was a 
Spanish Jew, who, on his conversion to Christianity, took the 
name of Johannes Hispaniensis, or Hispalensis. He flourished 
in the middle of the twelfth century, and translated only the 
section dealing with the health-rules and the four seasons. 
It had, however, the prologue prefixed to it, and bore the 
Latinised form of the Arabic title, " In Alasrar." The other 
translator was a French priest, Philip Clericus of Tripoli,^ 
who at the request of his Archbishop, Guido of Valencia, 
translated the whole work from an Arabic original he had 
found in Antioch. His date is fixed at the beginning of the 
thirteenth century. As time went on these two versions got 
blended, and any knowledge of the separate works was lost. 
The most interesting and important of the Arabic originals 
have been compared and discussed by Steinschneider,^ who 
found a similar confusion of the chapters as in the Latin 

There is also a Hebrew version, which is quite as old as 
any of the complete texts. It is now almost universally recog- 
nised as the work of Judah Al-Harizi,* who flourished in the 
early thirteenth century. It formed, in all probability, one of 

^ Wiistenfeld, " Die Uebersetzungen arabischer Werke in das Lateinische/* 
Abhandl. der K. Gesell. der Wissensch., Gottingen, vol. xxii, 1877, p. 25 et seq. ; 
Suchier, Denkm'dler provenzalischer Literatur und Sprache, Halle, 1883, vol. i, 
p. 531 ; Forster, op. cit., p. 25 et seq. 

2 Favre, Melanges, Geneve, 1856, vol. 11, p. 41, N.l ; Knust in Jahrbuch fiir 
romanische und englische Literatur, vol. x, p. 156 et seq.; Cecioni, // Secretum 
Secretorum attributo ad Aristotele, see // Propugnatore, N.S., II, part ii, p. 84 
et seq,, Bologna, 1889; and Brunet, Violier des Histories Romaines, Paris, 1858,. 
p. 429. 

3 Uebersetzungen, p. 995 cf. also p. 245 et seq., where a full bibliography- 
is given. 

* Steinsehneider, Hebr. Biblioth., ix, p. 44 et seq., xi, p. 74; Knust in 
Jahrbuch fur romanische u. englische Literatur, xii, p. 366 et seq. ; Wiistenfeld,. 
op. cit., p. 83 ; Revue des tudes Juives, iii, p. 241. 



the cycle of Alexandrian legends upon which Harizi was 
working. This Hebrew version, translated by Gaster,^ is 
important in tracing the history of the Secretum as it follows 
the Arabic faithfully, and represents the work before it 
was encumbered with the enlarged chapters on Astronomy, 
Physiognomy, etc. One of the most convincing proofs of the 
subsequent addition of these chapters is the fact that none of 
them is included in the index of either the longer Arabic or 
Hebrew texts, and the Latin versions derived from them. But 
apart from this Forster has traced the chapter on Physiognomy 
to the Greek treatise of Polemon, while Steele has ascribed part 
of the Rule of Health section to Diodes Carystius (320 B.C.). 
The medical knowledge displayed in the enlarged chapters 
places the author in the eighth or ninth century, but when 
restored to their original proportions we can reduce the 
date by at least a century. Scholars are agreed that there 
is no Greek text in existence, and no proof that it ever did 
exist. Now if we look more closely into the longer Arabic 
and Hebrew texts, we find that the background of the 
book is wholly Eastern Persian and Indian while, on the 
other hand, there is hardly a mention of Greece. If any 
analogy or simile is needed, it is the sayings and doings of 
Persians or Indians that are quoted. TjEie allusion to chess, 
the occurrence of Eastern place-names, and animals, all tend 
to point to the influence under which the Secretum really 
originated. Among similar Eastern works whose history is 
now fairly completely known may be mentioned Syntipas, 
Kalilah, and Barlaam and Josaphat All these slowly migrated 
westwards, changing their character with their environ- 
ment, and readily adapting themselves to any new purpose 
for which they might be wanted. Among the later insertions 
added by the Greek author of Barlaam is a " Mirror of 
Kings," which closely resembles portions of the Secretum, 
The composition of this work is now placed at about the 
first half of the seventh century, and the vicissitudes through 
which the two works have gone are in all probability very 
similar. 2 

Having thus briefly glanced at the history of the Secretum^ 
we are now in a better position to examine the actual reference 

^ *'The Hebrew Version of the Secretum Secretomm," Joum. lloy. As. 
Soc., Oct. 1907, pp. 879-912, and Jan. and Oct. 19O8, pp. III-I62, 1065-1084. 
* For further notes on this see Caster, op. cit, Oct. I9O8, p. 1080. 


to poison-damsels. In the first place we should note that it 
is omitted in both those sections which were not included in 
the index (see supra), but occurs in the oldest portion that of 
the rules for " the ordinance of the king, of his purveyance, 
continence and discretion." 

According to the text, Aristotle is warning Alexander 
against entrusting the care of his body to women, and to 
beware of deadly poisons which had killed many kings in the 
past. He further advises him not to take medicines from a 
single doctor, but to employ a number, and act only on their 
unanimous advice. Then, as if to prove the necessity of his 
warnings, he recalls a great danger which he himself was able 
to frustrate. " Remember," he says, " what happened when 
the King of India sent thee rich gifts, and among them that 
beautiful maiden whom they had fed on poison until she was 
of the nature of a snake, and had I not perceived it because 
of my fear, for I feared the clever men of those countries 
and their craft, and had I not found by proof that she would 
be killing thee by her embrace and by her perspiration, she 
would surely have killed thee." 

This is from the Hebrew text (Caster's translation), and, 
as has already been mentioned, represents the early recension. 
It will be noted that the person who sent the poison-damsel 
was a king of India. In some of the Arabic texts it is the 
king's mother, and in most of the later versions the queen of 
India, who sends the poisoned woman. Then again the con- 
tamination differs sometimes it is caused by the kiss or bite, 
in other versions by the perspiration, intercourse, or even only 
the look. 

The translation ^ of one of the Arabic texts (MS. Gotha, 
1869) is as follows : 

" Remember the mother of the Indian king who sent to 
thee presents, one of which was a girl who had been brought 
up on poison until her nature had become that of poisonous 
serpents. And if I had not found out through my knowledge 
of the Indian kings and physicians, and had not suspected 
her to be capable of inflicting a fatal bite, surely she would 
have killed thee." 

Another MS. (Laud. Or., 210) ends with : " she surely 
would have killed thee by her touch and her perspiration." 

1 See the appendix to Fasc. V of Steele's Opera hactenus inedita Rogeri 
Baconi, by A. S. Fulton, Oxonii, 1920, p. xl. 


The Spread of the Legend in Europe 

As already mentioned, the work has been translated in full, 
or partly edited, in numerous European languages. These 
include Spanish, Italian, Provengal, Dutch, French and 
English. Full bibliographical details will be foimd in the 
excellent article, " Die Sage vom Giftmadchen," by W. 
Hertz,^ to which I am indebted for many useful references 
and translations. There are, however, only one or two 
of these which, owing to their importance in literature or 
curiosity of their version, interest us here. 

The incidents of the story must have been well known in 
Spain by the fifteenth century, as GuUlem de Cervera when 
referring to the tricks of women in his Romania, xv, 96, 
verse 1000, obsei-ves : " The Indian wanted to murder Alex- 
ander through a woman " ; and later, when advising care with 
regard to presents, he continues : " Alexander took gifts from 
India, and the maiden who thought to rouse his passion was 
beautiful. If Aristotle had not been versed in astronomy, 
Alexander would have lost all he possessed through presents." ^ 

Heinrich von Meissen, a German poet of the thirteenth 
century, generally known as Frauenlob, and famous for the 
display of learning in his poems, teUs us that ^ a certain 
queen of India was so clever that she brought up a proud 
damsel on poison from infancy. She gave, according to the 
text, " poisoned words " ^that is to say, the breath from her 
mouth when speaking was poisonous and her look also 
brought sudden death. This maiden was sent to King Alex- 
ander in order to cause his death and thus bring freedom to 

1 Ahhandluiigen derk. bayerischen Akad. der Wissensch., I, CI. xx, Bd. 1, Abth, 
Munchen, 1893. 

^ Alexandri pres do Aristotils nofos 

D'Indis et Le puciela Apres d' astronotnia, 

Quel cuydet passio Alexandri per dos 

Darj car era tarn biela. Perdera quant avia. 

Romania, xv, 107, verses 1149-1150. 

3 Frauenlob's poetry was edited by L. Ettmiiller in 1 843 ; a selection will 
be found in K. Bartsch, Deutsche Liederdichter des 12. his IJf.. Jahrhunderts (3rd 
edit., 1893). An English translation of Frauenlob's Cantica canticorum, by 
A. E. Kroeger, with notes, appeared in 1887 at St Louis, U.S.A. See also 
A. Boerkel, Frauenlob (2nd edit., 1881), and F. H. Von der Hagen, Minnesinger,, 
iii, Ilia, verse 3. 


her land. A master saw through this and gave the king a 
herb to put in his mouth, which freed him from all danger. 

Frauenlob cites the above as a warning to princes to 
beware of accepting gifts from conquered foes. The idea of 
the miraculous herb is entirely new and seems to have been 
an invention of the poet. 

A peculiar rendering is found in a French prose version of 
the early fourteenth century. It has been described by Ernest 
Renan in the Histoire Litteraire (xxx, p. 567 et seq.). The 
work is in three different texts. According to the most recent 
(sixteenth century), Le Cuer de Philosophie, by Antoine 
Verard, the tale of the " Pucelle Venimeuse " is roughly as 
follows : 

A certain king was once informed by a soothsayer that a 
child, named Alexander, had just been born who was destined 
to be his downfall. On hearing this disconcerting news, the 
king thought of an ingenious way in which to get rid of the 
menace, and gave secret orders for several infant girls of good 
family to be nourished on deadly poison. They all died except 
one, who grew to be a beautiful maiden and learnt to play the 
harp, but she was so poisonous that she polluted the air with 
her breath, and all animals which came near her died. 

Once the king was besieged by a powerful army, and he 
sent this maiden by night into the enemy's camp to play the 
harp before their king. She was accompanied by two others, 
who were, however, not poisonous. The king, struck by her 
beauty, invited her to his tent. As soon as he kissed her he 
fell dead to the ground, and the same fate overtook many of 
his followers who gathered round her on the same evening. 
At this juncture the besieged army made a sortie and easily 
overcame the enemy, who were demoralised by the death of 
their leader. 

Delighted with the success of his experiment, the king 
ordered the damsel to be even better cared for, and nourished 
with even purer poison than hitherto. 

Meanwhile Alexander, grown to manhood, had started his 
campaigns, besieged and conquered Darius, and made his 
name feared throughout the world. 

Then the king, anxious to put his long- conceived plan 
into execution, had five maidens beautifully attired, the 
fifth being the poisoned damsel, more lovely and more richly 
clad than the rest ; these he sent to Alexander, ostensibly 
as a mark of his love and obedience, accompanied by five 


attendants with fine horses and rare jewels. When Alexander 
saw the lovely harpist he could scarcely contain himself, and 
immediately rushed to embrace her. But Aristotle, a wise 
and learned man of the court, and Socrates, the king's tutor, 
recognised the poisonous nature of the maiden and would not 
let Alexander touch her. To prove this Socrates ordered two 
slaves to kiss the damsel, and they immediately fell dead. 
Horses and dogs which she touched died instantly. Then 
Alexander had her beheaded and her body burnt. 

In some of the German versions ^ the name of the poison 
is mentioned. 

The most curious version, however, is that occurring in 
the Italian edition of Brunetto Latini's Li livres dou Tresor,^ 
and which runs as follows : 

There ruled a wise queen in the land of Sizire, and she 
discovered by her magical art that a son of Olympus, Alex- 
ander by name, would one day deprive her of her kingdom. 
As soon as she was informed of the birth of this hero, she 
considered how she might destroy him and thus evade her 
fate. She first procured Alexander's portrait, and seeing 
that his features betrayed a sensual nature, made her plans 

In that country there exist snakes so large that they 
can swallow a whole stag, and their eggs are as big as bushel 
baskets. The queen put a baby girl, just born, into one of 
these eggs, and the snake-mother hatched it out with her 
other eggs. The little one came out with the young snakes 
and was fed by the snake-mother with the same food that she 
gave her own young ones. When the young snakes grew up, 
the queen had the girl brought to her palace and shut up in a 
cage. She could not speak, and only hissed like a snake, and 
anyone coming near her too often either died or fell into 
disease. After seven weeks the queen had her fed with bread, 
and gradually taught her to speak. 

After seven years the girl began to be ashamed of her 
nakedness, wore clothes and became accustomed to human 
food. She grew into one of the most beautiful creatures in the 
world, with a face like an angel. 

^ Georg Henisch, Keunhundert Geddchtnuss-wurdige Geheimnuss vnnd Wun- 
derwerck, in Hochteutsche sprach gebracht, Basel, 1 575, 36 ; Michael Bapst von 
Rochlitz, Artzney Kunst vnd Wiinder Buck, Eissleben, l604, i, 19. 

2 // Tesoro di Brunetto Latini versi/icato, see Atti, Series IV, Classe di 
scienze morali, storiche e filologiche, vol. iv, part 1, 111 et seq., Roma, 1888. 


Once upon a time Alexander chanced to come to that 
country, and the queen, thinking that her opportunity had 
arrived, offered him the girl, with whom he at once fell in love, 
saying to Aristotle, " I will lie with her." But Aristotle, with- 
out whose permission he would not even eat, saw the beauty 
of the maiden, her glittering face and her look, and said to 
Alexander : " I see and recognise in this creature the bearing 
of snakes. Her first nourishment was poison, and whoever 
comes in contact with her will be poisoned." Seeing that 
Alexander was loath to believe him, Aristotle continued: 
" Procure me a snake and I will show you." He ordered the 
girl to be kept carefully overnight, and the next morning a 
dreadful snake was brought to him which he shut up under 
a big jar. Then he ordered a basket of fresh dittany to be 
ground in a mortar, and with the juice thus obtained he 
drew a circle round the jar about an ell away from it. Then 
a servant lifted the jar and the snake crawled out and crept 
along the circle of juice trying to find a way out. But it 
could find no outlet and crawled continuously round and 
round until it died.^ 

"See," said Aristotle, "that will also happen to that 
maiden." Then Alexander had the three girls brought, and 
drew a circle of the juice all round them, and called them to 
him. The two maidens ran to him, but the third, the poisoned 
damsel, remained within the circle, looking in vain for an out- 
let. She then began to choke, her hair stood on end, and she 
died suddenly like the snake. 

It is impossible to say if this tale is really old, or merely 
emanated from the poet's own imagination. Although the 
kingdom of Sizire appears to be unknown, it is interesting to 
note the mention of the huge swallowing powers of the snakes, 
which naturally point to India as the home of the story. 

As already pointed out (p. 98n* et seq,), the magic circle 
could be used as a vantage-ground from which to summon 
spirits and also as a barrier from which there was no escape. 
It appears that even in the early Babylonian texts the proto- 
type of the magic circle possessed these same properties, and 
in his Semitic Magic R. Campbell Thompson describes it as 
a kind of haram through which no spirit could break. The 
circle was sometimes made of kusurra (flour), flour of lime, 

^ For numerous references on the use of dittany in the works of classical 
writers, particularly Plutarch and Pliny, see Thorndike, A History of Magic 
and Experimental Science, vol. i, pp. 218, 495. 


which may, perhaps, have been a mixture of meal and lime, 
while in other cases flour and water were used for tracing 
the circle. The mixture was described as the " net of the 
corn- god," thus fully explaining the office it was supposed 
to perform. 

Hertz {op, cit, p. 105) refers to a mediaeval legend told by 
Hieronymus Rauscher. Once upon a time a terrible dragon 
overcame a land and no human power could destroy him ; 
then the bishop ordered the people to fast for ten days, where- 
upon he said : " In order that you may discover what power 
lies in fasting, you must all spit into this mug." After this he 
took that saliva and traced a circle round the dragon, which 
was unable to get out of it (Das ander Hundert der Bapis- 
tischen LUgen, Laugingen, 1564, c. 32). Aristotle {Hist Anim,, 
viii, 28, 2) and Pliny {Nat Hist, vii, 2, 5) believed that 
human saliva, and especially that of a fasting person, was 
dangerous to poisonous animals. The same effect is attributed 
to the juice of garlic. Johannes Hebenstreidt {Regiment 
pestilentzischer gifftiger Fieber, Erfford, 1562, Folio H., p. lb) 
tells us that a white worm was found in the heart of a prince 
who had died after a long illness. When they put this worm 
on a table surrounded by a circle of garlic, he crawled round 
until he died {cf. Harsdorffer, Der grosse Schauplatz lust- 
u. lehrreicher Geschichte, Frankfurt, 1660, ii, 113, N. 9). Wolf- 
gang Hildebrand (Magia naturalis, 200) states that a circle 
drawn round a snake with a young hazel branch will cause its 

The spread of the tale of the poison-damsel in Europe was 
greatly increased by its inclusion in the famous collection 
of stories, " invented by the monks as a fire-side recreation ; 
and commonly applied in their discourses from the pulpit," 
known as the Gesta Romanorum. These tales date from the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In Swan's English 
translation, edited by Thomas Wright, the tale forms No. 11 
of the collection. We are informed that it was the Queen 
of the North (Regina Aquilonis) who, having heard of Alex- 
ander's proficiency, nourished her daughter upon poison and 
sent her to him. The story as told here is very brief indeed, 
chief importance being laid upon the " application," in which 
any good Christian is represented by Alexander, the Queen 
of the North is a superfluity of the good things in life, the 
envenomed beauty is luxury and gluttony, which are poison 
to the soul. Aristotle exemplifies conscience, and the moral is : 


P Let 


us then study to live honestly and uprightly, in order 
that we may attain to everlasting life. 

The popularity of the Gesta Romanorum must have done 
much to cause the spread of the poison- damsel motif, and as 
time went on, the idea found its way, sometimes little changed 
and at other times hardly recognisable, into the literature of 
most European countries. 

When discussing the different methods of poison trans- 
ference we shall meet with numerous interesting versions. 
The most recent adaption of the story is probably that of the 
American poet, Nathaniel Hawthorne.^ It appeared under 
the title of "Rappacini's Daughter," and tells of a certain 
doctor of Padua who was always making curious experiments. 
Soon after the birth of his daughter the heartless father de- 
cides to use her for his latest experiment. He has a garden 
full of the most poisonous plants, and trains her up to con- 
tinually inhale their odours. As years pass she not only 
becomes immune from poison, but so poisonous herself that, 
like Siebel in Faust, any flowers she touches wither. The 
girl herself was beautiful, and a young man falls in love with 
her, but marriage seems out of the question. A colleague of 
her father's, however, prepares a potion for the lover which 
would neutralise the poison. The plan succeeds, but because 
poison has now become part of her very life the sudden 
application of the antidote kills her. 

This idea might be well taken from similar results that the 
sudden complete stoppage of drugs in a habitual drug- fiend 
would produce. We shall consider the possible connection of 
opium with our motif a little later. 

1 now propose to look rather more fully into the different 
methods by which the poison- damsel was said to transfer her 

Some versions speak merely of the kiss. Thus in the 
Persian version of the Fables of Pilpay, the Anvdr-i-Suhaili, 
we read of a queen who wished to kill her husband, so 
knowing he had a special weakness for kissing the neck of 
his favourite concubine, she has it rubbed with poison. The 
plot is, however, discovered by a slave. ^ 

The same idea is found in the Vissdsabhojana-J dtaka, 

^ Mosses from an Old Manse, Peterson's Shilling Library, New England 
Novels, Edinburgh, 1883, p. 9S. 

2 See the translation by Eastwick, 1854, p. 582. See also Benfey, Das 
Panchatantra, vol. i, p. 598. For other references see Chauvin, op, cit, ii, p. 87. 


where a herd of cows yield but little milk through fright of a 
lion in the neighbourhood. Finding out that the lion is very- 
attached to a certain doe, the herdsmen catch it and rub it all 
over w^ith poison and sugar. They keep it for a day or two 
until it has properly dried, and then let it go. The lion mean- 
while has missed its friend and on seeing it again licks it all 
over with pleasure, and so meets its death. Then as a kind of 
moral ^ we read : 

" Trust not the trusted, nor th'untrusted trust ; 
Trust kills ; through trust the lion bit the dust." 

Other methods are through the look, the breath, the 
perspiration, the bite and, finally, sexual intercourse. 
We will consider the fatal look first. 

The Fatal Look 

As has already been mentioned in some versions of the 
story, it is merely a look from the poison-damsel which is 
fatal. When we consider the practically universal fear of the 
evil eye, it is not to be wondered at that such an idea should 
have crept into these versions. A large number of examples 
from all parts of the world will be found in Hertz, op, cit^ 
pp. 107-112 ; reference should also be made to F. T. Elworthy, 
The Evil Eye, 1895, and his article, " Evil Eye," in Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. v, pp. 608-615. 

There is a wide-spread Oriental belief that the look of 
a snake is poisonous, hence the Sanskrit name drig-visa or 
driM-visa, "poison in a glance." The Indians also believed 
that a single snake dibya could poison the atmosphere with 
its eyes (Wise, Commentary on the Hindu System of Medicine^ 
London, 1860, p. 399). 

Similar snakes are reported by the Arabs as living in the 
desert (see Barbier de Meynard, Les Colliers d'Or, allocutions 
morales de Zamakhschari, Paris, 1876, p. 94). Likewise al- 
Qazwini in his Kosmographie tells of snakes existing in the 
Snake Mountains of Turkestan which also killed by their 
glance. It is interesting to note that these deadly snakes 
have entered into stories connected with Alexander the Great. 
Thus in the Secretum Secretorum ^ we read : "I furthermore 
command thee and warn thee that thy counsellor be not red- 

1 See the Cambridge edition, No. 93, vol. i, p. 228. 

2 Gaster's Hebrew version, section 48, op. cil., Jan. 1908, pp. 137, 138. 


haired, and if he has blue eyes, in Arabic called azrk, and if 
he be one of thy relations, do not trust them, do not confide 
in them any of thy affairs, and beware of them in the same 
manner as thou bewarest of the Indian snakes which kill with 
their look from a distance." 

According to another myth,^ during one of his campaigns 
Alexander came across a valley on the Indo-Persian frontier 
guarded by deadly serpents whose mere glance was fatal. 
Learning that this valley was full of precious stones, he erected 
mirrors in which the serpents might stare themselves to 
death, and so secured the gems by employing the carcasses of 
sheep in a manner with which we have already become accus- 
tomed in the story of " Sindbad the Sailor." See also the 
description of Epiphanius.^ According to Albertus Magnus 
the scheme was suggested by Aristotle.^ He also tells a some- 
what similar tale of Socrates in his commentary on the Pseudo- 
Aristotelean work on the properties of the elements and 
planets.* In the reign of Philip of Macedon, who is himself 
described as a philosopher and astronomer, the road between 
two mountains in Armenia became so poisoned that no one 
could pass. Philip vainly inquired the cause from his sages 
until Socrates came to the rescue and, by erecting a tower as 
high as the mountains with a steel mirror on top of it, saw 
two dragons polluting the air. The mere glance of these 
dragons was apparently not deadly, for men in air-tight 
armour went in and killed them. 

Thus it seems that it was the breath of the dragon that 
caused death.^ This will be discussed shortly. The fatal 
glance of snakes reminds us at once of Medusa, whose hair was 

^ " Pseudo-Aristotelisches Steinbuch von Liittich," Zeitschrijt fur deutsches 
Altert., xviii, 364, 28 et seq. Cf. Samuel Ibn Zarza, Michlal Joji. In Brunetto 
Latini these basilisks are destroyed by warriors who are protected from them 
by large glass bottles {Li Livres dou Tresor, p. p. Chabaille, Paris, 1863, L. V, 
c. 141). Cf. Laistner, R'dtsel der Sphinx, 1898, vol. ii, p. 263 et seq. 

2 Thorndike, History of Magic and Experimental Science, vol. i, p. 496. 

3 Z)e mirahilibus mundi {De secretis mulienim, Amstelodami, I669, p. 176 
et seq.y 

* De causis et properietatibus elementorum, 11, ii, 1. See also the complete 
edition of his work by Augustus Borgnet, vol. ix, p. 643. The extract quoted 
above and those immediately following are taken from Thorndike, op. cit., 
vol. ii, pp. 262-263. 

^ Compare the poisonous breath of the snakes in the Jdtakas e.g. Daddara- 
Jdtaka (No. 304), Cambridge edition, vol. iii, p. 11. 


composed of serpents, one glance at which was sufficient to 
turn the unwary into stone. 

It is in myths like that of Perseus and the Gorgon that the 
fatal glance is more understandable. For in the case of the 
Alexander story, if a single look produced death, the warning 
of Aristotle would come too late. Some of the translators 
seem to have realised this, and in cases where the text read 
" by the glance " it has been altered to " continual (or pro- 
longed) look." It is clear, I think, that the reading is not 
correct and is found only in some of the later texts. 

The Poisonous Breath 

The idea of poisonous breath, such as we find in some of 
the versions of the poison-damsel story, is quite a common one 
in fiction. As we saw in Frauenlob's version, the girl's breath 
was poisonous. The same statement is made by Peter of 
Abano,^ the Jesuit Del Rio,^ Michael Bapst, Wolfgang 
Hildebrand and Caspar de los Reyes.^ For further details 
see Hertz, ojp, cit, pp. 112, 113. 

The notion of the poisonous breath may perhaps be traced 
in some cases to stories of people living on poison in order to 
protect themselves against any attempt on their lives by 
the same means. The story of Mithradates (Pliny, Hist. Nat, 
XXV, 3) is a well-known case in point. Discovering that the 
Pontic duck lived on poison, he utilised its blood as a means 
of inoculation, and finally was able to eat poison regularly. 

Of more interest to us, however, as showing the Indian 
belief in the use of poison as nourishment, is the tale of 
Mahmud Shah, King of Gujarat. It was current about 1500, 
and versions are found in the travels of Varthema * and 
Duarte Barbosa.^ 

The story goes that Mahmud 's father reared his son on 
poison to frustrate any attempts on the part of enemies to 
poison him. In Varthema 's account we read : " Every day 
he eats poison. Do not, however, imagine that he fills his 

^ IJbellux de veneris, c. 3 (Conciliator, Venetiis, 1548, fol. 2, 278, col. 2). 
^ Disquisition es Magicoe, Moguntiee, l606, i, 55. 
3 Elysius Campus, 483. 

* Travels of Ludovico di Varthema, G. P. Badger, Hakluyt Society, 1863, 
pp. 109-110. 

* The Book of Duarte Barbosa, M. Longworth Dames, Hakluyt Society, 
1918, vol. i, pp. 121-123. 


stomach with it ; but he eats a certain quantity, so that 
when he wishes to destroy any great personage he makes him 
come before him stripped and naked, and then eats certain 
fruits which are called chofole, which resemble a muscatel nut. 
He also eats certain leaves of herbs, which are like the leaves 
of the sugar orange, called by some tamboli ; and then he 
eats some lime of oyster shells, together with the above- 
mentioned things. When he has masticated them well, and 
has his mouth full, he spurts it out upon that person whom he 
wishes to kill, so that in the space of half-an-hour he falls to 
the ground dead. This sultan has also three or four thousand 
women, and every night that he sleeps with one she is found 
dead in the morning. Every time that he takes off his shirt, 
that shirt is never again touched by anyone ; and so of his 
other garments ; and every day he chooses new garments. 
My companions asked how it was that this sultan eats poison 
in this manner. Certain merchants, who were older than the 
sultan, answered that his father had fed him upon poison 
from his childhood." 

In Barbosa's version we have a very interesting and 
accurate account of gradual inoculation by poison compared 
with the taking of opium : 

" He began to eat it in such small doses that it could do 
him no evil, and in this manner he continued so filled with 
poison that when a fly touched him, as soon as it reached his 
flesh it forthwith died and swelled up, and as many women as 
slept with him perished. 

" And for this he kept a ring of such virtue that the poison 
could have no effect on her who put it in her mouth before she 
lay down with him. And he could never give up eating this 
poison, for if he did so he would die forthwith, as we see by 
experience of the opium which the most of the Moors and 
Indians eat ; if they left off eating it they would die ; and if 
those ate it who had never before eaten it, they too would 
die ; so they begin to eat it in such small quantities that it 
can work them no ill, as they are reared on it, and as they 
grow up they are accustomed to it. This opium is cold in the 
fourth degree ; it is the cold part of it that kills. The Moors 
eat it as a means of provoking lust, and the Indian women 
take it to kill themselves when they have fallen into any 
folly, or for any loss of honour, or for despair. They drink 
it dissolved in a little oil, and die in their sleep without 
perception of death." 


Dames {op, cit, p. 122) notes that it was Ramusio's 
versions of the travels of Varthema and Barbosa which spread 
the story through Europe, until it found its way into Purchas 
(ii, 1495). Butler's allusion in Hvdihras, where he turns the 
poison into " asps, basilisks and toads," is as follows : 

" The Prince of Cambay's daily food 
Is asp, and basilisk, and toad ; 
Which makes him have so strong a breath. 
Each night he stinks a queen to death." 

Part II, canto i, line 753 et seq. 

Dames refers to a curious tale he heard about Nadir Shah 
among the Baloches (see Folk-Lore, 1897, p. 77), in which 
the king's breath was so poisonous that of the two girls who 
helped him to clean his teeth, one died outright, and the 
other only just managed to recover. 

It is interesting to note that in Varthema 's account of 
Mahmud Shah he distinctly speaks of the practice of betel- 
chewing so widely distributed throughout the East. The 
fruit called chofole, coffolo, or in Arabic fufel, faufel, is the 
betel nut, the fruit of the areca Areca Catechu. The tamholi 
are the leaves of the betel vine or pan Chavica Betel. The 
third ingredient, " some lime of oyster shell," is the small 
pellet of shell lime or chunam which is added to the piece of 
dried nut, both being wrapped in the leaf. Although betel- 
chewing is not poisonous, as was proved as early as the fif- 
teenth century by the botanist Clusius (Charles de I'Escluse 
or Lecluse, 1526-1609),^ it has been known to have curious 
effects on people strongly addicted to the habit, and it is 
quite natural that such effects would be exaggerated in the 
hands of story-tellers, or merely in the gradual spread of a 
local story first told, perhaps, with a large percentage of 
truth, which in time would become smaller and smaller. 

The spitting of betel juice in a person's face was an Indian 
way of offering a gross insult. In speaking of the city of Kail, 
or Cail (a port, now forgotten, on the coast of the Tinnevelly 
district of the Madras Presidency), Marco Polo ^ says : " If 
anyone desires to offer a gross insult to another, when he 

^ See the note to his translation of Garcia de Orta, L. I, c. 25 (Aromatum 
Historia, Antverpite, 1567, p. 122 et seq.). The English translation, The Simples 
and Drugs of India, is by Clements Markham, London, 1913. 

2 The Book of Ser Marco Polo, Yule, vol. ii, p. 371. 


meets him he spits this leaf or its juice in his face. The other 
immediately runs before the king, relates the insult that has 
been offered him, and demands leave to fight the offender. 
The king supplies the arms, which are sword and target, and 
all the people flock to see, and there the two fight till one of 
them is killed. They must not use the point of the sword, for 
this the king forbids." 

In an interesting letter to me on the subject, Dr J. D. 
Gimlette,^ the Residency Surgeon of Kelantan, tells me that 
in the old days Malays were in the habit of conveying poison 
to anyone they wanted " out of the way " in a " chew " of 
betel. The modern Malay criminal may also attempt to 
poison his victim during the process of betel-chewing. The 
poison, consisting of the bile of the green tree-snake {ular 
puchok, Dryophis prasinus, Boie-Dipsodomorphince) mixed 
with that of the green water-frog and that of the jungle-crow, 
is smeared on the gambler used in betel-chewing. White 
arsenic, a common Eastern poison, could easily be mixed 
with the lime, and might well go undetected if the betel 
leaf was not carefully wiped to remove any grittiness. The 
Malays must always have been suspicious of such tricks, 
as even to-day they always wipe the leaves thoroughly before 
commencing chewing. 

Sufficient has now been said to show how, in the East 
especially, exaggerated stories of poison breaths might arise. 
I shall have more to say on betel- chewing in a later volume. 


Significant, too, is the mention of opium by Barbosa. He 
speaks of " opium which the most of the Moors and Indians 
eat." Although the contrary view has been expressed, the 
weight of evidence appears to indicate that the eating and 
drinking of opium is much more deleterious than smoking it. 

Both Mahmtid Shah and his son have been described as 
great opium-eaters, and at this time the practice was on the 
increase. The early history of the drug is very uncertain, but 
the discovery of opium began to attract attention about the 
third century b.c, when references to it are found in the 
works of Greek writers. The home of the Papaver somniferum 
appears to have been the Levant, whence it soon spread to 

^ See the 2nd edition (1923) of his Malay Poisons and Charm Cures. 


Asia Minor. It was, however, the Arabs who were chiefly 
responsible for disseminating the knowledge of the plant and 
its varied uses, and to the Mohammedans can be attributed 
its introduction into both India and China. Thus all the 
vernacular names for the drug are traceable to the Semitic 
corruption of ojpos or opion into afyun} 

It was not long before opium found favour with the 
Hindus. There were many reasons for this. It was looked 
upon as a cure for several diseases, and enabled those who 
took it to exist on very little food during famines ; it was a 
great restorative, a means of imparting strength in any 
laborious work, and was, moreover, considered a strong 
aphrodisiac. Apart from all this, opium was welcomed by 
ascetics, and, besides gdnja, or Indian hemp (from which 
bhang is made), became a means of producing the physical 
inertia and abnormal mental exaltation required for the 
complete conquest of all sensation and movement. It was 
also found to aid the observance of a protracted fast. 

Then, again, it was venerated on account of the pleasant 
and soothing visions it produced, which were regarded as the 
excursions of the spirit into paradise. 

No wonder then that such a powerful drug took a strong 
hold of the people, and appears in some form or other in 
literature. True it was unknown in India in the time of 
Somadeva, but there was no lack of other poisons, as is clear 
from the most cursory glance at the earliest Hindu medical 

Russell ^ says that opium is administered to children 
almost from the time of their birth, partly because its effects 
are supposed to be beneficial, and also to prevent them from 
crying and keep them quiet while their parents are at work. 
One of the favourite methods of killing female children was 
to place a fatal dose of opium on the nipple of the mother's 
breast. The practice of giving children opium is said to be 
abandoned at the age of eight or nine, but as that is about 

^ The full history of opium has yet to be written, but I would refer 
readers to Watt's Commercial Products of India, 19O8, pp. 845-861, which is a 
revised and abridged account from his Dictionary of the Economic Products of 
India, and contains many useful references. The latest and most interesting 
information will be found in a little pamphlet by Prof. H. A. Giles, Some 
Truths about Opimn, Cambridge, 1923. The article "Opium," by E. M. 
Holmes, in the Eyicy. Brit, is also well worth perusal. 

2 Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces, vol. iii, p. SI 9. 


the marriage age of girls it seems as if the harm would be 
already done, and the habit a very difficult one to break. I 
can find no evidence as to whether children were given 
poisonous herbs to suck before opium was introduced; the 
possibility, however, seems quite a likely one. The prohibition 
of alcoholic liquor by the Brahman priesthood only led to 
the use of noxious drugs, and opium contributed much to the 
degeneration of the Rajputs, the representatives of the old 
Kshatriya or warrior class. ^ 

Poison by Intercourse 

The fatal look and poisonous breath which help to char- 
acterise the poison-damsel's snake nature cannot be taken 
alone. They appear to be mere variants of the original idea 
stated, or perhaps only hinted at, in the story as told in India. 
There are several considerations that help to show what was 
originally meant. In all versions we are told that the girl was 
very beautiful and at once captured the admiration of her 
intended victim. The evil effects of her bite are mentioned. 
Remembering the Eastern origin of the tale, we must regard 
this as an amorous bite on the lip, probably drawing blood, 
and so allowing the poisonous saliva of the girl to enter the 
whole system of the man. Then, again, the perspiration is 
mentioned. 2 All these facts point to intercourse as the most 
obvious and successful way of passing on the poison. 

Aristotle told Alexander that if he had had intercourse 
with the poisoned woman he would have died. I take this 
to include all the numerous methods which in later versions 
were taken separately. The idea would be appreciated by the 
Hindu, who would imagine the woman bringing into play the 
whole ars amoris indica, as detailed by Vat sy ay ana. It is 
almost surprising that no versions suggest nail-scratchings as 
a means of conveying the poison. 

So much for the actual idea of poisonous intercourse, but 

^ See Col. Tod's Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthdn, edited by W. Crooke, 
Oxford, 1920 ; the latter's articles on the Rajput clans in his Tribes and Castes 
of the North- Western Provinces and Oudh ; and Russell, op. cit., vol. iv, p. 423 et 
seq. For evidence against the Rajputs being the offspring of the Kshatriyas 
see Forbes, Rds Mala, edited by H. G. Rawlinson, 1924, vol. i, p. 21n^. 

2 In one version, that in the Parisishtaparvan, the perspiration was caused 
by the heat of the sacrificial fire (see supra). 



the question which is of far greater interest is, What gave rise 
to such an idea ? 

Perhaps it depends on the interpretation of the word 
" poisonous." It is well known that in many countries the 
first intercourse after marriage is looked upon with such 
dread, and as an act of so inauspicious a nature, that the 
husband either appoints a proxy for the first night, or else 
takes care that if the girl is a virgin the hymen be broken 
by artificial means. ^ It is hard to say exactly why the first 
sexual connection was so greatly feared, but the chief idea 
seems to have been that at any critical time evil spirits are 
especially active. We have already seen (pp. 166-169) how 
special care had to be taken at birth ; so also at marriages it 
was equally important to guard against any malign influences 
which may be at work trying to do harm on the first night 
of the marriage. Such attempts, however, would not be 
renewed, and if only the husband could shift the primary 
danger on to someone else's shoulders all would be well. 

There is no evidence that any form of poisoning was 
feared, but the idea occurs in a curious passage from Mande- 
ville. In describing the islands in the lordship of Pr ester 
John, he says '^ : 

" Another Yle is there toward the Northe, in the See 
Occean, where that ben fuUe cruele and ful evele Wommen 
of Nature ; and thei han precious Stones in hire Eyen : and 
thei ben of that kynde, that zif thei beholden ony man with 
wratthe, thei slen him anon with the beholdynge, as doth the 

" Another Yle is there, fulle fair and gode and gret, and 
f ulle of peple, where the custom is suche, that the firste nyght 
that thei ben maryed, thei maken another man to lye be hire 
Wifes, for to have hire Maydenhode : and therfore thei taken 
gret Huyre and gret Thank. And ther ben certain men in 

^ See Ploss, Das JVeib in der Natur u. Volkerkunde, 3rd edition of Bartels, 
Leipzig, 185)1, p. 310 et seq. For the use of the proxy see Antoine de Moya, 
Sucesos de las Ixlas Filipinas, Paris, 1890; Moncelon, Bulletins de la Soci^U 
d'Anlhrop. de Paris, 3 serie IX, 1886, p. 368. Further references will be 
found in Westermarck, History of Human Marriage, vol. i, p. 170 et seq. 

2 The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundevile, Kt., with an Introduction, 
Additional Notes and Glossary, J. O. Halliwell, 1839, p. 285 et seq. (In the 
1866 reprint the page is 284 et seq.) The 1895 edition, illustrated by Layard, 
omits all the al)ove except the first paragraph (p. 355). 

3 Pliny, Lib. VII, c. 2. 


every Town, that serven of non other thing ; and thei clepen 
hem Cadeberiz, that is to seyne, the Foles of Wanhope. For 
thei of the Contree holden it so gret a thing and so perilous, 
for to have the Maydenhode of a Woman, that hem semethe 
that thei that haven first the Maydenhode, puttethe him in 
aventure of his Lif. And zif the Husbonde fynde his Wif 
Mayden, that other next nyghte, aftre that sche scholde have 
ben leyn by of the man, that is assigned therefore, perauntes 
for Dronkenesse or for some other cause, the Husbonde 
schalle pleyne upon him, that he hathe not done his Deveer, 
in suche cruelle wise, as thoughe he wolde have him slayn 
therfore. But after the firste nyght, that thei ben leyn by, 
thei kepen hem so streytely, that thei ben not so hardy to 
speke with no man. And I asked hem the cause, whi that 
thei helden suche custom : and thei seyden me, that of old 
tyme, men hadden ben dede for deflourynge of Maydenes, 
that hadden Serpentes in hire Bodyes, that stongen men 
upon hire Zerdes, that thei dyeden anon: and therefore 
thei helden that custom, to make other men, ordeyn'd 
therfore, to lye be hire Wyfes, for drede of Dethe, and to 
assaye the passage be another, rather that for to putte hem 
in that aventure." 

Although we must look upon the above as an invention 
of Mandeville himself, the idea could well have been founded 
on fact. For instance, apart from the custom of employing 
proxies for the first night of marriage, there has always been 
a curious connection between snakes and intercourse. In 
India the snake is often represented as encircling the linga. 
In a paper read before the Asiatic Society, J. H. Rivett- 
Carnac ^ refers to certain paintings in Nagpur, and says that 
" the positions of the women with the snakes were of the most 
indecent description and left no doubt that, so far as the idea 
represented in these sketches was concerned, the cobra was 
regarded as the phallus." 

The subject has been treated by many scholars ^ and 
cannot be discussed here further. 

^ " Rough Notes on the Snake Symbol in India," Joum. Roy. As. Soc, 
Bengal, 1879. 

2 c. F. Oldham, "The Nagas," Jourfi. Roy. As. Soc, July 19OI, pp. 
461-473; J. A. Macculloch, "Serpent Worship (Primitive and Introductory)," 
Hastings' Eficy. Rel. Eih., p. 409, and W. Crooke, "Serpent Worship (Indian)," 
ditto, p. 415. See also E. S. Hartland, " Phallism," ditto, vol. ix, p. 815 e^ seq., 
^nd the references given in these articles. 


The most simple explanation of the true meaning of 
poisoning by intercourse which at once suggests itself is that 
it was merely venereal disease unrecognised as such. Here we 
at once open up an enormous field of research, much too com- 
plicated and technical to pursue here. All I can hope to do 
is to state briefly what the chief opinions on the subject are, 
and the consequent bearing they have upon the question of 

In spite of assertions to the contrary, it is a generally 
accepted fact that syphilis was introduced into Europe by 
way of Spain in 1493 by Columbus' men, who had contracted 
the disease in Haiti. From Spain it spread to Italy, being 
carried there by the Spanish troops who enlisted in 
Charles VIII 's army. This view is held by Havelock Ellis ^ 
and many other authoritative writers. It is also accepted 
by the National Council for Combating Venereal Disease and 
the British Medical Journal (see below). 

There has, however, been considerable controversy on the 
subject, some attempting to prove that venereal disease has 
existed in all countries from the earliest times, and that 
mummies from ancient Egj^t show undoubted signs of 
syphilis. One of our greatest authorities on such subjects, 
however. Prof. G. Eliot Smith, tells me that there is abso- 
lutely no evidence even to suggest that the disease existed 
in Egypt before mediaeval times. He says, moreover, that 
there is no sign of it in ancient Egyptian remains, and that 
had it existed there it most certainly would have left its 
mark. 2 

In Central America, however, the antiquity of the disease 
is fairly well established. As time went on, the natives became 
practically immune, but when it spread to the Spaniards, the 
disease assumed a virulent form. In an article on the subject 

1 Psychology of Sex ^ vol. vi ("Sex in Relation to Society"), p. 321 et seq. 

^ See "The Alleged Discovery of Syphilis in Prehistoric Egyptians," 
The Lancet, 22nd August 1908. Readers wishing to pursue the subject will 
find the following references useful : Buret, Le Syphilis Aujotirdliui et chez les^ 
Anciens, 18.90; A. V. Notthaft, "Die Legende von der Altertums-syphilis," 
Rindjlcisch Festschrift, 1907, pp. 377-592; Okamura in Monatsschrift ftir 
praktische Dermatologie, vol. xxviii, p. 296 et seq. ; Virchow in Zeitschrift Jur 
Ethnologic, Heft 2 and 3, 189.9, p. 21 6; J. Knott, "The Origin of Syphihs," 
New York Medical Journal, 31st October 1908; Rosenbaum, Geschichte der 
Lustseuche im Allertume, .5th edition ; K. K. Chatterji, Syphilis in Geyieral Practice,, 
with special reference to the Tropics, Calcutta, 1920 (see especially pp. 4 and 5). 


one of the greatest authorities ^ on Central America declares 
his belief in the American origin of syphilis. He quotes 
(among others) Montejo y Robledo in the fourth report of 
the International Americanists' Congress at Madrid in 1881 
{Adas, Tomo I, p. 331 et seq,). 

That the Mexicans looked upon the disease as something 
divine is clear from the fact that they had a god of syphilis, 
named Nanahuatzin, who was a satellite of the sun-god. The 
only known statue of the god is in Mr Fenton's collection, 
inspection of which leaves little doubt as to its identification. 
Mr Fenton also showed me the sun-god, which is represented 
as having gap-teeth, in keeping with the disease which 
undoubtedly forms one of its attributes. 

Although scholars are not unanimous in their acceptance 
of the above theory, evidence to the contrary seems to be 
quite unconvincing. 

However this may be, stories certainly existed in the 
Middle Ages in Europe which seem to show undoubted refer- 
ence to the disease, which was looked upon as a magic poison- 
ing, the handiwork of a witch, or exceedingly clever woman, 
whose knowledge was something out of the ordinary. Take, 
for instance, the legend of the death of King Wenceslaus II 
of Bohemia in 1305. 

According to the contemporary poet, Ottacker,^ the king 
grew daily weaker without any apparent cause. Suspicion 
fell on the king's favourite and trusted mistress, one Agnes, a 
most beautiful and accomplished woman. It was rumoured 
that she had accepted bribes from certain men to defile herself 
in such a manner as to bring about the king's death by her 
embrace. " How could you do a deed like this ? " says the 
poet. " How could you mix poison with the fathomless sweet- 
ness which you carry in your delicate body ? Mistress, you 
betrayed him, just as the Romans did when they betrayed 
an emperor. They brought up a child on poison, who later 

^ E. Seler, Gesammeltc Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach-und Alter- 
tumskunde, Berlin, 1904, vol. ii, p. 94 et seq. (originally published in Zeitschrift 
fiir Ethnologie, 1895, pp. 366, 449 et seq.). See also Brasseur de Bourbourg, 
Popol Vuh, Paris, 186 1, p. cxlii; ioycQ, Mexican ArcluBology, p. 239; and Las 
Casas, Historia Apologetica, cap. 19. 

2 This is the German poet and historian who flourished at the end of 
the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth centuries, and must not be 
confounded with the King of Bohemia (Ottacker or Ottakar) of about the same 


became the emperor's mistress, and after he had lain with her 
he died. But that case was different, as the child had been 
trained by the Romans that she might poison the Emperor." 

The poet, in conclusion, curses her and calls down the 
wrath of heaven on any such treacherous woman. ^ 

About a hundred years later we find a curious tale deal- 
ing with the death of King Ladislao (also called Ladislaus, 
Ladislas, or Lanzilao) of Naples. He aspired to absolute rule 
of Italy, but, according to one version, was mysteriously 
poisoned by a trick of the Florentines. The story goes ^ that 
they bribed a certain unscrupulous doctor of Perugia, whose 
beautiful daughter was the mistress of Ladislao. The un- 
natural father persuaded the girl that if she wanted to be 
loved exclusively and unceasingly by her royal lover she 
must secretly rub herself with a certain ointment which he 
himself had prepared for her. The deluded girl believed him 
and did his bidding, used the ointment, which was composed 
chiefly of the juice of aconite (monk's-hood), and both she 
and the king lost their lives. 

Although such stories as these are of considerable interest, 
they afford no conclusive proof of the existence of venereal 
disease in Europe before the end of the fifteenth century. 
It is impossible to say what was the exact nature of these 
mysterious illnesses or how they originated. 

Syphilis appears to have been unknown in India till the 
' end of the fifteenth or beginning of the sixteenth century, 
when it was introduced by the Portuguese. ^ 

But quite apart from such evidence as this, the time the 
disease takes to show itself is greatly against its use in a story 
where the effect has to be immediate and causing practically 
instantaneous death. 

It seems, therefore, that we must look for some means of 

^ For the complete passage see R. D. P. Hieronymus Pez, Scriptores 
rerum Austriacarum veleres ac genuini, Tom. Ill, Ratisbonae, 1745, cap. dccliv, 
pp. 741-742. 

2 Angelo di Costanzo, Hisioria del regno di Napoli, Aquila, 1 581 , p. 279 fi 'eq, 
Gregorovius, Gexchichte der Sfadt Rom im Mittelaltcr, VI, 2nd edition, p. 625. 

2 See J. Jolly, Indische Medizin, Strassburg, 1.901 ; I wan Bloch, Ursprung 
der Syphilis, Jena, l.qoi, vol. i, p. 283 et scq. The British Medical Journal tells 
me that they know of no evidence of the occurrence of syphilis in India before 
1495 and consider its introduction can be placed with very little doubt about 
A.D. 1500. It was due to the Portuguese explorers, who had been infected as 
a sequel to the introduction of the disease in Europe by Columbus' men. 



imparting death which (1) existed undoubtedly from olden 
times in India, (2) is practically instantaneous, and (3) has a 
distinct connection with poison. 

Although poisonous plants could be cited, there is a much 
more obvious and certain thing namely, the sting of the 
cobra. Here, I think, we have the clue to the whole idea. 

In the first place we are fully aware of the great antiquity 
of the reverence paid to the cobra in India, a reverence which, 
however, is naturally mixed with dread. How great that 
dread must be we can better appreciate when we glance at 
the amazing statistics of deaths due to snake-bite. The 
average annual death-roll is about 20,000 people. In 1889 
there were 22,480 human beings and 3,793 cattle killed by 
snakes, the chief being the cobra, the krait and Russell's 
viper. In more recent years the figures have increased. Thus 
in 1911 the deaths due to snake-poison were 24,312 ; in 
1915, 26,406, while in 1922 the figure dropped to 20,090. 

No further evidence is needed to emphasise the deadliness 
of the sting of the cobra and the krait. If the poison enters a 
large vera, death is very rapid and all so-called antidotes are un- 
availing. The poison of a snake becomes exhausted after it has 
struck frequently, and in cases where a cobra's sting does little 
harm it is usually to be explained by the fact that the reptile 
must have already bitten and not yet re-formed its poison. 

It is a curious fact that a snake cannot poison itself or one 
of its own species, and only any other genus of venomous 
snake in a slight degree. This brings us a step nearer our 
inquiry. It is obvious that in a country like India, infested 
with snakes, and where the resulting mortality is so large, 
the customs of the reptiles should have been studied in 
detail. This has been largely done by snake-charmers, whose 
livelihood depends on their ability to catch them alive and 
train them sufficiently for their particular object in view. A 
snake-charmer's secret lies chiefly in his dexterity and fear- 
lessness. There is, however, another important factor to be 
considered inoculation. It is a well-known fact that snake 
venom is perfectly digestible, and that if the mouth and 
stomach are free from abrasions quantities of venom can be 
taken with no ill effects. It is on this principle that the snake- 

^ For further details of deaths from snake-bite in India prior to 1891 see 
Sir Joseph Fayrer, On Serpent-tvorship and on the Venomous Snakes of India, 
being a paper read before the Victoria Institute, 1892. For the recent figures 
I am indebted to the High Commissioner for India. 


charmers work, inoculating themselves with increasing doses 
of venom until they are immime from the bite of the par- 
ticular snake whose venom they have used. For instance, 
if cobra-venom is chosen, immunity will be obtained only 
against cobra- venom, and viper- venom would prove fatal in 
the usual way.^ 

It is a fairly widely recognised fact that a child who has 
once had measles is not likely to get it again, for the simple 
reason that a stronger resistance is set up by the one attack. 
We are all aware that vaccination is a protection against 
smallpox, and that anti-typhoid inoculation preserves one to 
a considerable degree against typhoid fever. In the former 
case the vaccine lymph actually causes a mild attack of 
smallpox (just in the same way as the snake-charmer gets 
slightly poisoned by his repeated bites), and in the latter 
case dead typhoid bacilli are injected under the skin. Just 
as cobra-inoculation is no protection against viper-venom, so 
vaccination is no protection against typhoid. 

As the system on which the snake-charmer works became 
more and more familiar, and experience showed only too well 
the fatal results of cobra bites to people who are not immune, 
it is quite reasonable to imagine that this knowledge would 
find its way into fiction. It would, indeed, be curious if it was 
not so, for as history affords so many examples of vegetable 
and mineral poisoning, we can well understand that stories, 
at any rate, would arise telling of snake-poisons. 

All the story-teller had to do was to transfer the idea 
from the snake-charmer to a beautiful maiden, and introduce 
the possibility of passing on a poison thus accumulated. The 
method of doing this would naturally be intercourse, a bite, 
perspiration and so on. 

As is to be expected, we find stories where the poison is 
definitely stated as being derived from plants. The chief of 
these was el-bls (the Arabic form of the Sanskrit visJia), In 
al-Qazwini's ^ Kosmographie we read : " Among the wonders 

1 I have to thank Miss Joan Procter, Curator of Reptiles at the Zoological 
Society, for giving me valuable information about cobras and vipers. See 
A. T. Wall, " On the Difference of the Physiological Effects produced by the 
Poison of Indian Venomous Snakes," Proc. Roy. Soc, 1881, vol. xxxii, p. 333; 
G. Lamb, Some Observations on the Poison of the Banded Krait, Calcutta, 1 904. 

2 Silvestre de Sacy, Chrestomathie Arabe, 2nd edition, Paris, 1826, iii, 398. 
J. Gildemeister, Scriptonim Arabum de Rebus Indicts loci, 219- Gutschmid in 
Zeitschr. d. deutschen morg. Gesel., xv, 95. 


of India may be mentioned the plant el-bis, which is found 
only in India, and which is a deadly poison. The Indian kings, 
we are told, when they want to conquer an enemy ruler, take 
a new-born girl and strew the plant first for some time under 
her cradle, then under her mattress and then under her 
clothes. Finally they give it her to drink in her milk, until 
the growing girl begins to eat it without hurt. This girl they 
send with presents to the king whom they wish to destroy, 
and when he has intercourse with her he dies." 


To summarise briefly, I would say that the motif of the 
poison-damsel originated in India at a very early period 
before the Christian era. The poison-damsel herself has no 
existence in actual fact, but is merely the creation of the 
story-teller, who derived the idea from what he saw around 
him. First of all he was acquainted with poisonous herbs 
and knew something of the uses to which they were put, but 
he was still more familiar with the ways of the snake-charmer 
and the methods of his gradual inoculation. He could not help 
being fully aware of the fatal results of the bite of the cobra 
and krait, and the reverence and fear of the snake through- 
out India was everywhere evident. Thus there was plenty of 
material for the creation of the poison-damsel, and in later 
days the knowledge of opium and other foreign drugs would 
merely introduce some new variant of the tale. 

Like so many Eastern stories, the legend of the poison- 
damsel travelled slowly westwards, and received its greatest 
impetus by becoming attached to the Pseudo-Aristotelean 
myths of mediaeval Europe. Its inclusion in such a famous 
collection as the Gesta Romanorum was a further means of its 
increasing popularity. 

I need hardly say that I have touched only the very 
fringe of the subject. Whilst many important and extremely 
interesting queries have been raised in the course of this 
appendix, I have, for the most part, refrained from offering 
any solution, and have been content with stating facts and 
giving references. 

Most readers will, I think, agree with me that, despite 
many disadvantages, there is much that is attractive about 
the poison-damsel. 



The n stands for " note " and the index number refers to the number of the note. If there 
is no index number to the n it refers to a note carried over from a previous page. 

Abano, Peter of, Libellus de 
veneris, 300, tSOOw^ ; works 
of, 99w 

Abbott, G. F., Macedonian 
Folk-Lore, lOn^ 

Abruzzi, Palena in the, 202n^ 

Acacia speciosa {siras tree), 

Achilles with his horses, 
Xanthos and Balios, con- 
versation of, 57n^ 

Aconitum spicatum, deadliest 
aconite, 279 

Adah, 155^2 

Adam's Bridge (Rama's 
Bridge), Sin^ 

Adam's exile, Ceylon re- 
garded by the Arabs as 
the place of. Sin}, S5n 

Adam's footprint, 857i 

Adam's Peak, beliefs regard- 
ing the depression on, 8in^, 

Adhah, 155n2 

Adhah (downwards), 218n^ 

Adityaprabha, King, 97-99, 

_ 111-114 

Adityasena, King, 54-59, 62, 
64, 65, 68, 79 

.^schines, 278 

iEsculapius (Asklepios), MS. 
of Secretnm Secretorum found 
in the Temple of the Sun 
dedicated to, 288 

Afanasief, * ' The Friend , " 

Afghanistan, aconite in, 280 

Africa, General Botha's cam- 
paign in German S.W., 281 ; 
polyandry in, 18 ; umbrellas 
used at native courts in, 271 

Afyun (opium), 304 

Agadas (anti-poisonous com- 
pounds), 276 

Agamemnon, 127^^ 

Aghnyd (not to be killed), 


Aghori, sect of ascetics, 90n^ 

Agnes, mistress of King 
Wenceslaus II, 309 

Agni, God of Fire, 97, 101, 

Agnidatta, Brahman named, 
95, 133 

Agnihotfi (fire-priest), 257 

Agnyadhana (* ' Establish- 
ment of the Sacred 
Fires"), 256wi 

Agrammes or Xandrames 
(Dhana - Nanda, Nanda, 
etc.), 282, 282n2 

Agryatapas, hermit named, 

Ahalya, story of, 45-46 

Ahastagrahayogydm , 24ni 

Ahimsa, doctrine of, 241 

Ajib, son of Khazlb, 223ni 

Akbar, 110^2 

Akula (by descent), 158^^ 

Alaka, 93 

Alakeswara Katha, the, 123 

Albertus Magnus, De viira- 
hilibus mundi, 299, 299^^3; 
works of, 288, 288^3 

Alexander the Great, 252, 
282, 285, 287, 288, 291, 
292, 292n2, 293-296, 299, 
300 ; and Darius, 278 

Alexander III, Pope, 268 

''Allah, Abode of" (Allaha- 
bad), 110w2 

Allahabad ( Abode of 
Allah "), 110n2 ; pillars at, 

Allahabad (Prayaga), llOn^ 

Al - QazwinT, Kosmographicj 

_ 298, 312 

Am tree (mango), 118 

Amavas, or no-moon night, 

Ambika (Parvati, Durga,etc.), 

Ambuvegatak ("by the cur- 
rent"), 217n3 

America, antiquity of 

syphilis in Central, 308, 

309, 309^1 
Amjad and As'ad, 124 
Ammianus Marcellinus, 263 
Amrita (nectar), 15571*; stolen 

by Rahu, 81 
Amsala {''firm^' or "tender"), 

Ananga, a name of Kama, 

the Hindu Cupid, Hn^ 
Ananga ("the bodiless " i.e. 

Kama), 164^ 
Ananta (a scented drug), 276 
Andromeda and Perseus, 70^2 
Angia or angiya (bodice), 50, 

Angiya or an^a (bodice), 50, 

Angiya, bodice of Northern 

India, 50n5 
Anglo - Saxons, umbrellas 

used by, 269, 269n2 
Anjali-measure (half-a-seer), 

Annam parents, children sold 

to a smith by some, 166, 

Anspach, A. E., De Alexandri 

Magni Expeditione Indica, 

Anteia, Bellerophon and, 120 
Antichrist, announcement of 

the birth of, 39n2 
Antioch, Arabic MS. found 

in, 289 
Anupu and Baiti, two brothers 

called, 120-121 
Anvdr-i-Suhaih {Fables of Pil- 

pay), 297, 297w2 
Anyatahplaksha, Lotus-lake 

called, 246, 249 
Apollonius of Tvana, "Dra- 
gons of India,'*' 108n 
Apsaras Urva^I, 34-36, 245- 

Apsarases, 2>tm\ 175w^ 252 



Apuleius, the Cupid and 
Psyche myth, 253 ; Golden 
Ass, 60^2 
Arabia, poison-damsel in, 286 
Arabs, meeting eyebrows con- 
sidered beautiful by the, 
Arabs regard Ceylon as the 
place of Adam's exile, 84w\ 
Aralu (Sheol or Hades), 61w^ 
Arani (fire-drill or -stick), 

248, 255, 256 
Areca Catechu, 302 
Arer women of Kanara, 169 
Argha, an oblation to gods and 

venerable men, 77, 77n^ 
Argo, the freeing of, 12n^ 
Arindama, hermit named, 127 
Aristophanes, Birds, 152?i^ 
Aristotle, 282, 285, 287, 288, 
291, 292, 294-296, 299, 300 ; 
Hist. Anim., 296 
Aristotle, Pseudo-, Secretum 

Secretorum, 286 et seq. 
Arjuna, son of Pandu, 16, 284 
Arka plants, 161 
Arminius, offer of the prince 
of the Catti to poison, 277 
Arrian, Indica, 263 
Ars anions indica, 305 
Artemis, the hind of, 127^^ 
Artha (wealth), 180^^ 
Arthasdtra, the, Kautilya, 

211n\ 2837ii 
'Arthato, 40^2 
Arudhah, 89^2 

Aryans, polyandry regarded 
with disfavour by the, 17 ; 
value of war horses among 
_ the, blrO- 

Aryavarman, King, 73, 74, 78 
J a' (to pervade), 251 
As'ad and Amjad, 124 
Asana, ashes of, 276 
Asandhimitra, wife of A^oka, 

Ashadha, 217 
Ashantees, King Koffee 

Kalcalliof the, 271 
Ashbee Collection, British 

Museum, 272 
Asia Minor, poison-damsel in, 

Asklepios (iEsculapius), 288 
Aso (October), 119 
AiSoka, Buddhist Emperor of 

India, 120 
A^oka, first Emperor of India, 
Pataliputra the capital of, 

A^okadatta and Vijayadatta, 
196-213, 238ni 

A^okavega, name given to 
Asokadatta, 212 

Assam, aconite in, 280; 
customs connected with 
eclipses in, 81 ; Kamarupa 
the western portion of, 94, 

Assur-nasir-pal, royal um- 
brella held over, 263 

Assyria, magic circle in, 99n ; 
_ umbrella in, 263 

Asta, 105i 

Aste (shaft of umbrella), 269 

Astydameia and Peleus, 120 

Am, 105ni 

Asuhhih ('*with his breath"), 

Asura brothers Sunda and 
Upasunda, 13-14 

Asura, Rahu an, 81, 82 

Asura Taraka, the, 100, 101, 
102, 103 

Asuras, 93/1^; Mayadhara, 
King of the, 35 

Asva-kama, ashes of, 276 

A^vattha tree {Ficus religiosa), 
voice from the, 97 

Aswat tree, 255 

Atharva-Veda, the, 240, 241 

Athenaeus, 263 

Atinirbajidhinih (over-insist- 
ing), 221n^ * 

Atinirvartinih (feeling satis- 
faction), 221ni 

Atkinson, T. D., * Points of 
the Compass," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., biri^ 

Australians, nature myths 
among the, 252 

Austria, Maximilian of, 112w^ 

Auvergne, William of, works 
_ of, 99m 

Avantika (Vasavadatta), 21- 

23, 29 
Avichi, the hell called, 176 
Axon, W. E. A., Lancashire 
_ Gleanings, 76w^ 77n 
Ay us, son of UrvasI and 

Pururavas, 249, 259 
Azrk (Arabic, "blue eyes"), 

Babylon, belief in vampires 
in, 61n^ ; Nebuchadrezzar, 
King of, 194n ; umbrella in, 

Babylonia, magic circle in, 

Bachapa, minister of Raja 

Kampila, 122 
Bacon, Roger, works of, 99n 
Badagas, fire made by the, 

Badarika, hermitage of, 36 
Badger, G. P., Travels of 
Ludovico di Varthema, 300, 
300;i*, 301 
Bahvricas, verses handed 

down by the, 247 
Baiti, Anupu and, two 

brothers called, 120-121 
Bakhtydr Ndma, the, 123 
Baladeva, father of Saktideva, 

Balavad (forcib)y), 129ni 
Balios and Xanthos, conversa- 
tion of Achilles with, 57n^ 
Baloches, the, 302 
Baluchistan, aconite in, 280 
Bandello, Novelle, lOn 
Banerji-Sastri, "The Plays 
of Bhasa," Jouivi. Roy. 
As. Soc, 21ni 
Banjara women wear spangles 

set in gold, 23h 
Bantu negro races, eating 
human flesh among the, 
198/11, 199n 
Bapst, Michael, 300 
Bapst von Rochlitz, Michael, 
Artzney Kunst vnd W under 
Buck, 294wi 
Bar tree {Ficus indica), 118 
Barbarossa, Frederick, 268 
Barbier de Mevnard, Les 

Colliers d' Or, 298 
Barbosa, Duarte, 269, 300, 

300n6, 301, 303 

Baring-Gould, 104n ; Curious 

Myths of the Middle Ages, 

39n2 ; Strange Sunnvals, 272 

Barnett, L. D., 102n\ llQn\ 

I29n\ nin\ I80n\ 188ni ; 

" Bhasa," Joum. Roy. As, 

Soc, 2ln} ; Golden Tototit 

200n2, 201n; Hindu Gods 

and Heroes, 45n* 

Barrow, H. W., ** Aghorisand 

Aghorapanthis," Joum. 

A nth. Soc. Bond)., ^Qrfi 

Bartsch, K., Deutsche Lieder- 

dichter des 12. bis 14. Jahr- 

hunderts, 292/1^; Sagen, 

Mdrchen und Gehr'duche aus 

Meklenburg,9&n*, 107S 153n 

Basezi, people who eat human 

flesh (Uganda), 199n 
Basile, Pentarnerone (Burtons 
translation), 5ni, 190ni, 253 



Basri tree {Fiats religiosa), 255 
Batata, Ibn, 268, 268^4 
Bayard, the Karling legend 

of, 5W 
Beas (the ancient "Y^aorts), 

Bellephoron, tale of, GOn^ 
Bellerophon and Anteia, 120 
Benares, 88-90, 159, 160, 174, 

196, 199, 200, 207, 210, 212 ; 

Brahmadatta, King of, 88, 

89, 91, 95, 115; Pratapa- 

mukuta, King of, 200 
Benfey, Orient und Occident, 

120 ; PaUchatantra, 52n^, 

108/1, llSni, 297^2 
Bengal, the Bhandaris of, 

229^2 ; customs connected 

with lights among the 

Savaras of, 168; hard life 

of women in Eastern, 19 
Betul district, 23n 
Bhadra, a Vidyadhari named, 

66-69, 71, 75-80 
Bhandaris of Bengal, 229^2 
Bhang, 304 ; aconite used in 

making, 279 
Bharata, teacher of Urvasi, 

257, 258 
Bharatas, great poem relating 

to the {Mahdhhdraia), 16 
Bharhut tope, 266^ 
Bhartrihari Niti Sataka, the, 

Bhdrunda birds, 220w 
B h a s a, Svapna-vdsavadatta, 

Bhavabhuti, dramatist of 

India, 214; Mahd Vira 

Charita, 214; Mdlati Mdd- 

hava, 205n3, 214; Uttara 

Rdma Charita, 214 
Bhavani (Parvati, Durga, 

etc.), 143 
Bhavisyati, 70n^ 
Bheels or Bhillas, 89, 89wi 
Bhikshu or beggar, 180w^ 
Bhillas or Bheels, 89, 89ni 
Bhillas, Pulindaka, King of 

the, 89, 89ni 
Bhima, son of Pandu, 16 
Bhishma, uncle of Dhrita- 

rashtra and Pandu, 16 
Bhutan, aconite in, 280 
Bihar, kingdom of Magadha 

in South, 282 
Bikh (Nepal aconite), 279 
Billington, M. F., Woman in 

India, 163w 
Ris (Nepal aconite), 279 
Bisk (Nepal aconite), 279 

Bismarck Archipelago, poly- 
andry in the, 18 
Bloch, I wan, Der Ursprung 

der Syphilis, SlOn^ 
Bloomfield, ' * Ahalyayai " ; 

["Art of Entering 

Another's Body,"] Proc. 

Amer. Phil. Soc, 45w4,212ni; 

"Art of Stealing in 

Hindu Fiction," Amer. 

Joum. Phil., 183n^ ; Life 

and Stories of Pdrgvandtha, 

14/1, 108n, 122, 285^1, 

28Qn^ ; Vedic Concordance, 

Blyth, A. Wynter, Old and 

Modern Poison Lore, 281 
Blyth, A. W. and M. W., 

Poisons : their Ejects and 

Detection, 281 
Bo tree {Ficus religiosa), 255 
Boccaccio, Decameron, lOw, 

76wi, 114^ 
Bodhisattva, a, 139 
Boerkel, A., Frauenlob, 292w3 
Boettiger, M., 113# 
Bohn's edition, Gesta Romano- 
nan, 113n^ 
Bohtlingk and Roth, 53^2, 

67wi, 161ni 
Boie-DipsodomorphincB (green 

tree-snake), 303 
Bombay, former practice of 

infanticide in, 18, 19 
Borgias, poisonings by the, 

Borgnet, Augustus, edit, of 

Pseudo- Aristotle, De causis 

et properietatibus elemen- 

tonim, 299w4 
Bose, S. C, The Hindoos as 

They Are, 163w 
Botha's campaign in German 

S.W. Africa, General, 281 
Bourbon, Etienne de. Liber 

de Donis, 114n 
Bourbourg, Brasseur de, 

Popol Vuh, 309^1 
Bourke, Scatalogic Rites oj all 

Nations, 199n 
Bowick, Last of the Tas- 

manians, 280n^ 
Brahma, I2>n\ 14, Un, 100, 

101, 242 
Brahmachdrin (an unmarried 

religious student), 180?^^ 
Brahmadatta, King of Ben- 
ares, 88, 89, 91, 95, 115 
Brdhmanas, the, 240 
Brand, Popular Antiquities, 

99n, 105n 

Brazil, infected clothes in, 

280, 280n 
Brewer, Dictionary of Phrase 

and Fable, 271 
Bridges, J. H., Opiis Maius 

of Roger Bacon, 100?i 
Brocken mountain, 104n2, 

Brocken scene, Goethe, 

Faust, \Of)n 
Brockhaus' text, 24ni, 89#, 

92w6, 97n2, 154wi, 177ni, 

201^2, 218/i2, 2217^1, 227w\ 

236712, 238^1 
Bromyard, John of, Summa 

Prcedicantium, 114w 
Brown, R. Grant, "The Pre- 

Buddhist Religion of the 

Burmese," Folk-Lore, 265ni 
Brukolak (vampire), meeting 

eyebrows in Greece denote 

a, lOin 
Brunet, Violier des Histories 

Romaines, 289^2 
Brunetto Latini, Li Livres dou 

Tresor, 294, 294^2, 299^1 
Bubbal, pillars at, 92^^ 
Buddha, In^, 32, 85n, 252, 

265 ; Pururavas, son of Ila 

and, 248 
Buddhist sage, Nagasena, 32 
Buhler, Code of Mann, 275, 

275n^ ; Vikramdnkadevacha- 

rita, nin^ 
Burdwan (Vardhamana), 171, 

Buret, Le Syphilis Aujourd^hui 

et chez les Anciens, 308w2 
Burgess, J., and R. Phene 

Spiers, J. Fergusson, 

History of Indian and Eastern 

Architecture, 265n* 
Burlingame, "The Act of 

Truth," Jo^^^^, Roy. As. Soc, 

Burma, aconite in, 280 ; 

childbirth customs among 

the Kachins of Upper, 167 ; 

gambling among the Shans 

of Upper, 232w ; umbrellas 

in, 264-266 
Burton, Annotated Bibliography 

of Sir Richard, N. M. 

Penzer, \0n 
Burton, R. F., City of the 

Saints, 280, 280^3; First 

Footsteps in East Africa, 

271^2 ; Goa and the Blue 

Mountains, 19 ; Nights, lOn, 

6Sn}, 104n, 104w^ 123, 124, 

13hi\ U7n\ 153w, 169, 



Burton, R. F. continued 
190^1, 193/ii, 201n3, 202ni, 
218^3, 219/13, 220/1, .223ni, 
224w; Pilgrimage to El 
Medinah and Meccah, 271 ; 
translation of Basile's Pen- 
tainerone, bn^, \^0n}, 253 
Bushell, Chinese Art, 264- 
Butea frondos-a, the sacred 

tree, 169 
Butler, Hudihras, 302 
Bynkershoek, works of, 279 

Cadeberiz, professional 

proxies of husbands, 307 
Cail or Kail, Tinnevelly 

district of the Madras 

Presidency, 302 
Calah, sculptures from, 263 
Caland, W. ["Zur Exegese 

und Kritik der rituellen 

Sutras "], Zeitsch d. d. morg. 

Gesell, 232n 
Calmette, R., Les Fenins, les 

animaux venimeux et la sero- 

therapie antivenivieuse, 281 
Cambridge edition of the 

Jdtakas, 298/1^ 
Campbell, Notes on the Spirit 

Basis of Belief and Custom, 

167, 229n2 
Campbell Thompson, R., The 

Devils and Evil Spirits of 

Babylonia, 6171^ ; Semitic 

Magic, mn, 193^1, 295 
Camphor Islands, King of 

the, 190?ii 
Cananor, 269 
Candace, Queen of Ethiopia, 

eunuch of, 85?i 
Carnatic, the, 92n* 
Catti offers to poison Ar- 

minius, prince of the, 277 
Cecioni, IlSecretum Secretorum 

attributo ad Aristotele, 289^^ 
Central Africa, eating human 

flesh in, l9Sn^ 
Central America, antiquity of 

syphilis in, 308, 309, 309^1 
Central India Agency, hard 

life of women in the, 19 
Central India, Pardhi caste 

of, 88ni 
Central Provinces, belief 

about Rahu in the, 82 ; 

(ilctis made in districts of 

the, 23w 
Ceylon (Lanka), 82, Sin?- 
Ceylon regarded by the 

Arabs as the place of 

Adam's exile, 84w^, 85w 

Chakkajnukki (flint and steel), 

Chakora (partridge), 235, 

Chakora subsists upon moon- 
beams, 235^3 
Chakra, 54n3 
Chakradhara, Brahman 

named, 59, 60, 65 
Chakra vaka ( Brah many duck), 

Chakra varti, S. C, trans, of 

Mtidrd llakshasa, 283n3 
Chaldeea and Babylon, belief 

in vampires in, 61n^ 
Chalita, a dramatic dance, 

35, 35n2 
Champa, 220/t 
Chamunda (ParvatI, Durga, 

Kali," Devi, etc.), 198wS 

Chanakya (Kautilya, or Vish- 

nugupta). Brahman named, 

283, 283/ii, 284, 285 
Chand, the poet, 266 
Chan^ala, 228 
Chandamahasena, King, 6, 

48,* 93, 128 
Chandavikrama, King, 230 
Chandragupta, founder of the 

Maurya Empire, 281-285 
Chandraprabha, son of Adit- 

yaprabha, 113, 114 
Chandraprabha, Vidyadhari 

named, 220-222, 237, 238 
Chandraprabha, wife of 

Dharmagupta, 39 
Chand rarekha, daughter of 

Sa^ikhanda, 221, 237 
Charles de I'Escluse or 

L6cluse (Clusius), 302, 

Chatterji, K. K., Syphilis in 

General Practice, with Special 

Reference to the Tropics, 

Chaturdarika (Book V), 170- 

Chatyr (folding umbrella), 268 
Chaucer, House of Fame, 219?i3 
Chaukpumd ceremony, 118 
Chauvin, V., Bibliographie des 

Ouvrages Arahes, 46n^, 6Sn}, 

108/1, 122, 131ni, 13en\ 

U7n\ 151w2, I90n\ 193wi, 

202/ii, 224w, 297n2 
Chavica Betel (betel vine or 

pan), 302 
Chedi, land of, 89 
Ch'^ng of the Chou Dynasty, 

King, 264 

Chenin (sandal), 264 

Cheyne, T. K., ** Jonah," 
Ency. Brit., 194/1 

Chhatrapati, Lord of the Um- 
brella, title of an Indian 
king, 267 

Chhattlsgarh division of the 
Central Provinces, 82 

Child, English and Scotch 
Popular Ballads, 16n} 

China, customs connected 
with eclipses in, 81 ; intro- 
duction of opium by the 
Mohammedans into, 304 ; 
pagodas of, 266 ; umbrellas 
in, 264 

Chitrangada, Vidyadhara 
named, 147, 148 

ChitrangI, stepmother of 
Sarangdhara, 121, 122 

Chqfole, fruits called, 301, 302 

Chola mandala, or district, 

Chola race, the king of the, 
92, 92n* 

Chola, sovereignty of, 92, 92w* 

Choll, bodice of Western 
India, 50/i^ 

Chou Dynasty, King Ch'^ng 
of the, 264 

Chowrie {thdmt/i yat), 264 

Chowries, 43, 80, 90, 111, 162; 
swans like, 188 

Chunar, Mirzapur district, 
rites to produce rain in, 
117, 118 

Cicero, De Officius, 277 

Circars, Northern, 92n2 

Citdrcdya, 20ln^ 

Citdrohdya, 201w2 

Claudian, De Bello Gild., 277 

Clouston, W. S., 123, 202ni; 
Book ofSindibdd, 114/1, 120, 
121, 1^2, 224n ; A Group of 
Eastern Ro7natwes and Stories, 
108/1 ; Popular Tales atid 
Fictions, 108n, 114w, 122, 
169, 190ni, 192/11, 224n 

Clusius, Aromatum Historia, 
302, 302ni; (Charles de 
I'Escluse or L^cluse), 302, 

Cochin, Nairs or Navars of, 

Codrington, ** Melanesians," 
Joum. Anlh. Inst., 198/1^ 

Coelho, Contos Populare* 
Portuguezes, lOti^ 

Cqffolo or chofole (betel nut), 

Collier, Mr, 113w 



Columbus* men, introduction 
of syphilis into Europe by, 

Comorre the Cursed, identi- 
fication of Bluebeard with, 

Compare tti, Richercke intorno, 
etc., 122 

Constantine the Great, 
Fausta, wife of, 120 

Constantinople, parasols in, 268 

Conway, Demonology, 117 

Conybeare, F. C, *'A 
Brittany Marriage Custom," 
Folk-Lore, 2^ 

Coorg (South India), poly- 
andry in, 18 

Coote, H. C, trans, of Com- 
paretti's Richercke intorno 
al Libro di Sindibdd, 122 

Cordier, Yule and, Book oj 
Ser Marco Polo, 85^1, 266, 
268, 268?t2, 302, 3022, 303; 
Cathay and the Way Thither, 
85/i, 268n4 

Coromandel coast, Chola the 
modern appellation of, 92w* 

Cory ate. Crudities, 270 

Costanzo, Angelo di, Historia 
del regno di Napoli, 310, 

Co well, **The Legend of the 
Oldest Animals," Y Cymro- 
dor, 190^1 

Crawley, A. E., "Dress," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth, 
118; ''Foeticide," Hast- 
ings' E?icy. Rel. Eth., 229n^ ; 
"Magical Circle," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Etk., 99w 

Crispus, son of Constantine 
the Great, 120 

Crooke, W., ** Aghori," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 90^^, 
198n^ ; ' * Charms and Amu- 
lets (Indian)," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., 167; 
''Demons and Spirits 
{Indian)," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel.Eth.Mn^; "TheDivali, 
the Lamp Festival of the 
Hindus," Folk-Lore, 118, 
232n; " Hill Tribes of the 
Central Indian Hills," 
Journ. Anth. Inst., 24w; 
"The Holi: a Vernal Festi- 
val of the Hindus," Folk- 
Lore, 59n^; "The Legends 
of Krishna," Folk-Lore, 
39n2 ; '" Nudity in Custom, 
And Ritual," Journ. Anth. 

Crooke, W. continued 

Inst., 119 ; Popular Religion 
and Folk-Lore of Northern 
India, bin}-, 82, 83, 96^1, 
99^, 127n2, 138n3, 142^^, 
155/13, 193^1^ 197^2^ 202^1, 
240, 256, 256n3; "Serpent 
Worship (Indian)," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 307^^ ; 
"Some Notes on Homeric 
Folk-Lore," Folk-Lore, 
bln^ ; Tribes and Castes of 
the North- Western Provinces 
and Oudh, 119, 166, 168, 
257, 257n2, 3057^1; "The 
Veneration of the Cow in 
India," Folk-Lore, 242 

Cumming, F. C. Gordon, 
"Pagodas, Aurioles and 
Umbrellas," The English 
Illustrated Magazine, 272 

Cunningham, General, 69^^; 
Ancient Geography of India, 
3ni; Archaeological Reports, 

Cupid, Ananga, a name for 

Kama the Hindu, 74^2 ; 

Kamadeva, the Hindu, 51w^ 

Cupid and Psyche myth, 253 

Curula of Ptolemy, Murala 

identified with, 92w^ 

Dadau, 185^2 

Ddhaishind (consume), 25, 25w3 

Daitya, 230 

Damannaka, story of, 113ni 

Dames, M. Long worth, Book 
of Duarte Barbosa, 18, 
269ni, 300, SOOn^, 301, 303 ; 
"A Legend of Nadir 
Shah," Folk-Lore, 302 

Danava, 237 

Danavas, demons or giants, 
22871^; war between Indra 
and the, 35 

Dandin, Z)aA\a Kumara Charita, 
183^1, 184n 

Daniels, C. L., and C. M. 
Stevans, Encyclopedia of 
Superstitions, Folk-Lore and 
the Occult Sciences, 145/^ 

Darbars of H.H. the Maha- 
raja of Mysore, 119 

Barbha grass, 151, 152, 176, 

Darius, 293 

Darius and Alexander the 
Great, 278 

Bar say at, 53w^ 

Tiasa Kumara Charita, the, 
Dandin, 183n\ 184w 

Dasent, Popular Tales from 

the Norse, 190?i^ 
Dasnamis ("ten names"), 

Dattvd, 182wi 
David, 252 
[Davids, Caroline F. Rhys, 

"Notes on Early Economic 

Conditions in Northern 

India "] Journ. Roy. As. 

Soc, 240 
Davids, Rhys, "Adam's 

Peak," Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 85w; Buddhist 

India, 3n^ ; trans, of the 

Jdtakas, 62v} 
Day, L. B. [Folk- Tales of 

Bengal], lOSn 
Deccan, gambling in the, 

232n; wrestler from the, 

Dekker, The Honest Whore, 

Del Rio, Disquisitiones Magicce, 

300, 300^2 
Delhi, Hastinapura near, 16 ; 

the Lat at, 92ni ; Prithi 

Raj, the last Hindu king 

of, 266 
Democritus, 108w 
Denmark, meeting eyebrows 

in, 104w. 
Dervish Makhlis of Ispahan, 

The Thousand and One Days, 


Deva, 238# 
Devaddru wood, 106 
Devadasa, story of, 86-88 
Deva-ddsls (handmaids of the 

gods), 17 
Devadatta the gambler, 231- 

236 ; story of, 129-132 
Devasena, herdsman named, 

51, 52 ; king named, 6-8, 

69, 71, 79 
Devi (Kali, Durga, Parvati, 

Chamunda, etc.), 198^^, 

214, 215'; Tantric rites of 

votaries of, 198^^, 199n 
Dhd (knives), 167 
Dhana-Nanda or Nanda 

( Agrammes or Xandrames), 

282, 282^2 
Dhd?in (carrying), 90^3 
Dharma (virtue), 180^2 
Dharmagupta , merchant 

named, 39-41 
Dharmakalpadruma, 14n 
Dharmdat, King, 286, 2B>^n^ 
Dhamd at the sun's door, 

sitting, 82 



Dkatd, In^ 

Dhdtrd, In^ 

Dkava, ashes of, 276 

Dhaval Chandra, Jayanta, 

minister of, 121 
Dhritarashtra, prince named, 

Dibya = heavenly (snake), 298 
Diodes Carystius, 290 
Dirghatapas, brother of 

Suryatapas, 190, 191, 194 
Divall, or Feast of Lights, 

118, 232w 
Dokada motif (longings of 

pregnancy), 31 
Doms, belief in the sanctity 

of iron among the, 168 ; 

a criminal tribe of North 

India, 168 
Dorys, G., Lm Femme Turque^ 

Douce, Mr, llSn^ 
Dozon, Contes Albanais, 190n^ 
D'Penha, G. F., ''Super- 
stitions and Customs in 

Salsette," Ind. Ant, 167 
DraupadI, wife of Yudhish- 

thira and his brothers, 13, 

i3n3, 14, 16, 17, 22 
Dravida, 92n2 

Dravidians, polyandry prac- 
tised by the, 17 
Drew, F., 2'he Jummoo and 

Kashmir Territories^ 232n 
Drig-visa (*' poison in a 

"glance"), 298 
Dristi-visa ("poison in a 

glance"), 298 
Drupada, father of Draupadi, 

Dryopkis prasinus (green tree- 
snake), 303 
Duarte Barbosa, 269, 300, 

300n6, 301, 303 
DTd) grass as a relief from 

taboo during eclipses, 

Dubois, Hindu Manners, Cus- 
toms and Ceremonies, 168, 

Duhkalabdhika, a daughter 

of Devasena, 69-71 
Dundubka, a non-venomous 

snake, 152n2 
Dunlop, History of Fiction 

(Liebrecht's trans.), 6n2, 

39n2, 127w2 
Duns Scotus, works of, 288, 

Durdarsdh, 97n2 
Durdasdh, 97n^ 

Durga (Parvati, GaurT, etc.), 
62, 136/ii, 159, 221, 228, 236 

Durga, temple of, 141, 196, 
199; like the mouth of 
Death, 227 

Durgaprasad text, 28n2, dOn^, 
35ni, 36ni, ^On}\ Un\ 
44n2, bin}, 5Sn\ 56nS 
60ni, 70ni, yg^i, ^2n\ 
102ni, 104ni, 140ni, 152n3, 
177ni, 180/i3, 201n2, 204ni, 
218n2, 221ni, 227n^^ 23bn\ 
236n2, 238ni 

Durva grass, rice, flowers 
and water, Argka an obla- 
tion of, 77, 77ni 

Durvasas, hermit named, 23, 

Eggling, J., Sacred Books of 
the East, 245ni 

Egypt, belief in vampires in, 
61^1 ; umbrellas in, 264 

Ekacakra, Pandus lived at, 16 

El-bls found only in India, 313 

Elijah, 31 

Eliot Smith, Prof. G., 308 

Ellis, Early English Metrical 
Romances, 113w^ 

Ellis, Havelock, Studies in 
the Psychology of Sex, 22971^, 
308, 308ni 

Elworthy, F. T., The Evil Eye, 
298; <'Evil Eye," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 298 

Emir of Abyssinia at Harar, 
Burton's visit to the, 271, 

Enthoven, R. E., Iri^ 

Epiphanius, 299, 299w2 

E r s c h and G r u b e r. En- 
cyclopddie, 163n 

Eskimos, nature myths 
among the, 252 

Ethiopia, eunuch of Candace, 
Queen of, 85n 

Etienne de Bourbon, Liber de 
Donis, 114n 

Ettmiiller edit, of Frauenlob's 
poetry, 292n3 

Eumenes, condemnation of 
use of poison by, 278 

Europe, introduction of 
syphilis by Columbus' 
men into, 308 ; the poison- 
damsel in, 292-297 

Eva, 28ni 

Eyre, E. J., Journals of Ex- 
peditions of Discovery into 
Central Australia, 280,'280n* 

Ezekiel, 194n 

Faraj, the Egyptian Sultan, 

Faufel (betel nut, Arabic), 

Fausboll, v., Indian Mythology 

according to the Mahdbhdratat 

45w*; edit, of the JdtakaSf 

Fausta, wife of Constantine 

the Great, 120 
Favre, Melanges, 289n2 
Fawcett, Bulletin of the Madras 

Museum, 199n 
Fayrer, Sir Joseph, On 

Serpent - worship and on 

the Venomous Snakes of 

India;' 311ni 
Fenton, Mr, 309 
Fen wick, C. G., trans, of 

Vattel ' s Drot7 des Gens, 278ni 
Fergusson, J., J. Burgess and 

R. Phene Spiers, History 

of Indian and Eastern Ar- 
chitecture, 265n* 
Ficus hidica {bar or Nya- 

grodha tree), 42, 42n2, 118 
Ficus religiosa (A^vattha tree), 

247; {pipal tree), 118; 

{aswatfjari, etc.), 255 
Flinders Petrie, "Assyrian 

and Hittite Society," An- 
cie7it Egypt, 88w^ 
Florence, umbrella in, 268 
Florus, 278 
Forbes, C. J. F. S., British 

Burma and its People, 266n^ ; 

Has Mdld, 266, 266^3, 305ni 
Forbes, Duncan, Adventures 

of Hatim Tai, Qn^ 
Forlong Fund, the, 256w* 
Forster, De Aristotelis qtut 

feruntur secretis secretorum 

commentatio, 287ni, 288ni, 

Forster, E., Arabian Nights* 

Entertainments, 147w^ 
Fox, Samuel, inventor of 

"Paragon" rib for um- 
brellas, 271 
France, A., Les Sept Femmet 

de Barbe Bleu, 224n 
Frauenlob {i.e. Heinrich von 

Meissen), 292, 292n3, 300; 

Cantica Canticorum, 292n* 
Frazer, Folk-Lore of the Old 

Testament, 194n ; Golden 

Bough, 72ni, 83, 105n, 108n, 

117, 118, 166, 189ni, 253. 

253^1, 256, 256n2, 257n, 

268, 268ni ; Pausanias, 70n* 
Frederick Barbarossa, 268 



Frere, Old Deccan Days, 3n, 

108n, 136wi, 202^1 
Fridolin, story of, llSn^ 
Frobel, J., Seven Years' Travel 

in Central America, 280^'^ 
Fvfel or faufel (betel nut, 

Arabic), 302 
Fulgentius, story of, llSn^ 

Gd (to sing), 241 

Gaal, Mdrchen der Magyar en, 

135^2, 207^11 
Galava, hermitage of, 211 ; a 

son or pupil of Vi^vamitra, 

Gana Stambhaka appointed 

to protect Naravahanadatta, 

Ganas (attendants of Siva), 

Gandhara, Subala, King of, 16 
Gandhari, wife of Dhrita- 

rashtra, 16 
Gandharva, desire to become 

a, 255 
Gandharva form of marriage, 

5, 66 
Gandharvas, 35, 36, 175^^, 

241, 247-249, 255, 256 
Gandharvas' trick to ensure 

Urva^i's return, 246 
Ganesa (son of Siva and 

ParvatI), 99, 100, 102, 103, 

125, 125^1, 147^1, 170 
Gangaridae and Prasii 

peoples, 282 
Ganges, River, 4, 2>%i^, 54, 55, 

67ni, 91, 921^2, 94, 102, 110, 

147, 148, 185, 211, 221, 282 
Gdnja (Indian hemp), 304 
Garcia de Orta, The Simples 

and Drugs of India, English 

trans. Clements Markham, 

Garnett, L. M., The Women 

of Turkey and their Folk- 

Lore, 163w 
Garrett's Classical Dictionary, 

Garuda, son of Vinata, 56, 

56^2, 151-156, 220n 
Gaspar de los Reyes, Elysius 

Campus, 300, SOOw^ 
Gaster, "The Hebrew 

Version of the Secretum 

Secretornm,'^ Joum. Roy. 

As. Soc, 290, 290^1, 291, 

298, 298n2 
Gaurl (Parvati, Durga, etc.), 

wife of Siva, 100, 102, 128, 

128ni, 141, 155, 212^1, 216 


Gautama (Buddha), 265 
Gautama, hermit named, 45- 

Gautami, 144n' 
Gay, Trivia, 270, 271 
Gaya corresponds with king- 
dom of Magadha, district 

of, 3^1 
Gayatri, metre of four lines 

of eight syllables, 250 
Geden, Rev. A. S., 67ni 
Geldner, Pischel and, 

Vedische Studien, 252i?^ 
Gellius, Nodes Atticae, 211 
Georges, L., VArme bacterio- 

logique future concurrente des 

armes chimique et balistique, 

German methods of warfare, 

280, 281 
Germany, meeting eyebrows 

in, ICkn 
Gerould, G. H., The Grateful 

Dead (Folk- Lore Society), 

Gespensterscheinung {mkriti) , 

Ghanta and Nighanta, 14ri 
Ghata - measure (sixty - four 

seers), 276 
Gibb, E. J. W., History of 

the Forty Vezirs, \2^',' The 

Story ofJewad, 190/ii 
Gil de Rais, identification of 

Bluebeard with, 224n 
Gildemeister, J., Scriptorum 

Arabum de Rebus Indicis 

loci, 312^2 
Giles, H. A., Some Tndhs 

about Opium, 304w^ 
Gilgamesh, 252 
Gimlette, J. D., Malay 

Poisons and Charm Cures, 

303, 303^1 
Ging-gang (striped), 211n^ 
Glr (speech), 241 
Girolamo Gambarota, picture 

by, 268 
Go (cow), 241 

Godavari, waters of the, 92, 93 
Goethe, Faust, lObn, 297 
Gokarna (Siva), 153, 154 
Goloka, a region above the 

three worlds, 242 
Gomukha, son of Nityodita, 

161, 165 
Gonds, tribe of, 267 
Gonikaputra, 183w^ 
Gonikasuta, lS3n^ 
Gonlputraka, 183w^ 
Gonzenbach, Sicilianische 

Gonzenbach continued 

Mdrchen, 6^2, 80/^1, 113wi, 

135^2, 1557^4, 190?ii, 1967^1, 

202^1, 209^1 
Gopalaka, son of Chanda- 

mahasena, 11, 12, 20," 25, 

26-30, 34, 89 
Gopis, Krishna's love of the, 

Goswami, B., trans, of Mudrd- 

Rdkshasa, 283^3 
Gould, S. Baring-, 104^3; 

Curious Myths of the Middle 

Ages, 397i2 ; Strange Sur- 
vivals, 272 
Govindakuta, mountain 

named, 212 
Govindasvamin, Brahman 

named, 196, 197, 199, 200, 

209, 211 
Graha (planet), 180n* 
Grdmaikabhdgini, 160n^ 
Grand, Le, Fabliaux, 113^^ 
Grdsaikabhdgim, 160^^ 
Greece, meeting of eyebrows 

in, 104n 
Gregorovius, Geschichte der 

Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, 

Grierson, Stein and, Hatim's 

Tales, 124 
Griffith, metrical trans, of 

the Rdmdyana, 4571* ; trans. 

of Rig-Veda, 250, 2mn^, 

Grihastha or householder, 

Grihya Siltras, Oldenberg, 

267, 267^1 
Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, 

105n ; Irische Mdrchen, 

104:n; Mdrchen, QOn^, l9Qn\ 

223n^ ; Teutonic Mythology 

(trans, Stally brass), 43w^, 

57^1, 96^1 
Grohmann, Sagen aus B'dhmen, 

13^4, 43^1, 99n, 104n 
Grossler, Sagen aus der Graf- 

schaft Mansfeld, 99n 
Grotius, Hugo, De jure belli 

ac pads, 277-279 
Gruber, Ersch and, En 

cyclopddie, lQ3n 
Gubernatis, De, Zoological 

Mythology, bln^, I21n^ 
Guerino Meschino, novel of, 

Guhachandra, merchant 

named, 40-44 
Guhasena, father of Guha- 
chandra, 40, 41 



Guhyaka, favour of the, 98, 

Guhyakas, attendants of 

Kuvera, 98i 
Guido of Valencia, Arch- 
bishop, 289 
Guillem de Cervera, Romania, 

292, 292/i2 
Guinganip, gingham first 

made in, 271 
Gujarat, Mahmud Shah, King 

of, 300-302 ; Srigaud Brah- 

mans of, 168, 169 
Guna (rope), 75/1^ 
Gunavarman, merchant 

named, 55 
Gupta Empire, Magadha the 

nucleus of the, 3n^ 
Gupta, Rai Bahadur B. A., 

notes on sdmudrika, In^ 
Gurkhas of Nepal, poisoning 

of wells by the, 280, 280/^2 
Gutschmid in Zeit. d. d. morg. 

GeseU, 312/i2 

Haddon, Report Cambridge 

Exped., 198rii 
Hades (Aralu or Sheol), 61n^; 

descent of Ishtar into, 

61ni ; (Sheol or Hell), lUn 
Hagen, F. H. von der. 

Minnesinger, 292n^ 
Haiti, syphilis in, 308 
Hakluyt Society, 18 
Hall, 92/1^ 
Halliwell, T. O., The Voiage 

and Travaile of Sir John 

Maundevile, Kt, 306, 306^2, 

Hamilton, Francis, Account of 

the Kingdom of Nepal, 2S0n^ 
Han Dynasty, bas-reliefs of 

the, 264 
Hans Schiltberger's Reise- 

buch, 279ni 
Hanuman, the monkey-god, 

73, 197w2 
Han way, Jonas, first man to 

use an umbrella, 269 
Haram, hafim (harem), 16bi*; 

magic circle as a kind of, 

295 ; (a sacred spot), 161w* 
Harapura, 174 
Harar, Burton's visit to the 

Emir of Abyssinia at, 271, 

Harasvamin, ascetic named, 

184-186 ; story of, 39 wi 
Hardiman, J. P., J. G. Scott, 

Gazetteer of Upper Burma 

and the Shan States, 232n 

Harem (Arabic haram, harim, 
that which is prohibited), 


Haridatta, Brahman named, 

Hafim, haram [harem), 161n*, 

' 162n, "l63n 

Harisikha, son of Rumanvat, 
161, 165 

Harischandra, King, 267 

Harleian MS., 269 

Harran, city sacred to the 
moon-god, 194 

Harsdorffer, Der grosse Schaji- 
platz lust-mid lehrreicher 
Geschichte, 296 

Harsha-Vardhana, King, 267 

Hartland, E. S., 168, 202;ii ; 
"The Forbidden Cham- 
ber," Folk- Lore Journal, 
223wi ; The Legend of Per- 
seus, lOn^, 967iS 136mS 153w; 
"Phallism," Hastings' 
Enct/. Rel. Eth., 119, 307n2 

Harvey, Turkish Harems and 
Circassian Homes, 163n 

Harz mountains, 104n2 

Hasan, 104ni 

Hastagrahdyogydm, 24w^ 

Hastinapura, 1, ln2, 16, 54 

Hastings' Enci/clopoidia of 
Religion and Ethics, bin}, 
6ln\ 81, 83, 85/1, SSn}, 
90Ai3, 99/1, 118, 119, 163/1, 
167, 19Sn\ 229;i2, 232n, 240, 
265/iS 298, 307^2 

Havelock Ellis, Studies in the 
Psychology/ of Sex, 229^2, 
308, 308ni 

Hawaian Islands, polyandry 
in the, 18 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 
'' Rappacini's Daughter," 
Mosses from an Old Manse, 
297, 297ni 

Hebenstreidt, Johannes, 
Regimeyit pestilentsischer 
giffUger Fieber, 296 

Heinrich von Meissen 
(Frauenlob), 292, 292n3 

Heliodorus, Mthiopica, 62w^, 

Hemachandra, ParLsish(apar- 
van, 108/i, 285, 286n}, 305n2 ; 
Sthavirdvalicharita, 283/i2 

Henderson, Folk-Lore of the 
Northern Counties, 2n}, 9Sn*, 

Henisch, Georg, Neiinhundert 
Ged'dchtnuss-wurdige Geheim- 
nuss und fVunderwerck, 294 w^ 

Hercules, 72n2 

Herissaye, Noel du Fail de 

la, Contes d* Eutrapel , 3;i 
Herrera, A. de. West Indies, 

Hertel, J., Ausgewahlte Erz'dh- 

lungai aus Hemacandra s 

Parisishtaparvan, 285n^ ; 

"Pala und Gopala," /- 

dische Erzahler, 121 ; " Uber 

die Suvabahuttarlkatha," 

Festschrift fiir Ernst Wind- 

isch, 286, 286/ii 
Hertz, W,, ''Die Sage vom 

Giftmiidchen," Ahhand- 

lungen der k. bayerischen 

Akademie der fVissenschaften, 

286, 286/r. 292, 292/11, 296, 

298, 300 
Hidimba, son of, 284 
High Commissioner for India, 

Hildebrand, Wolfgang, Magia 

naturalis, 296, 300 
Himalaya, daughter of the 

(ParvatI, Durga, etc.), 156 
Himalaya mountains, 54, 94, 

142, 144, 147, 143 
Himalayas, 206, 209, 210, 

258; Pandu retires to the, 

Himavat, Mainaka, son of, 

Himavat mountain, 138 
Hindu Kush, 67^1 
Hindustani districts, iikli worn 

in the, 23/i 
Hippolytus and his step- 
mother Phaedra, legend of, 

Hiranyadatta, son of Mani- 

vati, 148 
Hispaniensis, Johannes, 

trans, of the Secretum Secre- 

torum, 289 
Hitopadesa, the, 223wi 
Hocart, A. M., "Flying 

through the Air," Ind. 

Ant., 64 ni 
Hodson, T. C, The Meitheis, 

118 ; Primitive Culture of 

India (Roy. As. Soc), 97w, 

Hoffman's article in Ersch 

and Gruber's Encyclopddie 

{hafim), 163/t 
Hoil festival, 59ni, 164w4, 169 
Holmes, E. M., "Opium," 

Enctj. Brit, 304ni 
Homa, daily offering to the 

fire, 257, 257ni 



tomer, Iliads, 218n* ; Odyssey, 

\Q^n\ 2llrfi, 2l%n^ 
lopkins, E. W., in Cambridge 

History of India, 241 
iorace, Odes, 120 
-losea, 194n 
^tee, htl or ti (stone or metal 

umbrellas), 265, 265^* 
hughes' Dictionary of Islam 

(Harim), 163*^ 
Hiinas (Huns?), 94, 94# ; 

defeatofthe, 94, 94ri3 

Hydaspes (Jhelum), Porus, 
ruler of, 283, 283^2 

Ibn Batata, 268 

Ifrit; accusation of the, 147ni 

Ila, Pururavas, son of, 245, 

248, 250, 251 
Illaka, merchant named, 9 
Imphal, capital of Manipur, 

India, dread of the cobra in, 

311, 312 ; Mohammedans 

introduce opium into, 304 ; 

poison-damsel in, 281-286 ; 

Portuguese introduce 

syphilis into, 310, 310^^ 
Indians of British Columbia, 

Thompson, 256 
Indians inveterate gamblers, 

Indo-scythae of the ancients, 

the Turks, 93^3 
Indra, 34, 35, 45, 46, 54, 100, 

101, 102, 103, n&n\ 151, 

175, 192n2, 242, 257, 259 
Indra-Gopa insects, 276 
"Indra of men" (narendra), 

Indus, 39^1 
Irrawaddy river, 168 
Isaiah, 194n 
Ishtar into Hades, descent 

of, 61ni 
Ityaka, or Nityodita, 161, 

161^1, 165 
Ityakapara or Ityaka, 161, 

Iva, 28^1, 71n2 

Jacobi, H., "Cow (Hindu)," 
Hastings' E?icy. Rel. Eth., 
240, 241; edit, of Hema- 
chandra's Sthavirdvali- 
charita, 283n2 

Jada (fools), 188iii 

Jagor, F., "Bericht iiber 
verschiedene Volksstamme 
in Vorderindien," Zeit- 
^chrift fur Ethnologic, 166 

Jala (water), 188^1 
Jalandhar, curing cattle in, 

Jalapada, ascetic named, 232- 

Jan Shah, Queen, 124 
Jari tree {Ficus religiosa), 

Jastrow, Morris, The Religion 

of Babylonia and Assyria, 

Java, 264 
Jayadatta, king named, 129, 

Jayanta, minister of Dhaval 

Chandra, 121, 122 
Jayastamhha (pillar of victory), 

Jebb, Prof., notes on Theo- 

phrastus' [Characters'] 

" Superstitious Man," 98n* 
Jeremiah, 194?^ 
Jhelum (the Hydaspes), 

Porus, King of, 283, 283^2 
Jlmutaketu, Lord of the 

Vidyadharas, 138-140 
Jimutavahana, story of, 138- 

150, 153-156 
Jinn summoned by rubbing 

magic article, 58w^ 
Joao de Barros, Decadas, 

Johannes Hispaniensis, trans. 

of the Secretum Secretorum, 

John of Bromyard, Summa 

Praedicantium, 114n 
John, son of Patricius [i.e. 

Yahya ibn Batrlq), alleged 

discoverer of the Secretum 

Secretorum, 288 
Johnson, W., Folk Memory, 

Johnston, Uganda, 199n 
Jolly, J., Indiscke Medizin, 

310/i3; Eecht und Sitte, 163n 
Jonah, the Hebrew word for 

-dove," 193^1, 194n 
Jonah legend, the, 193n^, 

Jonas Hanway, first man to 

use an umbrella, 269 
Joseph and Potiphar's wife, 

Joyce, Mexican Arckceology, 

Jubbulpore district, 23n 
Judah Al-Harizi, trans, of 

Secretum Secretorum, 289, 

Justinian, 278 

Juvenal, 263 

Jvalamukha, Brahman demon 
named, 147ni 

Kaaba at Mecca, 119 
Kachchhapa, King of, 69 
Kachins of Upper Burma, 

childbirth customs among 

the, 167 
Kaden, Unter den Oliven- 

bau?ne7i, 6n^, 190n^ 
Kadru and Vinata, wives of 

Kasyapa, 150-151 
Kail or Cail, Tinnevelly 

district of the Madras 

Presidency, 302 
Kailasa, 14, 93 
Kalahakari, wife of Sinha- 

parakrama, 159, 169n^, 160 
Kalaratri, 99, 103, 105-111 
Kalaratri, Kuvalay avail and 

the witch, 99-100, 103, 104, 

Kalasoka, foundation of 

Pataliputra attributed to, 

Kali (Devi, Durga, 

Chamunda, etc.), 198^^ 
Kalidasa, Sakuntald, 144^^ ; 

Vikramorvasi, 245, 257-259 
Kalinga, the people of, 92, 

92/i2 ; site of, 92, 92^2 
Kalinjara, mountain of, 149 
Kalpa (measure of time), 

139^1; of the gods, 163, 

163^2; a mortal, 163^2 
[Kalyana Malla] The Ananga- 

Ranga, \0n 
Kama (God of Love), 74^2, 

105, 128, 143, 145, 163; 

son of Vasavadatta to be 

a portion of, 13 
Kama (pleasure), 180^2 
Kama Shastra Society, \0n 
Kama STitra, Vatsyayana, 9^2, 

49/i3, 305 
Kamadeva, the Hindu Cupid, 

Kamadhenu, cow granting all 

desires, 45, 45^2 ; celestial 

cow connected with Indra, 

Kamarupa, the King of, 94, 

94?^* ; the western portion 

of Assam, 94n* 
Kambuka, 231 
Kampila, Raja, 122 
Kampilya, 190, 191 
Kamsundar, King, 286, 286^1 
Kan darpaydmi (" Whom shall 

I make mad?"), 100 



Kanakaprabha, wife of 

Paropakarin, 171, 172 
Kanaka-prabhd {lustre o{ gold), 

Kanakapun, 237 
Kanakarekha, daughter of 

Paropakarin, 171-174, 184, 

187, 213, 221, 222, 225, 

226, 237 
Kanaka-rekha (gold-gleam or 

streak of gold), 171^^ 
Kanara, Arer women of, 169 
Kandarpa, the God of Love, 

Kandarpaketu, 223ni 
Kant a, 92 /j^ 
Kanyakubja, 111, 132 
Kdpdla (skull), 90n^ 
Kapaladhfirin or Kapalika 

(Aghorl), 90/i3 
Kapalasphota {i.e. ' ' skull- 
cleaver")', 199 
Kapalasphota, King of the 

Rakshasas, 206, 209, 210 
Kapalika or Kapaladharin 

(Aghorl), 90ri3 
Kapila (brown) cow, 276 
Kara (hand or tribute), 27, 

Karkotaka, 67, 73, 78 
Karna, 284 
Karnisuta, 183w^ 
Karnovun (head of the house), 

Kdrpatika (dependent of a 

king), nSn^ 
Karttikeya, 258; birth of, 

Karwdvmrni (caravanserai, a 

halting-place for camels), 

162n, 163m 
Kashmir, aconite in, 280; 

blouse in, 50n^ ; gambling 

in, 232n; princess of, whose 

beauty maddens, ^n^ 
Kdxtkdgatamehdt ("at hearing 

this her affection came to 

its highest pitch "), ISn^ 
Ka^yapa, 153; Kadru and 

Vinata, wives of, 150, 151 
Kaiabhi, decoction of, 276 
Kathdkoqa, Tawnev, 5n^, 108;j, 

113n^ 219n3, 232n 
Kauravas or Kuru princes, 

sons of Dhritarashtra, 16 
Kau^ambi, 47-49, 54, 115, 

Kau.4ika, the spiritual guide 

ofthe Vidyadharas, 210 
Kautilva, Arthasastra, 277 n^, 


Kaverl, the, 92 

Kazwlnl, A. See Qazwini 

Keith, A. B., in Cambridge 

History of India, 240; in 

["Game of Dice"] Jonm. 

Roy. As. Soc, 232?t 
Kelantan, 303 
Kennedy, Criminal Classes of 

Bombatf, 185n 
Kerala (Murala or Malabar), 

Ketu, the body of Rahu, 81 
Khalifa al Ma'mun, 288 
Khazlb, Ajib son of, 223ni 
Khojas of (jujarat, customs 

connected with lights 

among the Mohammedan, 

Kirby, W., "The Forbidden 

Doors of the Thousand and 

One Nights," Folk-Lore 

Joum., 224n 
Kiriyd (" Act of Truth "), 31 
Kitava (gamester, cheat), 

Kling (Kalinga), 92^2 
Knott, J., "The Origin of 

Syphilis," New York Med. 

Joum., 308^^2 
Knowles, J. H., Folk -Tales 

of Kashmir, 124; "Pride 

Abased," Ind. Ant., 193ni 
Knust in Jahrbuch fur roman- 

ische nnd englische Literatur, 

289/i2- 4 
Koffee Kalcalli, King of the 

Ashantees, 271 
KokCd eyes, 104n 
Koiiler, Dr, 196wi 
Kos (measure of distance), 

Kramad, 155ni 
Krandat, \bfyn} 
Krishna, 35, 242, 284 
Krittikfis, the six {i.e. 

Pleiades), 102, \0%i^ 
Kroeger, A. E., English 

trans. of Frauenlob's 

Cantica Canticorum, 292w^ 
Kshatriya caste, 17, 69, 73, 

173, 224 
Kshatriya race and Lord of 

Royal Umbrella, title of 

Pinnacle of the, 267 
Kshetra ("fit recipients" and 

"field"), 116^1 
Kublai Kaan, court of, 268, 92w 
Kuhn, A., Die Herabknnft des 

Feners und des Gotiertranks, 


KnUna (falling on the earth), 

Kumara Rama, son of Raja 

Kampila, 122 
Kumara Rama Charita, the, 

Kumuda plants, 223 
Kunala, Viceroy of Taxila 

and son of A^oka, 120 

Kunkam, kunkum or ktinkii (red 

powder), 164w* 
Kunti or Pritha, wife of 

Pandu, 16, 126 

Kunti, story of, 23-24 
Kuntibhoja, king named, 23 
Kunzaw, King, 265 
Kurmis, blood mixed with 

lac dye among the, 24n 
Kurta, Kashmirian bodice, 

Kurt as worn by Pathan 

women, 50n^ 
Kuru or Kauravas princes, 

sons of Dhritarashtra, 16 
Kuru prince, the, 232n 
Kuru'Vinda, 276 
Kurubas, custom regarding 

bodily marks among the, 

Kurukshetra, 246, 249 
Kusa grass, 151, 151 w^, 176 
Knsa or did) grass as relief 

from taboo during eclipses, 

Kusumapura ("City of 

Flowers," i.e. Pataliputra), 

39ni, 185ni 
Kimirra (flour), 295 
Knio, 40/i2 

Kuvalayavall, Queen, 98 
KuvalayavalT and the witch 

Kalaratri, 99-100, 103, 104, 

111, 112 
Kuvera, God of Wealth and 

Lord of Treasure, 93; 

Guhyakas attendants of, 


Ladislao (Ladislaus, Ladislas 

or Lanzilao) of Naples, 310 ; 

legend of the death of, 310 
Lakh eras and Patwas, (ikli 

made by the, 2Sn 
Lakshmi or SrT, Goddess of 

Prosperity, 65, 65w^ 
I^istner, Rdisel der Sphinx, 

Lalitanga, story of, 113n*> 





^ambajihva, Prince of the 

Rakshasas, 206 
^ane, E. W., Maimers and 

Customs of the Modem 

Egyptians, 163w 
Langmantel, edit, of Hans 

Schiltberger's Reisebuck, 

Lanka (Ceylon), 82, 84m\ 

197n2 ; painting of Sita in, 

Larice of Ptolemy, Lata the, 


Las Casas, HistoriaApologetica^ 

Lat at Delhi, 92^1 
Lata, women of, 93 
Latini, Brunetto, Li Livres 

dou Tresor, 294, 294^2, 299^^ 
Laukikdgni (domestic fire), 256 
Lavanaka (Book III), 1-124 
Lavanaka, 12, 20, 25, 26, 28, 

49, 51, 94, 95, 115 
Lawrence, W. R., The Valley 

of Kashmir, '2i^2n 
Layard, Sir Henry, excava- 
tions of, 263 
Lecluse, Charles de (Clusius), 

Lee, The Decameron,its Sources 

and Analogues, lOn, 76n^, 

Leibnitz, works of, 278, 279 
Lenormant, Chaldcean Magic 

and Sorcery, 61n^, 69w^, 

Levant the home of the 

Pa paver somniferum, 303 
L^veque, Mythes et Legendes 

de I'Inde et de la Perse, 152n^ 
Lewin, *' Arrow Poisons," 

Virchow's Archiv Path. 

Anat. Phys., 279 
Lichi fruits, 136n^ 
Liebrecht trans, of Dunlop's 

Histoiy of Fiction, ^n^, 39?^2, 

I2ln\ Zur Volkskunde, 39?i2, 

106>2*, 131ni 
Lihga, connection with snakes, 

Livy, 277 
Lona or Nona Chamarin, 

witch called, 119 
Lott, E., Harem Life in Egypt 

and Constantinople, 163n 
Lucan, Pharsalia, 62^1^ 
Lucian, De Dea Syria, 169 ; 

Vera Historia, 193nS 219^3 
Lucinian, son of Lucinius, 120 
Lucinias, father of Lucinian, 


Liiders, Das Wiirfelspiel im 

alten Indien, 232n 
Lull, Raymond, works of, 99ii 
Lustrato exercitus, 89n* 

Mabuiag in Torres Strait, 

Macculloch, J. A., The Child- 
hood of Fiction, 108n, 194n, 
202ni, 224n, 253 ; " Serpent 
Worship (Primitive and 
Introductory)," Hastings' 
Ency. Pel. Eth., 307^2 

Macdonald ["East Central 
African Customs"], Journ. 
Anth. Inst., 198^^ 

Macdonell, A. A., A History 
of Sanskrit Literature, 45n*, 
242 ; Vedic Mythology, 240, 
252ni . 

Macedon, Philip of, 299 

Mada (ichor), 125i* 

Madanalekha, daughter of 
Pratapamukuta, 203, 204 

Madhava, 214^216 

Madhava and Siva, two rogues 
called, 175-183 

Madras, 92n2 

Madras Presidency, Kail or 
Cail in the Tinnevelly 
district of the, 302 

Madri, wife of Pandu, 16, 

Madrid, 309 

Magadha, Girivraja the 
ancient capital of, 3n^ ; the 
home of Buddhism, 3?^^ ; 
the King of, 26-28, 30, 37, 
38, 47, 94 ; the kingdom 
of, 3^1, 12, 20; Nanda or 
Dhana - Nanda, King of, 
282, 282ri2 ; the nucleus of 
the Maurya and the Gupta 
empires, 3w^ ; Pradyota, 
King of, 3, 3?ii, 12, 20, 21 ; 
Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) 
later capital of, 3n^ 

Magnus, Albertus, De Mira- 
hilihus mundi, 299, 299^3 

Mahd Vira Charita, the 
Bhavabhuti, 214 

Mahdhhdrata, the, 13?i^, 16, 

17, lln, 81, 108711, 122, 

127^1, 152/ii, 232n, 240- 

242, 248, 272, 284 

Mahadeva (Siva), 82 

Mahadhana, merchant 

named, 146 
Mahdpaduma-Jdtaka, 122 
Mahdpuriishalakshana (thirty- 
two lucky marks), 1n^ 

Maharaja of Mysore, the 

Darbarsof H.H. the, 119 
Mahasena, King, 2 
Mahendra, the mountain, 92 
Mahmud Shah, King of 

Gujarat, 300-302 
Mahram (breast-cover), 50n^ 
Maidelaig or sorcerer, 198^^ 
Mainaka, son of Himavat, 

Majhwar, an aboriginal tribe 

of South Mirzapur, 166 
Majjdo (" cat "), i&n^ 
Majjdo (" my lover "), 46iti 
Makandika, 4 
Mako (crown), 264 
Mala woman in labour, a 

sickle and nlm leaves kept 

on the cot of a, 166 
Malabar (Murala or Kerala), 

92n^ ; customs connected 

with lights among the 

Nayars of, 168 ; Nairs or 

Nayars of, 17-19 ; Odi 

magicians in, 199w 
MalatI, 214-216 
Mdlati Madhava, the, %i^i^, 

Malava, 110, 133, 176; the 

ladies of, 93 
Mdlavikdgnimitra, 35^2 
Malaya, 264 
Malaya mountain, 140, 150, 

Malayavati, sister of Mitra- 

vasu, 140, 150, 156 
Malik Muhammad Din, The 

Bahdwalpur State, 167 
Mana, 118 
Mana, or spiritual exaltation 

gained by eating human 

flesh, 198# 
Manaar, the island of, Mfn} 
Mandakdrind, \b2n^ 
Mandala (district), the Chola, 

Mandara mountain, Q7n^, 93 
Mandara (paradise) tree, 101, 

Mandeville, Sir John, 306, 

Mang boy, 82 
Manipur, 266; the Meitheis 

of, 118 
Mannheim, Alsatian tradition 

heard at, lldn^ 
Manning, Ancient India, \btm^ 
Manomrigi (deer of the mind), 

Manovati, daughter of Chit- 
rangada, 147-149 



Manu, 17 

Manwantara (measure of 

time), 250 
Mapes, Walter, story by, 

liani, 11471 
Maravars, aboriginal race of 

Southern India, 166 
Mardadkarind , 1 52# 
Margaret of Navarre, Hep- 

tavieron, %i^, 10/i 
Margasthd (in the right path), 

Marie, Lmis, llS/i^ 
Marignolli, description of an 

umbrella by, 268, 268?i* 
Markham, Clements, trans, of 

Garcia de Orta, The Simples 

and Dnigs of India, 302 n^ 
Martial, 263 

Martino de Canale, contem- 
porary of Marco Polo, 268 
Marubhuti, son of Yaugan- 

dharayana, 161, 165 
Marwar, King of, 266 
Marwari Bania women wear 

spangles set in gold, 23n 
Maspero, Popular Stones of 

Ancient Egypt, l\%i^, 120- 

Matanga, a relation of San- 

khachuda, 156 
Mathura, 9 
Mali, 53Ai2 
Matter, E. J., " Pontus and 

the Fair Sidone," Mod. 

Lang. Ass. Avier., 76^^ 
Maurya Empire, Chandra- 

gupta, founder of the, 281 ; 

events which happened at 

the formation of the, 281, 

282; Magadha the nucleus 

of the, 3ni 
Mayadhara, King of the 

Asuras, 35 
Maximilian of Austria, \\2ri^ 
Mecca, the Kaaba at, 119; 

the sanctuary at, 161n* 
Medusa, the head of, 299, 300 
Megasthenes, 39/4^ 
Mehtar caste or scavengers, 

Meissen, Heinrich von 

(Frauenlob), 292, 292n3 
Meitheisof Manipur, the, 118 
Melanesia, eating human flesh 

in, 198ni 
Melton, Astrologaster, 145n 
Mena, parent of Mainaka, 

Meru, the world mountain, 

67ni, 102 

Mesopotamia, poison-damsel 
in, 286 ; the probable home 
of the umbrella, 263 

Mexico, customs connected 
with eclipses among the 
Tlaxcalans of, 81 ; punish- 
ment for adultery in, 8&n^ 

Meyer, J. J., Dasa Kuvidra 
Charita, or The Stoi-y of the 
Ten Princes, 183/1^, 184w 

Meynard, Barbier de, Les 
Colliers d'Or, 298 

Mikado so sacred that the sun 
must not shine on him, 268 

Milinda, King, 32 

Milindapanhd, the, 32 

Millingen, F., "The Circas- 
sian Slaves and the Sultan's 
Harem," Journ. Anth. Soc, 

Milton, Paradise Lost, 42^^ 

Mimosa suma (Prosopis spici- 
gera), 255 ; (SamI tree), 247 

Mirzapur, the Majhwar an 
aboriginal tribe of South, 

Mirzapur district, rites to pro- 
duce rain in Chunar, 117, 

Missouri, 280 

Mitchell, J. M., ''Harem," 
Ency. Brit., 163w 

Mithradates, 300 

Mitra, 249 

Mitra, Rajendralala, The Indo- 
Aryans, 167 

Mitra vasu, son of Visviivasu, 
140, 141, 150, 153, 156 

Mlechchhas destroyed, 93 

Modi, J. J., "A few Ancient 
Beliefs about the Eclipse 
and a few Superstitions 
based on these Beliefs," 
Journ. Anth. Soc. Bomb.^ 82, 

Mohani ("bewitching"), 

Mokshaka, ashes of, 276 

Moncelon, Bulletins de la 
Societe d^Aiithrop. de Paris, 

Mon kings of Pegu, 265 

Mongolia, polyandry in, 18 

Montlosier, M. de, 1853 

Moore, Thomas, The Epi- 
curean, 6;i2 

Moya, Antoine de, Sucesos de 
las Islas Filipinas, 306/i^ 

Mrichchhaka(ika or Toy Cart, 
the, 192ni, 232n 

Mudhd 'iti, 40n2 


Miidheti, AQnr 
Mudrd-Rakshasa, or Signet-ring 

of Rdkshasa, Visakhadatta, 

160wi, 281, 283, 2833, 284 
Mukhopadhyaya, Prof. N 

mani, 93n^ 
Mukta, 140^1 
Miiller, Max, Chips from a 

German Workshop, 25 In^ ; 

Oxford Essays, 251, 251n^ 
Mullick, B., Essays on the 

Hindu Family in Bengal, 

Mundas, tribe of, 267 
Mura, a concubine of Nanda, 


Murajaka, Sundaraka calls 

himself. 111 
Murala (Kerala or Malabar), 


Muralas, tribute imposed on 
the, 92, 92w5 

Murray, New English Dic- 
tionary, 269?i^ 270 

" Mutalammis letter" motif , 

Mysore, the Darbars of H.H. 
the Maharaja of, 119 

Na tad, 74w^ 

Naga (mountain), 154m^ 

Xdga (snake or mountaineer), 

Naga (snake) of Hindu super- 
stition, 152w*, 153w 

Naga, the seven-headed, 266 

Nagadatta, 219^3 

Nagasena, a Buddhist sage 
named, 32 

Nagpur division of the Cen- 
tral Provinces, 82 

Nagpur, paintings at, 307, 

Nakula, son of Pan^u, 16 

Naidu, M. P., The History of 
Professional Poisoners and 
Coiners of India, 281 

Nairs or Nayars of Travan- 
core. Cochin and Malabar* 

Nanahuatzin, Mexican god of 
syphilis, 309 

Nanda or Dhana - Nanda 
(Agrammes or Xandrames), 
282, 283, 285 

Nandana, the garden of the 
gods, 34 

Nandin, the bull of Siva, 242 

Narada, hermit named, 12, 
13, 15, 25, 34, 35, 126-128, 
135, 147, 170 




Naravahanadatta, son of the 
King of Vatsa, 7n^, 163, 
165, 170, 212^1, 238 
Naravahanadattajanana( Book 
IV), 125-169 

Narayana (Vishnu), 81 

Narendra ("Indra of men"), 

Navarre, Margaret of, Hep- 
tameron, 2n^, lOn 

Nayandnanavdntolka (" cast- 
ing forth flames out of 
her eyes and mouth "), 

Nayars or Nairs of Malabar, 
customs connected with 
lights among the, 168 

Nayars or Nairs of Tra van- 
core. Cochin and Malabar, 

Nayars originally a military 
caste, 19 

Nebuchadrezzar, King of 
Babylon, 194)^ 

Negelein in Teutoiiia, bl'n?- 

Nepal aconite {bis, bish or 
bikh), 278 

Nepal, gambling in, 232i; 
poisoning of wells bv the 
Gurkhas of, 280 

New Caledonia, polyandry in, 

New Hebrides, polyandry in 
the, 18 

Nicasi, G., " Le credenze 
religiose delle popolazioni 
rurali dell'alte valle del 
Taveri," Lares, lO^n 

Nicolaus Pergamenus, Dia- 
logus Creaturannn, 114n 

Nihsdra (void of substance), 

Nilgiri Hills, customs con- 
nected with eclipses among 
the Todas of the, 82 ; prev- 
alence of fraternal poly- 
andry among the Todas of 
the, 18 

Nlm leaves kept on the cot of 
a Mfila woman in labour, a 
sickle and, 166 

Nimishekshandh, bOn"^ 

Nimrud Gallery, British 
Museum, 263 

Nineveh, 194^2 

Nineveh Gallery, British 
Museum, 263 

Nirriti's lap, 246 

Nisbet, 3., Burma under British 
Rule and Before, 265*1^, 

Nishadas, King of the, 191, 

Nishka (a unit of value), 240 
Nityodita, chief warder 

named, 128, 129 
Nityodita or Ityaka, 161, 

161^1, 165 
Nivdrija, 44^^ 
Noete (socket), 269 
Nona or Lona Chamarin, 

witch called, 119 
North and Central Bhutan, 

Polyandry in, 18 
Northern Circars, 92?? ^ 
Notthaft, A. v., "Die 

Legende von der Alter- 

tums-syphilis," Rijidfleisch 

Festschrift, 308^2 
Noung daw Gyee, King, 265 
Nyagradha tree [Ficus Indica), 

42, 42^2^ 159, 160 

Odi magicians in Malabar, 

Okamura, Monatsschrift fiir 

praktische Dermatologie, 

Oldenberg, Grihya Sutras, 

267, 267^1; Die Literatur 

des alten Indien, 252n^ ; 

Religion des Veda, 252 n^ 
Oldham, C. F., "The Nagas," 

Joiirn. Roy. As. Soc, 307 ?^2 
Ombrello (Italian umbrella), 

Opion (opium), 304 
Opos (opium), 304 
Oppian, 278 
Oraon tribe, 119 
Orissa, 92?i2 
Orta, Garcia de. The Simples 

and Drugs of India, Eng. 

trans. Clements Markham, 

Ottacker or Ottokar, German 

poet, 309, 309^2 
Ottokar or Ottacker, German 

poet, 309, 309n2 
Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 263; 

Fasti, 263 

Pacific Islands, polyandry in 
the, 18 

Padma, the land of, 95 

Padmiisana, sitting in the 
posture called, 176, 176n* 

PadmavatI, wife of the King 
of Vatsa, 3, 4, 12, 21-23, 
25, 26-30, 34, 38, 47, 48, 
51, 89, 93, 94, 116, 125 

Padua, a doctor of, 297 

Pakshapdta {^Sippingof wings), 

Paldsa tree, 126 
Palena in the Abruzzi, 202^^ 
Pali-bothra ( Patalipu tra), 39^1 
Palieque (umbrella), 268 
Pallair's arm, 72^2 
Pallis (Tamil agriculturists), 

interpretation of bodily 

marks among the, Iti^ 
Panchagavya, the five sacred 

products of the cow, 242 
PaTichatantra, the, Benfey, 

52?ii, 108w, 113/^1, 297^2 
Panda va race, King of Vatsa 

sprung from the, 1 ; the 

moon the progenitor of the, 

13, 13ni 
Pandu, ancestor of Udayana, 

126-127; prince named, 16 
Pandu, race of, 89 
Pandus, the, 22Qn 
Pandyan kingdom, 92vi* 
Panjab, 282, 283, 285 ; former 

practice of infanticide in 

the, 18, 19 ; gambling in 

the, 232/1 
Papaver somniferum, Levant 

the home of the, 303 
Prflgi/* (umbrella), 263 
Paraguay, polyandry in, 18 
Parapluie (umbrella), 263 
Parasikas (Persians), 93, 94, 

Pdrgvandtha, the, 14n 
Parda (curtain), 163n 
Pardah or purdah, 163n 
Pardhi caste of Central India, 

punishment for adultery 

among, 88ni 
Pdribhadra, ashes of, 276 
Parijata, one of the five trees 

of Paradise, 13, 13^2 
Pdrijdta flower, 190*1^ 
Paris, Paulin, tude sur les 

dijferents Textes, imprimes et 

manuscripts, du Roman des 

Sept Sages, 120 
Paris, umbrellas in, 269 
Parisishtaparvan, the, Hema- 

chandra, 108w, 285, 285wi, 

Parityagasena, story of, 136w^ 
Paropakarin, King, 171, 172, 

184, 222 
Parvan (book), 16 
Parvataka, ally of Chandra- 

gupta, 284, 285 
Parvati (Durga, Gauri, etc.), 

wife of Siva, 82, 101, 232w, 




Pascal (afterwards), lOn^ 

Patala, ashes of, 276 

Patala, the underworld, 92, 

152, 156, 156i-2 
Patali, son of (Pataliputra), 

Pataliputra (Pataliputta or 

Pali-bothra), 39, 39ni, 86, 

87, 130, 185^1, 281, 283 
Pdtha, decoction of, 276 
Pati (husband), 4:9h* ; (king), 

Paiisnehad, 137ni 
Patna corresponds with king- 
dom of Magadha, district 

of, 3ni 
Patna, Pataliputra the 

modem, 397i^ 
Paton, J. L., ** Gambling,'' 

Hastings' Eiicy. lid. Eth.y 

Pat was and Lakheras, tikti 

made by the, 23w 
Pauly-Wissowa, bln^ 
Paundravardhana, 69, 69n^, 

74,' 75, 79, 86, 174 
Pegu, Mon kings of, 265 
Peleus and Astydameia, 120 
Penzer, N. M., Aimotated 

Bibliography of Sir Richard 

Burton, lOn 
Percy, Reliques, lO/i 
Pergamenus, Nicolaus, Dia- 

logus Creaturarum, 114n 
Perrault, LfiBarhe Blene, 22M^ 
Perseus and Andromeda, 70w'^ 
Perseus and the Gorgon, 300 
Persia, poison-damsel in, 286 
Persians (Paraslkas), 93, 94, 

94n^ ; meeting eyebrows 

considered beautiful by 

the, 104n 
Peru, customs connected with 

eclipses among the Sencis 

of Eastern, 81 
Perugia, a doctor of, 310 
Peter of Abano, works of, 99n; 

Libellus de Veneris, 300, 

Petrie, Flinders, "Assyrian 

and Hittite Society," 

Ancient Egypt, 88/1^ 
Pez, R. D. P. Hieronymus, 

Scriptores rerum Austria- 

carum veteres ac genuini, 310, 

Phaedra, legend of Hippo- 

lytus and his stepmother, 
Phalabhuti, story of, 95-99, 


Philip Clericus of Tripoli, 

trans, of the Secretum 

Sccretonini, 289, 289;i2 
Philip of Macedon, 299 
Philippines, scaring away 

evil spirits in the, 167 
Phineus, 120 
Piam (staff), 269 
Pietro del la V^alle, Travels ^ 

PingalikA, story of, 133-134, 

135, 165 
Pipal tree {Ficusreligiosa), IIS, 

Pischel and Geldner, Vedische 

Studien, 252ni 
Pisharoti, A. K. and K. R. 

" Bhasa's Works, Are they 

Genuine?" Bull.Sch. Orient. 

Stud., 21ni 
Pisharoti, K. R., "Svapna- 

vasavadatta," Quart. Journ. 

Mythic. Soc, 21 ni 
Pitris, 241 
Pleiades, the six (Krittikas), 

102, 102n2 
Pliny, 295/11, 306/i3 ; Naturalis 

Historia, lO^i, 296, 300 
Ploss, Das Weib in der Natur 

und F'dlkerkunde, 30671^ 
Plutarch, 295ni 
Polemon, Greek treatise of, 

7roAu8VKr/9 (endowed with 

much light), 251 
Pongyi priests, 232n 
Poole, Index of Periodical 

Literature, 272 
Port Blair, 264 
Porus, ruler of the Hydaspes 

(Jhelum), 283, 283?i2 
Potiphar's wife, Joseph and, 

Prabandhacintamani, Tawney, 

Prabhdte (at daybreak), b\n^ 
Pradyota, King of Magadha, 

3, 3^1, 12, 20, 21 
Prajapati, 14n 
Prajnapti (foreknowledge), 

Prajnaptikaui^ika, the pre- 
ceptor, 212 
Pranrtta, 35ni 

Pratapa (valour and heat), 

Pratapamukuta, King of 

Benares, 200, 210, 212 
Pratisnehad, 137ni 

Pravdte (in windy weather), 

Pravrtta, 35wi 
Prayaga (Allahabad), 110n2; 

('' the place of sacrifice "), 

Preller, "Otus and Ephi- 

altes," Giiechische Myth- 

ologie, 13n* 
Prescott, W., [The Conquest 

oj"] Peru, 88ni 
Prester John, islands of the 

Lordship of, 306 
Prester John's palace, gable 

of, 169 
Prithii or Kunti, wife of 

' Pandu, 16, 126 
Prithi Raj, last Hindu king 

of Delhi, 266 
Prithivl (" daughter of 

Prithu"), earth called, 241 
Prithu, son of Vena, 241 
Priti and Rati (affection and 

love), wives of the God of 

Love, 27, 51, 6ln\ 128, 137 
Procter, Miss Joan, Sl2n^ 
Prosopis spicigera {Mimosa 

suma), 255 
Prym and Socin, Syrische 

Marc hen, 76ni, 'l55n*, 

Przyluski, "La L^gende de 

I'Empereur A9oka," An- 
nates dfi Musee Guitnet, 

Pseudo- Aristotle, De causis et 

properietatibus elementorum , 

299n* ; Secretum Secretorutn, 

286 et seq. 
Psyche myth, the Cupid and, 

Ptolemy, Lata the Larice of, 

93/i2 ; Murala identified 

with the Curula of, 92n'^ ; 

regio Sorefanum of, 92n* 
Publius Syrus, 38n^ 
P u b n a, Paundravardhana 

identified withj 69ni 
Puchukra Undi or State 

Umbrella, 267 
Pufendorf, works of, 279 
Pulindaka, chief of the 

Savaras, 141 
Pulindaka, King of the 

Bhillas, 89, 89ni 
Punyasena, story of, 10-11 
Purdnas, the, 240, 241, 248 
Purdah (harem), 162n 
Purdah or pardah, 163/1 
Purogaih (done in a previous 

life), 'l35?ii 



Puriiravas and Urvasi, story 

of, 34-36, 245, 259 
Purushottama (Vishnu), 257 

Qazwini, al-, Kosmographie, 

298, 312 
Quintus Curtius, 278 

Radlia and the gopis, 242 

, 12& 

Rdga (passion), 125^1^ 

Rahu, 63, 63ii, 81, 82, 94, 94n2 

Rahu and eclipses, note on, 

Raipur district, 23w 
Raja Kampila, 122 
Raja Puriiravas, 249 
Rdja-druma, ashes of, 276 
Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) 

the later capital of Ma- 
gad ha, 3?ii 
Rajamahendra, King of 

Rajamahendri, 121 
Rajas (dust and passion), 106, 

Rajendralala Mitra, The 

Indo-Aryans, 167 
Rajgir (Rajagriha), capital of 

Magadha, Sn^ 
Rqjila, a striped snake, 162n- 
Rajpiit, 91 ; Madhava dis- 
guised as a, 176, 177 
Rajputana, spangles set in 

gold worn by women from, 

Rajputs, degeneration of the, 

305, 305ni 
Rakshasa (goblin), 58^^, 69, 

71, 74, 75, 78, 79, 191; 

the female, 107^^, 127; 

Vijayadatta becomes a, 198, 

Rakshasa, minister of Nanda, 

281, 283-285 
Rakshasa nature leaves 

Vijayadatta, 210 
Rakshasa Havana, 84?ii 
Rakshasas, 93, 106, 208, 209, 

241 ; cemetery full of, 205 ; 

description of, 197 n^ ; King 

of the, 209-212; Lamba- 

jihva, prince of the, 206 ; 

south neighboured by, 54 
RakshasI (female Rakshasa), 

RakshasI Vidyuchchhikha, 

206, 207, 209 
Ralston, Russian Folk-Tales, 

60w2, 61ni, 71^1, 98ri4, 122, 

15271*, 155n4, 190>ii, 202^1, 

223ni ; songsof the Russian 

people, 138n4, 189i 

Ralston, Schiefner and, 

Tibetan Tales, 14n, 76tii, 

Rama, 9, 22, 22^1, 46, 73, 82, 

84, 84ni, 93, 118 
Rama's Bridge (Ramasetu), 

Ramartham ("for the sake of 

a fair one "), 73n^ 
Ramasetu (Rama's Bridge), 

Rdmdyana, the, 22^^, 34^^^ 

45n4, 84wi, 102^1, 272 
Ramesvarman, island of, 8471^ 
Ramusio's versions of Var- 

thema and Barbosa, 302 
Rangoon, Sh we Dagon pagoda 

at, 265 
Rasatala {i.e. Patala), 156, 

156wi' 2 
Rati and Priti (love and affec- 
tion), wives of the God of 

Love, 27, 51, 51^2, 128, 

137, 144 
Ratnakuta, the, island of, 

Ratnangi, wife of Raja 

Kampila, 122 
Ratnapura (City of Jewels), 

175, 175?i2 
Ratnavarsha, King of the 

Yakshas, 233 
Rauscher, Hieronymus, Das 

ander Hundert der Bapis- 

tischen Liigen, 296 
Ravana, Chief of the Rak- 
shasas, 9, 22^1, 82, 84^1 
Rawlinson, H. J., notes in 

Forbes' Rds Mala, 2&Qn^, 

Raymond Lull, works of, 99n 
Rege7ischirm (umbrella), 263 
Regina Aquilonis (Queen of 

the North), 296 
Regio Calingarum (Kalinga), 


Regio Soretanum of Ptolemy, 

Renan, Ernest, Histoire Lit- 

teraire, 293 
Reva, 93 
Reyes, Caspar de los, Eh/sius 

Campus, 300, 300^3 
Rhamba the nymph, 34, 35 
Rhodope, the Thracian 

sorceress, Qn?- 
Rhys Davids, T.W., "Adam's 

Peak," Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 85w ; Buddhist 

India, ^ri^ ; trans, of the 

Jdtakas, 52n^ 

Rig- Veda, the, 34ni , bln^, 86^1, 

' 88^1, 231^1, 232w, 240, 245- 
247, 250, 254, 255, 2b^i^ 

Rishabha, mountain named, 


Rishi (holy sage), 14*1, 128 

Rishi Vyasa, 17 

Rishis, 102 

Risley, Tribes and Castes of 
Bengal, 2^1, 167, 229^2 

Rivers, The Todas, 82 

Rivett-Carnac, J. H., " Rough 
Notes on the Snake Symbol 
in India," Joimi. As. Soc. 
Bengal, 307, 307n^ 

Roberts, A. A,, The Poison 
War, 281 

Robertson Smith, W., Lectures 
on the Religio7i of the Semites, 
119, 1947i 

Robledo, Montejo y, 309 

Rochlitz, Michael Bapst von, 
Artzney Kunst und W under 
Buch, 294ni 

Roger Bacon, works of, 99n 

Ronaldshay, India, a Bird's- 
Eye View, 88ni 

Rosairo, de, Tamil story in 
The Orientalist, 184^1 

Rose, H. A. ["Hindu Preg- 
nancy Observances in the 
Punjab"], Joum.Anth. Inst., 
166; ["Muhammedan Preg- 
nancy Observances in the 
Punjab "] Jouiii. Anth. Inst., 

Rosenbaum, Geschichte der 
Lustseuche im Alterttime, 

Roth, Bohtlingk and, 53^2, 
67wi, 161^1 

Rothfeld, Otto, Women of 
India, 163*1 

Roumania. See Rumania 

Ru (to cry), 251 

Rukh, the, 220?i 

Rumania, nudity rites to pro- 
duce rain in, 117 

Rumanvat, minister of the 
King of Vatsa, 1, 4, 6, 8- 
12, 20, 34, 91, 116, 125, 
161, 165 

Rumi (Syriac), 288 

Ruru, the giant, 228, 228^^1 

Russell, Tribes aiid Castes of 
the Central Provinces, 22n3, 
23w, 83, 88*ii, 118, 164n*, 
185?i, 242, 266, 266^2, 304, 
304^2, 305>2i 

Russia, rites to produce rain 
in, 117 



Sackc/uikiriyd '("act of 
, truth "), 31 

SacliI, Indra, husband of, 45 
Sacy, Silvestre de, Chresto- 

mathie Arabe, 312w- 
Sadehasya, lOO/i'^ 
Sahadeva, son of Pandu, 16 
Sahasika, cook named, 112, 

St Thomas, 85w 
Saintyves, P., Les Contes de 

Perrault, 22hi, 253/<i 
Saioual (parasol, Persian), 

Saiva ascetic, a skull-bearing, 

196, 200 
Saiva mendicants, ten classes 

of, 90/3 
Saiwdn (umbrella, Persian), 

Sakha, son of Karttikeya, 102 
Siikta worshi})|)ers of Devi, 

Tantric rites of the, 198^^, 
^ 199/i 

Sakti, boar wounded with a, 
, 230ni 
Saktideva, Brahman named, 

174, 175, 188, 189, 191-195, 

213, 217-222, 224-231, 236- 
, 238 

Saktidevo, 230^^ 
Saktihasto, 230 n^ 
Saktivetjra (Saktideva), a king 

of the Vidyadharas, 80w^, 

171, 238, 238ri\ 239 
Sakuntald, Kalidasa, 144n^ 
Sala del Gran Consiglio at 

Venice, 268 
Salsette, customs connected 

with iron in, 167 
Samdhajiya , 1 9 In^ 
SambandhaiUy ceremony of 

alliance as husband and 

wife, 18 
Sarnbhavak, S9n^ 
Samhitas, the, 240 
Sami plants, 161 
Sam! tree (Mimosa snnia), 247, 

250, 255 
Sampadah, 89w^ 
Samudradatta, merchant 

named, 191, 199, 226 
Samiidrika, the interpreting 

of bodily marks, 7w' 
Sanchi, umbrellas at, 266 
Sangster, William, 271 ; Um- 
brellas aiid their History, 272 
Sankaradatta, son of Agni- 

datta, 133 
Sankarasvamin, chaplain 

named, 176, 178 

Sankhachuda, snake named, 
152-154, 156 

Sankhya, 212i 

Santa Fe, 280 

Silntikara, son of Agnidatta, 
133-135, 165 

Sfintisoma, son of Pingalika, 
135, 165 

Sard or sardi (edifice or 
palace, Persian), 162 

Sarangdhara, 121, 122 

Sdrangdhara Charita, the, 121 

Sarasvatl, the goddess, 133 

Sarim-gandha (scented drug), 

, 276 

Sasikhanda, King of the 
Vidyadharas, 221 

Sasikhandapada. King of the 
Vidyadharas, 238 

Sa^iprabha, daughter of Sasi- 
khanda, 221, 237 

SaSirekha, daughter of Sasi- 
khanda, 221, 237 

Skstrl, Drnvidian Nights, 190ni ; 
Folk- Lore in Southern India, 

^ 136ni 

Saiaddya (an epithet denoting 
the price of a man's blood), 

, 240 

Satanlka, ancestor of the King 

^ of Vatsa, 54 

Satapatha Brdhmana, the, 241, 
245, 250, 254-256 

Satatah (abiding), 236^2 

Sati, 53^2 

Sattva (monsters), 79 w^ 

Sattvatah (courage), 236n2 

Satyddhishthdnain ("truth- 
command "), 31 

Satyavddya ( ' ' truth-utter- 
ance "), 31 

Satyavrata, King of the Nis- 
hadas, 191, 192, 194, 195, 
217, 218 

Saugor district, 23ji 

Sanvarnabhilti, 220n^ 

Savara, one of a wild tribe, 

, 22n3, 141-149 

Savaras of Bengal, customs 
connected with lights 
among the, 168 

Sdydban (umbrella, Persian), 

Schiefner, German transla- 
tion of Taraiiraha, History 
of Buddhism, 69n2 

Schiefner and ]^a.\stou , Tibetan 
Tales, \hi, 76>ii, 122 

Schiller, " Der Gang nach 
dem K,i sen hammer," 
Gedichte, 113ni ; < Der Graf 

Schiller continued 

von Hapsburg," Gedichte, 

Schiltberger, Hans, Reisebiich, 

Schmidt, Bemhard, Griech' 

ische Mdrchen, 57wS 127n* 
Schmitt, Hans, Jona, 194n 
Schofield, H., '*The Story 

of Horn and Rimenhild, * 

Mod. Lang. Ass. Amer., 

Schiippner, Sagenbtich (or 

Geschichte) der Bayerischen 

Lande, 113iii 
Scott, J. G., J. P. Hardiman, 

Gazetteer of Uppei' Burma 

and the Shan States, 2S2n 
Scott, Sir J. G., "Burma 

and Assam (Buddhism in)," 

Hastings' Ency. Ret. Eth., 

2654; (Shway Yoe) The 

Burman, his Life and 

Notions, 167, 265n3 
Scott, Jonathan, Tales from 

the Arabic and Persian, 

Seler, E., Gesammelte Abhand- 

lungen zur Amerikanischen 

Sprach-und A Itertumskujide, 

309, 309/ii 
Sellon, E., "The Phallic 

Worship of India," Mem. 

Anth. Soc. Ldn., 242 
Sencis of Eastern Peru, 

customs connected with 

eclipses among the, 81 
Sera (a bar, Latin), 162w 
Seraglio (harem), 162w 
Serail, 162n 
Serbia, rites to produce rain 

in, 117 
Serraglio (enclosure, Italian), 

Serrato (shut up, Italian), 162n 
Sesha, the serpent, 90, 90n2 
Shahabad corresponds with 

kingdom of Magadha, dis- 
trict of, 3ni 
Shakespeare, Henry V and 

Henry VI, 98?i* ; Macbeth, 

145/i'; Othello, 145 
Shans of Upper Burma, gam- 
bling among the, 232n 
Shea-Troyer, The Dabistdn, 

Sheol (Aralu or Hades), 61wS 

Sheykh-zada, 123 
Shrawan (month of fasting), 


i f ShwavYc 



vay Yoe (Sir George Scott), 
The Bui'man, his Life and 
Notions, 167, 265^3 
Shwe Dagon pagoda at Ran- 
goon, 265 
Siam, 266 

Siberia, polyandry in, 18 
Siddha (independent super- 
human), 111 
Siddhaka, ashes of, 276 
Siddhas, Un, 67, 67^^, 75, 

75^3^ 140, 149, 150 
Siddhreh, minister of Kam- 

sundar, 286 
Sidney Hartland. See Hart- 
land, E. S. 
Sikes, Wirt, British Goblins, 

Ibn^, 98/^4, 223/ii 
Sikkim-Bengal frontier, poly- 
andry on the, 18 
Sikkim Terai, aconite in the, 

Silvestre de Sacy, Chresto- 

inalhie Arabe, ^V2rfi 
Simpson, W., The Jonah 

Legend, 194n 
Simrock, Deidsche Volksbilcher, 

bln^, 64n2, 76wi 
Slnahand (breast-cover), 50n^ 
Sinbyushin, King, 265 
Sindbad and the enormous 

birds, 220n 
Sindh, subduing of the King 

of, 93 
Sindur (vermilion), 23i 
Singapore, 264 
Sinhaksha, story of King, 49^^ 
Sinhaparakrama, story of, 

Sinhasri, second wife of 

Sinhaparakrama, 160 
Sinhavarman, brother of 

Padmavati, 89 
Sipra, banks of the, 176-178 
Siras tree {Acacia speciosa), 118 
Sirsn district, curing a horse 

in the, 119 
Sita, wife of Rama, 9, 22, 

22ni, 84^1 
Sitoda river, 67, 75 
Siva, 1, 14, 46;i4, 51, 66, 74, 
75, 82, 84, 85, 85>i, 90;i3. 
100, 101-104, 106, 111, 128, 
136, 138, 138>^2, 141, 143, 
145, 146, 148, 149, 153, 157, 
164^1, 170, 171, 196, 200, 
208, 213, 222, 238, 242; 
skull-bearing worshippers 
of, 90, 90n3 
Siva and Madhava, story of, 

Sivaji, King, 267 

Sivi and the heavenly eyes. 

King, 32, 33 
Sizire, Queen of, 294 
Skandha (shoulder), 205*1^ 
Skandhadasa, merchant 

named, 71, 72 
Skeat, W. VV., The Past at our 

Doors, 270, 270n^ 
o-KiaSetoi/ (sunshade), 263 
Slave Coast, iron rings at- 
tached to sick children on 
the, 167 
Smith, G. A., The Book of the 

Tivelve Prophets, 194 
Smith, Prof. G. Eliot, 308 
Smith, W. Robertson, Lectures 
on the Religion of the Semites, 
119, 194w 
Smith, V. A., Early History 

of India, 282ni 
Smritva (remembering), 200^1 
Snake Mountains of Turke- 
stan, 298 
Sneha (affection), 77^2, 163?ii 
Sneha (oil), 11 n^, 163?zi 
Socin, Prym and, Syrische 
Mdrchen, 76ni, 155^^4^ 219^3 
Socrates, 294, 299 
Sohag or lucky trousseau, 23/i 
Solomon, 252 
Solon, 278 

Soma (the moon), 45w* 
Soma and Suryo (the moon 

and sun), 81 
Somadatta, son of Agnidatta, 

Somadeva, Kathd Sarit Sagara, 

39/ii, 207^3, 281, 304 
Somaprabha, story of, 39-44 
Soma-valka, ashes of, 276 
Sophocles, Electra, 121n^ 
Soretanum of Ptolemy, Regie, 

South Bihar, districts corre- 
sponding to the kingdom 
of Magadha in, 3^1, 282 
South Sea Islanders, nature 

myths among the, 252 
Speyer, "Studies about the 
Kalhdsaritsdgara , " V erh. 
Kon. Akad. Weten. Amst., 
2Sn^, 36^1, 53/i3, QOn^- 3, 70^1. 
92n6, 1401, IQOn^, llln\ 
201^2, 227^2, 235;ii 
Spiers, R. Phene, J. Fergus- 
son, J. Burgess and. History 
of Indian and Eastern Archi- 
tecture, 265w* 
Spooner, D. B., "The Zoro- 
astrian Period of Indian 

Spooner, D. B. continued 

History," Journ. Roy. As, 

Soc, 39^1 
Spooner and Waddell, ruins at 

Patna discovered by, 39/1^ 
Srdddha, ceremony of, 257 
Sravasti, 6 

Sri, Goddess of Prosperity, 
, 65, 65/^l 

Sri, wife of Vishnu, 51 
Srigaud Brahmans of Gujarat, 

168, 169 
Srikantha, land of, 97 
Srutvd (having heard), 200^^ 
Stallybrass trans, of Grimm's 

Teutonic Mythology, 43^1, 

Stambhaka, a Gana appointed 

to protect Naravahana- 

datta, 170 
Steel and Temple, Wide- 

Awake Stories, I0%yi, 122, 

Steele, R., Opera hactenus 

inedita Rogeri Baconi, 290, 

291, 291^1 
Stein and Grierson, Hatim's 

Tales, 124 
Steinschneider, Hebr. Bib- 

lioth., 289w*; Ucbersetzungen, 

289^3; in Virchow's Archiv 

fur Path. Anat. und Phys.^ 

Stevans, C. M., C, L. Daniels 

and, Ency. of Superstitions, 

Folk-Lore and the Occult 

Sciences, 1457^ 
Stevenson, Mrs S., The Rites 

of the Twice- bom, bin^, 83, 

166, 242, 261n^ 
Steyasdstra - pravartaka, the, 

Sthavirdvalicharita, H e m a- 

chandra, 283^2 
Stokes, Indian Fairy Tales y 

42ni, 43/i2, 57^1, 136-^1, 193^1 
Stokes' edit, of The Togail 

Troi, 72^2 
Strabo, 278 

Straparola, The Nights, lOn 
Subala of Gandhara, King, 16 
Suchier, Denkmdler provenza- 

lischer Literatnr und 

Sprache, 289^1 
Sudra woman, 16 
Sudras, 95, 96 

Sukthankar, V. S., Eng. trans, 
of Svapna-vdsavadatta, 21'n} ; 

" Studies in Bhasa," Journ. 
Bomb. Br. Roy. As. Soc^ 



Sumanta, 121, 122 

Sumatra, 264 

Sunda and Upasunda, story 

of, 13-Un 
Sundaraka and the witches, 

Surd (wine), 276 
Surabhi ("the fragrant one"), 

Siirya and Soma (the sun and 

moon), 81 
Suryatapas, hermit named, 

189, 191 
Susruta Samhila, the, 276, 276w^ 
Sutdra (mercury), 276 
Sutlej, Beas a tributary of 

the, 282 
Sutras, the, 17 
Suvdbahuttarikathdj the, 286, 

Suvritta (well-rounded), 132n^ 
Svddvaushadha (sweet medi- 
cine), 85n^ 
Svapna - vdsavadatta, Bhasa, 

21ni, 25^4 
Svarga, the abode of the 

blessed and the city of 

Indra, 175/ii, 257 
Svayambhuya Manu, the calf, 

Svayamvara (marriage by 

choice), 16 
Swan, trans, of the Gesta 

Romanorum, 296 
Swift, A City Shower, 270; 

Tale of a tub, 21^ 
Syria, poison-damsel in, 286 
Syrius, Publius, 38/i^ 

Tacitus, Annals, 277 
Taddkhydtim, 50n* 
Taddkhtfdtum, 50w* 

Taine, H. A. [Lex Origines de la 

France Conte7nporaine], lS6n^ 
Tali, ceremony of tying the, 

17, 18 
Talikattu, ceremony of tying 

the Id/i round the neck of 

the bride, 17, 18 
Tamdla, 208, 227 
Tamasa, the river goddess, 

Tamboli, leaves of the betel 

vine, 301, 302 
Tamerlane (Tlmur), 279 
Tamraliptii, 71 
Tan mahattarakaih, 28w2 
Tan tad, llOn^ 
Tan j ore, 92n* 

Tanmahdturagaih, 28ii- 
Tantric rites of the Sakta 

worshippers of Devi, 198n^, 

Tapantaka, son of Vasantaka, 

161, 165 
Tdra (silver), 276 
Taraka, the Asura, 100, 102, 

Taranatha, HLstorij of Bnd- 

dhixin, Schiefner's German 

translation, Q9n^ 
ToAmdn, 207n^ 
Tasydn, 207n2 
Tatah, 227ni 
Tatra, Uii^, 182/1^ 
Tawney, C. H., 92n, 101w2, 

102^1, 116ni, 169, 221ni; 

Kathdkoqa, fm^, lOSw, 113;ii, 

219^3,23271; ^'Meeting Eye- 
brows," Ind. A?U., 104n; 

Prabandliacintdmani, 108/1 
Taxila, Kunala, son of Asoka 

and Viceroy of, 120 
Tejas (might or courage), 

TejasvatI, wife of Adityasena, 

55, 56, 58 
TejovatI, wife of Vihitasena, 

Teli, oil-presser's caste, 82 
Telugu palm-leaf MS., 121 
Temple, R. C. [Notes on a 

Collection of Regalia of 

the Kings of Burma of 

the Alompra Dynasty "], 

Ind. Ant, 264?ii 
Temple, Sir Richard, 62/1^, 

264, 269, 269/1* 
Temple, Steel and, Wide- 
Awake Stories, 108/1, 122, 

Tinnevelly district of Madras 

Presidency, Kail or Cail 

in the, 302 
Thdynyi yat (chowrie), 264 
Thana, childbirth customs 

among the Vadvals of, 167 
Thanlyet (sceptre), 264 
Theophrastus' [Characters'], 

"Superstitious Man, "Jebb, 

notes on, 98n* 
Thomas, E. J., **Sun, Moon 

and Stars (Buddhist)," 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Thomas, F. W., Cambridge 
History of India, 282ni ; 
"The Piays of Bhasa," 
Joum. Hoy. As. Sac., 21n^ 

Thomas, N. W., "Animals," 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Thompson, C. J. S., Poison 

Mysteries, 281 
Thompson, R. Campbell, The 

Devils and Evil Spirits of 

Babylonia, Qln} ; Semitic 

Magic, 9^/1, 193^1, 295 
Thompson Indians of British 

Columbia, 256 
Thorndike, History of Magic 

a?id Experimental Science, 

99/1, 108/1, 288/i3, 295ni, 

Thorpe, Yule-tide Stories, l^'^, 

80ni, 190/ii, 219;i3 
Thurston, E., Castes o)id Tribes 

of Southern India, 166, 256, 

256n*; Ethnographic Notes 

in Southern India, 7n^, 166, 

256, 256w4 
Ti (stone or metal umbrellas), 

265, 265w* 
Tibet, polyandry in, 18; 

prevalence of fraternal 

polyandry in, 18 
Tibullus, 263 
Tibyuzaung (" Wearer of the 

White Umbrella "), 265 
T^ka, forehead mark made 

in an initiation ceremony, 

ra^, spangles worn by Hindu 

women of good caste, 22n3, 

Tilaka, caste mark, 22n3 
Tilottama, a beautiful woman 

made by Visvakarman, 14, 

14n, 46 
Timira, 36 

Timur (Tamerlane), 279 
Tipyu (royal umbrella), 264 
Tishyarakshita, second wife of 

A^oka, 120 
Tiyor caste, 242 
Tlaxcalans of Mexico, customs 

connected with eclipses 

among the, 81 
Tobit, the apocryphal book 

of, 69/i3 
Tod, Annah and Antiquities of 

lidjasthdn, 305/1^ 
Todas of the Nilgiri Hills, 

customs connected with 

eclipses among the, 82; 

prevalence of fraternal 

polyandry among the, 18 
Torello, 76ni 
Torres Strait, Mabuiag in, 





Transylvania, nudity rites for 

producing rain in, 118 
Travancore, Nairs or Nayars 

of, 17-19 ; women well cared 

for in, 19 
Trighanta, 206 
Tripoli, Philip Clericus of, 

trans, of the Secretum Secre- 

torum, 289, 2S9n^ 
Tschudi, J. J. von, Reisen 

durck Sudamerika, 280ri^ 
TulasI or sacred basil, 82 
Tumburu, a teacher called, 35 
Turkestan, polyandry in, 18 ; 

the Snake Mountains of, 

Turks (Turushkas), 93, 937i3 ; 

the Indo-scythae of the 

ancients, 93n^ 
Turushkas (Turks), 93, 93^3 
Tylor, E. B., Primitive Culture, 

83, 96wi, 103^1 

Udaya, mountain named, 67, 

Udaya (rising, appearance), 

Udayagiri (eastern mountain), 

Udayana, King of Vatsa, 1, 3, 
6, 8, 11-13, 15, 20, 22^3, 23, 
25-30, 34, 36, 37, 38, 47-54, 
80, 84, 85, 89-91, 93-95, 
115, 116, 125, 126, 128, 135- 
137, 157, 158, 160-162, 165, 
170, 171, 238, 239 
Udayaparvata (eastern moun- 
tain), 67^1 
Uganda, society of ghouls in, 

UjjayinI, 10, 54-58, 78-80, 

*93, 108-110, 176 
Ular puchok (green tree- 
snake), 303 
Uma (Parvati, Gaurl, etc.), 
wife of Siva, 51, 101, 102, 
Umbella (sunshade), 263 
Umbra ("little shade"), 263 
U mhraculiim (sunshade), 263 
Union of South Africa, 281 
Unmadini, story of, 6-8 
Unum pallium (umbrella), 268 
Upasunda and Sunda, story 
of, 13-14w; (the ancient 
Beas), 282 
Uru (wide), 251 
Urvasi and Puriiravas, story 

of, 34-36, 245-259 
Utkandharaq ca suciram (' ' with 
uplifted necks"), 30^2 

Utpalavarna seduces her son- 
in-law, i22 

Utpreksha, lln^ 

Utsthala, island of, 191, 192, 
194, 217, 226, 227, 237 

Uttara, mountain named, 
190, 191 

Uttara Rama Charita, the, 
Bhavabhuti, 34^2, 189?ii, 

Uzanne, O., VOmbrelle, 272 ; 
Les Ornernents de la Femme, 
272 ; The Sunshade, the 
Glove, the Muff, 272 

Vadavdgni (submarine fire), 

Vadvals of Thana, childbirth 

customs among the, 167 
Vaisvanara, son of Pingalikji, 

135, 165 
Vaisvanaradatta, son of Agni- 

datta, 95 
Valencia, Archbishop Guido 

of, 289 
Valerius, 277 
Vallabhl, 141, 146 
Valle, Pietro della, Travels, 

Vanaprastha or anchoret, 180w^ 
Vanaraja (Wun Raj), 266 
Vararuchi, 58ni, 107^1, 175ni 
Vardhamana (Burdwan), 171. 
171ni, 188, 189, 223, 224, 
Varsha (division of a con- 
tinent), 125?i2 
Varthema, 300-302 
Varuna (the divine judge), 

Vasantaka, minister of the 
King of Vatsa, 20-22, 25, 
26, 28, 29, 34, 38, 45, 47, 
125, 159-161, 165 
Vasavadatta, wife of the King 
of Vatsa, 1, 3, 6, 8, 12, 13, 
20-22, 25-30, 34, 36, 38, 47, 
48, 50, 93, 94, 116, 125, 
128, 129, 133, 135-137, 156- 
158, 160, 161, 171 
Vasishta, the sage, 45^^ 
Vasudatta, Jimutavahana's 

former name, 141, 143, 146 
Vasudatta, merchant named, 

Vasuki, king of the snakes, 

152, 153 
Vasunemi, the snake, 22^3 
Vatsa, Udayana the King of, 
1, 3, 6, 8, 11-13, 15, 20, 
22n3, 23, 25-30, 34, 36, 37, 

Vatsa continued 

38, 47-54, 80, 84, 85, 89-91, 
93-95, 115, 116, 125, 126, 
128, 135-137, 157, 158, 160- 
162, 165, 170, 171, 238, 239, 
Vat sy ay an a, Kama Sfdra, 9n^, 

49^3, 305 
Vattel, E. de, Les Droit des 
Gens, on Principes de la Loi 
Naturelle appliques a la 
Conduite et aux Affaires des 
Nations et des ISouverains, 
278, 278^1, 279 
Veckenstedt, Wendische 
Sagen, 42ni, 98^^, 107^^, 
152^4, 155n4, 202^1, 223^^1 
Vega, 238ni 

Vegetius, Co7is., 277 . 

Vena, Prithu, son of, 241 
Venezuela, polyandry in, 18 
Venice, Sala del Gran Con- 

siglio at, 268 
Verard, Antoine, Le Cuer 

de Philosophie, 293 
Vernieux, C, Indian Tales 

and Anecdotes, 114n 
Vetala (vampire), 236 ; carries 
Devadatta through the air, 
235; propitiated bv Deva- 
datta, 235 
Vetalas, 201 
Vibhishana, brother of 

Ravana, 84^^ 
Victoria and Albert Museum, 

Victoria Institute, 311^1 
Vidanga, decoction of, 276 
Vidura, brother of Dhrita- 

rashtra and Pandu, 16 
Vidushaka, story of, 54-80 
Vidyadhara (independent 
superhuman), 141, 148, 149, 
222, 225, 237; named 
Chitrangada, 147, 148; 
race, a maiden of the, 66; 
rites to attain the rank of 
a, 233, 234; Saktideva 
becomes a, 236 
Vidyadhara (magical know- 
ledge-holder), 137^2 
Vidyaharas, 25, 67, 128, 136, 
138, 150, 163, 170, 171, 211, 
212, 221, 224, 225, 238, 
238%^ ; Asokadatta and 
Vijayadatta become, 210 ; 
Emperor of the, 156 ; for- 
tune of the, 137 ; Golden 
City a seat of the, 220; 
Kau^ika the spiritual guide 
of the, 210; King of the. 



V idy aharas continued 

137, 155, 156; sonof Vasa- 

vadatta to be the king of 

the, 13, 85 
Vidyadhari (female Vidya- 

dhara), 141, 230; Asoka- 

datta's wife becomes a, 

210; Bhadra, 66-69, 71,75- 

80 ; named Chandraprabha, 

Vidyddharim, 235/i2 
Vidyuchehhikha, wife of 

Lambajihva, 206, 207, 209 
Vidyutprabha, daughter of 

Vidyuchehhikha, 206, 207 ; 

Yakshi named, 233-236 
Vidyutprabham, 235^2 
Vihitasena, story of, 36-37 
Vijayadatta and Asokadatta, 

196-213, 238/ii 
Vijayavega, name given to 

Vijayadatta, 212 
Vikramachanda, King, 159 
Vikramaditya, King, 136ni 
Fikramdn kadevacharita, 

Buhler, 174^1 
Vikritdm (transformed into a 

Rakshasa), 202^2 
Vikriti {Gespensterscheinung), 

Fikritim, 202n2 
Vinata and Kadru, wives of 

Ka^yapa, 150-151 
VinayasvaminI, daughter of 

Sankarasvamin, 180 
Vindhya hills, 13n*, 56, 159 ; 

mountains, 54; peaks of 

the, 92 ; range, 188 
VindumatI, daughter of the 

fisher-king, 228, 229, 231, 

236, 237 
Vindurekha, daughter of 

Chandavikrama, 230, 231, 

Viradhagupta, agent of 

Rakshasa, 283, 284 
Virata, the King of, 22 
Viravarman, grandfather of 

Devadasa, 87 
Virchow, Rudolf, in Zeit. fur 

Ethnohgie, 308n2 
Virchow's Archiv fiir path. 

Anat. und Phys., Lewin 

in, 279, Steinschneider in, 

Virddrya, 44^2 
Virgil, .^neid, 186ni 
Visddhvasah (fearless), 218^2 
Vi^akha, son of Karttikeya, 


Visakhadatta, Mudrd - lidk- 
shasa or Signet-ring of Rak- 
shasa, \mn\ 281, 283, 283^3, 

Vishnu (Narayana or Puru- 
shottama), 34-36, 51, 94, 
81, 151, 152, 176, 217, 257 

Vishnu Purdna, the, 81, 241, 
248, 255 

Vishnudatta, Brahman named, 
195, 213, 217 

Vishnuvamin, husband of 
Kalaratri, 105 

Vissdsabhojana- Jdtaka, 297, 
298, 298ni 

Vi^vakarman, the architect of 
the gods, 14, Hn^, 46 

Vii^vamitra, 267 ; Galava a son 
or pupil of, 211^2 

Visvavasu, chief prince of 
the Siddhas, 140, 149 

Vitankapura, 191, 226, 227 

Vizetelly, E. A., Bluebeard, 

Vrika (fire in one's own body), 

Vrkshenevdrtavi lata ("a climb- 
ing plant of spring with its 
tree"), 204ni 

Vyddhi (disease), 37ni 

Vyasa, the Rishi, 17 

Vyasana (vice of hunting), 21, 

Waddell, L. A., Buddhism of 
Tibet, 142ni; Discovery of the 
Lost Site ofPdtaliputra, 39w^ 

Waddell and Spooner, ruins 
at Patna discovered by,39ni 

Wak, islands of, 190^1 

Waldau, Bdhmische Marchen, 
76^1, 190^1 

Wallace, A. R., Narrative of 
Travels on the Amazon and 
Rio Negro, 280w' 

Wallis, W. D., "Prodigies 
and Portents," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., 83 

Walpurgis night, 104^2 

Watt, Commercial Products of 
India, 280/ii, 304wi; Diction- 
ary of the Economic Products 
of India, 280ni, 304ni 

Weber, A., Indische Streifen, 
252n^ ; Verzeichniss der 
Sanskrit Handschriflen der 
Koniglichen Bibliothek, 286, 

Webster, Duchess ofMalfi,, 2n^ 

Wembley, Empire Exhibition 
at, 271 

Wenceslaus II, Legend of 
the death of, 309, 309n2 

Westermarck, History of 
Human Marriage, 18, 19, 
23w, 24w, 306ni ; Origin and 
Development of the Moral 
Ideas, 96ni, 97n, 229w'- 

Whewell , W. , trans . of Gortius, 
Dejure belli ac pads, 2nn^ 

Wilkinson, Sir J. G., Manners 
and Customs of the Ancient 
Egyptians, 264 

Wilkinson, R. J., Papers on 
Malay Subjects, 167 

William of Auvergne, works 
of, 99/1 

Wilson, H. H., 2;ii, 92ni- , 
93w2- 3, 94w* ; Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Macke?izie 
Collection of Oriental MSS., 
121, 123 ; Essays on Sanskrit 
Literature, 92n* ; Select 
Specimens of the Theatre of 
the Hindm, 189ni, 192w\ 
214, 258, 259, 283/1^; Vishnu 
Purdna, 81, 241, 248, 255 

Windsor, T. N., Indian Toxi- 
cology, 281 

Wirt Sikes, British Goblins, 
75/i2, 98n^ 223?ii 

Wise, Commentary on the Hindu 
System of Medicine, 298 

Wolfe, Col., 269 

Wolff, works of, 278, 279 

Wright, D., History of Nepal, 

Wright, Th., De Nugis Curi- 
alium (Camden Society) 
114w ; edit, of the Gesta 
Roynanorum, 296 

Wun Raj (Vanaraja), 266 

Wiistenfeld, "Die LJberset- 
zungen arabischer Werke 
in das lateinische," Abh. d. 
K. Gesell. d. IVissen., 289w 

Xandrames or Agrammes 
(Dhana-Nanda, Nanda, 
etc.), 282, 282^2 

Xanthos and Balios, conversa- 
tion of Achilles with, 57n^ 

"Ya Ummi" ("O my 
mother!" Arabic), 201w3^ 

Yad At ("carry out the plan"), 
12, 12^1 


Yahya ibn Batriq {i.e. John, 
son of Patricius), alleged 
discoverer of the Secretum 
Secretorum, 288 



Vajnadatta, father of Pinga- 
lika, 133 

Yajnivalkya, the great sage, 

Yaksha (servant of the gods), 
52, 97 

Yakshas, 241 ; Ratnavarsha, 
King of the, 233 

Yakshi named Vidyutprabha, 

Yamadanshtra, Rakshasa 
named, 74,75, 78, 79 

Yamuna (Jumna), 196 

Yaugandharayana, minister 
of the King of Vatsa, 1, 4, 
6, 8, 10-13, 15, 20, 21, 31, 
34, 36, 47, 48, 52-54, 84, 
85, 89 91, 95, 115, 116, 125, 
138, 156, 158, 161, 163, 165, 

Yai^au, 185w2 

Yoga, 2l2n^ 

Yogakarandaka, minister of 
Brahmadatta, 91, 275 

Yogesvari, friend of Bhadra, 
67, 77 

Yogi, 196 ; wounds healed by 
a, 122 

Yojanas (measures of dis- 
tance), 57, 57^2, 75, 190 

Yoni, 242 

Yudda-kdnda ("battle sec- 
tion") of the Rdmdyana, 

Yudhishthira, son of Pandu, 

Yudhishthira and hisbrothers, 
ancestors of the King of 
Vatsa, 13-17 

Yukta, 140ni 

Yule, Hohso7i Jobson, 162^,269, 
269n* ; Mission to Ava, 168 

Yule and Cordier, The Book 
ofSer Marco Polo, 85^, 266, 
268, 268^2, 302, 302^2, 303 ; 
Cathay and the Way Thither, 
85n, 268^4 

Yuta Indians, poisoning of 
the, 280 

Zan (woman), 162n 
Zanana (zenana), 162?i 
Zarza, Samuel Ibn, Michlal 

Jqfi, 299?^l 
Zenana (harem), 162n 
Zeus, Indra the Hindu, 

Zingerle, Kinder-und Haus- 

mdrchen aus Tirol, 70n^ 
[Zoroaster] A vesta, 240 
Zugaro , ' ' Les bacteries comme 

arme de guerre," BnlL 

Beige des Sci. Milit., 281 



"Aberglaube," Pauly- 

Wissowa, 57w^ 
Abhandlungen der k. hay. Akad. 

d. Wissenschaften, "Die 

Sage vom Giftmiidchen," 

W. Hertz, 286, 286?i2, 292, 

292ni, 296, 298, 300 
Abhandhmgen d. K. Gesell. d. 

Wissenschaften, '*Die 

Uebersetzungen arabischer 

Werke in das lateinische," 

Wiistenfeld, 289?ii 
Abiding {satatah), 23671^ 
"Abode of Allah" (Allaha- 
bad), 110^2 
Abode of the blessed, Svarga 

the, 175wi, 257 
Aboriginal race of Southern 

India, Maravars, 166 
Aboriginal tribe of South 

Mirzapur,the Majhwar, 166 
Abortion, 229^2 
Abscess formed by grief, 2 
Account of the Kingdom of 

Nepal, Francis Hamilton, 

Aconite, girl rubbed with 

ointment made of the juice 

of, 310; used in making 

bhang, 279 ; varieties of, 

279, 280, 280ni; various 

uses for, 279 
Act of hospitality, offer to 

kill a cow an, 241 
"Act of Truth, The," Bur- 

lingame, Joum. Roy. As. 

Soc, 31-33 
"Act of truth" (kiriya), 31 ; 

(sachchakiriyd), 31 
" Act of Truth " motif 31-33 
"Adam's Peak," T. W., 

Rhys Davids, Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth., 85ri 
Adjunct to kingship, flying 

through the air an, 64^^ 
Adorned with red powder, 

people, 164, 164^* 
Adrift on the Ganges, girl 

in basket, 4 
"Adultery," Hastings' Ency. 

Rel Eth., 88ni 


Adultery, nose cut off as 
punishment for, 88, 88n^ ; 
among the Pardhi caste, 
punishment for, 88/^^ ; in 
places other than India, 
punishments for, 88?i^ ; of 
Devadasa's wife, 86, 87; 
of a gambler's wife, 
ordinary occurrence of the, 

Adventures of Asokadatta, 
211, 212; of Jimutavahana 
in a former birth, 141-149; 
of Samudradatta, 226, 227 ; 
of Vijayadatta, 211 

Adventures of HaUm Tat, 
Duncan Forbes, 67^2 

Advice of Chakradhara, 59, 
60 ; of Narada, 15 

jEneid, Virgil, 186?ii 

jEthiopica, Heliodorus, 62n^, 


Affection {sneha), lln^, 163^^ 
Affection and Love (Priti and 

Rati), wives of the God of 

Love, 27, 51, 52n2, 128, 137 
Afflictions cured by violence, 

2, 2ni, ^n 
Afterwards (pascdi), lOri^ 
Age venerated in the East, 

old, 190ni 
Agent of Rakshasa, Viradha- 

gupta, 283, 284 
"Aghorl," W. Crooke, 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

90n3, 198ni 
"Aghoris and Aghorapan- 

this," H. W. Barrow, Jouj-n. 

Anth. Soc. Bomb., ^Qm^ 
Agreement of Kadru and 

Vinata, 150 
Ague fit attacks Vijayadatta, 

196, 197 
"Ahalyayai," Bloomfield, 

Vedic Concordance, 45w^ ; 

Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, 45n* 
Aid of Brahma implored 

against Sunda and Upa- 

sunda, 14n 
Air, demon flies through the, 

203 ; dragons pollute the, 


Air continued 

299; flying through the, 
62-64ni ; horse flies up in 
the, 224; magical rides 
in the, 103-105n; palace 
in the, 110, 111 ; polluted 
with poison - damsel's 
breath, 293; power of 
flying through the, 103, 
104 ; spells to enable Vasa- 
vadatta to roam through 
the, 138 ; transportation 
through the, 75 

Air-tight armour, men in, 299 

Alakeswara Kathd, the, 123 

" Alankaravatl, Story of," 

Alexandri Magni Expeditione 
Indica, De, A. E. Anspach, 

Alexandrian legends, 290 

Alexandrian myths, jewel- 
lamp in, 169 

Alive in the fish's belly, 
Saktideva found, 193 

Alleged discovery of the 
Secretum Secretorum by 
Yayha ibn Batriq, 288 

"Alleged Discovery of 
Syphilis in Prehistoric 
Egyptians," The Lancety 

" Alles aus einer Erbse,'* 
Kaden, Unter den Oliven- 
b'dumen, 5^^ 

All-Hallows Day, 105w 

Alliance of husband and wife, 
Sambandham, ceremony of, 

Alligators, iron pyrites as 
charm against, 168 

Ally of Chandragupta, Par- 
vataka, 284, 285 

Amazing discovery of King 
Adityaprabha, 98, 99 

Ambassador sent by the King 
of Magadha to the King of 
Vatsa, 20, 38 

Amer. Joum. Phil., "Art of 
Stealing in Hindu Fiction," 
Bloomfield, 183ni 



American origin of syphilis, 
SaS, 309 

Amorous bite, the, 305 

Analogy between Chandra- 
gupta and Alexander, 283, 
285 ; between fire-drill and 
intercourse of the sexes, 
255, 256 

Ananga-Rangay the [Kalyana 
Malla], lO/i 

Ancestor of Udayana, Pandu 
an, 126-127; Satanlka an, 

Ancestors of Udayana, 13 

Anchoret or Fdnaprasthoy 

"Ancient Beliefs about the 
Eclipse and a few Super- 
stitions based on these Be- 
liefs, A few," J. J. Modi, 
Journ. Anth. Soc. Bomb., 82, 

Ancient capital of Magadha, 
Girivraja, 3n^ 

Ancient Egypt, " Assyrian and 
Hittite Society," Flinders 
l^etrie, 88ni 

Ancient Geography of India, 
Cunningham, 3n^ 

Ancient India, Manning, 155w^ 

Ancients, Turks the Indo- 
scythae of the, 93/1^ 

Ander Hundert der Bapistuschen 
Lilgen, Das, Hieronymus 
Rauscher, 296 

Anger of Vidyadharas with 
Bhadra, 67 

Animal husband or wife, 254 

Animals, garlic juice danger- 
ous to poisonous, 296 ; 
human saliva dangerous to 
poisonous, 296 ; language 
of, 107wi 

"Animals," N. W. Thomas, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Animating a dead body, 62 

Anklet given to A^okadatta, 
second, 207 

Anklet, heavenly workman- 
ship of the, 204; the 
jewelled, 203 

Annates dn Musee Guimet, 
La Legende de I'Empereur 
Acjoka," Przyluski, 120 

Annals, Tacitus, 277 

Annals and Antiquities of Ra- 
jasthan. Tod, 305ni 

Annotated Bibliography of Sir 
Richard Burton, N. M. 
Penzer, lOn 

Announcement of the birth 
of Antichrist, 39n2 

Anthropological value of the 
story of Urva^I and l^uru- 
ravas, 245 

Antidote kills the poison- 
damsel, 297 

Anti-poisonous compounds 
(agadas), 276 

Antiquary, lln 

Antiquity of syphilis in Cen- 
tral America, 308, 309 

Antiquity of the umbrella, 

Anvdr-i-Suhailt {Fables of Pil- 
pay), 297, 297w2 

Apartment of the princess, 
Vidushaka watches in the, 

Apocryphal Book of Tobit, 

Appearance [udaya), 67w^ 

Appearance of Kalaratri, re- 
pulsive, 103, 104 

Appease Vishnu, Pururavas' 
penance to, 36 

Arabian fiction, stages of love 
in, 10m 

Arabian Nights. See Nights 

Arabian Nights* Entertainments, 
E. Forster, 147ni 

Arabic betel nut {fTfel or 
faufel), 302 

Arabic "blue eyes" {azrk), 

Arabic MS. found in Antioch, 

Arabic "O my mother" 
("Ya Umml"), 201^3 

Arabic origin of the Secretum 
Secretorum, 287 

Arabic originals of the Secre- 
tum Secretorum, 288, 289 

Archaeological Reports, Cun- 
ningham, llOn^ 

Archaeological Survey of India, 
the Government, 39n^ 

Archbishop Guidoof Valencia, 

Archery, great feat performed 
by Arjuna in, 16 

Architect of the gods, Vi^- 
vakarman, 14, 14^^, 46 

Architecture, Ti in Burmese, 
265, 265n* 

Archiv Path. Anat. Phys., 
Virchow's, "Arrow 

Poisons," Lewin, 279 ; 
Steinschneider in, 28Sn^ 

Archivio per lo studio delle 
Tradizioni Popolari, 202r0- 

Arch-thief of Hindu fiction, 
Maladeva the, 183ni 

Aristotelis quce feruntur secretis 
secretorum commentatio, Z)e, 
Forster, 287wi, 288n^-2,289ni 

Arm of the Hakshasa, cut off 
by Vidushaka, 71 ; door 
fastened with the, 71, 71n2 

Arm, Pallair's, 72n2 

Armour, men in air-tight, 299 

Army of the King of Vatsa, 
elephants in the, 90 ; wav- 
ing lights in the, 89, 89n* 

Aromatum Historia, Clusius, 
302, 302ni 

"Arrow Poisons," Lewin, 
Virchow's Archiv Path. 
Anat. Phys., 279 

Ars Amaloria, Ovid, 263 

Arsenic, white, 303 

Art of interpreting bodily 
marks, Sdmudrika, 7n^ 

"Art of Stealing in Hindu 
Fiction," Bloomfield, Amer. 
Journ. Phil., 183ni 

Art of stealing, king wishes 
to study the, 184n, 185n 

Artha.(dstra, Kautilya, 277wi, 

Articles of regalia, the five, 

Artzney Kunst und Wunder- 
Buch, Michael Bapst von 
Rochlitz, 294ni 

Ascend the jewelled throne, 
refusal of Udayana to, 53 

Ascending the jewelled 
throne, 115 

Ascetic named Harasvamin, 
184-186; named Jalapada, 

Ascetic, rogue Siva disguised 
as a religious, 176 ; a skull- 
bearing Saiva, 196, 200; 
story of the hypocritical, 

Ascetics, the Aghorl sect of, 

Ascetics made ridiculous, 5 

Ashes of Asana, 276 ; of 
Aha-kama, 276 ; of Dhava, 
276 ; of Mokshaka, 276 ; of 
Paribhadra, 276 ; of Pdtala, 
276; of Rdja-dmma, 276; 
of Siddhaka, 276 ; of Soma- 
valka, 276 

Ashes, circle of, lOOn 

Assassins sent to the enemy 
camp, nocturnal, 91 

Assertion of Saktideva, the 
false, 174, 175 


* Assyrian and Hittite 
Society," Flinders Petrie, 
Ancient Egypt, S8n^ 
istrologaster, Melton, 145^ 
\t daybreak {prabhdte), 61n^ 
itharva-Veda, the, 240, 241 

\ttempt of Rahu to swallow 
Surya and Soma, 81 

Attempts on Chandragupta's 
life, 283, 284 

Attendants of Kuvera, Guh- 
yakas, 98ni 

Auburn matted locks of Siva, 

Ausgew'dhlte Erz'dhlungen aus 
Hemacandras Parisishtapar- 
van, J. Hertel, 285ni 

Auspicious birth-chamber, 
the, 161 

Austerities, fire propitiated 
by Vidushaka with, 58 ; 
performed by Gauri, 100; 
performed by the King of 
Vatsa, 84, 85; power 
obtained by, 85 ; practised 
by Sunda and Upasunda, 
13n* ; propitiating Siva 
with, 84, 85; of Siva 
troubled by the God of 
Love, 100 

Australians, poisoning of, 
280, 280?i4 

Autumn, thunder ceases in 
the, 92ii3 

Avarice of the chaplain, 179 

Avesta, the [Zoroaster], 240 

Baby girl brought up by huge 

snakes, 294 
Back burned by vessel of 

boiling rice, 24 
Back feathers of the huge 

bird, Saktideva hides 

among the, 219 
Background of the magic art, 

the "act of truth" at the, 

Background of the Secretum 

Secretormn, Eastern, 290 
** Bacteries comme arme de 

guerre, Les," Col. Zugaro, 

Bull. Beige des Sci. Milit., 

Bahdwalpur State, The, Malik 

Muhammad Din, 167 
Bakhtydr Ndma, the, 123 
Banks of the Sipra, 176-178 ; 

of the Yamuna (Jumna), 

Banyan-tree saves Saktideva's 

life, 218 


Banj^an-tree, worship in the 
cemetery under a, 233 

Bar (Latin sera), lQ2n 

Barbarians, North defiled by, 

Barbe Bleue, La, Perrault, 

Bargain of Vindumati, the 
strange, 229 

Barlaam and Josaphat, 290 

Basil, TulasI or sacred, 82 

Basilisk, 299^^, 306 

Basket containing girl set 
adrift on the Ganges, 4 

Bas-reliefs of the Han 
Dynasty, 264 

Battle of Rama and Ravana, 

"Battle Section" (Yudda- 
kdnda) of the Rdmdyand, 

Beat of drum, proclamation 
by, 73, 73w2, 173, 187, 

Beautiful lady found by Vidii- 
shaka in the temple, 66 

Beautiful maiden fed on 
poison, 291 

Beautiful maidens found dead 
by Saktideva, 223 

"Beautiful Palace East of 
the Sun and North of 
the Earth," Thorpe, Yule- 
tide Stories, 80^1, 190^1, 

Beautiful woman Tilottama 
made by Vi^vakarman, 14, 

"Beauty and the Beast" 
motif, 254 

Beauty that maddens, 7, 8 

Beauty of the two maidens, 
the illuminating, 43, 43n2 

Bees, Guhachandra and the 
Brahman assume the shape 
of, 42 

Beggar or Bhikshu, 180# 

Belief that the dead rise from 
the tomb in the form of 
vampires, 61^^ ; in the 
poisonous look of snakes, 
298; about Rahu in the 
Central Provinces, 82; in 
the sanctity of iron among 
the Doms, 168 ; in trans- 
migration, 241 ; in vampires 
in Egypt, Qln^ 

" Bellephoron, Tale of," 
Apuleius, Golden Ass, 60^^ 

"Bellerophon letter" motif, 


"Bericht iiber verschiedene 
Volksstiimme in Vorderin- 
dien," F. Jagor, Zeitschrift 
fur Ethnologie, 166 

Betel, poison conveyed in a 
"chew" of, 303 

Betel-chewing, effect of, 302 

Betel juice in a person's face, 
insult of spitting, 302, 303 

Betel nut {fufel or faufel, 
Arabic), 302; (coffolo or 
chofole), 301, 302 

Betel vine, leaves of the 
{Tamholi), 301, 302 

Betel vine or pan {Chavica 
Betel), 302 

Bewilderment one of the six 
faults of man, 106^^ 

Bewitching (Mohanl), 212n^ 

Bhartrihari Nlti Sataka, the, 

"Bhasa,"Barnett, Joum. Boy. 
As. Soc., 21ni 

"Bhasa's Works, are they 
Genuine?", A. K. and 
K. R. Pisharoti, Bull. Sch. 
Orient. Stud., 21n^ 

Bibliographie des Ouv rages 
Arabes, V. Chauvin, 4671^, 
58ni, 108n, 122, 131^1, 
136wi, 147^1, 151^2, 190ni, 
193ni, 202ni, 224w, 297n2 

Bibliography of the MSS. 
of the Secretum Secretorum, 

Bibliography of Sir Richard 
Burton, Annotated, N. M. 
Penzer, 10^ 

Bibliophilists, Society of 
English, 2n^ 

Bile, of the green tree-snake 
as poison, 303; of the 
green water-frog as poison, 
303 ; of the jungle-crow as 
poison, 303 

Bird carries Saktideva to the 
the Golden City, 219, 220 

Birds, Aristophanes, lt>2n'^ 

Birds, hiding in the feathers 
of, 219^3, 220n ; king of the 
(Garuda), 151, 152, 154, 
155 ; language of the, 
107*1^ ; like vultures, enor- 
mous, 219 ; overheard by 
Saktideva, conversation of, 
219, 219ni 

Birth of Antichrist, announce- 
ment of the, 39n2 

Birth, adventures of Jimuta- 
vahana in a former, 141- 
149 ; of a daughter to 



Birth continued 

Adityasena, 55 ; of Kart- 
tikeya, 100-103; of the 
king's horse, the former, 
56 ; of Naravahanadatta, 
161-162 ; power of remem- 
bering former, 149 ; of 
Sinhaparakrama's wife, 
previous, 160; of Soma- 
prabha, 39, 40; speaking 
immediately after, 39, 39/1^ ; 
of Vasavadatta, former, 30 

** Birth, supernatural," motif, 

Birth - chamber, the auspi- 
cious, 161 ; iron rod kept 
in the, 166 ; lights to scare 
away evil spirits in the, 
168 ; precautions observed 
in the, 166-169 

Birth-rate in India, the high, 

Bite, the amorous, 305 ; of 
the poison-damsel fatal, 

Black magic, 99?i ; nudity in, 

Blessed, Svarga, abode of 
the, 175ni, 257 

Blind, DhritarSshtra born, 
16 ; executioners when at- 
tempting to impale Soma- 
datta become, 96 

Blood, epithet denoting the 
price of a man's {Satadaya), 
240; of husband mixed 
with betel and eaten by 
the bride, 24w ; mixed with 
lac (lye, 24n ; mixing or 
exchanging, by bride and 
bridegroom, 23n 

Blood rite, use of vermilion 
a survival of the, 23ai, 

Blue eyes [azrk, Arabic), 299 

Bluebeard, E. A. Vizetelly, 

Bluebeard, identification of, 

Boar pursued by Saktideva, 

Bodice {angia or angii/a), 50, 

Bodice, kurta the Kash- 
mirian, 50n^ ; of Western 
India, the choft, bOri^ ; 
worn by Hindu and Mo- 
hammedan women of the 
North, 50n5 

Bodies, maidens with ser- 
pents in their, 307 

"Bodiless, The" (Ananga), 

Bodily marks, interpreting 
(samudrika), Tn} 

Body, animating a dead, 62; 
fire in one's own (vrika), 

Body of Rahu called Ketu, 

Body of Rahu the progenitor 
of meteors and comets, 81 

Bohmische Marchen, Waldau, 
76i, 190ii 

Bolting horse of Adityasena, 

Bombay Gazetteer, the, 119, 
168, 169, 232n 

Book (parvan), 16 

Book III, Lfivanaka, 1-124 

Book IV, Naravahanadatta- 
janana, 125-169 

Book V, Chaturdarika, 170- 

Book of Dnarte Barbosa, The, 
M. Longworth Dames, 18, 
269wi, 300, 300^15^ 301, 303 

Book of Ser Marco Polo, The, 
Yule and Cordier, 85w, 266, 
268, 268n^ 302, 302n2, 303 

Book of Sifidibad, Clouston, 
114?i, 120, 121, 122, 224n 

Book of Tobit^the apocryphal, 

Book of the Twelve Prophets^ 
The, G. A. Smith, 194n 

Boon granted to Kunti, 24 ; 
granted to Pururavas by 
the Gandharvas, 247, 249 ; 
granted by Siva, 136 

Boons, image of Gane^a which 
grants, 99 

Borax, turmeric and lime- 
juice, powder made of, 
[hinkam), 164 w* 

Bracelet worn by Hindu 
women, an iron, 167 

Brahman demon, ' Jvala- 
mukha, 147n^ 

Brahman miser, the, 176 

Brahman monastery, the, 57- 

Brahman named Agnidatta, 
95, 133; named Chakra- 
dhara, 59, 60, 65 ; named 
Chanakya (Kautilya or 
Vishnugupta), 283-285; 
named Govindasvamin, 
196, 197, 199, 200, 209, 
211; named Haridatta, 
231 ; named Saktideva, 
174, 175, 188, 189, 191-195, 

Brahman continued 

213, 217-222, 224-231, 236- 
238; named Vishnudatta, 
195, 213, 217 

Brahman, periods in the life 
of a, 180, 180ni ; students, 
Wanderjahre of, \lhi^ ; who 
has seen the Golden City, 
Kanakarekha will marry 
a, 173; woman entertains 
Vidushaka, 69 ; woman, 
the poor, 128, 129, 133-135 

Brdhmanas, the, 240 

Brahmans feasted by Guha- 
chandra, 41 

Brahmans of Gujarat, Sri- 
gaud, 168, 169; of the 
monastery, 65 

Brahmans oppose the king's 
entrance, 57 ; oppose poly- 
andry, 17 

Brahmans, Pandus disguised 
as mendicant, 16; villages 
given to, 59 


Brains from a skull, drinking, 

Brave Brahman Vidushaka, 

** Brave Seventee Bai," Frere, 
Old Deccan Days, 202wi 

Breast-cover {mahram), 50/1^; 
{miaband), 50n^ 

Breath, air polluted by poison- 
damsel's, 292, 293; the 
poisonous, 300-303 

Bribed to cause king's death, 
woman, 309 

Bribery, politic expedient of, 

Bridegroom, tali tied by a 
mock, 18 

Bridge across the ocean con- 
structed by the monkeys, 
84, 84ni, 85w 

British Burma and its People, 
C. J. F. S. Forbes, 226ni 

British Goblins, Wirt Sikes> 
75n2, 98n4, 223^^1 

British Medical Journal, 308^ 

British Museum, 61ni, 263, 

** Brittany Marriage Custom, 
A," F. C. Conybeare, Fo/^- 
Lore, 23;i 

Broken heart, death from a, 

Broken-hearted king, the,. 



Brother of Dhritarashtra and 

Pandu, Vidura, 16 
Brother of Padraavati, Sin- 

havarman, 89 
Brothers Asokadatta and 

Vijayadatta, meeting of 

the, 209 
Brothers, stories of hostile, 
I Un 

f ** Brothers, Story of the 

Two," Maspero, Popular 

Stories from Ancient Egypt^ 

Brothers Sunda and Upa- 

sunda, Asura, 13-14 
Brought up on el-his, girl, 

Brown (Kapila) cow, 276 
Buddhism, Magadha the 

home of, Zn^ 
Buddhism of Tibet ^ Waddell, 

Buddhist centre, Pataliputra, 

the, 39wi 
Buddhist Emperor of India, 

A^oka, 120 
Buddhist India, Rhys Davids, 

Buddhist mendicant, Siva 

assumes form of, 106 
Buddhist sage named Naga- 

sena, 32 
Bull, god whose ensign is a 

(Siva), 101, lOlwi; Nandin 
I . the, 242, 

Bull with Siva, connection of 

the, 242 
Bull. Madras Mus,, liln^y 

168, 199>i 
Bull. Sch. Orient. Stud., 

"Bhasa's Works, are they 

Genuine?", A. K. and 

K. R. Pisharoti, 2ln^ 
Bulletins de la Societcd' Anthrop. 

de Paris, Moncelon in the, 

Burglary with an iron tool, 
unlawful to commit a, 168 

Buried treasure, 52, 87 

*' Burma and Assam (Bud- 
dhism in)," Sir J. G. Scott, 
Hastings' Enci/. Bel. Eth., 

Burma under British Rule and 
Before, J. Nisbet, 265^2, 

Burman, his Life and Notions, 
The, Shway Yoe (Sir 
J. G. Scott), 167, 26bn^ 

Burmese architecture, ti in, 
265, 265n* 

Burning of Vasavadatta's 

pavilion, 21 
Burning-ghat, 197^^ 
Burning-ground, 197^^ ; king 

taken for the keeper of the, 

57, 57^3 
"By the current" {ambuve- 

gatah), 217n3 
By descent {dkula), 158?t^ 

Calf, Svilyambhuya Manu the, 

Call from a funeral pyre, 200 
Cambridge History of India, 

3?ii, 120, 240, 241, 282^1 
Camden Society, 114n 
Camels, halting - place for 

(caravanserai or karwdn- 

sardi), 162n, 163n 
Cannibalism during the 

French Revolution, 185>i3 
Cannibalism among the Sakta 

worshippers, 198/1^ 
Cannibalism, hermit accused 

of, 185 
Cafitica caniicorutn, Frauenlob, 

Capital of A^oka, Pataliputra 

the, 39^1 
Capital of Magadha, Girivraja 

the ancient, Rajagriha 

(modern Rajgir) the later, 

Capture, marriage by, 24i 
Caravanserai {karwdnsardi, 

Persian), a halting-place 

for camels, 162w, 163>i 
Cardinal points as only gar- 
ment, 98, 98i3 
Carried off by the animated 

corpse, the mendicant, 62 
Carried off by Garuda, Jimu- 

tavahana, 154 
Carry out the plan (yad hi), 

12, 12wi 
Carrying {dhdrin), 90n^ 
Caste, the Kshatriya, 17; 

the Mang, a low, 82 ; the 

Pardhi, 88)1^; of scavengers, 

the Mehtar, 82; Teli the 

oil-pressers', 82 ; the Tiyor, 

Caste mark {Tilaka), 22^3 
Castes and Tribes of Southern 

India, E. Thurston, 166, 

256, 256^4 
" Casting forth flames out 

of her eyes and mouth " 

{naya7idnatiavdfitolkd), 104w^ 
Casually {yadrichchhayd) , ISl^i^ 
Cat {majjdo), iW- 

Cat, Hanuman assumes form 
of, 191n^ ; Indra assumes 
form of, 46 

Cat sacred in Russia, 117 

Cathay and the Way Thither, 
Yule and Cordier, 85, 

Cattle in Jalandhar, cure for, 

Cause of polyandrous mar- 
riage of Draupadi, 16, 17 

Cause of the setting of the 
sun, the west the, 53 

Causes of low proportion of 
females to males in India, 
18, 19 

Causes of polyandry, 18, 19 

Celestial cow Kamadhenu 
connected with Indra, 242 

Celestial rank abandoned by 
Somaprabha, 44 

Cemetery, horrors of the, 60- 
62, 201 ; full of Rakshasas, 
205; the religious mendi- 
cant in the, 62 ; to get 
warm, Vijayadatta goes to 
the, 197 ; worship under a 
banyan-tree in the, 233 

Census of India, 17, 18 

Census Report, Panjab, 118 

Cento Novelle, Antiche, 113n^ 

Centralblatt fur Bibliothek- 
swesen, 288w^ 

Centre, Pataliputra the great 
Buddhist, 39ni 

Centuries of life, knots that 
mark the, 189, 189n^ 

CeremoniesofNairs, marriage, 
17, 18 

Ceremony, the Chaukpumd,llS 

Ceremony of alliance as 
husband and wife {Samband- 
ham), 18 

Ceremony in honour of Siva, 
a horrible, 104 

"Certain death, messenger 
of" [i.e. poison-damsel), 

Chalcidians and Eretrians, 
war of the, 278 

Chaldcean Magic and Sorcery, 
Lenormant, 61#, 69^3, 

Chanters of the Sama Veda, 

Chaplain named Sankaras- 

vamin, 176, 178 
Character indicated by bodily 

marks, 7ni 
Chariot, Rakshasa as a, 75, 78, 




Charm against alligators, iron 

pyrites as a, 168 
Charm for appeasing the fire, 

42 ; to change shape, 20 ; 

to ward off danger, weapons 

a, 166 
Charmed circle, the, OSn*, 

99n, lOOn 
"Charms and Amulets 

(Indian)," W. Crooke, 

Hastings' Enci/. Rel. Eth.y 

Chase by the king, pursuit 

of the, 126 
Cheat {kitava)y 232/i 
Cheating at play a frequent 

crime, 23271 
Chest filled with false gems, 

179, 181 
"Chew" of betel, poison 

conveyed in a, 303 
Chief enemy of the King of 

Vatsa, Brahmadatta the, 

88, 89, 91, 95, 115 
Chiefof the monkeys, Sugrlva, 

84, 84^1 
Chief prince of the Siddhas, 

Vi^vfivasu, 140, 149 
Chief of the Savaras, Pulin- 

daka, 141 
Chief wardernamed Nityodita, 

128, 129 
Child becomes a sword, the 

murdered, 236 
Child protected by lamps, 

161 ; sold to a smith by 

Annam parents, 166, 167 ; 

taken from woman after 

cutting her open, 229, 

229n2; symbolised by fire 

produced by fire - drill, 

Child-bearing, evil effect of 

early, 18 
Childbirth, knife to keep off 

the devil kept beside 

woman after, 166 
Childbirth customs, 166, 167 ; 

among the Kachins of 

Upper Burma, 167 ; among 

the Vadvals of Thana, 

Childhood of Fiction, The, 

J. A. Macculloch, lOSn, 

194n, 202ni, 224n, 253 
Children, Haras vamin ac- 
cused of eating, 185 ; 

method of killing female, 

Children like Misery and 

Poverty, two, 128 

Children on the Slave Coast, 
iron rings attached to, 167 

Child's flesh eaten by Jala- 
pada, 234 

Chin, character indicated by 
the, In} 

Chinese Art, Bushell, 264 

Chips from a German Work- 
shop, Max Mailer, 251n^ 

Chloride of mercury, 2B1 

Choice, marriage by {svayam- 
vara), 16 

Cholera, iron used during 
attack of, 167 

Chrestomathie Arahe, Silvestre 
de Sacy, 312w2 

Churning of the Ocean, 65n^, 
67ni, 81 

" Circassian Slaves and the 
Sultan's Harem," F. Mill- 
ingen, Joiim. Anth. Soc.f 

Circle, the charmed, 98-lOOn ; 
the magic, 98-lOOw, 295, 

Circle of ashes, lOOn 

Circle of dittany juice, lOOn, 
295, 295ni 

Circle as a kind of haranij the 
magic, 295 

Circumambulating the tree, 
96, 97 

City, Kanakarekha will marry 
a Brahman or Kshatriya 
who has seen the Golden, 
173 ; search of Saktideva for 
the Golden, 188-195 ; Story 
of the Golden, 171-175, 
184, 186-195, 213, 217-231, 

"City of flowers" Kusuma- 
pura (Pataliputra), 39w^, 

City given to Sundaraka, 111 

City of Gold at last reached, 
219, 220; bestowed on 
Saktideva, 233 ; return of 
Saktideva to the, 237 

City of Indra, Svarga, 175n^ 

"City of jewels," Ratnapura, 
175, 175^2 

"City named of the ele- 
phant," Hastinapura, 1, In^ 

City sacred to the moon-god, 
Harran, 194n 

Citi/ of the Saints, Burton, 280, 

Cifi/ Shmer, A, Swift, 270 

Class of Rishi (holy sage), 
Devarshi the highest, 34, 

Classes of Saiva mendicants, 
ten, 90n3 

Classical Dictionary, Garrett, 

Classical writers, dittany in 
the works of, 295n^ 

Clever Physician, Story of 
the, 2, 2ni 

Clothes in Brazil, infected, 

Clothes infected with small- 
pox, 280n- ' 

Clue to the poison - damsel 
myth, cobra sting the, 311 

Cobra in India, dread of the, 

Cobra regarded as phallus, 

Cobra, reverence paid to the, 
311, 312 

Cobra sting a clue to the 
poison-damsel myth, 311 

Code of Mann, 275, 275/ii 

Coffee-houses, umbrellas used 
by, 269 

Collection of communications 
from Aristotle to Alex- 
ander, the Secretum Secre- 
tonim, 287 

Collects his wives, Vidushaka, 

College, the Sanskrit, 50n*, 
74ni, 89^3, 97n2, 100n2, 
137ni, 185^2, 197n3 

Colliers d'Or, Les, Barbier de 
Meynard, 298 

Collyrium and kohl, 50n* 

Colour of the Sun's Horses, 
Dispute about the, 150-152 

Columns of victory, 92, 92n^ 

Comets and meteors, Rahu's 
body the progenitor of, 81 

Command of Siva to the 
Rakshasa, 74, 75 

Commentary on the Hindu 
System of Medicine, Wise, 

Commercial Products of India, 
Watt, 280ni, 304ni 

Communal or group marriage, 

Communications from Aris- 
totle to Alexander, Secretum 
Secretorum a collection of, 

Compassion of Jimutavahana, 

"Conceptions extraordin- 
aires," Chauvin, Biblio- 
graphic des Onvrages Arabes, 



Conciliation, politic expedient 
of, 45^3 

Concubine of Nanda, Mura 
a, 282^3 

Concubine rubbed with 
poison, neck of a, 297 

Condition for marriage, 
Kanakarekha's, 173 

Conditions of Urva^i's mar- 
riage to Pururavas, 145-146 
- Confucian classic Tsun Tsiu 
i ("Springs and Autumns"), 


Connection between snakes 
and intercourse, 307 ; of 
I the bull with Siva, 242; 

of the celestial cow Kiima- 
dhenu with Indra, 242 ; of 
the cow with fertility, 

Conquering of the earth by 
the King of Vatsa, 91-94 

Conqueror (or Victor) of 
Obstacles (Ganesa), 1, 125, 

Conquest, preparation of the 
king for, 53 

[Conquest o/] PerUi W. 
Prescott, 88/ii 

Cons.y Vegetius, 277 

Construction of a bridge 
across the ocean by 
monkeys, 84-85n 

Consume {dahauhind) 25, 25w^ 

Contamination by the poison- 
damsel, different methods 
of, 291 

Contes Albanais, Dozon, 190w^ 

Contes Devots or Miracles of 
the Virgin, llSii^ 

Contes d^ Eutrapel, Noel du 
Fail de la Herissaye, 3w 

Contes de Perrault, Les, P. 
Saintyves, 224n, 2b3n^ 

Continent, division of a 
(Varsha), 125?i2 

Continuity, magic circle de- 
notes finality and, 99/i 

Contos Populares Portugueses, 
Coelho, 76ni 

Conversation of Achilles with 
his horses Xanthos and 
Balios, 57ni 

Conversation of birds over- 
heard by Saktideva, 219, 

Conversation of birds, over- 
hearing, 107n^ 

Conversations of Rakshasas, 
giants, vampires, etc., 
overhearing, 107n^ 

Cook named Sahasika, 112, 

Copyists, Sccretum Secretorum 

suffered at the hands of, 

" Corn-god, net of the," circle 

of flour and water called 

the, 295, 296 
Corpse, flames issuing from the 

mouth of a, 62 ; mustard 

seed growing from the 

navel of a, 62 
Corpses, digging up and eat- 
ing, 202ni 
Corpses eaten, flesh of, 198;^l 
Country of the Bharatas, 16 
Courage (sattvatah), 2SQn^ ; 

(tejas), 161n^ 
Court of Kublai Kaan, 268 
Courtesan visited by Guha- 

chandra, 44 
Covetousness one of the six 

faults of man, 106?^3 
Cow (go), 241 
Cow an act of hospitality, 

offer to kill a, 241 
Cow connected with fertility, 

Cow connected with Indra, 

Kamadhenu the celestial, 

Cow granting all desires, 

Kamadhenu, 45, 45^^ 
Cow, Hindu filled with horror 

at the slaughter of a, 240 
*'Cow (Hindu)," H. Jacobi, 

Hastings' Enci/. liel. Eth.y 

240, 241 
Cow of the Hindus, the sacred, 

Cow identified with speech, 

Cow, Kapila (brown), 276 
Cow ritual, 241, 242 
Cow, the sacred, 229, 229^^ 
Cow and the universe, mystic 

relation between the, 240 
Cow used as a standard of 

value, 240 
Cow-house flies through the 

air, 108, 109 
Cow-house, Sundaraka takes 

shelter in a, 106 
Cow's heaven, 242 
Cows and oxen eaten by the 

sage Yajnivalkya, milch, 

"Craft and Malice of Women, 

The," Burton, Nights, 123 
Creation of the story-teller, 

poison-damsel, 313 

"Credenze religiose delle 
popolazioni rurali dell'alte 
valle del Taveri," G. Nicasi, 
LareSf lOSn 

Creeper clinging to a tree, 
union of husband and wife 
compared to a, 204?ii 

Creeper, Urvasi changed into 
a, 258 

Creeper-like sword (flexible, 
well-tempered), 93, 93?ii 

Creepers poisoned by Yoga- 
karandaka, 91 

Crest, god with the (Siva), 
136, 170 

Cries of vultures and jackals, 

Crimijial Classes of Bomhay, 
Kennedy, 185w 

Criminal tribe of North India, 
Doms a, 168 

Crow as poison, bile of the 
jungle-, 303 

Crown [mako), 264 

Crudities, Cory ate, 270 

Cry, to {ru), 251 

Cuer de Philosophic, Le, 
Antoine Verard, 293 

Curds, a sacred product of 
the cow, 242 

Cure of afflictions by violence, 
2, 2ni, 3w ; of disease by a 
shock, 37, 37^1 

Curing cattleinJalandhar, 119 

Curing a horse in the Sirsa 
district, 119 

Curious Myths of the Middle 
Ages, Baring-Gould, 39n^ 

Curl at back of head or near 
right temple considered 
unlucky, 7/1^ ; at back of 
Palli bride's head indicates 
death of her eldest brother- 
in-law, 7n^ ; on bride's fore- 
head among Pallis indicates 
widowhood, lin}- ; on fore- 
head lucky, In^ 

Current, by the (ainbuvegatah), 

Curse of Agryatapas, 121 ; of 
Arindama, 127 ; of Asoka- 
datta's wife ends, 210 ; of 
Bharata, 257, 258; of 
Gautama, 46 ; of the her- 
mits, 211 ; of Narada, 147 ; 
of Siva, 141 

Curse, death of Pandu owing 
to a, 16 ; laid upon Puru- 
ravas by Tumburu, 35 

Cursed, the three sisters, 237 

Curtain [parda), 163n 



Curved sword of the King of 

Vatsa, 93, 93ni 
Custom of kings to dabble in 

magic, 112n 
Custom regarding bodily 

marks among the Kurubas, 

Customs connected with 
eclipses, 81-83; connected 
with eclipses in Northern 
India, 82, 83; connected 
with eclipses among the 
Sencis of Eastern Peru, 81 ; 
connected with eclipses 
among the Tlaxcalans of 
Mexico, 81; connected with 
eclipses among the Todas 
of the Nilgiri Hills, 82; 
connected with iron in 
Salsette, 167 

Cuts herself open, Vidyut- 
prabha, 234 

Cutting the noses off impaled 
robbers, 60-62 

Cutting off of the Rakshasa's 
arm by Vidushaka, 71 

Cutting open a woman and 
taking out the child, 229, 

Cycle of tales, The Sindibad 
Kama, 124 

Dahistdn, The, Shea-Troyer, 

Daily offering to the fire 

(hoina), 257, 257ni 
Damsel, the poison-, 275-313 
Damsel brought up on poison 

from infancy, 293 
Damsel in India, the poison-, 

Damsels sent among the 

enemy's host, poison-, 91, 

Dance, chalila, a dramatic, 

35, 35n2 
Dancing, nymphs display 

their skill in, 35 
Danger, weapcms a charm to 

ward off, 166 
Daring task undertaken by 

Vidushaka, 60-62 
Dasa Kumara Charita, or The 

Story of the Ten Princes, 

J. J. Meyer, 183ni, 184n 
Date of the worship of the 

sacred cow, 240 
Date-stones, jerking of, 147n^ 
Daughter of Adityasena, 55, 

62 ; of Devasena, 69-71 ; of 

the Himalaya (ParvatI), 156 

"Daughter, Giving of a," 

negotiation termed, 47 
Daughter, marriage of Siva 

and the chaplain's, 181 
" Daughter of Prithu," Earth 

called Prithivi, 241 
Daughters of hermits, Vidya- 

dharas fall in love with 

the, 211 
Daughters of the Rakshasa, 

74 ; of Sasikhanda, 221 
Daybreak, at (prabhate), 51n^ 
Dead, Kanakarekha found by 

Saktideva, 222, 223 
Dead body, animating a, 62 
Dead and dying, magic circle 

a protective barrier to the, 

Dead rise from the tomb in 

the form of vampires, be- 
lief that the, 61n^ 
Dead robbers tenanted by 

demons, 61, 61?i^ 
Deadliest aconite {Aconitum 

spicatum), 279 
Deadly serpents, valley 

guarded by, 299 
Deadly snakes and Alexander 

the Great, 299, 300 
De Aristotelis quce feruntur 

secretis secretorum commen- 

tatio, Forster, 287wi, 288^1-2, 

Death from broken heart, 

Death of eldest brother-in- 
law indicated by curl on 

the back of Palli bride's 

head, In^ 
Death of Guhasena, 41 
Death of King Ladislao of 

Naples, legend of the, 310 
Death of King VVenceslaus II, 

legend of the, 309, 309n2 
** Death, Letter of," motif, 

Death, the message of, 113- 

"Death, messenger of cer- 
tain," the poison - damsel 

the, 284 
Death in mirrors, serpents 

stare themselves to, 299 
Death of Panc^u owing to a 

curse, 16 
Death, south inhabited by 

the God of, 54 
Death, temple of Durga like 

the mouth of, 227 
Death the tenth and final 

stage of love-sickness, 9/1^ 

Death from unrequited love, 

Death in his wife's embrace, 

Pandu's, 127 
Death, woman bribed to 

cause king's, 309 
Deaths of Duhkalabdika's 

husbands, mysterious, 69, 

Deaths from snake - bite, 

statistics of, 311 
De Bella Gild., Claudian, 277 
Decadas, Joao de Barros, 269 
Decameron, Boccaccio, lOn, 

76ni, 114n 
Decameron, its Sources and 

Analogues, Lee, lOn, 76n^, 

De causis et properictaiibus 

elementorum, Pseudo- 
Aristotle, 299/1* 
Decay of vegetation, symbol 

of the gradual, 61n^ 
" Declaring presence " motif, 

76ni, ITn 
Decoction of Katabhi, Pathd 

and Vidanga, 276 
De Dea Syria, Lucian, 169 
Dedication of the golden 

lotus to a temple, 208 
Deer, hermit in the form of a, 

Deer of the mind {manomrigi), 

Defeat of the Hfinas, 94, 9in^ 
Defile theSun's horses, snakes 

spit venom to, 150 
Degeneration of the Rajputs, 

305, 305^1 
Deity of sweepers, Rahu a, 82 
De jure belli ac pacts, Hugo 

Grotius, 277-279 
Delicate mission of Agni, 101 
Delights, destroyer of (death), 

Delta of the Ganges, 92n2 
Demon eating the impaled 

man's flesh, a horrible, 202 
Demon flies up in the air, 203 
Demon J valamukha,Brahman , 

Demonologtf, Conway, 117 
Demons, dead robbers ten- 
anted by, 61, 61wi; fire- 
breathing, 61 

W. Crooke, Hastings' Ency. 
RcL Eth., 61ni 
Denkmdler provenzalischer 
Liter atur und Sprache, 
Suchier, 289^1 


De Nugis Curialium, Th. 

Wright (Camden Society), 

De Officiis, Cicero, 277 
Dependent of a king {kdrpa- 

tika), 178# 
Depression on Adam's Peak, 

beliefs regarding the, 84^^, 

De liegimine Principum {Secre- 

ttim Secretorum), 287, 287^^ 
Descending from the air, spell 

forgotten by Sundaraka for, 

Descending nodes, Rahu's 

body "epresents, 81 
Descent (dkula), 158n^ ; of 

Ishtar into Hades, Gln^ ; 

of Vidushaka into the sea, 

Description of Naravahana- 

datta, 162 ; of Rakshasas, 

197^2 ; of the terrors of the 

cemetery, 60-62; of witches, 

Descriptive Catalogue of the 

Mackenzie Collection of 

Oriental MSS., H. H. 

Wilson, 121, 123 
De Secretis Secretoruniy 287, 

Desire of Gauri for a son, 100 
Desire of the king for a 

second golden lotus, 208 
Desire one of the six faults 

of man, 106n3 
*' Desires, Giver of," a wish- 
ing- tree called, 138, 139 
Destiny, Goddess of, 218 
Destiny of Govindasvamin's 

sons foretold, 196 
Destroyer of delights (death), 

Destruction of the Mlech- 

chhas, 93; of the serpent 

race, 152 
Deutsche Liederdichter des 12. 

his IJf.. Jahrhunderts, K. 

Bartsch, 292^3 
DeuLs'che Mythologie, Grimm, 

Deutsche Volksbucher, Simrock, 

57ni, 64n2, 76wi 
"Deux Anglais k Paris," 

Fabliau, 2n^ 
Devil, knife kept beside a 

woman after childbirth to 

keep off the, 166 
Devils and Evil Spirits of 

Babylonia, The, R. Camp- 
bell Thompson, 61w^ 


Dhamiakalpadruma, 14n 
Dialogus C? eatura7'um, Nicolaus 

Pergamenus, 114?i 
Dice, gambling with, 231^^, 

Dictionary of the Economic 

Products of India, Watt, 

280S 304^1 
Dictionary of Islam, Hughes, 

Dictionary of Phrase and 
Fable, Brewer, 271 

Different methods of con- 
tamination by the poison- 
damsel, 291 

Digestible snake venom, 311 

Digging up corpses and eat- 
ing them, 202ni 

Dimple in cheek indicates 
looseness of character, IrO- 

Diplomacy of Yaugandhara- 
yana, 3 

Disappearance of Bhadra, 68 ; 
of Kalaratri, 111 

Discoverer of the Secretimi 
Secretorum, Yahya ibn 
Batrlq, the alleged, 288 

Discovery by Guhachandra 
that his wife is a divine 
being, 42, 43 

Discovery of the king, amaz- 
ing, 98, 99 

Discovery of the Lost Site of 
Pdtalipulra, L. A. Waddell, 

Discovery of ruins at Patna 
by Waddell and Spooner, 

Disease [vyddhi), 37 fi^ 

Disease in connection with 
the poison-damsel myth, 
venereal, 308, 309 

Disease cured by shock, 37, 

Disfavour of Aryans for poly- 
andry, 17 

Disguise of Pandus as 
mendicant Brahmans, 16 ; 
of Vasavadatta, Vasantaka 
and Yaugandharavana, 20, 

Disguised as a Rajput, 
Madhava, 176, 177; as a 
religious ascetic, Siva, 176 

Disgusting food, eating, 198n^ 

Dish of emerald reveals the 
past, 159, 160 

Dislike of spirits for iron, 

Dispute about the colour of 
the Sun's horses, 150-152 


Disquisitiones Magicoe, Del Rio, 

300, 300^2 
Dissension, politic expedient 

of sowing, 45^3 
Distance, measure o([yojanas), 

57, 57n2, 75 ; {kos), 191 
Distinctive names of um- 
brellas, 264 
Distinguishing signs of 

Naravahanadatta, 7ni 
District, the Choi a mandala 

or, 92n* 
Districts of Patna, Gaya and 

Shahabad correspond with 

kingdom of Magadha, 3n^ 
Dittany juice, circle traced 

round snake with, 295 ; 

magic circle of, lOOn, 295 
Dittany in the works of 

classical writers, 295^^ 
" Divali, the Lamp Festival 

of the Hindus," W^ Crooke, 

Folk-Lore, 118, 232n 
Divine being, discovery by 

Guhachandra that his wife 

is a, 42, 43; origin of Pandus 

in a single, 17 
Divine beings, horses as, 57, 

Divine man, 170 
Divine sage (Devarshi), 34, 


Divine, speech regarded as, 

241 ; syphilis regarded by 

Mexicans as, 309 
Divine voice, a, 63, 65 
Division of a continent 

(Varsha), 125n2 
Doctor of Padua, 297; of 

Perugia, 310 
Doctrine of ahimsd, 241 
Doe rubbed with poison, 

Doe, tale of the lion and the, 

Dog a demonic character in 

Russia, 117 
Doge of Venice carries an 

umbrella, 268 
Dogs held in esteem by the 

moon, 81 
Dogs, wife thrown to the, 121 
Dolopathos, 124 
Domestic fire {laukikdgni), 256 
Door fastened with the arm 

of the Rakshasa, 71, 72?i2 
Dove, Jonah the Hebrew 

word for, 193^1, \Un 
Downwards [adhah), 218^^ 
Dragon, mediaeval legend of 

a, 296 



'Dragons of India," Apol- 

lonius of Tyana, 108n 
Dragons pollute the air, 299 
Dramatic dance called chalita, 

35, 35m2 
Dramatist of India, Bhava- 

bhuti, 214 
Dravidian Nights, Sastri, 190n^ 
Drawn sword in her hand, 
Kalaratri with a, 106, lOOn* 
Dread of cobra in India, 311 
Dread of eclipses, 81, 82 
Dream, fruit given to 

Vasavadatta in a, 136 
Dream of Vasavadatta, 157 
"Dress," A. E. Crawley, 
Hastings' Ency. Uel. Eth., 
Drinking brains from a skull, 

Drinking heavenly wine, 43 
Droit des Gens, on Priricipes dc 
la Loi Naturelle appliques d 
la Conduite et aiuc Ajfaires 
des yalioiis et des Souverains, 
E. de Vattel, 278, 278ni, 
Drowning, leg of the giant 

saves Vidushaka from, 73 
Drug, a scented [ananta), 276 ; 

{sama-ga7idha), 276 
Drum, proclamation by beat 

of, 73, 73w2, 173, 187, 224 
Drums j)asted with anti- 
poisonous drugs, 276 
Duarte Barbosa, The Book of, 
M. Longworth Dames, 18, 
269ni, 300, 30074^, 301, 303 
Duchess o/'M/yi', Webster, 2r0- 
Duck lives on poison, the 

Pontic, 300 
Duel as result of insult, 303 
**D'un Roi qui voulut faire 
brftler le fils de son Sene- 
schal," Contes Dt'vots, 113n^ 
Dung, a sacred )>roduct of the 

cow, 242 
Dust (rajas), 106, 106ni 
Dwelling of the Goddess of 

Prosperity, Timira the, 36 
" Dying God, The," Frazer, 
Golden Bough, 253, 253/ii 

Earliest example of nuptial 
taboo, 252 

Early English Metrical Ro- 
mances, Ellis, 113n^ 

Early History of India, V. A. 
Smith, 282ni 

Early history of opium, 303, 

Early marriage in India, evil 
effects of, 18 

Ears, character indicated by 
the, 7ni; eyes of Hindu 
ladies said to reach their, 
50, 50n* 

Earth (Aditi), 241, 242 

Earth called Prithivl 
(daughter of Prithu), 241 

Earth conquered by the King 
of Vatsa, 91-94 

Earth goddess, 49 

Earth milked by living 
creatures, 241 

Earth under one umbrella, 
125, 1253 

[** East Central African Cus- 
toms "] Macdonald, Joum. 
Afith. Inst., 198^1 

East, Ganges flows towards 
the, 54 ; the j)referred 
quarter, 54 ; presided over 
by Indra, 54 

Eastern background of the 
Secretum Secretorum, 290 

Eastern mountain {udayagiri), 
67n^ ; (udayaparvata), 67n^ 

Eastern mountain behind 
which the sun rises, Udaya, 

Eastern quarter subdued by 
the King of Vatsa, 91 

Eating children, Harasvamin 
accused of, 185 

Eating disgusting food, 

Eating and drinking opium 
more harmful than smok- 
ing it, 303 

Eating flesh of corpses, 

Eating lime of oyster shells, 

Eating human flesh, 103, 104 ; 
among the Bantu negro 
races, 198ni, 199;i; in 
Central Africa, 198/ii ; 
Mana or spiritual exalta- 
tion gained by, 198w^ ; in 
Melanesia, l9Sn} ; power 
of becoming vampires by, 

Eating the impaled man's 
flesh, a horrible demon, 202 

Eating opium, 303, 304 

Eating the ox, sacrificial act 
of, 240 

Eating poison regularly, 300 

Eating of a snake gives power 
of understanding the 
language of animals, 108n 

"Eau-de-jouvence," Chauvin, 
Bibliographie des Ouvrages 
Arabes, \f>\n^ 

Ecclesiastes, 107w^ 

Eclipse an important event 
among modern Hindus, 83 

Eclipses among the Tlax- 
calans of Mexico, 81 ; among 
the Todas of the Nilgiri 
hills, 82 ; in Assam, 81 ; 
in China, 81 ; in Northern 
India, 82, 83 ; regarded 
with dread, 81, 82 

Eclipses, Note on Rahu and, 

Edifice {sara or sarat, Persian), 

Effect of betel-chewing, 302 

Effects of poison, ring to 
destroy the, 301 

Egyptian Sultan Faraj, 279 

"Egyptians, Alleged Dis- 
covery of Syphilis in Pre- 
historic," The Lancet, 308n* 

Electra, Sophocles, llln^ 

Elephant, city named of the 
(Hastinapura), 1, In^ 

Elephant-faced god (Gane^), 
99-103, 125, 125711, Uln^, 

Elephants in the army of the 
King of Vatsa, 90 

Elephants, necklace from the 
heads of, 142, 142ni 

Emblem of royalty, the 
umbrella an, 263 

Embrace, killing by, 291 

Embraces, Pan^u's death in 
his wife's, 127 

Embryo cut out of woman,234 

Embryo of Karttikeya takes 
a thousand years to de- 
velop, 102 

Emerald reveals the past, 
dish of, 159, 160 

Emperor of India, A^oka the 
Buddhist, 120 ; Pataliputra 
the capital of A^oka, the 
first, 39ni 

Emperor of the Vidyadharas, 

Empire Exhibition, Wembley, 

Empire, Goddess of the 
Fortune of, 162 

Empty vessels inauspicious, 

Enclosure {serraglio, Italian), 

Encyclop'ddie, Ersch and 
Gruber. 163w 



'Encyclopasdia Britannica, 
"Harem," J. M. Mitchell, 

I lG3w; "Jonah," T. K. 

I Cheyne, 194n; "Opium," 
E. M. Holmes, 304ni 

E7icycloi)(edia of Beligion and 
Ethics, Hastings', 163n ; 
"Adam's Peak," T. W. 
Rhys Davids, 85n ; "Adul- 
tery," 88rji; "Aghorl," 
W. Crooke, 90^3, 198ni ; 
" Animals," N. W. Thomas, 
240; "Burma and Assam 
(Buddhism in)," Sir G. 
Scott, 265^4; "Charms and 
Amulets (Indian)," W. 
Crooke, 167; "Cow 
(Hindu)," H. Jacobi, 240, 
241 ; ' Demons and Spirits 
(Indian)," W. Crooke, 61^1 ; 
"Dress," A. E. Crawley, 
118; "Evil Eye," F. T. 
El worthy, 298; "Foeticide," 
A. E. Crawley, 229^2; 
"Gambling," J. L. Paton, 
23271; "Magic," 99w; 
"Magical Circle," A. E. 
Crawley, 99n ; " Phallism," 
E. S. Hartland, 119,307^2; 
" Points of the Compass," 
T. D. Atkinson, 54n^; 
" Prodigies and Portents," 
W. D.Wallis,83; "Serpent 
Worship (Indian)," W. 
Crooke, 307^2; "Serpent 
Worship (Primitive and 
Introductory)," J. A. Mac- 
culloch, 307^2; "Sun, 
Moon and Stars (Bud- 
dhist),"E. J. Thomas,81,83 

Encyclopaedia of Superstitions y 
Folk-Lore and the Occult 
Sciences, C. L. Daniels and 
C. M. Stevans, 145^1 

Endowed with much light 
(TToAvSevKrys), 251 

Enemies of the King of Vatsa 
subdued, 91-94 

Enemies of man, six faults 
that are the, 106, 106^3 

Enemy of the King of Vatsa, 
Prahmadatta the chief, 
88-91, 95, 115 

Enemy, spitting at an, 302, 

English Dictionary, NeWy 
Murray, 269n*, 270 

English Illustrated Magaziyie, 
The, "Pagodas, Aurioles 
and Umbrellas," F. C. 
Gordon Cumming, 272 

English and Scotch Popular 

Ballads, Child, 76ni 
English trans, of Frauenlob's 

Cantica canticorum, A. E. 

Kroeger, 292^3 
English umbrellas, examples 

of, 271 
Enormous birds like vultures, 

"Ensorcelled Prince, Tale of 

the," Burton, Nights, 131ni 
Entry of the king into 

Kausambi, the triumphant, 

49-51, 115 
Envy one of the six faults of 

man, 106n3 
Epics, the, 45w* 
Epicurean, The, Thomas 

Moore, Qn^ 
Epithet denoting the price 

of a man's blood Isatadaya), 

Eretrians, war of the Chal- 

cidians and the, 278 
Esoteric rites of Hinduism, 

Essays on the Hindu Family 

in Bengal, B. Mullick, 163n 
Essays on Sanskrit Literature, 

H. H. Wilson, 92n* 
" Establishment of the Sacred 

Fires," Agnyadhana, 256ni 
Ethiopian princess, 264 
Ethnographic Notes in Southern 

India, Thurston, In^, 166, 

256, 256n* 
Etiquette, offer of a cow a 

piece of, 241 
Etude stir les differ ents Textes, 

imprinies et manuscripts, du 

Roman des Sept Sages, 

Paulin Paris, 120 
Etymology, tracing origin of 

myths through, 251, 252 ; of 

the word "umbrella," 263 ; 

of the word zenana, 162n 
Eunuch of Candace, Queen of 

Ethiopia, 85n 
Eunuchs, 29, 29^1 
European form of "death 

from love " motif, lOn 
European literature, Secretum 

Secretorum in, 292-297 
Events which happened at 

the formation of the Maurya 

Empire, 281 
Evil effects of early marriage 

in India, 18 ; of premature 

child-bearing in India, 18 ; 

of primitive midwifery in 

India, 18 

Evil Eye, The, F. T. Elworthy, 

"Evil Eye," F. T. Elworthy, 

Hastings' Ency. Ilel. Eth.y 

Evil eye and the fatal look, 

Evil omen of an eclipse, 82 
Evil omen when children 

speak shortly after birth, 


Evil results of sudden wealth, 

Evil spirits active on first 
night of marriage, 306 

Evil spirits, lights in the 
birth-chamber to scare 
away, 168 ; measures to 
prevent entry of, 166 ; 
scared away by iron, 166- 
168 ; scared away by steel, 
166-168 ; scared away with 
a sword in the Philippines, 

Exaltation gained by eating 
human flesh, Mana or 
spiritual, 198^^ 

Examples of English um- 
brellas, 271 

Excavations of Sir Henry 
Layard, 263 

Excitement of the women on 
seeing the king and queens, 

Executioners become blind 
when attempting to impale 
Somadatta, 96 

Exercito e Marina, 281 

Existence in fact, poison- 
damsel has no, 313 

Expedition of Alexander re- 
ceives a check, 282 

Expedition, preparation of the 
King of Vatsa for the, 89 

Explanations of the fish 
legend, 193n 

"External Soul',' motif 120 

Eye, the fire of Siva's, lOO^i^, 
1647^1 ; throbbing, 144-1 45w 

Eye and the fatal look, the 
evil, 298 

Eyebrows, meeting, 103-104w 

Eyes, blue [azrk, Arabic), 299; 
King Sivi and the heavenly, 
32, 33 ; of Hindu ladies said 
to reach their ears, 50, 
50w*; kohl'd, 104n; women 
with precious stones in 
their, 306 

Eyes of Indra, the thousand, 
46, 46?i4 



Fables of Pilpay [Anvai'-i- 

Suhaiti), 297, 297n2 
Fauliaiu, "Deux Anglais k 

Paris," 2wi 
Fabliaux, Le Grand, llSji^ 
Faces, boy with six (Kartti- 

keya), 102 ; of the women 

like moons, 50, 50ri- 
Fact, poison-damsel has no 

existence in, 313 
Factors in favour of poly- 
andry, 19 
Failure of Brahmadatta's 

stratagem, 91 
"Fair Margaret and Sweet 

William," ballad of, Percy, 

lieliques, 10/i 
Falling on the earth {kuhna)^ 
False assertion of Saktideva, 

174, 175 
False gems, chest filled with, 

179, 181 
Fame, the Goddess of, 90, 116 
Fame of Jimutavahana, 139 
Fasti, Ovid, 263 
Fasting, month of (Shrawan), 

Fatal bite of the poison- 
damsel, 291 ; kiss of the 

poison-damsel, 294 ; look, 

the, 298-300 
Faults that are the enemies 

of man, six, 106, 106^^ 
Faust, Goethe, 105n, 297 
Favour of the Guhyaka, 98, 

98/ii ; of the king won by 

Vidushaka, 59 
Fear of Bhadra, 67, 68 
Fearless [visddhvasak), 218^^ 
Feast in honour of the birth 

of the king's son, 163, 164 ; 

of Indra, 35 ; of Lights, the 

Divali, 118; of Rama, 82 
Feat in archery performed by 

Arjuna, a great, 16 
Feathers of birds, hiding 

among the, 219^3, 220/1 
Feats of strength, superiority 

of Pan^u princes in, 16 
Feeling satisfaction {atinir- 

vartimk), 22 In^ 
Feet, character foretold by, 

Feigned illness of Madhava, 

179,181; madness of Vidu- 
shaka, 68 
Fellow to the jewelled anklet 

craved by the queen, 204 
Female children in India, 

neglect of, 18, 19 

Female children, method of 
killing, 304 

Female, horizontal stick as, 

Female Rakshasa (Rakshasi), 
69/i2, 107ni, 127 

Females in India, low pro- 
portion of, 18, 19 

Femme Turque, La, G. Dorys, 

Fertility, connection of the 
cow with, 242 ; rites, nudity 
in, 118 

Festival, the Holi, 59wS 164w*, 

Festschrift fiir Ernst Wiiidisch, 
" Uber die Suvabahuttari- 
katha," J. Hertel, 286, 

Fickleness of Devadatta's 
wife, 131 

Field {kshetra), 116/ii 

Fields and water poisoned by 
Faraj, 279 

Final stage of love-sickness, 
death the, 9/i2 

Finality and continuity, magic 
circle denoted, 99/^ 

Finding of the jewelled 
throne, 52, 53 

Finger, character indicated 
by, In^ 

Fire, Agni, God of, 97 

Fire appears to Guhachandra, 
a god of, 42 

Fire-breathing demons, 61 

Fire, charm for appeasing the, 
42 ; daily offering to the 
{homa), 257, 257/1^; domestic 
[laukikdgni), 256; given 
to Pururavas, 247, 249; 
and light, rules in all 
parts of the world regard- 
ing, 168 ; obtained with 
fire-stick, 250; in one's 
own body {tirika), 256 ; pro- 
duced by fire-drill sym- 
bolical of the child, 256; 
propitiated by Vidushaka 
with austerities, 58 ; to the 
queen's palace, plot to set, 
3; ritual, 248-250; the 
sacrificial, 247, 249, 250, 255; 
of Siva's eye, lOO/i^, 164/1^ ; 
son born to Siva and Uma 
in the, 102 ; submarine 
{vadavagni), 256 ; turned 
into an A^vattha tree, 247, 

Fire-drill {arani), 255, 256; 
and intercourse of the 

Fire-drill continued 

sexes, analogy between, 

255, 256 ; symbolical of the 

child, fire produced by the, 

Fire by friction, making, 247, 

249, 250, 255, 256 
Fire God, sword of the, 58, 

60, 71, 72, 74 
Fire-priest [agnihotn), 257 
Fire-stick {arani), 24^ ; made 

of A^vattha and Sam! wood, 

248, 250 
Fire-walking, rite of, 169 
Fire of the wrath of 6iva, 66 
'Fires, Establishment of the 

Sacred," Agnvadhana, 

Firm [amsala), 241 
First Emperor of India, 

Pataliputra the capital of 

A^ka the, 39/ii 
First Footsteps in East Africa, 

Burton, 271^2 
First Indo-European love- 
story, 245 
First man to use an umbrella, 

Jonas Hanway, 269 
First night of marriage, evil 

spirits active on the, 306 
Fish, a rohita, 193ni 
Fish swallows Saktideva, 192 
Fisherman prepare to sacrifice 

Saktideva, sons of the, 

227, 228 
Fish's belly, Saktideva found 

alive in the, 193 
Fit recipients (kshetra), 116n^ 
Five-arrowed God of Love, 1 
Five articles of regalia, 264 
Five brothers with one wife, 

13, 13n3, 16, 17 
Five "royal" trees, 118 
Five sacred products of the 

cow [paflchagavya), 242 
Five sons of Pan^u, 16 
Five trees of Paradise, Pari- 

jata one of the, 13, 13/1^ 
Flames issuing from the 

mouth of a corpse, 62 
Flapping of wings [paksha- 

pdta), 219n2 
Flesh of corpses eaten, 198/i^ 
Flesh eaten by Jalapada, the 

child's, 234 
Flesh, eating human, 103, 

104 ; oblation of human, 99 ; 

for sale, human, 205; in 

Tantric rites, human, 214 
Flexible, well-tempered sword 

(creeper-like), 93, 93n^ 



Flint and steel {chakkamukki)^ 

Florentines, Ladislao 
poisoned by the, 310 

Flour [kusurra), 295 

Flow of the Ganges towards 
the East, 54 

Flower, the parijata, 190n^ 

"Flowers, the city of," Ku- 
sumapura or Pataliputra. 
39ni, 185^1 

Flying through the air, 62- 
64^1, 103, 104 

"Flying through the Air," 
A. M. Hocart, Ind. Ant., 

Fodder, poisoned, 276 

Foeticide, 229^2 

"Foeticide," A. E. Crawley, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Folding umbrella {chatyr), 268 

Folk-lore, the "Act of 
Truth" motif in, 31-33 

Folk-Lore, ' ' A Brittany Mar- 
riage Custom," F. C. Cony- 
beare, 23n; "The Divali, 
the Lamp Festival of the 
Hindus," W. Crooke, 118, 
232n; "The Holl: A Vernal 
Festival of the Hindus," 
W. Crooke, 59^^; "A 
Legend of Nadir Shah," 
M. Longworth Dames, 302 ; 
"The Legends of Krishna," 
W. Crooke, 39^2; "the 
Pre-Buddhist Religion of 
the Burmese," R. Grant 
Brown, 265/1^; "Some Notes 
on Homeric Folk-Lore," 
W. Crooke, bln^; 'The 
Veneration of the Cow in 
India," W. Crooke, 242 

Folk-Lore Journal, ' The For- 
bidden Chamber," E. S. 
Hartland, 223nM "The 
Forbidden Doors of the 
Thousand andOne Nights," 
W. Kirby, 224n 

Folk-Lore of the Northern 
Counties, Henderson, 2ni, 
98n*, 104n 

Folk-Lore of the Old Testament, 
Frazer, i94n 

Folk-Lore Society, SOn^, 122 

Folk-Lore in Southern India, 
Sastrl, 136^1 

Folk Memory, W. Johnson, 

Folk-Tales of Bengal, L. B. 
Day, 108n 


Folk-Tales of Kashmir, 
Knowles, 124 

Food, eating disgusting, 198ni 

Food of Garuda, snakes be- 
come, 151, 152 

Foolish snakes, the, 151 

Fools {jada), imi^ 

Footprint, depression on 
Adam's Peak regarded as 
Adam's, 85n 

"Forbidden Chamber, The," 
E. S. Hartland, Folk-Lore 
Journal, 223ni 

" Forbidden Chamber " motif, 
223^1, 224)1 

''Forbidden Doors of the 
Thousand and One Nights, 
The," W. Kirby, Folk-Lore 
Journal, 224?^ 

Forbidden Terrace, the, 222- 

Forced on Somaprabha, 
marriage, 41 

Forcibly {balavad), Vl^n^ 

Forehead, curl lucky on the, 
IrO- ; curl on Palli bride's, 
indicates widowhood, 7n^ 

Forehead mark made in an 
initiation ceremony, tikU, 
22n3, 23n 

Forehead-streaks, 22-24n, 26, 
27, 29 

Foreknowledge, Prajiiapti, 

Forgotten by Sundaraka, 
spell for descending from 
the air, 110 

Form of the "Act of Truth," 

Form of Buddhist mendicant 
assumed by Siva, 106 

Form of a cat assumed by 
Hanuman, 197^2 ; of a cat 
assumed by Indra, 46 ; of a 
man assumed by the lion, 

Formation of the Maurya 
Empire, events which hap- 
pened at the, 281 

Former birth, adventures of 
Jimutavahana in a, 141- 
149 ; of the king's horse, 
56 ; power of remembering, 
149 ; of Vasavadatta, 30 

Former name of Jimutava- 
hana, Vasudatta, 141 

Forms of marriage enjoyed by 
Kshatriyas, the lowest, 17 

Forms of polygamy, 17 

Fortune of Empire, Goddess 
of the, 162 


Fortune, the Goddess of, 49, 

Fortune, handful of water 

offered to, 6n^ 
Fortune, the long hair of 

Good, 236 
Fortune of Victory, 90 
Fortune of the Vidyadharas, 

Forty Vazirs, The, 169 
Foundation of Pataliputra at- 
tributed to Kalasoka, 39^^ 
Founder of the Maurya Em- 
pire, Chandragupta the, 

Four-faced to behold Tilot- 

tama, Siva becomes, 14 
Four politic expedients, 45, 

Four sisters, marriage of 

Saktideva to the, 238 
"Fragrant one, the" 

(Surabhi), 242 
Frame-story of Book oj Sindi- 

bdd, 122, 123 
Fraternal polyandry, 18 
Frauenloh, A. Boerkel, 2^2n^ 
Freedman under Khalifa al- 

Ma'mun, Yahya ibn Batriq, 

a Syrian, 288 
French poem of "Horn and 

Rimenhild," 76^1 
French Revolution, report of 

cannibalism during the, 

French version of the poison- 
damsel myth, 293 
Friction, making fire by, 247, 

249, 250, 255, 256 
"Friend, The," Afanasief, 

Friend of Bhadra, Yoge^vari, 

Friendship of Jimutavahana 

and the Savara chief, 142 ; 

of Krishna with the herds- 
men, 242 ; of the Rakshasa 

Yamadanshtra for Vidu- 

shaka, 75 
Frog as poison, bile of the 

green water-, 303 
Fruit given to Vasavadatta in 

a dream, 136 
Fruit received from Durga, 

heavenly, 136# 
Fruits called chofole, 301, 

Funeral pyre, call from a, 

Future ministers of Narava- 

hanadatta, 165 



Gable of Prester John's 

palace, 169 
Gain love, stratagem to, 44 
Gaining love by magic aid, 

Gambler Devadatta, the, 


Gambler's wife, ordinary oc- 
currence of the adultery of 

a, 88ni 
Gambling, 231n\ 232n; in 

the Deccan, 232n ; in Kash- 
mir, 232w ; in Nepal, 232n ; 

in the Panjiib, 232n ; among 

the Shans of Upper Burma, 

"Gambling," J. L. Paton, 

Hastings' Ena/. Rel. Eth., 

[" Game of Dice, The "] A. B. 

Keith, Joum. Roy. As. Soc, 

Gamester (kitava), 232n 
Gaming-table, Saktideva loses 

his wealth at the, 174 
Gaming, vice of, 231 
"Gang nach dem Eisen- 

hammer, Der," Schil er, 

Gedickte, 113/1^ 
Garden of the gods, Nandana, 

34; of herbs, a, 108, 110; 

of Kailasa, 14 
Garlands made by Vasava- 

datta, unfading, 22, 23, 26, 

27, 29 
Garlic juice dangerous to 

poisonous animals, 296 
Garment, cardinal points as 

only, 98, 98n 
Gazetteer, Upper Burma, 167, 

Gedickte, Schiller," Der Gang 

nach dem Eisenhammer," 

WZn} ; "Der Graf von 

Habsburg," 49/i2 
Gems, chest filled with false, 

179, 181 ; given to the 

chaplain, 181 
General of Indra's forces, 

Karttikeya, 103 
German poet, Ottacker or 

Ottokar, 309, 309^2 
German South-West Africa, 

General Botha's campaign 

in, 281 
Germanversionsof the poison- 
damsel myth, 294, 294/1^ 
Gesammelte Ahhandlungen zur 

Amerikanischen Sprach-tind 

Altertumskunde, E. Seler, 

309, 309n^ 

Gesckichte (or Sagenhuch) der 

Bayerischen Lande, Schopp- 

ner, U3n} 
Gesckichte der Lustsettche im 

Altertume, Rosenbaum,308w2 
Gesckickte der Stadt Bom im 

Mitt ela Iter, Gregorovius, 

Gespenstersckeinung Ivikri t i), 

Gestn Romanonim,113n}, 127n^, 

I50n\ 169, 296, 297 
" Geste of King Horn," 76n^ 
Ghee, a sacred product of the 

cow, 242 
Ghosts, iron implement kept 

near child's head to ward 

off, 166 
Ghouls in Uganda, society of, 

Giant Ruru, 228, 22Sn} 
Giant saves Vidushaka from 

drowning, the leg of the, 73 
Giant under the sea, ship 

stopped by the leg of a, 72 
Giants, overhearing conver- 
sations of, 107/i^ 
Gift of Vishnu to Pururavas, 

Urva^i thei 34, 35 
Gingham first made in Guin- 

gamp, Brittany, 271 
Girl in a basket set adrift on 

the Ganges, 4 
Girl brought up among 

poisonous herbs, 297; 

brought up on el-bis, 313 ; 

brought by huge snakes, 

Girl with the snake nature, 

294, 295 
Girl rubbed with ointment of 

juice of aconite, 310 
Girls nourished on poison, 

infant, 293 
"Giver of Desires," a wishing- 

tree called, 138, 139 
"Giving of a daughter," 

negotiation called, 47 
"Glance, poison in a" {drig- 

visa or dristi-visa) , 298 
Glass and quartz, jewels of, 

Glory whitein Hindu rhetoric, 

Gliicksvogel, 219n^ 
Goa and tke Blue Mountains, 

R. F. Burton, 19 
God whose crest is the moon 

(Siva), 136 
Godof Death, south inhabited 

by the, 54 

God whose ensign is a bull 
(Siva), 101, lOlni 

God of Fire, Agni, 97, 101, 

God of fire appeased by 
Guhachandra, a, 42 

God, Gane^a, the elephant- 
faced, 103; Hanuman, the 
monkey-, 197^2 ; Harran, 
city sacred to the moon-, 
194n ; Nanahuatzin, satel- 
lite of the Mexican sun-, 
309 ; the trident - bearing 
(Siva), 158 

God of Love (Kama), 27, 27n^ 
55, 66, 94, 100, 101, 127, 
136, 144, 164 ; consumed 
by Siva, 100, lOOn^ ; the 
five-arrowed, 1 ; incarna- 
tion of the, 137 ; wives of 
the, 51, 51n2 

God with the moon crest 
(Siva), 170 

Godofthe people, Indra a, 45n* 

God of the Sea propitiated 
by Rama, 84n^ 

God, Sword of the Fire, 58, 
60, 71, 72, 74 

God of syphilis (Nana- 
huatzin), 309 

God of Wealth and Lord of 
Treasures (Kuvera), 93 

Goddess of Destiny, 218 ; of 
Fame, 90, 116; of Fortune, 
49, 116 ; of the Fortune of 
Empire, 162 

Goddess, the Earth, 49 

Goddess Gauri born in the 
form of Vasavadatta, 128 

Goddess of Prosperity 
(Lakshmi or Sri), 65, 65n^, 
75; Timira the dwelling 
of the, 36 

Goddess Sarasvati, 133 

Goddess, Tamasa, the river-, 

Goddess, temple of the, 62-68 

Gods, Ganges the river of 
the, 54, 54n2,; Kalpa of 
the, 163, 163^2; Nandana 
the garden of the, 34 ; 
Vi^vakarman the architect 
of the, 14, 14n 

Gold at last reached. City of, 
219, 220 

Gold bestowed on Saktideva, 
the City of, 238 

"Gold-gleam" {kanaka-rekha), 

Gold, lustreof {kanaka-prabha), 



rold, return of Saktideva to 

the City of, 237 
Told, streak of {kanaka-rekha), 

jolden Ass, Apuleius, 60/1^ 
jolden Bough, Frazer, 72nS 
83, imn, 108n, 117, 118, 
166, 189^11, 253, 253ni, 256, 
256n2, 257?z2, 268, 268ni 
jolden City, Kanakarekha 
will marry a Brahman or 
Kshatriya who has ^ seen 
the, 173 ; search of Sakti- 
deva for the, 188-195; a 
seat of the Vidyadharas, 
220 ; Story of the, 171-175, 
184, 186-195, 213, 217-231, 

Golden lotus, the, 207; 
dedicated to a temple, 
208; desired by the king, 
a second, 208 

Golden lotuses, the lake of, 

Golden throne, the, 52, 53 

Golden Town, Barnett, 200/i^ 

Golden umbrella, heir- 
apparent has a, 264 

Good deeds, heavenly wives 
as a reward for, 44, 45 

Good Fortune, the long hair 
of, 236 

Government Archaeological 
Survey of India, 39/ii 

*' Graf von Habsburg, Der," 
Schiller, Gedichte, 4:9n^ 

Graphic, The, 271 

Grass, darhha, 151, 152, 176, 
229^i2 ; kusa, 151, 151n3, 176 

Grass poisoned by Yogaka- 
randaka, 91, 275 

Grateful Dead, The, G. H. 
Gerould (Folk-Lore 
Society, 80>^^ 

Great circle, 98-lOOri 

Great feat in archery per- 
formed by Arjuna, 16 

Great poem relating to the 
Bharatas (the Mahd- 
bhdrata), 16 

Great sage Yajfiivalkya, 241 

Great self-sacrifice of Jimuta- 
vahana, 153, 154 

Great War, poisons in the, 
280, 281 

Green tree-snake {Ular 
puchok, Dryophis prasinus or 
Bale - Dipsodomorphince), 
303 ; as poison, bile of the, 

Green water-frog as poison, 

bile of the, 303 
Greek origin of the Secretum 

Secretorum, 287, 288 
Greek treatise of Polemon, 

Griechische Marchen, Bern- 
hard Schmidt, 57ni, 127^2 
Griechische Mythologie, Preller, 

Grief forms an abscess, 2 
Grief of the princess on losing 

her husband, 66, 67 
Grihya STdras, Oldenberg, 

241, 267, 267ni 
Grim repast of Kuvalayavali 

and Adityaprabha, 113 
Grosse Schauplatz lust-u. lehr- 

reicher Geschichte, Der, 

Harsdorffer, 296 
Group or communal marriage, 

Group of Eastern Bomances and 

Stories, Clouston, IO871 
Grundriss der Indo-Arischen 

Philo logic, Vedic Mythology, 

A. A. Macdonell, 240 
Guardian spirit haunts one of 

the pyramids, ^n^ 
Guide of the Vidyadharas, 

Kau^ika the spiritual, 210 
*'Gul and Sanaubar," Lie- 

brecht, Zur Volkskundc, 


Hair of Good Fortune, the 

long, 236 
Hakluyt Society, 300w*5 
Half a seer (Anjali-measure), 

Hallowe'en, 105?i 
Halt, political measure of, 

Halting - place for camels 

(caravanserai or karwdn- 

sardi, 162n, 163w. 
Hand {kara), 27, 27^^ 
Hand cut off as a stake at 

gambling, the left, 232?i 
Hand of a lady compared to 

a lotus, 65w^ 
Handful of water offered to 

Fortune, 6n^ 
Hands of Love, UrvasI a 

stupefying weapon in the, 

34, 34^2 
Hard life of women in the 

Central India Agency, 19 ; 

in Eastern Bengal, 19 
Hard treatment accorded to 

women in India, 18 

Hard work done by women 

in India, 18 
Hare in the moon, 82 
Harem, 98, 98ri2, 161, 161n*, 

162n, 163w 
"Harem," J. M. Mitchell, 

Ency. Brit., 163w 
Harem Life in Egi/pt and Con- 

stantinople, E. Lott, 163n 
"Harim," Dictionary of 

Islam, Hughes, 163n 
Harpist, the poisonous, 293 
"Hasan of Bassorah," 

Burton, ^ghts, 190/1^ 
Hatims Tales, Stein and 

Grierson, 124 
Haunted pyramid, 6^2 
Having heard (srutva), 200n^ 
Hay, poisoned, 276 
Head, curl on back of, con- 
sidered unlucky, In^ 
Head deprived of the um- 
brella, 94, 94n5 
Head of the house, Kar- 

novun, 19 
Head, iron implement to 

ward off ghosts kept near 

child's, 166 
Head of the King of the 

Paraslkas cut off, 93, 94, 

94^1' 2 
Head of Medusa, 299, 300. 
Head of Rahu cut off by 

Vishnu, 81 
Head of Rjlhu, the immortal, 

Heads of elephants, neck- 
laces from the, 142, 142n^ 
Healing disease, nudity rites 

in, 118, 119 
Health, rules for preserving, 

Heart, death from a broken, 

Heart of a prince, white 

worm in the, 296 
Heat {pratdpa), 54^^ 
Heaven, the cow's, 242 
Heaven, voice from, 30, 73 
Heavenly Eye and King 

Sivi, 32, 33 
Heavenly fruit received from 

Durga, 136*1^ 
Heavenly lady buys the 

human flesh, 205 
Heavenly maidens, the two, 

Heavenly nymph comes out 

of a tree, 233 
Heavenly wine, drinking, 




Heavenly wives as reward 

for good deeds, 44, 45 
Heavenly workmanship of 

the anklet, 204 
Hebr. Bibliotk., Stein- 

schneider, 289n* 
"Hebrew Version of the 

Sec return Sectetoru m," 

Gaster, Jouni. Roy. As. Soc, 

290, 290/ii, 291, 298, 29Sn^ 
Hebrew word for "dove," 

Jonah the, I93n\ IHn 
"Heimonskinder, Die," Sim- 
rock, Deutsche Volksb'iicher, 

** Heinrich der Lowe," Sim- 
rock, Deutsche Volksb'uchert 

Heir apparent has a golden 

umbrella, 264 
Hell Avichi, the, 176 
Hell (Sheol, Hades, or AralQ), 

Hemp, Indian [ganja), 304 
Henrij V, Shakespeare, 98n* 
Henri/ VI, Shakespeare, 987i* 
Heptamero7iy Margaret of 

Navarre, 2n^, \0n 
Herabkunft des Feuers und des 

Gottertranks, Die, A. Kuhn, 

Herb as protection from the 

poison-damsel, 293 
Herbs, a garden of, 108, 110 ; 

girl brought up among 

poisonous, 297 
Herdsman named Devasena, 

Herdsmen, friendship of 

Krishna with the, 242 ; 

the king and the, 51, 52 
Hermit accused of canni- 
balism, 185 
Hermit named Agryatapas, 

221; named Arindama, 127; 

named Durvasas, 23, 24 ; 

named Suryatapas, 189, 

Hermit Gautama, 45-46 
Hermit Narada visits the 

King of Vatsa, 12, 13 
Hermitage of Badarika, 63; 

of Galava, 211 
Hermits, Vidyadharas fall in 

love with the daughters of, 

Hiding in the feathers of 

birds, 219-220n 
High birth-rate in India, 18 
High rank betrayed by the 

smell of the body, 22n, 22n^ 

Highest class of Rishi (holy 
sage), Devarshi' the, 34, 

Hikayetu-Erba%ia-Sabahin we 

Mesa {The Story of the Forty 

Moms and Eves), 123 
"Hill Tribes of the Central 

Indian Hill," W. Crooke, 

Joum. A nth. Inst., 24w 
Hills, the Vindhya, 13n*, 56, 

Himalayan country, 67w^ 
Himalayan mountain, Parva- 

taka king of the, 284, 285 
Himalayan regions, fraternal 

polyandry prevalent in the, 

Hind of Artemis, 127n2 
Hindoos as They Are, The, 

S. C. Bose, U3n 
Hindu Cupid, Ananga a name 

for Kama the, 74^^ ; Kama- 

deva the, 51^^ 
Hindu Gods and Heroes, L. D. 

Barnett, 45n* 
Hindu iconography, umbrella 

in, 266 
Hindu king of Delhi, Prithi 

Raj the last, 266 
Hindu Manners, Customs and 

Ceremonies, Dubois, 168, 

Hindu married women, iron 

bracelet worn by, 167 
Hindu and Mohammedan 

women of the North, 

bodice worn by, bOn^ 
Hindu poetry, the smile in, 

[" Hindu Pregnancy Observ- 
ances in the Punjab"] H. 

A. Rose, Joum. Antk. Inst., 

Hindu rhetoric, glory white 

in, 208^1 
Hindu ritual, lamps promi- 
nent in, 169 
Hindu Zeus, Indra the, 45w* 
Hinduism, esoteric rites, 214 
Hindus, opium favoured by 

the, 304 ; the sacred cow 

of the, 240-242 
Hissing like a snake, girl, 

Histoire LittSraire, Ernest 

Renan, 293 
Hist. Anim., Aristotle, 296 
HistoriaApologetica, Las Casas, 

Historia del regno di Napoli, 

Angelo di Costanzo, SlOn*^ 

Historical Section of the War 

Office, 281 
Historical value of the story of 

Urvai^I and Pururavas, 245 
History of Buddhism, Tara- 

natha, 69n2 
"History of Gharib and his 

Brother Ajib," Burton, 

Nights, 124 
History of Fiction, Dunlop 

(Liebrecht's trans.), 6/1*, 

39n2, 127n2 
Hijstory of the Forty Vazirs, 

E. J. W. Gibb, 123 
History of Human Marriage, 

Westermarck, 18, 19, 23n, 

2471, 306ni 
History, importance of 

Magadha in, 3/i^ 
History of Magic and Experi- 
mental Science, Thorndike, 

99n, 108w, 288/i3, 295wS 

299/i2' * 
History of Nepal, D. Wright, 

History of opium, early, 303, 

History of Professional 

Poisoners and Coiners of 

India, M. P. Naidu, 281 
History of Sanskrit Literature, 

A. A. Macdonell, 45n*, 242 
History of the Secretum 

Secretorum, 286 
History of the Shwe Dagon 

pagoda, 265 
"History of Sidi Nu'uman," 

Burton, Nights, 202ni 
Hitopadesa, the, 223n^ 
Hobson Jobson, Yule, 162n, 

269, 269n4 
"Holl; A Vernal Festival of 

the Hindus, The," VV. 

Crooke, Folk-Lore, 59ni 
Home of Buddhism and 

Jainism, Magadha the, 3n} 
Home of the umbrella, 263 
"Homeric Folk-Lore, Some 

Notes on," VV. Crooke, 

Folk-Lore, 57n^ 
Homoeopathic magic,originof, 

the idea of "overhearing " 

motif, 10Tn\ lOSn 
Honest Whore, Dekker, 145n 
Honour of Siva, a horrible 

ceremony in, 104 
Hoopoe, Garu^a identified 

with the, 152^1 
Horizontal marks on fore- 
head, years of longevity 

foretold by the, 7n^ 



horizontal stick "female," 

'Horn and Rimenhild," 

French poem of, 76^^^ 
'Horn and Rimenhild, The 

Story of," H. Schofield, 

Mod. Lang. Ass. Amer., 76w^ 
Horoscope shows if child is 

to be a poison-damsel, 286 
Horrible ceremony in honour 

of Siva, 104 
Horrible demon eating the 

impaled man's flesh, 202 
Horror, slaughter of the cow 

fills the Hindu with, 2-10 
Horrors of the cemetery, 201 
Horse of Adityasena, 56-58 
Horse flies up in the air, 

Horse with a jewelled saddle, 

Horse in mythology, 57n^ 
Horse in the Sirsa district, 

curing a, 119 
Horse superstitions, 57w^ 
Horse-worship, 57n^ 
Horses among the Aryans, 

value of war, 577^^ 
Horses are divine beings, 57, 

Horses an object of worship, 

Horses, the Sun's, 57 ; dis- 
pute about the colour of 
the Sun's, 150-152 

Hospitality, offer to kill a 
cow an act of, 241 

Hostile brothers, stories of, 

House of Fame, Chaucer, 219^2,^ 

House, Karnovun, head of 
the, 19 ; magical circle a 
protective barrier round 
a, 99>i 

Householder or Grihastha, 

Hudibras, Butler, 302 

Huge snakes, baby girl 
brought up by, 294 

Human flesh, eating, 103, 
104; in Africa, eating, 
198/i^ ; among the Bantu 
negro races, eating, 198n\ 
199m ; Mana or spiritual 
exaltation gained by eat- 
ing, 198n^ ; in Melanesia, 
eating, 198iii ; oblation of, 
99 ; power of becoming vam- 
pires by eating, 198n^ ; for 
sale, 205; in Tantric rites, 

Human sacrifices among the 

Sfikta worshippers, l9Sn^ 
Human saliva dangerous to 

poisonous animals, 296 
Hundred sons of Dhrita- 

rashtra, 16 
Hunting a madness of kings, 

Hunting, vice of {vyasana), 

21, 2ln^, 127 
Husband, an animal, 254 
Husband (pati), 49n* 
Husband, proxy for, 306, 307 
Husband of Sachi, Indra, 45 
Husband and wife, samband- 

harn, ceremony of alliance 

as, 18 
Husband's blood mixed with 

betel and eaten by the 

bride, 2in 
Husbands, mysterious deaths 

of Duhkalabdhika s, 69, 70 
Husbands, professional 

proxies for, Cadeberiz, 307 
Husbands by worshipping 

Ganesa, maidens obtain, 

99, 'lOO 
Hypocrisy of Siva, 177 
Hypocritical Ascetic, Story of 

the, 4-5 

Icelandic Sagas about meet- 
ing eyebrows, 103n^ 
Ichor {mada), 90, 93, 125w* 
Iconography, umbrella in 

Hindu, 266 
Identification of Bluebeard 

with Comorre the Cursed, 

22471 ; with Gil de Rais, 

Identification of speech with 

the cow, 241 
Iliad, Homer, 218w* 
Illness feigned by Madhava, 

179, 181 
Illuminating beauty of the 

two maidens, 43, 43?^^ 
// Propugnatore, 289n- 
II Tesoro di Brunetto Latini 

versiflcato, 294w^ 
Image of Ganesa which grants 

boons, 99,' 103 
Image of Siva, 103 
Images of Gautama, 265 
Immortal head of Rahu, 81 
Immortality brought by 

Garuda, nectar of, 155, 156 
Immortality granted to 

Surabhi, 242 
Immunity from snake-bite by 

inoculation, 311, 312 

Impaled man, Ai^okadatta 

takes water to the, 201 
Impaled robbers, 60-62 
' Impediments, the magical," 

inotif, 121 
Implement kept near child's 

head to ward off ghosts, an 

iron, 166 
Important event among 

modern Hindus, eclipse 

an, 83 
Inauspicious, empty vessels 

are, 164?i3 
Inauspicious marks, 4, ^n^, 7, 


Incarnation of the God of 
Love, 137 

Incident which caused poly- 
andrus marriage of Drau- 
padl, 16, 17 

Index of Periodical Literature, 
Poole, 272 

India, a Bird's - Eye View, 
Ronaldshay, 8871^ 

Indian Antiquary, "Flying 
through the Air," A. M. 
Hocart, 6472^; "Meeting 
Eyebrows," Tawney, 10471^ ; 
["Notes on a Collection of 
Regalia of the Kings of 
Burma of the Alompra 
Dynasty"] R. C. Temple, 
264/11, 269, 2697*4; "Pride 
Abased," J. H. Knowles, 
193/ii; "Superstitions and 
Customs in Salsette." 
G. F. D'Penha, 167 

Indian Fairy Tales, Stokes, 
427*1, 437*2, 577*1, 1367*1, 

Indian hemp [gdnja), 304 

Indian history, importance of 
Magadha in, 37*i 

Indian Mythology according to 
the Mahdbhdrata, F. Faus- 
boll, 457*4 

Indian Tales and Anecdotes, 
C. Vermieux, 11471 

Indian Toaicology, T. N. 
Windsor, 281 

Indica, Arrian, 263 

Indische Erzdhler, ' ' Pala und 
Gopala," Hertel, 121 

Indische Medizin, J. Jolly, 


Indische Streifen, A. Weber, 

Indo-Aryans, 7'Ae,Rajendralala 

Mitra, 167 
Indo - European love - story^^ 

the first, 245 




Infancy, damsel brought up 
on poison from, 293, 313 

Infant girls nourished on 
poison, 293 

Infanticide in Bombay,former 
practice of, 18, 19 ; in the 
Panjab, former practice of, 
18, 19 

Infanticide one of the causes 
of low proportion of 
females in India, 18, 19 

Infants, opium given to, 304 

Infected clothes in Brazil, 
280, 280ai'7 

Inheritance, matriarchal, 19 

Iniquity of scandal, the, 185, 

Initiation ceremony, fika a 
forehead mark made in an, 

Injuries, unintentional, 147, 

Inoculation against typhoid 
fever, 312 

Inoculation of snake- 
charmers, 311, 312 

Insects, Indra-gopa, 276 

Insult, duel as result of, 303 ; 
of spitting betel juice in a 
person's face, 302, 303 

Intercourse, connection be- 
tween snakes and, 307 ; 
poison by, 305-310 

Intercourse of the sexes, 
analogy between the fire- 
drill and, 255, 256 

International Americanists' 
Congress, 309 

Interpretations of the story 
of Urva^I and Pururavas, 

Interpreting bodily marks 
{sdmudrika), IrO- 

Intrigue of Ahalya found out 
by Gautama's supernatural 
power, 45, 46 

Introduction of syphilis into 
Europe by Columbus' men, 
308, 308^1; into India by 
the Portuguese, 310n, 310^3 

Invasion of Northern India 
by Alexander the Great, 
282, 282ni 

Investiture of the Doge with 
the umbrella, 268 ; of the 
Sacred Thread, 257 

Irische Mdrchen, Grimm, 104n 

Iron among the Doms, belief 
in the sanctity of, 68 

Iron bracelet worn by Hindu 
married women, 167 

Iron, childbirth customs in 
connection with, 166, 167 ; 
protective value of, 166, 167 

Iron implement near child's 
head to ward off ghosts, 166 

Iron pyrites as charm against 
alligators, 168 

Iron rings attached to ^ick 
children on the Slave Coast, 

Iron rod kept in the birth- 
chamber, 166 

Iron in Salsette, customs 
connected with, 167 

Iron scares away evil spirits, 

Iron tool, unlawful to commit 
a burglary with an, 168 

Iron used during attack of 
cholera, 167 

Irresistible power of truth, 31 

Island of Manaar, 84n^ ; of 
Ramesvarman, 84^^; of 
Ratnakuta, 217; named 
Utsthala, 191, 192, 194, 217, 
226, 227, 237 

Islands of the lordship of 
Prester John, 306 

Islands of Wak, 190^1 

Italian serraglio ("an en- 
closure"), 162n; serrato 
("shut up"), 162/1 

Italian version of the poison- 
damsel myth, 394, 395 

Itching and twitching, super- 
stitions connected with, 
Uin\ 145)1 

Jackals, cries of, 60 
Jahrhuch f'lir romanische und 

englische LiteratuTy Knust 

in, 289w2' * 
Jainism, Magadha the home 

of, 3ni 
Jdiaka^, the, 52?^l, 108/1, 122, 

' ' Jealous Sister, Tale of the," 

Dozon, Contes Albanais, 

Jealousy of the Kuru princes 

for the Pan^us, 16 
Jealousy of Somaprabha, 44 
Jerking of date-stones, 147n^ 
Jewad, The Story of, E. J. W. 

Gibb, 190ni 
Jewel drof)ped byDevadatta*s 

wife, 131 
Jewel-lamps, 161, 169 
Jewelled anklet, the, 203 
Jewelled saddle, horse with 

a, 223 

Jewelled throne, the, 52, 63 

Jewels of glass and quartz, 

Jewels, Ratnapura, city of, 
175, 175n2; the sea pro- 
pitiated with, 72, 12n^ 

Jona, Hans Schmitt, 194n 

"Jonah," T. K. Cheyne,ncy. 
Brit., 194n 

Jonah Legend, The, W. Simp- 
son, 194n 

Jour7i. Anthro. Inst. ["East 
Central African Customs"], 
Macdonald, 198wi ; "Hill 
Tribes of the Central Indian 
Hills," VV. Crooke, 24w; 
["Hindu Pregnancy Ob- 
servances in the Punjab"] 
H.A.Rose, 166; " Melan- 
esians," Codrington, 198ni; 
["Muhammedan Pregnancy 
Observances in the Pun- 
jab"] H. A. Rose, 166; 
" Nudity in Custom and 
Ritual," W. Crooke, 119 

Journ. Anthro. Soc, "The 
Circassian Slaves and the 
Sultan's Harem," F. Mil- 
lingen, 163n 

Journ. Anthro. Soc. oj' Bombay, 
"Aghoris and Agorapan- 
this," H. VV. Barrow, 90n8; 
"A few Ancient Beliefs 
about the Eclipse and a 
few Superstitions based on 
these Beliefs," J. J. Modi, 

Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 
" Rough Notes on the 
Snake Symbol in India," 
J. H. Rivett-Carnac, 307, 

Journ. Bom. Br. Roy. As. 
Soc, "Studies in Bhasa," 
Sukthankar, 21ni 

Journal of Indian Art and 
Industry, 266^2 

Journ. Roy. As. Soc, " The 
Act of Truth," Burlingame, 
31, 33; "Bhasa," Barnett, 
21ni; ["The Game of 
Dice"] A. B. Keith, 232n; 
"The Hebrew Version of 
the Secretum Secretorum," 
Gaster, 290, 290ni, 291, 298, 
298/i2; "TheNagas,"C. F. 
Oldham, 307/1^; ["Notes 
on Early Economic Con- 
ditions in Northern India,* 
Caroline F. Rhys Davids], 
240 ; " The Plays of Bhasa,^' 



Joum. Roy. As. Soc. cont. 
Banerji-Sastri, 21n^ ; " The 
Plays of Bhasa," Thomas, 
21n^; "The Zoroastrian 
Period of Indian History," 

D. B. Spooner, 39ni 
Journals of Expeditions of Dis- 
covery into Central Australittj 

E. J. Eyre, 280r.4 
Journey of Vidushaka to find 

Bhadra, 69, 71 

Judgment of the King of 
Vatsa, 158 

Juice of aconite, girl rubbed 
with ointment of, 310 

Jummoo and Kashmir Terri- 
tories, The, F. Drew, 22>2n 

Jungle-crow as poison, bile 
of the, 303 

Kalilah wa Dimnak, 290 
Kama SFitra, Vatsyayana, 9n^, 

49w3, 305 
Karling legend of Bayard, 

Kashmirian bodice, the kurtd, 

Kathdkoga, the, Tawney, 6n\ 
I08n, U3n\ 219^3, 232w 

Kathaprakdqa, 122 

Katha Sarit Sdgara, 80/ii, 122, 
136ni, 169, 178^1, 281 

Keeper of the burning- 
ground, the king taken 
for the, 57, bln^ 

" Kesata and Kandarpa," tale 
of, 193^1 

Kicked by Somadatta, old 
Brahman, 96 

** Kilhwch and Olwen, Story 
of," Cowell, Y Cymrodor, 

Killed each day in the apart- 
ment of the princess, a 
man, 69, 70 

Killing by embrace or per- 
spiration, 291 

Killing female children, 
method of, 304 

Kind reception of Vasavadatta 
by Padmavati, 22 

Kiiider-und Hausmdrchen aus 
Tirol, Zingerle, 70^^ 

King addicted to pleasure, 

King Adityaprabha, 97-99, 
111, 112-114; Adityasena, 
54-59, 62, 64, 65, 79 ; Arya- 
varman, 73, 74, 78 ; of the 
Asuras, Mayadhara, 35 ; 
of Benares, Brahmadatta, 

King conti7iued 
88, 89, 91, 95, 115; of 
Benares, Pratapamukuta, 
200; of the Bhillas, Pulin- 
daka, 89, 89^^ ; of the birds 
(Garuda), 151, 152, 154, 155; 
of the Camphor Islands, 
190/j^ ; Chandamahasena, 6, 
48, 93, 128; Chandavikrama, 
230 ; of the Chola race, 92, 
92w*; Devasena, 69, 71; and 
the herdsmen, 51, 52 ; of 
Kachchhapa, 69 ; of Kama- 
rupa,. 94, 94^1*; of India 
sends Alexander a poison- 
damsel, 291, 292; of 
Magadha, Nanda or 
Dhana-Nanda, 282, 282^2; 
[narendra), 116n.^ ; of the 
Nishadas, 191, 191n^ ; of the 
Parasikas cut off, the head 
of the, 93-94ni2; Paropa- 
karin, 171, 172; {pati), 
49n* ; Pururavas, 34-36 ; of 
the Rakshasas, 209-212 ; 
rogue wishes to enter the 
service of the, 178, 179 ; of 
the Siddhas, 149 ; of Sindh, 
subdued, 93; of the Snakes, 
Vasuki, 152; of the Snowy 
Mountain (Siva), 143 ; of 
the Vidyadharas, 13, 85, 137, 
156, 156, 171 ; Vihitasena, 
36 - 37 ; Vikramachanda, 
159 ; wishes to study the 
art of stealing, 184n, 185n ; 
of the Yakshas, Ratna- 
varsha, 233 

Kingdom of Magadha, 3n}y 

Kingdom, the Pandyan, 92w* 

'Kings, Mirror of," Barlaam, 

Kingship, flying through the 
air an adjunct of, 64n^ 

Kiss of the poison-damsel, 
the fatal, 294 

Knife kept beside a woman 
after childbirth to keep off 
the devil, 166 

Knives {dhd), 167 

Knot, the lucky, 189/1^ 

Knots, magic, 189n^ 

Knots that mark the centuries 
of life, 189, 189^1 

Knowledge-holder, magical 
{vidyddhara), 137^1^ 

Kohl and Collyrium, App. II, 
Vol. I, 50w* 

Kos7nographie, Al-QazwinT, 
298, 312 

Krait, fatal sting of the, 311, 

Kumara Rdma Charita, the, 


Labour, a sickle and nlm 

leaves kept on the cot of 

a Mala woman in, 166 
Lac dye, blood mixed with, 

Ladies, eyes of Hindu, said 

to reach their ears, 50, 50w* 
Ladies of Malava, 93 
Lady buys the human flesh, 

a heavenly, 205 
Lady compared to a lotus, 

the hand of a, ^bn^ 
Lady found by Vidushaka in 

the temple, a beautiful, 66 
Lady riding on a lion, 143 
Lais, Marie, 113w^ 
Lake of golden lotuses, 209 
Lamps, jewel-, 169 
Lamps prominent in Hindu 

ritual, 169 
Lamps, protection of the child 

by, 161 
Lancashire Gleanings^ W. E. A. 

Axon, 76rii, 77 
Lancet, The, "The Alleged 

Discovery of Syphilis in 

Prehistoric Egyptians," 

Land of Chedi, 89 ; of Padma, 

95; ofthe Siddhas, 67, 67^2, 

75, 75?i3 ; of Srikantha, 97 
Language of animals, 107^^ ; 

of birds, 107ni 
Lares, "Le credenze religiose 

delle popolazioni rurali 

dell'alte valle del Taveri," 

G. Nicasi, 108w 
L'Arme bacteriologique future 

concurrente des armes chim- 

iqiie et balistique, L. Georges, 

Last Hindu king of Delhi, 

Prithi Raj the, 266 
Last of the Tasjuanians, 

Bowick, 280n5 
Latin translations of the 

Secretum Secretorum, 288, 


Law, Natural, 277, 278 
Laws of Nations, 277-279 
Lead, marking with red, 2Sn 
Leaves of the betel vine, tam- 

boli, 301, 302 
Lectures on the Religion of the 

Semites, W, Robertson 

Smith, 119, IU71 



Left hand cut off" as a stake 
at gambling, 232n 

Leg of the giant cut off*, 72, 

Leg of the giant saves Vidu- 
shaka from drowning, 73 

Leg of a giant, ship stopped 
in the sea by the, 72 

Legend of Bayard, the Karl- 
ing, 57/i^ 

Legend of a dragon , mediaeval , 

Legend of the death of King 
Ladislao of Naples, 310 ; of 
King Wenceslaus II, 309, 

Legend of Hippolytus and his 
stepmother Phcedra, 120 

Legend of Jonah, 193^^1, 194/i 

*' Legend of Nadir Shah," 
M. Longworth Dames, 
Folk-Lore, 302 

"Legend of the Oldest 
Animals, The," Cowell, Y 
Cyynrodor, I90n^ 

Legend of Perseus, E. S. Hart- 
land, 70/^2, 96nM36;ii, 153i 

Legend of Urvasi and Puru- 
ravas, 34-36, 245-259 

"Legende de I'Empereur 
Agoka, La," Przyluski, An- 
nates du Musee Guhnei, 120 

** Legende von der Altertums- 
syphilis," A. V. Notthaft, 
Rindjleisch Festschrift, 308)i2 

Legends, Alexandrian, 290 

' Legends of Krishna," W. 
Crooke, Folk-Lore, 39^^ 

"Letter of Death" motifs 

Libelliis de Veneris, Peter of 
Abano, 300, 2>Q0n} 

Liber de Donis, Etienne de 
Bourbon, 114n 

Lib. VII, Pliny, 306n3 

Life, attempts on Chandra- 
gupta's, 283, 284 ; done in 
a previous {purogaih), I35n} ; 
knots that mark the cen- 
turies of, 189, 189m^ ; raven 
connected with the Water 
of, 155n* ; the three objects 
of, 180, 180/i2 

Life of a Brahman, periods in 
the, 180, 180;^! 

Life by Garuda, snakes re- 
stored to, 155, 156 

Life of Jimutavahana saved 
by Savara chief, 141, 142 

Life of the princess saved by 
Vidushaka. 63 

Life of Saktideva saved by 
the banyan-tree, 218 

Life of Savara chief saved by 
Jimutavahana, 142 

Life of Somadatta spared by 
the king, 96 

Life and Stories of Pdrg- 
vandtha, Bloomfield, 14n, 
108n, 122, 285;ii, 286^3 

"Light of the moon," 
Chandraprabha means, 223, 

Light, rules in all parts of 
the world regarding, 168 

Lights among the Moham- 
medan Khojas of Gujarat, 
customs connected with, 
168 ; among the Nayars of 
Malabar, customs con- 
nected with, 168; among 
the Savaras of Bengal, 
customs connected with, 

Lights in the army of the 
King of Vatsa, waving, 89, 

Lights in the birth-chamber 
to scare away evil spirits, 

Lights, Divali or Feast of, 

Li Livres dou Tresor, Brunetto 
Latini, 294, 294^2, 299^^1 

Lime-juice, borax and tur- 
meric, powder made of 
{kunkam), 164ii* 

Lime of oyster shells eaten, 
301, 302 

Lion assumes the form of a 
man, 147 

Lion and the doe, tale of 
the, 298 

Lion, lady riding on a, 143 

Lion transformation, the, 147, 

Lions, Vindhya hills haunted 
by, 56, 56n3 

Literatur des alien Indien, Die, 
H. Oldenberg, 252^^ 

Literature , poison-damsel rare 
in Sanskrit, 281 

Literature, Secretum Secre- 
tonim in European, 286-291 

" Little shade " {umbra), 263 

Li vingcreatures, earth milked 
by, 241 

Loathsome practices of the 
Aghorl caste, 198n^ 

Locks of Siva, the auburn, 

Lofty umbrella, 55, 55^1, 89 

Lofty umbrellas, lotuses like, 

VOmbrelle, O. Uzanne, 272 

Long hair of Good Fortune, 

Longing to hear stories, Vasa- 
vadatta's, 137 

Longing of Vasavadatta for a 
son, 135 

Look, the fatal, 298-300 

Look of snakes, belief in the 
poisonous, 298 

Looseness of character indi- 
cated by dimple in cheek, 

Lord of the Mountains (Par- 
vataka), 284, 285 

Lord of Obstacles (Gane^), 

Lord of Treasure, Kuvera 
God of Wealth and, 93 

Lord of the Umbrella, Chhat- 
rapati, title of Indian kings, 

Lord of the Vidyadharas, 
Jimutaketu, 138-140 

Lordship of Prester John, 
islands of the, 306 

Lotus-lake called Anyatah- 
plaksha, 246, 249 

Lotus which closes in the 
night, 25, 257ii 

Lotus desired by the king, 
a second, 208 

Lotus, the golden, 207; dedi- 
cated to a temple, 208 

Lotus, hand of a lady com- 
pared to a, 65n^ 

Lotuses, the lake of golden, 
209 ; like lofty umbrellas, 

Love and affection (Rati and 
Priti), wives of the God of 
Love, 51, 51n2 

Love consumed by Siva, God 
of, 100, 100?ii 

Love, death from unrequited, 
8, 9, 9^2, \0n ; five-arrowed 
God of, 1 ; the God of 
(Kama or Kandarpa), 27, 
21n\ 55, 66, 94, 100, 101, 
127, 136, 144, 164; Guha- 
chandra tortured with the 
pain of, 40; incarnation oi 
the God of, 137 ; the over- 
whelming power of, 9 ; 
stages of, 9 ti^, lOw; strata- 
gem to gain, 44; Urva^i, 
a stupefying weapon in the 
hands of, 34, 34n2 ; wives 
oftheGodof, 51, 51^2 



Love of the gopts, Krishna's, 

Love of Indra for Ahalya, 

45, 46 
Love by magic, gaining, 43, 

Love on mere mention. 143, 

Love-scratches, varieties of, 

Love-sickness, death the final 

stage of, 9n^ 
Love (sneka), 163n} 
Love-story, the first Indo- 
European, 245 
Love-story in the world, the 

first, 245 
Love of Tishyarakshita for 

Kunala, 120 
Love of women, rejected, 

105, 109 ; the scorned, 120- 

Loving Couple who died of 

Separation, Story of the, 9 
Loving nails, the prints of, 

49, 49^3 
Low caste, Mang a, 82 
Low proportion of females to 

males in India, causes of, 

18, 19 
Lowest forms of marriage 

enjoyed by Kshatriyas, 17 
Lucky, curl on forehead 

considered, 7?^^ 
Lucky knot, 189^1 
Lucky marks of Buddha, 

Lucky trousseau {sokdg), 23w 
Lustre of gold (kanaka-pj-ahha), 

Lying-in chamber, the 

ornamented, 161 

Macbeth, Shakespeare, 145n 
Macedonian Folk-Lore, G. F. 

Abbott, 70n2 
Mad, whom shall I make ? 

{kan darpaydmi), 100 
"Mad Lover, The," Burton, 

Nights, lOn 
Madam Contentious 

(Kalahakarl), 159?i2 
Maddening beauty, 7, 8 
Madness feigned by Vidu- 

shaka, 68 
Magia naturalis, Wolfgang 

Hildebrand, 296, 300 
"Magic," Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 99w 
Magic aid, gaining love by, 

43, 44 


Magic art, "Act of Truth" 

at the background of the, 

Magic art of the Vidyadhari, 

66, 67 
Magic article, jinn summoned 

by rubbing a, 58i^ 
Magic circle, 98-lOOn, 295 ; in 

Assyria, 99?i ; in Babylonia, 

99n ; denotes finality and 

continuity, 99n ; as kind of 

haram, 295 ; as prison, 100?z 
Magic, custom of kings to 

dabble in, 112^^ ; nudity in 

black, 117 ; origin of "over- 
hearing " motif may be 

traced to homoeopathic, 

107ni, 108n 
Magic gifts given up by 

Bhadra, 78 
Magic knots, 189^^ 
"Magic Pill, Story of the," 

Magic power of witches' 

spells, 103, 104 
Magic Ritual, Nudity in, 117- 

Magic virtue of steel, 106n* 
"Magical Circle," A. E. 

Crawley, Hastings' Ency, 

Rel. Eth., 99n 
"Magical impediments" 

motif, 121 
Magical knowledge-holder 

{vidyddhara), 137/1^ 
Magical powers of healing 

disease, nudity in, 118, 

Magical rides in the air, 103- 

Magicians in Malabar, Odi, 

Mahd Fir a Charita, Bhava- 

bhuti, 214 
Mahdbhdrata, the, 13n*, 16, 

17. 77>i, 81, 108^,122,127^1, 

1527^1, 232n, 240-242, 248, 

272, 284 
Mahapdduma-Jdtaka, the, 122 
Maid and the monkey, the, 5 
Maiden fed on poison, a 

beautiful, 291 
Maiden of the Vidyadhara 

race, 66 
Maidens found dead by 

Saktideva, beautiful, 223 
Maidens obtain husbands by 

worshipping Ganesa, 99, 

Maidens with serpents in 

their bodies, 307 


Maidens sitting on trees con- 
nected with tree-worship, 
43, 43?ii 

Maidens, the two heavenly, 43 

Making fire by friction, 247, 
249, 250, 255, 256 

Mdlati Mddhava, the, Bhava- 
bhuti, 2057i3; Tantric rites 
in the, 214-216 

Malay Poisons and Charm 
Cures, J. D. Gimlette, 303, 

Male vertical stick, 256 

Man killed each day in the 
apartment of the princess, 
69, 70 

Mango [dm tree), 118 

Manners and Customs of the 
Ancietit Egyptians, Wilkin- 
son, 264 

Manners and Customs of the 
Modem Egyptians, E. W. 
Lane, 163n 

Man's blood, epithet denoting 
the price of a (sataddya), 

Manual of thievery called 

MSS. of Secretum Secretorum, 
bibliography of, 288?^2 

March of the King of Vatsa, 

March, political measure of, 

Mdrchen, 252 

Mdrchen, Grimm, 60n^, l^^n^, 

Mdrchen der Magyar en, Gaal, 
135n2, 207^1 

Marco Polo, The Book of Ser, 
Yule and Cordier, 85w, 266, 
268, 2mn^, 302, 302^^, 303 

Mark the centuries oi life, 
knots that, 189, 189/ii 

Mark of the king, nine white 
umbrellas, 264 

Mark of respect, "Mother" 
a mode of addressing as a, 
201, 201^3 J semi-nudity as 
a, 119 

Marks, inauspicious, 4, 4n^, 
7, 7^1 

Marriage of Adityasena and 
Tejasvati, 55; of Asoka- 
datta and Madanalekha, 
204 ; of Asokadatta and 
Vidyutprabha, 206, 207 ; of 
Bhadra and Vidushaka, 66 

Marriage by capture, 24^; 
ceremonies of the 
Nayars, 17, 18; by choice 



Marriage continued 

{svayamvara). 16; communal 
or group, 17 ; of Devadatta 
and Vidyutprabha, 234 ; of 
DraupadT, the polyandrous, 
13-U, 16, 17; enjoyed by 
Kshatriyas, lowest forms of, 
17 ; evil spirits active on 
first night of, 306 ; forced 
on Somaprabha, 41 ; gdn- 
dharva form of, 5, 66 ; in 
India, evil effects of early, 
18 ; Kanakarekha's con- 
dition for, 173; of the 
King of Vatsa to Padma- 
vatl, 26, 27; of ManovatI 
and Vasudattii, 147 ; of 
Saktideva to the four 
sisters, 238; of Saktideva 
and VindumatI, 228; of 
Saktideva and Vindurekha, 
231 ; of Siva and the chap- 
lain's daughter, 181 ; iikti 
affixed to girl's forehead at 
her, 23?i ; of Vidushaka to 
the daughter of Devasena, 
71 ; of Vidushaka to King 
Aryavarman's daughter, 
75; of Vidushaka and the 
princess, 65 

Married, refusal of Kanaka- 
rekha to be, 172, 173 

Married women, iron bracelet 
worn by Hindu, 167 

Marrying out of one's rank, 
misfortune of, 131 

Matriarchal inheritance, 19 

Matted locks of Siva, the 
auburn, 208 

Measure of distance [kos), 191 ; 
of time (kalpa), 139ni, 163, 
163n2 ; of time (Manwan- 
tara), 250 

Measuresof distance [yojanas), 
57, bln\ 75, 190 

Measures to prevent entry of 
evil spirits, 166 

Measures, the six political, 
165, 165wi 

Mediaeval legend of a dragon, 

Medical Journal, The British, 
308, 310n3 

Meeting of Alexander and 
Chandragupta, 282, 285; 
of A^okadatta and his 
brother Vijayadatta, 209; 
of the maiden and Jlmu- 
tavahana, 145 ; of the two 
queens, 21 ; of Vidushaka 
and Bhadra, 77 

Meeting eyebrows, 103-104/1 
"Meeting Eyebrows," 

Tawney, Ind. Ant., 104n 
Meitheis, The, T. C. Hodson, 

*'Melanesians," Codrington, 

Journ. Anth. Inst., 198^^ 
Melanges, Favre, Wdn^ 
Melusi7ie, " La Montagne 

Noire ou les Filles du 

Diable," 190i 
Memoirs of the Anthropological 

Society of London, *'The 

Phallic Worship of India," 

E. Sellon, 242 
Men in air-tight armour, 299 
Mendicant Brahmans, Piindus 

disguised as, 16 
Mendicant carried off' by 

animated corpse, 62 
Mendicant in the cemetery, 

the religious, 62 
Mendicant, the princess 

carried off by the, 63; 

Siva assumes form of, 106 ; 

slain by Vidushaka, 63 
Mendicants, ten classes of 

Saiva, 90/1^ 
Mention, love on mere, 143, 

Merchant named Dharma- 

gupta, 39-41 ; named Guha- 

chandra, 40-44 ; named 

Gunavartman, 55 ; named 

Mahadana, 146 ; named 

Samudradatta, 191, 199, 

226 ; named Skandhadasa, 

71, 72; named Vasudatta, 

Mercury {Suidra), 276; chlo- 
ride of, 281 
Message of death, the, 113- 

* 'Messenger of certain death " 

{i.e. the poison - damsel), 

Metal or stone umbrellas 

{htee, ha or ti), 265, 265/i* 
Metamorphoses, stone, 46, 


Meteors and comets, Rahu's 
body the progenitor of, 81 

Method of killing female 
children, 304 

Methods of contamination by 
the poison -damsel, differ- 
ent, 291 

Methods of punishment of 
adultery, various, 88w' 

Mexican Archceolotnt, Jovce, 

Mexican sun-god, 309 
Mexicans regard syphilis as 

divine, 309 
Michlal Jo/i, Samuel Ibn 

Zarza, 299/1^ 
Middle Ages, poison-damsel 

in the, 292-297 
Midwifery in India, primitive 

methods of, 18 
Might {tejas), IQln- 
Migration of the umbrella, 

268, 269 
Milch cows and oxen eaten 

by the sage Yajiiivalkhya, 

Milindapanlia, the, 32 
Military caste, Nayars origin- 
ally a, 19 
Milk, nectar in the sea of, 

151 ; poison given to infant 

in, 313 ; sacred product of 

the cow, 242 
Milked by living creatures, 

the earth, 241 
Mille et U7i Jours, Les, 190n^ 
Mind, deer of the {manoinrigi), 

Minister of Brahraadatta, 

Yogakarandaka, 91, 275 ; of 

Dhaval Chandra, Jayanta, 

121 ; of Kamsundar, Sid- 

dhreh, 286; of Nanda, 

Rakshasa, 283-285 
Ministers ofNaravahana- 

datta, the future, 165 
Minnesinger, F. H. von der 

Hagen, 292^3 
Mirabilihus Mtindi, De, 

Albertus Magnus, 299, 

Miracles of the Virgin or 

Contes Devots, 113n^ 
Miraculous herb, 293 
"Mirror of Kings," Barlaam, 

Mirrors, serpents stare them- 
selves to death in, 299 
Miser, the Brahman, 176 
Misery and Poverty, two 

children like, 128 
Misfortune of marrying out 

of one's rank, 131 
Mission of Agni, the delicate, 

Mission to Ava, Yule, 168 
Mistress of Ladislao, 310 
Mock bridegroom, tali tied 

by a, 18 
Mode of address as mark of 

respect, "Mother." 201, 




Modern appellation of the 

Cororaandel coast, Chola 

district, 92/1* 
Modern Hindus, eclipse an 

important event among, 83 
Mod. Lang. Ass. Arner., "The 

Story of Horn and Rimen- 

hild," H. Schofield, 1W-; 

" Pontus and the Fair Si- 
done," E. J. Matter, 76/1^ 
Mohammedan Khojas of Guja- 
rat, customs connected 

with lights among the, 168 
Mohammedan women of the 

north, bodice worn by, 50ii 
Mohammedans introduce 

opium into India and 

China, 304 
Mohammedans of North 

India, 168 
Monarch, Vidushaka becomes 

a, 80 
Monastery of B rah mans, 57- 

59, 65, 195 
Monastery at Karkotaka, 73 
Monatsschrift fur praktische 

Dermatologie, Okamura. in, 

Monkey-god, Hanuman the, 

73, 197^2 
Monkey and the maid, 5 
Monkeys construct a bridge 

across the ocean, 84, 84ri^ 

Monkeys, Sugriva chief of 

the, 84, 84wi 
Monsters {sattva), 79 w^ 
" Montagne Noire ou les 

Filles du Diable, La," 

Melusine, l^On^ 
Month of fasting (Shrawan), 

Moon crest, god with the 

(Siva), 136, 170 
Moon, dogs held in esteem 

by the, 81 ; hare in the, 82 
"Moon, light of the," 

Chandraprabha means the, 

223, 223^1 
Moon the progenitor of the 

Pandava race, 13, 13^^ 
Moon (Soma), the, 45w*, 81 
Moonbeams, Chakora subsists 

upon, 235n^ 
Moon-god, Harran city sacred 

to the, 194?i 
Moons, the faces of the 

women like, 50, 50?^^ 
Moral of the poison-damsel 
myth in the Gesta Romano- 
rum, 296, 297 

Morals of Indra, 45n* 

Mortal kalpa, a (measure of 
time), 163^2 

Mortals, a river that cannot 
be crossed by, 75 

Mosses from an Old Manse, 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, 

"Mother," mode of address as 
mark of respect, 201, 201n^ 

Motf, "The Act of Truth," 
31-33; "Beauty and the 
Beast," 254; "Bellerophon 
letter," 114w ; "Death from 
Love," 9n2, lOn ; "declar- 
ing presence," 76n^ 77 ; 
"The dohada," 31; "Ex- 
ternal Soul," 120; *^ For- 
bidden Chamber," 223^1, 
224^)1 ; "Letter of Death," 
114w ; "Magical Impedi- 
ments," 121; "Mutalammis 
letter," 114i; "The Older 
and Older," 190^1 ; "Over- 
hearing," 107n^, lOSn, 
219^1; "The Poison-dam- 
sel," 275-313; "Scorned 
Love of Women," 120-124; 
"Supernatural Birth," 
136^1; "Swan Maiden," 
245; "Uriah letter," 114w 

Mount Meru, 102 

Mountain behind which the 
sun rises, Udaya the 
eastern, Q7n^ 

Mountain, the Brocken, 
104/1.2, 105n ; named Govin- 
dakuta, 212 ; Himavat, 138; 
Kalinjara, 149 ; Mahendra, 
92; the Malaya, 140, 150, 
156; Mandara, 67ni, 93; 
Meru, the world, 67v} ; 
called Rishabha, 222; of 
the rising sun, 68, 75; 
named Udaya, 67, 67n^ ; 
named Uttara, 190, 191 

Mountain [naga), 154n^ 

Mountaineer (ndga), 154n^ 

Mountaineer, a wild 
(Savara), 141-149 

Mountains, the Harz, 104w2 ; 
Lord of the (Parvataka), 
284, 285; the Himalaya, 
54; King of the Snowy 
(Siva), 143; of Turkestan, 
the Snake, 298; the 
Vindhya, 54 
Mouth of a corpse, flames 

issuing from the, 62 
Mouth of Death, temple of 
Durga like the, 227 

Mrichchhakatika, or Toy Cart, 
Wilson, 192nS 232n 

Mudrd - Rdkshasa, the, or 
Signet-ring of Rdkshasa, 
Visakhadatta, 160^^, 281, 

[ ' M uhammedan Pregnancy 
Observances in the Pun- 
jab"] H. A. Rose, Joum. 
Anth. Inst., 166 

Mummies, attempts to find 
traces of venereal disease 
in, 308, 308ni 

Muratori, Sanuto Junior, 268, 

Murdered child becomes a 
sword, 236 

Mustard-seeds enable Vidu- 
shaka to travel through 
the air, 63, 64; growing 
from the navel of a corpse, 

Muzzling sheep owing to 
aconite, 279 

"My lover" {majjdo), 46w^ 

Mysterious deaths of Duhka- 
labdhika's husbands, 69, 70 

Mystic relation between the 
cow and the universe, 240 

Mystic significance attached 
to the naked body, 119 

Myth, the Cupid and Psyche, 
253 ; French version of the 
poison - damsel, 293-294 ; 
German versions of the 
poison-damsel, 294, 294ri^ ; 
Italian version of the, 294- 
295 ; story of Urvai^i and 
Pururavas interpreted as a 
nature, 251 

Myth of Rahu, unknown 
origin of the, 81 

Mythes et Legendes de I'Inde 
el de la Perse, Leveque, 

Mythologie, Deutsche, Grimm, 
' 105/1 

Mythology, the horse in, 57?i^ 

Myths traced through ety- 
mology, origin of, 251, 252 

"Nagas, The," C. F. Oldham, 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 307 n^ 

Nails, the prints of loving, 49, 

Naked body, mystic signifi- 
cance attached to the, 

Naked, Urvasi must not be 
seen, 245, 246 ; worshipping 
the gods, 98. 98^^ 



"Nala and Davadanti," 

Tawney, Kathdkoqa, 232 /i 
" Nala and Damayantl," 

Mahabhdrata, lln, 232/i 
Name of Jimutavahana, 

former, 141 
Name of Phalabhuti given to 

Somadatta, 97 
Names denoting natural 

phenomena, 251, 252 
Names of umbrellas, dis- 
tinctive, 264 
Narrative of Travels on the 

Aniazon and Rio Xegro, 

A. K. Wallace, 280^' 
Nations, Ljiws of, 277-279 
Native courts in Africa, um- 
brellas used at, 271 
Nat. Hist., Pliny, 108>i, 296, 

Natural Law, 277, 278 
Natural phenomena, names 

denoting, 251, 252 
Nature myth, story of Urvasi 

and Pururavas interpreted 

as a^ 251 
Nature myths among the 

Australians, Eskimos and 

South Sea Islanders, 252 
Nature of the Rakshasas 

leaves Vijayadatta, 210 
Nature of a snake acquired 

by maiden, 291, 294, 295 
Navel of a corpse, mustard- 
seeds growing from the, 62 
Neck of concubine rubbed 

with poison, 297 
Necklace from the heads of 

elephants, 142, U2n^ 
Necks, with uplifted {utkan- 

dhardg ca suciram), 30/^^ 
Nectar (Amrita), 155n* ; Ga- 

ruda ordered to bring, 151; 

of immortality brought by 

Garuda to the snakes, 155, 

Neglect of female children 

in India, 18 
Negotiation termed "giving 

of a daughter," the, 47 
Negro races, eating human 

flesh among the Bantu. 

l9Sn\ 199/1 
Nepalese War, the, 280 
" Net of the corn-god," circle 

of flour and water called 

the, 296 
Neiihundert Ged'dchtnuss- 

wurdige-Geheimjiuss und 

W iinderwerck, Georg 

Henisch, 294wi 

New English Dictiona ry, 
Murray, 269/1*, 270 

Neiv York Medical Journal, 
"The Origin of Syphilis," 
J. Knott, 308/i2 

Night, lotus which closes in 
the, 25, 25/ii 

Night of marriage, evil spirits 
active on first, 306 

Nights, The Thousand and One, 
Burton, 10/i, 58/1^ 104/i, 
iai/ii.123,124, 131/ii,147/ii, 
153/1, 169, 190/^1, 193/ii, 
201 /i3, 202/ii, 218/i3, 219/i3, 
220/i, 223/ii, 224/1 

Nights, Straparola, 10/i 

Nine white umbrellas mark 
the king, 264 

Nodes AtiicoB, Gellius, 277 

Nocturnal assassins sent to 
the enemy's camp, 91 

Nodes. Rahu's bodyrepresents 
the descending, 81 

No-moon night or Amavas, 

Non-existence of polyandry 
among Nayars to-day, 18 

Non-fraternal polyandry, 18 

Non-venomous snake {dun- 
dubha), 152^2 

North defiled by barbarians, 53 

North India, Mohammedans 
of, 168 

North Indian Notes and Queries, 
118, 1427ii, 168 

North, Queen of the (Regina 
Aquilonis), 296 

Northern India, customs con- 
nected with eclipses in, 82, 

Nose, character indicated by, 

Nose cut off as punishment 
for adultery, 88, 88/ii 

Noses of impaled robbers cut 
ofl^, 60-62 

Not to be killed {aghnyd), 240 

" Not to see the sun" taboo, 

Note on nudity in magic 
ritual, 117-120; on poly- 
andry, 16-19 ; on the pre- 
cautions observed in the, 166-169; 
on Rahu and eclipses, 81- 
83; on the sacred cow of 
the Hindus, 240-241; on 
Tantric rites in the Mdlafl 
Mddhava, 214-216; on 
women whose love is 
scorned, 120-124 

Notes on the '* Act of Truth " 
motif in folk-lore, 31-33 

[*' Notes on a Collection of 
Regalia of the Kings of 
Burma of the Alompra 
Dynasty"] R. C. Temple, 
Ind. Ant., 264/ii, 269, 269/i< 

[*' Notes on Early Economic 
Conditions in Northern 
India," Caroline F. Rhys 
Davids] Joum. Roy. As. 
Soc, 240 

Notes on sdmudrika, by Rai 
Bahadur B. A. Gupta, 7/i^ 

Notes on the Spirit Basut of 
Belief arid Custom, J. S. 
Campbell, 167, 229n^ 

Nourished on poison, infant 
girls, 293 

Nourishment, poison as, 300 

Novel of Guerino Meschino, 

Novelle, Bandello, lOn 

Novels of the tenth day of 
the Decameron, source of 
the, 76wi 

Nucleus of the Maurya and 
Gupta empires, Magadha, 
the, 3ni 

Nudity in black magic, 117 ; 
in fertility rites, 118; in 
healing disease, 118, 119 ; 
in magic ritual, note on, 
117-120 ; in rites to pro- 
duce rain, 117, 118 

''Nudity in Custom and 
Ritual," W. Crooke, Joum. 
Anth. Inst., 119 

Number of horizontal lines 
on forehead as indication 
of years of longevity. In} 

Nuptial taboo, 248 ; earliest 
example of, 252 

Nurses of Karttikeya, the, 102 

Nymph comes out of a tree, 
a heavenly, 233 

Nymph, Rambha the, 34, 35 

Nymph Urva^!, the, 34-36, 

Nymphs of heaven displaying 
their skill in dancing, 35 

Nymphs in the shape of 
swans, 246 

Object of worship, horses an, 


Objects of life, the three, 
180, 180/i2 

Oblation to gods and vener- 
able men, argha an, 77, 



Oblation of human flesh, 99 
Oblation made to the tree, 

Observances, pregnancy, 166 
Obstacles, Conqueror or Victor 

of (Ganesa), 1, 125, 125?^l ; 

Lord of (Ganesa), 102 
Ocean, Churning of the, 65n^ 

67^^ 81 ; Saktideva pre- 
pares to cross the, 191 ; 

Vidushaka prepares to cross 

the, 71, 72 ; whirlpool in 

the, 217, 218 
Ocean of Story, the. 14w, 31, 

39/ii, bOn\ 56?z2-3, ^n\ 

62^i2, 82, 90>^3, 107^1, UTn\ 

150ni, 169, l%Zn\ 193ni, 

245, 266 
October (Aso), 119 
Odes, Horace, 120 
Odyssey, Homer, 106>i4, 217^2, 

Offer of Catti prince to poison 

Arminius, 277 
Offer to kill a cow an act of 

hospitality, 241 
Offering to the fire, daily 

{homo), 257, 257^11 
Oil {sneha), lln^, 163/^l 
Oil-presser's caste, the Tell, 

Ointment of juice of aconite, 

girl rubbed with, 310 
Old age venerated in the 

East, 190/ii 
Old Deccan Days, Frere, 3n, 

108^1, 136ni, 202l^^ 
Old and Modem Poison Lore, 

A. Wynter Blyth, 281 
"Older and older" motif, 

Oldest love-story in the world, 

Omen, eclipse an evil, 82 ; 

whenchildren speakshortly 

after birth, an evil, 39^^ 
One-eyed boy, Vasantaka dis- 
guised as a, 20, 22 
One umbrella, the earth 

under, 125, 125^3 
Opera hactenns inedita Ilogeri 

Baconi, Steele, 290, 291, 

Opium, early history of, 

303, 304; eating, 303-305; 

favoured by the Hindus, 

304 ; given to infants, 304 
"Opium," E. M. Holmes, 

Ency. Brit., 304n^ 
Opium {ppos, opion or afyim), 


Opium, Some Truths about, 

H. A. Giles, 3047^1 
Opposition of Brahmans to 

entrance of the king, 57 ; 

of Brahmans to polyandry, 

Opus Maius of Roger Bacon, 

J. H. Bridges, 100^ 
Order of St John, 39>i3 
Order of Vishnu to Indra to 

give Urvasi to Puriiravas, 

Ordinary occurrence of 

adulterv of a gambler's 

wife, 88?ii 
Orgies held by witches, 104, 


Orient und Occident, Benfey, 

Orientalist, Tamil story in the, 
De Rosairo, 184n 

Origin and Development of the 
Moral Ideas, Westermarck, 
96^1, 97n, 229^2 

Origin of eclipses, 81-83 ; of 
the myth of Rahu, un- 
known, 81 ; of myths traced 
through etymology, 251, 
252 ; of idea of ''overhear- 
ing" motif may be homoeo- 
pathic magic, 107n^, 108ii ; 
of Pandus in a single divine 
being, 17; ofstory of Urvasi 
and Pururavas, Frazer's 
theory of the, 253, 254 ; of 
the umbrella, 263 

"Origin of Syphilis, The," 
J. Knott, New York Medical 
Journal, 308/2,2 

Original significance of the 
umbrella, 267 

^07'igines de la France co?item- 
poraifie, Les, Taine] ISbn^ 

Ornamental lying-in chamber, 

Ornaments de la Femtne, Les, 
O. Uzanne, 272 

Othello, Shakespeare, 145?z 

"Otus and Ephialtes," 
Preller, Griechische Myth- 
ologie, 13n* 

Overheard by Saktideva, the 
conversation of birds, 219 

"Overhearing" motif, 107n^ 
108r., 219?ii 

Over-insisting {atinirhand- 
hinih), 221ni 

Overwhelming power of love, 

Ox, sacrificial act of eating 
the, 240 

Oxen eaten by the sage 

Yajiiivalkya, milch cows 

and, 241 
Oxford Essays, Max Miiller, 

251, 251^1 
Oyster shells eaten, lime of, 

301, 302 

"Padlock, The," Burton, 

Pentamerone, 253 
Pagoda, history of the Shwe 

Dagon, 265 
"Pagodas, Aurioles and 

Umbrellas," F. C. Gordon 

Cumming, The English Illus- 
trated Magazine, 272 
Pagodas surmounted by um- 
brellas, 265, 266 
Pain of love, Guhachandra 

tortured with the, 40 
Painting of Sita, 22, 22^^ 
Paintings in Nagpur, 307 
"Palaund Gopala,'' J. Hertel, 

Indische Erz'dhler, 121 
Palace in the air, the, 110, 

Palace, gable of Prester 

John's, 169 ; plot to set fire 

to the queen's, 3 
Palace [sard or sarat, Persian), 

Palm-leaf MS., a Telugu, 121 
Pan containing fire turns into 

SamI tree, 247, 250 
Panchatantra , the, B e n f e y , 

52ni, 108?^, 113^1, 297^^2 
Patijdb, Census Report, 118 
Panjab Notes and Queries, 118, 

168, 232/z 
Papers on Malay Subjects, 

R. J. Wilkinson, 167 
Paradise Lost, Milton, 427i2 
Paradise, Parijata one of the 

five trees of, 13, l^n 
Paradise tree (mafidara), 101, 

Paragon rib for umbrellas, 

Parasol (saioual, Persian), 263 
Parasols in Constantinople, 


Parish umbrella, 270 

Parisishtaparvan, Hema- 

chandra, 108y^. 285, 2^f>n\ 

Partridge (Chakora), 235, 

Passion [rajas), 106, ]06n^; 

[rdga), li^ri^ 
Past, dish of emerald reveals 

the, 159, 160 



Past at our Doors, The, W. W. 

Skeat, 270, 270/1^ 
Pathan women, Kurtas worn 

by, 50^5 
Pausanias, Frazer, lOn^ 
Pavilion of Vasavadatta 

burned, 21 
Pavilions, the three, 222 
Peace, political measure of, 

Peak, beliefs regarding the 

depression on Adam's, 

84^1, 85/1 
Peaks of the Vindhya, 92 
Pearl Ikunjaramani gajaimtktd), 

Pearls in the heads of 

elephants, 142^^ 
Penance performed by 

Pururavas, 36 
Pentameronc, Basile (trans. 

Burton), ^n\ 190/ii, 253 
People adorned with red 

powder, 164, 164ti* 
People who eat human flesh, 

hasezi, 199n 
People, Indra a god of the, 

45^4 ; of Kalinga, 92, 92n2 ; 

red as vermilion, 58-59n^ 
Periods in the life of a 

Brahman, 180, 180/ii 
Perseverance, the reward of, 

Persian sard or sardi (edifice 

or palace), 162n 
Persian umbrella (sdiwdn), 

263 ; {smjdbaii), 263 
Perspiration, killing by the, 

285, 291 ; poison transferred 

through the, 285 
Peru [Conquest of], W. 

Prescott, 88rii 
Pervade, to (rt.v), 251 
Petrarchian vocabulary, 263 
"Phallic Worship of India, 

The," E. Sellon, Mcm.Anth. 

Soc. U?t., 242 
" Phallism," E. S. Hartland, 

Hastings' Enaj. llel. Eth., 

119, 307^2 
Phallus, cobra regarded as, 

Pharsalia, Lucan, 62n^ 
Phenomena, names denoting 

natural, 251, 252 
Physician, story of the clever, 

2, 2/ii 
Pilgr'nnage to El Medinah and 

Meccah, Burton, 271 
Pilgrimage, Ramasetu a place 

of, 84ni 

*' Pill, Story of the Magic," 

Pillar of victory set up by 

the King of Vatsa, 91, 92, 

Pillars at Allahabad, Bubbal, 

etc., 92/1^ 
Pinnacle of the Kshatriya 

race and Lord of the Royal 

Umbrella, title of, 267 
Place of Adam's exile, Ceylon 

regarded by the Arabs as, 

84;i^, Sbn 
Place of pilgrimage, Ramasetu 

a, 84;ii 
''Place of Sacrifice" (Pra- 

yaga or Allahabad), llOn^ 
Plains of the Ganges, 677J^ 
Planet (graha), ISOn* 
Plants, arka, 161 ; poison 

caused from, 312 ; saml, 

161 ; windows covered with 

sacred, 161, 166 
Play, wealth lost at, 86 
"Plays of Bhasa, The," 

Banerji-Sastri, Joum. Roy. 

As. Soc, 21 n^ 
"Plays of Bhasa, The," 

Thomas, Joum. Roy. As. 

Soc, 21n^ 
Pleasure [kdma), 180^^ ; king 

addicted to, 125 
Plot to get the king and 

queen to Lavanaka, 12 ; 

to overthrow Nanda, 283 ; 

to set fire to the queen's 

palace, 3 ; of Yaugandhara- 

yana to give the King of 

Vatsa dominion of the 

earth, 3 
Plots to kill Chandragupta, 

283, 284 
Ploughing to produce rain, 

117, 118 
Poem relating to the 

Bharatas, the great (the 

Mahdbhdrata), 16 
Poet Chand, the, 266 
Poet Ottacker or Ottokar, 

the German, 309, 309/1^ 
Poetry, the smile in Hindu, 

" Points of the Compass," 

T. D. Atkinson, Hastings' 

Ency. Ret. Eth., 54i 
Poison, beautiful maiden fed 

on, 291, 313; bile of the 

green tree-snake as, 303 ; 

bile of the green water- 
frog as, 303; bile of the 

jungle crow as, 303 ; caused 

Poison continued 

from plants, 312 ; conveyed 
in a "chew" of betel, 303 ; 
damsel brought up on, 291, 
313 ; doe rubbed with, 298 ; 
eaten regularly, 300 ; given 
to infant in milk, 313; 
infant girls nourished on, 
293; by intercourse, 305- 
310; neck of concubine 
rubbed with, 297 ; as 
nourishment, 300; the 
Pontic duck lives on, 300; 
ring to destroy effects of, 
301 ; transferred through 
perspiration, 285 

Poison - damsel in Arabia, 
Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, 
Persia and Syria, 286 ; in 
Europe, 292-297; has no 
existence in fact, 313 ; fatal 
bite of the, 291 ; fatal kiss 
of the, 294 ; in the Gesta 
Romanorum, 296, 297 ; herb 
as protection against the, 
293; in India, 281-286 
killed by antidote, 297 
kills Parvataka, 284, 285 
** messenger of certain 
death," 284; in the 
Middle Ages, 286; prepared 
by Nanda, 285; in the 
Secretum Secretorum, 286- 
291 ; sent to Alexander the 
Great, 291-295 ; treatise to 
discover if a woman is a, 
286, 286n* 

Poison - damsel myth, cobra 
sting a clue to the, 311 ; 
French version of the, 293, 
294 ; German version of 
the, 294, 294nM Itahan 
version of the, 294, 295; 
venereal disease in con- 
nection with the, 308 

Poison - damsels, Appendix 
III, 275-313; Sanskrit 
references to, 281-286 ; 
sent among the enemy's 
host, 91, 91ni 

" Poison in a glance " {drig* 
visa or dristi-visa), 298 

Poison Lore, Old and Modem, 
A. Wynter Blyth, 281 

Poison My.iteries, C. J. S. 
Thompson, 281 

Poison War, The, A. A. 
Roberts, 281 

Poisoned by the Florentines, 
Ladislao, 310 

Poisoned hay or fodder, 276 


oisoned trees, creepers, 
water, grass, 91 
'oisoned water, etc., 275-280 
'oisoned wells in German 

South-West Africa, 281 
'oisoned words {i.e. poison- 
ous breath), 292 

i*oisoning of Australians, 280, 
280w* ; of Tasmanians, 280, 
280/i5; of wells by the 
Gurkhas of Nepal, 280; 
of the Yuta Indians, 280 

Poisonings by the Borgias, 

Poisonous animals, garlic j uice 
dangerous to, 296 ; human 
saliva dangerous to, 296 

Poisonous breath, 300-303 

Poisonous harpist, the, 293, 

Poisonous herbs, girl brought 
up among, 297 

Poisonous look of snakes, 
belief in the, 298 

Poisonous saliva, 305 

Poisons condemned by the 
Romans, use of, 277, 278 

Poisons in the Great War, 
280, 281 

Poisons of India, 279, 280 

Poisons : their Effects and De- 
tection, A. W'. and M. W. 
Blyth, 281 

Policy incarnate in bodily 
form, Vasavadatta, 38 

Politic expedients, the four, 
45, 45/i3 

Political measures, the six, 
165, 165>ii 

Polyandrous marriage of 
Draupadi, 13, IS/i^, 14, 16, 

Polyandry in the Bismarck 
Archipelago, 18; causes 
of, 18, 19 ; non-existent 
among the Nayars to-day, 
18 ; factors in favour of, 19 ; 
in the Hawaian Islands. 18 ; 
in New Caledonia, 18 ; in 
the New Hebrides, 18; 
note on, 16-19 ; shortage 
of women a cause of, 18 ; 
in various parts of the 
world, 16-19 

Polygamy, forms of, 17 

Polygyny, 17 

Pontic duck lives on poison, 

" Pontus and the Fair Sidone," 
E. J. Matter, Mod. Lang. 
Ass. Amer., 7Qn^ 


Poor Brahman woman, the, 
128, 129, 133-135 

Pope Alexander III, 268 

Popol Vuh, Brasseur de Bour- 
bourg, 309/^1 

Popular Antiquities of Great 
Britain, Brand, 99n, 105/i 

Popular Religion and Folk- 
Lore of Northern India, W. 
Crooke, 57^1, 82, 83, 96ni, 
99n, 127n2, 138yi3, 142^1, 
155;i3, 193^1, 197^2, 202^1, 
240, 256, 256/i3 

Popular Stories of Ancient 
Egypt, Maspero, 112n^, 

Popular Tales and Fictions, 
Clouston, 108n, ll^i, 122, 
169, 190^1, 192^1, 224n 

Popular Tales from the Norse, 
Dasent, 196n^ 

Popularity of the Secretum 
Secretorum, 286 

Portion of house allotted 
to the women, harem, 

Portuguese Christians, 85w 

Portuguese, introduction of 
syphilis into India by the, 
310, 310/^3 

Posture called Padmasana, 
sitting in the, 176, 176n* 

Poverty, two children like 
Misery and, 128 

Powder, people adorned with 
red, 164, 164w* ; made of 
turmeric, lime-juice and 
borax {kunkam), 164^* 

Power and sovereignty, the 
umbrella a symbol of, 264 

Power of becoming vampires 
by eating human flesh, 
198^1 ; of flying through 
the air, 103, 104 ; of love, 
the overwhelming, 9 ; ob- 
tained by austerities, 85 ; 
of remembering former 
birth, 149; of truth, the 
irresistible, 31 ; of witches' 
spells, magic, 103, 104 

Prahandhacintdmani, Tawney, 

Prakrit dialect, 46 

Prayer of the mendicant to 
Durga, 62 

Prayer of Saktideva, 228 

"Pre-Buddhist Religionof the 
Burmese, The," A. Grant 
Brown, Folk-Lore, 265w^ 

Precautions observed in the 
birth-chamber, 166-169 


Preceptor, Prajnaptikausika, 

Precious stones in their eyes, 

women with, 306 
Precious stones, rules for 

preserving, 288 ; valley full 

of, 299 
Pregnancy observances, 166- 

Pregnancy of Vasavadatta, 

137, 138 ; of Vindurekha, 

Preparation of the king for 

conquest, 53 ; of the king 

for the expedition, 89 
Present of a poison-damsel 

sent to Alexander the 

Great, 291-295 
Present sent to the chaplain 

by the rogue Madhava, 178 
Prevalence of fraternal poly- 
andry in the Himalayan 

regions, 18 ; in Tibet, 18 ; 

among the Todas of the 

Nilgiri hills, 18 
Previous birth of Sinapara- 

krama's wife, 160 
Previous life, done in a 

{purogaih), 135n^ 
Price of a man's blood, 

epithet denoting the 

(sataddya), 240 
-Pride Abased," J. H. 

Knowles, Ind. Ant., 193n^ 
Pride one of the six faults 

of man, 106/1^ 
Pride of wealth, Brahmans 

intoxicated with the, 59 
Priest, fire- (agnihotrl), 257 
Primitive Culture, E. B. Tylor, 

83, 96ni, 103^1 
Primitive Culture of India, T. 

C. Hodson (Roy. As. Soc), 

97n, 256/^4 
Primitive methods of mid- 
wifery in India, 18 
Prince eaten by his parents, 

113, 114 
Prince of the Rakshasas, 

Lambajihva, 206 
Prince of the Siddhas, Visva- 

vasu, the chief, 140 
Princes named Dhritarashtra 

and Pandu, 16 
Princess carried off by the 

mendicant, 63 
Princess of Kashmir whose 

beauty maddens, 6^^ 
Princess, Vidushaka watches 

in the apartment of the, 




Princess won by Saktideva, 

Princess's life saved by Vidu- 
shaka, 63 

Prints of loving nails, 49, 49w^ 

Prison, magic circle as a, lOOn 

Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., " Ahal- 
yayai," Bloomfield, 45n^ ; 
" On the Art of Entering 
Another's Body," Bloom- 
field, 212ni 

Procession of the king, 
triumphant, 51 

Proclamation announced by 
beatof drum,73, 73n2, 173, 
187, 224 

*' Prodigies and Portents," 
VV. D. WalHs, Hastings' 
Enc^. Rel. Eth., 83 

Producing fire {i.e. "rubbing 
Agni forth "), 255wi 

Products of the cow, the five 
sacred {panchagavtja), 242 

Professional proxies for 
husbands, Cadeberiz, 307 

Progenitor of meteors and 
comets, Rahu's body the, 81 

Progenitor of the Pandava 
race, the moon the, 13, 

Propitiating Siva to obtain a 
son, 136 ; Siva with aus- 
terities, 84, 85 ; the Vetala, 

Propngnatore, II, 2S9n^ 

Prosperity, Lakshml or Sri, 
Goddess of, 65, 65w^ 75; 
Timira the dwelling of the 
Goddess of, 36 

Protection against the poison- 
damsel, herb as, 293; of 
child by lamps, 161 ; of a 
mightier king, political 
measure of recourse to the, 

Protective barrier to the 
dead and dying, magic 
circle a, 99n 

Protective barrier round a 
house, magic circle a, 99n 

Protective value of iron, 166, 

Proxies for husbands, Cade- 
beriz professional, 307 

Proxy for husband, 306, 307 

Pseudo - Aristotelean work, 
Secret urn Secretonim, 286-291 

Pseudo-Aristotelisches Stein- 
buch von Liittich," Zeit- 
schrift fiir dentsches Altert., 

Psendo-Callistheiies, 1387i*, 169 
Psychology of Sex, Studies in 

the, Havelock Ellis, 229n2, 

308, 308ni 
' ' Pucelle Venimeuse" 

(poison-damsel), 293 
Punishment for adultery 

among the Pardhi caste, 

Punishment for adultery, 

nose cut off as, 88, 88n^ ; 

in places other than India, 

Pupil of Vi^vamitra, Galava 

a son or, 21 In^ 
Puranas, the, 240, 241, 248 
Pursuit of a boar by Saktideva, 

Pursuit of the chase by the 

king, 126 
Pyramids haunted by guardian 

spirit, one of the, 6n'- 
Pyrites as charm against 

alligators, iron, 168 

"Qara Khan, The Story of," 

E. J. W. Gibb, The Story 

of Jewad, I90n^ 
Qirq Fesir Tarlkhi [Histoiy of 

the Forty Vezirs), 123 
Quarrel of Sunda and Upa- 

sunda, 14, 14n 
Quarrelsome wife, the, 159- 

Quart. Joum. Mythic. Soc., 

" S V a p n a - vasavadatta," 

K. R. Pisharoti, 2ln^ 
Quartz, jewels of glass and, 

Queen of Ethiopia, eunuch 

of Candace, 85n 
Queen of India sends Alex- 
ander a poison-damsel, 294 
Queen Jan Shah, 124 
Queen KuvalayavalT, 98 
Queen of the North (Regina 

Aquilonis), 296 
'Queen of the Serpents," 

Burton, Nights, 153n 
Queen of Sizire, 294 
Queen's palace, plot to set 

fire to the, 3 
Quotations about umbrellas, 

270, 271 

Race, King of the Chola, 92, 
92n* ; the King of Vatsa 
sprung from the Pan^ava, 1 ; 
moon the progenitor of the 
Pan^ava, 13, I3n} ; of Pan^u, 

Rain in Chunar, Mirzapur 

district, rites to produce. 

117, 118 
Rain, nudity in rites to pro- 
duce, 117, 118; ploughing 

to produce, 117, 118 
Rain ritual in various parts of 

the world, nudity in, 117, 

Rdmayana, the, 22n^, 34n* 

45rt*, 'Un\ 102ni, 272 
Rams of Urva^I, 246, 249 
Range, the Vindhya, 188 
Rank abandoned by Soma- 

prabha, celestial, 44 
Rank betrayed by smell of 

the body, high, 22, 22^2 
Rank of a Vidyadhara, rites 

to obtain the, 233, 234 
** Rappacini's Daughter," 

Mosses from an Old Manse, 

Nathaniel Hawthorne, 297, 

Rare appearance of the 

poison-damsel in Sanskrit 

literature, 281 
Bos Mfild, Forbes, 266, 266n8, 

R'dtsel der Sphinx, Laistner, 

Raven connected with the 

Water of Life, 155^4 
Reason for split tongues of 

snakes, 152 
Reasons for nudity in magic 

ritual, 117 
Recensions of the Secretum 

Secretorum, 287, 288-291 
Recht und Sitte, J. Jolly, 163n 
Recitation of Phalabhuti at 

the king's door, 97, 98 
Recognition, the ring of, 76, 

Reconciliation of the King of 

Magadha, 47 
Recourse to the protection of 

a mighter king, political 

measure of, 165;i^ 
Red lead, marking with, 23n 
Red powder, people adorned 

with, 164, 164m* 
Red umbrellas, lesser officials 

have, 265 
Red used in marriage rites, 

the colour, 23w, 24n 
Red as vermilion, people, 58, 

59, mn} 
Refusal of Kanakarekha to be 

married, 172, 173; of the 

king to ascend the jewelled 
throne, 53 



1 egalia, five articles of, 264 
J egimen Sanitatis, chapters 

of Secretum Secretorum, 288 
J egiment pestilentzischer 

giffiiger Fieber, Johannes 

Hebenstreidt, 296 
" Legion above the three 

worlds called Goloka, 242 
leisehuch, Hans Schiltberger, 

leise?i (lurch Siidamerika, J. J. 

von Tschudi, ISOhi^ 
lejected love of women, 105, 

109, 120-124 
dejection of Kalaratri by 

Sundaraka, 105, 109 
tielation between the cow 

and the universe, mystic, 

Relation of Sankhachuda, 

Matanga, 156 
Relations attack Jimiitaketu, 

Relative found by Saktideva, 

Relief from taboo during 

eclipses, kma or dlb grass 

as, 82 
Religion of Babylonia and 

Assyria, Morris Jastrow, 

" Religion of the Burmese,The 

Pre-Buddhist," R. Grant 

Brown, Folk-Lore, 265n,^ 
Religion of the Semites, Lectures 

on the, W. Robertson Smith, 

119, 194i 
Religion des Veda, H. Olden- 
berg, 252;ii 
Religious acts before making 

a sachchakiriya (Act of 

Truth), 31, 32 
Religious ascetic, rogue Siva 

disguised as a, 176 
Religious mendicant in the 

cemetery, 62 
Religious significance of the 

umbrella, 265, 266 
Religious student, Brahma- 

chdrin, an unmarried, 180^^ 
Reliques, Percy, lOw 
Remembering {pnntvd), 200n^ 
Remembering former birth, 

power of, 149 
Renunciation by Bhadra of 

her magic gifts, 78 
Repast of Kuvalayavall and 

Adityaprabha, the grim, 

Report Cambridge ExpeditioUy 

Haddon, 198ni 

Report of cannibalism during 

the French Revolution, 

Report on the Excavations of 
Pdtaliputra (Patna), 39^1 

Repulsive appearance of 
Kalaratri, 103, 104 

Respect, " Mother," mode of 
address as a mark of, 201, 
20\n^ ; semi-nudity as a 
mark of, 119 

Restored to life by Garuda, 
snakes, 155, 156 

Result of insult, duel as, 303 

Return of Asokadatta to 
Benares, 207 ; to Kaus- 
arabl, the, 48-50, 67; of 
Saktideva to the City of 
Gold, 237 ; of Vidushaka 
to the temple, 66 ; of 
Vidushaka, the triumph- 
ant, 79 

Reunion of Vasavadatta and 
the King of Vatsa, 29 ; of 
Vidushaka and Bhadra, 77, 

Reveals the past, dish of 
emerald, 159, 160 

Revenge planned by Deva- 
datta, 235 

Reverence paid to the cobra, 
oil, 312 

Revolution, report of canni- 
balism during the French, 

Revue des tudes Juives, 289n* 

Reward for good deedS; 
heavenly wives as, 44, 45 ; 
of perseverance, the, 97 ; 
of virtue, 133 

Ricerche intorno al Libro di 
Sindibad, Comparetti, 122 

Rides in the air, magical, 

Riding on a lion, lady, 143 

"Right path, in the" (indr- 
gasthd), 159n^ 

Rig- Veda, the, 34^^, 57^^, 

* 86/?i, 88>^l, 231^1, 232/1, 240, 

245-247, 250, 254,255, 255^^ 

Rindfeisch Festschrift, ' ' Die 
Legende von der Alter- 
tums -syphilis," A. V. 
Notthaft, 308^2 

Ring to destroy the effects 
of poison, 301 ; given by 
Bhadra to Vidushaka, 68; 
of recognition, the, 76, 77 

Rings of /rwA'a grass, 176, 176^^ 

Rising sun, the mountain of 
the, 75 


Rising {udaya), 67w^ 

Rite of fire-walking, 169 

Rites to attain the rank of a 
Vidyadhara, 233, 234 

Rites of Hinduism, esoteric, 

Rites, human flesh in Tantric, 

Rites in the Mdlati Mddhava, 
Tantric, 214-216 

Rites to produce rain, nudity 
in, 117, 118; in various 
parts of the world, nudity 
in, 117, 118 

Rites of the Sakta wor- 
shippers of Devi, Tantric. 
198^1, 199n 

Rites of the Twice-born, Mrs. S 
Stevenson, 54wi, 83, 166, 
242, 257^1 

Ritual, cow, 142, 241; the 
fire, 248-250; lamps prom- 
inent in Hindu, 169; nudity 
in magic, 117-120 

River of the gods {i.e. the 
Ganges), 54, 54^2 

River that cannot be crossed 
by mortals, 75 

River-goddess, Tamasa, lS9rt^ 

Roam through the air, spells 
to enable Vasavadatta to, 

Roaming Vidyadhara, a sky-, 

Robbers fall upon Jimutava- 
hana, 141 

Robbers, the impaled, 60-62 

Robbers tenanted by demons, 
dead, 61, Qln^ 

Rogue sends the chaplain a 
present, 178 ; wishes to 
enter the service of the 
king, 178, 179 

Rogues, triumph of the, 183 

Rohita fish, 193n^ 

"Romance of Doolin of 
Mayence," Dunlop, History 
of Fiction, 12.1n^ 

" Romance of Merlin," Dun- 
lop, History of Fiction, 39^^ 

Romaiiia, Guillem de Cervera, 
292, 292n2 

Romans, use of poisons con- 
demned by the, 277, 278 

Room hung with weapons, 

Rope {guna), 75?^l 

" Rough Notes on the Snake 
Symbol in India," J. H. 
Rivett-Carnac, Joum. As^ 
Soc. Bengal, 307, 307^1 



Roundel, Anglo-Indian term 

for umbrella, 269, 26972* 
Royal Asiatic Society, For- 

long Fund, Primitive Culture 

of India, T. C. Hodson, 97n, 

" Royal " trees, the five, 118 
Royal umbrella [tipyii), 264 
Royalty, the umbrella an 

emblem of, 263 
"Rubbing Agni forth" (i.e. 

producing fire), 255n^ 
Rubbing magic article, jinn 

summoned by, 58n^ 
Ruins at Patna discovered by 

Waddell and Spooner, 39n^ 
Ruler of the Hydaspes (Jhe- 

lum), Poms, 283, 2837i2 
Rules for preserving health, 

288; regarding fire and light 

in all parts of the world, 

Russell's viper, deaths from 

sting of, 311 
Russian Folk-Tales ^ Ralston, 

60^2, 61ni, 71ni, 98n^ 122, 

152w4, 155w*, 190ni, 202wi, 


Sacred basil or Tulasi, 82 
Sacred Books of the aj<,245w^, 

267/ii, 275wi 
Sacred cow, the, 229, 229ni ; 

of the Hindus, 24.0-242 
"Sacred Fires, Establishment 

of the," Agnyadhana, 256n^ 
Sacred to the moon-god, 

Harran the city, 194w 
Sacred pipal tree {Ficus 

religiosa), 118, 255 
Sacred plants, windows 

covered with, 161, 166 
Sacred spot {haram), 161n* 
Sacred Thread investiture, 

Sacred tree Butea frondosa, 

Sacrifice among the Sakta 

worshippers, human, 198n^ 
Sacrifice of the daughter of 

Adityasena ordered by the 

goddess, 62 
Sacrifice of Jimiitavahana, the 

great, 153, 154 
"Sacrifice, The place of" 

(Prayaga), llOn^ 
Sacrifice Saktideva, sons of 

the fisherman prepare to, 

227, 228 
Sacrifices to water-spirits, 72, 

72 ni 

Sacrificial act of eating the 

ox, 240 
Sacrificial fire, the, 247, 249, 

250, 255 
Saddle, horse with ii jewelled, 

Sagas about meeting eye- 
brows, Icelandic, 103n^ 
Sagas from the Far East, 6n}, 

Sage, divine (Devarshi), 34, 

Sage Yajiiivalkya, the great, 

Sage Vasishta, 45/1^ 
"Sage vom Giftmiidchen, 

Die," W. Hertz, Abhand- 

lungen d. bayer. Akad. d. 

Wisseii., 286, 286^2, 292, 

292ni, 296, 298, 300 
Sagen aus Bohmen, Grohmann, 

13n*, 43^1, 99n, 104w 
Sagen aus der Grafsckaft 

Mansfeld, Grossler, 99n 
Sagen, M'drchen und Gebrduche 

aus Meklenburg, Bartsch, 

98n*, 107^1, 15371 
Sagenbuch (or Geschichte) der 

Bayerischen Lande, Schopp- 

ner, 113n^ 
" Sake of a fair one. for the " 

{rdmdrtkam), 73n^ 
^akuntald, Kalidasa, 144n^ 
Sale of human flesh, 205 
Saliva dangerous to poisonous 

animals, human, 296 
Saliva, the poisonous, 305 
Sama Veda, chanters of the, 

Samhitas, the, 240 
Sanctity of iron among the 

Doms, belief in the, 168 
Sanctuary at Mecca, 161n* 
Sandal (chenin), 264 
Sanskrit College, the, 50n*, 

74ni, 897i3, 97w2, 100n2, 

137ni, 185n2, 197w3 
Sanskrit literature, poison- 
damsel rare in, 281 
Sanskrit references to poison- 
damsels, 281-286 
Sanuto Junior, Muraiori, 268, 

Sarangdhara Charita, the, 121 
Satapatha Brdhttmna^ the, 241, 

245, 250, 254-256 
Satellite of the Mexican 

sun-god, Nanahuatzin a, 

Saved by shock, Vihitasena, 

37, 37ni 

Saving of the princess by 

Vidushaka, 63 
Scandal, The Iniquity of, 

185, 186 
Scarlet fever, 280 
Scatalogic Rites of all Nationtf 

Bourke, 199n ' 
Scavengers, Mehtar caste of, 

Scented drug {Ananta), 276; 

{Sarva-gandka), 276 
Sceptre {tlianlyet), 264 
Science of thieving, 183n^, 

Sciences of the Vidyadharas, 

210-212, 212wi 
Scorned love of women, 120- 

Scratches, varieties of love, 

Screams of witches, 60 
Scriptores rerum Austriacarum 

veteres ac genuini, R. D. P. 

Hieronymus Pez, 3lOn^ 
Scriptoruvi Arabum de Rebus 

Indids loci, J. Gildemeister, 

Sculptures from Calah, 263 
Sea of milk, nectar in the, 

Sea propitiated with jewels, 

72, 72ni 
Sea propitiated by Rama, the 

God of the, 84n^ 
Search of Saktideva for the 

Golden City, 188-195; of 

Vidushaka for Bhadra, 69, 

Second anklet given to 

Asokadatta, 206 
Second golden lotus desired 

by the king, 208 
Second rejection of Kalaratri 

by Sundaraka, 109 
Secret of the forbidden 

terrace, 222, 223 
Secrets of Brahmadatta 

learnt by spy, 91 
Secretum Secretorum, Pseudo- 
Aristotle, 285, 286-291 
Secretum Secretorum attributo 

ad Aristotele, II, Cecioni, 

Sect of ascetics, the Aghorl, 

Seduce Sunda and Upasunda, 

Tilottama sent to, 14, 

Seeing the king and queens, 

excitement of the women 

on, 50, 51 



Select Specimens of the Theatre 

of the Hindus, H. H. Wilson, 

189ni, 192ni, 214, 258, 259, 

Self-sacrifice of Jimutavahana, 

Great, 153, 154 
Semi-nudity as mark of 

respect, 119 
Semitic Magic, R. Campbell 

Thompson, 99n, 193ni, 295 
Semitic opos or opion (opium), 

Separation of Rama from 

Sita, 9 ; of UrvasI and 

Pururavas, 35, 36, 245-259 
Sept Femmes de Barbe Bleu, 

Les, A. France, 224n 
Serpent race nearly de- 
stroyed, 152 
Serpent Sesha, 90, 90^2 
" Serpent Worship (Indian)," 

W. Crooke, Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 307n2 
" Serpent Worship (Primitive 

and Introductory)," J. A. 

Macculloch, Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth., 307^2 
Serpent-worship and on the 

Venomous Snakes of India, 

On, Sir Joseph Fayrer, 

Serpents in their bodies, 

maidens with, 307 
" Serpents, The Queen of 

the," Burton, Nights, 153n 
Serpents stare themselves to 

death in mirrors, 299 
Serpents, valley guarded by 

deadly, 299 
Service of the king, rogue 

wishes to enter the, 178, 

Setting of the sun, the west 

the cause of the, 53 
Seven-headed Naga, the, 266 
Seven Wise Masters, The, 124 
Seven Years' Travel in Central 

America, J. Frobel, 280n' 
Sexes, analogy between fire- 
drill and intercourse of the. 

"Shade, little" {umbra), 263 
Shaft {aste), 269 
Shame of Garuda, 155 
Shape of bees assumed by 

Guhachandra and the 

Brahman, 42 
Sheep muzzled owing to 

aconite, 279 
Shock saves Vihitasena, 37, 


Ship stopped in the sea by 

the leg of a giant, 72 ; ship 

swept into the whirlpool, 


Shortage of women a cause 

of polyandry, 18 
Shoulder {skandha), 205ni 
Shrewish wife, the, 159, 160 
''Shroud, The," Ralston, 

Russian Folk-Tales, 60^2 

Shut up (Italian *err^a), 162n 

Sicilianische Marchen, Gonzen- 

bach, 6^2, 80^1, 113ni, 

135^2^ 155^4^ 190^1, 196711, 

202ni, 209ni 
Sickle and mm leaves kept on 

the cot of a Mala woman 

in labour, 166 
" Sidi Nu'uman, History of," 

Burton, Nights, 202^1 
Signet -ring of Rdkshasa or 

Mudrd'Rdkshasa, Visa- 

khadatta, 160^1, 281, 283- 

Significance of the umbrella, 

263-265 ; religious, 265, 266 
Silence broken by ascetic, 

vow of, 4 
"Silent Q)uple, Story of 

the," 212ni 
Silver {Tara), 276 
Similarity of nature myths 

among many peoples, 252 
Simples and Drugs of India, 

Garcia de Orta, 302n^ 
Sin of Indra, 45, 46 
"Sindbad the Sailor," 299 
Siudibdd Ndma cycle of tales, 

Sing igd), 241 
Single divine being, origin of 

the Piindus in a, 17 
Sisters, marriage of Sakti- 

deva to the four, 238 ; the 

three, 237 
Site of Kalinga, 92, ^2n^ ; of 

Pataliputra, 39ni 
Sitting dharnd at the sun's 

door, 82 
Sitting in the posture called 

Padmasana, 176, i76n* 
Six faces, a boy with (Kart- 

tikeya), 102 
Six faults that are the enemies 

of man, 106, 106# 
Six Krittikas {i.e. Pleiades), 

Six political measures, the, 

165, 165ni 
Sixty-four seers (Ghata- 

measure), 276 

Skill in dancing, nymphs 
display their, 35 

Skull {kdpdla), 90n3 

Skull-bearing Saiva ascetic, 
196, 200 

Skull-bearing worshippers of 
Siva, 90, 90n3 

Skull-cleaver (Kapalasphota), 

Skull, drinking brains from a, 

Skull struck by Vijayadatta, 

Sky-roaming Vidyadhara, 141 

Slain by Vidushaka, the 
mendicant, 63 

Slaughter of the cow fills the 
Hindu with horror, 240 

Slave of Kadru, Vinata be- 
comes the, 151 

Slavonian superstition about 
meeting eyebrows, 103^^ 

Smallpox, clothes infected 
with, 280; traders infect 
Indians with, 280 ; vaccina- 
tion against, 312 

Smell of the body, high rank 
betrayed by the, 22, 22?i2 

Smile in Hindu poetry, hOri^ 

Smith, Annam parents sell 
children to a, 166, 167 

Smoking opium less harmful 
than eating or drinking it, 

Snake {dibya), 298 ; [naga), 

Snake-bite, statistics of deaths 
from, 311 

Snake called Sankhachuda, 
152-154, 156 

Snake cannot poison one of 
its own species, 311 

Snake-charmer's inoculation, 
311, 312 

Snake, dundubha, a non- 
venomous, 1527*2 . rdjila a 
striped,. 152^2 

Snake, girl only able to hiss 
like a, 294 

Snake, the green tree- [Ular 
puchok, Drijophis prasinus 
or Boie - Dipsodoynorphince, 

Snake gives power of under- 
standing language of 
animals, eating a, 108n 

Snake nature acquired by 
maiden, 291, 294, 295 ; girl 
with the, 294, 295 

Snake as poison, bile of the 
green tree-, 303 



"Snake Symbol in India, 
Rough Notes on the," 
J. H. Rivett-Carnac, Joum. 
As. Soc. Bengal, 307, 307ni 

Snake Vasunemi, the, 22n^ 

Snake venom digestible, 311 

Snakes and Alexander the 
Great, deadly, 299 

Snakes, baby girl brought up 
by huge, 294 ; become the 
food of Garuda, 151, 152; 
belief in the poisonous look 
of, 298; the foolish, 151; of 
Hindu superstition, 152w*, 
153w ; and intercourse, 
connection between, 307; 
reason for split tongues of, 
152; restored to life by 
Garuda, 155, 156 ; sons of 
Kadru, 150; spit venom 
and defile the Sun's horses, 
150 ; Vasuki, King of the, 

Snares laid in the path of the 
King of Vatsa, 91 

Sneezing, 145n 

Snowy Mountains. King of 
the (Siva), 143 

Soaps used at Brahman 
wedding, 22n' 

Societies, Sunderer of (death), 

Society of English Biblio- 
philists, 2n^ 

Society of ghouls in Uganda, 

Society of witches, 104-105ji 

Socket {noete), 269 

"Some Notes on Homeric 
Folk-Lore," W. Crooke, 
Folk-Lore, 57n^ 

Some Truths about Opium, 
H. A. Giles, 304wi 

Son of Adityaprabha eaten, 
113, 114 

Son born to Siva and Uma in 
the fire, 102 

Son, desire of Gauri for a, 
100; longing of Vasavadatta 
for a, 135 ; promised to 
Vasavadatta, 13; propitiat- 
ing Siva to obtain a, 136; 
or pupil of Visvamitra, 
Galava a, 21 In^; of Ruman- 
vat, Hari^ikha, 161, 165; 
of Vasantaka, Tapantaka, 
161, 165; of Vinata, Garuc^a, 
151; worshipping Gane^a 
to obtain a, 100, 102- of 
Yaugandharayana, Maru- 
bhuti, 161, 165 

Son of Hi^imba, 284 

Son of the King of Vatsa to 
be King of the Vidya- 
d haras, 85 

Son-in-law seducefl by Utpa- 
lavarna, 122 

Son of Nityodita, Gomukha, 
161, 165 

Son of Patali (Pataliputra), 

Sougs of the Russian People^ 
Ralston, 138>i4, 189ni 

Sons of the fisherman prepare 
to sacrifice Saktideva, 227, 

Sons of Kadru, snakes the, 
150; of Kilrttikeya, 102; 
of Pandu, the five, 16 

Sorcerer or Maidelaig, 198ni 

Sorceress, Rhodope the 
Thracian, Qnr 

Source of the novels of the 
10th day of the Decameron, 

South Kensington Museum, 

South neighboured by Riik- 
shasas and inhabited by 
the God of Death, 54 

South, tikti worn in the, 23w 

Southern India, Maravars an 
aboriginal race of, 166 

Sovereignty of Chola. 92, 
92^4 * 

Sovereignty, the umbrella a 
symbol of power and, 264 

Sowing dissension, politic ex- 
pedient of, 45n^ 

Spangles set in gold worn by 
women from Rajputana, 23n 

Spangles worn by Hindu 
women of good caste, iikti, 
22n\ 23i 

Speaking immediatelv after 
birth, 39, 397i2 

Speech {gir), 241 ; identified 
with the cow, 241 ; re- 
garded as divine, 241 

Spell for descending from the 
air forgotten by Sundaraka, 

Spell overheard by Sunda- 
raka, the witches', 107 

Spells to drive away Rak- 
shasas, 106 ; to enable Vasa- 
vadatta to roam through 
the air, 138; magic power 
of witches', 103, 104 

Spies sent to Benares, 89, 90 

Spirits active on first night of 
marriage, evil, 306 

Spirits date back to the Stone 

Age, 167; lights in the 

birth-chamber to scare 

away evil, 168; measures 

to prevent entry of evil, 

166 ; scared away by iron, 

evil, 166-168 ; scared away 

by steel, evil. 166-168; 

scared away with a sword 

in the Philippines, evil, 167 
Spiritual exaltation or Mana 

gained by eating human 

flesh, 19ani 
Spiritual guide of the Vidya- 

haras, Kausika the, 210 
Spitting at an enemy, 302, 
. 303 
Spitting betel juice in a 

person's face, insult of, 302, 

Split tongues of snakes, reason 

for, 152 
Spread of the poison-damsel 

myth in Europe, 292-297 
Spread of syphilis in Europe, 

Spring festival, the Holi, 169 
"Springs and Autumns" 

{Tsun Tsiu), the Confucian 

classic, 81 
Spy learns the secrets of 

Brahmadatta, 91 
Staff (p/w), 269 
Stages of love, 9/1^, lOn 
Stake at gambling, left hand 

cut off as a, 232n 
Standard of value, cow used 

as a, 240 
State umbrella or Puchukra 

Undi, 267 
Statistics of deaths from 

snake-bite, 311 
Statue of the god of syphilis, 

Stealing of Amrita by Rahu, 

"Stealing in Hindu Fiction, 

Art of," Bloomfield, Amer. 

Joum. Phil., 183ni 
Stealing, king wishes to 

study the art of, 184n, 185m 
Steel, flint and {chakkamukki) , 

Steel, magic virtue of, 106w* ; 

scares away evil spirits, 

Steyasastra-pravartaka, a 

manual of thievery called, 

Sihaviravaticharita, Hemach- 

andra (Jacobi's edit.), 283n^ 

S ipulation of Somaprabha 
on her marriage, 41, 4t\n^-^ 

S one Age, spirits date back 
to the, 167 

S one, Ahalya turned into, 

S one or metal umbrellas 
{htee, ha, ti), 265, 265n* 

S ;one metamorphoses, 46, 

S :ones in their eyes, women 
with precious, 306 

S :ones, valley full of precious, 

Stories of Ancient Egypt, 
Popular, Maspero, 112w^, 

Stories of children who speak 
shortly after birth, 39, 

Stories, Vasavadatta s longing 
to hear, 137 

Storm comes up at sea, 191, 

Story of Ahalya, 45, 46; of 
Alankaravati, 212^^ ; of the 
Brahman woman, 69-70 ; 
of the Clever Physician, 2, 
2nM of Devadasa, 86-88; 
of Devadatta, 129-132 ; of 
the Golden City, 171-175, 
184, 186-195, 213, 217-231, 
236-238 ; of Harasvamin, 
39n^; of the Hypocritical 
Ascetic, 4-5 ; of Jimutava- 
hana, 138-150, 153-156 ; of 
Ke^ata and Kandarpa, 
193ni ; of KuntI, 23-24 ; of 
Lalitanga, llSn^, 220n ; of 
the Loving Couple who 
died of Separation, 9; of 
Phalabhuti, 95-99, 112-115; 
of Pingalika, 133-134; of 
Punyasena, 10-11 ; of Sakti- 
vega, 80n^ ; of Sinhapara- 
krama, 159-160 ; of Soma- 
prabha, 39-44; of Sunda 
and Upasunda, 13-14n; of 
Umadini, 6-8; of Urva^i 
and Pururavas, 34-36, 245- 
259; of Vidushaka, 54-80; 
of Vihitasena, 36-37 ; of 
"The Witch Girl," 71ni 

Story of the Forty Moms and 
Eves {Hikdyetu-Erhaina 
Sahdhin we Mesa), 123 

"Story of Horn and Rimen- 
hild," H. Schofield, Mod. 
La7ig. Ass. Amer., 76n^ 

Story of Jewad, The, E. J. W. 
Gibb, 190# 



" Story of Kilhwch and 
Olwen," Cowell, Y Cym- 
rodor, 190n^ 

"Story of the Magic Pill," 

" Story of King Paritya- 
gasena," 136n^ 

"Story of Qara Khan," The 
Story of Jewad, E. J. W. 
Gibb, i90ni 

" Story of the Silent Couple," 

" Story of King Sinhaksha," 

Story of the Ten Princes or 
Dasa Kunidra Charita, J. J. 
Meyer, 183ni, 184n 

" Story of the Two Brothers," 
Maspero, Popular Stories of 
Ancient Egypt, 120 

" Story of the Two Prin- 
cesses," 193/1^ 

Story-teller, poison-damsel a 
creation of the, 313 

Strange bargain of Vindumati, 

Strange Survivals, S. Baring- 
Gould, 272 

Stratagem, failure of Brahma- 
datta's, 91 ; to gain love, 
44 ; the King of Vatsa con- 
ducted to Lavanaka by 
a, 20 ; political measure, 
165ni ; of Vidushaka, 68 

Streak of Gold {kanaka-reklid) , 

Stream named Sitoda, 67 

Streams of ichor, 90, 93 

Strength, superiority of 
Pandu princes in feats of, 

Striped [ging-gang), 271n^ 

Striped snake, rdjila a, 152^^ 

Student, Brahmachdrin an un- 
married religious, 180w^ 

Students, Wanderjahre of 
Brahman, 174n^ 

"Studies about the Kathd- 
saritsdgara," Speyer, Ferh. 
Kon. Akad. Weten, Amst., 
28n2, 36/^1, 53n3, mn^'^, 
70ii, 92n6, 140/11, 160ni, 
177^1, 201^2, 227n2, 235ni 

" Studies in Bhasa," Suk- 
thankar, Journ. Bom. Br. 
As. Soc, 21^1 

Studies in the Psychology of 
Sex, Havelock *Ellis, 22W, 
308, 308ni 

Study the art of stealing, 
king wishes to, 184n, 185?i 


Stupefying weapon in the 

hands of Love, UrvasI a, 

34, 34n2 
Subduing the King of Sindh, 

Subduing the King of Vatsa's 

enemies, 91-94 
Submarine fire (vadavdgni), 

Substance, void of hiihsdra), 
92n3 ^ 

Substitute for vermilion, ku7i- 
kam a, 164/1* 

Sucesos de las Islas Filipinos, 
Antoine de Moya, 306ni 

Sudden wealth, evil results 
of, 59 

Suicide contemplated by the 
King of Vatsa, 25 

Sultan Faraj, the Egyptian, 

Summa Prcedicantium, John of 
Bromyard, 114n 

Summoning a jinn by rub- 
bing magic article, 58/1^; 
a supernatural being by 
thought, 58^1; a sword 
by thought, 58, 58/ii 

Sun-god, Mexican, Nana- 
huatzin a satellite of the, 

Sun kept from Brahman's 
head on day his student- 
ship ends, 267, 268 

"Sun, Moon and Stars (Bud- 
dhist)," E. J. Thomas, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

"Sun, Moon and Stars," 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Sun, mountain of the rising, 

" Sun, not to see the," taboo, 

Sun rises, Udaya the eastern 

mountain behind which, 

Sun (Surya), 81 
Sun, Temple of the, MS. of 

Secretum Secretorum found 

in the, 288 
Sun, the west the cause of 

the setting of the, 53 
Sun's door, sitting dharna at 

the, 82 
Sun's horses, 57 ; dispute 

about the colour of the, 

Sunderer of societies (death), 





Sun-rising, mountain of the, 

67, 68 
Sunshade, the Glove, the MuJJ, 

The, O. Uzanne, 272 
Sunshade (umbella), 263 ; [wn- 

braculum), 263 ; (o-KiaSetov), 

Superiority of Pandu princes 

in feats of strength, 16 
Supernatural beingsummoned 

by thought, 58^1 
''Supernatural birth" motif, 

Supernatural birth, sons of 

Dhritarashtra and Pan^u 

by," 16 
Supernatural power, Ahalya's 

intrigue found out by 

Gautama's, 45, 46 
Superstitions connected with 

itching and twitching, 

144rn^, 145n ; connected 

with wedding rings, 99?i 
"Superstitions and Customs 

in Salsette," G. F. D'Penha, 

Ind. Ant., 167 
Superstitions, horse, 57?i^ 
''Superstitious Man" \Charac- 

ters\j Prof. Jebb's notes on 

Theophrastus', 98n* 
Surmounted by umbrellas, 

Pagodas, 265, 266 
Survival of the blood rite, 

use of vermilion a, 23n, 24n 
Susruta Samhitd, the, 276, 

Suvabahuttarikathd, the, 286, 

" Suvabahuttarikatha, Ueber 

die," J. Hertel, Festschrift 

fiir Ernst Windisch, 286^^ 
Svapna - Vdsavadatta, Bhasa, 

21ni, 25n* 
* Svapna- Vasavadatta," K. R. 

Pisharoti, Quart. Journ. 

Mythic. Soc, 21n^ 
Swallow Surya and Soma, 

Rahu's attempt to, 81 
Swallowing of Saktideva by a 

fish, 192 
"Swan Maiden" motif 254 
Swans like chowries, 188 
Swans, nymphs in the shape 

of, 246 
Sweeper or deity of sweepers, 

Riihu a, 82 
Sweet medicine (svddvau- 

shadha), SSn^ 

well-tempered), 93, 93ni ; 

of the fire-god, 58, 60, 71, 

Sword continued 

72, 74 ; in her hand, Kala- 
ratri with a drawn, 106, 
106/1*; of the King of 
Vatsa, the curved, 33, 93ni ; 
murdered child becomes a, 
236 ; to scare away evil 
spirits during childbirth in 
the Philippines, 167; that 
comes on thought, 58, 58/i^ 

Symbol of the gradual decay 
of vegetation, Ish tar's 
descent to Hades a, 61n^ 

Symbol of power and 
sovereignty, the umbrella, 

Symbolical of child, fire pro- 
duced by fire-drill, 256 

Symbolical incidents in the 
story of Urva^I and Puru- 
ravas, 245 

Syntipas, 290 

Syphilis Aujonrd'hui et chez 
les Anciens, Le, Buret, 

Syphilis in Central America, 
antiquity of, 308, 309 

Syphilis, Nanahuatzin, god 
of, 309 ; introduced into 
Europe by Columbus' men, 
308; introduced into India 
by the Portuguese, 310 ; 
regarded by Mexicans as 
divine, 309 

Syrian freedman under 
Khalifa al-Ma'mun, Yahya 
ibn Batriq, a, 288 

Syrische Marchen, Prym and 
Socin, 7Qn\ 155n4, 219n3 

Tablet in the British Museum, 

Taboo during eclipses, kusa 

or dub grass as relief from 

the, 82 
Taboo, earliest example of 

nuptial, 252 ; "not to see 

the sun," 268; the nuptial, 

"Taboo and the Perils of 

the Soul," Frazer, Golden 

Bough, 253 
Taboo stories, 253 
"Tale of the Ensorcelled 

Prince," Burton, Nights, 

" Tale of the Jealous Sisters," 

Dozon, Contes Albanais, 

"Tale of Kamar al-Zaman," 

Burton, Nights, 124 

"Tale of a King," Stein and 

Grierson, Hatitns Tales, 124 
" Tale of the Trader and the 

Jinn," Burton, Nights, 

Tale of a Tub, Swift, 270 
Tales from the Arabic and 

Persian, Douce, 113n^ 
Talmud, the, 169 
Tamil story in Orientalist, 

De Rosairo, 184n 
Tantric rites, human flesh in, 

214; in the Mdlali Mddhava, 

Task undertaken by Vidu- 

shaka, a daring, 60-62 
Tasmanians, poisoning of the, 

280, 280n5 
Teacher called Tumburu, a, 

Temple of Chamun^a, 214, 

Temple, curl near the right, 

unlucky, 7n^ 
Temple of Durga, 62, 141, 

196, 199, 227 
Temple of the goddess, the, 

Temple, golden lotus dedi- 
cated to a, 208 
Temple of the Sun dedicated 

to ^sculapius (Asklepios), 

MS. of Secretum Secretorum 

found in the, 288 
Tempting of Baiti by Anupu's 

wife, 121 ; of Sundaraka 

by Kalaratri, 105, 109 
Ten classes of Saiva mendi- 
cants, 90n3 
Ten names (Da^namls), 90n* 
" Ten Wazirs : or the History 

of King Azadbakht and his 

Son," Burton, Nights, 123 
Tenanted by demons, dead 

robbers, 61, 61 n^ 
Tender {ainsala), 241 
Tending of the king by 

Vidushaka, 58 
Terrace, the forbidden, 222, 

223, 223n\ 224n 
Terrible Rakshasa, Vijaya- 

datta becomes a, 198, 199 
Terrors of the cemetery, 

description of the, 60-62 
Teutonic Mythology, Grimm, 

43ni, 57wi, 96ni 
"That which is prohibited" 

{haram, harim), 161w* 
Theory of the origin of the 

story of Urvai^I and Purfi- 

ravas, 253-254 



Thief of Hindu fiction, 
Muladeva the arch-, 183^^ 

Thieving in Hindu fiction, 
183w, ISin, ISbn 

Thieving, the science of, 
183^1, 184ri 

Thirty - two lucky marks 
{mahapurushalakskana) and 
eighty minor marks pos- 
sessed by Buddha, 7^1 

Thought, Rakshasa comes on, 
75, 78 ; summoning a super- 
natural being by, bSri^ ; 
sword that comes on, 58, 

Thousand eyes of Indra, the, 
46, 46^4 

Thotisand Nights and a Night. 
See Nights 

Thousand and One Days, 
Dervish Makhlis of 
Ispahan, Gn^ 

Thousand years to develop, 
embryo of Karttikeya 
takes a, 102 

Thracian sorceress Rhodope, 

Thread, investiture of the 

sacred, 257 
Three forms of polygamy, 17 
Three forms of "scorned 

women " motif, 122 
Three objects of life, 180, 

Three pavilions, the, 222 
Three sisters, the, 237 
Three worlds, Goloka a 

region above the, 242 
Throbbing eye, 144, 144n^, 

Throne, finding of the 

jewelled, 52, 53 
Thunder ceases in the 

autumn, 92n^ 
Tibetan Tales, Schiefner and 

Ralston, 14n, 76^1, 122 
Tibetans, polyandry practised 

by the, 17 
Time, measure of (kalpa), 

139wi ; (Manwantara), 250 
Title of Indian kings, Chhat- 

rapati or Lord of the Um- 
brella, 267 
Todas, The, Rivers, 82 
Togail, Troi, the, Stokes, 

Tomb in the form of vampires, 

belief that the dead rise 

from the, Qlti^ 
Tongues of snakes, reason for 

split, 152 

Tool, unlawful to commit a 

burglary with an iron, 168 
Tope, the Bharhut, 266 
Torches waved over women 

after delivery by Kachins 

of Upper Burma, 167 
Tortured with the pain of 

love, Guhachandra, 40 
Totemic origin of the story 

of Urvasi and Pururavas, 

253, 254 
Toy Cart or Mrichchhakatika, 

192^1, 2^2n 
Tracing origin of myths 

through etymology, 251, 

' ' Trader and the Jinni, Tale of 

the," Burton, Nights, 147^^ 
Traders infect Indians with 

smallpox, 280 
Transactions of the Royal 

Society of Literature, 77 n 
Transformation, the lion, 147, 

Transformation of Vijayadatta 

into a Rakshasa, 198, 199 
Transformed into a Rakshasa 

{vikritam), 202n2 
Translations of the Secretum 

Secretorum, 287-290 
Transmigration, belief in, 241 
Transportation through the 

air, 75 
Travelling through the air, 

62-64, 64ni 
Travels of Ludovico di Var- 

thema, G. P. Badger, 300, 

300n*, 301 
Travels, Pietro della Valle, 

Treasure, the buried, 52, 87 ;